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AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
REV. GEORGE F. BRAGG. D. D.,
Rector of St. James' Church, Baltimore, Md., and Editor of the Church
Church Advocate Print,
Baltimore, Md., May, 1904.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
In sending- forth this Httle vol-
ume, the author may be pardoned
for referring to his own labors in
Church JournaHsm. For well nigh
■eighteen years has he edited and
published a journal in the interest
«of church work among the colored
race. In addition to the literary,
and a large part of the mechanical
work, in its publication, it has been
at his own financial cost. We do
not regret the sacrifice we have
made. Nor is this little volume in
any way to financially help us per-
sonally. In addition to the circu-
lation of information about the col-
ored work, 'it is our most ardent
hope that sufficient may be realized
from the sale of this publication
to cancel a mortgage of a few hun-
dred dollars on the Rectory of St.
James' Church. Our little congre-
gation, at present, is engaged in
wrestling with a S4000 debt upon
our church, and we are loth to di-
vert their effort therefrom to the
debt upon the Rectory. We shall
be profoundly grateful to all who
may help us in this undertaking by
purchasing copies of this little book.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 3
THE REV. ABSALOM JONES, FIRST AFRO-AMERICAX PRIEST.
Bom In Siusex, Del., 6th of November, 1740. Ordained Deneon Augnst 6th, 179S.
Died Februarj- 13, 181S.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
The Ij<\te Uev. Alexander Cruiumell, D. D., LLi.D.,
Founder St. I^uke't* Church, 'Waslilngton, D. C.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
On Wednesday September 22,
1886, more than 17 years ago, in
St Luke's Church, in the city of
Washington. Rev. Dr. Alexander
Crummell, Rector, assembled the
Fourth Annual Convocation of
Colored Clergy of the Protestant
Episcopal Church. This Confer-
ence was a memorable one. The
late Dr. Crummell was its presi-
dent, and the Rev. Hutchens C.
Bishop, Rector of St. Philip's
Church, New York was secretary.
The opening sermon was preach-
ed by the Rev. Alfred Co Brown
Rector of St. Luke's New Haven.
The Colored Clergy, now living,
who were present at the Confer-
ence of 1886, besides the* writer
(who was then only a layman)
and the Rev. Mr. Bishop, were
Rev. J. B. Massiah of Detroit,
Prof. Joseph now in England and
the Rev. Alfred C. Brown, at
present out of the country.
It was at the Conference of
1886 in St. Luke's Church Wash-
ington that it was determined to
change the Conference from an
exclusively Negro body to one
composed of Church Workers a-
mong Colored People, so as to
include in its membership white
as vrell as colored persons. And
in the same Conference, follow-
ing the change above noted, were
introduced the first white mem-
bers of this body, the Rev. Cal-
braith B. Perry, then vicar of S.
Mary's Chapel, Baltimore Md. and
the Rev. George B.Johnson, then
Rector of St James First African
Church of the same city.
* The Rev. Mr. Perry, in detail,
explained a scheme in his mind
looking to the memoralizing of
the General Convention, to as-
semble in Chicago, the next
month, with respect to the ap-
pointment by that body of a Com
mission of Bishops, clergy and lay
men for the furtherance of the
work of the Church among the
- The Conference most heartily-
approved of Mr. Perry's plan,
and on file with the memorial
from Mr. Perry in the Journal of
the General Convention of 1886
will also be found a certificate
setting forth the action of the
Conference signed, by Rev. Hut-
chens C. Bishop Secretary.
At the General Convention
which met the next month in the
city of Chicago the memorial of
Mr. Perry was assented to and a
Commission consisting of five
Bishops, five clergymen and five
laymen, was created to supervise
and further the work of the
Church among the colored people
of this country.
From this date we begin a'new
era in the Missionary activities
of the special field of Church
work in which we are engaged.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
.But, before following the prog-
ress of the work from this point,
it will not be entirely out of
place to call the roll of our fellow
workers, of Afro-American blood,
who had fallen asleep up to this
W. C. Monroe,
Josephus, DfeGrasse, Peterson,
Berry, Cooley, Saltus Cummings,
Cooper, Brady, Allston, Atwell,
St. James, Henderson, Harris.
Rogers, and Mckinney.
In October 1886, when the
Commission was created, the fol-
lowing who are now living were
in Priests' orders,
H. L. Phillips W. H.Wilson
J. G. Bryant S. Kerr
T. G. Harper A. A. Roberts
H. C. Bishop C. M.C. Mason
J. B. Massiah P. A. Morgan.
There were also 12 persons,
now living, who were then dea-
cons, five of whom are still dea-
cons to-day, and one ofthe twelve,
Archdeacon Pollard of North
Carolina, was advanced to the
Priesthood before the close of the
Since the close of the year 1886
the followingr brethren have
W. E. HOWELL. F. W. DUNN.
WALTER LEWLS BUKWELL.
GEORGE G. MIDDLETON,
BEVERLY M. lEPFERSON,
MARKF. NELSON. T.W.VAUGHAN^
BENJ. L J vCK, JOHN G. URGLING,
A. H. MCNEILL, C. C. C. xMAPP,
WILLLAM F.FLOYD, W H. MORRIP,
J. PALL.'^M WILLIAMS,T. W. CAIN,
J, E, and CHARLES H. THOMPSON.
