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Full text of "After me cometh a builder: the recollections of Ralph Palmer Merritt / oral history transcript / 1956"

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C-D YO^'f 


University of California Berkeley 




Completed under the *uBploa 

of th 
Regional Cultural History Project 

nd th 
Oral History Prograa 

Univraifcy of California 

Lrkely and Los Angolas 


This Manuscript is haraby oada available fop research 
purposes only* All literary rights in tha manuscript, 
including tho right to publication, ara reserved to tha 
university Library of tha aniraraity of Calif oral* at 
Loa Angalaa* Ho part of tha manuscript aaay ba quotad 
for publication without tha writtan paraiaaion of tha 
Univaraity Librarian of tha Univaraity of California 
at Loa Angalas* 

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Ralph Palmer Merrltt, native son, waa the f Irat 
University of California Controller and later served 
with distinction aa a member of the Board of Hegents. 
What he has to relate about the early history of the 
University and it* growth forsw a signal part of his 
recollections* In addition, hia several significant 
contributions to the economic dovlopsnt of California 
are presented in detail* hat follows is a graphic 
picture of the aotivities of a sum who was dedicated 
to the welfare of hia atate and its citisens. 

Mr. Nerritt's manuscript represents the first 
joint effort between the two Oral History Projects of 
the university of California* The Regional Cultural 
History Project at the University of California, Berkeley* 
waa responsible for launching and completing the inter* 
views which fora the text* Mrs. Corrine S, Oilb, then 
Head of the r-erkeley project, conducted the interviews 
during the suaner and fall nonths of 1956, being joined 
on one occasion by Professor Walton Bean of the Department 
of History* The Regional Cultural History Project waa 
likewise responsible for the transcription and completion 
of the edited rough draft of the manuscript. 

' ." -3#' 

Because of the interviewee's nove to Los Angeles, 
the Oral History Project of the University of California 
st Los Angeles, undertook the final editing and preparation 
of the finished typad manuscript in 1961* After due 
consultation with the interviewee, the following Manuscript 
was approved* 

At the explicit request of the interviewee, the Manu 
script waa edited in narrative form* DP* Doyoe B* Nunia, 
Jr., Head, Office of Oral History at UCLA, undertook the 
final editing of the Manuscript in cooperation with the 



This ia ny personal story narrated at the request of 
the University of California as part of its Oral History 
. roject. I do this in the hope that I ay pay tribute to 
my family and to my aaaooiatea and friend a who were SOBS of 
the important people ia the unique historical events that 
have taken plaoe ia the active years of ay life. 

Z have had the good fortune to live ia aa era when many 
Ben and women, with whoa I have had the privilege of being 
associated, have Bade public contributions which have had a 
great iapact upon the social , educational, political and 
economic upbuilding of California. I have seen many of 
these things happen* la certain ways X participated in SOBS 
of them. Z have known the motives and high ideals of public 
service of these men and women that brought valued and 
lasting results to this State into being* As I look back on 
many episodes of By life* my part in them seems to be a 
series of somewhat unrelated adventures characterised by a 
certain crusading spirit which was inherited from a pioneer 
ing family* The real interrelationship lies in an inner 
dedication to publio service. 

Z was a younger man who had the opportunity of many 
close friendships with those older than I, many of whose 
stories have never been fully told* To them Z may be able 
to add grateful tribute* 

Zn this active era of my life, which covers the past 
fifty years, there have been forward movements among our 
people, created and channeled through public and civic 
agencies which exist today ia expanding spheres of publio 
service because of the people and events I hope to describe. 
The understanding of the origin of some of these forces Bay 
now be of historical value ia the records of the University 
of California, and therefore this story is told* 

My participation ia certain unique civilian phases of 
two great wars in which Z was given administrative responsi 
bilities is here recorded. Za my lifetime I have had some 
part in the great changes in agricultural life, from the 
vast expanses of the oattle ranches where I grew up to the 
prosperous small farms and cooperative marketing agencies of 
today. The greatly enlarged educational services of the 

University of California, which coaaenced during this 
period, have been the outcome of the unselfish services of 
Regent*, Alumni and Faculty, who deserve fall appreciation 
for the lasting benefits of these services that now distinguish 
our institutions of higher education in California* 

X Ilk* to remeaber the lino* of Kipling, "After e 
coaeth a builder. Tell hia X too have known." 

X like to think that this story of ay life is a slender 
thread upon which I would hope to string the memories of the 
unselfish public service* of dedicated people, and of the 
foundations laid by then upon which are now built soae of 
the important concepts of our California way of life. 

Halph Pelaer Wsrrltt 



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j" . > . - . = * 


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Paaily Background . . . 1 

Boyhood ........... *. 3 

Henry Miller ............ * 3 

University of California, Preahaan, 1902 ....... 5 

Cowpunching ....... 5 

Travel . . . . 6 

University of California, 190^-1907* A student 1 * View 7 

Sone Outstanding Teachers ............... 8 

The Agricultural School , , 9 

Student Activities . . . 11 

President Wheeler secretary, 1907*1910 ....... 15 

Graduate Manager . . . . 17 

President Wheeler and the Faculty, Hegents, Legislature 19 

FreshBan Robert 0. Sproul ............... 21 

Vice President and Manager for Miller-Lux, 1911*1913 * 22 

University Controller, 1913*1917 25 

Relations with Legislature . . . . . . . 26 

Board of Control ................... 31 

Expansion of Buildings at Berkeley .......... 33 

War Symptoms 34 

Food Administrator for California, World War I . . . . 36 

1919* Robert Gordon iproul Acting Comptroller . . 36 


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jenjeinin Ida Wheeler Scholar Leader 

Builder University i resident ............. 36 

< -, $ t * 

Administrative Beard ................. 42 

The So-Jailed Faculty Revolt . . . . . ....... . 1*5 

Creation of Southern Branch Later U.C.L.A* ...... 49 

My Resignation aa Comptroller, 1920 .......... $2 

Hoover for President, 1920 .............. 53 

President Barrows of the University .......... 5 

Dr. W. W. Caopbell aa President ............ 59 

Appointed Regent by Governor Hiehardaon ........ 61 

Choosing U.C*LA Site ................ 6k 

Giannini Foundation .................. 6? 

Composition of Board of Regenta ............ 69 

Guy C Sari ..................*.. 70 

John Francis Neylan .................. 71 

Rudolph Taussig .................... 72 


Oarrett HeSnerney ................... 72 

Janes K. Moffitt .................* 73 

John A. Britton .................... 73 

Phillip 2 Bowles ................... 

George I* Coehran ................... 74 

willian K. Crocker .................. 74 

' .'- : * *f ' >CV*'' , B 

dward Diokaon ........ ..... ....... 75 

John Sahelaan ..................... 75 

Mortiaer Fleishhacker ................. 76 

Arthur W. Foater . . . . . ....... . ...... 76 

Phoebe A. Hearst . ..... ............. 77 

Cheater Howell ........ ..... ....... 77 


, . 

' i"lO^-, 


Charlaa 3* Wheeler ................... ?d 

Jharlea A* Rum .................... 79 

Warren Olney, Jr. ................... 79 

Chooaing Robert 0, Sproul aa President ......... 60 

Property Mana&eaent and Public duaineaa, 1920 . . . . . 62 

California Oevolopoent Asaociation 
(Ohaaber or Commerce) . 

Statewide Water Committee ............... 66 

Legialative Raapportionaant .............. 91 

Ragional Council*! Creating Unity . ..... 96 

director, U.S. Ohaabar of GowMrea, 1925*1928 . . . . . 96 

Agricultural Joaniaaion Undar Coolidga ........ 100 

Hoovar va* Wallaoa Agricultural Plana ......... 101 

Oapartaaant of Jomaroa and tha Bay Bridga ....... 10k 

War Finance Corporation and a Criaia 

in tha Prioa of Shap ................. 108 

Formation of California Hioa Orowara Aaaociation . . . 112 

Sun Maid Haiain Orowara ................ 116 

Oath of Praaidant Harding ............... 125 

Finding Market a for Haiaina tha Orient ........ 129 

Aa Aaariaan Japanaaa Orlaia .............. 131 

Froblema of tha Agricultural Surplua .......... 133 

Economic Analyaia of Cooperative Marketing ....... 136 

Oonolualon and Appreciation .............. 137 

Partial Index 138 

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fly father was Charles Z* Merrltt and my mother Slim 
Stoddard Palaer Merritt. The Merritt faaily case to Hew 
Bagland in CJolonial days froa franc*. My father's mother 
was a Carter of the branch that settled in Deerfield, 
Massachusetts where the Carter house, built shortly alter 
the Deerfield massacre, still stands as a public building* 
The Palaer faaily cane to 3tonington, Connecticut, and the 
men of that faaily were lawyers or sailing men. I like the 
story of ay great grandfather's brother, Nathaniel Palaer, 
who was captain of his own snail ship, the "Hero", which 
was 47 feet in length and 44 tons. At the age of 21 in 
1820 Captain Hats Palmer discovered the Antarctic Continent, 
long known as Palaer Land. With a fleet of small whaling 
ships he drove off the Russians in 1621. 

The Palmer ancestry goes back to William the Conqueror. 
One of the most notable of ay aether *s ancesters was Roger 
Sherman, the only man known to have been a signer of the 
Association of Colonies of 177* i the Declaration of lads* 
pendenoe, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution 
of the United States. The Shermans, the Days, the Stoddards 
and the Palmers of Colonial and Revolutionary times were all 
interrelated families. Such faaily traditions have been ay 
wonderful inheritance. 

-i ' 

Ky father, Charles Z. Merritt, was born in Illinois* 
His father was an Abolitionist and a minister. On both 
sides all aea in the faaily, except my father, for generations 
were Tale graduates. Be came to California and attended the 
University of California with the class of 1878. My mother 
also attended the University | neither of them graduated. 

father eaae to California looking for * place to live 
and for education. The little town of Hosaaond in Illinois 
where he was born had long since ceased to be a place of any 
interest to a young man of ambitions* 

Soon after his arrival my father became an employee of 
the great landowning cattle firm of Miller and Lux and 
remained as an employee and member of the firm until his 
death in 1919. 

-+ ' 

B began a* a bookkeeper! later bo beoame aeoretary of 
the various corporations that were owned by filler aad Lax, 
including landowning corporations and canal and irrigation 
ooapaniea. He was the source of all corporation records. 
Mr. Miller once said to me, "Your father keep* many books 
and he knows many things. Z keep all my books on one piece 
of butcher paper but I know nore than your father does." 

My father was devoutly religious until the day of his 
death. He was one of the Boat intensely and beautifully 
Christian Ben that I ever knew. He was a Congregational! st, 
as was my aother. They attended the first Congregational 
Church in Oakland froa the time that I can reaember. He 
was one of the founders and a trustee of the Pad He School 
of Religion in Berkeley. He contributed to many of the 
finer things In the religious and civic life of Oakland. 

So, through those years my father, a deeply religious 
man, lived In the midst of what was probably the roughest 
type of life of that day. Killer & Lux owned tea million 
acres of cattle ranches scattered all the way from the 
northern part of Kevada, the eastern part of Oregon, down 
into California as far as Bakerafleld. Among those mom 
who were the employees of Miller & Lux, cow men, sheep men, 
men of all types and descriptions, my father was held la 
sueh affection and reverence that even today Z meet men 
about my age who carry the name of either Charles Herritt 
or their first names are Merritt, and all named for my 
father, out of the respect his follow employees of Miller * 
Lux had for him in those day a. 

Henry Miller's attitude toward my father's religion was 
one of complete indifference. Be was willing that my father 
should be religious if he cared to be, but without any 
response on Fir. Miller * a part, except once in awhile he 
would swear most vigorously la order to show his complete 
independence of such ideas. 

I was brought up in this religious faoily, attending 
Sunday School and church until Z wont from Oaklenfl to 
Berkeley to live during my college course* Z them drifted 
away from church affiliations, but have always retained the 
basic religious teachings of my family and, out of many 
bitter experiences, have salvaged a code of spiritual values 
by which to live with peace of mind. 

The background of my family is one of people who had 
modest aeans as it was understood in those days, but deep 
interest in cultural and religious values in personal and 
public life. 

, & 



Z waa bora in 1885 in Bio Vista, California, a small 
town on the bank of the Sacramento River. The place may 
not be important, for the town in which I was bora burned 
to tha ground the next day I Of course it baa been rebuilt. 
Whan X was five years old y father bought a nice horn* on 
Telegraph Avenue in Oakland. Z grew up in Oakland, going 
to the public aohoola. In our neighborhood ware two famlliea 
of coualna, the Marshalls and Whitmans. Heat door to ua 
alao lived tha Horrows, who had two small and lovely girls. 
One of tha first remembrances 1 have aa a boy wham wa first 
aoved into the house where we lived for a long tie on 
Telegraph Avenue, was climbing tha fence to look into tha 
yard of the Morrow family where they had beautiful carriage 
horses. As I climbed up there oat Sunday to look over the 
fence, one of the horses wheeled and kicked Mr, Morrow is 
the head and he died almost instantly* Z thought it was my 
duty, becauoe of the faot that Z had ssan this, to climb 
down off the fence and go to the back door to tell Mrs. 
Morrow that her huaband was in the yard terribly hurt. 

Of the two girls in 'hat family, one was a year younger 
than 1 and the other a year younger than that* Tha older 
of the two girls. Yarina. was my particular charge through 
those days and nince that time. Wo started to school 
together in the first grade. Z carried her books. I've 
carried her books ever since. She is now Mrs. Merritt, has 
been for these past fifty years, a devoted wife and companion. 
She is the nether of our three children: Yarlna. who lives 
with us in Los Angeles { Katharine, who is Mrs* Sdward Dean 
Price of Modesto and mother of three; and Ralph Palmer, Jr., 
who is Assistant City Manager of Redlands, California, 
married and father of Ralph P. ZZZ, now agod fourteen years. 

Z attended high sohool in Oakland where Z debated, 
played football and took an astiva part in school affairs. 
I entered the University of California in 1902. 

i'.s- J . - ' 3 , . &.>.'* .' 

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From the time that I was born Z was sort of an adopted 
member of the Henry Killer family. Z still have the little 
silver knife, fork and spoon which Mrs. Miller gave to mo 
at the time ![ was born. 

from the time I waa ten years old I used to spend all 
my time, on every vacation, on the Miller-Lux ranches. In 
the story of Henry Miller written by Treadwell entitled the 
Cattle King, it says, *Kr* Miller was often accompanied, 
riding in his buggy , by a little boy who held the horses** 
I was that little 

sgy o 

e boy* 

X oame up through that great organisation with tremendous 
respect and love for this remarkable German who had oome to 
California in 1649, landed from a sailing ship with no money* 
Ilia real name was not Henry Killer but Heinrioh Kreiaig. He 
was given five dollars by the master of the sailing ship on 
which he arrived to start him in life* X knew him from the 
time I was a avail boy until the day of his death when his 
ten million sores of land were appraised at over forty 
million dollars. 

people have said that Henry Miller acquired all 
this power sad wealth by ruthless methods* Actually, he 
quired his wealth and power by methods which in the day 
when they were acquired were perfectly legal and perfectly 
acceptable in public practice* It's true that in eubsequent 
days the public point of view has often changed, but the 
days of the acquisition of that great property were days in 
which the things that were done were morally accepted and 

As long as X knew Miller X mover felt competent to be 
critical or have any difference of opinion with Henry Killer, 
except on one occasion* That was when X decided X would 
return to the University of California after being out 
following my freshman year* X happened to see him one day 
when I, with the cowboys of Miller it Lux, were rounding up 
some oattle. Be drove up in a buggy *o watch. X rode over 
to where he was sad got off my horse and said to him. "Mr. 
Miller, I'm going to leave Miller* Lax lor awhile. I'm 
going back to the University of California* * 

He looked at ae and he said, M X brings you up from a 
boy and you bo's a good man* Sow you wants to go to college 
and bo's an educated damn fool." from that time on, for a 
period of years, he never spoke to me. Be would see me, 
but he would never even recognise me* X never heard from 
him until, as X will later relate, I'd been married and was 
in Europe on my honeymoon, there I reeelved a oable from 
Henry fuller which said, "You oome home. X need you.* 
Because of ny devotion to him X went home to become General 
Manager and vice President of the great organisation of 
Miller & Lux. 


To go baok to this entering of th* University, Z 
started Inauspicioualy in 1902. Z registered in the College 
of Agriculture, which was natural, because Z had cone out of 
Miller & Lux. But in my first year Z didn't like collage. 
Z barely Bade my grades* Z had no particular friends. Z 
joined a fraternity and didn't see* to quite fit in there. 
So at the end of my freahaan year Z left college and went 
back to Miller & Lux hoping to be a cowpuncher. 


My father aad Mother wisely let a* have my way. But 
when Z arrived at the Poso Ranch on the San Joaquin River Z 
found no warm welcome from the Superintendent or the ranch 
hands, all of whoa Z had known for years. Zt was one thing 
to be a boss* son who came to the ranch te spend vacations 
in play or riding in the buggy all day from ranch to ranch 
with the great Henry Miller* Zt was quite something else to 
go to work with ranch hands, eating in the cook house and 
sleeping in the bunk house. Z was looked on as a spy who 
night carry tales to ny father, and there were many tales to 
be carried. 80 Z was given Jobs to break the heart of a college 
boy and send him home. 

The first morning when Z turned out to work at the 
regular hour of 5* 30 the superintendent said that there was 
a great scourge of grasshoppers eating up the fields of 
alfalfa. oinoe I had been to college he said Z was to go 
out and catch grasshoppers* Z was stunned but made up my 
mind not to quit. This was not being a cowboy but Z had to 
vindicate going to college. 

From the junk pile behind the blacksmith shop Z con 
structed a machine to drive through the fields to catch 
grasshoppers. Zt worked. My machine, now built on scientific 
linos, is still manufactured and used, Z an told, quite 
widely in the middlewest. Instead of being laughed at in my 

C*ay sob, people came from miles around to watch "Miller's 
Grasshopper xtenainator . For 16 hours work a day 1 was 
paid the going wage of $35 a month. 

The grasshopper plague passed and finally Z earned my 
way to becoming a cowpuncher and bronc rider. Long eattle 
drives, shipping cattle by the train! oad from Nevada or the 

Mexican border to San Francisco and riding the caboose at 
the end of a freight train, or on top of the cattle oars by 
day and night over aountaina and deserts, or breaking wild 
horse o in the dust and sweat of a corral for the highest 
paid to say of the cowhands, 345 a stonth, was a great 

I have been accused of having been in jail in every 
cowtown in California and there is some truth in the story* 
I was young, strong* weighed 185 pounds, sad never had had 
a drink of liquor. When our Killer & Lux oow outfit was 
near a town the nen who were not on night guard would go to 
town, get drunk and start trouble* Miller Mem were loyal to 
each other, rough, hard drinking and a hard fighting lot* 
Trouble was their pastime, tights for the sheer fun of 
fighting with the town boys wore always the end of perfect 
days. I was usually along, always sober, and in the middlt 
of the fight, with all the Miller boys taking on all comers. 
It was only natural that the local poaoe of floor would look 
for a tall leader in the fight. Z was usually that leader, 
sad, being the only sober one, would then spend the night 
in the local lockup. It was all part of the fun of the free 
life of that era* In that school of hard work and rough 
play an inaature college boy beosaa * MM. 


One night in the spring of 190* a aesoage osas for at 
at the Santa Rita Ranch. I was sitting in a cowboy poker 
gaae. My father had ooae froa San Francisco to the Ranch 
and wanted to see as* Whoa I walked into the Superintendent's 
house ay father greeted ae affectionately and asked if I 
remembered what day it was* It was ay twenty- first birthday! 
We walked out under the stars along the bank of the 3an 
Joaquin River. In ay high-heeled boots and cowboy outfit ay 
father for the first tias saw his oowpuncher son. He said 
he had eoste to say that ay mother and he wanted to give ae 
a birthday present of a thousand dollars provided I would 
agree to ^oin in their plan. The plan was that I was to 
use this money to travel anywhere I wanted to go on this 
continent and that : . should add to this gift any ooney I 
night have saved. I told hin I already had saved a thousand 
dollars. He never asked ae how a 3^2 * month cowpunoher had 
so auoh money. It was poker winnings. However, that 
particular experience of poker playing education later oa 
of soae value to as. 

I went home to visit my mother who was an invalid at the 
tiae, and started out on ay travels. I went down to Arizona 

to the Grand Canyon and got * job working 1ft a mine, I 
later got another Job carrying the equipment for a photo 
grapher who was taking pie turns of tfit Grand Canyon and, 
particularly, picture* of somebody standing on all of the 
high cliffs that surround the Canyon, 3oao of the picture* 
are still being shown in the hotels down there* Z happened 
to have been the one who stood on the edge of nothing to get 
further aoney to go on with the trip. 

' ' -fctf <fr*^pJ t&'s 

Troa there I wont down into the Southern States. I 
went froa the 3outh up into Washington* Z found a cousin, 
Dr. Theodore Palaer, who later beoaae the Chief of the 
Biological Survey of the United states and one of the great 
authorities on ornithology. Z learned to know Washington by 
walking the streets of Washington with him sad being told 
of all the historical spots sad buildings. Then Z went to 
Hew York and in the sane way became acquainted with Bow Tork. 
Z visited relatives in Hew fraglsnd and then, in August, it 
suddenly occurred to Be that ay father sad Bother had boon 
getting BO ready to go back to the University. Aad Z was 
ready. They were a wonderful father and othor. 

UKzrasm OF QALZVORXXA, 1904-1907 



do in August, 1904, with the class of 1907* I rsenterod 
the University as a sophoaore with an entirely now point of 
view, and with an entirely new anticipation of what the 
University Bight give as to equip BS to participate in later 

I entered the College of AST i culture and graduated 
there. vC'hey were very kind in giving BO freedoa in By 
studies, because in those days the academic regulations 
were less strict than now* I had a roving academic schedule 
in which 1 took very little agriculture, except what Z 
ohose. Z attended the history courses of Professor Henry 
Horse Stephens end English leotures of Professor Charles 
Hills Gayley. Z took law eourses under wllliaa Gary Jones* 
Z becaBe acquainted with *aay of the finest man who were 
teaching in the University of California at that tiae. One 
to whoa Z SB particularly grateful is Professor Howison for, 
strangely enough, I got into soae of his courses in 
philosophy. And of course ay particular relationships wort 
with the Beans of the College of Agriculture, Trofescor 
Hilgarii and later Ircfeseor Wickson. 



In lookine back over my t0achors I remember BOO* greet 
men. It* s difficult for ae to try to describe Emory Morse 
Stephens because he was a unique personality and I was 
deeply devoted to hio. Be was abort, stocky, hie hair 
slightly silvered, with a full beard that came down over hi* 
collar and neektie* He was eternally sacking Owl cigars. 
He wore a flat broad-briamed black hat and suite of the eaoe 
color and cut nade by a tailor In Boston. With his paunehy 
and peculiar build he was aaall in stature, but when he 
began to speak he became a man of great stature, tremendously 
impressive ss a lecturer by his vast knowledge, his flow ef 
s great vocabulary and the power of his speech. Be asked 
e to live vdth him in hie apartments above the Faculty Club, 
and I lived there after I graduated from college* He had 
tremendous interest in students. One night every week he 
used to gather a group of as together; in my senior year in 
college Jack Fletcher, Garden Edward a Julius Klein and I 
were among the members of his Santo Club. He would read 
Dante aloud in the original. Be furnished eaoh of us with 
the translation. Then he would explain the whole story of 
Dante's Inferno sad the historical and other background 
material* Be was a rare kind of teacher. Be made history 
alive. Ho one will ever forget his reading of Kipling's 

In history, instead of confining himself to the French 
Revolution, which wss his particular field, he developed 
the idea of a course which would cover all history of mankind 
froo tho very beginning down to the present time* He launched 
this course with the feeling that maybe s few people might 
come. It became the most popular eourse in college. 

Hie greatest interest besides the University wss the 
Bohemian Club and the Bohemian drove. Every summer was 
apont in his oaop "She Isle of Aves* at the drove. His 
fellow camp members were Regents SSJP! and Tauaaig, two 
professors, Armes sad Teggart, and myself* I was made a 
faculty member of the dub on graduation from the University, 
the youngest member of the Club, whose real job it was to go 
to the Grove and make beds in the oatap, wait on guests, and 
play ainor parts in the Grove plays* One of the greatest 
of the Grove plays was written by Professor Stephens, 
St. Patrick at Sara". In that camp I met many eminent mem 
who ware guosts of ttr. Stephens for an encampment or who 
were seabera of the Club. I had the honor of being the 
orator at tho Burial of Care on the 20th anniversary of my 
own membership. After his death we built the student Union 
and fittingly named it for Henry forae Stephens. 


Charles Hills Gayley was a tall, brilliant, efferves 
cent, forceful, charming man who was not only dynamic but 
was to some extent domineering in a gentle kind of way. He 
was entirely different from Stephens. 

As a lecturer, students flocked to hi*. His lectures 
on the Bible and on Great Books were tremendously popular, 
and all of us who wont to those lectures gained a great deal 
from thorn. Some of the men who took those courses, even now, 
ttfty years later, still talk about what they learned from 
Charles Mills Gayley. 

Professor William Carey Jones was entirely different 
from either Professor Stephens or Professor Gayley. He was 
a quiet little aan. He had the characteristics of an academic 
lawyer. He knew probably as much of the law of Blaokstone 
as any man. He was a quiet and effective administrator. He 
built up our School of Law* He was responsible for the 
standards that were set when Boalt Hall was opened* The 
men who graduated from there, like the present Chief Justice 
of the United States and others, 
of what was learned under the 


?s, go back in their appreciation 
direction of William Carey Jones. 


In the Agricultural College, the Dean, at the time X 
entered, was Professor Hilgard, who was a cultured, gentle 
person. Ha was a scientist who made great contributions to 
the scientific side of agriculture. He couldn't have 
harnessed a horse to save his life, but at the same time hi 
knew the technical and scientific background of the problems 
of agriculture with that great skill and understanding that 
came from his German scholarship. He did much to create 
the foundations of the present School of Agriculture. After 
his death I was trustee of hie estate left to his daughters 
and the University. 

There were not many students who took agriculture at 
that time. 'The reason was simple. Professor Hilgard 
wouldn't have known how to harness a horse, sad that was 
indicative of the lack of practicality. : was never 
alienated by this lack of practicality. I was very much 
interested in certain phases of agriculture. Not in the 
technical and scientific side, but I found during the course 
of my college career that there was one particular man, or 
one particular group of men, from whom I gained a great deal, 
and that was the group in Agricultural Engineering, headed 
by Blwood Mead. Klwood Mead came to the University of 
California from Wisconsin. He'd had a groat experience in 

, r 


water law and in the construction of the earlier water 
projects. I had such an admiration for hia and learned ao 
much from hia about agricultural engineering and the building 
of dans, distribution of water, the problem* of that kind, 
that in later years when Herbert Hoover beeaae Secretary of 
Coaaeroe and the Great Colorado Hiver Project waa being 
undertaken, I reooaaended Dr. Klwood Mead ft a the head of the 
Reclamation Service. Be became the head of that service 
during the tiae of the construction of the Hoover Daa, and 
later when a lake developed behind the daa, and Dr. Klwood 
Mead had died, Z aaked rtr. Hoover to naae the lake Mead Lake. 
This name ia now known throughout the world, to ooaaeaorate 
a great teacher, public servant and prophet in preserving 
human values through wise legal aad engineering planning for 
the public and private use of our water resources. 

When Z was in college, the Davis Jmra was oreated. A* 
students, we wore all aware that the Davis *ara was being 
undertaken ia 1905. But it was not so organised or so 
developed as to have any impact on the student life daring 
the tiae that Z was aa undergraduate* 

The general feeling at the tias was that it was an 
atteapt to get an opportunity for those who wanted to have 
the practical side of agriculture, where you could learn 
which ead of the horsecollar to pat op. It was a new idea. 

>::**'. ; 

Z was not attracted to the experiment. Z didn't feel 
that Z wanted particularly to go, because Z had been brought 
up in that practical life. What Z was interested ia was the 
legal aad economic aids of the water laws upon which Cali 
fornia at that tiae was dependent. The Hiparian laws and 
laws of appropriation were ia conflict with eaoh other. The 
result was only lawsuits ia which various great lawyers 
collected large fees fron those who had to use the water or 
to get the rights of others. 

The battle between the appropriated water rights and 
the Xiparian water rights was a continuing oas that enriched 
only the lawyers. The tiae of aany courts was taken up with 
the great water cases. Z felt that we needed in California 
a water law of beneficial use under which there could be aa 
ad mini at ration of water, together with the creation of 
stable productivity of land, that would be Just aad which 
would do away with controversies and penait a sound develop* 
nent of the present economic conditions under which we now 
live. This was taught ae by 31wood Head and Z passed it oa 
to others. 




Lot mo go baek now, if X may* to the University where 
X was getting this new start in 1904* X enjoyed from that 
time on the associations X had in my own fraternity life* 

X asm* out to Berkeley to live at the fraternity Bouse 
from my home in Oakland. Hy fraternity warn Alpha Dolt* Phi. 
At that time, however, it waa not Alpha Delta Fhi| it waa ft 
local fraternity petitioning for a Chapter of the old conser 
vative national fraternity of Alpha Delta Phi, for which the 
charter waa granted in 1908. However, the men who were in 
that original group later beeane members of Alpha Dolt*. Phi. 
President wheeler was a distinguished member from Brown 
University and the inspiration of their chapter. 

The spring of 1906 is memorable to me because a group 
of my classmates earns and suggested that X should run for 
the office of President of the Associated Students* There 
was nothing that could compare to the political skill of 
our college generation when they vented to eleet somebody 
to be president of the A.S.0,0. There were card systems and 
everything that we have today in local polities, and mere* 
X seem to have had a fairly good organisation because X 
waa elected prealdent of the student body in 1906* Hy 
primary backers were the non- fraternity men* Hy opponent 
in the election was a member of one of the old-line 
fraternities and a men of social prominence in the University. 
X wee only an ax-oowpuncher. X have always been a van who* a 
had many ideas and have felt the urge to carry them out. 
When you do that you become what is called a leader, end aa 
a leader you're either successful or you're unsuccessful. 
You only are a successful leader if over the long pull you 
have enough support to aoeomplish the thing* you start eat 
to do. 

The first thing that happened when X became student 
body president was entirely outside the realm of the 
particular problem* of the academic world tmoause it was Just 
two weeks after X was elected president that at five o'clock 
in the morning of April 16, 1906, we were all shaken out of 
bed and tumbled into the street at the time of the San 
Francisco earthquake and fire* Later in that day the 
Prealdent of the University, Dr. Benjamin Xde Vheeler, was 
appointed to direct the assembling of food and goods necessary 
for the relief of all the people of San Francisco. Hi* 
headquarters were quite naturally at the University. It was 
the one place that had a telephone. There were none left in 
Ban Francisco. 

X had not had a great deal of contact with President 
Wheeler but I had cone to know him la my campaign for 
presidency of the student body* So, early in toe afternoon 
of April 18, I received a call from the President** of flee. 
When I arrived there he informed a* that because I was 
president of the student body he was asking me to become the 
contact nan between him and the man in Sea Francisco who. 
behind the fire lines beyond Tan Hess Avenue, was directing 
relief there. That man was Mr* Henry Crocker. X was to 
carry messages back and forth between President Wheeler and 
Henry Crocker* There were no telephones. There was no way 
to get back and forth except to cross the Bay, so they 
assigned a ferry boat to me. X probably am the only Kan who 
ever had a ferry boat for his own personal use and for as 
long as he wanted, with a orew and a captain* And so, as 
a boy in my senior year in college, X started that afternoon 
to make my first trip across San Francisco Bay in my own 
ferry boat, standing in the pilot house with the captain 
trying to find a place where we could dock in burning 8am 

Wo landed about dark, sad from the foot of Mission 
Street X started to walk through the fire lines, the fallen 
and falling buildings and streets filled with rubble. X 
was stopped at Fifth and Mission by a soldier who stuck a 
bayonet into me because X had trespassed upon the property 
of the United States Mint without seeing it. X was struck 
by falling brick but managed to survive and got through the 
lines* I got to Hr. Crocker's house. He gave mo my orders, 
a large volume of papers for President Wheeler* Mrs* Crocker 
fed me* I brought the papers back to Berkeley to President 
Wheeler and continued during the following week to make these 
trips with little sleep and continually walking through the 
fire lines and the destroyed city of Sam Francisco. 

As the President of the Student Body, that is a privilege 
and an honor that 1 hope will never come to anyone else* In 
our elections there was no faculty participation whatsoever. 
Xt was entirely a piece of student polities cirried out on 
a Tammany Rail basis* 

> .*o*y i 

The A.S.U.C. had been organised, as I recall, about the 
me that President Wheeler earns to the University in 1699* 

y . 

Many of then were ay own friend s Ralph fisher, Jack Eshelman 
and others. 

X entered in the fall of 1906 on my duties as President 
of the Student Body. That was a period of tremendous 

activity aaong the students, because up to that time the 
student body of the University 

fcy, although having a name, had 

had very little to do with any natters other than to vote t 
elections. But it aeemed to me, and to the executive coo- 
ait tee of the A.3.U.C. that we brought together at that tine* 
with an alumni member who later became eo well known as * 
regent of the University. Mr. James K. Moffitt, that fdmply 
voting in elections wasn't enough. We voted at elections 
for president f we voted also for graduate Manager, awl the 
graduate manager ran the football games and other athletic 

But football games had a very small Attendance* Inter 
collegiate games were held in San Francisco between the 
University of California and Stanford. Other games were 
held on the Berkeley Campus with athletic clubs, but the 
Univeraity of California had no regular football inter 
collegiate competition other than football games with 
Stanford. Baseball games and track meets also were held with 
Stanford. We had track teams that went Bast and did valiantly 
there; we had some very outstanding; athletes at that time at 
the University. But for the most part* the entire system of 
A.<3.U.C. athletics was in the hands of the graduate manager, 
and that was the sise of A.S.U.C. 

In my year am President of the Student Body, X thought 
that one of the first things that should bo done was to have 
an adequate football field on the campus , so we built 
California Field. There we played our first Intercollegiate 
Hugby Game. The next was to own our own college paper, 
and that the Daily California should become the property of 
the A.S.U.C. The Daily California^ and all the other 
pub lioat ions on the campus at that time were privately owned 
by a group of fraternities. My own fraternity was a 
minority stockholder in the California corporation* By 
holding the proxy of my own fraternity and getting the proxy 
of a group of other fraternities, Z proceeded to hold a 
stockholders meeting, which had not seen held for a long 
time. The way the California^ was run was that somebody was 
elected editor for honor and somebody was elected business 
manager to make the money. 

The manager made money. It was considerable money in 
those days, about 3100 a month. Wouldn't be considered too 
auch for this day. At the stockholders meeting which I 
called, of the Daily Calif ornian, I persuaded the fraternities 
to turn over their stock to the Associated Students, and so 
the Daily Calif ornian became the A.S.U.C. publication. 

. itiVf 

In the same way, in order to create student participa 
tion in the various interests of the University, I proposed 
the idea that we would have an A.S.U.C. card* There had 
been one before) it cost a dollar. All that you could do 
with the card up to that time had been to vote for the 

president of the A.S.U.C. or the graduate aanager. But I 
proposed a card that would coat five dollars, and for that 
five dollars the student got a subscription to the Bally 
Califoraian and also had the right to attend all football 
gams except the gas* with Stanford. The oard became 
immensely popular. It's the foundation on which the present 
A.G.U.C. ia built. At that tiae there were no other college 
teaas that regularly played with the University of California* 
That began two years later. The A.S.U.C. card oaae to MSA 
the right to attend all ganes that took place on the campus, 
which at that tiae wan mostly with athletic clubs, but latr 
other college games. 

Also, in that year, we undertook to develop the 
activities of student aelf-governaent. President Wheeler 
had introduced self-go vernaont earlier, and there had been 
coanittees that had aet; there had been historic oases that 
had been heard, bat there was no recognised, continuous 
activity of the A.S.U.C. to govern student affairs and 
student conduct. President Wheeler at ay request referred 
all scatters of student discipline to the coamttee of the 
Associated Students* 

Student eel f-governaent was alaost wrecked by a aost 
hoaorous incident that occurred when an athlete of the 
University, sitting In the baok of a drowsy classroom of the 
second floor of North Hall near an open window, spit out of 
the window a hug* gob of tobacco juice which happened to 
land on the bald head of a professor of German who was 
walking on the path Just under the window. The professor 
angrily burst into the elassrooa with the tobacco juice 
running down into his eyes and demanded to know who spit on 
hia. He was not only bald but very angry and looked 
terribly funny* There was no question as to who was guilty 
because there was Just one asm chewing tobacco sad he was 
sitting near the window. TBS case was iaaediately referred 
by the President to the University to the Ooaaittee on 
Student Affairs. And our problem was to determine what to 
do by way of punishment that would be proper, dignified yet 
just. It might seem to be a humorous Incident but student 
self-government hung in the balance for a matter of days 
until we could find some answer. In order to get the best 
advice, I asked Professor O'Neill, who at that tiae was the 
student a* friend and counselor, to tell ae what he thought 
would be a proper sentence to pass on the culprit. We all 
sat as the executive conalttee of the student body and 
Professor O'Neill sat with us and aoleanly proposed that the 
punishment to be given in this case was that the professor 
should be put up in the window and be permitted three spits 
on the head of the aan who had spit on him, who was to stand 
below and wait for it* 



** ' "W - -vr- ; 


The result of that was that there was so much laughter 
and fun about this incident that it was very difficult to 
bring back student self-government to a point where people 
regarded it oeriously. But we managed to live down this 
incident and etudcnt self-government became a reality* I*oa 
there it has developed in a wonderful way H one of the very 
important phases of University of California student life. 


