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AFTER DEATH 



Bp tl^e 0ame SLixt^ov. 



THE INTERMEDIATE STATE BETWEEN DEATH 
AND JUDGMENT: being a Sequel to 'After Death.' 
Crown Svo. 

THE BISHOPS IN THE TOWER. A Record of Stirring 
Events affecting the Church and Nonconformists from the 
Restoration to the Revolution. Second Edition. Crown %vo, 6^. 

* We most heartily commend this delightful volume. It is full of original 
research and clear and broad grasp of situations ; it is written by one with the 
historical faculty richly developed.' — Literary Churchman. 

STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF THE BOOK OF 
COMMON PRAYER. The Anglican Reform— The Puritan 
Innovations — The Elizabethan Reaction— The Caroline Settle- 
ment. With Appendices. Third Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

* The subject of this present volume is inexhaustibly attractive ; and many, we 
hope, will be glad to retrace the lines of our liturgical Church history in 

company with so accomplished and sympathetic a guide If we have 

ventured to criticise some details in this able and helpful book, which might be 
reconsidered in another edition, we are not the less desirous of recommending it 
emphatically to all educated members of the entire Anglican communion.' — 
Church Quarterly Review. 

' We heartily commend Dr. Luckock's very interesting and very readable book. 
— Tlie Guardian. 

FOOTPRINTS OF THE SON OF MAN, AS TRACED 
BY ST. MARK. Being Eighty Portions for Private Study, 
Family Reading, and Instructions in Church. With an Intro- 
duction by the late Bishop of Ely. Fourth Edition, Crown Svo. 
Two Vols. 1 2 J. Also a New and Cheaper Edition in One 
Volume, Crown Svo. ^s. 

' His book is designed " for private study, family reading, and instructions in 
church." For one or all of these three purposes we heartily recommend it. . . . 
The frequent references to the Talmud and Mishnah, as illustrating the Gospel 

, record, form a peculiarly valuable feature of the book.' — Church Quarterly 

' Review. 

' We will undertake to say that there is not a church in England in which the 
congregation would not be greatly benefited and advanced in religious knowledge 
by listening to these SLddrcsses.'— Guardian. 

THE DIVINE LITURGY. Being the Office for Holy Com- 
munion, Historically, Doctrinally, and Devotionally set forth, in 
Fifty portions. Second Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 



o 



AFTER DEATH 



AN EXAMINATION OF 

TJ7E TESTIMONY OF PRIMITIVE TIMES RESPECTING 

THE STA TE OF THE FAITHFUL DEAD, AND 

THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE LIVING 



BY 



HERBERT MORTIMER LUCKOCK, D.D. 

CANON OF ELY, SOMETIME PRINCIPAL OF ELY THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE 
AND FELLOW OP JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



rh. dpxcua fdrj icpaTc/TW.— NiC. CONCIL. Can. vi 



EIGHTH EDITION 



LONDON 
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST i6th STREET 

1890 



-'•■- — 






Wf 



C v^ i \ . 5 . i 3" 



1 I 1 4 



»* : ; - 



& 



VIRO : ADMODUM : RBYERENOO : 

JACOBO : RUSSELL: 

EPISOOPO : ELIKNSI : 

s : T : p: 

BENEFICIORUM : 
OONSILII : HORTATIONIS : AMIClTIiG 

HAITD : IMMEMOR : 

HOC : OPUS : QUANTULUMCUNQUE : 

E : PIETATE : DSDICO : 



rXlHE following treatise is in the main an 
examination of evidence, which is to be 
found bv searching in early Christian documents 
of divers kinds. Not a few investigators have 
traversed some portions of the ground before 
me, and I feel conscious of having profited 
by their labours, but to what extent I find it 
difficult to say. Excepting in the chapter on 
the Catacombs, I have not taken anything 
of importance directly from them, but have 
endeavoured, however imperfectly, to work the 
matter out for myself In this one instance 



viii Preface. 

I could not have done otherwise ; and I wish 
to acknowledge in the fullest manner my obli- 
gations to De-Eossi for his truly magnificent 
work, entitled Inscriptiones Christiance urbis 
Romcc septimo sceculo anHguiores. Some few 
of the epitaphs have been copied from the last 
book of Dr. Northcote, who deserves the thanks 
of English readers for placing within their 
reach so much of the substance of De-Eossi's 
writings. 

With Archbishop Usher's Answers to a Jesuit ^ 
and Bishop Forbes' Considerationes Modestce, I 
have long been familiar, and feel that at some 
time or other their works have been very helpful 
in directing me to Patristic Treatises where the 
subject is treated of. 

Dr. Lee in his Christian Doctrine of Prayer 
for the Departed has dealt with one part of the 
subject, and in a somewhat similar manner, 



Preface. 



but I have not availed myself, except in some 
tmimpoitant particulars, of the fruit of his 
labours. 

I have received valuable aid from Dr. Schiller- 
Szinessy, by conversations with whom I have 
been enabled to enter in a measure into the 
real state of Jewish feeling respecting the dead. 
My thanks are due to the Kev. H. B, Swete for 
assistance in revising the proof-sheets, and for 
making many useful suggestions and criticisms. 
For the trauslatious generally I am myself re- 
sponsible. 

It only remains now that I should send forth 
tliifl book, upon gathering materials for which I 
have spent much thought and care, with the 
bnmble prayer that the Spirit of truth will 
regulate its influence upon the hearts of those 
who read it according as its teaching may be 
found agreeable to the mind of Christ 



X Preface, 

And while to me belongs the reproach of 
failure or incompleteness, to Him be all the 
praise. 

H. M. L. 



tEfie jFea^t of %. ^iclbael ann an anffel0, 1879, 

CoLLBOE, Ely. 



pttfact to tl^e ^econti CDition. 

fTlHE speedy demand for a second edition 
proves that the interest in all subjects 
connected with the state of the soul after death 
continues to be felt with unabated force. 
Numerous private communications received from 
friends and strangers have made me realise 
more and more the existence of a wide-spread 
longing for a fuller recognition in our Public 
Services of the doctrine of the Communion of 
Saints. As this edition is being issued before 
anything like a general criticism has been 
brought to bear on the arguments, I send 



xii Preface to the Second Edition, 

it forth without any material change. I have, 
however, slightly supplemented the Jewish 
testimony, and endeavoured to vindicate the 
relevancy of certain Jewish inscriptions, which 
one reviewer deemed wholly beside the purpose. 

H. M. L 



^t JFea0t of tide Purtficatton, 1880, 
College, Ely. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PART I. 

THE STATE OF THE FAITHFUL DEAD AND THE GOOD 
OFFICES OF THE LIVING IN THEIR BEHALF. 

PAGE 

I. tUbe Se^t of CatlboTicit]?, ... 3 

II. t^e (Qalite of t^ie €e0timon? of tide Prtmttttir 

jrat]()er0, ..... 17 

III. t^e 3(ntrrmcliiate ^tate, ... 26 

IV. Cliange in tide 3(ntermeliiate ^tate, . 36 

V. ]Pra|?er0 for tide Dcati : Slea0on0 for 9)ur 

lLorD'0 Silence on tide ^VLl;^\ttty 50 

VI. tUde tJe0timonp of l^oTp ^criptujcc, . 67 

VII. tUde tlefitimonp of tide Catacoml)0, . 81 

VIII. tUde tle0timonp of tide CarTp JFatldcr0, 98 

IX. t^e t^e0tjmonp of tlje Primttitie JiitVLi^w, 103 

X. Praper0 for ttie Parnon of ^in0 of 3in6rmttp, 

ann tide ^fTacentent of Sinful ^tam0, 117 

XI. ^e JInefficacf of Prater for tt)o0e to^jo Dies 

<n toilful unrrpenteD 0in, . . .127 



xiv Table of Contents, 



PART II. 

THE GOOD OFFICES OF THE FAITHFUL DEAD 
IN BEHALF OF THE LIVING. 

PAGB 

I. Pttmittbe t![e0timonp to tl^e ^IntercejaEjaiion of 

tide ^aintjai, . . 153 

II. Prtmttitie tEe^timonp to tl^e 3|nt)ocatton of tlie 

^aint0, . . 174 

III. tin^e trn0tl»ortldme)aE]aE of tlje Patriotic etiinence 

for mtiocation tejaiteli, . . .187 

IV. W^t ptimttibe iLiturgte^ anD tl^e ICloman 

Catacoml)!e(, . . .198 

V. Patn0tic optnionjai on tl^e eictent of tl^e knoto^ 

lenge po00e00eli I)? t\z ^atnt^, . 204 

VI. Ws^t t2Ce0ttmonp of l^olp Scripture upon t^e 

isiame ^ubfect, . . .212 

VII. ^e IBeatific (Hi^ion not pet attaineti bp anp ' 

of tide ^aintjS, . .219 

VIII. Conclu0ion0 oraton from i\t foregoing ^e0ti« 

monp, ...... 22S 



Table of Contents, xv 



SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTERS, 

PAGE 

A. 3l0 a fttllet recognition of tl^e Practice of 

praping for tl^e Dean iie0tral)!e or not? 236 

B. 3l0 it Tatnful or iie0iral)le to practice 3|ni)ocation 

of ^aint0 in anp form or not? . -255 



tSalile of JF8t|ier0, Councils, etc., . .261 

]98008ge0 of ^cripturejai ejcplainen or quoten, 264 

(General 3lniiei;, .265 



PART I. 

THE STATE OF THE FAITHFUL DEAD 

AND THE GOOD OFFICES OF THE LIVING 

IN THEIR BEHALF, 



CnAPTER I. 



i;ie tE0t of CQt^oUcit?, 

CinJEOHMEN in this ijeneration are no longer tj 
aatiflfied with relegatmg the title of "Catholic '' ^ 
lo the Creeds, and desire to vindicate their right to 
the use of it in common speech and converssr 
tjon. It is quite time, they think, to put an end to 
that improper restriction of the term which the 
long Protestant ascendency not only tolerated but 
encouraged, which even the authority of the State 
did ita best to stereot}-pe, by designating a Bill for 
the abolition of disabilities affecting one section of 
the Church merely, "the Catholic Emancipation 
Act." " Catholic teaching," " Cathohc opinion," 
"Catliolic usages," bid fair soon to become familiar 
M household words amongst us ; but in this praise- 
worthy endeavour to reclaim that of which the 
Church can disinherit herself only with positive 
hum and loss, there is need of caution lest the 
t«nn be again misapplied, in some cases even so 



The test of Catholicity. 



narrowed as to be synonymous with wliat after all 

may turn out to be Occidental only. 

The need Some recogaiaed test of Catholicity is urgently 

nisod test, called for. Doctrines and usages, of which our 

forefathers for several generations were in many 

cases entirely ignorant, have obtained, or are likely 

to obtain, prominent places, both in public worship 

and in private devotion. For our guidance in their 

acceptance or rejection, especially in private, where 

so little restraint can be exercised from without, 

some guarantee that they bear the stamp of Catholic 

antiquity is absolutely indispensable. 

Qjj^ In that great revolution of Church teaching which 

'bouftv '^^ sixteenth century witnessed, the changes which 

tiiH Refer- took place were generally speaking of three kinds : 

some doctrines were openly and authoritatively 

condemned ; others, together with the forms in 

which they found expression, were discarded from 

public worship on grounds of expediency ; while a 

third class, though not formally forbidden, fell into 

disfavour and went out of use in the general neglect 

which ensued. 

How far are we justified in revising the acts of 
the Churcli at that period in any or all of these 
cases 1 

Under the first head it may be possible to find 



The test of Catholicity. 



5 



instances where in the heat of controversy the 
foreign RefomierB transgreased the bounds of sober 
jndgmeDt; and in any revision of the Liturgy or 
Formularies of Faith hereafter to be taken in hand, 
such cases would very naturally be brought under 
consideration, and possibly some of theii- decisious 
may be reversed. But till that time arrive and the 
work be lawfully undertaken, it is obviously our 
wisdom, as well as our duty, to wait with patience. 
And ths same may to a great extent be said also of 
the second kind. Nothing which has been removed 
with the full sanction of the Church, may be reintro- 
duced without the approval of the same authority ; 
but this holds good only for public worship. Under 
altered circumstances individuals are at perfect 
liberty, without any sacrifice of loyalty to the 
Church, to use forms for private edification, which 
were once proscribed as nnsuited for public purposes, 
even though their discontinuance in the Church did 
lead to almost absolute disuse in the closet. 

With regard to the tliird class of changes, a 
retom to Pre-Reforniation rule and practice is in 
many things "much to be wished," but, if the 
restoration is to deserve our confidence, nottiirig will 
be restored till it has been subjected to some rigid 
test and standard of Catholicity. 



The test of Catholicity. 



The term Catholicity we apply to the doctrines 

and constitution of the Church which were recog- 
nised by the Council of Nictea and the three 
General CouncUs which followed. The criterion 
which has commended itself to the leaders of the 
Church in almost every age of her history is the 
Vincentian Canon. Everything must be brought to 
the test of acceptance in the undivided Church, 
because the power of interpreting and defining can 
only be exercised by a church at unity in itself. 
Divided and rent into portions she loses authority 
as she loses universality. Henceforward each Church 
has doctrines of its own ; as Jeremy Taylor quaintly 
writes, " The Catholic Church Lath been used as the 
man upon a hill used his heap of heads in a basket] 
when he threw them down the hill, every head ran 
his own way, jwoi coyiia ioi sentenluB."'^ 

For this reason in the following pages we confine 
ourselves to the testimony of the Church up to the 
Council of Chalcedon, the last occasion upon which 
her united voice was uttered with authority. Vin- 
eentius maintained that in judging of heresy the 
best exponent of the Church's views was an (Ecu- 
menical Council, but in cases where tlie controverted 
doctrine had not come under the cognisance of such 

1 Sena. xi. : "TLe Miuiutut'fl Duty in Life ami Doctrine." 




The test of Catholicity. 



an Aasemb]y, recourse must be had to the concordant 
leBtimoniea of many and great doctors ; and the 
exact test which he proposed for acceptance he 
describes in these words : " Within tlie Catholic V'incen- 
Church itself we must take great care, that we hold aitionofhu 
that which has been believed everywhere, alwayg, 
and by all men. For that is truly and properly 
Catholic. And this we shall do if we follow univer- 
sality, antiquity, consent. Now we shall follow 
universality in this way, if we profesa that one faith 
to be true which the whole Church acknowledges 
throughout the world : so also antiquity, if we do 
not depart in any wise from those views which it is 
plain that our holy elders and fathers held ; consent 
again, if in this very antiquity we follow the defini- 
tions and opinions of all or at least almost all the 
priests and doctors together."^ 

How far are we prepared to admit the validity 

> " In <pBs sutciQ Catbolica Ecclesia magnopere cumndum eat, 
at id leaeainng qnod ubique quod semper quod Lb omnibnl 
eredilum est. Boc eet etenim vere proprieque cftMiolicum. Sed 
bM itn demnm flet si sequnmur nnivemltatem, antiquitatem, oon- 
MtidODim. St^quemnr autem universiutem hoc modo, si base 

Mnfitetat Ecclesia ; uitiquitateta vero its, si sb his sensibua 
DnllstAtKU recednmn* quoi umcton mDJores ac frutre! aostroi 
oalabnan mEnifcstuni est: cooseniioneni qnoquB itidem, el in 
ijIM TtliulBlc ouLDium rel certa pn^De Dmnium Bucerdotum p&ritar 
«t ■IK'*'''''''''' deEnitionsB senCentissque Bccteniur." 

VrNC. Caiiemtm.it. ii, ad fiit. 




The test of Catholzciiy. 



Tho vnlwe of the Viiiccntiau test % Its value, it is well known, 
has been disputed in our own as in pa-st generations. 
Beautiful as it seema in theory, it has been found in 
application beset with difficulty ; some have gone so 
far as to maintain that for all practical purposes it 
is little more than useless. It has been disparaged 
Its sap- chiefly on the ground tliat it is superfluous, because 
croaohment "here can be only one true test of Catholic doctrine, 
authoriiy that IS, the authority of Holy Scripture. It is ex- 
ture ^" pressly said that the sum of that which Christians 
were called upon to believe was revealed once for 
all. "doiiteiiii," said S. Jude, "foe the faith Bvxt 
ieliherti vxiXa thi sainte."! That implied that 
nothing could be added to that which the Holy 
Spirit had made known to the Apostles and Evan- 
gelists and holy men of that and former generations. 
To attempt, therefore, as Vinoentius did, to set up. 
ag a joint standard of orthodoxy, the authority of 
the Doctors and Fathers of a later age, is necessarily 
to detract from the suf&ciency of the complete and 
final revelation of Holy Writ. But the author of 
the Canon was no less jealous for the supreme honour 
and authority of God's Word : " it is perfect," he 
says, " and most abundantly sufficient of itself for 
all things ;" but with all its rich stores of information 
'El). otS. JuDii, 3, 




The Ust of Caihoiiciiy. 



and reeooTces for every emergency of doubt uid 
difficnlty, something was needed from wUlicmt to 
render them available. Experience hitd tniight hliii 
that its language was so far Troiu being sclf-inler- 
preting, that it was confessedly hard to bo uiidor- 
Etood, and iu the absence of authoritative ex|ili»itation 
the word of truth might he, too often hud boon, 
wrested and appealed to in support of heresy and 
fidsehood. 

The revelation of God's will to man, if complete, 
contained within its pages all that he would ever 
want to enable him to live well and believe rigiitly , 
there was no undeveloped need over after to be felt 
by the soul of the faithful, which might not be 
supplied out of its fulness ; there wa» no poMiblu 
assault ever to be miide upon the Truth, for which 
weapons of defence would not be found stontd vomc- 
where in the amiouiy of Scripture; but it wiiB loft 
to time and circumstance to draw out the uonHidalory 
teaching, and to formulate the principli'it uf the 
Faith. Had the construction of the Creeds followed 
immediately upon the gift of Kovulution, and had 
the inspired writers theniselveR, who indited the 
Scriptureti, ilelinod aino the articlds of fnith, such 
a rule aa that which we are considering could havu 
bad no part in the settlement. But their growth 



The test of Catholicity. 



WM gradual; and as each new definition was called 
for, some teat of general application for the right 
interpretation of the grounds of belief was found 
absolutely necessaiy. 

From the beginning the Church was the keeper 
of Holy Writ, and therefore the rightful exponent of 
ita teaching. Christ had promised that the powers 
of evil would be ineffectual for its destruction, " the 
gates of hell shall not prebaii against it." But 
after the Church became scattered throughout the 
world, there being no one recognised episcopal see 
or central government to appeal to, the voices of the 
separate individual communities had to be collected 
together to constitute "the majestic evidence" of 
the universal voice of the Church Catholic, to which 
the Holy Spirit had been vouchsafed to " ijuibc " it 
" intff all truth." 
if There were two ways in winch this vox univmsa 
made itself heard : either authoritatively and for- 
mally by the Church assembled in Council, and 
passing decrees after ftiU deliberation and open dis- 
cussion ; or else failing this, its utterances might be 
gathered, leas convincingly perhaps, but yet in a 
manner worthy of confidence, out of the written 
opinions of the representatives of the Church at 
larga The results, however, of this twofold method j 




The test of Catholicity. 



of asceTtAining the voice and mind of the Churoh am 

not exactly the eame. In the one cose the decisions 

arrived at are loyally accepted by the whole body aa 

binding upon all ; in the other, they deserve, though 

they may not always receive, the reapect and assent of 

the individual to whom they have become known. 

We may illustrate this by two articles of belief llliutrs- 

tloni frntn , 
of different kinds, which have been formulated aud ths Creed* \ 

accepted in the ways we have described. The first, 

the doctrine of the Trinity in Unity, Tho second, 

the existence of a bond of union between all the 

members of Christ's Church. 

When in the second and third centuries heresies Ths Qoil- 
bond ol 
were broached touching the Godhead of JesuB Christ, 3«m» 

and His conaubatantiality with the Father, the great 
Doctors of the Church betook themselves to a 
thorough and exhaustive study of God's Word for 
the farther confirmation of the belief, whicli had 
gained common acceptance without having' been 
authoritatively enunciated, and imposed as neces- 
aaiy to salvation. It was nowhere in its fuliiosa 
declared lotUlem verbis, aud for such an investiga- 
tion time and care were requisite; misunderstood 
pBSsagea bad to be adjusted, contradictory stat«- 
menta to be reconciled, and it was only after these 
conaiderations had occupied the thoughts and labours 



1 2 The test of Catholicity. 

of the godlj' and le&med of several generations, 
that the results were embodied in the Nicene and 
theao-called' Constantinopolitiiu Creeds. 

The principles which guided the Councils in these 
deliberations, and directed their decisions, were 
strictly Yincentiao.* They did not take the Holy 
Scriptures alone and unsupported, but had recourse 
to tradition. They asserted, without any hesitation, 
that the doctrines which they enforced were such 
as they had received from their predecessors, as 
they in their turn had received from theirs, and so 
on by unbroken tradition till they reached their 
fountainhead in the preaching of the Apostles. 
In short, the interpretations which they put forth 
under their official seal were such as could claim 
the support of universality, antiquity, and consent. 

Take again the doctrine of the Communion of 
Saints ; it was introduced into the Formulary, not 
to counteract evil tendencies, nor aa an antidote to 
some acknowledged heresy,' but simjily for the 

1 It is nnw l>elieTed tli&t tlie Second Couucit did not put forth 
any Creed of iU own. 

' At Nicffia, for icstiinco, they appealed to t1io ^i^^ijo-uLirTorij 
viera, hj which they mEant tha faitli &a interpreted by tradi- 
tion. Cf. S. Athanab. di liter. Ific. Sj/nod. iii. I, 210, ed. Beoed. ; 
cL also Cone Chalced. Act li. 

• "It was not," writes Db. Lumbt, " ajainBt heretical opinions 
that the clanaea were edIbi^. The only sentence in a WusWri. 
Creei^ that wsa inwrtcd as a lafeguard gainst hereaj soon dieil 



Tlie test of Catholicity, 



n 



oomfort and encouragement of the faithful. There 
can be no question that it had no place in the 
original form' of the Apostlea' Creed, or in fact 
in any of those forma which were extant before 
the middle of the fifth century. Few, however, 
wotdd venture to deny that it was lodged in the 
hearts of men. They found the groundwork of 
it laid in Scripture, and many individuals pro- 
fessed their belief in it, but as nothing as yet 
had coUed for an explicit declaration, no distinct 
i*B]r, eren frani tbe Creeil of tlie Church which emplojed it. 
TbiB was the 'invislbla and iniposaihla ' of the Aquilcian Symbol, 
vbich nu never widely udopted, and which soon fell out of uee 
in AquHeie, This \& very strong testimony to tbe truth of thoee 
(tatements oa which Wealcrn writers Iny sach etress, that the 
WutelD Clinroh WBS ft«e from the taint of heresy tor a long 
period."— i/'wf. of On Creeds, cap. ili. p. J73. 

> The form of the Wsateru Creed in uie for the first three 
Msturiea was mucb briefer ttian that now called the Apostles' 
Creed. Articles were added to it during the fourth and fifth, but 
it was not developed into ita [ireaent form till the sixth or perhaps 
the. setenth, 

The article cmmatmumem tanctormn is abwat from all the 
fallowing Latin Creeda,— Iho Creeds of 9. Irenins, TertuUian, 
Cyprian, the AqoUeian as expaunded by Bufflnns, that of tlorth- 
mn Africa oa eiponnded by S. Augustine, uid that which ia 
gathered ont of the eennDna of ChrjraolDgiiB. Likewise it is want- 
ing In tbe Greek Creeda of Eueebius, Arius, Epiphauius, Cyril, 
Cbryioatom, and the Councils of ConstanUnople and Epheeua. 

Tbs first occurrence of the article is in a creed attrihuled tn 
EoMhlnB Galliu in the middle of the aiith century, thoagh il lias 
hcen given by eonte to Fanstus, of the prDvince of Aries about 
4M A.D. After this it is found again in the Oallican Saerameii- 
taiT- C. Db. SwiraaoN, The Xice/u and Apostolic OreaU, oap. 
<iv., kO-1 Vn:. hvital. But. u/Ou: CrtfiU, cou iii. and Aii[«iMUl 



H 



The test of Catholicity. 



Roman 
Catholic 
Dbjectioo 



authoritative aasertion of the principle was put 
forth; at last, though at what definite time, and 
onder what special emergency, wo are left in ignor- 
ance, the prevailing ideas and persuasions were 
consolidated, and the article, "I believe in the 
Comniunion of Saints," gained admission into the 
Creed, But how are we to ascertain exactly what 
ia involved in the confession } The Church has, no 
doubt, for wise purposes, left it vague and indefinite; 
but if we would realise the nature and extent of 
the Communion, and determine how much may be 
legitimately held, we can only satisfy ourselves by 
the application of some such test as must have been 
brought into use when the formula itself was ac- 
cepted and put forth. We cannot but suppose that 
there was something more definite than appears in 
the minds of those who authorised it ; but what it 
was, and how much they compreliended under the 
general form, which they were satisfied to impose 
as binding, must be determined by such principles 
as Vincentius enforced. 

But while the Protestant disparages the Vincen- 

tian Canon as tending to lower the authority of 

Scripture, it is rejected by the Eoman Catholic on 

f grounds totally difi'erent It is incompatible with 

his system of doctrinal development, and therefore 



The test of Catholieiiy. 



muat be discarded. Dr. Newman, in rejecting its 
validity, tries to prove that the gradual growth in 
the Creeds of primitive times was analogous to the 
development of dogma, which is still going on in the 
Roman Church, There is, however, a very essential 
difference between them. The development which 
led to the formation of the Catholic Creeds is of 
one kbd; that which is still in process in the 
formation of the Roman is of another. Without Tie 
entering at all fully upon such a wide field ofbetween 



discoEsion, it may be well to state briefly wherein m 



iterpret* 1 



the difference lies. On one side the revelation oftjonTnd 

doctrine delivered to the Apostles is held to be ment'cS' 

final : in substance nothing can ever be added to '^<x=t''"* 

the " faith cmre btltDerci to thi eniiits ;" but by 

way of explanation and interpretation additions 

continued to be made till the articles of belief were 

aathoritatively fixed and defined in the Primitive 

Creeds. In other words, the iloctrine of the fourth 

and fifth centuries is identically the same with that 

of the first, and if circumstances had been such as to 

have led tlie earliest Christians to fathom the full 

meaning of Scripture, they would have found in it 

ill that the Nicene or Ephesian Fathers declared to 

be tliere.* 

it ti; Vincentioa in a clmptar 
a relipi™ of our souls imitata 



1 6 The test of CatkoUcUy. 

On the other side it is ulaimet] that the body of 
doctrine committed to the Apostles k capable of 
positive substantial augmentation, that in short it 
would have been quite impossible for the Church in 
its infancy, without the gift of prreternatura! fore- 
sight, to have diacemed all that she would hold in 
her youth or maturity ; a theory, which it is very 
difficult to reconcile with the practical teaching of 
S. Paul and S. Jude that the revelation given by 
God in the beginning was final and complete. 

the natnra of our bodies, whicli, although with proceaa of time 
they develop and unfold their proportions, yet they remain the 
suae that they were. There ia great difference between the 
flower of youth and the ripeneeB of age, yet the same men becemu 
old, which before weru young , so thnt although the stage cud 
condition of one and tlie same man be altered, yet one and the 
same nature, one and the same person doth still remain. , . , 
This is the due and rigtt rule of training. " 

And he conoludea hia obserration thus : 'What hath the Cliurch 
at any time attempted by the decrees of CoundlB, but thnt what 
before iraa simply credited, the same afterwards should be more 
diligently believed ; tiat what before was more lazily preached, 
should atlerwarde be preached more instantly . that what before 
WBB more SBcuraly reverenced, should afterward be more carefully 
chflriBhed! This I say and nothing else, the Church, provoked 
by the novelties of heretics, bath effected by the decrees of her 
Councils, only to confirm to posterity in writing, and mth her 
rign-manual, that which before she had received of her forefathers 
bj' tradition alone." — Cimmtmii. xziii 



i 



CHAPTER 11. 

*aCtie ©aluc of t^e 'EcStimoiig of tte 
^enmitibe jfatljecis. 

TN the application of the standard proposed, rc^ 
courae may be had to several kinds of evidence, 
but llie great bulk of it must be drawn from tho 
writings of the Primitive Fathers ; it will he well, 
therefore, to consider briefly whether the objections, 
which have been raised oa the ground of their 
liability to error, are sufficient to shake our con- 
fidence in the general trustworthiness of their 
testimony. 

There are two ways in which they may be used ; rndcpen- 
Mther simply as so many chroniclers of what was ChroDiole 
puBiiig around them, each one of them contributing lailing 
from the scattered Churches of Christendom his "P""""*- 
individaal testimony to the state of opinion faith 
and practice prevalent at the time and place in 
which he lived, or else they may be treated as 
independent exponents of God's Word, auu by 




OontHba- virtue of their poeition in the Church, aa judges of 
rormatian dogma claiming respect, if not even more thftD 
trine*. this for their decisione. In either case anything 
like unanimity of expression, in reganl to any par- 
ticular article of belief, will carry conviction of its 
general acceptance; but in the latter, its validity 
cannot but be affected by the character for trust- 
worthiness, which they may have gained hy their 
life and labours : for they had no such promise of 
divine guidance as was vouchsafed to the Apostles, 
and there is no question that individually some of 
them held erroneous views. 
InntanosBoi Justin Martyr, for example, was a Mlllenarian , 
tsoching he held that before the final resurrection and judg- 
works of ment, Jerusalem should be rebuilt, and that certain 
" " '°'* saints should dwell in it for a thousand years. 

Tertullian was a Montanist, and lost nJl power of 
discriminating between true and false prophecy. 

Origen broached opinions both on discipline and 
doctrine, which have met with universal condem- 
nation ; he tried to blend Platonism with Chris- 
tianity, and advocated a belief in the prie- existence 
of souls, while ia his interpretation of some parts 
of Scripture ho ran riot in all the extravagancies of 
allegory. 

Eusebius was denounced for Arianising. S. Jerome, , 



TestimoTty of the Primitive Fathers. 19 



drew upon himself the cenBurea of S. Augustiae, 
and S. AugOBtine in his RetractatioDB confeBses with 
soiTOvr to having written Bome things that wcie 
false. 

How then will the knowledge of all this fallibility Tho 
influence us in our estimate of their authority in of iheir 
matters of faith 1 We must he careful not to de- upon our 
predate all antiquity because of the errors of a few, ** ""'^ "' 
and involve all in a sweeping charge of untruat- 
wortliiness, because in some instances our confidence 
htis beeQ shaken. 

Those whose views were erroneous are well known, 
as well as the exact points wli<^re they went astray. 
Here none will wish to follow them ; but upon 
matters wholly independent of and unconcerned 
with these, there is nothing to prevent their evi- 
d(!nc« being taken. Even here, however, it must 
be expected that the arguments which they may 
have used will lose something of their cogency from 
the admitted failure of their judgment elsewhere. 

But when we read the works of those whose 
orthodoxy is above suspicion, we shall not merely 
welcome them for the testimony which they bear to 
the prevalence of tbe doctrines upon which they treat, 
bnt we shall esteem them also for the part which they 
took in helping to develop and eiuiaciate the same. 



Tile Value of the 



As wftnessee then teBtifymg to the state of feeling 



and belief when they lived, all 



are valuable, and 

found, their united 
general acceptance 



whenever a ameeTisus of opinion ii 
testimony is irresistible as far ae 
is concerned. 

Ab authoritative exponents of the Faith, their 
claims must rest in each individual case upon the 
estimate which they have won for themselves in 
the judgment of the Church. What this ia, in by 
far the majority of cases, is made sufficiently clear 
in her public formularies, and by the utterances of 
her chief ministers. 

In reviewing these we pass over the testimony of 

the General Councils, which is unquestionable, and 

turn to the records of the Reformed Church. 

Hk weiglit In the explanatory introduction to the Prayer- 

tnlli*rity Book " Concerning the Service of the Church," we 

fTtT''"^ f^ad ^^ *« beginning the first distinct avowal of the 

Booir" respect in which the Reformers held the authority 

of the Fathers ; " The first original and ground 

whereof [(.«. of Divine Service], if a man would search 

out by the ancient Fathers, he shall find, that the 

same was not ordained but of a good purpose, and 

for a great advancement of godliness." A httle later 

it describes how " this godly and decent order of 

tljo ancient Fatliera hatli been altei'ed, broken, and 




Testimony of tlie Primitive Fathers. 21 

neglected," and it concludes by commending the new 
rules for prayer and the reading of the Holy Scrip- 
ture, not only on the ground of profit and conven- 
ience, but as " much agreeable to the mind and 
purpose of the old Fathers." 

Here then the Church has clearly laid down, in 
the forefront of her Reformed Service, the principle 
by which she determined to be guided ; and a few iq tiie 



joined her clei^ to follow on the same lines : that 
they should " never teach aught in a sermon to be 
religiously held and believed by the people, but what 
is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, and which the Catholic Fathers and ancient 
Bishops have collected from that very doctrine."^ 

And not only here, but alsoin the Canons of 1604, 
the principle is recognised, and that repeatedly. In 
Canon xxx, touching the use of the sign of the Cross, 
it vt asserted to have been " held by the Primitive 
Church, aa well by the Greeks as the Latins," and 
certain rules of doctrine concerning things indifferent 
are pronounced true, " which are consonant to the 
Word of God and the judgment of the ancieut 

• WnJHNs, 0<iici2ia,iv.3S7, "DecoDcioDatoTilius," Tbeiie Canons 
ttc not lidil to lie biadiiig, ns not having lecniveil tha Tonnal 
■sellon of the QnMli, but they were approved by Convocatiot], 
ud may be htW to eipreii thu mind or tho Churub. 



The Value- of the 



Fathers." In Canon xs3L the Fasts c 

are enjoined as a following of "their holy and 

religious example." And the nest Canon forbids 

any one to be admitted to Hoty Orders who has not 

a definite sphere for the exerciae of his functions, on 

the ground that it had been so " provided by many 

decrees of the ancient Fathers." 

To mention one more authority, — the Book of 
Book of ■' ' 

HomiiieE. HomOies, prepared for the instruction of the people, 

and recommended in the Articles for the excellence 

of its teaching ; if it bears one characteristic more 

strongly marked than another, it is the oft-recurring 

appeal to " the learned and godly doctors " of the 

Primitive Church.' 

And we find corroborative evidence in the private 

utterances of the leading Bishops and divines. 

In the Cranmer protests that he had never any othei 

workfl nnd . , ■ i . i . . 

coDfesEions intention " but purely and simply to imitate and 

formBrs. teach those things only which he had learned of the 

sacred Scriptures and of the holy Catholic Church of 

Christ from the beginning, and also according to the 

exposition of the most holy and learned Fathers and 

Slartyrs of the Church," and that it was 1 



' ale Homilies contain numeroHs 
Father, and the grEatest deference 
Eipreaaions of respect and aJmiration tor the 
icaet UB wherever we turn. 



from elmoiit e' 
claimed for their anthority. 
itiqnlty 




Testimony of the Primitive Fathers. 23 

wiBh to " use the same words that they used, and 
not use any other words, but to set his hand to aJl 
and singular their speeches phrases ways and forma 
of speech, which they do use in their treatises upon 
the Sacrament, and to keep still their int-erpreta- 
tion,"' 

Many illustrations of the same kind might be 
drawn from the writings of Jewel ; let one sufRce. 

In his Defence of the Apology which had been 
called forth by the strictures of Harding, he writes ; 
" In like sort do we also this day allege against you 
the manifest and undoubted and agreeable judgments 
of the most ancient learned holy Fathers, and there- 
by, as by approved and faithful witnesses, we dis- 
close the infinite follies and errors of your doctrine."^ 

In most of the seventeenth-century divines the 
nine high appreciation of Patristic authority is 
manifest. Beveridge says, " We may rightly con- 
dude that all, both separate works of individual 
Fathers and acts and monuments of Synods, as well 
provincial as universal, which exist at this day, are 
in the first place of this very great and remarkable 
use to ns : that from them we may consider it made 
out with certainty what the universal Church hath 
> OUMMEB's Worla. vol. It. pp. 1U6-7 : " AppMl imd ConfeBiioii 



Id lendiDg 
Anglktm 



24 TJie Value of the 

ever beiieved and openly taught as necessary ftrticles 
of faith aad rites ecclesiastical, and therefore 
what is to be ever believed and taught in the 
Church." ' 

Bramliall ia his Replication to the Bishop of 
Chalcedon's Survey writes : " I submit myself and 
my poor endeavours first to the judgment of the 
Catholic (Eciimeuical essential Church, which if of 
late days some have endeavoured to hiss out of the 
schools as a fancy, I cannot help it From the 
beginning it was not so. ... I do implicitly, and 
in the preparation of my mind, submit myself to the 
true Catholic Church, the spouse of Christ, the 
mother of saints, the pillar of truth. My adherence 
ia firmer to the infallible rule of faith, that ia the 
Holy Scriptures interpreted by the Catholic Church, 
than to mine own judgment or opinions," ^ 

The last quotation which we make is from one 
whose profound studies made him familiar with the 
literature of preceding ages, and enabled him to 
form a sound judgment upon the value of what he 
read. And this is his verdict on the authority of 
Patristic teaching : — " We allege not Fathers as 

' Preface to Codix Cofumum Eccletia Vnivtmdit vindkaius, 
COTSL. vol. ii. 

> Preface to RepUcation. To llie above dbdigb might be addwl 
Ussher, Hall, Cuain, Bull, and others. 



Testimony of the Primitive Fathers. 25 

grounds or principles' or foundations of our faith, 
but as witnesses, and as interpreters, and faithful 
conveyers." ' 

Having now established the claim of the Fathers 
to be heard, before we proceed to the direct applica- 
tion of the Vincentian test to the doctrines with 
which we are dealing, it will be well to consider 
some questions connected with the intermediate 
state in which the soul remains between death and 
the resurrection. 

"^ Oniht Use and Value of Ecclesiastical Antiquity.— ^aTJOL' 
LAXD, ?oK iii. p. 658 ; ed. Oxford, 18^. 




The teach- 
ing of the 
pwable of 



TT has long been a matter of dispute how far we 
are justified in using the passage of Scripture 
familiarly known as the parable of Dives and 
LazaniB to establish or illustrate the doctrine of 
the Intermediate State. 

" Parables," it is said, " may not be made primary 
sources and seats of doctrine," and we should hesi- 
tate to coDstruct a belief out of parabolical teaching, 
if ifc derived no support from other quarters. 

But we must not overlook the fact that in the 
case before us there are points in the story which 
distinguish it from the ordinary parable. Indeed 
they were felt in the early Churcli^ to be so marked, 
that there was a general concurrence of opinion in 
favour of its historical character. The etymological 



i"Plonis9imBBUti 


mDotni 


Dfl doouit . . 


ineaen 


irmlioncquaB 


Boribitur de XHvite e 




-Ini™. adv. 


Haer.W 


62. 




"Quid illicLazu 




Bi non in Te 


■iUUres 


fat! sed 


t-ii 


Imngo credenda eat 


teatimo 


niiim Brit ve 


ritatis."- 




df- 


>nf™a, vii. 












roE irXou^Uu «at 


Tou A a 


ApOU IBl TWt 


iKaripB 


. <JV^^&V 


Tuy 



The Intermediate Siate. 



27 



meaning of the name Lazarus^ has been i 
as an obvious impedlmeDt to imagining it to be a 
true history ; but though its peculiar appropriateness 
doee create some Buspicion in the mind, it is rather 
bold to speak positively in the face of the well- 
known fact that, in one or other of its forms, it 
was one of the commonest^ names in vogue at the 
time. It ie worthy also of note that onc° of the 
Fathers seems to have drawn the very opposite 

lirrepfa. — CHBT8, , De Las. i., vol. v. diri^Xf te rpii tSi' Ad^apof 
tit \aiiwpiTaToi'. — De Laiara el DivUs Tract vol. vi. ed. Puis. 

But in sevviul places lie also designstes it TapajSoXij. 

iarl reii/vr rapa^dXijt rpiro! iarriui! Ajxi/^'Tiii/i^i'Ot. ri rt 
Jwt T^ xXouffiifJ ral T^ Aafdpv elpi}fi(ni rapd XpHrrnu. Ixfi it 
i \i^03 ill Twii 'Effpaliiit f^ij TrapiSom, Ad^apBr ilral Tiea Kar' 
btUau (m^u if roii 'IcjHKroXiljUai!.— S. ClIilL. adv. Ajtlkn^o- 

It is not olenr what npinion AuguBtino held, bat the following 
pusign maj bo coasnltBd ;— Euorfio Bpisl, nan. ; De Cimtatt 
Utt, xii. 10 : Qumt. Evans- luiiiL ; De Verbis Dom. Serm. 

1 In Dinibrra Indei ti 
UiBD twenty-threa Elea 
fmbe. 

' It* etymology has been held to be doubtful. It has been 
t^ud«d by Eome aa an ubbreviated form of IIJIvK "my OoD ii 
(mj) Wp," but the ponttunlion ia aeainat tbis, cI, Eiod. iviiL 4. 
Other* liave maintnined tbnt it ia from IJV K?, d(3Di)ffir™!. 
bdplwi. Bot it ia simply tba equiTalent of the Puk'stinian •\1]p, 
wfatob b for tilhvti cf- MlBEHAH, JJtraiA. i. S. 

* " Kirratiu magis qaam parabola lidetnr quaodo elium nomeD 
uprimltur."— S. Ahbbose, Expot. Lite., lib. viil. 13. 

And K Tertullian, at Isost ui an alternative, cf. p. S6. 



28 



The Infermediaie State. 



of the 
Spirabi 



conclusion Ironi the iDtroduction of a name at all, 
and several of them call attention to the circum- 
Btance as unsuited to a parable. 

Bat even admitting its parabolical character, and 
knowing that parables do frequently contain unreali- 
ties, are we compelled to allow the same of this 1 

Was there any necessity, was there any likeli- 
hood, that He, Who knew perfectly "the fitness 
of things and their correspondenciea," would faU 
back upon pure fiction for the inculcation of truth 1 
In our weakness and want of experience we can 
hardly do otherwise when we speak parables ; but 
there is no evidence that anything which He 
taught, Who was Himself the Truth, iu doctrine 
or in illustration of doctrine, was other than 
absolutely true.' 
li There are parts of the narrative which must 
is be interpreted figuratively.^ All that is said, for 
instance, of the tongue of the rich man, the finger 
of the beggar, the tormenting thirst, the cooling 
water, and the colloquies between the lost and the 

'This ia worked oat at length in n, chapter on "The Bpirit 
world" in Oal of the Bod'j, by J. 8. Pollock, to whom I am 
indebted for the reference to Stier's Redeii Jbbu on this subject. 



Ahruhn, illalingnSidivitis, llledlgltna pauperis, illneitis tonnenti, 
ill& stills refrigerii vii fortosae a mansiicte quiereatibua, » can- 
tentiosD nntem ccrtantibua nuuquiim, invenitur.'' — S, AcansT. dt , 
Om. aii Lit. liii. 6. 




TJie IiUcrnudiate Siate. 



29 



saved, — sucli modes of expreHBion find an exact 
parallel in those nnmerons passaigea in which God, 
Who is aSpinl,in condeecension to finite intelligencea, 
applies to Himself the parts and passions of a man. 

While, then, admitting that the literal interprcltt- 
tioQ of details mnst be rejected, we hold that its 
whole teochiiig is based on substantial truth, and 
that the following deductions are of the very es- 
sence of Christ's doctrine : — That the souls of the 
departed, in the intermediate state, are possessed of 
consciousness, memory, and sensibility to pain and 
pleasure; that the life of all men, whether good 
or bad, is continued without interruption after the 
separation of soul and body ; and that retribution 
comniences between death and the judgment. And 
ail of these conclusions are in direct antagonism 
to the theory that the soul falls asleep when the 
body dies, and will not awake again till the 
rcaurrection of the dead at the last day.' 

We pass to the familiar prayer of the thief upon xhe thief 
the cross, and our Lord's reply. By perhaps the "j!^' * 
highest act of faith recorded in the Bible the dying 

> "Ttw Mu!a of tfasm tlint depart thts lifu do neither die with 
Uw bodlra nnr sleep idlj'. Thef which nxy tlut the >ouIk of luch 
M depart bsBCB do «1eep, being without all xnne, feellna, or 
p«re«i>iiis> °°>i' the daj nr jndgmMit .... do nttorljr dimnt 
(Wm IhBtiKlit belief deolared to 011 in Holy Scripture."— Cf, AH. 
XL. r./ lilt Farty-lufB ArtkUa put foTth in Ihrrdsnof K/lvar'l VI 



30 The Intermediate State. 

thief is earned in thought away from the scene of 
ahame and dishonour, in which he was taking part, 
and he sees in the Crucified One some convincing 
signs of His real Messiahship, and with a far-reach- 
ing prayer asks that, as he had shared His ndsery 
upon earth, he may not be forgotten in the midst 
of His coming glory. And what is the answer f 
Hia petition is for a reward in the future ; but that 
good confession deserves even a better boon than 
he sought to obtain, and immediate happiness is 
promised, even a foretaste of the fruition on that 
very day — to be with Him, in short, in the Paradise 
of joy and delight, where He was about to join tlie 
souls of the righteous, who were awaiting their 
perfect consummation and bliss. Would it be at all 
consistent with right reasou,^would it not rather 
have been a simple evasion of the thief's request, — to 
have replied as He did, had our Lord known that 
Paradise was a land of forgetfiilness or unconscious 
sleep 1 We have only to observe the expedients 
which they^ have been driven to adopt, who hold 



hud called up ^m tlie dead, eipresses very clearly ttie Jewish 
belief in the consciotisaess of the soul in the IntermfldiatB State. 
Cf. Bab. TilM. Berraeh,., 1 Sam, xiviii 
The following are examplea eelected &oni a repTesentative 

i. a-hf-tpot is to be oonnectet' with the worfis which jirecede it, 



Tfte ItUerviediate State. 



31 



the opposite theory of the soul's sleep in the inter- 
mediate state, to satisfy ourselves that the ofdinary 
intetpretation alone is to be relied upon. 

We have further confirmation, in the language in s. Pnura 
which S. Paul ' expresses his ardent longings for the pro- 
that which was to follow. What bright hope was appTOBcli- 
it which cheered him as this earthly vision was '°^ ^*'''*' 
fading from his sight 1 It was the confidence,^ 
the unwavering conviction, that so soon as his 
spirit had shuffled off this mortal coil, he should 
be " with Christ." But could he have derived con- 
solation ^m the thought that be should be with 



'ou to-day." There is little to delerraiEe the propar 
r Hss. bnt Ihe iHiDtest. This presents no possible 
IT Lord shonld lay sirens upnD the time at which Be 
I speaking. The thief hail asked for a blessing to talte effect ut 
» partiiulnr time. The reply states at what time, albeit naanir 
than WM ripBdted, the prayar should be granted. 

11. Our Lord adhered lu the time, to which Ilie petition loobeii, 
and by ff^wpw, or, oa it means, TJSe r^ ^H^pf, signified the 
day of which the thief spoke,— on this yon shall be with Ate in 
Ihe Paradise to which yoii hope to go. 
ili. He need the expression in the ordlnnry scceptatlan of the 
B tba thief was at the point of death, aiid seeing 
that wfasn he died he vonld fall asleep till the resurrection, he 
would take up time wher« he had left it, and the day of Christ's 
' \g would be to him the day of his death, tbe banil of the 
dial pointing, as it were, to the hour of bis departiire,— the end of 
that old Jewish dny. the beginning of that which ha would epend 
With Christ in His kingdom. — Const ible, Uades, chap. xxii. 
>SCoB. T. 6-8. : Pnri. i. 21-23. 

^tiTfi rdtTore lal liiirn — Sapfriim- ii Hal liSotou/ar. 



Tlie Intermediate State. 



Him if he knew at the same time that being with 
Christ meant nothing more than going where He 
was, with no hope of realising His presence and 
communing witli His Spirit, which would bo an 
impossibility if, from the very moment of his depar- 
ture, his soul was bound over to a state of uncon- 
scious sleep ^ 

Or again, what possible " gain " could ii have been 
for him " to die," if death were to be but the passing 
from a realisation of the Divine fellowship, which 
he already felt and enjoyed so keenly, into an union 
of place and habitation with the object of lus love, 
in which, no matter how close and immediate, tlie 
sleeping spirit could find no satisfaction 1 

It has Ijcen said ' that the Apostle overleapC the 
hounds of intervening time and space ; that in the 
ititeiisity of his longing he reached forward to the 
UesurrectioD and to his final home with Christ in 
heaven. This is to suppose that he was forgetful of 
the fact that he could not enter heaven until his 
soul should have been united with his risen and 
glorified body, for he speaks, and that with an 
emphasised repetition, of absence from the body as a 
prerequisite for that presence with ChrLst for whioii 
he yearned. 

' COUSTABLK, Hades, chap, idil. 




Tlw Intermediate State. 33 

The conolnsion is forced upon us tlut it was the 
conviction of an intermediate state of conscioos 
Bpinlaal fellowship with Christ in paradise which 
filled him with hope and consolation in the prospect 
of approaching death. 

