MBMm^Mm v : : ^ '-"'" ' ' ; ^jPHPl ' :;[*:':;."
THE AGE OF
AN ATTEMPT AT A CONNECTED ACCOUNT OF THE
HISTORY OF WALES FROM DECEMBER, 1135, TO
To ivhich are added several Appendices on the
Chronology, &C., of the period.
PAUL BARRIER FILS. (EMIL DDU o LYDAW)
Professor of Romance Philology, The University, Leeds.
LONDON : DAVID NUTT, Long Acre, W.C.
NEWPORT, MON. : JOHN E. SOUTHALL, 149 Dock Street.
H * I '
TO MY FATHER,
PROFESSOR PAUL BARBIER
UNIVERSITY OF WALES.
MHE Xllth Century must always have a peculiar interest
for the Welshman who studies the history of his country.
It is the time when the struggle is keenest and most dramatic
between the centralising forces of the Anglo-Norman monarchy
and the Celtic tribal organisation, between the ecclesiastical
ideals of the Celtic Church such as they appealed to Sulien,
and those of the Roman Church such as they were conceived
by Hildebrand. It is the time when the Literature of Wales
revives and many of her great writers flourish ; the time
too when Celtic folklore penetrates into the literature of the
The greatest Welsh figure of the middle of the Xllth
Century is certainly Owain Gwynedd ; he and he alone, can
form a central figure for the history of the time. From the
death of Henry ist in 1135 to the final overthrow of Welsh
independence by Edward ist, the three great national leaders
are Owain Gwynedd, Rhys ap Gruffudd and Llywelyn Fawr.
The present book aims at giving a connected and chrono-
logically ordered account of the history of Wales during the
years that Owain ruled in Gwynedd and exercised his
influence over the destinies of the whole country. (1135
It is published exactly as it was written, eleven years ago,
for the Newport National Eisteddfod.
An ideal history of Wales is at present an impossibility.
Up to the present no particular period has found its historian ;
it is no doubt at present difficult to find men who are
competent to deal with all the sources. Still, it is only when
monographs on each particular period will have cleared the
way, that a complete history of the country will be justified.
PAUL BARRIER FILS.
Page 18. Note 5 'Brut y Saerson ' read ' Saeson.'
26. Title of Chapter II. 'from 1135 to 1147' read 'from
1135 to 1143.'
35. Note 3 ' Randulf ' read ' Ranulf.'
,, 44. Line 23 'Innocent III' read 'Innocent II.'
,, 47. Last line' Caedfan ' read ' Cadfan.'
,, 90. Line 10 ' Merionydd ' read ' Meirionydd.'
1 08. Note 4- 'the First ' read ' the Second.'
,, 1 1 6. Line 13 ' Faclain ' read ' Faelain.'
THE AGE OF
MILITARY AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALES FROM 1135 TO 1143.
Death of Henry I. Revolt of the Welsh War in the Vale of Llwchvvr and in Gwyr
Richard of Clare killed in Gwent Defeat and death of Gwenllian, wife of Gruffudd
ap Rhys, at Cydweli Alliance between Gruffudd ap Cynan and Gruffudd at Rhys
First invasion of Ceredigion Second invasion of Ceredigion Battle of Crug-mawr
Affairs in the Southern marches Stephen sends into Wales an army which is forced
to retreat Siege of Llanstephan Power of Gruffudd ap Rhys Eisteddfod held in
South Wales TheCantrefoi Rhos ravaged by Gruffudd ap Rhys Imposition of
tribute on the Flemings Death of Gruffudd ap Rhys Anarawd ap Gruffudd His
relations with St. David's Invasion of Wales by Baldwin de Clare- -Robert of
Ewyas unsuccessfully wars against the Welsh Pain Fitz John killed Stephen
leaves the Welsh to themselves Third invasion of Ceredigion by Owain Gwynedd
Conquest of the Clare lands Death of Gruffudd ap Cynan Owain Gwynedd, his
successor- Treaty with the Dublin Princes Truce of 1138 with the Normans
Sack of St. Dogmael's by the Dublin pirates War in the Welsh marches
Combination against Stephen Gilbert de Clare made Earl of Pembroke Capture
of Hereford and Weobley by Stephen He ravages the lands of Gloucester and
Paganel He takes Shrewsbury from Fitzalan Battle of Northallerton Capture of
Ludlovv by Stephen in May, 1 1 39 - Organised activity of the nobles against
Stephen Misery in the Welsh marches -The Welsh used as mercenaries Battle
of Lincoln, 1141 Petty Warfare in Central Wales Death of Howel ap Maredudd
of Brycheiniog, and of Madog ab Idnerth Power of Miles Fitz Walter in the Welsh
marches His alliance with Robert of Gloucester His conflict with Bishop Gilbert
of Hereferd His death.