WILLIAM A. GRF.EN
During the same period, the
following, 11 in number, have
been deposed from the Sacred
D. WILSON TAYLOR, R.A.SMITH
L. W INFIELD, BENJ. F LEWIS.
W, H. COSTEN. R.B.BRUCE.
D. E.JOHNSON, M. D. HINTON.
W. B. P»5RRY. J. B. McCONNELL.
GEORGE W. HONKS TY.
All deacons, save one, and all
of themj we think, without one
exception, came into the Church
from some of the christian bod-
ies. It is rather singular that
not one of them was brought up
and raised in the bosom of the
The following, ordained during
the same period, in this country,
are now working in foreign parts.
B, W. TIMOTHY. J. H. DIXON.
J. ALFRED HOLLEY. H.HARTLEY
.^ J. BENJAMIN WILLIAMS. >
JOSEPH N. DURANT- ^^
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 7
THE I.4TE ni<«HOP WHITTLE, THE I.ATE HISHOI* DIDI-EY, OF
OF VIRGINIA. KEXTUCKY.
BISHOP HOM.Y, OF HAITI. BISHOP FERGLSOX, W. AFRICA.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
Deaths previous to 1886,23
Out of country-
Present clergy List
During the past seventeen
years the Church has made much
headway and growth in all
directions, and although it is far
from what it ought to be, yet
there can be no doubt with respect
to actual progress in every de-
partment of the church, in this
field, in all sections of the coun-
First and foremost among the
agencies largely responsible for
this growth and general awaken-
ing is the Annual Conference of
Church Workers. We haye not
only kept the subject before the
Church, by our meetings, from
year to year, but the indirect in-
fluence going out from this Con-
ference has been something won-
derful, far more than we seem to
appreciate or realise.
We have already intimated how
that this conference was largely
if not chiefly, responsible for the
creation of the church commis-
sion, which has greatly stimulat
ed interest in this department of
^the Church's Work. In the Gen-
eral convention of 1889 another
practical agency was inaugurated
the direct result of agitation and
education upon the part of this
Conference the appointment of
Archdeacons for the Colored
ed work in various parts of the
In the Spring of the year 1889
the Diocese of Virginia eliminat-
ed the Negro from its Diocesan
Council, and our Conference
which met in the September fol-
lowing, memorialized the General
convention which met the next
month in the city of New York,
asking of that body a definition
of our status in the church. There
were two Committee reports be-
fore that body on this particular
matter. The majority, practically,
told us to fight it out the best
way we could in the various dio-
cese3,for the General Convention
had no power to act. Strange
as it may appear, yet true, the
minority report which champion-
e i our cause, was as radical and
d3cisive as any one could desire,
was signed by three clergymen,
one a Southernman and a Virgin-
iin, the late Dr. Bird of Texas,
another not a Virginian but who
had gotten his Theology at the
Virginia,Seminary, the late Phil-
lips Brooks, and the third one Dr.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 9
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
Vibbert, then of Chicago. De-
spite Dr. Brooks's ringing words
upon the floor of the House of
Deputies, the majority report
was adopted, and the direct
answer to our query evaded. At
the General Convention of 1892,
we were again in evidence in our
plea for a closar adaptation of the
Episcopate to the needs of our
paople, but nothing was done.
At the General Convention of
1395 at Minneapolis we were a-
gain before that body pleading
for field secretary, the adaptation
of the Episaopate, and the found
ing of a Church College. Some
little notice seemed to have been
given to our memorial. At one
time it was thought that a large
sum from the late Missionary en-
rollment fund would prove avail-
able for the establishment of a
Church College for the race, but
for some reason it failed. Our
request for a field secretary was
favorably commended to the
Board of Managers for action,
and the board of Managers in
turn turned it over to the Com-
mission where it has been under
consideration ever since. At the
Convention of 1898, in Washing-
ton, a committee of this Confer-
ence succeeded in appearing be-
fore Committees of the House of
Bishops and the lower House,
with respect to the adaptation of
the Episcopate. The action in
the upper house on the proposi-
tion was not favorable. In the
lower house, the committee, sug-
gested the necessary legislation
to make the matter effective, and
a special committee of which the
late Rev. J. J. Faude was a mem-
ber was appointed to consider the
matter and bring it up at the
next Ganeral Convention. The
last General Convention, at San
Francisco, was a little too far for
us, and with the many heavy
subjects, before the General
Convention, at that time, and the
charming beauty of the Pacific
Coast, it is jast possible that
the report of the committee was
During this same period, since
the creation of the Commission,
our beloved brother the Arch-
deacon of Southern Virginia has
called intD being and built up,
principally through his own per-
sonal exertions, St. Paul's School
Lawrenceville, the largest insti-
tution of it its kind, in numbers,
operated by our church for the
Colored race. In the meantime,
the older school, St. Augustine's
Raleigh has been greatly improv-
ed and strengthened. The Bishop
Payne Divinity School Petersburg
although in existence as a branch
school of the Virginia Seminary,
at the time of the organization
of the Commission has since that.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. it
12 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
time been duly incorporated as a
separate and distinct institution.