Additional support is t« be found in the well- iTie^eiit 
"^ of Chrut'g 

known passage from S. Peter on the spirits in •fi"t ' 
prison : " ^ot (Ehrist aUo halh oner sufftrel) for 
sine, the jnst f ot the unjnsl, that ^e might bring 
us to (5ob. beinQ put to hcitth in the flceh, 
but qnithencii bp the spirit ; be tchith aleo ^e 
tomt anb preacheb nntn the spirits in prison."* 

The Apostte here testifies not only to the continu- 
ance of the life of Clirist's human spirit after death, 
bat to its receiving fresh-added Wgonr and Etctiritj 
far its disembodied existence. 

The anthorieed version is obviously in error in 
deatroying the reference to Christ's human spirit 
It was the spirit of the Man Christ Jesus which 
went and held converse with the spiriU of the men 
of a former generation in that place of detention 
Mid waiting which is common to all during their 
•cpantion from the body. 

Parthermore, it seems to be almost necessary to 
attach vomethiug l>eyond the common meaning to 

< I B. PrTTR iii. 18, \9 ; Jot rurther eiplnaaUoii, nee |>iigF 47. 




34 



Tlie Intermediate State. 



the " quickening " here spoken of, in order to justify 
the antithesis " jmt io ieath in the flesh, iptickcitrl) 
ITI the apirit." Both are changed : the hody from 
lifu to death; the spirit from the life which it lived 
ill the flesh to the new powers of vitality and energy 
vvliidi it acquired by its liberation. And in the 
power of this " quickening," Hia spirit went down 
to Hades, not to pass its three days' sojourn in un- 
conscious torpor, but in active intercourse with the 
spirits which had preceded Him there. 

The great difBculty, no doubt, which is felt in 
il£cepting these conclusions arises out of man's in- 
ability to conceive of the soul existing in a conscious 
sentient condition independently of bodily organs 
of sense. The following quotations may lessen the 
difficulty. Bishop Bull' has suggested how the 
disembodied soul may be able to perceive "by the 
help of some new subtler organs and instruments 
fitted to its present state, which either by its own 
native power given in its creation it forms to itself, 
or by a special act of the Divine power it is supphed 
with." Stier^ also, speaking of a tongue and finger 
in Hades, says tliat this is not said "in the sense of 
perfect corporeity, for that has been put off j it is 

' Serm. iii., CDiiteming the Middle State of Happiness or 
MjHBrj-.— W'otJcs, vol. i. p. 62, eil. Burton. 
'Brisa's Rafcn Jesv,, in hico, rol. n. pp. 227, 228, Pope's 



The Intermediate State. 



35 



not on that accoant, however, a mere figure, but 
indicates a certain corresponsive corporeity of the 
soul with which it is akeady and essentially in- 
Testad;" and he explains further od, by a quotation 
from another writer, how, " in our corporeal life, it la 
not the eye of the hody, properly speaking, which 
sees, but the Boul sees through the eye. It is not 
the bodily tongue, which speaks and so forth. Thus 
there exists a spiritual capacity of seeing, hearing, 
speaking, which may find its operation and act 
without the organs of the earthly corporeal body." 

We may conclude this subject by an appeal to 
the opinion of S. Paul when he wrote, " 3 kntlu n 
msn in fflltrist abobt fmirtcm sears ago, {lohelher 
in the bobg, E cannot tell ; or luhfthcr ont of the 
bollE, E cannot tell : ©oti knotocth ;) snrh an one 
MOflht np to the thiri hcabcn. ,^nli E knctu sntK 
% man, (whether in the botiji, or nut of the tobg. I 
ntnnot tcU : (5ob hnoineth;) halu that lie bas 
aught «tJ into paraiiise, anS hearh unspcjihable 
Woibg, tohich it ia not latoful for a man to ntter.''^ 
Il IB evident that he believed in the possibility of a 
disembodied soul possessing faculties of perception, 
otherwise he could have liad no doubts whether it 
waa while in the body or in the spirit that those 
imearthly sounds hail made themselves lieard. 
' t Coil. lii. 2-1. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Cljanse in tijc 31nttrmeliiate Sitate. 

The pro- T^ '' ^^ admitted that the soul exists after death, 
aanMtaca- ^^^ '^ conscious, it seems almost impossible to 

thTdSem- '^^1'^^^ t^"' '^ remains altogether unchaDged. 

'^ Conscious life by all analogy involves progress or 

^- '^ f etrogresaion, growth or decay. 
" L l''^ -Now if the soul has not been made perfect in this 
_ -^^ , ,*^-world, on the supposition that no change passes over 
U f^ \ it in its disembodied condition, then there is a long 

period in which the operations of Grod'a Spirit upon 
it are suspended, and an imperfect soul is left to 
stagnate in its imperfection. 

But is not progress, steadily advancing progress, 
a very law of God's Idngdoni i Is it not the prin- 
ciple upon which He has been working from the 
beginning of the creation in the world around us, 
and if the God of nature and the God of grace are 
one, may we not expect a corresponding mode of 
operation upon the moral character of man t 



Look at the long agCB which the Almighty spent An analogy 

EromtliG 

in perfectmg the matenal world for the use and material 
habitation of the human race. In the light of such 
a consideration, does it not Ecem almost a contrar 
diction to suppose that threescore years and ten 
may suffice for the perfecting of the soul for the 
Divine Presence i 

It ia quite conceivable that the soul might con- 
tinue in a state of lethargy without undergoing any 
change. As it happens sometimes in a long trance 
that the physical functions are suspended, so it would 
be with the spiritual. Time would, moreover, to all 
intents aad purposes, he annihilated, and the inter- 
mediate state have no apparent duration. It would 
be, it is said, with the soul as it was In the fable with 
the seven sleepers at Epheaus.^ They awoke from 
a sleep of two hundred ye;ir3 and reaumed the thread 
of being where they had left it suspended. While 
they had lain wrapt in that raysterious slumber, the 
earth had changed in all its features, physical and 
moral, but no change bad passed over them, and they 
were wholly unconscious of the lapse of time. But the 
comparison fails, because, as we have shown, the soul 

ncl and its wicle-fipread adoption 
ion's Decline and Fall, chap, 
a tte Gubject mentioned in tha 



38 Change in the Intermediate State. 



is not unconecioua between death and judgment. 

It has been Baid, however, that when the soul leaves 

the body and passes into the spiritual world, whether 

sleeping or waking, it knows nothing of time. There 

is no inspired sanction for the beKef that such a 

condition of things exists in the intermediate state. 

Theespec- There can be little doubt that it will be set free 

theeoau from all those limits of time which are measured 

altar. by human calculations, by the numbering of days 

and weeks, of months and years ; indeed it could 

not be otherwise, but Scripture hints at least at 

something of a corresponding nature, when it reveals 

the souls beneath the altar crying " ^oh) long !"• 

So long as the condition of souls is not finally 
fixed, but some change is contemplated, there must 
be something of the nature of time. When that for 
which all creation is groaning, for which the souls 
in paradise are waiting, for which the souls of 
martyrs are passionately crying, wlien all this is 
come, we can conceive of the ending of time, and 
we can understand the meaning of the Apocalyptic 
vision, iu which the "itngel stoare bp ^im that 
iibrth for Ebtt aixli £ti£c, luhir flrjatcl) hraljen, 
anh the things that thtrriit art, ani the larik, anil 
the things that ihcttiii art, ani the sea, aiii the 
■ Uev. »i. 10. 



Change in the Intermediate State. 39 



Ihin^e lohirh axe tlurnn, that there ehmtlli lie 
time no toiiger."' 

Let us look at the matter from a slightly different 
point of view. We are told, on the authority of 
God's Word, that "* angthirtg that IJcCiEth"* will not 
be suffered to enter heaven. Now, take the case of a 
man whose whole life up to his last illness, or it 
may be till he was actually at the point of death, 
haa been spent in sin, in constant association with 
evil, m accustoming liimself to all that is the very 
opposite of heaven and heavenly things ; suppose 
that with his dying breath he has sought and obtained 
pardon, does he require no time to form new 
habits of holiness, and attune the spiritual life to 
the harmonies of heaven, so that there shall be no 
discord or jarring sounds 1 or does the pardon which 
he receives wipe out the stain of guilt and infuse 

iKkv.i.6.— TbiBhaabeeDinterprttedbfConi. iLapido, Ewald, 
Da Wett«, and othem. u loipiyiiiK that the appointed delay ia at 
4D end (nal ij^&ri BtroTt Iva itairaiaainai in 'xpiroi' lUKpIr), 
tint them should ba do longer any postponement of Judgoient, 
ntapt that brief respite io the daya of the last onget when he ia 
aboDt tu sound hia troinpeL If we accept 'Cilia iu gilacB of the 
MiGnory interpretation, sa I think ve are bound to do, it aOard* 
■ddltinnal evidence that the departed sanla are BipBcting " the 
Ikunment of the myaterj ot God," and expectation lavolvet • 
•onaelontDesB of the lapse of time. 

■ ftcv. xii. 27.— The reading of the beat usa. is xoirir, instead 
ofMoSvv.bntwhetherit is that which maketh unclean or which it 
ItMir nnclEsu, It is equally iiei-linent. 



40 Change in the Intermediate State. 



ThfldiE- 
tlnction 

juetifica- 



perfect holiness, as welt as release liiin from p 
mentl May there not be something here analogous 1 
to the remission of sins in Baptism, in which we I 
are taught that pardon is granted when the rita I 
is administered, but the infection of the corrupt -I 
nature remains, and is only eradicated by the after- I 
sanctificatiou of the Holy Spirit] Such a question J 
brings us face to face with a theological dispute J 
which has at divers times perplexed and bewildered 1 
thft Church respecting the proper relationship of 'j 
justification and sanctih cation. 

Anglican Divines ^ hold that the latter differa,! 
from the former in that it is a progressive work,^ 

1 " Ye ure tnade free from sin and made servants to God • this ■! 
is Uie rigliteousness of juBtification. Ye Iiare your fruj 
haiineBa ; thia is the righteDiiEne]^a of Banctification."— Hodeeb, 1 
Serm. ii. 6. " 

" lu Che progress of n Christian man tVom hiB originai juatiflM- ■! 
tion to his Bnal salraticti, tliese several states or conditions of . J 
rlghteoosness successively appertain to him. 

"First in order comes the foranaio righteousness of jnstiUcB- I 
lion i a righteoiuness reputativaly hia through faitli, and t 
oocouut of the jierfoct meritoriouaneSB of Christ. 

"If Bit In order comes the inherent righteousness of eanctiSct- I 
Uon ; a righteousness infused into liim by the Holy Spirit after h*fl 
has been justified. 

" And last in order cornea the complete righteousness of glor[fl>H 
nation ; a lighteonaneBs acquired Ly him when this corraptiblflJ 
puts on incorruption, aad this mortal pats on immortality. 

" The fiiat ... is pEi-fcct but not inherent. The second . 
ia inherent but not perfect. The third ... is both perfect au4fl 
inherent."— FiDKH, cited In Hook'3 Chunk Diet., Art. " SanctiB-^ 
cation." 



Changt 



1 the Inlenncdialc State. 



41 



prficess begun, it is true, coincidently with it, but 
requiring to be cootiniied afterwards. 

I( then, by reason of death iinine<l lately supei- 
vesing, th»« is bo time allowed after the forgiveuese 
of HnSiit follows, either that absolute holiness is not 
& ttM jHs Mon for admissioa to heayen, which is 
contraiy to Scripture, or else that justificatioQ is not 
only remission of sins but sanctification also, which 
■a the doctrine of the Roman Church,' and in effect 
of Cal^-inists also.* 

Il has been thought* thai, though sanctification be 
normally progiessive, yet that in some cases it may 
be instantaneous, as for example with those ■* tohtch 
art uliDc anli remain nnto the coming of the 
Joti."* When no time has been allowed for the com- 
|>)ction of the work in life, God will effect it at the 
moment of the resurrection. The following passage 
teems to bear upon the argument : " SBc shall XUii 
all Atr^. hut lue shall all \it thangeh. in a monunt, 

< " Jiutificatio ipsa consHjnitiir ignx nan wl &o1a percatoniu 
rSBibsia ud <t unctifcalia et nnOTstia iDteriaria faanunii."— 
OmuAL TMil., 8*a«. tL cap. 3. 

■ "'naiifli kUek u bell, polluted with gnill, Urfiled with >iii, 
]wt in Cbrlit alt bir, without spot, fnll^ nconciW to bod, ami 
vllhont trespMaca before Him."— Masou, Sfxritval Trtaavryjur 
ik* CUfMiw. <if Oud. vol. L p. 1*1 (1779). 

* This wu tliii riflw of S. Uacabius, i/on. xivL ; BiU, Patr. 
OaOaadii, 7. 39. 



42 Change in the Intermediate State 

in the tlniukUng at an ege, »t the bat tramp/' 
The Apostle is arguiug about the resurrection of the 
body, in whicli there will certainly be an instan- 
taneoua change from death to life, from the death of j 
corruption in which it had Iain, to a life of i: 
ruption which will then begin. He aaya nothing 
here about any change, instantaneous or other, 
passing over the soul. 

There is, no doubt, a difficulty which suggeetB itself I 
touching sanctification after death, in cases where 
the sins have been essentially carnal, in which the I 
body has shared the contamination of the consent- | 
ing spirit. Is it possible that the sanctification of ] 
the Boul in its separate state can sufGce for both 1 1 
It may be that an answer is to be found m something j 
of a kindred nature which is constantly going on. 

Different sins, we know, are incidental to different 
stages of life, "When a man has passed into the . 
second stage, is it impossible for him to wipe out by 
repentance- the stain of guilt incurred in the firsts ' 
May not the sorrows of the man atone for the errors ' 
of the child, or the tears of old age wash away the 
impurities of youth and manhood! To put ; 
extreme case of this kind, let as imagine one who | 

1 ! Cob. ct. 51. 

" '' RepeiitnncB" here, of conrsa, is spoken 
riifs qua nnn," not t!ic "cmtsn e£icieti. 



Change in tlie Intemiedtaie State. 43 



has spent bis early days in unrestraiucd indulgent^, 

in making liis body au instrument of sensiuvl 

gratification, and tlien lingers on into decrepit age, 

till the very ashes of fleshly lust have ceased to 

smoulder in his veins, till he is practically dead to 

hia fonner temptations. Should we not hesitate to 

pronounce his past irretrievable, or to deny the 

poeubility of bis wiping out the old stains of dehle- 

ment by the purification of his soul % It is not easy 

to draw much distinction between such a case and 

that of the man whose body, with all the material 

organs of sense, has been laid in the grave. 

There are some well-known texts of Scripture Ti's mimiii- 
pliMtion ol 
which are often quoted in opposition to the idea of uxta of 

any change in Hades, and as a proof that virtually nupport Ui« . 

the day of death rather than the day of judgment tfieory. 

is "the last line of things." Most of them, on in- 

vesligation, will be found to be wholly in'eleviint. 

That most frequently urged is, " tolute the ttte 

CaUeth. there it shall be.''^ The Preacher is 

describing certain natural phenomena, and pointing 

oat how the powers of nature are regulated by God, 

and he takes as illustrations the direction of the 

wind, or the inclination of a falling tree, both of 

whidi be implies are beyond the control of man. 

I Eccus. li. a. 



44 



% Intermediate State. 



There is not the least hint given, or anything wliat- 
ever to suggest the likelihood that he employed 
such figures to teach the unalterable condition of the 
soul after death. 

We cannot but regard with aatiat'action the altera- 
tion of a verse in a familiar hymn which contributed 
so much to fix the common application of the words 
on the popular mind ; — ■ 

' ' Ab the tree falls, bo must it lie : '| 

Aa the man Uvea, so will be die ; 
Aa the man dies, Buoh muat he be. 
All through the days of Eternity." ' 

" ESBhatsoeljer iKj) hnnh finiJctii to 60, iJa it toith 
thj) might ; for tticre is no hjorit, nor iJcljite, nor 
kitololfigj, not toisbom, in the grafle, tohithct thou 
goest."^ 

The writer confines his observations to what he 

sees in this life, to the worts which are carried on 

" under the sun," and there is no reason to suppose 

that he referred at all to the mode of existence of 

the soul in another world. Indeed, considering the 

general tone of his writing, it would bo a manifest 

over-straining of the meaning of his words to adopt 

' " by TUy power grant, Lord, that we 

At onr last hour fall not from Thae ; 

Saved liy Thy grace, Thina may we ba 

All tlttongh the days of Btomity." 

ff mtu A-acieiil and Modem, 289. 



Change in the Iniemudiaie S/aie. 45 

Boch « teferenoe. We should hesitate, moreover, 
under any oFcamEtances, knoving how imp^^ect 
the conception of the future was in bis age, to 
consider the inactivity of the disembodied »nl 
proved by any words which he might use. 

"^hr night onneth tohtn no man am HwptIl'"' 

It was the reason which oar Lord gave for doing 
works of mercy on the Sabbath-day, when most men 
rested fipom their labours. TTie day was the period 
of His earthly ministiy, the space allotted to Him by 
the Father for the fiilhlment of a special mission ; 
the night was the time when that mission would 
close. It receives a fuller illustration in a later 
chapter, when He likens Himself to a traieller 
walking during those hours of the day in which 
he has the light to enable him to see the path. 

The idea that Hie words, beyond their immediate 
application to His own case, had a further reference to 
the ordinary life-work of each individual, has been 
imported into them, in all probability, &om a false 
conception that the soul is asleep in the night of death. 

" tBe mnot all appear btfore ihc jatigmtnt-etat 
«f Christ : that cberp one in»s refeibi: the things 
bone in his bolts, arurrlling to that he hath bont, 
fDhethrr it be goob or bab."' 

'S. JOBNU. i. >2C0B. V.IO. 




46 Change in the Intermediate State. 



once the 
theory of 
a change 
taking 



If the view set forth in these pages be rightl; 
understood, it will be seen that such a declaration 
as thia in no way militates against the idea of a 
progressive sanctifi cation of the soul continuing after 
death. It is not held that the work done by it in 
the disembodied state will affect the final judgment. 
That, according to the teaching of Holy Scripture, 
will depend entirely upon the conduct of the body 
and soul during the probation of the earthly life, 
and have no concern with the state in which the 
after-preparation of the soul for the presence of God 
is carried to completion, 
f There are a few passages which, though of un- 
certain significance, may be set in the opposite scale, 
and have some counteracting influence. 

" ^nh iltese sU, habing nbtainci) a goah r£port 
thrimgh faith, reerilicli not the ptomist : ©aIi 
habing prcbiiieii soitw better thing for na, that 
thej) toithflut us sliottlti not he tnaie jicrfert."' 

It would seem &om this that those old saints and 
martyrs who had died in faith before the Advent, 
were benefited by something which took place after 
their death. Their perfection was made dependent 
upon a later generation, If, therefore, they were 
capable of such an improvement in their condition 



' Heb. xi. 39. 40. 



Change in Uie Intermediaie Stale. 47 



AB is here indicated, &nd i^ mareoTer, as the folloviug 
passage shows, the; were consdons of the change, we 
can hardly apply to them the image of the fallen 
tree, and if not to them, why to any departed 

" Christ also hath tmu snSrrrli fat Bins, the 
jost for thr mtjaat. that ^f mi^ht bring ns to Sob, 
bring put to btath in the flfsh but qttii bnub bo 
tht spirit, be tphich also jgt Wntt anil piraihtS 
ttnto tht spirits in prison."' 

Whatever dispntea have g&tJieied round the 
iat^rpretatioQ of these words in past times, an un- 
prejudiced reader, aided by the light which modem 
criticism has thrown upon them, would hardly fail 
to draw the conclusion' that onr Lord, in Hit 
human spirit, during the time that His body lay 
in the grave, visited certsdn disembodied spirits 
detained somewhere in ward or costody, and that 
He bore to them int«liigei]ce, which they were 
capable of receiving, and bv which their existing 
condition was ameliorated.' 

»I 8, P«TrRHi. 18, 19. 

( That thia ii tbe lutiml priiaafaeit iiiI«rpreUtiaii vc coDclode 
ItMD tb« ibifti ind aabUrfiigei to which men hare b*d neoone 
teordatoavoidit. 

'"Solrit rineal» inferni et piomm utiinu eleTaTit,"— S. 
Awnou, di Fid. ad Oral. iv. 1. 

" All Tntan mi> ilncciulem seru intend joDiiuqac confiio- 



48 Change in tJte Intermediate State. 

" i aato vmhtr the altar the Bonis of them that 
tnere slain for the tooxi at Qaoi, ani for the t£0ti- 
mong tohiift thc^ hrlti : anJ) thfj; rrieb toith a loni 
toire, sajing, ^oto long, ® S^b, hotji anJ tnu, 
bast then aot jaBge aiib abcitge xjar blooii ait tkem 
that btotU on the larih ?"^ 

Admitting that the language is highly mystical, it 
nevertheless must be in some way "a figure of the 
true." Is, then, such looking forward, sach ardent 
longing for the fulfilment of their liopes, compatible 
with the idea of standing still 1 Is this cry one long 
monotonous moan, relieved by no rise and fall, no 
relaxing energy or intensilied eagerness 1 Such 
changelessness is contradicted by what follows, for 
"tohite tobes iotxe QiDm nuto ebtrj) one of them; 
anb it toa« sail) unto them, that thcj; ahonlb net 
■get for a Utile season." 

Again, an argument against the cessation of pro- 
gress at death may be drawn from the fact that the 
Apostles set before Christians the coming* of the 
Lord, not the end of life, as the goal towards which 
they are bidden to strive. 

gens vinctAB peccato animaa mortis damnationa destrncta a diabull 
taocibua revocavit ad Titnin,"— S. Ambhobe, de Mysl, Pasch. 4, 

" Desceudit ad iureros Bt destructiB clausis Tartnri, suds quos Ibi 
reparit eruans, yictnr od BuparoB Mcendit." — 8. HiEEOlt., In 
Lamen. lilj. jr. o. iiL 

» RBV. vi. 9, !0, U. s Phil. i. G ; 1 Ctm. i. 7. i 




Change in the Intertnediate State. 49 



S. Paul' writes to his Philippiao converts in full 
confidence that God, Who has inaugurated a good 
work in their hearts, will carry it on from one stage 
to another till it arrives at perfect maturity, not in 
the hour of death, but on the day of Jesus Christ,^ 
And to the Corinthians he expresses a thankful 
assurance that they will he kept firm unto the end, 
and that such keeping will insure their being found 
irreproachable at the final test. 



I Tt \aa oflen Imsb cnnHdeatly 
sxpected the 8>-cond Advent in hie on 
•blch would of connie weaken in s 
VTgHl kbove, because the conviction 
diy wonld leave leas room for thong 



LBserted that the Apostle 
1 lifetime ; an admission of 
ime degree what has been 
□r the imminence of thit 
intemiediato state 



betoeen Heath and judgment. Some of the psasnges adduced ii 
■Ql^rt of the belief contain casual exprussians, such as would 
sot unuiitnrall; full from the lips of one who had been toM that it 
wirolrt ooDje BuddBnly and oneipeotedly. Othera admit, perhaps, 
ef tlie eiplaoatiOD that he spoke in the flrit person onlf by ^rra- 
ffXi)4Uiri0>iJi (1 CoK. IT, 61 ; 1 Tbess. iv. IT). When called upon 
la give his deliberative judgment in conseqnence of opinions held 
bf the ThesnUoniann, he spenks us though he did not believe the 
day to be immediately impending (2 TBicaa. il. 1-2). It may here 
ba obiencd on this dispntcd qnestton, that If it were absolutely 
Mrtain that the Apostle was mistaken, no argiimeat adverse to 
tba iiis|iiratian of his writings generally ought to be drawn from 
il. Oor Lord eipressiy said that the Father had kept the koow- 
ledge of ibis to Himself (S. Uatt. utv. 36). This then Is an 
sxet^oTul case, and one in which the claim for inspired know- 
ledge in the Apostle onght not to be set up. 

» IH. Newman writes, " It will be found on the whole that death 
liBot Ihe object put forward in Scripture for hope to rest upon, bat 
the ixnolDg of Christ, as if the interval between death and Bis 
eetning was by no means to be omitted in Ibe proeeH of our 
ibwo."— Vol, lii. Serm. iiv. ed. 187B, 




CHAPTER V. 



^capEcg tot ti)e BcaO: lR,cafionS foe our 
itoca'sf feiJlencE on itje Subject. 

How tho TF we are justified in lie conclnsion wliich we have 

lirincip!s of I 

IntBroBH- drawn from the foregoing evidence, that the soul 

through is capable of change after its separation from the body 

Bible. ^y death, it becomes a deeply interesting question 

Iiow far, or whether at all, such change may he aided 

or affected by the intercessions of the living. 

There is a recognised principle running through 
Holy Scripture, and illustrated by the common 
experience of God's dealings with us, that He has 
chosen that the destiny of man, for weal or woe, shall 
bo influenced by the conduct of his fel!ow-men. 

We see abundant proofs of this principle in the 
lives of the most eminent characters of Bible history. 
Look at its exercise in the intercessory prayers of 
the Patriarchs : Abraham pleading with God for 
Sodom; Moses, with his uplifted arms, winning 
victory for larael ; Job interceding successfully for 
his friends; and we gather from the prophet 



Prayers for the Dead. 



51 



EzekieP that it is only when wickedness has passed 
all bounds that the prayers of the faithful prove in- 
effectual. 

The principle ia seen in its fullest development in 
the life of our Lord, when He spent whole nights in 
prayer, not only eommnning for Himself with God, 
but seeking deliverance for those in distress, or 
when He said to His Apostle, " §imcm, ^iimm. 
beluUl. ^atan hath tesireb to huUc j)on, thnt he 
mag sift goa as tohcat : bnt 1 habc prnMiJ for 
the£, that thji faith fait not ; anb tohtn thou art 
cmibcitcb, strmglhdt thji hwthrcn;"^ or yet once 
more when Ho interceded with His dying breath for 
the forgiveness of His murderers. 

And we hear the echoof His teaching in the mani- 
fold injunctions of His Apostles, in 8. Paul's appeal 
to hifl converts to offer supplication for himself and 
for all saints, and in his oft-expressed intercessions 
for them,^ and in S. James' declaration that to 
recover the sick, and to obtain forgiveness of hia sins, 
"the tSerinat fcrbcnt ^nrastc of a rightfons man 
itbaileth mmh." * 

' txss. liT. 24. « S. LcKK iiii. 31. 

< Eruna. tL 18 ; Phil. i. 3, 1 ; Col. i. 3 i 1 TnESS. L % 
•9. JUCB, V. 14, 15. irtpyauiiini should bB rsnilerad "in lt( 
•ortbg;" to nuke it equal A^f^TJiiuthe A. V. do«s, andooniidsT 
n •■ ui altrlbatfl ot Utibu, is opposed to N. T. SHge, and ou 
lb* (oft* otlliB ApoatlB"a ssbtrtion. 



52 Our Lord's Silence on the Subject 



to prsyar 
for the 

Eroundcil 



It will be aaid that all this is not to the point, 
that it only concerns the living; but oar object 
in recalling such familiar examples is to press home 
the fact that we are all brethren, and by the bonds 
of human sympathy and the ties of Christian 
brotherhood are bound to help one another by 
prayer. And if the whole body of Christians, 
both those in the flesh and those out of the flesh, 
are but one family, then it seems hard to believe 
that separation by death can interpose a barrier 
to our intercessions. 

But here, if anywhere, of ourselves "toe knoto 
not tohat toe ehonlb ^6^ for as toe ought," 
and wo gladly fall back upon the teaching of the 
Primitive Church, in the confidence that in the 
freshness of the faith she was better able to under- 
stand the mind of Christ than we can be, seeing 
that the mists of prejudice and error have obscured 
our vision. 

It will be our endeavour, then, to find out, from 
the writings of antiquity, how far the souls of the 
departed were considered to come within the range 
of the prayers of the Church on earth. 

Before considering those passages of Holy Scrip- 
ture which appear to have any bearing upon this 
(juBstion, it will be well to notice briefly the oft- 



of Prayers for iJie Dead, 



53 



repeated objection that the Great Teacher Himself 
was silent npon the subject. Asauming for the 
moment that the statement is correct, how is 
His silence to be accounted for^ Waa He silent 
because, the custom of praying for the dead being 
unknown, there was nothing to call forth an expres- 
sion of opinion, or was it that, being known. He 
gave it His tacit approval 1 

Now, if the practice existed, it could not have 
been of very long standing, for before the Captivity 
little was revealed to the ancient people touching 
the state of the soul after death ; and from that 
time onward their interest in the subject could have 
been only of slow growth and gradual development 
We may not, therefore, draw any adverse conciu- 
aiona from the absence of reference to it in the 
Old Testament writings, which for the most part 
antecode the rise of the doctrine. By the nature 
of things it could hardly have been otherwise. 
But in the Apocryphal Books, which to sorne extent 
fill up the gap between the close of prophecy, about 
a century after the return from Captivity, and the 
beginning of the Christian Era, we have a right to 
expect some evidence of the belief, if it had taken 
any hold npon the minds of men. Of courBe tliey 
will not be "applied to establish doctrine," but 



sileoDS or 
Chriat. 



54 Our Lord's Silence on the Subject 



they may fairly be used as helping to confirm t 
historical fact of the existence of the belief, without] 
affecting its orthodoxy one way or the other. 

In this collection of writings there is one mention " 
I of the subject, aud though it stands alone, it is so 
emphatic, and is introduced so naturally, that the 
conclusion is almost forced upon us that, at the 
period referred to, the habit of praying for the dead 
had become wide-spread and general. 

In the latter part of the Second Book of 
Maccabees^ the historian describes some special 
events in the life of Judas, and, in connection 
with one of these, we have a positive declaration 
that prayers were offered for the dead. 

"So Judas gathered his host and came into the.l 
city of Odollam, And when the seventh day came, I 
they purified themselves, as the custom was, and I 
kept the Sabbath in the same place. And upon the 
day following, as the use had been, Judas and his 
company came to take up the bodies of them that 
were slain, and to bury them with their kinsmen in 
their fathers' graves. 

"Now, under the coats of every one that ■(, 
slain they found things consecrated to the idols (rf I 
the Jamnites which is forbidden the Jews by tb»l 



of Prayers for tlie Dead. 



55 



lav. Then every m£tn saw tbat this was the cause 
wherefore they were slain, 

" All men therefore praising the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, 

" Who had opened the things that were hid, 

" Betook themselTca unto prayer, and besought 
Him that the sin committed might whoUy be put 
out of remembrance. Besides, that noble Judas 
eKhorted the people to keep themselves from sin, 
forasmuch aa they saw before their eyes the things 
that came to pass for the sins of those that were 
bIud. 

" And when he had made a gathering thronghout 
the company to the sum of two thousand drachms 
of silver, he sent it to Jerusalem to offer a sin- 
ofiTering, doing therein very well and honestly, in 
that he was mindful of the resurrection : 

"For if he had not hoped that they that were 
slain should have risen again, it had been supertluouB 
and vain to pray for the dead. 

"And also in that he perceived that there was 
great favour laid up for those that died godly, it 
was an holy and good thought 

"Whereupon he made a reconciliation for the 
dead, that they might be delivered from sin." 

We ab.-il! consider, at a later stage of the intiuiry, 



56 Our Lord's Siletue on l/ie Subject 

whether in this pmticnlar case there was not an 
nndae extension of the legitimate purpose of snch 
prayers. Here we only obserre that there is nothing 
in the narrative to lead ua to sappose t^t, in 
ordering that prayer should he made for his dead 
countrymen, Judas was doing anything out of the 
ordinary course; on the contrary, the readiness with 
which the money for the sin-olferiDg was contributed 
points to a belief that what he proposed was thought 
likely to be advant^eons to the dead. 

There is no more definite evidence which can be 
1 appealed to, but it is well known that such prayers 
are fouud in many old Jewish services and comme- 
morations. That which is called Kaddish is 
universally allowed to be of great antiquity. It is 
composed of several parts, of which the oldest, 
unquestionably pre-Cimstian, varies by amplification 
according to the countries in which it is used and 
other circumstances. Now although in its original 
form this contains no direct prayers for the dead, 
indirect reference to their use is traceable in aeverai 
portions of it, When the existing prayers were 
composed and engrafted upon the public sen-ice, it 
is impossible to decide, but there is no doubt that 
it was at a very early date ; and when we reflect 
that they have been used unhesitatiugiy by Jewish 



of Prayers for the Dead. 



57 



communities difTeriug from each other as widely as 
German, French, Italian, Provencal, Spanish, Baby- 
looian, and those of Jemen, the conclnsion is forced 
upOD us that the principle liad been acted upon in 
the private devotions of the people not only for some 
time previously but also to a very wide extent. 

In the Haskarath Neshamoth, or " Commemo- Tta mttmBi; " 



the Day of Atonement, and the last days of thef^'j^"'^ 
three chief Festivals, there are distinct prayers for 
the dead. Is his introduction to that used on the 
former, a learned Jew^ of our own day throws much 
li^ht upon the spirit of the Commemoration, address- 
ing the assembled congregation in these words : 
"Children of the house of Israel! in this life of 
frailty, where all that is united to us by the strongest 
bonds to-day, is to-morrow relentlessly torn away — 
whore nothing is permanent except change, nothing 
constant except iuatubility — it is the greatest com- 
fort to us to have one steadfast pillar — Eemembrance, 
. . . The ancient heathens adorned the graves of 
their beloved with flowers and wreaths, for they 
thought that the souls of their beloved were laid In 
lUe tomb ; they materialised the soul, they were 




58 Our Lord's Silence on the Subject 



only heathens. But the Jewish religion, which also 
makes use of symbols, yet not to materialise the 
spiritual but to spiritualise the material, teaches us 
to seek the souls of the departed, not in the grave, 
but iu heaven, in the bosom of God the Father of 
love. Therefore, on the recurrence of such com- 
memorations, Israelites do not strew earthly flowers 
on the grave, but offer spiritual wreaths to heaven: ttey 
offer praytTS to God fw tlie blessedness of the departed." 
Again, in that for the principal festivals, after 
dwelling on the beauties and advantages of such 
services, he bears witness to the intensity of their 
belief in the words, "look around you and see how 
bitterly they weep who are about to pray for the 
blessedness of Ikeir departed ones," and calls upon them 
to join in "the heart-affecting prayer,"' "May God 
remember the soul of my father, my lord, N. the 
son of M., who is gone to his everlasting home, be- 
cause that I offer here a charity for him ; for the 
reward of this may his soul be bound up in the 
handle of life together with the soul of Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, Sarah, Eebekah, Rachel, and Leah, 
and with other saints, male and female, who are id 



•VIXJ2 to'pvh i?n^ bib nio n3s nocj a^rhn i3i' ■ 
:':i nbVbh n? ^3i:a 11112 npix mu •sue 



of Prayers for tke Dead. 



59 



It may be observed, aa a very striking proof of the 
reality of their prayers for the dead, that at this 
point of the service those worshippers who happen 
not to have lost parents or near and dear Mends 
are in the habit of withdrawing from the assembly. 

The above prayer is deserving of careful notice, 
oecauee it is by no means improbable that our 
blessed Lord iiad it, or something similar, in His 
mind in that part of His Sermon on the Mount which 
touches upon the subject of charity and alms-giving. 

It was especially provided by the law of Moses,^ Jewish 
that every person who took part in the great charitj 
festivals should offer onto the Lord " thj ixtt-'mW offered m 
oCtting of Kis hani accotiing as (Boi hai blEsecb the da^, 
him," that they should " not apptar btfote the ^flti 
intptg." This gift was usually made at the " Com- 
memoration," either with a view to relief from sick- 
ness or any other trouble, or as an atonement^ for 
) dead relation or Mend, under the firm con- 

' Dkut. jyi. 10, IB. 

' The Jews admit four meajia of procuring atDDeraeDt ; — 1. 
npentance ; 2, the Da; of Atnnement ; S. sufferings ; 4. death, 
of wliicli the last, death, i.e. the dying, poHseeses the greatest power. 
During the first year after a parent's death, a child, in com- 
uemorating the deceased, says oi writes after his name, b b hi 
U. inatyO mB3 '3nn t sm ready to serve as atonement for hie 
BOnch, I am ready to suller for his transgresaionfl, provided only 
that his rest may he peace. This explanation is borno oat by 
Rashi, whose commentary in htm runs thus : — 



6o Our Lories Silence on the Subject 



viction that they would be benefited in whose behalf 
the offering was presented. 

Light is thrown upon this by the Siphre, the 
oldest continuous Midrash on the fourth and fifth 
books of Moaes, which, though only committed to 
writing in the second and third centuries (180-220 
A.D.) contains the record of customs generally sup- 
posed to have prevailed for hundreds of years. In 
its commentary upon the passage,' " ^e mecciful, ® 
gorb, unto 'SThi) pwiple Eerad, luhoin "iEhott haet 
cc3)eeiiuD, ani lag not innocent blo«I) nnto "ShE 
purvle of Esratt's (harge. JlnQ the hloob shaii be 
forgitocii thim," we find the following explanation :* 
"' Forgive thy people,' that is, ' the living:' 'whom 
thou hast redeemed,' that is, 'the dead,' which shows 
that the dead also want an atonement" 

It has been thought that it was the ostentatious 

Wlien the liret year had eipired, by which time it was gapposed 
that the deceaaed woald ha pDTged from Ms sins, the Ifti^age 
changed, and the child said, 

"may his memory be for a hlessing for the life of the world to 
come."— Talm. Bab., Eiddushin, xiii, c 

1 The close of the section D'aDlE*. on Deitt. iri. 8. 

It OQght to he noticed that the Slphri is older even than tha 
Fatestinian Talmud. It is a Saruitha, i.e., a MIshnah tnuglit otit- 
sida the Lecture Boom. It testifies therefore to a genemlly 
ndinitted doctrine. 

TD^a D'non i5>k nnn he's D"nn ^a 'pv'? laa' 

Cf. TUM, Bab,, Barayolh, 6 a. t nnD3 D"3'1S D'TlOntP 



of Prayers Jor Ut Dead. 



oAeriDg of Ut» " MUmexteaA'' or fnc-viD oferii^ intta 
wbidi WW made in Ac TeB|ile or m Oe STneagaei^ O* Sob 
aaw*D as Uw pande of dcir h it T u l u ee s]>nMd,£Mi. 
vhkh Dsr I>OTd aliBded to lAen H« pn His 
admoeitioD, 'nkca tlwa tetsl tkne alas, 
Kfli Mmti a txmaiKl htfnt tint, xs tin b 
>>» the sgiosagacs an) is t)u stmts, that 1 
ctlngaf mnL'* 

I, n nnst bnedj- refer oM Jcra fc 
U» artain Jewidi Ctwamlaa in mmBcta me to express ^^^mi 
diadnet prayers (or tbe dead, taken from the lan- 
guage tt Hotj- Writ.* We ton lo the t 
wUd H 9peal«d to, on Jewish fannfastouea and i 
other inccriptionE. If the age of aonte of tJ 
be dectavdy fixed, as earijr ae at fint si^t woold 
appear, W« ihoold not be kft in anjr uocertainQ-, 
hat the mbjoioed notes wiQ sbow that their gn^ 
asttqnitj' i> not mmasooaHly disputed. 

The fint to he noticerl are those which have been 
dianrcred by B. Jacob Saphir, a dtttingaiahed Jew 
who has traveled throa^ ^ETP^ Arabia, Jemen, 



'a ]fiR.Ti. £ 

• dSi%«. iCijni. cS^ih*. « 



■ I& ML a. Pi. I 



'.13, (I 



la tSX tbiM oKB tbe A- V. tnadata ■■ pnniMa : the Jen 
■n fb^ ■■ jmrcn. Fm cptitiBitioD of tlu*, d Pabat. Tmln. 
I «jiln m. p. II in Dr. SdtiU«r-8iiBa*j'* Onwonal I<<Akea at 
Bifarw Mts. K«. 1. 



62 Our Lords Silence oit the Subject 



and other countries, with the special object of collect- 
ing records of his nation among extant monuments 
of antiquity and traditional stories. Several of the 
inBcriptions deciphered by him bear on their face 
dates which carry us back beyond the present era.^ 
Some of the tombstones are inscribed with different 
formulas of prayers for the dead ; for the most part 
they are abbreviated by the use of initial letters only, 
precisely the same as in the custom of writing K. I. P. 
on the graves of Christians. The commonest are the 
following : — 

MAY HIS REST BE GLORY.^ 

MAT HIS MEMORY BE FOR A BLESSING.* 

. MAY HIS MEMORY BE FOR THE RESURRECTION.' 

MAY THE Spirit of the Lord lead him to bebt.^ 

' Tliey Bie all ilntcd acearfing to the era of Contraota, wliioli 
hegins 311 years and 4 montlis before Christ It is identical with 
the Grecian era, or the era of the Seleitddea. In 1 Macc, L 10, 
of Antiocboe it is eaid tbat "he reigned in the hundred and 
thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of tiie Greeks," which 
correaponda to 175 B.C. The above method of dating was used 
ITequently hy the Jews down to the fifteenth century, and in 
Boine places ia atill used. On the tombstaces the dates of the 
above inserlptions are 2S, S9, 1. The last date doee create some 
aoapicion, because it is hardly likely that people would begin to 
employ the dates of an era at its Tery coDimeacoraent. Dr. 
SoUll6r.grineaay suggests that in each case 1000 has been omitted 
for the aahe of brevity, aa we might write 78 for 1878, and as 
weatem Jews do occasionally omit the thouaands in dating from 
the Creation of the world. 

In allnaion to Isai iL 10. : 1123 WiVKlQ 'Hn t bbh * 

: n'nn^ Xtrai : ^S 
i.'ur. liiL 14. -un-jn nin- nn ih*S 




of Prayers for the Dead. 



63 



The Engliali word "memory" is far from indicat- 
ing the full idea of that which the original conveys 
to the mind of the Jew. This may be seen from 
the writings of Maimonides.' He aays, for instance, 
"May his memory be for a blessing aud for the 
resurrection," meaning, as the reference to the resm-- 
rection clearly implies, much more than remem- 
brance, even the principal essence of existence, or, as 
we should say, the aouL In much the same way 
" the memorial " of the meat-offering is used in 
Leviticua. According to the Jewish idea it signifies 
the essence, the savour, or, so to say, the soul of the 
material ofTeriug. 

The next inscription of the kind to be considered 
is an epitaph^ discovered at Aden, and now deposited 
in the British Musoimi, bearing date 12th of Ab, 
CTa of Contracts, 29. (B.C. 282.) 

It commemorates Mashta, a daughter of David, a 
who died at Aden in South Arabia. The following 
ia the portion of it which calls for our notice : — 

• In hliuulograpliooiidiaciplc'BCopyof tha " Miahneh Toriih " 
(BodleUn Lib., Oitord. Cod. Hunt. 40), tbe formula Dccnre, 

ri»l^ ie., n'nnSi rarh nar. "'''='1 «'"»'" '^^^ »'•« i"i«rip 

Uoiu lignijy much more than "' m«y hi9 memory be blossBd." 

nm aicn njfn Tonn tprn ra bbh wibt: nTDnn ' 

VttrftfnlldBicriptioii of the « pitapb by Dr. Schiller-Smirsiiy, set 



I nrftnuldBtcnption c 
^^L^gUZIT. of Furimili 



64 Our Lord's Silence on the Subject 



The pious Mashta (may her rest be glory !}1 
daughter of the aged, the pious, the humbl^j 

THE GOOD, THE GOD-FEARING DaVID (MAT THsJ 

Spirit of God lead him to rest !) 

InKrip- The last inscriptiona to which we call attention are 

gntTB- from some tombstones recently discovered in the 

discoverad Crimea,^ containing the oft-recurriiig formula, "may 

Crimea. hie aoul be bound up," etc. The discoverer claims 

for them different dates from AD. 6 downwards, but 

though he is very confident of their authenticity, they 

will require further investigation than they have yet 

undergone before we can accept them as trustworthy 

evidence. 

We have put forward all the evidence which we 
liave been able to meet with from Jewish sources. 
A considerable amount of doubt must exist as to the 
value of a portion of it, but however much it may 
be shaken by closer examinatioa, the great fact still 
remains in the history of the Maccabees, that the 
custom of praying for the dead was known in the 
second century before Christ. We know, moreover, 
that unprejudiced Jews, who of course understand 
the habits and mind of their own nation far better 
than we can do, do not hesitate for a moment 

' Dr. Chwolsoii ^las tranBlated and described tbem. It is to be 
noticed tbat tbe mndo of dfitfng is not by the era of Contmcta, a 
in the previonsly cited onsen, bnt either from the Cro.ition of the ■ 
world or after the Exilu ; in i 



of Prayers for the Dead. 



65 



to piononnce in favour of its great antiqaity, and 
feel assured that, when it found expression in their 
pnblic sei vices, it mnet have been widely practised 
for a considerable time. 

We may then fairly accept this testimony as Our LoTd'i 
sufficient indication that our Lord's silence upon 4ltIib^^ 
the practice is not attnbutable to its non-existence; non^iist- 
and when all things are conddered, there seems to ^rtrtw. ° 
be no alternative but to interpret it as a sign of the 
Divine acquiescence. Opportunities must have pre- 
sented themselves in His teaching bad He desired 
to denounce the practice as erroneous, or to discour- 
age it as liable to misconstruction. It is true that 
but little fell from His lips touching the state of the 
ilesd, but amidst all the stem denunciations which 
Uie Jews drew down upon themselves for their 
perversion of the Law, it is almost impossible to 
believe that He conld have ignored and winked at 
the prevalence of any habit of which He disapproved. 
We may interprpt His conduct in this matter very 
much as is usually done in the case of Infant 
B^tism, thongh of course we ore far from attaching 
the same importance to a pious practice, which is 
wliat we bold praying for the dead to have been, 

u we do to the Initiatory Rite for the remi^ion _ , 

ThfidoM 
of sina. It is said thiit this receives no direct conBetti..n 




66 Our Lord's Silence on the Subject. 



between 
tho Old und 
theNi 



countenance from Christ Himself, but if there is that 
close connection between the Jewish and Christian 
religions, which He admitted when He said that 
He came "not to Ueetrog, but to fulfil,"' it follows 
that anything which formed part of the Old system, 
unless the contrary were distinctly expressed, ought 
to be regarded as stamped with His sanction for 
continuance in the New. If by Divine appointment 
infanta were considered eligible for admission into 
covenant with God in the one, they would certainly 
not, in the absence of any direction to the contrary, 
be excluded from the other. So in a somewhat similar 
manner if, side by side with an increasing realisation 
of the certainty of the resurrection and judgment, and 
of the intermediate state of disembodied souls, there 
had grown up the comforting belief that after death 
they might be benefited by the prayers of the living 
— a belief which seems to be the natural outcome 
of the conviction of a trial for which they were 
waiting — unless we are prepared to accuse our Lord 
of allowing His creatures to be buoyed up with 
empty hopes and barren comfort, we must perforce 
accept the conclusion that He did give His approval 
to the doctrine, and that it was hardly leas distinct 

given in silence. 

■TT. V. 17, H-Xijpuicroi, rather, to davelop, tn eipanii, to 



CHAPTER Vt. 



'3Dt)e Ccstimong ot ^olg ^cciptuve. 



I 



RJOW although there is no positive and direct Indlnct 

teaching on the subject in the recorded utter- in Chrisf* 
aocee of out Lord, there are indications which are 
not without importance in estimating the probability 
of His disapproval or sanction. 

To the Pharisees, who had accused Ilim of casting 
out deviU by the power of Beelzebub, He said : — 

"^U mannEC ot sin nnii blasiihcmji shall ht 
forgibm nnto men : but the blasphcmg against 
Ihe liols ©host shall not be forgitjen unto men. 
Jinb lultofioeber gpealicth a hiotb ngainot the ^OR 
of ^an. it shall be forgibcn him : but luliosoeber 
«)»akfth agaiust Ihe ^iolji @hodt, il shall not be 
forgibm him. nrithei in this tootlh, neither in the 
tocclli to come."' 

if we could read this statement of our Lord with- 
out prejudice we should naturally conclude that it 
famishes the highest authority for believing that, 
while some sins are forgiven during the lifetinte of 
the sinner, there are others which admit of furgive- 
^B. U&TT. xil. Sl,32. 



AttBiupte 
to explain 



68 T/ie Testimony of Holy Scripture. 

nees also after Mb death. If, then, death is found to 
interpose no barrier to the foi^veness of these latter, 
we may either continue to pray for it in behalf of the 
dead, or else our cherished belief in the all-prevailing 
efficacy of prayer and intercession must be abandoned, 
and a limit placed to the promise, " BSHiatBOElJEr ge 
shall ask in pragec, beiiebing, gi shall reailie."' 
But the supposed dangerous tendency of such 
a^fsy'thH" teaching has induced some of our leading conunenta- 
meim^. ^"^ '''• ^^^ ^^'^ another explanation. It is said 
" this world " and " the world to come " were 
familiar espresaiona amongst the Jews to express 
respectively the ages before and after the advent of 
the Messiah in the flesh, and consequently there is 
no necessary reference in Christ's words to the times 
subsequent to man's death. But the old controversy,* 
carried on with such vehemence in the seventeenth 
century, bears witness to the uncertainty which 
hangs over the Jewish meaning^ of "the coming 
age," or " the world to come," In order, however, 

' 9. Matt, ui, 22. 

