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CHAP. IV.->-Cofthffuei.— -From leaying New Zealand to our 

return to England* . • • • • 1 

Sect. IIL Range from Christmas Sound, round Cape 

Horn, through Strait Le Maire, and round 
Staten Land ; with an Account of the Dis- 
covery of a Harbour in that Island, and a 
description of the Coasts, • • ib» 

IV. Obserrationsy geographical and nautical, with 
an Account of the Islands near Staten Land^ 
and the Animals found in them, . 11 

V. Proceedings after leaving Staten Island, with 
an Account of the Discovery of the Isle of 
Georgia, and a Description of it, . 18 

VI. Proceedings after leaving the Isle of Georgia, 
with an Account of the Discovery of Sand- 
wich Land; with some Reasons for there 
being Land about the South Pole, • 28 

VIL Heads of what has been done in the Voyage ; 
with some Conjectures concerning the For- 
mation of Ice-Islands ; and ah Account of 
otir Proceedings till our Arrival at the Cape 
of Good Hope, .... 41 

VIII. Captain Furneaux's Narrative of his Proceed- 
ings, in the Adventure, from the Time he 
was separated from the Resolution, to his 
Arrival in England ; including Lieutenant 
Burney's ft^^ort concerning the Boat's Crew 
who were muni*,ed oy tlrd laiaayitants of 
Queen Charlotte's Sounds « . m 



Sect. IX. Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope; with 
an Account of some Discoyeries made by 
the French ; and the Arrival of the Ship at 
St Helena, • • ' • . • GO 

X. Passage fironi St Helena to the Western Islands, 
with a Description of the Island of Ascension 
and Fernando Noronha, . • 65 

^ XI. Arrival of the Ship at the Island of Fayal, a 
Description of the Place, and the Return of 
the Resolution to England, . • 73 

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Society Isles, 8} 

BOOK III. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by 
the Command of his Majesty, for making Discoveries 
in the Northern Hemisphere ; to determine the Posi- 
tion and Extent of the West Side of North America, 
Its Distance from Asia, and the Practicability of a 
Northern Pass^ige to Europe. Performed under the 
Direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, aiid Gore, in his 
Majes^^ Ships the Resolution and Discoveiy, in the 
Tears 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, & 1780, . 114 

'Introduction, ... . . : ib. 

pHAP. L Transactions from the Beginning of the Voyage 

till our Departure from New Zealand, . 180 

Sect. I* Various Preparations for the Voyage. Omai's 
Behaviour on embarking. Observations for 
determining the Longitude ot Sheerness, 
and the North Foreland. Passage of tho 
lR,esolution from Deptford to Plymouth. 
Employments there. Complements of the 
^ Crews of both Ships, and Names of the Of- 

ficers. Observations to fix the Longitude 
^ of Plymouth. Departure of the Resolution, jj, 
, II. Passage of the Resolution to Teperiffe. Re- . 

ception there. Description of Santa- Cruz 
Road. Refreshments to be met with. Ob- 
servations for fixing the Longitude of Tene^ 
riffe. Some Account of the Island. Bota- 
nical Observations. Cities of Santa Cruz 
and Laguna. Agriculture. Air and Cli- 
mate. Commerce. Inhabitants, .. 189. 
III. Departure from' Tenerifie. Danger of the 
^ Ship near Bonavista. Isle of Mayo. Port — 
Praya. Precautions against the Rain and 
'^^ ' sultry Weatlier in th^ Neighbourhood of 
the Equator. Positw* -^ the ouast of Bra- 
^»U%.*i^i*r at the Cape of Good Hope. 




Transactions there. Junction of the Disco- 
very. Mr Anderson's Journey up the Coun- 
try. Astronomical Observations. Nautical 
Remarks on the Passage from £ngland to 
the Cape, with regard to the Currents and 
the Variation, . . • • 200 

Sect. IV. The two Ships leave the Cape of Good Hope. 

Two Islands, named Prince Edward's, seen, 
and their Appearance described. Kergue- 
len's Land visited. Arrival in Christmas 
Harbour. Occurr^ces there. Description 

of it, 217 

Yp Departure from Christmas Harbour. Range 
mong the Coast, to discover its Position and 
Extent Several Promontories and Bays, and 
a Peninsula, described and named. Danger 
from Shoals. Another Harbour and a Sound. 
Mr Anderson's Observations on the Natu* 
ral Productions! Animals, Soil, &c of Ker- 
guelen's Land, . . . . 231 

Vl. Passage from Kefguelen's to Van Diemen's 
. Land. Arrival in Adventure Bay^ Incir 
dents there. Interviews with the Natives*. 
Their Persons and Dress described. Ac- 
count of their Behaviour. Table of the 
Longitude, Latitude, and Variation. Mr 
Anderson's Observations on the Natural 
Productions of the Country^ on the Inhabi- 
tants, and their Language, . . 246 
VII. The Passage from Van Diemen's Land to New 
Zealand^ Employments in Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. Transactions with tJie Na* 
tives there. Intelligence about the Mas- 
sacre of the Adventure'js Boat's Crew. Ac- 
count of the Chief who headed the Party on 
that Occasion* Of the two young Men who 
embark to attend Omai. Various Remarks 
on the Inhabitants. Astronomical and Nau- 
tical Observations, .... 266 
yill. Mr Anderson's Remarks on the Country near 
Queen Charlotte's Souncf. The Soil. Cli- 
mate. Weather. Winds. Trees. Plants. 
Birds. . Fish. Other Animals. Of the In- 
habitants. Debcn^iSSn^.. their Persons. 
Their Dress. . Ornaments. I^abitations. 
Boats. Food and Cookery. Arts, Wea- 



pons. Cruelty to Prisoners. Various Cus- 
toms. Specimen of their Language, 287 
CHAP. II. From leaving New Zealand to our Arrival at 

Otaheite, or the Society Islands, • SOS 

I^ECT. I. Prosecution of the Voyage, fiehaviour of the 
^ two New Zealanders on board. Unfavour- 

• able Winds. An Island called Mangeeaf dis- 

covered. The Coast of it examined. Trans- 
actions with the Natives. An Account of 
their Persons, Dress, and Canoes. Descrip- 
tion of the Island. A Specimen of the Lan- 
guage. Disposition of the Inhabitants^ ii^ 

II. The Discovery of an Island called Wateeoo. 

Its Coasts examined. — Visits from the Na- 
tives on board the Ships. Mess. Gore, Bur- 
ney, and Anderson, with Omai, sent on 
Shore. Mr Anderson's Narrative of their 
Heception. Omai's Expedient to prevent 
their being detained. His meetmg with 
some of his Countrymen, and their distress- 
ful Voyage. Farther Account of Wateeoo, 
and of its Inhabit^ts, • • • S12 

III. Wenooa-ette, or Otokootaia, visited. Account 

of that Island, and of its Produce. Hervey's 
Island, or Terougge mou Attooa, found to be 
inhabited. Transactions with the Natives* 
Their Persons, Dress, Language^ Canoes. 
Fruitless Attempt to land there. Reasons 
for bearing away for the Friendly Islands* 
, Palmerston's Island touched at. Descrip- 

tion of the two Places where the Boats land- 
ed. Refreshments obtained there. Conjec- 
' tures on the Formation of such low Islands. 
Arrival at the Friendly Islands, . 333 

IV. Intercourse with the Natives ef l^omango, and 

other Islands. Arrival at Annamooka. 
Transactions there. Feenou, a principal 
Chief^ from Tongataboo, comes on a Visit. 
The Manner of his Reception in the Idand^ 
and on board. Instances of the pilfering 
Disposition of the Natives. Some Account 
of Annamooka. The Passage ^ \ it to 
Hepaee,^__„,.,., ...- '."* • * . 347 

V. Arriv5.'ur' the Ships at Hepaee, and friendly 
iceception there. Presents and Solemnities 
on the Occasion. Single Combats with Clubs. 


Wrestling and Boxing Matches. Female 
Combatants. Marines exercised. A Dance 
performed by Men. Fireworks exhibited, 
llie Night*entertainment8 of Singing and . 
Dancing particularly described^ • , 359 

SjbCT. VI« Description of Lefooga. Its cultivated State* 
Its Extent. Transactions there. A female 
Oculist. Singular Expedients for shaving 
oiF the Hair. The Ships change their Sta- 
tion. A remarkable Mount and Stone. De- 
acription of Hoolaiva. Account of Poulabo, 
King of the Friendly Islands. Respectful 
Manner in which he is treated by his Peo- 
ple. Departure from the Hepaee Islands. 
Some Account of Kotoo. Return of the 
Ships to Annamoeka. Poulaho and Feenou 
meet Arrival at Tongataboo, • . 369 

VII. Friendly Reception' at Tongataboo. Manner 
of distributing a baked Hog and Kava to 
Foulaho's Attendants* The Observatory, 

' &c. erected. The Village where the Chiefs 

reside^ and the adjoining Country, descri- 
bed. Interviews with Mareewagee, and Too- 
bouy and the King's Son. A grand Haiva, 
or Entertainment of Songs and Dances, gi« 
ven by Mareewagee. Exhibition of Fire- 
works. Manner of Wrestling and Boxing. 
Distribution of the Cattle. Thefts commit- 
ted by the Natives. Poulaho, and the other 
Chiefs, confined on that Account. Poula- 
bo's Present and Haiva, • • . 385 
yiU. Some of the Officers plundered by the Natives. 
A fishing Party. A Visit to Poulaho. A 
Fiatooka described. Observations on the 
Country Entertainments at Poulaho's House. 
His Mourning Ceremony. Of the Kava 
Plant, and the Manner of preparing the Li- 

?uor. Account of Onevy, a little Island. 
>ne of the Natives wounded by a Sentinel. 
Messrs King and Anderson visit the King's 
Brother. Their Entertainment. Another 
Mourning Ceremony. Manner of passing 
-tte^i^t. Remarks on the Country they 
i passed througl). ^reparations made for Sail- 

j mg. An Eclipse ofihe Sun, imperfectly 

» observed. Mr Anderson's l^ount of the 

Islandi and iu Productions^ g • .407 


\iu COKTENt*- 

Sect. IX. A grand Solemnity, called Natche, in Honour 
of the King^s Son, performed. The Proces- 
sion and other Ceremonies, during the first 
Day, described. The Manner of passing 
the Night at the King's House. Continua- 
tion of the Solemnity the next Day. Con- 
jectures about the Nature of it. Departure 
from Tongataboo, and the Arrival at £ooa. 
Account of that Island,' and Transactions 
there, ••...«• 4*27 

X. Advantages derived from visiting the Friendly 
Islands. Best Articles for Traffic. Refresh- 
ments that may be procured. The Number 
of the Islands, and their Names. KeppePs 
and Boscawen's Islands belong to them. Ac- 
count of Vavaoo, of Hamao, of Feejee* 
Voyages of the Natives in their Canoes. 
Difficulty of procuring exact Information. 
Persons of the Inhabitants of both Sexes. 
Their Colour. Diseases^ Their general 
Character. Manner of wearing their Hsdr. 
Of puncturing their Bodies. Their Cloth- 
ing and Ornaments. Personal Cleanliness, 44;7 
XI. Employments of the Women at the Friendly 
Islands. Of the Men. Agriculture* Con- 
struction of their Houses. Their working 
Tools. Cordage and fishing Implements. 
Musical Instruments, Weapons. Food and 
Cookery. Amusements. Marriage. Mourn- 
ing Ceremonies for the Dead. Their Divi- 
nities. Notions about the Soul, and a fu- 
ture State. Their Places of Worship. Go- 
. vernment. Manner of paving Obeisance to 
the King. Account of the Royal Family* 
Remarks on their Language, and Specimen 
4)f it. Nautical and other Observations^ 467 

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Friendly 
xsies, ■••..••• 49X 

A Vocabulary of the Language of Atooi, one o£ 
the Sandwich Islands, « • « « S07 








CIt Ai*tER iV.—Qmtinued. 



Section ill. 

Mange Jrom Christmas Sound, round Cape Horn, through 
Strait Le Maire, and round Staten Land; with an Account 
of the Discovery of a Harbour i^ that Island, and a Dc* 
scription of the Coasts. 

Al* four o'clock in the morning on the fiSth^ we began 
to nnmodr^ and at eight weighed^ and stood out to 
8ea> with.a light breeze atN. W., which afterwards freshened, 
and was attended with rain. At noon^ the east point of the 
sound (Point Nativity) bore N. J W., distant one and a half 
leagues, and St tldefonzo Isles S.]^. | S.^ distant sevea 
leagues. The coast seemed to trend in the direction of E. 
bj S. ; but the weather being very bazy^ nothing appeared 

VOL. XV. PART I. * We 

S Modern Circumnav^atiom. ipart ili. BdoK ii« 

We continued to sleer S.E. by E. and EJS.E. ; with a 
fresh breeze at W.N.W., till four o'clock p. m., when we 
hauled to the south, in order to have a nearer view of St 
lldefonso Isles. At this time we were abreast of an inlet^ 
which lies E.S.E., about seven leagues from the sound; but 
it must be observed that there at^.sOme isles without this 
distinction. At the west point of the inlet are two high 
peaked hills, and below them, to the east, two round hills, 
or isles, which lie in the direction of N.E. and S.W. of 
each other. An island, or what appeared to be an island^ 
lay in the entrance ; and another but smaller inlet appear- 
ed to the west of this : Indeed the coast appeared indented 
and broken as usual. ^ 

At half past five o'clock, the weathet dealing up, gave 
us a good sight of Ildefonzo Isles. They are a group of 
islands and rocks above water, situated about six leagues 
from the main, and in the latitude of 55^ 5S' S., longitude 

We tiow resumed our course to the east, and, at sun-set, 
the most advanced land bore S.U. by E. | E. ; and a point, 
Which I judged to be the west point of Nassau Bay, disco- 
vered by the Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral 
Hermite in 1624, bore N. 80* £., six leagues distant. In 
some charts this point is called False Cape Horn, as being 
the southern point of Terra del Fuego. It is situated in la- 
titude 5.5® 39 S. From the inlet above-mentioned to this 
false cape, the direction of the coast is nearly east, half a 
point south, distant fourteen or fifteen leagues. 

At ten o*clock, having shortened sail, we spent the night 
i)a making short boards under the top-sails, and at three 
iieit morriii^g made sail, atid steered S.E. by S., with a 
fresh breeze at W.S.W., the weather somewhat hazy. At 
this time the west entrance to Nassau Bay extended from 
N. by E. to N.E. 5 E., and the south side of H^rmite's Isles, 
E. by S. At four. Cape Horn, for which we now steered^ 
bore E. by S. It is known, at a distance, by a high round 
hill oVer it. A point to the W.N.W. shews a surface not 
unlike this; but their situations alone will always distin- 
guish the one from the other. 

At half past seven, \ve passed thi^ famous cape, and enter- 
ed the southern Atlantic ocean. It is the very same point 
of land I took for the cape, when I passed it in 1769> which 
at that time I was doubtful of. It is the most southern ex- 
tremity on a group of islands of unequal extent^ lying be- 

tttAt^. iV* tinci. 111. Capiitin Jame» Coaii S 

fore Nassau Bay^ known bj the name of Hennite Is|and9j 
and is sitaated in the latitude of 55^ 5S', and in the longi- 
tude of 68^ IS' W.J according to the observations made ot 
it in 1769- But ihe observations wbicb we had in Christ- 
inas Soiindj aiid reduced to the cape b^ the watcb^ anc( 
others whi^h we had afterwardsj and reduced back to it by 
the saobe meads^ place it in 67^ 19^. It is most probable that 
li mean bejtween the two^ viz. 67® 46^ will be nearest the 
truth. On the N.W. side of the cape are two peaked rocksi^ 
like sugar-Ioiaves. They lie N.W, by N., and S.1&. by S., 
by compass^ of each other. Some other straggling low 
rocks lie west of the cape, and one south of it ; but they 
are all near the shore. From Christmas Sound to Cape 
Horn the course is E.S.E | E., distant thirty-one leagues. 
In the direction of E.N.E.J three leagues from Cape Hom^ 
id a tocky pointy which I called Mistaken Cape^ and is the 
Southern point of the easternmost of Hermite Isles. !Bie« 
tween these two Capes there seiemed to be a passage directs 
]y into Nassau Bay; some small isle's were seen in the pas- 
iSage ; and the coast^ on the west side^ had the appearance 
of forming -good bays or harbours. In some charts^ Cape 
Horn is laid down as belonging to a small island. This was 
neither confirmed^ nor can it \>e contradicted by us; for 
several breakers appeared on the coasts both to the east and 
^est of it$ and the hazy weather rendered every object in- 
distinct. The summits of some of the hills were rocky^ but 
the sides and vallies seemed covered with a green turf^ and 
T^ooded in tufts;^ 

From Cape Horn we steered E(. by N. i N,, which direc- 
i\6n carried us without the rocks that lie off Mistaken Cape. 
These rocks are white with the dung of fowls, and vasi 
numbers were seen about them. After passing them we 
steered N.B. | E. and N.E., for Strait Le Maire^ with a view 
of looking into Success Bay, to see if there were any traces 
of the Adventure having been there. At eight o'clock in 
the evening, drawing near the strait, we shortened sail, and 
hauled the wind. At this time the Sugar-loaf oh Terra del 
Fuego b6re N. 33** W. ; the point of Success Bay, just open 


' Tnie Cape Horn, distinguishable at a distance by a round hill of con- 
siderable height, is the south point of Herniite*8 Isles, a cluster which se- 
parates the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. False Cape Horn lies nine miles 
to the north-east, and is the west point of Nassau oayi where James Her« 
mite cast anchor. Vide vol, x. page 197.-^E, 

4 Modern CircumiiMgatiohs. j^Aftt tii. bbbk ii. 

of the ca{)e oiF the isaihe name, bearing N. 26* ]^. ; and Sla- 
ten Lbhd, ^ktenditag from N, SS"" E. to Gi^ E. ^Soon after 
the wind died ^wfij, and we had light airs and calms by 
tiirns till neat noon the next day, diiring which H'me we 
trter'e driven by the current over to Stateri Land, 

The fc^lni being succeeded, by a light breeze at M.l^.lV., 
ive stood over for Success Bay, assisted by the currents, 
t^hlch set to the tiorth. Before this we had hoisted our co- 
Iburs, and fired two guns ; and soon after saw a sihok'e rise 
0Ut of the woods, above the soiith point of the bay, which 
I judged Was made by the natives, as it wias 4t the place 
Whiere khey Resided when I wds here in 1789. ^As soon 
as we got bff the bay, I sent Lieutenant Picke'rsgill to see 
if iany triaces remained of the Adventure having beeii there 
lately; arid in the mean time we stood on ahd off with Ihe 
ship. At ttvo o'clock, the current turned arid set to the 
sdiith ; and Mr Pickersgill informed liie, when lie return- 
ed, that it was falling water oh shore, which was contrary 
to what 1 had observed when t was here before, for 1 
ihduffht then that the flood came froin the north. Mr 

Pickersgill saw not the I'east signs of any ship hjivihg been 
there lately. I had inscribed our ship's name bri a card, 
ivhich he nailed to a tjee at the place whtere the Endeavour 
i^atered. This was done with a view of giving Capfaib 
Piirneaux sdme information, in case he should be behind us 
and put in here. 

ttii Mr Pickersgiirs landing he was courteously received 
by several of the natives, who were clothed in guanicoe and 
seal skins, and had on theit arms bracelets, made of silver 
wire, and wrought not unlike the hilt of a sword, being no 
doiibt the manufacture of sortie Europeans They were the 
same kind of people we had seen in Christmas Sound, and, 
like them, repeated khe word pechera on every occasion* 
One man spoke much to Mr rickersgill, pointing first to 
the ship and then to the bay, as if he wanted her to come 
in. Mr Pickersgill said the bay was full of whales and 
seals; and we had observed the same in the strait, especi- 
ally oh the Terra del Fiiego side, where the whales, in par- 
ticular, are exceedingly numerous.* 


^ *^ Not less t^Lan thirty large whales, and some hundreds of seals, play- 
ed in the water about us. The whales went chiefly in couples, from whence 
we supposed this to te the season when the sexes meet. Whenever they 


CHAP. IV. SECT* III. Captain Jama Cook. 5 

^s soon as the l|oat was hoisted in^ which was not till 
pear six o'clock^ we made sail to the east, with a fine breeze 
at north. For since we had explored the south coast of 
Terra del l^qego^ I resolved to do the ^ine by Staten Land^ 
which I believed to have been as little known as the former. 
At nine p clock the wind freshening, and veering to N W., 
we tacked, and stood to S.W., in prder to spend the night; 
which proyccl none of the best^ being stormy and hazy, with 

Next morqing, at tl^re^ o'clock, we bore up for the east 
end of Staten L^pd^ which, at half past four, bore 8. 60^ B., 
the west end S. ^" E., and the I^nd of Terra del Fuego S. 
40^ VV, Soon after 1 ^ad tajten these bearings, the land 
was ^gain 9Jbscqyed ip ^. thick haze, and we were obliged to 
make way, as i|: were, in the dark ; for it was but now aiid 
then we got a sight of the coasjt. As we advanced to the 
east, we perceived s^everal islands, pf qnecjqal extent, lying 
off the Idnd. There seemed to be a clear passage between 
the easternmost^ and the oiie next to it, to the west. I would 
gladly have eone through this pas^ge, and anchored under 
pnje of the islands, to bit ve waited fdr better weather, for t)a 

haule4 off to the nprth. At eight o'clock we were abreast 
of the uiost eastern isle, distant from it about two miles. 


spouted up thie water^ or, as the sailors term it, were seen blowing to 
windward, die whole ship was infested with a most detestable, rank, and 
poisoncaia tteoob, wl^ch ^i^en^ off jn tl^ ppfu^e pf two or three minutes, 
^ometiip^f ^bese l^i^e a/umal^ lay on their backs, and with their long peo- 
ito^i fins beat the surface of the $,ea, which always caused a great noise, 
equal to the explosion of a swivel. This )cind of pfay has doubtless given 
nse to the manner^s story of a fight between the tbraaber and the wbale» 
of wUch the former is said to leapioul; of the va^er (q ^rder to &11 heayi- 
^y pn jtjbjB Ifift^r. ^re yfe ha^ ^ /oppprtunity of observing the same ex« 
;erci^ ;?nany times ^ej^^ted^ aiiij discovered that all the belly and under 
side of the fins and tail are or a white colour, whereas the rest are black. 
As we happened to be only sixty 3'ards from one of these aaimals^'we per* 
ceived a number of longitudinal furrows, or wnnkies, on its b^ly, from 
yyhence we concluded it was the species by Linnaeus named balana boops. 
Besides flapping their fins in the water, these unwieldy animafls, of forty feet 
in length, and not less than ten ^eet in diameter, sometimes fairly leaped 
into tneair, and dropped down again with a heavy fall, which made the 
water fdfip all rouqd them. The prodigious quantity of power required 
to raise such a vast creature out of the wat^r is astonishing ; and their pe- 
culiar economy cannot but give room to many reflections.'^— b. F. 

"jS Modem Circumnavigatum* fart hi. book ii. 

^Dd had the saqae depth of water qs before. I now short- 
ened sail to the three top-sails, to wait for plear weather ; 

. for the fog was ^o tl)ick that we could see no otlier land 
than this island. After wailing an ho^ir, ai|d the weather 

, not clearing, we bore yp and hauled round (be east end of 
the island, for the sake'pf smooth water and anphprage^ if 
it should be necessary. In hauling round, we found a strong 
race of a current, like unto broken water; but we had no 
less than nineteen fathpoas. We also saw on the island 
abundance of seals and birds. Thi$ was a temptation too 
great for people in our situation to withstand, to whom 
fresh provisions of any )^ind were acp6pta|)le ; and d^ter- 
inined me to anchor, in order that we qaigbt tast<e of what 
iwe now only s^w at a distance* . At liength, af^er making a 

• few boards, fishiqg, as It were, for the best ground, we an- 
chored in twenty-one fathoms water, a stony bottom, about 

• a mile from the island, )vhich extended from N. 18* £• to 
N. 65^ i W. ; and soon after, the wieather clearing up, we 
saw Cape St John, or the east end of Staten Land, bearing 
S. 73* E., distant four leagues. We were sh<eltered from, 
jthe south ^ind by Staten Land, aujd fropi the north wind 
Iby the island ; the other isles lay to the west, and secured 
us from that wind ; but |)eside being bpeq to the N.E. and 
j;., we also lay exposed to thie N.N.W. winds. This might 
have been avoided by anchoring more to the west, but I 
p^ade choice of my situation for two reasons ; first, to be 
near the island we intended to land upon, and, secondly, to 
be able to get to sea with aqy wind. 

After dinner we hoisted out three boats, and laqd^d with 
a large party of men ; some to kill seals, others to catch or 
kill birds, fish, oir what came in bur way. To find the former 
it mattered npt where lye landed, for the whole shore was 
covered with them ; and by the noise they made one would 
have thought the island was stocked with cows and calves. 
On landing we found they werie a different animal from 
seals, but in shape and fnotiqn exactly resembling them. 
We called them lions, on account of the ereat resemblance 
the male has to that beast.3 Here were also the same kind 


3 The resemblance bad \ieen policed ))y e^Flier voyagers, ^d procured 
for these animals the same name. This is mentioned by Mr G. F., who 
refers to Francis Petty in Hackluyt's collection, Sir itichard Hawkins, 
$ir Jojin }fasborough and Labbe, in Des Brosses' Nav* aux Terres Aus- 

•■ • " -^ • ^' « - - trdes. 

CHAP. IV. SECT. III. Captain James Cook* 7 

of seals which we found in New Zealand, irenerally known 
bj the name of sea-bears, at least we gd^e them that name. 


trales« The description which the same gentleman has given of these 
remarkable creatures is too interesting (though Cook's account afterwards 
given might suffice) to be omitted. ** The old males were» in general, very 
l^ty iftid measured from ten to twelve feet in length ; the females were 
more slender, and from six to eight feet long. The weight of the largest 
male amounts to 1200 or 1500 lb., for one of a middle size weighed 550 lb. 
sifter the skin, entrails, and blubber were taken off, The head of the male 
has really some resemblance to a lion's head, and the colour is likewise 
very nearly the same, being only a darker hue of tawny. The long shaggy 
hair on tiie neck and tluroat of the male, beginning at the back of the head, 
bears a strong resen^blfuice to a mane, and is hard aofl coarse to the touch ; 
all the rest of the body is covered with short hairs, which lie very close to 
the skin, and form a smooth glossy coat. The lioness is perfectly smooth 
all over the body ; but both sexes are formed alike with regard to the feet, 
or rather fins. Those fins, which originate near the breast, are large flat 
pieces of a black coriaceous membrane, which have only some small in* 
distinct ves^ti^es of nails on their middle. The binder fins are rather more 
like feet, being black membranes divided into five long toes, with a thin 
thone, or membrane, projecting far beyond tJie nails, which are yery small. 
With these nails, however, we have seen them scratch all parts of their 
body. The tail is concessively short, aqd hid between the hind feet or fins, 
which grow close tqgetber. The whole hind quarters are very round, be- 
ing covered with an amazing quantity of fat* The noise which all the ani- 
mals of this kipd made together was various, and sometimes stunned oi)r 
. ears. . The old mal^s snort and roar like mad bulls or lions ; the ifemales' 
bleat exactly like calves, and t(ie young cubs like lambs. Of the young 
we saw great numbers on the beaches; and one of the females being 
knocked down with a club, littered in the same instant The sea-lions 
live together in numerous herds. The oldest and fattest Qiales lie apart, 
each having chosen a large stone, which none of the rest dares approach 
without engaging in a furious battk. We have often seen them sei^e each 
other with a degree of rage which is not to be described ; and many gf 
them had deep gashes on their backs, which they had received in the 
wars. The younger active searlions, with all the females and the culxs, 
lie together. T^ey commonly waited the approach of our people, but as 
^ooii as some of the herd were killed, the rest took ilight with great pre- 
cipitation, some females carrying off a cub in their moiiths, wmlst ma^y 
were so terrified as to leave tham behind. When left to themselves, they 
were often seen caressing each other in the most tender manner, and their 
snouts often met together, as if they were kissing. They come ashore on 
these uninhabited spots to br6ed; they do not, however, breed during 
tAeir stay on shore, which sometimes lasts several weeks, but grow lean, 
and swallow a considerable Quantity of stones to keep their stomach difr- 
tended. We were surprised to find the stomachs of many of these ani- 
mals entirely empty, and of others filled with ten or a dozen round heavy 
stonesj each of the size of two fists." — ^Professor Stelier's description of 
these animals, which he found at Bering's Isle, near Kamtchatka, corre- 
sponds perfectly with that now given, and is referred to by Mr 0. F. Per- 
netty, BqugainviUei and others also speak of them as met with in their 
yoyagcs.— E. 

6 Modem Circtwmavigaiion8» rASiT iii. MoaiL lu 

T^ej were, in general, so tame, or rather stapid, as to snfi- 
fer us to come near isnough to knopk them down with sticks; 
but the large ones we shot, not thinking it safe to approach 
them. We also found on the island abundance of pen&ruins 
and shags ; and the latter had young ones almost fledged, 
and just to our taste. Here were geese and ducks> h\x% not 
many ; birds of prey, and a few sm^l) birds. lu th^ evejp^ 
ing we returned on board, our boats well laden with one 
thing or other.* 

Next day, toeing January the 1st, 1775, finding that no- 
thing was wanting but ^ good harbour to ipake this a to- 
lerable place for ships to refresh at, whom chance or desiga 
might bring hither, 1 sent Mr Gilbert over to Staten Land . 
in the cutter to look for one. Appearance^ promised sue* 
cess in a place opposite. the ship. I also s^n( two other 


^ ** Having made some havock among the sea-lions, we walked upon 
the summit of the island, which was nearly level, but covered with innu- 
merable little mounds of earth, on each of which grew a large tuft of grass 
(daclylis glomcrata). The intervals between these tufts were very muddy 
and dirty, which obliged us to leap from one tuft to another. We soon 
discovered that another kind of seals occupied this part of the island, aqd 
caused the nmd by coming out of the sea. These were no pther than the 
sea-bears which we had already seen at Dusky Bay, but which were here ^ 
infinitely ixpre numerous, and frrown to a much larger size, equalling that ' 
ass^ed to them by Steller. They are, however, far inferior to the sea- 
lions, the males being never above eight or qii)e feet long, and thick {n 
proportion. Their hair is darjc-brown, minutely sprinkled with grey, and 
much longer on the whole body tbafi that of the sea-lioq, but does not 
form a mane. The general outline of the body, and the shape of the fins, 
are exactly the same. They were more fierce towards us, and their females 
commonly died in defepce of their young We observed on another oo- 
casion, that these two species, though sometimes encamped on the same 
beach, always kept at a great distance asunder, and had no communicatiop. 
A strong rank stench is common to them* as well as to all other seals ; a 
circumstance as well known to the ancients, as their inactivity and drow- 
siness whilst they lie on shore— 

Web-rfooted seals forsake the whitjening wav^» 
An4 sleep in herdsj ei^iajing oaMseoqs stench. 


Great numbers of a species of vulturesy c^Nnmoaly cajled carrion arows ty 
tke ^9k\\oxf^{f>»itur aura), were seen upon this island, and pnobably feed on 
young aealcnbs, which either die in the birthf or y^hich they take mi op- 
portunity (Q seize upon. * Besides then we alAO found a i|ew ipt cies pf 
hawks, and several geese of the sort whidtk had ap well furniab^d put oiir 
Christinas entertainiaent. Here we likewise saw a few penguinsy of a 
species which we had not' met with before, some large petrels of the si«e 
of albauroflsesy being the saine species which the SpaniaFda nsflw que-krant^': 
hwssoSi or the bone-breakers, and gome 8hag8."^G. F. 

CHAP* It. sSflT. fix. Q^imn Jwam Cook* ,g 

boatt fpr Ihe liona^ See. we faailldUed tha preceduig day ; 
and soon after I went myselfi and observed the sun's meri- 
dia« tiliitttde at the N.£. end of the island , which gave the 
latitude S4^ 40' 5r S. After shooting a (eyr geese^ some 

'fither faiYds^and plentifully supplying ourselves with young 

.$h»gS| we returned on boards laden with se»-IioBs^ sea- 
bears^ &c. The old lions and bears were killed chiefly for 
the ^abe of their blubber, or fat^ to make oil pf ; for^ except 
their haslets^ which were tolerable, the flesh was too rank 
to be eaten with any degree of relish. But the young cubs 
were very palateable, and even the flesh of so«ie of the old 
lionesses was not much amiss, but that af the old males was 

' abominable. In the afternoon I sent some people oti shore 
to skin and cut off the fat of those which yet remained dead 
on shore, for we bad already more carcases on bosird than 
necessary; and I went myself. In another boat^ to collect 
birds. About ten o'clock Mr Gilbert returned from Staten 
Land, where! he found a good port, situated three leagues 
to the westward of Cape St John, apd in the direction of 
Borth, a littJe easterly, from the Iii.B. end of the eastern 
ibl^d. It^may be known by some small islands lying in 
the entrance. The channel, which is en the 6ast side of 
these isl^ds^ iq half a mil^ ^oad. The course is. in & W. 
by S«>iumlng< gradually to W. by 8. and W. The harbour 
lies. iieady.^iaihiB last direction (is almost ttrg miles in 
length ; in some places near a mile broad ; and hath in it 
from fifty to ten fathoms water, a bottom of mud and sand. 
It? shpres are covered with wopd fit for fuel ; and in it are 
several ^treap^s of^ f^e^h water; Qq the islands were sea- 
lions, ^. and ^ygb an innumerable quantity of gulls as to 
darkeii the air when disturbed, and almost to suffocate our 

"people with their dung. This they seeqied to void in a wpy 
of defence, fi^nd it stunk worse to^q assqfcetida, or what is 

'^^Qi^ioQly called . devil's dung^ Pur people saw several 
geese, ducks, and racei-horses, whtch is also a kind of duck, 
'^he day on which this port was discovered occasioned my 
calling it Nefw- Year's Harbour. It would bp piore conv^ 
liient for ships boui)d tp the west, or rou|id Cape Horn, if 
its. situation would permit them to put to sea with an east- 
erly and northerly wind- This inconvenience, however, is 
of little consequence, since these winds are never known to 
|)e of long duration* The southerly ^i, w^&tf^rl^ are the 


JO Modem Circwnna/c^aHons, tajrtiiu Book ii. 

prevailing winds^ so that a s^ip never can be detained long 
in this port4' 

As we could not sail in the morning of the 2d for want 
of wind^ I sent a party of men on shore to the island^ on 
the same duty as^ before. Towards noon we got a fresh 
breeze at west ; but it came too late, and I resolved to wait 
till the next morning, when, at four o'clock, we weighed^ 
with a fresh gale at N.W. by W., and stood for Cape St 
John, which, at half past six, bore N, by £., distant four 
or five miles. This cape, being the eastern point of Staten 
Land, a description of it is unnecessary. It may, however^ 
not be amiss to say, that it is a rock of a considerable 
height, situated in the latitude of 54^ 46' S., longitude 6S** 
47' W"., with a rocky islet lying close under the north part 
of it. To the westward of the cape, about five or six miles^ 
is an inlet, which seemed to divide the.Iand, that is, to com- 
municate with the sea to the south ; and between this inlet 
and the cape is a bay, but I cannot say of what depth. In 
sailing round the cape we met with a very strong current 
from the south : It made a race which looked like breakers ; 
and it was as much as we could do^ with a strong gale^ to 
make head against it.^ '« 

Afteir getting round the capcj I hauled up along the south 
coast, and as soon as we had brought the wind to blow off 
the land, it came upon us in such heavy squsJls as obligeid 


' *^ The largest of ihe New-Year's Islands, as we called them, aiid 
which we now left, is about six leagues in circviit, and. that under which 
we lay at anchor, between three and four leagqes. They are excellent 
places of refreshment for a ship's crew bound on expeditions like oiirs ; 
for though the flesh of sea-lions and penguins: is not the moat palateable 
food, yet it is infinitely more salubrious than salt meat ; and by searching 
the difierent islands, it is not improbable that a sufficient quantity of cele- 
ry and scurvy-grass might be found to supply the whole c*rew, especially 
as we saw both the species on our excursions. Our seameq lived several 
days on young shags and penguins, of which they found the former ex* 
jtremely palateable, conmariog tnem to young pullets. They likewise roast- 
ed several little cubs of seals, but there was a degree of softness, in tl^e 
meat which made it disgustful. The flesh of young, but full-grown sea- 
bears, was greatly preferable,* and tasted like coarse and bad beef; but 
that of the old sea-lions and bears was so rank and offensive, that we could 
not touch it,"— G. F. 

^ Captain Krusenstern, as has been noticed in vol. 12, page 413, yefi* 
fied Cook's longitude of Cape St John, having found it to agree exactly 
with that pointed out by the watches on board his consort the Neva, which 
di^red bi^t a few minutes from those in his own vessel.— £• 

jcBAF* Tw. sicr. IT. Capfdn Jama Cook. It 

^s to double-reef our top-sails. It afterwards fell^ hy little 
and little, and at noon ended in a calm. At this time Cape 
St John bore N. €0^ E., distant three and a half leagues ; 
Cape St Bartholomew, or the S.W. point of Staten Lnnd, 
S. 83** W. ; two high detached rocks N. 80* W. ; and the 
place wbere the land seemed to be divided, which had the 
same appearance on this side, bore N. 15* W. three leagues 
distant. Latitude observed 54^ 56^. In this situation w^ 
sounded, but had no bottom with a line of 1120 fathoms. 
The calni was of very short duration, a breezy presently 
springing up at N*W. ; but it was too faint to make head 
arainst the current, and we drove with it back to the 
* N.N.E. At four o'clock the wind veered, at once, to S. by 
£., and blew in squalls attended with rain. Two hours af- 
ter, the squalls and rain subsided, and the wind returning 
back to the west, blew a gentle gale. All this time the cur- 
rent set us to the north, so that, at eight o'clock. Cape St 
John borieW.N.W., distant about seven leagues, inow 
gave over plying, and steered S.E., with a resolution to leave 
the land ; judging it to be sufficiently explored to answer 
the most general purposes of navigation and geography.^ - 

Section IV, 

Obiervatioftt, geographical and nautical, with an Account q^ 
the Islands near Staten Land, and the Animals found in 

The chart' will very accurately shew the direction, ex- 
tent, and position of the coast, along which I have sailed, 
either in this or my former voyage. The latitudes have been 


' The very intelligeDt o£Scer mentioned in the preceding note, seems 
to have been vefy materially benefited by the obscarvatioos of Captain 
Cook, in navigating this quarter, and does not hesitate to avow his obliga- 
tibns. An instance of this is recorded in our account of Byron's voyage, 
vol. 12, p. 74, which refers to a passage in the next section as to the cur-^ 
rents losing their force at ten or twelve leagues from land— £• 

' It has been thought advisable to retain this section verbatim, althoagh 
the references it makes to Captain Cook's chart can scarcely be understood 
without that accompaniment, and several observations of another sort 
which it contains, are given elsewhere. In justice to the memonr of Cook, 
it was resolved to preserve the whole of his relation, at the risa of a very 
trivial repetition, which the reader, it is bclieved» will be little disposed 
1o resent.— E. 


*^ Modem r- 



or . 
La J 
not ■ 

47' Vv 

of it. 'i . 

is an iiiiL : 

Jnunicate . 

and the ca; a. . 

sailing round i^ oapu *.c *i.oi wuu ct very suou^ - ^^^ 

from the south : 1.%^ ^iade a race which looUed like \>vea-^ ^^ 

and it was as i H eis we could do, withi a, atroug g®-^®* 

make head ag; it.* •- --^\ 

After getti p ^ the cape, 1 hauled, xx p sJLong the so ^^ 

coast, and as e had hrought tHe .wind U> Wfjf .^ 

the land, it ms in such neav-y-- scuaallsaJ^®^*^ g 

»«Th' ' .xr'» Islands, as we ' <ailed *""VyjJ 

which w. ^ lies in circuit, and. that «>^ .licit 

we lay r ,,'. four leagues. " They ««,? ^^« ; 

Places w bound on expeditions !*« ^^ ' 

forth / nguinsiis not tlja mo* P"T^j - 

food -!mii salt meat ; and \ "^^ 

the ' 'hata sx^^tiemquanUVofj^iy 

■ons.- pwr seamen l'«l„7ec- 
ngpullete. Theylik««**irSe 

a of young, but fun-g^". M 
' like coarses and bud t*^ L,„l(l 

rank, and o.«eiwi«e,tli«t**'^ 

'ticed xjx vol. 12, page 41^' Liy 
aving foui^^d ittoageeey 
.oard hi8 consort the Nev«»^'" 
. his own. vessel.-£> 


cAat. tV. SBCT. iv. Captain James Cbok. Ig 

tk>th of wbieh ttins were made irk ik f^ dilys ; conBe^ti^aU 
ly no material erfdrs cofuld happen. 

The S.W. coabt of 'Terra del Fuego> with respetjl tto inlets, 

islands^ &c. may be compared to the coast of Norway ; fot 

I doiibt if there be an extent of three leagues wbete th^re 

is hot an inlet or hat-hour which will receire and shelter the 

largest shipping. The worst is^ that till these inlets are bet* 

ter kiiown, one has, as it were, to fish for anchorage. Ther^ 

are several lurking rocks on the coast, but happily none of 

the|n lie far from fend, the approach to which may be knowa 

.jy sounding, supposlh* the weather so obscure that yoil' 

annot see it. For to judge of the whole by the parts we 

:ive sounded, it is more than probable that there are sound* 

•'js all alortg th6 coast, and for several leagues out to sea. 

,)on the whole, this is by no means the dangerous coast it 

been irepresenled. 
^talen Lahd lies n)sar E. by N. and W. by S., iind is ten 
ues long in that direction, and no where above three ot 
r leagues broad. The coast is rocky, much indented, and 
lied to forth several bays or inlets. It shews a surface of 
^*uggy hills which spire up to a vast height, especially neat 
uie west end. fixfeept the craggy summits of the hills, the 
j5,:eatest part was covered with trees and shrubs, ot some 
ort of herbiage, and there was little or no snow on it. The 
currents between Cape Deseada and Cape Horn set from 
vvest to east, that is, in the same direction as the coast: but 
they are by no liAeans considerable. To the east 6f th6 
cape their strehgth is much increased, and their directioki 
is N.E. towards Slaten Land; They arfe rapid in Strait Le 
Maire and alotig the soivth coast of Staten Land, and set 
like a torrent rotliid Cape !St John ; ^here they tak^ a N.W. 
direction, and coritit^U^ to ruh Very strbng both within and 
without New Yedrt Islek While wre lay at anchdr within 
this island, I observed that the current' v^as strdngest during 
thie flood ; anc^ that on the ebb its strength was so much 
impaired, that the ship would sometimes ride heid to the 
wind whfeh it was at W. and W.N.W. This is only to be 
understood of the place where the ship lay at anchor, for at 
the very tiifae we had a strong current setting to the west- 
ward, MrtJilbert found one of equal strength near the coast 
of Staten Land setting to the eastwa)rd, though probably this 
Was an eddy current or tide. 
If the tides are regulated by the tnoon, it is high*watei: 



14 Ato^n Circimnatigations. taut m. book iti 

Jyy the die re at this place on the days of the new and -full 
moon^ about four o'clock. The perpendicular rise and fall 
is very inconsiderable, not exceeding four feet at most. Id 
Christmas Sound it is high-rwater at half past two o'clock 
on the days of the full audi change^ and Mr Wales obsef* 
yed it to rise and fall on a perpendicular three feet ^ix 
inches; but this was during the neap tides^ consequently 
the spring tides must rise higher. To give such an account 
of the tides and currents on these coasts as navigators might 
depend on, would require a multitude of observations^ and 
in different places, the making of which would be a work 
of time. I confess myself unprovided with materials for 
such a task ; and believe that the less t say oh this subject 
the fewer mistakes I shall make. But I think I have been 
able to observe, that in Strait Le M aire the southerly tide 
or current, be it flood or ebb, begins to act on the days of 
new and full moon &bout four o'clock, which remark may 
i>e of use to ships who pass the strait. 

Were I bound round Cape Horn to the west, and not id 
want of wood or water, or any other thing that might make 
it necessary to put into port, I would not come near the 
land at all. For by keeping out at se^ you avoid the qur- 
I'ents, which, I am satisfied, lose their force at ten or twelve 
leagues from land ; and at a greater distance there is nonew 

JJuring the time we were upon the coast we had more 
calms than storms, and the winds so variable, that I ques- 
tion if a passage might not have been made from east to 
west in as short a time as from west to east ; ifor did we ex- 
perience any cold weather. The metcury in the thermo- 
meter at noon was nev^r below 46° ; and while we lay in 
Christmas Sound it was generally above temperate. At this 
place the variation nas 23® 3(y £. ; a few leagues to the S. 
W. of Strait Le Maire it was £4^ ; and at anchor, within 
New Year's Isles, it was 24* 2(/ E. 

These isles are, in general, so unlike Staten Land, esp^ci- 
ipilly the one on which we landed, that it deserves a particu- 
lar .description. It shews a surface of equal height, and ele* 
vated about thirty or forty feet above the sea, from which 
It is defended by a rocky coast. The inner part of the isle 

15 covered with a sort of sword-grass, very green, and of a 
great length. It grows on little hillocks of two or three feet, 
in diameter, and as many or more in height, in large tufts^ 
which seemed to be composed of the roots of the plaiit 


I _ 

OHAP. xV. BSCTk iY» . C^aiu JanUs Cook. ' 15 

matted together. Among these hillocks axe a vast litimber 
of paths made by sea-bears and penguins, by which they ' 
retire into the centre of the isle. . It is, nevertheless, ex- 
ceedingly bad travelling; for these paths are so dirty that 
one is sometimes up to the knees in mire. Besides this 
plant, there are a few other grasses, a kind of heath, and 
some celery« The whole surface is moist and wet, and on the 
coast are several small streams of water. The sword-grass, 
as I call it, seems to be the same that grows in Falkland 
isles, described by Bougainville as a kind oi gladiolus, or ra- 
ther a species of gramen,^ and named by Pernety corn-flags. 

The animals found on this little spot are sea*lions, sea-> 
bears, a variety of oceanic, and some land-birds. The sea- 
lion is pretty well described by Pernety, tliough those we 
saw here have not such fore-feet or fins as that he has given* 
a plate of^ but such fins as that which he calls the sea-wolfi» 
l4or did we see any of the size he speaks of; the largest not 
being more than twelve or fourteen feet in length, and per- 
haps eight or ten in circumference. They are not of that 
kind described under the same name by Lord Anson ; but, 
for aught I know, these would more properly deserve that 
appellation : The long hair, with which the back of the 
head> the neck' and shoulders, are covered, giving them 
greatly the air and appearance of a lion. The other part of 
the body is covered with short hair, little longer than that 
of a cow or a horse, and the whole is a datk-brown. The 
female is not half so big as the male, and is covered with a 
short hair of an ash or light-dun colour. They live, as it 
were> in herds, on the rocks, and near the sea-shore. As 
this was the time for engendering as well as bringing forth 
their young, we have seen a male with twenty or thirty fe- 
males about him, and alw;ays very attentive to keep them 
all to himself, and beating off every other male who attempt- 
ed to come into his flock. Others iagain had a less number ; 
sqme no more than one or two ; and here and there we have 
seen one lying growling in a retired place, alone,.and suffer- 
ing neither males nor females to approach him : We judged 
these were old and superannuated. 

The sea-bears are not so large, by far, as the. lions, but 

rather larger than a common seal. They have none of that 

. long hair which distinguishes the lion. Theirs is all of an 


^ See Eoglish Translation of Bougalnviile, p. 51. 

l8 Modem CirdbnmdjgaUons. tkW lU. »odlt 1i. 

equal leilgtli^ and finer tfaftn thdt of the HoDi ftottfetbiHg lik^ 
an otter's!^ and ttie general coldnr is that of ftti iron-grey; 
This 19 the kind which the Freneh call seii-Wblfs^ and the 
Englisih seats ^ they tit^., however^ different froth the seal^ 
we hare in Europe and North Amerita. The liond Mayj too^ 
Without dny great impropriety^ be c?alled over-grijwh geals ; 
for they sire sill of tHe s&nie dpeeies. It xk^Iis not ftt all dati-» 

ferous to go among thetn^ for they either fted or lay stilU 
'be only danger wds in going between thetn and the dea ; 
for if they took fright at any things they would toine dowii 
in suth nnmbers^ thai, if you could not get out of theii* way> 
yon would be run oter. S6nietitnes> when we came imddenly 
«pon them. Or iVdked them ont of their slee^j (fot they are 
a sloggii^h glej^py afiitn&l), they would raise tip th^ir headsj 
snort dnd $nbr]> find to^k as fierce as if they meant td devoni^ 
ud \ b«t &s tire advanced upoh theni they always run awhy^ 
to thftt they ate downright bullies. ^ 
' The penguin 'v» an amphibious bird, so Well khOwii td 
itaost pedple, thsit I shall only ob§erVe^ thejr are here in pro*" 
digious ntinib€frd> so thM we c'ouid kiiock down as many as 
We pleased With H i^tiek. I eafiA§t s^y they are gdod eating. 
I have indeed made seteifftl godd meals of them, but it wair 
for want of betVr tiettidlsi They either d6 ridt breed hertf, 
or else thi^ Was not the ^easdil ; foi* We sltW neither eggs not 

8hag6 br^ed here in Vast hunib^r^; and Wfe carried onf 
botird not a feW^ ds they are Vfeiy good eating. They tak^ 
f^erfcain spots to th^mselvesi and build their nests near th^ 
edge of the ellffs on little hillobks^ Which are eithei* thosd 
of the sword-grfissi or else they a#e,tafide by the shag& build-' 
ing On them ffdni year t6 y^ari There is ahdther sort rather* 
smaller Ibdn these, which bre^d ih the cliffs of tdcks. 

The ge^se dre of tfa& ^ame sort We fnutid in Christmas' 
Sound \ We saw but few, and sofne had yotrng dnes. Mr' 
Fdrsier ghot one Wbi^h w^s differed frdih thes^, being lar- 
ger^ with a grey plumage, and black feet. The others make 
a noise exactly like a duck. Here were ducks, but not ma- 
ny ; and several of that sdrt which we called face-horses. 
We shot some, and found thenl to weigh twenty-nine or 
thirty pounds; those who eat of them said they were very 
good. .»..,. 

The oceanic birds were gulls, terns. Port Egmont hens, 
and a large brown bird^ of the size of an albatross, which 


CUAP« XV. SECT. IV* Captain James Cook. 17 

Pernety calls quebrantahuessas. We called them Mothec 
Care/s geese, and found them pretty good eating. The 
land-birds were eagles, or hawks, bald-headed vultures, or 
what our seamen called turkey-bazzards, thrushes, and a 
few other small birds. 

Our naturalists found two new species of birds. The one 
is about the size of a pigeon, the plumase as white as milk. 
They feed along-«hore, probably on shell-fish and carrion, 
for they have a very disagreeable smell. When we first saw 
these birds we thought they were the snow-peterel, but the 
moment they were in our. possession the mistake was disco- 
vered ; for they resemble them in nothing but size and co- 
lour. These are not webb-footed. The other sort is a species 
of curlews nearly as big as a heron* It has a variegated 
plumage, the prmcipal colours whereof are light-grey, and 
a long crookea bill. 

I had almost forgot to mention that there are sea-pies, or 
what we called, when in New Zealand, curlews ; but we only 
aaw a few straggling pairs. It may not be amiss to observe, 
that the shajgs are the same bird which Bougainville calla 
saw-bills ; but he is mistaken in saying that the quebranta- 
huessas are their enemies ; for this bird is of the peterel 
trihe^ feeds wholly on fish, and is to be found in all the 
high southern latitudes. 

it is amazing to see how the different animals which in- 
habit this little spot are mutually reconciled. They seem to 
have entered into a league not to disturb each other's tran- 
quillity. The sea-lions occupy most of the sea-coast ; the 
sea-bears take up their abode in the isle ; the shags have 
post in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix their quarters 
where there is the most easy communication to and from 
the sea; and the other birds choose more retired places. 
We have seen all these animals mix together, like domestic 
cattle and poultry in a farm-yard, without one attempting 
to molest tne other. Kay, I have often observed the eagles 
and vultures sitting on tne hillocks among the shags, with- 
out the latter, either young or old, bein^ disturbed at their 
presence. It may be asked how these birds of prey live? I 
suppose on the carcases of seals and birds which die by vari- 
ous causes; and probably not few, as they are so numerous. 
This very imperfect account is written more with a view 
to assist my own memory than to give information to others. 
I am neither a botanist ngr a naturalist; and have not words 

VOL, XV. B to 

18 Modem CifcumnavigaHons. pabt ni. book ii. 

to describe the prbdaction^ of paturej either ia the one 
branch of knowledge or the other. • .^ . .- 

••♦•",• • • . 

. Section V. 

'Proceedings after leaving^ Statenldand, with an Account oftH 
'' Dhcovery of the life of Georgia, and a Descr^tion of it. 

tlAyiNO left the land in the evening of the Sd, as before 
ireriUdndd, we saw it again next inorning> at three b'^cFock, 
"bfearing west. Wind continued to blow a steadjr fres^ tlrecze 
till six p. m;, when it shifted in a heavy squall <o S;Wv 
khich came so suddenly upon us^ th&t we had not time to 
take in the sails^ and was the occasion of carrying away & 
top-gallant mast^ a studding-sail boom^ and a fore stud- 
' ding-sail. The squall ended in a heavy shower of rain,, but 
the wind remained at S.W. Our course was S.B.> with a 
view of discovering that extensive coast laid down by Mr 
Dalrymple in his chart, in which is the gulph of St Sebas- 
tian. 1 designed to make the western point of that eulph, 
in order to have all the other parts before me. Inaeed I 
had some doubt of the existence of such a coast ; and thi$ 
appeared to me the best route for clearinjg it up^ and for ex- 
ploring the southern part of this ocean. 

On the 5th, fresh gafes, and wet and cloudy weather. At 
noon observed in 57* 90 latitude made from Cape iSt John, 
5* 2' E. At six o'clock p. m., being in the latittide 57* 21^, 

teefed our top-sails, and hauled to the north, with a very 
strong gale at west, attended with a thick haze and'sleet. 
The situation just mentioned is nearly the same that Mr 
Dalrymple assigns for the S.W. point of the gulpK of St 
Sebastian. But as we saw neither land, nor signs of land, I 
was the more doubtful of its existence, and was fearful thati 
by keeping to the south, I might miss the land said to be 
discovered by La Roche in 1(575, and by the ship Lion in 
1756, which Mr Dalrymple places in 54* SC/ latitude, and 
45* of longitude; but on looking over D'AnvilIe*d chart, I 
found it Idid down 9*^ or 10* more to the west ; this differ- 
ence of situation being to me a sign of the uncertainty of 


CHAP. IV. 9BCT» T. t^ftom Jomm Cook. I9 

bodi aceooDts, determined me to get into the parallel as 
Hon aa pobsible, ttmd was th^ reasoa of my baauag to the 
north ikt this time. 

Tdwardsttbe monriag of the 7th the gale abated^ the 
weodier cleared up, andtfie wind Teered to the W.S.W*, 
wberd it i^nlXDtted till tnidnightj after whieb it veered to 
N«Ww Being at tfiis tine in the latitude of SG" 4f &., ton- 
KJUttde liS^ 9& W., we sooaded^ bat found no bottom with a 
Ime of one hundred and thirty fathoms, i still Icept liie 
wind on the IarlM>ard»tack> bavifig a gende bieeae and 
pleasant weather. Off the 8tb, at noon, a bed of seaweed 
passed the ship. In the afternoon^ in latitude 55* 4% longi- 
tode 5 P 45^ W.^ the variation was ecf 4^ E. 
- ' €^ the Oth^wind at ti.E.^ attended with thick hazy wea- 
ther ; saw a seal^ and a piece of sea-weed. At noony lati^ 
jtiide 55? W S., lon^tude 50* W W., the wind and weather 
coDltDaiDg the same till towards midnight, when the laitter 
oldacadup, and the former veered to west^ and blew a gentle 
gale. We continaed to |^y tilt two o'clock the neact mora^* 
ing^, when we bore away east, and at eirbl £.N«E. ; at noon^ 
observed in latitude 54^35^8., longitoae 47^ 36^ W., a great 
maay aUwtfOflses and bkie peterels about the ship. I now 
steered east, aind the next morning, in the latitude of 54* 
SB', loagitude 45^ IQP W., the variation was ig* 95' E; la 
the afternoon saw several penguins, and some pieces of weed. 
Having spent the night lying-to, on the 12th, at day^ 
breakj we bore away, and steered east northerly, with a fine 
fresh breese at W.S.W. ; at noon observed in latitude 54* 
«8r S.^ longitnde in 42^ S' W.; that is, near S<> E. of the si- 
toatioa in which Mr Daiiymple places the N.E. point of the 
galph of St Sebastian ; but we had no other signs of l^pd 
than aeeing a sesl and a few penguins ; on the contrary, we 
had a swell from E.S.E., which would hardly haveheen, if 
an J extensive track of land lay in that direction. In the 
eveains^ the g^le abated, and at midnight it fell calm. 

The calm, attended by a thick fog, continned till six 
next i&oming, when we got a wind at east> but the fog still 
prevailed. We stood to Sie sonth^ till noon, when, being in 
the latitude of 55^ 7^ we tacked and stretched to the north 
with a fresh breeze at Ei byS.and-BJS.E., cloudy weather ; 
saw several peagoios and a snow-peterel, irtiich we looked 
on to be signs cS the vicinity of ice. The air too was much 
colder than we hadftlt it since we left Neir Zealahd. In 
< . . the. 

So Modem Circumtmcigaiidns. 9Kbt in. book it. 

the afternoon the wind veered to the S.E.^ and in the night 
to S.S.E.^ and blew fresh, with which we stood to the N.E. 

At nine o'clock the next morning we saw an island of ice, 
as we then thought, but ait noon were doubtful whether it 
was ice or lUnd. At this time it bore E. | S;, distant thirteen 
leagues; our latitude was- 53** 56' i, longitude 39^ 2V W.; 
several penguins, small divers, a snow-peterel, and a Vast 
number of blue peterels about the ship. We bad but little 
wind all the morning, and at two p. m. it fell calm. It was 
now no longer doubted that it was land, and not icey which 
we had in sight. It was, bowev^r^ in a manner wholly co- 
vered with snowf We were farther confirmed in our jodg* 
ment of its being land, by finding soundings at one hundred 
and seventy-five fathoms, a muddy bottom. The land at 
this time bore E. by S., about twelve leagues distant. At 
six o'clock the calm was succeeded by a breeze at N.E., 
with which we stood to S.E. At first it blew a gentle gale, 
but afterwards increased so as to bring us under double*reefed 
top-sails, and was attended with snow and sleet. 

We continued to stand to the S.E. till seven in the morn<» 
ing on the 15th, when the wind veering to the S.E., we 
tacked and stood to the north. A little before we tacked, 
yjt saw the land bearing £. by N. At noon the mercury ia 
the thermometer was at 35*^* The wind blew in squalls, at- 
tended with snow and sleet, and we had a great sea to en« 
counter. At a lee-lurch which the ship took, Mr Wales ob- 
served her to lie down 4£^. At half past four p. m. we took 
in the Jlop-sails, got down top-gallant yards, wore the ship^ 
and stood to the S.W., under two courses. At^midnisht the 
storm abated, so that we could carry the top-sails double- 

At four in the morning of the l6th we wore and stood to 
the east, with the wind at S.S.E., a moderate breeze, and 
fair ; at eight o'clock saw the land extending from E. by N. 
to N.E. by N« ; loosed a reef out of each top-sail, got top* 
gallant yards across, and set the sails. At noon observed la 
latitude 54<> 25'^, longitude Sa^" 18' W. In this situation we 
had one hundred and ten fathoms water ; and the land ex- 
tended from N. i W. to E., eight leagues distant. The 
northern extreme was the same that we first discovered^ 
and it proved to be an island, which obtained the name of 
Willis's Island, after the person who first saw it. 

At this time w^ had a great swell from the south, an in- 

cnAP. IV. SECT. ▼• Captain Jama Cook. ftl 

dtcation that no land was near us in that direction ; never- 
theless the vast quantity of snow on that in sight induced us 
•to think it was elxtensive^ and I chose to begin with explo* 
ring the northern coast. With this view we bore up for 
Willis's Island^ all sails set^ having a fine gale at S.S.W. As 
we advanced to the north, we perceived another isle lying 
east of Willises/ and between it and the main. Seeing there 
was a clear passage between the two isles, we steered for it, 
apd at five a'clock, being in the middle of it, we found it 
about two miles broad. 

WilHs-s Isle is an high rock of no great extent, near to 
which are some rocky islets. It is situated in the latitude 
of 54* S., longitude 38^ 23' W. The other isle, which ob- 
tained the name of Bird Isle, on account of the vast number 
that were upon it, is not so high, but of greater extent, and 
is close to tne N.E. point of the main land, which I called 
Cape North. • 

The S.B. coast of this land, as far as we saw it, lies in the 
direction of S. 50^ E., and N. 50^ W. It seemed to form 
several bays or inlets; and we observed huge masses of 
snow, or ice, in the bottoms of them, especially in one 
which lies ten miles to the S.S.E. of Bird Islje. 

After gettins through the passage, we found the north 
coast trended b* by N., for about nine miles; and then east 
and east-southerly to Cape Buller,' which is eleven miles 
more. We ranged th^ coast, at one league distance, till 
near ten o'clock, when we brought-to for the night, and on 
sounding found fifty fathoms, a muddy bottom. 

At two o'clock in the morning of the i7th we made sail 
in for the land, with a fine breeze at S.W. ; at four, Wil- 
lis's Isle bore W. by S., distant thirty-two miles; Cape Bul- 
ler, to the west of which lie some rocky islets, bore S.W. 
iby W. ; and the most advanced point of land to the east^ 
S^ 63^ E. We now steered along shore, at the distance of 
four or five miles, till seven o'clock, when, seeing the ap- 
pearance of an inlet, we hauled in for it. As soon as we 
drew near the shore, having hoisted out a boat, I embarked 
in it, accompanied by Mr Forster and his party, with a view 
of reconnoitring the bay before we ventured in with the 
ship. When we put off from her, which was about four 
miles from the shore, we had .forty fathoms water. I con- 
tinued to sound as I went farther 4n, but found no bottom 
with a Hne of thirty*four fathoms, which wa^ the length of 


241 Modem drcumriiivigatioiM* pabt hi* book ij^. 

ibat I had in the bmt^ alid: which ako' proved iot> short to 
sound the bay^ so far os.I went up ili. I obseryed it to lie 
in S.W. by S. about two l^agues^ about two miles bP0ad> 
well sheltered from all winds; and I judged there might be 
good anchorage before some sandy beaches wfaicK are on 
each side^ and likewise near a low flat isle^, towards the head 
of the bay* As i bad come to a resolution not to bring the 
^ip. ia^ I did not think it worth my while to go ai|d examine 
these places ; for it did not seem probably that any one would 
ever be benefited by the discovery. I landed at three differ- 
ent places, displayed our colours> atid took pdssesf^ion of the 
country Jn his majesty's name> under a discharge of small 
arms. ' ^. . 

I judged that the tide rises about four or fiye.f^et, and is high water on the full and change days about ele- 
ven o'clock. 

The head of the bay, as well as two places on each side^ 

vfras terminated by perpendicular ice-^clifis of considerable 

height. Pieces were continually breakitig^ off, and floating 

out to sea ; and a great fall happened while we were in the 

^ bay^ which made a noise like cannon* . 

The inner, parts of the country w«re not less savage and 
borcible. The wild rocks raised their lofty summits till tbqr 
were lost in the clouds, and the valleys lay covered with 
everlasting snow. Not a tree was to be seen, nor a shrub 
even .big enough to make a toothpick. The only vegeta- 
tion we met with was a coarse strong-bladed grass-growing 
in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss, which sprung 
from the rocks. 

Seals, or sea-bears, were pretty numerous. They wei'e 
smaller than those at Staten Land : Perhaps the most of 
those we saw were females, for the shores swarmed with 
voung cubs. We saw none of that sort which we call Itons ; 
but there were some of those which the writer of Lord An:- 
son's voyage describes under that name ; at le^st they ap- 
peared to us to be of the same sort ; and are, in my opinion, 
very improperly called lions, for I could not see any grounds 
for the comparison. 

Here were several flocks of penguins^ the largest I ev^ 
aaw ; some which we brought on board weighed trom twen- 
ty-nine to thirty-eight pounds. It appears by Bougainville's 
account of the animals of Falkland Islands, that this pen- 
guin is there ; and | think it is yery well described by him 


CHAP« iv« SECT* V* Captain Jwna Cook. tS 

und^ die name of first cla^ of penguins. The oceanic 
birds were albatrosses^ common gulls^ and that sort whicl| 
I call Port EgmOttt hens^ terns^ shags^ divers^ the new white 
hird^ and.A^mall bird like those of the Cape of Good Hope^i 
qalled yellow birds ; which, having shot two, we found most 
delicious fopd* . 

All the laud birds^ we saw consisted of a few small larks. 
nor did we meet with au^r quadrupeds. Mr Fo^ster indeed 
observed some dung, which he judged to come from a fox, 
or some, such animal. The lands}, or rather rqcks» bordering 
on the searCoast, were not covered with snow like the inland 
parta; but all the vegetation we could see on the clear places 
was the grass above-mentioned. The rocks seemed to con* 
tain iroiu Having made the above observations, we set out 
for tbe ahip, aud got on. board a little after twelve o'clock, 
with a quaatiiy of seals and penguins, an acceptable present 
tO|the crew. . . 

, It must not, however, .be understood that we were in want 
of provisions ; we bad yet plenty of every kind ; and since 
we had been on this coastyl haa ordered, in addition to the 
common allowance, wheat to be boiled every morning for 
Weakfast; .bat. any kind of fresh meat was preferred by 
Hiost salt. For my own part, I was now,' for 
tbe first time, beaitily tired of salt meat of every kind ; and 
though the flesh of the p<?oguins could scarcely vie with 
bullock's liver, its b^iug fresh was sufficient to mal^e it go 
down« X called the bay we had been in. Possession Bay. 
It is jsituated in the latitude of 54"* 6' S., longitude 37* 18' 
W., and eleven leagues to the east of Cape North. A fey^ 
miiea to the west of Possession Bay, between it and Cape 
BuUer^ lies tbe Bay pf Isles, so. named on account of seve- 
xaljsmaU isles lying in and before it. 
« As sobuias the boat was hoisted in, we made sail along 
the coast. to the ea^t, ^ith a fine breeze at W.S.W. From 
Cape,Buller the direction of the coast is S. 7S° 3(f £., for 
the space of eleven or twelve leagues, to a projecting point, 
which obtained the name of Cape Saunders. Beyond this 
cape is a pretty lacge bay, which I named Cumberland 
Bay. In several parts in the bottom of it, as also in some 
others of less extent, lying between Cape Saunders and 
Possession Bay, were vast tracks of frozen snow, or ice, not 
yet broken loose. At eight o'clock, beine just past Cum- 
berland Bay, and falling little wind^ we hariued oiF tbe coast, 


24 Modem Circumnaoigaiuniu paet hi. book ii« 

from which we were distant about four miles^ and found 
one hundred and ten fathoms water. 

We had variable light airs and calms till six o'clock the 
next mornings when the wind fixed at north, and blew a 
gentle breeze; but it lasted no longer than ten o'clock^ 
when it fell almost to a calm. At noon, observed in lati* 
. tude 54^ 30' S., being then about two or three leagues from 
the coast, which extended from N. 59® W. to S. 13** W. 
The land in this last direction was an isle, which seemed to 
be the extremity of the coast to the east. The nearest land 
to us being a projecting point which terminated in a round 
hillock, was, on account of the day, named Cape Charlotte^ 
On the west side of Cape Charlotte lies a bay which ob- 
tained the name of Royal Bay, and the west point of it was 
named Cape George. It is the east point of Cumberland, 
Bay, and lies in the direction of S.E. by £. from Cape 
Saunders, distant seven leagues. Cape George and Cape 
Charlotte lie in the direction of S. 37' E. and N. 37' W., 
distant six leagues from each other* The isle above-men- 
tioned, which was called Cooper^s Isle, after my first lieute- 
nant, lies in the direction of S. by £., distant eight leagues 
from Cape Charlotte. The coast between them forms a 
large bay> to which I gave the name of Sandwich. The 
wind being variable all the afternoon we advanced but lit- 
tle ; in the night it fixed at S. and S.S. W., and blew a gen- 
tle gale, attended with showers of snow. 

The 19th was wholly spent in plying, the wind continuing 
at S. and S.S.W.^ clear pleasant weather, but cold. At san- 
rise a new land was seen, bearing S.E. i £. It first appear* 
ed in a single hill, like a sugar-loaf; some time after other 
detached pieces appeared above the horizon near the hill. 
At noon, observed in the latitude 54'' 42' 30'' S., Cape Char- 
lotte bearing N. 38' W., distant four leagues ; and Coop- 
er's Isle S. 31' W. In this situation a lurking rock, whicli 
lies olFSandwich Bay, five miles from the land, bore W. i N«, 
distant one mile, and near this rock were several breakers. 
In the afternoon we had a prospect of a ridge of mountains 
behind Sandwich Bay, whose lofty and icy summits were 
elevated high above the clouds. The wind continued at 
S.S.W. till six o'clock, when it fell to a calm. At this time 
Cape Charlotte bore N. 31« W., and Cooper's Island 
W.S.W. In this situation we found the variation, by the 
azimuths^ to be 1 1' 39', and by the amphtude, 1 1' J 2' E. At 


xiuht. !▼• SBCT. V. ' Captain James Cook. S5 

ten o'clock) a light breeze springing tip at norths wc steered 
to the south till twelve^ and then bronght-to for the night. 

At two o'clbck in the morning of the 20th we made sail 
to S.W. round Cooper's Island. It is a rock of considera* 
i>le height^ about five miles in circuit, and one mile from 
the main. At this isle the main coast takes a S.W. direc- 
tion for the space of four or five leagues to i| point, which 
I called Cape Disappointment. Off that are three small 
isles, the southernmost of which is green, low, and flat, and 
lies one league from the cape. 

As we advanced to S.W. land opened, off this point, im 
the direction of N. 60* W., and nine leagues beyond it. It 
proved an island quite detached from the main, and obtain- 
ed the name of Pickersgill Island, after my third officer. 
Soon after a point of the main, beyond this island, came in 
sight, in the direction of N. 55^ W«, which exactly united 
the coast at the very point we had seen, and taken the 
bearing of, the day we first came in with it, and proved to 
a demonstration that this land, which we had taken for part 
of a great continent, was no more than an island of seventy 
ieagues in circuit. 

who would have thought that an island of no greater 
extent than thid, situated between the latitude of 54* and 
55^, should, in the very height of summer, be in a manner 
wholly covered, many fathoms deep, with frozen snow, but 
more especially the S.W. coast ? The very sides and craggy 
summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow and 
ice ; but the quantity which lay in the valleys is incredible ; 
and at the bottom of the bays the coast was terminated by 
a wall of ice of considerable height. It can hardly be 
doubted that a great deal of ice is formed here in the wa- 
' ter, which in the spring is broken off, and dispersed over 
the sea ; but this island cannot produce the ten-thousandth 

1>art of what we saw; so that either there must be more 
and, or the ice is formed without it. These reflections led 
me to think that the land we had seen the preceding day 
might belong to an extensive track, and I still had hopes of 
discovering a continent. I must confess the disappoint^ 
ment I now met with did not affect me much ; for, to 
judge of the bulk by the sample, it would not be worth the 

I called this island the isle of Georgia, in honour of his 
.majesty. It k situated between the latitudes of 53* 5V 


S6 Modmn Circimmaimgatimfi^ vart u|..8oaK n« 

fund 54<' 47^S•; aod between SS"" IS' and 3^ 34' w^.Ioar 
gitude.. It ei^teod* S.E. by E. and N.W. by W.,^ and is 
jthirty-one leagues long in that dicec^tion ; and its jO-eatest 
breadth 14 t^boa| tei^. leagues. It seems to a))9und yfwuhagfs 
and harbpars^.tbe jiJL po^t especiallj^; but the vast quapr 
.Uty of ice inust render tbem inaceessible ibe greatest part 
pf tbe year ;<h^, at leasts it m.qst be dangerous lying in theni, 
on aecoun^ of the breaking up of the ice cliffs. 

It is rem^irkablie that we di^. not see a river, or stream of 
fresh water^ on the whole cpast. I highly probf^- 
ble that there axe no perennial springs in the country; and 
t|iat the interior parts^ as being much elevated, never enjoy 
beat enough to melt the snpw in such quantities a^ iq pro- 
duce a rivf r^ or stream^ of water. The coast alone i:eceiye;B 
3warmtb, sufficient to melt the snow^ and. this, only 00, the 
iN«E. Bide,^ foK the pt^herj^ besides b^ing e^pp^ed tq the cold 
«outh wipds, ^s, ii^ .a great degree, deprived pf the sun's 

jays, >y tbe uncommon bi^ight.of the. mpuntaiqs* , 

^ it wa9 £rpm a persuasion thaj^.the sea-coai|t of a land, s|i« 
ttuated in the latitude of 54^, could not, in the very beigiit 
of ^ummer^ be wholly covered with snow, that I supposed 
JBouvet's discovery to be large islands of ice* . Sot af|er I 
had seen this land, I no longer hesitated about the exiat- 
•/ence of. Cape .Circumcision ; nor did I doubt that I sfaMnild 
;fiQd more land than I should have time to explore* , Wi^i 
jthese ideas I quitted this coast, ^aQd directed n^y cpurse to 
th^ fi.S.£. for the land lye had seen the preceding, day. ^ 

The wind was very vai^ble till ^ibon, when it A|[e4 at 
K.Nȣ., and blew a gentle, gale; bqt it increased in such a 
>nianner> that, before tbre^ o'clock, we jw^je jreduce4 to. <xur 
4wp courses, and obliged to stri)(e top-gallant yfirds. We 
v$rf^ v^y fortunate in. getting clear of tn^ land,^ before t^s 
igajk over topic us^; it bein^ hard to say what inight.hs^ve 
<l)een the consequence had it come on while we were on the 
porth coast. This stprm;Was, pf sl}ort duration;, for, at 
eight o'clock it began to labat^; ^d at midnight it* wasjit« 
tie wind. \Y^. then tpoj^. ^he opportunity to spuqd, ^ut 
. found no bottom with a line pf an hundred and eighty fa- 
thoms. . , 

Next day the storm was succeeded hj a thick fog, attend- 
ed with rain ; the wind veered to N.W.^ and, at five in the 
momipgi it f^t c^Q^ which continued till eight; and ^en 
' tve got a breeze southerly, with which we stood to the ea#t 


CHAP. w. 8E0T» Tr &iy#Mi Janke$ Cw>k* 87 

^L Ibraejn tfi.6 i^riibw. l%e w^albor Ifaen comii% somef 
y^i^hi clean».v< oiadejaiU airf 4t«ered AQrth;.ia.aeiirch of 
Jfuid 4 but^ at hidf-pasi six^ we were affain involved in a 
thick mist, which made it necessary to haul the wiad^ and 
spend the night ip. malting shoil boards*. 
: : ^e had variable light- airs J^xi to • «alm> and thick 
foggy weathf r> till balf*paat seven o'cloc|c in theetening of 
tfa^ €2d> whet} ne got a fine, breeze at norths and the we»- 
^tfaiec was so ciQar^^atiwet «0«ld see twpior three . leagues 
foondius^ We seUed the opporl«ditjr> and steered to west; 
ja4g»ng we i^'^ese to the east of theJand. After running ten 
miles tQlhe west, the weatbes again became foggy^ and we 
faajiled the iwiadj and spwt th^oight under top^sails. 
; . Wext Bnorning at six o'clook^, the fog clearing away^ so 
.tbailire eonld see three or ibuc miles, I took the opportune 
ly:to steer again to the itrest> with the wind at east, a fresh 
.breese^bnt twa hours afker, a thick fog once nrore obliged 
A9 to .haul the wind to the iouih. At eleven o'clock, a short 
iatfirvtd of clear weather gave ns view of three or four rockt 
iskts extending from S«£. to £.N.E.^ two or three mil^ 
.distant ; but we did not see the Su^-Loaf Peak before- 
mentioned. Indeed^ two or three miles was the extent of 
our horizon. 

We were well assured that this iHis the land we had seeu 
befidre, which we had now been quite round ; and therefore 
it CQilld be no mOre than a feW: detached rooks, receptacles 
for birds, of which we now saw vast numben, especially 
shags, who gave us notice of the vicinity of land before we 
saw it. These rocks lie in the latitude of 55* S.^ and S. 75P 
£.y distant twdve leagues from Cooper^s Isle» ' 
. The interval of clear weather was of very shot-t duration^ 
before we had as thick a fog as ever, attended with rain, 
on which we tacked in sixty fathoms water, and stood to 
the north. Thus we spent our time, involved in a continual 
thic^k mist; and. Tot aught we knew^ surrounded by danger- 
ous rocks. The shags and soundings were t>ur best pilots ; 
for after we had stood a few miles to the north, we got out 
of soundings, and saw no more shags. The succeeding daV 
and night we spent in making short boards ; and at eight 
o'clock on the 24? th, jjudging ourselves not fair from the 
roc)c8 by spme straggling shags which came about us, we 
aocmded in sixty fathoms water, the bottom stones and 
broken shells.* Soon after, we saW the rocks bearing 
S.S. W. i W., foqr miles distant, but still we did not see the 


28 Modem Circumnavigaiiom* pabt hi. book ii« 

peak. It was, no doubt, beyond our horizon, which was li- 
mited to a short distance ; and, indeed, we had but a tran* 
sient sight of the other rocks, before they were again lost 
in tlie log. 

With a light air of wind at north, and a great swell from 
N.E., we were able to clear the rocks to the west ; and, at 
four in the p. m., judeing ourselves to be three or four 
leagues east and west of them, I steered south, being quite 
tired with cruizing about them in a thick fog ; nor was it 
worth my while to spend any more time in waiting for clear 
weather, only for the sake of having a good sight of a few 
straggling rocks. At seven o^clock, we had at intervals a 
clear sky to the west, whirh gave us a sieht of the moun- 
tains of the isle of Georgia, bearing W.N.W., about eight 
leagues distant. At eight o^clock we steered S.E. by S., 
and at ten S.E. by E., with a fresh breeze at north, attend- 
ed with a very thick fog-; but we were, in some measure, 
acquainted with the sea over which we were running. The 
Tocks above-mentioned obtained the name of Clerke's 
Bocks, after my second officer^ he being the first who saw 

Section VI. 

Praceedifm after leaving the Isle of Georgia, with an Account 
of the Viscoeerif qf'Sandmch Land; with some Reasons for 
there being Land about the South Pole. 


On the £5th, we steered E.S.E., with a fresh gale at 
N.N.E., attended with foggy weather, till towards the even- 


' There was no inducement to ofier a single remark on the discoveries 
mentioned in this section, and the one that follows, or to give any addi- 
tional observations from the works hitherto used. It is utterly improba- 
^le that any human being could be benefited by the most jperfect in- 
formation that might be aitbixled, respecting these desolate regions. Mr 
G. F. it is true, hazards a speculation, that if the northern ocean should 
ever be cleared of whales, by our annual fisheries, this part of the south- 
ern hemisphere might be visited for the sake of procuring these animals so 
abundant in it. But as besides this proviso, he thinks it necessary that 
Patoponia and Tierra del Fu^o should be inhabited and civilized like 
Scotland and Sweden, there wiU evidently be time enough some centuries 
hence^jto investigate nainutely the geography and naturaThistory of Geor* 
gia and its kindred neighbours.— £• 

CHAF« !▼• SSCT* Ti. Cq^ain James Cook. £9 


ing, when the aky becoming /dear, we foond the variation, 
to be 9"" ^& £•* being at this time in the latitude of 56"* lO' S., 
lonaitade 32^ 9' W. 

Having continued to steer E.S.£i, with a fine gale at 
It.N.W., till day^Iight next morning, on seeing no land to 
the east, I gave oroers to steer sonth, being at this time in 
the latitude of 56o SSf S., longitude Si* lO" W. The wea^ 
ther continued clear, and gave us an opportunity to observe 
several distances of the sun and moon for the correcting 
our longitude, which at noon was 31^ 4' W., the latitude 
observed 57^ 38' S. We continued to steer to the south till 
the £7th, at noon, at which time we were in the latitude of 
59* 46' S., and had so thick a fog that we could not see a 
ship's length. It being no longer safe to sail before the wind, 
as we were to expect soon to fall in with ice^ I therefore 
hauled to the east, having a gentle breeze at N.N.E. Sooa 
after the fog clearing away, we resumed our course to the 
south till four o'clock, when it returned again as thick as 
ever, and made it necessary for us to haul upon a wind, 

I now reckoned we were in latitude 60^ S., and farther I 
did not intend to go^ unless I observed some certain signs 
.of soon meeting with land. For it would not have been 
prudent in me to have spent my time in penetrating to the 
south, when it was at4east as probable that a large tract of 
land might be found near Cape Circnmcision. Besides, I 
was tired of these high southern latitudes, where nothing 
was to be found but ice and thick fogs. We had now a long 
hollow swell from the west, a strong indication that there 
was no land in that direction ; so that I think I may ven- 
tmre to assert that the extensive coast, laid down in Mr 
Dalrymple's chart of the ocean between Africa and Ame- 
rica, and the Gulph of St Sebastian, do not exist. 

At seven o'clock in the evening, the fog receding from 
us a little, gave us a si^ht of an ice island, several penguins 
and some snow petereTs ; we sounded, but fouqd no ground 
at one hundred and forty fathoms. The fog soon returning^ 
we spent the night in making boards over that space which 
we had, in some degree, made ourselves acquainted with in 
the da^. 

At eight in the morning of the 28lh, we stood to the east, 
with a gentle gale at north ; the weather began to clear up ; 
and we found the sea strewed with large and small ice ; se- 
veral penguins, snow peterelsj and other birds were seen, 


so Modern (Xrcumnav^^tu. VAmr iii* book n# 

and some whales. Soon after we had BuaH^hiney bill the; i^i^ 
wtk ^otd^ i^e'iitercuty in the thennidmeter Mood ^eastMf 
at thirty-five^ but at noon it was 37*; tbe^HttUad^ by 6bi8V« 
i^atron was 60^ 4f S., longitude «&• W W. > • » 

( ^Wlf cofittnued to stand to the '€fast till half-past two 
<y'ck^6k, p.'iEhfi'^hen^ W^ fdl in, a& at c»fce^ witha vastnimi^ 
ber bf^ large ice^islands^ and a sea ^tri^v^d with lootei ioe; 
This weather t6o was become thick and bassy, attended) with 
9iiMifAg^^a\n add sleety Which tkiade it tbe^morc^ danfgerons 
16 HtlM^in amodg the- ice. For ibis ttzi^n we lacked and 
fttiodcl ^btelt to the w^^t; with the wind at borth. /Efaeicb^ 
i^lands^- wliich at this time sari^onnded tis^ were nearly all of 
€(fgiU height; and itheW^d a flut even snrftice ( irat iik^^ w%ta 
of yiirloiis (bUtei^t, sotnfe being two ^ three miles iv circuits 
The Ibose ice was what had broken from ilhesa islai. 
'^'^Nexifnomii^/ the wind falling and veerifig to S\W., we 
^lefeif^ N4£«> but this cotinie' was s6on interecptfed by nm 
Aferolis ic$^iisila«ds ; >nd^ h^tiftg btit very little wind, we 
wereWhUg^d t^ steer siieh conrses as carried usiheetearee^ 
«f theiiS^ so' thtif we hafi^dly made any advance, ode way or 
hth^, daring fhe' wfaele^ day. Abundance of whales and 
fy^gnins were about tis all the time ; and the weather faii> 
jbiit dark: and glodmy. ' 

^'^ At midnight the wind began to freshen at N.N.E., with 
whi'ch we stood to the N.W., till 'si jc in the morning of die 
Sdth^whte the wind veering to N.N.W.^ we tatted and 
ttdod to N.C., and soon aAier sailed thrbngh a good deal of 
loose ice, and passed two large istands. Except a short in* 
te^vkl 6f clear weather about nine o'clock, it was contiona^ 
If foggV, with either sleet or tfriow. At noon we were, by 
our reckoning, in the latitude of 5<^ SO' 8., longitade fiQP 

. Continuing to stand to N.E. with a fresh breeze at 

S.N.W., at two o*<^iock, we passed one of the iargfestice^ 
lai^B we had seen in the voyage, and some time ^er . 
passed two others, which were much smaller. Weather still 
foggy, with sleet : And the wind continued atNi by W*, 
Ivith which we stood to N.E., over a sea strewed with ice* 

At half an hour past six next morning, as we were stand- 
ing N.N.E. with the wind at west, the fog very fortunately 
clearing away a little, we discovered iasid Ithead, three or 
four miles distant. On this we hauled the wind to the 
north s but finding we could not weather the land qn this 


f H A «*• I w frscr. ▼!• . Ccpimn Jmm Caok^ fe 1 

tacb^iirirsDbn after tacked in cmehimdred and teyenty^v* 
fathoms' WKt^/thfeiemilea frcHn the shore, and 'about half 
aieafftfelVotii soi&e^breaken. The weather thea cleared ap 
tt liltfo m6re, and gufe us^a tolerably good sight'of the laaik 
tthiiv whioh we had fallen in with proved three rocky idett 
xSf eoni»dei«bie height. The ontemrost terminated in a 
lofty peak like a sUgar-loaf/ and obtained the name of 
freezelaftd Peak, after the man who first discovered itf La* 
tttod^ 59* 8., foii^tude Vf* W. Behind this peak, that is 
to the east of it, appeared an elevated coast, whose -lofhr 
snow-clad summits were seen above the clonds. It extenii* 
ed from N. by E. to E.S.B., and I called it Cape Bristol, in 
honour of the noble family of Hervey. At Hie same time 
andrber elevated coast appeared in sight, bearing &W. by 
&., and at tkoon it extended from S.E to SL&W*, ffom foUt 
to eight leagnes distant ; at this time the oblierred latitttde 
was SS" IS' 30"' S., longitude 27^ 45' W. I ealled this lalid 
Southerti Thule, because it is the most sonthern land that 
has ever yet been discovered. It shews a sarAiee of vast 
height, and is every where covered with snow* Some 
\ifaou^t they saw land in the space between Thule and Gape 
Bristol. It Is more than probable that theae two lands ar^ 
dbnnected, and that this space is a deep bay, which I oalU 
ed Forster^i fiay. 

At one o'clock, finding that we could not weather Thnle;, 
We tacked and stood to tne north, and at four, Freezehmd 
Peak bore east, clistant three or four leagues. Soon after, 
it fell little wind, and we were left io the meicy of a great 
westerly swells which set right upon the shore. We souhd- 
ed, bat a line of two hundred fathoms found no bottom. 
At' eight o'clock, the weather, which had been venr haxy, 
clearing up, we saw Cape Bristol bearing E.S.E., and termi* 
nattns in a point to the north, beyond which we could see 
iio Ited: This discovery relieved us from the fear of being 
carried by the sWell on the most horrible coast in the world, 
and we continued to stand to the north all night, with a 

On the Ist of February, at four o'clock m the mormng, 
we got sight of a new coast, which at six o'clock bore N. 
^ cast. It proved a high promontory, which I named 
'Cape Montagu, situated in latitude BB"" ^V S., longitude 
i26* 44' west, and seven or eight leagues to the north of 
Cape. Bristol. We saw land from space to space between 


39 Modern CircnmAaugutions»_ ^ part hi. book lu 

tbeiii> which made me conclude thAt the whole was.cofi^ 
nected. I was sorry I could not determine this with greater 
certainty ; but prudence would not permit me to venture 
near a^oast^ subject to thick fogsy on which there was no 
anchorage ; where every port was blocked or filled up with 
ice ; and the whole country^ from the summits of the moun- 
tains, down to the very brink of the cliffs which terminate 
the coasts covered, many fathoms thick, with everlasting 
snow. The clifis alone was all which was to be seen like 
land. : 

. Several large ice-islands lay upon the coast ; one of which 
attracted my notice. It iiad a flat sulrface, was of consider* 
able extent both in height and circuit, aud had perpendi- 
cular sides, on which the waves of the sea had made no im- 
pression ; by .which I judged that it had not been long from 
land, and that it might lately have come out of some bay 
on the coast, where it had been formed. * 

At noon we were east and west of the northern part of 
Cape Montagu, distant about five leagues, and Freezeland 
Peak bore S. 16* east, distant twelve leagues ; latitude ob- 
served 58* 25' S. In the morning the variation was 10* 11' 
east. At two in the afternoon^ as we were standing to the 
north, with a light breeze at S.W., we saw land bearing 
N. 25' east, distant fourteen leagues. Cape Montagu bpre 
at this time, S. OG** east ; at eight it bore S. ^O"* east ; Cape 
Bristol, S. b(y £. ; the new land extending from N. 40^ to 
521^ east ; and we thought we saw land still more to the 
east, and beyond it. 

. Continuing to steer to the north all night, at six o'clock 
the next morning a new land was seen bearing N. 12* east, 
about ten leagues distant. It appeared in two hummocks 
just peeping above the horizon ; but we soon after lost sight 
of them ; and having got the wind at N.N;E. a^fresh breeze^ 
•we stood for the northernmost land we had seen the day be> 
fore, which at this time bore E.S.E. We fetched in with 
it by ten o'clock, but could not weather it, and were obliged 
to tack three miles from the coast, which extended from £L 
by & to S.E., and had much the appearance of being an 
island of about eight or ten leagues circuit. It shews a sur- 
face of considerable height, whose summit was lost in the 
^clouds, and, like all the neighbouring lands, covered with a 
'^sheet of snow and ice, .except in a projecting point oa the 
north side> and two hiUs seen over this point, which proba- 


CHAP. ir. sBtrr. vi« C^item Jmnu Cook^ S9 

bij tnighl be two islandg. The^ only weie dear of anow^ 
and seemed covered with a green tarf. Some large ice 
islands lay to the N.E., and some others to the BouthI 

We stoud off till noon, and then tacked for the land again^ 
ill order to see whether it was an island or no. The weather 
was now become very hazy^ which soon turning to a thick 
fog, put a stop to discovery, and made it unsafe to stand 
for the shore ; so that after having run the same distance 
in, as we had ran off, we tacked and stood to H.W., for the 
land we had seen in the morning, which was yet at a const* 
derable distance. Thus we were obliged to leave the other, 
under the supposition of its bein^ an island, which I named 
launders, after my honourable friend Sir Charles* It is sU 
mated in the latitude of 57^ 4{y south longitude, e6^ 44' 
west ; and north, distant thirteen leagues, from Cape Mon** 

At six o'clock in the evening, the wind shifting to the 
west, we tacked, and stood to the north ; and at eight the 
fog clearing away, gave us a sight of Saunders's Isle, ex<^ 
tending from S.E. by S. to E.S.B* We were still in doubt 
if it was an island ; for, at this time, land was seen bearing 
JE. by S., which might or might not be connected with it ; 
it might also be the same that we bad seen the preceding 
evening. But, be this as it may, it was now necessary to 
take a view of the land to the norths before we proceeded 
any farther to the east. With this intention, we stood to 
the north, having a light breeze at W. by S., which at two 
o'clock in the morning of the 9d, was succeeded by a calm 
that continued till eight, when we got the wind at £• by S. 
attended by hazy weather. At this time we saw the land we 
were looking for, and which proved to be two isles. The 
day on which they were discovered, was the occaaion of 
catling them Candlemas Isles ; latitude 57^ 1 1' S,, longi- 
tude 27* 6' W. They were of bo great extent, but of eon* 
aiderable height, and were covered with snow. A small 
rock was seen between them, and perhaps there may be 
more ; for the weather was so hazy that we soon lost sight 
pf the islands, and did not see them again till noon, at 
which time they bore west, distant three or four leagues. 

As the wind kept veering to the south, we were obliged 
(o stand to the N.E., in which route we met with several 
large ice islaOds, loose ice, and many penguins ; and, at 
midnight, came at once, into water tincommonly white, 
which alarmed the officer of the watch so much, that he 

VOL. XV.. c tacked 

S4i . Modem CircumnaoigaHoni. part hi. book ii* 

tacked tbe ship instantly. Some thought it was a float of 
ice; others that it was shallow water; butj as it proved nei-» 
ther, probably it was a shoal of fish. 

.We stood to the south till two o'clock next morning, 
when we resumed our course to the east with a faint breeze 
at S.S.E. which having ended in a calm, at six, I took the 
opportunity of putting a boat in the water to try if there 
were any current; and the trial proved there was none» 
Some whales were playing about us, and abundance of pen- 
, guins : a few of the latter were shot, and they proved to be 
of the same sort that we had seen among the ice before, 
and different both from those on Staten Land, and from 
those at the isle of Georgia. It is remarkable, that we had 
not seen a seal since we left that coast. At noon we were 
in latitude of SG* 44' S., longitude 25*" 33' W. At this time 
we got a breeze at east, with which we stood to the south, 
with a view of gaining llie coast we had left ; but at eight 
o'clock the wind shifted to the south, and made it neces- 
sary to tack and stand to the east; in which course we 
met with several ice«islands and some loose ice ; the weather 
continuing hazy with snow ,and rain. 

No penguins were seen on the 5th, which made me con-* 
jecture that we were leaving the land behind us, and that 
we had already seen its northern extremity. At noon we 
were in the latitude of 57^ 8' S., longitude 23® 34' westj, 
which was 3^ of longitude to the east of Saunders's Isle* In 
the afternoon the wind shifted to the west ; this enabled us 
to the south, and to get into the latitude of the 
landj that, if it took an east direction^ we might again fall 
in with it. 

' We continued to steer to the south and.S.E. till next day 
at noon, at which time we were in the latitude of 58® 15' 
S., longitude 21® 34' west, and seeing neither land nor. 
signs of any, I concluded that what we had seen, which I 
named Sandwich Land, was either a group of islands, or 
else a point of the continent. For 1 firmly believe that 
there is a tract of land near the Pole )vhich is the source of 
most of the ice that is spread over this vast southern ocean* 
I also think it probable that it extends farthest to the north 
opposite the southern Atlantic and Indian oceans ; because 
ice was always found by us farther to the north in these 
oceans than any where else, which I judge could not be, if 
there were not land to the south ; I mean a land of consi- 
derable extent, fox if we suppose that no such land exists, 


€HAr. IV. ascT. wu Captain Jama Cook. 3S 

and that ice may be formed without it^ it will follow of 
course that the cold ought to be every where nearly equal 
round the Pole^ as far as 70^ or 6(/ of latitude, or so far as 
to be beyond the influence of any of the known continents ; 
tonsequently we ought to see ice every where under the 
same parallel^ or near it ; and yet the contrary has been 
found. Very few ships have met with ice going round 
Cape Horn': And we saw but little below tlie sixtieth de» 
gree of latitudcy in the Southern Pacific Ocean. Whereas 
in this ocean^ between the meridian of 40^ west and 50^ or 
60* east^ we found ice as far north as 51*. Bouvet met with 
some in 48% and others have seen it in a much lower lati*» 
tade* It is true; however, that the greatest part of this 
southern continent (supposing there is one), must lie with* 
in the polar circle, where the sea is so pestered with ice, 
that the land is thereby inaccessible. The risque one runs 
in exploring a coast, in these unknown and icv seds, is so 
very great, that I can be bold enough to say that no man 
will ever venture farther than I have done ; and that the 
lands which may lie to the south will never be explored. 
Thick. fogs, snow storms, intense cold, and every other' 
thing that can render navigation dangerous, must be en* 
countered, and these difficulties are greatly heightened by 
the inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country ; a country 
doomed by nature never once to feel the warmth of th^^ 
sun's rays, but to lie buried in everlasting snow and ice. 
The ports which may be on the coast, are, in a manner, 
wholly filled up with frozen snow of vast thickness ; but if 
any should be so far open as to invite a ship into it, she 
would run a* risque of being fixed there for ever, or of co* 
ming out in an ice island. The islands and floats on the 
coast,, the great falls from the ice-cliffs in the port^ or a 
heavy snow^stortn attended with a sharp frost, would be 
equally fatal. 

After such an explanation as this, the reader must not 
expect to find me much farther to the south. It was, how- 
ever, not for want of inclination, but for other reasons. Ifr 
would have been rashness in me to have risqued ail that 
had been done daring the voyage, in discovering and ex- 
ploring a coast, which, when discovered and explored, would 
oave answered no end whatever, or have been of the least 
use, either to navigation or geography, or indeed to anj^ 
pUier science. Bouvet's discovery wfis yet before us, the 
^4 existence 

S6 Modim Cireummtigfitlons* part hi* book ii. 

existence of which waa to be cki^red up ; and, besides M 
this^ we were not now in a condition to undertake great 
things ; nor indeed was there time, had we been ev^r aO' 
If eH provided. i 

These reasons induced me to alter the course to the east,, 
with a very strong gale at north, attended with an exceed.^ 
ingly heavy fall of snow. The quantity which lodged on- 
our sails was so great, that we were frequently obliged to 
throw the ship up in the wind to shake it out of them^ 
otherwise neitrier they nor the ship could have supported 
the weight. In the evening it ceased to snow ; tne wea^- 
jther cleared yip, tlie Wind backed to the west, and we spent, 
the night in inaking two short boards, under closse-reefedr 
top'-sails land fore-sail. ' 

. At day-break on the 7th, we resumed .our course to th^ 
east, with a very fresh gale at S. W. by W., attended by a* 
high sea from the same direction. In the afternoon, being, 
in the latitude of 58* 24f S., longitude 16^ lO' west, the va^ 
xiaftion was 1^ 52f east. Only three ice-islands seen this day.- 
At eight o'clock, shortened sail, and hauled the wind to the' 
S.E. for the night, in which we had several showers ofsnovr 
fMiii sleet. 

, On thfs 6tl^ at day-*light, we resumed our east course withi 
a gentle breeze and fair weather. After sun-ris^, beingr 
then in the latityde of 58? S(y S., longitude 15<^ 14' west» 
the variation, by the mean results of two compasses^ was %^ 
43' east These observations were more to be depended on 
than those made the night before, there being much lesii 
sea now than then*. Jn the afternoon, we passed three ice« 
Hlands. . This night was spent as the preceding. ' 

' At six next morning, being in the latitude of 58^ 9,Y S.^ 
longitude 18^ 4' W., the variation was 26' £.; and ia the 
liffternoon, being in the same latitude, and about a quarter, 
of a degree more to the ieast, it was Q,' west. Therefore thi» 
last situation must be in or near the Line, in which the com- 
pass has no variation. We had a calm the most part of the 
day. The weather fair and clear, excepting now and then 
a snow^shower. The mercnrv in the thermometer at noon 
rose to 40 ; whereas, for several days before, it bad been 
no higher than 36 or 38. We had several ice^islanda in 
sight, but no one thing that could induce us to think tha^ 
any land was in our neighbourhood. At eight in the even« 
hig a breeze sprung up at S.E., with which we stood lo N.E^ 


tUAT. IV. sECi^. ti* Cu^mn Jama Cook. 9j 

tHiring the night the wind freshened and veered sontb^ 
wbicbenablcd ns ta steer east The wind was attended with 
ahowers of sleet and snow till day-liffht^ when the weathet 
became fair^ but piercing cold, so that the water on deck 
wa» frozen, and at noon the mercunr in the thermometeic 
was no higher than 84^. At six o'clock in the morning, the 
variation was 23' west, being then in the latitude of 58* l^ 
S., longitude 11* 41' VV. ; and at six in the evening, being 
in the same latitude, and in the longitude of gPsV W., it 
was 1* 5V W. In the evening the wind abated ; and dn* 
ring the night, it was variable between south and west* 
Ice«fslands continually in sight* 

On the 1 1th, wind westerly, light airs attended with hea*^ 
vy showers of snow in the morning; but as the day advan^ 
eed, the weather became fair> clear, and serene, still coq^ 
tinuing to steer east, at noon we observed in latitude 58* 
i\\ lorigitude at the sanie time 7* 55' west. Thermometer 
d4f , In the afternoon we had two hours calm ; after which 
yk'e had faint breezes between the N.E. and S.E. 

At six o'clocic in the morfiing of the Iflth, being in the 
latitude of 58^ iS' S., longitude &" 54' W., the variation wai 
3^%y west. We bad variable light airs riestt to a calm all 
thi^ day, and the weather Was fair arid clear till towards the 
evening, wheii it became cloudy with snow^showers, and 
the air veiy cold. Ice^island^ continually id flight ; most 
of theih small add breaking to pieces. 

In the afterndon of the 18th, the wind increased, the sky 
beeam^ douded, and soon ^fter We had a very heavy fall oif 
snow, which continiied till eight or nine o'clock in the even'<> 
ing,'When the wind 'abating arid- veering to, the sicy 
cleared up, add we had a fair night, attended with so sharp 
a^ost, that the waier in til odt Vessels on deck was next 
HKNrntng covered with a sheet off ice. The orercury in the 
thermometer was as low as Q,^, which is 3* below freezings 
or rather 4 ; for we generally found the Water freezt whed 
the mercury itood at SS\ 

Towards r(o6n on the 1 4th, the wind veering to theiJontb; 
increased to a very stron&t gale, and blew in hesLvy squalid 
^iftended with snow. At intervals, between the squalls, the 
weather was fair and clear, but exceedingly cold. We con« 
titmed to steer ea^t, incHning a little to the north, and in 
the afterhcfon crossed the first meridian, or that of Green^ 
wicb, in the latitude of 57* d(y S. At eight ia the evening,- 
' • ' we 

\S& Modem Circumnavigations, mkt hi. aook ih 

we €loBe-»reefed the top-sails^ took in the maia-sail, aod 
fiteered east with a very* hard gale ai S.S.W.9 and a high 
sea from the same direction. 

At day-break on the 15th^ we set the main-sail^ loosed a 
reef out of each 4op-saiI^ and with a very strong gale at 
S.W., and fair weather, steered E.N.E. tiU noon^ at which 
time we^were in latitude of 56* 37' S., longitude 4* 11' E., 
when we pointed to the N.E., in order to get into the lati« 
tude of Cape Circumcision. Some large ice-islands were ia 
sights and the air was nearly as cold as on the preceding 
day. At eight o'clock in the evenine^ shortened saii^ and 
at eleven hauled the wind to the N.W., not daring to stand 
on in the nighty which was foggy, with snow-showers^ and 
a smart frost. 

• At day-break on the l6tb> we bore away N.E., with a 
light breeze at west, which, at noon, was succeeded by a 
calm and fair weather. Our latitude at this time was 65^ 
2ff S.^ longitude 5* 5£' E., in which situation we had a gceat 
swell from the southward, but no ice in sight. At one o'clock 
in the p< m., a breeze springing up at E.N.E.^ we stood to 
^.E. till six, then tacked^ and stood to the north, under 
double-reefed top-sails and courses, having a very fresh gale 
attended with snow and sleety which fixed to the masts and 
^^S^^S ^ i^ ^^^^f ^^^ coated the whole with ice. 

<0n the 17th the wind continued veering, by little and 
little^ to the south, till midnight, when it fixed at S. W« 
Being at this time in the latitude of 54° 2(/ S., longitude 
6° 33' east, I steered east, having a prodigious high sea from 
the south, which assured us no land was near in that direction* 

In the morning of the 18tb, it ceased to snow ; the wear> 
ther became fair and clear ; and we found the variation to 
be IS^ 44' west At noon we were in the latitude of 54° W^ 
longitude 8® 4& east. I thought this a good latitude to keep 
in, to look for Cape Circumcision; because, if the land bad 
ever so little extent in the direction of north and south, we 
could not miss seeing it, as the northern point is said to lie 
in 54*« ^^ ^^^ y^^ ^ great swell from the south, so that 
I was now well assured it could only be an island, and it 
^as of no consequence which side we fell in with, in the 
evening Mr Wales made several observations of the moon« 
and stars Regulus and Spica; the mean results, at four 
o'clock when the observations were made, for finding the 
time by the watcb^ gave 9° 15' 40" east longitude. The 


cuhv. tv. SECT. VI. Qjgfamn Jmnes Cook* 39 

watch at the same time gave gp S& 45*. Soon after the va« 
Tiation was found to be IS^ 10^ west. It is neai'ly in this si- 
taation that Mr Boavet had 1^ east. I cannot suppose that 
the variation has altered so mnch since that time, but rather 
think be had made some mistake in his observations. That 
there could be none in ours was certain, from the uniform- 
ity for some time past. Besides, we found \9? 8' west, va- 
riation, nearly under this meridian, in January 1773. Du- 
ring the night the wind veered round by the N. W. to N.N.E. 
and blew a fresh gale. 

* At eight in the morning of the 19th, we saw the appear- 
ance of land in the direction of E. by S., or that of out 
course ; but it proved a mere fog-bank, and soon after dis- 
persed. We continued to steer £. by S. and S.E., till severi 
o'clock in the evening, when being in the latitude of 54^ 
49^ S., longitude 13* 3' £., and the wind having veered ^o 
N.E., we tacked and stood to N.W. under close-reefed top- 
sails and courses ; having a very strong gale attended with 

At four o'clock next morning, being in the latitude of 
64,^ 30' 8., longitude le"" 83^ east, we tacked and stretched 
to N.E. with a fresh gale at S.W., attended with snow- 
showers and sleeL At noon, being in the latitude of 54^ 8' 
S., loneitude 12* 59' E., with a fresh gale at W. by N., and 
tolerably clear weather, we steered east till ten o'clock in 
the evening, when we broughtpto, lest we might pass any 
land in the nighty of which we however had not the least 


• At day-break, having made sail, we bore away E., and at 
noon observed in latitude 54^ 16^ S., longitude 16^ 15' east, 
which is 5^ to the east of the longitude in which Cape Cir-* 
cumcision is said to lie ; so that we began to think there 
was no such land in existence. I however continued to 
steer east, inclining a little to the south, till four o'clock in 
the afternoon of the next days when we were in latitude 54* 
24' S., longitude 19* 18' east. 

We had now run down thirteen degrees of longitude in 
the very latitude assigned for Bouvet's Land. I was there- 
fore well assured that what he had seen cbuld be nothing 
but an island of ice ; for, if it had been land, it is hardly 
possible.we could have missed it, though it were ever so 
small. Besides, from the time of leaving the southern lands, 
we had aot met with the least signs of any other. But even 


iO Modem Cir€wmueo^4tfimis» PA&t iii-. ^OQK u. 

suppose we had^ it woald have been no proof of the existr 
ence of Cape ClrcumcisicMi ; for I am well assured that neU 
tber seals nor penguins^ nor aoy of the oceanic birdsi ar^ 
indubitable signs of the vicinity of land* I will allow that.-* 
they are found On the coasts of all these southern lands ; 
but are they not also to be found in all parts of the southera 
ocean i There are^ however^ some oceanic or aquatic birds 
which point out the vicinity of laud ; especially shags^ which 
seldom go out of sight of it ; and gannets, bpobies, and men- 
of-war birds, I believe, seldom go very far out to sea. 

As we were now no n^ore than two degrees of longitude 
from our route to the southi when we left the Cape of Good 
Hope, it was to no purpose to proceed any farther to the 
ieast under this parallel knowing that no land ,could be 
there. But an opportunity now offering of clearing np some 
doubts of our having seen land farther to the south, I steer* 
ed S.E. to get into the . situation in which it was fti»ppo8e4 
to lie* 

We continued this course till four o'clock the next morifir 
ing^and then S.£. by £. and £.&£., till eight in the even- 
ing, at which time we were in the latitude ofJ^sT^'^;, 
longitude 23? £2' east, both deduced from observatioos made 
the same day ; for, in the morping^ the sky was dear at in^ 
tervals, and ajforded an opportunity to obserx^e several di»t 
tances of the sun and moon^ which we had not bieen able 
to do for some time past^ having had a constant ^uccesstoa 
of bad weather. 

Havinff now run over the place where the land was. sop* 

Iiosed to lie, without seeing the least signs of any, it was no 
onger to be doubted but that the ice«-islands had deceived 
ns as well as Mr Boavet* The wind by this time having 
veered to the north, and increased to a perfect storm, at^ 
tended as usual with snow and sleet, we handed thehtop^-sails 
and hauled up E.N.E* under the courses. During the ntgbt 
the wind, abated, a^d veered to N. W,, which enabled ua to 
steer more to the north, having no bnsinets farther south. 


CHAP. !▼• SMT* ¥IU GtyfalU JmM CMJk. , 41 

Section VIL 

Httnk ^ what km been dmU in ike Vomute; with mm C^ii« 
jtQtwts conccmiw the Formation ^ fee^Iikuids ; and am 
jdccount of our Ptoeeediap till oar Arrioai at thd Captof 
Good Hope. 

I HAD now made the circoit of the soathera ocean in m 
high kLtitude, and traversed it in such a manner as to leave 
dot .the least room for the possibility of there being a con- 
tinentj unless near the Pole^ and out of the reach of naviga-^ 
tioD. Bf twice visiting the tropical sea, I had not only set* 
tied the sitnatton of some old discoveries^ but made there 
many new ones^ and left, I conceive, very little more to be 
done even in that part. Thus I flatter myself, thattbe in-» 
lentioa of the voyage has, in every respect, been fnlty an-» 
awered; the southern hemisphere sufficiently explored, and 
a final end put to the searching after a southern continent^ 
which has^ at times, ingrossed the attention of some of the 
laaritime powerii for near two centuries past, and been a 
favourite theory amongst the geographers of all ages. 

That tb&re may be a continent, or large tract of land,, 
near the Pole, I will not deny ; on the contrary I am of. 
opinion there is ; and it is probable that we have seen a' 
past of iu The eseessive cold, the many islands and vast' 
floats of ice, all tend to prove that there must be land to 
the south; and for my persuasion that this southern land 
must lie> or extend^ farthest to the north opposite to the 
southern Atlantic and Indian oceans, I have already assign- 
ed some reasons ; to which I may add the greater degree ' 
of cold experienced by us in these seas, than in the soutberni 
Facific ocean under the same parallels of latitude/ 


* After whal Ims beca sM of the utter inutUitj of a southern contiiient 
to ai^ hiWMa bsiogy or>ev«ii in the wsy of hypotheus to explain the con^ 
iriHitMm o(F nature^ it majr seem quite unnecessary to occupy a moment's 
aitsntion about any arguments for its existence. As, however, a few le* 
marks were hasaided respscting those of a mathematical kind, it may be 
proper to say a word or two as to others of a physical nature. Two rea- 
sow fiw this suppesilkm have been urged ; vjk the presence of rivers ne* 
ceasary to account for the large masses of fresh^water ice ^nd in high 
southern latitudes ; aad the existence of firm and Immoveable points of 
land rouiQKt: which these nasdes might forVi The first of these is glaringiy 


4ft Modem CircumnaictgaHonu pa&t hi. book in 

In this last ocean> the mercury in the thermometer sel- 
dom fell so low as the freezing pointy till we were in 60^ 
and upwards ; whereas in the others, it fell as low in the 
latitude of 54^* This was certainly owine to there being a 
^eater quantity of ice, and to its extending farther to Sie 


erroneous in point of principle and fact In the first place, it is most cer- 
tain, that Uie waters of the ocean admit of being frozeui and that when bo, 
Ihey either do or do not contain the salts they held in solution, according 
io certain circumstances, which the argurnent does not require to be ex- 
plained.^ And, secondly, it is absurd to imagine that lands m the vicinity 
of the Pole should have any rivers, as the snow^line, as it has been called, 
'reaches so low down there as the surface of the earth, and as the tempe* 
rature of the atmosphere, reckoning from what is known of it in high lati* 
fades, can scarcely ever be above that point at which water becomes solid* 
The second argument is e(|ually unsubstantial, and may be as readily inva* 
fidated. Io fact, the principal thing requisite for the congelation of water 
in any circumstances of situation, is the reduction of the temperature to a 
certain point, to the effect of which, it is well known, the agitation of the 
water often materially contributes. It may be remarked also, that as the 
heat of the ocean seems to diminish in pretty regular progression from the 
surfece downwards, so it is highly probable, that, even at considerable dis- 
tances from the Pole, the lower strata may be in a state of congelation; 
much more probably, therefore, there may exist at and near the Pole, a. 
mass or ice of indefinite size and durability, which, extending to greater 
Of smriler distances according to different circumstances, ma^ serve as the 
basis, or point d'appuiy of all the islands and fields of ioe discoverable in 
this region. Ice, in fact, is just as capable of a fixed position as earth is^ 
or any other solid body, and may accordingly have constituted the sub- 
stratum of the southern hemisphere within the polar circle, since the time 
that this planet assumed its present form and condition. So much then 
OD the subject of a southern continent, which, after all, we see is not worth 
being disputed about, and appears to be set i^ as it were, in absolute de* 
lision of human curiosity and enterprise. Wise men, it is likely* nolwith* 
standing such promissory eulogiums as Mr Dalrymple held put, will neither 
irenture their lives to ascertain its existence, nor Jose their time and tem- 
pers In arguing about it. Cook's observation, it is perhaps necessary to 
remark, as to the ice extending further towards the north opposite the 
Atlantic and Indian oceans than any where else, may be accounted for 
without the supposition he makes in explanation of it. Thus certain wann 
currents of water may be conceived to proceed from the north, towards 
those other parts where the ice has not been seen to extend so ffar, and to 
prevent the formation of it to the same distance; or again, there may be 
alands and rocks, to which the ice adheres, in the situations mentkiiied 
by Cook. Both causes, indeed, may operate, and there may be others also 
quite equivalent to the eflect. But it is full time to leave this merely CQ» 
rious sut^ect. Mr G. F. has somewhat wittily remarked, that the opinion 
of the extstenoe of a southern continent maintained by some philosopheff^ 
though much invalidated by this vovage, is nevertheless a proof or their 

feat intelligence, considering die few datu on which they could proceed. 
>me readers may incline, perhaps, to give as much credit to the writer, 
for hanrdipg, on about equal groundfl^ any opinion in opposition to tti<— E» 

. CHAP, vu SBCT. vii. Capiam Jwna Cook. 4$ 

notih, ia tbese two seas than in the south Pacific ; and if 
.ice be first formed at, pr near land, of which I have no doubt^ 
it will follow that the land also extends farther north. 
•' The formation or coagalati<»i of ice-islands has not, to 
^my knowledge, been thoroughly investigated. Some have 
supposed them to be formed by the freezing of the water 
at the mouths of large rivers, or great cataracts, where they 
accumulate till they are broken off by their own weight. 
My observations will not allow me to acquiesce in this opi- 
nion ; because we never found any of the ice which we took 
up incorporated with earth, or any of its produce, as I think 
it must have been, had it been coagulated in land-wateff. 
It is a doubt with me, whether there be any rivers in these 
countries, it is certain, that we saw not a river, or stream 
of water, on all Uie coast of Georgia, nor on any of the 
southern lands. Nor did we ever see a stream of water run 
from any of the ice-islands. How are we then to suppose 
that there are large rivers i The valleys are covered, many 
fathoms deep, with everlasting snow ; and, at the sea, they 
terminate in icy cliffs of vast height It is here where the 
ice^islands are formed ; not from streams of water, but from 
consolidated snow and sleet, which is almost continually- 
falling or drifting down from the mountains, especially in ^ 
the winter, when the frost must be intense. During that 
season, the ice-cliffs must so accumulate as to fill up all the 
bays, be they ever so large. This is a fact which cannot be 
doubted, as we have seen it so in summer. These cliffs ac« 
cumulate by continual falls of snow, and what drifts jRrom 
the mountains, till they are no longer able to support their 
own weight; and then large pieces break off, which we 
call ice-islands. Such as have a flat even surface, must be 
of the ice formed in the bays, and before the flat vallies ; 
the others, which have a tapering unequal surface, must be 
formed on, or under, the side of a cpast composed of point- 
ed rocks and precipices, or some such uneven surface. For 
we cannot suppose that snow alone, as it falls, can form, oit 
a plain surface, such as the sea, such a variety of high peaks 
and hills, as we saw on many of the ice-isles. It is certain- 
ly more reasonable to believe that they are formed on a 
coast whose surface is something similar to theirs. I have 
observed that all the ice-islands of any extent, and before 
they begin to break to pieces, are terminated by perpendi- 
cular clifls of dear ice or frozen snow^ always on one or 


44 Maigrn CireumiMi^aiions. TMxi nw^Botuvn^ 

move sides^ htik most genenMy all roimd. Maoj^^ and'thoff^ 
4^ the largest size, which bad » hilly and; 8pirlri*.turfaM, 
shewed a perpendicakir clifF, or aide, from the suibdiit 6f 
the highest peak down td iU baae* « Thif to me was a«ebd- 
vinciog prodf, that these^ as well as'tbe flat Jsles, iricisthave 
broken. ofT from sobstantesllikeitheiiiselvesy tbitt is^ fro a 
some large tract of ice. ... 