Tliis institution as well as King
Hall, founded since 1886, have
dona good work in furnishing
men for the Holy Ministry. Hoff-
man Hall, Nashville Tenn., has
arisen and fallen, and arisen a-
gain since 1886, and is designed
to do much the same work as the
other Theological institutions al-
ready mentioned. Quite a number
of parochial schools, throughout
the South, have come into exist-
ence daring the period we are now
considering, and some of them
have graduated into something
more pretentious, such as Saint
Mark's Academy, Birmingham,
Ala., and S. Michael's School,
Charlotte, North Carolina.
In 1894 our oldest church, the
mother of us all, S. Thomas' Phil-
adelphia, with most imposing and
beautiful services, assisted by
some twenty odd Afro-American
priests, as well as other clergy,
celebrated its first Centennial. It
was indeed a grand and worthy
occasion. One hundred years of
corporate Church life by Negroes
in the Anglican communion!
Bishops and distinguished men,
both of the clergy and laity, were
present to take part in that great
celebration. The Rev. Owen M.-
Waller, M. D., was the Rector of
the parish at that time. It was
in connection with this Centenni-
al celebration that the very first
Annual meeting of the Woman's
Auxiliary to the Conference, was
held. The 'old mother Church'
furnished the place of meeting
for this first National gathering
of our Women, and that in con-
nection with her Centennial, and
the next oldest of our Af ro-Amer
ican churches, S. PhiHp's New
York, furnished the Afro-Ameri-
can Church woman, tlie first Pres
identof ourConferenca Auxiliary
— Miss Sarah Elizebeth Frazier.
This feature of our annual Con
ferences, the Auxiliary, is far
from being simply an ornamental
one. The women have done, and
are doing, a grand work, in in-
s^^iring and uniting the women of
our several parishes, in the work
of Missions and the uplifting of
Then, there have been other
celebration worthy of special men
tion, such as the Fiftieth Anni-
versary of the ordination of our
venerable father and brother the
late Alexander Crummall to the
Priesthood, . celebrated at St.
Luke's Church, Washington, De-
cember 1894. His address, upon
that historic occasion like all
his utterances, was most beauti-
ful, and impressive, as well as
replete with historical matter
worthy of preservation. The 25th
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 13
THE REV. T. W. CAIN.
Who Represented Texna in the Gen- 1'HE LATE REV. WM. DOUGLASS,
eral Convention. *" Marylnnd, First Colored Man Or-
dained in trie South.
ARCHDEACON POLLxVRD, N. C.
ARCHDEACON Rl SSELL., So. Vii^nla.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS,
anniversary of the ordination to
the Priesthood of our present
much beloved and honored "se-
nior" Presbyter Rev. H. L. Phil-
lips, bat a few vears ago, was cel-
brated in grand style by the
people of his own congregation
among whom he has spent all of
his cleriacl life.
If St. Thomas Philadelphia is
the oldest of us all, St. James
Baltimore, is at least the oldest
south of Mason and Dixon's line,
and as all of us are members one
of another, so St. James is in-
debted somewhat both to St.
Thomas Philadelphia, and St
Philips, New York, for her found
er William Levington was a New
Yorker by birth, while he receiv-
ed his orders in Philadelphia, very
likely within the walls of the
Old St. Thomas church'. St. James
has partly paid its debt, for
Maryland sent St. Thomas her
Wm. Douglass, and we have given
St. Philip's New York, for her
Rector, and the best she has ever
had, one of our own children.
And in order that we might give
«ven more than we recieved. St.
James, more than 59 years ago
sant her first born son into the
ministry to the city of New Hav-
en, and St. Luke's church tells
what Eli Worthington Stokes
wrought. So a few years ago
the old Southern mother "St.
James" Baltiinore celebrated her
75th Anniversary by pulling up
stakes and lengthening her cords
in a more desirable portion of the
city, that she may continue in
the future, as in the past,
to send forth her sons as found-
ers and builders of Churches.
The Church Advocate, in sea-
son and out of season, has lived
by some means as a connecting
link between the scattered breth-
ren, during all these years, and
it has not been published entirely
in vain, even though its editor
has had to pay a royalty for the
privilege of advocating a cause
and interest dear to the hearts
of all Afro- Americans.
Certainly, as we impartially re-
view the vrork of 17 years past,
and take a bird eye view of the
number of clergy, churches chap-
els schools and other agencies,
then, now, we must give thanks
and high praise to God for the
grace andfavor bestowed upon us.
unworthy as we are, in being per-
mitted to note so many gratifying
evidences of success and useful-
ness to the race and tothe Church.
May the Almighty God continue
to pour forth upon us his favor
and blessing, and may He also,
of his infinite mercy and goodness
grant refreshment, light and
peace to our fellow workers who
having fallen asleep, have pass-
ed on out of our sight into the
Paradise of God.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. . 15
REV. H. L,. PHILLIPS, Penn. REV. J. W. PERRY, N. C.
REV. C. M. C. M VSp?f, Mo. mEV. H. S. McDlFFV. Lo.g tol.nd.
i6 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
At the 19th annual meeting of the Conference of Church Workers
Among Colored People, held in St. Luke's Church, New Haven, Conn.,
Sept. 15th, 1903, a Commission of Fifteen was created to seek an interview
with the Bishops in southern dioceses, with respect to the adjustment of
the Historic Episcopate to the needs of the Colored Race. Through the
kindness and courtesy of the late Bishop Dudley of Kentucky, chairman
of' the Commission for Work Among Colored People, an audience was
secured in the city of Washington, at the Pro. Cathedral, on Monday
Oct. 26, 1903. Bishop Dudley presided in this conference, and the Rev.
