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Full text of "Africa pilot"

^, 



(Tb he patted on inside of cover of all Sailing Directions.^ 

NOTATIONS OF SUPPLEMENTS OR HYDROGRA- 
PHIC NOTICES RELATING TO THIS BOOK. 

To be filled in by Navigating Officer. 
[In Chart Depots tJie two first columns are alone to be filled up.] 



Whether Supplement 

or 

Hyd. Notice. 


Date of 

Publication and 

Number. 


Whether pasted in 

or noted in Margins of book, and 

date of such coi-rection. 


1 







SO 11977a— 1250— 3/97 Wt 15956 D & S. 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/africapilot03greaiala 



THE 



,J.FRICA PILOT, 

PART III. 
I U 



SOUTH AND EAST COASTS OF AEEICA 



FROM THE 



CAPE OF (}00D HOPE TO RAS ASIR (cape guardapui), 



INCLUDING 



THE COMORO ISLANDS- 



ORIGINALLY COMPILED 



By Captain ALGERNON F. R. De HORSEY, R.N. 



SIXTH EDITION. 



PUBLISHED BY CUDER OP THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE ADMIRALTY, 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, ADMIRALTY; 

AND SOLD BT 

J. D. POTTER, Agent for the Sale of Admiralty Charts 

31 poultry, AiJD 11 KING STREET, TOWER HILL 

1897. 



Price Four Shillings. 



\//r 
n2 



111 



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 



The Sixth Edition of Africa Pilot, Part III., comprises Sailing 
Directions for the east coast of Africa, between the Cape of Good 
Hope and Ras Asir (cape Guardafui), including the Comoro islands. 

The surveys and directions for the coast between the cape of Good 
Hope and port Natal are by Captain Dayman, Commander Simpson 
and Nav. Lieutenants Skead and Archdeacon, R.N., 1852-67. 
Between cape St. Lucia and Delagoa bay, Zavora point to the 
Bazaruto islands, and the harbours of Chiliian, Innamban and 
Kiliman, — Captain P. Aldrich, H.M.S. Sylvia^ 1884-85. Between 
Ras Pekawi and Kiswere — Lieutenant Gray, H.M.S. Nassau, 1874-75. 
The islands and channels of Mafia, Zanzibar and Pemba ; the coast 
from Songa Manara island to Pangani bay ; and the harbours of 
Tanga, Manda, and Kisimayu, — Commander Wharton, H.M. Ships 
Shearwater and Fawn, 1874-77. Between Pangani bay and Wasin, 
from German Government surveys, 1894-5. A portion of Pemba, ports 
Mombasa, Kilindini, Wasin and Kilifi, — Commander T. F. Pullen, 
H.M.S. Stork, 1888-9. Formosa bay and Lamu harbour, — Lieutenant 
Smyth, H.M.S. Stork, 1892. Chinde river and Malindi anchorages, — 
Lieutenant Balfour, H.M.S. Stork, 1889. 

The description of the remaining portions of the coast is chiefly 
derived from the running surveys of the late Captains W. F. W. Owen 
and A. T. E. Vidal, R.N., 1823-25 ; from the observations of Captain 
de Horsey ; the remark books of officers of H.M. Ships and other 
documents in the Hydrographic Department, Admiralty. 

The longitude of places given in the text of this work between the 
cape of Good Hope and Delagoa bay depend upon Cape observatory 
being in 18° 28' 45" E. of Greenwich. The longitudes between 
Delagoa bay and Kisimayu (Refuge bay) depend upon Zanzibar 
(British Consulate) being in 39° 11' 11" E. (By the latest determina- 
tion, the Cape observatory is considered to be in long. 18° 28' 40" E., 
and Zanzibar in long. 39° 11' 8" E., but the places dependent on them 
have not been altered). Between Kisimayu and Ras Asir or cape 
Guardafui the longitudes depend upon Aden (local telegraph office) 
being in 44° 59' 7" E. of Greenwich. 



ir ADVERTISEMENT. 

The first edition of this work, compiled by Captain A. F. E. De 
Horsey, was published in 1864. The second edition in 1865., The 
third edition in 1878. The fourth edition with an appendix in 1884. 
The fifth edition in 1889. 

The present edition is by Staff Captain C. H. C. Langdon, R.N., 
of the Hydrographic Department. 

Officers of the Royal and Mercantile Marine are requested to 
transmit to the Secretary of the Admiralty any notices of errors or 
omissions they may discover, as well as any fresh information they 
may obtain, in order that this work may be improved for the general 
benefit of the navigator. 

By the publication of this work, all Hydrographic Notices relating 
to former editions and all notices to Mariners, inclusive of No. 435 
of 1897 are cancelled. 



W. J. L. \V. 



Hydrograxihic Office. 

Admiralty^ London, 
July, 1897. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



TABLE BAY TO CAPE AGULHAS. 



(Long. 18° 20' E. to long. 20° E.) 



Pape. 



General remarks on the Cape Colony, Natal, and the East Coast of 
Africa. Communications. Coal. Docks. Winds and weather. 
Cyclones. Barometer. Temperature. Icebergs. Climate and rainfall, 
Currents. 1-51 



CHAPTER II. 



Cape Town. Cape of Good Hope. False and Simon's bays. Cape Hanglip. 
Dyer island 52-83 



CHAPTER III. 

CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

(Long. 20° E. to long. 25° 40' E.) 

Cape Agulhas. Struys bay, Mossel bay. Knysna. Plettenberg b»y. 
Cape St. Francis... 8-4-118 

CHAPTER IV. 

CAPB RECIPE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

(Long. 25° 40' E. to long. 28° 20' E.) 

Cape Recife. Algoa bay, port Elizabeth. Bird island. Kowie river and 
port Alfred. Waterloo bay. Buffalo bay, East London.. 119-156 



Ti CON'tENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

CAPE MORGAN TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

(Long. 28° 20' B. to long. 35° 30' E.) 

Page. 
Cape Morgan. Mazeppa bay. Port St. John. Aliwal shoal. Port Natal, 
Durban. Tugela river. Cape St. Lucia. Sordwana bay. Delagoabay. 
Lorenzo Marques. Limpopo river ... ... ... 156-207 



CHAPTER VI. 

MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL.— CAPE CORRIBNTBS To KILIMAN, 
INCLUDING LAKE NYASA. 

(Lat. 25° 55' S. (long. 35° 30' E.) to lat. 18° 0' S. 

Cape Corrientes. Innamban. Bazaruto islands, Chiluan. Sofala. Pungue 
river, Beira. Zambezi and Shire rivers. Lake Nyasa. Kiliman ... 208-278 



CHAPTER VII. 

KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

(Lat. 18° 0' S. to lat. 10° 40' S.) 

Maouse river. Primeira islands. Angoche river. Parapat, Mokambo 
bay. Mozambique harbour. Conducia bay. Fernando Veloso bay. 
Pomba bay. Ibo harbour. Ras Pekawi. Tunghi bay 279-331 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CAPE DELGADO TO KAS KIMBIJI, APPROACH TO ZANZIBAR 
CHANNEL, INCLUDING MAFIA ISLAND. 

(Lat. 10° 40' S. to lat. 7° S.) 

Cape Delgado. Keonga bay. Roviima river, Mto Mtwara. Mikindani 
harbour. Mgau Mwania. Lindi river. Kiswere harbour. Songa 
Manara island. Sangarungu harbour. Kilwa Kisiwani harbour. 
Kihva Kivinje. Songo Songa island. Ruliji river. Mafia island and 
channel ... ... ... ... •.• ••• ... ••• ••• '•* 332-387 



CONTENTS. JHi 



CHAPTER IX. 

BAS KIMBIJI TO PANGANI BAY, INCLUDING ZANZIBAR 
ISLAND AND CHANNKL. 

(Lat. 7° S. to lat. 5° 25' S.) 

Page. 

Latham island. Ras Kimbiji. Dar-es-Salaam harbour. Mbudya island. 
Bagamoyo. Kingani river. Saadani. Maziwi island. Pangani river. 
Zanzibar island and town. Ris Nungwe 388-450 



CHAPTER X. 

PEMBA ISLAND, AND ADJACENT COAST, BETWEEN PANGANI 
BAY AND FORMOSA BAY. 

(Lat. .5° 2.5' S, to lat. 3° S.) 

Pemba island. Chaki Chaki bay, port Cockbum, port George. Kishi Kashi 
port, port Kiuyu,Msuka bay, Mainland: — Tangq,, Moa. Umba river. 
Wasin. Gaze bay. Mombaza. Ports Tudor, Kilindini. and Reitz. 
Kilift river. Malindi ... , ,., .., ,., .., ... 45J-50$ 



CHAPTER XL 

FORMOSA BAY TO RAS ASIR (CAPE GUARDAFUl). 

(Lat. .S° S. to lat. 11° 30' N.") 



Formosa bay. Lamu. Manila and Patta bays. Juba islands. Birikau 
river (Port Duniford). Kisimayu bay. Juba river. Brawa. Merka. 
Mogdishu. Warsheik, Athelet. Ras Asswad. Obiat. Ras Awath. 
Raa-al-Khyle. Ras Hafiin. Ras Jard Hafiin. Ras Asir (cape 
Guardafui) 509-558 



ttti CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XII. 

ISLANDS AND DANGERS IN THE MAIN ROUTE THROUGH THE 
MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. 

Page 
Europa island. Bassas da India. Pilot shoal. Juan de Nova island. St. 

Lazarus bank. The Comoro islands — Grand Comoro, Mohilla, Johanna, 

and Mayotta 559-692 



Meteorological Tables .59.3-568 

List of Sailing Directions published by the Hydrographic Department 

of the Admiralty, June, 1897 6S6 

List of Admiralty Agents for the sale of Charts in the United Kingdom 64 1 

abroad 642 



IX 



GLOSSARY OF A FEW Native Geographical Terms occur- 
ring IN THE Charts and Sailing Directions, between 
Mozambique and Ras Asir. 





Name. 




Signification. 


Chombo 


; Jombo 


. 


DhoAV ; very large dhow. 


Fnngii 


- 


- 


Bank or sandy reef. 


Geneza, 


Ngome 


- 


Castle. 


Bandari, 


Bundari 


. 


Harbour. 


Khari 


. 


- 


Creek. 


Khor 


. 


- 


Salt water inlet, usually tidal. 


Kilele 


- 


. 


Peak. 


Kilima 


. 


. 


Hill. 


Kisiwa 


- 


. 


Island. 


Mafiika 


- 


- 


Rainy season. 


Mlango 


- 


- 


Channel. 


Mlima 


- 


_ 


Mountain. 


Mto - 


. 


. 


River, inlet or creek. 


Mwamba 


- 


Reef (rocky). 


Pwani 


- 


- 


Coast. 


Ras - 


- 


- 


Cape or point. 



Names of different kinds op Dhows met with. 



Bagala 
Bedeni 
B^tela 
Dau - 
Mtepe 



Large dhows with very high square sterns, 
tall poops, and long projecting prows. 

A dhow with a sharp stern, high rudder head, 
and a perpendicular cut water. 

The common dhow of Zanzibar ; it has a 
square stem with a low poop. 

A small open vessel, sharp at the stern, with 
a square matting sail. 

A large open vessel, sharp at the stern, with a 
large square matting sail ; the prow is 
made to resemble a camel's head. These 
belong generally to the neighbourhood of 
Lamu. 



SO 11977b— 1250— 11/96 Wt 15956 D & S. 



SYSTEM OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 



As far as has been found possible with existing knowledge the 
native names in this book are spelt in accordance with the following 
system, which is being gradually introduced into all Admiralty 
Sailing Directions : — 

1. Where native names have been so long written in a form, which, 
though not in accordance with this system, has become familiar to 
English eyes from being so spelt in all charts and maps, they are 
retained, and no European names are changed from the correct 
orthography. 

2. The true sound of the word as locally pronounced is taken as 
the basis of the spelling. 

3. An approximation of the sound is alone aimed at. A system 
which would attempt to represent the more delicate inflections of 
Bound and accent would be so complicated as only to defeat itself. 

4. The broad features of the system adopted are that vowels are 
pronounced as in Italian and consonants as in English, every letter 
being pronounced. One accent only is used, the acute, to denote the 
syllable on which stress is laid. This is very important, as the 
sounds of many names are entirely altered by the misplacement of 
this " stress." 

5. When two vowels come together, each one is sounded, though 
the result, when spoken quickly, is sometimes scarcely to be distin- 
guished from a single sound, as in ai, au, ei. 

The amplification of the rules is given on the following pages. 

Information as to the proper spelling of native names, so as to 
produce the nearest approximation to the true sound, by this system, 
is invited. 



vXl 



Letters. 


Pronimciation and Remarks. 


Examples. 


a 


ah, a as in father - . . . 


Java, Banana, 

Somali, Bari. 


e 


eh, e as in benefit ; a as iu faUt 


Tel-el-Kebir, 
Oleleh, Yezo, 
Leviika, Peru. 


i 


English e ; i as in ravine ; the sound of ee 






in heet. Thus, not Feejee, but 


Fiji, Hindi. 





as in mote - - - - - 


Tokyo. 


u 


long u as in ^,//<^fe ; the sound of oo in hoot. 
00 or 01* should never be employed for this 






sound. Thus, not Zooloo or Zoulou, but 


Zulu, Sumatra. 




All vowels are shortened in sound by 


Yarra, Tanna, 




doubling the following consonant. 


Mecca, Jidda, 
Bonny.* 




Doubling of a vowel is only necessary where 


I^ uuliia. 




there is a distinct repetition of the single 






sound. 




ai 


English i as in ice - - - - 


Shanghai. 


an 


ow Q.Q in how. Thus, not Foochow, but 


Fuchau. 


ao 


is slightly different from au- 


Macao. 


ei 


is the sound of the two Italian vowels, but 
is frequently slurred over, when it is 
scarcely to be distinguished from ey in 
the English they, or ei in eight. 


Beirut, Beilul. 


b 


English h. 




c 


is always soft, but is so nearly the sound of 
s that it should be seldom used. 

If Celebes were not already recognised it 
would be written Selebes. 


Celebes. 


ch 


is always soft as in church - 


Chingchin. 


cA 


English d. 




f 


English /. Ph should not be used for the 






sound of /. Thus, not Haijjhong, but 


Haifong, Nafa. 


g 


is always hard. (Soft g is given by^) 


Galapagos. 


h 


is always pronounced when used. 




liw 


as in what ; better rendered by hw than wh. 


Hwang ho ; 




or h followed by a vowel. Thus, Hwang 


Ngan hwi. 




ho, not Whang ho, or Hoang ho. 




i 


English j. Dj should never be put for 
this sound. 


Japan, Jinchuen. 


k 


English k. It should always be put for the 






hard c. Thus, not Gorea, but 


Korea. 


kh 


The Oriental guttural . ! . 


Khan. 


gh 

1 

m 

m 


is another guttural, as in the Turkish 


Dagh, Ghazi. 


As in English.^ 





* The y is retained as a terminal in this word under rule 1. The word is i given as a 
familiar example of the alteration in sound caused by the second consonant. 



Xll 



Letters. 




Pronunciation and Remarks. 


Examples.! 


ng 


has two separate sounds, the one hard as in 
the English word finger, the other as in 
singer. As these two sounds are rarely- 
employed in the same locality, no attempt 
is made to distinguish between them. 




P 


As in English. 




ph 


As in loophole . - - - 


Mokpho, 
Chemulpho. 


th 


Stands both for its sound in thing, and as 
in this. The former is most common. 


Bethlehem. 


q 


should never be employed ; the sound of qu 
in quiver is given as kw. When qu has 
the sound of k, as in quoit, it should be 
given by k. 


Kwangtung. 


r 


As in English. 




s 


As in sin. 




Bh 

t 

V 


■ 








► As in English. 




w 




- 


Sawakin. 


X 

y 


is always a consonant, as in yard, and there- 
fore should never be used as a terminal, 
i or e being substituted. 


Kikuyu. 




Thus, not Mikinddny or Wady, but 


Mikindani, Wadi. 




not Kwaly, but 


Kwale. 


z 


English 2 - 


Zulu. 


Jih 


French /, or as s in treasure - - - 


Muzhdaha. 




Accents should not generally be used, but 


Tongatabu, 




where there is a very decided emphatic 


Galapagos, 




syllable or stress which affects the sound 


Palawan, 




of the word, it should be marked by an 


Sarawak. 




acute accent. 





Note. — "With reference to the last clause of Rule 1 : — In this volume the Dutch names 
in the Cape Colony are retained as written by the Dutch, but native names rendered by 
the Dutch or Portuguese after their own orthographic systems are given in accordance 
with th} one here adopte d. Thus, the Portuguese form Quiloa is spelt Kilwa. 



xiii 



[^FORMATION RELATING TO CHARTS, SAILING 
DIRECTIONS, AND THE GENERAL NAYIGA- 
TION OF H.M. SHIPS. 



ON THE CORRECTION OF CHARTS, LIGHT LISTS, 
AND SAILING DIRECTIONS. 

There are three descriptions of publications as guides to naviga- 
tion — the charts, the sailing directions, and the light lists — which 
are all affected by the continual changes and alterations that take 
place. 

Of these the charts should always be, so far as our knowledge 
permits, absolutely correct to date ; and the light lists should be 
noted for the recent alterations, though space will not permit of full 
details being always inserted. The sailing directions, however, cannot, 
from their nature, be so corrected, and in all cases where they differ 
from charts^ the charts must he taken as the guide. 

1. Charts. — When issued to a ship on commissioning, the charts 
have received all necessary corrections to date. As sent from the 
Hydrographic Office they are, as a rule, fresh from the plates. 
They then receive cuch corrections by hand in the depots as are 
required, and are so issued to the ships. 

All small but important corrections that can be made by hand are 
notified by Notices to Mariners, and should at once be placed on the 
charts to which they refer. 

Large corrections that cannot be conveniently thus made are put 
upon the plates, and frtsh copies are issued to the ships to replace 
the others, which arc directed to be destroyed to prevent the 
possibility of their being used in the navigation of the ship. 

SO U977C— 1260—11/96 Wt 15956 D & S. c 



Xiv GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

The dates on which these large corrections are made are noted on 
the chart plates in the middle of the lower edge ; those of the 
smaller corrections at the left-hand lower corners. 

In all cases of quotations of charts, these dates of corrections 
should be given, as well as the number of the chart (which will be 
found in the lower right-hand corner), in order that at the Admiralty 
it may be known what edition of the chart is referred to. 

2. The Light Lists, annually published at the beginning of each 
year, are not corrected in the depots before issue, but appendices are 
issued every two months, giving the alterations that have taken place, 
copies of which are put into the chart boxes. 

It is the duty of the navigating officer when he receives the set of 
charts to make notations in the light lists from these appendices, 
and from the Notices to Mariners in the box ; and to keep them so 
corrected from time to time. 

The Light Lists should always be consulted as to the details of a 
light, as the description in the Sailing Directions may be obsolete, in 

consequence of changes made since publication. 

f 

3. The Sailing Directions are not corrected before issue, except 
occasionally for very important new rocks or dangers. Hydro- 
graphic Notices and Supplements referring to each volume are 
published from time to time. 

Supplements contain all the information received up to date since 
the publication of the volume to which they refer, and cancel all 
previous Hydrographic Notices. 

Hydrographic Notices contain all information up to date since 
the publication of the volume, or since the last Supplement or 
Hydrographic Notice, but endeavour is made to issue no more than 
one of these affecting each volume, and, on the collection of fresh 
Information, to include the former Notice in a Supplement. 

The existence of Supplements or Hydrographic Notices is to be 
noted, in the tabulated form placed for the purpose inside the 
cover of each volume, in cases when such notations have not been 
made before issue, and also on receipt of further Notices after 
commission. 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. XV 

Notes should be made in the margin of the volume of sailing 
directions affected, us references to the Supplements or Hydrographic 
Notices when the latter are printed on both sides. 

To enable the books to be more conveniently corrected, however, 
such Supplements and Hydrographic Notices as are of moderate size 
are now being printed on one side only, and two copies are issued 
to each ship ; one to cut up, the slips being pasted in at the appro- 
priate place ; the other to retain intact for reference. 

To make these notations or paste in these slips is one of the early 
duties of a navigating officer after drawing his box of charts and 
books, and similar notes are to be made from Notices to Mariners 
that may thereafter be received. 

It must, however, be thoroughly understood that sailing directions 
will never be correct in all details, except up to the date of the last 
Hydrographic Notice or Supplement, and that, as already stated, when 
differences exist, the chart, which should be corrected from the most 
recent information, should be taken as the guide ; for which purpose, 
for ordinary navigation, they are sufficient. 



THE USE OP CHARTS AS NAVIGATIONAL AIDS, AND 
GENERAL REMARKS RELATING TO PRACTICAL 
NAVIGATION. 

1. Accuracy of a Chart. — The value of a chart must manifestly 
depend upon the accuracy of the survey on which it is based, and 
this becomes more important the larger is the scale of the chart. 

To estimate this, the date of the survey, which is always given in 
the title, is a good guide. Besides the changes that, in waters where 
sand or mud prevails, may have taken place since the date of the 
survey, the earlier surveys were mostly made under circumstances 
that precluded great accuracy of detail, and until a plan founded on 
such a survey is tested, it should be regarded with caution. It may, 
indeed, be said that, except in well-frequented harbours and their 
approaches, no surveys yet made have been so minute in their exami- 
nation of the bottom as to make it certain that all dangers have been 
found. The fullness or scantiness of the soundings is another method 
of estimating the completeness of a chart. When the soundings are 
sparse or unevenly distributed, it may be taken for granted that the 
survey was not in great detail. 



1M GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

Blank spaces among soundings mean that no soundings have been 
obtained in these spots. When the surrounding soundings are deep 
it may with fairness be assumed that in the blanks the water is also 
deep ; but when they are shallow, or it can be seen from the rest of 
the chart that reefs or banks are present, such blanks should be 
regarded with suspicion. This is especially the case in coral regions 
and off rocky coasts, and it should be remembered that in waters 
where rocks abound it is always possible that a survey, however 
complete and detailed, may have failed to find every small 
patch. 

A wide berth should therefore be given to every rocky shore or 
patch, and this rule should be invariably followed, viz., that 
instead of considering* a coast to be clear unless it is shown 
to be foul, the contrary should be assumed. 

2. Fathom Lines a Caution. — Except in plans of harbours that 
have been surveyed in detail, the five-fathom line on most Admiralty 
charts is to be considered as a caution or danger line against 
unnecessarily approaching the shore or bank within that line, on 
account of the possibility of the existence of undiscovered inequalities 
of the bottom, which nothing but an elaborate detailed survey could 
reveal. In general surveys of coasts or of little frequented anchorages, 
the necessities of navigation do not demand the great expenditure of 
time required for such a detailed survey. It is not contemplated 
that ships will approach the shores in such localities without taking 
special precautions. 

The ten-fathom line is, on rocky shores, another warning, especially 
for ships of heavy draught. 

Charts where no fathom lines are marked must be especially 
regarded with caution, as it generally means that soundings were too 
scanty, and the bottom too urneven, to enable them to be drawn with 
accuracy. 

Isolated soundings, shoaler than surrounding depths, should always 
be avoided, especially if ringed round, as there is no knowing how 
closely the spot may have been examined. 

3. Chart on largest scale always to he used. — It sometimes 
happens that, from press of work, only the copper plate of the larger 
scale chart of a particular locality can at once receive any extensive 
re-arrangement of coastline or soundings. This is an additional 
reason, besides the obvious one of the greater detail shown on a 
larger scale chart, why this largest scale chart should always be 
used for navigating. 



OKKERAL NAVlGAtlON. xvii 

4. Cautio'n, hi, using small Scale Charts. — In approaching the laud 
or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale of the 
chart used. A small error in laying down a position means only 
yards on a large scale chart, whereas, on a small scale, the same 
amount of displacement means large fractions of a mile. This is 
particularly to be observed when coming to an anchor on a narrow 
ledge of convenient depth at some distance from the shore. 

For the same reason bearings to objects near should be used in 
preference to objects farther off, although the latter may be more 
prominent, as a small error in bearing or in laying it down on the 
chart has a greater effect in misplacing the position the longer the 
line to be drawn. 

5. Distortion of Printed Charts. — The paper on which charts are 
printed has to be damped. On drying distortion takes place, from 
the inequalities in the paper, which greatly vai'ies with different paper 
and the amount of the original damping ; but it does not affect 
navigation. It must not, however, be expected that accurate series 
of angles taken to different points will always exactly agree, when 
carefully plotted upon the chart, especially if the lines to objects be 
long. The larger the chart the greater the amount of this distortion. 

6. Buoys. — It is manifestly impossible that any reliance can be 
placed on buoys always maintaining I heir exact position. Buoys should 
therefore be regarded as warnings and not as infallible navigating 
marks, especially when in exposed positions ; and a ship should 
always, when possible, be navigated by bearings or angles of fixed 
objects on shore and not by buoys. 

Qas Buoys. — The lights shown by gas buoys cannot be implicitly 
relied on as, if occulting, the apparatus may get out of order, or the 
light may be altogether extinguished. 

7. Lights. — Circles drawn on charts round a light are not intended 
to give information as to the distance at which it can be seen, but 
solely indicate, in the case of lights which do not show equally in 
all directions, the bearings between which the variation, or visibility, 
or obscuration of the light occurs. 

All the distances given in the Light Lists and on the charts 
for the visibility of lights are calculated for a height of an 
observer's eye of 15 feet. The table of distances visible due to height 
at end of each Light List, affords a means of ascertaining how much 
more or less the light is visible should the height of the bridge be 



xvifi GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

more or less. The glare of a powerful light is often seen far beyond 
the limit of visibility of the actual rays of the light, but this must 
not be confounded with the true range. Again, refraction may often 
cause a light to be seen farther than under ordinary circumstances. 

When looking out for a light at night, the fact is often forgotten 
that from aloft the range of vision is much increased. By noting a 
star immediately over the light a very correct bearing may be after- 
wards obtained from the standard compass. 

The intrinsic power of a light should always be considered when 
expecting to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily 
obscured by haze, and no dependence can be placed on its being 
seen. 

The power of a light can be estimated by remarking its order, as 
given in the Light Lists, and in some cases by noting how much its 
visibility in clear weather falls short of the range due to the height 
at which it is placed. Thus, a light standing 200 feet above the sea 
and only recorded as visible at 10 miles in clear weather, is 
manifestly of little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be 
seen over 20 miles, if of any power. {See table in Light List above- 
mentioned.) 

8. Fog Signals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way 
through the atmosphere. Apart from wind, large areas of silence have 
been found in different directions and at different distances from the 
origin of a sound, even in clear weather. Therefore too much confidence 
nhould not be felt in hearing a fog signal. The apparatus, moreover, 
for sounding the signal often requires some time before it is in 
readiness to act. A fog often creeps imperceptibly towards the land, 
and is not observed by the people at a lighthouse until it is upon 
them ; whereas a ship may have been for many hours in it, and 
approaching the land. In such a case no signal may be sounded. 
When sound has to travel against the wind, it may be thrown 
upwards ; in such a case, a man aloft might hear it when it is 
inaudible on deck. 

Taken together, these facts should induce the utmost caution in 
closing the land in fogs. The lead is generally the only safe guide. 

9. IHdes and Tidal Streams. — In navigating coasts where the tidal 
range is considerable, caution is always necessary. It should bo 
remembered that there are indraughts to all bays and bights, although 
the general run of the stream may be parallel to the shore. 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. xix 

The turn of the tidal stream off shore is seldom coincident with 
the time of high and low water on the shore. In open channels, the 
tidal stream ordinarily overruns the turn of the vertical movement of 
the tide by three hours, forming what is usually known as tide and 
half-tide, the effect of which is that at high and low water by the 
shore the stream is running at its greatest velocity. 

In crossing a bar or shallow flats, the table (B) at page 98 of the 
Tide Tables will be found of great assistance in calculating how 
much the water has risen or fallen at any hour of the tide. 

On coasts where there is much diurnal inequality in the tides, the 
amount of rise and fall can never be depended upon, and additional 
caution is necessary. 

It should also be remembered that at times the tide falls below the 
level of low- water ordinary springs. This always occurs in temperate 
regions at the equinoxes, but wind may produce it at any time, and 
the amount varies with locality. When the moon's perigee coincides 
with the full or new moon the same effect is often produced. 

10. Current Arrows on charts only show the most usual or the 
mean direction of a tidal stream or current. It must never be 
assumed that the direction of a stream will not vary from that 
indicated by the arrow. In the same manner, the rate of a stream 
constantly varies with circumstances, and the rate given on the chart 
is merely the mean of those found during the survey, possibly from 
very few observations. 

11. Fixing Position. — The most accurate method of fixing a position 
relative to the shore is by angles between well-defined objects on the 
chart. All ships are now being supplied with a station pointer, and 
this method should be used whenever possible. 

Two things are, however, necessary to its successful employment. 
First, that the objects be well chosen ; and second, that the observer 
is skilful and rapid in his use of the sextant. 

For the former, reference can be had to the pamphlet on the use of 
the station pointer, which is in every chart box. 

The latter is only to be obtained by practice. 

It will readily be seen that in war time, when the compass may be 
knocked away, or rifle-fire may make it undesirable to expose the 
person more than necessary, a sextant offers great advantages, as 



XX aBNBRAL NAVIGATION. 

angles can be obtained from any position whence the objects are 
visible. It is this contingency that makes it especially desirable that 
all navigating officers should become expert in this method of fixing 
a ship's position. 

In many narrow waters also, where the objects may yet be at 
some distance, as in coral harbours or narrow passages among mud 
banks, navigation by sextant and station-pointer is invaluable, as a 
true position can only be obtained by its means. A small error in 
either taking or plotting a bearing under such circumstances may put 
the ship ashore. 

It is not intended that the use of the compass to fix the ship should 
be given up ; there are many circumstances in which it may be 
usefully employed, but errors more readily creep into a position so 
fixed. In all cases where great accuracy of position is desired, angles 
should invariably be used, such as the fixing of a rock or shoal, or of 
additions to a chart, as fresh soundings or new buildings. In all 
such cases angles should be taken to several objects, the more the 
better ; but five objects is a good number, as the four angles thus 
obtained not only prevent any errors, but they at once furnish a 
means of checking the accuracy of the chart itself. In the case of 
ordinary soundings, it is only necessary to take a third angle now 
and then ; firstly, to check the general accuracy of the chart as above 
stated ; secondly, to make certain that the more important soundings, 
as at the end of a line, are correctly placed. 

Sometimes, when only two objects are visible, a compass bearing 
and sextant angle may be used with advantage. 

In passing near a point of land, or an island, the method of fixing 
by doubling the angle on the bow is invaluable. The ordinary form 
of it, the so-called " four-point bearing," when the bearing is taken 
four points on the bow, and on the beam, the distance from the 
object at the latter position being the distance run between the times 
of taking the two bearings, gives an excellent fix for a departure, but 
does not ensure safety, as the point, and probably the rocks off it, are 
abeam before the position is obtained. 

By taking the bearings of two points and four points on the bow, a 
very good position is obtained before the object is passed ; the 
distance of the latter at the second position being, as before, equal to 
the distance run in the interval, allowing for current. 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. xxi 

A table of factors, by which to multiply the distance run, to 
obtain the distance of the object when any number of degrees 
between the two bearings has been observed, is now supplied 
in all chart boxes. 

The use of a danger angle in passing outlying rocks with land 
behind should also not be forgotten. In employing this method, 
however, caution is necessary, as should the chart be not accurate, 
i.e., should the objects selected be not quite correctly placed, the 
angle taken off from it may not serve the purpose. It should 
not, therefore, be employed when the survey is old or manifestly 
imperfect. 

In fixing by the compass, it must always be remembered that two 
bearings only are liable to error. An absolute error may be made 
in either bearing observed ; errors may be made in applying the 
deviation ; or errors may creep in in laying them on to the chart. 
For these reasons a third or check bearing of some other object 
should be taken, especially when near the shore or dangers. The 
coincidence of these three lines will prevent any mistakes. 

In ships still fitted with the Admiralty standard compass, the 
tripod supplied to hold the lamp will be found of great service in 
fixing position at night, as by its aid a bearing' can be as accurately 
taken as in daylight. "With Thomson's compass bearings can also bo 
accurately observed at night. The utility of this in connection with 
ascertaining the change of bearing of an approaching ship's light 
should not be forgotten. 

Amongst astronomical methods of fi.xing a ship's position, attention 
is drawn to the great utility of Sumner's method. A. Sumner line, 
that is, a line drawn through the position (obtained by an assumed 
latitude and longitude by chronometer) at right angles to the bearing 
of the sun, as obtained from the azimuth tables, gives at times 
invaluable information, as the ship must be somewhere on that line 
provided the chronometer is correct. A deep cast at the bame time 
may often serve to get an approximate position on the line. An 
early and very accurate position can be also obtained by Sumner's 
method, by getting longitude by a bright star at daylight when the 
horizon is well visible, and another longitude by the sun when a few 
degrees above the horizon, or by observing two or more stars at 
twilight. The Sumner lines drg-wn through the two positions thus- 
SO 11977c (t 



XXii GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

obtained will, if the bearing of sun and star differ three points or 
more, give an excellent result. 

12. Change of Variation of the Compass. — The gradual change in 
the variation must not be forgotten in laying down positions by bear- 
ing on charts. The magnetic compasses placed on the charts for the 
purpose of facilitating plotting become in time slightly in error, and 
in some cases, such as with small scales, or when the lines are long, 
the displacement of position from neglect of this change may be of 
importance. The compasses are re-engraved when the error amounts 
to a quarter of a point, but the chart plates cannot be corrected more 
frequently from the impossibility of making alterations too often on 
one spot in a copper plate. 

The geographical change in the variation is in some parts of the 
world sufficiently rapid to need consideration. For instance, in 
approaching Halifax from Newfoundland the variation changes 10° 
in less than 500 miles. The variation chart should be consulted on 
this head. 

13. Local Magnetic Disturbance of the Compass on hoard Ship. — 
The term " local magnetic disturbance " has reference only to the 
effects on the compass of magnetic masses external to the ship in 
which it is placed. Observation shows that disturbance of the 
compass in a ship afloat is experienced only in a few places on the 
globe. 

Magnetic laws do not permit of the supposition that it is the visible 
land which causes such disturbance, because the effect of a magnetic 
force diminishes in such rapid proportion as the distance from 
it increases, that it would require a local centre of magnetic force of 
an amount absolutely unknown to affect a compass half a mile 
distant. 

Such deflections of the compass are due to magnetic minerals in 
the bed of the sea under the ship, and when the water is shallow, 
and the force strong, the compass may be temporarily deflected when 
passing over such a spot, but the area of disturbance will be small, 
unless there are many centres near together. 

The law which has hitherto been found to hold good as regards 
local magnetic disturbance is, that north of the magnetic equator the 
north end of the compass needle is attracted towards any centre 
of disturbance ; south of t^ie magnetic equator it is repelled, 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. xxiii 

It is very ilesirable that whenever a ship passes over an area of 
local magnetic disturbance, the position should be fixed, and the 
facts reported as far as they can be ascertained. 

14. Use of Oil for "Modifying the Effect of Breaking Waves. — Many 
experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil for this 
purpose is undoubted, and the application simple. 

The following may serve for the guidance of seamen, whose 
attention is called to the fact that a very small quantity of oil, 
skilfully applied, may prevent much damage both to ships 
(especially the smaller classes) and to boats, by modifying the 
action of breaking seas. 

The principal facts as to the use of oil are as follows : — 

1. On free waves, ?.e., waves in deep water, the effect is greatest. 

2. In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid is 
in actual motion in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain ; 
as nothing can prevent the larger waves from breaking under such 
circumstances ; but even here it is of some service. 

3. The heaviest and thickest oils are most effectual. Refined 
kerosene is of little use ; crude petroleum is serviceable when 
nothing else is obtainable ; but all animal and vegetable oils, such 
as waste oil from the engines, have great effect. 

4. A small quantity of oil suffices, if applied in such a manner as 
to spread to windward. 

5. It is useful in a ship or boat, both when running, or lying to, 
or in wearing. 

6. No experiences are related of its use when hoisting a boat up in 
a sea-way at sea, but it is highly probable that much time and injury 
to the boat would be saved by its* application on such occasions. 

7. In cold water, the oil, being thickened by the lower temperature, 
and not being able to spread freely, will have its effect much reduced. 
This will vary with the description of oil used. 

8. The best method of application in a ship at sea appears to be : 
hanging over the side, in such a manner as to be in the water, small 
canvas bags, capable of holding from one to two gallons of oil, such 
bags being pricked with a sail needle to facilitate leakage of the oil, 



xxiv fiENBRAL NAVIGATION. 

The position of these bags should vary with the circumstances. 
Running before the wind they should be hung on either bow — 
e.g.^ from the cathead — and allowed to tow in the water. 

With the wind on the quarter the effect seemsto be less than in 
any otlier position, as the oil goes astern while the waves come up 
on the quarter. 

Lying to, the weather bow and another position farther aft seem 
the best places from which to hang the bags, with a sufficient length 
of line to permit them to draw to windward, while the ship drifts. 

9. Crossing a bar with a flood tide, oil poured overboard and 
allowed to float in ahead of the boat which would follow with a 
bag towing astern, would appear to be the best plan. As before 
remarked, under these circumstances the effect cannot be so much 
trusted. 

On a bar with the ebb tide it would seem to be useless to try oil 
for the purpose of entering. 

10. For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil overboard 
to windward of her before going alongside. The effect in this case 
must greatly depend upon the set of the current, and the circum- 
stances of the depth of water. 

11. For a boat riding in bad weather from a sea anchor, it is 
recommended to fasten the bag to an endless line rove through a 
block on the sea anchor, by which means the oil is diffused well 
ahead of the boat, and the bag can be readily hauled on board for 
refilling if necessary. 



XXr THIS -WOXtK THE BEA-RXN-GS ABE A.J,Jm IWEAGirETZC, 
EXCEPT -WHERE MARKED AS TRVE. 

TBS DXSTAKTCES ARE EXPRESSES XST SEA MZIiES OF 
60 TO A DEGREE OF I.ATXTUDE. 

A CABIiE'S XiENGTH XS ASSUMED TO BE EQUAXi TO 
100 FATHOMS, OR THE TEN-TH PART OF A MXXiE. 

THE SOUXTDXirGS ARE REDUCED TO J.O'W "WATER OF 
ORDXXTARY SPRXXTG TIDES. 

THE BEARINGS OF SECTORS OF IiIGHT ARE GIVEN 
FROM SEAVTARDS OR TO-WARD THE XiXGHT. 



SO 11977 



35" 



40' 



45° 



iO°-i 



INDEX TO 

ADMIRALTY PlTfiLISHED fMARTS 

ALLUDED TO IN THIS WORK 
A manher oj^amst €ke name of a- place shcyws 
that a. separate plan, is pujoiishal hearina Aat 
Taatiher, * 67/ shows ihat a. plait of &he places 
against yMchit is written is ffiven on sheet 671, 
*affainst aname shows that a plan of^iat pUtce, 
is ^ven on^the chart shown hy the chaaranh to 
embrace it. 

For HetaHs of scales , prices, Jcc.see jLimiralty CatcHoqiLe' 

See also general charts In3iaiv Ocearv /•4S''.** 
a:nd, also 597 & 24Q3 . 

NOTE 

Xii^ charts an3. plans shown, on ^us htdejc represent 
€i'S& puhlishe^ at ihe cUtte giverv at Me foat.'Dvty are 
hahle' to alteratioTL and. amendment. 



0" 



5° 



See camp, trtment 



for Tjorger si ales. 




lira 



35** 




Plans on. 1578 

LiLSumhweB. 

OldLbnjiffStonia^ 

Qusumu2a. 

M'Bcunp<vCove' 

Kojoaiffo 

Pauchia^ 

Surnhcu 

ChUaole^ 

M'Luluka. 

Losewa, 

Chilowela 



tdntonio K 

■ Iniiiss^ Bar * 
For charis &. plans Soid^ of "^is 

see other Indejc ..o-'''**"^' Prinieira. I? 



Lougitudf? ^S** East from. Greenwicli. 50** 



X?8D a> At^vca^ POat. Part 3. 



Eii^raveiV5rifaIby& Son 



THE AFRICA PILOT. 



PART III. 



CHAPTER I. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE SOUTH AND EAST COASTS OF AFRICA.- 
COMMUNICATIONS. — COAL. — DOCKS. — WINDS AND WEATHER.- 
CYCLONBS. — BAROMETER. — TEMPERATURE. — ICEBERGS. - 
CLIMATE.— CURRENTS.— PASSAGES. 



Chapter T. treats generally of information that is common to the 
whole of the South and East coasts of Africa. Particular information, 
such as winds and currents prevailing at or near certain places, will 
be found with the descriptions of those places. 

That portion ^ of Chapter II. of this work, relating to Table and 
Simons bays, being in part identical with a portion of Chapter IX. 
in Africa Pilot, part 2, the seaman should consult the book containing 
the latest information. 



The CAPE COLONY.— Extent.— The Cape of Good Hope, 
strictly speaking, is the small promontory forming the south-west 
extremity of the continent of Africa. But the extensive Colony of 
that name is washed by the waters of the South Atlantic and Indian 
oceans on the west and south ; is bounded on the north, to the 
west of the meridian of 22° E., by the Orange river, on the north-east 
by the Orange Free State and Natal, and on the east by Pondoland. 
The Cape Colony, with the Transkei, contains an area of 221,311 
square miles. 

In 1844, Letters Patent was issued annexing Natal to the Cape, but 
in 1856 it was constituted a separate Colony. 
S 11977—2500—11/96 Wt 16956 D & S. 



2 CAPE COLONY. [Chap. T. 

Twelve islands off Angra Pequena, on the coast of Damaraland, 
with the adjacent rocks^ were annexed in 1867, and added to the 
Cape Colony in 1874. 

In 1879, three large tracts of Kaffraria, namely, Fingoland, Idutywa 
Reserve and No Man's Land, were incorporated with Cape Colony. 

In 1878, the port of Walfisch bay was proclaimed British territory ; 
it was annexed to the Colony in 1884. In 1880, the province of 
Griqnaland West was incorporated with Cape Colony. 

In 1885, the territories of Tembuland,. Emigrant, Tambookieland, 
Bomvanaland and Goalekaland were annexed to the Colony ; in 
1881, the St. John's river territory was also added. 

The Xesibe country (mount Ayliff), near Griqualand, and the Rode 
valley, Pondoland, were annexed in 1886. 

Basutoland, now an independent Colony, formed part of the Cape 
from 1871 to 1884. 

In 1895, British Bechuanaland was incorporated with Cape 
Colony. 

Capital. — Cape Town, the capital of the Colony, and the seat of 
government, stands on the western shores of Table bay, between it 
and the foot of Table mountain, and is well laid out, with numerous 
public buildings, schools, hospitals, churches, and several good 
squares. Cape Town is connected with the principal places in the 
Colony by railway and telegraph. 

History. — The Cape of Good Hope was discovered in 1486 by 
Bartholomew Diaz, who named it Cabo Tormentoso, or Stormy cape ; 
but King John II. of Portugal, convinced of its being the turning 
point of the long-desired route to India, gave -the name of Boa 
Esperan^a, or Cape of Good Hope ; his convictions were confirmed 
eleven years after by Vasco de Gama, w ho then rounded the cape. 

In the year 1652 the territory was colonized by the Dutch East 
India company, under Van Riebeck, and continued in their 
possession until 1795, when the British Government took possession, 
but at the peace of Amiens in 1802, the Colony was ceded to its 
former possessors. In 1806 it was again taken by the English, and 
its possession confirmed at the general peace in 1815, since it has 
continued a British Colony. 

The country directly south of the Orange river consists of a 
series of terraces divided by mountain ranges varying in height from 
4,000 to 8,000 feet, and rising gradually from south to north as far as 



Chap. I.] GHNERAL REMARKS. "3 

the parallel of 32° 8., whence it gradually declines in a series of open 
sterile plains to the river itself ; the culminating point is the Spitz- 
koBS or Compass Berg, 8,500 feet above the sea level ; the passages 
from one plateau to another are by well made passes through the 
narrow and difficult gorges or Kloofs. One of these plateaus is 
known as the great Karroo, 300 miles in length, east and west, with 
a breadth of 70 miles. Where streams exist the wondrous fertility 
of this plain is apparent, as also immediately after thunderstorms, 
when the whole area is covered by a profuse and varied vegetation. 
The rivers, though numerous, are practically useless either for 
navigation or irrigation ; most of them flow in deep and precipitous 
ravines, and except when swollen by the rains are mere shallow 
torrents ; even the largest of them have bars at their mouths, which 
render in most cases entrance both difficult and dangerous ; 
but much has been done in recent years to render some of the bars 
navigable. 

The Population of Cape Colony, from the census of 1891, 
was found to be 1,527,224, comprising 376,987 Europeans, 
13,907 Malays, 50,388 Hottentots, 229,680 Fingoes, 608,456 Kaffirs, 
and other coloured persons, 247,806. Cape Town had (1891) with 
its suburbs, a population of 83,898. The population of the other 
principal towns was — Kimberley, 28,718, Port Elizabeth, 23,266, 
Beaconsfield, 10,498, Qrahamstown, 10,498, Paarl, 7,668, King 
Williams town, 7,266, &c. 

Products. — Trade. — Generally speaking, the eastern and 
southern portions of Cape Colony receive an abundant water supply, 
are well wooded, and extremely fertile. 

The colonists are chiefly employed in the production of wool and 
wine ; in the rearing of horses, cattle, sheep, and ostriches, and the 
culture of wheat, barley, oats, and maize. Valuable forests cover 
large areas, and are extensively worked. The waters around the 
coast abound in fish. The colony is rich in minerals, principally 
coal, copper, diamonds and manganese. The output of coal in 1894 
was 69,690 tons ; it is extensively used on the Eastern system of 
railways. Diamonds are the most valuable of the exports, chiefly 
found in the district of Kimberley, of which the declared value in 
1894 was £3,510,152 ; the value of wool is about one half that of 
the diamonds. The value of the various industries in 1890 (the 
latest return available) was £9,238,870. 

The total exports of the Colony for the year ending June 1896 (includ- 
ing specie) amounted to £16,988,047, and the imports to £20,377,589. 
S 11977 4 2 



4 NATAL. [Chap. I. 

The external trade is considerable, and chiefly carried on in British 
and Colonial vessels, as is shown by the tonnage for the year 1894. 
Entered and cleared — British vessels, 8,838,985 tonnage ; total 
9,227,938 tonnage. 

Total registered shipping of the colony (1895) — steam vessels, 21 of 
2,659 tons ; sailing, 8 of 772 tons ; total, 29 of 3,431 tons. 

Ports in Cape Colony. — The Cape Colony is destitute of 
natural harbours or sheltered anchorages for large vessels, with the 
exception of Saldanha bay on the west coast, and Simons bay, and 
to supply this deficiency .large sums of money, amounting in the 
aggregate to over two million pounds sterling, have been spent in 
executing protective works ; the harbour and docks at Cape Town, 
Port Elizabeth, and East London, under the direction of local boards, 
being the most important. Being exposed to the swell of the 
Southern Ocean, the sea breaks heavily on the whole of the iron- 
bound coast of the Cape Colony, particularly during on-shore winds, 
and a vessel touching on any part of it has not the slightest chance 
of escaping destruction. 

Landing" consequently, is difficult, and at times dangerous, even 
from the anchorages. 

The principal ports and anchorages are : — Table bay breakwater 
and docks, and Simons bay, the naval establishment, affording good 
shelter and accommodation for all classes of vessels ; Port Elizabeth, 
which is considered secure at all times, if provided with good grounc 
tackle, and East London. Other seaports and anchorages are : — ■ 
Mossel bay ; Knysna ; Plettenberg bay ; port Alfred ; and St. John 
river ; several of these are situated in the mouths of rivers with 
shallow bars across the entrances, and are not available during 
stormy weather, as the bars then usually break. Vessels at anchor 
in the roads off these places have sometimes to proceed to sea on the 
approach of a gale ; information is usually given from the Port 
Office, which receives a weather report daily from Cape Town. 
See page 21. During the heavy westerly gales of winter, good 
anchorage will be found in Mossel, Plettenberg, and Algoa bays, by 
vessels working westward round the Cape of Good Hope. Fuller 
information is given Avith the description of each port. 

NATAL. — The Colony of Natal derives its name from the fact 
of its discovery by the celebrated Portuguese navigator, Vasco de 
Gama, on Christmas Day, 1197. In 1837, the Governor of the Cape 
took military possession of the district, and in ]844 the district of 
Katal was proclaimed a British colony. In 1856 it was erected into 



Chap. I.] GENERAL REMARKS. 5 

a distinct and separate colony, free from the control of the Governor 
of the Cape. It is bounded on the north-east by the Tugela and 
and its tributary the Buffalo ; on the south-west by the Umtamvuna 
river ; on the south-east by the Indian ocean ; and on the north-west 
by the Drakensberg mountains ; it comprises an area of about 
20,461 square miles with a seaboard of 170 miles. The sea coast of 
its dependencies, Zululand and Pondoland, extends from the Tugela 
river north-eastward to the parallel of 26° H9' S., northward of 
which is Portuguese territory. 

Mountains. — Rivers. — The scenery in Natal is in many parts 
picturesque in the extreme. Starting from the coast the Colony, by 
a series of almost regular steppes, attains a height of 12,000 feet in 
the often snow-clad peaks of the Drakensberg. The first terrace or 
steppe extends about 14 miles inland, and attains a height of about 
1,000 feet ; the next, 20 miles in breadth, or 34 miles from the coast, 
attains a height of 2,500 feet. The third, 25 miles in breadth, attains 
a height of 3,700 Ceet ; the fourth, about the same breadth, to 
5,(>00 feet ; the next and last, to 6,000 feet, from which rise the 
Champagne castle or Cathkin peak, 12,000 feet in height, Giant's 
castle, 11,000 feet, Mout aux Sources of the same height, Tintwa, 
7,500 feet, and the Amajuba, 7,000 feet. 

The principal rivers are the Tugela, the Umkomass, and the 
Umzimkulu ; these traverse the Colony from the Drakensberg 
mountains to the sea, but owing to the nature of the country, above 
mentioned, the two last mentioned only are navigable, and only by 
small craft for a short distance within their mouths. 

The Tugela is the longest and most beautiful ; from its source in 
the Drakensberg, it leaps over a precipice 1,800 feet sheer into the 
Colony, 200 miles from its mouth ; at 60 miles from the sea it is 
joined by the Buffalo river, where gold mining is in progress. 
There are about 23 other and less important streams. 

Landing* — Like the Cape Colony, landing is extremely difficult, 
and dangerous at times on the coast of Natal, and as far north-east- 
ward as Delagoa bay. 

Capital. — Pietermaritzburg, the capital and seat of government, 
■With a population of 18,000 at the last census, is situated about 
50 miles inland from Durban or Port Natal, with which it is 
connected by telegraph, and by a railway 70 miles in length. 

The population of the Colony, 1891, consisted of — Whites, 
46,788 ; natives, 455,983 ; and Indian coolies, 41,142. 



6 f ORTUGUBSE EAST AFRICA; [Chap. I. 

Communication.— ^ee pp. 13-15. 

Products. — Trade. — The coast region, extending about 15 iniles 
inland, is highly fertile, and has a climate almost tropical, though 
perfectly healthy. Sugar, coffee, tea, indigo, arrowroot, ginger, tobacco, 
rice, pepper and cotton thrive well ; the midland district is more 
adapted for cereals and other European crops, while the upper district 
is chiefly grazing land, and sheep farming is the principal occupa- 
tion of the inhabitants. Horses and cattle are also reared in large 
numbers. The chief mineral products are coal and lime, but gold is 
being found in certain districts. The railway from Ladysmith to the 
coal mines, 18 miles in length, brings them in connection with 
Durban ; about 140,000 tons were raised in 1894. Large forests of 
valuable timber abound in the kloofs of the mountain ranges, and 
many tracts of the coast are also well wooded. 

The chief exports are wool, sugar, ivory, hides, maize, angora 
hair, and ostrich feathers, and the total value for the year 1894 
amounted to £1,197,611. Imports :— £2,316,596. 

In 1895, 165,700 tons of cargo were landed at the wharves at 
Durban, and 44,500 discharged from vessels in the roads from 232 
steam vessels and 79 sailing vessels. 435 steam vessels and 83 sailing 
vessels entered and cleared. 

Ports. — Natal may be said to have only one harbour, Durban or 
Port Natal, which is completely landlocked ; it admits vessels of 
15 to 19 feet jdraught, according to • the condition of the bar. 
Though much has been done to improve the latter, permanency in 
depth has not yet been attained. Works are still in progress for 
deepening both bar and harbour. Harbour works are also in progress 
at the mouth of the Umziinkulu (port Shepstone) to deepen the 
bar, and it is now available for small coasting steamers. The 
Umkomass is also available for small craft. 

PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA, formerly known as the 
province of Mozambique, has a coast line of about 1,400 miles, and is 
situated between the parallel extending eastward from the junction 
of Maputa and Pongolo rivers to the coast (about Kosi river) south- 
ward of Delagoa bay, and the parallel of 10° 40' S. on the coast, near 
cape Delgado, thence inland until it strikes the Rovuma river. 

The Portuguese arrived in these parts in 1497, and took possession 
of the coast, which was famed for its gold, from the Arabs. In 1508 



Chap. Ij GENERAL REMARKS, 7 

they built a fort at Mozambique port, and the town which grew up 
around it was made the capital of the province in 1813. 

By a decree of 1891, the colony of Mozambique was constituted as 
the state of East Africa and divided into two provinces, viz., that of 
Mozambique north of the river Zambezi, with the city of the same 
name for its capital, and that of Lorenzo Marques, south of the 
Zambezi, with the town of that name for its capital. The state is 
administered by Royal Commission appointed for three years, and 
residing in the capitals of the provinces alternately. 

The province of Mozambique includes, besides the districts of 
Mozambique and Kiliman, three intendencies in the region conceded 
to the Cape Delgado Company, while the province of Lorenzo 
Marques includes, besides the district of that name, three intendencies 
in the region conceded to the Innamban Company, and three in the 
region conceded to the Mozambique Company. The state has a 
colonial military force and a small navy. Every settlement on the 
coast has its municipality, police, tribunals of justice, &c. 

Communication.— Railways.— 6'ee pages 14, 15. 

Trade. — Products. — The chief products are oil-nuts and seeds, 
caoutchouc and ivory. The sugar industry is being developed at 
Kiliman, from whence 600 tons were shipped in 1894 to Portugal 
and 10,000 gallons of rum sold in the neighbourhood. The chief 
imports are, cotton goods, spirits, beer and wine. 

In 1894 the value of the exports from Mozambique was £67,588, 
and the imports £109,677, and at Kiliman, including the Chinde, 
£87,792 and £94,039. 

In 1894, 98 vessels of 140,885 tons (39 of 81,630 tons, British) 
entered the port of Mozambique ; 131 of 37,632 tons (52 of 11,849 
tons, British) entered the port of Kiliman ; and 266 vessels of 
416,515 tons (195 of 331,051 tons, British) entered and cleared at 
Lorenzo Marques. 

Population. — The population of Portuguese East Africa is about 
1,500,000, and the area of the territory about 261,700 square miles. 

Harbours. — The principal trading ports, beginning from the 
southward, are : — Delagoa bay, Innamban, Chiluan, Beira, Chinde 
mouth of the Zambezi, Kiliman, Angoche, Mozambique, and Ibo. 
Delagoa bay, with its fine harbour and its railway now open to 
the Transvaal, is becoming a port of considerable importance. 



8 BRITISH CENTRAL AND GERMAN EAST AFRICA. [Chap. I. 

The Zambezi and Limpopo are the principal rivers, of which a full 
account will be found in the description of the coast. 

Landing:, like in the Cape Colony and Natal, is difficult and 
dangerous on the coast of the southern part of Portuguese East 
Africa, and in many places impracticable, but farther northward 
the coast is more broken up into bays, and fronted in places by 
islands or reefs, which afford protection to leeward of them. 

CHARTERED COMPANY'S Territory— The large British 
territories southward of the Zambezi, lying north and north-west of 
the Transvaal, are, by Royal Charter, under the control of the British 
South Africa Company. The principal settlements, Bulawayo, 
Gwelo, forts Victoria and Salisbury, &c., are connected by telegraph 
with Cape Colony, via the Transvaal, and with Beira on the east 
coast. Mafeking (580 miles from Bulawayo, and 800 miles from 
fort Salisbury) is connected with the Cape Colony railway system. 
The extension of the line from Mafeking to Gaberones and Palapye 
(the latter about 170 miles from Bulawayo) is in progress. The 
railway from Beira, on the east coast, is nearly completed to the 
border of the Company's territory. See p. 224. 

By the new postal route, via Bulawayo, it is possible to communi- 
cate by letter between London and Salisbury in from 30 to 33 days. 
The mails also run weekly between Salisbury, Umtali, and Beira, 
thus providing a local East coast service. 

The territories of the Chartered Company do not touch the coast 
at any part, 

BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA Protectorate, constituted 
as such on May 14th, 1891, lies along the southern and western shores 
of lake Nyasa, and extends towards the Zambezi. It is administered 
under the Foreign Office by H.M. Commissioner, and is divided into 
twelve districts, in each of which are two administrative officials. 

The chief town is Blantyre, in the Shire highlands, with a popula- 
tion of about 100 Europeans and 6,000 natives. In the same region 
is Zomba, the seat of the Administration, and there, or on the Shire 
river, are nine or more settlements. Near or on lake Nyasa are fort 
Johnston and about nine other settlements. There are sixteen post 
offices and thirteen customs houses. The Shire province contains 
most of the European population of the Protectorate. Good roads 
are being made, and life and property are safe ; seven missionary 
ccieties are at work. 



ChAp. I.] GENERAL REMARKS. 

The climate, though not salubrious for European settlers in 
general, is said to be healthier than the greater part of Central Africa. 
See page 261. 

There is an armed force of 200 Sikhs from the Indian Army, with 
from 200 to 300 black police, recruited locally. This force has 
English officers and Sikh non-commissioned officers. There is also 
a Naval force on the rivers Zambezi and Shire and on lake Nyasa 
consisting of five gunboats, with English officers and seamen. 

Gommunication. — There are good roads from Blantyre, &c., to 
Chirimo on the Shire, whence communication with the coast is 
maintained by H.M. gunboats, the steamers of the African Lakes 
Company, and Sharrer's Zambezi Traffic Company, thence by the 
several mail steamers calling off the iChinde. The Portuguese con- 
template connecting Kiliman with the Ruo river, near Chiromo, by 
railway. 

A telegraph line from Tete on the Zambezi, through the Pro- 
tectorate to Tanganyika, is being constructed. Tete is connected 
with Zomba and Blantyre in the Shire highlands, and with 
Kiliman, via Chinde. Chinde is situated on the river of the same 
name, at present the most navigable mouth of the Zambezi. At this 
port, the Portuguese Government has granted a piece of land, called 
the " British Concession," where goods in transit for British Central 
Africa may be landed and re-shipped free of customs duty. 

Produce. — Trade. — Within the Shire province coffee planting 
has been greatly extended during the last few years ; rice is grown 
to perfection and wheat promises to be successful. Oats and barley 
thrive on the uplands, where merino sheep and Natal ponies seem 
also likely to prosper. The trade for the year ending March 1895, 
was : — imports, value £95,000 ; exports, £12,000. The chief imports 
were cotton goods, machinery, provisions, hardware and agricultural 
implements ; the chief exports, ivory, coffee and tobacco. 

GERMAN EAST AFRICA.— The parallel of 10° 40' S., near 
cape Delgado, thence inland until it strikes the Rovuma river, is the 
southern boundary of German East Africa ; its northern coast limit 
is the mouth of the Umba river, in about lat. 4^ 41' S. ; Mafia island 
forms part of the Protectorate. 

The German East Africa Company, founded in 1885, had estab- 
lished fifteen stations, but most of them were ruined and abandoned 



10 BRITISH BAST AFRICA. [Ghap. I. 

by the outbreak of the natives in 1889, peace being restored in 1890. 
Commercial enterprise has again begun, the German Government 
granting subsidies for railways and steamers, and in . other ways 
supporting the operations of the Company. The German Emperor 
is represented in this region by an Imperial Governor. 

Products. — Trade. — The chief products are gum copal, cocoa- 
nuts, copra, sesame, caoutchouc and ivory. The chief imports are 
cottohs, colonial wares, rice, oil, spirits, wine and beer. In 1894, 
the value of the exports was 1,982,272 dollars, and the imports 
2,913,317 dollars. 

Harbours. — The principal port of commerce is Dar-es-Salaam. 
Next in importance are (from the southward) Mikindani, Lindi, 
Kilwa Kisiwani, Kilwa Kivinje, Bagamoyo, Pangani and Tanga. 

The Rovuma, Rufiji, Kingani, and Pangani are the principal rivers 
on this coast, but they are very shallow and scarcely navigable by 
anything larger than a steam launch. 

Communloation.— 6'ee page 15. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA.— From the mouth of the Umba 
river to the Juba river, including the adjacent islands, also the 
islands of Zanzibar and Pemba^ and the province of Uganda and 
others in the interior, are under the protection of Great Britain. 
The total area is over 1,000,000 square miles. 

The boundary between the spheres of influence of Great Britain 
and Italy ascends the channel of the Juba from its mouth to lat. 6° N., 
thence it follows the parallel of 6° N. as far as long. 35° E., whence 
it trends north to the Blue Nile, &c.* 

The administration of the coastal district of the mainland 
is placed under the control of Her Majesty's Consul-General at 
Zanzibar. Uganda proper is under a Commissioner subordinate to 
the Consul-General. 

Products. — Trade. — The principal products and exports are, 
sesame seed, ivory, india-rubber, cloves, gum, copra, coir, orchilla 
weed, hides, &c. The imports are, Manchester goods, Bombay cloth, 
iron and copper wire, beads, &c. The greater portion of the coast 
trade is in the hands of Banians, but there are several European 
establishments at Zanzibar. 

• These boundaries are not to be considered absolute, but are merely given to 
afford the mariner some knowledge of the various claims to the country. 



Chap, ij GENERAL REMARKS. "tl- 

In 1893, the exports were valued at 1,287,399 rupees, and the 
imports at 1,807,208 rupees. 

Shipping entered (1893), 100,602 tons ; cleared, 100,308 tons. 

Harbours. — British East Africa has several good harbours and 
anchorages, many of which may be entered by large vessels. 
Zanzibar, on Zanzibar island, and Mombasa and Kilindini on the 
mainland are the principal, and are available for all vessels. Kilifi, 
Lamu and Kisimayu are perhaps next in importance. 

Landingr may generally be effected from most of the anchorages, 
but at cejtain points of the coast exi)08ed to the ocean, landing is at 
times difficult. Northward of Pemba, with on-shore winds, it is at 
times dangerous. In many places the coast is fronted by islands and 
detached reefs, which afford smooth water to leeward of them. 

Zanzibar. — The dominions of Zanzibar are governed by an Arab 
Sultan of the blood of the Imaums of Maskat, and are now under 
British protection. 

Trade. — Population. — The population of Zanzibar is estimated at 
150,000, and that of Pemba at 50,000. There are about 7,000 British and 
Indian subjects, through whose hands almost the whole of the trade 
of Zanzibar and of British East Africa passes directly or indirectly. 
The town of Zanzibar has a population of about 30,000. 

There is a regular army of about 1,000 men under a general. 

The imports in 1894 amounted in value to £1,197,681, and were 
distributed as follows : — From foreign countries, £722,212 ; German 
Coast, £219,746 ; Sultan's dominions, £177,171 ; British East Africa, 
£47,369 ; Benadir ports (Brawa, &c.), £31,183. 

The exports in 1894 amounted in value to £1,096,240, the chief 
articles being ivory, cloves, copra, rubber, gums and hides. 

In the year 1894, 126 vessels (other than coasting vessels and 
men-of-war) entered the port of Zanzibar. These included 44 vessels 
of 71,235 tons, British ; 46 of 66,862 tons, German ; and 28 of 
47,776 tons, French. 

The English Consular Court is also a Naval Prize Court. 

ITALIAN EAST AFRICA— Somali Land.— The coast from 
the Juba river {see British East Africa, p. 10) northward to Ras Asir, 
and round that cape to about long. 49° E., is under the protection of 
Italy. Somali land- is in the form of a triangle, with its apex at 



12 ITALIAN EAST AFRICA. [Chap. I. 

Ras Asir. Its western boundary begins at the head of the gulf of 
Tajiira, in the gulf of Aden, passes eastward of Harar, follows the 
Haines river for some distance, and then crosses over to the Juba, 
thence by that river to the coast. 

As far as is known, the whole of the Somali country has a gradual 
slope from the heights which border the gulf of Aden, south-eastward 
towards the Indian ocean. "With the exception of tht Juba, there 
appears to be but one permanently flowing stream, namely the Haines 
or Doho, locally known as the Wobbi (meaning river). Some of its 
tributaries flow past Harar, others from the more eastern mountain 
range, the highlands of Gurage. This river flows through the Ogaden 
country, a famous pastoral region, where the Somali have large herds 
of camels, ponies, cows, and sheep, and where gazelles and antelopes 
roam about in vast herds. Numerous agricultui'al settlements extend 
along this river. Near Mogdishu the river approaches the coast, 
and, running parallel with it, terminates inland of Brawa in a 
marsh, which, after rain, expands into a considerable lake. The 
Haines river has a rapid current at times, but to a steam launch 
(which would have to be taken there in sections) its navigation 
appears to present no difficulty as high up as the town of Imi. 

The Juba has been ascended to 20 miles above Bardera, about 
400 miles above its mouth, but it undoubtedly rises far inland. 

The coast from the equator nearly to Ras Asswad is principally 
composed of low hills, some covered with stunted bushes, but becoming 
bare to the northward ; with the exception of the high land between 
Ras Asswad and Ras Awath, the coast is low, rocky, and sterile, with 
sand hills in places, as far as Ras Hafun ; very little is known of it. 

Products. — Hides, orchilla weed and oil seeds, with a little ivory 
and some ostrich feathers from the interior, are the principal pro- 
ducts ; these are exchanged for sugar, dates, salt fish, and arms, 
brought by the dhows in the north-east monsoon period trading 
between Arabia and Zanzibar. The ports are known as the Benadir 
ports and their trade is referred to under Zanzibar, p. II. 

Harbours. — This eastern coast of Somali land possesses no 
harbours of any importance ; the anchorages at Mogdishu and 
Brawa afford protection within the reefs for dhows only. Kisimayu 
or Refuge bay, in British territory, in lat. 0° 23' S., is the most 
northern harbour for large vessels on this coast. There is thus a 
stretch of sterile coast 800 miles in length without shelter, as far 
north as Ras Hafun peninsula, under which there is shelter on 
either side, depending on the prevailing monsoon. 



Chap. I,] CAPE COLONY AND NATAL RAILWAYS. 13 

RAILWAYS.— Cape Colony.— Transvaal, &c.— There ar© 
2,441 miles of railway open in the Cape Colony. The railways of 
Cape Colony originally consisted of three separate systems, the 
Western, Midland, and Eastern, having their starting points on the 
seaboard at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and East London, respec- 
tively. The Western and Midland are connected by a junction at 
De Aar (500 miles from Cape Town and 340 miles from Port 
Elizabeth), and carried forward thence as one trunk line to Kim- 
berley (647 miles from Cape Town). From Kimberley the line is 
now carried northward to Mafeking, in British Bechuanaland 
(870 miles from Cape Town) ; a further extension towards Mashona- 
land is in progress. 

The extension from Colesberg to Bloemfontein, in the Orange 
Free State (143 miles), was opened in 1890 ; since that date the line 
has been carried through the Free State over the Vaal river into 
the Transvaal. The line as far as the Vaal river belongs to and is 
worked by the Cape Government ; thence the Cape Government 
trains, by virtue of a convention, run through to Johannesberg and 
Pretoria, the latter being 1,040 miles from Cape Town. Pretoria is 
connected by rail with Delagoa bay. 

The Eastern system extends from East London through Queen's 
Town to Aliwal North, adjacent to the Basutoland and Orange Free 
State frontiers; in 1892 it was extended to join the Cape railways 
within the Free State at Springfontein, so forming a direct line to 
Bloemfontein and Johannesberg {see Natal connections below). 
Cape Town is also connected with Wellington (45 miles), and 
with Simons Town, via Wynberg, about 20 miles. 

The line between Grahamstown and Port Alfred (43 miles) was 
opened in 1883, in which year powers were given to construct a line 
from Worcester on the Western main line, down the Breede river 
valley as far as Montagu, This line is open past Robertson to 
Ashton, about 42 miles. 

The Cape Copper Company own and work a mineral line from 
Port Nolloth to Vokiep (92 miles). There is also a private line of 
3| miles from Cape Town to Sea point. A private line of 7 miles 
connects the Twartkop salt pan with the Midland system. 

Natal.— In the Colony of Natal there are 399 miles of 
railway open, all worked by the Government. The main line 
extends from the port of Durban to Pietermaritzburg, the capital 
(73 miles), and from thence to Charlestown on the border of the 
Sputh African Republic^ 300 miles from Durban. Connections witlj 



'14 AFRICA— EAST COAST. [Chap. I. 

Johannesberg and Pretoria were opened in 1895. There is a branch 
from the main line near Ladysmith to Harrismith in the Orange 
Free State (59^ miles). A branch line also extends from Durban to 
Verulam, 19| miles north-eastward, and another from South coast 
junction to Isipingo, 6| miles south-westward. 

Portuguese East Africa. — From Delagoa bay there is railway 
communication to Pretoria, a distance of 346 miles, 57 miles of 
which are in Portuguese territory. Delagoa bay is thus connected 
with the Cape Colony railways. From Beira on the Pungue river, 
-there is a railway, to Bandpola, distant about 175 miles, via Fontes- 
ville and Chimoio ; works are in progress to complete it to the 
border of the Chartered Company's territory, about 22 miles. See 
also p. 224. 

A raihvay is projected from Kiliman to the Ruo river, but nothing 
has yet been done. 

German East Africa. — A railway is projected from Dar-es- 
Salaam (with a branch to Bagamoyo) to lake Tanganyika, via Mrogoro 
and Tabora, and from Tabora to lake Victoria Nyanza. 

British East Africa. — A survey has been made for the con- 
struction of a line of railway some 650 miles in length, from 
Mombasa to Victoria Nyanza. The terminus is on the west side 6f 
Mombasa island, near port Kilindini, from whence the line crosses to 
the mainland over a bridge at the north-west side of the island. 
About 30 miles were completed in 1896. It is anticipated that by 
the end of 1898 the railway will be completed to Kikuyu, 300 miles 
from Mombasa. There is a good road to the Victoria Nyanza, 
350 miles from Kikuyu. 

TELEGRAPH. — Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal, Delagoa bay, 
British Bechuanaland, forts Salisbury and Victoria, are connected by 
telegraph. Beira is connected with Cape Colony via fort Salisbury. 
Tete, Blantyre, fort Johnston, Chinde and Kiliman on the Zambezi 
are connected together. It is anticipated that Tete will be con- 
nected with fort Salisbury about June 1897. A few of the principal 
ports in German East Africa are connected with Dar-es-Salaam hy 
land lines, thence to Zanzibar by submarine cable. Mombasa is 
connected with Lamu, via Golbanti (Tana river) and Witu, by land 
lines, and by submarine cable with Zanzibar. 

Submarine cables. — From Natal a submarine telegraph cable 
is laid to Aden, via Delagoa bay, Mozambique and Zanzibar. 
Zanzibar is also connected by cable with the Seychelles and 
Mauritius, Dar-es-Salaam, and also with Mombasa. There is also 



Chap. T.] RAILWAYS— MAIL COMMUNICATION. 15 

submarine cable connection between Cape Town and England, via 
the west coast ports, and St. Vincent, &c., rendering the circuit of 
Africa complete. A French cable connects Mozambique with 
Madagascar. 

Lloyd's Signal stations, &c.— There are Lloyd's signal 
stations at Cape point, cape Agulhas and the Bluff at Port Natal 
connected with the telegraph systems of the colonies. Cape St. 
Francis lighthouse is also coimecied. There is a private signal 
in Mazeppa bay, connected with East London via Butter worth. 

Time Sigrnals. — The time kept in Cape Colony is that of the 
meridian of 221° E., or ]h. 30m. in advance of Greenwich mean 
time. In Natal, that of the meridian of 30° E., or two hours in 
advance of Greenwich. Time signals are made at Cape Towhj 
Simon's Town, Port Elizabeth, Port Alfred, East London and Natal. 

MAIL COMMUNICATION.— The English mail is carried to 
Cape Colony and Natal, weekly, by the Union and Castle Lines of 
steamers alternately, whence mails are despatched from Cape Town 
to Delagoa bay, Mashonaland, &c., by rail. The steamers call at Cape 
Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban. Each company 
despatch an intermediate steamer, fortnightly, calling at the same 
ports, and thence to Delagoa bay. The Union vessel calls at Mossel 
bay also, but does not go beyond Delagoa bay. The Castle Line 
continues on to Madagascar and Mauritius. There is also coastal 
service by those steamers in Cape Colony. 

Durban and Delagoa bay are ports common to the south and east 
coast mail services. 

The " Deutsche Ost Afrika Linie " run a three-weekly service from 
Europe via Aden and all the East Africa ports {»ee branch service 
below) between Tanga and Durban. Their service from Bombay to 
Zanzibar (at intervals of 18 and 24 days), taking Lamu and Mombasa 
northward of Tanga, by alternate steamers. This company has a 
branch service from Tanga and another from Beira, to ports in their 
neighbourhood. They also run a line to Durban, Delagoa bay and 
Innamban every two months, via Cape of Good Hope. 

The British India run a four-weekly service from Bombay via 
Seychelles to Zanzibar, Mozambique, Beira and Innamban, to Delagoa 
bay. The same company run a four-weekly service from Aden to 
Zanzibar via Mombasa. 

The Rennie Company's steamers run about every three weeks 
from Natal to ports as far northward as Killman. 



16 CAPS COLONY AND NATAL. [Chap. I. 

The Messageries Maritime runs a steamer monthly from Diego 
Suarez (Madagascar) to Delagoa bay and back, via Mozambique and 
Beira, in connection with the Mauritius steamers, &c. There is also 
a French line of steamers, the Chargeurs Reunis, of Havre, via West 
African ports, to Cape Town, Delagoa bay, Beira, Mozambique, and 
Madagascar. These services are subject to alterations from time to 
time. 

COAL may be obtained at the following ports in South and 
East Africa : — Cape Town ; Simons Town ; Mossel bay, small 
quantity ; Port Elizabeth ; Port Alfred, possibly a small quantity ; 
East London ; Durban ; Delagoa bay ; Mozambique, Zanzibar, 
Mombasa, and possibly a small quantity at Tanga. Details of coaling 
are given with the description of the ports. 

DOCK ACCOMMODATION.— Cape Town is the only place 
included in this work provided with a dock suitable for large 
vessels. 

This dock has a depth of 24| feet on the sill at high water ordinary 
springs. There is also a patent slip capable of taking vessels of 
1,000 burthen. The patent slip at Simons Town will take up vessels 
of 1,000 tons, lightened to 14 feet. The patent slip at Durban will 
take up vessels of 500 tons burthen. For details, see the ports 
referred to. 

PILOTS. — The statement in certain places in this work that the 
employment of pilots is compulsory, does not apply to H.M. ships of 
war. 

WINDS AND WEATHER.* 

OFF THE CAPE COLONY.t-General remarks.— The 

district under discussion lies between lat. 30° to 50° S., long. 10° to 
40° E. Near the coast of Cape Colony, easterly and westerly winds 
alternate. In summer, easterly winds prevail ; and in winter, 
westerly winds. Southerly winds (south-west to south-east) prevail 
throughout the year in the north-western part of the district (north- 
west of the Cape), but they extend further south in summer than 
in winter. 

North and north-east winds prevail on the eastern side of the 
district (off, and southward of Natal) ; but at Natal the north-east and 

* See also Weather Tables, p. 593-599. 

t See Admiralty Wind and Current Atlas ; for more detailed information, see the 
Meteorological charts of the ocean district adjacent to the Cape of Good Hope, hj 
Captain Toynbee, F.E.A.S, 



Chap. T.] WINDS AND WEATHER. 17 

south-west winds appear to be equally divided. The prevailing winds 
at the different ports are mentioned with the description of the ports. 

The summer months, the period of south-east winds, is the worst 
time for anchoring off the ports of Cape Colony. 

Summer montllS. — From October to A.pril, the summer months, 
the prevailing winds are south-easterly, which occasionally rise to 
gales and last for three days, and at times for a longer period, being 
followed by calms and light westerly winds. These winds follow 
the trend of the whole coast of South Africa, being nearly from east 
between Natal and Algoa bay ; south-east from Algoa bay to cape 
Agulhas, and from S.S.E. into False bay. In strength, the south-easters 
are singularly local at times ; for instance, being light at cape 
Hanglip and Danger point to the south-eastward, when it may be 
blowing a heavy gale from the same quarter in Simons and Table bays. 

"Westerly winds and heavy westerly gales are nevertheless not 
unfrequent in this season ; the best chance of avoiding them is to 
keep well in with the land ; there is also considerably less sea over 
the Agulhas bank than there is southward of it. 

Winter months. — From April to October westerly winds prevail, 
and gales are especially severe and frequent south-eastward of the 
Agulhas bank in the months of June and July. In May, August and 
September, between the coast and lat. 37° 3., the east and west winds 
are about equally divided ; easterly winds occasionally occur in the 
other winter months. 

The Roaring Forties. — It was formerly thought that between 
40° and 50° South latitude, the wind was continually blowing from 
the westward. Modern investigation has shown that the winds here 
are cyclonic in their character, and that as the central depression is 
generally to the southward of 45° S., of large area, and has a pro- 
gressive movement to the eastward, the winds blowing in the 
northern semicircle are mostly from the northern quarter, and 
commencing at about North will back to the north-west freshening as 
it does so, and frequently shifting more or less suddenly to the soutk- 
west where the strongest blow will be, with a rising barometer. A 
vessel steering eastwards, will, therefore, hold the fair wind for a 
longer or shorter time, dependent on her own speed, and the velocity 
of the translation of the system, and when the latter is moderate, may 
carry the westerly winds with her for days. 

From what has been said of the usual high latitude of the lowest 
barometer, it will be • seen that though a vessel may have less wind 
SO 11977 B 



18 CAPE COLONY AND NATAL. [Chap. I. 

about the parallel of 40° S., she will probably have a greater pro- 
portion of westerly wind than if she went further south, and that 
generally speaking the sea will not be so heavy. Hence this parallel 
is recommended as the best for making easting when proceeding 
from the Cape either to Mauritius, India, China, or Australia. From 
the shortening of the distance effected by following an approximation 
to the Great Circle track to Australia, vessels sometimes make quicker 
passages, but it is frequently at the expense of much straining and 
anxiety. 

Should the area of lowest barometer of any system be further 
north than usual, the system of wind above sketched will not be 
followed, and the wind will veer instead of backing, and a hard 
easterly or south-easterly gale will follow. 

GALES. — The severity of the gales off the Cape district is well 
known to navigators, as also the rapidity with which they succeed 
one another, and their violence during the winter months. 

The proportion of gales in the usual track of outward bound 
vessels (about 40° S.), is as follows :— N.W., 42 per cent. ; S.W., 29 ; 
N.E., 5 ; S.E., 7 ; exceptional, 17 ; and in the usual track of home- 
ward bound vessels (near the coast), N.W., 27 ; S.W., 36 ; N.E., 8 ; 
S.E., 13 ; exceptional, 16. It has been found that, when during 
summer the barometer falls to 29*5, bad weather may be expected, 
and during winter that a fall to 29*75 will indicate a similar change. 

A falling barometer when the wind is southerly, and the weather 
threatening, is a most useful warning in this part of the sea. 

The probability of meeting with gales is as follows : — 

Outward route -ri j l 

(40° S. and South- Homeward route 

ward of). ^^"^^'^ *^® *=°*'*)* 

January - - - 8 per cent. - - 6 per cent. 

April .... 10 „ . . 6 „ 

July - - - - 14 „ - - 13 „ 

October ... 9 „ - - 10 „ 

The greatest number of gales are experienced between the south- 
east edge of the Agulhas bank and about 40^ S., where the Agulhas 
current, deflected to the southward by the bank, meets the north- 
easterly drift from the Antarctic ; here the struggle takes place 
between the warm and cold currents of the sea, and the warm and 
cold currents of thejair, which go as it were band in hand. On the 
south-east edge of the bank, in the months of June and July, about 
30 per cent, of the winds are recorded as gales. 



Chap. I.] WIND AND WEATHER. 19 

The gales in this area are frequently circumscribed in their limits, 
and consequently, the shifts of wind are sudden and violent, and 
may take place in any direction. The sea is, therefore, at times very 
heav}'^, particularly during south-west gales, and this area should, if 
possible, be carefully avoided by the seaman. 

It frequently happens that a gale, which is blowing in this area 
for a lengthened period, is either moderate or not felt near the 
shore. 

Westerly Gales amount to about two-thirds of the whole 
number experienced, and are of two classes, north-west and south- 
west gales. N.W. gales generally commence with a falling barometer, 
and sometimes their extreme force is not felt until the wind is about 
West. S.W. gales begin from the same quarter as N.W. gales, the 
first fall of the barometer coming with a northerly wind shifting 
to north-west, the chief difference being that with S.W. gale systems, 
the north-west wind does not attain the force of a gale. 

Easterly Gales. — N.E. Gales form about 6 per cent, of the 
number experienced in the Cape region, and are usually met with in 
the eastern portion of the area (30° to 40^ E.). They are generally 
short and of slight force, and frequently lose the force of a gale 
before the lowest barometer occurs. Lightning is sometimes seen at 
the same time. The chief danger in connection with them lies in 
the fact of their being generally followed by north-westerly, south- 
westerly to southerly, or even south-east winds, and that in many 
cases these winds attain the force of a heavy gale. Sometimes the 
second gale sets in with a sudden change of wind. Hence great 
precaution is necessary in watching the barometer, weather, sea, etc., 
during a N.E. gale, more especially when met with near the south- 
east coast of Africa.* 

S.E. Gales form about 10 per cent, of all gales met with off the 
Cape and south coast. They are of two classes, namely, those pre- 
ceded by northerly and north-westerly winds, and those preceded by 
southerly or south-east winds. Those preceded by northerly winds 
resemble south-west gales in their character, setting in after the 
lowest barometer has passed, and lightning often occurs before 
the wind changes from the northward and westward to the south- 
-eastward. 

* Many vessels have been taken aback, and have foundered through neglecting 
these signs, particularly in the neighbourhood of Algoa bay. 

SO 11977 BS 



20 CAPE COLONY AND NATAL. — WINDS. [Chap. I. 

Those preceded by southerly winds are again subdivided, namely^ 
(1) those fine weather gales generally niet with near the Cape of 
Good Hope, more especially during the summer months, and which 
are accompanied by a slight fall of the barometer ; these are closely 
related to the south-easters common to Table bay. 

(2) Those related to the south-west side of cyclonic wind systems, 
moving southward or south-eastward. These are generally accom- 
panied by bad weather, and are sometimes very severe ; as these gales 
progress the wind often veers to the westward of south, the change 
generally taking place after the lowest barometer has been recorded. 
If necessary to heave-to in such a gale, the starboard tack should be 
preferred, as it is the coming up tack. 

Exceptional Gales form about 16 per cent, of all gales met 
with off the Cape and South Coast. These are gales which change 
quickly from one quarter to another, or for some other cause 
cannot be classed under those previously referred to. A very 
dangerous type of exceptional gale is one that changes quickly from 
N.E. to N.W. or S.W. ; it is frequently met with, but more especially 
near the south-east coast of Africa. 

It is not possible to manoeuvre so as to avoid these, which shift 
suddenly from one quarter to another, so that when lightning and 
other weather signs, or the direction of the swell indicate such a 
change, the chief precaution lies in reducing sail, especially on the 
main and mizen masts. In gales which only shift from N.E. to 
N.W., and in which the barometer begins to rise as the wind goes to 
N.W., and also in those which shift quickly from N.E. through north 
to S.W., the port tack should be preferred, if requisite to heave-to. 

Temperature.* — Southward of Cape Colony, the air, like the sea, 
is warmest in February and coldest in July, strongly influenced by 
the temperature of the Agulhas current. It averages about 62° in 
February and 56° in July, on the parallel of 40° S., and 70° and 60° 
respectively near the coast. For temperature in Cape Colony, &c., 
see Climate and Rainfall, pages 27, 28. 

The sea temperatures off the Cape are given with the description of 
tlie Agulhas current, pages 30, 31. 

Icebergs are rarely fallen in with off the Cape of Good Hope to 
the northward of 40° S., or it may be said of 43° S. ; nevertheless, 

* See also the diagrams of Lines of Equal Pressure and Lines of Equal Temperature 
in "Wind and Currnet Atlas for Pacific, Indian Ocean, &c." 



Chap. I.] MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. — WINDS. 21 

there are instances of icebergs being seen near the cape in April and 
in September, and it is therefore desirable to keep a good look out 
for them at all seasons. From December to April icebergs are 
numerous near and southward of 45° S. Fogs are also prevalent 
south of that parallel. Icebergs are farthest north in the months of 
November to February, and therefore more liable to be met with ; 
and least so in the months of June and July.* 

In approaching icebergs there may be a marked diminution in the 
temperature of the air and sea, the indication^ therefore of the 
thermometer should never be neglected, though it must not be 
assumed to be an infallible guide. 

Weather Sigrnal. — A weather chai*t, from information tele- 
graphed by the Meteorological Commission of the Cape Colony, is 
exhibited at each of the seaports in the Colony, soon after 10 a.m. 
daily, for the information of masters of vessels and others. 

MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. 

General remarks. — The winds in the Mozambique channel are 
dependent upon the monsoons of the Arabian sea, but do not, however, 
blow here with the same regularity that is found further north. The 
northerly monsoon commences between mid-September and mid- 
October, and the southerly monsoon between mid-March and mid- 
April. The change is generally accompanied by squally weather. To 
the southward of lat. 20° S., from abreast the centre of Madagascar, 
the northerly monsoon is not felt and the winds are variable, 
with a greater prevalence of South and S.S.E. winds than any 
other, particularly on the Madagascar side, near the south-west 
end of which, S.E. and E.S.E. winds prevail all the year round, 
but do not extend far up the coast. See also Winds at Natal, p. 179, 
and weather table for Delagoa bay, p. 593. 

Although the southerly monsoon is the fine weather and healthy 
season, the northerly monsoon is the period of less wind and con- 
sequently of smoother water in most of the anchorages from Delagoa 
bay northward ; it is, however, the unhealthy season. 

The northerly monsoon in the Mozambique channel, from its 
commencement to nearly the end of December is light and variable, 
with smooth water and usually fine weather ; westerly winds and 
calms intervene. Towards the end of December the monsoon sets in 

* See Ice chart of the southern hemisphere, No. 1211 ; also Admiralty chart, 
No. 2095, on which icebergs that have been met with near the Cape Colony are 
shown. 



22 MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. [Chap. I, 

strong ; for three consecutive years the first decided blow was 
observed to occur at the Comoro islands, on the 25th December. It 
continues with some force until about the beginning of February, at ^ 
which time, in the southern part of the channel, the southerly wind 
begins to make itself felt, and about the end of February it is fully 
established, though not with any force until April. Near the Mo- 
zambique coast, from and after December, calms, variables, and rain 
will be met with ; though in mid-channel it is usually fine with 
a fresh breeze. During this noi'therly monsoon the southerly winds 
which prevail at the southern end of the channel often amount to 
a gale, producing a considerable sea ; at such times they commonly 
force their way north ward, overcoming the monsoon even as far north 
as the Comoro islands, and blow a double-reefed topsail breeze. This 
weather is preceded by heavy banks of cloud to the southward, with 
gloomy weather, but does not last long. 

The southerly monsoon blows from S.S.E. to S.S.W. between 
Euroj)a island and the Comoro group ; it attains its greatest westing 
in May and June (S.S.W.) ; from July it gradually backs to the 
eastward ; September to November calm and light winds are prevalent 
until northerly monsoon is established. The southerly monsoon is 
called the fine weather season, and is generally free from gales ; but 
there is much more wind and sea at this time in the Mozambique 
channel than during the northerly monsoon ; vessels proceeding to the 
southward will frequently find a hard double-reef topsail breeze 
and heavy sea. 

On the coast of Madagascar, land and sea breezes prevail ; the 
former being very light and lasting from about midnight till noon . 
the sea breeze generally sets in during the afternoon, increasing in 
force till sunset, when it subsides and gradually dies away towards 
midnight, followed by the land wind. In the evening, within 
20 miles of the coast, lightning and thick banks of clouds are 
common, having a threatening appearance, but generally harmless. 

At the Comoro islands the south-west monsoon sets in about the 
middle of March, when heavy squalls from the westward and much 
rain may be expected ; thence the monsoon forces its way up the 
African coast. 

Calms. — During the northerly monsoon the frequency of calms i» 
about 25 per cent,, and in the southerly monsoon 10. In November 
they are most prevalent, being about three times as many as in June» 
The Madagascar coast is most subject to them. 



Chap. I.] WINDS AND WEATHER.— CYCLONES. 23 

Gales. — The Mozambique channel is subjected at times to hard 
gales and severe weather, independent of an occasional cyclone 
These gales generally occur in the north-east monsoon period, and 
mostly begin with the monsoon freshening to a force of 6 to 7 ; 
it then slackens, with a steady barometer, the wind then shifts 
rapidly through west and then sets in as a violent gale from South to 
S.W. ; occasionally the wind shifts through east. At times, also, the 
steep gradients are to the eastward, when the northerly wind will 
remain steady in direction but increases to a violent gale. The 
approach of these gales is generally foretold by a threatening sky to 
the westward, with lightning. Sometimes these gales occur after 
several days calm. 

Cyclones. — The Indian ocean cyclones, which at times do so 
much damage in the vicinity of Mauritius, between the months of 
December and April, are usually intercepted by Madagascar before 
reaching the Mozambique channel, but occasionally one passes 
northward of the island into the Mozambique. One of these, the last 
recorded, crossed the Mozambique channel on January 28th-30th, 
1887, in a westerly direction from northward of cape St. Andrew, 
its centre passing over the Castle Line s.s. Gourland in lat. 20° S., 
long. 37° E., about 50 miles southward of the Zambezi. This 
vessel experienced strong S.S.E. winds when proceeding up the 
coast from Delagoa bay, with violent squalls, a constantly increasing 
sea and falling barometer ; eventually she was compelled to head 
the terrific sea, when the centre passed over her. The only notice- 
able feature in an almost uniformly overcast sky — over which the 
drift scudded furiously — was a peculiar leaden blue in the zenith ; 
there was no heavy solid banking up of clouds, and very little 
thunder and lightning ; but the rain was heavy and continuous. The 
barometer, however, proved a true friend, and fell from 29*61 at 
noon 29th, to 28'98 at 8 p.m. on 30th, at which time the centre 
pa8.sed over the ship, and the stars became visible overhead. The 
cyclone, blowing from northward on the coast of Madagascar, caused 
an extraordinary high tide and considerable sea at Mourandava, 
threatening the destruction of the houses, which hitherto had been 
considered far above the reach of the sea. 

Cyclones have occurred towards the latter end of January in 
Mozambique harbour in former years, notably in the years 1841-2-3^ 
see page 300, and that place was visited by a severe one on the 1st 
and 2nd of April 1858, during which several vessels were driven 
from their anchors in the harbour, and much damage was done. 



24 



EAST COAST OF AFRICA. 



[Chap. I. 



The relative frequency of cyclones in the South Indian ocean for 
the 35 years ending 1885, for the several months, are as follows : — 

For full details, with yearly and monthly charts showing the 
tracks of these storms, see "Cyclone tracks in the South Indian 
ocean," from information compiled by Dr. Meldrum, C.M.G., F.R.S., 
published under the authority of the Meteorological Council, 1891. 



(Month. 



Progressive Storms. Stationary Storms. 



Totals. 



Total. 



j I station- 

Frequency. Total. I Frequency. ] '^^^j.^"* 
1 I j gressive. 



Frequency. 



October ... 

November 

December 

January ... 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July ... 

August ... 

September 



2 

12 

23 

52 

55 

40 

26 

8 

1 

1 







1 in 18 years. 

1 „ 3 „ 

2 „ 3 „ 

3 „ 2 ,. 
** >? 3 „ 

4 „ 3 „ 
3 )j 4 ,, 
2 „ 9 „ 
1 „ 35 „ 
1 „ 35 „ 



3 
13 
10 
19 



19 
24 
11 

2 

1 



in 12 years. 


5 


., 3 


)! 


25 


„ 7 


!) 


33 


„ 2 


!) 


71 


„ 6 


15 


fil 


„ 2 


)! 


59 


„ 3 


» 


50 


„ 3 


t) 


19 


„ 18 


)) 


3 


„ 35 


» 


2 


— 




— 


— 




— 



1 in 7 years. 

'^ )i ' j> 

1„ 1 » 

•^' » ■'■ )) 

)j 3 „ 
5 )> 3 „ 
3 )> 2 „ 
1» 2 ,. 

1 „ 12 „ 
1 „ 18 „ 



EAST COAST OF AFRICA NORTH OF CAPE DELGADO.* 

On this part of the coast, and in the ocean to the eastward, 
the winds consist of the monsoons known as North-east and 
South-west. 

The north-east monsoon commences in the Arabian sea about 
the middle of October, but does not at times reach the coast of Africa 
and Zanzibar until the middle or end of November ; the changes 
which may occupy a fortnight or more, is accompanied by shifts of 
winds, calms, squalls of rain and obscured sky. Occasionally the 
north-east monsoon is so light that many dhows from Arabia fail to 
reach Zanzibar, and have to put into Mombasa. 

From cape Delgado to the equator, during the months of February 
and March, although part of the northerly monsoon period, winds 



See also Weather Tables, p p. 593- 599. 



•Chap. I.] WINDS AND WEATHER. 25 

prevail from E.N.E. to E.S.E. At this season, therefore, it is 
practicable for dhows to make their way thus far northward. The 
weather hereabout during these months is fine, with occasional 
showers and sometimes thunder and lightning, but no heavy 
squalls. 

The SOUtll-west monsoon. — After an interval of calms and 
light winds, the south-west monsoon sets in, reaching Zanzibar some 
time in March, Ras Asir about the end of April, and Bombay about 
the first w^eek in June. Southward and eastward of Sokotra it 
attains its full force in June and continues until September, blowing 
stronger and steadier, and accompanied by a heavier sea at a distance 
from the land than near it. On the east coast of Africa it blows 
"very strong from about S.S.W. following the land, and continues 
with full force through the channel between Sokotra and Ras Asir. 
In May it has been observed to be influenced by land and sea breezes 
near Ras Asir, the wind hanging a great deal to the southward and 
eastward, with heavy squalls, rain, and overcast sky. 

Off Zanzibar and to the southward as far as cape Delgado the 
;So-called south-west monsoon blows from S.S.E., hauling south and 
S.S.W. as it approaches the land. 

The winds from 20 to 40 miles from the coast of Africa have 
been observed in the south-west monsoon, for a period extending over 
many passages of the B. I. S. N« Co.'s vessels, as follows : — 

Zanzibar to 4° N. 

May, June, July — Strong S.E. — S. — S.S.W., rain. August — Light 
to moderate. September — Light S.S.E. — South. October — Light, 
southerly. 

From 4° N. to Ras Ha/an. 

May — Light, variable, squalls, and rain. June — Strong wind, 
increasing, S.S.W. July, August — Moderate gale, S.S.W. Septem- 
ber — Strong wind, S.S.W. October — Light winds, calm, N.E. to 
East, rain. 

Mas Hafun to Ras Asir. 

May — Light variable winds. June, July, August — Strong gale, 
B.S.W. September — Strong wind, S.S.W. October — Light from 
East to N.E. 

A cyclone, the only one on record, occurred at Zanzibar, com- 
mencing at 9h. p.m., on the 14th April 1872, blowing strong from 
S.S.W., accompanied by rain ; it increased in force and backed to 



26 CAPE COLONY AND NATAL. [Chap. I. 

South till about Ih. 30m, p.m. of the 15th, when it suddenly became- 
calm, the barometer having fallen 0'9 inches below the normal height.. 
At 2h. 15m. p.m. the barometer commenced to rise, and the cyclone 
burst upon the town and harbour from the opposite quarter N.N.E.,. 
backing by North to W.N.W., where it settled, but moderated con- 
siderably between 4h. and 8h. p.m. One English steamer alone did 
not part her cables ; all the other vessels in the harbour, including 
several vessels of war belonging to the Sultan, and numerous native 
vessels were driven ashore and wrecked. 

On the island of Zanzibar, the cylone swept over the island and 
destroyed all in its path, but leaving the southern part uninjured^ 
See remarks on cyclones, pp. 23, 24. 

barometp::r.* 

The average range of the barometer in the higher latitudes between 
50" and 60° is about 1*5 inches, but on extraordinary occasions ranges 
of 2*75 and 3*0 inches have bean recorded. 

In the track of outward bound vessels round the Cape, on the 
parallel of 40° S., the average height of the barometer is 29*9 inches,, 
being about 0*15 higher in winter than in summer ; it is higher 
towards the coast and lower towards the pole. The mean reading 
at Cape Town is 30*07, and at Durban 30'10 ; this, however, gives but 
an imperfect representation of the pressure in a district through 
which the areas of high and low pressure are constantly moving 
eastward, accompanied by their respective systems of wind. 

In the intertropical regions the range varies from 0*4 to 0*2 inches^ 
and in the neighbourhood of the equator it seldom exceeds 0*15 
inches, this small change being in great measure due to the regular 
diurnal variation. The average movement of the barometer within 
the tropics being thus confined within small limits, any interruption 
of the law may be deemed a warning of the approach of bad 
weather. The mean reading at Mozambique is 30*05 ; Zanzibar, 30*0, 
and Ras Asir 29*9 inches. During the S.W. monsoon period, at 
Mozambique it is 0*5 higher, and at Ras Asir *10 lower ; Zanzibar 
varies but little. 

The fall of the barometer in and near cyclonic disturbances ranges 
from 1*0 to 2*5 inches ; the rapidity of the fall and the depression of 
the mercury increases as the centre of the storm approaches. 

* See also the diagrams of Lines of Equal Pressure and Lines of Equal 
Temperature in " Wind and Current Atlas for Pacific, Indian ocean, &c." 



Chap. I.] CLIMATE AND RAIMPALL. 27 

In the southern hemisphere the effect of the shifting of the wind 
on the barometer is according to the following law : — 
"With East, N.E., and North winds the barometer falls. 

„ N.W. winds the barometer ceases to fall, and begins to rise. 

„ West, S.W., and South winds the barometer rises. 

„ S.E. winds the barometer ceases to rise, and begins to fall. 

In the northern hemisphere the effect of the veering of the wind 
on the barometer is according to the following law : — 

With East, S.E., and South winds the barometer falls. 

„ S.W. winds the barometer ceases to fall, and begins to rise^ 

„ West, N.W., and North winds the barometer rises. 

„ N.E. winds the barometer ceases to rise, and begins to falL 

CLIMATE AND RAINFALL.* 

CAPE COLONY AND NATAL.— The cape possesses a healthy 
climate, which is doubtless attributable to the uniformity of tem- 
perature ; it is much favoured by Europeans suffering from pulmonary 
complaints. The mean temperature at Cape Town is about 76^ in 
February, and 59° in July. The summer may be said to commence 
in November, and continue until April. 

The Colony of Natal, though nearer the tropics, is extremely 
healthy ; the summer heat being greatly tempered by clouds and 
rain, whereas in winter the sky is usually cloudless. The steppes 
rise from sea level to an altitude of 12,000 feet in a distance of little 
more than a hundred miles. The various climates of these steppes 
are clearly defined, thereby rendering the Colony one of the finest of 
health resorts. At Pietermaritzberg, the capital, 2,218 feet, the 
average yearly temperature is about 6i°. At rare intervals it rises 
to 98°, while in winter it sometimes falls as low as 28°. At Durban 
the average is 69^°, and the extremes 98° and 42°. The average daily 
range does not, however, exceed 20°. In the winter months frost is 
sometimes seen on the coast lands, even at the sea level. Snow 
storms occur yearly in the uplands, and snow-clad peaks are not 
uncommon on the Drakensberg. Thunder and hailstorms are of 
frequent occurrence in Natal in summer, October to April, the wet 
season. 

• For temperature of the air and sea at various places, if not fonnd here nor in 
the body of the work, the reader is referred to the diagrams in the Wind and Current 
Atlas. 



28 EAST COAST OF AFRICA. [Chap. I. 

The Rainy Season in the western portion of Cape Colony, as 
far eastward as Cape St. Francis, is during the winter (the rains being 
brought by the westerly winds from the South Atlantic), June being 
the wettest month ; but there is still a fair proportion of fine weather 
during that month. Smart showers begin about March, increasing 
gradually up to June, thence decreasing in like proportion until 
October. December and January are dry months. The rainy season 
in the eastern portion of Cape Colony, eastward of cape St. Francis 
and Natal, is during the opposite or summer season, the rain being 
brought by the easterly winds from the Indian Ocean. The neigh- 
bourhood of cape St. Francis, lying between the regions watered by 
nvinter rains on the west, and summer rains on the east, has rain 
nearly equally distributed throughout the year, though the greatest 
quantity falls at Port Elizabeth between July and December. 

The average rainfall is as follows : — Cape Town, 23 inches ; 
Mossel bay, 14 inches ; Port Elizabeth, 22 inches ; coast lands of 
Natal, 45 inches. The fall is considerably less generally, inland, as 
.•at Worcester, 50 miles from Cape Town, it is but 14 ; the same 
distance inland from Mossel bay, 8 inches. 

At Durban, in Natal, the annual rainfall amounts to about 
40 inches (38-4 inches for the year 1892, 71-2 inches for 1893, and 
.37"3 inches for 1894), and at Maritzburg, 50 miles inland from 
Durban, it is about 38 inches. The average number of days in 
which rain falls at Durban is Gl, and at Maritzburg 58. An average 
•of about 5 inches falls every summer month, and 2 inches in every 
winter month. For this reason the summer is called the wet 
season, and the winter the dry. 

PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA.-Delagoa bay to cape 
Delgado. — Nearly the whole of this coast consists of marshy land, 
and the large rivers during floods bring down immense quantities of 
decaying vegetable matter, particularly in Delagoa bay, and the delta 
of the Zambesi. The heavy rains which succeed great heat, the 
nightly dews and the exhalations produced by a powerful sun, all 
constitute natural causes which tend to the insalubrity of this coast. 
Innamban is considered to be the least unhealthy of the Portuguese 
stations, the temperature there being as low as 62° in July ; but from 
November to May fevers should be specially guarded against. The 
best precautions are temperate living and non-exposure to the hot sun. 

In the neighbourhood of Delagoa bay the rainy season is from 
September to March, or April ; none in the winter ; see Table, p. 593. 
The Gaza country between High Transvaal and Matabele Kafir land 
is rainless. 



Chap. I.] CLIMATE AND RAINFALL. 2^ 

From the Limpopo to the Zambesi the rainy season is from 
November to April. The valley of the Zambesi is reached by the- 
lesser rains late in October, w hen the sun is passing south ; these 
diminish in December, and are heaviest from January to the end of" 
March or middle of April, when the sun is passing northward again ; 
the river soon begins to fall and is then most unhealthy. Near Ibo,. 
however, the most unhealthy time is said to be from January to 
March, during the heavy rains. 

At Mozambique harbour the rainy season is from November to 
March, or later ; between Mozambique and lake Nyasa from 
November to May. 

CAPE DELGADO TO RAS ASIR.— The climate has a bad 
reputation, but although there is undoubtedly much of a severe and 
sometimes fatal type of fever, its ordinary virulence and effects have 
been somewhat exaggerated. Europeans should, if possible, avoid 
being on shore at night until they are acclimatized, and especially so 
when they are in the vicinity of rivers. 

The worst season for white people is from February to May, but 
the blacks seem to suffer more in July and August. 

July, August, and September are the coolest months, the thermo- 
meter on board ship ranging by day from 77° to 81°, and by night it 
occasionally falls to 73°. During January, February, and March, the 
hottest months, the day range is from 83° to 90°, and at night the 
temperature falls below 80°. 

The Masika, or heavy rains, is ushered in by the south-west 
monsoon, with squalls, about the end of March, and last until the 
end of May ; the Mcho are occasional showers which fall through a 
month or six weeks in June and July ; the Vuli, or lesser rains, 
continue for three or four weeks from the latter part of September 
nearly through October. The yearly amount, perhaps, averages 
150 inches, but the quantity, as well as the seasons are exceedingly 
irregular. 

On the coast about Mombasa, the seasons are remarkably regular, 
the heavy rains are from end of March through June ; after a pause, 
followed by the Mcho in July ; August and September are dry ; 
in October and November the lesser rains fall ; then the dry season 
comes, November to April, when the sun blazes furiously, calling up 
a deadly haze, giving the country a dreary aspect, but after the first 
(all of the Masika all is life again. See Weather Table, p. 599. 



30 SOUTH COAST OF AFRICA. [Chap. I. 

At the equator, near the coast, the lesser rains fail altogether, but 
the sky at that time is often heavily clouded. In March west winds 
begin to blow, and land and sea breezes alternate, the south-west 
monsoon then sets in with heavy squalls and rain. The climate at 
Brawa and neighbourhood is reported to be healthy. From the 
•equator to Ras Asir the rainy season is the same, from end of March 
to the end of June, and to July in the interior. The remaining 
months are dry, and the Juba river sinks rapidlj- towards the end of 
iSeptember. From Ras Asir, westward, rain also falls from November 
to February. 

CURRENTS. 

GENERAL REMARKS.— The currents on the south and east 
'Coasts of Africa are formed by the great trade drift of the South 
Indian ocean, which, advancing westward, and meeting with 
resistance from the island of Madagascar, begins to split near the 
islands of Mauritius and Bourbon ; one portion passes northward of 
Madagascar and strikes the African coast near and northward of 
-cape Delgado, between lat. 11° and 10° S., depending on the 
monsoon, being at its northern limit during the north-east monsoon 
period ; here it again splits, one portion flowing southward through 
the Mozambique channel along the coast, past cape Corrientes and 
■on to Natal. The southern portion of the main drift passes south- 
ward of Mauritius, thence southward of Madagascar and direct for 
Natal, uniting with the stream from the Mozambique, the two 
together forming the great Agulhas current. 

The northern branch of the current, which divides near cape 
Delgado, flows northward past Zanzibar, and thence to Ras Asir 
•during the south-west monsoon ; during the north-east monsoon it is 
deflected from the land to the eastward before reaching the equator. 
The main currents will now be described In detail. The currents 
which prevail off the various ports are mentioned with the description 
of the ports. 

THE AGULHAS CURRENT is formed by the two streams 
meeting, as before mentioned, north-eastward of Natal, in about 
lat. 28° 30' S., long. 35° E. ; these form an enormous body of warm 
water, which runs to the south-west and westward, skirting the coast 
■of Africa at from 3 to about 120 miles off, and attaining considerable 
velocity between port Natal and the meridian of about 23° E., at times 
running from 3 to 4| miles an hour, its greatest strength being near 
the edge of the bank. 

ike Monthly Current charts for Indian ocean. 



Chap. I.] CURBENTS. 31 

The current in its progress to the south-west becomes weaker, and 
•on reaching the Agulhas bank, does not, as a rule, run over the bank, 
but follows its contour or edge with a tendency to branch off, and in 
long, about 22° E., the main body is deflected to the southward as far 
.as the parallel of 40° S., whence a large part, being opposed by the 
north-easterly set from the Antarctic, recurves to the eastward, thus 
flowing back into the Indian ocean, but with diminished strength 
and temperature. 

It has generally been considered that in the summer season 
(January-March) the Agalhas current attains its maximum strength 
and volume, and in the winter season (July-September) that it 
diminishes in force and extent, but from recent investigations it is 
<;onsidered that the current does not vary much in strength and 
direction throughout the year. The velocity of the current is said 
to be checked at times by westerly gales, and to run with increased 
strength afterwards, but it usually runs in the teeth of the gale, 
■causing a dangerous high sea, especially near the south-east edge of 
the bank. 

A small portion of the Agulhas current passes round and over the 
southern part of Agulhas bank, and branching off to the north-west, 
past the Cape of Good Hope, is joined by the connecting current of 
the South Atlantic ocean, collectively forming a wide stream running 
northward along the coast, at the rate of one or 1^ miles an hour, 
with a tendency towards the coast at times, which must be guarded 
against. This warm water seldom reaches into Table bay, the water 
there being much colder than Simons bay. The sea temperature in 
the latter is from 62° to 64° in November ; this warm water during 
long north-west gales is occasionally driven out and replaced by 
water from the South Atlantic, at a temperature of about 50°, with a 
counter easterly set. At such times the northern branch of the 
Agulhas is probably deflected to the southward with the main 
portion of the current. 

The range of sea temperature near the land is greatest in January 
and February, reaching 20°. In August, September, and October 
the range is less than 15°. The area in which the range amount to 
15° is greatest in April. Off Natal the average temperature is 73°, 
and off the south-east edge of Agulhas bank 67°. In the neighbour- 
hood of 40° S., where the warm and cold currents meet, the 20° 
range of temperature exists throughout the year. It is rather larger 
in the winter and spring than in the summer and autumn months.* 

* See the Admiralty Wind and Current charts, with Temperature charts. 



32 SOUTH AND EAST COASTS OP AFRICA. [Chap. I.. 

Caution.— Inner edge of the Agulhas.— Although the 

southern edge of the Agulhas current has a tendency to set from the 
land, the northern edge on the contrary has a tendency to set towards 
the land, more especially to the westward of Algoa bay, where 
during and after south-east, westerly, and north-westerly gales, the- 
current is at times deflected from its general course and turned 
directly towards the land, causing a very dangerous element in the 
navigation of the south-east coast of Africa, if disregarded and not 
allowed for. 

From this cause a large number of valuable vessels have been 
wrecked, more especially between Algoa bay and cape Agulhas, and 
the necessity of guarding against these insiduous dangers cannot be 
too strongly impressed on those in charge of vessels proceeding 
along this coast. See Inshore counter current, mentioned below,^ 
also p. 88. 

Agulhas Counter Current. — The remarkable recurving of the 
main body of the Agulhas current is due to the action of a polar or 
cold water current flowing from the south-west ; the junction of the 
hot and cold waters of the two streams notably taking place ofE the 
Agulhas bank, giving rise to the confused sea, the irregular set of the 
currents, and by their efl'ect on the atmosphere to those severe and 
fitful gales so well known to seamen rounding the Cape of Good 
Hope. The meeting of these currents is frequently denoted by 
a broken, confused, and heaped up sea, the warm current is also 
indicated by a marked change in the colour of the water, which,, 
combined with the agitation of the sea, frequently conveys the im- 
pression that the vessel is in soundings. 

The large body of water deflected and turned to the eastward runs 
chiefly between the parallels of 37° and 40° S., and though its strength 
is variable its average rate may be about 1\ miles an hour. It is 
rather stronger and more northerly in the summer than in the 
winter, owing probably in some degree to the melting of the ice in 
high southern latitudes, and to the smaller amount of westerly winds 
experienced to the northward of 40° S. in summer. It becomes more 
extensive than the Agulhas current and to the eastward of the 
meridian of 28° E., it is traced northward to about latitude 36° S.. 
A current of 3 miles an hour has been experienced in latitude 39° S. 

Inshore Counter Current. — Near the land, between the 
capes Hangklip and Agulhas, the current occasionally sets in an E.S.E. 
direction, or dangerously towards the land, at a rate of over 



Chap. I.] CURRENTS. 33 

one mile an hour ; many vesRels have been lost here by not allowing 
for this possible set and thus keeping a sufficient offing. 

Between cape Agulhas and Kowie river (longitude 27° E.), an inshore 
current setting eastward at about the same rate is also frequently 
experienced in fine weather, and except off the mouths of the rivers, 
it follows the trend of the land, and is said to extend from one to 6 
miles off-shore. See caution on pages 32 and 88. 

MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL.— As previously stated (page 30), 
the northern branch of the Indian ocean trade- drift splits in the neigh- 
bourhood of cape Delgado, about latitude 11° S. ; ranging as far north 
as 10° S. during the north-east monsoon period. The portion of this 
branch which turns to the southward along the Mozambique coast, 
averages 2 miles an hour, increasing at times during the strength of 
the northerly monsoon to 3 to 4 miles, and decreasing during the 
southerly monsoon period to about one to 2 miles, and at times during 
its strength to nothing. This main stream lies between the coast 
reefs and a distance of 50 to 80 miles from the land, beyond which 
a counter or variable current will generally be experienced. Off 
Mozambique the current has been known to set S.E. by E. 4 miles 
an hour, and 60 miles to the southward N.N.W. and W.N.W., from 
one to 2\ miles, and as before stated, at times it is nil ; so that 
repeated observations for position are necessary as well as a careful 
estimation for the strength of the current likely caused by the pre- 
vailing monsoon. Between the Comoro islands and the outer edge 
of the southerly coast current, and thence southward until past the 
narrow part of the Mozambique channel, there is no dependence to be 
placed on the direction or force of the current — it may run 3 miles 
an hour one way, and at times as much another. 

In the vicinity of the Comoro islands the current generally runs 
to the westward, but a little to the southward o* the islands there is 
frequently a counter current setting to the eastward. Northward 
of the Comoro islands a north-westerly current of one of 1^ miles 
an hour is generally found. 

The current apparently sets north-westward from the south 
extreme of Madagascar, between the months of May and August 
(the strength of the southerly monsoon) as far west as 40° E., 
up past Europa island and northward along the African coast, but 
it is not to be depended on. 

In the middle of Mozambique channel, southward of lat. 18° S., 
there is more often a northerly than a southerly current, the wind 
being generally from the southward. In the vicinity of Europa 
A H977 C 



M EAST COAST OF AFRICA. [Chap. I. 

island, in November, it has been found setting north-westward 
from 2 to 2^ miles an horn-, causing strong tide rips. As the rate 
and direction of these currents may not be the same for two con- 
secutive days, frequent observations for the vessel's position are 
imperative, especially when in the vicinity of Europa island where 
the current is very variable. 

The current setting westward, north of Madagascar, averages 2 miles 
an hour, not unfrequently 3 miles, but this strength does not extend 
more than 50 miles northward of cape Amber. 

Near the north-west coast of Madagascar there is generally a north- 
easterly counter-set of about one mile an hour, but more in the offing 
the current is not to bo depended on, especially during the northerly 
monsoons period. Off Cape St. Andrew the current often sets 
strongly to the westward.* 

Between Innamban and Sof ala, on the African coast, there is often 
a counter current for a considerable distance off-shore, especially 
towards Sofala ; in May, a rate of 35 miles a day has been recorded. 

EAST AFRICA COAST CURRENT— The velocity of the 
northern portion of the northern branch of the Indian ocean trade 
drift, which splits near cape Delgado, is much influenced by the 
monsoons ; its average rate may be taken at 2 miles an hour, but during 
the south-west monsoon it runs past Mafia, Latham, Zanzibar, and 
Pemba islands and channels at from 2 to 4 miles an hour, and in the 
north-east monsoon from one to 2 miles an hour, as far as about 
lat. 2° S. 

During: the south-west monsoon period the whole mass of 
water continues north-eastward along the coast, across the equator, on 
to Ras Asir and Sokotra, at the rate of from 36 to 100 miles a day ; the 
greater rate has been experienced on the equator near the coast, and 
also near Ras Haf lin and Ras Asir during the strength of the monsoon. 
The current becomes weaker as the distance from the shore is 
increased ; on the equator, in from 48° to 52° E,, or about 300 miles 
from the land, there appears to be little or no current. 

Also, the northerly current has been found and lost at about 
100 miles eastward of Zanzibar ; in the early part of August, it was 
found setting but little to the northward of West, t7'ue, and continued 
so with little variation at the rate of one to 2 miles an hour until 



• The currents on the coasts of Madagascar will be found more fully described in 
the Sailing Directions for Islands in the Southern Indian Ocean, &c. ; aec also 
Monthly Current charts of the Indian ocean. 



Chap. I.] CURRENTS. 35 

to the northward of lat. 6° S., in long. 49° E., from whence to the 
Seychelles to the northward of that parallel an easterly set of about 
three-quarters of a mile an hour was experienced. 

Southward of Sokotra, at a distance of about 150 miles, is a great 
whirl of current, caused possibly by the interposition of the island ; 
or, it may be, that shoaler water exists at this spot ; it commences 
about the parallel of Ras Haf lin, when the current strikes off to the 
eastward to the 55th meridian, then to the southward, to the 6th 
parallel, whence it again curves to the north-eastward, through west, 
forming a complete whirl. At the northern limit the velocity is 
about 4 miles per hour, while at its southern extreme it is only 
about one mile per hour. A very heavy confused sea is created by 
this whirl. Care should be taken to avoid the strongest portion of 
the current in making the coast of Africa from the eastward, by 
keeping well to the southward. 

Although the strength of this current along the coast may be less 
near the close of the south-west monsoon, and at other periods 
capricious, yet it is occasionally felt strong as far as the parallel of 
4° N. up to the first week in December ; but as the time of the 
change of monsoon varies, so at other periods the current may set to 
the southward a month or more earlier, and thus no dependence can 
be placed on the exact time of change. 

During the nortli-east monsoon period, this northerly set 
from cape Delgado meets the southerly set from the Arabian sea 
and Sokotra, between Lamu and Castle point (lat, l^°to 2^°S.), the two 
producing an off- set from the land. In the otfing the southerly set 
continues, gradually curving to the eastward, and forming the 
easterly set to the Seychelles in the track of the north-west 
monsoon. 

The meeting, however, of the two currents in the vicinity of Castle 
point (as at cape Delgado) must be accepted with considerable 
limitation, as it probabl}' varies with the season, extending south- 
ward according to the strength of the north-east monsoon, the full 
force of which is between December and March. 

During the month of February 1891, the southerly set of the 
current along the coast was experienced by several vessels, con- 
siderably southward of Lamu. The north-east monsoon was 
unusually strong. 

Although the current in the Arabian sea sets to the south-west 
from about the middle of October, it does not reach Mogdishu, on the 
A 11977 2 



36 PASSAGES. [Chap. I. 

African coast, until about the second week in December ; it is said to 
begin to run off that place almost invariably with bad weather from 
the north-east ; at a distance from the land it sets to the south-west 
a month earlier. It is also stated that the south-westerly current 
does not continue for a longer period than about three months, its 
strength generally being from one to 2 knots an hour. 

PASSAGES FROM THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO AND 
FROM PORTS IN EAST AFRICA AND INDIA. 