IT ENRY THE FIRST, King of England, died on Sunday
A A the First of December 1135, in the evening. He
was one of the most formidable enemies that the Welsh
ever had to contend with. He never vacillated in the
policy which he had laid down for himself in his dealings
with them, taking every advantage offered by the incessant
quarrels of the native princes, and giving every encourage-
2 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
ment to the encroachments of his own Norman vassals.
By appointing Norman nominees to the Welsh sees, and
demanding the oath of obedience to the Archbishop of
Canterbury as metropolitan, he took the first step in the
task of assimilating the Welsh church to the English,
which his successors wrought out. He adopted the system
of plantation of foreign colonists on Welsh soil, which was
pursued centuries later towards Ireland by the English
sovereigns. He knew that a race is a race indeed, only as
long as its idiom is distinct from that of its neighbours ;
that it can no longer hope for separate existence once its
own speech is lost ; and by gradual means he purposed to
extirpate a language which had survived three conquests.
Henry was the last of the Norman French rulers.
1 There is a story that on the night when he breathed his
last, two lakes in Elfael suddenly burst the barriers which
nature and human labour had together striven to oppose
to the ravages of the waters. The revolt, which, in Wales,
followed his death and the removal of his grasp on the
control of affairs, was no less sudden, no less terrible.
2 The fierce Welsh lord of Brycheiniog, Howel ap
Maredudd, dashed down like a beast of prey into the
plains that stretch from the Llwchwr to the Tawe, and
ravaged them so fiercely that sixty years later, his passage
was memorable even in that fierce land of tribal war and
rapine. 3 The new year had barely dawned when the rock-
bound peninsula of Gwyr became the scene of carnage ; it
i. GiraMus Camb , Itin. Kamb , Rolls Ser., vi 19.
. Gir. Camb., Itin. Kamb , Rolls Ser , vi. 78.
3. Flor. Wigorn. ad. ann. 1135; Gesta Stephani, ed. Bohn, p. 330. Both authorities give the
number of killed as 516 ; but Florence says that men were killed on both sides ; whereas
the account in the Gesta suggests that the 516 slain were all Norman knights and
CHAP. i.J THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 3
is on record that five hundred and sixteen men were killed
in conflict, and that after the battle, the bodies, wildly
scattered over the field, were devoured by wolves.
Throughout Wales princes and people rushed with savage
joy to fight and plunder the Norman foe ; his castles were
burnt, his towns laid low, his adherents slain or sold into
slavery. " Eight years before, Gruffudd ap Rhys, accused
before Henry by the Norman nobles of South Wales, had
been deprived of most of his lands ; and the heir of Rhys
ap Tewdwr was now possessed of the single cwmwd of
Caeo in Cantref Mawr. But to the Welsh he was still the
lawful heir to the government of Deheubarth ; and it was
evident that the present outbreak, if made to suit his
purpose, was a favourable occasion for the recovery of
some of the old authority of his house; therefore, leaving
his wife and sons in the woody district of Ystrad Tywi,
Gruffudd hastened north to Gwynedd to seek alliance and
aid from his father-in-law, Gruffudd ap Cynan.