Geo. F. Bragg, Jr., D.D., and the Rev. Prof. J. W. Johnson, of the
Bishop Payne Divinity School, Petersburg, Va., were selected by the
Conference Commission to be their "spokesmen. Bishops from the follow-
ing dioceses and jurisdictions were present: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia,
Kentucky, Lexington, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tenn-
essee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia (Bishop
Coadjutor) and the jurisdiction of Southern Florida.
The members of the Conference Commission present were: Rev.
Messrs. Bragg, Bishop, Miller, FL L. Phillips, Waller, Tunnell, E. R.
Bennett, Johnson, and Archdeacon Pollard. Laity — Messrs. Dr. J. C.
Norwood, R. R. Florner, Walker W. Lewis, and Solomon DeCourcey.
By a careful reading of the addresses below, it will appear that the
colored clergy and laity of the Church do not ask for anything startling
or revolutionary. They do not ask for any mandatory enactment. They
only ask that -the general law of the Church be so changed that where
two or more diocesan Bishops, in contiguous dioceses, deem it wise and
helpful to the work, upon their united request, a colored clergyman may
be consecra!ted as" a Missionary Bishop, to exercise jurisdiction over the
colored people within their territorial bounds, under such regulations as
may be determined upon by the House of Bishops.
The following address was read by Rev.iDr. George F. Bragg, chair-
man of the Committee, and Secretary of the Conference of Church
AN ADDRESS TO THE BISHOPS IN SOUTHERN DIOCESES.
Venerable Fathers in God:
We desire, first of all, to tender you our sincere thanks for your
prompt and ready response to the invitation of the Conference of Church
Workers among the Colored People, to meet in friendly conference with
representatives from that body, with respect to matters pertaining to a
branch bi the Church's missionary work in which you, as well as ourselves
arc profoundly interested. There are grave and serious difficulties which
interpose and hinder the advancement of the Kingdom of God among
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 17
REV. \V. \. TVNNEXI^, D. C. REV. J. S. QL'ARLES, Sooth Carolina.
i8 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
the colored people, and if we shall seem, in this address, to confine our-
selves wholly to one of these disadvantages, it is because, in our judgment,
the removal of the same carries with it the solution of most of the remain-
Those of us who work in the South, or have worked in the Southern
States, can and do most cheerfully testify to the unfailing kindness, love,
gentleness, and deep interest in this work which have characterized many
of our white brethren. The peculiar conditions which militate so stub-
bornly against any great advance of the Church among the colored race
are to be sought from other causes rather than from any lack of interest
on their part. While the members of our own race sustain the profound-
est respect, good-will, and appreciation for the dominant race, yet such
are our racial idiosyncrasies and past ecclesiastical education, that we
find it increasingly difficult to adjust ourselves, ecclesiastically, to the
seeming demands of our white neighbors and brethren.
It is far from our purpose to condemn or indulge in unkindly criti-
cism. We desire simply to state the fact. As at present constituted, it
would seem utterly impossible for the colored c;lergy and laity to receive
equal and impartial treatment and consideration in the several diocesan
conventions. As a result, much is said and done which hinders rather
than advances the cause of our Lord. We are supremely desirous that
peace, friendship, and love should mutually obtain between us ; and in
furtherance of such a laudable end, to the glory of Almighty God and the
salvation of all souls, we are led to ask of you your good offices'in securing
such additional canonical legislation as will remove us from the humiliat-
ing and undignified position in which we find ourselves in the Church.
The Historic Episcopate does not touch us as closely and as helpfully
as the needs of the great body of our people demand. This is not so
much because our Diocesan Bishops are indisposed to do their utmost
in this particular, but rather because the civic and social condition obtain-
ing between the two races renders it difficult for them so to do. Diocesan
convocations for colored people, subject to the control of diocesan conven-
tions, as established in several dioceses, do not meet the requirements of
the situation and have not been fruitful of satisfactory results. They
greatly aggravate conditions already distressing. Too often it is the
case that prominent laymen in our diocesan conventions are also prom-
inent in civic conventions which do not so lovingly deal with the civil
concerns of the colored race. Our people do not believe that the men
who minimize their civic rights and privileges can safely be trusted to
advance the human side of their spiritual interests.
In view of the present exigencies, and, pre-eminently, as a measure
of peace and good-will, on both sides, it is our calm and deliberate judg-
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 19
S^< Jv*S>,'*S'*: W*?:"'^"SSS!>''^ ">«* "*;w»)JC -^
REV. P, P. ALSTON, N. C. REV. H. B. DELANEY, North Carolina.
f"j'«^y»<>!g!fyMywMwy.^ a» ,. . ^ .. ^^ .. ^K - s ^lnu l ^ ^ J>u^.^^u ' ■Jl>J ^
REV. W. P. BURKE. So. Vlrslnla. REV. J. N. DEAVER, New Jersey.