In 190? there came my Coaaenoeasttt. On the aornlng of 
Commencement X received a call from President Wheeler's 
office asking ae to cone sad see hia in California Hall* Z 
went to his of flee in ay cap and gown, shaking, because I 
knew that ay own academic standing was none too good* As 
I went into the i resident's office he was wearing his 
gorgeous aoadetaio robes* He paid no attention to ae for 
awhile ss he went on signing diplomas. Then he looked up 
sad he said, "I understand that soaehow the faculty is going 
to perait you to graduate today* 11 Aad X said, "Yes, sir** 
He said, "I think it's aa acadeaie aistake but it seeaa to 
havo BO possibility of recall. 80 it seeas to ae that the 
thing to do is to try to see that you do not leave the 
University without s proper education. I thought possibly 
you would like to eoae into ay office and becoae ay secretary." 
He then looked up with that charaing twinkle in his eye, aad 
I knew that he bad done his best to asks ae as unhappy as 
possible, but that he really was showing his personal 
affection and a feeling of real desire that I should go on 
in the University as part of his office* 

Be asked ae what Z had intended to do sad X told hia 
that I was going back with Miller & Lux where X had coae 
froa. He said. "I see. You're going to be a cowboy again 
for the rest of your life. X thought you'd like to. come ia 

re nd at least have an education with which itjffts*' 
possible to be soaetETni more than a cowboy. lea can 

live at the Faculty Club with Professor Henry Horse Stephens. 
Between Stephens aad ae you should get the education you 
have missed," 

Of course, under that kind of persuasion there was 

nothing to do but tell him that I would be his secretary aad 

ask him when I should ooae. Re said the next morning at 
nine o'clock. 

So X became the Secretary to Benjamin Xde Wheeler* 


tty duties as secretary to the President were to Bake 
all appointments for hia, read all the mail that came In, 
sort out what I thought the President would want to answer 
or give attention to, sort out what Z thought I could answer 
and sort out what Z thought was irrelevant and pot it la the 
waatebasket, such as, for example, letters froa the Mm who 
wrote to the President of the University trying to persuade 
him that the earth was hollow and had * sum and two Boons 

President Wheeler and I became great friends* He lived 
in his own house on Goenio Avenue* I reaeaber one night 
when I was there working with him on the budget of the 
University to be taken to the Legislature* There oaae a 
liag at the door* It was a stony* rainy night* The 
President went to the door and there stood a Ban who was 
wet as a aan could get ia a great rainatora, without eoat 
or shelter of any kind, holding in his hand a bag, which X 
could see froa where Z was sitting was a money bag* The 
said to President wheeler, "I oaae to you to give yon 

this and ask you to grubstake SOB* good guy*" President 
said, "Won't you coae in?" He said, "Ho, I*a not coming ia. 
Just grubstake SOB* good guy. " < And with that he turned 
and disappeared into the darkness. We aever know who he 
was. President Wheoler oaae in carrying this bag of aoney, 
untied the knot around it, and on the table he poured out 
twenty dollar gold pieces. If you look la the records of 
the University today you'll see "Grubstake Loan Fund." And 
the Grubstake Loan Fund has one condition, as I understand 
it, aad that is, that those who borrow froa it to help 
theaselves through college shall return at SOBS tiae the 
money which they borrow in order to grubstake sons other 
good guy. Good guys were picked oat by the faculty. 

Being secretary to the President of the University at 
that tiae was a treasadeusly great opportunity for it was 
an education of aany kinds. One day X was sitting ia the 
of f ioe trying to attend to ay little work, because the 
President of the University had gone over to San Iraaoisco 
to attend a great reception to be given for Lord Kitchener, 
the great hero, Kitchener of Khartoum. Aad as Z sat looking 
at ay work Z suddenly realised there waa somebody tapping 
at the glass door. Z looked up aad there waa a tall, fine 
looking aan* AS Z went to open the door Z recognised hia 
froa the pictures Z had seen of Kitchener of Khartoua. X 
said to hia, "Would you coae ia?" and he said. *Is the 
President of this University here?* X said, *Lord Kitchener, 
the 1 resident of this University has gone to San Francisco 
to aeet Lord Kitchener." He said, "And so have about a 
thousand other people. Z decided that Z didn't know much 
about this University. I'm interested in Universities and 
I thought Z would Just give out the word that Lord Kitchener 


was ill. X came en a ferryboat to Berkeley and I 'a hare, 
and X want to see the University of California." 

There X was, a boy Just out of college, and there was 
Lord Kitohener. So X said to hia that X was the President 'a 
secretary and would be glad to do what X could and that X 
didn't know what he would like to Me. Ha said, "I'd dust 
like to aee thia University. 11 3o, with this great van, X 
walked around the campus, showed hia the buildings, Us 
finally walked up on the hill where the biff "C" waa and where 
the cyclotron now ia. And we aat up on the hill. And he 
started in to tell ae about the University that he had 
built at Khartoua. He asked if there waa * great problem 
in having woaen in the University. Xt waa his understanding 
that Universities were built for the eduoation of asm. So 
sse woaen walking around the ssapos where there should be 
only aen completely horrified hia. Xt raised sa entirely new 
question of eduoation ia his Bind. 

X spent the entire day with hia. We CABS down sad had 


X explained to him that we didn't have say problea of 
that kind here because coeducation had been a part of the 
University of California since its very beginning. Hobody 
had ever brought the question up. Xt wss nerasl. natural, 
and I thought very happy. Lord Kitchener wss still baffled. 


Xn the period of being the President's secretary, there 
was one thing that aeesed to ae to be very important, sad 
that was that President wheeler, who was s great scholar, a 
great administrator, s nan of great vision about the future 
of the University, should personally know acre students. 
He always greeted thea but had few personal friendships. 

Xn the spring of 1909 there waa a vacancy in the office 
of graduate aanager because the graduate manager of athletics 
had resigned froa his two-year tern. X went to President 

the vacancy of Graduate Manager, X would accept it for s 
year along with being Secretary to the President. He looked 
at ae and asked why that craxy idea had cone into ay head* 
X said to hia that X didn't like to tell hia the answer, but 
if he really wanted to know that X felt the answer was that 
if X became Graduate .Manager and sat there in the office of 


the Oeoretary to the President outaide the President's office, 
every athlete in college would have to come Into that office 
to aee a*. Z weald then have an opportunity to introduce 
every athlete in the college to the ?reaident of the Univer 
sity. 3y this, the President of the Univeraity could call 
every athlete by his first name. And be Mid. "I think it'a 
a wonderful plan* You go and toll then that I'd like to MO 
you become Graduate Manager - 

3o Z waa elected Graduate Kanager. Zt waan't an eaay 
job, because first of all it waa hard work and the salary 
was $100 a month. Compared to present salaries, you can aee 
the changes in conditions that nave occurred since 1909* fy 
aalary was not only limited to $100 * month but Z had to pay 
half of that to ay roommate because he know how to keep books 
and I had no interest in bookkeeping. All the books of the 
A.S.U.C. were kept by the Graduate Manager personally. 

In My graduate manager tons wo won the Rugby football 
Game against Stanford in the fall of 1909 by the score of 
19 to 13. In that game wo had two coaches, both of whoa 
wore without previous experience* They became so excited 
and nervous that I had to take over the coaching responsi 
bility, taking out players and making substitutions during 
the game. It waa a groat team of loyal friend a vhoae 
friendship goes on after all these yoara. Zn the spring of 
1910 we had a moat unfortunate experience in baseball. On 
our trip to play Southern California in Loa Angeles there 
waa misconduct on the part of the coach. I had to fire him 
just before the Stanford aeries. He persuaded some playera 

Stake his part and quit. Vo wont into that Stanford series 
thout our veterans. Ve worn the first game, loot the second, 
but the third game of that aerie a atill stands aa a record 
at the end of the 9th inning the score woo 5 to 3 *rom 
then to the end of the 17th inning neither aide ooored a 
hit or a run. Wo won the game 4 to ? in the l?th. 

That spring I organised the Big Society. She idea 
waa given me by our great track coach Walter Christie* The 
Big C has lived and grown in power through these years. 
It has in it a nemborahip many of the groat man among our 
Alumni who, in various ways, have continued to give unselfiah 
aervioc to California. The men of the Big C have been 
honored by their fellow students and the men of the Big 
have brought great honors to their Univeraity. 

But the point that I had had in mind in becoming 
Graduate Manager was a demonstrated success Bvery athlete 
at one time or another had to come in to sec me. Every 
athlete waa then introduced to the President of the Univeraity. 
Many athletes sat in the President 'a office talking with him 
and the President would call them by their first nanes. And 
ao ho became a moat popular figure among the atudenta of 

the University because be was the great friend and admirer 
and supporter of athletics. 


President vheeler was a very huaan person and his door 
waa always open to everybody in toe faculty who wanted to 
cose in there. 

Be had friends among the faculty, aany of them, tout his 
closest friend in th* faculty was Henry Korse Stephens 
because he had brought ^tephena froa Cornell University, 
from which. President Wheeler had COB*. 

President Wheeler's relationship with the Regents was 
one of great dignity and success. When President Wheeler oaae 
to the University in 13>9 he had asked for and been given 
complete power in the appointment of all professors, coaplete 
aaaageant of the affairs of the University, including its 
business affairs, and he was the sole contact between the 
faculty and the Regent*. In the handling of that contact he 
had a great appreciation for the position of the Hegents as 
the adaiuietratiorj of the trust which was the University of 
California, but also he had * deep appreciation for the 
position of the Faculty. Us administrated that power with 
justice and fineness and understanding. In all ways he was 
a nan who was adadred and looked op to as the ideal leader 
of University affairs. 

He went on occasion up to the Legislature when he was 
invited. Re was never understood by the Legislature and 
tharo was a great coldness cm the part of the Legislature 
toward the University because there wasn't anybody who went 
up to the Legislature who was the kind of person whoa 
legislators understood or with whoa they felt themselves oa 
a basis of equality. 

Swas an aristocrat, a scholar, a aaa who aade people 
s great position in the world* At no time did anyone 
feel that he could call hia by his first nans or do anything 
else than address hia as "President Wheeler,* except Henry 
Mors* Stephens who called hia Benny Ids. He had great 
interest in politics. He was a great personal friend of 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

President Wheeler was a Hoosevelt Progressive* The 
evidence of that was that he was largely the author of the 
platform on which Teddy Roosevelt ran when he was elected 

President of the United State*. One of the things that Z 
had to do ua Secretary to President Wheeler was io take oare 
of the vast correspondence that went on between President 
Wheeler and Theodore Roosevelt, and President Wheeler had 
great influence on Roosevelt. 

one time I remember some letters in our office wore 
not typed as Z had wanted them. President Wheeler had drawn 
a line through a word and had changed the spelling of another 
word, and I said to him, "We'll have it copied," and he said, 
"You look at Theodore Roosevelt *s letters* Svory page there 
is marked up by him* Bo believes, and Z believe, that when 
you dictate a letter and send it to the man without a correc 
tion you may not have read it* So the way to show a man 
that you've read the letter oare fully and that what it says 
is what you mean, is to nark the letter up so that it has on 
it some of your own handwriting." 

President Wheeler brought President Roosevelt oat to 
Berkeley, entertaining him at his house* And Z had the 
privilege at that time of spending a whole day with Theodore 
Kooaevelt and the other guests. Z thought he wan a wonderful 
man. He mad tremendous vitality and tremendous human experi 
ence so that whatever came up in the way of a question to 
be answered, he would usually answer with a story that had 
to do with his days as a oowpunoher or as a soldier, or 
some very humorous incident. Tou had to listen to a story 
to get a "yo*" or "no" on any question* 

President Wheeler was very friendly with the governor* 
of the state, who admired him very much. 

Ho was friendly with Governors Pardee and Gillett. 
Pardee wa* a loyal alumnus of the University. Wheeler was 
not what you might call the kind of person who would stay 
close to politicians. There never wa* a word of criticism 
that Z know of uttered by any governor of California against 
President Wheeler. The President never complained about the 
political control of the State at that tin* because the 
3tate took oare of the University of California. There were 
problems, however. 

Z think that the University of California problem* 
were largely created by the lack of a good approach by the 
University of California itself. The legislators themselves 
had no groat warmth of feeling about the University. The 
Southern Pacific and the other corporations which had 
tremendous power in the Legislature in those days were fully 
conscious of the necessity of maintaining the University 
Una their power was always helpful to the University. nd 
we seldom had difficulty with getting the funds that we 
asked for. 


I don't think there wae any hostility toward the 
University on the ucore of rural v. urban. When, later, 
MI Comptroller of the University I bee use the man who had 
to handle the appropriatlona of the University. I found 
there had boon a great gap between the University and the 
Legislature because there hadn't been anybody who had 
represented the University whom the legislators knew, under 
stood or culled by hi a first nests. I nave always been one 
of those people who usually go by their two names and then 
when people become friendly they drop the last nsjte, which 
usually is very soon* 

My relations with the legislators, happily were cordial, 


personal and on a first MM basis. Before ay service, the 
university was officially represented at the Legislature by 
the Secretary of the Board of Regents, Viator Henderson. 

Mr. Henderson was very loyal to the University of 
California but was not the typo of MSA who was a legislator's 
nan. He was very aosdemio in his attitude, cold, distant, 
and while hi* presentations wore always accurate and clear, 
they created no warmth or interest on the part of say 
legislator* fhoy airaply listened to what was said and asked 
how much money it was and voted for it because they wore told 
to vote for it. 

Regents occasionally went to the Legislature* Bat 
very seldosu There were two or three Regent* who wore active 
but only In the Interest of certain phases of the University. 
One or two In agriculture, like Regent A* V looter* He 
was Chainaan of the Regents Conlttoo on Agriculture. Kr. 
Poster lived in San Rafael, was President of Northwestern 
Railway, sad a man who had a great public standing. But 
the Regents as a group did not feel that they were responsible 
for going to the Legislature aad there was no contact that 
one could aention as being important in that way. 

So, lot's got down to the place whor I completed this 
period of being Secretory to the Presideat and Graduate 


I left the University in 1910. Before I lesve it at 
that point, however, there is one story which had great 
implications that have been mentioned a number of times, and 
I'd like to ake it a matter of record. 

In th* B; vln of 1910, on a rainy Saturday afternoon, 
we were holding a truck aaeU between tha freahaen of :te.iford 
and the freshen of California. If tliera'o anything in the 
world of athletics that* a a little bo -ia^ it'* a freshman 
track r>e0t, If there** anything that's woioe, it 'a on a 
rainy Saturday afternoon. If there's anything still worse, 
it*s u tofBHsml* race, And when the two-alls face on that 
particular afternoon started X saw * tall, blond hoy wearing 
a blue shirt who was to rua two ailes for the University of 
California. Ae the race started on tho old track that lay 
where now la the Life Soles** Boil ding, this tall, blond boy 
lit out like a seared Jaokrabbit and soon was loading the 
entire pack around the traek. Aad 4 a at before the last lap 
0tartd f the heavens opeaed and the raia poured down and the 
boys began splashing will* Banning his last lap, this tall, 
blond boy passed me as I stood on the inside of the tr&ek 
and I raised ay umbrella tad handed it to aim* He took the 
umbrella and van the last lap leading all the rest of the 
runners, carrying the umbrella over his head, sailing a 
golden aaile and with great Joy aane across the finish lias 
and handed the uabrella to as* I said to bia t Freshaan, 
you're going to make a great Calif oroian* :*4 like to ask 
your asee* Se said, *My aasae is Robert Cordon Sproul aad X 
ocae froei the Mission in San Frmnciaco." That began the 
friendship between Bob aproul and ay self that has gone on 
through the years, bat aore of that friendship later* Z 
wanted to tie this story iato this particular period because 
this was the last of my offloial connaotion with the 
University of California as Secretary to the President aad 
Graduate nanager* 


:: fifc.*??* 

I left the Unireity la 19X0. X was a*r*i4 that Kay 
to Varina Korro\, the little girl who had lived next door 
to *e and whose books I had carried in the first grade. 3h* 
had kept in touch with its all the time 1 was away punching 
cows, while sao was aa outstanding student and a leader in 
social and *WCA affaiva in college. We went to Europe, and 
as we were having a wonderful tiae (among other things 
visiting with Professor Stephens aad President Vhaeler who 
were also in Europe at tho tiae), I received this cable froa 
Henry Miller saying, "I need you. Coate hose." 

We returned to Berkeley &ad I went to aan franoiseo to 
the office of lailer & Lux. iix. Miller was never to be 

active again. R* needed help, as he said in his cablegram. 
I found myself within two days thereafter, at the men of 
twenty~nine, elected the Central Manager and Vice President 
of Miller-Lux, largest landowning and cattle organisation 
that thia western country baa ever aoen. The corporation 
at that tine was said to own ten million acres of land. It 
owned over six hundred thousand head ef cattle it owned 
over a ail lion head of sheep | it owned est of three towns 
and aeat packing plants in San Francisco aad smaller towns. 

ny job was to ride over the properties in a little 
automobile, which was a new means of transportation as far 
as ranches were concerned, we g d always traveled 
over the ranches before in horse and boggy. X had to travel 
ovar all the ranches of Miller & Lux from Bakersfield up to 
the San Joaquin Valley and across into Nevada and over into 
Oregon* I organised the cattle drives that brought cattle 
into the big corrals at shipping points and eventually into 
the slaughterhouse in aan Jrancisoo. Miller-Lux ware the 
largest distributors of meats sad meat products in northern 
California. There ware problems of water, feed, moving 
livestock aad msmsglmg nearly a thousand employees. I had 
the responsibility that any man would have who was the head 
of a great organisation of these unique and widespread 
operations carried on by 50 ranch superintendent si with 
canal companies \ towns built by Miller & Lux, like the towns 
of Los Beaos and Gustine in which Miller 4 Lux owned the 
stores, the bank, hotel aad practically every other important 
business building, and moat of the houses t dealing in live 
stock in three states} sad all the related human sad financial 

Thia was a tremendous organisation that had seem created, 
In 1910 it had grown to the point where it waa too unwioldy 
for profit. It had grown from the point where Mr, Killer 'aad 
created this groat empire aad it had reached its great 
height aad now waa nearing its end because a aew economic 
era had acme. 

Hr. Killer had a great interest in people as individuals, 
expressed in his own strange way, but X would illustrate thia 
by telling this little story about NT* Miller. 

A long time before X became General Manager X was riding 
with him in a buggy, going from Gilroy over the Pacheco Pass 
toward Los Banoa* As we came up to the top of the Pass 
where you look down into the Oan Joaquin Valley, ho said, 
*3top the horses. X want to tell you a atory. * Us stopped 
under a tree and as we looked down over the valley he soldi 

"I was a boy in Oeraanyj ay father was a butcher, ay 
grandfather was a butcher and I would have been a butcher if 

I had stayed there* But my father had some calves IB our 
little town that I used to take oat every morning so that 
they could feed. One day when I had those calves I fell 
aaleep under a bosh and I had a drean. X dreamed that 
there was a great country, with high grass, with cattle with 
red bodies and white faces, and they had the brand of *HH 
on them. And in the distance there were bine mountains and 
there was snow on those mountains. And a voice said to me, 
"This is your land*." An! he said* "I went hove and told 
that story to my mother and fatter that night and they 
thought I was cracy. But Z Always remembered it and when 
I came to California in 18*9 I went to work in a butcher 
shop in San Francisco. I used to go to the slaughterhouse 
to get the half-beef to carry en ny shoulder so I could out 
it up and deliver it to our customers* One day when I was 
in the slaughterhouse X saw the hide of a steer with a red 
body and a white face sad it had the brand *HH f on it. X 
asked where it case from and they said it cane from a place 
down on the San Joaquin Valley near what was called Los 
Banoa. I got a saddle and a horse sad rods that horse down 
to Gilroy. Then X reds across the Pacheco Pass. X came to 
right where we are now* X looked down and X saw what you 
see down there now. I saw green grass and X saw red cows 
with white faces and they had the brand *HH' on them, and X 
said, *7his is ay land'.* 

Hiller went on, "X went down there and I found a MSA 
named Henry Hildreth who owned those cows, and X got from 
him an option to buy his land and to buy his cattle. X had 
no noney but I got the option*" Be said, "That is where X 

began the building of this great empire of mine." 

. ~ 

I said to him, "Yes, Mr. Killer, you've built that 
empire from these ranches at Los Banos into all the vast 
country from Bakers fie Id clear up to Nevada and Oregon. But 
the time has come when you've got to get that land back to 
people. Let people buy it from you end settle on this land. 
They must own it, farm it and have it become their home* 
This is the beginning of a new kind of farm life. " 

Bo said, "I know that but X do not know how to do that* 
I'm Henry Miller, the cattle king. Xf you come to the time 
when you are going to work this property for me, you sell 
this land back to the people." 

X tell that little atory so that you can see that it 
was in his mind but he didn't know how to do it. He was a 
builder in his day but his day had gone by. He had begun 
colonising a few spots in the San Joaquin Valley but no 
great effort was made to bring people into the ownership of 
land until after his death in the liquidation of his estate 
for the payment of taxes. 

There Is one farther thing that la of lute re at la that 
connection, vhore waa in my day at the time I vaa a little 
boy, until the time when Benry Miller died, the slogan that 
everybody knew end everybody lived by. That alogan waa, 
"Once a niller nan, always a Miller man." There is no 
organisation I've ever known that was built as that one was 
on personal loyalty. Everybody in it was proud of Henry 
niller and proud to be one of his man* Hven the hobos who 
did nothing bat walk fron ranch to ranch to get a frae seal 
were all loyal to Henry Miller because "once a Hiller a an, 
always a Hiller raon, " 

So I went back to Killer & Lux, managed those properties 
until ha because so ill that there was no longer any personal 
service I could render him, and when I was aaked to go back 
to the University as Controller I accepted the position in 
1912 and undertook to organise the business of the University 
and its legislation. 

1913 - 1917 

X was the first University Coaptroller. His Comptroller 
was chosen and approved by the President and Bsgents* The 
President gave over to the asw Comptroller's office all the 
buisness of the University* ths Coaptroller was still 
responsible to the President but the business natters of the 
University and its properties, going to the Legislature, the 
connection between the msajtgemsat of properties and the 
Begenta, ware all carried on by the Coaptroller. President 
Wheeler decided on using the word "Comptroller" instead of 
"Controller." Ha said the latter verified accounts but the 
former advised and directed the urns of property and funds. 

The University's property holdings were quite considerable. 
The University held certain portions of what was known as 
otate lands, old federal land grants which had not been 
disposed of* Many odd pieces of land scattered all over the 
state of California ware still in the keeping of the Univer 
sity of California. 

Ther<* were other gifts like that of Theodora Kearney 
who had given to the University of California his great 
estate down at Jfreano of five thousand acres, with a two 
hundred acre park with a Drench chateau in the middle of it* 
Recently it was sold* 

It waa given to the University coincldcmtal with the 
time I became Controller. Among other things, it had a 
debt on it of three hundred thousand dollars which was ono 
of the rcaaoiui that !tr* Kenmey did not give it to anybody 
else. The University paid no taxes and, by the introduction 
of Bono batter fanning nethoda which aaybe 1*6 learned In 
the University or froia Milltvr-Unc, brought the Kearney 
Vineyard oat of debt, and for sany year a it waa a source of 
inooae for the University of California under the aaaagensaft 
of ay dear friend and co-worker Parker Friaselle. 

The University had other land holdings in various 
places. For exaople, the University owned one of the large at 
buildings in Chicago, the Traanportatlon Building, which waa 
{riven by a woman in Utah* 3he gave it to the University of 
California and the incoao fro si this was to be used for tho 
education of students at the University of California who 
eaae from Utah. 

Hany of the gifto to the University had troublesoae 
strings attached to thea which restricted very auoh any 
incoae for the University and aooetiaes added to the 
University's financial burdens* The University had accepted 
the Wbittaker Forest in Tulare County, a piece of outover 
timber | with the provision that no trees were to be out and 
the birds were to be allowed to continue to aingl One of 
my tough problems was that a donor had Is ft to the University 
a fine pi ACS of unimproved property adjoining the present 
Clare raont Country Club, with the provision that it could 
not be sold tor sore than a certain value. When I becaae 
Comptroller the growth of Oakland had increased the value of 
this property to twice the aaount for which it could be 
legally sold* Pro* this property and its eventual legal 
sale by the device of Making a duaay sale, was derived the 
funds for the Oriental Departatat of the University, sad 
the donor* s original purpose thereby was fulfilled* 


One of the asay experiences in dealing with gifts to 
the University sad expanding their usefulness was that of 
developing the iJcripps Institution of Biology at La Jolla, 
:iinoe known as the Institute of Oceanography, and now the 
site of the new University Can-pus, fhe late Profeasor 
Willie* Hitter and his wife interested Miss Ellen Seripps 
in giving the University a avail piece of land and a building 
in which. Dr. Sitter was pursuing his bi*S*cal reaearch. 
IBS scripps was a aeaber of the wealthy newspaper-owning 
Seripps family. Her brother, B. W. Scripps, lived in a 
great house on the high aesa out of San Diego, frou which 
he dominated his papers and his faaily. fir. Scripps was 
Much opposed to his sister Ellen's interest in the Hitters 
and gifts to the University. His opposition waa so great 

that the Hitters feared the loss of further Income to the 
Inatitute and aont a hurried call asking ae to coae to La 
Jolla. I apart a day at tha Institute and in visiting with 
lliaa Scrippa in her lovely home. She wanted Ha to talk to 
her brother B. W* to get hia interested in the University. 
But what could I say to this arrogant Baa of violent teapar 
and language? Bo one had any apecifio ideas. X waa oa y 
to work out acme contact. 

The naxt day tha Hittara told mm that r* Sorlppa bad 
a crew of Kaxioana and waa building a road from the ocean 
front up the faoe of tha aesa aa a abort out down to the 
Institute Building. I drove up tha new mad la my ear and 
cane to tha construction work* I raoogniaed B* W, Sorippe 
because I had bean told ha wore an old Panama hat| otherwise 
hia dress looked Ilka that of a laborer. Ha waa walking 
among tha crew yelling orders at tho frightened Mexicans. 
X got out of ay car and looked at tha work and waa amazed 
to aaa that tha construction work violated all good engineer 
ing practice for creating drainage of that kind of road. 
Mr. Serippa yelled at ae, "Who are you aad what do you want?" 
1 quietly told bin ay naae and my University connection aa 
Comptroller. That started a blast of profanity at tha 
University and at aa* Ee wound up saying, "I suppose you 
think you'll gat aonay out of Ellen but you won't." I had 
not grown up under Henry Killer, a aaa of violent tenper, 
without soaa practice la dealing with a criala like thia. 
It waa ay turn to talk and gaable on beating thla old aaa 
at hia ova gana. X said, If X did not know aore about road 
building thaa you do X would be aahaaad of ayaelf." *Vhat*a 
the aatter with ay road?" he dataandad. "It drains oat 
instead of toward inside to the bank* It will waah out 
with the first rain." Be looked aa aad aald, "How tha hell 
do you know?" Than X took a stick aad drew a rough road 
plan and explained about drainage aad where hia const ruction 
waa wrong. Ha walked over aad said, "Boy, X waa wrong. 
Tou batter ooaa over to ay house to lunch." X want. We 
talked all afternoon. 

That night nr* Sorlppa aat aa at hia slater's house. 
Ha aald to her, "Ellen, thla young aaa knows what ha la 
talking about. You can give what you Ilka to tho Univereity." 
Aad so aore lands, aore buildings and acre endowaanta 
flowed into tha 3cripps Institution. w needed a pier for 
a bo at landing aad X aaaaaber designing that plar with 
Herbert Foster and building it. 'hat waa ay first aad only 
deep aaa project. 

Aa X look back on ay selection of the Hiveralde alto 
where there la now a University and on thla beginning of 
the University at La Jolla, X feel a pride that later years 
have found great usefulness for the expanding of the 


influence of the University in those and other ideas of 
that tiae. 

; -, . ^ 

In later year* Hiss Sorippa aent as aa invitation to 
visit her. She told as that aha planned to endow a girls 
college and build it at La Jolla* X aaked her way ahe 
wanted the college at Ia Jolla, other than it waa her hoaa 
and aha liked ita atooaphera. She waa surprised at the 
question and aaid, "Whare would you put it?" X told bar X 
did not know too auoh about womene colleges except that X 
waa than a Trustee of Jttlla College at Oakland. X told her 
that as an unmarried lady ahe aight not raasabtr the 
importance of boya, but if I wars to ehoose a aits X would 
aaleot the site area near a aena college, fat darling 
little lady waa at first puailad and than delighted with the 
idaa. And so Sorippa Collage for woaaa waa built at 
Clareaont next to two aana colleges aad everyone ia happy. 


Hegente announced at their Mating of Auguat 1956 
expansion of the IA Jolla oaapua and their plane fur a 

graduate school, Again this ia a great future deYalopaaat 
built on early foundations. Great appreciation ia due 
itiaa Serippa and the Kittara who pioneered in thia Held of 


Wa alao had to organ! a new ralationa with the Lagiala* 
ture. I will oonfeaa that my early training ia Miller-Lux 
in learning to play poker waa not without vain* to eatablieh- 
Ing tha position of the Univaraity aa aoaathiag aora than 
an ooadaaio inatitution. 

Tha first time that X appeared at -acranento X had my 
University Mlla that we wanted tha Lagialature to paaa in 
ay baok pocket* I had becoae acquainted with tha nenea of 
Senators end Aaaettblyaea but X bad vary faw speaking 
acquaintances* Qoa eraning a Senator approached at in tha 
Oacrajaento Hotel lobby and aaked whether X represented 
tha University. Whan X aaid I did, ha aaid. X euppflse than 
you*ra too proud to ait in a poker gaiaa. N I said, lto. 
If X'n invited I shall be vary happy to ait ia a poker gaae." 
Ha aaid, Wall, you eoa aad sit in." 

The game that I was aaked to join waa aada up of four 
of the moat important Senators then in the Lagialature, 
including tha Chairman of the Finance Committee. I case 
out of that gajsa no richer than I went into it, but that 

was not because it wasn't possible to win laonoy. Z felt 
that it would be ill-advised to leave the impression, that 
anybody in the University knew acre about poker than a 
Senator. At any rate, I became accepted aa a guy who would 
ait in on a poker 

Aa I went out the door of that first poker game the 
Chairman of the Finance Coamittee called to me and said, 
"You have your bills that you want introduced here in the 
Legislature thia session?" I said* 'I have. Senator, they're 
in my back pocket." He aaid, "Give then to me." Z gave 
them to him. The bills all passed. 

That was the introduction of the University under its 
new Comptroller to the Legislature of 1915* It resulted 1m 
any friendships and a much better understanding and 
greater popularity for the University, because we then under 
took to beconte acquainted with these asm personally and 
any of then were our finest citisens sad became our strongest 

The leader in the Legislators who was the greatest help 
was Senator Arthur Breed from Oakland whose son la Senator 
Arthur Breed, Jr. Senator Arthur Breed oaae to toe Legis 
lature in the aaae year that I went up there, in 1913* The 
following year he beoaae President of the Senate. Be waa of 
tremendous help in all legislative matters that had to do 
with the University. Senator Strowbridge waa Chairman of the 
Finance Committee. 

Senator Boynton waa the leader of the Republican 
majority in the Senate and always on the side of the Univer 
sity. Senator listener fron down in San Diego waa another. 
Then there was Senator Chandler froa Fresno and Senator 
Chandler illustrates ay point of asking friends. Be hadn't 
any interest in the University beoause he felt that he waa 
a better faraer than anyone in the College of Agricultural 
therefore he had no interest in agricultural matters in the 
University. But in exploring Senator Chandler's mind one 
day by a general talk with hia, I discovered that he had a 
curious interest in fossils and prehistoric animal a. Thia 
is about aa far removed as anybody could imagine aa a field 
of interest for a man who waa a most successful, prosperous, 
self-educated farmer froa the vineyards of Fresno County. 

I took Senator Chandler down to the La Brea pits in 
Los Angeles, which were Just being opened* They were taking 
out parts of skeletons of sabre-toothed tigers and other 
prehistoric animals* They were to be brought to Berkeley 
to be studied la the baaeaent of what was then the University 
Library, which is now called Bacon Hall. There Professor 
John C. Merriaa was cleaning up those skeletons. Senator 


Chandler became 00 fascinated by that that he not only 
ame * devoted friend of the University of California, but 
he also began to give hie own personal funds to the Depart 
ment of Paleontology so that Professor Harriaa could carry 
oa this type of work. 

I think that* a typical of the way to develop a relation* 
hip with these gontleaea of the Legislature, whose friend* 
hip is all important to the University. Every legislator 
has some particular field of interest which can be found. 
That lecds hiic to have a general interest in the University 
itself* Tou nay never set him to understand the ins and 
outs of the University as a whole, but you can get the* to 
iiMstrtsnd a great deal more about their own field of interest, 
and then they aocept the root of the relationship to the 

I oan't remember any one MB who had a permanent 
hostility to the University. I can remember some who had 

no interest or soae who had a fooling of antagonist toward 
one person or another who was connected with the Univex*aity. 
1 don't think it could be said that there was any oa* MA 
or any group of men who were hostile to the University* 

There was, of course, no interest in the University la 
southern California because there was no thine la southern 
California to visualise the University which was solely a 
Berkeley institution. 

My own political background wan as a Republican, though 
Z never took an active part ia polities except in the later 
Hoover campaign. 

Hiram Johnson was who always supported the University. 
As Governor he was fcueh interested in the University. He 
was responsible for sending me to Wisconsin ia 1913 to study 
their College of Agriculture. After ay report and recoa- 
aendations, new developaents began la oar owa College of 
Agriculture atarting with the calling of Dr. Thomas Hunt to 
become Dean. 

The occasion which X remember as being amusing was when 
I was trying to get a group of appropriations passed by the 
Ways and Means Oooaittea. The difficulty ia getting 
agricultural appropriations passed by legislators was that 
every man who was a farmer thought he knew more about these 
aatters than the professors did. Therefore, they liked to 
argue with a particular professor or upon a particular sub 
ject and how It should be taught* The argument was for 
fun sad publicity* 



In order to bury these controversies I managed to put 
together a aerioe of appropriations Jtor consideration at 
one hearing so that the agricultural appropriations wouldn't 
be foremost, Amoag others was e minor appropriation lor 
oomo small buildings at the Lick Observatory. I asked Dr. 
Catapbell, Director of the Observatory, who later became 
President of the University, if he would coiae to talk to the 
Legislature about the need for those buildings* Knowing the 
Legislature and how they liked to argue about agriculture, 
I talked to Dr. Campbell and aaked him if ho would be willing 
to give a lecture to the Legislative Coaaittee on this hot 
night in the top story of this old oapitol em the subject 
of the eolar ay atom* X provided him with a blackboard and 
chalk and told him to keep on talking until I told him to 

So wo got up with our nine appropriations for the Univer 
sity and nine professors to present them, of which the Lick 
Observatory was only one small part* Vo started la with 
Dr. Campbell who talked for a little over an hour and a half, 
all this time discussing the molar system* Too legislators, 
knowing nothing about to* solar system t of course had nothing 
on which they could quarrel* Finally, one Assemblyman fro* 
south of Market Street ia San Francisco said, "Mr. Chairman, 
Z haven't understood a word that's been said, but I think 
those professors are going to talk all night and I therefore 
move wo adjourn and that mil the bills that r Herri tt ham 
do pass.* The vote was taken sad the Committee unanimously 
voted in favor of all of our bills without over having hoard 
one single word of explanation of any of the other eight 
bills. So these bills were passed and that's how, somehow, 
sometimes, legislation is accompli shed. 


-... #K '' 

Xn 1915 wo had our budget for the University sot up 
X received a request from too State Board of Control to 
UP in Sacrameato to defend the budget. X presented the 
it to the Board of Control as a factual statement of 
Lara and cents, describing needs and administrative 
activities of the University* But the Board of Control 
demanded that X should give a list of the professors of the 
University, their qualifications for their particular 
offices, aad indicated that the Board desired to pass oa 
every single person employed by the University of California 
whether administrative or faculty, fixing salaries. That 
was called by them a pro-audit an " that pro-audit program 
was advocated at that Sine by John ?rano3U ITeylan, 
of this Board. 

I cane to an open disagreement with Mr. Keylan, point 
ing out to them that the University of California was created 
under the Constitution of the Otete as a State Corporation 
and a public truat administered by the Board of regents, and 
that there was no legal basis by which the Board of Control 
could pass upon the personnel of the University. It finally 
developed that the Board of Control gave up their attonpt to 
dominate the University through the pro-audit or any other 
system. Ve were permitted to oarry oar appropriations for 
the University directly to the committees of the Legislature 
the Pittance Committee of the Senate and the Vaym and Means 
Coned ttee of the Assembly as wo had always doss* 

The factors moot persuasive in altering the situation 
were partly due to the fine type of men who represented 
the University in that discussions Regents Guy C* Earl. 
ttcKnerney, Crocker, Hoffitt wore the loaders in presenting 
the University's point of view that it was a State Corporation- 
end that was tremendously persuasive with the legislators. 
There existed some animosity between Keylan and uogent iSarl. 
The cause was both personal and political. A power-seeking 
man against an unselfish (am relates to the University), 
dedicated mam* 

The other thing that was a determining force was the 
law itself, because no one eould doubt that if it became a 
matter of issue in the courts that the courts would clearly 
support the University. 

I might add, I never had the problem of not having 
basking of the Regents because I'm oat of those people who, 
if I*m responsible to a board, wait until that board gives 
its assent in advance. I assume no responsibility that X 
do not have when Z speak for a group, and I had no right to 
speak for the University of California in the Legislature, 
except as approved by the Hegents. Satcept, on one occasion. 
It was a very interesting one and quite unexpected. 

. ; , "-. '' *? 

At the end of World War I, the Legislature passed an 
act by large voto in both houses that wMttaa could mot be 
taught in the University of California. I had mo authority 
from anybody, because the matter eame up suddenly as one of 
those motional things that is done in a spirit of bitterness 
-ad hatred at the close of a war. I had beam a federal 
offioer during the war* had juat come back to my position 
as Comptroller in 1919 &ad that was the first thing that 
happened after I arrived in Sacramento. X asked the 
Governor of the State to oall a Joint session of both the 
Senate and the Houso and cxllov BO to address both of them 
informally on the subject of this bill. And in that meeting 
I spoko without any authorisation solely in ay own right. 
T used as ay subject "T-et There Be Tight". BIB bill waa 
withdrawn and never appeared again. 

That's the 021X7 exception I would sake to the statement 
that I've always spoken as representative of the University 
with the knowledge and support of the Board of Regents. 


We had a mat many problem at the University la those 
days and one of then was of coarse the inadequate building 
am. President Wheeler had been remarkably successful 

rawing together private gifts for the University. He'd 
gotten Krs. Hearst with her generosity to give the money for 
the first ilan, which late* brought about the Hearst 
Architectural Plan, and then to give money for the Mining 
Building, whioh urns the first of the great buildings to be 
built on the axis of that plan* He persuaded Mr. Charles 
Doe to give the aoney for a portion of the Library, bat the 
Library then stood unfinished. Be interested Kiss Jane 
Ssther in giving money to the University, bat Miss gather 
decided she would like to build * Campanile, whioh has 
always boon a great asset to too University as a landmark 
sad as * source of pleasure to people who like chines, bat 
it's never been of any value whatsoever when it oaae to the 
matter of additions! classrooms. President Wheeler had to 
settle for a Campanile and then for a Gateway before wo got 
aoney froa Hiss Sather for the aather professorship in 
History. President Wheeler was very aotive in the drawing 
together of private aoney for buildings bat there wasn't 
enough of it. 