GENERAL REMARKS.— There is little difficulty in passing 
eastward round the Cape of Good Ho])e at any period of the year, 
though a greater proportion of gales will be met with in the winter 
season (April to September). 

From the South Atlantic, or from the Cape, vessels are recom- 
mended to cross the meridian of 20° E., in from lat. 39° to 40° S. Vessels 
may make quicker passages by going farther south (lat. 42° to 44°, 
especially from November to March), but better weather will, as a 
rule, be found on or about the parallel recommended. Should a 
south-easterly wind be blowing on leaving Table or Simons bays, 
stand boldly to the south-westward until the westerlies are reached, 
or the wind changes to a more favourable direction. In all cases 
where vessels are making for the 40th parallel south of the Cape, 
they should steer nothing eastward of South, so as to avoid the area 
to the south-east of the tail of Agulhas bank, where gales and heavy 
cross seas prevail. See page 18. The amount of easting required to 
be made depends on the prevailing monsoon in the Indian ocean, 
for which, see the passage required. 

From October to April easterly winds prevail as far south as the 
tail of Agulhas bank (about 37° S.), with variable winds, principally 
westerly, beyond it. In the months of May and September, at the 
tail of the bank, easterly and westerly winds are in equal proportion, 
but between these months westerly winds prevail, extending 
sometimes close into the coast. 

June to August, inclusive, are therefore the worst months, and 
January and February the best months for proceeding westward 
round the Cape. It should be borne in mind that there is much less 
sea on the Agulhas bank, in from 60 to 70 fathoms or less, during 
heavy gales, than there is near its edge and southward of it. 
If it be found necessary to heave to, the port tack should be 
chosen, as (with the exception of south-east gales beginning 



Chap. I.] EASTWARD PROM THE CAPE OP GOOD HOPE. 37 

■with south-east winds) the shift of wind is almost invariably 
against the hands of a watch, and the vessel will come up to the sea. 
See page 19, on south-east gales. 

Caution. — Mariners should remember that off all parts of the 
south coast of Africa, and especially off salient points, sunken 
wrecks or uncharted dangers may exist close to the coast ; and that 
it is not advisable to approach this surf -beaten shore, even in full- 
powered steam-vessels, within 3 or 4 miles. Sailing vessels should 
give cape Agulhas a berth of 7 or 8 miles. When a strong adverse 
current prevails the temptation to approach the shore is great, but 
west of Algoa bay there is nothing to be gained by so doing, while 
a risk is run (in case of a breakdown in the machinery or any 
temporary error in the course) of total wreck before any efforts can 
be made to avoid such a catastrophe. 

OUTWARD (EASTWARD) ROUTES.— FULL-POWERED 
STEAM VESSELS.* 

Mail steamers and similar full-powered steam vessels leaving 
the Cape for ports in the Cape Colony or east coast of Africa, take 
the direct route in-shore, thus avoiding the strength of the Agulhas 
current, and being sometimes assisted by a counter current, extending 
from one to 6 miles off-shore, particularly between cape Agulhas and 
Kowie river ; also between Natal and cape St. Lucia, and Kosi river 
and Delagoa bay, there is, as a rule, no current within 3 miles of 
the shore. The dangerous set eastward, towards the land, some- 
times experienced between capes Hangklip and Agulhas, and also 
the dangerous set of the northern edge of the Agulhas current, north- 
westward towards the land, during and after gales, in the vicinity 
and westward of Algoa bay, must be particularly guarded against. 
{See Caution above). From Algoa bay, if not wishing to hug the shore, 
a vessel might push 100 miles to the eastward, where the current is 
weak, thence parallel to the shore until abreast Natal, if bound 
there. Also north-eastward of Natal, if not desirous of hugging the 
shore, a vessel might push eastward nearly to the meridian of 
Europa island, whence probably she will meet with a favourable 
current and a southerly wind, carrying her past that island, and to 
the Comoro islands, eastward of the Mozambique current. On 
account of the uncertain set of the currents in the Mozambique 

• bee Admiralty chaxt of the World, No. 1,077, showing the tracks followed by 
full-powered steam vessels, and '' Ocean Passages,'.' mi>ti." 



38 PASSAGES. [Chap. I. 

channel, frequent observations for ascertaining the position of the 
vessel are imperative. Northward of cape Delgado the current is 
favourable near the coast. 

Zanzibar to Aden, during north-east monsoon, the coast should be 
avoided northward of 2° S., on account of the strong adverse current. 
Mail steamers steer E.N.E. until about 120 miles from the land, then 
parallel to it until in lat. 6° N., thence to Ras A sir. 

VESSELS WITH SAIL AND AUXILIARY STEAM POWER.* 

CAPE to NATAL.— From April to October, inclusive, the 
prevailing winds are westerly, when all classes of steam vessels may 
make the passage near the coast, being sometimes favoured by a 
counter current ; but guarding against in -draught, as before mentioned, 
at page 32. See caution, p. 37. 

From October to April, when the prevailing winds near the 
coast are easterly, vessels must first make southing from the Cape, 
crossing the meridian of 20° E. in from 39° to 40° S., depending on 
the parallel on which a steady fair wind is picked up (in January 
the permanent westerly winds are not usually northward of 40° S.) ; 
thence eastward, crossing the meridian of 30° E. in about 39° S., 
and the meridian of 36° E. in 36° S., from whence, if the vessel 
will head N.E. by N with steam and sail, she may do so, striking 
the parallel of Natal in about 34° E. ; thence westward to Natal, 
making ample allowance for crossing the Agulhas current, which 
will be found setting south-westward from 1^ to 3 miles an 
hour. If the vessel will not head N.E. by N. from the position 
mentioned, more easting should be made before turning towards 
the port. 

CAPE to MOZAMBIQUE and ZANZIBAR.— April to 
October. — Along the coast as far as Natal, and beyond if the winds 
remain favourable. Moderate-powered vessels might get up in-shore 
in the same way as those of full-power, but those under considera- 
tion, when they meet with adverse north-easterly winds, and are 
making but little progress in-shore, should stand away south- 
eastward, endeavouring to cross lat. 30° S. (the parallel of Natal) in 
about 42° E. ; here they will probably be within the influence of 
the south-east trade winds ; thence the course is nearly due North, 

* See Admiralty Chart of the World, showingr tracks followed by vessels with sail 
and auxiliary steam power, No! 1,078, and " Ocean Passages," 1896. 



Chap. I,] EASTWARD PROM THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 39 

with a favourable wind, preserving the long. 42° E.j passing between 
Europa island and the coast of Madagascar, and close westward 
of Juan de Nova. If bound to Mozambique, it may be steered 
for when abreast, bearing in mind the strong southerly set, 
which may be experienced when nearing the land, of from 2 to 
4 miles an hour. If bound to Zanzibar, continue on from St. Juan 
de Nova, passing close westward of Great Comoro, thence direct to 
Zanzibar, sighting Mafia island to ensure a correct land-fall. North- 
ward of cape Delgado the current will be favourable, and at the rate 
of 2 to 4 miles per hour. See page 42.5 for approaching Zanzibar 
channel. 

October to April. — From the Cape, same route as for Natal as 
far as lat. 36° S., long. 36° E. ; thence continue north-eastward, 
crossing the parallel of 30'' S. in about 42^ E. ; here the vessel will 
probably meet with the south-east trade, and can then proceed as in 
the months of May to September, keeping in about long. 42^ E., and 
passing close westward of Juan de Nova. If bound to Mozambique, 
make the land northward of it, as both wind and current will tend 
to set the vessel southward on nearing the coast. 

If bound to Zanzibar, pass close westward of Great Comoro 
island ; a favourable current will be experienced when northward of 
cape Delgado, and the fore and aft sails will probably stand. See also 
page 425. 

An alternative route to the Comoro island and Zanzibar, and 
perhaps a quicker one for a small-powered vessel, is that eastward of 
Madagascar. Easting should be made in from lat. 39' lo 40° S. 
from off the Cape, to about long. 45° E., thence north-eastward, 
crossing lat. 30° S. in long. 53' E., thence due North with south-east 
trade, passing midway between Madagascar and Reunion, thence to 
sight the north extreme of Madagascar, when the wind and current 
will be favourable to Comoro and Zanzibar. 

CAPE to MAURITIUS.— The route is nearly the same all the 
year round ; make southing from the Cape, cross the meridian of 
20° E. in from 39° to 40° S., thence making easting to 50° E., thence 
north-eastward, crossing the parallel of 30° S. in about 59° E., thence 
direct to Mauritius with the south-east tiade wind. 

CAPE to BOMBAY.— April to October.— If bound to 
Bombay, proceed as for Mozambique ; thence the course may be 

See chart, No. 1,078. 



40 PASSAGES. [Chap. I, 

set direct from the Comoro islands, crossing the equator in 53" E. 
But considerable advantage would be derived by following the 
strength of the current northward from Delgado to the equator, 
crossing it in about 45° E., then parallel to the coast to 4° or 5° N. ; 
thence direct to Bombay, keeping well southward of the heavy sea 
caused by the whirling current southward of Sokotra, which some- 
times extends down to lat. 6° N. 

Or the route to Mauritius may be taken, as above, thence westward 
of Saya da Malha bank, across the equator in 62° E,, thence direct 
to Bombay. 

A route midway between these two may also be taken, passing 
close eastward of the north end of Madagascar. 

October to April. — Make southing from the Cape, crossing 
20° E. in from 39° to 40° S., keeping between these parallels as 
far as long. 60° E., thence north-eastward, crossing lat. 30° S. in 
long, 70° E., and 10° S. in 72° E., passing close eastward of Diego 
Garcia, and crossing the equator in from 76° to 78° E., thence along 
the west coast of Hindustan to Bombay. See West coast of Hindustan 
pilot. 

CAPE to CALCUTTA.— April to October.— Make southing 
from the Cape to 39° or 40° S., thence between these parallels to 
about 62° E., thence north-eastward, crossing the meridian of 80° E. in 
26° S., and 82° E., in 20° S., thence across the equator in about 
82° E., skirting Ceylon, thence to Calcutta. See Bay of Bengal pilot. 

October to April. — Making southing from the Cape, to 39" or 
40° !S., thence eastward between these parallels as far as St. Paul's, or to 
about 80° E., thence north-eastwards, keeping in long. '6'6° E., between 
the parallels of 30° to 10° S. ; thence north-eastward, crossing 
the equator in 93° to 95° E., thence eastward or westward of the Nicobar 
and Andaman islands to Calcutta. A vessel will be in a much better 
position for getting up the bay of Bengal, if, when approaching 
Acheh head, the wind admits of her passing within 100 miles of it, 
thence to windward of the islands mentioned. 

CAPE to SUNDA STRAIT.— April to October.— Eastward 
as for Calcutta, in opposite season, to St. Paul's, or to about 80° E., 
thence to lat. 30° S., long. 100° E., and 20° S. in \i)b^ E., passing 
close westward of Christmas island with the easterly monsoon, to 
Java head. See China Sea Directory, vol. I. 

See chart, No. 1.078. 



Chap. I.] EASTWARD FROM THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 41 

October to April. — Eastward to St. Paul's as before, thence 
north-eastward, crossing lat. SCP S. in long. 95° E., 20° S. in 100° E., 
and 8° S. in 102° E., thence eastward with the westerly monsoon to 
Siinda strait. If contrary winds are met with after passing St. Paul's, 
a vessel may steer at once to the northward, into the westerly 
monsoon, which monsoon will carry her direct to Sunda. 

CAPE to AUSTRALIA.— Make southing from the Cape, 
crossing the meridian of 20° E. in from 39° to 40° S., at all times 
of the year, and continue on or about that parallel to the eastward. 
See Australia Directory, Vol. I. 

CAPE to KERGUELEN, same route as to Australia, but 
shaping direct course for Bligh's cape, near north extreme of 
Kerguelen island, from about long. 45° E. 

CAPE to CROZETS or PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS.— 

Same route as for Australia, but shaping direct course from lat. 40° S., 
long. 20° E. 

NATAL to MAURITIUS.— The route is about the same at all 
seasons, standing south-eastward from Natal, making a circular track 
to about 35° S., and again reaching the parallel of Natal in about the 
meridian of Mauritius, lat. 30° S., long. 58° to 59° E., thence direct in 
the south-east trade. 

MOZAMBIQUE to MAURITIUS.— April to October.— 
The route is southward from Mozambique, near the land, keeping in 
the strength of the Mozambique current as far as cape Corrientes, or 
beyond, into the south-west winds, thence make the best way eastward 
in about the parallel of 30° S., to the meridian of Mauritius, thence 
direct in the south-east trade. 

October to April. — The route is northward from Mozambique, 
passing close westward of Great Comoro and Aldabra islands, 
thence making the best way eastward, passing round the Saya da 
Malha bank, then direct to Mauritius in the south-east trade. The 
current is about one mile an hour adverse to Saya da Malha bank. 
The southern route, before mentioned, may also be taken at this 
season. 

ZANZIBAR to MAURITIUS.— April to October.— From 

Zanzibar the route is midway between the Seychelles and the 
equator, in the south-west monsoon, crossing the meridian of 60° E. 

&m chart, No. 1,078. 



42 PASSAGES. [Chap. T. 

in about 3° S., thence steaming south-eastward into the south-east 
trade to about lat. 5° S., long. 63^ E., whence passing eastward of Saya 
da Malha bank, Mauritius will be fetched on the port tack. See 
passage to Seychelles, below. 

October to April. — Eastward from Zanzibar with north-east 
and north-west monsoons to Saya da Malha bank, passing "north-east- 
ward of it, thence steaming southward into the south-east trade, 
thence direct to Mauritius on the port tack. 

ZANZIBAR to SEYCHELLES.— April to October.— The 

quickest way is to steam a direct course, taking advantage of any 
slight shift of wind to assist with fore and aft sails. During the early 
pai't of August, when the south-east trade blows strongest and reaches 
the African coast, and the current is running strong to the north- 
ward, the passage is somewhat tedious. A small powered vessel 
might stand off on tne starboard tack (as for Mauritius) ; ohould she 
reach north of the equator, she will, when eastward of the Seychelles 
have no difficulty in fetching the islands, owing to the favourable 
current which may be relied on as far south as lat. 4° S., and at times 
even 6^^ S. 

October to April. — Same route as co Aden, see page 44. 

ZANZIBAR to ADEN.— April to October.— In this, the 
south-west monsoon period, all vessels take the direct route, passing 
through Pemba channel and keeping near the African coast the whole 
way to Ras Asir, to get the full benefit of the northerly current which 
runs with a velocity of 60 to 100 miles per day. 

Precautions necessary in rounding" Ras Asir.— As many 
large and valuable vessels have from time to time been wrecked 
with loss of life on the coast to the southward of Ras Asir (cajte 
Gaardafui), the seaman should use the utmost caution when bound 
round this headland from the south or south-eastward, during the 
south-west monsoon, when the weather is stormy, accompanied by a 
heavy sea and strong current, and the land is generally obscured hy 
a thick haze. 

The similarity between the outlines of the headlands of Ras Jard 
Hafiin and Ras Asir is a fertile source of disaster. Ras Jard Hafiin 
is much the higher (2,900 feet), Ras Asir being about 780 feet, and 
separated from Ras Jard Hafun by a broad sandy plain of little 
height compared with the two headlands that bound it. In hazj' 

■See chart, No. 1,078. 



Chap. I.] FROM ZANZIBAR NORTHWARD. 43 

weather at night the steep fall of Jard Haf lin is dimly seen from 
the deck of a vessel, and when this bears southward of West, if Has 
Asir is not sighted, as is often the case from the haze being thicker 
in the lower strata, and also from the light colour of the hill 
rendering it difficult to discern, the navigator fancies he has rounded 
it already, and steers to the westward into the low bay of Wadi 
Tuhom. Clouds and haze often hang about the lower part of this 
coast, and when this occurs the high plateau behind Ras Jard 
Hafiin will generally be the only land visible above them.* 

During day-time, a gradual change will probably be seen in the 
colour of the water from blue to dark green. Attention should also 
be paid to the alteration in the direction of the swell caused by the 
promontory of Ras Hafun ; the water gets smoother and the swell 
alters its direction to the eastward of south, when the meridian of 
that cape is passed. 

It has been stated that the temperature of the sea surface decreases 
considerably as the coast between Ras Hafiin and Ras Asir is 
approached, a sudden rise to a temperature of about 80° taking place 
only to the northward of Ras Asir, and that this rise in temperature 
can be safely taken as an indication that the latter is passed, and that 
the vessel's course can be shaped westward with confidence. 

An examination by the Meteorological Office of a large number of 
observations on temperature! show that this is not the case. While 
it is true that the temperature of the sea north of Ras Asir is 
invariably high, the temperature to the southward, and especially oflP 
Ras Jard Hafiin, is not invariably low, and any action founded on 
the thermometer would, therefore, be most dangerous. 

To ensure safety, when the land cannot be clearly seen and recog- 
nized, especially at night, the lead, and the lead alone, can be relied on. 

As the bank of soundings extends from 10 to 12 miles from the coast, 
the deep-sea lead should be frequently used, and the vessel's course 
altered to N. by E. or N. by E. ^ E., or if necessary more to the eastward, 
immediately soundings are struck, or the land sighted in dark or 
hazy weather. By steering to the northward as above, and by not 
standing into less than 35 fathoms water, the vessel's safety will be 
ensured, and as the water rapidly deepens northward of the parallel 



■* A full description of the land about Ras Asir will be found at pages 557, 558. 
From 1876-1882, seven vessels were wrecked and three stranded in the neighbour- 
hood of Ras Asir ; in Auyfust 1885 the steamer Balviatia was wrecked 15 miles 
southward of it (5 miles southward of Ras Jard Hafiin). See Chart, No. 1,078. 



44 PASSAGES. [Chap. I. 

of the cape, the 100-fathoms line of soundings being only 2^ miles 
from it, there will be no difficulty as to the time when the course 
should be altered to the westward. 

Westward of Ras Asir, the African coast should be kept aboard as 
far as Burnt island ; thence direct to Aden. See Red sea and gulf of 
Aden Pilot. 

October to April. — From Zanzibar to Aden or Seychelles, 
small-powered steam vessels may proceed through Pemba channel to 
take advantage of the favourable northerly current, as far as about 
lat. 3° S., or near Lamu, whence she may gradually steal towards the 
equator, and on to the Seychelles on the port tack. From Seychelles, 
the westerly monsoon will take her, with a leading wind, to the 
equator, which should be crossed in about long. 61° E., thence 
steaming to the northward, the wind will gradually haul through 
north to N.E., enabling the vessel with steam and sail, from lat. about 
6° N., to fetch Ras Asir, thence with a fair wind to Aden. 

ZANZIBAR to BOMBAY.— April to October —North- 
ward through Pemba channel, when course may be shaped direct ; 
but advantage may be taken of the strong coast current as far as 
lat. 4° or 5° N., thence direct to Bombay, keeping well southward of 
the heavy sea caused by the whirling current southward of Sokotra, 
which sometimes extends down to 6° N. 

October to April. — As for Aden, above, to abreast the 
Seychelles, passing on either side ; thence with the westerly mon- 
soon, in about the parallel of 5° S., to long. 70° E. ; from thence, 
north-eastward across the equator in 76° to 78^ E., and northward 
up the west coast of Hindustan to Bombay. See West Coast of 
Hindustan Pilot. 

ZANZIBAR to CALCUTTA.— April to October.— Course 

is direct, passing either southward of the Maldives or through the 
One and a-half degree channel, past Ceylon, and up the west side of 
the bay of Bengal. 

October to April.— Northward through Pemba channel, to 
lat. 3° S., or near Lamu, as for Aden, above, thence on the port 
tack to Seychelles ; thence, with the westerly monsoon ; the parallel 
of 5"^ S. should be kept, until in long. 90° E., crossing the equator 
in 92' to 94° E., thence to Calcutta. 

Seeohaxt^ No. 1,078. 



Chap. I.] WESTWARD TO THE CAPE OP GOOD HOPE. 45i 

PASSAGES FROM THE PORTS IN EAST AFRICA AND 
INDIA TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.— HOMEWARD 
(WESTWARD) ROUTES. 

FULL-POWERED STEAM VESSELS.* 

ZANZIBAR, MOZAMBIQUE, or other East African 
ports, to the Cape of Good Hope. — Full-powered steam vessels 
take the direct route alongshore at all seasons of the year. From near 
cape Delgado, or from lat. 10° to 11° S., the coast current is favour- 
able for the whole distance to the Cape, from one to 3 miles per hour ; 
near Natal at times it amounts to 4 miles per hour. Between 
Algoa bay and Mossel bay the strength of the current lies from 50 
to 100 miles off-shore. June to August are the worst months for 
passing westward round the Cape of Good Hope. See caution in 
general remarks, page 37, 

CALCUTTA and SUNDA STRAIT, to the CAPE.— 

The full-powered steam vessel route is direct to Mauritius, thence 
about 100 miles southward of Madagascar, making the African coast 
about 200 miles southward of Natal ; thence along shore. See 
preceding paragraph. 

BOMBAY to the CAPE. — The route is direct for Mozambique, 
thence down the African coast with the Mozambique and Agulhas 
current, as above. During the height of the south-west monsoon, on 
leaving Bombay, a S.S.W. course should be taken to about 9° N., 
where the wind becomes lighter and the water smoother, thence 
across the equator in about .57° E., close westward of the Seychelles 
to Mozambique, &c. 

ADEN to ZANZIBAR.— During the strength of the south- 
west monsoon, the British India mail steamers make the passage, 
with the assistance of fore and aft sails. From Ras Asir, they keep 
nearly close hauled on the starboard tack to about the meridian 
of 54° E., thence making due South to about 2° N., from whence they 
fetch Lamu, on the port tack. This route avoids heading the heavy 
sea southward of Sokotra, and also the strong north-easterly current 
of 3 to 4 miles an hour, probably found within 50 to 100 miles of 
the coast. Little or no adverse current will be found on the meridian 
of 54° E., southward of lat. 8° N. 

* See ohart, No. 1,077. 



46 PASSAGES. [Chap. I. 

Bound to Zanzibar, continue the due South course as far as the 
equator, crossing it in long. 54° E., thence on the port tack ; the 
distance may be shortened under favourable circumstances of wind 
and weather by crossing the equator farther west. 

VESSELS WITH SAIL AND AUXILIARY STEAM POWER.* 

EAST AFRICAN PORTS to the CAPE.— As for full- 
powered steam vessels, p. 45. 

CALCUTTA to ZANZIBAR.— April to October.— Due 

South from Calcutta, crossing the equator in about long. 90° E., 
thence south-westward across the doldrum space to pick up the 
south-east trade, to probably 5° or 6° S., thence via Diego Garcia 
and the Seychelles with the south-east trade wind to Zanzibar. 

During the height of the south-west monsoon, it might be 
advisable (as in a sailing vessel) to pass eastward of the Andamans 
and Nicobars, thence westward of Acheh head ; the equator will 
scarcely be crossed westward of long. 95° E., but when well in the 
south-east trade, steer to the westward past Diego Garcia and 
Seychelles to Zanzibar. 

October to April, the route is direct. 

BOMBAY and SEYCHELLES to ZANZIBAR.— April 
to October. — Stand on the starboard tack with fore and aft sails, 
about S.S.W. from Bombay ; the monsoon will abate and the sea 
become smoother in about 9° N. ; whence stand away free across the 
equator, crossing in about long. 70° E., or more westward if the wind 
permits, thence southward across the narrow doldrum space to 
about lat. 3° S., whence the south-east trade will carry the vessel to 
Seychelles or Zanzibar, making due allowance for the strong 
northerly current when approaching the latter island. In May, 
before the south-west monsoon has set in at Bombay, a vessel will 
proceed direct until the monsoon is met with, thence on the starboard 
tack into the south-east trade as before stated. During the height of 
the south-west monsoon, it is advisable to run down the coast from 
Bombay, eastward of the Maldive and Laccadive groups, thence 
across the doldrums and proceeding as before. 

October to April. — From Bombay and Seychelles the route to 
Zanzibar is direct. 



* See, chart, No. 1,078. 



Chap. 1.] WESTWA.RD TO THE CAPE OP GOOD HOPE. 47 

ADEN to ZANZIBAR.— April to October.— Having 
passed northward of Sokotra, stand away to the south-eastward, 
crossing the equator in from 70^ to 72° E., thence as from Bombay, 
p. 46. 

October to April. — From Aden, the route is round lias Asir, 
thence direct to Zanzibar. 

MAURITIUS to ZANZIBAR.— The route is direct at all 

seasons of the year, passing near the north end of Madagascar, and 
entering Zanzibar channel from the southward, taking care to make 
the land about the north point of Mafia to allow for the strong but 
variable northerly current. 

MAURITIUS to MOZAMBIQUE.— The route is direct at all 
seasons of the year, passing near the north end of Madagascar, 
guarding against the strong southerley set of the current when 
approaching the port of Mozambique. 

MAURITIUS to NATAL and the CAPE.— The route is 
nearly direct at all seasons of the year, with a favourable wind and 
current, passing about 100 miles southward of Madagascar, to Natal. 
In December and January it is advisable to make more southing when 
leaving Mauritius, as westerly winds are occasionally found at that 
time between it and Madagascar, but those are not frequent. If not 
bound to Natal, the African coast might be made about 200 miles 
southward of it, thence, in the summer season, keeping in the 
strength of the Agulhas current, passing about 50 miles off Algoa 
bay, 100 miles off Mossel bay, and sighting Cape Agulhas light before 
shaping course for the Cape of Cood Hope. In the winter, when 
strong westerly winds prevail, keep within 40 or 50 miles of the 
shore westward of Algoa bay, where the sea will be smoother. 

KERGUELEN to the CAPE.— From Kerguelen the route is 
northward going free on the port tack with the prevailing westerly 
wind into the south-east trade to about 25° S., thence to the westward, 
passing about 100 miles southward of Madagascar, and making the 
coast of Africa about 200 miles southward of Natal, proceeding as just 
before mentioned, 

CROZETS and PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS to the 
CAPE. — Stand northward as from Kerguelen, thence to the African 
coast. 

See chart, No. 1,078. 



48 PASSAGES. [Chap. I. 

SUNDA STRAIT to the CAPE.— May to October, direct, 
passing southward of Rodriguez, and about 100 miles south- 
ward of Madagascar, and making the African coast as from Mauritius, 
page 47. 

October to April. — From Sunda strait on the starboard tack, 
with the westerly monsoon, passing westward of Christmas island 
into the south-east trade ; thence direct for Madagascar, thence as 
from Mauritius, page 47. It must not be forgotten that this is the 
cyclone season, when the barometer and weather signs should be 
carefully noted.' 

TORRES STRAITS to the CAPE.— May to October, the 

route is southward of Keeling islands, and crossing the meridian of 
80° E. in lat. 18° S. ; thence passing 100 miles south of Madagascar, 
as from Mauritius, page 47. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA to the CAPE.— December to 
March, from Cape Leeuwin, the course is north-westward to 
lat. 20° S., long. 80° E., thence to about 100 miles southward of 
Madagascar, as from Sunda strait and Mauritius. 

This is the route at all times of the year from West Australia. 

CALCUTTA to the CAPE.— April to October.— South- 
ward from Calcutta, crossing the equator in 90° E., thence direct tc 
Rodriguez, and passing southward of Madagascar as from Mauritius, 
page 47. 

October to April, eastward of Ceylon and Diego Garcia, 
thence direct to Mauritius and southward of Madagascar as from 
Mauritius, page 47. 

BOMBAY to MAURITIUS and on to the CAPE.— April 
to October. — Down the coast, eastward of Maldive islands, cross- 
ing the equator in 75° E., thence direct to Mauritius, or 100 miles to 
windward if not calling there ; thence 100 miles southward of 
Madagascar, making the African coast about 200 miles southward of 
Natal, thence within 40 or 50 miles of the shore near and westward 
of Algoa bay, where the sea will be smoother than farther off. 

October to April. — 5'rom Bombay, to the Cape, steer direct to 
and westward of Comoro islands, thence near the African coast in 
the strength of the Mozambique and Agulhas currents to the Cape. 

See chart, No. 1,078. 



Ghap. I.] WESTWARD TO THE CAPE OP GOOD HOPE. 49 

The strength of the Agulhas current will be found at about 50 mile 
off Algoa bay and 100 off Mossel bay; it is advisable to sight 
Agulhas light before shaping course for the Cape. See caution, page 37. 

From Mauritius to the Cape the route is similar to that taken in 
May to September, but a little southing on leaving Mauritius might 
be made before shaping course for south end of Madagascar. 

ADEN to the CAPE.— April to October.— Having passed 
northward of Sokotra, stand away to the south-eastward, and cross 
the equator in about 72° E. ; thence steaming to the southward 
through the doldrums and eastward of the Chagos group, whence 
Mauritius will be fetched on the port tack with the south-east 
trade ; thence to the Cape as from Mauritius, page 47. 

October to April. — Direct from Ras Asir, with a favourable 
wind and current, crossing the equator in 45° E. ; thence close 
westward of Great Comoro and along the African coast in the 
Mozambique current, as from Zanzibar and Mozambique (see below). 
Little ground would be lost by making the passage via Zanzibar. 

BOMBAY to the CAPE.— April to October.— The route 
is via Mauritius {see page 47). 

October to April. — Direct, crossing the equator in 53° E., thence 
westward of Great Comoro, and down the coast with the Mozambique 
and Agulhas currents, as from Mozambique ; see below. 

ZANZIBAR, MOZAMBIQUE, and NATAL to the 
CAPE. — Both seasons. — Down the coast from Zanzibar, through 
Mafia channel, keeping close in shore until southward of cape 
Delgado, from which cape, westward of Lazarus bank, the current 
will be strong and favourable ; although somewhat longer than the 
direct route, there will be less adverse winds and currents, and 
smoother water in the south-west monsoon period. Vessels bound to 
the north-west coast of Madagascar should keep the African coast as 
far as Mozambique port. From Mozambique to Natal and the Cape, 
keep in the strength of the Mozambique and Agulhas currents to 
Natal ; thence in the summer season, in the strength of the latter 
current, passing about 50 miles off Algoa bay and 100 miles off 
Mossel bay ; cape Agulhas light should be sighted, whence course 
may. be shaped for the Cape of Good Hope. 

See chart, No. 1,078. 
so 11977 D 



50 , PASSAGES. — SAILING VESSELS. [Chap. I. 

In the winter season, keep within 40 or 50 miles of the shore of 
Algoa bay, and of that to the westward, where the sea will be smoother 
than out in the strength of the Agulhas current. 



OUTWARD (EASTWARD) ROUTES.— SAILING VESSELS.* 

CAPE to EAST AFRICAN PORTS.— The routes for 
sailing vessels from the Cape of Good Hope to East African ports are 
much the same as those given for vessels with sail and auxiliary steam 
power, but a little more easting than that recommended for those 
vessels might profitably be made before leaving the westerly winds. 
The Mozambique channel, or the passage close eastward of 
Madagascar, may be taken during the south-west monsoon period 
(April to October) ; but in the opposite season, only the latter 
passage. {See page 39.) 

CAPE to BOMBAY.— April to October.— Vessels bound 
from the Cape to the west coast of Hindustan may, during the south- 
west monsoon period, take either of the routes mentioned at page 39, 
through Mozambique channel, or eastward of Madagascar, provided 
they are certain of reaching their port before mid-October, otherwise 
they should take the route for the north-east monsoon period, herein 
mentioned. See West coast of Hindustan pilot and " Ocean Passages." 

October to April. — During the north-east monsoon period, 
make easting from the Cape in the westerly winds to long. 65° E., 
cross lat. 30° S. in 75° E., lat. 10° S. in 70° E., and the equator in 
80° E., thence up the coast of Hindustan. 

CAPE to CALCUTTA.— April to October.— From the 
Cape to Calcutta, in south-west monsoon period, make easting from 
the Cape to long. 62° E., thence north-eastward, crossing the meridian 
of 80° E. in 26° S., and 82° E. in 20° S., thence across the equator in 
82° E., and direct to Ceylon or Calcutta. 

October to April. — During north-east monsoon, make easting 
to St. Paul's, or a little beyond to 80° E., thence north-eastward, 
keeping in long. 88° E. between the parallels of 30° to 10° S. ; thence 
north-eastward, crossing the equator in 95° or 96° E., thence as near 
Acheh head as the wind permits, and eastward or westward of 

See chart, No. 1,078 ; and " Ocean Passages," 1896. 



Chap. I.] OUTWARD .^HOMEWARD. 51 

the Nicobar islands ; the former is to be preferred, as the vessel will 
have a better chance of fetching up the Bay of Bengal. See Bay 
of Bengal pilot. 

HOMEWARD (WESTWARD) ROUTES.— The homeward 
routes from India, for sailing vessels, during the south-west monsoon 
period are similar to the routes given for the small-powered steam 
vessels during the height of that monsoon (see page 48), but the 
equator will probably not be crossed so far to the westward. 

During the north-east monsoon the wind is fair and the homeward 
route is the same as for small-powered steam vessels, as before 
described. 



SO 11977 ■■ ■ ■■ D 2 



52 



CHAPTER II. 



TABLE BAY TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

(Between long. 18° 20' E. and 20° E.) 



Variation in 1897. 
Table Bay and Cape Agulhas 29^° W. 



The CAPE PENINSULA is a remarkable promontory, ex- 
tending about 28 miles, north and south, and from 5 to 8 miles in 
breadth, with a varying height from 3,550 feet at Table mountain, 
and 3,200 feet at Coustantia berg, to but a few feet above the sea 
between Fish Hook bay on the east and Chapman bay on the west ; 
which low land, however, is only visible on certain bearings. 
The neck of land connecting the peninsula on its north-east side 
with the main, and extending from Table bay to the head of False 
bay, is low, and about 11 miles across,* 

The Cape peninsula is rocky and barren, with a stunted growth of 
trees here and there ; the fertile valleys, however, in the vicinity of 
Constantia and Wynberg are pleasing exceptions. From the west- 
ward, the peninsula appears high and rugged from Table mountain 
to within 4 miles of the Cape of Good Hope, where the mountain 
chain terminates at Paulsberg, which stands over the north extreme 
of Buffals bay, on the east side of the peninsula. From Paulsberg 
to Cape point the land is elevated and even, with the exception of 
two peaks at its southern extremity, which at a considerable distance 
make like a saddle island. 

Depths westward of the Cape peninsula.— The offing 

westward of the Cape peninsula has not been thoroughly sounded ; 
but from what has been done, it appears that at 4 miles from 
the shore there is no bottom at 40 fathoms, and off the high land 
north-west of Hout bay there is none at 40 fathoms 1^ miles off 
shore. From Hout bay to the Cape the water is less deep, the 

* Sec the opening paragraph of Chapter I., and charts, Nob. 2,091 and 2,082. 



Chap. II.] THE CAPE PENINSULA. .53 

soundings varying from 24 to 10 fathoms, rocky bottom, at from one 
to 2 miles off shore. At the distance of 5 miles north of the Cape, 
and abreast of the south "VMiittle western beacon, a depth of 10 fathoms, 
rock, was obtained at 1^ miles off shore, and the sea breaks on this spot 
in bad weather. The precaution, therefore, of using the lead when 
approaching the Cape should never be omitted if doubt exists as to 
the accuracy of the vessel's position. 

TABLE BAY* is an indentation on the northern side of the 
neck of the Cape peninsula, about 4 miles wide at its entrance 
between Whale rock and Green point, and affords anchorage for a 
large number of vessels, with fair security in the summer months, 
October to April. The outer harbour, approaching completion, at 
Cape Town, and the basin accommodation within, afford shelter for 
large vessels. For anchorage, see page 58. 

Table mountain. — The bay derives its name from Table 
mountain, a remarkable and gigantic mass of quartzoze sandstone, 
rising to an elevation of 3,550 feet at the south part of the bay 
immediately over Cape Town. The mountain, which rests on a 
granite base 500 feet above the sea, is level on the top, and falls 
nearly perpendicularly at the east end, until it joins Devil's peak, 
which is a rugged peaked mountain, 3,270 feet high, and separated 
from the former by a gap. On the east side of Table mountain and 
Devil's peak lies the low sandy isthmus between Table and False 
bays. The west end of Table mountain is also nearly perpendicular 
from its summit to a considerable distance, and is then united by 
an abrupt declivity with the base of a conical mountain called 
Lion's head, which is about 2,180 feet high, and is in some places 
so steep, that it can only be ascended by steps cut in the rock. 

From the north side of the Lion's head a rounded ridge extends to 
the north-east, where it reaches an elevation of 1,150 feet, and is 
known as Lion's rump, upon which is a signal station. 

Blaauwberg: (Blue Mil), a dark, round hill rising to an 
elevation of 745 feet, may be considered tne nortnern boundary of 
the approach to Table bay. 

Salt river. — Southward of Blaauwberg, the shore for 2 miles is 
composed of a number of white sand hills from 100 to 200 feet high, 
at which distance rocks and breakers extend one-third of a mile off 
shore ; it then gradually curves to the south-westward for 8 miles, 
to the mouth of Salt river. The whole of this space is very deceptive 

• See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; and also on chart, No. 2,082. 



54 TABLE BAY. [Chap. II. 

to vessels standing into the bay at night or in hazy weather, from the 
close resemblance the sand bears to the water. 

' The mouth of Salt river is fordable in summer, but dangerous in 
winter, when it becomes an extensive quicksand. Another winter 
mouth of the river lies about 2 miles north-eastward ; this mouth is 
fronted by foul ground with depths of 3 to 5 fathoms water, .to the 
distance of three-quarters of a mile from the shore, and on which the 
sea breaks after heavy north-west gales ; with this exception, the 
water shoals regularly from 8 fathoms, to the sandy beach between 
Blaauwberg and Salt river. From Salt river the coast sweeps to the 
westward and northward, fronting Cape Town, and forming Table 
bay anchorage. 

The Tygerberg range, 1,357 feet high, and 6 miles in length, extends 
5 miles in a north and south direction, within the eastern shore of 
Table bay. With the exception of Blaauwberg, these are the only 
elevations in the neighbourhood of Table bay north of Table 
mountain. 

ROBBEN ISLAND lies about 5 miles northward of Green point, 
the northern extremity of the Cape peninsula, and, with its light, 
forms an admirable landmark for the northern approach to Table 
bay. It is low, flat, nearly 2 miles in length in a north-north-east 
and opposite direction, with a breadth of one mile. The island is 
fringed by reefs, which project about one cable off ts western side ; 
but rocky ground, with from 5 to 11 fathoms, extends W. by N. 
one mile from its western extreme, and on which the sea breaks 
heavily during strong on-shore winds. This rocky ground rises 
suddenly from depths of 25 and 30 fathoms. See light, page 57. 

The north-east side of the island is free from danger, but the east 
and south shores are fronted by rocky ground, with irregular depths of 
2 to 4 fathoms, and marked by seaweed to the distance of 3 to 4 cables. 

Sig'nal station. — The signal station at Robben island communi- 
cates by heliostat with Cape Town. 

Landing'. — There is a jetty on the south-east side of the island 
for the convenience of the lunatic establishment, and there is also 
good landing on the north-east side, in Murray bay. 

Whale rock, with a depth of about G feet, marked by seaweed, 
and upon which the sea usually breaks, lies S. by W. ^ W. ly\ miles 
from the lighthouse on Robben island. Between the rock and Robben 
island, there is a passage nearly three-quarters of a mile wide, with 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.] ROBBBN ISLAND. — CAPE TOWN. 55" 

depths varying from 4 to 7 fathoms, over rocky ground ; but this 
channel should never be attempted by sailing vessels, except in case 
of emergency, as the currents are sometimes strong and uncertain in 
their direction about the rock. 

Robben anchorag'e. — On the north-east side of Robben island, 
there is fair anchorage, sheltered from W.S.W to N.W. winds. The 
best position for a large vessel is with Whale rock breaker open 
eastward of the south point of the island, bearing S.W., and the 
north extreme of the island N.W. ^ N., in 8 or 9 fathoms water, 
sandy bottom. Smaller vessels will find excellent shelter nearer 
the island, in 5 and 6 fathoms. Closer to the shore than this, 
the ground is rocky. The channel between Blaauwberg beach 
and Robben island is nearly 4 miles wide, with depths of 7 to 10 
fathoms. 

CAPE TOWN, the capital of the colony and the seat of govern- 
ment, stands on the western shore of Table bay, between it and the 
foot of Table mountain, and is well laid out with numerous public 
buildings, schools, churches, hospitals, and several good squares. It 
is connected with the principal places in the Colony by railway and 
telegraph,|se(9 page 13, and for population, &c., page 3. 

Outer harbour and docks.* — About midway between Mouille 
point and Amsterdam battery on the north side of Cape Town are 
situated the harbour and docks. 

The works completed, or in course of construction, are shewn on 
the plan, and consist of a breakwater 3,640 feet in length, with a 
quay wall on the inside running parallel to it, with tranverse jetties ; 
these are the East jetty, 600 feet in length, with a depth of 18 feet 
alongside ; the coaling jetty, 500 feet in length with 25 feet along- 
side ; and the Loch jetty, 600 feet in length with 30 feet alongside. 
The railway is extended to the Loch and coaling jetties. 

Another tranverse pier, 850 feet in length, and 500 feet 
seaward of the Loch jetty, to be called the East pier, is in course 
of construction. 

The South pier, in course of construction, about 1,650 feet south- 
ward of and parallel to the breakwater, will be 2,060 feet in length 
with a transverse arm 600 feet in length to the northward, forming, 
with the East pier, an entrance 250 feet in width ; the two piers 
will enclose an area of 64 acres, with depths varying from 35 feet in the 
entrance to 20 feet as far in as the East jetty. 

Several buoys have been placed for the convenience of warping. 

* See plan of Table bay, breakwater, and docks, No. 123 ; also No. 1,920. 



56 ' TABLE BAY ; CAPE TOWN. [Chap. II. 

On the completion of these works and other projected jetties, the 
total length of berthage will be about 2^ miles. 
' Notwithstanding the severe gales which occur annually, there have 
been no casualties since the breakwater was practically completed, 
in 1893. 

The Alfred dock lies close southward and within the outer 
harbour. It is 1,000 feet in length, 400 to 450 feet in breadth for 
two-thirds of its length from the north quay, the remaining portion 
being 250 feet in breadth ; the width of the entrance is 100 feet with 
a depth of nearly 21 feet at low water springs. Inside, the dock has 
a depth of 24 feet over the northern part, decreasing to 19 and 
20 feet in the southern. Extensive warehouses and sheds, with 
cranes, &c., are erected around the basin, and a large smithy and 
factory are available for engine repairs. The basins are connected 
by a railway with Cape Town. 

Vessels wishing to enter must first communicate with the harbour 
master, who will supply them with a copy of the dock regulations.* 

Dry dock. — The Robinson dry dock lies at the north-west angle 
of the inner basin ; it is 530 feet long overall, 500 feet on the blocks, 
90 feet wide at the coping level, and 68 feet wide at the entrance. 

The length of the dock can be increased by 12;^ feet, by placing 
the caisson on the stop, instead of the outer groove. The caisson 
can also be placed in an inner groove, thus forming a dry dock 
274^ feet in length, leaving the outer portion for use as a wet dock. 

. The available depth for docking at high water ordinary springs, 
allowing 18 inches as a margin, is 22^ feet over blocks at the upper 
end, 24 feet middle caisson landing over blocks, and 25 feet at the 
entrance end over blocks. The depth on the sill of the entrance is 
24| feet, with 2 feet less at high-water neaps. 

Vessels above 23 feet draught can lighten at the jetties in the 
outer harbour. 

The patent slip at the south end of the Alfred dock is 860 feet 
in length, cradle 204 feet, with a width of 50 feet and a depth of 
22 feet on lower end of cradle at high-water ordinary springs. See 
repairs, page 58. 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 
* Great care is necessary when entering the Alfred dock, as there is generally a 
strong run, at times amounting to 4 knots, the direction being reversed perhaps in 
a few minutes. The coxswain of the Port Captain's boat usually acts as pilot, 
every assistance being given by the Port Captain from the shore. On a large 
vessel it is advisable to have the assistance of a tug when unacquainted with 
the port. 



Chap. IT.] DOCKS.— LIGHTS. 57 

Communication. — By telegraph with all parts. Mails weekly 
from England by Union and Castle Lines of steamers. See page 15. 

LIGHTS. — On MintO hill, the highest and southernmost eleva- 
tion on Robben island, is a lighthouse 60 feet high, of a cylindrical 
form, painted white. It exhibits, at an elevation of 154 feet above 
high water, a fixed white light, visible in clear weather from a 
distance of 19 miles. 

Green point. — A liijhthouse stands upon Green point, the west- 
ern extreme of Table bay, at 400 yards from the low water line. 
It is a rectangular building 52 feet high, from which is exhibited, at 
an elevation of 65 feet above the sea, a white flashing light every 
ten seconds, visible in clear weather from a distance of 13 miles. 

Mouill^ point. — On Mouille point, situated about half a mile 
eastward of Green point, and at 100 yards within low-water mark, is 
a lighthouse, 30 feet high, painted in alternate red and white bands, 
from which is exhibited, at an elevation of 44 feet above the sea, a 
fixed red light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. 

Breakwater. — Near the extremity of the breakwater, on a 
travelling platform, a y?.r<?c?^ree^ light is exhibited, at an elevation 
of 25 feet above high water. Vessels are recommended to pass well 
to the eastward of the light, as in rough weather it stands further in 
from the end of the breakwater. 

Three white lights, triangular, mark the works in progress on the 
South pier. The jetties are marked by electric lights, about 30 feet 
within their extremes, except that on the Loch jetty, which is about 
70 feet within ; a flagstaflE is situated between the latter and the 
extreme of the jetty. There are also electric lights in places on 
the breakwater. 

A small fixed green light is exhibited during northerly gales, from 
a position a little to the southward of the inner part of Prince 
Alfred wharf (near the castle). 

TIME SIGNAL.— A ball is dropped from a staff in the Alfred 
dock, 36 feet above the ground and 47 feet above high water (by 
electricity from the Cape observatory), at Ih. 30m. Cape Colony 
mean time, corresponding to Greenwich mean noon. 

A gun is fired from Imhoff battery (by electricity from the Cape 
observatory), at the same time. 

See plan of Table bay/No. 1,920 : also No. 2,082. 



58 TABLE BAY; CAPE TqWN. [Chap. II. 

The Cape observatory is situated in lat. 33° 56' 3" S., long. 

18° 28' 40" E. 

Sigrnal station. — There is a signal station on the Lion's rump, 
west side of Table bay, connected with the telegraph systems of Cape 
Colony. Port signals, see page 61. 

SUPPLIES of all sorts can be obtained at Cape town. Water 
tanks for the convenience of shipping will be brought alongside at 
a moderate charge. There is a phmtif ul supply of good water laid 
on to the quays. 

Tugrs. — There are three or more tugs available at the port. 

Coal is to be obtained in abundance at che coaling jetty, and 
there is a contract for coaling men-of-war. It is put on board at 
the rate of 30 to 40 tons an hour. The harbour master or his deputy 
invariably comes off and berths vessels. 

Repairs to engines and boilers of all classes of vessels are under- 
taken by the various firms of engineers. There are no heavy forging 
facilities, but shafts of 40 feet in length and 18 inches in diameter 
can be turned, cylinders of 36 inches diameter bored, and castings of 
3 tons made ; there are also several steam-hammers of 15 cwt. and 



In the outer harbour, within the coaling jetty, there are sheers 
capable of lifting 50 tons, with a depth of about 25 feet alongside 
under them. There are two hand cranes in the dock, but none at 
the slip or elsewhere. 

ANCHORAGE. — Between April and September, the winter 
months, all vessels anchoring in the bay must do so under shelter of 
the breakwater, southward of the harbour entrance, and as near the 
western shore as their draught will permit. See Port Regulations, 
a copy of which is given to every vessel on arrival. It is recom- 
mended that vessels be kept as snug aloft as possible, and have a 
good spring in readiness for use in the event of heavy weather. 
Since the breakwater has been completed there have been no 
casualties. 

Vessels should moor with long scopes of cable. The best ground 
tackle is required in the winter season when north-west and northerly 
winds prevail, and during gales, precautions should be taken to 
prevent surging ahead and slacking the cables between the gusts. 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.] SUPPLIES. — ANCHORAGE. — DIRECTIONS. 59 

Vessels touching for water and other supplies may ride at single 
anchor. See port signals, page 'o\ . 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Table bay at 
2h. 40m. ; springs rise 5 feet, neaps 3^ feet. The duration of slack 
at high water varies considerably, and greatly depends on the 
prevailing wind ; the water is never stationary more than 30 minutes, 
and frequently it begins to fall immediately on reachiug high water. 
There is no sensible stream of tide, either in the bay or on the 
adjacent coast. The time of high water and its rise is nearly the 
same at Simons bay, and all the bays along the coast from the cape 
of Good Hope to cape Agulhas. 

Current. — A current varying in strength from half a knot to 2 or 
3 knots, sets to the northward past Table bay and Robben island, but 
during the winter months, when north-west winds prevail, a current 
sets into Table bay from the N.N.W., and impinging on the south- 
east shore of the bay, about Salt river, divides into two streams, the 
one setting northward along the coast and out between Robben 
island and the mainland at Blaauwberg, while the other takes a 
westerly course as far as Cape Town castle, then northerly, sweeping 
the south-west shore of the bay, and carrying away loose soil from 
the south sides of the jetties and projecting rocky points. 

During the summer season it has been observed, particularly 
during south-easters, that a gentle stream sets round Mouille point 
south south-eastward into the bay, and out by the Blaauwberg beach, 
as in the winter. The rocks about the beach from Green point to 
Amsterdam battery are bare, and always free from sand, but in the 
depth of the bay, from the Castle to Salt river, vast quantities of sand 
and sea weed are removed from the beach by the drawback of the 
rollers, and carried away by the current, leaving the sea-shore a 
platform of solid rock, which is again covered up to the depth of 
2 to 3 feet during the summer months. 

DIRECTIONS. — No special directions are required for steam 
vessels entering or leaving Table bay in the daytime. 

Sailing vessels during the Cape summer months should shorten sail 
before hauling in for Green point, as south-easters blow hard at times 
on opening the bay. 

If it is found to be blowing hard after passing Mouille point, they 
may with advantage anchor in 10 or 12 fathoms, where they will be 
in a good position for dropping into the inner anchorage on the 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,Q82. 



60 TABLE BAY. [Chap. II. 

following morning, as the wind invariably falls light there during 
the night, although the S.E. wind may continue to blow hard on the 
east side of the bay. 

If compelled by a south-easter to bear up from Green point, in 
order to seek shelter under Robben island, take care to avoid the 
Whale rock, and bring up on the north-east side of that island 
(page 55), under easy sail. With ordinary precaution, there is little 
probability of losing an anchor in bringing up in this place of 
shelter ; but should she part in trying to bring up during a south- 
easter, there is an open sea to leeward. Tugs are available. 

During daylight vessels may round Green and Mouille points at 
half a mile distant, in not less than 10 fathoms water, but this distance 
must not be judged by the eye, as the points are low and deceptive ; 
thence to the anchorage or the harbour, passing the breakwater at a 
prudent distance, but giving it a wide berth in bad weather. 

Caution. — From neglecting the precaution of using the lead, 
vessels have sailed on to Green and Mouille points without seeing 
land, whilst their masts were seen over a fog from the elevated 
ground at the foot of Lion's rump. The fogs that obscure the lights 
are frequently confined to the low ground in the vicinity of Green 
and Mouille points, extending upwards only 100 to 150 feet. Under 
these circumstances it is advisable to send a mast-head man aloft, 
who will probably see land when it is invisible from the deck. 

At night. — Vessels bound for Table bay from the southward 
should not shut in Cape point light with the land at Slangkop point 
until the fixed white light on Robben island (which will be seen 
before the flashing white light on Green point) bears N.E. ^ E., 
when they may steer for it ; and when Green point light bears East, 
an E.N.E. course may be followed until the fixed red light on Mouille 
point bears S.E. by S. (This route will clear Yulcan rock and all 
dangers between it and Table bay.) 

The course may now be altered to S.E. by E. ^ E., which will lead 
one mile northward of Mouille point light, and within this distance 
no stranger should round the point at night. When Mouille point 
light bears S.S.W., a course about S.S.E. may be steered, bearing in 
mind not to approach the green light near the end of the breakwater 
too close ; when past it a vessel may anchor in 6 fathoms water, 
partly sheltered by the breakwater, or proceed into harbour. 

Vessels bound to Table bay from the northward should pass about 
2 miles westward of Robben island light, and steer for Green point 

.&e.plan«f Table h^y, No, 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.] DIRECTIONS.— PORT SIGNALS. 61 

light bearing S. by E. (which will lead nearly 2 miles westward of 
Whale rock) until Robben island light bears N.E., then steer S.E. ; 
and when Mouille point light bears S.S.W. proceed as before. The 
channel between Robben island and the main is not recommended 
for a sailing-vessel on account of the northerly (adverse) current. 

Leavingr Table bay. — Vessels leaving Table bay and bound to 
the northward should pass between Robben island and the mainland. 
An almost continuous current sets to the northward through this 
channel, and during the summer months a fresh south-easter 
frequently blows, whilst a few miles to the westward of the island 
the wind is light and baffling, or fails altogether. Vessels beund to 
the southward should reverse the directions previously given for 
entering the bay. 

PORT SIGNALS.— The following signals will be shown for the 
information of vessels in the anchorage, when, from local experience 
and the indications of the barometer, a severe gale may be expected. 
There have been no casualties, however, since the completion of the 
breakwater in 1893. 

It is strongly recommended that they may be promptly observed 
when made from the port ofiflce ; and any neglect in the observance 
of them will be reported to the agents for Lloyd's, as also the 
owners of the vessels disregarding the signals. See also page 21, 
for weather signals. 

White pierced blue, over union-jack. — Clear hawse, and prepare to 
veer cable. 

Union-jack over white pierced blue. — Veer to a whole cable, and 
see the third anchor clear. 

Blue, white, blue, horizontal, over union-jack. — Down top-gallant 
yards and masts, and point yards to the Avind, and see everything 
clear for working the ship as far as practicable. 

Union-jack over No. 3, white and red, vertical. — Shorten in cable 
to same scope as when first moored. 

When it is considered necessary to make any of the above signals, 
it is strongly recommended that all commanders immediately repair 
on board their respective vessels, and that the above signals may be 
answered by hoisting the answering pendant, or the ensign at the 
peak end or any of the mast heads. 

The above signals will be repeated from the Lion's rump signal 
station. 



See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 



62 TABLE BAY. [Chap. II. 

Vessels can make their wishes known to their agents in blowing 
weather, through the port office, by the International Code of 
Signals, and any assistance required will be strictly attended to, as 
far as practicable. 

Should vessels part from their anchors during a northerly gale 
and cannot work out, they are strongly recommended to run for the 
green light, shown on the shore near the castle, and beach close to 
the southward of the Castle ditch, the crews remaining by their 
vessels, by which means little or no danger of life is to be appre- 
hended. It is also recommended that, in the case of such vessels 
taking the ground, any after sail that may have been set in running 
for the beach should immediately be taken in, keeping the foresail 
or fore-topsail set, as the case may be, until the vessel is firmly 
grounded. 

The following signals may be made from the most convenient 
point of the shore to vessels that may be stranded. 

In day-time, a number will be shown, white upon a black ground. 
At night, the number will be shown transparent. 

No. 1. You are earnestly requested to remain on board until 
assistance is sent ; there is no danger to life. 

No. 2. Send a line on shore by cask, and look out for line from 
rocket or mortar. 

No. 3. Secure the rope ; bend a warp or hawser to it, for us to 
haul it onshore for the boat, or for us to send you a stout rope, to be 
made fast to some firm part of the wreck, that we may haul ofiF a 
boat for bringing you on shore. 

No. 4. Lifeboat will communicate at low water, or as soon as 
practicable. 

No. 5. Have good long lines ready for lifeboat, and prepare to leave 
your vessel ; no baggage will be allowed in the lifeboat. 

Answering" Signals. — By Day. — A man will stand on the most 
conspicuous part of the vessel, and wave his hat three times over his 
head. 

By Night. — A light will be shown over the side of the vessel 
where best seen. 

Climate and Rainfall.— ^S^ee page 27. 

WINDS. — During Summer (October to April) the prevailing 
winds in Table bay are from the south-east ; these, although known 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920 ; also No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.] PORT SIGNALS.— WINDS AND WEATHER. ^ 

by the name of south-easters, blow at about S. by E., frequently 
with violence during the summer season, and more or less in every 
month of the year, generally bringing settled weather.* 

Regular sea breezes from south-west and west prevail in the 
mornings, and continue until noon or longer, succeeded by the south- 
east winds from the land. 

North-westerly gales are experienced here in every month of the 
year, but as a rule these do not blow home between November and 
May, during which months the bay is considered safe. 

The ordinary indications of a south-easter are well marked — a high 
barometer, a clear sky, and the cloud cap on Table mountain, known 
as the " table cloth." During the hardest south-easters, the Blue 
Berg and Hottentot mountains are obscured by mist, and often 
after the " cloth " has disappeared the gale continues until these 
mountain ranges are clear. In autumn, during south-east gales, the 
top of Table mountain is sometimes quite clear, such a gale is called 
a " blind south-easter," but the Blue Berg and Hottentot Holland 
ranges are covered in mist 24 hours or more before the breeze springs 
up, by which sign it may thus be confidently foretold ; moreover, the 
wind does not die away until these mountains are clear. 

In autumn, the south-easters blow at times with great fury over 
Table and Devil mountains, and through the gap between them, 
driving the white clouds in rolling fleeces like wool over the perpen- 
dicular sides of the mountain. On these occasions, vessels not well 
moored are liable to drive, and bring both anchors ahead. There have 
been instances of vessels driven from Table bay by these south-easters 
with all their anchors down, and not regaining the anchorage for five 
or six days. Sometimes there occurs a fall of the barometer whilst 
such a gale is blowing, when a change of wind to north may be 
expected ; if this does not come, a black south-easter follows. 
Sometimes a black south-efister follows a sudden change of wind 
from the north. 

The so-called " black south-easter " is distinguished from the 
regular south easter by the nimbus or rain tint of the cloud on Table 
mountain. It is frequently accompanied by light rain and cold 
weather. Black south-easters are very destructive to the vines, and 
to young vegetation, their appearance the next day being as If 
withered by frost. 

See plan of Table bay, No. 1,920. 
* Extract from report on gales in ocean district adjacent to Cape of Good Hope. 
Uapt. Toynbee, F.R.A.S., 1882. See also winds off the Cape, pages 16-21. 



^ WEST COAST OF THE CAPE PENINSULA. [Chap. II. 

During" winter (April to October) north-westerly winds prevail, 
and the bay is not so safe. A mountainous sea is thrown into the 
bay by some of these gales, and before the breakwater and docks 
were built there was not the slightest shelter. 

Westerly and S.W. winds blow strong, and are often accompanied 
with fogs, rain, and cloudy weather, and with the south-vfest wind 
hail-storms are frequent ; but the north-west winds are most violent 
in those months, often blowing in severe storms from north, or 
N.N.W. for several days, with a cloudy sky, and sometimes accom- 
panied with rain. These north-west gales are preceded by a gradually 
falling barometer, with the wind at N.N.E., the temperature in- 
creasing to an unusual height 36 hours or more before their advent, 
and with cirrus clouds in the north-west. Table mountain and the 
adjacent high land becomes enveloped in clouds. The duration of a 
north-wester is from 2 to 10 days. North-east winds are less frequent 
than any other, and never continue for any length of time. 

In calm weather low fogs occasionally occur, particularly in 
autumn and winter, the tops of the mountains and high hills being 
visible above the fog, which is afterwards dispersed by the heat of 
the sun. 

WEST COAST OF THE CAPE PENINSULA.*— General 

remarks. — The distance from Green point to the southern extremity 
of the Cape of Good Hope is about 32 miles, the intervening coast 
line being rugged and indented, whilst the outline of the country 
is also broken and irregular. From Green point to Duyker point 
the distance is about 9| miles in a south-westerly direction, 
and along this portion of the coast the water is deep at one 
mile off shore, but within that distance there are numerous off- 
lying rocks, and patches of reef. Sailing-vessels navigating in 
this locality should maintain an offing of 2 or 3 miles, for within 
these limits the wind is generally light and baffling from the close 
proximity of the high land. 

From the western end of Table mountain, a high serrated ridge of 
mountains, named the Twelve Apostles, extends in a south-west 
direction, towards Hout bay. They present a steep precipitous face 
to seaward, and are terminated by a remarkable conical hill, similar 
in appearance to the Lion's head, though not so high, and having at its 
southern slope a very conspicuous white sand patch. To the south- 
ward of this, about 1^ miles distant, rises Suther peak, a fofty rugged 

* See charts, Nos. 1,920 and 636. For a description of the Peninsula and depths 
off, see page 52. 



Chap. II.] HOUT BAY. 65 

hill, which is divided by a saddle ridge from Captain peak, a 
remarkable hill of considerably less elevation, overhanging, and to 
the westward of Hout bay. 

Lion's Paws. — Between 2^ and 3 miles W.S.W. from Green point 
lighthouse, and just to the northward of Camps bay are two clusters 
of rocks, 4 cables apart, known as the North and South Lion's Paws ; 
these rocks are awash, but with 7 and 9 fathoms close-to, and they 
lie one-half and one-third of a mile off shore, the Lion's head bearing 
S.E, and E.S.E. from them respectively. Robben island lighthouse 
bearing N.E. ^ N., leads one mile westward of the outer danger ; and 
Green point lighthouse bearing East, leads half a mile northward of 
the Paws. Besides the Lion's Paws there are several other straggling 
rocks along the shore, both north and southward. 

Duyker point, is rocky, forming the western extremity of the 
Cape peninsula. At half a mile north-eastward of Duyker point, is 
the Oude Schep, a dry ledge of rocks extending about one-third of a 
mile off shore, with a detached rock outside it. There is no bottom 
with 40 fathoms, at 1^ miles off shore, and Green point light bearing 
E. by N. I N., clears the point about that distance. 

Vulcan rock, the central and highest of a cluster, about 150 
yards in extent, is awash at high water, and has from 11 to 20 fathoms 
from one to two cables distant all-round. It lies nearly three-quarters 
of a mile off shore, with Duyker point N.N.E. | E., distant 1^ miles. 
A line of breakers extends 3 or 4 cables from Duyker island (a low 
flat rock close to the shore, abreast Vulcan rock) to a mid-channel 
position. Vessels should pass outside Vulcan rock. 

HOUT BAY is formed by a deep indentation in the high coast 
line, at 2^ miles south-eastward of Duyker point, and is about one 
mile in depth. It affords anchorage in from 12 to 5 fathoms, sand, 
but is open to south-westerly winds.* 

This bay is scarcely ever visited, and yet it possesses advantages 
as a place of shelter, especially for steamers ; the only objection to it 
for sailing-vessels, is one that is applicable to all harbours surrounded 
by high land, namely, variable winds and strong gusts from the 
shore. 



* See plan of Hout bay, No. 635, and chart, No. 636. 
SO 11977 



66 WEST COAST OF THE CAPE PENINSULA. [Chap. II. 

The coast on either side of the entrance is high and rugged, par- 
ticularly on the eastern side, which is quite inaccessible. Here the 
hills, rising precipitously from the coast, are broken by a succession 
of ravines, which renders walking around the shore impracticable. 
There is no landing on this side. 

On the western side of the bay is York point and battery in ruins, 
with rocks extending about one cable off ; within the point there is 
good landing even in S.W. gales ; on the opposite side is Blockhouse 
point. The head of the bay is low and marshy, with a stream of 
running water. 

Anclioragre. — Constantia berg, 3,200 feet high, seen over the high 
cliffs on the eastern side of the bay, bearing E. ^ S., leads directly 
into the bay. A line of foam, giving a false appearance of danger, is 
frequently seen across the entrance. It is advisable to anchor as close 
in, round York point, as the vessel's draught will admit. It is said 
that with an inside berth a vessel may lie safely in all weather, and 
that the port is capable of affording shelter to six or eight vessels of 
ordinary size in all winds, if properly moored, and on the whole is a 
better harbour than would appear at first sight. The south-west 
wind is said not to blow home against the high land. 

Supplies. — Fresh water is abundant at Hout bay, but there are 
no conveniences for getting it on board. Provisions may easily be 
obtained from Cape Town, and fish of good quality is abundant. 

COAST.— Siangr-kop point.— Above Chapman point, which 
is common to Hout and Chapman bays, is Chapman peak, of 
dark appearance and considerable elevation. From Chapman point 
to Slang-kop point the distance is about 3| miles in a south-west 
direction ; the intervening shore falling back into the curved sandy 
beach forming Chapman bay, which is fringed with rocks, and being 
exposed to north-westerly winds, should not on any account be used 
as an anchorage. A sunken reef extends about 3 cables off Chapman 
point.* 

Immediately at the back of Slang-kop point the cliffs rise 300 or 
400 feet above the sea ; but the point itself is low and rocky, with a 
ledge of sunken reefs fringing the shore, at the distance of one mile. 
(This coast has not been sounded out.) The sea breaks over this 
reef in westerly winds when there is usually a heavy swell. From 
Slang-kop point to the Kromme river, a distance of 5^ miles in a 

* See charts, Nos. 636 and 2,082. 



Chap. II. 1 SLANG-KOP POINT. — CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 67 

southerly direction, the coast becomes higher and rugged ; thence to 
Olifants Bosh point and the Cape of Good Hope it is elevated from 
300 to 400 feet above the sea, and is tolerably regular in outline. 

Albatross rock, on which the Union Mail steamer Kafir 
probably struck, is 400 yards in length, has less than 6 feet water, 
with 7 to 13 fathoms around, and 5 fathoms between it and Olifants 
Bosh point ; its outer part lies with Olifants Bosh point bearing 
East, distant 6 cables. 

About one mile northward of Albatross rock, and 4 cables from the 
shore, a detached rocky patch of small extent, with less than 6 feet 
water, also exists. 

One mile westward of Albatross rock the depths increases to 
27 and 30 fathoms, and nearly the same depths are found at the 
distance of 2 miles in the same direction. 

In proceeding northward, keep the Cape light in sight (eastward 
of S.S.E. I E.) until Duyker point is open of Slang-kop point. 

A rocky bank, with irregular depths of 10 to 16 fathoms, and 
one mile in extent north and south, fronts the point situated about 
2 miles southward of Olifants Bosh point, to the distance of 
2\ miles. 

From the shoalest part of the bank the Cape of Good Hope light- 
house bears S.E. ^ S., 6 miles, and the point abreast, E. \ S., distant 
1^ miles. 

This rocky bank lies somewhat in the fairway for vessels passing 
round the coast to and from Table bay, and as in heavy southerly 
gales a continuous line of breakers has been observed to extend 
between this ledge and the shore, vessels should not approach this 
part of the coast in bad weather. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.— The southern extremity of the 
Cape peninsula is a high precipitous cliff, surmounted by two peaks 
distant from each other 1,800 yards in a north-west and south-east 
direction. The one to the north-west, 880 feet high, is known as 
Vasco da Gama peak ; and on the other, 800 feet high, near the 
pitch of the Cape, stands the lighthouse. 

LIGHT. — From a lighthouse, 30 feet high and painted white, on 
Cape point, is exhibited, at an elevation of 816 feet, a revolving 

See charts, Nos. 636 and 2,082. 
SO 11977 B 2 



68 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. [Chap. II. 

white light showing a bright face for the space of twelve seconds 
every minute. It is visible all round, except where cut off by the 
land between the bearings of S. 22° W. and S. 5" E., and between 
S. 25° E. and S. 31° E., and in clear weather should be seen from 
a distance of about 36 miles. Its position is lat, 34° 21^' S., 
long. 18° 29^' E. 

Caution is necessary when approaching this light, as from its 
great elevation it is frequently obscured by mist, although at the 
same time clear round the horizon. 

A Lloyd's Sigrnal station, established on Cape point close to 
the lighthouse, is connected with the telegraph system of Cape 
Colony ; passing vessels showing their number, will be duly 
reported. 

Reefs oflf the Cape. — South-west reefs, which are generally 

breaking, appear to be the outer projections of a rocky ledge, 
extending one mile from cape Maclear. From the outer patches, of 
5 fathoms, the lighthouse bears E. \ N., If miles. Under no circum- 
stances should vessels attempt to pass inside these patches, and 
coming from the northward Slang-kop point should be kept in sight 
until Cape point bears E. by N. 

Bellows rook, from which the lighthouse on Cape point bears 
N.N.E. I E., distant 2\ miles, is awash at high water, and always 
breaks. The water is deep close round this rock except on its 
south-west side, where there are sunken rocks about a cable distant, 
on which the sea does not always break. 

Anvil rock has a depth of 6 feet at low water springs, and lies 
on the eastern end of a 3 fathoms rocky patch about 2 cables in 
length and with Cape point bearing N.N.W. \ W., distant 1\ miles. 
It breaks only at low water with a heavy swell, and the depths to 
seaward are from 14 to 18 fathoms close-to. Vasco da Gama peak, 
open northward of the lighthouse, leads northward of Anvil rock, and 
Constantia berg well in sight leads eastward. 

Dias rock, about 8 feet high, is connected with Cape point by a 
sunken reef. The water is deep at 2 cables seaward of the rock. 

Three pinnacle rocks with 4| and 5 fathoms lie between Dias 
and Anvil rocks, rendering the passage between them unavailable for 
vessels of large draught, or even for small vessels in bad leather. 

See charts, Nos. 636 and 2,082. 



Chap. II.] DANGERS OFF.— DIRECTIONS. 69 

DIRECTIONS.— Making the Cape from the westward.* 

— Vessels approaching the Cape of Good Hope from the westward 
may, if the weather be clear, make Cape point light at the distance 
of about 36 miles, unless it should happen to bear between 
S.8.E. } E. and S.S.E. | E. (or behind Vasco de Gama peak). Caution is 
therefore necessary not to continue a course between these bearings 
when making the land at night, or in hazy weather. Should a vessel 
be near the coast at night, and the land not visible, she should be 
kept to the south-westward until her position is ascertained. 

As the wind seldom, if ever, blows from the east or north-east {i.e., 
directly off the peninsula), sailing-vessels bound either for Table bay 
or round the Cape of Good Hope, should ensure a weatherly position 
to the northward or southward, according to the season of the year. 
Those for Simons bay have been detained many days by south-easters 
off the Lion's head and Hout bay, in consequence of their making the 
land too far to the northward during the summer season. The same 
winds would have been fair for them had they been 30 mile? farther 
south. On the other hand a vessel bound for Table bay in the 
winter season will find it difficult to make her port from a position 
off Cape point, during the continuance of North and N.W. winds, 
notwithstanding the general prevalence of a N.N.W. current. 

Rounding: the Cape from the westward.— Vessels rounding 
the Cape from the westward, and bound into False bay, should pass 
about half a mile southward of Bellows rock (which is always visible 
by the breakers), thence steer East until Constantia berg is well in 
sight, bearing N. | E., or Vasco de Gama peak opens eastward of the 
lighthouse hill, either of which marks lead eastward of Anvil rock.* 

Vessels proceeding to the eastward along the coast, having passed 
the Cape at a prudent distance, should take careful bearings of the 
Cape of Good Hope light as long as it is in sight, and make every 
allowance for a possible easterly on-shore set, so as to avoid the 
dangerous neighbourhood of the Birkenhead rock, page 81. Cape 
Agulhas light is not visible when bearing southward of S.E. by E 

Steam vessels bound into Simons bay often pass inside the 
Bellows and Anvil rocks, but the discovery of the pinnacle rocks, 
mentioned in page 68, makes it advisable for large vessels to pass 
seaward of the Anvil. Vessels taking the inside route, when 

♦ See charts, Nos. 636 and 2,082. Directions for False and Simons bays, see 
p. 78 ; Table bay, p. 59, Passages to the Cape of Good Hope, from England, west 
coast of Africa, &c., will be found in the Africa Pilo', parts I. and II. ; and from 
the Cape to East African ports, &c., at pp. 36-51 of this work. Also " Ocean 
Passages," 1896. 



70 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. — FALSE BAY. [Chap. II 

nearing cape Maclear, must not bring Bellows rock to bear 
southward of S.E. | S., until Dias rock bears E. | N., or until cape 
Maclear is midway between Vasco de Gama peak and a gap which 
separates the lighthouse from that peak, which will lead clear of 
South-west reefs ; then steer to pass from 1^ to 2 cables southward 
of Dias rock. 

Beaching. — There is a small sandy cove between the lighthouse 
and cape Maclear, in which vessels in a sinking state may be 
beached in greater safety than on any other part of the adjacent 
sea-coast. 

Rounding the Cape from tlie eastward.—When Cape point 
light is in sight, vessels in standing in towards the land, should be 
guided by frequent bearings of it and of Danger point light, to avoid 
the rocks off the latter. When to the westward of Danger point, 
Cape point light should not be brought to bear more westward than 
N.W. ^ W., which will clear all danger off Mudge point and cape 
Hangklip. As cape Hangklip, and the narrow neck of land which 
connects it to the shore, is very low, great caution is necessary in 
passing it in hazy weather. 

If bound for Table bay from the eastward, vessels, after rounding 
the Cape of Good Hope* and the coast northward to Slang-kop point, 
at the distance of about 5 miles, should not shut in Cape point light 
with Slang-kop point, until Robben island light bears N.E. ^ E., or 
the light on Green point becomes visible, which will be on an 
E. by N. I N. bearing. This latter bearing leads about three miles 
westward of Vulcan rock. See directions at page 59. 

The precaution of using the lead when approaching the Cape of 
Good Hope should never be omitted. 

FALSE BAY. — The entrance to False bay lies between the 
Cape of Good Hope and cape Hangklip, about 16 miles apart. 
"Within these points, the bay extends to the northward about 
18 miles. There are several dangers in it, but the middle and 
eastern sides are clear, though the bottom is foul and generally unfit 
for anchorage. The general depth varies from 46 fathoms at its 
entrance to 20 fathoms about 5 miles from its head, whence it 

See charts, Nos. 636 and 2,082. 
* The south Whittle beacon (black, with staff and ball) situated on a lower hill 
about 3 miles northward of Cape lighthouse, is often visible when the lighthouse is 
enveloped in mist, and is a good mai'k for recognizing the locality. — Ed. 



Chap. II.] DIRECTIONS. — WHITTLE ROCK. 71 

gradually shoals to the breakers, which break in from 4 to 5 fathoms 
about half a mile off the beach. At the entrance of the bay there is 
a rocky bank, on which the least water is 13 fathoms, and its north- 
west end lies with Cape point lighthouse bearing N.N.W. ^ W. 
distant 5 miles. 

Whittle rock, with 7 feet water, is about 6 feet in diameter, and 
but seldom breaks. It rises on the south side of a rocky patch nearly 
one mile in circumference, upon which the depths vary from 7 to 
10 fathoms. It lies with Cape point lighthouse bearing S.W. by W. ^ W. 
distant 7^ miles, and the lighthouse on the Roman rocks N.N.W. 
distant 6^ miles. 

Clearingr Marks.— Beacons. — A beacon, 35 feet high, and 
56 feet above high water, painted white with a red band in the 
centre, stands on a flat-topped rock, near Oatland point, and 
1,700 yards from an inner white beacon, with staff and ball, on 
the shoulder of the hill beneath Simons berg. From the Whittle 
rock, these two beacons, as well as a large whitewashed patch on the 
hill north-west of Simons town, are in line N.W. by N. ; as are also 
the black and white beacons, each with staff and ball, standing on 
the land over Buffals bay, bearing W. | S. ; consequently, if these 
respective beacons are kept open of one another the Whittle rock 
will be cleared. 

Also Chapman peak, well open to the westward of Elsey peak 
N. by W. ^ W., leads 4 cables westward of the Whittle ; and Roman 
rocks lighthouse, in line with Elsey peak N. ^ W. leads midway 
between Whittle rock and Miller point. 

West shore of False bay.— Buffals bay, on the western 
shore of False bay, and 2 miles northward of Cape point, is a 
small indentation in the coast line, marked by a white sand patch. 
On the ridge of hills behind the bay is a black beacon, which 
shows out clearly as a mark for the Whittle rock. A white beacon 
for the same purpose also stands near the sea, just to the northward 
of the bay. The depth of water is 4 or 5 fathoms near the 
shore, and in a north-west breeze a vessel may anchor off it in 
8 to 20 fathoms, sand, if unable to beat to windward ; this is 
preferable to going to sea, and if a south-easter comes on, a vessel 
will have room to weigh, cast, and run up to Simons bay, if anchored 
in the greater depth. There is a fishing establishment and a landing 
place in the bay. 

See charts. Nos. 636 and 2,082. 



72 FALSE AND SIMONS BAYS. [Chap. IL 

Between Buffals bay and Smithwinkle bay, 3^ miles northward, 
the shore is backed by four sharp peaks. Off both points of 
Smithwinkle bay, rocks, some of which are above water, project one- 
third of a mile from the shore ; Batsata rock, 8 feet high, is the 
highest of those off the southern point. 

Rockland point, situated about 7^ miles northward of Cape point, 
is the most prominent point between Cape point and Simons bay. 
The point slopes off to a ledge of dry rocks ; beyond it at 

2 cables distance, south-eastward, there is an isolated rock 9 feet high, 
named Bakkoven, which has 11 fathoms close-to ; Castle rock, lying 

3 cables southward of Bakkoven, dries only at low water. 

At 1^ miles northward of Rockland point, is Oatland point, with a 
few rocks off it, on one of which is a beacon for the "Whittle rock, 
previously described. Between these points sunken rocks extend 
from 3 to 5 cables off. 

Noah's Ark is a flat-topped rock, in shape resembling a barn, 
about 100 feet long by 30 feet high, lying 3 cables off shore, and 
about a mile northward of Oatland point. Beyond the distance of 
59 yards, the depths are from 6 to 7 fathoms. 

Phoenix shoal. — For a distance of 3^ cables in a north-north- 
west direction from Noah's Ark, the ground is shallow and foul, 
terminating with Phoenix shoal, which has but 3 feet over it. A red 
buoy with staff", and the word Rock painted on its flag, lies off the 
north side of Phoenix shoal. Nimrod rock, with 8 feet water, lies 
nearly midway between Noah's Ark and Phoenix shoal. 

Maidstone rock, with 22 feet at low -water springs, lies 
S.E. ^ E. 2 cables from the south-west end of Noah's Ark. The 
base of this rock is about 20 feet in diameter, rising to a sharp peak, 
the summit of which is so small that it is difficult to keep the lead 
on it. The marks for it are, the south-west end of Noah's Ark 
N.W. \ W., and the Roman rocks a sail's breadth open eastward of 
the foot of Muizenberg. 

There is also a small patch of 29 feet, which is steep-to on all 
sides, lying one cable S.S.E. \ E. from the Maidstone rock. 

Roman rocks occupy a space of about three-quarters of a cable 
in extent. The rock on which the lighthouse is built is above 
water ; the rest are awash, and the whole surrounded by foul 
ground. 

See plan of Simons bay, No. 1,849 ; and that on chart. No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.] DANGERS. 73 

LIGHT. — From a light-tower, 48 feet high, painted in red and 

white horizontal bands, erected on Roman rocks, is exhibited, at an 

elevation of 54 feet above high water, a revolving white light, which 

shows a bright face for twelve seconds every half minute, and visible 

n clear weather from a distance of 12 miles. 

Castor rook, with 15 feet water, is detached from the Roman 
rocks cluster, and lies N.N.E. | E. distant 2 cables from the light 
tower. A red buoy with staff, and the word Rock painted on its 
flag, is moored one-third of a cable N.E. of the rock. Between the 
rock and the lighthouse there are patches of 19 and 24 feet. 

Seal island is a low rocky islet, 2 cables in length, north and south, 
and one cable in width. It lies E. \ S. distant 6f miles from the Roman 
rocks lighthouse, and is surrounded by sunken rocks, upon which 
the sea usually breaks. Landing is difficult except in very smooth 
water. It is the resort of penguins, whose eggs may be collected 
in considerable numbers at the proper season. 

York shoal, the nearest part of which lies S. \ E. one mile from 
Seal island, is a rocky patch with from one to 4^ fathoms, about 
4 cables in length and 1^ cables in width. The sea is generally 
breaking on it. 

East shoal has depths of from 4 to 8 fathoms, excepting in one 
small spot near the middle that nearly dries at low water springs, 
and on which the sea is always breaking. The shoal is about half a 
mile in length by one quarter of a mile in breadth, with Seal island 
bearing N.W. \ W. distant Z\ miles. 

Abreast of Gordons bay, in the north-east corner of False bay, is 
another shoal patch, about a third of a mile in diameter, with from 
6 to 9 fathoms, and on which the sea breaks in heavy gales. The 
shoalest part lies 3 J miles off shore, and S.E. by E. f E. nearly 6 miles 
from East shoal. 

SIMONS BAY, situated about 11 miles northward of Cape 
point and near the north-west corner of False bay, is accessible all 
the year round, and affords complete shelter, for with heavy south- 
easters, the only winds that cause any inconvenience, vessels ride 
safely ; and though the bay is exposed to east and north-east winds, 
these never blow strong. 

Wharf rock, having 9 feet of water, lies 220 yards East of the 
entrance to the dockyard boat camber ; and is marked by a beacon 
with the word Rock on it. 

See plan of Simons bay, No. 1,849 ; and that on chart, No. 2,082. 



74 SIMONS BAY. [Chap. IT. 

The DOCKYARD, though small, is a complete establishment, 
and has all the necessaries required for refitting and provisioning 
Her Majesty's vessels. 

Mooring'S. — Eleven sets of Government moorings are laid down 
in depths varying from 3 to 8 fathoms of water ; four of these are in 
depths above 5 fathoms ; No. 1 is the flagship's moorings. 

Position.— The dockyard flagstaff is in latitude M° 11' 32" S., 
longitude 18° 25' 52" E. 

Time signal.— A circular disc, attached to a lever arm working 
on a mast, is situated close to Simons Town telegraph office. The 
disc is raised to a right angle with mast at 5 minutes before signal, 
and falls (by electricity from the Cape observatory) at the moment of 
Ih. 30m. Os. p.m. Cape Colony mean time, corresponding to Green- 
wich mean noon. When signal fails in accuracy, the disc is kept up 
an hour, then lowered. 

Simons Town is situated at the foot of the hills at the head of 
Simons bay, consists of one long street, and contains a population of 
about 2,500. It is the head-quarters of H.M. vessels on the Cape 
station, as above. 

Supplies. — The water in Simons Town is excellent ; it is broiTght 
alongside in a tank. There is a smaller tank for merchant vessels, but 
the dockyard tank is frequently lent to water merchant ships on 
application. 

Supplies of all kind, if in excess of what Simons Town can supply, 
are obtained from the interior and from Cape Town, distant by rail 
about 20 miles. Fish is abundant, and the beaches are good for 
hauling the seine. 

Communication. — Mails weekly from England via Cape Town. 
Telegraph communication with all parts. 

Patent slip. — There is a Government patent slip, which at spring 
tides is capable of taking up vessels of 1,000 tons, that can be 
lightened to a draught of 14 feet. 

There is also a naval hospital, a naval club, and a recreation room. 

Repairs. — Moderate repairs to engines, and to boilers of 500- 
horse power are undertaken in the dockyard. Ten-inch shafts 
can be turned, cylinders of 40 inches diameter bored, and castings 
of 5 tons made. There are two steam hammers of 15 and 10 cwt., 
and the crane on the boat camber pier is capable of lifting 2^ tons. 

See plan of Simons bay, No. 1,849 ; and that on chart, No. 2,082. 



Chap. II.J DOCKYARD. — SUPPLIES. 7^ 

Coal. — At the Naval depot there is possibly about 6,000 tons of 
coal in stock. Coal is delivered alongside in bags from lighters of 
from 10 to 30 tons each. About 250 tons can be put on board per 
day, and 500 tons by working day and night. At times, coaling is 
interrupted by bad weather. 

There is usually about 2,000 tons of coal in the hands of private 
firms. Labour is plentiful. 

Caution.— There is a fish in Simons bay commonly called toad- 
fish, about 6 inches long ; back dark, with deep black stripes ; belly 
white, with faint yellow patches ; it swims near the surface, and is a 
constant attendant on lines employed fishing. When taken from the 
water it puffs out considerably. Should any portion of the fish be 
eaten, death ensues in a few minutes. 

Anchorage. — H.M. ships and vessels lie at the moorings assigned 
to them. A good berth for a large merchant vessel is about half a 
mile off shore, in about 10 fathoms, with Noah's Ark S.E. | S., and 
the dockyard clock W. by S. ^ S. Vessels should moor north-west 
and south-east, with the stoutest ground tackle to the north-west 
from May to September, for this being the winter season, the winds 
prevail from that quarter, and often blow in strong gusts over the 
hills. From September to May, south-easterly winds may be 
expected to predomniate ; then the best bower should lie to the 
south-eastward. If an inshore berth is required by a smaller vessel, 
she should take a position north-north-westward of Blockhouse point. 

Compass Adjustment. — Iron and other vessels desirous of 
testing their compasses, to ascertain the deviation, will find it 
convenient to use Sharp peak, a conspicuous mountain to the north- 
east of Hangklip berg, which rises over cape Hangklip, instead of 
having a person stationed on shore taking simultaneous observations. 
The true bearing of this peak from the anchorage is S. 71° E. ; and 
as the peak is 24 miles distant, the bearing will not be materially 
affected by the change of i)osition of the vessel in any part of the 
anchorage in Simons bay. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Simons bay at2h. 44m.; 
springs rise 5| feet, neaps 3| feet. There is but little stream 
perceptible in the bay at any time. 

Directions for False and Simons bays will be found on page 78. 

See plan of Simons bay, No. 1,849 j and that on chart, No. 2,082. 



76 FALSE BAY. [Chap. II. 

Winds. — From October to April, south-easterly winds generally 
prevail, but do not continue longer than five to eight days at a time, 
and are succeeded by variable winds. In Simons bay as in False bay, 
it frequently happens that these winds, after blowing very hard for a 
day and part of the night, abate towards morning, and are succeeded 
by a land breeze from the W.N.W. 

In the south-east season, these winds blow frequently and with 
violence from S.S.E., making landing in boats disagreeable and at 
times almost impracticable. 

From April to October, north-westerly winds are most prevalent 
with frequent gales and rain from that quarter. These gales occur 
at times all the year round, but they are rare in the south-east season. 
The wind scarcely ever blows from the north-east, and never with 
violence. The south-west wind (commonly called the kloof wind) 
is cold and frequently rainy. During this wind no boats should sail 
in the bay on account of the violent and variable squalls which 
come down from the hills. 

If the barometer stands at 30-2 to 30-3 inches and falls suddenly 
to 30*0 or '/id'db inches, in nine cases out of ten it will blow a strong 
S.S.E. gale. The Muizenberg capped with white cloud is generally 
the precursor of a south-east wind ; and if the Hottentot Holland 
range on the east side of False bay is also capped, the south-easter 
will probably be violent and of long continuance. When Simons 
berg has a misty cloud on its summit, rain may be expected within 
an hour or two. 

Captain Lord Charles Scott, H.M.S. Bacchante^ 1881, remarks that 
the Hottentot Holland range are the first to cover on the approach of 
a south-easter, and that if the Muizenberg does not cover it may not 
blow home to Simons bay. See also p. 16, winds off the Cape, &c. 

NORTH AND EAST SHORES OF FALSE BAY.— North- 
ward of Simons bay the land ranges in height from 800 to 1,200 feet 
as far as Muizenberg mountain, which is 1,651 feet high. There are 
four remarkable sand patches on this coast — the first on the north- 
west shore of Simons bay, the second between that and Elsey peak, 
the third in Elsey bay, and the fourth in Fish-hook bay. 

Kalk bay. — In Fish-hook and Kalk bays there are villages. 
The latter (pronounced Cork) is situated on the Cape Town and 
Simons Town railway ; from a small fishery station a few years 
ago it has now become a fashionable watering place, and several 

See chart of the Cape of Good Hope and False bays, No. 636. 



Chap. II.] NORTH AND BAST SHORES. 77 

hotels have been erected. The only good landing along the north 
shore is at Kalk bay, where a projecting ledge of rocks makes a little 
shelter. 

Eastward of Kalk bay the shore is a low sandy beach with a con- 
tinuous line of breakers fronting it, and no landing. This portion is 
not frequented. 

The eastern shore of False bay to the southward of Gordons bay 
is bold, having no outlying dangers more than one quarter of a mile 
off. The high land comes close down to the south side of Gordons 
bay, whence to Hangklip is an unbroken chain of mountains. 

The Strand is a fishing station about 2| miles north of Gordons 
bay. It has a boat harbour formed by a circle of sunken rocks 
extending some distance from shore. The entrance is narrow, but 
when inside it affords good shelter. 

Gordons bay is formed on the north-east side of False bay, 
and affords shelter from south and easterly winds. As it is quite 
exposed to westerly winds vessels can only lie there in the summer 
months. 

Kogel bay lies about 5^ miles to the southward of Gordons bay ; 
it is about 3 miles across and falls back to the eastward more 
than a mile ; but the bottom in many parts being rocky it is not a 
good anchorage, although shelter may be obtained from south and 
easterly winds. 

Pringrle bay or cove, 3 miles north-north-east of cape Hangklip, 
is open to westerly winds. It affords good shelter in S.E. gales, in 
depths of 9 to 10 fathoms. H.M.S. Sidon rode out a strong S.E. gale 
here. 

Cape Hangklip. — The quoin-shaped hill of this name (some- 
times called False cape), 1,448 feet high, is the eastern point of 
entrance to False bay, and makes as an island in approaching from 
the southward. Its western face appears to overhang from some 
points of view (hence its name), and a conspicuous sand patch extends 
half way up its south-east side. The cape itself, about 1^ miles 
southward of this hill, is very low, and a heavy sea always breaks 
upon it ; a sunken rock lies N.W. | N. three-quarters of a mile from 
the cape, at one-third of a mile off shore, and as the sea breaks some 
distance outside of this rock, it is not advisable to pass within one 
mile of the cape. 

See chart of the Cape of Good Hope and False bays, No. 636. 



78 FALSE AND SIMONS BAYS. [Chap. II. 

Within Hangklip the land is low, then rises to a sharp peak 
2,780 feet high, at the distance of 3^ miles from Hangklip hill. This 
peak is the commencement of a chain of mountains extending to the 
eastward. 

DIRECTIONS.— False and Simons bays.— Steam ve.ssels or 
sailing vessels with a fair wind coming from the westward by day, 
and having opened the clearing marks for Anvil rock (see page 68), 
should, if bound to Simons bay, steer N.N.E. midway between 
Whittle rock and the shore ; and when Elsey peak is in line with 
Roman rocks lighthouse, bearing N. ^ W., steer for it, altering 
course when within one mile of the lighthouse, so as to pass 
midway between it and Noah's Ark. When the blockhouse on 
Blockhouse point bears W. by S., the vessel will be past Phoenix 
shoal, and may haul into Simons bay, taking, however, sufficient 
sweep to have time to choose a berth and room for rounding-to. 

Working". — Vessels working in westward of Whittle rock and 
nearing that danger, will easily avoid it by keeping the beacons 
erected to show its position well open of each other ; or Chapman 
peak (a dark peak over the southern side of Hout bay) well open 
westward of Elsey peak, N. by W. ^ W. The Admiral's house open its 
breadth northward of Noah's Ark, bearing N.W. by W., leads 
northward of Maidstone rock. 

The ordinary channel for vessels entering Simons bay is between 
Noah's Ark and the Roman rocks, a width of 7 cables ; but if the wind 
be N.W., and the vessels under sail, the passage east and north of 
the Roman and Castor rocks should be taken, as it affords better 
working space. 

The four sand patches on the hills northward of Simons bay, are 
usually conspicuous and serve as good landmarks for the bay ; the 
western patch is a streak stretching down from the top of the hill.* 

In thick weather, and uncertain of the position of the vessel, it is 
advisable to anchor when the depths come under 20 fathoms. 

At Night. — Care should be taken in rounding the Cape of Good 
Hope for Simons bay to give it a berth of not less than 3 miles ; by 
not going into less than 45 fathoms until the Cape light bears north- 
ward of N. by E. ^ E., a vessel will clear Bellows rock. 



* See sketch on chart, No. 686. 



Chap. II.] DIRECTIONS. 79 

When eastward of Anvil rock, with Cape point light bearing about 
N.W. by N., distant 3 miles,* steer N.N.E. until Roman rocks light 
bears N. ;J^ W. ; then steer for it to within half a mile of the light, 
when alter course to N.W., which should lead a quarter of a mile 
northward of Phoenix shoal ; then haul gradually into the anchorage. 

Unless thoroughly acquainted with the navigation and favoured 
with moonlight, vessels, at night, should always pass eastward of 
Roman and Castor rocks. The four large sand patches on the hills 
northward of Simons bay are visible on bright nights, and in steering 
for Simons bay they will be ahead or on the starboard bow ; bearing 
this in mind will prevent the Muizenberg being mistaken for the 
hills southward of Simons bay ; these patches, with the exception 
of that over Buffels bay, are the only sand patches on the west side 
of False bay. 

Passing" easiward of Whittle rock.— Running for Simons 

bay, do not bring the Cape light to the southward of W.S.W. until the 
Roman rocK light is between the bearings of N.N.W. ^ W. and 
N.W. by W. ^ W,, between which bearings a vessel will be clear of 
the Whittle on the one hand and York shoal on the other. If 
working in, make short tacks between the above bearings of the 
Roman rock light, until certain of being within 5 miles of it. 

By day, Chapman peak touching the western edge of the sand in 
Fish-hook bay, leads two-thirds of a mile eastward of Whittle rock. 
The whitewashed mark on the hill over Simons bay, kept well open 
northward of the Whittle beacon on Oatland point, also leads north- 
eastward of Whittle rock. 

Running' for Simons bay in a south-easter.— In daytime, 
it is recommended to come in between the Roman rocks and Noah's 
Ark, shortening sail so as to have all furled when abreast of the 
latter, and to round-to under the spanker only. The sheet anchor 
should be ready when entering False bay in a south-eaeter. 

It is not advisable for a sailing-vessel in a strong south-easter to 
run for Simons bay at night, for the gusts of wind are violent, and 
there is a risk in bringing up, but should stand off and on the Cape 
under easy sail till daylight. 

The COASTt between cape Hangklip and Danger point, about 
27 miles to the south-eastward, forms a bight from 8 to 10 miles in 

* The Roman rocks light (also a revolving light) may be seen from near this 
position, if not from the deck, from the masthead. See chart, No. 63^ 
t See charts Nos. 2,082 and 2,571 



80 FALSE BAY TO CAPE AGULHAS. [Chap. II. 

depth. Mudge point lies about midway, with Sandown bay to the 
westward, and Walker bay to the eastward of it. The remainder of 
the bight is composed of rocky projecting points, and landing can 
usually only be effected in certain places, and which are shown on 
the chart. Palmiet river, 9 miles to the eastward of cape Hangklip, 
is a rapid stream in the winter season, but its entrance is . always 
blocked up with sand. About three-quarters of a mile eastward of 
it is a small rocky cove, where a boat may land at high water, in 
fine weather. 

Mudgre point is low and rocky, and there are many sunken 
rocks off it, which, with the masses of kelp about them, form the 
south side of D'Urban cove, where there is good landing in east and 
south-east winds. The gig of H.M.S. BirTtenhead landed after the 
wreck of that vessel, in a small rocky cove at the south extremity of 
the sand in Sandown bay, where there is a fishing-station, but the 
landing at D'Urban cove is the better and safer of the two. A coast 
range of hills terminates near Mudge point in Onrust berg, a square 
bluff, 1,575 feet high, which has a pile on it. 

WALKER BAY is remarkable for the immense tracts of sands 
and high sand-hills at its head, which are visible a long distance at 
sea, and give a distinctive character to the land, which would have 
been aptly expressed by the name Sandown. About midway along 
the sand and one mile inland is a sand-hill pyramid 427 feet above 
the sea. A long heavy swell always rolls into the bay, and the 
water is deep within one mile of the beach. 

Klein river, in the northern bight of Walker bay, is a stream of 
considerable size inland, but its mouth is choked with sand. 

Stanford cove, a small rocky inlet, similar to D'Qrban cove, 
before described, also affords landing in east and south-east winds. 
It lies in the rocky southern shore of Walker bay, 5 miles north- 
east of Danger point. There are several rocky patches off it, which, 
with the heavy swell, renders it less available than Hydra bay. 
There are some fishermen's huts, and plenty of good water near 
Stanford cove. 

Hydra bay, lying between Stanford cove and Danger point, is 
the best anchorage under that point, as farther in Walker bay the 
swell is heavier. It is easily distinguished by a sand patch which 
marks the face of the hillock over it. In approaching Hydra bay 



See chaxts, Nos. 2,082 and 2,571. 



Chap. II.] WALKER BAY. — BIRKENHEAD ROCK. 81 

from the southward, Danger point lighthouse should not be approached 
nearer than 2 or 3 miles ; the bluff hill of Mudge point may be steered 
for until the sand patch in Hydra bay is well open, when the rocky 
spit projecting from Danger point will be cleared. Then haul up 
for the bay, and anchor in 12 or 14 fathoms, about three-quarters of 
a mile from the shore, taking care to keep the low extreme of 
Danger point open of the intermediate points, to avoid the 3 fathoms 
rocky patch in the centre of the bay, upon which the sea does not 
always break. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in this neighbourhood, 
at 2h. 50m.; springs rise 5 feet. The rise of the tide and the 
establishment at Simons bay, Dyer island, and Struys bay are very 
nearly the same, and the stream of tide along the whole coast 
between cape Hangklip and Struys bay is inconsiderable and 
uncertain. 

DANGER POINT, the south-west extreme of Walker bay, is a 
tongue of low sandhills covered with bushes and stunted trees, 
projecting about 4^ miles from the base of Duin Fontein berg, which 
is 1,130 feet high, and a conspicuous remarkable bluff hill from 
every point of view at sea. This point affords shelter, in Hydra 
bay, from the S.E. gales of summer. 

The depths are irregular off Danger point. If approaching it at 
night, do not go into less than 35 or 40 fathoms. 

LIGHT. — On Danger point, from an octagonal tower, 87 feet in 
height, with its sides painted red and white alternately, is exhibited, 
at an elevation of 150 feet above high water, a group flashing white 
light with a period ot 40 seconds, and visible in clear weather from 
a distance of 18 miles. There are three flashes in quick succession, 
thus : flash 2| seconds, eclipse 3|^ seconds ; flash 2|- seconds, eclipse 
3^ seconds ; flash 2^ seconds, eclipse 25| seconds. 

Birkenhead rock. — Several detached sunken rocks are met 
with off this part of the coast, the most dangerous of which lies 
about one mile from the pitch of Danger point, with 2 fathoms 
water, and from 10 to 18 fathoms within a short distance. It has 
acquired a melancholy celebrity as having caused the loss of H.M.S. 
Birkenhead and 436 lives, in February 1852, hence its name. The 
sea breaks with violence on the rock, but often only at intervals of 
about a quarter of an hour. 

See charts, Nos, 2,082 and 2,571. 
SO 11977 F 



82 FALSE BAY TO CAPE AGULHAS. [Chap. II. 

DYER ISLAND, 6^ miles south-eastward of Danger point, is a 
low rocky islet, visible only at a short distance. It is the abode of 
rabbits and numerous sea birds. Geyser island is smaller, and for- 
merly the resort, in certain seasons, of seals, for killing which there 
was a permanent establishment on Dyer island. These islands, 
together with the numerous rocks, extending nearly 1| miles to the 
westward of thom, form a natural breakwater, under which, vessels 
may find shelter in south and south-east gales. 

Landing is not good, and at times impracticable. The best is near 
a small shed on Dyer island, the remains of the disused sealing 
station. 

Anchorage. — Directions. — Dyer and Geyser islands, being low 
and white, are made out with difficulty when seen against the sand- 
hills on the adjacent coast. In approaching them from the south- 
ward, keep Palmiet valley (in the high land near cape Hangklip) 
open of Danger point until Geyser island is in line with Gunners 
Quoin to avoid the reef, which does not break in line weather, 
extending westward of Dyer and Geyser islands. Then haul up for 
Duin Fontein berg, and when Gunners Quoin is open northward of 
Dyer island, steer for it, and anchor in 10 to 12 fathoms, with the 
extremes of Dyer island bearing about S.S.E. and S. by W., distant 
about one mile. 

The bottom is sand, and the holding ground good, but the reef 
affords no shelter from south-west winds. There is a narrow 
channel, with depths of 3 fathoms between the east end of Dyer 
island and the rock above water inshore, which a small vessel might 
find practicable under favourable circumstances, but it cannot be 
recommended ; the sea breaks across it in southerly winds. Foul 
ground, with heavy breakers, extends from the Sandy point abreast, 
to within one mile of Dyer island. 

THE COAST* from Danger point to Quoin point, a distance of 
nearly 19 miles south-eastward, is low near the sea, and backed by 
bare rugged hills of moderate elevation, one of which, named False 
Quoin, from its shape, is 888 feet high, and about half-way between 
Danger and Quoin points. A long, hea^y swell constantly breaks 
on the shore, which is inaccessible. 

At about 5^ miles eastward of Danger point, at the head of a bay, 
is the mouth of the Uilkraal, a small stream, checked at its junction 
■with the sea by sand. 

* See charts, Nos. 2,082 and 2,572. 



Chap. II.] DYER ISLAND.— QUOIN POINT. 83 

Patches. — About half-way between Dyer island and Quoin point 
are two rocky patches, 1^ miles off shore, upon which the least water 
found was 4 fathoms. The sea breaks upon them when there is any 
swell. 

Gunner's Quoin (Buffel Jagt'Berg) is a conspicuous bluff hill, 
997 feet in height, named from its resemblance to a quoin, which, 
however, it does not bear when viewed from the westward. Quoin 
point is a square projection of hummocky land, from the base of the 
Gunners Quoin, and is 3 miles from it. It is fronted by sunken 
rocks and heavy breakers to the distance of 1^ miles from the shore, 
and is distinguished, when seen from the southward, by two sandhills 
near its extremity. 

The Coast from Quoin point to' cape Agulhas, 18 miles to the 
south-eastward, is low and sandy, except abreast of the flat-topped 
range named Zoet Anys, where it is steep and rocky. The whole is 
exposed to the full force of the ocean swell, and landing is 
impracticable. 

The depths are shallower along this part of the coast than they are 
off, and to the westward of the Quoin ; and between about 2 and 
4 miles eastward of the south-east face of Quoin point and If miles 
from the shore are several rocky patches, some of which are above 
water. 

Directions. — In standing towards any part of this coast, cape 
Agulhas light should not be lost sight of, and a vessel should stand 
off before the light disappears on a S. 57° E. bearing. Fiom the 
westward, having passed Quoin point at a distance of 7 or 8 miles, 
a S.E. ^ E. course, made good, will round cape Agulhas at a similar 
distance. See caution, p. 85. 

There is tolerable shelter and smooth water, in strong north-west 
winds, under the lee of the reefs 4 miles eastward of Quoin point, 
and it is possible that a small vessel might find the same shelter close 
under the east extreme of Quoin point ; the whole of this coast, 
however, should be given a wide berth, when possible. 

See charts, Nos. 2,082 and 2,672. 



so 11977 F 2 



84 



CHAPTER III. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

(Long 20° E. to 25° 40' E.) 



Variation m 1897. 
Cape Agulhas ... 29° 30' W. | Cape Recife ... 29° 10' W. 



AGULHAS BANK.— The limits of this extensive bank, 
southward of cape Agulhas, have been fairly defined. The 100 
fathoms line appears to extend from near the shore in the vicinity 
of Bashee river to the south-westward, passing cape Recife at about 
20 miles distant, and the meridan of Mossel bay at 60 miles ; here 
it trends southward, reaching its outer limit in lat. 36° 45' S., 
long. 20° 45' E., thence it inclines northward, passing the Cape 
peninsula at a minimum distance of 5 miles. Nowhere does the 
edge of the bank appear to be very steep ; the general depths on 
it are from 45 to 80 fathoms. 

Eastward of cape Agulhas the bottom is generally rocky, or coarse 
sand, shells, and small stones, whilst to the westward of Agulhas, 
mud or green sand will be found southward of lat. 35° 15' S., but 
within 50 fathoms the bottom is rock, sand, or stones, and beyond 
90 fathoms generally sandy, with black specks. The quality of the 
bottom is not, however, sufficiently ascertained to enable seamen to 
determine their position by it. 

There is one marked effect of the Agulhas bank in quieting the 
heavy seas which roll up to it. A vessel may be exposed to a 
turbulent and irregular sea while in deep water and outside the 
bank, endangering spars and threatening to break over her, but the 
moment soundings of 60 to 70 fathoms are gained the sea becomes 
comparatively tranquil. 

Se'i chart, No. 2,095. 



Chap. III.] AGULHAS BANK AND CAPE AGULHAS. 85 

CAPE AGULHAS is a rocky projection, and the most southern 
part of Africa. The features of the land about cape Agulhas 
distinguish it from the neighbouring headlands. Viewed from a 
distance seaward, east or west, the north and south elevations 
resemble two oblong hummocks. At a distance from the southward 
the two appear united. The highest part is 455 feet above the sea, 
and its distance from the extreme of the cape about one mile. 

On the first undulation within cape Agulhas is the lighthouse, 
which is at times somewhat difficult to distinguish from the south- 
ward against the higher land behind. 

Westward of the cape, the coast trends a north-west direction to 
Quoin point. Immediately to the eastward of the cape are two small 
indentations, the first of which is named St. Mungo bay. The whole 
of the coast about cape Agulhas and thence to Northumberland 
point consists of rugged sandstone and quartz rocks, or rocky reef, 
extending out one-third of a mile, and perfectly impracticable for 
boats to approach. 

Exposed to the uninterrupted oscillations of the Southern ocean, 
the sea breaks heavily all along on this iron-bound shore, particularly 
during southerly winds. A vessel touching on it has not the slightest 
chance of escaping destruction. 

Reported dangers near.— Caution. — A report was received 
that the steam-vessel Mexican struck, on the "iJnd December 1894, 
some obstruction off cape Agulhas, with the lighthouse bearing 
N.E. f E., distant about 1;^ miles. 

A former Notice to Mariners, No. 208 of 1892, stated that the 
steam- vessel Alcestis had then struck an obstruction off this cape, 
but that the particulars given were not sufficient to enable the 
position to be ascertained with any degree of exactness ; it was 
however assumed to lie about 2| miles W. \ N. from cape Agulhas. 

Mariners should remember that not only off cape Agulhas, but off 
all other parts of the south coast of Africa, and especially oft" salient 
points, sunken wrecks or uncharted dangers may exist close to the 
coast ; and that it is not advisable to approach this surf -beaten 
shore, even in full-powered steam-vessels, within at least 2 or 3 miles* 
When a strong adverse current prevails the temptation is great, but 
west of Algoa bay there is nothing to be gained by so doing, while 
a risk is run (in case of a breakdown in the machinery or any 

See charts, No. 2,082 and 2,572. 



86 CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSEL BAY. [Chap. Til. 

t3mporary error in the course) of total wreck before any efforts can 
be made to avoid such a catastrophe. Sailing vessels should keep 
7 or 8 miles off shore as recommended in the directions on page 83. 

On this coast the water breaks in heavy swells in 10 fathoms. If 
therefore a rock, with its top near enough the surface to bring up a 
ship, existed in this position in about that depth, it would, unless a 
most unusual pinnacle, undoubtedly break long before the whole 
area is a mass of breakers, which occurs in bad weather. The light- 
house keepers at Agulhas report no such occurrence, and it appears 
more probable that the obstruction is a wreck. 

On the Admiralty charts however "rock hereabouts" has been 
written at the spot where Mexican reports touching. 

. LIGHT. — The lighthouse on cape Agulhas is a round tower 
100 feet high, painted with horizontal red and white bands alter- 
nately. From it is exhibited a fixed wliite light at an elevation of 
128 feet above the sea, visible from seaward between the bearings 
of S. 89" W. and S. 57° E., and in clear weather should be seen from 
a distance of 18 miles. It is frequently invisible at this distance. 

Lloyd's Sigrnal station, near the lighthouse, is connected with 
the telegraph system of Cape Colony. 

Northumberland point lies B miles eastward of Agulhas 
lighthouse. It is low and sandy immediately on the beach, but a 
dangerous ledge of rocks surrounds the point, and shallow water 
extends in a south-east direction about one mile from the points A 
detached rock, which breaks at times, lies S.E. by E. \ E. distant 
1^ miles from the point. Westward of the point the reef extends 
off about one-third of a mile, and the sea breaks heavily near it 
with S.E. winds. 

A bank about one mile in extent, with from 7 to 9 fathoms water, 
lies with its north tdge on the parallel and eastward of the light- 
house, and distant from it 5^ miles. The sea breaks on it in bad 
weather. 

STRITYS BAY, lying between Struys and Northumberland 
points, affords shelter in West to N.W. winds, but is wholly un- 
safe in any wind from W.S.W. round southerly to East. From 
abreast the houses in the west part of the bay the beach is clean 
sami to. within.. 3_.miles. of. Struys.._point, .where. J.at jagged, rocks 

See charts, Noh. 2,572, 2,082, and 2,083. 



Ghap. III.] - STRUTS BAY. 87 

commence ; behind this sandy beach is a line of sandhills about 
100 feet in height, some of which are partly covered with scrub ; 
behind these is a green covered ridge attaining a height of 200 feet. 
The bank lying between 3 and 4 miles south-eastward of Northum- 
berland point, with depths of 7 fathoms, breaks heavily in bad 
weather. 

Directions.— Ancliorage. — The best anchorage is under North- 
umberland point. Vessels from the westward should round 
Northumberland point in 9 to 10 fathoms water, at a distance of 
about 2 miles, to avoid the dangers off it. When the stone house 
in the bay bears W.N.W., steer to the N.W., and anchor in 5 fathoms, 
saud, with the house bearing W. ^ S., and the extreme of Northum- 
berland point S.W. by S. Here the bottom is clear, while farther in 
in is foul. Large vessels should anchor farther out, in 7 fathoms. 

Vessels from the eastward will clear the dangers off Struys point 
by keeping Agulhas light bearing well to the northward of West. 

Caution. — With strong onshore winds it is unsafe to venture into 
Struys bay, as the sea often breaks in 7 and 8 fathoms water. It has 
been the scene of several wrecks. 

As a general rule, sailing vessels seeking temporary shelter in this 
bay in a north-west gale should put to sea immediately after it 
subsides, for the wind frequently changes in a few hours from 
blowing strong at north-west to south-east or south, in which case it 
is very difficult to work out, in consequence of the heavy sea which 
then rises. 

Landing". — The landing place is a small cove to the north-west of 
Northumberland point, sheltered by a shelf of shingle projecting 
from each extremity of the cove, but it is fast filling up with sand ; 
a wooden jetty at the end of which a vessel drawing 7 or 8 feet 
formerly secured has been dry for many years. 

"Water. — There are several wells, but the water is scarce and 
brackish ; it is procured only by digging in the sand beach above 
high water mark. 

Bredasdorp. — The village of Bredasdorp is 16 miles or three 
hours journey distant from the landing place in Struys bay, where 
supplies can be obtained and where there is postal communication 
with Cape Town. 

See charts, Nob. 2,572 and 2,0S3. 



88 CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSBL BAY. [Chap. HI. 

Honing" Nest river discharges into Struys bay near the centre, 
between bare sandhills ; it is the outlet of several streams flowing 
from the hills northward and westward for many miles, which form 
lagoons in places in the flat land lying within this coast. These 
are the Kars, Poorts, and Nieuw-jaar. The Honing Nest is unim- 
portant and usually fordable three-quarters of a mile from the mouth, 
and often at the mouth, but the latter is dangerous. 

Tide and Current. — It is high water in Struys bay, full and 
change, at 2h. 50m. ; springs rise 5 feet. During the examination of 
this part of the coast, in September 1848, no current was observed in 
the bay, or within 2^ miles of the shore, but the fishermen stated 
that a strong current frequently sets to the westward round 
Northumberland point. A vessel becalmed in the offing, was seen 
from the anchorage drifting to the eastward more than one mile an 
hour. On two other occasions, close to the shore, about 2 miles 
to the westward of cape Agulhas lighthouse, the stream ran 
through the whole night steadily to the N.W. at 1^ knots per 
hour. These changes may probably be traced to the effects of the 
wind. 

Several accounts concur in stating that eastward of cape Agulhas 
the current has been found to set towards the shore ; this indraught 
seems to be stronger between the months of January-April. A large 
proportion of the wrecks which have occurred between capes Agulhas 
and Infanta have been attributed to it. See pages 32 and 33. 

STRUYS POINT is a mass of bare sandhills ^00 feet high, 
sloping southward for nearly one mile to low water mark, where 
it is rocky. 

Beacon. — A stone pyramidal beacon 34 feet high, surmounted by 
a ball 4 feet in diameter, is erected on Struys point. The beacon is 
coloured red to seaward, with red and white bands on the east and 
west sides, and stands on land about 2 feet above high water spring 
tides. 

Outer Blinder rock. — From Struys point a chain of detached 
patches of rock extend in a S.S.E. direction. On the outer one, 
named the Outer Blinder, there is a depth of 3 fathoms at low water, 

See charts, Nos. 2,672 and 2,083. 



Chap. III.] STRUTS POINT. — ATLAS KEEP. 89 

with 4 to 6 fathoms close-to, and 7 to 9 fathoms at a distance of 
4 cables. The rock lies with Struys point beacon bearing N.N.W. 
distant l^^j^ miles. 

At about 3 cables inshore of the Outer Blinder rock is the Bulldog 
or Saxon reef, with 2 fathoms at low water, 8 fathoms close-to, and 
about 4 fathoms between it and Outer Blinder rock. Between the 
reefs lying between Bulldog reef and Struys point, there are boat 
passages, available in fine weather. 

In standing towards these dangers, cape Agulhas light will be lost 
sight of when bearing S. 89° W., that line of direction passing about 
3 cables southward of Outer Blinder rock. 

Marcus bay. — From Struys point the coast trends north-eastward 
for about 5 miles to Hoop point, forming Marcus bay ; fishermen 
live near and beach their boats on one of the sandy beaches in 
ordinary weather. 

The shore for 2 miles eastward of Struys point, is a sandy beach 
with a fringe of low flat jagged rocks rendering it unapproachable ; 
it is backed by rocky hills covered with sand, 150 feet high ; behind 
these hills is a range of green covered hills which drop to the plain 
behind at 2 to 3 miles distant from the coast. Marcus bay has 
rocky patches in it, but it afiJords shelter in westerly and north- 
westerly winds equal to that of Struys bay. 

Martha point, about 5 miles eastward of Hoop point, is named from 
a vessel wrecked here : it is the scene of more wrecks than any other 
part on the south coast of Africa. The coast between Struys and 
Martha points is fringed with reefs, with depths of 4 to 6 fathoms, 
and on which the sea breaks in heavy weather. 

Atlas reef, eastward of Hoop point, with 3 fathoms least water, 
named from the Dutch ship Atlas, which was wrecked on it, lies 
ly*^ miles from the shore, with Struys point bearing W. ^ S., distant 
7 miles, and a triple isolated peak inland N.W. ^ W. The peak on 
this bearing appears like a cone. Miles Barton rock, with 4 fathoms, 
lies 6 cables from the Atlas reef, in the direction of Struys point ; a 
patch of 5 fathoms lies 4 cables seaward of Miles Barton ; and two 
patches with the same depth lie one and two miles eastward of 
Atlas reef. 



See charts, Nos. 2,572 and 2,083. 



90 CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSBL BAY. [Chaf). III. 

DIRECTIONS,— Rounding: Cape Ag-ulhas and Struys 
point. — Vessels from the westward (see directions, page (S3, and 
reported dangers off, page 85), after rounding cape Agulhas, should 
keep the light in sight ; it is advisable not to bring it to the west- 
ward of W. by N., on which bearing a vessel will pass the dangers 
extending from Struys point at a distance of 3 miles. 

From the eastward, Agulhas light must not be depended upon for 
passing Struys point, as in hazy weg-ther, or from other circumstances, 
combined with the distance from Struys point (14 miles), the light 
may be faint or altogether obscured, and the vessel may get within 
the line of danger. Under such circumstances, the point should not 
be approached at night to a less depth than 30 fathoms. 

The like precautions are required in the day time, particularly in 
foggy weather ; for the high land of Agulhas may be invisible, while 
the sandhills of Struys bay and the breakers o£E Northumberland 
point are distinctly seen. At such times it may be somewhat 
difficult to determine whether the vessel is eastward or westward of 
Struys point, because the shore features of Struys bay are very 
similar to the bay eastward of Struys point, but in the former 
there is a house and flagstaff near Northumberland point ; these, 
with the beacon on Struys point, should be sufficient to identify 
the coast. 

Whilst to the eastward of cape Agulhas, sailing vessels should not 
approach the shore nearer than 7 or 8 miles, at which distance the 
cape should be rounded, for if it falls calm, the heavy swell which 
constantly rolls towards the shore will carry her with it, and the 
resource of anchoring would, probably, be of no avail, owing to the 
swell and the rocky nature of the bottom. 

Vessels beating round cape Agulhas in strong north-westerly winds 
would find it safe and profitable to anchor in St. Sebastian, Marcus, 
or Struys bays, being prepared to weigh on a shift of wind. 

Caution. — in rounding cape Agulhas either way, be careful not 
to mistake the lights of camp fires for Agulhas light. 

COAST. — From Martha point the coast trends northward, and 
3 miles beyond it is a large mass of bare sand hills, a broader sand 
beach, and fewer of the flat jagged rocks fringing it ; this continues 
for about 7 miles ; then the coast becomes again rocky, the bare sand 
hills disappear, and the Driefontein range becomes inclined to the 

See chart, No. 2,083. 



Chap. Til.] DIRECTIONS.— ST. SEBASTIAN BAY. 9l 

coast. At 13 or 14 miles from Martha point this range forms 
the coast line, intersected by deep watercourses, eastward of which 
the Potteberg range, 1,980 feet high, slopes gradually to cape 
Infanta. 

Hoop Lake. — At 1^ miles from the beach and 4| miles eastward 
of Martha point is the south end of Hoop lake, 4 miles in length, 
into which discharges the Zout river. On its east bank is a farm. 
This lake is shallow throughout, has no apparent outlet, and varies 
in depth, according to the season ; the water is brackish. 

ST. SEBASTIAN BAY.— Cape Infanta, the western 
extreme of St. Sebastian bay, is a bold cliffy rocky point situated 
24 miles eastward of Martha point ; a double point with remarkable 
masses of rock lies about one mile westward of it. 