But rapid was the march of events. The Norman
nobles were not the men to give up tamely, and at the first
sign of danger, the lands they had acquired, and many
hurried to Wales to defend them. Richard was the head
of the great house of Clare, whose Welsh lands, acquired
during the preceding reign, extended from the Wye to the
Irish sea; and the son of 3 Gilbert Fitz Richard to whom
Henry I. had given Ceredigion, had, perhaps, more
than any other to lose by the success of the Welsh
rebellion. 4 He crossed from England into Wales, near
Abergafeni. Brian of Wallingford, then lord of the castle,
1. In 1127 (See Brut. Tywysog. ad. ann. 1124). See Gir. Camb. vi. 34.
2. Gir. Camb. vi. 19. 3. In mo (See Br. Tyw ad. ann. 12107")
4. Gir. Camb. vi. 47, 48, 118.
4 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
with many knights, accompanied him to the outskirts of
Coed Gronwy ; but further, Richard, rendered blind by
arrogance or perhaps ignorant of the fury of the national
revolt, refused his escort, and in spite of the warnings of
his friends entered the rocky defile unarmed with his men ;
having at his side in his reckless confidence, to while away
the hours of the road, one who alternately played on the
strings of his lute, and with his voice awoke the echoes
around by singing some old time ditty. The end was not
long in coming ; lorwerth ab Owain with his household
troops and those of his brother, Morgan of Caerlleon,
ambushed in the woods, rushed out upon Richard and slew
him and many of his men, and stripping them, bore off"
their bloody booty.
Richard of Clare was a man, like the rest of his house,
of marked magnificence, proud of his race, haughty towards
those whom he considered his inferiors, but noble withal
and amiable to his friends. T His death took place on the
1 5th of April, 1 136. 2 It left the Normans of South Wales
without their natural leader, but many of their nobles were
men of energy, capable of defending their own single-
handed ; and among them * Maurice de Londres, who had
but lately suceeded his father, William, as lord of Cydweli
and Ogmore, alike by the vigour and the violence of his
character, seems to have specially drawn upon himself the
resentment of the Welsh. 4 Aroused by some action of the
Norman, or of her own accord taking the offensive,
Gwenllian, the wife of Gruffudd ap Rhys, and a woman of
i. See Flor. Wigorn. ad. ann. 1136; B. Tyw ad. ann 1135 = 1136; Ann. Camb ad. ann, 1136.
3. Gir Camb. vi 118.
3. Probably before 1126, as in that year he witnessed the Concordia inter. Urb. episc et Rob.
cons. Glouc. in Liber Landavensis.
4. Gir. Camb vi 78, 79.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 5
spirit, in the absence of her husband, took the command of
his household troops, and accompanied by her two sons,
Morgan and Maelgwn, marched on Cydweli ; from his
rocky stronghold Maurice, with the constable Geoffrey,
sallied forth to meet her army, and defeated her with great
slaughter ; of her sons, Morgan was killed, and Maelgwn
captured ; she herself fell into the hands of her foes and
her head was cut off, and many other prisoners suffered the
same fate at the hands of the brutal victor.
But not in vain had Gruffudd ap Rhys journeyed to
Gwynedd. ' Gruffudd ap Cynan seems, towards the close
of his life, to have lost the use of his eyesight. He was
now very old and incapable of taking part in any campaign.
Sixty years had come and gone since, a young and vigorous
prince, he had fought Trahaiarn at Bron yr Erw ; and as
he felt the strength of spirit which had sustained him in his
early career, fall away from him, he must have handed over
to his two surviving sons, Owain and Cadwaladr, the
direction of foreign policy and war. Certain it is that
these two princes were only too eager for the fray. 2 They
gathered a strong force and marched into Ceredigion ; the
castle of Walter de Bee was laid low ; that of the Clares at
Aberystwyth, where Gruffudd ap Rhys had once suffered
defeat, was taken and burnt to the ground. No leader
could the Normans find ; the Welsh on the other hand,
received accessions of strength at every success. The
fierce Howel ap Maredudd, of Brycheiniog, with Rhys and
Maredudd, his sons, and Madog ab Idnerth, lord of Elfael
and Maelienydd, joined the northern princes. Together
they destroyed the castle of Richard de la Mare ; and
i. Hanes Gr. ap. C. (Myf. Arch. p. 734.)