In early 1914 I conceived the idea that since wo had 
in California under the Kiraa Johnson regime the instruments 
of initiative and referendum, wo could initiate * bond 
issue to build buildings at the University of California. 
When X suggested the bond isaue should be put on the ballot 
by Initiative, it was looked upon with horror by all of 
those who were the conservative attorneys in the State of 
California. However, the Mowed. Association agreed to 
sponsor this program. Wo went before the people of the state 
and asked for signatures for putting this measure on the 
ballot and got over three hundred thousand signatures* 

Z wont out to the school houaea in various parts of the 
state and campaigned for this bond issue as did others. It 
was passed by a very large vote. Out of that bond issue wo 
built Uheeler Hall, the Chemistry Building and finished the 
Doe Library* We had money with whioh to build the second 
Agricultural Building, Hilgard Hall. This was the basis of 
the first great growth of the buildings of the University of 

California. The aluani of the University deserve the credit 
for this because it was the support of the Alumni Associa 
tion that made it possible. 

In the year 1915 we were given money by the Legislature 
for a Citrus -"Experiment Station. Z was delegated by the 
Regents to ettermino sad recommend upon the site of this 
experiment station. Finally, after much study and travel 
Z found the site at Riverside, which became the Citrus 
Experiment Station, and now on a portion of that mams pro 
perty we have the asw University at Riverside. 

By 1917 the business of the University was fairly well 
organised sad running smoothly. 


Let mi say that there are some things that I can't 
ir about the University of California for a period of 

two years, between 1917 and 1919, because Z was officially 

absent on leave during that time. 

When the United States went into war with Germany in 
World War I, I took leave froa my office as Comptroller 
of the University appointing Robert G. Sproul to act as 
Comptroller and went to volunteer for service at the Officer's 
Training Caap with ay friend, Dean of the University, David 
P. Barrows, later General Barrows, later President of the 
University of California. General Barrows want on to great 
success and great government service in the war. 1 was 
rejected by the Army on the grounds that X was physically 
unable to serve my country because they discovered on a 
physical examination that a toe on the right foot had been 
out off at a time, when, riding for Millar * Lux I was 
stepped on after being thrown from a horse. 

And so , being said by the Army to be unfit for service 
to my country, sadly I went back to Sacramento where the 
Legislature was still in session to try to salvage what Z 
could out of my program up there for the University. As Z 
walked Into the State Capitol Z happened to see the door 
of the Governor's office wide open and the Governor of the 
State rushed out and said, "Bead this telegram." Z read 
it. Zt was the announcement that Congress had passed the 
Draft Act which by this law was to be administered by the 
Adjutant General of the tata. And after I had read the 
telegram Z handed it back to the Governor and he said to me. 

.:.* &* 

"You know the Adjutant General." And I said, "Very wall." 
He aaid, "I've Just telephoned him and told aim that he had 
no experience in this sort of thing, organising a draft in 
California, and I told hin to take ft year's leave of absence. 
He's taken it. Halph, you are the Adjutant General of the 
3tate of California." As far as I know it was a spur of the 
moment decision. 

I had known Governor Stephens well. We were personal 
friends and when he talked to me he wasn't talking to any 
stranger. But he hadn't thought of ft* for that particular 
thing* It's ay opinion that he thought I had already gone 
into the Army. Everybody know that that was what I was 
intending to do. When X walked into the Capitol at Sacra 
mento I was a disappointed Ban, rejected by the Officers 
Training Gamp, five minutes later Z van the Adjutant General 
of the State of California! The fastest promotion on record J 

Looking over the Draft Aot and all the things that 
were involved, it was quite apparent that the Aot was not 
workable in California from many points Of view. Among 
others were the time limits that were aet down for accomplish 
ment of various things* The snow was then on the ground 
and we couldn't get people out of the mountains to register 
in a day's notice as the law provided. I told the Governor 
that I'd accept this if he'd give me the right to go to 
Washington to see what Z could do to get this Aot amended 
into workable administrative form. Be told me Z could do 
whatever Z pleased. So Z got on a train, went to Washington, 
went to the office of Provost General Crowder under whom 
this .Draft Act was to be adoini stored. Z was told that 
General Crowder was not there but Z oould speak to the General 
who was acting for him in his illness. Z was ushered into 
the office of a young man who had a bright new star on his 
shoulder. Z looked at him and said, "Hellp, Hugh. " And he 
said, "Hollo, Ralph," and Z recognised Hugh Johnson. Re had 
been a lieutenant in tho Army at Monterey and applied to 
take a law course at the University of California. When the 
Army sent an officer to a university to take a graduate 
course, thay assigned him to an official to whom the officer 
had to report every two weeks as to how he was behaving and 
what marks he was getting in his class. Z had had that 
duty for Johnson. In that way I had become a friend of 
Hugh Johnson and had seen hie through his law course. Hex* 
he was with his first star, the first day he was wearing it 
as a General in the United otatea Arny. Z told him Z was 
a General too, Acting Adjutant General of California. Vo 
both laughed about our respective quick promotions. 

Ve worked that afternoon, that night and the next day 
working out amendments to the Draft Act that made it 

practical* Among other things we decided that the Draft 
Act should not be administered by the Adjutant General of 
the state but should be administered by a civilian board. 
Then I got on a train two days afterwards and came back to 
California* By the time I got there Congress had passed 
these amendments to the Draft Act and I was no longer an 
Adjutant General! But I was Chairman of the first Civilian 
Draft Board with Warren Olney, Jr. and a. Harold Powell in 
the draft operations for California which were set up and 
administered successfully by a group which followed us in 



m : 

Another thing developed almost immediately and that 
was a wire to Governor Stephens from Herbert Hoover saying 
that X had been appointed ?ood Administrator by the 
President of the United Btates. So X then went back on the 
train to Washington, this time as the Food Administrator for 
the State of California. X entered on a most interesting 
period of service in the federal Government, not only as the 
Food Administrator of this state, bat in many related 

Xt was significant because it brought me back into 
connection with agriculture from which I had started* 

X had the responsibility for the agricultural program 
of the state of California and the development of supplies 
needed by the government. X had charge of all of tils 
processing plants, like the canneries and the foodpaeking 
plants, in the state of California, and the organisation 
of food saving on a voluntary basis* 

I have a history of the Food Administration that's 
about an inch and a half thick lull of names of people of 
all kinds* We had a wonderful volunteer organisation of a 
State staff. County and City administrators and a large 
organisation of women because the matter of saving food was 
a voluntary thing that women had to administer. It still 
rises up to curse me today when some old lady stops IN in 
the street and says, "I had to starve myself to death 
during World War X because you told me to," and so on. 

X have that whole history of the Food Administration 
in California because we had a staff member, Professor 
Krehbiel, a professor of History at Stanford University. 

I gave him aa one of his responsibilities tha keeping of our 
historical rooorda. He did a very admirable Job, writing 
the ootapleta history of this governmental operation. 


So X had to organise the women and I had to organise 
the faraers and Z had to organise the oattleaen. This 
organisation is still In existence- the California Cattle- 
aea*s Association. Z was also given the responsibility of 
arbitrating all the labor troubles, over seventy strikes 
that developed in California, in food production, manufacture 
or movement. 

This was the era when the ZW was still going strong. 
I gathered up the leaders of the IWV. They all oaae into 
Fresno for a Beating and with the aid of federal agents Z 
arrested then and put than in Jail, so we had no further 
trouble with the IW. We knew where they all were* 

I had a great deal of contact with Lubin'a Coaoisaion 
of Isaigration and Housing. tfe worked together oa a great 
aany probleas through Col. Weinatoek, then the Chairman. 

^ v Pi V'-v" '<- : 

One of the aost interesting probleas Z had, as Chairaan 
of the Western Division of the Federal Food Purchase Board, 
with the advice and help of a fins group, was buying for 
the Aray and Havy and the Allies all the food that was 
needed froa the eleven Western States. Our business in the 
Food Purchase Board averaged a million dollars a day daring 
the entire period of the war. The vaat quantities of food 
we purchased were largely the accumulated food savings of 
patriotlo families who voluntarily saved food to win the war. 

The war ended on Koveaber 11, 1916 and on Washington's 
Birthday, three months later, we olosed the office ef the 
Food T? urohase Board with our records eoaplete. 'fhere never 
was a suit and never a failure in delivery of the quality ef 
any product that was less than what was ordered. It is the 
only record of this kind as far as we know in the government 

!ty World War I experiences brought ae into a oloae 
friendship and deep adniration for Herbert Hoover. It gave 
ae an understanding of the tremendous power of voluntary 
cooperation by patriotic people created by Kr. Hoover that 
exceeds the power of law or threats of punishment for law 
violations* I learned to work with people and to respect 
sincere views that were different froa ay own. I learned 
at first hand why America is great through dedicated service 
of free people , 

While I rendered some national service, I also received 
far acre than I gave in the invaluable and unique experiences 

of ing the idealism of America in it* greatest expression 
of voluntary patriotic national service. 

-.- .;? ^SKSji^SSjijUS^ 

1919i BOHf 00fUX SHK)U]>- 



s.i :i >* fcfr*a*UR 

Returning to the University ia 1919 from war service, 
it was a great source of satisfaction to find that the 
Comptroller's office and all its various administrative 
relationships, especially with the academic side of the 
University, had been administered successfully by my assis 
tant, Robert Gordon Sproul. During my absence I had asked 
the Kegents to mate him Acting Comptroller. Be had carried 
on the office ia a fashion fully la liae with all of the 
ideas which I had established. To him both X sad the 
University owed a great debt. He had made the office of 
Comptroller a permanent force for good in the University. 


On my return to the University from war service early 
in 1919 I found great in pending changes greater than any 
of us knew. 

The goldea era of President Benjamin Ide Wheeler was 
coming to its end. He bad reached the mandatory retirement 
age of sixty-five* She tremendous pressures and controversies 
of the war years had shattered his health. His twenty years 
of scholarly and courageous building of the University of 
California from a mall state institution into the fore 
runner of a great university of world fame were finished 
with honor and glory. Sever again would there be such an 
era in the life of this university as these twenty years. 
One man, by his own rich and warm human qualities, by the 
power of the leadership entrusted to aim by Kegents, faculty. 
Students and the State, by his dedicated and far seeing 
unselfish public service had the capacity sad power to build 
the expandable foundations of the University of California 
of today* The University of his day and of all the future 
is his monument. 

As I look back on my years of associations with him, 
as I evaluate his contribution forty years after its 


completion I offer this tribute to his meaory. I have 
great men but none finer in mind, gentler in spirit, firmer 
in convictions, more effective in leadership or more deeply 
dedicated to the spiritual values of American education. 

At his memorial service held at the University a few 
months after his death abroad in 192? I closed by saying, 
"Thank God for the life and the memory the leadership of 
Benjamin Ids Wheeler. Oh friend, it has been good that you 
have been here." (The full text of this address is appended 
hereto. ) 


*' r 

Mo story of the life of President Wheeler is complete 
without his own words as they appear in the volume published 
by the University Just before bis death* "The Abundant Life? 
There one can read the enthusiasm of the young President as 
he addressed the students October 3$ 1899, three weeks before 
he was inaugurated* This was the famous "It is good to be 
here" address. Of the University he said, ''Cheer for her} 
it will do your lungs good. Love her it will do your heart 
pood." Twenty years later on his last Commencement Day 
he said, "It proved worthwhile being here." He gave richly 
to the University and to the nation. 

And so I found that it had been agreed that President 
Wheeler was to retire from the University in 1919* which 
was within a few months after my return* His retirement, 
coupled with the death of Henry Horse Stephens in April 
1919, removed the leadership of the University of California 
that had been so important for many years. 

Professor utephens always said he wanted to die with 
his boots on. This is exactly what happened. Returning 
from the funeral of Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the beloved 
First Lady of the Board of Regents, riding on a cable oar 
in cian Francisco with Dr. Walter Morris Hart, in the middle 
of a sentence and practically in the middle of a word, life 
went out and the end earns to Henry Horse Stephens. 

, r . . : : ; . : ' ' 

We held his funeral in the faculty Olade and there was 
a tremendous outpouring of friends and studezte and associates. 
I remember speaking at his funeral about the University 
and his students being the lengthened shadow of his life* 

The changes that oame to the University were therefore 
through the war experience, through the loss of Professor 
Stephens* leadership and through the retirement of President 

Following the Commencement Day of 1919 when an honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on Judge Warren Olney, 
Jr., David P. Barrows and Ralph P. Herritt, there was a 

tremendous amount of public discussion on the subject of who 
was to be the next President of the University. I shall 
always remember with great pride the deep affection with 
which President Wheeler conferred on me the honarary degree 
of Doctor of Laws. His voice was filled with emotion as he 
read these words which he had written on my diplomat "Variously 
tested and found not wanting! "iso in counsel} masterly in 
deed | competent to set the seal of success. 11 ouch words make 
a man very humble. 

Immediately after that Commencement Day aad President 
Wheeler's retirement, of course the question of the successor 
to President Wheeler was the major discussion on the part 
of both faculty aad the public in general. 

I found that a number of the regents who bad bean close 
friends of cine, Regent Barl aad Hogent faussig aad Regent 
Fleischhaoker, aad a number of others, apparently had la 
mind that they wanted to choose a successor to President 
Wheeler from the University of California itself, aad I agreed 
with that policy. But 1 found that these same regents 
apparently were talking about me as a possible successor to 
President Wheeler. 
i ' ?.*. , 

I believed that tho Presidency should not bo represented 
by some groat scholar from the East who would come to 
California aad try to start things new and oa different 
lines. The foundations laid by President Wheeler, as I saw 
them aad as time has proven, were so art and lastiag. I 
believed that they should not bo changed aad what we needed 
was someone who would carry forward the program as it then 
misted and as wo all understood it* 

But ay own thought in that matter was also that the 
successor to President Wheeler should be a aaa who caae out 
of academic life, rather than out of say other typo of 
leadership. The need of aa academic man came from the fact 
that President Wheeler had always, during his entire period 
of service, by agreemeat with the regents, been in entire 
control of the faculty situation. Ho counseled with tho 
faculty, but in the final analysis he aado all decisions for 
the faculty. She faculty had no access whatsoever to the 
regents, nor did the regents know much about the faculty. 
The rogants at that tlae were a business board. They aot 
la San Francisco. I had tried to arrange to have meetings 
of the regents held on the campus but never succeeded in 
getting them across the Bay. Tho beat I ever was able to do 
was to give them complimentary tickets to athletic events 
on tho oampus, aad the President brought the regents to such 
academic events as Commencement Day and Charter Day* Other 
than that the regents knew very little about the academic 
side of the University, save for one or two like Regeat 
Howe 11. 

Z felt that the University needed a President who would 
be sure to represent the faculty to the regents. 

oo as this diacusaion began, involving ay own name aa 
a possible successor to President 'ftoeler, Z made it very 
clear to all ay friends who brought the subject to me that 
Z felt ''. would not be a wise choice as President, because 
the aeadenic side of the University could be better handled 
by soaeono acceptable to the faculty and from their ranks. 

In faculty eyes Z was the representative of the business 
interests. I had been the Comptroller* Z had been the aaa 
who had had to do with matters of money and buildings sad 
legislation and the properties of the university. While my 
relation with faculty members was personally a very happy 
one in every way that Z know of, yet ia their minds Z did 
not have SB academic background. 

In a meeting that took place ia San Francisco between 
these regents sad myself over a lunch table, sad continuing 
on into the afternoon in the office of the Board of Regents, 
this matter was thoroughly discussed. At that time Z 
stated that Z believed David F. Barrows, who had been Bean 
of the University and a Colonel in the United States Army, 
was the nan who should be the President of the University of 
California and not Ralph Merritt. Z said Z would do every* 
thing in my power to stay in the University until a new 
President might be elected to office. Zt was early ia the 
fall of 1919 that this discussion took place. 

As to who originally suggested Barrow* v as far as Z 
know a good say friends had spoken of Barrows sad Z make 
no claim to being the only one, but at say rate Z was the 
one who most strongly urged Barrows and Z was his sponsor 
before the regents. Z believe without say question that 
those who knew all the faots at the time would have said 
that it was due to ay owa sponsorship more than to anything 
else that David P. Barrows became the President of the 

?here was no doubt at that time that Z might have been 
elected 1 resident of the University myself. This would not 
have been by unanimous vote of the Board of Regents, bat 
at any rate Z was told I would be elected by a majority vote 
by regents who had polled the various members of the Board. 
Zf for no other reason than lack of unanimity Z would have 
declined the Presidency "A house divided cannot stand.* 

The time when Z first brought David Barrows* name to 
the forefront in discussion, there was not one single regent 
who was willing to say that he would vote for Barrows as 

President of the University. The reasons for that were 
very clear. Everybody liked David Barrows* He was a wonder 
ful person in every way. But it was felt he couldn't be 
counted on for a consistent point of view and consistent work. 
In a Teddy Roosevelt fashion, ho would vigorously go out on 
various side in sues, which disturbed some of the reg< 

regents very 

o v *n relations with Barrows had been very happy over 
the years when he was Dean of the University and I was 
Comptroller* On more than one occasion heM cone into ay 
office, put his high-heeled boots on ay desk and tell as 1st 
was going off to join Panoho Villa on one of his expeditions 
during the revolution in Mexico. Z was to take the 
responsibility for the office of Dean of the University as 
well as carry my own responsibility. Barrows would finally 
turn up again maybe two weeks later, dirty and happy as he 
could be. He told how he joined Panoho Villa and partici 
pated in ao-sm battle. There had been great exoi tenant, like 
a conic opera affair. Be finally would have his fill of the 
wild brigand life that he loved so ouch. He would then cone 
back and put on hie academic clothes and beoone the Bean of 
the University again. 

The regents knew a good deal about Barrows' charm and 
delightful individuality but it was so different fro the 
fine, dignified, dependable administrative characteristics 
of President Whe$ler that they were a little bit afraid of 
the situation. 

However, I thought that all those things could be over- 
coae. I thought that David Barrows* experience in the Amy 
would take out of bin * great deal of his boyish enthusiasm. 
I think that the faculty were happy that they would have a 
faculty nan as President, but at that tine nany of the 
leaders of the faculty were also doubtful as to Barrows be 
cause they did not regard hln as a man of consistent views 
and consistent performance. 


In all the tine that passed during the debate on the 
President, an Administrative Board appointed by the regents 
acted in the absence of any president until a decision could 
be reached navting the new President. That was the reason 
why the Adainistrative Board was created when President 
Wheeler retired. I believe the record would show that I was 
a sseaber of that board as Conptroller and that the other 
two nenbero of the board were Willis* Carey Jones, Dean of 
the Law School, and the brilliant and lovable Professor 
Charles Hills Gayley. 


It was quit* natural that the faculty at that tice, 
lag an interim board, realising there vas a new President 
somewhere over the Koricon, and knowing that the control 
that .-'resident Wheeler had had on faculty affairs had boon 
one In which there vaa no court of appeal* from any decision 
ho night make, felt that tha time had cone to establish 
aoiae basis upon which the f-uwlty would have a right to be 
heard and to appeal to the Board of He gent a itself. They 
felt that the President should be obligated on any decision 
that the Academic ccmata migit make to present to the Board 
of Regents without any op oaition on the part of the President 
as the full and complete point of view of the Academic Senate. 

There were a number of profeaaors who felt that either 
they should be on the Administrative Board instead of Charlea 
Hills Gayley or Jones, or that some of their friends should 
be. There wore certain criticisms of the board oat there's 
always that sort of thing in say sort of human relationship. 
The board had the title of the Administrative Board of the 
University of California* Its duties and powers were thoso 
of the President of the University. 

t _ i ^ j* 4- 

Up to that tin* i and daring the existence of that Board, 
I eane as near being * president of a university as I ever 
have or ever will, being a third of a president. And now 

I want to speak about the other two members of the Adminis 
trative Board. The first was William Carey Jones, the 
Chairman of the Board. During my college years around the 
oanpua, in which I could talc* almost any course X chose, X 
had taken Blackstone and some other law courses with William 
Carey Jozies* X had known him personally. 7 know his 
daughter Alice, who later was married to one of my former 
roommates and dbsost friends, Willys R* Book* X had the 
highest admiration for Professor Jones. 

William Carey Jonas was ono of the quietest men on tha A wonderful teacher but a man who waa reserved, 
conservative in the last degree, kindly, sympathetic, under 
standing and highly respected, but not the kind of man who 
had popularity among the faculty as a whole* Consequently, 
when he waa not only appointed to this board but was 
appointed Chairman of the Board, quite a number of faculty 
men who had made themselves very prominent and wore also 
very able sen, were only too willing to challenge the wisdom 
of the repents in appointing William Carey Jones and Charlea 
rttllo Gayley. Beither Gayley nor Jones were the typo who 
were politically popular in tho Academic Sonata* Gayley, X 
imagine, had gone to very few Academic Senate meetings in 
his entire connection with the University. Be had no use 
for faculty administration. He was an individualist, a 
who in his own brilliant fashion stood out so such above 
the average pcraon around the university that he didn't 

participate in the responsibilities of academic administra 
tion, nor did he go to committee meetings nor did he go, ae 
far as I can recall, to many Senate meetings. Therefore, he 
was not the kind of nan whom the Academic Senate looked 
upon aa being their choice. Jones they hardly knew. 

Consequently, when you look at * board of that kind, 
although the men might have had great qualifications that 
would contribute to sound leadership of the University, yet 
this board was not the kind that was popular in the eyes of 
the average member of the Academic Senate. I had no standing 
with the Academic Senate except * personal one, sad I've 
already said that William Carey Jones was such a quiet man 
that his influence had been little felt, and Oayley had 
Just not participated. 

So the Administrative Board did not represent the vigor 
ous kind of academic leadership that would offset the 
faculty opposition during the so-called faculty revolt. In 
my opinion this never was a revolt at all; it was an adjust 
ment period. But in those years we had Leuschner, 
Lauderbaok and Lewis and the other men on the faculty who 
were the kind that had participated over the year* in faculty 

Professor Leuschner was a handsome man who had * most 
chanaing wife. Both were endowed with considerable of this 
world's goods, which made them popular, In addition to their 
own personal chano. He was an astronomer without any great 
astronomical facilities with which to work such as wore on 
fit. Hamilton at Lick Observatory. He had just this little 
observatory and taught astronomy. He spoke with somewhat of 
a German accent and ho was a good teacher, but a man who in 
my own Judgment oftentimes spoke on faculty politics without 
having given full consideration to all of the implications 
and complications of the problems upon which he was taking 
a vigorous stand. 

Gilbert Lewis had aa outstanding record in the field of 
scientific research in chemistry, but Gilbert Lewis was a 
radical in the sense that he very seldom agreed with the 
administration whatever the administration might be, whether 
it was national or whether it was state or whether it was 
University. He was a distinct individualist with a brilliant 
mind whoso ideas ** worth looking at every time that he 
brought thea out, but whose leadership was not always 
accepted by the people of more conservative view in the 
faculty, nor was lw to be relied on as speaking for something 
that would have been in the University's best Interest over 
the long pull* 


I would like to bring oat my interpretation of the 
purposes of the Administrative Board and the concurrent 
activities of the Academic .Senate, which have been spoken 
of 00 often as to have the phrase accepted in University 
circles today a* a faculty revolt. The faculty were not 
revolting against anybody; they were demanding a revision of 
a specific administrative aoadenio concept. The faculty at 
that tine were attempting the very proper and very timely 
expression of their deaire to revise the relationship between 
the Academic Senate and the regents. There had been no 
contact between the Academic Senate and the regents except 
as President Wheeler ohose to present Batters to the Board 
of Regents, and he never presented then as Academic Senate 
recommendations at all. He presented then as his own. The 
Aoademle Senate, representing all of the professorial rank 
in the University, wanted to be heard by the Board of Regents, 
and even though the regents might not agree, they wanted the 
opportunity of presenting their point of view. 

It's true that the Aoadenio Senate had meetings which 
were described at the tins by various people as being very 
non-academic in their atmosphere and sore like a rowdy 
group of people who were in no way speaking for the high and 
dignified position of the Academic Senate. Z oaa remember 
sitting in my own office in California Ball while the faculty 
was in session in the room downstairs, and hearing cheers 
and catcalls and other evidences of great emotional oat** 
bursts, none of which had any serious impact or implication. 
It was the attempt for the first tins of a group who had 
never had the power of self expression to get themselves 
organised in such a way that they eould be vocal through 
the channels which they desired to set up. The Wheeler era 
was past | the king was dead and who the new king was to be, 
they didn't know. They believed, however, that it night be 
Barrows. They had feared for awhile that it night be Ralph 

Bra^'-ft* i^BsirfHgfturtxSaiSft tissues? s. th .r 

he was out of our faculty or whether he came from the Sast, 
they wanted the right of bargaining on behalf of the Aoadenio 
6eaata prior to the time that a new nan oame in so that the 
regents wouldn't commit themselves, as they had doae in the 
aao of Wheeler, to giving the sole right of representation 
of the University to the President. 

And that was all that was going on. X think it was 
very normal. I don't think it was a revolt. X think that 
not to have done all this, in sons way, would have been a 
failure on the part of the academic group to present their 


point of view to proper authorities. The method of presenta 
tion might have been a little questionable at times, but 
there was no purpose on the part of the faculty to be loss 
loyal to the University or to their position than they always 
had been in the past or always expected to be in the future. 

I was one of those who strongly sympathised with the 
faculty and with the Academic Senate point of view, and very 
happily concurred that whatever they might propose to the 
Board of Regents, I would be very glad to support, and did. 

The University period 1919-1923, which was the period 
of the retirement of President Wheeler end the interregnum 
of the Administrative Board and the Presidency of Doctor 
Barrows, is a period of groat significance in the Univer 
sity's history because at that time there were tasted certain 
fundamental relationships between the regents and the 
faculty that go on in various forms until today sad which 
are unique in many respects as compared to other Universities 
in the country. There is a greater degree of faculty control 
of committees and there is an open approach between the faculty 
and the regents existing today as a result of that develop 
ment. I think it's important that wo got that background 
pretty clearly. 

I*d like to stress again the point that the presidency 
of Benjamin Ide Wheeler was a golden era in the history of 
the University in which certain relationships existed as a 
result of the powers given to President Wheeler when ho cams 
to the University in 1899 which were administered by him in 
as extraordinarily broad, sympathetic, tolerant and under 
standing way. In the hands of any other man those same 
powers might have been used dietatorially and they might 
have been disastrous to the faculty. However, those powers 
handled by President wheeler wars Best generously used in 
the interests of the faculty. And the wools atmosphere of 
the University during the regime of President wheeler, in 
sofar as the faculty is concerned, was one of family 

Z remember one particular time whan, way back in 1909* 
the Legislature failed to give the University any additional 
appropriations and there was no money with which the 
President could increase any salaries. I asked the Presi 
dent at that particular time, because we were working en 
the budget in his office, I as his (Secretary, and he as the 
sole responsible person for the budget, how he proposed to 
prepare a budget for the coming year with no increase in 
aoney* And he smiled and said, "There are various ways that 
in this world people are made happy. Only one of them is 
by money. Others are to be found in the fields of increased 

preatiga and increased titles. And so," he said, "I propose 
to promote everybody in the University one step at tola tine 
of no money bucauae thay shouldn't have both noney and aa 
inoreaae in title at the same tiae. It night spoil somebody 
for tho future." And so we case through that period of no 
new money with assistant profeasom becoming associate 
professors* associate professors beooaing full professors, 
and full professors being given certain new titles and 
additional positions of responsibility. ?he President 
handled hia whole relationship with the faculty la a very 
understanding and human way* 

How that regime was understood among all the older 
generation among the faculty, bat * good many new men who 
case into the faculty, brilliant men, who came very late la 
the period of President vheelor, didn't understand the back 
ground and weren't content with it* If you look at the 
record of the faculty in 1919 you will see that among the 
leaders of those who participated in what Is known as the 
"faculty revolt" (a name which again I protest)* quite a 
number of those men were not the older group of professors 
in the University* That group did not number in its list 
nen like Stephens or Gayley or Jones or Howison or Hilgord 
or Wickson or many of the other great names of that day* 

There were men new in point of time who were distin- 
ihed men who had come from other Universities where the 

isler type of administration was not in vogue, so they 
felt the powers given to President Wheeler were those that 
they would hesitate to see passed on to someone else they 
didn't know. 


The fear of the faculty at that time was the fear of 
the unknown, and what the unknown man might do with the 
powers that would be given him if they were as great as those 
over the faculty that had been held by President Wheels*. 
3o they wanted to go the full length of demanding faculty 
freedom and faculty control of its own affairs and faculty 
direct approach to the Board of Regents. There were a great 
many reasons to support the position of those who advocated 
this plan. 

Wo have these very interesting human considerations that 
were moving in the minds and hearts of many people, .'-he 
point that I* a trying to bring ou is that it was a time of 
great strain on the relationships between all the men who 
were involved, both from the point of view of the presidency 
and the point of view of the regents sad the point of view 
of the faculty. Many of the leaders of the alumni sad even 
the outside public got into controversies of one kind or 
another about the University. A letter of my owa which X 
happened to see recently in the University files, which was 

I * 

written in 1919 to David Barrows, says that fro* the very 
first notice of the retireoent of President Wheeler it was 
my purpose to bring about the Section of David P. Barrows 
as President of the University of California, and to 
accomplish that I made every sacrifice in ay power to bring 
Dr. Barrows* nomination to fruition* 

But during the days that all this was going on a very 
few people knew what was in the minds of other people, and 
the result was that there were great tensions and misunder 
standings that are readily explained by toe situation which 
I have tried to bring out here where a group of regents were 
hoping to retain within the University the Wheeler type of 
relationship and the Wheeler type of administration} and 
where the faculty on the other side were trying to reverse 
that entire position and gain complete control of their own 
program, even to the point of nominating their own members 
of ths faculty to the regents* *h* extremes on both sides 
were finally adjusted, as the records show, by the adoption 
of certain resolutions and certain of the regents' new 

The period of 1919 and 1920 was s difficult period for 
me personally because X was moving in a situation in which 
I felt all of those pressures. y mind was very clear about 
my own position, namely, that I had been very much compli 
mented by the thought on the part of many people that I 
should be President of the University. On the other hand, 
it was my own definite conclusion that Z was not the right 
type of man and did not have the right qualifications of 
aoademlo prestige which both the faculty sad Idle University 
itself required at that time. 

So. moving in that very difficult sons, we finally came 
to the decision that David P* Barrows should be eleoted 
President of the University* Many of the faculty were afraid 
and unhappy about this. Hany of ths regents were in grave 
doubt about Dr. Barrows' ability to administer the affairs 
of the University. The regents gave to the faculty at this 
time very much broader powers than the faculty had ever had 
before as a result of the demands that had been made, and 
Dr. Barrows acquiesced in them because he was carried on a 
current he couldn't stop or change. If he were to have any 
relationships of harmony with the faculty he had to accept 
the faculty demands. And so his acceptance of these new 
relationships formed the background upon which he tried to 
administer the affairs of the University. 


So that la what happened la 1919 in the fall and in the 
early spring of 1920. We had at that tine the question of 
the expansion of the University of California into Los 
Angelas, now U.C.L.A. I want to speak of that, because there 
is nothing that's more important in the whole changing 
educational policy of the University than this expansion 
ore that the regents then aade. I can just indicate how 
and why this oaae about. 

There had been an earlier move on the part of some people 
in Southern California to transfer the Throop Institute to 
the University of California. It was a private scientific 
and engineering school of high standing but the regents of 
the University themselves opposed that movement with great 

Throop later became Cal Tech. What happened wo* that, 
falling to join the University of California at Berkeley 
with Throop, the trustees of Throop then sought other alliances 
and developed out of Throop the splendid institution now 
known as the California Institute of Technology. 

In 1919 &r Brnest Carroll Moore, then at the head of 
the Normal School or Teachers College in Los Angeles, located 
on Vermont Avenue, appeared before the finance Committee of 
the Board of Regents sad proposed that the regents should 
consider presenting to the Legislature a bill which would 
pereit the University of California to take over the Normal 
School in Los Angeles and develop out of it a University of 
California in Los Angeles. 

Dr. Moore made a very fine presentation to the committee 
but after his presentation was finished and he had retired 
from the room I doubt whether there was more than one member 
of the committee who was ready to vote to undertake that 
program. President Wheeler was very doubtful of the wisdom 
of the proposed plan. Reluctantly he later agreed* 

The presentation made by Or. Moore was not the kind 
that would necessarily persuade San Francisco businessmen to 
undertake any great educational responsibility in Southern 
California. However, after that meeting, Guy Earl, Rudolph 
Taussig and two other regents and I went to lunch together. 
At that lunch time we discussed Dr. Moore's proposal. My 
own experience had been such that in the two war years 
previous I'd been in Southern California a great deal. As 
Food Administrator lor California In world War I, I had a 
large organisation in Southern California. Mr. Henry 

QmW ^y* k*-^ *** 


O'ttelveny, ot the firm of 0' Mel-may * Myers, was my legal 
adviser, I had a close relationship with Harry Chandler 
of the Los Angeles Times. Louis Cole, my local administrator, 
and many other prominent Men around Los Angeles were associ 
ated with us. It seeated to me that the educational responsi 
bilities of the University of California were not confined 
to the campus at Berkeley, nor could they be wholly discharged 
from the campus at Berkeley, even though we sight have a 
Citrus rscperiaent Station at Riverside or a School of Ocean 
ography at La Jolla, or an agricultural experimental plot 
down in the Imperial Valley. That did not constitute the 
educational facilities to which Southern California waa 
entitled. While it night be true that Jouthera California 
students night cone to the University of California at 
Berkeley, and aany had teas that in years gone by, the 
growth of Southern California was Just beginning. I stated 
to the Regents that it was apparent that either Southern 
California was going to have another State University or 
the University of California was going to expand by offering 
the facilities of education in Southern California and slat - 
where. I remember Baking that argument at that lunch table. 

I remember very well the support of Guy Karl for that 
point of view. The result was that finally the group who 
were at the luncheon felt unanimously about the desirability 
of Making progress on these lines. It waa thsa vary lata 
in the session of the Legislator* of 1919* A special 
meeting of the Finance Conoittee waa called Just prior to 
tile nesting of the Board of Begents, which occurred within 
the next few days. At that tiae the finance Committee 
rooo ifflanded to the Board of Regents that the Comptroller 
should be authorized to propose to the Legislature that the 
University of California should acquire the properties sad 
facilities of the Horaal School in Lea Angeles. 

One might ask about the wisdom of adopting a policy of 
building up branches of the University by acquiring from 
pre-existing institutions? This la a question that I think 
can only be answered by looking at the particular problem 
that you've got to meet. If you war* talking about 
acquiring such an institution aa Throop Polytechnic, and now 
looking at Cal Tech, it would have bean a great and most 
distinguished acquisition of the University of California 
if we'd taken over fhroop and been able to develop it into 
a aoientific school similar to Cal Tech. On the other hand, 
the history of this venture in Los Angeles is quite another 
story. 'e did not acquire the Normal School and attempt to 
work that Honsal School into a University, what happened 
was that we acquired a Koraal : chool and then, a few years 
after that, decided that a new University should be built. 
The Normal School waa then left intact where it had been 
prior to 1919 d where it is today as the City College of 
Los Angeles. 

* fctti 

ttftt a* 

It was a fine thing to take something that waa a clear 
evidence to the people of Southern California that the 
University of California waa in earnest. Acquiring a going 
institution and then out of experiment developing a new 
institution such aa we've done at U.C.L.A. , la sound practice. 

There were certain people who advocated the use of 
University intension aa a vehicle for the expansion of the 
University and I urged it earlier aa a temporary expedient. 
That was not aa practical aa taking an institution that had 
a canpua and buildinga and something you could look at and 
demonstrate that you were in business there. The University 
Extension was purely a group of people who weat down to Loa 
Angeles on the Owl at night, gave a lecture and returned 
the next night. There wasn't any institutional position In 
Los Angeles at that time for University Extension. It waa 
purely a public service. 

Aa a result of my recommendations to the Finance Commit 
tee and the Committee re corns end at ions to the Board to aak the 
Legislature to approve a new University in Loa Angeles the 
Board of Regents approved the recommendation. Moat of the 
Kegents didn't know what it implied. Bo program of expansion 
had been developed. There vaa no master planning of this 
program whatsoever. It waa simply because of what I had 
outlined here that Dr. Moore came and made a speech that 
planted a seed. Somebody thought the thing waa a good idea 
and from that wo proceeded to embark on legislation which has 
reaulted in a statewide University system. At that time no 
one visualised the end. This waa actually a tremendously 
new idea as a venture in higher educationa State University 
whioh waa statewide. But the Hegenta took one small step 
at a time. This waa the first like Topay It Just growed. 


Immediately after that meeting of the Regents in whioh 
I was authorised to persuade the Legislature to pass an sot 
to take over the Los Angelas Normal School, I weat to 
Sacramento. I was well acquainted with a groat many of the 
Senators and knew my way around. On arriving at Jacramento 
I sat in a little room on the top floor of the Capitol 
Building, all alone on a hot night, with a pad of yellow 
paper and a pencil and wrote out in longhand the bill that 
finally reaulted in U.C.L.A. I didn't even know the name of 
the institution whioh we were going to create to torn the 
plaoe of the Normal School. After I chewed the end of my 
pencil for awhile, I came up with a very unfortunate name, 
because it didn't suit anybody in southern California. The 
name I vote for this institution was the "Southern Branch of 
the University of California." The idea of the University 
was damned for quite awhile because of this name "Southern 
Branch," but I assume the responsibility for using that 
particular phraseology Just because of laok of any instruct ions 
or a better name to use at the moment. 

At any rate, having written this bill, Z went down and 
had it typed and got hold of * member of the Legislature who 
waft friendly and who the next nornin& introduced it to the 
Legislature. The bill paseed in the closing hours of that 

aeaaion of the Legislature in 1919. 

. _. 

We were then in business in southern California and out 
of that has grown U.O.L.A. And out of that has cooe th* 
great new growth of the University of California in the 
Sproul era of presidency, twenty-five years in which the 
University is now proud of its eight campuses and in which 
the University also now has its greatest problem, that is, 
in the maintenance of the harmony and the integrity sad the 
unity of this great structure that we've created. 