Rock. — A sunken rock, named the Blinder, a name commonly 
given to sunken rocks on this coast, lies about one mile southward 
of cape Infanta ; its correct position has not been ascertained, and it 
only breaks during heavy gales. 

Landing*. — From cape Infanta the coast trends suddenly north- 
ward, and at the distance of about one mile is the mouth of a deep 
ravine, known as Still bay, with a beach of large rounded stones ; 
here fishermen can usually launch and beach their boats. This is the 
only landing place for many miles along the coast, and it can often 
be used when it is unsafe to cross the bar of Breede river. 

St. Sebastian bluff. — At the distance of 2 miles north-eastward 
of cape Infanta is St. Sebastian bluff, a bold perpendicular headland, 
220 feet in height ; a ledge fronts the bluff to the distance of one 
cable, with a depth of 5 fathoms at the same distance beyond. 

Northward of the bluff the cliffs cease and the land around the 
mouth of Breede river becomes lower, but deeply intersected for 
three-quarters of a mile from St. Sebastian bluff. 

The coast from Breede river trends south-eastward, to cape 
Barracouta, a distance of 22 miles, and is composed of cliff-faced 
hills, ranging from GO to 200 feet high ; about 7| miles eastward of 
the Breede is the little river Duivenhoks ; a conspicuous sand patch 
on the west marks its entrance, and 4 miles inland is a hill named 
Wolfskloof, 744 feet high. At 2 and 5 miles north-west, of cape 

' See chai-t, No. 2,083. 



92 CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSEL BAY, [Chap. III. 

Barracouta there are conspicuous sand patches. Tromps Kop hill, 
959 feet high, lies 6 miles northward of the cape. The coast from 
the cape eastward to Kaffir Kuyl bay is irregular, with several 
projecting points. 

Anchoragre. — There is good anchorage in St. Sebastian bay, and 
the western part affords shelter from all winds except those between 
East and South. The best position is in 8 fathoms, sand, with 
St. Sebastian bluff, bearing from S.S.W. to S. by W., and the high 
flagstaff on the south bank of the Breede river about N.N.W. ^ W. 

Breede river falls into the sea in St. Sebastian bay, through a 
mouth narrowed by sandbanks to 160 yards at low water, and 
extending off about half a mile from its northern point. It has a 
depth of 12 feet at high water on its bar, and is the most important 
navigable river in this colony ; a steam vessel drawing 8 feet can 
ascend to Malagas, 20 miles from its mouth. 

Within the mouth, for 3 or 4 miles, its navigable channel is 
intricate and varying ; above that it contracts and flows evenly 
between steep banks. 

For 4:8 miles from the mouth the general direction of Breede river 
is north-westerly, but tortuous ; at that distance Buft'eljagts river, a 
stream from the mountains 9 or 10 miles distant, flows into it ; 
beyond this confluence the Breede flows from the west, passing close 
to the town of Swellendam, near which the main postal road crosses 
the river, which point is 61 miles by the river from its mouth ; at 
8 miles farther on it is joined by the river Zondereinde.* 

Railway. — It is intended to connect Swellendam with the Cape 
railway system. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at the jetty at port 
Beaufort at 3h. 8m. ; springs rise 6 feet. 

Directions. — The river should be entered at the last quarter of 
the flood. A pilot is always ready and should be taken on board in 
St. Sebastian bay. The following directions apply to the date of 
the survey : — Having brought the flagstaffs on the sandhills on 
the south bank of the river in line, steer for them, which will 
lead over the bar in about 12 feet at high water springs ; after 
deepening the water, open the inner flagstaff a little to the north- 
ward of the outer one, passing close to the rocks on the south shore, 
to abreast the flagstaffs, close to which and on the beach will be seen 
a house. Still keeping on the same shore, a little farther in the 

* See plan of entrance to Breede river, and port Beaufort, on chart, No. 2,08S. 



Chap. III.] BRBBDE RIVER. — KAFFIR KUYL BAY. 93 

narrowest part of the channel will be reached abreast the spit end, 
when it turns suddenly to the northward : the breadth is here 
160 yards at low water, and a vessel may anchor in safety. As the 
channel thence to the jetty at port Beaufort is varying, no reliable 
directions can be given. 

Port Beaufort is a small trading settlement on the left bank of 
Breede river ; loaded vessels cross the bar drawing 11 feet and lie 
alongside a jetty. The value of the exports is inconsiderable. 

Supplies are readily obtained except water, which has usually to be 
brought down the river in boats from a distance of 20 miles or less 
according to the season, though sometimes it is fresh at port 
Beaufort. 

There is postal communication with Cape Town. 

KAFFIR KUYL BAY, situated about 6 miles eastward of cape 
Barracouta, with Leven point midway between, is open to winds from 
E.S.E. to S. by W., and is therefore unsafe during the season of 
south-easterly winds ; but in winter, when westerly winds prevail, 
cargoes may be safely landed or shipped.* 

The anchorage is sheltered from the south-westerly swell by a 
reef which projects about half a mile to the southward from Morris 
point. It appears to be clear, with regularly decreasing depths of 
from 10 to 4 fathoms, with a bottom of sand and broken shells. The 
best anchorage is in 6^ fathoms, about one-third of a mile from the 
shore, with Morris point bearing about S.W. by W. 

Kaffir Kuyl river is insignificant, and has a bar which is nearly 
dry at low water. There is a good landing-place in fine weather in 
the rocky cove on the south side of the mouth of the river. 

COAST. — The shore eastward of Kaffir Kuyl river is a sandy 
beach for about 2 miles, whence it rises, and trends in a south-east 
direction for 12 miles to Izervark point ; it is skirted with reefs, on 
which the sea breaks. Izervark point is bold and rocky, with 
Buffels Kop hill, 740 feet high, about one mile northward of it ; 
Aasvogei berg, a long elevated mountain, 1,620 feet high, lies 11 miles 
northward from the point, and may serve to identify it. 

Between Izervark point and cape Vacca, 10 miles farther eastward, 
the coast consists of jagged rocks, on which a heavy sea is constantly 
beating. The land immediately at the back rises to the height of 

' See plan of Kaffir Kuyl bay on chart, No. 2,083, 



94 CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSEL BAY. [Chap. III. 

500 to 700 feet, and is covered with vegetation. Bull point, about 
3 miles eastward of Izervark point, is not easily distinguished, being 
only a slight projection ; at half a mile westward of it is a sand 
patch of a reddish colour ; and South, three-quarters of a mile from 
the patch and one-third of a mile off shore, are patches of detached 
reef which break and uncover at low water. 

Gouritz river enters the sea at about one mile westward of cape 
Vacca. There is a sandy beach on the western side of entrance, but 
the breakers are generally too high to make it available as a landing 
place. The sea breaks across the mouth of the river, which at the 
outer part is half a mile wide, but at half a mile within it is only 
10 to 1,5 yards wide. 

Cape Vacca, lying 15 miles west from the lighthouse on cape 
St. Blaize, is the extreme of a low flat of rock and shingle jutting 
out from a round hill which rises over the eastern side of entrance 
to the Gouritz river, 1.^ miles westward of the cape. In rough 
weather the sea breaks half a mile off the cape, at which distance 
the depth is 9 fathoms. From the discolouration of the water, and 
the uneasy ground swell in the vicinity, it is more than probable 
that foul ground exists there. 

Care must be taken in rounding this low cape at night, as it is only 
just within the range of the light on cape St. Blaize. The light is 
not seen within the bearing N. 81° E., which is a little more than 
half a mile outside the cape. If the light is not seen, the lead will 
be the best guide either at night or in thick weather. 

Flesh bay lies between cape Vacca and Flesh point, a distance of 
2| miles. The shore of the bay is sandy, save at the extremes, which 
are rocky. About the middle of the bay there is a bare sandhill, 
271 feet high. 

Flesh bay affords no shelter, save as a temporary one in north-west 
gales, and it can only be used as a landing place in tolerably fine 
weather. Flesh point may be known by a flesh-coloured patch of 
sand ; it is bold-to on the eastern side. 

Fish bay is formed between Flesh and Pinnacle points, separated 
by a distance of 9 miles ; the latter is the well-defined commence- 
ment of the rocky cliffs, about 250 feet high, extending 4 miles west- 
ward from cape St. Blaize. The whole of the shore of the bay is 
sandy, with occasional patches of rock showing near low water and 
through the breakers which are generally high. The land at the 

/S^tf obwt, No. 2,083. 



Chap. III.] GOURITZ RIVER.— CAPE ST. BLAIZE. % 

back, at the distance of one mile, rises 400 to 500 feet in height, and 
is covered with vegetation. 

Fish bay may be used by vessels seeking shelter from north-west 
gales. The best anchorage is in the west corner of the bay, in 7 to 8 
fathoms, with Flesh point bearing about S. ^ W., distant IJ miles, 
and the same distance off shore. It is advisable for vessels to put to 
sea as soon as the gale subsides, for then a heavy south-west swell 
sets in and causes a dangerous breaking sea. The best landing is 
near Flesh point, in a sandy cove between rocks ; but in fine weather 
boats may land in the bight under a farmhouse. 

CAPE ST. BLAIZE is a bluff about 250 feet high, upon which, 
at 500 yards from the seaj is a square white light tower, with 
buildings at its base for the light keepers ; just beneath the bluff is 
the Logan stone, a remarkable whitewashed rock.* 

The extreme of the cape is a tongue of low land, fronted by 
reef to the distance of 1| cables. The Blinder or Windvogel, u 
rock with 2^ fathoms water, and 5 to 7 fathoms around, lies a quarter 
of a mile off the cape ; the sea breaks on the rock at low water and 
in rough weather. 

Vessels proceeding westward from cape St. Blaize should be 
careful not to shut in the ligut, nor should they stand into less than 
25 fathoms water. 

LIGHT. — From the square white light tower, 45 feet high, on 
cape St. Blaize will be exhibited after September 1897, at an elevation 
of 240 feet above the sea, a, group Jlashtng ivhite light showing two 
Jlashes, each of one-third of a second in duration, every fifteen 
seconds, visible in clear weather from a distance of 15 miles. To 
the westward, the light is not visible when bearing eastward of 
N. 81° E., or within half a mile from cape Vacca. 

A temporary fixed white light will be shown until the new light is 
exhibited. 

MOSSEL BAY,* between cape St. Blaize and little Brak river, is 
about 6 miles wide ; the whole of the western shore is a sandy beach. 
Between the Hartenbosch river and the little Brak are conspicuous 
sandhills, which are useful in identifying the bay when coming 
from the eastward. The mouth of the little Brak river is a dangerous 
quicksand. At one-third of a mile from the head of the bay, is Seal 
island, about 15 feet high, with 3 to 5 fathoms between it and the 
shore. 

* See chart, No. 2,083 ; also plan of Mossel bay. No. 639. 



96 MOSSEL BAY. [Chap. III. 

Mossel bay affords excellent shelter to vessels during the winter 
months, April to September, when heavy north-west gales are of 
frequent occurrence, and it is far preferable to use it as a place of 
shelter than to buffet the sea about cape Agulhas. During the 
strength of these gales the water in the bay is smooth, and vessels 
ride easily ; but it sometimes happens that a heavy south-west swell 
sets into the bay if the wind veers to West and W.S.W., rendering 
the bay unsafe, and landing difficult and at times almost im- 
practicable. 

In winter south-easterly winds are unfrequent, moderate, and of 
short duration. The heaviest gales during the year are from W.N.W. 
Winter gales commence from N.N.W. with heavy gusts, unsteady 
both in direction and force, then veering to W.N.W. or West. They 
blow very hard in continuous gales, with a low barometer (29'6 
inches), finally shifting rather suddenly to S.W., when they subside 
with steady breezes and occasional showers. 

During the summer season, September to April, when south-east 
gales occur, the bay is exposed to the full effect of the open sea, but 
these gales seldom last longer than 36 hours, and do not blow home. 
A heavy breaking sea then rolls in, and vessels trading to the port 
usually ride with a long scope of cable, with a coir or hempen spring 
to ease the strain ; with this precaution vessels ride safely, and the 
holding ground is good. As in Algoa bay, there appears to be a 
strong easterly current or undertow, which assists to ease the strain 
on the cables. Should a sailing vessel, however, not wish to risk 
riding out a south-easter, by putting to sea early she will be well able 
to clear cape St, Blaize by first making a long board to the eastward, 
in which she will be assisted by the undertow. It has been found 
that a rise of the barometer usually precedes a south-easter, and that 
the increase of the wind is gradual at the commencement. Moderate 
south-west winds even at this season of the year are very common. 

Landing jetty. — The south shore of the bay, for 3 miles north- 
westward of cape St. Blaise, is rocky, with the exception of three 
sandy coves, the outer two of which are named Vaarkens and Mauro. 
In Vaarkens cove is a substantially built jetty, protected by a small 
shelter pier from the east side of the cove ; here landing may 
generally be effected. The depth alongside the jetty is 11 feet. 

Town of Aliwal. — On the rising ground over Vaarkens cove is 
the town of Aliwal, which consists of numerous houses, the greater 

See plan of Mossel bay, No. 63U. 



Chap. III.] ALIWAL. — LIGHTS.— SUPPLIES. 97 

number substantially built, an episcopal chapel and a Dutch church ; 
various other buildings are in course of erection. The resources of 
trade and produce in the interior have been opened to this port by 
the formation of roads via Ruyterbosch and Meirings Poort, through 
a gorge of the Zwartberg range of mountains, and a thriving 
commerce is the result. There is also a bridge over the Little Brak 
river. 

Tlie population of the town in 1891, date of last census, was 
2,061. The civil establishment is composed of a resident magistrate, 
a collector of customs, a district surgeon, and a small police force. 

Trade. — The principal exports are wool, skins, aloes, ostrich 
feathers, tobacco, cereals, and brandy ; and the imports, general 
merchandise. The exports in 1895 were valued at £145,302, and 
the imports at £163,530, 

LIGHTS. — Affixed red light and o. fixed green light are exhibited 
from the extremity of the jetty in Vaarkens cove. The green light 
is not visible until bearing S.W. \ S., or southward of that bearing. 

In bad weather, a red light is exhibited on the rising ground at 
Erme bay, for the purpose of guiding vessels, which may part from 
their anchors and are not able to beat off, to the best spot for 
beaching. 

Supplies. — Coal. — Fresh water is supplied, at the rate of about 
30 tons a day, from a pipe at the jetty end in Vaarkens bay. Fresh 
provisions and vegetables are to be had in any quantity, but coal 
only in small quantities. There is also a harbour master and an 
accredited agent for Lloyd's. There are no port charges. 

CominuilicatlOIl. — Aliwal is in telegraphic and postal communi- 
cation with the Cape Colony, and the Union line of steamers call 
here fortnightly. There is other coastal service. The railway is two 
days' journey distant. Vessels can communicate with the shore 
by the International Code ; the flagstaff is near the Port office. 

Directions. — Anchorage. — Approaching Mossel bay from the 
westward, the lighthouse bluff of cape St. Blaize will be conspicuous, 
the land at the back being quoin-shaped and somewhat resembling 
the Bill of Portland. In rounding the cape, keep Pinnacle point 

^■e plan of Mossel bay, No. 639. 

so wvi G 



98 MOSSEL BAY. [Chap. Ill 

open southward of the rock under the cliffs just westward of the 
lighthouse bluff, until the large patch of sand at Hartenbosch river 
bears N. ^ E., when the anchorage may be steered for, taking sufficient 
room for rounding-to, if necessary. 

Coming from the eastward, cape St. Blaize may be identified by 
the lighthouse, which being white shows conspicuously Elgainst the 
dark background, and by the remarkable sand patch at the mouth 
of the Hartenbosch river. 

There is anchorage in Mossel bay abreast the town of Aliwal, in 
about 6 fathoms, with St. Blaize lighthouse bearing S. by W., and 
the Magazine W. | N. Small vessels may anchor nearer the cove in 
3g to 4 fathoms. 

Vessels seeking shelter only, should not go within a depth of 
7 fathoms, in either season of the year. 

At night, lights are shown from the jetty, as before mentioned. 
When the green light is visible (bearing S.W. | S., or inshore of that 
bearing) anchor with St. Blaize light S. by W., in about 6 fathoms 
water. 

Should a vessel part her cable, with no hope of getting to sea, she 
should run for the red light in Erme bay, bearing W. by S. 

Tides. — There is no regular stream of tide in Mossel bay. It is 
high water, full and change, at 3h. 30m., and the rise 6 to 7 feet. 

"Weather SigrnalS. — The following signals are made from the 
shore when bad weather is expected, and must be answered and 
obeyed without delay : — 

Union Jack over flag S. - Prepare for bad weather. 

Union Jack over flag J. - Drop second anchor, have buoy ropes 

and springs on cables, and be pre- 
pared to slip and put to sea. 

Red flag above flag S. - Slip and put to sea at once ; see that 

buoys and buoy ropes are good. 

Union Jack over flag H. - Shorten in cable to length veered on 

first anchoring. 

COAST. — Great Brak river lies in the north-east portion of 
Mossel bay, about 8^ miles from cape St. Blaize. It enters the sea 
from between sandy hillocks, 80 to 150 feet high, and which are 
mostly covered with scant bush. The beach is sandy, and fringed 

See plan of Mossel bay, No. 639, 



Chap. III.] GREAT BRAK RIVER. — VICTORIA BAY. 99 

with rocks at low water. About 3 miles to the eastward, the sand 
hillocks disappear, and the coast becomes shelving and cliffy to the 
mouth of Mai Gat river. 

Mai Gat river is a stream entering the sea between high cliffs ; 
its mouth is frequently closed with sand. The water is good, but of 
a dark-red colour. A little westward of the mouth, and one mile 
from the shore, there is a 10-fathoms patch, with deep water around. 
At 1|^ miles eastward of the mouth is a conspicuous cluster of rocks, 
all within li cables of the shore. The land at the back slopes 
gradually from a height of 720 feet to the sea, where it presents a 
rocky unapproachable shore. 

Gayang" river lies 4 miles eastward of the Mai Gat ; its mouth 
is often closed. The water is good, and of the same dark colour as 
the Mai Gat. Great Brak, Mai Gat, and Gayang rivers take their 
rise in the Outeniqua range of mountains, 4,000 to ,5,000 feet high, 
upwards of 10 miles from the coast ; they have formed deep 
channels for themselves across the elevated plateau, extending to 
the sea coast. 

Button cove, lying close westward of Gayang river, is a slight 
indentation in the coast, in which lies a rocky islet. 

From Gayang river the coast takes an easterly trend for 4 miles to 
Schaapkop river, next to which is Mill river and Christina bay. The 
coast thus far continues rocky and unapproachable. 

Christina bay is another spot in which an attempt has been 
made to make it available as a landing-place, from its nearnebs to 
George Town, but it is quite impracticable ; it is simply the 
embouchure of Mill river, which flows between steep, close, wood- 
covered hills. The beach is covered with large smooth stones. 

Victoria bay lies half a mile eastward of Christina bay. It is 
a broader indentation than the other, but is shallow, with a sandy 
beach, where landing may at times be effected ; but no craft should 
attempt to enter it. 

Georgre Town is situated on a plain behind the coast hills, at 
about 5 miles from the Gayang river, and the same distance from 
Victoria bay. 

See chart, No. 2,084. 

SO 11977 a 2 



100 MOSSEL BAY TO KNYSNA. [Chap. III. 

Oaymail river enters the sea at one mile north-eastward of 
Victoria bay, and, like the others, is of no navigable importance ; 
within a mile from the mouth the waters of Zwarte river join it ; 
here the river is fordable. 

The Touw river, a small stream, lies a little more than one mile to 
the eastward of Cayman river, and its mouth is often closed by 
sand. It takes its rise in the Outeniqua mountains. 

COAST. — From the mouth of Touw river the coast trends south- 
eastward about 21 miles to Walker point, which is 4 miles westward 
of Knysna harbour. For nearly 2 miles eastv.'ard from the Touw 
the beach is sandy, with scattered flat rocks appearing at low water, 
backed by a ridge of irregular sandhills, about 250 feet high. Thence 
the hillocks are stony, but the sandy beach continues, with fewer 
rocks above low water, for 4^ miles, when it becomes permanently 
rocky, and the hills increase in height to 300 feet. Thence to Gericke 
point, about 2 miles farther, are cliffs of a reddish colour, averaging 
500 feet in height ; it is not wooded. 

Gericke bay is small, with an apparently foul bottom ; a rocjky 
islet lies off Gericke point, and rocks outside the islet, but all that 
uncover lie within half a mile. The rocky coast continues beyond 
Gericke point for three-quarters of a mile, when the sandy beach 
again appears for a short space, across which Zwarte Ylei empties 
itself into the sea at certain seasons. 

Lakes. — From the mouth of Touw river to the old mouth of 
Zwarte Vlei is upwards of 11 miles. Behind this extent of coast, at 
var , ing distances to 3 miles, are the three lakes, Lange Vlei, Rond 
Vlei, and Zwarte Vlei. Wild fowl abound on them all. 

The first is composed of two parts, with channels connecting them, 
and extending (> miles in all. The water is brackish, and has a 
maximum depth of 22 feet. The Wolve and the Touw streams are the 
principal, but not the only feeders of this lake. 

Ronde Vlei is almost circular, with an average diameter of half a 
mile ; it communicates with Lange Vlei ; its maximum depth is 
22 feet, and water brackish, but near the edge of the lake tolerably 
good water is found by digging a hole. 

Zwarte Vlei is the largest in this chain of lakes ; it extends 
upwards of 3 miles in one direction, and is connected with Ruigte 
Vlei, another and smaller lake. They are fed by the Diep, Wolve, 

pee chart, No. 2,084, 



Chap. III.] GERICKfi BAY. — WALKER POINT*. lOl 

ZAvarte, and Oararera streams. The water is brackish, and 48 feet 
deep in some places. Its south-east extreme is only about 2 cables 
distant from the sea, with which it appears to have been at one time 
connected by a passage known as Zwarte river. The land at the back 
of the lakes rises to 700 and 800 feet, and is fertile. Though not 
wooded, there are many conspicuous small clumps scattered about, 
and it is deeply intersected by the streams, rendering the roads steep 
and bad. 

Groens Vlei, irregularly oval -shaped, upwards of 2 miles in length, 
and half a mile at its greatest breadth, contains fresh water. There 
are no streams flowing into it, and it has no visible outlet ; its 
greatest depth is 20 feet. 

COAST. — From the mouth of Zwarte Vlei, conspicuous bare 
white sand extends south-eastwards for one mile, when the beach 
becomes rocky, and continues so for .5 miles, interspersed with 
patches of sand. The beach is backed by irregular hillocks from 
200 to 300 feet high. 

The land behind Groene Vlei rises abruptly, so that at 3 miles from 
the sea it is 1,110 feet high. It presents a smooth green appearance, 
with scattered clumps of trees. The valleys are more or less 
cultivated. 

In bad weather, this coast is fronted with heavy detached breakers 
to the distance of one mile or more. 

Goukamma river enters the sea at the east extreme of a sandy 
beach 2 miles in extent. The river is remarkable for its sudden 
rising after rains, and the depth of water then attained. At a 
distance of 4 miles by its course from the sea it is crossed by a 
causeway on the high road between George Town and the Knysna ; 
this causeway is sometimes dry, and at others covered to the 
depth of 12 to 20 feet, with a rushing torrent. The river has an 
average breadth of 100 yards along these 4 miles of its course ; 
its mouth is closed by sand for long intervals during the dry 
season. 

Walker point. — To the eastward of the Goukamma are two 
dangerous rocky points, including a small rocky and sandy bay 
one mile across. Off the western point at a quarter and three- 
quarters of a mile distant, are rocky patches on which the sea 

fk-e chart, Xo. 2,084. 



100 KjfYSlfA HARBOl^R. [Chap. Itt. 

constantly breaks ; but the whole neighbourhood is foul. Walker 
point, the easternmost of the two, is also rocky and dangerous, and 
forms the western horn of BufiPalo bay. A chain of rocks extend 
about one-third of a mile from the point, with a sunken rock at 
about 4 cables distant, but the sea breaks much further out. 

The land adjacent, is sparsely covered hillocks backed by undu- 
lating ridges, but at a distance of 2 miles inland, the higher green- 
coloured land is reached, without trees, and rising to upwards of 
900 feet. 

BUFFALO BAY is included between Walker point and the 
rocky cliffs westward of the head, at the entrance to Knysna river ; 
the distance is about 3 miles across. It affords shelter to small 
vessels during N.W. winds, but it should be remembered that the 
bay has not been sounded, and that rocks extend about half a mile 
southward from Walker point. 

Anchorage. — Coasters, however, find shelter about midway 
between Walker point and the bight of the bay, at half a mile off shore, 
in from 5 to 8 fathoms, clear bottom with blue clay ; nearer to the 
point the ground is rocky. With the wind anything to the southward 
of West it is not advisable to remain here, as a heavy breaking sea 
then sets in. 

KNYSNA RIVER and HARBOUR (pronounced Nysna), is 
situated close to the eastward of Buffalo bay ; the entrance, about 
250 yards in width, being formed by two steep and rocky head- 
lands, on the eastern of which there is a flagstaff and a pilot signal 
station.* 

Northward of the Knysna there is a mountain named the 
Spitzkop, 3,048 feet high, eastward of which are five Paps ; and at 
10 miles eastward of the entrance is the Krantz Hoek, 914 feet high, 
fronted by a bluff r)54 feet high, from which the coast slopes away 
to cape Seal, the western point of Plettenberg bay ; these serve 
to identify the Knysna from a distance. 

Town.— The township of Knysna is situated about 3 miles 
within the entrance of the river, and on the eastern bank. It is 
built on the slope of the hill and on its outskirts are several villa 
residences. There are several English residents, most of whom are 
connected with the timber trade. 



* See plan of Knysna harbour with view, No. 1,224. 



Chap. III.] TOWN.— SUPPLIES. 103 

Between the town and the river is a strip of land belonging to the 
Admiralty, which was originally presented to them by the principal 
land owner of the district. 

Jetties. — There is the town jetty near the south-west angle of the 
town, with a depth of 10 feet alongside, and Paarden jetty, at 
Paarden island, with a depth of 23 feet alongside at low water ; the 
island is connected to the town by a bridge, and there is a tramway 
from the pier to the town. 

Supplies. — The country around the Knysna abounds in various 
kinds of game. The river produces quantities of fish, and other 
provisions are abundant ; water is to be obtained by application to 
the Port Captain. Good timber from, the neighbouring forests is 
abundant, but coal is not obtainable. There are several firms of 
carpenters and engineers capable of effecting repairs to coasting craft, 
and vessels can be hove down. The climate is extremely healthy, 
and especially adapted to Europeans. 

Communication. — There is weekly communication with Cape 
Town by steamer, and good roads to the interior. 

Trade. — During 1895, 59 vessels, chiefly steamers, entered the 
port ; aggregate tonnage, 26,165. The chief export is wool and 
government railway sleepers. Imports in that year were valued at 
£11,597, and the exports at £8,381. Population of Knysna and 
suburbs, 1891, date of last census, was 956. 

The harbour is by no means easy of access, even to small steam 
vessels, in consequence of the heavy surf which breaks across the 
entrance ; for sailing vessels it is only practicable with a leading 
wind. There is a depth of 18 feet in the fairway over the bar at low 
water springs, and the services of a pilot are not necessary unless 
proceeding beyond Best cove. Vessels of 14 feet draught can 
proceed to Knysna, about 1^ miles beyond the cove. Boats can 
ascend the river to Westerford farm about 9 miles up. 

Bar. — Knysna river has two bars, the outer one with 18 feet 
least water, stretches across the channel from Needles point, on the 
west side of entrance. The inner bar extends across the mouth just 
within Emu rock, on the east side of entrance, and has from 16 to 

See plan of Knysna harbour, Xo. 1,224. 



i04 KNV^NA HARBOUR. [Chap. III. 

18 feet at low water springs. Both bars are stationary, and are of 
rock, covered with sand and mud ; no difference in the depth of the 
water on the bars has been observed for many years. 

Beacons. — There are two beacons to guide vessels over the bar — 
one on Fountain point, just within the entrance on the east side, 
consisting of a white stone beacon built upon a large rock, and 
standing 30 feet above high-water mark ; the other on Steenbok 
island, is a wooden one composed of a long spar with two triangles 
and painted red ; these lie N.E. | N. and S.W. | S., 758 yards apart. 

Emu rock, with 4 feet water, is on the eastern side of the 
channel, nearly one cable S.W. of Inner Obelisk point. 
The sea does not always break on the rock. 

Black rocks are situated one cable southward from the south- 
western point of entrance ; the sea always breaks on them. 
South-East rocks are another cluster, distant 4^ cables S.S.E. of 
the Mewstone. 

Tides. — It is high water, at full and change, at 3h. 30m. ; springs 
rise from 6 to 7 feet. 

The tidal stream runs frcm 4 to 5 knots through the Narrows 
during springs. The flood sets strongly from the eastward towards 
Needles point, and from thence directly through the Narrows. The 
ebb from abreast Green point sets directly towards Fountain point, 
and on to the rocks between that point and Inner Obelisk point, and 
thence it follows the channel to the eastward, except there be a 
strong westerly current outside, in which case it runs directlj' to 
seaward. 

With a heavy sea on the bar, at near high and low water, the force 
of the break drives towards Emu rock large masses of water, which 
set strongly out again close to the western shore, outside the inner 
bar. It is therefore advisable, before taking the bar with a breaking 
saa, that the flood should have made at least two hours, at which time 
the stream inwards and the break act together, and the drawback is 
not felt. 

Signal station.— Pilots.— On the summit of Outer Obelisk 
point there is a flagstaff, and a pilot house painted white, with 
which communication can be held by signals, and directions given 

St'c plan of Knysna harbour, No. 1,224, 



Chap. III.] PILOTS. — ANCHORACtBS.— tHRfiCtlONS. 105 

for entering the harbour. The house is visible from a considerable 
distance seaward, and forms a good landmark. There is also a pilot 
boat for giving assistance to and directing vessels entering or leaving 
the port. It frequently happens that, although the weather and bar 
may be favourable for vessels to enter, it may not be safe or possible 
for the pilot boat to go out. 

The pilot signals used are as follows : — 

White and blue diagonal. — The pilot boat is coming out. 

Ked. — Vessel is recommended not to attempt to come in. 

White and red horizontal. — Vessel may come in now. If waiting 
for the tide, a red pendant will be shown over the flag at a proper 
time for entering. 

Yellow. — Pilot boat cannot go out, but is ready to receive the 
vessel within the bar. 

DIRECTIONS.— Anchoragres.— In case a sailing vessel has to 
wait for wind or tide to enter Knysna river, she may, in moderate 
weather, anchor off the entrance in 12 to 15 fathoms, blue clay, but 
not when the weather is unsettled, as the sea frequently sets in 
heavily from south-west with little or no wind. Attention must be 
paid to any signals made from the pilot station. 

The best time to enter Knysna harbour is a little before high 
water. It is not advisable to go either in or out during the strength 
of the ebb at spring tides, more especially if there is any break on 
the bar. Vessels should approach the entrance with the beacons in 
line, bearing N.E. | N., and keeping them so until nearly abreast 
Inner Obelisk point, thence steer to pass about 50 yards off Fountain 
point, from abreast which, steer for Green point (the south point of 
Best cove), keeping close to it to avoid the tongue of sand which 
projects from the northern end of Steenbock island. The distance 
of the point of the Spit (11 feet water) from Green point is 100 yards 
only. Having passed Green point, anchor in Best cove, in 4 fathoms. 
There is a depth of about 14 feet water close to the shore. There is 
no danger in grounding in any part of the river, as the bottom is soft. 

Vessels proceeding to the anchorage off Knysna should employ u 
pilot. From Best cove, the western shore should be kept aboard 
until abreast the stakes marking the edge of the spit extending 
southward from Paarden islands ; thence steer close along to the 
westward of the stakes and of Paarden jetty. When past the jetty 



iSee plan of Knysna harbour, No. 1,224. 



lO^ KNYSNA HARBOuft.— .Directions. Ich&p. ilt 

the anchor should bo let go, in about L5 or 1(> feet, and Avhen 
swung to the flood secure the stern to one of tlie mooring buoys ; 
vessels can also lie afloat alongside Paarden jetty. 

Before crossing the bar, under sail, it is necessary to have a boat 
in readiness with a kedge and hawser, as the wind sometimes dies 
away between the heads. 

In proceeding in, the wind should be at least two points southward 
of West, and not eastward of S.E. 

In leaving the harbour, under sail, the wind should not be to 
the westward of North nor to the eastward of E.N.E. The best time 
to get under way is with tlie last quarter of the flood. With a 
commanding breeze a vessel may go out with the last (piarter ebb, 
but in getting under way care should be taken not to get too close 
to the eastern shore, as the ebb sets towards the rocks between 
Fountain and Inner Obelisk points. 

It frequently happens that there is no wind in Best cove when 
there is a fine breeze blowing out through the entrance. During the 
summer months, when the winds prevail from S.E., almost the only 
opportunity for a sailing vessel going out is early in the morning, 
when there is generally a breeze from the land, which dies away 
about or 10 a.m. and is succeedetl by the sea breeze. 

The COAST from the entrance of the Knysna trends eastward 
for 3 mik^s to the mouth of the NiUze. It is (iomposed of irregular 
red cliffs, 200 to 300 feet high, with patches of shingle beach, and 
points fringed with off-lying rocks, to the distance of half a uiih^ in 
places. The back land rises steeply to a height of 700 feet, and ('lust(M*s 
of trees become more frequent and larger towards the Niitze. 

Between the Niitze and cape Seal are many peaked masses of rock, 
some bare, others clothed with vegetaticm, which occasionally rise 
as high as the cliff's, giving a characteristic appearance to this ])art 
of the coaat. 

The coast maintains the same precipitous cliffy character for 

3 miles eastward of the Nutze, and rising steeply bohiiid to a height 
of 000 feet. This portion, and for 3 miles inland, is inaccessible, 
being completely covered to the cliff heads with dense forest. At 

4 miles eastward of the Niitze a deep gorge is reached, beyond which 
the country facing the sea assumes the usual smooth green appear- 
ance, with scattered clusters of trees. 

See chart, No. 2,084. 



chap, in.] pLbttBnberg bay. 107 

No LandingT- — There appears to be no spot on this coast where 
landing could be effected. 

The Nlitze is a stream flowing across a small patch of sandy 
beach into the sea, from between high wooded hills ; its mouth is 
often closed. At a distance of 3 miles from its mouth it is called 
the Witte Els. 

CAPE SEAL is the easternmost point of a tongue of land with 
rugged side.T and overhanging cliffs, clothed with scrubby bush ; 
it is rather more than 1^ miles in length, rising about its centre to 
the height of 485 feet, and being joined to the mainland by a narrow 
neck, has from many points of view the appearance of an island. 
Off its south side is a rocky mass, 123 feet high, about half a mile 
in length, joined to it by a narrow sandy isthmus. 

Whale rock, having a depth of 4 feet, lies S.E. from the pitch 
of the cape, and 3| cables from low water mark. A patch of 3|^ 
fathoms lies nearly one cable north-west of the rock, but on the 
seaward sides it is steep-to. The tea does not always break on Whale 
rock. 

PLETTENBERG BAY*, may be considered to lie between cape 
Seal and Salt river, distant from each other about 9 miles. Plettenberg 
bay, from its suitable depths at short distances from the shore, its 
good anchoring ground, and the shelter afforded, renders it equal to 
any other bay on the south coast. Vessels seek shelter here when 
the sea is too high to get into Knysna and Mossel bay. 

Like the other bays on this coast, it is exposed to the full force of 
the south-east gales that blow so violently from September to March ; 
and a vessel should be prepared to leave it on any indication of a 
south-east gale. 

Settlement. — Landing. — Pisang river, situated at the head of 
the bay, is small, and frequently has its mouth closed, but affords a 
supply of fresh water ; at its mouth is a rocky islet, 40 feet high, 
sparsely covered with bush, the top of which is in latitude 34° 3^' S., 
longitude 23° 22|' E., and being close to the landing place masters 
of vessels can readily test their chronometers. 

A rocky ledge, covered at high water springs, lies about a quarter 
of a mile eastward of the islet, affording some shelter to the beach 
close northward of it, the only landing place, though it is not always 

* See plan of Plettenberg bay, No. 385. 



108 PLETTENBBRG BAY. [Chap. iti. 

practicable. The old residency, the Government store houses, a 
little church and parsonage, with stores and such moderate supplies 
as the place yields, are close at hand. 

Numerous farms are scattered over the country and in the valley 
of Pisang river, whence supplies of meat and vegetables can be 
obtained. Water has generally to be rafted through the surf in casks. 
There is little or no trade, and there are but few people in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the port. The nearest town is Knysna, 
which is some 20 miles distant ; communication with the interior is 
by ox waggons. There is no telegraph. 

Directions. — There are no dangers in entering or leaving the 
bay, except Whale rock, which should be given a berth of about one 
mile. The channel between it and cape Seal should not be attempted. 
The south end of the long sandy beach southward of Pisang river, 
in sight, leads north-eastward of the rock. 

Anchorage. — Vessels visiting Plettenberg bay to ship timber 
usually anchor under shelter of the ledge of rocks off Pisang river. 
Vessels seeking shelter from westerly gales should anchor more in 
the southern portion of the bay, with the Gap in the peninsula bearing 
S.W., and the extreme of the cape S. by E. ^ P]., in 8 fathoms, sand. 
There is generally a heavy surf on the beach which prevents 
landing. - ' 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Plettenberg bay at 
3h. 10m., and the rise is 6 feet. There is no regular tidal stream in 
the bay. 

KourbOOm river, the most considerable on this part of the 
coast, rises in the Lange Kloof range, which reaches 5,294 feet 
in height. It trends between high lands 3^ miles from its mouth, 
and flows across a plain in a tortuous channel, in many places 
fordable at low water, and obstructed by sandbanks ; for the last 
2^ miles its course is parallel with the coast, and separated from the sea 
by a narrow sand strip. At high water it appears a large river, as much 
ground covers and uncovers with the tide. It is navigable for boats 
for about 8 miles, but the bar is only passable under favourable 
circumstances. 

Bitan river is a small stream, moving sluggishly and winding along 
a broad plain. It joins the Kourboom about 2 miles from the mouth 
of the latter, and is fordable just above the junction. 



See plan of Plettenberg bay, No. 385. 



Chap. III.] KOURBOOM AND KOMKROMMA RIVERS. 109 

The Coast. — From the mouth of Kourboom river, the coast for 
5 miles is a sandy beach, backed by sandhills more or less covered 
with scant bush. Along this beach no landing should be attempted, 
as the sea always breaks heavily. At the east end of this beach is 
the Droog river, whence the coast becomes rocky, with intermediate 
sandy beaches, but the whole fronted by outlying rocks. The 
Droog, as its name implies, is mostly without water. 

Matjies river is one mile eastward of the Droog, and its mouth is 
often closed. It enters the sea from between high hills, and is 
bounded between high precipitous and wooded hills for some distance 
from its mouth. 

Komkromma or Salt river lies 3| miles eastward of Matjies 
river ; the coast between consisting of rocks and sandy beaches. 
About 1^ miles eastward of the Matjies is the most off-lying cluster 
of rocks, which are, however, within a quarter of a mile of the 
shore ; close to the eastward of Matjies river are two rocks, 50 feet 
high ; the shore here is usually dangerous to approach. Abreast the 
rocks, the country is park-like, with wooded patches and gorges, and 
farther inland, forest. 

The Salt river is said to be navigable by boats for one mile above 
its mouth, but the sea frequently breaks heavily off and about its 
mouth ; directly within it expands to a small lake. 

COAST. — Aspect. — Over the eastern point of Groote river, 
which is about 11 miles eastward of cape Seal, is a double peak. 
The coast thence south-eastward to Aasvogel point, a distance of 
37 miles, is formed of perpendicular cliffs, and rocky hills, 300 to 
600 feet high. It is intersected by streams and gorges, with several 
outlying dangers at a short distance ; it should not be approached 
nearer than 2 miles. In this extent of coast the numerous streams 
which empty themselves into the sea take their rise in the Outeniqua 
mountains, but none of them are navigable for vessels. 

The Outeniqua mountains, which in this locality back the coast at 
a distance of 4 to 8 miles, continue eastward to about 7 miles north- 
east of Zitzikamma point. This mountain chain has several well- 
defined peaks, which from their appearance are very conspicuous and 
useful landmarks to seamen. Formosa peak and Thumb peak (so 
called from its appearance) each about 5,500 feet in height, are the 
highest and most remarkable. 

ter— , , . .. . 

See chart, No. 2,084, 



110 PLETTETSTBERG BAY TO CAPE RECIFE. [Chap. III. 

Nearer the coast, and only 4 miles from it, the Grenadiers Cap, 
so named from its shape, is also conspicuous and 3,224 feet in height. 
Eastward 20 miles on the same range is Witte Els berg, a pyramidal 
peak, 4,098 feet in height ; when seen from the eastward and 
westward it shows a flat top. 

Karedow peak, when nearly abreast, shows a saddle-shaped hill, 
but on other bearings a flat top, 3,009 feet in height. The end of 
Outeniqua range, north-eastward of Zitzikamma point, is very con- 
spicuous, terminating in a sharp conical hill 1,634 feet in height, 
which drops suddenly to the plain, and extends to the shores of 
St. Francis bay. 

Elands river range and Van Staden range of mountains north- 
eastward of cape St. Francis are also conspicuous, and in clear 
weather mount Cockscomb is a conspicuous object. The Van Staden 
range, which terminates suddenly, has a remarkable jagged top 
peak at its south-east extremity named Brak River hill, 1,989 feet in 
height. 

Groote river lies 2 miles eastward of Salt river, and within 
its mouth expands into a lagoon. A conspicuous hillock marks its 
eastern bank, from whence the shore is backed by high wooded 
clifiis, as far as Blue Rock river, which river may be known by the 
cliffs on the eastern side being bare and perpendicular. There are 
deep ravines in the land, and several other streams along the wooded 
coast as far as Storm river. 

Storm river. — ^Wall point, 12| miles eastward of Groote river, 
is so named from its perpendicular appearance. Storm river, 
4 miles eastward of Wall point, is about 50 yards in breadth, and 
flows through a gap between cliffs about 600 feet in height. Low 
shelving rocks on the western side partly shelter the entrance, and 
under favourable circumstances, landing may be effected in boats, a 
little inside the eastern point. The point forming the eastern 
entrance is skirted by rocks awash lying close to the shore. 

Eastward of Storm river the forest loses its denseness. A 
sunken rock lies about 2^ cables off shore at 3 miles eastward of 
, Storm river. 

Faure river, a small stream, lies 5 miles eastward of the Storm. 
A long patch of sunken rocks, on which the sea breaks in bad 
weather, lies one mile off the entrance. 

See chart, No. 2,084, 



Chap. III.] GROOTE RIVER.— ZITZIKAMMA RIVER. Ill 

Elands river, lying about 9 miles eastward of Storm river, may 
be known by some white rocks a little inside a point on its eastern 
side of entrance. There are many branches to the river, and its 
banks a little inland are covered with dense bush. Eastward of 
Elands river the cliffs are not so thickly wooded. 

Roblioek or Seal Corner point lies 2^ miles eastward of 
Elands river. One mile eastward of Robhoek point, the cliffs are 
nearly perpendicular, with rocks awash at the distance of one cable. 
At 2| miles farther on is the mouth of the little river Witte Els ; 
thence, sand skirted by rocks, extends along shore 1^ miles to a high 
rock, with a ledge extending nearly one mile in a north-westerly 
direction ; the ledge covers at half tide. Eastward to Aasvogel point 
there are several dangers awash at a quarter of a mile off. There are 
farm houses about one mile inland. 

Aasvog'el or Vulture point may be known by the cliffs 
forming a hill, 660 feet high, with a strip of sand half a mile at the 
back of it ; a rock awash lies one cable distant from the point. 

Clarkson village. — At 2| miles westward of Karedow peak is 
a road through the mountain range, and at the same distance, to the 
south-eastward, is the village of Clarkson with a population of 500, 
and the Moravian mission. 

From Aasvogel point, eastward for 4 miles, the coast is composed 
of cliffs, and appears clear of outlying dange]*s. Here, at a small 
stream, the land is more elevated, and rocks lie about half a mile from 
the shore ; eastward there are sandy beaches as far as the mouth of 
Zitzikamma river. This shore should not be approached within 
2 miles. 

ZITZIKAMMA RIVER, the entrance of which is closed, may 
be identified by some sand cliffs nearly one mile in extent on its 
western side. At the back of the sand cliffs the land attains an 
elevation of 729 feet. The eastern side of the river is much lower 
than the western side. 

Thence to Zitzikamma point, the coast is formed by several grassy 
ridges, fringed with rocks. There are many streams of fresh water 
in this locality. 

,See chart, No. 2,084, 



112 PLETTBNBERG BAY TO CAPE RECIFE. [Chap. III. 

Zitzikamma point is low and shelving, with rocks and breakers 
extending nearly three-quarters of a mile off. Eastward of the 
point the coast is composed of a succession of bushy hillocks 50 to 
120 feet high, from the base of which shelving rocks and breakers 
extend off about half a mile. The highest of the hills in the vicinity 
of the point is 596 feet. 

Two rocks awash lie close off Wreck point. 

Landing'. — On the ridge, one mile within Wreck point, there is 
a conspicuous peak 500 feet high. About half a mile eastward of 
Wreck point there is a ledge of rocks, the eastern part awash at low 
water, and forming a cove where at times landing can be effected. 
Within the cove long shelving rocks and big boulders appear at low 
water, and on the western part there is a little sandy beach. 

Reef, or Klippen point, is a rocky point 30 feet high, with a 
cluster of rocks projecting two-thirds of a mile, in a S.S.E. direction ; 
the outer rock is nearly awash at low water, and the inner one 
13 feet high. 

SLANG BA.Y has on its western side low sand cliffs, 30 to 50 
feet high, with patches of bush, and the shore is foul for half a mile 
north-eastward of Klippen point ; in other parts the bay appears 
free from rocks, but a heavy surf rolls into it. Bare sandhills, from 
200 to 300 feet high, fringe the bay for 3 miles, whence it is blown 
by the strong westerly winds experienced along this coast between 
two ridges to a distance of 6 miles inland. 

Slang river lies at the head of the bay, but its mouth is closed. 
Another small stream discharges itself into Slang bay three-quarters 
of a mile to the eastward of Slang river, and at the back of this, the 
land gradually rises to a grassy ridge 596 feet high ; at 3 miles inland 
some white farmhouses are conspicuous from the westward. 

The coast eastward of the second river consists of wooded hills, 
200 to 250 feet high, based by rocky cliffs, 10 to 20 feet high. 

There is a cove three-quarters of a mile eastward of White point, 
formed by a rocky ledge, parallel to the coast ; it is encumbered with 
^boulders, which cover at high water, when, under favourable circum- 
stances, it is stated a boat may land. 

ThyS bay. — Thys point forms the western point of Thys bay. 
It is 50 feet high, with shelving and sunken rocks extending 

^e chart, No. 2,084. 



Chap, III.] SLANG BAY.— SEAL POINT. 113 

one-third of a mile off. Thys bay is a sandy bight about one mile in 
breadth, and apparently free from rocks ; low sand hillocks fringe 
the bay, and at the eastern end there is a sandhill partially topped 
with bush, 366 feet high ; here the sand is blown inland to a 
distance of 2 miles, forming a conspicuous stripe when seen from 
seaward. 

The shore from Thys bay trends in a south-east direction, and is 
rocky and rugged, with grassy cliffs from 50 to 110 feet high. 

Scholtz Kraal is a cliffy indentation, 2 miles eastward of Thys 
bay ; in it there are several rocks, and at the head a small waterfall. 
Near the summit of the ridge, about half a mile from the coast, a 
farmhouse is visible. In the vicinity of Scholtz Kraal, rocks awash 
extend a quarter of a mile off-shore, and in a rocky bight, 1|- miles 
south-east of the Kraal, H.M.S. Osprey was wrecked in 1867. At 
this bight the grassy cliffs and hills decrease in elevation, the shore 
is straight, and fronted with rugged rocks, 10 to 30 feet high. 

SEAL POINT is a rocky projection, lying 2 miles westward of 
cape St. Francis ; off the point there are three rocks nearly awash, 
and at half a mile S.E. by E. from it there is a reef half a mile in 
extent, on which the sea breaks heavily in bad weather. 

Between Seal point and cape St. Francis is a bay about half a mile 
deep ; its shores are rocky, with large boulders, but at its head there 
is a low sand beach, in front of a ridge of bushy sand hillocks 
varying from 30 to 70 feet in height. 

LIGHT. — At about 250 yards within the extreme of Seal point is 
a stone light tower, 91 feet in height, painted white, with keeper's 
dwelling attached. From the tower is exhibited, at an elevation of 
118 feet above high water, a ficmhing white light, at intervals of 
twenty seconds, visible in clear weather from a distance of about 
16 miles. The light shows red between the bearings of S. 30° W. 
and S. 83° W., over Krom bay, excepting where the hill tops 
intervene. In consequence of the want of sharpness in the change 
from red to white, it may appear red near the bearing of West ; but 
this red light will not be seen from a vessel passing a safe distance 
along the coast, and if seen warns the mariner of his dangerous 
approach to the shore. The light is named St. Francis. 

Telegraph. — There is a flagstaff and signal station near the 
lighthouse, which is in telegraphic communication with the ports of 
the colony. 

See charts, Nos. 2,OS4 and 2,085, 
ISO 11977 H 



114 PLBTTENBERG BAY TO CAPE RECIFE. [Chap. III. 

Cape St. Francis is the most prominent point along this coast ; 
from the eastward and westward it appears as two bashy hummocks 
with a bare sand ridge between ; the northern hummock is 140 feet 
high, and the southern 110 feet high. Its position may be known 
by mount Cockscomb, which bears about N.N.E. from it, and by the 
extensive plain inshore, on which, at a distance of 10 miles from the 
cape, may be seen the village of Humansdorp. See description of 
mountains, pp. 109, 110. At the back of this village are two remarkable 
mountains, the nearest one, Kruisfontein, 2,574 feet high, has a 
double peak ; the other, named from its appearance, is Sharp peak. 

Immediately off the cape are two rocks, 11 feet and 9 feet high, 
with low water rocks between, terminating in a reef extending about 
2 cables in a S.S.E. direction. 

Vessels from the westward, rounding cape St. Francis, should give 
Seal point a berth of 2 miles, and not bring it to bear westward of 
N.W. by W. \ W. until the high sandhill in Krom bay, or the 
western end of beach, is well open eastward of the cape. 

KROM BAY is formed betvs^een cape St. Francis and Zeekoe 
point, a distance of 7 miles. It affords good anchorage in 
10 fathoms, over a sandy bottom, with cape St. Francis bearing 
S.W. ^ W. distant about 2 miles, and about the same distance off the 
mouth of Krom river. Krom bay affords good shelter in westerly 
gales, but it cannot be considered safe with easterly winds, though it 
is said to be as safe as Algoa bay. South-west winds are the worst for 
swell. There is generally a heavy surf along the beach, but with 
westerly winds landing may be effected at the western end of the 
beach, or on the rocks forming that extreme of the bay. There are 
several farmhouses in the neighbourhood of Krom bay. 

Landing". — From cape St. Francis the coast for 1^ miles is rocky, 
irregular, and backed by grassy hills, and with two rocks, 4 feet 
above high water, about half a cable off shore. 

Thence sandhills, 200 feet in height, commence, the base of w^hich 
is fringed with rocks and boulders for about three-quarters of a mile 
to the beginning of the sandy beach ; at this point a long ledge of 
boulders uncover at low water, under which is one of the best 
places for landing. 

The coast between these boulders and Zeekoe point is formed by 
bushy sand hillocks, and fronted with a sandy beach, which, to the 

Set chart, No, 2.085, 



Chap. III.] CAPE ST. FRANCIS.— ZEBKOE POINT. 115 

westward of Krom river, is flat and free from rocks. The highest 
hillock between Zeekoe point and Krom river is 67 feet, and just 
behind it is a spring of fresh water. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Krom bay at 3h. 34m.; 
springs rise about 5 feet. South-east winds reduce the height, and 
north-west winds cause a corresponding rise. The barometer falls 
before north-west winds, and rises on the approach of south-east 
winds. 

Krom or Crooked river is not navigable. At low water there 
is one foot on the bar, and the mouth is contracted to a breadth of 
about 33 yards, but at high water, the sand being very flat, the river 
presents an entrance, about 2 cables in width ; within the entrance 
the water is deeper. There is a ford about 2 miles above the mouth, 
and near it are several farmhouses. 

Hlimansdorp lies north, 7^ miles in a direct line from the mouth 
of Krom river, on the main road between Cape Town and port 
Elizabeth, and contains a population of about 2,000 ; it gives its name 
to the district, has postal communication with all parts of the colony, 
and is 56 miles from port Elizabeth, with which and Cape Town it 
is connected by electric telegraph. Ostrich farming is carried on 
with marked success. The village is conspicuous from seaward. 

Zeekoe river, 4^ miles eastward of Krom river, is broad 
but generally closed. At three-quarters of a mile from its mouth 
the river divides into two branches, the western taking its rise near 
Humansdorp. The water is fresh at about 2 miles from the sea. 
The hillocks fringing the intervening coast are about 100 feet high, 
and there are rocky ledges projecting from the sandy beach, all of 
which nearly cover at high water. 

Zeekoe point, 102 feet in height, lies half a mile eastward from 
Zeekoe river. At 1| miles northward of the point, in a sandy bight 
between two ledges, is Jeffrys bight, a fishing establishment. Here 
is a two-storied building and some cottages. 

Landing. — Jeffrys bight is considered one of the best landing 
places in fine weather. 

See chart, No, 2.0S5. 
^0 11977 H 2 



116 PLETTENBERv4 HAY TO CAPE RECIPE. [Chap. III. 

Noors Kloof point, 1^ miles north-eastward of Jeffrys bight, 
is formed by a wooded hillock near the termination of a back ridge 
of hills. The beach northward is comparatively free from rocks. 

Kabeljou river, closed at its mouth, lies about 2 miles northward 
of Noors Kloof point. The frontier road crosses the river about one 
mile from its mouth, and at this place fresh water may be obtained. 
The back land for 3 miles to the eastward forms a plain, and nearly 
midway to Gamtoos river there are some conspicuous farm buildings 
at one mile from the beach. 

Gamtoos river lies at the head of St. Francis bay. Its bar is 
nearly dry at low water springs, but there is deep water inside, and 
the tidal influence is felt for about 8 miles up ; a ferry from the 
main road crosses it 3 miles from its entrance. The east point of 
the river is formed by low sandhills, but on the opposite side the 
hills form bluflfs, which are conspicuous from seaward. 

Eastward of Gamtoos river the bare sandhills increase considerably 
in elevation, forming ridges nearly perpendicular to the coast. 

Van Staden river, also closed at its mouth, is 9 miles east- 
ward of Gamtoos river, and may be known by the high sandhills 
which form a saddle sand peak on its western side. 

The abrupt termination of the Van Staden range of hills, and a 
double peak, Brak river hill, 1,989 feet high, 5 miles inland, are also 
good marks for identifying this locality. 

Maitland river may be identified by the sand extending some 
distance inland at its western side, forming a conspicuous round hill, 
and by another high sand patch, about 1^ miles eastward of it ; like 
all the other rivers it is dry at its mouth. There are several farms 
along the banks, and lead has been found in a mine about 2 miles 
from Its mouth. 

The coast eastward to Glassen point is foul in places to a quarter of 
a mile from the shore. 

Glassen point is fronted by a rocky ledge to the distance of 
half a mile, on which the sea breaks with violence during heavy 
gales. The cliffs are formed by the termination of bushy hills about 
150 feet in height. One and a half miles inland there are two hills ; 

Sre chart, ?^o. 2.085, 



Chap. III.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 117 

the western one is wooded, but the top of the eastern one, named 
Lovemore hill, 690 feet above the sea, is bare, with a conspicuous 
clump of trees near its western slope. 

Coast. — At 4 miles eastward of Lovemore hill, near the eastern 
extremity of a wooded ridge, is Buffels Fontein or Botha Kop 
elevated 915 feet above the sea ; it has a bluff termination, and near 
it are several buildings. 

Eastward to Chelsea point the coast is composed of cliffy points 
with sand beaches between, and sunken ledges extending in places 
about a quarter of a mile off shore. 

Foul gTOUnd. — From the report of a Court of Inquiry, held at 
Port Elizabeth in 1890, into the loss of the s.s. Strathblane, by 
striking on a rock near the shore westward of cape Recife, it appears 
that foul ground may exist about one mile from the shore westward 
of Chelsea point for a distance of about 5 miles. Further, it is not 
improbable that the unsounded area fronting the coast between 
Chelsea point and Classen point may contain many hidden, and as 
yet unknown, dangers. 

Chelsea point lies about 4 miles westward of cape Recife ; the 
point is shelving, with several conspicuous grassy hillocks, the 
highest being 103 feet above the sea ; at the back are some high 
sandhills. Off the point there are two rocks above high water, and 
sunken dangers extending about two-thirds of a mile. The bay 
between Chelsea point and cape Recife is fringed with sunken 
ledges. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.— From cape Seal (page 107) to 
Zitzikamma point the shore should not be approached within a 
distance of 2 miles, or at night and in thick weather a vessel should 
not stand into less than 45 fathoms. Thence to cape St. Francis the 
same distance should be preserved in daytime, but at night and in 
thick weather, owing to the irregularity of the depths and the 
probability of the current setting directly on to the shore, it should 
not be approached in less dej/ths than 70 fathoms. Between cape 
St. Francis and cape Recife the same distance must be observed 
in daytime, and at night until the vicinity of Classen point is 
approached, the vessel may go into 45 fathoms, but in thick weather 
and at night no nearer to cape Recife than a depth of 60 fathoms. 



See chart, No. 2,085. 



118 PLETTENBERG BAY TO CAPE RECIPE. [Ckap. 111. 

Caution. — A current at times sets directly on to all this part of 
the coast or in a north-east direction ; seamen should therefore avoid 
hugging the land at night or in bad weather, when bound either east 
or west ; more especially as dense fogs occasionally prevail. From 
cape Agulhas eastward to BufiPalo river the current has been known 
not only to set to the westward along, but towards the coast, more 
particularly opposite the bays. See currents on pages 31 and 32 and 
caution, page 85. 

A weak current runs to the eastward near the shore all along the 
coast between cape Seal and cape Recife, but in the offing, as a rule, 
the Agulhas current sets to the westward at a rate of from one to 
2 miles an hour ; and off the edge of the bank of soundings as much 
as 3^ or 4 miles. 

See chart, No. 2,085. 



IID 



CHAPTER IV. 

CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

(Long. 25° 40' E. to long. 28° 20' E.) 



Variation in 1897. 

Port Elizabeth, Algoa bay 29° 0' W. 

East London, Buffalo river 28° 20' W. 



ALGOA BAY is formed between cape Recife and Woody cape 
which are 33 miles apart in an east and west direction. In the 
south-west corner of the bay is Port Elizabeth, off which there is 
usually safe and convenient anchorage at all times of the year, but 
like other bays on this coast, it is subject to the full force of the 
south-east gales that blow so violently at times during the months of 
October to April. 

Cape Recife is low, with a stone lighthouse; to the north-west of 
it is the hillock of Recife, which is the higher of the two, and is 
often seen some time before the lighthouse is made out. 

In approaching the land from the southward during daylight, cape 
St. Francis has been mistaken for cape Recife, but they may be 
distinguished by the hillock above mentioned, which appears at a 
distance as the termination of the coast line, and by a remarkable 
strip of bare white sand, immediately to the westward of the hillock, 
appearing like a beach, also by the differently coloured lighthouses. 

Thunderbolt reef, on which H.M.S. Thumlerholt was wrecked 
in 1847, lies about three-quarters of a mile from cape Recife, with 
the lighthouse bearing N.E. ^ E. ; the sea generally breaks heavily 
upon it, but at high water and in fine weather this may not occur. 
There is an indraught towards this reef and the cape, and no sailing 
vessels should attempt to approach either, exofin* with a commanding 
breeze, within the distance of 2 miles. 



* See chart of Algoa bay, including Bird islands, No. 642 ; and plan of Port 
Elizabetli, No. 641. 



120 ALGOA BAY ; PORT ELIZABETH. [Chap. lY. 

Caution. — As the depths about the cape and reef decrease 
suddenly from 10 fathoms, vessels should not go into less than 
12 fathoms. 

LIGHTS.— Caps Recife.-From a lighthouse 80 feet high, 
painted in red and white horizontal bands, on cape Recife, is 
exhibited, at an elevation of 93 feet above the sea, a white light, with 
red sector, revolving every minute, and visible from seaward in clear 
weather from a distance of about 15 miles. The light shows ivhite 
except between the bearings of S. 39" W. and S. 11° W., where it 
shows red, to warn vessels of too near an approach to Dispatch 
rocks. 

At Port EllzabettL, on a hill at the back of the town, S. \ E., 
distant 25 yards from Donkin monument, is a stone colour 
lighthouse 55 feet in height, from which is exhibited at 225 feet 
above the sea, a fixed light, visible from a distance of 12 miles in clear 
weather. It shows ivhite between the bearings of N. 56° W. and 
S. 55° W ; red between the bearings of N. 45° W. and N. 56° W., and 
from S. 55° W. to S. 45° W. In consequence of the greater elevation 
of Port Elizabeth light, in certain conditions of the atmosphere, it 
may be seen by vessels coming from the eastward, before the light 
on cape Recife. * 

At the extremity of the North jetty is a light which shows green 
seaward through an arc of 150°, or between the bearings of N. 46° W. 
and S. 16° E., and ivhite inshore of these bearings. 

The light whilst showing green leads clear of the dangers near the 
shore. 

A red light is shown at the end of the South jetty, obscured 
inshore of a South bearing ; boats approaching must not lose sight 
of this light until close to the outer end of the jetty. 

A light is shown during south-east gales, near the beach northward 
of the town. See port instructions, page 125. 

Telegraphic communication exists between cape Recife and cape 
Francis lighthouses ai?d Port Elizabeth. 

Beacons. — A stone beacon, 25 feet high, painted red, is situated 
about 500 yards N.N.E, of Recife lighthouse. Two other stone 
beacons are situated about 2\ miles northward of cape Recife, near 

See chart of Ali^oa bay No. 6'12 and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 64 1. 



Chap. IV.] Lights. — dangers. — town. 121 

Beacon point, E. ^ N. and W. \ S., 1,200 yards from each other, to 
mark Dispatch rock. They are each 25 feet high, surmounted by a 
ball, and painted in alternate bands of red and white. 

Shoals.— Dispatcli or Roman rook, with a least depth of 
8 feet, and steep-to on its eastern side, lies nearly one mile off 
shore, and 3 miles northward of cape Recife ; from the shoalest 
part, cape Recife red beacon is in line with the lighthouse, and the 
two beacons on Beacon point are in line bearing W. ^ S. 

Riy bank is about one mile in extent, and composed of uneven rocky 
ground, with depths of from 6 to 14 fathoms ; the sea breaks heavily 
over it duriug and after bad weather. The shallow spot of 6 fathoms 
lies with cape Recife lighthouse bearing W. by N. |- N., distant 
85 miles. 

StruttS reef, with 2| fathoms, is about 50 square yards in extent, 
and 3 cables off shore, with the magazine bearing W. by S. -|- S., and 
the lighthouse on South jetty N.W. by W. Port Elizabeth lighthouse 
in line with the tower oi the town hall, bearing N.W. ^ W., or the 
light showing white, leads northward of Strutts reef. 

PORT ELIZABETH.— Town.— The town of Port Elizabeth is 
named after Lady Elizabeth Donkin, to whose memory an obelisk, 
210 feet high, is erected on a hill overlooking the town and sea ; her 
husband. Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, arrived here in April 1820, for 
the purpose of locating the British settlers. Then there were but a 
few huts ; the town (in 1891) had a population of 23,266. It is the 
principal seaport of the eastern portion of the Cape Colony, and its 
geographical position with reference to the other provinces, and as a 
port of call or refuge for vessels from the eastward, renders it a place 
of much importance. 

The principal buildings are the town hall, library, provincial 
hospital, the Grey Institute, London and South African and Standard 
banks, St. Patrick's, Oddfellows', and Good Templars' halls. Masonic 
temple, the wool and produce market, gasworks, Custom house, anil 
other handsome buildings, together with numerous churches and 
other places of worship within the town and environs. There are 
also two parks, one named St. George, the other Prince Alfred. The 
Baakens river is spanned by an iron bridge, connecting the two 
portions of the town. 

See ohart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 641. 



12^ ALGOA BAY ; POKT ELIZABETH. [Chap. IV. 

Exports, &G. — The exports consist of wool, hides, ivory, beeswax, 
sheep and goat skins, ostrich feathers, tallow, angola hair, &c. 

In the year 1894, the value of the imports was £5,280,457, and that 
of the exports £1,908,241. 

Jetties. — The north jetty at Port Elizabeth is 384 yards in length 
by 28 yards in breadth, with a depth of 24 feet at its extreme at Ioav 
water. The south jetty is about 250 yards in length, with about 
14 to 18 feet alongside, and lies about 4 cables south-eastward of the 
north jetty. For the lights, see page 120. 

Vessels of not more than 20 feet draught are allowed alongside the 
north jetty on due notice being given to the Harbour Master. 
Hydraulic capstans and screw moorings are provided, and arrange- 
ments have been made for watering and ballasting from alongside. 

Both jetties are equipped with hydraulic cranes ; one of these, on 
the south jetty, is capable of lifting weights up to 20 tons. 

Landing can generally be effected, but not in very heavy weather. 
A red ball is hoisted at the north jetty when landing is dangerous. 

Supplies of all kinds are plentiful, and moderate in price. 

Repairs to machinery may be effected, there being two engineering 
firms here. Shafts of 6 to 8 inches diameter can be turned, castings 
of 1| tons made, and cylinders of 36 inches cast and bored. Tugs are 
available, and steam launches attend on the shipping. No facilities 
for docking. 

Coal. — About 4,000 tons are usually kept in stock. It is shipped 
by means of lighters of 30 to 90 tons burthen. The jetties are 
connected by rails with the coaling stores. 

Water is obtained from pipes at the end of the pier, and is put 
alongside vessels in the bay, when required, at a fixed charge. 

CommuilicatiOIl. — Port Elizabeth is connected with the tele- 
graphic and railway systems of the Colony. Mails weekly from 
England via Cape Town, by Union and Castle Line steamers ; coastal 
steamers to other ports ; see also p. 15. 

Time Sigrnal. — A black ball is dropped at Port Elizabeth light- 
house on the hill, at Ih. 30m. p.m.. Cape Colony mean time, 
corresponding to mean noon at Greenwich, every day, Sundays and 

See chart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 641. 



Chap. IV.] SUPPLIES.— DIRECTIONS. l2B 

public holidays excepted. If signal fails in accuracy a red and blue 
flag will be shown from the upper window of the lighthouse, and 
the ball will be dropped 5 minutes later. 

The position of Lady Donkin's monument (close to the light- 
house) is lat. 33" 57' 43" S., long. 25^^ 37' 24" E. 

Anclxorage off the town of Port Elizabeth in about 6 fathoms 
water, sand over clay, may be taken with the lighthouse W. by N. ^ N., 
and Bird rock at Beacon point S. by E. Anchorage equally good 
for large vessels may be taken in 8 fathoms, similar bottom, about 
half a mile east-north-eastward of this position. 

At night, anchor with Port Elizabeth light bearing about W. ^ N., 
in 8 fathoms. 

The port captain determines the berths for merchant vessels, and 
vessels-of-war should take the precaution in the summer season, 
when East or S.E. gales may be expected, to anchor with plenty of 
room to veer. The holding ground is good, and with the ordinary 
ground tackle of vessels-of-war, there is not much danger in riding 
out these gales. 

It is the practice of merchant vessels regularly trading for wool 
cargoes to moor on arrival, and to strike their top-gallant masts, and 
unbend sails. They are found with ground tackle superior to 
ordinary merchant vessels, and usually ride out in safety the 
summer gales from the S.E. Nevertheless, in S.E. gales of unusual 
severity, vessels at times break from their anchors and are stranded, 
with loss of life. See remarks on the weather, page 124, and pars. 5 
and 10 of the Port Instructions, pp. 126, 127. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Port Elizabeth at 
3h. 10m., and the rise is 6 feet ; the tides are often irregular, being 
acted upon by the wind. The surface stream is uncertain in direc- 
tion and inappreciable. 

DIRECTIONS.*' — Coming from the westward and having rounded 
cape Recife at the distance of about 2 miles, steer N. by E., taking 
care to keep the red beacon on cape Recife well open westward of 
the lighthouse, until northward of the line of the two beacons near 
Beacon point, or Beacon point bears "W. by N., to avoid Dispatch or 
Roman rock ; thence a vessel may steer for the anchorage. 

See chart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. C41. 



134 ALGOA BAY ; POET ELIZABETH. [Chap. IV. 

There is seldom any advantage in passing between Dispatch rock 
and the mainland, and no large vessel should attempt it, 

A strong indraught will often be felt after passing cape Recife and 
Thunderbolt reef, and allowance must be made for it in passing 
Dispatch rock. 

At Nigh-t. — Cape Recife should be rounded at a distance of 
2 to 3 miles, and in not less than 1.5 fathoms water, bearing in mind 
the strong set towards the cape and Thunderbolt reef; and when 
the light bears N.W. steer N. by E., taking care not to enter the 
ray of red light shown from cape Recife lighthouse. When Port 
Elizabeth principal light is seen, which will first appear r'ed, a vessel 
will be northward of Dispatch rock, but should continue on across 
the red into the white light, which will be first seen bearing N. 56° W.; 
and thence to the road, steering about N.W. \ N,, and anchoring in 
about 8 fathoms, with Port Elizabeth light bearing about W. \ N. 

In working in, or coming from the eastward, a vessel should keep 
in the ivMte light of port Elizabeth principal light. 

Leaving". — Vessels leaving Algoa bay and proceeding eastward, 
are recommended to take Bird island passage in fine weather ; see 
page 131. 

WINDS and WEATHER— Easterly and S.E. gales, which 
alone are to be apprehended in Algoa bay, occur in the siimmer 
months from October to April ; the worst weather usually happening 
during these two months, that is at the commencement and close 
of the season. In the winter months the wind seldom blows from 
these quarters, except in rare instances, when what is called a black 
south-easter comes on, with rain and thick weather, of which tbe 
appearance of the sky and sea gives sufficient warning. The black 
south-easters are more frequent in spring (October and November) ; 
they do not last long but at times are violent. 

The approach of the summer gales is to a certain extent foretold 
by the irregular oscillations of the barometer, which, although 
constantly high, in comparison to what it would be under similar 
circumstances in westerly winds, falls before the increase of wind. 
A damp cold air prevails, and there is a constant hazy appearance 
about the horizon, the upper parts of the sky remaining clear. When 

See chart of Algoa bay, No. G42, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 641. 



Chap. TV.] WINDS AND WEATHER. — PORT INSTRUCTIONS. 125 

signals to prepare for foul weather are made from the Port office 
sailing vessels with doubtful ground tackle should get under way, 
making their first tack towards St. Croix island. 

With the gale at its height a heavy and dangerous breaking sea 
rolls in ; but it has been observed that vessels with plenty of cable 
ride easily ; and, from the strong easterly current which prevails 
near the shore during these gales, it is probable that a powerful 
undertow assists to relieve the strain. It is also stated that, should 
the reading of the barometer be 30'5 inches, and cirrus clouds 
appear, a south-easter will set in before 24 hours have elapsed ; or 
if the hills to the northward of Port Elizabeth be obscured by haze 
a gale from south-east may be expected. 

Port Instructions. — 1. In the case of vessels about to discharge 
or receive on board any considerable quantity of cargo, a convenient 
berth will be pointed out by the harbour master at the north jetty or 
as close to it as the safety of the vessel and other circumstances will 
admit. If anchored off, the vessel must then be moored with two 
bower anchors, with open hawse to the south-east, and special care 
taken not to overlay the anchors of other vessels, or in any way to 
give them a foul berth. But all vessels not provided with anchors 
and cables according to Lloyd's scale of tonnage are to be anchored 
to the northward of the other vessels until so provided. 

2. In the case of vessels touching for supplies, they may ride at 
single anchor, but they must then anchor well to the northward, so 
as to prevent danger (in case of drifting) to the vessels moored ; and 
it is particularly recommended, when riding at single anchor, to veer 
out 70 or 80 fathoms of chain ; the other bower cables should be 
ranged, and the anchor kept in perfect readiness to let go. 

3. Strict attention must be paid to keep a clear hawse (when 
moored), the more so when it is probable the wind may blow from 
the south-east ; and whether at single anchor or moored, the sheet 
anchor should be ready for immediate use. The situation of the 
vessel must be taken by landmarks and the depth of water ; and 
should any accident occur by which she may drift from such 
situation or lose her anchors, the same must be notified in writing 
to the harbour master. 

4. It is recommended that vessels be kept as snug as possible, 
especially such as have to remain some time in the anchorage, for 

/Sf^" chart of Algoa bay, No, f>42, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 641, 



126 ALGOA BAY ; POKT ELIZABETH. [Chap. IV. 

the periodical winds blow occasionally with much violence. Top- 
gallant masts and yards should be sent on deck, but topsails, courses, 
&c., should be kept bent and reefed, until the vessel has become so 
much lightened as to leave her no chance of working out in case of 
parting, when they should be unbent and repaired, if necessary, and 
bent again as soon as there is sufficient cargo on board to render the 
vessel manageable under sail. 

5. To prevent injury to the jetties by vessels drifting upon them 
in south-east gales, no sailing vessel is permitted to lie to the south- 
ward of a line from the Hill lighthouse through the north Malay 
mosque, and should any vessel anchor southward of this line, she 
must shift her berth to the northward as soon as circumstances will 
permit. Steam vessels are to anchor southward of a line from the 
Hill lighthouse through the south Malay mosque. The light on the 
north jetty, showing green, leads clear of all danger for boats landing. 
It shows white inshore. On the south jetty is a red light. 

Masters of vessels are especially warned of the danger of housing 
top-gallant masts, instead of sending them on deck, a practice which 
disastrous wrecks have shown to be very likely to endanger vessels, 
by precluding the possibility of the topsails being hoisted to enable 
them to beat out. 

6. All vessels lying in this port shall show a light at night, as 
prescribed in the Board of Trade Regulations for preventing 
collisions at sea. 

7. When it becomes necessary for vessels to veer cables in a strong 
breeze, they must always heave in again to their original scope, 
immediately on the return of moderate weather. 

8. All signals made from the Port office must be answered from 
the shipping, and strictly obeyed, and any vessel disregarding them 
will be reported to Lloyd's, as also to the owners, 

9. In a case of a vessel parting from her anchors, and being unable 
to work out, it is recommended to run her for the sandy beach to the 
northward of the town, directly in front of the gashouse, at the 
north end of the sea wall, on the chimney of which, at 45 feet above 
the sea, a powerful gaslight is shown during S.E. gales, as a guide to 
vessels that part from their anchors during the night, keeping the 
headsails set even after striking, for the purpose of assisting in 
grounding the vessel firmly. No person should attempt to quit the 

^ chart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Elizabeth, No. 641. 



Chap. IV.] PORT INSTRUCTIONS. 127 

vessel after she has taken the beach, until the lifeboat arives alongside 
or a communication is established with the shore by means of the 
life saving apparatus or otherwise. 

10. On all occasions when it is considered unsafe to work cargo, 
a blue light will be hoisted on the flagstaff on the north jetty, and 
when it is unsafe to land, a red ball will be hoisted. At these times 
ships' boats should never attempt to land. 

Vessels can make their wishes known to their agents in bad 
weather, through the Port office by the International Code. Vessels 
not having the code, can make the following signals with their 
ensigns : — 

1. Ensign in the fore-top mast rigging - I am in want of a cable. 

2. Ensign in the main-top mast rigging - I am in want of an anchor. 

3. Ensign in the fore rigging - - I have parted a bower cable. 

4. Ensign in the main rigging - - I am in want of an anchor 

and cable. 

5. Wheft where best seen . - - Send ofiP a boat. 

A signal station has been established in front of the harbour 
lighthouse, which repeats the Port ofifice signals. 

The following signals will be made to vessels that may be stranded, 
from the most convenient point : — 

At night. — By means of transparent figures. 

By day. — By means of white figures on a black board. 

No. 1. You are earnestly requested to remain on board until 
assistance is sent ; there is no danger to life. 

No. 2. Send a line on shore, by cask, and look out for a line by 
rocket or mortar. 

No. 3. Secure the line, bend a warp or hawser to it, for us to haul 
on shore, taking care to secure the warp well on board. 

No. 4. Prepare to haul on board the end of the warp, which we 
will send you by means of the line, and secure it well. 

No. 5. Lifeboat will communicate at low water, or as soon as 
practicable ; have good long lines ready for her, and prepare to leave 
the vessel ; no baggage will be allowed in the lifeboat. 

fhe cljart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Eaizabetii, N«. «4J, 



128 ALGOA BAY ; PORT ELIZABETH. [Chap. IV. 

No. 6. Secure the warp to the lower masthead, bowsprit end, or 
some other convenient place, and send a hauling line to us, that we 
may get you on shore by means of a traveller. 

Answers to the above. 

By day. — A man will stand on the most conspicuous part of the 
vessel, and wave his hat three times over his head. 

By night. — A light will be shown over the side of the vessel 
where best seen. 

General Signals to be made from the Port Office. 

No. 11. Union Jack over S, commercial ) t-, ii i. j j.t_ 

' > Prepare for bad weather. 

code, white, pierced blue. ) 



No. 12. Union Jack over J, blue, white, ) y . , , 
blue rhorizontal"). ) 

[ Veer to a whole cable. 



No. 16. Union Jack over B, red burgee 



blue (horizontal). 

No. 13. Union Jack over black ball with 
J below. 

f Send top-gallant masts on 

No. 14. Union Jack over H, white and J deck, point yards to the 

red (vertical). | wind, and see all clear 

L for working ship. 

No. 15. Union Jack over M, blue with ) Strike lower yards and toji- 
white cross. ' masts. 

Hoist a light during the 
night. 

,, i„ TT . T 1 -r. , ., ( Heave in cables to the same 

No. 17. Union Jack over R, red with \ 

„ J scope as when first 

yellow cross. ) ^ 

I moored. 

No. 18. Union Jack over black ball - - Clear hawse. 

The above signals may be also made at night, by showing the 
numbers prefixed to them in transparent figures. The answer will 
be a light at the peak. 

Zwartkop river, about 5i miles north-eastward of Port Elizabeth, 
has a few feet on the bar at low water, but the surf is frequently 
heavy. The river is navigable for small vessels for 8 or 9 miles from 
its mouth. 



See oiiart of Algoa bay, No. 642, and plan of Port Elizaljeth, No. 641, 



Chap. IV ] ST. CROIX ISLAND.— BIRD ISLANDS. 129 

ST. CROIX ISLAND* was bo named by Bartholomew Diaz, 
the first European who landed here. It is about 4 cables in length, 
by 2 cables in breadth, with a surface of nearly bare rock ; its 
western peak is 195 feet high. Penguins and gulls resort here, and 
it was formerly used as a temporary stopping place by sealers. 

There is fair anchorage at about 3 cables north of St. Croix island, 
in 10 fathoms, sandy bottom, with its west peak bearing S. by 10. 
In this position the heavy sea cau.sed by East and S.E. gales is 
considerably broken, but the extent of sheltered anchorage is 
confined to a small space by the shape of the island. 

Brenton rook, lyV miles south-west of St. Croix, is 50 feet high, 
about one cable in length and fairly steep-to. 

Jahleel island, 1-| cables in length, and 47 feet high, lies 
3 miles westward of St. Croix, and about half a mile off Coega river. 
There is 6 fathoms water between it and the shore. 

CoegSi river (pronounced Coohha), a little more than 5 miles 
from the Zwartkop, is barred at the mouth, and the water, which is 
salt, discharges into a lake. 

Sunday river, about 9^ miles eastward of the Coega, enters the 
sea close to a remarkable rock named Read's monument. (So named 
by Captain Moresby, in 1820, in remembrance of a midshipman of 
that name, who perished with three seamen whilst surveying this 
coast.) The surf beats violently over the bar, which boats can 
rarely pass. 

The Coast from Sunday river eastward to cape Padrone is 
formed by a monotonous chain of sandhills, which extend inland 
from one to 1| miles. Many of these hills rise to the height of 350 
to 450 feet above the sea, and are bare. At the back of the sandhills 
the country attains an elevation of 1,200 feet, covered with grass and 
forest. 

BIRD ISLA-NDSt are a cluster of low rocky islets, situated 
about 30 miles eastward of cape Recife, and nearly 5 miles southward 
of Woody cape. Bird island, the largest, is 33 feet in height, about 
800 yards in length, and 630 yards in width. No water is found, 
save what little is left in the hollows of the rocks after rain. Sea fowl 

* See chart of Algoa bay, No. 642. 

t See plan of Bird islanclf^ and vie^ on chqjt of Algoa bay, No. 6i2 ; also No. 2,085. 

SO 11977 I 



130 ALGOA BAY TO KOWIB RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

eggs are abundant at times, and a palatable vegetable, not unlike 
spinach to the taste, grows here. The Doddington, East Indiaman, 
was wrecked on Doddington rock in 1755. 

LIGHT. — From a light tower on Bird island is exhibited, , at an 
elevation of 100 feet above the sea, a double Jiashing white light, 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 16 miles. It shows a flash 
of two seconds, eclipse four seconds, flash two seconds, eclipse 
twenty-two seconds. 

Stag; and Seal islets. — At about 2 cables northward of Bird 

island are Stag and Seal islets, connected at low water. North- 
eastward of these islets are rocky patches extending east and west 
over a space of three-quarters of a mile, having 2 to 3 fathoms water ; 
the middle rocks rise above water, and are named North patch. 
These dangers lie about one mile north-eastward from the light- 
house. 

At about three-quarters of a mile westward of Seal islet are five 
black rocky islets, with a narrow passage between, having a depth of 
2 fathoms. It is during very fine weather only that these islets are 
not surrounded with heavy breakers. 

Rocks. — South-westward of Bird island there are three dangers 
named West rock, Doddington rock, and East reef. The two former 
are awash, and the latter has 2| fathoms water, but the sea is seldom 
so smooth as not to break upon it. West rock lies with Bird island 
lighthouse E. ^ S. distant 1^ miles nearly. From the Doddington, 
the lighthouse bears N.E. | E. 1^^^ miles ; and from the centre of 
East reef N.N.E. | E. 1|- miles. 

Between and around these rocks and islands the depths are 
irregular, and during bad weather a heavy sea rolls over the whole of 
this space, breaking in 8 to 10 fathoms water to seaward of the 
group. In thick weather a vessel should not stand into less than 
GO fathoms. 

Ancliorage. — The Bird island group afi'ords indifferent anchorage 
on the northern side ; the holding ground is not good, and the bottom 
is uneven. 

With south-east winds, the lighthouse seen between Stag and Seal 
islets, in 10 or 11 fathoms, is a good spot for shelter, but should 
the wind become strong from the westward, it will be found 

See charts, Ncs. G42 and 2,085. 



Chap. IV.] BIRD ISLAND PASSAGE. 131 

necessary to shift berth to the eastward, anchoring with the Black 
rocks in line with Stag islet, or a little open on either side of it, in 
from 8 to 10 fathoms. From this latter position H.M.S. Geyser drove 
to sea in a heavy W.S.W. gale, which shows the holding ground to 
be bad, as she had 75 fathoms of cable out. 

Landing'. — It frequently happens that there is no landing, the 
rollers setting in during calm weather as well as in a gale. After 
these have subsided, care is necessary in landing as the sea sometimes 
breaks heavily and unexpectedly right across the entrance to the 
space between the islands. The lighthouse in line with the first or 
western rock that shows on the white patch at the east end of Bird 
island, is the best direction to pull in upon, as it leads between the 
breakers on the spit and those off the end of Bird island. See 
sketch on chart No. 642. 

Tides and Currents. — In the vicinity of the Bird islands no 
regular tidal stream was found, but the rise is the same as in Algoa 
bay. At the anchorage northward of the group the current sets 
generally to the eastward ; on one occasion, during a strong westerly 
gale, it ran east at the rate of 1^ knots. It was, however, upon two 
other occasions during westerly gales, found setting to the westward. 

BIRD ISLAND PASSAGE.— Directions.— If bound from 
Algoa bay to the eastward, with favourable weather, Bird island 
passage is recommended. The channel is 3 miles wide and clear 
of danger ; a vessel will carry from 10 to 15 fathoms through, and 
may run along the land at a distance of 2 to 3 miles the whole way to 
the Buffalo river. By passing inside Bird islands the strong current 
to the south-west is avoided. 

Vessels passing inside the islands during the night, particularly 
steam vessels, are recommended to keep nearer to the mainland than 
the group, as the land is higher and more readily discerned, and the 
constant roar of the surf more distinctly heard than the breakers on 
the rocky reefs of the group. The lead with care will indicate a too 
near approach to the main shore, and 12 to 15 fathoms is a safe depth 
in passing. A wide berth should be given to cape Padrone, off 
which foul ground extends about half a mile. See directions 
continued, page 133. 

In passing outside the group, no vessel should approach within 
3 miles of the lighthouse, as no advantage is gained by it, and the 

See charts, Nos. 642 and 2,085. 
SO 11977 .13 



132 ALGOA BAY TO KOWIE RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

current, though not generally strong, is uncertain and irregular 
both in strength and direction in the vicinity of the group. 

If proceeding from Algoa bay to Port Natal, steam vessels generally 
skirt the coast, but sailing vessels should keep about 100 miles from 
land in order to avoid the strength of the Agulhas current. 

THE COAST.— Aspect. — The first break in the sandy feature 
of the sea coast occurs at Woody cape, abreast Bird islands. At this 
spot the sandhills are covered with dark bushes ; they present to 
seaward a series of sandstone cliffs, fronted by a beach of rock, 
which extends along shore for 2 miles, when the sandhills are again 
met with ; these continue as far as cape Padrone. 

Fresh water is found at Woody cape, and about cape Padrone, 
welling out from the base of the sandhills. By digging into the 
sand above high water mark, fresh water may be had nearly all the 
way along this portion of the coast. 

From cape Padrone to Keiskamma point, a distance of nearly 
60 miles, the coast is mostly backed by hills, faced with sand to a 
height of 100 to 250 feet, with the exception of the first 20 miles, in 
which space the sand is much lower. The coast is intersected with 
streams, and the land near the shore presents a fine tract of pasture 
country with large patches under cultivation. 

From the offing in the vicinity of cape Padrone, the most remarkable 
features are Nanquas peak (985 feet above the sea), and the high sand- 
hills to the westward towards Woody cape. The peak, when seen 
from the southward, appears flat-topped, but proceeding eastward, it 
assumes a conical form, and is the most conspicuous object on this 
part of the coast. 

Bokness hill, about 3J miles eastward of Nanquas peak, is a 
flat-topped bushy hill ; thence to Glendower peak, about 13 miles 
beyond, the land is lower, uneven, and intersected with many ravines. 
When near the shore False islet and Bushmen river east head become 
conspicuous ; the former resembling, as its name implies, an islet. 
Karega and Kasuga rivers are noticeable, and from off the latter 
several houses may be seen near its mouth. 

The castle-like house on the west bank of the Kowie, the Kowie 
river, the village on the cultivated slope on the east bank, the 
high head over Riet point, Groenf ontein head, together with Nanquas 
and Glendower peaks, serve to identify this coast. 



Si't' charts, Nos. 2,08.5 and 2,08(i, 



Chap. IV.j ASPECT. — GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 133 

The hills at Bathurst, and the range of mountains in the vicinity 
of Grahams town, are also conspicuous. From Riet point to 
Kleinemond river the hills become again low, as also the land 
behind ; about midway are the Black rocks or Three Sisters. 

Proceeding eastward to Great Fish point sand-faced hills become 
high, and when within about 1^ miles of the point there is a 
bare-topped sandhill which may be recognised 10 or 12 miles off 
shore. 

Thence to Great Fish river the coast is comparatively low as well 
as the land behind, which is a grassy plain intersected with 
ravines. 

Farther on to Stalwart point the sand-faced hills are tolerably 
high, and about midway 2 or 3 miles inland are two peaked grassy 
hills, near the village of Maitland, visible from all directions. This, 
with the dark head over Stalwart point, Fish river head, the Black 
rocks, and Groenfontein head, serve to identify this neighbourhood. 

Farther eastward are the Umtata river sandhills, the Bequa river, 
with the high bare-topped sandhill westward of it, together with a 
round topped grassy hill 327 feet high north-westward of Bequa 
river, named Schietkop. Patos Kop, a square fiat-topped grassy 
hill, 900 feet in height, lies about 9 miles north-westward from 
Kieskamma point. This with the hill close over the point with the 
house on its summit, as well as the Bequa and Umtata sandhills, 
serve to identify this locality. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.— From cape Padrone (directions 
p. 131) to Bokness river, and thence to Kieskamma point, the shore 
should not be approached within 2 miles. 

At night or in thick weather do not stand into less than 40 fathoms. 

The off-shore depths within the 100-fathoms line are tolerably 
regular, the bottom being composed of sand and shells, though to 
the westward it is frequently found with black specks. 

The edge of the bank is steep, dropping from 100 to 200 and 
300 fathoms, in less than a mile. 

During westerly gales the sea is much smoother on than off the 
bank, the edge of which is thus generally well defined. 

CurreiltS.-*-The Agulhas current off this part of the coast from 
the Bashee river westward generally sets W. by S., or West, and ' 

^ ■ ■ — ' ■ ■-..■■.--■ ■■■■,■ — I. ■ .,. ,. , ■ ^ , ■ ■-■ ■ -■_--■ II ■ I ■ III ■»■!.■■■■ II - ■ ^ 

See charts, Nos. 2,085 and 2,086. 



134 ALGOA BAY TO KOWIB RIVEK. [Chap. IV. 

varies in strength from one knot near the shore to 34 or 4 knots an 
hour near the edge of the bank. 

A weak current sets to the eastward near the coast at uncertain 
times. Close to the shore an eddy current often sets to the eastward, 
but its rate seldom exceeds half a knot an hour. 

In calm weather, and off the edge of the bank southward and east- 
ward of cape Padrone, the current in places has been observed 
running like a race or overfall. 

CAPE PADRONE, situated 8 miles eastward of "Woody cape, is 
formed of sand cliffs, exceeding 100 feet in height. The sandhills 
extend nearly a mile back from the cape and rise to a ridge of bushy 
hills 340 feet in height, at the back of which may be seen a few 
houses. 

Off the point, to the distance of 4 cables, are several outlying rocks, 
some of which show at low water ; the sea at times breaks heavily 
on them. 

Patches of foul ground, on which the sea breaks in heavy weather, 
extend about one mile off the rocky points, situated 3 and 6 miles 
eastward of cape Padrone, and to less distances on either side of 
these points. 

The shore eastward continues fringed with rocks. 

At Bokness river, the mouth of which is closed, the coast 
ridge attains a height of 100 feet, is covered with bush, and sand 
extends some distance up its sea face. From Bokness river to False 
islet the shore is sandy. 

FALSE ISLET is a dark looking headland, 85 feet high, 
extending in an east and west direction half a mile ; it is nearly 
perpendicular on its sea face, and is connected with the main land 
by sand hillocks. From seaward the head shows out against the 
white sand, and resembles an islet. 

Several rocks which show at low water extend 3 cables from the 
Bouth-west part of the islet ; the point next eastward is foul to the 
distance of about 4 cables, with rocks awash at low water. 

Reef. — A reef upon which the sea breaks heavily, formerly reported 
by several coasters, was seen from H.M.S. Flirty 1886 ; it lies from 
one to 2 miles S. by E. to S.S.E. of False islet. 

8ee chart, No. 2,085. 



Chap. IV.] CAPE PADRONFJ. — GLENDOWKR PEAK. 135 

Bushmen river. — The mouth of Bushmen river is choked witli 
sand and rocks, but at high tide the water runs in. Its southern 
point is a high cliff with three lumps on it, and connected with the 
main beach ridge by a neck of sand, against the back ground of 
which the dark rock shows out conspicuously. 

Patches of rocks, some awash at low water, extend from Bushmen 
river to beyond the mouth of the Karega ; the outer one lies with 
Karega river mouth N.N.W. f W. three-quarters of a mile ; the sea 
breaks for a considerable distance outside these patches. 

Between Bushmen and Karega rivers the beach ridge is about 
180 feet in height, covered with bush and partially faced with sand, 

Karegra river is generally open at high water ; oflE it are the 
patches of rock just described. 

The shore eastward for 2 miles is fringed with rocks, the coast 
ridge rising to a height of 225 feet. Sunken rocks extend about 
2 cables off. 

Kasuga river is closed at its mouth ; there are some houses on 
the banks of the river, visible from seaward. Sunken rocks extend 
2 cables off the shore to the eastward. 

Sllip rock, a black point 50 feet high, lies about 3 miles eastward 
of Kasuga river ; the coast ridge is about 400 feet high, and sand 
extends up the face of the hills, against which Ship rock shows 
conspicuously. 

From Ship rock to Kowie point the beach is fringed with rocks ', 
at two-thirds of a mile westward of Kowie point and a short distance 
from the coast are two sunken rocks. 

GLENDOWER PEAK.— Landmark.— At the back of the 
beach ridge is Glendower peak, a high grassy head 622 feet above 
the sea ; it is tolerably steep on both sides, its western dropping to a 
small stream, which having no outlet soaks through the beach 
ridge. 

A stone beacon, 50 feet high, pyramidal in shape, upper part 
black, lower white, has been erected on Glendower peak, in order to 
distinguish this monotonous part of the coast. 



See chart, No. 2,085. 



i36 KOWIE RIVER ; PORT ALFRED. [Chap. iV 

Salt Vlei bay. — From Kowie point, which is low, the shore 
trends eastward about 1^ miles to Salt Vlei point, westward of 
which is Salt Vlei bay ; to about midway the sandy beach is fringed 
with rocks, at which distance there are several rocks 2 cables from 
the shore. 

In Salt Vlei bay the land is low and grassy ; at a quarter of a 
mile from the beach is a farmhouse, and on a small hill to 
seaward of the house is a flagstaff. 

Salt Vlei point is low and rocky ; from the sandy point to the 
eastward rocks extend to the distance of one cable. 

The beach ridge of hills extends to Kowie river, to which they 
drop abruptly ; they vary from 60 to 140 feet in height, are covered 
With bush, and the highest part is near the river. 

KOWIE RIVER* rises near Grahams town, 40 miles from its 
mouth, and is navigable for small vessels for about 5 miles, and 
for boats for upwards of 16 miles ; the scenery is exceedingly 
beautiful and picturesque, the banks wooded to the water's edge, 
varied in the upper reaches above Mansfield with grassy slopes and 
high steep cliffs. Game is abundant, and fish may be caught in the 
river and ofiP the Fountain rocks at the entrance. 

The river originally emptied itself into a sandy basin, the water 
thence forcing its way through a narrow channel on the eastern side 
into the sea. Its course, however, has been diverted at a point about 
a mile from the entrance, and now runs close along the western 
shore between two stone embankments, terminating in piers 
constructed with concrete blocks, of an average breadth of 
70 yards. Vessels of 10 to 11 feet draught can enter the river 
at high water. 

PORT ALFRED is a seaport town situated on both banks of the 
Kowie river, and connected by railway to Grahams town ; it possesses 
some advantages as a harbour for coasting and other small vessels. 
Here are custom and bonding warehouses, and other buildings, with 
facilities for landing and shipping goods, the railway extending on to 
the western quay. 

This is one of the favourite watering places of the Colony, the 
warm Agulhas current running down the coast from the southern 

* See plan of the entrance to Kowie river (Port Alfred), No. 1,223. 



Chap. IV.] TOWN.— ROADSTEAD. 13? 

tropic, moderating the cold of winter — frost being almost unknown — 
and rendering it a genial resort for invalids. 

Population.— Trade.— Population in 1891 was 1,092. During 
the year 1895 three vessels entered of the aggregate tonnage of 
601 tons. There is but little trade, owing to the development of 
rival trade routes and other causes. 

LIGHT. — On the western pier, and at an elevation of 40 feet 
above high water, is a fixed green harbour light, visible seaward in 
clear weather from a distance of about 6 miles. 

Beacons. — Eastward of mount Cock house, on the west bank of 
the river, is a flagstaff painted white, the inner mark for the bar. 
The outer mark is a beacon S.S.E. | E., 176 yards from the 
flagstaff, on a sand hillock, and formed of two poles with cross 
bars, above which is a pole with a ball on the top, the whole 
painted red. 

The port ofiice signal staff stands on the west wall at about 
350 yards from the outer end. 

The bar of Kowie river commences in about 3 fathoms, at the 
distance of one cable seaward of the extremity of the west pier, and 
the water gradually shoals to a least depth of 4 to 7 feet at low water 
springs. The bar is sand over rock, and the passage across it varies 
considerably in position and depth. Westerly and south-westerly 
gales send in a heavy swell, which drives quantities of sand into the 
river, a deposit which the ebb tide does not immediately remove. 
In fine weather, vessels of 10 to 11 feet draught, with the assistance 
of a pilot, may cross the bar, but only small coasting craft use the 
port. 

The ROADSTEAD.— Dangers.— There are no shoals beyond 
the five fathoms line, except Jansen's rock to the eastward of the 
entrance, within which depth no vessel should go. 

Fountain rocks, on the east side of the approach to the river, 
cover a space of three-quarters of a mile, east and west ; some of 
these rocks are awash at high water, others uncover at half tide, and 
the sea always breaks on the outer patches. 

*!5tv plan of the entrance to Kowie river (Port Alfred), No. 1,223. 



138 KO^VIE RIVER ; PORl* ALFRED. {Chap. iV. 

The south-westei'u of these dangers has 1^ feet water, and lies 
with the signal staff bearing N.W. | W., distant 1 f\, miles. The south- 
eastern patch lies 1^ cables eastward of the former, with 3 feet water. 
There are depths of 5| to 8 fathoms close to these patches. 

Jansen's rock lies E.S.E. 3| cables from the east dry rock of the 
Fountain group, and is awash at low water, with 4 to 5 fathoms close 
northward and eastward and 9 fathoms seaward of it. 

Clearing" marks.— The quarries on the east bank of Kowie 
river, bearing N.N.W. ^ W., and kept open Avestward of the old 
custom house point, leads westward of Fountain rocks ; and the gap 
in the cliffs near the outlet of Rufane river, bearing N.N.E. h F., 
leads eastward of the rocks. 

Directions. — Vessels approaching Kowie river from the west- 
ward may identify its position by the beacon on Glendower peak ; 
the adjacent country consists of smooth grassy slopee dotted with 
bush and fronted with a line of sand hillocks. From the eastward. 
Black rocks or Three Sisters, 7 miles eastward of the river, will, 
with the houses and flagstaffs at Port Alfred, serve to identify the 
land-fall. 

Having arrived off the river, distant about 2 miles, the anchorage 
may be steered for on the line of leading beacons for crossing the 
bar, viz. : Mount Cock's flagstaff" in line with red beacon, bearing 
N.N.W. I W., and anchoring in about 15 fathoms, as recommended. 

Vessels that can cross the bar, will, by signalling to the Port office 
obtain all information about the state of the bar, and as soon as it is 
possible, a pilot will be sent out, but a stranger should not attempt 
to cross the bar without one. See signals, page 138. 

Anchorage. — The outer anchorage for large vessels, off Kowie 
river is in from 15 to 17 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the signal staff 
from N.N.W. to N.N.W. ^ W. ; westward of this the bottom is rocky. 
The inner anchorage, in 8 fathoms, lies half mile northAvard of it, 
but the sea breaks here in bad weather. 

The holding ground is not good, being rocky, with patches of sand. 
Vessels should veer to 80 or 100 fathoms of cable to ride easily, 
and be prepared to put to sea at the commencement of a gale 
(the indications of which are pointed out by signal at the Port 
office). 

(Sgtf plan of the entrance to Kowie river (Port Alfred), No. 1,223. 



Chap. IV.] DIRECTIONS.— StJt>PLlbS.— SIGNALS. 139 

In case of puttiug to sea, masters of vessels should Ijear in mind 
that the Agulhas current sets to the westward frequently at the rate 
of 80 to 90 miles per day, and that moderate shelter may be found 
under the Bird islands in Algoa bay. 

Supplies. — Coal. — Provisions are obtainable, but water is scarce 
and of indifferent quality. Ballast is obtainable in the river, free of 
charge. A small quantity of coal is kept for i-ailway purposes. 
There is a government slip capable of taking a vessel of 100 tons 
burthen and about 100 feet in length, originally used for taking up 
sand barges. There is a lifeboat and rocket apparatus. 

The Albany hospital at Grahams town receives patients. 

Communication. — Port Alfred is connected by rail with the 
Government railway at Grahams town distant 43 miles ; and is in 
telegraphic communication with the other towns of the Colony. The 
coastal service steamers call here. 

Pilots for the river are always in readiness ; there is no charge 
for their services. 

Time signal. — A time ball is dropped from the signal staff, near 
the inner end of the west pier, by electricity from the Cape Observa- 
tory, at Ih. 30m. Os., Cape Colony mean time, corresponding to 
Greenwich mean noon. Latitude of signal staff, 33° 3G' 9" S. 

Slgmals. — The international code of signals is used at the Port 
office with which communication can be kept up. Weather reports 
are posted up daily. 

Port office signals. — A number (indicated by one flag) is given to 
every vessel upon arrival. 

Black ball over union jack - Veer to a whole cable, and see 

second anchor clear. 

Black ball under union jack - Send down top-gallant yards and 

masts, point yards to the wind, 
and see all clear for working 
ship. 

Union jack at masthead - - Put to sea at once, and get an 

offing. 

Black ball over the ensign - Bar cannot be crossed. 



See plan of the entrance to Kowie river (Port Alfred), No. 1 ,223. 



i46 KOWIE RIVER TO BUFFALO RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

A blue flag will be shown at the west yard-arm of the flagstaff on 
the flood tide, and a red flag on the ebb. 

At night, — A rocket fired across the river - Bar cannot be crossed. 

Vessels not having the International code of signals can rnake the 
following signals with their ensigns, namely : — 

1. Ensign in fore topmast rigging - In want of a cable. 

2. Ensign in main topmast rigging - In want of an anchor. 

3. Ensign in fore rigging - - Parted a bower cable. 

4. Ensign in main rigging - - In want of anchor and cable 

5. Wheft where best seen - - Want assistance or a tug. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kowie river at 
3h. 50m. ; springs rise 4 to 5 feet, neaps 3 feet. The tides are 
influenced by the winds, varying from 6 inches to a foot, being lower 
with easterly winds and higher with westerly winds. No tidal 
stream is appreciable in the roadstead, but it is felt some 12 miles uj) 
the river. 

Current. — With westerly winds and fine weather the current, at 
about 2 or 3 miles off shore, sets invariably to the eastward ; after a 
day or two of strong easterly winds it runs to the westward, but only 
for a short time. 

Winds. — The prevailing winds in the summer months are from 
East to S.E., and in the winter months from West to S.W. Sailing 
vessels can enter the river with the winds from W.S.W. round by 
south to E.N.E., but the wind is seldom to the northward of East, 
except during the summer months in the morning, until 8 or 
9 o'clock, when it comes in from the S.E. for the day, and is a 
smooth-water wind. 

COAST.* — From Kowie river the sandy beach extends eastward 
for 6 miles to Riet point. This coast is low, sandy, and in places 
fringed with rocks, and the hills at half a mile inland range from 
230 to 350 feet in height. 

Rufane river lies 2 miles eastward of Kowie river, but its mouth 
is closed up. The shore is backed by hills about 350 feet high, and 
faced with sand in places ; at one mile westward of Riet point, 
behind the coast ridge, is a hill, 486 feet high, and when seen from 
east or west is conspicuous. 

Riet point reef. — Reit point is low and sandy, with sunken 
rocks extending at least 4 cables off, and for 2 cables at half a mile 

* See View on chart, No. 2,085. 



Chap. IV.] BIET POINT. — GREAT PISH RIVER. 141 

westward of it ; the sea breaks a considerable distance off the point. 
Glendower peak beacon, bearing W. by N. f N., leads nearly one 
mile seaward of the charted reef, but as rocks have been more than 
once vaguely reported to exist some distance beyond, mariners 
should give the point a berth of at least 3 miles. 

Riet river discharges into the bight eastward of the point. 

Black rocks or Three Sisters are connected with the shore 
by a narrow neck of land ; they show conspicuously against the 
white sand behind, and appear like an island. The central one is 
50 feet high, and on their sea side they are nearly perpendicular. 

Sunken rocks extend from 3 to 4 cables off Black rocks and off the 
point eastward of them, beyond which the sea breaks for some distance. 

Kleinemond rivers lie about about one mile eastward of Black 
rocks. The sandy mouths of these streams, which are generally 
closed, are separated by a narrow strip of land ; they traverse a low 
country, covered with grass and patches of bush. 

The coast from Kleinemond rivers trends 3^ miles eastward to 
Great Fish point. The hills near the sea are bushy, faced with sand 
nearly to their summits, and, at 1^ miles eastward of Kleinemond 
rivers, attain a height of 350 feet. Three-quarters of a mile eastward 
is the highest part of the ridge (390 feet). 

GREAT FISH POINT is low, sandy, and fringed with rocks. 
A rock which shows at low water, with a depth of 12 fathoms at 
3 cables outside it, lies nearly half a mile off the point. The coast 
hills rise in a short distance to a height of 260 feet. 

At three-quarters of mile eastward of Great Fish point, and about 
a quarter of a mile off shore, is a half-tide rock, on which the sea 
breaks. Little Fish point, situated about half a mile westward of 
the entrance to Great Fish river, is rocky, and shelving ; the hill 
over it is 140 feet about the sea, covered with bush and partially 
faced with sand. 

LIGHT. — ^A lighthouse is in course of construction at Great Fish 
point, from which it is intended to exhibit (about March 1898) a 
tvhite flash every ten seconds, thus : Flash half a second, eclipse 
nine and a half seconds. The light will be 275 feet above high 
water, and visible in clear weather from a distance of 20 miles. 

GREA.T FISH RIVER.— The mouth of Great Fish river is 
always open, but the depth in the entrance is not stated ; probably 

^e chart, No. 2,085, 



142 KOWIE RIVER TO BUFFALO RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

it is not permanent, and entering it must be at all times attended with 
considerable danger, on account of the breakers across the entrance. 

At Rocky head, the east point of entrance, are three dark rocks, 
25 feet high, outside and around which are several other rocks, 
showing at low water, and extending to the distance of 1| cables in 
places. The sea breaks for some distance outside these rocks. 

At 3 cables within the east point is a bushy peak 100 feet high, 
and near the base of it is the narrowest part of the entrance, which 
is about 20 yards wide. Here the water appears deep for a breadth 
of about 10 yards, and the sea does not break successively, having at 
times an interval of five minutes, when a boat could effect a landing ; 
but when the sea does break it is with treble the violence of the 
constant rolling yurf along the sand before the river's mouth. At 
particular seasons the river rises considerably, when the current 
becomes too strong for craft to enter ; at other times the river is a 
mere stream, and the current then is inconsiderable. 

The position of Great Fish river may be made out in clear weather 
by some distant hills of an undulating form, which bear N.N.W. 
when on with the ravine through which the river flows. The river 
makes apparently a very perceptible gap in the coast line if near the 
land. 

Current. — The water of Great Fish river is of a red colour, and 
may be traced after rain for some miles westward of Kowie point, 
but is seldom seen to the eastward of the river ; from this fact it is 
evident that an easterly current near this part of the coast, though 
occasionally experienced, is not a constant or frequent current. 

Waterloo bay lies between Great Fish river and Stalwart point, 
about 4 miles to the eastward. There are two streams between 
which are closed with sand. All vestiges of the establishment that 
existed here in 1846 and 1847 have disappeared. The coast hills rise 
steeply from the beach to a height of from 180 to 250 feet faced with 
sand nearly to their summits, which are covered with dark bush. 

About 2 miles eastward of Great Fish river a ledge of rocks 
projects from the beach about 2 cables ; at one cable off its eastern 
extreme is a sunken rock. 

Temporary anchoragre. — Vessels should not anchor in a less 
depth than 9 fathoms, with Great Fish point bearing W. | S., and the 
south-west end of the rocks about half a mile eastAvard of Great 



See chart, No. 2.085. 



Chap. IV.] WATERLOO BAY. — STALWART POINT. 143 

Fish river, N. by W. ^ W.; it is an exposed anchorage, and the 
rollers which occasionally set in during calm weather render it 
unsafe. 

Vessels should be ready to slip and pTit to sea, in the event of a 
S.E. wind or rollers setting in. 

There is better anchorage in 14 fathoms, in which depth the bottom 
is clean, good holding ground, coarse sand, but this is too incon- 
venient a distance for landing. 

Landings was formerly eflEected in the bay between the rocks off 
the east point of Great Fish river and'those to the north-east of them, 
in surf boats, and with them it was difficult. Censiderable strain 
was brought on the surf lines by the westerly current. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Waterloo bay, at 
4h. Om. ; springs rise about 6 feet. 

STALWART POINT.— From the west part of Stalwart point, 
the shore eastward is fringed with a series of ledges extending a 
quarter of a mile from the beach, off which at a short distance are 
sunken rocks. The sea breaks in bad weather three-quarters of a 
mile from the shore. 

The coast ridge near the west end of Stalwart point is 224 feet 
high, lower towards its eastern part ; on its western slope are two 
or three farm houses visible from seaward. 

Impekquina river, at 2 miles eastward of stalwart point, 
is generally closed ; a little west of the river is a dark bushy head 
144 feet high partially faced with sand, and at the back of which, a 
quarter of a mile inland, is a house visible from seaward. 

Umtata river is generally open. The intervening shore is 
fringed with ledges extending some distance from the beach, and the 
sea breaks a long way outside of them. 

The hill on the west side of Umtata river is 260 feet high, and that 
on the east side, is 149 feet high, covered with dark bush, and faced 
with sand a short distance up. Off this hill a sunken ledge extends 
a quarter of a mile. 

From Umtata river to Golana river, which is closed, a distance of 
one mile, the beach for about half way is fringed with rocks. A 
detached rock lies 2 cables off its east point. 



Sfiti charts, Nos. 2,08.') and 2,086, 



144 KOWIE RIVER TO BUFFALO RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

Bequa river lies 3 miles eastward of Golana river and is 
generally closed. The beach between is fringed with ledges, nearly 
two cables from the shore, with sunken rocks beyond. The coast 
ridge rises steeply from the beach, and gradually increases in height 
as Bequa liver is approached. 

Madagrascar reef, about 7 cables in length, dry at low water, and 
with a depth of 12 fathoms at 2 cables distance, lies half a mile from 
the shore, and the same distance eastward of Bequa river. The sea 
always breaks over the reef. 

Goslia river, lies about 2 miles eastward of Bequa river and is 
apparently closed ; the shore between is a sandy beach, and midway 
fringed with rocks. 

Eastward to Keiskamma point the beach is sandy and fringed with 
rocks. The coast ridge is partially faced with sand to a height of 
40 to 70 feet ; immediately behind the land rises to a height of 
300 feet, and about half a mile westward of the point forms a head, 
on the summit of which is a house visible seaward. 

At one mile westward from Keiskamma point, and 3 cables from 
the shore, is a rock which shows at low- water springs; the sea 
breaks heavily here in bad weather. 

Between Keiskamma point and Buffalo river, the land is covered 
with grass and bush in patches, and intersected with streams and 
deep ravines. The shore is backed with an irregular ridge of coast 
hills, covered with dark bush, and at intervals faced with sand. See 
beacon, p. 146. 

At a distance of about 6 miles inland, the land rises to a height of 
from 600 to 700 feet, and when well off the coast a range of 
mountains 2,000 to 3,000 feet in height, in the vicinity of King 
Williams town, may be seen. The range in the vicinity of Grahams 
town is also ^'isible. 

KEISKAMMA POINT is low, sandy, and fringed with rocks ; 
near its extremity is a bushy-topped sandhill, 110 feet high, which 
when seen from the westward near the coast appears like an islet. 

Caution. — BetAveen Keiskamma and Bashee point, vessels should 
not approach the shore within 2 miles, or at night and in thick 
weather under 40 fathoms. 

See chart. No 2,086, with views. 



Chap. IV.] • BEQUA RIVER. — CH ALUMNA RIVER. 145 

Keiskamma river, at its mouth, is about half a cable wide at 
low water ; within, the river opens into a basin about one mile in 
extent, partially dry at low water ; the main stream trends north- 
ward from the basin, and many miles into the interior, draining a 
large tract of country. 

Boats have been known in fine weather to enter and leave the 
river in safety, but such an occurrence is not frequent, and it is 
always attended with danger, as no dependence can be placed on the 
bar, the depths on which are constantly altering. The surf in bad 
weather extends a long half mile from the shore. On the west bank 
of the river are the two German villages of Hamburg and Bodiam ; 
the former is about one mile, and the latter 5 miles from the 
entrance. 

A quarter of a mile eastward of the entrance, and about one cable 
off-shore, are some rocks which show at low water. 

A 10-fathom patch lies with the mouth of the Keiskamma bearing 
N.N.W. l W. distant 1^ miles. 

The coast about the Keiskamma is about 600 feet in height, with 
patches of sand 80 or 100 feet high, showing against the dark land. 
Keiskamma river may possibly be identified by a mountain of a 
conical shape, flattened at the top, standing by itself, and a short 
distance to the eastward another high mountain which has three 
slight elevations. 

When these mountains bear N.N.W. they are in a line with the 
entrance of the Keiskamma. See beacon, p. 146. 

The coast from Keiskamma river trends eastward about 6 miles 
to Chalumna river ; there are several streams between, two of which, 
like most of the small streams on this coast, are choked with sand ; 
Guanie, the eastern stream, is open at high water. 

Ohalumna river, 7 miles eastward of Keiskamma point, has a 
bank extending across its mouth dry at low water ; rocks extend 
■ about H cables off shore, from a half to one mile eastward of it. 

The Coast from Chalumna river eastward is rocky for 1^ miles ; 
thence it is sandy, and fringed with rocks to the Nieca river ; at 
about one mile westward of the river at 3^ cables off shore is a rock 
which breaks. 



See chart, No. 2,086. 
SOlld77 E 



146 KOWIE RIVER TO BUFFALO RIVER. [Chap. IV. 

Nieca river is open at high water, but a sand spit extends nearly 
across from the west point at low water. The east point rises to 
about 150 feet, and is covered with bush. 

Another stream empties itself north-eastward of a low point, 
2^ miles eastward of Nieca river ; at the north east point of its 
entrance is a bushy peak 185 feet high. 

Beacon. — A wooden pyramidal beacon, its top 381 feet above the 
sea, is situated on the hill 1^ miles due north of the mouth of the 
Nieca river, for the purpose of identifying the coast when approaching 
East London from the westward. The beacon, 51 feet in height and 
painted black, stands on an equilateral base (each side of the base 
27 feet) and terminates in a sharp point. It should be visible in 
clear weather from a distance of about 23 miles. 

Nkutu river, 5 miles eastward of the Nieca, is generally open 
at high water ; a sunken rock lies S.E. distant one-third of a mile 
off it. At one mile inland is a bushy hill, 414 feet high, and near 
its eastern part half way down the face, is a house visible from seaward. 

Gola river, at 2^ miles eastward of Nkutu river, is open at high 
ItVater; ihe shore between is fringed with rocks, and the coast hills 
are covered with bush faced Avith sand. The hill at the west point 
of Gola river is about 120 feet high covered with bush, the sand 
extending up its face some distance. 

At Gola point, the land rises precipitously 336 feet to a rounded 
top covered with grass ; and inland two-thirds of a mile is a 
remarkable peak, 443 feet high, conspicuous from all directions. 
At 1| miles eastward of Gola point is a stream, off which at 
one-third of a mile is a sunken rook. 

Cove rock, 2^ miles eastward of Gola point, is a quoin-shaped 
rock, 86 feet high, with a deep notch in the middle. It is connected 
with the shore, from which it is about 3 cables distant, by a neck 
of sand, and hence appears as an island, and a good mark when 
navigating along shore. Off it and to the westward are some 
outlying rocks which generally break, at a quarter of a mile off shore. 

Landing. — North-eastward of Cove rock on a small sandy beach 
boats may land even during south-east winds. 

The coast from Cove rock eastward assumes a more pleasant 
aspect : bare sandhills are now only occasionally met with, and they 
always have such remarkable forms as to make fair landmarks. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap. rV.] NIECA RIVER. — BUFFALO RIVER. 147 

From the small stream eastward of Cove rock, the shore trends 
eastward to Hood point, with several small streams between, and ia 
fringed with rocks, but there are no off-lying dangers. 

Hood point, about one mile westward of Buffalo river, is low 
and rocky, but rises steeply from the beach to a ridge 107 feet high, 
covered with grass and bush. 

LIGHT. — From a cylindrical tower, painted in red and white 
squares, 62 feet in height, erected on the north-eastern end of the 
ridge over Hood point, is exhibited at an elevation of 180 feet above 
high water, a group flashing white light, showing four flashes in quick 
succession every forty seconds, as follows — the flashes are half second, 
eclipses between 4 seconds, and the eclipse between each group 
25 seconds. The light is visible from a distance of 18 miles in clear 
weather. 

BUFFALO RIVER.— East London.— Buffalo harbour, on 
which is situated the town of East London, is the mouth of the 
river of that name. Harbour works, upon plans framed by Sir John 
Coode, have been carried on for some years for the removal of the 
bar and clearance of the channel, as mentioned below. 

The port is the natural outlet for the trade of the border divisions, 
and of the states and territories beyond the Orange river. In 
common with all the rivers on this coast, the Buffalo is obstructed 
by a dangerous sand bar, but by the construction of training walls to 
confine the river to a width of about 250 feet and the use of steam 
dredgers, considerable progress has been made in deepening it ; 
the depth, however, will always be subject to great variation from 
gales of wind. See the bar, p. 151. 

The Buffalo river is navigable for boats for about 3 miles ; its 
banks are steep, and attain a height in places of 200 feet. 

Castle point, the south point of entrance to the Buffalo river, is 
low and rocky, with rocks extending a distance of nearly 2 cables off 
it ; these rocks probably tend to break the force of the sea on the 
breakwater which has been built out from the point some 500 yards 
seaward of the lighthouse. 

Within the 5-fathoms line, at 5^ cables southward of the 
lighthouse, and about 4 cables off shore is a rocky bank 2^ cables in 
extent, with a depth of 4^ fathoms. The sea breaks heavily over 
this bank in bad weather. 