20 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
ment, the result of many years of patient observation, study and prayer,
that the prosecution of our work in the Southern States, among the
colored people^ should be placed more directly under the general Church.
We believe that there should be missionary jurisdictions extending
through two or more dioceses, with a Bishop at the head of each, drawn
from the same race represented by the clergy and people among whom
he is to labor. Thus, we would respectfully, but most earnestly, ask
of the General Convention through you, our Right Reverend Fathers :
The adoption of a canon, not mandatory, but permissive^ embracing
the following general features :
(a) That it shall be lawful for the General Conventit)n, upon the
request of two or more Diocesan Bishops contiguously situated to con-
stitute into a missionary jurisdiction their territory, as pertaining to the
(b) The Diocesan Bishops within the bounds of each missionary
jurisdiction thus constituted to compose an Advisory Council for work
among colored people in such territory.
(c) Such jurisdictions to be absolutely independent of diocesan
conventions, and represented in the General Convention as that body may
(d) Any jurisdiction constituted under this canon to be altered,
re-arranged, or terminated at the will of the General Convention.
Such in brief outline are the salient points of the adaptation of the
Historic Episcopate to the needs of Afro- American people.
But it is urged in objection to this plan —
(i) That it will result in divorcing the present Diocesan Bishops
from the affection and esteem of their colored friends, for whom they
entertain fatherly affection and earnest solicitude.
On the contrary we "maintain that, by the operation of this new sys-
tem of endeavor among the race, the aft'ection, esteem, and mutual respect
w^ill become far more vital and real, and instead of our Right Reverend'
Fathers being further removed they will be brought into closer touch,
to the very hearts of the people among whom we labor. They would be
free from the heart-aches of constantly trying to reconcile the radical
elements on both sides to a conservative course. There would be no.
occasion for impleasant occurrences in diocesan conventions on account
of the presence of increasing numbers of colored clerical and lay delegates,
nor would there be any longer ground for fear, in the event of an election
of a Diocesan Bishop, that the colored delegates would vote unanimously
for the candidate of the white minority because of his outspoken friend-
ship for negroes. For in the case of a close vote, the negroes effecting
a decision, it would prove a clear case of alleged "negro domination."
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 21
REV. E. N. HOLLINGS, S. C. REV. C. \V. BROOKS, ALABAMA.
22 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
(2) It is further urged against our plan that in event of its adoption
the colored work would surely languish rather than increase, for, it is
feared, the Church having, at least , to some extent, cut apart from the
negroes, the latter would be left to die for want of financial support.
We maintain that a perfect analysis of the situation will result rather
in furnishing the most reasonable grounds for anticipating directly the
To be perfectly frank, the Southern white people of culture and
means are, indeed and in truth, most kindly disposed towards the colored
people, and yet, because of our present plan of operation, they are re-
strained from enthusiastically assisting in this work. If, perchance, they
did, it would simply mean the increase of vexations, troubles, and annoy-
ances with respect to possible happenings in the event of a considerable
number of colored clergymen and laymen being admitted to their diocesan
convention on an equality with themselves.
In the adoption of the present plan under consideration, the whole
bone of contention is removed. White persons who are wont to teach
negro Sunday-schools, conduct mother's meetings, and help in the use of
many other agencies would be free from the restraining influence of a
possible alleged "negro domination," enthusiastically to help in this work
in every proper way.
In the presence of increased enthusiasm and good-will, on the part
of both white and colored Churchmen in the South, and the bright and
unobstructed prospects ahead, means from the philanthropic Churchmen
of the North would flow as never before. And besides this, the colored
people would do more for themselves than they are now doing. Any man
will do more when placed upon his honor, and when he feels himself to
be something, than he will when he is secretly distrusted and rather
expected to fail.
(3) And, lastly, there are among some of our best white friends
those who seem to oppose our plan ; because they are far from being
persuaded, in "spite of all these years of. operation, and the good work
of our many seminaries, that real competent colored priests can be found
sufficiently equipped, of such an administrative and constructive calibre
as to warrant the hope that they would prove equal to the demands of the
missionary episcopate. We confess much diffidence in addressing our-
selves to this objection. Unquestionably, from their point of view, there
is some ground for this position.
It is hardly possible to know a book, and even a man, from the
outside. One must have a vital and real contact with the life, hopes,
fears, and aspirations of another before he can be said to know him.
There is a life without the veil, another within the veil. It is in con-
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURC?I WORK AND WORKERS. 23
t. Liuke's Choir, Washington, D. C.
24 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
nection with that life within that the colored priest moves and has his
being, so that those without can hardly appreciate the fulness, the courage,
and strength of the life shadowed by the veil and penetrating the hidden
chambers of that life, many joyful surprises are certain to dawn upon
the earnest and sincere inquirer after truth. Among the eighty odd
priests and deacons who live within this veil are a number who, despite,
their lowly origin, have made steady ascent along the road of self-con-
quest, amid environments full of difficulties and hardships, and thus
forecast still greater ascent and conquest if only given a fair, honest, and
Burdens imposed beget the strength and powers for faithful per-
formance. The poor negro lad, once a sailor, newsboy, or just an ordin-
ary youth, having attained the priesthood and gone forth, hampered
with poverty and environed with hardships, has from nothing called
into being a parish. In such wonderful development he has had no well-
trained business mert, lawyers, or other professional men to share with
him the burdens in the administrative functions or the constructive work
in which he was engaged ; and little and insignificant as it really is by
contrast with the accomplishments of those of noble birth, blessed and
helped on every side, and starting out in life with a rich inheritance,
along all lines of endeavor, yet it tells a story, pathetic though it may be,
nevertheless one of noble self-sacrifice and triimiph, and plainly intimates
that such an one, so faithful, noble, and true in a few things, has within
the capabilities and powers for even higher and nobler achievements.