Iff RBSIOBAtlOH AS OOnmOLUBt - 1920 

The aove toward Southern California happened just prior 
to the inaugural of Barrows. ?he new institution was 
established when Barrows oame into the presidency. 

Karly in 1920 I handed in ay resignation to the Board 
of Kegents as Comptroller of the University and recommended 
Robert Gordon Sproul as my successor. 

fly notives for doing so were, first, that Z felt that 
I had Bade as nuoh of a contribution as X could to the 
University of California as Comptroller; that X was not 
needed by President Barrows; that Bob Sproul would make an 
ideal Comptroller. He was naturally, by temperament sad 
every other way, suited to University lifs. X told him in 
the last meeting we had together, Just prior to my leaving 
the Comptrollers office, that if he would follow the advice 
that had been givctn to me by Henry Horse Stephens and 
Benjasin Xde Wheeler, he might also get an education by 
doing certain reading of history and literature, and that ht 
should round out his education in these important fields. 
Bob Sproul does all things superbly well. Today, when X 
hear him make speeches in which he quotes from history and 
the great philosophers, ! think to myself, "Be eertstuy did 
a magnificant Job of reading." 

At any rate, one of the reasons that I left the Univer 
sity was because X thought that I had made my contribution. 

HOOVER JOB PRBSXnnrr - 1920 

Z think all my friends understood my reasons. Dr. 
Barrowa and X never diacussod the natter. What I undertook 
to do on leaving the University was to campaign for Hoover 
for President of the United fitates. During the war I had 
boen associatod with Herbert Hoover. I'd worked with hi* 
not only through the Jood Administration; I*d worked with 
him during the cloaing day* of Belgian Relief. 1 felt that 
Herbert Hoover was a Baa whose great abilities and experience 
qualified him to be President of the United States and the 
country needed his leadership. X talked to hia about the 
possibility of going into the political lifs. Then he made 
one of th several largo aistskea that tee has made in his 
political career, which all aen do at tinea. He made the 
public atateneat that he didn't know whether he was a 
Democrat or a He publican. 

Of course there was very little that one could do about 
a situation like that except demonstrate to the world at 
large that he was a republican. Therefore X conceived the 
idea that in California, whore we have direct primaries, 
Mr. Hoover's naoe should be presented on the ballot as a 
candidate for President of the United States. This was ia 
the spring of 1920. Xt WAS ny purpose on leaving the 
University to try to Make an available Republican candidate 
out of Herbert Hoover through his being a candidate for 
President of the United States oa the Republican primary 
ticket ia California. 

Thia waa not only ia opposition to Hiram Johnson, but 
it was a lost cause before we started oa it, except for 
aaking a Republican out of Herbert Hoover* 

Ve, of course, were young, enthusiastic oaateurs la the 
political business and felt there waa always a chance. You 
oan't tell what people will do. Bat with the old Rim 
Johnson organisation in the State of California anybody with 
any kiad of good sense would have known in the beginning that 
there waa very little hope for success. But we tried* 

^HsV" N' 

If there were any Johnson supporters who wore import eat 
enough to carry political weight who cane over to the Hoover 
camp, I do not remember their names* But the point I'm 
trying to make here is that in the spring of 1920 we did 
draw together a lot of aen and women who formerly had boen 
in the Food Administration or formerly were associated with 
Mr. Hoover at Stanford University, and some mining engineers 
sad young crusaders. Out of them we undertook to build a 
politioal organisation which was to present to the people of 

California at the primaries in May 1920 the aeae of Mr. 
Hoover as a candidate for ^resident of the United States on 
the Republican ticket. Ve went through a vicious type of 
political campaign because there are two things that, in 
politics, are dangerous to the success of amateurs. One is 
the skilled, hard, experienced politician who knows exactly 
how to cut everybody's throat sad pot a knife in everybody's 
back at the right Boaent. Aafi the other is the control of 
the great enthusiasm of amateur* who, when they try to do 
things, aren't always as wise as they should be and thereby 
create nany unnecessary persaal attacks. Ve got into a nasty 
fight. We lost the fight for the delegates but did sake a 
Republican out of Herbert Hoover. 

A lot of people helped* Henry Chandler's Tiaes 
supported Hoover because Chandler opposed Kiran Johnson, but 
Chandler was not personally active. Mrs. Ida Eoveraaa was 
very active. She was a very wonderful lady who la aore 
recent years beosae very proainent in the notion picture 
world, particularly in Mtro-QcldwynMayer, bat who at that 
tlae was a secretary whose services were contributed by oae 
of our good associates, Halph Arnold, a mining engineer 
friend of Hr. Hoover. 

Ralph Arnold was eartreaely helpful, being a Stanford 
aan end a alning engineer aad aa associate of nr. Hoover's 
in aany mining enterprises. Re bad no relationship with the 
food Administration but he did have this great enthusiasm 
for Mr. Hoover as a aan, and he aade a great contribution 
of tiae aad effort. 

Bdward Lyaan was one of a number of fine people ia 
Southern California who supported Mr. Hoover. But Edward 
Lyaan, like the rest of these people that Z speak of, was 
wonderful as a person but was not a politioiaa. Re's a 
fine lawyer but he knew little about polities and the rough 
and tunble side of getting votes. I had to harness a teaa 
of horses nost of which were not used to pulling any kind 
of political load. 

Mr. Charles Teague was a very strong supporter of 
Hoover '3 financially sad personally and he did all that 
anybody could do in his position. But what oar the head of 
a great agricultural cooperative aarketing organisation do 
politically and still hold his people together as a 
cooperative aarketing group that ia trying to sell oranges? 
If you become too active for one aan there are a lot of 
your asenbor growers who nay be in disagreement with you and 
you may not have as aany oranges to sell. There were 
limitations under which neither Mr. Teague nor anyone else 
in that sort of position could stake a contribution. 


Sara Lindauor was one of those extraordinarily enthusi 
astic people who again was a Stanford oan and a devote* of 
Herbert Hoover. I think that he gave in time and energy 
and effort as much as anybody did in that whole campaign. 
The fact that he was a Democrat was a great help, except that 
we had a "epubllean ballot and on it Democrats had no piece 
to vote in the priaary. 

When the votes were counted. Hiram Johnson swept the 
state for the nomination of President on the Republican 
ticket. That, however, waa not the end of the Hoover ca~ 
paign because we'd had it going all over the United States 
and we hoped we would have a chance to nominate Fir. Hoover 
in the Republican convention, which that year was very wide 
open as to the choioe of any presidential candidate. 


We therefore closed up this oaapaign in California and 
moved to Chicago. In Ohioago wo attenpted to bring together 
the various Hoover organizations all over the country to 
try to get the people of the enthusiastic, nonpolitical type, 
who cane into that campaign as they never had before, to 
build support behind the nase of Herbert Hoover. 

It was quit* apparent to us that the politicians were 
in control of the Chicago Convention and not the amateurs* 
However, it was also quite clear that the politicians 
didn't agree asong thercselv** as to who should b* candidate 
for President of the United States. We organised a Hoover 
rootinc section at the convention and Sao Lindauer was the 
loader. It was a very effective demonstration that we put 
on for Herbert Hoover. Wo had everything bat the votes* 
The noise, the numbers of people, wero on our side, bat whoa 
it cane to voting, the vote* wero being controlled by th* 
old line organisation, especially by the states of Illinois 
end New York and Pennsylvania. The power certainly didn't 
lie with the amateurs of California. Hor did it lie with 
Fir KB Johnson who was regarded as being too progressive by 
nany of the conservative elements in the political field at 
that tine* I use the word "conservative" to define the 
standard old line Republican point of view. Uiroct Johnson 
had been elected Governor of California to kick th* Southern 
Pacific oat of polities. H* had been a progressive governor, 
nore in the Teddy Roosevelt school than he was of the kind 
thnt was obviously going to be chosen by th* conservatives 
at Chicago. 

I think that Mr. Hoover was decidedly a Procreeeiv* in 
his sins. Be always wan what I would call & Liberal in 
any of his views. We all know his approach to the solution 
of probleas has been a slow, patient development of a Deans 
to acquire the conclusions that would be sound in the long 
run rather than any attenpt at snort cuts. The conclusions 


were progressive. Mr* Hoover was a humanitarian. He'd come 
out of his war experience as a man whose interest was in 
people, particularly in children, because of his groat 
relief work throughout the world. 

One might ask why my choice of Hoover over Johnson* I 
think the reason that Hoover, rather than Johnson, got my 
loyalty at that time was that while I had known Hiram Johnson 
and had been oat of his most active supporters during the 
time he was Governor, I felt that when ho went into the 
United States Senate and aligned himself with Senator Borah 
and opposod the League of Rations and became an isolationist, 
we then came to the parting of oar political ways* from my 
own experience, not only as food Administrator under Mr. 
Hoover, but later on in a mop-up of the Belgian Relief sad 
other worldwide relief agencies in which Z worked with Mr* 
Hoover, it was very clear to mo that wo could mot be an 
isolationist country any more. That day had gone by* Mr* 
Hoover represented the greatest trained mind we had in this 
country that had a concept of international relationships* 
Mr, Hoover warn known and respected throughout the world* 


The business men of California associated with us 
looked upon Johnson as a Prosecuting Attorney in spirit 
and distrusted him. Mr. Hoover was constructive, which they 
trusted. They thought Mr. Hoover was a man with experience 
that had taught aim to be understanding of big business. He 
would not necessarily bo a tool of big business at all* He 
would, on the other hand, bo sympathetic and understanding 
of big business because he'd been a part of big business. 
He'd been in some of the largest mining ventures in the 
history of the world and therefore knew problems of finance, 
problems of administration and engineering on a very largo 
scale. So you see it was quite a dramatic period in that 
1930 Republican Convention, in which the struggle was the 
old-line politicians endeavoring to keep control through 
some nominee who would be their nan* And yet they knew the 
brilliancy and the tremendous values that lay in this new 
star that t-ad appeared on the hori son Herbert Hoover, wo 
had many offers made for some sort of alliances. However, 
they were all rejected on the ground that in the long run wo 
would become obligated to some political group and we felt 
it would be better to keep the independence of the Hoover 
group. In this spirit wo wont into the voting for the 
candidates. Finally, Warren 0. Harding was the choice of 
the controlling politicians. Balding was an old-line, 
conservative, dyed-in-the-wool Republican, a man of groat 
human attraction and with many human weaknesses. One of his 
fine acts as President was the appointment of Herbert Hoover 
as Secretary of Commerce. 


Immediately after the nomination of Harding and his 

*;.,<* ?j-. 

election in Hovenber of 1920, the Cabinet was appointed 
I knew quite a number of nember* of the Cabinet. It was a 
mixture of able men and a few of Harding* a old associates, 
like the Attorney General, who led him into unhappy days. 

Mr. Hoover became Secretary of Commerce at the outset 
of the Harding administration aad there wore ia the Cabinet 
certain mea with whom Mr. Hoover had a very natural feeling 
of and or standing. Or* Hubert Work, who was the Secretary of 
the Interior, Secretary Wallace, sad a few others ia the 
Cabinet, were a fine typo of mea personally as well am 
administratively. But the Cabinet was dominated by the 
Harding group who had come out of his associations la 
Jlarion, Ohio, particularly lad by the Attorney Qeaeral. 

Aaong Mr. Hoover *s great contributions ia his years aa 
Secretary of Commerce was the developaeat of the Bureau of 
Foreign aad Domestic Coameroe aad the reorganisation of the 
entire departnent. I lived a great deal of those first 
Month* la his house la Washington. Wo talked about various 
appoint) melts that were to bo made. For example, the Bureau 
of Foreign aad Domestic Commerce seemed to Kr. Hoover to 
require a man who was young aad had a broad outlook oa the 
world, who would be courageous aad free from political oca* 
trols. I recommended to Hr. Hoover the aaao of Dr. Julius 
H. Klein, as a man to organise that Bureau. Klein was a 
classmate of mine hero ia California in the class of 1907* 
He was oae of Henry Norse Stephens' boys. Bo used to come 
in to the Faculty Club whan Professor Stepheas read aloud 
to us at night. X still have his cartoon of Stephens and 
the D.<mto group. Klein had gone -back to Harvard for graduate 
work aad at that time was teaching la Harvard aad was on a 
aiaaion In South America. 


Mr. Ho over aoked mo to wire Julius Kleia wherever he 
WAS in South America sad got hia back to Washington} that ho 
wanted to talk to aim. Kleia came. Hoover appointed him 
as the head of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
Klein developed that great bureau with worldwide contacts 
for the United states Governmeat, which has aad a tremendous 
effect on the development of our international trade posi 
tion. ,uite a number of the other men la the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce wore old friends of mine, some 
of whom I had recommended to Mr. Hoover. 

He had to get somebody to be the head of the Reclamation 
Service, which was not in his department but in the Depart 
ment of the Interior. And to that position I reoomaeaded ay 
old professor in the University, Dr. Slwood Mead. 

How, I should make clear my own plan of activity which 
I was to undertake as soon as the Hoover campaign was over. 



Immediately after tho convention X opened ay own office In 
lift Balfour Building im 8an Francisco as a Consultant and 
Property Manager. I was successful financially from the 
start. j?oa 1920 to 19^5 when I weat to fresno as President 
of the Son Haid iiaiain Growers I had ay own tiae aad auf- 
flcient funds with which to work an a voluateer for the 
jovemaent and la way public servicea that I will describe 
later. I vac never paid for any of these public services. 
:i ' i 

: x-V 

nmnvt BARROWS of 

I kept ay eontaot with the Univerolty through ay friend 
ship* with ftr. Sari and othar atabara of the Board of Regents, 
and with Boo oproul* Z watched with great interest the 
adainlet ration of President Barrows. He was always a loveable 
but am inconsistent administrator* This brought about an 
unfortunate break between Barrows aad ae. 

At first I was very sure of his succeas and used to 
hope that it night be possible to help hia to aake the 
University presidency the aoat successful thing la his life. 
He hadn't bean President aore than a year before ha began to 
be very unhappy in the position. His relationship with the 
Hegents grew constantly worse sad the records are a clear 
Indication of the loss of confidence by the fiegents in Dr. 
arrows as aa adaiaistrator. One day he said to as , "I 
don't understand this job of being President of the University, 
President Wheeler used to come to the office in the aorniag 
about ten o'clock and he'd stay till about twelve aad then 
he'd go to lunch ia the faculty Club aad three oat of five 
afternoons in the week he *d play golf with you aad with 
soaebody else. Be neat oat to dinners at night. It was a 
pleasant sad apparently an easy life* I have to work every 
day and all day, aad soae nights. Aad X don't like it." 

Aad ha said, "President Wheeler was a aaa everybody 
respected aad everybody recognised the greatness of hia 
position. They just push as around aad Z have to fight ay 
way with everybody. Z'a ia trouble all the tiaa. Z just 
don't understand it." 

Zt was a teoperaaental problem that bothered Dr. Barrows* 
That finally oulaiaated. of course t after four years in his 
return to teaching aad in his retirement, voluntarily, froa 
the presidency because he waan't happy and wanted to go back 
to being a professor, to being free, and giving hia outside 
time to the national Guard in which he had a great interest. 



At the time of Dr. Barrows' retirement the question of 
* choice of a Ereside&t oarae up aguin and once mor* the 
qualifications of a Stesidcmt of ac*deaic high standing were 
Bade the primary consideration, end I participated in those 
discussions. It seemed to as that if there was going to be 
an academic nan brought in from the University ranks as a 
aucoeoaor to President Barrens, it would be almost impossible 
to conceive that such a wan could succeed In being * satis* 
factory President if he had been a party to say of the 
controversies that had been going on daring President Barrows* 
regls*. There was only one man who, it seened to any of us, 
was available as She President of the University and still 
had be*n a raenbor of the faculty during the Wheeler era. 
That was the groat astronomer down on fount Hamilton who was 
looking at the stars most of the tlae and dealing in natters 
that were far removed fros the internal controversies that 
w*re goinfcj on in the University. As far as I know, Br. V. V* 
Campbell never attended a meeting of the Academic Council. 
As far as I know, he never participated in any of the academic 
controversies. And so he might come to the Presidency out 
of th0 ranks of the Wdvertjity as a great scholar in his own 
field \fithout oom&itneats or controversial atmosphere sur 
rounding anything of his past. 

Z continued to follow University affairs closely enough 
to sit in a meeting in which it was decided that Dr. Campbell 
should be the new President of the University. The Bsgents 
many times were kind enough to ask me to sit in meetings 
because of my long background of association with them and 
with these problems. 

When Dr. dmmpbell wan finally chosen as Prealdont of 
the University, I think that X may say that more than anyone 
else again, as in the Barrows selection, I was responsible 

He was the man who fulfilled all the requirements of academic 
prestige, and had administered his own institution on the top 
of Mount Hamilton with great ability and yet was not a party 
to any of the past background of the University controversy. 

No regents opposed Dr. Campbell but very few He gents 
knew Dr. Campbell. Be waa an isolated individual living 
with the stars on top of a mountain. Regent Crocker was the 
exception because he had a special interest in Dr. Campbell. 
Regent Crocker, being a man of great wealth, the head of 
the great Crocker bank, had given liberal donations to the 
Lick Observatory. Regent Crocker and his wife had 

o r.i>ny time* on fount Hamilton and Dr. Campbell 
had boon entertained sinny timaa in Regent Crocl:or*a home la 

Guy arl didn't feel very warmly toward Dr. Campbell, 
but he was very willing to try out this program* Earl would 
have prefer rod, at that tine, to go outside the University 
and iind somebody in the East and begin anew at that point. 

Bo serious effort was made to find any Eaetern person* 
It waa naturally assured that the reason* for electing 
TVirrows to the University still hold good, namely, that the 
University waa better off in the hands of a loader who waa 
chosen from a group fron within the University than, it waa 
to go oat and try to find some great educator's name from 
the East who didn't understand California an didn't have 
any concept about our particular policy* It was more a 
matter of local pride and prestige of oar local people. 

There is not a great deal that I oaa say about Dr. 
Campbell 'a presidency. It waa not a time of any groat 
constructive changes in the University. Dr. Campbell 
bargained, when ha beeame President, at the instigation of 
President Sorrows, for the academic powers that had previously 
been invested in President Vhealer and which he had had on 
Jft. tlanilton. Dr. Campbell 'a scope of previous administra 
tive relationships had never been very broad, aa waa natural, 
being on ttt. Hamilton* Bo he did mot bring to the presidency 
muoh In the way of knowledge of planning for the University's 

But as tine want on Dr. Campbell failed to carry with 
him the support of the alumni of the University smd the sap- 
port of the faculty and the student body. Be waa wholly 
unaware of the existence of the student body of the Univer 
sity. hey ware outside the scope of his way of living. 
thinking* vfcile he wanted to be kindly towards beys and 
girls, thsy were strange people to him and he didn't know 
quite what to do with them* The result waa that when the 
time came that fir. Campbell had reached the age of retirement 
sixty- five there were many powerful groups who did mot want 
Dr. Campbell to continue aa President of the University. 

Kr. HaJhMHRBtey and fir* Seylan and two or three others 
supported Dr. Campbell, but Mr. Karl and the group of Hegents 
of Hr. Sari's type were very restless with Dr. Campbell 'a 
lack of administrative ability* they thought that these 
abilities were very linited. Dr. Campbell was apt to be 
quarrel some at times about ainor matters and skip over 
entirely the larger concepts which these gentlemen felt 
were far more important. So it was not a very happy time or 
a time of great glory* 



< tO ' - ! 


3r* Capbell was vary ssuch opposed to faculty eomeittees 
sad schinry tad discussions and bold to tao Vhesler idea 
of powers of the President being wttooratio. Dr. Campbell 
didn't have I rod dent '.feeder's broad saaSerstandisg of the 
use of those powers and bo used thers in ways *&** ^resident 
Wheeler would nsver have drsaesd of having ttsed then* GOB* 
se^neatly, there was a consid Arabia repression of the 
faculty froedon that bad been created under the so-called 
faoulty revolution and that brought aboat e very strong 
reaction e.finat r Caupbell* 


It was fiuricg Campbell's presidency that I tees** a 
Hegent of the University* Before taming to that I mmld 
first of all Ilk* to record ay views mbont the scrstifitional 
-.-oi^Tcnt ooneerricr the Fegests in 1919. It was very 
apparent to Judge Varren Clney, Jr. f attorney &? *** BosJtd 
of Regoctc, end c. number of others aacng tihom X was the 
leader that the ori^irsnl Organic AeS of the tlnlveraity was 
not as el ear as it should be to protect the University in 
all Ratters, particularly ixisofer as the attempt en the part 
of the State Board of Control, which h*6 originally been 
headed by Hr. ICeylen, end their effort to secure a pre-audit 
syctcr, vhich vas siawly a device to control ell personnel 
sad salaries in the University* 

The point that Rr* 9eyl*n atteorted to mcke wns that 
all of the Uriverfdty RrproTriations should be reviewed by 
his Board of Control rrior to the tiae they went to the 
Legislature. There was no ebjeetion on the ^etrt of enybody 
rprc sent ing the University tw action on ell University 
appropriations by the l-esi?ltare itself. *he.t is the proper 
way to provide public financial support. Our objection was 
to the creation of a, politioel body appointed by the Governor, 
not elected by the reople as the Legislature was, which would 
pro-audit and thereby screen and sy what ootsld go before 
the Legislature for cocsi deration lor the and 
support of the University. Beylim vented to gjo wweh further 
end catee the University e dep^rtnent of the Steite Government* 
In 1915 be ft*Bnded control Of all Sfflariee sad all nyrointees 
of the R^F^ote. I Tainted out that the Regent a w?re public 
trust nnd e Btt<? Corporetior. p.afi independent of ell btate 
authority except the Legislature. This battle was eventually 
won for the University by the aaeisdirent of 1919* 

We 0ll agreed thet there should b a 

which roiil*! clarify the indepen^etiee of the 

: S I* 


5- .' 

v'4 - ..-., A. 

"*$&<< . ' 


University BMents through changes in the Organic Act which 
had b*ec paoasd la 1863. 

it was a vary difficult thing politically to 
interest anybody in an artandment to the State constitution 
t*iat was as fsr removed from the interest of the average 
as that particular abstract subject would be. So we devised 
plan by which interest of the aluani as a whole could be 
generated in support of this proem* As I had done in the 
bond isf.u of 1914 when we had obtained the support of the 
alucni, we went back again to the alunni with the proposal 
that this aroendxftnt to the State constitution should include 
-revision to rake the President of the Alumni Association 
an esvofflcio Regent of the University. 

It was to effectively bring to the attention of the 
aluicni thin particular proposal en She 9t* ballet and gain 
their support and personal interest. It would give thea 
representation directly on the Boerd of Regents, which was 
a very important scatter. If the Jfeehanic* Institute end 
ttie ntate Agricultural Society are represented on the Board 
it is far saore important to have the alustni represented. 
And the aloanl gladly and wholeheartedly entered into that 

' ? X ! 

Again, I went out with others and spoke in every sohool 
hoxise all over the state of California for that particular 
sr end went to the State constitution. It passed aid has 
served a ssoet important and useful purpose* 

In 1924 I was in fresno and President of the Sun Held 
Raisin Growers Association. Regent John A., Britten died* 
E hd been e friend of mine and of ay fesslly. Governor 
Richerdeon sought to appoint someone to his place who had 
an interest in the University whoa the Governor kaew ersd who 
would cerry on the work of Regent? Britten. 

I knew Governor Richardson because when I was a junior 
in y co lleg* course i the University I was one of the 
associate editors of the Pfflly Ottlifornian. the eollege daily 

paper, The paper wets ~rir.ted in rh* of flee of the Berkeley 
Gasette down on Center : treet. Friend Riohardson, later 
r-cvcmcr, owned that paper. IPhe Oasette was en afternoon 
paper and after it was gotten off the press the naterial 
for the Paily California!* for the nert day w.s brought down 
froB the en^npue J srd !rn)c?ttp of the ^3J.ifoml.8g. vae per fo meed. 
The typesetters, linotype wen, woul* vork or tho paper sad 
also those of ue who were on the staff would work with then. 
Governor Richardson, owner and editor, would ait there in 
the evening and take a kindly interest in all of us college 
boys glvl.ns us fntherly advice on our newspaper work. In 

'sj.'v ^.I'-wi: 

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that way I cnrae to know bi* and to have on admiration for 
the very hoaely virtues of Friend Richardson. 

!i4 T?Ichsrd.con wag a good Governor of California. 
Ro was an honeot nn. But he wo* & an whose viowt on 
statewide problems were lirited. In fact, he had no fcnow- 
of etntewide problems when ho becstao Governor, 

His viewpoint toward the TJnivoraity, of ooorao, wna a 
vory kindly an sympathetic one because he onne frov Berkeley 
and edited the town pcper and knew weaay of the facclty and 
all the lending student c. And ha woe really a Bpokea&an for 


At one tine Govercor P.iehardaon and I ware tho only 
ones *rho opponed the present UCLA cite. This is the r.tory 
of the choice of the site for the nni*eri*7 of California 
at Los Angelaa. I had trade, on ny ovm tific, as Ohnlrmcn 
of Building and Grounds CM*itte of the Heganta, on 
inventigetion of the any rAtee thnt hd been offered ia 
Southern Galifornin and I becoor eor.rinoed that there vaa 
one particular sltr that wia the beet tfeet OOttld be found. 
7hi site wac out beyond Paadena in lerg rineyBrdi ?oraaa 
whloh becked up on the one aide to Huctington library end on 
the other to what IB new the California School of technology* 
That vineverd land could he,re "hrrt obtained for a relatively 
sraffll asrrt cultural prle^. But ity jj&od friend a on the Board 
of ^ecentn, ^ir. Farl nnd many othera, were comrJltted tc the 
choice of the ait^ at Waatweod vher tfe* ^JnirerRity ie now 
loat>M. Anc* vhen it ean to a rote in the Board of Raganta 
I made a very strong plea for the site at Paaadena, and then 
Mr. Hart wsde th* peeeh for the site which ie now the site 
of th^ Fnivaraity of California at Lo* Angeles. Ho dencribad 
thi.t particul-r site a "tht golden aite. 1 Qrfatly & I 
regretted to do it, being wtseh yottnccr than way of th^ other 
wewbera of th Bonrd of ^eger.tR f and heriRf a lifetiiw? 
friendship vith ?^r. Earl, ?.n<* not venting to dicagrae with 
hla, I stood up iwaediately follwfins BJP* Carl's brilliant 
oratorical presentation of thia "goln alt** end ade a 
apeech sone of which I happen to roncnber* Zt went eoxathlng 
like thin t 

Mr* Barl'e atatewent wna true thet it wac a j-olden aite. 
It ws aurroun^ed by the howea of tha riea$ it tea Bel Air 
on one aide *n* Hollywood on 1?a< other and Beverly Rills on 
the oth*rj 9P.6 jtt-t? to blipr,< then it had the Old Sol-*iar 
Roim and rveyrd on the otfc^r. I ftid that Veatwood 
waa too a**ll and there was no piece for students or profeaaora 
to live. 

When I cot through I received uch applause. Oov<?rnor 
who we pri<1inc turred around and Bad* 

1C I VJ 

' ,: 



reaark, "Ralph, I think you're absolutely right. You and 
X are going to vote for this site oat in Pasadena, bat it's 
a lost cause for we will be the only onesand we were* 

Governor Biohardson and I were friend a, understood each 
other well, and he, in appointing ae as a Regent to serve 
out the tern of Mr. John A* Britten, gave M sa opportunity 
to finish my official relationship with the University ia a 
happy way. 

08008X10 U.C.L.A. 3Xf8 

The first problem which confronted ae as a member of 
the Regents was a site for U.C.L.A* We were arguing for a 
lost cause in arguing for the Pasadena site because there 
were very strong political aad business powers in Southern 
California who were supporting the site at Westwood. The 
owners of the site were allied financially with soae of the 
leading bankers and with Hegent Dickson and Regent Cochran 
the only regents who oaae froa Southern California. Xt had, 
of course, certain advantages, particularly to the owners 
of the property who retained ownership to auch of the pro 
perty that adjoined the University site aad was to be on the 
peripheral ria of the University. Immediately the peripheral 
cow pasture which had relatively small value, possibly some- 
where in the neighborhood of flOOO an acre, ultimately sold 
for something ia the neighborhood of 940,000 o* aore sa sore* 
Xt was a very generous thing to give a large piece of land 
to the University, oa the other hand, there is considerable 
offset to the gift if you give throe hundred aores or a 
little over and retain a little over 900 sores which multiplies 
to the degree I described. The then almost unsalable piece 
of oow pasture became a very salable piece of property to 
wealthy people who would build their hoaes around the 
boundaries of the University aad that was what happened. 

The fact was that the University of California at Los 
Angeles for many years was costly a day school. Xt was a 
day school for the reason that the value of the land ia- 
aediately surrounding the U.C.L.A. site beoaae so extra 
ordinarily high and so valuable to people of means who 
wanted to live close to the great educational institution 
that there was no nearby plaoe for students or faculty to 
live. There wasn't any boarding house, there wasn't any 
dormitory, there wasn't any fraternity house that could find 
a lot in that area. Most of the students lived miles aad 
miles away from the campus. 

8*8$ :.- .% 

" **** twirflM* 
>=- i . . . .-r jtt i 90ijftNr. 


- , 

s^vo *!*;' 

Years later when, at the invitation of the Bprouls, I 
happened to live for a part of a year or two in the Presi 
dent *s house, which is now the Chancellor's house* on the 
campus of U.C.L.A. , the campus was dark at five o'clock in 
the afternoon and nobody was on the oaapus in the evening. 
Of course, that's changed at the present tine. It's now 
just as active in the evening as it should have been, but 
it took a long time to Make that changeover fro* a day 
school to the kind of an institution that there is at the 
present tine. 

The background of our problem was that the University 
of California had acquired a going concern, a Hormal School 
or Teachers College with its faculty and buildings which 
were filled with the activities of a Normal School. There 
was very little space, very little faculty and very little 
of anything available for the University. It was still a 
Normal School with more popularity than it had bad before 
cause it had been acquired by the University of California. 
fme moment that the University of California acquired the 
State Hormal School it also was apparent that the University 
had acquired something that was a atop in the right direction, 
but it was not a complete atop amd had to be looked at as 
only an intermediate stop that waa in itself inadequate. 
The result of that waa that within a short time the Univer 
sity gave the Normal School property back to the functions 
of a city college in Los Angeles, concurrently with the 
acquisition of the piece of property at Vaatwood where the 
University waa to be located* 

""*, ,toam *f*d titefr ^-.jv^vt 

At that time I happened to be on the Board of Regents 
both as Chairman of the Endowment Committee and as Acting 
Chairman of the Grounds amd Buildings Committee. I had no 
deep fooling about the matter of choice of site except that 
I felt that the site in Pasadena would be a better one, but 
X wholeheartedly and loyally supported the plan of the 
agent a of the University in acquiring the Westwood site. 

Many things happened at that time that were disturbing 
to some of us. *he choice of an architect for the Westwood 
site was made by the Regents at a time wham the University 
architect, John Galen Howard, waa retiring* There waa no 
University architect to be brought in to coordinate the type 
of architecture that we had on the Berkeley campus with 
that which would be on the campus at U.C.L.A* The Regents 
appointed as an architect a Sam Francisco mam who waa a 
very able commercial architect. 

I think that Dr* Ernest Moore had a groat deal of 
influence on the architect from 8am Francisco whose mind 
was completely open, or, shall I say, completely blank, on 
the subject of what type of university architecture was 
most appropriate. Dr. Moore did urge very definitely the 

I ,* 

; .- ; .. ' * 

. . . 


adoption of the Italian type and was very much pleased with 
the face of both the library and Hoyoe Hall* The library 
ie taken from one of the churches in Bologna. U.O.L.A. *s 
architecture haa a very close Association witb northern 
Italian, especially Bologna. 

But the whole thing was a very remote connection. The 
University of California in Los Angeles has had a difficult 
tine, as has been had on the campus at Berkeley ss well, 
getting itself adjusted to the construction of buildings 
that were of s character suited to that particular area sad 
within the limits of the appropriations for buildings. It 
developed that the type of architecture that had been 
approved for U.C.L.A, wss very expensive, just as the type 
of architecture begun by John Oalen Howard at Berkeley, with 
the granite buildings, was tremendously expensive. 

It may be of importance to say in this record of U.C.L.A. 
that the changeover from Vermont Avenue to Westwood came in 
Dr. Campbell's regime. At that time Dr. Campbell wanted to 
have a clean start with an entirely new administration at 
Westwood, without any carryover of Or* Moore or his past 
academic connections. Dr. Campbell always referred to it 
as a Normal iichool and to Dr. Hoove as a Bormal School man, 
even though he had been the head of a Teachers College for 
several years. Consequently, that wss oas of the controver 
sies that arose, but there were others who fslt very strongly 
that Or. Moore had been responsible for the bringing of the 
whole Southern California expansion to the attention of the 
Regents, that he had been through the storm and the stress 
in the period of development of this program. The Regents 
felt that Dr. Moors deserved to continue as the head of the 
new institution at U.C.L.A. 

At one point, the Regents voted as Campbell asked, to 
leave Ernest Carroll Moore in his Teachers College on Vermont 
Avenue and get a new chief administrator for Westwood, but 
it was overruled at a later date, very shortly after that. 
Dr. Moore was a curious combination of an idealistic teacher 
sad a practical politician. He was a aaa who had very great 
ambitions for material and practical things* lor example, 
he wanted to build himself a president's house at U.C.L.A* 

Dr. Moore asms to as one day with a plan for the 
building of a house on U.C.L.A. campus for which he had 
gotten some money from people who lived in the Bel Air area. 
Knowing what it would mean to have a house built on the 
U.C.L.A. campus where Dr. Moore could live, and that it might 
be the beginning of competition in the University by having 
a President's house there and a President's house in 
Berkeley, I thought to resort to some type of diplomacy I 
told Dr. Moore that the plans were very good but there should 
should be more money for a larger house. I thought he 

. ;. r '..^ -. 


couldn't raise the money and that it would put the idea on 
the shelf* The result was that Or* Hoore wont out and raised 
ore money and caae back with the plans of the house as it 
now stands. 

I also served oa the Educational Relations Committee 
but my contribution was very minor. I sat in meting* which 
discussed such subjects as the relations between the faculty 
at U.C.L.A. and at Berkeley* We gave no great words of 
wisdom that I can remember, bat we did concur IK the requests 
of the faculty for the early concepts of the development of 
the kind of aeadenio interrelationship that exists at the 
present tine. 


Z was the Acting Chairman of the Grounds and Buildings 
Committee and supervised the first construction at U.C.L.A. 
1 was also the Chairman oa the Committee on Endowments. X 
think I was mads Chairman of the Committee on Endowments 
with rather a tongue-in-cheek attitude on the part of SOBS 
of the Regents who wanted to see what this young nan could 
do with a challenge of that kind to create any endowments. 
President Vheeler had always obtained all the endowments for 
the University and all the gifts for the University of 
buildings of various kinds and character that we had* Ho 
endowments that I can recall came to the University after the 
time of President Wheeler. 

I conceived the idea of securing for the University an 
endowment which would have an economic benefit to all the 
people of the state. It cane as a result of the experience 
of the period of depression which immediately followed 
World War I, when bankers began to foreclose on properties* 
especially farm properties. The thought that 1 had in mind 
was to create an agricultural economic foundation that would 
put up the warning signs when the values of land were getting 
too high and when the amount of mortgages was getting to 
the danger point t and point out any decline in the value of 
the agricultural products that might result in the fore 
closures such as we had had in the tragic sra immediately 
following World War I. 

I went one morning to the office of the Bank of 
America and walked in on the great President, A. P. Gianni ni. 
He was sitting at his desk in that open second floor of the 
building at Bo. 1 Powell Street in oan Francisco. Be could 
see all of his vice presidents at one tine and could talk to 


. . :- ,. . 

<&** -xrt t***K> fi * 


any one of them by yelling loud enough so that everyone in 
the rooa could hear* That avoided tat necessity of writing 
aetioranda and of using a telephone. 

I walked up to fir. Giannini 'a desk and sat dona 
opposite bin and said, "A* P., I've cone this morning to 
sell you something at the cheapest price you oan ever buy 
it. It* s soaething that you want and !' sure that you 
would be happy to talk about it." Re looked at at and his 
big voice almost blew ne out of ny chair by saying, "What 
in the hell ere you talking about?" I said, "A. ?>.. I'vo 
cone to sell you something that's very wonderful end very 
inportant to you and to everybody else and the price for you 
is very low." He said. "Well, what is this thing you want 
to sell me?" I said, *X want to sell you Immortality. 11 Ho 
said, "How the hell do you think you're going to sell s* 
Immortality? And how such will it cost?* X said, "It will 
cost you a Billion dollars this morning but tomorrow it 
will cost you more.* He said, "All right, go ahead and toll 
M what it is." 

So I then went on and outlined a gift fro* Jlr, Ciannial 
to the University to create the Giannini Foundation for 
Agricultural Research, and a gift to build the building now 
called Giannini Hall. At the end of ay talk Mr. Gianni ni 
was trcaeiidoualy Interested because he oould see his name on 
that building. X said to him, "ffh* University of California 
will last ouch longer than the memory of the Giimnini name 
in connection with the Bank of America. There at the 
University of California it will Always last. That** 
IcBortality. " 

This was not a standard device used to get endowments* 
It was a device I used once, and for that once it worked. 
It was the only occasion I ever used it. 

What happened in that particular case was also of 
interest because Mr. Giannini said. "Well, I'd like to buy 
it but I haven't any money." X said, 'You mean to tell me 
that you haven't got * million dollars?" He said, "No, X 
haven't got any money." Then he said, "I'll tell you, Ralph, 
what I hsvo mot. I've got an agreement with the Traneamerica 
Corporation in which X am to be paid a percentage on the 

earnings of the Trsnsamerioa Corporation. I don't know how 
auch it is* I've never drawn any money out of that agree 
ment but I might have a million dollars over there, 
can't tell. But you go over and ask the President of the 
I'ransamerice Corporation whether I've got a million dollars, 
and if I have I'll give it to you. I'll buy your Immortality." 