See plan of Buffalo river, with views, No. 1,843. 
so 11977 K 2 



148 BUFFALO RIVER ; EAST LONDON. [Chap. IV. 

Kahoon point. — The coast northward from the north training 
wall of the river is fringed by a ledge of rocks, with detached 
low-water rocks extending in places to the distance of one 
cable, nearly to Inkyanza river, where there is a sandy beach ; thence 
to Kahoon point, the coast is formed of rugged cliffs from 
20 to 50 feet high. There are no sunken dangers beyond a distance 
of 2 cables, but the sea breaks about 3 cables off, and the coast 
should be given a wide berth. 

The north corner of the barracks on the top of the hill at East 
London, open of the low part of the bluff over the east point of 
Buffalo river, bearing West, leads well clear of Kahoon point. 

LIGHT. — From a lighthouse 13 feet high, painted in alternate 
red and white bands, situated near the inner end of the breakwater 
at Castle point, is exhibited, at an elevation of 45 feet above the sea, 
a fixed red light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 12 miles. 

Directions. — For the purpose of identifying the land in the 
approach to East London from the westward, a beacon has been 
erected on a hill about 14^ miles to the westward, p. 146 ; and a 
similar beacon on a hill about 15 miles to the eastward, p. 153. 
These, with the lighthouse on the hill over Hood point, the 
j&agstaffs, buildings, and the bluff 150 feet in height, on the north 
bank, on a nearer approach, will afford all the necessary landmarks. 
From the westward, vessels should not approach within 2 miles of 
the shore until near the port ; from the eastward, there is no object 
in hugging the land as the current in the ofhng is favourable. 

Anohoragre. — There is good anchorage, with westerly winds, in 
about 11 fathoms, with the extreme of the breakwater W.N."W,, and 
Kahoon point "N.E. by E. \ E. The same precautions are necessary 
as mentioned at Port Elizabeth, p. 123. Vessels whose draught will 
admit will be taken into harbour as soon as possible after arrival in 
the road. The masters should obtain a copy of the Port regulations. 

The holding ground, consisting of stiff mud under a surface of 
sand, is good, and said to be free from rocks. When ships have gone 
adrift, it has been from parting, and not from dragging. Lost 
anchors are rarely recovered, owing to the shifting nature of the 
bottom in gales. The anchorage, however, is much exposed, and 
vessels generally lie broadside to the sea, and consequently roll and 
strain a great deal. Those proposing to risk lying here in bad 
weather, should on no account be in less than 11 fathoms. The 
worst wind here is what is called a black south-easter. 

See plan of Buffalo river, with views, No. 1,843. 



Chap. IV.] ANCHORAGE. — WINDS AND WEATHER. 149 

Landing'. — Steam launches are available for landing and 
embarking passengers. Ships' boats should never attempt to cross 
the bar, even in the finest weather, unless accompanied by some one 
having local knowledge. 

Current. — At the anchorage off East London, the current 
generally runs to the south-westward at a rate of one to 2^ knots an 
hour. In calm weather, or during strong south-west winds, the 
surface water is retarded, and it occasionally runs to the eastward 
at the rate of half a knot, and sometimes stronger. 

In shore near the edge of the breakers an eddy current frequently 
runs to the eastward ; this current is variable in its strength, but 
seldom attains half a knot an hour. 

In the offing at about 15 miles from the coast, the regular Agulhas 
current runs south-westward from 2 to 4 miles an hour. 

"Winds and weather. — Seven years' observations between 
1887 and 1893, show that, of the winds that blow along the land, the 
winds from the north-eastward and those from south-westward are 
fairly equal during the winter months ; but in summer, or from 
August to March, the winds from the south-westward exceed those 
from the north-eastward in the proportion of about 3 to 2. Of 
those that blow directly landward comparatively few are recorded, 
whilst those from off the land between North and W.N.W. greatly 
preponderate during the winter months. 

Gales. — The weather off East London presents a marked 
difference to that of any other part of the coast. When the 
mercury commences to rise on the wind shifting to the westward, 
the crisis is accompanied by lightning, thunder, and heavy rain. If 
the wind shift suddenly in a squall to the south-west, the barometric 
pressure increases rapidly, a fresh gale may be expected, with fine 
weather, which will continue until the mercury attains about 
30"4 inches. If the barometer remains low and steady, a strong gale 
may be expected from W.N.W., which will probably continue for 
several days ; but if the wind shifts slowly to S.W., the barometer 
rises slowly, and a drizzling rain sets in, a strong gale and a high 
sea may be looked for. These much-dreaded south-west gales occur 
often after unsettled weather in June, July, and August, preceded by 
a moderate to fresh easterly breeze, and a gradually diminishing 
pressure. 

The wind begins to blow hard from about West, and shifts slowly 
until the mercury stands at about 30*0 inches ; the sky becomes 
leaden-looking, and a thick drizzling rain sets in ; the mercury 

See plan of Buffalo river, with views, No. 1,843. 



150 BUFFALO RIVER ; EAST LONDON. [Chap. IV. 

oscillates between 30"00 and 30*10 inches, and the temperature is 
considerably below the average. These gales blow with much 
violence, and have been the cause of many disasters to shipping at 
different times in East London roads. 

Daring the summer, October to April, easterly winds prevail, and 
S.E. gales may be expected. 

Sailing vessels would do well to put to sea when a gale is approach- 
ing, standing to the eastward if possible, and heaving-to. Most 
vessels, however, now enter the river. 

Rollers seldom set in during the summer months, but they are 
frequent during the winter. The rollers generally break in depths 
of 3 fathoms, and in stormy weather extend out to a depth of 
5 fathoms, and at times to 7 or 8 fathoms. 

Signals. — Communication can be made with the Port office by 
means of the Commercial code of signals. 

The flagstaff on the hill on the east side is also under the control 
of the Port office, and is used when the signals from that office are 
not discernable. 

GENERAL PORT OFFICE SIGNALS. 
Union Jack over S 

(white pierced^ Prepare for bad weather, 
blue) 

Union Jack over J 

(blue, white, blue ^ Veer cable and put spring on. 
horizontal) 

Union Jack over 

black ball, J^ Veer to whole cable and put spring on. 
underneath 

Union Jack over H ] 

(white and red ( Heave in cable to same scope as when first 
vertically) ] anchored. 

Slip and put to sea, lee vessels first, to avoid 
Ensign over black (^ collision, but those that can get away clear 

do so at once. 



ball 



Black ball at mast head : Impossible to cross the bar. (No boat 
should attempt to cross the bar while this signal is up.) 

Black ball three parts of the way up : Bar dangerous. (Caution to 
boats working.) 

See plan of Buffalo river, with views, No. 1,843. 



Chap. IV.] SIGNALS. — BAR.— DIRECTIONS. 151 

When lighters are working, a red flag with a white centre is 
hoisted at the Port office flagstaff, but hauled down altogether when 
the bar is impassable. 

All signals made from the Port office must be answered from the 
shipping and strictly obeyed ; and any vessel disregarding them will 
be reported to Lloyd's, and also to their owners. 

Life-boats. — There are two life-boats near the Port office, and 
three stations with life-saving apparatus, which are alway ready for 
use at short notice. When the life-boat is under way, the signal 
J. C. T. is hoisted by day, at the Port office, and two white lights 
horizontal at night ; the signalman at the East bank station repeats 
these signals. 

THE BAR of Buffalo river lies just north-eastward of the 
extreme of the southern breakwater, and had in 1896 a depth of 
17 to 18 feet at high water springs during the winter months, and 
from 22 to 23 Eeet during the summer months. The depths also 
alter considerably with the weather, being decreased generally by a 
succession of S.E. winds, and increased by westerly winds. The 
surf on the bar is often very dangerous, and when the swell is coming 
from the south-westward or southward, heavy breaking seas often 
render the bar impassable. 

Vessels of about 15 feet draught can cross the bar and enter the 
river at high water springs, in moderate weather. This is sufficient 
for most of the vessels that visit the port, other than the steamers of 
the Union and Castle lines, which remain outside, but steam dredgers 
are at work to increase the depth, as before stated. 

The Clan Graham^ 2,926 tonnage, 330 feet in length, 40 feet 
beam, and 18 feet 2 inches draught of water crossed the bar under 
favorable circumstances. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at the mouth of Buffalo 
river at 3h. 47m. ; springs rise 5 feet, neaps 3| feet. The flood 
stream sets into the river across the bar at the rate of three-quarters 
of a knot ; the ebb sets out at about 1\ knots. 

The rise of tide is shown by signal at the Port office for the use of 

the pilots. 

Pilot. — Directions. — There is a Government pilot for the bar. 
and no vessel should attempt to cross it without local knowledge. 
All vessels having a pilot on board, in charge, shall display the pilot 

See plan of Buffalo river, with views, No, 1,843. 



152 EAST LONDON. [Chap. IV. 

flag at the main. In case of emergency, it might be mentioned, that 
the wind gauge at the harbour works kept in line with the light- 
house, leads over the bar in the best water. 

EAST LONDON.— The town of East London stands on the 
south side of Buffalo river, at about 60 feet above the sea ; and with 
its flagstaffs, churches, &c., may easily be recognised from the offing. 
It is about 700 miles east of Cape Town, 150 miles by sea from Port 
Elizabeth, and is the terminus of the line of railway from Queen's 
Town, a distance of about. 180 miles. The population in 1891 was 
6,924. 

The town of Panmure is situated on the north shore, half a mile 
above East London ; its importance is probably much increased by 
the extensive wharfage, &c., constructed near it. 

The wharves are fitted with steam appliances for loading and 
discharging vessels that can enter the river. Goods are discharged, 
from the vessels on to the wharves, and then at once placed in 
railway trucks, the lines being laid alongside the wharves. Special 
facilities are afforded for the landing of timber, in which a large 
trade is done with the Transvaal gold fields. 

The wharves abreast Panmure, on the north side of the river, have 
apparently, depths of 13 to 21 feet near them. 

Trade, — The principal exports are wool, ostrich feathers, hides, 
&c., and the imports are textile fabrics, dress, food, wines, 
spirits, timber, &c. The value of the exports in 1894 amounted 
to £791,112, and the imports to £2,234,696. 

Supplies. — Water is supplied to the shipping by the Castle 
Mail Co. at 10s. per ton to vessels in the river, and 20s. per ton to 
those in the road, brought alongside by the Company's tugs. Provisions 
are good and plentiful. 

Coal. — About 5,000 tons of coal are usually in stock. Vessels 
coal at the wharves. Coaling in the road is necessarily done by 
lighters, towed off, and it is often interrupted by bad weather. 
Since the depth on the bar has admitted vessels of 15 feet entering 
the surf boats (formerly used for cargo, coaling, &c.) have been dis- 
continued. 

Repairs. — Large repairs to machinery and boilers are undertaken 
by the engineering firms ; shafts of 23 inches can be turned, cylinders 
of 40 inches diameter cast, and castings of 1| tons made. There is a 
steam ha,mmer of 20 cwt., and 2 cranes each capable of lifting 
10 tons, besides smaller ones. 

Sfc plan of Buffalo river, with views, No. 1,843. 



Chap. IV.] SUPPLIES.— COMMUNICATION. 1^ 

The patent slip in course of construction will take a vessel of 
900 tons (lead weight. Probably be ready for use in April 1897, 

Time signal. — A ball, shown from an iron frame on Signal hill, 
is dropped by electricity from the Cape of Good Hope observatory at 
Ih. 30m. p.m., Cape Colony mean time, corresponding to Greenwich 
mean noon. Should the signal fail in accuracy, a yellow pennant is 
hoisted for a short time after the ball is dropped. It cannot be seen 
from vessels lying alongside the wharves. 

Cominuiiication — Telegraph.. — East London is connected with 
the railway and telegraph systems of the Colony, Transvaal, &c. 
Mails weekly from England by Castle and Union lines. See 
also p. 15. 

The COAST between East London and Bashee river is every- 
where fringed with rocks and a heavy surf ; few places offer any 
chance of successful landing even in the most favourable weather. 
At Gonubie point, on the south-west side of the bight, landing might 
apparently be effected. 

Aspect. — Beacon. — To distinguish the monotonous coast when 
approaching East London from the eastward, a wooden pyramidal 
beacon surmounted by a ball, 368 feet above the sea, has been erected 
on a hill one mile from the shore, between Reef point and Kintza 
river, 15 miles eastward of that town. The beacon, 52 feet high, 
and painted black, stands on a triangular base (each side of the base 
29 feet), and should be visible from a distance of 21 miles in clear 
weather. 

Cape Morgan may possibly be identified from the south-west and 
westward by the high perpendicular cliffs, showing between Ikuko 
and Sklagha rivers, and from the eastward by the Kei Kop hill and 
Snag rocks ; Mazeppa bay by a somewhat conspicuous sandhill, and 
the coast southward of Bashee river by the Udwessa cliffs. 

Kahoon river, lying about two-thirds of a mile north-eastward 
of Kahoon point, is generally open at high water, and the tide is 
appreciable for about 3 miles "up. The west point of the river is 
formed by a bushy peak 80 feet high, and partially faced with sand. 

Landing". — About half a mile northward of Kahoon point is a 
small sandy bight, where it is said landing might be effected, in case 
of emer^ency,.injK^.terly. gales. 

See chart, No. 2,08ft. 



154 BUFFALO RIVER TO CAPE MORGAN. [Chap. IV 

Dangrer point, 2 miles eastward of Kahoon river, is low, sandy» 
and fringed with rocks ; between them is a small stream named 
Gonega river : the highest part of the coast hills, 210 feet above the 
sea, is behind Danger point, and the sand extends up to its summit. 

A reef, which dries one foot, with 11 fathoms at 2 cables distant, 
lies 4 cables S.W. by S. from Danger point. 

Between Danger point and Gonubie point, are the Klakla and the 
Ganindugs streams. 

Gonubie point and river. — From Gonubie point a ledge of 
rocks extends westward for half a mile, at about 2 cables off shore ; 
the breakers extend in bad weather 3 cables off, with uneven bottom 
beyond. Gonubie river is open at high water, the tide running up 
about 3 miles. 

At 2 miles eastward of Gonubie river is a bushy peak, 242 feet 
high, inclining to the eastward ; from its peculiar shape it is one of 
the conspicuous objects in the neighbourhood. There is also a 
dome-shaped peak about 3 miles eastward. 

Kwelegha and Bologha rivers.— Kwelegha point is low and 
rocky, and half a mile to the northward of it is the mouth of 
Kwelegha river, which is open occasionally ; at one mile eastward is 
Bologha river, also open at times. On the west bank of the Bologha 
is a bushy hill, 237 feet high, faced with sand a short way up. 

Reef point, 2^ miles north-eastward of Bologha river, has two 
rocky horns, at the back of which is a sandy beach, with hills rising 
to a height of 313 feet. At a quarter of a mile off the point is a 
ledge of rocks, showing at low water ; the sea breaks fully half a 
mile off the point. 

Kintza river and Klefani river, to the north-eastward, are closed. 
Farther eastward is Kwenugha and Naagh rivers and cape 
Henderson. 

Between Reef point and cape Henderson the coast hills are high 
and faced with sand some way up ; immediately behind, the land 
rises to a height of 350 to 400 feet, covered with bush. 

The west point of the Naagh river is a bare sandhill 130 feet high, 
and conspicuous from being the last sandhill of note for nearly 
25 miles. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap. IV.] GONUBIE POINT.— IKUKO RIVER. 155 

Cape Henderson rises directly from a rocky beach to a height 
of 485 feet, and is covered with grass ; it presents a dark bluff 
appearance from seaward, which probably gave rise to its being 
called a cape. 

At 1^ miles eastward of the cape is a stream ; its west entrance 
point is a head 410 feet high. Off a point just eastward is a sunken 
rock on which the sea breaks in bad weather, bearing E. by S. ^ S. 
1| miles from cape Henderson, and a quarter of a mile off shore. 

Flat point and the land eastward for nearly a mile is low and 
grassy, not more than 25 feet above the sea, but about half a mile 
inland a grassy ridge rises to a height of 356 feet. 

At 1^ miles eastward of Flat point are two small streams, the 
Umtwendwe and Nukwana. Eastward of these the coast is much 
higher, and trends gradually to Ikuko or Double-mouth river. 

Ikuko or Double-mouth, river is generally open, and the 
tidal stream runs up about H miles at high water. At 6 cables 
eastward of Ikuko river and one cable off-shore are some rocks. 

Between Ikuko river and Sklagha river the coast is irregular, and 
consists of perpendicular cliffs varying from 140 to 220 feet in height; 
eastward a sandy beach, backed by steep coast hills covered 
with bush, extends nearly to cape Morgan, with rocks in places at a 
distance of 3 to 4 cables off-shore. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



156 



CHAPTER V. 



CAPE MORGAN TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

(Long. 28° 20' E. to 35° 30' E.) 



Variation in 1897. 

St. John river - 27° 30' W. | Port Natal - - 29° 30' W. 

Delagoabay - - 23° 30' W. 



CAPE MORGAN is a broad low rocky point, rising abruptly a 
short distance within to a height of 275 feet, and at a distance of half 
a mile inland to a height of 395 feet ; from seaward it shows as a 
flat-topped hill covered with bush. 

North-eastward, three-quarters of a mile, is Ikwili river, the 
mouth of which is choked ; the beach is fringed with ledges 
extending one cable off, as far as Kei river. 

Rocks, some just above water, extend about a third of a mile 
west of cape Morgan. Seaward of these are two breakers 2 cables 
apart ;'the western one lies S.W. by W, f W. distant 6^ cables from 
the cape. The eastern one seldom breaks. 

Anclioragre. — There is shelter from north-west and westerly 
winds, from a half to three-quarters of a mile eastward of cape 
Morgan, and the same distance off shore. Here, under favourable 
circumstances, landing might be effected. 

KEI RIVER lies If miles eastward of cape Morgan. The bar is 
scarcely ever practicable, but the depth in 1868 was reported to be 
6 or 7 feet at low water. Breakers extend about one mile seaward 
of the entrance. 

Inside its entrance, which is about 25 yards wide at low water, 
Kei river opens to a width of one-third of a mile ; about 6 miles 
up it narrows to about 250 yards, the land on either side being 
500 feec high in places. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap, v.] CAPE MORGAN. — KEI RIVER. 157 

On the south side at the distance mentioned is a round-topped 
hill named the Kei Kop, 865 feet in height, which may be seen from 
most directions, being the highest hill in the neighbourhood. The 
tidal influence extends about 2 miles above this hill, and here it is 
shallow enough at times to wade across. The waggon drift is about 
20 miles farther up the river. 

. Snag" rooks, one of them 10 feet high, lie from a half to three- 
quarters of a mile off the mouth of Kei river. 

Sunken rocks extend nearly half-a-mile north-eastward of the 
Snag rock, most of which are visible at low-water springs. 

The sea breaks heavily all round the Snag rocks, and in bad 
weather the breakers extend a quarter of a mile outside them. 

Anchoragre. — There is temporary anchorage off the river in about 
10 to 16 fathoms, eastward of the Snag rocks but it is not recom- 
mended. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kei river at about 
Ih. Om. ; springs rise about 5 feet. The flood stream sets north- 
eastward close in shore, and the ebb south-westward. 

Current. — At about one mile off the Kei, the current sets south- 
westward at the rate of 1^ knots. 

Bar. — Directions. — In consequence of the channels shifting, and 
the depths varying after gales or floods, strangers should not attempt 
to enter Kei river. The channel (Skead, 1858) was close to the 
ledge of sunken rocks extending from the northern shore. If 
attempting to enter the river in case of necessity, keep a good look-out 
on this ledge, over which the sea breaks heavily ; and, when a chance 
offers, pull in, keeping the rocky shore so close as to leave just 
sufficient room for the oars ; probably there is not a less depth than 
6 or 7 feet at low water over the bar. The breakers on the bar 
extend to the rocks only during heavy rollers, when of course the 
channel is impracticable. 

Landing outside.^ — If landing is decided upon, and the bar 
prove impassable, it may possibly be effected at a sandy spit, sheltered 
in some degree by a patch of sunken rocks southward of it ; these 
rocks lie one cable off shore at three-quarters of a mile southward of 
Kei river ; the sea breaks over them. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



158 CAPE MORGAN TO PORT ST. JOHN. [Chap. V. 

Care must be taken when attempting to land on the spit, during the 
flood tide, that while waiting for a smooth the boat be not swept too far 
to the north-east, for it was found on one occasion, when a whale boat 
of H.M.S. Geyser was swamped in endeavouring to pass through the 
surf, that the boat was not thrown on the spit by the rollers, but 
carried to the north-eastward by the flood tide into the breakers on 
the bar, thence into the river through the channel, and was not 
recovered until twelve hours afterwards. On the other hand, during 
the ebb tide equal care is necessary that the boat be not drifted to 
the south-westward, where the surf is so much heavier and the beach 
rocky. 

Landing in surf boats is sometimes practicable in the sandy bay 
at 1^ miles eastward of the Kei, and also at the beach near Kologha 
river. 

COAST.— The only sandhills for a hundred miles eastward of 
the Kei are the sand bluff at Sandy point and a similar one 18 miles 
farther east. The coast between the Kei and these sandhills is 
covered with grass and bushes down to the beach. 

KokO river lies half a mile eastward of Kei river, and its mouth 
is generally closed at low water. The beach from Kei river eastward 
is fringed with rocks, and with the exception of a bushy hill 110 feet 
high, on the east side of Koko river, the shore is low and grassy. 

KolO^ha river, one third of a mile wide in the entrance, is open 
at high water, and the channel in is close to the south-west point ; a 
sand spit extends from the north-east point nearly across the 
entrance. The shore from one mile south-west of Kologha river to 
4 miles north-east of it is grassy, and covered with small hillocks 
about 10 feet above the ground, formed of ant hills over which has 
grown small bush, and when 4 or 5 miles distant are a conspicuous 
feature of this part of the coast. 

At 4 cables S.S.W. from the west point of Kologha river is a 
sunken rock, and at one cable west of the rock is the east end of a 
ledge half a mile in length, which uncovers at low water. Eastward 
of the sunken rock is another lying S.S.E. ^ E. 2 cables from the 
west point of Kologha. 

The beach is fringed with rocks as far as the Kobinnaba river ; 
at a quarter of a mile south-westward of the river is a sunken rock 
on which the sea breaks. 

See chart, No. 2,0$(i. 



Chap, v.] KOKO RIVER.— BOWKERS BAY. 159 

Kobinnaba river is always open, and the tide runs up some 
3 miles, where there is a ford ; off the extreme of the east point is a 
rock visible at low water. About three-quarters of a mile eastward 
of the river is Kobinnaba point, off which are several rocks visible 
at low water. Within the point is a hill 300 feet in height. 

Nxaxa river is generally open ; its west point is low with a 
reef extending off one cable in an easterly direction, close to which 
is the narrow channel into the river. The east point of the river is 
a sandhill covered with bush, with a sand spit extending nearly to 
the west side. 

The coast hills which rise precipitously from the sandy beach 
form a ridge covered with dark bush, and faced with sand to some 
height ; these extend from Nxaxa river to about half a mile beyond 
Sandy point, on which are four distinct peaks ; the third from the 
westward is the highest, being 280 feet above the sea. 

BOWKERS BAY is the bight north-eastward of Sandy point, 
into which a stream discharges. 

Anchorage. — Landing*.— H.M.S. Active (1877) found good 
anchorage, with shelter from westerly winds, in IO5 fathoms, sandy 
bottom, one mile off the stream. This appears to be the best 
anchorage on this part of the coast, and is certainly the safest 
place for landing. The examination of the bay was made under 
favourable circumstances. The surf broke in 3 fathoms abreast the 
landing. 

Fronting the stream, landing was effected in a whale boat manned 
by boatmen from Port Elizabeth. 

Umfani river, northward of Bowkers bay, is open at high water. 
A third of a mile farther eastward is the Istamfoona river, which is 
also open at high water. 

Between these rivers is a rocky point, at the back of which is a 
bushy peak, 255 feet in height, appearing in some directions as a 
double peak ; sand extends up its sea face about 40 feet. At 3 cables 
S.SE. ^ E, from the mouth of Umfani river is a sunken rock which 
frequently breaks ; the beach to Stony point is fringed with rocks to 
the distance of one cable. 

COAST. — Stony point is low with rocks at one cable off it ; 
about half a cable from the point is a rock 6 feet high. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



160 CAPE MORGAN TO PORT ST. JOHN. Chap. V. 

Two breaking patches lie S. ^ W. from Stony point, the outer 
distant half a mile. 

Between Stony point and the Manubie river is the Umtilwane, the 
mouth of which is nearly closed ; the shore between is low with a 
rocky beach, skirted with rocks. 

Manubie river is open at high water, and has a spit of sand 
extending nearly across its mouth, the channel being on its west 
side. At the west point of entrance the land is 95 feet high, and 
covered with bush ; the east point is low, being the extremity of a 
ridge of beach hills which rise abruptly. 

At 4 cables eastward of the Manubie, are several rocks about 
one cable from the shore. 

About 1^ miles eastward of the Manubie is the mouth of the 
Kleena, which is open at high water, and farther on is Mazeppa 
point ; the shore between is fringed with rocks. 

Mazeppa point may be identified by a grassy peaked islet, 
26 feet high, lying about 10 yards oft' it. There appears to be no 
dangers ofiE Mazeppa point, but the sea breaks some distance off in 
bad weather. 

Mazeppa bay lies between Mazeppa point and Kogha river ; 
small vessels have landed cargoes here in very fine weather, but 
with great difficulty ; the best place is on the beach just eastward 
of Nebbelelli river. In bad weather rollers set in right across the 
bay. A path runs from the western side of this bay up the ridge, 
through the Manubie forest, and continues up the ridges to the 
Natal road, about 30 miles from the coast, joining it a few miles 
-east of the Butterworth mission station. 

The Nebbelelli river is open at high water ; from its rocky east 
point a ledge dries out a distance of one cable to a patch of rocks. 
At this point Et sandy beach commences, and continues eastward 
for about a quarter of a mile, when the shore becomes rocky again. 

The coast between Mazeppa bay and Bashee river is foul, with a 
heavy surf. 

Signal station. — The United Boating Co. of East London have 
erected a private signal station and flagstaff on the high ground 
above Mazeppa bay, in lat. 32° 28' S., long. 28° 39;^' E. The station 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap, v.] MAZEPPA BAY.— SHEKLEBN RIVER, 161 

is intended to enable vessels in distress to signal for assistance, 
which will be sent from East London, a scheme of telegraphic 
communication having been arranged with that port through the 
town of Butterworth. 

Kogha river is always open ; a sand spit extends nearly across 
its mouth from the west point, the land over which is 150 feet 
high, and covered with bush. The east point is also bushy, 87 feet 
high, and from its base a rocky point extends to the south-west, 
off the extremity of which, distant about half a cable, is a low 
water rock. 

The tide runs up Kogha river 4 or 5 miles, and its banks are high, 
and in many parts perpendicular. On its right bank, about ?* miles 
from its mouth, the Manubie forest commences ; it extends about 
2^ miles to the north-west, nearly parallel to the river, and is about 
a mile in width. 

At two-thirds of a mile eastward of Kogha river is a low rocky 
point with a sunken rock 1^ cables off it ; in the bight between are 
several low water rocks. About 2 cables westward from the point, 
and 1^ cables off shore is a ledge of rocks 3 feet high. 

Juju river lies 1^ miles eastward of the Kogha, and its mouth 
is generally open ; its west point is low and rocky. On the north- 
east bank of the river, a short distance from the mouth, is a dark 
bushy head about 90 feet high, and from its base a sand spit extends 
nearly across the river, leaving only a narrow channel. 

At one mile eastward of the Juju is a stream which is open at 
high water ; its western point has a green hummock, 15 feet high, 
on its extremity, with a rock half a cable off. 

From this stream the shore trends eastward 1^ miles to Shekieen 
river, with sandy hillocks, covered with bush. About halfway, and 
three-quarters of a cable from the shore, are some sunken rocks. 
The coast rises to a height of 200 feet at half a mile inland. 

Sliekleen river is generally open, the channel running close to 
the base of a peak, 120 feet high, which drops perpendicularly on the 
west side of the river. The east side is low, with a sandy beach. 
Between the river and Shekieen point is a black headland from 
which the land rises abruptly to a height of 275 feet. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 
SO 11977 L 



162 CAPE MORGAN TO PORT ST. JOHN. [Chap. V- 

Shekleen point is about 50 feet high, and connected with the 
coast ridge by a neck of sand and bush, and when seen from near 
the coast appears as an islet. 

At 1^ miles north-east of the point is Gnabie stream ; and beyond 
it the Kawka. Between the latter and the Gnabbakka the coast is 
fringed with rocks. 

Gnabbakka river has a wide entrance, and its mouth is 
common to two streams ; the eastern is the larger, and the tide runs 
lip it about five miles. Thence to Gnabbakka point the coast is 
rocky, attaining a height of from 200 to 300 feet at a distance of one 
third of a mile from the beach, and broken by several ravines. 

Ingoma stream lies about 1^ miles north-eastward of Gnabbakka 
point ; half a mile farther eastward is Kabolla river ; between the 
two is a rocky point, and the coast is about 170 feet high. 

From Kabolla river the coast, composed of perpendicular cliffs 
about 160 feet in height, trends south-eastward to Udwessa point, 
a dark bluff. 

From Udwessa point (half a mile east of which the cliffs cease), 
the coast trends eastward to Amendu point and Amendu river ; the 
shore in places is fringed with rocks. 

Amendu point is a rocky projection, with several rocks above 
water near it ; a sunken rock lies about 2^ cables off the point. On 
the point is a bushy hillock 25 feet high, and on the east side of 
Amendu river is a hill 115 feet high. The Amendu river forces its 
way to the sea through a sandy spit, which stretches across from the 
east point. 

Landing" might possibly be effected about half a mile eastward of 
the rocks extending from Amendu point, where also there is reported 
to be fair anchorage. 

Between Amendu point and Bashee river, the coast hills covered 
with bush are about 60 feet high, backed by land about 180 feet high. 

BASHEE RIVER. — The entrance to Bashee river is about one- 
third of a mile wide, with sand spits extending from both points ; 
the depth in the channel between (about 50 feet wide) is about 3 feet at 
low water. The sea breaks for a distance of 2 cables or more outside 
the entrance. 

Se-e chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap, v.] BASHEB RIVER. 163 

Within the entrance are sandbanks, which dry at low water ; the 
channel is westward of them close along shore. Above the sand- 
banks the river expands to an average breadth of 1^ cables. 

The west point of entrance is low and grassy, but about a quarter 
of a mile up the river on the right bank is a grassy hill 270 feet high ; 
the hill on the east side of entrance is high and covered with bush. 
The banks of the river are steep, and on the west side are generally 
free from bush, but on the east side, from half a mile within the 
entrance, are covered with dense bush. 

Beacon. — In order to distinguish this part of the coast, a beacon 
50 feet in height, painted black, and presenting the shape of a 
diamond, has been erected on a round-topped, grassy hili, about 
150 feet above the sea, at about half a mile north-east of Bashee river 
entrance. The beacon is in lat. 32° 14^' S., long. 28° 54^' E., and 
should be seen from a distance of 16 miles in clear weather. 

Udwessa forest.— About IJ miles up the river, and half a mile 
from the right bank, the dense Udwessa forest commences ; it 
extends in a westerly direction for about 5 miles and is 1^ miles in 
width. 

Ancliorage. — H.M.S. Active (1877) anchored several times off 
the mouth of this river. A good berth is in 10^ fathoms, sandy 
bottom, with Amendu point W. by S. ^ S,, and the west head of the 
river N.W. ^ N. The rollers set in after a strong westerly or south- 
westerly breeze, occasionally breaking in 6 or 7 fathoms, but 
generally off the mouth of the river in 3^ or 4 fathoms. 

Landing: is dangerous. The following is the experience of 
H.M.S. Active. 

Landing was first made on the eastern spit in a whale boat, but the 
attempt to get off proving ineffectual, the boat was carried 1^ miles 
to the westward to a sandy beach close to a small river, closed by a 
sand ridge,from which place, with great difficulty, the crew succeeded 
in returning to the ship. On a second occasion, in attempting to 
land, the boat was capsized (apparently over rocky ground), one life 
was lost, the remainder of the crew reached the shore with difficulty. 
Several attempts were made to return to the ship but without success, 
and the crew had to go to East London. 

See chart, No. 2,086. 
60 11977 L 2 



164 CAPE MORGAN TO PORT ST. JOHN. [Chap. V. 

Caution. — Before attempting to land on this beach, which is about 
200 yards in length, and three-quarters of a mile north of Amendu 
point, the direction of the current outside the edge of , the surf 
should be ascertained so as to avoid being set over the rocky ground 
which evidently extends from the shore on either side of the sandy 
beach. The rollers occasionally without warning break heavily a 
considerable distance outside the usual line of breakers. 

Current. — The Agulhas current off this coast generally sets in 
the direction of the coast at the rate of one to 3^ knots an hour ; it is 
weak in strength near the coast, and strongest near the edge of the 
bank of soundings. It almost invariably sets to the westward in all 
the anchorages between East London and Bashee river, but some- 
times, in fine weather, within a distance of about 2 miles from the 
coast, a weak current may be found setting to the eastward ; this 
easterly set has occasionally been known to extend 7 or 8 miles off 
the coast. 

Bashee point, about one mile eastward of the river, is bushy, 
with a grass hummock ; a rock lies a short distance off it. 

THE COAST between the Bashee and Umkomass rivers is 
fringed with outlying rocks for a distance varying from one to 
5 cables. 

Hole in the Wall. — At about 17 miles north-eastward of Bashee 
river are two rocks about 100 feet high. The south-western is flat- 
topped, has a natural archway, known as Hole in the Wall, and is 
perforated at the base ; the north eastern and higher of the two has 
a cleft in the summit in the form of a wedge. 

Doubtful bank (Whichelo bank).— Abreast of Hole in the Wall, 
and about 75 miles from land, a bank of soundings of from 12 to 
48 fathoms, 'in lat. about :V2° 40' S., and long, from 30° 10' E. to 
30^ 45' E., is said to have been discovered by Captain Whichelo, in 
October 1847. This locality was partially examined by H.M.S. 
Serpent, in 1869, but bottom was not reached with from 100 to 
200 fathoms of line. 

Whale rock point, about 8 miles north-eastward of Hole in the 
Wall, is 70 feet high, and wooded for about 300 yards inland. The 

See chart, No. 2,086. 



Chap, v.] BASHBE POINT. — GORDON BAY. 165 

surrounding country is grass land, with the exception of two patches 
of trees between it and Umtata river to the westward. Whale rock 
lies off the point. 

Rame head, situated about 15 miles south-westward of St. John 
river, is a rocky point, sloping gradually, with a small rock at its 
extremity. At about three-quarters of a mile off shore, a little to 
the westward of the head, there are depths of 8 to 10 fathoms. 

Brazen head, about 5 miles north-east of Rame head, has from 
the eastward the appearance of two distinct points, densely wooded, 
steep, and bold. The summit is 809 feet above the sea. 

Landmarks. — Between Rame head and Waterfall bluff, about 
33 miles to the eastward, the coast is faced with a number of high 
bluffs, which does not occur on any other part of the coast, eastward 
or westward, for a long distance. St. John river lies about midway. 
Between Brazen head and St. John river is a Sugar Loaf rock. 

GORDON BAY is an indentation in the coast to the eastward 
of cape Hermes, and at the mouth of St. John river ; it affords fair 
anchorage, but is exposed from about E. by N. round by south to 
W. by N. 

Cape Hermes,* the south extreme of Gordon bay, is a round, grass- 
covered hill, 433 feet in height ; a rock 8 feet high lies one cable oft' 
it ; the north extreme of the bay has a similar hill over it, but of 
less height. The summit of the cape is in lat. 31° 38' 6' S., 
long. 29^ 33' 16" E. 

Landingr* — J^st within the cape, at its junction with the sand, 
is Paul's cove, where sometimes landing may be effected when the 
bar of the river is impracticable ; the boats, if necessary, can thence 
be dragged along the beach into the river. 

Close inshore during flood tide, which runs regularly, a strong 
stream was found setting southward along the sandy shore inside 
the breakers, and along the rocky shore in the direction of cape 
Hermes. This stream should not be forgotten in attempting to 
land with a flood tide, for, upon one occasion, it was found so 
strong that a cutter could barely stem it. 

* See plan of St. John or Umzimvubu river, with view, No. 2,566 ; also view on 
hart, No. 2,087. 



166 PORT OP ST. JOHN. [Chap. V. 

Should a boat be swamped in the surf, it would be almost 
impossible for the crew to reach the shore, as sharks are numerous 
both outside and in the river. 

The anchorag'e in 13 fathoms water, with cape Hermes 
N.W. by W. I W., distant three-quarters of a mile, and Porpoise rock 
N. by W. I W., was found to be good : but a berth closer in, about 
8 fathoms, would probably be better. No current was experienced 
at the anchorage. 

PORT OF ST. JOHN (Umzimvubu river) is navigable for 
vessels of 6 or 7 feet draught for about 11 miles, the difficulty being 
that of crossing the bar. The bottom, above the Gates, is very 
irregular, with shallow reaches and recurring deep holes, a depth of 
56 feet having been found in one place. Below the Gates the river 
banks are steep so that small craft may lie alongside them. 

The appearance of the land from off the mouth of this river is so 
remarkable that it is easily recognised.* A table mountain, 1,200 feet 
high, appears to have been cleft to its base, leaving a wedge-shaped 
gap in the centre, through which the river discharges into the sea. 
St. John's Gates, the upper part of this table land, is bare stratified 
sandstone rock, like Table mountain ; but at 200 feet below a dense 
forest covers the cliffs to the edge of the river. The Gates are 
1| miles from the entrance of the river ; the western Gate, 1,239 feet 
high, is very steep ; the eastern Gate, 1,163 feet high, has two 
distinct terraces of table land with grass on it. Beyond the Gates the 
river becomes more open, and its banks are lined with reeds. 

The country is well watered, and capable of supporting large herds 
of cattle ; and near the coast the soil is said to be suitable to the 
growth of cotton, sugar, and coffee ; copper is said to exist in various 
places. 

There is a trading station named "White's station at 7 miles up the 
river, on the right bank, and about 2 miles beyond is a waggon drift, 
known as Davis' drift, but it is a dangerous crossing. Small craft, 
drawing 6 feet, can navigate to within half a mile of the drift, and in 
many places can lie alongside the banks. There is plenty of good 
timber and limestone in the neighbourhood of the river. 

The river is tidal to about one mile above the site of Fort 
Harrison, dismantled in 1882. 

* See plan of St. John or Umzimvubu river, with view, No. 2,566. 



Chap, v.] BAR. — SETTLEMENT. 167 

The bar lies about a quarter of a mile southward of Porpoise 
rock, the east point of entrance to the river ; its breadth is about one 
cable, and the average depth at low water is about 6 feet during the 
year. On both sides of the channel there are often heavy breakers, 
and at times the sea breaks across the entrance for four or five 
succesive days, and especially after S.W. gales, when the rollers are 
unusually high. The bar is of quicksand, constantly shifting ; in 
December the channel is to the eastward near the Porpoise rock, but 
as the dry season advances it moves to the westward until June or 
July. In June, when the bed of the channel is to the westward, the 
depth on the bar may be reduced to 4 feet at low water, and in the 
rainy season it may be increased to about 8 feet, but the depth 
entirely depends on the amount of the rainfall. As much as 20 feet 
has been found in a freshet. The rainy season prevails from October 
to April. 

Even during the unfavourable part of the year for small craft 
entering the river, it appears that except during very boisterous 
weather the bar is always practicable for surf boats. See landing, 
p. 165. 

Settlement. — A settlement formed in 1883, and situated on the 
west bank of the river, contained in 1895, a population of 196. 
The Resident Magistrate of the territory discharges the functions of 
Port Officer. 

There is a wooden pier with derrick, just within the entrance, 
alongside which small craft might lie. 

Supplies. — Provisions and good water are obtainable, but there 
are no facilities for repair. Timber and limestone are abundant. 

Trade. — The value of the exports in 1895 amounted to £1,627, 
derived chiefly from hides, maize and gums ; the imports, chiefly 
dry goods, amounted to £6,482. 

Small steamers and other craft trade regularly to Natal, but though 
the key of a fertile and promising country, its trade is not yet of 
any importance. 29 vessels of the aggregate tonnage of 2,233 tons 
entered and cleared in 1895. 

A surf boat, with surf warps, communicates with vessels when 
anchored outside the bar. 



See plan of St. John or Umzimvubu river, with view. No. 2,666. 



168 PORT OF ST, JOHN TO NATAL. [Chap. V. 

Tides. — It is high water, fall and change, at St. John river, at 
about 4h. 8m., and the rise is 5| feet. 

St. Jolm reef. — At about 2 miles eastward of the entrance to 
St. John river is Bluff point ; and the shore between is skirted with 
rocks in places to the distance of one cable. At 2 cables from the 
shore on the east side of Bluff j)oint is St. John reef with a depth of 
6 feet at low water springs. 

The COAST eastward of St, John reef continues high for about 
17 miles to Waterfall bluff, intersected by a number of ravines, 
through which small streams discharge into the sea. The Egosa 
forest stretches from St. John river to port Grovenor.* 

Umzimklava river is situated 9 miles eastward of St. John 
river. Upon its eastern side is a round hill, with two rocks at its 
base. The Entafufu river lies about 4 miles south-westward, and 
the Umzimpanzi and Embotyi rivers at 3 and 4 miles north-eastward 
of it. 

"Waterfall bluff is the easternmost of a succession of bluffs. 
It is about 200 feet high, and from its summit two streams of water 
precipitate themselves into the sea ; the westernmost fall enters the 
sea at one leap, but the fall of the eastern one is broken at about a 
third of the distance down. 

These falls may be seen 7 or 8 miles off, but in dry weather the 
volume of water is probably much diminished, if not entirely 
dried up. 

Port Grovenor. — The bight in the coast, known as Port 
Grovenor, is situated about 6 miles north-eastward of Waterfall bluff ; 
there appears to be little difficulty in landing goods here. Ubazi 
river enters the head of the bight, 

A detached coral patch is reported to lie about 2 cables off the 
reef fronting the west point of the bay, or about half a mile off 
shore. The reef is said to extend farther seaward than charted. 

The coast. — Aspect. — The coast eastward of Waterfall bluff, is 
moderately high inland, sloping gently down to the beach. In the 
wet season this coast appears beautiful, being clothed with bright 
green grass and clumps of trees and bushes, frequently relieved by 
streams and small cascades ; but a few weeks of drought probably 
greatly alters the appearance, 

• See chart No. 2,087 



Chap, v.] PORT GROVENOR. — UMZIMKULD RIVER. 169 

A bight similar to Port Grovenor is charted about 4^ miles to the 
eastward, and into which Umtsikaba river discharges. South Sand 
bluff, on its eastern side, is a round-topped sandhill presenting a 
sandy bluff to the westward, the top being covered with bush. 

A similar sand bluff lies 21 miles farther eastward ; midway 
between them is a red-topped hill, which is in sight from both 
bluffs. 

The Umtentu and Isikota rivers lie between South Sand bluff and 
the Red hill ; and the Umyameni, Umzamba, and Umtamvuna 
between the Red hill and North Sand bluff, besides smaller streams. 

The south point of the Umtentu river is marked by a quoin-shaped 
hill. On the south side of the Umtanvuna river there is a strip of 
sand up the side of a wooded hill, which shows like a road ; coming 
from the northward it opens out on a W. by N. bearing. 

This river forms the southern boundary of Alfred county, the 
southernmost county in Natal. 

There is a large house on the south bank of the Izotsha river, 
2 miles southward of Port Shepstone. 

Foul ground. — Within one mile southward of Impenjali river, 
at half a mile off shore are two sunken rocks. This river is situated 
about 8 miles north-eastward of the Umtamvuna. 

Foul ground is reported to exist from one to 4 miles off the Izotsha 
and Imbango rivers, south-westward of Port Shepstone. 

UMZIMKULU RIVER.*— Port Shepstone.— The estuary 
of this river, known as Port Shepstone, is easily recognised. On the 
south side of the entrance there is a long low point, which rises to a 
height of 300 feet at a distance of 2 miles from the sea. On this 
ridge the signal station and Port Captain's look-out are situated. 
Behind it lies the scattered village of Lower Umzimkulu. 

The estuary extends about 8 miles inland. At its mouth it is 
about 200 yards wide, and said to have at times a depth of 
15 feet at high water springs. Small craft can go up as far as 
St. Helen's rock, at the head of the estuary ; here the river narrows ; 
lighters can go several miles farther, up to the marble quarries, about 
12 miles above the entrance. About £36,000 have been spent by the 
Natal Government in removing the bar and building a training wall 
to render the port available for small craft. 

* See chart, No. 2,088, with view. 



170 POET OP ST. JOHN TO NATAL. [Chap. V. 

LIGHT. — From a staff, 36 feet in height, on the south side of 
entrance to Port Shepstone, is exhibited at an elevation of 87 feet 
above high water, a fixed green light, visible from a distance of 
4 miles in clear weather. 

A rook has been reported to exist by the master of the ketch 
Norman^ 1895, at three-quarters of a mile off shore, and about 
3 miles east-north-eastward of Port Shepstone. 

Trade.— Communication.— The trade of port Shepstone is 
slowly developing ; its consists of lime, cement, marble, cattle, 
grain, fruit and farm produce ; sugar and tea plantations and 
factories have recently been added, and with marked success. 
Coasting steamers make fortnightly trips to Durban. It is con- 
nected with the telegraph system of the Colony. 

Red-Topped hill, about 15 miles north-eastward of the 
Umzimkulu, and 60 miles south-west of cape Natal, has a native 
kraal in the valley just east of it. 

Umtwalume river is conspicuous, somewhat resembling St. 
John river, and is the only one with high steep banks northward of 
the Umzimkulu. When the river is open, a remarkable rocky peak 
is seen in the opening, and high up on the left bank are a few 
houses. 

Besides the streams mentioned between St. John river and Natal, 
there are many minor ones about which we have no information 
beyond what is shown on the charts. The navigator will take notice 
that few soundings have been taken in the locality, and exercise 
caution accordingly. 

Current. — From the mouth of the river Umtwalume in lat. 
30° 29' S. to cape Natal, a north-easterly current of about 2 miles an 
hour has been experienced in the month of May, at from one to 
2 miles from the shore ; whilst on the coast to the south-west of the 
river it was exactly the reverse. Hee current, p. 172. 

UmzintO river. — The mouth of the Umzinto lies in lat 30° 22' N. 

Three miles within the village of Umzinto are the Umzinto 
Company's sugar estates and several farms. 



See chart, No. 2,088. 



Chap, v.] UMTWALUME RIVER.— ALIWAL SHOAL. 171 

Umtitchwana or Umzinto bay, about one mile northward of the 
Umzinto river, and 2 cables southward of Umzimayo river, is now 
used for landing cargo, brought from Durban. 

Bank.— Between the parallels of about 30° 22' and 30° 24|' S., and 
3^ miles off the Umzinto river, there are depths of 10 to 14 fathoms 
extending in a N.E. by E. direction, over a space of more than 2 miles. 
From the latter depth no bottom was obtained. 

ALIWAL SHOAL.* — This dangerous rocky shoal is within a 
depth of 5 fathoms, about 7 cables in length, and one cable in 
breadth ; it lies 2^ miles off Green point, and in the track of vessels 
bound along the coast southward of port Natal. Its north extreme, in 
lat. 30° 15|' S., long. 30° 50' E., has a depth of 1^ fathoms, with from 

14 to 17 fathoms at 2 cables distant ; from this position, the mouth of 
the TJmkomass river bears N. ^ E. distant 3| miles, Green point 
beacons are in line, and the mouth of the Umpambinyoni river 
W.by N. 3| miles. The depths within the shoal are from 12 to 

15 fathoms. 

LIGHTS. — From an iron tower 34 feet in height, painted in red 
and white bands, erected on the headland southward of Umpambin- 
yoni river, is exhibited, at an elevation of 159 feet, 2i fixed white and 
red light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. It 
shows wUUi from S. 55° W. to S. 82° W. ; red from S. 82° W. to 
N. 62^ W., over Aliwal shoal ; and again white from N. 62° W. to 
N. 35° W. Obscured in other directions. 

From a tower of same height and colour, erected on the headland 
north of the Amahlongwana river, is exhibited 2. fixed red and white 
light, also visible from a distance of 10 miles. It shows white from 
N. 50° W. to N. 30° W. ; red from N. 30° W. to N. 19° E., over Aliwal 
shoal ; and again white from N. 19° E. to N. 39° E. Obscured in 
other directions. 

It will be seen, by referring to the chart, that vessels passing 
seaward of Aliwal shoal with one red light in sight will be about 
6 miles from the shoal, and both red lights can only be seen at once 
when within that distance ; vessels proceeding inside the shoal will 
pass in nearly mid-channel with one red light only in sight. 

Beacons. — A mast beacon, 70 feet high, 228 feet above the sea, 
and surmounted by a triangle, stands on the hill behind Green point, , 

• See plan and view on chart, No. 2,088 ; also viewB of the coast on No. 643. 



172 PORT OF ST. JOHN TO NATAL. [Chap. V- 

about 500 yards distant from a pyramidal beacon 28 feet high, 
surmounted by a cask, on Green point ; these beacons, in line on a 
N.W. I W. bearing, point in the direction of Aliwal shoal. The 
beacon on the hill has been recognised from a distance of 14 miles. 
A white house just east of Ifafa river, and one mile inland, is also a 
useful day mark, when approaching from the south-westward. 

In thick weather vessels should not stand into a less depth than 
40 fathoms. 

Current. — A strong current sets over Aliwal shoal in a south- 
west direction, but midway between the shoal and Green point it is 
reduced to one mile or less ; at times a counter current sets to the 
north-eastward. See also current, p. 170. 

TTmpambinyoni river.— Scottburg". — The township of Scott- 
burg is situated just southward of the mouth of the Umpambinyoni ; 
the landing and shipping of cargo and produce was formerly effected 
here. 

Umkomass river lies 3 miles northward of Green point, and 
has about 6 feet over the bar at high water ; its mouth is a tidal 
estuary which forms a port suitable for small coasting steamers. 
The width of the stream at high water at this point is about one 
hundred yards with comparative deep water ; it ranks next to port 
Shepstone as a harbour. 

There are in this district several estates and scattered farms, and a 
hotel at about 8 miles from the mouth of the river, with good 
fishing. Higher up the scenery becomes broken and wild, and game 
is abundant in season. A good road traverses the whole of the 
country, and a ferry boat crosses the river near the hotel. 

False Bluff, 418 feet in height, is situated about 11 miles west- 
ward of cape Natal. Two miles eastward of it is the Umlazi river, 
which drains the Ipisingo flat and sugar plantations. There are 
several steam mills near the river. 

CAPE NATAL is a high wooded tongue of land, terminating 
in a remarkable bluff 195 feet high, and is easily identified, the coast 
to the northward falling back and being low for several miles. On 
the blufl: is a light tower painted white, two batteries, a flagstaff and 

See chart, No. 2,088. 



Chap, v.] 8C0TTBURG. — PORT NATAL. 173 

watch house ; on its east side is a rock 20 feet high, and on its north- 
west side at the foot of the bluff are two white leading marks for 
the bar. See light, below. 

There are no outlying dangers in approaching the cape and the 
water is deep close to the breakers. 

Lloyd's signal station. — There is a Lloyd's signal station near 
the lighthouse. 

PORT NATAL is of great commercial importance, as it is the 
only inlet capable of affording shelter to vessels of moderate draught 
in the Colony, and which causes it to be the outlet of the produce of 
an extensive and valuable region. 

It consists of a large bay, almost tilled with sand and mud 
banks dry at low water, and sheltered at its entrance by cape Natal. 
There are no streams of importance falling into the inlet, so that the 
entrance is only kept open by the scour of the receding tide between 
the piers constructed for that purpose, and by dredging. 

Vessels of 15 to 19 feet draught enter port Natal at high water, 
depending on the condition of the bar, but the depth and direction 
of the channel is subject to much variation. See Bar, page 175. 

LIGHTS. — From a white tower 81 feet in height, erected on cape 
Natal, is exhibited at an elevation of 282 feet above high water, a 
revolving white light which attains its greatest brilliancy every 
minute^ and visible in clear weather from a distance of 24 miles. 
The light does not open clear of the land until it bears northward of 
N. 57^ E,, nor is it visible from Aliwal shoal. Position of lighthouse, 
lat. 29° 52' 40" S., long. 31= 3' 50" E. 

From a purple tower 9 feet in height, near the end of the Innes 
breakwater, is exhibited at an elevation of 22 feet above high water, 
a fixed white light visible about 3 miles. 

A fixed red light is shown from the seaward end of the North 
pier. 

Three fixed white lights, triangular, are shown from the Rocket 
house, on the coast about one mile northward of the porf entrance. 

A red light is exhibited at night, under the direction of the 
harbour master, for the information of the pilots, when the bar is 
considered dangerous or impracticable. 



jSw; plan of Port Natal, with views, No. 643. 



174 PORT NATAL. [Chap. V, 

Anchoragre. — The anchorage oflF port Natal may safely be 
approached at night by the lead, the decrease in the depths being 
regular. The best berth is in 10 fathoms, with the lighthouse 
bearing S.W. by S. distant about 1^ miles, and the Rocket house 
W. by N. The holding ground is good, but there is no shelter during 
southerly and easterly winds, and there is nearly always a heavy 
swell along the coast. In a more southerly position, the outset of 
the tide is more felt, swinging vessels broadside to the swell, and 
causing them to roll heavily ; the ground is also encumbered with 
lost anchors and cables. 

It is recommended to lie at single anchor with 70 fathoms of chain, 
and to sight the anchor occasionally. In the event of parting, and 
not being able to work out, vessels should run for the beach abreast 
the Hocket house, keeping the head sails set, and remaining by the 
vessel until communication with the shore is established by the 
rocket apparatus. Neither the life-boat nor the rocket apparatus 
were required in the year 1895. 

If apprehensive of bad weather on arrival in the road, a sailing 
vessel should anchor in 16 fathoms, 2^ miles from the lighthouse, 
from which position she would be able to fetch out on one tack or 
the other, with the wind from any quarter. See Winds, p. 179. 

Caution. — When the wind is inclined to freshen from the south- 
eastward, with a long swell and high barometer, vessels should 
proceed to sea as soon as possible. The heavy seas from the south- 
eastward, which at times occur, are generally preceded by an 
unusually low range of barometer for three or four days before the 
seas are felt here. 

Pilots. — Vessels intending to enter port Natal, and in want of 
pilots, should anchor in the road. A signal being made, a pilot will 
be sent off from the Port oflBce, or if the surf on the bar is too heavy, 
it will be communicated by the Commercial Code of signals; see also 
bad weather signals, p. 176. A steam tug may be had. Pilotage is 
compulsory, but H.M. ships are supplied with pilots free of expense. 
No vessels are taken in at night. 

Directions. — The only danger in the approach is to the south- 
ward, namely, the Aliwal shoal, which may be easily avoided by 
attention to the lights and beacons erected to guard it, p. 171, In 
thick weather a vessel should not stand into less than 40 fathoms. 
Southward of port Natal the soundings are coarse gray sand and 



See plan of Port Natal, with views, No. 643. 



Chap, v.] ANCHORAGE. — BAR. 175 

stones, whilst to the northward fine black sand will be found. 
From the southward, having passed Aliwal shoal, cape Natal light 
kept in sight will lead outside all known dangers while to the 
southward of Umlazi river ; when northward of that river, keep a 
long mile from the land. When the lighthouse bears W.N.W. steer 
for the anchorage. See bar directions, p. 176. 

THE PORT. — The entrance to port Natal lies between Innes 
breakwater, extending north-eastward of the Bluff, and the North 
pier, and is about 270 jards in width ; these breakwaters, by narrow- 
ing the channel, are intended to give greater force to the out-going 
stream and so clear the sand. Dredging operations are constantly 
in progress to remove the sand which accumulates, and to perma- 
nently increase the depth. The old North pier has been removed 
to the level of low water ordinary spring tides ; its outer end is 
marked by an iron triangle, surmounted by a circular plate. 

A space within Sandy point extending about 8| miles, east and 
west, and nearly 2 miles north and south, is almost filled with mud, 
with boat channels in various directions. On the southern side are 
some large mangrove islands, and elsewhere around this space are 
mangroves and mangrove swamps. The part available for a harbour 
is confined to a channel about a cable in breadth and three-quarters 
of a mile in length, with depths varying from 12 to 20 feet ; this is 
also being improved by dredging. 

The Bar of sand which crosses the mouth of the port is 
constantly changing both in direction and depth, and should never 
be attempted by a stranger. There is usually a channel on either 
side of a central shoal, named the North and South channels ; the 
entrances to which are occasionally marked by a buoy. 

From June to September is the time when the bar is usually 
shallowest. A vessel of 19 feet draught entered in January 1895. 

In the year 1896, the average low water depth was about 16 feet, 
as against 12 feet 1 inch in 1895 and 11 feet 11 inches in 1894. 
During the months April to September the average low water depth 
was 17 feet 3 inches, equal to 23| feet at high water springs and a 
little over 20 feet at high water neaps. But twice in October the 
South channel was reduced by exceptionally heavy gales to low 
water depths of 5 and 6 feet (though the North channel had 17 feet 
in it) ; but 48 hours was sufficient time after the sea abated to open 

See plan of Port Natal, with views, No. 648. 



176 PORT NATAL. [Chap. V. 

the channel to vessels of 20 feet draught. It is considered that the 
port can now be kept open for vessels of 17 feet draught at all times 
of the year, except occasionally for a couple of days or so after 
exceptionally rough weather. 

{See Bad Weather Signals, below, and Lights, page 173.) 

In 1895, the least depth on the bar was 10 feet 1 inch, in August, 
and the greatest (low water) depth 15 feet 1 inch, in January. 

In 1894, the depths were a little less than in 1895. 

Bad weather signals. — The bar was dangerous for 45 days 
(of 12 hours) in 1895, denoted by a cone halfway to yardarm of the 
signal staff ; and impassible for 21 days, denoted by cone right up to 
the yardarm. This was the worst year since 1889. In 1893, the bar 
was dangerous for 14 days, and impossible for 4 days only. 

Directions. — If, through any cause, a vessel whose draught will 
admit, should be forced to run over the bar without a pilot, steer for 
the two white leading marks at the foot of the Bluff on the west side, 
in line ; this will lead through the north channel and to the training 
wall at the foot of the bluff, where, being in smooth water, the vessel 
will obtain a pilot. On arriving in the road, it will be well to 
inquire the line of the channel with reference to the Bluff leading 
marks. 

Sig'nals shewn by drsdg'ers. — The undermentioned signals 
are shewn by the dredgers when at work, or in position for working, 
on the bar or in the harbour channels : — 

By day : — Three red balls, triangular, not less than 10 feet apart. 
By night : — Three red lights in the place of the balls. 

One red ball underneath the triangle at the end of the yard by day, 
or one white light, similarly placed, by night, indicates that the 
dredger can be passed on that side. When this signal is not shewn, 
the dredger cannot be passed on either side. The above signals 
indicate that the dredger is not under command, and therefore 
cannot get out of the way. The speed of vessel is to be so reduced 
as to ensure their passing the dredger without causing damage. 

Bsrthing". — Vessels lie in the northern part of the harbour 
within Sandy point, where are the custom house, port office, wharves, 
Ac, and from whence a railway ru ns to Durban. The berthing space is 

See plan of Port Nfttftl, witjj views, No. 643. 



Chap, v.] SIGNALS. — DURBAN. 177 

being increased by dredging. Some vessels lie alongside the 
wharves in low water depths of 13 to 16 feet. The mail steamers 
generally lie in the Bluff channel. All vessels are compelled to take 
in or make fast to Government moorings, of which there are several 
sets. 

DURBAN, the town of port Natal, stands about 1^ miles from 
Sand}' point, on a low flat, and is about 54 miles by road, and 70 by 
rail, from Maritzburg, the capital of the colony. It is well laid out, 
with wide streets lined with trees, and a tramway runs to Sandy 
point. The houses are principally built of wood. Here there is an 
Episcopalian church and Wesleyan chapel, banks, mechanics' 
institute, several clubs and societies, a market place, &c. The 
population in 1886 was about 16,400, half of w^hom are Europeans. 
Most of the the wealthy inhabitants dwell on the Berea, a wooded 
height overlooking the town. 

Sh-ipping". — For trade of the colony, see page 6. 

Oomiliunication. — Durban is in telegraphic communication 
with th3 towns of Natal and of the Cape Colony, and by 
submarine cable, via Delagoa bay and Zanzibar with England, and 
also via Cape Town ; the cable to Delagoa bay is landed at about 
3 miles northward of Durban, near the Umgeni river ; there is 
railway communication from Durban to Pietermaritzburg, the 
Transvaal, Delagoa bay, &c. See also page 13. 

Mail steamer from England weekly ; mail steamer of the 
" Deutsche Ost Afrika Linie " every three weeks from Aden via East 
Africa ports, and via the Cape about every two months. Connection 
with British India Company's steamers at Delagoa bay. The Rennie 
Company's steamers run every three weeks from Durban to East 
Africa ports as far north as Kiliman. See also page 15, 

Supplies. — Water and provisions may be obtained, and are sent 
o(f in surf boats or tugs to vessels requiring them in the roads. In 
the harbour supplies may be obtained at moderate prices. 

Repairs. — The railway and other workshops can undertake large 
repairs to hull and machinery ; a large shaft can be turned, cylinders 
of 96 inches cast and bored, and castings of 10 tons made, there is 
also a steam hammer of 4 tons. There is a steam crane capable of 



St'e plan of Port Natal, with views, No. 043. 
SO H97T M 



178 PORT NATAL ; DURBAN. [Chap. V. 

lifting 20 tons, with a depth of 12 feet alongside it at low water. The 
principal engineering works are the Umgeni, distant 6 miles from 
Durban and connected by railway. 

Hospital. — The Government hospital, situated within one mile 
of the shipping, admits all classes ; there are no diseases due to 
climatic causes, nor special quarantine or customs regulations. 

Patent Slip. — There is a patent slip capable of taking a vessel of 
500 tons burthen. 

Coal. — A large quantity of coal is kept in stock ; it is taken off in 
lighters to vessels requiring it in the road, but the exposed anchorage 
renders coaling there a tedious proceeding. Vessels drawing 16 feet 
can coal alongside the wharves in the harbour. The coalfields are 
situated about 18 miles beyond Ladysmith, 189 miles from Durban, 
and are connected with the railway. Coal mines are worked in the 
Newcastle district in the northern part of the Colony ; these are 
also connected with the Government railway. 

Sigrnal Staff. — The port signal staff and semaphore are at the 
port office at the Point, north side of entrance to port Natal. 

Time signal. — A ball is dropped daily, except Sundays, at 
Ih. Om., p.m., Natal standard mean time (maridian of 30° E.), 
equivalent to 23h. Om. Os. Green wich mean time. When signal fails 
in accuracy, a blue flag with white centre is hoisted at the Time 
ball staging, about Ih. 5m., p.m., as a notice that the signal cannot be 
relied on. 

The signal is made from a pasition westward of the Port signal 
station, at the Point. 

Tug. — A Lifeboat is kept at Sandy point ; the Rocket house life- 
saving apparatus is situated on the shore at one mile northward of 
the harbour entrance. Neither were required during the year 1895. 
The harbour master has a small steam-tug for the service of the port ; 
It is sent off to communicate with men-of-war on their arrival. 

Tides. — In the port, the time of high water at full and change 
is 4h. 30m., springs rise 6 feet. The velocity of the ebb at springs 
is about 3 miles an hour in the Bluff channel and of the flood about 
2J miles. 

See plan of Port Nntal, with vicvvs, No, 613, 



Chap, v.] SUPPLIES.— WINDS AND WEATHER, J70 

In the road, outside the bar, the flood stream sets nearly north and 
the ebb in the opposite direction. 

Carrent. — It is necess:iry to caution vessels against the strong 
current which prevails on the coast of Natal beyond a distance of 
about 3 miles ; it generally sets to the south-west at the rate of 
2 to 3 miles an hour. Eastward of Natal, within that distance, as 
far as O'Neill peak, no current is felt; there the Mozambique current 
will be met, sometimes running as much as 3 knots an hour close in 
to cape St, Lucia. See page 185. 

Winds and Weather. — The prevailing winds at Natal are from 
N,E. to East, and from S.W. to South, and in about equal proportions 
alternating throughout the j^ear in periods seldom exceeding a few 
days for either. A digest of the winds in the year 1886, gives 157 
days' winds from the former quarter with a maximum force 9, and 
145 from the latt«r with a maximum force 10, the wind on the 
remaining days of the year, four excepted, ware from between 
South and East ; on 4 days winds were registered from W.S.W. to 
N.E. by N. 

From April to June the proportion of N.E. winds to S.W. winds 
was 37 to 25. November to February 38 to 47. 

During the remaining months the winds were about equally 
divided. 

The wet season in Natal is from October to March, but rain 
occurs occasionally at all times of the year, see page 28. After a 
continuance of rain, the mercury rising all the time, an easterly' gale 
follows, when the weather clears. May, June and July are the finest 
months, a light breeze coming in from seaward during the day, and 
a breeze from the land during the night, but strong gales blow both 
from the eastward and westward even during these months. August 
September and October are the most boisterous months, when the 
range of barometer is great, and the gales alternate between east 
and west. The gales from the eastward blow about south-east at 
50 or 100 miles to seaward, but are deflected on reaching the coast to 
E.N.E. or N.E., and it is the swell set up by the wind at S.E. so far 
seaward, which, catching the vessels at anchor in Natal road, on the 
starboard bow, heading to the wind, which causes them to ride so 
uneasily, and when they part their cables to cant towards the shore 
(s(9e remarks on gales, pages 18-20 and climate, pages 27, 28). 

S<r plan of Port N9,tal, with views, No. 643. 
SO 11977 M 2 



180 PORT NATAL TO DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

COAST. — Between cape Natal and the entrance to Tugela river, 
a distance of about 46 miles, several small streams fall into the sea ; 
the principal are, the Umj?eni, Umhlanga, Umhloti, Tongaati, 
Umhlali, Umvoti, Nonoti, and the Sinkwassi. The hill 450 f^eet high, 
just south of the Umhloti is conspicuous, and has a clump of trees 
on it. The southern bank of the Umvoti has two sand patches close 
down to the sea. The south point of the Sinkwassi is a sandhill, 
with a wooded top. The coast hills range from 250 to 550 feet high^ 
and are backed by dense bush. 

At the distance of one mile from the coast, no bottom will be 
found at 12 fathoms, until close off the Tugela. 

Morewood cove, about 23 miles north-eastward of Natal, is said to 
have a seam of coal in its vicinity. The red cliff southward of the 
cove is conspicuous. 

Landmarks. — The most remarkable landmarks between port 
Natal and the Tugela I'iver are : — 

A red cliff, divided by bushes nearly to the water, is situated just 
southward of Morewood cove. A red bluff, about a quarter of 
a mile inland, and 1^ miles southward of the Umvoti river, in 
lat. 29^ 25' S. Half a mile northward of this bluff is a wooded ravine. 
Conspicuous red ravines show against the green hills, marking either 
side of the Sinkwassi river. 

TUGELA RIVER, forming the northern boundary of the 
Colony of Natal, is easily recognized from seaward by its southern 
head, composed of dark bush, thickly wooded ; and by the red hill 
on its northern shore, which has a conical nob on its summit, and 
several patches of red clay to the northward. The river is not 
navigable. 

Its source is in the Drakensberg mountains, whence it leaps over 
a cliff 1,800 feet sheer, into the Colony. Whilst the Victoria falls in 
the Zambezi exceed the Tugela falls in volume, the latter are said to 
be more beautiful. From the foot of the falls, the river winds for 
200 miles to its mouth ; at GO miles from the sea it is joined by the 
Buffalo, where gold mining is in progress, and rich deposits of 
gypsum have been located. Coal mines exist in the Newcastle 
district, near the upper waters of the Buffalo ; this portion of the 
river, in summer, when flooded, is an endless succession of snow- 
white rapids, and the same applies to the upper Tugela. 

See chart, No. 2,088, 



Chap, v.] TUGELA AND AMATIKULU KIVERS. 181 

The lower river is also useless for transport in the dry season 
(winter) when boats ground repeatedly. 

The discharge from this river is observed several miles seaward ; 
the bottom is rocky at the anchorage, but has a thick covering of 
mud, the deposit from the river. 

The bar is impassable, and although with very smooth water a 
landing might be effected at the northern side of the entrance, it 
would be attended with considerable danger, as the beach is fringed 
with rocks. 

Anohorage. — At the mouth of the Tugela river the water 
shallows gradually to 5 fathoms, which depth will be found about 
200 yards from the breakers. The anchorage off Tugela river affords 
no protection during onshore winds. With a strong breeze from 
that quarter, a vessel should proceed to sea. 

The best anchorage is in 9 to 10 fathoms, with the red hill on the 
north side bearing N.W. ^ N., and the small red-topped hill near the 
Inyoni river N.N.E. ] E. 

A reef, at about half a mile from the shore, on which the sea 
breaks heavily, extends for a considerable distance along the coast 
from the northern point of the river ; a depth of 4^ fathoms was 
found at 300 yards from the breakers. 

THE COAST hills from the Tugela river north-eastward rise 
gradually from the beach, having grassy and cultivated valleys 
between, but there is no wood near the sea northward of the river. 
Several red patches on the hills are noticeable. 

Amatikulu river. — At about 9 miles north-east of the Tugela 
river is a wooded conical hill, 300 feet in height, the most remarkable 
headland in the neighbourhood ; it forms the south point of Amati- 
kulu river. This river is entirely barred by sand, but the water 
inside could be seen from aloft. The north side of the river is 
marked by a red hill similar in appearance and height (280 feet) to 
the red hill at the Tugela river ; several kraals are seen in the 
neighbourhood. 

The Inyoni river lies about midway between the Tugela and 
Amatikulu rivers. 

See chart, No. 2,088. 



i§2 PORT NATAL TO DBLAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

This part of the coast should not be approached nearer than 
24 miles, where depths of 9 to 12 fathoms will be obtained. 

Umlalaz river. — The coast immediately northward of Amatikulu 
river presents no features of interest ; the beach hills are faced with 
sand, but of less elevation (from 200 to 300 feet high, a noticeable 
difference when north of the Tugela river). Vedette hill, of white 
sand with a bushy top, situated about 9 miles northward of the 
Amatikulu, and one mile southward of the entrance to Umlalaz river, 
is conspicuous from the southward. 

The mouth of the Umlalaz was examined by Commander I. W. 
Brackenbury, R. N., who, with a party of exploration, rode over from the 
camp at fort Chelmsford on the Inyezane, a distance of about 10 miles. 
Just within the entrance the river forms a lagoon at the back of 
the sandhills on the north point ; beyond the lagoon the river has 
a breadth of about 90 feet, deep enough for large boats, and reported 
CO continue so as far as the first drift.* Two of the party waded 
across the river at its mouth, and found about 3 feet water (about 
half ebb), with a stream running out about 2 knots on hour. The 
water off the mouth of the river was discoloured for a considerable 
distance, and it was breaking at about 50 yards from the beach. 

Qlenton reef, lying between Amatikulu and Umlalaz river, is 
steep-to, and breake. Its northern extreme lies nearly abreast 
Vedette hill, and extends about 1;^ miles off shore ; thence towards 
the Amatikulu it gradually merges into the shore breakers. The sea 
sometimes breaks without warning in 5 fathoms of water in the 
vicinity of Glenton reef. 

TenedOS shoal, lying midway between the Umlalaz river and 
Durnford bay, extends nearly 2 miles from the shore and is steep-to ; 
the least water obtained was 9 feet, but there is probably less among 
the breakers. In calm weather there is often no indication of the 
shoal. There is a passage between this shoal and the shore, having 
2^ to 4 fathoms water, but it is only available in boats, when the 
water is smooth. 

The landing abreast does not seem to be at all improved by 
Tenedos shoal, as there was far more surf here than at Durnford 
bay. 

See chart, No. 2,088. 
* This was in April 1879, or just at the end of the rainy season, when the river 
was probably swollen ; there was a gentle off-shore breeze : no attempt appears to 
have been made to land here. 



Chap, v.] UMLALAZ RIVER.— DURNFORD BAY. 183 

DURNFORD BAY is the slight indentation in the coast near 
the mouth of the Umhlatuzana, a small river situated about 8 miles 
westward of Durnford point. The mouth of the river is generally 
blocked by sand, but it may be recognised by a conical sandhill 
about a quarter of a mile eastward of it, at the foot of a well-wooded 
range of hills, and by Grassy hill, one mile westward of the river, 
with patches of wood near its extremities. 

Anchoragre may be obtained in Durnford bay in 5 to 6 fathomn, 
coral, sand, and black mud, about half a mile from the shore, with 
the entrance of the Umhlatuzana river bearing from N.W. to N.N.E., 
and Durnford point E. ^ N. 

It is a good anchorage in easterly winds, but with those from 
westward a sea gets up, and heavy rollers sot in, necessitating 
proceeding to sea. 

Between Durnford bay and point a fairly even bottom exists, 
the average depth being 4 to 5 fathoms within half a mile, and 
6 to 8 fathoms at about 2 miles from the shore. 

Directions. — Approaching from the south-westward, keep Durn- 
ford point bearing northward of E. by N. ^ N., until the sandhill on 
the east point of the Umhlatuzana river bears N. by E., when steer 
for it to the anchorage. 

Landing". — There is occasional landing at the mouth of the 
Umhlatuzana river. 

Commissariat stores were landed hero without much difficulty, in 
July and August 1879, by surf boats brought from Algoa bay, 
but the landing was not so good as during the months of May and 
June. 

Durnford point is a bluff', in lat. 28° 54^' S., long. 31° 59' E., and 
may be recognised by the square-topped hill over the point ; it can 
be seen nearly as far northward as cape St. Lucia. 

Shoal. — The bottom around Durnford point for a distance of one 
to 2 miles is rocky, with depths of 3| to 4 fathoms ; it is advisable 
to give it a berth of 3 miles. 

RICHARD'S BAY, about 4 miles northward of Durnford point, 
appears to have an even bottom, with a de^jth of 5 fathoms near to 
the breakers. 

Hee chart, No. 2,089. 



184 PORT NATAL TO DBLAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

TllG Umlatuz, the Inseleni and other streams, empty themselves 
into a lagoon about a mile within Richard's bay, whence they discharge 
by a common month to the sea. This mouth, when observed from 
the masthead of H.M.^. Forester at anchor off it, had a bar extending 
from a half to one mile off shore, fairly smooth on its southern part, 
but breaking heavily on its northern part. Landing was imprac- 
ticable, though perhaps, after calm weather, it might be possible, 

A bare sand mound marks the northern point of the entrance. A 
short distance to the northward of this mound is a well-defined 
black hill ; the beach hills thence to O'Neill peak are of moderate 
elevation, faced with sand. 

Anchorag'e. — There is good fine weather anchorage in 11 fathoms, 
with O'Neill peak N.E. by E. ^ E, ; and the bare sand mound 
North. 

O'Neill peak, about 400 feet high, and dark, is easily recognised 
by a cone in the centre of the range, which is more thickly wooded 
than the surrounding hills ; there are no dark hills within 5 miles to 
the southward of it. 

COAST. — The coast northward of O'Neill peak is fringed by a 
range of hills which become almost destitute of vegetation as cape 
St. Lucia is approached, again becoming thickly wooded between the 
cape and St. Lucia river. 

Zulu shoal, reported in 1875 in lat. 28° 51' S., long. 32° 6' E. 
1| miles off-shore, has been unsuccessfully searched for. It is 
advisable, however, to give the north-east extreme of Richard's bay 
a wide berth. 

The surf breaks heavily along the whole of this coast. 

Cone point, 8 miles south-westward from cape St. Lucia, has a 
conical hill of bare sand on it, and north-eastward is a round-topped 
bare sand hill, 380 feet high, appearing as a sharp summit when 
approaching it from the northward. 

CAPE ST. LTJOIA is a low rounded point of sand with a hill 
at the back 550 feet in height. At about 2 miles northward of the 
cape is a ledge of light brown rocks. 

' "" See chart, No. 2.08?, 



Chap, v.] ST. LUCIA CAPE AND BAY. 186 

From the eastward the cape makes like a number of iylands, which 
are the summits of the various sandhills comprising it ; the most 
conspicuous is Sharp peak, G30 feet high, about 2 miles northward 
of the cape.* From Sharp peak the range extends northward, 
ranging from 400 to 600 feet in height ; it is covered with stunted 
brushwood, and ends abruptly in the bluff hill which marks 
St. Lucia river. 

Current. — Off cipe St, Lucia, the Mozambique current sets to 
the south-westward, in the direction of the coast, at the rate of 
2 to 3 knots an hour ; at times, it sets close in to the cape. This 
current is usually found within one mile of the shore as far north- 
ward as Kosi river ; thence to Delagoa bay, within 3 miles of the 
shore, the current is seldom felt. Occasionally, in-shore, a counter 
current of one knot an hour is felt along the whole of this coast. 
Strong southerly winds raise a considerable sea northward of cape 
St. Lucia. 

Winds. — At times, with a rather low barometer and light e.isterly 
winds, strong south-west winds almost amounting to a gale spring 
up in this neighbourhood with but little warning ; the barometer 
then rises quickly. In August, during one of these blows, it rose to 
30'6 inches. 

ST. LUCIA BAY, an indentation of the coast 8 miles northward 
of the cape of the same name, may be recognised by a conspicuous 
sugar-loaf hill of sand, 200 feet high, about one mile from the south 
point of entrance to St. Lucia lake. This hill is not seen when 
approaching from the southward until it bears westward of N.N.W. 
At 3| miles northward of the entrance to the lake is a conspicuous 
square-topped sand hill, 330 feet high.f 

Anchoragre. — The bay is exposed to winds from S.S.W. through 
east to N.E. ; the bottom is sand, gradually decreasing in depth to 
the shore, and is good holding ground. A good berth in 10 fathoms, 
is with Sugar-loaf hill bearing W. | S., and a remarkable square- 
topped hill N.N.E. ^ E. H.M.S. Sylvia (1884) rode out a fresh S.W. 
gale in this berth ; but with the wind more to the southward it 
would be necessary to put to sea. With the Sugar-loaf bearing north- 
ward of West the bottom is foul. 

* See viow ou chart, No. 2,085). 

t See plan of St. Lucia bay, on chart, No. 2,081). 



186 PORT NATAL TO DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

Landing. — The best place for landing is under the Sugar-loaf ; 
here, H.M.S. Goshawk^s boats effected landing, also boats from 
H.M.S. Rapid, March 1886, during exceptionally fine weather and 
off-shore winds ; the bar of the river was not practicable. After 
north-easterly or easterly winds, a swell rolls in and causes heavy 
breakers on the beach, thus rendering landing impracticable in 
ship's boats. North of the river the breakers extend a long distance 
seaward. Sharks are numerous and voracious. 

St. Lucia river and lake. — In the dry season the entrance to 
St. Lucia river is completely blocked by a dry sand bar, which is 
annually swept away by the floods ; but apparently there is never 
more than a depth of 3 or 4 feet at high water, and with heavy 
breakers right across it. The bar was not practicable when seen by 
the Sylvia in August and January, though it was open. 

Discoloured water from the river extends at times some distance 
seaward. 

St. Lucia river trends north-eastward parallel to the coast, to 
St. Lucia lake, which is about 40 miles in length, 10 miles average 
breadth, and with a depth of about 9 feet. The eastern side of the 
lake is separated from the sea by a strip of land about 3 miles across, 
with sandhills from 300 to 500 feet high. 

COAST. — At about 9 miles northward of the mouth of St. Lucia 
river and lake is a conspicuous sand-slip, from whence to cape Vidal, 
a further distance of 9 miles, is a range of dark-coloured steep hills 
of even height. Detached rocks lie a short distance off the pro- 
jecting points. 

Cape Vidal rises to a peak, 500 feet high, and when bearing 
W.S.W., shows a long triangular patch of sand, extending to its 
summit ; when seen from the southward two reddish coloured 
patches appear on it. 

The shore from cape Vidal to Delagoa bay, a distance of about 
130 miles, trends north-eastward, in a nearly straight line. The 
coast, which is moderately high close to the beach, is a continuous 
line of wooded hills with rounded summits, 500 to 600 feet high, 
faced with sand to about half their height. There are a few 
straggling black rocks along the shore. 

Towards cape Colatto, near Delagoa bay, the land is well wooded. 
The interior southward of Delagoa appears to be a low level country, 

See plan of St. Lucia bay, on chart, No. 2,089. 



Chap, v.] ST. LUCIA RIVER. — SORDWANA ROAD. 187 

with knots of trees here and there like park land, but about 10 or 
12 miles inland, a few hills apparently 800 or 1,000 feet high are 
visible. 

The Lubombo mountains run parallel to the coast at about 
10 miles inland. 

Leven point, 12 miles northward of cape Vidal, may be known 
when bearing northward of West, by four sand roads, extending 
from the sea to the summit of the coast hills, 9 miles north of 
cape Vidal. 

Leadsman shoal, a small pat 3h of coral, about half a mile in 
length, has 2| fathoms water, and lies nearly one mile from the 
shore, and distant 6 miles southward from Leven point. 

A coral patch, with 4 fathoms water, lies 3^ miles northward of 
Leadsman shoal, and about one mile off shore. Vessels should not 
approach them to a less depth than 20 fathoms. 

Havergral hill, at 21 miles north-east of Leven point, is a conical 
hill, 465 feet high, with a flat top, and a sand road from base to 
summit. 

SORDWANA ROAD.* — Temporary anchorage may be taken by 
steam-vessels, in the road, in about 7 fathoms at half a mile off 
shore, with the flagstaff on the point bearing S.W. ^ W. distant 
about three-quarters of a mile. The holding ground is not good, 
being partly rock, and is more foul nearer the shore ; there is also 
considerable swell here, and strong on-shore winds would render 
the anchorage untenable. The anchorage is open to winds from 
seaward between N.E. and S.W., and is no better than that off other 
parts of this coast. 

Landing". — A reef, about one cable in extent, extends north- 
eastward from the point of the road affording some slight protection 
to the landing place, but owing to the heavy surf and rollers usually 
prevailing, landing is dangerous and impracticable at times even to 
surf boats. 

Position. — The point forming Sordwana road, on which there is 
or was a hut and fla^taff at about 30 feet above the sea, is in 
lat. 27° 33' 20" S., long. 32° 43' E. The dark bluff 150 feet in height, 

'' St'e plan of Sordwana road on chart, No. 2,089. The description of the road is 
by Commander T. F. Pullen, H.M.S. Stork, 1889. 



188 PORT NATAL TO DBLAGOA BAY. [Chiip. V. 

behind the llagstufi: is covered with scrub, and conspicuous from 
seaward ; the coast northward of it is composed of sandhills, ranging 
from 40 to 200 feet in height. 

A small stream enters the sea northward of the point ; its entrance 
is 20 feet wide, and dries 4 feet at low water springs, rock bottom. 
This stream carries off the surplus water from two lagoons a short 
distance inland ; the nearer, half a mile distant from the shore, is 
about half a mile in extent, covered with grass, and is very shallow. 
There are but few natives in the neighbourhood, the land being 
covered with scrub and unsuitable for agriculture. 

COAST. — At 8 miles northw-ard of Sordwana road is the point of 
the same name, raising to a hill 485 feet high. 

Lava hill, 15 miles northward, is a grassy hill 300 feet in height 
with a sharp summit ; it is probably a good landmark. 

Boteler point, at 14 miles northward of Lava hill, projects a short 
distance as a dark rocky cliff, 15 feet high. 

Kosi river. — The entrance to Kosi river, in about lat. 26° 53' S., 
is conspicuous from the north-eastward. Rollers break across the 
mouth which appears to be shallow. 

At 1| miles southward of the river, a reef extends half a mile oft' 
shore. 

The southern boundary of Portugese East Africa is somewhere 
near Kosi river, see page 6. 

Oro point, at 3 miles northward of Kosi river, is a low, dark, 
cliffy point. Oro peak, about 390 feet high, is on the coast range 
behind it. Foul ground extends half a mile northward from Oro 
point. 

Landmarks. — At about 6 miles northward of Oro point are three 
peaked hills, the highest, named Florence peak, is 400 feet high ; 
these are conspicuous landmarks from all directions. 

At 13 miles northward of Oro point, foul ground 3 miles in length 
fronts the coast to a distance of 1^ miles. 

Steamer rock, 10 miles southward of cape Colatto, resembles the 
hull of a steam vessel low down on the beach. 

See cliart, No. 2,089. 



Chap, v.] KOST RTVER.— TNYACK I8LA.ND. 189 

Cape ColattO, or Santa Maria, has a round-topped hill 260 feet 
high, and is the northern exiremity of Inyack peninsula, which, 
with Inyack island and its shoals, form the eastern boundary of 
Delagoa bay. 

The passage between Inyack peninsula and island is blocked by a 
shallow reef. 

INYACK ISLAND,* to the northward of Inyack peninsula, is 
about 6 miles in length, north-east and south-west, by 3^ miles in 
breadth. Inyack hill, 385 feet high, 2 miles within cape Inyack, is 
wooded, and has a dome-shaped summit. The north extreme of 
Black bluff, on the west side of the island, has a flagstaff and a 
white barrack with red roof on its summit, partly hidden by the 
trees ; at one mile southward of the barrack is the highest part of 
the bluff, 117 feet above the sea, with a red streak down its northern 
face. 

Cape Inyack, the north-east extreme of the island, has a steep 
face, with a lighthouse on the sandhill about 4 cables within it. 

LIGHT. — From an iron tower 90 feet in height, erected on the 
hill within cape Inyack is exhibited at an elevation of 349 feet 
above high water, a fixed white light, showing a fiash every twenty 
seconds, visible from a distance of 22 to 25 miles. 

Danae Slioal, within a depth of 10 fathoms, is apparently about 
1^ miles in extent ; there are several" coral patches with depths of 
3 to 5 fathoms, and one with 2| fathoms only; from the latter, which 
is about the centre of the shoal, cape Inyack lighthouse bears 
S. 63° W., distant 5^ miles. 

Five Fathom bank. — Depths of 5 to 8 fathoms are charted 
from 7 to 10 miles north-eastward of Danae shoal ; there is possibly 
less water, and the locality is better avoided. 

DELAGOA BAY, also known- as Lorenzo Marques after its 
discoverer, who was one of the earliest of the Portuguese navigators, 
is the southernmost port of Portuguese East Africa (see p. 6). 
The entrance is obstructed by shoals, extending for a distance of 
20 miles northward of Inyack island, terminating in Outfield flat, 

* St'i: plan of Delagoa bay, No. <H4. and chart. No. 648, 



190 DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

north-westward of which is the north or main channel to the bay ; 
the depths between the flats vary from 4 to 7 fathoms in the 
Cockburn and other navigable channels. 

Vessels of above 24 feet draught would have to anchor about 
8 miles off the town. 

The bay is but imperfectly sounded, and but little reliance cap be 
placed on the charts or on the buoys being in their assigned positions. 

Between Elephant island and English river, the bay is 15 miles 
across, southward of which it extends about 20 miles. Three rivers 
empty themselves into the bay, viz. : — the King George, the English 
river, and the Maputa. The great deposit ejected by these streams 
has caused shallows and flats, which renders the navigation of the 
bay, particularly in the southern portions, somewhat intricate. The 
depths in the navigable parts of the bay vary from 6 to 12 fathoms, 
all good anchorage ground. 

Entrance channels. — There are three channels between the 

sho.ils fronting Delagoa bay. The northern or main channel is 

the best for vessels of deep draught. Vessels of moderate draught 

. use the Cockburn and Hope channels ; the Cockburn, which is better 

sounded, seems preferable. See Pilots, p. 194. 

SHOALS in the approach.— Cockburn shoal is the name 

of the extensive flat with from one to 3 fathoms, which occupies the 
whole space lying between the north point of Inyack island and 
Elephant island, a distance of 5 miles. It is triangular in shape, and 
its northern point terminates in a 3-fathom patch, with 8 fathoms 
close beyond it. The shoal may be said to occupy the whole space 
between these bearings, and there is no known passage through it. 
Lighthouse on shoal, pro^hosed. 

Buoy. — A conical black buoy is moored on the north-west end 
of Cockburn shoal, with cape Inyack lighthouse bearing S. 22° E., 
distant 7 j^y niiles, but it is not to be depended on. 

Hope shoals, within a depth of 5 fathoms, are about 5 miles in 
length, in a north and south direction, with patches of 2i and 
3 fathoms in many places, and possibly less. 

Buoy. — A conical red. buoy, Avith staff and cone, has been placed 
near Hope shoals, in G^ fathoms, with cape Inyack lighthouse bearing 
S, 4° E., distant 7| miles, and Gibbon beacon, S. 3.5° W. It maist not 
be depended on. 



^je plan of Delagoa bay, No. 044, and chart, No. 648. 



Chap, v.] SHOALS IN THE APPROACHES. 191 

Domett shoals, with about the same depth of water, he nortli- 
wai'd of the Hope ; there are probably some deep water channels 
between the patches, but the locality has not been fully examined. 

Depths of 4| to 5 fathoms have been obtained at 3| miles W. | N. 
from the west patch of Domett shoals, oyer a space about half a 
mile in extent in a north and south direction ; the depths beyond it 
are also said to be less than are shewn on the chart. 

Outfield flat, the northernmost of this chain of shoals, is, within 
a depth of 3 fathoms, 4 miles in extent in a north and south direction ; 
many patches of 2 fathoms, coral bottom, exist on this flat. Its 
north extreme lies with cape Inyack lighthouse bearing S. | W., 
distant 19| miles, and Cutlield hummock. North, distant 6^ miles. 

The shoals mentioned break in places during and after strong on- 
shore winds. 

Westward of the fairway of North channel, about .3 miles westward 
of the north end of Outfield flat, and one mile from the shore, is the 
south end of a bank 2 miles in length, with depths of .3 to 
5 fathoms. 

Patclies. — At about 10 miles north-eastward of Outfield flat, and 
about 4 miles off shore, is a patch of 3| fathoms, the southernmost 
of the patches extending from Lagoa shoal, described on page 204. 
About midway between this patch and the Outfield, there is a patch 
of 5^ fathoms. Tide rips are often seen about here, probably caused 
by the uneven bottom. H.M.S. Brisk in proceeding to sea in 1860, 
after rounding Outfield flat and when it was considered that the 
vessel was well clear of the bay, the soundings shoaled in some 
places to 6 fathoms rather suddenly, when several miles out to 
seaward. The bottom appears to be a succession of sand ridges, with 
G and 7 fathoms on them, and from 9 to 11 fathoms between the 
ridges. 

Inner shoals.— Shefina reef, on the western side of the 
main channel, and abreast Hope and Oockburn shoals, is apparently 
dry at low water, and extends about 4^ miles in an E.S.E. direction 
from the north end of Shefina island. Discoloured water extends a 
further distance of 1^ miles south-eastward from the point of 
Shefina reef. 

See plaj+ of Delanroa bay, No. fi4t, and chart. No. fi48. 



192 DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

Fawn shoal, an isolated patcli of 2^ fathoms, lies about a quarter 
of a mile southward of the 'eastern extreme of this shallow water, 
with Gibbon point bearing S. | E., distant 5^ miles. 

Lech reef, with 1;^ fathoms water and 7 fathoms close-to, is the 
termination of the shoal water extending 1| miles southward of 
Shefina reef. 

Buoy. — A buoy is moored off the southern edge of Lech reef, 
with cape Inyack lighthouse S. 45° E., distant nearly 10 miles. 
Vessels should not approach within a quarter of a mile of this hnoj, 
nor place too much dependence on its being in its assigned 
position. 

A shoal, with a depth of 2^ fathoms and 3 fathoms around, was 
reported, in October 180G, to lie with Shefina island beacon bearing 
N. 9° E., distant 2^-^ miles. This lies within the edge of the tongue, 
with less than 3 fathoms southward of the fairway ; a depth of 
2 fathoms only is shown on the plan about one mile S.E. by E. of 
it ; other shallow patches possibly exist on this tongue. 

A shoal appareiitly of small extent, with about 3 fathoms water 
lies in the fairway, wich Inyack lighthouse S. 40° E., distant 
8^0 miles. Patches of 5 fathoms are situated at about three-quarters 
of a mile southward and south-westward of this shoal. 

Clearing; mark.— The barrack with red roof on Black bluff, or 
the bluff itself, on Inyack island in line with Gibbon point, bearing 
S. 3° E. leads eastward of these dangers. See view B. on plan. 

A bank, about 1^ miles in extent, within a depth of 5 fathoms, 
lies in the approach to the anchorage in Delagoa bay. A patch of 
2^ fathoms near its centre, lies with Reuben point light bearing 
W. I N. distant about 7| miles ; there are similar depths on the 
north end of the bank. A projecting horn from the bar of English 
river, lies about 2 miles S.W. by W. from the centre of this bank, on 
the south side of the anchorage, with a depth of 2 fathoms near its 
extreme. This concludes the description of the important shoals 
bordering the channels from seaward to the anchorage. 

Shefina island, between 4 and 5 miles in length east and west, 
stretches off the west shore of the bay, at the mouth of George 



See plan of Delagoa bay, No. 644, and chart. No. 618, 



C*hap. v.] SHOALS. — LANDMARKS. 193 

river. It is low, sandy, covered with dense bush ; water may be 
obtained. The lower part of the island is all white sand, and at a 
distance it is difficult to distinguish the island from the main land. 
See beacon, below. 

LIGHT. — From a stone circular tower erected on Reuben point, 
north side of entrance to English river, is exhibited at an elevation 
of 1.34: feet above high water, o, fixed white and red light, visible from 
a distance of 15 miles in clear weather. It shows white from 
S. 71° W. to N. 79° W. ; red from N. 79° W. to N. 73° W. ; white 
from N. 73° W. to S. m° E. See harbour lights p. 196. 

Landmarks. — Beacons. — A white beacon, with pole, is situated 
on Timpson point, the southern extreme of Shefina island. A 
house with a galvanized roof is situated half a cable westward of 
it, said to be visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. 

A beacon has been erected on Reuben point, which, kept in line 
with the lighthouse, indicates the centre of the red sector of Reuben 
point light. 

On Gibbon point, a sand hummock 19 feet high at the west 
extreme of Elephant island, there is a white beacon, resembling a 
lighthouse, visible about 10 miles. The buoys and beacons are not 
to be depended on. 

Black bluff (on which is a house), Red streak, and the lighthouse 
on Inyack island, and Mount Colatto to the southward somewhat 
resembling a haycock, are also useful landmarks. See sketches on plan. 

George hill, the summit of the island of that name, may be of use 
when nearing Shefina reef, but it is not conspicuous, being but little 
above the land about it. 

Outfield Immmock. — From the northward, or for vessels 
intending to enter by the North channel. Outfield hummock, 
26 miles northward of Inyack island, is rather a conspicuous land- 
mark. It is higher than the surrounding coast hills (210 feet above 
high water), and there is no higher laud behind it. From seaward 
it appears with a bushy top. Approaching it from the southward, 
bearing about N. by W., which leads eastward of Ciitfield flat, it 
appears with two peaks, the southern one dark, the other slightly 
higher, with a streak of sand along the top. It is visible about 
16 miles. When westward uf Cutfield flat, the hummock appears 
with a large streak of sand down it. 

See plan of Delagoa bay, No. 644 ; and chart, No. 648. 
so J 1977 N 



194 DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

Tides. — The time of high water, full and change, at port Melville, 
is 4h. 30m., rise from 14 to 15 feet ; and at Lorenzo Marques in 
English river, 5h. 20m., rise about 12 feet. The age of the tide is 
about 2 days. 

Seaward of the shoals, the flood sets to the northward at the rate 
of 2 knots, with a strong indraught towards Cockburn channel, across 
which it sets obliquely, The ebb sets in an opposite direction. 

Within the shoals the flood sets to the south-westward through the 
channel, over Shefina reef and towards English river at the rate of 
from one to 3 knots. The ebb sets in the opposite direction. 

Pilots. — A pilot station has been erected on Elephant island, 
which is connected by semaphore with Inyack lighthouse. The 
number of licensed pilots is seven. The pilot boats are painted 
black, and their distinguishing mark is a white square flag with 
black square and P in the centre. Pilots, when practicable, will 
meet vessels outside the shoals or in the channels, but too imuch 
confidence must not be placed in them. Pilotage from the 
7th November 1896 is compulsory for merchant vessels. 

NORTH or MAIN CHANNEL.— Directions.— Anchorage. 

— North channel lies between the north end of Outfield flat and the 
shore, and is about 2^ miles in width, with depths of 6 to 8 fathoms. 
It is the best channel for vessels of heavy draught. 

Vessels from the northward should make the land about 
the parallel of 25° 30' S., avoiding Lagoa shoal, and endeavour to 
identify the remarkable ridge of bare sand hills, with four cones on 
its summit, 290 feet high, westward of that shoal ; and also Outfield 
hummock, described on p. 193 ; thence steering so as to be within 
3 miles of the hummock before it bears northward of N.W., to clear 
Outfield flats, when proceed as directed below for vessels having 
rounded the flats from the southward. Inyack lighthouse will, in 
fine weather, be visible from northward of Outfield flat. 

Vessels from the southward may pass Inyack lighthouse at 
from one to 2 miles distant, thence steering N. by E. (westward of 
Danae shoal) about 20 miles, taking care not to bring the lighthouse 
southward of the bearing S. by W. | W., until Outfield hummock 
bears N. by W., or more westerly, which will lead clear, and at least 
one mile eastward of all the shoals. "With the hummock on that 

See plan of Delagoa bay, No. 644 ; and chart, No. 648. 



Chap, v.] CHAXXELS. — DIRECTIONS. 195* 

bearing, it may be steered for, and there being no other object to 
assist in determining the distance from it, the approximate distance 
should be obtained by means of an angle of elevation, (210 feet 
above high water). 

When between 2 and 3 miles from the hummock, the course may 
be altered to the south-westward to bring it to bear N. by E. | E., 
which bearing should be maintained if it can be seen, until Inyack 
lighthouse bears S.E, ^ E. and distant about 7 miles ; observing 
that Black bluff on Inyack island on with or just open eastward of 
Gibbon point (View -B) leads eastward of Fawn shoal, and of the 
3 fathoms patch charted about one mile southward of it. 

Thence to the anchorage off English river, the course is about 
W. by N. ^ N. for Reuben point lighthouse* (in the red sector of that 
light after dark) until Shefina beacon or house bears N. by W. | W., 
where anchorage may be taken in about 4| fathoms. Deep draught 
vessels should anchor when the beacon bears N.W., in 6 to 
8 fathoms. 

There is an alternative route, passing half a mile southward of 
Fawn shoal and Lech reef buoy, avoiding the 3-fathoms patch nearly 
in that track, thence for Reuben point as requisite, but the above 
mentioned route seems preferable. These directions must be used 
with considerable caution. 

At nigrht, in favourable weather, vessels maj^ approach Delagoa 
bay by the lead, if certain of being well to the northward of Inyack 
island, taking care not to stand into less than 10 or 12 fathoms, when 
they may anchor or stand off according to circumstances. 

Oockburn or South, channel has a least depth of 4 fathoms 
at low water over a breadth of half a mile, and the telegraph ships, 
drawing 24 feet, made use of this channel. It is not recommended 
for heavy draught vessels as there is generally a swell, and the tidal 
stream sets obliquely across, the flood to the westward and the ebb 
to the eastward. See Pilots, p. 194. 

Moderate draught vessels, from the southward, having passed cape 
Inyack at the distance of one mile, should steer N.N.W. i W., until 
the white barrack with red roof on Black bluff" is in line with the 
Red streak on the higher land southward of it, bearing S.W., when 
the extreme of cape Inyack should be brought to bear S. by E, | E. 
This bearing kept on astern, will lead through the channel (bearing in 

• A beacon has recently been erected on Reuben point, which kept in line with 
the lighthouse will probably be on the same bearing, as it is stated to bisect the arc 
of red light. 

St^r plan of Delagoa Bay, No. 644 ; and chart, No. 648. 

SO 11977 N 2 



196 DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

mind the cross set of the tidal stream), at about half a mile northward 
of Cockburn shoal buoy, if in its charted position. Thence course 
should be altered to S.W., observing that the Red streak southward 
of Black bluff kept in line with Gibbon point beacon, or the beacon 
bearing S. by W. ^ W. or southward of that bearing, leads westward 
of Cockburn shoal. 

When cape Inyack lighthouse bears S.E. ^ E., distant about 7 miles, 
proceed as directed for North channel. The white barrack and 
red streak are not easily discernible, but the bearings of the other 
objects will serve to identify them. 

If bound to the anchorage off English river, follow the directions 
given for North channel, from view B, p. 195. 

Hope channel, one of the passages through Hope shoals, is 
stated to have a least depth of 5^ fathoms if an angle of 42° to 43° 
be preserved between cape Tnyack and Gibbon point beacon, until 
cape Inyack bears S. 21° E. ; when the Red streak is open of Gibbon 
point beacon proceed as for Cockburn channel. Hope channel is 
frequently used. 

A pyramidal buoy lies with cape Inyack lighthouse bearing 
S. 1° W., distant Tf*^ miles, as before stated, but it is not to be 
depended on. 

ENGLISH RIVER.— The mouth of this river lies in the western 
portion of Delagoa bay, and forms an excellent land-locked harbour 
for vessels of moderate draught. See Bar, on next page. 

The shores of English river are generally low and wooded. 
Reuben point, on the north side of entrance, is a bold red bluff 
about 200 feet high, rising abruptly from the sea, with a light 
and signal station on it. Mawhone point, on the Catembe shore 
south side of entrance, has two faces of red earth, which at times 
show well against the dark foliage adjacent. 

LIGHTS. — Reuben point light is described on p. 193. Two 
lights are shewn from the Custom house landing ; the eastern is 
fixed red and the western is Jixed green. 

A fixed white light is shown from the inner Catembe beacon, 
south side of approach, visible over an arc of 12^ southward of the 
line of the beacons. 

Set plan of English river, No. G46, and plan, No. 644. 



Chap, v.] ENGLISH RIVEH.— BAR.— DIRECTIONS. l9f 

Beacons. — Two beacons are erected on the Catembe shore 
within Mawhone point, as a guide over the bar. 

The front beacon is an iron pyramidal structure 36 feet in height, 
painted white and standing on a square white base. The back beacon 
is cylindrical, painted black, and also standing on a square white base, 
see light, p. 196. It stands on higher ground than the front beacon, 
and just behind it is a house of a dullish^red colour. 

A conical red buoy, with staff and cage marks the shoal water, 
extending off Reuben point, but it must not be depended on ; a 
black can buoy with staff and cage marks Catembe shoal. The water 
is said to be shoaler than charted near it. 

Bar. — Directions.* — Andiorage. — The bar of English river 
had a depth of 24 feet at high water springs over very soft mud (two 
and three days after full and change) in 1896. H.M.S. Fox, early 
in 1897, of 21 feet draught, crossed the bar in a depth of about 23 feet, 
on full and change day ; a vessel of 23 feet draught crossed during 
the stay of the Fox. The bar has not been surveyed or examined 
for many years, so possibly better water is to be found ; and it is 
apparently not subject to much change, as the s.s. Dunbar Castle^ 
24^ feet draught, crossed the bar in about the year 1888. 

Shallow water extends rather more than halfway across the 
entrance from Mawhone point, and a sand spit of 1| fathoms and 
less extends E. by N., 3 miles from Mawhone point ; the southern 
tail of the bar stretches to a distance of 7 miles eastward of the same 
point, with depths of 2 to 3 fathoms. 

From the anchorage outside the bar, steer for Catembe north 
beacon (white) bearing N. 86° W., which is stated to lead over the 
bar in the depth above stated. When Lechmere point l^ears N. 40° W., 
steer for it ; this will lead southward of the shallow water off Reuben 
point, and to the anchorage in mid-river near the Custom house, where 
there are depths of 6 to 8 fathoms, mud, well clear of the mud flats 
which more than fills the bight eastward of the town. Vessels 
should moor during spring tides. 

At night, steer in with Catembe beacon light N. 86° W., until 
the red and green lights at the Custom house bear N.N.W., then 
steer N.W. by N. up the fairway. These directions must be used 
with considerable caution, and navigation at night is not recom- 
mended. 

* See plan of English river, No. 646 ; and plan, No. 644. Vessels of 20 feet draught 
or upwards should, if their intake valves are near the bottom, consider before crossing 
whether there is sufficient depth to insure their condensers not being choked by 
the mud. 



198 DELAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

LORENZO MARQUES.— The Portuguese town of this name 
lies on the north bank of English river, about 1^ miles within 
Reuben point ; it is the capital of the southern half of Portuguese 
East Africa, see pp. 6, 7. The town is almost surrounded by a 
swamp, and is consequently very unhealthy, but some progress has 
been made of late in filling it up. The town is being gradually 
improved, streets made and paved, and many new houses and stores 
have been erected. 

The most conspicuous buildings at Lorenzo Marques, are the 
church, situated on the hill at the back of the town, a large hospital 
not far from it, and the Government offices, close to the wooden 
landing pier. 

Population in 1895 numbered about 1,700 European inhabitants 
(about 700 of whom are Portuguese), and possibly 5,000 to 6,000 
natives, living within a radius of 1^ miles. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company's station is about half 
a mile west of the lighthouse, where the cables are brought in from 
Aden and Durban. Their positions in the channels will be seen on 
the plan. There is communication by land lines with the Transvaal, &c. 

Position. — The telegraph station is in long. 32° 35' 31" E., deter- 
mined by telegraphic connection with Cape Town, in 1881. 

Trade. — The trade of the port may be considered solely as a 
transit trade to the Transvaal and the British territories north of that 
cotmtry. The railway route to Johannesberg is shorter by 80 miles 
than that from Durban. 

The imports in 1895 amounted in value to £999,130 ; whereas in 
1891 (before the railway) it was only £67,922. 

About one-fourth of the imports is timber for mining purposes ; 
other imports are machinery, railway material, and general merchan- 
dise. The retail trade at Lorenzo Marques is chiefly in the hands of 
Banian or Hindu traders. 

The value of the exports is not stated. 

Shipping". — 264 steamers and 39 sailing vessels entered the port 
in 1895, of the aggregate tonnage of 435,605 tons. ; of these 223 were 
British vessels. In 1896, 397 vessels entered, of which 268 were 
British. 



See plan of English river, No. 64() ; and plan, No. (544. 



Chap, v.] LORENZO MARQUES.— SUPPLIES. 199 

Piers. — The railway company has constructed two piers with 
wharfage between ; one of these piers is intended to have a depth 
of 24 feet alongside at low water ; the iron pile pier at the Custom 
house has, at low water, a depth of 12 feet. The boat camber and 
Custom house piers belong to the Public "Works Department. 

Supplies. — Poultry, eggs, and fruit are obtainable in moderate 
quantities ; vegetables and bread are obtainable daily from the 
contractors. Most of the vegetables come from Natal by steamer, 
a scanty crop only being grown by some Chinese settlers on the 
ground near the railway. 

The best drinking water is still the rain water collected from the 
roofs of the houses, though a company has laid pipes through the 
town and supplies water to tlie houses. 

There is a free hospital containing 128 beds, and also several 
hotels. 

Coal. — The best Welsh coal is obtainable in any quantity at about 
£4 per ton (H.M.S. Blanche, 1893). There is said to be large beds 
of excellent coal near Middleburg, about 150 miles inland, and 
through which the railway passes. 

Railway. — The Portuguese railway to the frontier and its con- 
tinuation by the Netherlands Company, is open to Pretoria, a distance 
of 346 miles, thence with Cape Colony. Nelspruit, 129 miles from 
the port, is 2,416 feet above the sea ; and the summit of the whole 
line, at Bergedaul, 214 miles from the port, is 6,437 feet above the 
sea. The width of the line is 3 feet 6 inches. The journey to 
Pretoria takes about 21 hours. A line to Barberton is open, and 
the journey to the De Kaap goldfields occupies 9 hours. 

Repairs. — Machinery for a first-class foundry has arrived at 
Lorenzo Marques, and will probably be erected as the port and 
business develops. 

Mails. — Mails weekly by rail from Cape Town, about 24 days 
from England. 

The Union and Castle lines of steamers call here fortnightly ; the 
British India mail steamers call here every 4 weeks ; and the Deutsche 
Ost Af rika line every 3 weeks, via Suez, and every 2 months via cape 
of Good Hope. The Messageries Maritime Co. run a vessel monthly 

See plan of English river, No. 646 ; and plan, No. 644. 



200 DEL AGO A BAY. [Chap. V. 

from Diego Suarez (Madagascar) to Delagoa and back, via Mosam- 
bique and Beira, connecting^ with the Mauritius steamers. There is 
also a French line via West African ports. Several other lines call 
here. See also page 15. 

Winds. — Seasons. — From October or November to April the 
weather is mostly fine, although it is the hot and rainy season. 
At this time the fine weather is accompanied by strong sea 
breezes, force 4 to 5, succeeded by light land winds at night, but at 
times the sea breeze only relaxes in strength for two or three nights 
running. After some days fine weather the sea breeze fails, and rain 
comes on with southerly or south-westerly winds. South-westerly 
gales of 36 hours duration are not unfrequent, blowing a gale which 
draws to the southward, and becoming fine at S.E. The wind then 
draws round gradually to N.E., and it continues fine for a few days, 
then undergoes a similar change. Bad weather always comes on 
with winds from west to south, improving as they draw round to 
east. 

From April to October the sea breeze blows with considerable less 
force, and calms occur more often ; rain occurs only from 2 to 6 days 
per month, whilst in the opposite season it occurs for about 11 days 
per month. See Meteorological Table, p. 593. 

In May and June 1891, H.M.S. Mohawk met with exceedingly fine 
weather at the anchorage, on two days only did any rain fall, that 
being with an E.S.E. wind, shifting to S.W., the remainder being 
bright and clear. The temperature ranged from 82^ in the daytime 
to 58^ at night, the difference between the wet and dry bulbs being 
about 8°, but on several days it was as much as 14°. 

Olimate. — Delagoa bay has acquired the reputation of being very 
unhealthy for Europeans. At Lorenzo Marques typhoid fever is 
prevalent, and is responsible for many more deaths than the so-called 
Delagoa bay fever, which is nothing more than a mild form of 
malarial attack, not ever likely to claim a healthy European as 
anything more than a temporary victim ; with proper sanitary 
measures and a good water supply, the statistics of mortality here 
should not greatly differ from those of other South African com- 
munities. 

From November to April the hot rainy season is certainly uncom- 
fortable, and under present conditions becomes at times intolerable 
to any but those of robust constitutions. A change of air and 

Hcc j>lan of BnglMiTlver, No. 640"^ and plan, No. 644. 



Chap, v.] WINDS.— SEASONS.— CLIMATE. 201 

surroundings, however, generally leads to speedy improvement. 
(H.M. Consul, 1895.) 

MattoU river is the northernmost tributary of English river. 
It is 320 yards wide, and 16 feet deep, at the junction ; at 8 miles 
above, its width diminishes to 80 yards, and depth to 8 feet, above 
which boats can ascend but a short distance. 

Oatembe river, the southernmost of the three tributaries of 
English river, is broader and deeper than the Mattoll. Including the 
windings of the river, the boats under Captain Owen's orders (1882) 
ascended 46 miles, when the river divided into two branches. A 
short distance up the southern branch, it was found to be about 
80 feet broad. Vessels drawing 13 feet can navigate the Catembe for 
a distance of 19 miles from its mouth. Some of the land is under 
cultivation, and fresh water is abundant, but the river water is salt. 

Dundas riveror Lorenzo Marques, lies between the Catembe and 
the Mattoll ; it has the advantage of its water being fresh a few miles 
up, and is navigable for good-sized cargo boats as far as Bombai, 
about 10 miles from its entrance, probably near the ford, which boats 
can only cross at high water. A short distance below the ford the 
river is 80 yards wide. 

Maputa river. — The mouth of this river lies in the south-west 
part of Delagoa bay, from whence there are two channels through 
the flats, one of which leads to port Melville, and the other towards 
English river. The Maputa is said to be navigable for boats 
for 60 miles, up to June, but later in the dry season they 
probably would not get beyond the limit of tidal influence, 
which was found during springs to extend to Moham, 35 miles 
from its mouth, where a rise of 2 feet was noted ; at high water 
springs, a depth of 3 fathoms may possibly be carried through the 
channels in the flats to the entrance to Maputa river.* 

For about 17 miles up the river, the banks are of low alluvial 
soil lined with forests of mangroves, after which it is a fine open 
country with sandy soil, the banks being about 6 feet above high 
water. Here there are beautiful plains extending about 2 miles back 

See chart, No. 2,089, and plan of Delagoa bay, No. 644. 

* The Cockburn tender, under the orders of Captain Owen, in 1822, appears to 
have ascended about 20 miles (her draujjlit of water being 8 feet), and the boats 
explored as far as 40 miles from the mouth of the river, but they did not proceed 
any farther on account of the fatal fever which attacked the crew ; 7 only out of a 
crew of 20 returned. The mosquitoes at night were intolerable. 



202 DBLAGOA BAY. [Chap. V. 

on either side of the river, and fine ranges of hills were passed before 
reaching the foot of the Lubomba mountains. The narrowest part 
is 60 yards wide, and its greatest breadth at the mouth and fork 
300 and 150 yards, respectively. 

For the first 20 miles, 18 feet water was carried (April), the next 
50 miles an average of 6 feet, the next 30 miles about 4 feet, and 
the last 30 miles about 2 feet, gradually shoaling to where the 
river could be forded. The ford is 2 miles beyond the fork up the 
Umsutu river. 

The ebb tide at the entrance runs very strong for about 7 hours, 
and from 2^ to 5 knots in some of the bends of the river. Great 
difficulty would be experienced in navigating beyond Moham in 
boats not having steam power, owing to the narrowness of the 
channel, and the strong current running down.* 

(From recent reports, Upanhlani drift, a few miles below the 
Umsutu junction, is considered to be the head of navigation.) 

King George or Manhica river enters Delagoa bay to the 
northward of Shefina island. The main stream rises near Leyden- 
burg, in the Lubomba mountains, at about an elevation of 6,000 feet ; 
its chief affluents are the Salibala, on the upper waters of which are 
the gold fields, the Umgerania, and the Umlamase ; the country 
around them is fine and healthy. The coast lands drained by them 
are fertile, but too unhealthy for Europeans. The mouth of King 
George river has a shifting bar of various depths, and the river 
frequently bursts its banks to find other outlets in the great bay, 
one apparently passing westward of Shefina island. From its 
entrance, it trends with numerous windings, parallel to the coast as 
far as Outfield hummock, when it turns inland. Captain Owen's 
expedition carried 22 feet into the river at high water, and ascended 
nearly 50 miles, then gave up the exploration on account of fever 
attacking the crew. The current ran down at the rate of 2| knots, 
and the water was fresh close to the mouth.f 

Mr. Hillard reports having ascended the river from 120 to 140 miles 
in the trading cutter Herald, the depth of water being 12 to 
18 feet in the channel, and from 6 to 9 feet near the banks for the 
whole distance, the cutter frequently brushing the banks with her 
mainsail, whilst having plenty of water under foot. Only one 
shallow (6 feet) was found in the whole distance of 120 or 140 miles. 

* Commander Cochrane, H.M.S. Petrel, March 1869, and Lieutenant H. O'NiftU, 
June 1879, H.M. Consul at Mozambique, 
t See chart. No. 648. 



Ghap. v.] KING GEORGE RIVER. — PORT MELVILLE. 203 

On the west side lies a ridge of high land, which approaches the 
river at a few points, but is frequently separated by a flat marshy 
tract of country many miles in width, and densely covered with a 
coaree kind of guinea grass, 5 or 6 feet high. 

On the east side there are flats of a similar kind ; from the highest 
point attained by the expedition, these flats were only bounded 
by the horizon. The banks cannot easily be penetrated where 
the grass has not been burnt, and it is necessary to be careful 
in landing, as they are in some places honeycombed with pitfalls 
for hippopotami and other animals. For some miles from the 
mouth the banks are more or less covered with bush and mangrove 
jungles, but for many miles of the upper part of the journey 
there is no timber, except here and there a straggling tir tree, 
bent over the river by the force of the S.E. winds. Above the 
influence of the tide the river becomes narrower and serpentine. 

Captain Elton (1870) crossed the river by a ferry near Magud's 
kraal about 30 miles from its mouth, where he found a magnificent 
river, with a navigable channel of deep water for almost its entire 
breadth. Sugar cane, cotton and indigo grow well on the banks 
of the river. 

PORT MELVILLE,* on the eastern side of Delagoa bay, is a 
good harbour in all winds, being sheltered by Inyack and Elephant 
islands and Cockburn shoal on the east, and by Gibbon and other 
shoals on the west, which shoals are discernible by the colour of the 
water. This is a safe port to come to for refitting, and far better 
than English river on account of the unhealthiness of the latter. 
A Portuguese officer with a detachment of soldiers is stationed at 
Black bluff, but there is no pier. Signals are made from Black bluff 
to Lorenzo Marques by means of the heliograph. 

Elepliant island, about one mile northward of Black bluff, is 
1^ miles in length, but not being more than 25 feet above high water, 
is difficult to make out from a distance, when in line with Inyack. 
It is sandy, with bushes on the top, and uninhabited. Gibbon, the 
west point of the island, is bold, having depths of 6 to 8 fathoms 
at the distance of one cable. Gibbon point is considered to be 
situated in lat. 25° 58' 3" S., long. 32° 54' 11" E. See Beacon, p. 193. 

Supplies. — Small supplies may be obtained from the natives of 
Inyack, but bullocks are scarce. Water may be obtained with a 

* See plan of Port Melville, No. 645. 



204 DELAGOA BAY TO CAPE CORRlBNTBS. [Chap. V. 

little trouble. Wells should be dug 10 or 12 feet deep, about 
70 yards inland on the west and highest part of the island. 
H.M.S. Orestes obtained from 6 to 8 tons a day by sinking casks in 
the sand. The Portuguese troops have their water brought from 
English river. 

Directions. — Vessels proceeding to port Melville, and having 
followed the directions given on pp. 194, 195, as far as Fawn shoal, 
should then steer for the white barrack with red roof, or Black bluff 
on which it stands, in line with Gibbon point, bearing S. 3° E. 
(view B. on plan 644) ; thence passing about one cable westward of 
Gibbon point, bring it to bear N. by E., astern, and anchor when con- 
venient in about 9 fathoms, sand, bearing in mind that the channel 
here, with a depth over 5 fathoms, is but a quarter of a mile wide. A 
large vessel will find more space just eastward of Gibbon shoal, and 
should, from a position with Gibbon point bearing E.S.E. about 
2 cables, steer about S.W. by W., until the south point of Elephant 
island bears E.S.E., where anchorage will be found in from 8 to 
10 fathoms, sand. 

