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AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

By the 

REV. GEORGE F. BRAGG. D. D., 

Rector of St. James' Church, Baltimore, Md., and Editor of the Church 

Advocate. 



Church Advocate Print, 
Baltimore, Md., May, 1904. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 
In sending- forth this Httle vol- 
ume, the author may be pardoned 
for referring to his own labors in 
Church JournaHsm. For well nigh 
■eighteen years has he edited and 
published a journal in the interest 
«of church work among the colored 
race. In addition to the literary, 
and a large part of the mechanical 
work, in its publication, it has been 
at his own financial cost. We do 
not regret the sacrifice we have 
made. Nor is this little volume in 
any way to financially help us per- 
sonally. In addition to the circu- 
lation of information about the col- 
ored work, 'it is our most ardent 
hope that sufficient may be realized 
from the sale of this publication 
to cancel a mortgage of a few hun- 
dred dollars on the Rectory of St. 
James' Church. Our little congre- 
gation, at present, is engaged in 
wrestling with a S4000 debt upon 
our church, and we are loth to di- 
vert their effort therefrom to the 
debt upon the Rectory. We shall 
be profoundly grateful to all who 
may help us in this undertaking by 
purchasing copies of this little book. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 3 




THE REV. ABSALOM JONES, FIRST AFRO-AMERICAX PRIEST. 
Bom In Siusex, Del., 6th of November, 1740. Ordained Deneon Augnst 6th, 179S. 

Died Februarj- 13, 181S. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 






r- 










The Ij<\te Uev. Alexander Cruiumell, D. D., LLi.D., 
Founder St. I^uke't* Church, 'Waslilngton, D. C. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



On Wednesday September 22, 
1886, more than 17 years ago, in 
St Luke's Church, in the city of 
Washington. Rev. Dr. Alexander 
Crummell, Rector, assembled the 
Fourth Annual Convocation of 
Colored Clergy of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. This Confer- 
ence was a memorable one. The 
late Dr. Crummell was its presi- 
dent, and the Rev. Hutchens C. 
Bishop, Rector of St. Philip's 
Church, New York was secretary. 
The opening sermon was preach- 
ed by the Rev. Alfred Co Brown 
Rector of St. Luke's New Haven. 

The Colored Clergy, now living, 
who were present at the Confer- 
ence of 1886, besides the* writer 
(who was then only a layman) 
and the Rev. Mr. Bishop, were 
Rev. J. B. Massiah of Detroit, 
Prof. Joseph now in England and 
the Rev. Alfred C. Brown, at 
present out of the country. 

It was at the Conference of 
1886 in St. Luke's Church Wash- 
ington that it was determined to 
change the Conference from an 
exclusively Negro body to one 
composed of Church Workers a- 
mong Colored People, so as to 
include in its membership white 
as vrell as colored persons. And 
in the same Conference, follow- 
ing the change above noted, were 
introduced the first white mem- 
bers of this body, the Rev. Cal- 
braith B. Perry, then vicar of S. 



Mary's Chapel, Baltimore Md. and 
the Rev. George B.Johnson, then 
Rector of St James First African 
Church of the same city. 
* The Rev. Mr. Perry, in detail, 
explained a scheme in his mind 
looking to the memoralizing of 
the General Convention, to as- 
semble in Chicago, the next 
month, with respect to the ap- 
pointment by that body of a Com 
mission of Bishops, clergy and lay 
men for the furtherance of the 
work of the Church among the 
race, 

- The Conference most heartily- 
approved of Mr. Perry's plan, 
and on file with the memorial 
from Mr. Perry in the Journal of 
the General Convention of 1886 
will also be found a certificate 
setting forth the action of the 
Conference signed, by Rev. Hut- 
chens C. Bishop Secretary. 

At the General Convention 
which met the next month in the 
city of Chicago the memorial of 
Mr. Perry was assented to and a 
Commission consisting of five 
Bishops, five clergymen and five 
laymen, was created to supervise 
and further the work of the 
Church among the colored people 
of this country. 

From this date we begin a'new 
era in the Missionary activities 
of the special field of Church 
work in which we are engaged. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



.But, before following the prog- 
ress of the work from this point, 
it will not be entirely out of 
place to call the roll of our fellow 
workers, of Afro-American blood, 
who had fallen asleep up to this 
time- 
Absalom Jones, 
Peter Williams, 
William Levington, 
William, Douglass, 
W. C. Monroe, 
Harrison H.Webb, 
Josephus, DfeGrasse, Peterson, 
Berry, Cooley, Saltus Cummings, 
Cooper, Brady, Allston, Atwell, 
St. James, Henderson, Harris. 
Rogers, and Mckinney. 

In October 1886, when the 
Commission was created, the fol- 
lowing who are now living were 
in Priests' orders, 

H. L. Phillips W. H.Wilson 
J. G. Bryant S. Kerr 
T. G. Harper A. A. Roberts 
H. C. Bishop C. M.C. Mason 
J. B. Massiah P. A. Morgan. 

There were also 12 persons, 
now living, who were then dea- 
cons, five of whom are still dea- 
cons to-day, and one ofthe twelve, 
Archdeacon Pollard of North 
Carolina, was advanced to the 
Priesthood before the close of the 
year 1886. 

Since the close of the year 1886 
the followingr brethren have 
^.alian asleep. 



W. E. HOWELL. F. W. DUNN. 

WALTER LEWLS BUKWELL. 

GEORGE G. MIDDLETON, 

BEVERLY M. lEPFERSON, 

MARKF. NELSON. T.W.VAUGHAN^ 

BENJ. L J vCK, JOHN G. URGLING, 

MATTHEW McnUFFIE, 

A. H. MCNEILL, C. C. C. xMAPP, 
WILLLAM F.FLOYD, W H. MORRIP, 
J. PALL.'^M WILLIAMS,T. W. CAIN, 

ALliXANDER CRUMMKLL. 