When I consider the va$t quMitity of ice we 8aw> and tbe 
.vicinity of the places lo the Pole where it is formed^ and 
*Wbere the degrees of longitude are. very small, I am led td 
believe that these ic^-cliflfs extend a good way into tbe 9$H, 
ijfk some parts, especially in ducb as are sheltered from* the 
vioieDce of the winds. It may even be doubted if ever ihe 
wind is violentin tlie very high latitudes* And that the sea 
will freeze over, ov tbe sn<y w that falld a pon it, which amounts 
to tbe same things we have instances in the northern, hemis- 
phere. Tbe Baltic^ the Gulph of St Tiaartoce, the Straits 
i>f Belle^lsle, and taany 'Other equally large seas^ are fre*^ 
duently frozeti over in wiwier.'^ Nor is this at all extmor^ 
oinary , for we have found- the degree of cold at the surface 
of the gea, even in summer, to be two decrees beloW tbe 
freezing point ; consequently nothing kept it from freezing 
but. tbe salt it contains, and tbe agitation of it0 surface* 
'Whenever this last^Maseib in winter, when tbe frost is set 
in, and there corned a fall of snow> it will freeze on the sur* 
face asi it falls, and in a few days, or perhaps in one nigh^ 
form such a sheet of ice as will ndt be easily broken up. 
Thus a foundation will be laid for it to accumulate to any 
thickness by falls of snow^ without its being at all necessary 
lor the sea*water to freeze. It may be by this means these 
vast floats of Jow ice we find in the spring of the year art 
formed, and which, after they break up, are carried by ibe 
currents to the north* For, from all the observfiitiom I have 
been able to make, tbe currents every where, in the high 
latitudes, set to the north, or to tbe N.E. 6r N.W. ; but v^e 
have very seldoni found them considerable. 

If this imperfect account of the formation of these ex<^ 
traotdinary floating islands of ice^ which i§ written wholly 


• » 

^ Forster thei elder, io his observstioasy has related many iastanoesof 
this sort^ and given some. very inf|enioi9»- remarks on. the subje<ft. of tke 
formation of ice in high latitudes ; but it is impossible to do justice tQ 
them M(ithin the compass of a note, and perhaps most reduers are of opi- 
niini'Cbit tht text is abundantly copious 6n this part of the voyaj^e.— £• 

CHiOP. tw. pBCT. VII, .Cittdain Jofm.Coak. 45 

tfom my* own observations, does not convey some useful 
hints to QQ abler pen^ itvrin, hoivever, convey some idea of 
the lands irhere they are formed : Lands doomed by Na- 
ture to perpetual frigidness ; never to feci the wankith of 
tbe sun's rays ; whose horrible and savagre aspect I have 
not words to describe. Such are the lands we have disco* 
"vere^ ; what then may we expect those to be which lie 
atillfarther to the south i For we may reasonably suppose 
thai we have seen the best^ as lying most to tlie north. If 
any one should have resolution and pers^vei^nce to dear 
up this ^oint by proceeding farther than I have done, I 
shall not envy him the honour of the discovery ; but I will 
be bold to say, that the world will not be benefited by it, • 
I had, at this tnne, some thoughts of revisiting the plaoe 
where the French discovery is said to lie. But then 1 cdn* 
sidercd that, if they had really made this discovery, the end 
wonld be as fully answered as if Lhad done it myself. We 
Icnow it can only be an island ; and if we may judge from 
the degree of cold we found in that latitude, it cannot be • 
fertile one. Besides, this would have kept me two months 
longer at sea, and in a tempestuous latitude, which we were 
iM>t in a condition to struggle with. Our sails Sl^tkd rigging 
were so much worn, that something was giving way every 
hoar ; «nd we had nothing left either to repair or to replace 
them. Our provisions were in « state of decay, and conser 
{juently afforded little nourishment, and we had been a long 
time without refreshments. My people, indeed^ were yet 
healthy, and would have cheeifoHy gone wherever 1 had 
tiiought proper to lead them ^ but I dreaded tbe scurvy 
laying hold of them at a time when we had nothing left to 
remove it. I must say farther, that it would have been crue} 
in m^ to have continued the fatigues and hardships they 
Wjere ^ontinuallv exposed ^o, longer than was absolutely 
necessary. Their behaviour, throughout the whole voyage^i 
merited every indulgence which it was in my power to givd 
them. Animated by the conduct of the officers, they shew- 
ed themselves capable of surmcftntiog every difficulty and 
danger which came in their way, and never once looked 
either upon the one or the other, as being at all heighten- 
qdf hy our separation from our consort tbe Adventure.^ 


' ** t*he sonr krout, that eteeUeat &titi««ooii»atic ft)od, of which sfacl^ 
iaitge casks were put on board our sbip, was now entirely consumad, and 

14 Iha 

48 3fq^mi Cireumnatiguihm. vakt hi. book ti. 

We were noir turo degrees to the north of the parailel in 
which the isles of Denia and Marseveen are said toiie. tVe 
had seen nothing to encourage us to perseirere in lookmg 
after them^ and it must have taken up some time longer to 
find them^ or to prove their non-existence. Every one was 
impatient to get into port, and for good reasons : A» for a 
long time we had had nothing but stale and salt provisions^ 
for which every one on board had lost c^U relish. These 
reasons induced me to yield to the general wish, and to 
steer for the Cape of Good Hope, being at tliis time in the 
latitude of S8^ 98' S., longitude 23* 37' E. 

The next day the observed latitude at noon was only se* 
tenteen miles to the north of that given by the log; so that 
we had either got out of the strength of the currents, or it 
had ceased. 

On the 15th the observed latitude at noon, tpgether with 
the watcb, shewed that we had had a strong current setting 
to the S.W., the contrary direction to what we had experi- 
enced on some of the preceding days, as hath been men- 

At day-light, on the l6th, we saw two sail in the N*W« 

Juarter standing to the westward, and one of them shewiag 
>utch colours. At ten o'clock we tacked and stood to the 
west also, being at this time in the latitude of 39* g' S.^ 
longitude 22"^ 38' E. ^ 

I now, in pursuance of my instructions^ demanded of the 
officers and petty officers, the log-books and journals they 
had kept ; which were delivered to me accordingly, and 
sealed up for the inspection of the Admiralty. I also en<^ 
joined them, and the whole crew, not to diml^e where we 
had been, till they had their lordships' perniission so to do. 
In the afternoon, the wind veered to the west, and increa- 
sed to a hard gale, which was of short duration ; for, the 
iiext day, it fell, and at noon veered to S.E. At this time 
yre were in the latitude of 34** 4Qf S., longitude 2f^ E. ; and, 
^n sounding, found fifty->six fathoms water. In the evenitig 


* It is highly probable, that both these currents we]« branchy ei the 
e^inoctial' current, that flows from east to we$t— the first, which wa^ 

gthest off from land, beibg on the return towards the east; and the se- 
nd, which Was found nearer to the land, havli^g still enough of its origi- 
pai impulse to direct it onwards by the eoast to the southern point of A^ 
rica, from which it would afterwards be deflected Similar circuits act well 
Isnown to be performed by the equinoctial current, in the Atlantic Qcean^ 
^n both sides of the equator,— ^, 

CHXT. IV. SECT, Til. Capimn Jomtt Cook. 49 

'we saw the land in the direcUon of E.N.E. about riz leagues 
• distant ; add^ daring the fore-part of the nighty there was 
a great fire or light upon it. 

At day-^break on the 18th^ we saw the land again^ bear- 
ing N.N.W., six or seven leagues distant^ and the depth of 
water forty-eight fathoms. At nine o'clock^ having little 
or no wind^ we hoisted out a boat, and sent on board one 
of the two ships before-mentioned^ which were about two 
leagues from us ; but we were too impatient after news to 
regard the distance. Soon aflei, a breeze sprang up at 
west, with which we stood to the south ; and, presentljTj 
three sail more appeared in sight to windward^ one of which 
•shewed English colours. 

At one, p. m., the boat returned from on board the Bown- 
kerke Polder, Captain Cornelius Bosch, a Dutch Indiaman 
from Bengal. Captain Bosch, very obligingly, offered us 
sugar, arrack, and whatever he had to spare. Our people 
were told by some English seamen on board this ship, that 
the Adventure had arrived &t the Cape of Good Hope twelve 
months ago, and that the crew of one of her boats load been . 
mardered and eaten by the people of New Zealand ; so that 
the story which we heard in Queen Charlotte's Sound was 
now no longer a mjrstery. 

We had fight airs next to a calm till ten o'clock the next 
morning, when a breeze sprang up at west, and the English* 
ship, which was to windward, bore down to us. She proved 
to be the True Briton, Captain Broadly, from China. As 
he did not intend to touch at the Cape, I put a letter oa 
board him for the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

The account which we had heard of the Adventure was^ 
now confirmed to us by this ship. We also got, from on 
board her, a parcel of old newspapers, which were new to 
us, and gave us some amusement ; but these were the least 
favours we received from Captain Broadly. With a gene* 
Tosity peculiar to the commanders of the India Company's 
ships, he sent us fresh provisions, tea, and other articles 
which were very acceptable, and deserve from me this pub- 
lic acknowledgment In the afternoon we parted company. 
The True Briton stood out to sea, and we in for the landj 
having a very fresh gale at west, which split our fore top- 
sail in such a manner, that we were obliged to briufi^ ano- 
ther to the yard. At six o'clock we tacked within four or 
live miles of the shore ; and, as we judged, about five or six 

VOL. XV. D leagues 

kMMfl to die «^ of Cape AgiuJat* We stood off till mid* 
BigBlj wbm, the w'mi hs^viog vaei^ed ro«iid tc^ the soothe 
we tacked^ and stood along^-shor^ to the west. The wind 
Jutfl yeeriag m^e wd more ia o^r faf our^ and at la^t fixed 
at £*S*£» ; a^d hhw for some ho^^rs a perfect bunriowe* 

As noon as die storm begw to aQbside> we made sai), and 
hauled in for the land* Next day at dooq> Uie Table Moua-« 
tain over the C^pte Town hore JN.£» by K, distaat nine or 
tea leagaes. By makiog use of ^is beariiig and distance 
to Mdiiqe the longitude shewn by the watch to the Cape 
,TowB^ the erf or way found tp be no moi% tliaa 18^ in Ibngi'* 
tiide^ which it was t^oo f/ar' to the east. Indeed the difference 
found between it and the lanar observatioaSj since we ieft 
liew Zealaild» bad seldom ei^ceeded half a degree^ and al-» 
wMTs the same way* 

The next morohig, heine with us Wednesday the QAi, 
hut with the people here Tuesday the £lstj we anchored 
IB Table Bay^ where we found several Patch ships ; some 
French ; and the Ceres, Captain Newte» an EqgUsh East 
India Company'a A^p, from China^ bound directly to £n^» 
land^ by whom I sent a copy of the preceding part of this 
joornal^ eome charts, and oilier drawings to die Admiralty, 

Before we had well got to an anchor, I dispatched ai| 
offieer to acquaiut the governor with our arrival, and to re- 
ifuest the necessary stores and refreshments ; which were 
readily granted« As 9Q0b as the offic^er cam^ back, we sa?« 
hiled the garrison with thirteen guns, which compliment 
was imn^mately returned with an equal number. 

I now learnt tbut jthe Adveiiture had called here, on her 
ntom ; and I foupd a letter from Captain Furneaux, .ac- 
quainling me with t^e loss of h|s boatb, and of ten of his 
best men, in Que^n Charlotte's Sound. The captain, af** 
terwards, on my arrival in Englaud, put into my ba^ds a 
eomplete narrative of his proceedings, from the time of our 
second and final separation, which I pow lay before %hp 
public in the following sec^on. 


cttAPk IT. MCQT. VIII. Ofiuh Jmm C40L 51 

SnitoM VliL 

Gfpfoin JWnccm^s Nwrmiioe x>f hk PfXHxedingt, m ike Aih 
^niHre^Jrom the Titm he wn ^^pardUdfrom the Renhtian^ 
do kk Arrhal fti Mt^fbatd ; imiujiing LkMmmt Burm^t 

: HUpwri v^ncetimtg i& Hoc^t i)irm t0bo wene mutiered bf 
the MmUtaniB^fiiKetn Ch0riMe$ Sound. 

APTfin a psMbge of fevrleea dbys from Amitevdittii^ m€ 
made the coast of New Zealand nwMr the IWble Ceapt, and 
atood aliaQMhote till We oame Hi fiillr as Cape Turtiagain. 
The wiod m^a begiin to blow ilnrotig st west, Irith hearf 
■qliaUft tad raiii# which split many ^«ur ^ails, aad bl«w ut 
^.the «taat for Hhme •dtye; ia iwbi^h tiai« we p^ittsd comp» 
fukf wiUi the. Beoolotioii^ and never saw hiBf arterwmrds. 

Oa the 4th of Nov«mb6r> we again get in- shore> neat 
Cape Payiserj and were visited by a number of the milivtei 
la their. tsanoes ; brinnag « great quantity of ^ray-fish^ 
which we bought of diem for aaHis and Olahelte clothe. 
The aest day it blew hard from W.ii.W., whi^h agditt 
drove ut off the ooast^ and obliged us to bribg-to fbr twn 
daya ; dlitkig which thne it blew one eoutiikval Mie of w»Bd> 
with heavy falls of sie^. By thiia timei our decks were vety 
leaky ; i>ut beda and beddiag wet ; and several of our people 
eei»platning of colds ; so that we b^^ to deitoair of i^vet 
gettiag iiilo Cbftriotte's 6ouud> or joining the Resolution. 

On the 6th» being to the oordi of the cape^ the wind at 
S.W., and blowing eirottg^ we bom away tor some bAy to 
cotaiplete oitr water and wood^ heing in gr^at want of both, 
hlmng been at the attowjmee of «»e qMtt of Wat^r ftf sckne 
dnys pikflt ; and even thtft ptttaaoe eonld not be comie at 
above six ct seven 4ayi longer* We an<!fhori6d hi Tilagii 
Bajy on the 0th, in latitude dt^MV9.^ longitude 179' 31' 
easti It affords good ridittg with the wind i^e&tJetly, nnd 
legttlar sonndings irooi deven to fiv% fiithomlr, attlT muddy 
ground across the bay for aboat twn miles. It is o|>an frbtn 
AT JJ.E. 10 £.S.£. It is to be observe, eaErfl*fly winds s^U 
dom blow hard on this shore; bat when they do^ they 
throw in a great aeA, so that if it wefe not for a great un* 
dertowt together willi a large river th«it emptieii itself in th^ 
bottom of the bay, a ship would m^t be able to ride hete« 
Wood and water are easily to be httd^ except when it blows 


5t - Modern CircumtUmgations. pabt hi. book tr. 

hard easterly. The natives here are the same as those at 
Charlotte's Sound, but morecnnmerous, and seemed settled, 
having regular plantations of sweet potatoes, and other roots^ 
vhicb are very good ; and they have plenty of cray and 
pther fish, which we bought of them for nails, beads, and > 
other trifles, at an easy rate. In one of their canoes we 
pbserved the head of a woman lying in state, adorned with^ 
feathers and other ornaments. It nad the appearance* of 
being alive ; but, on examination, we found it dry, being 
preserved with every feature perfect, and kept as the relic 
0f some deceased relation* 

. Having got about ten tons of water, and some wood, we 
sailed for Charlotte's Sound on the 12th. We were no 
sooner out than the wind began to blow hard, dead on the 
shore, so that we could not dear the land on either tack. 
This obliged us to bear away again for the bay, wherci'we 
anchored the next morning, and rode out a very heavy clile 
of wind at £• by S., which threw in a very great sea. We 
jiQW began to fear we should never join the Resolution ; 
having reason to believe she was in Charlotte Sound, and 
by this time ready for sea. We soon found it was with 
great difiicnlty we could get any ^ater, owing to the swell 
^tting in so strong ; at last, however, we were able to go 
iDn shore, and got both wood and water. 

Whilst we lay here we were employied about the rigging, 
which was much damaged by the constant gales of wind 
we bad met with since we made the coast. We got the 
boom^ dowix on the decks, and having made the ship as 
pnug as possible, sailed again on the 16th. After this we 
jnet with several gales of wind off the mouth of the Strait ; 
and continued bei^ting backwards and forwards till the SOth, 
when we were so fortunate as to get a favourable wind, which 
we took evjery advantage of, and at last got safe into our 
desired port. We saw jqothing of the Resolution, and be- 
gan to doubt her safety ; but on going ashore, we discern- 
ed the place where sh^.had erected her tents; and, on an 
pld stump of a tree in the garden, observed these words cut 
out, ^' Look updemeath." There we dug, and soon found a 
bottle corked and waxed down, widi a letter in it from Cap- 
tain Cook, signifying their .arrival on the 3d instant, and 
departure on the S4th ; and that they intended spending i^ 
jpew.da;)^s in the entrance of the Straits to look for us. 

We immediately set abojut getting the ship ready.for «ea 


iBHAP. iv» sscr.viii. . Captain Jumes Cook: $^ 

as fast as poi»ible ; erected our teht$ ; ^ttfc'tbe cooper 6d 
shore to repair the casks ; and- began to odSt^w the botd^ 
to get at the bread that was rn butts ; but on opening them 
foond a great quaatity of it entirely spoiled, and most part 
so damaged, that we w«re obliged to fix our copper oven 
on shore to bake it over again, which undoubtedly delayed 
us a considerable time* Whilst we lay here,- the inhabitants 
came on board as before^ supplying us with fish, and otber 
things of their own mtiftofactQie, which \re bought of them 
for nailsj &c. and appeared very friendly, though twice ia 
ibe middle. of the night they came to the tent, with an in- 
tention to steal ; but were discovered before they could get 
any thing into their possession; ^ 

On the 17 th of December, having refitted the ship, cbrn^ 
pleted our water and wood, and got every thing ready fbr 
fiea, we sent our large cuttery with Mr Rowe, a midshipman; 
and the. boat's crdw^ to. gsther wild greens for the ship's 
company ; with orders to return that evening, as I intend-* 
ed to sail the next morning. But on the boat's not return* 
mg the same evenings nor the next mornings being under 
^reat uneasiness about her, I hoisted out the launch, and 
sent her with the second Ueutenant, Mr Bumey, manned 
widi tte boat's crew aud ten marines, in search of her: 
My orders to Mr Burney were first to look well into East 
Bay, and then to proceed to Grass Cove, the place to which 
Mr Rowe had been sent ; and if he heard nothing of the 
boat there, to go farther up the sound, and come back along 
the west shore. As Mr Rowe had left the ship an bom: be-^ 
fore the. time proposed^ and in a great hurry, I. was strong- 
ly perauaded that his <;uriosity had- carried him into East 
£ay, none in our ship shaving ever been there ; or else, that 
some accident had happened to the boat, either by going 
adrift through the boat-keeper's negligence, or by being 
Stove among the roeksi This was almost every body'sr opi- 
nion ; and on tbis sopposition, the carpenter's mate wa^ 
aent in the launch, with some sheets of tin. I had not the! 
least suspicion that our people had recefived^ny injury frOni 
the natives, .our boats having frequently been, higher tip; 
and worse provided. How. much I was mistaken^ too ^Oon 
appeared; for Mr Burney having returned about eleven! 
o'clock the same night> made his report of a horrible scene 
indeed; which cannot be better described than m bis ovfvt 
words, which now follow; ^ 


54 Modern CiminimvigatSons, vabt hi. book su 

^^ Qq tHe ISAji weleft:tbe ship ; and baying a Ugbl l»peeze 
in. out fayomv w« 80on got rmmd Long island^ and withia 
Long Poiat. I easaminea every cQve> cm the larboard band, 
ae we ivewt aJkuigf boking well all around with a spy^-glaaa^i 
t^hich I took fon tbal; purpose. At half past ows, we stop- 
ped a4 a breach oat the Wlt*haQd side going up East Bay> ta 
hoxl some victiialsy as. we brought; noftlung bit! tB,w meat with 
v^n Whilst we w<ere cooking, I asm anb Indian on the oppo^* 
s^ shore, runnini^ along a beach tot the bead of the n^. 
Our meat being drest, we got into the boat and pnt off; 
ax^ m a sh.ort time, arciTed al the hiead of this ieach>. 
where WiO saw aa Indian settlenoent. 

^' As we drew near, some of the Indians, cattie domsa eat; 
the rocks, and ita»ved for* us to be gone, but seeing we dis«^ 
regarded tbe«»» they alifceced tb^ir notes. Hero we fbuadr 
six large eanoes^ baaled u^ oa the beach, mofift of thooiL 
doipble oi»es^ wad a gf eat. many peopfe ; tiiough nottsoi ttn^^ 
nf as 000 B»ight expoett liirom the nninfaar of b^^s and aca 
off the e woes. Leaying' the boat's oiew tor gpn»i ih» hoarl, 
I stepped aafaore with die nuaines. (the corporal and five 
iAeo)> and seaccbed a good manyt of tbeix houses, butfonml 
iia;thiDg^tQ gvre tde ooy sospkioB. Thsee oc fans w^beat**. 
en paths )^d farther ini^ the woods^ where, wero mat^moro 
bpuses ; but the people continutng^ jmiendlj^, I thoo^t ii 
wnecessai^y to- eontioue our search^ Goming-dowiii to. the 
beach> one of the; Indiana IiadI bvooght a bundle of HqmtwtL 
(long spear$)#.lH}t seeing L looked ^ery earnestly at him, he 
put them on tbo; gsoura^ and walked about with seeming 
unoon^eoft.. Som^e o£ the people appearing tp be frighten^. 
ed| I gave a lookiag^glafi^, ta Qae> w^d a mge nail to.aiio^ 
ther. If com tbia place the boy raa^ aa nearly aa I conid 
guess> N.JM.W. a.good mile> wheoe it ended in a^bog'sandgR: 
beach. I looked aul around with the giasa^ but, saw po boaf^ 
canoe, or sign of ialiabitaat. I therelofe .contorted: mysdf 
with firing some guns, whioLI* had dene in eiKty eo;ire aa 
I went allong.: 

'^ I now kepib dbse lathe east sjuxe, and come to aaolhcx 
set|ble»ent, wl»ere this. Indians iainAedus ashore. . i etsiofsuvtA 
of them ahoht the boat, but they pretended igaDraoeew 
They appealed very fsiendljr here> and sold us aome.fieh.: 
Within an hour after we kft tUa place, in. a. small beaala 
adj^MQiJig toOrass Goiiie> we sow? a Terylai^e de«biQ eanoe 
just hauled up, with two men and a dogi The men, oo see* 


CHA». IT. Mttk viif . Capiam JamiB Cook. , 55^ 

iDg tur ttfi their caMej and ran up mto the W6och« Hm 
gate tte feason to suspect I shonlti here get tkfings of the 
Mtten We went ashore^ and searched the ^anoe^ where 
we ftmid Oftie of the nrlkx^k-ports of the eutter^ and some 
afaoes^ one of whkh was known to helong to Mr Wood* 
boose, one of onr mrdshrpmen. One of the people, at the 
same time, bnmgbt tne a piece of meat, which ne took to 
]be soitie of the salt meat belooghk^ to the cutter's cTew. 
On e:iamining this, aad smetKiig to it, I found it was lt«sh* 
Mr Fannin (the master) who was with me, supposed it was 
clog's ftesb, and I was of the same opinion ; for I still doubt- 
ed their bemg cannibals. But we were soon conrinced by 
most horrid and nndeniable proof. 
^ ^ A great matty baskets (about twenty) lying on the beaeh 
tied upy we cot them open. Some were full of roasted flesh, 
and some of fcm-root, which serves them for bread. On 
farther search, we foutid more shoes, and a hand, which we 
immediately knew to have belonged to Thomas Hill, one 
of our fore-castle men, it being marked T. H. with an Ota* 
heite tattow«rnslmment I went with some of the people 
a little way up the woods, but saw nothing else. Coming 
down again, ttiere was a round spot covered with fresh earthy 
nbout four feet diameter, where something had been buried. 
Having no spade, we began to dig with a cutlass ; and in 
the mean time I launched the canoe with intent to d^troy 
her ; but seeing a great smoke ascending over the nearest 
hill, I got ali the people into the boat, and made what haste 
I could to be with them before sun-set. 

" On opening the next bay, which was Grass Cove, we 
saw four' canoes, one single and three double ones, and a 
great many people on the beach, who, on our approach, 
retreated to a small hill, within a ship's length of tne water 
side, wbene the^ stood talking to us. A lar^ fire was on 
the top of the high land, beyond the woods, Ihrom whence, 
all the way down the bill, the place was thronged like a 
fair.^ As we came iui, I ordered a musquetoon to be fired 
at one of the canoes, suspecting they might be faH of men 
lying doWnr in the bottom ; for they were aH afloat, but no- 
body was seen hi them. The savages on the fittle hiTI still 
kept haffoohig, and making signs for us to Iknd. However, 
as soon as we got close in, we ail fired. The first volley did 
not seem to a&ct them much ; but on the second, they be- 
gan tpr scramblo away as fast as they could, some of them 


66 Modim CircunmatigaJtwm. part iii« book ir# 

howling. We contiDoed firioe as long as we could see the 

flimpse of any of them througn the bashes. Amoogsl the 
ndians were two very stout men^ who never o£fered to move 
till they found themselves forsaken by their companions $ 
and then they marched away with great composure and de- 
liberation ; their pride not suffering them to run. One of 
them, however^ ^t a fall^ and either lay there, or crawled 
off on all-fours. The other got clear, without any apparent 
hurt. I then landed with the marines, and Mr Fannin staid 
to guard the boat* 

. *' On the beach were two bundles of celery, which had 
been gathered for loading the cutter. A broken oar wa» 
stuck upright in the ^ound, to which the natives had tied 
their canoes ; a proot that the attack had been made here. 
1 then searched all along at the back of the beach, to see 
if the cutter was there. We found no boat, but instead of 
her, such a shocking scene of carnage and barbarity as can 
never be mentioned or thought of but with horror ; for the 
heads^ hearts, and lungs of several of our people were seen 
lying on the beach, and> at a little distance, the dogs gnaw- 
ing their entrails. 

^ Whilst we remained almost stupified on the spot, Mk 
Fannin called to us that he heard the savages gathering 
together in the woods ; on which I returned to the boat, 
apd hauline along-side the canoes^ we demolished three of 
them. Whilst this was transacting, the fire on the to{x of 
the hill disappeared ; and we could hear the Indians in the 
woods at high words ; I suppose quarrelling whether or no 
they should attack us, and try to save their canoes. It now 
grew dark ; I therefore just stepped out, and looked once 
more behind the beach to see if tne cutter had been hauled 
up in the bushes ; but seeing nothing of her, returned, and 
put off. Our whole force would have been barely sufficient 
to have gone up the hill ; and to have ventured with hals 
(for half must have \^iten left to guard the boat) would have 
been fool-hardiness. 

^^ As we opened the upper part of the sound, we saw a 
very large fire about three or' four miles, higher up, which 
formed a comfflete oval, reaching from the top of the hill 
down almost to the water-side, the middle space being in- 
closed all round by the fire, like a hedge. I consulted with 
Mr Fannin, and we were both of opinion that we could ex- 
pect to reap no other advantage than the poor satisfaction 

• of 

CHAF. ly* 8XCT* viu* Captoiu Jama Cook. 57 


of kiilbg some more of the savages. At leaviDg Grass Cove, 
we had fired a general volley towards where we heard the 
Indians talking; but, by going in and out of the boat, the 
arqas bad got wet, and four pieces missed fire. What was 
still worse, it began to rain ; our ammunition was more than 
half expended, and we left six large canoes behind us in 
one place. With so many disadvantages, I did not think 
it worth, while to proceed, where nothing could be hoped 
for but revenge. 

. '' Coming between two round islands^ situated to the 
southward of £ast Bay, we imagined we heard somebody 
caUing ; we lay on our oars, and listened, but heard no more 
of it ;. w^ hallooed several times, but to little purpose ; the 
poor souls weiti^'far enough out of hearing, and, indeed, I 
think it some comfort to reflect, that in all probability every 
man of them must have been killed on the spot/' 

Thus far Mr Burney's report ; and to complete the ac- 
count of this tragical transaction, it may not be unnecessa- 
ty to mention, that the people in the cutter were Mr Rowe^ 
Mr Wood house, Francis Murphy, quarter-master; William 
Facey, Thomas Hill, Michael Bell^ and Edward Jones, fore* 
castle men ; John Cavanapgb> and Thomas Milton, belong* 
ing to the after-guard ; and. James Sevilley, the captain's 
man, being ten in all. Most of these were of our very best 
seamen,. the stoutest and n^ost healthy people in the ship. 
Mr Barney's party brought on board two hands, on^ belong* 
ing to Mr Rowe, known by a hurt he had received on it ; 
the other to Thomas Hill, as before-mentioned ; and the 
head, of the captain's servant. These> with more of the re- 
inains, were tied in a hammock, and thrown over-board, 
with ballast and shot sufficient to sink it. None of their 
arms nor cloaths were foundj except part of a pair of trow* 
aers, a frocks and six. shoes, no two ot them bemg fellows*. 

I am not inclined to think this was any premeditated plan 
of these savages ; fpr, the morning Mr Rowe left the ship, 
he met two canoes, which came down and staid all the fore* 
nopn jn 3hip Cove. It^igbt probably happen from .some 
quarrel which was decided on the spot, or the fairness of 
the opportunity might tempt them> our people being so in* 
cautious, and thinking themselves too secure. Another thing 
which encouraged the New Zealanders, was, they were sen- 
sible that a gun was not infallible, that they sometimes miss- 
ed, and tbat^ when discharged^ they must be loaded before 


58 JMo&ni Circmmaolgiaions. Paw m^ doox ll« 

they ceiild be iwed tLgsia, which tluid they knew he# to 
take advantage of. After their success, I imagioe there WM 
a general meeting oq the east side of the somidL The hi^ 
diaqs of Shag Cove were there ; this we knew bjr a eoek 
which was in one of the canoes, and by a iooff single canee, 
which sone of our people had seen four days before ia Sbsg 
Cove, where they had been with Mr Rowe in the cotter. 

We were detained in the Sound by contrary winds fotr 
days after this melancholy affair happened^ dariog whiok 
time we saw none of the inhabitants. What is very remark- 
able, I had been several times up in the same cove with 
Captain Cook, and never saw the least sign of an inhabit 
tant, except some deserted towns, which appeared as if thi^ 
had not been occupied for several years; andyet^ when Mv 
Barney entered the cove, he was of opinion there could net 
be less than fifteen huodrecl or two thousand people. I doubt 
not, had they been apprized of bis coming, they would have 
attacked him. From these considerations, 1 thought it ks* 
prudent to send a boat up again ; as we were c<»ivinced 
there was not the least probability of any of our people be- 
ing alive. 

On the 2Sd, we weighed and made sail out of the Soubic^ 
and stood to the eastward to get clear of the straits; whiciiL 
we accomplished the same evening, but were baffled for ivf^ 
or three days with light winds, before we could dear the 
coast. We then stood to the S.S.Ek tiH we got into the 
latitude of 56^ south, without any thing remarkable hap- 
pening, having a great swell from the southward. At this 
time the wind began to blow strong (mm the S.W., and 
the weather to be very cold ; and as^ the ship waa low and 
deep laden, the sea made a continnal iM^each over her, which 
kept us always wet ; and by her siraimng, veiy few of the 

Eeople were dry in bed pr on deek, baviog; bo shelter t« 
eep the sea from them* 

. The birds were the only companions we' had in this vast 
ocean, except, now and then, we saw a whale c^ poipoise) 
and sometimes a seal or two, and a few penguinsc In the 
latitude of 58* S., longitude 2^1 S''*' east, we fell in with soeiie 
ice, and, every day, s«w more or less, we then standing te 
the east. We fomd a very strong current setting to the 
easlWMrd ; for by the time we were abreast of Gape Konr, 


* About 147 west loDgitudc; as I reckon. 


cHAVw rt* SBcr. vm. Cflplinte Jama CcoK. 59' 

being ia the latitiMlt of 61^ £L, the ship wmft a*htad'of dor 
aec^mit eight degrees. We weie tety littk mcM than a 
moQth from Cape Palliser in Ne«r Ztakuid to dKpe Horn, 
wUsh is an hundred and tireiilywbos degrees of lonaitude^ 
and had contimial wealerlj winds from S.W. to N.Vr.^ with 
& great sea lldiIowing» 

On opening some oaaks of pease and flour, tiial imd been 
stowed on ^e coiis, we fovnd them yety much damaged^ 
and not eatable ; so thongkt it most pendent to make for 
the Gape of Good Hope, biit ftsst to stand into the lati- 
tnde and longitiide of Cape Clrenmcisioii. After being to 
the eastward of Cape Horn, we fbaad the winds did not 
Uesr so stf ong from the westwasd as asuat, but came more 
fSom the north, which brought on thick foggy weather } so 
that lor se^ral 4ays together we could not he able to get 
an obsenntioa, or see the least s%n of the son. This wea- 
ther lasted above a month, being then among a great many 
islands of ice, which kept us constantly on the look-out, for 
fear of running foul of tbem, and, being a single ship, made 
us more attentive. By this time our people began to com- 
plain of colds and pains in their limbs, which obliged me 
tb haul to tiae northward to the latitude oi64?S,; but wo 
stiU oontittued to have the same sort of weather, though we 
had oft^ner an opportunity of obtaining obseirvations for. 
the latitude. 

After getting into the latitade above«mentioned, I steer- 
ed to the east^ in order, if possible, to find the land laid 
down by Bouvet. As we advanced to^ the east, the isiaadli- 
of ioe became mure numerous and dangesous ; they being 
much smalltr than they need to be ;^ and the nights began 
to he dark. 

Oh. the 3d of M«:ch^ being then, in the latitade of 54^ 41 
Sw, longitude 13^ £., which ia the latitude of Bonvet's dis« 
coireiy, and half a deigree to die eastward of it^ and not 
seeiag tiie kast sign of land, either now or since we have 
Iveen in* thi& parallel, | gave over looking for i4, and hav^d 
away to the northward. As our last track to the south vvard' 
waa witbtn a fbw degvees of Bouvet^s discovery in the longi* 
ta^' assigned So il, and- about three or four degf«es to the 
southward, sfaouU there be any land tiiereabout, it must be 
aTsiy inconiidemblc island. But I believe it was nothing 
fawt iqe : As we, in onr first set^ng out> thought we had s^ea 
laod several times^ but i4» proved to> be high islands of ice 


60 Modem CircumnavigaHans. part hi. book lii 

at th^ black of the large fields; and as it was thick foggy 
weather when Mr Bouvet fell in with it, he might very ea-< 
fiily mistake theB for land* 

On the seyentb, being in the latitude of 48* 3(y S., Ion* 
gitude. 14^ 26^ £., saw two larse islands of ice. 

On the 17th^ made the land of the Cape of Good Hope, 
i^nd on the I9th anchored in Table Bay, where we found 
<^ommodore Sir Edward Hughes, with his majesty's ships 
Salisbury and Sea-horse. I saluted the commodore witb 
thirteen guns; and, soon after, the garrison with the same 
number ; the former returned the salute, as usual, with two 
guns less, and the latter with an equal iramber. , 

On the iAtii, Sir Edward Hughes sailed. with the Salis^ 
bury and Seap'hoTse for the East Indies ; but I remained 
refitting* the ship and refreshing the people tilt- the l6th of 
April, when I sailed for £ngland^ and on the 14th of July 
anchored at Spithead* 

Section IX* 


Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope ; mkk an Jccouni of 
some Discoveries made by the French; and.dhe Arrival of 
tl^ Ship at St Helena. » -• 

I NOW resume my oWn Journal, which Captain l^nr- 
neaux's interesting narrative, in the preceding sectnon, had 
obliged me to suspend. \ ' 

Tbe day after my arrival at the Cape, of Good Hope, I 
went on shore, and waited on the Governor, Baron jPlet* 
tenberg, and other principal officers, who received, ^d 
tteatecji us, with the greatest politeness, contributing all \in 
their power to make it agreeable. And, as there are feW 
people more obliging to strangers than the Dutch in gene*^ 
ral, at this place, and refreshments of all kinds are no where \ 
to be got in such abundance, we enjoyed some real reposey 
after the fatigues of a long voyage. . 
. The goodtreatmentwhichstrangers meet with at theCape 
of Good Hope, and the necessity of breathing a little frebh 
air, has introduced a custom, not common any where else 
(at least I have tio where seen it so strictly observed), which 
is^-'for all the officers, who can be spared out of th^ ship, to 
reside on shore. We followed this custom. Myseli^ the 





CRAP. iv/sECT. !%• Captein James Cook. 6l 

two Mr Forsters^ and'Mr Sparrman^ took up our abode with 
Mr Brandt^ a gentlemaii well known to the English^ bj his 
obliging readiness to serve them. My firj}t care, after my 
arrival, was to procure fresh-^baked bread, fresh meat, greens, 
and wine, for those who remained on board ; and being pro- 
vided, every day during our stay, with these articles, they 
yf^efe soon restorefd to their usual strength. We had only 
\Mree men on board whom it was thought necessary to send 
* a shore for the recovery of their health ; and for these I 
ocured quarters, at the rate of thirty stivers, or half-a- 
• ' yvm, per day, for which they were provided with victuals^ 
,/'* ik, and lodging. 

..•'*'Ve now went to work to supply all our defects. For thi» 
•r " ose, by permission, we erected a tent on shore, to which. 
, ' "^nt our casks and sails to be repaired. We also struck 
V^rds and topmasts; in <yrder to overhaul the riggings 
vn we found in so bad a condition, that almost every 
except the standing rigging, was obliged to be re- 
with new, and that was purchased at a most exorbi- 
tce; In the article of naval stores, the Dutch here, 
J* as at Batavia, take a shameful advantage of the dis* 
BHB.^^^ f foreigners. 

at our riggitigy sails, 8ic. should be worn out, will not 
*ondered at, when it is known, that during this circum- 
ligation of th^ globe, that is, from our leaving this place 
our return to it again, we had sailed no less than twenty 
_7iousand leagues ; an extent of voyage nearly equal to three 
«i0. times the equatorial circumference of the earth, and which, 
itoin 1 apprehend, was never sailed by any ship in the same space 
c ij. of time before. And yet, in all this great run, which had 
^ been made in all latitudes between 9* and 71^ we sprung 
ifei neither low-masts, top-mast, lower, nor top-sail yard, nor so 
much as bfoke a lower or top-mast shroud ; which, with the 
X gBeat care and abilities of my officers, must be owing to the 
good properties of our ship. 

One of the French ships which were at anchor in the bay, 
was the Ajax Indiaman, bound to Pondicherry, command- 
ed by Captain Crozet. He had been second in command 
with Captain Marion, who sailed from this place with two 
ships, in March 1772, as hath been already mentioned. In- 
stead of going from hence to America^ as was said, he stood 
away for New Zealand ; where, in the Bay of Isles, he and 
pome of bis people were killed by the inhabitants. Captain 


6£ Mockm€^4i»mmvig4rii9m0 ^a»v w. book, t^r 

Ctozei, who succeeded to Uie Qomtarn^, returned by the 
vfBy of the Phillipine Isle^^ with the two sbips^ to the islqpd 
of Mauritius. He seemed to be « i|iaa possesaed of tbs 
true spirit of discoveryj and to have abibtieSh la a \erf 
obliging nanner he commimicated to me a charts wherein 
were delineated not only his owa discoveries, bat also that 
of Captain Kerguelen, which 1 foiuid laid down ia the veijr 
aituation where we searched for it ; so that I caa by ao. means 
conceive how both we tnd the ^dventare missed it. 

Besides ibi« land, which Captain Crozet told us was a long 
hut very narrow. island, extending east and west, Gefitaia 
Marion^ in about the latitude of 48* south, and from ^6* to 
30^ of longitude east of the Cape cff Good H<^, disaiver- 
ed six islands, which were high and barren. These, toge- 
ther with some islands lying between the Line and the son*- 
them tropic in the Pacific Ocean, were the principal disoo- 
veries made in this voyage, the account of wbieb, we w^eie 
told, was ready for publication. 

By Captain Crozet's chart it appeared^ thata voys^^ had 
been n^ade by the French across the South Pacific Ocean 
in ]769> under the command of one Captain SurviUe; who, 
on condition of his attempting discoveries, bad obtained 
leave to make a trading voyage to the coast of Peru* He 
fitted out, and took in a qareo, in some part of the East hn 
dies ; proceeded by way of me Phillipine Isles ;.pasi»d near 
New Britain ; and discovered some iaod in the latitude of 
30^ S., longitude 158* east, to which he gave his own namo* 
From hence he steered to the south ; passed, but a few de^* 
grees^ to the we^t of New Caledonia ; fell in with New Zea- 
land at its northern extremityi and put into Doubtful Bay^ 
where, it seems, he was, when I. passed it, on my former 
voyage in the Endeavour. From New Zealand Captain 
Survule steered to the east, between the latitude of 3j»® and 
41° south, until he arrived on the coast of America; where^ 
in the port of Callao^ in attempting to land, be was drowned. 

These Voyage of the Frencb# though undertaken by pri- 
vate adventurers, have contributed som^thitig towards esfr 
ploring the Southern Ocean. That of C^tain Surville cleara 
up a mistake which I was led iiUo, in imagiping the shoala 
off the west end of New Caledonia, to extend to the west 
as far as New Holland ; it proves that there is an open sea 
in that space, and that we saw the N.W. ei^tremity of that 


IWAP. IV. $iceiv IX. Gcjpfam /ami CS^oik fiS 

From the sumc gentlemm we learftt,that the Aip whidh 
ha4 beea at Otaheifce before our fint arriFid tliere tbifl voj* 
age, was £rom New Spaia ; and thaty in her retiini» the had 
discovered some islands in the htUtode of 32* S., and under 
the meridian of 190'' W. Some other islands^ said to be 
discovered by the Spaniardsi appeared on this chart ; but 
Captain Crozet seemed to think they were inserted from '00 
good authorities. 

We were likewise informed of a later voyage undertaken 
by the French, under the oommand of Captain Kergudeo, 
which had ^ided much to the disgrace of that commander. 

While we lay 10 Table Bay, several foreign ships pot in 
and out> bound to and from Indiajr vi^. English, French, 
Banes, Swedes, losd three Spanish frigates, two of them go^ 
ing to, and one coming from Manilla. It is but very lately 
that the Spanish ships have touched here ; and these were 
the first that were allowed the same privileges as other £ur 
ropean friendly nations* 

On examining our rudder, the pinUes were found to be 
loose, and we were obliged to unhang it, and take it on 
shore to repair* We were also delayed for want of caalkers 
to caulk the ship, which was nhsohitely necessary to be done 
before we put to sea. At length I <A>tained two workmen 
from one of the Dntch ships ; and the Button English East 
Indiaman coming in from Bengal, Captain Rice obliged me 
with two more \ so that by the 26th of April this work was 
finished : And having got on board all necessary stores, and 
a fresh supply of provisions and water, we took leave of 
the governor and other principal officers, and the next 
morning repaired on board. Soon after the wind coming 
fair, we weighed and put to sea; as did also the Spanish 
frigate Juno, from Mamlla, a Banish Indiaman, and the 

As soon as we were under sailj we sainted the garrison 
with thirteen guns ; which compliment was immediately re- 
turned with the same number. The Spanish frigate and 
Banish Indiaman both saluted us as we passed them, and I 
returned each salute with an equal number of guns. When 
we were clear of the bay the Banish ship steered for the 
East Indies, the Spsni$h frigate for Europe, and we and Uie 
Button for St Helena. 

Bependiog on the goodness of Mr Kendall's watch, I re- 
solved to try to make the island hy 9^ direct course. For 


64 Modem Cirammavigatians. part iit. book tu 

tbe first six days^ that is^ till we got Into tlie lattttfde of 
87* S,, longitude iV* i W. of the cape, the winds were 
southerly and S.E. After this weliad variable light airs for 
two days ; they were succeeded by a wind at S.E. which 
continued to the island, except a part of one day, when it 
was at N.£. In general the wind blew faint all the passage, 
which made it longer than common. 

At day-break in the morning of the 15th of May, we saw 
the islfind of St Helena at the distance of fourteen leagues ; 
and at midnight anchored in the road before the town, on 
the N.W, side of the island. At sun-rise the next morning, 
the castle^ and also the Diitton, saluted us, each with thir- 
teen guns; on my landing, soon after, I was saluted by the 
castle with the same number, and each of the salutes was 
returned by the ship. 

Governor Skettowe, and the principal gentlemen of the 
island, received and treated me, during my stay, with the 
greatest politeness; by shewins me every kind of civility in 
their power* ' 

Whoever views St Helena in its present state, and can 
but conceive what it must have been originally, will not 
hastily charge the inhabitants with want of industry. 
Though, perhaps, they might apply it to more advantage^ 
were more land appropriated to planting of corn, vegeta- 
bles, roots. Sec. instead of being laid out in pasture; which 
is the present mode. But this is not likely to happen, so 
long as the greatest part of it remains in the hands of the 
company and their servants. Without industrious planters, 
this island can never flourish, and be in a condition to sup- 
ply the shipping with the necessary refFeshments. 

Within these three years a new church has been built ; 
some otber new buildings were in hand ; a commodious 
landing-place for boats has been made ; and several other 
improvements, which add both strength and beauty to the 


During our stay here, we finished some necessary repairs 
of the ship, which we had, not time to do at the Cape. We 
also 611ed all our empty waterrcasks ; and the crew were 
served with fresh beef, purchased at five-pehce per pound. 
Their beef is exceedingly good, and is the only refreshment 
to be had worth mentioning. 

By a series of observations made at the Cape town, and 
^t James Fort in St Helena, at the former by Messrs Mason 


mu»t IT..88CSV x^ Cof^n Jamm Cook. S5 

mnd DueoD^ and at the lalter by Mr MaskelyDe* the astro^ 
Domer royal, the difference of longitude between these two 
pkoes is 124* l^' 15", only two miles more than Mr Kendall's 
«^atefa made. The lunar observations made by Mr Waiea^ 
before we arrived at the islandjand after we left it, and re- 
duced to it by the wateh» gave 6* 5V for the longitude of 
James Fort; which is only five miles more west than it is 
^{»Iaced by Mr Maskelyne. in like manner the longitude of 
the Cape Town was found within 5' of the truth. I men* 
tion Ihis to shew how near the longitude of places may be 
lound by the lunar method^ even at sea^ with the assistance 
lof a good watch.* 


Famajge fffom 8t Hekma to the fVeUem Idands, with a D<- 
mr^ttumqfthe Idand of Aicamon and Fernando Noronhtu 

\ Ok the 21st in the evening, I took leave of the governor, 
and repaired on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was 
aalutea with thirteen guns; and upon my getting under sail, 
mtii the Dnttoii in company, 1 was saluted with thirteen 
more ; both of wbich I returned. 

Afb»r leaving St Helena, the Dutton was ordered to steer 
N»W. by W. or N.W.. by compass, in order to avoid falling 
in with Ascension ; at which island, it was said, an illicit 
trade waa carried on between the officers of the India Com* 
paay'a ships, and. some vessels from North America, who, 
of late years, bad frequented the island on pretence of fisb- 
ing wlmes <Mr catebing turtle, when their real design was 
to wait the coming of the India ships* In order to prevent 
their tiomeward-bound ships from faUing in with these 
smugglers, and to put a stop to this illicit trade, the Dut>- 
toa was ordered to. steer the course above-mentioned, till 
to the northward of Ascension. I kept company with this 
ship till the 24lh, when, after putting a packet on board hes 
. Toi*. XY. B foe 

' Mr G. F« lias oommunicsted sevend very interesting partifulars re* 
apectiiig, St Helena, but it is not judg^ proper to insert them in thift plaoBy 
as having no connection with the purposes of the voyage. A similar re- 
mark is applicable to some of the subjects mentioned in the following sec- 
tion. Another opportunit]^ may, perhaps, present of giving full inroraia- 
tkm oa these topioB«—E. 

6$, Modem Ciremnmmguitani. pabt iii. book ii. 

ihe turtle are numcroiM ; but when there are but few, three 
Of four men are sufficient for the largest beach ; and if they 
keen oatreUog it, close to the wash of the surf, dunne the 
Bicht by this method they will see all that come ashore, 
1^ cause less noise than if there were more of them. It 
was by this method we caucht the most we got; and this is 
the method by which the Americans take them. Nothing 
is more certain, than that all the turtle which are found 
about tWs island, come here for the sole purpose of lajmg 
Aeif eggs ; for we m^t with none but females ; and of all 
those which we caught, not one had any food worth men- 
tioning in its stomach ; a sure sign, in my opinion^ that they 
must have been a long time witibout any ; and this may be 
* the reason why the flesh of them is not so good as some I 
bave wt on the coast of New Soutb Wales, which were 
caught on the spot where they fed. 

T^e watch made 8* 46' diflerencc of longitude between 
St Helena and Ascenwon ; which, added to 5* 49^, the Ion* 
gUude of James Fort in St Helena, gives 14* 34' for tfie 
£)neitude of the Road of Ascension, or 14* SV for the mid- 
dle of the island, thQ latitude of which is 8*^ S. The lunar 
observations made by Mr Wales, and reduced to the same 
point of the island by the watch^ gave 14« 28' 30^ west Ion- 

^ On Ihe Slst of May, we left Ascension, and steered ta 
%he northward with a fine gale at S.E. by E. I had a great 
desire to visit the island of St Matthew, to settle iu situa- 
tion • but as I found the wind would not- let me fetch it, I 
steered for the island of Fernando de Noronha on the coast 
of Brazil, in order to determine ite longitude, a» I could not 
find this bad yet been done. Perhaps I should have per- 
formed a more acceptable service to navigation, if I had 
gone in search of the island of St Paul, and those ahoab 
which are said to lie near the equator, and about the meri- 
dian of 20* W. ; as neither their situation nor existence are 
well known. The truth is> I was unwUling to prolong the 
passage in searcbiog for what I was not sure to find ; nor 
was I willing to give up every object, which might tend to 
the improvement of navigation or geography, for the sake 
of getting hoqie a week or a fortnimt sooner. It is but sel- 
dom that opportunities of this kind oflfer ; and when they 
do, they are too often neglected, 
la our passage to Fernando de Noronha^ we had ateadv 

CHAP. !▼• SECT. X. Capiom James Ceok. ^ 

fresh gales between the S.E. and E.S.E.^ attended with fair 
and clear weather ; and as we had the advantage of ihe 
moon^ a day or night did not pass without making lunar 
observations for determining our longitude. In this mn> 
the variation' of the compass gradually de<^eased from 
11* W., which it was at Ascension, to 1* W., which we 
found o£P Fernando de Noronha. This^was the mean result 
of two compasses^ one of which gave 1^ 37'^ and the other 

On the gth of June at noon we made the island of Fer^^ 
nando de Noronha, bearing S. W. by W. ^ W., distant six 
or seven leagues, as we afterwards found by the log. It ap- 
peared in detached and peaked hills, the largest of which 
looked like a church tower or steeple. As we drew near the 
SJL part »of the isle, we perceived several unconnected 
sunken rocks lying near a league from the shore, on which 
the sea broke in a great surfp After standing very neai 
these rocks, we hoisted our colours, and then bore up round 
the north end of the isle, or rather round a group of little 
islets ; for we could see that the land was divided by nar- 
TOW. channels. There is a strong fort on the one next the 
main island, where there are several others ; all of which 
seemed to have every advantage that nature can give them^ 
and they are so disposed, as wholly to command all the an* 
dioring and landing-places about the island. We con« 
tinned to steer round the northern point, till the sandy 
beaches (before which is the road for shipping) began to 
appear, and the forts and the peaked hills were open to the 
westward of the said point At this time, on a gun being 
fired from one of the forts» the Portoguesecolonrs were dis* 
played, and tt>e example was followed by all the other 
forts. As the puipose for which I made the island was now 
answered, 1 had no intention to anchor ; and therefore, af« 
ter firing a gun to leeward, we made sail and stood away to 
the northward with a fine fresh gale at E.S.E. The peaked 
hill or church tower bore S., £7* W., distant about four or 
five miles ; and from this point of view it leans, or over- 
hangs, to the east. This hill is nearlv in the middle of the 
island, which no where exceeds two leagues in extent, and 
shews a hilly unequal surface, mostly covered with wood and 

Ulloa says, '' This island hath two harbours capable of 

receiving ships of the greatest bur^^en} one is on the north 

s side^ 

TO Modem Cir(mnnavig^tion$» pait iii. book ix. 

sidej and the other It dn .the N.W. The former isj in evac^ 
vesp^ct, ihe prinfiipftli both for shelter and capacity^ and 
the goodo^ft of ita botlom ; but both wot exposed to the 
north imd ivest, tbfllgb these winds, particukrly the norths 
are periodieid, and of no loog ooniinuanoe.".. He fnrtfaet 
aays, ^^ That you ancbpr in tlie north harbour (which is no 
more than what I would call avoad) in thirteen fathoms wa* 
ter^ one-third of a ieague from shore, bottom offine'sand ; 
the peaked hill above-mentioned bearing S.W. 2^ souttifc 

This road, seems to be wellsbritered fM>m the south and 
east winds* Ope of my seamen had been on board a Doteh 
India ship, who put in at this isle in her way out in 17?0. 
They were very sick^, and in want of refreshments and 
Wuter. The Portuguese supplied them with some. buffaloes 
«nd fowls ; and they watered behind one of the beaches in 
a little pooly which was hardly big enough, to dip a backet 
in. By reducing the observed latitude at noon to the peak- 
^d hill, its latitude will be S^ Si' S. ; and its longitude^ by 
the watch, carried on from St Helena, is S£^ 34' W. | and 
by observations of thc) sua and moon, made before and af- 
ter we. made the isle, and reduced to it by the wmttch, 
hi^ 44' SO" W. This was the mean result of my observa- 
tions* The results of those made by Mr Wales, which were 
more numerous, gave S£* 2S^ The mean of the two will be 

EettjT near the watch, and probably nearest the truth. By 
lowing the longitude of this isle, we are able to deter- 
mine that of the adjacent east coast of Brazil ; which, ac- 
cording to the modem charts, lies about sixty or seventy 
leagues more to the west. We might very safely have 
-trusted to these charts, especially the variation chart for 
i744, and Mr Balrymple's of the southern Atlantic ocean* * 
On the 1 Lth, at three o'clock in the afternoon, we cross- 
ed the equator in the longitude of d£^ 14' W. We had 
fresh gaks at £.S«E., blowing in squalls, attended by showers 
of lain, that continued at certain intervals, till noon the 


' Sea Den Aatonio dinioa's Book, vol. ii. chap. 3. page 95 to 109, 
where there is a v^ry parlacukir acoount of this island. 

^ Ulloa sajfs, that the chart places this island sixty leagues from the 
coast of Brazil ; and that the Portuguese pflots, who often make the vof* 
a^e, judge it to be eighty leagues ; but, by taking the mean between the 
two tfpuuonsi the distance amy be &xed at seventy leagues* 

cmMSfk'Wt. mctk Xm Captain Jamet Gioft. 71 

next day> after which we had twenty^foar lionts fair wea- 

At noon on the Idth, beitig in the latitnde of ft^ 4ff N.^ 
longitude 51^ 47' W«j the wind became variable, between 
the N.E» and S. ; and we had Ught airt and tqnallt by 
tumt, attended by hard showers of rain, and for the most 
part dark gloomy weather, which continoed till the ereii* 
mg of the 15th| when, in the latitnde of 5* 47' N., longitade 
3 1^ W., we had three calm days, in which time we cud not 
advance above ten or twelve leagues to the north. We had 
fair weather and rain by tnms ; the sky, for the most part^ 
being obscured, and sometimes by heavy dense clouds 
which broke in excessive hard showers. 

At seven o'clock in the evening on the 1 dth, the calm 
was succeeded by a breeze at east, which the next day in* 
creasing and veering to and fixing at N.B., we stvebehed to 
ISJW. with our tacks on board. We made no donbt that we 
had now got the N.E. trade-wind, as it was attended with 
fair weather, except now aord then some light showers of 
rain ; and as we adviinced to the noith the wind increased, 
and blew a fresh topgallant gale. 

On the 521st, I ordered the still to be fitted to the largest 
copper, which held about sixty*fbur gallons. The fire was 
lighted at four o'clock in the morning, and at six the still 
began to ran. It was contioned till si^ o'clock in the even- 
ing ; in which tioie we obtained thirly^two gallons of fresh 
water, at the expence of one bushel and a half of coals ; 
which was abont three^fourths of a bushel more than was 
necessary to have boiled the ship's company's victuals onfy; 
but the expence of fuel was no object with me. The vie* 
tnals were dressed in the small copper, the other being ap« 
plied wholly to the still ; and every method was made use 
of to obtain from it the greatest quantity of fresh watet 
possible ; as this was my sole motive for setting it to woric« 
The mercofy in the thermometer at noon was eighW«>fonr 
and a half, and higher it is seldom ibund at sea* Had it 
been lower, mdre water, under the same circumstances, 
would undoubtedly have been produced ; for the colder the 
air is, the cooler you can keep the still, which will condense 
the steam the faster. Upon the whole, this is an useful in« 
vention ; but I would aovise no man to trust wholly to it. 
Vot although you may, provided you have plenty of fuel and 
good coppers, obtain m much water af will support life, you 


7t Modern Circuimumgatiom. PABfr riz. BOo&'ir; 

cannoti with all your efforts^ obtain sufficient to support 
healthy in ho^climates (especially^ where it is the most wanU 
ing : For I am well convinced, that' nothing contributes more 
to the health of seamen, than having plenty of water. 

The wind now remained invariably fixed at N.E. and 
£*N*£.> and blew fresh with squalls^ attended with showers 
of rain, and the sky for the most part cloudy. Oq the 25th, 
in the latitude of 16* 12' N., longitude ^1*" £(/ W., seeing a 
ship to windward steering down upon us, we shortened sail 
in order to speak with her ; but finding she was Dutch by 
her colours, we made sail again and left her to mirsue her 
course, which we supposed was to some of the Dutch set- 
tlements in the West Indies. In the latitude of 20* N., Ion* 
fitude S§*.45' W., the wind began to veer to E. by N. and 
L ; but the weather remained the same; that is, we conti-^ 
nued to have it clear and cloudy by turns, with light squalls 
and showers. Our track was between N.W. by N. and 
N«N.W., till noon on the 28th, after which our course made 
good was N. by W., being at this time in the latitude of 
SI"* 21' N., longitude 40* S W. Afterwards, the wind be* 
gan to blow a little more steady, and was attended with fair 
and clear weather. At two o'clock in the morning of the 
dOtb, being in the latitude of 24* 9ff N., longitude 40* 47' 
W., a ship, steering to the westward, passed us within hail. 
We judged her to be English, as they answered us in that 
language ; but we could not understand what they said, and 
they were presently out of si^ht. 

In the latitude of 29* SGf, longitude 41* 2ti, the wind 
slackened and veered more to the S.E. We now began to 
see some of that sea-plant, which is commonly called gulph- 
weed, from a supposition that it comes from the Gulph of 
Florida. Indeed, for aught I know to4,he contrary, it may 
be a fact ; but it seems not necessary, as it is certainly a 
plant which vegetates at sea. We continued to see it, but 
always in small pieces, till we reached the latitude S6*, lon- 
gitude 39* W., beyond which situation no more appeared. 
On the 5th of July, in the latitude of 22* 31' SO* N., lon- 
gitude 40^ 29^ W., the wind veered to the east, and blew 
Tery faint : The next day it was calm ; the two following 
days we had variable light airs and calms by turns; and, at 
length, on the 9ih, having fixed at S.S.W,, it increased to 
a fresh gale, with which we steered first M.E. and then 
£J4«£.i with a view of making some of the Azores, or 


CHAP. !▼• 8SCT. sli. Ctffitofii Joffiei Cook. 73l 

Weitetn Isles. Oa the Uth, in the latitade of 86^ 45' N.^ 
longitade 96* 4S^ W., we saw a sail which was steering to* 
the west ; and the next day .we saw three more. 

Sbction XL 

Artival if the Ship at the hhmd ofFaydfa Description of the 
Place, and the Return of the ResoluHon to England. 

At five o'clock in the evening of the ISth, we made the 
island of Fayal^ one of the Azores^ and soon after that of 
Pico, nnder which we spent the night in making short 
boards. At day-break the next morning, we bore away for 
the bay of Fayal, or De Horta, where at eight o'ciocic, we 
anchored in twenty fathoms water, a clear sandy bottom,' 
and something more than half a mile from the shore. Here 
we moored N.E. and S.W., being directed so to do by the 
master of the port, who came on board before we dropped 
anchor. When moored, the S.W. point of the bay bore 
S. iff W., and the N.E. point N. 33"" £.; the church at the 
N.E. end of the town N. 88^ W., the west point of St 
George's Island N. 4^2^ E., distant eight leagues ; and the* 
kle of Pico, extending from N. 74* £. to S. 46^ E., distant 
four or five miles. 

We fonnd in the bay the Ponrvoyeur, a large French 
frigate, an American sloop, and a brig belonging to the 
place. She had come last from the river Amazon, where 
she took in a cargo of provision from the Cape Verd Islands; 
but, not being able to find them, she steered for this places 
where she anchored about half an hour before us* 

As my sole design in stopping here was to give Mr Wi^Iet 
an opportunity to find the rate of the watch, the better to 
enable us to fix with some degree of certainty the longitude 
of these islands, the moment we anchored, I sent an officer 
to wait on the English consul, and to notify our arrival to 
the governor, requesting his permission for Mr Wales to 
make observations on ^ore, for the purpose above men« 
tioned. Mr Dent, who acted as consul in the absence of 
Mr Gathorne, not only procured this permission, but ac- 
commodated Mr Wales with a convenient place in his gar- 
den ta set up bis instruments ; so that he was enabled to 
observe equal altitudes the same day« 
: ; We 

74 Modem CirciMnai^tidifis. , jfAjt^r iii. 900^ tu 

We \^ere not more obliged to Mr Dent for'tbe TeJry 
fiiradif leadinets he gfaewed io |»roenriiig lis tfaisMfed every 
other thing we wanted, than for the very liberal and hospi* 
table entertainment we met with at his house, which was 
open to accommodate us both night and day. 

During our stay, the ship's company was served with 
fresh beef; and we took on board about fifteen tons of wa* 
tetr, which we brought off in the country boats, at the rajt^ 
of about three shillings per ton. Ships are allowed to wa* 
ter with their own boats ; but the many inconveniencies at- 
leAdiilg it, more than overbalance the expence of fairiog 
ifaore-boatSj which is the most general custom. 

Fresh provisions for present use may be go^ such as beef^ 
vegetables, and fruit ; and hogs, sheep, and poultry for sea 
•lock, all at a pretty reasonable priee ; but t do not know 
that any sea^provisions are to be had, except wine. The 
bollocks and hogs are very good, but the sheep are small 
aad wretchedly poor. 

The principal produce of Fayal is wheat and Indian coni> 
with which tney supply Pico and some of the other isles^ 
The chief town is called Villa de Horta. It is situated in 
the bottom of the bay, close to the edge of the sea, and is 
defended by two castles, one at each end of the town, and 
a wall of stbde-work, extending along the sea*shore frotni 
the one to the othen But these works are suffered to go 
to decay, and serve more for shew than strength. They 
lieighten the prospect of the city, which makes a fine ap*. 
pearance from the road ; but^ if we except the Jesuits' col« 
lege, the monasteries and churches, there is not another 
building that has any thing to recommend it, either outside 
Of in* There is not a glass window in the place, except what 
are in the churches, and in a country*house which latel}' be^ 
longed io the jBnglish consul ; all the others being latticed, 
which, to an Englishman, makes them look like prisons. 

This little city, like all others belonging to tb^ Portur 
guese, is crowded with religious buildings, there being no 
less than three convents of men and two of women, and 
eight cburchesi including those belonging to the convents, 
and the one in the Jesuit^ college. This college is a fine 
stmcture, and is situated on an elevation in the pleasantest 
part of the city. Since the expulsion of that order> it has 
been suffered to go to decay, and will jurobably^ in a (ew 
years^ be no better thaq a heap of num. 


CHAP. IV. SECT* XI. Curiam Jmnis Cook. 7s 

Fayaly although the moet noted for -wioesj do^s Hoi raise 
sufficient for its oirn consumptioD. This article is raised 
on Picoj where there is no road for shipping ; but being 
brought io Oe Horiai and froin thence shipped abroi^^ 
chiefly to America^ it lias acquired the name of Fayal 

The bay, or road of Fayal, is situated at the east end of 
the isle, before the Villa de Hortaf and facing. the west end 
of Pico. It is two miles broad, and three quarters of a mile 
deep, and bath a semi^circular form. The depth of water 
is from twenty to ten and even six fathoms, a sandy bot- 
tom, except near the shore, and particularly near the S.W. 
headj'oflT which the bottom is rodcy> also without the line 
which joins the two points of the bay, so that it is not scJe 
to anchor far out. . The bearing before mentioned^ takea 
when at anchor, will direct any one to the best ground. It 
is by no means a bad road, but the winds most to be ap- 
prehended, are those which blow from between theS.S.W« 
and S.E. ; the former is not so dangerous as the latter, be- 
cause, with it, you can always get to sea. Besides this 
road, there is a small cove round the S.W« point, called 
Porto Pierre, in which, I am told, a ship or two may lie in 
tolerable safety, and where they sometimes heave small 
vessels down. 

A Portuguese captain told me, that about half a league 
from the road in the direction of S.E., in a line between it 
knd the south side of Pico, lies a sunken rock, over whidt 
is twenty* two feet water, and on which the sea breaks aa 
hard gales from the south. He also assured me, that of all 
the shoals that are laid down in our charts and pilot-books 
about these isles, not one has any existence but the oneb^ 
tween the islands of St Michael and St Mary, called Hor- 
mingan. This account may be believed, without relyiag^ 
entirely upon it. He further informed me, that it is forty* 
five leagues from Fayal to the island of Flores ; and that 
there runs a strong tide between Fayal and Pico, the flood 
setting to the N.E. and the ebb to the S.W., but that, out 
at sea, the direction is E. and W. Mr Wales having ob- 
served the times of high and low water by the shore, con- 
cluded that it must be high water at the full and change, 
about twelve o'clock, and the water riseth about four or five 

The distance between Fayal and Flores was confinned 



76 Modert^Cireiinmavigatiam. pakt hi. book 11. 

' by Mr Rebiers, lienteoaBt of the French frigate^ who told 
me^ that after being bv estimation two leagues due south 
of FJores, they made forty- four leagues on a S,E. by E. 
course by compass^ to St Catherine's Point on Fayal. 

I found the latitude of the ship at an- 7 «^ ^ - - ' 

chorinthebay j 38- Si' 55"^.. 

By a mean of seventeen sets of lunar ob-'^ 

servations, taken before we arrived,/ 

and reduced to the bay by the watch, > 28 24 SO W • 

the longitude was made..«^ • 3 

By a mean of six sets after leaving it, 7 

and reduced back by the watch 3 *^ ^^ ^2 

Loiigitude by observation ••« 28 38 56 

Ditto, by the watch •••••••^••••« « 28 55 45 

Error of the watch on our arrival at 7 
Portsmouth 3 ~ ^^ wj 

True longitude by the watch .,«, 28 39 18{ 

I found the variation of the compass, by several azimuths, 
taken bv different compasses on board the ship, to agree 
very well with the like observations made by Mr Wales on 
shore ; and yet the variation thus found is greater by 5* 
than we found it to be at sea, for the azimuths taken on 
board the evening before we came into the bay, gave no 
more than 1 6* 18 W. variation, and the evening afler we 
came out 17*^ 3S^ W. 

i shall now give some account of the variation, as ob« 
served in our run from the island of Fernando De Noronha 
to Fayal. The least variation we found was 37' W. which 
was the day after we left Fernando De Noronha, and in the 
latitude of SS' S., longitude S^^ }& W. The next day, be- 
ing nearly in the same longitude, and in the latitude of 
1"* 26' N., it was, !• 23' W. ; and we did not find it increase 
till we got into the latitude of 5® N., longitude 31* W, 
After this our compasses gave different variation, viz. from 
3*^ 57' to 6* il' W. till we arrived in the latitude of 26* 44' 
N., longitude 41* W., when we found 6* W. It then in- 
creased gradually, so that in the Jatitude of. 35® N^ lopgi- 


CHAF. IV* SECT. XI. Coptom Jmrn Cook. 77 

tade 40* W.^ U was 10» 24' W. ; in the latitude of SS"* 1^ 
N.> longitude 5d^ \ W. it was 14* 47^ ; and in sight of Fa- 
yal 16* 18^ W.^ as mentioned above. 

Having left jthe bay^ at four in the morning of the I9tb^ 
I steered for the west end of St George's Island. As soon 
.as we had passed it, I steered £• \ S. for the Island of Ter- 
€2era; and after having ran thirteen leagues, we were not 
more than one ieagae from the west end, I now edged 
away for the north. side, with a view of ranging the coast 
.to the eastern point, in order to ascertain the length of the 
island ; but the weather coming on very thick and hazy, 
and night approaching, I gave up the design, and proceea- 
ed with all expedition for £ngland . 

On the 29tn, we made the land near Plymouth. The 
next morning we anchored at Spithead ; and the same day 
I landed at Portsmouth, and set out for London, in compa- 
ny with Messrs Wales, Forsters, and Hodges. 

Having been absent from England three years and eigh* 
teen dajs, in which time, and under all changes of climate, 
I lost but four men, and only one of them by sickness, it 
may not be amiss, at the conclusion of this iournal, to enu- 
merate the several causes to which, uoider the care of Pro* 
vidence, I conceive this uncommon good state of health, 
experienced by my people, was owing. 

In the Introduction, mention has been made of the ex* 
traordlnary attention paid by the Admiralty in causing such 
articles to be put on board, as either from experience or 
suggestion it was judged would tend to preserve the health 
of the seamen. 1 shall not trespass upon the reader's time 
in mentioning them all, but confine myself to such as were 
found the most useful. 

We were furnished with a quantity of malty of which was 
made Simtt fVort* To such of the men as shewed the least 
symptoms of the scurvy, and also to such as were thought 
to be threatened with that disorder, this was given, from 
one to two or three pints a^day each man ; or in such pro* 
portion as the surgeon found necessary, which sometimes 
Amounted to three quarts. This is, without doubt, one of 
.the best anti-scorbutic searmedicines yet discovered ; and, 
if used in time» will, with proper attention to other things, 
1 am persiiiaded, prevent the scurvy from making any great 
progress for a considerable while. But I am not altogether 

pf opinion )bat it will cure it at sea. 


78 Modem Ciremnnm^aiUnu • miT iil book vu 

S&mr Kroutf of which we had a lafge qvantity^ is l^dt only 
a wholesome vegetable AM, but, in m j jodgmeiit, highFjr 
antiscorbotic; and it spoils. not bj ketping. A ponnd of 
this was served to each man, whea at sea, twice-a^week; or 
ofiener, as was thought necessary. 

Portable Broih was another great article, of which w« bada 
bfge sopply^ An ounce of this to« each man, or such other 
proportion as circumstances pointed out, was boiled jfn their 
pease, three days in the week ; and when we were iniplaeea 
where vegetables were to be got, it was boiled with them, 
and wheat ^r oatmeal, every morning for break &st; and 
also with pease and vegetables for dinner. It enabled us 
to make several nourishing and wholesome messes, and was 
sbe'meins of making the people eat a greater quantity of 
vegetables than they wotild otberwiae have done# 

^jSot of Jjtmon end Orange is an antiscorbntic we were 
not without. The surgeon made use of it in many eastt 
with great suoeess. ' 

Amongst the artioks of vietusditiog, we wvre sopptted 
wil^h iStt^AT ra tile room of Oil, and with Wheolt for a paft 
mS taoxOMmeeii and were certainly gainers by the exdonnge* 
Sugar,! apprehend, isi a very good antisoorbntic y whereas 
oil (such- as the navy is usoaiiy supplied with), I am of opi* 
nion, has the contrary effect. 

Bat the introduction of the most salutaiy articles, either 
as provisions or medicines, will generally prove amuoeeso- 
ful, unless supported by certain regulations^ On this prit»- 
cipley many years expedience, togetbet with some hinti* I 
had from Sir Hugh Paliiser^ Captaina Campbell, WaUia, 
and other intelUgedt officers, enaUed me to lay a plan 
whereby all was to be governed. 

The crew were at three watches*, ^ztept upon some 'ex- 
traordinary occasions* By thi» means they weiar not 00 
modi exposed to the weather as>if they had been at wat^k 
and watch ; and bad generally diy dothea to slinfl tbemf'- 
aehes, when they happened to get wet. Care was) also Mk 
ken to* expose them as H tile to- Wet Weather aa possible. ^ 

Proper methods were used to- keep their person^ hat»- 
moekB, bedding, ck>aths, &c. eonstantly dean and dry. 
Eqval caw* was taken to keep* the ship dean and diy be* 
tw|xt decksi Oice or twice a week she waa aired with 
foes ; and when this eould not be done, ^e was smoked 
with guo-powder, mixed wkh vinegar or waMe; I hod al> 


CB AF. ]<r« 8ICT. xf • CapUtkf Jamm Caek. V^ 

uo, {wementiy, a fire made ia aa iron pot, at the bottom of 
the well^ wbicb was of great use id purifying the air in the 
lower parts of the ship. To this^ and t6 cleanliness, as well 
in the ship as amongst the oeople, too great attention can- 
not be paid ; the least neglect occasions a putrid and dis- 
agroeaUe smell below^ whicb nothing bnt fires* will remove. 

Proper attention was paid to the snip's coppers^ so that 
thOT were kepi constantij clean. 

The fat which boiled ont of the salt beef and pork, I ne- 
ver suffered to be given to the people ; being of opinion 
that it promotes the scurvy. 

I was careful to take in water wherever it was to be got, 
even though we did not want it, because I look upon fresh 
water from the 9bofe to be more wholesome than tnat which 
has been kept some time on board a ship. OF this essential 
article we were never at an allowance, but had ahrajs plen- 
ty for every necessary purpose. Navigators in general <^n'- 
not, indeed, expect, nor woald they wish to meet with such 
advantages in this respect^ as, fell to my lot. The natufe of 
onv voyage carried u» into veryhiigh latitude* B%t the 
hardships ancl daagefi iiiavpairable from tkat sitovtion, weie 
in some degree compeiia*ted by the singular feficity w,e en- 
joyed, of extracting inexhaustible supplies of fresh wa^r 
from au ocean strewed with ice. 

We came to ftfwjpimm, wbeie eitfaer tlie «rt of maiH or 
the bounty of nature, had not provided some sort of re- 
freshment or other, either in the animal or vegetable way. 
It was my first ca^ to prpcure whatever of any kind oould 
be iii^t with, by every meaft» in my power ; and to oUige 
our people to make use thereof, both by my example and 
authority ; but the benefits arising; from refreshments of 
any \wi soon became so obvious, tbi^t I had little oocasioia 
to reeoBunend the one, or ta exert the other. • 

It dolh not beoome me to say how far the prinerpal obw 
jectd of our voyage have been obtained. Though it hatb 
not abounded wim remarkable events, nor been diversified 
by sudden transitions of fortune ; though my fleialioa of 
it has been more employed in tracing our course by s^a,. 
than in recording our operations on shore ; this, perhaps^ 
is a circumstance from which the curious reader may infer, 
that the purposes for which we were sent into the Soathem 
Hemisphere, were diligently and efiectually pursued. Had 
we found out a continent there, we might have been better 



Modem GrernnmngatUms. fart hi. book lu 

enabled to gratify curiosity ; but we hope oar not having 
foQod it^ after all our persevering researches, will leave less 
loom for future speculation abont unknown worlds remain* 
jng to be explored* 

But, whatever may be the public judgment about other 
matters^ it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming 
any merit but that of attention to my duty, that I can con- 
clude this account with an observation, which facts enable 
xne to make ; that our having discovered the possibility of 
preserving health amongst a nnmerQus ship's company, for 
such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and 
a^%8t such continued hardships and fatigues, will make 
this voyage remarkable in the opinion of every benevolent 
person, when the disputes about a Southern Continent shall 
have ceased to engage the attention, and to divide the judg- 
ment of philosophers.' 

* We cannot better express the importance of the preservative mea- 
sures adopted during this voyage, and therefore the value of the voyage 
Itself, than by quoting a pasMige from Sir John Pringle's discourse on as- 
signing to Capwn Cook the Royal Society's Copleyan medal, a distoH 
.guiahM honour conferred on bim» though absent on his last expedition, 
.shortly after havine been elected a member of that iliustrious body. ** I 
would enquire of the most conversant in the study of billB of mortalitv, 
whether, m the most healthful climate, and in the best condition of life^ 
they have ever found so small a number of deaths, within the same space 
<of time ? How groBt and agreeable then must oup surprise be, after peru- 
wag the histories of long navigations in former day8» when so many .pe- 
rished by marine diseases, to find the air of the sea acquitted of all malig- 
nity, and, in fine, that a voyage round the world may be undertaken with 
less danger, perhaps, to health, than a common tour in Europe f '-— <* If 
•Rome," be says in conclusion, ^ decreed the civic crown to hnn who sa- 
ved the life of a siiu;le citizen, what vrreaths are due to that man, who^ 
having himself saved many, perpetuates in your Transactions, (alluding to 
Captain Cook's paper on the subject) the means by which Britain may 
now, on the most distant voyages, preserve numbers of her intrepid sons, 
her marineri ; who, braving every danger, have so liberally contributed 
to the jfome, to the opulence, and to the maritime empire^ of their coun- 
.try ?" — An acknowledgement so judicious finds a response in every breast 
tlmt knows how to estimate the value of human life and happiness, and 
will not fittl to secure to the name of Cook, the grstefiil apphoise of every 
sttooeeding geiiemtion<-*E» 



• * 



For ihit PrommciaHon ofAe Kocabulaiy* 

AS aU nalioii» who are acquainted with the method of 
conimanicaliDg their ideas by characters^ (which re* 
present the sound that con?eys the idea,) haire some parti* 
cnlar method ofmaoaging^ or pronoaaeing, the soonas rt- 
preaenftcd by sach characters^ this forms a Yery essential 
article in the constitution of the language of anv particQlar 
•nBtioh,' and must^ therefore, be nnderstood before we cani 
make anj progress in leiming, or be able to conrerse in it» 
B«t as this IB very complex and tedious to a beginner, by 
veasoa of the great variety of powers the characters, or let- 
ters, are endued with under different circumstances, it would 
seem necessaiy, at least in langui^s which have never be* 
fore appeased in writing, to lessen the number of these va- 
luetics, by restraining the different sounds, and al#ays re« 
presenting the same dmple ones by the same character ; 
imd this is no less necessary in the English than any other 
language, as this variety <^ powers is very frequent, and 
without being taken notioe or in the foUoWinff Vocabulary, 
might render it entirdy unintelligible. As the vowels are 
the regnlations of all sounds, it is these onlv that need be 
noticed, and the powers allotted to each of these in the Vo« 
cabulary u subjoined. 

▼ot. XV. T ^ in 

82 Directions/or the 

A in the Eoglisb language is used to represent two differ* 
ent liimple sounds^ as in the word Arabia^ where the first 
and last have a different power from the second. In the 
Vocabalary thik letter must always have the power^ or be 
pronounced like the first and last in Arabia. The other 
power^ or sounds of the second a,i% always represented ia 
the Vocabulary by a and «^ printed in Italics thus^ nt. 

J5 has likewise two powers^ or it is used to represent two 
simple sounds, as in the words Eloquence^ Bredj Led, &c» x 
and it may be said to have a third power, as in the words 
Then, When, &c. In the first case^ this latter is only 
used at the beginning of words, and wherever it is met 
with in any other place in the words of the Vocabulary, 
it is used as in the second case : But never as in the 
third example ; for this power, or sound, is ever^ where 
expressed by the a and i before-mentioned, printed ia 
Italics. . 

/ is used to express different simple sounds, as in the words 
Indolence, Iron, and Imitation. In the Vocabulary it is 
never used as in the first case, but in the middle of words y ' 
it is never used as in the second example, for that sound 
is always represented by y, nor is it used as in the last 
case, that sound being always represented by two f's, 
printed in Italies in this manner, ee. < 

O never alters in the pronunciation, i. e. in .this Vocabalary, 
of a simple sound, but is often used in this m;anner, oo^ 
and sounds as In Good, Stood, &c. 

V alters, or is used to express different simple sounds, as in 
Unity, or Uil^brage. Here the letters e and u^ printed in 
Italics €V, are used to express its power as ib the first ex- 
ample, and it alw&ys retains the second power, wherever 
it is met with* . j ».•;,. » 

y is used to express different sounds, as )n My, By,&c. Sec. 
and in Daily, Fairly, 8cc. Wherever it is ^met with in the 
middle, or end, (t. e. anywhere but at the begiiining,>of 
a word, it is to be used as in the first example.; but is 
never ^o be found as in the second, for that. sound, or 
power, is always represented by the Italic letter e. It has 
also a third, power, as in the words Yei, Yell, 8Cc., which 
is retained ev'ery whei^e in the.Vocabulary;.at least in ibe 
beginning of words, or when it goes before another vowel, 
unless directed to be sounded separately by. a mark over 
it, as thi^s, y a. ... 

. . Unless^ 

Pronunciation of the Focabulaty. 83 

tiniest in a few instances^ these powers of the vowels are 
used throughout the Vocabulary; but, to make the pronun- 
ciation still less liable to change, or variation, a few marks 
are added to the words, as follows : — 

This mark •• as oa, means that these letters are to be ex- 
pressed singly. 

The letters in Italic^ as ee,. or qo, make but one simple 

When a particular stresd is laid on any part of a word in 
the pronunciation, an accent is placed over that lettei^ 
where it begins^ or rather between that and the preceding 

It often happens that a word is compounded as it were 
of two, or in some cases the same word, or syllable, is re- 
peated. In these circumstances, a comma is placed under 
them at this division, where a rest, or small space, of time 
is left^befote you proceed'to pronounce the other part, but 
it must not be imagined that this is a ftiU stop. 

. , . • • • • 

Esampks in ail thesis Cases. 

Roa,. - ^ Great, long, distant. 
E'r.eema, - Five. 

Ry'po eea^ - ^^^r or ^^» 

E'hoora, - • To myert, or turn upside down. 

Paroo, TOO, -^ ' J partition, division^ or screen. 


TO tbide, orrmain, • • Et^«j» 
Jin AbodCj or place qfreridencCf NohoVa. 

Ahove, not bmw, - • Heea, s. Tie'nem. 

An Abscessj • • « Fe'fe. 

Ac^ovk, cppmi to red, - • Ta'eree. 
Adhesive^ of an adhtiioe or ^ickiw In^ ^^ 
fuaUty, i . . |Wpeere. 

A^oining^ or contiguous to, - Kp^eiho. 
AimiraMon, an tnterfection of, - {^pj^aflf'^'" ^"^ 

^n adulterer, or one that texei al T^eho teeho, &• Teeh* 
married tvoman, « J ta-rar« 

To agitate, or shake a thing, as flwi-l EooaVai. 
ter, etc* " • j^ 

Aliment^ or food of any Jdnd^ Maa. 

Alive, ^^I^ n not deadf - Waura. 

All, the whole, not a part, «^ A'maoo. 

Alone, by one^s seff', - Ota'hot. 

Anger, or to be angry, - Warrader, s. Reedee. 

To angle, orfA, - - E'hootee. 

3%e Ankle, - - Momoa. 

The inner AnUe, - - A^tooa,ewy. 

Answer, an niuiMr to a question, Oo'mouu 

Approbation, or consent, - MadoohoVby« 

Punctuated Arches on the hips, Fvai^re. 

• l%e Arm, - - R^ma* 

7%e Armpit, * * E'e. 

An Arrow, - - E'oome. 

Arrow, the body of an arrono or reed, Owha. 

l%e point of an Axtow, - - To'ai, u. (ymlqtu 




Ashamed^ to Ift adumtd or eonfiaed, 4iM« s^ He'ama. 

Afihore^ or on s&oftf^ . - TeEota. 

To sakforathit^ - . - Ho'my, 8. Ha'py my. 

t&ughm^ - • T^rra> l^va. 

killer, ioldier^^imtriar, Jlaata,toa. 


Aiherinay '- - 

Avariciousy pamiMfltottf J taqfaieffoiii^ Pec^peere. 

Averse, unwUik^tim to do a thing. Fata, hotW Adtto. 
Authentic, <rttf J . . - 
Awake, fio^ as&^ ^ 
Awry, ortoowiidii M^awfif netkg 
An Axe, haidiit, or adie, ^ 


Parte, todiiw 
Arra arra^ a. E'nu 





E'evee (laata. 


Fy'roo, too'ty^ 
. 'E^'no. 

Ete- oc^ 8« E^te* 


~ Oopo'boota. 


E'paa. . . 

u4 Babe, or ckUd, * « . * 

A Batchelor, or iumirried pmon, 

TheBack, - 

To «^ if jkf Batkiide^ / <« 

Bad, it M notgood, ' . >*>^ 

A Bag of straw, - . - . 

Bait,j^)r^;&A, . - - - 

Baked m ^A€ omi, • < - 

Bald-headed,^^ . ... 

Bamboo, . «* » 

^ Bank, or tAoa/, 

Bare, naked, affMed to a person th 

ii undress^, ^ ^ « 

The Baik of a treep ' -* 
Barren /I011J, >' 

^ mtaff Basket ^coco4 leaves, • 

^ 2oiig^ Bad^et ^ cocoa leaves, 

A Brisket rfplantakk. stock, • 

Afisbet'sBsAtt^ . -> 

j< rotmJ Basket j^oicoa kat^, 

A Bastard, «t .' - . 

Bastinado, to hoMkiaie orftog apersonyTaf^'hai 

To bathe, . - . Ob'oo*. 

A Battle, orjigkt, . . « « E'motto. 

wtf Battle-axe^ m ,. ^ Cyinorre. 



Fe'nboa Ma'oure. 






Paoniit too'naea. . 


85 A Vocabulary ofl^ 

To^h9,w\, or cry aloud, - TWmo'toro.^ 
if Bead, - - - Poe. 
3%e Beard, - - - Oomeoome. »^ • 
To beat upon, or itrike a thing, Too'pj or Too'baee^ 
To beat a drum, - - % Eroi/koo* . ^ 

To beckon a person with the hand, Ta'rappe. . 
ji Bed, or bei^plaee, - - c 'Blxoee, a. Moi'a^/ 
3b bedaub, or 6es;>ii//er, - Par'ry. 
^ Bee, * - i ? . - EVao. 
uf Beetle, ' .. *. • V» i . » p€erete«& 
Before, no^vjreltud',^ - - - - Te'moju . . 
A Beggar, a person that is troMe^'t ^ 

somes, continually asldng for. wme*>V 

what, - - O 

'Rehxwd, not before, - - - Te'mooree. .. > 

To belch, - - Erooy. 

Below, as below stairs, -" Tei'dirro,s. Tcediraro. 

Below, under piehihj far l^ehw, - OVarb. » i . ^ 

To bend anything, as a stick, 8ic* i Fafcfe* , lO: s ^ '^ 
Benevolence, i^enerosi^y, - Ho'rba. . > ' 

e. g. iSii ^ne a generous man, Taata hdl:<Mi'oe«> 
Between, in the middle, betwixt two, Ferapoo. 
To bewail, or lament by crying, - E'tatee. 

Bigness, largenets, great, - Ara'hay. 

A Bird, . - - Manoo^ :' . ^. ^ ' 

^ Bitch, . - -^ - • Oore, e'o0ba. 

3b bite, as a dbgf, •- <« Aahoo. * - . 

Black, colour, - - Ere, ere* > . 

Bladder, - -. .. - Toameeme.' 

^ Blasphemer, a^^^^^^ ^ 

atsrespectfully (y their detttes, - j •' 

Blind, - -•* -Matta-po. ^. *. 

A Blister, raised by a bum or ^^^X'M^g^ • 

means, • •• - - -, • . ^ * • . \ 

Blood, -• . .. -* Toto, s. Ehoofii^ .. 

To blow thenose,- - - Faite, 

The blowing, or breathing of a whale, Ta'hora. . v 
Blunt, us a fr/vitfiooJ' of aiiysar^, • -Ma^netfa*" *'^ 
3%c cai«««d Boa^dfrio/^a Maray, - E^ra. ,' ' 

^ /?« Boat, €fr"eanoe,' - . -^ E^vaa; ^ « ^ • 
^Boil, ." - -- Fefe. 

Boldness, •^-^' - • - Eawott. . . '• 

^ Bone, -f ' - -• - EWe. 

u4 Bonette, 

I ; 

Language if the Sodthf Ida. 

A BoneJttOj ajkf^ so adled,vy -^l- ■■.. Peen^^ou a' 
iTo hove a'hole^ • -'. - - EhooW^n^^Ehoo'e. * 

jtBow, - ' -- Effanna; ^ ^ : •. 

^ Bow-strings' '•• ' - - - "Ar5a'hb«r^• • 
To bow with the head' - - - Eiooo. , . i . 
AjfOun^Bfiy, .- - - My ijHAe^ :* . 

Boy, afamlioT' trvir of 5peai|^g^> . • \ lA^^mmUm ' 
3^ Braia o/^aaisritiiMUi/> - - • Abooba. 
ABfBXi€hofatreeof>'dlanty\\ -' K^am«<r ,i :-! 
^ Bread-frini^ or fruit offht bread-tree, Ooioo. - 
Bread-fruity a particular tort ofit^ ETpatea. . 
An insqnd ante tf: Bread-fr ait, Elx oe. , - ^- 

7Ae/oftim of tAe Bread-tree^ • - Tappo'ooroo. . . ^ 
The leaf of the Brmd-tree^ « Kmooioo. : ; < ^ 
ThefithofihiBxez/dJ\xt^, - - - Po'oor(«).' ^* v ' « 

To break a thing, - - \ Jl J^rT**^ i 

TAe Breastf ^. - C «, - '^ **•. •• : .Of«j»ivv\ ; -..- .*:.•« ' > * - 

^ Breast-plate made ofjm^^,mwi'\. \yK > ) ...*,) " 

merited with feathery -do^s^hair^i>TA ocmt^j ^ 

and pearl^sheU^}'*.. /i - • m*^ )^ . » 3 * • > * '»^ -'»^ *•• 

«,,.,, f f Watte wati^ wee 

To breathe. ^ - - - l »u '«k a 

'Bnnii,'tow^onetO]hidng a,M^y ^ Ho'my. 

Briftlnie^^' Ms^ briik\or quUki .' ■• f Teetfere, v . 

Broiled^ or roattedy r»< Aro^&sAiMaf / Ot^aw^era. 

Broken^ or ciif, - , . -'•7 'Motoo. 

jTAe BrQw, or ^refcad, - - . ?rryv. \^'> ... * 

u^ broi^n co/otir^ . -^ •>*>*• . ^ *- ^ » \ AuA»iicA."\ . . 

3ni%ofatrieorplant,' -- Te^ arrehaoo* . 

^ Baivobof ^n^^^wf^ - - Eta^ - . . ^ .' 

5b burn a.thing, »-,,.- Diiodffoe, . .; : . 

^Butterfly,'* '^ • m, ^ Pepe,, >Ai v 

jTo call a person at adi^anU,\ « Tooato^ooo* 
A Calm, - r^ ^ M^ncmo.A ^ 

^ Calm, or ra^A^r .to &e «o placed,! -^ \ . ,il . » .» 

^Aa^ the tmd has no access to you, 3 . 7 ^ ' ;* > 
iStffar Can«l, \<w ^ - . Too, s.^6q% 

. A Cap, or covering f of the heoAi-. TWtKifitta, 
To carry, 0f^ lAi^g,; .; - . - . EVm^* * 
To carry a person <»» the back, - Eva^ha. 

t • 


•8 . 4VauMa)r^^ty, 

To catch a baB, - >- ' Ama whenu , 

tTocBtch^wkhkime, -^ - Ehoote^ 

^ Caterpillar^ • *- -- ., - Kuknu . 

Celerity^ m^^fctoir, - - * Tee teerc;^ 8» Ktafve^^ ^ 

The Cenjtrey ir ndddk of a thif^, Tera'poo* ' . • 

Chalky * -* - . - . MamuMTtea^ 

Chearfnlness^ .. .. '- ^ «. Wanu 
The Cheeky - , - : PappaiMu 

^ Chest, .'. - - - , 'P^a* ' 

The Chesty or bo^^ ^ ^ Qfpoo. 

To chewj or eat^ ' - - . Efyw 

Chequered^ orjmMetf m surety Poore^ppore. 
^^Chitkeo^ /: - - ' - " Moa pee'riota. 
ji Chief, or princifalper$onf ^^tfXv^re^ 

thefint rank among ihe people^ i ^^^^* 
Jn i^erior Ghid, or one pAo i$ on^:^ ^ 

kf wm wd^pendeni $iaU, a got- >Tooou. 

tiemMf . •. • - . 3 

Child-^beanog^ ^ . * . ' Fanbii, eVkho. 

^ ^' rStatber^ . OTpiiceiiod^ «»tf Papa. 

(Sisteri Te'tooa. 

31ie Chin^ and fba^jfoa;, • « Ktoo* 

Choaked, to-be'^Maked as with trfc-l c^-^'^-^^o ^i T7^^^^« 
' #tffl&,fcc. - - JEpooiieina,8.Erooy. 

To chnse^ or jnck ouif /- - - Ebeeejte^e^y tyv 

Circumcision; or rather anr incisionl u^.^-*^!, • 

i of the foreskin/ . - - - {Eofite^teluii. . , 

j4 wrt of Ciappersy tued atjimerab. Par baoo. 

Clapping <Ae 6eiu2 of the arm martly ) 

^ mYA ^Ae^ftcfy io IIS /o fiidfce a fiDi^> VE^loU , 

an Indtanautom, - - -^ ^ ' . • ' * 

TAe Claw ^^ &ir4» - * -w Aeeod. ' 

Clay, or clammi^ earth, «. « EwhoOyana* 
Clean, n#f iM»^ c .. ^ . -OomA, s. fioc/e^. 
Clearjptire/'i»')^lMrr«iiler,fcc; 'Tea'-lcL • 
^ff^e c20^tf Cliffs. - '« - ' Kmammatta. . • ' 
Close, tJbr^ / • <- Etahee. 

>* c ^- , '. . * Colth 

I^ififfuige tftkt Sotkfy Ida. a» 

Cloth of any hud, or rtttkv Me d 

vemg or niMmtfmaie of iil, 
A fim <f obhmt Cloth, im m *Ae , 

middU, throng Mnth the head wC^ , 

put, aiid it then ht^ down behind \^^^°**^^ 

ondb^ore, > . . J 

Brown thin Cloth, - . Oe/eroi. 

JJark-bromn Cloib, . _ Too'beeze 

Naakeei^colotvtd Ooib, - Ah«we, 8.*0oa. " 

Gtawwrf Cloth, - , Oofaittaiu 

FeZbv doth - - ^''^R»'*'«*PI»» •. 

Cloth, a iweee of <«m nUfe cfol*>ftMroo'7,ft»«,ttcA„«aM 

9r<^ romdOe watt, or thrownV thm abo aUl a white 

Ov«r the ihotddei^^ - -- j thirt. 
A Cloth>beater, or an olAmg egtatef 

piece of woodgrooved, oMiued in > To'aa. 

mafdne clothes - ■— \ 

3%e CIoUiftla^aMif ^mndb^T^'l g^ 

-4 Cloud, * . ■*. ^»ao,«.Ei». 

^Cock, ..• .:. - Mon^toa. 

-rf Cock-roach, - - Pottepott^"^ 

^Coco»-nat, - -- J^He. 

Cocoa-nut oil, - - tfttde,vle, 

yjocott, leaves, .... - £jie'haoo. 

Coition, . •' . M' EV. 

nemue ^to\i,' ) ^ Ma'ii^e. 

A Comh, . • - - - Rtfhofo, s. Pa'herre, 

Company, aequatntanu,,gtm9$; To'ya. 

U)inphance mth a re^uett, coment, MMlo<»,ho'why. 

tompataUon,or<!Min«i^^fMMi&eiv, Ta'toH. 

^Concubine, - ". ? Wa^hrfno, Moeho, 

Confusedness, without order, Fvaheea. ** °**** 

Couaent, or appnbatUn, - Madoo,ho'whv. 

Coatempt^ « nmte of contempt giveni vtr w ^ 
to a maid, or mmorfied wonum, J " «»«ne,po«rh8. 

Cottvenatiod; • " - S PM««.marOj «; 

i Para'panuMf. 

A sort 


A> Vocabulary qf the 

l^\.»» li 



sort ^Convolvulas, 6r hird^eed, 7 (XXxdo^ ' . v .> '\ i . . ^ 
common in the'islandsy - 3 ^* ^^ • ■. 

Cook'd^ cfrcwy ; «of ra*, - - Ee'oo; «.' Eee^>werft* \ " 

To Cool one with a fans ^ - * i TahaVe^. 

Cordage of any kind, j » Taura. • ' 

J%e Core of an apple, ' - * Boe. 

A Cor k . or stopper of a bottk or sourd 1 r% /. 
shell, . - - ^ jOrabooe.. . 

^ Corner^ . . - - E'pechov 

Covering, the covering ofafsHs gUh, Peee^eyaJ • ^i » 
Coveipusoess, or rather one not in^ 7 j> 

dined to give, ' - - 5 ^^^^V^^^ 

A Cougb^ - r Ma're, 

To Co»rt^ tsfoo.a tmrnan^ ' r Ta'r^ro. •' . 
CofXkef& in a woman, « No'noa«> a 

^ Crab^ •. * -- Pappa. » 

Crab, ^ large hnd-crah **<*' .^'wnjs^g* "^.t - 

/Ae cocoa-nut ireesforfrwi, y -• > .^2" v 

A Cracky cleft, or fissure, - • Motoo. / 

Crammed, lumbered, crowded, *. < . Ooat^peedf^^sMidikA^ 
The Cramp, • / -• Emo'too too. 

A Crajr-fiab, . - r O'oora. 

To Creep on the bands and feet, Etie'M. 

Crimsop coZour, : - 
Cripple, hvne, ; •« 
Crooked, not straight,. 
To cro>!i¥ ^1 a code, 1 -^ '. 

T/ie Crown sjfthe head, * 

To cry, or shed teartp \ * 

A brown Cuckoo, with black bar^andl a , 

a long taily frequent in the isles f 3 
To cuif,' or slap the.thopsj - - ' E'paroo. 
Curlew, a, small cur^ orwhimbrel7r^^'^' •;. • 

found about therizndets,/^ •• . 3 >, _ • * • '* ' 
Cul, or divided, . ; . . I - , . . . .. 
T(> cut the,hair with sfissars^ 

. \ '-'A .- V 

; i D. 

A Dance; . . 
Darkness, « 

To Dam, 

^ DangUter, . . V - 

• .. ■ ■ c 

. Oora^oorflL. 

-Tfi'tft. , •/ *. 

- Ooo'pceoui" 

Too'pooe^ 'i 

- Taee. ,- i 


a » • - ' ^ * 




PoeelivryS) Ppoo^-eei^'.' 

Ma'he/ne, . ^ , , r . 

Language rfthe Society Ides. ' 91 

Day-breakj - - . 'Obta'cah^'ta* 

Day, to-day, * - ' Aoo'nau 

Dead^ - * > Matte* roa. 

A natural Death, - . - Matte noa. 
Deafness, - - - -vs TaVeea, toorf e« 

Decrepid, ... Epoo'kooa. 

Deep water, - - - Mona'. 

A Denial, or refusal,, - - Ehoo'noa. . 
To desire, or tmhf&r a thing, Booee. ' 

A Devil, or eeil ^irii, - E'tee. 

Dew, - - - - Abe'aoo* 

A Diarrbcea, or hoieness, - Hawa, hawa. 

To dip meat in salt water instead qfl g^wec' wo 

salt, (an Indian custom,) - 5 
Dirt, or nastinesi of any kind^. ' E'repo. 

DisapprobaticMi, ' « - -- Ehoonoa. 

A Disease, where the head cannot bel uf^x^ ^^ 

held up, perhaps tie palsifi J '^ * ~ . « f 

To disengage, untie or loosen, - Eaoo'wvt* 
Dishonesty, •: . •- Eee^a. 

JDispleased, to bedispleased, vexed, or\ rj^^jy^ 

m.tie dumps, ' ii • - - - • J- ^^ ;•::•., 

Disa^tistBciioUf^o grumble, <tr be di9»\ p , . i \ 

satined, :nw''\ - - jraoooue. 

Distant, /ar q^, '•' . - • -- Riia. 
Ta»iiiJAioit^ or.'writhefthelinASf bodyA-p ,. , 

Upf^i^c. - ^ jraeeia, 

7o distribute, cfotib or sAare «ti^, • Atoo^ba. ' ., , ;. 
^District, . . V . - MatMna. * 

j< Ditch, - : - - i.. -Eo'boo.' . v 

To dxye under mater, • . Ebo^poo.) ' 

AJioz, * ^ T - Oo'tee. 

A Dofl made ofcdeoa^plants, - Adoo'a. ' . . . 

^Dolphin, '- -v\^ A'vuusl. 

Done, ham done; orthatisen€ngh,\ *, 

or there is no more, - ; J Aieera, 

A Door, - - - ^ Oo'boota* 

Pouble, or when two things are in\ rr«„/^^^„ 

one, as a double canoe, -* 3 ; 

Dovrn, or soft hair^ .. - .9 E'waou. \ 

To draw a bow, «- <- Etea. v* 




A VoeabiUdiy of the 

To^raif, or dragM Wng by farce, 
Dv&aidyOrfear, \ - "* - 
Dress'di at cooked, not raw, - - 
J head Dress^ toed ni funerals. 
To dressj orpyJtonthe cloaths. 
To Atmk, . - ' . * 

Drop^ amngh drop cfany liquid. 
To QTopf or kaki ^ - 
Drops, as drop of nun. 
Drowned, . • ^ — ^ 

A Drum, 

Diy, not wet, * - 

A Duck, '^ * 
A Dug, teai, or nipple, / - 
Dumbness^ . - \ ' » 

The Ear, 

The inside of the Ear,' ' 

An Ear-rinff, * - !^ 

To eat, or cnm, ** ^ 

An Echinus, or sen^-egg, 

Echo, - - 

An Egg of a bird, - 

-4 ©At^c Egg-bird, 


The Elbow, • ** * ^ 


jrfn Enemy, 

Entire, whole,,not broke. 





Pa^raee. , 

£i£,hau'hooo t'Aboo» 



Eto'tooroo, s. E'tooKOO. 


Parre'fflOk . 



Mora. ' 

» • » > \. 



Poenote tareea. . 

E'y, 8«.Maa. 

Heawy. . 


Ehooeio tcManoo^ 

A'waroo. , 
Too^ree, . . ; 
OoidAtaf ao, & Tiitafooa^ 
Taata'e. . t • 

Eta, £ta^ . 
0#by'tei. , 

^ i. 


Erect, tprig^ht; 
A Euphorbium tree, mth white flowers, T^tdOBe. . 

The Evening, . - -^ - . Ooobotliot. 

Bscrement, > - Too^* 

To expand, or spread out cloth, Ifc. Ho'honu , 

IftcEye, - / 0i\ Matta^ 

The Eye-brow; and eye^ilid, - - Tooayniatta. 

' ■« , 

I « 1. 


The Face, - - - • , E'jnoteea. 

To hide or hold the Face tuBMf, <i*}.VAtt>/«rai 
tDkeHoOamed, - - ^'««e«wai. 



Xoiijgif^ oftht So&agldeu 


'Facetious^ imr»y. 

Fainting, tofami, » 


Feiae, noi true, -^ 

A Fan, or to fan iheface or cooi it. 

To fart, or a fart, 

Fat,/iia ofjkth, IriKfy, 

The Fat ^masf^ 

^ Father, 

A stq^tBiher, 

Fatigued, tired, 

Fear, - - - 

A Feather, or quSl, « « 

JRccI Feathers, 

Feebleness, weakness. 

The sense of Feeling, 


F^tU atU. 
Ha'wacre. . 

Medooa taiine* 
Tanne, te boa. 
Elimtt, s. Faea. 

Hooroo,^r9o, mano*. 
Ora, hooroo te manoo* 
Fara'ra, s. Tooro're^. 

^ ywmg clever dexter ous Fellow, or boy, Te'my de pa'aree. 

The Female kind cfamf animal, '^' * 

IT^e Fern-tree^ 

FertUe /Inml, * - 

Fetch, gofeteh it, 

Vew in number, . 

To fight, 

A FUIip, with thejingers, 

TheYinofafak, - 

To finish, or mefo an endf 

A Finger, 

Fire, - - - 


A green jlat Fish, 

A yellow flat Vnh, 

A Jlat gree^ and red Fish, 

The ciickoU ¥iih, 

A Fish, - - - ^ 

Fisbinj^ wall for hauling the seine at') £ 

the first point, - * 5 

^ Fish po^, - - - £'wlia» 

A Zofif Fishing rod of Bamboo, used7 jj^'keerar 

to catch bonettoes, c^e. .. *- 5 

^ Fissure, or crocft, * • Motoo. 
Wist, fo <y^ the f St, - - Ma'borai. 

Fist, kriklug with the fist in dandr^^ A^inal«^: 
















04 A Vjocabviary (f tbc * 

^^y Flapper, or *ojfcp/i«, - Dahe^eie e'jMwite- 
Flatness, applied to a nose,- or a vm-l 
sel broad and flat ; dho a spreading > Papa. 

flat topt tree, - - 3 ^ , 

A red ¥\e9h mark, - E^Ma. 

To fio^t on thefaee of the water, Pa'noo. 

The'BXoviexofapiafa, - Pooa. 

(feen Flowers, - - TemrCoo wa. 

Flowers, ®A«te odbri/eroMS ^owrs,7 ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Flown, it isflown or gone away, Ma'houta*. 

^ Flute - - " Weewo. . 

A MicAFly-catcber, a bird so caUed, Omamao. 

jf Fly — • - Poore'hcioa* 

To fiy, a$ a bird, - - - Hraire. 

Fog, or mist, - - R/poeea. 

To fold tip a thing, as cloth, kc. He'fetoo. . ; - 

A ¥oo\, scqundrd, or other epithet oO Yg^/^i^jj^. 

contempt, - - -^ m 

The Vooi, or 9ok of the foot^ - Tapooy. 

TAe Forehead, - - E'rj^. 

Forgot, or lost inmemori/, - Oo aro* 

Jo^, dirty, nasty, - - :Erepo. 

^Fowi, . - - _- ^-«; 

lour, ^ ^ ' A u- 

TAe Frapping <f a flute, - Ahea. 

Freckles, *^ - *,»*«». 

Tresh,iio^Mft, - - Eanna,anna.. 

Friction, rubbing, - - E'<>o ee. 

Friend, a wefAod of addressing al gj^jj^^ 

stranger, - " j " 4 

^ Ifartunilar Friend, or *Ae «a/M/a^7 gfapatle. 

^ion *o him, . . . - 3 ' 

To hhk, to wanton^ to play, - bhanne. 
From Mere, - - - No,reira, s. No,reida. 

rtom without, - - - l^o,waho'oo. 
From before, - - No,mooa. 

Fruit, - - 'Hoo^ero. 

Peifttwe Fruit, froin Tethuroa, « | Hooero te irianob. - 

small island, - 3 

A yellow Fruit, B*e a large plumb 7 ^^^^^^ 

tt?iVA a rough core, -- i ^ .; 

Full, sati^dwith eating, . - Py a,8.0o'pya,8/Paya. 

Language of the Saddy Ides* 
A FanincnluB^ or a mwll hard bail, Apoo. 


A Garland of flymen. 

Generosity^ beMooknce, 

A Gimblet^ • 


A G\x\, or tfouttg woman, 

A Girthing manufacture. 

To give a thing, 

A hoking-GlBMB, * - 

A Glutton^ or ^reat eater, 

f AJvouioo,^. ^routoo 

HoVoa. , },\ , 
EhoW , v 
Ta'tooa. . 

Hoa'too*' ' 
Heeo'eeota* > 

f Taata A'ee, b. 
c Era'poa uooe* 
To go, or mooefrom where you Uahd,\ o 
to walk, - - jwarre. 

To go, or leave a place, 

Go, begone, make haste and do it, 

Go and fetch it. 

Good, it is good, it is nery well, ^ 


A Grandfather^ 

A Great-grandfather, ^ 

A Great great-grandfather, 

A Grandson, 

To gx9A^ with the hand, - 

Grasping the antagonist's thigh when\ m 
dancing, - - J ^"??' 

^ Wr^ "" '^ -^"f **^} Ant/ooho. 

To grate cocoa-nut kernel, ~ 

Greati large, big, 

Green colour, ^ 

To groan. 

The groin. 

To grow as a plant, S^c. 

To grunty or strain. 

The blind Gut, 

ITie Guts of any animal. 

Era'wa. - 
At^e. . 

f My'ty, s. Myty,tyej 

1 8. Mig^tay. 
Mama'hou, s, NleJ£O0. 
Tooboona tabe'boo. 
Hara'waai. ' 

Ara'hai, . 
Poore poore* 

The Um of the head, 


E'roroo, s. E'rohooroo. 


96 A VocMknf^thi 

Gfftf Hair, « ^ Hinnalieinai^ 

JUa Hair, or a red-'headed num, Fboo. 

Curled Pair, • -< Peepec. 

Woolfytnzded Hair, - Oe'tocto. 

To pM tie Urn, •* EVoira. 

Hair, IJedC on ^AecnNTii of ^AeAeaif, E'poote* 

Half ^019 tAti^, ' - Papeete. 

A Hammer, - - Eterte. 

Hammer it ant, • - - Ato</bianoa» 

The Hand, - - E'reema. 

A deformed Hand, - TeeWoi. 

A motion v^h the Hand tn dandngf (Vne c/ne« 

A Harangue, or speech, « Oraro. 

A Harbour, or anchoring'flace, Too'toti. 

Hardness, - - E[ta^ta, 

A Hatchet, axe, or adze, « Toe. 

He, - • r ' Nana, 

IfteHead, • - Oc/po. 

A thorn Head, - - E'voiwu 
The Head-ache, tn comegiunce ofl Eanrfn€€a. 

drunkenness, - 3 

TSe lenM of Hearing, - Faro. 

3%e Heart ^on ontma/, - -> A'boutoo. 

netit, warmth, - ^ Mahanna,hanna; 

Heavy, not light, • * Tfima'ha. 

The sea Hedge-hog, - Totera. 

A blue Heron, - • Otoo. 

^v^Ve Heron, - - Tro'pappa. 

To hew with an axe, - ^ Teraee. 
Hibiscns, the snuUkit species of Hibie^ ^ 

cus, with rough seed cases, that adr V P€ere,peere. 

here to the clothes in waOckig, j 
Hibiscus, a species of Hibiscus withl p^j^^^j,^ 

large ydbw flowers, - 3 

The Hiccup, - *^ Eioo'ee, s. Eoo^wha* 

Hide, to hide a thing, - Efhoona. 

High, or s^eg?^ - - Mato. 

. TT-11 ^ • ( Maoo, s. Ma^a. i# 

A Uili, or mowaatn, - ^ Mcma, 

One^tree H\l\, a hill so called in MofX ^^t^^^^ 

tavai Bay, - • J * 

To hinder, or present, - Tapea. 

TAcHips, - - E'tohe. 




Hips, the black pmctuated part oA m^^ .,^^^ 
-IT* r * «nio roil* 

t/ie hips^ " " J 

To hit a mark 9 - - Ele'baoif, s. Wa'poata* 

Hiss, to luss or hold out thejinger ctlwf «. 

one, - - ^ ,^ .. 

Hoarseness^ - - E'fio. 

ji Hog, - - Boa. 

To holdfast, - - Mou. 

Hold uour tongue^ be quiet or &lent^ Ma'inoo. 
A Hole, OS ft gimblet hole in wood^ Sfc. E'rooa, s. Poota. 
To hollow, or cri^ aloud to one^ - Toq'o. 
To keqp at Home, - - Ate'ei te Efarre. 

Honesty, - - Eea'oure. 

A fish Hool^, - , • Md!iau. 

A fish Hook of a particular sort, Weete,wtfele. 

The Horizon, 

Hot, or sultry air, it is very hot, 
A House, 
A House of office, 
A large House, 
A House on propSf 
An industrious Uoasewife, 
How do yoUf or hem is it with you. 
Humorous,^ Jro//, merry. 
A Hut, or house. 

E'paee, no t'Era^e. 


E'farre, s. Kwharre, 




Ma'heme Amaji'hattoi 



Poro'rec, s. Po^e'a. 



I, mysdf, first person singular ^ 
The lower Jaw, 
Idle, or lazy. 

Jealousy in a woman, 

Jgnoxdknce, stupidity, , - 

Ill-natured, cross^ 

An Image of a hmnanfigtire. 

Imps, the yotmg imps, 

Immature, unripe, as unripe fruit. 

Immediately, instantly. 

Immense, tery large. 

Incest, or incestuous. 

Indigent, poor, necessitous, -^ 

Indolence, laziness, 



CTa'boone, s. Fatee 
(^ no, fi. Hoo'hy, 
Oore, e'ecore. 
E'tee. . 



A Vocabulary of the 

Industry, opposed to idkness. 
Inhospitable, ungenerous j 
To inform, - - 

A sort of Ink, used to punctuate, 
An inquisitive tattling woman. 
To interrogate,' or ask questions, - 
To invert, or turn upside down, 
An Islet, - - . 

The Itch, an itching of any sort. 
To Jump, or kap. 

Keep it to yourself, 
The Kernel of a cocoa-nut. 
To kick with the foot. 
The Kidnies, - - - 

Killed, dead, - - - 

To kindle, o^ light up, 
A King, - - - 

A I^ing-fisher, the pird so called. 
To kiss, - - - 

Kile, a boy's play-kite. 
The Knee, - r 

To kneel, - - - 

A Knot, « - - 

A double Knot, 

The female Knotformed on the upper 
part of the garment, and on one 

sid£, - 

To know, or understand, 
The ;^nuckle, or join/ of the fingers, 





Maheine Opotaieehui 


£'boora» tela'why. 

Mo'too. * 


Mahofita, s. Araire* 

















To labour, or WQrk, 

A Ladder, 

A Lagoon, 

Lame, cripple, 

A Lance, or ^ear. 

Land in general, a country, 

Language, speech, words, 

Jianguage, used when dtmcing, 



Era'a, s. E^ara. 
Ewba'ouna, s. Ea'ouna 

Fe'nooa, s. Whe'nooa. 

CTimoro'd^tf, teTi- 
\ moxofdee. 


Language of the Sodety Jdes. 


LargeDess^ when applied to u coun-l 
try.t^c. - - 5 

To laugh, . - 


Lean, the lean (^meat, 
Leaoi slendeij^not fleshy. 
To leap, - • - 

Leave it behindf let it remain, 
To leave. 
The Leg, 

^pegs, my legs ache^ or are tired, 
A Liar, - - - 

To lie down, or along, to rest one's se^f 
To liflt a thing up, ^ 

Day Light, - - , 

Light, orjire of the great people. 
Light, orjire of the common people, 
Light, to light or kindle ihefir&, 
Light, not Atfai^, 
Lightning, - - , 

The Lips, 

■LtfAe, small, - - 

u^, Lizard, ^ - - 

Loathsome) nauseom^ 
A sort of hoh%ter, frequent in the isles, 
To loll aboutt or be lazy. 
To loll out the tongue. 
To lookypf a thing that is lost, 
A Looking-glass, 
Loose, m4 secure, 
A Looseness of purging, 
. To love, . * 
A Lover, courtier, wooer, 
A Louse, . - 

Low, not high, as low land, S^c» 

The Lpngs, 

Lusty, fit, fuU of flesh. 







Ma'hotita, s. A'rere* 






Ete'raba, s. Te^poo. 





A'toonoo t'Eee'wera. 









Ewha'toroo t*Arere, 








C H'ea,hea, 8. Papoo,, 

/ Ee^oa. 


A Maid, or young woman^ 




» • •• -^ w 


A Vocabulary of the 

To make the bed. 

The Male of any animal, male kind, 

A Man, - - 

An indisposed or insincere Man, 

A Msih'of'War bird. 

Many, a great number, 

A black Mark on the skin. 
Married; as a married man, 
A Mat, - - 

A silky kind ofM%i, 
A rough sort o/Ma,t, cut in the wiid-^ p . 
dk to admit the head, - ^^oorxou. 

A Mast of a ship or boat. 
Mature, ripe ; as ripe fruit, 
Me, /, 

A Measure, - ^ 

To mtosaxe a thing. 
To meet one. 

Ho'hora, te Mbe'ya. 


Taata, s. Taane. 



Wo'rou,wo'rou, s. 
manoo, manoo. 



Para, 8. Pe. 
Wow, s. Mee. 

To melt, or dasohe a thing, as grease, ? rp ^ . 
fyc. - - 5 ' 

The middle, or midst of a thing, 

To mince, or 4;ut sjmli, 
,Mine, it is mine, or belongs to me. 
To miss, not to hit u thing. 
Mist, orfog^ - - . 

To mix things together, *« 

To mock or sctffat one. 
Moist, wei, 
A Mole uqp&n the skin, 
A lunar Month, - 

A Monument to fhe dead. 
The Moon, 
The Morning, 

The day after io-morrow. 
The second day after fo-morrow, 
A Moth, - ^■ 

A Mother, - - - 

A motherly, or elderly woman, 

Teropoo. . 















Bo'bo, s. A,Bo'bo. 

A'bo^bo doora, 



Pa'tea^ : 


Language tfthe Society Ides* 


MotioD, opposed to testy • Ooa'ta. 