We are but pleading for what has been advocated byt some of the
leading Bishops and laymen of the American Church. As far back as
1873, an important correspondence on this plan took place between two
of the most distinguished prelates that have ever adorned and shed lustre
upon the American episcopate, the lamented and greatly-beloved Bishop
Howe of South Carolina, and that marvellous and massive giant in intel-
lectual and spiritual powers, the foremost of his brethren, the venerable
Bishop Whittingham of Maryland. The letter of Bishop Whittingham
bears so pointedly on the present matter before us that we herewith give
the same : —
(Bishop Whittingham to Bishop Kowe.)
"Baltimore, May 30, 1873.
My dear Bishop : — The plan of an episcopate for our colored popu-
lation is by no means new to me. Long before the Civil War I had been
driven to mediate on it, by conviction that the blacks in my own diocese
could not be efficiently provided for on our present scheme, and that there
did seem to be ground for anticipating good success for work among
them well organized and diligently prosecuted on the plan of a "race"
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 25
26 AFRO-AAIERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
or "tongue" episcopate, jurisdiction, ministry, and pastoral supply.
The double, mutually compensatory and completory, kinds of juris-
diction, topical and lingual ; or distributed by metes and bounds, for a
certain portion of the population, and by race or language (distributed
over or scattered through the same metes and bounds, with or without rec-
ognition of them) to a certain other portion (or several other portions)
of a collimital population, / believe to have been existent and more or less
extensively employed as called for, throughout the Church in all ages.
I see no reason why the Church should not resort to its use in our
country, so wonderfully peopled and still peopling by myriads of incomers
from many and very diverse races and tongues.
On that plan we might have an episcopate for the Scandinavian
tongue, another for the German, another for the Chinese, and, above all,
for the millions of our native blacks.
Of course, in the outset, each of these must of necessity have a mis-
sionary character ; and with the exception of the last — and possibly also
of the third — be constituted with distinct recognition of a steady process
of e vanishment in proportion as the several races or tongues should
become merged in the general mass of the community.
But to institute such a work, I suppose we should have to add new
canonical provisions- — just as was proposed (and, I think, by mistake,
not done) in the last General Convention for our foreign congregations
in Europe and elsewhere. A canon, in a few sections, might provide
when and where such work should be done — ^by whom election, etc., should
be effected, and what the relations of the new organizations should be
with existing diocesan and missionary schemes.
I, for one, am ready to enter upon endeavors to devise and execute
such a plan of Church extension (to which Providence seems to be calling
us in more than one direction) whenever my brethren shall have faith and
zeal to set about it. Our new Indian episcopate is a long and noble step
toward the enterprise.
Heartily thanking you for the opportunity of exchanging opinions
upon the subject, and wishing that you and our brethren of the adjoining
dioceses would bestow the study and labor which the due preparation of a
well-devised scheme would doubtless require, but would certainly thor-
I am faithfully and truly your loving friend and brother, ,
W. R. W., Bishop of Maryland."
The late venerable Rev. Dr. Hanckell of Virginia, indefatigable and
exhaustive in his investigation and study of such affairs, among other
resolutions which were offered by him and adopted by the Virginia
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 27
St. Stephen's Ch6lr, PetenibarK, Va.
^8 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
Council in 1879, presented the following:
"Resolved, ^\a.st\y, that our deputies to the next General Convention
be charged with the duty of bringing before the house of clerical and
lay deputies the question of the expediency of giving to the colored people
of Virginia and other Southern States, when desired, a full and complete
Church organization of their own race, under such constitutional and
canonical provisions as the General Convention in their wisdom may
devise and ordain."
In the year 1888 the late Rt. Rev. Dr. H. M. Jackson, then rector
of Grace Church, Richmond, Va., and one of the editors of the Southern
Churchman, although opposed in^ principle to anyt'^iing like a separation,
was thoroughly convinced, in the light of the peculiar exigencies of that
time, that the identical idea which we now advocate, before you, should
The foUowing letter from Bishop Jackson was then written to a
colored priest in the Diocese of Virginia : —
(Bishop Jackson's Letter.)
"Richmond, Va., June 4, 1888.
Your letter was received this morning. Your idea is mine exactly.
Personally, I do not want any separate jurisdiction. I am perfectly
willing to have'you and your people in council on equal footing, and I
■do not share the apprehension of others. But it is nothing what my
individual views may be. You know as well as I do the widespread
sentiment which renders some arrangement, permanent or temporary,
absolutely necessary. I deplore the fact, but yet it is a fact, and as such
must be taken into account. If, therefore, a separate jurisdiction is
necessary, I am very much concerned that it should be effected by the
General Convention and not by the individual dioceses. Because —
First. If it is the action of the whole Church, it will be much more
readily acquiesced in by your people.