J, E, and CHARLES H. THOMPSON. 

WILLIAM A. GRF.EN 

CHARLES L.8UTHEPN. 

During the same period, the 
following, 11 in number, have 
been deposed from the Sacred 
Ministry. 

D. WILSON TAYLOR, R.A.SMITH 
L. W INFIELD, BENJ. F LEWIS. 
W, H. COSTEN. R.B.BRUCE. 
D. E.JOHNSON, M. D. HINTON. 

W. B. P»5RRY. J. B. McCONNELL. 
GEORGE W. HONKS TY. 

All deacons, save one, and all 
of themj we think, without one 
exception, came into the Church 
from some of the christian bod- 
ies. It is rather singular that 
not one of them was brought up 
and raised in the bosom of the 
church. 

The following, ordained during 
the same period, in this country, 
are now working in foreign parts. 

B, W. TIMOTHY. J. H. DIXON. 
J. ALFRED HOLLEY. H.HARTLEY 

.^ J. BENJAMIN WILLIAMS. > 
JOSEPH N. DURANT- ^^ 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 7 




4^ 





THE I.4TE ni<«HOP WHITTLE, THE I.ATE HISHOI* DIDI-EY, OF 
OF VIRGINIA. KEXTUCKY. 





BISHOP HOM.Y, OF HAITI. BISHOP FERGLSOX, W. AFRICA. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



Deaths previous to 1886,23 



Since 


21 


Depositions 


11 


Out of country- 


6 


Total 




Present clergy List 




Priests 


64 


Deacons 


29 


Total, 





61 



93. 



During the past seventeen 
years the Church has made much 
headway and growth in all 
directions, and although it is far 
from what it ought to be, yet 
there can be no doubt with respect 
to actual progress in every de- 
partment of the church, in this 
field, in all sections of the coun- 
try. 

First and foremost among the 
agencies largely responsible for 
this growth and general awaken- 
ing is the Annual Conference of 
Church Workers. We haye not 
only kept the subject before the 
Church, by our meetings, from 
year to year, but the indirect in- 
fluence going out from this Con- 
ference has been something won- 
derful, far more than we seem to 
appreciate or realise. 

We have already intimated how 
that this conference was largely 
if not chiefly, responsible for the 
creation of the church commis- 
sion, which has greatly stimulat 



ed interest in this department of 
^the Church's Work. In the Gen- 
eral convention of 1889 another 
practical agency was inaugurated 
the direct result of agitation and 
education upon the part of this 
Conference the appointment of 
Archdeacons for the Colored 
ed work in various parts of the 
country. 

In the Spring of the year 1889 
the Diocese of Virginia eliminat- 
ed the Negro from its Diocesan 
Council, and our Conference 
which met in the September fol- 
lowing, memorialized the General 
convention which met the next 
month in the city of New York, 
asking of that body a definition 
of our status in the church. There 
were two Committee reports be- 
fore that body on this particular 
matter. The majority, practically, 
told us to fight it out the best 
way we could in the various dio- 
cese3,for the General Convention 
had no power to act. Strange 
as it may appear, yet true, the 
minority report which champion- 
e i our cause, was as radical and 
d3cisive as any one could desire, 
was signed by three clergymen, 
one a Southernman and a Virgin- 
iin, the late Dr. Bird of Texas, 
another not a Virginian but who 
had gotten his Theology at the 
Virginia,Seminary, the late Phil- 
lips Brooks, and the third one Dr. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 9 




AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



Vibbert, then of Chicago. De- 
spite Dr. Brooks's ringing words 
upon the floor of the House of 
Deputies, the majority report 
was adopted, and the direct 
answer to our query evaded. At 
the General Convention of 1892, 
we were again in evidence in our 
plea for a closar adaptation of the 
Episcopate to the needs of our 
paople, but nothing was done. 
At the General Convention of 
1395 at Minneapolis we were a- 
gain before that body pleading 
for field secretary, the adaptation 
of the Episaopate, and the found 
ing of a Church College. Some 
little notice seemed to have been 
given to our memorial. At one 
time it was thought that a large 
sum from the late Missionary en- 
rollment fund would prove avail- 
able for the establishment of a 
Church College for the race, but 
for some reason it failed. Our 
request for a field secretary was 
favorably commended to the 
Board of Managers for action, 
and the board of Managers in 
turn turned it over to the Com- 
mission where it has been under 
consideration ever since. At the 
Convention of 1898, in Washing- 
ton, a committee of this Confer- 
ence succeeded in appearing be- 
fore Committees of the House of 
Bishops and the lower House, 
with respect to the adaptation of 
the Episcopate. The action in 



the upper house on the proposi- 
tion was not favorable. In the 
lower house, the committee, sug- 
gested the necessary legislation 
to make the matter effective, and 
a special committee of which the 
late Rev. J. J. Faude was a mem- 
ber was appointed to consider the 
matter and bring it up at the 
next Ganeral Convention. The 
last General Convention, at San 
Francisco, was a little too far for 
us, and with the many heavy 
subjects, before the General 
Convention, at that time, and the 
charming beauty of the Pacific 
Coast, it is jast possible that 
the report of the committee was 
overlooked. 