OOAST.* — North-eastward of Outfield hummock (page J 93) the 
coast consists of sandhills from 150 to 200 feet high, to latitude 
25° 23' S., a distance of 17 miles, where there is a long bare sand 
ridge, having four small cones, 290 feet in height, and forming a 
conspicuous landmark. 

The sandhills increase in height between Lagoa and Limpopo 
rivers to 380 and 430 feet ; at the west point of the latter river is a 
red topped sandhill, whilst at a distance of 17 miles eastward is 
Salmon cliff, which is red and conspicuous, and backed by cultivated 
and grassy hills. Thence, and beyond Zavora river, the coast sand 
ridges are very low, and there is nothing noticeable until the 
remarkable orange-coloured sandhill 400 feet high, and 16 miles 
westward of Zavora point is approached ; between this hill and the 
point is a peak 575 feet in height. 

Lagroa shoal is a ridge of rock and sand, 5 miles in length and a 
quarter of a mile in width, lying parallel to, and between 4 and 
5 miles distant from the shore, near the northern approach to Delagoa 
bay. A least depth of 2^ fathoms was found near the centre of the 
shoal, with Outfield hummock bearing West, distant about 21 miles. 



Set chart, No. 648. 



Chap, v.] LAGOA SHOAL. — LIMPOPO RIVER. 205 

Lagroa lake. — The entrance to Lagoa lake is 27 miles north- 
eastward of Outfield hummock ; its west point rises to a sandy hill 
245 feet high. When near the shore the lake is easily identified 
by the limestone cliffs or blocks of stone, about 80 feet high, 
facing the sandhills, extending for some distance on either side of it, 
and forming a gap about 500 feet in width. It is this break in the 
cliff which has caused the lake to be mistaken for a river, whereas it 
extends back only for a distance of about 3 miles, and is but a ravine 
full of water, separated from the sea by a ridge 30 feet above sea 
level. 

Captain Aldrich, 1884, when surveying in the neighbourhood, 
states that at half flood a narrow stream of water was visible 
communicating with the lake, but it was breaking heavily right 
across the entrance. The sandhills in the neighbourhood are of a red 
colour, differing from those about Delagoa bay. 

LIMPOPO or Innampura river. — The Limpopo takes its rise 
near Pretoria, in the Transvaal Republic, and is about 1,500 miles in 
length. The entrance to this river is 300 yards wide, and is situated 
about 17 miles eastward of Lagoa lake, in about long. 33° 31' E. The 
east point of entrance is a narrow sandspit about 12 feet high, but 
its west point has several sandhills 200 feet high, the outer one of 
which is red, and a conspicuous mark for identifying the river. 
Within these points there is a large basin with depths of 3 to 

4 fathoms. 

Depths. — The river has a bar extending and breaking at times to 

5 miles from the coast. There is said to be a depth of 3 feet at low 
water over the bar (with a spring rise of about 11 feet), but it is 
subject to great change, is difficult to enter, and the ebb stream runs 
at the rate of 4 knots at times and possibly more. 

Two beacons, A and B in line, led over the bar in 1893, in 15 feet 
at high water springs. These, with beacon C to the eastward of the 
entrance, wauld serve to fix the position of the vessel.* 

Within the bar the river has a depth of 12 feet for about 40 miles, 
and is said to be navigable for light draught steamers for about 60 miles 
to Manjobo's kraal. A steamer of G feet draught ascended to this 



* See plan of the Limpopo river entrance, with sketches of beacons, on No. 685 
and chart No. 648, 



206 DELAGOA BAY TO CAPE CORRTRNTBS. [Chap. Y. 

place in April 1884, with not less depths than 3^ fathoms. Manjobo's 
crossing bars the river and is said to have as little as 4 feet at times, 
but 8 feet was the depth at the time stated. 

The first 12 miles of the river is wooded with mangroves, above 
which the country is low and level, and almost destitute of fuel, to 
Manjoba's kraal, whence it gradually rises to hills and mountains 
in the interior, and is well wooded. The Banians have a small 
inland trade with Manjoba's kraal or village. 

Captain F. Elton (1870), when exploring the country inland, states 
that the Limpopo river is navigable for steam vessels of light 
draught, even in the dry season, between the tributaries Nuanetzi 
and Lipalule or Oliphant river, 100 miles apart. The junction of 
the Lipalule with the Limpopo is at about 120 miles from its 
mouth. 

COAST.* — Innainpura shoals, about 5 miles in length and one 
mile off shore, are charted between the Limpopo and Salmon cliff 
to the eastward, but we have no other information about them. 
Off the same coast, the Portuguese gun-vessel Diu reported in 1895, 
that at 3 miles off shore and for a distance of 15 miles, soundings of 
8 to 9 fathoms were obtained. 

M. Marron, an official formerly in the Limpopo, reported shoal 
water of 3| fathoms between the Limpopo and I^agoa lake to the 
westward, at 2 miles off shore, which may possibly be the correct 
position of the Innampura shoal, though nothing was seen here by 
H.M. surveying vessel Sylvia in 1884. 

Zavora river is charted midway between Limpopo river and 
Zavoro point, but little is known of it. The coast for many miles on 
either side consists of low sandhills. 

Shoals. — A shoal of 2| fathoms, on which the S.S. Gourland was 
said to have struck, is charted (5 miles southward of Zavora river, 
in lat. 24° 58' S., long. 34° 22^' E. ; the position, amended, is 
lat. 24° 57' S., long. 34° 25' E., but both positions are placed on the 
charts. 

The Countess of Carnarvon reports a shoal of 2^ fathoms, on 
which the sea occasionally breaks, in lat. 24° 57' S., long. 34° 22' E. 
They are possibly identical. 

* ^e cjiart, No. 648. 



Chap, v.] INNAMPURA SHOALS. — ZATORA POINT. 207 

The coast between Zavora point and to the westward of the 
Limpopo river is entirely unsurveyed, and should be given a 
wide berth. 

Zavora point, in lat. 24° 28|' S., long. 35° 12^' E., rises to a ridge 
of sand hills over the coast, between 200 and 300 feet high. It has 
no particular distinguishing feature, but at If miles northward of it 
is a conspicuous sand cliff, nearly half a mile in length. 

About 15 miles north-eastward of Zavora point is a remarkable 
clump of trees, the only ones in the locality. At the same distance 
south-westward is a remarkable rouge-coloured sandhill, 400 feet in 
height. 

Reef. — At 22 miles north-eastward of Zavora point, a rocky 
reef extends nearly half a mile from the shore, and heavy breakers 
were seen along that part of the coast for a distance of 3 miles. A 
clump of trees near the coast, 15 miles north-eastward of the point is 
possibly a useful mark. 

See chart, Xo. (548. 



208 



CHAPTER VI. 

MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, INCLUDING NYASA LAKE. 

(Lat. 25° 55' S. to lat. 18° 0' S.) 



Variation in 1897. 



Cape Corrientes, 21° 15' W. 
Cape Bazaruto, 19° 0' W. 



Months of the Zambezi, 16° W. 
Lake Nyasa (South end), 15° W. 



GAPE CORRIENTES, the south-west extreme of Mozambique 
chamiel, is a rounded, sandy point, partially covered with bushes, 
and rising at the back to a height of 375 feet, while the land on either 
side of it is somewhat higher. The cape may be recognised by 
detached black rocks near it, also by an islet 15 feet high situated 
2^ miles south-west of it, and connected with the shore by a 
rocky reef. The islet is situated in lat. 24° 5^ S., long. 35° 29|' E. 

The coast about the cape is bold and safe to approach within one 
mile or less. 

Current. — The current nearly always runs to the southward from 
one to 2 knots an hour.* H.M S. Sylvia, in December 1884, at 
1^ miles off cape Corrientes, found the current setting to the south- 
ward at the i-ate of 3 miles an hour ; within one mile of the shore at 
6 miles to the southward there was no current, whilst at a further 
distance of 8 miles to the southward and 1^ miles off shore there 
was a counter set of one mile an hour. The currents were found to 
be stronger off the cape than on any other portion of the coast, 
though much influenced by the winds, but they apparently always 
set direct along the shore, and never on or off. 

* See chart of Delagroa bay to Zambezi river. No. 648 ; also No. 597. 



Chap. VI.] CAPE CORRIENTES.— INNAMBAN BAY. 209 

The coast from cape Corrientes to Innamban is composed of sand 
hills, from 200 to 400 feet high, having at a distance the appearance 
of chalky cliffs, and visible at a distance of 20 miles or more. 
Anchorage may be obtained in case of being becalmed, in from 15 to 
20 fathoms at nearly one mile off shore, an advantage to sailing 
vessels proceeding northward on account of the strong southerly 
current which generally prevails. 

Cape Wilberforce, at about 14 miles north-eastward of cape 
Corrientes, has a grassy summit 200 feet high, and is nearly clear 
of bush. 

INNAMBAN BAY lies between the Burra, and Algoa point to 
the north-westward, a distance of 9 miles. A line of breaking reefs, 
dry in places at low water, extends nearly the whole of this distance 
from the Burra, almost completely blocking the bay. Innamban 
river enters the sea westward of this reef, and abreast Algoa point.* 

Barrow hill, on the south point of Innamban bay, is 230 feet 
high, with a sharp summit and a clump of trees on it ; from the 
northward the hill is readily recognised. 

Its position is lat. 23° 45' 30" S., long. 35° 31' 41" E. 

Landmarks. — The Pedestal, a white triangular mark constructed 
of masonry, on the shore of Linga Linga peninsula, is conspicuous 
from seaward in the forenoon, and is a leading mark for the bar. 

Conspicuous tree, 420 feet above the sea, on the ridge over the 
West shore of the harbour, is conspicuous only when seen from 
the northward, or with the Pedestal bearing southward of W. \ S. 

Double bush (consisting of three trees) is situated about half a 
mile southward of the conspicuous tree. 

A beacon, constructed of wood, four 8ided,^and surmounted by a 
disc, painted white, is situated about 300 yards southward of Double 
bush. 

The Burra, on which stands a lighthouse, is about one mile 
eastward of Barrow hill ; a rocky reef extends 4 cables north-east- 
ward of the lighthouse, and other patches lying the same distance off 
shore, are situated about one mile north-west of it. 



* See plan of Innamb&n river, No. 650. 
SO 11977 



210 INNAMBAN BAY AND RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

LIGHT. — From an iron support above a white square tower, 
erected on the Burra, is exhibited at an elevation of 80 feet above 
high Avater, a fixed ivhite light, visible in clear weather from a 
distance of 14 miles. 

Pilots.— Signal station. — Near the lighthouse is a flagstaff 
from which signals are made through another signal station on Ilha 
dos Porcos, to the town of Innamban. 

Vessels passing or anchoring are signalled, and if requiring a pilot, 
the usual pilot-jack should be hoisted, and the ship anchored off the 
channel across the bar, or kept underway between the Burra and 
the river. The pilot boats always come out across the bar, and are 
in the employ of the Government. Pilots may be obtained here for 
other places on the coast. 

Outer anchorage. — There is good anchorage in about 8 fathoms, 
half a mile off the bar, with the lighthouse bearing S, \ W., and the 
Pedestal W. by S. In strong southerly winds good shelter may be 
found under the lee of Barrow hill, about three-quarters of a mile 
from the shore ; there is also good anchorage, over sandy bottom, 
anywhere between these positions at about one mile off the reef. 
There is nearly always a swell at the outer anchorage. 

At night it may be advisable to keep off and on to the northward 
of the bar, making due allowance for the current which sets strong 
to the southward. 

INNAMBAN RIVER. — Although the entrance to this river is 
spacious and forms a good harbour for vessels of light draught, the 
river is scarcely navigable for a vessel beyond the town, and but a 
short distance farther for boats. The channel from the bar to the 
town of Innamban is 14-^ miles in length, and in no place is it more 
than one mile wide ; just inside the bar it is 3^ cables, and off the 
town %\ cables wide. Many banks dry at low water, 

Mafarun islet. — A sand patch 3 feet above high water, on the 
west extreme of the reef stretching northward from Barrow point, is 
a small but useful mark when near the middle ground abreast it ; 
formerly it was much larger. About half a mile south of it is a boat 
channel to Barrow point. 

Ilha dos Porcos is low and flat, with cocoa-nut trees about 
90 feet high, and lies about 1^ miles southward of Mafarun islet. 



dee plan of Innamban river, No. 650. 



Chap. VI.J ANCHORAGE.— BAR.— DIRECTIONS. 211 

On the south-east extreme is the signal station for transmitting 
signals from Burra lighthouse to Innamban. Ilha dos Ratos is 
similar in appearance. 

Shikokl point, on the west side of the harbour, is a remarkable 
sand cliff, used as a leading mark to the anchorage off the town. 
Rather more than one mile south of these cliffs is the village of 
Obra, with a flagstaff on the beach. 

The Bar is about 4 miles from the shore, and a shifting one, 
moving a little northward or southward according to the wind ; 
there is usually a depth of 10 feet on the bar at low water springs, 
which gives 17 feet at high water neaps and 21 feet at high water 
springs. 

Buoyagre. — A red conical buoy is moored outside the bar in about 
9 fathoms, on the line of the leading marks, namely, Double Bush 
in line with the Pedestal. Within this buoy, black conical buoys 
mark the starboard hand on entering, and red conical buoys the port 
hand. These buoys are not to be depended on. 

Tides, — It is high water, full and change, at Innamban at 
5h. 38m. ; springs ris(! 11 feet, neaps 7 feet. The stream runs strong 
in the river ; off the town it sometimes amounts to 4 knots an 
hour. 

Directions. — Vessels of more than 14 feet draught should employ 
a pilot, as there is almost always a heavy swell on the bar. 

At times the sea breaks right across the river entrance ; when such 
is the case, only steam-vessels of good power and very light draught 
should attempt to cross the bar. 

The leading mark to the Bar buoy and over Innamban river 
bar (1894), is the Pedestal in line with Double Bush beacon, bearing 
W. by S ^ S., which mark leads in nearly to the first pair of buoys. 
Thence keep the black buoys on the starboard hand and red buoys 
on the port hand, until southward of the buoys abreast Obra ; 
thence with the left tangent of Shikaki cliff in line with Summit, 
bearing N. | p]. astei-n, until near Belau point, when edge a little 
to the eastward and pass between the two buoys off that point to 
the anchorage off Innamban. 

The holding ground here is good, but it is advisable to moor if 
intending to remain. 

See plan of Innamban river, No. 650, 
SO 11977 2 



212 INNAMBiN TOWN. [Chap. VI. 

Innamb^n town is situated on the east entrance point of the 
river, but being surrounded with cocoa-nut trees is not easily seen 
until close to. There are no good public buildings to attract 
attention, and the streets are ill paved. 

The small fort, here, has a garrison consisting of native soldiers. 

Pier. — There is a wooden pier, but it does not quite reach to 
low water. 

Population. — Trade. — There are about 50 Europeans in 
Innamban, and two American missionaries ; native population not 
known. 

The products are ground nuts, gingelly seeds, copal, beeswax^ 
and rubber ; occasionally tiger skins and elephant tusks are brought 
in. Most of the trade is in the hands of the Banians, and the 
loading is done by native women, who wade off to the lighters with 
the bags of produce on their heads. 

In 1893, the value of the exports amounted to £28,860, and the 
imports to £38,628. 

Climate. — From November to May, fevers are especially to be 
guarded against ; Innamban is considered to be the most healthy of 
the Portuguese possessions hereabouts. 

Oommunication. — The British India mail steamers call every 
four weeks. The steamers of the " Deutsche Ost Afrika " line 
(three - weekly service) when sufficient inducement offers. This 
company have also a two-monthly service from Hamburg via Lisbon 
and cape of Good Hope to Durban, Delagoa bay and Innamban. 
See page 15. 

Supplies of cattle, poultry, fruit, and vegetables, are readily 
obtained at the town, and small supplies of good water may be got 
by rolling casks up to the wells in the town. Oranges and lemons 
are in abundance. Firewood is cut and brought in boats from 
Barrow point by the natives, through the numerous channels in 
the reef. 

Linga-Linga bay is the mouth of the north branch of Innamban 
river ; it forms a fine landlocked harbour for small vessels, having a 
depth of 2 fathoms or more at low water, and has doubtless been 
used by slavers to escape the observation of passing cruisers. 

See plan of InnamMn river, No, fi5U. 



Chap. VI.] BURRA FALSA.— ZAMBIA SHOAL. 21^ 

COAST. — From Inuamban to Burra Falsa (cape Lady Grey), a 
distance of 50 miles, the coast has uo remarkable feature, except 
Sylvia raage, 10 miles southward of Burra Falsa. This range of bare 
sand of a reddish colour is 330 feet high, and has or had upon its 
southern end a solitary tree. Between it and Innamban the coast 
range is from 400 to 600 feet high. 

Sylvia shoal is a narrow coral ridge, with 2| fathoms least 
water; within the depth of 5 fathoms it is about 4^ miles in 
length, parallel to the shore and distant Z^ miles from it. 

From the north end of the shoal, Burra Falsa bears N.N.E. ^ E., 
distant 9| miles. 

Current. — ^A strong southerly current is generally met with ofiE 
Buna Falsa under one mile distant from it. When bound northward 
and clear of Zambia shoal, the current is much less inshore in dei)ths 
of from 7 to 8 fathoms, and at times there is a counter set to the 
northward. 

BURRA FALSA, or cape Lady Grey, in lat. 22° 55' S., long. 
35° 37' E., is a low point, and rises to two small conical sandhills 
about 95 feet high. To the southward the land rises to 305 feet 
above the sea. 

There is much sand about the high land over the cape, making it 
conspicuous from the northward. Good shelter may be obtained 
under the cape during southerly winds, and landing might be 
effected at times just north-west of it. 

Pumene river, situated 3| miles north-west of Burra Falsa, was 
seen from the Sylvia at high-water neap tides, when there was 
apparently a narrow boat channel into it. Within, the river opened 
to a large expanse of water. 

Shivala Clifis, situated 12 miles northward of Burra Falsa, are 
nearly two miles in length, about 120 feet in height, and red coloured^ 
forming a conspicuous landmark. 

Zambia shoal is a coral ridge, rather more than one mile ill 
length by half a mile in width ; from the shoalest part, 3 fathoms, 
Burra Falsa bears S. by W., distant 9^ miles, and the highest part of 
Shivala cliffs S.W. f W. The water deepens rapidly seaward of the 
shoal. 

See chart of Delagoa bay to rirer Zambezi, No. 648. 



2l4 THE BAZARUTO ISLANDS. [Chap. VI- 

Foul ground. — At 26 miles northward of Shivala cliffs a depth 
of 3 fathoms was found one mile off shore, apparently part of a reef 
extending from the land ; vessels should give this locality a Avide 
berth. 

CAPE ST. SEBASTIAN, in lat. 22° 5' S., long. 35° 29' E., is a 
steep bluff 225 feet high ; from the southward, a small white sand 
patch shows at the upper part of the bluff, while from the northward 
tiie face of the cliff shows a considerable amount of red sand from 
base to summit. The coast hills terminate at 7 miles south of cape 
St. Sebastian ; here a sandy peninsula begins, partially covered with 
straggling trees and bushes, and extending in a northerly direction 
for 6 miles, to nearly abreast the cape. 

This peninsula is about half a mile wide, iiaving shallow water 
westward of it, and bounded by the high land forming the cape. 

The BAZARUTO ISLANDS extend along the coast for a 
distance of more than 30 miles northward of cape St. Sebastian. 
The islands are under the jurisdiction of the Portuguese Governor of 
Chiluan ; a few troops are stationed upon them, and the small 
produce is conveyed by boats to Chiluan for shipment. The principal 
establishment is on Carolina island. The islands are live in number, 
viz. : — Bazaruto, Benguerua, Xezine, and St. Carolina or Marsha. 
The route to the anchorage is northward of Bazaruto island. There 
is a passage betweea the Bazaruto and Benguerua islands, possibly 
available for boats with local knowledge. 

This is the site of the famous pearl fishery of Sofala ; pearls and 
mother-of-pearls are met with occasionally, but the trade is 
insignificant. 

Bazaruto island, the northern and largest of the group, is 
18 miles in length, and from the southward appears as a hog-back of 
bare sand about 300 feet in height ; the highest part, 390 feet, is near 
its norih end. There are several villages on the island. See 
light, p. 215. 

Cape Bazaruto is the northern extreme of the island ; the pitch of 
the cape is fronted by a reef to the distance of half a mile, whilst a 
sand spit, named Punta de Carlos, partly covered at high water, and 
steep-to, extends about 1^ miles north-westward of its low extreme. 

See ]ilan of Bazaruto bay, No. 685. 



dhap. VI.] LIGHT.— DIRBCTIOXS. 21.^ 

Bengruerua island, sandy and partly wooded, lies souihward of 
Bazarato island, and is 170 feet in height ; it is surrounded by sand- 
banks. There are several small villages on it. 

Xezine island lies southward of Benguerua island, and may be 
recognised by some red cliffs about the southern part, the remainder 
being wooded down to the water's edge. It is 175 feet in height and 
being small has but few inhabitants. 

Bango island, nearly 4 miles north of cape St. Sebastian, is low 
and sandy, and has a dark clump of trees near its centre ; neither 
Xezine nor Bango are accessible from seaward. 

St. Carolina or Marsha island, in the middle of Bazaruto bay, 
has a commandant and a small detachment of soldiers, and is the 
principal establishment of the Portuguese between Innamban and 
Sofala. Marsha is low, with a sandhill on its north-east side, bu 
well wooded and easily made out. On a vessel's appi'oach, t he 
Portuguese flag is hoisted, near the centre of the island. There are 
two good wells of water on the island, but none to spare for shipping 
There is also good building stone. 

Tides. — It is high water at cape Bazaruto, full and change, a 
4h. 26m., springs rise 12 feet. 

LIGHT. — From a cylindrical iron tower, erected on the north- 
east extreme of Bazaruto island, is exhibited at an elevation of 
D8 feet above high Avater, a fired red light, visible apparently in a 
north-easterly and nortli-westerly direction about 1) miles in clear 
weather ; it is said to be visible also over the anchorage. Reported 
unreUahle. 

Directions. — The depths northward of cape Bazaruto are 
irregular, and the bottom rocky and uneven, with strong tide rips. 

To enter, from a position about 3 miles northward of the light- 
house, shape course to pass about a mile westward of punta de 
Carlos spit, then haul to the southward for the anchorage under the 
north end of Bazaruto ; see p. 21(1. 

The bearing of the trees on Carolina island, if visible so far, would 
afford some guide in rounding punta de Carlos spit. 

A pilot is obtainable to take a vessel to the settlement at Carol in 
island, and should be emploj-ed as the channel is not buoyed. 

See plan of Bazaruto bay, No. (585. 



21^ chiluAn. [Chap. VI. 

Anohoragre was obtained by the surveyiug vessel Sylvia on the 
north-east side of Punta de Carlos spit, sheltered from southerly 
winds. 

According to the plan, there is anchorage in 7 to 8 fathoms 
within the north end of Bazaruto, with the lighthouse bearing 
about East, distant 5 miles ; also north-east of the settlement on 
Carolina island in about 3 fathoms. 

COAST. — From cape Bazaruto northward to Machanga point, a 
distance of 39 miles, the coast is little knoAvn ; but the depths appear 
to decrease gradually towards it. Northward of Machanga point, to 
beyond Chiluan, shoals extend to a distance of 10 miles off-shore. 

Gouvro river empties itself into Moromone bay, 14 miles 
southward of Machanga point. It is hardly navigable for boats at 
its entrance, but is reported to become a fine river in the interior. 

Sabi river enters the sea both northward and southward of 
Machanga point by several shallow mouths. Machanga point is low, 
with some small sand hillocks just northward of it. Sabi river is 
said to be one mile broad in the interior, but not navigable. 

Mr. A. V. Williams, writing from Chiluan, October 1892, states 
that he ascended Sabi river to the farthest point where the tide was 
felt, or about 30 miles from its mouth. He entered by the northern 
or Makau branch of the Sabi, which had a bar Avith 5 feet at low 
water, and was about half a mile wide. He returned to Chiluan by 
a creek branching off the Makau, navigable by boats. 

CHILUAN APPROACH,— The coast between Machanga point 
and Ingomaimo point 16 miles to the northward, is fronted by shallow 
ridges, extending 9 miles seaward, from which distance it is only 
just visible, so that care and attention to the lead is necessary when 
approaching this locality.* 

MisadjuaHa shoal, also known as Inverarity shoal, the outer- 
Inost of these ridges, lies 10 miles E.S.E. froin Chiluan island ; it is 
3 miles in length, and said to be nearly dry in one place at low 
water. From the shoal no distinguishable landmarks can be seen^ 
but heavy breakers usually mark its position. 

OHILTTAN4— Chiludn island, situated at, and lying partly 
in the mouth of Ingomiamo river, is about 6 miles in length, by 



* See plan of Chiludu island and approaches, No. 921. 



Chap. VI.] TOWN. — SUPPLIES. 21? 

3 miles in breadth ; it is lo^v, and in many places nothing more than 
a mangrove swamp, intersected by a creek navigable for boats at 
high water. 

The principal village and residence of the governor (Portuguese) 
is upon the south side, where there is a small fort and a flagstaff. 

The northern entrance of the Ingomiamo, named Singune, which 
leads north and westward of the island, is the one used by vessels 
visiting Chiluan, and has from 22 to 28 feet at high water as far as 
the anchorage. The channel southward of the island, named the 
Inhabacara, has nearly as much water as far as the southern town, 
but is narrow and intricate. 

Supplies. — Goats, fowls, and eggs can be obtained in small 
quantities, but no vegetables can be bought. There appearcj to be no 
regular mail communication, but it is no great distance from Beira, 
pages 222-224. 

Population. — Trade. — The population of Chiluan amounts to 
about 1,200. The exports, consisting chietiy of india-rubber, ground 
nuts, and gum, are valued at about £30,000, and the imports, con- 
sisting chiefly of cotton goods and hardware, at about £20,000. 

Ingomaimo point, 2^ miles south-east of Chiluan island, is low 
and sandy, with no mangroves, thus differing from other points in 
the vicinity. 

A beacon, consisting of a high pole, surmounted by black and 
white diamonds, is erected on the point. 

Inhaguaia point, the south-east extreme of Chiluan island, shows 
as a bluff from the north-eastward. 

ShoalS.—South breakwater bank is an extensive bank front- 
ing the south channel, and lying 3^ miles eastward of Ingomaimo 
beacon. Ansou knoll, near the southern end of the bank, has 
9 feet water, and Richardson knoll, near the north end, has 1^ feet 
over it. 

The shoal which fronts Chiluan island to the distance of about 
1^ miles, extends 3| miles from Inhaguia point, or to within one 
mile of the south breakwater bank. 



See plan of Chiluan island and approaches, No. 921. 



218 CHiluAn. [Chap. vi. 

North breakwater bank is a similar bank to south breakwater ; it 
lies 4| miles E.N.E. from the lighthouse on Singune point, and 
fronts the north entrance to Chiluan. 

LIGHT. — From an iron support over a white tower erected on 
Singune point is exhibited, at an elevation of 36 feet above high 
water, ^ fixed ivhitn light, said to be visible in clear weather from a 
distance of 10 miles ; but being an ordinary lantern, is probably not 
visible more than 5 miles. 

Position :— lat. 20° 37' 12" S., long. 34° 53' 33" E. 

There is a flagstaff near the lighthouse, and also [a white house, 
which is visible for some distance. 

Pilot. — A pilot may possibly be obtained, but it is customary to 
bring a pilot from Innamban. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Chiluan, at4h. 49m. ; 
springs rise 18^ feet, neaps 13 feet. The streams run from 3 to 
4 knots in the entrances, and in the north entrance set across the 
vessel's course between North breakwater bank and the island. 

Directions. — Anchorage. — From the southward, Chiluan island 
presents no recognisable features, and is not in sight from Misad- 
juana shoal, which is steep-to : this shoal, except at high water in 
fine weather, will be seen by the breakers. 

From the northward, a few cocoa-nut trees may be seen on the north 
side of the island ; also a large clump of trees eastwai'd of the cocoa-nut 
trees, but these objects do not appear to be visible much beyond the 
North breakwater bank. The north entrance is that generally used, 
but as the banks are liable to shift and the channel is unbuoyed, 
it is advisable to employ a pilot. 

The following directions applied to the north entrance, when 
surveyed in 1884. 

Approach Singune point lighthouse bearing W. :J^ N. until Inha- 
guaia point bears S, ^ W., when steer N.W. \ N. until the lighthouse 
bears W. by S. (observing that the tidal stream sets across the 
channel). The course should now be W. by N. ^ N. until the 
lighthouse bears S. W., after which it may be kept a little on the port 
bow until the anchorage is reached, when anchor in 4 fathoms, with 

See plan of Chiluan island and approaches, No. 921. 



chap, vij sopAla. ^19 

the lighthouse bearing about S.E., distant a quarter of a mile. All 
cargo Ih shipped and discharged from just within this position. 
The south entrance should not be used unless buoyed. 

The channel between Chiluan and the mainland is navigable for 
vessels of 14 feet draught at high water, in charge of a pilot ; so that 
vessels can proceed to the town if necessary, near which there is 
anchoi-age in 3 fathoms. 

COAST. — Boene is a small, well-wooded, uninhabited island, 
about 21 miles northward from Chiluan, and about 12 miles south- 
ward of Sofala, at the mouth of the Gorongosi river. It is stated to 
afford good shelter for small vessels, but this is not borne out by the 
chart. There is a grove of palm trees on the island. 

SOFALA. — The town and dilapidated fort of Sofala are situated 
on a small sandy peninsula on the north side of the entrance of the 
river, in about lat. 20° 11' S. It has a population of about 2,000, and 
is under a Portuguese governor. Water is scarce. 

The trade is insignificant, a small quantity of ivory, beeswax, 
and ground nuts being exported to Mozambique. 

Ancliorag'e. — Vessels should approach cautiously by the lead, 
and little dependence must be placed on the plan.* 

The land about Sofala is all low, with scarcely any trees, but in 
the vicinity of the river the land is a little higher and more irregular, 
with scattered tall trees ; some cocoa-nut trees near the fort, if they 
still exist, will be distinguished before the fort is sighted. 

H.M. Brig Helena (1844) anchored in 6^ fathoms, sand, with the 
fort bearing N.N.W. 7 or 8 miles. This was the best anchorage for 
strangers, but in working out to sea the depths were found to be 
very irregular, shoaling suddenly at times from 10 to 5 fathoms, 
then immediately deepening ; this is suggestive of great caution 
being required, considering the rise and fall of the tide is about 
19 feet. 

Sofala river is about 1| miles wide at the entrance ; the south 
side is formed by Inhancata isle, separated from the main by a boat 
channel. The river, although so wide, is almost blocked up by sand- 
banks dry at low water. 

* See chart, with plan of Sofala river, No. 648. 



220 PUNGUB RIVER ; BEIRA. [Chap. VI. 

Bar. — The depth on the bar appears by the chart to be about 7 feet 
at low water, and banks with 3 fathoms and less extend about 7 miles 
off-shore. There were formerly two channels over the bar, but in 
1859 the northern channel was blocked up. This bar should not be 
attempted by any vessel unless the channel be previously examined 
and buoyed. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at -ih. Om. ; ordinary 
springs rise 19 feet. 

Sofala bank. — Off Sofala the depths appear to increase very 
gradually seaward, there being 30 fathoms only at the distance of 
70 miles. Within the 100-fathom line this bank, known as Sofala 
bank, apparently follows the contour of the coast, but its actual 
limits are not known. Inshore, at the mouths of many of the rivers, 
the bottom is muddy, but farther off it is fine sand, which becomes 
coarser as the distance from the land is increased, and is very coarse 
near the outer edge, where it deepens suddenly. 

Coast. — From Sofala the coast takes a northerly direction to the 
Pungue river ; it should not be approached under 6 fathoms water, 
or within the distance of 8 miles, as the water is shallow to about 
that distance ; the land is very low, 

PUNGUE RIVER.*— General remarks.— -Aspeot.— The 
land about the mouth of the river is very low, and if coming from 
the southward cannot be seen until close to the outer buoy. To the 
northward of the river a series of low sand hills covered with scrub 
extend along the shore, off which the water appears to be very 
shoal, 6 and 7 fathoms having been obtained at about a distance 
of 6 miles. On nearing the outer buoy, Massique point shows up 
well, making as a dark bluff point, caused by the tall straight trees 
which grow down to the water's edge. The Ohirora group of palms 
to the southward will also be easily recognised for they are the only 
palms growing in the vicinity ; also the signal and light tower erected 
near Jea point, southward of the settlement. 

After passing the outer buoy, the masts of the shipping will be 

visible over Beira, and about 3 miles farther in the tower on 

Chiveve point and the buildings forming the settlement will be 
visible. 



* See plan of river Pungue, No. 1,003 ; also coast Bheet, Delagoa bay to rivet 
Zambezi, No. 648. 



Chap. VI.] DEPTHS.— SHOALS.— LIGHTS. 221 

Shoal in the approach. — H.M.S. Mohawk, in 1893, passed over 
a shoal with 4 fathoms water when in approximately lat. 19° 50^' S.. 
long. 35° 4^' E. On nearing the shoal, which is apparently of small 
extent, the depths gradually decreased from 7 to 4 fathoms and then 
deepened to 6^ fathoms. {See chart, No. 648). 

Depths. — The entrance of the river is obstructed hy numerous 
banks which extend some distance off the land, and partially dry at 
low water springs. A fairly wide navigable channel (marked by 
buoys) exists, which has from 3 to 4 fathoms at low water. Abreast 
Massique point a flat with from 2 to 2| fathoms water extends 
nearly across the channel from the banks on the eastern side, between 
which and Massique spit there is usually a channel with from 3J to 
4 fathoms least water, but this depth is not to be depended on as the 
channel is subject to considerable change. It is stated that the 
best water is nearer to Massique point in the rainy season and the 
converse in the dry season.* 

Buoys and beacons . — Black buoys mark the starboard hand of 
the channel when entering and red buoys the port hand, but they 
are not to be depended on. 

From the latest information, No. 1 buoy, red, conical, with staflP 
and ball, is a fairway buoy in about 5^ fathoms, with point Jea 
light tower bearing N.W. f N. distant 8yV miles ; for the others, see 
the plan. 

LIGHTS.— Slgrnal tower.— A tower, 80 feet in height, painted 
in red and white horizontal bands, stands on point Jea, and is visible 
some distance beyond the outer buoy under favourable circum- 
stances. From the tower is exhibited a fixed ivhite light visible in 
clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. It is also a signal station. 

Also at 1^ cables S.S.W. of Chiveve point stands a corrugated tower, 
of iron, 65 feet in height, similarly painted. The Portuguese flag is 
hoisted on the flagstaff on its summit {see sketches of towei-s on 
plan). A small fixed red light is shown from it towards the 
anchorage, to assist boats coming in at night. 

Pilot. — Tug". — There is now a registered pilot in the port, and a 
tug can be obtained. 



* See plan of river Pungue, No. 1,003. There was said to be as little as 11 feet at 
one period in 1894. In May 1897, the best channel was direct from No. 6 to No. 7 
baoy, at which time the depths near Massique point had decreased considerably. 
Buoy No. 5 was in comparatively shallow water. The sand bank at Jea point 
continues to increase. — H.M. Consul, Beira. 



222 PUNGUB RIVBR ; BBIRA. [Chap. VI. 

Directions. — If certain of the vessel's position a course may be 
shaped for the outer buoy ; otherwise it is advisable to make the 
sand hills to the northward of the entrance and then steer to the 
southward, at a distance of 5 to 6 miles from the shore, and keep in 
not less than 7 fathoms. When the sand hills cease, a good look out 
should be kept for the outer buoy. 

The outer buoy is a fairway buoy, visible about .5 miles, and 
should be approached between the bearings of N.W. and W.S.W. ; 
this will keep a vessel clear of the banks which extend for a long 
distance on either side off the shore. 

On nearing the outer buoy, the land will gradually become visible, 
as before stated, also the tower on point Jea. 

Pass the outer buoy close-to ; thence steer to leave the red buoys 
on the port hand, and the black buoys on the starboard hand ; 
Nos. 2, 3, 4 and .5 are red buoys, and Nos. G and 7 are black buoys ; 
for their positions, see the plan. Northward of No. 5 buoy the 
channel is more subject to change ; it is stated that the best water is 
nearer Massique point in the rainy season than in the dry.* In 
keeping towards Massique point, particularly on the flood, care must 
be taken to avoid the spit extending southward of it, there being 
nothing to guard it. The bottom is, however, soft, and will probably 
do no damage. From abreast No. 7 buoy, course may be steered for 
the anchorage off the town. The stream sets obliquely across the 
course from about abreast and within No. 6 buoy. Springs run at 
the rate of 4 to 5 knots and neaps from 2 to 3 knots. 

Above Beira the navigable channel is winding, and the banks 
and crossings are continually changing, thus rendering it inadvisable 
to attempt ascending without local knowledge. See river steamers, 
p. 226. 

BEIRA. — The town of Beira is situated on Chiveve spit, a low 
sandy point forming the east side of the entrance to the Pungue 
river. It has become a port of considerable importance as the gateway 
to the rapidly developing territories being opened up by the railway, 
and is the capital of the territory of Manica and Sofala, administered 
under charters from the Portuguese government by the Moscambique 
Company. The governor resides at Massakessi (Ma9eque9e), about 
40 miles westward of Chimoio. See Railway, p. 224. 

* See plan of Pungue river, No. 1,003, and footnote, p. 22\. 



Chap. VI.] DIRECTIONS.— TOWN.— SUPPLIES. 223 

The town is nearly an island at high water, and during springs 
and freshets is sometimes inundated, and was in danger of being 
washed away ; but the construction of a breakwater on piles has 
served not only to prevent further encroachments of the river, but 
also to restore some of the lost ground. A wooden bridge over 
Chiveve creek connects the Custom house with the railway terminus. 
At low water the town is surrounded by swamps of black mud. 
The land about the settlement of Bangue, nortli-eastward of it, is 
under water during high river at spring tides. 

Population. — The non-native population of the town, in 1896, 
numbered 778 : 192 were British subjects ; natives 2,350. 

Landing" Stagre. — There is a substantial wooden landing Avharf , 
293 feet in length by 82 feet in breadth, connected with the Custom 
house. There is a steam crane and other cranes on the wharf. Rails 
from the wharf run to the various sheds and are connected with 
the railway. The water alongside is only deep enough for lighters. 

There is also an iron pier 400 feet in length, with a T head 100 feet 
by 36 feet, with a depth of 24 feet alongside the head at low water. 
It is connected with the railway. 

Anchorages, — The anchorage for men-of-war is just off Chiveve 
tower in about 5 fathoms ; and for merchant vessels, jnst oft' the 
entrance of the creek, above the men-of-Avar anchorage, in the same 
depth. 

Supplies. — Fresh f)rovisions are procurable in limited quantities ; 
some vegetables and friiit are brought from the Buzi river, where 
Portuguese colonists have settled and are thriving. See p. 226. 
Canned provisions of all descriptions can be procured, but prices are 
high. Beira has three hotels, and Fontesville two. There is a 
hospital at Beira containing 14 beds. There are several steam 
launches and lai'ge lighters available for the discharge of cargo. 

Game of all sorts abound on the banks of the river ; buffalo, 
quagga, wild pig, buck, geese, ducks, quail, and the koran or lesser 
bustard. Alligators and hippopotami are numerous in the river. 

"Water. — The want of good drinking water has been provided for 
by the use of a number of large galvanized iron tanks, in which the 
water is stored during the rains. 

Trade. — The principal exports are india-rubber, beeswax, ivory, 
hides and ground nuts. The country is said to be capable of 

See plan of Pungue riyer, No. 1,003, 



PUNGUB RIVER ; BBIRA. [Chap. VI. 

producing coffee, cocoa, cotton, wheat, and of carrying quantities of 
cattle. Coffee is found wild on the banks of the Govuro and near 
the Zambezi. 

The Imports are cotton and dry goods, beer, wine, spirits, furniture, 
corrugated iron and wood for building purposes. The future of Beira 
largely depends on the success of the gold mining operations of 
Massikessi and in those parts of Mashonaland to which the railway 
has access. 

The exports from Beira in 1895, amounted in value to £12,420, and 
the imports to £142,170, and in 1896 to £17,9.50 and £302,140, 
respectively, the latter increase being largely due to the importation 
of railway materials. 

RAILWAY.— Telegraph. — There is railway communication 
from Beira, via Fontesville, 35 miles, and Chimoio, 153 miles, 
to Bandoola, 175 miles ; works are in progress to complete it to 
the border. From the present terminus (1896) goods are conveyed 
by waggons to Umtali and fort Salisbury. The distance from 
Bandoola to Umtali is 52 miles ; fort Salisbury is about 127 miles. 
Beira is connected by telegraph with Cape Colony, &c., via fort 
Salisbury. 

Shipping". — 178 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 227,986 tons, 
visited the port in 1896, of these 106 were British. 30,080 tons of 
cargo were landed. 

Mails. — The British India vessels, monthly from Bombay, via 
Seychelles to Delagoa bay, &c., call at Beira both going and returning. 
The Deutsche Ost Afrika vessels, every three weeks from Aden to 
Natal, call at Beira both going and returning. A branch steamer of 
this line runs to Chinde and Kiliman ; also to Parapat, Mozambique, 
and Innamban when sufficient inducement offers. 

The Messageries Maritime run a steamer monthly from Diego 
Suarez in Madagascar, to Mozambique, Beira, Delagoa bay and back, 
connecting with the steamers of the company calling at Mauritius, &c. 
There is another French line of steamers via West African ports. 

The Rennie Co.'s vessels every three weeks from Natal to Kiliman 
call here. 

The Mozambique Company has organized a tri-monthly service 
between Beira and Sofala, Chiluan, &c. ; and Mashonaland, via the 
Beira railway, and Sena on the Zambezi. 



See plan of Pungue river, No. 1 .003. 



Chap. VI.] COMMUNICATION.— CLIMATE.— TIDES. 225 

Climate. — From April to August fresh S.E. and South winds 
prevail ; and from October to March N.E. to N.W. winds. 

The climate is not worse than other East coast settlements. From 
October to April there is heat and heavy rain, while during May the 
country dries up and every one leaves who possibly can ; for the next 
four months the weather is almost pleasant and health improves. 
Mosquitos, flies, ana other insects make the night miserable during 
the hot wet season. 

The average temperature at Beira in 1895 was 75° ; maximum 94°, 
minimum 58° ; maximum variation in 24 hours 34°. 

The average height of baromeier was 30*05 inches; maximum 
30*48 inches, minimum 29*62 inches. The rainfall was 95 inches ; 
greatest in 24 hours was 9 inches, that of the previous year was but 
5 inches. In 1896 the rainfall appears to have been only 34 inches, 
and the greatest fall in one day 3 inches. See weather table, p. 594. 

During the stay of H.M.S. Brisk, June to August, the climate was 
very pleasant, maximum temperature being 80°, minimum 60°. The 
nights during these months were cold and very damp, heavy mists 
and fogs hanging over the river, and not clearing away until between 
8 and 9 in the morning. 

Light Souiherly to S.E. breezes prevailed but calms were 
frequent. The sea breeze blows with a force of 4 at times. 

Tides and tidal streams. — It is high water, full and change, 
at Beira town, at about 5h. 10m., and at the outer buoy about an hour 
earlier, springs rise about 17 feet. 

The tidal streams are very strong, especially when the river is 
high ; as much as 5 knots at springs have been observeu at the 
junction of the Pungue and Buzi, Considerable caution is necessary 
when entering on the flood, especially after passing No. 6 buoy, for 
the stream sets strongly on to the bank oflE Massique point, and a 
vessel may be swept on shore before the strength of Ihe stream is 
recognized. A point and a half on the course has occasionally to be 
allowed to counteract the effect of this stream and keep the vessel in 
the centre of the fairway. 

At Beira the flood stream was found to run for only four hours 
during springs, and about five at neaps, and there was no time of 
slack water between the change of the streams at springs. 

See pUm of Pungue riveii No. 1,Q0S. 
SO 11977 P 



226 PUNGUB RIVER ; BKIRA. [Chap. VI. 

At Mapanda, about 43 miles above Beira, it was high water about 
six hours after Beira, the stream only running up for about one hour 
each tide ; the rise and fall being about 18 inches at springs and 
9 inches at neaps. This was during July, the middle of the dry 
season. 

Height of river. — The rise of the river is similar to that of the 
Zambezi, page 241 ; it begins in December or January and attains 
its maximum about March, when it begins to fall, reaching its 
minimum about the end of August, and remaining so until October 
or November. 

Above Beira the river is navigable for vessels of about 4 feet 
draught during high river (see above) for about 100 miles, and during 
ordinary low river for about 50 miles ; but at times, during very 
low river, it is only navigable to Nhamacade point (abreast Naves 
Fereira), by canoes, except at near spring tides. Vessels of about 
9 feet draught can ascend about 12 miles. 

Fontesville, or Fontesvilla, on the western bank, 35 miles above 
Beira, has a railway station. The line crosses the river by a wooden 
bridge. 

Neves Fereira, about 9 miles by the river above Fontesville, is 
a Portuguese military station, and so are also Mapanda and Sarmento. 
Mapanda is in about lat. 19° 23' S. 

Small steam craft ply on the river between Beira and Fontesville. 

There are several tugs, many lighters and sailing launches 
employed in the river trade. 

Buzi or BuziO river, which discharges westward of Massique 
point, west point of entrance to the Pungue, is said to be navigable 
for vessels of 9 feet draught for a distance of 25 miles. There is a 
Portuguese military station half a mile abos'e the village of Jobo, 
about 15 miles above the entrance. 

The steam cutter of H.M.S. Magicienne in about October 1891 
ascended to about 10 miles above Jobo, and could get no further for 
want of sufficient depth of water. 

At 2 miles above the entrance the land is elevated a few feet above 
the swamp, and is never flooded. Five miles up, the land is culti- 
vated, and there are a number of native villages. The natives are 
peaceable and industrious, cultivating manioc, rice, and bananas. 

See plan of Pungue river, No. 1,003, 



Chap. VI.] ZAMBEZI DELTA. 227 

Some Portuguese colonists who have settled on the Buzi, have 
succeeded well with wheat, sugar cane, Ceara rubber and various 
vegetables. Brick making is a flourishing industry. 

COAST. — From the Pungue river to a small river in lat. 19° 29 ' S., 
a distance of 37 miles, the coast is slightly elevated and bounded by 
a range of low sandhills ; these at about midway are somewhat 
noticeable, there being a number of sharp pointed hills resembling 
pyramids, about 200 feet in height. 

These are or were conspicuous by being almost devoid of vegetation 
whilst a thick jungle prevails around. From the river mentioned, 
to the west entrance of the Zambezi the land is lower. Several 
streams discharge along this coast. 

WEST LUABO (Luana) RIVER,* between Kirk and Ord 
points, is 1^ miles wide. At Ord point, the eastern side of entrance 
the trees commence and thickly clothe th€ eastern bank. This river 
may be known by a range of hummocks on its eastern side, and very 
low land to the south-westward. 

The West Luabo has frequently been taken for one of the mouths 
of the Zambezi, but it has been ascertained to have no communication 
with that river, unless it be by small creeks. It pursues a zig-zag, 
course for about 20 miles with not less than 2 fathoms in the channel, 
above which it does not appear to have been sounded. 

Thornton river runs into the West Luabo from the westward, at 
about 25 miles from its mouth. 

The bar extends more than 2 miles from the shore, and had in 
1861, from 3 to 6 feet at low water, and 16 or 17 feet at high water 
springs ; but, like the mouths of the Zambesi, it would be subject to 
considerable change. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 4h. 30m. ; springs 
rise from 12 to 15 feet. The streams of ebb and flood run regularly 
in the river from 1^ to 2 knots. 

ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

General remarks. — The Zambezi is a river subject to great 
fluctuations of depth. During the rainy season it floods, the water 
rises from 15 to 20 feet, sweeping down with great rapidity, and fills 
all the valley. 

* See plan of the mouths of the Zambezi, No. 2,865. 
SO 11»77 f 2 



228 THE ZAMBEZI DELTA. [Chap. VI. 

At the height of the dry season the stream is reduced to channels 
of water winding between dry sandbanks, with here and thei-e 
shallows, which even a draught of 18 inches can scarcely pass. The 
channel of one year or at times even of one week becomes a bank 
the next, and there is no permanence in either direction or depth of 
the navigable passages. 

The river has a large delta, through the several mouths of which it 
discharges to the sea. This delta may be said to comprise the 
Milambe, Inhamissengo or Kongoni, East Luabo, Muselo, the 
Chinde, the Inhamacatiua, entered from the Chinde, and the 
Inhamhona. 

All of these have bars which change in depth from time to time. 

The large body of water which runs out of the mouths during the 
rainy season, combined with the continued heavy ocean swell, so alter 
the positions of the several bars, and even cause islands to form and 
wash away, that the entrances are never two seasons alike, and 
should never be attempted without a pilot, or tirst sending a boat in 
to sound. 

The bars will probably have a maximum depth from the end of 
February to early April, when the river is in high flood, and a 
minimum depth from September to early November, especially the 
latter portion, the end of the dry season. Details of each bar are 
given separately. 

Navigability. — Vessels of about 10 feet draught can ascend the 
Delta about 25 miles, as far as Mchenga,* 5 miles above the junction 
of the Chinde with the main stream, at all times of the year ; and 
vessels of 4 feet draught, except with an exceptionally low river, can 
ascend to the Dutch house in lat, 17° 55' S. In February and 
March (high river), vessels of 5 feet draught, that can steam 
10 knots, can go up to Tete, about 300 miles, or to the rapids, 20 miles 
above it ; also* up its tributary, the Shire, to Katungas, also about 
300 miles, but not without occasionally getting aground, and there 
is the possibility of being detained until the next rise of the river. 
It is not recommended for vessels above that draught to attempt 
either of these rivers. After March the river falls rapidly. 

See chart of the Lower Zambezi and Shire, No. 1,577. 

H.M.S. Redbreast, drawing 13 feet, ascended by the Chiude to within a short 
distance of Mchenga (September 1890) with great difficulty on account of the 
narrowness and tortuousness of that river. See plan of Zambezi and Shire rivers, 
No. 1.577. 



Chap. VI.] NAVIGABILITY. 229 

Vessels of 18 inches draught only can navigate to the rapids 
about 20 miles above Tete, or to the Murchison falls on the Shire, at 
all seasons of the year ; but with a very low river (November) there 
may not be sufficient water even for these. See Inland Navigation, 
page 237. 

Best moutll. — To within the last few years the Kongoni mouth 
was considered the inost practicable, but attention was in 1888 called 
by Mr. D. Rankin to the Chinde mouth (p. 233), which, on 
examination, proves to be the best entrance and is now used by all 
vessels entering the Zambezi. 

In the following pages the entrances will first be described, and 
then the characteristics and details of the river, and of its important 
tributary, the Shire, which falls into the main river at about 1 10 miles 
from the sea. 

The DELTA. — Aspect. — The land forming the mouths of the 
Zambezi is low, the tops of the trees nowhere exceeding from 
50 to 80 feet in height, and the similarity of the appearance of the 
different mouths renders it somewhat difficult to distinguish them. 
The East Luabo, the main and straightest entrance, was formerly the 
most easily distinguished, from its being nearly 2 miles wide, whilst 
the others are mostly narrow ; it lies also between two comparatively 
lofty and densely wooded points {see view on chart 2,865) ; the bar, 
however, extends about 3| miles off-shore. 

The Chinde light structures on Mitaone point, the fiagstaffs and 
the houses at the Concession, &c., now easily identify the Chinde 
entrance. 

The Delta, with the exception of the Chinde, is but sparsely 
inhabited owing to a large portion of it being some feet under water 
when the river is in flood, especially at or near spring tides. Small 
villages and clearings exist on the higher grounds, some of the 
dwellings being on piles ; above the junction of the Chinde the land 
becomes higher, better populated and cultivated. 

Depths in the approach. — The lead is of much assistance when 
approaching the Delta of the Zambezi, the depths decreasing from 
20 fathoms at about 25 miles off,. to 7 fathoms at about 4 miles, 
whence the depths decrease regularly to the bars of the rivers, which 
are from 2 to 3^ miles off-shore. 



See chart of the Lower Zambezi and Shir^, No. 1,577 



230 THE ZAMBEZI DELTA. [Chap. VI. 

Tides. — Current. — The tidal rise in the mouths of the Zambezi 
is about 12 feet at springs ; this amount is reduced to about 5 feet at 
Mchenga, situated about 25 miles above the entrances and 5 miles 
above the junction of the Chinde ; the time of high ' water at 
Mchenga is 2^ hours later than at the mouth of the Chinde, or 
6h. 50m., full and change. 

At about 5 miles above Mchenga there is. no rise of tide, but 
the effect of the flood tide in checking the stream coming down the 
river is sensibly felt for many miles above, probably as far as 
Expedition island. Above this there is a constant down stream, 
varying from 1^ to 3^ knots, according to the season. 

MILAMBE MOUTH of the Zambezi lies 6 miles eastward of 
the West Luabo (which river has not, as far as is known, any 
connection with the Zambezi), and 3^ miles westward of the 
Inhamissengo, which it joins about 5 miles above its mouth. Its 
entrance appears to be choked with sandbanks, but it has not been 
examined. 

INHAMISSENGO (KONGONI) MOUTH* lies midway 
between the west and east Luabo, and, with the exception of the 
Chinde, p. 233, is the best known entrance to the Zambezi. All trade 
now goes by the Chinde, and the buoys have been removed. This 
mouth extends about 12 miles in a not very winding course to the 
northward, with depths of from 2 to 5 fathoms ; here it forks. 

Madredane, the eastern branch, is only 10 yards wide in places, 
trending sharply round the north end of Monguni island ; it is 
about 3 miles in length, at which distance it connects with the 
Zambezi ; it is said to have a depth of two fathoms at low water, 
but the channel is tortuous and there are many snags in it. 
H.M. gunboat Mosquito passed through it in 1893, with some 
difficulty, owing chiefly to the overhanging foliage. It was by 
this branch that the expedition under Dr. Livingstone entered the 
Zambezi. 

The western branch, named ithe Doto, is very shallow and but 
seldom used ; it enters the Zambezi opposite the Chinde. 

H.M.S. Mosquito ascended this branch for about 5 miles in October 
1893 where she anchored. From here, lake Sakasse and the village 
of Zuere on its west side were visited. The path is across swamps. 



* Sfie plan of the mouths of the Zambezi, No. 2,865. 



Chap. VI.] INHAMISSENGO MOUTH. 231 

The banks of the lake are high and well wooded, the water clear 
and good to drink. Fish were plentiful in the lake. It is within a 
few miles of the west bank of the Zambezi. 

There is a boat channel within Inhamissengo bar, named the 
Inhangurue, which communicates with the East Luabo 3 or 4 miles 
from its mouth. The Mosquito passed through in November 1894 
(low river) in not less than 5 feet at low water ; it is subject to 
change. 

Bar. — The Inhamissengo is fronted by sandbanks and breakers 
to the distance of 1^ miles, at which distance they are connected by 
a narrow sand ridge, with depths of 2 to 5 feet at low water springs, 
or 14 to 17 feet at high water springs, the greater depth usually being 
found during the height of the rainy season, about March. A steam 
vessel drawing 12 feet water has crossed the bar, which at times is 
possibly available for vessels up to 15 feet draught. In 1893, it was 
reported that there was a depth of 19 feet at high water springs. 
It is unbuoyed. See general remarks, p. 227. 

The settlements, created in 1881, at the south-east corner of 
Inhamissengo island, have been abandoned, since the diversion of 
trade to the Chinde. 

Only one house, that of the ov/ner of the Prazo, was standing in 
1893 of the settlement of Conceigao, 10 miles above Inhamissengo, 
but the gardens contain quantities of oranges and lemons. Guinea 
fowl and wart-hog abound, and also small leopards. (Lieut. Carr, 
H.M.S. Mosquito, 1893.) 

Outer anchorage. — The most convenient anchorage off the bar 
is with the gap in the land bearing North, in about 4^ fathoms, sand ; 
but except in fine weather vessels should lie farther out. The 
current generally sets to the westward, causing vessels at anchor to 
lie broadside to the usual S.E. wind, and to roll considerably. 

Directions. — Vessels proceeding to the anchorage off the Inha- 
missengo should make the East Luabo first, unless certain of their 
position, as its entrance is more easily discernable from its much 
greater breadth. Having made that mouth, steer to the westward 
along the coast, keeping in 4 or 5 fathoms, until the entrance is 
identified, whence anchorage should be taken up as above directed. 
If wishing to enter the river, the bar, which is subject to alteration, 
must be examined before doing so. 



See plan of the mouths of the Zambezi, No. 2,865. 



232 THE ZAMBEZI DELTA. [Chap. VI. 

In crossing the bar a probable westerly set must be guarded 

against. At low water the surf breaks right across the bar, and the 

channel cannot be distinguished. Within the bar the channel 
deepens. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 4h. 30m. ; springs 
rise about 12 feet. The ebb tide at springs runs 4 to 4^ knots in the 
entrance. 

EAST LUABO, known also as the Zambezi, is 1| miles wide in 
its entrance, and is the widest outlet of the Zambezi river. 

First Bluff point, on the western side of entrance, so called from 
its high straight trees standing very close together, and Hyde Parker 
point, on the east side of entrance, which from the view on plan 
No. 2,865, is a remarkable object, coupled with the wide entrance 
between them, afford the means of identifying it. 

Bar. — The shallow water around the mouth of the East Luabo 
extends about 3^ miles seaward of the entrance. The sea at low 
water breaks completely across the passage, at which time a great 
portion of the banks are uncovered ; it is said to be impracticable 
during the dry season. 

The east bank has a few straggling villages, visited by the Mosquito 
in October 1894, that of Timbue has a considerable population ; cocoa 
nuts and mangoes were plentiful. The river has considerably 
altered from that shown on the plan. The vessel apparently did 
not attempt the bar. 

In the rainy season the river frequently overflows its banks at 
springs, but the waters do not remain up more than three or four 
days at a time. The water is fresh down to the bar with the 
ebb tide. 

MTTSELO MOUTH, about 10 miles eastward of the East Luabo, 
and between it and the Chinde, has some sandy cliffs on its north- 
east side, which may assist in identifying it ; about 10 miles from its 
mouth it joins the East Luabo. The bar is situated about 4 miles off- 
shore, and when examined, some 30 years ago, it was stated to be 
impracticable for boats even in ordinai'y weather, there being a heavy 
surf on the only spot where a channel appeared practicable. 

The channel within the bar was examined by the Mosquito in 
October 1894, and was found -to have but 3 feet at low water in 

See plan of the mouths of the Zambezi, N o. 2,860. 



Chap. VI.] CHINDE RIVER. 233 

one place (dry season). The vessel does not appear to have 
attempted the bar. The banks are thickly wooded and no villages 
were seen. 

CHINDE RIVER,* now the best entrance to the Zambezi, is 
about 20 miles in length, between its entrance, and its junction with 
the Zambezi. Foot point, the south point of the entrance is low, 
with some trees and scrub on it ; here the river is about 7 cables 
wide. Mitaone, the north point of the entrance, lies 1^ miles 
eastward of it. 

The entrance is fronted by sandbanks over which at times the sea 
breaks heavilj^ to the distance of 2 miles ; at this distance is the 
bar which usually has a depth of about 6 feet at low water springs, 
affording a depth of 1.5 feet at high water neaps and 18 feet at high 
water springs, but the depths and direction of the best water are 
constantly shifting, and therefore not to be depended on. The depth 
in September, 1896 (towards the end of the dry season and the usual 
period of least water) was IH to 14 feet at high water. It is impera • 
tively necessary that the bar should be examined before entering. 
See remarks, p. 227, 228. 

Within the bar the depths increase to 3 and 4 fathoms ; abreast 
Foot point and westward past the settlement, the river is at least 
half a mile wide, gradually reduced to about 4 cables abreast the 
west end of Mitaone island, 3 miles above. 

From thence, to about one mile above Sombo, or 13 miles above 
the entrance, the river is about one cable wide, with sufficient depth 
at all times for vessels that can cross the bar. Above this distance 
the river is much narrower, and the depths are only from 6 to 8 feet 
at low water in places. At its junction with the Zambezi, the bar 
there has from 8 to 10 feet at low water. 

LIGHTS. — Two^rrerf white lights are shown from iron structures 
on Mitaone point ; the inner or northern one is possibly visible 
about 10 miles and the outer one 7 miles in clear weather. The inner 
light structure is an iron framework painted red, with white lantern, 
and lies North from the outer light structure, which is an iron 
column with a masonry base. 

Beacons. — Buoys. — Two small poles are erected on Mitaone 
point, westward of the lights ; the inner one has a white disc on it. 



See plan of river Chinde, with view, No. 1,421, 



234 THE ZAMBEZI RIVER. [Chap. VI, 

These poles in line are supposed to lead in the best water when 
within the black and white buoys. 

From latest reports, a red buoy in 15 feet marked the fairway 
at about half a mile seaward of the bar, with the lights in line. 
Within the bar, a black buoy marked the edge of the reef on the 
port hand, and a white buoy that on the starboard hand on 
entering. 

Caution. — The lights, buoys and beacons are not to be 
depended on. 

Pilot. — The services of someone acquainted with the state of the 
bar may possibly be obtained at the Concession, but too much 
reliance must not be placed in him. 

Directions. — Anchorage. — The land in the neighbourhood of 
the Chinde mouth is low, and similar to that at the other entrances 
to the Zambezi, but the structure of the inner light, painted red, with 
white lantern, was seen from H.M.S. Barrosa about 16 miles, and 
is therefore a good mark ; the somewhat conspicuous sandhills, 57 feet 
high, on the north side of Inhamhona river, 2^ miles north-eastward 
of the Chinde, as well as the white flagstaff, 8ti feet high, at the 
Concession will be identified on a nearer approach. See sketch 
on plan. 

Having identified the entrance, steer in with the light structures in 
line bearing North, anchoring in about 4 fathoms, about 3 miles off 
the lights, and three-quarters of a mile outside the outer buoy. 
From this position, a boat must be sent in to sound the best water 
into the river, failing to obtain a pilot. (From the latest reports, 1897, 
the best water over the bar was with the light structures in line 
bearing North.) The best time to enter is from three-quarter flood 
to high water. 

There seems to be considerable difficulty in establishing signal 
communication through the flagstaff at the Concession. 

There is good anchorage in the fairway between Foot point and 
Luabo point spit 2 miles above, in depths of 2\ to 4 fathoms, good 
holding ground. Vessels should moor. Strong easterly winds 
render the anchorage off the Concession untenable for small craft, 
but at such times they can shift higher up. 

See plan of river Chinde, No. 1,242, with view. 



Chap. VI.] CHINDB RIVER. 235 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in the Chinde entrance 
at 4h. 30m. ; springs rise 12 feet, neaps 9 feet. These observations 
were made in July. In September the neap tides were found to be 
very irregular, with a range of 1^ to 3 feet. The Chinde is tidal 
throughout, the flood and ebb streams turning about one hour after 
high and low water at the bar, and running at the rate of 2^ to 
3^ knots respectively, at springs. 

Occasionally during neaps there is no perceptible flood stream. 

Tides in the Zambezi, see p. 230. 

To enter tlie Zambezi from the Chinde.— There is depth 
enough at all states of the tide for a vessel within Chinde bar to 
reach Soihbo, and one mile beyond ; but if proceeding into the 
Zambezi she should time herself to reach Sombo about an hour or 
more before high water, as the river above has depths of 6 to 8 feet 
only in places at low water, and is very narrow. Vessels of about 
150 feet in length once committed to the upper part of the Chinde 
must continue on into the Zambezi, as there is no room to turn. 
The bar abreast the junction with the Zambezi had, when surveyed, 
from 8 to 10 feet at low water and not less than 14 feet at high 
water neaps, with the large tree westward of old Chinde village 
bearing S.W. Thence the turn into the Zambezi northward was 
sharp round the spit extending from the north point, the channel 
between it and the bank in mid-channel of the Zambezi being only 
about 30 yards wide. The deep water here in the Zambezi was 
along the eastern bank. The Redbreast (September, 1890) anchored 
just above the junction in 4 fathoms, but had to shorten in when 
swinging to the tidal stream. These remarks apply to that time. 

Inhamacatiua river enters the Chinde between Maria and 
Fremantle points ; about 5 miles up it is joined by the Inhaombe 
from the north-westward. 

H.M.S. Mosquito, in October 1893 (low river), entered the 
Inhamacatiua, from the Chinde, with a rising tide, and, without 
difficulty, reached the Zambezi at Juau, about 6 miles above the 
Chinde junction, thus avoiding Sombo. This route is said to be 
1| hours shorter than by the Chinde, but the depth was as little as 
3^ and 4 feet in places. 

The Inhaombe was also ascended for some miles, to just above the 
village of Samakota ; here the stream nearly dries at low water 

See plan of river Chinde No. 1,242, with view. 



236 THE ZAMBEZI DELTA. [Chap. VT. 

springs, and the trees overhang the curves, which are very sharp. 
About 12 miles above it ends in a swamp. 

The stream, situated about one mile westward of Fremantle point, 
was also examined, and up to its junction with the Inhamacatiua 
was found to be deep and sufficiently broad in all places for the 
Mosquito ; by this stream, the flats in the mouth of the Inhamacatiua 
are avoided. 

PORT OHINDE settlements.— The Portuguese settlement of 
Chinde is established on Foot point, with barracks, flag staff, look- 
out house, custom house, and a detachment of soldiers, black, under 
a commandant. With the British Concession it forms now a large 
European settlement. 

Westward, and adjoining the settlement, is the British Concession, 
with flag staff, buildings, &c. {see also p. 9) ; it has a river frontage 
of 437 yards, and extends across to the shore of the ocean. Con- 
siderable improvement has been effected here since it was made 
over in 1892 ; a portion of the marsh has been drained, and groins 
built to protect the foreshore, and an attempt, unsuccessful as yet, 
to create a small dry dock. The river shore line at the Concession 
is said to be continually falling away. 

A representative of the Administration resides here, who has 
under his orders a guard of soldiers. The seaward portion of the 
Concession is allotted to British trading companies ; there were 
J 9 Europeans here in 189o. Goods in transit for Central Africa 
may be landed and re-shipped here free of Customs duties. 

It is comparatively healthy and a short stay here frequently 
benefits people who have suffered from malarial fever in the interior. 
This is mainly due to the bracing sea breeze. 

Chinde, and Chiromo on the Shire may be considered the head 
quarters of H.M. gun vessels Mosquito and Herald, 

The village of Sombo is situated about 12 miles above Foot 
point, and the old village of Chinde 20 miles above, at the junction 
with the Zambezi. 

Trade. — The trade at the Concession consists in the transport of 
goods to British Central Africa. There are practically no goods 
imported into the Protectorate except at port Herald and Chiromo 
on the Shire, and Kota Kota on Nyasa. In the year ending March 
1896, the value of goods sent to port Herald amounted to £1,970, to 



See plan of river Chinde, No. 1,242, with view. 



Chap. VI.] CHINDE RIVER. 237 

Chiromo £69,800, to Kota Kota £490, and to the AdminiBtration 
£11,000. Total imports £82,760. The value of the exports amounted 
to £19,668. See also p. 9. There are three or more British and 
one German firms doing steam transport on the Zambezi, with their 
head quarters at Chinde. At least one steamer leaves Ghinde every 
week for the interior. 

The journey from Chinde to Chiromo is against the stream, and 
occupies about six or seven days ; to Katungas occupies two days 
more. For river steamers, see p. 239. 

Supplies. — Dock. — Provisions are fairly abundant. There are 
two tugs at Chinde. Small repairs to engines up to 60 H.P. are 
undertaken by the African Lakes Corporation and Sharrer's Zambezi 
Co. There is a small patent slip at Sombo, where a vessel of 50 tons 
can be hauled up. 

Malls. — The " Deutsche Ost Af rika " branch line from Beira to 
Kiliman, &c., call here every three weeks ; in connection with their 
main line service, every three weeks, up and down the coast. 

The British India vessels call at Kiliman, both going to and 
returning from Delagoa bay. 

A trading steamer of Messrs. Rennie & Sons, from Natal to 
Kiliman via other ports, calls every three weeks. See also p. 15. 

Telegraph. — Chinde is connected with Kiliman via Sombo, 
where the line crosses the river. The telegraph line from Sombo 
is led along the left bank of the Chinde and Zambezi, as far as the 
Leak, there it forks, — one branch following the right bank of the 
Ziu-Ziu to its mouth at Inyamgona point ; from thence it continues 
along the left bank of the Zambezi to abreast Tete, thence across to 
Tete. Also from Inyamgona point across to Sena. Tete will be 
(about June 1897) connected with Salisbury, &c., in the Chartered 
Co.'s territory. 

The other branch continues along the left bank of the Shire to 
Chiromo and thence to Chikwawa. Blantyre, Zomba and Fort 
Johnston are connected with this telegraph line. 

INLAND NAVIGATION.— General Remarks.— The Zam- 
bezi is only navigable by steamers of very light draught of water, at 
all times of the year ; at low river anything over 18 inches draught 
may ground in places. As stated on p. 228, it is navigable by 
vessels up to 5 feet draught during high river, or about February and 
March. For the Shire, see p. 253, 

See chart of the Lower Zambezi and Shire, No 1,577. 



238 THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

The navigation is blocked by rapids some 200 miles above Tete, 
or about 320 miles from the sea. 

Pilots. — The only pilots on the river are natives who have 
served on the African Lakes Corporation's steamers. The navigation 
is entirely by the eye. 

Anchorag'e. — Vessels or boats seeking temporary anchorage are 
recommended to anchor usually well out in mid-stream in preference 
to near the banks ; but in early May a good look out must be kept 
for the large masses of grass, resembling floating islands, which are 
brought down by the stream, especially in the lower part of the 
Shire, as not only are they liable to trip the anchor, should one foul 
the cable, but there are often snakes among the grass. At this time 
anchorage should be sought well under the lee of a bend. 

Anchors should be sighted about every 10 days when the river is 
in flood, otherwise they get buried. 

Tracking" the boats along the river banks is possible for short 
distances in most places above the Delta during low river. 

Natives. — The natives near the banks of the Zambezi are usually 
friendly and ready to trade, but opposite Tete the country away from 
the banks is, or was, in an insecure state. 

Supplies. — Fowls and game are fairly plentiful ; goats may 
occasionally be obtained, but fruit and vegetables are scarce. On 
the Shire, goats and fowls are to be procured at times, but they are 
very scarce. The stations of the African Lakes Corporation afford 
the best supplies. The river water, after being filtered, is always 
good for drinking ; but it should be first boiled. 

Wooding' stations.— Firewood is supplied to H.M. gunboats by 
the British Centi'al African Administration. 

Masongwei, the Dutch house, supplies wood for fuel as it is cut on 
the Shupanga side (Zambezi). 

On the Shire, wood can be supplied at Masanji, just below 
port Herald, lat. 16° 49' S., and at Chiromo the naval depot. 
Above that wood is cut and sent off as required, when the river is 
navigable. 

See chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] INLAND NAVIGATION. 239 

The African Lakes Corporation have trading stations at the 
Concession in the Chintle, and at Chiromo and Katungas on the 
Shire, whence there is a road via Blantyre, to Matope and Mpimbi on 
the upper Shire, see p. 258. 

Steamers on the Zambezi. — The following is from the latest 
information at hand {see p. 264 for steamers on lake Nyasa, &c.) : — 

British. — H.M. gunboats Mosquito and Herald on Zambezi and 
Lower Shire — stern wheelers, with a load draught of 
2 feet 6 inches ; can lighten to 2 feet. 
The African Lakes Corporation has six or more steamers 
on the Zambezi — viz., James Stevenson^ a stem 
wheeler, 90 feet in length with a draught of 3 feet, 
and 40 tons capacity ; the Bruce and the Scott, 
smaller stern wheelers ; Lady Nyasa, a paddle ; and 
the Princess, a new stern wheeler of veiy light 
draught, sent out in 1896 ; also 23 steel barges. 

The Sharrer's Zambezi Traffic Company have for the 
Zambezi and Shire, the Centipede, stern wheeler of 
30 tons ; the Scorpion, of 20 tons ; John Bowie, 
paddle steamer, of 20 tons ; 2 screw launches, and 
17 steel barges. 

The African International Flotilla Company have the 
Cameron, stern wheeler, of 35 tons ; the Argonaut, 
a stern wheeler, of 30 tons ; a screw steam launch, 
and 5 steel barges. 

Mission steamer, the Henry Henderson, paddle. 

German. — The Bismarck, belonging to Deuss, Verten & Co. 

Portuguese. — There are five or more Portuguese gunboats on the 
Zambezi. 

In the twelve months ending December 1895, 109 steamers, 
360 barges, 169 boats, and 178 large canoes, entered and discharged 
at Chiromo. 

To develop transport by road past the cataracts, and thus connect 
the river service below with that above, the African Lakes Corpora- 
tion have sent out with the three new steamers (1896) a powerful 
traction engine and several goods waggons, pending the construction 
of a railway alongside the Murchison cataracts on the Shire. 

See chart, No. 1,577. 



240 THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

Gensral directions. — Owing to the constant and rapid changes 
which occur in the navigable channel of the Zambezi, no permanent 
directions of any value can be given ; islands form and wash away 
and channels which have been known to exist at one time,- may, be 
found to have disappeared a month later ; the navigable channel 
bears no proportion in the dry season to the width of the river, 
which varies, below Sena, from a half to over three miles, and is 
in places studded with islands. The channel crosses and re-crosses 
from bank to bank, rendering the distances traversed in many places 
quite double to that shown by the chart. In these crossings the 
"•hannel is always shallower than where it takes the direction of the 
•inks, but the worst portions are usually pretty clearly defined. In 
calm weather there is a peculiar boiling up of its water, and when 
the wind is blowing up the river, as it usually does, the ripples on 
the shallows are more marked than in the deeper water, and similar 
ripples or breakers mark the edge of the shallow bank above. These 
ripples are almost the sole guide of the pilot. 

As a general rule, by keeping on the outer side of the bends of the 
river, and avoiding the points, most of the shallow places will be 
avoided, as in all river navigation. At a crossing, keep well up 
towards the upper sand bank, more especially when descending the 
river ; the vessel may ground on this bank with impunity, as the 
current will wash her off, but should she ground on the lower bank 
it means hours lost in laying out anchors and heaving her off. In 
this case her head must be got up stream as soon as possible. 

Commander H. J. Keane, late of the Herald, remarks : — "The 
constant change is not confined to the river bed ; the banks are 
continually being fretted away by the combined action of the wind 
and water, so that huge masses of earth are constantly falling into 
the stream, to be carried away and deposited in some position that 
will astonish the navigator, who, steaming with a certain amount 
of confidence down a channel that he has found to be fairly per- 
mane))t, suddenly discovers it blind, and finds himself aground. On 
a fine calm day the experienced eye may detect it before too late, 
but such knowledge is only to be obtained by hard experience of a 
trying description." 

Snagrs are plentiful in the Chinde, Zambezi, and Shire, and are a 
constant source of anxiety, as each year's flood brings down fresh 



See chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 241 

ones, and to add to the difficulty if they are 2 feet below the surface 
there is no sign of them. They are more numerous in the Shire 
above Chiromo, than below. 

Higrh river. — The first rise in the Zambezi, after low river, 
begins with the lesser rains in November ; it attains its maximum 
about the end of December or the beginning of January ; 13| feet 
(the maximum) was registered at Tete on 17th January 1889. The 
river then falls a few feet, until succeeded by the great rise, which 
takes place after the river has inundated the interior, and is at its 
highest at Tete in March, amounting usually to about 20 feet above 
low river. The rise is sudden, and the water is highly discoloured 
and impure, but still good for drinking purposes, and the current 
runs down at the rate of 4 to 5 knots, but in a very few days 
after the first rush, it resumes its usual rate at Tete, of about 
2 knots. Lower down, the maximum is 3^ knots. The Zambezi 
water at other times is almost chemically pure. In April the river 
is falling. The rise in the Shire occurs about same time as the 
Zambezi, but it differs at times, depending on the rains in the 
districts from which the rivers flow, see p. 242. 

Low river. — The general character of the waterway during the 
dry season, after June, is comparatively deep reaches, separated by 
shallow bars, the position of and depth on which varies from season 
to season, depending on the lowness of the river and the effect of 
the previous flood. Thus, while at some seasons a vessel of 3 feet 
may possibly pass, in another 18 inches is none too little. 

More or less permanent shallow places are found in the Zambezi, 
even nearly down to its junction with the Chinde, where there may 
not be more than 2^ feet, but more particularly between its junction 
with the Shire and Tete. From the month of August to early 
November, for about 15 miles above the junction, and again in a 
portion between Sena and the Lupata gorge, the river is hardly 
navigable for anything drawing over one foot. The flats in the 
Zambezi above the junction of the Shire are avoided by ascending 
the Shire to the Ziu-ziu, a connecting channel between the two 
rivers, and re-entering the Zambezi by it. 

The Shire also, particularly in the Elephant marsh northward of 
the Ruo, is shallow, the depth being not more than 2 feet at the 
same period. See pp. 253,-254. 

See chart, No. 1,577. 
SO 11977 Q 



242 . THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

The early part of the dry season, April and May, naturally affords 
more water in the channels than during the other months of that 
season, but these are the most unhealthy. 

In the Zambezi the current in the dr^'- season is from 1^ to 
2 knots, and in the Lower Shire from | to 1^ knots. 

Winds. — The wind blows from the southward, up river, nearly 
all the year round in the daytime. 

Climate and Rainfall. — The valley of the Zambezi is reached 
by the lesser rains late in October, when the sun is passing south- 
ward ; these diminish or cease altogether in December, when at 
times there is a partial drought. The heavy rains usually begin 
when the sun, returning northward, is in the zenith, about the 
middle of Januarj", and continue to the end of March or the 
beginning of April. There are light rains in the months of May 
and June. The remainder of the year is dry. 

The rainfall near Tete is from 33 to 36 inches, though as little as 
19 inches was registered in one year. 

April and May are probably the most unhealthy months in the 
Zambesi and Shire, when, the rain, having ceased, the action of 
the sun on the decaying vegetation is most active. February 
and March, the height of the rains, and November, the period 
of greatest heat, are also unhealthy. The Delta of the Zambezi 
and the lower valley of the Shire, particularly in the neighbourhood 
of the Morambala and Elephant marshes, bear the worst character, 
and the mosquitos are a terrible plague. The upper valley of the 
Shire, above the falls, and lake Nyasa are less unhealthy, but the 
climate is always trying to Europeans. For these districts, see p. 261. 

The report from H.M.S. Herald, 1891, on the health of the several 
places is as follows : — " Katungas, a very unhealthy locality. 
Ghiromo, very fair. Vicenti, severe attacks of malarial fever at all 
seasons. Chinde river, no marked unhealthiness, but chills are 
dangerous. 

The Chinde was healthy and free from fever in September and 
October 1890 ; maximum temperature 75°, minimum 68°." 

Temperature. — At Tete, on the Zambezi, the greatest heat is in 
February, 103° being registered in the shade ; it is coldest in July, 
about 72°, and in November it is about. 84°. Between Tete and the 



<fe. chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] CLIMATE AND RAINFALL. 243 

coast, in February, the temperature ia about 98° at noon, and 80° at 
night. On the Shire, below the Murchison falls, in September it is 
at times about 100° in the shade, but November is usually the hottest 
month. For Blantyre, in the highlands, and lake Nyasa, see p. 261. 

Personal care of health. — Flannel should be worn next the 
skin by day and night ; if other clothes are worn during the day the 
change to flannel should be made before sunset, as there is a con- 
siderable lowering of the temperature during the night, especially 
about July, the coldest time of the year. 

The head and spine should be effectively protected ; the former 
preferably by a well ventilated pith hat ; the spine should be 
protected by an extra thickness of flannel down the back of the 
shirt ; flannel waist belts are recommended. 

Sleeping in draughts, opposite a windsail or open port, should be 
avoided, or a chill may result, followed perhaps by fever. As a rule, 
sleeping on deck is not recommended, but if indulged in the whole 
body should be well covered up, and exposure to dew especially 
avoided. Damp clothes should be removed as soon as possible. 

In malarious regions mosquito curtains are a great protection, 
beside acting as a protection against noxious insects, and they 
minimise the danger of exposing the body during sleep ; moreover 
sleep is scarcely possible in some portions of the river, more 
especially near the swamps in the Shiie, without such protection. 

The three or four hours before sunrise are those in which pre- 
cautions are most needed on account of the liability to chills ; 
everyone should be under cover at that time. It is just then, 
when temperature has reached its minimum, that sleep is most 
refreshing. 

Excess in eating and drinking should be avoided ; all meat should 
be well cooked, and the drinking water filtered before use. The river 
water both in the Zambezi and Shire is perfectly good ; the water, 
when the rivers are in flood, is turbid, and if left to stand, throws 
down a certain amount of deposit, but it is always good when 
filtered. Water from wells should be avoided, but if used should 
be boiled. The practice of freely yielding to the sensation of thirst 
is to be deprecated, as leading to excessive perspiration, which 
saturates the clothing and predisposes to chill. 

Ste chart, No. 1,577. 
SO 11977 Q 2 



244 THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

Extreme moderation in the use of spirituous liquors is earnestly 
recommended. Active employment is necessary for everyone em- 
ployed in malarious rivers, as fever almost invariably attacks first 
those who lead a sedentary life. 

Quinine, in two-grain doses, three or four times in the twenty-four 
hour, in notoriously malarious districts, is recommended. 
These are the most effective measures against fever. 

Sir John Kirk remarks : — " The best rule for health for men 
employed afloat in the Zambezi is to go to bed early, avoid chills at 
night, have a cup of hot tea,' coffee, or cocoa in the morning before 
exposing themselves on duty on deck in the cold morning mists, 
which chill you to the bone, and on no account permit spirits to be 
drunk in the middle of the day. Sunset is the time for the men's 
allowance. Remember that mosquitos are in millions on the Shire; 
I would always anchor in the stream clear of the shore." 

Aspect of river.— Settlements.— (Continued from p. 236)— 
The banks of the various mouths of the Zambezi for the first 10 or 
15 miles are of much the same character, being low and thickly 
covered with trees, the greater portion of which are mangrove jungle. 
At about the junction of the Inhamissengo with the main stream the 
pandanus or screw palm trees begin, many so tall as to resemble 
steeples. The soil is wonderfully fertile,' well adapted to the growth 
of STigar-cane ; rice and many kinds of vegetables are grown ; 
guava and lime trees are also abundant. 

Many huts peep out between the bananas and cocoa-palms on the 
west bank, standing on piles a few feet above the ground, as con- 
siderable portions of the land in the rainy season towards spring 
tides are overflowed for three or four days at a time. 

Chinde and Mchengra villages.— On the east bank, at the 
junction of the Chinde, are the villages of Chinde and Maruga, one 
mile apart ; 5 miles above the latter is Mchenga village. 

Above the junction of the Chinde with the Zambezi, the western 
bank abounds in cocoa-nut palms, and is somewhat higher than the 
eastern one, which is sandy ; the banks of the river continue mostly 
of sand, with but few trees, until within about 20 miles of Maruro, 
and it is possible to track boats in most places. 

Mazaro (meaning the mouth of creek), in lat. about 18° 4' S.. is 
situated at the mouth of a creek, which, during high river, about 

See chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] SETTLEMEXTS. 245 

February or March, admits of the passage of boats from the Zambezi 
to the Kwa Kwa or Kiliman river (see Mopea, below) ; during the dry 
season the bottom of this creek or canal, about 30 yards wide, is about 
16 or 17 feet above the level of the Zambezi. The Barabanda, about 
5 miles below the mouth of the Shire, also connects the Kwa Kwa 
with the Zambezi during the same period. 

Abreast Mazaro the Zambezi is about half a mile wide, and the 
view is a magnificent one ; the river is studded with islands, the 
sides of which are clothed with grass and shrubs, with many a 
creeper and convolvulus. On the opposite bank is the Shupanga 
country, well wooded, and the. home of the monster baobabs, many 
of enormous thickness. 

At Maruro, situated just below Mazaro, the bank of the river has 
washed away considerably of late years. Mopea is considerably 
nearer the river than formerly, and it is believed that the time is not 
far distant when it will be on the banks of the Zambezi. 

Vicenti is situated about four miles above Mazaro. 

Mopea and Marendere. — Mopea is situated nearly 3 miles from 
the left bank of the Zambezi, on the Kwa Kwa, a branch of the 
Kilima'n river, about 80 miles above Kiliman town, and is in connec- 
tion with it by telegraph, via Sombo. 

A portion of the Kiliman trade with the Zambezi goes via Mopea. 
In the dry season there is just enough water at Mopea for the 
smallest canoes ; at this time the goods brought up from Kiliman in 
lighters and canoes have to be unloaded at Marendene, a few miles 
below Mopea, where there is deeper water in the river. Thence the 
goods are conveyed by porters to the banks of Zambezi, a distance of 
about 6 miles, either to Vicenti or to Mazaro, whence they are 
distributed by river steamers or canoes to the trading stations up 
river. The transport from Kiliman to the Zambezi occupies from 
3 to 5 days. 

Shupanga is situated about 8 miles above Mazaro, on the opposite 
bank of the Zambezi. In the forests at Shupanga the mokunda- 
kunda tree is found ; it makes good boats' masts, and yields a strong, 
bitter medicine for fever ; the gunda trees here attain an immense 
size ; its timber is hard, and the large canoes used on the Zambezi and 
Kwa Kwa, capable of carrying 3 to 4 tons, are made of its wood 



, ^e chart, No. 1,577, 



246 THE ZAMBEZI, [Chap. VI. 

India rubber, calumba root and indigo are plentiful in the district. 
Wood for fuel is collected here ; the African ebony and lignum vitse ; 
the latter of which sometimes four feet in diameter, are the most 
suitable. 

At Shupanga lie the remains of Kirkpatrick, of Owen's surveying 
expedition of 1826, and of Mrs. Livingstone, who died here 
in 1862. The immense baobab that formerly shaded the graves has 
fallen. Some 5 miles inland are the Shupanga hills, from 300 to 
400 feet in height. The country abounds with game. For about 
2 miles above Shupanga, the west bank is rocky and steep, with a 
few rocks at a short distance from it. Above this both banks are 
about the same height as below, and are about 20 feet above the river 
in July. 

The Zambezi above the junction of the Shir^.— 
General remarks. — Between Shupanga and Sena, the river is 
exceedingly interesting and picturesque ; it is also considerably 
wider than below and studded with islands, dividing the river into 
several channels, all of which are shallow. 

That portion of the Zambezi between the mouth of the Shire and 
about 20 miles above, is, in the latter part of the dry season, only 
available for light boats ; the best route then is to proceed up the 
Shire a short distance, to the Ziu Ziu, thence by that stream back 
to the Zambezi and up to Sena. 

The Zambezi is also very shallow between the Ziu Ziu and 
Tete, the river being 3 miles wide in places, consequently the 
water is spread over a great width of sand bed, with reedy islands 
between the channels ; from September to early November, one 
portion of the river between Sena and Lupata is hardly navigable to 
anything drawing over one foot. 

The following information relating to the Zambezi, above the 
junction with the Shire, is from Lieut, G. S, Carr, commanding 
H.M. Gunboat Mosquito, 1891, This is supplemented by a few 
remarks of Dr. Livingstone, where the ground is not covered. 

Depths. — Above Senora Maria's (situated about 3 miles below the 
entrance to the Shir6, on the Zambezi) the channels become some- 
what intricate and very winding, but there was plenty of water for 
H,M. Gunboats on the 26th January when they passed up, 

■8»e chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] ABOVE THE JUNCTION OP THE SHIRE 247 

Kaia (lat. 17° 39' S.).— Here there is a substantially-built brick 
house with corrugated iron roof. The owner does a fair amount of 
trade in ground nuts and produce generally. 

Between Kaia and Casquetis, about 8 miles above, the water shoals 
considerably, and it is at this part that the river becomes blocked 
during the dry season. 

At Mutaruro (Inyamgoma point), west point of the entrance of 
the Ziu Ziu, there is a wooding and trading station the owner of 
which has built a large stone house at the summit of a hill, 

"Wood can be obtained here, and there are generally a few natives 
working as goldsmiths, turners, &c. Mutaruro, owing to its greater 
accessibilty takes almost all the trade which formerly passed through 
Sena. 

Sena, one of the principal Portuguese stations, is situated on a low 
plain on the west bank of the Zambezi, with some detached hills in 
the background. It is now quite unapproachable except at very high 
river, and it is preferable to lie at Nyassereri, 6 miles above, and to visit 
the town from there. Dr. Livingstone (in August) remarks : " being 
unable to take the launch up the shallow channel in which Sena 
stands, we anchored at Myaruka, 6 miles below, and walked up." 

Sena has greatly fallen away, even since last visited (May 1893). 
The streets are all overgrown and the whole town gives one the 
impression of desolation and decay. 

The fort is badly in need of repair. Sena is connected with the 
telegraph system. 

Nyassereri. — The road from Nyassereri to Sena is good, except 
after heavy rain, when about 1^ miles of it is converted into a swamp. 
The fort at Nyassereri is falling into decay. 

"Wood can be obtained in small quantities by arrangement with 
the natives, but as the locality belongs to the Companhia da 
Mo9ambique, it is necessary to ask permission from the manager 
before cutting the wood. From Nyassereri to Inyakarenga, 5 miles 
above, the river improves there being better water throughout ; 
snags, however, demand attention. 

Above Inyakarenga the river rapidly widens, but it is thickly 
studded with islands and navigation is difficult to about 10 miles 

&* chart, No. 1,577. 



248 THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

above Guengwe (somewhere above Maria Pia, lat. 16° 41|' S.). In 
fact this is about the most difficult part of the whole river to pilot 
through. 

The scenery improves. The banks are higher, the hills on each 
side form a picturesque background and both sides are thickly 
wooded and abound with game, guinea-fowl, and pigeon. Between 
Inyacarenga and Guengwe there are some stockaded tax- collecting 
stations, namely, Shimbwa, lat. 17° 12' S. ; Shimiara, Nkuesa, and 
Maria Pia, before mentioned. 

These positions, locally known as '^ Aringas" are seemingly used 
as safe resting places for boats to stop at when the country is in a 
disturbed state. 

Above Maria Pia the river begins to get narrower and deeper as 
the Lupata gorge is approached. 

ShigOg'O is situated below the gorge. 

Lupata gorge. — The gorge is a natural cutting through or 
between the range of hills on either side, into which the river is 
compressed into a narrow but deep channel. 

The scenery is very fine, having very much the characteristics of 
the Cumberland lakes. The current was very strong (February) 
certainly over 4^ knots, and in some places more. H.M. gunboats 
going at full speed were in some places only barely making headway. 
This was probably due to a flood as the river had risen 4 feet during 
the previous night. 

Dr. Livingstone remarks : *' A strong current sweeps round the 
little rocky promontories of Chif ura and Kangomba, forming whirl- 
pools and eddies dangerous for the clumsy native craft which are 
tracked past with long ropes ; heavy-laden canoes take two days to 
track through the gorge. The current above the gorge is stronger 
than that below, probably running about 2 knots at this season, 
(August) that below being assumed to be about 1^ knots. In the gorge, 
the current ran about 3 knots and the launch steamed through with 
ease." 

SungO. — Immediately above the Lupata gorge on the east bank is 
the Aringa of Sungo. Here is a small fort with 14 Goanese soldiers. 
A small stock of coal is kept here for the use of the Portuguese 
gunboats. 

See chaxt, No. 1,677. 



Chap. VI.] LUPATA GORGE.— TETE. 249 

From Sungro to Tete the passage is easy and the channel deep, 
in some places 30 feet for 2 or 3 miles together. 

At Masangano there is a fort constructed of stone and about 
200 feet in length on its river face. 

Luenya or Shirena river (lat. 16° 25' 8.). — An attempt was 
made to proceed up this river, but about 2 miles above its confluence 
with the Zambezi it was blocked by large sandbanks, with insufficient 
water for the gunboat to pass, though every portion was examined. 
This was all the more provoking as the natives informed me 
(Lieut. Carr) that a few miles on, the river narrowed and became 
deep, and from the point where the Mosquito grounded the narrows 
could be seen. 

Muarese river. — On the east bank, and about 5 miles below 
Tete, is the Muarese or Mirarazi stream ; coal has been found in the 
valley through which it discharges into the Zambezi. The country 
inland here is insecure. 

Tete ( or what remains of it) stands on a succession of sandstone 
ridges on the west bank of the Zambezi, which is here about half a 
mile wide. Shallow ravines, parallel with the river form the 
streets. 

Out of the sixty or so houses constructed of stone and brick, barely 
a dozen are in a state of repair. The streets are full of grass, the 
bridges over the little streams have fallen in, there are barely a dozen 
Europeans in the place, and everything seems to have gone to wreck 
and ruin. There are three forts, two in the last stage of decay ; the 
military force consisting of a captain of Infantry and from fourteen 
to twenty soldiers, all Goanese. 

Communication. — Tete is connected with the telegraph 
system, p. 237 

Supplies. — Wood is procurable, but rather high in price. There 
is none kept in stock. (In future one hundred yards will be kept 
here for H.M. gunboats exclusively.) 

The water in this part of the river is very turbid at this season 
(January and February) and it is advisable to distil sufficient water at 

See chart, No. 1,577. 



251} THE ZAMBEZI. [Chap. VI. 

the end of each day's run for the needs of the morrow, as filtration 
appears quite insufiBcient, the water being full of suspended matter 
though doubtless pure otherwise. 

The supply of drinking water for Tete is mainly drawn from a 
well in an island about a mile distant, but it is not clear or pleasant 
looking. 

Livingstone remarks : " The mango tree flourishes here and the 
fruit is plentiful between November and March." 

Revuke or Refubwe river, opposite Tete.— Coal.— This river 
was explored as Car as Inyamakaze (Diorite rapids) about 4 miles, 
where progress was stopped by a reef of rocks and a cataract. 

The river is very narrow and the current strong and the bottom 
soon becomes stony and dangerous to ground upon. There are 
several large villages on the south bank. Close to Inyamakaze is a 
large coal mine, and the river being navigable up to that point the 
coal could be easily transported to Tete in barges for shipment. No 
attempt is being made to work the mines. 

This coal when tried on board H.M. gunboats gave the most 
unsatisfactory results, no doubt due in a great measure to the form 
of furnace, but it does not seem to be adapted for steaming purposes. 
Possibly when coal is obtained some distance from the surface the 
quality may improve. (The Consular Report on Kiliman, for 1894, 
states that it is reported to be of fair quality, see p. 277.) 

Broma. — Above Tete the country begins to be more hilly and the 
river is narrower and in some places 60 feet deep. At Broma 
(lat. 16° 2' S,) is the mission of St. Jose. A large stone house is in 
process of construction at the summit of a small hill about 150 feet 
high. Here there are four priests and five sisters of charity. The 
liouse is quite the largest in the whole district of Zambezi, its 
dimensions being 127 by 60 and 50 feet high. At the foot of the 
Broma hill is the little church and close by it the house appropriated 
to the sisters and their little girl pupils. Both just above and below 
Broma there are rocks in mid-channel, but ordinary care is all that is 
necessary to avoid them. 

Sanguru or Panzo as it is generally known has a fairly large 
Aringa (stockaded station) and stands on the south side of the 
entrance to the river Mavusi. The entrance is 45 yards wide and 
about 7 to 10 feet deep (February). 



See chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] BROMA.— RAPIDS. 251 

Freshets.— Caution.— While H.M. gunboats were lying here a 
strange thing occurred, the knowledge of which may prevent future 
accidents of the same kind. 

Both gunboats were lying close to the bank, Herald being highest 
up, a fine though cloudy day and the current in the Mavusi barely 
running \ knot. At 5 p.m. without any previous warning the rain 
commenced, the river began to flood and in less than an hour had 
risen six feet and with at least a 6 mile current, carrying trunks of 
large trees and large masses of reeds with it. 

At 6*45 the Herald parted her cable and was swept out of the river 
into the Zambezi where she managed to bring up with her other 
anchor until steam could be got up. 

H.M.S. Mosquito was driven into a reed bed with a soft bottom 
and before the current had abated sufficiently to heave her off, the 
flood subsided even more rapidly than it had risen and left her high 
and dry. Next day the ship was lightened and preparations made to 
dig her out. However, at 5 p.m., and in just the same manner, but 
with far decreased current and force the river rose again and with 
the united efforts of 150 natives, both anchors, and steam, she floated 
off safely having been aground 21 hours. 

The natives say that such a thing as two floods on two succeeding 
days is most rare. 

The Zambezi was rising at the time and would have floated the 
Mosquito about five days later. 

Karugre river. — Above Sanguru there are but few villages. At 
Karuge river is Matakenya village, and between that point and 
Kebrabasa rapids only a few scattered huts. 

The river Karuge was explored for about one mile when the water 
shoaled suddenly to 2 feet and further progress was svopped. 

Pandua Mokua.* — The country between Tete, and Panda Mokua, 
about 86 miles above, where the navigation ends, is well wooded and 
hilly on both banks of the river. Panda Mokua is a hill 2 miles 
below the rapids, capped with dolomite containing copper ore. 

Rapids.* — Above Panda Mokua are the Kebrabasa or Chinaronga 
rapids. The lower one of these, when seen in November (low river), 
had a fall of 20 feet in a distance of 30 yards. During high river 

* Livin^slione. /See chart, No. 1,577. 



253 THE ZAMBEZI ; VICTORIA FALLS. [Chap. VI. 

these rapids are said to disappear, and the river is then half a mile 
wide, but at low river the rapid rushes through a gorge only from 
40 to 60 yards wide. These rapids extend nearly to Chiceva, a 
distance of about 40 miles ; in descending one of these Dr. Kirk 
nearly lost his life. During high river these are said to be smoothed 
over. 

Navigation above tlie rapids.* — The river is therefore im- 
passable for 40 miles, implying a portage to that extent ; above 
Chiceva the river becomes navigable, and remains so with only one 
or two rapids that are not of a nature to stop navigation until within 
30 or 40 miles of Victoria falls. This upper reach is more navigable 
than the portion between Sena and Tete, and can be made use of by 
vessels of 2 to 2^ feet draught. There are two rapids that would 
require a little study, but with these two exceptions the river is safe. 

Lieutenant Carr, February 1894, remarks as follows : — "At Kebra- 
basa rapids the river suddenly narrows and runs between high rock 
walls and about 60 yards apart. The current at this time of year 
(February) being exceedingly strong — so much so that H.M.S. Mos- 
quito going full speed could barely make headway. The water 
literally " boils " over, bursting into large bubbles over a foot high 
and making it very difficult to distinguish between the rocks and the 
deep water." 

" Above the first reach the river narrows again and bends sharply 
to the south-westward, with rocks scattered about in every direction. 
Perhaps a very strongly-built craft with powerful engines might 
advance above this point, but the chances of her coming down in 
safety would be very remote. The bottom and sides are rocky and 
the least error or accident with helm or engine would mean disaster, 
especially to a vessel whose bottom is of very thin steel only. If 
the thing be possible the best time to attempt it would be in May 
when the river has commenced to fall ; the diminished current 
would give a vessel a chance to steer and steam, but a sudden fall in 
the river, a matter of frequent occurrence, would condemn her to 
remain above the rapids for a year." 

Victoria falls* (about lat. 18° S., long. 26° E.) are separated by 
an island into two portions, the whole measuring about one mile in 
width. The river thus divided drops into a deep chasm from a 
height of 350 feet, causing a vapour to ascend which has caused it to 
be named by the natives the Mosi-ao-tanya, or smoke sounding. The 

♦ Livingstone. See charts, No8. 1,577 and 597. 



Chap. VI.} THE SHIRE ; GENERAL REMARKS. ^S 

streams rush towards one another in the chasm, producing a fearful 
boiling whirlpool ; it thence rushes through a zigzag gorge, apparently 
not more than 20 or 30 yards wide, situated at right angles to the 
fissure of the falls, beyond which it expands into the upper reach of 
the Zambezi, but is not navigable for some 30 or 40 miles helow, as 
before mentioned. See Approximate Distances on river, p. 259. 

The SHIRE.* — Navigability. — The Shire enters the Zambezi 
about 110 miles above its Diouth,in about lat. 17° 44' S., long. 35° 23' E., 
at about 5 miles above Saddle hill, which is 655 feet high, and 
2 miles above Shimoara village. 

The Shire is navigable for short and handy vessels of 4 to 5 feet 
draught from about early in March to the end of May ; the water is 
falling from about the middle of April. 

Vessels of barely 2 feet draught only can be depended on to pass up 
the Shire during the latter months of the dry, season, September, 
October and November, and possibly in February (when the river 
has fallen after the smaller rains), if the greater rains have not 
commenced. The flats below port Herald lat. " 16° 49' S., and also 
between that port and Chiromo, have only about 2 feet over them in 
those months. The ascent to Katungas can only be made when 
there is an assured rise of 2 feet there, for, should a vessel get caught 
above the flats with a falling river, she possibly might not get down 
again before the next rains. 

Heig'h.t of river. — The tide gauge at Chiromo affords informa- 
tion on the depth in the river in the approach to and above that 
place. The following remarks applied to the river in 1893-94, which 
differed but little from the preceding year. 

A height of 3 feet 9 inches on the gauge indicated a depth of 2 feet 
in the approach to Chiromo from below, and 5 feet 9 inches on the 
gauge a depth of 2 feet to Katungas. 

Port Herald is flooded when the gauge shows 10 feet 9 inches, and 
the northern part of Chiromo when it shows 15 feet. All of Chiromo 
would be flooded at 17 feet.t 

* Information on the Shire, amended from the remarks of Lieutenants H. J. Eeane, 
H.M.S. Herald, Lieutenant A. H. Lyons and Lieutenant G. S. Carr, H.M,S. Motquito, 
1891-2-3-5. 

t On the 16th January 1895, the banks of the Shire were flooded ; the water rose 
to 19 feet 10 inches on the gauge, rendering a retreat of the natives to the hills 
necessary. Chiromo, and Roseberry Park, a station of the Oceana Companj' 
opposite Chiromo, had from 3 to 5 feet of water in the houses, and the country was 
flooded for miles round ; it lasted for 4 days. After the first subsidence, the stench 
arising caused a great increase of remittent fever. — Lieut. Carr. 



254 THE SHIRE RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

On December 1st the water stood at zero, and remained practically 
so until the 10th, whence it rose rapidly to 3 feet 6 inches on the 
13th. falling as suddenly to 1 foot 6 inches, where it remained until 
26th, when there was a similar jump to 4 feet, falling ' again 
suddenly. 

On 1st January the gauge showed 1 foot 9 inches, gradually rising 
to 4 feet on 3rd February, when a sudden rise set in, the gauge 
registering 11 feet 9 inches on 8th February. Thence it fell gradually 
to 4 feet 6 inches on 28th of that month. 

A large and abnormal rise then came, caused by the heavy rains in 
the Blantyre district (and not by water from Nyasa), the gauge 
showing 15 feet 7 inches on 20th March. Thence it fell to 6 feet 
6 inches on 3rd April, and (with the exception of a sudden rise of 
3 feet between the 10th and 13th) gradually fell to 4 feet 6 inches on 
16th May. 

The register was not continued, but the water would stand at 
about that height for some time, and then gradually fall away to low 
river, about October. 

The mouth of the river is rocky and somewhat dangerous, but 
for about nine months of the year the main or eastern channel can 
be avoided by using a channel about 30 yards wide between the islet 
in the mouth and the west bank which is almost free from danger. 
During very low river the main channel must be used, avoiding its 
east side, and giving also the east point, on which the whale-back 
trees are, a good berth before turning up for the entrance. A rock 
in mid-river was dry about 2^ feet at low river, 1890 ; (the channel 
at this period is apparently between it and the islet). 

Dangers.* — Two other places in the Shire also present difficulties 
to its navigation, namely the Leak, and Pinda rapid. The former is 
about 35 miles above the mouth and one mile above the Ziu Ziu with 
which it connects. It is about 80 feet wide here, and at right angles 
to the Shire ; in the dry season the water runs through it with con- 
siderable velocity, and the channel of the Shire being very narrow, 
and running close to the Leak there is considerable danger of being 
sucked down this narrow rapid, and both anchors should be ready. 

H.M. gunboats in the dry season of 1891, found the river blocked 
below Pinda ; they were successful in finding a narrow stream which 
led into the Ziu Ziu and out near Pinda above the obstruction. The 

See chart, No. 1,577. 



Clhapi VI.] GENERAL REMARKS.— DANGERS. 255 

channel was blocked abreast Pinda island in November 1892, and 
the gunboats which were being taken up in pieces, had to be trans- 
ported across Pinda island. 

' The Pinda rapid is about half a mile above the Leak; the 
danger here arises from a sharp turn, and an accelerated current 
caused by the channel being narrowed by a rocky islet. The west 
channel is the navigable one, keeping near the river bank. The 
Portuguese telegraph wires lead directly over the island, and 
seemingly there will be but little space for the funnels of steamers 
at high river. 

The dangers enumerated cause but little anxiety going up against 
the current, but in not hitting them off successfully going down with 
the current. 

Pinda being passed, there is a clear run through the Morambala 
marsh to Shuonga ; the river is tortuous, particularly at the 3 bends, 
but there is plenty of water. 

Morambala mountain, meaning the lofty watch tower, is about 
4,000 feet in height, 7 miles in length, and situated on the east bank 
of the Shire, about 20 miles within its mouth ; it is visible down the 
Zambezi at Mazaro, and is a striking object. The summit of 
Morambala, though nearly always enveloped in mist, is far more 
healthy than the lower Shire valley. 

S bends. — At the head of the Morambala marsh are the 3 bends, 
so called from the succession of very sharp and narrow bends in the 
river ; the water is deep, but when the river is in flood the stream is 
strong, rendering extra care necessary when descending the river. 

Above these bends, the river widens and the curves are less sharp ; 
signs of cultivation which have been absent in the marsh again 
appear, and the country on the right bank is wooded. 

At Shuonga, nearly 60 miles above the mouth of the Shir6, 
a notice board was erected in July 1891, in lat. 17° 5|' S., 
long. 38° 18^' E., and all the territory to the northward on the right 
bank, proclaimed as British Territory. Two conspicuous palmsj rising 
from a small clump form a conspicuous object, one mile north of the 
notice board. The Ruo river, above, is the boundary, on the left 
bank of the Shire. 

See chart, No. 1,677. 



25i6 THE SHIRE RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

Two flats' (only 2 feet over them in the dry season of 1890) have 
to be passed before reaching Port Herald. 

Port Herald or Juan Makanga, the first British settlement on 
the right bank, is a fairly large village, situated in lat. 16° 50' S. 
Wood can be supplied by contract here. The run up from Morambala 
can be made in about 12 hours, so there is no necessity to anchor in 
the ]\Iorambala marsh, which is unhealthy, and where no wood is 
obtainable. . 

Above Port Herald the river loses much of its previous monotonous 
character ; numerous islets are dotted about, and trees with heavy 
creepers overhang the water ; on either hand are ranges of hills, and 
the lofty summit of Chiperone (6,000 feet) commands attention. 
The channel, however, is very shallow ; in September 1891, the 
river steamers drawing 2 feet 4 inches had some difficulty in descend- 
ing ; and in October, H.M. gunboats lightened to 2 feet had to be 
constantly assisted across the flats with warps. The sanie occurred in 
November and December 1 892, when the new gunboats were being 
taken up. 

Ruo river is a tributary of the Shire, and separates British from 
Portuguese territory. On the south point of its entrance rest the 
remains of Bishop Mackenzie, who died here in 1862 from fever 
caught by severe exposure in the wet season ; the grave is marked 
by an iron cross. The Ruo is 100 yards wide and navigable for 
canoes for about 12 miles, where the rapids begin. Railway proposed 
from Kiliman to the Ruo. 

CMroino on the north side of the mouth of the Ruo is a naval 
depot and a wooding station of the African Lakes Corporation. 
Some attempt has been made to lay out building blocks and streets ; 
some Banians are settled here. The waggon road to Zomba and 
Blantyre, via Tuchila river, was expected to be completed in 1896. 

Naval Headquarters. — Chiromo and the Concession in the 
Chinde may be considered the headquarters of H.M. gun vessels 
Mosquito and Herald. Chiromo is connected with the telegraph 
system. 

Katungas. — Above Chiromo the river passes through the Elephant 
marsh and continues shallow ; as before stated, vessels of 2 feet 
draught can only ascend to Katungas on an assured rise of 2 feet at 



Sec chart, No. 1,577. 



Chap. VI.] SETTLEMENTS.— UPPER SHIRE. 257 

that place (see tide gauge, p. 253), and may have to wait an indefinite 
period for another rise which may not come until the next wet 
season. 

Elephant marsll, which begins abreast the Ruo, is most 
unhealthy, and no wood for fuel is obtainable there. Above tho 
marsh there is plenty of wood. 

Ohikwawa, 1^ miles above Katungas, is a station of the Admini- 
stration, whence there is a road to Blantyre, &c. It is connected with 
Chiromo, Blantyre, &c., by telegraph. 

Mulilima (Chibisa's) village, lies about 4 miles above Katungas, 
on the opposite bank, and about 10 miles below the Murchison falls ; 
the Pioneer (5^ feet draught) spent a season here, whilst Livingston? 
was visiting the Nyasa and Shirwa lakes. At a sharp bend above the 
village, the channel is barred by rocks during low river ; Matiti 
village is about 1| miles below the falls, on the western bank ; 
Ramakukan's village is nearly abreast of it. 

Murchison falls begin in lat. 1.5° 55' S. ; there are four principal 
and five minor cataracts, extending over a distance of nearly 40 miles 
of the river, chiefly in a north and south direction, to within 8 miles 
of Matope, lat. 15° 25' S. The lower fall is named Mamvira ; Pampa- 
tamanga fall, about midway, is 500 feet, and the upper rapid, the 
Pampaze, is about 1,500 feet above sea level. 

UPPER SHIRE or Mopango.— Navigability.— Above the 
rapids the Shire is again navigable for shallow draught vessels to 
lake Nyasa, a distance of about 70 miles. Owing to the steady fall 
for some years of the level of the lake, this upper part of the Shire 
carries less water than it formerly had, and in a very dry season in 
places it is scarcely passable for anything but boats. 

One of these places is near fort Sharpe, about 4 miles southward 
of Liwonde, where a series of gravel banks extend right across 
the river, with at times only a few inches of water over them. The 
channel has then to be dug out. 

Two miles above fort Sharpe is a dangerous part named the 
Stones ; here the channel is reduced to about 20 yards of navigable 
water by a reef of boulders which extend from the left bank, and 
by an islet. The best water is close to the islet. The current runs 

^e chart, No 1677. 
SO 11977 it 



258 UPPER SHIRE RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

through this passage with great force. The channel for about half 
a mile above the Stones is obstructed by boulders which, in the dry 
season, stand above water. 

Pamalombe or Malombe lake has from 6 inches of water in a 
very dry season to 6 or 7 feet in the wet season over very soft 
mud ; its northern entrance has at times only one foot water in 
the dry season. There is a similar bar between fort Johnston and 
lake Nyasa. 

Stations. — Matope, a station of the African Lakes Corporation 
is about 3 miles above Pampaze, the upper rapid. Two new 
steamers of this company, for service on the lake and the Upper 
Shire, were put together here at the end of 1896, 

Matope is connected by a good road with Blantyre, a distance 
of 34 miles, and from here a considerable portion of the goods 
brought up the Zambezi and Shire to Chiromo or Katungas are 
re-shipped for transport to lake Nyasa. 

Mpimbi, 6 miles above Matope, is, however, now more used as the 
commencement of navigation, as it is more healthy, and the difficulty 
of navigation between those places is avoided. It is connected by 
road with Zomba, 21 miles, and Blantyre, 42 miles. Here the three 
British gunboats and a German steamer were put together for service 
on the lake. 

Sharpe and Liwonde are stations of the Administration. Liwonde 
is about 4 miles above fort Sharpe. 

Fort Johnston (14° 27' S.),— On the east bank of the Upper 
Shire, about 2 miles from lake Nyasa, stands fort Johnston, the 
military headquarters of the Administration, and also of H,M, 
gunboats. It is connected with the telegraph system, p. 237, On 
the opposite bank is the large village of Mponda. 

The African Lakes Corporation have wooding stations at 
Matope, Malawi, and Liondi on the Upper Shire. 

Shire highlands. — Blantyre.— In the Shire highlands is 
Blantyre, the head mission station of the Established Church of 
Scotland ; it is situated in lat. 15° 47' S,, long, about 35° 4' E,, 
3,000 feel abov^e the sea, and 28 miles by road from Katungas on the 
Shire, The town is a picturesque little settlement of some 
30 European houses in the centre ol the coffee-planting district, 

See chart, No. 1577, 



Chap. Yl.] 



SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 



259 



surrounded by plantations and beautifully situated beneath the hills 
in a well wooded country. The climate is remarkably healthy, 
see p. 261. 

In the highlands around Blantyre are several sub-mission stations, 
at Zomba, and elsewhere ; the African Lakes Corporation have estab- 
lished a station at Mandala, close westward of Blantyre, for the 
development of commerce and agriculture. Buchanan Brothers 
and others are growing coffee for exportation, see products p. 260. 

Zomba. — The British Commissioner resides at Zomba, 39 miles 
northward from Blantyre. It is connected with Chiromo and 
Blantyre by a road suited for wheeled traffic ; also by good roads 
with Milanje and Domasi. 

Mails and Telegrraph. — Blantyre, Zomba, and fort Johnston are 
connected by telegraph with Chikwawa, Chiromo, Tete, Chinde, &c., 
and Kiliman ; they are about to be connected with Cape Colony, (Src, 
via Tete and fort Salisbury. See p. 237. 

Mails are conveyed by road to Chiromo, thence by river steamer to 
Chinde. The southern branch line of the " Deutsche Ost Afrika 
Linie " call at the Chinde every three weeks ; see also p. 237. 



The distances from the sea are very approximately as follows 

Mazaro 

Shupanga 

Junction of the Shire 
Katunga's village on the Shire 
Murchison falls on the Shire 
Sena on the Zambezi 

Lupata gorge 

Tete 

Kebrabasa rapids 

Zumbo, mouth of Loangwa 
Victoria falls 



75 miles 


84 


)> 


.. 110 


»» 


... 265 


5» 


... 280 


J? 


... 140 


>» 


.. 235 


»> 


... 280 


»» 


... 325 


J> 


... 500 


» 


... 950 


>» 



LAKE NY ASA. — General remarks.* — Nyanyjaya Nyanyesi, 
or Lake of the Stars, is about 300 miles in length, north and south, 
from 25 to 35 miles in breadth, about 1,500 feet above sea level, and 
lying between two high ranges of mountains, is subject to heavy 



* See chart of lake Nyasa, southern portion No. 1,678, with plans. 
SO 11977 B 2 



260 ' LAKE NYASA. [Chap. VI. 

gusty winds. Its surplus water is carried off by the Shire over 
cataracts to the Zambezi and thence to the sea, over a distance of 
nearly 300 miles. 

The country westward of the lake, southward of a line joining 
the south end or lake Tanganyika to the north end of lake Nyasa, 
also the western, southern, and the eastern shore as far northward as 
Zirambo bay, form part of the British Central Africa Protectorate, 
for which see p. 8. 

The headquarters of the Administration is at Zomba, p. 259. 

Several mission and trading stations are established on its shores. 

There are. of course, at present very few so-called townships 
in the Protectorate. These are, Chiromo on the Shire, Blantyre the 
capital of the Shire higlilands, and fort Johnston ; of these Blantyre 
is the most advanced. 

Most of the villages of Nyasaland are perched on rocky heights ; 
they are hedged round with palisades, inside which is a mass of 
from 50 to 100 huts. A series of good roads are in course of con- 
struction. A feeling of security and content is also apparent, and 
where only a few years ago the timid people were afraid to stir out 
of their villages for fear of being cast into slavery, they now work 
the land and evince an ever growing confidence in their protectors, 
the British. 

Products. — The principal product is coffee, of which the Shire 
highlands and the Mlanje district are at present the chief seats, both 
admirably adapted for colonization, being from 3,000 to 5,000 feet or 
more in height. The cultivation of the cocoanut palm is capable of 
great development in Nyasaland. The forests furnish a quantity of 
durable timber, and ebony is found in several places, and excellent 
india-rubber is collected. Magnificent cedars grow in the Milanje 
district, and rice grows well on the shores of the lake. Orange and 
lime trees, pine apples, figs, &c., have been introduced with marked 
success ; in fact, the great range of temperature favours the cultiva- 
tion of nearly all the products of the temperate and tropical regions. 
A considerable portion of the country is unhealthy for cattle and 
horses, and there is also a belt in which the tsetse fly is prevalent ; 
fortunately it never appears in the hills or near the rivers. 

Communication is via Zomba ; see p. 259. 

See chart of lake Nj^asa, southern portion. No, 1,678, with plans, 



Chap. Vl.J GENERAL REMARKS.— CLIMATE, RAINFALL. 261 

Climate. — ^Rainfall. — The advantages of Nyasaland are a rich 
soil, an abundant water supply and the healthy climate of a large 
portion of it. Its great value compared with surrounding places 
lies in the preponderance of high land over low swampy country. 
The result of this elevation is a far cooler climate than would other- 
wise be found so near the equator. In the highlands over Blantyre, 
about 5,000 feet in height, and the beautiful Milanje district, even in 
the hot season, the heat is never oppressive, and it is bracingly cold 
in the cold season. 

The average temperature at Blantyre is 50°, the minimum about 40°, 
but on one exceptional occasion it fell to 30° ; the rainfall is about 
56 inches. Fruit and vegetables grow in profusion, and the highlands 
are used as a sanitorium by those of the mission stations in Nyasa 
who require a change. 

December to March or April are the rainy months, while during 
the six following months the sun is almost never darkened by a 
cloud. 

The upper Milanje, about 8,000 feet in height, is very wet, with a 
rainfall of 75 inches, otherwise the climate is perfection. 

In the plains there are unhealthy and malarious districts, but as 
a rule the nights are cool all the year round, whilst from May, 
to August they are quite cold, and hoar frost is often seen in the 
morning. The country as a whole is well watered, only a few of the 
streams drj'ing up in the hot season. On the lake 85° is about the 
mid day temperature for the hottest month (November) of the year, 
while the average night temperature of the coldest months (May and 
June) is about 60°; on rare occasions the temperature has reached 100° 
and been as low as 51°. The wet bulb reads on an average 10° lower. 
At Bandawe on the lake, a rainfall of S6 inches is counted a 
somewhat dryish season. Another authority gives the average 
temperature on the lake in the hot season, as — maximum 93°, 
minimum 80°, and in the cool season, maximum 83°, minimum 65°. 