Second. If it is the action of the whole Church, it will be much
more readily acquiesced in by the Northern people.
Third. It will secure a uniform system for the whole South.
On this last point it seems to me to be a thing greatly to be deplored
if one policy prevails in one diocese and another in another.
If the colored people have rights and privileges in one diocese which
they have not in another, it will have most disastrous results. For
instance, Florida sends a colored delegate to General Convention, and
Virginia excludes the colored people from its own council — such a differ-
•ence aggravates the feeling which the colored people of Virginia must have
that they are ostracized and are the victims of race prejudice. Moreover,
AFRO-AMERICAX CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 29
St. James' Church (Interior), Baltimore, Mil.
30 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
will not the Northern people say, 'Florida treats the colored people fairly,
Virginia unfairly — therefore our money goes to Florida, where there is
hope of results' ? But there is no use to argue, any one can see that there
must -be uniformity of policy on every hand. Therefore I am for mis-
sionary jurisdictions under the control of the General Convention, such
as you sketch; and after a time, when prejudices die away, these juris-
dictions may lapse and things fall back into the normal order.
To this end I shall make some effort. I shall sound the delegates
to the last General Convention to see how far the sentiment of the North-
ern Church is likely to yield to this measure. I wish you would help me
in this, as it will take a deal of writing. If you will, let me know.
I hope if I can come into the next council with some evidence that
the General Convention will be likely to consent to such missionary juris-
dictions, I may be able to stay action."
We are animated with but one single purpose, and that is to see
our beloved Church take hold of our race and carry to them the Gospel
of our Lord Jesus Christ as received and taught by this Church. A cruel
injustice is done to a faithful body of missionary workers in our field,
when it is made to appear that our persistent and earnest efforts in this
direction are inspired by an unholy ambition to seek exalted positions for
the leaders in this movement. The present want of a general system of
action in this missionary department of the Church's work makes our
labor more strenuous and difficult, keeps self-respecting people out of
the Church, and makes it harder to get suitable and sufficient candidates
for Holy Orders.
We utterly abhor and repudiate any insinuation that what we ask
is the first important step in the creation of an African Church apart and
separate from our present American Church. Separate jurisdictions and
conventions do not imply separate and distinct churches. We are in the
one Church by virtue of Holy Baptism ; and the episcopate, whether
diocesan or missionary, constitutes the visible expression of the unity of
all the parts in the one Catholic Church of Christ.
And now, Right Reverend Fathers in God, we rest our case with
you. We are most anxious that you should have the benefit of any
additional light' or information which any of us can impart, and it will
be a pleasure on our part to respond to any questions which may suggest
themselves to you in connection with this subject. We have endeavored
to place before you the main facts, and a general outline of the legislation
which we deem necessary for the successful and aggressive prosecution of
the work among our race by the Church in which we have the honor of
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
AFRO-AMERICAN CI.ERGY LIST.
REV. H. L,.' PHILLIPS. I
751 S. 15th St.. Phila.. Pa,
REV. WM. H. WILSON. «
REV. JOSEPH G. BRYANT.
Charlotte Hall, Md.
KEV. S. KERR.
REV. A. A. ROBERTS, 713 S. Hi
REV. HUTCH ENS C. BISHOP,
161 W. 25th St., New, York.
REV. C. M. C. MASON. 2135 WasWwg-
ton avenue. St. Louis. Mo.
REV. J. B. MASSIAH,
329 St. Antoine St., Detroit, Mich.
REV. PETER A. MORGAN, 2704 Caron-
delet street. New Orleans. La.
REV. THOMAS G. HARPER.
Kansas City, Mo.
REV. J. H. M. POLLARD. Raleigh.
REV. JAMES S. RUSSELL, LawTcnce-
REV. JOHN W. PERRY. Tarboro, N.C.
REV. WM. V. TUNNELL, King Hall,
Washington. D. C.
REV. HENRY S. McDUFPT
Jamaica (L. L). N. Y.
•REV. GEORGE F. BRAGG. JR.. *" -
113J Park ave.. Baltimore, Md.
REV. E. H. BUTLER. '-^ \
REV. WM. P. BURKE. Norfolk. Va.
REV. J. W. JOHNSON. Petersburg. Va.
REV. JOHN A. WILLIAMS. , Omaha,
REV. JOHN HENRY SIMONS,
REV. P. P. ALSTON, Charlotte. N. C.
REV. ALFRED H. LEALTAD. SOtt
Dearborn street. Chicago. 111.
REV. H. B. DELANKY. Raleigh. N. C.
REV. RICHARD BRIGHT. Savannah,
REV. GEORGE FRAZIER MILLER.
121 North Oxford street. Brooklyn. N. T.
REV. JOS. A. BROWN, .^
St. Joseph, Mo.
REV. O. M. WALLER. 1411 Corcoran »t.
Wa.shington. D. C.
REV. WM. M. JACKSOK
Summerville. S. C.
REV. THOS. J. BROWN, 647 Eleventh
street. I/Oiiisv'lle. Ky.
REV. OSCAR L. MITCHELL. 23d 8t., N.
W . Washington. D. «j.
REV J. J. N THOMPSON. Mobile. AU.