During this same period, since 
the creation of the Commission, 
our beloved brother the Arch- 
deacon of Southern Virginia has 
called intD being and built up, 
principally through his own per- 
sonal exertions, St. Paul's School 
Lawrenceville, the largest insti- 
tution of it its kind, in numbers, 
operated by our church for the 
Colored race. In the meantime, 
the older school, St. Augustine's 
Raleigh has been greatly improv- 
ed and strengthened. The Bishop 
Payne Divinity School Petersburg 
although in existence as a branch 
school of the Virginia Seminary, 
at the time of the organization 
of the Commission has since that. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. it 




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12 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



time been duly incorporated as a 
separate and distinct institution. 
Tliis institution as well as King 
Hall, founded since 1886, have 
dona good work in furnishing 
men for the Holy Ministry. Hoff- 
man Hall, Nashville Tenn., has 
arisen and fallen, and arisen a- 
gain since 1886, and is designed 
to do much the same work as the 
other Theological institutions al- 
ready mentioned. Quite a number 
of parochial schools, throughout 
the South, have come into exist- 
ence daring the period we are now 
considering, and some of them 
have graduated into something 
more pretentious, such as Saint 
Mark's Academy, Birmingham, 
Ala., and S. Michael's School, 
Charlotte, North Carolina. 

In 1894 our oldest church, the 
mother of us all, S. Thomas' Phil- 
adelphia, with most imposing and 
beautiful services, assisted by 
some twenty odd Afro-American 
priests, as well as other clergy, 
celebrated its first Centennial. It 
was indeed a grand and worthy 
occasion. One hundred years of 
corporate Church life by Negroes 
in the Anglican communion! 

Bishops and distinguished men, 
both of the clergy and laity, were 
present to take part in that great 
celebration. The Rev. Owen M.- 
Waller, M. D., was the Rector of 
the parish at that time. It was 



in connection with this Centenni- 
al celebration that the very first 
Annual meeting of the Woman's 
Auxiliary to the Conference, was 
held. The 'old mother Church' 
furnished the place of meeting 
for this first National gathering 
of our Women, and that in con- 
nection with her Centennial, and 
the next oldest of our Af ro-Amer 
ican churches, S. PhiHp's New 
York, furnished the Afro-Ameri- 
can Church woman, tlie first Pres 
identof ourConferenca Auxiliary 
— Miss Sarah Elizebeth Frazier. 

This feature of our annual Con 
ferences, the Auxiliary, is far 
from being simply an ornamental 
one. The women have done, and 
are doing, a grand work, in in- 
s^^iring and uniting the women of 
our several parishes, in the work 
of Missions and the uplifting of 
the race. 

Then, there have been other 
celebration worthy of special men 
tion, such as the Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of the ordination of our 
venerable father and brother the 
late Alexander Crummall to the 
Priesthood, . celebrated at St. 
Luke's Church, Washington, De- 
cember 1894. His address, upon 
that historic occasion like all 
his utterances, was most beauti- 
ful, and impressive, as well as 
replete with historical matter 
worthy of preservation. The 25th 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 13 





THE REV. T. W. CAIN. 
Who Represented Texna in the Gen- 1'HE LATE REV. WM. DOUGLASS, 

eral Convention. *" Marylnnd, First Colored Man Or- 

dained in trie South. 



k 



i^' 




ARCHDEACON POLLxVRD, N. C. 




ARCHDEACON Rl SSELL., So. Vii^nla. 



14 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS, 



anniversary of the ordination to 
the Priesthood of our present 
much beloved and honored "se- 
nior" Presbyter Rev. H. L. Phil- 
lips, bat a few vears ago, was cel- 
brated in grand style by the 
people of his own congregation 
among whom he has spent all of 
his cleriacl life. 

If St. Thomas Philadelphia is 
the oldest of us all, St. James 
Baltimore, is at least the oldest 
south of Mason and Dixon's line, 
and as all of us are members one 
of another, so St. James is in- 
debted somewhat both to St. 
Thomas Philadelphia, and St 
Philips, New York, for her found 
er William Levington was a New 
Yorker by birth, while he receiv- 
ed his orders in Philadelphia, very 
likely within the walls of the 
Old St. Thomas church'. St. James 
has partly paid its debt, for 
Maryland sent St. Thomas her 
Wm. Douglass, and we have given 
St. Philip's New York, for her 
Rector, and the best she has ever 
had, one of our own children. 
And in order that we might give 
«ven more than we recieved. St. 
James, more than 59 years ago 
sant her first born son into the 
ministry to the city of New Hav- 
en, and St. Luke's church tells 
what Eli Worthington Stokes 
wrought. So a few years ago 
the old Southern mother "St. 
James" Baltiinore celebrated her 



75th Anniversary by pulling up 
stakes and lengthening her cords 
in a more desirable portion of the 
city, that she may continue in 
the future, as in the past, 
to send forth her sons as found- 
ers and builders of Churches. 

The Church Advocate, in sea- 
son and out of season, has lived 
by some means as a connecting 
link between the scattered breth- 
ren, during all these years, and 
it has not been published entirely 
in vain, even though its editor 
has had to pay a royalty for the 
privilege of advocating a cause 
and interest dear to the hearts 
of all Afro- Americans. 

Certainly, as we impartially re- 
view the vrork of 17 years past, 
and take a bird eye view of the 
number of clergy, churches chap- 
els schools and other agencies, 
then, now, we must give thanks 
and high praise to God for the 
grace andfavor bestowed upon us. 
unworthy as we are, in being per- 
mitted to note so many gratifying 
evidences of success and useful- 
ness to the race and tothe Church. 
May the Almighty God continue 
to pour forth upon us his favor 
and blessing, and may He also, 
of his infinite mercy and goodness 
grant refreshment, light and 
peace to our fellow workers who 
having fallen asleep, have pass- 
ed on out of our sight into the 
Paradise of God. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. . 15 




REV. H. L,. PHILLIPS, Penn. REV. J. W. PERRY, N. C. 




REV. C. M. C. M VSp?f, Mo. mEV. H. S. McDlFFV. Lo.g tol.nd. 



i6 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. 