So I walked out from Mr. Giannini 'a desk and went to 
the office of Transamerica and saw the President of 

tfttt ac 


Sransaoaerica. I said, "Mr. Grunt, Mr* Gianni ni wants to 
know if ho** got a million dollars in his account here." 
Mr. Grant was very such interested to know why I should ask 
that question. I told him that A* P. had told me to aak 
him. So he called A. P. on the telephone and Mr. Gianni ni 
confirmed that ha wanted xe to hare that information. Mr. 
Grant looked it up in the records of Transajgerloa Corporation, 
care back laughing and said, "Yes. Mr. Gionnini'e got wore 
than a cillion dollars." So X said to bin, "Thank you very 
much. You* re going to lose the Million dollar* very quickly 
because f!r. Giannini'a going to give it to the University of 
California." Mr. Grant said, *tfy God, no, that would sever 
happen." I said, "Well, I 'a going back to tell kin that he 
has a million dollars and he's promised to give it to the 
University of California** 

The question of the gift being tax deductible cane up 
afterwards. Immediately when I went back there I told him 
about the faot that he had a million dollars and said, "Rr. 
Garrett HcHnemey is a member of our Finance Committee sad 
your friend and 1*11 report this to the finance Comitt*e 
of the Board of Regents sad ask Mr* KoJSaeraey to call ea 
you and draw the papers for the gift of the million dollars*" 
Of course after that oaae the question of the iaeome tax sad 
some of us testified about how the gift was made. It was 
deductible as a gift to the University of California. X 
have always been proud of my pert ia this generous gift of 
A, P. Giannini and X feel sure he has Immortality. 

**-,.;* a5 rl ^, lit*- 


1 f t - !*--. ' *f * f - fr ~ 

I think that the Board of Regents at that time, sad 
by that time we mean we* re talking about the 1920 to 1930 
era, represented the state as well as it was possible to do 
so. There was an overbalance of course in favor of Saa 
Franoiaoo, which was natural, because it was difficult to 
got people who were in Southern California to come to San 
Francisco to meetings of the ooamittees where the meetings 
were all held, and even to corns to Saa Trsaeisoo for monthly 
zaeetlnga of the Board of Regents. So the internet, 
naturally, was greater in Northern California than in 
Southern California at that tine. However there were some 
very fine, important people who were appointed on the Board 
of Begents from Southern California* I ayself, when :: waa 
on the Board, oaae froa ?resno, which was in the middle of 
the state* 

It's very difficult to try to describe men of the past 
era, without a great deal of thought and research, so as to 


give an adequate and appreciative description. But I will 
try to describe the Regents of those days who wer* best 
known for their leadership in different avenues of taie 
great public service. 

^^3, -i }' ,'U \\M i- 


t . .*>.. 

The Chairman who exercised the greatest power over 
oany years in the Board of Regents was Guy 0. Earl. I knew 
fir. Earl from the tine X was a little soy. X nave earlier 
described how our families attended church together. 

Our next meeting was, of course, at tme time that X 
becaae Secretary to the President and lived with Henry torse 
Stephens. Hr. Sari and 2%r. Tauaaig -other Hegents 
occasionally, but those two particularlywould come to 
spend an evening in Professor Stephens* rooms in the Faculty 
Club. snd I would sit there in the background around Mr. 
Stephens* fireplace listening to the talk between these 
people, largely about the University of California and about 
aattora of education. 

I reaeabcr one night fir. 2ausaig asked Professor Stephens, 
"What is education? 1 And Professor Stephens said, "Kducatlon, 
?ausBig, is the ability to answer the question." 

The relationship between myself and Mr. Earl warn life 
long. It was one of mutual affection and understanding. Mr. 
Bar! was a man who was difficult to know. Re did not make 
friends easily but when he made them they were lasting 
friendships* Mr. Earl had come out of a family that had 
taken up a homestead in Inyo County on the other side of 
sierra, and his father warn engaged in the hauling, mining 
and lumber business over in that area* And in those early 
days Guy Barl was brought up under pioneering conditions. 
The 3arls lived comfortably but had no luxuries. He grew up 
among the Indian boyn end girls. Be was educated at home. 
Ho cone frost Independence to Oakland to live because his 
tcothar wanted hie to begin a fornal education in school and 
collect*. He first went to Oakland High School. They knew 
so little about city ways that, according to hi own tale to 
ae, the first night en route to Oakland In a ho^ol they blew 
out the illurainfitjing goa and almost destroyed themselves by 
suffocation before they got to Oakland. 

Guy 2arl case out of that very simple life. He had a 
aarvolouc srersory. He never forgot a name. After graduation 
froa the University he went into private law practice nund 


then became District Attorney and later .it ate Senator from 
Alaaeda County. He belonged to the First Congregational 
Church of Oakland and participated in the fine things of 
Alaaeda County. Hi a brother, B. T, Karl, was the rounder 
of the Sari lectureship in this University* It's gone on 
for many years* Guy Karl was a great student of Shakespeare 
and, if you would let him do it, he would recite Shakes* 
peare's sonnets or start in at sons point in aoae play, 
which happened to be sonething that cane up as an appropriate 
natter, and would quote the rest of that play with all the 
parts and all the drama that he could throw into it* It 
would be an hour's session before you'd dare get up sad 
leave the lunch table when Mr. Sari had launched into his 
Shakespearian play* 

Guy fcarl was a profound student of law, a splendid 
public servant and a dedicated leader among University 


Mr* arl, acting as the Coalman of the Finance Committee 
of the Board of Xegenta sad the Chairman of the Board when 
ever the Governor wasn't present, had an understanding of 
the University and a feeling about the University in all of 
its aspects. Be would ooae every Saturday afternoon and sit 
on the bleachers with ae as long as Z was connected with the 
University, watching with enthusiasm every athletic contest 
the University took part in, was a member of all the com- 
aittees on the Board of Regents and gave wiae and devoted 
service. Guy C. Barl * great contribution in support 
of President Wheels* sad in support of all the things that 
helped to build the University of California foundations as 
they are today. 


** &* ' : 

Barl was still a Kegent when John Francis Keylan was 
appointed. Kr. itarl at first accepted Mr. Heylan's appoint 
ment believing that he auat be a rising young aan of promise 
because Mr. Earl had supported Hiraa Johnson, sad Meylan was 
one of Hiraa Johnson's young aen who had appeared out of the 
newspaper world. I soon found ayaelf in serious controversies 
with Keylan who asserted that he as Chairman of the Board 
of Control had a right to pass on all academic appointments 
and all salaries to be paid. X was successful in defeating 

Key land' s proposals. However, this controversy was known 
and discussed widely at the tlae. Later Governor Johnson 
appointed Keylan* as a Regent. Mr. Keylan came onto the 
Board of Regents with the support of aany people. Because 


S 0*. 



* * * 

tf/OW 9! 


he was Attorney for the Hearst interests which had given so 
ouch to the University, it was felt that his appointment 
was a great acquisition to the University, and that he 
would continue the Hearst asaooiation. There were others 
who didn't like Mr, Key Ian 'a polities or aggressive methods. 
He did nothing to create sweetness sad light. Rs was a nan 
who enjoyed vigorous controversies with as many people as 
he could possibly take on at one time. 
5ai$ t'a* 

Mr. Beylan had lived in controversy all of Ids lifs, 
whether it was in the courtroom or elsewhere as a newspaper 
man. Ke gloried ia it. This is why he enjoyed controversy. 
Jack did ore than love a good fight, he would create a 
fight for the purpose of having something that made Mr. 
Heylan prominent. Be was a aaa of great ego. His contri 
butions were probably acre ia the field of bringing out 
questions for debate than ia settling them ia a way that 
might be called a Judicial settlement. 

Assooisted with Mr* Earl was Mr. Rudolph Tauasig. Kr. 
Tauaaig was a very nioe gentleman. Es was in the liquor 
business* He had very little background ia aeadeaio contracts, 
but he had a great love of books sad owned a fine library, 
and in that way bad become a aeaber of the Mechanics Insti 
tute Library in 3aa Francisco sad president of the Mechanics 
Institute Library* He was a Regent for the reason that oas 
of the ex officio Rogsnts of the University is the president 
of the Mechanics Institute Library. la 1868 when the 
University was created the Mechanics Library was the fore 
most cultural center ia Northern California* So Mr. Tauasig, 
as president of the Mechanics Institute Library, was an eat 
officio Regent over many years sad a great personal friend 
of Guy Earl. They lunched together every day* They worked 
together on various projects. Mr* Tauasig made many contri 
butions to the University* Hoary Morse Stephens conceived 
the idea of acquiring the Bancroft Library* Mr* Tauasig 
was the one who contributed the first money sad was the oas 
who got many other people to contribute funds. Mr* Tauasig 
sad Professor Stephens working together brought the Bancroft 
Library purchase program to reality. 


Among the Regsats, a man of great power and tremendous 
legal ability was Garret t McSnerney. His aagnificant head 

was set on ft tremendous, vital body* -verywhere he commanded 
attention. When be spoke, be spoke with a knowledge of the 
law that wae never controverted. Be sad Mrs. KeBnerasy gave 
very liberally to the University la many ways. He wa a 
great supporter of President Wheeler, a very devout Catholic 
and the legal adviser of the Catholic Church la this area. 

Mr. Kc T ?aerney served on not only the finance Committee 
and the ndowments Committee, bat on a number of other 
committees of the Regents. He understood the intangible 
cultural values that were lodged in the University. Many of 
the other Regents were interested IB the tangibles! how much 
money is in the current year's budget and how much do endow 
ment a earn, and how much property do wo own* Things of 
that kind were the tangibles in which they naturally had 
their interest. ftr. tic nerney also understood, as Guy Earl 
did, the intangible spiritual values of the University and 
attempted to build them as strongly as possible* 


Wftsw -^ 

it- ' " 

X think of a groat many of the Regents, but in the list 
of those who wiU be remembered is James E. Hoffltt's name 
which will always stand out as a great fOroe for good la all 
things that had to do with the University. Mr. Moffitt was 
a graduate of the University, as was Mr. Barl. Mr. Moffitt 
was a man who began life with some means aad Allowing his 
father In Blake, Koffltt Towns, went oa into the banking 
world aad became a very wealthy man. Be gave of his wealth 
generously to the University sad usually anonymously. He 
sat on the student Affairs Committee when I was the Chairman, 
as the President of the Student Body* Ho very vigorously 
participated in the Alumni Association. 



John A. Britten, whom I've already mentioned, whoa Z 
succeeded oa the Board of Regents. Mr. Britton was a member 
of the Finance Committee and the Grounds and Buildings 
Committee and various other committees* As the President 
of the Pacific Gas & Electric Company ho had a very powerful 
position in ^an Francisco, and he sjaod his position wherever 
he was, in the University or in business, in a broad, 
generous contribution to the public welfare rather than for 
any selfish Interest for himself. 

*0 "I- 

? > ' 



Mr. Philip Ernest Bowles, waa oat of th* Regents, and 
very aotivo ffoa tha tioe that I graduated from the 
Univerait/ until 1922. Hie great interest in tha Univereity 
was in beauti lying the ground a, especially tha planting of 
traea. Sitting hare as wo ara now IB the Library oa tha 
oanpua of Berkeley, wo can look up to tha hilla where tat 
Radiation Laboratory ia located. X aat up there oa that 
hill oae day with Mr. Bowie*. 1% waa a bare, barren hill 
with brown graaa called Charter Hill, We aat by the big "C". 
He aaid to sw, "Tot* 're Ooagtroller of the Univeraity. Will 
you have any objection if I plant treea oa thia hill?" I 
said, "Not in th<- least} if you want to plant trees up hero 
you're more than walooae." 

ttr. Bowles took on thia project, beginning here on the 
Univeraity oanpua. He later on followed it clear down to 
Lake Teaeaoal. Mr. Bowles planted the hills of Berkeley 
with these treea that you see there now. I helped to lug 
aoae of those treea as little saplings ap there la ay arcs 
and "Pete" Bowles, as his frienda called hia, and I planted 
then in the holes hia aoa prepared. 

Besides being a great tree planter, he was interested, 
of course, in the life of the students, sad hia wife waa the 
donor of Bowles Hall, oas of the fine dormitories. 


0EOH01 X. 

ttr. George I. Cochran, at tha saae tiae he was a Regent, 
also a trustee ia the University of Southern California. 
Re had difficulty soaetiaea in knowing which kind of a 
asating he was in. Jtr. Cochran, however, was generous and 
helpful, particularly in the natter of participating ia the 
development of the University of California at Loa Angeles 
sad Scrippa Institution. 


fir. Willie* H. Crocker was a an whose great wealth 
was used by him in many, many fine ways in the davelopaent 

of University educational facilities. Am a Regent he had 
very little patience in sitting in long Meetings diaeussing 
acadonic natters. He was interested in that category 1 
Mentioned a moment ago, of tangibles, rather than intangibles, 
I remember one tine nr. Crocker came into a Meeting of the 
Finance Cocitaittee and the Chairman was not present. When he 
oane to a Meeting Mr* Crocker would take mat his watch and 
lay it on the table so that he could see hew Many Minutes he 
was there. At this tiMe he said to Me, "What is the business 
before this Meeting?" X produced the ejenda for the Meeting 
and he went through the agenda, which was rather long. X 
tried briefly to explain each one of the iteMs. flr. Crocker 
was only interested in a clear presentation of the Tactual 
situation and not in discussion. Finally the agenda was 
completed. Re looked at his watch and said, "GentleMen, 
this Meeting has completed a great deal of business in twelve 
Minutes. That's the best Meeting the Beard of Regents ever 
hold." He was generous, kindly, helpful, and always a great 
friend of the Presidents of toe University and a great social 
ally because he used his social and financial position to 
assist the University. 


Edward A. Dickson has been called the "Father of U.C.L.A. " 
by his friends but the facts do not seem to justify the full 
extent of such a eulogy. Kr. Diokson had nothing to do with 
the Move of the University to Los Angeles which was started 
by Doctor Koore which X have described elsewhere. However 
when the Regents decided to return the Vermont oaapus to 
tho State for a Teachers College Mr. Dickson promoted the 
present site of the U.C.L.A. oampua. This, as a Regent at 
the tine, X opposed because the area warn too small ae has 
proven to be the ease* However Id Diokson won that 
fight for the Vestwood location and ia the only Regent of 
record to have had an office for hiMself on the campus. 
Proa here during the early years of U.C.L.A. he dominated 
the development of much of the University policy. He 
published hia own account of his activities in a privately 
circulated volume. Much that he did was good and his name 
is perpetuated on the 


John M. Bahalman only served on the Board of Regents 
ae an ex officio Hegent during his period of being Lieutenant 

Governor, Ssheloan was a groatly loved character, both as 
student of the University, President of the A.S.U.C, and 
later on in hia contributions to public life in this etate, 
Re was the flrat Chalrnan of the Railroad Coaalssion, now 
known as the Public lltilitios Coaoission. 

Mr. Mortimer Tleishhaoker waa originally Treasurer of 
the Hagontsi and then waa appointed aa * Regent aad served 
frow 1919-193*. He was * very oloao friend of H** Sari sad 
waa President of the Anglo Bank* Re and hio brother gave 
generously both to the oity of San Francisco aad to a number 
of projects at the University. Mr. Flelshhaoker's great 
contribution to the University waa in his Attendance at 
seetings of the finance Coaaittse, the Endowment Goaalttee, 
Grounds and Buildings Conmittee, and the prestige that the 
Fleishhaoker name brought to the University. Rs waa a asm 
who had all of the fine qualities that could be asked for. 
8s waa a banker, sad in those days the banking business was 
highly competitive sad it wss difficult to find people in 
the banking business who had the generosity of aind and 
fearleaanesa of motion that !tr. lleishhaoker had. 


Mr. Arthur William Foster, served for 32 years, most 
of the tiae on the Finance Committee sad on the Agriculture 
Coooittee. Re wss s toweriag figure, both physically and 
in hia great publio standing in this area. Probably ss 
wuch as any aan, Mr. foster had to do with the development 
of tho north coast region, the spread of the Northwestern 
Railway. Re was a very conservative aan, sad was s aan who 
believed that the state of California wss bounded on the 
north by the end of his railroad sad on the south by South 
San Francisco. Nothing existed in xmthern California ss 
for as his thinking was concerned. It wss in soaa ways s 
very good thing that the University had that intense loyalty 
of A. W. Foster. Re had a large family of boys sad girls 
who went through the University of California aad became 
loyal aluani. He left hia aark on the entire northern part 
of the state, particularly because of the qualities of 
honesty, integrity, and conservatism with whidh he safeguarded 
the interests of the University. 





It la difficult for t to apeak about Mrs. Hearst 
because others hare spoken about her with far greater 
acquaintance than X have had. At the MB* time Z knew her 
when Z was .Secretary to the President of the University. 
ftra. Hearst was the largest donor to the University in her 
day. Sb took an into her confidence in many Batters 
because of y relationship with President Wheeler as his 
Secretary. She invited BO down to Pleasant on to stay week 
ends at her lovely hone at the Hacienda. The present 
generation of her grandsons who now are the heads of the 
groat Hearst organisation were boys growing op there. 

Z was not too old to play with boys the age of her 
grandsons. Zn that way Z become sort of a week-sad member 
of the family over two or three years, assisting Mrs. Hearst 
in getting together lists of works of art that she wanted 
to give to the University and for which we hoped at oae time 
that there might be an art museum built OB the campus. All 
of us who knew firs* Hearst and who worked with aer ware de 
voted to her as one of the most wonderful women. She exemp 
lified to more men than any woman that Z have ever known, 
the kind of a woman that every man likes to think of as the 
ideal wonsn. She was sweet, kindly, dignified, generous. 

ithetio and understanding, with all of the fine qualities 

mioh a parson can have. 


Chester Rowell was a nephew of Or. Rowell, who was at 
one time a Regent too. Chester Howell was a brilliant, 
acadeaic type of mind. He cams from Columbia University 
where he graduated and where ha taught* Then he went to 
Washington where he had some political experience aad came 
to Fresno where ho became the editor of his uncle** paper, 
tho Tresno Republican. Jtr. Rowell was a progressive 
Republican. He was a Theodore Roosevelt Republican. Re 
was a Hiram Johnson Republican. And to ttr. Chester Rowell, 
probably more than to any other man, la due the credit for 
those new progressive developments in the political life 
of California that came in with the Hiram Johnson election. 
Johnson was a prosecuting attorney type of man. He was * 
man who was elected Governor to clean out the Southern 
Pacific machine, but without the help of Chester Howell he 
wouldn't have known what to put in its place. Mr. Rowell *s 
brilliant nind developed or borrowed such things as the 

\ 9t 

. -..:.. '- ' 


initiative and the referendum, the Public Utilities 
Commission, of which Jack Kshelman became toe first chairman, 
the Blue .Jky Law, creating corporation commissioner, the 
Stats Highway Coaaission. and other developments which we 
now take for granted in the state of California. Host of 
these had their birth la the mind of Chester Rowell. 

Chester Rowell and Z knew each other setter, of ooorss, 
in the days Just before his death, and when I went to Iresno 
as the President of Son Maid Raisin Growers. He had retired 
at that time from the active editorship of his paper and soon 
thereafter sold it to the Osbomes, who later sold it to the 
McClatchys. Mr. Rowell beoaae a member of the Board of 
Regents in 1910, serving, as I remember, for about 20 years. 
He was the one man on the Board of Regents who had an under 
standing of the academic point of view and the academic 
requirements of a University. Be was extremely sensitive to 
the protection of the academic side of the University snd 
was the court of appeal, more than any other one man, for 
professors and groups of professors who felt that they 
wanted access to a Regent. The Regents nearest to the 
faculty were Chester Rowell and James K. ffoffitt. Rowell 
was a brilliant* nervous person. As he talked his head would 
jump from side to side and if be was at his desk he would 
tear up little pieces of paper and make figures of dolls 
and boats. Ons would go orasy watching him as he would do 
all these doodling little tricks* At the save time the mind 
of the man was one of toe most wonderful, vigorous, clear 
minds that God ever put into a human being that I've ever 

Kr. Charles stetson wheeler was a Regent of the 

University of the same general school of thought as Gay Karl. 
They had been fraternity brothers in college} they were 
lawyers who*d been associated in their younger days in the 
same law office; they belonged to the same duck club and 
shot duck on the Suisun Harsh. I was privileged to be an 
ex officio member of that duck club and saw a great deal of 
those two men, both when they were working and when they 
were at play. Heither Mr. Larl nor Mr* Charles Stetson 
Wheeler aiaoked. I don't remember seeing either of them ever 
take a drink of any kind of liquor. They were normal, fine, 
vigorous mentalities. r. Wheeler was a most dramatic typo 
of public speaker and served with great effectiveness over 
a period of many years, from the late 1900 's up until 1950, 
as a member principally of the Committee on Grounds and 


414? j; *. 



Monaaignor Charles Adolph Ram waa a graduate of the 
University of California, a nan of very profound religious 
qualities and another close vigorous friend of Guy Karl* 

The Board of Regents was cade up of en of the typo X 
have tried to describe in this informal way. I hope that 
what X have said here will be regarded only as personal aad 
informal tributes to Regents whose memory it is important to 
keep alive. The University of California as it io today ia 
the result of the dreama that they undertook to Bake cone 


I now aa going to talk for a moment about Judge 
Warren Olney, Jr. Judge Warren Olney, Jr. waa one of the 
handsovest sen I over saw* His father waa a proiaineat 
attorney in San Francisco. Their law fira has gone on Air 
any, aany years and still ia one of the groat firas of this 
state. ?lr. Olney waa another member of the first Congre 
gational Church of Oakland whan I waa a little boy* He 
used to cone to church with his wife, who waa the daughter 
of the Minister of the First Congregational Church, Dr. J. K. 
KoLeaa. Judge Olney waa the kind of man who in his fine, 
handaoae way looked very severe aad unapproachable* But ho 
was a very understanding Kan and gave a groat deal of his 
tine to the University and unselfishly contributed his tiae 
as attorney to the Board of Regents without salary* My 
experience with Judge Olney waa not only in connection with 
the University, in which he provided the basic law decisions 
and opinions upon which the University rests today, but 
outside of those things he participated ia public Matters 
that sometimes were to his great personal disadvantage. So 
beeaae a Justice of the State Supreao Court as a public 

Ho one can look at the history of the University during 
the critical years In which Mr. Olnoy was the attorney of 
the Board of Regents without realizing that Warren Olney 'a 
guiding of the legal aspects of University growth aade for 
the soundness of our present University security, as contrasted 
with other state universities which are so often raided by 
political interests and which are not secure from the impact 
of political forces. 1'here has not been any such a tragedy 

ma* * *& v$ *J* 

**<* -.drfr ^ 

in the lift of the University of California* This 1 
largely because of the protection given to the University by 
Judge Warren Olney, Jr. *s legal opinions and legislative 


One problem that I had to do with as a Hegent that 
might have been inportant was the very understanding relation* 
ship which 1 had with Robert 0* Sproul, whoa Z nominated to 
succeed ne as Comptroller of the University and with who* I 
had worked in the hop* that the day would cone when he might 
be President of the university of California. 

Very early in the period of the Barrows presidency 
there ocuae a time in which the office of Comptroller was 
involved in a controversy between President Barrows and the 
itagents. It was a difficult time administratively for Bob 
3proul and he often came to me for the purpose of discussing 
some of these problems. I remember I said to him that it 
had always been my desire to see an academic man become the 
President of the university of California. X mad become very 
much discouraged in my efforts in that direction by finding 
that the academic man whom we had chosen for president, fir* 
Barrows, hadn't produced the happiness that we had anticipated, 
-'hat was confirmed of course later in Dr. Campbell's regime. 
So I said to Sproul at the time we were discussing this matter 
that one of the things against him of course was that he, 
like myself, had no academic background. He waa a graduate 
of the Engineering College as a civil engineer, which waa a 
fine thing to give a man a clear, definite, precise mind but 
that he had to put something into that mind which would 
relate itself to the matters of history* philosophy, litera 
ture, art and other thing* that make up the well-rounded, 
educated men. told him I had bad an experience in the 
years in which I had been with President Wheeler and with 
irofeasor Henry Morse Stephens in which both o those 
friends very kindly had pointed out to me the necessity of 
reading certain things which I had entirely missed in my hop, 
skip and Jump through ay academic years of undergraduate work 
and which Bob Sproul had also missed in his training as an 

I suggested to him that he undertake the reading of 
various books on history and on the great literature of the 
ages* He took very kindly to the suggestion and for quite 
a long tine this process of his reading and our discussion 
of its values went on. Once I said to him, "Some day, Bob, 

% 4k, fcafc- 


Z want to see you become the Provident of the University of 
California. When 700 do. I want you not to be a oivil 
engineer but X want you to be a human engineer who will 
understand the background of history and the arta and 
literature. Tou understand aoadelo administration and 
have all the qualities to sake a great President. * 

Toward the vary and of my own regency, Dr. Campbell 
became 65 years of age. Thar* vac a desire on the part of 
hia supporters among tha Regents to have hia continue bo- 
yoad that age. On tha other hand, President Wheeler had 
retired at 65- It had aade a precedent that many Of us 
thought should os preserved. The Majority of tha Board of 
Uegeats felt Dr. Campbell should be retired at the tine ha 
was 65 but no ona on tha Board of Regents at first was 
willing to say so openly. 

At a sating of some of thoso Hagants who gatherad 
around * lunoheoa table this was disoussod, sad it seamed to 
be generally agreed that I should be tha oat who should aake 
tha notion on tha Board of ttegoats to retire Dr, Campbell 
whan ho became 65 years old. Kealltiag the vary Important 
man who were supporting Dr. Campbell, there were sons of tha 
Regents who felt that while, for the good of the University, 
they wanted to bring fir. Campbell's term to an and, at the 

tins they didn't want to Initiate suoh a controversy as 
might result from being the spokesman for it. 3o, in a 
Tory persuasive war. those gentlemen, proceeded to asks it 
clear that after all I had vary little to lose In this 
mats or as they might have* X wan not at that tins in 
business in Sam Francisco; I wasn't a lawyer or banker 
competing with other lawyers and bankers, all of whom as 
Regents wars involved in either supporting Dr, Campbell or 
opposing Dr, Campbell. So X wan asked if X would make the 
notion to bring Dr. Campbell's presidency to a close. 

I stood up before the Board of Regents within a day or 
two after that meeting and made the motion that, with all 
due honor and respect to Dr* Campbell and with fall payment 
of one year's additional salary as President of too University 
with the sad of that aoademio year, Dr. Campbell *a term 
should be brought to a close* There were some pretty violent 
things said in that Board of Regents meeting, and nost of 
them were said at ne* However . when the vote was taken the 
motion which X had made carried and consequently Or* Camp 
bell's tens came to an end. Xt was a vary bitter blow to 
Dr. Campbell and his friends, for which X have never been 

My own term of office came to an end Just a few weeks 
later. X was not reap pointed as a Regent by Governor Young 
at the expiration of the Britton term. X didn't have the 

of making the notion nominating Robert Gordon 
Sproul as Preaideat or the University, whoa I ha4 hoped to 

be able to nominate. 

But my work was done. Bob Sproul was the obvious and 
popular choice for President of the University. hs past 
25 years of growth mad glory of the University have eons into 
being under His leadership. That achievement Is for others 
to appraise. My own deepest satisfaction will always be 
found ia my participation ia various ways ia being ens of 
those who built the foundations for the greater University 
of California of this and future days, for this opportunity 
of service I an deeply grateful. 

I went out of the regency at the end of my tem 
Governor Young appointed as Regent a great friend of nine, 
Charles ?eague, who at that tine was the President of the 
Gunkiat Cooperative Organization in Los Angeles. But 
personal relationships between Robert 6. Sproul nd myself 
have continued like a younger sad an older brother in all 
the years that have gone by* Us visit together, we write 
each other persons! letters on various natters. We think 
alike i X hope, on many natters. As far as I know we do, sad 
I have felt that if there was any contribution that I have 
aiade that is of lasting value to the University, it was in 
the development of Robert G Sproul. 

As I look back on the past 25 years I an sure that Cod 
guided the choice of Robert Sproul to lead the University to 
Its present great prestige In the world of education* 


How X think it*a tins to torn the clock back in the 
story which X an telling sad return to the year 1920 when, 
having left the University and having completed the Hoover 
campaign in 1920, X had set up my own office ia the Half our 
Building at the corner of oansone and California streets in 
3an Francisco. Here X undertook to develop the kind of 
service for property owners that would eoabine the aaaage- 
Bent of properties with consultative service, to include the 
handling of certain corporation problems which night be 
brought to as fron tins to tine* A nebulous idea, possibly, 
in some ways, but it soon took very definite fora. X was 
asked by the Regents to continue ay nanageneat of the 
Kearney Vineyard Properties at Fresno. 7or several years 
with Parker Erisselle, who was the general aanager of those 
properties, I continued without pay to be associated with 

problems of Kearney. X was retained for pay by one or two 
of the banks of Ban Francisco to maaaf* properties which were 
not producing the Income necessary to service the loans that 
the banks had Bade. I found a great deal of interest in 
the various kinds of problems that banks had walked them 
selves into, both personal and economic, by which through 
personal attention I was able to make a sound loan out of 
a soar loan through advice to the operators. 

I found that there were corporations that had problems 
in which they needed unique kinds of help such as, Dor 
example, one of the largest lumber companies up In the 
redwood area in flunboldt County In which there were dif 
ferences of opinion between the four members of a family 
who nndo up the board of directors. They employed s as 
the chair-nan of their board to be the uapire and referee in 
all Batters in the management or their large lumber interests. 
Before long I had ranch properties, business properties and 
corporations ae clients. None of the*), however, required a 
fixed amount of time, all of them giving me a certain amount 
of freedoa of action* The combined income which developed 
within the first year of that operation permitted Be to 
undertake a large number of publio servieea that Z vas 
happy to do end for which I waa never paid. 

I began to own SOBS property at this tine. Z owned 
no property at the beginning but as one of the severs! early 
undertakings in ay office, I bought 1200 acres of land from 
the ern County Land Company. The Kern County Land Company 
had been one of our chief competitors in tho southern end 
of too Snn Joaquin Valley whan Z was with Killer and Lux. 
I bought no Miller-Lux land and had nothing to do with 
Ciller-Lux properties* The kind of holdings of good lands 
which I would hove liked to have bought were not at that 
tioe being offered for sale by the Miller-Lux estate* Host 
of their sales were Bade to small holders who would be 
settlers creating homes on small ranches. 

But Z had long had in mind a desire to own a piece of 
property in Horn County and develop a commercial demonstra 
tion of Crowing cotton. Whan I had had the University of 
California property at Kearney, wo were lookinc for diversi 
fication of cropa In 191? and it seemed to Parker Priaaello 
and! Be that cotton was one of the new arops with which wo 
night diversify and moke racney on land which was not being 
prpfitable when planted to grain or alfalfa, or the usual 
type of annual crops. Jo looked at this cotton situation, 
particularly the- possibilities of long atapli cotton. 
During the war wo grew Egyptian long staple on Kearney 
Vineyard and it had at firat bacome very profitable, but 
the price of cotton fell from 51.25 a pound to about ?0 oenta 

ft pound between 1918 and 1920* In 1920 a new type of 
cotton was brought into California developed, I should say- 
in California at the United states ixperimental Station a* 
ohafter, largely through the effort 3 of Dill Camp, who was 
in charge of that station Acala cotton. Xt waa a cross 
between abort staple ootton and the long staple cotton and 
had a sufficient increase in production to make 09 for the 
losses that we might have had in volume in growing short 
staple* but at the aane tine the increase in price over short 
staple cotton was sufficient to Make it attractive. AM a 
result of this experience I wanted very much to go into the 
ootton business for myself 

One particular piece of property near Uasoo seemed to 
me to be especially attractive for that. It was raw lead 
owned by the Kern County Lsa4 Ooapeny and X was negotiating 
lor its purchase* At that time Mr. Hoover and X were closing 
the records on the Belgian Relief in Hew Tork sad drafting 
the final report* Looking into my personal future X told 
him of *y ootton growing plans* He asked ne if I would be 
willing to have a partner* The result was that in Mr* 
Hoover's name I bought ttiie 1200 acres of land fro the 
Kern County Lead Company, and we proceeded as partners to 
develop that property* 

X found a young nan who was a graduate of the University 
at Davis, Harvey Kilburo, who became the manager of the 
property for us* On this property we sank wells* developed 
water and grew ootton* Xt was a large* intensive agricul 
tural project which took considerable tine, bat left tine 
for other contractual operations and public service* 

Ky later Interests in owning land came when X was in 
Fresno in Sun Maid, but at this tins that wan the only piece 
of property which t owned* 


There was tine that X could use as X wished and X was 
happy in becoming associated with some of the very important 
fundamental developments of California in those years* I'd 
like to talk about those a little bit to clarify some of 
tho historical background which in the meantime has been 
somewhat clouded or lost. 

Xn 1919 X WAS asked to become a Director of the 
California Development Board which met in San irancisco and 



appeared on the surface to have some public service useful 
ness. After I had been on that Board and attended It a 
meetings for a few months it seemed to me as though it was 
another and somewhat vague type of Chamber of Coaneroe, 
solely for the Bam Francisco or Northern California area. 
Zt carried the naas California and it seemed to a* as though 
there was great need of an organisation which would 
represent the business and agricultural interests of Cali 
fornia as a whole. So, early in ay association with the 
California Development Board I introduced a notion that an 
effort should be made to change the scope of activity of 
the Board to be inclusive of the stats of California as a 
whols* As so often happens, the MSA who doss the Most talk 
ing is Made the chairman of the comcittee. 


I was asked, sines X believed this, to go to Southern 
California and see what could be done to interest people in 
Los Angeles in joining with the people in Saa Francisco in 
creating a now and broader scope of organisation to be sailed 
the California Development Association. Z accepted tola 
challenge because it ssemsd to as as though the time had 
come to do away with the struggle between the north and 
south in California, sad to asm! the old wounds, sad to come 
to the place where ws acted as Californians sad not as 
people who represented our little local communities. There 
was a California Industries Organisation at this time which 
later was absorbed into thin larger organisation of whioh X 

Z went down to Los Angeles. My old friend Clinton 
Killer, who will be remembered in the Univsrsity of Cali 
fornia history as the man who stole the Stanford Axe sad 
who'd been a guide and counselor of mine in ay freshman 
year and a fraternity brother, was at that time finishing 
his term sa president of the Los Angeles Chamber of Com 
merce* Z unfolded the plan to Clinton Miller of a statewide 
organisation and with him went to call on the secretary of 
the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. Ws were promptly told 
that Los Angeles had no interest ia anything north of 
Tehachapi and that such a plaa waa fantastic and impractical 
aad that Los Angeles Chamber o* Commerce would have nothing 
to do with it. 

Ws were not discouraged but went from there to talk to 
Mr. Harry Chandler, the very remarkable owner of the Los 
Angeles Times and owner of large agricultural properties in 
Southern California and across the line in Mexico. He warn 
a man of great vision. i'r. Chandler immediately saw the 
value of the kind of organisation that we were discussing. 
He then arranged to have other people in Crouthera California 
meet with Miller and myself, with the result that Z stayed 

JWMtt? .S 


, A* rf** 



" : . : 

. *i 


in Los Angeles a month and daring that ttae secured the 
approval of the Los Angeles Chaaber of Comeree board of 
directors, over the protest of their secretary, sad also 
the approval of a large number of important Individuals 
such as Mr. Chandler. 

I returned to San Francisco and. based upon ay report, 
a larger committee was appointed in the Developaeat Board. 
The name was changed by resolution to California Develop 
ment Association. The larger committee went to Los Angeles, 
ilr. Kale* Mr. Dormann, Mr* Zoster* others of that type of 
public-spirited aen v worked out with ttr* Chandler and Mr. 
Killer the agreement for the Development Association which 
case into being in August 1921 by the change of naae from 
the old Develops*** Board* That organisation in 1929 became 
the California State Chaaber of Coaaerce. 

The first great undertaking was the creation on the 
part of both the north and the south of the recognition of 
the existence of the state of California as a unit, as a 
hamonious entity. Hany probleas then began to develop for 
such an organisation to study and upon which to aake 
recommendations. I had to do with sons of those and would 
like to give ay own description of the work of at least two 
of the committees with which X had to Ac. One was with 
water, the planning of the use of water in the stats of 
California aa a whole* fa* other had to do with the problem 
of legislative reapportionaeat within the State. Z was the 
chairman of both those ooaaitteocu My tera of office aa 
director of the Association began in 1921 aad ran until 1931 
so that in this period of tlae frca 1921 to 1931 the results 
of the work of those Coaaittees came into being* 


X was appointed as the chairman of the first statewide 
water committee, without any understanding on the part of 
either the Association or any of its aeabsrs as to wast the 
scope of the responsibility of thia committee might be. X 
was permitted to recommend the membership of the coaaittee. 
Again X want to say that I was always fortunate in being a 
young aan who was associated with older and wiser aea than 
myself. I therefore picked a committee which was remarkable 
in the willingness of men of that type to give time and 
effort to auch a piece of public service as seeaed at the 
moment to be somewhat nebulous. I had on that committee 
such men aa Mr. Harry Chandler, Mr. Henry Robinson, both 

.*:) . 


LOB Angeles, -r. Paul Sheep, President of the Southern 
Pacific Railway, Mr. A.BC. Dorvann of Can Francisco, and 
o there cf that acsie kind. 

It very quickly developed in the first meeting of the 
Ittee that nobody knew very such about water law or 
water problems except that t.b<; entire otRte faced problems 
of having too much watar in oomo parts of the* state and to* 
little water in other part a of the atate, too nuch water 
in BOOB Bffesonfc end a crraplete drouth la other tint* Of the 
year* ?hese gentloeen had no knowledge of the? econc&lo or 
lomml background from which the values of water night cone. 
Tbey did not know the existence of certain laws that pre 
venter! certain tilings boint done, nor did they understand 
the conflict between the two types Of law which we had in 
California, the law of appropriation and the riparian law, 
which wae a source of conflict and which made no one rich 
but lawyers. But these entlenon worn very conscious of 
the need of water and the unos of water, the value of water, 
but at first they did not envision tho way to solve the 
statewide problem or rod! at ri but! on of water and the need of 
legislation. That had to be analysed in the simplest 

I had heard of Col. Robert Marshall sad his plan* 
That was the key to the story. At the first meeting of the 
eomiittee it was agroed that the gentlomsn of the age and 
standing whom I have described were generoualy willing to 
(So to school and learn something about water lav and water 
problems and I was to be the teacher. Us agreed that we would 
spend week ends together at Babble Beach Lodge discussing 
tliia matter and that I would bring as much as I could in the 
way of material that would malm the wools water problem clear 
to these people who wars going to endeavor to find some 
conclusions or recommendations. 

m &* -v. *.- w 

I want to Bacramanto because I had heard that there 
was some very important material in the State Library at 
Sacramento on the early history of the water of California. 
The State Librarian told me that the material I was looking 
for, if It could be found, would be in the baseaent and 
hadn't been looked at for a long time, but I was free to 
go down there and make what ass of it I could. The result 
waa that I got down to the basement and dusted off a lot of 
Material ana found among other things a large typewritten 
report by a man named Darnhall who waa an enginear for the 
United State* Engineers. He had proposed a plan of building 
dama on each of the rivers of thu ..aoramento Valley, 
beginning with the Sacraaanto Hiver, and then the storing 
of the surplus water B to prevent floods in the Sacraaento 
Valley and tho bringing of the surplus watora down in a 

Major canal which would load Into tho San Jonquin Valloy 
and, by lifting through pumps, carrying that water down to 
She southern oud of the 3an Joaquin Valley, whioh had little 
water in the wet period of the year and no water in the dry 
period of tho year. The report of Col. Marshall was * very 
remarkable document. It was one of those things that happen 
where a very Important statement is Mads, bat oat of its 
proper tine for acceptance. 