A MountaiD^ or hill, - Maooa, s« Moua« 

Mountains t^ the highesi order, Mousl tei'tei. 

Mountains ^tke second order, Motia 'haba. 

Mountains of the tUrd or lowest order, Pere'raot/. 
Mourning, * - - 'JEeva. 

Mourning leates, tnz. those oftheca^lrr^, 

rha^trpp.^ iispd fnr thnt nuriansp. i 4^ * 

coa-tree, used for that purpose, y 

Wo'rou, wo'roa. 
Matte, s. matte rpa, 
Taata toa. 


The Mouth, 

To open the Mouth, 

Ji Multitude, or vaU number. 

Murdered, killed, 

A Murderer, 

A Muscle-shelly 

Music ofahjif hind, 

A Musket, pistol, orjire-arms of any 1 t> • -d ' 

kind, ^ . ^ . / 5^JPoo,poo,s.Poo. 

Mute, silent, . - - Fatebooa. 

To mutter, or stammer, - £^whaoti. 

Ihe Nail of the fingers^ - Ae^oo. 

A Nail of iron, - ^ - Eure. 

Naked, i. e. mth the clothes off, un- 7j>n 

The Name of a thing, . - 
Narrow, strait, not wide, 
Nasty, dirtiff not clean, 
A Native, 
The Neck, 
A fishing Net, 
New, young, sound, 

Night,. , - 
2<>-Night, or to^ay at nighty 
Black Night*sA^^^ 

The Nipple of the break. 
A Nit, 

Noj a negation, i- 


Pecre,peere. . 







Poto, s. Whatta^a. 

Po, s. E'aoo. 

A'oone te' Po* 






lOQ, A Vocabulary ofthi 

To nod, - - A!Umou. 

Noisy, chattering, impertinent, Emoo. 

Noon, - - - Wawa'tea, 

TAe Nostrils, . - . Popo'heo. 

Numeration; or counting of numbers, Ta'tou. 
A cocoa Nut, - - Aree. 

A large compressed Nut, that tastes! ^ ^ 
/ Uhe chcsnuts when roasted^ - 3 ^ * 


Obesity, corpukrice, - Oo'pe^a. 

The Ocean, - . Ty, s. Meede. 

Odoriferous, sweet-smelled, - No'noa. 

Perfumed Oil they put on the hair, Mo^noe. 
An Ointment, plaister, or any thingl p/ • / ' 

that heals or relates to medicine, J ^^ 9^00. 
Old, - - - Ora'wheva. 

One, - - • A'tahai. 

Open, c/ear, spacious, - Ea'tea. 

Open, not shut, *- • Fe'rtt, 

To open, - - ^ - Te'haddoo. 

Opposite to, oroter against, - . Wetoo'wheitte. 
Order, in good order, regular, mth-^ WaraVara 

out confusion, - 3 

Ornament, dnj/ Ornament for the ear, Tooee ta'reea. 
Burial Orn^merits, viz. nine wotVs7 ^^ , ,;^. 

stuck in the ground, - ^^^ ^^^ wnarre. 

An Orphan, . - - Oo'hoppe, poo^aia^* 

Out, not in, not within, * Tciwe'no. 

The Outside of a thing, - Ooa'pee* 

An Oven in the ground, - Eoo'moo. 

Over, besides, more than the quantity, Te'harra. 
To overcome, or conquer, - E'ma'ooma. 

.7b overturn, or oversei, - Eha'paoo. 

An Owner, - - ^ - E'whattoo. 

A large ipecies of Oyster, - I't^ca. 

The large rough Oyster, or Spondylus, Paho'oat 


The Paddle of a canoe, or to paddle, E'boe. 
To paddle a canons head to the right. What' tea. 
To paddle a canoe*s head to the left, Wemma^ 
JPaiu; or ioreness, tHc sense of pain, Ma'ay* 



Language of the Society Ides, 103 

A Pair, or two of any thing together^ Ano'ho, 

The Palate, - - E'ta'nea. 

The Palm of the hand^ - Apoo\eemsi. 

To Panrt, or breathe quickly, - Oo'pou'poa,tea'ho* 

Pap, or chikfsfood, - - Mamma. 

A Parent, - - . Me'dooa. 

j1 small blue Parroquet, - E'vecaec. 

A green Parroquet, with a redforC" ? -n, , 
1 jr r* Jui a a* 

head, - - - 3 

The Part belm the tongue, - Eta'raro. 

A Partition, division, or scteen, Paroo'roo. 

A Pass, or strait, - , - £,aree''ea. 

A fermented Piiste, of breads fruit, *) lyjg^^u - 

and others, - - 5 

A Path, or roacl, - - E'a'ra. 

The Pavement before a house or hiu, Pye,pye. 
A Pearl, - - Ppe. 

The Peduncle, and stalk of a plant, A'm'aa, s. E'atta. 
To peel, or take the skin off a cocoa-7 ^, ^ g, 

nut, o{c. - -f 3 

Peeled, it is peeled^ - - Me'ateif. 

A Peg /o Aaiig a hag on, - Te'aoo. 

A Pepper-plaril, jfrom the root ofl 

which they prepare an inebriating > Awa. 

liquor, . - 3 

Perhaps, it may be so, - E'pa'ha. , 

Pfsrsons of distinction, - Patoo'nehe. 

A Petticoat ofplantane leaves, AArou'maieea. 

Petty, small, triflirig, opposed to Nooe, Ree. 

Pick, ^0 picA or choose, - - Ehec te mai my ty. 

-4 large wood Pigeon, - Eroope. 

A large green ana white Pigeon, Oo'oopa. 

A small block and white Pigeon J Oooowy'deroo. 

zmth purple wings, ""J 

A Pimple, - - Hooa'hoMa. 

To Pinch mth thefngers, - Ooma, 

-4 Plain, or^t, - E'pecho. 

Plane, smooth, - - Pa'eea, 

A Plant of iiity kind, , - - O'md. 
A small Plant, - - E'rabo. 

The fruit of a Plantane-tree - T^aieei,, s. Maya. 


104 A Vocabulary of the 

Horse Plantanes, - - Taiee, 

Pleased, good humoured, not cross orl \/r^^^ 

surly, - - - 3 

Pluck it up9 - - Arfete. 

To pluck hairs from the beard, Hoohootee. 

To plunge a tfiing in the water, E^oo'whee. 

The Point of any, thing, - Oe,oe, or Oi,oi. 

[poison, bitter, - - Awa,awa* 

^PoU, - - - Oora'hoo. 

Poor, indigent, not rich, - Te^Xee. 

A bottle^nosed Porpoise, • E'oua. 

Street Potatoes, - - Oo'ra arra. 

To pour out any liquid substance, Ma'oee. 

Pregnant with young, - - Waha'poo. 
3b press, or saueeze the fefs g^^^lyX-Of^ffj 

with the handy when tired or pained, 3 
Prick, to prick up the ears^ - Eoma te ta'ree. 

' A Priest, - - Ta'hotia. 

Prone, or face downwards, - Tcc^opa. 

A sort 0/ Pudding, made of fruits,! p / / 

oil,Sfc. - - jropoee. 

Pumpkins, - - Ahooa^ 

To puke, or vomit, - - E'awa, s. e'rot/y. 

Tuve, clear, - - EWee. 

A Purging, or looseness, - Hawa,hawa. 

To pursae, and catch a person who 1 g, g, ^^ Eha'ro*. 
has dane some mischief, - j #»-t w, 9. x^uo iww. 

To push a thing with the hand, Too'raee* 

Vut it tq>, or away, - Orno. 

Q. . 

Quickness, briskness, - • - E'tirre. 

To walk quicjciy, - - Harre'neina, 

Quietness, silence, a silent or seem- \-u u *u 

ingly thoughtful person, - j ""^ ^^^*- 

A Qixiyerfor holding arrows, 'Peeha. 


A small black Rail, with red eyes, Maiho. ^ 

A small black Rail, spotted and burredl p / 

with white, • * - 3 * ^* "^* 

Rain, '- - E'ooa. 

-4 Rainbow, - - E'nooa. 


Language of the Society Itks* 

Raft^ a rajt of bamboo, - Mutto'e. 

Kank, ftrong, urinous, -^ Ewao wao. 

A Rasp^ orfile, - - Ooee. 

A Rat, - - 'Yorce, b. Ejore, 

Raw meat, JUnh that is not dressed or\ p^^*. 

tooked, • • J 

Raw fruit, as plantanes, S^c. thai are I p«-Q^-g^ 

not baked, - *• J 

To recline, or lean upon a tidng, 
Red colour, 
To reef a sail, 
A Refusal, 

The Remaindef of any thing. 
To rend, burst, or splits « 

Rent, cracked, or torn, ' - 
To reside^ live, or dwell. 
Respiration, breathing, 
Rich, wo^ poor, having plenty of^^, 

goods^ ifc. - - 5 "r * 

^ King, - » 

The Ringworm, a diseojse so called. 

Ripe, as ripe fruit, 8^c. 

Itise^ to rise un. 

To rive, or split, 

A Road, or path. 

Roasted, or broiled, 

A Robber, or thief, 

A Rock; 

A reef of Rocks, 

Rolling, the rolling of a ship, 

A Root, 

A Rope ^of any kind, - * 

Rotten, as rotten fruit, S^c» 

Rough, not smooth. 

To row mth oars. 

To rnh a thing, as in washing the handsl tt / 

anUjacc, " * J 

The Rudder of a boat, or steeringl ^^ ^ ,^ 

paddle of a canoe, - 3 

Running backwards and forwards,") q , . 

endeavourif^ to escape, - y ^ ataponc* 



Oora,oora, s. Matde. 

ETpo'uie te ^ya« 







A/ ••• 


f Para, s. Pai^ s. Oo0 

1 ^ai. 

E^e^a (taata. 
Apoo, s. Ea. 
. Ta'rra, tarra. 
Eoome, s, E'hoQ« 



A Focabtdary of the 

nk Sail of a ship or boat. 
To sail, or to be under sail. 
Salty or salt water. 
Sand, dust, 

Saunders's island, 
A Saw, - - - 

A Scabi - - . 

AjiMs Scale or Kales, 
A fair ^Scissars, 

A Scoop, to. empty water from a canoe. 
To scrape a thing, - - - 
I'o scratch with the fingers, 
Scratched, a scratched metal, S^c* 
The Sea-cat, a fish so called. 
The Sea, - - - 


A Seam between (wo planks. 
To sesLTchfor a thing that is lost, 
A Seat, . _ . 

jSecret, a secret whispering, or slan-\ 
dering another, " * 3 

The Seed of a plant, - 

The seme g/^ seeing. 
To send, - - . - 

A Sepulchre, or burying-place, 
A Servant, 

Seven, - - - - 

To sew, or string, 
Seyne, to haul a seyne, 

Shftdy, - . - 

2b thake, or agitate a thing, 
A Shark, 
Sharp, not blunt, -* . 

To shaVe, br take off the beard, 

A small Shell, 
A tyger Shell, 
Shew it mt^ 
A Ship, 



T/ty, s. Meede. 



Tabooa, Manoo. 




(ytoobo, s.- (y toboo* 






Tare, s. Meede. 



Oo, 8. Pae'fliee. 










Etoroo te paia. 





r EvaVoo, s. Whanne^ 

t 'whanne. 






Language of the Sodtty Isks. 


Shipwreck, -^ 

A white Shirt, 

To shiver with cold. 

Mud Shoes, or fishing shoes, 

The Shore, 

Short, * » 

Shut, not open. 


The left Side^ 

The Side, 

The right^ifi^. 



Similar, or alike, 

T6 sink, 

A Sister, 

To sxtdown. 

To sit cross-l^^d, 


A Skate-fish, 

The Skin, 


To sleep, *• 

The long Steep, or death. 

To sleep, when sittingf 

A Sling, 


Small, little, 

file sense of smelling. 

Smell itf 

To smell, - - ^ 

Smoke, - ' - 







Pp^poteo. . 

Opa'nee, s. Poo'peepe^ 

Matte my Mamy. 
















Moe roa. 



Marra,marrpa, s. Fate* 

f Fata' too, s. 

\ Ootoo,too,too» 





Smutting the face with charcoal fori ^^^^l^ 
funerm ceremonies, • j r P • ^ 

A sea Snake, that has alternate rings 7 d ^. . 
of a white and black colour, ^ 5 Poo^eC^roo 

To snatch a thing hastily ^ - E'hairoo* 

Sneezing, - - " . " Machec'diV 

Snipe, a bird resembling a smpe, if") ^p^g/^^- 
a black and brown colour, y 


208 ^ Focabtdaty of the 


Snot, - - ^ 'Hoope. 

Soberness, iobriefy, sober, not givenl j^^^^g^^ 

to drunkenness, ^ J 

To soften, - • Eparoo'paroo* 

Softness, that is, not hard, - Maroo. 
The Sole of the foot, • Tapoo'y. 

^Son, - • My'de. 

Jt Son-in-law, - • Hoo'noa. 

^Song, - - Heeva. 

^ Sore, or ttfcer, • - CXpai. 

Soreness, or |iai«, - • Ma'may. . 

Sound, any sound that ^rikes the ear, Pa'eena. 
ujf Span, - - Ewhaeono. 

To speak, - - - Paraou. . 

Speak ; he speaks not from the heart, 7 Neeate ootoo te parou 

his txDords are only on his lips, $ no nona. 

A Spear, or lance, - - Tao* 

To spill, - - Emare, 

To spit, . - • Too'tooa. 

To spread, or to expand a thing, as\ Uo/jjoj-a, 

cloth, S^c, •• • 3 

To squeeze, or press hatd, - Ne/neee. 

To squeeze, or press gently wUh the hand, Roro'mee. 

Squint-eyetf, - - Matta'areva. 

Afghting Stage in a boat, - E'tootec^ 

To stamp with the feet, to trample o»l Tata'hy. 

♦ a thing, • - J 

Stand up, - • Atearenona. 

A Star, • - - • E'faitoo, s. Hwettoo» 

A Star-fish, - - Everee. 

To startle, as when one dreams, Wa'hee, te'dirre. 

Slay, or wait a little, • - A'rr ea, s. Are^ana. 

To steal, - - 'Woreedo. 

Steep, as steep r/Kks, or cliffs, • Mato. 

A walking Stick, - -^ Tame^ 

Stinking, ill-smeUed, as stinking a^aO Na^^^^, s. Ne^ne^o. 

ter,l^{:. - - > 

Stink, to stink or smell ill, - Vou, ton. 

To stink, as excrement, - - Pecro,peero* 
TAe Stomachy - * Taraee'a. 

^ Stone, - - Owhay. 

A polished Stone, used to beat tictualsl p^^'jjj^^ 

into a paste, - - - j 


Language of the Society Ides. 


Stones^ ^night stones which vtand on\ 
the paved area before huts, j 

A small Stool^ to lay the head on when 7 
adeq^, - - 3 

Stool, to go to ^ool. 

To stop, t: 

Tlie Stopper of a quiver, 
A Storm of wind, rain, thunder, S^c* 
Strait, narrow, not wide, 
Striking, hollow striking in dancing. 
The String of a quiver. 
Strong, £15 a sirong man. 
Struck, - ^ - - 
Stupidity, igmorance^ 
To suck as a child. 
Sugar cane, «- • 

Suicide, ~ - • <» 
Sultry, or hot air, 

TTie meridian Sun, 
Supine, ^ing, . « « 
Surf (f the sea. 

An interjection ^Surprise, or admi^X 
ration, - - J 

To surround. 

To swallow, - • ^ * 
The Sweat of the body, or to meat, 
A sweet toMie, 
SyftW of the sea, - •* 


Papa, s. Papa,rooA« 












E'To, s. Too. 



Mahanna, s. Era. 

Tei'n^ea te Mahanna. 






E!\iou, s. Eliotf hcMf. 



A Tail, 

A Tail if a bird. 

To take afrusnd by the hand, 

Totake (^, or unloose. 

To take care of the victuab, 

To talk, or converse, 

I%e sense of tasting, «- 

A Te to turn, or whirligig, 

To tear a thing, 

A Teat, or dug, 

TheTteihi • ^ 

Ten, . 






Ewhaapoo le 




Ha'hy, i . Whatte. 






A Vocabulary of ike 

To tend, or feed hogs. 
Tenants, - . ^ - 

A black Tern^ with a whituh head, 
There, - . , 

They, them, or theirs. 
Thickness, applied to solid bodies. 
Thick, 115 thick cloth, S^c. 
Thick, muddy. 

Thine, it i$ yours, or belongs to you. 

Thoughts, . - ^ 

An appearance of thonghtfulnessj 
Three, r 

The Throat, ^ 

To throw, or heave a thing, 
. To throw a thing away. 
To throw a ball, * 

To throw a lance. 
Throw, shaU 1 throw it. 
Throwing in dancing, 
ara^ Thumb, -r . 

Ewiaee te Boa. 



Te'raee. - 




Ewore'roOjS. Eworep«u 

No 6e. 


Paraoti, no te o'poo* 


Toroo. - 














Tickle, to tickle a person, 
A Tide, or current. 
To tie a knot. 

Time, a space of time, from 6 to lOl (y tooe,tee'po, 
<tf night, - - } ' ^ ' 

Time, a little time, a small space, Popo'etfaoo. 
Time, a long tit^e, a great whikr Ta'mqo. 
A Title belonging to a woman of rank, E'tapay'roq. 

A Too of the foot,^ 


The Tongue, r, .. 

A Tortoise^ . - 

Touching, . • •• 

A Town, 







E'farre paoto poato^. 

Tata'he, s. TaWhy^ 


To trample tanth the f oof, . '^ 
A Tree, . - - 

A Trep, from which they make clubs,! ^jj^ r^^-^^^ 
spears, S^c. - - 3 ; 

4 fo tremble^ or shudder with cold, Ooa'titte, tj^^ 


Language of the Society Isles* 


Tremblingj shaking, 

To trip one up in wrestUngf 


Truth, ' * - 

To tumble, 
A Turban, 


f Evaee'j oa> s. Paraou, 

I mow. 
- • Poiita'heite. 
E't'ae. ^ 

To turn, or turnedy 

^"^ forwards *" ''''^^^•^ ^^^^^^'^ ««^ J Hooaeepeepe. 

Twins, twin children, 
To twist a rope. 


An Ulcer, or sore, - * 

Under, below, low down, 
Under saily - 

To understand, -> •^ 

To undress, or take off the clothes. 
An unmarried person. 
Unripe, as unripe fruit, ^c. 


Luminous Vapour, 

Vassal) or subject. 

Vast, - . - 

The Veins that run under the skin, 










Aree^ oi. 



A ra,haf ,s. Mof ^ara'hai. 
- Tou^xooa. 

Vessel, any hollow vessel, as cups ifl j-,. • 
nuts, S^c, - 3 ^* 

Vessel, a hollow vessel in which they, 1 rk * 
prepare an inebriating liquor, j ^" "»""«' 

To vomit, _ - - Eroo'y. 

Wad, tow,Jibres like hemp, 

Wait, stay a little, 

Wake, awake. 

To walk out, . - 

To walk backwards and forwards. 



Arra arra, s. £ra« 



A Warrior, soldier, or rather a man- ") t^ * ^'• 
hlUr, - - . JTaatatoa. 



A Vocabulary oftif 

Warmth, iea/> r 

J Wart, 

To wash, a$ to wash chih in water. 

To watch, - r 

Water, - - 


We, both (^us, 

A wedge. 

To weep, or cry. 

Well recovered, or well escaped, 

Well, it is well, charming, fine. 

What, what's that. 







Taooa, s. Avoo'xoqsu 


Ha n6a,a,taee. 

Woura, s. woo,ara^ 


E'hara, E'ha^rya, ». 
haeen, expresf" 

f E'hara 
} Ye;i 
^ ed it 


What do you call that, what is thel q ^^ 

name of it, ♦ - 5 

When, at what time,- - - W'heea. 

Where fsi^, - - TeVea. 

Whet, to whet or sharp a thing, ETvoee. 

r» whistle, - - Ma'ppo. 

Whistling, a method of whistUng tol ig^^^^^ 

call the people to meals, - 3 *^ ' 
To whisper secretly, as in backbi-l qi^^/^^^ 

tingfS^c. - •• 4' 

Who U that, what is he cam, - {^S^^i^n J' 
Whole, the whole,not a part (^ a thing, E'ta,e'tea, s. A'mao()» 

Wide, not strait or narrow, 

A Widow, 

Wife, my wife, f 

The Wind, - - 

The southeast Wind, 

A Window, 

The Wing of a bird, 

To wink, - 

To wipe a thing clean, r 

Wish, a wish to one who sneezes, 

Within side, 

A Woman, - r 

A married Woman, 






Ma'laee ou'pane^* 




Eva'rotia t Eatpoa^ 
Tee'ro to. 
Wa'heine mou. 

Woman, «Ae is a marriedwman, «*el Tena.lanne. 
has eot another htaoatta, - J 


• * 

« • 

• • 

« • 

'Sea, from Easier Island, Westward to New Caledoida, 

fewZcdaiid. MaBcolo. Tuma* 

Manui, Maneey s. 'Blaii^fi/i:« 

• • Na'brroos* NaYaoga. 
. . Ba'rabe, • Ta^ooroo, 

Vwagga, Wane. 

skfahoOf » . • • Ta'nare^ .... HannNUi. 

• • Naroff, • Naboc/y, < . . • . 'Neeoo, 

• • Ho'aMe, . Nooe«, 'Oodoo, s. Ooodoou 

latta^ Maitangy • Nan^c^maiuk, • . , Te^wein. 

%*teeisLf Talingao^ Veenee'eng^y • • • Gaia'eeng, 

Iduit .... 'Namoo* 

• • Moeroo. 

.ecnga, •• ••» Badon'fa«fn. 

ik'oopo, Ba'satoe, • Noagwa'nataaiy • • Gar'moing. 

• • 'BrrooBSy . 'fiooga, s. 'BoognB. 

iitt% .... H'aarisb, • » • » Ap, s. Gje'ap. 

• • Ba'rangy • Naroo^maan. 

f«to^. NomprtODgyNapeeraingiuky . • Whanboof^n. 

a'ourey Ta'ep, . E'aa • . 'JSeva, £etNu 

/ « Na'brruts. 

okof ..•••. • » • 'Gan, s. Gan^galang* 

• • . • . • Na'mawar» . » • .. Ooe, 

stfboy Reelwhoy 'Warrewuk^ 8. lUtbuk, Penna'wein. 

• « Er^gottr, • Oo€, 

'^f«eo, Papangy » Awe'heniy .... 'Wyoo, 

• • Ra'bin, . Na/braan, .... Tama. 

• • Nan-'ram,. Oofe, • • » • • Oobe. 

f • * • • •. • '£eo^ » • • • • jSlOy.s* EeOf 8* 6e« 


E;i7, . . 
E'resy • . 
FbatSy . 
L'reem, • 
Gooy, . • 
Hoorey, • 
Senearr, . 

'Kahar, . 

















angoages are radically the same ;. though the distance from Easter 
of pronunciation, which in Easter Island, Amsterdam^ end New 

not only from the preceding, but from each other; which is more 
is New Caledonia at a great distance from the last place. In the 

At Tanna the pronunciation b likewise harsh, but rather guttural, 
>e observed, that in the three last languages, some words are found 
oogas, in Tanna, both signi/yinp a hog, which at Otabeite and the 
i been accidentally introduced, is hard to determine ; because they 
i P^fjoo and Fya'too ; the first seems most consonant to the general 
ar at Otabeite. When they mention puncturation, it is commonly 
ress the same thing at Otabeite and Amsterdam. 
. The accent at the beginning of a word, signifies the chief stress 
owing. A comma in the middle of a word, either signifies, that it 
, or pause, must be made in pronouncing it. 


j^nguage of the Society Ides, 


Won't^ I wovii do it. 

Wood of any kind, 
A Wound, 
A Wrestler, 
Wrinkled in the face, 
The Wrist, 
A Wry-neck, 

To yawn. 

Yellow colour. 




York idand. 



tAeeoo, exprmei 

\ angrily. 
Meeo, meeo. 

•r Ha'maDuna* 

-» Ay,. 8. at. 
- Ere'j^ 

r " E^meo. 

Youngj a% ayoungaxwmlof any kind, P€/nata» 






1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, & 1780/ 


THE spirit of discovery, which had long animated the 
Europeaa nations, having, after its arduous and suc- 
cessful exertions, during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen« 
turies, gradually subsided, and for a considerable time lain 


' The account of this voyase was originally pidblished in three volumes 
4to, the first and second of Which were written by Captain Cook himself, 
and the third by Captain King, one of his ofiBcers. The work, however, 
as the reader will soon find, is materially enriched by the communications 
of Mr Anderson, surgeon of the Resolution. The valuable introduction, 
and the notes interspersed throughout the volumes contributed by Cook, 
were the production of Dr Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury, who, at the re- 
quest of Lford Sandwich, undertook also the office of editor. Of the 
amount of his services in this character, we hove his own statement, to- 
wards the end of the introduction. From this, it appears, that Cook, when 
he set out, knew he was expected to relate, as well as to execute, the ' 
operations committed to him ; and that his journal, in consequence, was 
faithfully adhered to. This seems to imply the non-interference of the edi- 
tor, at least in any important sense. The same thing may be inferred from 
what he says respecting Mr Anderson's journal. And as to the third vo- 
lume, we are expressly told, that it was completely prepared for the press 
by Captain King himself. There is surely, then, very httle foundation for 



Cook, Ckrhe, and Gore. , 115 

dormant^ began to revive in Great Britain in the late reign ;^ 
and recovered all' its former activity^ under the cherishing 
influence^ and munificent encouragement^ of his present 

Soon after his accession to the throne^ having happily 
closed the destructive operations of war^ he turned his 
thoughts to enterprises more humane, but not less brilliant, 
adapted to the season of returning peace. While every li- 
beral art, and Useful study, flourished under his patronage 
at home, his superinten(jing caire was extended to such 
branches of knowledge, as required distant examination 
and enquiry; and his ships, after bringing back victory and 
conquest from every quarter of the known world, were now 
employed in opening friendly communications with its 
hitherto unexplored recesses. 

In the proisecution of an object so ifirqrlhy of the monarch 
of a great commercial people, one voyage followed another 
in close succession ; and, we may add, in regular gradation* 
What Byron had begun, Wallis add Carteret soon impro- 
ved. Their success gave birth to a far more extensive plan 
of discovery, carried into execution in two subsequent voy- 
ages, conducted by Cook. And that nothing might be left 
unattempted, though much had been already done, the 
same commander, whose professional skill could only be . 
equalled by the persevering diligence with which he had 
exerted it, in tbe course of his former researches, was call- 
ed upon, once mate, to resume, or rather to complete, the 


an assertion made in the memoir of Captain Cook, inserted in the new 
edition of the General Biographical Dictionary, vol. 10. vil. that Dr 
, Douglas *' has levelled down the more striking peculiarities of the different 
writers* into some appearance of equality^" Certainly, we are bound ei- 
ther to refuse such an insinuation, or to charge falsehood on Dr Doug]^s» 
who expressly states, that alt he has to answer for, are the notes in Cap- 
tain Cook's two volumes and the introduction. But the alternative will 
give no trouble to any reader acquainted with the worthy character of the 
bishop, or who can comprehend, how very readily a probable conjecture 
may become the basis of an erroneous opinion. 

It is necessary to apprise the reader, that the letter D is placed at such 
of Dr Douglas's notes as it is thought advisable to retain in this work, and 
that for the rest marked £., the editor, as formerly, is responsible^— £. 

^ Two voyages for discovering a north-west passage, through Hudson's 
Bay, were t^en performed ; one under the command of Captain Middle- 
ton, in his majesty's ships the Furnace, and the Discovery pipk, in 1741 
and 1743. The other under the direction of Captains Smith and Moofe^ 
in the ships Dobba and California, fitted out by subscriptiop, in 1740^ an^ 
1747.— D. 

Il6 Modem Circumnavigatums. fart hi. book hi. 

Borvey of the globe. Accordingly, another voyage wag uu- 
dertaken, in 1776 ; which, though last in the order of time^ 
was far from being the least considerable, with respect to 
the extent atfd importance of its objects ; yet, still, far lesa 
fortunate than any of the former, as those objects were not 
accomplished, but at the expence of the valuable lif^ of its 

When plans, calculated to be of general utility, are car- 
ried into execution with partial views, and upon interested 
motives, it is natural to attempt to confine, within sp;ne 
narrow circle, the advantages which might have been de-^ 
rived to the world at large, by an unreserved disclosure of 
all that had been eifected. And, upon this principle, it has 
too frequently been considered as sound poncy, perhaps, in 
this country, as well as amongst some of our neighbours, 
to affect to draw a veil of secrecy over the result of enter- 
prises to discover and explore unknown quarters of the 
globe. It is to the honour of the present reien, that more 
liberal views have been now adopted. Our late voyages, 
from the very extensive objects proposed by them, could 
not but convey useful information to every European na- 
tion ; and, indeed, to every nation, however remote, which 
cultivates commerce, and is acquainted with navigation : 
And that information has most laudably been afforded. 
The same enlarged and benevolent spirit, which ordered 
these several expeditions to be undertaken, has also taken 
care that the result of their various discoveries should be 
authentically recorded. And the transactions of these voy- 
ages round the world, having, in due time, been communi- 
cated, under the authority of his majest/s naval minister ; 
those of the present^ which, besides revisiting many of the 
former discoveries in the southern, carried its operations 
into untrodden paths in the northern hemisphere, are, un- 
der the same sanction, now submitted to the public in these 

One great plan of nautical investigation having been pur- 
sued throughout, it is obvious, that the several voyages have 
a close connection, and that an exact recollection of what 
had been aimed at, and effected, in those that preceded, 
will throw considerable light on our period. With a view, 
therefore, to assist the reader in forming a just estimate of 
the additional information conveyed by this publication, it 
may not be improper to lay before him a short, though 


Cook, Ckrkej and Gart. 1 17 

eomprehensWe^ abstract of the principal objects that had 
been previously accomplished^ arranged in such a manner, 
as may serve to unite into one point of view, the various 
articles which lie scattered through the voluminous journals 
already in the hands of the pubnc ; those compiled by Br 
Hawkesworth; and that which was written oy Captain 
Cook himself. By thus shewing what had been formerly 
done, how much still remained for subsequent examination 
will be more apparent; and it will be better understood on 
what grounds, tnough the ships of his majesty had already 
circumnavigated the world five different times, in the 
course of about ten years, another voyage should still be 
thought expedient. 

There will be a farther use in giving such an abstract a 
place in this introduction. The plan of disqovery, carried 
on in so many successive expeditions, being now, we may 
take upon us to say, in a great measure completed, by sum- 
ming up the final result, we shall be better able to do jus- 
tice to the benevolent purposes it was designed to answer ; 
and a solid foundation will be laid, on which we may build 
a satisfactory answer to a question, sometimes asked by 
peevish refinement, and ignorant malevolence. What bene- 
ficial consequences, if any, have followed, or are likely to 
follow^ to the discoverers, or to the discovered, to the com- 
mon interests of humanity, or to the increase of useful 
knowledge, from all our boasted attempts to explore the dis- 
tant recesses of the globe i 

The general object of the several voyages round the world, 
undertaken by the command of his majesty, prior to that 
related in this work, was to search for unknown tracts of 
land that might exist within the bosom of the immense 
expanse of ocean that occupies the whole southern he- 

Within that space, so few researches had been made, be- 
fore our time, and those few researches had been made so 
imperfectly, that the result of them, as communicated to 
the world in any narration, had rather served to create un- 
certainty, than to convey information ; to deceive the cre- 
dulous, rather than to satisfy the judicious enquirer ; by 
blending the true geography of above half the superficies 
of the earth with an endless variety of plausible conjectures, 
8uggest)^d by ingenious speculation ; of idle tales, handed 


118 Modem CircumnamgatiQns* yart hi. book hi. 

down by obspure tradition ; or of bold fictionSj invented by 
deliberate falseliood. 

It would have been very unfortunate^ indeed^ if five dif- 
ferent circuitanavigations of the globe^ some of them, at 
least, if not all, in tracks little known, and less freqi^iented^ 
bad produced bo disco veries, to reward the difficulties and 
perils unavoidably encountered. But the following review 
wiil furnish thi^ most satisfactory proofs, that his majesty's 
instructions have been executed with ability ; and that the 
repeated visits of his ships to th^ southern hemisphere, have 
very considerably added to our stock of geographical know-^ 

1. The south Atlantic ocean was the first scene of out 
operations. Falkland's Islands had been hitherto barely 
known to exist; but their true position and extjejoit, and 
every circumstance which could render their existence of 
any consequence, remained absolutely undecided, till Byroa 
visited them in 1764. And Captain Macbride, who foUow- 
ed him thither two years after, having circumnavigated 
their coasts, and taken a complete sprvey, a chart of f alkr 
land's Islands has been constructed, with so much accuracy, 
that the coasts of Great Britain itself, are not more authen- 
tically laid down upon our maps* 

How little was really known of the islands in the south 
Atlantic, even so late as the time of Lord Auason, we have 
the most remarkable proofs, in the history of his voyage. 
Unavoidably led into mistake, by the imperfect material 
then in the possession of the world, he had considered Pe- 
pys's Island, and Falkland Isles, as distinct places, distant 
from each other about five degrees of latitude. Byron's re- 
searches have rectiBed this capital error ; and it is now de- 
cided, beyond all contradiction, that, as Captain Cook says, 
^' Future navigators will mispend their time, if they look for 
Fepys's Island in latitude 47^; it being now certain, that 
Pepys's Island is no other than these islands of Falkland.** 

Besides the determination of this considerable point, 
other lands, situated in the Squth Atlantic, have been 
brought forward into view. If the isle of Georgia had beea 
foriperly seen by La Roche in 1675, and by Mr Guyot, in 
the ship' Lion, in 1756, which seems to be probable, Capr 
tain Cook, in 1775, has made us fhlly acquainted with it^ 
extent and true position ; and, in the same year, he added 
to the map of the world Sandwich Land, hitherto not 


Cook, Ckrke, and GbYe. 1 19 

known to exists add the most southern discovery that has 
been ever accomplished. 

II. Though the Strait of Magalhaens had been formerly 
nisitedi and sailed through by ships of different nations^ be- 
fore our time^ a careful examination of its bays, and har- 
bours, and head-lands ; of the numerous islands it contains, 
and of the coasts, on both' sides, that inclose it ; and an 
exact account of the tides, 'and currents, and soundings, 
throughout its whole extent, was a task, which, if Sir John 
Narborough, and others, had not totally omitted, they can- 
not be said to have recorded so fully, as to preclude the 
utility of future investigation. This task has been ably and 
effectually performed by Byron, Wallis, and Cartieret; 
whose transactions in this strait, and the chart of it, found- 
ed on their observations and discoveries, are a most valua-r 
ble accession to geography. 

III. If the correct information, thus obtained, about 
jevery part of thifi celebrated strait, should deter future ad- 
Tenturers from involving themselves in the difficulties and 
embarrassments of a labyrinth, now known to be so intri- 
cate, and the unavoidable source of danger and delay, we 
have the satisfaction to have discovered, that a s§fer and 
more expeditious entrance into the Pacific Ocean, may be 
reasonably depended upon. The passage round Cape Hora 
has been repeatedly tried, both from the east and from the 
west, and stript of its terrors. We shall, for the future, be less 
discouraged by the labour^ and distresses experienced by 
the squadrons of Lord Anspn and Pizarro, when we recol- 
lect that they were obliged to attempt the navigation of 
those seas at an unfavourable season of the year ; and that 
there was nothing very formidable met with there when 
they were traversed by Captain Cook. 

To this distinguished navigator was reserved the honour 
of being the first, who, from a series of the most satisfac- 
iory observations, beginning at the west entrance of the 
Strait of Magalhaens, and carried on with unwearied dilir 
gence, round Tierra del Fuego, through the Strait of Le 
Maire, has constructed a chart of the southern extremity 
of America, from which it will appear, how much former 
navigators must have been at a loss to guide themselves, 
and what advantages will be now enjoyed by those who 
shall hereafter sail round Cape Horn. 

IV. As the voyages of discovery, undertaken by his mar 


ISO Modem Cirtmin&rigationi, vabt hi. book iu. 


jest/s cominand, have facilitated the iSscess of ships into 
the Paci6c Ocean^ they have also greatly enlarged out 
knowledge of its contents. 

Though the immense expanse usually distinguished by 
this appellation^ had been navigated by Europeans for near 
two centuries and a half^ by far the greater part of it^ par- 
ticularly to the south of the equator^ had remained^ during 
all this time^ unexplored. 

The great aim of MagalhaenSj and of the Spaniards in 
general^ its first navigators^ being merely to arrive, by this 

{passage, at the Moluccas^ and the other Asiatic spice is^ 
ands, every intermediate part of the ocean that dia notlie 
contiguous to their western track, which was on the north 
side of the equator, of course escaped due examination* 
And if Mendana and Quiros, and some nameless conduct-* 
ors of voyages before them, by deviating from this track, 
and steering westward from Uallao, within the southern 
tropic, were so fortunate as to meet with various islands 
there, and so sanguine as to consider those islands as marks 
of the existence of a neighbouring southern continent, in 
the exploring of which they flattered themselves they should 
xival tne fame of De Gama and Columbus, these feeble ef- 
forts never led to any effectual disclosure of the supposed 
hidden mine of a New World. , On the contrary, their 
voyages being conducted without a judicious plan, and 
« their discoveries being left imperfect without immediate 
settlement, or subsequent examination! and scarcely record- 
ed in any well-authenticated or accurate narrations, had 
'been almost forgot ; or were so obscurely remembered, as 
only to serve the purpose of producing perplexing debates 
about their situation and extent, if not to suggest doubts 
about their very existence. 

It seems, indeed, to have become a veiy early object of 
policy in the Spanish councils, to discontinue and to dis- 
courage any farther researches in that quarter. Already 
masters of a larger empire on the contment of America 
than diey could conveniently govern, and of richer mines 
of the precious metals on that continent than they could 
convert into use, neither avarice nor ambition furnished 
reasons for aiming at a fresh accession of dominions. And 
thus, though settled all along the shores of this ocean, in a 
situation so commodious for prosecuting discoveries through- 
out its wide extent, the Spaniards remained satisfied with 

a coasting 

Cook^ Clerke, and Oore. 121 

a coasting intercourse between their own ports; never 
Btretching across the vast gulpb that separates that part of 
America from Asia^ but in an unvarying line of navigation^ 
perhaps in a single annual ship^ between Acapulco and Ma- 
The tracks of other European navigators of the South 

. Pacific Ocean^ were^ in a great measure^ regulated by those 
of the Spaniards^ and consequently limited within the same 
narrow bounds. With the exception^ perhaps, of two in- 
stances only^ those of Le Maire and Roggeweip^ no ships 
of another nation had entered this sea^ through tlie Strait of 
]^agalhaens^ or round Cape Horn, but for the purposes 6f 

* trade with the Spaniardii, or of hostility against them, pur- 
* poses which could not be answered^ without precluding 
fixty probable chance of adding much to our stock of dis- 
covery. For it was obviously incumbent on all such ad- 
venturers, to confine their cruises within a moderate dis- 
tance of the Spanish settlements, in the vicinity of which 
alone they could hope to exercise their commerce, or to 
execute their prediftory and military operations. Accord- 
ingly, soon after emerging from the strait, or completing 
the circuit of 'Herra del Fuego, they began to hold a north- 
erly course^ to the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez, 
their usual spot of rendezvous and refreshment. And after 
ranging along the continent of America, from Chili to Ca- 
lifornia, they either reversed their course back to the At- 
lantic^ or, if they ventured to extend their voyage by 
stretching over to Asia, they never thought of trying ex- 
periments in the unfrequented and unexplored parts of the 
ocean, but chose the beaten path (if the expression may be 
used,) within the limits of which it was likely that they 
might meet with a Philippine galleon', to make their voy- 
age profitable to themselves ; hot could have little prospect, 
if they had been desirous, of making it useful to the pub- 
lic, by gaining any accession of new land to the map of 
the world. 

By the natural operation of these causes, it could not but 
'happen, that little progress should be made toward obtain- 
ing a full and accurate knowledge of the South Pacific 
Ocean. Something, however, had been attempted by the 
industrious, and once enterprising, Dutch, to whom we are 
indebted for three voyages, undertaken for the purposes of 
discovery ; and whose researches, in the southern latitudes 
9 of 

122 Modem drcimMwigatwm. vakt hi. book iir. 

of this ocean; are mnch better ascertained tban are those 
of the earlier Spanish navigators above mentioned. 

Le M^ire and Schouten^ in 161 6^ and Rpggewein^ ia 
1722^ wisely iudging that nothing new could b^ gained by 
adhering to the usu^d passage on the north side of the Line^ 
traversed this ocean from Cape Horn to the East Indies, 
crossing the south tropic, a space which had been so selr 
(dom^ and so ineffectually, visited ; though popular belief^ 
fortified by philosophical speculation, expected there to 
reap the richest harvest of discovery. 

Tasman, in 1642, in his extensive circuit from Batavia, 
through the South Indian Ocean, entered the South Paci- 
fic, at its greatest distance from the Americian side, where 
It never had been examined before. And his range, con* 
tinued from a high southern latitude, northward to New 
'Guinea, and the island^ to the east of it near the equator, 
'produced intermediate discoveries, tliat have rendered hi$ 
voyage memorable in the annals of navigation^ 

But still, upon the whole, what was effected in these three 
expeditions, served only to shew how large a field was re* 
.served for future and more persevering examination. Their 
results had, indeed, enabled geographers to diversify the 
vacant uniformity of former charts of this ocean by the in- 
sertion of some new islands. But the number, and the ex- 
tent of these insertions, were so inconsiderable, that they 
may be said to appea;: 

Rari^ nantes in gurgite wstQ. 

And, if the discoveries were few, those few were made very 
imperfectly. Some coasts were approached, but not landed 
upon ; and passed without waiting to examine their extent 
and connection- with those that might exist at no great dis- 
tance. If others were landed upon, the visits were, in ge- 
neral, so transient, that it was scarcely possible to build 
upon a foundation so weakly laid, any information that 
could even gratify idle curiosity, much less satisfy philoso- 
phical enquiry, or contribute greatly to the safjety, or to the 
success, of future navigation. 

Let us, however, do justice to these beginnings of disco- 
very. To the Dutch, we must, at least, ascribe the merit 
of being our harbingers, though we afterward went beyond 
them in the road they had first ventured to tread. And 


Cook, Clerhe, and Gore. 123 

wLtl;! wliat success his majesty's ships have^ in their repeated 
Voyages^ penetrated into the obscurest recesses of the South 
^Pacific Ocean^ will appear from the following enumeration 
o;f their various and very extensive operations, which have 
drawn up the veil that had hitherto been thrown over the 
jgeograpby of se great a proportion of the globe. 

I. Th^ several lands, of which any account had beeii 
given, as seen by any of the preceding navigators, Spanish 
or Dutch, have been carefully looked for, and most of th^m 
•(at least such of them as seemed of any consequence) found 
out and visited ; and not visited in a cursory manner, but 
every means used to correct former mistakes, and to sup- 
ply forn^r deficiencies, by making accurate enquiries ashore^ 
and taking skilful surveys of their c6asts, by sailing round 
^hem. Who has not heard, or read, of the boasted Tierra 
Australia del Eapiritu Santo of Quiros? But its bold pre- 
tensions to be a part of a southern continent, could not 
stand Captain Cook's examination, who sailed round it, and 
assigned it its true position and moderate bounds, in the 
Archipelago of the New Hebrides.^ 

' 2. Besiaes perfecting many of the discoveries of their 
predecessors, our late navigator^ have enriched geographi- 
cal knowledge with a long catalogue of their own. The 
Pacific Ocean, within the south tropic, repeatedly traver- 
sed^ in every direction, was found to swarm with a seem* 
ingly endless profusion of habitable spots of land. Islands 
scattered through the amazing space of near fourscore de- 
grees of longitude, separated at v'arious distances, or group- 
ed in numerous clusters, have, at their approach, as it were^ 
started into existence ; and such ample accounts have t^een 
brought home concerning them and their inhabitants, as 
may serve every useful purpose of enquiry; and, tp use 
Captain Cook^s words, who bore so c6nsiderabie a share 
in those discoveries, have left little more to be done in that 

5. Byron, Wallis, and Carteret had each of them con-^ 
tributed toward increasing our knowledge of the islands 
that exist in the Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the 
Bouthem tropic ; but how far that ocean reached to the 


• ' Bougainville, in 1768, did no more tban discover that the land here 
was not connected^ but oomposed of islands. Captain Cook, in 1774, ex- 
plored the whole group.— D» 

t ^ 

124 Modem Circumnavigations* part hi. book hi. 

west^ what lands bounded it on that side^ and the connec- 
tion of those lands with the discoveries of foilner naviga- 
tors^ was still the reproach of geographers^ and remained 
absolutely unknown^ till Captain Cook^ during his first 
voyage in 1770> brought back the most satisfactory deci- 
sion of this important question. With a wonderful perse- 
verance^ and consummate skill, am*idst an uncommon com- 
bination of perplexities and dangers^ he traced this coast 
near two thousand miles^ from the 38* of south latitude, 
cross the tropic, to its northern extremity, within 10* J of 
the equinoctial, where it was found to join the lands alrea- 
dy explored by the Dutch, in several voyages from their 
Asiatic settlements, and to which they have given the name 
of New Holland. Those discoveries made in the last cen-^ 
tiiry, before Tasman's Voyage, had traced the north and the 
west coasts of this land ; and Captain Cook, by his exten- 
sive operations on its east side, kft little to be done toward 
completing tjie full circuit of it. Between Cape Hicks, ia 
-latitude S8*, where his examination of this coast began, and 
that part of Van Diemen's Land, from whence Tasman took 
his departure, was not above fifty-five leagues. It was high-: 
ly probable, therefore, that they were connected ; though 
Captain Cook cautiously says, that he could not determine 
whether his New South Wales, that is, the east coast of New 
Holland, Joins to Van DiemevLS Land, or no. But what was 
thus left undetermined by the operations of his first voyage, 
was, in the course of his second, soon cleared up ; Captain 
Furneaux, in the Adventure, during his separation from the 
I^esolution (a fortunate separation as it thus turned out) in 
1773, having explored Van Diemien's Land, from its southern 
point, along the east coast, far beyond Tasman's station, 
and on to the latitude 33% where Captain Cook's examina* 
. tion of it in 1770 had commenced. 

It is no longer, therefore, a doubt, that we have now a 
full knowledge of the whole cir<^umference of this vast bo- 
dy of land, this fifth part of the world (if I may so speak), 
which our late voyages have discovered to be of so ama- 
zing a magnitude, that, to use Captain Cook's words, it is 
of a larger extent than any other country in the known world, 
that does not bear the name of a continents* 

4. Tasman 

^ What the learned editor asserts here, as to the full knowledge acqui- 
red by the voyages to which he alludes, must be restricted^ as Captain 


Cook, Ckrke, and Gore* 125 

4* Tasman having entered the Pacific Ocean;» after lea- 
ving Van Diemen's Land^ had fallen in with a coast to 
v?hich he gave the name of New Zealand. The extent of 
this coasts and its position in any direction hut a part of 
its west 8ide> which he sailed along in his coursenortbwardj 
being left ahsolutely unknown^ it had been a favourite opi- 
nion amongst geographers^ since his time, that New Zealand 
was a part'of a southern continent^ running north and southj 
from the 33* to the 64"^ of south latitude,. and its northern 
coast stretching cross the South.Pacific to an immense dis- 
tance, where its eastern boundary had been seen by Juan 
Fernandez, half a century before^ Captain Cook's voyage 
in the Endeavour has totally destroyed this supposition. 
Though Tasman must still have the credit of having first 
seen New Zealand, to Captain Cook solely belongs that 
of having, really explored it. He spent near six months 
upon its coasts in 1769 and 1770, circumnavigated it com- 
pletely^ and ascertained its extent and division into two 
islands. Repeated visits since that have perfected this im- 
portant discovery, which, though now known to be no part 
of a southern continent, will probably, in all future charts 
of the world, be distinguished as the largest islands that 
exist in that part of the southern hemisphere. 

5. Whether New Holland did or did not jojn to New 
Guinea) was a question involved in much doubt and uncer- 
tainty, before Captain Cook's sailing between them, through 
Endeavour Strait, decided it. We will not hesitate to call 
this an important acquisition to geography. For though 
the great sagacity and extensive readmg of Mr Dalrymple 
had discovered some traces of such a passage having been 


Flinders very properly remarks, to tbe general extent of the vast region 
explored. It will not apply to the particular formation of its coasts, for 
this plain reason, that the chart accompanyins the work, of which he was 
writing the introduction, represents much of the south coast as totally un- 
known. It is necessary to mention also, that what he says immediately 
before, in allusion to the discoveries, made by Captain Furneaux, must 
submit to correction. That officer committed some errors, owing, it would 
appear, to the imperfedion of preceding accounts ; and he left undeter- 
mined the interesting question as to the existence of a connection betwixt 
Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. The opinion which he gave 
as to this point, on very insufficient data certainly, viz. that there is *' no 
strait between them, but a very deep bay," has been most satisfactorily 
disproved, by the discovery of the extensive passage which bears the name 
of Flinders's friend^ Mr mss, the enterprising gentleman that accomplish" 
ted it.— E. 

lis Modem Circumnavigations^ tARt nu book hi. 


found before^ yet these traces were so obscurie^ and do IHitle 
known in the present age, that they had not generally re- 

g slated the construction of our charts ; the President i6 
rosses, who wrote in 1756, and was well versed in geo- 
graphical researches, had not been able to satisfy himself 
about; them ; and Mons. de Bougainville, in 1768, who had 
ventured to fall in with the south coast of New Guinea, 
near ninety leagues to the westward of its south-east point, 
chose rather to work those ninety leagues directly to wind- 
ward, at a time when his people were in such distress for 
provisions as to eat the seal-skins from oif the yards and 
Tigging, than to run the risk of finding a passage, of the 
existence of which he entertained the strongest doubts, by. 
persevering in his westerly course. Captain Cook, there- 
fore, in this part of his voyage (thougn he modestly dis- 
claims all merit), has established, beyond future controver- 
sy, a fact of essential service to navigation, by opening, if 
not a new, at least an unfrequented and forgotten commu- 
nication between the South Pacific and Indian Oceans.^ 

6. One more discovery, for which we are indebted to 
Captain Carteret, as similar in some degree to that last 
mentioned, may properly succeed it, in this enumeration. 



^ We are indebted to Mr Dalrymple for tbe recovery of an interesting 
document respecting a passage betwixt New lUland and New Guinea, 
discovered by Torres, a Spanish navigator, in 1606. It was found among 
the archives of MaDilla, when that city was taken by the British, in 1762, 
bieing a^copy of a letter which Torres addressed to the king of Spain, gi- 
ving an aceotint of his discoveries. The Spaniards, as usual, had kept the 
matter a profound secret, so that the existence of the strait was generally 
unknown, till the labours of Captain Cook, in 1 770, entitled him to the 
merit here assigned. Captain Flinders, it must be remembered, is of opi- 
nion, that some suspicion of such a strait was entertained in 1644, when 
Tasman sailed on his second voyage, but that the Dutch, who were then 
engaged in making discoveries in these regibtis, were ignorant of its ha- 
ving been passed. Several navigators have sailed through Torres's Strait, 
as it has been justly enough named, since the time of Cook, and have im- 
vrovcii our acquaintance with its geography. Of these may be mentioned 
Lieutenant (afterwards Rear-Admiral) Bligh, in 1789 ; Captain (afterwards 
Admiral) Edwards, in 1791 ; Bligh, a second time, accompanied by Lieu- 
tenant Portlock, in 1792; Messrs Hampton and Alt, in 1793; and Cap- 

nked amongst the benefactors of geography. What mind is so insen- 

Cook, Clerke, and Qore. 127 

Dampier^ in sailing round wl\pt was sapposed to be part of 
the coast of New Guinea^ discovered it to belong to a se- 

E urate island^ to which be gave the name of New Britain, 
ut that the land which he named New Britain should be 
subdivided again into two separate large islands^ with ma^ 
ny smaller intervening^ is a point of geographical informa- 
tion^ which^ if ever traced by any of the earliest navigators 
of the South Pacific^ had not been banded down to the pre- 
sent age: And its having been ascertained by Captain Car- 
teret^ deserves to be mentioned as a discovery, in the strict- 
est sense of the wbrd ; a discovery of the utmost importance 
to navigation* St George's Channel^ through which his 
ship found a way^ between New Britain and New Ireland^ 
from thet Pacific into the Indian Ocean^ to use the Cap* 
tain's own words, '^ is a much better and shorter passa^, 
whether from the eastward or westward, than round all the 
islands and lands to the northward.**^ 

V. The voyages of Byron> Wallis, and Carteret, were 
principally confined to a favourite object of discovery in 
the South Atlantic ; and though accessions to geography 
were procured by them in the South Pacific, tney could 
do but little toward giving the world a complete view of 
the contents of that immense expanse of oeean, through 
which they only held a direct track, on their way home- 
ward by the East Indies. Cook, indeed; who was appoint- 
ed to the conduct of the succeeding voyage, had a more 
accurate examination of the South Pacific entrusted to him. ' 
But as the improvement of astronomy went hand in hand, 
in his instructions, with that of geography, the Captain^s 
solicitude to arrive at Otaheite time enough to observe tbe 
transit of Venus, put it out of his power to deviate from bis 
direct track, in search of unknown lands that might lie to 
the south-east of that island. By this unavoidable atten- 
tion to his duty, a very considerable part of the South Pa- ' 
cific, and that part where the richest mine of discovery was 
supposed to exists remained unvisited and unexplored, du- 

^ The position of the Solomon Islands, Mendana's ceTebrated discove- 
ry*, will no longer remain a matter in debate amongst geographers, Mr 
Dalrymple havmg, on the most satisfactory evidence, proved, that they 
are tbe cluster of islands which comprises what has since been callea 
New Britain, New Ireland, Sec The great light thrown on that cluster 
by Captain Carteret's discovecv, is. a strong confirmation of this.^See Mr 
DaJrymple'8 Collection of Vl^ages, vol. I p. 162*1.— D. 

130 Modem .Cir€umnaifig4iUonSf fart hi. book xiu 

If former Dayigators have added more land to the knoit^n 
globe than Captain Cook> to him, at leasts was refl^rved the 
honour^ of beins foremost in disclosing to us the extent of 
sea that covers its surface. His own summary view of the 
transactions of this voyage, will be a proper conplosfon to' 
these remarks : ^^ I had now made the circuit of the sou* 
'' thern ocean in a high latitude, and traversed it in such 
^' a manner as to leave not the least room for there being 
*f a continent, unless near the Pole, and out of the. reach of 
^' navigation. By twice visiting the Tropical Sea, I had nofcs 
'' only settled the situation of some .old discoverij^s, but 
'' made there many new ones^ acid, left, I concqive^ very 
'* little to be done, even in that part. Thus I flatter my-^ 
*' self, that the intention of the voyage has, in every respect, 
^' been fully answered; the southern hemisphere sufticient- 
'' ly explored ; ind a final end pftt to the searching after a 
^' southern continent, which bas^ at times, engrossed the 
" attention of some of the maritime powers for near two 

*' centuries 

■ » . 

feerving that tWs meridian passes through the heart of the continents of 
Europe and Africa, you will find that the opjposite part of the meridian 
passes through tie middle of the great south sea. When the middle af 
the northern continent of America, about the meridian of Mexico, is ex* 
amined in the same v'ay, the opposite part passes very exactly through 
the middle of. the Indian ocean. Tiie southern continent of America it 
opposed by that eastern sea ^hich contaiirs the East India islands. The 
southern continent of New Holland iis opposite to the Atlantio ocean. 
This alternation, if I may so call it, between the land and sea, is too re- 
gular to have been casual ; aiid if the face of the earth was so laid out bv 
jdesiirn it was for some good reason. But what that reason may be, it will 
b^ SfficUll to shew. Perhaps this dispo^ltJon taay be of service to keep up 
a proper balance ; or, it may assist toward the diwual rotation of the earth, 
the free motions of the iidesf &c. ; or th6 water on one side may give a 
freer passage to the rays of the son, and beiiig convex and transparent, 
may concentrate, or at least condense, the solar rays internally, for some 
benefit to the land that lies on the other sWc."— This sort of reasoning, 
from our ignorance, is no doubt liable to obj^tion, and Mi* Jones had 
good sense and candour enough to admit, that the qnestions were too ab- 
Itnise for him to determine. The proper part, indeed, for man to act, is 
to investigate what Nature hais done; not to do^atize as to the reasons 
for her condudt«^to ascertain facts, not to substitute conjectures in jJace 
of them. But it i^ allowable for us, when ^e have done our best in col- 
lecting andexaminlngphenomenajta Arrange them together according to 
atfy pWusible theory whkh our judgments can suggest. Still, however, we 
ought, to retnemlyer, that the most obviously imperative dictates of our 
tcMoning faculties are' only inferences from present appearances, and d». 
termine Sothing as to the necessity of eifitoiing liuDgs.— E. - 

Cook^ Qefkci tf^ Gore* 131 

centuries past^ and beea,a favourite theory .amongst the 
geographers of all ages/'^ . . . : 

Thus far^ therefore; the voyages to disclose oew tracks 
of navigation, and to reform old defects in geography, ap- 
pear to have been prosecuted <eith a satisfactory share or 
success. A perusal of the foregoing summary of*what had 
been done, will enable every one to judge what was still 
wanting to complete the great plan of discovjery. The 
southern hemisphere bad, indeed, been repeatedly visited; 
and its utmost accessible extremities been surveyed. But 
jDduch uncertainty, and, of course, great variety of opinion j' 
subsisted, as to the navigable extremities of our own hemis- 
phere; particularly .as to the existence, or, at least, as to 

** the practicability of a northern passage between the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Oceans, either oy sailing Eastward; round 
Asia, or westward^ round I^orth America. , 

It was obvious, that if such a passage could be effected; 
voyages to Japan and China, and, indeed, to the East In- 
dies in general, would be much shortened ; and consequent- 
ly beconie ipore profitable, than by making the tedious cir- 
cuit of the Cape of Good Hope. Accordingly, it became 
a favourite, object o^ the English to effectuate this, above 
two centuries ago ; and (to say nothing of Cabot's original 

* attempt, in 1497,, which ended in the discovery of New- 
foundland and the Labradore coast) from FrobisherV first 
voyage to find a western passage; in 157^, to those of James 
and of Fox, in 1631, repeated trials had been made by our 
enterprising adventurers. But though. farther knowledge 
of the northern extent of America was' obtained in the 
course of these voyages, by the discovery of Hudson's and 
Baffin's Bays, the wished-for passage, on that side, into the 
Pacific Ocean, was still unattained. Our countrymen, and 

. the Dutch, were equally unsuccessful, in various attemptSy 
to find t,his passage in an eastern direction. Wood's fail- 
ure, in I676, seems to have closed the long list of unfortu- 
nate northern expeditions in that century ; arid the disco- 
very, if not absolutely despaired of, by having been so oftefl 

. miss.ed,^.ceased, for many years, to be sought for. 

Mr Jpobbs, a warm advocate for the probability o^ at 
north-west passage through Hudson's Bay, m our own time^ 
once more recalled the itttention of this .country to that 

itndettaking ; 

* Cook*a second Voyage. 

182 Modern Circumfutvigatians. part hi. book hi. 

undertaking ; end, by his active zes\, and persevering so* 
licitation^ renewed the spirit of discovery. But it was re- 
newed in \rain. For Captain Middleton, sent out by go- 
vernment in 1741, and Captains Smith and Moore^ by ai 
private society, in 1746, though encouraged by an act of 
parliament passed in the preceding year, that annexed a 
reward of twenty thousand pounds to the discovery of a 
passage, returned from Hudson's Bay with reports of their 
proceedings, that left the accomplishment of this favourite 
object at as great a distance as ever. 

When researches of this kind, no longer left to the soli- 
citation of an individual^ or to the subscriptions of private 
adventurers, became cherished by the royal attention, in 
the present reign, and warmly promoted by the minister at 
the head of the naval department, it was impossible^ while 
so much was done toward exploring the remotest comers 
of the southern hemisphere, that the northern passage 
should not be attempted. Accordingly, while Captain Cook 
was prosecuting his voyage toward the South Pole in 1773, 
Lord Mulgrave sailed with two ships, to determine how far 
navigation tDasfracticable toward the North Pole. And though 
his lordship met with the same insuperable bar to his pro- 
gress whicn former navigators had experienced, the hopes 
of opening a communication between the PaciBc and 
Atlantic Oceans by a northerly course, were not abandon- 
ed ; and a voyage fbt that purpose was ordered to be un- 

The operktions proposed to be pursued were so new, so 
extensive, and so various, that the skill and experience of 
Captain Cook, it was thought, would be requisite to con- 
duct them. Without being liable to any charge of want of 
zeal for the public service, he might have passed the rest 
of his days in the command to which he had been appoint- 
ed in Greenwich Hospital, there to enjoy the fame he had 
dearly earned in two circumnavigations of the world. Bat 
be cheerfully relinquished this honourable station at home; 
and, happy that the Earl of Sandwich had not cast his eve 
upon any other commander, engaged in the conduct of the 
expedition, the history of which is now given, an expedi<>- 



^ Dr Ddligllts refers to the introduction to Lord Mulgrave's Journal 
for aJiistory of former attempts to sail toward the North Pole; and to 
Barrington's MisoeUwes for several instances Qf ships reaching very higti 
nortli latitudes.-— £. 

Cook, Clefke, and Gore. 13S 

tioQ that would expose him to the toils and perils of a third 
circamnavigalionyby a track hitherto unailempted/* Every 
former navigator round the globe had made his passage 
)iome to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope ; the arduous 
task was now assigned to (Japtain Cook of attempting it^ 
by reaching the high northern latitudes between Asia and 
America. So that the usual plan of discovery was rever- 
sed ; andi instead of a passage from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific, one from the latter into the former was to be tried. 
Fot it was wisely foreseen^ that whatever openings or inlets 
there might be on the. east side of America, which lie in a 
direction that could give any hopes of a passage^ the ulti-^ 
mate success of it would still depend upon there being an 
open sea between the west side of that continent and the 
extremities of Asia. Captain Cook^ therefore^ was ordered 
to proceed into the Pacific Ocean, through the chain of 
his new islands in the southern tropic ; and^ having crossed 
the equator into its northern parts^ then to hold such a 
course as might probably fix many interesting points in 
geography^ and produce intermediate discoveries^ in his 
progress northward to the principal scene of his operations. 


'° It k due to histofy, and to the cbaractcv of Cookt to mention adf- 
cumstance respecting bis appointment jto this expedition, which strikingly 
proves the high opinion entertained of his abilities for it, and, at the same 
time, his zeal for the promotion of useful discoveries, and the prosperity 
of his country. This is done from the information of Lord Sandwich, as 
oommunicated in the memoir of Cook inserted in the Biog. Brit. When 
|he enterprise was determined on, it became of extreme consequence to 
select a proper person to undertake the execution of it. Captain Cook 
most naturally obtained this respect ; and at once, without the possibility 
t>f rivalship, would have been appointed to the command, did not a con- 
lyiction and feeling of sympathy for his former sufierings and important 
servioesy restrain his warmest friends from the slightest expression of what 
they unanimously desired. Concealing, therefore, their opinion, and 
avoiding every thing of the nature of aolicitation, they, neverthefess, 
thought it advisable to consult his well-informed judgment relative to the 
liatiire of die undertaking, and the person most hkely to perform it For 
|b» purpose. Captain Cook, Sir Hugh Palliser, and Mr Stephens, were 
invited to dine with Lord Sandwich, when the whole affair was ciiscussed. 
tThe representation of its magnitude, and beneficial consequences, roused^ 
the enthusiasm of the navigator ; and starting up, he declared that he him- 
self would undertake its accompiisbment. This magnanimous resolution 
was joyfully received, and could not fail to produce the most sanguine 
hopes of at least an honourable, if not a successful, issue. Uis appoint- 
ment was immediately made out ; and it was agreed, that on returning to 
England, he should have his situation at Greenwich re8tored,-^E^ 

134 Modem CircumnavizaiioM. part hi. book hi* 

But the plan of the voyage, and the various objects it 
embraced, wiH best appear from the instructions under 
which Captain Cook sailed ; and ihe insertion of them here, 
will convey siich authentic information as may enable the 
reader to judge with precision how far they have been car- 
iried into execution. 

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of 
Lord High Admiral of Great Bdtain aird Ire- 
land, ^c 

Secret Imtructiom for Captain James' Cook, Commander of 

his Majesty s, Sloop the Resolution* 

Whereas the p^irl of Sandwich has signified to us big 
inajesty's pleasure, that an attempt should be made to find 
put a northern passage by sea from the Pacific to the At-^ 
Ian tic Ocean; and whereas we have, in pursuance thereof, 
paused his majesty's sloops Resolution and Biscfovery to be 
jfitted^ in all respects, proper to proceed upon a voyage for 
the purpose above-mentioned^ and, from the experience we 
have had of your abilities and good conduct in your late 
voyages, have thoueht fit to entrust you with the conduct 
of the present intended voyage, and with that view appoint- 
ed yo^ to command the first*mentioned sloop, and directed 
JDaptain Clerke, who commands the other, to follow your 
orders for his further proceedings. You are hereby requi- 
red and directed to proceed with the said two sloops directly 
io the Cape of Good Hope, unless you shall judge it neces- 
sary to stop at Madeira, the Cape de Verd or Canary Is- 
lands, to take in wine for the use of their companies ; in 
which case you are at liberty to do so, taking care to re- 
inain there no Ibnger than m^y be necessary for that pur- 

' On your arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, you are to 
refresh tlie sloops- companies, arid to cause the sloops to be 
supplied with as much provisions and water' as they can 
conveniently stow. 

You arc, if possible, to .leave the Cape of Gpod Hope by 
ihe end of October, or ihe beginning of November next, 
and proceed to the southward in search of some islands 
$aid to have been lately seen by the f rench, in the lati- 

Cook, Ckrktf md Gore* 1S5 

tude 48* (y S., and about the meridian of Mauritius. In 
case you find those islands^ yon are to examine them tho- 
roughly for a good harbour ; aiid^ upon discovering one, 
make the necessary observations to facilitate the finding it 
again, as a good port, in that situation, may hereafter prove 
very useful, although it should afford little or nothing more 
than shelter, wood, and water. You are not, however, to 
spend too much time in looking out for those islands, or in 
the examination of them, if found, but proceed to Otaheite, 
or the Society Isles, (touching at New!Zealand in your way 
thither, if you should judge it necessary and convenient,) 
and taking care to arrive there time enough to admit of 
your giving the sloops' companies the refreshment they 
may stand m need of, before you prosecute the farther ob- 
ject of these instructions. 

-Upon your arrival at Otaheite, or the Society Isles, you 
are to land Omiah at such of them as he may choose, and 
to leave him there. 

You are to distribute among the chiefs of those islands 
such part of the presents with which you have been supr- 
plied, as yon shall judge proper^ reserving the remainder 
to distribute among the natives of the countries you may 
discover in the northern hemisphere. And having refrestbr 
ed the people belonging to the sloops under your com- 
mand, and taken on board such wood and water as they 
may respectively stand in need of, you are to leave those 
islands in the beginning of February, or sooner if you shall 
judge it necessary, and then proceed in as direct a course 
as you can to the coast of New Albion, endeavouring to 
fall in with it in the latitude of 45^ 0' N. ; and taking care^ 
in your way thither, not to lose any time in searcii of new 
lands, or to stop at any you may fall in with, unless you 
find it necessary to recruit your wood and water. 

You are also, in your way thither, strictly enjoined not 
to touch upon any part of the Spanish dominions on the 
western continent of America, unless driven thither by some 
unavoidable accident; in which case you are to stay no 
longer there than shall be absolutely necessary, and to be 
yery careful not to give any umbrage or offence to any of 
the inhabitants or subjects of his catholic majesty. And 
if, in your farther progress to the northward, as hereafter 
•directed, you find any subjects of any European prinee or 
state upon any part of the coast you may think proper to 


t . -AUT nx. BOOK "^• 
Modem Ufw ^^^ ^^y j^rt 

):..^h them* o^ » . .,„~t. them with 


. »« i^UliSrb *<""» *" ^o treat ibiem 
Visit, yo« are not to dww ^ contrary, w «« 

put into ine !"»«• ~~' .„f-p.bmen»» "" nitade 

anJ wa»er ^od P^<;?»'«,r3^t ^^^ f^J^xU^^-i 

northward along **^^ Jl". obstrocted^y ^'J" o, inlets, ot 

farther, if yoo are ^^ oj^ explon«8.J^^Jebefore.»en. 

care not to lose ^"; ^M\ yo« St^JU 50« *° *"*''* 
uoon anv other aooatt?*».^L «*. cottW «»*".i. . i,„„th. v 

upon any 

we col 

_^..- '*' ^*.t that leugth, you 
tioned latitude of 65«,T»H|i4S7hen yoo B^^^ -nch rivers or 


ation you may 
lyjja to believe, 

the month of June next, 
are carefully to search for, Bn( 
inlets as may appear to be of a 
pointing towards Hudson^s or BaffinV 
your own observations, or from any it,.^.— ^ — « Unfiuacej 
receive from the natives, (who, there is reaS^c to *. |^ ^ 
are the same race of people, and sp^ak the saaie©^ the^ ^^ 
of which you are furnished with a vocabulajry, as^to to i.^^^ 
quiniaux,) there shall appear to be a certainty, or eltt foi^^ 
probability, of a water passage ipto the afore-mention^e c 
bays, or either of them, you are, in such case> to use yoi 
utmost endeavours to pass through with, one or both 
the sloops, unless you sliali be of opinion that the passage 
may be effected with more certainty, or with greater pro- 
bability, by smaller vessels ; in which case you are to set 
iip the frames of one or both the small vessels with which 
you 'dife provided, and, when they are put together, and are 
propeVly fitted, stored, and victualled, you are to dispatch 
One or both of them, under the care of proper officers^ with 
a sufficient number of petty qfBcers, men, and boats, in or- 
cier to attempt the said pass&E^, with such instructions for 
their rejoining you, if they should fail, or for their farther 
proceedings, if they should succeed in the attempt^ as you 
shall judge most proper. BUt, nevertheless, if you shall find it 
ihqre^ligible to pursue any other measures than those above 
pointed Out, in order to make a discovery of the before* 
mentioned passage, (if any such there be,) you are at li- 
berty, and we leave it to your discretion, to pursue such 
measures accordingly. 

•In case you shall be satisfied that there is no passage 
through to the above-mentioned bays, sufficient for the pur- 
poses of navigation, you are, at the proper season of the 



CoQk, Chrki, end Gare^ 137 

year, to repair to the port of St Peter and St Paul in Kamt- 
scbatkdj or wherever else you shall judge more proper^ in 
order to refresh your pec^Ie and pass the wintt r ; and^ in 
the spring of the ensuing year 177B to proceed from thenctf 
to the northward, as far asj in your prudence, you amy 
think proper, in further search of a N*E. or N.W, pass ige 
from the Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean, or tite 
North Sea ; and if, from ypur own observation, or any in* 
formation you may receive, there shall appear to be a pro* 
bability of such a passage, you are to proceed as above di- 
rected : and having discovered suoh passage, or failed in 
the attempt, make the best of your way back to England, 
by such route as you may think bedt for the improvement 
of geography and navigation, repairing to Spithead with 
both stoops, where they are to remain till further order* 

At whatever places you may touch in the course of your 
voyage, where accurate observations of the nature hereafter 
mentioned have not already been made, you are, as far as 
your time will allow, very carefully to observe the true si- 
tuation of such places, both in latitude and longitude; the 
variation of the needle 4 bearings of head-lands ; height, di- 
rection, and course of the tides and currents ; depths and 
^un<liQgs of the sea ; shoals, rocks, &c. ; and also to sur- 
vey, make charts, and take view^ of such bays, harbours, 
and diHTerent parts of the coast, and to make such notations 
thereon as may be useful either to navigation or commerce. 
You are also carefully to observe the nature of the soil, 
and the produce thereof; the animals and fowls that inha- 
bit or frequent it ; the fishes that are to be found in the ri- 
vers or upon the coast, and in what plenty ; and, in case 
there are any peculiar to such places,. to describe them as 
minutely, and to make as accurate drawings of them, as 
you can ; and, if you find any metals, minerals, or valuable 
'istones, or any extraneous fossils, you are to bring home 
specimens of each, as also of the seeds of such trees, shrdbs, 
plants, fruits^ and grains, peculiar to those places, asyou may 
be able to collect, and to transmit them to our secretary, 
that proper examination and experiments may be made of 
thekn. You are likewise to observe the genius^ temper, dis* 
position, and number of the natives and inhabitants, where 
you find any ; and to endeavour, by all. proper me^ns, to 
cultivate a friendship with them, making them pr^ents 
of such Uinkets as you may have on boards and they mdy 


I3& Modern Circumnaugaiiom. ^ part hi. book iir. 

like besty invitiog them to traffiCj and shewing them every 
kind of civility and regard ; bat taking care^ nevertheless, 
not to suffer yourself to be surprised by them, bat to be al* 
ways on your guard against any accidents. 

You are also^ with the consent of the natives, to take pos-^ 
session, in the name of the King of Great Britain^ of con-^ 
venient sitoations in such countries as you may discover^ 
that have not already been discovered or visited by any 
other European power, and to distribute among the inha** 
bitants such things as will remain as ti'apes and testimonies 
of your having been there ; but if you find the countries s(» 
discovered are uninhabited, you are to take possession of 
them for bis majesty, by setting up proper marks and in- 
scriptions, as first discoverers and possessors. 

But forasmuch as, in undertakings of this nature, several 
emergencies may arise not to be foreseen, and therefore not 
particularly to be provided for by instructions before-hand^ 
you are, in all such cases, to proceed as you shall judge 
most advantageous to the service on which you are em* 

You are, by all opportunities, to send to our secretary; 
for our information, accounts of your proceedings, and co* 
pies of the surveys and drawings you snail have made ; and 
upon your arrival in England, you are immediately to repair 
to this office, in order to lay before us a full account of your 
|iroceeding8 in the whole course of your voyage, taking 
care, before you leave the sloop, to demand from the offi- 
cers and petty officers the log-books and journals they may 
have kept, and to seal them up for inspection ; and enjoin- 
ing them, and the whole crew, not to divulge where they 
have been, until they shall have permission so to do : And 
you are to direct Captain Gierke to do the same, with re-t 
spect to the officers, petty officers, and c^ew of the Disco^ 

If any accident should happen to the Resolution in the 
course of the voyage, so as to disable her from proceeding 
any farther, you are, in such case, to remove yourself and 
her crew into the Discovery^ and to prosecute your voyage 
in her ; her commander being hereby strictly required iq 
receive you on board, and to obey your orders, tne same, 
in every respectji as when yqu were actually op board thq 
Besolution. And, in case of your inability, by sickness ok 
otherwise, to carry these instructions intp execution, you are 

■' to 

Cook, Qerke, and Gore* 1S9 

to be careful to leave them with the next officer in command, 
who is hereby required tp execute them in the best manaer 
he can. 

Given under our hands the 6th day of July, 1776, 



H. Palliser. 

By command of their lordships, 

Ph. Stbphens. 

Besides ordering Captain Cook to sail on this important 
voyage, government, in earnest about the object of it, 
adopted a measure, which, while it could not but have a 
powerful operation on the crews of the Resolution and Dis- 
covery, by adding the motives of interest to the obligations 
of duty, at the same time encouraged all his majesty's sub- 
jects to engage in attempts toward the proposed discovery. 
By the act of parliament, passed in 1745,** a reward of 
twenty thousand pounds had been held out. But it had been 
held out only to the ships belonging to any of his majesty's 
subjects, exclusive of his majesty's own ships. The act 
had a still more capital defect. It held out this reward only 
to such ships as should discover a passage through Hud- 
son's Bay ; and, as we shall soon take occasion to explain, 
it was, by this time, pretty certain that no such passage 
existed within those limits. Effectual care was taken to 
remedy both these defects by passing a new law; which, 
after reciting the provisions of the former, proceeds as fol- 
lows :— '^ And whereas many advantages, both to commerce 
and science, may be also expected from the discovery of 
any northern passage for vessels by sea, between the At- 
lantic and Pacific Oceans, be it enacted. That if any ship 
belonging to any of bis majesty's subjects, or to his majes- 
ty, shall find out, and sail through, any passage by sea be- 
tween the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, id any direction, or 
parallel of the northern hemisphere, to the northward of 
the 52* of northern latitude, the owners of such ships, if 
belonging to any of his majesty's subjects, or the command- 
er, officers, and seamen of such ship belonging to his ma- 


See the Statutes at Lai^gCi t8 George U. diap. 17. 

140 Modem Circumndvigaiwm^ pabt ixi. book hi. 

jesty^ $ball receive^ as a reward for such discovery^ the siiiii 
of twenty thousaDd pounds. 

^^ And whereas ships employed, both in the Spitzbergen 
Seas, and in Da?i8's Straits, have frequent opportunities of 
approaching the North Pole, though they have not time^ 
during the course of one summer, to penetrate into the Pa- 
cific Ocean ; and whereas such approaches may greatly tend 
to the discovery of a communication between the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans, as well as be attended with many ad- 
vantages to commerce and science, &c. be it enacted. That 
if any ship shall approach to within 1^ of the North Pole^ 
the owner, &c. or commander. Sec. so approaching, shall 
receive, as a reward for such first approach, the sum of five 
thousand pounds."'' 

That nothing might be omitted that could facilitate the 
success of Captain Cook's expedition, some time before he 
sailed^ in the'beginningof the summer of 1776, Lieutenant 
Fickersgill^ appointed commander of his majesty's armed 
brig the Lion, was ordered '* to proceed to Davis's Straits, 
for the protection of the British whale fishers ;* and that 
first object being secured, '^ he was then required and di- 
rected to proceed up Baffin's Bay, and explore the coasts 
thereof, as far as in his judgment the same could be done 
i?ithout apparent risk, taking care to leave the above-men- 
tioned bay so timely as to secure his return to England ia 
the fall of the year ;" and it was farther enjoined to him, 
'^ to make nautical remarks of every kind, and to employ 
Mr Lane (master of the vessel, under his command) in sur- 
veying, making charts, and taking views of the several 
bays, harbours, and diflferent parts of the coast which be 
might visit, and in making such notations thereon as might 
be useful to geography and navigation.**'^ 

Pickersgill, we see, was not to attempt the discovery of 
the passage. He ,was directed to explore the coasts of Baf- 
fin's Bay, only to enable him to bring back, the same year, 
aome information, which might be an useful direction to- 
ward planning fm intended voyage into that bay the ensu- 
ing summer, to try for the discovery of a passage on that 
side, with a view to c(>-operate with Captain Cook ; who, i^ 
ivas supposed, (from the tenor of bis instructions,) would 

' • • bci 

'^ See the Statutes at Large, 1776, 16 George lU. chap. 6. 
'^. ^nm his MS. hatM^gaSf dstdd May 14, in$. 

Cooh^ Gierke, and Oore* 141 

be trying for this passage^ about the same time^ from the 
opposite side of America* 

JPickersgill, obeying his instnictionSj at least in this in* 
atance, did return that year^ but there were sufficient rea« 
sons for not sending him out again, and the command of 
the next expedition into Baf&a's Bay was conferred oit 
Lieutenant Young ; whose instructions, having an immedi* 
ate connection with our voyage, are here inserted. 

Extract of Tnstructitms to Lieutenant Young, eommanduig thti 
Lien Armed Fessel, dated ISih March, 177T. 

Resohition.l Whereas, in pursuance of the king^s pleasure^ 
Discovery. 3 signified to us by the Earl of Sandwich, bis 
majesty's sloops named in the margin have been sent out 
tinder the commsind of Captain Cook, in order, during this 
and the ensuing year, to attempt a discovery of a northern 
passage, by sea, from the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean; 
and, for that purpose, to run up as high as the latitude of 
65^ N., where it is iioped he will be able to arrive in the 
month of June next ; and there, and as much farther to die 
northward as in his prudence he shall think proper, veiy 
carefully to search for and explore such rivers, or inlets^ as 
may appear to be of a considerable extent^ and pointing to 
Hudson's or Bafiin's Bays, or the north sea ; and, upon find- 
ing any passage through^ sufficient for the purposes of sa^ 
vigation, to attempt such passage with one or both of the 
sloops ; or, if they are judged to be too large, with smaller 
vessels, the frames of which have been sent out with him 
for that purpose : And whereas, in pursuance of his majes^ 
ty's further pleasure, signified as aforesaid, the armed vessel 
under your command hath been fitted in order to proceed 
to Baffin's Bay, with a view to explore the western parts 
thereof, and to endeavour to find a passage on that side^ 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, and we have thought 
fit to intrust you with the conduct-of that voyage ; you are 
therefore hereby required and directed to pat to sea in the 
said armed vessel, without a moment's loss of time, and 
make the best of your way into Baffin's Bay, and to use your 
best endeavours to explore the western shores thereof^ As 
far as in your judgment the same can be done^ without ap- 

142 Modem CircMmavigiitiaiu* part hi. book iiu 

parent risk, and to examine such considerable rivers or in 
lets as you may discover; and^.in case yoo find any^ 
through which there may be a probabiiitv of passing into 
the Pacifid ocean^ you are to attempt sucn passage ; and if 
you succeed in the attempt^ and shall be able to repass it 
again^ sp as to.return to England this year, you are to make 
the best of your way to Spithead^ or the Nore^ and remain 
there until you receive further ordeCj se^din? us an ac- 
count of your arrival and proceedings. But if you shall 
succeed in the attempt, and shall find the season too far ad* 
vanced for you to return the same way, you are then to look 
iSxkt iot the most convenient place to winter in, and to en- 
deavour to return by the said passage as early in the next 
vear as the season will admit, and then to make the best of 
your vray to England, as above directed* 

In case, however, y-ou should not find, or sno'uld be satis- 
fied there is not any probability of finding any such, pas- 
sage, or, finding it, you should not be able to get through 
jnthe vessel you command^ you are then to return to Eng- 
]and> as beforermentioned, unless yoii shall find any btanch 
of the'dea leading to the westward which you shall judge 
likely to afford a communication between the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans^ and which you shall not be able to explore 
in the course of this year, it being, in that case, left to your 
discretion to stav the winter in the most commodious situa- 
tion you can find, in order to pursue the discovery next 
year, if you shall find it advisable so to do ; and, having 
discovered such passage, or not succeeded in the attempt, 
you are to make the best of your way to England; as above 

It. was natural to hope, that something would have been 
done in one or other, or in both these voyages of the Lion, 
that might have opened our views with regard to the prac- 
ticability of a passage from this side of America. But^ un- 
fortunately, the execution did not answer the expectations 
conceived. Pickersgill, who had acquired professional ex- 
perience when acting under Captain Cook, justly merited 
the censure he received, for improper behaviour when in- 
trusted with command in Davis's Strait ; and the talents of 
Young, as it afterward appeared, were more adapted to 
contribute to the glory of a victory, as commander of a 



Cook, Gerke, and Gore* 14S 

liae of batde-fihip^ than to add to geographical discoreries, 
by encountering moantains of ice, and exploring imknowa 
csoaats. '^ 

Both PickerdgiU and Young having been ordered to pro 1 
ceed into Baffin's Bay ; and Captain Cook being directed 
not to begin his search till he shotild arrive in the latitude 
of 66*j it may not be improper to say something here of the 
ireasons which weighed with those who planned the voyages^ 
and framed the instractioris, to carry their views so far 
northward, as the^ proper situation, where the passage, if it 
existed at ali^ ^as likely to be attempted with success. It 
may be asked, why was Hudson's Bay neglected on our side 
ef Anierica ; and why was not Captain Cook ordered to be« 
gin bis search on its opposite side, in much lower latitudes i 
particularly, why not explore the strait leading into the 
western sea of Johii de Fuca, between the latitudes of 47* 
and 48*; the Archipelago of St Lazarus of Admiral de 
Fonte^ between 50^ and 55* ; and the rivers and lakes 
through which he found a passage north-eastward, till he 
met with a ship from Boston ? 

As to the pretended discoveries of de Fuca; the Greek 
pilot, or of de Fonte, the Spanish admiral, though they have 
sometimes found their way into fictitious maps, or hare 
been warmly contended for by the espousers of fanciful^ys- 
temsj to have directed Captain Cook to spend any time in 
tracing them, would have been as wise a measure as if he 
had been directed to trace the situation of Lilliput or Brob- 
diguag. The latter are,* indeed, confessedly, mere objects 
of imagination ; and the former, destitute of any sufficient 
external evidence, bear so many striking marks of inrternal 
absurdity, as warrant our pronouncing them to be the fabric 
of imposture. Captain Cook's instructions were founded on 
an accurate knowledge of what had been already done, and 
of what still remained to do ; and this knowledge pointed 
out the inutility of beginning his search fur a passage ttii 
his arrival in the latitude of 65^. Of this every fair and te 


, - • < * ' ... 

'^ In the Philosophical Transactionsy vd. Ixviii. p» 1057, we have th« 
track of Pickersgill's voyage, which, probably, may be of use to our Green- 
land ships, as it contains many observations for fixing the longitude and 
'latitude of the coasts in Davis's Strait. But it appears that he never en- 
tered Baffin's Bay, the highest northern latitude to which he advanced be- 
ing es"" U'. As tq^youpp'fi proceedings, having failed absolutely in nu- 
king any discovery, it is orless consequence^ that ao communication of his 
journal could be procured.'*— D. 

144 Modem CircumnamgaiionM. pakt hi. book iii» 

pable edqtjiir^r will be abundantly convinced'^ by an atten- 
tion to the following particulars : 

Middleton, who commander! the expedition in 1741 and 
1742^ into Hudson's Bay, had proceeded farther north than 
any of his predecessors in that navigation. But though^ 
from his former acquaintance with that bay^ to which he 
had frequently sailed in the service of the company^ he bad 
entertained hopes of findino^ out a passage through it into 
the Pacific Ocean, the observations which he wasnowena^ 
bled to make^ induced him to change his opinion ; and^ oh 
bis return to England, he made an unfavourable report. Mr 
Dobbs, the patrun of the enterprise, did not acquiesce in 
this ; imd^ ^rtified in his original idea of the practicability 
of tb^ passage^ by the testimony of some of Middleton'a 
officers; he appealed to the public, accusing him of having 
misrepresented facts^ and of having, from interested mo« 
lives, in concert with the Hudson's Bay Company, decided 
digainst the practicability of the passage, though the disco- 
series of his own voyage had put it within his reach. 

He had, between the latitude of 66* and 66**, found a very 
considerable inlet running westward, into which be entered 
with hi$ ships ; and, ^' after repeated trials of the tides, and 
endeavours to discover the nature and course of the open- 
ing, for three weeks successively, he found the flood con- 
stantly to come from the eastward, and that it was a large 
river he had got into," to which he gave the name of Wa- 
ger Kiver. '^ 

The accuracy, or rather the fidelity, of this report, was de- 
nied by Mr Dobbs, who contended that this opening h a 
itrait^and not afresh'Water titer; and that Middleton, if he 
had examined it properly, would have found a passage 
through it to the western American Oceain. The failure of 
this voyaige, therefore, only served to furnish our zealous 
lidvocate for the discovery, with new arguments for at- 
tempting it once more ; and he had the good fbrtune, after 
getting the reward of twenty thousand pounds established 
by act of parliament, to prevail upon a society of gentlemen^ 
and merchants to fit out the Dobbs and California : which 
ships, It was hoped» would be able to find their way into the 
Pacific Ocean, by the very opening which Middleton*s voy- 

'< See the Abstract of his Journal, published by Mr Dobhi 

Cooky-Ckrke, Md Gore. 14tf 

ftge had pointed out, and which he was helieved to have 

This Innovation of hope only produced fresh disappoint- 
Blent For it is well known9 that the voyagevof the Uobba 
and California, instead of confating, strongly confirmed all 
that Middleton had asserted. The supposed strait was found 
to be nothing more than a fresh* water river, and its utmost 
western navigable boundaries were now ascertained, by BfS" 
curate examination. But though Wager's Strait had thus 
disappointed our hopes, as had also done Rankin's Inlety 
which was now found to be a close bay, and though other 
arguments, founded on the supposed course of the tides in 
![Iudson*s Bay, appeared to be eroundless, such is our at- 
tachment to an opinion once adopted, that, even after the 
unsuccessful issue of the voyage of the Dobbs and Califor^f 
Bia, a passage through some other place in that bay was, 
bymany, considered as attainable; and, particularly, Ches^ 
terfield's (formerly called Bowden's) Inlet, lying between 
latitude 6df and 64^, succeeded Wager's Strait, in thesan*' 
guine expectations of those who remained unconvinced by 
former^disappointments. Mr Ellis^ who was on board the 
Dobb8> and who wrote the history of the voyage, holds up 
this aa one of the places where the passage may be sought 
for, upon very rational grounds, and with very good ef^ 
fects.'' He also mentions Repulse Bay, nearly in latitude 
67^ ; but as to this he speaks less confidently ; only saying, 
that by an attempt there, we might probably approach 
nearer to the discovery.** He had good reason fpr thut 
guarding his expression ; for the committee, who directed 
this voyage, Admitting the impracticabihty of effecting^ a 
passage at Repulse Bay, had refused allowing the. ships t(^ 
go into it, being satisfied a^ to diat place.*^ 

Setting Repime Bay, therefore, aside, within which we" 
have no reason for believing that any inlet exists* there did 
not remain any part of Hudson's Bay to be searched, but 
Chesterfield^s Inlet, and a small tract of coast between the 
ktitude 69,*, and what is called the South Point of Main^^ 

VOL. XV. K which 

*^ Ellis's Voyage, p. 388. 

'^ Ibid, p. 330. 

'^ Account of the vpyage, by the clerk of the CalifoFDia, voL ii. p. 379^ 
Mr Dobbs himself says, ^ That he thought the' passage woqld be^imprao* 
ticable, or, at least, very difficult, in case there wai one farther north th^n 
«7V^— ilccounf of Hudsgn't Baj^, p. 99.^D. 

llfii Modem drMmiavigfidSotUB albt ni. book hi. 

which had been left uiii6s|»l< the DobUi arid Cali« 

. But thi« lost gleam of hope has now disappeared. The 
aTersion of the Hudson's Bay Compai^.to contribute any 
thing to the discovery of a north-west passage had bees 
loudly reported by Mr Dobbs ; and the pubiie seemed tb 
beUeve that the charge was well founded. But stilly in ju»« 
tice to diem> it must be allowed, that in 17^ they had Sent 
Messrs Knight and Barlow, in a sloop on this very disco**^ 
very ; but these unfortunate people were never more heard 
of. Mr Sctoggs» who sailed in search of th^n^ in 17^^ 
only brought tM»ck proofs of their shipwreck, but no fredi 
intelligence about a passage, which he was also to Took for* 
They also sent a sloop, and a shalJop, to try for this disco* 
very, iq I7S7; but to no purpose. If obstructions were 
thrown in the way of Captain Middleton, and of the com-* 
jnanders of the I)obbs and California, the governor and 
committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, since that time^ 
we must acknowledge, have made amends for the narrow 
pr^jodices of their predecessors; and we have it in our 
power to. appeal to facts, which abundantly testify, that 
every thing has been done by them, that could be reqdired 
by the public, toward perfecting the search for a north-west 

In the year 1761, Captain Christopher sailed from Fort 
^^burcbill, in tbe sloop {Churchill ; and his voya^ was. not 
quite fruitless ; for he sailed up Chesterfield's Inlet, through 
which a> passage had, by Mr EUis's account of it, been so 
general^ estpected* But when the water turned brackish, 
which marked that he was not in a strait, but in a river, he 

To leave no room for a variety of opinion, however, he 
was ordered h> repeat the voyage tbe ensuing summer^ in 
the same sloop» and Mr Norton, in a cutter, was appointed 
to attend him. Py the favour of the governor and com- 
mittee of the company, the journals of Captain Christopher, 
and. of Mr Norton, and Captain Christopher's chart of the 
inlet, have been readily conmunicated. From these au- 
thentic documents, it appears that the search and examina- 
tion of Chjeslerfield's inlet was now completed. It was 
found to end in a fresh-water lake, at the distance of about 
one hundred and seventy miles from the sea. This lake was 
found also to be about .twenty ^ne leagues long, and from 


C^k, fSetke, and O^. ]i7 

fivfe to ten brMd^ and to be c&mptetely closed up on erery 
side^ except to the west^ Where there wm a little rividet; to 
surrey the state of whicb^ Mr Norton and the crew of the 
cutter ha? ing landed^ and marched ap the country, saw that 
it soon terminated in three tkWs, one dbove another, and 
not witter for a small boat over them ; aiiid ridges, mostly 
dfy from side to side, for 6[Pt ot mk miles higher. 

Thas ends Chesteiifield's Inlet, and all Mr ElHs's expecta* 
tions of a passage through it to the western ocean. The 
other parts of the coast, from latitude 6S^, to the Sotith 
Point of Main, within which linbits hopes were also enter* 
tained of finding a passage, have, of late years, been 
thoroughly explored, it is here that Pistol Bay is situated; 
which the atithor who has Writ last in this country, on Ae' 
probability of a north*west passage,*^ speaks of as the only 
I'emaintng part of Hudson's Bay where this western com-' 
mtinication may exist. But this has been also estamined } 
and, on the authority of Captain Christopher^ we can assurer 
the reader, that there is no inlet of any consequence in ail 
that part of the coast. Nay, he has, in an open boat, sail- 
ed round the bottom of what is called Pistol Bay, and, m » 
stead of a passage to a western sea, found it does not run 
above three or foor milei^ inland. 

Besides these voyages by sea, which satisfy us that we 
must not look for a passage t6 the soiith of 6?^ of latitude^ 
we are indebted to the Hudson's Bay Company for a jour- 
ney by land, which has thrown much additional light on 
this matter, by affording what may be called demonstration, 
how much farther north, at least in some part of their voy- 
age, ships must hold their course, before they can pass from 
one side of America to the other. The northern Indians, 
who come down to the company's forts for trade, had 
brought to the knowledge of our people, the existence of a 
river, which, from copper abounding near it, had got the 
name of the Copper-mine River. We read much about this: 
river in Mr Dobbs's publications, and be considers the In- 
dian accounts of it as favourable to his system. The com- 
pany being desirous of examining the matter with preci- 
sion, instructed their govc^rnor of Prince of Wiles's Port, 
to send a proper person to travel by land, under the escort 


*^ Printed for Jefirm, in 1768. His words are^ *^ There remains then 
to be searched for the disofveiy of a passage, the opening called Pistol Bay, 
in- Hudson's Bay," p. 132 — D 

na Modelm Cit00i}imig(9m»^ tmslt in. book uu 

of some triMty northern Indians^ With orders to pipoceed to 
this famous riyer^ to take an accurate survey of its course^ 
and to trace it to. the sea^ into which it eoipties itself. Mr 
Hearnej a young gentleman in their service^ who^ . having 
been «n officer in the navy^ was well qualified tq mal^e ob-r 
8eryatipt\s for fixing the longitude and latitude^ ^nd make 
drawings of the country he would pass through^ and of the . 
river which be was to examine^ was appointed for this ser- 

Accordingly, he set out from Fort Prince of Wales, on . 
Churchill River, in latitude 58* 5(/, on the 7th of Decem- 
ber, 1770 ; and the whole of his proceedings, frpm time to 
time, are faithfully preserved in bis joumaU The publicaT 
lion of this is an acceptable present to the world, as it 
draws a plain artless picture of the savage modes of life„ 
the scanty means of subsistence, and indeed of the singular 
wretchedness, in every respect, of the various ti:ibes, who, 
without fixed habitations, pass their miserable lives, roving 
throughout the dreary deserts, and over the froze.n lakes of 
the immense tract of continent through which Mr Hearne 
passed, and which he may be said to have added to the geo* 
grapby of the globe. His general course was to the north-r 
west. In the month of June 1771^ being then at a place 
called Ck)nge catha tvha Chaga, he had, to u^e his own words, 
two good observations, both by meridian and double alti-i 
tudes, the mean of which determines this place to be in la-r . 
titude 68* 46' N., and, by account, in longitude ^4* 2' W^ 
pf Churchill River. Oa.the 13th of July (baviugleft Conge 
^catha vohn Cbagd on the 2d, and travelling still to the west 
'of north) he reached the Copper-mine River; and was not 
9 little surprised to find it differ so much from the de^crip-. 
lions given of \t by the natives at the fort ; for, instead of 
being likely to be navigable for a ship, it is, at this part, 
scarcely navigable for an Indian canoe ; three falls being in 
sight, at one yiew, aud beipg choaked up with shoals and 
stony ridges. 

Here Mr Hearne began hi$ survey of the river^ This he 
continued till he arrived at its mouth, near which his north- 
ern Indians majssacred twenty-one Esouimaux, whom they 
surprised ip th^ir teut^. We shall give mt Hearne's account; 
qf his arrival at the sea, in bis own words : " After the In* 
dians had plundered the tents of the Esquimaux of all the 
copper, &c. they were then again ready to assist me in ma* 


Cook, Clarke, dni Gm. . l49 

•Irm^ an ^nd to the survey ; the sea then in sight from the 
N.W. by W. to the N.E,, distant about eight miles. It wte ' 
-then about five in the morning of the ittb; when I ateiii 
proceeded to survey the river to the mouthy still ibuno^ in 
every respect^ no ways likely^ or a possibility of being biade 
navigable, being full of shoals and falls ; and^ at the en« 
trance,^ the river emptying itself over a dry flat of the 
thore. For the tide was then out, and seemed, by the edges 
of the-ice, to flow about twelve or fourteen fieet, which WiBi 
'only reach a little within the river's mouth. That being 
the cas^, the water in the river had not the least brctckish. 
taste. But I am sure of its being the sea, or some part 
thereof, by the quantity of whale-bone and Seal^skins the 
^Es^uimaus bad at their tents ; as also the number of seals 
which I saw lipon the ice. The sea, at the river's mouthy 
Was full of islands and shoals, as far as I could see, by the 
assistance of a pocket-telescope ; atid the ice was not yet 
broken up, onlv thawed away about three quarters of A 
mile from the shore^ and a little way round the islands and 

'^ By the time t bad completed this survey, it was about 
one in the morning of the 18th ; but iii these high latitudes, 
and this time of the year, the sun is always a ^ood height 
above the horizon. It then came on a thick drizzling rain^ 
with a thick fog; and, as finding the riVer and sea, in every 
respect, not likely to l>e of any utility, I did not think it 
wtorth while to wait for fair weather, td detetmine the lati- 
tude exactly by an observation. But, by the extraordinary 
care I took in observing the courses and distances, walked 
from Conge catha wha Chaga, where I had two good obser- 
vations, the latitude may be depended on, within twenty 
miles at farthest.'' 

From the map which Mr Hearne constructed of the 
country through which he passed, in this singular journey, 
it appears that the mouth of the Copper-inine River lies in 
the latitude 72^ and above 25* west longitude from the fort, 
from whence he took his departure.*' 



*' Mr Heame's journev, back from the Copper-mine River, to Fort ' 
Prince of Wales, lasted till June 30, 1772. ^rom his first setting out till 
his return, hehad employed near a year and seven months. The unparal- 
leled hardships he suflfertd^ and the essential service lys performed, met 


ISO Modem Cireunmavigaii(ni$, part ni. book hi. 

Tie conseauepces re8ttlti0g from this extensive discoverj;, 
9r^ pjbvious. We now see that the continent of North Ame- 
rica ftretcl^es from Hudson's Bay so far to the north-west, 
that Mr Heame had travelled near thirteen hundred miles 
befpre be arrived at tbe sea. His most western distance 
SfQm the co^t of Hudson's Bay was near six hundred mil^s ; 
and that his Indian ^ide^ were well apprised of a vast tract 
of continent stretchmig farther on in that directioq^ is cer- 
t$iin from many circumstances mentioned in his Journa). 

What is now mentioned with regard to the discoveries 
made by the Hudson'^ Bay Company, was well knov^n to 
:t})^ noble lord who presided at tbe Board pf Admiralty 
^ben this yoy^e was qnderii^k^n ; and the iptimate ^qur 
Hjectioa of thofe discoveries with the pl^n of the voyage, 
fjf cpur^j regulated the ips|f notions given tp Captain v^o)c« 

And now, ip^y we not take it upon us to appeal tq every 
(fif^ii^ ^nd cfipahle enquirer, whether that part of the in*- 
iStruptiqfi? which directed the cap^in not to Iqs^ time, in 
fe;!cploring rivers or inlets, or ypon any other account, tiU 
he got into the latitude of 65^, was not framed judicious- 
ly ;- as ther^ were such indubitable proofs that no passage 
^i^isted so far to thp siouth as any part of Hudson's Bay, 
^p4 ibat> if a passage could be effected at all, part' of it, at 
Mas(, m^st be traversed by tbe ships as far to the i^orthr 
Vard as tbe Ii^titude 72% where Mr Hearne arrived at the 
f ?a ? 

yV^^ inay add, as a farther consideration ^n support of 
this ^rtii^le of the instructions, that Bearing's Asiatic dis* 
poveri^Sj in 1728, having traced that continent to th^ lati^ 
tyde of 67% Captain Cook's approach toward that latitude 
vf^^ to b^ wished for, that he might be enabled to bring 
hack more authentic information than the world had hi- 

with a suitable reward from his masteniy and he was madegoveroor of Fort 
Prince of Wales^ iivhere he was taken prisoner by the French in 1782 ; but 
soon afterwards returned to his station. V-^D. ' 

This opportunity is taken to mention^ that Mr Arrowsmitli lays down 
Copper-mine River in longitude 113^, and not in 1S0% according to Mr 
Hearne. In the opinion of Mr H. this river flows into an intend sea. Be 
this as it mayi the result of his discoveries is unfavourable to the supposi- 
tion of there being a north-west passage. Mr Heame's journal was not' 
published till 1705, considerably after the date of Dr Douglas's writing. 
9ome alterations have consequently been made on the text and notes of 
that gentleman.*— E. 

Cook, Chtke, and Gon. isi 

therto obtained^ about the relative rituatioa and vicinity 
of the two continental which was absotulely necessary to 
be known, before the pTaclicability of iaiting between.the 
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans^ in any northehi difrectioQ, 
could be ascertained. 

After all> that search, in a lower latitude, which they 
who give credit (if any such there now be) to the pretend 
te^d discoveries of De Fonte, affect to wish had been recooi'* 
mended to Captain Cook, has (if that will core them of 
their credulity) been satisfactorily made. The Spaniard^, 
louaed from their lethairgy by our voyages, and haviu]^ 
causht a spark of enterprise from our repeated visits to 
the Pacific Ocean, have followed us mofei thdn once into 
ihe Une of our discoveries within the southern tropic ; and 
bare idso fitted^ out expeditions to expl^^ the Amerrcaa . 
continent to the north of California. It is to be lamented^ 
that there #i6uld be anj reasons why the transactions of 
those Spanish voyages have not been fully disclosed, ^itU 
the same liberal spirit of information which other nations 
have adopted. But, fortunately, this excessive caution of 
tiie court of Spain has been, defeated, at kast in one iu- 
stance, by the publication of an authentic Journbl of their 
Voyage of discovery VBjfoa the coast of America, iti 1775, 
for which the world is indebted to tb.^ honourable Mr 
Daines Bamngton. This publieation^ which conveys some 
]dfbnnatibn.'or real cpnsequence to geography, and has 
therefore been referred to more than once in the follow-^ 
ing* work, is particularly^ valuable in this respect, that some 
parts of the coast which Captain (jook, in his progress 
northward, was prevented, by unfavourable winds, from 
approaching, were seen and examined bv tb6 Spanish ship^ 
who preceded him ; and the perusal ox the following ex- 
tract from their journal may be recommended to those (if 
any such there be) who would represent it as an imperfec- 
tion in Captain Cook's voyage, that be had not an oppor- 
tunity of examining the coast of America, in the latitude 
assigned to the discoveries of Admiral Fonte. ^' We now 
attempted to find out the straits of Admiral Fonte, though^ 
as yet, we had not discovered the Archipelago of St Laza« 
tQs, through which he is said to have sailed* With thi» 
intend yre sear<:hed every bay and recess of the coast, and 
sailed round every headland, lying-to in the night, that we 
Slight not lose sight of this entrance* Aft^ these gains. 


i$i Mifdem CimmauuigaUfM* PAftt in. book ih « 


takea^ and being faTOured by a ndrth-^vreet wind; it mny be 
proaounced tibat no such straits are to be found/'*^ 

'In this journal, the Spaniards boast of ^' having reached 
so high a latitade as 60^, beyond what any other navigators 
liad been able to effect in those seas."^' Without dimmish*' 
ing the merit of their performance, we may be permitted 
>o say, that it will appear very inconsiderable indeed, in 
comparison of what Captain Cook effected, in the voyage 
of which an account is given in these volomes; Besides 
exploring the land in the Sooth Indian Ocean, of ^wkich 
Kerguelen, in two voyages, had befen able to obtain bat a 
very imperfect knowledge ; addins also many considerable 
accessions to the geography of the Friendly Islands ; and 
discovering the noble group, now caHed Sandwich Islands, 
in the northern part ofthe Pacific Ocean, of which not the 
faintest trace can be met with in the account of any former 
voyage ; besides these preliminary discoveries, the reader 
of the following work will find, that in one summer, our 
English navigator discovered a much larger proportion of 
the north-west coast of America than the Spaniards, though 
settled in the neighbourhood, had, in all their attempts, for 
above two hundred years, been able to do; thai he oas put 
It beyond all doubt that Beeringrand Tscherikoff had real^^ 
ly discovered the ooatinent of America in 1741, and haa 
also established the prolongation of thai continent west-« 
ward opposite Kamscbatka, which speculative writers, wed« 
ded to favourite systems, had affected so much to disbe-« 
iieve, and which, though admitted by Muller, had, since 
he wrote, been considered as disproved, by later Russian 
discoveries ;*« that, besides ascertaining the true position 
of the western coasts of America, with some inconaider-* 


' ^^ Journal of a voyage in 1775 by Don Frandsco Antonio Maurell^ itt 
Mr Barrington's Miscellanies, p. 508. — D. 

*' Ibid. p. 50r. We lekrn (rom Maurelle's Journal,' that aaotfier voy- 
age bad been tsome time before peifonned ttoon the coast of Amerf<ia i 
but the utmost, northern progress of it was to latitude 55^^^-D. 

^ See Coxe's Russiain Discoveries, p. 26, 87, && The dctioos of spe^^ 
(hilative geographers in the soQthem hemisphere, have been continents ^ 
in the northern hemisphere, they, have been seas. It may be observed, 
tlierefore, that, if Capt^iin Cook in his first voyages ilnnihilated imaginary 
aotttbern lands, he has made amends for the faavock, in his thind voya^ 
by annihilating imaginary northern seas, and filling up the vast space vrhich 
had been allotted to them, with the solid contents of his new discoveriea 
<^ American land ftuther west and north than had hitherto been trsuded. 

' ^k, Clerki, amd Gore» )58 

mble iBteyntj^Uoiis/from latitude 44* up to bejond tfare lati- 
tude 70% b<e has also ascertained the position of tbe north- 
eastern extremitjr of Asia, by confirming Beering's disco- 
^reries in 1728, and adding extensive accessions of his own ; 
that he has given os more aathentic information concern-' 
iog the islands lying between the two contiaentsj than the 
Kamtschatka traders, ever since Beeriog first taught them 
to venture on this sea^ had been able to procure ; that, by 
fixing the relative situation of Asia and Americaj and dis- 
covering tbe narrow bounds of the strait that divides them, 
he has tnrewn a blase of light upon this important part of 
the geography of the globe, and solved the puzzling pro^ 
blem aTOnt the peopling of America, by tribes destitute of 
tfie necessary .meana to attempt long navigations ; and, lasU 
ly, that, though the principal object of tbe voyage failed, 
tne>worId will be greatly benefited even by tbe failure, as 
i^ has brought us to the knowledge of the existence of the 
impediments which future navigators may expect to meet 
with, in attempting to go to the East Indies through Beer* 
ing'a strait.*^ 


• ^ The Rdssbtni seeiii to dWe mUcb to EngUtid, in ttatters respecting 
liwir own possesskmi. It is singular enough diat one of our countrymen, 
Dr Camobelly (see his edition of Harris's voyu^est vol. ii. p« losi) has 
preserved many valuable particulars of Beering^ first voyaffe, of which 
MullCr himself, the historian of their earlier discoveries, mues no meiv 
tion; that it should be another of our countrymen, IStfr.Coxe, who first 
BH^ished a satisfactory account of their later discoveries ; and that the 
King of Great Britain's ships should traverse the globe in 1778, to con- 
Srm to the Russian empire the possession of near thirty ^k^giees, or above 
six hundred miles, of continent* which Mr Engel, in his zeal for the pnic^' 
ticability of a north-east passage^ would prune away from tlie length of 
Asia to the eastward. See his Aiem&ires Geograpkiques, &c Lausanne 
1166 ; which, however, contains much real information, and many parts: 
of which are confirmed by Captain Cook's American di8C0veries.--^D. 

It shews some inconsistency in Captain Krusenstem, that whilst her 
speaks of the too successful policy of the commercial nations of Europe 
to lull Russia into a state of slumber as to her interests, he should give 
us to understand, that the same effect which Captain Cook's third voyage . 
produced on the speculative and enterprising spirit o£ English merchants, 
nad been occasioned among his countiymen forty years sooner, by tbe dia. 
covery of the Aleutic islands and the north-west coast of Amenca. But, 
in fact, it is the highest censure he could possibly have oassed on his own- 
government, to admit, that it had been subjected to such stupifying treat*, 
nent. This it certainly could not have been, without the previous exist*. 
•ooe of such a lethargy as materially depreciates the virtue of any opiate 
employed. There is no room, however, for the allegation made i and the . 


I5i Modem Circwmmvigkiuw. Tkur iiu book in. 

The .^3(leoded review we have taken of jbbe precediitf 
voyage9^ and tbe geqet al outline we have sketched oul^ of 
the trai^sactioQS of tbe last^ which are recorded atfatt 
length lo these volumes^ will not> it is hoped> be conaider*^ 
ed as a prolix or unnecessary detail. It will serve to give 
a just notion of the whole plan of discovery executed, bj 
bis majesty's commands; mid it appearing that much vak 
aimed at« and much accomplished^ in the unknown paiti 
of the globe^ in both hemispheres^ there needs no otbett, 
consideration^ to give fiiU satisfaction to those who possess 
an enlarged way of thinkings that a variety of useful pm>» 
poses inust have been effected by these researches* But 
there are others^ no doubt, who, too diffident of their oWd 
abilities^ or too indolent to exert them, would wish to haivid 
their reflections assisted, by pointing out what those usteful 
purposqa are. For the service of such, the following enu-^ 
meration of particulars is entered upon. And if there should 
be any, who aSeet to undervalue the plan or the ex^cotiori 
of our voyn^ed, what shall now be offered, if it do not con«» 
vince them, may, at leasts check the influence of thdr m* 
favourable decision. 

1. It may be fairly considered, as one great advantage 
accruing to the world from our late surveys of the globe, 
that they have confuted fanciful theories, too likely to give 
birth to impracticable undertakttigs* ^ • 

After Captain Cook's persevering and fruitless traverse? 
through every corner of the southern heoDispbere, who, for 


fiiH amount of ber slumber is justly impntable^to tbe gross dailtness which* 
to ioog enveloped the horizon of Russia. Whose business was h to rouse 
her ? What nation cotdd be supposed to possess so much of the spiril oif 
knight*errantry, as to be induced to instruct her savages as to the advan^ 
tages of cultivatias commerce, without a cautious regard to its own papfii 
cmar interests in the first place I But the bold, though somewhat impoli-^ 
tic seaman, has perhaps stumbled on the real cause of the slow progtess 
which she has hitherto made in tbe course which- his sanguine imaginatknoi 
has pointed out for her. Speaking of her inexhaustible springs anct inoen*** 
tives to commerce, he nevertheless admits, that there are obstacles which 
render it difficult for her to become a'trading nation. But these obstacles, 
he says, do not warrant a doubt of the possibility of removing them. *< Let 
the monarch only ex(>ress his pleasure with regard to them, and the most 
difficult are already overcome f* The true prosperity of Russia, it is in* 
dubitably certain, will be infinitely more advanced by fostering her infimt 
commerce, than by any augmentation of territories which the policy or 
arms of her sovereign can accomplish. But he will alwavs require muclr 
aelfodenial to avoid intermeddling with the concerns of other -nations, aoA 
to restrict his labours to the improvement of his own real interestsw^B.^ 

^ ^Cookf Chrke, and Gar9. 155 

the fature, ^vill pay any attention to the/ ingenious reyerias 
of Campbell^ de Broasea^ and de Buffon ? or bope to est%- 
blish Qn jnt^rcouirse with such a contiae^t as Maupertuis's 
fruitful imagination bad pictured ? A continent equals at 
j^ast, in extent^ to all the civilized countries in the known 
northern hemisphere^ where new men^.new animals^ new 
productions of every kind^ might be brought forwiard to 
our yiew> and discoveries be made^ ^hich would open in^ 
Exhaustible treasures of commerce ?"« We can now boldly 
take it upoa uf t9 discourage all expeditions^ formed o^ 
mcb reWuings of speculative philosophers^ into a quarter 
of the globcj where pur persevering English navigator, in- 
stead of tbjis promiBed fairy kmdi fQupd nothing but barreii 
rodcs^ scarcely affording sbelt^ to penguins and seals ; and 
4reary seas^ and moun Wus of ice> occupying the immense 
space allotted to imaginary paradisesj and the only treasury 
thete tQ be discovered^ to reward the toil^ and to compen^* 
^ate the dangers^ of the unavailing search. ^ 

jQr, if we carry our reflections ijito the northern hemi- 
sphere, could Mr Dobbs have made a single co^ver^ much 
less c<mld b^ have bieea the successful solicitor of two dif- 
ferent expeditions, and have met with encouragement frpqi 
the legialatnr^j with regard to bisfavourite passage through 
Hudson's Bay, if Captain Christopher had previously ex>- 
I^Qred its coastSi mi if Mr Hearqe had walked over the 
;immeQse continent behind it? Whether, after Captaia 
Cook's and Captain Clerke's discoveries on the west side 
of America, and their report of the state of Beering's Strain ' be 9uffi<neiikt encouia^meat to make nuwe at^ 
itetnpts to penetrate into the Pacific Ocean in any northern 
diDQcUoB, is a questiojQ, for the decision of which the pub- 
lic will be indebted to this work. 

S. But Qijis voyages will benefit the world, not. only by 
discoiumgiog future unprofitable searches, but also by less* 
€ning the mngers and distresses formerly experienced in 
those seas, ivbich are within the line of commerce and na^. 
vigatioD, Aow actually subsisting* In how many instances 
h«.Ye the mistakes of former navigators, ia fixing the true 
' situations 

?^ S^ Maupertuis's Letter to the King of Prussia. The author of the 
Preliminary Discourse to Bougainville's Voyage aux liles Malouines^ com- 
putes that the southern continent (for the existence of which, be owns, 
we must depend more on the conjectures of philosophers, than on (he 
testimony or voyagers) contains eight or ten millions of square leagues. 

have cxie"" x>rVnce ^ a VO ** ;«e o^ ' .v,eV *%« fO» *"j 
^, given, fo' h» i" "^ , 


Cook, Cierke, and Gort. 157 

TbesCj -BXkd many other commercial improvements, may. 
jreasonably be expected to result from the British discove* 
lies, even in our own times. But if we looic forward to fu- 
ture ages, and to future changes in the history of commerce^ 
by recollecting its various past revolutions and migrationst 
ve may be allowed to please ourselves with the idea of its. 
finding its way, at last, throughout the extent of the regions 
with which our voyages have opened an intercourse ; and 
there will be abundant reason to subscribe to Captain Cook'% 
observation with regard to New Zealand, which may be ap« 
plied to other tracts of land explored by him, that, '' ak 
though they be far remote from the present trading world> 
vre can, by no m^ans, tell what use tuture ages may make 
of the discoveries maide by the present/'*^ In this point of 
view, surely, the utility of the late voyages must stand con-^ 
fessed ; and we may be permitted to say, that the history 
of their operations has the justest pretensions to be called 
xm/Aft If »»> as it will convey to latest posterity a treasure of 
interesting information. 

3. Admitting^ however, thjat we may have expressed too 
sanguine expectations of commercial advantages, either 
within our own reach, or gradually to be nnfolded at some 
futurie period, as the result of our voyages of discovery, we 
may still be allowed to consider them as a laudable effort 
t,o add to the stock of human knowledge, with regard to aU. 
object which cannot but deserve the attention of enlight- 


with China. The reader who desires information respecting the nature' 
of the fur trade carried on betwixt the north-west coast of America, the 
neighbouring islands, and China, may consult his introduction. The af- 
fkirs of Spain, it may be remarked, long preclude the requisite attention. 
to her commercial interests, and do not now promise a speedy recovery 
under her apparently infatuated government. To Nootka or King George a^ 
Sound, mentioned in the text, that power abandoned all right and preten« 
sions, in favour of Great Britain, in 1790, after an altercation, which at 
one time bid fair to involve the two kingdoms in war. It was during thia 
dispute, and in view of its hostile termination, that Mr Pitt gave his sane- 
tion to a scheme for revolutionizing the Spanish colonies, an event which, 
if not now encouraged by any direct assistance, bears too complacent an 
aspect on our commercial interests not to be regarded with a laige portion 
Osgood wishes. It is impossible, indeed, excluding altogether every idea 
of personal advantage, not to hope highly, at least, of any efibrts which 
may be made to wrest; the souk and bodies of millions from the clutch of 
ignorance and tyrannyf The fate of th^e colonists is by no means the 
most unimportant spectacle which the passing drama of the world exhibits 
to the eye of an enlightened and humane politician.— *£• 

^ Cupk's second voyage. 