' Between Witsiua, the amineat CalTinlatia divine, and SJien- 
ferd, the celebrated Oriental Echolar, hoth prafeasorrof Franeket. 

' " The world to come, [(311 DtIJIi liints two things espwially. 
1. Thetimesofthe Messiaa; 'BemindtUl of the daywharein thou 
oameat out of Egypt all the days ai thy life. The wise man say, 
by "thedaya of thy lifa" ia intimated "thia world;" by "all the 
days of thy life," the days of the MesBiasare snpeiiinhiced.' In thin 



The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 69 

to show that the explanation which we have adopted 
is not in violation of the Jewish usage of familiar 
terms, we have carefully examined the writings of a 
vei7 distinguished Rnbbi. whose learning was such 
that it was said of him, " from Moses to Moses there 
hu arisen none like Moaes ; " and we are contented 
to shelter ourselves in this matter at least under his 
interpretation. 

Moses Maimonides, in hia Mishneh Torah on the 
Preapls of RepaUance, writes thus : " The good which Th« te«i. 
is laid up for the righteous is the life of ' the lenmed 
world to come/ that ia, a life in which there is no tha mcaa- 
death, and a good in which there is no evil," * And iiiApntLil 
again, "In the world to come there ia no bodily """' 
frame, but the souls of the righteous are alone with- 
out the body as the angels which minister."' He 
explains t«D how the patriarchal expression "the 
bundle of lite," is only a synonymous term, and after 

MBM tlie Apostle eeeni« to speak, Uso. ii. S, and vl. D. 2. Vht 
•lata after death, TV\7> Q^ina Qlxn »T^^ ^nvh KIH D^IV, 
'He world to come ia, vbon a niuiMB dupiuiud out a\ tliu world.' " 
- LtaerFOOT, Exercit. 3. Matt, in toe. 

D"fin wni unn a^\s^ "n wn n'p'isii niievn niyan ' 

Chap, viii I. : njn ncy pKC nnioni por mo fv.^ 
T3^3 0"p"TVn niE'B: »h» n'lji e|u 13 rit nan oTivn > 
Bd. berhahu, viii. 3. ; n-if n •awi'Da tii; (<^3 



t 



70 Tite Teslintot^ of Holy Scr^ure. 

ennmenting x ratietj of othen, all of whidi are 
emptojied aUe^Diialljr U> eooTej- the Game meaning, 
he cDDdndes, "the good which is prepared for the 
ri^teoiu is however more generally called the world 
to anne.*** Indeed, ihia Jewish sage is so far from 
aeccpting die interpretation, which some modem 
writers think the only joBtifiable one, that he runs 
directly connter to it, for he Bays that the future 
blessingB foretold by the prophets referred only to 
Uiote which Israel §hould enjoy in the flesh in the 
days of King Messiah, when sovereignty should be 
restored to the nation, but those which were laid up 
in "the world to come " baffled description, because 
there is no correspondency between the happiness of 
the body and that of the souL This is why Issuah 
said, "^either hath Ihe cge seeh. © (Sob, bEsibc 
1£hee, tohat ^e hath pre^mretl for him titat luaittth 
for ^im."* 

Nothing can show more clearly than these quota- 
tions that it is by no means so certain as some have 
maintained, that, in accordance with Jewish phrase- 
ology, our Lord intended " the Messianic Age " when 
He spoke of " the world to come." When, moreover,., 
we take into consideration the parallel passage i 

Tiu. 6. ! Kan oinrn aipo (j^n nh jnipn » 



passage &(d^^| 



The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 71 

S. Mark's Gospel,'' we seem almost forced to adopt 
llie wider application. 

" Se that BtiiUl bliiephime against the ^olg 
Shost hath lubti fcTJjiticneeis, but ie s^^i^'S ^^ ^ 
cttntAl sin." 

If forgiveness were limited entirely to the pre- 
sent life, a period of threescore years and ten, would 
there not be something unnecessarily strong in such a 
deep-reaching expression as this, something almost 
unnatural iu the accumulation of the " never" and 
the "eternal "I It would surely have sufficed to have 
pronounced the sin to be simply unpardonable. 

But another method of escape from the obvious Further 
teaching of the passage has been found in undei^ eipiX it 
nanding the expression "neither in this world nor"*"^' 
in the world to come" aa merely a periphrastic way 
of expressing " never," which is sMd to be found 
in the Talmud ' 

We may take it for granted that snch an inters 
pretation is quite admissible, but whether it is that 
which is most natural, and in accordance with the 
usage elsewhere in the New Testament, is another 
matter. It is only found once besides : " ^e raiecl) 

• B. MaBI, ili. 29, tuaxht iara aiwiiav i/MtpriifiaTOI. K/Jffdilf 
of tlie Teitoa Receptiu has clearty been adopted to sitnpllry a 
diSodlt aipreaaioii. 

• Cf. Biebnp WonusvoniH in Isxxi, wbo rerera to VoreUiu de 
■fBtdrlU lIoliriBOTum. 



■J 2 The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 

^:in from the biali, anb set him at |Bts oton right 
hani in thi heabenlj} places, far abcbe aU prind- 
paUtjt, anb potner, anb might, anb bominion, ani) 
eberE name that is nameb, itot milji tit this morlB, 
bat also in that tohiih is to come.'" This last 
expression, by analogy with the above, is said to be 
a Hebraism for " always." But it is far better not 
to refer this to the clause immediately preceding it, 
viz., " above every name that is named," but more 
generally to the statement that Christ has been set 
above all things, not only in the present earthly 
state but in the future heavenly, so that it brings 
out distinctly Hia Headship of the Church, in its 
twofold division, the Visible and the Invisible. 

If Christ did not admit the possibility of forgive- 
ness for some kind of sin after death,^ it is difficult 
to believe that He would have run the risk of 
using an expression so calculated to mislead, and so 
certain to be laid hold of by those who held the 

1 Epbeb. i. 20, 21. 

' lu Bupport of the aliove interpretatian we quote the testioioiiy 
of 8. Angiiatins, and B. Isidore "the oracle of Bpain :" "Nam pro 
defunctia quibusdam, vel ipsins EccleaiK, vel quomndam pionun 
emnditnr emtio. . . . Neque enlm de quibosdam vemaiter 
dlceretur, qnod non FJB remittatnr neqne in hoc Eieculo, neque 
in fntuio, nisi ensent qnihua, etei non in isto, tamen lemittctar in 
fiituro."— flc CTn. Dei. od, 24. 2. 

" Qunm Dominoa dicit, ncqua in hoc secuIo noquo in futuro de- 
monrtrst quibusdam illio dimittondn peccatn."— Zte 0/. ffccAa. 11 



Tiie Testimony of Holy Scripture, 73 

«iToneoiu doctrine, imd to be employed in a 
Quumer destructive of the truth. 

Of course, even if interpreted as we believe the 
passage should be, it is no proof of our Lord's 
acquiescence in the legitimacy of praying for the 
dead ; but indirectly it lends considerable weight 
to the auppoaition, for if there are sins whoso stains 
may be wiped ont in another world, so long as the 
efficacy of prayer and intercession is held to be aa 
potent aa it is, those who survive their friends can 
hardly fail to pray for such a result. 

There are one or two passages in tKe Epistles of t 
S. Paul which bear more or lees distinctly upon ^ 
our subject. Touching the resurroction, hu writes 
to the Corinthians, " Slee luhat ehiill tlus ha Uihich 
tst ba|]tizch for the tieab, if the beah rise not itt|' 
all? Uhg are thcji titm baptizel) for the hetib?"' 
The words certainly seem to iudicato the existence 
at the time of a custom whicli we know from the 
censures of some of the Fathers ^ was practised by 

1 1 Coil 17. 2». 

*Ti oBr iervi S <pri(iai\ rX pov'SfaSt wpOrtv riru, r&s iraj>«- 
rwCvi rV i^ir TaiHTTfr ol rd Maptluirot »ditdD»t(i ; nal tiloa 
M> fri rMr itvilrrw yiXura, (.t.X.— S. CultTsolIT, Hum. ll, , 
ICOlLir. 

waff BfrTWt wpo^SativTiiii' TtXivrijeai lnv fiarria^TM iWoui ii 
Otl siir^ ('1 imiM itfinav ^rrif'^veiu.— EripuAN. adv. Uixr. 
Lib. I. iiTtH. 0. 




pruvullliiK 
■. Cortiith 
. S. Ptul'i 



74 The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 



certain heretical sects at a later period. The J 
Gerinthians and Marcionites adminlBtered vicarious I 
baptism in behalf of persona who had died withoat ] 
receiving the rite. 
I Many strange and untenable interpretations^ have 1 
been put forward with the view of avoiding all 1 
allusion to the practice, and getting rid of a difficulty 1 
which is created by the supposition that an inspired | 
apostle could have had anything to say to such a ' 
superstitious custom. Most of them are self-con- 
demned. One, however, calls for consideration, be- 
cause it commended itself to some of the Catholic 
Fathers,'' and Las been urged with considerable ■ 
earnestness in a popular commentary ^ of our own 
time. It is that whenever the rite of Baptism is 
administered, a profession is made by the baptized ] 
person of his belief in the resurrection. Every J 
baptismal creed contains this article of our Faith, j 
Therefore all who are baptized may well be said to j 
be baptized for or on behalf of the dead. 

But whatever candidates for Baptism were required ] 
to believe in later times, there is no reason for sup- I 
posing that at the beginning the doctrine of the I 

' Dean Stahlet han collectad together twelve ot tliesa. — 3m | 
Coni. in iftai. 

' S. Chris. n<m. il. 

* Biehop WuRDswoHTH m loco. 



The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 75 

resurrection was eubmitted &a a test of fitness, but 
it is far more likely that a simple confession of 
Jesus Christ was deemed sufficient qualification. 

As regards the difficulty suggested by the im- 
probability of an Apostle running the risk of 
damaging bis argument by an appeal to a supersti- 
tion, which, if mentioned at all, ought to have 
received from his lips the severest reprehension, 
we have only to observe S. Paul's practice' under 
somewhat Bimilar circumstances, A careful examina- 
tion would no doubt afford sufficient evidence that 
be did not hesitate to use an argumenlian ad hominem, 
and accommodate himself to the views of his hearers, 
and that without any expression of approval or 
condemnation. There is an interesting solation 
proposed by the distinguished leader of the Old 
Catholics.^ After speaking of the practice as a Tl" visws 
inoii one, he says, " Probably it was done for tinguiaheil 
p who had shown an intention of being baptized, diancter- 
died without fulfilling it. A surviving dependtnc* 
relative would then be baptized for the dead, in "^ °°* *■ 
order to give a public testimony to the Church that 



> Omd Stonle; aeations u eiimpln, Go), iv. 2].31 ; Acts 
(TlL IS; itli. 18, 21 ; zxL 2H, See his CannnenUiy far the 
■Knad qnotatfoD. 

* Dr. DiiLUHQEB, Tht Fint Age qf CAmfiomtv <^ On ClHtnA, 
0. OMoibuD, m. 2. 



y6 The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 

he liad died a member of it in mind and desire, and 
■o to obuis for him the pnyos of the Choich, 
which else irere not offered for thaae who died un- 
faoptized.'' One of the most popular wntexs in our 
own Cbnrcb sets his seal to the nauml interprets- 
taon SB foUows: "There was then, as always the 
natnral lon^ng of the Burvirora to complete die 
work which tmtimelf death had broken off; imd in 
that early age, when the self-devotion of a Chris- 
dan's life was concentrated in the one act of bapUsm, 
it might have seemed fitting that where the conver- 
sion either had not been completed, or had not 
taken place (for there is nothing in the passage 
which necessarily confines it to the case of cate- 
chnmena), the friends of the dead should step, as it 
were, into his place, and in his name themselves 
undertake the dangers and responsibilities of baptism, 
so that aft«r .ill the good work would not have been 
cut off by death, but would continue, in the words 
of the Apostle, 'amfitnidl lo tlie enb. blanuUss 
in the bag of Jftsas fflhrist.'"* 

But though we feel that there is no escape from 
the conclusion that the Apostle did draw an argu- 
ment from an existing practice of such a kind, and 
that without at the same time expressing any dis- 

' Dean aTaNLET'a tommentary on the Epp. ad Cob. in lax 




The Tcstimoi^ ef Hehi Scriptvre- 77 



^praldn, ve cumat snppow fta- k momeiit that 
ke nteoiAed Is lad Isb auictiaD £0 l^e princijkle of 
TienMs *'^*'— fcr liie dead. There is & very 
wide JMi ■■■■"■ feotween prnjio^ ioit tbe dead v-bo 
died in fiBth and in ocrreDiait wjlih God. and tutdttr 
going d>B aoed iit« of inltu.i3i:ai fnr llio(« vrbo 
bad not raeoved it in life, and wer« consK|Dfint1j 
"sUrns &jrai tin ctihw mrtiHaitti ef Ssraxl,*' and 
without tiie pale of God's pramises. 

Nevertli«l«8s, i1 appeals to tn to be joEt va^ an V 
extreme deTelopineiit of tbe bdief in tlie powo- of ni^ 
die living to aid the dead » n^it natnnlly ansa, , 
in the absence of safegoardfi, wben tlie belief became *" 
geoenl or widely accepted -, and we are content to 
DM it in onr investigatiDn siroply ae bietorical 
evidence, that in the earliest times death was not 
Buppoeed \a place an impassable barrier between 
the good offices of the li^-ing In behalf of the souls 
of the &K»A. 

The case of Onesiphonis next calls for our con- S, Pml"* | 

siderstioiL Ooeri- 

1-11 1 plii>™»- 

The passages which bear apon it are from the 

6rst and fourth chapters of S. Paul's Second Epistle 

to Timothy. 

■■ Thf S^orJ gttit mtrn; nnto Ihe honsc of 

iDiusiphonte ; for tu oft rcfrcshtti mt, anti tUAA 



78 The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 

not ashatneti erf mg chnin : bnt toKen he bias in 1 
Some, he straflht me out berg iiligentlg, anb £o«ni I 



" "Bllie Strrh grant unto him that he mag fEni | 
mercB of the Soti in that bag-" 

" ^a[nte JJriara anb ^qnila, anb the htntBtholb I 
sA (Dneeiphoma." ^ 

Was Oneaiphoms alive or dead when the Apostla I 
wrote these words 1 We can obtain no direct I 
evidence from Scripture, and beyond a solitary ■ 
tradition derived from an unknown source, and like ( 
80 many traditions touching the later labours of'i 
early Christians of note, little worthy of credit, "^ 
can learn nothing about him. Fabricius,^ the volu- 1 
minouB biographer of the last century, in his | 
catalogue of Christian Bishoprics, places the e 
of Onesiphorus' Episcopal labours at an obscura I 
town in Messenia, Now if he ever occupied such I 
a see, it must of necessity have been at a time sub- I 
sequent to the writing of the above Epistle. But I 
as an unsupported statement, we cannot consider I 
what Fabricius says as sufficient to outweigh the I 
extreme probability, arising out of the language I 
which we have quoted, that he was dead at the time | 
when 8. Paul wrote. 

The whole tone of the passage seems to indicate I 
'2TlM. .16,18,BDdiv. 19. 2 5aIutamL«x£«(:BseiH,p.ll7. 



The Testimony of Holy Scripture, 79 

Uu& Wben liie AposUe ihioks of the household of 
OtuaBjibonu, he praye tlut God will bestow upon 
than the Ueeciiip CFf His mere; ; the time for its 
b«t(nral is not eipresBed, but if, u we eappose, the 
bmilj wxs in bereaTemeDt, it would be for imme- 
diate comfoTt, and the absence of any specified unte 
point* ntker to the present But when his thau^hu 
were carried on to his benefactor, knowing that he 
ha/A no longer need of it in thb world, as his aor- 
virors bad, the vision of the future judgment rises 
np before the writer's mind, and he adds, ""irht 
Socb grant tv him," not to the household, " to fiittl 
xtustQ in that bap." 

Bat very few attempts' have been made to evade 
this, which it raust be allowed is the most natural 
inference; it lias however been maintained that, 
granting that Onesiphoros waa dead, the langu^e 
naed is not expressive of prayer, bnt only of a pious 
hope or aspiration. 

The slightest acqa^tance with the fonns ofmdmilar- 
pmjrerforthe dead in the Primitive LJtui^es will be ApcuUa't 
enough to identify it with the expressions in com- KSTniMt 
mon Dse ; this petition for raercy, and rest through (^Jidln ^ 
mercy, being one of most frequent recurrence. We £"tnrffiM. 
cannot better conclude the consideration of this case 



J 



8o The Testimony of Holy Scnpture. 



than by qaoting the opinion of one of the most | 
eminent divines of the seventeenth century. In 1 
speaking of the communion of saints, he exhorts his | 
hearers thus ; " We should do well to i 
that in this world we are something 
and blood; that we may not, without violent \ 
necessities, run into new relations, but preserve tho 
aiTections we bore to our dead when they v 
We must not so live as if they were perished, but j 
so as pressing forward to the most intimate partici- 
pation of the communion of saints. And we also 
have some ways to express this relation, and to bear | 
a part in this communion, by actions of intercourse 
with them, and yet proper to our state : such a 
— strictly performing the will of the dead, providing I 
for and tenderly and wisely educating their children, 
paying their debts, imitating their good example, i 
preserving their memories, privately and publicly j 
keeping their memorials, and desiring of God, with [ 
hearty and constant prayer, that God would give i 
them a joyful resurrection and a merciful judgment^ 
for so S. Paul prayed in behalf of Onesiphorua, that 
' God would show him mercy in that day,' that 
fearful and yet much to be desired day, in which the 
most righteous person hath need of much mercy and 
pity, and shall find it."' 

■ Jeh, TAYLon, Works, viii. JMS, ed. Ede 



CHAPTER Vlt 

'^t '€t&Uman^ at t^e Catatombsi. 

No little controreTsy has gathered round the The origi* 
ori^n and date of the GatacombB at Borne. Btmcitlon 
It will be well briefly to indicate the concliiaionH the Catn- 



I 



tion, that we may be in a position rightly to estimate 
the importance of the evidence which they fumiBh of 
the primitive belief respecting the eondition of the 
Euthftil dead and their connection with the living. 

They were constructed by ChriBtiana in the 
earliest ages of Cluistianlty for the burial of their 
own dead exclusively;' they may neither, thei'efore, 
be identified with the ancient aremmfe^ or exhausted 

> Tbla ii attabtlahed liy the Inveetigatlons oC Pulni Murclii and 
Iba two De-Rossi, his pnpils, wbo have done perhaps noiii thin 
•Bj Dtbeti to throw light upon the whole snhject of the Ontitconibi. 
Sm their miriu, / mmtmmlt diUe arti Christiana priiaitiai mUa 
m et n po li dd ChriHianuimc, nnd Intariptionea Chrittiatw, and 
AoMA SoUeranea. Ur. J. Q. Fei-ker. however, dtseenba rrom thii 
rin in bU tut work on tlie Arcboiology of Rome,— Part xil., The 

' The >ta in which nearly all the Catncombs haTa been con- 
linuted U liia ti^a ffraiKlan, which is oa."ily worked, nnil of mifli- 



82 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

eaad-pits of pre-ChriBtian times, nor may they bo 

considered, as was once so vigorously maintained, as 

commoa cemeteries for Pagans and Christians alike. 

The inter- The presence of heathen symbols and inscriptions, 

of hestlieu which gave rise to the latter theory, antecedently so 

n^eontra. improbable when we take into consideration the 

tMs°view^ relationship in which Christianity and Paganism 

stood to each other during the greater part of the 

first three centuries, may be satisfactorily explained 

upon other grounds. Pagan burial-places differed 

in their construction from Christian jnst as the 

disposal of the bodies of the dead differed. Though 

inhumation was the original mode of burying 

adopted by the Romans, it was almost entirely 

superseded by burning during a large portion of the 

time which is covered by the use of the Catacombs, 

and the cells of the Columbaria, in wliich the ashes of 

the dead were preserved, are of the smallest dimen- 

eient soliditf to bear excavation. That in which the old sand-pits 
are fannil, posaAana, is of a looser and mure friable diaracter, 
and withoat the addition of solid masonry could not have been 
utilised as bnrial-placea. The arsiw lu^ht well have heen dug 
hy the ancieata aa a valoahle ingredient in their cement : the 
paaxAaaa could not have beeiL The plan of the eand-pits, again, 
it oitanged so that its roads are curved to allow of the easy 
passage of carts ; while the galleries of the Catncomhs are narrow, 
and frequently intersect one arothor at right angles. 

The abnve-quoted writers have eiplained how the aTOUnrias 
came to be identilled nttli the Catacomfa). 




h 



Tlie Testimony of the Catacombs. 83 

dons compared with the cuhicala or loeuii of the 
Catacombs. 

It has beeu observed too that in by far the 
majority of instances the Pagan inscriptions are found Pagan In- 
in uanatura! positions, inverted or sideways, and how to iw' 
not imfrequenlly on the inner surface of the stone, foj. 
&om which it is thought probable that the Christians 
bad removed from Pagan cemeteries and other places 
such slabs as came conveniently to hand, and utilised 
them without troubling themselves to erase the marka 
which indicated their original uge.^ But it cannot 
be denied that there are instances where the stones 
show no signs of such adaptation, but were deliber- 
ately set up over Christian graves and inscribed 
with heathen symbols.* The eiqilanation of this, 

> Cf. UiAlLLDH, Iter Italicwa lAtterarium, p. 136. 

*Tbea(Mt ^nent of these are the initial 'D.H. or D.U.S., 
which an Mdd to Dconr alraut fortf limea among 1G,000 inscrip- 
tloni. On Fagaa nonumenta their iisage ia almait imivenul — 
atoety-fi»e per cent, at Uiut— and the meaning ia obvioun, Da 
MatiSnu or Dii MaaHnu satntm. Besides the theoTf of explano- 
tloD gireu iibave, it is quito possible that CbriBtians, tindlng 
■toun 10 inscribed, justified themssiTea in the use of thorn by 
Bifing to the initiols an altered aigniScaQca, Dto Maximo, Dta 
Mttiamto Saivatari, and the addition in some cases of the sacred 
tnoiwi^nin of Christ does uertuul; give an air of probability to 
the raiip^'ition. 

Mr. Parker explains the presence of Pagan symbols by «np- 
poalng Uuit Iho clailns of family were considered atrongEr than 
thow of tdigion, and rfllalions who differed in creed were laid in 
ana and the tame buriaj-placo. 



84 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

which may well seem strange to us, who are apt at 
this distance of time to draw a strong line of 
demarcation between the new faith and the old, la to 
be sought in the difficulty which in all ages indivi- 
duals' have experienced in cntting themselves off 
entirely and at once from the associations of their 



The period But not only is it proved that the Catacombs were 
cfiverB.tby distinctively the work of Christians, it is equally 
comba ^' cleax also, and even more interesting in connection 
with our present subject, that they belong to th« 
very earliest period of Christian history, ranging in 
all probability from the sub-apostoHc age to the close 
of the fourth century, when from the public recogni. 

1 Dean STiCXGi, in his Life of Conatantine, East Ch. Lcct. vi., 
baa illustrated this principle by a variety of eiBrnpiea wMoh are 
very pertinent to the subject It is quite true tbat figures resem- 
bling in u great measure the bsstben representation of Orpheus and 
Pan are found engraven on Christian tombs. The Good Shepherd 
was one of the favourite representationB on the early monumenta, 
but because He is accompanied by a goat, or is playing upon a !yre 
or a rustic pipe, it by no means follows necessarily that He is to 
be identified vrith Orpheus or Pan. We can find another eiplana- 
tloQ in the idea that the goat was emblematical of the einners 
whom He came to save, and the ranaiqal inatrnmeut of the voice 
which His sheep knew so well ; as 9. Qreg. Nai. writes : — " The 
Good Shepherd will atone time give His sheep rest, and at another 
t them— with hie staff seldom, but more gener- 



illy with hia pipe ;" cf. Nohthcotb, Rom. CeU. p, 51. 
probability is that the early Christiana had learned to look upon 
Orpheus as a sort of type and precuisor of Christ, just 
■aw in the old heathen religions foreahadowiugs of the Cospel. 



ipon 

;hey . 



The Testimony of the Cateuombs. 85 



5 of this plicily of 

tha inicrip- 

^ tions 00- 



don of Chnstiauity bj Uie State the concealment 
which led to burial in subterrwieaii cemeteries had 
quite ceased to be necessary. The first dated ' inscrip- 
tion hitherto discovered is of 71 A.D., and co under- 
gronnd interment is believed to have taken place 
after the capture of Home by the Goths in 410 A.D. 

Nov althongh the allusions to the state of the Tbe brerR; 
dead found in the monumental inscriptioi 
eariy period are necessarily brief and simple, 
value of them is by no means insignificant. ^| 

All that has come to light reveals a Church stead- ^ 
fast in the faith, calm in temper and without ex- 
a^erstiun in its expressions of bereavement, and 
this, be it borne in mind, In the midst of unexampled 
provocation, when men's belief in the providence of 
Ood must have been sorely tried, and we should 
have expect«d to see at least some signs of wavering 
and impatience. But none are to be found. It is 
the record of an age to which we may turn with 
confidence for guidance in difiiculty, for on no period 
of the Church's history has the true spirit of her 

' Tb« dated iDicrlplioiiB hitherto dbcamred ars apwarda of 
110 ; one oulf in tbl Snt cenlnr;, two in the Becond, twenty- 
Unca in the thiid. abont Gts handnid ench Id the ronrth and fifth, 
b«t du dat«a of mux of tha others, by a comparison of atyle and 
Niteu Mher ItidiMtlou. muy be ipproiimatcly flied. About 

« extant, anrl considerably mote than h^ of 

to the Ante>Nic«ne period. 



86 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

Pounder left so clear an impress. We accept, there- 
fore, whatever illustrations it may give of primi- 
tive usage or doctrine with feelings of eatisfactioD, 
assured that we shall find nothing but the calm 
deliherate belief of the generations for which it speaks. 
Before attempting to extract from the sculpture 
and inscriptions of these early tombs the prevailing 
sentiments of the times touching the condition of the 
faithful dead and their relationship to those who 
survived, it may be well to prepare the way by a 
brief illustration of the value of their testimony in 
reference to matters of faith generally accepted. 
Nothing could be ruder^ or less imaginative than 
their symbolical representations of the two great 
Sacraments, but they manifest a complete grasp of 
the doctrines involved. 
Their wit- The emblem of the first Sacrament is that which 
f^teiidi- ^^^ become so famOiar to us from the language of 
ImiB^ra- "'"' Baptismal Service, in which the ark is made to 
Sa^^ara'oa P^efigu™ the Church into which the baptized child is 
to follow received. Now in the Catacombs this is represented 

other ia a manner almost grotesque ; but we can hardly 

matters. o t, j j 

fail to be struck by the way in which the sculptor or 

painter, out of the whole circumstance of the Mosaic 
1 Such moniUDeuts bpBt eipi«ss the contetupurot; belief ; those 

of later times generally lose iu vnloe iu proportion sa they gain in 

beaut; and oi 



Tile Tesiiinony of the Catacombs. 87 



DarratiTe, seized npon those features which bore 
directly upon the doctrine to be enibreed. The 
gigantic ship, the eight souls, the concourse of 
animals, all are forgotten, and we see on those under- 
ground monuments four things, and four only, viz., 
water, a vessel, frequently in the shape of a box or 
tub, one humnn being, and a bird' with a branch in 
its beak. What more is required to exhibit the full 
teaching of baptismal grace % 

Of the other Sacrament there are numerous 
sfmbola, and they recur very frequently; the 
commonest are the vine, ears of corn, loaves of bread, 
and a fish and bread. It may seem that these have 
no necessary connection with the Holy Eucharist, 
and are nothing more than "pictorial representa- 
tions " of some of our Lord's miracles, but a careful 
etady of the subject proves that such au idea runs 
counter to the principle which governs all the monu- 
mental imagery of the Catacombs. Nothing is 



f Ibis emblem, thougli no loager fHiuiliar, 
wu i|alts inteltlgiblB is the earlicat timea, us the foUoning 
qaoUtien testifies :—" Quemadmodum enini post aqBU dilavii 
qaibns injqnitu entiquik purgatu eat, post bsptismnm (ut ita 
dixeriin; mmdi pacem ciel^Etis irce prmca colutnba temu uauR- 
cuTlt diniau Ri area et cum alea reveiBS . . . eadem ilispomtione 
■piiitalu eff«ctas tcrrse, id eut carni nostrs emergtsnti do lavacro 
piMt vsUra delictu columba Sancti Spiritaa ailvotat p]iceni Dul 
•ffereni emUss de cnlia ubi ecclesis sat aros flgnnta." — TKftTDLL. 
Ot HayL c. viil. 



88 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

portrayed in a simply hiatoricid vay. All, whether 
paintings or sculptures, are what has been called 
"ideographical," and bear a distinct symbolical 
interpretation. But we have selected two which 
deserve especial note. In the one^ a priest is repre- 
sented clothed iu a pallium, extending his hand in 
the attitude of benediction over a tripod, upon which 
a fish and some loaves marked with a cross are laid; 
while a woman, as typiiying the Church, kneels before 
him. In the other a fish is swimming in the water 
and carrying on its back a basket containing bread 
and a small vessel of wine. When we keep in mind 
the significance of the fish,* we have vividly depicted 

I "The priest la dotbed only in the palllimi ; now we know 
thnt Tertallian defends the pKlliuid, th&t Justin Martyr wore It, 
whllHt Cyprian denounced it. This painting, than, would lead us 
to conclude that nt the beginning of the third eentnr; the Euchuist 
was looked upon us a eacrifice celebrated by the pneat, and in 
the offering of which the congregation had its part." — Dbake, 0» 
the Teaching of Ihe Ckurck, etc, p. 7. 

* The symbol IxSit, which probably owed its origlii to the 
diiciplina arcani, has been found on monuments of every kind in 
he primitive Church. " Bint autcm nobis signacula columba, vel 
plsds, vel navis,"etc.— Cleuenb Alex. Pcedag. iii p. 246 (ed. 
Gnec. LaL BeiTiMi). Its anagramrnatic use is commented upon 
or alluded to by many of the Fathers. " IxBii qood est Latinom 
lesns Cbristns Dei Filius Balvator." — Oftatus Milev, ds Schitm. 
Donat. iii. 2. "Nos piscicnli secundum ixSir nostrum in aqua 
naacimnrnecnialinaquispermauendo salvi sumus." — TEBTULL.ii« 
Bapt. i. Auguatina inserts the acrostic verses supposed to have 
been written by the Erythraean Sibyl, de Civ. Dei., iviii. 23. 
See also MaiTiott's Essay on the Avtun Inscrip. in the Testimony 
nf the Cataoomba. 



The Testimony of the Catacombs. 



the true doctrine of the Holy Eucharist as taught iu 
the Cliurch CatechiEm, " the outward and visible sign, 
and the inward and epiritual grace," the conBecrated 
elements and that which underlies them, the Body 
and Blood of Christ. 

Now, to turn directly to the subject immediately On what 
before us, we propose to select from the vaat coUec- toaiimony 
tion of inBcriptiona which have been gathered out ue 
of the Bubterranean cemeteries several specimeus 
of three different classes. 

The first will be brought forward to show that 
the doctrine of the Church, which teaches that the 
faithful dead are not detained in a state of suffering 
or purgatorial pain, but pass at once to a place of 
f t, is the same which was held by the Roman 
itians of the first four centuries. 
) second will witness to the belief that death 
i aot separate interests, but that the preservation 
»f tile souls of the righteous in union with God and 
Christ in the world of spirits, and in consequent rest, 
was held to be a legitimate subject of prayer tor the 
surviving friends and members of the same Church. 

The third class exhibits traces of the practice of 
Appealing to the dead for their prayers and inter- 
eeadoDS ; but these will be more fitly introduced in 
the Second Part. 



go The Testimony of the Catacombs. 



the faithful naturally fall which bear 
pax, in pace. 



Under the first head all those inBcriptions will 
familiar formulte of 
pacem, and the like. Ati attempt 
has been made to prove that such expressioDs merely 
indicated that the deceased bad died in comnmnion 
with the Catholic Church, but one argument will 
auflice for the refutation of auch a theory. 

It is not probable that among the early Christiana 
the number of those who had been cut off and 
excommunicated could have been so great as to call 
for a distinguishing marie in behalf of those who 
had not. 

Again, the expression has been interpreted of 
the rest or peace of the body in the tomb, or to 
separate confessors from martyrs, those who died 
a natural death from those who perished by the 
liand of the executioner, as the prophet^ says, 
'"(Ehmi ahalt not hit bg the stomrb, but thon 
eltntt ixt in peate." No doubt there may be cases 
where such explanations are possible, but the fre- 
quent expression, " he lives in peace," altogether 
excludes any such limitation. Moreover, a full and 
nnbiasaed consideration of the following inscriptions 
will satisfy most candid people that all such limited 
and restricted interpretations are whoUy inadequate. 
The language can be satisfied by no less a mi-aning 



The Testimatty of the Caiaconids. 91 

Uiftn ifi obtamed br referring it to the peace of the 
pwdooed. flonl, which it enjoyB, when, set &ee &om the 
coooBtlKanoaE of the body with all its Binfal desiree 
■od re^es pBBmons, it realiees the prospect of a joyful 
resarrectioii and an eternity of blisG already begun. 

There are a large miniber of inscriptionE which 
jire merely the name of the deceased and the date 
of hie death, followed by the formula — ik face. 

A few examples are given, but tiiey are bo numer- 
oOB tlut it is hardJy necessary' to recaU tiiem ; indeed 
the oocarrence of the formula ie bo freqaeni that, aflCT 
the middle of the fourth eentnry, it is rarely absent ; — 

IRENBO — lA tTKKNTHJS — FKUCITAS — SABIK A — 
AGRtPpraA — TCBBANTIA— IN PACE. 

One or two may be quoted which contain otber 

ezpreseioiiE indicative of the same state of peace : — 

No. 213.' 

BEMEXEBENTI IN FACE LIBERA QE£ PIXTT A. XL 

NHOFTTA. DEP. DIE^ ETC 

To the wtU-deKTBtng IMtra in peace, viho Iwed eteoen 
years. A neopAyfc, Commiited to the grave, tic 

* WhcnTer Uia imcriptioiii aie nninbered, il u in ucoidmM 
wilh Os-Rosb:. Chn^aMB I»tcri}itiimt*, 24S.-Tikeii froDi tha 
Sircbcnaii MoKDin. lUtctl tjl I.D. The dUM uttiilly rantid on 
lb* Iiucri|iliaiu are ■ccordin; to lomulslaf, bat we luTe glTsa 
tlw BKin cooriaient eomspoiiding forms. 

W« birc made na itterojit M ooiTeetipg Ui« gnnunsr, which ii 
Btly it [anlt, bat ba*c printed ths iiueriplloiu ■* tbcf 




92 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 



No. 31. 

AECE-SSimS AB ANGELI8 QUI VIXIT 

ANN. XXII. MESIS VTII. DIEE. VIII., IN PACE 

DEP. LDIBUS DEC. MAXEKT. IIL COSS.^ 

Felched by angels, who lived twenty-two years, eight 
nwntlis, and eight days, in peace coimniiled to 
the grave on the Ides of December m the third 
consulship of Maxenlius. 
The expression " fetched by the angels" is indica- 
tive of peace and rest, and "committed to the grave," 
as has been frequently noticed, was fitly chosen to 
represent Christian burial, because the idea it sug- 
gests witnesses to the resurrection ; the body is not 
so much placed or laid in the grave, but intrusted 
to it as a sacred "deposit," to be reclaimed hereafter. 
A very considerable number of the epigraphs are 
composed of a mixture of Greek and Latin ; many 
too exhibit the words of one language in the char- 
acters of another. An example of these is quoted 
only because they have an additional Interest as 
being, in the judgment of De-Eoeei, before the middle 
of the third century : — 
*OtTOYNATOYC EYMEN. . . . KOIOTEl IN IIAKK. 

Fmiunatus Eumenes lieth in peace. 
■ m Baid to bave been taken from the Crypta ol B. SebutiaD. 




The Testimony of the Catacombs. 93 

We turn from these, which are of the simplest kind, 
and are cited only to show the belief of the early 
Ohiistiaas that the faithful dead were lo a conditiou 
of rest, to those which express the wishes and prayers 
of the survivors for their continuance in peace, or 
for light, or for refreshment, three things which we 
eh&ll see hereafter were the special objects of prayer 
in the Primitive Liturgies r — 

EIPHNH cor TH *YXH ZQCIMH. 

Ftact to thy soul, Zosima. 

EIPHNH TE *OPTYNATE BYrATPI FAYKYTATH. 

And peace be lo Fmiutvita my swceksl daughter. 

No. 17. 
EX vinciino tuo bene meco vixisti libent 

CONJUGA INNOCENTISSIMA CERVONU SILVANA 
RKFRIGEBA CUM SPIEITA SANOTA, DEP. 

Cerwnia Silvana, tfum didsC live well amd happily with 
mt, frmh thy virginity, as a most innocent wife. 
Rtfruh {thy sotd) laih the holy spkUs.^ Com- 
■niited to the grave. 

t Th« pnpositioa cum ia frequently TouDil goreniins t.n saeaea- 
tiv* aw Id ibtm uucriptioiu. The neuter form ia not atmnger 
Omn muij other anomalien with which they abouDiI. Id Tticl, 
gnuninttirtl errots uid pecnlluritiaa of numy kinds meet ua M 
•MrjF tun, at the followiDg pages teitifr- 



94 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

The following express prayers for the refreshmeDt 
of the soul : — 

HILARIS VIVAS CUM TUIS FELICITER SEMPER 
REFRIGERIS IN PACE DEI.^ 

Hilaris, may you live happily wUh your friendsy may 
you he refreshed in the peace of God, 

KALEMERE DEUS REFRIGERET SPIRITUM IITOM 
UNA CUM SORORIS TUAE HILARE.^ 

KalemeroSy may God refresh thy spirit together with that 

of thy sister Hilara, 

BOLOSA DEUS TIBI REFRIGERET QUAE VIX : 

ANN: XXXI. 

Bolosa, may God refresh you, who lived, etc. 

REFRIGERA DEUS ANIMA 

God refresh the soui of ... • 

HPAKAIA POMH IC ANAIIAYCIN COY H ^'YXH. 

Heraclea Boma, may thy soul {go) into refreshment. 

1 This is taken from one of the Gilded Glasses, upon the early 
date of which, however, Mr. Parker has thrown doubt. 

Refrigeris is apparently an abbreviated form for refrigereris. 

2 From the Kircherian Museum, found in the Catacomb of 
S. Ermetes. It is marked 124 in Bubgon's Letters from Rome. 



The Testimony of the Catacombs. 95 
The next two are for light ; — 

DOUINE NE QCANDO ADUMBRETOR SPntlTUS VENEEKS 
DK FILIVS IPSEIUS QUI STJPERSTITIS SUNT BSNIROSCS 
PROJECrOS.' 

Lord, Id not the spirit of Venus be osersJiadowed. Of 
her miis mho survive Benirosus (and) Prtgedus. 

ETERNA LUX TIBI TIMOTHEA IN XP. 

Tiniothea, mayest Ikou. Itave eternal light in Ckrisi 

Then there are many which pray for eternal life 
or union with God and Christ aud life with the 



KTEIA ZHCEC META ICTEPKOPIOY TOY 
AETOMENOY YrEINOY EN TEQ. 

Hyyeia, mayest lliou live with Stercorius, who is called 
Hygirats, tn God. 

EBENEA VrVAS IN DEO. A. Q. 

Ircnea, maijcsl Ihmt live in Qod. TJie Alalia 
and Omega. 



g6 The Testimony of the Catacombs. 

CHRESIME DULCISSIMA LT MIHI PI 
ENTISSIMA FILIA VIVAS IN DEO QUE 
REDDEDIT ANN. V, M. VII. D. V. OHRESIMUS ET 
VICTORINA PARENTES VICTTORIA 
VIVAS IN DEO.' 
My sweetest Ohresime and masl affectionate daugUer, 
mayesl thou live m God, who gave back {thy soul) 
at llie age of five years, seaen Tnontlts, and five days. 
Chrmmaa and Viclorina her parents. Fkloria, mayesi 
thmt live m God. 

HAItrUS VrrELLUNUS PRIMITIVE CONJUGI 
FIDELISSIMAE. AAIKCBBIN.^ 

Marim Vitellianus to his most faithful wife Primitiva. 
Sail, innocent soul, dear wife, mayest thou 
live in Christ. 

' This is intereBting iioja tbe repetitfon of tfas prayer. It liiu 
been coi^jectured. that the fint part was dictated by the father 
addressing his dimghtec by the name she hud received from him ; 
the latter part was inecribod porliaps later by the mother, who 
wished her daughter to be ccmmemomted alao by the name she 
had received from her. — Sea Korthcote, Christiaii Epiijraplta. 
p. 82. 

* This is from a Sarcophagus preserved in the Lateran. De- 
Itossl coiuidcrs the inysterioiis comhination of letters at the end 
to be aa acrostic : Ave anims innocens Icara coivjux biban in 
Ohristo. 



TJic Testimony of the Catacovibs. 97 



No. 10. 

PASTO . . . VISAS INTER SANCTIS IHA. 

Matjesl thou live aiiumg the minis in ptace. 

Many more illustrations of a similar kind might 
be brought forward, but the preceding exhibit ample 
proof that the early Christians believed not only 
that the faitliful dead entered at once into a state 
of rest and peace, where " no torment could touch 
them," but alao that death interposed no barrier to 
tie prayers of those who survived. 

Taken by themselves the Inscriptions may appear 
meagre and unimportant, but when we remember that 
the character of the times is often "most accurately 
reflected in Christian epigraphy," we learn to value 
their testimony. 

It may be said again that the expressions 
referred to are nothing more than " pious acclamn- 
but the same might be alleged of the 
tat Ml pace, and yet Catholics who inscribe the 
I tlieir tombs would never consent to the 
natriction. They may bo, and often have been, used 
nraply as snch, but far more frequently they set 
forth the language of direct prayer. 

< Tlilii iiucription In tha earlier put ii muoh luutllnteil anil 
alnoat bayoDd recalL Tbelaat letten wconBideral a oormiiliaD 
afi>FO. Tbo date otitis given by De-it. ai 268 ra 270 a.d. 



CHAPTER VITL 

C^e 'uCfStimouj of tlje (Eaclp iatljcM. 

THE writiaga of the Earlj Fathers supply 
abundant evidence of the practice of prayinj^ 
for the dead. It wUl suiBce here to quote a few 
passages ahnost without comment, leaving for later 
consideration the extent to which prayer in such 
eases was regarded by them as efficacious. 

Tracing backwards from the middle of the fifth 
century, where our investigations cease, we meet 
in the Acts of the CouncO of Chalcedon with a 



Dioacums was delated to the Council for a breach 
of truBt. A saintly woman '^ of blessed memory had 
provided in her will for large grants of money to be 
made to the monasteries, hospitals, almshouses, and 

' ri yip kutIl ric t^i \ajnrpas /IrTi/ljjt XlffHayeplltr x/ray/la 
ovSeIe ijyfiyitji. iKtiviji ykp inrip ttjs iavriji ^HXV^ ^^ ^^ SLart- 
SfffGat 7rap:iKt\£VaiifAivrjs voo^njra -xpvclov irapaax^^^^^ t™' 
M»a0Tl|/5i0«, oil iiijy dXXii Koi Toft iecfuffi Kal ItTUXllOI.^ itoi 
iripoti irhnitn r^? AlyvTrnaicrii -x^^pa^. iivre t^rjSi ttjjt tinuStar 
j)» di4 T^J fiiwlai T^s \a)irpai rJji' /ii^/tijp UepiffTeplas ocfue)^ 
Sipmi rpit Tbi QcAir, ri Saw ir' airT-^.— CoBc. Lab. p. Ml, Act 8. 



TJie Testimony of tite Early Fathers. 99 



the poor generally, in Egypt, in the belief tliat her 
sonl would be benefited by the prayers of the faith- 
ful, to whose necessities she thua ministered. She 
appointed Dioacurua trustee for the execution of her 
wUL An accusation was brou^dit against him for 
fulnre of trust ; that he had not done the very least 
that was required of him, — he had not even offered 
incense or a sweet- smelling savour to God to com- 
memorate the illusti'ioits dead. 

It is obvious that such a matter as this could 
not have been brought within the cognisance of a 
General Ecclesiastical Council, or at any rate passed 
over without some marks of disapprobation, if the 
crime laid against Dioacums were one of refusing to 
perform an act which the Church disallowed as 
contrary to Catholic practice. 

S. Augustine says, " It has come down to us from S. 
th» Fathers, and is universally hutd iu the Church, 
that we should pray for those who died in the 
Communion of tbe Body and Blood of Cliiiat, when 
they are commemorated in their proper place at 
the Sacrifice."^ 

S. Ambrose, apostrophising Gratian and Valen- 8, 

' " Hoc cnlm a pstnlnis ttnilitum uDivsrss observst Ecolesia, ut 
f)>*«la qni in eorporm et BBn.!iunia Chnstt conimuniaDS defunuti 
va& oom 9A Ipaiun BOcnflcmm loio buo cDmiDGmarantur, oretur." 
— 8 tif m o di»ii- de Vtrbi Apotlolt, vol r. p. 1196 ; ed. Paria. 



loo TIte TestiiHony of the Early Fathers. 



tinian, thns speaks : " Bles&ed are ye both, if ray 
prayers shall be of any avaO ! No day shall pass 
by you in silence, no prayer of mine pass over you 
imhonoured, no night shall fly past you without 
your receiving the boon of some earnest prayer; I 
will attend yon wiiJi all my oblations."' 

Epiphanius argues that the Church has no 
alternative but to perform this duty, because she 
has received it as a traditionary custom fi^m the 
hands of the Fathera.- 

S. Chrysostom goes so far as to say that the 
custom had received Apostolic sanction, — "not in 
vain was this law laid down by the Apostles."* 

Eusebius narrates how at the tomb of Constantine 
"a vast crowd of people, in company with the 
jirieste of Crod, with tears and great lamentation 

' "Be.itl anb^, i\ quid meie oratiaQea Talebnnt I nulla diet fob 
ulnuuu i>iuiMiribit, nulla inhonoratos vos mea Cransibit oratio, 
nulla Dox Don donntos oliqua precuni ni 
oniret; omnibim voa oblation ibns freqnei 
tiami. ConMlalio, 78. 

Thin made or addrcsa see 
tlifl lines of Virgil- 



i quid m 



' irayKalus ^ iKiXrirrla tout 
Traripwi- rll ti ZvrtitttTai. ~ 
— EpiPH. ads. HacT. lib. ii 

' oi/if tlKri toDtb tTHiH^rrifiTi v, 
ad PhiXipp. up, L 



■Dtobila Valen- 
IB been Bnggested to him bf 
cumEna poaaDPt. 

» iroariKiJii.San. iii. 



The Testimony of the Early Fathers. loi 
offered their prayera to God for the Emperor's 



Arnobiua, writing of the peraeoutioii at the close Amoblu*. 
of Diooletiaii's reign, when the Sacred Scriptures 
were ordered to bo burnt, and the churches razed 
to the ground, asks, "What have our places of 
assembly done that they should be cruelly destroyed, 
in which we pray to the Most High God, and seek 
peace and pardon for all men ; for magistrates, 
armies, kings, friends, and foes ; for those still 
living, and for those who have been set free from 
the bondage of the flesh 1"^ 

Tertullian closes the testimony of the Early Tartuiiian. ' 
Fathers by irequent reference to the prevalence 
of the custom, "We offer the oblations for the 
dead on the annivet^ary of their birth."^ And 
again, speaking of a widow, he says, "She prays 
for his (her husband's) soul, and requests refresh- 
ment for him meanwhile, and fellowship in the 

' Xfiit 3^ irafMrXi7flij! aim ToIi Ty Bitfiltpaii^iu! oi SaKpiat itrhi 
eir K\avSiii^ Bi rhtlrm rds eixdi irip riji ^ao-iWiui •j'uxv' dfftSf- 
IWonveei^— yita Const, lib. iv. c. 71. 

* "Cnr immaniUr coiiventicaltt dinii mernemnt, in qnibua 
annunns oratar Dedb, fax cunctie et venis postuUtur, magiEtrB 
tibiiB, eiercitibna, regibus, familiarihus, inlmiolB, adhiic vitam 
ilagentibua et reBolutia corpornm vinctione?"— ^da. Gm. iv. 36. 

' " Oblationea pro defuiictis, pro natalitiia annua die laoimus " 
^Ut Cor. Mil. c. 3. 



102 Tlie Testimony of the Early Fathers. 

firat reauirectioit ; and she offers sacrifice on the 
anniversaries of his falling asleep,"^ 

Here, then, we have a chain of Patristic evidence 
which carries us back into the second century ; and 
when we take into consideration the fact that It 
is fully corroborated by the Service-books of the 
Church, in which the religious opinions and feelings 
of a people are sure to find their outward expression, 
we can hardly do otherwise than accept the oft- 
repeated assertion that the Primitive Christians did 
not consider the interposition of death sufficient to 
silence the voice of prayer and intercession. 