At the 19th annual meeting of the Conference of Church Workers 
Among Colored People, held in St. Luke's Church, New Haven, Conn., 
Sept. 15th, 1903, a Commission of Fifteen was created to seek an interview 
with the Bishops in southern dioceses, with respect to the adjustment of 
the Historic Episcopate to the needs of the Colored Race. Through the 
kindness and courtesy of the late Bishop Dudley of Kentucky, chairman 
of' the Commission for Work Among Colored People, an audience was 
secured in the city of Washington, at the Pro. Cathedral, on Monday 
Oct. 26, 1903. Bishop Dudley presided in this conference, and the Rev. 
Geo. F. Bragg, Jr., D.D., and the Rev. Prof. J. W. Johnson, of the 
Bishop Payne Divinity School, Petersburg, Va., were selected by the 
Conference Commission to be their "spokesmen. Bishops from the follow- 
ing dioceses and jurisdictions were present: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, 
Kentucky, Lexington, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tenn- 
essee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia (Bishop 
Coadjutor) and the jurisdiction of Southern Florida. 

The members of the Conference Commission present were: Rev. 
Messrs. Bragg, Bishop, Miller, FL L. Phillips, Waller, Tunnell, E. R. 
Bennett, Johnson, and Archdeacon Pollard. Laity — Messrs. Dr. J. C. 
Norwood, R. R. Florner, Walker W. Lewis, and Solomon DeCourcey. 

By a careful reading of the addresses below, it will appear that the 
colored clergy and laity of the Church do not ask for anything startling 
or revolutionary. They do not ask for any mandatory enactment. They 
only ask that -the general law of the Church be so changed that where 
two or more diocesan Bishops, in contiguous dioceses, deem it wise and 
helpful to the work, upon their united request, a colored clergyman may 
be consecra!ted as" a Missionary Bishop, to exercise jurisdiction over the 
colored people within their territorial bounds, under such regulations as 
may be determined upon by the House of Bishops. 

The following address was read by Rev.iDr. George F. Bragg, chair- 
man of the Committee, and Secretary of the Conference of Church 
Workers : 

AN ADDRESS TO THE BISHOPS IN SOUTHERN DIOCESES. 
Venerable Fathers in God: 

We desire, first of all, to tender you our sincere thanks for your 
prompt and ready response to the invitation of the Conference of Church 
Workers among the Colored People, to meet in friendly conference with 
representatives from that body, with respect to matters pertaining to a 
branch bi the Church's missionary work in which you, as well as ourselves 
arc profoundly interested. There are grave and serious difficulties which 
interpose and hinder the advancement of the Kingdom of God among 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 17 




REV. \V. \. TVNNEXI^, D. C. REV. J. S. QL'ARLES, Sooth Carolina. 



i8 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

the colored people, and if we shall seem, in this address, to confine our- 
selves wholly to one of these disadvantages, it is because, in our judgment, 
the removal of the same carries with it the solution of most of the remain- 
ing ones. 

Those of us who work in the South, or have worked in the Southern 
States, can and do most cheerfully testify to the unfailing kindness, love, 
gentleness, and deep interest in this work which have characterized many 
of our white brethren. The peculiar conditions which militate so stub- 
bornly against any great advance of the Church among the colored race 
are to be sought from other causes rather than from any lack of interest 
on their part. While the members of our own race sustain the profound- 
est respect, good-will, and appreciation for the dominant race, yet such 
are our racial idiosyncrasies and past ecclesiastical education, that we 
find it increasingly difficult to adjust ourselves, ecclesiastically, to the 
seeming demands of our white neighbors and brethren. 

It is far from our purpose to condemn or indulge in unkindly criti- 
cism. We desire simply to state the fact. As at present constituted, it 
would seem utterly impossible for the colored c;lergy and laity to receive 
equal and impartial treatment and consideration in the several diocesan 
conventions. As a result, much is said and done which hinders rather 
than advances the cause of our Lord. We are supremely desirous that 
peace, friendship, and love should mutually obtain between us ; and in 
furtherance of such a laudable end, to the glory of Almighty God and the 
salvation of all souls, we are led to ask of you your good offices'in securing 
such additional canonical legislation as will remove us from the humiliat- 
ing and undignified position in which we find ourselves in the Church. 

The Historic Episcopate does not touch us as closely and as helpfully 
as the needs of the great body of our people demand. This is not so 
much because our Diocesan Bishops are indisposed to do their utmost 
in this particular, but rather because the civic and social condition obtain- 
ing between the two races renders it difficult for them so to do. Diocesan 
convocations for colored people, subject to the control of diocesan conven- 
tions, as established in several dioceses, do not meet the requirements of 
the situation and have not been fruitful of satisfactory results. They 
greatly aggravate conditions already distressing. Too often it is the 
case that prominent laymen in our diocesan conventions are also prom- 
inent in civic conventions which do not so lovingly deal with the civil 
concerns of the colored race. Our people do not believe that the men 
who minimize their civic rights and privileges can safely be trusted to 
advance the human side of their spiritual interests. 

In view of the present exigencies, and, pre-eminently, as a measure 
of peace and good-will, on both sides, it is our calm and deliberate judg- 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 19 



S^< Jv*S>,'*S'*: W*?:"'^"SSS!>''^ ">«* "*;w»)JC -^ 




REV. P, P. ALSTON, N. C. REV. H. B. DELANEY, North Carolina. 



f"j'«^y»<>!g!fyMywMwy.^ a» ,. . ^ .. ^^ .. ^K - s ^lnu l ^ ^ J>u^.^^u ' ■Jl>J ^ 




REV. W. P. BURKE. So. Vlrslnla. REV. J. N. DEAVER, New Jersey. 