158 Mod&n Gremnnac^iiorb, pakt hi. book iit« 

ened man. To exert oar facolties i n ieyiinng ingeliioiis 
ttodes of satisfying onrselves aboat the magnitude and dis- 
tance of the san ; to extend oar acquaintance trith the sys- 
tem, to which that luminary is the common centre^ by tra- 
cing the revolutions of a new planet, or the appearance of 
a new comet; to carry our bold researches through all the 
immensity of space, where world beyond world rises to the 
yiew of the astonished observer ; these are employments 
which none but those incapable of pursuing them can de- 
pr^iate, abd which ever^ one capable of pursuing them 
must delimit in, as a dignified exercise of the powers of the 
human mmd. But while we direct our studies to distant 
vrorlds, which, after all our exertions, we must content our- 
selves with having barely discovered to exist, it would be 
^ strange neglect, indeed, and would argue a most culpa- 
ble want of rational curiosity, if we did not use our best 
endeavours to arrive at a full acquaintance with the con- 
tents of our own planet ; of that little spot in the immense 
universe, on which we have been placed, and the utmost 
Kmits of which, at least its habitable parts, we possess the 
means of ascertaining, and describing, by actual examina- 

So naturally doth this reflection present itself, that to 
inow something of the terraqueous globe, is a favourite 
object with every one who can taste the lowest rudiments 
of learning. • Let us not> therefore, think so meanly of the 
times in which we live, as to suppose it possible that full 
justice will not be done to the noble plan of discovery, so 
steadily and so successfully carried on, since the accession . 
of bis majesty ; which cannot fail to be considered, in every 
succeeding age, as a splendid period in the history of our 
countty, and to add to our national glory, by distinguishing 
Great Britain as taking the lead in the most arduous under- 
takings for the common benefit of the human race. Be- 
fore these voyages took place, nearly half the surface of the 
globe we inhabit was hid in obscurity and confusion. What 
is still wanting to complete our geography may justly he 
termed the minutia of that science. 

4. TiCt us now carry our thoughts somewhat farther. It 
is fortunate for the interests of knowledge, that acquisitions 
in any one branch, generally, and indeed unavoidably, lead 
to acquisitions in other branches, perhaps of still greater 
consequence ;.aad that we cannot even gratify mere curio* 


Cook, Clerkt, Md Gtnt. t«9 

•ity witboQl being rewalrded wilh nkiAble inblraolios* This 
observation applies to the subject before us. Voyages^ ia ' 
tirhich new oceans bar^ been travejnsed, and in which new 
countries have been visited, can scarcely ev^ be pertbrm* 
ed without bringing forward to our view fffesh objects of 
Science* Even when we are to take our report of what was 
discovered from the mere sailor, whose knowledge scarcdj 
goes beyond the narrow limits of his own profession, and 
^whose enquiries are not directed by philosophical disoern*- 
inent, it will be unfortunate indeed if something hath not 
been remarked, b}' whiclt the scholar may proEt, and use<* 
ful accessions be made to our old stock of information. And 
if this be the case in general, bow much more must be gain* 
ed by the particular voyages now under consideration i Be« 
sides naval officers equally skilled to examine the coasts 
they might approach, as to delineate them accurately upon 
their charts, artists^ were engaged, who, by their draw« 
iQg9, might illustrate what could only be imperfectly de* 
scribed ; knathematicians,'^ who might treasure up an ex« 
tensive aeries of scientific observations ; and persons versed 
in the various departments of the history of nature, who 
night collect, or record, all that they should find new and 
valuable, throughout the wide extent of their researches* 
l^t while most of these associates of our naval discoverers 
were liberally rewarded by the public, there was one gen* 
tleman, who, thinking it the noblest reward he could re- 
ceive, to have an opportunity of making the ample fortune 
he inherited from his ancestors subservient to the improve* 
meift of science, stepped forward of his own accord, and, 
submitting to the hardships and dangers of a circumnaviga- 
tion of the globe, accompanied Captain Cook in the En- 
deavour. The learned world, I may also say the unlearned, 
will never forget the obligations wnich it owes to Sir Joseph 

What real acquisitions have been gained by this mnni- 
ficent attention to science, cannot be better expressed than 
in the words of Mr Wales, who engaged in one of these 


^^ Messrs Hodses and Webber, whose drawings have ornamented and 
Uustrated this and Captain Cook's second voyaee. — D. 

^<^'Mr Green, in tbe Endeavour ; Messrs Wales and Bayly, in the Re* 
solution and the Adventure ; Mr Bayly, a second time, jointly with Cap- 
tains Cook and King ia tUs voyage; and Mr li^yons, who acoompaniecl 
Lord Mulgrave.— D. 

ISO Modern ilUrcumnttmgaiions. Tknr iiu book Hi. 

Yoyages himaelf, aad contributed largely to the benefits 
derived from them. 

^* That branch of natural knowledge which may be called 
nauHeal aztronomy, was undoubtedly in its infancy when 
these voyages were first undertaken. Both instruments and 
observers, which deserved the name, were very rare ; and 
80 late as the year I77O9 it was thought necessary, in the 
appendix to Mayer^s Tables, published by the Board of 
Looigitude, to state factSy in contradiction to the assertions 
of so celebrated an astronomer as the Abb^ de la Caille, that 
the altitude of the sun at noon, the easiest and mpst simple 
of all observations, could not be taken with certainty to a 
less quantity than five, six, seven, or even eight miiiatesJ' 
But those who will give themselves the trouble to look into 
the astronomical observations, made in Captain Cook'*s last 
voyage, will find, that there were few, even of the petty 
officers, who could not observe the distance of the moon 
from the sun, or a star, the most delicate of all observa-* 
tions, with sufficient accuracy. It may be added, that the 
method of making and computing observations for finding 
the variation of tlie compass, is better known, and more 
frequently practised, by those who have been on these voy* 
ages, than by most others. Nor is there, perhaps, a per- 
son whb ranks as an officer, and has been concerned in 
them, who would not, whatever his real skill may be, feel 
ashamed to have it thought that he did not know how to 
observe for, and compute the time at sea ; though, but a 
fbort while before these voyages were set on foot, such a 


^ 3^ The Abba's words are»— •** Si oeos ^ui promettent une si graode pre- 
cision, dans ces sortes de metbodes, avoieni navigu6 quelques temps, ils 
auroient vfi souvent, que dans I'observation la plus simple de toutes, qui 
est celle de la hauteur dn soleil k midi, deux observations, munis de bona 
quartiers de reflexion, bien rectifies, different entr'eux« lorsqu'ils observent 
cbacun 4 part, de 5', 6', 7\ &-8?'— EpA^er. 175&-rl765. Introduction^ 
p. 32. 

It must be, however, mentioned, in justice to M* de la Caille, that l^ 
attempted to introduce the lunar method of discovering the longitude, and 
proposed a plan of calculations of the moon's distance from the sun and 
fixeid stars; but, through the imperfection of his instruments, his success 
was much less tiian that method was capable of affording. The bringina 
it into general use was reserved for Dr Maskelvne, our Astronomer RoyaE 
See the preface to the Tables for correcting tbe Effects of Refraction and 
Parallax^ published by Uie Board of Longitude, under the direction of I^ 
Shepherd, Plumian Professor of Astronomy and £xperimental Phiksopby 
at Cambridge, in 1773.— D. 

Cook, Ckrke, md Gore. \ey 

thing Was scarcely ever heard of amongst seamen ; and even 
first-rate astronomers doubted the possibility of doing' it 
ifvith sufficient exactness.)* 

VOL. XV. t ''The 

^* In addition to Mt Wales's remark, it may be obsenred, that the>pro- 
fid&acy of our naval officers in taking observations at sea, must ultimately 
be attributed to the great attention paid to this important object by the 
Board of Loneitude at home ; liberal rewards having been eiv«n to mathe- 
maticians for perfecting the lunar tables^ and facilitating calculations, and 
to artists for constructing more accurate instruments for observing, and 
watches better adapted to keeping time at sea. It appears, therefore, that 
the voyages o{ discovery* and the operations of the Board of Lopgitude^ 
went hand in band; and they must be combined, in order to form a just 
^estimate of the extent of the plan carried into execution since his majes- 
ty's accession, for improving astronomy and navigation^ But, besides the 
^tablishmenit of the Board of Longitude on its present footing, which baa 
"bad such important consequences, it must also be ever acknowledge^ 
ihat his present majesty has extended his royal patronage to .every branch 
of the liberal arts and useful science- The munificent present to the 
Royal Society for defraying the expence of observing the transit of Ve- 
nus ; the institntion of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture; the mag« 
Decent apartments allotted to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and 
to the Royal Academy at Somerset-Place ; the support of the Garden of 
Exbtics at Kew, to improve which Mr Masson was sent to the extremi- 
ties of Africa ; the substantial encouragement afibrded to learned men 
and learned works in various departments, and particularly that afibrded 
to Mr Hersebel* which has enabled him to devote himself entirely to the 
improvemctnt of astronomy ; — ^these, and many other instances whk^ 
might be enumerated, would have greatly distinguished his majesty's reign« 
even if he had not been the patron of those successful attempts to perfect 
geography and navigation by so many voyages of discovery. — ^D. 

It is scarcely necessary to add to this note by sayuig» that the period 
whicn has elapsed since the first publication of this voyage, has not wit- 
nessed any failure of the promises held out by the previous state, of sci« 
ence, notwithstanding the calamities and embarrassments attendant oa 
the revolutionary frenzy that, in some degree, infected eveiy country ia 
Europe. Science, indeed, has peculiarly prospered amid the miseries o£ 
the world. In pity of the destructive won, in which man's bad passione 
had been engaged with such industrious ferocitv, she has held out in one 
hand a remedy (br the evil, and pointed with the other to the blessings of 
peace. Is it unreasonable to hope, that the precious seed sown in such 
tumultuous times as we have witnessed, and are now witnessing, will ere 
long yield a rich harvest to reward the industry of her labourers ? But let 
us not limit our expectations and toils to the completion of mere mmutU^ 
as Dr DoUglas speaks. The opinion of plenty, says Lord Bacon, is one 
of the causes of want. A more unfavourable symptom of our condition 
could hardly be found, than a belief that we had reached perfection. Let 
us rather think that greater progress may yet be made in beneficial arts 
and sciences than ever was made hitherto, and be therefore stimulated to 
more ambitious exertions. It will be no glory to the next generation that 
we have gone so far, if they themselves are not invited and enabled by ouc 
success to get beyond us»*^£. ^ 


Modem CircumnaingaHon^0 part hi. book in. 

'^ The number of places at which the rise and trmes of 
flowJDg of tides have beea observed, in these voyages, is 
very great, and heoce an important article of useful know* 
ledge is afforded. In these, observations, aonpre. very cu- 
rious, and even unexpected, circumstances, have offered 
themsdVes to our consideration. It will be sufficient to in- 
'«tance the exceedingly small height to which the tide rise» 
in the middle of the great Pacific Ocean, where it falls 
short) Iwo-thir'ds at least, of what might have been expect- 
ed from theory and calculation. 

** The direction and force of currents at sea, make also an 
important object. These voya*>es will be found to contain 
'much useful information on this head, as well relating tf> 
.seas nearer home, and which, in consequence, are navigated 
every day, as to those which are more remote, but where, 
notwithstanding, the knowledge of these things may be of 
great service to those who are destined to navigate them 
hereafter. To this head also we may refer the great num- 
ber of experiments which have been made for enquiring 
into the depth of the sea, its temperature, and saltness at 
different depths, and in a variety of places and climates. 

'' An extensive foundation lias also been laid for improve* 
ments in magnetism, for discovering the cause and nature 
of the polarity of the needle, and a theory of its variations^ 
by the number and variety of the observations and experi- 
ments which have been made, both on the variation an^ 
dip, in almost all parts of the world. Experiments also 
have been made, in consequence of the late voyages, on 
th6 effects of gravity in different and ^ery distant places^ ' 
which may serve to increase our stock of natural know^ 
ledge. From the same source of information we havi^ 
learned, that the phenomenon, usually called the aurora 
horealis, is not peculiar to high northern latitudes, but be- 
longs equally to all cold climates, whether they be north of 

'^ But, perhaps, no part of knowledge has been so great 
a gainer by the late voyages as that of botany. We aro 
told,'^ that at least twelve hundred new plants have been 
added to the known ^system ; and that very considerable ad- 
ditions have been made to every other branch of natural 
history, by the great skill and industry of Sir Joseph Banks^ 


^^ See Dr Shepherd's Preface, as sbove^u 

Coek, Chrke, and Gore. 163 

and the other gentlemen who have accompanied Captain 
Cook for that purpose." 

^ To our naval officers in fi;enerai> or to their learned asso- 
ciates in the expeditions, all the foregoing improvements of 
knowledge may be traced ; but there is one very singular 
improvement indeed, still behind, for which, as we are solely 
inaebted to Captain Cook, let us state it in his own words: 
"*' Whatever may be the public judgment about other mat- 
ters, it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming any 
merit but that of attention to my duty, that I can conclude 
thiai account with an observation, which facts enable me to 
make, that our having discovered the possibility of pre^ 
serving health amotigst a numerous ship's company for 
such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and 
amidst such continued hardships and fatigues, will make 
this voyage remarkable in the opinion of every benevolent 
person, when the disputes about a southern continent shall 
have ceased to engage the attention and to divide the 
Judgment of philosophers."** 

5. But while our late voyages have opened so many chan^ 
nels to an increaaq of knowledge in the several articles al- 
ready enumerated ; While they have extended our acquaint- 
ance with the. contents of the globe ; while they have faci- 
litated old tracks, and opened new ones for commerce; 
while they have been the means of improving the skill of 
the navigator, and the science of the astronomer ; while thejr 
have procured to us so valuable accessions in the several 
departments of natural history, and furnished such oppor- 
tunities of teaching us how to preserve the healths and lives 
of seamen, let us not forget another very important object 
of study,, for which they have afforded to tne speculative 
philosopher ample materials ; I mean the study of human 
nature m various situations> equally interesting as they are 

However reniote or secluded from frequent intercourses 
with more polished nations the inhabitants of any parts of 
the world be, if history or our own observation should make 
it evident that they have been formerly visited, and that 
foreign manners and opinions, and languages, have beea 
blended with their own, little use can be made of what is 
ebserved amongst such people toward drawing a real pic* 


3^ Cook's sscond voyage. 


l64 Modem Orcimna^igaHom. part hi. book hi. 

•tore of mail io bis natural uncultivated state. This seems 
to be tbe situation of the inhabitants of most of the islands 
that lie contiguous to the continent of Asia^ and of whose 
^mannen and institutions the Europeans, who occasionally 
Visit them, have frequently given us accounts. But the is- 
lands which our enterprising discoverers visited in th^ cen« 
tre of the South Pacific OceaUi and are indeed the princi- 

5al scenes of their operations, were untrodden ground* 
*be inhabitants, as far as could be observed, were unmixed 
with any different tribe, by occasional intercourse, subse- 
tiuent to their original settlement there; left entirely to 
tneir own powers for every art of life, and to their own xe- 
mote traditions for every political or religious custom or 
institution ; uninformed by science ; unimproved by educa- 
tion ; in short, a (it soil from whence a careful observer 
could collect facts for forming a judgment, how far unas- 
sisted human nature will be apt to degenerate, and in what 
respects it can ever be able to exceK Who could have 
thought, that the brutal ferocity of feeding ppon humaa 
flesh, and the horrid superstition of offering human sacri- 
iices, should be found to exist amongst the natives latdy 
discovered in the Pacific Ocean, who, in other respects, 
appear to be no strangers to the fine feelings of humanity, 
to have arrived at a certain stage of social life, aiid to be 
habituated to subordination and government, which tend so 
jbaturally to repress the ebullitions of wild passion, and ex- 
pand the latent powers of the understanding i 

Or, if we turn from this melancholy picture, which will 
suggest copious matter for philosophical speculation, can 
we, without astonishment, observe to what a degree of per- 
fection tbe same tribe (and indeed we may liere join, in 
some of those instances, the American tribes visited in the 
eourse of the present voyage) have carried their favourite 
amusements, tne plaintive songs of their women, their dra- 
matic entertainments, their dances, their olympian games^ 
as we may call them, the orations of their chiefs, the chants 
of their priests, the solemnity of their religious processions, 
their arts and manufactures, their ingenious contrivances 
to supply the watt of proper materials, and of effective tools 
and machines, and the wonderful productions of their per- 
severing labour under a complication of disadvantages', 
their cloth and their mats, their weapons, their fishing in- 
struments^ their ornaments, their utensils^ which in design 


Cook^ CUrke, and Gort* 165 

an4 in ezecuUon may vie with whatever modera Europe oic 
classical antiquity can exhibit? 

It is'a favourite study with the scholar to jtrace the re* 
mains of Grecian or Roman workmanship ; he turns over 
his Montfaucon with learned satisfaction ; and he gazes with 
rapture on the noble collection of Sir William Hamilton* 
The amusement is rational and instructive. But will not 
his curiosity be more awakened^ will he not find even more 
real matter for important reflection^ by passing an hour ii| 
purveying the numerous specimens of the ingenuity of our 
iiQw]y*djscovered friends. Drought from the utmost recesses 
of the. globe to enrich the British Museum, and the valua*^ 
ble repository of Sir Ashton Lever i If the curiosities of Si|^ 
Ashton^s Sandwich-room alone were the only acquisition 
gained by our visits to the Pacific Ocean, who, that has 
taste to admire, or even eyes to behold, could hesitate to 
pronounce that Captain Cook had not sailed in vaiu ? The 
expence of his three voyages did not, perhaps, far exceed 
that of digging out the buried contents of Herculaneum. 
And we may add, that the novelties of the Society or Sand* 
wich Islands seem better calculated to engage the attention 
of the studious in our times, than the antiquities which ex* 
hibit proofs of Roman magnificence. 

The grounds for making this remark cannot be better ex^ 
plained, than in the words of a very ingenious writer : '' In 
an age," says Mr Warton,*' *' advanced to the highest de- 
gree of refinement, that species of curiosity commences^ 
which is busied in contemplating the progress of social life^ 
in displaying the gradation of science, and in tracing the 
transition from barbarism to civility. That these specula* 
lions should become the favourite topics of such a period^ 
is extremely natural. We look back on the savage condi- 
tion of our ancestors with the triumph of superiority ; and 
are pleased to mark this steps by which we have been raised 
from rudeness to elegance; and our reflections on this sub- 
ject are accompanied with a conscious pride, arising, in a 
great measure, from a tacit comparison of the infinite dis- 
proportion between the feeble efforts of remote ages, and 
our present improvements in knowledge. In the mean time, 
the manners, monuments, customs, practices, and opinions 
of antiquity^ by forming so strong a contrast with tnose of 


3^ Preface to his Histoiy of English Poetry.- 

166 Mofkm CkcimhinigaiioM. pabt nr. book uU 

eur own tiaies^ and by exhibiting hmnm nature and human 
inventions in new lights^ in unexpected appearances^ and 
in various fonos, are objects whicn forcibly strike a feeling 
imagination. Nor does this spectacle afford nothing more 
than a fruitless gratification to the fancy. It teaches us to 
set la just estimation on our own acquisitions^ and encou^ 
rages us to cherish that cultivation, which is so closely 
connected with the existence and the exercise of every so- 
cial virtue." We need not here observe, that the manners, 
monuments, customs, practices, and opinions of the present 
inhabitants ol^ the Pacific' Ocean, o^ of the west side of 
North America, form the strongest contrast with those of 
bur own time in polished Europe ; and that a feeling ima- 
gination will probably be more struck with the narration of 
the ceremonies of a ISfatche at Tongataboo, than of a Gothic 
tournament at London ; with the contemplation of the co- 
lossuses of Easter Island, than of the mysterious remains of 


3^ This may be disputed, both in point of fact, and on principles of rea<7 
soning. As tp the first, the fact, let readers in general enquire as to the 
comparative degree imd frequency of attention I^towed on the different 
kinds of topics alluded to by the doctor. ' What is the conclusion from 
their observations on the subject ? The writer for one, does not hesitate to 
assert, that he is convinced, the evidence bears against the opinion of the 
learned editor. So far as his notice extends, it appears, that the foderie^ 
of a superstitious age, the lies of legendary fabulists, the incomprehensible 
irelics of long-forgotten delusions, really obtain more regard as objects of 
curiosity, than whatever of ingenuity or labour is to be found in the his- 
tory of presently existing savages. Then again as to the reasons for such 
a preference. Is there not a sort of fashionable taste for the productions 
of antiquity, the ^ant of which js quite unpardonable in our polished and 
literary circles ? Does not the attamment of this taste, in any meritorious 
degree, by necessarily requiring much st'udy^ operate as preclusive of in- 
Ibraiation to the possession of which no peculiar epithet of a commendat 
tory nature has hitherto been awarded ? Nay, is ther« not a sort of preju- 
dice allied tp a notion of vulgarity, directed against almost any shew of 
* acquaintance with the habits and histories o( uncultivated nations ? But it 
would be unpardonable to imagine, there were not other reasons of a less 
invidious nature to explain the fact. We must certainly be allowed to 
pay higher respect to the particular concerns of those people with whom 
we stand in the light of c^prii^ or r^littives, or whose transactions and 
fates hav^rendered the history of the world what it isy almost superlativcr 
ly important to every intelligent mind. If time shall witness the triumph 
of civilization over the savages of the southern hemisphere, then, it is 
highly probable, a similar enthusiasm will prevail among their literary de- 
scendants ; and objects regarded by us as mere dust in the high road of 
nature, will be ;nsprioed with all the partiality and fondsiess oi natioiia^ 

Cook, Clerke, and Gore. 167 

Many singularities^ respecting what may be callecl the 
nataral history of the human species^ in diiferent climates^ 
willj on the authority of our late navigators^ open abundant 
sources for philosophical discussion. One question of this 
sortj in particular^ which had formerly divided ihe opinions 
of the inquisitive^ as to the existence^ if not of '' giants oa 
the earth/' at least of a race^ (inhabiting a district border-* 
ing on the north side of the strait of Magalhaens,) whose 
stature considerably exceeds that of the bulk of manl&ind, 
will no longer be doubted or disbelieved. And the ingeni* 
ous objections of the sceptical author of Recherches sur Us 
Ammcaim,^'' will weigh nothing in the balance against the 
concurrent and accurate testimony of Byron^ Wallisy and 

Perhaps there cannot be a more interesting enquiry than 
to trace the migrations of the various families or tribes that 
have peopled the globe ; and in no respect have our late 
voyages been more fertile in curious discoveries. It was 
known in getneraU (and I shall use the words of Ksempfer^^*) 
that the Asiatic nation called Malayans ^' in former times^ 
bad by much the greatest trade in the Indies, and frequent- 
ed with their merchant ships, not only all the coasts of Asia, 
but ventured even over to the coasts of Africa, particularly 
to the great i8lan4 of Madagascar.^^ The title which the 
king of the Malayans assumed to himself, of hard of the 
Winds nnd Seas to the East and to the fVesi, is an evident 
proof of this; but much more the Malayan language, which 
spread most all over the East, much after the same manner 
as formerly the Latin, and of late the French, did all over 
Europe/' Thus far, I say, was known. But that from Maf 
dagascar to the Marqueses and £aster Island, that is, near- 
ly from the east side of Africa,'till we approach toward the 
west side of America^ a space including above half the cir- 

«^ Tom. i. p. 38 1. 

38 Histoiy of Japan, yol. i. p. 93. 

^9 That the Malayans have not only fre^anted Madagascar, ^vjt |i^v0 
also been the progenitors of some of the p.re8^nt race of inhabitants there, 
is confirmed to us by the testimony of Moiisjieur de Pag^, who Tisjted that 
island so late as 1774. " lis m'bnt paru prx>venir des di verses ra^s ; l^ur 
couleur, leur cheveux, et leur corps I'indiquent. Ceax que je n'ai pas crt| 
originaires des anciens naturels du pays, sont petits et trapus; ils ont leQ 
^heyeux presque unts, et sont oliv&tres comme les Malayes^ qvec qui its 
onU en giniral^ une espece de resembtance^^^^^Vbyaget des M^ des ra^l*^ 

l68' Modem CircunimMfigaHom. vart iii. book iii. 

cumference of the globfe, the same tribe or nation^ the 
PhGenicians, as we may call them^ of the oriental world, 
should have made their setttemenls^ and foanded colonies 
throughout almost every intermediate stage of this immense 
tracts in islands at amazing distances from the mother con* 
tinent^ and ignorant of each other^s exiistence ; this is an 
historical facty which cdtild be but very imperfectly known 
before Captain Cook's two first voyages discovered so many 
new-inhabited spots of land lurking in the bosom of the ^ 
South Pacific Ocean; and it is a fact which does not rest tc 
solely on similarity of customs and institutions^ but has been' 
established by the most satisfactory of all proofs^ that drawn 
irom aflinity of language. Mr Marsden, who deems to have 
considered this curious subject with much attention, says, 
*^ that the links of the latitudinal chain remain yet to be 
traced."^^ The discovery of the Sandwich Islands in this, 
last voyage, has added some links to the chain. But Cap** 
tain Cook had not an opportunity of carrying his researches 
into' the more westerly parts of the North Pacific. The 
reader, therefore, of the following work will not, perhaps, 
think that the editor was idly employed when he subjoined 
some notes, which contain abundant proof that the inhabi- 
tants of the Ladrones, or Marianne islands, and those of the 
Carolines, ar^ to be traced to the same common source, 
with those of 'the islands visited by our ships. With the 
like view of exhibiting a striking picture of the amazing ex- 
tent of this oriental language, which marks, if not a com- 
taon original, at least an intimate intercourse between the 
inhabitants of places so very remote from each other, he 
has inserted a comparative table of their numerals, upon a 


^ Arcbseolog. vol. vi. p. 155. See also his History of Sumatra, p. 160, 
from which the following passage is transcribed : — ** Besides the Malays 
there are a variety of languages spoken in Sumatra, which, however, have 
not only a manifest affinity among themselves, but also to that general 
language which is found to prevail in, and to be indigenous to, all the 
islsmds of the eastern seas ; from Madagascar to the remotest of Captain 
Cook's discoveries, comprehending a wider extent than the Roman or any 
ether tongue has yet boasted, in different places, it has been more or less 
mixed and corrupted ; but between the most dissimilar branches, an emi- 
licnt sameness of many radical words is apparent; and in some very dis- 
tant from each other, in point of situation : As, for instance, the Philip- 
pines and Madagascar, the deviation of the words is scarcely more than is 
observed in the dialects of neighbouring provinces of the same kingdom. 
— D. * 

. Cook, CMU^ and (i9re. 1^ 

moiie enlarged plan than aoy that has hitherto l>eeB exe- 

Our British discoverers have not only thrown a blaze of 
lieht on the migrations of the tribe woioh has so wonder* 
fully spread itself throughout the i»lands in the eastern 
oceao> bat they have also favoured us with much curious 
information concerning another of the families of the earthy 
whose lot has fallen in less hospitable climates* We speak 
of the Esquimaux; hitherto only found seated on the coasts 
i/f Labradore and Hudson's Bay, and who differ in several 
characteristic marks from the mland inhabitants of North 
America. That the Greenlanders and they agree in every 
circumstance of customs^ and manners^ and language, which 
are demonstrations of an original identity of nation, had 
been discovered about twenty years ago.** Mr Hearne, in 
177 If traced this unhappy race farther back, toward that 
part of the globe from whence they had originally coasted 
along in their^ having met with some of them at 
the mouth of the Copper-mine Kiver, in the latitude of 72^, 
and near five hundred leagues farther west than Pickersgill's 
most westerlv station in Davis's Strait. Their being the 
same tribe who now actually inhabit the islands and coasts 
cm the west side of North America, opposite Kamtschatka^ 
was a discovery^ the completion of which was reserved for 
Captain Cook. The reader of the following work will find 
them at Norton Sound, and at Oonalashka and Prince WiU 
liam's Sound ; that is, near 1500 leagues distant from their 
stations in Greenland and on the Labradore coast. And lest 
similitude of manners should be thought to deceive us, a 
table exhibiting proofs of affinity of language, which was 
drawn up by Captain Cook> and is inserted in this work, 
will remove every doubt from the mind of the most scrupu* 
lous enquirer after truth.^* 

There are other doubts of a more important kind, which, 
it may be hoped, will now no longer perplex the ignorant, 


^' See Crentis^s 'History of Greenland, vol. i. p. 262 ; where we are told 
that the Moravian brethren, who, with the consent and furtherance of Sir 
Hugh Palliser, then governor of Newfoundland, visited the Esquimaux oa 
the Labradore coast, found that their language, and that of the Green* 
landers, do not differ so much as that of the High and Low Dutch.^D. 

** The Greenlanders, as Crantz tells as, call themselves Karalit ; a word 
not very uniike KatMgynt^ the name assumed by the inhabitants of Kodi- 
ack^ one of the Schumagin islands, as Stshlin informs us. — D, 

17Q Modem Circmmarig^Ubms. mrt in. book iii« 

or furoisb matter of cavil to the ill-iateiitioned. After the 

Sreat discovery^ or a^ least the fall confirmation of the great 
iscovery, of the vicinity of the two continents of Asia and 
America^ we trust that we shall not^ for the fuiurr> be ridi- 
culed, for believing that the former could easily furnish its 
inhabitants to the Tatter. And thus, to all the various good 
purposes already enumerated^ as answered by our late voy* 
agesy we may add this last, though not the least important^ 
that they have done service to religioUj by robbing mfidelir 
ty of a favourite objection to the credibility of the Mosaic 
account of the peopling of the earth.^^ 

6. Hitherto we nave considered otir voyages as having 
benefited the^ discoverers. But it will be asked. Have they 
conveved, or are they likely ever to convey^ any benefit to 
the discovered? It would aiford exquisite sati9faction to, 
every benevolent mind, to be instructed in facts, which 
might enable us, without hesitation, to answer this ques- 
tion in the affirmative. Ai|d yet^ perhaps^ we may iadulge 


^' A contempt of revelation is generally the result of ignorance^ con* 
i^eited of its possessing superior knowledge. Observe how the author of 
lieeherchei Phitonap/U^ues mr les AmerkairUf expresses himself on thiv 
very point. *' Cette distance que Mr Antermony veut trouver si pen im* 
portante, est ^peu>pr^ de huit cent Ucus GauleUes au trovers tPun ocean 
perilUuif et impossible k franchir avec des canots aussi phetifs et aussi 
fragiles que le sont, au rapport d'Ysbrand Ides, les chaloupes des Tun- 
guses,'' &c. &c. t i. p. 156. Had this writer known that the two conti* 
nents are not above thirteen leagues (instead of eight hundred) distant 
from each other, and that, even in that narrow space of sea, there are in- 
tervening islands, he would not have ventured to urge this argument in 
opposition to Mr Bell's notion pf the quarter from which Nor£ America 
received its original inhabitants.-^D. 

' No intelligent reader needs te be informed, that a much closer approach 
•f the two continents of Asia and America than is here alleged to eidsty 
would be inadequate to account for the peoplipg of the latter, throughout 
its iffliDiense eictent and very important diversities of appearance. The 
opinion is more plausible, and gains ground in the world, that much of 
South America derived its orianal iemabitants from the ppposite coast of 
Africa. It is enough to state this opinion, without occupym^ a moment's 
attention, in discussing the arguments which can be adduced m its support. 
The truth of Revelation, it may be remarked, is quite unaffected by the 
controversy, and, in fact, can receive neither injury nor advantage ih>m 
any decision that is given to it The real friends of that cause attach Uu 
tie importance to any weight of human argument in its favour, and rest 
entirely on divine evidence, for both the painful and the comfoftable e^ 
fiscts it produces on their consciences. Any other, they are sure, may in* 
deed furnish matter for the display of ingenuity and learning, but will ML 
abort of that conviction which sepures self-denied obedience to its pra» 


/ » 

Cock, derke, and Gore. 171 

tihe pleAsioghope^ that^ even in this respect, our ships have 
Bot sailed in vain. Other discoveries of new i^ountries have, 
in effect, kteen wars, or rather massi^^res ; nations have been 
BO sooner found out, than they have been extirpated ; and 
the horrid cruelties of the conquerors of Mexico and Peru 
can never be remembered, without blushing for religion and 
human nature. But when the recesses of the globe are in* 
vestigated, not to enlarge private dominion, but to promote 
general knowledge; when we visit new tribes of our fellow- 
creatures as friends ; and wish only to learn that they exist, 
in order to bring them within the pale of the offices of fau- 
Boanity, and to relieve the wants of their imperfect state of 
society^ by communicating to them our superior attain-* 
ments; voyages of discovery planned with such benevolent 
views by Ueorge the Third, and executed by Cook, have 
^ot, we trust, totally failed in this respect. Our repeated 
visits^ and long-continued intercourse with the natives of 
the Friendly, Society, and Sandwich Islands, cannot but 
have darted some rays of light on the infant minds of those 
poor people. The uncommon objects the^ have thus had 
opportunities of observing and admiring, will naturally tend 
to enlarge their stock of ideas, and to furnish iiew materi- 
als for toe exercise of their reason. Comparing themselves 
with their visitors, they cannot but be struck with the deep* 
est conviction of their own inferiority, and be impelled, by 
the strongest motives, to strive to emerge from it, and to 
rise nearer to a level with those children of the Sun, who 
deigned to look upon them^ and left behind so many specie- 
mens of their generous and humane attention. The very 
introduction of our useful animals and vegetables, by addl- 
ing fresh means of subsistence, will have added to their 
comforts of life, and immediate enjoyments; and if this be 
the only benefit thev are ever to receive, who will pronounce 
that much has not been gained i But may we not carry our 
Irishes and our hopes still farther ? Great Britain itself, when 
first visited by the Phoenicians, was inhabited by pained 
savages, not, perhaps, blessed with higher attainments than 
are possessed by the present natives of New Zealand ; ceiv 
tainly less civilized than those of Tonga taboo or Otaheite. 
Our having opened an intercourse with them, is the (irst 
step toward their improvement. Who knows, but that out 
Jate voyages may be the means appointed by Providence, 
^f spreading^ in due time^ %\k^ 1;)lessing9 of civilization 


17& Modem Qrcumnatf^ajihifU )part hi. book hi. 

amongat the numerous tribes of the South Pacific Ocean j 
of abolishing their horrid repasts and their horrid rites l 
and of laying the foundation for future and ipore effectual 
plans> to prepare them for holding an honourable station, 
amongst the nations of the earth ? This^ at leastj is certain, 
that our having, as it were^ brought them into existence by 
our extensive researches^ will suggest to us fresh motives of 
devout gratitude to the Supreme Beins^ for having blessed, 
US witli advantages hithertp withheld from so great a pro* 
portion of the human race ; and will operate powerfully to. 
incite us to persevere in every feasible attempt^ to be hia 
instruments m rescuing millions of fellow-rcreaUirea frooi 
their present state of humiliation.^ 


^ It IS ptdaM to a liberal mind to questioii the basis of any hope» or 
to doubt the validity of any expectations,' in behalf of our species. Onet 
would rather foster a mistaken benevolence, which, scorning selfish inte* 
reits, embraced the future welfare of distant and unknown people, were 
it not that the indulgence of them might tend to prevent the veiy object 
which they regard from being attained. Does not the well-meaning edi^ 
tor anticipate too much from the diffusion of foreign knowledge among 
the tribes of whom he speaks ? Is he not somewhat inattentive to the mass 
of inseparable evil which every such accession brings along with it ? Does 
he not seem to confound together the acquisition of knowled^. and th^ 
ability to do what is requisite for human happiness ? May we not perceive 
by the very items of his calculation, that he has neglect^ to consider that 
nice adjustment of the faculty and the means of enjoyment, which evinces' 
the general care and universal affection of Providence ? The consequence 
of such neglect or mistake, would be an injudicious and hasty eSort to in-^ 
duce what we call civilization, on the too much commiserated objects o£ 
our philanthropy^ Without disputing for a moment, that the intercourse 
with Europeans has proved benefid^ to these people, though, as every 
intelligent reader knows well, a thousand arguments would be thrown 
away on an attempt to shew l^re was no occasion to do so, we may fiur* 
ly enough efiBrm, that such zedous exertions as are here virtnallv recom«« 
mended, are liable to the charge of being premature^ and not altogether 
according to knowledge. We are too apt to imagine that barbarous peo-. 
pie are easily made to believe their institutions and manners are enroneous 
or impolitic ; and that they will accordingly readily listen to the suggest' 
tions of those who, they acknowledge, are in many respects superior tor 
themselves. But, in fact, the very reverse is the case* and it will ever be^ 
found that the simplest states of society are lc;^t sensible of inconveni« 
ences, and therefore most averse to innovation. Besides, it ought to be 
remembered, that, independent of any adventitious assistance, there is im« 
planted in eveiy such societv, how contemptible soever it may seem to 
others, a certain principle of amelioration, which never fails. In due time^ 
to yield its fruit, and which, there is some reason to apprehend, may re* 
oeive detriment from obtrusive solicitude to hasten its product. Every 
boy has within him the seeds of manhood, which, at the period appointed 

* by 

Cookp Ckrh, and Giq^e. 173 

- The aevemi'topicff which occurred, as suitable t6 this ge« 
neral InlrdduGtion, being now discussed, nothing remains 
* but to state a few particulars, about which the reader of 
these volumes has a right to expect some information. 

Captain Cook, knowing, before he sailed upon this last 
expedition, that it was expected from him to relate, as well 
as to execute, its operations, had taken care to prepare such 
a journal as might be mdde use of for publication* This 
journal, which exists in his own hand-writing, has been 
faithfblly adhered to. It is not a bare extract from his log* 
books, but contains many remarks which, it appears^ had 
not been inserted by him in the nautical register; and it is 
also enriched with considerable communications from Mr 
Anderson, surgeon of the Resolution. The confessed abi- 
lities, and great assiduity, of Mr Anderson, in observing 
every thing that related either to natural history, or to man« 
Hers atiid language, and the desire which, it is well known, 
<£kiptaih Cook, on all occasions, shewed to have the assist- 
ance of that gentleman, stamped a great value on his col- 
lections. That nothing, therefore, might be wanting to con- 
vey to the public the best possible account of the transac- 
tions of the voyage, his journal, by the order of Lord Sand- 
wich, was also put into the hands of the editor. Who was 
authorised and directed to avail himself of the infornHation: 
It might be fbiind to contain, about matters imberfectly 
touched, or altogether emitted, in Captain Cook's manu^ 
•script. This task has been executed in such a manner, that 
the reader will 4^arcely ever be at a loss to distinguish itk 
what instances recourse has been had to Mr Anderson. To 
preclude, if possible, any mistake, the copy of the first and 


bjr natiirs, (eninnste, Mosiom^ and fructify ; but anxiety to accelerate the 
^rooess too oftea ruins the soil on which they grow^ and mars the hopes 
of the cultivstor, by unseasonable maturity and rapid decay. So is ic 
with societies. The progress of human afiauv on the large scale^ is pre- 
'dsely similar t6 what we d^y witness on the small. It has been descri- 
l)ed, with equal beauty wad correctness, by the judicious Ferguson, in his 
&nys oa the History of Civil Society. " What was in one generation/'' 
javs he, *< a propensity to herd with the species, becomes, in the ages whic^ 
follow, a pnndple of natural union. What was originally an alliance for 
common ae^ence, becomes a concerted plan of political force ; the care of 
sSbflistaAce becomes an anxietr for accumulating wealth, and the founda- 
tton of commercial arts."-*-Wno can say that the (^dousness of friend- 
ship is not likely to disorder the series, and, though it escape the charge 
and the fate of presumptioni is not deserviog to be considered as unneces- 
sary .enthusiasm ?—£• 


. 174 Modem Cireimmav^dtiomu >abt in. book iiu 

. second volumes^ before it went to the printer/ wiis submit- 
ted to Captain King ; and after it had been read f>ver and 
corrected by one so well c]ualified to point ont any iaaecil- 
racies, the fiarl of Sandwich had the goodness to give it a 
perusal. As to .the third volume^ nothing more need be 
said, than that it was completely prepared for the press by 
Captain King himself. All that the editor of the work hs^s 
to answer /or, are the notes occasionally introduced in the 
course of the two volumes contributed bv Captain Cook'; 
and this Introduction, which was intended as a kind of epi« 
logue to our Voyages of Discovery. He must be permit-^ 
ted, however, to say, that he considers himself as entitlei^ 
to no inconsiderable share of candid indulgence from the 
public ; having engaged in a very tedious and troublesome 
undertaking upon the most disinterested motives ; his only 
Teward being the satisfaction he feels, in having be^n able 
to do an essential service to the family of our great naviga- 
tor, who had honourjed him, in the journal of this voyage, 
with the appellation of; friend. 

. They who repeatedly asked why this publication was so 
long delayed, needed only to look at the volumes, and their 
attendant illustrations and ornaments, to be satisfied that it 
might, with at least, equal reason, be wondered at, that it 
was not delayed longer. The journal of Captain Cook, 
from the. first moment that it came into the hands of the 
editor, had been ready for the press ; and Captain King 
bad left with him bis part of the narrative, so long ago as 
his departure for the West Indies, whe%he commanded 
the Resistance man-of-war. But much, besides, remained 
to be done. The charts, particularly the general one, were 
to be. prepared by Mr Roberts; the very numerous and 
elegant drawings of Mr Webber were to be reduced by 
him to the proper size ; artists were next to be found out 
who would undertake to engrave them' ; the prior engage- 
ments of those artists were to be fulfilled before they could 
begin ; the labour and skill to be exerted in finishing ma- 
ny of them, rendered this a tedious operation ; paper fit for 
printing them upon was to be procured from abroad ; and 
after all these various and unavoidable difficulties were sur* 
mounted, much time was necessarily required for executing 
a numerous impression of the long list of plates, with so 
inuch care as might do justice both to Mr Webber^ and toi^ 
his several engravers. 

41 And 

Cookp Ckrjse, and Gare^ 175 

And here it seems to be iBcambeot upon vs to add, as 
anolher instance of munificent attention, that care was ta- 
ken to mark, in the most significant manner, the just sense 
entertained of the humane and liberal relief afforded to oar 
ships in Kamtachatka. Colonel Behm, the commandant of 
that province, was not rewarded merely by the pleasure 
which a benevolent mind feels in reflecting upon the bless- 
ings it coofers, but also thanked in a manner equally con- 
sistent with the disnity of his own sovereign and of ours, 
to whose subjects ne extended protection. A magnificent 
piece of plate was presented to him, with an inscription, 
worthy ot a place in the same book where the history of 
his humanity to our countrymen is recorded, and wfaicb, 
while it does honour to our national gratitude, deserves al- 
«io to be preserved as a monument of our national taste for 
elegant composition. It is as follows : 

ViRO EGBE6IO MAGNO DB BsHM ; qui, Imperatrim ^tf« 
gustimnm CathariruB atuptcm, summdque animi bemgnitaie, 
fiova, qmbm praei;at, Kamtschatka littara, navAus nautisque 
JBritavmicis, hospita prabuil ; eosque, in terminis, sj f tit euemt 
Imperio Rumco^fruOrcL exphrandii, mala muUa perpeuo$, iie^ 
raid vice excepii, refecii, recreanAt^ et commeaiu onmi cumulati 
auctOB dimisii ; ftai navaus Bbitannicjb Sbptemviri in 
aliquam benevokniuB tarn iniAgm memoriam^ amiciasimOf gra* 
iimmoque animo, suo, patriaque nomine, D.D.D. 



This testimony of public gratitude reminds the editor 
that there are similar calls upon himself. He owes much 
to Captain King for his advice and direction, in a variety 
of instances, where Captain Cook's journal required expkir 
aatioh; for filling up several blanks with the proper longi- 
tude and latitude; and for supplying deficiencies in the tar 
^les of astronomical observations. 

Lieutenant Roberts was also frequently consulted, and 
was always found to be a ready and effectual assistant, 
Vhen any nautical difficulties were to be cleared up. 
. But particular obligations are due to Mr Wales, who, 
besides his valuable communications for this Introduction^ 
seconded most liberally the editor's views of serving Mrs 
^pokj by cheerfully taking upon himself the wiiole trouble- 
of digesting, from the log-books, the tables of the route <if 


176 Modem CircumnaoqpBiHdnf^ i^abt hi. book hi. 

the ships^ which add so greatljr to the otility of this pMi* 

' Mr Wegg) besides sharing in the thanks so justly due t6 
the committee of the Hudson's Bay Company^ for their nn^ 
reserved communications^ was partioulariy obliging >to the 
editor^ by giving him repeated opportunities of conreroing 
^th Governor Hearne and Captain Chf-istopher. 
- The Honourable Mr Daines Barrington had the good- 
ness to interest himself^ with his usual zeal for every work 
of public utility^ in procuring some necessary information^ 
jrnd suggesting some valuable hints, which were adopted* 

It would be great injustice not to express acknowledge* 
ments to Mr Pennant^ who, besides enriching the third vo- 
lume with references to his Arctic Zoology, the publication 
of which is an important accession to natural history, also 
communicated some very authentic and satisfactory manu^ 
script accounts of the Russian discoveries. 

The vocabularies of the Pritedly and Sandwich lilands, 
and of the natives of Nootka, had been furnished to Cap-* 
:tain Cook, by his most useful associate in the voyage, Mr 
Anderson ; and a fourth, in which the language of the £s- 
-quimaux is compared with that of the Americans Oft tb^ 
opposite side of the continent, had been prepared by the 
captain himself Bui the comparative Table of Numerals 
was very obligingly drawn up, lit the request of the edijtor, 
by Mr Bryant, who^ in his dtudy, followed Captaia Cook^ 
and^ indeed, every traveller and historian, of every age, in- 
to every part of the globe. The public will consider this 
table as a very striking illustration of the wonderful migra- 
tions of a nation, about whom so much additional informa- 
tion has been gained by our voyages, and be ready, to ao- 
■knowledge it as a very useful communication. 

One more communication remains to be not only ac- 
knowledged, but to be inserted at the close of this intro- 
duction. The testimonies of leiumed contemporaries, in 
commendation of a deceased author, are frequently dis- 
.|>layed in the front of his book. It is with the greatest 
propriety, therefore^ that we prefix to this posthumoos 
work of Captain Cook, the testimony of one of his own 
profession, not more distinguished by the elevation of rank,' 
than by the dignity of private virtues. As he wishes to re- 
main concealed, perhaps this allusion, for which we entreat 
, his indulgence, may have given too eitact direction to the 


Cooks Ch^ke^ and Gare^ 177 

eyes pf the poblic wj^er^ to^look for such a cbaiacter.^^ Let 
us, howeverj rest satisfied with the intrinsic merit of a 
composition^ conveyedi under the injunction of secrecy ;^ 
and conclude oujr long preliminary dissertation with ex- 
pressing «i wish, or rather a well-grounded hope, that this 
yolum^e miiy. not be the only place where posterity can meet 
with a monumental inscription, commemorative of a naiiy 
in recounting and applauding whose services, the whole of 
enlighteued Europe will equally concur wi4h Great Britain. 



The abkU and moti renowned Namgator thh or any other 

country^ hoik produced. 
■ ^ . 

He raised himself, solely by his merit, from a very ob- 
scure birth, to the rank of Post Captaia in the roval navy, 
and was, unfortunately, killed by the savages of the island 
Owhyhee, on the I4th of February,. 1779 ; wbich island he 
had, not long before, discovered, when prosecuting his third 
voyage round the globe. "* 

Me possessed, in an eminent degree, all the qualifioatimis 
requisite for his profession and great undertakings ; toge« 
ther with the amiable and worthy qualities of the best men* 

Cool and deliberate in judging ; sagacious in determi- 
ning; active in executing; steaoy ano persevering in en- 
terprising vigilance and unremitting caution; unsubdued 
by. labour, difficulties, and disappointments ; fertile in ex- 
pedients; never wanting presence of mind; always pos- 
sessing himself^ and the full use of a sound understanding. 

MUd, jjust, but exact in discipline : He was a father to 
his peoplje, who were attacked to him from affection, and 
obedient from con&dence* 

VOL. XV. M His 

^' This 19 und^tood to be spoken of tbe Honourable Admiral Forbesb 
Admiral pf the Fleet, and Oeneral of the Marines, to whom, on the au- 
thority of Sir Hugh Palliser, the eulogium is ascribed in the itfiog. Brit. 
. He is said to have known Cook only by his eminent merit and extraordi- 
nary actions* The testimony, therefore, is tbe more to be prized^ as it 
cannot be charged with the partiality of friendship.— -£. 

478 Modem drcumnavigatiom* ^art hi. book hi. 

His knowledge, his expierience^ his sagacity, rendered 
him so entirely master of his subject, that the greatest ob- 
stacles were surmounted, and the most dangerous naviga- 
tions became^easy, and almost safe, under his direction. 

He explored the southern hemisphere to. a much higher 
latitude than had ever been reached, and with fewer aoci^ 
^ents than frequently befal those who navigate the coasts 
of this- island. 

By his benevolent imd unabating attention to the welfare 
of his ship's company, he discovered and introduced a sys- 
tem for the preservation of the health of seamen in long 
voyages, which has proved wonderfully efficacious ; for in 
his second voyage ^round the world, which continued up- 
wards of three years, he lost only one man by distemper, 
of one hundred and eighteen, of which his company con- 

The death of this eminent and valuable man was a loss 
to mankind in general ; ^nd particularly to be deplored by 
every nation that respects useful accomplishments, that ho- 
nours science, and loves the benevolent and amiable affec- 
tions of the heart. It is still more to be deplored by this 
country, which may justly boast of having produced a man 
hitherto unequalled for nautical talents ; and that sorrow is 
farther aggravated by the reflection, that his country Was 
deprived of this ornament by the enmity of a people, from 
whom, indeed, it might iiave been dreaded, but from whom 
4t was not deserved. For, actuated always by the most at- 
tentive care and tender compassion for the savages in ge* 
neral, this excellent man was ever assiduously endeavour- 
ing, by. kind treatment, to dissipate their fears, and court 
Ihe'ir friendship ; overlooking their thefts and treacheries, 
and frequently interposing, at the hazard of his life, to pro- 
tect i\\em from the sudden resentment of his own injured 

The object of his last mission was to discover and ascer- 
tain the boundaries of Asia and America, and to penetrate 
into the northern ocean by the north-east Cape of Asia. 

IVaveller ! contemplate, admire, revere, and emulate this 
great master in his profession ; whose skill and labours have 
enlarged natural philosophy ; have extended nautical sci- 
ence ; and have disclosed the long-concealed and admira- 
ble arrangements of the Almighty in the formation of this 
globe^ and^,at the same Xime^ the arrogance of mortals, in 


Cook, Gierke, and Crorei 170 

presuming to account, by their speculations, for the laws 
by which he was pleased to create it It is now discover- 
ed, beyond all doubt, that the same Great Being who cre- 
ated the universe by his^a^, by the same ordained our 
earth to keep a just poise, without a corresponding south- 
em continent — and it does so ! ^' He stretches out the north 
over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.** 
^^•fob, xxv%, 7- 

If tbe arduous but exact researches of this extraordinary 
man have not discovered a new world, they have discover- 
ed seas unnavigated and unknown before. They have made 
us acquainted with islands, people and productions, of which 
we had no conception. And if he has not been so fortunate 
as Americus to give his name to a continent, his pretensions 
to such a distinction remain unrivalled ; and he will be re- 
vered, while there remains a page of his own modest ac^ 
count of his voyages, and as long as mariners and geogra- 

£hers shall be instructed, by his new map of the southern 
emisphere, to trace the various courses and discoveries he ' 
has made. 

If public services merit public acknowledgments ; if ,tbe 
man who adorned and raised the fame of his country is de-. 
serving of honours, then Captain Cook deserves to have a 
monument raised to his memory, by a generous and grate- 
ful nation. 

Virtutis uberrimum alimentuni est honos. 

Val. Maximus^ lib. ii. cap« & 


1 TO. 

TtiK i»ACii'ic ocean;. 


• l i wwj y 



SfiCTKyN ft 

Fatimti Prepa^itii&Mjbriht Fh^age.'-—ihnaf^ ''B^hatiot$¥^ on 
embarking. — Ohaervdtidnsfar determining the LongUudb df 
Sheemessj wid l*e Ndif A FcmsitiMi — Passage (^ the Reso^^ 
iMe^frem Skp^>i ioS^/MMh. — EmploymetiU therp* — 
Complements of' the Crem o/* both Ships, ana Names of the 
Cheers. — Observations toJU the Longitude ofPljfmouth. — 

HAVING, on the 9th day of February, 1776, received 
a coiQinission to command bis majesty'^ s)pop the 
Resolution, I went on board the next day, U^j^led the 
pendant, and began to enter men. At the sanaiEi ilme, the 
X>i8covery, of three hundred tons burthen, was' purchased 
into the service, and the command ef her given to Captain 
Gierke, who had been my second lieutenant on board the 
Resolution, in my second voyage round the worlds from 
which we had lately returned. 

These two ships were, at this time, in the dock at Dept- 
ford, under the hands of the shipwrights f^^^eing ordered 
to be equipped to make farther discoveries in the Pacific 
Ocean, unaer my direction. 

On the 9th of March, the Resolution was hi^uled out of 
dock into the river; where we completed her rigging, and 
took on board the stores and provisions requisite for a voy- 

c«AV^ E» isscr. u Coak, Clirke, and Oore^ ISI 

age of meoh doiratiba. Bdlih riiips, iodeed^ were snpplied 
iv4fch aft ttivijh 4>f c^ery necs^saai^ article as we doald conire^ 
niently stow, and with the best of every kind that could 
he procured. Aad^ besides tbis^ every tbing that bad beea 
^sttod, by the experience acquired doriog oar former ex- 
aensrveiToiyaglds^ te be 0f etiy utility inpreserviiig the health 
<tf Ma«MMi> waft ftttpplied 'in tAtn^4aiiee. 

It was our intention to have sailed %d Long Iteach'M^e 
6th «f May, wheiaa'pilm <»aie do board to carry m tMtfaer ; 
•bfit it W«s«heni9th before the wittd would pertnit us to «iove, 
and abe SOth before we arrived at that station, wbere ouit 
artiUery> pow^r>^h€%, and other ordnance iMoreft were <e- 
*oelved. I 

WWIe We lay in Lonfg Heath, thus eitiplc^ed, the Earl 
^ Sandwich, Sir Huejh Paliiser, and others of the Board 
>of Ado^ivdty, as die last niat*k of tfbe very great attention 
-tiiey bad idlaioag ilhewn to this equipment, paid tift a visit 
•on 'the ftlh of dTune, to exami'ne whether every thing had 
been .cdinpleted<M>nfbttti8tUIy to their intentions and orders, 
and to the satisfaction of all who Were to embai^k in the 
voyage. They, and several dther noblemen and gentlemen 
•their friends, honc^red me with their etnnpany at dinner 
4$ti that day -; and, on llheir coming on board, anc^ idso on 
their gding ashore, i^ scduted 4hem with seventeisn guns, 
and thrae '<5bee¥s. 

Wi^h the ty^nevolont^vlew'of cohveytng some permanent 
benefit to the inhabitants of Otaheite, and of the other 
islands in the 4^effie>Ocean, Whom we might happen to 
vifiil, "bift ^ma[^yiha^g commanded some useful animals 
to- be'^c&nried oat, We took on board, on the lOth, a bull, 
t^vo <s^s Wfth iheir calvea, and some sheep, with hay and 
coVn for thdr dubsisletide'; intending to add to these other 
useful adimals, when I^itfibuld ari^ive at the Cape of Good 

i Was also, ftoiDi Ihe same laudable motives^ furnished 
wi%h<a s^fllictehtquantity df such of our European garden- 
£i6eds, as coiild ^not faH 'tb be a valuable present to our 
newly 'discovered islands, by adding fresh supplies of food 
to theiilwn vegetable productions. 

Many^^ther articles,'diflcnlBted to improve the condition 
of our friends in fhe'dther hemisphere in various ways, were, 
at the-6ame;lime, ^dc^livered to us by order of the Board of 
Admiralty. And both ships were provided with a proper 
assortment of iron tools and trinkets, as the means of ena- 

IflfS Modem drcunMnf^aiums. pabt hi. B90fc in» 

bling us to traffic^ and to cultivate a friendly intereourse 
with the inhabitants of such new countries as we might be 
fortunate enough to meet with. 

The same humane attention was extended to our owa 
wants. Some additibnal clothings adapted to a cold cli^ 
mate^ w|» ordered for our crews ; and nothing was denied 
to us that could be supposed in the lea^t conducive to 
heal^, or even to convenience. 

Nor did the extraordinary care of those at the head of 
the naval department stop here. They were equally soli- 
citous to afford us every assistance towards rendering our 
voyage of public utilitv. Accordingly, we received on 
boardj next day, several astronomical and nautical instru- 
ments; which the Board of Lr^ngitude entrusted to me, and 
to Mr King, my second lieutenant ; we having engaered to 
that board to make all the necessary observations, during 
the voyage, for the improvement of astronomy and naviga- 
tion ; and, by our joint labours, to supply the place of a 
professed observator. Such a person had been originally 
intended to be sent out in my ship. 

The board, likewise, put into our possession the same 
. watch, or time-keeper, which I had carried out in my last 
voyage, and had performed its part so well. It was a copy 
of Mr Harrison's, constructed by Mr Kendall. This day, 
at noon, it was found to be too slow for mean time at Green- 
wich,, by 3" 3 1" 89 ; and by its rate of going, it lost, on mean 
time, l", 209 per day. 

Another time-keeper, and the same number and sort of 
instruments for making observations, were put on board the 
Discovery, under the care of Mr William Bayly ; who, ha- 
' ving already given satisfactory proofs of his skill and dili- 
gence as an observator, while employed in Captain Fur- 
neaux's ship, during the late voyage, was engaged a second 
' time, in that capacity, to embark with Captain Clerke. 

Mr Anderson, my surgeon, who, to skill in his immedi- 
ate profession, added great proficiency in natural history, 
. was as willing as, he was well qualified, to describe every 
thing in that branch of science which should occur worthy 
of notice. As he had already visited the South Sea islancls 
in the same ship, and been of singular service, by enabling 
me to enrich my relation of that voyage with various useral 
remarks on men and things,' I reasonably expected to de- 

' The very copious vocabulary of the language of Otabeite, and the 


CHAP. I. SECT. I. Cook, Clerke, and Gore. 183 

rive considerable assistance from hiixiy in recording our new 

I liad several young men amongst my sea-officers, wlio, 
under my direction^ could be usefully employed in con- 
structing charts, in taking views of the coasts and headlands 
near which we should pass^ and in drawing plans of the bays 
and harbours in which we should anchor. A constant at- 
tention to this I knew to be highly requisite,, if we would 
render our discoveries profitable to future navigators* 

And that we might go out with every help that could 
serve to make the result of our voyage entertaining to the 
generality of readers, as well as instructive to the sailor and 
scholar, Mr Webber was pitched upon, and engaged to 
embark with me^ for the express purpose of supplying the 
unavoidable imperfections of written accounts, by enabling 
us to preserve, and to bring home, such drawings of the 
most memorable scenes of our transactions, as could only 
be executed by a professed and skilful artist. 

Every preparation being now completed, I received an 
order to proceed to Plymouth} and to take thie Discovery 
iinder my command. I accordingly gave Captain Gierke two 
orders, one to put himself under my coihmand, and the 
other, to carry his ship round to Plymouth. . 

On the 15th the Resolution sailed from Long Reach> 
wUh the Discovery in company, and the same evening they 
anchored at the Nore. Next day the Discovery proceed- 
ed, in obedience to my order ; but the Resolution was or- 
dered to remain at the Nore till I should join her, being at 
this time in London. 

As Yfe were to touch at Otaheitdand the Society Islands 
in ouf^ way to the intended scene of our fresh operations, it 
had been determined not to omit this opportunity (the only 
one ever likely to happen) of carrying Omai back to his 
native country. Accordingly, every thing being ready for 
our departure, he and I set out together from London on 
the 24th, at six o'clock in the morning. We reached 
Chatham between ten and eleven o'clock ;. and, after dining 
with. Cofpmissioner Proby, he very obligingly ordered his 
yacht to^^^rry us to She.erness>. where my boat was waiting 
to take us on board. 

Omai left London with a mixture of regret and satisfac- 

. » 

compavative specimen of the lapguages^ of the several other islands visited 
dtirine the former voyae^, and published in Captain Cook^s account of it, 
were furnished by Mr AAder8on.-*D. 

184 Modern Circumnavigations. 'Pknr in. book iir. 

tion. When we iaTked abc/ut Enelaad^ and about those 
Vfho, during his stay, had honoured him with their protec- 
tion or friendship, I could observe th^t his spirits were sen- 
sibly affected, and thftt it was with difficulty he ccruld re- 
frain from tears. But the instant the conversation turned 
to his own islands, his eyes began to sparkle with joy. He 
Was deeply impressed with a sense of the good treatment 
he had met with in England, and entertained the highest 
ideas of the country and of the people ; but the pleasing 
prospect henow had before htm of returning hattie, l6aded 
with what he well knew would be estdemed mvalaabre ti'ea- 
sures there, and the flattering hope which the possession of 
these gave hioh, of attaitiing to a disthiguished superiority ^ 
amongst his cotintrymen, were considerations which dpe* 
rated, by degrees, to suppress evety tiheasy sensation ; and 
he seemed to be quite happy ivhen he got on board the 

He was furnished by his majesty with an ample provi- 
sion of every article which, durihg our intercour^ with *his 
country, we had observed to b6 in afny estimation there, 
either as useful or as ornamental. Me had, besides, recei- 
ved many presents of the same nature from liOrd Sandwich^ 
Sir Joseph Banks, and several other gentlemen and ladies 
of bis acquaintance. In short, eyely method had Ibleen cfm- 
ployed, both during his abode in Eldgland, and'at his de- 
parture, to make him the instrument of cohvelying to the 
inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, the most 
exalted opinion of the greatriess and generosity of Uie Bri- 
tish nation. 

While the Resblution lay at the Nore, Mr King made 
several observations for finding the longitude by the watch. 
The mean of them all gave 0* 44' 0^ for the Idngitdde of 
the ship. This, reduce^l to Sheerness, by the bearing and 
estimated distance, will make that place to be 0* 31' Of E. 
of Greenwich, which is more by sevien miles than Mr Lyoins 
made it by the watch which Lord Mnlgrave had with him, 
on his voyage toward the Ndrth Pple. Whoever, imowb 
any thing of the distance between Sheerness and (Sreen- 
wich, tC'iTi be a judge which of thefe two observations is 
nearest the truth. 

The variation of the needle here, by a mean of different 
^ts, taken with different compasses, was 20^ 37' W. 
Ua the e5th^ about noon, we weighed anchor, and made 


ca'nT. 1. 1IECT, 1. Cooh, Clerke, and Gore. 185 

sail fdr tlie Ddwns through tihe ^€fen*s Cbannel^ with a 
^eriftle brdeae atW-W. by W. A't nine in the evening we 
anchoreil^ with the North Foreland bealrtng S. by £. and 
Margate Point S.W. by S. , 

Next indrniTifg^ at two o'clock^ we wcfighed and stood 
foimd the Forriand ; and when it bore north by the com- 

Siasis^ the watch gave 1* 24' £. lonritude^ wbich^ reduced to 
he Forelattd^ wul be 1* ^1' C. Lunar observations tnade 
the preceding eveniolg^ fixed it at 1* 2(/ E. At eight o'clock 
the dame mordlng we anchored in the DoWns. Two bdats 
had been btiilt tm lis at Deal^ an(d I iihmedititely sent on 
shore 'fdr ^faerti. I was told that many people hUd asseitt- 
bled there to seeOmai, bnt^ to their great disaippdintaxenty 
he did tidt land, 

fifaving received the l)6ats on bo&rd, and a light breeze 
dt SiS.B. springing tip^ we got under sail the next day at 
two o'cIbdK in the /afternoon ; but the breeze do6in died 
awa^/ahd we were dbli^ed'to f^ddhor again till ten o'cloidc 
at riight. We theh weighed with the wind at £. alid pro- 
ceeded down the Chktind. 

On 'the Sbth, at three o'clodk In the Afternoon, we an* 
dhored in Plymotr^ Sdund^ Where the Disdbvery hsid ar* 
rived only thr^e days before. I saluted Admiral Amhenltf 
whose 4)ag was flying on boflrd the Ocean^ wkh thirteen 
gnns/atid he returned the complitnent withetevdh. 

ft was the ftrsft objedt df our ca:re on arriving at Ply^ 
mouthy ^o replace the water diid provisions thftt we had ex- 
panded, and to receive on board a supfity of i^6rt Wine* 
^is wteH;he employment Wbidh occupied us on the 1st add 
2d 'of July. 

During otrr stay hdre, the ci'eWs Were served "With 'freA 
beef ev^iy day. And I should not do justice to Mr'Om- 
in^iln^y, the agent victualler, if I did not tcfke this'^ppor- 
tthiity tt> mention, that he ^ewed a vdry obliging reitmness 
to fUrhtsh me with the hest df every thihg that l^V Wrthib 
his'd^fiartment. T had been under the like obligations to 
him'dh hi^ netting' oirt upon my last voyage. Conxmrssioner 
Oufry, with equW sieal for the Service, gave us every assist- 
jiticfe l!hait We wanted from l!lie nav'al yard. 
. ft ctfrild not btit occur to us as a singular and aff^dtln'g 
'^iirttffb^^Aidt, that at the very instant of diir departure upon 
ia^Vhy^ge^/thd'dbject of whlcTi was to benefit Europe by 
maTm^'W^'dl^coVeries in North America/th'ere'ihbtild be 

7 the 

186 Modem Circumnaivigfitiom. past hi. book iiu 

the unhappy necessity of employing others of his matjesty's 
ships, and of conveying nomeroas bodies of land forces to 
secure the obedience of those parts of thai continent which 
had been discovered and settled by oar countrymen in the 
last century. On the 6th his majesty's ships Diamond^ 
Ambuscade^ and Unicorn, with a fleet of transports, con- 
sisting of sixty-two sail, bound to America, with the last 
division of the Hessian troops, and some horse, were forced 
into the Sound by a strong N.W. wind. 

On the 8th I received, by express, my instructions for 
the voyage, and an order to proceed to the Cape of Good 
Hope with the Resolution. I was also directed to leave aa 
order for Captain Clerke to follow us as soon as he should 
join bis ship, he being at this time detained in London. 

Our first discoverers of the New World, and navigators 
of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, were justly thought to 
have exerted such uncommon abilities, and to have accom- 
plished such perilous enterprises, that their names have 
been handed down to posterity as so many Argonauts. 
May, even the hulks of the ships that carried them, though 
not converted into constellations in the heavens, used to be 
honoured and visited as sacred relics upon earth. We, in 
the present age of improved navigation, who have been in« 
structed by their labours, and have followed them as our 
guides, have no such claim to fame. Some merit, however, 
being still, in the public opinion, considered as due to those 
who sail to unexplored quarters of the globe ; in conformity 
to this favourable judgment, I prefixed to the account of 
my last voyage the names of the ofiicers of both my ships, 
and a table of the number of their respective crews. The 
like information will be expected from me at present. 

The Resolution was fitted out with the same complement 
of officers and men as she had before ; and the Discovery's 
establishment varied from that of the Adventure, in the 
single instance of her having no marine officer on board. 
This arrangement was to be finally completed at Plymouth f 
and on the gth we received the party of marines allotted 
for our voyage. Colonel Bell, who commanded the divir 
sion at this port, gave me such men for the detachment as 
I had reason to be satisfied with.' And the supernumerary 
seamen, occasioned by this reinforcement, heing tun^e^ 
over into the Ocean man-of-war, our several complements- 
remained fixed^ as represented in the followijQg ^ble :r^ 

CHAP. I. sfiCT. !• -Cooks CUrke^ and Gore. 



Officers and Men, 


Officers Names, 


Officers Nanus. 



J^mes Cook. 


Ciiarles Cierke. 



John Gore. 
James King. 
John Williamson. 


James Burney. 
John Hickman. 



William Bligh. 


Thomas Edgar. 

Boatswain, - 


William Ewin. 


\neas Atkins. 



James Clevely. 


Peter Reynolds. 



Robert Anderson. 


vVilliam Peckover. 

Surgeon, - 


William Anderson. 


John Law. 

Master's Mates, 









Surgeon's Mates, 


- - - 


Captain's Clerk, 




Master at Arms, 


• • • 




Armourer, - - 




Ditto Mate, 


. - - . 


Sail Maker, 


• . • • 


Ditto Mate, - 


« • - . 


Boatswain's Mates, 


• • - . 


Carpenter's Ditto, 


.■ a • a 


Gunner's Ditto, 




Carpenter's Crew, 


. - . 




- - - . 


Ditto Mate, - 


Quarter Masters, 




Abie Seamen, • 






Molesworth Philips. 

Serjeant, - - 


- - - 




- - - 




- a ■ • 





Total, . - 





188 Modern Xjireumnatigatiom. part hi. book mi. 

Oa the lOtfa^ the commissioner and pay clerks came on 
boards and {)aid the officers and crew up. to the 30th of last 
month. The petty officers and seamen had^ besides^ two 
months wages in advance. Such indulgence to the latter 
is no more Ihai Wtratis cusiuinirry tnifce tiavy. -Svtibe 
payment of "Kfihali #tis due lo the supteridr o6icei» was hu<^ . 
manely ordered ]^ %he Admiralty^ id consideration of our 
peculiar situatiob^ that we might be betker able to defray 
the very great e^pelice of furnislf iag our^lves with a stock 
of.necessliries for a voyage wkicbj pirobkblyj would be of 
unusual duratioii^ ahd to r^iolis wbeire qo supply could ht 

Nothing now obstruoting my dejilartiire but a cmitsaa^ 
windj which blew strong trt S.W.^ »b tile momidg of Dh^ 
11 th^ I delivc^re^ idto the hands of Mr ^umey^ first lieuite^ 
nant of the Distcov^ry^ "Captdti 'dcfilke'a £(ailing orders ; a 
copy of which I alA) left with the of^cet commanding bik 
majestjr's ships at J^lymouth^ to be dc^vered to the <^iapt|aa 
immediately on 'his^arrival. In, the afternbon^ibe wind mp^ 
derating; we we^h^d with the ebb^ afid got farther out,be'>- 
yond au the shi|)piQg in the sound ; ^ei^e^ afiter making, an 
unsuccessful attelnpt to get to sea^yire Were detaiQed Hiost 
of the following da^> which was employed in receiving oa 
board a. supply 6f water; and^ by the same vestfel tihat 
brought it^ all the empty casks were feturned. 

As I did not imiigine my stay at Plyinodth wotfld liav^ 
been so long as jit'' |>roved^ we did holt g^t b(ir instrniiientb 
on shore to make the necessary obsetrvafions for ascerlaint- 
ing the longitude bjy the watch. Vpt i\± same reason^ Mr 
Bayly did not sek; about this^^ill he fo^ndH;hal; the Disqpverjr 
would probably be 'detai|>ed some days lifter us. He ithe^ 

J placed nis quadrant upon Drake's Isl^fiid ; and had tija^e^be^ 
ore the Resolulion' sailed^ to toake observations sufficient 
for the purpose we jiad in view. Our watbh made fhe island 
to lie 4^ 14', anil his, 4® 13 J', west d^Greeifwidh. Its^latit- 
tude, as found tiy Akessrs Wales and Bayly, on the last voy*> 

We weighed again at eight in the evening, and stood out 
of the sound, with « -gentle breeze at N.W. by W. 

4. .' 


CHAP. i« Mccv. II* Cook, Chrke, Md Gorc» 189^ 

SBGTIiOlf 11. 

Piimage ^ the Mmokaion io TeneriJfejr^Reeq}ti0u lAef*c«^-» 
i>eKrfpfioit if Smto Cruz Road. — Btf¥e$hment8 to be nut 
wUkr^Oi9mmtibn$foTjbBmg the Lot^g^suUof Ttner^e^-^ 
Some AceouHt of ike Uamd. — Botanical (Xh^nM^ns.*— 
CUimcfSmtaCrmmd LdgHn».-^Jgricubyre.^Jir an^ 

Wn h«d moi beea long out of Plymouth Sounds before 
the wind came more westerly^ and blew fxesb, ao ^bat we 
were obliged to ply down the Channel ; and U ^aa aol till 
tbe l4Ahy at eight in the ereaiagy that we were off the 

On the ]6th> at dood, St AgnetV light-house ea tbe islet 
of ScAhf* bore N.W. by W^ ^distaat seven or eight loiles* 
Our latitude was now 49* SQ' $£r H., ai|d oar longitude^ by 
tbe watch, e^ IV W. Hence, I reckon that St Agpes's 
Ir^-house is in 49" 67' 80* N. latitude, and in &" 2(y of W, 

, On the 17th' and 18th we were off Ushaat, and £oMnd the 
longiliade of the island to be, by the watch, a"" IST S?" W. 
Itie variation was 23^ </ 50^, in the same direction. 

With a strong gale at S., on the IQtb, we stood tp the 
westwapd, tUl eight o'clUck iathe moming; when the wind 
sbiftiAg to the W. ted N. W., we tacked and aUretohed to 
tbe sotfthward. At this time^ we saw nine sail of large 
ships, whieh wie judged to he French nien-of-wiU'# They 
took no particalar notice of us, nor we of them. 

At ten o'elodt in. the morning of the ££d, we saw Cape 
Ortegal ; which at noon bore S.£* i S., about foar leagues 
dfifstant. At this time we were in the latitude of 44^ 6' N. ; 
and our longitude, by the watch, was 8^" 23' W. 

After two days of calm weather, we passed Cape Fi- 
nistepre on the aftmnoon of the .24th, with a fine gale at 
N.N.E. The longitude of this cape, by the watch, is 9* 2ff 
W. ; and, by tkw mean of forty •one lunar observations, 


^ ItsppeaSB ftom Qaptain Cook's Ioe4iook» tbst he beesB his judkious 
qpsrati^iMi for pKserouig tbe beslth of nis crew, vei^ eany in the voyage. 
On the 17th, the ship was smoked between decks with gunpowder. Ae 
spare sails also were then well aired.— -D. 

1$0 Modem Ciramuumgatiom* paet w. book iu« 

made before and after we passed it, and reduced to it by 
the watch, the result was 9* 19^ 12'. 

On the SOth, at six minutes and thirty-eight seconds past 
ten o'clock at night, apparent time, I observed, with a night 
telescope, the moon totally eclipsed. By the ephemem, the 
same happened at Greenwich at. nine mmotes past eleven 
oViock ; the difference being one hour, two minute», and 
twenty-two seconds, or 15** 35' SO* of longitude. The watch^ 
for the same time, gave 15° 2ff 45' longitude W. ; and the 
latitude was 31^ lO' N. No other observation could be 
made on this eclipse, as the moon was hid behind the 
clouds the greater part of the time ; and,, in particulars when 
the begin Ding and end of total darkness, and the end of 
the eclipse, happened. 

Finding that we had not hay and corn jsufficient for the - 
subfiistence of the stock of animals on board, till our arrival 
al the Cape of Good Hope, 1 determined to toqch at Te- 
neriffe, to get a supply of these, and of the usual refresh- 
ments for ourselves ; thinking' that island, for such pur- 
poses, better adapted than Madeira. At four in the after- 
noon of the Slst, we saw TeneriSe^ and steered for the 
eastern part. At nine, being near it, we hauled up, and 
stood off and on during the night. 

At day-light, on the morning of the 1st of August, we 
sailed round the east point of the island ; and, about eight 
o'clock, anchored on the S.E. side of it, in the road of 
Santa Crue, in twenty-three fathoms water ; the bottom, 
sand and ooze. Punta de Nago, the east point of the road, 
bore N . 64° E. ; St Francis's dhnrch, remarkable for its high 
steeple, VV.S. W. ; the Pic, S. 65* W. ; and the S.W. point 
of the road, on which stands a fort or castle, S. 59* W. Jn 
this situation, we moored N.C. and S.W., with a cable each 
way, being near half a mile from the shore. 

We found, riding in this road. La Boussole, a French 
frigate, commanded by the Chevalier de Borda ; two bti- 
gantines of the same nation ; an English brigantine from 
London, bound to Senegal; and fourteen sail of Spanish 

^io sooner had we anchored, than we were visited by the 
master of the port, who satisfied himself with asking the 
ship's name. Upon his leaving us, I sent an officer ashore, 
to present my respects to the governor; and to ask his 
leave to take in water^ and to purchase such articles as we 


€MAP. I. SECT. !!• Cook, Cierke, and Oore. 191 

were in want of. All this he granted with the greatest po-^ 
Kteness ; and, soon after, sent an officer on board, to com- 
pliment me on my arrival. In the afternoon, I waited up- 
on him in person, accompanied by some of my officers * 
and, before I returned to my ship, bespoke some corn and 
straw for the live stock ; ordered a quantity of wine front 
Mr M'Carrick, the contractor, and made an agreement with 
the mastef of a Spanish boat to supply us with water, as I 
found that we could not do it ourselves. 

The road of Santa Cruz is situated before the town of the 
same name, on the S.E. side of the island. It is, as I am 
told, the principal road of Teneriffe, for shelter, capacity, 
and the goodness of its bottom. It lies entirely open 16 
the S.E. and S. winds. But these winds are never of long 
continuance ; and, they say, there is not an instance of a 
ship driving from her anchors on shore.* This may, in part, 
be owing to the great care they take in mooring them ; for 
I observed, that all the ships we met with there, had four 
anchors out ; two to the N.E., and two to the S. W. ; and 
their cables buoyed up with casks. Ours isuffered a little by 
not observing this last precaution. 

At the S.W. part of the road, a stone pier runs out into 
the sea from the town, for the convenience of loading and 
landing of goods. To this pier, the water that supplies the 
shipping is conveyed. This, as also what the inhabitant^ of 
Santa Cruz use, is derived from a rivulet that runs from the 
hills, the greatest part of which comes into the town in 
wooden spouts or troughs, that are supported by slender 
posts, and the remainder doth not reach the sea ; though 
It is evident, from the size of the channel, that sometimes 
large torrents rush down. At this time these troughs were 
repairing, so that fresh water, which is very good here, was 

Were we to judge from the appearance of the country in 
the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz, it might be concluded 
that Teneriffe is a barren spot, insufficient to maintain even 
its own inhabitants* The ample supplies, however, which 


* Though no such instance was known to those from whom Captain 
Cook had this information, we learn from Glas, that some years before he 
was at Teneriffe, almost all the shipping in the road were driven on shore. 
See Glas's History of the Canary Islands, p. 235. We may well suppose 
the precautions now used, have prevented any more such accidents hap- 
pening. This will sufficiently justify Captain Cook's account.— D. 


^90 Modern Circumfiovigaiipfii* pabt hi. book hi. 

;\2re received^ convinced us that they had enough to.8|Mre (oif 
visitors. Besides wine» which is the chief produce of thje 
islanid^ beef may be had at a moderate prjce. The oxea ar^ 
imaU and bony« and weigh about ninety pouods n q,u^rter» 
ICbe mes^t is but lean^ af)d was, at preseuit^ sqld forb^f ^ 
hit (three-pence sterlipg) a pound. I» unadvisedly, bought 
the bullocks alive, and paid conodecably more. Hc^ffg^ 
ahef p, goats, aqd poultry, are likewise to be bought at Uie 
same moderate rate ; and fruits are in great plenty. At 
this tin^e we bad grapes, figs, pears, mulberries, plantajns, 
and mu8k*melons. There is a variety of other fruits pi:o- 
dui^cd here, though not in season at this time. Their 
pumpkins, onions> ^nd potatoes, are exceedingly good of 
their ifind, and keep, better at sea than any I ey,ei: befojf^e 
met with. 

The Indian com, which is also their produce. Cost me 
about three shillings and sixpence a bushel; and the fruits 
and roots were, in general, very cheap. They h^ve not any 
pA^j^tiful supply of fish from the adjoining sei^; bjit a very 
ci^siderable fishery is carried on by their vessels upon the 
coast of Barbary ; and the produce of it sells at a re^taopa- 
ble pjrice. Upon the whole, I found Tenerifje to be a more 
eligible place than Madeira, for ships bound on long voy« 
ages tp touch at ; though tbe wine of the latter, accoi:ding 
to my taste, is as. much superior to that of the former, as 
strong beer; is to small. To compensate for this, the differ-* 
ence of prices is considerable ; for the best Teneriffe wine 
was now sold for twelve pounds a pipe ; whereas a pipe of 
the best Madeira would h^ve cost considerably moce than 
double that sum.' 

Tbe Chevalier De Bprda, commander of the French fri- 
gate now lying in Santa Cruz road, was employed, in con- 
junction with Mr Varila, a Spanish gentleman, in making 
a^tronowcal observations for ascertaining tbe going of two 
time-keepers which tliey had on board their ship. For this 


^ Formerly, there was made at Teneriflfe a great quantity of Canary sack, 
vhich the French call Fin de Malvetie; and we» corruptly after them, 
name Malmaey (from Malvesia, a town in the Morea, famous for such lus- 
cious wine). In the last century, and still later, much of this was im- 
ported into England ; but little wme is now made there, but of the sortie- 
scribed by Captain Cook. Not more than fifty pipes of the rich Canary 
were annually made in Glas's time ; and he says, they now gather the 
grapes wh^n green^ and make a dry hard wine of thom, fit for hot climates, 
p. 262.— D. 

oaAP. 1. BBCT. ii« Cook, Clerke, and Gotim W5 

purpose, tbey had a tedt pitched on the pier headf where 
they made their observations, and compared lii«ir' watches, 
every day at noon, with the clock on shorcj by signals. 
These signals the chevalier very obligingly communicated 
to us ; so that we could compare our watch at the same 
time. But our stay was too short, to profit much by bis 

The three days comparisons which we made, assured jus 
that the watch nad not materially, if at all, altered her rate 
of going ; and gave us the same longitude, within a very 
few seconds, that was obtained by finding the time from 
observations of the sun's altitude from the horizon of the 
sea. The watch, from a mean of these observations, on the 
1st, 2d, and Sd of August, made the longitude 16* 31' W. ; 
and, in like manner, the latitude was found to be £8^ 3(/ 

Mr Varila informed us, that the true longitude was 
IS** 35' 30", from Paris, which is only 16« 16' 30*' from 
Greenwich i less than what our watch gave by 14' 30*. 
But, far from looking upon this as an error in the watch, I 
rather think it a confirmation of its having gone well ; and 
that the longitude by it may be nearer the truth than any 
other. It is farther confirmed by the lunar observations 
that we made in the road» which gave 16^ 37' i(f. Those 
made before we. arrived, and reduced to the road by the 
watch, gave 16^ 33' 30" ; and those made after we left it^ 
and reduced back in the same manner, gave 16^ 28'. The 
mean of the three is l& 30' 40". 

To reduce these several longitudes, and the latitude, to 
the Pic of TenerifFe, one of the most noted points of land 
with geographers, f to obtain the true situation of which, I 
have entered into this particular discussion,) I had recourse 
to the bearing, and a tew hours of the ship's run after lea- 
ving Santa Cruz road ; and found it to be \^ 1 1'^ S. of the 
road, and 9Sf SO*' of longitude W. of it As the base, which 
belped to determine this, was partly estimated, it is liable 
to some error ; but I think I cannot be much mistaken* 
Dr Maskelyne, in his Britkh Marinef^s Guide, places the 
Pic in the latitude of 28<» \%' 54". This, with the bearing 
from the road, will give the difference of longitude 4S, 
which considerably exceeds the distance they reckon the 
Pic to be from Santa Cruz* 1 made the latitude of the Pie 

vo^. x-y* N to 

igf Modem Circumnadgatiom* paet hi. book hi. 

to be £8* Id' N. , Upon that suppotition, its longitude will 
be as follows : 

fThetime-keeper, • - !?• 0' SO»T 

By \ Lunar observations, - 16* 3(/ 20" f W. 

tMrVarila, - - 16*^46' O"'^ 

Bat if the iatitode of it is 28* W 54^ as in the British Ma- 
nner's Guide, its longitude will be IS^ 3(y more westerly. 

The variation, when we were at anchor in the road* b}( 
the mean of all our compasses, was found to be 14^41' 20" 
W. The dip of the N. end of the needle was 61* 52' SO*". 

Some of Mr Anderson's remarks on the natural appear- 
ances of TeneriiTe, and its productions, and what he ob- 
served himself, or learnt by information, about the general 
state of the island, will be of use, particularly in marking 
ivhat changes may have happened there since Mr Glas vi- 
sited it. They here follow in his' own words : 

^' While we were standing in for the laiid, the weather 
being perfectly clear, we had an opportunity of seeing the 
celebrated Pic of TeneriiTe. Buty I own, 1 was much dis- 
appointed in my expectation with respect to its appearance. 
It is, certainly, far from equalling the noble figure of Pico, 
cme of the western isles which I have seen ; though. its per-^ 
pendicular height may be greater. This circumstance, per-* 
haps, arises from its being surrounded by other very nigh 
hills ; whereas Pico stands without a rival. 

'^ Behind the city of Santa Cruz, the country rises gra* 
dually,, and is of a moderate height. Beyond this, to the 
south-westward, it becomes hisher, and continues to rise 
toward the Pic, which, from the road, appears but little 
higher than the surrounding hills. Fxom thence it seems 
to decrease, though not suddenly, as far as the eye can 
reach. From a supposition that we should not stay above 
one day, I was obliged to contract my excursions into the 
country ;' otherwise, I had proposed to visit the top of this 
famous mountain.^. 


^ See an account of a journey to the top of the Pic of Teneriflfe, in 
Sprat's History of the Royal Society, p. 300, &c. Glas also went to the 
top of it— History of the Canary Islands, p. 252 to 259. In the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, vol. xlvii. p. 353—356, we have observations made, in 
igoing up the Pic of Teneriffe, by Dr T. Heberden. The doctor makes its 
height, above the level of the sea, to be ft566 fathoms, or 15,396 English 
feet; and says, that this was confirmed by two subsequent observations by 
himself, and another made by Mr Crosse, the consul And yet I find that 


CHAP. I. SBCT. II, Cook, Gierke, and Gdre* 195 

*^ To the eastward of Santa Cm, the island appears per- 
fectly barren. Ridges of hills ron toward the sea ; between 
which ridges are deep valleys, tenpinating at^ mountains or 
hills that run across^ and are higher than me former. Those 
that run toward the sea> are marked by im*pre8sioas on their 
sidesj which make them appear as a succession of conic 
hills, with their tops very rugged* The higher ones that 
run across, are more uniform in their appearance. 

'' In the forenoon of the 1st of August, after we had an- 
chored in the road, I went on shore to one of these valleys^ 
with an intention to reach the top of the remoter hillsj 
which seemed covered with wood ; but time would not al^ 
low me to get farther than their foot. After walking about 
three miles, I found no alteration in the appearance of the 
lower hills, which produce great quantities of th^ euphorbia 
Cananernkk It is surprising that this large succulent plant 
should thrive on so burnt-up a soil. When broken, which 
is easily done, the quantity of juice is very great; and it 
might be supposed that, when dried, it would shrivel to no* 
thing; yet it is a pretty tough, though soft and light wood. 
The people here believe its juice to be so caustic as to 
erode the skin ;^ but I convinced them, though with much 
difficulty, to the contrary, by thrusting my finger into the 
plant full of it, without afterward wiping it off. They break 
down the bushes of emhorbia^ and, sumring them to dry, 
,carry them home for niel. I met with nothing else grow- 
ing there, but two or three small shrubs^ and a few fig-trees 
near the bottom of the valley. 

** The basis of the hills is a heavy> compact, bluish stone, 
mixed with some shining particles ; and, on the surface, 
large masses of red friable earth, or stone, are scattered 
^out. I also often found the same substance disposed in 
thick Orata ; and the little earth, strewed here aqd there, 
was a blackish mould. There were likewise $ome pieces of 
slag; one of which, from its weight and smooth .sprface, 
seemed almost wholly metalline. 


the Chevalier de Borda, who measured the height of this mountain in Au- 
|U8t 1776, makes it to be only 1931 French toises, or 13,840 English feet. 
See Dr Forster's Observations during a Voyage round the World, p. 82. 
— D. 

' Glas, p. S3 1, speaking of this plant, says, ** that he cannot imagine wliy 
the natives of the Canaries do not extract the juice, and use it instead of 
pitch, for the bottoms of their boats.*' We now Jeam from Mr Anderson 
their reason fpr not using it.— D. 

ig6 Modem Cireunmacigatiaru* fait hi. book m. 

^The mouldering slate of these hillsis^ doubtless, owing 
to the perpetual action of the son, which calcines their sur^ 
face. This mouldered part being afterward washed away 
by the heavy rains, perhaps is the cause of their sides being 
80 uneven. For, as the different substances of which they 
are composed, are more or less easily affected by the sun s 
heat, they will be carried away in the like proportions* 
Hence, perhaps, the tops of the hills, being of the hardest 
rock, have stood, while the other parts on a declivity have 
been destroyed. As I have usually observed, that the tops 
of most mountains that are covered with trees have a more 
uniform appearance, I am inclined to believe that this is 
owing to tneir being shaded. 

*' The city of Santa Cruz, though not large, is tolerably 
well built. The churches are not magnificent without; but 
within arc decent, and indifferently ornamented. They are 
inferior to some of the churches at Madeira; but I imagine 
this rather arises from the different disposition of the peo«- 
pie, than from their inability to support them better. For 
the private houses, and dress of the Spanish inhabitants of 
Santa Cruz, are far preferable to those of the Portuguese at 
Madeiia; who, perhaps, are willing to strip themselves, that 
they may adorn their churches. 

*^ Almost facing the stone pier at the landing-place, is a 
handsome marble column lately put up, ornamented with 
some human figures, that do no discredit to the artist; 
with an inscription in Spanish, to commemorate the occa* 
9ion of the erection, and the date. 

*^ In the afternoon of the 2d, four of us hired mules to 
ride to the city of Laffuna,^ so called from an adjoining 
lake, about four miles from Santa Cruz. We arrived there 
between five and six in the evening ; but found a sight of 
it very unable to compensate for our trouble, as the road 
was very bad, and the mules but indifferent. The place is^ 
indeed, pretty extensive, but scarcely deserves to be digni- 
fied with the name of city. The disposition of its streets is 
yery irregular ; yet some of them are of a tolerable breadth^ 
$md have sopie good hous^Sf In general, however, Laguqa 


^ Its extended name is St Christobal de la Laguna ; and it used to he 
reckoned, the capital of the island, the gentry and lawyers living there ; 
though the governor-general of the Canary Islands resides ^t Santa Cru^ 
as being the centre of their trade, bptb with furope and Ameripa^ S^ 
Glag's fiistorjf, p. 248.— D, 

CHAK I. S£CT. u. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 297 

18 inferior in appearance to Santa Cruz^ though the latter is 
but small^ if compared with the former. We are informed, 
likewise^ that Laguna is declining fast; there being, at pre- 
sent, some vineyards where houses formerly stood ; where- 
as Santa Cruz is increasing daily • 

*^ The road leading from Santa Cruz to Laguna runs up 
a steep hill, which is very barren ; but, lower down, we saw- 
some fig-trees, and several corn fidds. These are but small, 
and not thrown into ridges, as is practised in England* 
Nor does it appear that they can raise any corn here with- 
out great labour, as the ground is so encumbered with 
stonesi that they are obliged to collect and lay them ia 
broad rows, or walls, in small distances. The large hills 
that run to the S.W., appeared to be pretty well furnished 
with trees. Nothing else worth noticing presented itself 
during this excursion, except a few aloe plants in flowerj 
Bear the side of the road, and the cheerfulness of our 
guides, who amused us with songs by the way. 

'' Most of the laborious work in this island is performed 
by mules ; horses beine to appearance scarce, and qhiefly 
reserved for the use of the officers. They are of a small size, 
but well shaped and spirited. Oxen are also employed to 
drag their casks along upon a large clumsy piece of wood ; 
and they are yoked by the head, though it doth not seemv 
that this has any peculiar advantage over our method of 
fixing the harness on the shoulders. In my walks and ex-» 
cursions I saw some hawks, parrots which are natives of 
the island, the sea-swallow or tern, sea-gulls, partridges, 
wafftails, swallows, martins^ blackbirds^ and Canary-birds- 
in large flocks. There are also lizards of the common, and 
another sort; some insects, as locusts; and three or four 
sorts of dragon flies. ^ 

'' I had an opportunity of conversing with a sensible and 
well-informed gentleman residing here, and whose veracity 
I have not the least reason to doubt. From him I learnt 
some particulars, which, during jlhe short stay of three diiys, 
did not fall within my own observation. He informed tme, 
that a shrub is common here, agreeing exactly with the de- 
scription given by Tournefort and Linnseus, of the ; tea 
shrub, as growing in China and Japan. It is reckoq^d a 
weed, and he roots out thousands of them every j|sart^roni 
his vineyards. The Spaniards, however, of J^^^Iand, 
sometimes use it as tea, and ascribe to it all the quaJ^ties of 



ig^ Modem Circummtoigatiom. fart hi. bods in* 

that imported from China. They also give it the name of 
tea; but ii^hat is remarkable^ they say it was found here 
when the islands were first discovered. 

^' Another botanical curiosity, mentioned by him, is what 
they call the impregnated lemon/ It is a perfect aiad dis^? 
tinct lemon, inclosed within another, diflfering from the 
outer one only in being a little more globular. The leaves 
of the tree that produces this sort, are much longer than 
those of the common one ; and it was represented to me aa 
being crooked, and not equal in beauty. 

'^ From him I learnt also, that a certain sort of grape 
growing here, is reckoned an excellent remedy in phthisi- 
cal complaints ; and the air and climate, in general, are re« 
markably healthful, and particularly adapted to give relief 
in such diseases. This he endeavoured to account for, by 
its being always in one's power to procure a different tern* 
perature of the air, by residing at different heights in the 
island ; and he expressed his surprise that the English phy- 
sicians should never have thought of sending their con- 
sumptive patients to Teneriffe, instead of Nice or Lisbon* 
How much the temperature of the air varies here, I myself 
could sensibly perceive, only in riding from Santa Cruz up^ 
to Laguna; and you may ascend till the cold becomes in« 
tolerable. I was assured that no person can live comforta- 
bly within a mile of the perpendicular height of the-Pic^ 
after the month of August.^ 

*' Although some smoke constantly issues from near the 
top of the Pic, they have had no earthquake or eruption of 
a volcano since 1704, when the port of Garrachica, where 
much of their trade was formerly carried on, was destroyed.^ 

'^ Their trade, indeed, must be considered as very con- 
siderable; for they reckon that forty thousand pipes of 

- wine 

7 The writer of the Relation of Teneriffe, in Sprat's History, p. 207, 
takes notice of this lemdn as prodaced here, and calls it Pregiuida, Fro- 
babl}', emprennada, the Spanish word for impregnated, is the name it goes 
/by. — D. 

* This agrees with Dr T. Heberden's account, who says that the Bu^r- 
k>af part of the mountain, or laptricosa, (as it is called,^ which is an ei^th 
part of a league (or 1960 feet) to the top, is covered with snow the great* 
est part of the year. See Philosophical Transactions, as quoted above^ 

^ This port was then filled up by the rivers of burning lava that flowed 
into It from a volcano ; insomuch that houses are now built where ships fof^ 
merly lay at anchor. See Glas's History, p. 244.— D. 

€iBt AP. I. SBCT* IX. Cook, Ckrke, and Qore. 1^9 

vrine are annually made, the greatest-part of wfaicfa is either 
consumed in the island, or made into brandy^ and sent to 
the Spanish West Indies.'* About six thousand pipes were 
exported every year to North America^ while the trade 
with it was uninterrupted ; at presentj, they think not above 
half the quantity. The corn they raise is^ in general^ in- 
aufficient to maintain the inhabitants ; but the deficiency 
used to be supplied by importation from the North Ameri- 
cans, who took their winea in return. 

** They make a little silk ; but unless we reckon the fii- 
tering'^stones, brought in great numbers from Grand Cana- 
ry, the wine li the only considerable article of tiie foreign 

'' None of the race of inhabitants found here when the 
Spaniards discovered the Citnaries, now remain a distinct 
people;*' having intermarried with the Spanish settlers; 
i>ut their descendants are known, from their being remark- 
ably tall, large-boned, and strong. The men are, in gene^ 
ra], of a tawny colour, and the women have a pale com- 
plexion, entirely destitute of that bloom which distinguishes 
our northern beauties. The Spanish custom of wearing 
black clothes continues amongst them ; but the men seem 
more indifferent about thisj and in some measure dress like 
the French. In other respects, we found the inhabitants of 
Teneriffe to be a decent and very civil people, retaining 
that grave cast which distinguishes those of their countnt 
from other European nations. Although we do not think 
that there is a great similarity between our manners and 
those of.the Spaniards, it is worth observing, that Omai did 
not think there was much difference. He only said, ' that 


'* Glas, p. 349, says, that they anDualTy export no less than fifteen thou* 
sand pipes of wine and brandy. In another place, p. 352, he tells us, that 
the number of the inhabitants of Tenerifie, when the last account was ta<« 
ken, was no less than 96,000. We may reasonably suppose that there has 
been a considerable increase of population since Glas visited the island, 
which is above thirty years ago. The quantity of wine annually consumed, 
as the common beverage of at least one hundred thousand persons, must 
amount to several thousand pipes. There must be a vast expenditure of 
^ it| by conversion into brandy ; to produce one pipe of which, five or six 
pipes of wine must be distilled. An attention to these particulars will ena- 
Die every one to judge, that the account given to Mr Anderson, of an an- 
nual produce of 40,000 pipes of wine, has a foundation in truth — D. 

'' It was otherwise In Glas's time, when a few families of the Gikanthes 
(as they are caUed) remained still in Tenerifie, not blended with the Spa* 
fliards. Gtiis, p. S40.— D. 

900 Modem Circumnavigations* pabt hi. book in. 

ihe^ seemed not so' frieodly as the English ; and tbat^ in 
their persons, they approached those uf his countrymen/ '^ 


Section III. 

Departure from Teneriffe. — Dangp* of the Ship near Bona^ 

. vista, — tsk of Mayoj^^Port rrayu. — Precautions against 
the Rain and sultry Weather in the N^hbourhood of the 

. Equator. — Position of the Coast of Braztl. — Arrioal at the 
Cape of Good Hope* — Transactiom there. — Junction of the 
Discovery. — Mr Andersmi^s Journey up the Country. — ^«- 
tronomical Obseroations. — 'Nautical Remarks on the Passage 

r from England to the Cape^with regard to the Currents and 
the Variation* 

Having completed our water^ and got on board every 
other thine; we wanted at TenerifFe, we weighed anchor on 
the 4th of August^ and proceeded on our voyage, with a 
fine gale at N.E. 

At nine o'clock in the evening on the lOtb,' we saw the 
island of Bonavista bearing south, distant little more than 
a league; though, at this time, .we thought ourselves much 
farther off: But this proved a mistake. For, after hauling 
to the eastward till twelve o'clock, to clear the sunken rocks 
thfit lie about a league from the S.E« point of the island, 
we found ourselves, at that time, close upon them, and did 
but just weather the breakers. Oar situation, for a ^«w mi* 
notes,, was very alarming* i did not choose to sound, as thai 
might have heightened the danger, without any possibility 
of lessening it. I make the north end of the island of Bo- 
navista to lie in the latitude of 16* 17' N., and in the longi- 
tude of 220 59' w. 

As soort as we were clear of the rocks, we steered S.S.W., 
till day-break next morning,, and then hauled to the west- 
ward, to go between Bonavista and the isle of JVf ayo, in- 
tending to look into Port Praya for the Discovery, as 1 had 
told Captain Gierke that' I should touch there, and did not 


■ As a proof of Captain Cook's attention, both to the discipline and ta . 
tire health of his ship's company, it may be worth while to observe here, 
that it appears from his log-book, he exercfsed them at great guns and 
smaU arms, and cleaned and smoked the ship betwixt decks, twice ia tha 
interval between the 4th and the 10th of August.— D» 


OHAF. !• SBCT. iii« Cook, Clerke, and Gore* £0t 

know how soon he might sail after me. At one In the aC- 
temooD^ we saw the rocks that lie on the S. W, side of Bo» 
navista, bearing S.E«, distant three or four leagues. 

Next morningi at six o'clock^ the isle of Mayo bore S.S.£.« 
distant about five leagues. In this situation we sounded, and 
found ground at sixty fathoms. At the same time the varia- 
tion, by the mean of several azimuths taken with three dif- 
ferent compasses, was 9" S2J' W*. At eleven o'clock, one 
extreme of Mayo bore £. by N., and the other S.E. by S« 
In this position, two roundish hills appeared near its N.E. 
part; farther on, a large and higher hill; ,and, at about 
two4hirds of its length, a single one that is peaked. At 
the distance we now saw this island, which was three or 
four miles, there was not the least appearance of vegeta- 
tion, nor any relief to the eye from that lifeless brown which 
prevails in countries under the Torrid Zoni that are un- 

Here I cannot help remarking that Mr Nichelson, in his 
Preface to *^ Sundry Remarks and Observations made in a , 
Voyage ^o the East Indies/'* tells us, that '^ with eight de- 
grees west variation, or any thing above that, you may ven- 
ture to sail by the Cape de Verde Islands night or day, be- 
ing well assui^d, with that variation, that yoa are to the 
eastward of them.'' Such an assertion might prove of dan- 
gerous consequence, were there any that Would implicitly 
trust to it. We also tried the current, and found one set- 
ting S.W. by W«, something more than half a mile an hour« 
We had reason to expect this, from the differences betweea 
the longitude given by the watch and dead reckoning, which^ 
since our leaving Teneriife, amotinted to one degree. 

While we were amongst these islands, we had light breezes 
of wind, varying from the S.£. to E., and some calms. This 
shews that the Cape de Verde islands are either extensive 
enough to break the current of the trade wind, or that they 
are situated just beyond its verge, in tiiat space where the 
variable winds, found on getting near the Line, begin. The 
first supposition, however, is the most, probable, as Dam- 
pier found the wind westerly here in the month of Februa- 
ry ; at which time the trade wind is supposed to extend far- 
thest toward the equinoctial.^ The weather was hot and 


* On board his majesty's ship Elizabeth, from 1758 io 1764 ; by Wil- 
Y^xxk Nichelson, master of the said ship, — I^ndon^ 1773. 
f Dampier's Voyages, vcl« iii. p. 10.— -Captain Krusenstern appears to 


«202 Modem Ckcumnavigatiom. pabt in. book tit. 

sultry^ with some rain ; and^ for the most part^ a dull white- 
ness prevailed in the sky^ that seems a medium between fog 
and cloads. In general^* the tropical regions seldom enjoy- 
that clear atmosphere observable where variable winds blow ; 
tkot does the sun shine with such brightness. This circum- 
tance^ however^ seems an advantage; for otherwise^ per- 
haps^ the rays of the sun^ being uninterrupted, would ren« 
der the heat quite unsupportable. The nights are^ never*^ 
theless, often clear and serene. 

At nine o'clock in the morning of the ISth, we arrived 
'before Port Praya^ in the island of St Jago, where we saw 
two Dutch £ast India ships, and a small brigantine, at an-^ 
chor. As the Discovery was not there, and we had expend* 
ed but little water in our passage from Teneriffe, I did not 
think proper to go in, but stood to the Southward. Some 
altitudes of the sun were now taken, to ascertain the tru^ 
time. The longitude by the watch, deduced therefrom, was 
fi3* 48' west; the little island in the bay bore W.N.W.. 
distant near three miles, which will make its longitude 2S^ 
51'. The same watch, on my late voyage, made the longi- 

be of the same opinion, as to the Cape de Verde Iskinds being of sufficient 
magnitude to alter the direction of the trade winds,, remarking that S.W« 
vinds are frequently met with there, and that if they are not» the wind is 
always very moderate in their vicinity. He recommends vessels, on theit 
passage to the equator, to take their course to the westward of these 
Islands, so as to cross the parallel of 17S or that of the island of Antonio 
in 26^°, or even that of 27^, and then to steer S.£. by S. directly to the 
equator. He further advises, that, if |)ossible, the passage pf the Line be 
^ected in 20^ or 21^ as then .there is the advantage of a directly free 
wind as soon as the S.E. trade sets in, and of course the ship gets quicker 
fo the southward. But this can rarely be done. He himsdf crossed the 
equator in 24^ 20^ W., after a passage of thirty days from Santa Crux 
Ships, be informs us, when crossing in a more westerly direction than 2^ 
and 26^, have been driven by strong currents, and a too southerly trade 
wind, so near the coast of Brazil, as not to be able to clear Cape St Augus- 
tin. The present opportunity is taken of mentioning, that this very cautioug 
and intelligent navigator agrees, in general, with Cook, as to Nlchelsbn^i 
rule. *' His instnictions for crossing the Line, on the voyage to India* 
with 6^ so' and 7^ 00" west variation, but in returning to Europe, with 
eight degrees, might have been of use forty years ago, when the method 
of finding the longitude at sea bv distances of the sun and moon was 
known to very few navigators, and for a time no great error was commit* 
ted by pursuing them; but at present a variation of seven d^rees would 
hardly be found on the coast or Africa.''— The reason is, as the scientific 
reader must know, that the variation has been on the western increase 
since the period alluded to. Thus Nichelson found it at St Helena, in 
1764, to be 11^ 38', and Captain Krusenstem, in 1806, a space of forty- 
two years, 17° 18' KT.— £• 

eHAP* l« SECT. Ill* Cookj Gierke, and Gore» £03 

tude to be 23* 30' W. ; and we observed the latitude to be 
14* 53' SO" N. 

The day after we left the Cape de Verde islands^ we lost 
the N.E. trade wiod ; but did not get that which blows 
from the S.E. till the 30th^ when we were in the latitude 
of £* norths and in the twenty-fifth degree of west longi- 

During this interval/ the wind was mostly in the S.W. 
quarter. Sometimes it blew fresh^ and in squalls ; but for 
the most part a gentle breeze. The calms were few, and of 
short duration.. Between the latitude of 1£* and of 7^ N.» 
the weather was generally dark and gloomy, with frequent 
rains, which enabled us to save as much water as filled most 
ofbnremply casks. . 

These rains, and the close sultry weather accompanying 
them, too often bring on sickness in this passage* Every 
bad consequence, at least, is to be apprehended from them ; 
and commands of ships cannot be too much upon theit 
guard, by purifying the air between decks with fires and 
smoke, anci by obliging the people to dry their clothes at 
eVery opportunity. These precautions were constantly ob^ 
served on board the Resolution^ and Discovery; and we 
certainly profited by them, for we l^ad now. fewer sick than 
on either of my former voyages. We had, however, the 
mortification to find our ship exceedingly leaky in all hei 
upper works. The hot and sultry weather we had just pass- 
ed through, had opened her seams, which had been badly 
caulked at first, so wide, that they admitted the rain-water 
through as it fell. There was hardly a man that could lie 
dry in his bed ; and the officers in the gun-room were alt 


* On. the 18th, I sunk a bucket with a thermometer seventy fathomg 
below the surface of the sea, where it remained two minutes ; and it took 
three minutes more to haul it up. The mercury in the thermometer was 
at 66^ which before^ in the air^ stood at 78, and in the surface of the sea 
at 79. The water which came up in the bucket, contained, by Mr Caven* 
dish's table, ^. , 7 part salt ; and that at the surface o£ the sea ^ 4. As 
this last was taken up after a smart shower of rain, it might be lighter en 
tha^ aceount — Captain Cool^i log-book, 

u ^ The particulars are mcnationed in his log-book. On the 14t}i of Aut 
gust, s fire was nude in the well, to dr the ship below. On the ]5tfa, the 
cpare sails were aired upon deck, and a fire made to air the sail*room. On 
tlie 17tb^ cleaned and smoked betwixt decks, and the i^read-room aired 
with fires. On the 21st, cleaned and sQioked betwixt decks ^ and on the^ 
U%Ay the men's bedding was spread on deck to air. — D. 

fi04 Modern Circumnafngattonu paat hi. booic hi* 

driven out of their cabins, by the water that came through 
the sides. The sails in the sail-room got wet ; and before 
we had weather to dry them^ many of them were much da^ 
maged) and a great expence of canvas and of time became 
necessary to make them in some degree serviceable. Ha- 
ving experienced the same defect in our saiUrooms on my 
late voyage, it had been represented to the yard-officerSf 
who undertook to remove it. But it did not appear to me 
that any thing had been done to remedy the complaint. 
To repair these defects the caulkers were set to work, as 
soon as we got into fair and settled weather, to caulk the 
decks and inside weather*works of the ship ^ for I would 
not trust them over the sides while we were at sea. 

On the first of September** we crossed the equator, in the 
longitude of 27** 38' W., with a fine gale at S.E. by S. ; and 
notwithstanding my apprehensions of falling in with the 
coast of Brazil in stretching to the S. W,, I kept the ship a 
full point from the wind. : However, I found my fears were 
ill-grounded ; for on drawing near that coast, we met with 
the wind more and more easterly ; so that, by the time we 
were in the latitude of 10^ S., we could make a south-east* 
erlv course good. 

bn the 8th, we were in the latitude of 8** 57' S. ; which 
is a little to the southward of Cape St Augustine, on the 
coast of BraztL Our longitude, deduced froin a very great 


* The afbemooUy as appears from Mr Anderson's Journal, was spent 
in performing the old and ridiculous ceremony of ducking those who had 
not crossed the equator before. Though Captain Cook did not suppress 
the custom, he thought it too trifling to deserve the least mention of it in 
bis Journal, or even in his log-book. Pernetty, the writer of Boi!gainville*« 
Voy^e to the Falkland Islands, in 1763 and 1764, thought diflTerently ; for 
his account of the celebration of this childish festival on board his ship, is 
extended through seventeen pages, and makes the subject of an entire 
chapter, under the title of Baptime de la Ligne, 

It may be worth while to transcribe bis introduction to the description 
of it. *• C'est un usage qui ne remontc pas plus haut que ce voyage celfe- 
bre de Gama, qui a fourni au Camoens le sujet de la Lusiade. L'id^e qu'on 
ne s9auroit fetre un bon marin, sans avoir traverse I'EqUateur, I'ennui in- 
separable d'une longue navigation, un certain esprit republicain qui regne 
dans toutes les petites societ^s, peut-^tre toutes ces causes reunies, ont pu 
donner nidssance k ces especes de saturnales. Quoiqu'il en sot, elles furent 
adopt^ en un instant, dans toutes les nations, et les hommes les plus 
edair^ furent oblig^ de se soumettre k une coutume dont ils reconnois- 
soient Tabsurdit^. Car, partout, d^ que le peuplc parie, il faut que le 
sage se mettc k Vuwsoixr'-^Hi$$<nre iTun Vojfage awe hUi Malouine$f 
p. 107, 108.— D. 

tfHAP. I. SBCT« Jil. Cookj Clerk f and Gore. 908 

number of lanar observations^ was 34^ 16' W. ; and by the 
watch, 34^ 47'. The former is 1^ 4S', and the latter 2* 14' 
more westerly than the island of Fernando de Noronha, the 
situation of which was pretty well determined during my 
]ate voyage. Hence I concluded that we could not now be 
farther from the continent than twenty or thirty leagues at 
most; and perhaps not much lessy as we neither had sound* 
ings nor any other signs of land. Dr Halley, however^ ia 
his voyage, published by Mr Dalrymple, tells us,' that '' he 
made no more than one hundred and two mil^s, meridiaa 
distance, from the island [Fernando de Noronba] to the 
' €oast of Brazil f* and seems to think that '' currents could 
not be the whole cause'' of his making so little. But I ra- 
ther think that he was mistaken, and that the currents had 
hurried him far to the westward of his intended course. 
This was, in some measure, confirmed by our own observa-* 
tions ; for we had found, during three or four days prece- 
ding the 8th, that the currents set to the westward ; and, 
during the last twenty-four hours, it had set strong to the 
northward, as we experienced a difference of twenty-nine 
miles between our observed latitude and that by dead reck- 
oning. Upon the whole, till some better astronomical ob- 
servations are made on shore on the eastern coast of Brazil^ 
I shall conclude that its longitude is thirty-five degrees and 
a half, or thirty-six degrees W., at most. 

We proceeded on our voyage, without meeting with any 
thing of note, till the 6th of October. Being then in the 
latitude of Sfi"" W S., longitude 7** 45' W., we met with 
light airs and calms by turns, for three days successively^ 
We had, for some days before^ seen albatrosses, pintadoes, 
and other petrels ; and here we saw three penguins, which 
occasioned, us to sound ; but we found no ground with a 
line of one hqpdred and fifty fathoms. We put a boat ia 
the water, and shot a few birds ; one of which was a black 
|>etrel, about the size of a crow, and, except as to the bill 
and feet, very like one* It had a few white feathers under 
the throat ; and the under^side of the quill-feathers were of 
an ash^colour. Ail the other feathers were jet black, as also 
the bill and legs. 

On the 8tb, in the evening, one of those birds which 
filers call noddies^ settled on our rigging, and was caught. 


! Page 11. 

iOS Modem Circumnavigations* fart iif. book lit* 

It was somc^tbing larger than an English black-bird^ and 
nearly as blacky except the upper part of the head^ which 
was white^ looking as if it were powdered ; the whitest fea^ 
thers growing out from the base of the upper bili^ from 
which they gradually assumed a darker colour, to about 
the middle of the upper part of the neck, where the white 
shade was lost in the black, without being divided by any 
line. It was web-footed ; had black legs and a black bill, 
which"^ was long, and not unlike that of a curlew. It is said 
these birds never fly far from land. We knew of none 
nearer the station we were in, than Gough's or Richmond 
Island, from which our distance could not be less than one 
hundred leagues* But it must be observed that the Allan- 
tic Ocean, to the southward of this latitude, has been but 
little fV^uented ; so that there may be more islands there 
than we are acquainted with. 

' We frequently, in the night, saw those luminous marine 
animals mentioned and described in my first voyage. Some 
of them seemed to be considerably larger than any I had be- 
fore met with ; and sometimes they were so nomerous, that 
hundreds were visible at the same moment. 

This calm weather was succeeded by a fresh gale from 
the N.W., which lasted two days. Then we bad again va- 
riable light airs for about twenty-four hours; when the N.W. 
wind returned, and blew with such strength, that on the 
17th we had sight of the Cape of Good Hope ; and the 
next day anchored in Table 3ay, in four fathoms water, 
with the church bearing S. W. J S., and Green Point N.W, 

As soon as we had received the usual visit from the mas- 
ter attendant and the surgeon, I sent an officer to wait on 
Baron Plettenberg, the governor ; and, on his return, salu- 
ted the garrison with thirteen guns, which compliment was 
returned with the same number. 

We found in the bay two French East India ships ; the 
one outward, and the other homeward bound. And two or 
three days before our arrival, another homeward-bound ship 
of the same nation had parted from her cable, and been 
driven on shore at the head of the bay, where sh^e was lost. 
The crew were saved ; but the greatest part of the cargo 
shared the same fate with the ship, or (which amounted to 
the same) was plundered and stolen by the inhabitants, ei- 
ther out of the ship, or as it was driven or carried on shore. 


CMAJf* J« 8SCr« iiIa Cook, Gierke, and G<nt. fffl 

Thk is the account the French officers gare to me ; and 
the Dutch jtbemselveg qould not deny the fact But^ by 
way oi excusiog tb^pi^dves from being guilty oT a crime 
disgraceful to every civilized state^ they endeavpured tolay^ 
the whole blame on the French captain^ for not applying 
in time for a guard. 

• As soon as we had saluted^ I went on shore^ accompaniec) 
by some of my officers^ and waited on the G.overnorj the 
Lieutenant-Governor^ the Fiscal^ and the Commander of 
the troops. These gentlemen received me with the great- 
est civility ; and the Governor^ in particular, promised me 
every assistance that the place afforded. At tne same time 
I obtained his leave to set dp our observatory on any spot 
I siiQuld think most convenient ; to pitch tents for the saiU 
makers and coopers ; and to bring the cattle on shore^ to 

fraze near our encampment. Before I returned on boards 
ordered soft breads fresh meat, and greens, to be provi- 
ded, every day, for Uie ship's company. 

On the 9,%Sl, we set up the tents and observatory, and 
began to send the several articles out of the ship which I 
wanted on shore. This could not be done sooner, as the 
militia of the place were exercising on, or near, the ground 
ivhich we were to occupy. 

The next day, we beg^an to observe equal altitudes of the 
sun, in order to ascertain the rate of the watch, or, which 
is the same things to find whether it had altered its rate. 
These observations were continued every day, whenever the 
weather would permit, till the time of our departure drew ^ 
near* But before this, the caulkers had been set to work to 
caulk the ship ; and I had concerted measures with Messrs 
3randt and Chirop^ for supplying both ships with such 
iprovisions as I should want. Bakers, likewise, bad beea 
ordered, immediately after our arrival, to bake such a quan- 
tity of bread as I thought would be requisite. As fast as 
the several articles destined for the Resoiutioa were got 
ready, they were carried on board. 