1 " Pro aniniH Ejns orat et refrigerium interim Bdpostulat ai st 
in prima resiirreottona cansDrtiani," etc. — De Manogam. a. 10. 

Tertulliao was one of those who intarpreted Rev. n. 1-7 
literaUr, and faeld tbst them will be a Srat reBoriBction of 
uartyis, and those saints who are vrorthf to share their honoun, 
sooner or later according to their deserte, to live with ChriBt on 
earth for a thousand years, at the expiration of which period 
there will be a general resuri'octioa of all the dead. He treated of 
the snbjeot Inlly in a lost work, rfe Spe Fidelium, and mora briefiy 
in adv. Marc. lii. sxiv,, and de Monogam. p. GS2, and de Saurr. 
Car-lit, p. 397, ed. Rig. 



CHAPTER IX. 

H^t tlt&timon^ of tl)E i&cfmftftiE Xftucfffest. 



! little doubt that the Apostles llie primal 



THERE c 
attached great importance to the most sacred Liturgicnl 
ord inance of " the Breaking of Bread," and it seems 
1 to suppose that, before tliey separated for 
' different spheres of missionary work, thej 
Hid agree upon some definite form, or at least lay 
down some fixed general principles of Liturgical 
service,' acconling to which they would continue to 
celebrate the Holy Eucliarist in the several Cimrches 
which they founded. But the principles being 
settled, and the central portion or nucleus, so to 
Bpeak, being formed, the details of prayers and 
ceremonies which gathered round it would be auf- 

> TncM of tbese hnve been discovered In tbe Apostles' wriClngs, 
t,j). tbs Act of CoDBraratioD, 1 Cor, x. 16 ; the Sin of Peaec, 
1 Cor. itL 20, 3 Cor. ilii. 12, 1 S. Peter v, H; the Amen of 
tlw fiuebnriit, 1 Cor. liv. 15, compnred with Jnst, Mul. Apol. 
Izvii. It bu been noticed too that oertBin posaagea introduced 
by Ui8 Apostle with the formula " aa it is written," are nowhere 
found tn Scripture, but occur in the Liturgies ; t.g. 1 Cor, ii. V 
tOMj b« wen in the quotation tVom S. Murk's liturgy, p. 111. 
Ttili it oonmutnly n^ardetl at am adaptation of IiiaiiUi lj:iT. L 



104 Testi7no7iy of the Primitive Litur^s. 



fered to vary both in extent and character accord- 
ing to circumstances. 
IB Attempts have been made to classify the local and 
other varieties which existed in early times, and 
most Liturgiologists have decided to arrange all! 
the Eucharistic Services nsed in different countriatB 
and by different communities, in four* or fivsp 
groups or families, each one of which bears the namel 
of the Apostle who ia said to have laboured i 
particular country where it was used.' 

These are the Liturgies of S. James, S. Mark, S, 
John or S. Paul, and S. Peter, to which is added, by 
those who make five groups, another entitled the 
Liturgy of SS. Adieus and Maris, which is regarded 
as the parent of a vast class of Eucharistic Offices 
used by the NeBtorians. 

Accepting without controversy this mode of 
classification, we shall in the following investigation 
extract illustrations of the point under review from 
each of the parental forms, and also from some few 
of those which have been derived from them, merely 
giving, for the convenience of those who are un- 

* Palmiir in the Origines lAtwgioB reduces all forma to tour, 
which he entitleB the Great Oriental Liturgy, the AlaxaQdmn, tbe 
Bonun, and the GalliCBn. 

< Cf. Liturgies Eastern and WeeUm, ed. C. K Uanhond, 
Introd. p, ivi. 




Testimony of the Primitive LilurgifS. 105 



acquainted with the snbject, as brief oil account as 
possible of the aereml Liturgies cited. 

Before, however, appealing to the evidence wliieli 
lies in these Primitive Litui^es, it will be well to slate 
distinctly how far these may be considered available 
for the purpose. 

Some degree of hesitation must necessarily bo f<<It Thv 1 
by reason of the uncertain state of the text which th> tait. r 
has come down to us. In the absence of early manu- 
scripts ' we have no authentic evidence of their con- 
t«nts in their original form. 

If we accept the conclusions of those Liturgiologists* 

< No doaht one graat caUBe for tbr DOn-eilatenga or early Itss. 
wu tbe eitrame reverence wbich wes Celt for the aiyateries of the 
Faith, utd the fesr lest, if conuuitteil ta writiog, the Iwoks uii|;lit 
be givCD up in titnes of peraccutioa. 

* It 0»y be well to stute briolly an outline of the irgumeiiti 
upon wUidi the early date of aome of the great Liturgies ia said to 
mL We telle that of S. Jamei ae an illnatrntioa. lliio wu 
originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Thii Patrlarehate 
il at Ihia time occnpiBd by two claosBS, the Monophyilteii and the 
Onbodoi. Xow the rormer retain a Liturgy, which they havn 
Died unintermpteilly, caDcd after 9. Jainee. The latter liBV* 
adopted that of Constantinople, but once a year, on the Apoitlc'i 
KaatlTBl, thoy nse that vbich bears liis nanie. Here then we >ee 
the orthodox and the heretios aacribing ■ Liturgy in their pnuei ■ 
ilou V> S. James, and they must have done so from a very remote 
period, clearly fur more than fourteen ceDturies ; for they 
separated from esoh other after the condemiiBtion of Honoiiby . 
•ftJMl at the Council of CbalcedOD, 461 a.d. , and it is not likely 
tbkt altber would borrow from the other after the sejiamtlon. A 
Utntsy then bearing tbe title of 13. Jamai is proved to have been 
Ib UN la the fifth ceatnry ; and many portlona of this ore to be 
tnKud ia the writings of «ertaln Fathers, fiiim Theoderet, 120 a,D., 
to JwUn Martyr. ISO A.n.. who lived at Samaria, In the Fatrlar. 



ro6 Tesiimofiy 0/ the Pritiiitive Liturgies. 

who assign the origin of some of them to the beginning 
of the third century, or even to an earlier date, we are 
compelled to admit that they have since been greatly 
developed and added to under the infiuence of various 
circumatances. But apart from any legitimate de- 
velopment and additions, which are conformable to 
Catholic doctrine, there are also numerous undoubted 
interpolations of a totally different character. Are 
these sufficient to shake our confidence in the general 
trnst worthiness of the documents 1 Or can we so 
far separate the later introduction as to leave the 
substantial parts free to be accepted as satisfactory 
evidence of the opinion of primitive times 1 We 
think it possible to do this. In some cases^ there 
is no diflSculty in recognising the interpolation, and 
frequently even the date of its insertion may be 
approximately determined. 

cbate of Actlocb. He describes the celebratfoti of the EuchaTist, 
and, ag far as it goes, his description corresponds almost prectBelir 
to that which is found In this Liturgy. And this caiTiea bnck its 
existence to within a century of the Apostle whose name it bears. 

' " Grant, Lord, we beseech Thee, that this oblation ma; benefit 
OB by the interceseion of the Blessed Leo."— jUi^. Ftat. LamU, 
Jon. ixviiL Bingham gives the history of the change tnni the 
form, " Grant that this oblation may benefit the soul of Leo, Thy 
servant," as it appeared in the old Roman Missal.— Op. vol. v. iv. 
iii. IS, p. 312. 

In HicKBa' Treatise m the Pnathood he enomerates some of 
the additions which " any man, who is conversant in the history 
of the Councils, may see," such as iniooiiaot, rb KCpion rb faii- 
iroioi', hropivAuetos. irp4irrm. barHpuTrl^as.—l. 143, ed. 1711. 



I 



Testunony of ilie Primitive Liturgies. 107 

For instance, it would be uBeless to appeal to thesi? How f»i 
Litnigiea in support of the worship of tlie Blcased additiot 
Virgin in the second or 
After thai her worship l 
Christianity, as it did in the East during the fifth cen- evidence, 
tury, and not much later in the West, it was inevit- 
able that it Bhould find its expression in the Servicee^ 
of the Church ; and wliile we may avail ourselves of 
these OS witnessing to the general acceptance of the 
doctrine after its introduction, it is obvious that 
documents which were confessedly open to interpola- 
tion, and the original forms of wliich are past 
recovery, could have no weight beyond this in the 
scale of evidence. The only condition under which 
their testimony is of value is, when that to which 
they witness is supported by the concurrence of con- 
temporary history. 

To illustrate this we revert to the case above 
mentioned. Accepting, for the sake of the argument, 
the middle of the second century as the date of the 
Liturgies bearing the names of S. James and S. Mark, 
no discovery of allusiona to the worship of the 

ill the liturgy of 8. J»nie> the fallowing :—" Let un 
B our lU-holy, pure, most glorlom, lileaaed lAdy, 
■l-motlisT, null ever-Virgin Mary, and nil the holy ind Jii»l> 
f bU Bnil mercy tlirough their plnVorB uul inter- 



io8 Testimony of the Primilive LUurgies. 



Blessed Virgin in their e.xisting forma woald be of the 
alighteat value, because it is n-hoUy nnsiipported \fy 
contemporary writers. Bat if Justin ilaityr or 
Origen or Tertnllian, or any Father of that age, had 
left anything to indicat« the prevalence of the eti/fus 
in Uieir times, then, without being able to proTe the 
abeolnte integrity of the Liturgies, we might appeal 
to their coiit«at8 as coiToborative evidence. 

Id the first gronp that which holds the chief 
place is the Liturgy of Sl James or of Jerosalem. 
'\V'Tiether it was writt*ii in Syriac or Greek in its 
original form is a disputed point, but the arguments 
seem to incline tather in favour of the Syriac. 

Since the sepanitioa of the Orthodox and the 
MoDophydtes at the Council of Chalcedon, the 
former have Tised the Greek, the latter the Syriac 
In consequence however of their oppre^oD 1^ the 
Mohammedans, the Orthodox adopted the Liturgy of 
Constantinople, and only use that of S. James on 
one day in the year, the Feast of the Apostle. 

In early times this Lltuigy was adopted through- 
oat the wide Fatriaichate of Antioch, reaching &om 
the Euphrates to the Hellespont, and from the 
Hellespont to the south of Greece. 

In the Greek form, after the reading of the 
Diptychs of the dead the priest proceeds : — 



of the Primitive Liturgies. 109 



" Remember, Lord God, the spirits of all flesli, 
of whom we have made mentioD, and of whom we 
have not made mention, who aie of the true faith, 
from righteous Abel unto this day ; do Thou Thyself 
give them rest there in the land of the living, in 
Thy kingdom, in the delight of Paradise, in the 
bosom of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, our holy 
fathers; whence pain and grief and lamentation 
have fled away : there the light of Thy countenance 
looks upon them, and gives them light for ever- 
more,"' 

The Clementine^ Liturgy has this petition, "Let The 
us pray for those who rest in faith,"* and " We a. clement 
further offer to Thee for all Thy saints who have 
pleased Thee from the beginning of the world, 
patriarchs, prophets, just men, apostles, martyrs, con- 
fessors, bishops, elders, deacons, subdeacons, singers, 

' liriiai-rfri., Kiipic 4 9ci!, rail Tni^viii-tay xai adirij! aa-jKh, 1 

■S» iiaiftBi^litv. toX Siv oix {p.v-l^eviia', dpSaBS^w. d^A'Aj^fX toC I 

Sixatav p-^XP^ rTjs aiiptptttf iipApa^. ainbi iKfl aOroi'S dodvavirov I 

ir X'!>P9 fiitTW. ir r? paciKclif am, ic t^ Tpu^p roB trapaitlirav, \ 

ti ToTt KSKTott 'Appa&p, iml 'lomk sol 'Iniiift rut Ayiiac TraTipiai 
'i]n!jt. dffen iviSpa iSiini Xuirij jcni oTtVa^^os. Ma f-irmKorcl 
ri ^i3t ToD TpoiiiirDu aov nal KaraXi/iireL Bui rarT6s, — Lil. S. 
Jaeobi Onrconaa. 

' The titla of " Clemsntine " originated no doubt in tho Action 
of S. Clement's sutliorsJiip of the CayiatittUiones. Their probablo 
date ia not earlier than the end of the third century, but in many 
parts tliey embody materiaU which are mnch older. 

* irip tUv tr rierti ayaravtraii/i'iiii' SiTSuuti'. 



I lo Testimony of the Primitive Liturgies. 

Yirgins, widows^ laYineiL. and all whose names Tfaoa 
Thvself knowest.'*' 
Th* niTie The evidence of these is important, because S. 

of their 

eri'lincc^ Cyril, Bishop of Jeinsalem, and a saccessor in the 
see of Su James, in his Lectores on the Mysteries, 
bears distinct witness to the text of a Litnigj in use 
in his time containing a list of the saints for whom 
prayers were offered ; and he gires a description of 
the 3er\-ice, which corresponds minutely to that of 
S. James. 

While the Clementine Liturgy, from the fact of 
its having been embodied in a literary work, has in 
aU probability been left free frt>m additions, which 
frx)m time to time have been largely introduced into 
the forms of Eucharistic worship. 

The Of the second group the Greek Liturgy of S. Mark 

LitTinrv of -••Ti-k-i 

s. M^k. is the parental form. It was used m the Patriarchate 
of Alexandria, which extended over Egypt, Libya, 
and Ethiopia. The modem Christians of Egypt use 
three Coptic Liturgies, which have been derived 
from it, bearing the names of S. Cyril, S. Basil, and 
S. Gregory. 

The following extract is from S. Mark :— " Give 

1 frt rpo<r<l>4pofih <roi koI (nr^p rdmm rOm dr* cUQm eOopecmy- 
adrrofw aot ay'uaw TarpiapxQ^ vpOffnfrCM dvaUtaf drooriXtam 
tuLpiT^pbJv o/JLoXoyTtrQiw iruTKOTuiw rp&r^vripMf Sicucirbw ihro- 
iiaxb^iop difaywtoirrSiw ^f^aXruv rap$iwti» x^pwr Xoucur koI wd^rtim 
dr a^r^ hr'toraaai rh. 6r6fuiT».—Apo8tol. CfonsUL viiL \% 



Testiaumy ofi/ie Primitive Liturgies, 1 1 1 

reet, Sovereign Lord, onr God, to the souls of all 
those, who are in the tabernacle of Thj' sdnte, in 
Thy kingdom, graciously bestowing upon them the 
blessing of Thy promises, which eye hath not seen, 
nor ear beard, nor have entered into the heart of 
man, which Thou hast prepared, God, for them 
that love Thy holy Name."' 

The next ia from S. Cyril's: — "Be merciful, Thp Coptit 
Lord. Grant rest to our fathers and brothers, s. CyrU. 
who have fallen asleep, and whose souls Thou hast 
received. Remember ulso all the saints who have 
pleased Thee since the world began."^ 

> parent form of the next group, wluch i 



lortions of it are found in the Gailican and Moz- 
iusbic Liturgies. The first of these was used in the 
Churches of France, which were probably founded 
by missionaries from Asia Minor,^ for several 
centuries, and only superseded by the Koman in the 

' robrm rirrar Tat ^vx^i iriraiirw, A/irwora Kiipif A &cit 
%Ed' it nui TUB iyiup ooi' aititaU. Ir rj ^ao-iXrip uoi;, xopffi- 
ptwai B^TBcf Td Tw* ^a-|TfXuir o-ou (L7n('i(, i 6^Bo.\noi, k.t,\.— 
Ul. ITS. Mark. 

• " DonuOB miwrere : patribns fratribusqne nostris qni olnJor. 
■Itmit «t qaoTum uilmu goscepintl qnJeUni pnestn. Memenbi 
■Uini omDium lanctonun qui i cecmlo tibl plaencmtit." — Lot. 
Trmul. qfUieAnafhomofthfCoplicLitwiiiin/S. Cj/riL 

* An proof of tb« close connectioa between tbs Chnivhci of Oau! 
■Ml Aiin, wTeral earl; Binhopt ot the rornter KTo uiit to hin 
liMO nalina at Ephens. and the well'known kltsr from tliF 
CbiMluu at L;otii Uan witiieu U> Ibe snaii 




1 1 2 Testimony of the Primilive Liturgies. 



reign of Charlemagne ; and it has a apei 

for 09 from the probability of its having been used 

by the British Church before the mission of S. ] 

Augustine, 

In the G&llican Liturgy we read: — "At the 
sfune time we pray, beseeching Thee, Lord, for 
the sonia of Thy servants, our fathers and former 
teachers, . . . and for the soiik of all our brothers, 
whom Thou didst deem worthy to call to Thyself 
from this place, and of strangers who died in the 
peace of the Church." * 

The Mozarabic Liturgy* is the most complete of 
those which were derived from S. John and the 
Ephesiau Church, and was used as the national 
Kite throughout Spain from the earliest tiiae^. In 
this there is less distinctness in the intercession, but 
the Apostles and others are commemorated, and 
" the spirits of many holy men, who are at rest."^ 



"Simnlque preoantes o 






I, pro animnbua 



rum . . . . vel 01 

te Toeare di^atus es ; . ■ 

defonctornin." — OoUic. Mil. 

' Its use ia genorally snpposed to linve ceiuieii ivhen Gregory vu. 
preTsSed upon Alpbonso TL to Bubstitnte tlio Rarnaii Litw^ in 
ita place. After baving become practically a dead letter for niaay 
csntnrieB it waa re-introdnced at Toledo by Cardinal Xiraunca, and. 
it 11 said regularly in the college of priesta fomided by him thera 
at the present day. 

' " FacientBB cominemorationem bentUairaonun Apostolorara 
. . . item pro tpiritibus paoaantiuni." — Mozar. Lit. 



I 



Testimony of ike Primitive Liturgies. 1 13 

Much obscurity hangs over the original Liturgy of Tha Lit- 
the fourth group. The oldest form now extant is a. I'Dter, 
probably the Ambrosian. Later developmenta of it 
are the Sacrameutaries of Leo, Gelasiua, and Gregory, 
(rom which so many of the Collects of the Anglican 
Liturgy have beeu taken. 

In the Liturgy which has been in use from time The 
immemoiial throughout the diocese of Milan the Liturgy. 
following prayer is found : — " Kemember also, 
Lord, Thy servants, men and women, who have gone 
Wore ua with the seal of the fuith, and are sleeping 
in the sleep of peace. To them, Lord, and all 
who rest in Christ, we pray Thee to grant a place 
of refreshment light aud peace,"' 

In the &icramentary of S. Gccgory, which waa Tim Snorn- I 
derived from the Liturgy of S. Peter, we read the B.''(ir()gor» 
following prayers : — " Be favourable to the souls of 
Thy servantd with an everlostiag compassion, that 
they may be set free from the bonds of death, and 
kept in eternal light ; " and " We pniy that the souls 
(rf Thy servants, and all who rest in Christ, may 
attain to a participation in eternal liglit."^ 

' ■' Memento ellam, Ddminc, ftmnlonim fsmnlarumque tnanim 
qsl no* pmceuerunC enm tigno HiUl Bt dormiunt In sooino fna». 
ifi», DnminB, et oniDibus in Clirintoqiiloswolilms locum retrigerii 
Inebi M pacie ul iniiulgem iloprecnmiir."— yi?ni7™. Lit. 

* " ProplUniu miiiiiiilius finiiilorum faiiiularunique tuuruw 

n 



1 14 Testimony 0/ the Pritnitive Liturgies. 

The evidence derived from this is less trustworthy, 
because it ia well known that Gregory made con- 
siderable alterations in the form which he revised, 
but they were chiefly by way of condensation rather 
than enlargement. 
ThB Lit. The chief of the Nestorian group is that which 

Adieua and bears the title of S. Adseus and S. Maria, of whom 
the former ia to be identified with Thaddraus, who was 
sent on a mission to Abgarus, governor of Edessa, 
after the Ascension of the Lord ; while of the latter 
little is known, except by tradition which makes 
him a founder of the Churches of Mesopotamia. 

In the Great Intercession the following occurs : — 

" Lord, mighty God, receive this oblation for all 
the holy Catholic Church, and for. all godly and 
righteous Fathers who have pleased Thee, . . . and 
for all the dead who have been separated and have 
departed from us.'" 

Quotations of a similar kind might havu been 

lately multiplied, but we have abstained from 

mieerlcordja sempitemii. at niortalibus neiibns expeditas liu eae 
oteni pDSsideat." 

" Inveniant quoBumns animiB taraulorum tajaularnmque tnanim 
omniumqae in ChriatD qaieHCentium lucis catemffi consorUum."- 
Skt. Qrtg., Murat. ii. 221. 

i"Dotiiiiie Deiis potiuis euEcipe liaac oblationem pro omni 
DccleBia suicta Cstbolics et pro PalrilinB piis et jontis qui pluciti 
fnerunt tibi . , . et pra anuiihaB defimctia qui s Eobia sepurati 
Uiigravenuit," — L'd. SS. Adadrl Maris. 




Testimony of the Primitive Liturgies. 115 



introducing them, knowing that we should only see 
the features of the parent lepeated again and again 
in the child, so closely in tlux matter do the deiived 
Liturgiea resemble thoae from which they originated. 

We pass on to consider what value the early The 
Christians could have attached to such petitions, ami object 
This we estimate from two points of view. puUtiona. 

Firstly, where the future ia chiefly referred to, 

they felt that it was a " holy and pious thing to pray 

for the dead," because the Scriptures led them to 

believe that a man's final condition is not reached 

tiU the day of judgment ; and though the Church 

in all her supplications breathes the spirit of a sure 

Mid certain hope, yet so long as judgment Is delayed, 

the attitude of prayer is most in accordance with our 

Christian instincts. Whilst there is anything still The «td- 

fiitare to be obtained (and the frequent reference to nrByBrmasI I 
, . , , , . . ,. lifooming | 

the reEurrection and eternal happiness points dis- litl thv 

liiictly to the future), it ia certainly not unbecoming in pnaaed. 

that a waiting Church, whether in tbe body or out 

of the body, should place itself upon its knees in 

prayer and supplication. It is this principle which 

hu fonnd such a happy expression in our own 

ofBce at the Burial of tlie Dead, — " Beseeching Thee, 

that it may please Thee, of Thy gracious goodness, 

Khorlly to accomplish the number of Thine elect, and 



Ii6 Testimony of the Primitive Liturgies. 



prayera ai 
aokjiow- 
ledgment 



to hasten Thy kingdom ; that we, with all those that 
are departed iu the true faith of Thy holy Name, 
may have our perfect consummation and blisa, both in 
body and soul, in Thy eternal and everlasting glory." 

Secondly, where the present condition is the 
prominent idea. Admitting that the day of death 
may be practically the day of judgment, that the 
sentence, though not yet delivered, is then deter- 
mined and cannot be reversed, even under these 
circomstances it does not seem to be a violation of 
the principle of prayer to continue to pray for what 
we may feel confident that those for whom we pray 
already possess. God has willed that His creatures 
should live in continual acknowledged dependence 
on Him and His bounty ; that at all times, and 
under all conditions of being, men should acknow- 
ledge that He is the Giver of all things; and this 
ia the reason why all men, rich and poor, those in 
plenty no less than those in want, are taught to pray 
daily for the supply of their bodily needs, to ask for 
this day's bread, though all the time their gamers may 
be "£nU ani plmtwras toith all inaniter uf store." 

Upon these principles, apart from others which 
may he considered hereafter, the prayers of the 
Primitive Liturgies for the peace and refreshment 
of the dead receive their full justification, 




I&rapmf for tlje pavDoii of &in0 of fnficmftp, 
anfi rliE tffacenunt of sitifiit tftamui. 

rE preceding pages have afforded us an oppor- 
tnnity of judging how prevalent the habit of* 
praying for the dead was in the early ages of 
Christianity, and at the same time have set forth 
the commonest forma in which prayers were 
exprasaed. 80 far no instance has been quoted 
in whidi any direct mention of ein is found in the 
petidonB. The more perplexing consideration of 
not in&eqnent cases in wliich it does find a 
vhen the language takes the form of a prayer 
for the remission of sins, or for the effacing 
of the st»ns and defilements of sin, must now be 
entered upon. 

The etidence on this head does not carry us quite 
to b.T back as that produced above. There is muih 
IflM in tbe great parent Liturgies, and, as far as we 
can discover, hardly anything worth recording in 




1 18 Prayers Jor the pardon 

the Fathers before S. Jerome ; but from his time 
onwards there was a general helief that those sing 
which ■were the inevitable consequence of a frail 
nature, common to the holy man as well aa the 
wicked, might he done away after death; sjid that 
the defilements which the pardoned sou] carried 
with it out of this life might be wiped out ; and 
that in both caaee entire remission and perfect 
purification could be furthered by the prayers of 
the faithful. 

SjTiflc Taking the Oriental Lituryies first, we read in 

S. James, the Syriac of S. James : — " We commemorate all the 
faithful dead who have died in the true faith, . . , 
and come to Thee, God, the Lord of spirits and 
of all flesh : we ask, we entreat, we pray Christ our 
Lord, who took their souls and spirits to Himself, 
that by His own manifold compassions He will make 
them worthy of the pardon of their faults and the 
remission of their sins."' 

The above is the prototype of a vast number of 

1 " Commecnoranms omnaB detDnctoa fidelea, qui in Ada vara 
di.-ranctl suit . . . et ad te Deum Daminnm spirituuui et DinniB 
cnmis pervrnerunC. Rognmus implarsmua et deprecamur Chris- 
tum Ileum nostrura, qui euscapit ad Be animaa et spirituB eornm, 
nt pot miHBrationaH suas mnltas pnestot illos dignos venia deiic- 
torum ot reniisaiotie pecFatonim. " — S^. Lit. S. JacoU, Latin 
trans., HisnaUd., ed. TTnnimond, p. 75. 



\ 



of sins of human infirtnily. 1 1 9 

Liturgies which are nsed by that portioa of the 
SjTian Church which professes Monophysite doctrine. 

The titles which mauy of them bear are not 
aathentic, but the Liturgies themselves are held to 
lie very ancient. 

The following extracts are taken from four of 

them: — 

From that of S. John the Evangelist ; — " Thou art Jwobtte 
lituTgiiti 
the Creator of the Boula and bodies, and they, who 

have lain down in the grave, wait for Thee, and look 

to Thy life-giving hope. Awake them, Lord, in 

that last day, and may Tliy look towards them be 

tranquil, and of Thy mercy forgive their faults and 

failings, for none of those who have lived on earth 

can be found clean from the stains of sin,"' 

From thai of S. Peter, chief of the Apostles : — 

"Place in Abraham's bosom and bid them refit, 

who fulfilled their course of human life in the 

orthodox faith, . . . taking away and forgiving all 

their wrong deeds, . . . because it ia impossible for 

those who have enjoyed the pleasures of the world, 

> " Ta «3 eniro Creator aniiiiBnun et coc^iomm et ts eifpectaiit 
q(d ilB«nbi]«niDt et spem tunin viviflcantem resplciiiTit. SurcIU 
lllaa, Domine, in die lllo noyisslTno : traiKjiiIIIusque alt ergn illoi 
m1tn> tnds : et'limitte p«r iniHriconllua tUBm delictaetdafeotnB 
•oniln : quia eoriim qui super terrain tuemut iialliu reperitar 
nrntnllu a (ordibiu pticcatl," — IM. S. Joannu Svang., RiniDD. 




1 20 Prayers for iJie pardon 

even for a. single moment, to be fomid other than 

guilty." 1 

From that of S. James the Lesa : — "Load them 
with joy in the land which is Ut by the brightnesB 
of Thy face, blotting out their prevarications, and 
not entering into judgment with them, for there is 
no one pure from sin in Thy sight."^ 

From that of S. Dionyains, Bishop of Athena : — 
"Remember, Lord, all the dead, who died with 
Thy hope in the true faith ; . . . write their names 
with the names of Thy saints in the blessed aboda 
of those who keep holiday and rejoice in Thee ; not 
calling back to them the recollection of their sins, 
or reminding them of their foolish deeds, becanse 
there is no one in the bonds of the flesh who is 
innocent in Thy sight."^ 

Before leaving the Eastern Liturgies ive quote from 
one which belongs to a different family, and has 

I " In a!nu AliraliGe colloca et qnieaceie jiihe eos qm in fide 
ortliodoxi huniante vitce petiodiun comptuvorunt . . . suferens 

illis qui vel nnico momento aliqnara tamporalem voluptaton per- 
CBparuni, nt non rei inveaiantnr." — Lit. S. Petri Frinc. Apott., 

RsnAxm. ii. 160. 

* "Camilla eos l^titiu In regione qnom iUnminat splnndor 
fultns tni, delens prcBVitricatiiince eonim, nee introna in jadicinm 
com illie ; neqne enim qnisqnam pnrns est a peccalo coram te." — 
Lit. Minor H. Jaaibi, Rehadd, 11. 130. 

' " Memento, Domine, omninm deranctorum qui decubnenmt 
Glim si)?tua in I1[1e TSTH , , . ndjuiige nnininn lllorum cum 



of shts of human infirmity. 121 

for its parent form the Liturgy of S. Adiens and 
S. Marie. 

In the Liturgy ot Theodore the Interpreter the Liturgy -A 
pi'iest pmyB Giod to accept the sacrifice of thanks- the Inter- 
giving which he was offering in these terms : — 
"That the memory might be blessed of all the soub of 
the holy Catholic Church who passed out of the world 
in the true faith, that by Thy grace, Lord, Thou 
wouldest grant to them pardon of all the sins and 
faults which they committed in their mortal bodies, 
with a soul ever subject to cliaoge, because there is 
none that aiimeth not"* 

Turning to the Western Liturgies it will suffice to ^eatem 
quote from the three well-known Sacramentarics. wgies 

In that of S. Leo we read : — " We pray that what- a Lm, 
ever sUin he has contracted in his passage through 
the world may be wiped out by these sacrifices," 

nibni sanctornRi tuoram in habitutiotio boata eoniiu (jui feutuni 
igODt tt IrUatur in te : noD revocsna illia memoritun peccBlnnuii 
fUDmo) neque commuDiorana ipsis quse insipienter Bgerunt : quia 
onDn* eat eanti aUigBtng et inDocena conm W—Lit. S. liunt/tti 
AlAenanm Xpue., RENAtm- il. 20S. 

>"Dt lit cnnm te meraoria boon . . . omnium Blionun 
Eitrlmm unctie CklboliciE, eonun qui is fide vera tniisierunt «i 
boo mniula, ut per gratjam tuam, Domiiie, venmni illiii contolaa, 
otnaiDm peccatorum et delictorum qiua in hoc mundo in eorpore 
mmUli et aoimil mutiitioni obnoxis peccttTBrnnt >nt ofleDderaiit 
coam te, quia nemo est qui oan piiooBt." — Lit. Tkeadori Initr- 
jjnti*, KUKiHU. tj. 621, 



122 



Prayers for the pardon 



And again : " Grant that the fact of his laving 
ardently longed for repentance may suffice for tha J 
attainment of a perfect healing."^ 

S.GeUsliiB. In that of S. Gelasiua : — "Let us make onr com- J 
memorations beseeching the compasision of our God I 
to forgive all the offences of a dangerous rashness, J 
and having the pardon of full forgiveness granted, to J 
atone by His own unspeakable goodness and mertyfl 
for all the mistakes into which he fell in thin J 
world." 

And again : " Wliatever stains the soul contracted 
from its sojourn in the flesh, do Thou, God, < 
Thine innate mercy wipe them out."^ 

8. GrBgorj. In that of S. Gregory : — "We beseech Thee that* 
the ofiering of this sacrifice may suffice for the sool I 
of Thy servant, and that he may find the pardon 
which he sought, and reap in the reward of the 
longed-for repentance the fiuit of that which the 



oudaa ut qujcqnid teriEna converaatione contraiit, his sacriEciLs 
emandBtur." 

"lit d«TDtio psaitcntiie qnemgesalt ejua affectvs, p«rpetiup 
aalatis conaeqnatnr effectam," — Sacr. Lean., Mubat. i. JSI. 

' " CommemorRtioDcm faciamus . . . obsecruites tdisericordiam 
Dei nostri ut remittet omnes tubrlcx temeritatis offensas, ut con- 
csaaa vcnla plenie indulgentia?, qnicqnid in hoc Bffioalo proprina 
error adtolit totum ineffabilt pletateacbeaignitatesnscompeiiset" 

" Et si i^aas ilia ex bac camali aommoratioiie coutrsiit maculas 
TnDeiu iuoleta bonitata clemeiiter delciu." Saer. Qtlaa., Murst. 

^7«. 



of sins of human infirmity. 1 23 



labour of this 



nnable fully to attiim 



In wliaC follows we give extracts from some of the Paliistio 
Fathers who speak of prayers for the dead with 
referencfl to their sins. 

S. Jerome in commenting upon the words, " ^Km s. Jeronic. 
a toirkei man bieth his expertation ehall pirish ; 
ani the hopt of unjust mm pcriehcth," aaya, " I 
would have you observe, that although there is no 
hope of pardon for the ungodly after death, there 
are nevertheless some who may be absolved after 
death from the lighter sins in which they were 
entangled when they died."' 

Theodoret in his History oarratee, almost as though Theodoret 
he had been an eye-witness, a scene in which the 
Emperor Theodosius offered prayers at the shrine of 
S. Chiysostom for his deceased parents. "He 
threw himself," he says, " on the coffin, and lifting 



' "Satisfaciat tlbi, DominB, qcximmiis pro mimB funnli tu) 

ariOtii p™»witi« oblatio at pcccatonim veniam, qiiaui qnissivit, 

veniat ; et quod officio lingam implere nan potuit. deHideralx 

■niteatuB eompcusatione percipUt." — Saxr. Oreg., Mctrat. li, 

0. 

> " NoUnilam autsm qnod et si impiis post mortem >peB reniie 



124 Prayers for the pardon 

up his eyes and forehead offered supplication ft« 
those who had begotten him, entreating pardon 
for the sins which they had committed through 

S. Augustine in his Confessions brings before ua 
hia own practice. After describing minutely his 
feelings at the burial of his mother, he gives the 
very words of the prayer which he offered in her 
behalf, after God had bound up the wounds of hia 
broken heart " I pour out unto Thee, our God, 
tears of a far different kind for Thy handmaid ; . . . 
although she, having been quickened in Clirist even 
before she was released from the burden of the flesh, 
had so lived that Thy name should be praised by her 
iaith and conversation, yet I dare not say that since 
Thou didst regenerate her in baptism, no word fell 
from her lips in violation of Thy commandment; 
... I therefore, God of my heart, my prsuse and 
my life, setting aside for a while her good deeds, for 
which I gladly give Thee thanks, do now entreat 
Thee for my mother's sins."^ 

' oBtoi iiriStii Tp Xipfoft Koi labt iijiBaXiwis cal ri /itruror, 
UiTiiav Ihrip Tur yeyfVinjiillTiay rpoirijveyicr, iruyii!iiia.i rnii #J 
dvltf ^SiKTiKbaw impBk'^aat.—Ecdei. Biat Lil), v. c xxivi 

' " EgD aatem fniido tibi pro illn famnta tua looge uliud Incry. 
maniin genae . . . quamqiuim illn in CIiTiato vivificatit, etiua 
nondmn a, carne respluta, aio viierit nt landotnr uonien tnuni iii 
lirte moribnsque ejns; oon tanifln andeo dioere, ei quo earn par 
tlaptismum regtncrasti, nullum, veibum eiisae ab ore ejus coDtrn 



of sins of hmnan infirmity. 



125 



There can haxdly be any question as to the char- 
acter of the Bins which he sought to aid in wiping 
out by his prayers, for in addition to the tone 
of reverence in which he speaka of her life, he says 
ehortly after that she had cootinually sought the 
saving help of the Holy Sacrifice, and " waited on the 
altar without the intermission of a single day." 

A careful examination of the whole context, and CondoBkin 
the general tone of the above passages, leaves upon 
the mind a distinct impression that those who were 
prayed for were held to be already saved, and to 
have had their pardon sealed. Never theles.^, even 
for these the intercessions of the Church still militant 
were not deemed to be misplaced or useless, inasmuch 
as all experience of human nature, even in its best 
eEtat« as witnessed in the holiest life of the saint, 
excludes the possihihty of any man continuing for 
any length of time wholly free from sin, or again, of 
his dying without some trace of defilement left upon 
his soul by its unavoidable contact with the evil that 
is in the world. 

But it must be clearly laid down that this idea 
of purification during the intermediate state is quite 

pnMtpnmi tuam . . . ego itaqne, UiU men et yila men, Deus 
oonlu mel, lepoaitis paoliBper bonis ^aa HCtitma, pro quibui UU 
gkBdeu gntiu ago, Dunn )iro peccatii nutrli mes depreoor t«."- - 
CnV'M*. Lib. i<. B. liii. 34, 35. 




126 Prayers for the pardon, of sins. 

distmcb from the Juclriue of Purgatory as taught by 

the Koman Church. The Liturgies and the Fathers 

appealed to here deal with the dead who come 

within the range of our prayers, aa being in a condition 

of peace and rest, of light and refreshment ; whereas 

the Koman doctrine maiotains that the faithful dead, 

as well as the sinful, are in a state of penal torment. 

ALutherau jn support of this distinction we may quote the 

Hpiiiiiiai opinion of a very distinguished Lutheran divine. 
Pu^atory. 

" Since no soul, he writes, " leaves this state of being 

in a fully concluded and finished condition, the 
middle state must he considered as a realm of 
continued development, wherein souls may be pre- 
pared, and ripen for the last judgment. Although the 
Catholic doctrine of Purgatory is rejected, because 
it is mixed up with so much that is harsh and false, 
it contains nevertheless the truth that the inter- 
mediate state, in a purely spiritual sense, must be a 
purgatory determined for the purifying of the aoul."^ 

' " Da keine Seele in eiacra vdllig abgaachloasenen und fartigen 
Zustaiide dieses Doaein verliiszt, diubz del Mittclzastand als ein 
Reicli fartgesetxtar EntwickelQDg gedaclit werdeu, wo die Seeleu 
Torbereitet and reif werdEii boIIbh Kr dae jiingBte Oericht. 
Ot^Uicli die kntholische Lehi'e vom Fegefeuer Terworfen ist, wail 
siB mlt BO TlelBQ krasBen und falacben Zusatzen vermiacht ist, m 
enthiilt eie docb die Wahrhelt, daaz der Mittelznatsiid in rein 
geiatigem Sinne ein Purgatorium aein ninsi, tastimmt aur liiu- 
tenmg der 8«elB." — Dii CImttliche Dogmnlik, Dr. H, M&rteiiser, 
Biecbuf von Seeland ; DeF Mlltelzuatand im Todtenieioh, % 270, 
p, 430, ed. ]870. 



CHAPTER XT. 

!)c fncdiCiKy of prarcr for r^osc ti53 
t^icB in toiuiil unrrpcntrt sin. 



f -111 • • - »*^7 -- '-*' 

- - . ^ ■ ■■• •y' •» 

::: r"!iiii.'cii'ja with v..'.-^.'! who h^i •i.r yAT^.t :f sir. tT" ' "^ 

•■= 1"- rfi-iceJ, or faui:s cf Ltitt ^r ir.irzi.*.T ii.-i 

viT.i-ii'.-rtiuii to be iW^'iveii. •>-: "»!:--. li* 11 -^i :.- 

.■..-:. i i iHi ivi iL-iitrd sin. AltL :iii iL-r v LiT^ Ih':!* c- 

. . ; ; . i I i .' I u " i'j with •• iLt: faiijifil i-s&i. . ; •«■ :, :i:. 

1'. I- ai'r iivating more panir-^ij. iL^j ■!?■" *'• • 



I •iii-;'4-i:i*Lioii Oil the lo^CiTiz^ 2r^"'^^"^5 : — t.T^r..*. 

•.■...» . ■• th'.'V have been ^zz.^'zIt ^r»ssfi»i '::t '::.>,5 

■ k to be supported by icri-ir.* i.r:i:rl::.*:i :V. 

;.: iiiti.-nance of their ciiii:- iLiC ^t*.'- 2rlr;Tv:jk 

:.!::iit of remiaeion *ft#cr iL* *v'^/a i^L : 

:. i!v, because, when ZLkz. il-a^i f'-r ii r*:iV..'v.:-,i 

; y:;..i:ive usage, it u vtjjtj^^. "Ij^ * v.^v i- >%1 

:.•: ervidence of th* Fiii-irt. ti-rj n-.--; Ujc.-: :*. u 

i^ — accept all tLelr va^i1z.z :r i.::.* — ir.-i '.'..', 

;.. V say, would bring tLe %'-•-! '-f ::.* ilv**. v'.\jLf9^ 

- jiii'.T \uiiiui the ru^ of ti*^ '7- ■—"::.« p:i;.*r^. 



inipU in 
the Apio- 



128 T/ie inefficacy of prayer for those 

In order to arrive at a right estimation of 
evidence, we ahalJ not deem it suffitient to comm 
upon the several passages which are brought under 
notice ; but, if it aeem necessary, we shall place the 
writers themaelves, as it were, in the witness-box. 
and by a searching examination endeavour to satisfy 
ourselves whether they speak with such unif orm 
consistency that they may be regarded as reliable 
guides in this matter, or whether they are open to 
refutation out of their own works. 

It will be well, however, before doing this, to revert 
to the earliest recorded instance of prayers for the 
dead, and see if it was an undue extension of the 
legitimate objects for which they may be offered, 

Judas Maccabeus encouraged the people to make 
a propitiation and offer prayers for some whose death 
to all appearances had been inflicted by God as 
direct punishment for an open and wilful ti'anagresaion 
of His commands. 

As we only used the example before as an 
torical proof, we are not called upon to defend 
doctrine which it appears to involve ; but it is just 
possible to find an explanation, though we should 
be very unwilling to accept it, which might bring 
it within the bounds of the Church's rule. It may 
have been that God, liaving visited His 



[IE a 

sioB-^^^J 

the ^^n 



His righteottf ^^^J 



who died v. 



jilful s. 



129 



anger upon them for the vindication of His law, 
which'distinctly forbade what they had done, remitted 
their transgression in reward for their bravery and 
the patriotism which they showed in laying down 
their Uvea for their country. And it is almost 
certain that a patriot like Judas Maccibens would 
wish to look at the brightest side of things ; and 
while acknowledging the justice of God in visiting 
their ofTence with death, would persuade himself 
that their self-devotion had insured them a merciful 
judgment hereafter. There is perhaps just an indica- 
tion of something of this kind in the expression, 
" They betook themselves unto prayer, and besought 
Him that the sin committed might wholly be put 
out of remembrance."^ 

Judas, however, was not aating under Divine 
iuBpiration, nor yet did he speak like some of the 
early Fathers of the Church, whom we have quoted, 
as it were under the inSuence of Christ's teaching 
and example, and we have no desire to defend his 
conduct ; but whether any extenuating eircuniBtances 
be found or not, its force, as an illustration of the 
pr«vuling belief that the dead might be benefited 
by the prayers of the living, is not weakened, because 
it exhibits n further development than we are 
fireparoJ to accept. 

■ 2 M*cc. »ii J2. 



130 The inefficacy of prayer for those 



iind regulations for services for the dead, we find 
these directions: — "Let us pray for our brethren 
that are at rest in Christ, that God, the lover of 
mankind, Who has received his soul, may forgive him 
ovary sin, voluntary and involuntary, and may be 
merciful and gracious to him, and give him his lot 
in the land of the pious, who are sent into the 
bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, . . . Do 
Thou now also look upon this Thy servant, wbom 
Tiiou hast selected and received into another state, 
and forgive him, if voluntarily or involuntarily he 
lias sinned."' 

The language is very obscure, for it speaks of one 
who ia "at rest in Christ," whom God "has selected 
and received,"- — expressions which imply that his 

8 had at least been pardoned before he died, and 
which are wholly inconsistent mth the idea that he 
still bears, not the defilements of sin merely, or even 

\ themselves of human imperfection, but volun- 



i tpiKicepi^os Qtit i jrpoaSi^iiifVB! a&roB Tijr ^V. raptlS-g 
atri} irov rl/uiprij^ui hoiiriw xal inoiamv, sal tXeu! tal ci/ia^s 

'Appaitu Kol 'loaiic rai 'latii? . . airis «oi ySy friSt M rip 
ioBXi. ffou TicSf, Sy i(t>J(u «ai irpvaeMfiov lis irifot X5|u. jtal 
evyx'^PV'""' a^V ef Ti 4tiir kbI lUti* ti^/iapri. — CBiatUvt 
Apratol. Li)>. viii. 0. xli. 




who died in wilful sin. 



'31 



tarj- ivili'ul sins for which forgiveneas needs to be 
Bought. 

Bnt even supposing it were claimed in support of 
the Roman view, it must not be forgotten that a 
great deal of mystery liangs over the date of this 
whole document, particularjy the seventh and eighth 
books, from which the above extract is taken : yet 
fiirther, the very portion before na is altogether 
absent from one of the best manuscripts. 

On the whole, then, it does not seem that this 
quotation contributes anything trustworthy and 
important towards a real apprehension of the 
opinion prevalent on this subject in the early ages 
which we are investigating. 

S. CjTil in his lecture on tlio words of S. Peter, 
" SBhtttfore, lading aeibe all maliiTf anb all ijniU," 
etc., gives an explanation of the different parts of 
the office of "tlie Mysteries," and touching the 
eomm«morr.tion of the dead writes thus; "Wo 
Commetiiorat« . . . the holy fathers and bishops, 
who have fallen asleep before us, in short, all who 
have fallen asleep amongst us, from the belief that 
it will be a very great advantage to those souls, for 
whom the prayer is offered, while the holy and moat 
dread Sacrifice is laid on the altar." He then gives 
an 'HitBtration from a case vhere a king' of a country 



tainty of 
tbe claU at 
the work. 



1 3 2 The inefficacy of prayer for those 

liad banished certain persons who had offended 
and was afterwards induced by the present of a 
crown, which their relations had woven and offered 
to him in their behalf, to grant a commutation of 
their sentence, and goes on to say, " In like manner 
we too, offering our prayers for those who have 
fallen asleep, even though they be sinjiers, do not, it 
is true, weave for them a crown, but we offer Christ, 
Who was alain for our sins, that we may obtain His 
favour both for them and for ourselves, "^ 

This passage, by not defining the kind of sinners 
intended, leaves it to some extent in uncertainty 
what the writer's real views were ; and he nowhere 
else, that we are aware of, expresses himself on the 
same subject. It has been urged, however, by those 
who hold that even grievous and mortal sin may be 
forgiven in the intermediate state, and it must be 
admitted that its general tenor, and especially the 
comparison of the exiled transgressors, favours such 
a theory. 

' flra jiai intkp tSv vpOKiKOiiiiiiUruii iyluy raT/pat not iwi- 
tuirriiir nal vieriiit iiXfit .uu hi iiiuy rpaKtiioifir}fiivur, fitylin-ri* 
Sr7)irif nareiorTts fcnTgai. TM •I'vxait, iwip Hyit SHiet! ira^prrai 
■njs iylai Kol ippiiiw&iirTaTtii ■spoKtipAriis flmriai . . . riar airbt 
Tpbvov uai i^ii irip tCjv KfKOLii.ii)Jni)r rdi itiJaEii ■rptiripiporrti, 
Kir 4>iapTwXol Siiriy, oi iniipatov TWfo/ifF, dXXi Xpurrir ta- 
^yiOBiUvor lirip tSr ^lUripiim ifuipTTiliaTtir rpot^po/ur, 
/(i\eo6iLmoi irip a&ruiv ml ^^iC* rim •piXdyBpvirar. — CaleeA, 
ifysla!/. V. ],. 243, ed. Lutet. Par. 1831. 



1 



ivliQ died in wilful sin. 



133 



The next testimonj which we bring forward de- tLb obj 
serves careful notice ; it ia from Aeriua of Sebasteia Aorins, 
in Poutiis, who flourished in tlie third quarter of the 
fourth century. We have his opinions only seconil- 
hand in the writings of Epiphanius and Augustine. 

The latter merely says under this huad, that " he 
lield certain peculiar tunets, asserting that oblations 
ouyht Dot to Ui made in behalf of those who sleep."^ 

The former represents his views more explicitly in 
the following words :— " If the prayers of the liv- 
ing can in any way benefit the dead, then none 
need trouble himself to live a holy life or to 
be a benefactor to his race, but let him acquire 
friends by any means he pleases, winning them 
to his side by bribes, or claiming their friendship 
at bis death, and let these pray that he jax^ have 
Turing in the other world, and that the heinous 
which he has committed may not be reiiuliud 
at hie hands,"' 

If this be a faithful representation of his language, 

t " Dio«n> oSeni pro donnlentibns Don oporteni. ~ — Di Uaireii- 
6w. liiL 

*tl a flXwt tixi^ rCir itrauBa rDi)i Ittiai Uniert. ipa. ■youp 
Miflt tietStha, ia)ii i.-faBorBuhu, dXXd K-niaiaSa ^Xoui 
rimf, Si' oS piii\tTai rpiroB, jfroi xM'""' lelirat, IJTai <^Kaus 
T(X«v-f. mil fix^'Suvar rifi alTQw, tra iri n ifft 
'ifg. Ml** Ti i«' aiiai imbiina Tur dnji/jTtiW iiMf/rviiiTier 
i*tvttei).—Adv, ll^r. Ub. lil Uxv. 