The barometer on lake Nyasa ranges from 28'20 inches in 
November to 28"70 inches in June ; the diurnal variation is rarely 
more than 0*2 of an inch. 

Sir H. Johnston, H.M. Commissioner remarks: — May is the 
unhealthiest month in Nyasaland, and June is not very good. The 
worst of the rains is over in March, and April is an agreable month, 
cool, but not too chilly, bright sunshine with occasional showers and 

See chart of lake Nyasa, southern portion, No. 1,578, with plans. 



^^ LAKE NYASA. [Chap. Vi. 

without high winds. The unhealthiness of the middle and end of May 
is caused by the strong cold winds from the southward and the drying 
up of the marshes. The main cause of ill-health in tropical Africa 
is catching cold. The cold winds of May produce fever by the 
sudden lowering of the temperature. The rainy season is not an 
unhealthy season except for people who are travelling through a 
country without shelter, and constantly soaked through with rain 
and unable to find a dry habitation. 

Sudden and heavy squalls, with rain, thunder and lightning, some- 
times come from the south-westward, but they seldom last but an 
hour or two. 

The year 1895-6 was an exceptionally unhealthy year for 
Europeans (possibly to be attributed to the unusually heavy rainy 
season). There was an epidemic of malarial fever which equally 
scourged the East coast of Africa and the Zambezi valley. Those 
who dwelt continuously on the Highlands did not suffer much, the 
mortality chiefly occurred on the shores of the lake and in the 
Zambezi valley. The death rate amongst the Europeans rose from 
6'5 to 9*7 per cent. 

Winds. — From March to October, the south-west monsoon period, 
a strong southerly wind blows up the lake, rising at times to half a 
gale, causing a nasty sea and rendering navigation unpleasant in the 
small lake steamers. From October to March, the north-east mon- 
soon period, light northerly winds and calms are the rule ; 
occasionally a strong easterly wind will blow for some days from 
about 3 a.m. to noon, when it dies away. 

During June, July and August, heavy damp fogs hang over the 
river in the morning ; these disperse when the sun is well up. 
They are not often met with on the lake. 

Sketch plans of Chisimulu, M'bampa cove, Kaango, Chisanga, 
Pachia, Sumba, Chikole, Mluluko, Losewa, Chilowelo, and Lusumbwe 
or Monkey bay, all on the lake, are given on chart No. 1,578 ; a short 
account of them is given on the following pages. 

Monkey bay is the safest of these anchorages. In most of them 
the bank shelves steeply, and vessels often drag their anchors with 



See chart of lake Nyasa, southern portion, No. 1^578, with plans. 



Chap. VI.] WINDS. — MISSIONS. 263 

off-shore winds. The eye is sufficient guide for entering these 
anchorages. 

Missions. — There are six missionary societies at work in Nyasa- 
land ; they are given in this list in the Order of the length of their 
connection with this country. 

1. The Universities Mission (founded in 1857-60), which is 
Anglican (with its head-quarters at Zanzibar), occupies the eastern 
shore of lake Nyasa, with its principal station at Likoma island. It 
has also stations on Chisamulu island, and at various points on the 
shore and in Yao country, and one at the south end of the lake. It 
possesses the Charles Janson steamer. 

2. The Livingstonia Free Church Mission, founded in 1875, has its 
main establishment at Bandawe on the west side of lake Nyasa. 
They have stations in southern and northern Angoniland (within 
Bandawe) and in the Konde country, north end of the lake. The 
Mission has various departments of industrial work. 

A great deal of medical work is done by the Free Church Mission. 

3. To the Church of Scotland Mission is practically due the 
founding of the important town of Blantyre. It has two head 
stations, one at Blantyre, the other at Domasi, on the slopes of 
mount Zomba. It possesses a small paddle steamer, the Henry 
Henderson, which plies between Chinde, and Katungas on the 
Lower Shire. 

4. The Dutch Reformed Church Mission, originally a branch of 
the Livingstonia, has been established for some years past in Central 
and Southern Angoniland. 

5. The Zambezia Industrial Mission is settled near Blantyre and 
in southern Angoniland ; they principally instruct the natives in 
agriculture, &c. 

6. The Nyasa Baptist Industrial Mission, started in 1892, is at work 
in the Shire highlands. 

The sphere of the London Missionary Society lies on lake 
Tanganyika and the plateau south of it. 



See chart of lake Nyasa, southern portion, No. 1,578, with plans. 



!264 LAKE N^ASA. [Chap. Vt. 

Steamers on Upper Shire and lake Nyassa, &c.— The 

following is from the latest information at hand (see steamers on 

Zambezi, p, 239). 
British. — Screw gunboats Adventure and Pioneer. Small paddle 
wheel steamer Dove on the Upper Shire. 
The African Lakes Corporation have the Domira, 80 feet 
in length, 4^ feet draught ; the Ilala, 50 feet in 
length and 4 feet draught (formerly belonging to the 
Livingstone Free Church Mission, and the first 
steamer placed on the lake, 1875) ; the Monteith, a 
new stern wheeler of very light draught, for service 
between Matope and the lake ; the new twin-screw 
Queen Victoria, for service on the lake, 1896, and a 
number of boats. (The African Lakes Corporation 
have the Good News steamer, and a large sailing boat 
named the Dawn, on Tanganyika. The British South 
Africa Company have a large iron sailing boat on 
Tanganyika). 
Mission steamer. — The Charles Janson. 

German. — The steamer Hermann von Wissman. 

\ ANCHORAGES.*— General remarks.— The east shore of 
the southern portion of the lake being high and precipitous, has in 
most places deep water near it, while the west shore, which is fiat, 
with the hills some distance back, is fronted by shallow water. 

The east coast, therefore, is the better for navigating, and there are 
numerous coves and anchorages where shelter may be obtained. 
The west coast has shallow water extending from one to 5 miles 
off in places, and there are numerous rocks and sunken dangers 
uncharted which render more caution necessary when navigating it ; 
there are also fewer places of shelter. 

Northward of Bandawe, where both sides of the lake are fringed 
with lofty hills, deep water close to the shore is the rule. There is 
at present no large chart of that portion. 

The following remarks are given as a guide to the several places 
where a craft may anchor, and where wood and water are obtainable ; 
also other points which may be of advantage to those who have to 
navigate the steamers and boats employed on the lake. 

* From Commander C. H. Robinson, 18'JB-y4, late of H.M. {jrunboat Adcenture. 
See charL of lake Nyasa, southern portion, No. 1,578, with plans. 



chap. VI.] ANOHORAGEIS.— SETTliBMENllS. 1^65 

The latitudes given are simply to aflEord a clue to the position, and 
may be many miles in error. 

Most of the anchorages mentioned are unsafe with on-shore winds. 
The chart and plans must be used with considerable caution, being 
only sketch surveys. 

No current. — There is usually a surface drift according to the 
direction and force of the wind, at times amounting to half a knot 
an hour. 

SOUTH SHORE.— Approach to the Upper Shire.— As 
during the greater portion of the year it is impossible to cross 
the bar to fort Johnstone in anything above a foot draught, and 
as there is considerable sea off the entrance during a strong 
northerly breeze, anchorage is recommended off Ndoka's village 
at about 1| miles north-west of the entrance ; here is well-sheltered 
anchorage, in about 7 feet, mud bottom. It is proposed to make a 
road to Mponda's village from Ndoka's, 

Lusumbwe or Monkey bay, about 27 miles north-westward of 
the entrance to the Shire, and about 9 miles from cape Maclear, is 
one of the best anchorages on the lake. 

There is good anchorage near the beach in about 3 fathoms, 
sheltered from all but N.E. winds. Craft may approach it on either 
side of Dimwe island, navigated by the eye. A rock, under water 
during high lake, lies about 50 feet off the west point of the island. 

The two conspicuous houses west of the village belong to the 
Admiralty and African Lakes Corporation. 

Firewood is plentiful ; most vegetables thrive well here. 

Old Livingrstonia lies between the two extremes of Livingstonia 
peninsula, southward of cape Maclear. It is open to the northward, 
but fair shelter may be obtained under Mumbo island in from 3 to 
5 fathoms. 

The anchorage may be approached on either side of Mumbo. 

A supply of firewood is not to be depended on. It was formerly 
the head quarters of the Church of Scotland Mission, since removed 
to Bandawe. The houses of the mission are in charge of a native 
teacher. 

* See plan of Lusumbwe or Monkey bay, on chart, No. 1,578. 



$^d LAKE NYASA, [Chap. Vt. 

Kasangra, about 6 miles south-westward of Old Livingstonia 
(not on chart) affords sheltered anchorage from southerly and 
easterly winds in about 2 fathoms, abreast the village. Fowls, eggs, 
and goat are generally obtainable. 

There are a few villages around the south-west arm, but the water 
is very shallow so that the shore can seldom be approached within 
one mile. 

WESTERN SHORE.- -Maganga, on the western shore within 
the Malere isles is the landing place for the Mvera Mission, 
30 miles inland. It is a poor anchorage, in 2 fathoms, about 
a quarter of a mile off the Mission house, and open to southerly winds, 
which send in a heavy sea. In case of necessity, berth should be 
shifted to a cove at the north end of the nearest of the Malere isles, 
but rocks are numerous and there is but bare swinging room. 

Leopard bay, about 12 miles northward of Maganga, is open to 
all but westerly winds, which seldom prevail. The water is shallow 
and breaks some distance out. Anchor either in the south or north 
corners of the bay, according to the wind. In the north corner 
there is anchorage in 3 fathoms one cable from the beach. Good 
firewood can be cut here. 

Kafura bay, about 10 miles northward of Leopard bay, and just 
within Rifu sandy spit, affords well sheltered anchorage from southerly 
winds, but is open to northerly winds. Anchor in 1;^ fathoms about 
a cable from the shore just within the point. No wood obtainable 
and supplies are scarce. 

Benji islands. — Some shelter may be found under Benji island 
during a southerly gale, in about 4 fathoms, abreast the low neck 
which connects the two hills forming the island. Great caution is 
necessary in approaching it as the island is surrounded by numerous 
rocks, many of which are only just under water. 

Kota Kota (lat. 12° 56' S.), on the western shore, is an excellent 
harbour, but at low lake there is only 4 feet in the channel leading 
to it ; the bottom, however, is very soft mud. In the anchorage 
there is a depth of 9 to 10 feet, about 120 yards from the landing 
place. At 100 yards from the shore, in the middle of the anchorage, 
is a sunken rock with 3 feet over it. Kota Kota island, low and 

See chart, No. 1,578. 



Chap. VI.] WESTERN SHORE ; ANCliORAGlSS, SETTLEMENTS. 26t 

sandy, and an extensive shallow bank, form the eastern side of 
approach to the anchorage from the southward. This is the 
principal place of trade on the lake. 

Bua river, about 13 miles northward of Kota Kota, affords no 
shelter, but wood is sometimes obtainable. 

Loangrwa promontory is low and sandy and forms the delta 
of Loangwa river. Shelter can be obtained on either side of 
it, according to the direction of the wind, but the water is very 
shallow. About 2 miles inland on the northern side of it is Unaka 
lagoon, which during the rainy season overflows and turns the whole 
of the promontory into a mass of swamps and creeks. 

Bana, farther northward, is one of the wooding stations of the 
Administration. 

Karall, about 10 miles northward of Bana, may be easily 
recognised by a small round hill close to the beach, and also by the 
white rocks which form the point. Open anchorai^e, in 2 fathoms, 
will be found at about half a cable off the beach. Firewood is 
obtainable at times. 

Bandawd (lat. 11° 53' S.), on the western shore, is the> head^- 
quai'ters of the Free Church of Scotland Mission, formerly at 
Livingstonia. The mission is situated on the ridge over Bandawe 
point ; it has some 30 schools, with about 80 teachers, in this 
neighbourhood. . .. s;' 

The anchorage is poor and shallow ; with any wind^ except from 
the land, a heavy sea sets into' the bay, often rendering landing 
impracticable for many days. In calm weather there is anchorage 
between the islet and the point, in 1| fathoms, about a cable from the 
beach. 

The African Lakes Corporation have a station here. 

Nkata bay* is a snug little bay, about 22 miles northward of 
Bandawe, well sheltered from all winds except those from the eastward. 
There is anchorage close in to the beach. Wood is plentiful here. 

About 6 miles northward of Nkata there are villages built on the 
islands there. It is reported that the approach to them is encum- 
bered with rocks. 

* See chart, No. 597. Chart of northern portion of lake N^asa will be published 
shortly. 



^6S tiAKE NYASA. [Chap. VI. 

Sisya, some 20 miles northward of Nkata, has rocks, some of 
which are above water, at 1^ miles off. Ruawe bay, just northward 
of the north point of Sisya bay, affords good shelter off the southern 
village, in 5 fathoms, at 60 yards from the beach. If the wind is 
northerly, a berth can be taken at the north end of the bay. Fire- 
wood can be procured here. 

Between Ruarwe and Deep bay, a distance of about 40 miles, there 
are no sheltered anchorages. 

Nkanga or Deep bay. — There are several rocks in the approach 
to Deep bay, some of which are nearly covered at high lake. The 
coast is rocky. There is anchorage in 4 fathoms, 150 yards off shore, 
sheltered from southerly winds only. This is a station of the 
Administration, and wood is obtainable. 

Karonga, about 35 miles northward of Deep bay, is on the 
north-west shore of the lake. It is the scene of the North end war 
with the Arabs in 1888-93 ; now it is a station of the Administration, 
and has a strong, well-built wall, enclosing the houses and com- 
pounds. From here all the goods are despatched for Tanganyika 
and inland stations. 

The anchorage, however, is exposed, with bad holding ground, 
and should not be used longer than necessary. It is a Government 
wooding station. 

It is preferable to proceed round to Kambwe lagoon, where shelter 
can be obtained from all winds, and it is only an hour's walk into 
Karonga. 

Kumbwe lagroon, formed by a sandspit extending off one 
of the outlets of the Rukuru, is an excellent place to shelter 
in, but the great drawback is the want of water. The bottom is, 
however, soft, and a vessel can steam in and make fast alongside the 
sandspit in about 5 feet, low lake. 

From Kumbwe lagoon, round the north shore of the lake, there 
are no sheltered anchorages. In calms, vessels can anchor anywhere 
near the shore ; there are many shallow patches to be avoided, and 
the lead should be kept going when near the shore. 

EASTERN SHORE.— Langenbergr, the head-quarters of the 
German administration in Nyasaland, is situated on a sand spit at the 
mouth of Rumbira river, on the north-east side of the lake, and at the 
base of Livingstone mountains, which rise to a height of 5,000 feet 

* See plan on chart, No. 597. Chact of northern portion of lake Nyasa will be 
published shortly. 



Chap. VI.] EASTERN SHORE ; ANCHORAGES, SETTLEMENTS. 269 

close behind the station. The anchorage is on the northern side of the 
spit, which affords good shelter from southerly winds. The water 
is deep, so that the anchor should be lowered down with about 
20 fathoms of chain, and the vessel backed in until it catches the 
bottom ; then secure the stern to the beach. The German Com- 
missioner's two-storied house is a conspicuous landmark. 

Amelia bay lies about 60 miles southward of Langenberg, and 
is the place from which the ferry used to run to Deep bay on the 
opposite shore. There is anchorage in 4 fathoms, at about 100 yards 
off the village. Kaiser bay is about 20 miles northward of it. 

New Heligroland or Papayi island (about lat. 11° 4' S.), named 
from the number of papayi trees growing on it, is a small island 
covered with the huts of the Wampoto people, who were afraid to 
live on the mainland on account of the former raids. There is 
sheltered anchorage inside the island, in o fathoms, about 60 yards 
off the firewood station. A good supply of firewood is obtainable 
here. 

Between Papayi island and Mpbampa bay numerous rocks and 
islets lie close inshore, most of which have been used as places of 
refuge by the Wampoto people ; their huts in many places appear to 
be only accessible by goats. 

Mbampa bay (about lat. 11° 16' S.), 16 miles southward of 
Papayi island, affords good shelter from all winds, in 4 fathoms, at 
50 yards off the beach. 

Likomo Island. — Mbampa cove (lat 12° 4' S.).* — Good 
anchorage may be obtained in Mbampa cove, east side of Likoma 
island, in about 3 fathoms, off the stone pier. There are rocks, easily 
seen, southward of this position. Likoma is the head-quarters of 
the Universities Mission on the lake, but it is very unhealthy. 

Ollisumulu island.* — There is anchorage in the south corner of 
a bay on the east side of Chisumuln, in about 4 fathoms, but open to 
easterly' winds ; there is a boat harbour in the north corner of the 
bay. It is a station of the Universities Mission. 

A rock is reported by the natives to exist about midway between 
Chisumulu and Bandawe. 

* ^e plan on chart, No. 1,578. 



270 ■ LAKE NYASA ; EASTERN SHORE. [Chap. VI. 

Kaangro* is situated on the eastern shore south-eastward of Likoma 
island ; wood may, be obtained here, but it is exposed to the north- 
ward and westward. There is a depth of 2 fathoms at 1^ cables off, 
according to the plan. 

Ferry. — There is a ferry between Utonga, near Kaango, and 
Bandawe on the western shore, via Likoma and Chisumulu. 

Rye bay. — A spit of sand extending northward from the southern 
shore of Rye bay, affords good shelter within it from southerly winds ; 
there is water enough close in here for the lake craft ; wood is 
obtainable at times. 

Chisangra*, just southward of Rye bay, affords anchorage in 
1\ fathoms at 3 cables off shore, open to southerly and westerly 
winds. 

Pachia, 5 miles southward of Chisanga, has a depth of one fathom 
within a cable of the beach and 2 fathoms at 2 cables, according to 
the plan. Wood and water are obtainable, but no shelter from south 
and west winds. It is a wooding station of the African Lakes 
Corporation. 

Sumba* or Msumba, 6 miles southward of Pachia, has a depth of 
2 fathoms at 1^ cables northward of the south point of the bay, 
according to the plan ; it affords no shelter from the prevailing wind; 
wood is obtainable. 

Luchilunj i or Mtangula, is a fine sheltered bay a little open to 
south-west winds, with the village of Mtangula at its head. It has 
depths of 5 to 10 fathoms, and affords anchorage in 6 fathoms near 
its head. The bank is steep, rendering a vessel liable to drag with 
strong off-shore winds. It was formerly an Arab station. In 
approaching from the northward, a patch with from 4 to 8 feet 
water, situated about half a mile north-west from Mtangula point, 
should be avoided. 

Mluluka* affords fair anchorage in about 5 fathoms, mud, off the 
village. This anchorage is protected on the west and south by 
Danger rocks. 

Losewa,* 4 miles southward of Mluluka, affords anchorage in 
2 fathoms, at about 2 cables off-shore, according to the plan, but is 
open to the southward and westward. 

Mpanji cove, situated at South point, about 14 miles southward 
of Losewa, affords shelter from southerly winds. The Adventure 

* See planou chart, Nq, 1,578, 



Chap. VI.] THE COAST.— LINDE RTVER. 271 

moored here, broadside to beach, with hawser ahead to rocks and 
anchor out on quarter. 

Chilowelo* has deep water close in, there being a depth of 

5 fathoms at about half a cable oft shore ; it is open from south-west 
to north-west. 

Fort Ma^uire (lat. 13° 40' S.) is a military station of the 
Administration. It affords f»ood shelter from southerly winds, 
under the lee of a bank, in 4 fathoms, at 150 yards from the shore. 
There is no landing during northerly winds. 

THE COAST. 

{Continued from page 227.t) 

General remarks. — From the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi the 
coast trends north-eastward about 40 miles to Kiliman river, in Avhich 
space there are several streams. This coast is very low, being 
scarcely ever seen from the deck beyond 7 miles ; it is a little higher 
about 8 or 10 miles south-west of Linde river, and again at Linde 
river, at which place it shows in clumps of trees. A little to the 
southward of this river there are some sand cliffs separated from 
the beach by a long lagoon ; these cliffs are conspicuous with the 
morning sun shining on them. The current along this coast is 
generally S.W. one knot an hoar. 

Close north-eastward of the Chinde, and separated from it by 
Mitaone island, is the mouth of the Inhamhona, and other mouths^ 
which possibly connect with the Zambezi, but we have no infor- 
mation on them. 

The general depths along this part of the coast are 4 fathoms at 
low water at 3 miles from the shore, and from 6 to 9 fathoms at 5 or 

6 miles from the shore, except off the entrance of the rivers. As 
the soundings are but few it is not advisable to hug the shore when 
bound up or down the coast. 

LINDE (Indian) RIVER.— The mouth of this river lies about 
30 miles south-west from that of Kiliman, in about 18° 13' S. 

The entrance is about 2 miles wide between Linde or Sampan- 
guira, its north-east point, and Dehea, the south-west point. Linde 
point is marked by cocoa-nut palms, whilst the vegetation on Dehea 
point is low, with sand southward of it, 

* See plan on chart, No. 1,578. 

t See chart : — River Zambezi to Mozambique harbour, No. 1,810, 



272 KILIMAN RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

Shallow water extends a considerable distance off the entrance 
points. The bar is very short and has a least depth of 6 feet at low 
water springs (1895), but is subject to change. 

A triangular beacon on Linde point, painted white, bearing 
X. 8° W., and in line with an isolated palm southward of the others 
on the point, leads over the bar between the breakers, in the best 
water. There is a large estuary within the bar, with several islands. 

Under Dehea point there is anchorage in 4 fathoms. Here a pilot 
is obtainable for up river : there are depths of 2 to 10 fathoms for 
about 50 miles. 

H.M. brig Singapore, in 1822, ascended the river about 16 miles, 
and the least water obtained was 2 fathoms. The Olinda, a stream 
on the north side of the estuary, apparently was examined by the 
boats of H.M.S. Grecian for a distance of 12 miles ; the depths 
ranged from 10 to 5 fathoms. 

The coast between Linde river and Kiliman is covered with 
vegetation, and there are several low sand hills and reddish looking 
patches ; at about 2^ miles north-east of Linde river there is a low 
but remarkable bluff. The depths decrease regularly towards the 
shore, but this neighbourhood has not been closely examined. 

KILIMAN (Quilimane) RIVER* lies between Tangalane and 
Olinda (Hippopotamus) points, one mile apart ; there was a depth on 
the bar of 11 feet at low water springs, and 23 feet at high water 
spring tides, in July, 1895, but it is not to be depended on ; the 
depths increase within the bar, and there is not less water up to the 
town. 

There are three channels to the town, within the bar, namely, 
the Olinda, Militao, and East channel ; the Militao, the one generally, 
used, is buoyed. East channel has about 20 feet at high water ; 
Olinda channel was the one most frequently used previous to the 
survey of 1885 ; it was found to be obstructed with shoals, and its 
use has been discontinued. 

Aspect. — The land on both sides of the entrance is low, sandy, 
and covered with trees or jungle, the south-west side being rather 
the higher. The light structure, and the flagstaff and beacon on 
Tangalane point, are visible some time before the land, which may 
be safely skirted at a distance of 5 or 6 miles, the outline of the 

* See plan of Kiliman river, with view, No. 650. It does not, however, now 
correctly represent the entrance, 



Chap. VI.] BAfl. — LIGHT. — SIGNALS. 273 

coast being then clearly distinguishable, but as the current is strong 
and uncertain in the neighbourhood, caution is necessary. The 
entrance of the river is conspicuous when open on a N.N.W. bearing, 
the river being wide and nearly straight for 10 or 12 miles ; when 
abreast of it no land will be visible from the deck between the 
points of entrance ; but from aloft, Pequena island, which is about 
4 miles within the entrance, will be seen.* 

LIGHT. — From an iron quadrangular pyramid, with a white 
lantern, 80 feet in height, erected on Tangalane point, is exhibited, 
at an elevation of 105 feet above high water, a fixed white light, 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 16 miles. 

Sigrnals. — ^The lightkeeper has the International code of signals, 
but his interpretation of the signals cannot be depended on. If a 
message is required to be sent, it is better to land and see him, when 
it will be forwarded by telegraph to the town. 

Outer anohLOragre. — A good temporary position is in 5 fathoms, 
with the lighthouse bearing N. \ E., distant 5 miles. For a stay, 
however, it would be better to anchor south-eastward of Tangalane 
bank, as there is said to be less sea and tidal stream and current than 
directly off the bar. 

Pilot and steam tug. — A pilot is obtainable for the river 
between the lighthouse and the town, but not for the bar. A small 
steamer is sometimes available for towing sailing vessels. 

Pilotage dues are compulsory, men-of-war excepted. 

THE BAR is about 4 miles seaward of Tangalane point light ; 
it varies in different seasons, and especially after south-west gales ; 
it should never be attempted without the assistance of a pilot. At 
high water it is generally smooth. 

The bar had a fairway depth of 23 feet at high water springs in 
July, 1895. At about one mile within it, between Cavallos Marinhos 
and the spit extending westward from Tangalane bank, the channel 
is about half a mile wide, widening and deepening within. Abreast 
Tangalane point it is reduced to about 4 cables, but the water is deep. 
Tangalane bank, a portion of which dries at low water, has extended 
south-westward, but its limit is not definitely known. 

* See plan of Kilimin river, with view, No. 650. It does not, however, now 
orrectly represent the entrance. 

SO 11977 8 



274 KILIMAN RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

Beacons. — Buoys. — Two beacons on Tangalane ppint are 
intended to mark the best water over the bar. The outer one is a 
post surmounted by a disc and situated about 2^ cables westward of 
the lighthouse. The inner one, an iron pyramid, lies about half a 
mile N. 11° E. of the preceding. 

At about; one mile northward of the lighthouse are two beacons to 
mark the fairway through Militao channel ; they are about 260 feet 
apart in a N. 76° W. and opposite direction, the .west beacon being 
23 feet high and the east beacon 30 feet. 

A fairway and about half a dozen other buoys mark the entrance 
to Kiliman river and Militao channel. Red buoys mark the star- 
board side of the channel on entering, and black buoys the port side. 

No. 1, a fairway buoy, spherical, with staff and globe, painted 
black and white in horizontal stripes, lies in 19 feet, outside the bar, 
with Tangalane light N. by E., distant 'i^\ miles. 

No. 2 buoy, a red bell buoy, surmounted by a staff with double 
cone, marks the western edge of Tangalane bank spit. 

For the remainder, see the plan. 

Caution.— The buoyage, independent of changes in the channel, 
is not at all reliable. The rush of the tide is apt to shift them, and 
they are left so long unattended to that they are often misleading, 
and the distinctive colours quite washed off. 

Tides.— It is high water, full and change, at about 4h. 20m. ; 
springs rise 12^ feet, neaps 7^ feet ; the tides are said to be irregular 
and to extend 50 miles up the river. 

The streams run about 3 knots an hour in the river ; after crossing 
the bar and nearing Tangalane light, the flood sets directly on to 
the banks off Olinda point, rendering great care necessary. 

Current. — Outside, the current generally sets from one to 2 miles 
an hour to the south-westward, causing vessels at anchor off the bar 
to lie broadside to the swell and roll considerably. 

Directions. — It is not advisable for a vessel drawing over 10 feet 
to cross the bar without a boat ahead sounding. The best time is 
with the last of the flood. A pilot will be found within the bar, to 
take a vessel to the town. 



See plan of Kilimdn river, with view, No. 650. It does not, however, now 
correctly represent the entrance. 



Chap. VI.] BUOYAGE. — TIDES.— DIRECTIONS. 275 

Entering Kiliman river — from a little westward of the fairway 
buoy, Tangalane point beacons will be in line N. 11° E., which mark 
will lead over the bar ; when the water deepens edge to the west- 
ward to keep the bell buoy on the starboard hand ; thence between 
the red and black buoys. With a strong flood, the black buoy at the 
north-east extreme of Militao bank should be rounded pretty close 
to avoid being swept to the northward. Thence with the beacons in 
line astern, bearing S. 76° E., proceed through Militao channel north- 
ward of the next black buoy, and southward and westward of the 
remaining red buoys. Thence to the anchorage off the town, the 
deepest water on the way up will be found at the distance of about 
one cable from the western bank of the river. In Militao channel 
the streams set across both ends, and should be guarded against. It 
sets fair, however, through its middle portion. 

Sailing vessels have no difficulty in entering on account of the 
wind, but leaving without towage is a difficult matter ; as a rule they 
have to wait until one of the coastal steamers is leaving. 

Caution. — It must not be assumed that these directions will 
remain available for any length of time, as the banks are constantly 
changing. The breakers are said to be a better guide than the chart, 
but much precaution is necessary, especially in boats crossing, as the 
breakers are so treacherous, that a solitary wave at times comes in 
and breaks heavily when the water on the bar appeared smooth 
immediately before. Many lives have been lost, amongst others a 
native pilot of experience and all his crew perished. 

Anch.orag'e. — There is very good anchorage about one mile 
north-westward of the lighthouse, northward of the creek, in about 
5 fathoms ; the tidal stream runs about 3 knots an hour. 

Pequena island, situated in mid-river, is low and covered with 
dense jungle ; extensive banks extend both north and south of this 
island, leaving a channel to the town close along both shores. 
Pequena bank has extended southward into Militao channel since 
the survey of 1885, as now charted. 

Militao bank separates Olinda and Militao channels ; it dries 
for a distance of 2 miles in a north-west and south-east direction, 

See plan of Kiliman river, with view, No. 650, It does not, however, now 
correctly represent the entrance. 

SO 11977 S 2 



276 KILIMlN RIVER. [Chap. VI. 

and about one mile north and south, and is subject to change. 
Mangroves are growing on the high part of its north-west side, 
affording a guide to the best water, which is about 2 cables north- 
ward of them. 



KILIMAN is situated on the eastern or left bank of the river, 
at 10 miles above Tangalane point at the entrance. It was, until the 
opening up of the Chinde route, the head-quarters of the Zambezi 
trade. The church and barracks are conspicuous buildings, and the 
town is surrounded by cocoa-nut trees. 

There is a landing jetty available at all times, close to the custom- 
house and government offices. 

Moorings are laid for two government steam vessels off the landing 
place, over a bottom of very soft mud. 

Trade. — The district of Portuguese Zambezia, of which Kiliman is 
the chief town, extends along the coast from the Zambezi mouths 
to Angoche. The whole district is traversed by streams connected by 
natural canals, affording easy means of transit. 

The exports consist of oil seeds, such as ground-nuts and sesame 
seed, copra, India rubber, beeswax, ivory, gold dust, sugar, and locally 
native tobacco. 

Imports consist of blue and white cotton, printed goods, beads, 
brass wire, implements, provisions, wines, coarse sugar from Natal, 
besides many other articles. Cargo is shipped and discharged in 
open lighters, work being very slow. 

Some portion of the Zambezi trade passes through Kiliman, as 
already mentioned ; it is conveyed in canoes or lighters up the 
Kiliman or Kwa Kwa river to Marendene, or Mopea, just beyond it, 
depending on the amount of water in the river, a distance of about 
80 miles, whence it is carried across to the banks of the Zambezi and 
re-shipped. Steamers of 6 feet draught go up as far as the junction 
of the Mutu with the Kiliman. The remainder of the trade is via 
the Chinde. 

The value of the exports in 1895 amounted to £76,344, and the 
imports to £94,537, a considerable falling off since 1892, when both 
were about 50 per cent, larger. 

See plan of Kilinian river, No. 660, ■ 



Chap. VI.] TOWN.— SUPPLIES. 277 

The population (1895) consists of a Portuguese military 
commandant, go vernmenti officials, and other Portuguese, amounting 
to 190 ; about 50 other Europeans, and 120 half-caste soldiers. The 
population of the province is estimated at one million. The British 
Indianu number 350, most of whom are in the Chinde. 

Shipplngr. — 127 vessels entered in the year 1895, of the aggregate 
tonnage of 43,430 tons ; of these 41 were British steamers, of 
19,105 tons. 

Supplies. — Fresh provisions, beef, poultry, vegetables, and fruit 
can be obtained in small quantities ; the water, obtained from wells 
in the sand, i» scarce and bad. Except beef, provisions may be 
obtained cheaper by anchoring on the west shore 6 or 7 miles below 
the town, where the natives bring supplies down. The only coal 
mines in the district, p. 250, near Tete, are in the hands of the 
Companhia da Zambezi ; it is said to be of fair quality for steaming 
purposes, but much, probably, depends on the character of the 
furnace. 

Slight repairs to vessels, such as carpenters', blacksmiths' and 
caulkers' work, can be effected at reasonable rates. 

There is a general hospital, and one for infectious diseases outside 
the town, attended by a Government doctor and a staff of European 
and native assistants. 

Telegraph. — Railway. — Kiliman is connected with the principal 
places on the Zambezi by telegraph, thence via Tete the line is 
being extended to Salisbiiry (probably completed in June 1897,) 
which is connected with Cape Colony, &c. A railway is projected 
from Kiliman to the Zoa falls on the Ruo river, see p. 14. . 

The Deutsche Ost Af rika mail steamers, three-weekly branch service 
from Beira, call at Kiliman, both going southward, and on the return 
voyage northward. The same Company's vessels from Bombay and 
Zanzibar, &c., call about every six weeks. Messrs. Rennie's trading 
steamers from Durban visit the ports as far northward as Kiliman 
every three weeks. 

"Winds. — The prevailing wind off Kiliman is from S.E. to South 
during the greater part of the year. From January to March 
probably ii; is westward of South. Whilst lying off Kiliman, in 

See plan of Kilim4n river, No. 650. 



278 KILTMAN.— CLIMATE. [Chap. VI. 

October, the winds varied from S.S.E. to E.S.E., and blew through- 
out the night, only lulling in the morning ; but this is unusual, a 
land wind generally setting off at night. Off the town, in July, the 
sea breeze from about S.S.E. was observed to set in at noon with a 
force of one to three ; during the night it was usually calm, with 
the land breeze in the morning. 

Climate. — The climate is unhealthy, and said to be unfit for 
Europeans, but the general health for the year 1895 was good. Tem- 
perature in the early morning (July) has been noted as low as 62°. 
The heaviest rains occur in January and February, accompanied by 
much lightning. There are light rains in November, and also in 
May and June. 

Sec plan of Kiliman river, No. 650. 



279 



CHAPTER VII. 



MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL — KILIMIN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

(Lat. 18° S. to lat. 10° 40' S.) 



Variation in 1897. 

Mozambique - 12° 45' W. I Ibo island - - 11° 45' W. 
Poinba bay - - 12° 0' W. I Ras Pekawi - - 11° 30' W. 



COAST. — About 14 miles north-eastward of Kiliman river is the 
first patch of casuarina trees, the lofty trees on the intervening space 
being all palms or cocoa-nut. The coast is low and sandy, with 
jungle in the background, as far as cape Fitzwilliam, nearly 90 miles 
from Kiliman. 

Natives. — The inhabitants of the whole coast, from Kiliman to 
Tunghi bay, cape Delgado, are chiefly of the Makua tribe. (Consul 
O'Neill, 1882.) 

Brisk bank. — The depths along this coast decrease regularly on 
approaching the land, but there is a rocky bank in about lat. 
17° 55' S., long. 37° 17' E., at about 12 miles from the shore. 
H.M.S. Brisk passed over this bank, obtaining 7 fathoms ; there may 
be less water. 

Rivers. — There are eight rivers between Kiliman and cape 
Fitzwilliam, namely, the Macuse, Mumwodo, Likugu, Mwabala, 
Raraka, Mraizi (Mazemba), and Moniga (Kizungu). The Macuse 
and Moniga are accessible to light draught vessels.* 

Macuse river is about 22 miles north-eastward of Kiliman. A 
patch of casuarina trees forms its western point of entrance, and a 
rather bluff point the eastern one. 

See chart, river Zambezi to Mozambique, No. 1810. 
* Consul O'Neill, in proceedings of Royal Geographical Society, 1882, page 599. 



280 kilimAn to Mozambique. [Chap. vii. 

The Bar. — Directions. — The bar is about 4 miles off shore, 
and connects the banks which break heavily at times, to about the 
same distance off both points of the entrance. 

The following remarks apply to the year 1882 ; like other rivers 
on thig coast, it is subject to change : — The bar had a depth of 7 feet 
at low water, and 21 at high water springs on the leading mark ; 
namely, the three conspicuous palm trees (situated on its north bank 
5 miles N.N.W of the eastern point of entrance) in line with Regis 
point bearing N. :^ W. ; this mark being steered for until the east 
point of entrance bore N.N.E. | E. ; thence a course to pass half a 
mile westward of that point. From abreast the point, the course was 
towards the eastern shore, to abreast the village between the three 
palms and Regis point, which point is situated at the mouth of a 
creek on the eastern shore almost midway between the entrance 
point and the palms. 

There is anchorage off the village in about 2 fathoms. 

There is apparently not less than 10 feet at low water as far as 
Muxixine, a small fort, about 3^ miles up, by following the bends of the 
rivc;r. Villa Candida is situated one mile up a creek just eastward of 
Muxixine. Maquival, another small fort, is about 16 miles above 
the entrance, and the village of Chico about 9 miles up. 

Guard against the tide in entering ; the tiood sets to the westward, 
the ebb to the eastward. No pilots are available. Fresh water and 
fruit may be obtained, but no other supplies. 

It is high water, full and change, at Macuse river at 4h. Om. ; 
springs rise 14 feet, neaps 12 feet. 

The LikUg"!!, rising in the hills south-eastward of lake Shirwa, is 
one of the largest of the eight rivers mentioned on p. 279, but its bar 
was not passable in former times ; we have no further information 
concerning it. Within the bar it is said to be navigable for boats 
for 8 or 10 days* journey. 

Mazemba (Mriazi) river is about 10 miles south-westward of 
cape Fitzwilliam, and is, or was, tolerably safe for entering in a boat. 
The boats of H.M.S. Persian, in 1845, found a depth of 3 fathoms 
on the bar at high water, and from 6 to 4 fathoms for a distance of 
30 miles up the river. It ie probably barred in the dry season. 

There is a channel from the Mazemba to the Moniga, with about 
2 fathoms at low water, northward of the island which separates the 

See chart, No. 1,810. 



Chap. VII.] MAZEMBA RIVER.— CAPE PITZWILLIAM. 281 

two rivers. Several streams flow into the Mazemba, with entrances 
so wide that it is not easy to distinguish which is the main river. 
The river abounds with hippopotami. 

Supplies may be obtained by barter from the natives at the 
entrance of the river. 

Monigra (Tejungo) or Kizung'U river enters the sea on the 
eastern side of Kizungu island, at about 5 miles westward of cape 
Fitzwilliam, and is connected with the Mazemba by a channel 
leading northward of Kizungu island. 

Consul O'Neill, 1882, states that " the Tejungo (Moniga) is the only 
port worthy of the name between Kiliman and Angoche, to both of 
which it is in many respects superior." Notwithstanding, the bar is 
probably subject to great changes, as it was not passable by 
the boats of the Persian in 1845 on account of the surf, whilst the 
bar of the Mazemba had 3 fathoms over it. Between the Mazemba and 
Kizungu the land is rather high, and of a hummocky appearance. 
The entrance of the Kizungu is more perceptible than that of the 
Mazemba ; a low point covered with trees forms its south-west point, 
and cape Fitzwilliam stands ont boldly to the eastward of it. Shallow 
water extends a considerable distance off the river, there being but 
5 fathoms at about 5 miles off shore. 

The town of Moniga is about 7 miles up the river. 

Capt. Thos. Le H. Ward, H.M.S. Thetis, Aug. 1875, writes —The 
Tejungo (Moniga) has a fine deep entrance running nearly north and 
south between two lines of breakers about half a mile in length 
and a quarter of a mile in breadth ; 3 fathoms was the least water 
obtained on the bar, which did not break as it was crossed, it being 
then nearly low water. Inside the bar there is a land-locked 
anchorage with depths of 8 or 9 fathoms. The river, however, very 
soon becomes shallow, being navigable for some 20 miles from its 
mouth for dhows and boats only. The river, like the rest on this 
coast, is lined with mangrove bushes near its mouth, but in proceed- 
ing up there is a fine open country with numerous indications of 
large game. 

CAPE FITZWILLIAM, about 5 miles eastward of the Moniga, 
is a remarkable bluff composed of yellow earth cliffs, with a few 
rocks around them on the beach. This cape and cape Edward are 
the most remarkable points along this part of the coast. 

See chart, No. 1,810. 



2812 kilimIn to Mozambique. [Chap. vn. 

Cape Edward is a remarkable bluff formed of red earth cliffs, 
with a sandy beach and a few rocks at the base of the cliffs. This 
cape is 6 miles eastward of cape Fitzwilliam, the land between being 
very low, with Mlai creek about midway. 

COAST. — From cape Edward, eastward to Macalonga point (Ras 
Nelide), distant about 46 miles, the coast is nearly straight. Between 
these points are the Namanwe and Mlela streams entering the sea on 
either side of Yusi island, the Maravoni (Mwebazi), Molugwi, 
Mwalaka, the Blanche, and the Eredni. Between the Eredni and 
Macalonga point, the coast is composed of low sandhills with 
scattered trees. On the north side of the Eridni, within its mouth, 
is a red cliff which may serve to distinguish it. Nothing is known 
of these streams. This coast is but sparsely sounded. 

PRIMEIRA ISLANDS and SHOALS.— The Primeira and 
Angoche islands and shoals are on the outer edge of a coral bank 
fronting the shore to a distance varying from 5 to 25 miles. The 
channels between them and the main have from 7 to 11 fathoms, the 
deepest water being towards the islands. 

Pantaloon shoal, the westernmost of these groups, is in lat. 
17° 42^' S., long, about 38° 2' E., being about 2 miles in extent, with 
a least depth of 3^ fathoms. There are several knolls with from 
4| to 5 fathoms on them. A patch of 6 fathoms lies 5 miles E. ^ S. 
of Pantaloon shoal ; these shoals are steep-to. 

Acorn patch, in lat. 17° 36' S., long, about 38° 13' E., has not 
been closely examined, and should be avoided. H.M.S. Acorn, 1840, 
touched lightly on it. H.M.S. Dart, 1852, found 5| fathoms, and 
the sea was observed breaking at a short distance from it. At a mile 
distance, all round, there are depths of from 20 to 40 fathoms. 

David shoals consist of two rocky patches about midway between 
Acorn patch and Silva island. The north-eastern one of 3^ fathoms 
lies with Silva island, bearing E.N.E. distant about 18 miles. The 
western patch of 8 fathoms lies about 3^ miles from the eastern one. 

Silva (Mahiazo) island, in lat. 17° 18' S., long. 38° 49' E., is 
the westernmost of the Primeira islands, and about 13 miles from 
the coast. It is composed of bare sand, about 10 feet high, and 

iSee chart, ISo. 1,810. 



Chap. VII.] PRIMBIRA ISLANDS. 883 

surrounded by reefs which extend about three-quarters of a mile. 
There is a depth of 14 to 15 fathoms between Silva and Fogo. 

FogO (Malibono) island, 5 miles north-eastward of Silva 
island, is surrounded by a reef which extends about one mile, except 
on the north side, which is bolder. It has a few trees on its north 
end ; the other part is covered with shrubs.* 

A vessel may anchor in 10 fathoms, at 3 or -4 cables from the beach, 
with the centre of the island bearing from S. by K. to S. by W. 

When standing from the mainland towards the anchorage, the 
soundings suddenly deepen from 10 to 20 fathoms, and then quickly 
shoal to 10 fathoms again, at about 5 cables from the island. There 
is no fresh water on the island. 

Crown island, 20 feet high, is about 4 miles north-eastward of 
Fogo, and 8 miles westward of the Casuarina island reefs. It is 
composed of sand, with a few grasses on it, and surrounded by 
a reef to the distance of half a mile.* The channels between Fogo 
and Crown island, and between the latter and Casuarina, are clear, 
with a depth of 10 to 1 2 fathoms. 

Shoal. — The British India steam-vessel Sokotra, 1880, when in 
lat. 17° 16' S., long. 39° 00' E., passed over the edge of shoal ground 
in 8 fathoms ; breakers at the time being observed at a quarter of a 
mile distant to the westward. 

Casuarina (Tanibi) island lies nearly 10 miles north-eastward 
of Crown island ; it is covered with Casuarina trees, which are high 
(tops about 80 feet above the sea), particularly on its north-east 
end. The reef surrounding the island, extends from 2 to 3 miles 
north-east, south, and south-west, with a clear passage about one mile 
wide between it and the reefs off Epidendron. There is no water 
on this island. The timber, although heavy when first cut, 
makes strong spars, but the trees are not permitted to be cut for 
firewood. See the remarks on the trees on Mafamede island, p. 286. 

Casuarina road, between the island and the mainland, forms 
the best anchorage along this coast. If going in from the northward, 
keep Casuarina open northward of Epidendron, to pass north-west 
of Barraco reef and the reef to the eastward of it : the depths are 
regular. A vessel may anchor in 8| fathoms, with Casuarina 

See chaxt, No. 1,810. 



284 KILIMAN TO MOZAMBIQUE. [Chap. VII. 

S.S.E. ^ E. and Epidendron E. by S. | S., but the best anchorage, to 
be out of the swell, is in 9 or 10 fathoms, about equidistant from 
the two islands. Shallow water is said to extend about 4^ miles 
S.S.E. of Macalonga point. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Casuarina island, at 
4 h. 15 m. The current or stream runs generally south-westward, 
but occasionally there is a set north-eastward. 

Epidendron (Maloa) Island, the easternmost of the Primeira 
group, lies about 6 miles from Macalonga point.* The northern part 
of the island has casuarina trees on it about 80 feet high, but the 
southern part is or was covered with short shrubs only. Similar to 
Casuarina island it has an extensive reef on all sides except the 
north-west. 

There is good anchorage off its west side in 12 fathoms. 
(Blanche 1892). Epidendron island dips from a vessel's deck at a 
distance of about 15 miles. 

Barraoo reef lies about E. by N. distant 3 miles from Epiden- 
dron. There is another rocky patch, on which the sea breaks, 
2 miles farther in the same direction. These dangers do not appear 
to have been examined. 

COAST. — Rivers. — North-eastward of Macalonga point, between 
it and Angoche, are the Ligonya, Moma, Mwaladi, Laridi, Namakuti, 
and Natiti rivers ; the last mentioned is the southern mouth of the 
Angoche. The Moma is the most important of these rivers, as it 
possesses an anchorage within, but the bar is bad. 

Mount Cockburn (Mlungugi), in lat. about 16° 29' S., long. 
38° 55' E., and the only mountain seen on this part of the coast, is a 
remarkable cone of considerable elevation. 

Moma river, in lat. 16° 45' S.— H.M.S. Thetis, 1875, anchored off 
Moma river, with mount Cockburn bearing N.W. | N., and Caldeira 
point N.E. by E. | E., in 9 fathoms, sand and mud, good holding 
ground. The ship rolled heavily, being kept broadside to the swell 
by the prevailing current which at this season (August) always sets 
along the coast to the south-westward, with more or less strength. 
The heavy rolling sea from the southward, at times had more the 
character of rollers on a bar than that which might be expected in 
an open roadstead. 

* Vidal 1823. It is probable that the vegetation on these islands has somewhat 
altered in appearance since these remarks were made. See chart, No. 1,810. 



Chap. VII.] ANGOCHB ISLANDS. 285 

The bar at the entrance of the Moma river is a long and heavy 
one ; the best time for crossing is said to be the early morning, if 
the tide suits. The boats of the Tlietis crossed soon after daylight 
without difficulty. In coming out in the afternoon most of the 
boats were in tow of a Portuguese gunboat, but the galley and 
steam cutter which went out separately encountered two or three 
heavy rollers which nearly tilled the former ; the latter was protected 
by a canopy. 

Trade. — There is a little trade with Parapat. 

Oaldeira point, about 15 miles eastward of the Moma, is rather 
higher than the adjoining coast. It is fronted by a ledge of flat 
rocks, dry at low water, and a large black rock lies about half a mile 
north-eastward of the point. 

Angroclie point (pronounced Angosha), at about 25 miles 
north-eastward of Caldeira point, is low, and appears like a number 
of small sand hillocks. It is bordered by a dry sandbank in the 
form of a crescent at the distance of about half a mile. Southward 
of Angoche point are several inlets, which probably communicate 
with Angoche river. 

ANGOCHE ISLANDS— Moma island (Fungu Koru), 
lying 8 miles southward of Caldeira point, is a sand island from 15 to 
20 feet high, surrounded by a reef which extends southward more 
than half a mile from it. 

A bank with 5 fathoms, bearing S.W. by W., 9 miles from Moma 
island, was reported by Captain Wyvill, of H.M.S. Cleopatra in 1843. 

Another small bank appears on the chart about 2^ miles S.W. by W. 
of Moma island. 

Caution. — The soundings between Moma and Caldeira islands are 
irregular, and with Caldeira and Hurd island in line, the water shoals 
in one place to 7 fathoms and the bottom is plainly visible ; less 
water may exist. 

Caldeira (Kirubi) island, in lat. 16° 38' S., long. 39° 44' E., 
lies 12 miles eastward of Caldeira point. It is a small sandy island 
with a few casuarina trees, and surrounded by reefs extending oflE 
about one mile, except on its northern side. 

See chart, No. 1,810. 



286 kilimIn to Mozambique. [Chap. vii. 

Hurd island, lying nearly 6 miles north-eastward of Caldeira 
island, is low, sandy, and covered with trees. On its east-north-east, 
south, and west-south-west sides the reef extends oflE about 1| miles. 

Michael reef (FungU Namakutl), lies 5 miles north-east- 
ward of Hurd island, and about the same distance from the main. 
It is a dangerous reef of rocks uncovered at low water, and 1| miles 
in extent. It should be given a wide berth. 

Walker island (Page Puge), lies about 5 miles north-east- 
ward of Michael reef, and 2^ miles off Angoche point. At high 
water, Walker island shows only as a small sand cay 6 or 8 feet above 
the sea. It is surrounded with reefs which extend on its east, south, 
and south-west sides, in some places, If miles. 

Mafamede island (Kisiwa Sultani Hassan,) lying about 
85 miles north-eastward of Walker island, and nearly abreast the 
mouth of Angoche river, is a low sandy island, about a third of a 
mile in length, covered with tall casuarina trees, and may be seen 
from 12 to 15 miles distant. A coral reef extends from 1^ to 2 miles 
north-eastward, south, and south-westward. On the north-west side 
of the island the shore is fairly steep and the landing good. 

H.M.S. Brisk anchored in 10 fathoms, with the centre of the 
island, S.E. by S. distant 9 cables, and the extremes of reef (dry at low 
water) bearing E. by S., and South nearly. This is a good safe 
anchorage, but not over smooth ; a berth nearer the island may be 
chosen if desired. There is no water on Mafamede ; it is not 
desirable that the trees should be cut down for firewood on this and 
similar islands, because they are so useful in showing their position. 

A sand patch, half a cable in extent, with a least depth of 
3^ fachoms, lies N.W. distant 1^ miles from the centre of Mafamede. 
Another patch with 5 fathoms water, lies 3 cables east of it. 

ANGOCHE (Mluli) RIVER (pronounced Angosha).— This 
river is about 3 miles in width at the entrance, in which there are 
three islands, and there was said to be a depth of 20 feet over the 
bar at high water springs ; it is possibly subject to change. Vessels 
of 14 feet draught have crossed the bar. The Angoche is wide and 

See chart, No. 1,810. 



Chap. VII.] ANGOCHE RIVER. 287 

deep for 20 miles, and is said to be navigable for small craft for 
about 150 miles. Considerable trade is carried on by coasters with 
Mozambique. 

The land to the northward of the river is a low sandy cliff, topped 
with trees. Southward of the river the land is lower, with some 
large trees on the south point, between which and another clump 
3 miles farther south, is a village. 

Anohorag'e. — There is anchorage outside in 4 fathoms, with 
Nepatulah point (east point of river) bearing N. by W., and the 
north-east point of Busio island N.W. by W., not far from the edge 
of the bank. Large vessels should anchor farther to the south-east- 
ward in about 7 fathoms. 

I 

Bar. — The lower reach of the river trends in an easterly direction 
in a straight line for 10 or 12 miles, nearly one mile in width ; the 
main body of water passes between Busio (Monkey) island and the 
north shore, after which it is deflected southward to the bar by 
the north-eastern shoals. The bar lies about 2 miles from the north 
shore, the same distance from Monkey island, and has a reported 
depth of 20 feet at high water springs, as before mentioned. 

Directions. — To approach the bar, bring Nepatulah, the east 
point of entrance, to bear N. by W., or Mafamede island S. by E., 
and keep them so, taking care to allow for the usual set to the south- 
westward. These bearings formerly led across the bar, but the eye 
is the only guide for taking the deepest water, as the bar is liable 
to shift, and there are no marks on shore. When within the bar 
keep along the north shore, and anchor abreast Parapat settlement in 
6 or 7 fathoms. 

"With a moderate swell only, the entrance will be marked by the 
breakers on each side; if not so marked the bar should not be 
attempted. At last quarter flood it is generally smooth all over. 

When outside the bar keep a good look out for any appearance of 
breakers, for there are some patches of shoal ground, which breaks 
nearly one mile outside the regular bar. These may usually be seen 
at a distance and avoided. 

There is a boat channel westward of Busio (Monkey), and which 
may be used with advantage when leaving the river in moderate 
weather, as the channel is winding and protected by the breakers on 
each side, but it would be difficult to find when entering the river. 

<5fee! chart, No. 1,810. 



288 kilimIn to Mozambique. [Chap. vii. 

BusiO, or Monkey island, and two or three others lie within 
the bar and to the southward of the entrance. An extensive sand 
spit runs off from the east -north-east end of Monkey island. 

The inner end of Monkey island is well adapted for a stopping 
place for boats, being sheltered, with smooth water, and there is a depth 
of 3 fathoms alongside a steep sandy beach. Good water may be found 
in the midst of a clump of casuarina trees on the west end, by 
digging down a couple of feet. 

Parapat or AntoniO-Ennes is now the chief Portuguese 
settlement in Angoche river, Angoche being found very unhealthy. 
The military commandant resides here. It is situated on the northern 
bank of the river, within the north point of entrance. 

Trade. — Communication. — Large quantities of india-rubber, 
ivory, ebony, seeds, gum copal, cocoa-nut oil, coir, and ground nuts 
are collected here. 

The exports in 1893 were valued at £16,666, and the imports 
at £685. Three European firms are represented here. 

The steamers of the Deutsche Ost Afrika line, from Bombay via 
Zanzibar and Mozambique, call here about every six weeks, and the 
branch steamers every three weeks, from Beira to neighbouring ports, 
call here when sufficient inducement offers. 

Angoche is situated on a sandy plain near a creek, some 20 miles 
up the river on the south bank. The creek leading from the river 
to the town is not accessible to boats before half flood. The town 
has been abandoned as a station as above stated. 

Winds. — The usual sea breeze varies according to the monsoon 
from E.N.E. to S.W. In November it was found to blow fresh at 
E.N.E., falling light at night, and haiiling to the N.N.E. in the early 
morning. At this time of year strong south-westerly winds with a 
heavy swell, and rainy weather occasionally occur, this being the 
commencement of the rainy season. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at the mouth of the 
Angoche at 4h. Om. ; springs rise 10 or 12 feet. 

COAST. — From the Angoche northward, the coast is composed of 
sandhills, which increase in height until reaching the south side of 

See chart, No. 1,810. 



Chap. VH.] PARAPAT.— ANTONIO RIVER. 289 

Antonio river, where they are said to be 300 or 400 feet high, and 
to have several patches of bright red sand. The land in the vicinity 
of Antonio river is remarkable, the northern side of the river being 
a low sandy point, whilst the high sandhills on the south side, 
partly covered with vegetation, form a striking contrast to two rocky 
points 4 or 5 miles to the southward of the river. 

Nanduma hills, from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high, are charted about 
15 miles within the coast, and should be conspicuous objects from 
seaward. 

Antonio (Veve or Jamaguva) bank is a coral bank, about 
2^ miles in length, north-east and south-west, by 1^ miles in width ; 
it has some dry sand patches on its south-west end, which are 
steep-to. 

Its dry portion is charted in lat. 16° 9' S., long. 40° 10' E., or with 
Buzio island, Angoche river, bearing W. by S., distant 13 miles, but 
its position is not correctly known. 

About midway between Antonio bank and the shore is a shoal of 
3 fathoms or less. 

About 5 or 6 miles off the coast, abreast Antonio river, are several 
patches of 5 fathoms, with the bottom distinctly visible. 

Caution. — At night it is advisable not to stand into less than 
20 fathoms between Angoche and Mozambique, as the banks are 
mostly steep-to, and the coast is but imperfectly known. 

ANTONIO RIVER lies about 22 miles northward of Angoche. 
Its south point is in lat. 15° 57' S., long. 40° 9' E.* 

Its entrance is fronted by a bar apparently about one mile in 
breadth, with a depth of about 3 feet at low water, or about 16 feet 
at high water springs ; probably subject to change. "Within the 
entrance the river turns sharply to the southward, with depths of 
from 2 to 4 fathoms at low water. 

Settlement. — About 3 miles within the entrance, on the 
southern shore, is the settlement of Shangaji, which carries on some 
trade in small craft with Mozambique, similar, though of less extent, 
to that from the Angoche river. 

Directions. — The tamarisk trees on the north point of entrance, 
bearing W.N.W., led in the best water over the bar (1865). 

* i^e plan of Antonio river on chart No. 1810. 
so 11977 T 



290 kilimAn to Mozambique. [Chap. vii. 

COAST.— Huddart shoal, the centre of which is in lat. 
15° 46^' S., long. 40° 26' E., is about 7 miles off shore, and 20 miles 
north-eastward of Antonio river. Captain Vidal passed over this 
shoal in 3^ fathoms ; he considered there was less water in places, as 
the sea sometimes broke over it. 

NamalungO point, at 26 miles north-eastward of Antonio river, 
is a high sandy bluff, well wooded ; a reef of rocks and sandbank 
fringes it to the distance of about half a mile. From abreast the 
point, the distant land behind is rather high, and that close to the 
beach low and sandy, with casuarina trees upon it. 

MOGINKWALE RIVER, about 5 miles northward of Nama- 
lungo point, had (1887) a depth of 2^ fathoms over the bar at high 
water springs, but there were often heavy rollers on the bar without 
any apparent cause. 

The entrance is about 4 cables wide between Funco and Marano 
points, but sandbanks front both, reducing the navigable channel to 
the width of about one cable.* 

The Portuguese have a military station here. 

Chataputa or Moginkwale shoals lie off the Moginkwale 

river, about 4| miles from the line of coast. They consist of several 
rocky patches, on which the sea generally breaks. Their extent is 
not known. 

COAST. — Barracouta point, about 4 miles north-eastward of 
Moginkwale entrance, is low, and forms the northern point of Barawa 
or Manamitya river, which appears barred. 

A horse-shoe reef extends nearly 2 miles from the point. On 
some parts of the reef there is but a depth of 7 or 8 feet, whilst 
within the horse-shoe, which opens to the north-west, there is 
5 fathoms. 

Bajone shoal lies about 8 miles north-eastward of Barracouta 
point, and about 5 miles off shore, in lat. 15° 28^' S., long. 40'' 39' E. 
It is a patch of rocks of unknown extent having 5 fathoms water, or 
less, with 14 fathoms close-to. 

Naquil shoal.— In January, 1875, H.M.S. Thetis anchored about 
7 miles off Barracouta point in 15 fathoms, hard sandy bottom, with 

* St'e plan of Moginkwale entrance on chart No. 1810. 



Chap. VII.] MOGINKWALE RIVER. — MOKAMBO BAY. 291 

Bajone shoal North, about 4 miles ; a shoal (now charted as Naquil 
shoal, but of unknown extent) was observed about one mile west of 
this anchorage ; the bottom generally in this locality is foul. The 
Thetis swung regularly with the tide, the ebb running northward 
and the flood southward. 

MUITE RIVER.— The Infusse bar is the chief entrance to 
Muite river, and, from its being the most important one, it some- 
times gives its name to the lagoon system within. It is said to have 
a depth of 16 feet on the bar at high water springs.* 

The Muite and other streams within the bar are usually navigable 
for dhows at high water, though crossing the bar is attended with 
some anxiety. These streams are intersected by creeks lined with 
mangrove bushes, and divided by large tracts of low land, partly 
inundated, on which are several villages surrounded by cultivated 
land. Mokolivolane, on one of the southern streams, is apparently 
the principal village. 

NAKIBU SHOAL.— From about 2 miles northward of Infusse 
bar, the coast is fronted by foul ground, with patches of one fathom, 
or less, for a distance of 10 miles, at which distance it extends about 
4 miles off shore. Here at its north-eastern extremity is a cluster of 
rocks, named Nakibu shoal, 1^ cables in extent, in parts uncovered 
at low water, and generally breaking heavily ; it lies with Mamar- 
rema river bearing W. by N., distant 5 or 6 miles. Bajone point 
bearing N.W. by N. apparently leads well eastward of it. 

Baj one point or Ras Mtende is low, sandy, and covered with 
trees to the beach. It should be given a wide berth. The coast 
from Bajone point to Mudge point, Mokambo bay, is foul and 
apparently shallow. 

MOKAMBO BAY, formed between Bajone and Sancoul points, 
9 miles apart, is deep and unfit for anchoring, but there is a spacious 
basin, named port Mokambo at its head. Peel bank, extends about 
1\ miles southward of some remarkable looking rocks on the beach 
westward of Sancoul point, and is steep to. The south shore, also, 
as before mentioned, is apparently foul.f 

♦ See plan of Infusse bar on chart No. 1810. Information from Foreign OflSce 
letter, September, 1886. 
f See plans — Condacia, Mozambique, and Mokambo point, No. 668. 

SO 11977 T 2 



292 kilimIn to Mozambique. [Chap. vii. 

Mudgre reef, which is steep-to, extends about 1^ miles north- 
eastward from the north-east extreme of an island at the south point 
of entrance to port Mokambo. It lies much in the fairway of the 
entrance and should be passed with caution. 

PORT MOKA.MBO, or Kivolani bay, is a port 4 miles in 
diameter, comparatively free from shoals, and with depths in most 
places of from 10 to 15 fathoms. 

The entrance to the port, 1^ miles in width, is between Mokambo 
point or Ras Fugu, and Mudge point or Ras Kisarahondo. 

Reefs. — The eastern and northern sides of the port are fringed by 
reefs to the distance of about half a mile, and the western shore to 
about one mile in places. There are three known shoals in the 
anchorage ; the outermost, a detached reef with about 3 feet at low 
water, lies about one mile N.W. ^ N. of Pangage point ; for the 
others see the plan. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at port Mokambo, at 
4h. 20m., springs rise 14 feet. 

Directions. — To enter port Mokambo, bring Mokambo peak, 
135 feet high, on the north shore of the port, to bear W. by N. \ N., 
and then steer for it. This line will lead southward of Peel bank 
and northward of Mudge reef. When Pangage point bears S.W. by "W., 
keep in mid -channel. 

If proceeding to the north side of the port, pass midway between 
Mokambo point and the shoal in the fairway. A sand flat, steep-to, 
fronts the bay westward of Mokambo point ; by keeping the point 
bearing eastward of S.E. by E., it will be avoided ; anchorage may 
be taken in about 9 fathoms, when the mouth of Lungo river bears 
N. by E., and Mokambo point S.E. by E. \ E. 

If proceeding to the southern side of the port : from mid-channel 
between Ras Fugu and Ras Kisarahondo, steer midway between the 
reef extending off Pangage point and the shoal in the fairway ; when 
westward of these dangers, a vessel may anchor in depths of 5 to 
15 fathoms ; the bottom is apparently very irregular in places. 

Supplies. — There are many villages around the bay, of which 
Lungo on the north side and Kivolani on the south side appear to be 
the largest. Poultry, vegetables and water are obtainable at Lungo, 
and probably at the others. 

* See plans : Conducia, Mozambique and Mokambo ports, No. 663. 



Chap. VII.] MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR. 293 

Mund omonho or Tumonia river lies in the south-west comer 
of port Mokambo ; it has a depth of about 3 feet at low water in its 
entrance. 

MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR.*— Mozambique is the head 
quarters of the northern half of Portuguese East Africa. The harbour 
is a portion of Mossoril bay, which is an inlet 5^ miles in length, 
and the same in breadth, receiving the waters of three small streams 
at its head. In the approach are the islands of St. George and 
St. Jago, and farther in the island of Mozambique, which, together 
with reefs and shoals, render the harbour perfectly safe (except perhaps 
during a cyclone) for vessels of moderate draught ; but too much 
dependence must not be placed on the chart, as the depths in places 
are stated to have shoaled since the original survey. The North 
channel is buoyed and lighted, and should be always taken by large 
vessels. Vessels of deep draught should use the outer anchorage. 

Landmarks. — The land is all low about Mozambique harbour, 
and for about 10 miles north and south of it, but St. George island 
and lighthouse, fort St. Sebastian, with its high flagstaff and 
Portuguese flag, and the tall white spire of the church to the west- 
ward of it on Mozambique island, are conspicuous objects from 
seaward. A broad white stripe has been painted on fort St. Sebastian 
to make it more conspicuous. 

Pao mountain, situated about 23 miles west-north-westward, and 
Table mountain, about 19 miles northward of Mozambique island, 
are remarkable in clear weather ; Pao (Matipa) resembles a small 
round-topped hill on top of a larger one ; it is, however, not often 
visible. Table (Meza) mountain, 1,095 feet above the sea, in lat. 
14° 42|' S., long. 40° 38^' E., appears as a long flat hill on top of a 
longer ridge of land, also flat-topped. When seen at a distance, 
only the upper part of the mountain is visible, and it then makes 
like a flat island. 

"When approaching Mozambique, frequent observations should be 
made for latitude if a bearing of these mountains cannot be taken, as 
the currents are uncertain. 

Currents. — A current generally runs to the southward off Mozam- 
bique, varying from 2 to 4 knots, which extends from near the outer 
reefs of Mozambique to 50 or 80 miles from the land, being at its 

* See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 663. 



294 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR. [Chap. VII. 

maximum during the strength of the north-east monsoon, and 
vice versa. In July and Aug^^st, the southerly monsoon period, on 
some occasions, no current has been experienced ; also close in-shore a 
counter current has been met with : therefore, the prevailing monsoon 
should be considered when attempting to allow for the current. 
See page 33. 

ISLANDS AND REEFS IN THE APPROACHES.— 
SanCOUl point, the south-west point of Mozambique inlet, has a 
few huts on it. All the land between Mokambo, Sancoul,and Calombo, 
at the head of the inlet, is low. 

Sancoul sands, which dry at the last quarter ebb, and extend 
from Sancoul point to Kisumbo point, are in places distant one mile 
from the shore. 

Mozambique flat is a great coral bank which fills the whole 
space between Sancoul and Kisumbo points on the coast, and the 
islands of St. Jago and Mozambique. This flat has in most places 
from 7 to 9 feet at low water spring tides, but the sea generally 
breaks heavily on the south edge between Sancoul point and St. Jago 
island. 

St. George (Goa) island, lying immediately in the approach to 
Mozambique harbour, is a flat coral island, without trees, about half 
a mile in diameter, and 2^ miles south-eastward of fort St. Sebastian. 
The island is encircled by a reef except near its north-west extreme. 
This reef extends a quarter of a mile off the north-east point, and 
rather more from the north-west point, in a south-west direction. 
There is a square lighthouse on the eastern side, and a white conical 
beacon on the north extreme of the island. In the North channel 
the flood stream sets towards St. George island. iS'ee light, page ^95. 

St. Jagro island is about the same size and description as 
St. George island, but is wooded. It lies about 1^ miles south-west- 
ward of St. George, with South channel between, which is about one 
mile in width, with depths of 7 to 10 fathoms. The island is 
surrounded by a reef which, in places, extends to a distance of 
3 cables. 

Coral knolls. — There are three coral knolls, named A, B, and 
C, in the outer bay of Mozambique, within St. George island, with 
depths of 2\ to 2| fathoms ; and a patch of 4 J fathoms, at 3 cables 

See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



Chap. VII.] ISLANDS.— REEFS.— LIGHTS. 295 

northward of C, close northward of which is the fairway of North 
channel. B and C knolls lie near the fairway of South channel. 
Others may exist. 

Cape Cabeceira, forming the north side of Mozambique approach 
is a low bluff cliff with trees ; a submerged coral flat surrounds the 
cape and the coast northward and westward, extending in places 
nearly 2 miles from the shore, embracing the Tree islands, and it is 
scarcely anywhere less than one mile off as far as Conducia bar. The 
coast gradually rises to cape Conducia, with a sandy beach the whole 
way. 

Tree island, or Sete Paus, is the northernmost and largest of three 
islands, situated on a sandbank 2 miles in length in a north and 
south direction, and just covered at high water, at 1^ miles eastward 
of cape Cabeceira, and about one- third of a mile within the edge of 
the coral flat above mentioned. It has some trees growing on it. 

Harpshell spit is the south-west extreme of the foul ground 
which surrounds cape Cabeceira, the north point of entrance to 
the harbour, the shallow water extending about a mile from the 
point. At low water it shows plainly, and can be traced at times by 
the eye even at high water, but in the absence of the buoys it would 
be dangerous to approach it. The harbour authorities state that the 
spit extends farther to seaward daring continued southerly winds. 

St. Sebastian spit projects a quarter of a mile eastward of the 
fort. At low water this spit is clearly visible and often dry. 

Leven bank, in Mozambique harbour, is possibly over a mile in 
length, its limit to the westward not having been defined ; the charted 
portion is 5 cables in width, and with a least depth of 1^ fathoms. 
It forms the north side of the harbour, and reduces the anchorage 
limits for vessels of moderate draught to the width of about one 
cable. 

LIGHTS. — From a building resembling a church, with a square 
yellow tower, on St. George island is exhibited, at an elevation of 
85 feet above high water, o. fixed white light, visible in clear weather 
from a distance of 15 miles. 

Attached to the flagstaff of fort St. Sebastian is an iron scaffolding, 
from which, at an elevation of 42 feet above high water, is exhibited 

See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



296 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR. [Chap. VII. 

a fixed green light, visible in the direction of the bar from a distance 
of 4 miles. At the distance of ,200 yards N. 63° W., from th« light at 
the flagstaff, on the west side of the fort, is a similar fixed green 
light, elevated 69 feet, and visible 4 miles. These lights in line lead 
through North channel. 

At Cabeceira Grande, from an iron support in front of a yellow 
house with turret, is exhibited, at an elevation of 35 feet above high 
water, a fixed red light, visible 5 miles. A fixed red light is exhibited 
from the red and white beacon on Harpshell sands, at an elevation of 
11 feet above high water, and is visible in the direction of the bar 
about 5 miles. It is situated S. 13° E., distant ly^^ miles from Cabeceira 
Grande light. These 7'ed lights in line, bearing N. 13° W., lead 
between Sebastian and Harpshell spits. 

Tvfo fixed green lights, 19 feet above high water, are shown from 
the custom house pier. 

Buoys and Beacons. — Red buoys mark the extreme of the 
north-east spit of St. George island, the north-east spit of St. Jago 
and the north extremity of St. Sebastian spit. Black buoys mark the 
west spit of St. George island, the two Harpshell spits (within 
the edge), and the south-eastern edges of Levon bank. A red and 
white beacon {see lights) stands on the Harpshell sands. 

On entering Mozambique harbour, the black buoys should be left 
on the starboard hand, and the red buoys on the port hand. 

Too much reliance must not be placed upon the buoys maintaining 
the colours or the positions shown on the charts. 

Pilots. — When proceeding into Mozambique, a pilot may probably 
board the vessel some distance inside St. George island, but by 
attention to the directions the pilot's services may be dispensed with. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mozambique, at 
4h. 15m. ; springs rise 12 feet. The streams run strong in the 
harbour — the flood to the westward, the ebb to the eastward — and 
with sufficient strength at springs to turn a vessel against a strong 
sea breeze. 

DIRECTIONS- — On account of the strong current off Mozam- 
bique, which usually (though not always) sets to the southward from 
2 to 4 knots an hour, vessels should make the land well to the north- 
ward, especially during the northerly monsoon ; and in the event of 



See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



Chap. VII.] BUOYAGE. — DIRECTIONS. 297 

a sailing vessel being swept to the southward of her port, she should 
at once stand to the eastward for 60 miles or more, and regain her 
northing beyond the influence of the southerly current. 

Vessels of heavy draught should use the North channel only. 

North, channel. — If approaching from the northward, keep the 
south- dast side of St. Jago open eastward of St. George island, to 
avoid the reefs ofiE cape Cabeceira and Tree island ; and when the 
broad white stripe on fort St. Sebastian or the flagstaff bears N. 63° W., 
steer for it, passing about a quarter of a mile northward of the red 
buoy on St. George spit. Alter course in time to bring the yellow 
house with turret on its western end, at Cabeceira Grande (or the 
light structure of it can be seen) in line with the red and white 
beacon on Harpshell spit, bearing N. 13° W., and steer in on that 
mark until the custom house pier comes in sight. Then the course 
should be gradually altered to the westward, steering for the outer 
end of the custom house pier bearing W. by S. ^ S., until abreast of 
fort Sebastian ; thence about West a short distance, anchoring as 
convenient. In going through the narrows abreast the fort, be quick 
with the helm, and make due allowance for the tidal stream, which 
runs strong. The flood sets towards Leven bank. 

A sailing vessel becalmed may anchor in North channel in depths 
of 6 to 12 fathoms, coral bottom ; but there are many deep holes 
within one mile of fort St. Sebastian. 

At night, when about one mile seaward of St. George island 
light, bring the two green lights on fort Sebastian in line, bearing 
N. 63° W., and steer for them until Cabeceira and Harpshell 
red lights are coming on, when haul up for the latter. These red 
lights in line, N. 13° W., will lead between Sebastian and Harpshell 
spits ; and when the green lights on the end of Custom house pier 
come in sight, gradually haul to the westward, steering for them 
when bearing W. by S. \ S. until abreast the fort, when anchor as 
convenient. 

South channel is only suitable for light draught vessels, unless 
buoyed. When approaching from the southward, avoid the in- 
draught on the flood into Mokambo bay ; thence keep Tree island open 
eastward of St. George island, until the white stripe on fort St. Sebastian 

See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



29S MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR. [Chap. VII. 

or the flagstaff bears N.W. by N., when steer for it until the yellow 
house at Cabeceira is on with Plarpshell beacon ; then proceed as for 
North channel. 

Anchorages. — The outer anchorage is in 7 or 8 fathoms, with 
the flagstaff on fort St. Sebastian bearing N.W., distant about three- 
quarters of a mile, and Tree island just open of cape Cabeceira. 
Here a vessel will be out of the strength of the stream, which runs 
with considerable force through the narrows and North channel. 
There are several deep holes in the outer anchorage, which has not 
been accurately sounded, and care is necessary when bringing up. 

Considerable alteration is said to have been caused by the rapid 
tidal streams which run in Mozambique harbour, and there is 
supposed to be about 3 feet less water than is shown on the chart. 
The inner anchorage is not recommended for vessels of heavy 
draught. 

In taking up a berth in the harbour, keep near Mozambique 
island, to avoid Leven bank, the nearest part of which is but 3 cables 
from the island. 

A good position, in about 5 fathoms, and 2 cables from the shore, 
is with the outer end of the Customs house pier S.W. ^ W., and fort 
St. Sebastian flagstaff S.E. ^ E. 

MOZA.MBIQUE ISLA.ND AND CITY. — Mozambique 
island, on which stands the city, is formed of coral, is low and narrow, 
about 1^ miles in length, in a north-east and south-west direction, 
and about 400 yards in breadth. It lies directly in the entrance to 
Mossoril bay, and the ship channel is northward of it. 

Mozambique island is covered with stone buildings ; the streets are 
fairly wide and well kept. The Governor General's palace is an 
extensive building, and in front of it there is a wharf. 

The population of Mozambique may be about 8,000, including the 
garrison about 200, Arabs, Banians, and negroes. There are but few 
Portuguese except those holding official positions, and no British 
merchants. The natives live outside the town proper ; their houses 
are well built, thatched and numbered. 

Forts. — St. Sebastian fort is the most prominent feature on the 
island. It was built in 1508-11 by the Portuguese, and is of a 
quadrangular form, nearly 70 feet high. Lorenzo fort, now a powder 

■See plan of Mozambique harbour, Jilo. 652, and sheet of plans. No. 653. 



Chap. VII.] ISLAlfD AND CITY.— SUPPLIES. 299 

magazine, is built on a small isolated rock off the south-west 
extremity of the island, to which at low water it is joined by a 
coral flat. 

Position.— St. Sebastian fort flagstaff is in lat. 15° 0' 45" S., 
long. 40° 44' 45" E. 

Telegrraph., — Mozambique is connected with Cape Colony by 
submarine cable, via Natal, with Aden via Zanzibar, and with 
Mojanga in Madagascar. 

Mails. — The British India Company's vessels call monthly when 
proceeding southward, from Aden to Delagoa bay, and also on the 
return voyage. The Deutsche Ost Afrika vessels, from Aden via 
the coast ports to Natal, &c., call every three weeks when proceeding 
southward, and also on the return voyage. Their steamer from 
Bombay via Seychelles and Zanzibar calls here every six weeks 
en route to Kiliman, and also on returning. There is a monthly 
steamer of the Messageries Maritime from Diego Suarez to Mozam- 
bique, Beira and Delagoa bay ; also another French line, the 
" Chargeurs Reunis of Havre," via West Africa ports, Capetown, &c. 
See also page 15. 

Landingr may be effected in boats at the pier in front of the 
Governor General's, except at near low water springs. There is a 
small jetty in front of the Custom house, with still less water. The 
construction of a deep water wharf was commenced and 120 feet of 
it accomplished, when work was suspended. An addition of 300 feet 
is necessary to render it of more utility than the present pier. 

Supplies. — Fresh beef, vegetables, and bread are procurable in 
moderate quantities. Fowls, oranges and other fruits are plentiful. 
There is a good general hospital. 

Water. — There is a Government water tank, with pump, which 
can be borrowed by applying to the guardship. A water tank to 
hold about 6,000 tons was built in 3893 ; the water is probably now 
available for the shipping. Water is brought alongside for about 
two dollars a ton. 

Coal. — From 800 to 1,000 tons of coal are usually in stock at 
Mozambique. Coal is brought alongside in lighters ; labour is 

See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



300 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR. [Chap. VTl 

plentiful, but delay may be caused in loading the lighters, as they 
cannot lie at the pier at near low water. The assistance of a steam 
cutter to tow the lighters will expedite coaling. 

Repairs. — Coasting craft of small burthen are built here ; there 
is a Government factory for repair of machinery, but only those of 
the smallest kind can be executed. There are no docks. 

Trade. — The articles exported are : —Ivory, calomba root, oil seeds, 
india-rubber, wax, gold in small quantities, ambergris, ambf>r and 
grain. The imports are principally cattle, rice, cotton goods of all 
descriptions. The value of the exports in 1893 amounted to £72,000, 
and the imports to £134,000. 109 vessels entered the port, of the 
aggregate tonnage of 105,884 ; 103 were steam vessels. About 40 
British India dhows are engaged in the coasting trade, aggregating 
about 2,000 tons. These dhows sail to Bombay and Kutch in 
September and return in February or March. 

Climate. — The climate of Mozambique is unhealthy. Fevers, 
malarious and bilious, are prevalent, against which the best pre- 
cautions are temperate living and abstinence from alcoholic 
stimulants. 

Rain. — The rainy season is from November to March ; see page 28. 

"Winds. — The prevailing winds on the coast about Mozambique 
are northerly from October to April, and southerly during the 
rest of the year. At Mozambique, land and sea bieezes prevail ; 
the latter coming in about lOh. or llh. a.m. from S.E. to South, 
shifting towards east in the afternoon. At daylight, the land wind 
blows right out of the harbour. 

Cyclones are experienced occasionally, but at rare intervals. About 
the latter end of January of the years 1841-2-3, Mozambique was 
visited by cyclones. At one of these periods the vessels drove from 
their anchors and were stranded. From the description of those who 
witnessed them, the bottom of the sea was agitated to such a degree 
as to heave and loosen the sand, rendering it impossible for the 
anchors to hold. Black impenetrable clouds overhead produced a 
darkness as during an eclipse. Previous to those visitations, cyclones 
had been unknown for 40 years. 

See plan of Mozambique harbour, No. 652, and sheet of plans, No. 653. 



Chap. VII.] CLIMATE. — WINDS. — CONDUCIA BAY. 301 

Another cyclone occurred on April 1st and 2nd, 1858, on which 
occasion the barometer fell to 28' 7 inches, and seven out of ten vessels 
at that time in the port were driven on shore ; much damage was done 
on the island of Mozambique and surrounding country. See cyclones, 
pages 23, 24. 

Mossoril bay is a large harbour, within and north-westward 
of Mozambique island ; it is about 2^ miles in length by 1^ miles in 
width, with depths of from 4 to 7 fathoms, and capable of containing 
a large fleet ; but it has only been partially sounded. 

The north-west part of Mossoril bay branches off into three creeks. 
The northern one, Mossoril creek, extends to the isthmus of Empassa, 
which only separates it from port Conducia by the distance of half a 
mile. There is a road of communication for the convenience of 
vessels lying in Conducia. 

The western creek branches into two, Calombo on the west, and 
Lombu on the south. The shores of all these creeks are covered with 
mangrove. 

CONDUCIA BAY and the port at its head are separated from 
Mozambique harbour, by the peninsula of Cabeceira. The entrance 
of the bay is 6 miles wide between Kitangonia and Tree islands, with 
deep water between. The inner part of the bay, has a navigable 
channel about 1\ miles wide between Sombrero islet and cape 
Conducia, 3 miles apart, from whence it extends about 6 miles 
westward to Bar point, with irregular depths of from 20 to 5 fathoms. 
The depths are more regular towards the head of the bay, decreasing 
from 11 to 5 fathoms within half a mile from the north shore. 

Coral flats extend about one mile off the south side of the bay 
and oft" Kissangula islet on the north side, and about half that distance 
off the shore within the islet. A patch, of 3^ fathoms, lies near mid- 
channel, with cape Conducia S. | E. about 2 miles. 

Cape Conducia, is cliffy, and about 200 feet high ; the coast on 
either side is low and sandy. 

Kitangonia island, the northern limit of Conducia bay, is about 
two miles in length, north-east and south-west, by one mile in width ; 
there are apparently no dangers on its seaward side beyond a short 
distance. 

Sen plan of Conducia bay, on No. 653. 



302 • MOZAMBIQUE TO IBO, [Chap. VII. 

Kissangrula or Sombrero is a rocky islet with trees situated 
within Kitangonia island. 

Port Conducia, at the head of the bay of the same name, is a 
land-locked harbour, one mile in length by half a mile in width, 
within Bar point, with about 4 fathoms of water near its centre. Bar 
point is a dry narrow spit of sand with some shrubs on it. 

Conducia river, of which the port is the estuary, has its source in 
Table mountain, and is navigable for boats almost to the foot of 
the mountain. 

Directions. — Having made the land to the northward of Kitan- 
gonia, on account of the probable southerly set of the current, coast 
as close as convenient and haul round the south point of Kitangonia at 
the distance of three-quarters of a mile; thence steer for cape Conducia. 
When the two little rocky points between Chicoma and Nifuku bear 
N. by W. I W., and Table mountain is open to the westward of them, 
a vessel will be westward of Kissangula spit, and may steer N.W. ^ N., 
coasting the northern shore if wishing to go farther in. Kissan- 
gula island on with Kitangonia point, astern, appears a good mark for 
running up the bay, until Arab islet on the south shore bears about 
S. by E. 

If proceeding into the port without a pilot, proceed carefully along 
the northern shore, with the boats ahead sounding, until near Bar 
point ; here the channel is tortuous, but there is supposed to be not 
less than 4 fathoms in mid-channel. 

In entering Conducia bay from the southward, round Tree island 
at about half a mile distant, and steer for Table mountain just open 
to the westward of the two little rocky points on the northern shore 
bearing N. by W. | W. ; then proceed as before. 

Anolioriig'e. — There is anchorage in the entrance, in about 
11 fathoms, irregular bottom, with cape Conducia S. by W. and 
Kissangula island E.N.E. ; and also farther up the bay, in 5 fathoms, 
mud, with Sombrero islet bearing East, and cape Conducia 
S.E. by E. ^ E. 

Fowls, eggs, and oysters, will probably be obtained from the 
natives. Near Bar point there are salt works from whence the 
salt is shipped to various places. 

See plan of Conducia bay, on 653. 



Chap. VII.] PORT CONDUCIA.— FERNANDO VELOSO BAY. 303 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at port Conducia at 
4h. I5m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Port Velhaoo, within the point of that name, is protected to the 
southward by Kitangonia island, and affords better shelter for small 
coasting craft than Conducia bay from the strong north-west winds, 
which blow in the latter end of the northerly monsoon. The port 
has not been surveyed, but there is a depth of about 4 fathoms in 
the entrance, and from 1 to 2 fathoms within, over dark coral 
patches interspersed with sand ; there is apparently less water in 
places. 

COAST. — Kroosi is a large village situated between the 
peninsulas of Kroosi and Napenja. Coasters find perfect shelter 
within the outlying reef (which must be crossed at high water), 
abreast the town, lying aground on the sand. 

The coast from Kroosi village takes a northerly direction for 
about 14 miles to Kisima-Julu harbour, backed by ranges of hills at 
2 miles distant. Janga village, on the point of the same name, lies 
about midway. 

Kisima-Julu harbour. — About 18 miles southward of Fer- 
nando Veloso bay is Kisima-Julu harbour. It is visited by coasters 
engaged in the timber trade, which constitutes the chief wealth of 
the adjacent district. From the entrance it extends in a west and 
Bouth-west direction about 5 miles. The entrance channel between 
the reefs is about 200 yards wide, with a depth of from 3 to 4 fathoms ; 
in the harbour, which is about one mile wide, the depths are 
from 4 to 8 fathoms. As this harbour has not been surveyed, 
caution is necessary when entering. A reef extends apparently 
nearly a mile southward of the north point. 

Cape Melamo (Kulumlomu), the southern headland of 
Fernando Veloso bay, is low and rocky. About 2 miles southward 
of the cape the cliff terminates near some conspicuous casuarina 
trees, thence the coast, about 300 feet high, is fronted by a high 
sandy beach, nearly to the entrance of Kisima-Julu river. Off this 
beach, shoal water appears to extend about 3 cables. 

FERNANDO VELOSO (Mazazima) BAY is a spacious bay, 
about 40 miles northward of Mozambique, with port Nakala at its 

See chart ; — Mozambique harbour to Ra« Pekawi, No. 1,809 and No. 2,762. 



304 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR TO IBO. [Chap. VII. 

south-west, and Belmore harbour at its north-west corner. The bay 
is about 6 miles across, between capes Mocuo and Melamo, and about 
8 miles in length. 

Foul ground, reported by H.M.S. Vulture, 1874, is charted for 
about 3 miles off cape Mocuo, the northern point ; on the southern 
side, a ledge, which dries in places at low water, extends about half 
a mile from shore, with from 7 to 8 fathoms at a short distance ; it 
is foul, apparently, nearly a mile off shore eastward of Nahareni 
point. The centre and head of the bay has no bottom at from 
20 to 40 fathoms. It is advisable to keep the southern shore aboard 
when entering or leaving the bay. 

The land at the head of the bay is moderately high, with some 
hummocky hills, and north-westward of the bay are some remarkable 
saddle hills and a sugar-loaf peak. 

On the northern side of the entrance, within cape Mocuo, there is 
a remarkable hill, about 300 feet in height, with a rather flat top, 
rising abruptly from the land around, which is level, and of 
moderate elevation. When seen from the northward at a distance 
of about 15 miles, this hill resembles a vessel under sail, but, on a 
nearer approach and different bearing, it changes its form. 

Anohorag'e. — There is anchorage in 8 fathoms about 4 miles 
within cape Melamo, and one mile off the southern shore, abreast of 
a small stream. 

"Water. — H.M.S. Mutine watered with her own boats from the 
stream abreast of this anchorage, obtaining 12 tons per day, but with 
some difficulty. 

Supplies. — Fowls, goats, ducks, and vegetables are to be 
obtained ; also guinea fowls, venison, and a species of hare. "Wood 
is plentiful, and easily obtained in any part of the bay. 

Tides. — The probable time of high water, full and change, is 
about 4h. ; rise about 15 feet. 

Port Nakala. — The result of an exploration of the south-west 
corner of Fernando Velosa bay, formerly known as Fernando Velosa 
river, by Lieut. H. O'Neill, whilst H.B.M. Consul at Mozambique, has 
been the discovery of a capacious and landlocked harbour, named port 
Nakala. From Nahareni, the eastern point of entrance, it extends a 

See plan of Fernando Veloso bay on chart No. 1,809. 



Chap. VII.] PORT NAKALA AND BELMORE HARBOUR. 305 

distance of about 9 miles in a S.W. by S. dii-ection, with an average 
breadth of 1^ miles. The entrance is about half a mile in width, 
with deep water on the eastern side, but a shoal extends nearly half 
way across from the western point. 

Its eastern shore rises in steep but well- wooded slopes to 100 or 
200 feet, with bold promontories, suitable for settlements, catching 
every prevailing breeze over a clear sweep of several miles of water, 
without a trace of mangrove swamps. There are some remains of 
the fortress of Don Miguel, on Nahareni point, erected early in this 
century. 

Off Namuhashi point, on the western side of the port, 10 miles 
within the entrance, are the Shihubidi rocks, covered at high water 
springs, and connected to the shore by a reef. The water shoals 
gradually as the head of the port is approached, and foul ground 
extends a considerable distance off Namusu point. There appears to 
be no difficulty in entering this port. 

This used to be a great rendezvous for slavers, vessels being able 
to lie perfectly unseen from seaward, either here or in Belmore 
harbour to the westward. 

Belmore (Nihegelie) harbour, at the north-west corner of 
Fernando Veloso bay, is about 4 miles in length, by one mile in 
breadth throughout ; the entrance channel is apparently reduced by 
reefs fringing the points, to a breadth of 2 or 3 cables, with no bottom 
at 20 fathoms. The tidal stream runs strong in the entrance, and in 
the rainy season the water is discoloured at times, rendering the 
reefs difficult to be seen. Within the entrance, the depths decrease 
gradually from about 16 fathoms, towards the head of the harbour. 

The east shore of the harbour is mostly rocky, with sandy patches, 
until northward of West cove, whence it is mangrove swamp to the 
head. The west side is mangrove swamp, with the exception of a 
sandy bight just within the entrance, which is a good plac^ for 
hauling the seine. 

H.M.S. Vulture anchored off West cove in 7 fathoms, not \n\te> 
half a mile from the west shore. Directly opposite this cove is a 
village, where a small supply of vegetables and fowls were obtained. 

There is no trade in Belmore harbour, and the locality does not 
seem to be healthy. 



See plan of Fernando Veloso bay (which includes Belmore harbour) on chart 
No. 1,809. 

SO 11977 . C! 



306 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR TO IBO. [Chap. VII. 

COAST. — Pinda shoal. — From Fernando Veloso bay to cape 
Loguno, little is known of the coast, as it is generally given a wide 
berth, on accou7it of Pinda shoal, which extends 5 miles from it ; 
the sea generally breaks on most parts of the shoal, but we have no 
definite information as to its extent north and south. 

Cape Logruno (Ras Mwamba Koma) is the southern headland of 
Memba bay. It is of moderate height, about 80 feet near the sea, 
level at the top, with perpendicular cliffs. It appears to be bold-to 
on the north side, but bordered eastward by Pinda shoal. 

MEMBA BAY (Mwendazi) is about 6 miles wide, between capes 
Loguno and Tapamanda (Ras Umlulu), and perhaps 7 or 8 miles deep, 
with no bottom at 50 fathoms, in its outer part ; its north-western 
arm is said to afford good and sheltered anchorage, but it has not 
been examined. The little we know of Memba bay is principally 
from H.M.S. Nerhudda, which vessel touched slightly on a coral reef 
at high water, going from 60 fathoms suddenly into 2^ fathoms, but 
no further particulars are given. This reef extends from the north 
side of the bay apparently 1\ miles, and as the account mentions that 
it was high water, it is probable that at times the reef is nearly 
awash. 

The Nerhudda appears to have anchored in 12 fathoms, at about 
one mile from the north shore, and one mile or more westward of 
the reef she touched on. From this anchorage to i;he head^ of the 
bay, sand flats border the shore, extending a considerable distance 
in some places. 

Bocage harbour is an inlet about 3 miles in length, by one 
mile in width, on the south side of Memba bay. Near the entrance 
there is no bottom at 60 fathoms ; the depths in the harbour are said 
to be convenient for large vessels. 

Marenje is a port and village of some importance to the coasting 
trade, situated about 3 miles northward of Memba bay. 

COAST. — Landmarks. — From Memba bay to Sorisa point, a 
distance of about 37 miles, the land is more.Btriking than other parts 
of the coast. It is mostly . level and of moderate elevation, about 
200 feet, decreasing towards the coast where it is low. From the 
level land, several craggy peaks, known as the Sorisa range, and 
which Owen justly compares to the ruins of some giant city, rise 



See chart No 1,809. 



Chap. VII.] MEMBA, ALMEIDA AND LURIO BAYS. 307 

abruptly to a height of 2,000 or 3,000 feet ; these peaks assume every 
variety of form of sugar-loaf, cone, and round or square-topped 
pillars, in some cases appearing to overhang their bases. 

Sangrone (Simuku) bay, about 10 miles northward of Memba 
bay, in about lat. 13° 58' S., is about one mile in extent, with an 
entrance half a mile wide, apparently free from reefs ; but though 
considered a good port by coasters, a number of reefs are exposed at 
low water, greatly limiting the anchorage space, and rendering it 
probably unsuitable for larger vessels. 

The village of Simiku is scattered over a space 2 miles in extent. 
Some trade is carried on here by Banians, in amendoim, columba, 
wax and rubber. The port is the principal outlet for the trade of 
the district. 

' it! ( ' . 

ALMEIDA BAY lies withip Mancabale and Indujo reefs, which 
render it a safe anchorage, with from 4 to 7 fathoms water. The 
main channel to Almeida bay is southward of Indujo reef, between 
which and the coast, the depths vary from 8 to 10 fathoms. There 
is also a passage a quarter of a, mile wide, between Indujo and 
Mancabale reefs, with a depth of 11 fathoms in the centre, decreasing 
gradually towards the anchorage, Two remarkable peaks bearing 
W. I N., and just open southward of the sandy hill on the western 
shore, lead through. 

Mancabale reef, dry in places at low water spring tides, projects 
5 miles southward of Sorisa point. At half a mile seaward of the 
reef, a depth of 1 4 fathoms was found. 

Indujo reef, about one mile in extent, and awash at low water 
springs, lies one mile southward of Mancabale reef. 

.Minsangegi river lies, in the southern p^art of Almeida bay. The 
hill just southward of the river is a conspicuous bluff, and a useful 
mark for the bay. 

LURIO BAY, between Sorisa and Pando points, a distance of 
about 8 miles, has from 5 to lo fathoms water. It affords sheltered 
anchorage under Sorisa poipt ^uring the south-west monsoon period, 
but none during the north-east monsoon ; there is an easy overland 
route from Almeida. The land is all low near the sea, with thick 
jungle, but there are high craggy peaks in the interior. 

See plan of Almeida bay, on chart, No. 1,809. 
SO 11977 ' U 2 



308 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR TO IBO. [Chap. VII. 

Lurio river is in the southern part of the bay : the sea at times is 
discoloured by its water for some miles. Lurio is the principal 
settlement between Mozambique and Ibo.* 

COAST, — Northward of Lurio bay the land is of moderate height 
and continues so from Badgley point to Maunhane point, a distance! 
of about 25 miles. 

This part of the coast is fronted in places by a quicksand beach, 
and a reef, mostly steep-to, which extends off the northern portion 
about 1^ miles. Northward of Ushanga there is temporary anchorage 
in about 11 fathoms, sand over coral, not good holding ground. 

Mkufl. — The bar of the river and port of Mkufi, 10 miles north- 
ward of Lurio bay, may be crossed at half tide by craft drawing from 
5 to 6 fe6t ; close nnder the southern shore there is anchorage for 
such craft in from 2 to 3 fathoms. The village is clean and healthily 
situated on elevated ground on the right bank, and provisions and 
good water are obtainable. 

# 

Ushangra is a village situated about 6 miles southward of Maun- 
hane point ; abreast it is Xanga Mrebwi, a gap in the reef with a 
deep water channel. The land about Ushanga is low, with trees 
almost to the water's edge. 

Maimhane point is rather bluff, but terminating in a low rocky 
point, from which the reef extends eastward two-thirds of a mile. 
The sea breaks upon this reef, and it is also visible from the discolour- 
ation of the water. 

Imbo bank, with depths of 9 to 10 fathoms, lies about 2^ miles 
north-eastward of Maunhane point ; it is said to afford good 
anchorage, with Sid-Ali point bearing W. by N. I N. H.M.S. Raleigh, 
in 1890, obtained soundings of 7 to 8 fathoms at 1^ miles northward 
of Maunhane point ; less water may exist. 

POMBA BAY (Mwambi).— The entrance to Pomba bay, about 
5 miles to the westward of Maunhane point, is about 1\ miles wide 
between North and Herbert points. The basin inside these points is 
one of the finest harbours on this coast, being about 8 miles in length, 
north and south, by 5 miles in breadth, with sufficient water in most 

• Conpul O'Neill's Report. 1880. See charts, Nos. 1,809 and 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] POMBA BAY. 309 

partH for heavy draught vessels, and shelter from all winds.* The 
country around is composed of fertile plains and woods, and the 
climate is said to be good in comparison with other places on this 
coast. See climate at Ibo, page 314. The land wind generally blows 
out of the bay till 7h. or 8h, a.m. There is good fishing with the 
seine. 

North, or Sid-Ali point is a moderately high bluff, covered 
with trees and jungle, and steep-to, there being a depth of 18 fathoms 
within half a cable. 

Herbert or Miranembo point, the southern point of entrance 
runs off low, but with a high hill at the back ; it may be approached 
within a quarter of a mile. There was formerly a fort and flagstaff 
on the point. 

Off Mpira point, shoal water extends about 4 cables. 

Dangrers. — The shores of Pomba bay have several rocky ledges 
projecting to the distance of 1^ miles in places ; it has not been fully 
examined, but the principal known dangers are as follows : — 

Mutine patch, of coral, one cable in extent, with 3 feet least water, 
and from 12 to 14 fathoms around, lies with North point bearing 
E. ^ S., and Herbert point S.E. by E. 

A coral patch, one cable in extent, with 6 feet water, also 
discovered by H.M.S. Mutine, lies about one mile southward of 
Mutine patch. Other shoals are charted about 1^ miles off shore, 
south-westward of this patch. 

Penguin shoal, a patch of coral, with 4 fathoms at low-water 
springs, lies about midway between the patches. 

Pantaloon patch, of 5 fathoms, lies in the northern anchorage, as 
charted. Two detached patches, with about (> feet water, lie half a 
mile off-shore, eastward of Pantaloon patch. 

Directions. — Anchoragres. — Outside Pomba bay there is no 
anchorage, except on Imbo bank in about 9 fathoms. Between the 
points of entrance the depths are from 30 to 40 fathoms, and not less 
than 20 fathoms until 2 miles within the points. 

To proceed to an anchorage in the northern part of the bay, and 
being abreast of Sid-Ali or North point, distant half a mile ; steer to 
pass midway between Pantaloon patch and the shoals one mile 

* See plan of Pomba bay, on chart, No. 1,809. 



310 MOZAMBIQUE HARBOUR TO TBO. [Chap. VII. 

eastward of it, and anchor in 9 or 10 fathoms, black mud and good 
holding ground, with Mpira point S. ^ W., and Mwambi village 
W.N.W. ; the latter mark leads northward of Pantaloon patch, with 
which bearing a vessel may go nearer the village. 

If proceeding to an anchorage in the southern part of the bay, 
give Mpira point a berth of three quarters of a mile when bearing 
about E.S.E., to avoid the reef extending from it. There is anchorage 
in about 12 fathoms, with Mpira point bearing N.E. distant 1^ miles ; 
southward of this the plan states that the ground is reported foul. 

Supplies. — Small bullocks, poultry, vegetables, and wood are 
obtainable. Deer and other game- are found in the vicinity. The 
village of Mwambi lies in the north-west part of the bay, and that of 
Nyamazezi in the southern. 

Water appears to be obtainable in small quantities. There 
are, however, two inconsiderable streams in the north-east part of the 
bay, barely navigable for boats, and a larger one named the Nihegi, 
in the south part of the bay. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Pomba bay at 
4h. 15m. ; springs rise 15 feet ; neaps rise 11 feet. 

The COAST. — Aspect. — The coast from Pomba bay northward 
continues moderately high for about 15 miles, when it becomes low 
and thickly covered with trees for 8 miles to Kiziva island ; there is, 
however, high land in the interior of Arimba, which may be seen in 
clear weather from a distance of about 40 miles. 

Dedema bay, about one mile in extent, with a depth of 3 feet 
only between its entrance points, is situated in about lat. 12° 43' S. 
Mugarumo river lies in its north-west corner, 

Arimba head, about 4 miles northward of Dedema bay, is a 
peninsula forming the north-east side of Kipao bay, and when seen 
from the north-eastward is conspicuous, having six or seven hillocks 
on it. 

Kipao bay is about 2 miles in extent, with depths of from 3 to 
5 fathoms over a small portion of it. Kipaco island, on the north side 
o£ the entrance, is connected to Arimba head by a reef. 



See charts, No. 1,809 and No. 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] KBRIMBA ISLANDS. :^11 

The channel to the anchorage appears to be nearer to the island 
than to the main, the reef extending some distance from Sito point ; 
a detached patch of three fathoms lies about three-quarters of a mile 
eastward of the point. 

Port Arimba, on the north side of Arimba head, is protected by 
Kiziva island and reef. Between the island and Arimba head there 
is a depth of from 5 to 3 fathoms in the channel leading to the 
anchorage. 

Port Arimba appears to be a secure harbour for small vessels. It 
is one of the Portuguese settlements, with about 400 inhabitants, 
who export grain, vegetables, fruit, and timber. 

KERIMBA ISLANDS.— General remarks.— The Kerimba 
islands extend from Arimba head to Cape Delgado, a distance of 
117 miles. 

In this space the outer reefs and islands extend in some places as 
much as 13 miles from the mainland, and in most parts more 
than 10 miles, but to the southward of lat. 12° S. they nowhere exceed 
8 miles. 

The Kerimba islands are generally low, well wooded and easily 
seen from seaward ; some have a diversified surface of hill and dale, 
whilst many are mere coral islets. 

The main land abreast Kerimba islands is also generally low, and 
will rarely be seen when coasting outside the reefs ; this, and the 
fact that the sea faces of the reefs are steep-to, necessitates caution 
in approaching this part of the coast, even in the daytime. 

There are eighteen or nineteen openings between the outer islands 
and reefs into a still greater number of secure ports or convenient 
anchorages for small craft. 

FumO island, situated about 6 miles northward of Arimba head, 
is connected with Kiziva by a coral reef ; the passage between it and 
the main is only a boat channel. Fumo is one of the islands which 
the Portuguese inhabit ; it has a population of about 100. 

Penguin island, to the northward of Fumo, is small, wooded, 
and fronted by a reef to the distance of half a mile. There appears 
to be temporary anchorage oflE Penguin island reef, in 13 fathoms. 

See charts, No. 1,809 and No. 2,762. 



312 IBO HARBOUR. , [Chap. Vlt. 

coral bottom, with the south point of the island bearing N.W. by N. 
distant three-quarters of a mile. Samucan island reef is steep-to. 

Montepes bay, contained between Fumo island and Kisanga 
point, has been but partially examined. There is apparently a deep 
water channel between the reefs of Fumo and Penguin islands, but 
a rock lies near midway with a depth of 33 fathoms close-to. 

At the head of the bay is the Portuguese settlement of Montepes, 
at the mouth of the river of that name. The village consists of 
miserable huts, with a population of about 600. 

Kerimba island is about 3 miles in length north and south by 
1| miles in width ; it is low, wooded, has good well water, and is the 
most fertile of the Archipelago. Kerimba was formerly the capital 
of the district, now at Kisanga. Population about 200. 

Kisangra point is a projection of the main land towards Ibo 
island, from which it is separated by a channel scarcely navigable for 
canoes at low water. Kisanga is one of the Portuguese settlements, 
with about 2,000 inhabitants. 

IBO HARBOUR.— The main cliannel to the anchorage, 
southward of St. Gonsalo shoal, is about one mile wide between the 
buoys, with depths of 6 to 8 fathoms. The channel northward of 
St. Gonsalo, between it and Matemo reef, is about half a mile wide, 
with depths of from 12 to 24 fathoms. There is ample depth for all 
vessels in the harbour, but it is only imperfectly surveyed. 

Ibo island is about 5 miles in length in a north-east and south- 
west direction, and nearly divided into two by a deep inlet. The 
town and fort of St. Joao are on the north-eastern side of the inlet 
and near the northern part of the island. The south-western half of 
Ibo Island is named Kirambo. 

Aspect. — Ibo bluff, the north-east extreme of the island, is 
moderatelj- high, with a lighthouse, and may be seen from a distance 
of 14 or 15 miles in clear weather. Ibo may also be distinguished 
from the others of this chain of low islands by its white fort, which 
when bearing about S.W. shows a long front. The cocoa-nut trees 
in the town are easily distinguished at a distance of several miles. 

See plan of the Ibo harbour, on chart. No. 1,809 ; also chart, No. 2,762. 



Chap. Vn.] LIGHT.— BUOYS.— DIRECTIONS. 313 

LIGHT.— From a light tower 20 feet in height on Ibo blufie is 
exhibited, at an elevation of 51 feet above high water, o. fixed white 
light, visible in clear weather between the bearings of N, 4° E. and 
S. 34° E. from a distance of 12 miles. Exhibition uncertain. 

Buoys. — Mujaca shoal, bordering the north side of Ibo island, 
extends northward about 1^ miles, and is occasionally marked by 
two buoys ; one on the extreme north of the lighthouse, the other 
on the extreme north of fort St Joao. Buoys occasionally mark 
the east and south extremes of St. Gonsalo shoal ; there is a mooring 
buoy in the anchorage. These buoys are not to be depended on. 

St. Gonsalo shoal, or Corea de San Gonsalo, lies in the fairway 
of the entrance to Ibo harbour. It is about 2\ miles in length, in 
an east and west direction, and at low water shows as a dry sand- 
bank. It may generally be seen either by the discolouration of the 
water or by the sea breaking. 

Discoloured water has been reported to extend from abreast 
St. Gonsalo shoal to a position East (true) 3 miles from Manoel da 
Silva island. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Ibo at 4h. 15m.; springs 
rise 11 feet. The tides run strong through the channel between 
Mujaca and Gonsalo shoals, the ebb setting rather towards the Mujaca 
side, and the flood inclining to the northward. 

Pllotagre is compulsory except for vessels-of-war. 

Directions. — Anchoragre. — The channel southward of St. 
Gonsalo shoal is the usual one for proceeding to Ibo road, between 
the buoys, marking that danger and those marking Mujaca shoal, 
should they be in position. Anchor in about 5 fathoms, with the 
fort, or the point on which it is situated, bearing from S. \ W. to S. \ E., 
distant about 2\ miles. Deeper water will be found at 2 or 3 cables 
farther northward. The anchorage is good, but partly exposed to 
easterly winds, and the tidal streams run strong. 

When entering Ibo, it is well to be guided by the eye, as the 
reefs show well after half ebb, particularly the St. Gonsalo ; 
borrowing a little on this shoal will therefore ensure safety from 
Mujaca shoal. 

See plan of Ibo harbour, on chart, No. 1,809 ; also chart, No. 2,762. 



314 IBO HARBOUR. [Chap. VIT. 

Tlie Town of Ibo consists of stone houses and huts, and is 
one of the principal Portuguese ports. The population (1887), 
composed of Portuguese, Arabs, Banians, and natives, was between 
3,000 and 4,000, including the garrison. 

Fort St. Joao, star shaped and constructed of stone, is garrisoned 
by a company of infantry. The defence of the town is completed by 
two other small forts, St. Jose and St. Antonio, both also of stone. 

The inlet which runs up to the town forms a harbour for small 
craft, having depths of from 1^ to 2 fathoms ; but on the bar, which 
is about a mile from the shore, there is only three-quarters of a 
fathom at low water. The upper part of the inlet, for a mile or more 
in extent, is shallow. 

Climate. — The sickly season is from the middle of January to 
the middle of March, during which time there is much rain, with 
thunder and lightning. The fever at that time of year is often fatal, 
and the negroes are not exempt from it. 

Supplies of fresh provisions are obtainable in small quantities ; 
water is difficult to obtain, and of indifferent quality. There are no 
facilities for repairs. 

Communication. — The branch steamer of the Deutsche Ost 
Afrika Co. from Tanga via other ports, to as far southward as 
Mikandani, calls here also every three weeks if sufficient induce- 
ment offers. See also page 15. 

Trade. — The exports are oilseeds, india-rubber, ivory and wax, 
the value in 1893 being £60,828. Imports : guns, powder, beads, 
cloths, of the value of £66,600. About 10 or 12 vessels enter yearly 
besides the mail steamers and coasters. 

Cramacoma river enters the sea westward of Ibo harbour. 
Lumbo, a Portuguese settlement, with a population of about 600, is 
situated at the mouth of this river. 

THE COAST from abreast Ibo island to Kirinuzi point is 
moderately high, and higher still from the latter to Pangane point. 
Inland is a range of hills, visible 20 miles from the coast ; the south 



See plan of Ibo harbour, on chart No. 1,«U9 ; also chart, No. 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] TOWN; CLIMATE.— MATEMO ANCHORAGES. 3l5 

end of the range is bluff, with a conical hill just to the southward. 
Thence northward to cape Delgado the mainland is seldom seen 
^om outside the islands and reefs. 

Matemo island, next northward of Ibo, is about 4^ miles in 
length, north and south, by 2^ miles in breadth, and has a population 
of about 100 persons. It is not fertile, and has no water. This 
island is low, with straggling trees along its whole length, and has a 
white sand beach on its south-east side. 

The mainland will be seen before Matemo when standing in from 
seaward. 

Das Rolas, a small island about 2^ miles northward of Matemo, 
is low, and covered with brushwood. A reef extends about one mile 
north-eastward, and half a mile south-eastward of it. The north- 
west point is sandy, and affords the best landing. 

AncllOrag'es. — ^Matemo island is a convenient rendezvous when 
cruising in the vicinity, on account of there being anchorage under 
it sheltered from either monsoon, and easy of access ; the tidal 
streams, however, run strong. Between Matemo and Envie shoal, 
which fronts the coast to a distance of 4 miles, there is a channel 
half a mile broad, with depths of 3 to 5 fathoms. 

There is sheltered anchorage under Das Rolas, in from 7 to 9 fathoms, 
with that islet bearing N.E. by N., distant half a mile ; there is 
generally a land breeze in the morning. 

Directions. — To proceed to this anchorage, steer for the north- 
east point of Das Rolas when bearing W. by N., until about half a mile 
from it, when head to the south-westward. The water will gradually 
shoal to about 4 fathoms when in a line between the north-east 
points of Das Rolas and Matemo, after passing which the water 
gradually deepens again to 8 and 9 fathoms. 

Do not haul up to anchor under the lee of Das Rolas, until 
Sangane point comes well open to the westward of it, in order to 
avoid Das Rolas reef. 

Wood is obtainable on Das Rolas, but no water, nor are there 
any inhabitants. Stock can be procured from the river Kirinuzi on 
the main. 

See plan of Ibo harbour, on chart, No. 1,S09 ; also chart. No. 2,762. 



316 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VI I. 

Sang'ane point is a low white sandy point, with a reef extending 
nearly Ji miles off. In about the latitude of Sangane point, and 
between 4 and 7 miles from land, is Bangane reef, 3 miles in length 
by one mile in breadth. 

For Lazarus bank, 50 to 80 miles eastward of Sangane point and 
reef, see pp. 562, 563. 

Paugrane point. — A reef, in the middle of which is the small 
island of Inhate, extends l^ miles from Pangane point, nearly joining 
the south-west end of Mahato island reef The passage between 
Mahato island reef and the reef from the main, is only adapted for 
dhows, having but one fathom at low water. The Portuguese have a 
settlement at Pangane point, with a population of about 300 persons. 
Kifula and Molandulo islands lie between Sangane and Pangane 
points. 

Mahato island, lying off Pangane point, has an extensive reef 
all round it, except on the west side, where there is a smooth anchorage 
for dhows. 

Pantaloon reef, about 4 miles northward of Mahato island, and 
in lat. 11° 54' S., long. 40° 36' E., is one mile in extent east and west, 
with a least depth of 2^ fathoms, coral. 

A sandbank awash at high water springs, but generally visible, 
lies about l^ miles west-south-westward of Pantaloon reef. This 
bank is steep-to on its west side, but a coral reef, with 6 to 8 feet 
water, extends from the bank about three quarters of a mile in all 
other directions. 

A patch, with one fathom water, lies W. by N. ^ N., about 3| miles 
from Pantaloon reef. 

Northward of Pantaloon reef there is good anchorage. 

RAS PEKAWI, in lat. 11° 51' S., long. 40° 31' E., is a low sandy 
point, with a clump of firs on its extremity 70 feet high ; half a mile 
off, and connected with the point by a reef, is a bushy islet, 17 feet 
high. 

Caution. — As there is no trade on this part of the coast, nothing 
is gained by approaching the shore by the passages between the 
inner reefs northward of Ras Pekawi ; if obliged to do so, the most 

See chart :— Ras Pekawi to cape Delgado, with views, No. 658, also No. 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] SANGANB POINT.— RAS PEKAWI. iU? 

favourable time is at low water with the sun astern of the vessel ; 
the lead should be kept constantly going. 

No Water. — Fresh water cannot be obtained from any of the 
islands between Ras Pekawi and cape Delgado ; and it is for ihis 
reason that the islands remain uninhabited. 

Coast. — From Ras l^ekawi to Ras Nenumba. the coast for the first 
4 miles consists of a sandy beach, with numerous villages, but the 
remainder is mangroves, intersected by creeks. The shore reef 
extends about 2 miles off th« >8e points. 

A wooded range of hills, from 250 to 280 feet high, extends 
parallel to the coast, from 2 to 3 miles inland. 

Supplies. — A few fowls may be bought in the villages north of 
Ras Pekawi. 

Kisanga islet, 20 feet high, is sandy, covered with brushwood, 
and situated 3^ miles eastward of Ras Pekawi, and on the western 
edge of a reef. 

Mjumbi (MattOS) island is low, thickly wooded, and about 
half a mile in length. It is surrounded by a reef extending 3 miles 
north-east, 1^ miles east, and one mile in a southerly direction, with 
patches of sand which dry in places. 

Anchoragre. — The anchorage west of Kisanga may be approached 
with safety either from the north or south, care being taken if 
entering by Mjumbi pass to avoid Gray rock. A good anchorage 
may be obtained in 8 fathoms, sand and shells, half a mile from the 
reef, with Mjumbi tall trees in line with Kisanga islet. 

The coast from Ras Nenumba to Ras Yamkumbi is low and 
swampy, fringed with mangrove, with numerous creeks ; the sudden 
break in the hills at the back forms the most conspicuous feature of 
the coast. 

Mto Marari. — Boats drawing 2 feet can enter at low water, and 
there is deeper water inside. A large village probably exists on 
its banks, as a number of dhows were seen to enter and leave 
the creek. 

Mud and sand flats extend from half a mile to 1^ miles off-shore, 
with boulders scattered over them. 



See chart : — Ras Pekawi to cape Delgado, with views, No. 658, also No. 2,762. 



318 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VII. 

The coast from Ras Yamkumbi to Ras TJlu, about 12^ miles to the 
northward, is covered with mangrove trees, and seldom .seen from 
outside the islands. The coast reef borders the shore from three- 
quarters to 2 miles distant. 

Seli-Seli rocks. — At 2 miles eastward of Ras Yamkumbi, and 
connected with it by a reef, are three flat-topped coral rocks, 10 feet 
high. 

Crawford reefs are several patches of coral which dry at half- 
ebb, lying 3 miles off this coast, with depths of one to 2 fathoms 
between them and the coast reef. 

The mouths of the creeks on this portion of the coast are dry at 
low water. 

MJUMBI PASS.— The opening between ]\i:jumbi reef and 
Mwamba Wadiazi, is 4 miles wide and perfectly clear, the heavy 
surf on the edges of the reefs marking the channel ; the mainland 
will show very indistinctly, but Mjumbi island will be clearly 
visible. 

Gray rock, having l^ feet at low- water springs, is steep-to, and 
lies in the fairway to the anchorage off Kisanga islet, with Kisanga 
summit bearing S.W. by S., and Mjumbi high trees S. by E. 

Mwamba Mcholi, a coral reef, dry at low water, is about 
4 cables in extent. From its centre Kero Nyuni bears N.E. f E. 
5J miles. 

Mwamba Wadiazi is a square-shaped reef, extending 5^ miles 
to the eastward, and 4 miles to the southward of Kero Nyuni. It is 
composed of coral with many sand cays on it, the rocks uncovering 
in parts at low water, and the cays at half ebb ; its northern, 
eastern, and southern faces are steep -to, but its western side is broken 
into a series of gullies with detached masses of coral, with shallow 
water between them. 

Anchorage. — The sheet of water enclosed between Mjumbi 
and Kero Njuni islands, and the mainland, with the exception of 
the dangers mentioned, has anchorage all over it, in from 5 to 
15 fathoms. 

See chart : — Ras Pekawi to cape Delgado, with views, No. 658, also No. 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] MJUMBI AND NAMBGUO PASSES. 319 

The water shoals in the northern part over a bar with from li to 
3 fathoms water on it, connecting Seli-Seli rocks with Mwamba 
Wadiazi. The bottom off the entrances of the various creeks is mud 
over coral, but in the outer anchorages it is sand and coral. 

Wadiazi and Wanuni ; it is deep and clear, with the exception of 
Mwamba Kizingiti, near the western end of the pass ; a channel 
exists both northward and southward of this danger. 

Kero Nyuni or Zangra, an islet, 20 feet high, covered with 
bushes, lies on the north-western extreme of Mwamba Wadiazi, south 
side of Kero Nyuni pass. 

Mwamba Kizingiti, a patch of coral dry at low-water springs, 
near the centre of the pass, may be generally seen by the sea 
breaking on it. From it, Kero Nyuni and Seli-Seli rocks are plainly 
visible, and distant from 3 to 3^ miles. 