, On the £6th, the French ship sailed for Europe, and by 
her we sent letters to England. The next day, the Hamp- 
shire East India ship, from Bencoolen^^ anchored in the bay, 
and saluted us with thirteen guns, which we returned with 
eleven. ^ 

Nothing remarkable happened till the evening of the 
Slst, when it cam^ on to plow excessively hard at S.E., 



j|08 Modem Ctrcurnnacigatiom. paut hi* book I&, 

and continned for three days ; during which ttme there 
wa» no communication between the ship and the shore. 
The Resolution was the only ship in the bay that rode out 
, the gale without dragging her anchors. We felt its effects 
as sensibly on shore. Our tents and observatory were torn 
io pieces ; and our astronomical quadrant narrowly escaped 
irreparable damage. On the dd of November the storm 
ceased, and^the next day we resumed our different employ- 

' On the 6tb, the Hampshire India ship sailed for England. 
In her I sent home an invalid, whom Captain Trimble was 
so obliging as to receive on board. I was afterward sorry 
that I had not availed myself of this opportunity to part 
with two or three more of my crew, who were troubled 
with different complaints ; but, at this time, there was some 
Itope of their health being re-established. 

In the morning of the 10th, the Discovery arrived in the 
1>ay. Captain Clerke informed me that he bad sailed from 
Plymoutn on the 1st of August, and should have been with 
us here a week sooner, if the gale of wind had not blown 
bim off the coast. Upon the whole, he was seven days 
longer in his passage from England than we had been. He 
bad the misfortune to lose one of his marines, by falling 
overboard ; but there had been no other mortality amongst 
bis people, and they now arrived well and healthy. 

<7aptain Clerke having represented to me that his ship 
was in want of caulking ; that no time might be lost in re- 

E airing this defect, next day I sent all my workmen on board 
er, having already completed this service on board the Re^ 
solution. I lent every other assistance to the captain to 
expedite his supply of provisions and water, having given 
bim an order to receive on board as much of both articles 
as he could conveniently stow. I now found that the ba«- 
lers had failed in baking the bread 1 had ordered for the 
Discovery. They pretended a want of flour; but the truth 
was, they were doubtful of her coming, and did not care 
to begin till tbey saw her at anchor in the bay. 

I have before made mention of our getting our cattle oa 
shore. The bull and two cows, with their calves, were sent 
to graze along with some other .cattle ; but I was advised 
to keep our sheep, sixteen in number, close to our tents, 
where they were penned up every night. During the night 
preceding the 14th, some dogs having got in amongst them, 


cHAt. r. sier. iii^ Cook, Ckrke, ami Gen. tOO 

forced them out of the penj kilKng foui^ and dkpefuog the 
rest Six of them were recoverM the next day ; but die 
two rams^ and two of the finest ewes in the whole flock^ 
were amongst those missing. Baron Plettraberg being now 
in the conntry^ I applied to the LientenanUG^vemor^ Mr 
Hemmy^ and to the riscal. Both thesie gentlemen promi* 
sed to use their endeavours for the recovery of the lost sheep. 
The Dntch^ we know^ boasted that the police at the Cape 
was so carefully executed, that it was hardly possible for a 
slave, with all his cunning and knowledge of the country^ 
^ to effectuate his escape. Yet mv sheep evaded all ihe vi* 
' gilance of the FiscaPs officers and people. However, after 
much trouble and expence, bv employing some of the mean* 
est and lowest scoundrels in the place (who, to use the phrase 
of the person who recommended this method to me, would^ 
for a dncatoon, cut tfieir master's throat, burn the house 
over his head, and bury him and the whole family in the 
ashes), I recovered them all but the two ewes. Of these I 
never could hear the least tidings ; and I gave over all en- 
quiry after them, when I was told that, since I had ROt the 
two rams, I might think myself veiy well off. One of these^ 
however, was so much hurt by the oogs, that there was re»* 
son to believe he would never recover. 

Mr Hemmy very obligingly oflered to make up this loss^ 
by giving me a Spanish ram, out of some that he had sent 
for from Lisbon. But I declined the offer, under a persua» 
aion that it would answer my pmpbse full as well, to take 
with me some of the Cape rams : the event proved that I 
was under a mistake. This gentleman had taken some pains 
to introduce European sheep at the Cape ; but his end^a^ 
vours, ashe told me, had been frustrated by the obstinacy 
of the country people, who held their own breed in greater 
estimation, on account of their large tails, of the fat of which 
they sometimes made mcMre money than of the whole car^ 
case besides ; and who thought that the wool of Europeaa 
sheep would, bv no means, make up for their deficiency ia 
this respect.' Indeed, I have heard some sensible men here 
VOL. XV. o make 

' ** The most remarkable thmg in the Cape sheep, is the length and 
thickneas of their tails, which weigh firom fifteen to twenty pounds. The 
fat is not so tallowisli as that of European mutton, and the poorer sort use 
i^ for butter/'—- Xo/6en's Cape of Good Hope (Engtish translation)^ vol. ii. 
p. 65, De la Caille, who finds every thing wrong in Kolben, says, the 



210 Modem Circumnavigations^ pA?^T m* boos, hi, 

iQUke the ssime observ9ti<»i« And there seems to befoiin-^ 
datioa for it« For^ admitting that European sheep were to 
produce wool of the same quality here as in Europe^ which 
experience has shewn not to be the case^ the Dutch had 
•not hands> at the Cape of Good Hope^ to spare for the 
manufacturing even their own clothing* It is certain that^ 
were it not for the continual i;nportation of slaves^ this set- 
tlement would have been thinner of people than any other 
inhabited part of ihe woi'ld. 

While the ships were getting ready for the prosecution 
of our voyage^ some of our of^cers made an excursion to 
^ take a view of the neighbouring couulry. Mr Anderso&j 
my surgeon^ who was one of the party,. gave me the follow- 
ing relation of their proceedings.^ ' 

^' On the l6th> in the forenoon^ I set out in a waggon^ 
.with five more^ to take a view of some part of the country. 
We crossed the large plain that lies to the eastward of the 
town, which is entirely a white sand, like that commonly 
found on beaches, and produces only heathy and other small 
plants of various sorts. At five in the afternoon we passed 
a large farm-house, with some corn-fields, and pretty con- 
siderable vineyards, situated beyond the plain, near the foot 


weight of the tails of the Cape sheep is not above five or six pounds. 
— royage de la Caillet p. 343. If the information given to Captain Cook 
may be depended upon, it will prove, that, in this instance at leas^ Kql- 
ben is unjustly acpu^ ed of exaggerati(Mi.— D. 

According to Mr Blngley and others, the tail of this sheep sometimes 
weighs nearly one-tliird of the who)e carcase, and consbts or a substance 
intermediate betwixt fat and marrow, which is often used instead of but* 
ter. The fleeces are very fine, long and beautiful ; and, in Thibet, where 
the breed is also found, are worked into sfiawls. A similar breed is aeid 
to be found in other countries, as Barbary, Ethiopia, tlie vicinity of Alep- 
po, Persia, and Asiatic Russia. Kolben's account is conceived to be per- 
fectly credible.-^ E. 

- ^ In the Philosophical Transactions, vol. livi. pi 868 to 319, is an Ao- 
eouDt of Tbre^ Joornies from the Cape Town into the Seutfaern Pbrts of 
Africa, in^ 1772, 1773, and 1774;. by Mr Francis Masson, who had been 
sent from England for the discovery o( new plants, towards the improve- 
ment of the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew. Much curious information 
18 contained in Mr Masson's account of these journies. M. de Pag^ who 
was at the Cape in 1773, gives some remarks on the state of that settle- 
ment, and also the particulars of his journey from False Bay to the Cape 
Town. — Voj/age vers le Pole du Sud^ p. l7 to 32. — ^D. 

It is unnecessary to apprise the reader, that our acquaintance with the 
Cape has been most materially Increased since the date of this publica- 
tion, and that several travellers have devoted their labours to the ilhistra* 
tiuu of its natural hiistory, — E, 

tHAi». I. SECT. lit. . Cook, Ckrke, and Gore: 211 

of some low bills^ where the soil becomes worth cultivating. 
Between six and seven we arrived at Stellenbosh^ tbie colo- 
ny next to that of the Cape for its importance. 

'^ The village does not consist of more than thirty hbosesj 
find stands at the foot of the range of lofty mountains, above 
twenty miles to the eastward of the Cape Town. The houses 
are neat ; and> with the advantage of a rivulet which runs 
tiear, and the shelter of some large oaks^ planted at its first 
settling, forms what may be called a rural prospect in this 
desert country. There are some vineyarcis and orchards 
ftbout the place^ which^ from their thriving appearance^ 
seem to indicate an excellent soil ; though^ perhaps, they 
owe much to climate, as the air here has an uncommoa 

^' I employed the next day in searching for plants and 
insects about Stellenbosb,. but had little success. Few plants 
are in flower here at this season, and insects but scarce. I 
examined the soil in several places^ and found it to consist 
bf yellowish clay, .mixed with a ^ood deal of sand. The 
sides of the low hills, which appear brown> seem to be con* 
stituted of a sort of stone marl. 

** We left Stellenbo^h liext morning, and soon arrived at 
the house we had passed on Saturday ; the owner of whichu 
Mr Cloeder, had sent us an invitation the evening before 
to visit him. This gentleman entertained ^s with the great- 
est hospitality, and in a manner very different from what 
we expected. He received us with music, and a band also 
played while we were at dinner; which, considering the 
situation of the place, might be reckoned elegant. He 
shewed us his wine-cellars, his orchards, and vineyards; all 
which, I must own, inspired me with a wish to know ioc 
what manner these industrious people could create such 
plenty, in a spot where, I believe, no other European na- 
tion would have attempted to settle. 

^^ tn the afternoon we crossed the country, and passed a 
few plantations, one of which seemed' very considerable, and 
was laid Out id a taste somewhat different from any othef 
we saw. In the evening we arrived at a farm-house, which 
is the first in tb^ cultivated tract called the Pearl. We had, 
at the same time> a view of Drakeni^tein, the third colony 
of this country^ which lies along by the foot of the lofty 
hills already mentioned, and contains several farms or plan- 
tations^ ttot very ejitensive. 

f' I wentj 

t\t Modem Cireumnavigations* part hi. boor hi. 

^' I went^ on the 19th in the forenoon^ in quest of plants 

and insects, which I found almost as scarce as at Stellen- 

bosb ; but I met with more shrubs or small treesj naturajly 

^produced, in the valleys, than in any part of the country I 

bad hitherto seen. 

^* In the afternoon we went to see a stone of a remark- 
able size, called by the inhabitants the Tower of Babylon^ 
or the Pearl Diamond/* It lies, or stands, upon the top 
of some low hills, at the foot of which our farm-house was 
situated ; and though the road to it is neither very steep 
nor rugged, we were above an hour and a half in walking 
to it. ft is of ah oblonjg shape, rounded on the top, and 
Hes nearly S. and N. The E. and W. sides are steep, and 
almost perpendicular. The S. end is likewise steep, and its 
greatest height is there ; from whence it declines gently to 
the N. part, by which we ascended to its top, and had an 
extensive view of the whole country. 

'* Its circumference, I think, must be at least half a milC;, 
as it took us above half an hour to walk round it, ipcluding ^ 
every allowance for the bad road, and stopping a little. At 
its highest part, which is the S. end, comparing it with a 
known object, it seems to equal the dome of St Paul's 
church. It is one uninterrupted mass or stone, if we except 
some fissures, or rather impressions, not above three or four 
feet deep, and a vein which runs across near its N. end. It 
is of that sort of stone called, by mineralogists, Saxum con- 
glutinatum, and consists chiefly of pieces of coarse quartz 
and glimmer, held together by a clayey cement. But the 


■° In the PhikMophical Transactions, vol Ixviii, part i. p. 102, we have 
a letter from Mr Anderson to Sir John Pringie, describing this remark* 
able stone. Thc^ account sent home from the Cape, and read before the 
Royal Society, is much the same with that now published, but rather full- 
er. In particular, he tells Sir John, that he went to see it at Mr Masson's 
desire, who probably had not had an opportunity of sufficiently examining 
h himself. In the account of his jourmes above rderred to, p. 270, he 
only says, ^ there are two large solid rocks on the Perel Bere, each of 
whKh (he believes) is more than a mile in circumference at the base, an4 
upwards of 200 feet high. Their surfaces are nearly smooth, without 
chink or fissures ; and they are found to be a species of granite, different 
from that which composes the neig^bourmg mountains.'' 

Mr Anderson having, with his letter to Sir John Pringle, also sent homo 
a specimen of the rock, it was examined by Sir William Hamilton, whose 
opinion is, that " this singular, immense fragment of granite, most proba- 
bly has been raised by a volcanic explosion, or some such cause." Sec his 
Letter to Sir John Pringle^ annexed to Mr Anderson's, in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactipns.— D. 

CHA^p^ !• 8BCT. III. Cook, Ckfke, md Gore, 213 

vein which crosses it^ though of the same materials, is much 
compacter. This vein is aot above a foot broad or thick : 
and Its surface is cut into little squares or oblongSi disposed 
obliquely^ which. makes it look Ukc the remains of some ar- 
tificial work. But I could not observe whether It penet];a- 
ted far into the large rockj or was only superficial. In de- 
Bcendio^, we found at its foot a very rich black mould ; and 
on the sides of the hills some trees of a considerable size^ 
natives of the place, which are a species of olea*^^ 

*^ In the morning of the 20th we set out from the Pearl ; 
and going a difierent road from that b^ which we came, 
passed through a country wholly uncultivated, till we got 
to the Tiger hills, when some tolerable corn-fields appear- 
ed. At noon we slopped in a hollow for refreshment, but. 
in walking about here, were plagued with a vast number bf 
musquitoes or sand-flies, which were the first I saw in the 
country. In the afternoon we set out again, and in the 
evening arrived at ibe Cape Town^ tired with the jolting 

On the £3d we got on board the observatorv, clock. Sec. 
By a mean of the several results of the equal altitudes of 
the sun, taken with the astronomical quadrant, the astrono- 
micai dock was fonnd to lose on sidereal time^ 1' 8*,d68 
each day. The pendulum was kept at the same length as 
' at Greenwich, where the daily loss of the clock on sidereal 
time was 4'. 

The watch, by the mean of the results of fifteen days ob- 
servations, was found to be losing £"^,261, on mean time, each 
day, which is Vjd52i more than at Greenwich ; and on the 
jSlst, at noon, she was too slow for mean time bv 1^ 2(y 
£7%G6. From this 6^ 48^^,9^ is to be subtracted, for what 


'' It is strange that ndther Kolben nor de la Caflle shoald have thought 
lihe Tower of &byloa worthy of a murtioular descriptien. The former [vol. 
il p. 52, 63« English tnwshition] only raentioDs it as a hfgb mountain. Tin 
latter contents himself with telhne us, that it is a very low hillodc, un ires, 
has monticule. Voyage de la CaUley p. 341. We are much obliged to Mr 
Anderson for his very accurate account of this remaitable rock^ which 
agrees with Mr Sonnerat's, who was at the Cape of Good Hope so late as 
:1781. His words are, ** La Montagne de la Ptrlt^ merite d'£tte obicrv^ 
C'eet un des plus bantes des environs du Cap. Eile n'est compost que 
d'un seul bloc de granit crevasse dans plusieurs endroits.'' Vojfoge aux 
Indesy tom. ii. p. 91. 

Mr Bonneiat tells us, that Mr Gordon, commander of the troops at the 

Cape, had lately made three joumies up the country, from which^ when 

, he publishes his journal, we may eicpect much curious infonnatioj),-- X>^ 

iH Modem Circumnavtgaliom. paet in. book hi, 

ghe w^s too dow on the lllh of Jane at Greenwich, and 
ber daily rate since ; and the remainder, viz. 1** 14' 8*^,704, 
or 18* S2f IV, will be the longitude of the Cape Town by 
the watch. Its true longitude, as found by Messrs Masson 
and Di^n, is 18^ 25' 15". As onr observations were made 
about half a mile to the E. of theirs, the error of the watch 
m longitude is no more than S' 25*. Hence we have rea- 
son to conclude, that she had gone well all the way from' 
England, and that the longitude, thus given, may 1>e i^earer 
the truth than any other. 

* If thi^ be admitted, it will;, in a great measure, enable me 
to find the direction and strength of the currents we met 
with on this passage from England. For, by comparing 
the latitude and longitude by dead reckoning with diose by 
observation and the watch, we shall, from time to time, 
have, verjr accurately, the error of the ship's reckoning, be 
the cause what It will. But as all imaginable care was 
taken in heaving and keeping the log, and every pecessary 
allowance made for lee-way, heave of the sea, and oth^r 
such circumstances, I cannot attribute those errors that did 
happen to any other cause but currents; but more par-: 
iicularly when the error was constantly the same way for 
several <|ays successively. 

On the contrary, if we find the ship a-head of the reck- 
oning on one day, and a-stem of it on another, we have 
reason to believe that such errors are owing to accidental 
causes, and not to currents. This seems to have been the 
case in our passage between Ensland and TenerifTe. But, 
ifrom the time of our leaving that island, till the I5th of 
August) being then in the latitude of 12* N. and longitude 
24* W. the ship was carried I'^O' of longitude to the west^- 
ward of ber reckoning. At this station the currents took a 
contrary direction, and set to E.S.E. at the rate of twelve 
or fourteen miles a day, or twenty-four hours, till we arri- 
ved into the latitude of 5^ N. and longitude of 20* W. ; 
* which was our most easterly situation after leaving the Cape 
de Verde Islands till we got to the southward. For in this 
situation the wind came southerly, and we tacked and 
stretched to the westward ; and, for two or three days, could 
not find that our reckoning was aifected by any current. 
So that I judged we were between the current that general- 
ly, if not constantly, sets to the east upon the coast of Gui- 
nea, and that which sets to the west toward the coast of 


CHAP. I. M0t. III. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 215 

This westerly oarrent was not considerable till we got into 
a* N. and 25'' W. From this station to 3"* S. and SO* W. 
the ship, in the space of four daysj was carried 1 15 miles in 
the direction of S.W/by W, beyond her reckoning ; an 
error by far too great to nave any other cause but a strong ' 
current runninglin the same direction. Nor- did its strength 
abate here ; but its coarse was afterward more westerly, and 
to the N. of W., and off Cape Augustine N. as I have al 
ready mentioned. But this northerly current did not exist 
at twenty or thirty leagues to the southward of that Cape, 
nor any other, that I could perceive, in the remaining patt 
#f \he passage. The little difference we afterward found 
between the reckoning and observations, might very well 
happen without the assistance of currents, as will appear by 
the table of Day's Works." 

\. In the accounts of my last voyage, I remarked; that the 
currents one -meets with in his passage* generally balance 
each other. It happened so then, because we crossed the 
Line' about £0* more to thfe eastward than we did now ; so 
that we were, of consequence, longer under the influence 
of the easterly current, which made up for the westerly one. 
And this, I apprehend, will generally be l:he case, if yon 
cross the Line 10* or 15* to the E. of the meridian of St 

> From these risniarks I shall draw the following conclnsionj 
that after passing the Cape de Verde Islands, if you do not 
make above 4* or 6* easting, and cross the Line in, or to 
the westward of, the meridian of St Jago, you may expect 
to find your ship 3* or 4* to the westward of her reckoning 
by the time you get into the latitude of 10^ S. If, on the 
other handy you keep well to the £• and cross the Line 15^ 
or 20* to the B. of St Jago, you will be then as much to the 
E. of your reckoning ; and the more you keep to the east- 
ward, the greater will be your error, as has been experien- 
ced by some India ships, whose people have found them- 
selves close upon the coast of Angola, when they thought 
its distance was above £00 leagues. 

During the ^hole of our passage from England, no op- 
portunity was omitted pf observing, with all the attention 
and accuracy that circumstances would permit, the variar 


• '^ The curious reader will find some interesting^ though n^t decisive^ 
remarks <^nceming the currents of the Atlaatic Ocean in Gierke's Prog, 
of Mar. Disc. vol. i. p. 358. — £• 

916 Modem GrcumiMiigatiom. vajlt ui* book nu 

tion of the compaM^ wbioh I have toBerted io a taUe, with 
the' l&titade fUKl loagiiode of the ship at the time of obaer^ 
vsatioD. Ab the loogitode may be depended upoDj to a quar- 
ter or half a degree at most^ this table will be of ase to 
those navigators who correct their redkontog by the varia- 
tion* It will also enable Mr Don to corre# his new Varia- 
tion Chart, a thing very much wanted. 

It seems strange to me, that the advocates for the yaria^ 
tion should not agree amongst themselves. We find one*' 
of them telling us, as I have already observed, '^ that with 
8* W. variation, or any thing above that, you may venture 
to sail by the Cape de Verde Islands by night or day, being 
well assured, with that variation, that yon are to. the east- 
ward of them/' Another, in his ehart,'^ lays down this va^ 
nation ninety leagues to the westward of them. Such a dis-^ 
agreement as tbis^ is a strong. proof of the uncertainty of 
both. However, I have no doubt the formor finind heve^ 
as well as in other places, the variation he mentioiis. But 
lie should have considered, that at sea^ nay even on hmdf 
the results of the most accurate ofaservationswill notalways 
he the same* Different compasses will give different varia« 
tioas ; and even the same compass will differ froih itself 
two degrees, without ouif being .able to discover, much less 
to remove, the cause. 

. Whoever imagines he can find the variation within a de- 
gree, will veiy often see himself much deceived. ;For, be«* 
sides the imperfection which may be in the construction of 
the instrument, or in the power of the needle, it is certain 
that the motion of the ship, or attraction of the iron-'Worlr> 
or some other cause not yet discovered, will frequently oc* 
casion far greater errors than this. That the variation may 
be found, with a share of accuracy more than sufficient to 
determine the ship's course, is allowed ; but that it can be 
found so exactly as to fix the longitude within a degree, or 
sixty miles, I absolutely deny." 


|3 NichelsoB. 

■♦ Mr Dun. . 

*' Few readers^ it is presumed, require to be Informed, that the mode 
of endcttTOBfing to ascertain the longitude by the variation of the compass 
is no longer in use. In a work already referred to, Gierke's Prog, of Mar. 
Disc.,. a smeular enough communication is inserted respecting the effect of 
,tallow on toe compass. It is subscribed by Lieuteiiant Mason of the ina« 
Vines ; but wbetl^ the experiments it relates have been repeated by 

, otben, 

pHAF«iU.J90V«fT. Cask, dmh, and G&re. 217 

Sbction }V. 

Ihfi iM Ship$ kau the Cape of Good Hopc^Jkgo Miand^ 
mmed Prince fldmarcTi, teeih and that Appearance deterir 
bed. — KergueUn*8 Land wUed. — Arrival in Chriiimm 
Marbour* — Occurrences there. — Description ^ it^ 

AvT&E. diie ^disaster which happened .to our sheep^ it may 
be well supposed that I did not trqst those that refQained 
long on shoTQ, bttt got them and the other cattle on board 
a^ &8t 09 possible. I also added to my original stock by 
pi|rcha9ing two young buUsj two heifersi two young stone<* 
(torsesj two inares^ two rams^ several ewes and goats^ and 
^ome rabbits and poultry. 

All of them were intended for New Zealand^ Otaheil^ 


► • • . • • * 

^th^n, or Ifdie inference it miuntalns has been otberwise confirmed, tiha 
Writer ins yet to leem. He thought it r^t, howerer, to notice it, as the 
more extensively hints are spread which ooocem the advanoementof use* 
fuLdiflOOferyy thejiMiter ohanoe we have of correcting eiTors, and peN 
fecting science; Toe same reason justifies his remarking, that the moat 
lit^portant observations respecting tne variation of the compass made of 
fate years, are thoUe of Captain Flinders, as to the effect of the ship's 
eoome iipoii it- The reader will find them in the appendix to tl^ ac- 
ooui|t of his -nDyi^ lately published, sd volume. Similar observationa 
bave still more reoentlv becm made by an officer on board liis majesty's 
ship Sibyl, while in tne North Sea protecting our Greenland niBhery. 
They farm an appendix to the Account of a Vovage to Spitalbergen, by 
Ikfr John Laing, Surgeon^ pubUsbed at EdiAburgh, 181 ftp Of their inn 
portance and aecuniQy, notwithstanding the saaall scale on which thqr were 
made, and the meagre oaanner in which they have been oonuiunicateds it 
is impossible for a moment to doubt. The concluding remark is entitled 
*to considerable regard. — ** After a more enlarged series of observations 
utell have been taEen, and after the attention df astronomers is, directed 
(to this foot, one nay confidently expect a most important improivement in 
Ibe sdenoe of navigation." The value of the discovery alluded to, will at 
once appear from what is said in the w^y of enquiry as to similar observa- 
tions to those made in the North Sea applying to ships coming from the 
Baltic, vis. t^at if so, ^ they most efiectnally account for ships getting 
down on the coast of Holland, when they suppose themselves well over in 
, Mid-channel ^ and therdbre prove the Aoss-cSf so many of our brave tars 
when coming from that sea. — P. 163. As a paper, containinf Captain 
iPlinders's observations on this subject, had been sent to the officer who 
makes this commupicationy by the Iiords of the Admh^alty, it is reasonable 
to expect that official agency is engaged to benefit the world by maturing 
he discovery.— £• 

SIS Modem Circimmimgaiionu vawv in. book hi, 

and the neighbouring islands, or any other places in the 
course of our voyage, where there might be a prospect that 
the leaving any of them would be useful to posterity. 

Toward the latter end of November the caulkers had fi* 
nished their work on board the Discovery, and she had re« 
ceived all her provisions and water. Of the former, both 
ships had asuflBcient supplv for two yeatrs and upward* And 
every other article we could think of, necessary for such a 
voyage, that could be had at the Cape, was procured ; nei- 
ther knowing wben, nor where, we mieht come to a place 
where we could furnish ourselves so^ well. 

Having- given Captain Clerke a copy of my instructions, 
and an order directing him how to proceed in case of separa^ 
lion, in the morning of the 80th we repaired on board. At 
five in the afternoon a breeze sprung up at S.E. with which 
we weighed, and stood out of the bay. At nifle it fell calm> 
and we anchored between Penguin Island and the east 
shore, where we lay till three o'clock next morning. We 
then weighed and put to sea, with a light breeze at S., but 
did not get clear of the land till the morning of. the 3dj 
when, with a fresh gale at W.N.W. we i^topd \q th^ S.E» to 
get more into the way of these winds* 

On the 5th a sudden squall of wind carried away the Re^ 
solution's mizen top-mast. Havine another to rieplace it^ 
the Joss was not felt, especially as it was a bad «tick, and 
had often complained. On the 6th, in the evening, being 
then in the latitude of Stf 14' S. and in the longitude of 
^S* dS E., we passed through several small spots of water 
of a reddish colour. Some of this was taken up, and it was 
found to abopnd with a small animal, which the microscope 
discovered to be like a cray«fish, of a reddish hue. 

We continued our course to the S.E. with a very strong 
gale from the westward, followed by a mountainous sea^ 
which made the ship roll and tumble exceedingly, and gave 
ns a great deal of trouble to preserve the cattle we had oa 
board. Notwithstanding all our care, several goats, espe- 
cially the males, died, and some sheep. This misfortune 
was, in- a great measure, owing to the cold, which we now 
began most sensibJy to feel. 

On the 12th, at noon, we saw land extending froni S.E. 
by S. to S.E. by E. Upon a nearer approach we found {t 
to be two islands. That which lies most to the south, and 
is also the largest, I judged to be about fifteen leagues in 


CHAT. 1. SECT. IV. Cook, Ckrke^ and Gore. 219 


circoil, and to be in the latitude of 46* 53' S. and in the 
lotigittide of 37* 46^ E. The most northerly one fs about 
nine leagues in circuit, and lies in the latitude of 4iS*4(y S. 
and ih SS* 8' E. longitude. The distance from the one to 
the other is about five leagues. 

We passed through this channel at equal distance from' 
both islands ; and could not discover^ with ttie assistance of 
our best glasses, either tree or shrub on either of them. 
They seemed to have a rocky and bold shore ; and, e:tcept- 
ing the 6.E. parts, where the land is rather .low and flat, a 
surface composed of barren mountains, which rise to a consi- 
derablie height, and whose summits and sides were covered 
with sinow, which in many places seemed to be of a consi* 
durable depth. The S.E. parts had a much greater quantity 
oti them than the rest, owing, probably, to the sun acting 
for a less space of time on these than on the N. and N.W^ 
parts. The ground, where it was not hid by the snow, from 
the various shades it exhibited, may be supposed to be co- 
v^ed with moss, or perhaps such a coarse grass as is found 
in some parts of Falkland's Islands. On the N. side of each 
of the islands is a detached rock ; that near the S. island ie 
shaped like a tower, and seemed to be at some distance 
tfom the shore. As we passed along, a quantity of sea* 
weed was seen, and the colour of the water indicated sound- 
ings. But there was no appearance of an inlet, unless near 
the rock just mentioned ; and that, from its smallness, did 
not promise a good anchoring-place. 

These two islands, as also four others which lie from nine 
to twelve degrees of longitude more to the £• and nearly in 
thu saxiie latitude, were discovered, as I have mentioned in 
my late voyage,* by Captains Marion du Fresne and Crozet, 
J^ench navigators, in January, 1772, on their passage in 
two ships from the Cape of Good Hope to the Philippine 
Islands. As they have no names in the French chart or the 
southern hemisphere, which Captain Crozet communicated 
to me in 177^/ I shall distinguish the two we now saw by 


] Captain Cook's second voyage. These islands are said to be in the 
latitude of 48° S. ; that is^ 2*^ farther S. than what here appears to be their 
real position. — D. 

* See Cook's voyage, as above. Dr Forster, in his Observations made 
diiring that Voyage, p. 30, gives us this description of the chart then com« 
iaiunicated by Monsieur Croaset ; that it was '* published under the patron- 
age of the Duke de Croyc, by Robert de Vaugondy." Captain Cook tells 
'ife, lower in this chapter, that it was pubUshed in 1773.— I). 

9fiO Modem Circummmgaiiom* bart hi. book nu 

calliqg them Prinee Edward's Islaiidg, after his majest/s 
fourth ftoa ; and the other four^ by the naoie of Marioa^ 
and CnMset'g Islands, to commemorate their discoverers. 

We had now, for the most part, strong eales between the 
N. and W., and but very indifferent weather ; not better^ 
indeed^ than we generally have in England in the very depth 
of winter> though it was now the middle of summer in this 
hemisphere. Not discouraged, however, by this, after lear 
ving Prince Edward's Islands, I shaped our course to pass 
to the southward of the others^ that I might get into the 
latitiide of the land discovered by Monsieur de Kerguelen.*, 

I had applied to the Chevalier de Borda, whom, as I 
have mentioned, I found at Teneriffe, requesting, that if h^ 
Icnew any thing of the island discovered by Monsieur de 
Kerguelen, between the Cape of Good Hope and New I|oIt 
land, he would be so obliging as to communicate it to nie* 
Accordingly, just before we sailed from Santa Crfiz B^j 
he sent me the following account of it, viz. '^ That the pilot 
of the Boussole, who was in the voyage with Monsieur de 
Kergueien, had given him the latitude and longitude of ^n 
little island, which Monsieur de Kergueien called the IsU 
of Rendezvous, and which lies not far from the great island 
which he saw. Latitude of the little isle, by seven observar 
tions, 48^ 2ff S. ; longitude, bj' seven observations of this 
distance of the sun and moon, 64* 67' E. from Paris.'' I 
was verv sorry I had not sooner known that there was on 
board the frigate at Teneriffe, an oiBcer who had been with 
Monsieur de^erguelen, especially the pilot ; because from 
him I might have obtained more interesting information 
about this land than the situation alone, of which I was npt 
before entirely ignorant.' 


^ Captain Cook's proceedings, as related in tbe remaining part of this 
chapter, and in the next, being upon a coast newly discovered by the 
French, it ccAiid not but be an object of his attention to trace the foot- 
steps of the original explorers. But no superiority of professional skilly 
nor diligence in exerting it^ could |)ossibly qualify nim to do this soccess* 
fuUy, without possessing, at the same time, fill! and authentic intelligence 
of all that had been performed here by his predecessors in the discoveir. 
But that he was not so fortunate as to be thus sufficiently instructed, will 
appear from the following facts, which the r^der is requested to attend to^ 
• )i)efore he proceeds to the perusal of this part of the journal. ' 

How very little was known, with any precision, about the operations of 
Kergueien, when Captain Cook sailed in 1776, may be inferred from the 
following paragraph of his instructions :— ^ You are to proceed in search* 

CHAF. 1. SECT. iv. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. t£l 


My instrnctions directing me to examine it^ with a view 
to discover a good harbour^ I proceeded in the search; and 
on the l6tl^ oeing then in the latitude of 48^ 45', and in 


^ some islands said to have been lately seen by the French in the latitude 
of 489 S«» and in ^e meridian of the Mauritius." This was, barely, the 
amount of the very indefinite and imperfect information, which Captain 
C6ok himsdf had received from Buon Plettenbers at the Cape of Good 
Hope^ in November 177S ; in the beginning of which year Kergoelen'a 
ilrs^ voyage had taken place. 

^ The captain, on his return homeward, in IMbrch 1775, heard, a seconil 
lime^ something about this French discovery at the Cape, where he met 
with Monsieur Crooet, who very obligingly oommnnicated to him a cbarfe 
of the southern henusphere, wherein were delineated not only his own 
discoveries, but also that of Captain Kerguelen. But what little informa- 
tion that chart could convey, was still necessarily confined to the opera- 
iions of the first voyage; the chart here reforred to^ having been publish- 
ed in France in 1773, that is, before any intelligence could possibly be 
conveyed from the southern hemisphere of the result of Kerguelen's se- 
cond visit to this new land, which, we now know, happened towards the 
^lose of the same jrear. 

Of these latter operations, the only account (if that can be called an ac- 
count, which conveys no pellicular information) received by Captain Codk 
from Monsieur Crozet, was, that a later voy^ had been undertaken by 
the French, under the command of Captain Kerguelen, which had ended 
much to the disgrace of that oommahder. 

. What Cfozet had not communicated to our author, and what we are 
sure, firom a variety of circumstances, be had never heard of from any 
other ouarter, he missed aq opportunity of learning at Tenerifib. He ex- 
pressed his being sorry, as we nave just read, that he did not know sooner 
that there was on boaird the frieate an officer who had been with Keigue- 
len« as he mid^t have obtained from him more interesting information 
idH>ut this land, than its situation. And, indeed, if he had conversed with 
that officer, he might have obtained information more interesting than he 
was aware o£', he might have learnt that Kerguelen had actually visited 
this southern land a second time, and that the little isle of which he then 
received the name and position from the Chevalier de Borda, was a dtsco- 
veiy of this later voyage. But the account conveyed to him, being, as the 
reader will observe, unaccompanied with any date, or other distinguishing 
cirpufflstance, he left Tenerine, and arrived on the coasts of Kerguelen'a 
Land, under a full persuasion that it had been visited only once before. 
And, even with regard to the operations of that first voyage, he had no* 
thing to guide him, but the very scanty materials affordea to him by Baron 
Plettenberg and Monsieur Crozet. 

The truth is, the French seem, for some reason or other, not surely 
ibunded on the importance of Kerguelen's discovery, to have been very 
shy of publishing a full and distinct account of it. No such account had 
been published while Captain Cook lived. Nay, even after the return of 
his ships in 1780, the gentleman who obligingly lent his assistance to give 
a. view of the prior observations of the French, and to connect them on 
.thesame chart with those of our author, though his assiduity in procuring 



£22 Modem Circimnavigaiumt. part ui. Boopt jii« 

tb^ loogitiide of 52* E.^ we saw pengnins and divers, and 
vock-weed floatins in the sea. We continued to meet with 
more or less of these every day, as we proceeded to the 
eastward; and on the 2 1st, in the latitude of 48** 27' S., and* 
in the longitude of 65* E., a very large seal was seen. We 
had now much foggy weather, and as we expected to fall 
in with the land every hour, our navigation became both 
tedious and dangerous. 

At length, on the 24th, at six o'clock in the morning, as 
we were steering to the eastward, the fog clearing away a 
little, we saw land,^ bearing S.S.EL, which, upon .a nearer* 
approach, we found to be an island of considerable height, 
and about three leagues in circuit.' Soon after, we saw an-^ 


geognqphical information can be equalled only by bis readiness in commu- 
nicating ity had not, it should seem, been able to procure any materials for 
that purpose, but such as mark the operations of the first French voyage; 
and even for these, he was indebted to a MS. drawing. 

But this veil of unnecessary secrecy is at length drawn aside. Kergue- 
len himself hafr published the journal of his proceedings in two successive' 
voyages, in the years 1772 and 1773 ; and has annexed to his narrative a 
chart of the coasts of this land, as far as he had explored them in botK 
voyages. Monsieur de Pag^, also, much about the same time, favoured us 
with another account of the second voyage, in some respects fuller than. 
Kerguelen's own^ on board whose ship he was then an officer. 

From these sources of authentic information, we are enabled to draw 
every necessary material to correct what is erroneous, and to illustraUi 
ivhat, otherwise, would have remained obscure, in this part of Captaiii 
Cook's joumaL We shall take occasion to do this in separate notes on 
the passages as they occur, and conclude this tedious, but, it is hoped, not 
unnecessary, detail of facts, with one general remark, fidly expressive of 
the disadvantages our author laboured under. He never saw that part of 
the coast upon which the French had been in 1773 ; and he never knew 
that they had been upon another part of it in 1773, which was the ver^ 
scene of his own operations. Consequently, what he knew of the former 
voyage,'as delineated upon Crozet's chart, only served to perplex and mis^ 
lead nis judgment; and his total ignorance of the latter, put it out of his 
power to compare his own observations with those then made by Kergue^ 
lep ; tho\igh we, who are better instructed, .can do this, bf tracing the 
{>lainest marks of coincidence and agreement^D. 

'^ Captain Cook was not the original discoverer Of these small islaiids 
which be now fell in with. It is certain that they had been seen and 
named by Kerguielen, on his second voyage, in December 1773^ Their po^ 
sition, relatively to each other, and to the adjbining cbasts of the greater 
land, bears a striking resemblance to Kergoelenls delineation of them t 
ivhose chart, however, the public may be assured, was Unknown in £ng^ 
land till after that accompanying the account of this third voyage had been 
engraved. — D,. 

^ This is the isle to vihkh Kerguelen gave tfa^ name of Croy, or Crouy. 


€HAP. i» SECT. iv« Cook, Clerlce, and Gore* 823 

other of the same magnitude^ one le^ue to the eastward f 
and between these two, in the direction of S.£^ some 
smaller ones/ In the direction of S. h^ E. | E., from the 
£. end of the first island, a third' high island was seen. At 
times, as the fog broke away, we had the appearance of 
land over the small islands ; and I had thoiights of steering 
for it, by running in between them. Bat, on drawing near- 
er, I found this would be a dangerous attempt, while the 
weather continued foegy. For if there should be no pas- 
sage, or if we should meet with any sudden danger, it 
would have been impossible for us to get off; the wind be- 
ing right a-stem, and a prodigious sea running, that broke 
on all the shores in a frightful surf. At the same time, see- 
ing another island in the N.E. direction, and not knowing 
but that their might be more, I judged it prudent to haiu 
off, and wait for clearer weather, lest we should get entan- 
gled amongst unknown lands in a thick fog. 

We did but jusjt weather the island last mentioned. It is 
a high round rock, which was named Blieh's Cap. Per- 
haps this is the same that Monsieur de K^guelen called 
the Isle of Rendezvous ;* but I know nothing that can ren- 
de2vous at it, but fowls Of the air ; for it is certainly inacces- 
sible to every other animal. 

At eleven o'clock the weather began to clear up, and we 
immediately tacked, and steered in for the land. At noon, 
we had a pretty good observation, which enabled us to de- 
termine the latitude of Bligb's Cap, which is the northern- 

Besides delioestinff it upon hts chart, he has added a particular view of it* 
exactly corresponding with Captain Cook's aceount of its being of consi- 
derable height, — ^D. 

^ Keiguelen called this Isle Rolland, after the name of his own ship. 
7heCe is also a particular view of it on the French chart.— D. 

^ The observations of the French and English navigators agree exactly 
as to the position of these smaller isles. — D. 

* The situation of Keiguelen's Isle de Clugny* as marked on this chart, 
shews it to be the third high island seen by Captain Cook.-:-D. 

^ This isle, or rock, was the single point about which Claptain Cook had 
received the least information at Teneriffe; and we mav observe how sap 
gacious he was in tracing it. What he could only speak of as probable, a 
comparison of his chart with that lately published by Keiguelen, proves 
to be certain ; and if he had even read and copied what his predecessor ia 
the discovery s^ys of it, he could scarcely have varied his account of its 
shape. Kerguelen's words are, ^ Isle de Reunion, qui n'est qu'une Roche, 
nous servoit de Rendezvous, ou de point de ^raliiemeat; $t ressemble i un 
coin de mire."— D. ' 


9M Modem Circwmuioigatiom. part hi. book in* 

most island, to be 48* «£K S., and its longitude 68« 40r £.•* 
We passed, it at three o'clock^ standing to the S.S.E., with 
ti fresh gale at W, 

Soon after we saw the land, of which we had a fain^ 
Iriew in the morning ; and at four o'clock it extended from 
S.E. i E., to S.W. by S., distant about four miles. The left 
extreme, which I judged to be the northern point of this 
land, called^ in the French chart of the southern hemi- 
sphere. Cape St Louis/^ terminated in a perpendicular rock 
of a considerable height; and the right one (near which is 
a detached rock) in a high indented point.'* From this 
point the coast seemed to turn short round to the south- 
ward, for we could see no land to the westward of the di- 
Tection in which it now bore to us, but the islands we had 


. ^ The French and English agree very nearly (as might be expected) in 
their accounts of the latitude of this island ; but the observations by which 
Ihey.fix its kxigitude vary considerably* ' The pilot at Tenerifie made ii; 
«Dly 64^47' B. from I^ns, whkh is about 67^ 16' £. fvom I^mdoa ; oi' 
1° 24' more westerly than Captain Cook's observations fix it . Monsieur 
de Pag^s says it is 66° 47' £. from Paris, that is, 69° 6' £• from London, 
or twenty-six miles more easterly than it is placed by Captain Cook. Ker^ 
gnelen himself only says that it is about 6SP of £. lon^tude^ par 68^ de 

'* HiUierto, we have only had occasion to supply defects, owing t^^. 
Captain Cook's entire ignorance of Kerguelen's second voyage in 177S; 
we must now correct errors, owing to his verv limited knowledge of the 
lerations of the first voyage in 1772. The cnart of the southern hernia^ 
leWj his only guide, having given him, as he tells us, the name of Cape 
Louis (or Cape Louis) as the most northerly promontory then seen by 
the French ; and his own observations now satisfying him that no part of 
the main land stretched farther north than the left extreme now before 
bim I fW)m this supposed simiJarity of situation, he judged that his own 
perpendicular rock must be the Cape Louis of the first disooverers. Bt 
looking upon the chart originallyjMiblished with this voyage, we shall 
find Cape Louis lying upon a <fifierent part of the coast ; and by oobh 
paring this chart with that published by Kerguelen, it will appear,' in 
the dearest manner, that the northern point now described by Camaia 
Cook, is the very same to which the French have given the name of Cape 
Francois — D. 

^ This right extreme of the coast, as it now shewed itself to Captain 
Cook, seems to be what is represented on Kerguelen's chart under the 
name of Cape Aubert. It may be proper to observe here, that all that ex- 
tent of coast lying between Cape Louis and Cape Francois, of which the 
French saw very little during their first visit in 177^, and may h6 called the 
N.W. side of this land, they had it in their power to trace the posidon of 
in 177S, and have assigned names to some of its bays, riversy and promofi* 
tories^ upoa their chart.— D. 

etikTi I. SECT. IV. Cook, Cierkci und Gore. $65 

observed in the morning; the most southerly'* of them }y* 
ihg nearly W..from the pointy about two or three leagues 

' About the middle of 'the land there appeared to be an in- 
Ifet, for which we steered ; but, on approaching, found it 
^as a bending in the coasts and therefore bore up, to go 
round Cape St Louis.'* Soon after, land opened off tb^ 
cape, in the direction of S. 53^ E., and appeared to be a 
point at a considerable distance ; for the trending of th^ 
coast from the cape was more southerly. We also saw-se- 
veral rocks and islands to the eastward of the above direc- 
tions, the most distant of which was about seven leagues 
from the cape, bearing S. 88' E.*' ' 

We had no sooner got off the cftpe, than we obserred the 
coast, to the southward, to be much indented by |)rojectii]g 
points and bays ; so that we now made sure of soon find- 
ing a good harbour. Accordingly, we had not rdn a mile 
farther, before we discovered one behind the cape, into 
ivhich we began to ply ; but after making one board, it fell 
calm, aniJ we anchored at the entrance in forty-^five fathoms 
water, the bottom black sand ; as did the Discovery soon 
after. I immediately dispatched Mr Bligb, the master, in 
a boat to sound the harbour ; who, on his return, reported 
it to be safe and commodious, with good anchot^-age in 
every part; and great plenty of fresh-water, seds, pen- 
guins, and other birds on the shore ; but not a stick of 
wood. While we lay at anchor, we observed that the flood 
tide caipe from the S.E.^ running two knots, at least, in an 

At day-break, in the morning of the 25th, we weighed 
ivith a gentle breeze at W. ; and having wrought into the 
harbour, to within a quarter of a mile of the sandy beach 
at its head, we anchored in eight fathoms water, the bottom 
a fine dark sand. The Discovery did not get in till two 
o'clock in the afternoon, when Captain Gierke informed me, 
that he had narfowly escaped being driven on the S. point 
of the harbour, his anchor having started before they had 
time to shorten in the cable. This obliged them to set sail, 

VOL. XV. p . and 

^3 Kergaelen's Isle de Clugny. — D. 

^* Cape Fianpois, as alrtady observed.— »D. 

'^ The observations of the French, rounj Cape Franpois, remarkably 
coincioe with Captain Cook's in this paragraph ; and the rocks and islant^s 
here mentioned by him, also appear upon their chart.-^Q. 

f £6 Modern Cireummmgatiom. tkBx iii. qooic nu 

and drtig the anchor after thero^ till they had iroopfi to 
Jieave it upj and then they fotind oneof ilni palms was bro* 

ken off. . 

As soon as we had anchored, I ordered all the boats to 
i^e hoisted out, the ship to be moored with a kedge*anchoiS 
l^nd the water^casks to be got ready to send on shore, la 
the mean lime I landed, to look for the most convenient 
9pot where they might be filled^ and to see what ejse the 
place afforded* 

I found the shore, in a manner, covered with peiiguins 

and other birds, and seals. These latter were not numeron8> 

|>ut so insensible of fear, (which plainlv indicated that they 

were unaccustomed to such visitors,) that we killed as many 

us W^ chose, for the sake of their fat, or blubber, to make 

oil for our lamps, and other uses, f'resh water was in na 

less plenty than were birds ; for every gully afforded a large 

^ttea^i. But not a single tree, or shrubs nor the least sign 

of any, was to be discovered, and but very little herbage of 

any sort. The appearances, as we sailed into the harbour,^ 

Jiad flattered us with the hope of meeting with something^ 

considerable growing here> as we observed the sides of 

majiy of the hills to be of a lively green. But I now found 

|hat this >^.as occasioned by a single plant, which, with the 

p^her natural productions, shall be described in another 

place. Before 1 returned to my ship, I aseenided the firsl 

^idge of roqks, which rise in a kind of amphitheatre ^bove 

pne another I was in hopes, by this meansj of obtaining 

^ view of the country ; but before I reached the top, there 

came on so thick a fog, that I could hardly find my way 

down again, in thie evening, we hauled the seine at the 

head of the harbour, but caught oqly half a dozen small 

gsh. We had no better success next day, when we tried 

vith hook and line. So that oiir only resource here, for 

fresh provisions, were birds, of which there was an ineX'* 

, ^austible store. 

The morning of the '26tb proved foggy, with rain. How- 
every we went tp work to fill water, and to cpt grass for our 
cattle, which we found in small spots near the head of the 
harbour. The rain which fejl swelled all the rivulets to 
such a degree, that the sides of the bills, bounding the 
harbour, seemed to be covered with a sheet of water. For 
the rain, as it fell, run into the fissures and crags of the 


CHAF* I4 Bscr. IV. Cook, CUrki, md dm, %9I 

Kicks thafc composed tbe iuteiior parts of the hiUsj mod wai 
precipitated down their sides in prodtgiws torrents* 

The people having wrought hard the two preceding days^ 
and nearly completed our water, which we filled uovbl a 
brook at the left corner of the beach, I allowed them the 
27th as a day of rest, to celebrate Cbristnas^ Upon this in- 
diligence, many of them went on shore, and made excur- 
sions, in different di^ctions, into the country, which they 
found barren and desolate in the highest degree. In-tu 
evening, one of them brought to me a quart bottle which he . 
bad -found, fastened with some wire to a projecting rock on 
the north side of the harbour. This bottle contained a 
piece of parchment, on which was written the following ior 
scription : 

Jjmlopico XV. GaBiarma 
r€ge, et dJ^ de Bcyna 
regi a Secrdis ad res 
fnariiimas aamis 1772 €t • 

From this inscription, it is clear^ that we were not (he finjb 
Europeans who had been in this harbour. I supposed it to 
be left by Monsieur de Boisguehennen, who went on sbcMre 
in a boat on tbe 13th of February, 177^, the same day that 
Monsieur de Kerguelen discovered this land, as appear^ by 
a note in the French chart of the southern hemisphere 
published the following year*'^ 


'^ The (ji.\ no doobt, j$ a cootraotibn of the word Domino. The Freochf 
secretary of the nmrine was then Monsieur de Boyiu{& — ^D. 

*^ On perusing th» paragraph of the jonma}, it wfll be natural to ask^ 
How could Bfonsfeur de Boismehenneo, in the beginning of Vt7% lea?t 
^o insoMition, whkh, upon the very face of it, oommemorates a transao-' 
lion of the following year ? Captain Cook's manner of expressing himself 
here, strongly marks, that he made this supposition, onl|y for want of in- 
£kmation to enable htm to make any other. JQe had no idea tliat the 
French had visited this knd a second time ; and, reduced to the necessi^ 
of trying to aocomnodate what he saw himself, to what little he had heard 
pr tlieir proceedingSf he confounds a transaction which we, who have been 
better instmcted, know, for a certaintj, belongs to the second voyage^ 
with a similar one, which his diart of the southern hemisphere has reconl- 
cd, and whkh happened in a diflerent year, and at a different place. 

The ba^, indeed, in which Monsienr de Boisguehennen landed, is t^ioa 
the west side of this land, considerBUy to die south of Cme Louisy and 
myi far fhHB another mere aoutbeHy prcnpootofyy caUed Gape J^oarboo; 

a p- 

2S8 Modem Gkeumnan^aHanu ^abt hi. book iir. > 

Ai a memorial of our having been in this harbour^ I 
wrote on the other side pf the parchment^ 

Naves Rewlutian 

et Discovery 

de £€^ MagH4e Britannia, 

Dccenwm 1776. 


I then put it again into a bottle^ together with a silver two-> 
penny piece of 1772; and haviDg covered the mopUi of 


a part of tfie coast which our $hJps were not upon. Its situation is mark- 
ea upon the chart construct^ for this voyage ; and a [larticular view of the , 
bay dn Uon Marin* (for so Boisguehenneu odled it,) with the soundings, ' 
is preserved by Kerguelen. 

But if the bottle and inscription found by Captain Cook's people were 
not left here by Boisguehenneu, by whom and when wcire they left ? This 
we learn most satisractorily, from the accounts of Kerguelen's second 
voyage, as published by himself and Monsieur de Pag^, which present us 
wth the following particulars :— *' That they arrived on the west side- of 
this land on the 14th of December^ 1773 ; that steering to the N.E., they 
discovered, on the 16th, the Isle de Reunion, and the other small islands 
as mentioned above ; that, on the 17th, th^ had before them the princi- 
pal land, (which thev were sure was connected with that seen by theiii on 
the 14th,) and a high point of that land, named by them Cape Francois ; 
that beyond this cape, the coast took' a south-easterly direction, 'and be* 
hind it they found a bay, called by them Baie de I'Oiseau, from the namet 
o^ ^eir frigate ; that they then endeavoured to enter it, but were prevent- 
ed by conirarv winds and blowing weather, which drove them off the 
ooest eastward ; but that, at last, on the 6th of January, Monsieur de 
Rosnevet, captain of the Oiseau, was able to send his boat on shore into 
this bay, under the command of Monsieur de Rochegude, one of his offi- 
cers, who took possession of that bay, and of all the country, in the name. 
of the King of France, with all the requisite* formalities." 

Here then we trace, by the most unexceptionable evidences the history;. 
of the bottle and inscription ; the leaving of which was, no doubt, one of 
the requisite formalities observed by Monsieur de Rochegude on this oc- 
casion. And though he did not land till the 6tli of January 177<4^ yet, aa. 
Kerguelen's ships artJved upon the coast on the 14th of December 1773, 
and had discovered and looked into this very bay oa the 17th of that 
month, it was with the strictest propriety and truth that 1773, and not 
1774, was mentioned as the date of the cfiscovery. 

We need only look at Kerguelen's and Cook's charts, to judge that thQ 
l^aie de I'Oiseau, and the harbour where the French inscription was found,. 
IS one and the same place. But besides this agreement as to the general 
position, the same conclusion fesults more decisively siill, from anptbec. 
circumstance worth mentioning : The French, as well as the BhgUsb visits, 
ors of this bay and harbour, have given us a particular plan of it; and 
whoever compares them, must be struck with a resemblance that could 
only be produced by copying one common original with fidelity. .]^ay, 



CHAP. I. snot. It. Cot^k, Clerke, and Gori. fe29 

the bottle with a leadTen cap^ I placed it tb^ next mbitiing 
in a pile of stones erected for the purpose^ upon a little 
eminence on the north shore of the harbour, and neat to 
the place where it was first found, in which position it can- 
not escape the notice of any European, whom chance or de^ 
sign may bring into this port. Here I displayed the British 
flag, and named the place Christmas Harbour^ from out 
having arrived in it on that festival. 

It is the first or northernmost inlet that we meet with on 
the S«£. side of the Cape St Liouis/* which forms the N* 
side of the harbour, and is aiso the northern point of this 
land. The situation alone is sufficient to distinguish it from, 
any of the other inlets ; and, to make it more remarkable, 
its S. point terminates in a high rock, which is perforated 
quite through, so as to appear like the arch df a bridge! 
We saw none like this upon the whole coast.'^ The harbour 
has another distinguishing mark within, from a single stoiie 
or rock, of a vast size, which lies on the top of a hill on the 

S. side^ 

even the soundings are the same upon the same spots in both pladSi h&ng 
forty-five fathoms between the two capes, before the entrance of the bay ; 
sixteen futhoms farther in, where the shores begin to contract ; and eimi 
fathoms up, near the tx>ttom of the harbour. 

To these particulars, which throw abundant light on this part of our au- 
thor's journal, I shall only add, that the distance of our harbour from that 
where Boisguehenneu landed in 1772,- is forty leagues. For this we hav« 
.the authority of Kerguelen, in the following passage : — " Monsieur de 
Boisguehenpeu descendit le 13 de Fevrier 1772, dans un baie, qu'il nommd 
Baie du Lion Marin, & prit possession de cette terre au nom de Roi ; 11 
n'y vit aucune trace .d'habitants. . Monsieur de Rochegude, en 1774, a 
descendu dans un autre baie, que nous avons nomm^ Baie de TOiseau, 9c 
cette seconde rade est ^ quarantes lieues de la premiere. II en a 6gale- 
ment pris possession, & il n'y trouva ^galcment aucune trace d'habitants/' 
KergucU/hP' 98.r— D. 

>> Cape FrfuipoiSy for reasons already as8igned.-^D. 

^9 If there could be the least doubt remaining, of the identity of the Baid 
de I'Oiseau and Christmas Harbour, the circumstance of the perforated 
rock, which divides it from anothar bay to the south, would amount to a 
strict demoostratiou. For Monsieur de Pagds had observed this discrimi- 
nating mark before Captain Cook. His wonts are as follows : — ** L'on vit 
que la cote de I'Est, voisine du Cap Franpois, avoit deux bates ; elles 
Itoient se|)artes par une pointe tr^s reoonaoissable par sa forme, qui re- 
presentoit une pofte cochere, au travers de laquelle ran vojf&ii lejour**'-*^ 
Voyages du M. de Plages, vol. ii. p. 67. Every one knows how exactly the 
form of a pcrte cochere, or arched gateway, corresponds vith that of the 
arch of a bridge. It is very satisfactory to find the two navigators, neither 
of whom knew any thing of the other's description, adopting the same 
idea; which both proves that they had the same une6mmoa object before 
iheir eyes > and that they made an accurate i^eport.— D.. 

g^Q Modem Circumfumgatiam*: t^T tn» book tiu 

S«side^ nctar its bottom ; and opposite fhi9> oo the N« side^ 
^ere is another hillj^much like it^.bcit si&aUer. Tbeie is a 
sipidl beach at its^ bottovi wheie we comiDOdly lao'ded) 
and, behind it, some gently rising groand, on the top of 
iv^c)^ is^a large pool offresh-'Water. The land on both sides 
of tbr inlet is high, and it runs in W.^ and W.N.W., about 
twp miles. Its breadth ia one mile and a quarter^ for more 
than half its length, above which it is only half a tnile^ 
TJb^'deptli of waler, which is for^^five fathoms at the en- 
tpaac!^, variasj, as we proceed fortber ih, from thirty to five 
aod four, fathoms; The shores are steep ; and the bottom 
is esery where a fine dark sand, except in some places close 
io the. shore, where there are beds of sea-^weed, which al«^ 
ways grows on rocky ground. The head of the harbour lies 
open onLy to two points of the compass; and even these are 
covered ny islands ip the ofiing, so that no sea can fall in 
to hurt' a ship. The appearances on shore confirmed this; 
for we found grass gjcowin^ close to bigh«rwa4er marV, which 
is. a sure sign of a pacific harbour.'® It is high-water here, 
at the full and change days^ about ten o^clock ; and the tide 
liaea and fails about ibnr feet. 

After I had finished this business of the inscription, I 
went in my boat round the harbour, and landed in several 


, ^^ In the last note» we saw how remarkablj Monsieur de Pag^ and 
Captain Cook agree about the appearance of the south point of the har- 
6our ; I shall here subjoin another quotation from the former^ containing 
his account of the harbour Itself, in which the reader may trace the same 
distinguishing features observed by Captain Cook in the foregoing para* 

**Le6f Von mit k terre dans la premiere baie k I'Est da Cap Franpois, 
& Ton prit pK>9se88ion de ces contrives. Ce mouilbge oonsiste en une pe- 
tite rade, qui a environs quatres encablures, ou quatre cents toises de pro- 
fondeor, sur un tiers en sus de laiigeur. £n d^ans de cette rade est ua 
petit port, dont l'entr^e» de quatres encablures de largeur, presente au 
pufiT-Est. La sonde de la petite rade est depuis quarante-cinq jusqu'k 
trente brasses ; et celle du port depuis seize jusqn'a huit. Le fond des 
deux est de sable noir et vaseux. La cote des deux bords est haute, 8t 
jpar une pente tr^ rude ; elle est cotiverte de verdure, & il y a une quan- 
tity prodigieiise d'Outardes Lefond du port est occnp^ par un monticule 
qui laiss'e entre lui,' et la mer une plage do sable. Une petite riviere, de 
tri^ bonne eau, cpule k la mer dans cet endroit ; & elle est fournie par un 
iac qui est ua peu au jk>in, au dessus du monticule* 11 y avoit sur le plage 
ibeaucoup de [^guoins Sc de lions marins. Ces deux especes d'animaux 
^e fuyoient pas, & J'on augura que le pays n'^t(Mt point habits ; la terre 
rapportoit de L'herbe^ large, noire, & bien nourrie, qui n'avpit cependant 
que cinque pouc^ ou plus de hauteur. L'on ne vit aucnn ai^re, ni signe 
tl'habitatidn«'''r(7y9^ du Memimr de Fagh^ torn, il p. #9^ ^CX-^D. - 

gAa^. u sECt* T. Cooft> Ckrhe, ami G&re. iSl 

}>laees^ to examine what the Shore afforded ; and, particu** 
arly^ to look for drift wood. For, although the iaad here 
was totally destitute of trees, this might not be the case Ja 
Other parts ; and if there were any, tne torrents would force 
some, or, at least, some branches^ into the lea, which would 
afterward throw th^m upon the shores, as in ail other conti* 
tries where there is wood, and in mtoy where there is none: 
But throughout the whole esttent of the harbour, 1 found 
not a single piece. 

In the aflernoon, I went upon Oape St Louis,** accompa^ 
nied by Mr King, my second lieuten^t. I was in hopes, 
froifi this elevation, to have had a view of the sea-coaat, 
and of the islands lying off it. But, when 1 got up, I found 
every distant object belbw itiie hid pn a thick fog. The 
land on the same plain, or of a greater height^ was visible 
(gnough, aiid appeared naked and desolate in the highest de» 
gree, except tome hills to the sbuthward, which were cover- 
id with snow. 

When I got on board, I found the launch hoisted in, the 
^ips unmoored, and ready to nut to sea ; but our sailing 
was deferred till five o'clock tne next mornings when we 
Weighed anchor.*^ 


< « * 

Departurefrom Chriamas Harbour.-^Itange n&iig the Coatip 
to discover its Position and Extent. -r-^Seoeral rromontorieMk 
and Bays, and a Pemnsula, diKribed and named.-^Damer 
from Shoab.^^Another Harbour and a Sound.-^^Mr An^ 
derson's Observations on the Natural Productions, Animals^ 
Soil, 65c^ of Kerguelen's Land^ 


As soon as the ships were out of Christmas Hiarbteiy 
we steered S.E. J S., along the coast, with a fine breeze ai 
K.N.W., and clear weather. This we thought the mote 


" Capie Franpoifl.— D. 

^^ The reader is probably not a litUe weaned with Dr Doii^ln's minute 
comparisons of Kerguelen^s and Cook's accounts of the lands in qaestion, 
which indeed seem unworthy of bo much concern. It was of consfeqmncei 
however, to guard oar navigator^s reputation ; and some persons may t^m 
the dfeeiMsion, as exhibiting the aaimen and good sense whldi Ae de» 
tector of the infamous Lauder^ and the author of ** The Criterion," so emi* 
nently possessed. — B. 

£88 Modem C^cumnftdigationt. part hi. hook ni# 

fortunate, as, for some time past, fogs had prevailed, more 
or less, every day ;< and the continuance of them would 
have defeated our plan of extending Kerguelen^s di^cove-^ 
ry« We kept the lead constantly going; but seldom struck 
ground wifcb a line of fifty or sixty fethoms. 

About ^«en or eight o'clock, we were off a promontory,. 
which I called Gape Cumberland. It lies a league and a 
half. froih, the soiHli point of Chfistmas Harbour, in the di- 
rection of S.E. i S. Between them is a bay with two arms, 
both of wlilch seemed to afford good shelter for shipping. 
Off Cape Cumberland is a small but pretty high island, on 
the summit of which is a rock like a sentry-box, which oc* 
casiooed, our giving that name to the island. Two miles 
farther. to. the eastward, lies a group of small islands and 
Toclcs, with .broken ground about them: We sailed be- 
twieen these and Se»try-6ox Island, the channel being a 
fuH mile broad, and more than forty fathoms deep ; for we 
found no bottom with that length of line. 

:Beihg through this cbannel, trd discovered, on the south 
side: of Gape CuipberlaQd, a bay,- running in three leagues 
to the westward. It is formed by this' Cape to the north, 
and by a promontory to the south, which I named Point 
Pringle, after my good friend Sir John Pringle, President 
of the Royal Society. The bottom of ibis bay was called 
Cumberland Bay; and it/ seemed to be disjoined from the 
sea, which washes tlie N.W. coast of this country, by a 
narrow neck of land. Appearan(^es> at least, favoured such 
a conjecture. 

To the southward of Point Pringle, the. coast is formed 
into a fifth bay ; of which this point is the northern ex- 
treme ; and from it to the southern extreme, is about four 
miles in the direction of S.S.E. i E. In this bay, which ob- 
tained the name of' White Bay, on account of some white 
spots of land or rocks in the bottom of it, are several lesser 
bay^or coves, which* seemed to be sheltered from all winds. 
Off the south point are several rocks which raise their heads 
above water ; and, probably, many more than do that. 

Thus far our course was in a direction parallel to the 
coast, and not more than two miles from it. Thither otir 
glasses were coiititiually pointed ; and we could easily see 
that,^ except the bottoms of the bays and coves, which, for 
the most part^ terminated in sandy beaches, the shores were 
rocky, and, in many places, swarmed with birds f but the 


cflAP. 1. SECT. V. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 2S5 

country had the same barren and naked appearance as in 
the neighbourhood of Christmas Harboor. 

We had kept, on our larboard bow^ the land which first 
opened off Cape St Louis^' in the direction of S. 53* E., 
thinking that it was an island^ and that we should find a 

* passage between it and the main. We now discovered this 
to be a mistake ; and found that it was a peninsula^ joined 
to the rest of the coast by a low isthmus. I called the bay, 
formed by this peninsula^ Repulse Bay ;'and a branch of it 

• seemed to run a good way inland towards the S.S.W, Lea- 
ving this, we steered for the northern point of the penin- 
sula, which we named Howe's Foreland^ in honour of Ad- 
miral Lord Howe. 

As we drew near it^ we perceived some rocks and break- 
ers near the N. W. part ; and two islands a league and a half 
to the eastward of it^ which, at firsts appeared as one. I 
steered between them and the Foreland ;* and was in the 
middle of the channel by noon. At that time our latitude, 
by observation, was 48* 51' S. ; and we had made twenty- 
six miles of east longitude from Cape St Louis.^ 

From this situation, the most advanced land to the south- 
ward bore S. E. ; but the trending of the coast from the Fore- 
land was more southerly. The islands which lie off Christ- 
mas Harbour bore N. ; and the north point of the Foreland 
. N. 60* W., distant three miles. The land of this Peninsu- 
la, or Foreland, is of a moderate height, and of a hilly and 
rocky substance. The coast is low, with rocky points shoot- 
ing out from it; between which points are little coves, with 
sandy beaches; and these, at this time, were mostly cover- 
ed with sea birds. We also saw upon them some seals. 

As soon as we were clear of the rocks and islands before 
xnientioned, I gave orders to steer S.E. by^. along the coast. 
But before these orders could be carried into execution, we 
discovered the whole sea before us to be chequered with 


' Cape Francois. 

a (—• - — ' 


de la figure de la cote, qui, courant d'abord au Sud-£st, & revenant en- 
fluite au Nord-£st, formoit un grand gotfe. II ^toit occup^ par des brisans 
& des rochers ; il avoit aussi une isle basse, & assez etendue, & i'on us» 
d'une bien soigneuie precaution, pour ne pas s'afialer daas ce golfe."— 
V(yyage du M, de Pagtg^ torn. ii. p. dr.'^D. 
I Cape FranpoiB. 

'i34 Modern Circumna0ig<eirms^ part lii* book iii«, 

large beds of rock-^weed, which we knew to be fast to (be> 
bottom^ and to grow on rocky shoals. I had often found a 
^reat depth of water on such shoals ; add I had^ as often, 
ipund rocks that have raised their heads nearly to the sur-. 
face of the water* It is always dangerous^ therefore, to sail: 
over tltem before they are well examined ; but more espe* 
cially, when there is no surge of the sea to discover the 
danger* This was the case at present, for the sea was ai^- 
smooth as a mni^-pond. Consequently we endeavoured tof' 
avoid thein> by steering through the winding channels by. 
which they were separated* We kept the lead continually 
going ; but never struck ground with a line of sixty fathoms*- 
This circumstance increased the danger^ as w6 could. not: 
anchoi, whatever necessity there might be for it. After 
runoiiog in this manner above an hour, .we discovered ii> 
lurking rock, just even with the surface, of the sea. It bore 
K.£. i £.) distant three or four miles, and lay in the middle, 
of one of these large beds of weeds* This was a sufficient 
Warning to make us use every precaution to prevent ouil 
coming upon tliem* 

We were now cross the mouth of a large bay^ that lie^ 
about eight miles to the southward of Howe*s Forelands la 
and before the entrance of this bay are several low islands; 
rocks, and those beds of 8ea=*weed. But there seemed to 
be winding ehasnels between them. After continuing our 
Course half an hour longer, we were so much embarrassedl 
with these shoals, that I resolved to. haul off to the easrt-^ 
Ward, as the likeliest means of extricating ourselves from 
the. danger that threatened us* But so far was this from, 
answering; the intended purpose, that it brought us inta 
inore. f therefore found it absolutely necessary to secure 
the ships, if possible, in some place before night ; especi-* 
ally as the weather had now become haey, and a fog wa< 
apprehended* And seeing dome inlets to the S.W. of u^^ 
I ordered Captain Clerke, as the Discovery drew less water 
than the Resolution^ to lead in for the shore ; which was 
accordingly done. 

Iii standing in^ it was not possible to avoid running over 
the edges of some of the shoals, on which we found from 
ten to twenty fathoms water; and the moment we were 
ovef^ had no ground at the depth of fifty fathoms. After 
making a few boards to weather a spit that run out from* 
an island on onr lee. Captain Clerke made the signal for 


cm At. I. SECT. V* Cook, CUrke, and Gore. tS5 

having discovered an harbour ; in which^ about five o'clock^ 
we anchored in fifteen fathoms walerj over a bottom of fine 
dark aand^ about three quarters of a mile from the shore | 
the north point of the harbour bearing N. by E. } £., one 
mile distant ; and the small islands in the eutrance^ within 
which we anchored, extending from E. to S.E. 

Scarcely were the ships secured, when it began to blow 
verv strong ; so that we thought it prudent to strike top-» 

f;allant yards. The weather, however, continued fair; and 
he wind dispersing the fog that had settled on the hills^ it 
Was tolerably clear also. The moment, therefore^ we had 
anchored, I hoi^/ted out two boats ; in one of which I sent 
Mr Bligh, the master^ to survey the upper part of the har- 
bour, and look for wood ; for not a shrub was to be seen 
from the ship. I also desired Captain Gierke to send his 
master to sound the channel that is on the south side of 
the small isles, between them and a pretty large island 
which lies near the south point of the harbour. Having 
given these directions, £ went myself, in my other boat, ac« 
coropanied by Mr Gore, my first lieutenant^ and Mr Bay-* 
ly, and landed on the north point, to see what I could dis^ 
cover from thence. 

From the highest hill over the point, we had a pretty 
good view of the sea^coast, as far as Howe's Foreland. It 
is much indented, and several rocky points seemed to shoot 
out from it, with coves and inlets of unequal extent. One 
of the latter, the end of which I could not see, was disjoin- 
ed from that in which the ships were at anchor, by the point 
we then stood upon. A great many small islands, rocks, and 
breakers, appeared scattered along the coast, as well to the 
southward as northward ; and I saw no better channel to 
get out of the harbour, than by the one through which we 
had entered it. 

While Mr Bayly and I were making the observations, 
Mr Gore encompassed the hill, and joined us by a difierent 
route, at the place where I had ordered the boat to wait for 
us. Except the cragi^y precipices. We met with nothing to 
obstruct our Walk. For the country, was, if possible, moref 
barren and desolate than about Christmas Harbour. And 
yet, if there be the least fertility in any part of this land,' 
we ought to have found it in this, which is completely sheU 
tered frpm the predominating bleak southerly and wester^^^ 
winds. I ob^rved^ with regret, that there was neither fo 

436 Modern Circwrmavigatbm, .paht.iii. book.jiju 

nor covering for cattle of any sort; and that, if I lefts^ny, 
they most inevitably perish. In the little cove where- the 
boat waited for us (which I called Penguin Gove, as. the 
beach was covered with these birds), is a finci. rivulet of 
fresh water, that may be easily come at. Here were also 
some large seals, shags, and a few ducks; and Mr Bayly 
had a transient sight of a very small land bird ; but it fiew 
amongst the rocks, and we lost it. About nine o'clock we 
got on board. 

Soon after, Mr Bligh returned, and reported, that he had 
been four miles up the harbour, and, as he judged, not far 
from the head of it. He found that its direction was W,S.W. ; 
and that its breadth, a little above the ships> did not exceed 
a mile ; but grew narrower toward the head* The sound- 
ings were very irregular, being from thirty-seven to ten fa- 
thoms; and, except under the beds of sea-weed, which ia 
many places extended from the shore near half channel 
over, the bottom was a' fine sand. He landed on both 
shores, which he found barren and rocky, without the least 
feigns of tree or shrub, and with very little verdure of any 
kind. Penguins, and other oceanic birds and seals, occu- 
pied part of the coast, but not in such numbers as at Christ- 
mas Harbour. 

Finding no encouragement to continue our researches^ 
and, the next morning, both wind and weather being fa- 
vourable, I weighed anchor and put to sea. To this har- 
bour I gave the name of Port Palliser, in honour of my 
worthy friend Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser. It is situated in 
the latitude of 49* S' S., in the longitude of 69* 37' E., and 
five leagues from Howe's Foreland, in the direction of S. 
25® E. There are several islands, rocks, and breakers lying 
in and without the entrance. We went in and out between 
them and the nprth head ; but 1 have no doubt that there 
are other channels. 

As we were standing out of Port Palliser, we discovered 
a round hill, like a sugar-loaf, in the direction of S. 72® E.» 
about nine leagues distant. It had the appearance of an 
island lying at some distance from the coast ; but we after- 
ward found it was upon the main land. In getting out to 
sea, we had to steer through the winding channels amongst 
the shoals. However, we ventured to run over some of 
them, on which we never found less than eighteen fathoms, 
and often did not strike ground with twenty->four ;^ so that, 


CHAP. i.'SBCT. V. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. • CS7 


had it not been for the sea-weed growing npon all of them, 
they would not have been discovered. 

^fter we had got about three or four leagues from the 
coast^ we found a clear sea, and then steered £• till nine 
o'clock, when the Sugar Loaf hill, above mentioned, which 
I named Mount Campbell/ bore ^.E., and a small island 
that' Ires to the northward of it, S.S.E*, distant four leagues* 
I now steered more southerly, in order to get in with the 
land. At noon, the latitude by double altitudes was 49^- 8' 
S. ;'and we had made eighty miles of east longitnde from 
Cape St Loois.^ Mount Campbell bore S. 47* W., distant 
about four leagues; a low point, beyond which no land was 
to be seen, bore S.S.E., at the distance of about twenty 
aniles; and we were about two leagues from the shore. 

' The land here is low and level.^ The mountains ending 
Bboiit five leagues from the low point, a great extent of low 
land is left, on which Mount Campbell is situated; about 
four miles from the foot of the mountains, and one from 
the seacoast. These mountains have a considerable eleva- 
tion, as also most of the inland ones. They seemed to be 
composed of naked rocks, whose summits were capt with 
snow. Nor did . the valleys appear to greater advantage. 
To whatever quarter we directed our glasses, nothing but 
sterility was to be. seen* 

We had scarcely finished taking the bearings at noon, 
jbefore we observed low land opening ofi^ the low point just 
mentioned, in the direction of S.S.E., and eight miles be- 
yond it. This new point proved to be the very eastern ex- 
tremity of this land,. and it was named Cape Digby. It is 
situated in the latitude of 49* 23* S,, and in the longitude 
of 70* 34' E. 

Between Howe!s> Foreland and. Cape Digby, the shore 
forms (besides the several lesser bays and harbours) one 
^eabbay that extends several leagues to the S.W., where 
it seemed io lose itself in various arms running in between 
the mountains. A prodigious quantity of sea- weed grows 


♦ CapeFranpois. 

^ This part of the coaist seems to be what the French saw on the 5tli 
of January 1714. Monsieur de Pag^ speaks of it thus : *' Nous recoo- 
numes utie nouvelle cote etendue de toute veu dans I'fist, & dans I9 
puest. Xres terres de cette cote ^tolent moins elev^es que celles que nous 
avions veues jusques ici ; elles ^toient anssi d'un aspect moins rude/'—? 
JM Fa^esy ton), ii. p, 68. — ^D. 

S38 Modem drewntmvigatiQm. part hi. book hu 

^ over it, wbidb seemed lo be the same sort of weed thai 
Sir Joseph Banks distingoished by the name of fucm gt« 
gcmieuM. Some of this weed is of a most enormous Jengtb^ 
iboogh the stem is not muqh thicker than a man's tbnmb> 
1 have mentioned^ that on some of the shoals upon which 
it grows^ we did not strike ground with a line of twenty«- 
four fathoms. The depth of water^ therefore^ must have 
been greater. And as this weed does not grow in a perpen- 
dicular direction^ but makes a very acute angle with the 
bottom, and much of it afterward spreads many fathoms oh 
.the surface of the sea, I am well warranted to say, that somt 
pf it grows to the length of sixty fathoms and upward. 

At one o'clock (having mn two leagues upon a S^E. ) E« 
course, from noon) we sounded, and found eighteen fathoms 
water, and a bottom of fine sand. Seeing a small bending 
m the coast, on the north side of Cape Digby, I steered for 
^t. It was my intention to anchor there, if I should find it 
might be done with safety, and to land on the Cape, to ex«- 
amine what the low land within it produced. After Tunning 
inone le^ue, we sounded again, and found thirteen fathoms ^ 
and immediately after, saw a shoal right before us, that seem^ 
pd to extend off from the shore^ from which we were distant 
about two miles. This discovery obliged us to haul off, £1 
by S., one league, where our depth of water increased tcr 
twenty^^ve fathoms. We then steered along shore, and 
jpontinued in the same deptb, over a bottom of fine sanif^ 
till Cape Digby bore W.^ two leagues distant, when we found 
twenty-six &thoms« 

After this we did not strike ground, though we tried scr 
^ypral times ; but the ship having a good deal of way, ran 
the line out before the lead could reach the bottooi, and 
l^ing disappointed in vt^y views both of anchoring and of 
landiDgr I would not shorten sail, but pushed forward, til 
prder to see as much of the coast as possible before night, 
^^rom Cape Digby, it trends nearly S.W.^by S. for nSoxX 
four or five leagues, or to a low point, to which, in honour 
<>f her majesty, I gave the name of Point Charlotte^ and it 
is the southernmost on the low coast. 

Six leagues from Cape Digby, in the direction of S.S. W. 
^ 'W., is a pretty high projecting point, which was calie^ 
prince of Wales's Foreland ; and six leagues beyond that, 
in the same direction, and in the latitude of 49* ^4' S., and 
|be longitade of 70* IST £.^ is the most southerly point of 

^ the 

WKW* I. sscT. V. Cook, Clerke, tmd Gorek 23£| 

ifae wbole coasts which I distingmsfaed by the name of Cape 
Qeorge, in honour of his. niaje»ty. 

Between Point Charlotte and Prince of Wales^s Fore<: 
}and> where the country to the S.W. began again to be hiily^ 
is a deep inlet, which was called Royal Sound. It runs in 
}V» quite to the foot of the mountains which bound it on 
Abe S.W.j^ as the low land before-mentioned does oh the N. 
There are islands lying in the entrance, and others higher 
,iip, as far as we could distinguish. As we advanced to the 
£• we observed, on the S. W. side of Prince of Wales's Fore- 
land, another inlet into Royal Sound ; and it then appear^ 
ed, that the foreland was the £. point of a large island ]y« 
iDg in the mouth of it. There are several small islands ifi 
this inlet ; and one about a league to the southward of Prince 
pf Wales's Foreland. 

All the land on the S.W. side of Royal Sound, quite to 
Cape George, is composed of elevated hills, that rise dir 
rectly from the sea, one behind another, to a considerable 
height. Most of the summits were capt inrith sriow, and 
^hey appeared as naked and barren as any we had seen. 
The smallest vestige of a tree or shrub was not discovex<^ 
^ble, either inland or on the coast; and, I think, I may ven- 
ture to pronounce that the country produces none. The 
low land about Cape Digby, when examined through our 
glasses, resembled the rest of the low land we had befbre 
inet with ; that is, it appeared to be partly naked and part* 
ly covered with a green turf, .a description of which shall 
j>e given in its proper place. The shore is composed of 
sandy beaches, on which were many penguins, ^nd other 
oceanic birds ; and an immense number ot shags kept per* 
petually Sying about the ships as we sailed along. 

Being desirous of getting the length of Cape George, to 
be assured whether or no it was the most southerly point 
of the whole land, I continued to stretch to the S* under all 
the sail we could carry, till half an hour past seven o'clock, 
when, seeing no likelihood of accomplishing my design, a$ 
the wind had by this time shifted to W.S.W., t^ie very di . 
rection in which we wanted to go, I took the advantage at* 
the shifting of the wind, and stood away from the coast. 
. At this time Cape George bore S. 53^ W. distant about 
seven leagues. A small island that lies off the pitch of the 
cape w;as the only land we could see to the south oF it ; and 
we were farther confirmed that there was no more in that 


^40 ' Modem Cmumnavigationi. part hi. boor u§» . 

qaarteir by a S. W. s^ell which we met as soon as we brought 
the cape to bear in this directioii. 

Bat we have still a stronger proof that no part of this 
land can extend much^ if at all^ to the southward of Cape 
Oeorge^ and that is. Captain Furneaux's track inFcbruary,-^ 
1773, after his separation from me during my late voyage. 
His log-book is now lying before me; and 1 find from it^ 
that he crossed the meridian of the land only about seven- 
teen leagues to the southward of CapeGeorge^ a distance at 
which it may very well be seen in clear weather. This 
seems to. have been t)ie case when Captain Furneaux passed 
iL For his log-book makes no mention of fogs or Jiazy 
weather ; on the contrary^ it expressly tells us^ that^ when, 
in this si/^^uation^ thiey had jt in their power to make obser- 
vations, both for latitude and longitude, on board his ship; 
so that, if this land extends farther S. than Cape George, 
it would have been scarcely ^possible that*he should hav^ 
passed without seeing it. 

From these circumstances we are able to determine^ withia 
a very few miles, the qua4iity of latitude that tiiis land oc^p 
cupies^ which does not much exdeed one degree and a 
quarter* As to its extent from E. to W« that still remains 
undecided. We or)ly kQOW, that no part of it can react^so 
far to the W. as tl^e iperidian of 65% because^ in 1773> un* 
der that meridian, I searched for it in vain.' 

The French discoverers, -with some reason, imagined 
Cape St Louis* tp be the projecting point of the southera 


3 If the French observations* as marked qpon Captain Cook's charts 
^nd still more autkentically upon that pubh'sheci by their own discoverers, 
may be depended upon, this land doth not reach so far to the W. as the 
meridian of 6S° ; Cape Louis, ivhich is represented as its roost westerly 
point, being laid down by them to the E. of that meridian.-— D. 

^ The idea of Cape Louis being this projecting point of a southern coih 
tinent must have^oon vanished, as C^pe Francois, within a year after, was 
found, by the same discoverer, to He above one third of a degree farther 
N. upon the same land. But if Kerguelen entertained any such imagina- 
tion at iirst, we are sure that afterwards he thought very differently. This 
appears from the following explicit declaration of his sentiments, which 
flcserves to be transcribed from his late publication, as it does equal ho* 
nour to his candour, and Captain Cook*s abilities: — ** La terre quej'ai 
decouverte est certainement nn^ Jsie ; puisque le c^lebre Capitaine Cook a 
pass€ au Sud, lors de son premiere voyage, sans rien rencontrer. Je juge 
iTi^me, que cette isle rCest pas bien grande, II y a aussi apparence, d'apres 
]e Voyage de Monsieur Cook, que toute cette ^tenduc de Mers Meridior 
nales» est semee d- Isles ou derochers; mais qu'il n^y a nt continent ni 
gruwU itrrty Kerguelen, p. 92. — D. 


CR4P^ !• 9E0T. T* Cookp CUrhe, md Gike* f41 

continent. The English have since proved that no such con* 
tinent exists^ apd that the land in question is an bland of no 
great extent ;^ which, ^om its sterility^ I shoald, with great 
propriety, call the Island of Desolation, but that I would 
not rob Monsieur de Kerguelen of the honoor of its bear- 
ring his name.^ 

Mr Anderson, my surgeon, who, as I have already men- 
tioned, had made natural history a pact of his studies, lost 
no opportunity, during the short time we lay in Christmas 
Harbour, of searching the country in every direction. He 
afterward communicated to me the observations he made 
0n its natural productions ; and I shall insert them here in 
Us own words. 

" Perhaps no placi^ hitherto discovered in either hemi« 
sphere, under the same parallel of latitude, affords so scanty 
a 6eld for the naturalist as this barren spot* The verdure 
vrhich appears, when at a little distance. from the shore» 

VOL. XV. g would 

' Kefjguden, as we see in the lust note, concurs with Csptaui Cook as 
to this. However, he tdls us, that he has leaaon to believe that it is about 
200 leagues in circuit ; and that he was acquainted with about fourscore 
leagues of its coast. ** Ten connois environs quatre-vingt lieoes des cotes } 
et jal h'eu de croire, qu'elle a environ deux cents lieues de circuit.^ Ker- 
gueien^ po^ '^2 -^D. 

* Some of Monsieur de Kerguelen's own countiymen seem more desi- 
rous than we are to rob him of his honour. It is very reniarkable, that 
Monsieur de Pag^ never once mentions the name of his commander ; and, 
though he takes occasion to enumerate the several French explorers of the 
southern hemisphere, from Gonnevilie down to Crozet, he aflects to pre- 
serve an entire silence about Kei^uelen, whose first voyage, in which the 
discovery of this considerable tract of land was made, is kept as much out 
of sight as if it never had taken place. Nay, not satisfied with refusing to 
' acknowledge the right of another, he almost assumes it to himself. For, 
upon a map of the world annexed to bis book, at the spot where the new 
luid is delmeated, we read this Inscription, hies nouvelies Austrateg vuUs 
par Monsieur de Fagis, en 1774. He could scarcely have expressed him- 
self in stronger terms, if he had meant to convey an idea that he was the 
conductor of the discovery. And yet we know uiat he was only a lieute- 
nant [Enseignede vaisseau] on board of one of three ships commanded by 
Keiguelen ;* aod that the discovery had been already made in a former 
voyage, undertaken while he was actually engaged in his singular journey 
round the world. 

After all, it cannot but be remarked, that Kei^elen was peculiarly un- 
fortunate in having done so little to complete what he had begun. He 
discovered a new liuid indeed ; but, in two expeditions to it, he could not 
once bring his ships to an anchor upon any part of its coasts. Captain 
Cook, as we have seen in this, and in the foregoing chapter, had either 
fewer difficulties to str^e with, or was more successful in surmounting 
them.— D. 

94t Modem Cireumnai^aiiom. PAffr iii. book iii« 

would fliiiter one with the expectation of tneeting with 
some herbage ; but ih this we were itiuch deceived. Foi^ 
on landing, we saw that this lively colour was occasioned 
only by one small plants not much ilnlilce some sorts of 
naxtfragt^ which grows in large spreading tufts to a eonsio- 
derable way up the hills. It forms a surface of a, pretty 
large texture, and grows on a kind of rotten turf, into which 
one sinks a foot or two at every step. This turf, dried^ 
might, in eases of necessity, serve for fuel, and is the only 
thing we met with here that could possibly be applied to 
this use. 

" There is another plant, plentifully ^enough scattered 
about the boggy declivities, which grows to near the height 
of two feet, and not much unlike a small cabbage, when it 
has shot into seeds. The leaves about the root are nume-< 
rous, large^ and rounded ; narrower at the base, and ending 
in a small point. Those on the stalks are much smaller^ 
oblong, and pointed. The stalks, which are often three or 
four, all rise separately from the root, and run into long 
cylindrical heads, composed of small flowers. It has not 
only the appearance, but the watery acrid taste of the ant?* 
scorbutic plants^ and yet differs materially from the whole 
tribe ; so that we looked upon it as a production entirely 
peculiar to the place. We ate it frequently raw, and fniind 
it aliiiost like the New Zealand 8(curV^y grass. But it seem-^ 
ed to acquire a rank flavour by "being boiled ; which, how- 
ever, some of our people did not perceive, and esteemed it 
good. If it could be introduced into our kitchen gardens, 
it would, in all probability, improve so far by cultivation ifis 
to be an excellent pot-herb. At this time riotie of its seeds 
were ripe enough to be preserved, and brought home, to 
try the experiment. 

'' Two other small plants were found near the brooks and 
boggy places, which were eaten as sallad ; the one almost 
like garden cresses, and very fiery, and the other sQvy mild. 
This last, though but small, is in itself a curiosity ; having 
not only male and female, but what the botanists call an-» 
drogynom plants. 

** A coarse grass, which we cut down for the cattle, 
grows pretty pleivtifuUy in a few smallspots about the sides 
of the harbour, with a smaller sort, which is rarer ; and upon 
the fiat ground a sort of goose-grass, ahd another small 
plant much like it. In short^i the whole catalogue of plarrl^ 


i»kP. u SBcr. V. Cook, Ckrke, and Qotti 243 

^oes not exceed sixteen or eightfen, including some sortd 
©f moss, and a benutiful species of lichen, whi^h grows qpoil 
the rdcks, higher up than the rest of the vegetable produc« 
tions. Nor is there even the least appearance of a shrub 
in the whole country. 

^' Nature has rather been more bountiful in furnishing it 
with animals) though^ strictly speakings they are not inna- 
bitants of, the place, being all of the marine kind ; and^ in 
general, only using the land for breeding and for a resting^ 
place. The most considerable are seals, or (as we used to 
call them) sea-bears, being that sort called the ursine seah 
These come ashore to rest or breed ; but they were not very 
numerous, which is not to be wondered at, as it is known 
that these animals Vather frequent out^rocks, and little is^* 
lands lying bif coasts, than bays or inlets. They were, at 
this time, sliedding their hair, and so tame, that we killed 
what number we chose. 

*' No other quadruped, either of the sea or of the land 
littfl, was seen ; but a great number of birds, viz. ducks, 
petrels, albatrossesj shags, gulls, and sea-swallows. 

'' The ducks are about the «i2e of a teal or widgeon, but 
somewhat different in colour from either. They were in 
toleral>le plenty about the sides of the hills, or even lower ; 
atid we killed a considerable number, which were good, 
and without the least fishy taste. We met with some of 
the same sort at the island ot Georgia in our late voyage* . 

*^ The cape petrel, or pintado bird ; the small blue one, 
which is always seen at sea, and the. small black one, or 
Hotlier Carey's chicken, are not here in great numbers. 
But we found a nest of the first with an egg in it, about the 
size of a pullet's ; and the second, though scarce, was met 
with in some holes like rabbit-burrows. 

*\ Anotht^r sort, which is the largest of all the petrels, and 

called by the seamen Mother Carey's goose, is in greater 

tiumbeis, and so tame, that at first we could kill them with 

a stick upon the beach. They are not inferior in size to an 

albatross, and are carnivorous, feeding on the dead car* 

casses of seals or birds that were thrown into the sea. Their 

colour is a sooty brown, with a greenish bill and feet; and, 

doubtless, they are the same that the Spaniards call que* 

hrantahumos, whose head is figured in Pemetty's Voyage 

to Falkland Islands/ . - 


I Fig. 3, plate Till* 

t44 Moiem Citcymnaif^iamM. fakt hi* book nu 

''Of the albatrosses, none were found on shore excepi 
the grey one^ which is commonly met with at sea in the 
higher soathern latitudes. Once J saw one of these sitting 
in the cliff of a rock, but they were frequently flying about 
the harbour ; and the common large sort, as well as th^ 
•mailer with a black face^ were seen farther out. 

" Penguins form> by far^ the greatest number of birds 
here, andare of three sorts ; the first, or largest^ I have seei| 
formerly at the island of Georgia.* It is also mentioned 
by Bougainville ;* but it does not seem to be so solitary as 
he represents it^ for we found considerable numbers flock- 
ing together. The head is blacky the upper part of the 
body a leaden grey, and the under part white, with black 
feet. It has two broad stripes of fine yellow, that begin on 
the sides of the head, and, descending by each side of the 
neckt meet above its breast. The bill is partly reddish, und 
longer than in the other sorts. 

'' The second sort of penguins scarcely exceeds half the 
size of the former. The upper part of the body is a black- 
ish grey, with a white spot on the upper part of the head, 
growing broader at each side. The bill and feet are yel- 
lowish « A very accurate figure and description, both of 
this and of the preceding, is ^iven by Mr Sounerat.'^ , 

'^ The third sort of penguin met with here, had never 
been seen by any of us before. Its length is twenty-four 
inches, and its breadth twenty. The upper part of the 
jbody and throat are black, the rest white, except the upper 
part of the head, which has a fine yellow arch, looking 
backward, and ending on each side in long soft feathers^ 
wbieh it can erect as two crests. 

'' The two. first sorts were found together on the beach : 
the large ones keeping by themselves, and walking in small 
flocks amongst the others, which were more numerous, and 
were sometimes seen a considerable way up the sides of th^ 
hills. The third sort were only found by themselves, but 
in great numbers, on the outer shores of the harbour. They 
were breeding at this time ; and they lay on the bare stones 
only one white egg, larger than that of a duck. AH the 


' Peniiant'B Pfttsgonian penguin. See his Genera of Birds, tahi 14, p. 

' Voyage autour du Monde, p. 69. 

■"^ Voyage ^ la Nouvelie Guin^e, p. 181, 182. Tab. 118, 115. 

CHAP* I. BSCV. ▼• Co&kf Chtke, and Gore. 24<- 

thtee sorta of penguins were do tame^ thai we took as mahy 
as we pleased with our hands. 

^ The shagii of this place iffe of two sorts ; the lesser cor« - 
morant or watef-crow^ and another^ which is black above^ 
with a white belly, the same that is found in New iZealandj ' 
Terra del Fuego, and the hdand of Georgia. 

'^ We also met With here the common sea-gull^ sea-swal- 
I0W9 tern, and Port Egmont ben ; the last of which were 
tame and numerous. 

'^ Another sort of white bird, flocks of which flew about 
jthe bay, is very singular, having the base of the bill cover- 
ed with a hortiy. crust.'* It is larger than a pigeon, with the 
bill black and the feet white, made like those of a curlew. ' 
Some of our people put it in competition with 'the duck as 

^' The seine was hauled once, but we found only a few 
fish abont the sisse of a small haddock, though quite differ- 
ent from any we knew. The snout is lengthened, the head 
armed with some strong spines, the rays of the back-fia 
long, and very strong, the belly is large, and the body with-^ 
out scaled. The only shell-fish are a few limpets and mus- 
cles ; and amongst tne stones a few small star-fish and sea- 
anemonies were found« 

^ The hills are of a moderate height ; yet many of their 
tops were covered with snow at this time, though answering 
to our June. Some of them have large quantities of stones^ 
irregularly heaped together at their foot, or on their sides. 
The sides of others, which form steep cliffs toward the sea^ 
are rent from the top downward, and seem ready to fall off, 
having stones of a considerable size lying in the fissures. 
Some were of opinion thiit frost might be the cause of these 
fissures, which I shall not dispute ; but how others of the 
appearances could be effected, but by earthquakes, or some^ 
such severe shocks, 1 cannot say. , ' 

*' It appears that rain must be almost constant here, not' 
only from Ihe marks of large torrents having rushed down, 
but from the disposition of the country, which, even on the* 
hills, is almost an entire bog or swamp, the ground sinking 
at every step. 

" The rocks, or foundations of the tnlls, are composed 
4^iefly of a dark blue, and very hard, stone, intermixed 
with small particles of glimmer or quartz. This se^ms to 


' The sheath biU. See Pennant's Genera of Birds, p. 48. 



t0 Modim Qraemtamgigimt. . parvhi. boqk/iu. 

be one of the most 4iniver«al prodttctiooa of nat|jfe> 
comtitute& wbole moontains in.l^Wie^e^i in Scotlaodvat^^ . 
Caoiury Islands^ the Cape, of Good tiope^ and at this ptaoe. 
Another brownkb brittle stooe forios bere.^ome coasider* 
able rocks ; aad one which is blacker^ and fpaod in detach- 
ed piece&y inclosieg bits of copirse quar,t9« A redj a dult yei-- 
low, and a purplisb sand-ston^,'.are ,&lso foupd in. sfnall 
. pieces ; and pretty large lumps of semi-transparent qijarlz^ 
disposed irregularly in polyedrai pyramidai crystiils of lutig 
abinin^ fibres. Some small pie^s of the commoii sort are 
ii}.et with in the brooks, made round by attrition ; but none 
hard eaough to resist a file . I^o;^ were apy of the other 
atones acted on by aquafortis, or attracted by the ii^gnet. 

*^ Nothing, that h^d the le^t appearance of an 9re or . 
metal^ was seen/^ 


Passage from KerguekfCs to iPi^n JDi&^n^s LfntcL-^jfrrwal iiti 

Adkenture Bay. — Incidents there, -^Intervie^ts with the \fi- 
. tive$.-^Their PerU)ns and Dress describe^^ — Jccotunt ofth^ir 

Behaviour. — Tabk 0/ the Longitude^ latittide, and Variar' 
., iion.--:Mr Jtiderson's Observaiioa^ipn t^y Natural Produce 

iiom of the Countrjf, on the Inhabitants, and their t^n^ 


After leaving^Kerguelen's Land, I steered E* by N. in* 
tendii^, in obedience to my instructionsi to touch next at 
New Zealand, to recruit our water> to take in wood, and to 
make hay for the cattle. Their nomber, by this time, had 
been Gons;iderably diminished ; two young bulls, one of the 
hf^ifers, two rauts, and several of the goats, having of late 
died, while we were employed in exploring this desolate 

The, 3 1st in the morning, being the day after we stood 
out to sea^ we b^d st:veral observations of the sun and moon* 
Their results gave the longitude 72* 33' h6^ E The time- 
keeper, in this situation, gave ?£** ^8' 15". These obseiva- 
tioiis were the more useful, as we had apt been able to get 
any For soipe time before, and they now served to assure 
us that no material^ ^rror had crept into Ahe time-keeper. 
. On the 1st of January, being then in the latitude of 46* 


CBAP. I. SBCT« vf« Cook, Clerke^ and Gore. W1 

41' S. longitude 76^ 50' £•, the variation was S0» 39' W. ; 
and in the next day, in the latitude of 48® 9S! ^. iongitude 
Mif 2^ E., it was 30** 47' 18" W. This was the greatest va- 
riation we found in this passage ; for afterward it began to 
jdecrease^ but so slowi;^ that on the ^d^ in the evening, be- 
ing then in the latitude of 48^ 16' S. longitude 85^ E.^ it 
.was SQ** 38' W. 

Thus far we had fresh gales from the W. and S«W., and 
tolerably clear weather. But now the wind veered to the 
N. where it continued eight days^ and was attended with a 
thick fog. During this time we ran above 300 leagues fa 
the dark. Now and then the weather would clear up, and 
^iyeus a sight of the sun ; but. this happened very seldom^ 
iiAd,was,aiways of short continuance. On the 7th I hoist- 
ed put a boat^ and sent an order to Captain Gierke, ap*- 
pojntipg Aidventure Bay, in Van Piemen's Land,, as bur 
.placeprfapf^e^vou^ in case pf separation before we arrived 
in the meridian of that land. But we were fortunate enough, 
amidst ^U. this foggy weather, by frequently firing guns as 
«igQ^Sy tijiougb we pe^dqm s^v^ each other, npt to Ipse com- 

Pn the Iji^b, b^ing in the latitude of 48^ 40f S. longitude 
J^O* ^ £, the northerly winds ended in a cairn ; winch, 
after ^ I e^ hours, w^S succeeiled by a wiud from the south- 
Vf^di TbiSft^Hh rain, continued for twenty-four hours, 
when it. fre#h^P^d, ^nd veered to the W. and N«W., and 
brpught on fair apd cle^r weather. 

We, cpoftinnjedopr course tp thie eastward, without meet- 
ing witji apy thing worthy of notice, till four o'clock in the 
inorning of the 19th, when, in a sudden squall of wind, 
tbougb the Discovery received po damage, our fore-top-mast 
went by the bo^rd, and carried the main-top«^gi^llant-mast 
with it.. This occasioned some delay, as it took up the 
whole d^y tp cliear the wreck, and tit another top**mast. 
The former w^ ac<;pmpiished withput losing any part of it^ 
except a few fathoms pf small rope. Not baying a spare 
n)ain«top-j[allant7mast on board, the fore^toprgallant-mast 
ivas converted kito. one for our immediate use. 

The wind continued westerly, ble\y a freah gale, and was 
attended vfith clear weathef, so that ^arcely a clay* passed 
. without being able to get observations for fixing the loogi- 
tude> and the variation of ttie compass. The latter decrea- 
fed ^1 such a manner^ that in the latitude of 44* IS' S. lon- 

M8 Modem Gremnatig&iioks. faet ifi. book nu 

gitnde 132* V E., it was no more than 5^ 34f 16* W. ; and 
im the Sed, being then in the latitude of 48^ 27' S. longi* 
tilde 141' 5Qf K, it was l"" £4' W £. So thut we had cross- 
<€d the Line wh^re the^ compass has no variation. 

On the €4th, at three o'clock in tne morn'^ng^ we discos 
^cred the coast of Van Diemen's Land, bearing N. f W. 
At four o^clock the S W. cape bore N.N.W; f W., and thfe 
Mewstone N.E. by E. three leagues distant. There are se- 
veral islands and high rocks lying scattered along this pai^ 
of the coast, the soutiiernmost of which is the Mewstone. 
It is a rouiid elevated rock, five or six leas^ues distant from 
the S W. cape, in the direction of S, 55^ E. 
. At noon, our latitude was 43** 4T S. longitude 147^ Ei^ 
und the situation of the lands round us as follows: An ele^ 
vated round-topped hill bore N. 17^ W.; the t!5.Wi ca;peN* 
74* W. ; the Mewstone W. J N.; Swilly Isle, or Rock, S. 
49* E. ; and the S.E. or S. cape N. 40^ E. distant near thre^ 
leagues^ The land between the S.W. and S. capes is bro*> 
ken mid hilly, the coast winding, with points shooting but 
from it ; but we wei« too far off to be able to judge whether 
the bays formed by these points were sheltered from th^ 
sea- winds. The bay which appeared to be the lairgest and 
deepest^ lies to the westward of the peaked hill above meiN 
tioned. The variation of the compass here was 5^ 15' E. 
. At si^ o'clock in the afternooh we sounded, and found 
^xty fathoms water,* over a bottom of broken coral and shells; 
The S. cape then bore N. 7'5** W. two or three leagues disA 
tant; Tasraan'a Head N.E. ; and Swilljr RockS. by W § W, 
About a league to the eastward of Swilly is another eieva^ 
ted Fock, that is not taken notice of by Captain Furneausri 
I. called it the Eddystoue, from its very great resemblance 
te^ that light-house. Nature seems to hate left these 
two vocks b^re for the same purpose that the Eddystonfe 
light-house was built by man, viz. to give navigator^ nbtict^ 
Qf the dangers around them ; for they are the conspicuotifc 
summits ofa ledge of rocks under water, on which the sea; 
iti mafiy places^ breaks very high. Their surface is white 
with the dung of sea-fowls ; so that they itaay be seen at 
some di^Uince even in the night. ' On the side' of 
Stofm Bay, which lies between the S. cape and Tasmania 
Head, there are some coves or creeks, that seemed to be 
sheltered firom the sea-winds ; and I am of opinion^ that; 


iiBAVw t.s ifef . Ti; ^ Cook, Cletke, and Gwe. ' ^ 

^rme^thiB coast examioed^ tbere would be found some good 

Sooo after we had sight of land the westerly winds left 
QSy and were succeeded by variable light airs and alternate 
calms^ till the ^tb at noon. At that time a breese sprung 
ap and freshened at S.£. which put it in my po#er to car« 
ry into execution the design 1 hadj upon due consideration; 
formed^ of carrying the ships into Adventure Kay« where I 
might expect to get a supply of wood and of grass for the 
eattle; of both which articles we should, as 1 now founds 
faawe been in great want if I had waited till our arrival in 
Me W.Zealand. We therefore stood for the bay, and an* 
cbored ia it at four o'clock in the afternoon, at twelve fa- 
thoms water, over a bottom of sand and ooze. Penguia 
Island, which lies dose to the E« poitit of the bay, bore N. 
84^ £• ; the southernmost point of Maria's islands bore N.' 
76^ i £• ; and Cape Frederick Henry, or the N. point of 
the bay> bore M. %^ £. Our distance from the nearest 
shore was about three quarters of a mile. 
• As soon as we had anchored, I ordered the boats Eo be 
hoisted oot. In one of them 1 went myself to look for the 
no^t commodious place for furnishing ourseHres with the 
necessary supplies ; and Captain Clerke went in bis boat 
ttpon the same service. Wood and water we found in plen* 

S, and in »ltaations convenient enough, especially the fifst» 
ut grass^ of which we stood most in need, was scarce, and 
also very coarae. Necessity, however, obliged us to take 
such aswt^ could get. 

« Next mofning early, I sent lieutenant King to the E» 
side of the bay with two parties, one to cut wood,- and the 
other -to cut gras6/ under the protection of the marines^ 
whom 1 judged it prudenit to land as a guard. For although, 
as yet^ none of the natives had appeared, there could be no 
doubt ibat some were in our neighbourhood, as we had seen 
columns of smoke from the time of our approaching the 
coast, and some now was observed at no great distance up 
in the woods. 1 also sent the launch for water ; and after'" 
ward visited all 'the parties myself. In the evening, we 
dfew the seine at the bead of the bay, and, at one haul, 
caught a great quantity of tisb. We should have got many 
more, had not the net broken ill drawing it ashore. Most 
(rfthem were of that sort known to seamen by the name of 
elephattt fish^ After this, every cme f epaired oa board with 


tSO MoSem Cireunmavigatums. fabt m. book nu 


what wood .and grass we had cat^ that we might be xemij 
to sail whenever the wind should serve. 

This not. happening next mornii^, the people were sent 
on shore i^ain on the same duty as the day before. I also 
employed the carpenter^ with part of bis crew^ to cut some . 
spars for the use of the ship; and dispatched. Mr Roberts^ 
one of the matefi in a small boat to survey the bay* 

la the afternoon, we were agreeably surprised, at the 
place where we were cutting wood, with a visit from some 
of the natives, eight men and a boy. They approached us 
from the woods,, without betrfiying any mark# of fear, or 
rather with the greatest confidence imaginable ; for none 
of them bad any weapons, exoept one who held in his hand 
a stick abojijit two feet Ipng, and pointed at one end* 

They were quite naked, and wore no ornaments, unless 
we consider as such, and as a proof of. their love of fineioy, 
sqoie small punctures or ridges raised on diifeirent parts of 
tbeiir j)odie$, som^ in straight, and othecs in curved. linea, ^ 

They were of the cpmrnon stature, but rather slender. 
T^ei,i^ ^kin was black, and also their hair, which was as 
wopUy as that of aoy natiye of Guinea ; but. they were not 
distinguished by remarkably thick lips, nor flat utoses. Om 
the cpntra^yi their features were far from being disagreer 
able. They had pretty good eyes; and their. teeth were 
tolerably eFienj bot.very dirty. Mostx>f them had their hair 
and beajcds ^gi^aced wi(h a red ointment; and.^ome bad 
their £^c<^ fl^o painted wMh^the same comLpositioo* 

They received every present we made to th9i9, wthoQi. 
the ie^st ^ppe^rance of satisfaction* When s0mie bread was 
given,;as^ppn as they understood w^si to:be eateii» 
thfiy either, returned it, or threw it awii(^s^ without even ta^lr 
iug it, Thf^ al$D refused some elephant (isb^ both riiw and 
dressed, which we offered t(0 them* B|it uppn giviqgsome 
lairds to- th^m,, they did not return, these, and easily made 
us comprehend that. they were fond of such food. I had. 
brpught two pigs ashore, with a view to leayie them in the 
woods., .The instant thesis cai;ne within their reach, thejr 
seized them, as a dog would have done, by the ears, aofir 
were for carrying them, off immediately, with no other ia- 
tentioa, as we could perjceive, but to kill them. 

Beine desirous of knowing the use of the stick which one 
of our visitors carried in his handj I made signs to them to 
4»ew tne ; a|^d so far sucpeeded^ that o^e of tbeso^ set vip i| 


CHAJP. I* SECT. ▼!» Cook, Gierke, and Gore. ' £51 

fiece of wood as a mark^ and threw at it at the distab<^e 6f 
about twenty yards^ But we had little reason tQ cooimeiid 
his dexterity; for, after repeated trials, he was stiil very 
wide from the object. Omai, to shew them how mtidvsu* 
perior our weapons were to theirs, then fired his musquetat 
itj which alarmed them so much, that notwithstanding. all 
we could do or say, they ran instantly into the woods. One 
of them was so frightened, that he let drpp an axe and two 
knives that bad been given to him. From us^ however, they 
went to the place where some of the D^covery's people 
were employed in taking water into their boat. The officer, 
of that party, not knowing that they had paid us so frieadly 
a visit, nor what their intent might be, fired a musquet ia 
the air, which sent them off with the greatest precipitation. 

Thus ended our first interview with the natives. Imi^^e^ 
diately after their final retreat, judging that tiieir fears would 
prevtent their rernaining near enough to observe what wa|( 
passing, I ordered the two pigs, being a boar and sow« to 
be carried about a mile witl\in the woods at the head of the 
bfty. 1 saw them left there, by the side of a fresh-water 
brook. A young bull and a cow, and some sheep and goats, 
werealso, at 'first, intended to have been left by me, as an 
additional present to Van Diemen's Land. But I soon laid 
aside all thought of this, from a persuasion that the na- 
tives, incapable of entering into my views of improving 
their country, would destroy them. If ever they should 
meet with the pigs, I have no doubt this will be their fate. 
But as that race of animals soon becomes wild, and is fond 
of the thickest cover of the woods, there is great probabi* 
lity of their being preserved. An open place must have 
been chosen for the accommodation of the other cattie; 
and, in such a situation, they could not possibly have re- 
mained concealed many days. 

The mornmg of the ^9th was ushered in with a dead calm, 
which continued all day, and effectually prevented our sail- 
ing. I therefore sent a party over to the E. point of the 
bay to cut grass, having been informed that some of a su- 
perior quality grew there. Another party, to cut woqd, was 
ordered to go to the usual place, and i accompanied them 
myself. We had observed several ot the natives this morn- 
ing sauntering along the shore, which assured us; that 
though their consternation had made, ihem leave us so ab- 
ruptly the day b^ore, they were convinced that we iaiend* 

f5a Modim Circymfkitf^atiMi. part tii. fiooK lit. 

ed them no mischief^ and were desirons of renewing the 
intercoorseu It was natural that I should wish to be pre* 
sent on the occasion. 

We had not been long landed, before aboiit twenty of 
^em, men and boys, joined us, without expressing the least 
sign of fear or distrust There was one of this company 
conspicuously deformed, and who was not more distin-' 
guishable by the hump upon his back, than by the drollery 
6t* his gestures, and the seeming humour of his speeches, 
which he was very fond of exhibiting, as we supposed, for 
our entertainment. But, unfortunately, we could not un- 
derstand him ; the language spoken here being wholly un- 
intelligible to us. It appeared to me to be different front 
that spoken by the inhabitants of the more northern parts 
of this country, whom I met with in my first voyage ; which 
ifl not extraordinary, since those we now saw, and those we 
iiien visited, differ in many other respects.* Nor did they 
seem to be such miserable wretches as the natives whom 
Dampier mentions to have seen on its western coast.* ' 

' ' ' Some 

* Tbe most striking difierence seems to be with regard to the texture 
of tbe hair. The natives whom Caotain Cook met with at EndeavouE 
River in 1769, are said, by him, to nave '' naturally long and black hairi 
though it be universally cropped short. In general it is straight, but some- 
times it has a sh'ght curl. We saw none that was not matted and fihhyj 
Their beards were <^ the same colour with the- hair, and bushy and thi(^'* 

It may be necessary to mention here^ on the authority of Captain Kin^ 
ib&t Captain Cook was very unwilling to allow that the nair of the natives 
now met with in Adventure Bay was woolly^ fancying that his people, who 
first observed this, had been deceived, from its being clotted with grease 
and red ochre. But Captain King prevailed upon him afterward to exa- 
mine carefulhr the hair of the boys, which was generally, as w^ as that of 
the women, ^ee from this dirt ; and then he owned himself satisfied that 
it was naturally tooolk/. Perhaps we may suppose it possible, that he him- 
self had been deceived when he was in Endeavour River, from this very 
circumstance, as he expressly says, that ** they saw none that was not mat- 
ted and filthy."— D. 

* And yet Dampier's New HoUanders, on the western coast^ bear a 
striking resemblance to Captain Cook's at Van Diemen's Land, m many 
remar&ble instances : — 

1st, As to their becoming famfliar with the strangers. 

2dly, As to their persons; being straig^t^bodied and thin, their skia 
black, and black, short, curled hair, like tl^ n^oes of Goinea, with wide 

Sdly,' As to their wretched condition, having no houses, no garment, no 
canoes, no instrument to catch large fish ; feeding on broiled muscleSf 
cockles, and periwinkles ; having no fruity of the earth ; their weapona 9 
straight pole, sharpened and hardened at the end, &c. &c. 


CHAP. !• 0ECT* VI. Cbokf Ckrke, and €rore. Sfi^ 

Some of our present group wore> loose^ round tbeir necks, 
three or ifour folds of small cord, made of the fur of some 
animal ; and others of them had a narrow slip of the kan- 
gooroo skin tied round their ankles. I gave to each of 
Ihem a string of beads and a m( dal^ which I thought they 
received with some satisfaction. They seemed to set no va- 
lue on iron, or on iron tools. They were even ignorant of 
the use mf fish-hooks, if we might judge from their manner 
of looking at some of ours which we snewed to them. 

We cannot, however, suppose it to be possible that a 
people who -inhabit a sea-coast, and who seem to derive no 
part of their sustenance from the productions of the ground, 
^hould not be acquainted with some mode of catching fish, 
though we did not happen to see any of them thus employ- 
ed, nor observe any canoe, or vessel, in which they could 
go upon the water. Though they absolutely rejected the 
sort of fish that we offered to them, it was evident that 
shell-fish, at least, made a part of their food, from the many 
heaps of muscle-sheltlB we saw in different parts near the 
i^hore, and about some deserted habitations near the head 
of the bay. . These were little sheds, or hovels, built of 
sticks, and covered with bark. We could also perceive evi- 
dent signs of their sometimes taking up their abode in the 
trunks of large trees, which had been hollowed out by fire^ 
most probably for this very purpose. In or near all these 
habitations, and wherever there was a heap of shells, there 
remained the marks of fire, an indubitable proof that they 
do not eat their food raw. 

After staying about an hour with the wooding party and 
the natives, as I could now be pretty confident that the 
latter were not likely to give the former any disturbance, I 
left them, and went over to the grass-cutters on the east 
point of the bay, and found that they had met with a fine 
patch. Having seen the boats loaded, I left that party, and 
returned on board to dinner ; where, some time after^ Lieu- 
tenant King arrived* 


The chief peculiarities of DampiePs mUetaUe wretcbei are, 1st, Their 
^B^lids being always half ck»ed, to keep the flies out, which were ezces* 

Pvely troublesome there ; and, 2dly, Their waathig thb two fore^teeth of 
le upper jaw, and their having no beards. See E&mpier's Voragto, voL 
.i.'p. 464, ftc. There seems to be no reason for supposing that Oaxnpier 
"Hfm mistakeQ in the above aoeonnt of what be saw«««D« 


• • « . 

254 Modern Circumnavigatimi. vkUT ifi. Mot. i\u 

From him I learnt, that I had but jast left the shore, 
when several women ancl children made their appearance, 
and were introduced to him by some of the men ivho at-1 
tended them. He gave presents to all of them^ of such 
trifles as be had about him. These females wore a kangoo« 
TOO skin (in the same shape as it came from the animal) 
tied over the shoulders, and round the waist. ' But its only 
use seemed to be to support their children when carried on 
their back\ for it did not cover those parts which moat na- 
tions cohceal ; being, in all other respects, as naked as the 
men, and as black, and their bodies marked with scars ia 
the same manner. But in this they differed from the men, 
that though their hair was of the same colour and texture^ 
some of them had their heads completely shorn or shaved % 
in others this operation had been performed only on one 
side, while the rest of them had all the upper part of the 
head shorn cfose, leaving a circle of hair ail round, some- 
what like the tonsure of the Romish ecclesiastics.' Many 
of the children had fine features, and were thought pretty; 
but of the persons of the women, especially those advanced 
in years, a less favourable report was made. • However, 
some of the gentlemen belonging to the Discovery, I was 
told, paid their addresses, and made liberal offers of pre- 
sents, which were rejected with great, disdain; whether 
from a sense of virtue^or the fear of displeaBitig their men, 
I shall not pretend to determine. That this gallantry was 
not very agreeable to the latter, is certain ; for an elderly 
man, as soon as he observed it, ordered all the women and 
children to retire, which they obeyed, th6ugh some of them 
shewed a little reluctance. 