There was a law in California at that time that no 
water could he taken out of one watershed into another 
watershed. Consequently, an engineering plan which called 
for the building of dams on all of these rivers sad the 
redistribution and ro el location of miter between watersheds 
would probably not be legal* There was, of course, the 
question of costs and overall administration on such a 
project as this. 

At any rat. this Marshall report seemed to mo to havo 
in it the g*rm of a great idea which was a key to the 
development of sound agriculture in the stats of California. 
So I dusted the report off. I had copies of it mads* X 
brought it to the next meeting of our statewide water 
committee at Debbie Beach, X read the report to the com 
mittee and explained its significance and the import anoe 
of it. 


The result was that the first movement made by the 
statewide water ooaacittee was to make recommendations that 
the legislature do away with the law whioh prevented the 
carrying of water from oas watershed into another and 
provide that the uses of water might be interchange* as to 
surplus waters* 

It was our Committee that threw tho Marshall plea into 
the legislators session of 1921 for publio debate on Its 

economic values* 

We gathered on week ends at Pebble Beach and would 
stay there all day Saturday and all day Sunday in seclusion 
discussing these matters with great earnestness. "he 
Committee came up with a conclusion, later approved by the 
entire Board, that the steps should be taken to make tho 
Marshall plan the effective Instrumentality for the 
development of the water supply of both the San Joaquin and 
Sacramento Valleys. 

80, today we have the Central Valley Project. That 
is the outcome of the studies mads by the first statewide 
water Committee, and the Board, to whom the Ooccittee made 
its report, in turn made a recommendation to the State of 

California for the acceptance of this state water plan for 
tha ;>an Joaquin and Cacrereento Valleys and the storage and 
redistribution of water. It waa later accepted b;r the 
State "Engineer and iitate Apartment of Public w'orks end by 
tha legislature. The 3tat of California than embarked upon 
the development of the Central Valley Water Project with the 
construction of the dam at Bedding on the Sacramento "Uvar. 
Trois that has come this great project that equates tha flow 
of water, makes land productive that otherwise had no water, 
and protects lands that wore otherwise flooded* The Central 
Valley Project is one of the strongest factors in our 
economic development of agriculture and industry in California. 

There is s groat deal of literature on the subject of 
the development of the Central Valley Project* Its chief 
supporters in tha 1920 'a are generally described as Dr John 
Randolph Baynes, William Cent, James Pnelan and Hudolph 
Spreckels. They put up the money for the campaigns for the 
water and power Initiatives of 1922, 1924 and 1926. I con* 
f erred with them unofficially. Our Committee did not take 
a position on these initiatives. Cashing and Cushlng wore 
the attorneys who drafted the initiatives. 

We did not submit legislation but a plan* We did not 
lobby for any bill or present one. It should be made clear 
that our Oosmdttee and the Board did not participate in the 
political controversies of either initiatives or legislative 
bills that resulted, Ve launched ideas and a general program 
from which engineering, financing, legislation and operation 
resulted by tie work of many others. This wss the proper 
function and only function of the Development Board. 

The Coneittee didn't go into the matter of the use of 
power development because the Committee wss a great believer 
in private enterprise and at that time there were very strong 
power companies, The Pacific G*s and Electric, the San 
Joaquin Light and Power, the Southern California Bdison, 
all of which stood ready to participate in this typo of 
program and to develop the power that would bo tha product 
of the storage of water and to help to pay for the cost of 
the dams. 

The story of the Central Valley Water Project and its 
beginning bj the otate of California, its later transfer 
into the control of the Reclamation Service, has had both 
its advocates and those who were severe critics, but the 
important point to my mind is that thia project is in 
existence. It may be a question as to whether it should 
have become a Federal project or it should be returnod to 
the State. Personally, I believe it ahculd be a State 
project free from all Federal control. Regardless of that, 
the dams for the most part are built, the water is conserved, 


the agriculture of the state has use of that water, our 
great cities and agricultural communities have grown up 
around the use of this redistributed water and that was one 
of the contributions that was Bade by the group Joined 
together froa bouthern and Northern California In the early 
years of the organisation later known as the State Clumber 
of Commerce. 

X believe that wherever private enterprise is ready, 
able and willing to serve the public la a sound and adequate 
manner and at a fair cost, we should not put Federal funds 
Into such an enterprise* On the other hand, X participated 
in one of the largest of all of the water Federal distri 
bution problems, which was on the Colorado River. 

When Mr. Hoover conceived the idea of the building of 
the dsiB on the Colorado Hiver and the distribution of the 
water, it was obviously something that Involved seven states. 
It involved water rights of various kinds and descriptions 
froa the headwaters of the Colorado to the mouth of the 
Colorado which stretched the whole north and south length of 
the United States. In that kind of a project no private 
enterprise could hope or expeet to administer properly the 
division of the rights as between states, between the various 
laws that were involved* On that natter there had to be 
Federal action. A bill was Introduced into Congress by 
Hiram Johnson. Later Blwood Mead became Idle head of the 
Reclamation Bureau. The Hoover Daa was built aad there 
followed the present great development of the Colorado Hiver 
in flood control, power development aad water distribution* 
That is properly a Federal enterprise* 

participation in Hoover Daa problems waa very brief 
and it waa la purely the preliminary stages. When fir* 
Hoover first conceived this idea and brought it out he 
called together in Washington a group of men who represented 
the seven states which were involved, X was the representa 
tive of California at that first meeting* 

Governor ^orughao of Nevada, representing his own state, 
aad X worked together for the basic plan which has now come 
into being on the Colorado Hiver. that great enterprise was 
carried on by others property appointed through the State 
and Federal agencies, faat was a matter of Federal action 
that has been tremendously successful and upon which our 
development of the western part of the United States la 

Our state-wide Committee also did one ether thing that 
I think is worth mentioning because again I want to pay 
tribute to the generosity of Marry Chandler. There was a 
question with regard to the use of Colorado .>iver water for 


the Irrigation of the Imperial Valley and for the irriga 
tion of land as far north as Indio. The slogan was the 
"All-American Canal. " It happened that Mr. Chandler owned 
a very large acreage on which he waa growing cotton just 
oath of the border in Lower California, Mexico. He felt 
that thia water frca the Colorado Hiver belonged to hi* land 
south of the border and that an All-Aaerioan Canal night 
deprive him of some of the right* to which he was entitled 
when he bought thia land. However* our Committee had * 
ting which lasted several days, held at SI Centre at 
the Barbara Worth Hotel. All the Committee was present. 
Mr. Chandler sat listening to all the arguments for and 
against the All-American Canal* I happened to preside at 
that meeting, The outcome of those days of conference was 
that on the next to the last day. while the case had been 
stated for the All~ American Canal and the case had been set 
up for the rights of the owners of Mexican land, Mr. 
Chandler got up in the meeting and made the atatenent that 
while he felt that there was no question as to the prior 
rights which his property had to this water* while he felt 
that the Canal should bring water to his land first and than 
across the line into Imperial Valley and to the land toward 
Indio, that he would give up his claim to prior sights* He 
Mmrt he would rely on what rights he could obtain as an 
owner of land in Mexico, and he would support the All- 
American Canal even though it might be at a great loss to 
the water rights of the property which he owned. That, of 
course, immediately solved the problem. It waa therefore 
upon the recommendation of our Committee that the Ail- 
American Canal was undertaken ami finally completed. 

X think that that is one of the groat contributions of 
an organisation like the State Chamber of Commerce because 
it not only assisted in the solving of statewide water 
problems, but it brought together in harmony sad construc 
tive action the leadership of the state as a whole* 

One of the problems that was of great importance at 
that time was the question of the reapportionment of 
representation in the atate Legislature of Assemblymen and 
Senators. There had been no reapportionment, that is to 
say, no reassignment of the numbers of Senators and 
Assemblymen to which a county would be entitled, for many 
years* A great fear had been expressed, particularly by 
the agricultural areas of the state that if reapportionment 
was to be carried through based upon the law then in 

mt frff. tM&uftK.i *'. 

existence, namely, that the Senators ware to be in propor 
tion to population and Assemblymen la proportion to popu 
lation, immediately upon that ^apportionment Saa Francisco 
sad Los Angelas counties together would control both houses 
of the legislature. They would have more than the majority 
of the forty Oenatora sad they would hava more than the 
majority of the eighty Assemblymen. The result would ba 
that very shortly thereafter Southern California would hava 
a majority of all votes ia both houses* Therefore, the 
state of California would not have say representation la 
the legislature of the vast area of California outside the 
metropolitan areas of San Francisco sad Los Angeles* This 
problem waa discussed in the newspapers aad la many organ 
isations over a loag period of time. 

In a meeting of the state Chamber of Commerce board of 
directors a man appeared to present a plan which ha called 
the "Jaderal Plan." The man* a asms was Dallas Gray. Dallas 
Grey was a farmer* X had known aim dowa la the Saa Joaquin 
Valley. Re repreaented the farm Bureau. He did not carry 
s great deal of weight because of the fact that he was * 
an all farmer sad representative of only the local Fare Bureau 
aad had no other support. He presented a plan by which eaeh 
county should have a Senator some of the small counties- 
bee ause we have 58 counties la California would have to ba 
grouped together in order to have oas Senator, bat that 
the 40 senators ahould be distributed | sad Los Angeles, Ssa 
r'rancisco aad Alameda counties would have only oas Senator 
each and also such counties ss Imperial, Fresno, Kern aad 
others would also hava oae Senator. Oa the other hand, the 
Assembly should be based oa population ia each county aad 
should be reapportioned every tea years. 

This plan was diacuased to some extent. Xt has s 
great appeal to ma because at the time X also was the 
president of the 3ua Haid Raisin Growers sad living la 
Fresno* X represented the interests of the people oa the 
agricultural aide of the stats. Xt seemed to as that tat 
equities then would He la the direction of having some dis 
tribution of legislative control so that oaa house would ba 
balanced on population and the other balanced upon county 
area* There was also s second appeal la the thing for as 
because in our family traditions we remembered Roger Sherman 
who waa known as the author of the Great Compromise ia the 
first Constitutional Convention, .is oae of the Founding 
Fathers he had faced s similar problem where the states of 
larger population wanted to have the dominating numbers of 
members of both houaea of Congress. Re was the author of 
the compromise which gave each atate, regardless of its 
population, two Senators and then permitted each atate to 
hava Congressmen baaed upon their proportionate population. 
So it seemed to me that possibly in a small way, and at a 

much later tins, I Bight have inherited SOBS of the 
responsibilities of ray ancestor and that I ought to become 
the spokesman for this idea which had been presented to 
solve our problem in the State Legislature. 

As a result, I spoke in the directors' meeting very 
strongly for the Federal Plan. Again when a man talks too 
much he becomes the chairman of a conmittee. The point, of 
course, was that in order to accomplish this it had to be 
done in the initiative, sinoe th legislature would not sot, 
fvnd an initiative costs a great deal of money because you've 
got to get two or three hundred thousand names signed on 
the petitions. You've got to carry on a campaign of educa 
tion throughout the state* 

The reason it had to be done by initiative was boosuse 
you never could get the bill through the Legislature. The 
legislators would not give up the prior position which they 
then held and. they were opposing any re apportionment 
anticipating that they would keep the power that they held 
in the Legislature. 

Z was authorised by the directors of the Chamber of 
Commerce to discuss the matter with important people in 
Southern California. 

In 192? a comaittee called the All-Parties Reapportion- 
ment Committee hud been started in Southern California with 
an alternative plan which was different from the Federal 
plan and in conflict with it* My old friend Ralph Arnold 
was chairman of this oomalttee. That organisation started 
in Los Aagsles and it had made considerable headway. That 
group was looking to the time when Los Angeles would have 
control of both houses of the legislature and they wore 
determined to try to carry that out. if possible, because 
it happened to bo one of the prevailing ideas that if you 
could get enough power through legislative control, the 
major activities of California could be moved down to Los 
Angeles. It was part of the great boom that was on to 
develop Los Angolas in various ways. That was one of them* 

I went down to Loa Angeles as the chairman of our 
committee to discuss the matter with friends on the board of 
directors of the Chamber, who, I felt, would determine if 
it was possible to get support for such a plan as the 
proposed Federal plan. Again, I went to our frlond Harry 
Chandler, nr. Chandler, as the owner of the Los Angeles 
Times, was of course supposed by others to represent too 
selfish interests of Los Angeles. But after we had discussed 
this matter, Mr. Chandler was very much impressed by the 
equities, the justice, the long view of the development of 
the state as a whole. He called a meeting of three or four 

of hie close fritmds in Loa Angeles and wa sat and diacussed 
the natter. 

Mr. Chandler asked me bow isuch I thought the campaign 
to carry this through would cost. I told him my estimate 
was 325,000. Be asked me how I proposed to got the money. 
I told hid Z proposed to get tike money by asking five or six 
MHO. whom I know, and he was one of them, to contribute 
their proportion of the money. Ha asked me whether I thought 
that ho, ae the owner of the Loa Angeles Tines, would be 
in a position of supporting a program like this end putting 
money into it during the heat of suoh a oanpaign. I told 
hi that I thought he would do exactly what he felt best, 
but that if he believed that the equities and Justice were 
on the side of supporting a program like this it wouldn't be 
necessary for him to state his position publicly, but at 
least he could give it his personal and private support. 

The result of the meeting was that P.r. Chandler agreed 
to support this plan. Mr. Chandler agreed that at the close 
of the campaign he would contribute 95*000 to the fund of 
92^*000 that made this campaign possible. Be then drew in 

Ons of the others strangely enough, who gave his 
support was Mr. Paul 3houp of the Southern Pacific. Mr. 
3houp very frankly stated that the Southern Pacific's posi 
tion in years gone by cade it necessary to protect its 
interests by a control of the Legislature in various ways. 
But he felt that the concentration of power in Oan Francisco 
and Los Angeles would be dangerous and that it would not be 
to the best interests of the people of California as a whole. 

Kr. Bhoup and others felt it was very likely that 
election of both houses by population would increase the 
power of labor because, obviously, organised labor existed 
in its concentrated form in the cities and not in the 

But at any rate it was finally agreed that five gentle- 
men should each put up $5*000. It was also agreed that X 
should be one of those people who put up 95*000 of my own 
atcney, which I did, end that Z should borrow all the money 
for the campaign at one of the banks. It was made possible 
for ae to borrow that money through one of the banks in 
Los Angeles by Mr. Chandler and X signed my name to a note 
of 925*000. $5*0(30 was to be paid by ne end I had only the 
word-of-raouth promise but no written guarantee on the part 
of the other four that each would put up f 5*000 regard leas 
of outcome of tho election. Bach of the four other men paid 
hie commitment in full immediately after the election. At 
any rate, we put tog-other a campaign fund. 


I reported back to the directors of the Chamber that 
we had the support for this program, both financial and 
otherwise, and we set up an organisation in which X employed 
a young, brilliant, public-spirited lawyer to be the 
administrator of the plan. His naae was Hoer Spence. Bs 
now sits on the oupreoe Court of California* Homer Spenoe 
and I worked together on that project* We secured the 
required number of names, so as thing over three hundred sad 
fifty thousand names. We had the proper consUtutional 
amendment drawn and it was presented to the people OB the 

Homer Upenoe handled the office organisation and I 
devoted considerable of my tine to organising groups through- 
out the state and going out with others to speak for this 

Wo had first of all the agricultural groups, of course. 
We also had women* a -parent-teacher organisations* Us had 
all of the wall industrial groups* Then there was a 
strsnge support that developed out of the blue sky* It was 
hard to say exactly where it caas from but it was obvious 
that it cans from the help that was being given by Mr. Shoup 
and other largo corporate leaders in the state who saw that 
if a plan like this went through, the state of California 
itself would grow in balanced development; bat if the status 
quo was maintained, or if Sam Franoiaco and Los Angeles 
controlled the legislature, that blaae sad responsibility 
for all that oight happen would fall on thea at a later tiae. 
They were very anxious to sss the broader scope and the acre 
equitabla program prevail* A great deal of support appeared 
and it was hard to quite tell where it was coming from, but 
ws felt that the people of California were trail oduoated 
because Mr* Chandler in Los Angeles and the Hearst papers 
did not oppose the plan nor did they support it, but they 
fully explained it. They explained it in such a way as to 
carry to the people * knowledge of what the plan was and to 
leave the iapresslon with people that it was * good plan. 

Of course, in the State Chamber of Coaasroe there were 
also men like Charles 'league and others who represented 
large agricultural interests and they, together with the 
others, formed a nucleus upon which we could build the 
public programs. 

But this program which was the result of the State 
Chamber of Commerce activity, through the board of directors, 
resulted in the present constitutional amendment of the 
Jtate of California creating the legislature as it is today* 
There have been many times when questions have arisen as to 
whether it was satisfactory. Most of those questions have 
ooae from interests that were unhappy about the inability 



to control this legislature, but with the kind of legisla 
ture that we have and the amount of money that la paid to 
our legislators God knows, it is much too little it is a 
fortunate thing for California that we have had that kind of 
constitutional provision and that we have this present 
federal plan upon which our legislature is constituted* 
[This statement is wade in October I960 just prior to 
election on Koveaber 8th at which again ^apportionment is 
up for proposed change te 20 Senators for north and 20 for 
south. Kotes This proposal failed*] 


';?'; ;, 


the development of the State Chamber of Cossmeroc as a 
statewide group might not have boon very successful if wo 
had not created grass root groups known as Regional Councils 
so that local people meeting in their regional groups might 
have the right to discuss their regional problems sad then, 
when they appeared to be of statewide interest, recommend 
then to the board of directors of the Chamber as a whole, 
which would then consider these matters and attempt to 
correlate them. If it was agreed that it was a matter of 
value to the state of California as a whole, the Board would 
support and direct the accomplishment of the program of a 
regional council. 


It began in rather an unexpected and unplanned way 
because it was necessary for me, when I was president of 
the Sun flaid Raisin Growers, to have a fuller understanding 
and knowledge cf the problems of the Raisin Association 
than the farmers had* So I organised In the San Joaquin 
Valley a group called the San Joaquin Valley Progress 
Committee, made up of bankers aad businessmen and ministers 
of the Gospel aad teachers, all kinds of people who could 
be brought together and kept informed as to progress wo were 
making in Sua Maid. (The plan was so successful in creating 
a coordinated community support for the problems of the 
raisin growers that It occurred to mo that the same kind of 
a plan would be of value for the State Chamber of Commerce. 
So I proposed in the meeting of the board of directors of 
the State Chamber of Commerce that the San Joaquin Progress 
Committee could be invited to become the first regional 
council of the State Chamber of Commerce aad its name changed 
to the San Joaquin Hegioaal Council, and that other councils 
should be created for the Sacramento Valley and for Southern 
California and for the coastal counties. 

The plan was accepted. It is that plan today that is 

operating and makes the State dumber of Commerce a really 
vital organisation insofar aa having grass roots connections 
throughout the at ate. The State Chamber act a in its annual 
meeting on recommendations made from these regional councils 
in order that there should be a development of statewide 
interest in matters of taxation, matters that require other 
than politloal support economic and social support for the 
broad questions that have to do with the state of California 
as a whole. 

There ia a close connection between the State Chamber 
and all other chambers in that they work together* exchange 
information* The State Chamber has its main office in San 
Francisco} it has a regional of flee in Los Angeles, toe man 
who is at present the director of the Los Angeles office 
sits as an ex-officio member of many of the committees of 
the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 

They represent interests that at times begin in con 
flict, but it's a happy way of eventually coordinating those 
interests because no body or group can succeed at the expense 
of another group and have the result a permanent achievement 
of value to everybody. There has to be a coordination and 
conciliation in order to be able to secure long time values. 

The atate Chamber of Commerce usea as its title Cali 
fornia State Chamber of Commerce. Industry and Agriculture 
which in itself shows a cooperative spirit. We have never 
had in California the conflict that has existed in so many 
other places between Industry aad agriculture, between the 
cities and the country, between people who are in labor and 
people who are in industry. We have some conflicts, some 
differences of opinion, but for the most part it has been a 
very happy relationship, most of which has been due to the 
fact that the men who are the leaders in these various 
fields have been meeting together and knew each other sad 
had confidence and respect for each other. 

It's perfectly true that a great many of our leading 
people in Industry and in commerce also have agricultural 
interests in the state* It's very difficult sometimes to 
find out exactly what a man really is, like fir. Chamdler 
who owned thousands upon thousands of acres of land and 
owned a great newspaper and waa involved in many other 
business enterprises. 

I have a feeling of pride and a feeling of satisfaction 
in looking, back on the beginnings oi these various channels 
of community understanding- and community expression which 
have brought about harmony rather than disharmony and brought 
about constructive development rather than a complete lack 

of any proper planning. People see large influx of new- 
coners Into California, a great growth of agriculture, the 
great growth of industry, the great growth of our populations 
in our metropolitan areas, and they don't know that that la 
t;he result of having had a preparation made by making the 

never would have been possible it it hadn't boon that we 
had the vehicles, the instrumentalities at hand through 
which all this could have been planned for and Bade possible* 
It didn't just happen; it was a matter of planning. 


' From 1925 to 1926 I was not only active locally in the 
state Cahaber of Commeroe, but I was a Director of the 
National Chaaber of Commerce. Itjr connection as a Director 
of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States was the 
result of one of those unique persons and unique conditions 
that sometimes occur between Ben who carry great public 
burdens. ?he way I happened to becos* * Director of the 
United States Chaaber of Coameroe was thisi 

fir, Paul Ghoup had been the President of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad for some tins and had also carried a great 
any outside responsibilities. Mr, Shoup, like some other 
men as they go along in years, case to the point where his 
doctors told hia he could no longer carry the outside burdens. 
In fact, he had to even reduce the burdens within his corpo 
ration. So one day Mr. Shoup invited ten of his friends to 
come to lunch in the Palace Hotel in San Francisco. X 
happened to be one of the*. X was the youngest nan there. 
X sat on his left. As we sat there as guests of Mr. Shoup 
wondering why we'd been invited. Mr. Shoup began talking 
about what a great deal of happiness he'd had outside of 
his regular responsibility of business in being associated 
in public service of many kinds. He'd been a member of the 
Chaaber of Commerce of San Francisco, he'd been a member 
of the Chamber of Coraaerce of the United States and of the 
State Chambers he'd bean on boards of hospitals and all 
manner of public Interest. 

then he went on to aay that he no longer could carry 
those burdens* To him they were the happioat part of his 
life. He felt that in viovr of the fact that he could not 
continue these activities any longer, he would like to be 
able to distribute these very happy responsibilities of his 

5 Mt 

as the bsst gifts that he could give away to hie fr loads, 
attd he had invited the ton j-sntleaen present to aeet with 
hiw in order that he night giro to each one of thea present. 

In that spirit of happiness and giving he then proceeded 
to start froa his ri<rht and go around the table giving each 
man a directorship in this or head of son* other organisa 
tion. Eobody could say "no" to * thing of that kind. 

He had been to each one of these organisations la 
advance and very confidentially had explained the Hatter 
and asked for the appointment of this particular person he 
wonted to noainate, and it had been agreed to and he knew 
exactly what he was doing. 

Z was the last one arc and the table* Z reaeaber well 
watching this and wondering what was about to happen. He 
catae to aw, he looked at ae with affection and said, "Ralph, 
I want you to take on what I think is one of the finest 
opportunities for public service and that is to suooeed ae 
as a director of the United States Chaaber of Coaaerae. 
There is a meeting next week in Washington and you'd better 
hurry and get on the train beoauae here are your tickets." 
He then proceeded to give aa the tickets to get to Waahington 
and back and he said, "You have already been eleoted to 
succeed ae. fly resignation is in and you're eleoted and 
here are your credentials aa a director of the United States 
Chaaber of Commerce." And he handed thea to ae* 80 I 
carried that responsibility for three years until the end of 
ay term serving it for Mr. Shoup followed by ay re-election 
to a full tern. 

During the period in which Z was a aeaber of the United 
states Chaaber of Commerce there were very great discussions 
going on over the country on the matter of the economics of 
agriculture. There had been a difference of opinion 
between Kr. Hoover, the Secretary of Ooaaeroe and Secretary 
Wallace of Agriculture, There had been the HeKary~Raugen 
Bills and other sifciler legislation proposed. The country 
didn't have any clear idea of what waa involved except that 
it seemed that the agriculture problea waa the foreaoat 
political issue of the day. Cooing aa Z did into the United 
Mates Chaaber of Ooaaeree as the president of one of the 
largest co-operative marketing organisations in the country, 
my field of activity was one which largely had to do with 
the explanation and the attempt to clarify in the Kinds of 
the business interests of the United States, as represented 
by the directors of the Chaaber, the problems which were 
really fundamental to the solution of the economic aide of 

Z also aat on son other cocnaittees, but in general 
ay whole field of activity there arose from the fact that Z 


was oat of the two or three men on the board who bad any 
contact idth agriculture at that tiae. Dwight Herd of 
Arlsona was another aril vt worked together. 


At that tlwi the President of the United States ap 
pointed a co*laaion to solve, if It could, or recoaaend 
solutions for the problems of agriculture. Z was appointed 
to that commission by President Coolidge. However, it was 
quite obvious to those who were appointed on the cosaiaaion 
that we all had Men ehoeen because of the fact that wo, 
for the ooat part, held the eaae point of view and that was 
in opposition to the Mcffary-Kaugen typo of legislation, 
which was a nethcd by which agricultural surpluses wore to 
be accumulated by the government and taken off the smrkot 
in the United ntatea to uphold donestic prices and bo doaped 
in foreign countries at no cost or low prioes. 

The truth of the Matter was that X felt that Z had 
been reconaended by Mr. Hoover to speak for his point of 
view on that connission. Zt wasn*t a very comfortable posi 
tion to be in, but at the ease tisjs it was one Z vss glad 
to accept because I believed thoroughly and completely in 
the agricultural theories and ideas hold by Mr. Hoover. Zn 
fact, again to be perfectly frank in thia discussion, it 
was a little difficult to tell at tisjss where Hr Hoover's 
agricultural ideas began and where y ideas left off. Z 
was an advocate of cooperative marketing on both the state 
and apparently the national levels. 

Z have been asked how fir. Hoover because interested ia 
cooperatives. Z don't think Itr. Hoover got any agricultural 
ideas fro* any experience he had in s&ining! Z rather think 
he got than because of the broad concept that ho bad of 
oconoadco and because of his great worldwide experience in 
handling foods for relief work* Zt was Tory obvious that 
individual farmers couldn't operate in the distribution of 
thoir products alone. Individual forners were at the neroy 
of the buyer, whoever he sight be. Ths buyer asde the 
nnrkot and the only way the farmer had to defend himself 
in the getting of an equitable price was to organise hinaelf 
into groups where he could help to protect and preserve and 
develop hia own market. '.That was the basis of cooperation 
in agriculture. 

iJo, to Kser right on this point so I don't lose it, let 
tae finish up by saying that I had a very happy period of 


three years serving out Mr. Shoup'a term and then my own 
full term in the United states Chamber of Commerce, going 
to Washington every two months to attend meetings ana 
attending many meetings oat here* During that time, as Z 
said. I also served *s a member of this agricultural com 
mission of President Coolidge. 2he commission probably 
didn't accomplish very much except to clarify the problem, 
to make certain recommendations, and at that time to prevent 
the United States government from going into the unfortunate 
attempt to solve agricultural problems by buying surpluses 
at taxpayers' expense and dumping them la foreign countries 
as gifts to people who might be lacking in those particular 

It was a very interesting experience to me because it 
brought me into personal contact with President Coolidge. 
We beeams friendly. X used to go to see him quite often. 
I thought his humor | his Mew England way of looking at things 
was most amusing and amaslag at times. One of the last times 
that I saw him he asked me if I would boy a pleas of pro 
perty out here in California for him where he could come 
and settle after he left the Presidency. If he had not 
died when he did probably that property would have been 
bought. President Coolidge might have corns to live IB 
Southern California because, strangely and curiously, he 
had become interested in the growing of dates sad he wanted 
to own a small piece of property with some date trees on it. 
why he had become interested in dates nobody seemed to know, 
but he had read all the agricultural bulletins sad he told 
me he wanted to buy for him a small date orcoard sad X had 
been doing a good deal of scouting around in that field 
which X knew very little about at the time of his death. 
this probably saved him aad as both some headaches. 


T^Bt^'ldS* VfcS- OtiMMMSmV "4tHH 'Sajy 

X came to know the ;iecretary of Agriculture at the 
time of the death of President Harding in Sea fvanoisoo* 
Mr. Wallace at that time knew of ay very close association 
with Mr. Hoover. Consequently, when Mr* Wallace sad Mr. 
Hoover came to differences of opinion that were very serious 
in the whole question of the economics of agriculture, the 
Secretary of Commerce, believing that there was a business 
interest involved, and the Secretary of Agriculture believing 
in the individual farmer and his right to have a living 
income separate from the Interests of other people, it was 
quite natural that Mr. Wallace might come to me to tell me 
his troubles In the hope that I might be the mediator 
between himself and Mr. Hoover. 

>M^- !Mf* 

5 Km 


le v 


On one occasion when Z was in Washington I received a 
telephone call from aecretary Wallace asking m if 1 would 
meet him at a certain hotel at a certain time. Z Met him 
there* Ha picked ae up in hie automobile. Hia driver 
drove out into the park and we sat in the ear to talk* At 
that time, with tears in his ayes, Mr. Wallace* a appeal to 
M waa to see if there could not be a reconciliation be 
tween himself and Mr* Hoover because he felt that Mr. Hoover 
had a greatly superior political power and that every plan 
that he, as the Secretary of Agriculture waa recommending, 
waa defeated by the power of the Secretary of Commerce. I 
went back from that hour or two apent out in the park with 
the Secretary of Agriculture to atay for the night at the 
home of the secretary of Commerce. Za fact, Z had been 
living for a matter of two or three weeks in Mr. Hoover** 
houae at 2500 3 Street. 

That night Z tried to get Mr. Hoover to aae Mr* Wallace* a 
point of view. There waa no possibility of reconciling the 
differences, but there waa a great possibility of bringing 
about a lessening of the tensions between the two men, both 
of whom were fine men. One waa a man whose point of view 
was definitely a local, home town point of view, a farm 
point of view. Mr. Wallace had had no experience outside of 
his own newspaper and the particular area which it served 
was in the corn belt* Mr* Hoover* s point of view waa a 
worldwide point of view. Consequently, Mr. Hoover waa very 
impatient with Mr. Wallace and Mr* Wallace waa utterly 
unable to understand Mr. Hoover. Z waa in the position of 
understanding both of then and realising that while you 
never could reconcile their economic views, it was possible 
to reconcile their personal reapeot for eaeh other* Z tried 
to render what service Z could to bring the two men together 
and it finally resulted in a much greater degree of under 
standing, a greater lessening of tension, sad possibly some 
contribution in the way of the development of the farm Board 

The Hoover idea was opposed, not only by many farmers, 
but by most of the leaders of marketing cooperatives at that 
time, except for myself. Za fast, the California Fruit Hews 
denounced the Hoover plan in 192*. 

Maybe it 'a a little difficult to explain all of those 
things. I think that the basic reason for the unwillingness 
of the large number of organizations aad leadera to accept 
Mr. Hoover's point of view was that they were looking for a 
political answer aad a quick answer to their problems. Mr. 
Hoover *s views had to do with a long-term education, putting 
the responsibility where it belonged on the farmers in their 
own organisations. He believed in the solution of their 
problems by the employment by. the cooperatives of trained 


expert people rather than the local political leader who 
night come to power as a president or Manager of a coopera 
tive, naking glittering promises, whioh is so often toe oase. 
Consequently, it's not easy for men to accept the hard way 
to get the right answer. It's a far easier thing for then 
to reach out to take the quick answer whioh often is an 
illusion as far as long tern re milt e are concerned. 

One of the criticisms of the Hoover idea was that it 
would be too paternalistic t that it would be direct govern* 
cental interference. I don't think the local leaders were 
so much concerned with the government stepping in as maybe 
they were with loss of local prestige and power* Z think 
that sometimes men are unwilling to have the introduction 
of a larger scope of understanding brought into their 
problem*. The real basis of this conflict was not that the 

Svernment was becoming paternalistic, because anything you 
d resulted in wast might bo called a paternalistic point 
of view* 

The ftoBary-Haugen scheme was paternalistic and the 
lam Board plan to a degree was far less paternalistic 
because it put the responsibility back on the cooperatives 
to aaaage their own affairs. Certainly, since that time in 
the pegging of inflexible prices sad the development of 
surpluses to the extent that we've had them in the last 
fifteen or twenty years, we've had nothing olso out paternal 
istic attitudes of the government in agriculture* So it 
was inevitable* Zt was a question of degree* When you come 
to having a lesser degree of governmental interference it 
simply means that the responsibilities that the government 
does not take must be taken by the local man* And the local 
man doesn't want to take them because of the faot that any 
failure is then brought homo directly sad personally to him. 
So all those human things are involved rather than the 
broader questions of economics. We're guided too mush by 
slogans sad too little by constructive ideas. 

X took this idea into the State and National Chambers 
of Commerce. Z diaoussod thorn on the national level with 
leaders in agriculture as well as in business and too 
Chamber of Commerce* 

At first everybody was led to believe that the Mo-Nary 
Haugen idea was the quick, immediate solution of a problem 
they wanted to get behind then* But when they once got to 
looking at the problem and you could make them see that it 
wasn't the quick solution but rather the long-tarn solution 
that was important, almost everybody swung around then to 
the position that Kr* Hoover proposed and the one that I 
was advocating, that the Farm Board program was much more 
satisfactory to the free play of the economic laws and the 


right a of individuals than we would have had ondor amy 
other system that was proposed. 

I did not take tola iasiM to Congress personally, nor 
I talk to any Congressmen. I did not do any, what might 
be called lobbying, with any Congressman, tty relationship 
waa purely with organizations and with the leaders ia 
agriculture and in business. 

I wan very pleased whan finally the farm Board was 
created in 1929* I fait it was a great triumph and the 
fajm Board should have boon successful. Unfortunately, 
certain other things intruded into that which prevented the 
success they should have had. 


.;....; -. * . 

Let us go back now to some other things that have to 
do with this office of mine in 3an Trandsoo. There are 
two or throe things there that night be of interest before 
turning to a discussion of cooperative narketing. 

During this period of tine there was a committee 
appointed in San Francisco to consider the natter of the San 
Irancisco Bay Bridge. There were certain people who opposed 
the building of the Bay Bridge like my good friend Mr* 
William II. Crocker of the Crocker Bank who was a regent of 
the University, who at a bankers* sating pointed a finger 
at oe when I was advocating the building of the bridge and 
said, "I want to tell you Just one thing that as a banker 
I know but you aay not understand. That is, this bridge 
will never pay." Hr. Crocker represented a strong segment 
of the financial group in San Francisco who believed that 
the bridge would never pay. 

Another group which opposed the construction of the 
bridge was the United States Engineers who refused to give 
a permit to construct a bridge across the bay because they 
said it would interfere with the movement of ships. The 
engineers had the power of granting a right of way or 
refusing it. 

At this time I warn a member of the Bay Bridge Committee. 
Hr. Hoover had Just become Secretary of Connerco. X received 
a telegram from him saying; that he waa coming to Ban Fran* 
oiaoo and asking me if I would get acquainted with the 
various people in San Francisco who were heads of different 
local offices of the Department of Commerce so that when he 


there be could aeet the people who were in his depart- 

A I made the round a I found * great May into resting 
people, Jor example, in tho Boat Office Building I opened 
a door which had Department of Coaaeree on it ana found A 
an asleep upon a sofa. It was an old horaehair~oovered 
sofa, I reoeaber, and there vaa also only a battered deck 
and a chair in that office. My coming ia woke hi* up* I 
asked him if he represented the Department of Coamercc and 
he said he did. I asked him what he did and he said he 
hired a doctor to go aad examine the health of the Indians 
OA the Probilof Islands. It turned out that the man had 
nothing else to do. Be had been relieved of this, that and 
some other responsibility until that*s all he had to do. 
In the spring he employed the doctor and ia the fall he go* 
the doctor's report* That went into ay report to Hr. Hoover 
as to what was going on. 

I went into the office of the Shipping Coaaissioner, 
who was a wonderful old Democratic Bureaucrat, and showed 
him my credentials and asked hia if I might look at his 
office. And he showed me around. There was a very large 
rooo in which there were quite a number of Men, I'd say 
thirty or forty, all seated oa high stools, keeping books, 
with large ledgers. And I said, "What do these asa do?" 
He said, "These are the men who keep the records of tbe fees 
that we would collect if we collected then." I said, *I 
don't understand what you mean about the fees that you would 
collect if you collected them." He said, "Well, the Shipping 
Coaaissioner' 3 office used to be sa independent office many 
years ago in the government. When a sailor went to sea the 
first time he paid a fee of *3 Hext tiae ho went to sea 
he paid a fee of $2. Thereafter, every tiae he weat to sea 
he paid fl* And those fees were paid to Shipping Coa- 
oiaaioner's office, then an independent office, which paid 
its own way out of the foes of the sailors that were 


"Quite a number of years afterwards, the Shipping 
Coamiasl oner's office was made a part of the Department of 
CoE.ieroe. In tho act which aade the Shipping Commissioner's 
office a part of the Department, all of tho various sections 
of the act were cancelled including the collection of fees, 
except the clause which said that the Shipping Coramisaioner 
should annually report to the President of the United States 
the fees collected from sailors who weat to sea. Of course 
there were none actually collected from that date but the 
act said a report should be aade. Consequently over many 
years there have been bookkeepers in this office and book 
keepers in every port in the United States keeping records 
on what there would be collected if you collected it, but 

iy :.>;? 

you don't collect it." When X reported this to Mr. Hoover 
he first didn't believe it, and then checked up and found 
out that it was true. It baa been a featherbodding process 
by which Ban?, aany people had held jobs for a lone Has. 