Mwamba Wanuni is 3 miles in length in an east and west 
direction, and one mile in breadth ; a small shoal lies off its western 
edge ; Wanuni. is mostly steep-to and dries in parts at half ebb, 
showing a sandbank. 

A good anch.orag'e during the southerly monsoon is in 6 fathoms, 
sand and coral, one mile north of Kero Nyuni ; and for a small 
vessel during the northerly monsoon, half a mile S.W. by W. of the 
same islet. 

Tides and current. — It is high water, at Kero Nyuni, full and 
change, at ih. 15m. ; springs rise 13 feet. The tidal streams within 
the islands are weak and irregular, being greatly influenced by the 
winds ; but the usual southerly current is experienced at a distance 
of 10 miles outside the reefs. 

NAMEGUO PASS to the northward of Mwamba Wanuni is 
1| miles wide between the reefs, and clear of danger. It is the best 
pass for a stranger to enter by ; the reefs show plainly, and the 
bottom is even, with fair anchoring ground over the whole of it. 

FuniTU Nameguo is a coral reef, 4 miles in length and 2 miles 
in breadth, on the north side of the pass, with several sand cays ; 

See chart : — Ras Pekawi to cape Delfrado, with views, No. 658, also No. 2,762. 



320 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VII. 

the northernmost one is covered at high water springs, but the sea 
breaks heavily on it. Its north-west edge lies 9^ miles off Ras Ulu. 
Its seaward edges are steep-to, and when there is any wind a cross 
sea is generally experienced off it. There is good anchorage off the 
western side of this reef, in 7 to 10 fathoms. 

Mwamba Majiwe Kubwa lies 1^ miles north-westward of 
Mwamba Wanuni, with a 5-fathom channel between them. On the 
north-west portion of the reef is a sand cay, which dries 11 feet. 

FungU Lamkunama, a coral reeP, with a sand cay on its 
western end, uncovers at low- water springs ; a 2-fathom patch lies 
half a mile westward of the cay. 

There is a narrow but clear channel, with 6 to 9 fathoms water, 
between Fungu Lamkunama and Mwamba Majiwe Kubwa. 

Cliapinail reef, 1^ miles northward of Fungu Lamkunama, is 
U coral reef, three-quarters of a mile in length ; it dries at low-water 
springs, and has deep water all around. 

Ras Ulu or Vela, the southern extreme of Mazimbwa bay, is a 
mangrove point, 80 feet high. It makes as a series of flat ridges. 

A reef extends upwards of 5 miles south-eastward of this point, 
with several detached patches on its southern side ; rocks and shoal 
water extend one mile from its north-eastern edge into Myonji pass. 

Myonji island. — At 2| miles eastward of Ras Ulu, is Myonji 
island, one mile in length, thickly wooded, and 66 feet in height. 

At one mile south-eastward on the reef are several mangrove trees. 

Water. — Myonji island is much used by fishermen, who obtain 
their drinking water from wells some distance within Ras Ulu. 

Anchorage. — Within the outer reefs there is excellent shelter in 
from 5 to 12 fathoms, the bottom being sand over coral. 

The best position depends on the monsoon ; the prevailing strong 
winds being from N.E. and S.E. . 

Tides. — The tidal streams within the outer reefs are irregular ; 
the flood is stronger than the ebb, and enters by the various openings 
between the reefs. 

See chart :— Ras Pekawi to cape Delgado, with views, No. 658, also No. 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] TAMBUZI PASS. — MAZTMBWA BAY. 321 

TAMBUZI PASS, between the reefs of Tambuzi island and 
Fungu Nameguo, is 3 miles wide, with Bower shoal in the fairway. 

Bower shoal consists of patches of coral, the shoalest water, 
9 feet, being near its eastern edge. 

To avoid this shoal, do not bring the south extreme of Myonji 
between the bearings of W. ^ N. and W. by N. | N. 

Tambuzi island is 1^ miles in length, east and west, and may 
be distinguished by being higher than the surrounding islands, and 
by groups of tall fir trees near its extremes. The reef on which this 
island stands extends for 2 miles on all sides, with the exception of 
the western. 

Ancliorag'e. — There is good anchorage three-quarters of a mile 
west of Tambuzi, in 9 fathoms, sand and coral, with Myonji summit 
bearing S.W. by W. ^ W. 

Masasari rock is 3 feet high, with a sand cay which uncovers 
at a quarter ebb, at one cable to the north-westward of it. 

Mshanga island, 54 feet high, is of coral, wooded, and with a 
reef extending one mile eastward and southward. 

Myonji pass, between Mshanga and Myonji reefs, is If miles 
wide, but narrowed to one mile by the rocks and shallow water 
extending northward from the reefs surrounding Myonji and Ras 
Ulu ; it is the only ship channel to Mazimbwa bay, and carries 
from 13 to 30 fathoms water. 

MAZIMBWA BAY, situated to the northward of Ras Ulu, is a 
capacious and well-sheltered anchorage, with depths of 5 to 9 fathoms. 

The southern shore of the bay is covered with mangroves, backed 
by a wooded range 200 feet high. From Ras Niguro, on the northern 
side of the bay, a i-ange of wooded hills extends northward to cape 
Delgado. Ras Niguro, at the entrance to Mazimbwa river, is a bold 
cliffy point, the highest on this part of the coast ; the cliffs continue 
along the northern shore of the bay for 2 miles, thence the coast to 
Ras Msangi is low and sandy, occasionally fringed with mangroves. 

Mud flats extend one mile off the south shore of Mazimbwa bay. 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 
so 11977 X 



322 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VII. 

Mwamba Msaro. — At one mile off these mud flats is Mwamba 
Msaro, a narrow coral reef 2 miles in length, extending . parallel to 
the shore, with shallow water between it and the shore reef. It 
dries at low- water springs. 

Mwamba Kisoclia may be considered the northern limit of 
Mazimbwa bay ; this reef projects 2f miles from the mainland, with 
several detached shoals to the southward, and shallow water reaching 
3| miles from the shore. 

Ras Niguro bearing W. by N, ^ N. leads clear of the southern limit 
of the shallow water; and Ras Msangi tall trees bearing N.N.E. leads 
eastward of it. 

Directions. — To proceed to Mazimbwa bay, having entered by 
Tambuzi pass, and observed the clearing mark for Bower shoal 
(page 321), vessels should then pass southward of Masasari rock 
(3 feet high) at a half to three-quarters of a mile distant, and bring 
it to bear E. by S. ^ S. ; this bearing on astern, and steering 
W. by N. ^ N., will lead through Myonji pass. When the western 
extreme of Mshanga bears N.E. ^ E., steer N.W. | N., avoiding the spit 
extending from Mwamba Msaro, until Ras Niguro, the north point 
of Mazimbwa river, bears W.N.W., when it can be steered for on that 
bearing, anchoring as convenient in Mazimbwa bay. There is an 
intricate and almost impracticable channel from the northward along 
the shore. 

Ancliorag'e. — When within Myonji pass, a vessel can always 
anchor, the depths varying from 5 to 10 fathoms, muddy bottom. A 
good berth is in 8 fathoms, with Ras Niguro bearing W. by N. | N., 
and Ras Ulu S.S.E, ; a small vessel may proceed nearer the river and 
anchor in about 4 fathoms. 

Tides. — The flood sets to the westward, and is scarcely felt, but 
the ebb sets to the eastward at the rate of from 2 to 3 knots an hour 
at springs. 

Mazimbwa creek trends in a north-west direction for 4 miles, 
and is then lost in a mangrove swamp. Boats can only ascend it on 
a rising tide ; extensive mud and sand banks reduce the channel to 
a few yards in width. 

See charts, Nob. 668 and 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] MAZIMBWA BAY. — SUNA PASS. 323 

Within the entrance there is a general depth of 1^ fathoms. Holes 
of 6 and 3 fathoms exist, but are surrounded by shallow water. The 
narrow and circuitous passage, with 1^ fathoms water, is southward 
of Lupululu island, which lies in the entrance. 

The town of Mazimbwa, on the north side of the creek, has a 
population of about 400, under Portuguese jurisdiction. The fort is 
a ruin overgrown with weeds and not distinguishable from seaward. 

On the western side is Mtamba village, consisting of about 100 huts. 

Supplies. — Trade. — Fowls, goats, sweet potatoes, &c., are 
obtainable. 

Several Banians reside at Mazimbwa, exporting india-rubber in a 
raw state, and importing American cloth, arms, &c. A dhow runs 
monthly to Ibo. 

SUNA PASS, between Tambuzi island reef and Mwamba 
Tambula, is 2^ miles wide and clear of danger. Vessels from the 
northward may approach Mazimbwa bay by this pass, on either side 
of Masasari rock, and thence as before directed (p. 322) ; the shoalest 
water known is 5| fathoms nearly in mid -channel. 

Suna island is small and of coral formation, with its summit 
crowned with trees 58 feet above the sea ; it is free from danger on 
its western side, but a reef extends about one mile in an east and 
south direction. 

Congro island, 35 feet high, is situated on the reef about 4 miles 
north-westward of Suna. Coral flats extend in all directions 
from it. 

Mwamba Kisanga Mungn embraces the whole of the numerous 
coral patches and rocks lying between Mshanga and Congo islands ; 
it consists of extensive coral reefs, with several sand cays and 
detached rocks, with one and 2 fathoms water between them. These 
coral patches and shallow water extend -north and south over a space 
of about 10 miles. 

Luwinza rock, 6 feet high, stands on this flat at about 1^ miles 
north-eastward of Mshanga. 

See charte, Nob. 658 and 2,762. 
SO 11977 X.2 



324 IBO TO CAPE DBLGADO. [Chap. VII, 

RAS MSANGI, the northern extreme of Mazimbwa bay, is a 
well marked point 47 feet high ; it may be recognized by, a clump of 
casuarina trees, 94 feet high, on its northern side, the most con- 
spicuous object on this part of the mainland. 

The coast reef extends 1^ miles eastward of Ras Msangi, and 
shallow water borders the point to a distance of 2| miles, and thence 
the coast to the south-westward to Mwamba Kisocha. 

Chaiinel. — A 3-fathom channel to Mazimbwa bay exists south- 
ward between the shallow ground extending from the shore of Ras 
Msangi, and the shallow ground to the north and west of Congo 
island, but it is so circuitous and narrow, with no leading marks, that 
it is impracticable for vessels. 

Jeflfreys rock, a pinnacle having less than 6 feet water, with 
4 to 6 fathoms around, is the southern danger* in this channel ; it 
lies with Msangi high clump bearing N.E. | N. 4^ miles. 

NYUNI PASS, between Mwamba Tambula and the reefs ex- 
tending southward from Kifuki and Mtundo islands, is 3^ miles wide 
at the entrance^ but reduced to three-quarters of a mile by Gray 
patches and a 3-fathoms shoal off the south side of Kifuki island. 

Mwamba Tambula, forming the south side of Nyuni pass, is 
4 miles in length, with sand cays and boulders drying from 5 to 9 feet. 
It is steep-to on the northern and eastern faces, and the surf plainly 
marks the edge of the reef. 

Nyuni island, 17 feet high, at the north-west extreme of the 
reef, is small, fiat, and covered with short grass. 

Gray patches extend 2^ miles north-north-westward from 
Nyuni island ; they consist of patches of 2^ to 3 fathoms, with 
4 and 5 fathoms water between them. 

Kifuki and Mtundo islands are on one reef ; both are about 
80 feet high and thickly wooded. A reef extends northward, 
eastward, and southward of these islands, to the distance of 1^ miles 
in places. On the reef, at the north-east end of Mtundo, is Sandcay 
islet, 23 feet high, and Makunga islet, 8 feet high. 

Directions. — To enter Nyuni pass, steer for Nyuni island, bearing 
W.S.W., until the clump of trees on Ras Msangi (probably the only 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] RAS MSANGI.— MTUNDO PASS. 325 

portion of the mainland visible) bears N. W. by W. J W., w hen the 
trees can be steered for ; this course will lead a vessel in mid-channel, 
with not less than 10 fathoms, to Kifuki pass. 

Kifuki pass, between Ras Msangi and Kifuki island, has a coral 
shoal of 4^ fathoms, and 3 cables in extent, in mid-channel. The 
western point of Kifuki may be rounded at a distance of 4 cables, 
but a flat with depths of 1| fathoms and less, extends 2 miles 
eastward of Ras Msangi. 

Anclioragre. — Good anchorage will be found in 5 and 6 fathoms, 
sand and coral, three-quarters of a mile north or south of the west 
point of Kifuki, according to the monsoon. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kifuki pass at 
4h. 10m. ; springs rise 14 feet, and neaps 9 feet. The flood sets 
north-westward from 2 to 3 knots at springs, but is scarcely perceptible 
at neaps. 

MTUNDO PASS is the opening between the reefs of Mtundo 
and Wamizi islands ; there is a deep channel 3^ miles wide between 
Fungu Makunga and Wamizi reef. The best channel to the inner 
anchorage is the one northward of Penguin shoal. 

Aspect. — Wamizi island is the highest of the islands in this 
district, being nearly 100 feet in height, and is visible from a distance 
of about 15 miles ; on a near approach the reef will be seen breaking 
heavily with a white sandy beach at the back. The wooded 
islet Mkunga, 30 feet high, stands on the reef at the north end of 
Wamizi. 

Shoals. — Fungu Makunga are detached shoals of 2| and 3 fathoms 
on the bank which extends about 3^ miles from the north-east point 
of Mtundo. There is generally a swell in Mtundo pass, causing the 
sea to break on these patches at low water. 

Mwamba Mtundo are coral and sand patches, drying at three- 
quarters ebb, situated 2 miles northward of Mtundo. 

Gulnare reef lies one mile west-north-west of Mwamba Mtundo, 
with 4 to 6 fathoms water around it. Small craft should not use the 
channel on either side of Gulnare reef, except at low water, when 
the reefs show plainly ; the eye and lead are the best guides. 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 



326 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VII. 

Penguin shoal, one mile northward of Gulnare reef, is 1^ miles 
in extent, with a least depth of 6 feet. 

Vumba and Kisingura islands are wooded, and 64 and 44 feet high, 
respectively. 

At 1^ miles north-eastward of Vumba island is a mushroom-shaped 
coral islet 4 feet above high water, in the centre of a coral flat. 

Directions. — Ancliorage. — Entering Mtundo pass, by keeping 
Vumba island bearing between W. by S. and S.W. by W. | W., the 
dangers on either side will be avoided. The main channel is 
northward of Penguin shoal, and is 8 cables wide, with depths 
of 8 to 10 fathoms. 

To proceed by this channel to an anchorage within the islets ; from 
abreast Fungu Makungu, bring Ras Nondo to bear N.W. by W., and 
steer for it until the west extreme of Vumba bears S.W. ^ W.; thence 
steer about West, until the west extreme of Vumba bears S.W. | S., 
when it may be steered for. 

A good position is in 7 fathoms, sand, with Ras Nondo bearing 
about N.W. by N. The passage westward of Vumba is only 
3 cables wide, with a depth of 4 fathoms, and only practicable 
for vessels of light draught. 

The channel southward of Penguin shoal has depths of 4 to 6 
fathoms between the various reefs, but the water shoals to 3| fathoms 
between Vumba and Kisingura islands with several patches of from 
2 to 3 fathoms. 

COAST. — Ras Nondo may be easily recognised from the south- 
ward by a group of casuarina trees about 80 feet high. The land around 
is low and wooded, and there are villages consisting of a few huts on 
the coast, from the inhabitants of which a few fowls may be 
obtained ; these villages will be found in the cocoa-nut groves. There 
is a boat passage between the flats and Wamizi island. 

Sand flats, dry at low water, extend off shore southward about 
2 miles in places, and bordered by shallow water, rendering landing 
impracticable except at high water. 

"WAMIZI PASS, between the reefs of Rongwi and Wamizi 
islands, is 5^ miles wide, and between the reefs of Keramimbi and 
Wamizi 3| miles ; it is deep and clear, with the exception of 
Mwamba Mpanga-panga. 



See charts, Noe. 668 and 2,762. 



Chap, vn.] WAMizi pass. — maiyapa bay. 327 

Wamizi island is nearly 8 miles in length, east and west, and 
rather less than one mile in breadth ; it is 63 feet high at its west 
end, 92 feet high at its east end, and wooded. The island is fringed 
by a reef to a distance of 1^ miles in places. 

The Portuguese formerly had an establishment here, but the scarcity 
of water caused its removal. 

Mwamba Mpang^a-pangra. — The south end of this danger lies 
about 2J miles north-east of the west extreme of Wamizi ; the reef 
is 1^ miles in extent, composed of coral and sand, dry in places at 
low water springs, and steep-to on all sides ; it usually breaks after 
half ebb. 

Keramimbi island, 40 feet high, on the northern side of 
Wamizi pass is nearly one mile in length, and thickly wooded. A 
coral reef, dry at low water, surrounds it to a distance of 1^ miles to 
the southward and eastward ; the whole space within the island as 
far northward as Ras Afunji, is shallow. 

Pollard shoal, half a mile in extent, with 1^ fathoms water, 
and steep-to, lies S. by E. ^ E., distant 2| miles from the east extreme 
of Rongwi island. 

Maiyapa bay. — The shores of this bay, between Ras Nondo and 
Ras Afunji, 12 miles apart, are bordered with extensive sand flats, 
which, with Mwamba Mpanga-panga, Keramimbi and its surrounding 
reefs, together with numerous deep holes of 30 and 20 fathoms, limit 
any anchoring ground to a comparative small area. 

The western part of the bay near Mluri is mangrove, but the north 
and south portions are sand. The only prominent features in 
Maiyapa bay are three casuarina trees, the centre and largest lying 
2^ miles north-west of Ras Nondo. In the south-west part of the 
bay are the rivers Mluri and Maiyapa. 

MarongO. — The principal village in the bay is that of Marongo, 
consisting of about 70 huts ; a few fowls, goats, and sweet potatoes 
may be obtained. Several villages are situated in the cocoa-nut groves. 

Directions. — The approach to Maiyapa bay is by Wamizi pass. 
Mkunga islet off the north end of Wamizi should be passed at the 
distance of 2 to 3 miles ; when that islet bears S.E. by E., it will then 

See charts, Nob. 658 and 2,762. 



328 IBO TO CAPE DELGADO. [Chap. VII. 

show clear of the island, and if kept on this bearing astern, will 
lead to an anchorage in 10 fathoms, sand and shells, with the east 
point of Keramimbi bearing N.N.E. 

If seeking a more sheltered anchorage, from the position just 
given, steer for the large tree (70 feet) bearing W.S.W., until the 
west end of Wamizi bears South ; then alter course to N. by W. | W., 
and anchor as convenient in from 6 to 10 fathoms, sand and 
coral. 

Anchorage may also be taken under the west edge of Mpanga- 
panga reef, for which see the chart. 

H.M.S. Nassau rode out a strong south-easterly gale in smooth 
water, 5 cables south-west of this reef in 6 fathoms, sand and coral. 

Tides. — In Maiyapa bay, the flood sets north-westward, and the 
ebb south-eastward at the rate of 2 to 4 knots at springs. 

Port Mluri. — A tongue of sand, dry at half ebb, projects 2 miles 
northward from the southern shore of Maiyapa bay, and shallow 
water extends for a further distance of 2 miles, westward of which 
is the channel to port Mluri, This channel is narrow, with a 9-feet 
shoal partly blocking the fairway ; the anchoring ground in the 
port has depths of 7 to 10 fathoms, mud, but is adapted for small 
vessels only. The Portuguese have a settlement here. 

COAST.— Ras Afunji, 15 feet high, the southern point of 
Tunghi bay, is fronted by a sandbank dry at low water to the distance 
of a mile. The channel between it and Rongwi island is one mile 
wide, but obstructed by reefs. 

Dhows trading to Kiuya, however, frequently pass through at 
high- water springs. 

Rongwi and Tekomaji islands stand on one continuous 
coral reef, upwards of 9 miles in length in a north and south direc- 
tion, the seaward face of which is steep-to. The reef skirts the 
islands generally at a distance of one mile, and on the south-east 
part, where it extends farther o£P, there are several detached black 
rocks uncovering at half ebb. 

Rongwi island is 2 miles from Ras Afunji, and 1^ miles from 
TeKomaji ; off its north-west point is the wooded islet of Kamesi, 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] PORT MLURJ. — TUNGHI BAY. 329 

40 feet high. Tekomaji island is of a triangular shape, 2 miles long, 
and as its name implies, there is no water on it. 

When approaching these islands from seaward, the only distin- 
guishing features are two rounded clumps of trees, 94 feet high, on 
the eastern part of Rongwi, and when within 6 miles, three casuarina 
trees on the eastern shore of Tekomaji may be seen ; there is also one 
or more casuarina trees on the north- western point of Tekomaji. Both 
islands are low and flat, but densely wooded ; the outer coast of 
Tekomaji is rocky, but that of Rongwi is principally sandy beach. 

TUNGHI BAY.— Aspect.— Tunghi bay, between Delgado and 
Kas Afunji, is about 8 miles wide, with a sandy beach around its 
shores with the exception of the portion between Kiuya or Tunghi 
village and cape Delgado, which is rocky. The land between cape 
Delgado and the head of the bay is from 80 to 200 feet high, thence 
to Ras Afunji it is low and flat. On the wooded ridge west of Mto 
Mnangani is a single baobab tree, also a compact group, 250 and 
228 feet high respectively ; the former is the highest ground in the 
vicinity of cape Delgado. There is also a conspicuous single palm 
tree 75 feet high, half a mile from cape Delgado, which shows 
distinctly all over Tunghi bay. 

From Ras Afunji round the head of the bay to Kiuya village are 
sand and coral flats stretching one mile off shore ; shallow water 
extends a considerable distance beyond. 

The entrance to Tunghi bay between the reefs of cape Delgado 
and Tekomaji is 2^ miles wide. The reef extending 1| miles ofi! the 
northern and north-eastern ends of Tekomaji, is steep-to with no 
off-lying patches ; the reef off cape Delgado projects one mile south- 
eastward and is similar in character to Tekomaji reef ; the surf 
usually marks the edges of these dangers. 

Mto Mnang'ani, in the western part of Tunghi bay, is 3 cables 
wide at the entrance, but banks, dry at lovi water, narrow it to less 
than one cable ; canoes can only ascend 1^ miles from the mouth. 
The village of the same name is situated on the western bank. 

Kiuya village, or Tunghi, is concealed from view by a belt of 
thick mangrove bushes which front the shore, but the position of the 
village may be readily identified by a thick grove of cocoa-nut 
trees. The old fort is a small square building in a dilapidated state. 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 



330 IBO TO CAPE DBL6AD0. [Chap. VII. 

Dhows trading to this place anchor off the village until high 
■water, when they proceed into narrow lanes cut in the mangroves ; 
with their masts down they are completely hidden from view of a 
boat passing immediately outside. 

Supplies. — A few fowls, eggs, &g., are usually obtainable. 

Firewood may be cut on any part of the coast between Ras Pekawi 
and cape Delgado ; it is generally ill adapted for steaming purposes, 
but by a careful selection of trees, many of them might advan- 
tageously be used with coal. 

Directions. — The lighthouse on cape Delgado (page 332), and the 
group of baobabs on the hills at the head of the bay, will serve to 
identify Tunghi bay. The best time to enter is in the morning, as 
the group of baobab trees bearing W. ^ N. leads in mid-channel ; 
soundings will not be obtained with the hand lead until Ras Afunji 
is well open westward of Tekomaji. When that point bears S. ^ W., 
a vessel of deep draught should either anchor, or haul down for it 
on that bearing, and anchoring under Tekomaji, with its west extreme 
bearing S.E. by E. or E.S.E. This is a sheltered anchorage. 

Vessels of light draught could, if necessary, go farther on the 
above bearing of the baobabs, until Ras Afunji bears S.S.E. ^ E., 
anchoring in 6 to 9 fathoms, mud. There is considerable swell here 
at times. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Tunghi bay, at 
4h, 5m. ; springs rise 14 feet and neaps 9 feet. 

Climate. — The fever months here are coincident with the principal 
rainy ones, viz., February to May. 

"Winds. — The general experience gained in H.M.S. Nassau, whilst 
surveying the coast, was as follows : north-easterly winds from 
December to March, getting lighter as the season progresses, varied 
occasionally by heavy squalls of wind and rain from N.W., 
accompanied by vivid lightnings and heavy thunder. 

The change of monsoons occurs in April, heavy squalls then 
frequently occur from South and S.W. By the beginning of May 
the steady southerly monsoon has set in, generally freshening in the 

See charfca, Nos. 668 and 2,762. 



Chap. VII.] TUNGHI BAY. 331 

afternoon to a strong breeze ; from this month the force gradually 
lessens, and the wind veers to the eastward ; by October very light 
easterly winds prevail, the change to N.E. taking place in the early 
part of November in a gradual manner with a few light showers. 

Between the islands and the main, land and sea breezes prevail, 
the latter during the months of May and June blow very fresh. 

Currents. — As previously stated at page 30, the separation of 
the equatorial current takes place between the parallels of about 
lat. 10° to 11° 0' S., or in the vicinity of cape Delgado. During the 
height of the north-east monsoon, the separation is at its maximum 
northern limit, and vice versa. 

See charts, Nos. 658 and 2,762. 



332 



CHAPTER VTIT. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KIMBIJI, APPROACH TO ZANZIBAR 

CHANNEL. 

(Lat. 10° 40' S. to lat. 7° S.) 



Variation in 1897. 

Cape Delgado - - - - 10° 45' W. 

Kilwa Kisiwani - - - - 10° 30' W. 

Mafia island, north end - - 9° 30' W. 



CAPE DELGADO, known by the natives as Ras Kongo, is 
low, covered with trees, and not easily distinguished from the other 
low land and islands when coming from the southward, but from 
the northward it makes like an island. A lighthouse is erected on 
it, and there is, or was, a palna tree, 75 feet high, on its south side, 
half a mile from its extreme, A coral flat, dry at half tide, fringes 
the cape, extending in places to the distance of one mile. 

Boundary. — The coast northward (from 10° 40' S.) of cape 
Delgado is German territory ; see page 9. 

LIGHT. — From a wooden lighthouse, painted black, erected on 
cape Delgado, is exhibited, at an elevation of 59 feet above high 
water, a Jixed white light, visible seaward between the bearings of 
N. 25° E. and S, 25° E., from a distance of 10 miles in clear 
weather. 

COAST. — From cape Delgado the coast is low and thickly 
wooded as far as cape Rovuma or Swafo, a distance of 14 miles ; 
between are the bays of Mbwezi and Keonga, which are separated 

See plan, cape Delgado to Mikindani bay, with views, No. 690 ; chart of cape 
Delgado to Kilwa, No. 1,808 ; and No 2,762. 



Chap. VIII.] CAPE DBLGADO ; KEONGA BAY, 333 

by Has Nasunga. The shore for the whole distance is skirted by 
reefs. The long ocean swell generally breaks heavily on these reefs, 
which are visible some distance oflE. 

Mbwezi bay, between cape Delgado and Ras Nasunga, is about 
5^ miles wide, with a long white sandy beach in its north-western 
part. There is, however, no anchorage in this bay, the reefs which 
skirt the coast being steep-to, and as there are no creeks, landing is 
seldom practicable. 

Mbwezi village stands at the head of the bay, near the south end 
of the sandy beach, in a groove of cocoa-nut trees. 

Ras Nasungra is low, and may be recognised by the number of 
detached rocks off it. A reef, with boulders on its outer edge, 
extends in a south-east direction 1^ miles from the point, diminishing 
to about three-quarters of a mile near the village of Mbwezi, and 
thence round cape Delgado. The sea generally breaks on the outer 
edge, while within it may be comparatively smooth, but southward 
of the latter point it is reduced by the reefs extending from either 
side to but little more than half a mile wide, with depths of 
3 fathoms and less for a distance of 1^ miles off shore. 

KEONGA or KIONGA BAY is 4 miles wide between Ras 
Nasunga and Ras Samadudu. There are a number of sandbanks 
that dry at low water springs near its head. 

The water deepens rapidly outside the 5-fathoms line, affording 
but little anchorage space, and the bottom is rocky in places. 
"Within that depth there are shallow heads of coral, one or more of 
which dries. 

Mwamba Ricoma is the southern termination of the coast reef 
which extends off Ras Samadudu for a distance of 1^ miles, forming 
the northern boundary of Keonga bay. It dries in places at low 
water. 

The Keonga, Letonda, and the Mpambi, at the head of Keonga 
bay, are arms of the sea ; the water from Mto Mpambi is said to 
join Mto Decomba to the north-west at spring tides, when it is 
available for canoes. 

Buoyage. — The best water from the bay to Mto Letonda is 
marked by three buoys, marked K 1, K 2, and K 3. The outer 
buoy, K 1, in 11 fathoms, at nearly 2 miles from the mouth of the 

See plan, cape Delga4o to Mikindani bay, No. 690. 



334 CAPE DBLGADO TO LTNDI RIVER. [Chap. VIII, 

Letonda, is a fairway buoy, painted in red and black vertical stripes, 
and surmounted by a St. Andrew's cross ; the two inner buoys are 
red. The mouth of the Letonda is easily distinguished by the tall 
casuarina trees on its north shore. 

Directions. — Anoh.orag'e. — The best anchorage is off Ras 
Nasunga, in 7^ fathoms, sand, with the extreme north point seen, 
bearing N.N.W., Mto Keonga south point W. by N. ^ N., and 
Ras Nasunga S.S.W. 

To pick up this anchorage, steer for Ras Nasunga, on the bearing 
given, until in 10 fathoms water, when the anchor should be 
immediately let go. Small craft can enter the Letonda, but local 
assistance should be obtained. The course is from buoy to buoy, 
leaving the red buoys on the starboard hand, but they should not be 
depended on. Entering the Letonda the south shore must be kept. 

Settlements. — Keonga, a village about 2 miles up on the south 
side of the creek of that name, stands in a groove of cocoa-nut 
trees, on a small ridge 70 feet high, and is the resort of many of the 
dhows trading on the coast. It comprises about 1,000 huts, and its 
population was estimated at 4,000 in 1895. There is a well of good 
water in a spring before the village, but other supplies are not 
obtainable. 

The channel leading to Keonga is shallow and tortuous ; boats 
should only ascend it with a rising tide. 

ROVUMA BAY is contained between Ras Swafo and Ras 
Matunda, the distance between being about 9 miles ; the depth of 
the bay to the river entrance is about 4 miles. 

Ras Swafo (Oape Roviima), the south-east point of Roviima 
bay, is low and thickly wooded, with a small conical hill, 77 feet 
high, at a quarter of a mile from the coast ; this hill is conspicuous 
when near the land. The coast of Swafo from Ras Samadudu is low 
and thickly wooded, and fronted by a reef to the distance of 1^ miles. 

Northward of Ras Swafo the reef dries in patches at low water 
springs, nearly three-quarters of a mile from the shore, with depths 
of one to 2 fathoms, at the distance of 1^ miles. The edge of this 
bank is steep-to, and the tidal streams are strong, rendering it 
necessary to give it a wide berth. 



See plan, Cape Delgado to Mikindani bay, No. 690. 



Chap. VIII.] ROVUMA BAT. 335 

From Ras Swafo, round the head of the bay to Mto Letokoto, the 
land is covered with mangrove trees, and is nearly all swamp at high 
water springs. About 2 miles northward of the Rovuma, on the 
coast, is a conspicuous square clump of trees, and at 1^ miles farther 
north is a group of three tall trees, which from seaward form one of 
the most prominent features in Rovuma bay. 

Hills. — Kilima Mundo is a rather sharp well-wooded peak, 
350 feet high, on the south side of Rovuma river, and the highest 
land in the vicinity. 

Kilima Macheriuka, north of Rovuma river, is the south-east 
shoulder of a flat range extending to the north-westward. From 
seaward this shoulder may be readily identified by three large baobab 
trees near the summit of its eastern face, one of which is about 
340 feet above the sea. 

Mto Decomba is a creek three-quarters of a mile westward of 
Ras Swafo, with a bar on which the sea generally breaks heavily, 
but it is at times possible for a boat to get in at half flood. Within 
the bar depths of 2 to 3 fathoms water can be carried for one mile 
to the south westward. This creek is reported to be navigable at 
high water springs for canoes to Keonga bay. 

Mto Mquango is a small creek eastward of Rovuma river into 
which boats can enter at high water springs, but some little distance 
up it is almost impassable for canoes. The sea generally breaks 
heavily off the entrance of this creek. 

Mto Letokoto, a creek north of Rovuma river, is about three- 
quarters of a mile wide at the entrance, and reported to be navigable 
by canoes for a distance of 15 miles, where it joins the Rovuma 
river, but it dries across the mouth. 

Ras Matunda, the north point of Rovdma bay, may be 
recognized by a series of white sandhills, about 80 feet high, and 
one mile in extent, near the coast ; there is a single tall tree on their 
eastern extreme, which is conspicuous from the northward or south- 
ward. 

The coast reef dries nearly one mile off Ras Matunda, whence it 
trends south-westward to the remarkable trees southward of Mto 
Letokoto, where its distance decreases to 1^ cables, but with shallow 
water some distance beyond. 



See plan, Cape Delgado to Mikindani bay, No. 690. 



336 CAPE DELGADO TO LINDI RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

Anchorages. — There is good anchorage on the south side of 
Roviima bay in 7 fathoms, mud, with Ras Matunda bearing N. by W.; 
Kilima Mundo, S.W. by W. ; and the extreme of Ras Swafo, S.E. 
Less swell is experienced here than in other parts of the bay. 

Good anchorage may also be obtained on the north side of the 
bay, in 10 fathoms, mud, with Ras Matunda bearing N. by E. ; and 
the remarkable trees, W. | N. 

There is no anchorage immediately off the river entrance, as the 
bank is very steep, and the depth decreases from 90 fathoms to 
5 fathoms within a distance of 2 cables. 

Landing". — Westward of Mto Decomba is a long fiat sandy beach, 
on which it is possible to land occasionally, but between Roviima 
river and Ras Matunda it is seldom possible to effect a landing, the 
bay being open to the ocean swell, and heavy rollers are at all times 
breaking. 

Tides. — It is high water in Roviima bay, full and change, at 
4h. 10m. ; springs rise 12 feet ; the ebb running to the northward and 
flood to the south-eastward. When the river is high the current 
runs out without ceasing, overcoming the flood tide. 

ROVUMA RIVER,* between the trees on either side of its 
mouth, is about 8 cables wide, but at low water this is reduced by 
a sandbank that dries from the west shore, to less than 4 cables. 
From thence, the direction of the river is south-west, but at about 
2 miles within the entrance the channel is obstructed by sandbanks, 
in places nearly dry at low water springs. (This was in September, 
during the dry season, when the river was very low.) 

Although there is no bar, the great depth of water immediately 
outside the mouth of the river, changing suddenly to 3 fathoms, 
causes dangerous overfalls, especially when the wind is blowing from 
the eastward, rendering it at such times unsafe for a boat to attempt 
to enter, the sea breaking right across. The ebb runs stronger near 
the mouth of the river than a row boat could stem. 

The entrance is not easily made out until abreast of it, and there 
are several smaller openings, both north and south. The muddy 
water from the river extends into deep water, and the clearly defined 
line where it meets the blue water is very noticeable. 

* See plan, Cape Delgado to Mikindani bay, No. 690, and charts 597 and 1,808. 



Chap. VIII.] ROvtrMA river. 337 

Inland Navigation. — About 2 miles within the mouth of 
the river sandbanks commence, which render the navigation 
intricate, the channel being narrow, with a depth of only a 
few feet in places, and here and there running abruptly from one 
side of the river to the other. The navigation of the Roviima 
depends much upon the season, it being highest in March and lowest 
in about October. Mr. May ascended the river 30 miles in H.M.S. 
Pioneer in March 1861 ; the water subsided in the middle of the 
month, but rose again nearly to its former height at its end. 
Mr. May's examination of the river was made between these periods, 
and at his turning point there appeared to be no impediment to 
further progress, but the water beginning to fall rapidly induced 
him to return to the entrance, in doing which a depth of 5 feet only 
was carried in places. The stream ran 3 knots. 

Dr. Livingstone ascended the river in boats 156 miles, in September 
1862, and proceeded to just below Nyamatolo island, lat. 11° 53' S., 
long. 38° 36' E., about 114 miles as the crow flies from the coast. 
The river was unusually low, entailing frequent dragging of the 
boats at the shallow parts. The ascent of the river occupied 15 days, 
and its descent 10 days. 

The bed of the river is about three-quarters of a mile wide, flanked 
by well-wooded table land, apparently ranges of hills 500 feet high ; 
sometimes the spurs of the hills come close to the river, but there is 
generally about one mile of alluvial soil between the high land and 
the bank. 

About 60 miles up the river the table land recedes, and there is an 
immense plain with detached granite rocks and hills dotted about it ; 
here some rocks appear in the river. At Nyamatolo island, the 
farthest point reached by the expedition, the bed of the river is all 
pocky, the water rushing through numerous channels between rocky 
masses 4 or 5 feet out of water. Canoes go through these channels 
with ease, and the expedition might have taken their boats up, but 
they were informed that the channels were much narrower farther 
up, and that it was likely they would get them smashed in coming 
down. 

The distance from Ngomano, 30 miles above Nyamatolo island, to 
lake Nyasa, was said to be 12 days' journey. The Liendi enters the 
Roviima at Ngomano ; it rises in the mountains on the east side of 
lake Nyasa. The great slave route to Kilwa Kivinje was along the 
banks of this stream, which is only ankle deep in the dry season. 

&<» chart, No. 597. 
SO 11977 T 



338 CAPE DELGADO TO LINDI RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

Natives. — There are but few people near the mouth of the river, 
but farther up there are numerous villages, some on sand islets in 
the river. 

The Tsetse fly is met with along the Roviima, and the people in 
consequence have no cattle. 

Supplies. — Only a scanty supply of provisions is to be obtained 
from the natives. The water of the river affects people at first. 
Wood for steamers may be procured. 

MSIMBATI CHANNEL.*— From Ras Matunda the coast and 
reef take a north-north-west direction for 4 miles to Ras Ruvura ; 
the reef, which is steep-to, extends from one-half to three-quarters 
of a mile from the shore. Msimbati channel, about three-quarters 
of a mile wide, is the break in the reef at Ras Ruvura, with depths 
of about 30 fathoms, and leading into Mnazi bay. 

From the west side of entrance to this channel, a reef nearly 
2 miles in width protects Mnazi bay, extending 10 miles to the 
north-westward, where it turns westward to Mikindani bay. 

There are two islands on this reef. Mongo, the larger of the two, is 
low, thickly wooded, and has a number of tall trees near its north- 
west extreme that show well from the northward. An island named 
Nakitumbi is connected to it by a bank of sand which dries at first 
quarter ebb. Mana Hawanja, the eastern islet, is also low and 
covered with trees. 

MNAZI BAY* is a large sheet of water within the coral reef 
which surrounds the islands of Mana Hawanja and Mongo. 
This bay is about 8 miles long in a south-east and north-west 
direction, and about 5 miles wide from the entrance to Mnazi 
village ; its extremes are shallow but the middle is clear, with depths 
of from 7 to 16 fathoms, sand and coral. The entrance is by 
Msimbati channel, which is deep. 

A bank of sand and coral, extending from a half to 1| miles off 
shore, fringes the whole of the bay from Ras Msimbati to Ras 
Sangaroku, which makes landing difficult, unless at high water, 
when it is practicable at Mnazi village. 

Reefs.— Fungu Achumbu is a coral reef, IJ miles in length, dry 
in patches at low water, and situated about one mile from the 
conspicuous tree on Ras Msimbati. At 3 cables eastward of the north 

* See enlarged plan of channel and anchorage of Msimbati, on No. 690, 



Chap. VIII.] MNAZI BAY. 33^ 

end of Achiimbu ia a patch, awash at low water, with deep water 
between. A coral patch, dry at low water, lies nearly one mile N.W. 
of the conspicuous tree ; this patch is on a bank of sand and coral, 
8 cables in extent, nearly in mid-channel, and upon which the depths 
Tary from 2 to 5 fathoms. 

For other shoals, see the plan. 

DirectiODS. — From abreast the entrance, steer in between the 
reefs, with Ras Msimbati bearing S.S.W. ^ W., until the south 
extreme of Mana Hawanja island bears N.W. ; then steer S.W. J W. (to 
avoid the coral flat of 2 to 3 fathoms, which extends off shore, north- 
ward of Ras Msimbati) ; when that point bears South it can be 
steered for, anchoring as convenient in from 10 to 15 fathoms, 
sand. 

Should the wind be blowing fresh from the northward, a better 
anchorage will be found southward of Mana Hawanja island ; to 
reach this anchorage steer in as before for Ras Msimbati until the 
south-west point of Mana Hawanja island bears N.N.W., then steer 
N.W., and anchor in from 10 to 13 fathoms as convenient. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mnazi bay, at 
4h. Om. ; springs rise 11 feet. The stream in Msimbati channel runs 
from 4 to 5 knots at springs, with heavy overfalls off the point of 
the reef extending south-eastward of Mana Hawanja island. 

There is very little tidal stream felt in Mnazi bay ; outside 
however, the stream takes the direction of the coast, the ebb running 
to the north-westward and the flood south-eastward, with a velocity 
of from 2 to 3 knots an hour at springs, and strongest near the 
reefs. 

Mnazi is a small village in the south-west bight ; the population 
is about 300. 

Supplies. — A few fowls, eggs, and goats are to be obtained from 
the villages between cape Delgado and Kiswere harbour. 

Mangrove wood for steaming purposes can be procured on any 
part of the coast, but if native labour cannot be obtained, it is as 
well, if possible, to shun the fever breeding swamps in which the 
mangrove generally thrives. 



See enlarged plan of channel and anchorage of Mnimbati, on No, 690. 
SO 11977 Y i 



340 CAPE DELGADO TO LTNDI BIVER. [Chap VIII. 

Water for boats employed cruising may be obtained from a well 
near the coast about a quarter of a mile northward of Ras Msimbati, 
but there is no place between cape Delgado and Mikindani bay 
where a vessel could obtain water with facility. 

MIKINDANI BAY lies between Ras Sangamku and cape 
Paman, and is about 4^ miles wide between the reefs. The shores 
of the bay are fronted by coral flats, which extend from a half to 
IJ miles off, and dry in patches at low water springs. Abreast Ras 
Sangamku, the eastern point of the bay, the flat extends off 1| miles. 
The only anchorage is on the east side, between Shangani shoal and 
the coast reef. Mikindani bay may be readily identified from seaward 
by Mlima Mjoho, a remarkable conical hill 617 feet high, covered 
with trees, and also, if within 7 miles of the entrance, by Hull 
rocks, 62 feet high, at the north point, a mass of conglomerate 
coral, covered with brushwood. Both sides of the bay are low, and 
thickly wooded, while at the head, over Mikindani harbour, the hills 
rise to a height of from 400 to 550 feet.* 

Shangani Slioal is a patch of coral and sand, lying in the 
fairway of the entrance to Mto Mtwara, with deep water all round 
it ; from the shoalest part, 3 fathoms, Ras Richemerero bears S. ^ W. 
distant 2 miles nearly. 

MTO MTWARA. — This spacious and well sheltered-harbour, 
situated on the south-east side of Mikindani bay, is 3| miles in 
length, by 1^ miles in breadth, and affords good anchorage in from 
6 to 14 fathoms nearly all over it. The entrance is deep, and from one 
to 2 cables wide, between Mwamba Ribunda and Mwamba Shangani, 
the coral flats fronting the coast on either side. 

Messemo sand spit on the east side of the channel, and about 
1^ miles within the edge of the reefs, is steep-to. Patches of 2 to 
3 fathoms are situated near the middle of the harbour, as shown on 
the plan. On the south side of the harbour is Mto Pwazie, a creek 
extending about 2 miles to the southward, when it becomes lost in 
the mangrove. 

Directions. — To enter Mto Mtwara, keep Hull high rock (62 feet), 
bearing N.W. | N. astern, or Ras Richimerero the west point of the 
entrance, bearing eastward of South, ahead, until Ras Sangamku bears 
E. by N., to avoid Shangani shoal. Then edge to the eastward until 

* See plan of Mto Mtwara and Mikindani harbours, with views, No. 684. 



Chap. VilT.] MIKINDA^ BAY AND If ARBOUR. 341 

the Finger tree (from which the lower branches were cnt off in 1874), 
bears S. by E. and steer for it on that bearing, between the reefs. 
When Messemo sand spit bears S.S.W. ^ W., or the shoulder of 
Mjoho hill is in line with Button rock (see view on plan), steer for 
Messemo village, borrowing a little on the eastern shore ; thence as 
requisite round the spit to the anchorage. 

When past Ras Richemerero, if entering on the flood tide, keep 
well over on the eastern side, and if with the ebb running out, keep 
towards Mtwara village to allow for turning, as the stream runs 
sharply round Messemo sand spit from 2^ to 3 knots an hour. 

With a good look out aloft there is no difficulty in entering the 
harbour with the sun astern, the eye and colour of the water being 
the best guides, as the marks given are none of the best, and 
probably by this time the trees mentioned may be hidden or 
unrecognisable. 

Anchor agre. — The best temporary berth is near Messemo spit, in 
14 fathoms, sand, with the end of the spit bearing N.W. by W. ^ W., 
and the small cliff S.W. If intending to make any stay, there is 
better anchorage under the northern shore farther up the harbour, in 
from 7 to 10 fathoms, mud. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mto Mtwara harbour, 
at 3h. 45m. ; springs rise 12 feet ; the tides run strong at the western 
anchorage, and also in the channel. 

Supplies. — There are three villages on the shores of the harboUr, 
where small supplies are obtainable. 

Misete creek lies between Mto Mtwara and Mikindani harbour j 
its entrance is about 1| cables in breadth between Mwamba Dadi 
and Mwamba Shangani, with a depth of about 4 fathoms. 

Within the entrance, the creek expands into a basin nearly half a 
mile across, with depths of 1| to 2| fathoms, sand and pebbles. A 
small vessel would be well sheltered here, but with the harbours of 
Mikindani and Mto Mtwara so near, there would be no object in 
pushing into such a confined space. 

MIKANDANI HARBOUR, generally known as Pimlea 
harbour, lies at the head of Mikindani bay ; it affords secure anchorage 
in from 6 to 8 fathoms, mud, with a least depth of 5| fathoms in 

Se» plan of Mto Mtwara and Mikindani harbours, with views, No. 681. 



342 CAPE DBLGADO TO LINDI RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

the entrance channel, which is only 1^ cables wide in one place 
between the coral fiats on either side. The observation spot on 
the south shore of the harbour is in lat. 10° 16' 31" S., 
long. 40° r 33" E.* 

Rooks.— At 2| cables S.W. by W. ^ W. from Pemba point is a 
rock with less than 6 feet water ; in the south part of the harbour, 
3 cables N.N.E. of the custom house, are two rocks awash at low 
water, marked by a white beacon ; a third rock lies nearly 2 cables 
from the custom house on the same bearing. 

The shores of the bay are foul to the distance of 4 to 7 cables. 

Buoyag'e. — Red spar buoys with white topmarks mark the star- 
board side of the channel on entering, and black conical buoys the 
port hand ; for positions, see the plan ; they are not to be 
depended on. 

Directions.— Anchorage.— To enter Mikindani harbour from 
the northward, after passing Hull rocks at the distance of half mile, 
a S. by W. ^ W. course leads up to about one mile east of Ras 
Managumba, a sharp rocky point with two villages northward of it, 
on the west side of the bay. Thence steer S.W. until the clump of 
large trees on the east point is in line with the high troes on a conical 
peak inside the harbour, bearing S.W. | S., southerly, passing 
between the red spar buoy on the starboard hand and th<} black 
conical buoy on the port hand, at the entrance, and on the same side 
of similar buoys farther in. When within the entrance points, steer 
for the custom house, bearing S.W. by S., anchoring when the fort 
bears W. ^ S., in about 6^ fathoms, mud. 

The channel is so narrow that a vessel is more easily conned by 
eye when the sun is in a favourable position ; the reefs on either 
side show at low water. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mikindani harbour 
at 3h. 50m. ; springs rise 12 feet. The tidal stream in the harbour 
is scarcely perceptible. 

Supplies. — The usual small supplies of poultry and eggs are 
obtainable at the settlements near the custom house, but the water is 
bad. There is a spring in the neighbourhood, however, which afEords 
good water. 

* See plan of Mto Mtwara and Mikindani harboure, with views No. 684. 



Chap. VIII.j ilGAlT MWANIA. ^3 

Gommunication. — The branch steamer from Tanga, of the 
Deutsche Ost Afrika line, calls here every six weeks, via other coast 
ports. It occasionally goes as far as Ibo, in which case it calls also 
on return, about three days later. 

Trade. — The principal products of the neighbourhood are gum- 
copal, ivory, seeds, and rice, and are exchanged for European com- 
modities, through the Banians. 

COAST. — From cape Paman, the north-west extreme of Mikindani 
bay, the coast to Mgau Mwania, 10 miles to the north-westward, is 
low and bordered by a reef extending from three-quarters to 1^ miles 
off ; the only remarkable feature is a black clump of trees, 80 feet 
high, 3| miles beyond cape Paman. When off Mgau Mwania, Mlima 
Mjoho, 617 feet high, will show as the southern extreme of the hilly 
range. 

From Mgau Mwania to Lindi river, about 16 miles farther to the 
north-west, the coast continues low, with a reef extending from a 
half to 1^ miles off. 

The coast from Ras Kera, 8 miles northward of Lindi, to 
Machinga bay, is low, with a few off-lying mangrove islets on the 
reef, which extends about one mile off, but the land at the back is 
bold near Ras Kera. A similar reef fronts the coast southward of 
Ras Kera. 

The coast from Mchinga to Mzungu is also low, with numerous 
off-lying mangrove islets on the reef. Inland, 2 or 3 miles distant, 
a wooded range 400 feet high extends parallel to the coast. From 
Mzungu to Kiswere harbour the coast is rocky. 

MGAU MWANIA* (Mungulho river).— The entrance to this 
river may be easily distinguished by the break in the land, when the 
river comes open on a south-westerly bearing, and also by the Mad- 
jovi or Mushroom rocks. 

The entrance channel is about 2 cables wide, with depths of 
5| to 8 fathoms in the fairway, and the same inside. During the 
southerly monsoon season, in the afternoon, when the wind is from 
about E.S.E., and also when the northern monsoon is strong, the 
entrance at times appears to break nearly across. 

Position. — Madjovi high rock, on the west side of entrance, is in 
lat. 10° 6' 43" S., long. 39° 59' 14" E. 

* Set plan of Mgau Mwania, with riews, No. 681. 



344 CAPE DELGADO TO LINDI RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

Reefs. — Nymphe shoal, about half a mile in extent, with a least 
depth of 2^ fathoms, lies in the fairway of the river, with Madjovi 
rock bearing S.W. ^ W., distant 1| miles. 

Off the eastern side of the entrance to Mgau Mwania, Fungu 
Chosan extends 1 j^ miles. Off the western side of the entrance, 
Fungu Gomani extends 1| miles, and dries in patches at low water. 
Madjovi rocks, 15 feet high, stand on this reef at 2 cables within its 
edge and 4 cables off shore. 

The sand spit at Ras Swa-Swa extends about 2 cables off the actual 
point of the land, with shallow water beyond, and there are isolated 
patches in Mto Sudi, the harbour, which dry at 2 to 3 cables off the 
southern shore. 

Anchoragres. — Temporary anchorage may be had in 9 fathoms, 
sand and coral, within Nymphe shoal, with Madjovi rocks bearing 
S.W. J W., and the south-west extreme of Mkiya village 
S. by W. i W. 

There is good anchorage oft' the south end of Mwania village, about 
mid-river, in 9 fathoms, mud ; and also at a quarter of a mile S.S.W. 
of Ras Swa-Swa, in 6 fathoms, mud. 

Directions. — Proceeding for the river, do not close the coast 
within 2^ miles until the ne w white custom house at Sudi is well 
open. This custom house in line with a gap in the distant hills 
(see view on plan), bearing S.W. by S., leads westward of Nymphe 
Bhoal and nearly up to the entrance to the river. When Madjovi 
high rock bears S.W. ^ W., edge to the eastward until the old custom 
house is about its own width open of the sand spit extending from 
Ras Swa-Swa, which mark will lead in mid-channel to the anchorage 
off Mwania. 

If bound to the anchorage within Ras Swa-Swa, keep as nearly as 
possible in mid-channel, to avoid the spit which extends nearly a 
quarter of a mile from that point, and also the coral patch lying on 
the opposite side of the channel. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mgau Mwania at 
3h. 45m. ; springs rise 12 feet ; off the entrance the flood runs to the 
northward, and the ebb to the south-eastward, with a force of from 
2 to 3 knots, the flood being the stronger during the south-west 
monsoon. 

See plan of Mgau Mwania, with views, No. 681. 



Chap. VIIlJ LINDt BA-^f. 345 

Villagres. — There are several villages on the banks of Mgau 
Mwania ; on the east point of entrance is Mkiya, and about a third 
of a mile farther in is the larger village of Mwania. Sudi, the 
principal village, is situated on the west bank of the river, within 
Kas Swa-Swa, or about 3 miles from the entrance. A new custom 
house, white, and about twice the height of the old one, has been 
built at the west extreme of the beach at Sudi. 

Supplies are scarce ; Sudi is the only village with good water. 

LINDI BAY* lies between Ras Shuka and Ras Banura, 3| miles 
apart. Lindi river lies in its south-west comer. The depths in the 
outer part of the bay vary from 50 to 250 fathoms, the coast reefs 
being steep-to, while westward of a line drawn between Ras Ekapapa 
and Ras Rungi the water shoals rapidly. 

Aspect. — Approaching from the eastward, the land about Lindi 
bay cannot be mistaken, as it is the highest on the coast between 
Zanzibar and Mikindani ; the hills over the western shore, rising to 
a height of 976 feet, are well wooded, and cultivated in patches. 
Mlima Mdemba, 947 feet high, has a grove of cocoa-nut trees on its 
summit. 

Approaching from the northward or southward the great indenta- 
tion in the coast, together with the high hills over the western shore, 
is sufficient to indicate its position. 

Reefs. — On the north side of the bay the coast reef in places 
extends a quarter of a mile, and at Ras Shuka, on the south side, it 
extends nearly half a mile, but thence westward to Ras Rungi it 
does not exceed 3 cables from the shore. 

The outer edge of Fungu Myangi, north of Ras Shuka, is composed 
of dead coral and boulders, forming a ridge, the top of which is 
covered at three-quarters flood, and on it the sea at times breaks 
heavily. 

TJmtamar shoal, the outer extremity of the shallow water extending 
northward of the approach to Lindi river, lies N. by W. ^ W., 
1| miles from Ras Rungi, with a least depth of 1^ fathoms at 
low-water springs. 

Anchoragres. — Fair anchorage may be had on the north side of 
Lindi bay during the north-east monsoon between Ras Ekapapa and 

* Sec plan of Lindi river, with view, Ko. 681, 



^46 LINDl BAY AND RIVER. fCkap. VIII. 

Ras Mungu, in 8 fathoms, mud, with the south extreme of the land to 
the eastward bearing E. | N., and Ras Rungi, S.S.W. | W. There is 
temporary anchorag^e in 5 fathoms, mud, off Ras Rungi, with the centre 
of Mwentengi village bearing S.S.E. ^ E., and Ras Rungi S.S.W. 

The best anchorage, however, as regards holding ground, shelter 
and convenience for vessels of moderate draught visiting Lindi, is 
off the town, within the bar. See page 347. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Lindi river, at 
4h. 5m. ; springs rise 11 feet. The tidal streams in the bay, outside 
the bank of soundings are not strong, but within Ras Rungi they 
run from 2 to 3 knots, the ebb being very strong during the rainy 
season, when a vessel seldom swings to the flood. 

Directions. — Bound to Lindi bay from the northward, the coast 
should be given a berth of one mile, until abreast of Ras Banura, a 
cliffy point 25 feet high, the north-east point of the bay. From this 
position, the north end of Lindi town, situated on the west point of 
entrance to Lindi river, will be seen. See view on plan. 

If not about to enter the river, and in the northerly monsoon 
season, anchorage may be taken on the north shore as above described. 
Or, to anchor temporarily, nearer the town, gradually bring the fort 
flagstaff to bear S.W. \ W., anchoring as soon as the centre of 
Mwentengi village bears S.S.E. \ E., as before mentioned. The 
water will shoal suddenly as the latter bearing is approached, 
and the depth is but 3 fathoms at 1^ cables farther in, requiring 
caution when approaching. 

Winds and Weather.— /S'ee Meteorological Table, p. 595. 

LINDI RIVER. — The entrance to the river is nearly half a mile 
wide between its banks, but the navigable channel, with depths of 
7 to 10 fathoms, is reduced to a width of 2 cables. Abreast Ras 
Rungi, 1^ miles north-eastward of the town, is a short bar, with a 
depth of 16 to 18 feet at low- water springs, or 27 to 29 feet at high- 
water springs, in 1894. It is not recommended for vessels above 
20 feet draught, without first examining the bar or obtaining a pilot 
from the town. 

From Gala island, on which there is a village, 3 miles above the 
entrance, the river takes a south-westerly direction for about 
3 miles, where there are several branches. M'tali, the principal one, 

S»g plan of Lindi river, No. 681, 



Oliap. Vlir.j LINDI TOWN ; ANCH0RA6B. ' Ml 

is navigable for vessels of 6 to 8 feet draught from half flood to half 
ebb for about 10 miles. At 13 miles up it apparently ends in a 
swamp, as boats could not proceed beyond. 

Banks. — Off Ras Nando, the west point of entrance, is a sand- 
bank which dries 4 feet at low water, extending 4^ cables from the 
point. 

Fungu Mbachiwonaki is a bank of coral and sand 5 cables in 
length, on the western side of the river, dry at half ebb. There is a 
channel for dhows to the westward of the bank. 

Kisiwa Nunyi is a mangrove island half a mile in length, on the 
west side of the river ; between it and the west bank is a boat 
channel thi-ee -quarters of cable wide. Shallow water, 3 fathoms and 
less, extends about 3 cables from its east side, and mud spits extend 
some distance from its north-east and south-west extremes. 

Buoys. — Three red spar buoys, with white topmarks, A, B and C, 
mark the starboard side of the channel on entering ; the outer buoy 
with topmark A is placed in 3 fathoms on the south-east edge of the 
spit forming the north side of the entrance, with Ras Rungi bearing 
S. by W. aboat 2 cables ; they must not be depended on. 

Directions.— Anchorage.— To enter the river, steer in from 
seaward with the fort well open of Ras Rungi, bearing S. 59° W., 
which leads northward of the reef off Mwentengi village and in the 
fairway between Ras Rungi and the outer buoy with topmark A, at 
three-quarters of a cable off the point. From abreast Ras Rungi 
steer W. | S. for red spar buoy B, allowing for tide, until Ras Rungh, 
the eastern entrance point of the river, bears S.S.W. ^ W. ; then 
steer S.W. by S. (with Mlima Atu, 699 feet high, ahead), midway 
between spar buoy C and the eastern shore, anchoring when con- 
venient in from 7 to 10 fathoms, sand and mud. 

If wishing to proceed farther up, Ras Rungh may be rounded at 
one cable distance, and keeping on the east side of the river, a vessel 
may anchor a little northward of the watering place, but the holding 
ground is not good. 

Lindi. — The town of Lindi is built under a grove of cocoa-nut 
trees. The new fort and a building of the Administration lies near 
the shore. There is a pier just southward of the fort. Lindi has a 
garrison, and is the seat of a District Controller. 



Se» plan of Lindi river, No. 681. 



UB iilNDI RtVER ^0 KiLWA KIVINJE. [Chap. VIIJ. 

The Population of Lindi amounted to about 4,000 in 1895. 

Observation spot. — The German observation pillar, on the shore 
northward of the town, is in lat. 9° 59' 26" S., long. 39° 43' 38" E. 

Trade. — European goods, hardware, &c.,are imported, and sent into 
the interior ; the exports are ivory, brought to the coast by caravans, 
copal, caoutchouc, corn, rice, maize and sesame. Nearly all trade is 
conducted by the Banians, who are to be found at most of the places 
on the coast. For some miles round Lindi the country is well 
cultivated, rice, mtama seed, manioc, &c., being grown in abundance. 

Communication. — The branch steamer from Tanga, via coast 
ports, calls here every six weeks on her way southward and on 
returning. A telegraph line overland to Kilwa Kivinje is con- 
templated. 

Supplies. — Fowls, eggs, and goats, are to be obtained in small 
quantities ; vegetables are scarce ; the Banians have a few oxen, 
not for sale. There are several wells in Lindi, but the water is 
brackish. Good water is obtainable from a spring which passes 
under a turreted stone house on the east side of the river, just inside 
the mangroves ; at high water boats could go up the creek. 

THE COAST.*— Mto Mbanja is situated 3 miles northward 
of Lindi bay, and may be known by a large gap in the hills ; within 
the mouth, the water shoals to 3 feet. Dhows can enter the river at 
all times of tide. There is no anchorage off the river. 

Ras Kibungwe, at 2 miles northward of Mbanja, is a wooded point 
50 feet high ; at half a mile to the northward of the point is an islet 
closely resembling it. 

Mto Kera is a small river immediately south of the point of that 
name. Between the reefs at the entrance there is a depth of 
4 fathoms, but the mouth is so narrow that the swell caused by the 
surf on either side, rolls in and makes it dangerous even for boats to 
enter. Ras Kera is a bold looking mangrove point. 

MCHINQA BAYt (port Nungwa), lying between Ras Mzinga 
and Ras Rokumbi is about one mile wide, with depths near its head 
of from 3 to 8 fathoms ; it may be known by the gap shown by the 

* See chart : — Cape Delgado to Kilwa, No. 1,808, 
f See plan of Mchinga bay, with view, No. 677. 



Chap. Viri.] MCHINQA BAY.— MZUNGU BAY. 349 

Mto Namgaru, at its head, aad the mangrove islets, from 12 to 15 feet 
high, on the coast reefs extending from the two points of entrance. 
These reefs surround the points and both the north and south sides 
of the bay, to the distance of a half to three-quarters of a mile. 

Mchinga town is situated in the north-west corner of the bay, in a 
cocoa-nut grove. Mchinga village lies on the south shore. 

Position. — The observation spot, north-west of Mchinga village, 
is in lat. 9° W 22" S., long. 39° 44' 7" E. 

Mto Namg^aru. — The entrance to this stream, at the head of 
Mchinga bay, is blocked by the Fungu Namtamwa, and is only 
passable by boats at high water. It was not explored, but the chief 
stated that its waters were salt, and that a canoe could ascend it a 
three-days' journey. 

Anchoragre. — There is anchorage on the southern side of 
Mchinga bay, in 3 fathoms, sand, with Eas Mzinga S.E. ^ E., and 
Ras Rokumbi N.E. ^ N. ; in this position a vessel is partly sheltered 
by the Mwamba Mahazamu, from the swell which is thrown into the 
bay at all seasons. There is deeper water north-eastward of this 
position. 

Directions. — In entering Mchinga bay, keep the entrance of the 
Namgaru, bearing West ; no soundings will be obtained with the 
hand lead, until the tall mangroves on the south shore bear S. by W,, 
when the depth suddenly decreases from 50 to 10 fathoms, after 
which, anchor as convenient. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mchinga bay, at 
4h. Om. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

THE COAST.— Nondo and Ruvu bays are both shallow 
indentations of the coast. There is no anchorage in these bays, as 
the water is deep close to the reef which borders the coast at a 
distance of 3 or 4 cables. There are no dangers outside the reef.* 

Mzungru bay does not afford much shelter. Fair anchorage 
may be obtained in the southern part of Mzungu bay in 9 fathoms, 
sand and coral, with Ras Bwamkuro bearing N. by W. | W., and 
the centre of the village S.W. | S. 

* See chart ; — Cape Delgado to Kilwa, No. 1,808. 



350 LINDI RIVKR TO KTLWA KIVINJE. [Chap. VIII. 

Mto Bwamkuro discharges itself in the north part of Mzungu bay ; 
during the rainy season the water is discoloured one mile seaward. 
A sandbank bars the entrance of the river to boats at low water, and 
on a rising tide there are heavy overfalls. 

KISWERE HARBOUR* lies between Ras Berikiti and Ras 
Bobare, about three-quarters of a mile apart ; the channel is reduced 
to about half a mile in width by the coral reefs, dry at half ebb, 
extending from these points. 

The depths decrease rapidly from 30 fathoms to 10 fathoms, but 
within that depth it shoals gradually towards the head of the 
harbour. The bar of the inlet extends nearly a mile into the harbour 
on its north-west side. 

Position. — The observation spot at Rushungi village, is in 
lat. 9° 2.5' 36" S., long. 39° 36' 31" E. 

Directions. — Anchoragre. — The approach is between Ras 
Fughio, 29 feet high, and Ras Bwamkuro, 20 feet high and 4^ miles 
apart. The most conspicuous feature is Mlima Mamba, a conical 
hill 419 feet high, 1^ miles inland ; and, on a nearer approach, 
Pandawi, a square cliff, on the coast at the head of the harbour. 

At a short distance from the coast the hills are of moderate 
elevation, the table land to the northward rising to a height of from 
200 to 350 feet. 

There are no dangers beyond the coral reefs fronting the shore. 

When approaching Kiswere harbour, if towards low water, the sea 
will probably be observed breaking on the bank inside, and on the 
coral reef off Ras Berikiti, which, when recognised, may be rounded 
as close as convenient. A mark for entering is a distant peak, in 
line with the red cliff (difficult to make out) on the south side of 
the harbour, bearing S. 74° W. {see view on plan) until Mlima 
Ruhaha, a remarkable hill, 412 feet high, to the north-westward, is 
seen between the entrance points of the inlet, or the small sandy 
beach on the north shore bears N. by E., when a vessel may anchor 
in 4 fathoms, stiff mud. The holding ground here is good, and this 
would probably be the best anchorage in either monsoon. Heavy 
draughts must anchor farther out in about 12 fathoms, more exposed. 

Pandawi cliff (see view on plan), bearing N. 85° W., also leads 
through the fairway of the harbour and entrance. 

• See plan of KisTrere harbour, with view, No. 687, 



Chap. Vm.] KTSWERK harbour, 35X 

Supplies. — In the south-west corner of the harbour is a small 
fresh water stream, up which a boat can go at half flood to the large 
village of Kiswere, where supplies, such as goats, fowls, eggs, &c., 
may be obtained. There is a branch custom house here. 

Water. — There are wells of water at the village of Mtumbo, in 
the inlet, but it is brackish and unfit for use. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kiswere harbour, at 
4h. 25m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

The inlet. — From the western point of the inlet (within the bar), 
situated in the north-west corner of Kiswere harbour, a depth of 
ii fathoms water may be carried nearly up to the fork, a distance of 
4| miles, but above it the inlet becomes insignificant, and there is a 
patch of rocks in mid-channel a mile below the fork. The banks 
are mostly mangrove swamps, with higher, well wooded, and partially 
cultivated land in the background to the eastward. 

The anchorage, in about 4 fathoms, off the village of Mtumbo is 
only accessible to light draught vessels, as the bar across the entrance 
of the inlet has only a depth of 6 feet at low water springs. There 
is a nasty sea on the bar at times. 

A bank about 2 cables in extent, awash at low water springs, lies 
on the eastern part of the bar. 

A good mark for entering, is Mlima Ruhaha in line with the west 
point of the inlet, until Pandawi cliff bears S.W. by W. | W., then 
edge to the eastward, which is the deeper side, and anchor as con- 
venient off the village. 

COAST. — From Ras Fughio, 29 feet high, on the north point of 
approach to Kiswere, the coast trends nearly in a straight line for 
9 miles, with sandy beaches and small off-lying mangrove islets on 
the reef, to Ras Mombi, the southern point of Roango bay.* 

RoangrO bay is a shallow indentation of the coast, not dis- 
tinguishable above .3 miles off. There is no anchorage for vessels, 
but a narrow boat channel, having 3 feet at low water, leads through 
the reef to a creek in the centre of the bay, which creek affords 
shelter to dhows. There is a village on the beach, near the head of 
the bay, unapproachable by boats except at high water. 

See plan of Kiswere harbour, No. 687. 
* See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No. 661. 



352 LINDT RIVER TO KTLWA KIVINJE. lCha,Tp. VIIT. 

The coast from Roango bay is rocky, with sandy bights to Ras 
Ngumbe Sukani, the highest point on this part of the coast ; it may 
be known by being close southward of two islets, 20 feet in height, 
and if approached during the morning a white patch will be seen on 
its upper part. From this point to Mto Pawi, the coast consists of a 
mangrove swamp with several creeks, the mouths of which are not 
distinguishable from seaward. The reef between Kiswere harbour 
and Mto Pawi is steep-to, bordering the coast at a distance of 3 to 
4 cables. 

Mto Pawi, a boat channel available only at high tide with 
smooth water, separates the south end of Songa Manara island from 
the main, and opens into Pawi creek the southern arm of Sangarungu 
harbour. It is not distinguishable from seaward, being overhung 
with mangroves, but the south point of Songa Manara may be known 
by a remarkable break in one of the projecting cliffs, which, when 
seen from the southward, appears like an island. The sea, when 
there is much swell, breaks through this cleft with great violence, 
throwing the spray to a considerable height, and giving the appear- 
ance of white smoke rising from the land. 

Songa Manara island about G miles in length, is low, with an 
indented rocky coast on its seaward side. There are many groves of 
cocoa-nut trees on the island, and a particularly tall clump on Ras 
Kivurugu, its eastern extreme, assists in recognising it. The island is 
skirted by a reef which off Ras Kivirugu extends for nearly one mile, 
and the edge is everywhere steep-to. 

There are several villages on Songa Manara island, of which 
Sanji-ya-Majoma is the principal ; also the remains of stone houses 
and towers. 

Kivurugu islets are three low bushy islets, situated on the reef off 
Ras Kivurugu. 

SANGARUNGU HARBOUR lies within Songa Manara 
island. Its southern portion is about 3 miles in length by half a mile 
in breadth with depths of 17 to 25 fathoms, somewhat inconvenient 
for anchorage. 

Port Nisus is the name of the south-west portion of it. Port 
Pactolus is the northern arm and more exposed to the sea. The 
entrance, common to both, is between Songa Manara and Kilwa 
Kisiwa, and is nearly one mile wide between the reefs extending from 
either side. 

Se0 plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No. 661. 



Chap. VIII.] SANGARUNGU HARBOUR. — KILWA KISIWA. 353 

Ras Sangarungu, the northern point of Songa Manara, on the south 
side of the entrance, is sandy, crowned with high cocoa-nut trees and 
faced with mangroves. Ras Mchangamra on the opposite side of the 
channel is low, and composed of mangroves. 

Sangurungu harbour is surrounded by mangroves, and encumbered 
by islets and reefs, with strong tidal streams, and the swell reaches 
far in, so that a vessel would have to go some distance in for a secure 
berth. It has no proper rivers discharging into it, though many 
ramifications in the shape of mangrove creeks are used by the natives 
for local trade ; but, Kilwa being so near, any trade from a distance 
finds an exit there. 

Caution. — The water in Sangarungu harbour is very thick and 
muddy, and the dangers cannot be seen. 

Port NiSUS. — Sanji-ya-Kati, with a village on it, is a mangrove 
island nearly in the centre of the southern branch of Sangurungu 
harbour, with an extensive reef stretching northward from it. 
Southward of Sanji-ya-Kati is (Owen's) port Nisus, with anchorage 
in 4 to 10 fathoms. 

Port Pactolus. — The portion of the harbour northward of 
Sanji-ya-Kati reef is (Owen's) port Pactolus ; its entrance is scarcely 
a cable wide between the reef extending from Kilwa Kisiwa and 
the sand spit with 3 fathoms water, extending northward from 
Sanji-ya-Kati reef. Within the entrance is good anchorage in 8 to 
12 fathoms mud, but exposed to the swell that rolls in through the 
wide open entrance to Sangurungu. 

From this harbour there is boat communication at all times with 
Kilwa harbour by Mlango Mugongo, the wide passage westward of 
Kilwa Kisiwa. A narrow channel up this passage apparently 
terminates without efiEecting a junction with Kilwa harbour, but it 
has not been closely examined. 

KILWA KISIWA, the island which separates the harbours of 
Sangarungu and Kilwa Kisiwani, has a sea face of 4 miles in a north 
and south direction. Kilwa is low and covered with trees ; the 
northern part is a coral plateau elevated 45 feet above the sea and 
has many huge baobab trees on it. The reef dries off to distances 
varying from 2 cables to one mile, following the line of coast, and is 
steep-to. 

See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No. C61, 
SO 11977 Z 



354 LINDI RIVER TO KILWA KIVINJE. [Chap. VIII. 

KILWA KISIWANI HARBOUR is the eastern portion of 
an estuary, which extends inland for about 15 miles in a general 
westerly direction, where the Mavudyi river discharges into it. The 
entrance is about 4 cables wide between the reefs which are steep-to 
bordering the shore, expanding to 6 or 8 cables inside near the 
town. 

Kilwa Kisiwani is an admirable harbour for steam vessels of all 
classes, and much more adapted for shipping goods than Kilwa 
Kivinje, where a vessel must lie If miles from the shore, and at 
times exposed to a swell. 

That portion of the estuary above Kilwa Kisiwani town is known 
as port Beaver ; it is shallow a few miles up, and dotted with islands 
where it begins to contract to the river Mavudyi, which is said to be 
navigable for canoes some distance. 

North shore.— Ras Matuso or cape Kilwa, the northern 
point of the entrance, is low, sandy, and dotted with trees. To the 
westward the coast is composed of sand and cliff for 1| miles to 
Ras Mso, which is cliffy, and about 10 feet high. 

Mwamba Rukyira is a tongue of reef stretching off Ras Matuso 
in an easterly and northerly direction for 5^ miles, terminating in 
Rukyira spit. Southward and westward of the point it extends 
from 3 to 4 cables off shore. It is all dry at low water springs, and 
there are mangrove bushes and sand banks on its eastern part, some 
above high water. The reef is steep-to on its eastern sides, and the 
sea always breaks on it. 

Mso bay. — Between Ras Mso and Ras Rongozi is Mso bay, which 
is shallow ; the shore of the bay is sand, terminating abruptly to the 
southward in low, rocky cliffs, showing in one part a yellow face. 
Southward of these cliffs the shore is fringed with mangroves to 
Ras Rongozi and round into the harbour. A sand and mud bank, 
dry at low water, extends 1^ cables south-westward of Ras Rongozi, 
with many tide whirls off it. 

The base of the Mpara hill, a flat-topped eminence 460 feet high, 
skirts the northern bend of the harbour ; the hill is partially 
cultivated but mostly covered with jungle. 

South shore. — Ras Kipakoni, the southern point of the 
entrance, is fronted by Kipakoni and Balozi spits, which extend 
about three-quarters of a mile oft", and are steep-to. On the edge of 

See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No, 661, witb enlarged plan of Hhe l^arbour, 



Chap. VITI.] KILWA KTSIWANI HARBOUR. 355 

the reef, eastward of Ras Kipakoni, is an islet, 12 feet above high 
water. Balozi spit is rather higher than the part of the reef just 
eastward of it, but from being protected by the Kipakoni spit, only 
breaks when the water is low. 

Ras Kipakoni is low, with mangrove bushes on its western part 
and extending along the western ridge of Balozi spit. From the 
west extreme of the point to the town, the coast is of a cliffy nature, 
bordered by a narrow belt of mangroves, and a narrow reef which 
is steep-to. 

Castle islet is a mass of mangrove near the edge of the reef off the 
castle, from which it is distant 2 cables. 

The channel separating Kilwa island from the main is at its 
northern end very shallow, and at low tides fordable ; here is a ferry 
communicating with the island. There is another ferry from the 
village to a break in the mangroves north of Ras Rongozi. 

Outer ancliorag'e. — There is temporary anchorage in the 
northerly monsoon period in the mouth of the harbour, in about 
10 fathoms, sand, abreast the large mangrove bush lying southward of 
Ras Matuso, at about 2 cables from the reef ; the farther eastward 
the better, to be out of the rush of the tide. 

Anclioragre. — The harbour of Kilwa Kisiwani has depths of 
20 to 30 fathoms, but off the castle there is ample anchorage for many 
vessels in from 9 to 15 fathoms ; it is open to the sea breeze, but com- 
pletely protected by the projecting points of reef from the heavy 
swell that almost invariably beats on the outer shore. 

A good berth is in 12 fathoms, with Castle islet bearing 
W. by S. I S., the castle S.S.W. | W., and Ras Kipakoni W. by S. 
The reef dries off abreast nearly 2 cables. The tidal streams are 
strong, and at this anchorage a vessel is often in an eddy, but as the 
bottom is a tenacious mud, a short scope of cable can be used and the 
anchor kept clear. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kilwa Kisiwani at 
3h. 45m. ; springs rise 12 feet, neaps 7^ feet. 

Directions. — In making Kilwa Kisiwani from any direction, the 
Mpara hill, will be seen in clear weather from a distance of 20 miles. 
It is flat-topped and in no way remarkable, except being near Singino 
hill to the northward and the only eminence in the immediate 

See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No, tjGl, with enlarged plan of the harbour, 
SO 11977 Z 3 



356 LINDI RIVER TO KILWA KIVINJE. [Chap. VIII. 

vicinity. To the southward of Songa Manara island are other hills 
rather similar in appearance, but they are continuous, whereas south 
of Mpara is a low plain forming a break of 20 miles. In very clear 
weather the Machinga range, 1,200 feet above the sea, 20 miles 
inland, will also be seen, but the summits are not well marked. Ras 
Matuso is tolerably conspicuous, either from northward or south- 
ward ; Mwamba Rukyira, the reef off it, will be seen from a distance 
of 3 miles off, either dry or breaking. 

At low water, no other guide but the eye is necessary for entering 
the harbour, but at high water only the outermost parts break, and the 
Balozi spit does not show its existence even by a ripple, rendering a 
leading mark necessary. A stranger should, if possible, avoid 
entering with the strength of the flood, v/ith the sun ahead, as the 
tidal streams run with considerable velocity. On the ebb, the rush 
of water sometimes raises a sea between the outermost points of the 
reefs, which at springs is dangerous for boats, and makes it difficult 
to realise that there is over 30 fathoms of water where the overfalls 
take place. 

To enter from the northward, steer along the south-eastern edge of 
Mwamba Rukyira at the distance of about half a mile, when, except with 
the sun ahead, the old castle should be seen closely backed by trees 
of thick foliage which overtop it. From the southward, Ras Matuso 
should be approached bearing N.N.W., or westward of that bearing. 
When the castle is made out steer for it on a W. ;^ S. bearing ; from 
abreast the mangrove bush on the edge of the reef, south of Ras 
Matuso, the southern extremity of the white sand in Mso bay 
should be seen, with the yellow cliffs just to the left. When this 
extremity of the sand bears N.W. by W. ^ W. steer for it, which 
course will lead in mid-channel past Balozi spit, but care must be 
taken that the tide does not sweep the vessel off the line of bearing. 

When Castle islet bears W. by S. ^ S. alter course to 
S.W. by W. ^ W., with the observation spot boabab tree (which is 
not easy to identify from similar trees around it) right ahead ; when 
Castle islet bears W. | N., steer W.N.W. for the anchorage. 

There is no difficulty in sailing out in the early morning with the 
land wind. 

Caution. — The current runs continually to the northward off all 
this part of the coast, and frequently sets in towards the land. Sailing 
vessels making the land should therefore steer to the southward of 



See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No. 661, with enlarged plan of the harbour. 



Chap. VIII.] KILWA KISIWANI. 357 

the desired point, and if closing at night heave-to in ample time to 
allow for drift. The current is stronger and more regular during the 
southerly monsoon, when its strength increases at times to 4 miles 
an hour. 

Kilwa OP Kilwa Kisiwani (in contradistinction to Kilwa 
Elivinje, a few miles north) is the village occupying the site of the 
old town (Quiloa of the Portuguese), and which was for several 
centuries the most important place on the eastern coast of Africa. 
The ruins of old Quiloa on the north-western portion of the island 
are extensive, but are mere foundations, excepting the castle (a tall 
and conspicuous, keep-like fortress), some mosques, and an embattled 
space, the walls of which are still standing. 

The village of Kilwa Kisiwani stands behind the old castle. Most 
of the trade, which is of no great extent, is in the hands of the 
Hindis. 

Observation spot. — A large baobab tree stands on an open park- 
like elevated space, 45 feet above the sea, half a mile east of the 
castle, and marks the observation spot which is in lat. 8° 57' 32" S., 
long. 39° 30' 50" E. The word Fawn is cut on the tree. 

Supplies. — The inhabitants of Kilwa island are supplied with 
water from wells. Cattle, goats, and fowls are fairly plentiful, and 
the island abounds with bush buck. 

Communication. — The Deutsche Ost Afrika steamers call every 
three weeks at Kilwa Kivinje, about 20 miles to the northward, p. 359. 

Climate. — The harbour is mostly bordered by mangroves, and has 
a bad reputation for malaria, but it is no worse than Kilwa Kivinje, 
and were the site of the dwelling-houses as a rule better chosen, 
would be more healthy. 

Winds. — Easterly winds prevail here in the form of strong sea 
breezes during the greater portion of the year, and generally occasion 
a considerable swell outside the harbour, so that in working out in a 
sailing vessel, if the wind falls light, it is sometimes difficult to get 
out : this consideration gives more importance to the outer anchorage 
ground mentioned, which is the only position where a vessel can 
possibly anchor outside. The land wind blows early in the morning. 
See Meteorological tableffor Kilwa Kivinje, p. 596. 

See plan of Kilwa Kisiwani, No. 661, with enlarged plan of the harbour. 



358 LINDI RIVER TO KILWA KIVINJB. [Chap. VIII. 

COAST. — From Ras Matuso the coast trends northward for 
7^ miles to Ras Tikwiri, bordered by a reef which dries to the 
distance of a half to one mile, being a continuation of Mwamba 
Rukyira, p. 354. The coast is sandy and flat with several villages, 
backed by thick jungle. 

Ras Tikwiri is a mangrove point broken at its extremity into 
isolated clumps of these trees. The edge of the shore reef is about 
3 cables beyond the extremity of the mangroves. 

Ras Miramba is a low mangrove point, 6 miles north-westward 
of Ras Tikwiri, with shallow water extending 1^ miles ; westward 
of Ras Miramba the coast forms a shallow bay as far as Gingwera 
river, a distance of 3 miles. 

Off-lying" dangers.— Ruang-ale reef, dry 7 feet at low water 

springs, and separated by a boat channel from the shore reef, lies 
2 miles eastward of Ras Tikwiri, The sea always breaks on its 
outer edge. 

Rukyira bay, between Ras Matuso and Ras Tikwiri, has good 
anchorage at its southern end, where the Mwamba Rukyira protects 
a vessel from the swell. It is, however, of little use, except to 
vessels of light draught, in consequence of Rukyira bar blocking the 
entrance from seaward. 

Rukyira bar. — From Rukyira spit, the north extreme of 
Mwamba Rukyira, a narrow rocky bar, parallel, and about 5 miles 
distant from the coast, extends northward for 9 miles, with irregular 
depths of from 2 to 10 fathoms, and in one or more spots less. 
Though there are doubtless places where vessels can at all times pass 
over it into Rukyira bay, yet it should not be attempted without 
good cause, as there is usually a heavy swell, and from the irregu- 
larity of the bottom other shoal spots, besides those marked on the 
chart, may exist. 

Mpovi reef,* 2^ miles in length, with a sand bank which dries 
from 4 to 11 feet, is the southernmost of the mass of reefs protecting 
the anchorage of Kilwa Kivinje. There are a few mangrove bushes 
near the eastern edge of the reef, which is tolerably steep-to and 
dries 11 feet. 

* See plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia island. No. 1,032. 



Chap. VIII.] KILWA KIVINJE; 35^ 

On all other sides the reef shelves gradually off, and although 
it lies 1^ miles from the shore, the channel within it is only available 
for vessels of light draught. Shallow water extends 2 miles north- 
ward of the sandhead. 

Mwanamkaya reef, forming the southern side of the south 
channel to Kilwa Kivinje, is 2^ miles in length, and situated about 
2 miles north-eastward of Mpovi reef, with 8 fathoms water between. 
Near the north-west corner is a sandhead, which only covers at 
springs ; patches of 3 to 4 fathoms lie about one mile eastward of the 
reef, being the extension northward of Rukyira bar. 

FungU Amana, 1^ miles in extent, lies westward of Mwanam- 
kaya ; the sand on its western end dries at half ebb. 

KILWA KIVINJE is situated in lat. 8° 44' 43" S., 
long. 39° 25' 6" E., one mile westward of Ras Miramba, and partly 
surrounded with cocoa-nut trees ; it consists of a labyrinth of huts 
and brick houses with from 8,000 to 10,000 inhabitants, and possesses 
a considerable trade. It is the seat of a District Controller with a 
garrison. Formerly, it was the principal port for the exportation of 
slaves. 

At the back of Kilwa Kivinje is Singino hill, a flat cultivated 
plateau rising to a height of 550 feet, and about 3 miles in diameter. 
Its rim or edge is tolerably steep on all sides, and may be used for 
bearings. To the westward, connected by a low spur, is Nunguruku, 
a small conical hill, 480 feet in height. Other small hills stretch 
away to the westward, but the general prospect in that direction is 
flat and uninteresting. 

Mto Gingwera enters the sea at 3 miles north-westward of Kilwa 
Kivinje, and its bar dries at low-water springs. The river can be 
ascended about 9 miles, and abounds in hippopotami. 

Supplies. — The town of Kilwa Kivinje is amply supplied with 
wells, but the water is bad and there is no convenience for watering 
a vessel ; an aqueduct was in progress in 1894. Cattle, sheep, 
poultry, and eggs are abundant, but vegetables (beyond the staple 
native crops of millet, manioc, and sweet potatoes) are not so easily 
procured. 

See plan of cli?.nnels between Has Tikwiri and Mafia island, No. 1,032. 



360 KILWA KIVINJB. [Chap. VIII. 

Trade. — The exports are ivory, copal, caoutchouc, corn, rice, maize 
and sesame ; the imports consist chiefly of stuffs and necessary 
articles for the native population. 

Communication. — Telegraph. — The branch steamers of the 
Deutsche Ost Afrika Company from Tanga, via other coast ports, 
call here every three weeks on their way southward and on their 
return northward. There is telegraphic communication by land line 
with Dar-es-Salaam. 

Andioragre. — The anchorage is open, though good protection is 
afforded by the reefs to the eastward in ordinary weather, but when 
the monsoon is strong, a little swell fetches through the passages. 
The sand and mud bank off Ras Miramba and the town dries off 
about half a mile and shallow water with patches of rock extends 
about 1^ miles from the coast, at which distance it drops suddenly 
to 4 and 5 fathoms. 

A vessel, in approaching this anchorage, should not shoal the 
water to less than 5 fathoms. A good berth, in about this depth, is 
If miles from the town, with the centre of Kilwa Kivinje bearing 
S. by W. ^ W., the mouth of the Gingwera W. by N., and Ras 
Miramba S. by E. i E. 

A red barrel buoy, marked with an anchor, lies in 3^ fathoms, 
between the anchorage given and the village. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kilwa Kivinje, at 
4h. Om. ; springs rise about 12 feet. There is but little tidal stream 
at the anchorage. 

Winds and Weather. — See Meteorological table, p. 596. 

KILWA MAIN PASS.— Islets and reefs— The reefs on 
the south side are described on page 358. 

FungU Jewe, 3;^ miles in length east and west, and steep-to on 
all sides, lies on the north side of the pass and 3 miles northward of 
Fungu Amana. Along the south-east face it breaks heavily, and is 
at all times visible. At half tide a long expanse of sand uncovers, 
which has no particular head. 

Luala reef, 2 miles in length north and south, lies 1^ miles 
eastward of the north-east extreme of Fungu Jewe. The reef 
dries at half ebb, and the sea breaks on its eastern edge, but it is 
not so conspicuous as Fungu Jewe. 

See plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia island, No. 1,032. 



Chap. VIII.] KILWA MAIN PASS. 361 

Lliala chaniiel lies between Fungu Jewe and Luala and Pweza 
reefs, and is useful to vessels coming southward that have taken the 
inner channel so far, but not bound to Kilwa Kivinje. The channel 
is 1^ miles wide, and deep, and the reefs on either side can generally 
be seen. 

Fanjove island and reef. — This small island, situated about 
5 miles northward of Kilwa main pass, is covered with tall trees, and 
stands on the inner part of a reef 6 miles in length, in a northerly- 
direction, on the edge of the deep ocean water. The reef extends 
4 miles southward of the island. The outer edge of the reef is 
steep-to, dries a few feet, and the sea always breaks on it. At 
one mile W.S.W. of the south end are some patches of 3 fathoms, 
and steep-to. 

LIGHT. — From a quadrangular white tower, 46 feet in height, 
erected on Fanjove island, is exhibited, at an elevation of 60 feet 
above high water, di fixed white light, visible from S. 22° W., through 
west and north, to S. 67° E., from a idistance of 14 miles in clear 
weather. 

Directions.* — The direct entrance into Kilwa Kivinje is by the 
channel known as Kilwa Main pass, between the reefs before 
mentioned ; it is 3 miles wide and clear of danger. No soundings 
will be obtained with the hand lead until within Jewe and Amana 
reefs. 

In approaching Kilwa Kivinje from seaward, Fanjove and the 
larger island of Songa Songa will be sighted on a clear day at a 
distance of about 14 miles ; and the Singino and Mpara hills under 
similar circumstances at 18 or 20 miles ; both hills are flat, the 
Singino being the longer. To the southward of Mpara hills nothing 
will be visible except in very clear weather, when the distant 
Machinga hills may perhaps be seen. 

Steer to pass about 5 miles southward of Fanjove island ; when 
the breakers on the reef extending southward of it are seen, the eye 
will be the best guide ; give them a berth of at least half a mile. If 
the weather be clear and the sun not ahead, from a position in which 
Fanjove lighthouse bears N.N.E., the entrance to the Gingwera may 
perhaps be distinguished, forming a slight gap in the coast. Bring 



*tSce plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia, No. 1,032. Directions for 
approaching Kilwa, by Mafia and inner channels, see pages 386, 387. 



362 KILWA KITINJiS TO RtJFIJI RIVER. [Chap. Vltl. 

the centre of gap to bear W. | S. and steer for it until the western 
end of Jewe reef bears N. by E., when alter course to the south- 
westward for the anchorage off the town. 

If the Gingwera cannot be distinguished when southward of 
Fanjove, the lighthouse on that island combined with Nungaruka 
and Singino hills should be good objects for fixing position, from 
which course may be shaped for the anchorage as requisite. 

Within the outer reefs the water is discoloured. 

COAST. — Aspect.— From Mto Gingwera, the coast trends in a 
northerly direction, with some slight sinuosities and points to Ras 
Samanga Fungu, a distance of 18 miles. For about 7 miles the shore 
is a sandy beach, but farther on it is fringed with mangroves. There 
are villages all along the coast, but mostly concealed by the man- 
groves. There are no reefs, except off Ras Wango, but a sand and 
mud flat dries off to a considerable distance. 

The coast is backed by a flat plain, which to the northward 
gradually slopes upwards to a number of low wooded ridges, parallel 
to the coast, which again rise to the Matumbi range, 17 miles from 
the sea, averaging from 1,700 to 2,200 feet in height. 

OUTER ISLANDS AND REEFS.— Clearing' mark.— 

Fanjove island lighthouse, or the light in sight at night, bearing west- 
ward of S. 22° W., leads seaward of the reefs northward of Fanjove 
island. 

Songa Songra island, situated 3| miles north-westward of 
Fanjove island, is a coral island 2| miles in length, covered with 
trees. It stands on a broad reef dry at spring tides, and surrounded 
by shallow water on all sides but the north-western, where Pumbavu, 
a sandy islet with a ifew scattered trees, is connected to the main 
island by a neck of sand half a mile in length. At the distance of a 
quarter of a mile westward of this islet the water is deep and clear. 
On the point of Songa Songa nearest Pumbavu is a clump of tall 
trees, conspicuous from the inner channel. 

Supplies. — Songa Songa has a village near its eastern shore, and 
wells with tolerably good water in the coral nearly in its centre ; 
these are difficult of access and best approached from the western 
Bide. Bullocks and goats are bred on the island. 

See plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia, No. 1,032. 



Chap. VIII.] SONGA SONGA.— NYUNI PASS. ^63 

Anchorage. — There la anchorage in about 6 fathoms, from 3 to 
5 cables westward of Pumbavu islet. Small craft can anchor in 
4 fathoms, nearer Songa Songa, and more sheltered, by passing over 
the sandy fiat, joining Pumbavu islet with the reef southward of it, 
in not less than 2 fathoms, at low water. 

Val rock, with 6 feet least water and steep-to, lies 2^ miles 
S. by W. ^ W. from Pumbavu islet, and one mile from Songa Songa 
island reef. As the rock does not show, it should be given a wide 
berth. 

Pweza is a small reef lying 1^ miles northward of Luala reef, 
with a small sandhead dry 8 feet at low water springs. 

Between Pumbavu islet and Fungu Imbi is Sanders rock, with 
7 feet water, and Mzuaji reef, which dries 2 feet ; north-westward 
of these is Baniani reef, on which is a sandbank dry 10 feet at low 
water. 

Fungu Imbi, northward of Fanjove, is 2^ miles in length, with 
a sandhead dry 7 feet at low water springs ; it is steep-to along its 
outer edge, on which the sea breaks heavily. 

Nyuni is a coral and sand islet with bushes, and a few casuarinas 
on its eastern side, which can be seen from a distance of 12 miles. 

The island lies 11 miles northward from Fanjove island, on the 
western side of a reef, 3 miles in length, dry at low water, and 
steep-to on its seaward side. Turtle frequent this island and Okuza 
north of it, from February to July. 

Kimbore reef dries 7 feet, and lies about a mile westward of 
Nyuni islet. 

Nyuni pass, between Fungu Imbi and Nyuni island, affords 
access to the Inner channel, with depths of 4 to 6 fathoms between 
the charted dangers, but as no good leading mark can be given, and 
the swell being heavy on the edge of the shallow water, the passage 
is not recommended. 

Fungu Mombawaka, northward of Nyuni reef, is 1^ miles in 
extent at its seaward edge, having a small area awash at low water, 
the remainder having a few feet depth always over it ; the sea 
generally breaks over the reef. 

See plan of channels between Bas Tikwiri and Mafia, No. 1,033. 



364 KILWA KIVINJE TO RUPIJI RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

Okuza island, 6 miles northward of Nyuni island, is small, 
sandy, and covered with casuarinas, the highest of which are at the 
eastern end, and can be seen about 14 miles in clear weather. The 
island is on the north-west part of a reef, 3 miles in length, all dry 
at low water springs, steep-to on its seaward side and tolerably so on 
the other sides. 

Between Okuza and the reefs of Kibondo island is South Mafia 
channel. 

Andiorage. — There is anchorage within Okuza reef, in from 
7 to 12 fathoms ; in the north-east monsoon a berth well to the 
south-west should be chosen to avoid the swell. 

INNER CHANNEL.— Bordering reefs.— Between the outer 
reefs and islands before-mentioned, and the mainland southward of 
the Rufiji, is an inner chain of reefs, which for the most part have 
navigable channels between them. The recommended track is 
marked by a pecked line on the plan, and is best navigable by vessels 
when the sun is in a favourable position, and with a good look-out 
aloft. The reefs bordering it will be described, commencing from 
the southward. The channel is equally good on either side of the 
two first-mentioned reefs. 

Buoyage. — A few of the most important shoals are marked by 
buoys. The track is westward of black buoys and eastward of red 
buoys, but they must not be depended on. 

PwaJTlU reef is 1^ miles in length, and lies in the fairway 
westward of Songa Songa island. A long extent of sand on the reef 
dries at half ebb ; it is mostly steep-to, and can generally be seen. 

Poiasi reef, also in the fairway, lies three-quarters of a mile 
northward of Pwajuu, and is 2^ miles in length by half a mile in 
breadth. The sand on it dries over an extent of 1^ miles, the highest 
part being towards the north, where it dries 11 feet at springs ; it is 
mostly steep-to. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, marked 6, Mafia, in white lettei'S, 
lies close to the north-west extreme of Poiasi reef. 

Westward of these two reefs are Fungu Wango and Fungu Kiswasi, 
both of which dry 6 feet at low water ; they mark the eastern side 
of the channel westward of Poiasi. 



See plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia, No. 1,032. 



Chap. VTTI.] OKUZA ISLAND. — INNER CHANNEL. 365 

Machangri is the name of a collection of reefs on the east side of 
the best track lying from 5 to 7 miles northward of Songa Songa. 
The south-western reef dries at half ebb ; its edge is steep, but does 
not show well. 

The north-western reef has a sandhead which is only covered at 
high water, and except at that time is a good guide for the channel. 
It is near the western edge of the reef, which is fairly steep-to on 
that side. 

Banda is a small reef with a sandhead dry 8 feet at low water 
springs, 2^ miles north eastward from Machangi sand, and its 
western side is not steep-to. 

Bawara, also on the eastern side of the best track, is the name of 
a collection of reefs north-eastward of Banda reef. These reefs cover 
an area of 2^ miles north and south, and 3 miles east and west, and 
show four sandheads at low water ; their western edges are fairly 
steep-to. 

Chocha, on the west side of the best track, is 2 miles in length, 
uncovered at low water, with sand on its north-west extremity, 
which dries 9 feet. The south-east end tails off for 2 cables, but it can 
generally be seen showing green under water. The eastern point of 
Chocha lies West 1^ miles from the sandhead on Machangi. 

Buoys. — A black conical buoy, marked 5, Mafia, in white letters, 
is placed near the edge of the reef extending north-west of 
Machanga sandhead, and a red spar buoy, marked D, Mafia, marks the 
eastern edge of Chocha ; the channel is between them. 

Membeuso, 2| miles north of Machangi, is about one mile in 
length ; the sand on it dries 8 feet, and its edge is steep. ■ A patch 
dries between it and Chocha, and Miza reef farther to the westward, 
both away from the best track. 

Simaya Island, 4 miles southward of Membeuso reef, is 
composed of sand, covered with high trees, and visible at a distance 
of 14 miles ; it stands on a reef, three-quarters of a mile in length, 
which is steep-to. 

Some patches of 5 fathoms are charted between Simaya island and 
the Bawara reefs, eastward of the best track. 



See plan of channels between Ras Tikwiri and Mafia, No. 1,032. 



M KILWA KIVmjB TO BUPIJI RIVER. [Chap, VIIl. 

COAST.— Ras Samanga Fungu, situated 18 miles northward 
of Mto Gingwera, is a point of high mangroves conspicuous from 
the northward when in shore. Immediately north of it is Samanga 
Fungu creek, with a village of the same name. 

Sanxangra is the name of a large village and creek If miles north 
of Ras Samanga Fungu. It is the largest village between Kilwa 
Kivinje and the Rufiji, and is quite concealed from the sea ; there 
are Hindis here who have most of the trade. The estuary contracts 
at a short distance from the sea, and is said to join another creek 
which debouches at one mile to the north-eastward. 

MOHORO BAY, lies between Ras Ndumbo and Ras Pombwe. 
Its shore is fronted with a thick belt of mangroves, and it dries about 
2^ miles from its head at low water. 

Kikwaju, a broad but shallow creek, lies at the north-west 
corner of Mohoro bay. On the western shore, a short distance up, is 
the village of Marendego. 

Mohoro river. — Utagite and Lokotonasi, the two mouths of the 
Mohoro, are mangrove lined creeks, with depths of one to 3 fathoms at 
low water springs ; they connect about 3 miles up. The Utagite has 
a depth of 3 feet at low water springs on its bar, which is 2 miles 
outside the entrance. There is no swell on the bar, but the sea 
breaks on the sandbanks on either side at half-ebb with any wind. 

The Mohoro is 200 yards wide at the junction, and at the highest 
point reached by the Fawn''s boats early in August 1877, 14 miles 
in a direct line from the coast, was 80 yards in breadth ; at that 
distance it had become so shallow that the steam cutter could get no 
farther ; here were several villages with cultivated ground around. 

The land route from Kilwa to Dar-es-Salaam passes through these 
villages. Coasting craft ascend the river for trade. 

The banks of the river were from 10 to 20 feet above the water, 
and where not scoured into cliffs by the current, densely covered 
with vegetation. The tidal influence extends above the villages. 

Ras Pombwe, the eastern point of Mohoro bay, is of mangrove. 
Ras Pombwe is also known by some as Bachambao. 

Fungu Okambara is a coral and mud reef that stretches off for 
3^ miles in a south-east direction, and dries 8 feet. 

See plan of chftxjnels between Ra? Til^wifi ftn4 Mj^fia, No. 1,0.'? 2, 



Chap. Tin.] MOHORO BAY. — RUPIJI DELTA. 367 

Northward of Okambara, is Mwamba Mkuu, another large reef, 
which also dries 8 feet. 

Pombwe creek, half a mile wide in the entrance, extends 
in a north-west direction from Ras Pombwe for 2^ miles, when it 
ends in mangrove swamps. 

Kitope llill is a conspicuous flat-topped hill, 780 feet high, rising 
in the plain 5 miles westward of Mohoro bay. It is thickly 
wooded, and has a lower spur to the northward with a small conical 
summit. 

RUFIJI DELTA.— General remarks.— In Mohoro bay, 
northward of Samanga, commences the remarkable maze of creeks 
which form the delta of the Rufiji and Mohoro. Some of these 
creeks do not communicate at ordinary times with either river, 
neither do the rivers themselves ever join, though at one point in 
their courses they approach one another closely ; but in the rainy 
season of the interior, December and the two following months, 
the whole plain is frequently flooded, when the water doubtless 
escapes by either river indifferently, and all the large mouths that 
open to the sea assist to carry off the surplus. 

The delta has been pushed forward in advance of the general line 
of the land, and now forms a convex projection with a coast line 
50 miles in length, which is all low and of a uniform outline as 
viewed from the sea. Mangroves occupy the greatest portion of the 
shore line, and extend back for a varying distance from it. Within 
the swampy belt is a broad flat plain, covered with long grass and a 
few trees, and dotted here and there with small villages, in the 
vicinity of which and near the rivers is cultivation. This plain is 
35 miles north and south between the boundary lines of Matumbi 
and Mtoti hills. 

From Ras Pombwe, in Mohoro bay, to the village of Kikunguni, 
41 miles to the northward, ten large mouths open into the sea, eight 
of which are connected at all times with the Rufiji, the other two 
being only salt water creeks. All these mouths are connected by a 
series of small creeks, through the mangroves near the sea, that 
serve at high water as passages for canoes from one village to another 
without the necessity of crossing the bars. 

See plan of ohannels Ijetween R^s Tilswiri and Mafia, No. 1,032. 



368 RUFIJI DELTA AND RIVER. [Chap. VIII. 

Best Entrances. — If going to ascend the Lufiji, the Simba 
Uranga and the Kikunya (pp. 3G9, 370) are the best mouths to choose, 
on account of the absence of bars. 

Ruflji ya Wake or Kiengrieni.— This river is considered to 
be the southern mouth of the Rufiji ; it connects with the main 
stream near Ruanda village, about 12 miles north-north-west of its 
entrance, which is known as the Yaya mouth. There are several 
ramifications of it unexplored which probably lead north and south 
into the adjacent mouths. The upper part of it is too shallow to 
allow a boat to reach the Rufiji in the dry season. 

The bar, 1^ miles outside the entrance points is never quite dry, 
but there is usually a nasty swell on it. Several patches, awash at 
low water, with 6 to 7 fathoms close-to, lie from 2 to 4 miles off the 
entrance. Yaya village is on its north point of the entrance. 

Bunibura, the next creek to the northward, was not explored, 
as the bar, which broke, could not be crossed. 

Ndahi mouth, is 7^ miles north-eastward of the Yaya, and may 
possibly be distinguished by a high grove of casuarinas on its 
northern bank. The sea rolling in through the break in the distant 
reefs south of Kibondo, makes the bar bad at all times. It connects 
with Kiassi.* 

Kiassi mouth., 5^ miles north-eastward of the Ndahi, is a broad 
arm, joining the latter at 5 miles to the south-westward. 

Above the junction it takes the name of Mto Kimero, and trends 
through open grass country. About 6 miles up it is joined by the 
Usembe, which leaves the Rufiji 3 miles below the Kimero. Neither 
of these rivers afford a passage for a small steam launch in the dry 
season, unless perhaps at spring tides. 

Msala moutht may be looked upon as the true mouth of the 
Rufiji, although one of the smallest ; but fresh water and terra firma 
are much sooner reached than in the larger mangrove entrances ; 
it opens abreast Boydu island. Sand and mud banks dry off the 
Msala for 3 miles, and at low-water springs the entrance is imprac- 
ticable ; there is a considerable swell on the bar when the wind is 
fresh. 

* S>v coast sheets, Nos. 1,032 and 458. 

■j- S^e plan of Mafia islands and channels, No. 458. 



Chap. VIII.] MOUTHS OF THE RUPIJI. 369 

Immediately within the mouth is a large creek trending to the 
Bouthward, with the village of Msala on its west point. At 5 miles 
up the main branch the mangrove belt is passed ; for 7 miles farther 
it is bordered by dense forest, in which are rice clearings, and then 
at the point where it branches, and where the Rufiji proper is 
reached, it emerges into open country. A few miles from the sea, it 
takes the name of Bumba ; its average breath is from 80 to 150 yards, 
with a depth of 2 fathoms. See the ascent by Fawn's boat, page 370. 

Ras Twana, the eastern point of the delta of low mangroves, is 
6 miles northward of the Msala mouth. The sand and mud bank 
stretching off to the eastward for 3^ miles, is dry in spots at low- 
water springs and tolerably steep-to, but generally only visible when 
the sea is breaking on it. 

Twana creek, close westward, is a blind creek. 

Kiomboni mouth lies 2 miles north-west from Ras Twana, and 
is one of the large mouths of the Rufiji. The river runs through 
dense mangroves, with a width of 400 yards, and a depth of from a 
half to 3 fathoms, for 12 miles, before it joins the Simba Uranga. 

Simba Urang'a is the branch of the Rufiji best known to the 
coast traders, who resort there to load with timber for house 
rafters. It has no bar, but the water is shallow for more than 
5 miles from the land, and near low water there is sometimes a con- 
siderable sea, raised by the ebbing tide. 

Buoy. — Directions. — There are some mudbanks just awash at 
low water springs, lying between 3 and 4 miles north-eastward of 
the entrance. A red buoy, in about 2| fathoms, marks the fairway, 
and is situated about one mile northward of the outer bank, and 
5 miles N.E. by N. of the east point of the entrance, but it is not to 
be depended on. 

From the buoy, steering S.W. by S. for the centre of entrance, a 
boat will carry about 8 feet water in, at low water springs. Inside, 
the water deepens to as much as 10 fathoms, but only for a short 
distance. Above, the estuary is 300 to 400 yards wide, and carries a 
depth of from one to 3 fathoms, to its junction with the Kiomboni 
10 miles to the south-westward. Several creeks to the northward 
communicate with the Kikunya branch. 

Seeohaxt, No. 662. 
so 11977 2 A 



370 ;•: RUFIJI RIVER. [Chap. viii. 

Immediately inside the entrance, the large ramifications of Suninga, 
branches to the southward and rejoins again 8| miles to the south- 
west. There are several villages in the creek, Suninga being the 
largest. The courses of both the Simba Uranga and Suninga lie 
entirely through mangrove swamps. See the ascent by this mouth, 
page 371. 

Kikunya moutll* is the northernmost and largest of these great 
openings. It is 3 miles north-westward of Simba Uranga, and 
2^ miles wide at the entrance. There is no bar, and a depth of 
2 fathoms at low water springs may be carried in steering S.W. \ W., 
for the centre of the entrance. Kikunya village stands on firm land 
near the head of a little branch creek, 9 miles from the coast, and is 
the most important in the neighbourhood. 

The passage of the river presents no difficulties until within 2 miles 
of Kikunya ; here the river becomes narrow, with sharp bends, with 
only about 3 feet at half tide. At the landing place, one mile below 
the village, there is a deep pool with from 4 to 6 fathoms water, 
where the dhows receive iheir cargoes. f 

The Kikunya is only connected with the Rufiji by side com- 
munications to the Simba Uranga, and has no fresh water in it. In 
all the branches northward of Msala, the water is salt, as the amount 
of fresh water which finds its way into them is so small compared 
with their vast area, that it produces no effect. 

THE RUFIJI above the Delta.J— The Rufiji is most dis- 
appointing above the delta. The number and size of its mouths, and 
the undoubted distance of its source, leads the traveller to expect a 
much larger stream than he will find. When the inundation caused 
by the interior rains has subsided, and the current of the river 
somewhat reduced, so as to allow a boat to ascend, the water channel 
is limited and obstructed by many shoals and banks, and whenever 
the river widens with a straight reach it is frequently all more or less 
shallow. 

With the exception of these hindrances, the steam cutter of the 
Fawn, drawing 3 feet, made her way without difficulty for 30 miles 
to Kisoma, which is 20 miles in a straight line from the Msala mouth. 
She carried from 9 to 10 feet water all the way, except at one spot. 



• See chart, No. 662. 

t Remark Book : — Lieutenant ^. Robertson, H.M.S. Kingfshn', 1885. 

% See chart, No. 597. 



Chap. VIII.] ABOVE THE DELTA. 371 

a little above Ukema village, where there seemed to be no deep 
c)iaiiiiel but a bar with 2 to 3 feet across the river, which would 
probably be altered by the next inundation. The ordinary depth in 
the channel was from 2 to 3 fathoms. 

At Mpembeno village, just below Kisoma, the river was over 300 
yards wide from bank to bank, but the water was not over 80 yards 
wide, and mostly shallow. Natives at Kisoma reported that higher 
up, the river was more encumbered with banks, but as they did not 
profess to navigate it, too much confidence cannot be placed in their 
report. The tide reaches to near the fork of the Kimero ; above this, 
the current ran on an average 1| miles an hour. The country is 
perfectly flat and uninteresting, having very few trees. 

At Mpembeno, is the main ferry by which the land route from 
Kilwa to Dar-es-Salaam crosses the Rufiji. Grain, roots, and 
pumpkins grow well here. No dhows go above the delta. 

The Huflji was ascended by the Simba Uranga mouth, by 
Lieutenant Fromm, a German officer, in a steam pinnace drawing 
5^ feet, and a whale boat, in May 1892. Entering the river on 
May 9th, he reached Korogero (Kungulio) on May 25th, formerly a 
large village, but was destroyed by the Mafite, a few huts only 
remaining. This place is within two days' journey of Kisake, a 
German station (on the Kingani river). 

. The Pangani falls (apparently about 150 miles from the entrance), 
were visited on foot from Korogero ; the river was about 30 yards 
wide and the falls about 3 feet in height (about 5th June), the river 
had fallen about that amount in the previous fortnight. 

The river is apparently navigable to the falls, at all seasons, for 
vessels of about 2 feet draught, but the channel is constantly shifting. 
One bar at least (at Kilindi) which just admitted of the passage of 
the pinnace going up was dry on the return some 3 weeks later, antl 
the descent was made by a detour, joining the main branch lower 
down. In places the depths are from 20 to 26 feet. 

The river fell 4^ feet between 9th May and 23rd May, the last 
mentioned being the date the mouth of the river was again reached. 
The rise of the river is about 15 feet, and it is lowest in November, 
as in the Zambezi — the characteristics of the two rivers being much 
the same. The tide ceases at Jobine-Jongo. 

See chart, No. 597. 
SO 11977 2 A 2 



372 MAFIA ISLAND AND CHANNEL. [Chap. VIII. 

Many villages were met with and in places the houses were 
bnilt on piles, the localities being flooded at high river. Bananas, 
mangoes, and rice were plentiful near the villages. Wood for fuel 
(ebony) is abundant between Nyanda village and the Pangani falls, 
except for a short distance where there was no wood. 

Lieutenant V. Gravert descended the Riifiji'from Kangulio's village 
between the 13th and 16th March 1896, inclusive, the journey, in 
canoes, occupying 28 hours to Simba Uranga mouth ; there does not 
appear to have been less than 6 feet water anywhere (but the river is 
high at this time of year). The northern village of that name is 
apparently about 13 miles from Pangani falls. Above Kooni (about 
90 miles from the entrance) the left or northern bank only is 
inhabited, owing to former attacks of the Mafite, but below that 
village there are settlements on both banks. 

MAFIA ISLAND.*— General remarks.— This island, com- 
posed of coral, is 27 miles in length in a north-east and south-west 
direction, with an extreme breadth of 9 miles, and situated between 
the parallels of 7° 38' S. and 8° S. It has a lighthouse on its north- 
east extreme. The coast of the island generally is low, but it has 
a central rocky plateau of about 100 feet in height, the trees on it 
making a total elevation of 200 feet ; its outline is devoid of any 
feature. The island forms part of the German Protectorate. 

The outer or eastern side is all cliffy, and fringed by a narrow 
coral reef, which is steep-to, and on which the sea breaks furiously. 
The south and inner coasts are bordered with reefs of varying 
widths, and have many shoals off them. 

The island is much cut up by mangrove swamps and creeks, but a 
large part is fertile, and cultivated with cocoa-nut trees, manioc, &c. 

The most considerable village in 1874 was on the island of Chole, 
on the south-east side of Mafia, at the entrance to the bay of the same 
name. The other villages, though numerous, are all very small. 

Mafia is opposite to the delta of the Rufiji, from which it is 
separated by Mafia channel, p. 374. 

SOUTH COAST. — Tutia reef is a detached reef, at the 
extremity of the reef extending 5^ miles south-westward from 
Kibondo island, and is the southernmost danger off Mafia. A sandbank 
on the north-western part of Tutia reef dries 12 feet at springs, and 
the outer edge of the reef breaks heavily, always showing its position ; 

* Sue plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458 ; and chart, No. 662. 



Chap. VIII.] REEFS OFF SOUTH COAST. 373 

a rocky ridge on this edge is as high as the sand cay, but being black 
is not conspicuous. 

Caution. — It must be borne in mind that the sandbank is on the 
inner side of Tutia reef, and a good berth should be given when 
rounding it from the eastward, as the current sweeps sets towards it. 

KibondO island is a flat coral island 1| miles in length, lying 
8| miles from the south coast of Mafia. There is a village on the 
island, but no water or supplies. A clump of tall trees on the 
southern end are conspicuous, and some palms on the north-west 
point also show well. 

The reef on which the island is situated dries several feet at 
springs, with several islets' on it, and extends 4^ miles south-westward 
from the island ; its outer edge is steep-to and the sea breaks 
heavily. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage sheltered from all swell 
within Kibondo reef. A good berth is in 6 fathoms, sand and mud, 
with the southern islet of Kibondo E. | S., and Tutia sandbank 
S. by W. 

Juani island lies north-eastward of Kibondo, on the same reef, 
and forms the southern shore of Chole bay. It presents seaward a 
straight face of cliffs 10 feet high, 4^ miles in length, fringed by a 
narrow reef. Its inner coast is cliff and mangrove. 

Chole island is one mile in length, and lies north-westward of 
Juani on the same reef. Chole is the principal place for trade in 
Mafia ; it contains about 2,000 inhabitants, and is locally celebrated 
for its mats. There are many Banian and Hindi traders here. 
It is a difficult place to communicate with, as a vessel cannot get 
nearer than the anchorage westward of Kibondo, 8 miles distant, and 
the water is so shallow between the anchorage and Chole that at low 
water springs it is not easy for a light boat to find a passage. 
Supplies of fresh provisions are scarce. 

Chole bay, 4^ miles in diameter, is a deep indentation in the 
south-east shore of Mafia island, and nearly blocked to seaward by 
the islands of Juani, Chole, and Miewi. There is deep water in a 
limited area, but Kinasi pass, the entrance from seaward, is so 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458. 



3T4 MAFIA ISLAND AND CHANNEL. [Chap. VIII. 

choked with rocks, and the tidal stream runs with such velocity 
through it, that unless well buoyed it would be unsafe for a vessel 
to use. It has not been thoroughly examined. 

The channel from the south-westward is available for boats, except 
at low water springs. The shores of Chole bay are well cultivatod 
and populated. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Chole bay, at 4h. ; 
springs rise 15 feet, neaps 10 feet. 

OkutO reef, — The south coast of Mafia, from Chole bay to Ras 
Kisimani, is low, mostly fringed with mangroves, and backed by groves 
of cocoa-nut trees, with the exception of the red cliffs 60 feet high 
westward of Dongo Jekundu, which is conspicuous. It is bordered 
by Okuto reef, dry in places at low water springs, and other shallow 
water, extending 3| miles to the southward, and forming the north 
side of Kibondo anchorage. 

Man^e reef, south-westward of Okuto reef, and on the east side 
of Mafia channel, is 2 miles in length, uncovers at low water springs, 
and a sandhead on its northern extremity dries 1 2 feet. From the 
centre of this sandhead Ras Kisimani bears N. ^ E. distant 6^ miles. 
Mange reef can generally be made out even when the sand is 
covered. 

Ras Kisimani, the east point of entrance to Mafia channel from 
the southward, is the western point of Mafia island, and situated in 
lat. 7° 56' 42" S., long. 39° 35' 32" E. ; it is low, sandy, and steep-to 
immediately abreast, but shallow water extends both northward 
and southward of it ; there is a swamp within the point. Water is 
obtained by the crews of dhows by digging holes in the sand on the 
northern side of the point, but it is difficult to obtain any other 
supplies, though there is a small village. 

Boydu island lies westward of Ras Kisimani, on a reef, which 
dries for a considerable distance round it, in the centre of Mafia 
channel. It is a narrow sandy island, 1| miles in length east and 
west, and covered with tall casuarinas. 

MAFIA CHANNEL.— General remarks. *--Buoyag'e.— 
Mafia channel, between Ras Kisimani and the mouths of the Rufiji, 
is about 9 miles wide, with Boydu island situated nearly midway. 

* See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 468 ; for Directions, see p. 386. 



Chap. VIII.] REEFS IN SOUTHERN APPROACH. 

Though much encumbered with reefs, it is nevertheless perfectly 
navigable by day, and may be of great assistance to a vessel of 
moderate draught with small steam power on her way south against 
the south-west monsoon. The channel westward of Boydu is some- 
what tortuous and therefore not recommended. 

The best track, eastward of Boydu island, close to Ras Kisimani, 
is shown by a pecked line on the plan ; this channel has a minimum 
breadth of half a mile and a least depth of 5 fathoms ; it is buoyed 
in places, red pillar buoys being placed on the west side of the 
channel, and black conical buoys on the east side, but too much 
dependence must not be placed in them. The best time to navigate 
it is at low water, when the reefs are more easily seen, but the water 
off and to the northward of the Rufiji delta- is, however, so thiclc, 
that the navigator cannot always depend upon seeing sunken 
dangers. 