20 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

ment, the result of many years of patient observation, study and prayer, 
that the prosecution of our work in the Southern States, among the 
colored people^ should be placed more directly under the general Church. 
We believe that there should be missionary jurisdictions extending 
through two or more dioceses, with a Bishop at the head of each, drawn 
from the same race represented by the clergy and people among whom 
he is to labor. Thus, we would respectfully, but most earnestly, ask 
of the General Convention through you, our Right Reverend Fathers : 

The adoption of a canon, not mandatory, but permissive^ embracing 
the following general features : 

(a) That it shall be lawful for the General Conventit)n, upon the 
request of two or more Diocesan Bishops contiguously situated to con- 
stitute into a missionary jurisdiction their territory, as pertaining to the 
colored race. 

(b) The Diocesan Bishops within the bounds of each missionary 
jurisdiction thus constituted to compose an Advisory Council for work 
among colored people in such territory. 

(c) Such jurisdictions to be absolutely independent of diocesan 
conventions, and represented in the General Convention as that body may 
prescribe. 

(d) Any jurisdiction constituted under this canon to be altered, 
re-arranged, or terminated at the will of the General Convention. 

Such in brief outline are the salient points of the adaptation of the 
Historic Episcopate to the needs of Afro- American people. 

But it is urged in objection to this plan — 

(i) That it will result in divorcing the present Diocesan Bishops 
from the affection and esteem of their colored friends, for whom they 
entertain fatherly affection and earnest solicitude. 

On the contrary we "maintain that, by the operation of this new sys- 
tem of endeavor among the race, the aft'ection, esteem, and mutual respect 
w^ill become far more vital and real, and instead of our Right Reverend' 
Fathers being further removed they will be brought into closer touch, 
to the very hearts of the people among whom we labor. They would be 
free from the heart-aches of constantly trying to reconcile the radical 
elements on both sides to a conservative course. There would be no. 
occasion for impleasant occurrences in diocesan conventions on account 
of the presence of increasing numbers of colored clerical and lay delegates, 
nor would there be any longer ground for fear, in the event of an election 
of a Diocesan Bishop, that the colored delegates would vote unanimously 
for the candidate of the white minority because of his outspoken friend- 
ship for negroes. For in the case of a close vote, the negroes effecting 
a decision, it would prove a clear case of alleged "negro domination." 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 21 




REV. E. N. HOLLINGS, S. C. REV. C. \V. BROOKS, ALABAMA. 



22 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

(2) It is further urged against our plan that in event of its adoption 
the colored work would surely languish rather than increase, for, it is 
feared, the Church having, at least , to some extent, cut apart from the 
negroes, the latter would be left to die for want of financial support. 

We maintain that a perfect analysis of the situation will result rather 
in furnishing the most reasonable grounds for anticipating directly the 
opposite finding. 

To be perfectly frank, the Southern white people of culture and 
means are, indeed and in truth, most kindly disposed towards the colored 
people, and yet, because of our present plan of operation, they are re- 
strained from enthusiastically assisting in this work. If, perchance, they 
did, it would simply mean the increase of vexations, troubles, and annoy- 
ances with respect to possible happenings in the event of a considerable 
number of colored clergymen and laymen being admitted to their diocesan 
convention on an equality with themselves. 

In the adoption of the present plan under consideration, the whole 
bone of contention is removed. White persons who are wont to teach 
negro Sunday-schools, conduct mother's meetings, and help in the use of 
many other agencies would be free from the restraining influence of a 
possible alleged "negro domination," enthusiastically to help in this work 
in every proper way. 

In the presence of increased enthusiasm and good-will, on the part 
of both white and colored Churchmen in the South, and the bright and 
unobstructed prospects ahead, means from the philanthropic Churchmen 
of the North would flow as never before. And besides this, the colored 
people would do more for themselves than they are now doing. Any man 
will do more when placed upon his honor, and when he feels himself to 
be something, than he will when he is secretly distrusted and rather 
expected to fail. 

(3) And, lastly, there are among some of our best white friends 
those who seem to oppose our plan ; because they are far from being 
persuaded, in "spite of all these years of. operation, and the good work 
of our many seminaries, that real competent colored priests can be found 
sufficiently equipped, of such an administrative and constructive calibre 
as to warrant the hope that they would prove equal to the demands of the 
missionary episcopate. We confess much diffidence in addressing our- 
selves to this objection. Unquestionably, from their point of view, there 
is some ground for this position. 

It is hardly possible to know a book, and even a man, from the 
outside. One must have a vital and real contact with the life, hopes, 
fears, and aspirations of another before he can be said to know him. 
There is a life without the veil, another within the veil. It is in con- 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURC?I WORK AND WORKERS. 23 




t. Liuke's Choir, Washington, D. C. 



24 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

nection with that life within that the colored priest moves and has his 
being, so that those without can hardly appreciate the fulness, the courage, 
and strength of the life shadowed by the veil and penetrating the hidden 
chambers of that life, many joyful surprises are certain to dawn upon 
the earnest and sincere inquirer after truth. Among the eighty odd 
priests and deacons who live within this veil are a number who, despite, 
their lowly origin, have made steady ascent along the road of self-con- 
quest, amid environments full of difficulties and hardships, and thus 
forecast still greater ascent and conquest if only given a fair, honest, and 
genuine opportunity. 

Burdens imposed beget the strength and powers for faithful per- 
formance. The poor negro lad, once a sailor, newsboy, or just an ordin- 
ary youth, having attained the priesthood and gone forth, hampered 
with poverty and environed with hardships, has from nothing called 
into being a parish. In such wonderful development he has had no well- 
trained business mert, lawyers, or other professional men to share with 
him the burdens in the administrative functions or the constructive work 
in which he was engaged ; and little and insignificant as it really is by 
contrast with the accomplishments of those of noble birth, blessed and 
helped on every side, and starting out in life with a rich inheritance, 
along all lines of endeavor, yet it tells a story, pathetic though it may be, 
nevertheless one of noble self-sacrifice and triimiph, and plainly intimates 
that such an one, so faithful, noble, and true in a few things, has within 
the capabilities and powers for even higher and nobler achievements. 