*aat sort of thing was one aide of this survey that I 
ad*. Another was to find that the Lighthouse Department 
had a very fine boat on Son Francisco lay. X talked to the 
captain of the boat and found out they had a flag on board 
which was the Secretary's flag* I bad been across the Bay 
hundreds and hundreds of tines on ferry boats bat never had 
a bo t of my own so X thought it was a good opportunity for 
MO to put the Secretary of Coanerce on his own boat and go 
with hia. X arranged with the captain of the boat to 
receive the Secretary and when Mr. Hoover arrived after 
having a Meeting of the other departmental people, we went 
down to get on the boat to Make a trip around San Francisco 
Bay. As wo wont around the Bay wo passed Terba Buena or 
Goat Island sad X noticed the little lighthouse that was on 
the Island and asked If that was a part of the responsibility 
of the Departsent of Coaaerce* The captain said it was. X 
asked if we sight land there. Whoa we landed at that pier 
Mr. Hoover sod X got off the boat, walked op to the top of 
the island, and ait up there on a beautiful, clear afternoon 
with San Francisco oa one side sad Oakland on the other. 
Then it occurred to so, sad X had aade no previous plan of 
that kind at all, that this was an opportunity to enlist 
his support for the Bay Bridge. 

80 X aakad Mr. Hoover If ho had over hoard the story of 
the Baperor Morton* Ho said no, he didn't know anything 
about the Baperor R or ton. And I then told hia the story of 
this kindly aaa who had lived In San Francisco in the days 
of '49, who had lost his aind sad lived under the illusion 
that he was the Eaperor. wore a frook coat with epaulets oa 
it and wore a sword, sad issued aoaey of his owa which 
people gravely accepted. Is was fed, and was permitted to 
be ens of the city's accepted characters. Ho issued edicts 
to his people to do various things and among others, he 
issued an edict that the people of San Francisco should 
build a bridge across 3an Trsaoisco Bay. starting at I (i noon 
Hill, going to Goat Island, and connecting up over in 
Oakland "so that San Francisco might become a part of the 
United States." 'Jtoe original of that edict, signed by 
laperor fiorton, is now hanging In the Wells largo Beak in 
Son Francisco and I had happened to see it there and told 
Mr. Hoover about it. 

He laughed and then I said, "Eaperor Horton and you and 
I are going to build this bridge across San Francisco Bay. 
You're the Secretary of Coaaeroe and the Aray TBagtaoers say 
that we can't build a bridge because of interference with 

', !. -Cl" 



shipping. Xt would seen to bo perfectly siaple to arrang* 
channel* and avenue a for shipping, and I want to ask that 
when you go back to Washington you take this up with the 
general in ooeaand of the Army Engineers and advise us out 
here that we can secure a right of war across Sam Franeisoo 
Bay for our Bridge*" He laughed and I laughed sad that was 
the end of that part of the conversation* 

We want back to 3an Francisco to a dinner that night 
at the Bohemian Club at which I presided* Mr* Hoover made 
one of hia most brilliant presentations, because Z asked 
every one of the thirty or forty sen present around the 
table to ask Mr* Hoover one question and challenge Mr. 
Hoover to answer it on any subject he wanted to ask about. 
Mr. Hoover answered these questions and gave a tremendous 
exhibition of worldwide knowledge of economic and social 
and financial and governmental problems. 

I forgot the little incident on the top of the island 
until about a aonth later when I got a telegram from 
Washington which said. "The -aperor Sorton, you and I are 
going to build the San Francisco Bay Bridge. The Army 
Engineers have agreed. 'Jhat do I do now?* X proaptly 
sent a telegrao back to ftr* Hoover and said, "The Amy 
'.ngineers should be asked to send s notification officially 
to the Governor of California requesting that a commission 
be appointed and that you participate in that commission* 
We esn then proceed to build a bridge." 

fir. Hoover then had such a telegram seat* There was 
then appointed by the Governor of California the Hoover 
Commission and that was hew the bridge cane to be built* 

I was not a member of the commission* X was gone from 
there on othar things at that tlae. X had no connection 
with it beyond that point except that the Emperor Norton 
came to my rescue as a means of getting the interest of 
r.r. Hoover. 

The telegram which X kept for a long time was burned 
up in my house in the Berkeley firs of 1923 when a lot of 
my precious possessions were lost. 

All that happened was that* in the official record, 
Rr. Hoover arranged to have a commission appointed and it 
was known sa the Hoover Commission. But as to how it happen 
ed I'c just giving you this amusing sidelight of how great 
things sometimes grow from snail beginnings. 

1* '. 





During this tine I had my office in sa Francisco and 
early in that period I received a call out day from the 
Governor of the Federal esrv Bank in San Francisco who 
asked oe to come to his office to discuss a matter which was 
of great importance . We were at that tine coning out of 
the postwar depression that was hitting hard. I went to the 
office of Governor Calkins and he told s that there were 
between forty and fifty banks in Idaho, Eastern Oregon and 
the northern part of Utah that were about to close. The 
reason the banks would oloss waa that the bankers had loaned 
money, particularly on sheep, when in 1921 the pries of sheep 
had dropped from *6 a head, whioh was the basis of their 
value at the time the loans were mads during and just after 
the war, to 54 a head. The 15 a head loan that had been 
mads by the bankers was therefore frosen and psopls were fully 
conscious of that* They were drawing their money out of the 
banks in fear and many of the banks were going to be forced 
to close simply because of the great withdrawals and because 
they held frosen paper. Something had to be dons. 

r. Calkins asked me if 1 knew what oould be dons 
about it. I told Governor Calkins that the only thing I 
could tUink of waa that the V*r Plnanco Corporation, which 
had been aotivo in financing industry and to a snail extent 
agriculture during World Vsr I and which had olosed its 
business, was being reactivated by the ?oderal Government 
at that time. Mr. Eugene Meyer, Jr. had agreed to go bask 
to be the head of it. Mr* Msysr had ably handled this 
particular function of the government during World 'War I. 
I knew him. I suggested that possibly if the Governor would 
ask oe to do it I would comsunioate with Ilr. Meyer and ask 
hia to oosae to California and undertake some solution of 
this problem which might grow into a national collapse of 
our economic situation at that time, since ws appeared to be 
on the verge of a minor depression and this looked ss though 
it night accentuate the thing into a major depression. 

Mr. Meyer in Washington immediately responded to my 
request to ooae to California on this urgent business* He 
aookod his own private oar onto a train and arrived in my 
office a few days later and I told hia tha story. I then 
took hia to the Federal lie serve Bank. Mr. Meyer said he 
thought there was nothing we oould do there and that what* 
ever could be done should be dons right there on the ground 
in Idaho. 

I got in touch with a banker In Boise, Idaho, fir. 
Marion Crawford, and asked alia if he would call a meeting of 


all the banks and I gave him a list of all these banks and 
a few others. I told hi* that we would be there two day* 

Mr. Heyer got his oar hooked into another train and we 
left for Boise, Idaho* On the way Mr. Hearer began question 
ing ae about the sheep business, about wbloh he knew nothing, 
and I explained to hi* how it was operated and how it was 
financed. I told him stories about how I had been a sheep 
shearer at one time for fliller and Lux who had had a million 
head of aheap, that the problem was one of the prioe of wool 
as well as the prioe of seat, sad also that they ooabined 
to make the price of a head of sheep t that the real question 
was what could you do with loans at $5 a head when the 
property then had a price of f4 a head. 

Mr. Meyer gave no indication of his ideas of what oould 
be done but simply indioated that when ws got to Boise, 
Idaho and Bet fir. Crawford we would go to this dinner of 
bankers whore I was to >ake the speech to introduce ttr* 
Meyer, and then he would say something to these bankers. Z 
was just as auoh in the dark as anyone else as to what he 
was going to do or say. 

When wo arrived thore we found that a number of bankers 
had gathered and sons of them were unable to ooae because 
they didn't have any money. Z have never seen such a com 
plete state of economic collapse or complete breakdown of 
an economy or spirit as prevailed through that entire area, 
body had any hope that anything could be done. However 
Mr* Crawford had loaned some monsy to some of the bankers 
to cove to the dinner and Mr. Meyer himself paid for the 
dinner. It was the most solemn- f aoed , sad looking group of 
men I had ever seen any place outside of a funeral. In a 
certain sense it was a funeral because these banksrs were 
together for the first time sad each one of them knew that 
he and the other nan there were broke. 

Hr Crawford made a little introductory speeoh for me. 
I got up and made a little talk about Mr. Mayor, telling 
then his great background and how he had created his own 
great wealth by the study of eeonooio problems and their 
solution. I told how he had used his great fortune in 
public service. He was now the head of this great banking 
arm of the government, the War Finance Corporation. I then 
introduced Mr. Imfeas Meyer, who originally oaae from Calif 
ornia t his family lived in California; he had attended the 
University of California and later Yale University. Some of 
us at the University may remember the Borglun head of 
Lincoln which is on the side of the Campanile, a gift to 
the University of California from Sogens Meyer, who financed 
Barglus at a time when he needed to have sonebody buy 


JL* *^b% 



something. Mr. Meyer oomndesioaed him to do that head of 

Lincoln for the University. 

Mr. Meyer got op to make his speech. Rr* Meyer ia not 
an orator bat a plain, simple busineaaaan. He undertook to 
joke a littlo bit at the expense of the bankers beoauae he 
said ha had rarer aan ao many bttated bankers is bia life 
and hoped ha never would again, bwt maybe there wold be 
something that oould be done* He deaoribed the War flaaaoo 
Corporation and *eld that I waa representing the War finance 
Jor oration in thst ar-,-.i, vhiah was the first kaowl^dgo that 
I had of it. Be then said that the War Finance Corporation 
tad an announoazsent to make, that the Federal Government 
would, aa of that time and from thereon, guarantee the ahaep 
loans of $5 a head on aheep provided "they were counted only 
once." *hia waa a haaoroua reference to the triok of sheep 
an to overcount aheep to gat larger loana* M*. Meyer vaa, 
in other words, saying to theae people "Shese loan* whioh 
you have whioh aro now froaen and oannot be liquidated 
lamsasi the ahaep market ia a dollar a head leaa than what 
you loaned, are suddenly again liquid and your bank ia not 
going; to close its doors." 

The aoment that ha made hia atateaent there waa a huah 
that fall on that group, Ban looked at each other with com 
plete aatoaiahaent and conplete diabelief for a noatent, and 
then suddenly aomebody let out a yell and aoaebody took the 
dinner plate with what food there waa on it and throw it up 
to the ceiling where it broke into a doaen pieoea. Pande 
monium broke loose. Thoae aavd-eyed, solemn bankers jumped 
up, hugged eaoh other, rushed around the rooa ia the aoat 
intense exoitement I've over aeon. 

It waa unlike any bank! tig group of any backing meeting 
that ever took place, ffibey rushed to Hr. i layer, they patted 
him on the back, they shook his hand and would have kissed 
hia. It waa a wonderful demonstration. I eat over ia the 
corner solemnly wondering what X waa going to do aa too. 
responsible person in this Idling* Finally the ex* 
died down and we left the meeting and news went out in the 
papers all over the area* 

Za three or four days confidence began to come 
baok. Everyone began to understand that the government would 
loan this money. . eat up a little organisation right there 
in iir. Crawford* a bank to handle this matter and offered to 
take whatever paper wac brought, but it wasn't brought 
because of the faot that the price of aheep immediately 
began tc rise froa S4, It must rise, of course, above 15 
booauae you had the resources of the United Gtatos Treasury 
guaranteeing $5 and therefore the price wont above $5 aad 
stayed there. 



There were other problems in Idaho at that time which 
were equally as bad as the sheep and we'd only solved one 
problem. That was the general problem of agriculture 
because the farmer trying to go about his year* a business 
couldn't borrow any money because the banks had as money to 
loan. It is an area heavy ia the production of sugar beets 
and fruit and alfalfa sad all kinds of farming. So X 
conceived the idea of organising the Idaho Agricultural Loan 
Company which would have capital. X got Kr. Meyer to agree 
that for every dollar of capital in tile Idaho Agricultural 
Loan Company the War Finance Corporation would mske available 
ten dollars which the eompsny could loan on agricultural 
operations and products. la order to get any money into 
the Idaho Agricultural Loan Company capital account, I went 
down to Bait Lake City and called upon the head of the 
Mormon Church, who was Heber Grant. He did not know me, X 
had never seen him before* X only knew that Mormons took 
oars of their own* X began from last point of view to tell 
Kr. Grant that that was ay understanding of the position of 
the Mormon Church and that the Mormon Church was s wealthy 
organisation and that s great number of Mormons were adversely 
affected by this situation in the agricultural areas of 
Northern Utah, Idaho, over to Montana, sad into Oregon, sad 
that X waatsd him to have the Mormon Church subscribe to 
the capital of this corporation X was setting up* He aaked 
me how much money X waatsd* X told him X wanted to have him 
subscribe s half a million dollars. 

Kr. Grsat called two or three asm into the room* They 
stood over in the corner and had s little conference among 
themselves. He asms back sad in his very sweet, homely way 
said to me, "What did you say the name of this corporation 
was going to be?" X told him it was goiag to be called the 
Idaho Agricultural Loan Company. He said. "We will have a 
draft drawn to the order of the Idaho Agricultural Loan 
Company for a half s million dollars sad ia your hands this 
afternoon* * 

From there X went to see Carl Gray, who was the President 
of the Union Pacific Railroad* Kr* Grsy guaranteed as 
$230,000 of money from the Union Pacific. Then back in 
Ssa Francisco X gathered up another quarter of a million 
dollars in guarantees of psyaeats of capital to the Idaho 
Agricultural Loan Company. 

X set up the office in Boise, Idaho* I got a man who 
wss competent and able to run it and notified the newspapers 
and everybody that farmers could come ia sad borrow to the 
extent of ten million dollars which waa adequate to their 
needs in that season. Nobody earns. Confidence immediately 
same bask into the community. People took their money out 


- - . 


; K s <l& 


of their old aock and from under the oattreas aad put it 
back into the banks again, and within ninety day* the 
banks were solvent ana they went about their business and 
nobody ever withdrew a dollar froa the Agricultural Loan 
Company. ?he coraounity was saved; the capital was returned 
in full to the subscribere. 

That was one of those draaatie incidents that occurred 
to SB and showed the tremendous power of public confidence 
and the trenendcua disasters thai oos* from the laok of 
public confidence* Hu&ene Mayer, in his own wonderful way, 
without any authority other than his ova power, guaranteed 
millions upon millions of federal aaaey to be put into the 
sheep situation and frota there the whole problem within 
ninety days completely was solved sad it changed the whole 
aspect of that great northwest country* 

FOBiufio* of oiizioaxu azcai OBOVXRS 



There are asay incidenta that occurred in that period 
of 1921 oa, bat Z would like BOW to disouss my entrance into 
the field of cooperative Marketing which evolved froa ay 
being retained by beaks to solve problems of aarketiag fara 


*,i tt&e* tk&t Wa# 

Z received a oull one day froa Uaorsaento asking as to 
coae to a meeting the following day *ad when Z went p 
there Z found soae asa whoa Z knew quite well who were 
bankers froa 3acraaento sad the surrounding country. They 
told a* that their situation was very serious because the 
warehouses of the aaeriasnto Valley were loaded with rioe 
sad there was no market for rice. Banka had loaned money 
on this rice. Zt couldn't be sold* A situation somewhat 
parallel to the Idaho situation oa over-loans oa sheep had 
developed in the tiacrsaeato Valley through over-loans oa 
rice. They asked as if Z would undertake to sell four 
nillion bags of riee that lay in the warehouses of tat 
Sacramento Valley upon which these banks had leans of about 
eight million dollars. 

Z told thea that Z wanted a few days to think about it 
and study this problea, that Z knew nothing about rice 
except that it was soasthing Z liked to eat and that people 
threw it at the bride at the tine of a wedding. But the 
great problea of four million bags of rice and how to find 
an immediate, profitable market was an alaoet impossible 
situation as I saw it. 

~ t& 1 s% j*e * 7 i 

^trf^rr,* 10 .?**';:-! '5 ;.? MfilHMt ^tf &9ftJttttfl>lE gKl*tf 


ti 0;fti *cL- >>* *1. ***: I - A 


X want back to ay office in 3an Francisco and ssmt a 
tolagraa, as I often did when X was trying to search for 
answers to problems, to the Secret ary of OjMmrce> Mr. Hoover, 
and said to hia, "Will you ask tha proper peopla in tha 
Departiaent of Foreign and r/onestic COMBS roa to |4vs as an 
analyaia of the rica situation in the world and tha possibili 
ties of finding markets for four million bags of California 
rioa. If neeesaary confer with tha Department of Agriculture* " 

1 ... ,<,-.' , 

I got a telegram back the next day saying, "What kind 
of rica have you got?" As far as X was concerned wa had 
rice. That there wars different kind a of rica X didn't 
know. I than set to work to find out what kind of rioa wa 
had and discovered from a man in the University sf California 
Department of Agriculture that there are three kinds of rise 
In the world. There's round grain rioa, short grain axrt 
long grain rice. The long grain rice is essentially the 
product of China* The round grain rise ia the product of 
India and the aouthem Asian countries* The short grain 
rice ia the product of Japan, Yormosa and Korea. They cook 
differently; they taate differently* Tha natives of sash 
country are used to that kind of rise grown in their country 
and no other kind of rise. 

X began to learn something about the rica business in 
a hurry because of the fact that X knew nothing about it 
at ell and anything X learned was so mush to the good* 

Then X found from the University that tha rice that was 
grown in California was tha Japanese rice* It was the short 
grain rica and the reason it couldn't be oold wss that the 
housewife of the United States had been used to the rice 
grown in cither China, or in fexas, both of which neve the 
Ion*; grain rice* That w&s the kind of rioa they knew and 
wore used to cooking, and when they cooked tha California 
rica in tha same way it didn't turn out to be light, fluffy 
S rains. 

There had been overproduction as a result of tha ries 
boon during the World War I; thia accumulation of four 
million bags of rice had begun in 1919 when people began , 
to grow rice when any kind of food was salable* As former 
Food Administrator, I was held rearonaibla for the troubles 
of all people who couldn't ssll what they had grown and that 
was tha reason the bankera called on me. 

As aoon as X found thia was tha Japanese type of rice, 
I sent a telegram back to Washington stating what it was. 
Then flr. Hoover wired back that he was aondine to my office 
the Trade Commiaaioner of the Department of Commerce from 
Japan who had an important message to give ma to show that 


the one place at the praoent tine where tUore was a shortage 
of rice in the world was in Japan, that the only type of 
rice that was wanted waa that grown in Japan, "oraosa and 
?Toroa, and that the discovery that there were .four Million 
bags of Japanese type rioe in California was something 
completely unknown to the Japanese. They were having rice 
riots in Japan at that time besause of the lack of their 
kind of rice. People were Bad at the yovonuMint, They 
wore throwing rooks at the Parliament House windows, rlofclag 
in tho streets and turning ovar the street oars* The govern 
ment was in a very difficult position with regard to the 
people who were hungry sad had no rice of their usual type 
to out. 

Immediately X dispatched a nan with samples of our rioe 
to Osaka, Japan where their rioe market is located. I wont 
back to Sacramento and told the bankers I would take the 
rice problem. They wasted to know how Z was going to do it. 
I told thea I didn't know but I'd find a way to work it out. 

X sat down then in tho Butter Club in Sacramento and 
worked out a plan. This had to bo a cooperative marketing 
plan. Tho farmers still owned this rioe. The bankers simply 
had a Mortgage on it and they hadn't foreclosed their 
aortcjasec. 3*h* ** vas of all kinds and grades. Its 
pooling into a largo voltcae of four oilliona bags was 
tnpo3ibl. urtheraor# it would take a long period of 
education to force tho farmer into a cooperative in which 
somebody else took control of his product, so it was 
necessary to recognise the huaan problem by leaving to each 
Individual the right to deal with his own particular product 
on which he hold a warehouse receipt. 


Go I set up an idea of a California Hioe Growers' 
Association} that all the people who were growers of rioe 
should belong to it| that each aon who belonged to it should 
have the right to determine the price at which he wanted 
his rioe soldi that his warehouse receipts should bo 
delivered to tho Association but they could not bo used by 
tho Association without the prior approval of the man him- 
ael f. Then X developed the idea of having an auction which 
would be held in Savramonto in whioh samples of tho rioe 
that was to be offered would be on display for bidders like 
the Japanese government or like local buyers aad millers to 
tost* This was raw rice in the form of paddy. It wasn't 
milled rioe at all. It had to be bought and it had to bo 

milled. Bach individual waa to have the right to coBtrol 
xroduott samples ox the individual Iota would be 

nis own product; samples 
offered for public auction as and when the Association 
should determine was the proper time to offer each grade of 
rice btteauao there was a demand for that quality at the 
price whioh the member sight have set on it. 


We got into business within a very short time* In 
fact, in less than thirty days I had the Bice Growers' 
Association organised because the bankers immediately mads 
the requirement of not foreclosing on a grower's rice the 
fact that he would Join the Association* We were in business. 

There was a very great diversity among the rice 
growers. There wars some men who wore large operators, 
wealthy people. Srnest Adams at Chioo was one of those men 
who later succeeded mm mm president of the Rice Growers ' 
Association. Many bankers themselves had gone into the 
speculative business of growing rice in the days of the war 
when the prices wers high. On the other hand, there were 
people with small holdings and there wers quite a lanes 
number of Hindus who had turned up in the Sacramento valley 
who were growing *4ce. I had all the way from Hindus who 
couldn't speak - ngliah and who wore turbans and looked at 
me blankly when we talked about a cooperative to the banker 
or large business man who understood but did not want to 
give up freedom of action. 

:' feara jL; *^K! ':.. ?.i && 

Sraest Adams was the leader of the group who helped 
set up the organisation* I put together a board of directors 
from all over the valley who were very enthusiastic about 
this new typs of cooperative. It was a different kind of 
cooperative from anything anybody had svsr seen before. In 
other organisations the grows* had to give up the right to 
sell his product, to accept the average price which the 
cooperative could get for everybody's product* In this 
Hice Cooperative it was an individual matter which was 
suited to that particular crisis. 

The idea for this enterprise evolved out of my own 
thought. It waa just one of those times when you have to 
look at every possible solution and abandon those that are 
not practical* Then you are left with the workable possi 
bilities and go on from there. To many it seemed to be 
inpousible because it was something never done before, and 
yet it had great appeal because of the right of the 
individual to participate in the sale of his own product. 

Of course, then we had to begin sad the first problem 
was to get rice buyers to come to the auotion and boy. 
Rosenberg Brothers aad M.J.B. and the other large millers In 
California thought this was the orasiest idea they'd ever 
heard of and they were just sitting waiting until this rice 
fell into their laps and they could have it at their own 
price. To have somebody open an auction was a thing they 
not only didn't understand, but didn't like. We opened the 
auction in the early spring. This was not the time rice was 
normally marketed but it was the time when the mills normally 
had nothing to do. They were hungry to operate. 


It was a good time to launch the plan. The Ban X had 
aent to Japan with samples of California rice showed those 
sample a on the floor of the rica exohanga in Oaaka and for 
the first time the Japanese traders knaw there was auoh a 
thing a* California rica of Japaneaa type. They found that 
our rica aeaaured up to the standards of the rioa grown in 
Japan, Iron this nan X learned about how much in our money 
we could expect to get for our rioe. 

5* .fi&M v*---. j 

Now, the farmer had to gat am average of 52.50 a hundred 
pound* paddy in order to ake his ooata of production and 
a slight profit after paying the bank loan* 

The rioe was graded and the result of this grading 
that we would have had a good deal of riee that waa leas 
than the best grade. So, in opening this auction, we not 
only invitad the millers I've spoken of but also the 
Japanese firms like Mitsui, Mitsubishi, sad the other great 
Japanese traders to come to the auction to buy for the 
account of the Japanese market. The idee, was that they 
would buy paddy rice and hare it milled here sad snip it as 
finished rioe. 

<"e opened the auction with a great deal of question in 
our own minds as tj whether it would work or not* The first 
two or three auctions were not very successful in volaae or 
in Interest, but it grew* As the interest grew the confidence 
of people began to grow, both In offering the rioe and in 
buying the rioe. X put out bulletins every day to the growers 
so they'd know about what price they could flat on their rioe. 
A man would come in and say he wanted S4 for his rioe* Xf 
it was impossible to sell it we wouldn't even pot it up to 
be considered at auction. A men would offer his riee at 
maybe a distressed price sad because it would nave broken the 
market to offer that distressed price, we always retained 
the right to offer his rioe at whatever price he fixed or 
better. So X would fix the prioe of rioe every day for that 
auction and we would not sell for less than a certain amount 
nor would we offer riee for move than a certain amount, but 
it would be auctioned off within those ranges* 

We planned our campaign to merchandise this riee during 
the entire year from Kerch on to the sad of the year so we'd 

keep It flowing in an even way and keep the mills coning. 

' ay 

We started in at $1.80 a hundred pounds* We ran the 
market within tho first month up to '12.25 as a Binimum bass 
sad then the Japanese pulled out and refused to buy any more 
rioe. They said it was out of line with their market, ty 
reply to them after I had had a meeting with ritsui and 
Mitsubishi was, "You tell the Japanese Government that the 
Japanese Goveraoent ia buying rice for Japan in other markets 


and that if they want to subsidise BOM of these purchases 
they or* perfectly at liberty to do so, bat if they wank to 
buy this rice at all they are going to pay for it, and we 
know they've got to have it." 

The Japanese refuaed to bid. The result was that we 
had no buyers come into our auction fbr two succeeding 
auction day a and thereupon we ahut the auction down for a 
month and offered no rioe and refuaed to liaten to anybody 
who wanted rioe* Soon they began begging for rice, finally, 
: got all the biddera together, the mills and the Japaneae 
together, and told them exactly what they would have to do 
if they propoaed to buy thia rioe. Z then reopened the 
auction. The price at which wo cloaed the auction waa $2*25. 
I reopened it at $2*40 and frou there on the price ran up 
to $3. Wo marketed the entire four million bags of rice. 
Practically all went to Japan whether it vaa bought by 
Rosenberg or the Japaneae. The mill* did mot try to aell 
it to the California housewife or the American housewife who 
didn't understand that particular typo of rioe, but they did 
ell it to people who did want it and who were hungry for it 
and who didn't want the India rice that waa being brought 

into Japan at that time. They wanted thia typo of rice. 


So the Rioe Association mot it a crisis, the accumulation 
of thia four million bags, which waa the result of the 
surpluses that had accumulated during the years 1918, 1919, 
1920 and 1921. And wo cleaned the market by the omd of 
the year. The result waa that whom wo wont into 1922, 
instead of having thia aa a temporary solution of a problem, 
the growers simply insisted that they were going to continue 
and that the California Rico Growers' Association was going 
to live. It haa been successful all these years and will 
continue to be* 

X received a salary of *2?,000 a year for being the 
President of the California Rioe Growers. Z was opposed to 
the building of a mill by the rioe growers because I 
believed that we had enough Billing capacity in California 
and that the market could bo wall handled on a raw paddy 
basis* I stayed with the Rioo Growers during the year 1922 
and into the year 192? when X wont to Sun Maid as the 
President of the Raisin Growers. 

We did not plan any voluntary controls of acreages or 
any of the MoSary-Kougen ideas. We believed in finding 
foreign markets that could afford to pay, and as a result 
of the exploration of markets that wont on at that time. X 
found that not only did we have a market for this rice in 
Japan, but we also had a market for it in Italy and we had 
a market for it in some of the South American countries. Qo 
wo developed a sufficient market to take whatever rice wo 
might grow. 

t : j 


Nor did ve plan en advertising campaign. We were not 
selling a finished product. We were selling a raw product 
to the olllers. '-'hy convince toe American housewife to buy 
rice she does not underctand when you can find a housewife 
la Japan who wants that rice and knows all about it? 

I didn't go to Japan until a later period when X 
with Bun Maid. I went to Japan in 192*. At that tine the 
Japanese Government proposed to (lire * medal and various 
other honors for having saved Japan at the time of its dee 
riots because the advent of the California rice Into the 
Japan* ne markat had quieted the rice riots and returned the 
people to a feeling that their kind of rice would be forth- 

Strangely enough, the fact of having a Japanese market 
did not predispose the California rice growers to a more 
favorable attitude toward the Japanese and toward Orientals 
in California. It had no of foot upon the foaling of psople 
in California that I know of toward the Japanese question* 
They were glad to have a market in Japan hut there is a vast 
difference between a market that** 3000 miles away and 
living close to an Individual whom you may like. It didn't 
seem to have say effect at all on the relationship of tho 
people in California toward Japanese people. 

I had completed my work there in Sacramento In the Rioe 
Growers' Aaoooiation and Braes* Adams succeeded mo as 
president. The Rice Growers' Association has gone on through 
all these intervening years with increasing success and is 
one of the outstanding accomplishments in the field of 
cooperative marketing* It has changed its basis of operation 
to milling its own product v advertising and doing all the 
modern things that are done in the preparation of rice, 
pre-cooked and otherwise, for the housewife. But at any 
rate in the early days of mooting a orlsis, the development 
of this program waa successful* 


In the beginning of 1925 1 was asked to go to Fresno 
to diaousa the problems of the Sun .laid Hal sin Growers, and 
that leads to the considerable story of a wholely different 
typo of cooperative marketing. 

So you can understand the various human and economic 
problems of Sun Maid, I'd like to go back dust a little 
period of time and review the background of the development 


of the raisin Industry in the San Joaquin Valley. la the 
early yara of tho lato "X)s and early 1900*3 raisin growing 
in the 3?m Joaquin Valley esuae into existence and was neither 
vary profitable nor wsa it without it* attraction. Most and 
acre people planted vineynrda. Theodore Kearney, who at 
his death gave the 5COO acre Kearney vineyard properties to 
the University of California, organised ona of the first 
raisin cooperatives. That cooperative wag not successful. 
.Probably tho reason it did not aucceod was beeaise of the 
ruthless end dominating qualities of Hr. Kearney's admini 
stration. Later he organised a second cooperative and a 
little later that failed. 

Whan I bcoaae Comptroller of the University of California 
and took over the Kearney property after Mr* Kearney died 
and the property was willed to the University} X found in 
the bank vault in Ilr, Kearney* a bold handwriting a paper 
which was headed "Jfipitsph** This epitaph of Theodore 
Kearney, written by hisself, read in these words t 

Here lies the body of K* Theodore 
Kearney i a visionary, who thought that 
he could teach the farnera, and par 
ticularly the raisin growers of Treano 
the aiaple rudineats of business* The 
effort killed him." 

Having that warning in advanoe, I should have known better 
than to have accepted the invitation in 1925 to go to 
Fresno to be President of Sun Held. 

The Sun ttsid had been organised prior to 1925* let's 
go back to the beginning of the period in which the present 
Sun Raid organisation seas into being. The leadership at 
that tta* wms in the hands of Vylie Giffn, who was the 
president of Sun Maid froa the UBS of its organisation up 
to the tine when I oaao in as president* Mr. Giffen was s 
faraar and a very successful faraer. Sowever, he was s 
man who knew little about world conditions* economics, 
markets, or other things of that kind, sad he sade a nuaber 
of very serious errors. 

When ttr. Qiffen organised the Sun Raid he did a real 
job in grower organisation insofar ss the creation of laember- 
ship ana facilities were concerned. The basic ides was 

that all the growers should be brought into an organisation, 
if not voluntarily, then the minority was brought in by 

And compulsion was sonething that was pretty 

vigorous and it usually went along with night riders sad 

ssure roups whose activities would not have been 

other pressure groups 

regarded with favor by the public or the law. However, the 

theory was to bring in all the growers, pool all of the 



r fi't.*^ ' ;l 


raisins of each year, build and operate plants in which the 
raisins were manufactured into finished fora and sold under 
the Association brand* 

Raisin processing is something which person not 
acquainted with the growing of raisin grapes. Muscats and 
Thompsons, would not understand* The grape is taken from 
the vine, put on trays, laid out in the sun, turned until 
it is dried, and then put into what is known as a sweat box; 
then it is brought in the sweat box into toe plants sad 
stored in that fora until needed. When it is needed the 
sweat boxes are brought into the plant and the raisins are 
put through machines which take the stems and the leaves 
and dirt from the raisins, clean them up. Xn the ease of 
Muscat raisins shore are seeding machines that take the 
seeds out | in the ease of Thompson raisins which have no 
seeds they are cleaned} and from there they are moved into 
packaging form, whether it's toe twenty-five pound box sold 
to wholesalers and bakers or whether it's the smaller boxes 
and even down to the nickel box acid to the consumer. 

Let me illustrate Mr. Giffin's errors in this way* 
fir. Gif fen's assumption was that if all the people belonged 
to his Sun Maid there was no need of the large raisin 
packers. The dried fruit operators had their own brands, 
they had their own investment, they had the channels of 
distribution; and consequently, the California Packing 
Corporation, Rosenberg Brothers, Guggenheim, Griffen aad 
Skelly and J. K. Arasby all of these packers immediately 
undertook to try to destroy Bun Kald in self perservation. 
So the first thing that Mr. Gif fan had, aa contrasted to 
my plan in the Rice Growers in Sacramento that I just 
related, was a fight with everyone of the people who had 
vested interests in this business, in brands and so on* 
ffbis is understandable. Mr. Gif fen then recommended to his 
board that instead of selling oua Maid raisins through 
brokers, which was the customary method of distribution of 
dried fruits here in the United States, they employ their 
own salesmen and aet up sales offices throughout the United 
states. In Hew York, Chicago, Boston ac.3 across the 
country he set up sales offices to employ local salesmen 
who would call on the grocers and sell raisins directly to 
the grocers. So there was this second lias of opposition, 
the broker who felt that his lias of business was being 
taken away from him. It was not only the loss of the 
raisin business as such that concerned the broker, it was 
the fear that if the Sun Maid group could be successful in 
their elimination of the broker and other middleman in the 
chain of distribution, all cooperatives might undertake such 
a thing and therefore it: waa necessary for the broker to 
immediately defend his business operations, his profits, 

5 Joining with the packers in the destruction of 3un Maid, 

...^tf j~ ^ 4>^4B Mkfffeafe' 


* ' 







iThese war* the kinds of mistake a which as X now sea 
it all in retrospect Mr. Giffen made. They were economic 
and buoiness errors. There waa a further error which was 
baaic to the ultimate destruction of prosperity of the raisin 
business. Mr. Giffen believed at the beginning of World 
War I that the 3un Plaid organisation was a good, sound 
organisation* To look at it from the outside it was* although 
it had these defects, or had embarked upon those net hods 
that I speak of. But when World War I oame, the raisin 
markets of Europe were iauaedlately without any supplies 
becauae Greece and otter centers of world production were 
out off from European markets sad those market a were wide 
open than for California raisins* 

Hr. Giffen went out on propaganda oaapaigms among Bis 
growers urging everybody to plant acre raisins. Ton 
couldn't plant too nany raisins, he said* Bo himoelf 
expanded his own vineyards by the planting of hundreds and 
hundreds of acres of additional raisins under the theory 
that the price would always at ay up and the world markets 
would always be up with then* That condition climaxed in 
1919 when the price of raisins rose from the normal price to 
the grower of approximately 3 cents a pound to a price of 
15 cents a pound* There never had been such prosperity, 
thore never bad been such enthusiasm for planting and grow* 
ing raisina as there was in that wartime era. 
;tei:;: tttr d a :-..-: - V -vet 

It takes three years after a cutting is planted before 
It comes into first production, and the highest rate of 
planting was in 1919 and or the 15 cent price* In 1922 those 
additional plantings earns into production. In 1928 the 
war was over and the Greek markets were again open, Australia 
was bringing raisins in, so was South America. The entire 
world market for raisins collapsed. Instead of being able 
to sell all of the raisins), Sun Maid couldn't sell but a 
fraction of the raisins because the buyers were bitter 
against Sun flaid because of the broker and independent 
operator situation. The California, packer competitors were 
pouring poison into the minds of the trade an raisins and 
everybody who handled raisina in a business way was convinced 
that no matter what the price waa today it was going to bo 
lower tomorrow because thore were thousands upon thousands 
of tons of raisins unsalable and stacked up and ready to bo 
thrown on the market* 

There were a great many men who wore prominent in those 
days. Jim lladiaon was one of them. His interests were 
largely in the selling of real estate. Mr. Kilo itowell, 
who was a brother of Chester Howell, the regent, and who 
had a large business in Fresno in the selling of agricultural 
commodities of all kinds and agricultural equipment, was 
one of the directors of Sun Haid. Be served Sun Maid as a 

JfcO * 


public service. Ilr. Vishon, who was head of the San 
Joaquin Light and Power Company, was also on the board. 
All of them important people in the coaicunity, banker* and 

Hal ain production waa a great community enterprise. 
Their great celebration of the year was Raisin Day in which 
they had parades and the Governor and everything that 
glorified the raiain. 

Cheater ! to we 11 viewed thia whole situation with m 
deal of oaln but quiet alarm because he knew a great deal 
sore than most people Aid of the broader economic problems 
that were involved* However, moat everybody was swept off 
hie feet* Everybody entered into the gamble. There wasn't 
any single person who was to blame Jtr the catastrophe and 
there wasn't say way for a Ban like myself to aove in there 
froa the outside when the calamity had happened and salvag* 
the grower oar his organisation. 

There was no plan of action* Somehow Ralph Merritt 
had become the name of a man who in some fashion had a 
device which could be used in economic emergencies. Over 
three or four years Herri tt had been used in various ways as 
a trouble-shooter. The theory seemed to be that if you 
could get Ralph Kerritt to come to Fresno aad take hold of 
this thing the raisin problem could be worked out. They had 
no plan. 

The leader in this whole matter as far as X was con 
cerned at that time was Mr. Henry If* Kobinsoa of Los Angeles, 
who was the president of the First national Bank, later the 
Security First Rational Bank of Lot Angeles. 

Herbert Fleishhaeker came into the thing later* He 
did not come ia ia the earliest part of the thing* Be was 
not in it when I earns into the situation. The Bank of 
America and the local banks and Mr. Robinson* s bank aad the 
Federal Farm Bank were the bank* that were chiefly involved* 

The invitation which I had to come to Fresno was from 
Mr* Robinson and his associates in the banking group who 
feared the economic collapse of the San Joaquin Valley. 
When I went to Fresno where I had been many times aad had 
many friends, where I had worked as a cowpuncher ia my early 
days, Z said that while Z was happy to listen to whatever 
the bankers had to say, any interest that I might take 
would have to come from an invitation from the board of 
directors of 3un Maid. 