134 '^^^ inefficacy of prayer for those 

and if he was a fair exponent of the prevailing belief 
in the extent to which such prayers were efficacious, 
his evidence of course must be allowed its full 
weight. 
EeMonafor But there are reasons which dispose us to ret-ard 

nlstrusliDg _ ' ° 

Mb ovi- his views with suspicion. Disappointed in early 
life at the selection of his friend Eustathlus for a 
vacant bishopric which he coveted for himself, he 
conceived a spirit of bitter dislike, which grew at 
last into active hostility to the Church in which hia 
rival held office. 

He was guilty of heresy and schism, denying the 
doctrine and setting at nought the discipline of the 
Church. His offences may be briefly summed up as 
follows : — 

He held Arian views of the nature of Christ : — 

He repudiated the grace of Orders, and depre- 
ciated the dignity of tlie Episcopal office : — 

He condemned the appointed Fasts and Festivals, 
denouncing especially the keeping of £a.ster and the 
observance of Lent and Passion-tide as relics of 
Jewish bondage and superstition: — 

Finally, he became the author of a schismj gather- 
ing around him a considerable body of followers, who 
formed many strange rules ; and who, to judge from 
the hard treatment which they received at the hands 



uIlo died in wilful sin. 



135 



uf the orthodox, moBt have been considered dangei^ 
ous to the Church. 

I'he jodicioua Hooker gives il right estimate of hia Hooker's 
character, and by consequence also of the value to iii!> Gbarse 
be attached to anything which he may have said 
affecting the principles of the Church, when he writes 
of him in these terms ; — " Unable to rise to that 
greatness which his ambitious pride did affect, his 
way of revenge was to try what wit being sharpened 
with envy and malice could do in raising a neiv 
sedition."' 

It is moreover clear, from the answer wfaicli 
Epiphaniua made to the heretic's objections, that he 
had misunderstood the legitimate usage of interces- 
sions for the dead :^ — " Touching the commemoration The lasB. 
of the dead, what could be more advantageous 1 iihsniui 
Wliat more opportune or more advisable than that 
those who are still here should believe that those 
wlio have departed are alive, and not auulliilated, 
but exist and live with the Lord?" Again, he 
says of the prayers which are offered for them, 
that "although they do not wipe away all theii 
crimes, yet because men often trip knowingly and 
unknowingly, whilst they are in the world, they 
ore advantageous for the manifestation of that 
» Ei:cUt. PU. vii. ix. \. 



136 The inefficacy of prayer for those 



which 13 more perfect. For we commemorate 

righteous mea and sinners, einnera to pray for 
God's mercy, but righteous men, fathers and 
patriarchs, prophets, apostles, evangelists, martyrs, 
confessors, bishops, anchorites, and all that class, 
that we may separate the Lord Jesus Christ from 
the order of men by the honour assigned to Him 
and may pay to Him a holy worship."^ 

He is very far from accepting the interpretation 
which his opponent had chosen to put upon the 
practice; and there is no attempt to maintain tlie 
efficacy of prayer for heinous sins. Indeed, he in- 
directly refutes the idea, when he says that there 
were sins to cancel which it was powerless; and 
the sins which he had in his mind were such, doubt- 
less, as the heretic had spoken of; for we can hardly 
conceive of anything more presumptuous than to sin 
boldly in life — as long as sin were possible — and 
run the risk of being forgiven through the interposi- 
tion of surviving friends. 



' freira H irtpJ ro5 dri/iam X^ti* tS* Tc\eurr]e 


drrt^. rl i. 






Ttpos, vtBTeiiO' /xif roii! Trapiyrai, Sti ol iwt\96rrc 


fiiii KOt fr 




/rwbrv 


(I Ml t4 Aa TQy ttiTm^idri.:^ ,ii, i<t(>K6wT0i. iW 


V 7e Sti tA 



inaaaliijf, Iva rb ivTrXiarepaf tnjtitwd^. Koi yap iKuliilv xota^neBa. 
Tiiv iivTiii^v icai tirtp ^itapToKwii- liwip /ity itiapTaKwr Wip l\iw/i 
HfoB i'lip.frQi, u.T.X.— El'U'B, (Kit), flar. Lib. iii. Uiv. sec 



wJw died in wilful sin. 



137 



He speaks, it U trae, of the benefit to be derived 
for oar oft infirmitieB, for the " trippings " to which 
biUDaD nature is prone, but il is only to place them 
in contrast to the more grievooa sins vhicb nothing 
would obliterate. 

Moreover, the brevity with which he dismisseB the 
q lestioQ for sinners, contrasted with the length to 
which he expands the class of the rigbteouR, shows 
dearly for whom he considered prayers to be 
applicable. 

S. Augustine, who has a much better claim to be s, 
beard as an authority, expresses himeelf without 
heaitatioQ on several occasions. 

In answering certain questions which one Dulcitius 
propounded to him, of which this was the second, 
" Whether the oblation, which is made for those at 
rest, confers any benefit upon their souls," he writes, 
"There are some souls whom such things help in no 
way, whether they be offered for those whose evil 
deeds made them unworthy of being helped, or for 
those whose good deeds render such help unneces- 
4ary,"' 

The effect produced by the prayers and oblations 

) "Bnnt snini quos omnino niLil adjuvant ista; siv« pro eta 
Bunt, qoaruin tuo mala aunt merits, uI De<|iie tnlibua iligni suul 
■itJoTarl ; sItb pro t\% quorum tarn bona nt t^ilibna non IndlgflonL 
•djnineBtif."- -IH oeto i/uidl. ijuajliiin. Lib. ii. S. 



1.^8 The inefficacy of prayer for those 

otTered for any particular person, he saye, " will be 
regulated exactly by the kind of life which be led."' 
" We must not deoy that the souls of the departed 
are relieved by the piety of survivors, when the 
Sacrifice of the Mediator is offered for them ; but it 
is efficacious only for those who in life earned the 
right of being benefited."^ 

Again, in his great treatise on the City of God : — 
" Prayer is not offered for the unbelieving and un- 
holy dead;"^ and he follows up the declaration with 
the arguments above quoted, that men must eani 
by their lives a participation in the prayers of the 
faithful to be offered for them in death. 

Once more, in his sermon on the text, "i toonlll 
nut hahe jion to he ifliiorant conrcrniiig them Ijihich 
ate aoUcp, that gc eortotu not eDm ae othera, 
tohick habE i\o hoye." After reiterating tins 
frequently expressed opinion, he adds that "for 
those who die without that faith which worketh by 
love, and without the Sacraments of the Church, it is 

I " Ferat imusquisqae secundum ea quse gcssit per corpus ivn 
Doiium Bive malum,"— Z>£ ocUi Dvicit. qu^tion. Lib. li. 3, 

' "Neqae negandum est defuactonun auimas piatate Buonini 
viveutium relevari, oum pro illia Bncrificium Mediatoria offertur, 
vel eleemoayDee in Eccteaia fiunt. Sed sis hnc prosunt, qui oum 
viverflut,utliB:c3ibipaEteapa»ieutprDdesse,memeTunt." — Id. ii. i. 

' " QuiB itidem causa eat nt, quani™ pro hominibua, taman jam 
nee nuno oretur pro inUdelibus impiisqna dcfunctia." — tM Civil, 
Bei, Lib. xsi. uXKiv. 3. 




who died in wilful sin. 



139 



rain that their fiiends should spend upon them 
duties which natural affection BuggeBtR."^ 

And lastly, to sum up his testimony, when he 
classifies the baptized dead in relation to the 
sacrifices and prayers of the living in their behalf, 
he says, " For the very wicked, although they bring 
no relief to the dead, they are yet some kind of con- 
solation for the survivors."* 

S. Chrysostom, in his comments upon the death 3. 
and miraculous restoration to life of the disciple at 
Joppa, takes occasion to speak of the feelings and 
conduct of the survivors towards those who have 
died in sin : — " These men lived in vain : nay, 
not in vain merely, but to evil purpose, and of 
them one might fitly say, ' Et to£r4 Qool) for ' them 
' if ' they ' hni not been bom.' For tell me what 
gain it is to have spent so much time to one's own 
injuryl . . . 

"And here is a man who wasted his whole life 
in vain, and never lived & single day even for his 
own good, but for luxary and wantonness and 



> "Nkd qni B 



B qiue ]iei dilec 



operal 



, BjDBqne 



Sccrsmentli, de corporibue eiienmt, fruatra illia a auis bujus 
piBUtli Jnip«Ti<luntar afScia." — ^mvi dxiii. 1. 

"'Pro vftlde bonis gratianun actiooeR iiint : pro non valda 
nulla propitiatioaea nuit: pro valda mulls etlaniBi nulla a4Jn- 
nwnta mDnuornni, qnalescunquo vivorum 001 " " 
Smckind. dffidi. >pe el charilatt, 01. 



140 Tlie ineffi.cacy of prayer for those 

greed and sin and the deviL Shall we not then 
bewail him t Shall we not try to snatch him from 
his perils] For it is, it is possible, if we will have 
it so, that his punishment Ghall be lightened. If, 
then, we make constant prayers and offer alms in 
hia behalf, even though he be unworthy, God will 
be importuned by us."^ 

Again, touching the legitimate use of mourning, 
he writes : " For if the dead man has been a sinner, 
and has ofltimes offended God, we must weep, or 
rather not weep merely, for this is of no use to 
him, but do what we can to procure for him some 
consolation, — offer alms and oblations,"^ 

A^n, in dealing with a kindred subject, he 
rebukes a mourner who said that he was bewailing 



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t iIkS ixxa 


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t oOk tytyy^BTj^ui'' 


rl -yip e^tXot, Hti 


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luhr iiiiipap Hv"^ iaurv. dAXi 


TV -rp^H. 


Ty d«X7<ip 


rp 



TXMBfJJp, TH i/iBprip, 70 Sici^iXip, toBtdf ait ou dprii'^a/ui' ; 
a& Tmpaa6nt$a tZv KtrSAirtijy i^apwaaat; tart 7dp, laTO/, iitp 
dOf^/it* Kod^Tjp aOrifi livtaBai ttji* %6\aaiv- 6,1/ oSy tixo-s i/rip 

a»(!jioi n. 'ic'i! 9eit iiwuTTJifl^iKTai. — In Acta Apoti. HondL 
xii. 3. 

' (t likir yip i^iajjTuiXi! Ttflvijiiiii, iral loAAd T^ 6ev wjkw- 
tcEKpoiKiji, iii Sa.Kp6ta/' ^aXXof 5i o!r5i SaKp6fw p.hba^ (tdj/to 70^ 
o6Sik 6ipt\oi imlrifi] dXXd wouiw ri ivyintpa Ttva wapafAvQiar 
airif xEfiiiroi^ai. IXeeiiariims xal irpnaipopii, — In Johann. 
UoHiU. IslL al. Ill J. 



t.— /n Johmm. 1 



who died in wilful sift. 



141 



his lost friend because he departed this life in his 
Bina. " This," says S. Chrysostom, " is a mere 
excuse and pretext. For if this were the reason 
why you bewailed the departed, you ought to have 
reformed and corrected him while he was living. 
But the fact is, you look to your own interests 
not to his on every occasion. But even supposing 
that he did depart in his ains, we ought to rejoice 
on this account, because his sins were cut short, and 
he could not add to his wickedness ; and we ought 
to help him, as far as it is possible, not by tears, 
bat by prayers and supplications and alms and 
oblation B."* 

In estimating the value of the above passages, The nocer- 
we cannot but notice, that in the first the meaning h^viewi. 
it not BO clear as the words above quoted would 
lead ns to suppose. It is possible, though by no 
means certain, that he is speaking of prayers for a 
dying sinner, not for one already dead. 

But the second passage is introduced with the 
qualifying admission that he made those statements, 



wt tortax"" atatrrls dA tiI itftimii 
«■! SiA rovTQ Sfl j^alptiv, 6ti i 
rpaaitv" '^ (oilf. «ii paitBtlr. ui ir oli 

/• Xp. I ad Cor, Homil. ill. 4. 



I ydp Sid tdSto dTiXfliira 
I jtuSiiiaai. dXXd Ta aairraB 
it Si Koi dfia/rruXAi dir^\9t. 



142 The ineffi.cacy of prayer for those 



" not an giving commands, but in condescendon ti 
human infirmity."' 

And in the third there is ait expression indicaUve 
of doubt how far prayer would avail for one who 
died in his sins ; and in what follows hs says the 
object to he g^ned is Botne consolation, not remission; 
and finally he concludes with the declaration that 
the cry at the altar during the tremendous Mysteries 
is not in vain "for those who have faDen asleep in 
Christ."* 

A close examination, then, of the context does 
modify in a measure the strong character of the 
quotations; but even had we found nothing in 
extenuation, we should have hesitated to accept 
them as conclusive, in the face of much that is said 
of a contradictory nature in other portions of hia 
works. He baa certainly laid himself open to s 
charge of inconsistency. 

Here ia a direct denial of the efficacy of prayer 
to obtMn pardon for those who died in sin. 

In the moral which he draws from the text, 

*' "I am in a strait bettoixt ttoo, habing a ieeire 

io JiEpart. aivi) to be ttiith CChrist, bhirh ia far 

hettrr," he ivrites : " Sinners, wherever they may 



•irriptr. 



Tul» \<y<a, dXAd iroyKaTi'ir. . 



who died in wilful sin. 



'43 



be, arc far from the King. . . . Let ua not than 
wail for tlie dead eimply, but for the dead in sine. 
These are worthy of wailing, of beating of the 
breast, and of tears. For what hope, tell me, is 
there in departing with sins upon them to that 
place where there is no putting off of sins 1 So 
long as they were here there was, it may be, great 
expectation that they would cliange and grow 
better, but if they have departed to Hades, where 
they can reap no fruits from repentance, for Scrip- 
ture saith, 'In the fltahe toiio Bhall gibe 'Shei 
thnnks ?' how are they not worthy of lamentations % 
. , . Weep for the unbelievers, weep for those 
who are in no way different from them, those who 
departed without baptism, without being eealed. 
Weep for those who died in riches and took no 
thought of consolation from their riches for their 
own souls, who had the opportunity of washing 
away their sins and would not do it." 

is true he goes on to speak as though even 

could be benefited by the living : " Let ue 

le.lp them according to our ability, let ua devise 

help for them, small though it be, yet stil! 

help. How and in wliat way? By 

lying for them ouraelvea, and encouraging others 

'to offer prayers in their behalf, by constantly giving 



144 T^^ inefficacy of prayer for those 

alms to the poor for them. Sach an act baa sonw-l 
conBolatioQ, for hear what God saith, ' £ kDtll 
leftnli this rits to sahe it for mine otDn sak(. 
anb for mj scrbatit Jabib's saht.' If the re- 
membrance merely of a just man availed so much, - 
how shall it not avail when even deeds are done j 
in his t)ehalf1 Not in vain was this law laid ' 
down by the Apostles, that we should commemo- 
rat« the departed during the dreadful Mysteries, 
They know that much gain, much advant^e, accruei 
to them." 

Though there is a great deal that is ambiguoue 
in the above, he concludes with a statement which 
brings his language into accord with what we 
believe to have been the prevailing opinion, exclud- 
ing wilful sin from the operation of interceasoiT-B 
prayer after death, — " but this we do for those vha] 
passed away in faith."' 



□/la^uXo!. Jfxoti 6.]i Sin, *6^^ tov ptuCKem tlaL /dl'-^ 
■ iir^u! KTtalui/io' Toflt i-roSatbrrat iXKi Tm>t ft Aiiaprif. 
Bfnjpwii if iDi, oBtdi KOTfTuiip (al Saspiuni, voltt yi^p iX-rli, 
101, fiETd a/ia/mi/idriM iiriKBiiir, frSa oit iarly ilutf/rfiiiaTa 
'leaaSai; luii /liw yip ^ar iyraSBa, Iffui ^ i-poffitwJo 
i, Jti neTB^oXoCiToi, Sti ;9fXrioBt faBtrni. Ay Si diAflwirw 
w ^Sip: tt9a siJK tvTir Airi iierarola! KepSamL Tt, ir -yip 
U, •pij(rl, rls /^oiioXofiiiriTai an; rOs ci B/nivQr dfiot/ . . . 

xwpli i-toTlinjaTos &irtpxpplyr,\is, Toiit x'^p'' T^payiSas' 



wlw died in wiiful sin. 



H5 



Before drawing this subject to a close we turn 
to some evidence of a more deGoite nature. 

S. Cyprian, in a letter which he wrote to the a. BpecUl 
people of Furni, praises the wisdom of the Bishops ^tfcod (■? 
for a decree, which they had made in Council, that no '-yp""'"- 
one who had been ordained to the priesthood for the 
constant service of the altar should ever suffer him- 
self to be diverted from his Divine administration 
by the call of secular duties. The consequence of a 
breach of this EcclesiaBtical order he illustrated by 
an example. One Geminiua Victor had appointed 
Geminius Faustious to be executor and guardian 
Dnder his will. It was an act of deliberate dis- 
obedience to a rule of the Church, and as soon as it 
was discovered after his death, when the will wan 
read, he was at once deprived of the good offices of 

Xo^irrai i^atielat dircXiHlnKrAii CKTruv -ri. dfiafn-iifura xol /i^ 
^\<fitm.f . . . puTiBCiuxy aizaU nari Siramr, ivitoiauMtr 
•ffoTi Tiri. SOTjflefai', iwpiLr i^ir. ^oyiBtui it fl^iux iwaiiAti^y. fiui 
hI rim Tplnrif; airiil t( eil^i*"*" ™' Mpnm icapaKakoiirtti 
riXil liripairCif we«ftfftl(, rhn\aw ixip airuit ilSotrf! avyixiit- 
tjfrt Tjfd t6 vpdyfia vapafivBlaf Anovr fip Toij Qiov ^^7UI^0f' 
(•(pMrriw r^i vAXcui TOih-iii Si'//iJ, nal iid AaulJ rir ioGXaii /i^v. 
i' (tf^^i ixitoi/ tumleu Tottofroi' tirx'^"- t"'-' ""' ^PT^ timtrai. 
Mp aiff Bu, TtSi oil laxiat' ! ofin ((«n TQura iniic^rriiBii uir6 rur 
ixartSKim, rh irl tuh ^purriS* iiixrr^piii/r wTiMip -^iniBai rur 
InXMrrMT. laiiaii' ai>rgii ira\i tipiot yirbp-trar roXKif rV 
d^tXtfov. . . . AWiraiTstdrtfpi-riiwh'itlaTUTapiXeitTtir.— 
hSp.aa PAd. e. I. Horn. lil. 



k 



146 T/ie iitefficacy of prayer for those 

his surviving friends, and a declaration was publislied 
to the effect that " no offering might be made for hia 
repose, nor any prayer offered in the Cliurch in his 
name."^ 

Of course this can hardly be urged as conclusive 
evidence that alt wilful transgression cut the offender 
off i-psQ facto from the prayers of the faithful, but 
it may well be regarded, in the absence of anything 
to the contrary, as an illustration of a generally 
admitted principle which had gained acceptance at 
the time when he wrote. 

There were other cases of those who died in ain, 
where provision was expressly made to disqualify 
them from enjoying the benefit of the Church's 
prayers. 

Those particularly mentioned are catechumens,^ 
who died without baptism hy neglect or their 
own default — suicides, who laid violent hands upon 
themselves — and those who for heinous offences 
paid the extreme penalty of the law ; all were 
buried in silence without the rehgioua rites of the 

I " Si qcas hoo feciaset, non ofieretur pro eo, nee sacrificinm pro 
Jormitfone ejus celebraretur. " 

" Et ideo Victor nam. contra forrnani . . . ausns sit tntorem 
Goantituere, nan est ({uod pro dormitiane ejna spud vob flat oblatio, 
ant dtiprecatio aliqua nomine ejua in Ecclenia fcequentetur."-— 
CvPR. Epvst. i. Prtaby. ^ Viaam. liplebi Fv/rnia BOTiaietenlitut. 

■ BiNaHAU, I. ii. IS. 




who ditid in wilful s: 



147 



Church, and had noplaco aflorwards in her customary 
commemo rations. 

S. ChiysoBtom, when dualing with the Bin OT 
delaying Baptism, seems to place it in contrast 
with ein which may be forgiven aft«r death, for lie 
writes thus, " The man who has cast all upOD God, 
and sins after baptism, as we should expect of one 
that is mortal, if he repent shall obtain mercy ; bub 
he who prevaricates aa it were with God's mercy, if 
he die without partaking of the grace, ahaU not 
iiave his punishment begged off."' 

This was in bis eyes a wilful sin, and he expresses 
his conviction that there was no hms pcenitentia 
to be obtained for it after death ; and if not for this, 
it is difficult to say that he beUeved there was ground 
for hope in the case of any other. 

As an illustration from the class of suicides, we CassiBn 
may recall the story which Cassian has told of the who coi 
fate of the old hermit Hero, who under an incon- micide. 
trollable impulse, by the delusions of Satan, threw 
himself into a pit and was killed. Even in spite of 
the belief that he acted under some temporary 

H iiii yitp rb rSji iwl rit Stir pi^i tal ^iFri Ti^dmaMa 
itmfirdrur oU (kit iyOfMiiror 6yTa lUTaraair TiC^triu »i\ai~ 
tfiariai- i ti iiarip ffo*ifi/ifro( roC Oinii Tfjf •piXarffpi.tiriiu', 
ift\0Lir Afmipot r^i ^^dpfroi, irapairt^roir i^ti rjji' TtiAVpiOf.-- 
U Acta AfOtt. HvmO. i. 7. 



148 The inefficacy of prayer for tlwsc 

hallucination, and uot of set purpose, in destroyiog 
himself, it was with the greatest difficulty that he 
escaped being deprived of these Christiau privileges. 
The head of the monastery to which he belonged. 
"could hardly be prevailed upon to let him be 
reckoned any other than a self-murderer, and 
unworthy of the memorial and oblation that was 
made for all tliose that were at rest in peace."^ 

TheConncii In the following century, perhaps in consequence 
of an undue relaxation of the rule, the matter was 
deliberated in an Ecclesiastical CouncU, and a most 
stringent decree passed to enforce its observance.* 

Conciu- To sum up tbeu briefly the conclusions at which 

we have arrived by the investigations of this and 
the preceding chapter : The evidence of a few of the 
Fathers and the Primitive Liturgies is in favour 
of the view which admits of the efFacement after 
death of the stain and defilement of sin, as also of 
the forgiveness of those lesser faults and failings which 
are due to human infirmity, and encourages the 

1 BlNGHAU, XV. iii. 16, introduces the Btory, and tha gives the 
ilei:L'e(i of the Council of Bracata. 

^ " Plucuit ut hi, qui sibi ipsis aat per ferram, But gjer veaenum, 
ant per prfflcipitimu, aut auapondima vel qnolibet modo, vtolen- 
tain jufomnt morteia, nulla pro iilis in oblatioaa cominemunitlo 
Mat, etc.'item placuit iit cst«c1iuidenls, aini; leilemptione hnp- 
tiami defanctia, ninilli niodo uequa oblatioais cc 
paalleiidi inipendittur otGciuni." 



who died in wilful sin. \ 49 

prayers of survivors as helpful in the attainment of 
both these ends. While with regard to the exten- 
sion of the field of the Church's prayers, so as to 
bring the man who dies in wilful sin within the 
range of their operation, though there are a few 
expressions in some of the Patristic writings which 
appear to sanction such a course, the general testi- 
mony is decidedly adverse. Our conclusions touching 
the general question of prayers for the dead will be 
combined with those to which the evidence of the 
following pages will lead us respecting the interces- 
sion of departed saints and the legitimacy of invoking 
their aid in prayer. 



END OF PART I. 



PART II. 

THE GOOD OFFICES OF THE FAITHFUL DEAD 
IN BEHALF OF THE LIVING. 



CHAPTER I. 

^'cimfrftc tCcsfrlmonp ro t[)e 3]nt£CtC£((Jfon 
of t\)t feiainrsf. 



"f N the following pages we shall ajiply the test of 
Catholicity, first, to the belief that the saints in 
Pftradise intercede for the well-being of ihose who 
are stil! in the flesh, and then to the practice of 
iiddressiDg or invoking thera with a view to obtain- 
ing their asaiaUince by intercession or otherwise. 
We btgiu with the evidence for their intercession. 

It should be ejqilaiued at the outset that we areTheminwB 
only concerned in this inquiry with the souls ofongelsnot 
righteous nien ; we take no account of the angels, upon luire 
whose services in behalf of the heirs of salvation 
there can be do question that God has constituted 
in A wondt^rful order. Our s))ecial aim is to team 
all that can be asceTtaincd from the records of 
antiqnjty of the occupation after death, in connec- 
tion with ourselves, of those who are related to us 
hy the ties of a common faith and a eommon nature. 



1 54 Primitive Testimony to ilie 

There is very little explicit revelation in Holy 
Scripture to help us ; the belief grew naturally out 
of a speciu! application of the general doctrine of 
the Communion of sainta. If, therefore, but few 
passages can be adduced in direct support of this 
particular phase of it, it would be manifestly unfair 
to conclude that all the evidence has been brought 
fons'ard. Here however we are content with the 
consideration of these aloue. 

The Apocalypse of S. John was written, partly at 
least, for the express purpose of disclosing the minis- 
trations of the angels and of the spirits of just men 
made perfect. 
B9 There are two passages in it, where he describes 
' the presentation of the prayers of the saints at the 
golden altar. 

The first: "1 brhcli, aui, lo, in the milist of 
the throne ani of the fcnir biastg. nni in tKe 
milist of the dlier«, etooli a Jlamh as it hab bcrn 
slain, habing stbEn horns anb seDen eges, luhich 
are thE seDen Spirits t& ®ob 0eiit forth into nil 
the catih. 

"Jlnii he came anb took the booh mit of the 
right lianb of him that sat n^oii the throne. 

"^nb tohen he haii taken the book, the four 
beasts anb four anb ttornt]; ctbere fell bobjn before 



Intercession of the Saints. 



155 



the ^amb, habing Eticcg one of thtni harps, anb 
golbm Dials fuU of otonrs, tohich aie the pragciQ 
of eaints."' 

The second . " Jltiii another angel came nni 
stooli at the aitat, habing a golbm censer: anb 
there teas gibcn unto him much incense, that he 
fthonlb oSer it bitlt the iiragcrs of all saints npon 
the gotben altar Which tuns before the throne. 

"Jlnb the smohe of the incense, luhieh came 
luilh the jjtagcra of the saints, aseenbeb ap before 
Sob ont of the angel's hanb.'*^ 

The following passage, though not containing h 
(lireci statement of the exact truth witli which we 
are concerned, is sufBciently pertinent not to bi? 
passed over. At least it brings out the fact that the 
uinta in the intermediate state so far interest them- 
selves in the things of earth and in those who arc 
alive, as to make them subjects of prayer to 
God. 

"X sato "oxOstt the aitar the sonts of them that 
Bete slain for the luorb of (5ob, anb for the tcati- 
mens Ivhidi Ihej) helb : anb t!u|< cricb luilh :i loub 
Doice, easing, ^ob} long, ® ^orb, ltoI|3 anb trne. 



< Rrr. rili. 3, 4. Tlie Authori 
lU nnderlng. but tho gcnerni « 
hj the iDaccuraoj'. 



1 56 Primitive Testimony to the 

boat thoa not jnige sni shmgc onr blooli on them 
that liluiU oil the earth ?"^ 

The prayer, it is true, is not for aii exhibition of 
Divine mercy, but of wrath; if, however, they con- 
cern themaelves witli the one it is quite inconceiv 
able that they would not do so tenfold more with 
the other. 
Thewitneaa From Seripture we turn to the writings of the 
Pathere. Primitive Fathers and Doctors, which, as will be 
. seen, supply a large body of evidence in confirmation 
of the belief in the intercessory character of the 
occupation of the saints. 

The first quotation is taken from a treatise of 
doubtful authority, but is by no means unworthy of 
consideration, inasmuch as the advocates of its 
genuineness are able to bring forward some forcible 
evidence in support of their view,^ 



' It! genuineneaa waa first called in qnestion l>y Ddlllfi, bnt haa 
been supported by nmnerona critica, snrfi aa TTaaher, Grubs [in 
part only), Dodwcll, Pearson, Cotelier, Mnehler, aod in later ttmea 
Hatele ; of. his ProUgomffivi, pp. li-liiv. 

One of tha cblet argnmenta againat it ia the fact that no quota- 
tion from or reference to it is to be found in any biatory or 
treatise of the first six centuriea. Oaths other hand, the simplicity 
of its style and narrative ia decidedly in its favour, and espeoinlly 
the ahsenca of all that legendary matter which gathered roand the 
hiatory of the martyr in later times. Dr. Donaldson has called 
attention to this in hia Introdnctory Notice, and illuatrates it by 
lefereoce to the legend which identified Imiatius with the ohild 



Intercession of the Sai7its. 



157 



The Maityrdom of Ignatius appears from internal Tha JUr- 
evidence to have been written by some companions ipiaiini'. 
of the martyr, who accompanied him on his last 
voyage and were eye-witnesses of his death. At 
it3 cloflB the writers describe a vision which they 
had received on the night following his |iassion in 
these wordfl, " After we had fallen asleep a short 
time, some of us saw the blessed Ignatius suddenly 
standing at our side and embracing us : othern 
belield him again praying over us, whilst others saw 
him dropping with sweat, as though he had just come 
out of a great labour, and standing before the Lord."^ 

Now it cannot be denied that there is something 
antecedently improbable in the story, and much 
allowance must be made for the high pitch of excite- 
ment into which their feelings must have been 
wrought hy the terrible scenes which they had been 

whicli Christ took di> in Bis amii aai set befai-e the duciples, 
(9, UaTt. iviii. 2), from which circDinataiice he la uid to hBve 
obUinad the naine Theophorus : — " one carried by Goil." Now in 
lfa« iBCODd chapter of thl» treatlan Ignatius explains to Trajan 
that Tbeopbonu it " DM who has Christ witbin hia heart," whicL 
no one would have vfritl«ii, at least without further oiplanfttioos, 
after the trDditianal meatiiug givau above hail guued ncceptanoi, 
Ct Ap<M. Ff. Anle-Sieent Libr. 289. 

luuipior 'lyi^Tair, iXAor 5i arafi/icM* i^' iilpwrot it in Kaiii-rm 
roXXou npaytrbfiei/av t^ai rapwruiTa t^ Kvpitfi. ^AfaHl/riiMi S, 



158 Primitive Testimony to the 

called upon to witness; but whether any such vision 
was vouchsafed to them or not, the record they have 
kt't is a distinct expression of their conviction, that 
he, whose labours they had shared, and from whom 
they had so lately been separated in the body, was 
still associated with them by his spirit, aad that he 
still remembered them in his prayers as he stood at 
the right hand of the Lord. 

The testimony of Origen is on the whole very 
decisive. He speaks on the subject perhaps more 
frequently than any of the Fathers, and only once 
that we are aware of with the least semblance of 
doubt. The passage to which we allude is as follows : 
— "Moreover, whether the saints, who being out of 
the body are with Christ, act and work at all for 
us, like the angels, who minister to our salvation ; 
1 or whether again the wicked, who are out of the 
body, act at all according to the purpose of their 
mind, like the bad angels, with whom it is said by 
Christ they will be sent into the eternal fire, let 
this too be held among the secret things of God, 
mysteries that ought not to be committed to writing."* 
' "Jam veto si etinin eitra corpus positi vel snncti, qui cum 
Christo Hunt, ajunt aliqulil, at laborant pro nobis &d similltQ' 
rtincm angelormn, qni salutia noatrie minbteria procurant : vel 
mrgum peccatores etiam ipai extra corpus positi agunt aliquid 
ucundiim propoeitum meDtis suie ad angeloruni nihiiomiaus simi* 
VtudiiieiD, cum quibus at in lEtcmiim ignem mitteadi dlcuntur 



Intercession of the Saints. 



159 



\ 



Id some places,^ &g&>ii> it is not quite clear whether 
his language may not refer to angels onlj ; but in 
many there is no amhiguity: for instance, " It will H 
not be out of place to say that all the saints who of 
bave departed this life, still retaining their love for 
those who are in the world, concern themselves for 
their salvation, and aid them by their prayers and 
roediatioii with God. For it is written in the Book 
of Maccabees thus : ' This is Jeremias the prophet 
of God, who always prays for the people ' (2 MacC. 
XV. U).'" 

Again : " It is my opinion that all those fathers 
who have fallen asleep before us, fight on our side 
and aid us by their prayers, for so also I heard one 
of the old masters say."' He repeats the same 
language elsewhere.* 

* ClulitO, habeitOT et hoc quoqae inter occulta Dei Dec charlnlse 
committandn mjrsttriB."— £p. ad Jbmanoi Crmmatl. lib. iL 4. 

> Of. etntr. Cth. rtii. 34 ; de Oratione xi. 

* "Omnes unctl qui da luc vita dtcuaeruiit, habentes bcHidc 
carltiteni ergn eo> qui in hoc mundo sunt, >i dicnntur curam gerere 
mIbIU eoroia, et juvara eos prceilins suis, utqae iiiterventn «ao 
apod Denin odd erit iooaDveniena. Scriptum uamque est in 
UaDCabaonini libria itn : hie est UieremiBa prapheta Dei. qui 
•mpei onit pro popnlo."— /n CHn(. flow, iii., AVojin. vol. L 
p t(M. 

' '* Ego lie arbitror, quwl omaes illi qui dormiernnt aiile no* 
paUM t>Dgaent nobiscam et adjnvent don oratiouihua >uls : itn 
umqaectium quenidamdeienioribnamagiBtrisaudlvl dlcenlem." 
— /■ Jam A'ttiM. Horn. xvi. cap. xiii. 

' /« .Viim, Jlvn. xvl. cap, xxjti. 




to help 
to the I 



1 60 Primiiive Testimony to t 

And when he would encourage Ambrose not to 
shrmk &om martyrdom through fear of leaving his 
family unbefiiended, it is with the assurance that 
after death "he will have greater povrer to 
them," and "will pray for them with 

Onco more : when Celsus had shown son 
aistency in the advice which he had given to the 
Christians, by telling them at one timtj that in all 
their actions and in all their words their soul should 
be constantly lixed on God, and by advocating at 
another an appeal to the favour of earthly rulers, 
Origen replies that if God is on their side they 
need have no fears, for the good-will of the angels 
and of spirits, who are the friends of God, will 
follow as smely as the shadow attends upon the 
body from which it is thrown ; " they understand 
who are worthy of the Divine approval, and are not 
only well disposed to these themselves, but co-operate 
with them in their endeavours to please God ; they 
seek His favour on their behalf, and with their 
prayers and intercessions for them they join their 
own." And yet further: "We may ijidned boldly 
Btate that men who deliberately as]»ire after better 

■ va.),^tinla.v Auattaiifiipaf vpi! ri titpfiTcii' avrobt, ipCKat 
yaiilityin Sey' rbn yap . . . avusTiirtiiov vtfX airwr tJ(B. 
HjJiBTt. ad MaHi/rium. 37. 38. 



'pi QUTur te^v I 



Intercession of the Saints. 



i6i 



things hftve ten thousand of sacred powers on their 
side, when they pray to God. These, even when 
not aaked, pray with them and bring help to our 
perishable race, and, if I may so speak, take up arms 
alongside of it."' 

And in connection with the same Father we have fhtsebins 
yet further testimony. During the persecution of mlrtwdoin 
SeveruB, some of the converts whom Origen had ^n^°*™"" 
made became so deeply imbued with his spirit that 
they were enabled to finish their course by martyr- 
dom. An account of their sufferings and constancy 
has been preserved to us by the Father of Eccleaiaa- 
tical History, in which he dwells at length upon the 
case of Basilides, to whom the judges had committed 
the execution of the sentence of death upon the 
celebrated Potamiiena;— "No sooner had the word 
been spoken, and she had received the sentence of 
condemnation, than Basilides, who was one of the , 

officers in the army, took her by the hand and led 
her away to die. But when the mob attempted to I 

■ avraiaBornu. yip tuv A^liiir toC rapi Sifu tiii*ruruaB- noJ su 
lUmtat airrol tifitrili Tiiit dfliHt 7i>DVTiii, dXUt xal m/MJtpATroiiat 
Toll ^eii\otiJnts Tir M nam Silir Biparfiew nal f^ivtieri^oirtai, 
■al avtiAxBfai «*' ffwaJioEffi*. Siart rcX/ifi' 4*i^i Xiyitr, 9t( 
irfpurwett, turi irpoaip^miuiirporiSfn/Miij-ijtiJfljToi'a, ti^xon^roii 
Tw 9tv liVplai Seal SnXuroi tiirtix'""" ivrdni" ifpoi. avfiirapl- 
XVm* T^ triufiitf ftitim yiva. (Ol, Xu' oUrui dirw, avui-yaifiCicai. 
Camr. Crfnim. hh, »io. 6*. 



i62 Primitive Testimony to the 

annoy and insult her with violent abuse, he suc- 
ceeded in keeping them off and restraining their 
insults, manifesting the greatest pity and kindness 
towards her, whereupon she, accepting the man's 
sympathy in her sufferings, bids him be of good 
cheer, for that after her departure she would obtain 
pardon for him from the Lord, and at no distant 
time would repay him for the good deeds which he 
had done for her." Basilides became a Christian, 
and when summoned before the tribunal confessed 
that be had seen a vision in the night, " Potamieena 
placing a crown upon his head, and telling him that 
she had besought the Lord in his behalf, and that 
her prayer had been answered."^ 
n- S. Cyprian and his friend Cornelius, in talking 
upon death, and anticipating tbe pain of separation, 
experience some consolation in agreeing together, that 
the one who was to be first taken should remember in 

1 fl/in &i X67V '"*'' '^' diro^iicreuj! opot tiraZtiafiirriti a Buiri- 
\ti5i\i fit T15 &yjhv b> arpaTdaishia^tiaithiwi, i.-Ki.-f(: iropaXapii* 
■Hji- iiti da.vi.Ti' ii5 S* t4 irAflSo! im-xkSv aurj tal duoXdoToii 
iMiftjIftui ii-l)iuuii.v ireipEro, d fiiv iftipyev iitixulffSlii toi)i in^pi- 
fovToj, TrXfiiTTa/ (\cor mii ifiiKareplairtaii fit aCrJjji Mtmriiuros, 
i, Si -njs repl airtTii- aup.irii.Beiai diroSffo/iA-n ri* itSpa Safififlv 
rapaKtXdfTai- i^aiT^tvBai -yip aSjif dreXeoDo-ac jrapd rou 
iaoT^i KupJou, j«il oiK fls iiaapiii -r&ii eii iiutJ(» irfTtpayiiivuiu Ti)r 
6.)ujipilt diroTlo-«» ourifi.— Edsed. Ecci. Hist. vi. 5. 

\i-/iTiii ilriii' lit . . . airoU rp «*aXa rtptBiiaa eti), ^alij te 
rapanetXittimi X^P" •'l'''"' t^' Kclyitoi'. mi i^t dfiiimui titv 
XiJtA'ai.— ff"'. 




Iniercession of the Saints. 163 



prayer Uiose who were left behind. These were the 
terms of the agreement : " Let ua mutually be mind- 
fill of each other, with one heart and one mind. 
On both sides let na always pray for each other, let 
ns relieve our afflictions and distresses by a recipro- 
city of love, and whichever of us goes hence before 
the other by the speed of the Divine favour, let our 
affection continue before the Lord, let not prayer 
for our brotherii and sisters cease before the mercy 
of the Father."' And at the close of his treatise 
on Mortality, in which, during the plague which 
devastated Carthage in the year 252 A.D., he 
tried to animate his fellow-citizens with Christian 
ho[ie, he speaks of " a large number of dear ones, 
parents, brothers, children, a goodly and numerouE 
crowd longing for us, and while their own im- 
mortality is assured, atiU anxious for our salva- 
tion."* 
And he concludes his directions on the Dress of 

■"Memom Doatn inviceni aimus coDcordes atque unanlmr*: 
Urobiqtu pro nobis umper oremnn, preiBnna et angustiiu mutuii 
(Uitate lelavemni, et quia iatlDC nmtniin prior Divmn dignationis 
MlniUU placatterit, p«TSeveret npud Dominum Dontra dilectlo, 
pm (TMribni « sororibua iio>tri». apnd iui«8ricotdi»m Palria hod. 
•MMt ontio, "—£/>- Irii. ad Cornel, p. 20S. 

'"Htgntu illia dob eironiui auinenu eipectut parentnin, 
ftatnun, flllonun, (raqaeiu nos et copioss turba deaiderat, jam da 
■ea Imniortalitate Hcnra et adhoo de noetis nlnte loUlcitii." — 
Dt Mortal, ad fit. 



164 Primitive Testimony to t 

Virgins with this exclamation : " Endure bravely, go 
on Hpiritually, attain happily, only remember ns at 
that time, when the virgin-state begins to be 
honoured in your persons,"' that is, when they ahall 
have received the crown of martyrdom. 

8. Kphraam S. Ephraem writes : " Blessed are they who toU and 
weary themselves in the Lord, for the delights of 
Paradise await them, and may it be granted to us to 
eiiioy them, through the intercession of all those 
who have been acceptable to the Lord !"* 

S. Gregory S. Gregory Nazianzen, in his Funeral Oration od 
S. Basil, says, " He now abidea in heaven, and there, 
as I think, offers sacrifice in our behalf, and prays 
for the people, for he did not so leave ua as to have 
left ua altogether,"* And in that delivered over his 
father : " I am satisfied that he accomplishes this 
now by hia prayers more than he did before by his 
teaching, just in proportion as he approaches nearer 

1 "Dnrste fortiter, epiritualiter pergite, pervenita felioiter: 
tantnm mementote tunc nostri, cum incipiet id vobis vu^initas 
Lonorari," — Be, hah. Virgvit. ad fin. 

' ■' Beati qni laljoribns se fatigant in Domino : qnoniara dslicife 
eoa paradisi manent ; qnibns concedatur nobis parfrni, intorceaaione 
dinniom qni complacnornnt Domino." — De ViHiiie, cap. a. Lat, 
■redd. Vast. 

' nal yuf 6 lih- iirriii if oipamit k^kci tAi irip iiji^v ill oTiiai irpoi- 
^piia Bvniai Kal tdC XaoC J7joireu)£i/«»05. oiSi yap unoKmiig ijiiaf 
irarTawainr hiroX^Xiuirn'. — Fiineb. Oral. ix. in tawi. Batiiii 
jiiagni, ad fin. 



m laud. Btuim J 



Intercession of the Saints. 165 

to God, after having shaken off the fetters of the 

body."^ 

S. Cyril writes : " We all of hb supplicate Thee, s. Cjrii of 
Jeru»Hleiu. 
and offer to Thee this sacrifice, that we may also 

commemorate those who have fallen asleep before ' 

us, first patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, to 

the end that God, by their prayers and intercessions, 

may accept our petition."^ 

S. Chryaoatom, in several of his Homilies, main- S. Cbrj-w- 
tains the same truth r " May yon by the prayers of 
this holy martyr, and of those who have wrestled as 
she did, retain an accurate recollection of these 
things, and of others that have been said to you."* 

"Let us pray then together, . . . taking the 
blessed Meletius as an associate in this our prayer 
(for his power is greater now, and his love towards 
us more fervent), that this love may increase in ns."* 

1 rdSo/iai Si tri tal ry jrpea^ciq, iw ^SXXop ^ irpbrcpov rp 
SiJoocoM? iioifi jta! iiSXtjiy iyyl^ei Sn^, tAi uKuantdi iriSai dirj- 
aturi/uuBs. — Funeb. onU. i«!o«rf, Fatria, lii. ad tnit. 

' S161USA aov TrAin-et ^/mTs koI Ta<rniv rprar<pipo/i^ aai rijr 
Bimlar tra nirfjiioyeiiainr Kal tuv irpoKiKoip.iiiiivuu' , . . Srait a 
erft rixaii airSiv nti irpej^ilaa rpoaii^iiTiu •luiwr t^ SiTjirtv. — 
CaUch. ilystag. T. 

Riirg «al toi5t-w* toI twi' iWui- tQv clprnUnuiv itpip^ t^v iw^p-Tir 
ipas KUTaexii". — Ifiri'i. in S. Pelagiam, livi. 

' fv^iilitSa Sij ifoivn Tdjrre! . . . aliriv rbn fiandpiot Mt7.fTiav 
Kotraivir T^! t6xV' Tairrji 'Kapliimi {xal ydp ir\elwi/ airriji irafipiinla 
rEn Jtai Stpfi&Ttpor irpii ij/ias rb ^iXrcpor) ai^ijflijrai Taiirije i/iur 
tJjc iydirifi. — lliim. de S. iteletio, Ixivii. 



1 66 Primitive Testimony to the 

Aud in praying For the long life of the Emperor 
ArcadiuB and his wife he calla upon his friends " to 
t&ke the hol;^ martyrs into partnership in their 



'"■ S, Ambrose, overwhalmed with grief for hia 
brother's death, expresses his bereavement in these 
words ; " What other consolation is left me but this, 
that 1 hope to come to thee, my brother, speedily, 
and that thy departure will not entail a long separa- 
tion between us ; and that this favour may be granted 
me by thy intercessions, that thou mayest summon 
me, who long to join thee, more speedily."^ 

S. Jerome speaks without hesitation. In writing 
to Paula respecting her daughter Blesilla, who was 
dead, he says, " She entreats the Lord for thee, and 
begs for me the pardon of my sins."^ Again, to 
Heliodoms: "The day will come hereafter, when 
you ^vill return victorious to your fatherland, where, 
crowned for your fortitude, you will enter the 
heavenly Jerusalem. Then you will be made a 

1 "h-a^burtt Tois O7loiii /jiprvpas Kowuvois tAv tb^av. 

■ "Quid enim mihi superest aolatii, quam quod me citina ad te, 
Tratei, ^pero VBntmroin, sec digreaena tni inter nos longa divortis 
fore; tuisqiie istarceasioDlbns mihi lioc poese conferri, ut citlas 
desidBrantem tni advaces." — De exceesu/nUrU jai Saturi, Ub. iL 
1170; ctid. Lib.i. 1118. 

3 "Pro ta Dominum rogat mihiqne . . . veniani impetrat 
peocatorutn." — Ep. uv. super obilii BUailliB. 



Intercession of the Saints. 



167 



fellow-burgher with S. Paul. There also yoa will 
Beek for your parents the rights of the same citizen- 
Bhip. There too you will pray for mCj who spurred 
you on to victory."' 

And in a vigorous dispute with Vigilantius, who 
asserted that prayers and ioterceasions must cease 
after death, " for that even the martyrs, with all 
their entreaties, were unable to obtain revenge for 
their own blood," he answers, " if the Apostles and 
Martyrs, while still in the body, are able to pray for 
others when as yet they ought to be anxious for 
ihemaelveB, how much more may they do so after 
they have been crowned, and gained victories and 
triumphs. One man, Moses, obtains from God 
pardon for six hundred thousand men in arms : and 
Stephen, the imitator of his Lord, and the first martyr 
in Christ, begs forgiveness for his persecutors : and 
absll their power be less after they have begun to 
be with Christ?"^ 



' " Veniet postei dies ille quo victor ravarUria in patriam ; quo 
OiatOBolyinuD ocleBUni vir tortia cornnatua incedoa. Tunc muni- 
mpaUuD com Paolo caplea. Tunc et psccniibua tuia ^juadem 
dilUtla Jus petea. Tunc et pro me rogabis qui l«, ut vlnrerea, 
tadUvi, "—£/>. L ad UeliodontBi. 

■ " Pcastertiin cum mutyiea iiltianiim aul lan^inis obsecnuitea 
Impatntre nan qaiverint. Si apoatuti et Tnartyrea adhuc is corjiore 
coDititntl poaaiat orura pro cntetts, quaudo pro se adliuc delieiit 
MM aollicili : quanta migU post corouaa victoriaa et trluioplins. 
Unna homo Moyses sexcentia niillibna Bnuatoruni impelnil a Dan 
Mnlam ; ct SWplumiiB, iiinlntur Don.ini Bui et primus n.urljT in 




1 68 Prhniiive Testimony to the 

S. Augustine, in Ma sermoii on the Feast-days of 
the martyrs Castus and jEmilius, expresses his belief 
that they pleaded the cause of the living, and he 
vindicates tlieir intercession from the supposed idea 
that it may appear to trench upon the prerogative of 
the One " JVliBocati toith thtjfiither, Jeens flChrist 
the rightcoas." The opinion with which he begins 
belongs to himself alone of the Fathers; at least 
we know of none others who have assigned such a 
special virtue to martyrdom, as to assert that it 
placed those who endured it in a sphere where the 
prayers of the faithful are no longer welcomed. 
"The righteousness of the martyrs," he says, "is 
perfect, for their very passion made them perfect. 
For this reason the prayers of the Church are not 
offered for them. For the rest of the faithful they 
are offered, not for martyrs, for they died so perfect 
that they are not our clients but our advocates. 
Neither are they this in themselves, but in Him to 
Whom they cleaved perfect members to the head. 
For He is truly the One Advocate Who intercedes for 
us, sitting at the right hand of the Father, but tlie 
One Advocate aa He is also the One Shepherd . . . 
aa Christ was a Shepherd, was not Pet^r a shepherd 1 



Intercession of ihe Saints. 