This conduct of Europeans amongst savages, to their wo^ 
inen> is highly blatneable ; as it creates a jealousy in their 


' Captaan Cook's acoamt .of the .n^jtiyescif Van Diemet's Landf io this 
chapter, no doubt proves that tbey differ^ in m^aoy respects, as be aaya^ 
IrontCbe inhabitants of the more northerly parts of the eaeft coast of New 
Holland, whom he niet with in his first voyage. It seems very remarka* 
ble, however, that the only woman any of his people came close to, in Bo* 
tanyBay, should' have her. hair cropped short, while the man wh»wat 
with her, is said. to have had the hair of his head bushy, and his beard long 
and rough. Could the natives of Van DienDen's^- Land be more accurately 
Scribed, than by saying that .the hair of the men's heads is bushy,, and 
their beands Joiig and roQgb, and that the women's hair is cropped abort \ 
So far nortii, therefore, as Botanv 9fiyf • the natives of the east coast of 
Kew Holland seem to resemble those of Van Diemen's Land, in this cir* 
cumstance, — P. 

CHAP. 1. 8CCT. Yi. Cook^ Ckrke, and Gan. S55 

men^ that may be altended with conseqaenoes fatal to the 
success of the common enterprise, and to the whole body of 
adventurers^ without advancing the private purpose of the 
individual, or enabling him to gain the object of his wish^« 
I believe it has been generally found among uncivilized 
people, that where the women are easy of access, the men 
are the first to offer them to strangers; and that, where this 
is not the case, neither the allurement of presents, nor the 
opportunity of privacy, will be likely to nave the desired 
enect. This observation, I am sure, will hold good, through- 
. out all the parts of the South Sea where I have been. Why 
then should men act so absurd a part, as to risk their own 
tafety, and that of all their companions, in pursuit of a gra* 
tification which they have no probability of obtaining ?« 

In the afternoon I went again to the grass-cutters, to for* 
ward their work. I found them then upon Penguin lalandt 
where they had met with a plentiful crop of excellent grass. 
We laboured hard till sun-set, and then repaired on board, 
satisfied with the. quantity we had collected, and which I 
judged sufficient to last till our arrival in New Zealand. 

During our whole stay, we had either calms or light airs 
from the eastward. Little or no time, therefore, was lost 
by my putting in at this place. For if Ihad kept the sea, 
we should not have been twenty leagues advanced farther 
on our voyage. And, short as our continuance Was here, it 
has enabled me to add somewhat to the imperfect acquaint- 
ance that bath hitherto been acquired, with this part of the 

Van Diemen's Land has been twice .visited before. It was 


* In uncivilised nations, the women are completely subservient to the 
(tower artd desires of^the men, without seeming to possess, or to be allow- 
ed, a will or thought of their own. Amongst them, therefore, the primi- 
tive mode of temptation must be reversed, and the husband is first to be 
gained over. When this is done, all that follows, is understood and in* 
tended by him, as a sort of temporiny barter ; and the favours of his wife^ 
or daughter, are valued by him just in the proportion they are sought for 
by those with whom he is dealing. But where his animal necessities caii 
scarcely be supplied, it cannot be imagined that he will be very sensible to 
the force of toys and trinkets as objects of temptation. These; on tte' 
lyther hand, will carry most persuasion, where, through the greater bounty 
of nature, an avenue has been opened for the display of vanity and the 
love of ornament. Any opposition on the female part m either case, is of 
no avail as a barrier againsi strangers, as he who is most concerned to pro- 
tect it, finds his account in its sacrifice. We have instances of both in Cap- 
taia Cook's voyages.— £• 


U6 ModerH CireumnMgdivkUi pasit iit. book iit^ 

80 named by Tasmasi^ who discdvei'ed it in November 164S» 
Fjrom that time il had escaped all farther notice by £ttro» 
pean naviaators^ till Captain Fumeaioac touched at it in 
March i*J7SJ I hardly need Bay^ that it is the southern 
point of New Holland, which, if it doth not deserve the 
name of a continent^ is by far the largest island in the 

Tbe land is, for the most part, of a good height, diversi« 
fied with 4iill8 and valleys, and every where of a greenish 
hue* It is well wooded ; and, if one may judge from ap* 
pearances, and from what we met with in Adventure Bay, 
is not .ill supplied with water. We found plenty of it in 
three or four places in this bay. The best, or what is most 
convenient for ships that touch here, is a rivulet, which is 
one of several that fall into a pond, that lies behind the 
beach at the head of the bay. It there mixes with the sea-*^ 
water, so that it must be taken up above this pond, which 
may be done without any great trouble. Fire^wood is to be 
^ot, with great ease, in several places. ^ t ^ 

The only wind to which this bay is exposed, is the N.E* 
But as this wind blows from Maria's Islands, it can bring 
no very great sea along with it ; and therefore, upon the 
whole, this may be accounted a very safe road. The hot- 
tom is clean, good hoi ing around ; and the depth of wa- 
ter from twelve to five and four fathoms. 

Captain Fumeaux's sketch of Van Diemen's Land, pob* 
lished with the narrative of my last voyage, appears to me 
to be without any material error, except with regard to Ma* 
ria's Islands, which have a different situation from what is 


' This is a mistal^e, though unintentiona], no doubt, and ^orantly on 
the part of Cook. Captain Marion, a Fjencifa navigator, and meotioDed oo 
casionally in these voyages, visited Van Diemen's Land about a twelve- 
month before Captain Fumeaux. The acoount of his voyage was publish^ 
ed at Paris in 178S, but is little known in Eogjifuid ; for wtuch reason, and 
because of its possessing a considerable degree of interest, Captain Flin- 
ders has |iven an abridgment of that portion of its contents which respects 
the land m question. This the reader will find in his introduction, p. 83^ 
or he may content himself yriih being informed, that the description k 
gives of the natives,. &c. generally coincides with what is furnished in tbe 
text. Subsequent to this voyage» it may be remarked, Ca^^n Bligh put 
into Adventure Bay with his majesty's ship Bounty, vis. in 1788 : and after* 
wards, viz. in 179S, the coast ai Van Diemen's Luad was visited by the 
Friencfa Rear^^Adminl D'£ntrecasteauz.*-£. 

9a4^0 %• SECT. VI* CoqJ^ Clerhf and Gore. €57 

there represented.* The longitude was determined hv a 
great number of lunar observations, which we had berore 
we made the land, while we were in sight of it, and after 
we had left it; and reduced to Adyenture Bay, and the se- 
veral principal points, by the time-'keeper. The following 
table will exhibit both iht longitude and latitude at one 
view : 

Latitude South, 

Adventure Bay, 43"* «l' 20" 

Tasman's Head, 43 S3 

South Cape, 43 42 

South-west Cape, . 43 37 

Swilly Tsle, 43 55 

Adventure C VarFation of the compass 5* ly E. 

Bay, ^ Dip of the south end of the needle 70^ 15F. 

We>|iad high-water on the 2gth, beine two days before 
'^e l^t quarter of the moon, at nine in the morning. The 
perpendicular rise then was eighteen inches, and there was 
no ' appearance of iu ev«r having exceeded two feet and a 
half. These are all the memorials useful to navigation, 
which my short stay has enabled me to preserve, with re<» 
spect to Van Diemen's Land. , 

Mr Anderson, my surgeon, with his usual diligence, 
spent the few days we remained in Adventure Bay, in exa- 

VOL. XV. PABT. II. B mining 

^ Bat Captain Flinders has pointed out some other inktakes* especially 
as to the Storm and Prederik Hendrik's Bays of Teaman^ in which, says 
)ie» ^ He has been followed by aU the mcoaeding navigatofSy of the same 
nation, which has created not a little confusion in the geojgraphy.of thia 
part of the world/' Let us prevent the perpetuity of errors, by quoting 
another passage from the same most accurate and skilful navigator. ** The 
i>ayflot)posed to have been Stontf Bay, has no name inTasman's chart; 
though the particular plan shews that he noticed it, as did Marion, more 
distifictlty. The rocks marked at the east point of this bay, and called the 
]priars» are the Borei^Vt Eylanden of Tasman ; the true Stprm Bay Is the 
deep inlet, elf which Adventure Bay Is a cove. Frederik Hendrik's Bay is 
Imt #ithiif this inl^, but lies to the north-eastward, on the outer side of 
the land which Captain Furneaux, in oonaeqoence of his first mistake^ 
took tp be Maria's Isbmd, but which, in fact, is a part of the main land." 
A cop^ of Tasman's charts is given In the atlas to D'Entiecasteaux's voy« 
aee; it is taken from Valantyn, and is conformable to the manuscript 
^arts in the Dutch journal. But according to Flinders, it has an error of 
•oe degree too much east, in the scale of longitude. Besides, he informs 
M» ** In the plan of Frederik Hendrikfs Bay, the name is placed takhin 
the inner bay, instesd of being written, as in the or^nal. on th^ point of 
land between the inner and outer bays/' He imagines the name was in* 
tended to comprise both, and refers to vol iii. of C^&in Burney's History 
i»f Discoveries in the South Sea^ for a copy of Tasoum's charts as tbej- 
•stand in the original.^— £• 

tsi ModtHt Circumnavigatiom* >AkT iit. book in* 

mimng the -country. His account of its natural produc- 
lions> with which he favoured me^ will more than compen- 
sate for my silence aboiit them : Some of his remarks on the 
inbi^bitanrls wiH supply what I may have omiUed, or repre- 
sented imperfectly 4 and fais specioien of their language^ 
llowever short, wiil4>e thought worth attending to» by those 
who wish to collect materials for tracmg the origin of na* 
tions. 1 shall only premise, that the tall strait forest trees^ 
which Mr Anderson describes in the following account, are 
of a different Sort from those which are found in the more 
northern parts of this coast. The wood is very long and 
close-grained,.extre'mely tough, fit for spars» oar% and many 
other uses; and would, on occasion, make good mastSj 
^(perhaps none better,) if a method could be found to light- 
en it. 

''At tbe bottom of Adventure Bay is a beautifc)P.^ndy^ 
1>eacb, which seems to be wholly formed by the particles 
washed by the sea from a very fine white sand-stone, that 
In many places bounds the shore, and of which Fluted Gape^ 
in theiieit^bourhood, from its appearance, seems to be com« 
posed. This beach is about two nyiles Ions, and is excellent- 
ly adapted for hauling a seine, which both ships did repeat- 
edly with success. Behind this is a plain or flat, with a salt^ 
or rather brackish lake ^running in length parallel with the 
beach), out of which we ciaught, with angling rods, many 
whitish bream^ and. some small trout. The other parts of 
the couatry adjoitiiqg the bay are <)]ute hilly ; and both 
those and. the fiat are an entire forest of veiy tail trees, 
rendered almost impassable by shrubs, brakes of Tern, and 
fallen trees; except on the sides of some of the hills, where 
the tf ees are but thin, and a coarse grass is the only iuter- 

^' To the nofthward of the bay there is low land, stretch^ 
ing fjEirther than the eye can reach, which is only covered 
with wood in certain spots ; but we had no opportunity to 
examine in what respects it differed from the hilly country. 
Tbe«oil on the flat land is either sandy, or consists of a yel- 
lowish mould, and, in some places, of a reddish clay. The 
«ame is found on the lower part of the hills ; but farther up^ 
especially where there are iew trees» it is of « grey tough 
4»st,. to appeacance very poor. 

^ in the valleys between the hills, the water drains down 
f»Ma their sides ; and at last, in some places^ forms small 


tnAT. I. SBCT. vi. Coekj Ckrktj and Gore. £jf9 

brooks ; rach^ indeed^ as were sufficient to supply ns with 
water, but by no means of that size we might expect in so 
extensive a country, especially as it is both hilly and weH 
wooded. Upon the whole, it has many marks oF being na^ 
turally a very dry country; and perhaps might (independent 
of its wood) be compared to Africa, about the Cape of Good 
Hope> though that lies ten degrees farther northward, rather 
than to New Zealand, on its other -siiie, in the same latitude, 
where we find every valley, however small, furnished with 
a considerable stream of water*. The heat, too, appears to 
be great, as the thermometer stood at 64, 70> and once at 
74. And it was remark edf that birds were seldom killed an 
hour «r two, before they were aimo^ covered with small 
maggots, which i would rather attribute merely to the heat; 
as we bad not any reason to suppose there is a peculiar dis- 
position iti the climate to render substances soon putrid. 

** No mineral bodies, nor indeed stones of any other sort 
but the white sand one already mentioned, were observed. 

** Amongst the vegetable productions, there \^ not one, 
that we could find, which afforded the smallest subsistence 
for man. 

** The forest trees are all of one sort, growing to a great 
height, and in general quite straight, branching but little, 
till toward the top. The bark is' white, which makes them 
appear, at a distance, as if they had been peeled ; it is also 
thick ; and within it are -sometimes collected, pieces of a 
Tteddish transparent gum or i^sia, which has an astringent 
t6ste. The leaves of this tree are 4odg, narrow, and pointed ; 
and it bears clusters of small whit;e flowers, whose cups were, 
at this time, plentifully scattered about the ground, with an- 
other sort resembling them somewhat in shape, but much 
larger ; which makes it probable that there are two ^edes 
df this tree. The bark of the smaller branches, fruit, and 
leaves, have an agreeable puogent taste, and aromatic smelly 
not unlike peppermint; and in its nature, it has s6me affi- 
nity to the myrtus of botanists. 

*^ The most cbmmon tree, nesKt to this, is a small one 
about ten feet high, branching pretty much, with narrow 
leaves, and a large, yellow, cylindrical iSower, consisting 
only of a vast number of filaments; which, being shed, 
leave a fruit liktt a pine-top. Both the' above-mentioned 
trees are unknown in Europe. . 

• '' The underwood consists chiefly of a shrab so/mewhiM 



160 Modem GircmfVlwk9H!m^ vaw ji«. booi^ Aki; 

r^sembU&g.a ipy^clles vp^i which seems to ^ jthe jUpfaq^^. 
m^mMpar^wn, mentioned in J)i Foster'a CAort G^n. Plant ; 
aiidx in some placet^ of imptber^ rat^ber smaller^ which ian^ 
new weifiei of the meUjtlema of Linnseus* 

ff Of other plants^ which are by PQ Anews .numer^g^ 
there is a ^cics of gladiphu, insh, beU-flower, sampbirej ^ 
small ^ort of wood-sorrel^ milk-wprt^ cudweed^ and Job's 
tears ; with .a few others^ peculiar to the places There ar^ 
pevei^al kinds.of fern^ as polypody^ spleenwort, female ferPj. 
apd some mosses ; but the ipecjes are either common^ or ^^ 
least found in some pther countries^ especially New Zea*? 

'^ The only animal of the aoadruped kind we got^ was a 
tprt of apomim, about twice tne size 'of a large rat ; and is^ 
mo^t probablvj the male of that q>efiie$ found at Endeavour 
river« as mentioned in Cook's first voyage. It is of a dusky 
colour above, tinged with a brown or rusty cast, and whitish 
b^low*. About a third of the tail»: towards its tip, is w^it^ 
and bfire, updcmeath ; by which it probably hangs on the 
branches of trees, as it climbs tbese> and lives on berrie?* 
The kangooroo, another animal found farther northward in 
Ii}eyr HoU^ndj i^s described in the same voyage^ without all 
4pujbt also inhabtits heriQ, »a the natives we met wi^h had 
sopie pieces of their skins; and we several times saw ani* 
npisls, though indistinctly* run from the thickets when we 
w^i^ed in the wpods, which, from the siae^ could be no 
other. It should seem also, that they are in considerable 
numbers^ frpjm %he dupg we saw almost every where, an4 
from the narrow tracks or paths they have made amongst 
th/e shrubbery. 

/'..There, are several sorts of birds, but all so scarce and' 
shy, that they are evidently harrassed by the natives, who, 
nierhaps, draw much of their subsistence from them. In 
the wood?, th^ principal sorts are large brown hawks or 
eag}j^s ; crows^ nearly the same as ours in England ; yel- 
lowish paroquets ; and large pigeons. There are also three 
or tour small birds, one of which is of the thrush kind ; and 
apother ^m^l one,. with a f retty long tail, has part of the 
he^d 4nd ne9k.of a.most beautiful azure colour ; from whence 
we nianiQd it ^ota^iUa cyanea. On the shore were several 
cp9)imou 4nd 9^ gulls ; a. few black oyster-catchers, or se^-r 
pies ; and a pretty plover of a stone! colour, with a blad^ 
PQOdf >.Abo$t the ppnd or lake behifid the bea^t a few 


•r. •: '-.M 

tHAfv 9^ 8B(^ ^ti Coek, Ckrke, end Gorii iftl 

wildodoeks wev^ seeft ; and sbade shags used 16 p^tch Iip6tl 
the high le«fl«iS tr^ near tj^cf shore. 

^' Some iNleity large blackiitt' sttakes were 'seen in ttti 
woods; and'w^' kilied a large; hitherto nnknoWh, lizard* 
fifteen indies long^ and six round, elegantly clouded with 
Mack and yellow ; besides a sihali sort, of a brown gilded 
csiloar abovei and rusty below; 

'* Th^'sea affiords a much f^reater plenty, a!nd at least ^ 
great a va^ty, as the land;' Of ^se the elephant fi^h/or 
p^egaMd, mentioned in FreasierV voyage/ are the most nil* 
merous; and though inferior to miu^y other fish, were vttf 
palatable fooid. Several large rajrsi tltirses, and small lea* 
ther-iack4Jts>^1rere caugHt; with some small white bream, 
WhloD were fitfeil^r and better than those caught in the lake. 
We likewise ^ofa few solei and flounders ; two spirts of giiri 
Bards, oncf w them a new tpecies ; some small spotted inul-^ 
let ; and, verj unexpectedly^ the small fish with a iihet bandi 
Ott its skk;, called itfAertiui fupseiuM hy Hasselqui^.* ' 

^ But that next in number, and superior id goodness^ 16 
die«lephlmt*fish, was a sort done of us recollected to har^ 
seen befdre* Is partakes df the' nature both of a roMd add 
of a fiat fi8h> ^ving the eyes placed very dear tA^h other i 
the fore^-pati of the body much fiattened or depressed, and 
the rest rounded* It is of a brownish sandy colour, with 
rusty spots on the upper part, and whitish befoi^.' From the 
(Joantity of slime it was always covered with, it seems to 
live after the manner of fiat fish, at the bottom. 

'^ Upon the rocks are plenty of muscles, and some other 
small Miell-fisb. There are also great numbers of sea-stars; 
some small limpets ; and large quantities of sponge; one 
sort of which, that is thrown on shore by the sea, but not 
Tery common^ has a most delicate texture ; and another, is 
ihe ^fmgia diehotoma. 

*^ Many pretty MedvM^s headi were found upon the beach % 
and the stinking kpfyna or sea-hare, which, as mentioned 
1^ some aiithors, has the property of taking ofi^ the hair by 
the acrimony of its juice ; but this sort was deficient in iim 

^ Insects, though not numerous, ate here in considlerable 
variety. Amongst them are grasshoppers, butterflies, and 


^ Tom. iL p. 211. lamo^Pknch^XnTiv 
! Iter PMsiimiau 


fOl . Modem Oircitimfi«0%irffoiii» vaimt uo. bo«k iii« 

leve^al iiorts of 8mi|ll smoth^,. finely iFariegaled.- Tbeire am 
two sorts of dragon-ffie8>gad-flie6j!Ci^mel*fli68; ^yeral sorte 
of spiders; and same scorpions ; but the lasl arie< rattier rare. 
^be most troublesome, toough not very numerout tribe of 
liisef;tS|.Bfe tbe mosquitoes ;. and a large blacka^t^.tbepaia 
of whose bite is almost intolerably^ during tb^shc^rt time it 
lasts/The musquitoes, also^ make fip the defipiency of thebs, 
l^mbefj by tbe severity of their venomous pro&osot. 
. /f T^e inhabitants wbpm.W^ met with bere^ had litUe of 
thf^t -fier^e^or.wild ap^e»fance commpn to p^a|ile ia their 
situation.; bu^on tbe bpn^afy^ seemjed ii9ild;a^ cheerfulj^ 
|vithot(t reserve .01 jealousy of strangers. Tbis>, howeyer^ 
may aris^ frojia their having little to lose or care for. 

*^ With respect to personal activity or g^niusj we can say 
t>ut little of either. They do not seem to possess the first iH 
any remarkable degree ; and as foe tbe last^ they hayei, U^ 
appearance, less than even th^ half-aniiBated inhabitaiitt|» of 
Terra del Fviego, who baric not mveniion sufficient to make 
clothing, ^pr defending tbeJ3gLseIves from the rigour of their 
clitnate,:thoi|gh- furnished with the materiabi The smidl 
stick; rudely pointed, which one of them carried in his handj 
was the^only thing we saw thatjreqiiired any mechanical ex- 
ertion, if we except the fixipg 00 the feet of some of khemf 
pieces 4>f togooroo skin^ tied with thongs; though it could 
uot be leari^t whether these were in use as shoes, or only to* 
defend son^e sore* It most be owned, however^, they loe 
masters of some contrivance in the mMiner of cutting their 
arms and hoplies iu lines of difierentlengths^and directionsj 
which are raised considei^bly above the surfp^ee of the skin, 
so that it is- difficult to guess the method, they use ia exeeu* 
ling this embroidery of theii: persons. Their.not expressiiig- 
^at surprise which one flight have expected from their see- 
ing, men so much unlike themselves, and things, to which, 
we were well assored; they^had beea hitherto utter stran- 
gely /; their indijfference for our presents-; and tbeiir general 
iaattentipn ;, Were sufficient proofs of their not possessing 
aaj; acuteness of understanding.. 

'' Their colour is a dull black, and hot quite so deep aft. 
\b»i pf the Atrican negroes. It should .seem also, that they 
sometimes heightened their black colour^ by. smutting theis 
bodies^; as a mairkWa^ left behind on any clean substance^ 
sucb as white paper, witen' they bandied it*. Their hair, 
bowerer, is perfectly woolly^ and it is clotted ok divided 

CRAY. I* 8ICT* vu Cook, Clttke, and Gore. S§S 

inta sioall parcels^ like that of th& Hpttentot^^ ^ith the use 
of soue sort of grease^,. mixed with a red paint or ochre^ 
which they smear in. great abundaace over their beads* 
This practi/cre,, aa some, might imao:ine^ has Qot the efleck 
of changing; their hair into the frizzling texture we obser- 
ved; fpr^ on examining the head of a bov^ which appear^ 
ed iieverto have bqen smeared. { found the hair to be €^ 
the same kind. Their noses, thou^^h not ffat/are broad and 
full. The lower part of the /ace projects a good dealj as is 
the*. case of more Indians [ have seen ^ so.^hat a line let fall 
from the foreUead would cut off a mu<;h Targier portion than 
it would in Europeans. Their eyea are of a middling size^ 
.with the white less clear than in us ; and though not remark- 
ably quick or piercing, such as give, a frank cheerful cast to 
.the wnole countenance* Their teeth. are broad, but not 
.equal, nor well set ; and» either from nature or from dixL 
not of so true- a white a&is* usual among people of a black 
.colour. Their mouths are rather wide^ but ^fs appearance 
•eems heightened by weaving their beards long, aaq clotted 
with paint, in the same manner as the hair on their h^adis* 
. In other respects, they are well-proportioned ^ though the 
..belly seems rather projecting, ^his may be owing to the 
want of compression there^ whiqh few nations da not usc^^ 
.more or less. The posture of whrch they seeip fondest^ ia 
to stand with one side forward^ or the upper, part of the bo^- 
dy gently reclined, and one hand grasping (across the back) 
the opposite arm, which hangs down by the projecting side. 
''What the ancient poets tell us of Fauiis^ and Saiyr$ li- 
ving in hollow trees, is here realized. Some Vretched con- 
structions of sticks, covered with bark, which do not even 
deserve the name di huis^ were indeed found near the shore 
in the bay ; but these seetned only to have bcien erected far 
temporary purposes ; and many of their largest trees weve 
converted into niore comfortable habitations. These had 
their trunks hollowed out by fire,, ta the heigUt of six ot 
seven feet ; and that they take up their abode in them 
* sometimes, was evident from the hearths^» made of day, ta 
contain the fire in the middle, leaving room for four or fivlt 
persons to sit round iU^ At the same time^ these places of 


' Tasman, when in the hay of Frederick Heiii3fv adjouiinir to Adventaie 
Bav, found two tress, one of which was two fidihonB, ana the other two 
ftthoms and a half in girth,* and six^ or nxlv-five ftet fa%hi from* the mat 
tathe bmche8.--4See his Vfl^i^iaHHiiraGis^^ 

264 Modem Circmnav^iAwm. faet in. Beck fii. 

•helter are durable ; for they take care to leave one side of ; 
the tree sound, which is sufficient to keep it growing aii lut^ 
iiriantly as those which remain untouched. 

^' The inhabitants of this place. are, doubtletSy from the 
same stock with those of the northern parts of New Hoi* 
land. Though some of the circumstances mentioned by 
Dampier, relative to those he met with on the western coast 
of this country, such as their defective sieht, and want of 
fore-teeth, are not found here ; and though Hawkesworlh'ti 
account of thbse met with by Captain Cook on the eai^t side^ 
shews also that they differ in many respects ; yet stiU, bpoa 
the whole, I am persuaded that distance of place, entire se* 
paration, diversity of climate, and length of time, all con- 
curring to operate, will account for greiater differences, both 
as to their persons and as to their customs, than reklly ex** 
ist between our Van Biemen's Land natives, and those de« 
scribed by Dampier, and in Captliin Cook's first vbya^. 
His is certain^ that the figure of one of those seen in bn* 
deavour River, and represented in Sidney Parkinson's Jopr-» 
nal of that voyage, very much resembles our visitors in Ad« 
venture Bay. That there is not the like resemblance in their 
language, is a circumstance that need not create any diffi- 
culty. For though the agreement of the languages of peo- 
ple living distant from each other, may be assumed as a 
stt^ong argument for their having sprung from one common 
source, disagreement of language is by no means a proof of 
tlie contrary .»• 
'' However^ We must have a far more intimate acquaint- 


^^ The hgaS^m $Mh(»t iii Rkhetcl^ ntr ^^ 
grounds of this assertion in the following satvfactoiy manner; ^'C^est 
4|ne]que chose de surprenan^ que U^foule des idiomes, tous varies entr'euz, 

Sie parlent les naturels de PAm^rique Septentrionale. Qu'on rdduise ces 
iomes k des radnes qu^on les simpUfie, qu'on en s^pare les dialectes e€ 
les jargons derives, il en resulte toujours dnq ott six liwguesniereSy respeo* 
.tivement ineomprehensibles. On a observ^fi Ja ntee BW^aiftnU dans laS£« 
beri^ eb la Tartarle, oi^ le nombre des idionies, et les dialectes. est kg^e* 
ment multiplib ; et rien i^'est plus opmrniin, que d'y voir deux hordes voi« 
sines qui ne se comprennent point On H^trom^e cette m^me niultiplJeiiiS 
-de jar^gons dans toutes les Provinces de rAfBi§rique' Meridionals'' ' ^e 
BSigbt also have induded Africa.] ** li y a beaucotq> d'apparence que ia 
vie sauvage^ en dUpersant les kmmei par petite* troupes isoUes dms deg 
lots ^oit, €€CMi4me nicfissairementUttei grandediversiUdes languet, dont 
le nombre diminue ^ nt^oreipie ia iKNnm^ en rassemblaat ies barbares 
vagabcrnds, en forme itttodrpa de-;narioQ. . Alors. Ifidiome le plus f^e« ou 
le mdns pamrre en adts; dcvieiit dofninaali et absorbe les autres.'^ Tom* 
i p. 159« 160«^D. 

CKAi^. t. nieT. VI. Cook, Ckrke, aM Gore. 865 

ance with the languages spoken here^ and in the tiiore nor^ 
them parts of New Holland, before we can be warranted 
to pronounce that they are totally^ different. Nay, we have 
good eronnds for the oppbsite opinion ; for we found that the 
animid called kangooroo at Endeavour river, was known un*« 
der the same name here*; and I need hot observe, that it is 
scarcely possible to suppose that this was not transmitted 
from one another, but accidentally adopted by two na- 
tions^ differing in language and attraction. Besides, as it 
seenis very improbable that the Van Diemen's Land inha- 
bitants should have ever lost the use t)f canoes or sailing 
vessels, if they had been originally conveyed thither by sea, 
we must necessarily admit that they, as well as the kango&» 
too. itself, h^ve been stragglers by land frbfn'the more nor- 
thern parts of the country. And if there be any force m 
this observation, while it traces the origin of the people; it 
will, at the same time, serve to fix another point, if Ca^Vaiti 
Cook and Captain Fiirneaux have not already decided it, 
that New Holland is no where totally divided by the sea 
into islands, as some have imagined.'* . 

** As the New Hollanders ^eem all tp be of the sai|ie ^s;- 
traction, so neither do I think there is dhy thing peculiar 
in them. On the contrary, they mu<ih resdinble many of 
the inhabitants whom I have seen at the islands Tanna and 
Mallicolla. Nay, there is even some foilndktldn for hazabrd- 
ir^ a supposition, that they may have originally come' fi*om 
the same place with all the inhabitants df the South Sea, 
For, of duly about ten wof ds which we could get from them, 
that which expresses cold, differs little from that of New 
Zealand and Otaheite ; the first being MaUaretde, the se- 
cond Makkareede, and the thi^d Matiede.' The* rest of 'bttr 
very scanty Van Diemen's Land Vocabulieiry is as fbll<!>ws i 

Quadne, ^ woman. , 

Everai, The ^. 

./I , " t\ 

M uidje> ■ The note, 


'* The reader is awareef 'tha>erroaeoBS opMem gcncnRsll yrtaitaia s d 
at this time, c£ Van Diemen's Land beiv oooneoted wkb throeniinnit 
of New HolhuuL He will therefore modify the remark iibove g;iveD^'as te 
Its inhaMtaiitB bdng stragglers by land from the more muthera parts of the 
<$banti^. It is ^ some consequenoe alsoto inform hlm« thai in- the yivt.of 
D^EntveoasteaiBtt it was Ibund tfaattbe people' whoiiataaliileA^he'MuveB 
of the channel were in posseasioii of bark el^noesi^^E. 

,960 Moddn Oiivtimiitio^li^ paet iii. book hi, 

« Kftmv> Tke teeth; mouth, or tongue* , ^ 

Laerenoe^ A small bird, a native of the wfQodi here* 

KoygeCj The ear. 

Noonga, Elevated scan on the boefy. 

Teegera, To eat, 

TogaragOj / must be gfme, or, / wiU go» 

'' Their pronuQciation is not disagreeable^ but rather 
quick ; thoagh not more so than is that of other nationa 
of the South Sea ; and, if we may depend upon the affinir 
ty of languages as a clue to guide us in discovering the ori- 
gin of nations^ I have no doubt but we shall find^ on a dili- 
gent enquiry, and when opportunities offer to collect adcw^ 
rately a sufficient number of these words, and to compare 
them, that all the people from New Holland, eastward tQ 
Easter Island, have been derived from the same qommoa 

Section VIL 

The Passage from P'an Diemen^s Land to New ZeaJandr^ 
Emplojfments in Queen Charlotte's Sound.-^Transaction^ 
with the Natives there* — InteUigenee about the Massacre rf 
the Adventure's Boat's Crew. — Account of the Chief who 

. headed the Party on that occasion, — Of the two youns Mem 
who embark to attend OmaL— Various Remarks on the In^- 
habitants, — Astronomical and Nautical Observations. .. 

. , At eight o'clock in the morning of the SOth of January,, 
a light breeze springing up at W.» we weighed anchor, and 
put to sea from Adventure Bay. Soon after, the wind veei:- 


'* We find Mr Andenon's notions otf this subject oonformable to those 
«f Mr Maraden, who has remarked, ** thiit one genersd Uakgdage prevailed 
however mutilated and changed in the. courw dT time) throug^uouC all this 
portion of the world, from Madagascar to the most di^nt discoveries east- 
ward ; of which the Malav is a dimect, much corrupted or refined by a miz^ 
tare of other tongues. This veiy extensive similarity of language indicates ^ 
WQoimnon origin of the inhabitants; but the eifcuiastanoes and progress 
oi their, separation are wrapped in the darkest veifti of obscurity.'*— fiit^oiy 
ffSumatrOf p. 35. 

See also his very curious paper, read befbse the Society of Antiquaries,, 
aoid publisbed in their Arelut(d&gia, vol. vi,'p. %S5 ; where his sentiments 
on tois subject are- explained mew at laigei and>ilhwtrated by two Tabiss 
of corresponding Woids.«-D.. 

CHAF* u 8K0T. vu. Cook, Cletke, 0ml Gore. 


ed to the southward^ and incieaaed to a perfect storm. Its 
fiiry abated in the evenings when it v^red to the E. and 

, This gale was indicated by the barometer^ for the wind 
so sooner began tb blow, th^n the mercuiry in the tube be- 
gan to fall. Another remarkable thing attended the coming 
on of this, wind^ which was very faint ^i first. It brought 
with it a degree. of heat thai; was almost intolerable. The 
jmercBry in the thermometer rose^ as it were instantaneous- 
ly, from about 70* to near 90?. This heat was of so short 
a.continnaoc^y.that it seemed tQ he wafted away before the 
lureeze that bjfought it.; so tbatiSone on board did not per- 
ceive^it. . .: . ; 

. We puffsuedour course to the eastward, without meeting 
with any thing worthy ^ note, till the night between the 
6th and 7th of February, when a marine belonging to the 
Discovery .£eU over-bosord, and was never seen afterward. 
This wasihp second wisfortfifie of the Jcind that had hap» 
pened tor explain Gierke tiuc$ he left England* 

.On the lOth, at four in the afternoon, we discovered the^ 
land of Mew Zealand. The.part we paw proved to be Rock'a 
Point, and bore S.E. by S., ab<Mit eight or pine leagues dis-) 
tant. During this run from Van Diemen's Liind, the wind, 
for the fifst xour .or five days,, wias at N.E., N«, and N.N.V¥.j[ 
and blew, for the most part, a gentle breeze. It afterward 
veered* to S,E., where it remained twenty-four hours. It 
then came to W. and S. W^ ; in ,which points it continued^ 
with very little deviation, til) we reached New Zealand. 

After maktog the land, I sU^i^d for, Cape Farewell, which 
at day*9break the next moming bpre S. by W., distant about 
four .leagues. At eight o'clock^ it bore S.W«.t)y S.j about 
five league distant; aod, in this situatipa>.we had forty- 
five, fathoms, water over a sandyhcittomf ,:In rpupding the 
Cape we had fifty iaihooas^f^md ihe^same sort of bottom. , 

1 now steeried for StephMsns's Iskmd, which wa came up 
with at nioe o'clock at night.; and at ten, next iporningy 
Anchored in* our old station^ in. Queen Chark^te's Sound. 
Unwilling to lose ao;^ tinte^ om operations comnienced that 
very afternoon, wbea we landed a number of empty waters 
casks, and began tp clear a place where we.paight set ua 
the two observatories, ai|d tents.for the receptipn of a guara, 
and. of such of our people whose business n^ghtmake it ne* 
tessary for th^m to laeinain pn shpre* 


«6S Modem Cinmmatig^ticm* ' vAwr uu book iiir« 

, We hltd hot been tong at anch&t befon ^erol canoeBi 
itlled with iiffttivesy came aloAg-tide of tbcf %hipii ; but Yevj^ 
few of them wonld venture on board ; which appeared the 
anore extraordinary, as I wab well ktlowfi to tketiir«li There 
was one man in particular amongst them; ithom I had treab* 
ed with remarkabte kindfiesSj during fhe^Whote of my^^lm 
when I wasr last here. Yet How, neither profeisidns^ m^ni£i 
•hip, nor presents, could prevail upon him to oooie inlxi the 
ship. This shyness was to be' accounted for tjMy u|»out>tbis 
supposition, that they were apprehensive we had- revisited 
fheir country, in order to revengie the death of CEaptaanFuv^ 
neaux's people. Seeing Omai on boaord myslriftilow, wfaonoi 
they must have remembered to have seen on board the Ad« 
venture when tbe meieneholy affair happened, and whose 
£rst conversation with thein,'astbey appfoaehedi generalljr 
{timed on that sujbject, they must be well aisaved thiit I wtm 
no longer a stranger to it; 1 thought it neoessairy, thereforr^ 
to use evfeiy endeavour to assure then iof the .oentinnaoce 
of my friend^hipv^nd that! shomkl notdistBrb>tlMbibn tha^ 
ikccount. ' I>dp ncft know wbethier thisiiad/any 'height with 
them; butr>certliin it is, that they v^iyso^aJard aside att 
mannek* of restraint and diHrust. < ;i r .1 

' Oof the >Sth we set up two tenu, one fiom esirb ship, oii 
the s6me spot where we had pitehed them farmesfy. The 
dbservatc^ies were at the same time erected ; and' Messrs 
K^ng and OBayly began their operations immediately, to find 
the rate of the tiine-keeper, and to make other observatioas* 
The remainder of the empty water-casks were ako sent osr 
shore, With the cooper to tritti, and a sofficieai^Qomber of 
sltilorisi to fill them. Two men were appomtedtobrew^spraoe 
beer ; and ibe ^carpenter and 4iis orew weire ordered to Mil 
wobdJ 'Al>oal, With a party of «ieb, under Ihe diveotibn of 
6iie bfib^^^tnates, was sedt to coRect ffrass(>feroiir:catd8; 
and the people* that remiiined' on board were empkqrediitf 
refitting the ship, add arranging the pf6^isfoos<i 'In this 
manner we wele all profitabtf buisfled daring'oor stay* Fot 
the*proteetioa of th^ partyien'^i^e, I appoioiid a guard 
often titrarines, land c^fdered attas foi*-aH<lihewi9vkaien;«iid 
Mr King, and two or three petty effieers> eenstantly re<ieui<« 
ed with theni. A boat was never sentto aivf considerable 
distance iVom the ships without bein^ armed, and under di* 
rection of sneh bfficers as I etold wpenid tipoii, and'vM>0 
were well acquainted with the natives. During mf former 


TMts %Q tills CMDtrj, I had aeYer taken aooie of tkeae pre^ 
caotioiif ; imh' weie tbejt I firmly believe^ vore necessary 
BOW tbao they had been f<Mraierly. But after Ihe tragical 
fate of the Aayenfeore's boat'a crew in this soaotf* and of 
Ca|itain Marion dn Freane* and of aonie of bis peopi^, in 
the Bay of Uands (in 1772)« it was impossible totally to 
divest onnelTet of all apprehension of experiencing a simi-^ 
lar calamity. 

If the aatiTes entertained any sospicipn of oor revenffi^Qg 
these acts of barbarity j they very soon laid it aside. ror» 
dnring the eonfse of this day, a great number pf families 
came from different parts of the coasts and took uf their 
lesidence close to ns ; ao that ihere was not a spot in the 
cove where a hat conid be put up, that was not occupied 
by them^ ^'^^'SH ^^ phice where we had fixed oar little en* 
campment. This they left as in quiet possession of ; but 
they came and took away the rains of ^ome old huts that 
were there^ as materials for their new erections. 
• U is cnrions. to observe wiiih.whvfc facility they build these 
oecasional places of abode. I have seen above twenty of 
them erected on a spot of gi»ond, tbat« not an hour before* 
yf9S covened with sfarobs and i^nts. They generally bring 
some part of the asater ials with them ; the rest thev fiofl 
npon the premises. > I was present when a number of peo-* 
pie landen, and built one of these villages. Ti^e moment 
the canoes reached the sbore» the. men leaped out^ and f^t 
once took possession of a piece of ground, by tearing up 
the plants and shrubs^ «r sticking up some .part of the fra«^ 
miog of a hut. They then Betusned lo their canoes, and 9^ 
oared their weapons, by setting them up against a tree, or 
placing them in such a position, that the^ could be laid bold 
of in an snstBut. Itook particular notice that no one ne* 
ftected this precitotion. While the men were employed in 
xaisio^ the hats,ihe women were' not idle.. Some were sti^ 
tinned to take case of theicanoes ;. others to secure the prc^ 
visions, ami the few ntens^is in^beir possession ;. and the rest 
went ta gather jdty sticks^ that a fire might be prepared for 
dsessing. their motuaku As to the children, I kept them, as 
also tome of ihe snore aged, sufficiently iOccupied^ in scraow 
Wing for bcadSi tiU I bad emptied my pockets, and then I 
lisft'them. . ..;• 

These temporary habitations are abundantly sufficient tis 
iffsid shfiheir frmn the wind aad rain, which is the only pur- 

€70 Moitm Ciiwmk^aiim. Mftt au book m; 

Sose tbey are' meant 'to answer. I observed that^ geheraHy; 
' not always, the same tribe or family, thoagb it were ever 
ho lar^e^ associated and built together ; so that wefreauent^ 
ly saw a village, as well as their larger towns, divided into 
different districts, by low pallisades, or some similar modcf 
of separation. 

The advantage we received from the natives coming to 
live with us, was not inconsiderable. For, every day, when 
the weather would permit, some of them went out to catch 
fish ; and we generally got, by exchanges, a good share of 
the produce of their labours* This supply, and what our 
own nets and lines afforded us, was so ample, that we seU 
dom were in want oi' fish. Nor was there any deficiency of 
other refreshments. Celery, scurvv-grass, and portable soup 
were boiled with the pease and wheat, for both ships' com- 

Eanies, every dajr daring our whole stay ; and theyliiad spruce* 
eer for their drink. So thi^, if^any of our people had con* 
tracted the seeds of the scurvy, such a regimen soon remo^ 
ved them* But the truth is, when we arrived here, there 
were only two invalids (and these on board the Resolution) 
upon the sick lists in both ships. 

Besides the natives who took up their abode close to us; 
we were occasionally visited by otliers of them, whose real* 
dence was not far off; and by some who lived more remote. 
Their articles of commerce were, curiosities^ fish, and wo« 
men. The two first ahf ays came to a good market, which 
the latter did not. The seamen had taken a kind of dislike 
to these people^ and were either unwilling, or afraid, to as- 
sociate with them ; Which |Hroduced this good effect, that 
I knew no instance of a man's quitting his station, to go to 
their habitations. / 

A'connection with women I allow, because I cannot pre- 
vent it; but never encourage, because I always dread its 
consequences. I know^ indeed, that many ^men are of opi- 
nion, that such an intercourse is one of oar greatest securi-^ 
ties amongst savages ; and perhaps they who, either from 
necessity or choice, are to remain and settle with them, may 
find it so. But with travellers and transient visitors, such a^ 
we were, it is generally otherwise ; and, in our situation, « 
connection with their women betrays inore men. than it 
sietves. What else can be reasonably expected, since all 
Adr views are selfish, ^without the least mixture of regard 
or attaohment i My own experience, at laast^ which' ba£li 


CBAJit. ]• SBOTk vn. Cook, Ckrhe, and Gore. ' C7I 

l>eeo pretty extensive, hatk not pointed ont to me one in* 
stance to the contrary." . . 

^ Amongst our occasional visitors was a cbief named Kap 
faoora, who, as i was informed^ headed the party that cut 
off Captain Furneaux's people, and himself killed Mr Kowe^ 
the officer who commanded. To judge of the character of 
Kahooraj by what i heard from many of his countrymen^ 
he seemed to be more feared than beloved amongst them. 
Mot satisfied -with telling me that be was a very bad man^ 
tome of them even importuned me to kill him ; and, I be- 
lieve, they were not a little surprised that I did not listen 
to them; tfor, according to their ideas of equity, this ought 
to liave been d(»ne. But if I had followed the advice of all 
our pretended friends, 1 might have extirpated ttie whole 
race ; for the people of each hamlet, or village, by turns, 
applied to me to destrov the other. One would liave al« 
most thought it impossible, that so striking a proof of the 
«Uvided state in which this miserable people live, could have 
been assigned. And yet 1 was sure that I did not miscon- 
eeive the meaning of those who made these strange appli- 
cations to me ; tor Omai, whose language was a dialect of 
their own, and perfectly understood all that they said, was 
4oar interpreter. 

. On the 15th, I made an excursion in my boat to look for 
grass, and visited the Hippah, or fortified village at the S. W*. 
point of Motuara, and the places where our gardens had been 

JIanted on that island. There were no people at the former; 
ut the houses and palUsades had been rebuilt, and were now 
in a state of good repair ; and there were other evident marks 
of its bavidg been inhabited not long before. It would be 
onnecessaryj at present, to give a particular account of this 


* We ought to distanguish betwixt the afiection of the sexes* and those 
»oss physical principles which lead to their temporary intercourse. The 
totter exist, in some degree or other, wherever the difierenoe of sex is 
found ; but the former is the result of refinement in feeling, and a h«bit 
of reflection on objects of common interest, which civilization alone can 
pVoduce. This is with respect to members of the same community ; muc^ 
more does the rale hold where strangers are concerned. It is positively 
absurd for them to expect aflfection, where the lawful and accustomed pos- 
jessqrs of the she-sav^ have never yet fa^en fortunate enough to elicit its 
display. Well, therefore, has Captain Cook remarked, that the motiw 
which lead to their occasional connexion are selfish, by which must be un- 
derstood, the mescenary nature of the principle which actuates the female. 


fjt Uodpn Cbtunamigaiimik MS? Bou book in. 

HipfAp mfficieot notice hawig been taken of it ii| tb^ 
count of my firgt voyage. 

When the Adventare arrived fint at Qaeen Charlotte's 
Soand^ in I77d> Mr Bayly fixed upon this place for making 
his observations ; add he, and the people with bun, at their 
leisure hours, planted several spots with English garden 
seeds. Not the least vestige of these npw remained* It ii 
probable that they bad 'been all rooted OQl«tQ make xoom 
for boildingSy when the village ifras re-inhabited ; (oTf at ail 
the other gardens then planted by Captain Fnmeaw^ al» 
though now wholly over-run with the weeds of the conn* 
try, we found cabbases, onions, leeks, pucslaiui, nidisbes^ 
inustard, &c. and a few potatoes. These potatoes, which 
were first brought fjrom the Cape of Good Hope, had been 
nreatly improved by change of soil; and, with proper cul* 
tivaUoo, would be fipperior to those produced in most other 
countries. Though the New ^ealanders are fond of this 
root, it was evident that they had npt taken the trouble to 
plant a single one (much less any other of the articles whiolk 
Ife had introduced) ; and if it were not for thedifficultv of 
clearing ground where potatoes had been once plante^joiisre 
would not have been any now reoiaining. 

On the l6th, at day-break, I set out with ^ party of mc% 
infiveboatfl^ to collect food for pur cattle. < Captam Clerke, 
and several of the oi&cers, Omai, and two or the native^ 
accompanied me« We proceeded about three leagues up 
the sound, and then landed on the ei^t side, at a place 
where I had formerly been* Here we cut as much gran 
as loaded the two launches. 

As we returned dow|i the sound, we. visited Grass Cove^ 
the memorable scene of the massapre of Captain Furneanx!! 
people. Here I met with my old friend Pedro, who was al« 
most continually with me the last time I was in this sound, 
and is mentioned in my History of that Voyage. He^ and 
another of his countrymen, received lis on the beach, arm- 
ed with the pa<^too and spear. Whether this form, of reoep* 
tion was a mark of their courtesy or of their fear, I cannot 
say ; but I thought they betrayed manifest signs of the lat- 
ter. However, if they had any apprehensions, a few presents 
soon removed them, and brought down to the beach two or 
three more of the family ; but the greatest part of them re* 
aained out of sight. 

Whilst we were at this place, our curiosity prompted ns 


CHAP. X* SECT. vxi. C0ok,Vktke/and Gove. 473 

to enquire into the circumstances attending the melancholy- 
fate of our countrymen ; and Omai was made use of as ous 
interpreter for this purpose. Pedro^ and the rest of the na? 
tives present, answered all the questions that were put to 
them on the subject, without reserve, and like men who are 
under no dread of punishment for a crime of which they 
are not guilty. For we already knew that none of them had 
been concerned in the unhappy transaction* They told us, 
that while our people were sitting at dinner, surrounded by 
several of the natives, some of the latter stole, or snatched 
from them; some bread and fish, for which they were beat* 
This being* resented, a quarrel ensued, and two New Zear 
landers were shot dead, by the only two musquets that were 
fired. For before our people had time to discharge a third, 
or to load again those that had been fired, the natives rush-* 
ed in upon them, overpowered them with their numbers^ 
and put them all to death. Pedro and his companions, be* 
sides relating the history of the massacre, made us acquaint- 
ed with the very spot that was the scene of it. It is at the 
co^er of the cove on the right hand. Th^y pointed to the 
]^;n^v^fu^)i^ sun, to mark to us at what hour of the day it 
appened ; and, according to this, it must have been late 
in the afternoon. They also shewed us the place where the 
boat lay ; and it appeared to be about two hundred yards 
distant from that where the crew were seated. One of their 
number, a black servant of Captain Furneaux, was left m 
the boat to take jcare of her. 

We were afterward told that this black was the cause of 
the quarrel, which was said to have happened thus : One of 
the natives stealing something out of the boat, the Negro 
gave him a severe blow with a stick. The cries olF the fel- 
low being heard by his countrymen at a distance, they ima^ 
gined he was killed, and immediately began the attack on 
our people ; who, before they had time to reach the boat, 
or to arm themselves against the unexpected impending 
danger, fell a sacrifice to the fury of their savage assailants. 
' The first of these accounts was confirmed by the testimo* 
ny of many of the natives whom we conversed with at difr 
ferent times, and who, I think, could have no interest in 
deceiving us. The second manner of relating the transacr 
tion, rests upon the authority of the young New Zealander, 
who chose to abandon his country and go away with us, 
and who, consequently, could hjRve no possible view in dis- 
yoL. XV. s guising 


t74 Modem Circmnnaimgaiunm paut hi. book nf« 

gaising the troth. All agreeing thai the qaarrel hc^pened 
when tbe boat's crew were sitting at their meal, it is bighlj 
piobabie that both accounts are true, as they perfectly co* 
incide. For we may very naturally suppose, that while some 
of the natives were stealing from the man who had beea 
left ia the boat, others of them might take the same liber* 
ties with the property of our people who were on shore* 

Be this as it will, all agree thai the quarrel first took 
its rise from some thefts, in the commission of which the 
natives were detected. All agree, also, that there was no 

Eremeditated plan of bloodshed, and that, if these tliefts 
ad not been unfortunately too hastily resented, no mischief 
would have happened. For Kahoora's great« st enemieSj. 
those who solicited liis destruction uiost earnestly, at the 
same time confessed that lie had no intention to quarrel, 
much less to kill, till the fray had actually commenced. It 
also appears that the unhappy victims were under do sort 
of apprehension of their fate, otherwise they, never would 
have ventured to sit down to a repast at so considerate a 
distance from their boat, amongst people who were tlie 
next moment to be their murderers. What became of the 
boat I never couid learn. Some said she was pulled to pieces 
and burnt; oihers told us that she was carried, they kuew 
not whither, by a party of strangers. 

We stayed here till the evening, when, having loaded 
the restx)t the boats with grass, celery, scurvy-grass, &c. WQ 
embarked to return to the ships* We had prevailed upon 
Pedro to launch his canoe, and accompaoy us ; but we had 
scarcely put off from the shore when the wind began to 
blow very hard at N.W., wlich obliged him to put back* 
We proceeded ourselves, but it was with a good deal of 
difficulty that we could reach tbe ships, where some of the 
boats did not arrive till one o*clock tbe next morning ; and 
it was fortunate tliat they got on board then, for it after- 
ward blew a perfect storm, with abundance of rain, so that 
no manner of work could go forward that day. In the 
evenmg the gale ceased, and the wind, having veered to 
the E., brought with it fair weather. 

The next day we resumed our works ; the natives ventu* 
red out to catch fish ; and Pedro, with all his family, cani^ 
and took up his abode near us. The chiefs proper name is 
Matohouah ; the other being given him by some of my 
people during my last voyage^ which I did not know till 
*^ now. 

CHAPi 1* 8Eei\ vti* Caofs, CUrke, md Gore, £75 

now. He whs, however^ eqiially Well known amongst hir 
chantry men hy both names^ 

On the £Oth^ in the forenoon^ we had another storm from 
the N.W« Thongh this was not of «o long continuance a» 
the fonmer^ the gusts of wind from the hills were far more 
violent, insomuch that we were obliged to strike the yards 
and toprmasts to the very utmost ; and^ even with all this 
precaution^ it .Was with difficulty that we rode it out. These 
storms are very frequent here, and sometimes violent and 
troublesome, rhe neighbouring mountains^ which at these 
times are always loaded with vapours^ not only increase the 
fprce of the wind^ but alter its direction in such a manneiv 
that no two blasts follow each other from the same quarter; 
and the nearer the sfaore^ the more their effects are Mu- 

The next day we were visited by a tribe or family^ conw 
sisting of about thirty persons^ men^ women^ and children/ 
who caihe from the upper p^irt of the Sound. Thad i^ever 
seen them before. 1 ne name uf their chief was Tdmarion* 
geauopranuc^ a man of about forty^five years of £^e^ with 
a cheerful open countenance ; and^ indeed, the rest. of His 
tribe were, in general, the handsomest of the New Zealand' 
race I had ever met with. 

By this time more than two-thirds of the inhabitants of 
the Sound had settled themselves about us. Great numbers 
of them daily frequented the ships, and the encampment 
on shore ; but the latter became, oy far, the most favourite 
place of resort, while our people there were melting some 
seal blubber. No. Greenlander was ever fonder of tmin^oil 
than our friends hercsjeeaned to be. They relished the very: 
skimmings of the kettle, and dregs of the casks ; but a little 
of the pure stinking oil was a delicious feasfl^ so eagerly de-r 
sired, that I suppose it is seldom enjoyed. 

Having got on board as much hay and grass as we jud* 
ged sufficient to serve the cattle till our arrival at Otaheite, 
and having completed the wood and. water of both ships/ 
on the 2Sd we struck our tents, and carried every thing^off 
from the shore, and next morning we weighed anchor> and 
stood out of the cove. But the wind not being very fairy 
and finding that the tide of ebb would be spent before we 
could get out of the Sound, we oast an<Aor agiun a little 
without the island Motuam, to wait for a more favourable ' 
opportunity of putting into the strait. 

While we were Jinmooang end getting under, sail. To 


276 Modem Circtimniitf^altoiii. yart hi. book iit^ 

matongeauooranucy Matahouah^ and many more of the na*' 
tiyes, came to take their leave of us, or rather to obtain, if 
they could, some additional presents from ns before we left 
them* These two chiefs became suitors to me for some . 
goats and hogs. Accordingly^ I gave to Matabonah two 
goatSy a male, and female with kid ; and toTomatongeanoo- 
jannc two pigs> a boar and a sow. They made me a promise 
not to kill them ; though, I must own, I put no great faith 
in this. The animals which Captain Furneaux sent oa 
shore here, and which soon after tell into the hands of the 
natives^ 1 was now told were al] dead ; but I could get no 
intelligence about the fate of those I had left in West Bay, 
and in Cannibal Cove, when I was here in the course of my 
last voyage* However, all the natives whom I conversed 
with, agreed, thai poultry are now to be met with wild in 
the woods behind Ship Cove ; and I was afterward inform- 
ed^ by the two youths who went away with us, thatTiratou, . 
a popular chief amongst them, had a great many cocks 
and bens in his separate possession, and one of the sows. 

On my present arrival at this place, I fully intended to ~ 
have left not only goats and hogs, but sheep, and a youn^ 
bull, with two heifers, if I could have found either a chief 
powerful enough to protect and keep them, or a place where 
there might be a probability of their being concealed from 
lliose who would ignorantly attempt to destroy them. But 
Beither the one nor the other presented itself to me. Tira- 
ton was now absent ; and Tringoboohee, whom I had met 
lelrith during my last voyage, and who seemed to be a per- 
son of much consequence at that time, had been killed five 
months ago, with about seventy persons of his tribe ; and I 
could not learn that there now remained in our neighbour- 
hood any tribe, whose numbers could secure to them a su- 
Eeriority of power over the rest of their countrymen. To 
ave given the animals to any of the natives who possessed 
no such power, would hot have answered the intention ; for 
in a country like this, where no man's property is secure, 
they would sdon have fallen a prey to different parties, and 
been either separated or killed, but most likely both. This 
was so evident, from what we had observed since our arri« 
val that I bad resolved to leave no kind of animal till Ma** 
XtihouBh and the other chief solicited me for the bog& and 
eoats. As I could spare them, I let them go, to take titeir 
cbttnce. I have at different times^.Ieft ia New Zealand not 

i less 

tiHAP. I. s£cr. vii* Cook^ Cletke, and Gore. fi77 

less than ten or a dozen h6gs> besides those put on shore by 
Captain Furneaux. It will be a little extraordinary^ there- 
fore, if this race should not increase and be preserved here, 
either in a ^ild or in a domestic state^ or in both. 

We had not been long at anchor near Motnara> before 
three or four canoes, filled with natives, came off to us frckn 
the S.E. side of the sound ; and a brisk trade was carried 
on with them for the curiosities of this place. In one of 
these canoes was Kahoora, whom I have already mentioned 
as thejleader of the party who cut off" the crew of the Ad- 
venture's boat. This was the third time he had visited us^ 
without betraying the smallest appearance of fear. I wiis 
ashore when he now arrived, but had got on board just as 
he was going away. Omai, who had jetumed with me, prer 
sently pointed him out, and solicited me to shoot him. Not 
satisfied with this, he addressed himself to Kahoora, threiit- 
ening to be his executioner if ever he presumed to visit Us 

The New Zealander paid so little regard to these thresLts, 
that he returned the next morning with his whole family^ 
men; women, and children, to the number df twenty and 
upward. Omai was the first who acquainted me with his 
being along-^side the ship, and desired to know if b6 should 
ask him to come on board. I told him he might ; and ac- 
cordingly he introduced the chief into the cabin, sayitig, 
•^ There is Kahoora, kill him !'* But; as if he had forgbt 
bis former threats, or were afraid that I should call upon 
tiim to perforni them, he immediately retired. * In a short 
time,' however, he returned ; and seeing the chief unhurt, 
he expostulated with me veVy earnestly, saying,'*^ Wh^ do 
you not kill him ? You tell m^^ if a man kills another ia 
Icngland that he is hanged for it. This man has killed ten, 
and yet you will not kill him, though many of his country- 
inen desirfe it, and it would be very good." Omai's argu- 
ilients, though specious enough, having no weight with me, 
i desired him to ask the chief why he had killed Captaia 
Fumeaux's people ? At this quei^tion, Kahoora folded his 
arms, bung down his head, and Iboked like oUe caught in 
a trap; and £ firmly believe he expected instant death. 
But no sooner was he assured of his safety, than he became 
di^erful. He did not, however^ »eem willing to give me an 
answer to tbequestion thait had been put to him, till I had, 
again and again, repealed oiy premise thai he shauld not 

• be 

C78 Modem Circumnafigatunu* fart hi. book ut^ 

be hurt. Then be ventured to tell us, '* That one of his 
countrymen having brought a stone hatchet to barter, thq 
inan, to whom it was offered j took it, and would neither re« 
turn it, nor give any thing for it ; on which the owner of i( 
snatched up the bread as an equivalent, and then the quar- 
rel began,** 

The remainder of Kahoora's account of this unhappy af-^ 
fair, differed very little from what we had before learnt 
from the rest of his countrymen. He mentioned the nar-» 
row escape he had during the fray ; a musquet being level* 
led at himj which he avoided by skulking behind the boat; 
Had another man, who stood close to him, was shot dead* 
As soon as the musquet was discharged, he instantly seized 
the opportunity to attack Mr Rowe, who commanded the 
party, and who defended himself with his hanger, (with 
which he wounded Kahoora in the arm,) till he was over-r 
poweired by numbers. 

Mr Burney, who Was sent by Captain Furneaux the next 
day, with an armied party, to look for his' missing people, 
upon discovering the horrid proofs of their shocking fate, had 
fired several vollies amongst the crowds of natives who still 
remained assembled on the spot, and were probably par« 
taking of the detestable banquet. It was natural to suppose 
that he had not fired in vain; and that, therefore, some of 
the murderers and devourers of our unhappy countrymen 
Iwtd suffered tinder our* just resentment. Upon enquiry^ 
however^; into this matter, not only from Kahoora, but from 
others who had opportunities of knowing, it appeared tha| 
our supposition was groundless^ and that not one of the shot 
fired by, Mr Burney^ people had taken effect, 90 as to ViWg 
Qt even to hurt^ a single person.* 



* Mr Bumey was not warranted in firing. It w«8 not possible for him, 
at the time, to know whether or not.his comrades hakl been Justly punish- 
cd for aggressions on the savages. He acted, therefore, from the impulse 
of blind revenge. But such a motive, though natural enough it may'be» 
iptfust,: nevertheless, be condemned by every law recognised among civilized 
n^ions. Even his observing these people engaged in feasting on the vie* 
tims of their fury, much indeed as it would necessarily augment his abhor- 
rence, could not be allowed a sufficient plea for bis attacking them ; be- 
cause the principles which ought to govern the conduct of a member of 
such a society aa he belonged to, are indiscriminately imperative in theic 
nature, ^d do not allow any latitude of dispensation to an individual. 
The only thing that warrants the violation of them, is the necessity im- 
posed by a still higher law, — that of preserving his own existence. But,' 
Mo^ the present instance^ it does not appear that he was in any danger.— £« 

u I. SBGsr. VII* Cook, Clerke, and Gore, 279 

It was evident^ that most of the natives we had met with 
%ince our arrival, as they knew I was fully acquainted with 
the history of the massacre^ expected I should avenge it 
with the death of Kahoora. And many of them seemed not 
only to wish itj but expressed their surprise at my forbear* 
ance. As he could not be ignorant of this, it was a matter 
of wonder to me that he put himself so often in my power« 
When be visited us while the ships lay in theicove, confi* 
ding in the number of his friends that accompanied him> 
he might think himself safe ; but his two last visits had been 
made under such circumstances^ that he could no longer 
lely upon this. We were then at anchor in. the entrance of 
the sounid^ and at some distance from any shore ; so that he 
could not have any assistance from thenceynor flatter him- 
self he could have live mdans of making his escape^ had I 
determined to detain him* .And yet^ after hi» ^st fears, on 
being interrogated, were over, he was so far from entertain* 
ing any uneasy sensations, that, on seeing a portrait of oo€ 
of his countrymen hanging dp in the cabin, he desired to 
have his own portrait drawn ; and sat tilt Mr Webber had 
finished it, without marking the least impatience. I must 
confess I admired his courage, and was not a little pleased 
to observe the extent of the confidence he put in me ; for 
be placed his whole safety in the declarations Lhad uni* 
formly made to those who solicited his death. That I bad 
always been a friend to them all, and would continue so, 
unless thiey gave me cause to act otherwise ; that as to their 
inhuman treatment of our people, I should think no more 
of it, the transaction having happened long ago, and whei^ 
I was not present ; but that^ if ever they made^ a secand at- 
teonpt of that kind, they might rest assured of feeling the 
weight of my resentment.' 


3 Here Captain Cook acted wiselv ; and, indeed^ throughimt the ^bole 
transaction, his conduct merits the highest applause. To resist the solids' 
tations of envy and revenge^ where acquiescence woukl have proved so^ 
availing to his reputation, and so secnre in its display^ implied a eonscieiK 
tious regard to an invisible authority, which must ever be allowed to con^ 
stitute a feature of excellency in any man to whom power is committed* 
His threatening is not to be considered as any exception to what is noW' 
said in his praise, being, in fact, a beneficial intimation calculated to secure 
subjection to a necessary law. Here it may not be amiss to remark, that 
savages, little, as some men think of them, are possessed of all the facul* 
ties of huQiao nature; and that covscienoe, that prindpie, which, more 


280 Modim Circumnavigation$, past hi* book in.' 

Vot some tioie before we arrived at New Zealand^ Omai 
bad expressed a desire to.take ooe of the natives with hkn 
to bis own country. We had not been there many daya 
before be had an opportunity of being gratified in this ; 
for a youth, about seventeen or eighteen years of age, na- 
med Taweiharooa, offered to accompany him, and took up 
his residence on board. I paid little attention to this at 
first, imagining that he would leave us when we were about 
to deplart, and after he had got what he could from Omai. 
At lengthj finding that he was fixed in his resolution to go 
with us, and having learnt that he was the only son of a de* 
ceased chief, and that his mother, still living, was a womaa 
much respected here, I was apprehensive that Omai had de* 
ceived him and his friends, by giving them hopes and assn- 
iances.of his being sent back. I therefore caused it to be 
made known to them all, that if the young man went away 
with us be would never return. But this declaration seem- 
ed to make no sort of impression. The afternoon before 
we left the cove, Tiratontou, his mother, came on board, to 
receive her last present from Omai. The same evening she 
and Taweiharooa parted, with all the marks of tender af- 
fection that might be expected between a parent and a 
child, who were never to meet again. But she said she 
would cry no more ; and, sure enough, she kept her word^ 
For when she returned the next morning, to take her IUst 
farewell of him, all the time she was: on board she remaiQ*^ 
ed ^uite cheerful/ and went away wholly unconcerned. 


tlian reslson, thftracterizes our species, has sis true and as efident an ex* 
istence In their breasts. Kow this alWays rtepe(;ts a dbperior poS^er, &ad 
h the source of tteit indescribiablcf dread of sone opposing and awful 
agency, which never fails to visit the tran^essor of its dictates. We roust 
Qot, however, ascribe to it every apprehension of danger with which the 
ihinfl is occasionally disturbed. There is a sort of fear of evil which seems 
common to us with the lower animals, and which cannot therefore be ima- 
glkied to have any oonriectton With moral delinquency. This latter, it is 
ffobeble, was all that Kahoora experienced in hii first interview with 
Cook after the massacre ; and hence his apprehensions' wotild easily Hbe 
subdued by the assurances which that gentleman made him. In fact, from 
she facility of his confidence, we may almost certainiy hifer his oonscioas* 
Bicss of innocence, notwithstanding his Share in the- commission of the 
deed. This implies no inconsistency, as everv thinking person will at once 
perceive; for it must be remembered, that there is' no evidence whatever 
9Sto any design or premeditated plan oti the part of the safages. Had 
his dread .been of the former kind, it is scared v conceivable that the ut- 
most assurances of indemnfty which Cook could give, would have prsda* 
eed 80 unaffected a manlfestatioa of ease as is described.— £^ 

CHAP* i« SECT* rit* CoakrCkrkef end Gore* fi&l 

That Taweiharooa might be sent away in a manner be- 
coming his birtbj another youth was to have gone with him. 
^s his servant ; and, with this view, as we supposed, be re* 
mained on board till we were about to sail, when bis friends 
toolc him ashore. However> his place was supplied next 
morning by another, a boy of about nine or ten years of 
4ge, named Kokoa. He was presented to me by his owa 
Cither, who, I believe, would have parted with his dog with 
far less indifference. The very little clothing the boy had 
he stript him of, and left him as naked as he was born. It 
tvas to no purpose that I endeavoured to convince these 
people of the improbability, or rather of the impossibility^ 
oi these youths ever returning home. Not one, riot evea 
their nearest relations, seemed to trouble themselves about 
their future fate. Since this was the case, and I was well 
•atisfied that the boys would be no losers by exchange of 
place, I the more readily gave my consent to their going. 
J From my own observations, and from the information of 
Taweiharooa and others, it appears to me that the New 
Zealanders must live under perpetual apprehensions of be* 
tng destroyed by each other ; there being few of their tribes 
that have not, as they think, sustained wrong^ from some 
other tribe, which they are continually upon the watch to 
revenge. And, perhaps, the desire of a gbod meal may be 
no small iaciteihent. - t dfn told that many years sometimes 
elapse before a favourable opportunity happens, and that 
the son never loses sight of an injury that has been done to 
his father;* Their fnethod of execution their horrible de- 

* * . ■ ' 

' ^ Every reader almost will (lere recollect, that a similar disposition to 
perpetuate grievances has been found to operate in all barbarous nationgy 
Und indeed amongst many people who lay great claims to refinement in ci- 
vilization. It will be found, in truth, too strong an effort for most men's 
charity,. to regard with perf^t impartiality eitber a person or a nation 
^hom their fathers had pointed out as an enemy. On the great scale of 
the world, we see it is the nearly inevitable consequence of war. to gene* 
t0lte malicious feelings. In addition, then, to some contrariety of interest* 
to. 8om.e real or imaginary aggression, or even a bare possibility of being 
injured) U is almost enough, at any time, for the commencement of a new 
struggle betwixt rival nations, that one, or .both of them, remember thef 
were formerly at variance. Nor is it at all requisite for dUe rancour in 
such cases, that politicians explain the grounds of the quarrel, and aggra- 
vate the enormous injustice or the opponent, or prove his readiness to do 
Okischief. The animosity is already- conceived, and waits only the remi^ 
vat of tb^ gause-Uke parutiooi to be ahle^ wiUi greater certainty af d&cti 

S02i Modern Cir^umfJWngatioo^ jpAjtt iii. boqi( lu^ 

fignh is by stealing upon the adverse party in the night; 
auid if they 6nd them upguarded, (which, however, I be^ 
Iieve, is very seldom the case,) they kill every. one indiscri** 
Biinately ; not even, sparing the wooien and children Whea 
t^e massacre is completed, they either feast and gorge 
themselves on the spot^ or carry off as many of the dead 
'bodies as they can, and devour them at home* with acts of 
brutality too shocking to he described. If tbej are disco* 
¥ered before ti^ey can execute their bloody purpose, they 
generally steal off again, and sometimes are pursued and 
attacked by the other party in their turn. To give quarterf 
9r to take prisoners, makes no part of their miUtary law ) 
so' that the vanquished can only save their lives by flight* 
This perpetual state of war, and destructive method of coo* 
ducting it, operates so strongly in producing habitual. cir-» 
(;umspection, that one hardly eVer finds a IHew ZeaUndes 
off his guard either by night or by day. Indeed, no other 
man can have .such pow^erful motives to be vigilant^ as the 
preservation both of body and of soul depends upon it ; for/ 
according to their system of belief, the soul of the man: 
yrhose Hesh is devoured by the enemy, is doomed to a pern 
petual fire, while the soul of the man whose body has been 
xebcued from those who killed him, as well as the souls of 
all who die a natural. death, ascend to the habitations of 
the gods. 1 asked^ Whether they eat l^be flesh of such of 


to guide its instniments of 4lcstructioB* ** Hear," says Mr Eergason, in 
his essay on this subject, *^ hear the peasants on different sides of the Alps, 
ind the Pyrenees, tne Rhyne, or the British channel, give vent to their 
fMrgudices and national passions; it is among them that we find the mate* 
rials of war and dissension laid witliout the direction of government, and 
aparks ready to kindle into a flame, which the statesman is frequently dis* 
posed to extinguish. The fire will not always catch where hia reasons of 
state would direct, nor stop where the concurrence of interest has produ* 
ced aor aiiience. * My father,' said a Spanish peasant, * would rise from 
bis grave if he could forene^ a war with France/ What interest had he, 
or the bones of bis father, in the quarrels of princes ^' The answer might 
easily he given by anotfier anecdote. During a parley betwixt the leaders of 
two rival Highland clans, which had for its object the peaceable termina- 
tion of their differences, a subordinate officer, not relishing the unusual ho* 
luiiy, went up to his chief in a rage, and upbraided him for delaying the 
Qombat. *< Don't yon ^ee,*' says he, brandishing his claymore, ''that the 
sun is almost set f — we'll no hae half time to kill thae rascals!" The pea^ 
8ant naturally enough wished that his father might rise again to take his 
share in the delightful work of slaughter. Pray, what childish scruples 
withhold persons of auch keen appetitss from occasionally takiog a bellj^ 
liiil of their enemy's flesh ?— £• 

(SHAP* u 6E0T. Ti^. Cooh, Ckrke, and Gort* ' 29if 

v^heir friends as had been kilkd in war> but whoi^ bodiet 
were saved from falling into the enemy's hands f Thqf 
seemed surprised at the question^ which they answered ia 
the negative^ expressing some abhorrence at the very idea. 
Their common method of disposing of their dead^ is by de« 
positing their bodies in the earth ; but if they have more 
pf their slaughtered enemies than they can eat^ they throw 
Ihem into the sea. 

' Tiiey have no such thing as morai$, or other places of 
public worship; nor do they ever assemble together with 
this view. But they have priests^ who alone ^dress the 
gods in prayer for the pirosperity of their temporal aflairs^ 
feUi^h as an enterprise against a hostile tribe^ a tishing party^ 
W the like4 • 

' Whatever, the principles of their teltgion may be^ of 
which we remain very ignorant^ its instructions are very 
itrpngly inculcated into tbem from their very infancy. . Oi 
this I ^aw a remarkable instance^ in the youth who was iSrsI 
destinc^d to accompany Taweih^oqa* He refrained from 
mating the greatest part of the day^ on ac<CQunt of his hyak 
beipg cut, though every method was tried to induce itira Uk 
break his resolution, and he was tepipted With the offer cS 
such victuals as he Was known to esteem the most. He said, 
if he eat any thing that day the Eatooa would kill him. 
Hpwever, toward eveningi the cravings of nature got ibe, 
better of the prepepts of his religion, and he ale, thougit^ 
bul^ sparingly. 1 had often conjectured, before this, that 
they bad some superstitions notions about tl^ir hair, ha- 
ying frequently observed quantities of it tied to the brancbea 
9f,tree9 near .some of, their hahi^ops; butwhi^ these oo« 
tions are I could, never learn.^ 

Npl.w^lhstai^diug the divided apd hostile, s^iaie in which 
the New Zealanders Jive^ travelling strangej^, :who <6omQ 
yith n^ ill design, i^re^weil received and entertained during 
their .stay t which> however, it is expected, will be no long* 
er than is requisite to transact the business they come upon. 
Thus it 19 that a trade for poetuunmoo, or green talc, is car- 
ried on throughout the whole, northern island. For they 
tell us^ that th/ none of this stone to be found but at a 
place which bears its name, somewhere about .the head of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, and not above one or two days 
journey, at most, from the station q{ our ships* I regret* 
ted much that I could not spare time s^fficieni for paying a 

, visit 

£84 Modem GreumnatigaHons. »art hi. book lui 

Ttsit to the place ; as we were told a hundred fabulous shH 
Ties ab6ut tnis stone, not one of which carried with it the 
least probability of truth, though some of their niost sensi« 
ble men would have us believe them. One of these storiies 
is, that this stone is originally a fish, which they strike with 
a gig in the water, tie a rope to it, and drag it to the shoise, 
to which they fasten it, and it afterwards becomes stone. 
As they all agree that it is fished out of a large lake, or col* 
lection of waters, the most probable conjecture is, that it is 
brought from the mountains, and deposited in the water 
by the torrents. This lake is called by the natives Tavat 
Poenammoo, that is, the Water of Green Talc ; and it ia 
CMily the adjoining part of the country, and not the whole 
southern island of New Zealand, that is known to them by 
thename which hath been given to it on my chart. 

Polygamy is allowed amongst these people ; and it is not 
uncommon for a man to have two or three wives. The wo* 
men are marriageable at a very early age ; and it should 
seem, that one who is unmarried, is but in a forlorn state. 
She can with difficulty get a subsistence ; at least she is,'ia 
a great measure, without a protector, though in constant 
want of a powerful one. 

The New Zealanders seem to be a people perfectly satis- 
fied with the little knowledge they are masters of, without 
attempting, in the least, to improve it. Nor are they re- 
markably curious, either in their observations or their en- 
quiries. New objects do not strike them with such a de* 
gree of surprise as one would naturally expect ; nor do they 
even fix their attention for a moment. Omai, indeed, who 
was a great favourite with them, would sometimes attract a 
circle about him ; but they seemed to listen to his speeches 
like persons who neither understood, nor wished to under- 
stand, what they heard. 

One day^ on our enquiring of Taweiharooa, how many 
ships, such as ours, had ever arrived in Queen Charlotte's 
Sounds or in any part of its neighbourhood i he began with 
giving an account of one absolutely unknown to us. This^ 
he said, had put into a port on the N.W, coast of Teera-^ 
witte, but a very few vears before I arrived in the Sound in 
the Endeavour, which the New Zealanden^ distinguish by 
calling it Tupia*s ship. At first, I thought he might hav^ 
been mistaken as to the time and place ; and that the ship 
hi question might be either Monsieur SurviUe's^ who is said 

4 to 

• I. 8BGT* vil# Coak, Chrke, and Go^k ' €85 

to have touched upon the N.E. coast of Eaheinomauwe^ the 
same jear I was there in the Eadeavour ; or el^e Monsieur 
Marion du Fresne's, who was in the Bay of Islandsj on the 
same coasts a few years after. But he assured us that he 
was not mistaken^ either as to the tioie^ or as to the plaee 
of this ship's arrival, and that it was well known to every 
body about Queen Charlotte's Sound and Teerawitte. He 
aaidj that the captain of ber^ during his stay here, cobabi* 
ted with a woman of the country ; and that she had a son 
by him still living, about the age of Kokoay who, though 
not born then, seemed to be equally well acquainted with 
the story. We were dso informed by Taweibarooa, that 
this ship first introduced the venereal disease amongst the 
New Zealanders. I wish that subsequent viisitors from £a : 
rope may not have their share of guilt in leaving so dread* 
ful a remembrance of them amongst this unhappy race« 
The disorder now is but too common here, though they d<| 
not seem to regard it, saying, that its effects are not near sq 
pernicious at present as they vfere at its first appearance^ 
The only method, as far as I ever heard, that they makie 
use of as a remedy, is by giving the patient the use of a 
sort of hot bath, which they produce by the steam of cer-9 
tain green plants laid over hot stones. 

I regretted much that we did not hear of this ship while 
we were in the sound, as, by means of Omai, we might 
have had full and correct information about her from eye-*, 
witnesses. For Taweiharooa's account was only from what 
he had been told, and therefore liable to many mistakes. I 
have not the least doubt, however, that his testimony may 
so far be. depended upon, as to induce us to believe that a 
ship really had b^en at Teerawitte prior to my arrival in the 
Endeavour, as it corresponds with what I had formerly 
heard. For in the latter end of 1773, the second time I 
visited New Zealand, during my late voyage, when we were 
continually making enquiries about the Adventure, after 
our separation, some of the natives informed us of a ship's 
having been in a port on the coast of Teerawitte. But, at 
this time, we thought we must have misunderstood them^ 
and took no notiee of the iiitelligence. 

The arrival of this unknown ship has been marked by the 
T^hvf Zealanders with more causes of remembrance than the 
unhappy one just mentioned. Taweiharooa told us their 
4;puntry was ii^^bted ,to her people for. the. present. of fin 


tM Modem CiremmidiiigiUumi^ PAM xii. book un 

animal, vbieb tbey left behind them. But as be bad not 
seen it biinseif, no sort of judgment coold be formed froflu 
hid description of what kind it was. 

We bad another piece of intelligence from him, mora 
correptly given^ though not confirmed by our own observai^ 
tions, that there are snakes and lizards there of an enormous 
aize. He described the latter as being eight feet in lengthy 
and as big round as a man's body. He said they some-* 
^mea seize and devour men; that they burrow in the 
ground ; and that they are killed by making fires at the 
Xnouths of the holes. We could not be mistaken as to the 
animal ; for, with hisi own hand, he drew a very good re<* 
presentation of a lizard on a piece of paper, as also of a 
snake, in order to shew what he meant.' 

Though much has been said, in the narratives of my two 
former voyages, about this country and its inhabitants, Mr 
Anderson^s remarks, as serving either to confirm or to cor- 
rect our former accounts, may not be superfluous. He had 
been three times with me to Queen Charlotte's Sound dut 
ring my last voyage; and, aft6r this fourth vittt, what he 
thought proper to record, niay be considered as the result 
of sufficient observation. The reader will find it in the next 
section ; and I have nothing farther to add, before 1 quit 
^ew^ Zealand, but to give some account of the astronomi* 
cal and nautical observations made during our stay there. 

The longitude of the observatory in Ship 
Cove» by a mean of 103 sets of obser- 
vations, each set consisting of six or 
. more observed distances, was - - - 174** 25' 15*^ E» 

By the time-%keeper, at Greenwich rate, it 

was ^ . - - - - 175 26 30 

By ditto, at the Cape. rate, it was - - - 174 56 12 

Variation of the compass, being the mean 
of six needles, observed on board the 

. ship - 12 40 0E. 

By the same needies on shore^ it was - - 13 5S 

The dip of the south end, observed on 

shore, was i:-,*------63 42 



3 There csif be little doubt that the animal here ca fled ft litsrd IS mat" 
* IS 

• If «seTt f ufi, Cook, Chrke, Md Gore. ' flSf 

By a mean of the results of eleven days observations^ the 
time-keeper was too slow for mean time on February 22, 
at noon, by II'' 5(f 37^^96 ; and she was found to be losing 
on mean time at the rate of 2^9 1 3 per day. From this rate 
the longitude will be computed, till some other opportunity 
offers to ascertain her rate anew. The astronomical clock, 
with the same length of pendulum as at Greenwich^ was 
found to be losing on sidertal time 40^,239 per day. 

It will not be amiss to mention, that the longitude^ by 
lunar observations^ as above^ differs only 6^ 4o* from what 
Mr Wales made it during my last voyage; his being so 
IQUch more to the W. or 174* 18' 3(f. 

The ladtude of Ship Cove is 41'' 6" (f^ as found by Bit 

Sectiok Vlllt 

Jlr Anderson*s Remarks on the Country near Queen Cluir*^ 
lotte's Sound,— The Soil. — Climate — Wither. — fVinds.^^ 
Trees, — Plants. — Birds — Fish^r^ Other Animals.^ Of the 
Inhabitants^ Description of their Persons,'^^ l heir Dress. 
— OmanUnts.-^Habitati&m, — Boats. — Food and Cookery, 
"^jirts. — Wtapons-^CrueUy to Prisoners^-^Fariom Cus^' 
toms. — Specimen of their Language. 

Thk land every where about Queen Charlotte's Sound is 
uncommonly mountainous^ rising immediately from the sea 
into large h\\U$ with blunted tops. At considerable dis- 
tances are valleys, or rather impressions on the sides of the 
hills, which are not deep, each terminating toward the sea 
in a small cove, with a pebbly or sandy beach ; behind which 
are small flats, where the natives generally build their huts, 
at the same time hauling their canoes upon the beaches. This 
situation is the more conv^ent, as in every cove a brook 
of very fine water (in which are some small trout) empties 
itself into the sea. 

The bases of these mountains, at least toward the shore^ 
are constituted of a brittle, yellowish sand-stone, which ac^ 
quires a bluish cast where the sea washes it. It runs, at 
some places, in horizontal, and, at other places, in oblique 
strata, being frequently divided, at small distances, by thin 
veins pf course quaritt% which commonly follows the dtreo- 
r. tion 

f8# Modem CtrcuyiNNNM^afJoiiii >abt iii.-book nu 

tion of the olher^ thoogh they sometimes intersect it. The 
mouldy or soil, which covers this, is also of a yellowish cast; 
not onlike marl ; and is commonly from a foot to two, or 
XDore^ in thickniess. 

The quality of this soil is best indicated by the luxuriant 
growth of its productions* For the hills (except a few to- 
ward the sea, which are covered with smaller bushes) are 
one continued forest of lofty trees, flourishing with a vigour 
almost superior to any thing that imagination can conceive, 
and affording an august prospect to those who are delight- 
ed with the grand and beautiful works of nature. 

The agreeable temperature of the climate, no doubt, con* 
tributes much to this uncommon strength in vegetation. 
For, at this time, though answering to our month of Au- 
gust, the weather was never disagreeably warm, nor did it 
raise the thermometer higher than 60*. The winter, also, 
seems equally mild with respect to cold ; for in June, 1773, 
which corresponds to our December, the mercury never fell 
lower than 48*; and the trees, at that time, retained their 
verdure, as if in the summer season ; so that, 1 believe, their 
foliage is never shed, till pushed oflF by the succeeding 
leaves in spring. 

The weather, in general, is good, but sometimes windy, 
with heavy rain, which, however, never lasts above a day ; 
nor does it appear that it is ever excessive. For there are 
no marks oF torrents rushing down the hills, as in many 
countries ; and the brooks, if we may judge from their 
channels, seem never to be greatly increased. I have ob- 
served, in the four different times of my being here, that 
the winds from the south-eastward are commonly mode- 
rale, but attended with cloudy weather, or rain. The S.W. 
winds blow very strong, and are also attended with rain, 
but they seldom last long. The N.W. winds are the most 
prevailing ; and though often pretty strong, are almost con- 
stantly connected with fine weather. In short, the only ob- 
stacle, to this being one of the finest countries upon earth, 
is its great hillyness ; which, allowing the woods to be clear- 
ed away, would leave it less proper for pasturage than flat 
land, and still more improper for cultivation, which could 
never be effected here by the plough. 

The large trees which cover the hills are chiefly of two 
sorts. One of them, of the size of our largest firs, grows 
much after their manner, but the leaves, and ^mall berfies 


csAF. I. SBCT. Tiiik Cook, Cl»he^ Mi Qoro^ 4l8t 

OB tiieir pointy are much liker the yfeW. It was this which 
suppliad the place of spruce la itiakiDg beer ; which we did 
with a strong d^coctioa of its lea^es^ fermented with trea* 
de or sugar* And this liquor^ when well prepared, was ac- 
icDowledged t^ be little inferior to Uie American spruce 
bieer^ by those who had experience of both. The other sort 
of tree is npt unlike a maple^ and grows often to a great 
size ; but it only served for fuel^ as diie wood, both of this 
and of the preceding, was found to be rather too heavy 
for maste, yards, and other similar repairs. 

There is a greater variety*of trees on the small flat spots 
bphind the beaches. Amongst these are two that bear a 
kind of plum of the size of prunes, the one yellow, called 
hatraca, and the other black, called maituoy but neither of 
them of ft very agreeable taste, though the natives eat both^- 
and our people did the same. Those of the first sort grow 
on small trees, always facing the sea ; but the others belong 
to larger trees thai stand farther within the wood, and 
which we frequently cut down for fiiel. 

A species of phUadelpkia grows on the eminences which 
jut out into the sea ; and also a tree bearing flowers almost 
like myrtle, with roundish spotted leaves of a disagreeable 
smell. We drank the leaves of the philadelphus as tea, and, 
found that they had a pleasant taste and smell, and might 
make an exceyent substitute for the oriental sort. 

Among other plants that were useful to us, may be reck« 
oned wild celery, which grows plentifully in almost every 
cove, especially if the natives have ever resided there be-* 
fore ; and one that we used to call scurvv-grass, though 
entirely different from the plant to which we give that 
name. This, however, is far preferable to ours for Common 
use, and may be known by its jagged leaves^ and small 
clusters 6f white flowers on the top. Both sorts were boil- 
ed every morning, with wheat ground in a mill, and with 
portable soup, for the people's break&st, and also amongst 
their pease-soup for dinner. Sometimes they were used as 
sallad, or dressed as greens. In all which ways they are 
good ; and, together with the fish, with which we were con-» 
atantly sqpplied, they formed a sort of refreshment^ perhaps 
little inferior to what is to be met with in places most no* 
ted by navigators for plentiful supplies of animal and vege- 
table food. 

Amongst the known kinds of plants met with here, are 

VOL. XV. - T common 

ftgo Modem CinuminatSgaiioni. part m. book in. 

common and roogh bindweed; night-thade and nettles, 
both which grow to the iize of small trees; a shrubby 
speedwell, found near all the beaches, sow-thistles, virgin's 
bower, vanelloe, French willow, euphorbia, and crane's- 
bill ; also cudweed, rushes, bull-rushes, flax, all-heal, Ame- 
rican- nightshade, knot^jgrass, brambles, eye-brieht, and 
groundsel ; but the species of each are different m>m any 
we have in Europe. There is also polvpody, spleenwort^ 
and about twenty other different sort of ferns, entirely pe- 
culiar to the place, with several sorts of mosses, either rare, 
or produced only here ; besides a great number of other 
plants, i%hose uses are not yet known, and subjects fit only 
for botanical books. 

Of these, however, there is one which deserves particular 
notice here, as the natives make their garments of it, and 
it produces a fine silky flax, superior in appearance to any 
thing we have, and probably, at least, as strong. It growa 
every where near the sea, and in some places a consider- 
able way up the hills, in bunches or tufis, with sedge-like 
leaves, bearing, on a long stalk, yellowish flowers, which 
are succeeded by a long roundish pod, filled with very thin 
shining black seeds. A species of long pepper is found 
in great plenty, but it has little of the aromatic flavour 
that makes spices valuable; and a tree, much like a palm 
at a distance, is pretty frequent in the woods, though the 
deceit appears as you cotne near it. It is remarkable, 
that as the greatest part of the trees and plants had at this 
time lost their flowers, we perceived they were generally of 
the berry-bearing kind ; of which, and other seeds, 1 brought 
away about thirty different sorts. Of these, one in parti- 
cular, which bears a red berry, is much like the supple-jack, 
and grows about the trees, stretching from one to another, 
in such a manner as to render the woods almost wholly im- 

The birds, of which there is a tolerable stock, as well as 
the vegetable productions, are almost entirely peculiar to 
the place. And though it be difficult to follow them, on 
account of the quantity of underwood, and the climbing 
plants, that render travelling, for pleasure alone, uncom- 
monly fatiguing, yet a person, by remaining in one place, 
may shoot as many in a day as would serve six or eight 
others. The principal sorts are large brown parrots, with 
white or greyish heads ; green parroquets^ with red fore- 

It is 

OHAF. I* SBCT. Till. Cook, Clerked md Gartm tgi 

heads ; large wood pigeons, brown aboTe, with white bd* 
lies, the rest green, and the bill and feet red ; two sorts of 
cuckoos, one as large as our common sort, of a brown co* 
lour, variegated with biack, the other not larger than ^ 
ararrow, of a splendid green cast above, and elegantly var 
ned with waves of golden, green, brown, and white colours 
below. Both these are scarce, but several others are in 
greater plenty ; one of which, of a black colour, with a 
greenish cast, is remarkable for having a tuft of white curl- 
ed feathers hanging under the throat, abd was called the 
bird* by our people. Another sort, rather smaller, is 

lack, with a brown back and wings, and two small gills 
under the root of the bill. This we called the small watde 
bird, to distinguish it from another, which we called the 
large one, of the size of a common pigeon, with two larse 

elTow and purple membranes also at the root of the buL 
black, or rather blue, and has no resemblance of the 
other but in name, for the bill is thick, short, and crooked, 
and has all together an uncommon appearance. A gross- 
beak, about the size of a thrush, of a brown colour, with a 
reddish tail, is frequent ; as is also a small greenish bird, 
which is almost the only musical one here, but is sufficient 
by itself to fill the woods with a melody that is not only 
sweet, but so varied, that one would imagine he was sur- 
rounded by a hundred different sorts of birds when the lit- 
tle warbler is near. From ,these circumstances we named 
it the mocking bird. There are likewise three or four sorts 
of smaller birds ; one of which, in figure and tameness, ex- 
actly resembles our robin, but is black where that is brown, 
and white where that is red. Another differs but little from 
this, except in being smaller ; and a third sort has a long 
tail, which it expands as a fan on coming near, and makes 
a chirping noise when it perches. King-fishers are seen, 
thougn rare, and are about the size of our £nglish ones, 
but with an inferior plumage. 

About the rocks are seen blapk sea-pies with red bills ; 
and crested shags of a leaden colour, with small black spots 
on the wings and shoulders, and the rest of the upper part 
of a velvet black tinged with green. We frequently shot 
both thesCj and also a more common sort of shags, black 


* It had this name from its tuft of feathers, resemblinc the white flow 
en used as onaamenta in the ears at Otaheite, and called there Poowa» 


99t Modem Cireumnav^eiioiiu vayt hi. iiook in, 

above and white nnderaeallij that bmild their nests upon 
trees, on which' sometimes a dossen or more sit at once. 
There are also, about the shore, a few sea-gulls, some bine 
herons, 'and sometimes, though very rarely, wild-dncks, a 
small sandy-coloured plover, and some sand-larks. And 
small penguins, black above, with a white belly, as wdl as 
numbers of little black divers, swim often about the -sound. 
We likewise killed two or three rails, of a browii or yellowish 
colour, variegated with black, which feed about the small 
brooks, and are nearly as hirge as a common fowl. No 
other sort of game was seen, except a single snipe, which 
was shot, and differs'but little from that of Europe. 

The principal fish we caught by the seine were mullets 
and elephant fish, with a few sdies and flounders ; but those 
that the natives mostly supplied us with were a sort of sea* 
bream, of a silver colour, with a black spot on the neck, 
large conger eels, and a fish in shape much like the bream, 
but so large as to weigh five, six, or seven pounds.* It is 
blackish wld thick lips, and called Mogge bi^ the natives. 
With hook and line we caught chiefly a blackish fish of the 
size of a haddock, called cole-fish by the seamen, but dif- 
fering much from that known by the same name in Europe ; 
and another of the same size, of a reddish colour, with a 
Kitle beard, which we called night-walkers, from the great- 
est number beine caught in the night. Sometimes we got 
a sort of small salmon, gurnards,' skate, and nurses ; and the 
natives now and then brought hake, paracutas^ a small sort 
of mackerel, parrot-fish, and leather-jackets ; besides an- 
other fish, which is very rare, shaped almost like a dolphin, 
of a black colour, with strong bony jaws, and the back fin, 
as well as those opposite to it, much lengthened ^tthe end^. 
AH these sorts, except the last, which yte did not try, ar^ 
excellent to eat; but- the Mogge, small salmon, and cole^ 
fish, are superior to the rest* 

The. rocks are abundantly furnished .with great quainftitif^i 
of excellent ihuscles ; one sort of which> that is not very 
common, measures above a foot in length. There are also 
cockles buried in the sand of the smdl beaches ; and in 
some places oysters, which, though very small, are well 
tasted. Of other shell-fish there are ten or twelve sorts, 
such as periwinkles, wilks, limpets, and some very beauti- 
ful sea-ears, also another sort which stick to the weeds ; 
with some other things, as sea-eggs, star-fish^ &c. several 


CHAP* I. SECT. VIII. Cook,Clerk^ and Gore. $Q$ 

of which are peculiar to the place. The natives likewise 
sometimes brought us very fine cray«fish, equal to our lar- 
gest lobsters^ and cuttle-fish^ vrhicb they eat themselves* 

Insects are very rare. Of these we only saw two sorts of 
dragon-fliesj some butterflieSy small grasshoppers, seve^ 
sorts pf. spiders^ some small black ants» and vast numbers 
of scorpion-flies^ with whose chirping the woods respiind* 
The only noxious one is the sand-fly, very nume^ou^ here, 
and almost as troublesome as the musquitoe ; for we found 
no reptile here, except two or three sorts of small harmless 

It is remarkable, that, in this extensive iandj there should 
not even be the traces of any quadruped, only. excepting a 
few rats, and a sort of fox-dog, which is a domestic animal 
with the natives. 

Neither is there any\ mineral worth notice, but a green 
jasper or serpent-stone, of which the New Zealanders make 
their tools and ornaments. This is esteemed a previous ar* 
tide by them ; and they have some superstitious notions 
about the method of its generation, which we! could n4>t 
perfectly understand* It is plain, howev^]r> that wherever 
It may be found, (which, they say, is in the chaonel of a 
large river far to the southward^) it is disposed in the earth 
in thin layers^ or perhaps in detached pieces, like our flints; 
for the edges of those pieces, which have not been.c^t, are 
covered with a whitisn crust like these. A piece of this 
fort was purchased, about eighteen inches long, a foot 
broad, and near two inches thick, which yet seemed tp be 
only the fragment of a larger piece. 

The natives do not exceed the common statiiire of Euro* 
peans ; and, in general, are not so well made, especially 
about the limbs. This is^ perhaps, the eflect of sitting, for 
the most part, on their hams> and of being confined, by 
the hilly disposition of the country, from using that sort of 
exercise which contributes to render the body straight and 
well-proportioned. There are, however, several exceptions 
to this, and some are remarkable for their large bones and 
muscles, but few that I have seen are corpulent. 

Their colour is of diflerent casts, from a pretty, deep black 
to a yellowish or plive tinge; and their features also are va- 


' ^ In a separate roemorandam-book, Mr Anderson xnentions the mon- 
strous animal of the lizard kind, described by the two bb^s ^fter they (eft 
the island. — D. 

294 Modem Cireumnavigatiom. paet hi. book iii* 

rioos, some resembline Europeans. Batj in general^ their 
faces are roand, with their lips fall^ and also tnear noses to- 
ward the point ; thouefa the first are not uncomnionly thick, 
nor the last flat* I do not, however, recollect to have seen 
an instance of the tme aquiline nose amongst them. Their 
teeth are commonly broad, white, and well set ; and their 
eyes large, with a very free motion, which seems the effect 
of habit Their hair is black, straight, and strong, common- 
ly cut short on the hind part, with the rest tied on the crown 
of the head : but some have it of a citrling disposition, or 
of a brown colour. In the young, the countenance is gen^ 
rally free or open ; but in many of tfae men it has a serious 
cast, and sometimes a sullenness or reserve, especially if they 
are strangers. l*he women are, in general, smaller than the 
men ; but have tew peculiar graces, either in form or fea-^ 
tnres, to disUttguish them. 

The dress of both sexes is alike ; and consists of an ob- 
long garment about five feet long, and four broad, made 
from the silky flax already mentioned. This seems to be 
their most material and complex manufacture, which is 
executed by knotting ; and their work is pften ornamented 
with pieces of dog-skin, or chequered at the corners. They 
bring two comers of this garment over the shoulders, and 
fasten it on the breast with the. other part, which covers the 
body ; and about the belly, it is again tied with a girdle 
ma^le of mat. Sometimes they cover it with large feathers 
of birds (which seem to be wrought into the piece of cloth 
when it is made), or with dog-skin ; and that alone we have 
seen worn as a covering. Over this garment many of them 
wear mats, which reach from the shoulders to near the heels. 
But the most common outer-coverins: is a quantity of the 
above sedgy plant, badly dress^ed, which they iasten on a 
string to a considerable length, and, throwing it about the 
shoulders, let it fall down on dl sides, as far as the middle 
of the thighs. When they sit down with this upon them^ 
either in their boats, or upon the shore, it would be difficult 
to distinguish them from large grey stones, if their black 
heads, projecting beyond their coverings, did not engage 
one to a stricter examination. 

By way of ornament, they fix in their heads feathers, or 
combs of bone, or wood, adorned with pearl shell, or the 
thin inner skin of some leaf. And in the ears, both of men 
and women^ which are pierced^ or rather slit^ are hung small 


CHAl^. I* SECT. nu. Cook, Gierke, and Gore* fS5 

pieces of jasper, bits of cloth, or beads when they can get 
them. A few also have the septum of the nose bored in its 
lower part ; but no ornament was worn there that we saw | 
though one man passed a twig through it, to shew us that ' 
it was sometimes used for that purpose. They wear long 
beards, but are fond of having them shaved. 

Some are punctured or stained in the face with curious 
spiral and other figures, of a black or deep blue colour ; but 
it is doubtful whether this be ornamental, or intended as /l 
mark of particular distinction ; and the women, who are 
marked so, have the puncture only on their lips, or a small 
spot on their chins. Both sexes often besmear their faces 
and hicads with a red paint, which seems to be a martial 
ochre mixed with grease ; and the women sometimes wear 
necklaces of shark's teeth, or bunches of long beads, which 
seem to be made of the leg*bones of small birds, or a par- 
ticular shell. A few also have small triangular aprons adorn- 
ed with the feathers of parrots, or bits of pearl shells, fur- 
nished with a double or treble set of cords to fasten them 
about the waist. I have sometimes seen caps or bonnets 
made of the feathers of birds, which may be reckoned as 
ornaments ; for it is not their custom to wear any covering 
on their heads. 

They live in the small coves formerly described, in com« 
panics of forty or fifty, or more ; and sometimes in single 
families, building their huts contiguous to each other; 
which, in general, are miserable lodging-places. The best 
I ever saw was about thirty feet long, fifteen broad, and 
six high, built exactly in the manner of one of our count- 
ry barns. The inside was both strong and regularly made 
of supporters at the sides, alternately large and small, well 
fastened by means of withes, and painted red and black. 
The ridge pole was strong ; and the large bull-rushes, which 
composed the inner part of the thatching, were laid with 
great exactness parallel to each other. At one end was a 
small square hole, which served as a door to creep in at ; 
and near, another much smaller, seemingly for letting out 
the smoke, as no other vent for it could be seen. This, how- 
ever, ought to be considered as one of toe best, and the re- 
sidence of some principal person ; for the greatest part of 
them are not half the above size, and seldom exceed four 
feet in height ; being, besides^ indifferently built^ though 
proof against wind and rain. 


296 iHofftra GratumaviguHoM. fajrt hi. book in. 

No oifaer ftuniture is to be seen in theiii> than a few 
small baskets or bags, in which they put their fishing-books, 
and other trifles ; and they sit down in the middle round a 
small fire, where they ako probably sleep, without any 
othef covering than what they wear in the day, or perhaps 
without that ; as such confined places must be very warm, 
though inhabited but by a few persons. 

They liye chiefly by filing, makine use eithes of nets 
of difierent kinds, or of wooden fish-hooks pointed with 
bone ; but so oddly made, that a stranger is at a loss to 
know hovr they can answer snch a purpose. It also ap- 
pears, that they remove their habitations from one place to 
another when the fish grow scarce, o^ for some other rea- 
son ; for we found houses now built in several parts, where 
there had been none when we were here during our last 
. voyage, and even these have been already deserted. 

Their boats are well built, of planks raised upon eaoh 
other, and fastened with strong withes, which iJso bind a 
long narrow piece on the outside of the scams to prevent 
their leaking. Some are fifty feet long, and so broad as to 
be able to sail without an outrigger; but the smaller sort 
commoDly have one ; and they often fasten two together 
by rafters^ which we then call a double canoe. They car- 
ry from five to thirty men or more ; and have often a lars;e 
head ingeniously carved, and painted with a figore at the 
pcHot^ which seems intended to represent a man, with 
his features distorted by rage.. Their paddles are about 
/our or five feet long, narrow, and pointed ; with which, 
when they keep time, the boat is pushed along pretty swift- 
ly. Their sail,, which is seldom used, is made of a mat of- 
. a triangular shape, having the broadest part above. 

The only method of dressing their fish, is by roasting, or 
rather baking ; for they are entirely ignorant of the art of 
boiling. In the same maniier they dress the root, and part 
of the stalk, of the large fern-tree, in a great hole dug for 
that purpose, which serves as an oven. After which they 
split it, and find, witbiu,. a fine gelatinous substance, like 
boiled sago powder, but firmer. They also use another 
smaller fern root, which seems to be their substitute for 
br^ad, as it is dried and carried about with them, together 
with. dried fish in great quantities, when they remove their 
families, or go far from home, lliis they beat with a stick 
till it becomes pretty soft, when they chew it sufficiently, 


CHA9. I* 8BCT. Tixi. Cook, CUfke, mi 0«iv« fg7 

and spit bat the hard fiLbrous part^ the other hayiog a sweet- 
ish mealy taste^ not at all disagreeable. 

When they dare not ventttre to sea, or perhaps from 
choice^ they supply the place of other fish with xnnscles and 
sea-ears ; great quantities of the shells of which lie in heaps 
ne{ur their houses. And they sometiiites^ though mrely^ 
find means to kill rails^ penguins, and shags, whidih help to 
vary their diet. They also breed considerable nutiibers of 
the dogs, mentioned before, for food ; but these krannot be 
considered as a priQcipal article of diet^ From whence we 
we may conclude^ that, as there is not the kast sign of 
cultivation of land, they depend principally for their su1>- 
aistence on the sea^ which^ indeed, is rery bountiful in its 

Their method of feeding correspondu with the naiAiness 
of their persons, which ofiten smell disc^eeably from the 
quantity of grease about them, and their clothei rlevir be- 
ing washed. We. have seen tbem eat the vermin^ with 
which their heads are sufficiently stocked. ' 

They also used to devour, with the greatest eagerness, 
large quantities of stinking train oil, ai»d bidbhe^.of seals, 
which we were melting at the tentf and had kept near two 
months ; and, on board the ships, Ihey were not satisfied 
with .emptying the lamps,butactaallyawa]lowedi the cotton, 
ancl fragrant wick, with equal voracity* It is worthy of 
notice, that though the inbi^itants of Van Diemen'a Land 
appear to have but a scanty subsistence, th^y wjould not 
even taste oux bread, though they saw us eat it ;. whereas 
these people devoured itgreedilyj when both mouldy and 
rotten. But this. must not be imputed to any defect in 
their sensations ; f or I have observed them throw away 
things which we eajb, with evident disgust, a£ter duly smelk 
ing to them. 

They shew as much ingenuity, both in invention and 
execution, as any uncivilized nations under similar circum- 
stances. For, without the use of any metal tools, they make 
every thing fay which they procure their suhs^tence, clo- 
thing, and warlike weapons, with a degree of neatness^ 
strength, and convenience for accomplisbing their several 
purposes; Their chief mechanical tool is formed exactly 
after the manner of our adzes ; and is made, as are also the 
chisel and goudge, of the green serpent-^tone or jasper^ al« 
ready mentioned ; though sometimes they are composed of 

a black 

S98 Modem Circimnitmgaiionu »ast hi. Booit iil, 

a black* smooth* and very solid stone. But their master- 
piece seems to be carving* which is found upon the most 
trifling things ; and, in particular* the heads of thefr canoes 
are sometimes ornamented with it in such a manner* as not 
only shews much design* but is also an example of their 
ereat labour and patience in execution. Their cordage for 
fishing-lines is equal* in strength and evenness* to that 
made by us ; and their nets not at all inferibr. But ^at 
must cost them more labour than any other article^ is the 
making the tools we have mentioned ; for the stone is ex* 
ceedingly hard* and the only method of fashioning it* we 
can guess at* is by rubbing one stone upon another, which 
can nave but a slow effect. Their substitute for a knife it 
a shell* a bit of flint* or jasper. And* as an auger to bore 
holes, they 'fix a shark's tooth in the end of a small piece of 
wood. It is true* they have a small saw made of some 
jagged fishes teeth* fixed on the convex edge of a piece of 
wood nicely carved. But this* they say* is only used to cut 
up the bodies of their enemies whom they kill in battle. 

No people can have a quicker sense of an injury done to 
them* and none are more ready to resent it. But* at the 
same time* they will take an opportunity of being insolent 
when they think there is no danger of punishment ; which 
is so contrary to the spirit of genuine bravery* that* per- 
haps* their eagerness to resent injuries is to be looked upon 
rather as an effect of a furious disposition than of great 
courage. They also appear to be of a suspicious or mis- 
trustful temper (which* however* may rather be acquired 
than natural)* for strangers never came to our ships im- 
mediately* but lay in their boats at a small distance* either 
to observe our motions* or consult whether or no they 
should risk their safety with us. To this they join a great 
degree of dishonesty ; for they steal every thing they can 
lay their hands on* if there be the least hope of not being 
detected; and* in trading* I have little doubt but they 
would take advantages* if they thought it could be done 
with safety ; as they not only refuse to trust a thing in one's 
hand for examination* but exult if they think they have 
tricked you in the bargain. 

Such conduct* however* is* iii some measure* to be ex- 
pected where there appears to be but little subordination^ 
and consequently few^ if any* laWs* to punish transgressions. 
For no man*8 authority seems to extend farther than his 



eRAF. !• SBCT. viii. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. t9g 

#wn family ; and when^ at any time, they join for mutual 
defence, or any other purpose, those amongst them who are 
eminent for courage or prudence, are directors. How their 

}>rivate quarrels are terminated is uncertain ; but, in the 
ew we saw, which were of little consequence, the parties 
concerned were clamorous and disorderly. 

Their public contentions' are frequent, or rather perpe- 
tual ; for it appears, from their number of weapons, and dex- 
terity in using them, that war is their principal profess 
«ion. These weapons are spears, patooa and halberts, or 
sometimes stones. The first are made of hard wood pointed, 
of different lengths, from five, to twenty, or even thirty feet 
long. The short ones are used for throwing as darts. The 
patoo or emeete is of an elliptical shape, about eighteen in- 
ches long, with a handle made of wood, stone, the bone of 
some sea animal, or green jasper, and seems to be their 
principal dependence in battle. The haibert, or long club, 
is about five or six feet long, tapering at one end with a 
carved head» and at the other, broaa or flat, with sharp 

Before they begin the onset, they join in a war-song, to 
which they all keep the exactest time, and soon raise their 

Eassion to a degree of frantic fury, attended with the most 
orrid distortion of their eyes, mouths, and tongues, to strike 
terror into their enemies ; which, to those who have not 
been accustomed to such a practice, makes them appear 
more like demons than men, and would almost chill the 
boldest with fear. To this succeeds a circumstance, almost 
foretold in their fierce demeanour, horrid, cruel, and dis- 

graceful to human nature ; which is, dutting in pieces, even 
efore being perfectly dead, the bodies of their enemies, 
and, after dressing them on a fire, devouring the flesh, not 
only without reluctance, but with peculiar satisfaction. 

One might be apt to suppose, that people, capable of 
such excess of cruelty, must be destitute of every human 
feeling, even amongst (heir own party ; and yet we find 
them lamenting the loss of their friends, with a violence of 
expression which argues the most tender remembrance uf 
them. For both men and women, upon the death of those 
connected with them, whether in battle or otherwise, be- 
wail them with the most doleful cries ; at the same time cut- 
ting their foreheads and cheeks, with shells or pieces of 
flint, in large gashes, until the blood flows plentiful i' 

300 Modem Circumnaiv^aiionu part hi. book hi. 

mixes with their tears. They also carve pieces of their 
green stone;, rudely shaped^, as human figures, which they 
Qmament with bright eyes of pearUsheUy and hang, them 
about their iiecka, as memorials of those whom they held 
most dear ; and their affections of this kind are so strongs 
that they even perform the ceremony of cuttings and la- 
menting for joy^ at the returp of any of their friends^ who 
have been absent but for t short time^ 
. The children are initiatedj^ ^t-^ very early age^ into all 
the practices^ good or bad^ of their fathers ; so that. you 
find a boy or girlj nine or ten years old, able to perfonn all 
^he motions, and to>imit£(te the frightful gestures, by which 
the more aged use to inspire their enemies with terror, 
keeping the strictest time in their soug* They likewise 
sing, with some degree of melody, the traditions of their 
forefathers, their actions in war, and other iuidifferent sub- 
jects ; of all which they are immoderately fond, and spend 
much of their time, in these amusements, and in playing on 
a sort of flute* 

Their language is far from being harsh or disagreeable, 
jthougb the pronunciation is frequently guttural; and what- 
ever qualities are requisite in any other language to make it 
musical^ certainly obtain to a considerable degree here, if 
we may judge from the melody of some sorts of their songs. 
It is also sufficiently comprehensive, though, in many re^ 
spects, deficient, if compared with our European languages, 
which owe their perfection to long improvement. But a 
small specimen is here subjoined, from which some judg- 
ment may be formed. I collected a great many of ^their 
words, both now and in the course of our former voyage ; 
and being equally attentive, in my enquiries, about tbejan^ 
guages of the other islands throughout the South Sea, I have 
the amplest proof of tbeir wonderful agreement, or rather 
identity. This general observation has, indeed, been alrea- 
dy made in the accounts of the former voyages. I shall be 
enabled^ however, to confirm and strengthen it, by a fresh 
list of words, selected from a large vpcabulary in my pos*- 
session ; and by placii^g, in the opposite column, the cof- 
resppndiag words as used at Otaheite, the curious reader 
sriU, at one view, be furnished with' sufficient materials for 
JH^ging by what subordipate changes the difference of dia* 
lect has been €;;ffected. 


CHAF. I. SECT. Tiu* Cook, Ckrke, and Gon. 



A tail'ofa dog. 

Death, dead, 

A house. 

To sleep, 



A bed, 

A butterfly. 

To chew, or eatf 



The hand. 




Where is it ? 

A stone, 

A man. 



To reside, or dwell, , 

Out, not within, 

Male kind (of any aniinal)j 


A shark. 

To understand, 











Nine, s 


New Zealtmd* 



Kaoo^ matte^ 


















Purra, purra^ 





















• Ero« 

MattCj roa. 













Oora^ oora. 





Ere, ere. 




















The New Zealanders to these numerals prefix Ma ; as. 


SM Modem Greum^aimgaiSonu pabt iu. boqk hi. 

Twehe &c.8cc» 

Marooa, t^c. tfc 


jr •.- -4. n; 


eiiAP. u* SECT* u Cook, Ckrke, and Gore* 309 



Section L ^^ 

ProsecuHon of the Voyage. — Behatnour of the Two New Zea^ 
landers on board. — Unfavourable Winds.^An Island called 
Mangeea discovered. — The Coast of it examined. — Transact 
tions with the Natives, — jtn Account of their Persons, Dress, 
and Canoe, — Description of the Island. — A Specimen of the 
Language. — Di^^tion ythe Inhabitants. 

ON the 25th of February, at ten o'clock in the mom* 
ing, a light breeze springing up at N.W. bv W., we 
weighed, stood out of the Sound, and made sail through 
the strait, with the Discovery in companv. We bad hard- 
fy go^ ^^^ length of Cape Teerawitte» when the wind took 
lis aback at S.E. It continued in this quarter till two o'clock 
the next morning, when we had a few hours calm. After 
which we had a breeze at north ; but here it fixed not long, 
before it veered to the east, and after that to the south. At 
length, on the 27 th, at eight o'clock in the morning, we took 
our departure from Cape Palliser, which, at this time, bore 
W,, seven or eight leagues distant. We had a fine gale, and 
I steered E. by N. 

We had no sooner lost sight of the land^ than our two 
New Zealand adventurers, the sea sickness they now expe- 
rienced giving a turn to their reflections, repented heartilj 
of the step they had taken. All the soothing encourage- 
ment we could think of availed but little. They wept, both 
in public and in private, and made their lamentations in a 
kind of song, which, as far as we could comprehend the 
meaning of 3ie words, was expressive of their praises ot their 
country and people, from which they were to be separated 
for ever. Thus they continued for many days, till their sea 


S04 Modem C i f a m m a dga iumu paet m. mok iti. 

sickness wore oS, and the tomiilt of their minds began to 
subside. Then these fits of lamentation became less and 
less frequent, and at length entirely ceased. Their native 
country and their friends were^ by degrees, forgot, and they 
appeared to be as firmly attached to us, as if they had been 
bom amongst us. 

The wind had not remained many hours at S., before it 
▼eered to SuE. and E. ; and, with this» we stood to the N«, 
till the 128th at. noon. Being then in the latitude of 41^ 17^ 
and in the longitude of 177* Vf E-y we tacked and stood to 
the S.E., with a gentle breeze at E.N.E. It afterward fresh« 
ened, and came about to N.E.; in which quarter it conti- 
nued two days, and sometimes blew a fresh gale with squalls, 
accompanied with showers of rain. 

On the I2d of March at noon, being in the latitude of 42^ 
35' 90% longitnde 180'' S' K, the wind shifted to N.W.; af- 
terwitrd to S.W.;.and between this point and north it con** 
tinued to blow, sometimes a strong gale with hard squalls, 
and at other times very moderate. With this wind we steer- 
ed N.E. by E. and E., under all the sail we could carry, till 
the lltb at noon^ at which time we were in the latitude <tf 
S9* 2gr, longitude 196^ 4! E. 

The wind now Teered to N<»E. and S.E., and I stoo^ to 
the N., and to the N.E., as the wind would admit, till one 
o'clock in the morning on the l6th, when havingxa more 
favourable gale from the norths I tacked and stood to the 
east ; the latitude being SS"* 40", and the longitude 198* 50f 
£• We had light airs and calms by turns, till noon the next 
day,, when the wind began to freshen at E.S.E., and I again 
stood to the N.E. But as the wind often veered to. £. and 
E.N.E., we frequently made no better than a northerly 
eourse ; nay sometimes to the westward of north. But the 
hopes of the wind coming more southerly, or of meeting 
with it from the westward, a little without the Tropic, as I 
had experienced in my former visits to this ocean, encou- 
raged me to continue this course. Indeed it was necessary 
that I should run all risks, fis my proceeding to the nortn 
this year, in prosecution of the principal object of the voy- 
age, depiended entirely on my making a quick passage to 
Otaheite, or the Society Islands. 

The wind contirioed invariably fixed at E.S.E., or seldom 
shifting above two points on either side. It also blew very 
feinty so that it was the 97 th before we crossed the Tropic, 


VHAf* n. ftiOT. I. Ceak, Ckrhe, and Gwt. 505 

ftod then we were only in the longitude of 201^ £S' £•> which 
was nine degrees to the westward of onr intended port. In 
all this run we saw nothings except now and then a Tropic 
bird^ that could induce us to think that we had sailed near 
any land. In the latitude of 34* ^(/, longitude 199% we 
passed the trunk of a large tree^ which was covered with 
baruacles ; a sign that it had been long at sea. 