And so the Board of Directors of Sun Maid promptly 
invited me to come to a meeting, asked me to take over the 


to a&lq ' r *** .HlMff' 
JEiUtt A I'd <WMUI 






administration of 3un .'aid. rr. Giffen said that he reoog- 
nised certain of these errors that he had made, that the 
overpl anting was something he was responsible for, but 
that the conditions were those he could not himself handle. 
Therefore he would be very willing to resign. 

And so I made an arrangement and agreed to oome to 
Fresno after they had made me an offer of a salary of 150.000 
a year* I debated whether to accept that salary because it 
se<*med to mo as though an aggregation of 1?,000 growers who 
were broke hadn't any business to offer a salary of $90,000 
to any person to administer their problems* 

Their feeling about me was very wonderful and cordial. 
I expressed this doubt that I had in my saind and the answer 
that was given by the Board of Directors of Sun Maid was 
that if the raisin grower was going to save himself fro* 
the complete collapse of his industry it had to come through 
the financing of this whole industry program with the support 
of the bankers. Therefore they felt that they had to bring 
in someone in whom the banking interacts had confidence. 
They had discussed the matter with the bankers and the 
bankers said that if I would accept the presidency of Sun 
"aid they would continue to finance the Sun Maid organisation* 
Therefore, the Sun Maid Directors said they were getting their 
money's worth on that basis because without me they couldn't 
borrow any money. I was the underwriter, in a way, of the 
finances of Sun Maid. 

I looked the situation over with a great deal of oars* 
oome mistakes wore clear which Z have outlined, oome other 
things were hidden from me. Within ninety days after the 
time that I accepted the presidency of Sun Maid I began to 
realise that the balance snoot which had been presented to 
me and vouched for by the board of directors which showed 
that the Sun ttaid was a solvent organization had been falsi 
fied in some respects. Getting the chief accountant into 
ny office one evening late and keeping him there most of the 
night I sweated out of him the answer that the books of the 
Sun Maid had been falsified within a week of my coming in 
as president. The volume and value of the raisins which 
were on hand as the so-called liquid assets of the company 
were neither as large or as valuable as the balance shoot 
snowed. The difference between the actual value and that 
which appeared on the balance shoot under which I had 
accepted responsibility was approximately five million 
dollars. That was the cruel and factual situation that 
existed . 

At the time when I became President of Sun Maid the 
contract between the growers and the organization was 
unworkable and I decided that the first step would be to 

fj.'-i ;/.!' r j! 



determine whether tha growers wanted the organization. I 
attempted to develop a voluntary signing of a new contract 
without pressure frcn the bank* and without night riders. 
The habit of both bank pressure and night riders was so 
deeply ingrained in the coxanunity that before we got through 
with the campaign some of those things did happen. This 
was con rary to orders and instructions and pleating that 
frost ae. 

Anyhow, X went out to meetings with the growers through 
out the entire area from Baksrsfield through frtsno and 
north, even as far as f'arysville where there was quits a 
planting of seedless raisins. 

There were SOBS amusing things that happened. For 
example, I remember speaking in all kinds of nestings and 
all tines of day and night. On* of the tines when I had a 
meeting scheduled of growers in the town of Kadera, X drove 
into town and looked around, not knowing where I was to go 
and whom I was to meet. The little town seemed to be in 
its usual normal state of sleepinesa, but on the sidewalk 
in front of the drug store the sheriff was sitting in a big 
barroom chair. 2 knew him because when he was * deputy and 
I was a cowpuncher he had put as in Jail as a hostage for 
my Killer and Lux friends. X stopped my oar sad said, 
'Bill, can you tell ne where the Meeting is to be that we're 
to hold for Sun ."aid?" He said, "Why ys, are you ready to 
go?" X said, "Tee, if you'll tsll as where it is." Be said, 
*Vell, just a minute." And with that he got up out of his 
chair, took a couple of steps over to the fire box on the 
corner, and proceeded to pull the hook. The fire alarm 
went off and the fire engine and hook and ladder of the town 
cane down the street and stopped right in front of the drug 
store. With the whistles going everybody in town rushed out 
and down to the drug store. Vhen most of the town had 
arrived Bill Hughe a, the sheriff, said to sons of bio police 
men, Tiit a rope around these people and hold them here so 
they can't got away." So they threw a rope across the street 
and Bill said to as, "Climb up on the fire engine and make 
your damned speech. " 

It was one of the most smacing kinds of meetings that 
X attended, but it was typical of the offhand way in which 
the community was brought in. Troa the fire engine X made 
the plea to the growers to sign this contract. There was 
enthusiasm and X elinbod down off the fire engine and the 
whistles blew and people signed up and we wont to the next 
meeting. That went on through the valley. Finally we got 
17,50O people signed up, or 8$# of all the raisin production. 

Wo never declexed bankruptcy. After I discovered 
what my situation waa, I looked at the obligations of i>un Maid. 

* v;-3'" 


M *PQ **tf 


'~ ' - < 


I found eon one other things there was a very large amount of 
money between two and throe million dollars owed to on* 
creditor. I believe that this creditor had led the growers 
into larger expenditures than they should have undertaken. 

'That whole plot begim to unfold and Z could oeo the 
fact a. I knew that Mr. Herbert Fltlshhacker Of the Anglo 
Bank in San Francisco knew the creditor corporation, 
went to San Francisco to talk to Mr. Pleishhacker* I told 
him that I was willing to rewrite that obligation but for 
50 cents on the dollar and could not pay in full* Mr* 
Fleishhacker agreed that he would undertake to see that we 
would be able to get that write-down of this obligation* Z 
told Kr. Flelehhacker we would not go into bankruptcy bat 
we would fight. 

The creditors were bitter because of this loss of their 
prise that they had looked forward to acquiring so easily 
under bankruptcy proceedings, the result was that a deal 
was Bade by certain powerful opponents of Sun Maid by which 
th<> Attorney General of the United States, under President 
Harding, instructed the Department of Justice to inquire 
into the legal status of the Sun Raid organisation and to 
charge the Ban Raid organisation with violation of Section 4 
of the Clayton Act, which was the Anti-Trust Act, 

We had just signed up our 8Jfl of the growers) we were 
in control of 85% of the California production and we had 
over J?0# of the world produotion which was a monopoly. 

One afternoon I suddenly was faced in ay office with 
the officers of the Department of Justice who walked in and 
demanded all the books of the Sun Maid organisation. The 
books were seised and were carried to the Post Office 
Building in Fresno and held there* There was then developed 
by the United states Attorney, under the direction of the 
Department of Justice in Washington, an action against Sun 
"aid Raisin Growers as violators of Section 4 of the Clayton 
Act and a personal indict nent of as as the President of Bun 
naid. This waa the punishment that was to ba handed out 
to mo at that time originating from the creditor group* 


At that particular moment a most amazing occurrence 
changed the whole situation in a few days* President Harding, 
who had been on a trip to Alaska with certain members of 
his Cabinet and had cotae back to Seattle, wus strickc-n and 


was brought to San Francisco and was ill in the Palace Hotel. 
There was nothing I could do in Fresno with my Sim naid 
organisation because my books were all impounded. We had 
no money and we had nothing on which I could operate , but in 
;Jan Francisco the President of the United States was ill* 
In San Francisco ay friend, Mr. Hoover, the Secretary of 
Commerce, was with him. There was also Dr. Hubert Work, 
the Secretary of Interior, Secretary Wallace of Agriculture 
and other friends* 

Z immediately went to San Franc isoo. I lived in the 
Palace Hotel in the aaae room with Dr. Ray layman uilbur, 
then president of Stanford University and former president 
of the American Medical Association. Ray Lyman Wilbur was 
acting aa the chief physician to the President of the United 
otates. The President had his own personal physician, Dr. 
Sawyer from Marion, Ohio, but doctors in general felt that 
nay be some more experienced medical advice should be had. 
So in those days, living with President Harding's party, 
another entirely different drama unfolded, but it had to do 
in certain ways with Sun Maid. 

I have never told the story before, except maybe to a 
friend or two, but this is what happened . Wo were told after 
a day or two by the doctors that President Hardi&g would 
improve in health. I was then asked If Z would go in to 
ee Hrs. Harding in her private suite. Z had met the lady 
before. 3he was a hard and very realistic type of person* 
She said to me, "Wo are being asked to go down to Pebble 
Beach Lodge and to have the President convalesce there, bat 
we have no money* W spent all of too money of the Presi 
dent's salary on the travel here and we have no money. Can 
you get us the money with which to pay the expenses of 
going down there?" 

With that amasing request Z went back and discussed it 
with Dr. Work, ttr. Hoover, Mr* Wallace, and it urns decided 
that I should find out how ouch it would cost to lease the 
Pebble Beach Lodge and Z would then go out and collect the 
money necessary to pay the expenses of the President 1 * 
convalescence. The total bill came to between $25*000 and 
530,000 on the estimate. 

Z went down Montgomery Street to Mr. Crocker's Bank 
and called on various people whom Z knew who were the heads 
of banks and corporations, and I carae back with 525,000 in 
checks to pay this bill. Z then went to Mrs. Harding and 
told her what 1 had done and told Mr. Hoover, Dr. work 
and Mr. Wallace. They were all very happy and Mrs. Harding 
amid she would tell the President. The President eat for 
me and Z went in to see him as he lay in bed. lira. Harding 
was sitting beside him reading him a story. He said to mo, 





"They told Mr about your wonderful generous act of seeing 
that we have no financial worries. I want to thank you very 
uuch. I've also heard something I want to ask you about. 
X it true that you are about to be indicted by the federal 
Grand Jury for the violation of the Federal Anti-Trust law* 
beoauee you are the president of one of the largest coopera 
tive marketing organisations in this country?" 1 said, 
"Yes, fir. President. That's true, I understand*" And he 
said, "Yet you 1 re here to help but it's my Attorney General 
who's bringing this action against you?" I said, "That's 
true, ttr. President*" He said* "I've been told this by ST. 
Work and that's why I brought it up* I wanted to confirm 
it with you* Z just want to tell you this* You need have 
no worry about this natter at all* Your books will be 
restored to your business office, the indictment will be 
iismissed and we apologist* I personally, the President of 
the United States, apologise that this action should never 
have been taken* " 

X thanked him very auoh. X left the room* X was very 

X went back to the group and reported to then* X 
remember very well that the next day was Thursday. The 
Bohemian Club waa in the last few days before its Grove 
play. X had been a member of the Club for twenty-five years 
aa it meant a great 6eal to me. X had done all X could 
for the President* X had left all these checks sad money 
with Dr. Work* On Thursday morning X got into my oar and 
drove up to the Grove amd got in there just at noon time)* 
X went to one of the camps where there were great friends 
of mine gathered listening to Lawrence Tibbets sing* Some 
body came and put a cocktail glass in my hand amd I was 
ready to relax under the redwood trees* 

Just at that moment a olub servant came amd said, "You're 
wanted on the long distance telephone " X set my glass down 
and walked a half a nils to whore the telephone was* Xt 
waa George Christian who was the secretary to the President 
of the United States. Ho said, "There are other matters 
that the President wants to talk over with you* Will you 
coxae back to San Francisco this afternoon? He 'a feeling 
better and will be happy to talk to you." 

X went right down and got into sty oar, about a two 
and a half hours drive, or maybe a little more, to 3an 
Francisco; put my ear in the Palace Hotel garage and walked 
into the hotel* X was standing in front of the elevator 
to go up to the seventh or eighth floor where the President's 
suite was when the door of the elevator burst open and a 
reporter jumped out yelling, "The President is dead! The 
President is dead! " 

X Jumped into the elevator and said, "Qo up now." X 


landed In front of the President's suite, too* Harding 
was out in the hall running up and down screening aad the 
whole place was in an uproar. : walked into his room and 
thero was the President dead. The doctors said that 
uremic poisoning had set in in just that brief period of 

The question iamed lately arose as I got back into the 
room with ffr* Hoover sad Dr. Work and the others as to what 
do you do with a dead President in San Traaciaoo. It was a 
situation without parallel. We got everybody together sad 
had a nesting sad decided that the body of the President 
should be taken immediately bank to Washington. The problem 
of what to do with the President under those circuostances 
has got a good many unexpected aad difficult Minor angles to 
it. Among others, I got hold of the Commanding General at 
the Presidio, made arrsngeneats that the President's body 
should move the next morning at tea o'clock. Leaving the 
Palace Hotel we arranged to have a special ferry boat cross 
the Bay and a special train, the Southern Pacific supplying 
tha train. The General would send a band and soldier escort, 
and all the arrangements wars made. 

The question arose as to how to dress the members of 
the Cabinet who have to walk behind the body of the President. 
Hone of these people who had been in Alaska had brought say 
formal clothes with them. X had to find some friend ia Saa 
-ranciaoo who would be kind enough to help. X had a tailor 
of ny own la Saa Francisco who aade my clothes aad I tele 
phoned to him and had him come aad measure the Cabinet 
officers aad then alt at tha telephone to sail up different 
prorainent people ia Sea Francisco of the same sis* to see if 
they'd come sad loan a plug hat and a frock coat. So be 
tween my tailor aad myself we finally decorated all the 
members of the Cabinet with proper clothes. 

We got the funeral arrangements mads the following 
Borning when it came time to move the body of the President 
out of his room and down to the mala lobby of the Palace 
Hotel, we carried the body of the President mt the United 
States with the help of the hotel employees out of the room 
and into the elevator. The casket, when it went into the 
elevator, was too long for the elevator. The question urns 
how were we going to get from the eighth floor of the 
Palace Hotel with the body of the President. 

Finally, we got the casket moved into the freight 
elevator, which was big enough, and got down to the first 
floor ana delivered the body of the President to the pall 
bearers. Then I took the elevator myself sad weat back up 
to the eighth floor aad stood in the window looking down 
and watching the casket of the President as it was carried 

w * 

- e> 


W* Si 


down the atraet with the aoldlera and the band and the 
people all standing there bareheaded. 

But It wa an experience never to have been seen he To re 
that I know of or since repeated in vhioh a man wholly out* 
side of government channels ws asked to make moat of the 
arrangements for the funeral of a President in the particu 
lar waya which I speak of* 

A* soon as President Harding** body was gone Z left San 
ran ci BOO for ?reano. Son Maid* a booka were returned to as. 
The indiotaant waa wiped off the booka of the federal Court. 
From then on I had the usual business problems, but no 
further difficulties with the Government. 




toy first problea was the organisation sad operation of 
Bun Head. First waa the necessity of trying to get 

of theae great raisin pocking plants that never should 
have been built. They either should have been smaller or 
none at all and the packing plants that belonged to the 
California Packing Corporation and others should have been 
used. We had then and we had to operate then. I had to 
get those operations down on realistic basia and out oat 
the trenendous overhead costs and develop a new advertising 
progran and a new basis for selling operations. 

We had, X thought, a possibility of changing over to 
the broker ayatea again sad doing sway with this oostly 
direct sales that bad been built up* I found that that 
seemed to be impractical at that time, that ws had better 

Ron with what we had and try to make it work. So we put 
aether a reorganised 3un Maid sad in 192% we were well 
under way. 

^ In that yeajrMra. tferritt and I went to the Of**"**- ^^ 
The Sun naid Haiain Growers had undertaken to develop markets 

for Hun naid raisins in China and Japan and the Philippines. 
They spent nearly a million dollars in trying to develop 
their eales program there. But they were not selling any 
raiains. I wanted to find out what the reason WAS* I 
wanted to find out if there night not be a market there 
because after all, raisins are sweet, they are something 
that Oriental people like once they taste them. It was 
true that they didn't know anything about then. It was true 
that there waa no word even in the vast 25,000 characters of 



the Chinese language to describe the raisin. But because 
this money had been invested I wanted to see if we eould 
not possibly find a way to develop markets in the Orient. 

Our Bain office waa in Shanghai and we went there first. 
The people were very cordial to me but they didn't know how 
to sell any raisins. They didn't know where to begin. 
They had advertised, put up signs, they had the little boxes, 
but nobody wanted to buy. 

I had been there about two days when Z had a call from 
a Chinaaan who had been a cook in the fraternity house in 
which I had been house manager when X was in college* He'd 
gone back to China to live out his life* He'd heard I was 
in shanghai and he carae to the office. X cot hia into a 
rooa and sat down and we talked about old tines in Berkeley 
and the fraternity and the boys, and then X said to him, 
"Will you tell me why we do not sell raisins to Chinaaen?" 

Be looked at as in his sly Oriental way out of the 
corner of hia eye and pointed to the box of Sun Maid raisins 
that was sitting on the table with Chinese characters on it* 
And he said, "Ilia pretty girl but hia Japanese sun. Bo 
want Japanese sun. " Then X discovered that there were two 
kinds of suns, one with rays oa and one without rays. Oat 
waa a Japanese sun and one was a Chinese son, and what we 
had on our brand and were trying to sell was Japanese 

X said, "All right, tell me, any aore trouble?" He 
aid, "Yes, you know Chinese?" I said, "Ho*" He said, 
"Chinese word here no good* You say '3un Maid raisins. * 
The word 'sun* in Chines* character all the same character 
for Japan* Japan grape. You try to sell Japan grape* 
Japan sun. Ho good* You change this word.* I said. "Well, 
we would have to duap every little box of raisins we've 
got and we have thousands of them here." He said, "So 
sellua here. Give *ea away." 

With that I discovered one of the simplest lesions of 
foreign trade. You cannot sell a Chinaman a box that is 
aarked with a sign on it that says it's a Japanese product. 
Aaerican products are welcome. I Bade sone inquiries and 
found that the character that means Aaerican would be the 
saae character that means pretty girl. 3o we changed the 
naae of our corporation in China, at the cost of many 
thousands aore dollars, to the Aaerican Raisin Company, or 
the Pretty Girl Grape Company, with the pretty ^un Maid 
girl on the box with a Chinese sun. We printed new boxes, 
took our raisins out of the boxes and put them in tot boxes 
with the naae "Pretty Girl" or "American Raisin Company" 
on them, and from that moment we began to sell raisins in 
the Orient. 

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Varina aad I vent from Shanghai to Peking* We lived 
in the American, >2mbasay where ay old roommate Willys Peek 
was the secretary ot the American legation. Kis wife, Alice 
Peck, was the daughter ot Professor Willia* Carey Jones, 
beloved Dean of the California law school. Z met some of 
the people from Mukden and was introduced to some of the 
war lords who were then loose over China. I particularly 
liked and enjoyed a man who spoke no English at all bat 
who was known as the "Christian War Lord." He was opposed 
to drinking, he was opposed to smoking. 1 told him if 
people ate plenty of raisins they wouldn't ear* to smoke. 
X sold ten thousand tons of raisins to the Chinese armies 
so they wouldn't smoke. We disposed of our surplus raisins 
that year in china, in various ways, through various kinds 
of people, which I hope were good ways sad satisfied them 
as well as it did me. 

We finally oaae back to Korea and then to Tokyo. We 
were in Tokyo shortly after the earthquake. The Gun Held 
organisation had had a considerable office organisation in 
Tokyo or Yokohama. At the time of the earthquake and fire 
these people had all left* They had goat to Osaka four 
hundred miles away and reopened the Sun Maid office there* 
Co Z went down to join them* X found most of the members 
of the Gun Maid staff in Osaka, brought them back to Yokohama, 
and found our people had done a number of brave things at 
the time that the earthquake and fire had come. And, 
fortunately, all of them escaped alive. 

We had better success in Japan In the sale of our 
raisins than we had ia China from the very start. While Z 
was there, the Japanese gave a* a dinner in the Imperial 
Hotel, which was partly in honor of the fact that I was 
representing a large Aaerioan cooperative, bat also because 
they remembered the rice story sad had offered honors which 
the government wanted to confer on as* Z declined the honors 
but the dinner was memorable ia ay mind because furing the 
course of the dinner there was the noise of a crowd down ia 
the street. The noise got more intense and as it got loader 
and louder I asked the iaan who was the host what all the 
noise was. He said, "It's not important. You stay in this 
hotel and don't go out." 

When the dinner was over, however, Z disobeyed what he 
had said, went down to the main entrance of the Imperial 
Hotel, walked out of this entrance, which had a great curv 
ing portico, and in front of the hotel stretching as far 
as one could see, there was a mob waving lanterns sad 
yelling. Z aid to an officer, "What is going on?" He 
said, "Word has just come to us here in Tokyo that the 
United States Government has pasaed an act excluding Japanese 
from America, and this is a demonstration against Americans." 
As Z stood looking at that crowd they began to demonstrate 



more, art finally a polio* officer who spoke soae English 
cane to Join K, and I asked him if he would sea if ha could 
get than quiet so that I oould apeak to the Bob for Just one 

And ha talked to than. When they became quieter I spoke 
to these people and said, "I understand that ay country has 
0ade a decision which I personally regret very much and I 
am sure many other Americans regret also. If yen will go 
hone and not have any more of these demonstrations against 
Americans I, as an American, will promise to do one thing t 
I will do y very beet, when I get back to Aaerioa, to see 
that this wrong is righted." Somebody got up and Bade a 
speech in Japanese and pretty soon they all went hone. I 
found ay self publicly ooamltted. however, to getting an 
amendment to Senator Ghortridge** amendment which had been 
a rider on the Immigration Bill which excluded Japanese sad 
prevented Japanese fron owning property. 

/arina and I left Tokyo and sailed for homo. That 
incident in Tokyo began ssy interest in the Japanese people 
and ay interest in trying to get this Delusion Law and the 
Anti-Alien land law stricken from our statutes. It finally 
led ae to ay part in the War Relocation Authority and being 
Director of 2lansanar in Vorld War II, the Presidency of the 
Japan America Society in Los Angeles in 1951 and ay friend 
ship with Crown Prince Akahito. 

I oaae hoae to California to aany other probleas of 
Sun naid and to aaay public send ess* I went to Washington 
on the President's Agricultural Ooaaissioa and to Washington 
to the Directors meeting of the United States Chanber of 
Commerce . 

There waa growing unrest among our raisin growers. 
The rice to the grower had fallen froa 15 cents per pound 
to its original 5 cents due to over-production and the post 
war readjustments. The banks were foreclosing on farm and 
business properties. Herbert Hoover said to as, "A 
cooperative is * political organisation, not a manufacturing 
business. You are headed for trouble because you are trying 
to teach business to farcers. 1 * I remsaoerad Theodore 
Kearney's e-itaph out I held to the ideal that the raisin 
growers vcruld bo taught "the staple rudiments of business." 
But people are not willing to learn the truth while they 
are suffering froze their own mistakes* At such tiaes there 
must be a scapegoat* un naid got the blame and I waa Sun 

At that time I bought a vineyard outside of Fresno, 
known as the Anita Fara, for the purpose of trying to 
demonstrate what I believed in, and that was that we had to 



pull out a lot of oar vineyards and put in other cropa. I 
bought thin largo vineyard and pulled out the vines, o tacked 
thorn up in a ereat huge stack that could be seen lor half 
a wile, with a big sign on it that the salvation of the San 
Joaquin Valley would be found if everybody pulled out half 
of their vineyards and planted othc-r paying crota. On the 
Anita we then started to grow cotton, soya beans aad baby 
lima Wans. A demonstrated success of what ono believes is 
better than a hundred speeches. 

In 1924 I organized the Sunland Qal?a Cooperative. 
We then were selling, through our own world wide sales 
organisation, only raisins, and the overhead waa ouch higher 
than it should have been because of the fact that our sales 
men only sold one thing. I conceived the idea that if we 
were going to utay in this direct-sales type of operation, 
we would have to be able to get other kinds of cocnoditieft 
to sell in order to reduce the overhead costs* Bo X entered 
into agroeoent with other cooperatives, the fig grower* aad 
peach and prune growers aad we oreaniaod iSunland Bales 
Cooperative. We made the Sunland Sales into an organisation 
for the selling of raisins and figs and prunes, dried peaches 
and apricots. It was a worldwide sales organisation which 
operated successfully in getting overhead down, selling large 
volune. In 192? our soles of 8ira Maid Raisins anounted in 
gross to 517,000,000. We had restored the markets that had 
boen lost and increased our earlier markets by 20$. But the 
base price returned to the grower of 3 oents a pound was 
all the world markets would pay. It vas not enough to 
satisfy and trouble followed* 

The years of 1926 and 2? were a period of tremendously 
hard work in aany directions in which the entire Sun Kaid 
organisation and I were tbe chief forces trying to save the 
San Joaquin end Sacramento Valleys of California from 
economic disaster, since raisin acreage was large and high 
in value. The banks which were financing Sun Maid as A 
cooperative marketing agency for raisins were also fore 
closing on the mortgages of the 8un Maid growers, from 
Bakersfisld north to Msryvrilla. Over production in 
raisins, as I have said, had caused the drop of raisin 
prices to pre-war levels a drop from 15 cents a pound at 
war time heights which Invited over-planting to 5 cents a 
pound, which brought disaster. Land values that had ballooned 
from 3500 an aero to 31,000 an acre or more suffered a 
corresponding collapse. Bankers who had supported the 
inflation ol prices by higher loans on land now hysterically 
atahed to foreclose and th* panic was on. 

Sun ''aid built a ayrup plant to convert surplus raisins 
into fruit ayrup to be used by bakers but the largest market 


' - 

for syrup suddenly developed to be the bootlegger of the 
Prohibition era who used raiaia syrup froa which to distill 
alcohol* Sun Haid as an organisation and I personally 
fought the growers* battle to salvage homes and vineyards 
in this orisis created by the collapse of the goldtm dream* 
But the grower oettbers themselves selling their raiains for 
cash direct to coaaorcial packers deserted Stm Haid in their 
distress. One-third of tho ^enbershlp were foreign born. 
There was no unity; during these critical years other forces 
emerged to shake the tottering structure of Sun Maid. 
Many business leaders were led throughout the country to 
oppose 3un .laid as a threat to established procedures* Our 
direct soles progrso was seised upon ss proof that farmers 
should not ooapete with the broker systea in food distri 
bution. Business interests froa other states conferred 
with our bankers to persuade the bankers against financing 
a system of grower participation in aanufaoturing and 
distributing his own product under hid own brand* The bankers 
weakened under the pressure. If the raisin growers sold 
their raisins would not this lead the wheat grower to selling 

Proa all these onozcUs at home sad Abroad in the nation 
came ths combined attacks on Sun Maid and upon sea personally* 
Finally in April, 1923, our bankers gave notice that they 
no longer would continue to loan to Oun t1s4d the ten million 
dollar a annually borrowed on the raisin or op to asks the 
first payaent to the grower cabers on delivery of their 
crops. This withdrawal of future support was neds at a 
meeting hold at the Anglo Bank in Sea Francisco in April, 

At that meeting the bankers also stated thsir purpose 
was to foreclose on the then outstanding borrowings of SOB 
Maid and to taks the Sun Maid brand as payaent of obligations. 

had built the brand up to an appraised value of 15 Billion 
dollars. It was the culmination of a long fight to protect 
the growersa fight that in aany ways was successful for 
the grower* But it involved conflict of interest on the 
part of the banks which had given support to the growers' 
organization but foreclosedon growers own vineyards and 
now on oun Maid. 

?he price of sone asasure of pease was said to be ay 
resignation and the election of officers of Sun Raid hand 
picked by tho bonks* Having given the highest service of 
which I was capable I made an offor to resign provided tho 
bonks would not take over the Sun Maid brand and that the 
asahers should decide on their future policy of operation. 
This was accepted and done and this policy still exists* 

I left Sun naid broken in health, in spirit, and 


eventually financially. It was a long road to personal 
recovery. I have always believed that the personal sacrifice 
was worth the coat to MI aa I look back with a long range 
viaw on the aagaituds of the criaio and tha people who 
were ay frianda. 

Our iron Kaid operations froo 1923 to 1926 cushioned tha 
eccaooic shock to thousands of people and faras again** losa 
of hoaea and life savings. PLou sands of farmers and towns 
people benefited by the opportunity of a saw start in 
business and agriculture under sounder conditions after 1930* 

'"- " '".?>.. "I./* (a '. '.ii.& 

Was Sun Maid a failure under 07 aanageoant? I have 
asked myself this question many tiaes. Froa tha vantage point 
of t'nirty years later I think I can look at the whole story 
.vitli soaethiag of an laperonal view* I oan also compare 
tho apparent auooess of the Bios Growers with the apparent 
failure of itan Jiald and draw soae useful conclusions* I 
freely admit certain aiatakes bat just as strongly defend 
tha record as Z have atattd it. Both tha Bice Growers and 
oun riaid war* emergency situations in ay day. Neither were 
noraal prooedures for cooperatives. I created the Rice 
Growers tailored to aeet the emergency of Millions of bags 
of raw rice warehoused and mortgaged to banks with ao markets* 
*h emergency was aat by auctioning rice to be resold into 
the Jap an sa aarket where Kr Hoover* a Department of 
Coataerca discovered there was a largo temporary deficit due 
to postwar conditions, since ay tiaa this saaa cooperative 
has built its own mills and distributes its own product* My 
solution was the sound one for the crisis that then existed. 

Tha Sun Haid situation in 1923 was the exact opposite 
of the Rice Growers* Tha latter had nothing but raw rica 
tea sold nothing but raw rice* The association began when 
rice could not be given away and a market was built to aeat 
both the requireaamts of the banks and a profit to the grower. 
It was counted as a great cuccaas in its day. 

When X want to Sun Haid the organisation in 1923 had 15*000 
Bombers, storage yards, manufacturing plants and a brand 
together with a world wide salts organisation* Tha real 
aucets wars close to five oil lion dollars in value. However 
it had aarious probloas. Ths inflated war tias values of 
land and raisins was suddenly deflated by the release of 
world wide raisin production from Greece, South Aeerioa and 
Australia. An unsaleable California surplus was on hand. 
Commercial packer ooopetition wag beyond the power of the 
cooperative tc meet. The packers handled many kinds of 
dried fruit peaches, apricots, figs and prunes besides 
raisins. 3un Maid had tried in pro war days to strangle 
the packers and now the packers handled raisins without 
profit to strangle Sun Maid. Bonks wore foreclosing 


mortgages and many local oaall bank* were bankrupt due to 
land value collapse. Urn I laid had Made economic ads takes 
in ita pro war prosperity. By eliminating the broker as 
well as the packer it had built up a costly system that 
created the bitterest of enemies. 

Appraising the ;>un iiaid operation as a cooperative from 
the distance of the years I would say that basically the 
concept of grower cooperation in pooling corps and producing 
a finished non-perishable product may be sound. It depends 
on a unified and understanding membership. It oust be 
clearly understood that this is a business operation which 
involves borrowing from landing agendas on the ran product, 
making later payments to members as marketing progresses* 
aanufaoturing a high quality product backed by advertising. 
Costs oust be kept low| production kept in line with demand} 
good will for grower and brand created at every point. 
Above all, the aeaberaUip must be willing to wait for progress 
payments. The tragic mistakes of oun Maid were the 
encouragement of over-production by the war time management 
and the use of the direct sales system. 

I bulieva agricultural cooperatives have great value 
in protecting the producer but require sound management and 
a structure suited to the distribution requirements of the 
commodity* There is a vast difference between a cooperative 
for perishable fruits and a cooperative for non-perishable 

With these observations I conclude my story of the 
nice and Sun riaid. 

Broken in spirit and health I went to urope with my 
family* -eturning X was invited by my old friend, General 
Hugh Johnson (Hetirsd) to Join him and Bernard Baruoh in New 
York. I should have accepted but still had hopes that I 
night find a place of usefulness in California. 

'There I found that Donald Conn had organised the grape 
growers with the aid of funds from the Federal Farm Board 
and was distributing grapes into national marietta. Invited 
to join then* I worked for several months to set up aarkets 
in eastern cities. 

Ity aoat exciting moment was in Chicago when the Capons 
gang had taken over the grape auction demanding tribute of 
several hundred dollars on every ear of grapes unloaded. 
I ordered the leader of the Capons gang out of the railroad 
yards with tine support of two husky railroad police officers. 
The man left the yards and did not return. Arriving back in 
Washington next day I had a call from a gentleman who said 


ha was attorney for Capon*. He Mid they had not understood 
that the Federal Government had an interest in the grapes 
from California (this interest arose because of Government 
loans of the farm Board) and said Capone wanted to apologise. 
Then he presented me with a card with a Chicago phone 
number and below it another number and explained Mr. Capone 
wanted me to have it because he admired my bravery in 
throwing his man out of tfce yards* The phone number was to 
be used by me, he explained, in case I was anywhere and 
needed protection. If I did X was to call the Chicago 
number collect and then give the other number of the card 
for identification. Then I was to stats where I was and 
what help I needed. He said their organisation would 
immediately protect me. I kept the card for a souvenir to 
remember Al Capone *s police force. 

When the grape marketing season was over successfully 
I suffered a severs attack of pneumonia and later recuperated 
in Death Valley. I had corns to the end of an era in my life. 

My terms on the Board of the United States Chamber of 
Commerce and on the State Chamber had come to an end. I 
did not seek re-election. Ky term as a member of the 
Board of Regents of the University expired when my friend 
Robert Sproul was elected President of the University. A 
great new period for the University then began. The men for 
whom X had the greatest admiration were holding high office. 
Herbert Hoover was President of the United States and 
Bebert G. Sproul was President of the University of California. 
lor both I had rendered some services that were contributions 
toward their ultimate success. There was nothing further 
to do at the time in public service or in business. 

Kay I express my appreciation to the University for 
the opportunity to tell my story which X hope may have 
value in paying tribute to many fine people with whom X 
have been associated and by making clear the history of some 
important local and national scenes in which X was associated. 
In that spirit of appreciation I end this story. 


Adams, Ernest, 115-13 

barrows, David Prescott, 34,41,42,47,48,58 
Bowles, Philip E., 74 
tfreed, Arthur, 29 
Britton, John A., 73 

California Rice Growers Association, 112-18 

California State Chamber of Commerce, 34-98i early beginnings as 
California Development Board, in San francisoo, 1917, 84) 
expansion to Los Angeles as California Development Association, 
1921-29, 85,86} becomes California State Chamber of Commerce, 
1929, 84-86| interest in water development, 36-91; legislative 
reapportionment, 91-96t regional council, 96-98 

Calkins, 106-12 

Campbell, William Wallace, 59-61,80,31 

Chamber of Commerce (see California State; see United States) 

Chandler, Harry, 85ff-98i on water resources development, 85,86, 
90,91) on legislative re apportionment, 93-98 

Chandler (State Senator), 29,30 

Cochran, George I., 74 

Coolidge, Calvia, 100,101 

Cotton, 83,84 

Crocker, Henry, 12 

Crocker, William H., 59,60,74,75 

:>ickson, Edward, 75 

Earl, Guy C., 40,60,70,71,78,79 
Bshleaan, John, 75 

fleishhacker, Herbert, 122,125 
Fleishhacker, Mortimer, 40,76 
Foster, A.W., 21 

Gayley, Charles Mills, 9,43 
Ciannini, A. P., 67-69 
Ciffen, Vylie, 119ff 
Grant, Heber, 111,112 
Cray, Carl, 111.112 
Grey, Dallas, 92 

Harding, Warren O.t cabinet, 56,57) dismissal of anti-trust suit 

against Sun Maid Raisin Growers, 125-29) death, 125-29 
Hearst, Phoebe A., 77 
Henderson, Victor, 21 
Hilgard, Bugene, 7,9 

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Hoover, Herbert* Hoover for President, 1920, 53-56} secretary of 
commerce, 57,58,104-07; cotton farmer (partner of Merritt), 
84| agricultural views, 100,101} conflict with Henry Wallace, 
101-04) farm board ideas, 102-04} supports San Franc isco-Oukland 
Bay Bridge, 104-07} sale of rice to Japan, 112*18} death of 
Harding, 125-29 

Hoover Dam, 90,91 

Idaho Agricultural Loan Company, 111,112 
Idaho, sheep, crisis in prices, 1921, 108-10 
International Workers of the World (IWW), 37 

Japanese Exclusion, 132 
Johnson, Hiram, 53,55,56 
Johnson, Hugh, 35,136 
Jones, William Carey, 9,43,44 

Kearney, Theodore, 119 

Kearney Vineyards (***), 25,82,83,119 

Kilburn, Harvey, 84 

Leuschner, A.O. , 44 
Lewis, O.K., 44 

Madison, Jim, 121 

Marshall, Colonel Robert, 37-91 

Maine mey, Carre tt, 60,72,73 

Mead, Elwood, 9,10,57 

Meyer, Eugene, Jr., 108-12 

Miller, Clinton, 85 

Miller, Henry, 2-7,22-25,83 

Moffitt, James K., 73 

Moore, Ernest Carroll, 49,50,65-67 

Heylan, John Francis, 31,32,60,61,71,72 
Olney, Warren, Jr., 79 

Ramm, Charles A., 79 

Rice, marketing in early 1920s, 112-18 

Richardson, Friend, 62-64 

Robinson, Henry M., 122 

Howe 11, Chester, 40,72-73,122 
Rowell, Milo, 121 

Saa Prancisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, 104-07 

Scripps Institute of Oceanography, gifts from Miss 211en Scripps 

and E.V. Scripps, 26-28 
Shoup, Paul, 94,95,98,99 
S pence, Homer, 95 

Sproul, Robert Gordon, 21,22,38,80-82 
Stephens, Henry Morse, 8-19,39,70 


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Sunland Sales Cooperative, 
Sun Maid Raisin Growers. 1923, 118-33 opposition to, 120; sales 
in the Orient, 129,130} financial crisis, 133 

Taussig, Rudolph, 40,70,72 
league, C.C., 95 

United states Agriculture Commission, under Coolidge, 100,101 

United States Ch&nber of Commerce, 98-100 

University of California! administration, 1907-13, 15-80} build 
ings and expansion, 1914,1915, 33-34| at Davis, 10| Extension 
Division, 51* "faculty revolution," 43fff Oiannini Foundation, 
67-69} at Los Angeles, 49-52,64-67,75} Presidents - Barrows, 
58, Campbell, 59, Wheeler, 15-80, Sproul, 21-80} at San Die o 
(see Scripps Institute of Oceanography)} and the Southern 
Pacific, 20} student life, 1902-07, 5-15} student organisation, 
ASUC, 11-15 

Wallace, Henry C., 101-04,126 

Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, 12, 15-21, 33, 38-40, 46ff 

Wheeler, Charles Stetson, 78 

, ilbur, Ray Lyaan, 126 

wishon, Emory, 122 

Work, Hubert, 126-29 

World War I, 34-38 



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