We are but pleading for what has been advocated byt some of the 
leading Bishops and laymen of the American Church. As far back as 
1873, an important correspondence on this plan took place between two 
of the most distinguished prelates that have ever adorned and shed lustre 
upon the American episcopate, the lamented and greatly-beloved Bishop 
Howe of South Carolina, and that marvellous and massive giant in intel- 
lectual and spiritual powers, the foremost of his brethren, the venerable 
Bishop Whittingham of Maryland. The letter of Bishop Whittingham 
bears so pointedly on the present matter before us that we herewith give 
the same : — 

(Bishop Whittingham to Bishop Kowe.) 

"Baltimore, May 30, 1873. 

My dear Bishop : — The plan of an episcopate for our colored popu- 
lation is by no means new to me. Long before the Civil War I had been 
driven to mediate on it, by conviction that the blacks in my own diocese 
could not be efficiently provided for on our present scheme, and that there 
did seem to be ground for anticipating good success for work among 
them well organized and diligently prosecuted on the plan of a "race" 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 25 




26 AFRO-AAIERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

or "tongue" episcopate, jurisdiction, ministry, and pastoral supply. 

The double, mutually compensatory and completory, kinds of juris- 
diction, topical and lingual ; or distributed by metes and bounds, for a 
certain portion of the population, and by race or language (distributed 
over or scattered through the same metes and bounds, with or without rec- 
ognition of them) to a certain other portion (or several other portions) 
of a collimital population, / believe to have been existent and more or less 
extensively employed as called for, throughout the Church in all ages. 

I see no reason why the Church should not resort to its use in our 
country, so wonderfully peopled and still peopling by myriads of incomers 
from many and very diverse races and tongues. 

On that plan we might have an episcopate for the Scandinavian 
tongue, another for the German, another for the Chinese, and, above all, 
for the millions of our native blacks. 

Of course, in the outset, each of these must of necessity have a mis- 
sionary character ; and with the exception of the last — and possibly also 
of the third — be constituted with distinct recognition of a steady process 
of e vanishment in proportion as the several races or tongues should 
become merged in the general mass of the community. 

But to institute such a work, I suppose we should have to add new 
canonical provisions- — just as was proposed (and, I think, by mistake, 
not done) in the last General Convention for our foreign congregations 
in Europe and elsewhere. A canon, in a few sections, might provide 
when and where such work should be done — ^by whom election, etc., should 
be effected, and what the relations of the new organizations should be 
with existing diocesan and missionary schemes. 

I, for one, am ready to enter upon endeavors to devise and execute 
such a plan of Church extension (to which Providence seems to be calling 
us in more than one direction) whenever my brethren shall have faith and 
zeal to set about it. Our new Indian episcopate is a long and noble step 
toward the enterprise. 

Heartily thanking you for the opportunity of exchanging opinions 
upon the subject, and wishing that you and our brethren of the adjoining 
dioceses would bestow the study and labor which the due preparation of a 
well-devised scheme would doubtless require, but would certainly thor- 
oughly deserve, 

I am faithfully and truly your loving friend and brother, , 

W. R. W., Bishop of Maryland." 



The late venerable Rev. Dr. Hanckell of Virginia, indefatigable and 
exhaustive in his investigation and study of such affairs, among other 
resolutions which were offered by him and adopted by the Virginia 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 27 




St. Stephen's Ch6lr, PetenibarK, Va. 



^8 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

Council in 1879, presented the following: 

"Resolved, ^\a.st\y, that our deputies to the next General Convention 
be charged with the duty of bringing before the house of clerical and 
lay deputies the question of the expediency of giving to the colored people 
of Virginia and other Southern States, when desired, a full and complete 
Church organization of their own race, under such constitutional and 
canonical provisions as the General Convention in their wisdom may 
devise and ordain." 



In the year 1888 the late Rt. Rev. Dr. H. M. Jackson, then rector 
of Grace Church, Richmond, Va., and one of the editors of the Southern 
Churchman, although opposed in^ principle to anyt'^iing like a separation, 
was thoroughly convinced, in the light of the peculiar exigencies of that 
time, that the identical idea which we now advocate, before you, should 
obtain. 

The foUowing letter from Bishop Jackson was then written to a 
colored priest in the Diocese of Virginia : — 

(Bishop Jackson's Letter.) 

"Richmond, Va., June 4, 1888. 

Your letter was received this morning. Your idea is mine exactly. 
Personally, I do not want any separate jurisdiction. I am perfectly 
willing to have'you and your people in council on equal footing, and I 
■do not share the apprehension of others. But it is nothing what my 
individual views may be. You know as well as I do the widespread 
sentiment which renders some arrangement, permanent or temporary, 
absolutely necessary. I deplore the fact, but yet it is a fact, and as such 
must be taken into account. If, therefore, a separate jurisdiction is 
necessary, I am very much concerned that it should be effected by the 
General Convention and not by the individual dioceses. Because — 

First. If it is the action of the whole Church, it will be much more 
readily acquiesced in by your people. 

Second. If it is the action of the whole Church, it will be much 
more readily acquiesced in by the Northern people. 

Third. It will secure a uniform system for the whole South. 

On this last point it seems to me to be a thing greatly to be deplored 
if one policy prevails in one diocese and another in another. 

If the colored people have rights and privileges in one diocese which 
they have not in another, it will have most disastrous results. For 
instance, Florida sends a colored delegate to General Convention, and 
Virginia excludes the colored people from its own council — such a differ- 
•ence aggravates the feeling which the colored people of Virginia must have 
that they are ostracized and are the victims of race prejudice. Moreover, 



AFRO-AMERICAX CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 29 




St. James' Church (Interior), Baltimore, Mil. 