3. For the ist Inv. of Ceredigion see Brut. Tyw. and Ann. Camb. (Rolls Ser.)
6 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
burnt Dineirth and Caerwedros. After these successes each
prince returned to his land.
1 But the fierce warfare of the year was not yet over.
Owain and Cadwaladr, having gathered together a force
of six thousand infantry and over two thousand cavalry,
marched a second time into Ceredigion, at the beginning
of autumn. Gruffudd ap Rhys from Ystrad Tywi, Howel
ap Maredudd from Brycheiniog, with his two sons, Rhys
and Maredudd, and Madog ab Idnerth from the land
between Wye and Severn, hurried once more to their
assistance. The concentration of so formidable an army
compelled the Normans to exert every nerve to meet their
aggressors. Stephen, constable of Cardigan, Robert Fitz
Martin, the sons of Gerald, steward of Pembroke, and
every noble of South West Wales who had something to
lose by the success of the Welsh, gathered together at
Aberteifi a large force of Normans, and with them came
the Flemings of the Cantref of Rhos. Some say that only
three thousand of Normans were put together, but it is
probable that their array was far more numerous. In the
second week of October the two armies met at Crug Mawr
near Aberteifi ; the Welsh commenced by harassing the
Normans with flights of arrows ; and then, in three bodies,
charged across the field upon them. After a bloody battle
the Normans and Flemings fled from the field. 2 According
to one account they lost three thousand men ; another
states that over ten thousand perished. Some were killed
in conflict ; some fled to the castles and the neighbouring
churches and were burnt to death within them ; the greater
T. For the and Inv. of Carcdigion see 13, T. and AC. (Rolls Ser ) ad ami. 1136; also Gesta
Stephani; CotH. Flor. Wig., ad. ann 1130; and Gir. Camb. vi. 118.
2 For these discrepancies and the numbers quoted see authorities mentioned.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 7
part were drowned. The bridge over the Teifi broke down
under the weight of the men and horses fleeing, but the
victorious Welsh were enabled to cross the river by another
made of the corpses of their foes. ' The glory of this great
victory was by some attributed to the princes of Gwynedd,
by others to Gruffudd ap Rhys. It was the severest blow
the Norman power had yet received in Wales. Owain
and Cadwaladr, loaded with the spoils of victory, the costly
garments and arms of the Norman knights, and with an
immense number of prisoners destined, the wealthy to be
ransomed, the poorer to be sold in the Irish slave market,
returned once again in triumph to their land of Gwynedd.
It is not to be supposed that King Stephen made no
effort to stem the tide of Welsh rebellion in this year.
Upon the death of his uncle he found that in the Welsh
marches two nobles ruled supreme. Miles of Gloucester
had in 1121 been given the hand of Sibyl, daughter of
Bernard de Neufmarche, the conqueror of Brycheiniog,
with the reversion of her father's possessions. 2 In 1 129 he
succeeded his father Walter, and henceforward was sheriff
of Gloucester and Stafford. 3 Pain Fitz John was at
Stephen's accession sheriff of Shropshire and Hereford, and
in Wales Lord of the cwmwd of Ewyas. 4 To these two
men Henry I. seems to have entrusted the chief conduct of
his Welsh affairs ; 5 and one chronicler tells us that they
ruled the land from Severn to the sea. They seem to have
worked hand in hand together for several years ; and the
union was cemented by a marriage. Roger, Miles' eldest
1. See the Brut. Tyw. and Gir. Camb vi. ir8.
2. Rot. Pip. 31 H. i. 3. Gesta Steph. p. 334 ; Gir. Camb. vi. 34.
4. Gir. Camb. vi. 34 35. 5. Gesta Stephani, ed. Bohn., p. 334.
8 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
son, became the husband of Cicely, Pain's only daughter
and heiress. Miles and Pain first held aloof from Stephen ;
but the latter set to work to win them over to his side, and
early in 1136 they came together to meet him at Reading,
and did him homage.