The current sets northward fairly through this channel as far as 
Sefo reef ; see tides, p. 376. 

Reefs. — Marima, 3 miles in length, which dries 4 feet, and 
Kauri, which dries 6 feet, lie on the west side of the main channel, 
southward of Boydu. 

Buoy. — A red spar buoy, marked O, Mafia, in white letters, and 
surmounted by a white C, is moored in 6 fathoms, at the south-east 
edge of the shallow water extending from Funga Marima. 

Mange reef, on the eastern side of the channel, has been described 
on page 374. 

Belami, the next northward of Kauri, lies with its northern part 
bearing S.W. by W. | W. 1§ miles from Ras Kisimani. This portion 
is awash at low water springs, but there is a one-fathom tail that 
projects 1^ miles to the southward, which is not easily seen, and forms 
with Kauri reef the western side of the passage. 

The left extreme of Ras Kisimani bearing N. by E. ^ E., will lead 
eastward of Belami reef. 

Buoy. — The shallow water southward of Ras Kisimani, on the east 
side of the channel, abreast the tail of Belami reef, is marked by a 
black conical buoy, painted 4, Mafia in white letters, in 11 fathoms* 

Set plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 468. 



376 MAFIA ISLAND AND CHANNEL.- [Chap. VIII 

Maduvi sandbank dries 13 feet, and is generally visible ; it lies 
on a reef 2 miles north-eastward of Boydu island. A bank, with 2 to 
8 fathoms water, stretches N. by E. ^^ miles from Maduvi, and forms 
the western side of the channel ; this bank is steep -to, and 
generally shows by a line of discoloured water. 

Al Hadjiri reef lies 3 miles North of Ras Kisimani ; the sandhead 
on it dries 6 feet at springs, and is generally visible by the 
discolouration of the water. The western edge of this reef is not 
steep-to, and should be given a berth ; Sefo reef kept N. | E. leads 
in the fairway. The breadth of the channel between it and the 
3-fathom edge of Maduvi bank is 6 cables. There is a wider passage 
to the eastward of Al Hadjiri, but as it does not give a straight course 
the other is preferable. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, marked 5, Mafia in white letters, is 
moored in 7 fathoms at the north-west edge of Al Hadjiri reef. 

Sefo reef, 3 miles north of Al Hadjiri, has a sandhead which 
dries 12 feet at low water springs, and is therefore generally visible. 
It may be considered a fairway reef, but the buoyed channel is 
eastward of it. Shungu Mbili, and other islets and reefs bordering 
the channel, are continued on page 379. 

Tides and Currents. — It is high water, full and change, at Ras 
Kisimani and throughout Mafia channel, at 3h. 55m. ; springs rise 
15 feet, neaps about 9 feet. The direction of the tidal stream north- 
ward of Ras Kisimani is ebb to the northward and eastward, and 
flood to the southward. Southward of Ras Kisimani they are nearly 
reversed, the ebb runs south-east and flood north-west. The tidal 
streams, however, are frequently overpowered by the permanent 
northerly current, especially during neaps. This depends much on 
the wind, and if that be strong from the S.E., unless at spring tides, 
it is nearly certain that a strong northerly current will be found in 
Mafia channel, at any time of the tide. From Sefo reef to Mange 
reef the current is generally in the line of the passage, but a set 
north-eastward may be experienced on passing Al Hadjiri reef, when 
the ebb stream is strong. 

DIRECTIONS, see page 386. 

MAFIA WEST COAST.— Between Ras Kisimani, the west 
extreme of Mafia island, page 374, and Ras Mbisi, 10 miles north- 
eastward, is Tirene bay. Tirene is a plantation 7 miles from 

• &« plan of Mafia island and channels, No.»458. 



Chap. VIII.] TIDES. — MAFIA, WEST COAST. 377 

Kisimani, where, under a hill covered with cocoa-nut trees, is a 
white house showing conspicuously when the sun is shining on it. 

The laud at the back of Tirene is about 100 feet high, and has two 
natural objects that will be found useful in ascertaining a ressel's 
position. One is Palm hill, covered with cocoa-nut trees, which form 
a conical summit 170 feet high ; it is easiest to identify at a distance, 
as its conical shape is then more marked. 

The other is Ngombeni, a clump of mango trees, 175 feet above 
high water, at 3 miles eastward of Ras Kisimani, which show 
conspicuously against the sky ; there are a few other, but lower 
clumps. 

Banks. — From Ras Kisimani, the sand dries off at springs for 
1^ miles in a north-east direction, reduced to half a mile at Tirene, 
again increasing near Ras Mbisi to 1^ miles. Shallow water extends 

5 miles north-eastward of Ras Kisimani or nearly to Tirene reef, 

Salim bank, of sand and coral, with one fathom least water, is 
3 miles in length, and 1^ miles in breadth ; its northern end forms 
the eastern side of the fairway track and is IJ miles from the 
eastern edge of Sefo reef ; its eastern end is about 3 miles W.N.W. of 
Tirene white house. 

Buoy.— A black conical buoy, with 5, Mafia in white letters, lies 
in about 5 fathoms at the north-west extreme of Salim bank, marking 
the eastern side of the fairway. 

Tirene reef, awash at low water springs, lies with Tirene 
house, bearing S.E. by E., distant 2 miles. It is steep-to on its 
southern side, but shallow water extends two-thirds of a mile to 
the northward, and about one-third of a mile westward. 

Tirene anchorage. — There is good anchorage off Tirene, in 

6 fathoms with the house bearing E.S.E., distant 1\ miles, and Ras 
Mbisi N.E. ; here shelter is afforded by the banks. This berth is 
within Tirene reef, to pass eastward of which Palm hill should be 
kept S. I E. This bearing leads to the anchorage, and also westward 
of a coral reef, awash at low water springs, 4 miles N. by E. of Tirene 
reef. 

Ras Mbisi is a coral point backed by trees. To the southward 
is the entrance to a mangrove creek. 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, Ko. 458. 



378 MAFIA ISLAND AND CHANNEL. [Chap. VIII. 

Lechmere hill is an elevation 160 feet high, behind Ras Mbisi. 
About 6| miles eastward of Ras Mbisi is Kirongwe creek, with a 
village of the same name. 

Ras MurundO is the north point of the entrance to Kirongwe 
bay, and is of sand, with high trees on it. 

Off Ras Murundo, Mwamba Mkuu stretches 2| miles north- 
westward, where its extreme dries 8 feet at springs. 

From Ras Murundo the coast takes a north-east direction for 
11| miles to Moresby point. It is chiefly sand with points of low 
coral cliff here and there, and some mangrove creeks ; one of the 
latter, 4^ miles from Ras Murundo, joins Kirongwe creek and has 
usually hippopotami in it. 

Ras Mkumbi (Moresby point), the north extreme of Mafia 
island, is a coral cliff 15 feet high. Small bushes and trees cover 
the land within, which is not above 80 feet high. Reefs extend 
7 cables northward of the point, on which the sea breaks in 
ordinary weather. 

A tail of broken ground stretches 5 miles northward from Ras 
Mkumbi, and patches of 9 fathoms are situated about 5 or 6 miles 
north-west of this tail near the edge of deep water. In the Fawn, no 
less depth than 9 fathoms was found here, but it will be well 
to avoid the neighbourhood. The rush of the current, even in places 
where there is not less than 20 fathoms, is plainly seen, and makes 
them appear like dangers. 

From Moresby point, the eastern coast of Mafia to Chole bay, a 
distance of 18 miles, is nearly straight, and bordered by a narrow reef 
which is steep-to. 

LIGHT. — From a quadrangular tower, 98 feet in height, painted 
in red and white bands, erected on Ras Mkumbi, is exhibited at an 
elevation of 102 feet above high water, a grou2) flashing light every 
thirty seconds, thus — red flash 6 seconds, eclipse 9 seconds, white 
flash 6 seconds, eclipse 9 seconds. It is visible in clear weather 
from a distance of 16 miles. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage south-westward of- Ras 
Mkumbi, in from 8 to 14 fathoms, sand and mud, at from 1^ to 3 miles 
from the shore ; but only during the south-west monsoon, and not 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458. 



Ohap. VIII.] MAFIA, WEST COAST ; ISLETS AND DANGERS. 379 

even then when the breeze is strong. A good berth is in 9 fathoms, 
sand and mud, with the lighthouse N.E. by E. | E., and Ras Bueni 
S.E. by E. This is a convenient position for communicating with 
the shore. The best landing at low water and at half-tide, is at Ras 
Bueni, where there is but little reef. The edge of the reef which 
borders the shore, varies its distance near this anchorage, from a few 
hundred yards to one mile, and can be clearly seen at low water, but 
is not steep-to. 

Supplies. — There are several villages south-west of Ras Mkumbi 
and at Bueni ; bullocks, goats, fowls and a small quantity of yams and 
pumpkins may be obtained. Guinea fowls are also obtainable. 

Barakuni islet, is a sandy islet, covered with casuarina trees, 
the tops of which are about 100 feet above high water, situated about 
10 miles south-westward of Ras Mkumbi ; it lies on the south-west 
edge of a reef one mile in diameter. A shallow spit extends 2 miles 
south-westward from Barakuni, leaving a narrow but deep channel 
between it and the edge of Mwamba Mkuu. This channel is not 
recommended, as the edge of the Barakuni shoal, which has from 
one to 3 fathoms water on it, does not show well, and the velocity of 
the tidal stream is great at times, and in places sets across the 
channel. 

Northward of Barakuni islet are a collection of sunken reefs, 
some breaking heavily at times whilst others do not show, with 
narrow channels between, stretching up to Niororo island, and 
practically barring the passage between these islands ; the tidal 
streams set with considerable strength here. 

ShungU Mbili island is similar to Barakuni, and lies 4 miles 
north-westward of that island ; its highest trees, about 100 feet, may 
be seen in clear weather from a distance of 14 miles. The island 
lies on the southern edge of a reef 1| miles in length, which dries 
3 feet at springs. Shallow water, steep-to, extends to the westward 
or channel side for 1^ miles. There are quantities of pigeons on 
this island and at Barakuni. 

Southward of Shungu Mbili are several small patches of sunken 
reef, some of which are awash at low water. 

Wumi reef, on the west side of Mafia channel, dries 2 feet 
at low water springs, but it is not easily distinguished at high water, 

■■>S?eplan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458. 



380 MAFIA CHANNEL. [Chap. VIII. 

as there is no sand on it. A patch of 2 fathoms water lies West one 
mile from it. 

Buoy. — A red spar buoy, with B, Mafia, in white letters, and 
surmounted by a white B, lies in 8 fathoms, on the eastern side of 
Wumi reef, marking the west limit of the best channel. 

Fill reef lies also on the west side of the channel, 3 miles north- 
west of Shungu Mbili island. It dries one foot at springs, and is of 
the same character as Wumi, but smaller. 

Buoy. — A red spar buoy, with A, Mafia, in white letters, and 
surmounted by a white A, lies in 11 fathoms on the eastern side of 
Fill reef, marking the west limit of the best channel. 

Niororo island, 5 miles northward of Shungu Mbili, is about 
half a mile in length, and partly bordered by low coral cliff. It is 
covered with bushes, and there are one or more casuarina trees about 
100 feet high. It is a resort of turtle in the season, January to 
June, when natives come from the mainland to turn them. The 
island stands on the western edge of a reef, which dries ; one of a 
number joined by shallow water stretching north, south, and east, 
from one to 3| miles, but not much to the westward. A sand cay on 
the northern spur of the reef dries 5 feet at springs. The current 
deflected to the north-west by this part of the reef, often gives the 
appearance of the reef extending farther in that direction than it 
actually does. 

A vessel approaching Mafia channel from the northward, will first 
sight Niororo island ; in clear weather, the high trees can be seen at 
a distance of about 14 miles. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, with /, Mafia, in white letters, lies 
in 12 fathoms, north-west of Niororo sand cay, and marking the 
east side of Mafia channel. 

Anchorage will be found about 4 cables to the westward of the 
north point of Niororo island, in 9 fathoms, sand. 

Gordon reef is a sunken danger with one fathom water. It lies 
with Niororo island bearing S.S.W. \ W., about 3^ miles. 

Vulture bank is about \\ miles in extent, within a depth of 
10 fathoms ; there is one head with 2 fathoms water, which lies with 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458. 



Chap. VIII.] REEFS IN NORTHERN APPROACH. 381 

Niororo island, bearing S.W. ^ W., distant 6^ miles. When entering 
Mafia channel, no vessel should be as far eastward of Niororo as this 
danger, or of Gordon reef. 

Fawn bank, 6^ miles to the northward of Niororo island, is 
5|^ miles in length, with from 5 to 17 fathoms on it, and lies across 
the north entrance of Mafia channel. 

Shungu Mbili just open westward of Niororo island, S. 8° W. 
leads over Fawn bank in 10 fathoms water, and westward of Gordon 
reef. 

Dira reef, lying nearly midway between Koma and Niororo 
islands, ie 3 miles in length, with a sandbank on its south-west side, 
which dries 10 feet ; it generally shows, and the sea always breaks. 
From the sandhead, Niororo island bears S.E. by E. J E., distant 
7^ miles. At 3 miles S.W. by W. is the northern extreme of a reef 
about one mile in extent, and awash at low water springs. 

A patch of 5 fathoms lies E. by N. ^ N. 1| miles from the north- 
east extreme of Dira reef ; there may be less water. 

Ukamba reef lies 9 miles north of Dira reef, and 6^ miles 
E.S.E. from the north-eastern Chokaa islet. Its sandhead dries 10 feet 
at low springs, but the sea does not always break at high water. 
Between Ukamba reef and Kwale island, and also westward of 
Dira reef, are several other reefs mostly awash at low water, with 
navigable channels between them, but they lie out of the track of 
vessels. 

Muni patches are three small coral heads, bordering the west 
side of North Mafia channel, with a least depth of 2 fathoms, rising 
abruptly from deep water. The easternmost patch lies 4 miles E. by S. 
from Ukamba reef. The position of these patches will only be 
known by the tide swirls. 

Field, patch is a small 5-fathom head, steep-to, 5 miles north- 
eastward of east Muni patch, and on the west side of North Mafia 
channel, with North Fanjove island bearing W. by N. |^ N. 

00 A.ST.— General remarks.— Aspect.— Northward of the 
Rufiji delta, the coast, mostly sand, fronted by a mudbank dry at low 
water, trends, with no important projections, north-eastward for 
35 miles to Has Pembamnasi. It is intersected by many streams and 

- — ■ ■ — ___— _ ^ 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458. 



382 MAFIA CHANNEL. [Chap. VIIIj, 

dotted with villages, the most important of which are Kavinja, about 
7 miles northward of the Kikunya mouth of the Rufiji ; Kivu- 
mungao and Yandope, 6 and 7 miles farther north ; Kisiju, abreast 
Kwale island ; and Bosa, abreast North Fanjove island. 

Some of the streams have large mouths, which dhows enter at 
high water, to trade, but all are closed at low water springs. The 
country in this vicinity produces much copal and india-rubber, and 
near the sea it is well cultivated and populated. At 6 miles inland 
the Mtoti hills, a flat-topped range, averaging 600 feet in height, trend 
parallel to the coast. 

Off the coast are several small islands, and outside these again are 
a number of dangers known as the Kwale reefs, most of which only 
show at low water springs, the water being muddy. These islands 
and reefs break the ocean swell, and, except at places abreast the 
channels between them, the water is smooth and landing easy all 
along the shore in ordinary weather. 

The water deepens very gradually along this coast, but there is 
a navigable channel for small craft within the islands, and the 
bottom is soft mud. The best water lies generally towards the islands. 
Dhows invariably use this route. 

Tides and currents. — The tidal streams are strong in all the 
channels, and along the shore ; the flood stream running southward 
and towards the shore, the ebb to the northward and off the shore. 
Eastward of Kwale reefs there is sometimes a continuous northerly 
current, but this depends on the wind. 

ISLANDS AND REEFS.— Koma island* is of coral, one 
mile in diameter, and the tops of the trees are about 70 feet above 
high water. It is 5 miles from the mainland, with depths of 3 to 
4 fathoms in the channel between. The island stands on a reef which 
extends 2 miles north-eastward, having several small bush-covered 
islets on its outer part ; the northern and largest is Pemba-juu, with 
trees 40 feet in height. 

Supplies. — Bullocks, fowls, and goats are procurable at Koma at 
a cheap rate, and there is a well of good water easy of access near the 
west point. 

Anchoragre. — There is good anchorage in either monsoon north- 
ward of Koma island, in 6 fathoms, mud, with Pemba-juu islet 
bearing E. by S., distant three-quarters of a mile. 

'See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458 ; also chart, No. 662. 



Chap. VIII.] ISLANDS AND REEFS IN NORTHERN APPROACH. 383» 

Hatambura, a rocky islet, with trees about 40 feet in height, 
2| miles north of Koma, is surrounded by a narrow reef with 5 and 
6 fathoms water close-to. 

Kwale island, situated 7^ miles northward of Koma island, is 
of coral, 2| miles in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth ; 
the tops of the trees are about 100 feet above high water. No 
supplies are to be obtained from the village ; the water is unfit for use. 

The island is bordered by a large reef, on which, to the eastward 
and southward, are three bushy islets. The easternmost of these, 
Chokaa, is 40 feet high, and one mile from Kwale. The channel 
within Kwale island is narrow, with a maximum depth of 2 fathoms 
at low water springs, mud bottom. 

North Fanjove island, situated 5 miles north-eastward of 
Kwale, is sandy, covered with trees 60 feet high, and surrounded by 
a reef which dries to the distance of about half a mile. Several 
patches of reef lie between it and Kwale. 

Sukutl reef, situated between 2 and 6 miles northward of 
North Fanjove island, and from 3 to 6 miles from the mainland, 
forms the south side of Shungu bay. There was one mangrove tree 
on its western side in 1877, where is also a coral head that dries 
10 feet. The sea always breaks heavily on the outer edge of Sukuti 
reef. 

Vyumbani are three small reefs awash, which lie west-south- 
westward about 2 miles from Sukuti reef, and 2^ miles from the 
mainland. 

Channels. —There are depths of 6 to 12 fathoms in the channel, 
1^ miles wide, between Fanjove island and Sukuti reef. The north 
side of Dendeni river entrance bearing W. | N. leads through. A 
high clump of trees there usually shows out well. 

There is a dhow channel inside Sukuti and Vyumbani reefs, with 
3 fathoms at low water springs, but the latter reefs do not show at 
high water. 

Anchoragre. — There is good anchorage for small craft in 
either monsoon, in 3 to 4 fathoms water, westward of Sukuti reef, 
entered from the northward. 

iS 

See plan of Maiia island and channels, No. 468 ; also chart, No. .662. 



384 ' MAFIA CHANNEL. [Chap. VIJI. 

Bingra hill is an isolated flat-topped elevation, 530 feet high, 
rising 8 miles north-westward of Dendeni river and conspicuous 
from the anchorage. 

Shungru bay, within Pembamnasi, is shallow, the 3-fathom 
line being about 1^ miles ofi: shore. Shungubueni river, which 
discharges into it, is of considerable size at the mouth, but dries 
across at low water springs ; a rock, which dries 6 feet, lies nearly 
one mile off its mouth. A boat can ascend for several miles at high 
water. 

Ras Pembaninasi, the eastern point of Shungu bay is low and 
of mangrove, backed by higher trees. The shore reef dries off for 
half a mile, and there is a detached breaking patch two-thirds of a 
mile from the eastern extreme of the point ; a rock, awash at low 
water springs, lies one mile west-south-west of the point. 

Buuni bay, between Ras Pembamnasi and Ras Mwamba Mku, 
is a sandy bay 3 miles wide and open to the south-east, a large 
portion of which is shallow. Some red cliffs a little southward of 
the village in the centre of the bay show well with the sun in the 
east. 

Ras Mwamba Mku is formed of high mangroves, bordered by a 
reef which dries off one mile southward ; a 3-fathom tail extends 
south-west for another mile. Also a patch of 2 fathoms, half a mile 
in extent, lies S.S.W. 2^ miles from the point, and 2 miles from the 
red cliffs in the centre of the bay. 

Anohoragr©. — During the northerly monsoon there is anchorage 
iu Buuni bay, protected by Mwamba Mku. 

To enter the bay, steer for the Red cliffs bearing N.W. by N., which 
will lead between the 2 fathoms patch and the reef, in 5 fathoms 
water ; when the right extreme of Ras Mwamba Mku bears 
N.N.E. ^ E., haul up for it, and when the south end of its reef bears 
East, anchor in 5^ fathoms, sand and mud. Or if from the southward, 
steer for the highest trees on Ras Pembamnasi when bearing N.N.W., 
until the right extreme of Ras Mwamba Mku bears N.N.E. | E., then 
steer for it, which will lead between the 2-fathom patch and the 
breaking reef off Ras Pembamnasi in 4^ fathoms, when anchor as 
before directed. 

See plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 458 ; also chart, No. 662. 



Chap. VIII.] WESTERN SHORE.— CURRENT. — WINDS. 385 

COAST. — From Ras Mwamba Mku the coast trends northward 
7 miles to Ras Kanzi ; the southern portion for 3 miles is low and 
swampy, thence it rises into cliffs, which at Puna point are 80 feet 
high ; here the reef approaches within a few hundred yards of the 
shore with deep water close to. 

Ras Kanzi. — About Ras Kanzi are a great number of palmyra 
palms, which form a good distinguishing mark, as there are none 
elsewhere on the coast. 

LIGHT. — From a white quadrangular tower, 31 feet in height, 
erected on Ras Kanzi, is exhibited at an elevation of 62 feet above 
high water, a fixed white light, visible from S. 48" E., through south 
and west, to N. 36° E,, from a distance of 14 miles in clear weather. 

Puna hill is an isolated rounded hill 240 feet high, rising 3^ miles 
at the back of Puna point, and is most conspicuous from the 
southward. Coast continued at page 389. 

Current. — The current eastward of Mafia island is continuous to 
the N.N.W., but varies much in velocity, being from one to 2 knots 
in the north-east monsoon and 2 to 4 knots in the south-west 
monsoon. The breadth of the current belt also varies much, being 
sometimes only 30 miles off-shore, at other times considerably more. 
It is therefore very difficult to predict its rate when approaching the 
coast from the eastward. A vessel should, however, always steer 
well to the southward and make Ras Mkumbi lighthouse when bound 
for Zanzibar, to insure giving that dangerous Latham island a wide 
berth. 

North-westward of Ras Mkumbi, the western limit of the current 
at times does not reach beyond midway from Latham island to the 
mainland, at which times even in the southerly monsoon a southerly 
set may be experienced about Ras Kimbiji, but more generally at 
this season the current strikes the shore somewhere near Ras Kimbiji 
and runs along the coast to the northward. On the bank of soundings 
north-west of Ras Mkumbi, the movement of the water is tidal, flood 
to the south-west, and ebb to the north-east, but varying several 
points either way. 

Winds. — The seasons at Mafia island are similar to those of 
Zanzibar, and like them are very changeable, but the wind in Mafia 
channel is more steady during the day than in Zanzibar channel. 
There is more rain about Ras Kisimani than anywhere else in the 
island of Mafia. See pages 422, 423. 

St!e plan of Mafia island and channels, No. 4.58 : also chart, No. fiH2. 
SO 11977 2 B 



386 MAFIA CHANNEL, [Chap. VIII. 

DIRECTIONS for MAFIA CHANNEL.*— A vessel bound 
to the southward through Mafia channel, after passing Ras Kimbiji, 
should steer so as to pass about 8 miles eastward of Ukamba reef, and 
sight Niororo island bearing about S. by W. The trees on Shungu 
Mbili and Niororo can be seen in clear weather at a distance 
of about 14 miles from the deck. Bring Shungu Mbili just open to 
the westward of Niororo island bearing S. 8° W., and steer for it over 
Fawn bank, in 10 fathoms water, until within about 3 miles of 
Niororo island, when alter course to pass westward of Niororo reef, 
which can usually be seen when near ; it is marked by a black 
buoy. 

From abreast the buoy, steer S. by W. | W., to pass eastward of 
Fill reef, until Niororo island bears N.E. | N., or Fill reef red buoy 
bears W. by N. | N. about l^jj miles ; then keep the island bearing 
N.E. I N. astern, which will lead in mid-channel about one mile 
eastward of the red buoy on Wumi reef, as far as Sefo reef, the sand 
on which should be made out at least 2 miles distant, even if 
covered. (The outline of Mafia island will be visible when Shungu 
Mbili island is abeam.) When Sefo reef is in sight, the black buoy 
on the north-west extreme of Salim bank will probably be also ; 
steer to pass westward of the buoy between it and Sefo reef ,t thence 
half a naile westward of the black buoy on the north-west extreme 
of Al Hadjiri reef. From thence a course S. ^ E., allowing for tide, 
Avill lead through the fairway between Ras Kisimani and Belami 
reef, to No. 4 black buoy (observing that Sefo reef, bearing N. | E. 
astern, clears the south-west tail of Al Hadjiri). 

(There is a fairly good channel westward of Sefo reef, but with 
depths of 4 to 5 fathoms only ; it is unbuoyed.) 

When about 1^ miles southward of Ras Kisimani it should bear 
N. by E. J E. ; this bearing kept on, astern, will lead between black 
buoy No. 4 and the south-east tail of Belami reef, and nearly a mile 
westward of Mange reef. 

Northward of Ras Kisimani there is at times a set north-eastward, 
which must be guarded against. 

* See plan of Mafia island aud channels, No. 458, and chart No. 662. Little or 
no advantage would be gained by a vessel proceeding northward using Mafia 
channel, as there is a favourable current eastward of the island, and no dangers. 

t In 1877, the eastern extreme of the trees on Boydu island, bearing S.W. i S., led 
through, but possibly the trees have extended. iSt'e plan; No. 458. 



Chap. VIII.] DIRBCTIOXS. 387 

The sand on Mange reef at low water springs will be seen from 
abreast Ras Kisimani, and it can usually be made out 2 miles off, 
even when covered, which is only at near springs. 

With Mange reef abeam, course may be gradually altered to the 
south-eastward if bound to sea through South Mafia channel, or 
course shaped S.W. f S. for the inner channel to Kilwa Kivinje. 

In proceeding' to Kilwa Kivinje,* steer S.W. | S. along the 
pecked line, when the trees on Simaya island, which are visible at 
a distance of 14 miles, will shortly be seen on the starboard bow ; 
continue that course until the island bears W.N.W., distant 1;^ miles, 
using that island with Okuza and Nyuni to determine the position 
of the vessel. From the position given a course S.S.W. will lead 
in the fairway between Membueso and Banda reefs, and thence 
between the red spar buoy on Choca reef and the black conical buoy 
on the north-west extreme of Maehanga reef. Membueso reef, 
which dries 8 feet, and Machanga sand cay, which dries 10 feet, may 
usually be made out from a distance of one mile, even when 
covered. Simaya island bearing northward of N. by E. astern, 
leads nearly in mid-channel, eastward of Membueso. Choca reef is 
not easily seen, its highest part being 2 miles westward from its 
eastern extreme. 

When southward of Choca reef buoy, shape course S.W. to pass 
westward of the black conical buoy on the west end of Poiasi reef, 
whence the course is S. J E. to pass about one mile westward of 
Jewe reef ; thence, with the east tangent of Singino hill bearing 
S. ^ W., to the anchorage off Kilwa Kivinje, p. 360 ; or a vessel can 
steer to sea through Kilwa main pass, on either side of Jewe reef. 

The passage, equally wide, also marked by a pecked line eastward 
of Poiasi, may be taken, but it is not buoyed. Poiasi and Pwajuu 
reefs are steep -to, and easily made out ; a course South, passing half 
a mile eastward of them, will lead 1^ miles westward of Val rock. 
When the high trees on the north end of Songa Songa bear N.E. ^ N., 
keep them on that bearing astern, until Jewe reef, which is steep-to 
and generally visible, is seen on the port bow. When the eastern 
tangent of Singino hill bears S. ^ W., steer for it as before, to the 
anchorage off Kilwa Kivinje. 

* -Sfeeplan, No. 1,032. 



SO 11977 2 B 2 



388 



CHAPTER IX. 



RAS KIMBIJI TO PANGANI BAY, INCLUDING ZANZIBAR ISLAND 

AND CHANNEL. 

(Lat. 7° S. to lat. 5° 25' S.) 



Variation in 1897. 

Ras Kimbiji 9° 30' W. 

Latham island 9° 15' W. 

Zanzibar harbour - - - - 9° 10' W. 



FUNGU KISIMKAZI or LATHAM ISLAND* is a low 
dangerous coral island in the fairway of vessels approaching Zanzibar 
channel from the south-eastward, in lat. 6° 54' 5" S., long. 
39° 55' 45" E., and S.E. by S. nearly 36 miles from Ras Kizimkazi 
the south extreme of Zanzibar. It was discovered by the East India 
Company's ship Latham, in 1758, and is of an oval form 350 yards 
in length north and south, and 180 yards in breadth. Its surface, 
10 feet above high water, is quite flat, made so by the constant treading 
of myriads of sea fowl that have consolidated the sand collected on 
the coral substratum into a soft sandstone, which shines very white 
in the sun, but with a bad light, or at night, ii is difficult to see. 

The island is situated on a coral ledge which dries to the distance 
of about a cable ; depths of less than 3 fathoms extend about 3 cables 
north and eastward of the island, and to about half that distance 
southward and westward. 

A sand cay shifts from the northern to the southern end, and 
vice versa, according to the monsoon, being always at the lee side, 
and on this it is practicable to etfect a landing in moderately calm 
weather. Two or three vessels have been totally lost on Latham 
island. 

* Sec charts : — Pangani to Ras Kimbiji, including approaches to Zanzibar, No. f540«, 
No. 662. 



Chap. IX.] LATHAM ISLAND. 389 

Beacon. — To make the island more conspicuous, a beacon was 
erected by the officers of H.M.S. Shearwater in 1873, but, as no 
mortar was used, it was blown down, the base only remaining. It 
has been partly rebuilt, and was 10 feet high by latest reports, but no 
dependence should be placed on it. 

Anchoragre. — The bank surrounding Latham island, within a 
depth of 20 fathoms, extends 5 miles north, 4 miles south, 2 miles 
east, and half a mile west, beyond which the water rapidly deepens 
to 200 fathoms. The greater part of this area has a depth of from 
5 to 10 fathoms, sand, interspersed with large lumps of coral, and the 
water is so clear that the bottom can be plainly seen. Anchorage 
may be taken north or south of the island, depending on the monsoon. 
In moderate weather it is a good place for a vessel to anchor for the 
night, when too late to get on to Zanzibar ; but there is a nasty cross 
swell on the bank, rendering the anchorage an uneasy one. 

This bank may be run for in safety at night with slow speed and 
the lead kept going, from any direction but the westward, the depths 
on that side being more abrupt than on the other sides. The bottom 
has been clearly seen by moonlight in 10 fathoms. There is good 
fishing on the bank. 

From the masthead of a vessel at anchor, the mainland at Has 
Kimbiji is just visible on a clear day. 

Tides and Current. — The current on Latham bank is variable, 
but on either side of it, directly the deep water is gained, the 
current runs with considerable velocity to the northward all the 
year round. During the south-west monsoon the rate is from 1\ 
to 4 knots, and in the north-east monsoon from 1 to 2^ knots. At 
5 miles westward of Latham island, the current is much weaker. 
See current, p. 385. 

It is high water, full and change, at Latham island at 4h. Om. ; 
springs rise about 10 feet. 

COAST. — Ras Kimbiji, a cliffy, but low, promontory on the 
mainland, with a village of the same name close northward of it, lies 
in lat. 6° 59' 15" S. Its position will be known by a rounded hill 
150 feet high, conspicuous by its isolation, which rises 2 miles within 
the point, and by the lighthouse on Ras Kanzi, 1\ miles to the south- 
ward ; it is a good point for a fresh departure if bound up Zanzibar 
channel.* 

* See chart : — Pangani to Ras Kimbiji, witfi views, No. 640a. 



390 RAS KIMBIJI TO DAR-BS-SALAAM. [Chap. IX. 

Fungu Miza is a narrow reef, one mile in length, and dry one 
foot at low water springs ; it lies 1^ miles off Kntani cliff and village, 
with Ras Kimbiji bearing S. ^ E. A rock with one fathom water 
on which the sea generally breaks, lies nearly a mile N.N.W. of it, 
with shallow water between. 

Ras Manamku is a red cliff point 60 feet high, at 6 miles north- 
ward of Ras Kimibiji. The coast between, varied by cliffs and sandy 
bays, is higher than any part of the land for some distance to the 
northward. At the village of Kutani, to the southward, the cliffs are 
70 feet in height, and of a red colour. 

Anchorage. — Temporary anchorage can be obtained anywhere 
off this coast when the monsoon is light, in about 14 fathoms, at the 
distance of one mile, except near t'ungu Miza. Care must be taken, 
however, not to run in too rapidly in seeking a berth, as the depths 
decrease suddenly from 35 to 15 fathoms, and from that again to 
shoaler water. 

Ras Ndegr© is a cliffy cape, conspicuous when coming either from 
the northward or southward, and forms the south-west point of the 
southern entrance of Zanzibar channel. It is abrupt, fairly steep-to, 
and about 30 feet above high water, the cliffs being 10 feet. The 
point is backed by low rounded hills. 

Coasting craft working southward along the mainland, meet the 
current off Ras Ndege, which makes it a difficult point to pass in the 
south-west monsoon period ; but there is good anchorage for dhows 
or boats one mile westward of the point. 

From Ras Ndege the coast trends westward for 5 miles to Ras 
Koronjo, generally sandy beach, but with one or two small cliffs. 

Dhow harbour is the name given to the bight in the reef, 
1^ miles north-westward of Ras Ndege, which affords anchorage in 
2 fathoms during the south-west monsoon period. Here, and also 
farther to the westward, off Mboamaji and Mjimwena, at this season, 
there is at times a collection of dhows waiting for a lull to get 
round Ras Ndege. 

Ras Koronjo* is a cliffy point 2 miles westward of Mboamaji 
village ; the coral ledge dries in a north-west direction nearly a mile 
from it. 



* See Admiralty plan of Dar-es-Salaam and adjoining anchorages, No. 674 ; also 
chart. No. 6400-. 



Chap. IX.] DHOW HARBOUR.— MBOAMAJI HARBOUR. H91 

Ras Mjimwema. — Between Ras Koronjo and Ras Mjimwema 
3 miles north-westward, the coast forms a low and sandy bay, backed 
by mangrove swamps, with the village of Mjimwema on its western 
shore. 

There are high cocoa-nut trees around the villages of Magogoni, 
Mjimpia, and Mjimwema. From Ras Mjimwema the coast trends 
westward for 2 miles to Ras Rongoni the rocky east point of Dar-es- 
Salaam harbour, the red cliffs of which are from 15 to 20 feet high. 

Islands and reefs. — ^A little westward of Ras Ndege commences 
a chain of islands and reefs, which skirt the coast for about 20 miles, 
as far as Fungu Yasin. These islands and reefs afford shelter to 
several anchorages, and lie at an average of 2 miles from the 
mainland. About midway on the coast is also the land-locked 
harbour of Dar-es-Salaam. 

Sinda islands, situated between one and 2 miles northward of 
Ras Koronjo, are two coral islands on a coral reef one mile in 
diameter. The outer and larger island is half a mile in length, 
about 50 feet in height, with some trees on it. A chain of islets fringe 
the eastern edge of the reef. Inner Sinda island is 40 feet high, and 
has white sand on its north and south extremes. 

Mwamba Kikwero, three-quarters of a mile in length, dry 

2 feet at low water springs, and steep-to, with 6 to 7 fathoms around, 
lies about 2 miles N.E. by N. of Mboamaji village. Between it and 
the shore reef is a patch awash at low water ; the sea always breaks. 

A patch with 3^ fathoms lies three-quarters of a mile north-east 
from Kikwero reef, with the north extreme of outer Sinda island 
distant 2 miles, and in line with the left extreme of inner 
Makatumbe island. 

Millard bank is one mile in length, with a least depth of 

3 fathoms ; from the shoalest spot, at the north end, the east extreme 
of outer Sinda island bears S. by E. | E. distant If miles. 

Gunja peak in line with Ras Kankadya bearing N.W. by W. ^ W. 
leads about 1^ miles northward of it. This bank cannot be 
distinguished until close upon it. 

Mboamaji harbour is the name given to the anchorage within 
the Sinda islands. It is fairly protected by the surrounding reefs, 

See Admiralty plan of Dar-es-Salaam and adjomiiig anchorages, ^o. 674 ; also 
chart, No. UOa. 



392 RAS KIMBIJI TO DAR-ES-SALAAM. [Chap. IX. 

but in a strong monsoon, especially the north-east, the swell sets 
round the islands. 

Mboamaji village is situated on the shore abreast ; a curve in the 
coral ledge fronting it affords protection to boats landing at low 
water. 

Anchoragre. — The best anchorage in the south-west monsoon 
period is in 10 fathoms, sand and mud, with the south extreme of 
inner Sinda island bearing S.E, by E. ^ E., and the north extreme of 
outer Sinda E.N.E. There is also fair anchorage off Mjimwema 
village in 6 fathoms, sand, with the north extreme of Kendwa island 
bearing N.N.W. ^ W., and the white house in Mjimwema village 
W. by S. I S. Dhows and vessels of 10 feet draught may anchor 
close off the village, well sheltered. In the north east monsoon 
the best bertli is in 6 fathoms, sand, with the south-west point of 
Inner Sinda bearing N.N.E. distant 2 cables. 

The streams at this latter anchorage are strong. At the end of the 
flood, especially in the north-east monsoon, the stream runs rapidly 
to the eastward, and causes a vessel to swing to the swell in a most 
unpleasant manner. 

Directions.— To enter Mboamaji harbour from the south-east- 
ward, keep Inner Makatumbe island well open northward of outer 
Sinda island, to clear Mwamba Kikwero, until the Sinda islands 
appear to touch, when steer for them, passing about 3 cables off the 
islets on Sinda reef ; the eye will guide to the anchorage. 

To enter from the northward, west of Millard bank, from abreast 
the Makatumba group, bring the south-west point of inner Sinda 
island to bear S.S.E,, and steer for it ; anchor when convenient. 

Kendwa island, half a mile in extent, is situated on the edge 
of the coral ledge fronting Ras Mjimwema to the distance of one 
mile. Its trees are 40 feet above high water, and its outline level 
and uniform. 

Boat Cliannel.— Between Kendwa island and Makatumbe reefs 
is a boat channel half a mile wide. 

Boats working to windward in the north-east monsoon should 
run under the lee of Makatumbe island through this channel, but 



See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



Chap. IX.] DAR-BS-SALAAM BAY. 393 

in the south-west monsoon, at low water, the sea sometimes 
breaks right across, and discretion must be used as to taking the 
channel. 

DAR-ES-SALAAM BAY, the outer anchorage of Dar-es- 
Salaam, lies between Kankadya promontory and the Makatumbe 
group ; its northern portion is encumbered by Daphne reefs, but 
there is sufficient space in the remainder, with depths of 7 to 
12 fathoms, sand and mud, for all classes of vessels. During the 
south-west monsoon the bay is well protected by the Makatumbe 
group, but during the north-east season a considerable swell sets in 
with a strong wind. Still, for a small vessel, which can lie near 
Inner Makatumba island, there is some shelter. 

The shore of the bay is broken and indented, and presents to the 
eye a low outline, nearly uniform in height, but much diversified by 
alternate sand beaches and cliffs. Inland, at a distance of 12 miles, 
are mountains rising to a height of 1,200 to 1,500 feet. This chain 
extends south-westward and terminates abruptly. 

Shallow water extends from the head of the bay to a considerable 
distance, the 3-fathoms line of soundings being 1^ miles from the 
beach. At low water springs, sandbanks and coral ledges dry off a 
distance of 6 cables. The flat between Makatumbe group and the 
southern shore has an average depth of 9 feet water, but near its 
western edge of 3 fathoms is a rock, with a depth of 3 feet on it, 
with the house in ruins on Inner Makatumbe island bearing E. by N., 
about 6 cables ; it seldom shows. 

Makatumbe islands, two in number, with several islets, are 
situated on the large coral reef forming the east side of Dar-es-Salaam 
bay. The inner island is 2 cables in diameter, with several trees 
near its centre about 50 feet in height ; stone is quarried here : there 
is also a stone house, in ruins, near which is a masonry -faced well, 
but the water is not fit to drink. The outer island is of the same 
size, but of less height. See Light, p. 394. 

The reef on which the group stands, dries at low water springs, 
is If miles in extent, and steep-to on the eastern side ; off the north 
point the bottom shelves from the 5-fathoms line, which is 4 cables 
northward of Hammond rock ; the western edge has also a gradual 
slope, but the southern is shallow, as before mentioned. 



See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



394 DAR-ES-SALAAM BAY. [Chap. IX. 

Hammond rock, the northern islet of the group, is 6 feet above 
high water, and forms a guide when rounding the reef. 

Daphne reefs, three in number, lie in the north-west part of the 
bay. The outer and largest is three-quarters of a mile in length, 
with a least depth of 2 fathoms water ; this shallow part can at times 
be made out, but it would not be safe to trust the eye. See Buoy, 
below. 

The middle reef lies half a mile south-west of the outer reef with 
3 fathoms least water. 

The inner reef is 3 cables in diameter, with several rocky heads of 
one fathom water, which occasionally break. It lies 3 cables within 
the middle shoal, and 9 cables from the shore. 

Clearing marks.— Gunja peak open northward of Ras Kankadya, 
leads half a mile northward of Daphne reefs ; the western extremes 
of Bongoyo island, in line, also lead northward of them. 

A boat, working up inshore in the north-east monsoon, when in 
the vicinity of the inner reef, should tack directly the south extreme 
of Bongoyo island opens of Ras Kankayda. 

LIGHT. — From a square tower, 95 feet in height, painted in 
black and white stripes, erected on the north extreme of outer 
Makatumbe, is exhibited at an elevation of 96 feet above high water, 
'di, flashing white light every thirty seconds, visible from a distance of 
15 miles in clear weather. The light shows for 6 seconds and is 
eclipsed for 24 seconds. 

Buoys. — A white spar buoy with two black triangles, points 
downwards, marks the edge of the shallow water extending north- 
ward of Hammond rock, Makatumbe reef. 

A white spar buoy with two black triangles, points upwards, in 
h\ fathoms, marks the south-east extreme of the outer Daphne reef. 

Directions. — Approaching Dar-es-Salaam bay from the north- 
ward, Mbudya island will be first distinguished by its clump of trees. 
This island should be given a berth of at least 4 miles in order to 
pass outside Mbudya patches, as it is quite possible that shoaler 
patches than those marked on the chart may have escaped detection. 
Steer along the shore at this distance until the Makatumbe islands or 
the lighthouse are in sight bearing S.S.W. 

See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



Chap. IX.] DIRECTIONS. — TIDES. 395 

Then steer for the islands on that bearing until the white tombs on 
the red cliffs of Ras Chokir bear S.W. ; this latter mark being steered 
for will lead midway between the buoys marking the outer Daphne 
reef and the spit extending from Hammond rock ; and when the 
obelisk on Ras Rongoni (or the middle of its red cliff) bears S.S.W., 
steer for it. This mark will lead through the bay, and when Inner 
Makatumbe bears S.E. by S., haul towards it for anchorage, unless 
entering the harbour, in which case proceed as directed on p. 397. 

In approaching Dar-es-Salaam bay from the southward, the Sinda 
island will first come into view. Give the outer island a berth of two 
miles to clear Millard bank, by keeping Gunja peak in line with Ras 
Kankadya ; steer on this line about N.W. by W. | W., until Kendwa 
island is abeam, when alter course gradually to bring the tombs on 
Ras Chokir S.W., and proceed as from the northward. 

Ancliora^e. — The best anchorage in either monsoon for vessels 
of moderate draught is in 4 fathoms, mud, with the house in ruins 
on Inner Makatumbe bearing S.E., and Hammond rock N.E. by E. 
A vessel of light draught can with advantage lie nearer Makatumbe, 
but those of heavy draught must anchor more to the northward, in 
7 to 8 fathoms. 

Tides and current. — The tidal streams in the vicinity of 
Dar-es-Salaam bay are variable and uncertain. The change of the 
monsoon works an entire reversal, in most instances, of their 
directions and strength. As a general rule, the flood runs north- 
westward, and the ebb in the contrary direction, but amongst the 
islands and reefs the streams will often be found setting to the 
opposite points. In the south-west monsoon, at 6 miles from the 
land, the current runs continually north-westward, at rates varying 
from one to 3 knots an hour. In the north-east monsoon, on 
Mbudya patches, the flood runs north-west, and the ebb south-east, 
while, at the same time, inside Bongoyo island the reverse is the 
case. 

In Uar-es-Salaam bay the velocities are not usually great. 

Weather. — See Meteorological table for Bagamoyo, p. 597. 

DAR-ES-SALAAM HARBOUR is land-locked, the water is 
of a convenient depth for anchoring, and the shores are steep. There 
is room for a number of vessels, but the entrance, though it has a 
depth of about 20 feet at low- water springs and 34 feet at high- water 
springs, is narrow and somewhat tortuous and therefore scarcely to 
be recommended for vessels above a moderate draught. 

Se-e plan of Dar-es-SalaAOi, No. 674. 



396 DAR-ES-SALAAM HARBOUR. [Chap. IX. 

It is the natural locality or the great trading port of the east coast, 
and was recognized as such by the late Seyd Majid, Sultan of 
Zanzibar, who commenced to build on a large scale on the northern 
shore, and intended to direct the Bagamoyo trade hither. His death 
prevented this project being carried out. It is now the head- 
quarters of the German East Africa Protectorate and a considerable 
town has been built on the site mentioned. 

The harbour is the lower portion of a long salt water inlet, and 
might be made available for 3 miles as a port. The anchorage imme- 
diately off the town is in a reach three-quarters of a mile in extent, 
with depths ranging from 3| to 8 fathoms, mud. The shore of this 
reach is nearly surrounded by cliffy land 20 to 30 feet high, generally 
steep, and at the town side, ascended by flights of stone steps. On 
the west is a shallow mangrove-lined creek. Southwards the inlet 
extends for two miles without a turn, and is a third of a mile in 
width, bordered by the same steep banks, but faced by mangroves. 

The narrow entrance to Dar-es-Salaam harbour is not easy to 
make out, even from the anchorage in the bay. It lies between the 
red cliffs of Ras Rongoni and Ras Chokir, through an abrupt break 
in the coral reef bordering the shore. The break in the reef at 
the entrance, abreaet North Sand head, which dries 2 feet at springs, 
is about 1| cables wide, reduced to about one cable at low water, at 
about one mile within, between East and West Ferry, two low sandy 
points. 

A rocky patch, with a spit beyond, which projects from the North 
Sand head, into the channel, presents the greatest difficulty in the 
passage, narrowing it, at the turning point, to 120 yards ; thence the 
channel is straight towards East Ferry point, and has a depth of 
21 feet, on either side of a bank with 16 feet over it at low springs 
lying in the fairway about 4 cables from East Ferry point. The 
passage between the Ferry points is on a curve, but it is easy to keep 
in mid-channel. There is a small bank with 3 fathoms water, off 
the town, and a larger one with 2J fathoms, off the creek. 

Landmarks. — From the bay, the following objects are more or 
less conspicuous. On the west side of entrance, are the red cliffs at 
Ras Chokir and the white stones in the cemetery within ; farther 
southward is the boat-house with red roof, and between is the 
Government house and flagstaff ; near West Ferry point is the 
ProtCotant mission house. 

See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



Chap. IX.] ENTRANCE. — BEACONS.— DIRECTIONS. 397 

On East Ferry point is a white signal tower, visible about 10 miles 
in clear weather, whilst to the eastward are the red cliffs of Ras 
Rongoni. 

Beacons. — Buoys. — On Ras Rongoni is a white obelisk, and on 
a rock N. ^ E., about 180 yards from it, is a white pyramid, leading 
marks for the approach. Red spar buoys mark the starboard side of 
the channel on entering, and black conical buoys the port side, as 
follows, but they must not be depended on : — 

The outer red spar buoy, with white topmark A, in about 4 fathoms, 
lies with the obelisk on Ras Rongoni S. | W. distant 8f cables. 
The red spar buoy, with white topmark B, lies close eastward of 
North Sand head spit, with the obelisk S. by E. 3 cables. The red 
spar buoy, with white topmark C, lies with the flagstaff on East Ferry 
point S. I W. 2^ cables. 

A black conical buoy. No. 1, lies close eastward of the line of beacons, 
with the obelisk S. | W. 3f cables. Three black conical buoys, numbered 
2, 3 and 4, mark the edge of the spit off lias Makabe within East 
Ferry point. All these buoys are marked with the letter or number 
given above with the letters Dr. s.m. underneath. There is a mooring 
buoy in about 3| fathoms, with the port flagstaff N.W. by W. ^ W., 
about 3 cables. 

Pilot. — The German authorities will provide a pilot when 
requested. 

Directions. — -Tho best time to enter Dar-es-Salaam harbour is 
at low water, if the draught will permit, as the reefs on either side 
can generally be made out from aloft, or failing that at high water ; 
in no case should a vessel attempt it during the full strength of the 
flood stream, nor should she leave during a strong ebb. 

From Dar es-Salaam bay steer in with the beacons at Ras Rongoni 
in line bearing S. | W., eastward of the red spar buoy A (which line 
will carry not less than 21 feet at low water springs), until nearly up 
to and westward of black buoy No. 1 (the left extreme of the 
cocoa-nut palms on Kurasina, in the harbour, will be touching West 
Ferry point), see sketch. Then alter course, passing close westward 
of that buoy and within half a cable southward of red buoy B ; thence 
for red spar buoy C (which should be nearly in line with the tower 
of the Protestant mission), passing south-eastward of it. A conical 
beacon on the south shore, seen over any portion of a white wall 
fronting it, denotes that the vessel is passing the bank in the fairway ; 

See plan of Dar-eH-8alaam, No. 674. 



398 DAR-ES-SALAAM. [Chap. IX. 

when the beacon is on with the west end of the wall, steer to pass 
midway between the Ferry points, thence northward of the black 
buoys of Ras Makabe to the anchorage. The ebb stream sets strongly 
towards these buoys. 

Vessels may anchor anywhere in the harbour, unless an anchorage 
has been indicated to them by the pilot or other officials of the port. 
"When anchorage is indicated to vessels, it is done so by a boat with a 
green flag. The vessels must steer towards the boat and drop anchor 
when the flag is lowered. Vessels should not anchor in the entrance 
channel except in case of emergency. Copies of the Port RegulatioDS 
are supplied to vessels on first visit. 

Vessels with explosives can only enter the harbour after obtaining 
permission. 

Tides. — It is high v.rater, full and change, in Dar-es-Salaam 
harbour, at 4h. 20m. ; springs rise 14 feet, and neaps 9^ feet. The 
stream at springs runs strong in the harbour channel, especially 
towards or after low water, as it is then confined to the channel 
itself. The ebb sets eastward over the flats towards Makatumbe 
islands, so that a vessel on reaching the turning point ofi: Ras Rongoni 
in her passage out must take care, if obliged to choose that time of tide, 
that she is not swept on to it. 

Dar-es-Salaam town, the capital of German East Africa, is 
situated on the northern shore of the harbour, some 30 feet above 
high water ; several flights of steps lead down to the shore. The 
town has been built on the site of the town begun by the late Sultan 
of Zanzibar, Seyd Maj id, referred to on page 396, and contains many 
well laid out streets and blocks of buildings. There are Government 
• residences for the Governor and other officials, a fort, a chief custom 
house, post and telegraph offices, Protestant and Roman Catholic 
missions, &c. 

Population. — The population in 1894 was about 10,000, of whom 
440 were Europeans. 

Position. — The observation spot on the north-west side of the 
Government buildings is in lat. 6° 49' 41 " S., long. 39'' 17' 8" E. 

Piers. — Thete is a custom houSe quay, and several landing 
stages. Government officials only are allowed to land at No. 1 pier. 
Boats are not allowed to make fast to the piers or to lie alongside 
for any length of time. 

See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



Chap. IX.] TOWN. — COMMUNICATION. — SUPPLIES. 399 

Oommunication. — Dar-es-yalaam is connected with Zanzibar 
by submarine telegraph cable, via Bagamoyo ; thence with the 
world. The main line of the Deutsche Ost Afrika steamers from 
Europe, via Aden and Tanga, call here every three weeks, and their 
branch line from Tanga every three weeks, both calling on their 
return northwards. The same Company's steamers from Bombay 
via Zanzibar, call about every six weeks. 

Proposed Railway. — It is proposed to construct a railway 
from Bagamoyo to lake Tanganyika, about 900 miles, via Mrogoro, 
160 miles, and Tabora, 625 miles ; and from Tabora to lake Victoria, 
a further distance of 170 miles. A branch line is proposed to 
Bagamoyo. 

Trade. — There is considerable trade with the interior, caravans of 
ivory and other produce occasionally arriving for shipment. The 
principal exports are copal, corn, maize, and sesame. 

Supplies. — The usual supplies of poultry, eggs, goats, and possibly 
fresh beef and vegetables, are obtainable. There are several good 
wells of water. It is proposed to construct a dock hero, and slight 
repairs may be executed. 

Inlet. — Above the town the inlet of Dar-es-Salaam extends 
2 miles in a S.S.E. direction, then turns south-westward, and 
continues the same breadth for another mile. It is navigable for 
vessels almost up to this point, but here at low water springs it may 
be said to come to an abrupt termination, as a sandbank dries nearly 
across the channel. Above this it divides into two branches, one 
extending south-south-westward, the other and larger, south-east- 
ward, with high banks on either side. Both branches are nearly 
dry at low water springs, and, as little fresh water comes down 
them except during the floods, the statement of the natives that 
they end in mangrove swamps is probably correct. Mtoni is a 
considerable village at the fork. 

COAST.*— Upang-a bay.— About 1\ miles north-eastward of 
the entrance to Dar-es-Salaam harbour is the bay of Upanga, a sandy 
inlet with cliffy points, half a mile wide, and dry at low water. A 
stream of the same name runs into the bay. 

Raa Kankadya. — At 1\ miles northward of Upanga is another 
sandy bay forming one side of the neck of the promontory of Ras 

See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



400 DAR-BS-SALAAM ; NORTHERN APPROACH. [Chap. IX. 

Kankadya ; a rocky coast thence trends northward for about 2 miles 
to Ras Kankadya. This promontory, which projects northward 
nearly 2 miles, appears from the north-eastward like an island, and 
a sand patch in a cove is conspicuous when the sun is in the east. A 
reef, dry at low water, extends from one to 2 cables off the pro- 
montory. 

Kankadya patch, with 5 fathoms least water, lies with Ras 
Kankadya bearing West, distant 2| miles. 

Bongroyo is a rocky island, facing Msasani bay, and protecting it 
from the swell. It is 1^ miles in length, with an average breadth of 
2 cables, and presents a uniform outline of stunted trees on cliffs 
40 feet in height. There is an isolated rock 8 feet high off the 
north point, and a sandy bay in the centre of the eastern shore 
shows white and conspicuous with the morning sun. The island is 
uninhabited and all but impenetrable. 

The surrounding reef, dry at low water, extends seaward more 
than half a mile from the island, not very steep-to, but the sea 
always breaks on it. A detached rock with 6 feet water, which breaks 
occasionally, lies 6 cables S.E. by E. | E. from the south point of 
Bongoyo island. On the western side the reef dries nowhere more 
than one cable off. 

The depths eastward of Bongoyo and its reef are irregular. 

MSASANI BAY lies within the rocky promontory of Kankadya; 
it is sandy throughout, intersected by creeks leading from mangrove 
swamps and backed at a distance of 3 miles by a long featureless hill 
rising to Gunja peak, a slight summit, 600 feet in height. The bay 
affords good anchorage during either monsoon, and is safe and easy 
to enter from the southward. The south and west sides of the bay 
are, however, shallow, the sand drying in some places 6 cables from 
the shore, and the 3-fathom8 line of soundings being in other parts 
nearly 1^ miles from high water line. From the village of Msasani, 
at the head of the bay, the shore trends northward for 6 miles to the 
village of Konduchi. 

Anchorag'e. — In the north-east monsoon the best berth is in 
8 fathoms, sand, westward of the centre of Bongoyo, with its north 
extreme bearing North distant about three-quarters of a mile. 



See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 



Chap. IX.] MSASANI BAY. -MBUDYA. 401 

During the south-west monsoon a berth more to the northward, 
about half a mile off the north-west point of Bongoyo island, should 
be taken. Or, if preferred, in the southern part of the bay in about 
6 fathoms, with Ras Kankadya bearing E. ^ S. From the latter 
berth, landing is easy at the village of Msasani, in the angle of the 
bay, which is 2 hours' walk to Dar-es-Salaam. 

Directions. — To enter Msasani bay, bring Gunja peak midway 
between Ras Kankadya and Bongoyo island, and steer for it, 
until Inner Makatumbe island is in line with Ras Kankadya ; then 
alter course for Pangavini islet, bearing N.N.W. ^ W., if proceeding 
to the northern part of the bay. If intending to anchor under Ras 
Kankadya, round the point as convenient. 

MBUDYA, the northernmost of the chain of off-lying islands 
mentioned in page 391, is a coral island, faced with low cliffs, and 
standing on a ledge of coral. It is three-quarters of a mile in length, 
of a triangular form, and has or had a square clump of trees 60 feet 
high, showing above the other foliage. The surrounding reef is 
2 miles in length, one mile in breadth, and dries at low water, the 
greater part of it being to seaward of the island. The inner side is 
tolerably steep, but the outer or eastern side deepens gradually, has 
outlying patches, and is therefore dangerous to approach. 

Mbudya spit, with 3 fathoms least water, lies with the south point 
of the island bearing N.W. ^ N. distant 2 miles. A patch half a mile 
in length, and 2| fathoms least water, lies half a mile eastward of 
the spit. Fishermen occasionally camp on the island. 

Mbudya patches are a number of small patches at various 
distances outside Mbudya island, the outer one known being 4 miles 
from the island. They have from 3| to 5 fathoms water, but their 
neighbourhood, should be avoided, as it is possible shoaler places 
may exist. 

Pangravini islet, at one mile south-westward of Mbudya island 
is a rocky islet, on a coral bank, three-quarters of a mile in length. 
The islet is one mile from the main, with a narrow channel, with 
depths of 6 to 7 fathoms between. 

At three-quarters of a mile northward of Pangavini islet, is a 
3-fathom8 patch of about 3 cables in extent. 



See plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. 674. 
SO 11977 3 C 



402 DAR-BS-SALAAM ; NORTHERN APPROACH. [Chap. IX. 

Fung*!! Mkadya is a coral reef, 1^ miles in length, dry at low 
water. From the depth of 2^ fathoms off its south end, the north- 
east extreme of Mbudya island bears S.E. by E, | E., distant one mile. 

KONDUCHI HARBOUR.— The village of Konduchi stands on 
the beach of the mainland, opposite Mbudya island, near the mouth 
of Peremji river. The sand dries off for half a mile.* 

Konduchi harbour is the name given to the anchorage south-west- 
ward of Mbudya island, and is a convenient shelter during the north- 
east monsoon for a vessel wishing to find a quiet place for the night, 
though that under Bongoyo is preferable. 

Directions. — Anchoragre. — Konduchi harbour may be entered 
either from the northward or from the southward. The northern 
channel is but 4 cables wide at low water, for a vessel of 18 feet 
draught ; the centre of Pangavini island bearing S. | W. leads in from 
seaward between Fungu Mkadya and Mbudya and eastward of the 
3-fathoms patch northward of Pangavini. There is anchorage in the 
south-west monsoon period northward of that bank, in about 
10 fathoms, with the north extreme of Mbudya E. ^ S. and Pangavini 
on the above bearing of it. For a smaller vessel it is only necessary 
to give the west point of Mbudya island a berth of 4 cables. The 
northern edge of Mbudya reef, though not steep, generally shows. 

To enter from the southward, the better channel, especially in the 
north-east monsoon period, steer in with the north point of Bongoyo 
island bearing W. by N. until Pangavini islet bears N.W. by W. ^ W., 
when steer for it until the west extreme of Mbudya bears N. | W. ; 
thence about N.W. by N. to the anchorage, in 10 fathoms, sand, 
midway between Mbudya island and Pangavini islet. 

FUNGU YASIN. — Beacon. — Fungu Yasin is a coral reef, 
1| miles in length ; it dries over a large area at low water springs, 
and has a sandhead on its north-west extreme, 4 feet above high 
water, on which stands a red and white beacon with triangle. From 
this head Mbudya island bears S. by E. distant 3| miles. On the 
western side the reef is steep-to, but at the south-eastern end shallow 
water extends off" to a 3-fathoms patch, 2 miles S.E., ^ E. from the 
sandhead. South-eastward of this patch are tte Mbudya patches 
alreadj mentioned. f 

* S(!ti plan of Dar-es-Salaam, No. (;7^. 

t See chart : — Pangani to Ras Kimbiji, No. 640a ; also chart No. 664. 



Chap. IX.] KOJTDUCHI HARBOUR.— KITAPUMBB REEFS. 403 

Anchoragre. — There is good anchorage within Fungii Yasin 
during either monsoon, in 16 fathoms, off the centre of the reef, 
with the sandhead bearing N.E. distant half a mile. The safest 
approach to the anchorage is round the north end of the reef. 

OOAST. — From Konduchi village the coast trends north-west- 
ward with 8om.e sinuosities for about 16 miles to Waso, thence west- 
ward for 3^ miles to Ras Luale. It is a low sandy beach, bordered 
by coral ledges and banks, backed by mangrove swamps or dense 
bush. A few miles inland are low rounded wooded hills, which in 
the vicinity of Konduchi rise to the height of 500 feet. From 
Konduchi village the coast is sandy for a short distance, and then 
rocky to Ras Kiromoni ; the latter point is low, and forms a small bay 
on its west side, where there, is fair landing in the south-west 
monsoon period. 

Bueni. — At 4^ miles northward of Ras Kiromoni is the village 
of Bueni, conspicuous by some white tombs and large mango trees. 
There are several villages on the shore between Kiromoni and 
Bueni. Along this coast the sand or coral dries from 3 to 9 cables 
off, with outlying dangers. 

Ukatani reef, 1^ miles E. by N. of Ukatani village, is small, 
and awash at low water springs. 

There is a small patch between it and Ras Kiromoni, about 
8 cables off shore. 

Bueni reefs lie off the village of Bueni, and are two in number. 
The northern one is a bank half a mile in extent, with a rock having 
a depth of 6 feet, from which Bueni village bears S.W. by W. ^ W. 
distant 1| miles. The other, at one mile south-eastward, has 
2 fathoms water. These dangers are both difficult to distinguish, 
as the sea seldom breaks, and the water is thick. 

Kitapumbe reefs lie off the village of the same natne ; they are 
two in number, and of coral. 

The south-easternmost, 2h miles from the land, and 3^ miles north- 
ward of Bueni village, is about one mile in length, and dries 2 feet 
at low water springs. The other, nearly 2 miles north-westward, is 
one mile in diameter, 2 miles from the coast, and dries 4 feet. These 
dangers are fairly steep-to, and the sea generally breaks. The water 
is thick in this vicinity. 

See plan of Dar-es-Salaam. No. 674. 
SO 11977 2 2 



404 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked Kitap, and surmounted by 
two triangles with points averted from each other, lies in 9 fathoms, 
eastward of the patch which dries 2 feet on the easternmost reef. 

Mshingrwi is a small coral reef, on which the sea generally breaks 
even when covered, lying one mile off the centre of the sand spit 
forming Mwangotini lagoon ; it is steep-to, and dries 11 feet at low 
water springs, with 9 fathoms around. 

Mwang'Otini lagroon is 4 miles in length in a south-east 
direction, by one mile in width. It is formed by a long narrow 
tongue of coral and sand about 1^ cables in breadth, which extends 
from abreast Waso in a north-westerly direction, parallel to the 
coast. This tongue is covered with thick bush, and ends in Ras 
Luale ; Ras Mbegani, the western point of entrance, is also a low 
mangrove point, and distant one mile from it. 

The lagoon is mostly dry at low water, but there are narrow 
channels leading to Mbegani and Mwangotini villages on the south 
side. Tall cocoa-nut trees and white tombs mark the latter. The 
lagoon ends in mangrove swamps. 

Coast. — From Ras Mbegani, the coast forms a slight sandy bay 
for 5 miles north-westward to Ras Nunge, a mangrove point which 
shows well out from the land when inshore, with Kaole and 
Bagamoyo lying between ; Kingani river entrance is 3 miles west- 
ward of Nunge, the coast between being a mass of mangroves. 

Kaole, a village almost hidden from seaward by trees, stands 
a little eastward of the red cliffs 1^ miles south-eastward of 
Bagamoyo. 

Kebandahodi is a large sand and mud bank nearly awash at 
low water springs, abreast the village of Kaole, with shallow water 
extending some distance east and west ; its north extreme lies with 
Kaole red cliffs bearing S.W. by S. distant 3 miles, and is tolerably 
steep. The sea generally breaks here, but if it does not, the bank 
cannot be made out, as the water is thick and muddy. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked Bagamoyo, and surmounted 
by two black triangles, points upwards, lies in 6 fathoms off the 
north side of Kebandahodi. 



See chartB, Nos. 640^^ and 664 



Chap. IX.] Sagamoyo AiiD approaches. 405 

Mbwakuni reef, nearly 2 miles in length and three-quarters of 
a mile in breadth, lies 6 miles north-eastward from Bagamoyo. It ia 
all dry at low water springs, with from 6 to 9 fathoms close-to ; 
many coral heads are visible at half-ebb, and on the western end is a 
sandbank which dries 11 feet, and is consequently nearly always 
above water, the sea usually breaking on it, when covered. 

Beacon. — A mast beacon surmounted by a ball, the whole painted 
black, is erected on this sandbank, with the French Mission houses at 
Bagamoyo bearing S.W. by W. ^ W., distant 6^ miles. 

Current. — The current off this part of the coast is variable, 
and depends much on the direction and strength of the wind. In the 
south-west monsoon the current runs strong to the north-westward 
past Mbwakuni reef, but nearer the shore it is not so strong. In the 
north-east monsoon, when the wind is fresh, it is only on the flood 
that there is any set northward, but at this season the stream is 
variable. 

BAGAMOYO. — The town of Bagamoyo stands a few feet above 
the sea level, on a low but steep bank of a sandy bay. It is one of 
the most important towns on this coast, and has a fixed population 
of about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about 50 are Europeans and 
700 natives of India. It is the point of departure and arrival for 
many of the African caravans ; the entire caravan transport is made 
by carriers, mostly Wanyamwezi, a tribe about 350 miles inland ; 
the exports are chiefly ivory and copal. 

A branch establishment of the Roman Catholic Mission at Zanzibar 
stands on the north side of the town. It devotes itself to the 
training of native children to agriculture and various industries. 

There is a German official in charge at Bagamoyo, and there is a 
Custom house, a district office, a post and telegraph station, and a 
hospital. 

Winds and weather. — See Meteorological table, p. 597. 

Supplies. — Oxen, sheep, goats, and fowls are always procurable 
and very cheap. 

Oommunlcation. — Bagamoyo is connected with Dar-es-Salaam 
and Zanzibar by submarine telegraph cable. The branch steamers of 
the Deutsche Ost Afrika Company call here every three weeks on 
their way southward, via other coast ports, and on the return voyage. 

See charts. Nos. 640a and 664. 



406 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

There is also constant communication with Zanzibar. It is proposed 
to connect Bagamayo with the projected railway from Dar-e^-Salaam 
to Lake Tanganyika. 

Landing*. — At low water, the sand covering a coral ledge, dries 
nearly a mile from the Bagamoyo shore, on which the dhows are 
grounded near the beach, and unloaded when the sand is dry. The 
best landing with any wind is ofE the north end of the town, nearly 
abreast the French Mission. Here, at low water, a coral ridge 
which trends parallel to the beach, forms, by its abrupt termination 
at the sand bank fronting the town, a cove where the water is 
generally smoother than elsewhere. At high water, the same ridge, 
though covered, breaks the swell. 

Ancll0rag"e. — The water shoals gradually to the shore, and 
renders it advisable to anchor at some distance off, as the swell sets 
heavily in with either monsoon, and makes a berth in shallow water 
an uncomfortable one. 

A berth in about 5 fathoms well be found with the west extreme 
of Mbwakuni reef E.N.E., Ras Windi N. by W., and the red cliffs 
S. f W. Small craft in fine weather may anchor nearer the landing. 

There is a red barrel buoy marked with an anchor and surmounted 
by a white flag, in 2 fathoms water. 

Directions. — Approaching Bagomoyo from Southern pass of 
Zanzibar, Hatajwa hill in line with the south point of Chumbe 
island E. ^ N. astern, will lead between Tambare and Boribu reefs ; 
thence course should be shaped to pass about a mile northward of 
Mbwakuni reef beacon. "When Kaole red cliffs bear S.S.W. ^ W., 
steer for the anchorage. From the southward, pass about midway 
between Mbwakuni beacon and Kebandahodi buoy ; when the red 
cliffs bear southward of S.S.W. ^ W. steer for the anchorage. 

To make the passage to Zanzibar harbour, it is better, in thick 
weather and in the south-west monsoon when the currents are strong, 
to steer round Kebandahodi buoy, and steer about 10 miles to the 
eastward, whence course may be shaped to pass westward of Ariadne 
bank. Hatajwa hill, bearing E. by N. | N., leads 1^ miles southward 
of Boribu reef, which dries 8 feet, and midway between it and 
Ariadne reef. 

See charts, Nos. 640a and 664. 



Cha^). IX.] KINGANI RIVER. ' 407 

Caution. — At times, such as high water, snn ahead of the vessel, 
calm weather with mirage, shadows of clouds on the water, or such 
like, it will be dangerous to trust to the eye,- and bearings of objects 
alone must be depended on. 

KINGANI RIVER. — The Kingani or Ruvu lies about 3 miles 
north-westward of Bagamoyo. It could be made practically useful 
as a means of transport for about 50 miles, and when the river is 
moderately high, even more. It has many names, of which Kingani 
is applied to the lower portion only ; 15 miles up it is known as the 
Ruvu, but on the coast the former name is better known. Its 
mouth is in lat. 6° 23' S., long. 38° 52' E. 

Bar. — Kingani river is fronted by a shifting bar variable in depth, 
which dries about 2 miles from the shore, and the sea generally breaks 
heavily on its edge ; there is possibly a canoe passage at low water. 
There are numerous snags in the direct approach, rendering it advis- 
able to approach from either westward or eastward ; there is possibly 
a depth of about 5 feet at three-quarters flood. After one hour's 
ebb, no heavily laden boat should attempt to pass either in or out. 

The actual entrance is 6 cables broad from mangrove to man- 
grove, and 2 fathoms water is obtained immediately inside the points. 
At half a mile up is the ferry of Windi, over which was the old 
land route of the slave caravans. The river is winding, with a 
general south-west direction, and an average breadth of 100 yards 
for 12 miles, at which point the mouth is only 5 miles distant in 
a straight line. Up to this point it runs mostly through dense man- 
groves, though a few pieces of bare prairie are passed, inundated 
during rains ; here the open country begins, with a flat grass plain 
on the right bank, which extends back from the river 2 miles to the 
edge of a low but steep-faced plateau. 

In this locality cultivation begins ; maize, manioc, millet, and 
sweet potatoes are the principal cereals and roots grown, together 
with cocoa-nuts and plantains. At 19 miles from the entrance 
(7 miles as the crow flies) is Kingwere ferry, the route by which 
most of the trade to Central Africa passes from Bagamoyo. The 
river is here but 40 yards wide. At 2 miles above Kingwere the 
river flows through forest, but the land is flat, the banks are steep, 
and about 8 feet high. The stream narrows to 25 yards, and becomes 
somewhat dangerous with snags and sandbanks. A little farther on, 

See charts, Nos. 640a and 664. 



408 ZANZIBA.R CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

a large feeder, the Kangeni stream, runs into it from the -westward. 
At 10 miles above Kingwere the river meets the edge of the plateau 
before mentioned, and a steep cliff of about 40 feet in height forms the 
right bank ; (somewhere between this and Kingwere is the highest 
point that the tide reaches). 

Thence, for 5 miles the river runs at a short distance from the 
steep edge of the plateau, now touching it, and now sweeping away 
with bold bends, till the small village of Dunga standing on the hill 
on the right bank is reached. 

This was the farthest point attained by H.M. surveying vessel 
Shearwater's boats in 1873, and is about 35 miles from the entrance 
by water, but only 15 miles in a straight line. The river here is 
about 18 yards wide and 6 feet deep ; it is stated to maintain this 
size for many miles. 

On the left bank a broad plain stretches to the foot of low 
undulating hills ; and 8 miles from the river, giraffe, zebra, buffalo, 
hartbeest, and other large game are found, especially in the dry 
season, when they come to the neighbourhood of the rivers to 
drink. 

The Kingani, like other rivers on this coast, is unhealthy. Fever 
generally follows any sojourn on its banks, and sleeping in boats 
seems to afford no immunity. 

COAST. — Prom the mouth of Kingani river to Ras Windi, a 
distance of 9 miles, the coast trends northward, upon which are two 
or three hamlets known by clumps of cocoa-nut trees, and is a mere 
strip of sand backed by mangrove swamps. There is a break in the 
sand 2 miles southward of Ras Windi, through which the tide ebbs 
and flows, and during the rainy season the superfluous water from 
the inundated plain escapes. 

Windi, a large village, stands a little within the strip of sand, 
which hides the huts at low water, and on very low ground. Some 
white tombstones point out from the sea the position of the village. 

Ras Windi, a sandy point, may possibly be known by a con- 
spicuous tree just north-west of it. It is fronted at the distance of 
one mile by a coral ledge, dry 6 feet at low water springs, on which 
the sea breaks heavily, with shallow water beyond it. 

See charts, Nos. 640a nnd 664. 



Chap. IX,] WINDI. — WAMI PATCHES. 409 

Fungu MikO is composed of two small reefs on which the sea 
generally breaks : the northern one, a head of broken coral, dries 
8 feet, and lies with the tombs at Windi village bearing W. :^ N. 
7 miles. The other, half a mile south-south-east, is larger, and dries 
6 feet. There are depths of 12 fathoms water close to both these 
reefs. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, with Miko in black letters, and 
surmounted by two black triangles with points away from each 
other, lies in 14 fathoms ofiE the eastern extreme of Fungo Miko 
southern reef. 

Windi patches, which generally break, are two coral reefs dry 
at low water springs. The southern one, 3 cables in diameter, dries 

6 feet, is steep-to, with depths of 8 fathoms around ; it lies with the 
conspicuous tree on Ras Windi bearing W. by N. | N. distant 4 miles. 
The northern reef, one mile N.E. by N. of the southern, dries 4 feet, 
with 12 fathoms around it. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked Windi in black letters, and 
surmounted by two triangles with points towards each other, lies in 

7 fathoms westward of the southermost patch. 

Ras ITtondwe, 3^ miles northward of Ras Windi, is a low sandy 
spit, with a small bay north of it, at the head of which is a salt- 
water creek having every appearance of a river, and named Mto 
Utondwe ; the creek, however, ends in mangrove swamps 2^ miles 
from its mouth, and has no fresh water. It was probably at one 
time in connexion with the Wami, as the intervening country is one 
vast mangrove swamp, and entirely inundated during the rains. 

Wami patclies* are eight separate coral patches lying 6 miles 
north-eastward of Ras Utondwe. They are very small, varying 
In depth from 6 feet to awash at low water springs, and occupy a 
space over 2 miles in a north-west and south-east direction, by one 
mile in breadth. They are steep-to, having depths of 12 fathoms 
water around them, and are dangerous, as the mud from the Wami and 
other rivers thickens the water at times to such a degree that at high 
tide they are invisible. The southern extremity of the flat Udoe hill 
bearing W. ^ N. will lead nearly two miles southward of these reefs. 



* See charts, Nob. 640& and 664. 



410 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap IX. 

Buoy. — A. white spar buoy, marked Wami in black letters and 
surmounted by two black triangles with the points away from, each 
other, lies in 14 fathoms just eastward of the easternmost Wami 
patch. 

Tides. — It is high water in the vicinity of the Wami patches, at 
full and change, at 4h. 15m. ; springs rise 15 feet, neaps 10 feet. 

MTO "WAMI. — The southern mouth of this river is 2 miles 
northward of Ras Utondwe, and is named Chunango ; the northern 
entrance, one mile farther northward, is the Purahanya. Both are 
difficult to make out, the coast being fringed with mangroves, and 
the rivers taking abrupt turns from the entrances. Of these mouths, 
the Purahanya is the principal, but both have bars which dry 
across at springs, and a boat will find difficulty in getting in after 
half -ebb. These bars, like others on the coast, shift and vary with 
the seasons. 

Hippopotami and crocodiles are found in Wami river, and large 
game is said to be plentiful 10 miles from the coast. It seems to be a less 
deadly river than some others, as several parties from the Shearwater 
slept in their boats on it with no evil effects. Behind the low lands 
of this part of the coast, Udoe hill, a flat range about 800 feet in 
height, slopes sharply on its south side, and forms the northern 
limit of a broad valley, down which the Wami probably flows. 

The country is inhabited by the tribe of the Wadoe. Off the 
mouth of the Wami, shoal water extends a long distance, the 
5-fathoms line being 3^ miles off. 

The GllimangO branch, at 3 miles within its entrance, comes to 
an abrupt termination, and is completely dry at low water ; a little 
below this point, a narrow and tortuous channel, also dry at low 
water, leads to the principal branch. 

The Purahanya branch, inside its bar, is about 80 yards wide, 
and 12 feet deep at low water springs, with mangroves on either side. 
At three-quarters of a mile within the entrance, on the right bank, is a 
piece of rising ground faced by a red cliff about 6 feet above high 
water. At 2 miles up, at the fork of the channel leading to the 
Chunango branch, the river at low water is only 20 yards across. 

Above this it gets rapidly shallow, and snags and sandbanks block 
the channel ; at low water a steam cutter cannot proceed more than 

See charts, Nob. 6402> and 664. 



Chap. IX.] MTO WAMI. — SAADANI. 411 

a mile above the junction, and at a point 1| miles farther a small 
boat will find it difficult to proceed. Here is another cliff on the 
left bank. Above this the river was not explored by the boats of 
the Shearwater in consequence of the lowness of the river arresting 
further progress in the steam cutter, even at high water ; but Captain 
Malcolm, R.N., of H.M.S. Briton, who went several miles beyond, 
states that the river slightly improves and deepens above, and that 
habitable land is reached at about 7 miles from the mouth, all below 
being dense mangrove and overflowed lands. 

The Purahanya mouth is difficult to find, but the south fall of Udoe 
hill bearing W. \ S. will lead to it. 

Mariner shoal. — A patch which dries in places about 3 feet at 
low water, half a mile in extent in a north and south direction, 
has been reported by H.M.S. Mariner to lie about 2 miles north- 
eastward of the Wami, with Saadani village bearing N. W. \ W. 
distant 4 miles. 

Saadani. — The coast between the Wami and Ras Machuisi, a 
distance of 12 miles, is of the same character, low, with a sandy beach, 
much mangrove about the mouths of the several rivers, and a sand 
flat drying out for half a mile. 

Saadani, a large village 7 miles south-west of Ras Machuisi, is the 
principal place between Pangani and Bagamoyo, and numbers about 
4,000 inhabitants. There is a branch Custom house in the fort. 
There is no shelter for the dhows that trade to Saadani, they are 
simply beached at high water. There are several smaller villages to 
the northward of Saadani, and many streams and swamps open into 
the sea at this part of the coast. 

Buoy. — A red barrel buoy, marked with an anchor and sur- 
mounted by a white flag, lies in %\ fathoms, E.S.E. 1^ miles from 
Saadani stj^tion, and indicates the anchorage for small craft. 

COAST. — ^Ras Macliuisi is distinguished by a dense grove of 
trees, which show conspicuously from north or south; the point 
projects but little. Buiuni village is situated on the coast one mile 
northward of it. 

From Ras Machuisi the coast, with slight sinuosities, trends north- 
eastward for 31 miles to Pangani bay. A sandy beach skirts the shore 
the whole distance, and is used as the road connecting the villages 

See charts, Nos. 6402) and 664. 



412 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap IX. 

near the coast. At low water, coral ledges or sand flats dry off 
for half a mile, which is again bordered by shallow water for some 
distance. The land immediately at the back is low, but at some 
distance within it rises gently to the coast range of from 300 to 
500 feet. Behind this again occasional higher land is seen. All is 
densely wooded. Numerous small streams fall into the sea, but 
only one of any considerable size. 

On the coast between Ras Machuisi and Sange islet are several 
small villages, amongst which Mkwaja is the most important. 

Northward of Ushongu village for about 4 miles, the coast is a 
sandy beach bordered by shallow water for some distance and backed 
by forest ; thence rocky with low cliffs for about 2j miles to Ras 
Kikokwe, the south point of Pangani bay. At some distance inland 
are low flat hills, gently sloping to the eastward. 

Outlying" dangers.— Machuisi reef is about 1^ miles in 
extent, and nearly awash at low water springs. Its outer part is 
2 miles eastward of Ras Machuisi, with a depth of 3 feet in the 
channel between. The 3-fathom contour line extends one mile 
seaward of the reef. 

Mwamba Buiuni lies 3^ miles from the coast on the edge 
of the 5-fathom line of soundings. It is of dead coral and dries 
8 feet, with Ras Machuisi bearing S.W. by W. |^ W., distant 4| miles. 

Buiuni MdogO is a small reef, with one fathom at low water, 
and steep-to, with 9 fathoms close around. It lies 2^ miles 
N.E. by E. of Mwamba Buiuni and 5 miles from the coast. 

Mkwaja patolies lie 3 miles northward of Buiuni Mdogo, and 
4^ miles S.E. by E. ^ E. from Mkwaja village. They are of coral, 
four in number, steep-to, and lie within a diameter of ha|^f a mile, 
with 12 fathoms water between and around them. They have an 
average depth of 6 feet at low water springs, and are dangerous on 
account of their small size, as the sea rarely breaks, and they are 
difficult to be seen. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked M K W J, and surmounted by 
two triangles points downwards, lies in 4 fathoms off the southern 
extreme of the patches. 

See charts, Nos. 640& and 664. 



Chap. IX.] MACHUISI REEF.— KIPUMBWE REEFS. 413 

Mwamba Alek, 3 miles east-north-eastward of Mkwaja patches 
lies 5 miles S.E. by S. from Sange islet. It is small, with one fathom 
least water, steep-to, and with 20 fathoms close aroiind. It is generally 
visible from the masthead, bat the sea does not break. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked Alek in black letters, and 
surmounted by two triangles with their points away from each other, 
lies close to the east end of this danger. 

Sangre islet, is small, rocky, 15 feet above high water, and Ltands 
on a coral ledge, within low-water line. It lies one-third of a mile 
off a low point 4^ miles southward of Kipumbwe river, and is not 
very conspicuous. 

Kipumbwe river, which debouches in a bight about 4^ miles 
northward of Sange islet, is of a considerable width at the mouth, but 
rapidly narrows, and though natives state that it is navigable for a 
few days' journey, it cannot be large. It probably rises in Genda Genda 
mountain, which is seen up the gorge, through which the river passes 
the hills. Mangrove swamps line the mouth, and the bar dries 
completely across at low water. A large village of the same name 
stands on the northern bank of the entrance. Fresh provisions are 
obtainable here. 

Genda Genda, an isolated mountain, 17 miles inland from 
Kipumbwe, is conspicuous, and easily recognized by its two sharp 
peaks, the southern one 2,300 feet, and the northern about 1,900 feet 
in height. This appears to be a volcanic mountain. 

Kipumbwe reefs. — At a distance of 6^ miles from the coast, 
and a little southward of the mouth of Kipumbwe river, is the south 
extreme of a cluster of reefs which extend northward to Fungu 
Datcha, a distance of 7^ miles. Another line of reefs, 2^ miles from 
the coast, extends parallel to it. These reefs are of various sizes, with 
deep channels between them. Some dry a few feet, others never 
uncover, and all are covered at high water, but the sea on the outer 
reefs almost invariably breaks. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, marked K P M B W., and surmounted 
by two triangles with points towards each other, lies in 20 fathoms, 
westward of the largest reef which dries, with Kipumbwe village 
bearing W. by N. about 5 miles. 

See charts, Noe. MOb and 664. 



414 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

Inshore channel. — There is a deep and navigable channel west- 
ward of the buoy, of an average breadth of 2 miles between the two 
lines of reefs, having smooth water even in a strong monsoon, and 
nsef ul to coasting craft, as long as the buoy maintains its position, or 
when the reefs can be plainly seen. l)'or boats beating to the south- 
ward against the south-west monsoon, this channel (the continuation 
of the one from the north) is invaluable. When about midway 
between Kipumbwe river and Sange islet, a boat should then stand 
ovei- to the Zanzibar coast, and beat down on that shdre. 

MAZIWI ISLAND, situated on the western edge of a circular 
coral reef, one mile in diameter, about 5 miles south-eastward of 
Pangani bay, is small, sandy, and covered with casuarina trees, which 
are visible from a distance of 15 miles. The reef dries 5 feet at low 
water springs on its outer edge, where the sea always breaks heavily. 
Between Maziwi island and Mwamba Mawe northward of it is the 
best channel into Pangani bay. Maziwi island is the resort of fisher- 
men, but there is no water. Turtle land at the season for laying 
their eggs, February to July. 

Anchorage. — There is fair anchorage westward of Maziwi island 
during either monsoon, with more protection than will be found in 
Pangani bay. The water is deep, but care must be taken not to 
anchor too close, as the reef is very steep. A position in 15 fathoms, 
sand, with the north edge of the reef bearing N.E. by E. | E., and 
Maziwi island E. | S., will be found good in the south-west monsoon. 
A berth farther south, in 17 fathoms, sand, with Maziwi island 
bearing N.E. by E. ^ E., is better during the north-east monsoon. 

Dangers in the approach to Pangani bay.— Mwamba 
Makonie is a narrow coral reef three-quarters of a mile in length, 
awash at low water springs, lying about 1| miles S.W. by W. ^ W. 
from Maziwi island. It does not always break, and is the only 
danger requiring more than ordinary caution when approaching the 
coast southward of Maziwi island, as at high water, with the sun 
ahead, it is difficult to make out. 

FungU UshongU lies southward of Makome, with a deep 
channel one-third of a mile in breadth between. The reef is one 
mile in length, dries 2 feet at low water, and its outer edge is steep-to ; 
on its western edge is a white sandhead covered only jit high water 
springs, and then the sea always breaks. 



See cliarts, Nob. 640^ and 664. 



Chap. IX.] MAZIWI ISLAND. — PANGANI BAY. 415 

At one mile S. by W. of Fungu Ushongu is a one-fathom bank of 
small extent ; a narrow bank, with about one fathom least water, lies 
half a mile south-west of it. 

Fungru Datcha, a coml reef, that always shows by breakers 
when not awash, lies one mile south-east of Fungu Ushongu. 

Mwamba Mawe, on the north side of the approach from the 
eastward to Pangani bay, is a coral reef which generally bfeaks at 
half ebb ; a few heads dry about 2 feet at low water springs. It is 
three-quarters of a mile in length, and tolerably steep-to. From its 
southern end, Bweni bluff bears W. by N. ^ N. distant 6 miles, and 
Maziwi island S. by W. ^ W. 3| miles. 

At half a mile N.N.E. ^ E. from Mwamba Mawe is Mawe Mdogo, 
a patch with 2 fathoms water, on which tte sea seldom breaks. 

Briton shoal is situated about 1^ miles northward of Mawe 
Mdogo, with the north point of Pangani bay bearing about W. ] S. 
distant 4| miles. It has 4 fathoms least water, and is steep-to, with 
7 to 19 fathoms between it and Mawe Mdogo. 

South. Head reef, at about 3 miles northward of Briton shoal 
and about 3^ miles off-shore, is of sand and coral, and about 3 miles 
in length ; its northern half dries at low water, and is connected with 
Fungune Tongone northward of it by a ridge with about 3| fathoms 
water. 

Buoy. — ^A white spar buoy, marked South Head ahd surmounted 
by two triangles points downwards, lies in 14 fathoms southward of 
the danger, with Maziwi island bearing about S.S.W. ^ W. distant 
about 8 miles. 

PANGANI BAY, on the west side of the north entrance of 
Zanzibar channel, is 1| miles wide, but so shallow that only very 
small craft can anchor inside the line of the points ; nevertheless, the 
anchorage just outside the bay is fairly protected from heavy seas 
by the outlying reefs, and Pemba and Zanzibar islands break the 
ocean swell. Both sides of the bay are rocky, and bordered with 
coral ledges, backed by cliffs of about .')0 feet in height. The head 
of the bay is a straight sandy beach, which dries off from the south 
end three-quarters of a mile at springs. 

See Charts, Noe. 640ft and »?64. 



416 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WBSTEBN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

Landing". — When the bar prevents access to the ordinary landing 
place in the river, there is good landing, particularly in the north-east 
monsoon, at the northern end of the beach, under the lee of a rocky 
point. The best time to land is at high water. 

Anch.orag'e. — The best anchorage off the bar is in 5 fathoms, sand 
and mud, with Bweni bluff bearing-N.W. by W. | W., the north end 
of the sand beach N. by W. | W., and the extreme of land to the 



Directions. — On approaching Pangani bay, Maziwi island is con- 
spicuous. Inland, the coast ranges show a tolerably uniform eleva- 
tion of about 200 feet, and behind them again rise the picturesque 
peaks of the Usambara mountains, many miles inland. Tongwe, an 
isolated, round, dome-shaped peak, 2,200 feet high, is seen to the 
southward of them, and nearer the coast. This peak must not be 
confounded with Genda Genda, 17 miles farther south, which has two 
separate sharp peaks. Inland of Pangani bay, a bare yellow patch on 
the steep face of the fiat hill can be seen many miles when the sun 
shines on it from the eastward, and marks well the position of the bay. 

The best approach to Pangani bay is between Maziwi island and 
Mwamba Mawe. The island reef may be rounded at the distance of 
half a mile ; Tongwe peak in line with Bweui bluff, bearing 
N. 53° W., will lead about that distance northward from Maziwi 
island reef, and to the anchorage off Ras Kikokwe. Should 
Tongwe peak be obscured (a frequent occurrence), the reef of Maziwi 
island is so plainly to be seen, that the eye can with safety navigate 
clear of its steep edge. 

From the northward, Maziwi island may be steered for when 
bearing westward of S.W. by S., until Mbweni bluff bears northward 
of W.N.W., to avoid Mawe reef, when the bluff may be steered for. 

For entering the bay close southward of Maziwi island, no marks 
can be given, but it is safe and easy with the sun in a favourable 
position for seeing the reefs. 

The approach along shore from the southward has been referred to 
with Kipumbwe reefs, pp. 413, 414 ; there is a channel along shore from 
the northward from Tanga, within the reefs, or entering between 
South Head reef and Briton shoal, but we have no information 
beyond what is shown on the chart. 



See charts, Nob. 640* and 664. 



Chap. IX.] PANGANI BAY AND RIVER. 417 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Pangani bay, at 
4h. 15in. ; springs rise 15 feet, and neaps 10 feet. 

Pangani river, known as the Ruvu in its upper portion, is one 
of the largest on this part of the coast ; it rises in Kilimanjaro, one of 
the highest of the east coast mountains, at about 150 miles in a direct 
line from the sea. Its course is through Yipe lake and is 
navigable for small craft between the lake and the Hohnel cataracts, 
below which it has numerous tributaries and many islands with 
villages on them, to the Pangani falls ; from about one mile below the 
falls it is clear, though shallow, to the sea. Like all African rivers, its 
depth varies with the season. 

Depths. — Vessels of 10 feet draught can cross the bar at high 
water and lie afloat off Pangani village, with local knowledge. 
Above this, the depth is not less than one fathom to Pombwe 
about 11 miles up ; thence to Chogwe 4 miles farther, and possibly 
beyond that place, there is less than 3 feet in places at low water 
springs, but as the tide is . felt some 7 miles above Chogwe, small 
craft can pass these shallow reaches towards high water. Above the 
spot where the tidal influence ceases (about 22 miles) it is stated there 
is not less than 3 feet water in the channel during the dry season to 
within about one mile of the Pangani or Margarethen falls, about 
45 miles above the entrance. Possibly craft of 2 feet draught might 
reach the falls at all seasons. 

Bar.— The channel to the river is along the south shore. Abreast 
Whani the bar commences and extends seaward from a half to 
three-quarters of a mile, varying in depth and probably also in position 
with the season. The depth on the bar at low water springs in 
the autumn of 1893 was 4^ feet. On the flood, and with a moderate 
wind, the water on the bar is usually smooth ; but at the ebb, and 
especially at springs, it is often dangerous, and many accidents have 
occurred to boats unwarily crossing at this time. At the time of 
floods in the interior (about June) the river discharges into the sea 
with great velocity. 

Within the bar, abreast the village of Pangani, the river is about 
350 yards wide and 12 to 15 feet deep. The southern side of the 
entrance is marked by a perpendicular bluff named Bweni, about 
200 feet high, and conspicuous from seaward. The northern side of 
entrance is the flat sandy beach that extends from the head of the 

iiee charts, Nos. 640i and 66i. 
8011977 2D 



•118 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; WESTERN SHORE [Chap. IX. 

bay within, and northward of the village is an extensive grove of 
cocoanut palms. 

Buoyage. — A spherical buoy, painted red and black surmounted 
by a St. Andrew's cross, lies in 2 fathoms just outside the bar, marking 
the fairway. A black conical buoy marks the edge of the reef within 
it and on south side of channel. A black and red spar buoy marks 
the fairway north-east of Ras Muhesa. Two triangular beacons, 
white, on the north shore, are intended to mark the line of the bar, 
and a white mark on the south shore, near Whani, when in line with 
any part of the white board in front of it, denotes the width of the 
bar, but these marks are only useful to those who frequent the river. 

Signals. — There is a signal station on Ras Muhesi. 

River above Pangani. — For the first 6 miles of ascent, to 
Teufelsf elsen, the southern bank is a dense mangrove swamp, extend- 
ing back to the hills ; the northern portion is partially so. At Kumba, 
about 3 miles up, is the first sugar plantation. About a mile beyond, 
in the Mundo district, the German East Afrika Plantation Co. have 
established a station near Kidonge, and the coffee tree has been 
extensively planted here. Above Teufelsfelsen, the mangrove 
swamp ceases, and a beautiful and fertile country is reached. 
Here are extensive sugar plantations covering the plains on 
the north shore, as far as Pombwe, belonging to influential Arabs. 
There are some also on the south shore ; during spring tides many 
of them are inundated. 

At Pombwe a weekly market is held, and there are several stores 
kept by Banians and Hindis. At Chogwe is a station of the 
German East Africa Plantation Co. Above Pombwe the West 
African oil palm is met with, whilst below, the trees are chiefly areca 
and cocoanut palms. The river runs between hills on either side, 
which in some places extend to the banks ; in others there are plains 
from a half to two miles wide, mostly under cultivation. These 
plains during high river are mostly flooded. 

Tides.— Current.— The tidal influence is felt for about 7 miles 
above Chogwe, or 22 miles from the entrance to the river. Above 
this the current (except in the height of the wet season) is not so 
strong but what good oarsmen can work their way up ; it is 
apparently strongest above Koleni, within 5 miles of the falls, where 
the river is narrower. 

See (jharts, Nos. 640& and 664. 



Chap. IX.] PANGANI TOWN. — SUPPLIES. 419 

The river is highest about June and lowest in January. See 
pp. 422, 423, on the seasons. 

Crocodiles are numerous, but the hippopotami are getting scarcer 
in its lower parts, being driven back by European hunters to the 
shelter of the upper waters. 

Pangrani town, on the north bank of the river at its entrance, 
lies very low, and bears an unenviable reputation for fevers, &c., 
a fact easy to understand, as the sand on which it stands is but a strip, 
separating the sea from the extensive mangrove forest that grows up 
to the doors of the outlying huts. This strip of sand is covered with 
cocoa-nut trees. It has about 10,000 inhabitants, and besides a large 
number of huts, possesses 250 houses in masonry. A small village, 
named Bweni, stands on the opposite bank of the river, under Bweni 
bluif . A fort has been established at Pangani, and there is a garrison, 
a District office, a chief Customs house, post and telegraph stations. 
There are German plantations up the river as before-mentioned. 

The Mundo district, on the hills 200 feet in height, situated about 
5 miles northward of Pangani, about half a mile from the river bank, 
is said to be by no means unhealthy. A fine view of the windings 
of the river, &c., may be had from Kovu Kovu hill, 360 feet high on 
the northern side of the river, ^nd from the ridge 400 feet high on 
the southern side, both just below Pombwe. 

Trade. — Produce. — There is considerable traffic with Zanzibar 
and Pemba ; dhows load and discharge in the river. A large quantity 
of sugar is grown here in addition to the ordinary crops of maize, 
manioc, yams and pumpkins, also the cocoa-nut, areca and oil palm, 
rice, tobacco, and lately Liberian coffee, as well as mangoes, citrons, 
guavas, and other fruits. Ivory and copal are also exported. The 
products of the country are brought down the river chiefly on rafts 
made of the msala palm. These are then broken up and sold. 

Oommunication. — The branch steamer from Tanga, of the 
Deutsche Ost Afrika Co., calls here on the way southward every 
three weeks, and also when returning northward. 

Supplies. — Oxen, sheep, fowls, eggs, goats, fruits and vegetables 
may be obtained here. There are wells in the town, but the water 
is very bad, and boats' crews should avoid using it when possible. 

See charts, Nos. 6i0& and 644. The description of the coast of the mainland is 
continued at pi^e 470. 

so 11977 2 D 2 



4JiO ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; EASTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

General Remarks.*— Zanzibar and Pemba islands, governed 
by an Arab Sultan, are included in the British East Africa Pro- 
tectorate ; for details, see pp. 10, 11. 

Zanzibar is the largest and most important of the many coralline 
islands bordering the east coast of Africa, and is the seat of most of 
the trade between this coast and the Arabian and Indian ports by sea 
as well as that with the central parts of Africa by land. The 6th 
parallel of south latitude runs through the island, which is 47 miles 
in length in a north and south direction, and about 20 miles maximum 
breadth, which is between the town of Zanzibar on the west side to 
Chuaka head on the east.* The island, 440 feet high, is undulating, 
the ridges being generally disposed north and south, with plains 
between, which, in several instances, show the same coralline surface, 
worn into little points and ridges, as may be noticed on any part of 
the ledge round the island at low tide. 

The island stands on a coral flat, the result of many years' action 
of the waves on the original steep though low cliffs, which doubtless 
edged the island when it was first raised from the sea by upheaval, 
and which, at high water, still in most places border it. 

This flat, as might therefore be expected, is much broader on the 
seaward side of the island than on the inner and more protected side. 
Except at a few spots, and in the inlets, it is very steep-to, dries a 

* 6ee charts :— No. 640«, and b; Nos. 664 and 666. 

Some of these reefs still have islands on them, but a very short inspection of the 
latter will show that it is simply a question of time as to when they will be 
reduced to a broken coralline sandhead, which is the next stage of demolition, and 
in which state a majority of the reefs around Zanzibar are now in. The last stage, 
that of a flat coral reef, completely covered, except at low water springs, would 
seem to be the point at which change due to aqueous action ceases ; but this is not 
always reached, as the wash of the water from different points of the flat coral edge 
tends to prevent the sand from being carried away. 

As an instance of change may be cited Tree island, situated south-westward of 
Zanzibar town on the charts at the commencement of the century. At the time of 
Captain Owen's visit in 1822 this had disappeared, leaving two white sandheads 
always visible. In 1874 nothing remained on the reef (locally called Nyange) in 
the position of the island, though another sandhead on its northern or lee point 
visible in Owen's time, is, as far as can be determined, in statu quo. 

There are several curiously isolated rocky hills in Zanzibar island, which show, by 
their water-worn and undermined sides, that during its upheaval the island was 
once stationary at a lower level, and that the same water action was taking place. 

On the other hand, coral reefs are growing up in many places, but the survey of 
Captain Owen was too rapidly executed to admit of any comparison of depths. — 
Commander W, Wharton IS74. 



Chap. IX.] ZANZIBAR ISLAND ; TRADE. 421 

foot or two at low water, with a rather higher outer edge than its 
average, but is otherwise level. All the small reefs of the adjacent 
channel and coast are of precisely the same character. 

Parts of the island are most fertile ; in some places the soil is 
sandy, but even here all tropical cereals and edible roots grow in 
extraordinary profusion. 

Zanzibar island possesses several good anchorages on its western 
side, but that of Zanzibar or Unguja, the principal town (page 433), 
is the only one frequented by vessels engaged in ocean traffic. The 
eastern coast of the island is unindented, save by Chuaka bay, but 
this is too shallow to be of any utility. 

Zanzibar Chaiinel. — The island is separated from the mainland 
by a curved channel that averages 20 miles in breadth, the shores of 
the main and the island being generally parallel. The narrowest 
part of the channel, from Ras Fumba to the shore near Ras Luale, is 
16^ miles ; and its length from Ras Ndege (south entrance) to Pangani 
bay about 95 miles. 

Zanzibar channel is studded on either side with coral reefs, which 
narrow the available clear passage, at two places, to only 4 miles ; 
but, except in those instances, an average distance of about 12 miles 
is left between the outlying dangers. On the island side the water 
is, generally speaking, clear, and the reefs are plainly seen, but 
towards the mainland there is much discoloration from the mud 
brought down by the rivers. The position of the sandheads on the 
coral reef usually change with the monsoon. 

The western side of the channel is described on pp. 403 — 419 ; 
the eastern side commences on page 426. 

Trade. — As most of the trade of the mainland passes through 
Zanzibar town, there is a considerable export and import. 

The principal articles of export are, in the order of their value 
(piece-goods to the mainland), cloves, ivory, rice, copra, rubber, gum- 
copal, hides and tortoise-shell, amounting in value in the year 1895 
to £1,199,841. The principal imports are piece-goods, rice, cloves, 
coins, ivory, grocery, coal, copra, hardware, petroleum, provisions, 
beads, wire, &c., amounting in value in 1895 to £1,293,646. Several 
of the articles of export and import are the same on account of the 
trade passing through Zanzibar. 

See charts, Nos. 640a and &iOb, and plan, No. 665. 



422 ZANZIBAR ISLAND. [Chap. IX. 

Of the exports, goods to the value of £152,000 went to Great 
Britain, £116,000 to British India, £390,000 to German East Africa, 
and £89,000 to the Sultan's dominions. 

Of the imports, goods to the value of £91,000 were from Great 
Britain, £466,000 from British India, £173,000 from German East 
Africa, and £179,000 from the Sultan's dominions. 

Shipping". — In 1895, 170 vessels of the aggregate tonnage of 
243,642 tons entered the port, 10 of these being sailing vessels ; 
70 were British vessels and 59 German. 119 coasting vessels of 
19,608 tons entered, including small Government steamers running 
mails to the mainland. 

Currency. — All sorts of coins are current, but accounts are 
generally kept in dollars. The gold coins are principally American. 
The silver most in use are rupees. Maria Theresa dollars are also in 
circulation. Indian pice are the only copper coins, and are most 
useful on the mainland in buying small supplies, &c. 

Population. — The Arabs number about 4,000, and own the best 
part of the cultivated land. Next in importance, and as numerous as 
the Arabs, come the British subjects, the Banians, and Hindis 
(natives of Cutch in India), who have been long established as the 
main traders of the east coast of Africa, and who do nearly all the 
shopkeeping in Zanzibar. They are present in every trading place 
on the coast, and possess most of the money. 

The rest of the population of the island is made up of negroes, 
who form the working class. In 1886 it was roughly estimated 
at 200,000, of whom 80 to 100,000 are in and around the town 
itself, the remainder distributed among the plantations and villages 
of the country. 

A few of the aborigines of Zanzibar (the Wahadimu) linger on the 
east coast near Chuaka. 

Winds. — Seasons. — The south-west monsoon sets in about March, 
bringing the heaviest of the rains ; this is called the Masika season. 
The monsoon blows strong for two months or more, rain being 
prevalent all the time. By July or August the wind settles down to 
a steady breeze, and the rain clears off. This lasts till October, when 
the south-west wind gets fitful and uncertain and rain and squalls 
again may be expected. By the end of November the north-east 

See plan, No. 665. 



Chap. IX.] WINDS. — CLIMATE. — TIDES. 423 

wind sets in, sometimes quietly, sometimes with a burst, and, after an 
interval of a fortnight, blows steadily until February, when it begins 
to die away. These seasons, however, are so uncertain as to make it 
difficult to attempt any rule at all, and any such must be understood 
to be subject to great deviations. Squalls and occasional rainy days 
may be expected all the year-round. 

The monsoons near the land do not blow steadily in one direction. 
In the south-west season it is usual, especially in Zanzibar cliannel, 
for the wind in the morning to be from the west or south-west, 
freshening up to 10 a.m.' ; after that its strength diminishes a little, 
and hauling round to the south, freshens again about 1 p.m., finishing 
in the evening at south-east ; when this takes place the weather is 
usually fine ; but if the wind does not commence at west in the 
morning, and veers to the southward, there is more chance of rain 
than if it did so. 

After the north-east monsoon is well established, the wind in the 
morning will be N.N.E. veering to E.N.E., at about 2 p.m. 

Cyclones are unrecorded prior to 1872, but in April of that year 
one of these scourges swept over the island from the north-eastward, 
destroying all in its path. The southern end of the island was, 
howev^er, untouched. See also pp. 23 — 26. 

Temperature and. Climate. — July, August, and September, are 
the coolest months, the thermometer on board ship ranging by day 
from 77° to 81°, and by night it occasionally falls to 73°. During 
January, February, and March, the hottest months, the day range is 
from 83^ to 90°, and at night the temperature rarely falls below 80^. 

The climate has a bad reputation, but although there is undoubtedly 
much of a severe and sometimes fatal type of fever, its ordinary 
virulence and effects have been somewhat exaggerated. Europeans 
should, if possible, avoid being on shore at night until they are 
acclimatized, and especially so when they are in the vicinity of rivers. 

The worst season for white people is from February to May, but 
the blacks seem to suffer more in July and August. See also p. 29. 

Tides and. Currents. — The tidal wave coming from the east- 
ward makes the times of high water at full and change nearly 
identical for all this coast, only varying a little on either side of 
4h. 10m. There is a great diversity between the neap and spring 
ranges, the latter being generally, in Zanzibar channel, 15 feet, and 

See plan, No. 665. 



424 ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. [Chap. IX. 

the former 5 feet. This makes a vast difference in the appearance of 
the reefs and shores of the mainland and island, and especially in 
the neighbourhood of Zanzibar town, where the united areas of coral 
banks, covering and uncovering, amount to many square miles. 
This must be constantly borne in mind when navigating these 
waters, and it is hardly necessary to add that low water should, if 
possible, be chosen for passing through any passages new to the 
navigator. 

The tidal streams, as a rule, are as follows : the flood runs south- 
ward in the northern part of Zanzibar channel, and in a contrary 
direction at the southern end, thus meeting at high water at a point 
near the centre, the position of which depends much upon the 
wind. 

The ebb sets in the reverse way, namely, from the centre to the 
north and south points of the island. 

It is high water, full and change, in Zanzibar harbour at 4h. 15m. 
Springs rise 15 feet, and neaps 10 feet. The direction of the streams 
is variable at the anchorage, as the tides meet near there. In the 
south-west monsoon off Ras Shangani the stream runs chiefly 
northward at all tiines of tide, but a vessel anchored under the 
lee of the point will be in the eddy, and will swing in all directions. 
During the season of the north-east monsoon the streams are not 
strong. 

Off Bawi island and through the Great pass the direction of the 
sei is always northward in the south-west monsoon. 

In Zanzibar channel the current is variable. In the south-west 
monsoon, in the clear channel, it runs continually to the northward ; 
but amongst the reefs and islands the tidal streams affect it, 
particularly at springs. 

In the north-east monsoon the tide is more felt, and at springs, in 
all small channels and harbours, overcomes the northerly set. 

In attempting to foresee how a stream will run in any part of 
Zanzibar channel, the navigator must take into consideration the age 
of the moon with its resulting strength of tidal stream, the direction 
and force of the monsoon and the shape of the land, and then judge 
as best he can what the result will be. 

Outside Zanzibar island, the current always sets to the northward. 
In the south-west monsoon its rate varies from 1^ to 4 miles an hour ; 
in the north-east season, from one to 2^ miles. This current runs 

See plan, No. 665. 



Chap. IX.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS PROM THE SOUTHWARD. 425 

through the passage between Pemba and Zanzibar islands, and up 
Pemba channel with about the same velocity, see p. 466. It is or was 
a common thing for boats, when beating up in the south-west season, 
to start from the south point of Pemba island with a good breeze, 
stand over to the mainland, and fetch back to the north point of 
Pemba island. 40 miles to leeward. 

Lights and Buoys. — The approach from the northward, only, is 
lighted ; the buoys will be found with the description of the shoals 
they mark. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS from the Southward— A 

vessel from the southward and eastward bound to Zanzibar during the 
south-west monsoon should endeavour to make Ras Mkumbi light, 
the northern extremity of 3.1afia island, page 378, in preference to 
Ras Kizimkazi, the southern point of Zanzibar island, in order to 
make sure of clearing Ijatham island, and that she may, if necessary, 
heave-to with safety. The northerly current, though generally 
strong, is so variable, that great caution is necessary. 

Give Ras Mkumbi a berth of at least 3 miles, and when northward 
of it steer straight for Ras Kimbiji, with the expectation of making 
not much to northward of her course. The coast about Ras Kimbiji 
is clear of dangers, and the land is the highest for some miles in the 
vicinity. See light on Ras Kanzi, p. 385. To the north of Ras Kimbiji 
the current again strengthens as Zanzibar channel opens. 

In the north-east monsoon a vessel should be guided by circum- 
stances ; the current is still continuous to the northward, and a sailing 
vessel had better pass outside Zanzibar island, and enter with a fair 
wind by the Northern pass. A steam vessel could either steer as 
above, or straight for Ras Kizimkazi. 

Ras Kizimkazi, or the land at its back, will be sighted in clear 
weather at a distance of about 15 miles. There is nothing remarkable 
in its appearance, which is that of a long low wooded hill. Steer so 
as to keep it on the starboard bow till Pungume island is seen. Ras 
Kizimkazi should be given a berth of about 4 miles, or the 
extreme of the point should not be brought eastward of E.N.E. until 
Pungume island bears N. by W., when a vessel may steer 
N.N.W. ^ W. Hatajwa hill well open to the westward of Pungume 
island about N. by W. will lead westward of Pungume patches and 
Moore bank. 

See charts, Nos. 640a and 664. 



426 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; EASTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

When this mark is open, steer to pass 1^ miles westward of 
Pungume and Kwale islands, and follow the directions given at 
page 432. 

COAST. — Ras Kizimkazi, the southern point of Zanzibar island, 
is so rounded that the appearance of the land alters with every 
position of a vessel ; at its south-western extreme is a small sandy bay, 
and a cliff 15 feet high, backed by gently rising ground covered with 
dense bush, the tops of which are from 70 to 100 feet above the sea, 
and may be seen about 15 miles. The portion of a tower, 12 feet high, 
situated here, originally intended for a lighthouse, appears like a 
ruin. 

The cliffs are undermined, and landing is impracticable on this 
part of the coast. 

The coral ledge dries off Ras Kizimkazi to a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile, having a steep edge on which the sea breaks 
heavily, with 30 fathoms water a few yards from it. A sandbank on 
its edge dries 5 feet at low springs. 

About 4 miles eastward of the point, and one mile off shore, is 
Kizimkazi patch, three-quarters of a mile in diameter, with 6 fathoms 
least water, coral and sand. 

Current. — The current sets north-westward past Ras Kizimkazi 
at all times, but is much stronger during the south-west monsoon ; 
the flood tide increases its velocity. See page 423. 

Peete inlet. — From Ras Kizimkazi the western coast, which is 
of alternate cliffs and sandy bays, trends northward to Peete inlet, a 
distance of 5^ miles. It is bordered by a coral bank, which dries off 
from 2 cables to one mile. Peete inlet, 6 miles in length, and 
1\ miles in width, is nearly all dry at low water springs, except a 
narrow deep channel up its centre. The western side of the inlet is 
formed by the islands of Wundwi and Uzi. The head of the inlet is 
lost in mangrove swamps, through which there is a passage for canoes 
at high water northward of Uzi island into Menai bay. 

Ras Bweni, the rocky south point of the little island of Wundwi, 
is the west point of Peete inlet. 

MENAI BAY is a large sheet of water formed partly by the out- 
lying islands of Pungume and Kwale with their reefs, and partly by 
a deep indentation in the main island. It is about 12 miles in length, 

See charts, Nob. 6400 and 664. 



Chap. IX.] RA8 KIZIMKAZI. — PUNGUME ISLAND. 427 

and on an average 3| miles in width. The eastern shore of the bay 
from Ras Bweni is low, with small clifTs and sandy beaches, bordered 
by a coral ledge which dries off for half a mile. The head of the 
bay is lost in mangrove swamp, and is divided by a narrow island 
into two smaller bays named Kiwani and Kumbeni. The Mwera 
stream, one of the largest in Zanzibar island, falls into the bay, or, 
rather, loses itself in the mangrove swamp. The western side of the 
head of the bay is formed by the peninsula of Kumbeni, which 
projects from the base of Hatajwa hill, and is a flat, well cultivated 
tract of land of about 40 feet high. 

Ras Yeketekambe and Fumba are the southern points of the 
peninsula ; its west coast is low and faced by a coral reef to the 
distance of 3 cables. The chain of reefs and islands extending 
8 miles to the southward of the peninsula, and terminating with 
Pungume island, protects the remainder of Menai bay from the 
westward. 

Ancliorag'e. — Good holding ground will be found anywhere in 
the outer parts of the bay, in from 12 to 15 fathoms, but, in the 
strength of the south-west monsoon, sheltered anchorage can only be 
obtained northward of Pungume island or between Niamembe and 
Miwi islands ; or, for a small vessel, still higher up the bay, off the 
small islet of Sumi in about 6 fathoms. Here, however, the bay 
commences to be shallow, and the navigation is somewhat intricate ; 
the eye and chart must therefore be the guide. 

Hatajwa, a conspicuous isolated rounded hill, 206 feet high, 
stands on the flat ground of the main island, on Kumbeni peninsula, 
about a mile from the shore, abreast Ukombi islands. It is a mass 
of coralline rock rising from the level plain around, and the deeply 
cave worn sides and base give unmistakable evidence of its having 
once stood as a solitary islet in the sea, undermined by the waves. 
There are other isolated hills in Zanzibar island of the same 
character. 

OFF-LYING ISLETS AND REEFS— Pungume island, 

is the western point of entrance of Menai bay, and the first of the 
chain of small islands forming the east side of Zanzibar channel. 
This coral island is 1^ miles in length by half a mile in width, and 
situated on the south part of a coral reef 2^ miles in length. It is 
cliffy and covered with trees, the tops of which are about 40 feet 

See oharts, Nob. 640a and 665. 



428 ZANZIBAR CHANNEL ; EASTERN SHORE. [Chap. IX. 

high. On its eastern side is a sandy beach, off which, on the edge 
of the coral reef, is an islet that is conspicuous from the south- 
ward. There are two islets on the fringing reef northward of the 
island, and a sandbank, which only covers at or near high water 
springs, lies on the northernmost point of the reef, one mile from 
Pungume island. 

A ridge with 4 fathoms least water connects the sandbank with 
Kwale island. 

Pungrume patches, westward of Ras Kizimkazi and south of 
Pungume island, are several banks lying in the fairway of vessels 
bound to Zanzibar harbour. 

Bedford bank, the southernmost of the Pungume patches, is 2 miles 
in extent, within the depth of 10 fathoms, with one small patch 
of 5 fathoms. The bank is steep-to all round. From the shoalest 
part, the islet on the east side of Pungume bears N. by W. | W. 
6^ miles. 

Moore bank, lying about halfway between Bedford bank and 
Pungume island, is a smaller shoal, having a depth of 3 fathoms 
least water, and steep-to ; it lies with the south end of Pungume 
island bearing N. by W. ^ W., distant 3 miles. 

Another large patch, with 3 fathoms least water, lies 2^ miles 
E.N.E. of Moore bank. 

Clearing; marks. — The bottom will be plainly seen when near 
Pungume patches, but a near approach is better avoided by heavy 
draught vessels. Hatajwa hill bearing N. by W. open westward of 
Pungume island, or the island bearing eastward of N. ^ E. will lead 
westward of all these patches ; and the extreme of Ras Kizimkazi 
bearing northward of E.N.E. leads southward of them. 

Anchoragre. — Convenient night anchorage, especially during the 
north-east monsoon, will be found on these banks for small 
vessels. 

Kwale island, lying 3 miles north-westward of Pungume 
island, is a low, rocky, scrub-covered island, the highest trees of 
which are about 30 feet above the sea. The reef on which it lies 
uncovers at low water springs, and is always visible ; it is steep-to 
on its east and west sides, but shallow water extends some distance 
north and south of it. 

See ploa of Zanzibar harbour and approaches, No. 665. 



Chap. IX.] KWALE ISLAND. — CHUMBE ISLAND. 429 

On the north end of Kwale reef, there is a sand cay, separated 
from the coral ledge which dries for 2 miles southward of Ras Fumba, 
by a narrow channel 6 feet deep, much used by dhows, and useful 
for boats working along the shore. 

Anchoragre. — There is a temporary anchorage between Pungume 
and Kwale islands in 8 fathoms water, with Pungume north islet 
bearing E. ^ N., and the north-west point of Kwale island N.N.W. 

Kipwa Gini, a small coral head, with 1| fathoms water, lies 
1^ miles W. by N. | N. from the north end of Kwale island. It is 
not easily seen, but Hatajwa hill bearing eastward of N. by E. ^ E. 
leads westward of the shoal. 

Mwamba Ukombi, two reefs nearly joinea together, lie 1^ miles 
off Kumbeni peninsula, and extend parallel to the coast for a 
distance of 4^ miles ; they barely uncover at low Avater springs, but 
are steep-two and easily seen from the masthead. Patches of 
2 to 3 fathoms lie about half a mile off both ends of the reefs. The 
north-western part has three rocky islets about 10 feet in height. 
Ukombi is the northern islet ; the other two are named Tali. 

dLUmbe island is half a mile in length, with overhanging low 
cliffs, and covered with trees 45 feet above the sea,