169 



Ves, Peter also, and the rest like him, were un- 
doubtedly shepherds."' 

Id another passage he looks for help from the 
prayers of S. Cyprian : " May Cyprian help with his 
prayers us, who are toiling in this mortal flesh as 
beneath some murky cloud, so that, if the Lord grant 
it, we may to the best of our ability copy hia 
virtues."* 

And elsewhere he explains the object of the com- 
memoration of martyrs to be " to excite rivalry, and 
that we may be made partakers of their merits and 
be aided by their prayers."^ 

■ "Mutyrnin perfocta juatitui est, (luoniam in ipsa poaiionp 
pcrfecti annt. Idaa pro illig in EccIeeiK nan orstur. Pro &liis 
ndillbua defonctls ontnr, prn uiartyribus nan omtur : tsni aniiu 
ptrfecti exiemnt, at nan sint anacepti noatii swl advocati. Nequs 
boo la M, led in illo cui capiti perfects membra cohaesenint. llle 
Mt enim vere ikdvocattis unua, qui interpellat pra nobis, aedeni 
>d deitram P&tris : sed idvontus onus, aicnt ct pastor nnns . . . 
at Cbrlstus putor, Petnis noa |ju(tor I Imo et Petnis putor et 
ealari t>tex sine nils datitatione iiutorea."— S. Aco. Strmo 

On ViDcentian prtnciptea aiicii a view as this nmet b« rejected 
ttoDce. " Whatioevcr," he layB, "an;, tliongb boiyand learned, 
tbongh Kabop, Confessor, and Martyr, hath holden otherwise t] 
■U or igainst all, let that be put aside from the authority ot tha j 
emunon jndgnieDt, leat we follow Ibe novel errors of aome ' 
niM.' — .S. ViBC. OmmoB. ixviii. 

' "Adjnvet Itaqnenoa Cypriamis oratiouibua auie in iatliu Camll 
moTtalllate tsnquam in i^aligiDosa nnbe laborantes, ut donante 
Domino qoantnm poisuniaa bona ejos iniitemur." — De Bapl, 
toiOta iMmal. vii. 1. 

* " Ad excltiindani Imitationeni et ut meriUa CDruni canaocielur 
itqUBOrUionlbiu adjuvetur.'— Confr. FntiiL ix. SI. 




1 70 Primitive Testimony to the 



with two memorable cases connected with the 
CJouncii of Chalcedon ; the one referring to Flavian, 
who had been kiUed at the Robber Synod of 
Ephesus ; the other to Proterira, who had met his 
death in the Baptistery at the hands of Timothy 
Ailurus. When, in a session of the Council, the 
name of the former was incidentally mentioned, the 
assembled Fathers cried out, " Flavian hves after 
death. The martyr will pray for ub."^ 

And in the letter of the Bishops to the Emperor 

Leo, written at the same Council, they said that 

"Proteriua had been admitted into the army of 

martyrs, and they prayed that God would regard 

bis intercessions and show them mercy and favour."* 

The foregoing testimony is suf&cient on Vincentian 

principles to satisfy the mind of the Catholicity 

of the belief that the Saints in Paradise intercede 

for the Church on earth. There is not wanting^ 

however, corroborative proof in the other sources of 

Priniitire information which are open to us. The Early 

LitHTgies. Lijyj.gigg appear to take less notice of the subject 

' ♦Xauiai'ii fieri Sijiatw ffl- h /iipTVi iirtp ijnHf (DJfToi. — 
Cone. ChaJc Act iL i Labb. at Cnaaart, voL it, p. 6BB. 

■ " Sanctissimiun qoideiii Froteiinm in oidine et cboro Baactomiii 
msrtyram poninina, at. ejus interoeaaionibns mlBericotdem et pro- 
pitiuni DeHm nnbia liei'i postulanms." — Ep. Epiio. Eurepa:, apiid 
Cone. Chalc. cap. xxvii, ; Labb. et CosBurt, vol. iv. p. B07. 



Intercession of the Saints. 171 

than perhaps we should have expected ; for, upon 
the kiudred question of prayers for the dead, their 
witness is both abundant and conclusive. The 
reason may be, that inasmuch as public forms of 
prayer and worship are for the most part designed 
to express the wants of the worshippers, and their 
own feelings in relation to God, to whom their 
thoughts are especially turned, little mention is 
made of any possible help to be derived from the 
intercession of others ; whereas prayers for friends 
and relations, whether living or dead, being, as they 
not unfrequently are, expressions of some of our 
greatest needs, are fitly introduced, and that to a 
very large extent 

As soon as the thoughts were drawn off from 
CioJ, as the sole Hearer of prayer, and the idea 
prevailed that subordinate spirits were conscious of 
men's deeds, and might be asked to exercise their 
influence and mediation with Him, invocations 
became frequent, and the intercessory nature of their 
occupation more generally acknowledged. 

In the early forms, then, we look only for 
occasional and individual allusions to the doctrine, 
but, infrequent though they be, they are sufficient for 
our purpose, that is, as subsidiary testimony. The 
fullowing are a few examples : — 



172 Primitive Testimony to the 



', In the Syriac Liturgy of S. James, which was pro- 
bably tlie original Liturgy, we read, " Therefore we 
commemorate them, that while they stand before 
Thy Throne, they may remember our weakness and 
infirmity, and offer to Thee, in union with us, this 
tremendous sacrifice."^ 

ly In the Liturgy of S, Basil; "Now, Lord, by the 
command of Thine only begotten Son, we com- 
municate with the memory of Thy saints, who 
pleased Thee from the beginning, . . . and of the 
saint whose memory we this day celebrate, and of 
the whole company of thy saints, by whose prayers 
and supplications do Thou have mercy upon na all, 
and deliver us, for the sake of Thy holy Name whii 
is invoked upon us."^ 

The same prayer, with only an occasional variety 
of expression, is repeated in the Coptic Liturgies of 
S. Gregory,^ and S. Cyril,* and in the Alexandrian 

1 "Idciicn eDim memoiiani illoruiu aginiua ut duni ipsi stabuiit 
coroDJ tbrono tuo nosfme qnoqne temutatia et infirmitatis memin- 
eriDt, tibiqDB nobiecum offersjit eacriScinm hoc tremendum." 
CC EUhhcnI), Lia. Eaai oad West, p. 7fi, 

' "None, Domine, eiprfficeplu FiUi tui nnigeniti cominnnicttinua 
RiemoriEe Ssactorum tnomm, qui tibi plocuemat ab initio, . . . 
et asncti N. cnjua bodie memoriam ceiebramus omnisqua cboH 
Sanotoram tnomni, quornm predbus at aupplioalionibiis miBerere 
nostnun omninm, et libera nos propter nomen tiium sanctum quod 
invoeatuin eat anpec noa. "— Brbaud. L 

'' Renaud. i. 34. ' J 



3ra ^^^ 



Intercession of the Saints. 



173 



Liturgy of S. Basil, ^ and the Liturg}' of S. James 
the Lord's brother.' 

There can be little doubt that portions of the 
liassuges here referred to, for example the lists of 
gaints conunem orated, are additions or interpolations 
of much later date, but there is no re-ason to suppose 
that the words which speak of the intercession of 
the saints did not constitute part of the original 
forms, because there is sufficient corroborative 
evidence of the doctrine in the Fathers and Doctors 
of the age. In some cases there is an almost exact 
agreement between the language of a Liturgy and 
the expositions of the anthor whose name the 
Liturgy bean.* 

' RisaVIi. i 72. ' /* If. as, 

■ & CiBU, IMtcltetii uiiL Ms/aiiuf. v, d* Sacra Lilurgia, ix 



CHAPTEK TI. 



The results 



^rimftitjE tCEStimonp to t^e 3ntiotation 

THE application of the 'Viuceutiun test to the 
primitive belief in the IctercesBion of the Sainta 
has satisfied us in respect of universality, antiquity, 
and consent. It has been shown to be not without 
witness in Holy Scripture ; and the Fathera, in quite 
Buflicient numbers to be considered as fairly repre- 
sentative of the Church Catholic, are seen to have 
expressed their views with such an entire absence 
of ambiguity or hesitation, that they may well be 
listened to as candid interpreters of the faith as it 
was held in the generations to which they belonged. 

We turn now from this, where all is so decisive 
and convincing, to the consideration of evidence 
which, when impartially weighed, can hardly fail to 
leave a far different impression upon the mind. 

In examining the Catholicity of the practice of 
addressing the saints in prayer, or asking for their 
interceaBiona, we pronose to bring together all the 



Invocalion of the Samts. 175 

8 with a difilinct beariog upon it which are 
known to UB, without any further comments than 
may be necessary by way of introduction, and in a 
subsequent chapter to conBider separately and in 
detail whether there is anything either in the 
extracts themselves, or in other treatises by the same 
authors, which ought to depreciate the value of their 
evidence or neutralise its effect altogether. 

The first quotation is one of some ambiguity, taken 
from a passage of Origen, in which he is distinguish- Origan 
ing different kinds of prayer. He writes thus : "It is 
not improper to offer supplication, intercession, and 
tlianksgiving to saints : and two of these — I mean 
intercession and thanksgiving — not only to saints, hut 
to mere men, but supplication to saints only, if any 
Peter or Paul can be found, that they may help UB : 
loaking us worthy to enjoy the licence which was 
granted to them of forgiving sins.'" 

S, Basil addresses the Forty Martyrs, " holy ^ ****U- 
band, O sacred company, unbroken phalanx, 

■ UTfIa itir aiv kbI Irrtviit <b1 lixapuiTtw oOt Stotv nl 
ayitti' T/Kiatrlyftfr- iXXi t4 vir l^o. Xiyw JiJ trrwi'^it tal 
tixfipitriar oi firw d-y'iwt iXXi iij tai auSpiiiron, tV W t4tiau- 
lt4l*M' dirioif, it Tit iifn8tlti TlauXai fl ll^fjwi Ua ii^iAfliiiwi» 

■/4i Ti dfiapT^OMTa i^lyai. — De Oralioat, 14. 

B utiiDg Cnm thB eoiitfutiiil njnii 




176 



Primitive Testimony to t/ie 



sfausnj 



uommon gaardiaiiB of the human race, kind sfai 
ID OUT anxieties, co-operatoTB in prayer, most iafl»| 
ential patrons."^ .j 

Again he expressea his belief in the utility ft\ 
invocation by declaring his own practice ; " I accept' 
also the holy Apostles, Prophets, and Martyrs, and I ; 
call upon them for their supplication to God, that ta 
them, that is by their mediation, the merciful GoJ 
may take compassion upon me, and that there mig 
be granted to me redemption for mine offences."' 

And some of the results he led people to exped 
from the invocation of martyrs are evident from whi) 
follows: — "Commemorate the martyr (Mamas), all 
who in dreams have partaken of his benefits; aS' 
ye who meeting in this place have had him a> b>| 
co-operator in prayer ; all whom, when tnvoked bjr i 
name, he has aided in their works ; all wayforen ; 
whom he has brought back to their homes ; all whom 
he has restored &om sickness ; all to whom he his 
given back their children from the jaws of death ;• 



TiSai'. Sf 
in xL Mc 






ir itepun 



§8. 



erpyoi. rpeaffturai 



-. iy^e 



BTOL-S, Bas. 0am. 



Invocation of the Saints. 



177 



all for whom he hae extended the boundaries of life. 
Gather it all together and frame a panegj'ric out of 
the common fund." ' 

S. Gregory Nazianzen quotes a passage from an a. Gregory 
oration, in all probability falsely attributed to S. 
Cyprian, in which there is a distinct appeal to the 
Bleaaed Virgin for help, " beeeeching the Virgin Mary 
to help a virgin in danger."^ But though almost 
certainly apocryphal, it is nevertheless the evidence 
of a time anterior to the Father who narrates it. 

The same Saint exclaims, "Hear, soul of the 
great Constantius (if thou hast any faculty of per- 
eeption), and ye souls of all the kings who beforu 
him loved Christ."' 

Again, in a funeral oration delivered in honour 
of Gorgonia his sister, — " If thou have any regard 
for OUT affairs, and it be a privilege granted by 
God to holy soula to take cognisance of such things, 

S*« ripfTUX^"'! TOcirv T^ liTry itx^iitTi oftrAt iriirfpyi)- tit 
wpeatuxilf, Sams iviiMri ^^IJ»tJl M ruw f/jyoju irapiartj, Saovs 
UoiTi^vi ^ai'Ti7ii7<y. Svovt 4; ifi^airrlas ireimiea; Bioii iraMat 
drVlwicr tUSl T<Tr\tirr^f6Tas, Saws rpoBiiriilat ffUo liaxpaTtpa\ 
tvoiii<nv, fwii iiJii aurayayii^ts iyKwiiior in nairaO ipimi- 
■oiflaoTi.— fl* itarlyrt MamanU, lima. i»vi. 

*rV ilKpBhv Mapla* iKtrtiovta ^vriB^ai rapStrifi Ka- 
iimvt6at,~0nU. tn lavd. S. Cypriani Mart. xiiv. 1 11. 

Smi th rpi airau paaMan- 'piXdxp'irToi. ~ Adv. Jul. imp. 
/■net L Oral. iv. 3. 



1 78 Primitive Testimony to the 

thon, I pray you, accept this oration of ours."' 
And ho thus appeals to S. Basil: "But do thou, 
divine and sacred head, look on us from abovi;, 
and either by thy interceaaions take away the thoru 
in the flesh which afflicts us, or persuade us to bear 
it with fortitude."^ 
a. Gregory S. Gregory of Nysaa, on the festival held in 
" ^"^ honour of Theodore, after describing the crowds 
who flocked to his shrine in such numbers that he 
could compare the appearance of the roads to 
nothing else than a busy ant-hill, appeals to the saint 
thus ; " Come, to those who honour thee, an unseen 
friend : visit these rites, that thou mayest redouble 
thy thanksgiving to Grod. . . . We are in need of 
many favours : intercede with our common King for 
this country. . . . We are in expectation of troubles, 
and look for dangers : the blood-stained Scythians 
are not far distant, travailing with war against us. 
As a soldier flght for us ; as a martyr use boldness of 
speech for thy fellow-servants. What though thou 
hast passed from this life, yet thou art cognisant of 

' eI ii rfl o-Di Kal Tuji- ifiarlptnv tart Xfryoi, Kai toEto fiifloit 

illUrfpor Xiyiiy. — Puneb. Oral. Sor. vilL 23. 

> ai Si n^S; hrmrrtiois iruffiv, Si Seta Kal Upi, jcc^aXJ), nt 
rAf SfSifievot/ iitio' rtfi GroO trKiXoira ttjs aapK^i lip- ijfLeripav 
ToiJa-yiifTlai', ij oT^cnts ToTs aeautoO irptir^iUus, If trtlaau 
Knpripu! (pipta, — Fimeb. Oral, in laud, BasUii. Magrti, a</jSia,9 



Invocation of the Saints. 



179 



the snfferiugs and wants of humanity. Ask for 
peace, that these public assembliea may not cease ; 
that the frantic and lawless barbarian may not rage 
againiat temples and altars : that the profane may 
not trample nnder foot the sacred things. For we 
who have been preserved unharmed, to thee we 
ascribe the boon : hut we beg also safety for the 
future. And if there should be need for more 
numerous intercessions, assemble the company of thy 
brother martyrs, and petition together with them 
all ; let the prayers of many just loose the eina of 
multitudes of the people."^ 

Again he writes : " Do thou (Ephraem), standing 
by the divine altar, and in company with angels 

lijicB tphi roilj rifiJiivTis at diparos tplXos, imb/niiror Ti 
Tt\ai^/iFva, ?™ rijv eis Qfby tixttpiarLaf SijrXamitrjjt . . . XPV^f-^ 
ToXXBf fifpycaiSir, ■wpia^twai' iirip t^ s-arpISo! irpJs riv Komir 
PaaMa . . . v^opiiiuSa SMTJicis, Trpoa&OKWILtf KwSii'oui, oi 
HaKplw oi dXtT-^pioi Siivflai rbv ta6' iuiuif cuSiTOi-rei iri\fiior. 
lis BTpaTHiiTTii inrfpp.ix^iTol'' uiv pAprvi &rip tQv afioBoifhbJv 
Xpriniu rf irafifi'^'Tiif, el Si iirep^^ijt rit jSiov, riXX' olia! Ti 
TrUij (at ris xp'^' ''?' Arpepur&r-r^Tos, atnjaoi- clp^n}!' Xna nl 
voKvtiyipi'! aSrai .uii ^li^uirii'. Ua /li) KUi/iicii xari, vaoiy Kol 
fluff looTTjpftLW &dfap.Bi pdppapo!. Iva ^ij iraHia-Q ri iym jS^PiXoi. 
it/Mt yip iirip iSv irnBeis itpvXixS'^l^fy, ffoJ Xcr/iji/KSa rr^ii 
liipytalar. alToSitey Si xal toS fiAXoiTOt tJjv ia<pd\iiay. if 
Xprla yifirfiu Si itKctwoi Susuvla!, iBpoaov riv x^pi' ''ffli' oflf 
iSfX^Cro TUP impripuy Kal /lerd ToiTwy SeiJflijTS, ir " ' 



lixni ^aw' nil iiifWJi' d-pjipTiai \vaiTiMav, — S. ( 
de S. Theodora Marl., ad fin. 



. Uvs 



i8o Pr'miitive Testimony to the 

mmisteriiig to the all-holy Trinity, the Source of 
life, remember all of us, asking for us remission of 
sins and perfect enjoyment of the eternal kingdom 
in Christ JesuB our Lord."' 
n S. Ephraem Synis, in his panegyric on the Forty 
Martyrs, after dwelling upon the virtiies of the 
mother of one of them, and the blessed state to 
which she had attained, concludes with an appeal 
for her prayers, " Wherefore, holy and faithful 
and blessed, I beseech thee, supplicate the holy 
ones in my behalf, and say, ' Ye triumphant martyrs 
of Christ, intercede for Ephraem, the least, the 
miserable, that I may find mercy, and through the 
grace of Christ may be saved.'"^ 

In his praise of the whole army of maa^tyrs he 
says, "We therefore call upon you, most holy 
martyrs , . . that ye will pray the Lord in behalf 
of us miserable sinners, beset with the filthiness of 
sloth, that He will pour upon us His Dii-ine grace, 
for the perpetual illumination of our hearts by the 

jiBi iirtpaylf ^tiTou^rywv air dYyAoii TpidSi. fUiairiao -rivTiai 
TmSni, alrtiiiepos t(*ii* iiiaprtiftiruif ii^tair iiCiiiriouTt pairiXclas 
dTiXawi*. ir X/mn-ijj, K.T.\. — Vi(a S. Ephr. Afp. Hi. 

9"Uiide ate deposco, O guicta atqiie fldelis et Leata, Draproine 
Banctos diaeoB : Inlvi'csilite triiunphatoreB Ohrinti, pro tuinimo 
BC miserabili EpUraeni, ut mlsericordiuin iavenium Chnstiquu 
gratia aalvng Biaa.-~Encmn. in sanctos zl. MuHyrca. p. 632, ed. 
Voss. 



Invocation of the Saints. iSi 

mya of a holy lovo. For ye are pronounced truly 
blessed and glorious by the common voice of angels 
and men."' And he concludes the panegyric with 
a similar appeal to them to aid him by thetr 
prayers, that he may find mercy in the last dread 
hour, " Mhin ®oil shall jiibge the etatis of 
tntn," and may share with them the enjoyment 
of eternal bliss. And he conclndes his panegyric 
on 8. Basil thus : " faithful Basil, thou art ac- 
cepted like Abel, and saved like Noah, called, as 
Abraham was, the friend of God. . . . Pray for me, 
who am exceedingly miserable, and recall me by 
thy intercessions, thou who art strong while I am 
weak . . . who hast laid up for thyself a store of all 
virtues, bring me back, who am wanting in every 
good work."' 

Mor«Over, in a collection of prayers found in 
various manuscript and assigned by traditions of 

' " ObtastnniBr igitur vos, BanctiBsimi martyrea, . . . ot pro 
iwM* miterii pecratoribui negligmtitc squalore obniti* Dominuiii 
lUprMamlni nt dfviDun suam ia nos infundnt gratiun qnx corda 
aoitn uncte caiitatia nullo jugiter iiluntret . . . Toa ctsnim 
rejc nono beali et giurioal estla qnoa ttDgeli pariWr ol honiiiiM 
Oil* vocQ at cooieniD f«1iccii et butos pntdlcaat"— /n laud. 
tMH. SoMcL iiaHyrwM, p. G70. 

*"0 Hdelia BoaU, Tilat Abel Kccvptuses, et aiout Nou ulvuta*, 
UmquMn Abrabam amicua Dei . . . ileprecare pro me Bd' 
nodmn tniaenbili et reToca me tnia Inurciissioiubus paler rnrtla 
IbMImiI . ■ ■ qui theaaurizusti tlbi tbesHumm omnium virtutum 
nw omvif boni operls Innpeiu r(:dacito."~S. EpKB. Syr. Op., 
VoM. p. SSfl, i« Sancl. Jlaril. Ma-jn. 



1 82 Primitive Testimony to the 

the Syriac Church to the pen of 8. Ephiaem, direct 
invocation of eainta la of most frequent occurrence, 
but we have not brought them forward, as some 
suajiicion has been juatly cast upon their genuineness. 
S. Chrysostom, after encouraging the people to 
frequent the shrines of the martyrs, and speaking as 
thougb he thought them possessed of some great 
power and virtue, says, " Not on the day of this 
festival only, but atao on other days, let ua place 
ourselves beside them, let us beseech and implore 
them to become our patrons; for they have much 
boldness of speech, not merely when living, but also 
after death, yea, a great deal more after death. For 
now they bear the stigmata of Christ, and when they 
have pointed to these they can use all persuasion 
with the King. Seeing then that they have such 
influence and friendship with God, let us by our 
unfailing attendance and constant visiting of their 
shrines make ourselves as it were members of their 
household, and draw upon ourselves, through their 
intervention, the mercy of God ; which may we all 
obtain by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ."' 

' iroi ftij liimi' 4^ rp ^^^p? t^i iopriis rairi)! dXXd Kai If iripait 
Tliiipais TtpMtSpeiwiicv afrmFi. TrapaKa^Hlify aln-i.^, d^iS/tw yrvir- 
Sni irpoffrdTiSa! iutSii'. TroWi^r yip tx"""^ lappijriiiF oixf fuiffitl 
li.6yof dWi Koi rtXfiTifaairai- tal iroXX^i ^XXoi' TfXevnJffHo-ai. 
Bihi^dpTduTl^^iaTB^^/JOiJcriToCXpiirToG. rdSt (rrJy^aTO iwiSaiC' 



Invocation of the Saints. 



183 



Elsewhere, in a passage in which he contrasts the 
i-slablishment of Christ's kingdom with that of the 
heathen Alexander, he says, " Christ then set up His 
Kingdom after He was dead. And why do I speak 
of Christ, seeing that He granted to His disciples also 
to shine after their deaths I For, tell me, where is 
the tomb of Alexander? Show it me, and tell me 
the day upon which he died. But of the servants 
of Christ the very tomha are glorious, seeing they 
have taken possession of the most royal city ; and 
their days are well known, making festivals for the 
world, . . . And the tombs of the servants of the 
Crucified are more splendid than the palaces of 
kiDgs ; not for the size and beauty of the buildings 
(yet even herein they outstrip them), but, what ia 
far more, in the zeal of those who fi-equent them. 
For he that wears the purple himself goes to embrace 
those tombs, and, laying aside his pride, stands 
entreating the saints to be his advocates with God, 
and he that hath the diadem imjtlores the tent*maker 
and the fisherman, though dead, to be his patrons."' 

ttlplf Kol 'J Jii)»fK(i TpAi altit d^ljri KflTttSTiJBOCTe) iairrnit 
•bflmf aitiiii. frumadiiuSa. ii aAruf Tijf wapi toD StaS ^iXni'- 

Brmicf ft pToitoce, in Jin. 

* tti Xpurrii T6tc oftrV ^Xiurn fo-Tijcii- Srr iTlX^irr^at, nal 
rlWyw upl Toi XpiUToC Srov yt sal tdJi /iiSijTait ntntB/uii 
rt ttXtariea' ^(i;ii^a^ (iusi ; wcO ydp, il-wt luii, ri ff^^'AXtfir- 



184 Primilive Testimony to tJie 

Again : " Knowing this, beloved, let us flee to the 
iuterceBeions of the saints, and let us beseech them 
to pray for us ; but let us not place confidence in 
their supplications alone, but order our own lives as 
is fit, and aim at const&nt improvement, that we 
may give full play to the intercession which is made 
in our behalf."! 
S. Ambrost, S. Ambrose writes ; " We must beseech the 
martyrs, whose patronage we seem to claim for our- 
selves from having their bodies as a kind of pledge. 
They are able to entreat for our sins, who by their 
blood have washed away whatever sins they had 
themselves ; for they are Grod's martyrs, our leaders, 
the watchmen of our life and actions. Let us not 

ipav \ SS^hf lioi Kal cliri rijg ijfiipar Koff ^v irtKiurJite. tUv H 
SoiXtiiv Tou '^piCTOif Aral Tb. ir^/xaTa Xa^MrpA, tV ^(uriXmurdTip 
KtLTa}ia^6t^a. viXw Kal ai ijfUpat ifara^aPEir, iopH/p T§ olKou/i£trif 
ToioiirTai ... Kal ol ri^di tuv SaiXwo toS <iTavpia94pTOS Xafirp/f 
Ttpot TUP fiaaikiKQr etirv aitXuv, oil T^ )uy46fi Kol t4> KdWci ruv 
oiKoSanTipATa!' piKBi- Kal TOiiTif p^ 7ilp Kparaistv liXX', fi j-oAX(|j 
rWiw iarl T^ crirouSj rdr tvvlbyTiav, KOl yhp aiJrit 4 riji. i,\mp- 
ytSa TrepiKiip,frat dur^px^"^ ^* ir^tuiTa /Kftra ripnrrvfdniiro!, Kal 
T&i* rijipov dirofl^^fvo? iuTqKc Sfipt^os t^v uyioif ^vrt a.{rro)i 
rpocr^stL rapA. t^ Qiifi Kal rod ffjtTjpoiroiou «<ii tou dXi^ur T/JOora- 
tSc Kal TCTtKtUT^Kirair Seirai 6 ri SiiSiipa tx""- — /" Epiil. ii, 
ad Cot. ffmi, xxvi. 

1 itrfp H&iTESj d7flJriyrDl, Kara^eiryi^fifi' nh/ iirl rit Tuy dyltai' 
wpea^elas sal Tra^na^uj^ui' &<rTC ulrip i)/i,iiy Sf^Sijeai. dWi fi,ij rail 
imtBun' Uealaa ii,&vov 3afipGiifii, AXAA trai a/rral ii naS' lairroit 
BeinTiii! oltompw/icr, Kal T^t ^1 ri ^rutt f^tra^oX^s ixdl^fBa 
Xra X'ipt"' SUp^ Tg ""pec^dp t^ Mp ijuSr ymn^^. — In Gs Hal. 
Uoia. Jtliv. 2. 



Invocation of the Saints. 



.85 



be ashaioed to employ them to intercede for our 
weaknees, because they themselves experienced the 
weaknessesof the body, even when they conquered."^ 

There is but little countenance for appealing to the s. Ai 
dead for aid to be found in the works of S. Augus- 
tine, except in connection with the tombs of the 
m&rtyrs. He speaks in one place of the babit and 
the utility of praying near the shrines of the martyrs, 
and commending the souls of people in prayer to 
their special patronage, to be helped by their inter- 
cessions with the Lord." 

Elsewhere" he vindicates the character of tho 
miracles which are said to have becu wrought at 
their tombs, and asserts that God, through the 
prayer and co-operation of the baints, performs 
them for the establishment of the faith, which main- 
tains that they are not gods, but have one and the 
same God as ourselves. And in the same treatise, 
contraating the Christian treatment of mai'tyrs with 

' "Hartfr» ob^ecrandi, quonunvideiunTDobiBquuduncorporii 
irignora [mtrDcitiiiua vindicnre. PasBuot pro pecisatis Togare 
UMtriB, qui proprio languiDe, Btiojn si qua liabuerunt peccata, 
Utinmt ; utl euiui suat Bel niBrtyna nostri pncsnles Bpectstom 
irtM hctnuniqiie DOBtroram. Non erabeecunufi eos mterceBBOftt 
BMtno tnfirmitBtis idhibere, quia ipai infirmitsles (corporis etUm 
oom rlncersEit [fpudam edit, ttiuu aum viverent} wgaaveranL"— 
AlBUOS. (fa VidtiU, cap. u. s.";. 

• iJe iMra pro Morlms, -I 

' iH Cit. uii. cap. X, 



i86 



Invocation of the Saiiils. 



that of demons by the heathens, he eajs : " To our 
martyrs we do not build temples as to gods, but 
' Memorials ' as to dead men, whose spirits live with 
God; nor do we raise altars there that we may 
sacrifice to martyrs, but to Him alone Who is the 
God of the martyrs as well as of us ; and Bt this 
sacrifice their names are mentioned in their proper 
places and order as men of God, who overcame the 
world by confessing Him; they are not, however, 
invoked by the priest who offers the sacrifice."^ 
if He also narrates a story of an aged saint, Floren- 
tins of Hippo, who, having lost his cloak, and being 
unable from his poverty to replace it, prayed to the 
twenty martyrs of famous memory to help him in 
his difficulty. After his prayer, and as S. Augustine 
implies in answer to it, he discovered a fish cast 
upon the shore, in which on its being cut up was 
found a gold ring. It was put into his hand, says 
S. Augustine, with these words, " See how the 
twenty martyrs have clothed you 1" ^ 

1 " Nns autem niBrtyribus noetris son templa aicnt diis, ecU 
Memorioii eicut homlnibna mortnis, quorura apud Dentn viTsnt 
epiritns, fabrioamtis ; aecibierigimuaaltariainquibnssacrificemiis 
martyribus, sed uni Deo et martyniin et nostni : ad qnod sacri- 
floem, aicut hominea Dei, qui mnndura tnejna confessiona vicBront, 
sno loioet ordinnnoniinantut; noiitaniBnasacerdotBquisaeri''eHt 
inrocantar."— Oe Civ. Dei, liii. cap. x. 



' Dt Civ. Dei, i 






I 



CHAPTER 111. 

Cfie rru0tb)Dct^mt0s of tl)e ^am'stic 
tbibsnts foe intocatioii te&HH. 

BEFORE turning to other sources of evidence, 
it will be well to weigh carefully the value 
of that which has been put forward in the preceding 
(Migea. Its farce will be very materially weakened 
by close examination. 

We spoke of some ambiguity m the language OrigEn 
(juoted from Origen. The passage seems indeed 
to have been quite unjustly claimed in favour of 
addressing petitions to departed saints. It is next 
to certain, as the whole context shows, that he had 
in his mind none but living saints. Indeed, the 
parenthesis about the advantage likely to accrue 
if only a second Peter or Paul could be found to 
take up their cause, seems almost necessarily to 
restrict it to the living ; for if he had believed that 
the saints in Paradise might be invoked, he would 
hardly have introduced such a clause as this. 



i88 T!ie Trustworthiness of tJie 

Among those " tnho hai unot iraX trE great tctbnia- 
tion," there were certainly others like them, ready, 
if they knew where it was needed, to lend efficient 
help; among the living, still compassed with in- 
firmity and sin, there might be some, bat they 
were not easy to find. 

This interpretation is supported by what the 
author said in his arguments with Celsus, "For 
every prayer and supplication, and intercession and 
thanksgiving, is to be sent up to the supreme God 
through the High Priest, Who is above all the angels, 
the living Word and God."' 

It is true he is speaking here of angelic minis- 
tries, hut he could not have used such absolutely 
unqualified language had he held the doctrine with ' 
which he has been credited. 

Moreover, in a passage already quoted, we have 
seen that he is far from considering appeals to the 
saints for their intercession in any way necessary, for 
he says that they join their prayers to ours and fight 
on our aide without being invoked.^ 

As regards S. Basil's testimony, though one 
passage may well come into the category of 

iyaireianlm Tifi Ijrl wSol Qif, Bii tou ^! vinTiM dyyftuw 
ifiX'fpi'^i, iii-<l^x'>« Xfryou ical Qtad.—Contr. Cdmim, v. i. 
^ CoHlr. Cfisum, viii. 6i ; vide supra, p. 161. 



Patristic evidence for Invocation tested. 



rhetorical apostrophes, which are very far rem 
from the formal invocations of auch frequent o 
rence in the next generation, there can bi 
question that he regarded the practice a 
and did not hesitate to adopt it himself, and e 
courage others to do the same. 

In examining the value of the quotations from S. ^ Gregotr 
Gregorj- Nazianzen, we observe that even if the first 
could be proved to be genuine, it merely contains 
the statement of a fact, which is not indorsed or 
recorded with the distinct approval of the writer. 
And it has been ironically asked, " Is the conduct of 
a girl of tike authority with an ecclesiastical statute, 
or of sufficient weight to fix our faith )" ^ 

In the second and third there is clear indication 
that lie had misgivings about the efficacy of the 
appeals which he was making ; otherwise be would 
surely have been silent as to any possibility of their 
not being heard and regarded. 

When he wrote the fourth, he appears to have 
had his doubts removed, and this passage mny 
fairly be claimed in support of Invocation. 

S. Gregory of Nyssa again must be ranked S. Orager 

> "AtpatUa ibi Firffinen itariam incoaUiat. Sed an factum 
pBcUe ititutuin ccclufel ui ex paellnnim factia, Hdci nobia 
ngettdkregDl&eat!"— Andrgwes. Jttupimno tui Cardinalii BtOar- 

mM Aptlogiam, aect 42. 



I go The Trustworthiness of tJie 



among its advocates. Notliiug could be strong! 
than what he has written in the extracts which v 
bronght forward, and none of his other writings, as 
far as we know, contain anything whicii coiild be 
alleged in diminution of its force. 

B,Ephraem. S. Ephraem was a man of a fervid imagination! 
and impassioned nature, especially given to apostro- ' 
phising both people and things, and much that he 
says is iu the language of panegyric, where men are 
not wont to measure their words as carefully a 
may be expected to do in a theological treatia 
But, all allowances made, we can hardly do ot 
than feel that, had occasion occurred to call forth 
a deliberate expression of his opinion, he would have 
written in supportof the practice ondoctrinal grounds. 

3. Chtyso- S, Chrysostom's writings supply sufficient evidence 
of a contradictory nature to weaken very consider- 
ably the force of the sentiments before expressed.! 
" Thus then," he writes, " we do not appease Hinil 
when we make our request by the mouths of otheni 
30 well as by our own. For inasmuch as H 
for our friendship, He does all He can to lead us t 
place our confidence in Him. When He sees i 
doing this, (praying) by our own mouth, then He isl 
most inclined to yield assent."' 



.T^po, 



Patristic evidence for Invocation tested. 191 

Iq what precedes he tad puinted out God's readl- 
nees to hear our petitions, contrasting it with the 
difficulty of obtaining access to the great ones of the 
earth, as is evident from his allusion to porters and 
st«irard3 and watchmen, who bar the entrance ; but 
he would hariUy have spokeu unreservedly of direct 
personal appeal to God, had he been quite satisfied 
of the value of invoking the intercession of saints. 
He makes precisely the same assertion in another 
place,^ and frequently illustrates his principle by 
argnments drawn from the case of the Syrophceni- 
cian woman. 

There ia certainly no advocacy of the practice in 
question in either of the following passages, but 
they rather show marks of disapproval. " What & 
boon to find him of whom you ask a favour ready to 
grant you what you ask! What a boon not to 
have to go about in search of one to ask from, but 
to find Him ready ! What greater blessing is there 
than this J For here is One Who is most willing to 
do anything, when we do not supplicate others, 
Like a sincere friend He upbraids us most for lack of 
confidence in His friendship, when we supplicate 
others to ask Him."' 

TKfl^HrTf i?^at O^T^ B^ppfty. iray fSi^^' iavT^ tplto TroioTina.i, 
tirt (idXwTtt /irurritL— Expos, in Y'i. iv, 2. 

1 Ik Ome$. lion. xliv. 1. 

* rit mH Jv He^ar dvat rbt A^isiiitror x^P" <"" 'x'" "^l 




192 The Trustworthiness of tJte 

" Thou iiaat no need of mediators witli God, or of 
much running to and fro and of flattering of others. 
But even if thou be unbefriended and destitute 
of patrons ; if thou beseech God thyself by thine 
owD mouth, thou shalt certainly succeed. It is not 
Hia wont to assent, when others beseech Him in 
our behalf, so much as when we are ourselves the 
petitioners, even though we be laden with innumer- 
able ills,"' 
B.AnibrosB. In S. Ambrose we have been able to discover a 
single passage only in support of the practice, and 
this is counterbalanced by the expression of an 
adverse opinion in what follows. At least it shows 
that he could not have formed any settled and 
deliberate judgment upon it. " My heart ia worn 
out, because a man has been snatched away, whose 
like we can hardly find again ; but yet Thou alone, 

(lfu?s; Tisffoi Sif /ii) 'rtpu4i:ai KoX i^fiv riva d(idiatis, i\Ki.(ipia> 
iTei/iBy ; fuj irrpav SticSai Ira Bi' iftlvuif dfiiicrjjt ; tI TofiTOU 
/ItTfot ; dCtoi ylip rire ^iXurra roiei, &Tar irij Mpav Snidlifia. 
KaSirip •t'lTiOt fyTJauis -riire ^Xurra i)/uf iynaXtt iIi; Dii BapjioStrir 
a&ravTj) ipMf, Srav IHpiM rpbs airin StiiOS/iBi rOr i^ioivTaiy. — 
In Ada Apoat. Hoja. iiivi. 3. 

1 ofi -xjula att iitunSiv iitl tou Qim niSi iraXKrit i^i vfpiSpoii.T)t 
KoX ToE KoKaiifvaiu IripoK. a\X4 K&v Ipitt"" pi "(r irpotrTdTtirros, 
ai/rii Sii. ffai>ToC TrapanoK^i^as rbv Qtby ivtrtu^'jj irctvTus' 0^ oOtw 
Si' Iripiiv vTrip tuxSiv wofMnaXwl/iEM! ira'citu' ifuSiy, ui di •^/luiv 
aimiii rClr ieofidiat. Kif /ivpluy iLficv y^iunTcs kokuik,— Sermo. 



Patristic evidence for Invocation tested. 1 93 

Lord, art to be invoked. Thou art to l>e entreated, 
that Thou mayst supply his place with his sone."' 

It ia quite impossible to doubt S. Augustine's ^- ' 
approval of the practice of invoking the saints, at 
least when his opinions are fairly examined. But 
the invocation which he sanctioned was cert;ainly 
under restrictions. 

The words however, which have been quoted 
above — " they are not invoked by the priest who 
offers the sacrifice," — have been held to forbid all 
invocation, for if not by the priest, why, it is said, 
by the people ? 

To accept such an interpretation as this would 
be to charge him, very unjustly we think, with 
glaring incoDsistency. Either of the following ex- 
planations is sufficient to acquit him of this : — 

Firstly, it may he that he regarded it simply as 
a pious practice, as a natural outcome of an intense 
realisation of the Communion of Saints, that we 
should continue to appeal to them after ihey had 
been taken away, just as we had done whilst they 
were with us, for their prevailing intercession. But 
he guarded himself with a most jealous care against 

> " Contaror eorda qaia erepCna est Tir, qaeiii {Ram. til. •juxlnn) 
til pnunnin* iDvenire ; led Utnen tn solas, Doiiime, iuTooujiliui, 
tn niB!'>'>diu, nt earn in filiift npneMiitea." — lie obitu naerliitii 
Vrat. Vll>7. 



194 The Trustworthiness of the 



appearing to aanction aay the least encroachment 
upon the prerogative of God. 
ofSren" '^° invoke or appeal to the saints in one way, 
kinds. he felt was only the unburdening of a soul deeply 
impressed with the conviction that those who cared 
and prayed for ita welfare while they lived, must 
continue to do the same, and probably with greater 
energy and more prevailing importunity, when dis- 
encumbered from the trammels of the flesh. 

To invoke them in another way, when the 
invocation was surrounded by all the circumstance 
of rehgious worship, would be at least of the nature 
of, and differing only in degree from, that which he 
was laying to the charge of the heathen ; it would 
be like building altars to them for the offering of 
sacrifice, a trenching upon the hononr of God, by 
giving to the creature a portion of that which was 
due to the Creator alone. 

Or, secondly, he may have meant to draw a dis- 
AdiffBrence tiiiction between sacrificial and non-sacrificial prayers, 
satrifloial and was not speaking against invocation in prayers 
McriEcitti altogether, hut, as inconsistent with the character- 
istic features which he especially recognised in the 
Eucharistic service. It cannot fail to be noticed 
that in this it has, with the rarest exception,^ been 



I 



Patristic evidence for Invocation tested. 195 

the common practice of the Church, both in ancient 
and modern times, to address prayers to the First 
Person of the Blessed Trinity alone. It arose out 
of the Catholic belief that there is a distinctly 
sacrificial element in the Service, consisting mainly 
in its being, as it is technically called, <i pleading or 
ce-presentatton of the One Sacrifice upon the Cross 
before the Father, rather than a mere memorial 
designed to keep the recollection of Christ's Death 
before the eyes of men. If all looks to the Father, 
all praise, all prayers must be directed to Him. 
This principle, which is exemplified io all Liturgies, 
Eastern and Western alike, vas indorsed by a Synod 
of Carthage,^ at which a decree was |>ass6d that 
"when the priest stands at the altar, prayer should 
always be addressed to the Father." The invoca- 
tion of the Holy Ghost for the aanctification of the 

!■ iddreawl to the Fiither, was need tn be anng. la the form 
bowtrai which b aitimt in the Apoatolical CoDstitotlons, Lib. vii. 
cslrii, there is an ucriptioD of praise \a "the Loid Jcaue, the 
Cbrict of the Qod of ftll created oatiire," bnt no each prayer u 
va buTS in the preaent Hymn. But in whatever Torm it has been 
Died, it i> to be noted that it hail aioayB been Bepaiatad ftom the ' 
omtml portion of the Office, and bean plaoed either at the begin- 
ning. ■> in the First Prayer-Book of Edward n., and the earlier 
^Ush and the preaeat Roman Liturgies, or in the PoBt-Com- 
Dmniun. a* in tha preaent Anglican Office. 

' The Third Council, Can. 23; of FoRBis, Coiaiderolionf* 
tlodMa, vol. ii. p. 2£7. A^igk^Cath. Libr.. iroui whom we haro 



196 The Trusiwofihiness of the 

Elements of Bread and Wine, which was almost uni- 
versal till the Reformers omitted it in the Second 
Prayer-Book of Edward VL, though at first sight 
appearing to contradict this, will be found on 
investigation not to do so. Every form which we 
have met with ia addressed, not like the "Veni 
Creator," directly to the Third Person, but to the 
Father Himself, to pour down the Spirit of sanctifi- 
cation upon the gifts set forth upon the altar. 

"We think then, on a full consideration of S. 
Augustine's teaching, that he may fairly be claimed 
as advocating appeals at least to the martyrs for 
their intercession, and that the passage, which has 
been supposed to express hia judgment against the 
practice, may be explained either as deliberately 
separating it from the worship of God generally, or 
at any rate from Eucharistio worship. If we are 
right in what we have said about the universally 
admitted principle of restricting appeals in the 
latter to the Father alone, it seems little better than 
a simple truism for S. Augustine to assert that the 
saints might not be invoked then j and we must 
interpret his words as providing a safeguard against 
surrounding such invocation with undue honour, 
ABummary To summarise the result of the preceding observa- 

ofTMUltl. ■ rt ■ ~ 

tions and criticisms, it appears that Origen canaol 



Patristic evidence for Invocation tested. 1 9 7 

be claimed in favour of Invocation, that S. Chryso- 
stom's contradictions are such as to lessen the force 
of his evidence, that S. Gregory Nazianzen speaks 
doubtfully, that S. Ambrose, in the little which 
he has said upon the subject, is inconsistent with 
himself; but that the testimony of SS. Basil, 
Gregory Nyssen, Ephraem, and 'Augustine remains 
80 &r unshaken. 



CHAPTER IV. 



%lz i^vimitibt %imvsie0 ant) tije Eoman 
Catacombs, 

TTTE look in vain for any corroborative evidence i 
T T of the practice in the Primitive Liturgies:! 
or other Offices of the Church. 

Accepting the principle that in the Commemo- 1 
ratiye Sacrifice all prayer and praise is directed to I 
God the Father alone, we can hardly expect to find 
any trace of the Invocation of Saints in the Service. 
The Ave Makia in the Liturgies of S. Mark and 
S. James is manifestly a late interpolation ; even a 
cursory glance at the context will satisfy us of this. 
NicephoruB, who wrote the history of the Church of 
the first six centuries, failed to discover aay such 
address to a saint iu public worship till the close 
of the fifth century, and he assigned the introduction 
of the practice to Peter Fullo, the Eutychian 
Patriarch of Antjoch. 

Had it been held legitimate, though its absence J 
from the Liturgies proper might be naturally! 
accounted for, it would certainly have had a place 



Tlie Primitive Liturgies. 199 

in other Offices, — in the Litanies or Preces, or the othet 
Oriental Ectene ; but in the oldest form still extant, "*' 
that which is embodied in the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions,^ there is no address or appeni to any saint or 
martyr. 

When we turn to the only other Bource of Ths 
evidence which is open to us, viz. the Eoman "" 

Catacombs, we are met with clear and unmistakable 
proof that those who made the inscriptions con- 
sidered it lawful to ask the prayers of their dejiarted 
Mends. It may be said that the sentiments which 
find their expression in times of mourning and 
bereavement ought not to be strictly scrutinised; 
but a oareiul examination of these early Epigraphs 
reveals a singular absence of all fervid and exagger- 
ated language, such as is so common in more modern 
timee. We cannot therefore but believe that the 
following in^toripLions may be taken as a fair index 
of the practice prevalent at the time when they 
were written, but some cause will be shown here- 
after for not assigning to them an earlier date than 
the fourth century. 

In the Catacomb of Preetextatua, on the Appian 
Way, especially familiar as the burial-place of S. 
fanuarius, the following has been deciphered : — 

' j<p«sw7. C(}\itl.iL lib. viii KB]']!. v1,-il. 




200 The Primitive Liturgies 



JANrARIUS AGAPOTUS FELTCIB 
MARTYRES. 

Fe martyrs, Janvarius, Agapotus, Felicisdmus, refresh 
my sou/, ek. 

It has beea conjectured that this was inscribed 
aboQt fifteen ceoturies ago, as the prayer of one 
who was burying a friend or relative in close 
proximity to the resting-place of the martyrs 
mentioned.' 

It is probable^ that mi is in and o the obli- 
terated termination of the noun. Several instances 
of in refrigerio are found. If this be right, it is 
almost equivalent to m pace, and there is no neces- 
sity for interpreting it as a prayer or invocation. 

This also indicates the idea of patronage : — 

DOMINA BASILLA COMMANBAMDS TIBI CRESCESTINUS 
ET MICINA PILIA NOSTRA CKESCEN QtJE VIXIT 
MEN X ET DLES. . . . 

Saint Sasilla, we, Crescentinus and Midna, eommmd 
to ikee our daughten- Crescenlina, who Hvsd tat 
monlks and . . . days.^ 



1 Cf. 

Campania, p. 31 . 

" I am indebted 

3 Cf. NOE 



r the author of Buritd CitUt o. 



and the Ronan Catacombs. 201 

Uere is an appeal, probably by the parents and 
others, to the awnts, with whom they felt assured 
the soul of their child was abiding : — 

4JONY2IOS NHniOS AKAKOZ ENeAAE 
KEITE META TON Al'IQN MNHSKESBE 
&E KAI HMCN EN TA12 APIAIS HPEYXAIZ 
KAI TOY rAY*A TOS KAI FPAtANTOS. 

Dianysius, a ffuUekss infant, lies Jiere vdlh the saints. 
Do ye remewher m also in your lidy prayers, as 
well as him who carved and him who annjiosed this 



The next two,^ from the Cataoomb of SS. Neroiis 
and Achilles, are still to be eeen in siiv : — 

AYTENAE 
ZHSAIS EN KO KAI 
EPOTA Yn&P HMON. 

Aw/mda, mayest Ihoa live in the. I^ord, and do fko^i 
pray for us. 

VIRAS IN PACE ET PStS. 
PRO NOBIS. 
Moyeit IhOtt live in peace, and do Hum prai/ for vt. 



202 The Primitive Liturgies 

Of a similar kind is the following, &om tin 
cemetery of S. Callixtns : — 

VINCENTIA IN CHRISTO PETA8 PRO PHIEBE ET 
PRO VIRGINIO EJUS. 