1 This first obstacle being overcome, Stephen, at much
expense, raised a considerable force of horse and foot, and
despatched it against the insurgents. They fought bravely
against the Welsh, but many were slain ; the rest retreated,
panic-stricken at the success and savage harrying of the
2 The King was once more forced to turn his attention
to Welsh affairs by the news of the decisive defeat of the
Normans near Aberteifi, and of the siege sustained by
3 Adelise, sister of Ranulf, of Chester, and widow of Richard
Fitz Gilbert de Clare, against the Welsh in one of her late
husband's castles. 4 From the Gwentian Chronicle, we may
hesitatingly infer this castle to have been in the cwmwd of
Mabudrud ; and since it is spoken of as a place of great
strength by the author of the Acts of Stephen, it was
probably Llanstephan. Miles Fitz Walter was ordered by
the King to relieve the beleaguered castle and its lady,
whom her Norman neighbours were now unable to assist.
Through the centre of the revolted country, by gloomy
forest and hill, probably crossing the difficult country which
lay between his own lordship of Brycheiniog and woody
Ystrad Tywi, he picked his way down the valley and
accomplished his object ; and with Adelise, in safety
returned to his own lands.
i. Gesta St. p. 330. 2. Gesta Steph. p. 330332.
3. Christiana ace. to Clark, Land of Morgan, p. 82, in a charter of Bury Abbey.
4. In Myv. Arch., ad. ann. 1138, where there is a very mixed account of the Battle of Lincoln, and
Gilbert de Clare is confounded with his brother Richard.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 9
The advantages conferred on Gruffudd ap Rhys by the
victory near Aberteifi were lasting. It very much weakened
the aggressive power of the Normans in Wales for several
years. ' So much did he feel his newly won security that,
if we are to believe a rather untrustworthy authority, he
held a Great Eisteddfod which lasted forty days, and to it
came men from every part of Wales and the Marches to
compete for the prizes awarded for the best bardic, musical
and learned compositions, and to enjoy the good cheer
provided by Gruffudd. The support given by the princes
of Wales to their national learning and art during the
twelfth century, when harassed by incessant warfare, is to
their high praise, and accounts for much of its excellence at
this period. If we are to believe a further statement of the
same Gwentian Chronicle, the aged Gruffudd ap Cynan and
his sons came from Gwynedd to witness the festival ; and
the result of a conference between the princes of North and
South Wales was the revision of the national law of the
Cymry, and the organisation of a more effective justice in
the land by the establishment of courts in every cantref,
and subordinate courts in the cwmwds.
2 The year 1 137 had but commenced when Gruffudd ap
Rhys resolved to take the offensive against the Flemings.
This hardy race were now masters of the Cantref of Rhos,
whence, in face of every danger, they carried on their
woollen trade by sea and land ; and they had grown rich by
thrift and labour. Equally fit and ready for the tilling of
land and the waging of war, they had been conspicuous for
the help they had given the Normans in the preceding
1. Gwent. Chron., Myv. Arch. ad. arm. 1135.
2. Ann. Camb., B.MS.; Ann. Marg. ; Cont. H. Wigorn ; Gir. Camb. vi. 834. See the whole of
Ch. xi. of It in. Kamb., " De Haverfordia et Ros ' in Gir. vi. 829.
io THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
year. Their great unpopularity among the Welsh was no
doubt largely due to the fact that wherever they settled, the
original inhabitants disappeared ; either withdrew of their
own will or were exterminated. The first attack of the
revolted Welsh had been upon the Fleming settlements in
Gwyr which they had savagely harried ; and Gruffudd
probably found no more enthusiastic support from his
subjects than when he marched into the Cantref of Rhos
with an army. He ravaged it with fire and sword, and
1 reduced the Flemings to the payment of a heavy tribute.
Gruffudd ap Rhys was a prince of no ordinary ability.