30 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

will not the Northern people say, 'Florida treats the colored people fairly, 
Virginia unfairly — therefore our money goes to Florida, where there is 
hope of results' ? But there is no use to argue, any one can see that there 
must -be uniformity of policy on every hand. Therefore I am for mis- 
sionary jurisdictions under the control of the General Convention, such 
as you sketch; and after a time, when prejudices die away, these juris- 
dictions may lapse and things fall back into the normal order. 

To this end I shall make some effort. I shall sound the delegates 
to the last General Convention to see how far the sentiment of the North- 
ern Church is likely to yield to this measure. I wish you would help me 
in this, as it will take a deal of writing. If you will, let me know. 

I hope if I can come into the next council with some evidence that 
the General Convention will be likely to consent to such missionary juris- 
dictions, I may be able to stay action." 



We are animated with but one single purpose, and that is to see 
our beloved Church take hold of our race and carry to them the Gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ as received and taught by this Church. A cruel 
injustice is done to a faithful body of missionary workers in our field, 
when it is made to appear that our persistent and earnest efforts in this 
direction are inspired by an unholy ambition to seek exalted positions for 
the leaders in this movement. The present want of a general system of 
action in this missionary department of the Church's work makes our 
labor more strenuous and difficult, keeps self-respecting people out of 
the Church, and makes it harder to get suitable and sufficient candidates 
for Holy Orders. 

We utterly abhor and repudiate any insinuation that what we ask 
is the first important step in the creation of an African Church apart and 
separate from our present American Church. Separate jurisdictions and 
conventions do not imply separate and distinct churches. We are in the 
one Church by virtue of Holy Baptism ; and the episcopate, whether 
diocesan or missionary, constitutes the visible expression of the unity of 
all the parts in the one Catholic Church of Christ. 

And now, Right Reverend Fathers in God, we rest our case with 
you. We are most anxious that you should have the benefit of any 
additional light' or information which any of us can impart, and it will 
be a pleasure on our part to respond to any questions which may suggest 
themselves to you in connection with this subject. We have endeavored 
to place before you the main facts, and a general outline of the legislation 
which we deem necessary for the successful and aggressive prosecution of 
the work among our race by the Church in which we have the honor of 
claiming sonship. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



31 



¥ 





32 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CI.ERGY LIST. 
PRIESTS: 



1S7<5. 

REV. H. L,.' PHILLIPS. I 

751 S. 15th St.. Phila.. Pa, 
1S77. 
REV. WM. H. WILSON. « 

Mason, Tenn. 

REV. JOSEPH G. BRYANT. 

Charlotte Hall, Md. 
KEV. S. KERR. 

Thomasville, Ga. 
REV. A. A. ROBERTS, 713 S. Hi 
Nashville. Tenn. 

1 S83. 
REV. HUTCH ENS C. BISHOP, 
161 W. 25th St., New, York. 
REV. C. M. C. MASON. 2135 WasWwg- 
ton avenue. St. Louis. Mo. 

REV. J. B. MASSIAH, 

329 St. Antoine St., Detroit, Mich. 

REV. PETER A. MORGAN, 2704 Caron- 

delet street. New Orleans. La. 

1SS4. 

REV. THOMAS G. HARPER. 

Kansas City, Mo. 
I .sso. 

REV. J. H. M. POLLARD. Raleigh. 
N. C. 

1 88T 

REV. JAMES S. RUSSELL, LawTcnce- 
ville. Va. 

REV. JOHN W. PERRY. Tarboro, N.C. 

REV. WM. V. TUNNELL, King Hall, 
Washington. D. C. 

REV. HENRY S. McDUFPT 

Jamaica (L. L). N. Y. 
•REV. GEORGE F. BRAGG. JR.. *" - 
113J Park ave.. Baltimore, Md. 

I .HS»0. 

REV. E. H. BUTLER. '-^ \ 

Macon. Ga. 
REV. WM. P. BURKE. Norfolk. Va. 

1.S»I. 
REV. J. W. JOHNSON. Petersburg. Va. 
REV. JOHN A. WILLIAMS. , Omaha, 
Nfib. 
REV. JOHN HENRY SIMONS, 
Annapolis, Md. 



1N»2. 

REV. P. P. ALSTON, Charlotte. N. C. 

REV. ALFRED H. LEALTAD. SOtt 
Dearborn street. Chicago. 111. 

REV. H. B. DELANKY. Raleigh. N. C. 

REV. RICHARD BRIGHT. Savannah, 
Ga. 

REV. GEORGE FRAZIER MILLER. 
121 North Oxford street. Brooklyn. N. T. 

REV. JOS. A. BROWN, .^ 

St. Joseph, Mo. 
isas. 

REV. O. M. WALLER. 1411 Corcoran »t. 
Wa.shington. D. C. 

REV. WM. M. JACKSOK 
Summerville. S. C. 

1894. 

REV. THOS. J. BROWN, 647 Eleventh 
street. I/Oiiisv'lle. Ky. 

REV. OSCAR L. MITCHELL. 23d 8t., N. 
W . Washington. D. «j. 

REV J. J. N THOMPSON. Mobile. AU. 
REV. W. H. MARSHALL. 

Galveston, Tec 
REV. MAXIMO F. DUTY. 
v.,.iarles Town, W. Va. 
J .son. 
REV. B. N. HOLLINGS. 18 Jat«)«r mL, 
Charleston. S. C. 
REV. A. C. V. CARTIER. 
Denve- Col. 

isne. 

REV. E. ROBERT BENNETT. 
M'ilming-ton, N. C. 
REV. TOSEPII F. MII-OHELL, Newport 
News. Va 

REV. I. P. DANIELS. 

Little Rock, Ark. 