On the ^th^ at ten in the mornings as we were standing 
to the N.E.J the Discovery made the signal of seeing land. 
We saw it from the mast-head almost the same moment^ 
bearing N.E. by £. by compass. We soon discovered it to 
be an island of no great extent, and stood for it till sunset^ 
when it bore, distant about two or three leagues# 

The night was spent in standing off and on, and at day- 
break the next morning, I bore up for the lee or west side 
of the island, as neither anchorage nor landing appeared to 
be practicable on the south side, on account ofa great surf,' 
which broke every where with violence against the shore^ 
or against the reef that surrounded it. 
- We presently found that the island was inhabited^ and 
sfiw several people, on a point of the land we had passed, 
wading to the reef, where, as they found the ship leaving 
them quickly, they remained. But others, who soon ap-- 
peared in different parts, followed her course ; and some- 
times several of them collected into small bodies, who made 
a shouting noise all together, nearly after the manner of the 
inhabitants of New Zealand. 

Between seven and eight o'clock, we were at the W.N. W. 
part of the island, and, being near the shore, we could per- 
ceive with our glasses, that several of the natives, who ap» 
peated upon a sandy beach, were all armed with long spears 
and clubs, which they brandished in the air with signs of 
threatening, or, as some on board interpreted their atti-* 
tudes, with invitations to land. Most of them appeared 
naked, except having a sort of girdle, which, being brought 
up between the thigns, covered that part of the body. But 
some of them had pieces of cloth of different colours, white, 
striped, or chequered, which they wore as a garment, thrown 
about their shoulders. And almost all of them had a white 
wrapper about their heads, not much unlike a turban ; or, 

voh.xy, u ♦ in 

' A yr&ry iag^oiis and satisfactory account of the cause of the surf, it 
to be met with la Marsdea's History of Sumatri^ p. 29-32.— D. 

iOSi Modern Circumnaif^ati(m^ pabt hi. boo& iu« 

in some instances, like a high conical cap. We could also 
perceive that they were of a tawny colour, and, in general^ 
of a middling stature, hut robust, and inclining to corpu- 

At this time, a small canoe was launched in a great burrjr . 
from the further end of the beach, and a man getting into 
it, put off, as.with a view to reach the ship. On perceiving 
this], I brought-to, that we might receive the visit ; but the 
man's resolution failing, he soon returned toward the bcacli^ 
where, after some time, another man joined hini in the ca^ 
noe ; and then they both paddled toward us. They stopt 
flihort, however, as if afraid to approach, until Omai, who 
addressed them in the Otaheite language, in some measure 
quieted their apprehensions. They then came near enough 
to take some beads and naiU, whiph were tied to a piece of 
wood, and thrown into the canoe. They seemed afraid to . 
touch these things, and put the piece ot wood aside without 
untying them. This, however, iuight ari^e from supersti-^ 
lion ; for Omai told us, that when they saw us offering them 
presents, they asked something for their Eatooa, or god* 
lie also, perhaps improperly, piit the question to them^ 
Whether they ever ate human flesh ? which they answer* 
ed in the negative, with a mixture of indignation and ab-- 
borrence« One of them, whose name was Mourooa^ b/eing 
asked how be came by a scs^r on his forehead, told us th&fc. 
it was the consequence of a wound he had got in fighting 
with the people of an island, which lies to the north-east-., 
ward, who sometimes came to invade them. They after- 
ward took hold of a rope. Still, however, they would not 
venture on board; but told Omai, who understood tljem 
pretty well,. that their countrymen on shore bad given them 
this caution, at the same time directii\g tbeiQ to. ei\quire^ 
from whence our ship came, aqd ta learn the name of the. 
captain* On our part, we enquired th^ name of the island^ 
which they galled Mangjfa or Mangeea% 9J\A sometimes 
added to it 2Voo(, naif ndiwa. The namci of their cbiei^ 
they 9aid, was Orooaeeka. 

Mourooa was lusty and well-made, but pot very t^U. 
His feature^ were agreeablCf and his disposition seemingly 
no less so ; fpr be made several droll ge.§ticulations, which, 
indicated both good-naturq^ and' a share of humour. He 
also made others which seemed of a serious kind, and re- 
peated some words with a devoyt air^ before he vent\ired 


%HAP« II. S£CT. I. Cookj Clerke, and Gore, 307 

• • * - 

to lay hold of the rope at the ship's stern ; which was pro- 
bably to recommend himself to the protection of some Dit 
yinity. His colour was nearly of the same cast with that 
common to the most southern £uropeans. The. other man 
Was not so handsome. Both of them had strong, straight 
hair^ of a jet colour, tied together on the crown of the head 
with a bit of cloth. They wore such girdles as we had per- 
ceived about those on shore, and we found they were a sub- 
stance made from the Morus papyrifera, in the same manner 
as at the other islands of this ocean. It was glazed like the 
sort used by the natives of the Friendly Islands ; but the 
clotli on their heads was white> like, that which is found at 
Otaheite. They had on a kind of sandals, made of a grassy 
subistance interwoven, which we also observed were wora 
by those who stood upon the beach ; and, as we supposed,^ 
intended to defend their feet against the rough coral rock/ 
Their beards were long ; and the inside of their arnis, from 
the shoulder to the elbow, and some other parts, were punc- 
tured or tatooed, after the manner of the inhabitants of al-< 
most all the other islands in the South Sea, The lobe of 
their ears was pierced, or rather slit, and to such a lengthy, 
that one of them stuck there a knife and some beads, whiclL 
he had receivec) from us ; and the same person had two po- 
lished pearl-shells, and a bunch of human hair, loosely twist- 
ed, hanging about his neck, which was the only ornament 
we observed. The canoe they came in (which was the on- 
ly one we saw), was not above ten feet long, and very nar- 
row ; but both strong and neatly made. The fore part had 
a flat board fastened over it, and projecting out, to prevent 
the sea getting in on plunging, like the small Evaas at Ota- 
heite ; but it had an upright stern, about five feet high, like, 
some in New Zealand ; and the upper end of this stern-post 
was forked. The lower part of the canoe was of white wood, * 
but the upper was black, and| their paddles, made of wood, 
of the same colour, not above thr^e feet Ions, broad at one 
end, and blunted. They paddled either end of the canoe 
fdrward indifferently ; and only turned aboyt their faces to 
paddle the cpntrary way. 

We now stood off and on ; and as soon as the ships were 
in a propet station, about ten o'clock I ordered two boats^ 
one of them from the Discovery, to sound the coast, and 
to endeavour to find a landing-'place« With this view, I 
tfent in cue of them myselfj taking with me such articles 


son Modem CireumnacigaHom. vart in. book ui^ 

to give the nattves^ as I thought might serve to gain their 
good-will. I had no sooner pat off trom the ship^ than thia 
canoe^ with the two men^ which had left us not long before. 

Saddled toward my boat; and^ having come along-side, 
f ourooa stept into her^ without being asked^ and without 
a moment's nesitation. 

Omai, who was with me^ was ordered to enquire of him 
where we could land ; and he directed us to two different 
places. But I saw, with regret, that the attempt could not 
De made at either place, unless at the risk of having our 
boats filled with water, or even staved to pieces. Nor were 
vre more fortunate in our search for anchorage ; for we could 
find no bottom^ till within a cablets length of the breakers. 
There wt met with from forty to twenty fathoms depth, over 
sharp coral rocks ; so that anchoring would have been at^ 
tended with much more danger than landing* 

While we were thus employed in reconnoitring the shore, 
great numbers of the natives thronged down upon the reef, 
all ahned as above mentioned. Monrooa, who was now in 
my boat, probably thinking that this warlike appearance 
hindered us from landing, ordered them to retire back. Ab 
many of them complied, I judged he must be a person of 
fome consequence among them. Indeed, if we understood 
him right, he was the king's brother. So great was the cu- 
riosity of several of them, that th^y took to the water, and» 
' swimming off to the hoats, came on board them without re* 
serve. Nay, we found it difficult to keep them out ; and still 
more difficult to prevent their carrying off every thing they 
could lay their hands upon. At length, when they percei- 
ved that we were returning to the ships, they all left us, ex-? 
cent bur original visitor Mourooa. He, though not without 
evident signs of fear, kept his place in my boat, and accom- 
panied me on board the ship. 

' The cattte, and other new ohjects, that presented them- 
selves to him there, did not strike him with so much sur-t 
prise as one might have expected. Perhaps bis mind was 
too much taken up about his own safety, to allow him to 
attend to other things. It is certain, that he seemed very 
uneasy ; and the ship, on our getting on boards happening 
to be standing off shore, this circumstance made nim the 
more so. I could get but little new information from him ;. 
and therefore, after he had made a short stAy> I ordered a 
boat to carry him in toward the land. As soon as he got 


^HAl^. li. 8Ect« I* Cook, Clerke^ and Gore^ SQ9 

ou); of the cabin^ he happened to stumble over oae of the 

{roats. His curiosity now overcoming his fear^ he stopped^ 
coked at it, and asked Omai» what bird this was i and not 
receivitig an immediate answer from him, he repeated the 
question to some of the people upon deck* The boat ha« 
Ying conveyed him pretty near to the surf, he leaped into 
the sea, and swam ashore. He had no sooner landed, than 
the multitude of his countrymen gathered round him, as if 
with an eager curiosity to learn from him what he had seen ; 
and in this situation they remained, when we lost sight of 
them. As soon as the boat returned^ we hoisted her in^ and 
made sail from the land to the northward. 

Thus were we obliged to leave, unvisited, this fine island^ 
which seemed capable of supplying all our wants* It lies 
in the latitude of £1* 57' S«, and in the longitude of 201* 
53' £.. Such parts of the cpast as fell under our observa* 
tion, are guarded by a reef of coral rock, qn the outside of 
which the sea is of an unfathomable depth. It is full five 
leagues in circuit, and of a moderate and pretty equal height; 
though, in clear weather, it may be certainly seen at the dis* 
tance of ten leagues ; for we had not lost sisht of it at nightj 
when we had run above seven leagues, and the Weather was 
cloudy. In the middle, it risea into little hills, from whence 
there is a gentle descent to the shore, which, at the S.W. 
part, is steep, though not above ten or twelve feet high ; 
and has several excavations made by the beating of the 
waves against a brownish sand^stone of which it is compo-* 
sed. The descent here is covered with trees of a deep greea 
colour, very thick, but not high^ which seem all of one sort^ 
unless nearest the shore, where there are great numbers of 
that species of dracana found in the woods of New Zealand^ 
which are also scattered in some other places. On the N.W* 
part, the shore,. as we mentioned above, ends in a sandy 
Deach ; beyond which the land is broken down into small 
chasms or gullies, and -has a broad border of trees resem* 
bling tall willows ; which, from its regularity, might be sup-* 
posed a work of art, did qot its extent forbid us to think so. 
Farther up on the ascent^ the trees were of the deep green 
mentioned before. Some of us supppsed liiese to be the 
nma, intermixed with low cocoa pauns ; and a few of some 
other sorts. They seemed not so thick as on the S.W* part^ 
and higher ; which appearance might be owing ta our nearer 
approach to the shore. On the little hills were some trees 




Modem Cinumnavigaiiora. FAitT iii. book lit* 

of a taller sort^ thinly scattered ; bat the other parts of them 
were either bare, and of a reddish colour, or covered with 
something Kke fern. Upon the whole^ the island has a tiret- 
t}' aspect^ and might be made a beautiful spot by cultiva- 

As the inhabitants seemed to be both numerous and well 
f^d, such articles of -provision as the island produces must 
be in great plenty. It ibight, however, be a matter of cu-' 
^iosity to know,', particulany, their method of subsistence ; 
for our friend Moutooa told us, that they had no animals, 
as hogs and dogs, both which, however, they had heard of; 
but a<^knowledged they had plantains, bread-fruit, and taro. 
The only birds we saw, were some white egg-birds, terns, 
and noddies ; and one white heron, on the shore. 

The language of the inhabitants of Mangeea is a dialect 
of that spoken at Otaheite ; though their pronunciation, ast 
that of the New Zealanders, be more guttural. Some of 
their words, of T^hich two or three are perhaps peculiar to 
this island, are here subjoined, as taken, by Mr And€}rson> 
from Omai, who had karnt them in his conversations with 
Mourooa. The Otaheite words, where there is any resem*> 
blance, are placed opposite. 


jrf c(^oa nuti 

Bfead-fruit, • 

A canoe, 

Friend, * 

Ji man,. 

Cloth, or cloth plant. 


A club, 



A speat, 

AJight, or battle, 

A woman, 

A daughter, 

The sun, 


What is that f 

MdngtetL* ' 



Aree. , 





Naoo, moU. ' 


Taata, or Tang^ta, 


Taia, taia aoutee, 

' Eoute. 












' Tamaee. 





Heetaia matooa. 





Ehataieee I 




ISSAIU ixs uaxjt^ V Cooki Gierke^ and Gore.' Sll 

Ed^llilk. Mangua, OloAeite. 

A chief, Ereekee, Eree. 

Tokikt, Ooma* 

The natives of Mabgeeifii selekn to resemble thoie bf Ota« 
•heite and the Marquesas in the beauty of their persons^ 
more. than any other nation I have l^eh in the$e seas ; ha- 
lving a smooth skin^ and not being musculilr. Their general 
disposition also corresponds^ as far as we had opportunities 
of judging, with that which distinguishes the first-mention- 
ed people* For they are not only cheerful, but, as Mottrooa 
shewed us, are acquainted with all the lascivious gesticula- 
tions which the Otaheitani^ practise in their dances. It may 
also be supposed, that their method of living is similar. For, 
though the nature of the country prevented our seeing ma- 
ny of their habitations, we observed one house near the 
beach, which much resembled, in its mode of construction, 
those of Otaheite. It was pleasancly situated in a grove of 
trees> and appeared to be about thirty feet long, and seven 
or eight high, with an open end, which represented an el- 
lipse divided transversely. Before it> was spread somi^thing 
white dn a few bushes ; which we conjectured to be a fish- 
ing net, and, to appearance, of a verv delicate texture. 

They salute strangers much after the manner of the New 
Zealanders, by joinmg noses ; adding, however, the addi- 
tional ceremony of taking the hand of the p^rton to whom 
they are paying civilities, and rubbing it with si degree of 
force upon their nose and mouth.* 

* The inhabitants of the Pahos, New Philippine, br mtfaer CaroUlie 
Islands, at the distance of almost fifteen hundred leagues from Mangeea, 
have the same mode of salatation. ^ Leur civiliti^, et la marque de leup 
irespect, consiste a prendre la main ou la pied de celui a qui lis veulent 
faire honneur, et s^en frotter doucement toute le visage." — Lttira Edi- 
JUmtes if Cjirkuscti tom^ xv. p. S08i.£dit ITSl.^^-D. 


$1% Modem Chtimmii^giidm., ip^kt ui. book »i» 

Section IL 

The DUcwery of an Idand called Waieeoo Its CoaMi exa^ 

mined.— Fisitsfrom the Natives on board the Ship9.~Mes9, 

, Gore, Burner, and Anderson, with Omai, sent an Shore.'-^ 
Mr Anderson's Narrative ^ their IUception^^Onuu*s Ex^ 
pedient to prevent their being detained, — His meeti$ig with 
some of his Countrymen, and their distres^td To^me^Far^ 
ther Jccouni of IVateeoo, and of its Inhabitants. 

After leaving Mangeea, on the afternoon of the SOth of 
March^ we continued our course northward all that night, 
and till noon on the 31st; when we again saw land, in the ' 
direction of N.E. hj N., distant eight or^ten leagues. 

Next morning, at eight o'clock, we had got ahreast of 
its north end, within four leagues of it, but to leeward *■ and 
could now pronounce it to be an island, nearly of the same 
appearance and extent with that we had so lately left. At 
the same time, another island, but much smaller, was seen 
right ahead. We could have soon reached this; but the 
largest one had the preference, as most likely to ftimish a 
siipply of food for the cattl^ of which we began to be in 
great want. 

With this view I determined to work np to it; but as 
there was but little wind, and that little was unfavourable, 
we were still two leagues to leeward at eight o^clock the 
following morning. Soon after, 1 49ent two armed boats 
from the Resolution, and one from the Discovery, under > 
the command of Lieutenant Gore, to look for anchoring- 
ground, and a landing-place. In the mean time^ we plyed 
up under the island with the ships.- 

Just as the boats were putting off, we observed several 
single canoes coming from the shore. They went first to 
the Discovery, she being the nearest ship. It was not long 
after, when three of these caQoes came along-side of the 
Resolution, each contlucted by one man. lliey are long 
and narrow^ and supported by outriggers. The stem is ele- 
vated about three or four feet, sometning like a ship's stern- 
post. The head is flat above, but prow-like below, and turns 
down at the extremity, like the end of a violin. Some knives 
beads, and other trifles were conveyed to our visitors ; and 


CHAP. fi« tB€t, ii« CooJk^ CMkepund Goft^ 519 

they save us a few cocoaknute, upon oor asking for tbeni. 
Bat tney did not part with them by way of exchange fot 
what they had receiyed from ^ii9. For they seemed to have 
ao idea of bartering ; nor did they appear to estimate smy 
•f our presents at a pigh rale. 

With a little persuasion^ one of them made his canoe fast 
to the shipy and came on board ; and the other two^ encou^ 
raged by his example, soon followed him. Their whole b^ 
haviour marked that they were quite at their ease^ and feK 
no sort of apprehension of our detaining, or using them ill*. 

After their departure^ another canoe arrived^ conducted 
by a man who brought a bunch of plantains as a present to 
me ; asking for me by name^ having learnt it from Omai, 
who was sent before us in the boat with Mr Gore. In re- 
torn for this civility, I gave him an axe^ and a piece of red 
cloth ; and he paddled back to the shore well satisfied. I 
afterward understood from Omai^ that this present had beea 
sent from the king, or principal chief of the island. 

Not long after, a double canoe, in which were twel^re 
men^ came toward us. As they drew near the ship, they 
recited some words in concert, by way of chorus," one oif 
their number first standing up, and giving the word before 
each repetition. When they had finished their solemn 
cfaantj they came alons-side, and asked for the chief. As 
soon as I shewed myself, a pig and a few cocoa-nuts were 
conveyed up into the ship ; and the principal person in the 
canoe made vae an additional present of a piece of mattings 
as soon as he and his companions got on board. 

Our visitors were conducted into the cabin, and to other 
parts of the ship. Some objects seemed to strike them with 
a degree of surprise ; but nothing fixed their attention for 
a moment. They were afraid to come near the cows and 
horses ; nor did they form the least conception of their na«- 
ture. But the sheep and goats did not surpass' the limits of 
their ideas ; for they gave us to understand^ that they knew 
them to be birds. It will appear rather incredible^ that hu« 


' Somethins like this ceremony wss performed by the inhabitants of the 
Marquesas, when Capt^'n Cook visited them in 1774. It is curious to ob> 
serve, at what immense distances this mode of receiving strangers prevails. 
Padillo, who sailed from Manilla in 1710, on a voyage to discover the Pa- 
laoB Islands, was thus received there. The writer of the relation of his voy« 
age says, ^ Aussitot qu'ils approcherent de notre bord, ils se mirent k chan* 
ten 11$ regloient la cadence, en frappant des mains sur leurs cuisses."— ^ 
^ Ixttrtt Sidifiantn 4r CurieuU9^ torn. xv. p. 9S3,«— S, 

314 Modern CireumkaiigationC paet hi. book in;' 

.man ignorance conld ever make so skrange'a mistake ; theie 
not being the most distant similitade between a sheep or 

foat^ and any winged animaL But these people seemed to 
now nothing of the existence of any other land-animals^ 
besides hogs, dogs, and birds* Oar sheep and goats» they 
.eould see, were very different creatures from the two first, 
iU)d therefore they inferred, that they must belong to the 
Jatter class, in which they knew there is a considerable va» 
Tiety of species.* I made a pretent to my new friend of 


^^l would add,'' says Mr Stewart, in his ElemenU dt tfae PHI. of Haam 
Itfindy p. 154, 2d ed., ^* I would add to Cook's veiy judicious remarfcs, 
that the mistake of these islanders probably did not arise from their oon^ 
«idering a sheep or a goat as bearing a more striking resemblance to a binfy 
than to the two classes of quadrupeds with which they were acquainted; 
but to the want of a generic wora, such as quadruped^ ooraprehendiflg 
these two species ; which men in their situation would no more be led to 
form, than a person, who had only seen one individual of each species* 
would think of an appellation to express both, instead of applying a prcH 
per name to each. In consequence of the variety of biids, it appears that 
they had a eeoeric name comprehending all of them, to which it was not 
unnatural for them to refer any new anunal they met with." — This solu- 
tion is very specious, but when narrowly examined, will be found to rest 
on two suppositions not altogether borne out bv evidence, and also to be 
liable to yield a conclusion not readily reoondleable with all the circan»- 
stances of the case. In the first place, it is not proved that these ishuid- 
ers had no generic word to comprehend the two species of quadrupeds 
with which they were acquainted ; and the reason given for their want of 
ft, which, after all, is merely a probable one, cannot be allowed much force;^ 
Its weakness will appear from the consideration, that men in their situa- 
tion, having certainly an idea of number, must, according to Mr S/s own 
principles stated in the next page, have possessed the power t>f attending 
separately to thie things which their senses had presented to them in a state 
of union, and have found it necessary to apply to all of them one oommoa 
name, or, in other words, ^ to have reduced them all to the same genus.'^ 
It is requisite, therefore, for the validity of Mr S.'s reason, to shew that 
these islanders either were not able to distinguish betwixt their hogs and 
4]ogs, or had never numbered them together, which it is quite impossible 
to credit. Even the case of the person who had seen only one individual 
of each species, which Mr S. conceives similar to that we are considering, 
may be argued against in the same manner, and besides this, will be fouad 
iMTt analogous. The reason is plain. He may or may not have been aUe^ 
?rnm a solitary observation, to mfcr that the distinction he noticed betwixt 
them was a radical difference, or, in the languag^e of the schoolmen, was 
!«!ential : Whereas the islanders, from the consuncy of the difference* 
S^v observed, must have been necessitated to form a classification of the 
bbiects, the result of which would be, the use of one term for the commop 
hrSes or the resemblance, and two words for the comprehended mdi- 
ffis. In the secbnd place, it ^^^f'^V!!^^,^^^^^ 
Ihew islanders bad tf gcnsric name coitoprehendmg the vanety of bu^ 


ikUP. II. SECT. II. Cook, Chrke, and Gore. SIS 


what I thought might be most acceptable to him ; bnt, oa 
his going away^ he seemed rather disappointed than plea- 
sed. I afterward understood that he was very desirous of 


with which they were acquainted, than on such principles of reasoning an 
we have now been consioering, the proper inference from whicbt as we 
have seen, is destructive of the foundation of Mr S/s solution. Here, ft 
nay be remarked, it is somewhat unfortunate that we cannot depend iifl- 
piicidy on Captain Cook's account as to the words in which the islanders 
conveyed the notions we have been commenting on ; because^ as the read* 
er wifi find at the end of this section, these people, who^ whatever rank 
they may be allowed to hold as logicians, were at all events very dexterous 
thieves, stole the mefnorandum book in which Mr Anderson had recordect 
a apedmen of their language- But admitting Mr S/s suppositions, it then 
ioay be shewn, that not only the sheep and the goats, Imt also the horses 
and cows, considered^ in the words of Mr S.y as new aninutU^ would havo 
been referred by these islanders to the same genus, and therefore consi- 
dered as birds* The circumstance of their greater size, or, indeed, any 
other discernible difierence. ^cannot here be plesded as exceptive, without 
in reality abandoning the prindples on which the solution is eonstrucfeed* 
t)n the whole, perhaps, it may seem more correct to imagine, that these 
islanders were struck wfth some fanciful and distant resembhince to cer» 
tain birds they Were acquainted with, from which they hastily inferred iden- 
$aty of nature, notwithstanding some very visible discrepancies ; whereas 
the remarkable dissimilarity jbetwist the new quadrupeds and those they 
were previoiisry acquainted with, impressed their minds with the notion of 
complete contrariety. In other words, thev concluded, from the unlikcnessi 
that these animals were neither dogs nor hogs, and, from the resemblance, 
tfaait they were birds. It is erroneous to say, with Cook, that there is no^ 
the most distant sintilitude be(;ween a sheep or goat, and any winded ani- 
inal. for the classifications adopted in ever^ system of natural nistoryi 
proceed upon the discovery of still more remote resemblances among tho 
objects of the sbience, than such as may be noticed in the present case ; 
and it will almost always be found, that there is greater difficulty in ascer- 
jtaiBiBg difierences amongst those dbjects which are allied^ than similarity 
amongst those which are unconnected. The fadtity with which ideas are 
associated iii the mind, as Mr S. informs, us, p. 295, is very diierent in dil^ 
lierent individuals, and " lays the foundation bf remarkable varieties of men 
both in respect of genius and of character;" and he elsewhere (p. S91) ad* 
nits^ ** that things which have no known relation to each other are often 
i^sociated, in consequence of their producing similar effects on the mind." 
With respect to the former remark, the facility, it might be practicable to 
shew, that, in general, ft is proportioned to the ignorance and imperfect 
education of the individuals, hence children and the female sex (as Mr S. 
himself asserts) exhibit masted it ( and, in consistency with the latter ob- 
servation, we have but to imagine, that some effect having been produced 
tn the minds of these islanders by the sight of the animals in question, 
similar to what they had nreviously experienced from some bird or birds 
which they had occasionally seen, led them to the remarkable assodation 
we have been considering, tt would not be very di^cult to intimate how 
this sught have happened, but the length of our note, the reader may think, 


dl6 Modem Circumnamgathnu fart iil Book iih 

obtaining a dog> of which animal this island could not boas^ 
though its inhabitants knew that the race existed in other 
islands of their ocean. Captain Gierke had received the 
like present^ with the same view^ from another man^ who 
met with from him the like disappointment. 

The people in these canoes were in general of a middling 
size^ and not unlike those of Mangeea ; though several were 
of a blacker cast than any we saw there. Their hair wa^ 
tied on the crown of the head^ or flowing loose about the 
shoulders ; and though in some it was of a frizzling dispo<f 
sition, jet^ for the most part^ that^ as well as the straight 
gort> was long. Their features were various^ and some of 
the young men rather handsome. Like those of Mangeea^ 
they had girdles of glazed cloth, or fine matting, the endd 
of which, being brought betwixt their thighs,, covered the 
adjoining parts. Ornaments, composed of a sort of broad 
grass, stained with red, and strung with berries of the night^^ 
shade, were worn about their necks. Their ears were bored; 
but not' slit; and they were punctured upon the legs, from 
the knee to the heel, which made them appear as if they 
wore a kind of boots. They also resembled the inhabitants 
of Mangeea in the length of their beards, and, like them, 
wore a sort of sandals upon theit feet. Their behaviour waif 
frank and cheerful, with a great deal of good-nature. 

At three o'clock in the atternoon, IVfr Gore returned with 
the boat, and informed me, that he had examined all the 
vrest side of the island; without finding a place where a boat 
could land) or the ships could anchor, the shore being eve^ 
xy where bounded by a steep coral rock, against which the 
sea broke in a dreadful surf. But as the natives seemed very 
friendly, and to express a degree of disappointment whea 
they saw that our people failed in their attempts to land, 
Mr Gore was of opmion, that by means of Omai, who could 
best explain our request, they might be prevailed upon to 
bring off to the boats, beyond the surf, such articles as we' 
most wanted ; in particular, the stems of plantain trees,, 
which make eood food for the cattle. Having little or no 
wind, the dmy of a day or two was not of any moment ; 


is n(iucli greater than its importance, and be may prefer to amuse bimself 
at another time, by following out the investigation. Let it be our apology 
for entering on it at all, that it is only by diligent reflection on such rnvstO". 
rioas trains of thought, we can hope to acquire any just concejptions oi the 
ikculties and operations of our own minds.— £, 

CHAP. II* SECT, lu Cook, Clerke, and Gora. S17 

liQd therefore T determined to try the experiment, and got 
every thing ready against the ne^t morning. 

Soon after day-break» we observed some canoes coming 
off to the ships, and one of them directed its course to the 
Resolution. In it was a hog, with some plantains and co^ 
coa nuts, for which the people who brouent them demand* 
ed a do^ from us, and refused every otner thing that we 
offered m exchange* One of our gentlemen 011 board hap* 
pened to have a dog and a bitch, which were great nui- 
sances in the ship, and might have been disposed of 
on this occasion for a purpose of real utility, by propaga^ 
ting a race of so useful an animal in this island. But theiv 
owner had no such views, in making them the companions 
of his voyage. However, to gratify these people, Omai 
parted with a favourite dog: he had brought from England ; 
and with this acquisition they departed highly satisfied. 

About ten o'clock^ I dispatched Mr Gore with three boats^ 

two from the Resolution^ and one from the Discovery, to txy 

the experiment he had proposed. And, as I could con^de 

in his diligence and ability, I left it entirely to himself, to 

act as, from circumstances, he should judge to be most pn>7 

per. Two of the natives, who had been on board, accompa* 

nied him, and Omai went with him in his boat as an inter 

preter. The ships being a full league from the island when 

the boats put off, and having but little wind, it was noon 

before we could work up to it. We then saw our three 

boats riding at their grapplings, just without the surf, and 

a prodigious number of the natives on the shore, abreast of 

them. Bv this we concluded, that Mr Gore, and others of 

our people^ had landed, and our impatience to know the 

event may be easily conceived. In order to observe theic 

motions, and to be ready to give them such assistance as 

they might wantj and our respective situations would admit 

of, I kept as near the shore as was prudent. I was sensible^ 

however, that the reef was as effectual a barrier between us 

and our friends whahad landed, and put them as much be* 

yond the reach of our protection^ as if half the circumfe* 

rence of the globe had intervened. But the islanders, it was 

probable, did not know this so well as we did. Some of thera^ 

now and then^ came off to the ships in their canoes, with a 

few cocoa nuts ; which they exchanged for whatever was 

offered to them, without seeming to give the preference to 

any particular article. . 


518 Modern Circumnavigations* pabt iii. book nr. 

These occasional visits served to lessen my solicitude 
about our people who had landed. Though we could get 
no information from our visitors^ yet their venturing on 
board seemed to imply^ at least, that their countrymen on 
shore had not made an improper use of the confidence put 
in them. At lengthy a little before sun-set, we had the sa- 
tisfaction of seeing the boats put ofi; When they got on 
boards I found that Mr Gore himself, Omai, Mr Anderson, 
und Mr Bumey, were the only persons who had landed. 
The transactions of the day were now fully reported to me 
by Mr Gore ; but Mr Anderson's account of them being 
very particular, and including some remarks on the island 
and its inhabitants, I shall give it a place here, nearly in his 
own words. 

'' We rowed toward a small sandy beach, upon whicb^ 
Bnd upon the adjacent rocks, a great qumber of the natives 
had assembled ; and came to an anchor within a hundred 
yards of the reef, which extends about, as far, or a little 
farther, from the shore. Several of the natives swam off, 
bringing cocoa-nuts; and Omai, with their countrymen, 
whom we had with us in the boats, made them sensible of 
our wish to liEind. Put their attention was taken up, foir a 
^ittle time, by the dpg, which had been carried from the 
ship, and was just brought on shore, round whom they 
flocked with great eagerness. Soon after, two canoes came 
off; and, to create a greater confidence in the islanders;^ we 
determined to ^o unarmed, and run the hazard of bein^ 
treated well or ill. 

*' Mr Burney, the first lieutenant of the Discovery, and 
I, went in one canoe, a little time before the other ; and' 
our conductors, watching attentively the motions of the' 
surf, landed us safely upon the reef. An islander took hold' 
of each of us, obviously with amintention to support us in 
walking, over the rugged rocks, to the beach, where scve-* 
ral of the others met us, holding the green boushs of a spe- 
cies of Mimosa in their hands, and saluted us by applying^ 
their noses to ours. 

*^* We were conducted from the beach by our guides, 
amidst a great crowd of people, who flocked with very ea-i 
ger curiosity to look at us ; and iHrould have prevented our 
proceeding, had not some men, who seemed to have autho- 
rity, dealt blows, with little distinction, amongst them, W 


tHAP* II. sfiCTr lU Cook J Cl€rk$^ and Gore* 5\9 

keep them off. We were then led up an avenue of cocoa- 
palms ; and soon came to a number of men^ arranged ia 
two rows^ armed with clubs^ which they held on their shoul* 
deiBj much in the manner we rest a musquet* After walk*- 
ing a little way amongst these^ we found a person who seem* 
ed a chief, sitting on the ground cross-legged, cooling him- 
self with a sort of triangular fan, made from a leaf of the co^ 
coa palm, with a polished handle^ of black woody fixed to one 
corner. In his ears were large bunches of beautiful red fea^. 
fbers^ which pointed forward. But he had no other mark^ 
or ornament^ to distinguish him from the rest of the people %* 
though they all obeyed him with the greatest alacrity. He 
either naturally had, or at this time put on, a serious, but 
not severe countenance; and we were desired to salute .hin% 
as he sat, by some people who seemed of consequence* 

^' We proceeded still amongst the men armed with clubs^ 
and came to a second chief, who sat fanning himsdf, and 
ornamented as the first. He was remarkably for his size, 
and uncommon corpulence, though, to appearance, not* 
above thirty years of age. In the same manner, we .were 
conducted to a third chief, who seemed older than the two 
former, and, though nol^so fat as the second, was of a large 
size. He also was sitting, and adorned with red feathers ; 
and after saluting him as we had done the others, he desired 
us both to sit down, which we were very willing to do, be* 
ing pretty well fatigued with wallcing up, and with the ex- 
cessive heat we felt amongst the vast crowd that surround? 
jed us. 

^'In a few minutes, the people were ordered to separate 
and we saw, at the distance of thirty yards^ about twenty 
young women, ornamented as the chiefs, with red feathers, 
enagaged in a dance, which they performed to a slow and 
serious air, sung by them all. We got up, and went for- 
ward to see them ; ^nd though we must have been strange 
Directs to them, they continued their dance, without pay- 
ing the least attention to us. They seemed to be directed 
by a man who served as a prompter, and mentioned each 
motion th^y were to make. But they never changed the 
spot, as we do in dancing, and though their feet were not 
at rest, this exercise consisted more in moving the fingers 
yery nimbly, at the same time holding the hands in a prone 
jK)sition near the face, and now apd then also clapping 


SS9 Modem Qrcmmai^ationi. PAn in. book iu« 

them together.' Their motions and songs were perform* 
ed in such exact concert, that it should seem they bad been 
taught with great care ; and probably they were selected 
for this ceremony, as few of those whom we saw in the 
crowd equalled them in beauty. In general, they were r^- 
ther stout than slender, with black hair flowing in ringlets 
down the neck, and of an olive complexion. Their features 
were rather fuller than what we allow to perfect beauties, 
and much alike ; but their eyes were of a deep black, and 
each countenance e)i:pressed a degree of complacency and - 
modesty, peculiar to the sex in every part of the world, 
but perhaps more conspicuous here, where Nature present* 
cd us with her productions in the fullest perfection, unbias* 
aed in sentiment by custom, or unrestrained in manner by 
art. Their shape and limbs were elegantly formed. For, 
as their dress consisted only of a piece of glazed cloth 
i&stened about the waist, and scarcely reaching so low ai^ 
the knees, in many we had an opporti^nity of observing- 
every parC This dance was not finished^ when we heard a 
noise, as if some horses had been galloping toward us ; and, 
on looking aside, we saw the people armed with clubs, who 
bad been desired, as we supposed, to entertain us with the 
Kght of their manner of fighting* This they now did, one 
party pursuing another who fled. 

*' As we supposed the ceremony of being introduced to 
the chiefs was* at an end, we began to look about for Mr 
Gore and Qmai ; and, though the crowd would hardly suf* 
fer us to move, we at length found them coming up, as 
much incommoded by the number of people as we had 
been, and introduced in the same manner to the three 
chiefs, whose names were Otteroo, Taroa, and Fatouweera» 
£ach of these expected a present ; and Mr Gore gave them, 
such things as he had brought with him from the ship, for 
that purpose. After this, making use of Omai as his inter* 
preter, he informed the chiefs with what intention we had 
come on shore ; but was given to understand, that he must 
wait till the next day, and theii ^e sl^ould have what was 


3 The dances of the inhabitaBts of the Caroline Islands have a gretii 
resemblance to those here described. See Letttes £di£ et Curieusest tom^ 
XV. p. 315. See also, in the same volume, p. S07, what is said of the sing- 
ing and dancing of the inhabitant^ pf the Palaos IslandSi wfaiph belong ta 
the same group.— D^ 

triiAP. li. i^Ect. IK CooJc, Clerke, and Gore, 3£1 

^Tbey now seemed to t&kd some pains i;o separate trs 
from each other ; and every one of us had his circle to sur- 
round and gaze at him. For my own part^ I was^ at on^ 
time^ above an hour apart from my friends; and when t 
told the chief, with whom I sat^ that I wanted to speak to 
Omai^ he peremptorily refused my request ' At the same 
time^ I found the people began to steal several trifling 
things which I had in my pocket ; and when I took the li- 
berty of complaining to the chief of this treatment^ he justi- 
fied it. From these circumstaiices, I now entertained ap- 
prehensions^ that they might have formed the design of de- 
taining us amongst them. They did not^ ii^deed^ seem t6 
be of a disposition so savage^ as to make ns anxious fot the 
Safety of our persons ; but it was, nevertheless, vexing to 
think we had hazarded being detailed by their curiosity. 
In this situation, I asked for something to eat; and they 
teadily brought to me some cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, and 
a sort of sour pudding, which was presented by a woman. 
And on my complaining much of the heatj occasioned bjr 
the crowd, the chief himself condescended to fan me, and 
gave me a small piece of doth, which he bad round his 

"Mr Burtiey happening td come to the place where I 
was, I mentioned my suspicions to him ; and; to put it tb 
the test, whether they were well-founded, we attempted t6 
get to the bea,ch. But we were stopped, when about half- 
way, by some men, who told us, that we must go back to 
the place which we had left. On coming up, we found 
OmaP entertaining the same apprehensions. JBut he had, 
as he fancied, an additional reason for being afraid ; for 
he had observed, that they had dug a hole in the ground 
for an oven, which they were now heating ; and he could 
assign, no other reason for this, than that they meant to 
roast and eat us, as is practised by the inhabitants of New 
Zealand. Nay, he went so far as to ask them the question ; 
at which they were greatly surprised, asking, in return, 
whethet that was a custom with us f Mr Burney and I wer6 
rather angry that they should be thus suspected by him; 
there having, as yet, been no appearances, in their conduct 
toward us, of their being capaole of such brutality. 

"In this manner we were detainisd the greatest part of 
the day, being sometimes together, and sometimes sepaira— 
ted, but always in a crowd ; who, not satisfied with gazing 

VOL. xt. X at 

39(2 Modem Circutntta^^atums^ paet hi. book iii» 

l^t 118^ fcequ^Qtl^ tlesired v» to uncover parte of our skin ; 
the sight of which commonly produced a general murmnc 
pf admiration. At the same lime they did not omit these 
opportunities of rifling our pockets ; and> at last^ one df 
them smutched a small bayonet from Mr Gorej which hung 
in its sheath by his side. This was represented to the 
chiefs who pretended to send some person in se^ch of it. 
JButj in all probabilityj he countenanced the dieft ; for^ soon 
^fter^ Omai had a dagger stolen fr^m his side, in the same 
manner, though he did not miss it immediately. 

" Whether they observed any signs of uneasiness in us, 
or that they voluntarily repeated their emblems of friend- 
ship when we expressed a desire to go, I cannot tell ; but^ 
,at this time, tbey brought some green boughs, and, stick- 
ing their ends in the ground, desired we might hold them 
as we sat Upon out urging again the business we came 
upon, thev gave us to understand, that we must stay and 
eat with tbem ; and a pis which we saw, soon after, lying 
near the oven, which they had prepared and heated, re- 
moved Omai's apprehension of being put into it hii^self ; 
and made us thmk it might be intended for our repast» 
The chief also promised to send some people to procure 
food for the cattle ; but it was not till pretty late in the 
afternoon, that we saw them return with a few plantain- 
treesj which they carried to our boats. 

'^ In the mean time, Mr Burney and I attempted again 
to go to the beach ; but when we arrived, we found ourselves 
watched by people, who, to appearance, had been plar 
ced there for this purpose. For when I tried to wade in 
upon the reef, one of them took hold of my clothes and 
dragged me back. I picked up some small pieces of coral^ 
which they required me to throw down again ; and, on my 
refusal^ they made no scruple to take tbem forcibly from 
me. I bad gathered some small plants, but these also I 
could not be permitted to retain. And tbey took a fan 
from Mr Burney, which he had received as a present on 
coming ashore. Omai said we had done wrong in taking 
up any thing, for it was not the custom here ta permit free- 
doms of that kind to strangers, till they had, in some mea* 
sure, naturalized them to the country, by entertaining tbeui^ 
lYith festivity for two or three days. 

'^ Finding that the oply n^ethod of procuring better 
treatment was to yield implicit obedience to their will, we 


GH(AP* II. 8Bcr. II. Cooftj Ckrke, and Gore* 328 

went up again to the place we had left ; and they now pro* 
mised that we should bare a canoe to carry us off to our 
hoatSj after we had eaten of a repast which they had pre- 
pared for us. 

^'Accordingly, the second chiefs to whom we hadheen 
introduced in the mornings having seated himself upon a 
low broad stool of blackish hard wood^ tolerably polished^, 
andj directing the multitude to make a pretty Wge ring^ 
made us sit down by him. A considerable number of co- 
coa-nuts were now brought^ and shortly after a long green 
basket^ with a sufficient quantity of baked plantains to have 
served a dozen persons. A piece of the young hog, that 
had been dressed^ was then set before each of us, of which 
we were desired to eat. Our appetites, however, had fail- 
ed from the fatigue of the day ; and though we did eat a 
Jittle to please them^ it was without satisfaction to ourselves. 

** It being now near sun-set, we told them it was time to 
go on boaid. This they allowed, and sent down to the 
beach the remainder of the victuals that had been dressed^ 
to be carried with, us to the ships. But, before we set out^ 
Omai was treated with a drink he had been used to in his 
own country, which, we observed, was made here, as at 
other islands in the South Sea, by chewing the root of a 
sort of pepper. We found a canoe ready to put us off to 
our boats, which the natives did with the same caution as 
when we landed. But even here their thievish disposition 
did not leave them. For a person of some consequence 
among them, who came with us, took an opportunity, just 
as they were pushing the canoe into the surf, to snatch a bag 
out of her, which I had with the greatest difficulty preserved 
all da^, there being in it a small pocket-pistol, which I was 
unwilling to part with. Perceivmg him, I called out> ex- 
pjessing as much displeasure as I could. On which he 
thought proper to return, and swim with the bag to the ca- 
noe $ but he denied he had stolen it, though detected in 
the very act. They put us on board our boats, with the 
oocoa-nuts, plantains, and other provisions^ which they had 
brought, and we rowed to the snips, very well pleased that 
we had at last got out of the hands of our troublesome 

'' We regretted much that our restrained situation gkve 
us so little opportunity of making observations on the coun- 
try ; for, during the whole day, we were seldom a hundred 


3£4 Modem Cireunmavigaiians^ part ixi. book hi. 

yards from the place where we were introdticed to the 
chiefg on landings and, consecjaently, were Confined to the 
surrounding objects. The first thing that presented itself, 
worthy of our notice, was the number or people, which 
must have been at least two thousand. For those who wel- 
comed us on the shore bore no proportion to the multitude 
we found amongst the trees, on proceeding a little way up. 

*' We could also observe, that, except a few, those we 
bad hitherto seen on board were of the Ibwer class ; for a 
great number of those we now met with had a superior 
dignity in their air, and were of a much whiter cast. In 
general, they had the hair tied on the crown of the head, 
long, black, and of a most luxuriant growth. Many of the 
young men were perfect models in shape, of a complexion 
as delicate as that of the women, and, to appearance, of a 
disposition as amiable. Others, who were more advanced 
in years, were corpulent ; and all had a remarkable smooth- 
ness of the skin* Tlieir general dress was a piece of cloth, 
or mat, wrapped about the waist, and covering the parts 
which modesty conceals. But some had pieces of mats^ 
most curiously varied with black and white, made into a sort 
of jacket without sleeves; and others wore conical caps of 
cocoa-nut cor^, neatly interwoven with small beads, made 
of a shelly substance. Their ears were pierced ; and in 
them they hung bits of the membranous part of some 
plant, or stuck there an odoriferous flower, which seemed 
to be a species of gardenia. Some, who were of a superior 
class, and also the chiefs, had two little balls, with a com- 
mon base, made from the bone of some animal, which was 
hung round the neck, with a great many folds of small cord. 
And after the ceremony of introduction to the chiefs was 
over, they then appeared without their red feathers, whibh 
are certainly considered here as a particular tifiark of dis- 
tinction, for none but themselves, and the young women 
who danced, assumed them. 

'* Some of the men were punctured all Over the sides and 
back in an uncommon manner ; and some of the women 
had the same ornament on their legs. But this method 
was confined to those who seemed to be of a superior rank ; 
and the men, in that case, were also generally distinguish- 
ed by their size and corpulence, unless very young. The 
women of an advanced a^e had their hair cropped short ; 
and many were cut in obhque lines all over the tore-part of 


OHAF. ii# SECT. If. Cook, CUfht, and Gore. '2^ 

the body ; and some of the wounds, which formed rhom- 
boidal figures, had been so lately inflicted, that the coagu- 
lated blood still remained in them. 

. *' The wife of one of the chiefs appeared with her child, 
laid in a piece of red cloth, which bad been presented to 
her husband, and seemed to carry it with great tenderness, 
suckling it much after the manner of pur women. Another 
chief introduced his daughter, who was young and beautw 
ful, but appeared with all the timidity natural to the ses, 
tliough she gazed on us with a l^ind of anxious concern, 
that seemed to struggle with her fear, and to express her 
astonishment at so unusual a sight. Others advanced with 
more firifioess, and indeed were less reserved than we ex^ 
pected, .but behaved with a becoming modesty. We did 
not observe any personal deformities amongst either sex, 
except in a few who had scars of broad superficial ulcers 
remaining on the face and other parts. In proportion to 
the number of people assembled, there appeared not many 
old men or women ; which may easily be accounted for, 
by supposing that such as were in an advanced period of life, 
might neither have the inclination nor the ability to come 
from the more distant parts of the island. On the other 
hand, the children were numerous ; and both these and the 
men climbed the trees to look at us when we were hid by 
the surrounding .crowd* 

. ^' About a third part of the men were armed with clubs 
and spears ; and probably these were only the persons who 
had come from a distance, as many of them had small bas- 
kets, mats, and other things, fastened to the ends of their 
weapons. The clubs were generally about six feet long, 
maae pf a hard black wood, lance-shaped at the end, but 
much broader, with the edge nicely scolloped, and the 
• whole neatly polished. Others of them were narrower at 
the point, much shorter, and plain ; and some were even so 
small as to be used with one hand. The spears were mjade 
of the same wood, simply pointed, and, in general, above 
twelve feet long; though some were so short that they 
seemed intended to be thrown as darts. 
. '^ The place where we were all the day was under the 
shade of various trees, in which they preserved their canoes 
from the sun. About eight or ten of them were here, all 
double ones^ that is, two single ones fastened together (as 
is U9ual throughout the whole extent of the Pacific Ocean) 


$9,6 MoSait Cireunkuif^aHons. wrt ixu ntA>1C Uu 

bv rafters lash'ed across* They were about twenty feet lotig,* 
about four feet deep^ and the sides rounded with a plank 
raised upon them^ which was fastened stnobgly by mean^ 
of withes. Two of these canoes were most curiousiy stdn* 
ed/or painted^ ail over with blaelr^ in numberless small fi<* 
gures^ as squares^ triangles^ &c. and excelled, by fttr any 
thing of that kind I had ever seen at any otfaer> island i^ 
this ocean. Onr friends here^ indeed^ seemed to have ex- 
erted more skill in doing this than in pttncturing their owii 
bodies. The paddles were about four feet long^ nearly el- 
liptical, but broader at the upper end than the mrddle: 
Near the same place was a hut or shed, about thirty feel 
long, and nine or ten high, in whidb, perhaps, these boats 
are built ; but at this time it was empty. 

" The greatest number of the trees around us were eocoa* 
palms, some sorts of hibiscm, a species of euphorbia, «nd, to-* 
ward the sea, abundance of the same kind of trees we had 
seen at Mangeea Nooe Naitiaiwa, and which se^Hfted to 
surround the shores of the island in the same manner. They 
are tall and slender, not much unlike a cypress, b«t with 
bunches of long, round, articulated leaves. The natives call 
them eioa. On the ground we saw some grass, a species of 
eonoolvuhu, and a good deal of treack-mustard^ There are 
also, doubtless, other fruitrtrees and useful plants which we 
did not see; for, besides several sorts of plantains, they 
brotight, at. different times, roots which they call taro, (the 
coccos of other countries,) a bread*-fruit, and a basket of 
roasted nuts, of a kidney shape, in taste like a chesnut, hvii 

'^ What the soil of the island may be farther inland w^ 
could not tell, but toward the sea it is nothing mone thaii 
a bank of coral, ten or twelve feet high, steep and rugged, 
iexcept where there are small sandy beaches at some clefts, 
where the a9cent is gradual. The coral, though it has pro- 
bably been exposed to the weather for many centuries, has 
ymdergone no farther change than becoming black on th^ 
surface, which, from its irregularity, is not much unlike 
large masses of a burnt substance. But, on breaking some 
pieces off, we found that, at the depth of two or three in- 
phes, it was just as fresh as the pieces that had been lately 
jthrown upon the beach by the waves. The reef, or rock, 
that lines the shore entirely, runs to different breadths into 
j^he sea^ where it ends all at once, and biecomes like a high> 


CHAF. lt» Bi&r. n» * Cook, Ckrke, anni Gore* S27 

•teep m&. It b nearly even with the surface of the water, 
and of a brown or bridt: colour ; but the texture is' rather 
porous, yet suffici^it to withstand the washing of the surf 
which continually breaks upon it.* 

Though the landing of our gentlemen proved the means 
of enriching my journal with tne foregoing particulars, tfie 
principal otject I had in view was, in a great measure, un* 
attained ; for the day was spent without getting any one 
thing from the island worth mentioning. The natives, how* 
ever, were gratified with a sight they never before had, and 
probably will never have again. And mere curiosity seems 
to have been their chief motive for keeping the gentlemen 
under such restraint, and for using every art to prolong 
their continuance amongst them. 
. It has been mentioned that Omai wiis sent upon this ex- 
pedition ; and perhaps his being Mr GcH-e's interpreter was 
aot the only service be performed this day. He was asked 
by the natives a great many questions concerning us, our 
ships, our country, and the sort of arms we used ; and, ac^ 
cording to the account he gave me, his answers were not a 
little upon the marvellous. As, for instance, he told them 
that our country had ships as large as Iheir island, on board 
which were instruments of war (describing our guns) of 
such dimensions that several people might Hsit within them, 
and that one of them was sufficient to crush the whole is- 
land at one shot. This led them to enqiiire of him what 
sort of guns we actually had in our two ships. He said, that 
though they were but small in comparison with those he had 
just described, yet. With such as they were, we could, with 
the greatest ease, and at the distance the ships were from 
the shore, destroy the island, and kill eveiy soul in it They 
persevered in their enquiries, to know by what means thils 
could be done ; and Omai explkined the matter as well as 
he could. He happened luckily to have a few cartridges 
in his pocket. These he produced ; the balls, and the gun- 
powder which was to set them in motion, were submitted 
to ipspection ; and, to supply the defects of his descrip- 
tion, an appeal was made to the senses of the spectators* 
It has been mentioned above, that one of the chiefs had 
ordered the multitude to form themselves into a circle. 
Tliis furnished Omai with a convenient stage for his exhi- 
bition. In the centre of this amphitheatre, the inconsider- 
able quantity of gunpowder collected from, his cartridges 



Modem Grcwm^^^iom. p4Rt iii. bqojk hi* 

yf3S properly disposed apon the groutid^ and/ by means of a 
bit of burning wood from the oven^ where dinner w«s dress* 
ing> set qn fire. The sudden blast and loud report^ the 
mingled flame and smok^^ that, instantly succeeoed, now 
filled the whole assembly mttk astonishment. They no 
longer doubted the tremendous pow^r of our weapons^ an4 
gave full credit to all that Omai had said. 

If it had not been for the terribJe ideas they qonceived 
of the guns of oi|r ships, from this specimen of their mode 
of pperationj it y^as thought that th^y w;ould hav^ detained 
the gentlemen all pight. Fpr Omai assured them, that. if 
be and his companions did not return on board the same 
day^ they might eicpect that I would fire upon the island. 
And as we stood in nearer the land in the evening, than we 
]^ad done any time before, of which position of the ships 
they were observed to take creat notice, they probably 
thought we' were meditating this formidable fittack> and, 
therefore, suffered their gue§ts to depart \ i^nd^r the expeo^ 
.tation^ however^ pf seeipg them again on shore nqxt morn- 
ing. But I was too sensible pf the risk they had already 
^un, to think pf a repetition of the experiment. 

This day, it seems, was destined to give Omai more ocf 
<pasions thaQ one of being brought forward to bear a prin- 
cipal part in its transactions. The island, though never be- 
fore visited by Europeans,, actually h^pp^aed to haye other 
strapgers residing in it ; and- it was entirely owing to Omai's 
being one of Mr Gore's attendants, that this curious cir- 
cupistance came to our knowledge. 

Scarcely h^d he been landed upon the beach, when he 
found, amongst the crowd there assembled, three of his 
own countrymen, natives of the Society Islands. At the 
distance of about SOQ leagues from those islands, an im- 
inense, unknown ocean intervening, with SMch wretched 
sea-boats as their inhabitants are known to ^ake use of, 
.and fit only for a pfussage where sight of land is scarcely 
ever lost, such a meeting, at spch a place, so accidentally 
.^visited by us, may well be looked upon as one of those un- 
expected situations with which the writers of feigned ad- 
ventures love jLo surprise their readers, and which, when 
they really happen in copiipon life, deserve to be recorded 
.for their singularity. 

It may easily be guessed with Tfhat mutual surprise and 
satisfaction Omai and bis cpuntrymen engaged in conver- 

CHAP. II. $SCT. IX. Cook, CUrhe, and Qare* \ • 329 

flBlion. Their aioi^f as related by thenij u an affeciiog one* 
Abfifut twenty pfsraoos ia number, of both sexes, bad em-* 
barked oa board a canoe at Otaheite, to cross over to the 
ji^ighbouring island Ulietea. A violent contrary wiad ari* 
aingy they oould neither reach the fatter nor get back to 
4he fprmer* Their intended passage being a very short 
one^ their stock of provisions was scanty^ and soon exhaust- 
^. The hardships they suffered, while driven along by the 
,atprm they knew not whither, are not to be conceived. They 
passed many days without having any thing to eat or drink. 
Their numbers gradually diminished^ worn out by famine 
.and fatigue. Four men only survived when the canoe 
overset, and then the perdition of this small remnant seem- 
.ed inevitable. However, they kept hanging by the side of 
their vessel during some of the last days^ till Providence 
J>rought them in sight of the people of this island, who 
' immediately sent out canoes^ took them off their wreck, and 
brought them ashore. Of the four who were thus saved, 
one was «ince dead. The other three, who lived to have 
ibis opportunity of giving an account of their almost mi- 
jaculous transplantation, spoke hishly.of the kind treatment 
ibhey here' met with. And so well satisfied were they with 
^heir situation, that they refused the offer made to them by 
our gentlemen, at Omai's request, of giving them a pass^^ge 
«pn .board our ships, to restore them to their native islands. 
The similarity of manners and language had more tbam 
natnralized them to. this spot; and the fresh connexions 
which they had here formed, and which it would have been 
painful to have broken off after such a length of time, suf- 
ficiently account for their declining to revisit the places of 
. their birth. They had arrived upon this island ait least 
twelve years ago. For I learnt from Mr Anderson, that 
he found they knew nothing of Captain Wallis's visit to 
Otaheite in 1765, nor of several other memorable occur- 
. rences, such as the conquest of Ulietea by those of Bola- 
; lM>la, which had preceded the arrival of the Europeans. To 
Mr Anderson I am also indebted for their names, Orououte, 
Otirreroa, and Tayee ; the first born at Matavai in Ota- 
' iieil;e, the second at Ulietea, and the third at Huaheine. 

The landing of our gentlemen on this island, though they 
failed in the object of it, cannot but be considered as a 
very fortunate circumstance. It has proved, as we have 
seen, the means of bringing tp our knowledge a n^atter of 


380 ' Modem CireumMV^gaiioni. fabt in. book iii^ 

fact^ not only Teiy cnnow, but veiy iostroctive* The ap« 
plication of the above narrative is obvioas. It will serve to 
explaiOj better than a thousand conjectures of speculative 
reasoners, how the detached parts of the earth, and^ in pai^ 
ticuiar» how the islands of the Soath Sea, may have been 
first peopled, especially those that lie remote from any in*- 
faabtted continent, or from each other.* 

This island is called Wateeoo by the natives. It lies in 
the latitude of 20* 1' S. and in the longitude fiOl"" 45^ E^, 
and is about six leagues in circumference. It is ^ beauti* 
ful spot, with a surface composed of hills and plains^ and 
covered with verdure of many hues. Our gentlemen 
found the soil, where they passed the d^, to be light and 
sandy* But farther up the country, a different sort perhaps 
prevails, as we saw from the ship, by the help of our glatises^ 
a reddish cast upon the«risiDg grounds. There the inha* 
bitants have their houses ; for we could perceive two or 
three, which were long and spacious. Its produce, with 
the addition of hogs, we found to be the same as at the last 
island we had visited, which the people of this, to whom 
we pointed out its position, called Owhavarouah, a name 
so different from Mangeea Nooe Nainaiwa, which we leahit 
from its own inhabitants, that it is highly probably Owhava- 
Touah is another island* 


* Such accidents as this hero related, probably happen frequently in the 
Pacific Ocean. In 1696, two canoes, having on board thirty persons of 
both sexesy were driven by contrary winds and tempestuous weather on 
the isle of Samal* one of the Philippines, afler being tossed about at sea 
seventy days, and having performed a voyage from an island called by 
them Amorsot, SCO leagues to the £. of SamaL Five of the nomber who 
had embarked died of the hardships suffered during this extraordinary 
passage* See a particular account of them, and of the islands they be- 
longed to, in Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, torn. xv. from p. 196 to p. 
215. In the same vplume, from p. 282 to p. SSO, we have the relation of 
a similar adventure in 1721, when two canoes, one containing twenty* 
four, and the other six, persons, men, women, and children, were driven 
from an island they odled Farroilej), northward to the Isle of Guam, or 
Guahan, one of the Ladrones or Mariannes, fiut these had not sailed so far 
as their countrymen who reached Samal, as above, and they had been at 
sea only twenty days. There seems to be no reason to doubt the ^eneml 
authenticity of these two relations. The information contained in the 
Letters of the Jesuits about these islands, now known under the name of 
the Carolines, and discovered to the Spaniards by the arrival of the ca- 
noes at &raal and Guam, has been adopted by all our later writers. See 
President de Brosse's Voyages aux Terree Austndes^ torn. ii. from p. 443 
to p. 490. See abo the Mixlern Universal History,— D. 

cHAt: n. sECTi II. Cook, Clerke, and Gbre, 331 

From the circamstances already mentioned^ it appears 
that Wateeoo can be of hide use to any ship that wants 
refreshment^ unless in a case of the inost absolute necessi- 
ty. The natives^ knowing now the value x>f some of our 
oommoditiesy might be^induced to bring off fruits and hogs 
to a ship standing off and on, or to boats lying off the reef, 
as ours did* It is doubtful, however, if any fresh water 
could be procured ; for, though some was brought in cocoa- 
nut shells to the gentlemen, they were told that it was at a 
considerable distance ; and, probably, it is only to be met 
with in some stagnailt pool, as no running stream was any 
where seen. 

According to Omai's report of what he learnt in conver- 
sation with his three countrymen, the manners of these is- 
landers, their method' of treating sU^ngers, and tbeir ge- 
neral habits of life, are much like those that prevail at Ota- 
heite, and its neighbouring isles. Their religious ceremonies 
and opinions are also nearly the same. For, upon seeing 
6ne man who was painted all over of a deep black colour^ 
and enquiring the reason, our gentlemen were tdd that he 
had lately been paying the last good offices to a deceased 
friend ; and they found, that it was upon similar (Occasions 
tiie women cut themselves, as already mentioned. From 
every circumstance, indeed, it is indubitable, that the na-^ 
fives of Wateeoo sprung originally from the same stock, 
which hath spread itself so wonderfully aU over the immense 
extent of the South Sea. Otte would suppofefe, however, 
that they put in their claim lo a more illustrious extraction ; 
for Omai assured us, that they dignified their island with 
the appellation of Wenooa iu) te Eatooa, that is, A land of 
gods; esteeming themselves. a sort of divinities, and pos- 
sessed with the spirit of the Eatooa^ This wild enthusiastic 
notion Omai seemed much to approve of, telling us there 
were instances of its being entertained at Otaneite, but 
that it was universally prevalent amongst the inhabitants of 
Mataia> or Osnaburg Island. 

The language spoken at Wateeoo was equally well un- 
derstood by Omid, and by our two New Zeaianders. What 
its peculiarities may be, when compared with the other 
dialects, I am not able to point out ^ for, though Mr An- 
derson had taken care to note down a specimen of it, the 
natives, who made no distinction of the objects of their 
theft, stole the memorandum book. 


33ft Modern Circwnnavigations* part ilx* book xii^ 

Section IIL 

JVenooa^ette, or Otokootaia, trnted^^^AccwLni of that Idand^ 
and ofiti Produce^ — Hervey^s Islatid, or Terougge num Jt^ 
tooa, found to be inhabited. — Transactions mththe Natvoes,. 
—-Their Persons y Dress, Language, Canoes, — Fruitless At^ 
tempt to land there. — Reasons^ Jot bearing away for the 

' Friendly Islands. — Palmerston^s Island touched atf-^^Der- 
scription of the two Places where the. Boats landed* — JRe<^ 
frdhmenis obtained there. — Conjectures on the Formation of 
such lorn Islands. — Arrisml at the Friendly Islands. 

Light airs find calms having prevailed^ by turns^ all the 
night qF the 3d of Aprils the easterly swell had carried the 
ships some distance from Wateeoo before day-break. But 
as I had failed in my object of proeuriog at that place some, 
effectual supply, Lsaw no reason for staying there any, 
longer. I therefore quitted it, withont regret^ and steered 
for the neighbouring island, which, as has been mentioned^ 
we discovered three days before* 

With a gentle breeze at £. we got up with it before tea 
o'clock in the morningi and I immediately dispatched Mr 
Gore, with two boats, to endeavour to land, and get some 
food for our eattle. As there seemed to be no inhabitanta 
here to obstruct our taking away whatever we might think 
proper, I was confident of bis being able to make amenda 
for our late disappointment, if the landing could be effect* 
ed. There ytas a reef here surrounding the land as at Wan 
teeoo, and a considerable surf breaking against the rocks* 
Notwithstanding which, our boats no sooner reached the 
lee, or west side of the island, but they ventured in, and Mjt 
Gore and his party got- safe on shore. I could, from the 
ship, see that they had succeeded so far, and I immediate! j 
sent a small boat to know what father assistance was want* 
ing* She did not leturn till three o'clock in the afternoon^ 
having waited to take in a lading of what useful produce 
the island afforded. As soon as she was cleared, she was 
sent again for another cargo ; the jolly boat was also dis- 
patched, and Mr Gore was ordered to be on board, with all 
the boats, before night, which was complied M^ith. 

The supply obtained here consisted of about a hundred 




CHAP. II. SECT. III. Cookf Ckrke, and Gore. S9S 

cocoa nuts for each ship ; and, besides this refreshment for 
ourselres, we got for our cattle -some grass^ and a quantity 
of the leaves and branches of young cocoa-trees, and of the 
wkarra-ireey as it is called at OtalieitCi^ the pandanus of the 
East Indies. This latter being of a soft, spungy, jnicy na- 
ture, the cattle eat it very well when cut into small pieces; 
so that it might be said, Without any deviation from truth, 
that we fed thetn upon billet wood. 

This island lies in the latitude of IQ* 51' S. and the lon- 
gitude of ^l* 37' E., about' three or four leagues from 
Wateeoo, the inhabitants of which called it Otakootaia; 
and sometimes they spoke of it under the appellation of 
Wenooa-ette, whicn signifies little island. Mr Anderson^ 
who was on -ehore with our party, and walked round it, 
guessed that it could not be much more than three miles in 
circuit. From him 1 also learned the following particulars: 
The beach, within the reef, is composed of a white coral 
sand, above which the land within does not rise above six 
or seven feet, and is covered with a light reddish soil, but 
is entirely destitue of water. 

The^only common trees found there were cocoa-palms^ 
of "which there were several clusters, and vast numbers of 
the wharra. There was likewise the callophi/iltfm, suriana, 
guettarda^ a species of toumefortia, and taberme montana, 
with a few other shrubs, and some of the ttoa tree seen at 
Wateeoo. A sort of bind-weed over-ran the vacant spaces^ 
except in some places, where was found a considerable 
quantity of treacle^mustard, a species of spurge, with a few 
other small plants, and the morinda ciirybiia, the fruit of 
'which is eaten by the natives of Otaheite in times of scai^ 
city. Omai, who had landed with the party, dressed some 
of it for their dinner, but it proved very indifferent. 

The only bird seen amongst the trees was a beautiful 
t!uckoo, of a chesnut brown, variegated with black, which 
was shot. But upon the shore were some egg-birds ; a 
small sort of curlew ; blue and white herons ; and a great 
number of noddies ; which last, at this time, laid their eggs 
a little farther up on the ground, and often rested on the 

One of our people caught a lizard of a niost forbidding 
aspect, though small, running np a tree ; and many of an- 
t)ther sort were seen. The bushes toward the sea were fre- 
'^uented by infinite numbers of a sort of motb> elegantly 


SS4 Modem Circumnavigations^ paet in« book iii. 

«peekled with red» black, and white. There were also se- 
veral other sorts of moths, as well' as some pretty butterflies, 
«Dd a few other insects. 

. Tboagh there were, at this time, no fixed inhabitants 
upon the island, indubitable marks remained of its being at 
least occasionally frequented. In particular, a few e;npty 
huts were found. There were also several large stones erect- 
ed, like monuments, under the shade of some trees, and 
several spaces inclosed with smaller ones, where, probably, 
the dead had been buried. And, in one place, a great many 
cockle-shells, of a particular sort, finely erooved, and larger 
than, the first, were to be seen; from which it was reason- 
able .to conjecture, that the island had been visited by per- 
sons who feed partly on shellfish. In one of the huts Mr 
. Gore left a hatchet and some nails, to th^ fiill value of what 
we took away. 

As soon as the boats were hoisted in, I made sail again 
to the northward, with a light air of wind easterly, intend- 
ing to try our fortune at Hervey's Island, which was disco- 
vered in 1773, during my last voyage. Although it was not 
above fifteen leagues distant, yet we did not get sight of it 
till day-break in the momiog of the 6th, when it bore 
.W.S.W. at the distance of about three leagues. As we 
drew near it, at eight o'clock, we observed several canoes 
put off from the shore, and they came directly toward the 
ships. This was a sight that indeed surprised me, as no 
signs of inhabitants were seen when' the island was first disp 
covered ; which might be owing to a pretty brisk wind that 
then blew, and prevented their canoes venturing out as the 
ships passed to leeward, whereas now we were to windward. 

As we still kept on toward the island, six or seven of the 
canoes, all double ones, soon came near us. There were 
from three to six men. in each of them. They stopped at 
the distance of about a stone's throw from the ship, and it 
was some time before Omai could prevail upon them to 
come along'side; but no entreaties could induce any of 
them to venture on board. Indeed, their disorderly and 
clamorous behaviour by no means indicated a disposition 
to trust us, or treat us well. We afterward learnt that they 
had attempted to take some oars out of the Discovery's 
boat, that lay along-side, and struck a man who endeavour- 
ed to prevent them. They also cut away, with a shell, a 
net with meat, which hung over that ship's stern, and ab- 


CHAP. Ik 8CCT. xn» Cookf Gierke, and Gire. 83^ 

solHtely pefased to restore it^ Aough tve afterward purcha- 
sed it from them. Those who were aboat our ship behaved 
ID the same daring mamier ; for they made a sort of hook 
jof a long stick, with which they eadeavoored opejfUy to rob 
vs of several thingSj and, at:last> actually got a frock^ be- 
loQgiog to one of our people that was towing, overboard* 
At the same time they immediately shewed a knowledge of 
barieringj and sold some fish they had (amongst which was 
an extraordinary flounder, spotted like porphyry/ and a 
cream-coloured eel, spotted with black) for small nails, of 
which they were immoderately fond, and called them goore. 
But, indeed, they caught with the greatest avidity bits of 
paper, or any thing ebe that was thrown to them ; and if 
what was tjirown fell, into the sea, they made no scruple to 
swim after it 

These people seemed to differ as moeh in person as in 
disposition from the natives of Wateeoo, though the dis* 
tance between the^two islands is not very gpneat. Their c(^ 
lour was of a deeper cast ; and several had a fierce, mgged 
aspect^ resembling the natives of New Zealand, but some 
were fairer. Thev had strong black hair, which, in gene* 
ral, they wore either hanging loose about the shoulders, or 
tied in a bunch on the crown of the head. Some/ however, 
bad it cropped pretty short ; and in two or three of them it 
was of a brown or reddish colour. Their only covering was 
a narrow piece of mat, wrapt several times round the lower 
part of the body, and which passed between the thighs ; 
bat a fiqe qap of red feathers was seen lying in one of the 
canoes. The shell of a pearl-oyster polished, and, hung 
about the neck, was the oqly ornamental fashion that we 
observed amongst them, for not one of them had adopted 
that mode of ornament so generally prevalent amongst the 
natives of this ocean, of puncturing, or iatooing, their bodies. 

Though singular in this, we had the most unequivocal 
proofs of their being of the same common race. Their Ian* 
guage apfNToached still nearer to the dialect of Otaheite 
than that of Wateeoo or Mangeea. Like the inhabitants 
of these two itiands, they enquired from whence our ^ips 
came, and whither boumi, who ^i^as our chief, the number 
pf 9ur men on board, and even the ship's name. And they 
very readily answered such questions as we proposed to 
tjtiem. Amongst other things, they told us they bad seen two 
great ships lil^e ours before, but that they had not spoken 



'3S6 M^ern CireumnavigaHom* VAitt iii. ]^6o]tiii# 

with them as they Miled part. There can be no dodbt (hat 
these were the Resolution and Adventure^ We iearnt^ from 
them> that the name of their island is Terouggemou Atooar, 
'and that they were subject to Teerevatooeah^ king of Wa- 
teeoo.* According to the account that they gave^ their ar- 
ticles of food are cocoarnuts^ fish^ and turtle ; the island not 
producing plaotains^ or bread-fruit> and being destitute of 
hogs and dogs. Their canoes^ of which near thirty w^re, 
et one time^ in sights are pretty large^ and well built. In 
the construction of the stern> they bear some resemblance 
to those of Wateeoo ; and the heaCd projects out nearly in 
the same manner^ but the extremity is turned up instead of 

^ Having br.t very little wind^ it was one o'clock before we 
drew pear the N.W. part of the island, the only part where 
there seemed to be any probability of finding anchorage for 
our ships, or a landing-place for our boats. In this position 
I sen^ Lieutenant King, with, two armed boats/ to srouud 
.and reconnoitre the coast, while we stood off- and on with 
the ships. The instant the boats were hoisted out, our vi- 
«itors in the. canoes, who had remained alongside all the 
while, bartering their little trifles, suspended their traffic^ 
and> pushing for the shore as fast as they could, came near 
US no more* 

At three o'clock the boats returned, and Mr King in- 
formed me, *^ That there was no anchorage for the ships, 
and that the boats could only laild on the outer edge of 
the reef^ which lay about a quarter of a mile from the dry 
land. He said' that a number of the natives came down 
upon the reef, armed with long pikes and clubs, as' if they 
intended to oppode his landing. And yet, when he drew 
near enough, they threw some cocoa-nuts to our people, 
and invited them to come on shore ; though) at the very 
same time, he observed that the women were very busy 
bringing down a fr^sh supply of spears and darts. But, a^ 
he had no motive to land^ be did not give them an oppor<«» 
tnnity t^ use them.*' 

Having received this report, I considered, that, as the 
ships could not be brought to an anchor^ we should find 


' The feeder will observe, that this name bears little affinity to any on^ 
of the namerof the three chiefs of Wateeoo, ad preserved by Mr .^ei^ 


€HA?. II. swct. liu Cook^ Clerke, andGctt^ ^St 

that the atteiii{>t to procure grass here would occasion much 
delay, as well as be atteikled with some danger^ Besides, 
w« were equally in want of water ; and though the inhabits 
attts had told us that there was wateron their island, yet we 
neither knew in what quantity, nor from what distance we 
might be obliged to fetch it. And^ after all, supposing no 
other obstruction, we were sure, that to get over the reef 
would be en operation equally difficult and tedious* 

Being thus disappointed at all the islands we had met 
with since our leaving New Zealand, and the unfavourable 
winds, and other unforeseen circumstances, having un«* 
avoidably retarded our progress so much, it was now im- 

] possible to think of doing any thing this year in the high 
atitudes of the northern hemisphere, from which we were 
still at so great a distance, though the season for our ope* 
rations there was already begun* In this situation it was 
absolutely necessary to pursue such measures as were most 
likely to preserve the cattle we had on board in the first 
place ; and, in the next place, (which was still a more ca« 
pital object,) to save the stores and provisions of the ships, 
that W6 might be better enabled to prosecute our northern 
discoveries, which could not now commence till a year later 
than wa9 originally intended. 

If 1 had been so fortunate as to have procured a supply^ 
of water and of grass at any of the islands we had lately 
visited, it was my purpose to have stood back to the S« till 
I had met with a westerly wind* But the certain conse* 
quence of doing this, without such a supply, wduld have 
been the loss of all the cattle, before we could possibly 
reach Otaheite, without gaining any one advantage with 
regard to the great object of our voyage* 

1 therefore determined to bear away for the Friendly Is** 
lands, where I was sure of meeting with abundance of every 
thing I wanted ; and it beine necessary to run in the night 
as well as in the day, I ordered Captain Clerke to keep- 
about a league a-head of the Resolution. I used this pre^ 
caution because his riiip could best claw off the land ; and 
it was very possible we might fall in with some in our pas-* 

The longitude of Hervey's Island, when first discovered, 
deduced from Otaheite, by th^ time*keeper, was found to 
be fiOi* 6^ £., and now, by the same time-fkeeper, deduced 
from Queeti ph|^|:lotte> jSpund, WQfi bOf £• Hence I con«- 

voLi xy« T elude. 

3S8" Modern Circumaaingatians, f aut iii. Bopic f ii|^ 

c}Qde^ that the error of the time-keeper^ at this time^ dic| 

not exceed twelve miles iu longitude. 

When w6 bore away^ I steered W. by S. with a fia^ 

breeze easterly. I proposed to proceed first to Middle- 
burgh, or Eooa, thinking, if the wmd continued favourable, 
that we had food enough on board for the cattle to last till 
<ve should reach that island. But, about noon next day, 
those faint breezes that had attended and retarded us so 
long, again returned ; and I found it necessary to haul 
liiore to the N* to get into the latitude of Palmerston's and 
Savage Islands, discovered in 1774, during my last voyage^ 
that, if necessity required it, we might have recourse to, 


^ This day, in order to save our water, I ordered the still 
to be kept at work from six o'clock in the morning to four 
in the afternoon, during which time we procured from thir- 
teen to sixteen gallons of fresh water. There has been, 
lately made some improvement, as they are pleased to call 
it, of this machine, which, in my opinion, is much for the 


These light breezes continued till the 10th, when we had, 
for some hours, the wind blowing fresh from the N. and 
N.N.W., being then in the latitude of 18* 38', and longi- 
tude 198" S4' E. In the afternoon we had some thunder 
squalls from the S. attended with heavy rain ; of which wa- 
ter we collected enough to fill five puncheons. After these 
squalls had blown over, the wind came round to the M.E. 
and N.W., being very unsettled both in strength and it^ 
position till about noon the next day, when it fixed at N*W. 
and N.N.W. and blew a fresh breeze, with fair weather. 

Thus were we persecuted with a wind in our teeth which- 
ever way we directed our course ; and we had the additional 
mortification to find here those very winds which we had: 
reason to expect 8** or l(f farther S. They came too late, 
for I durst not trust their continuance; and the event pro- 
ved that I judged right. 

At length, at day-break in the morning of the 13th, we 
saw Palmerston Island, bearing W. by S,. distant about five 
leagues. However, we did not get up with it till eigh< 
o'clock the next morning. I then sent four boats, three 
from the Resolution and one from the Discovery, with an 
officer in each, to search the coast for the most convenient; 
landing-place. For now we were under an absolute neces- 
* sity 

CHAP. II. SECT. Ill* Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. dS9> 

ttty of procuring from this island some food for the cattle^ 
otherwise we must have lost them. 

What is comprehended under the name of Palmerston's 
Island^ is a group of small islets, of which there are in the 
whole nine or ten, Ijjng iQ & circular direction, and con- 
nected together by a reef of coral rocks. The boats first 
examined the south-easternmost of the islets which com- 
pose this groupi and, failing there, ran down to the second, 
where we had the satisfaction to see them land. I then bore 
down with the. ships till abreast of the place, and there we 
l^ept standing off and on ; for no bottom was to be found to 
anqhor upon, which was not of much consequence, as the 

Earty who had landed from our boats were the only human 
eings upon the island. 

About one o'clpck one of the boats came on board, ladea 
with scurvy-grass and young cocoa-nut trees, which, at this 
time, was a feast for the cattle. The same boat brought a 
message from Mr Gore, who commanded the party, in- 
forming me that there was plenty of such produce upon the 
island, as also of the wharra tree, and some cocoa-nuts* 
This determined me to get a good supply of these articles 
before I quitted this station, and, before evening, I went 
ashore in a small boat, accompanied by Captain Gierke. 

We found every body hard at work, and the landing- 
place to be in a small creek, formed by the reef, of some- 
thing more than a boat's length in every direction, and co- 
hered from the force of the sea by rocks projecting ou{ oa 
each side of it. The island is scarcely a mile in circuit, and 
not, above three feet higher than the level of the sea. It 
appeared to be composed entirely of a coral sand, with a 
small mixture of blackish mould, produced from rotten ve- 
getables. Notwithstanding this poor soil, it is covered with 
trees and bushes of the same kind as at Wanooa-ette, 
thoiigh with less variety ; and amongst these are some co- 
coa, palms. Upon the trees or bushes that front the se$t, or 
even farther in, we found a great number of men-of-war 
.birds, tropic birds, and two sorts of boobies, which at this 
time were laying their eggs, and so tame, that they suffered 
lis to take them off with our hands. Their nests were only 
a few sticks loosely put together ; and the tropic birds laid 
their eggs on the ground, under the trees. These diflPer 
much from the common sort, being entirely of a most splea 
^id white^ slightly tinged with red, and haTin^; the two 

* loM 

S40 Modem Circurmatigatiom. part in. book ifT« 

long tail-feathers of a deep crimson or blood colour. Of 
^ach sort our people killed a considerable number; andjp 
though not the most delicate food, they were acceptable 
ienough to us who had been long confined to a salt diet, and 
who, consequently, could not but be glad of the most indif- 
ferent variety. We met with vast numbers of red crabs^i 
creeping about every where amongst the trees; and we 
caught several fish that had been left in holes upon thq 
ireefwhen the sea retired. 

At one part of the reef, which looks into, or bounds, the 
lake that is within, there was a large bed of coral, almost 
even with the surface, which aiforded, perhaps, one of the 
most enchanting prospects that nature tias any where pro- 
duced. Its base was fixed to the shore, but reached so far 
in that it could not be seen ; so that it seemed to be sus- 
pended^ the water, which deepened so suddenly, that at 
the distance of a few yards there might be seven or eight 
fathoms. The sea was at this time quite unruffled ; and the 
sun shining bright, exposed the various sorts of coral in the 
inost beautiful order ; some parts branching into the water 
with great luxuriance ; others lying collected in round ballSj 
find in various other figures ;— all which were greatly height- 
ened by spangles of the richest colours, tl^at glowed from 
ia number of large clams, which were every where inter* 
spersed. But the appearance of these was still inferior to 
that of the multitude of fishes that glided gently along, 
seemingly with the most perfect security. Tne colodrs of 
the different sorts were the most beautiful that can be ima<f 
gtoed, the yellow, blue, red, black, &c, far exceeding any 
thing that art can produce. Their various forms, also, con- 
tributed to increase the richness of this submarine gtotto; 
which could not be surveyed without a pleasing transport^ 
mixed however with regret, that a work so stupendously 
elegant should be concealed in a place where mapkind 
could seldom have an opportunity of rendering the praiseit 
justly due to so enchanting a scene.* 
• < ; Therq 

* How beautifully does Captain Cook's description illustrate those lines 
of Dr Young — 

Such Uessings Nature ponrs. 

O'erstock'd nuuikind enjoy but half her stores « 
In distant wilds, by human eyes unseen, 

^HA^. i|. s^CT« III. Cook, Ckrjce, and Gork^ S4l 

There were no traces of iohabitants having ever been 
here, if we except a small piece of a canoe that was foun4 
tjpojf^ the beach, which, probably, may have drifted froni 
some other island. But, what is pretty extraordinary,j|v.e 
saw several small brown rats on this spot, a circumstanc^ 
perhaps, difficult to account for, unless we allow that they 
were imported in the carioe of which we saw the remains. 

After the boats were laden I returned on board, leaving 
Mr Gore, with a party, to pass the night on shore, in order 
to he ready to go to work early the next iporning. 

That day, being the 15th, was accordingly spent as the 
preceding one had been, in collecting and bringing on 
board food for the cattle; consisting; cnieily of palm^cab- 
bage,. young cocoa^^nut trees, and the tender branches of 
the wharra tree. Having got a sufficient supply of these 
by sun-set, I ordered every body on board* But having 
little or no wind; I determined to wait, and to employ the 


She reafs her fidwers, and spreads Iier velvet green ; 
Pvae giiiigling rilis the lonely desert trace, 
Ahd waste their music on the savage race. 

Gray has a similar thought in his iDimitable el^, which every reacter 
ifrill immediately recollect. Can it be imagined^ that nature, which 
does nothing in iajn, -nor indeed without a rererence to the being who is 
teoinently signalised as lord of the lower creation, bat been at pains to de- 
corate these spotSf but in anticipation, if one may use the expression, of 
the praise and enjoyment which their loveliness will some time or other 
occasion } He that remembers tbe nature and formation of the coral isles 
in the southern ocean, will at once conjecture that the Great Architect h 
laising iip the materials o£ a new world, which, from aught we can yet 
perceive, will not less indicate his power and goodness than that which we 
now inhabit. How readily, then, can imagination fashion out the future 
destiny of our globfe, oti the supposj^tion that the conflagration by which its 
presoitly inhabited portioiTs are expected to be destroyed, shall not be so 
cxMDplete as to annihilate it from the universe I Or, believing what is usu* 
ally understood by that even^ on the authority of scripture, how deadly 
Can reason deduce from present appearances certain minor, but neverthe*" 
less immense, changes, which it may undergo previous to this final disso- 
ICition ! But the reader, it is probable, will not chu^e to venture on so ter- 
nifc ah excursion, and there is a motive for caution with respect to it, with 
tiihich it may not be amiss to apprise the too zealous enquirer. The fact 
1^ that none of the causes wtiich we know to be now operating on our 
i^obe, seem at all adequate to account for all the changes it has already 
i!indergone. We may, therefore, very fairly infer, that an indefinite allow- 
^ce must be granted to exterior interference of some sort or other, the 
agency of which may altogether subvert whatever is now known to eatist^ 
<^Sea CuTi^-'s Essay* lately published at Edinburgh.—E^ 

^t Modem Circwmumgatioms part hi. book ni« 

next day by endeavouring to get some cocoa-nuts for our 
people from the next island to leeward, where we could ob- 
serve that those trees were in much greater abundance than 
upon that where we had already landed, and where only 
the wants of our cattle had been relieved. 

With this view I kept standing o(F and on all night, and 
in the morning^ between eight and nine o'clock, I went 
with the boats to the W. side of the island, and landed with 
little difficulty. I immediately set the people with me to 
work to gather cocoa-nuts, which we found in great abun- 
dance, ^ut to get theni to our boats was a tedious opera* 
lion, for we Were obliged to carry them at least half a mile 
. over the reef up to the middle in water. Omai, who was 
"^ith me, caught, with a scoop net, in a very short time, as 
tnuch fish as served the whole party on shore for dinner^ 
besides sending some to both ships. Here were also great 
abundance Of birds, particularly men-of-war and tropic 
birds, so that we fared sumptuously. And it is but doing 
justice to Omai to say, that in these excursions to the un- 
inhabited islands be was of the greatest use; for he not 
only caught the fish, but dressed these, and the birds we 
Milled, in an .oven with heated stones, after the fashion of 
'his cdutitry, With a dexterity and good-humour that did 
him great credit. The boats made two trips before night, 
well laden : With the last I returned on board, leaving Mr 
Williamson, my third lieutenant, with a party of men, to 
prepare andther lading for the boats, which I proposed to 
send next morning. 

I accordingly dispatched them at seVen o'clock, and 
they returned laden by noon. No time was lost in- sending 
them back for another cargo ; and they carrred orders fot 
every body to be on board by Sunset. This being complied 
with, we hoisted in the boats and made sail to the west- 
ward^ with a light air of wind fi>om the N. 
' We found this islet near a half larger than the other, and 
almost entirely covered with cocoa-palms, the greatest part 
of which abounded with excellent nuts, having often both 
old and young on the same tree. They were, indeed^ too 
thick in many places to grow with freedom. The othet 

I>roductions were, in general, the same as at the other i%^ 
et. Two pieces of boards one of which Was rudely carved, 
.with an elliptical paddle, were found on the beach. Pro<^ 
bably these had belonged to the same canoe^ the remains 


tjak^. lit; SECT, lit Cook, Clerke, and Gore. S4S 

bf which were seen on the other beach> as the two islets 
are not above half a mile apart. A young turtle had als6 
been lately thrown ashore here^ as it was still full of mag- 
gots. There were fewer crabs than at the last place ; but 
we found some scorpions, a few other insects, and a greater 
'humber of fish upon this reefs. Amongst these were some 
largeeels^ beautifully spotted, which, when followed, would 
raise themselves out of the Water, and endeavour with an ^ 
open mouth to bite their pursuers. The other sorts were 
chiefly piirrot-fisb, snappers, and a brown spotted rock-fish^ 
about the size of a haddock, so tame, that instead of awimi* 
ming away. It would remaid fixed and gaze at us. Had'we 
been in absolute want, a Sufficient supply might have been 
had ; for thousands of the clams, already meiitioned, stuck 
tipon the reef, some of which weighed two or three pdunds. 
There were, besides, some other sorts of shellrfish, particu- 
larly the large periwinkle. When the tide flowed several 
sharks came in over the reef, some of which our people 
killed, but they rendered it rather dangerous to walk in the 
tfater at that time. 

' The party ^ho were left on shore with Mr Williamsooi, 
were a good deal pestered (as Mr Gore's had been) witTi 
Inusquitoes in the night. Some of them, in their excur* 
sions, shot two curlews^ exactly like those of £ngland, and 
6aw some plovers, 6r sand-pipers^ lipoh the shore ; but iii 
' the wood no other bird, besides one or two of the cuckoos 
that were seen at Wendoa-ett^. 

Upon the whole, we did not spend our time unprofitable 
at this last islet, for we got there about twelve hundred cd« 

• coa-nuts, which were equally divided amongst the whole 
' crew, and were, doubtless, of great use to them, both on 

liccount of the juice and of the kernel. A ship, therefore^ 
passing this way, if the Weather be moderate^ may expect 

• io succeed as we did. But there is no water upon either of 
the islets where we latided. Were that article to be had^ 
and a pasi^age could be got into the lake; ds we may call it^ 
surrounded by the reef, where a ship could anchor, i i^hould 
prefer this to any of the inhabited islands, if the only want 
were refreshment. For the quantity of fish that might be 
procured wduld be suflicient, and the people nlight roam 
nbout unmolested by the petulance of any inhabitants. 

The nine or ten Idw islets, compteheilded under the name 

• of F^lmerston's Island^ may be reckoned the heads or sum- 


344 Modem Ci^ciimiacigatiom. M.BT iii. book hi. 

miU of the reef of coral rock that conoecto them together,* 
covered ooiy with a thin coat of aaod, yet clothed^ as al- 
ready observed^ witli trees and plants, most of which are of 
the same sorts that are found on the low gronncts of the 
high islands of this ocean. 

There are different opinions amongst ing^reua theoria^a ^ 
concerning the formation of such low islands as Palmef- 
ston's. Some will have it, that in remote times these little 
separate heads or islets were joined^ and formed one con-^ 
tinned and more elevated tract of land, which the sea, in- 
the revolution of ages, has washed away, leaving only tii^e 
higher grounds ; which, in time also, will, according to this 
theory, share the same fate. Another conjecture is, that 
they have been thrown up by earthquakes, and are the ef- 
fect of internal convulsions of the globe. A third opinion, 
and wbicli appears to me as the most probable one^ mainf*^ 
tains, that they are formed from shoals or coral banks, and, 
of consequence, increasing. Without mentioning the se^* 
veral arguments made nse of in support of each of these 
systems, I shall only describe such parts of PaImerstot|-& 
Island as fell under my own observation when 1 laaded 
upon it. 

The foundation is every where a coral rock ; the soil i» 
coral. sand, with which the decayed vegetables have but ia 
a few places intermixed, so as to form any thing like mould* 
From this a very strong presumption may be drawn, that 
these little spots of land are not of very ancient date> nor 
the remains of larger islands now buried in the ocean ; for,. 
upon either of these suppobitions, more mould must have 
been formed, or some part of the original soil would have 
remained. Another circumstance confirmed this dectrir^e 
of the increase of these islets. We found vpon them, f^r 
heyoj^d the present reach of the sea even in the most yip-* 
lent storms, ekvated coral roeks, which, oo examinatioQ^ 
appeared to have been perforated in the same manner that 
the rocks are that now compo|s^ the outer edge of the reef. 
This evidently shews that the sea had formerly reached so 
far ; and some of these perforated roeks were almost in the 
centre of the laiid* 

But the strongest proof of the iocreits^, and from the 
eause we have assigped^ was the gentle gia4fitioa pb9erv^- 
bie in the plants round the skirts of the i^mods ( from within 
a few inches of hi^Wwater uwrk 4o the edg^ of the wood* 

CHAP. II. MOT. m. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. S4d 

In many places, the dtvi8it>os of tbe plants of different 
growths were very distinguisbablej especially on the lee or 
west side. This I apprehend to have been toe operation of 
extraordinary high tides, occasioned bv violent, accidental 
gales from the westward^ which have heaped up the sand 
beyond the reach of common tides. The regular and gentle 
operation of these latter^ again, throw up sand enough to 
form a barrier against the next extraordinary high tide or 
atorm, so as to prevent its reaching; as. far as the farmer had 
^one, and destroying the plants that may have begun to 
vegetate from cocoa-nuts, roots, and seed brought thither 
by birds, or thrown up by th^ sea. This, doubtless, hap- 
pens very frequently, for we found many cocoa-nuts, &nd 
tome other things, just sprouting up, only a few inches 
beyond where the sea reaches at present, in places where it 
was evident they could not have had their origin from those 
farther in, already arrived at their full growth. At the same 
time, th^ increase of vegetables will add fast to the height 
of this new*created land, as the fallen leaves and broken 
branches are, in such a climate, soon converted into a true 
black mould or soil.* . 

Perhaps there is another cause, which, if allowed, will 
accelerate the increase of these islands as much as any 
other, and will also ac^KMint for the sea having receded 


' Mr Andersoo, in his journal, mentions the following particufars re!a«^ 
tive to Palmer&ton's Island, which strongly confirm Captain Cook's opi- 
nion about its formation. ** On the last of the two islets, wheia we landed, 
the trees, being in great DumberB, bad already fono^, by their rotten 
parts, little risings or eminences, which in time, frpm the aame cause, m^f 
become small hilis« Whereas, on the first . islet, the trees being less mi" 
taerous, no such thing had as yet happened. Nevertheless, on tliat little 
Bpot the manner of formation was more plainly pointed out; for, adjoining 
to it was ^small' isle, which had doubtless been very lately Ibnned, as it 
was not as yet covered with any trees, but bad a great many shrubs, some 
,of which were growing among piecei of coral that the sea had' thrown up^t 
There was still a more sure proof of this method of formation a little far* 
ther on, where two patches of sand, about fifty yards long, and a foot or 
^hteen inches hieb, lay upon the reef, but not as yet furnished with a 
flingle bush or tree.— D. 

In a former volume we quoted a passage from Dr Forster's observe* 
tions respecting the formation of conu islands. Captain Flinders givjes • 
similar account jn vol. ii. p. 114, of his voyaee, drawn up from his own 
abservations on Half-way Island, on th^ norai coast of Terra Australia. 
It is too long for this place. The reader will find it tvanscribed, together 
with Forster's, ia %ba notes Kr the translation b£ Cuvier's work^ ahready 
deferred ta«— A 

S46 Modem drcumnavigattans. i»ART iii. Book ifU^ 

from those elevated rocks before mentioned. ' This is the 
spreading of the coral bank, or reef, iDto the sea, which, ia 
my opinion, is continually, though imperceptibly, effected. 
The waves receding, as the reef grows in breadth and 
height, leave a dry rock behind, ready for the reception' of 
the broken coral and sand, and every other deposit neces- 
sary for the formation of land fit for the vegetation of 

In this manner, there is little doubt, that in time the 
whole reef will become one island ; and, I think, it will ex*- 
tend gradually inward, either from the increase of the islets 
already formed, or from the formation of new ones upoii 
the beds of coral within the inclosed lake, if once they in- 
' crease so as to rise above the level of the sea. 

After leaving Palmerston's Island, I steered W., with ^ 
view to make the best of my way to Annamooka. We still 
continued to have variable winds, frequently between the 
N. and W., with squalls, some thunder, and much rain. 
During these showers, which were generally very copiou^, 
we saved a considerable quantity of water; and finding 
that we could get a greater supply by the rain in one hout 
than we could get by distillation in a month, I laid aside 
the still as a thing attended with more trouble than profit*^ 

The heat, which had been sreat for about a month, became 
now much more disagreeaUe. in this close rainy weather ; 
and, from the moisture attending it, threatened soon to be 
noxious, as the ships could not be kept dry, nor the skut- 
tles open, for the sea. However, it is remarkable enough*, 
that though the only refreshment we had received since 
leaving the Cape of Good Hope was that at New Zealand, 
there was not as yet a single person on board sick from 
the constant use of salt food, or vicissitude of climate. 

In the night between the 24th and 25th we passed Savage 
Island, which I had discovered in 1774 ; and on the 28th, 
at ten o'clock in the morning, we got sight of the islands 
^which lie to the eastward of Annamooka, bearing N. by W. 
about four or five leagues distant. I steered to the S. of 
these islands, and then hauled up for Annamooka, which, 
at fotir in the afternoon, bore N.W. by N., Fallafajeea 
S.W. by S,^ arid Komango N. by W., distant about five 
miles. The weather being squally, with rain, I anchored, 
at the approach of night, in fifteen fathoms deep water, 
over a bottom of coral-sand and shells^ Komango bearing 
N.W. about two leagues distant* 

8 Section 

*GHAP« II. SECT. XT. Cook, CkrJce, and Gore. S47 

Section IV, 

'Intercourse with the Jfatives ofKomango, and other Idandi."^ 
Arrival at Annamooka. — Transactions therc-^-Feenou, a 
principal Chief, from Tongataboo, comes on a Visit. — The 
Manner of his Reception in the Island^ and on board. — In^ 
stances of the pilfering Disposition of the Natives. — Some 

* Account of Annamooka. — The Passage from it to Hapaee. 

Soon after we had anchored, (April 28) two canoes^ the 
one with four, and the other with three men, paddled to- 

'ward us, and came alongside without the least hesitation. 
They brought some cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, plantains, and 
sugar*cane, which they bartered with us for nails. One of 
the men came on board; and when these canoes had left 
us, another visited us ; but did not stay long, as night was 
approaching. Komango, the island nearest to us, was, at 
least, five miles off; which shews the hazard these people 
would run, in order to possess a few of our most trifling ar- 
ticles. Besides this supply from the shore, we caught, this 
evening, with hooks and lines, a considerable quantity of 

' Next morning, at four o'clock, I sent Lieutenant King, 
with two boats, to Komango, to procure refreshments ; and, 
at five, made the signal to weigh, in order to ply up to Aii- 
namooka, the wind being unfavourable at N. W. 

It was no sooner day-light, than we were visited by six 
or seven canoes from different islands; bringing with them, 

"besides fruits and roots, two pigs, several fowls, some large 
wood-pigeons, small Tails, and large violet-coloured coots. 
All these they exchanged with us for beads, nails, hatchets, 
file. They had also other articles of commerce ; such as 
pieces of their cloth, fish-hooks, small baskets, musical reeds, 
and some clubs, spears, and bows. But I ordered, that no 

. turiosities should be purchased, till the ships should be 
supplied with provisions, and leave given for that purpose. 
Knowing also, from experience, that, if all our people might 

'trade with the natives, according to their own caprice, per*- 

'petual quarrels Would ensue, 1 ordered that particular per- 
sons should manage the traffic both on board and on shore^ 
prohibiting all other? to interfere. Before mid-*day, Mr 
King's boat returued with seven hogs, some fowls, a quan- 

848 iModtm Circumna^igatimu. PART xxx. book iif^ 

tity of fruit and roots for ourselves, and some grass for the 
cattle. His party was very civilly treated at Komango. Tbe 
inhabitants did not seem to be numerous ; and their huts/ 
which stood close to each other, within a* plantain walk, 
were but indifferent. Not far from them was a pretty large 
pond of fresh water, tolerably good ; but there was not any 
appearance of a stream. With Mr King, came on board 
the chief of the island, named Touboulangee ; and another^ 
whose name was Taipa* They brought with them a bog, 
as a present to me, and promised more the next day. 

As soon as the boats were aboard, I stood for Annamoo« 
la ; and the wind being scant, I intended to go between 
Annamookarette,' and the breakers to the S.£« of it. But, 
on drawing near, we met with very irregular soundings, va- 
rying, every cast, ten or twelve fathoms. This obliged me 
to give up the design, and to go to the southward of all } 
which carried us to leeward, and made it necessary to spend 
tbe night under saiL It was very dark ; and we had the 
wind, from every direction, accompanied with heavy show- 
ers of rain. So that, at day-light the next mommg, we 
found ourselves much farther oif than we bad been the 
evening before; and the little wind that now blew, was 
light in our teeth. 

We continued to pJy, all day, to very little purpose; 
and, in the evening, anchored in thirty-^nine fathoms wa*^ 
ter ; the bottom coral rocks, and broken shells ; the west 

Joint of Annamooka bearing E.N.E., four miles distant^ 
'oubonlangee and Taipa kept their promise, and brought 
off to me some hogs. Several others were also procured by 
bartering, from different canoes that followed us ; and a9 
much fruit as we could well manage. It was remarkable^ 
that, during the whole day, our visitors from the islands 
would hardly part with any of their commodities to any 
body but me. Captain Gierke did not get above one or 
two hogs. 

At four o'clock next morning, I ordered a boat to be 
hoisted out, and sent the master to sound the S.W. side of 
Annan^ooka ; where there appeared to be a harbour, foraf* 
ed by the island on the N.Ev and by small islets, and shoals, 
to the S.W* and S.E. In tbe mean time, the ships wer^ 
got uQder sail, and wrought up to the island. 

When the master retumea, he reported^ dat he hacE 


■ That h, Little Aoaamooka/ 

CHAP. IL st&r. t^. Cook, Ckrke, and Gare^ 849^ 

isontiSed between Great and Little Annamook^^ where be 
fotfnd ten and twelve filithonis depth of water, the bottom 
ooral 8And ; that the place was very well sheltered from all 
winds ; bat that there was no fresh water to be footidj 6x«- 
cept at some distance inland ; and thfit, even there, little 
of it was to be got, and that little not good. For this rea-* 
son only, and it was a very sufficient one, I determined to 
anchor.on the north side of the island, where, during rajr 
last voyage, I bad found a^lace fit both for watering and 

It was hot above a league distant; and yet we didnol 
reach it till five o'clock in the aftemoon> being cotosider^ 
^bly retarded by the great number of canoes that contintt«* 
ally crowded round the ships, bringing to us abundant sup*' 
plies of the produce of their island. Amongst these canoea 
there were some double ones, with a large sail^ that curried 
between forty and fifty men each. These sailed round us^ 
apparently, with the same ease as if we had been at anchor.' 
There were several women in the canoes, who were, pei^ 
haps, incited by curiosity to visit ud ; though, at the same 
time, they bartered as eagerlj as the men, and used thcS 
paddle with equal labour and dexterity. I came to an an^ 
cbor in' eighteen fathdms water, the bottom coarse cors^ 
isand ; the island extending from E. to S.W. ; and the W« 
point of the westernmost cove S.E., about three quarters of 
a mile distant.' Thus I resumed the very same station whieh 
J had occupied when I visited Annamooka three years be^ 
fore ; and, probably, almost in the same place waere Tas<* 
man, the first discoverer of this, and some of the neighbour-^ 
jUff islands, anchored in 1Q4S. 

The following day, while preparations were making fot 
watering, I went ashore, in the forenoon, accompanied* by 
Captain Clerke, and some of the officers, to fix on a plac6 
where the observatories might be set up, and a guard be 
j^tfttioned ; the natives having readily given us leave.; They 
also accommodated us with a l>oat-h6use, to serve as a tent, 
and shewed us every other mark of civility. Toobon, the 
chief of the island, conducted me and Omai to his house. 
We found it situated on a pleasant spot, in the centre of 
his plantation. A fide grass-plot surrounded it, which, he 
i^ave us to understand, was for the purpose of cleaning their 
ieet, before they went within doors. I had not, before, ob- 
fierted such an instance of attention to cleanliness at any of 

950 Mod^n Cifcunmav^aiionu part hi. book m« 

the places I had visited in this ocean ; bot^ afterward, found . 
that it was very common at the Friendly Islands. The floor 
of Toobou's house was covered with mats ; and no carpet, 
in the most elegant English drawing-room, could be kept 
neater. While we were on shore, we procured a few hogs, 
and some fruit, .by bartering; and, before we got on board, 
again, the ships were crowded with th^ natives. Few of. 
them coming empty-banded, every necessary refreshment 
was now in the greatest plenty. 

I landed again in the afternoon, with a party of marines; 
and, at the sam^ time, the horses, and such of the cattle as 
were in a weakly state, were sent on shore. Every thing 
being settled to my satisfaction, I returned to the ship at 
sunset, leaving the command upon the island to Mr Kmg» 
Taipa, who was now become our fast friend, and who seem- 
ed to be the only active person about us, in order to be near.- 
9ur party in the night, as well as the day, had a house brought, 
on men's shoulders, a full quarter of a mile, and placed cIosq. 
to the shed which our party occupied. . 

Next day, our various operations on shore bef an« Slon^e 
were employed in making hay for the cattle; others in fill-* 
ing our water-casks at the neighbouring stagm^t pool ; and 
a third party in cutting wood. The greatest plenty of this 
last article being abreast of the ships, and iq a situatioa 
the most convenient for getting it on board, ^t was natural 
to make choice of this. But the trees here, which our peo- 
ple erroneously supposed to b^ maqchineel, but were a spe^ 
cies of pepper, called yai^o/iop by the natives, yielded a juice 
of a milky colour, of ^q corrosive a nature, that it raised blis- 
ters on the skin, and injured the eyes of our workmen. They 
were, therefore, oblig^ to desist at this place, and remove 
to the cove, iq which our guard was stationed, and where 
we embarked o^r water. Other wood, more suitable to our 
purposes, was there furnished to us by the natives. These 
were not the only employnaents we were engaged in, for 
Jdessrs King and Bayly began, this day, to observe equal 
altitudes of the sun, in order to get the rate of the time- 
keepers, in the evening, before the natives retired from 
our post, Taipa harangued them for some tim^. We could 
only guess at the subject ; and judged, that h^ yros instrnct** 
ing them how to beiiave toward us, and encouraging them 
^o bring the produce of the island to mcM^keU We experi- 

pj|Ai>. iif sxcT. IV. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. S&\ 

I^Dced the good effects of his eloquence^ in the plentiful 
iiupply of provisions which^ next day^ we received. 

Nothing worth notice happened on the 4th and 5th^ ex-« 
cept that^ on the former of these days« the Discovery lost 
)ier small bower-anchor, the cable being cut in two by the 
rocks. This misfortune made it necessary to examine the 
cables of the Resolution, which were found to be unhurt. 

On the 6th,-we were visited by a sreat chief from Tong- 
ataboo^ whose name was Feenou, anawhom Taina was plea- 
sed to introduce to us as King of all the Friendly Isles. I 
was now told, that, on my arrival, a canoe bad been dis- 
patched to Tongaiaboo with the news ; in consequence of 
which, this chief immediately passed over to Annamooka. 
The officer on shore informed me. that when he fifst arri . 
yed, all the natives were ordered out to meet him, and paid 
their obeisance by bowing their heads as low as his feet, ^he 
soles of which they also touched, with each hand, first with 
the palm, and then with the back part. There could be 
Jittle room to suspect that a person, received with so much 
respect, could be any thing less than the king. 

in the afternoon, I went to pay this great man a visit, 
having first received a present of two fish from him, brought 
pn board by one of his servants. As soon as I landed, be • 
came up to me. He appeared to be about thirty years of 
age, tall, but thin, and had more of the European features, 
ihan any I had yet seen here. When the first salutation was 
over, I asked if be was the king. For, notwithstanding What 
I had been told, finding he was not the man whom I remem- 
bered to have seen under that character during my former 
voyage, I began to entertain doubts. Taipa officially an- 
swered for him, and enumerated no less than one hundred 
and fifty-three islands, of which, he said, Feenou was the 
^overieiffn. After a short stay, our new visitor, and five or 
.six of. bis attendants, accompanied me on board. ' I gave 
suitable presents to them all, and entertained them in such 
a manner, as I thought would be most agreeable. 

In the evening, I attended them on shore in my boat, in- 
to which the chief ordered three hogs to be put, as a return 
for the presents he had received from me. I was now in- 
formed of an accident which had just happened, the rela- 
tion of which will convey some idea of the extent of the 
authority exercised here over the common people. While 
Feenou was on board my ship, an inferior chief, for wha,!: 


S$Z ModsrnCireumnamgatmu vAmv iii. booe uu 

feasoQ our people on shore did not know, ordered all the 
natives to retire from the post we occupied. Some of them 
having ventured to return, he took up a large stick, and beat 
them most unmercifully. He struck one man on the side of 
the face^ with so much violence, that the blood gushed out 
of his mouth and nostrils ; and, after lying some time mo^ 
tionless, he was, at last, removed from the place, in convul-* 
sions. The person who had inflicted the blow, being told 
that he had killed the man, only laughed at it ; and, it was 
evident, that he was not in the least sorry for what had hap- 
pened. We heard, afterward^ that the poor sufferer reco* 

• The Discovery having found again her small bower an« 
chor, sUifted her birth on the 7th ; but not before her best 
bower cable had shared the fate of the other. This day I 
had the company of Feenou at dinner ; and also the next 
day, when he \|a8 attended by Taipa, Toubou, and some 
other chiefs. It was remarkable, that none but Taipa was al- 
lowed to sit at table with him, or even to eat in his presence^ 
I own that I considered Feenou as a very convenient ^est, 
on account of this etiquette. For, before his arrival, 1 bad, 
generally, a larger company than I could well find room for, 
and my table overflowed with crowds of both sexes. For it 
is not the custom at the Friendly Islands, as it is at Otaheite, 
to deny to their females the privilege of eating in company 
with the men. 

The first day of our arrival at Annamooka, one of the na- 
tives had stolen, out of the ship, a large junk axe. 1 now 
appli'ed to Feenou to exert his authority to get it restored 
to me ; and so implicitly was he obeyed, that it was brought 
on board while we were at dinner. These people gave us 
very frequent opportunities of remarking what expert thieves 
they were. Even some of their chiefs did hot think this pro- 
fession beneath them. On the 9th, one of them was detect- 
ed carrying out of the ship, concealed under his clothes, the 
bolt'belonging to the spun-yarn winch ; for which I sentea* 
ced him to receive a dozen lashes, and kept him confined 
till he paid a hog for his liberty. After this, we were not 
troubled with thieves of rank. Their servants, or slaves, 
However, were still employed in this dirty work ; and upon 
them a flo^eing seemed to make no greater impression^ 
than it would have done upon the main-mast When any 
of them happened to be caught in the act^ their masters^ 
4 fa? 

«H Ar. II. agCT, IT. €0ok, Ckrke, md Gforib 353 

far from interoediDg fbr them, would often advise us to fcill 
them. As ibis was a punishment we did not choose to in* 
flict^ they generally escaped without any punishment at all ; 
for they appeared to us to be equally insensible of the shame 
and of the pain of corporal chastisement. Captain Clerkcj 
af lastj hit upon a mode of treatment^ which^ we thought, 
had Some effect. He put them under the hands of the bar- 
ber, and 9ompIetely shaved their heads \ thus pointing them 
out as objects of ridicule to their countrymen, and enabling 
cmr people to deprive them of future opportunities for a re- 
petition of ibeir rogueries^ by keeping them at a distance. 
, Feenou was so fond of associating with us, that he dined 
on board every day ; though, sometimes, he did not partake 
of ou# fare. On the lOtb, some of his servants brought a 
rness^ which had been dressed for him on shore* It consist- 
ed of fish, soup, and yams. Instead of common water to 
make the soup, cocoa-nut liquor had been made use of, in 
which the fish had been boiled or stewed ; probably in a 
wooden vessel, with hot stones ; but it was carried on board 
in ^, plantain leaf. I tasted of the mess, and found it so 
good, that I, afterward, had some fish dressed in the same 
way. Though my cook succeeded tolerably well, he could 
produce nothing equal to the dish he imitated. 

Findinff that we had quite exhausted the island of almost 
every article of food that it afforded, I employed the 1 Ith 
in moving off, from the shore, the horses, observatories, and 
other things that we had landed, as also the party of ma* ' 
rhies who bad mounted guard at our station, intending to 
sail, as soon as the Discovery should have recovered her 
best bow anchor. Feenou, understanding thai I meant to 
proceed directly to Tongataboo, importuned me strongly 
io alter this plan, to which he expressed as much aversion^ 
as if he had some particular interest to promote by divert* 
ing me from it In preference to it, he warmly recommend* 
ed an island, or rather a group of islandsi called Hepaee, 
lying to the N.E. ^ There, he assured us, we could be sup- 
plied plentifully with every refreshment, in the easiest man* 
aer ; and, to add weight to his advice, he engaged to at* 
tend us thither in person. He carried his point with me ; 
Slid Hepaee was made choice of for our next station. As 
it had never been visited by any European ships, the exa- 
mination of it became an object with me. 
. vox. XV. z The 

d(54 ModehiX^r^imnainghiwm. pAAt iii; Mt^K nu 

' The ISth iand (he P^flh were' spi^nt in attempling the re-«: 
CtSvery of Oa^laih Gierke's anchor, which, after much trou-: 
ble, was happHy'^cconipHshed ; and on, the 14th, iii the! 
mornhi^, we got under sail, and lefbAnnamooktt. 

• TliTftid^nd is 'soifi^what higher than the other, sonallr isles 
that snrromid it ;• bnt^ still, it cannot be admitted to ^e rank 
of those of a moderate height, such as Mangeea and Wa* 
t^oo. The shore, at that part where onr ships lay, is com-, 
poised of 'a steep, ragged, coral rock, nine or ten feet bighy^ 
<^cept where there are two sandj beaches, which haye a, 
re^f of the same sort of rock extending cross th^r entrance) 
to th(; shore, and defending them from the sea. The salt- 
water lake that is in the centre of the inland,' is abont ai 
iWiFe and a half broAd ; and round it the land rises like a* 
bank. With a gfaddai ascent. But we could n6t trace ita. 
having any comihuni^ation with the sea. And yl&t, the land* 
thiit rtmskcross to it, from the largest sandy beach', beihrg' 
flat' and li!>w, ankl the soiNandy, h is most likely thatiit ma:y^ 
have, • formerly, comrauhieated that way. The soil on the^ 
rising parts off' the island, add especially toward the sea,. is 
^thi&r of a reddish* clayey disposition, or a black,' loose 
iztoilld ; but there is, no wher^, any stream of fresh water* - 
The island is very well cultivated^ e^fi^pt in a few pIsces ; 
artfl'thfere are' some others, which, though tbey appear to lie 
waste, are only left to recover the strength •exa-aii)ste4'<t9'> 
ccwstant ie^ulture ; *for we frequentlysaw' the natives atiworfci 
trpoh Ijhe^e S|5ots, to plant them again.* The p'kntations con** 
sist chiefly of yims and plantains. Many of them- are very: 
extensive, t^nd dften inclosed with n^at fences of reed; 4is-* 
posed' oblii^ilely across each other, about six feet high/ 
Within th«we* we 6ften saw oth^r fences' of less compuss/ 
stnNroiindiilg the houses of the principd pi(eople. The bfead-* 
fruit; and cocoa-nut trees,- are interspersed with little order^ 
but chiefly near the habitations of the natives ; and the other 
parts of 4lie isliind, especially toward'the sea, and about the* 
sides of the Ilike; are covered with trees and bushes of a^ 
most luxuriant grbw4;h ; the last place haiving a great many 
manfgroyes, and the iirsk a vast number of theyinYajioo trees 
already fttentipned.* Tbere^ seem to be no rocks or stonesy 
of any kind; abopt the il^land,' that are not coral, except ia 
jone place, to the jight of the sandy beach; where there is a 
rock twenty or thirty feet bigh.^ Dt a caltrareous stone, of a 

' ♦ '-^ ■ / yellowish 

^lUkP^ n. 9SCT. I?. Cookf C&rH Md Gare^ $i5 

•ydlomsh odkmry aiid'a 'wiy dose tieKtute. Bot ei^ dbottt 
Itfattt pIiMBe^.wlucb is .tbe 'highest part c^^tiie land^ are large 
{Meoeft of tbe same .ooml rock- that composes the > shtMre. 

Resides inrikhig'ivtqueally up jnta>the oountry, wbieb 
we were penoitted to. do wtlboatinlenrttptioii, we somew 
times amused ourselves in shooting wild-ducks, aod^nliko' 
the wldgMi^ wiMh are very nutneroas upon ^e saltlak6j 
and thetpocl where we got our watdrj In these eaccursions^ 
we foaad the kihabitao to had^ often deserted thcor boosaa to 
cosEie 4lown Jbo the tradings place^ without eortertainiDg.afty' 
snspticfioo, UiatsUangers, rambling aboati would tnke away, 
or destroy^ Anything that belonged to them. But tfioogh, 
firom.thiA oircumslance, it might be supposed that the greats 
er pai;t of , the natives were sometimes collected at the beaeb^ 
it was.imiMissible to form any.accofate compotation of their 
Biiqabeq asitbeconiinoal vcaort of visttorsft^ other islands^ 
mixipg with .ti:^mi might earily mislead one* *• However, ae 
tfae|\^ wnsjie^ier, to appearaaoe^. above a. thousand persons pne time^ it wonld, perhaps, be sufficient to al» 
low double tb^t namber SojOi the whole idand. « < ; 
^' To the N* and N*B; of Annampoka^ and m the direcir 
track to Hepaee, whither we were now bound, the sea i» 
sprinkled with a great i^^mbcr oFsmklUsles.. Amidst the 
fhoala and rocks adjoining. to this group, I caolA not be.aa< 
sared:that there. was a free or. safe |>assaee for such large 
ships a^ ours, .though, the > natives' sailed through ^tbe inlef^ 
vals in their -canoes* For this substantial reaaoa, when; we 
weighedt anchor from lAnnamooka^ I thought it. aiacessary 
to go to ; the westward of .the ^bove islands, ; and. steeeccl 
NirN.W.^ toward Kao* and Toofoa, the two most westerly, 
islands in sights « and remarkable for their, great be^t. 
Feenou, and bis attendants, remained on board the mso* 

'. kition 

. .' As a.proof of the grest diSciilty of knov^qg qpcumtdy tile Qssct 

names of the South Sea Islands* as procured from the natives, I observe 
that what Captain Cook calls Aghao, Mr Anderson calls Kao ; and Tas- 
ffiaifr drawing, as I find it in Mr Dalrymple's Collection of Voyages, gives 
the Jiame- of Kayioy to the salxie island. Tssfflan's and Captain iiock*B' 
^nuUtqfsa^ 109 with Mr Ai^^erson, Tcfoa^ Captain Coak's iCosasitgo^ is 
Tasman's Amangq.. There is scarcely an instaneSy in which sucb vafia* 
tions are* not observable. Mr Anderson's great attention to matters of 
this sort being, as we learn from Captain King, well knoWn to eveiy bodv 
oik b(Mtfd, Atid admitted always by Captain Cook himselfi his mode of spslt 
ifig^hm kpsQ adopted.— D. 