Left a child at the death of his father, he had spent the
years of his childhood in exile among strangers, and even
when by his valour he had forced some sort of recognition of
his rights, during the last eight years of Henry Beauclerc's
reign, a single cwmwd was considered sufficient for him
who was the heir of the overlord of Deheubarth. When
the hand of death had removed his lifelong enemy, the last
of the Norman kings, Gruffudd quickly recovered authority
in Dyfed, Ceredigion and Ystrad Ty wi ; 2 but hardly had
his satisfied ambition grasped the old authority of his
fathers, when the same hand was stretched forth to with-
draw him from the scene of his labours. He was in the
prime of life. 3 One chronicle ascribes his death to the
perfidy of a wife, but no such reason is elsewhere mentioned,
and we are forced to discard this as improbable.
He left four sons, named in the order of their birth,
Anarawd, Cadell, Maredudd and Rhys ; Maredudd was
i. He did not conquer them in the sense implied in Continuation of Florence of Worcester for we
find them at war with his son Cadell in 1146 [Brut, ad. ann. 1145 6].
a. Brut, ad. ann. 1136 = 7; Ann. Camb ; Ann. Marg.
3. Contn. of Flor. Wigorn.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GVVYNEDD. n
but seven, and Rhys certainly younger The eldest,
Anarawd, had just made himself very popular with the
clergy of St. David's and his subjects, by killing Litard
Littleking without the knowledge and against the will of
Gruffudd. This Litard, of whom we know nothing else,
must have incurred the enmity of the clergy, possibly by the
spoliation of the churches and lands of the see. During the
six years which followed GrufTudd's death, Anarawd suc-
ceeded to most of the authority, and consistently pursued
the policy of his father.
2 The year 1137 saw the last efforts which were
made by Stephen directly to stem the torrent of Welsh
revolt. Baldwin Fitz Gilbert de Clare was despatched
by him to carry relief to his dead brother Richard's
lands in Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi. With the large
sums placed at his disposal by the king, Baldwin hired a
body of horse and some five hundred stout archers, and
advanced into Central Wales as far as Aberhonddu Castle,
in the Usk valley. Here he halted, alarmed by the
intelligence that a large army had gathered to meet him,
and that the Welsh, to impede his further progress, had
blocked the roads with felled tree trunks. Vainly counting
on the failing of provisions and eventual disbanding of the
foe, he wasted his time until his own supplies falling short,
he was forced to retreat.
3 Robert Fitz Harold of Ewyas was also employed by
Stephen against the Welsh. 4 He was grandson of Earl
Ralph, who had met defeat and death in battle with
i. Ann. Camb. 13, Letardus Litelking Dei inimicus ct Sancti David,
z. See Gest. Steph., 332.
3. For Robert's warfare with the Welsh, see Gesta Steph, pp. 332 3.
4. Brut, ad. ann. 1054 5, p.p 423 ; See also Anglo-Sax. Chron. and Flor, Wigorn
12 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
Gruffudd ap Llywelyn more than eighty years before.
1 His father Harold was established as a Norman landowner
in South Brycheiniog, and is found on the list of benefactors
of St. Peter's at Gloucester. Robert himself seems to
have had ability, and met with more success than Baldwin.
He completely defeated the Welsh in a first encounter, and
strongly fortified and garrisoned a castle against them ; but
finding his own forces insufficient to cope with the numbers
of the enemy, he returned to England to bring reinforce-
ments. The Welsh acted promptly ; and before he could
return had forced his castle to surrender.
2 Pain Fitz John, too, excited to action by the ravages
of the Welsh in his own lands in Ewyas, had led an army
against them. This noble belonged to the class of jurists
who had risen to eminence in Henry's reign, and both he
and his ally, Miles, had made themselves notorious for
extortion. He and his forces defeated the Welsh ; but
Pain was, alone of his side, mortally wounded, an arrow
piercing his brain. The Chronicles speak of his wonderful
bodily strength. He was one of the numerous benefactors
of St. Peter's, Gloucester, and was buried in the chapter
3 Stephen, discouraged by these results, and relying
upon the outbreak of the internecine warfare which was an
almost necessary consequence of the Welsh law of gavel-
kind, adopted the plan of leaving the Welsh to themselves ;
and his own misfortunes, and the growing weakness of his
kingdom, to which the Welsh contributed no small part,
compelled him never to swerve from this feeble policy.