VivceiUia in Christ, mai/esl Ihmt pray for Phmbe and 
Iter husband. 

None of the above inscriptions bear aEy < 
there are indicationa which would lead i 
moat of them certainly after iLe opening of the 
fourth century. In the case of Baailla it could not 
possibly have been earlier, as she was martyred 1 
under Diocletian, after the fatal edict of 303 a.d. 

Nearly the same date is usually assigned to the! 
martyrdom of S. Januarius, and also to that of 
Agapotus mentioned with hiai on the inscription, — 
at least if he is to be identified with Agathopus, who 
witnessed to Christ a good confession in Thessa- 
lonica. 

And in comiection with this it may be observed 
that peculiar reverence for the graves of the martyrs, 
which led people to expect some special benefit to 
accrue to those whose bodies were laid in proximity 
to them, did not take any hold upon men's mindi 
in general till this century. 



and the Roman Catacombs. 203 

With regard to those which contain the pete pro 
nobiSf or the same abbreviated into the initial letters 
P.P.N., in the absence of aJl notes of time we have 
no other data to go upon than such as are furnished 
by contemporary evidence. This, as we have abun- 
dantly seen, carries the practice no further back than 
the middle of the fourth century. 



CHAPTER V. 



iBatcfStfc opfnions on tfte eitcnt of tSe ttnotn* 
leCse pos^eiSiseti b? ttie faints. 

IT will enable us to form a more accurate estimate 
of the Patristic notices of appeals to tlie saints, 
if we can arrive at the judgment of the writers upon 
the amount of knowledge of what ia passing in the 
world, which they supposed to be possessed by those 
to whom they appealed. It wiU be shown hereafter 
that intercessory prayers may be offered, and may 
serve a very beneficial purpose even though the 
intercessors have no specific knowledge of the im- 
mediate wants of those for whom they plead. 
BQtilect Very few of the Fathers mention the subject at 
lied all ; but in the case of those who do, their observa- 
tions ought certainly to be taken into consideration 
in estimating the value of their testimony touching 
the utility of invocation. It will at least help us 
to decide whether they said what they did, with 



Patristic opinions. 



205 



their minds fully made up and under settled con- 
victionB, or whether they may not have been carried 
away by some strong impulse to speak unadvisedly. 

Deny to the saints addressed all knowledge of the 
supplicant's needs, either attained by their own in- 
herent faculties of perception, or communicated by 
some agency from without, and invocation is no- 
thing more than a pious apostrophe. It may kindle 
the fervour and affection of him who employs it, 
but as a direct means of obtaining assistance it is 
valueless. 

In the funeral oration of his sister Gorgonia, 
S. Gregory 'N'azianzen addresses her in these temis: 
" If tbou hast any care at all for our speeches, and 
such honour be conceded by God to holy souls that 
they should take cognisance of such things, do thou 
also accept this speech of ours."^ 

And he uses the same limitation in the beginning 
of one of the invectives which he wrote against the 
Emperor Julian, saying, " Hear, thou soul of great 
CoBstantiuK, if thou hast any faculty of perception,"' 
upon which the Greek Scholiast" comments: He 
speaks "like Isocrat«B, meaning, if thou hast any 
power to hear the things that are here," alluding tc 

' a nolo on p. 176. ' P, 177. 

' SduA. Onie. in prioren A'aaatumi /niwdi'nm, p. I, ud 
Tit itrrir tUoSitait Toit TtBrrCXi Ffjii rCir ivMSt. 



2o6 Patristic opinions on the extent of the 

a form of speech used by Isocrates in his Evagoraa 
and jEgmeticus. In other places, however, he makes 
no such reservation, appealing to S. Athanasius 
directly to look down with an eye of favour upon 
the people.' 

Again, of Peter of Alexandi'ia, Gregory writes: 
"Having departed this life in a good old age, after 
many struggles and labours, he looks down from 
above now, I well know, upon our affairs, and 
stretches out a hand to those who are toiling in the 
cause of what is right, and all the more because he 
is freed from trammels."* 

And once more ; " I am persuaded that the souls 
of the saints take cognisance of our affairs."' 
3, Ambrose. The opinion of S. Ambrose upon the probability 
of appeals being heard by those to whom they 
were addressed may be gathered from what he says 
on the death of his brother, whom he apostrophises 
thus : " So full of compassion towards thy kindred 
was thy holy mind, that if thou knewest Italy to be 
threatened with so near an enemy, what groans 

' In laud^m Magni A thanasii. Or. xxL ad Jin. 

< & Y/lpi? KoKif Kara\iiira! tAp &lov iwl TroXXoit TOlt iyiiirlviuiai 

iplyei Toft imip ToB koKbO Kd/wowt, Hal Tio^i fioWw, Bsv Tuir 
Jeo/iCw ^arii- i\ciStpo!.—Tn ,£gypliorv.m AdvtntTim, Oral. ixiv. 

' tal yip Tfl9o/un t4i tuw iylar i^mis tOb ij/xtripiat aia9^^ 
Koflai. —Thtcla EpUt. 201. "^ 



knozv ledge possessed by the Saints. 207 

thou wouldst utter I How wouldst thou grieve 
that the laat hope of safety lay in the banier of the 
Alps."' 

S. Jerome, at a time when his country was suffer- S. Jerome, 
JQg from iuvii^ioD, finds some consolation in the 
thought that a dear friend in Paradise was spared 
the knowledge of wliat was happening. " Happy," 
be says, " is Nepotianus in that he does not see these 
things, happy in that he does not hear them."' 
And again : " Whatever I may say, it must seem 
as though I were dumb, inasmuch aa lie does not 
bear."' 

S. Augustine, in conaidering the case of Judas, ^ AnmiB- 
imaginea some one suggeating that his punishment ""*■ 
might be aggravated in the next world by hia being 
conecioua of the state of destitution to which hie 
wife and children had been reduced in fulfilment of 
the predictions, " ^et hie chitbrm be coHtiiuiaUa 
bagsbonbe, anb btg; let them seek tlicir hrtali also 
rat of tluir bteolate places :" and to the questions 

1 "Nun qnn crw aancta mentia niiaericordia in liios, ai nnno 
urgeri lUlUin Uin propinctno haste cagni»cereii, qiumtum IngemiB- 
Miea, qaun doleres in Alpium vftllo Bummam auatni] ulatla 
eoniiitcre." — De excatu Frnlrit mii .*i/yri, i 31. 

■ "Felil Nepotiuius igui hmoDonvl'lit, Mii qui line aoa audit." 

'"Quieqnld lUxero, qnia ille non indit, maturn TJdctnr." — 
Ibid. 



2o8 Patristic opinions on the extent of the 



proposed, whether any pain touches the dead in 
consequence of anything that may happen to their 
relations after his death, or whether they are sup- 
posed to be conscious of such things, he answei^ 
that it is indeed "a weighty question, and one 
which he cannot then discuss, as it calls for greater 
attention than he can gice, whether, that i 
what extent, and in what manner, the spirits of t 
dead are aware of what is passing around." 

When dealing directly with the case of the dead 

elsewhere, he answers the question, at least in part, 

expressing his belief that though the saints are of 

themselTCB incapable of knowing all that is going on 

in this lower world, yet that they are not left in 

ignorance, but receive information from different 

sources. "Therefore," he writes, "we must allow 

that the dead have no knowledge of what is being 

done here, but (this only) at the time whilst it is being 

Oifftrent done ; afterwards, it is true, they hear from those who 

obtaining dying pass from hence to them ; not indeed every- 

tion. thing, but only what they are permitted to declare, 

who are permitted also to recall these things tg 

remembrance, and such as those to whom they 



1 "Cui reapondeo inagnam c 
priPsentia dlsMi'endani, quod 
quntenuB lel quomodo en qiix ui 
mortuopiiii." -E'oarr. in Ps. ci 



ii. 17- 



<B oguntuT noverint spirittts 



kn 



y tite Saints. 209 



I 



declare them ought to hear. It is possible also that 
the dead may hear something from the angels,^ who 
are present at the things which are dono here, may 
hear as much as He to whom all things are subject 
decides that each one of them ought to hear. . , . 
The spirits of the dead may learn also some things 
which are done hero, which it is necessary for them 
to know, not merely what is past or present, but the 
future also, by a revelation of the Spirit of God."* 

' From Holf fleriptiire it seems alear that the uigela are 
tbemselres pBrmiHsd to know the ofluirs of men. The iBnguage 
which the uigul used to Daaiel Implies this : " Fear not., Daniel : 
tor (rom the first day that thou didst set thiue heart to under- 
■taailaud to chaitenthyselfberore thy God, thy words were heard, 
■ud I am come Tor thy worda" (Dan. x. 12). 

From the couvenation alio in the beginning of the Propheciea of 
Zechariah it appears thst the uigalorthe Lord is well acquainted with 
the condition of JerusaJem and the i^ities of Jndah (Zech, i. 10-13). 

And wbatever donbt may hang over the full interpretation of 
tbe passage in S. Matthew's Gospel, with which the belief in 
gnanlian angeU is usociitted, it at least indicates that the angels 
in heaven would be cooacious ef any contempt wbich the dift. 
dplei might pour upon Christ's little ones here on earth 
(S. HaTT. ivitL 10). 

*"Proinde fatenduni eat nescire quidi<m mcrtuos quid bfc 
■gator, wd dura hie agitnr; poatea rero audire ab eis qni hino ad 
v» moriendo pergant ; non quidem oranui, aed qnse sinnntur indl- 
care, qui sinnntur etiam ista menilnisae ; et quie illos, qnibus beo 
jnlieaot, oporteC audire. Posaunt et ab angelis, qui rebus qun 
iguotnr hie pissto snnt, audire allquid raortui, quod nnuniqnem- 
(pH Olonun audire debere jsdicat cni onncta subjucta aunt. . , . 
PoMnnt etiam spiritus morluorum atiqua qua hie aguntur, que 
BKcnarinm nt ea nosse, uoa solum prteteritii vel pneseutia, 
I eUam futun Spirito Dei revelaute cogooiicen]. "— £e f^ta, 



■ fro Mottuit gtmtta 



210 Patristic opinions on the extent of the 



And in the case of martyra, who were generally 
believed to have an exceptional concern in the 
affairs of the living, he stateB that it muat be through 
the agency of some divine power, because it waa 
against the nature of the dead to have it of them' 
selTea.* 

And again in a similar strain : " Although this 
question, how the Martyrs aid those who it is 
certain are aided by them, siirpasses my power of 
comprehension ; whether they themselves are present 
at the same time in places so different and so far 
distant from each other, ... or whether they them- 
selves, being removed from all intercourse with 
mortals in a place suited to their deservings, and 
yet praying in general terms for the wants of their 
suppliants (as we pray for the dead, with whom we 
certa,inly are not present, nor know where they are 
nor what they are doing}, Almighty God . . . hear- 
ing the prayers of the martyrs, bestows by means of 
angelic ministries spreading in every direction those 
consolations upon such men as He judges worthy to 
receive them in the misery of this life." ^ 

' He Curapro MorCuia gerenda. 

* " Quamquam Istn quiestio virea intolligentiffi raese vincit gaem- 
arliDodum opituleotiir martyres in qnoa per iidb certDm et ad- 
jQvari ; ntnim ipeiperseipaanadBintuno tempore tatcdiversislods 
lit tmita inier langinqmtute iliscrstiit, . 



iiorUtiui 



■motis . 



I 
I 



knowledge possessed by the Saints. 211 

The result then at which we arrive is, that S. ConoiuBion. 
Gregory Nazianzen, though several times expressing 
himself in very decided terms, must have had mia- 
giviuga ; that SS. Ambrose and Jerome comforted 
themselves in the belief that the saints were pre- 
cluded from all knowledge of this lower world ; 
while S, Augustine was evidently much perplexed, 
wishing no doubt to satisfy liimself that they were 
aware of what was going on, but unable to do so 
without interposing aome means of communication 
outaide of themselves. 

g«DCTsliter oruitihus pro iudigetitik supplicuitiiiiu (slcut uoi 
omaiu pro mortQia quibus utiqne noD pitescnUiuiir, nee nbi kint 
DM quid AgUDt BCimiu), Denfl omnipoiens - - . exHadieas martTrunj 
pracu. per angttio miBiitflrla nsqnequique diffusa pncLmt 
kominiboB isia aolitu, qolbas in hujus viUe miacria judical eHc 
'—DtCvragToMatt.TvL'l'^. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Tl^t CcStfmonp o£ ^olp Strfpruce 
upon t^e 0atne Subject, 



n why JL the Fathers respecting the possession hy the 
raicl aa Baifitsi of £uiy knowledge of what is being done upon 
earth was enforced upon them hy an almost entire 
absence of direction in Holy Scripture. Without 
Divine guidance in a matter of this kind they fe!t, 
no doubt, that their own opinions must be purely 
epeculativej bo very little is or can be Itnown about 
the nature of spirits. Who can say, for instance, 
whether, when freed from their connection with 
material bodies, they remain as before subject to 
laws of space, or whether they share the properties 
of angels, and are to be numbered with those of 
whom the poet aang t 

'■Millloiia of spiritual creatiirea walk the earth 
Dnaeen, both when we wake and when we aleep," • 

The OH In the Old Testament there are a few casual 

reatanienl. . .,.,,. 

observations indirectly bearing upon the subject, 

but from the maimer in which they are introduced 

they cannot be expected to have much weight in 

■ Mn.TOS, Par. Loit, it. 677, 873, 



Tlie Testimony of Holy Scripture. 213 



the settlement of a controverted qnestion ; however, 
SQch as they are, they must be put into the scale 
against the view of those who would endow departed 
spirits with a specific knowledge of mundane affairs. 

In the Historical Books we find Solomon, at the n 
dedication of the Temple, appealing to God in heaven b< 
as alone able to read the thoughts of men on earth. 

'■ %\kxv. hear thou in hEUBen thjt dUjcUing-plafe, 
anil fotgibc, aab bo, anh gibe to cbttjj man atcoiii- 
ing to hia Wnps, tnlioflr heart thon knototst ; (for 
than, elien ttion onlp, ktintoeat the hearts of aU 
the chilbren of men.)"' 

Again, when Huldah the prophetess is directed 
to offer Bome consolation to King Josiah in view of 
the desolation, which she was charged to predict, 
she does it in these terras ; — 

■"aEhue eaith the glorb ®oli of Israel. . . . 
^cholb. therefore, 1 toill gathtr thee unto 1kg 
fathers, anb thon shatt he gathereb into tkj 
grabt in peace ; anb thine c^es shtiU not sec ail 
the tbil tnhifh £ biill bring upon this place."' 

Now this may have no connection at all with his 
state after death, but may be simply an assurance 
Jiat he personally would not be involved in the 
calamities which were approaching, but would be 

' I KniOB Ylli. 39. ■ 2 KiNOB iiii. 18. 20. 



214 The Testimony of Holy Scripture 



taken away before the city waa destroyed and the 
land devastated. But, as the king fell fighting 
amidst the tumult and carnage of battle, it is quite 
possible that the peace of the grave, foretold by the 
prophetess, was spoken, not of the manner of his 
death, but of that which would follow, that ia, his 
removal to a sphere of existence where he would be 
exempted from all participation in his country's 
misery, because he would have no knowledge of its 
condition. 

In the Prophetical Books there is a single 
reference. The Church appeals to God by His love, 
aa the on3y help in time of trouble. " ^ook bolrin 
from heabfit, anb hthjjlb fnrm tiu habitation, of 
tltg hoUntas Kitb of thj) alorg : . . . ilouhtkes 
thott art Dtu: father, tiumgh JLbrakain be ignoc= 
ant of ns, anb Israel atknolDUbge as not : thou, 
® ^orb, art oat jfatKcr, onr Uclieemnr ; thji nsnu 
is from etitrlaating." ^ 

With all their pride of descent from Abraham, 
they felt that be was powerless to relieve them, and 
it would be idle to appea,l to him, or to Jacob, 
Ixiii. 15, 16. The rendering nnd punctuation of the 
loaning Df tbe Hebraw would bo 



A. V. 

better eipressed by translating thui 
Father, seeing that Abraham is ignorant 
ncknowlEdge na. Thou, Lord, art our 
thy name from of old." 



' Because thou art c 
tua, au<l Israel does nt 
Bther; ourR«deemeri 



upon the same subject. 2 1 5 

because they felt that they had passed beyond the 
reach of commnnication with earth, and were iu 
ignorance of the present needs of their descendants. 

In the New Testament, except in the case of'OieNew 
l)ives and Lazarus, nothing is said till we. come to ^^ ' 

the Epistles, and here too there is little certainty. 
Id one place S. Paul speaks as clearly as possible of s. PboI. 
a marvellous increase of knowledge being imparted 
lo the soul at some time after death ; but we can 
only gather by general considerations whether the 
time referred to is before or after the resurrection. 
If it could be proved that be spoke of the disem- 
bodied state, we should have no ditliculty iu attri- 
buting to the saints in Paradise a knowledge of 
what is passing in the world, for nothing could be 
stronger than tlic language ivhich he uses. The 
contrast between the present and future knowledge 
JB very striking, and the Apostle endeavoured to 
tmpraas this on the mind of his converts by employ- 
ing a double figure to illustrate it ; " ^alD lD£ SEC 
through a glaee, liarltlj! : bnt thtn face to Cacf."' 

1 ICoa. liii 12. S. Paal here uwa a. phrase which waiiiuito 
familiar to the Jews in hia time. To distinguish tha oleamus of 
tha prophceir of Mom from the viriouB of otlier prophets, tlic; 
niA tbat h« saw throagh " the glass which ahineth," KnbpEDM 
KI'KDrii hnt they only tliruugli one "whioh doea not shina," 

»n*88n »:'«» unVf^DK- cr kuhb. iil e, 7, a, and uuma 



L 



2 1 6 The Testimony of Holy Scripture 

In the first figure the present capacity for know- 
ledge is represented as of one who sees things 
reflected in u mirror. For the right understanding 
of the comparison it must be borne in mind that 
the metal surfaces which formed the mirrors of 
those times were very inadequate for the purpose of 
clear reflection. The future capacity would be so 
vastly developed that all intervening objects between 
the knowing and the known would be completely 
removed, and the soul would see everything face 
to face. 

In the second figure he expresses the same truth, 
but apparently has in his mind that comprehension 
which is exercised more by hearing than by seeing ; 
for the expression " darkly " would be more fitly 
rendered, "in a riddle," or, "in a dark saying."' 
There is probably an allusion to God's promise, that 
He would talk with Moses, not "in riddles" or 
obscure pro]>hecies, as He did to so many of His 
servants, to whom only a portion of what H-^ said 
could be intelligible, but would explaii. tn^ meaning 
of His words, and talk with him as a man talketh 
with his friend. 

Then the Apostle leaves the metaphor, and con- 
cludes, " ^oto S hitoto in pari ; htit thtn shall f 



upon i/ie s 



£ subject. 



2(7 



knoto tbm fts also £ am knotiin," — " £ shall knoto 
EnUg," to translate more accurately,' with that com- 
plete knowledge, which cao be compared to nothing 
less than that which the Omniscient God possessed 
of everything which had transpired in his own life, 
— "cbmafl I ntsself Was fuUu fenoton. " 

But we have no grounds for supposing that this 
stupendous change in his {nt«llectual powers, which 
the Apostle looked forward to, would precede the 
coming of the Lord. It was upon that event that 
his eye was constantly fixed as the goal, when he 
would receive the consummation of joy in his risen 
and glorified hody. 

It was moreover at Christ's appearing, and at no S. Jotin. 
time previous to it, that S. John expected to he 
conformed to Ills likeness, and it is quite incon- 
ceivahle that he could become possessed of any 
faculty perfect and complete before the Divine 
image had been fully restored. " ^dcDei," ho says, 
"itato art tot the eons of ©06, but it both not gtt 
apptar tohnt fat shall be ; but toe Hnotn that when 
he shall appear, toe shall be like him : for toe 
shall see him as he is."' The exact interpretation 

' itiynitapai rafliiit ical ^rF)*iioei;r. In thu A. V. the forca 
0( Ihe comi«innd ii ignoroil lus well sb the Boriiit teEse by which 
a P>ul placBB hinuBlf in tie fulure, uid looks bxclc to bi> Ufa u 




2i8 The Testimony of Holy Scripture. 

may not be expressed in our tramslation, but it % 
quite evident that the future condition, which he 
had in view, was to follow the manifu^^t^tion of God 
at the final judgment. At no time before that would 
he have been justified in expecting it, as S, Paul 
teaches in the words : " CDtir conbersation 10 
in htaben, from iulteitce nlsir lue loah for the 
Sabionr, the %ttxii ^eetts Christ: luho Eshail 
thaitge mtr bile boi^g, that it mag be fsshioneb 
like anto his gltttiijiiB bolip."^ 

The intermediate state is an imperfect one : it is 
a period of loityings unsatisfied and hopes deferred ; 
it would be a manifest contradiction, therefore, to 
admit the possibility therein of anything so near 
perfection as is imphed in seeing all things face to 
face, and knowing as fully as we are known by God. 
1. We conclude, theu, that the future condition 
spoken of by the Apostle is that in which with the 
risen and glorilied body the soul shall be admitted 
into the very presence of God, and shall behold the 
unveiled brightness of His glory, and partaking in 
the fullest manner of the fruits of conformity to 
His likeness, shall know with a perfect knowledge. 
■Igbt to lefer to the preceding clukuefor tbe Bubjeot of ^vcpuS^, 
and trnnnlate the pasasRe, "if it wera manifBsted," eepeciaily 
with ^ip instead of iTov. But juat beforo, in ii. 28, according to 
the best msb., the [■coding is thx ^niifpuiSp, and the nieaniDg, ' 
God shonld ba maiiifeBted," and in iii. 6 the word is naa' 
manifeBtation of God. ' Piiil. iii 



CHAPTER Vll. 

^tie Beattfic Slidion not ■gtt attaincD 
bp anp of t^s faints. 

OF the souls of men in general there can be little The lien' ol 
, . , IhoRomi 
queslion that thej^ are not yet admitted to Cboicli. 

the Beatific Vision of God. Are there any excep- 
tions to the rule, for it Is the slate of all the dead in 
Christ, which we are considering ! It is well known 
that one portion of the Church Catholic maintains 
that there are, and makes it an article of faith that 
the martyrs who suffered with Christ on earth do 
already reign with Him in heaven.' 

It is of the almost importance that we should test 
the Catholicity of this belief, because nearly all the 
recorded instances of invocation in primitive times 
are more or less connected with martyrs. 

Let ns appeal then to the judgment of antiquity. 

' At the Conncil of Florence, *.D, H39. tba Eomu Cbnich 
npadieteil the Djiinion vhicb the Oreeke had tuainUined, rii., 
tbtt Ihe Beatific Vision hu not jat been TonchMfed to usj. It 
wu iadlrectlr rejectod ■bo *t the Coancll of l>ent, ji.D. ISIS. 
IfiOS, Seu. n«., by the decree respecting the Invofation of Saint* 



heldh 



B ilrciidy reigning wltli C'lirul. 



220 The Beatific Vision not yet 

3. Angus. S. Augustine^ held that the righteouaness of the 
martyrs had been perfected by their passion, and 
forbade the offering of prayers in their behalf, as 
for the rest of the dead. Now it was the general 
belief of antiquity that prayers should be offered 
for all the faithful upon whom the final judgment 
had not yet been passed. 

B. Cyprian. S. Cyprian, in his exhortation to martyrdom, in 
describing the rewards which will be obtained by a 
patient endurance of conSicts and sufferings on 
earth, uses language which certainly supports the 
idea of an anticipated judgment : ' What a dignity 
it is, and what a safeguard, to go gladly from hence, 
to depart gloriously in the midst of tribulations and 
afflictions, to close in a moment the eyes, with which 
men and the world were looked upon, and to open 
them at once for the vision of God and Christ!" 
And of the martyr in will, who was called away 
before he had an opportunity of displaying the con- 
stancy for which he was prepared, he adds, "his 
reward is given, without loss of time, by the judg- 
ment of God," * 
' Sermo ccLtxiv. fi. 

' "QnBDta est dignitaa et quanta secnritas erirB Hue Isetum, 
eiira mter praasuraB et angoslJBB glorioBum ; nlandere in momButo 
oculoa, quibufl iDinirea Tidebantur fit mnndiia, et repcrire eoadem 
Btstim ut Dais Tidetttnr et Christus. . . . Biae damno tamporia 
meroea, judice Deo, redditur."— 7>e eAitrt. Moirlyr. xii. in fiat. 



attained by any of the Saints. 22 1 



But such an opinion was very far from being gene- 
rally indorsed. Tertullian, with the intense admira- TertattiiuL 
tion which he felt for martyrdom, never dreamed of 
exempting those who endured it from the interme- 
diate state of expectation and waiting. It is tme 
lie aasigns to them special bonoure, for while main- 
taining that the souls of the rest of mankind were 
detained in Hades, he assigned to the martyrs the 
peculiar privilege of being translated at once to Para- 
dise,' by which howeverhedoes not mean the Presence 
and Vision of God, but that place in which S. John 
saw the souls of the martyrs, viz., under the Altar. 
" The only key to unlock Paradise is your own life's 
blood."* He asks, moreover, "How shall the soul 
mount up to heaven, where Christ is already sitting 
at the right hand of the Father, when as yet the 
archangel's tmmpet has not been heard by the 
command of God 1 . , . To no one ia heaven opened ; 
. . . when the world indeed shall pass away, then 
the kingdom of heaven shall be opened."^ 

■ " Nemo enim peregriuitui a coipora sUtici inuuontnT peaw 
Domisum niii ex murtyni pnerogatiT&, iciticet Parsduo nou 
Inforii devannrna."— fl* Ra. Carnit, & 43. 

« "Tota PuTidiBi ciavis tuoi Bangaia e1."—DeAnima, tap. W. 

1 " Qaomodo drgo aaima enhaUbit in oaliiin, Cbriito Ulio 
■dbuD Mdcnte od tlexMnm pntris, naadum Del JuuQ p«r tuliun 
arcbiDgBli audito, . . . Nulli pBtet Goelum terra adhuculra . . . 
Eiun trauiuctiDQB anini mundi menbnntiir ngtia cadantm." — 

itid. 



222 Tiie Beatific Vision not yet 



[]. Origea recordB his opinioD that all the faithful J 
are still waiting their consummatioa of bliaa ; " not ' 
even the Apostles," be says, " have yet received their 
joy, but even they are waiting, in order that I too J 
may become a partaker of their joy. For the saints I 
departing hence do not immediately receive all the I 
rewards of their deserts; but they wait even for ua, 1 
though we be loitering and dilatory. For they 
have not perfect joy as long as they grieve for our 
errors or mourn for our sins.'" And he says that ] 
this opinion is not hia own merely, but was held by I 
the great Apostle of the Gentiles, aa is plain from 1 
what he said of the holy fathers, who had been 
justified by faith : " ^htst all habtng ohtainill « 
gooti xt)fsn\ thtmigh faith, waiDeb not tht promise, 
®oh hailing proBiieb amne better thing for us, 
thai thej! toithont us shottib not be mabt ptrfert."* 



' "Nondum enim recepeiunt Intitiam s 
dem, sad et ipsi arpectant, at ego latitiffl 
Neqne eoim decedeiiteB liinc Eancti 



itiniio 



Llegra 



Haorom prEetui& constiqtiuiitiu' ; ud cipectiiit e 
morantes licet deaidea. Noq enim sit illis perfeotia laatitio, donee 
pro erroribos nAstris dolimt «t lugent nostra peccati. — In Ijniitie. 
cap. X. MoTO. viL ; Obiqes. Opera per Eratm, veraa, L 161. 

^ Kf. to TBB Heb., xL 39, 40. — OrigeD seems bere, aairell u in 
other plncea, to speak of tbe Epistle anresenedl; as S. Paul'i, 
but it will be well to quote his deliberate opinion, vliicli ha ex- 
presssd in one of hia latest workn. In the ffovtilua on the MebTtwi, 
of which Eiisebiiu (^Eerl. BUt vi. 2fi) has preserved a pasmge 
bearing on the anthorahip. he "writea— "The Epistle doea i 
Bihiblt that plainness of diction wl.icb belongs to the Apoatle, . 



attained by any of the Saints. 223 

But it is unnecessary to multiply quotations ; sufGce 
it here to mention that some of the most learned 
controTerBialists,' who would gladly have arrived 
at an opposite result, have been compelled to admit 
that there is no sufficient evidence from Patristic 
writings to show that any salutB are yet admitted 
to the Beatific Vision. 

Justin Martyr would hardly have written the Joitln 
following passage had he believed that any excep- 
tion was made as regards admission into heaven 
before the Judgment : " If you have fallen in with 

it li more pure QrMk lu tlie compoiition of its phnuea, la e*«ry 
one wba knows how tajadge or differences of gtyle wonlil sdmiL 
. . , U 1 vera to give my own opinion I ahould uy tliat the 
thoughts beioDg to the Apostle, but the diction and phraseology 
to winie one wlio wrote from memory the Apostle's teaching, uid 
oommented bo to speak on that which his insster hsd said. It 
then any Church holds this Epislte to be from Psul, let It \* 
commeoded for this, for not without reason hare the men of olden 
time banded it down as his. But who it was that really wtots the 
Epialle, Cod only knows." 

■ "Olini cantrovcrBlam foit niun aDlma sanctorum usqne ad 
diem Jndiali Deum viderent at Divina visione frui cum luulti insigneii 

nri at docttins et sanctilste cinri tenere vidorentur, eas neo videra 

neo frui usque ad diem judicii; donee receptis corporlbns e 
mm illis divina beatitndine perfruaDtur. Nam IreoiEUB, JusLiim J 
Uartyr, TertnlUimni, ClemeBS Romsnai, Origenes, Ambroslni, T 
ChrytoitDinua. Augustiuus, Laotautius, etc, hujna referuntnf ^ 
I Beatmtia."— Fb. Pmna t» fO,H 1 DincC. tnqmt. 31, 
d by Utsher. 

To this may be added the testimony of Stapleton, who glrea 
\ ■imitar list, omitlin}-, however, and mt we think rightly, 
I of AogustiLe,— Br/, Ecdei. A ulhor. mnira WrhUaier, l 2. 




2 24 Tlte Beatific Vision not yet 

any persons called Christians, who do not i 

this (the resurrection), hut dare to blasj 

God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of 

Jacob, and say that there is no resurrection of the 

dead, but that their souls at the time of their d 

are taken up to heaven, do not regard them i 

Christians.'" 

We can hardly be surprised, however, that some 

of the Fathers, as we have seen, should have made 

^^\ an exception in assigning unequalled honour to the 

honours martyrs. If we go back in imagination to the early 

aasigued to Church, and thus to try place ourselves alongside of 

1 those who lived m the days of persecution and dire 

distress, we shall see what an unique position the 

martyrs held. It must have been felt, by 

thoughtful men, that the value of their testimonj;] 

could hardly be over-estimated : that had thq 

drawn back in those critical times the very exist- ■' 

once of the Faith must have been imperilled. No 

wonder then that some at least of those who realised 

the momentous influence of their conduct upon thfi'l 

' tl yip trvri^dt.iTt i/ieU Tial f^eya/i^roi-t xfTiai-o 

ntl tAv Beiv 'laalm xal rby Btiv 'Iniciii^ dI koI X^youn ^ji ifvcu 
vtKpQy dirdffraiTiPj AWd. ifia rep AiroB^^trKtiv, rds ^vj(h,s airrijv 
AvaKv.iip&'/iaBai th rin aipvir, /i^ iraXdjSjjre airois x/xtrrioi-oili. 
-Diaiog. am Tryphone, p. 308 ; ed, Paris, ISl."!. 



aiiained by any of ihe Saints. 



destioy of the Church should have wished to bestow 
upon those who resisted unto blood privileges and 
rewards of u distinctly exceptional kind— to place 
them on a pinnacle of glory which none beside could 
reach, — to suppose, \a short, in their case, an imme- 
diate fulfilment to the promise, " Ef Me eaffer, ta£ 
shall also rrign toith ^iin."^ 

But let us turn to the teaching of Holy Scripture xi 
on this point. When our Lord was talking with tt 
His disciples on the difficulty which the rich must 
ever experience in attaining to the kingdom of 
God, S. Peter interrupted Him with the question, 
" Stholi), loc habc foraakcn all ani follctsel) %\\tt. 
luhat shall lor [laDe tlurEtorc?" And this was the 
answer wbicii He gave- "Perils E 8a|! nnto ^on, 
that Ee toftich hiibc folUrUiei me, in the regenera- 
tion, tohfu the §on of ^ait ahall eit in the 
throne o£ Die glorg, be aUo shall sit npon llselljc 
thrones, juiging the tWelOe tcibcB of EsratI"' 

Now moBt of those to whom this promise was 
given died the martyr's death ; they were the leaders 

I 2 Tim. IL 12. 

> a MiTT. lU. 27-2& hi ry iroXi77tfii»lj hu been by some 
eonnacted with what precedes, and referred to tlio new Drier a! 
Ihlngi which «u inaagurated by Christ at the flrit Advent. In 
the Mrli^t printed texts (he poDctuntlDa favoured this interprata- 
tion. but Ihe Elievire chsngcd it, nnd most ^iiccceiliDg cdilon bave 
lolloved tbcm. There c^n l,t little queatioii lliat tbcy nre rtRht. 

r 



226 The Beatific Visionnotyei 

in that noble army which contended and shed theifl 
blood for the Faith ; but there is not a word of any 
anticipation or forestalling of their reward; they 
are not encouraged to look for any immediate oi- 
near exaltation, but they m.iist wait for its realisation 
till the " wgennration," that second birth of the 
world at "(Kr reotiintion of all tliinga," when 
there would be "luto luaUeng jtni a nflD rsrth." 
Then, but not till then, would they obtain the 
superior privileges which they were destined to 
enjoy, then only he elevated to royal dignity and 
reign with Christ in glory. 

Again, in the mysterious visions which S. John 
was permitted to see, the condition of the martyrs 
was revealed to him : " 1 stxo uniiEr the sltar tKe 
etnils ai them that totre aUin for tliE SBlorb of 
®oIi, anh for the ttatimoiis tohith this hclb : ani 
tlt£j) crieli biitlt a lonh tinixe, ssDtng, ^oU) long, ® 
^orh, hoig anh true, boat than not iu&gt anil 
abenge cut hioffJ) on them that itoEll apon the 
tarth ? Jlnb tohite cobea tuere gihen tinto ebets 
mw of them ; aub it toas saib nnto them, that thej 
shonlb teot jjet ft": a little seaeoit, until their , 
fdlolu-serDjintg alao, ani their brethren, thsl 
jshottlb he kiUeb as theg toere, shonllJ be fiilfflUi." 

J Rkv. vi. 9, 10, 



attained by any of the Saints. 227 



It is clear from this description that the martyra 
no lesa than others are detained in an intermediate 
state; their judgment has not been anticipated, 
neither is there any possibility of their longings 
being satisfied till the roll of martyrdom is complete. 

In another vision^ he sees those " luhith rame out 
of flteat tribulation," and "tlies ate btioxt the 
throut of (Sot), an& sttDe ^im bag aniJ night in 
^tfi temple." Apart from the consideration that 
this is taken from a distinct prophecy of the Church 
in its glorified state, it has been shown ^ by a com- 
parison of the Temple at Jerusalem, from which the 
imagery is taken, that the throne, which was the ark 
of the Covenant overshadowed by the Cherubim, was 
not seen by those who worshipped without in the 
Court. 

From all this it is clear that the Fathers and CoticU 
Doctors of the Eaily Church were right in their con- 
clusion, that the guiiIs of the saints, whether 
martyrs or others, will not see God and be admitted 
to the Beatific Vision till after the Day of Judgment 
It follows also that the perfect knowledge of which 
S. Paul spoke must be still in the future, and de- 
pendent on the same manifestation. 

"Rkv. vii. U, 16. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Contlu3ion6 Dcaton fcom cf)c EocEffofnff ■ 



N' 



OW that all the evidar 






y within 



Q antiquity •* 
t forward aud subjected 
to examination, it only remains to gather up the 
conclusions which are to be drawn from it. In 
doing tliia it will be most convenient to take separ- 
ately tbe two parts, — the intercession of departed 
saints, and the practice of addressing them iii prayer. 
The doo- Firstly, then, ought the belief in their intercession 

'° to be accounted Catbolio ou Vincentian principles 1 
'\ There can be little hesitation iu replying in the 
J? '"^"'"'' affirmative. A large number of Primitive Doctors, 
in divers portions of the Church, amply sufficient at 
least to be regarded as fairly representative of the 
Snmmary whole community, are shown to have expressed their 



^^"i""" f- 



of Patristic 
ayiilencB in 
faTonroflt 



opinion in support of it, and there i 



) trace of 



any countervailing i 



intradictory views. It i 



i there is but little in the way of corruboi-Htivi- 



Conclusions from J orcgo'mg Testimony. 239 



evidence forthcoming from the other sources to 
which we look for early information, but there arc 
reasons to account for its abseoce ; and it is the less 
desiderated as the doctrine is not without witness 
in Holy Scripture. We can hardly Btop, however, Uponwt 
with the bare statement of this conclusion. After cession* 
what has been said of the ignorance of the saints 



touching the affairs of this world, it seems almost 
imperative upon us to add something in explanation 
of the probable nature and extent of iheir inter- 
ceBsions for the living. We conceive that their 
prayers are of a twofold character : they are both 
general and particular : the latter, however, only 
within i\ limited compass, and based mainly, as far 
as we can be certain, on the recollection of tlic past, 
which may enable them in some measure to com- 
prehend the wants of the present.' 

There can hardly be a question that the saints in Memoir 

. , . ... reUineu Id 

raradise retain the power of memory. It is im- iiie •lisem- 

' There are indiMtioui. in Scripture Hint Ihu powera of momorj ^^g 
■rill b« developed sad quickeaad into the fullest energy by the 
••pintlion of tbii sonl from the body ; that between destti nnd Ibe 
Jnil)^ieiit the m>u1 will hive ita recollection of the past intemiilled 
■Iniut beyond our conception. Some lucb belief ii necesskry to 
■ocoant (or lh«t which would be otherwise ImpoaBiblBp—ejeept, »t 
Iful, by the exerciis of mtmcaloui power, of which no inlimstiun 
i> givaa,— vU. thftt when ulled before the tribunal of God wesball 



nut 



wtth 



D llpe II 



ftonU uid ihoughte of k life loiin viucil- ^- 1^'*>. 



230 Conclusions drawn /ram t/ie 



possible to imagine the aoul preserving consciousneBS J 
during its disembodied Btate without ailmitting that 1 
it possesses also the Ikculty of remembrance; 
deny it this would be to rob it of much of that 
which makes consciousness worth having, and which 
is absolutely indispensable, if they are right who 
think that the intermediate state is a time for , 
growth in holiness, and all that can fit the pardoned 4 
seal for the Presence of God. This admission is J 
forced upon us from two quarters. There i 
begin with, an instinctive conviction in the heartB 
that death cannot destroy the link which binds the I 
soul to the past Can anything, short of po 
proof that it sleeps after death, ever convince us.-l 
that it vrUl in an instant forget those whom, up to I 
the very moment of its departure, it thought of, audi 
cared for, and loved above all else in the worldlj 
And tlie voice of nature finds its echo ii 

However we ma^ 



The para- 
ble of 

DiYea and teachine of Holy Scripti 
Lazarua. - i 

understand the parable of the nch 



IJazarus, we believe it equally with the rest to b 
" luritteii for onr IcarninQ," therefore substantially 
true. Now we read that Abraham reminded the 
rich man of the past,—" reiiuiiibEr that thmt in thg 
tifctimi MmSeifit thg gooG thinas;" and we know 
that he exercised the faculty of remembrance, for h 



foregoing Testimony. 231 

showed himself mindful of the bi-ethren whom he 
had left behind ; he recalled their old mode of life, 
and dwelt upon the particulai' tentjitationB to which 
they had been exposed, and, acting upon the fears 
which the recollection of his father's house en- 
gendered, he interceded for the dehverance of those 
who had survived him there. 

It is quite obvious, however, that suoh prayers as 
this can only be very restricted; the time must 
inevitably come, and that very speedily in most 
cases, when all those whom the departed soul re- 
membered in life will have joined its imike iu the 
place of disembodied spirits. 

If, therefore, the intercession of the saints be the There- 
great reality which we would fain believe, and n»turB of 
which the importance attributed to it by the uarly Sdmdun 
Falhera appears to justify, its range must be far 
more comprehensive tliau this, aiid certainly it can- 
not be circumscribed by anything so nari'ow as the 
bouds of earthly friendship. 

The theme of their prayers must be the whole Thswhol* 
company of the baptized, the Church militant ofoy^ 
every nation and people and tongue, wherever its ^q^™ 
members arc stru(;gling with the same temptations 
Aud enduring the same labours au they themselves 
fxpprii'imed in their ciirthly pi|i,'rimni,f. Nonimlly 






232 Conclusions drawn f mm ike 



Pstriitic 
avidsnca 
Dppoaedt 



the power of intercession is exercised for the whole 
body of the redeemed ; exceptionaUy, and in a far 
lesa degree, for individual Christiana. 

Of the possibility of the area in the lattei case 
being widened by a revelation of present wants 
through some angelic or Divine agency,' no opinion 
is here expressed : it is all purely speculative, and 
we are not dealing with " pious beliefs," howevei- 
attractive and fascinating, so much as with the 
well-supported and widely-recognised credenda of 
the Primitive Church. 

Secondly, what conclusions does the foregoing 
testimony enable us to draw respecting the Catho- 
licity of the practice of invoking or addressing in 
prayer departed saints 1 The direct evidence from 
the Fathers is undoubtedly slight. There are a 
few distinct examples of appeals by name, bub it 
must be noted that most of them are of a highly 
impassioned kind, uttered in moments of deep 
religious emotion, and, in some cases, at the veiy 
graves or " memorials " of mai'tyrs on the an 
of their deaths. Of these, too, there is 
which can carry back the first beginning of thffJ 
practice beyond the middle of the fourth century, 

' Cf. S. Auo. de Cura pro Mortuis, cap. xv. ; Pw. I^HBAHB. 



foregoing Testimoity. 



233 



if indeed bo far. The indirect evidence is of im- 
portance as exhibiting aome want of confidence in 
the efficacy of such appeals, arising out of the ex- 
treme imcertainty whel,her the saints appealed to 
possessed any capacity for hearing the prayers of 
their petitioners. The real value of invocation, 
for the furtherance at least of the object immedi- 
ately sought for, must stand or fall with the 
possession of this. So long as doubts existed upon 
this point, it is quite inconsistent with reason to 
suppose that it could have been widely practised. 
In isolated cases perhaps the intensity of a man's 
wishes may have completely overridden all sober 
conviction, but anything like a general practice 
could never have grown np in the midst of doubts 
and misgivings, which strike at the vcr}' root of 
its Utility. 

The Catacombs, aa we have seen, are not wanting Theevi- 
in illustrations of this practice ; but though we may cauconihi* 
be disposed to attach no little importance to any aJ"''' 
tesUmony which they may exhibit with sufficient 
Irequency to give it a general character, that which 
concerns the present question is practically unavail- 
able, owing to an entire iibsence of chronology on 
the particular raonumeuta brought under notice. 
if any corroborative evidence were forthcoming to 



234 Conclusions drawn from tlie 

establish tlie existence of the practice in the third 

and second centuries, there would be no impropriety 

in claiiiiing them as recordo of the same period. 

But where there is ao much uncertainty, it would 

be manifestly unreasonable and arbitrary to assert 

that their testimony is older than that supplied from 

other sources. 

Primitive Tjie public forms of Primitive worship lend no 

Liturgies, * ^ 

so far as support to invocation of any kind ; we could hardly 

evidonce, expect that they would contain anything resembling 
to the prac- the rlietorical appeals encouraged by some of the 
Fathei-s, while the very nature of the Liturgies 
discouraged the introduction of religious interpella- 
tions of any other than God the Father, before 
Whom alone the Commemorative Sacrifice of the 
Son is pleaded. But apart from this, it seems 
that the early services of the Chuicli supply the 
strongest evidence we cau possibly have against 
the doctrine, short of positive and distinct expres- 
sions of disapproval. The Primitive Liturgies which 
have come down to us, almost without exception, 
contain prayers for the saints. Is it reasonable to 
maintain that persons who prayed to God for the 
light and rest and refreshment of the spirits in 
Paradise, could in the same breath appeal to them 
as hearers of prayer, or as able to give to those 



foregoing Testimony, 235 

who invoked them their special advocacy and 
patronage ? 

Lastly, Holy Scripture nowhere hints even at Holy 
the utility or lawfulness of addressing appeals for u silent. 
spiritual help of any kind to other than the Three 
Persons of the Blessed Trinity. 

While, then, it has been shown that the doctrine Conclusiun. 
of the Intercession of the Saints is able to bear the 
Vincentian test of "universality, antiquity, and 
consent," the Catholicity of the practice of invoca- 
tion breaks down when subjected to the sanie 
ordeal. 



SUPPLEMENTAEY CHAPTER. 

A. 

3|0 a fuller recognition of t^e practice of 
praping for t^e tieati desirable or not? 

Arguments XT AVING now exhausted the records of the past, 

in favour of I — I 

a fuller re- JLX as far as we are familiar with them, in 

of a primi- gathering proofs or indications of the early practice 

tioe.^^^ o^ praying for the departed, we proceed to consider 

the arguments of those who advocate its fuller 

recognition, both in public worship and in private 

devotion. 

On the The first argument is that with which so many 

ground 

ofitsanti- of the previous pages have been especially con- 
CathoU- cemed, viz., its undoubted claim to be regarded 
^^ ^' as primitive and Catholic. It is quite impossible 

to weigh the evidence adduced without being 
convinced that it satisfies the Vincentian test 
most completely ; and in consideration of the great 
importance of the subject of this chapter, it may be 



Prayers for the Dead. 



237 



aJviauble to dwelt a liule upon the nature of iLe 
evidence upon which so mucli rests. 

The Catacombs, whicti carry us back almost to the ti 
roundatioa-days of the Faith, set forth in their rude 
Biraplicity the accepted belief of the early generations 
of Christiajis toucliingthe comfort to be derived from 
coutinuing to pray for departed frieuds. Those monu- 
mental records of pious afFection, in which tho 
expression of the feelings was so held in clieck that 
the keenest pain of bt^ reavement is said to have found 
vent in nothing more demonstrative than the simple 
word " doleoB," can never be justly accused of con- 
taining anything unreal or fanciful. Indeed, the 
epitAphs are so brief and simple, so devoid of 
alt exaggeration, that when they speak we feel sure 
that they only express that which the calm and 
deliberate judgment of the age would completely 
F jgdone. And no one con deny that they do speak 
■ij^.'Jingaage of prayer for the peace and light and 
TnAwhrnent of the souls which are nt rest with God 
and ChrisL 

Again, the early Fathers and Doctors of the Church Tl 
exhibit in their writings a perfect caiauj, of couflnna- 
Uiry testimony. Men of dilfering habits of thought. 
ttttioed in diverse schools and countries, and often 
holding upon important queBlions of doctrine and 



A 



238 Should Prayers for tfie Dead be 

practice widely divergent opinions, yet unite in 
hearing common witneas to the propriety and advan- 
tage of praying for the dead. But if any one, with 
a view to depreciate the value of their judgment, 
should raise the objection, that after ail they are 
only entitled to the consideration which other 
irresponsible individuals receive, then we may fall 
back upon the fact, that the matter was brought 
under discussion before a representative aasembty, 
aumrnoned from the whole Church,' whose delibera- 
tions and decrees command the acceptance of all 
Catholic Christians. 
Primitive And lastly, we have a great collection of Primitive 
Liturgies testifying to the use of such prayera in the 
public services, — Liturgies, be it observed, composed 
for countries and Churches differing by a variety 
of circumstances the one from the other. Aud 
notliing, we feel confident, could have been used, or 
been suffered to continue for any length of time, in 
Forms of common worship, which did not receive 
the unwavering assent of the Church at large. 
Its inherent -A- Becond argument rests upon the simple ground 
"* of its usefulness. The objects for which our public 

services are framed are twofold : that the creature 
may pay to the Creator the homage which is due 

I ThB Council of ChBlcedon ; see p. OS. 



more generally adopted or not? 239 



uuto Hi^ Name; and that he may pray for the supply 
of his necessities, and the well-being of his body and 
soul in time and eternity. Leaving out of considera- 
tion here the primary object, it is obvious that the 
Forms of public prayer ought to be such as are able 
to satisfy the cravings of natnre, when at least those 
cravings are for things not forbidden by God'a Word. 
Now it is impossible for the mourner, who goes up T 
to the bouse of God in times of sorrow and bereave- u', 
meat, not to feel an aching void in the Church's u, 
prayers. We may pray for our Queen, our relations '^ 
and friends, for tbe heathen and unbelievers and 
the enemies of our peace, in short, for all conditions 
of men who are still in the flesh ; but even thougb 
we come fresh from the chamber of death, with the 
heart full and overflowing with longings for the 
happiness of one that is gone, we can And no outlet 
for our yearnings in those utterances whicb ought 
to be as comprehensive muJcis, providing for the 
expression of all our best desirus and the truest 
wanta of the human heart. If the instinct of nature 
prompt UB to pray for the departed, if the Great 
Teacher Himself gave His tacit approval to the prac- 
tice, if the purest ages of Christianity freely adopted 
it, there can iiardly be any question that it has in 
Itsnlf some et'.ments of userulness, and the Church 



240 Should Prayers for the Dead be 

may well foster them for the benefit and comfort of 
tliose who look to her for guidance. 
Its in- A third argumeut ie that it would place us in a 

tli8 ooa- stronger position in our disputes with Eome. The 
withltome. Church of England claims, as it is now constituttd, 
to he the Church of the early ages of Christianity, 
the same Church, only Btript of medieval accretions 
by which her rites and ordinances had been overlwd 
and disfigured ; but, it is retorted upon us by those 
whose interest it is to disallow her antiquity, that 
at the Reformation, the English divines, though their 
original intention of destroying nothing which was 
ancient, was laudable enough, yet suffered themselves 
to be so overborne by the foreign Protestants' that 
ill some cases they made no distinction between 
what was primitive and what was medieval, but in- 
volved both alike in in die criminate condemnation ; 
am! the consequence of this is, that some familiar 
features of the Church of the first fi\'e centuries are 
no longer visible. 
Attempts There are writers on the Liturgy who main- 
over the tain that prayer for the dead is by no means 
Reformers' , , , „ , ■ , ■, 

Dmisaiona, excluded, and one of the most widely read at 

■ How little Peter Martyr and Martin Bncer, who did not evrri 
know the English language, were fitted to nndertate the Reformn- 
tion of the English Church, and how alien the luinib of Calvin nnd 
Inhn & Lascu were to Catliolio doclvine, is well known. 




the present day sums up his observations on the 
subject in these words: "It must be cuiisidered 
a gi'eat niatUr for thankfulness that in all the 
ateaults made upon the Liturgy of the Church of 
England by persons holdin^r a more meagre belief 
in things unseen, the Providence of God has preserved 
the prayer for the whole Church, departed as well iis 
living, in the prayer for the Chiircli militant."' 