REV. W. H. MARSHALL.
REV. MAXIMO F. DUTY.
v.,.iarles Town, W. Va.
REV. B. N. HOLLINGS. 18 Jat«)«r mL,
Charleston. S. C.
REV. A. C. V. CARTIER.
REV. E. ROBERT BENNETT.
M'ilming-ton, N. C.
REV. TOSEPII F. MII-OHELL, Newport
REV. I. P. DANIELS.
Little Rock, Ark.
REV. R. D. PHILLIPS,
1209 South Eighth St.. Camden, N. J.
REV. E. T>. HENDERSON.
356 Crown St.. Npw Havpn. Cona.
REV. G. ALE"VANDER MAGUIRE,
1B09 Pino St.. Philadelphia. Pa.
REV CHAS. W. BROOKS, Birmlner.
REV. E. G. CLIFTON. 611 E. 158th »U,
REV JOHN r DENNTS. Savannah, Q*.
REV. F. I. A. BENXt^TT.
Linden St., Washington, D. C.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
REV. JOHN R, BRCK)KS.
REV. E. T. DEMBY.
Key West. Fla.
REV. B. W. PAXTON, Newark, N. J.
V.EV. A. E. JENSEN,
REV. W. GEO. AVANT, New Beraa,
REV. W. J. HERITAGE.
Asheville, N. C.
REV. JAMB*' N. DEAVER.
170« Arctic Ave., Atlantic City, N. J.
iU5V. SCOTT WOOD.
REV. 4. G. COOMBS,
REV. GEORGE BUNDY.
906 John St.. Cincinnati, O.
REV. JOSEPH B. TUCKER,
REV CHARLES I. SMliTI.
200 F St., S. W., Washington, D. C.
REV. EDWARD S. WILLETT,
REV. JOSEPH LIVINGSTON,
Port Tobasco. Md.
REV. THOMAS O JKOWN,
REV. E. W. DANIEL. «t. Paul, Minn.
REV. D. R. WALLACE,
REV. ROBERT DAVIS BH' >WN.
REV. J. S. QUARLES,
Peake. S. C.
REV. R. T. MIDDLETON.
REV. P W. CASSEY. St. Nicholas, Fla
REV. W. W. CHERHTER. BoUvar.T«nn
REV. J. W. CARROLL.
St. Tammany, Va.
REV. J. T. HARRISON,
REV. GEORGE E. HOWELL,
New Brookland, S. C.
REV. B. B. TYLER
Wilson. N. C.
REV. J. T. KENNEDY. Frankiin, N. C
REV. F. M. MANN. Darlen, Ga.
REV. D. D. MOORE. Palatka, Fla.
REV, C. L. SIMMONS, Union Level, Va
REV. JOHN B. MANCEBO. Columbl*.
REV. T. B. BAILEY. Statesvllle, N. C.
REV. G. R. JACKSON, St. Slmon'i
REV. J. E. KING. Raleigh. N C.
REV. ROBERT J. MORGAN
REV. J. M. MUNDY, Hendeloon, Ky.
REV. J. B. BROWN. St. Tammany. Va.
REV. C. B. PRITCHETT.
Kingston, N. C
REV. R. L. WILSON,
REV. A. E. DEY, Atlanta, Ga,
REV. NATHANIEL PETERSON BOYD.
Brooklvn, N. Y.
REV. ROBERT GORDON
San Antonio, Tex.
REV. D. LEROY FERGUSON.
REV. ROBERT W. BAGNALL.
REV. M. M. WESTON.
Edenton, N. C.
REV. A. ST. CLARE MOORE. ^
REV. E. E. MILLf.KR.
REV. C. H. MALE.
Oxford. N. O.
REV. M. SPATCHES.
Key West, Fla.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 35
St. AusuNtinc'ti Church, Camden, N. J.
36 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
St. Philip's Church (Sanctuary), New York.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 37
All Saints' Church, St. LouU, Mo.
St. James' Church, Baltimore, Md.
38 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
St. Paul'8 School, lia^-reneevllle, Va.
Gollegrlate Department, St. Augrustinc's Setaool, Raleigh, S. C.
AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 39
St. Js\:jies' (Interior), Ooaln, Fla.
St. AuKostlne's, Atlantic Clt>-, N. J.
40 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS.
The Southern Bishops having called
I a Conlerence of white persons to meet
at Sewanee, Tenn., in the Spring or
Summer of 1883, to deliberate concern-
ing the Negro, a Conference of Colored
Clergy was called to meet in New York
the fall of the same year. It was held in
the same city the year following. Since
then the places of meeting have been as
below; 1885. Richmond, Va,
1886. Washington, D C.
1887. Baltimore, Md.
1888. Norfolk, Va.
1889. New York.
1890. Philadelphia, Pa.
l«9l. None held.
i892. Baltimore, Md.
1893. Louisville, Ky.
1894. Philadelphia, Pa.
1895. Washington. D. C
i896 Charleston, S, C.
1897. Baltimore, Md.
i898. Richmond, Va.
1899, New York.
i9oo. Raleigh, N. C.
i9oi. Philadelphia, Pa.
i9o2. Washington, D. C.
1903. New Haven, Conn.
Chapel St. Augustine's, Raleigta, K. C.