956 Modem Cktimmda^aiUlu. paut ni» book hi* 

Intion till near noon, when he went into the large i^Hng 
canoe, which had brought him from Tbngailaboo^ and vtMd 
in amoogBt the closler of islands abOTe mentioned, of which 
we were now almost abreast ; and a tide or corrent from the 
westward had set as, since onr sailmg in the morning, mnch 
ovet toward them. 

They lie scattered^ at uneqnai distances, and are, in ge- 
neral, nearly as high as Annamooka ; but ooly from two or 
three miles, to half a mile in leneth, and som^ of them 
scarcely so much. They have eiwer steep rocky shores 
like Annamooka, or reddish cliffs ; hot some have sandy 
beaches extending almost their whole length. Most of 
tiiem are entirely clothed with trees, amongst which are 
many cocoa palms, and each forms a prospect like a beau* 
tifnl garden placed in the sea. To heighten this, the se* 
xene weather we now had contributed very much ; and the 
whole might supply the imagination with an idea of some 
fairy land realized. It should seem, that some of them, at 
least, may have been formed, as we supposed Palmerston's 
Island to have been ; for there is one, which, as yet, is en- 
tirely sand, and anotiier, on which there is onfy one bush, 
or tree. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon^ being the length of Ko- 
too, Ae westernmost of the above duster of sm^l islands, 
we steered to the north, leaving Toofoa and Kao on our lar« 
board, keeping along the west side of a reef of rocks, which 
lie to the westward of Kotoo, ttU we came to their northern 
extremity, round which we hauled in for the ishmd. It was 
onr intention to have anchored for the night ; but it came 
i^>on us before we could find a place in less than fifty *five 
fathoms water ; and rather than come-to in this depth, I 
chose to spend the night under sail. 

Weliaa, in the afternooa, been within two leagues of 
Toofoa, the smoke of which we saw several times in the 
day. The Friendly Islanders have some superstitious no- 
tions about the volcano upon it, which they call KoBofeea, 
and say it is an Oioo0, or divinity. According to their ac- 
count, it sometimes throws up very large stones ; and they 
compare the crater to the size of a small islet, which has 
never ceased smoking in their memory ; nor have they any 
tmdition that it ever did. We sometimes saw the smoke ri- 
sing from the centre of the island^ while we were at Anna- 

GflAP« i]» SECT. IV* ^Co^k, Ckrhtp^trnd Gon. 357 

mooka, though at tke jdist^ace of al least t^n leagues. Too* 
foa^ we were told^ is but thinly inl^abited^ but the water up^ 
on it is good. 

At da^r-break the next mornings being then not fac from 
Kao^ which is a vast rock of a conic figure^ we steered to 
the east, for the passage between the islands Foolooha and 
HafaivB, with a genUe breeze at S.E. About ten o'clock, 
Feenou came on boards aod remained with us all day* He 
brou^t with him two hogs, abd a quantity of fnut ; and, 
in the course 6f the day, fieveval canoes, frcmi the different 
islands, round us, came to ba^rter quantities of th^ latter ar«- 
ticle, t?bi^ was very acceptable, as our stock was nearly 
expended* At noon, omr latitude was 19^ 49^ 45" S*, and 
we had made seyen miles of longitude from Amiamooka ; 
Toofoa bore N<, 88* W. ; Kao N., iVVf.i Footooha N., 
89* W* ^ . and Hafaiva S. !«• W. 

After passing Footooha, we met with a reef of rocks ;. 
and, as there was bat little wind, it cost us some trouble to 
keep clear of them. This reef lies between Footppfaa and 
Keeneev% which is a nna]l k>w isle, in fh& direction o£ 
E.N.E. from Footoolia, at the distance ef seven or eight 
iniles. Footooha' is a small isUmd, of middling height, and 
bounded all round by a steep rock* It lies S. 67* £.f dis* 
timt six leagues from Kao, and three leagues from Kotooj 
in the direction of N^ 33^ £. Being past the reef of roeks 
ju^ m^itioned, we hauled np for Neeneeva, in hopes of 
finding andiorage ; but were again disappointed, and obli* 
ged to-spend the night, making short boards. For, although 
we bad land in every direction, the sea was unfathomable* 

In the course of \bis night, we could plainly see flames 
issuing from thevolcano upon Toofoa, though to no great 

At day^-break in th§ morning of the l6th, with a gentle 
breeze at S.E., we steered N.£. for Hepaee, which was now 
in sight ; and we couM judge it to be low land, from the 
trees only appearing above the water. About nine o'clock 
we could see it plainly forming three islands, nearly of an 
equal size ; and soon after, a fourth to the southward of 
these, as large as the others. Each seemed to be about six 
or seven miles long, and of a similar height and appearance. 
The northernmost of them is called Haanno, the next Foa, 
the third Xicfooga, and the southernmost Hoolaiva ; but all 


35S Modem Circmnmvigatiamm pabt hi. book lUm 

four are ^iadudedy by tfae natives^ nnder the general name: 
Hepaee. ; - ' 

The wind scanting upon us^ we could not feU^h the land,^ 
8(» that mfe. were. forced .to. ply to windw^ard. . In doing this, . 
wpe once passed over, some .cocal rocks^ on which .we had on* 
ly six £Uhoms. water ( but the momeiit we were oter them» 
found no ari^uad with eighty fathoms of lipeu At this time, 
the isles of Hepaee bcdre, from.N.». 50* £•, to S.^ 9 W. We 
gptnp'.with the notthemmost pf these iidesby sunset; and 
tbere found omselves in the veiy sime^diatreaB, for. want of 
anohoig^iej, that vfc had experienced the two pcecedio^ even-. 
iags;rSO'tbat:wehadaDotlIer.nig| spend undo^sail, >irith. 
land and' breakers in^every direction. .Toward tnc evening,- 
.f eenotty who had hemx on. board all dajr^ went forward to 
Hepaee^ and^tQok Omai^ in the qanoe ^with him* H« did 
not forget our disagreeable, sitir&tion; and kept .up a good; 
fise^ .all night, by w^ujr of aJand-^iark. ... ^ 

As soon as the dfety^ight retncrved^ . being then . close Ja 
with'Foa, we>sawit was joined: to .Haanno^ by a. reef run- 
ning •even with the surface x>f the sea, from the one island 
to the olber^ J now dispatched a boat to look for anchor- 
age^ . . A» proper . plaoe .was soon, found ; and we . came-to, 
aSireast of- a reef, being that which joins Lefooga to £oa 
(m the same manner that Foa is joined to Haapno)> having 
twftnty^bur fathoms depth of water ; the bottom coral sand. . 
In this station, the northern poibt of Hepaee, or the north 
end of Haannoi boreN., 10^ £. The: southern point of 
fibepaee^ ax the south end of Hoolaiva^ S., 2ff* W. ; and 
the north end of Lefooga, S., 66^ £. Two ledges of rocks 
)«T without us $ the one beaciog &,.50* W« ; and the other ^ 
30^* by N, J JJ.i distant two or three miles. . We lay before ' 
a creek in the reef> which made it convenient landing at all 
times; and we were not above three quarters of a mile from 
the slM>re« 

(< k .1 

• » • . • » . 4 < 

. ; 

* # ' 


«9A*« ih sMf* T. * Cookf. CkHo€i 0md:Gwi 9^ 

» - • • ■ 

Arrival of the Ships at S[^€€, andfr^fidh/ Heceplion ftwe. 
— Presents am Soletnnitipt on ihe Oewno^.r^ Singh Cam^ 
bat$ with Pbibs.— Wr€9tUng.and BoditgMatch^. — Femaii 

; CombatuffU. '-^Marines 'exereised.^^A I)ame fufarmtd by 
Men. — iPiremrh exhibUed.'-^The Nigbt-emtehwim^ tf 

, Singif^ and DaHKiitg particularly described^ . 

• » 

Bt the time we had jBtnchdr^d^ (May 1?) the ships were 
filled with the oatives^ and mrrofipded fa^*a niiiriUCQde ^of 
canoes, fiUed; also with them. THey^ broiight-lTom tbeihofiei 
hogs, fowls, fruit, and roots, which they e^ttcrktaagcd for ha^ 
cheta, fcoiv^s^ oails, h6ad3> and^loth. f ^eiiOfi a^d Omaj 
having cOipe on board, after it was lights in.ofd^rto intiaor 
duce me to the pieople of the. island, I 8O0n aooompaoied 
them op shpre^ for, that porpoftei landiiig ^i the. north pari: 
of I^efoogai a liule to the right of the slMp^Mati^. 

The chief conducted me (p. a. bouse,, pr raider .ebaly sir 
tuated close to Uie sea-beach, which I Jhftfl.seetitbroipgte 
thither, but a few minutes before, for Pi^r rec^ttion; la 
thisi Feeuou, Omai, and myself^ were seafied* The other 
chiefs, and the multitudci opmpos^d a oirc^e^ on the ooU 
aide, fronting us ; and they also sat dowB^ I mfaa then ask-^ 
ed. How long. I intended to slay i On my sdyiqgy Five day^ 
Taipa Was ordered to come and sit by rae^ ac^ pioclaiia 
this to the people^ He. then harengoed tben^ in^ a speech 
mostly dictalea by Feenon. The purport of it> as I Ipamt 
from Omai, was^ that they were all, bbth old* and y6ung> to 
look upon me as a friend, who intended to remain with ttengi 
a few days ; that, during my stay, they moat not steal any 
thing, nor molest me any other way ; and -that it was exr 
pected, they should bring hogs,.fowlsj fruit, fce.404he.8lMpiL 
where ihey jsvould receive^ in exchange for them^ siich.ana 
such things, which he enumerated. Soon after Taipa had 
finished this address to the.assembly> Feenou left us. Taipa 
then took occasion to signify to mci that it was necessary t 
should make a^reseot to the chief of the island, whose name 
was £aroupa. I was not unprepared for thisj and gi^ve him 
such articles, as far escceeded his expectation. My liberali- 
ty to him brought upon me demands^ of the same kind^ froupi 
two chiefs of other iales who were present; and* from Taipa 

himsein * 
» 8 

S6d Modern m H m mmiigaiim i faut iii» ii6dk inh 

himself. When Feenou Tetnraedy which was immediately 
after I had made the last of these presents^ he pretended to 
be anery with Taipa for suffering me to give away so much ; 
hat I looked upon this as a mere finesse ; being confident 
that he acted in concert wrth the others* He now took his 
seat again^ and ordered Earoupa to sit by him, and to ha- 
rangue the people as Taipa fa^d done> and to the same pur^ 
pose ; dictating, as before, the heads of the speech* 

These ceremonies being performed, the chief, at my re« 
quest, conducted me to three stagnant pools of fresh water, 
as be was pleased to call it : And, indeed, in one of these 
the water was tolerable, and the situation not inconvenient 
fcMT fining our- casks. After viewing the watering*place, we 
netumed to <onr former station, where 1 found a baked hog, 
and- some yams, smoking hot, ready to be carried on board 
f6t my dinner. I invited Feenou, and his friends, to par^ 
take of it ; and we embarked for the ship ; but none but 
himself sat down with us at the table. After dinner I bon*- 
ducted'thettl on eAiore; and, before I returned on board, the 
rhief gave me a fine large -turtle, and a quantity of yams. 
Our supply 6f provisions was* copious; for, in the course of 
•the daV; we got, by barter, ^ngside the ship, about twen<- 

S^mall hogs, beside fruit and roots. Lwas told, that on my 
St landing' inthe morning, a man came off to the ship?, 
and ordered «very one of the natives to go on shore. Pro- 
bably this was dime with a view to have the whole body of 
inhabitants present at the ceremony* of my reception ; for 
when that 'was over, multitudes of them returned again t6 
thesh^s. ' ' 

Next morning early, Feenou, and Omai, who scarcely 
ever quitted the chief, and now slept on shore, came on 
board. The object of the visit was to reqmre m^ presonce 
iipon the island. After some time, i accompanied them ; 
and, upon landing, was conducted to the same place where 
I had been seated the day before; and where I saw a large 
concourse of people already dissembled. I guessed that some^ 
thing more than ordinary was in agitation ; bat could not 
tell what,' TYor c&uld Omai inform me* 

' I had not been lon^ seated^ before near a hundred of the 
•natives appejiied in sight> and advaneed, lad« w*lh yams, 
T^reald -fruit, plantains, cocoa-nuts, and suear-canes. They 
deposited their burdens, in two heaps, or piles, upon our left, 
being ihe side^they came frotn. Soon alter, arrived a Dtta>- 


her of oAers &mn the right, besriiig the Mine kind ef ar«- 
^les, which were coUected into two piles upon that ude. 
To tbeie^wese tied two pigj», and six fowls ; and to those 
«ipoii the left^ six pigs, aim two turtles. Earoupa seated 
himself before. the several articles up<m the left; and ano*- 
ther chief before those upon the. right; they being* as I 
judged, the two diiefs wha had collected theoi^ by order 
of Feeoimi, who seemed to be as impUcidy obeyed here, as 
he had been at Annamodca; and, in consequence of his 
commanding soperiority oyer the chiefs of Hepaee, bad 
iaid this tax npoa them for the present occasion. 

As soon as this, munificent coUecti(»<of provisions w^ 
laid down in-order, and di^osed tO;the best advantage^ the 
bearers of it joined the multitude, who formed a large cir- 
cle rbond^ the.wjiole. Presently «fter^ a number of men en- 
tered this circle, or area, before us, armed with dubs, ;made 
of thefgreen brandies of the cocoa-nut tree« These para^ 
ded about for a few minutes, and then* retired ; the one half 
to one* side, and tbe)Other half to the other side; seating 
tiiemselves before the spectators. Soon after, they suceei^ 
sively entered Ahe lists, and entertained us with single ecm^ 
bats. One champion^ rising up and stepping forward fr<Mn 
4ioe side, challenged those of the other side^ by expressive 
gestures^ more than by words, lo send one of their body to 
oppose him. If the challenge was accepted, which was g^ 
aerally the case, the two oombatants put themselves in pro^ 
per attitudes,, and then began the engagement, which con* 
"tinued till one or other owned himself conquered, or tiU 
their weapons were broken. As soon as each combat we# 
over, the Tictpr squatted hiQiself dov<rn facing the chief, 
Aen rose up, and retired. At the same time, some ol4 
•men, who seemed to sit as judges, ^ave their plaudit in a 
few words ; and the multitude, especially those on the Mf^ 
to which the .victor belooged, celebrated the glory he had 
acquired in two or three mizssas^ 

This entertainment was, now And then, suspended for a 
few minute^ During these intervals there were both wrestr 
ling and boxing matches* The first Were performed in the 
eame manner as at Otabeite ; and the second differed yery 
Ultlefrom the method practised in England. But whatstmcx 
us with mioat surprise^ was, to see a couple of lusty wenchea 
step forth, and oegin boxing, witfiout the least ceremony, 
and } with as much art as the men. This cente^tj^ boweveiU 


idklf^lairt ab6<r6iiklf*«>ttiibi2te^ hefot&cm of ?themrgpv^ 
•ft'np/ The cofiqaering herbine received thesainie.api^aMae 
frbni tbe spfeotators wbidi they b^stoiir;eii upoo^tlie success 
"ful ^combatants of 'the^otber sec. . W^pxate^seA $omQ,di^^ > 
like at'this part of the ei^tertaninfeeiit ; wli|ih»ibowevejp, did 
4iot prevent two other females from entering/the liats* »Xbey 
aeeitied-to be girls of spirit, and would'CertaidljDbavegiveii 
'eeeb other a good drubbing, if Inn^ oId.JWon^a l^ad.not in-r^ 
terposed to part theAi. < AH these 'oomb&ts^ere exbihited 
in-the toidst'ofy at lea^t^ thseedhpusand people,) and. were 
condacted vrkti the gr^atei^t good biufnoQf'iQn'jaU.sides;;^ 
tb<&iigh 4eme )of tli^ cbMi^:uonSy women iis.welLa«<iD^ii> re* 
celvi6d^bkfw%/ which> doubtless^, they; wial. ha:ve\.fek fer 
some titne' afWr. 

' As ^on as these diverai^ns'w«re ended,- the chief ttold 
ine,tbatth^ heaps of provisioiis on our vight hand w^re a 
present ^to Oniai ; and that 'tbose^on cmr left liand/ being 
«bout>'two*fhirds of » the whole ^nanltttyj wece^given to ixiew 
:He addfed/lhlit I might take thiem^^on board .whenever' it 
^1^8 c^iKy^rii^nt ; but that^ dieile w^uld^be boJoeoasbuto 
-set aeily of t>lir peoiple as gtiards over thevnt^ lasJJUiigbt be 
<iesur^d^ that not. a strygle cocoa^nnt. would bbtak^ti away 
'by'4he!Asltiyesk So it^proved ; for I left every thing behind^ 
'and re^utmd t& the ship to' dinner^ carrying tbe^hief with, 
me; and when the protiisions wereiemoved oabospid^ ia 
-the afterno6ny not a ^ngle article was missing.. Ther^was 
AS much ad loiided four boats ; and I could no^hiit be struck 
>with tbe munificence of «Feenou ; for 'this firesent far ex- 
^reeded any I had ever received from auy of the sovereigns 
^^th^s'Wridus isiands'I'had^ visited in the Pacific Odeau. . :I 
lost no time^in convincing Vn}^ friend, thati was not.inaeo.- 
«ibleof'his^ liberality ; £orf before heqaitled my ship, I.b^- 
^l6w6d-upon him such of our cooiBioditiesy .as^ I guessed^ 
were most valuable in- bis' estimation. < And:ihe. return. I 
inade was so much to his ^satisfaction, that,, as. soon as be 
gal on shore, he left me still indebted tabinv by sending 
me a fresh present^ consisting- of two large* hogs, a consir 
derable quantity of cloth, and >some<yaHis« : 
; 'Feenou bad expressed a- desire to see the marines go 
thikHigb their militiiry exercise*. At I was deaicoua to g^ea^ 
tify his curiosity, I ordered' them alLasbore, from A>etbsbip8> 
in the morning of the 20th» After they had performed vja- 
.yious etblntions^and^fired ^evecAl voUiesy. with wfaicb the 


na^Y^^i* fliCTi iTi . Coafci Chafke, and Oore^ JOS 

ttttiperons libdy. of spectators seemed well pleased, the chief 
entertained us, in his turn^ with an eshibitioo, wbi^h, as was 
ack^%]edged'by>tis all, was performed with a dexterity and 
exactness, far surpassing the specimen we had given of our 
xnilittt'7 nlan<euTres« It was a kind of a dance, so entirely 

' different from any thing I had ever seen, that, I fear, I caa 
givi^ no description that will convey any tolerable idea of it 
to my readers. It w'as performed by men ; and one hundred 
and five persons bore their parts in it. Each of them had 
iahts band an insfniment neatly made, shaped somewhat 
like a paddle, Xff two feel and a half in length, with. a small 
handle, and a thin h^lade ; so that they were very light. 
With these instroments they !made many and various ft^n* 
risbesi each of which was accompanied with a different at- 
tttQ^eiof the body, or a different movement. At fU*st, the; 
peiipiimers ranged themselves in three:lijies; and, by vari** 

' ousrevolutioiis, each man changed hU station in sucha man- 
gier, that those .who bad been in the rear came into the front. 
Mor did they remain long in the same position ; but these 
changes were ipade by pretty quick tranaitions. At one thne 
they extended themselves in one line ; they,^then, formed 
into k satnicircle ; and, lastly, into two square columns; 
While this- last movement was executing, one of them ad* 
yadced, and performed an antic dance before me ; with 
which the whole endsed. 

The musical iastniments consisted of two d/ums, or ra- 
ther two hollpw logs x)f wood, from wbieh some varied notes 
Iwere produced, by beating on them with two sticks. It did 
not, however, appear to me, that the dancers were mtsch 
assisted or directed by these sounds, but by a^chorns of vo* 
cal music, in which all the performers joined at. the same 
time. Their song was not destitute <of pleasing tnhlody ; and 
all their corresponding motions were executed with so jmeh 
skill, that the numerous body of daneera seemed to act, as 
if they were one great machine. It was tlie opinion of evei* 
ry one of nsf, that such a performance would have met with 
universal applause on a European theatie; and it so iar ex- 
ceeded any attempt we had made to entertain them, that 
they seemed to piqu^ themselves upon the superiority they 
had over us. As to our musical inBtruments, they heM none 
of them in the least esteem, except the drum ; and even that 
they did not think equal to their own. Our French horns, 
in particular, seemed to be held in gi^eat contempt ; for nbi- 
' ' . * thes 

* II 

884 Modem Oiremmiavigatiifku fairt in. book uu 

Iher bete, nor at auy other of the islands, would they pay 
the smallest attention to them. 

In order to give them a more fayoarable opinion of Eng- 
lish anrasementSy and to leave their minds rally impressed 
with the deepest sense of oar superior attainments, I direct- 
ed some fireworks to be got readv ; and, after it was d»rkj 
played them off in the presence of Feenoo, the other chiefs, 
and a vast concourse of their people. Some of the prepa-* 
rations we fonnd dama^d ; but others of them w^re in ex- 
cellent order, and succeeded so perfectly, as to answer the 
end i had in view. Our water and sky-rockets, in papticu* 
lar, pleased and astonished them beyond all conception} 
and the ^ca)e was now turned in our ravoan 

This, however, seemed only to famish them with an ad« 
ditional motive to proceed to fresh exertions of their very 
singular dexterity ; and our fireworks were no sooner end- 
ed, than a succession of dances, which Feenou had got rea^ 
dy for our entertainment, began. As' a prelude to them, 
a band of music, or chorus of eighteen men, seated them- 
selves before us, in the centre of the circle, composed by 
the numerous spectators, the area of which was to be the 
scene of the exhibitions. Four or five of this band had 
pieces of large bamboo, from three to five (mt six feet long, 
each managed by one man, who held it nearly in a vertical 
position, the upper end open, but the other end closed by 
one of the joints. With this close end, the performers kept 
constantly striking the ground, though slowly, thus prodo«* 
cing different notes, according to the different lengths of 
the instrumeqts, but all df them of the hollow or base sort ; 
to counteract which, aperson kept striking aaickiy, and with 
two sticks, a piece of the same sobstance^ split, and laid along 
the ground, and, by that means, famishing a tone as acute 
as those produced by the others were grave. The rest of the 
band, as well as those who performed npon the bamboos, 
•nng a slow and soft air^ vvliich so tempered the harsher notes 
df me above instruments, that no bye-stander, however ac* 
customed to hear the. most perfect and varied modulatiott 
of sweet sounds, could avoid confessing the vast powser, and 
pleasing effect, of this simple harmony. ^ ^ 

The concert having continoed about a quattev of an hour, 


* Mr Andersmi's aoosoat «f th^ aj^btdsaclBs bemg umcbfiito than 
Captain Cook% the reader will not be displeased that it has been adopt- 

CKAV. iir tKcr. v« Cook, Clirk€f trnd Gate. • . M5 

twentT women entered tlie circle. Most of them hadj upon 
tbeir beads^ garlands of the crimson flowers of the China 
rose, or others ; and many of them had ornamented their 
persons with leaves of trees, cut with a deal of nicety about 
the edges. They made a circle round the chorus, turning 
their faces toward it, and began by singing a soft air, to 
which responses were made by the chorus in the same tone ; 
and these were repeated alternately. All this while, the wo- ^ 
men accompanied their song with several very graceful mo- 
tions of their hands toward their, faces,. and in other. direc* 
ttois at the same time, makine constantly a step forward, 
and then back again, with one toot, while the other was fix- 
ed. They then turned their faces to the assembly, suns; some 
time, and retreated slowly in a body, to that part of the cir^ 
ele which was opposite the but where the pnncipal specta- 
tors sat. After this, one of them advanced from each side^ 
meeting and passing each other in the front, and continuing 
their progress round, till they came to the rest. On whicb^ 
two advanced from each side, two of whom also passed each 
other, and returned as the former; but the other two remain-^ 
ed, and to these came one, from each side, by intervals, tiU 
the whole number had again formed a circle about the cho« 

Their manner of dancine was now changed to a quicker 
measure, in which they made a kind of half turn by lei^ng, 
and clapped their hands, and snappedtlieir fingers, repeat* 
ing some words in conjunction with the chorus. Toward the 
end, as the quickness of the music increased, tbeir gestures 
and attitudes were varied with wonderfnl vigour and dexte- 
rity ; and some of their motions, perhaps, would, with us, be 
reckoned rather indecent. Though this part of the perform- 
ance, most probably, was not meant to convey any wanton 
ideas, but merely to display the astonishing variety of their ' 

To this grand female ballet, succeeded on^ performed by 
fifteen men. Some of tbem were old ; but their age seem- 
ed to have abated littk of their agility or ardour for the 
dance. They were disposed in a sort of circle, divided at 
the front, with their faces not turned oat toward the assem- 
bly, nor inward to the chorus ; but one half of their circle 
faced forward as they had advanced, and the other half in 
a contrary direction. They, sometimes, sung slowly, in con- 
cert with the chorus ; and^ wbiie thus employed, they also 


SM Modem CiremnnivigatiimB tjolt nii^.itoom iff* 

IDtde seT^ral rerjr "fitoe iBotidiis widi Aieir bandt^ but differ«* 
«nt from those made by the women^ at tbe same ^ime incli- 
ning ihe body to either side alteniately^ by, raising one, leg^ 
which was stretched oatinlard^ and resting on the other ; the 
arm of tbe same aide beimgaiso stretched fujly upward* -Ai 
other times they rented sentences Jn a musical toncj^wlpi^ch 
were answered by 'tbe chorus ;, and> at intervals^ inere^^d 
the measure of the dance^ by clapping tbehands^ and quick*, 
entng the motions of .the feet, which, howeveo were never 
Taried.. At the eody tberapidity of the moaic, and of ^tbe 
danoiog, increased so much, that it was scarcely possibly 
to distinguish tbe different moVements ; tbciueh oae might 
auppose die actors were ndw almost tiredj aa weir perform'", 
ance had lasted near hatf an. hour. i . /. r 

> After a considerable interval^ another act, as we may .call 
it, began. Twelve men now advanced/ who placed tbem* 
selves i n douUerows fronting each other, bntonopposite sides 
of Jthe circle.;' and, on one side, a mian was stationed, who^ 
as;if>Bej[iad been a prompter; repeated several sentences, tor 
which the twelve new performers, and the cbpru$, repli^^ 
They then sung. slowly; and aCterwacd danced and sung 
mote quickly, for about a qjuarter. of. an . hour, after, tbe; 
manner of the dancers whom they had succeeded* r 

1 Spoaafter they had finbhedi nine women cxhibitfidithQai- 
i^^lv^, and sat ddwn fronting the hut where the cbi? f was.- 
A man then roisie, and struck the first of these wotaeo on tbe^ 
^ back, with both fi^s Joined. . He proceeded, in the same. 
' mantier« to the aecondand. third ; but when he came to, the 
fourth, whether from, accident or design I cannot tdi, in<^ 
stead of the back, he struck heron tbe breast. Upon tbia 
a. person rose instantly from tbe crowd, who brought huu 
to the ground with a blow on the head; aotd he^ried 
off ^without the/l^aat nobe or disorder. But thia did no( save 
the other* five women from so odd a discipline, or perhaps 
j^hss»ary'cerexbony; for aperson'auboeeded him, who treat* 
ed them in the same: manner. Their disgrace did not en4 
here ; for when they danced, they had the mortification to 
find their performance twice disapproved of, and were obli->. 
ged to repl^at it. I'his dance did not differ much frpni that 
of the first women,'exci!ept in jbbis.orie oircumstance, that the 
present set. sometimes. raised the? body upon, one leg, by a 
sortiof: double motion, and then .upon tbe other alternately^ 
iii which attitude they kept aoap.ptog their. finger^'; and> at 

iMAF. ir; sWf. v:< Co6k, CMk, mid Oore^ * \ flf 

the^ cfndj thejr repeated, with great ajgttlty, the bridt mdve^ 
mentt, in which tlie former group of female dancers bail 
shewn themselves so eiq>erti 

• In a little tiHie, a person entered nnetpectedfy^ and saidi 
soni^tbing in a Indicrons way, about the fireworks that had. 
been exhibited, which extorted a barst af laogbter^romr the 
mnl ti tude. Aflet this, we had' a dasce ODtnposed of the mm^ 
who attended, or had followed, Feenou. They formed .a 
dbnble eiikrfe (t. e; one within another) of tweiity4bur each, 
round the choni8> and began a gentle soothing song, with 
corresponding motions of the bands and head. This laated 
a coQsiderable time, and then <^hanged to a much quicker 
measure, daring which' they repeated sentences, either in- 
conjanction wiSi the chorus, or^in answer to some spoken 
by that band. TM^ then retreated to the back part of the 
circle, as the women bad'done,' and again adyahced, on each 
side, in a triple row, till they forthed a semicircle, which waa 
done Very slowly, by inclining the body on one leg, and ad« 
irancing the other a little way, as tbey put it dowp. They 
accompanied this with such a soft air as they had sung at 
the beginning ; 'but soon changed it to repeat sentences in 
a harsher tdney at the same time quickening the dance very 
much, till they 'finished with a general shout and clap of the 
hands. The sitae was repeatad several times ; but, at last, 
they formed a double circle, as at the beginning, danced^ 
and repeated very quickly, and finaUy dosed with several 
venr dexterous transpositions of the two circles. 

The entertainments of this memorable night concluded 
with a'dance, in which the principal people present exhibit*^ 
ed. • It^esembied the immediately preceding one, in some 
respects, having the same number of performers, who began 
neairly in the same way ; but their ending, at each interval, 
was different ; for they increased their motions to a prodi- 
gious quickness, shaking their heads from shoulder to sbouU 
der, with such forbe, that a spectator, unaccustomed to the 
Sight, would suppose, that they ran a risk of dislocating their 
necks. This wasmttended with a smart clapping of the hands, 
and a kind of savage holla! or shriek, not unlike what is 
sometimes practised in the comic dances on our European 
theatres. They formed the triple semicircle, as the prece- 
ding dancers had done; and a person, who advanced at the 
head on one side of the semicircle, began by repeating some^ 
thing in a truly musical recitative^ wlijch was delivered with 


aiS Kodbm CktMmmtfffifimu mat ou book iu. 

an air flo gtaeefol^ at nii^ pal to the bloih oar motl ap- 
flanded peifonnen. He waa amweied in the fame man- 
ner, by Ine penon at the head of the opposite partj. This 
Mng reputed leTeial limei^ the whole body, on one side^ 
joined in the retpontet to the whole c^Mnesponding body on 
the opposite aide» as the semicircle advanced to the front ; 
and tney finished, by singing and dancing as they had be- 


These two last daoees weie perfonned with so much spi- 
rit, and so mat exactness, that they met with universal ap* 
probation. The native specUtors, who, no doubt, were per- 
fect judges whether the several performances were {Nroperly 
czecnted, could not withhold their applauses at some par- 
ticular parts; and even a stranger, who never saw the di- 
veiaion before, felt similar satistoction, at the same instant. 
For though, through the whole, the most strict ooooert was 
observed, some of the gestures were so expressive, that it 
might be said^ they spoke the language that accompanied 
thein i if we albw that there is any connection betweoi mo- 
tion Md sound. At the same time, it should be observed, 
that though the music of the chorus, and that of the dw- 
cers, corresponded, constant practice in these favourite 
amusements of our friends, seems to have a great share in 
effectiog the exact time they keep in their performances. 
For we observed, that if any of them happened accidental- 
ly to be interrupted, Ihey never found the smallest difficulty 
in recovering the proper place of the dance or song. Ana 
tlieir perfect discipline was in no instance more remarkable, 
than in the sudden transitions they so dexterously made 
from the ruder exertions, and harsh sounds, to the softest 

airs, and gentlest movements.^ 


* In a former note, it was obwsrved, that the aongs and dancss of 
the Caroline Islanders, in the North Padfi<i bear a great resemblance to 
those of the inhabitants of Wateeoo. The remark may be now extend- 
ed to those of the Friendly Islanders, described at Is^ge »o«iis chapter. 
Hiat the reader may judge for himself, I have adected the follawiiig naiw 
ticuhrs from Father Cantova's account. « Pendant la nuit, an <^de la 
kine, lis s'asaemblent, de temps en temps, pour chanter & danser devaat la 
maison de leur Tamole. Leurs danses se font au son de la voix. car ila 
n'ont point d'instrmnent de musique. La bcautfe de la danse, consiste dam 
rcxacte uniformity des raouvcmens du corps. Les hommes, scpar^ dcs 
femmes^ se postent via-^vis les una des autfcs ; aprts quoi. Us remucnt la 
t4te, les bras, les mains, les pieds, en cadwicc. Leur tfttc est courerte de 
plumes, on de fleurs ;— ct I'on voit, attachte A leurs oreUles, des feuiUes 


€BAF^ n. 9BCT. VI. Co9h, Ctei^ffyMd GoTMk K 999 

The {dace wbcHre ib^ daoeet wtee perfomed wai^ ab often 
space. amongst the tiees^ just by die sea^ with lights^ at smdl 
mfervah, placed i^mid tbe inside of the circle. The coo- 
tounie of people ir at pretty Iarge> tbojigh not etfaai td fcbe 
mraiber assembled in the forenoon^ when the marines eser- 
cited. At that time> sonle of otir ffeotlemen guessed thete 
might be present abotttfivethonssna persons ; others thought 
there were more ; b«t they who reckoned that tfiere weie 
fewer^ probably^ eam^ aearertthe tnsth* ... 

Sbction VI. 

' » • J 

Descriptiom^rf 'Lrfot^d.-^^lu cMfOtU^d Statc^^^Itt Erient.*^ 
Tramaeiians thdre* — A Fenude OcubUi^-^Singuiar Etpedi-^ 
mtsfor ikamng offtht Haiu-^Tht Sh^ change their Sith- 
tion. — A, remarkable Meunt and Sttune^'-^Thaeription 0f 
Hoolakkii'-r-Aecount of Pwdaho, King of ike Friendfy i$^ 
land8*^^Respectfml Imamer in which he i$ treated by hk 
Ptopk,*^Dq>artwe frma the Hapaee Idandsi^^Some Ac^ 
cbunt of Kotoo.-^wium ef the Shqtt to Anm&mooka*^^ 
PmJaho and Feenom meeti^-^Arrical at Tangi^ioQ. 

Curiosity on both sides being now saflSetendy gratified 
by the exhibition of the rarioos entertatflpmenta I nave de* 
scribed, 1 began to have time to look about me. Accord* 
inglyy i^xt day (May fil) I took a witlk iolo the island of 
Lefooga^ of which I i^as desirous to obtain some know* 
ledge* I found it to be^ in several respects, superior to 
Annamooka. The plaatations were both more numerous 
and more extensive. In maay plaoeSj indeed, toward the 
sea, especially on die east side, the country is still waste^ 
owing perhaps to the sandy soil, as it is much lower than 
Aniiamooka,. and its surrounding isles. But toward the 
jmiddleof the island the soil is better; and the marks of 
confljid^rctbte population, and of improved cultivation, wete 
tcry cbnspicuotid. JFor we met here with very large platt- 
tations, inclosed in such a manner that th^ fences, running 
parallel to each other, form fine spacious public road^, that 

VOL. %y. 2 A would 

de ptdmier tisures avec asses d'art. — Les fttnines, de leuf cot^^^se regard- 
dttt ies uiies Ito autres, cotfimeiioent im ebant patb^tique & langoureux, ae» 
coiubagiifliiit le scfa de kxtt voix da motivettieiit cadence de la t^te & del 
bras. <Ai"£ef^ref Edifiantcs 4r Curktues^ torn. xv. p 314, $15.— D. 

570 Modem CiMumunigtiimA faet m* book m. 

woald appear onuoMiital in coaotnes where niral coAve- 
nienoes nave been carried to the greatest perfecUoo. We 
observed large spots covered with the paper midbcunry-trees ; 
and Jthe ptanlations^ in general^ were well stocked with such 
roots and fruits as are the natural produce of the island. 
To these I made some addition^ by sowing the seeds of Ii^ 
dian com» melons, pumpkins, and the like* At one place 
was a house, four or five times as large as those of the com- 
mon sort, with a large area of grass before it ; and I take it 
for granted, the people resort thither on certain public oc- . 
casions. Near tne landing-place we saw a mount, two or 
three feet high, covered with gravel ; and on it stood four 
or five small huts, in which the natives told us the bodies 
of some of their prihcipal people had been interred. 

The island ii not above seven miles long, and in some 
places not above two or three broad* The east side of ity 
which is exposed to the trade^-wind^ has a reef running to 
a considerable breadth from it, on which the sea breaks 
with great violence. It is a continuation of this reef that 
joins Lefooga to Foa, which is not above half a mile disf- 
tant ; and at low water the natives can walk upon this reef, 
which is then partly dry from the one island to the other. 
The shore itself is either a coral rock, six or seven feet 
high, or a sandy leach, but higher than the west side, which 
in general is not more than three or four feet from the level 
of the sea, with a sandy beach its whole length. 

When I returned from my excursioil into the country^ 
and went on board to dinner, I fouqd a large soling canoe 
fast to the ship's stem, hi this canoe was Latooliboiiia, 
whom I had seen at Tongataboo during my last voyage,^ 
and who was then supposed by us* to be the king of that 
island. He sat in the canoe with all that gravity, by whicb^ 
as I have mentioned in my journal,' he was so remarkably 


■ Th^ name of thiti extraordiiarv personaae is there said to be Kohagee 
iob Fallanjgaih which cannot, by the most OKilfu! etymologist, be tortur^ 
into the least most distant resemblance of LatooUboula, It is remarkable 
that Cantam Cook should hot take any iiotioe of his having called the same 
person^ two names so Very diflferent. Perhaps we may accoont for this,! 
Dy supjposinjg one to be the name of the person, and the other the dncrip- 
tion or his title or rank. This supposition seems well founded, when we 
consider that Latoog in the languie^ of these people, is sometimes used to 
signify a great chief; and Dr Forster, in his Observations, p. 378, S79, and 
etoewher^ -speaks of the sovereign of Tongataboo under tne title of their 


oHAp; n. 8E€T. ▼!• C09k, Cterkif and Gifrif. 971 

distinguished at that time ; ^ bof could I^ hy any em treaties; 
prevail upon him now to come into the ship. Many of the 
iduiders were present^ and they all called him jtreekee^ 
which atgnifies king. I had never heard any one of them 
give this ti^ to Feenou^ however extensive his authority 
over them, hoth here imd at Annamooka^ had appeared tof 
he, which had all along inclined me to su^ect that he was' 
not the king, though his friend Taipa had taken pains to' 
make me believe be was. Latooliboiila remained under the > 
stern till the evenings when he retired in his canoe to one' 
of 'the islands* Feenou was on board my db^> at the same 
time ; but neither of these great men took the le«^ notice 
of the other* 

Nothing material happened the^ next day^ except that' 
some of the natives stole a tarpaulin; and other things^ froni 
off the deck. They were soon missed^ and the thieves put- 
ted, but a little too late. I applfed^ therefore, to Feenou^ ' 
who^ if he was not king^ was at least vested with the high-' 
est authority here to exert it, iti order to have my things' 
restored. He referred me to Earoupa, who put me off fromf 
time to time^ and at last nothing was done. 

In the mornitig of the ^dd, as we were going to unmoor/ 
in order to leave the island^ Feenou^ and his prime minister 
Ta]pa> pame alongside in a sailing canoe, and informed me^ 
that they were setting out for Vavaoo, an island which they 
said lies about, two days sail to the northward of Hebaee. 
The object of their voyage, they would have me believe, 
was to get for me an additional supply of hogs, and some 
red-feathered caps for Omai to carry to Otaheite, wheref' 
they are in high esteem. Feenon assured me that he should 
be back in four or five days^ and desired me not to sail till 
bis return, when he promised he would accompany me to 
Tongataboo. I thought this a go6d opportunity to get 
some knowledge of Vavaoo, and proposed to him to go thi* 
ther with the ships. But he seemed not to approve of the 
|Han J and, by way of diverting me from it, iold" me that 


Latoo. This vefy peirson is dilled by Dr Fbrsteir, p. S70, LaloorNipooroog 
iirhich furnhfaes a very striking instance of the variations of our people in: 
writing down the same- word as pronounced by the natives. However, we 
can easily trace the afiBnity between JVipooroo and liboula, as the eh^nge% 
of the consonants are sucn as are perpetually made upon, hearing a word, 
pronounced to which' our ears have not been accustomed. Mr And^rsQo 
here agrees with Captain Cook in writbg Latooliboula.—D. 

37< Modam C&teimmfigctfmh ^Mbt nu book. in. 

there was netlber |ii^1)0t»r nor ancbomge i^out iu I ih&iOf^ 
fore conaeated to wail^ in my prca^l sMioio fof bis xelwii, 
a^ be immcdiafceiy set put. 

The next day, ogr atleotioa waa for some. time:takQii op 
with a report, iaduatriously apread about by aome of Ihe 
natiires, tnat a ahip like oara bad arrived at Aoflamoofca 
siflMie we left it, and waa now at ^icbor there. The propi^ 
galtan of the report were pleased to add, Ibatt Toobou^ the 
ctttef of tbat ifiiaod, was hastening thither to receive theae 
new. coiners ; and as tre knew that he bad actually left us^ 
we were the more ready to believe there might be some 
foundittion for the story of this unexpeeted ilrrivek . How- 
ever, to eain some farther information, I went on shore 
with Omai, inquest of the liiati wbo>, it was said, bad brought 
the first account of tiais event from Annanaooka. We {biind^ 
him at the house of Earoupa^ where Omai put sueb ques- 
tions to hiai as I thought necessary ; and the aAswera be 
gave were so ci^ir and sailiifactory^ ihftt I had not a dpubt 
remaiding* But, jnsi about tbas time> a chief of some note, 
Hfhom we weU knew,, arrived from Annamooka, and de- 
clared that no ship was art that isknd, nor bad been, since 
our leaving it. The propagator of the report, finding, him- 
self detected in, a falaebood^ instantly withdrew, and we 
sf^w libo m^ore of hinii. What end the invention of this tale 
c«Kdd answer waa not easy to conjecture, unless we suppose 
it to have been artitilly coatrived, to get us removed urom 
tlie one islnvd to the other. 

In my walk on the 35th, I happened to stqp into a konse, 
where £^ womaa was dressing the eyes of a young child, 
whpi seemed blind, the eyes beiog much inflamed,, and a 
thin filpi spsEead e^ver them. The instruments she used were 
two blender w!bodea probes, with which she had bvnshed 
the eji^s so as to make them bleed. It seems worth men- 
tioning that the natives of these islands should attempt an 
operation of this sort, though I entered the house too late 
to describe exactly how this feosMile oculist employed the 
Wfetohed tools she had to work with. 

I was fortunate enough to see a different operation going 
on in the same house, of which I can give a tolerable ac- 
<;ount. I fpund there another woman shaving a child's 
head, with a shark's tooth, stuck into the end of a piece of 
stick. I observed that she first wetted the hair with a rag 
dipped in water^ applying her instrument to that part which 


CHAP. IS. uxcr. Ti% Cock, (Xerke, md Gme. i7S 

the had previously MMBdced. The Operation seemed to ^ve 
no pain to th^ ehildf although the hair was takeh off as 
olose as if o«ie of our razors had been employed. Cucou^ 
raged by what I now saw, I soon after tried one 6f thes6 
singular tnstnittientB upon myself^ and found it tb be ah ex- 
cellent mccedaneum. However, the men of these islands 
have recourse to anotheir contrivance ^en they shave their 
beaiHlti The operation is performed with two shells, o^ 
4>f which tfaey place Under a small part Of the beard, and 
with the other, applied above, thfey scrapfe that part off. la 
this mantier they are able to shave very dose. The process 
{s, indeed, rather tedious, but not painfttl; and there ar6 
lien amongst them who seetned to profess this trade. It 
was as common, while w(e were here, to see our sailors go 
lishoh^ to have their bedrd^ Scraped off, afUer the fashion df 
Hepaee^ as it was to see their chiefii come on board to i>e 
shaved by our barbers. 

Finding that little or nothing of the produce of the is- 
laiild was now brought to the ships, I resolved to chafa^e 
our station, and to wait Feenou's return from Vavaoo, m 
somedthlsr convenient anchbring-phice, where refreshments 
might stilt be met with. Accordmgly, in the forenoon of 
the t6th> we got under sail, and stood to the southward 
Along th^ reef of the islilnd, haVitig fburte^d and thirteen iu,- 
thdms water, with a ^^ndy bottom . However, we met with 
itvefal detached shoals. Some of them were discovered by 
breakefs^ ilome by the water Upoti'them appearing disco^ 
Idtired, and others by the lead. At half past two in the af- 
ternoon^ having already ptik^sed several df these shoals, and 
seeing more of them before us, I hauled into a ba\ that lies 
between the S. ehd of Lefooga trnd the N. end of Hoolaiva, 
and there anchored in seventeen fathoms water, the bottom 
a ci»ral sand ; the point of Lefboga bearing S.E. by E. a 
mile and a half distant. The JDiscovery did not get to an 
anchor til) snnset. She had touched upon one of the shoals, 
bttt backed off again without receiving any datnage. 

As soon as we had anchored, I sent Mr Bligh to sound 
the bay where we Wer^ now stationed ; and myself, accom- 
panied by Mr Gore, landed on the southern part of Lefoo- 
ga, to examine the country, and to look for fresh water* 
Not that we now wanted a supply of this article, having 
filled all the casks at our late station ; but I had been told 
that this part of the island could afford us some preferable 


* \ 

f 74 Modern CSfOffitnflnrfgaftoitt. rart hi. book ni* 

to any we bad got at the former Watering-place. This witt 
not .be tbe only time I shall have occasion to remark that 
Jthese people do not jknow what good water is. We were 
conducted to twp wells^ but tbe'water in both of them pror 
Ted to be execrable^ and the natives^ our guides^ assured us 
jthat they had none better. 

Near the S. end of the island^ and on the W. side, we 
lhet with an artificial mount. From the size of some trees 
that were growing upon it, and from other appearances, I 
guessed that it had been raised in remote times. I judged 
^t to be about forty feet high, and the diameter of ifSs sum- 
mit measuredsfifty feet. At the bottom of this mount stood 
a stone, which must have been hewn out of coral rode. It 
was four feet broad, two and a half thick, and fonrteea 
high ; and we we^e told by the natives present that not 
^oye half its length appeared aboye ground. They called 
it Tangata Arekee* and said that it bad be^en set up, and 
)|)e mount raised, by some of their forefathers, in memory 
of one of their kings, but how long since they could aot 
^ell. ' ■ 

. Night coming on, Mr Gore and I returned on board ; 
and, at the same time, Mr Bligh got back from sounding 
the bay, in which he found from fourteen to twenty fathoms 
>7ater, the bottom for^the most part sand, but not without 
.some coral rocks. The place where we now anchored is 
much better sheltered than that wliieh we had lately come 
from ; but between the two is another anchoring station, 
inuch better than either. Lefooga and Hoolaiva are diyi- 
ded from each other by a reef of coral rocks, which is dry 
at low water ; so that one may walk at that time from the 
one to the other, without wetting a foot. Some of our gen- 
tlemen, who landed in the latter island, did not find the 
least mark of cultivation, or habitation, upon it, except a 
jingle hut, the residence of a man employed to catch fish 
and turtle. It is rather extraordinary that it should be in 
this deserted state, communicating, so immediately with 
licfooga, which is so perfectly cultivated ; for- though the 
soil is quite sandy, all the trees and plants found in a natu^- 
^al state on the neighbouring islands, are produced here 
with the greatest vigour. The £. side of it has a reef like 
^foogfi, and the W. side has a bending at the N. part^ 


' TAngatOf in their Jaiigw^ is isan; Arekcef king. 

, fM AP^ II.. SBCT« v|. Cook^ Ckrkt^ and Gqtu S7^ 

irhere ijiete seems to be good aneborage. Uninhabited as 
Hooiaiva ia^ an artificial mounts like that at the adjoining 
Uland^ has been raised upon it^ as high as some of the sur- 
x^undiog trees. ^ 

^ At day*break', next morning, I made the signal to weigh ; 
and as 1 intended to attempt a passage to Annamooka^ in 
my way to Tongataboo> by the S.W. amongst the interne* 
ning islands, I sent the master in a boat to sound before die 
ships. But before we could get under sail the wind became 
unsettled, which .made it unsafe to attempt a passage this 
way till we were better acquainted with it. I therefore lay 
fast> and .made the signal for the master to return ; and at* 
terward sent him and the master of the Discovery, each in 
a boat, with iixstructions to examine the channels, as far as 
they could, aUowiog themselves time to get back to the 
ships before the close of the day* 

About noon a large sailing canoe came under our stem, 
in which was a person named Futtafaihe, or Poulaho, or 
both, who, as the natives then on board told us, was King 
of Tongatabpo, and of all the neighbouring islands that we 
had seen or beard of. It was a matter of surprise to me to 
have a stranger introduced under this character, which I 
bad so much reason to. believe really belonged to another. 
But they persisted in their account of the supreme dignity 
of this new visitor ; and now, for the first time, they owned 
to me, that Feenou was not the king, but only a subordi? 
nate chief, though of great power, as he was often sent 
from ToQgataboo to the other islands on warlike expedi- 
tions, or to decide differences, it being my interest, as 
well as my inclination, to pay court to all the great men, 
without making enquiry into the validity of their assumed 
titles, I invited Poulaho on board, as I understood he was 
very desirous to come. He could not be an unwelcome 
guest, for he brought with him, as a present to me, two good 
fat hogs, though not so fat as himself. If weight of bo- 
dy could give weight in rank and power, he was certainly 
the most eminent man in that respect we bad seen ; for, 
though not very tall, he was very unwieldy, and almost 
shapeless with corpulence. He seemed about forty 
years of age, had straight hair, and his features differed a 
^ood deal from those of the bulk of his people. I fouud 
Him to be a sedate, sensible man. He viewed the ship, and 
the several new objects, with uncommon attention, and 


Sftd . Mod$m CireunmoKO^uthm. faet iii» n6o% sit. 

asked maoy pertiBtent oaestioag^ one of which msM, What 
cooid mdoce us to visit tneae islands ? After be had ' "* * 

his cttriosity in looking at the cattle^ and other novelties 
which he met with upon deck^ 1 desired him to walk down 
into the cabin. To this some of bis attendants objected^ 
sayings that if he were to accept of that invitation^ it muai 
happen^ that people would walk over his head, which could 
not be permitted* I directed mj interpreter Omai^ to^ll 
^em that I would obviate their objection^ by giving orders 
that no one should presume to walk upon that part of the 
deck which was over the cabin. Whether this expedient 
would have satisfied them was far from appearing^ but the 
obief himself^ less scrupulous in this respect than his attend-* 
aats^ waved all ceremony, and walked down without any 
stipulation. He now appeared to be as solicitous himselr^ 
as his people were, to convince us that he was king, and 
not Feenou, who had passed, with us as such; for he sooa 
perceived that we had some doubts about it^ which doubts 
Omai was not very desirous of removing. The closest ooih* 
neetion had been formed between- him and Feenou, in tes- 
timony of which they had e^ichanged names ; and therefore 
he was not a little chagrined^ that another person now put 
in his claim to the honours which his friend had hitheito 

Poulabo sat down with us to dinner^ but he ate little^ and 

drank less. When we rose from the table, he desired nie 

to acoompany him ashore. Omai was asked to be of the 

party, but be was' too faithfully attached to Feenou te shew 

any attention to his competitor, and therefore exeosed 

himself. I attended the chief in my own boat, having first 

made presents to him of sueh articles as I could observe he 

"Mined much, and were even beyond his expectation to re» 

oeive. I was not disappointed in my view of thus securing 

his friendship, for the moment the boat reached the beach, 

and belpre he quitted her> he ordered two more hogs to be 

brought, and delivered to my people to be conveyed on 

hoard. He was then carried out of the boat by some of his 

ewa people, upon a board resembling a hand-barrow, and 

ifeot and seated himself in a small house near the shore, 

which seemed to have been erected there for his accommo* 

ifetien. ' He placed me at his side, and his attendants, who 

weie not numerous, seated themselves in a semicircle be* 

fore us> ea the outside of the house. Behind the chiefs or 


onA^. u« SECT. Tl. Cook, Cierke, and d^re. 877 

tB^h^fcSk t^rie Ade, sat an old woman^ with a serl of fsoi ia 
het kand^ t^hose office it was to prerent his being pestered 
with the flies. 

The seveiral articles which his people had ^t, by trading 
oil board th^ shtps^ were now displayed before him. He 
iMked orer them all with attention^ enquired what they 
had given in exchange^ and seemed pleased with the bar- 

Ehis fhey had made. At length he ordered every thing td 
restored to the respective owners^ except a glass bowP, 
with which be was so much pleased that he reserved ft for 
biBsself. The persons who brou^t ihese things to him» 
first squatted themselves down before him^ then they de^ 
posited their several purchases^ and immediately rose up 
ahd retired. The same respectful ceremony was observed 
in taking them away^ and not one of them presumed to 
speak to him standing. I stayed till several of his attendf- 
attts letfl him^ first paying him obeisance^ by bowing the 
liead down to the sole of bis foot^ and touching or tapping 
the same with the upper and under side of the fingers of 
both hands. Others, who were not in the circle, came, as 
in seemed, on purpose, and paid him this mark of respect 
and then retired, without speaking a word. I was quite 
charmed with the decorum that was observed. I had no 
where seen the like, not even amongst more civilized na* 


I found the master returned from his expedition when I 
got on board. He informed me, that, as far as he iiad pro* 
ceeded, there was anchorage, and a passage for the ships, 
but that toward the S. and S.E. he skw a number of small 
isles, shoals, and breakers. Judging, from this report, that 
ipy attempting a passage that way would be attended with 
some risk, f now dropped all thoughts of it, thinking it 
better to return toward Annamooka by the same route, 
whtCh we had so lately experienced to be a safe one. 

H&ving come* to this resolution, I should have sailed 
next morning if the wind bad not been too far southerly, 
and at the same time very unsettled. Poulaho, the king, 
as I shall now call him, came on board betimes, and 
brought^ as a present to me, one of their caps, made, or at 
ieast covered, with red feathers. These caps were nrach 
sought after by us, for we knew they would be highly va- 
lued at Otaheite. But though very large prices were offer- 
ed, not one was c^ver brought for sale ; which shewed that 


a78 Modem GrcwnmvigatiQn^ pa tT^ nu, MOc. m. 

they were no less valuable in the esUmatioii^of the people 
here ; nor was there a persou ia either ship that coulcl make 
himself the proprietor of one^ except myself^ Captain Ciej^ke^ 
and Omai. These caps^ or rather bonnets^ aire composed 
of the tail feathers of the tropic bir.d^ with the r^d featherp 
of the pai^Toquets wrought upop themj or join|^ly withthj&ui. 
They are made so as to tie upon the fprehe/ad without aiijr 
crown^ and have the forpi of a semicircle^ whose radii^ is 
eighteen or twenty inche^. The chieJF staved on board, tiU 
the evenings when be left us ; bujb his brother whose nfimf» 
was also Futtafaihe. and one or two or more of his atteadr 
ants, continued \p. the ship all nigbt. 
, At day-break, the ne:i^t morning, I weighed with a fiAe 
breeze at E.N.p. and stood to the westward^ witha vi^v 
to return to Ahnamooka, by the track we had already- e|^ 
perienced. ^e were followed by several sailing cano|», ia 
one of which wa^ the king. As soon as he got qq board 
the Resolution, be enquired for his brother, and the others 
who had reipained with ^s all night. It po^r appeared 
that they had stayed without his leave, for he gave tbern^ 
in a very few. wordsj su^h a reprimand as brough^t tears from 
their eyes, and yi^ttbey vvere men qot less than {thirty years 
.pf age. He was, however, sopn reconciled to their making 
a longer stay, fqjr, on quitting u^, he left his brother, and 
five of' his attendants, on board. We had also the company 
of a chief just th^n ^arrived'irom Tongataboo, whose himie 
^as Tooboueitoa, The moment he arrived he sent his car 
noe away, and declared, that he and five more, who came 
with him, would sleep on board, so that I had now my c^r 
bin filled with visitors. This, indeed, was some inconve* 
nience ; but I bore with it more willingly, as they brought 
plenty of provisions with them as presents to me, for which 
they aliirays had suitable returns. 

About one o'clock in the afternoon, the easterly wind 
was succeeded by a fresh breeze at S.S.E.' Our course now 
being S.S.W. or more southerly, we were obliged to ply tp 
windward, and did but just fetch the N. side of Footoohj^ 
by eight o'clock, where we spent the night, making short 

The ne:£t morning we plyed up to Lofanga, where, ac- 
cording to the information of our friends, there was anchor- 
age. It was one o'clock in the afternoon before we got 
soundings under the lee or N.W. side, in forty fathoms wa- 

i^htm li.aiBcr.^s* (hok, Ckrke, and Gore^ 379* 

"fer^ near half a mile from the shore ; but the bank was 
fiteepj and the bottom roc'ky^ and a ch£un of breakers lay to 
leeward. All these circumstances being against usj I stretch- 
ed away for Kotoo^ with the expectation of finding better 
anchoring ground under that island. But so much time 
]had been spent in plying up to Lofanga^ that it was dark 
l>efore we reached the other; and finding no place to an* 
frhor in^ the night was 'spent as the preceding one. 

At day-break. on the SIst I stood for the cnannel^ which 
is between Kotoo and the reef of rocks that lie to the west- 
ward of it ; but^ on drawing near» I foi3nd the wind too 
scant to lead .us through. I therefore bore up on the out- 
side of the reefj^ and stretched to the S.W. till near noon^ 
i¥h€»^ perceiving that we made no progress to windward^ 
find .being apprehensive of losing the islands with so many 
of the natives on boards I tacked and stood back> intending 
to wait till some more favourable opportunity. We did but 
just fetch in with Footooha, between which and Kotoo we 
spent the nighty under reefed top-sails and' fore-sail. The 
wind blew fresh, and by squalls, with rain ; and we were 
not without apprehensions of danger. I kept the deck till 
midnight, when I left it to the master, with ^uch directions 
as I thought would keep the riiips clear of the sboals and 
locks that Jay round us. But, after making a trip to tlie 
21., and standing back again to the S., our ship, by a small 
shift of the wind, fetched farther to the windward than was 
expected. By this means she was very near running full 
upon a low sandy isle, called Pootoo Pootooa, surrounded 
with breakers. Itiiappened, very fortunately, that the peo- 
ple had just been ordered upon the deck to piit the ship 
about, and the most of them were at their stiitions, so thai 
the necessary movements were not only executed with 
judgment, but also with alertness, and this alone saved us 
from destruction. The Discovery being a-stem was out of 
danger. Such hazardous situations are the unavoidable 
companions of the man who goes upon a voyage of dis- 

This circumstance frightened our passengers so much 
that they expressed a strong desire to get ashore. Accord- 
ingly, as soon as day-light returned, I hoisted out a boat^ 
and ordered the officer who commanded her, after landing 
them at Kotoo, to sound along the reef that spits off from 
that island for anchorage ; for I was full as much tired as 


380 Modem Circumnatngatunu. vlkt hi. book hi* 

tbey codld be with beating about amoDget the sarroiindjng 
isles and sboak, and determined to get to an anchor some** 
where or other if possible. While the boat was absent^ w^ 
attempted to turn the ships throttgh the channel, between 
the sandy isle and the reef of KotoQ, in expectation of 
findhig a moderate depth of water behind them to anchor 
in. But^ meeting with a tide or current against us, we wer^ 
obliged to desist, and anchor in fifty fathoms water, with 
the sandy isle bearing E. by N. one mile distant. 

We lay here till the 4th of June* While in this station 
we were several times visited by the king^ by Tixiboueitoa, 
and by people from the neighbouring islands, who cailie off 
to trade with us, though the wind blew very fresh most of 
the time. The master was now sent lo sound the channels 
between the islands that lie to the eastward ; and I landed 
on Kotoo to examine it in the forenoon of the dd, ^ 

This island is scarcely accessible by boats, on account of 
coral reefs that surround iu tt is n€>l more than a mile fond 
half^ or two miles, long^ and not so broad. The N.W, end 
of it is low^ like the islands of Hapaee ; but it rises sudden^ 
ly in the middle, and terminates in reddish cfeyey cliffs at 
the S.B. end, about thirty feet high. The soil, in that quar«' 
ter, is of the same sort as in the clifis, but in the other parts 
it is a loose black mould* It produces the same fruits and 
roots which we found at the other islands ; is tolerably cnl^ 
tivated, but thinly inhabited. While I was walking all over 
it, our people were employed in cutting some grass for the 
cattle } and we planted some melon seeds, with which the 
natives seemed much pleased, and inclosed them with 
branches. On our return to the boat we passed by two 0|r 
three ponds of dirty water, which was more or lels braickiih 
in each of them ; and saw one of ^eir biiryingwplaeeiE^ 
which was much neater than those that were met with ai 

On the 4tb, at severi in the morning, we weighed, and, 
with a fresh gale at.E.S.B.^ stood away for Annamooka^ 
where we anchored next morning, nearly in the same st&« 
tion which we had so lately occupied. 

f went on shore soon after, and found the inhabitants 
very busy in their plantations, digging up yams to bring to 
inarket ; and, in the course of the day^ aboofi two hundred 
of them had assembled on the beach, and traded with as 
much e{>gerness^ as daring our late visit, 'JFbeir slock ap- 

CHAP* II* 9W}T. VI. Cook^ Cierhej mn4 Gore. dS 1 

pesired %o have beetk recruited much, though we had re- 
turned so sooii ; but instead of bread-fruit^ which was th€ 
only article we c0uld purchase on our first arrival^ nothing 
wa» to b^ teen d.ow but yanis^ and a few plantains. This 
(sh^ws the i^uick succession of the seasons ^t least of tl^ 
different vegetables produced here, at the several times of 
the year. It appeared also that they had been very busy 
while we were Itbsent in cultivating, for we now saw several 
large plantua fields, in places which we had so lately seen 
lying waste. The yams were now in the greatest perfect < 
tion, and we procured a good quantity in exchanges for 
pieces of iron* 

These people, in the absence of Toubon, whom we left 
behind us at Kotoo^ with Ponlaho and the other chiefa^ 
seemed to be under little subordination. For we could not, 
perceive tliis day th^t coie man assumed more authority 
than another* Before 1 returned on board I visited the se^ 
vefal places where I bad sown melon seeds, and had the 
jnortifieajtion to find that most of them were destroyed by 
a seuall ant ; but some pine*apple plants^ which I had alse 
left, were in a thriving state. 

About noon next day, Feenon arrived from Vavaoo. He 
told us, that several canoes, laden with hogs and other pret- 
vjsions^ which had sailed with him from that island, bad 
been lost, owing to the late blowing weather, and that every 
body on* board them had perished. This melancholy tale 
did not seem to affect any of his countrymen who heard it^ 
and, as to ourselves, we were by this time too well acquaint* 
ed ^ith his character to give much credit to such a story. 
The truth probably was, that he had not been able to pro* 
cure at Vavaoo the supplies which he expected ; or, if his 
got any there^ that he had left them at Hepaee, which lay 
in his way back, and where he could not but receive intel- 
ligence that Poulaho had been with us ; who, therefore, he 
knew, would, as his superior^ have all the merit and reward 
of procuring them, though he had not any share of the 
trouble. The invention of this loss at sea was however well 
imagined, for there had lately been very blowing weather ; 
insoinucb, that the king, and other chiefs,' who had fcdlow* 
ed us from Hepaee to Kotoo, had been left there, not ca* 
ring to venture to sea when we did, but desired I might 
wait for them at Annamooka^ which was th^ reason of my 


S'M Modem Cifeommtrigaikm* paxt hi. bms: rrH 

anchoring there this second time^ and of my not proceed* 
ing directly to Tongataboo. 

The foltowing roomiDg Poulaho^ and the other chieft 
who had been wind-bonnd with him^ arrived. I happened; 
at this time^ to be ashore in company with Feenqu, who 
now seemed to be sensible of the impropriety of his con<- 
dnct^ in assuming a character that did not belong to him. 
7or be not only acknowledged Poulaho to be King of Toiy- 
gataboo^ and the other isles^ bnt affected to insist much on 
it^ which, no donbt, was with a view to make amends fot 
his former presumption. I left him to visit this greater 
man, whom I found sitting with a few people before himl 
Bnt every one hastening to pay court to him, the circle in-* 
creased pretty fast. I was very desirous of observing Fee- 
nou's behaviour on this occasion, and had the most convin^ 
cing proof of his superiority, for he placed himself amongst 
the rest that sat before Poulaho,. as attendants on bis ma- 
jesty. He seemed at first rather abashed, as some of us 
were. present who had been used to see him act a different 
part; but he soon recovered himself. Some little conver- 
sation passed between these two chiefs, which none of us 
understood, nor were 'we satisfied with Omai's interpreta^^ 
tion of it.- We were, however, by this time sufficiently un^ 
deceived as to Feenou's rank. Both he and Poulaho went 
on board with me to dinner, but only the latter sat at table. 
Feenou, having made his obeisance in the usual way, salu- 
ting bis sovereign's foot with bis head and bands, retired 
out of the cabin.' The king had before told us that this 
would happen, and it now appeared that Feenou could not 
even eat or drink in his royal presence. 


M tne vJaroline ifliands, as appears trom ifatner Uantoya's a^ 
ranscribed. *' Loraqu'un Tamote donne. audience, ii paroit 
i table elev^c : les peuples s'lndinent devant liti jusqu'^ terre ; 

^ Marks of profound respect, very simflar to fhosis paid by natives of 
the Friendly iBiands to tbeir sovereign, are also paid to the prindpal chiefk^ 
oi TamoU$t of the Caroline islands, as appears from Father Cantoya's a^ 
count here transcribed. 
assis sur une 

et du plus loin qu'ils arrivent, il niarchent le* corps tout courbe,' et la t£te 
presqu'entre les g^oux, jusqu'ik ce qu'ils soient aupr^ de sa personne ; 
alors ila s'asseyent ^ plate terre ; et, les yeux baiss^, il re^ivent see oitlres 
avec le plus profond respect. Quand le TamoU les ooogedie, ils ae reti* 
rent, en se courbant de la nidme mani^re que quand ils soot vemis, at oe 
se relevent que lorsqu'iTs sont hors de sa presence. Ses paroles sont au« 
tant d'oracles qii'on revere ; on rend ^ ses ordres une obeissanceaveuele ; 
enfin, on baise les mains et les pieds, quand on lui demande quelqae^ 
gracel"«>Lcrrret EdifianU$ et Curieut€$, torn* xv. p. 312, 813.«-D. 

eaAF« IK sS€r*'Vi. Cook, Clerke^ and Gore, MS 

At eight o'clock next morniog we weighed and steered 
for Tongataboo^ having a gende breeze at N.E. About 
fourteen or fifteen sailing vessds^ belonging, to the natives^ 
set out with uSj but everyone of them outran; the ships 
considerably. Feenou was to have taken his passage in the 
Resolution, but preferred his own canoe, and put two men 
on board to conduct us to the best anchorage. We steered 
S. by W. by compass. 

At five in the afternoon we saw two small islands bearing 
W.> about four leagues distant. Our pilots called the one 
Hoonga Hapaee, and the other Hoonga Tonga. They lie 
in the latitude of 20® S&, and ten or eleven leagues from 
the W. point of Annamooka, ip the direction of S. 46® W; 
AccOrdibg to the account of the islanders on board, only 
five men reside upon Hoonga Hapaee, and Hoonga Tonga 
is uninhabited ; but both of them abound with sea-fowL< 

We continued the same course till two o'clock next 
morning, when, seeing some lights ahead, and not knowing 
whether they wer^ on shore^ or on board the canoes> we 
hauled the wind, and made a short trip each way till day 
break. We then resumed our course to the S. by W. ; and 
presently after saw several small islands before us, and Eoba 
and Tongataboo beyond them. We had, at this time, twen* 
tyrfive fathoms water, over a bottom of broken coral and 
sand. The det>th gradually decreased as we drew near the 
isles above mentioned, which lie ranged along the N;E. 
fflde of Tongatilboo. By the direction of our pilots we 
steered for the middle of it, and for the widest space be- 
tween the small isles which we were to pass, having our 
hoats ahead employed in sounding. We were insensibly 
drawn upon a large flat, upon which lay innumerable coral 
tock8> of different depths, below the surface of the water. 
Notwithstanding all our care and attention to keep the ship 
clear of them, we could not prevent her from striking on 
one of these rocks. Nor did the Dicoverv, though behind 
US, escape any better. Fortunately, neither of the ships 
stuck fast, nor received any damage. We could not get 
back without increasing the danger, as we had come almost 
before the wind. Nor could we cast anchor, but with the 
certainty of having our cables instantly cut in two by the 
rocks. We had no other resource but to proceed. To this, 
indeed, we were encouraged, not only by being told, but 
by seeing, that there was deeper water between us and the 


5S^ Modem Circumnamgaiiofa^ . VA^X iii« b^oil W. 

flhore. However/ that we might be better informed^ the 
moment we found a spot where we could drop the anchor^ 
- clear of rocks^ we came-to, and sent the masters with tlie 
boats to sound. 

Soon after we had anchored^ which was ab.out noon^ ser 
veral of the inhabitants of Tongataboo came off in thfi^ir 
canoes to^he ships* These^ as well as our pilots^ assured 
vs that we should find deep water farther in, and a bottqm 
free from rocks* They were not mistaken ; for about four 
o'clock the boats made the signal for having found good 
anchorage. Upon this we weighed^ and stood in till dark^ 
and then anchored in nine fathoms^ having a fine^ clear, 
sandy bottom* 

' During the night we had some showers of rain, but to- 
ward the morning the wind shifted to the S. and S.E., and 
brought on fair weather. At day-break we weighed^ and, 
working in to the shore, met with no obstructions, but such 
as were visible and easily avoided. 

While we were plying up to the harbour, to which the 
natives directed us, the king kept sailing round us in his 
canoe. There were, at the same time, a great many small 
canoe's about the ships. Two of these, which could not get 
out of the way of his royal vessel, he run quite over, with 
as Uttle concern as if they had been bits of wood. Anaoagst 
many others who came on board the Resolution, was Ota*> 

fo, who had been so useful to me when I visited Tongata*^ 
oo during my last voyage, and one Toubou, wbO| at that 
time, had attached himself to Captain Furneaux. Each of 
them brought a hog and some yam§, as a testimony of his 
friendship ; and I was not wanting, on my part, in making 
a suitable return. 

At length, about two in the afternoon, we arrived at our 
intended station. It was a very snug place, formed by the 
shore of Tongataboo on the S.E. and two small islands aa 
the £• and N.E. Here we anchored in ten fathoms water, 
over a bottom of oozy sand, distant from the shore one-* 
third of a mile. 



Sbction Yll. 

J^Mufify JBacqi^fOfi af Tongaiaboo.'^ Manner ef diOributh^ 
a baked Hog and Kava to PovkJufs Attendants. — The Ob^ 
seroatory, tfc. erected. — The Viliage where the Chirf$ reside ^ 
and the aJ^dmng Country p descried. — Interviem with JfaTo- 
reewagee, and Toobou,andthe King's San, — A grand HaiMp 
ifr Entertainment <qf Songs and Ikinces, given by Marema^ 
gee. — Exhibition of Fireworks.--^Manner of Wrestling and 

. iBoxing. — DiMtrilmtion of the Cattle.-'^Thefh commuted by 
the Imtioes. — Ponhho, and the other CJnefs, confined on 
that Aocoantr^PoukJufs Present and Haiva. 

Soon after we had anchored, having first dined, I land** 
,ed, aocompanied b^ Omai and some of the officers. We 
ifonnd the king waiting for us upon the beach. He iBiiiie>- 
diately conducted us to a small neat house, situated a little 
within the skirts of the wood, with a fine large Itrea hefore , 
it. This house, he told me, .Was at my service during our 
stay at the island ; and a better situation we could not widh 

We had not been long in the house before a pretty large 
drde of the natives were assembled before us, and seated 
upon the area. A root of the kava plant being brought, and 
laid down be^e the king, he ordered it to be iplit into pieces^ 
and distributed to several people of both sexes, who began 
the operation of chewinff it, and a bowl of thishr favourite 
liquor was soon prepared. In the meui time, a baked h^g, 
and two baskets of baked yamsiy were .produced, and afteiw 
ward divided into ten portions. These portion^ were then 
given to certain people present; but how many wore to 
share in each I could not tell. ^ One of them, I observed, 
was bestowed ufM>n the king's brother, and one remained 
undisposed of, which, Ijudffed, was for the king biinsel^ 
as' it ifas a choice bit. The liquor was next served oilt^ hot 
Poukho seemed to give no directions about it. The first 
cup was brought to him, whidi he ordered to be given to 
one who sat near him. The second was also brought to 
him, and this he kept. TW third was given to me; but 
their manner of brewing having quenched my thirst, it be* 
came Omai's property. The rest of the liquor was distri- 

voL. XV. 8 b 1 • ^ 


)Sb6 Modem CircimnavigaHonB: . part iir. book iif« 

billed to different people^ by direction of the man who had 
the management of it. One of the cups bein^ carried to 
the king's brother^ he retired with this^ and with his mess 
of victuals. Some others also quitted the circle with their 
porlionsy and the reason was^ they couid neither eat n6r 
'drink in the rojral presence ; but there were others present^ 
.of a much inferior rank^ of both sexes^ who did both. Soon 
after most of them withdrew^ canning with them what th^y 
«had not eat of their share of the feast. 
- I observed that not a fourth part of the company had 
tasted either the victual or the drink ; those who partook 
of the former I supposed to be of the king's household. 
^e servants who distributed the baked meat and the kaia, 
always out 6f thcfir band sitting, not only to the 
king but to every other person. It is worthy of remark, 
"fboiigh this w^ the first time of our landings and a great 
many- people were present who had never seen us before, 
yet no one was troublesome, but the greatest good order 
was preserved throughout the whole assembly. 
' Before I returned on board, I went in search of a water- 
ing-place, and was conducted to some fronds, or rather 
wholes, containing fresh water, as they were pleased to call 
it. The contents of one of these indeed were tolerable, but 
it was At some distance inland, and the supply to be got 
from it was very inconsiderable. Being informed that the 
IHtle island of Pangimodoo, near which the^ships lay, could 
better furnish this necessary article, I went over to it next 
jnoming, and was so fortunate as to find there a small pool 
that had rather fresher water, than any we had met with 
ramongst these islands. The pool being very dirty, I order- 
ed it to be cleaned ; and here it was that we watered the 

As I intended to^make some stay at Tongataboo, we 
pitched a tent in the forenoon^ just by the house which 
Poulaho had assigned for our use. The horses, cattle, and 
iheep, were afterward landed, and a party of marines, with 
their imS:er, stationed there as a guard. The observatory 
was th^ set up, at a small distance from the other tent ; 
•and Mr King resided on shore, to attend the observations, 
and to superintend the several operations necessary to be 
icondu9ted there. For the sails were carried thither to be 
i^paited i a party was employed in cutting wood for fuel, 
and ^SM for the tis^ of the ships ; and the gunners of both 

» tW>CAC 


6hap« n. SBCT. VII. ' Cook, CUrke, and Gore. Mf 

were drdered to remaid on the spof/to conduct the traffic* 
with thie nativesj who thronged from every part of the la* 
land-Wrth bogs, jwoob, cocoa^nuU, and other articles of their 
prodnce. In a short time our land post was like a fair, and 
the filhips were so crowded with visitors, that we had hardly 
room to stir upon the decks. 

Feenoii had taken ap his residence in our neistibour* 
hood ; bat he was no longer the leading man. However 
we still found him to be a person of consequence, and we 
bad daily proofs of his opulence and liberality, by the con» 
tinuance of his valufeible presents. But the king was equaily 
attentive in this respied;, for scarcely a day pasi»ed without 
receiving from him some considerable donation. We now 
beard that there werex>ther great men of th^ island wbom 
we had not as yet seen. Ota|;a and Toobou, in palrtieular> 
mentioned a person named Mareewagee, who, they said. 
Was of the fijhst consequence in the place, and held in great 
veneration, nay, if Omai did not misunderstand tbem, .sii^ 
perior even to Poulaho, to whom he was related ; but be- 
ing old, lived in retirement, and therefore would not visit 
us« Some of the natives even hinted that he was too great 
a man to confer that honour upon us. This account exci- 
ting my curiosity, I this day mentioned to Poulaho. that I 
Was very desirous of waiting upon Mareewagee ; -and be 
readily agreed to accompany me to the place of bis resi- 
dence the next morningi; 

* Accordingly, we set out pretty early in the pinnace, and 
Captain Gierke joined me in one of his own boats. We 
proceeded round, that is, to the eastward of the little isles 
that form the harbour, and then, turning to the S., accord- 
ing to Poulaho's directions, entered a spacious bay or inlet, 
up which we rowed about a league, and landed amidst a 
considerable number of people, who received us with a sort 
of acclamation, not unlike our huzzaing. They immediate- 
ly separated, to let Poulaho p^s, who took us into a small 
inclosure, and shifted the piece of cloth he wore for t new 
^ piece, neatly folded, that was carried by a young man. An 
' old woman assisted in dressing him, and put a mat over his 
cloth, as we supposed, to prevent its being dirtied when be 
sat down. On our now asking him where Mareewagee was, 
to our great surprise, he said be bad gone from the. plade 
to the ship just before we arrived. However, he desired us 
to walk with him to a malaee, or house of public resort 


888 Modim.Cir^umndtigatiotis. jpaat iiu booji. m. 

wfaich stood about half a pnile . up* the oonniiy. . IBni when 
we came to a large anea before it^ he bM dowD in the path> 
and desired ub to walk np to the hoiue* We did 90^ aod 
seated ourselves id fronts while the crowd thai followed uf 
filled up the rest of the. space. After sitting a little whiles 
we repeated our enquiries, by means of Omaij Whether we 
were to see Mareewagee i But receiving no fiatisfactpry 
information, and su^cting that the eld chief was purposep. 
ly concealed iroos us, we weqt back to our boats much 
piqued at our disappointment ; aqd when I got on board I 
found that no such person had been there. It afterward 
appeared, that in this afiair we hftd laboured under some 
gross mistakes, and that our interpreter Omai had either 
been misinformed, or, which is more likely, had misunderr 
stood whi|t was told him about the gceat man, on whose ao- 
count we had made this excursion. 

The {dace we went tp was a village, mostdeliglUfuUv si^ 
tnated on the bank of the inlet,}, or ptost of the 
principal persons of the island reside, each having his bousp 
in the midst of a small plantation^ with lesser boi^eSi and 
4>ffioes for serTants. These plantations are neatly fenced 
round ; and, for the most part, have only one entrance. 
This is by a door, fastened on the inside |>y a prop of wood, 
so that a pers€>n.,ba8 to knock befone he can get admit- 
tance. Public foads, and narrow lanes, lie between, each 
plantation, so that no one trespasseth upon another. Great 
part of some €xf these tnclosures is- laid out in grass-plots, 
and planted with such things as seem more for ornauieot 
than use; but hardly any were without thekava plant, from 
which they make their favourite liquor. Every article of 
.the vegetable produce of the ii^land abounded in others of 
these plantations ; but these, I observed, are not the resi* 
dence of people of the first rank. There are some large, 
houses near the public roads, with spacious smooth grass- 
plots before them, and uninclosed. These, I was told, be- 
longed Id the king ; and probably they are the places where 
their public assemblies are held. It was to one of these 
houses* as I havie already mentioned, that we were con- 
ducted soon after our landing at this place* 

About noon, the neJtt day, this Mareewagee, of whom we 

had heard so much, actually came to the neighbourhood of 

our post on shore, and with him a very considerable num- 

^ her of people of all ranks. I was intbrmed^ that he had 



taken this trouUe^on. purpose to grfim^ Im opportatl'rty' 6f 
waiting upon bim ; haviBg probabiy heard ov the dhpteaf-* 
sare I had riiewn on my disappoitiltmetit the dicjr b^fote. 
In the, aftornooihy a party of vs^ aecoospaiiiedb;^ Feefio«y 
landed^ to pay him a yisit.! We found sk pemott skciti^ trt* 
dttr a.lar^^ tree nete the iklof^, a littte.lo the rJght of th(fe 
teht^ A piiece of ekyth*^ at leaist forty yavda loagy wiiS Spread 
Uefore kini, found which af greatt numbtfr of people or both 
sexes* ^eatt seatedw it was natural to suppose timt this wa§ 
the great msm^ buft we were undeoeived by Feenoiu^ who 
inlfemied' u» that anothery who sat on* if piece of rnsHt, a lit* 
tie way from thiff ohief> to tlie right faand^ #As Mareewo- 

e^ and he ititroditeed at to hini^ who received its very 
iikd}y> aAd desired ut ta sit down by bhnw The pe)rson #h6. 
sat toder the tr'ee^ iVoatiAg> ns^ wat eiiHed Toobou< ; aiid, 
when I Have occarioii to s^adc of bim- afterward^ I shall 
cdj* him old Toobou^ t6 ditftiomiish hint fiomf his ti^mesakej 
Captain Fikmeaux's friend* ^otlr he and Mareewagee had 
a venerable appearance. The latter was a slender man^ 
ahdy^ from faia appoaranccj seeatied to be consideitebly above 
threescore years of age ; lAe former wim falfaesr cbtrpulent^- 
and almost bKnd with a disbrder of his eyes> though Aot so 
oW. . 

Nbtexpteting ta^ieet with two ^ieft M this occasion, 
I had only brouj^t on ^hore a^prctont for one« This i hoW 
found myself under a necessity of dividing between them ; 
but it happened to be prietty considerable, and both of them 
seemed satisfied. After this,* we entertained theitn for about 
an hodr #ith the perfornmnce^ of two French horns and a 
drum. But they seemed moSt pleased with the firin'g off a 
pistol^ which Captafla Gierke had in hm pocket. Before I 
t6ok ^ leave, the large piece of clotii watf rt^ed vp, and, 
with a few cocoa-nuts, presented to me. 

Ttie'next morning old Toobon returned my visit on board 
thesbif). He also visited Captain Gierke ; and if the (Pre- 
sent we made to^ Kim the evening before Wafs scanty^ the 
deficiency was now made up. During fMk time Mareewa^ 
gee visited our people ashore, and Mr King shewed to hilii 
every thing we had there. He viewed the eattle with great 
adtaiiration, and the cross-cdt sa# fijfied his intention for 
some tiiile. 

Toward noon Poulaho retnmed fnMtt tbe Ahoeittlifere m^e 
bad left him two days before,, and brraght widi|M#1iia 

' son 

S9(tl: Moieh^ Cimmmdtigaiumi. VJUtr iii. 900& iir^ 

MOB, a YOQth atK>nt twelve years of age. I had his compa* 
ny at dinner ; bat the son, ^though pireaeiit, was not allowed 
to sit down with him. It was very convenient to have him 
for my guest. For when he was present; which was gene^- 
rally the case while we stayed here, every other liati ve was ' 
ezclnded from the table, and but few of them would remal^ 
in the cabin. Whereas, if by chance it happened that nei- 
^r he nor Feenou were on board, the inferior chiefs would 
be very importunate to be of our dining narty, or to be ad- 
mitted into Ihe cabin at that time, ana then n^e were so 
crowded that we could not sit down to a meal with any sa- 
tisfaction. The king was very soon reconciled to our man-* 
ner of cookery. But still Ibelieve he dined thus frequeni*^ 
ly with me more for the sak^e of what we gave him to drink, 
tpan for what we set before him to eat. For he had taken 
a liking to our wine, could empty his bottle as well as mosfc 
men, and was as cheerful over it He now fixed his resi- 
dence at the house, or malaee, by our tent ; and there he 
entertained our people this evening with a dance. To the 
surprise of every body, the unwieldy Poulaho endeavoured 
to vie with others in that active laimusement. 

In the morning of the 15th I received a message from; 
old Toobou that he wanted to see me ashore. Accordingly 
Omai and I went to wait tipon him. We found him, like 
an ancient patriarch, seated under the shade of a tree, with 
a large piece of the cloth, made in the island, spread out 
at full length before him, and a number of respectably look- 
ing people sitting round it. He desired us to place our*^ 
selves by him ; and then he told Omai, that the cloth, to- 
gether with a piece of red feathers, and about a dozen co* 
coa-nuts, were his present to me. I thanked him for the 
favour, and desired he would go on board with me^ as I had 
nothing on shore to give him in return, 
t Omai now left me, being sent for by Poulaho ; and soon 
after Feenou came, and acquainted me that young Fatta*- 
faihe, Poulaho's son, desired to see me." I obeyed tiie sum- 
mons, and found the prince and Omai sitting under >a large 
canopy, of the finer sort of cloth, with a piece of the cparser 
sort spread under them and before them, that was seventy- 
ttx yards lone,, and seven and a half broad. On one side 
was a large old boar, and on the other side a heap of cocoa- 
nuts. A number of people were seated round the cloth, and 
jonongst them I observed Mareewagee^ and others of the 


cm^^iu nor. vii< Cook, Clerkip rndGon^ - a9i* 

fint rank. I wss -desired to ait down hy die piiace; aad; 
tbea Oinai ioformed me^ that he bad b^ea instructed bj ; 
the king to tell ine^ thatj as. he aad I were friends^ he hoped' 
that his son might be joined in this friendship^ and that, as 
a token of :my consent, I would accept of his pxesent. ,1, 
y^y neadily agreed to the .propo$al ; aod it being now. din ; 
ner time, I inviled them all. on boards . i 

. Accordingly^ the, young prince, Mareewag«e> ,old Too*: 
boUf three or four inferior chiefs, and two respectable .old- 
ladies of the first ra^nk, accompanied me. Mareewagee was- 
diressed in anew piece of cloth, on the skirts of .which were; 
fixed six pretty large patches of red feathers* This dresa 
seemed to have been made on purpose, for^ this visit; .for,, 
as soon as he got on board, he put it off, and presented it: 
to me ; havings I guess, heard that it wdi^ld be acceptable, 
on account of the feathers* Every one of my visitors recei*; 
ved from me such presentsi as, I had reason to believe, they 
were highly satisfied jvilh. When dinner came upon table,* 
not one of them would sit down, ^ eat a bit of any thing 
tiiat wa^ served up. On expressing my surprise at ,this, they 
were all taboo, as they said ; which word has a very com* 
prebensive meaning ; but, in general, signifies. that a thing 
is forbidden. Why they were laid under such restraints, at 
present, was not explained.. Dinner being over, and, having 
oTiatified their curiosity, by shewing to them every part pf 
me ship, I then conducted them ashore. 

Ag soon as the boat reached the beach, Feenou, and sorne. 
others, instantly stepped out. Young Fattafaihe following 
them, was called back by Mareewagee, who now paid the 
heir-apparent the same obeisance, and in the same manner, 
that I bad seen it paid to the king. And when. old Toobon, 
and one of the old ladies, bad shewn him the same marks 
of respect, he was suffered to land. This, ceremony being 
ovef^ the: old people stepped from my boat into a canoe that 
was waiting to carry them to their place of abode* 

I was not sorry to be present on this occasion, as I w^as- 
thus furnished with the most unequivocal pi:oofs of the su- 
preme dignity of Poulabo and, his son, over the other pxish 
cipal chiefs. Indeed, by this time, I had acquired some cer- 
tain information about the relative situations of the several 
great men, whose names have been so often mentioned. .1 
now knew, that Mareewagee and old Toobou were brothers. 
Both of them were men of great property in the island, md 


ast Moiim(%lm$tiMugaii8h8i pjiMt 1114^ Bote fi«r 

seemcfd to lb€ in faffih' ^timailioiy with the people ^ the' fi»f^ 
mer^ in particahur^ nad the very hommrable appeltatioiv gi-' 
i«D to him^ by e?ery hody^ of MaiooA Tonga; that is to «ay. 
Father of Tonea^ or of bis country. The natore of his re^-' 
lation^ip to the king was also no longer a secret to .u»;^ fof ^ 
we now understood^ that he was his father-in«law ; PoulttlK> 
having married one of his daughters^ by whom he had tbist 
SOB ; so that Mareewagee was the prince's grandiather. Pou-* 
laho's appearanice having satisfiedus^ that we had been mK 
der a mistake in considering Feenou als the sovereign of 
these islands^ ive had been^ at firsts mnch puzzled ^bout his> 
seal rank; but that was^ by this time> ascertained, FeenOU^ 
was one of Mareewagee^s sons ; and TooboueiloB was MO^ 

On my landing; I found the king, in the house adjoining* 
to oar tent^ along with our people who resided on^ shores' 
The moment I got to him^ he bestowed upon me a- pfesentf 
of a l&rge bog and A quantity of yamsi About the dusk of 
the evenings )ei number of men camci and> having sat dowa^ 
in a round group; began to sin^ in concert- with the music*' 
of bamboo drums^ which were placed in thecentre." There' 
were three long ones^ and two shott. With these they struck^ 
the ground endwise^ as before describedi There were two- 
others^ which lay on tiie ground,, side by side, and one of 
them Was split Or shivered ; on these a man kept beatitig' 
with two small sticks. They suns three songs while X stay«^ 
ed ; and; I was told, that, after! left them, the entertain- 
ment lasted till ten o'clock. They burnt the leaves of the' 
whiirra palm for a light ; which is the only thing I eVer saw 
them make use of for this purpose. 

^hile I was passing the day in attendance on these great 
men, Mr Anderson, with some others, made an excursion* 
into the country, which fnrnished him with the* following* 
remarks : ^ To the westward of the tent, the country is to-* 
tally uncultivated for near two miles, though quite covered- 
with trees and bushes, in a natural state, growing with the 
greatest vigour. Beyond this is a pretty large plain, on 
which are some cocoa-trees, aiid a few small plantations 



' The same sort of evening Odncert is perfonaed rcmnd the heme of -the 
cb>f» or 2>flio^ at the Caiviline lalaadfl. ^XkB Xamo&oes''au; 
bruit d'lin concert de musique que forme une troupe de jeunes gens^. qui. 
s'asseniblent le soir, autou^ de sa maison, et qui cbantent, i leur nianfore^ 
certaines poesies."—- Zre/^res Ed^ntet if Cunemes^ torn, zv* p. dl4.«— D. 

€«&»» U4 smn. yu^ . G$ok, Ckfkc, and Gan. S9S 

that appear iolncvie been ktdy made > wad, seemingly^ on 
grooitd that haa never been cultivated before. Near the 
oreek^ which rana to the westward of the tent^ the land is 
onite eflat> and paartiy overflowed by the sea every tide.^ 
When tb^t retires^ the aurface is seen to be composed of 
coral! 76ek> with lioles of yellowisb mod scattered ap and 
down ; Mid toward the edges, where it is a little firmer, are 
iommierable little openings, froao^ which issoe as many small 
czmbs, of two or three dt&rent sorts, which swarm, uoon the 
spot, as flies u^on a carcase ; but are so nimble, niat, on 
being approached, they disappear in an instant, and baffle 
even tke natives to catch any of them« 

At this place is a work o^ art,^ whk^h shews that these 
people are capable of some design, and perseverance, when - 
they mean to accomplish any thing. This work begins, on 
one side^ as a narrow caoseway, which, becoming gradual- 
ly broader, rises, with a gentle, ascent, to the heisht of ten' 
mt, where it is five paces broad, and the whole teagth se- 
veiity*four paces* Joined to thia is a sort of circus, whose 
diameter is thirty paces, and not above a foot or two higher ' 
than the causeway that joins it^with some trees planted in 
the middle* On the opposite side, another causeway of the 
same sort descends ; but this is not above forty paces long, 
and is partly in ruin. The whole is built with large coral 
stonea, with- earth on tbe surface, which is quite overgrown 
with low trees and shrubs ; and, from* its decaving in seve- 
ral plaees^ seems to be of no modern date. Whatever may 
have been its use formerly, it seems to be of none now ; 
and all that we could learn of it from the natives was^ that * 
it belonged to Po'ulaho, and is called Etchee" 

(te the 16th, in the morning, after visiting the several 
works now carrying on ashore, Mr Gore and I took a walk 
into tbe country ; in the course of which nothing remark- 
able appeared, but our having opportunities of seeing the ^ 
whole process- of making cloth, which is the principafma- 
nufacture of these islwids^ as well as of many others in this 
ocean* In the narrative of my first voyage, a minute de- 
scription is given of this operation, as performed at Ota^ ' 
heiie ; but tbe process, here, differing in some particulars, 
it maybe worth while to give the following account of it: 

The manufaeturers; who ai« females, take tbe slender 
stalks or trunks of the paper*muiberry, which they cultivate 
for that purpose, and which seldom g^ow more than six o^ 


99A Medem Circdmnac^ipnu vam.jvu ioomme 

seven fBet ia height^ and about four fingers in* thickntis. 
From these thej stiip the bark, and scrape off the outer 
rjind with a muscle-shell. The bark is then rolled tip, to 
take off the coovesity which it had round the stiJk, and* 
macerated in water for some time (they say, a night). Af- 
ter this, it is laid across the trunk of a small tree squared, 
and beaten with a square wooden instrument, about a foot 
l^ng, full of coarse grooves on all sides ; but, sometimes, 
with one that is .plain. According to tlie siae of the bark, ^ 
a. piece b soon produced ; but the operation is often repeat^ 
ed. by another hand, or it is folded several times, land beat 
longer, which seems rather intended to close than to divide/ 
its iextnre. When this is sufficiently effected, it is spread 
C(iat to dry; the pieces beipg from four to six, or more, feet 
in length, and half as broad* They are then given to ano- 
ther person, who joins the pieces, by smearing part of tbem^ 
€^v^ with the viscous juice of a berrv, called tooo, which 
sfxves as a glue. Having been thus lengthened, they are 
laid over a large piece of wood, with a kind of stamp, made- 
of a fibrous substance pretty closely interwoven, placed be* •* 
neath. They then take a bit of cloth, and dip it in a juice, ^ 
expressed from the bark of a tree, called kokkdr^hieh they; 
rub briskly upon the piece that is making. This, at once, : 
^ayes a dull brown colour, and a dry gloss upon its surface ; 
i)|ie .stamp, at the same time, making a slight impression, 
that answers no other purpose, that I could see, but to make 
tlj^ several pieces, that are glued together, stick a little ^ 
more firmly. In this manner they proceed, joining and 
stilining by degrees, till they produce a piece of cloth, of 
sHch length abd breadth as they want ; genej-ally leevinga 
border, of a foot broad, at the sides, and longer at the ends, 
unstained* Throughout the whole, if any parts of the ori*^* 
ginal pieces are too thin, or have holes, which is often the / 
case, they glue spare bits upon them, till they become of ^ 
an equal thickness. When they want to produqie a black 
colour, they mix the soot procured from an an oily nut^ ' 
called dooeOBoe, with the juice of the kokka^ in different 
qiaai^tities, according to the proposed depth of the tinge# 
X^ey say, that the black sort of cloth, which is commonly . 
most glazed, makes a cold dress, but the other a warm one ;^ 
md, to obtain strength in both, they are always careful to 
join the small pieces I,engthwise, which makes it impossible 
to tear Ifae cloth in any direction but one. 


c;il4F«.il*i9l9* Til* CoQk, Clerhe, and Gore* 3^9 

t Ob our retttm fitom the country^ we met with Peenoa^ 
aa4 topk him^ and. another young chief, on board to diQ- 
i|ar. When our fare was set upon the tabl^^ neither of them 
would eat a bit ; saying, that they Were taboo avy. But, 
after en^uiringhow the victuals had been dressed, havings 
fboiiid that no av^ (water) had been used in cooking a pig 
and some yams, they both sat down, and made a very hear* ' 
tv m^al ; and, on being assured that there was no water in' 
the wine, they drank of it also. From this we conjectured^ 
thatj on some account or another, they were, at this time> 
forbidden to use water; or, which was more probabje, they • 
did not like the water we made use of, it being taken up out 
of one; of their bathing-places. This was not the only time * 
of our meeting with people that wei:e te^HH^ woy; but, for' 
what reason, we never could tell with any degree of cer* 

. Next day, the 17th, was fixed upon by Mareewagee, for 
giving a erand Haica, or entertainment, to which we wer#^y 
all invited. For this purpose a large space had been clear*- 
edj before the temporary hut of this, chief, near our post, 
as an area where the performances were to be exhibited* 
1a the inorning, great multitudes of the natives came in 
fiom the country, every one carrying a pole, about six feet 
long, upon his shoulder ; and at each end of every pole, a^ 
yam was suspended. These yams and poles were depositedf 
oa eieush side of the area, so as to form two lar^e heaps, de* 
corated with different sorts of small fish, and piled up to the 
reatest advantage. They were Mareewagee's present to 
!aptain Gierke and me ; and it was hard to say, whether 
*the wood for fuel. Or the yams for food, were of most value 
to us. As for the fish, they might serve to please, the sight, - 
but were very offensive to the smell ; part of them having' 
been kept two or three days, to be presented to us on this v 

Every thing being thus prepared, about eleven o'clock 
they hegtLa to exhibit various dances, which they call maik 
The music* consisted, at first, of seventy men as a chorus, 
who sat down ; and amidst them were placed three instru<» 
naents, which we called drums, though very unlike them* 
Xhey are- large cylindrical pieces of wood, or trunks of 



* Mr Anderson's deacrmtion of the entertainments of this day bmng 
much fuUer than Captain Cook'% it has been adopted, as on a fomer oc* 

9Q6 Modem Cireumnavigations* PAmt iiK Bdoti^ ili. 

trees, from three to iPoar feet long^ dome litice ad thi^K as 
an ordioary sized man, aiMl some smaller, hfoUowed^ entire- 
ly out, but close at both ends> and open only bf a cfaiifllrj 
about three inches broad, running almost the whole length 
of the drums ; by whioh opening, the rest of tbe WObd is 
certainly hollowed, though tbe operation must be diffiietdt. 
This instrument is called naffa ; and, with the chink tufnled 
toward them, they sit and bea(t strongly u^n'it, with fw6 
<»rlindrical pieces of hard wood, about a foot long, and as' 
thick as the wrist ; by which means they produce a rud^, 
though loud and powerful sound. They vary the strength 
and rate of their beating, at different parts of the dMce i 
and also change the tones> by beating it the middle,* er iiea# 
the- end, of their drum. 

' The first dance consisted of four rankis, of twenty-lbuif 
men each, holding in their hands a little, thin^ light, wbod^ 
en instrument) above two feet long, andy in shape, not un- 
like a small oblong paddle. With these, wMch are* cttlled 
pogge, they made a great many different motions ; such' tm 
pointing them toward the ground on one side, at the same 
time inclining their bodies that way, from which fifaiey #i(re' 
shifted to the opposite side in the same manner; th^ ptis^ 
ing them quiekly from one hand to the other, and twirlitig 
them about very dextrdWy ; with a variety of other nia-' 
Wfitfvres, all which were accompanied by corresp^cmdii^g at^ 
tttudes of the body. Their motions were, at first, sloi^, bu% 
qnickened as the drums beat faster ; and they recited seh^^ 
tences, in a musical tone, the whole time, which were an- 
swered by the chorus ; but at the end of a short space they 
ail joitied, and finished with a shout. 

' After ceasing about two or three minutes, thiey began a(i' 
before, and continued, with short intervals, above a qdatter 
of an hour; when the rear nmk dividing, shifted themsel^^ 
very slowly round each end, and, meeting in the front, hyfiH^ 
ed the firutt rank ; th^ whole number contihuing* to recite 
the sentences as before. Tbe other ranks did the^ same sck;- 
cessively,- till that which, at first, was the front, lieeam^ the 
rear ; and the evolution continued, in the same mMnei*, tilt 
the last rank regained its ^rst situation. They theii bdga6 
a much quicker dance (though slow at first), and sung for 
about' ten minutes, when the whole body divided into two 
parts, retreated a little, and then approached, forming. a 
sort of circular figure, which finished the dance ; the drtkms 


qpAF* ih sscT. T|i. Cook, Gierke^ mtd Gore. 397 

l^mg i^^moved, a^d tbe /chords goiog off the field at the 
.wne Ufljie. , 

The seccmd dance bad ooly two drwDSj with forty mea 
ftff a <^bQrB« ; aod tb^e dancera^ or rather actors^ cootUted 
of two ranks^ the forejooirt batipg seventeen^ and the otbcyr 
fifteen persons. Feepou was a( their head^ or in the middle 
<)f the front rank^ which is the principal place in these ca» 
4168. They danced and recited 8e&teace9^ with some yety 
4»hort intervals^ for about half an bonr> sometimes qaiddj^ 
sometimes more plowly^ but with sach a degree oi eocaoi* 
jtiess^ as if all the motion^ were made by one man^ which 
4id them great credit. Near the close> the back rank diyi- 
4^d, came round, and took the place of the frontj whioh 
4^gain resumed its situation, as ip the first dance; and when 
•ih^ finishedj the drums and chorus, as before, w^sft o£ 

Three drums (which, at least, took two, and sometimes 
three men to carry them) were now brought, in ; and sevw» 
ty men sat down as a chorus to the third dance. This con* 
sisted of two ranks, of sixteen persons each, with young Too« 
bou at their head, who was richly ornamented with a sort 
of garment covered with red feathers. These danced, song, 
and twirled iht pagge, as before; but, in general, mucii 
quicker, and peru)rmed so well, that they had the eonsta»t 
applauses of the spectators, A mption that met with par«» 
ticular approbation, was one in which they held the faoe 
aside, as if ashamed, and the jpagg^ before it. The back 
rank closed before the front one, and that again resumed 
Its place, as in the two former dances; but then they began 
again, formed a triple row, divided, retreated lo eaoh end 
of the area, and left the greatest part of the ground dear. 
At that instant, two men entered very hastily, and exercised 
the clubs which they use in battle* They did this, by first 
twirling them in their hands, and making circular strokes 
before them with great force and quickness ; but so skilful- 
ly managed, that, though standing quite close, they never 
interfered. They shifted their clqbs from band to hand, 
with great dexterity ; and, after continuing a little time> 
kneded, and made different motions^ tossing the clubs up 
in the air, which they caught as they fell ; and then went 
off as hastily as. they entered. Their beads were covered 
with pieces of white cloth, tied at the crown (almost like a 
nigbtrcap) with a wreath of foliage round the forehead ; but 
they hi^ only very amall pieces of white cloth tied about 


SQB . Mbdeitn Clrciimniwigdiio^ 'vlM nil MOlt'^^ 

^heif waists ; probiaBly^ that they mighf hel cool, and fre^ 
from every encumbrance or weight. A person with a speaf> 
•dressed like the former, then came in, and in the same hasty 
manner ; looking^about eagerly, as if in'search of somebody 
to throw it at. He then ran hastily to one side of the crowd 
in the front, and put himself in a threatening attitude, as if 
-lie meant to strike with his spear at one of tbecii, bending 
Ihe knee a Kttlie, and trembling, as it were with rage. He 
•continued in this manner only a few seconds, when b^ mo«- 
Ted tb the bther side, and having stood in the s^tae posture 
-there, for the same short tiiiie, retreated from tbfe gronnd, 
-«s fkst as when he made bis appearance. The dasicersy who 
«Iiad divided ihto two parties, kept repeating sometbifig slow- 
'fy f^ll thid white; tod now advanced, and joined ag^in, end- 
ing with universal applaasc. It should seetn that this dance 
'Was c6nsfderdfd as one of their capital performances, if we 
iftirfit jndTO from some of the principal people beinff enga- 
ged in it. For otie of the drums wsEs beatbv Futtafame, the 
*^M^otber of Poulaho, toother by Fdfenou, and the third, which 
4id hot belong to the chorus, by Mareewagee himself, at thie 
< entrance of his hut. - 

The last dande had forty men, and two drums, as a cho^ 
fus. It consisted of sixty men, who had not danced before^ 
*dfilpo^ed in three rows, having twenty-four in front. But,, 
before they began, we were entertained with a pretty long 
preliminary liarangue, in which the whole body made re* 
'l^ponses to a single person Who spoke. They recited sen- 
tences (perhaps verges) alternately with the chorus, and 
itaade mtoy motions with the pagge, in a verv brisk mode, 
whibh were all applauded with mareeai! ^n6fi^>gge! worda 
expressing two different degrees of praise. They divided 
into two bodies, with their backs to each other; formed' 
'dgain, shifted their ranks, as in the other dances; divided 
-and retreated, making rooth for two champions, who exer- 
cised their clubs as before; and after them two others; the 
dancers, all the time, reciting slowly in turn with the cho- 
.irus; after Which they advanced and finished. 
' ' These dances, if they cad properly be called so, lasted 
IVotn elevcfn till neat three o'clock; and though thc^ were, 
doubtless, intended, particularly, either in honour of us, or 
to shew a specimen of their dexterity, vast numbers of their 
own people attended as spectators. Their numbers could 
not be computed exactly, on ncccnmi ^f the inequality of 


^t>niw. n* 8BCT. VII. Cook, Ckrke, md Qoru - 3S9 

.the ground; but^ by reckomi^ the inner. cirde^ and the 
number in. depths which was between twenty and thirty in 
many places^ we supposed that there must be aear^onr tboa« 
^sand. At the same time^ there were round the trading place 
at the tent^ and straggling about^ at least as many more ; 
and some of us computed, that, at this time^ there were not 
less than ten or twelve thousand people in our neighbonr- 
hood ; that is, wlthio the compass or a <|narter of a mile; 
^rawn together, for the most part, by mere curipsify. 

It is with regret I mention, that we coald hot understand 
.what was spoken, while we were able to see what was aciady 
in these amusements. This, doubtless^ would have afforded 
ns much information, as to the genius and customs of these 
people. It was observable, that, though the spectators. al- 
ways approved of the various motions, when well made, a 
S^eat share of the pleasure they received seemed to arise 
rom the sentimental part, or what the performers delivered 
in their speeches. However, the mere acting part, indi^- 
pendently of the sentences repeated, was well worth our no- 
tice, bpth with respect to the extensive plan on which it was 
executed, and to the various motions, as well as the exact 
unity^ with which they were performed. Neither pencil nar 
pen can describe the numerous actions and motions^ the sin- 
gularity of which was liot greater, than was the ease and 
gracefulness with which they were performed. 

At night, we were entertained with the bomai, or ni^it 
-dances, on a space before Feenou's temporary habitation. 
They lasted about three hours; in which time we had abont 
twelve of them performed, much after the same manner m 
those at Hepaee. But, in two, that were performed by wo- 
men, a number of men came and formed a circle within 
.their's. And, in another, consisting of twenty-four men, 
there were a number of motions with the hands, that, we 
had not seen before, and were highly applauded. The mo- 
sic was, also, once changed, in the course of the nifht; and 
in one of the dances, Feenou appeared at the heaa of fifty 
men who had performed at Hepaee, and he was well dres»- 
.ed with liiien, a large piece of gauase^ and some little pictures 
hung sound his neck. But it was evident, after the diveiw 
aions were closed, that we had put these poor people, orra- 
ther that tbey had put themselves, to much inconvenience. 
,For being drawn tosether on this uninhabited part of their 
islandy numbers of them were obliged to lie down and de^p 


400 Modem CiramM^aiiamB fjlkt ii£. .book m. 

under the l>iiiBheSy bjr ibe tide otnine, ok of a canw^ mif> 
J mimy. either lay ckim in the open air, which* they are. not 
fend of, or wa&ed aboet bU the night. 

The whole of Ibis entertainment was conducted with £ur 
better order^ than conld faave been expected in so large an 
aisemblv. Am(»iffst audi a multitade^ there must be annm-» 
•ber of iliUdiaposed people ; and we^ boorly^expcdrieoced it. 
All our care and attention did not prevent their plundering 
ns. In .every .quarter ; and that in im aiost daring and inso- 
lent manner. There was hardly any thing that they did not 
attempt to steal ; and yet, as the orowd was always so great, 
I would not allow the sentries to fire, kst the innocent 
should iwiffer for the goilty. Tliey ouce, at noon day, reah 
•tared to aim at taking an anchor from off the Discovery^ 
ibows; and they would certainly Imve succeededi if the 
floo|c bad* not hooked one of the chain^'plates in lowering 
down the ship's side^ fcom which they could not disengage 
it by hand ; and tackles were things they were unanquaint- 
€A with. The only act of violence they were guilty, vf, was 
the breaking the shoulder^bone of one of our goatSjSothat 
die died soon after*. This loss fell upon themselves^ as she 
was one of those that I intended to leave upon the island' ; 
but of this> the person who did it was ignorant. 

.Early in the morning, of the 18th^ an incident happened^ 
that strongly marked one of their customs. A man got ovt 
of a canoe into the quarter gallery of the Resolution^ and 
.stole from thence a pewter bason. He was discovered^ puv^ 
sued^ and brought alongside the ship. On this occasioa^ 
three old women, who were in the canoe, made loud lamen- 
tations over the prisoner, beating their breasts and faees in 
a most violent manner, with the inside of their fists ; and 
all this was done without shedding a tear. Thb mode of 
expressing grief is what occasions the mark which almost * 
all this people bear on the face^ ov^ the cheek-bones. 
The, repeated blows which they inflict npon this pari, 
abrade the skin, and make even the blood flow out in a 
considerable quantity ; and when the wounds are recent^ 
they look as if a hoUow circle had been burnt in. On 
many occasions^ they actually cut this part of the face 
with an instrument, in the same manner as the people of 
Otaheite cut their heads» 

This day, I bestowed on Mareewagee some presents^ in 
return for those we had received from him the day before ; 


OKAP* lu 89CT« ^VU C^ok, Ckrk$, and G^re. 401 

aod as the <eatertainmeiitB which he had then exhibited tot 
^ttf anmsementy called upon us ta make acme exhibition ia 
our way^^I ordered the parQr of marines- io go through 
their eWcise op the spot wher^ hif dances had been per* 
fonned.f aQd> in the eveniogj played off some fire^^works at 
the same place. Poulabo^ with all the principal chiefs^ 
aod a great nurabex of people^ of all dencMninations^ i|rere 
pjresent. The platoon finngp> which was executed tolerably 
wdli seemed tp ^ive them pleasure ; but ^bey were lost ia 
asUmishnient when they beheld our water-rockets. TheY 

Eliid but little attention to th^ fife and drum^ or French * 
, orns that played during the intervals. The king sat be- 
hind every .bQdy» because no one is allowed to sit behind 
him ; a]|d> th^ his view might not be obstructed^ nobody 
sat immediatdy before him $ but a lane^ as it were^ was 
made by the people from him> quite down to the space 
allotted for the fijne-works* 

In expcfclation of this evening show^ the circle of natives 
about o])r tent being pretty large^ they engaged* the greafek* 
est part of the afternoon j in boxing and. wrestling; the 
first of which exercises thiEry caiiJimg^OQa, and the second 

fo^QQ. When any of them chooses to wrestle^ he gets dp 
from one side of the rin^* and crosses the ground in a sort 
of measured pace, clappmg smartly on the elbow joint of 
one armj which is bent^ and produces a hollow sound ; that 
is reckoned the' challenge. If no person comes out from 
the opposite side to engage him^ he retorns in the same 
pumnerj and rits down ; but sometimes stands clapf>ing ia 
the midst of the ground^ to provoke some one to come out. 
If an opponent appear, they come together with marks of 
the greatest good-nature, generallv smiling, and taking 
time to adjust the piece of cloth wbieh is fastened round 
the waist. They then lay hold of each other by this gir»- 
dle, with a hand on each side ; and he who succeeds in 
drawing his antagonist to him, immediately tries to lift him 
upon bis breast, and throw him upon his back ; and if he 

. be able to turn rojand with him two or three times, in that 
position, before he throws him, his dexterity never fails of 
procuring plaudits from the spectators. If they be more 
equally matched, they close soon, and endeavour to throw 
each other by entwining their legs, or lifting each other 
from the groand ; in which struggles they shew a- prodi- 
gious exertion of strength, every muscle, as it were, being 
VOL. XV. 3 c ready 

402 Modem Circumnavigations* #art iti. book iIi« 

ready to burst with straining. When one is throwh, he 
immediately quits the fields but the victor sits down for b 
few seconds, then gets up, and goes to the side he came 
from, who proclaim the victory aloud, in- b sentence de- 
livered slowly, and in a musical cadence. ^After sitting a 
short space, he rises again and challenges ; when some- 
times several antagonists make their appearance ; btit he 
has the privilege of choosing which of them he pleases to 
wrestle with ; and has, likewise, the preference of challeng- 
ing again, if he should throw his adversary, until he him- 
self be vanquished ; and then the opposite side sing the 
song of victory in favour of their champion, It also oftea 
happens, that five or six rise from each side, and ehallenge 
together ; in which case, it is common to see three ott four 
couple engaged on the field at once. But it is astonishing 
to see what temper they preserve in this exercise; for we 
observed no instances of their leaving the spot, with the 
least displeasure in their countenances. When they find 
that they are so equally matched as not to be likely to 
throw each other, they leave off by mutual consent. And 
if the fall of one is not fair, or if it does not appear very 
clearly who has had the advantage, both sides sing the vic- 
tory, and then they engage again. But no person, who 
has been vanquished, can engage with his conqueror a se* 
cond time. 

7^he boxers advance side-ways, changing the side at 
every pace, with one arm stretched fully out before, the 
jother behind v and holding a piece of cord in one hand, 
which they wrap firmly about it, when they find an anta- 
gonist, or else have done so before they enter. This, I 
imagine, they do, to prevent a dislocation of the hand or 
fingers. Their blows are directed chiefly to the head ; but 
sometimes to the sides ; and ate dealt out with great acti« 
vity. They shift sides, and box equally well with both 
hands. But one of their favourite and most dextrous blows, 
is, to turn round on their heel, just as they have struck 
their antagonist^ and to give him another very smart one 
with the other hand backward. 

The boxing matches seldom last long ; and the parties 
either kave off together, or one acknowledges his being 
beat. But they never sing the song of victory in these 
cases, unless one strikes his adversary to the ground ; which 
;^faewS| that; of the two^ wrestling is their most approved 



CHAP. n. SECT. VII* Gook, CkrJce, and Gore. < 


diversion. Not only boys engage^ in both the exercises, 
bat frequently little girls box very obstinately for a short 
time. In lill which cases/ it doth not appear^ that they 
ever consider it as the smallest disgrace to be van(|uished ; 
Mid the person overcome sit& doivn^ with as much mdifier-* 
ence^as if he had never entered the lists. Some of our 
people ventured to contend with them in both exercises, 
but were' always worsted ; except in a few instances, where 
it appeared, that the fear they were in of offending us, con- 
tributed more to the victory, than the superiority of the 
person they engaged. 

The eattle, which we had brought^ and which were all 
en shore, however carefully guarded, I was sensible, run no 
«mall risk, when I considered the thievish disposition of 
many of the natives, and their dexterity in appropriating 
to themselves, by stealth, what they saw no prospect of ob- 
taining by fair means. For this reason, I thought it pru- 
dent to" declare my intention of leaving behind me some of 
our animals ; and even to knake a distribution of them pre 
1^iou8Iy to my departure. 

With this view, in the evening of the 19th, I assembled 
all the chiefs before our house, and my intended presents 
to tliem w'ere marked out. To Poulaho, the king, [ gave 
8 young English bull and cow; to Mareewagee, a Cape 
ram, and two ewes; and to Feeiiou, a horse and a mare. 
A% my design, to make such a distribution, had been made 
known the da(y before, most of the people in the neigh-' 
boiirhood were then present. T instructed Omai to tell 
them, that there were no suchanimals within many months 
sail of their island ; that we had brought them, for their 
use, froni that immense distance, at a vast trouble and ex- 
pence ; that, therefore, they must be careful not to kill any 
of theui, till they had multiplied to a numerous race ; and, 
lastly, that they and their children ought to remember, 
that they had received them from the men of Britane. He 
abo' explained to them their several uses, and what else 
was necessary for them to know, or rather as far as he 
knew ; for Omai was not very well versed in such things 
himself. As I intended that the above presents should re-» 
msan with the other cattle, till we were ready to sail, I de- 
sired each of the chiefs to send a man or two to look after 
their respective animals, along with my pe6ple, in order 
th&t they might be better acquainted with them, and wttti 


404 Modern CircummmgaHom. part hi. book uu 

the manaer of treatiDg them. The king and Feen6u did 
«o ; but neither Mareewagee^ nor any other person for. him^ 
took the least notice of the sheep afterward ; nor did oM 
Toobou attend at this meetings toough he was invited^ mid 
ivas in the neighbourhood. I had meant tp give him the 

froats^ viz. a ram and two ewes ; which^ as he wa» so indif- 
erent about them^ I added to tihe king^s share. 

It soon appeared) that some were dissatisfied with this 
allotment of our animals ; for^ early next mornings one of 
our kids, and two turkey-cocks, were missing. I could not 
be so siiiiple as to suppose, that this was merely an acci- 
dental loss ; and I was determin<ed to have them againJ 
The first step I took was to seize on three canoes that hap- 

Eened to be alongside the ships. I then went ashore, and^ 
aving found the king, his brother, Feenou, and some 
other chiefs, in the house that we occupied, I immediately 
put a guard over them, and gave them to understand, that 
they must remain undeir restraint, till not only the kid and 
the turkeys, but the other things that had been stolen from 
us, at different times, were restored. They concealed, as 
well as they could^ their feelings, on finding themselves 

Erisoners ; . and, having assured me, that evexy thiuff should 
e restored, as I desired,. sat down to drink their kava,