But however much men may try to satisfy them- 
selves by reading mentally between the lines, or per- 
sist in interpreting the expression " that willi them 
we may be partakers " as though it were equivalent 
to "that they, as well as we," the Roman Catholic 
will always point triumphantly to the unanswerable 
rubric, "militant here on earth,"* with which the 
prayer was fenced and guarded at the very time 

' 'riie Aanolated Book of Gmmut* Prayrr, p. 178, nol«, liy 
J, H. Bldnt. 

t This wajad'leil ID tLe Second PrsyeT-Book of Edw. VI., ISS2, 
by Bucer and Calvin, wbeu the fallowing prayer oX commendation 
vu omitted ;— " We commend urU> Tby mercy, Lord, all olhw 
Tby servsDta, which are ilepailed hence froni at with tha sign of 
faith, and now do rest la the sleep of peace. Grant nnto thniii, 
we beseech Thee, Thy inercy and everlasting peace, and llmt at 
tbe day of the general resuireclion we, and all thcf which be at 
the nyitical body of Thy Son, may altogether be set on Bis right 
hand, and hear that His most joyfiil voice: Come nnto Me. ye 
that be bleued of My Father, and poism the Uin^dnni, which la 
pirprireJ lor you Iroiiitlie beginning of the wor1il."—nri< /Vdyfrw 
fiuut V} Xdie. VI. 



242 Should Prayers for tlie Dead be 

that the distinct petition for God's mercy to be 
shown to the dead and for their everlasting peace 
was withdrawn from it. 

This passage, therefore, must be clearly abandoned 
in so far as it may have been supposed to afford any 
evidence of the retention of prayers for the dead in 
our public services. But there are two other places 
where traces do still remain. The first is the Prayer 
'*^'^^,?^*y®^ of Oblation, in which we pray in these terms : " that 

of Oblation. ' ^ ^ 

by the merits and death of Thy Son, Jesus Christ, 
and through faith in His blood, we and all Thy whole 
Church may obtain remission of our sins and all 
other benefits of His passion." Now Bishop Cosin, 
one of the revisers of the Prayer Book, be it remem- 
bered, makes this refer to the departed as well 
as the living. His words are, " By ' all the whole 
Church' is to be understood, as well those that 
have been here before, and those that shall be here- 
after, as those that are now members of it." And 
again, " The virtue of this sacrifice (which is here 
in this Prayer of Oblation commemorated and 
represented) doth not only extend itself to the 
living and those that are present, but likewise 
to them that are absent and them that be already 
departed."^ 

1 CosiN's Worls, vol. V. 351, 352. 



more generally adopted or not f 243 



Tbe second is bhe prayer in "The order for the TbsBnriiq 
Burial of liie Dead," ''beseeching Thee, that it may 
please Thee of Thy gracious goodness, shortly lo 
accomplish the number of thine elect, tind to hasten 
Thy kingdom; that we, with all those that are 
departed in the true faith of Thy holy name, 
may have our perfect conaununation, and hliss, both 
in body and soal, in Thy eternal and everlasting 
glory." ' Here, " we with all those." must be 
equivalent to " we and all those," for if not the 
order of words must have been changed and would 
have rnn thus, '■ that we may have our perfect con- 
summation and bliss with all those," etc 

If we are right in our reading of these prayei's, * 



expressions a manifestation of the desire which the m 
Revisionists must have felt to preserve, if they ^ihJ'"'* 
[)0isibly could, here and there in the public service, ''''"'W' 
some trace of the primitive practice. 

It is enough to satisfy us that the Church lias not 
i-Dtirely abandoned the usage, but we can hardly be 
aurpriaed if the Koman Catholic takes a different 
view and calls for that clear and utiuiistakable 
recognition of the principle, which was manifeateil 
iji the pie-Kefomiation services. 
' Id. a;:. 



244 Should Prayers for the Dead be 



a" 



Such then are the chief grouiids upon which thos 
who desire to see prayers for the faithful dead 
restored to our Forms of public worship, rest their 
claims to he heard. Let us look for a moinent at _ 
ArgnmesU the other side. The doctrine, it is urged, is liable ti 
abuse. So early as the close of the fourth centuij 
Aerius laid great stress upon this, and though the " 
Fathers treated bis objections with disdain, and 
Epiphanius, who took upon himself to advocate the 
prevailing asage, did not even condescend directlyj 
to answer them, later ages have borne ample teslt 
raony to the realisation of his worst fears. HistoiJ 
Thaabusa te^s US how in lapse of time the true doctrim 
Snmadlffivai became obscured, and a novel estimate of its objec 
tiraen. ^^^^ suffered to grow up imchecked, and the pious 
aspirations and ardent longings for the light and 
refreshment and peace of souls which had departed 
in the faith, were perverted into petitions and mi 
which might be bought and sold like common h 
* for deliverance from Purgatorial pain and tormenbfl 
We who interpret Christ's promise to be witli 
Church " altuag ehen nnto the tni of the tootlli'S 
as implying that He overrules and directs all thf 
changes and vicissitudes to which it is subject, foj 
its ultimate good, may well believe that in t 
temporary obscuration of the primitive practice, a 



more generally adopted or not? 245 

tile almost complete withdrawal of wliat is confessedly 
a most consolatory doctrine, we can see a distinct 
sign of ii punitive purpose, and a visitation on 
this and preceding generations for other men's 
sins. 

With this view it must be the anxious care of our 
leaders, whenever any revision of the Liturgy shall 
be undertaken, to ascertain whether the period of 
punishment may not have run its length, or whether 
the liability to corruption, notwithstanding all the 
safeguards' which the experience of the past would 
suggest, is stil! so great that the restoration of a 
primitive and Catholic usage canuot yet be safely 
recommended. 

But whatever objections Jiay be raised against 



t The lantpuge of the PrimltlTa Litnrglea ihonld be most cai»- 
fnlly adhered to. However strong a belief may exist that the 
prooeu of lunctiflration and the efFaceromt of the itains of rin, 
may be advanced by the iimyera of survivora, it fonnd no such 
■iipporl from primitive tiinea, no iiuih general expression in the 
Primitive Ltturgies, as to Juitif^ its aeluiovledgmeat la public 
form! of prayer. Whatever finds a plaoa in these iriust rest upon 
nothing less thitn Catholic recognition. The only rorms of petitioa 
which were nniversslly accepted were for the light, or rest, or 
p«aee, or refreshment of thoaEWho had departed in the tme faith. 

To pray for these is the rightful privilege of the Church Catliolic, 
and whatever questions at eipediencr may arise for the time, and 
have weight with those who are in authority, it uannot be 
permaDently alienated from public vrorihlp wltliont larjoas ham 



246 Should Prayers for the Dead be 

No such ^^^ re-introduction into public worship, no such 
caii^be °^ arguments, as have been stated above, have force in 
™*?® , . . reference to the practice in the private devotions of 

against its r r . 

use in individual Christians. The examples of the pious 

private. ^ 

divines, whose names form a long and goodly array 
from the Reformation to our own time, is quite 
sufficient guarantee for its continuance apart from 
Common Prayer. They realised truly the exact 
position. They felt that the Church had been 
compelled to take the steps, which she had taken, 
in regard to certain forms which amidst the prevail- 
ing ignorance were so liable to misconstruction and 
abuse; but being at the same time satisfied that 
though withdrawn the prayers had never been con- 
demned or pronounced illegal^ by any authoritative 
tribunal whatever, they held themselves perfectly 
free to use them privately. 
The non- The non-jurors did not hesitate to enforce them 

* as a bounden duty,'^ and in consequence of the value 
which they attached to the practice it has not 
uncommonly been supposed that it was confined to 
them ; but there is no ground for the supposition. 
Long before they restored the obliterated prayers 
to their Form of Service, individual bishops of no 

1 Cf. note on p. 253. 

2 Latiibury, History of Uie Non- jurms, p. 298. 



jurors. 



more generally adopted or not ? 247 

little weight and influence espressod their approval 
of them, 

Bishop Andrewes in the intercessory portion of S''^°P , 
hia PriauU Devolions, prays, De 



(I living. 



u living and i1 



■ ■ Renieniber, Lord, our God, 

All s|)Irits aud all flesh, 
Wbioh we have remembered, and which we have not."' 

Biahop Cosin recommended it both by precept Cosin, 
and by practice ; he refers to it again and again, as 
we have already shown in hia notes on the Prayer 
Hook, and writes at some length npon it in explana- 
tion of the prayer in the Burial Service, " Tiiat we 
with this our brother and all other,"^ etc. "Tlw 

' '0 tit toBto dirS BatCir ml ifnt^^as. 

Or Tc fu/jw, liv rt not iroSffy^Kuiio . 

fu»™i Koi flociwaj iA(i)(j-OP. fil nipa- 

Prceet Privala, Diti prima. 
' Mf^ire^x, Kipit, i Geis, 

Sir riiii'/iii8>i)iat tat Sit oit r/ir^ffSt/io: 

lit. tliei iputrtm. 

■ ThcH worda wen altered at the Revliioa of leSS to theli 
pnaaat rans, 



248 Should Prayers for t/ie Dead be 



Poritans think that hero ia prayer for the dead 
allowed and practised by the Church of England, 
and so think I ; but we are not both of one miud 
in censuring the Church for so doing. They say it 
is Popish and superstitious ; I for my part 
it pious ami Christian."' 

Isaac Barrow, than whom it would be absolutel; 
impossible to find one more capable of exercising a 
sound and temperate judgment, was in the pregnant 
language of his biographer " mighty for it."- 

The inscription on the monument of hia uncle, 
Bishop Barrow, in S. Asaph Cathedral testifies to 
the practice, by inviting those who entered that 
house of prayer to pray for their fellow-servant, 
that he might find mercy at the last day.^ 
:. The learned Thomdike expressed doubts about 
the present existence of prayers for the dead in the 
Services of the Church of England, with especial 

1 Tbia [laaaage \a orroiieously attributed to Bishop Ovehali, bj 
I>r. F. G. Lee in TU Christian Ooclnne of Prayers for the Dead, 
p. 156, and to judge by the note, NicbolH was giiilty of the s( 
mistake. It is to be fouud in Xota and ColUcliaui 11 
leaved Book of Common Prayer, by Bishop CosiK, 1619, of d 
Anglo-Catholic Library, Vol. v. IGB. 

t HearxiaruE Reliquiie, ii. IBS. 

■ " Toa tmnaimiiteB in domum Itemini, in domum o 
orate pro con servo vcstro ut inveniat miEericordlaia in dieDorehd 

Special atresia was kid upon this circumstance <□ the 1 
the Dean of Archi'S, referred to on p. 2fiS. 



:el^H 



more generally adopted or not f 249 



reference to tlie pelition in the Litany for deliver- 
ance "iu the hour of deatb, and in the day of 
judgment," nr in the post-communion prayer of 
obUtion that "we and all the whole Church may 
obtain remission of our sins and all other benefits of 
HiB PasEion," gn which opposite views have been 
taken. He felt that the medieval forms had 
departed ao far from the original sense of the 
Church that a reformation was needed, but he 
maintained that the proposal of the Puritans would 
tend to break the Church in pieces ; " to take away 
all prayer for the dead is not paring off abuses hut 
cutting to the quick."' 

The epitaph which he wrote for liis own tomb- 
atone is the clearest evidence of the value he set 
upon the practice. It concluded with the words -. 
■' Do thou, render, pray for rest and a happy rcEur- 
reetion in Christ for Herbert Thomdike."- 

Two illustrations from the non-jurora will aiitfice. 

The pious Bishop Ken, whose last will and Bl 
testament witnessed to his adherence to Catholic 
truth "M it stands distinguished from all Papal and 
Puritan innovations," has left us amongst his prayers 
a form which he composod and used in behalf of 



250 Should Prayers for the Dead b 



those who were " in the flesh or sleeping in Christ." ' 
Fucthermore, in a letter written iu 1677, on the 
death of a valued friend, he concludes with the 
prayer, " and may his soul rest in peace,"^ 

Dean Hickea when asked by a correspondent for 
the explanation of his views in consequence of some 
apparent contrariety between the doctrines which 
he was genoraUy supposed to hold, and what he had 
i^xpressed in his recommendations to the Ducltess of 
Ormond on the education of a daughter, asserts that 
he had been guilty of no inconsistency, but was as 
zealous as ever in support of the practice of " pmy- 
ing for the dead who depart in the faith and fear of 
God, and in the peace of the Church."^ 

John Wesley was equally decided, and when it 
was alleged aa a serious charge against him that he 
liad adopted the practice in his daily devotions, he 
maintained it<s legality, and explained to his accusers 
tiie grounds upon which he had formed hia convic- 
tion that it was perfectly justifiable, viz., "The 
earliest antiquity, and the Church of Eng- 

^ "To lector rHquiem ci et beatAm in CLristo rasorreiitioQern, 
precare." — Brstt, Hisaertalioti, appejuled lo Liivrgiei. p. 42G. 

* "CiyuH aniniB requiescat in pace." 

» Letter from Bey. J. M— n to Dr. Gaoi'eo Hickea, and Dr. 
Hicliea'sitBwer.-Analo-C&tti. Libr., iii. 171, 1S3. 



'■0 Lavlngtim 



c. 55. 



more generally adopted or not f 251 



" I have Bishop 
, , , . Hebor. 
the habit 



This r.akna of quotations' we cannot close betterthan 
by recoi-ding the opinion of two of the most esteemed 
men of this century, — Reginald Heber and John 
Keble. They did not hesitate to give their matured 
judgment, based on an attentive consideration of the 
whole subject, in favour of the usage. 
accordingly," Heber writes, "been myself 
for some years of recommending on some occasions, 
as after receiving the Sacrament, my lost friends by 
mime to God's goodness and compassion, through 
His Sod, as what can do tbem no hann, and may, 
and I hope will be of service to them," ^ But even 
though he appears to have had a settled convicdon, 
we are hardly surprised to find that with that 
modesty and aelf-depreciation which ho characterised 
him, the possibility of his being mistaken led him, at 
the sane time that he offered his petitions for the 

' it would be very euy largely to suppiunient tlie list by 
enlmcts from A rclibinbopB UnsliBr, Leail, Juon, Wake, end Shai- 
'lon, or BiibopR Korbea, Jeremy Taylor, Patrick, Gunniug. Small- 
ridge, and Bull ; or blatorlaas, luoh aa Jerenif Collier ; or laymen, 
iu«h u Ilobort Nelson, or Dr, Johnson ; or in our own times, Mr. 
TennyiOD. 

Again, in the JfUrmyia Anj/licana, there is n vmt collection of 
monumental IsKriptiom illustrative of the prectice an It prevailed 
bvlwaen IM7 ami 1TS2, iind ilia greatly snppleineiitBiI and Lrnught 
down to oar own llmei in Appendix xi. a! Ur. F. G. Lce'a work. 

* IHari'i of a Lady qf (iaalitf, p. 196. ThU reference is taken 
tram Dr. P. U. Lee, but wa well remember readinft the paiMRt at 



252 Should Prayers for the Dead be 



dead, to ask forgiveness for himself, if unknowingly 
he had not prayed in accordance with God's will. 

Wliile to one in bereavement Keble sends a form 
of prayer which he acknowledged to have used for 
years with far greater comfort than he deserved ; — 
"Remember thy servants and handmaidens which 

have departed hence in the Lord, especially 

and all others to whom our remembrance is due ; 
give them eternal rest and peace in Thy heavenly 
kingdom, and to us such a measure of communion 
with them as Thou knowest to be best for us. And 
bring us all to serve Thee in Thine eternal kingdom 
when Thou wilt and as Thou wUt, only without 
shame or sin. Forgive my presumption and accept 
my prayers, as Thou didst the prayers of Thine 
ancient Church, through Jeeus Christ our Lord."^ 
°- The conclusion from a fuU consideration of the 
foregoing ailments is, that the practice of praying 
for the faithful dead was universally adopted in 
primitive times ; and though, as we have seen, for 
wise reasons it was allowed to drop almost entirely 
out of our public worship, yet such a state of things 
cannot possibly be regarded as permanent. 

The restoration of the primitive usage to its 
proper place in the Prayer-Book, though surrounded 

' Ldlers of Spiritual Counsel, p. 40, 



more generally adopted or not ? 253 

with dttliculties, which past experience forbidB us to 
ignore, is yet an object to which men may look for- 
ward hopefully, and wliile striving to attain to it 
have no misgivings that they are acting in a s]>irit 
of tme loyalty to the Church. 

For their guidance in their private devotions they 
have the example of a long line of men, eminent 
alike for learning and piety, to encourage them, 
as well as the decisions of the Ecclesiastical 
Courts' to establish the perfect legitimacy of the 
practice. 

Whatever doubts then may be felt touching the 
advisability at present of giving to the practice of 
praying for the dead a fuller recognition in public,' 



Pray lor the aoul of J. Woolfrej. 
'It is a holy bdcI wholesome thouglit to pray Ibr the liend.' 
2 Haco. xli. S6. 
— wu " coDtniy to the Articles, Canons nnd Constitutioni. u l>i 
the doctrine ind discipline or tb< Church of England." 
Tb* de^ion of Sir Herhert Jeuner Fust wm m follo*« ;— 
" t vn o[ opinion that the oSoncs imputed by the uticlei hu 
not been BUsUlned ; that no antbority or cnnDn hna b«en pointed 
out by which the practice of priyiosforthediuul liiis been eipremly 
prohibited; Bod I aui accordingly of opiulun lliat if the uticlea 
wore proTBd, the facte would notiabjecttbe party to eccleilaitioat 
oentnre, as far ■> regirrlH the illei^lty of the inscription on thp 
lombatone." 

iwing prayer is used - 



254 Adoption of Prayers for the Dead, 

we feel perfectly justified, with the countenance of 
so many honoured names, in adopting it in private, 
with the conviction, moreover, that in so doing we 
are by no means reviving something which had ever 
been absolutely dropt, but are rather continuing that 
for which there is unbroken testimony from the 
beginning down to our own time ; and we have 
little doubt that those who accustom themselves to 
pray for departed friends, will find the pains of 
bereavement lessened, and the bond of union be- 
tween the Church on earth and the Church in 
Paradise more tightly drawn. 

the example of tbeir steadfastness in ITiy faith and obedience to 
Thy holy commandments : that at the day of the general resurrec- 
tion we and all they which are of the mystical body of Thy Son, 
may be set on His right hand," etc. 

The Committee of Bishops, at the last Eevision in 1662, accepted 
these words, but when they were laid before Convocation, those 
at present in use, "and we also bless Thy holy name," etc., were 
substituted for them. 

For a full account of the successive editions of the Prayer Book, 
the Articles, and the Homilies in reference to this subject, the 
reader is referred to the Church Quarterly Review for April 1880. 



SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTEK. 

B. 

3|0 tt latDful or Heritable to practice ftibocatfoti 
of ©ainw in an? form or not ? 

WHEN we turn from Prayers for the Dead to 
the practice of Invocation, all is changed. 
Those who desire to be guided by Vincentian prin- 
ciples, find that the very arguments which establish 
Catholicity in the one case, disprove it in the otlier. 

There are, it is true, examples of appeals to the Tlie three- 
fold testi- 
dead for prayers and intercessions on the monuments mony to 

ixL the Catacombs, but none have yet been brought insufficient 

to the light in inscriptions bearing a date. It is, of its catho^ 

course, quite possible that the antiquity of the ^^*^* 

instances adduced may be as great as that of some 

which were used to illustrate prayers for the dead, 

but we have no proof of it, and those investigators. 



256 Is any invocation of Saints 

who have the strongest claims to be heard, have 
determined otherwise. No argument, therefore, 
based upon the opposite theory, can expect to meet 
with anything more than very partial assent. 

The testimony of the Fathers is wholly insufficient 
to establish the practice. Out of the entire number 
of those who wrote during the first four centuries, 
only four can be said to have used or expressed an 
unreserved approval of Invocation. 

The Liturgies, Litanies, and Services which have 
always reflected more or less the prevalent beliefs, 
lend no countenance to it, till long after^ the time 
to which we look back as primitive. 

Maintaining then as we do so great a regard for 
antiquity, we find it quite impossible to sympathise 
with those who desire to introduce Invocations into 
the Forms of public worship. 

There can be little question that the Invocation 
not con™^ of Saints, which the twenty-second Article describes 
demnatory u ^^ ^ y^^^ thing fondly invented," was that form 

kind of which was accompanied with worship : it is art^ued, 
inyocation. ^ jt -^ o f 

therefore, that a prayer addressed to them without 
worship is permissible. Much, no doubt, ma}' be 

i The firet introduction was in the time of Peter Fullo, tlie 
Eutychian Bishop. But the first recognition by the Church was 
not till the episcopate of Gregory the Great, 590-604 a.d. 



eiiker lawful or desirable f 257 



Bftid in lavonr of "oblique prayer" or "pious apo- 
strophes of the dead ; " in themselves they may b« 
not only harmless, but actually beneficial ; men's 
faith in the Communion of the Saints may be quick- 
ened thereby, and their religious fervour increased ; 
but Catholic antiquity offers little support to their 
use, and the great Anglican divines show few signs 
in their writings of having adopted tliem. There 
are, it is true, some men of eminence since the 
Keformation who have not hesitated to approve of 
invocation, where it could be clearly distinguished 
from the Roman form, but they are so few that their 
names may be counted on the fingers. Reformers,' opiniotiB 
such as Luther and Erasmus and Bucer, expressed Retormera 
themselves as not opposed to the practice, within 
certain limitations, Bramhall, in his answer to the Brnmhaii 
Epistle of M. de la Mllleti^rc, shows that he was 
prepared to accept some kind of invocation as a 
help to devotion, but not as necessary. '■ If," he 
writes, " your Invocation of Saints were not snch as 
it is, to request of them patronage and protection, 
spiritual graces and celestial joys, by their prayers 
and by their merits ; . . . yet it is not necessary, for 
two reasons : first, no i^aint doth luve us so well as 

> Cr. FOBbB. CtmnderalioMt MmUtliic. toI. li. pp. 267, 389, 



:i 



258 Is any invocation of Saints 

Christ ; no Saint hath given us such assurance of 
his love, or done eo much for us as Christ ; no Saint 
is so billing or able to help us as Christ : and 
secondly, we have no command from God to invo- 
cate them."' 
'• Thomdike is not unfrequently claimed as an ad- 
vocate, but on wholly insuiEcient grounds. He 
distinguishes three forms. The first ia a prayer that 
God will grant certain blessings by and through the 
merits and intercessions of His saints. The second 
is an appeal to the saints in the same terms as to 
Christ : " we beseech thee to hear us." The third, 
when exactly the same blessings, spiritual or tem- 
poral, are sought from them, as all Christians seek 
from God. 

Of these he says, "the iirst kind seems to me 
utterly agreeable with Christianity/'^ and from this 
avowal he is claimed as a supporter of invocation ; 
but very little consideration will show that what 
he advocates is not an appeal to the saints at all, 
but only a making mention of their intercessions, 
and a prayer that they may avail for the desired 
object, a course which the conclusions arrived at 
above' naturally prompt us to adopt. 

' Bbsiceai.i.'s Work3, vol. i. 57. 

> Works, vol, iv. Part ii. p. 770 ; Aadci-CBth. Library. 



either lawful or desirable f 259 



We can bring forward no other divines of note 
in the 17 th and 18th centuries ; but if we were to 
extend the list bo aa to embrace men of an inferior 
position, and if we were to come down to our own 
generation, in which there are unquestionably advo- 
cates of no mean authorit}', the whole combined 
testimony would be of far less weight than that 
which we appealed to in support of a recognition 
of prayers for the dead in posI^Ee formation 
times. 

And before we bring this investigation to a close, tonuii 
we would express even more strongly than we did 
at the outset our firm conviction that the Vincen- 
tian Canon offers the only safe anchorage in such 
troublous times of doubt and controversy as the 
present. Once drift away from primitive antiquity, 
from the avowed principles of the great Fathers and 
Doctors of the Church, and it is impossible to say 
where the tide may carry us. 

It matters not that developments ol doctrine have 
gained the adherence of holy and pious men : or 
that devotional usages, unknown to the Christiana 
of Primitive times, have attained importance in 
the eyee of those who have been led to adopt 
them; if the Catholicity wliich belonged to undivided 
Christendom is to be established against all objectors, 



26o Invocation of Saints. 



if its revival is to be marked by that unity and 
consistency of purpose, which alone can command 
success, individual sacrifices must be made for the 
common good of the Church ; and the most promi- 
nent among them, as it seems to us, is the practice 
of appealing to the dead in prayer 



THE END. 



TABLE OF FA THERS, COUNCILS', AND OTHER 

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO, WITH 

THEIR RESPECTIVE DATES. 



Aerius, 


• 


• 


. Flourished about 


. A.D. 360 


Ambrose, • 


a 


• 


. Died . 


. 397 


Apostolic Constitutions, 


• 


• 


. Written before 


. 326 


AiXdObins, . 


• 


• 


. Flourished about 


. 300 


Athanasius, 


. 




. Di^ . 


. 373 


Augastine, 


• 


• 


• «, • « 


. 430 


Barrow, , . . 


t 1 


> 


• ft • . 


. 1677 


Basil, 


> 


* 


»f • 


. 379 


Beveridge, 


1 


1 


» ff • 


. 1708 


Bramhall, t . • • 


' « 


■ 


' ft • • • 


. 1663 


Bull, .... 


I 


> i 


r ,, . • 


. 1710 


Oassian, .... 


. 


« 


,, . . I 


. 448 


Celsus, . « , ' 


• 


• 


Flourished ahout , 


. 230 


Ohrysologos, 


( 


1 


Died . 


. 451 


Oiirysostom, 


» 


• 


»» • • • 


. 407 


Clemens Alexandrinus, . 


1 • 


ff 


»> • • • 


. 218 


Clemens Romanus, . 


r • 


« 


>» • • - 


. 100 


Clementines, . . 


• 


V 


WriUen brfore . 


. 325 


Cosin, .... 


> • 


1 


, Died . 


. 1672 


Council of Bracara or Braga, . 


t 


Held . 


. 561 


„ Carthage, 


• 


• 


»» • • • 


. 419 



262 Table of Fathers, Councils, etc. 


Ck>uncil of Chalcedon, . . . Held . . . A.D. 451 


,, Constantinople, 


f « 


y y 






. 381 


„ EphesuS) . 










. 431 


„ Florence, . . < 










. 1439 


„ Nicsea, . 










. 325 


,, Trent, 










. 1545-1563 


Cyprian, .... 




. Died 






. 258 


Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, 










. 386 


„ „ Alexandria, 










. 444 


EpiphaniuB, 










. 403 


Ephraem Syrcs, 










. 379 


Eusebius, 










. 338 


Fabricius, . • • 










. 1736 


Faustus, . • . • . 










. 490 


Flavian, . . • 










. 450 


Fullo, Peter, . 










. 488 


Gelasius, .... 










. 496 


Gregory the Great, . 










. 604 


„ of Nazianzum, 










. 389 


,, of Nyssa, 










396 


Hickes, .... 










. 1715 


Hooker, .... 










. 1600 


Ignatius, .... 










. 107 


Irenseus, .... 










. 202 


Isidore of Seville, 










. 633 


Jerome, .... 










. 420 


Leo the Great, . 










. 461 


Mabillon, .... 










. 1707 



Table of Fathers^ Councils y etc. 263 



Macarios, . 

Maimonides, 

Optatos of Milevi, . 

Origen, 

Peter Lombard, 

Rufinos, . 

Taylor, Jeremy, 

Tertullian, 

Theodore the Interpreter, 

Theodoret, 

Thomdike, 

Uaher, 

Vincentioa, . . 

Waterland, 



Dkd . 



»> 



nourished 
Died . 



>» 



99 



»» 



»> 



Flourished 
Duid . 






A.D. 391 

. 1205 

. 370 

. 254 

. 1164 

. 410 

. 1667 

. 218 

. 390 

. 456 

. 1672 

. 1655 

, 1740 



PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE EXPLAINED OR QUOTED 
IN THE PRECEDING PAGES. 









rAOK 








rAOK 


Deater. xvi. 10, 16, . . 59 


1 Corinth, xiii. 12, . . 215-216 


xxi.8.. 






60 


XV. 29, 




. . 7S 


1 Kings viiL 39, 






213 


XV. 61, 






42 


2 Kings xlx. 34, 






144 


2 Corinth, v. 10, 






45 


xxii. 18, 20, . 






213 


xii 2-4, 






d& 


Psalms vi. 5, 






143 


Ephesians i. 20, 21, . 






n 


cix.10. 






155 


iL12, 






77 


Proverbs ad. 7, . 






123 


Philipp. i. 23, 






142 


Eccles. ix. 10, 






44 


iii. 20, 21, 






S18 


xi.3, . 






43 


1 Thess. iv. 13, 






13S 


Isaiah Ixiii. 16, 1«>, 






214 


iv. 15. 






41 


Ixiv. 4, 






70 


2 Timothy i. 16, 17, 1 


18, 




73 


Jerem. xxxiv. 4-5, 






90 


i. 18, 






73 


S. Matthew ▼. 17, 






65 


ii. 12, 






225 


vi.2, . 






60 


iv. 19, 






78 


xii. 31, 32, 






67 


Hebrews xi. 39, 40, 






46,222 


xvi. 18, 






10 


S. James v. 16, 






51 


xix. 27, 28, 






225 


1 S. Peter it 1, 






131 


xxi 22, 






68 


iii. 18, 19, 






. 33,47 


xxvi. 24, 






139 


1 S. John iii. 2, 






217 


xxviii. 20, 






244 


8. Jude iii. 18, 






8-15 


S. Mark ill 29, 






71 


Revelation v. 6-8, 






164 


8. Luke xvi 25, 






230 


vi. 9, 10, 11 


^t 




226-248 


xxii. 31, 






51 


vi.9, 10, . 






155 


S. John ix. 4, 






45 


vill, 






48 


xvi. 13, 






10 


vii 14, 15, 






227 


Romans ii. 16, 






181 


viii. 3, 4, . 






155 


viii. 26, 






52 


X. 6, . 






38 


XV. 4, 






230 


xxi. 1, 






226 


1 Corinth, i «, 






76 


xxi, 27, 






39 



GENERAL INDEX. ^H 


Am«. .piuph tUMOYMwl at, oa, is. 


BuUflovigioii, teatlmuo7orOileBn.lBI. ^^H 


Admit, the Baconfl, H. VxaXt Wbw! oii. 


ofJuiUnUutyi.m. ^^H 


M. 


of jMtB Chrtit, a26, W4. ^^H 




_ _ of a. John, !S«, MT. ^^H 






d«d,lB3,S«. 




gvldiiniHi of, lo ba diatrunWd, 131. 


Buveridfie on the value of the Fathen. ^^^H 


Hookor'i sMImita of, las. 


^^^H 


Altnnu, Ttmattay, 170. 


BIcalllm IM. ^^H 


Asdrawts, devotioni of, S17. 


Bncm or Bnge, CoDncQ of, lU. ^^^^H 


Aiwello hymn, tb«,m, ins. 






^^^H 


loiT.U. 


DD invwatlon at ninti, 157. ^^^H 


ApocloUeilCoanitiitiaiui, 131. 


Bucer. Uxrtin, »0. ^^H 


An>dliu,lW. 


Dull on the FerosptlDnaoIadlHubodieil ^^^H 


AlM«rt«,Sl,8J. 


^^^H 


Artliilas, tha iliL of Edwird vi., 1». 


BtirliUSdtvlce, BliLhcn>GoelnaDtlu!,aiS. ^^^H 


ArUds nii. not nMBnarilj condem- 






UAHD!«,the.n,3;. ^^H 


Alooemeot, JowlsH mewu of ptoirarlng, 


Cisihin'BitoryofthohannltHeni, 14T. ^^^H 


». 


Castua the martyi. IN. ^^^^| 




CatacomlB. the o^gm of, SI. ^^^H 


lee. 






^^H 




d.t«diucription>ui,SS ^^H 


80, S7. 




— forth* ai«a.T3. 


aacnuneDtal tuchlhg tn, 86, 8T. ^^^H 


OBMiiBjd by a. ChrysMtoiD 


ImUmaDy of, hov med, Sit. ^^^^| 


indKplphan]u.,T3. 




BUTOW. on pnTm fot the d«.d, Slg, 




gpiUph 00 lonib of, 34S. 




BMtlldsl. 181. 


tiani, 14S. ^^^H 


BMtlfto Ttilon of Odd not yet itulued 




brthe8iUi.t».Uio, aiB. 


EiRBDcipation Aat. S. ^^^H 


t««iiDoiiy or a. AoffHtin*. 3M, 




of 8. Cyptiiin, aM. 




orTertnlllii..,m. 




_ _J 


^^^^^1 



266 



General Index, 



Church, methods of ascertaining the 
voice of, 10. 

Church Militant Prayer, 241. 

Christ's coming the goal of the Chris- 
tian, 48. 

S. Paul's expectation of, 49. 

Chroniclers of events, the Fathers as, 

ir. 

Chwolson, Dr., on Crimean tombstones, 

63. 
Clementine Constitutions, 107. 
Columbaria, 82. 

Commemoration of souls, Jewish, 57. 
Commonitoriun of Vincentius, 7, 15, 16. 
Communion of Saints, 12, IS. 
the belief in, when first expressed 

in a public formulary, IS. 
Constable on Hades, 31, 32. 
Constantius, 177. 
Cornelius, the fWend of S. Cyprian, 162, 

168. 
Cosin on the Burial Service, 242, 243, 

247. 
Council of Bracara, 148. 

Carthage, the third, 195. 

Chalcedon, 6, 99, 170. 

Constantinople, 12, 13. 

Ephesus, 13. 

Florence, 219. 

Nicaea, 6, 12. 

Trent, 41, 219. 

Councils, General, guided by Vincentian 

principles, 12. 
Granmer on the value of the Fathers, 22. 
Creeds, the construction of, 9. 

illustrations from, 11. 

Latin, 13. 

of Irenseus, TertuUian, C^'prian, 

the Aquileian, 18. 

Greek, 13. 

of Eusebius, Arius, Epiphanius, 

Cyril, etc., 13. 



Db Rossi on inscriptions of the Cata- 
combs, 81, 91. 



Development of interpretation different 
fh)m development of doctrine, 15. 

Dioscurus before the Council of Chalce- 
don, 99. 

Dispensation, the old and new, connec- 
tion between, 65. 

Dives and Lazarus, the parable of, 26- 
29, 230, 231. 

Dollinger on baptism for the dead, 75, 
76. 

Drake on the symbolism of the paintings 
in the Catacombs, 88. 

Dress of Virgins, the, by S. Cyprian, 164. 



Edward vi., the First Prayer-Book of, 

195. 

the Second Prayer-Book of, 196. 

Ephesus, Council of, tee Councils. 

the Seven Sleepers of, 37. 

Epiphanius' answer to Aerius, 133, 186, 

244. 
Epitaphs in the Catacombs, 91. 

to Libera, 91. 

to Fortunatus Eumenes, 9S. 

to Zosima, 98. 

to Fortunata, 93. 

to Cervonia Silvana, 98. 

to Hilaris, 94. 

to Kalameros, 94. 

to Bolosa, 94. 

to Heraclea Homa, 94. 

to Venus, 95. 

to Timothea, 95. 

to Hygeia, 95. 

to Irensea, 95. 

to Chresime Victoria, 96. 

to Marius Vitellianus, 96. 

to Januarius and Agapotns, 200. 

to Basilla, 200. 

to Dionysius, 201. 

to Augends, 201. 

to Vlncentia, 202. 

Era of Contracts, 62. 

the Seleucides, 62. 

Eusebius as an Arian, 18. 



^^^^^^ 


General Index. 367 ^^H 


PuuouBui:uac>tiDD.M. 






^^H 


]>l>«in.TB. 


oflheApoalyp«,lS*. ^^H 


PutiofEiiibenJd«,«)- 


of Origan. 168, IM, 160. 187. ^^M 


PUho».»,IMmiU™ 




FtaTUn.™ 


c>t8iuiebias.lSl, 102. ^^^| 


Fldnotm. Hippo. 188, 


of8.CypriAn,lBl. ^^H 


rortj lUKirn, PisagTila od the. ISO. 


DfS.EplinGni.liM. ^^^H 


Folio, Pet«, IW, SM. 


ofaOregoirNuluum. ISfi. ^^^H 


Faml. lettiir of S. Cypriia to the peopte 


otaCTtil, IM. ^^H 


of.ltt. 


— 0f8.auT»M0Bi.lM,lW. ^^H 




of a Ambrose. IH. ^^^H 




of 8. Jerome, laa. 167. ^^H 


aunuL CDmreii*. Uu d«lrtoni of. 




EBldgd bjr ViocoDtto prindplM. It 


of the Co>LocU of ChEloedon. ^^H 


Oaminlna Fuutlnui, lU. 




OniiliiliuVtctor. US. 


— oflheUta.Sl«.lJl. ^^H 


Gibbon DD lbs iggnid or U» Stta 


.^- o(s. Jen.e.<tl,e8yii«). 171 ^^H 


81MP«.,ST. 




QorgoDii, ftmml ontlon on, 177. Wt. 


— d[ the Coptic UtoiDea, 111 ^^^H 




DfS.Oie«on-, 171 ^^H 


Hadb, bf Oamtabli!. 31, 91. 
HiulraraUi HMhunolh. ST. 


ore. ciiu, 171 ^^H 

uT 3. Buu, i;s. ^^^H 


B«Uisn urmboli la tbe CaUcomb*, 81. 


D«ti Stanley on. SI. 


uT a. Junea tbe Lord'e ^^^H 


J, H. PorlMon 83. 






Hero tbe Heimlt, itory of, 14T. 14a. 


bued. 1!9. ^^^H 




lot indlvidiula, aai. ^^^1 

ibrthewboleChurch. 931,33]. ^^^M 




iDvoatloD llMnt from FrllulUle ^^^H 




Lltmslee. ISB, a;U. ^^H 




Id tbe Cet«»nibs. IM, 133. Ut, ^^^H 


BjDuia Andent wiU M.-lem, qngt* 




tkmfnm, M, 






of BuUtl. MO. ^^^H 




ori>to>.i»ln>.mi. ^^H 




orAugeniti,aiL ^^^H 


I(utliu, tbe raanyidom of. IST, liB. 


DtVlnoeDtU, «». ^^^H 






■ntut Bnpllain, *Uence .bout. In Holy 


or Origen. t;£. 1»7. IIIT. ^^H 


BoriplQTe, Si, «. 


of & Bull. 179. 17e. ini. ^^H 






St. 


1«7. ^^^H 




of a Q«vi o* »)W». 17*. ^^^H 




1711, IBD. IH, ^^^H 



268 



General Index. 



Invocatioii of Saints, testimony to, of 

S. Ephraem, 180, 181, 190, 197. 
of 8. Chrysostom, 182, 188, 

184, 100, 191, 197. 

of 8. Ambrose, 184, 192, 197. 

of 8. Augustine, 186, 193, 196, 

197. 
Invocation of Saints, of different kinds, 

194. 

what its value depends on, 233. 

not Catholic, 232, 235. 

is t&B practice of, desirable in any 

form? 254. 

opinions of the Reformers on, 257. 

Bramhall on, 257. 

Thomdike on, 25a 

Jamnites, the, 54. 
Jesus Christ, the Godhead of, 11. 
Jewel on the value of the Fatiiers, 23. 
Jewish services, 56. 

prayers for the dead in divers 

countries, 57. 

means of atonement, 59. 

tombstones and inscriptions, 61. 

Judas Maccabeus, 54, 56. 
Julian the Emperor, 205. 
Justin Martyr a Millennarian, 18. 

Kaddish, the, 56. 
Eeble on Prayers for the Dead, 249. 
Ken, Bishop, on Prayers for the Dead, 249. 
Knowledge, the extent of, possessed by 

the Saints, 204. 

S. Gregory Nazianzen on, 205. 

8. Ambrose on, 206. 

S. Jerome on, 207. 

S. Augustine on, 207-211. 

as taught in Scripture, 212. 

in the Historical Books, 218, 214. 

in the Prophetical Books, 215. 

in the New Testament, 215. 

• in 8. Paul's writings, 215-217. 

in 8. John's writings, 2fl7, 218. 

obtained by the Saints in different 

ways, 208, 209. 
the, of Angels, 209. 



Laza&us, etymology of the name, 27. 

the Parable of, 26-29, 230, 231. 

Jrenseus on, 26. 

8. Chrysostom on, 27. 

8. Cyril on, 27. 

8. Augustine on, 27, 28. 

Tertullian on, 26, 27. 

8. Ambrose on, 27. 

Leo, the letter of the Bishops to, 107. 
Lightfoot on "the world to come," 

68, 69. 
Liturgical Service, the primal form of, 

103. 
traces of, in Apostolica writings. 

103. 
Liturgies, Primitive, divided into 

groups, 104. 
the uncertainty of the text, 

105. 
the arguments upon which 

their date is approximately deter- 
mined, 105. 
examples of interpolations in, 

106, 107. 

the variety of, 238. 

on Prayers for the Dead, 108. 

the meaning and objects of 

the petitions, 115, 116. 
Liturgy of 8. James (the Syriac), on 

prayers for the pardon of sins of infir- 

mil^, 118. 
Liturgies, the Jacobite, 119. 
Liturgy of 8. John the Evangelist, 119. 

of 8. Peter, 119. 

of S. James the Less, 120. 

of S. Dionysius, 120. 

of Theodore the Interpreter, 121. 

of 8. Leo, 121. 

of 8. Gelasius, 122. 

of 8. Gregory, 122. 

Liturgy, future revision of the, 5, 245. 
traces of prayers for the dead still 

.left in, 243. 
Liturgy of 8. James, 108, 109. 

the Clementine, 109. 

of 8. Mark, 110. 



General Index. 



269 



Lltorgy ofa CjiU, III. 



at 83. Adcoa aaA. Uulii, 114. 

Lmnbr, Dr., on ths evly form of Ui> 
Wutam Cieed, 13, 13. 



H*Diu tlu> Duirtyr, I7«. 


230, Bl, 


kluvhi, P^n. Bl, 


FiradlM, a P.nl angbt up InW, 




P«kM, J. H., ™ U.« CslMomta. 




pQgcs an the ButlHo Vlilon, ItS. 



HartTT, FeUr, MD. 
Hir^Tdom or PotVDlBltB, 101 
Hutjn, ap«iil hononn uilgnsd b 



OD tie eomlnj of Cirin u 

Chriitlui'i hope, 4», 
Voqjoran os Pn^en for the Deul 

Oiunoii, Pnrer of, 9tt 



Old Cktboliei on bapUini foi the dad, 

TS, 79. 
Onoaiphonu, pimycn for, 7T. 78. 

Pm] wrota, 78. 
OrigoD u B Plutnnlit uid Allegoriit, 18. 

Fads, iir, BiplitlD«d. lu dlven mys, H. 

exnmplea in the dtuomba, SI. 

Fagui IniiriptloDi uid ejuboli I0 (he 

CslAcomba. S3. 
Dean axaAei os, Bl. 



P.P.N..W) 
Peter nf Aleinndria, aoe. 
Pollock. " Out of the Body," SR 
Prayei-Books of Edwmd «t., 196, 198, 
Pilfers far the Dud, SO. 

t«tlioonif of the euly Pilhera, H8. 

of the ieW of the Caunell 

nfCbilcedoD, on, SB, eS, 



-Thunulika,S«a. 
-Ken. MS. 



:i 



27c General Index. 1 


PnreiB for the Dud, kcoHIUib U tlie 


Pureitory. ■ splrltial, tIbw. on by t 




Lnthenn divine, ue. 


unfamwn before the Oeptlvlty, 63. 








Fnyan for the Dead, iBihllerrcCDgni- 


by the, 4. 






on grounde of otUIty, aso. 


Bobber Synod of Bptaenu, ITO. 






no Dbjectlon In them in private, 


SiciuuiVT:ki. teaching [a (Us Cata- 




combs, 8B, BT. 


Prayen for the jhuiion of eini of homsn 


BaEramenttfy of 8. Grtgwy. 118, M». 


tnflmity, «! Prirailiie Litnrgiei. 


ofS-LBD,lSl. 


viBWa of the early Fithera on. 


of 8, Gelasioi, IM. 


ita. 


Sierillclal and non-aaciiflcial fayext, 


of a. Jerome, 1S3. 




ofTheodoret, 123. 


Saint Ambrose on the splrltt in prison. 






Prayew for tlioae who die in wiUol »ln, 


Angnatine on ipoeial Mwsrda of 




martyrdom, IBS. 


liie eisniplo from Uifl ApMiTpba 


on B. Matt. III. S1-S3, 72. 


coniiflered, 128, IM. 




the Apostolical Conitltutlona on, 


Baall, funeral oration on, 104, 181. 


130. 


on tbe Forty Martyra, 170. 


B. Cyril on, 131. 


ChrysMtom on baptiam for the 


Aerine on, \M. 


dead. 7S. 




on Onoalphoms, 711. 


tione on, 136. 


. on the sin of delsylOE bap. 


B. AngaitliiB on, m. 


tiam. 147. 


a Chryeoatora on, ISO, U4, J47, 


Epfphanlua on baptlim for the 


B. Cyprian on, US. 










Jerome, censured by S. Angoattne, 






BlBlani. IT. 


on Ihe Bffeots ot ChrirtTe ds- 


u crediWe Bnponeate of doctrine, 


auent into Hadea, 43. 


IB, 70. 




errora of, how tU Injurloua in their 


Advent, 81. Si. 




Saiuta, mem oty retained by. after death. 


the welglit of tlie aatboiity ot, 


!20.390. 


recogniaed in the Prayer-Bnok, Uie 


SanctlOcation, Hooker on, 40. 




F.bCPon,tO. 


and the writlngB of Uio Rerormen, 


Conndl of Trent on, 41, 




. — - a Macarlus on, 4i. 


PlDteriua, 170, 


— -Mason. 41, 











General Index. 



Dr., Huiiu] for 
T, 89. 
a at jBwiah insciip' 



-oiiij(«5.88. 

— on tbe aj^bolUm of Ibe bltd nitli 

Teiftit of Scriptiuv mlaap; 

Thief DpoD lbs Croi 



HOOT of. 178. 



SUlD. 



ti ptajen toi 



Siphii, tJie, W). 
Bleep or tbeiDQl. the, W. 
eUpIatoD on the BeaUflc ^bEod, 223. 
Stitf OD tbs apiritos] capadtlu of a 

dlKtnbnlied BDOl, S4, BII. 
Stulef. Hum, on bsptiBm for Uie 

dtul, 71, Til. 



Taylor, Jeremj, an Uia Catholic Church, 
OQ Onedphonii, SO. 



iLisTTDs' dispole with a Jerome, 
eeDtlan Canon explained, T- 

- objecliuna lo. of Raman CathoUa, 
of ProleetantB, IL 

lenUHDon the value of the Falhen, 
Wealp^T John, on pra^era for Ute dead, 
orth. Binhop, OD baptliui far 
D come Ihe Jewlab meanligof, 



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