REV. R. D. PHILLIPS, 

1209 South Eighth St.. Camden, N. J. 
REV. E. T>. HENDERSON. 

356 Crown St.. Npw Havpn. Cona. 
REV. G. ALE"VANDER MAGUIRE, 
1B09 Pino St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
REV CHAS. W. BROOKS, Birmlner. 
ham. Ala. 

REV. E. G. CLIFTON. 611 E. 158th »U, 
New York 

REV JOHN r DENNTS. Savannah, Q*. 
REV. F. I. A. BENXt^TT. 

Linden St., Washington, D. C. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



33 




34 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 



REV. JOHN R, BRCK)KS. 

Montgomery, Ala. 
1N9». 
REV. E. T. DEMBY. 

Key West. Fla. 
REV. B. W. PAXTON, Newark, N. J. 
V.EV. A. E. JENSEN, 

Croom. Md. 
REV. W. GEO. AVANT, New Beraa, 
N. C. 

REV. W. J. HERITAGE. 

Asheville, N. C. 
REV. JAMB*' N. DEAVER. 

170« Arctic Ave., Atlantic City, N. J. 
iU5V. SCOTT WOOD. 

Brunswick, Ga. 
t900. 
REV. 4. G. COOMBS, 

Augusta, Ga. 
REV. GEORGE BUNDY. 

906 John St.. Cincinnati, O. 
1901. 
REV. JOSEPH B. TUCKER, 

Memphis, Tenn. 
REV CHARLES I. SMliTI. 
200 F St., S. W., Washington, D. C. 
i9oa. 

REV. EDWARD S. WILLETT, 

Keokuk, Iowa. 
REV. JOSEPH LIVINGSTON, 
Port Tobasco. Md. 
REV. THOMAS O JKOWN, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
REV. E. W. DANIEL. «t. Paul, Minn. 
REV. D. R. WALLACE, 
Boston, Mass. 
' 1»03. 
REV. ROBERT DAVIS BH' >WN. 
Columbus, OWo 
REV. J. S. QUARLES, 

Peake. S. C. 
REV. R. T. MIDDLETON. 

Vicksburg, Lilsa 



lK6(t. 

REV. P W. CASSEY. St. Nicholas, Fla 

1S6». 
REV. W. W. CHERHTER. BoUvar.T«nn 
ISS.I. 
REV. J. W. CARROLL. 

St. Tammany, Va. 



REV. J. T. HARRISON, 
Totaro, Va. 
1886. 
REV. GEORGE E. HOWELL, 
New Brookland, S. C. 
1887. 
REV. B. B. TYLER 

Wilson. N. C. 
18UO. 
REV. J. T. KENNEDY. Frankiin, N. C 
REV. F. M. MANN. Darlen, Ga. 
REV. D. D. MOORE. Palatka, Fla. 
REV, C. L. SIMMONS, Union Level, Va 

1803. 
REV. JOHN B. MANCEBO. Columbl*. 
S. C. 

1806. 
REV. T. B. BAILEY. Statesvllle, N. C. 
REV. G. R. JACKSON, St. Slmon'i 
Mills. Ga. 

REV. J. E. KING. Raleigh. N C. 
REV. ROBERT J. MORGAN 
Nashville. Tenn. 
1897. 
REV. J. M. MUNDY, Hendeloon, Ky. 

1899. 
REV. J. B. BROWN. St. Tammany. Va. 
REV. C. B. PRITCHETT. 

Kingston, N. C 
1901. 
REV. R. L. WILSON, 

Hopklnsville, Ky. 
i9oa. 

REV. A. E. DEY, Atlanta, Ga, 

REV. NATHANIEL PETERSON BOYD. 

Brooklvn, N. Y. 

REV. ROBERT GORDON 

San Antonio, Tex. 

1903. 

REV. D. LEROY FERGUSON. 

REV. ROBERT W. BAGNALL. 

Blackstone. Va. 

REV. M. M. WESTON. 

Edenton, N. C. 

REV. A. ST. CLARE MOORE. ^ 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

1904. 

REV. E. E. MILLf.KR. 

Gordonsville. Va. 

REV. C. H. MALE. 

Oxford. N. O. 

REV. M. SPATCHES. 

Key West, Fla. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 35 

r 








St. AusuNtinc'ti Church, Camden, N. J. 



36 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 




St. Philip's Church (Sanctuary), New York. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 37 




All Saints' Church, St. LouU, Mo. 




St. James' Church, Baltimore, Md. 



38 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 





:^"R^ 



St. Paul'8 School, lia^-reneevllle, Va. 




Gollegrlate Department, St. Augrustinc's Setaool, Raleigh, S. C. 



AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 39 




St. Js\:jies' (Interior), Ooaln, Fla. 




St. AuKostlne's, Atlantic Clt>-, N. J. 



40 AFRO-AMERICAN CHURCH WORK AND WORKERS. 

THE CONFERENCES. 
The Southern Bishops having called 
I a Conlerence of white persons to meet 

at Sewanee, Tenn., in the Spring or 
Summer of 1883, to deliberate concern- 
ing the Negro, a Conference of Colored 
Clergy was called to meet in New York 
the fall of the same year. It was held in 
the same city the year following. Since 
then the places of meeting have been as 
below; 1885. Richmond, Va, 

1886. Washington, D C. 

1887. Baltimore, Md. 

1888. Norfolk, Va. 

1889. New York. 

1890. Philadelphia, Pa. 
l«9l. None held. 

i892. Baltimore, Md. 

1893. Louisville, Ky. 

1894. Philadelphia, Pa. 

1895. Washington. D. C 
i896 Charleston, S, C. 
1897. Baltimore, Md. 
i898. Richmond, Va. 
1899, New York. 

i9oo. Raleigh, N. C. 
i9oi. Philadelphia, Pa. 
i9o2. Washington, D. C. 
1903. New Haven, Conn. 




Chapel St. Augustine's, Raleigta, K. C. 



FACIU-T',,