1. Cart. Sti. Petr. Glouc., i. 76.
2. Gest. Steph., 334; <
had been burn
3. Gest. Steph. 3323.
2. Gest. Steph., 334; Cont. Flor. Wigorn, ad. ann. 1137; Cart. S. Petr. Glouc. One of Pain's castle
had been burnt in 1134 by th Welsh, and the garrison put to the sword, Orderic. Vital, v. 43
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 13
While the attempts of the Normans were everywhere
baffled, the Welsh met with nothing but success. The
failure of Baldwin's mission left the Clare lands to shift for
themselves. T Owain and Cadwaladr a third time marched
into Ceredigion. 2 Ystrad Meurug, a strong castle situated
between the valleys of the Ystwyth and the Teifi, one of
the first erected by Gilbert Fitz Richard, was also the last
to fall. The Welsh burnt it to the ground. Thence Owain
and Cadwaladr went south to attack the Clare lands and
castles in Ystrad Tywi. They were joined by Anarawd ap
Gruffudd and his brother Cadell. and the two fortresses of
Caerfyrddin and Llanstephan were laid low. The power of
the great Norman house of Clare seemed destroyed. Of
Richard's brothers, neither Baldwin nor Gilbert succeeded
in keeping a hold on his vast Welsh domains ; and his two
sons were too young to take part in the conflict. For
eight years the name of their house disappears from the
3 When the princes, Owain and Cadwaladr, returned
from their great inroad into South Wales, their father was
dying. We cannot look without interest at that aged
prince who, during his long life, withstood the whole torrent
of the Norman conquest when the tide was at the full, and
not recognise, that it is probably largely due to the wisdom
he had acquired in his first wars and the pacific policy he
pursued during the last years of his life, that so much
vigour sprung from Gwynedd during the reign of his
successor, and that Wales during Stephen's time was
1. Brut, 1136 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. ; Cont. Flor. Wigorn.
2. Ystrad Meurug was alseady built in 1116. See Brut, 1113 = 6.
3. I have followed the order of events as they are given in the B.MS, used for the Rolls Edition of the
14 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
enabled to obtain another lease of her turbulent life. ' His
biographer is enthusiastic in his description of the good rule
of Gruffudd, and warmly describes the prosperity of the
land, the development of agriculture, and the numerous
churches that were built in his reign. 2 For Gruffudd was a
builder and benefactor of churches. To Dublin where he
had been reared in childhood, to Mynyw or St. David's
which claimed metropolitan authority over the Welsh
churches, to the monasteries of Chester and Shrewsbury, to
his own church of Bangor, to the great Celtic foundations
of Enlli and Celynog Fawr, to Caergybi and Penmon, to
Llanarmon and Dineirth, he sent before his death, donations
of money for the benefit of his soul.
The biographer gives us an account of the death-bed
scene. Bishop Dafydd, of Bangor, Archdeacon Simeon,
the prior of the Monastery of Chester to whom Gruffudd
seems to have been generous and many other Welsh
priests and scholars came to see his body anointed with the
consecrated oil ; among them moved the sons of Gruffudd.
Their father turned to them and blessed them, and with his
last words exhorted them to be brave and united against
the foemen. To his wife, Angharad, daughter of his old
enemy Owain ab Edwin, of Tegeingl, he left half his
personalty, two randir, and the harbour dues of Abermenai.
To his daughters and nephews he left wherewith to main-
tain themselves after his day was done. 3 He was eighty-two
years of age. They buried him near the great altar in
1. For much of what follows, see Hanes Gruffudd in Myv. Arch, pp. 733 4.
2. See Brut ad. 1136 7.
3. This is very probable. It is given by the Biographer. Gruffudd was defeated at Bron yr Erw
1075 [Brut, Rolls Ed. 1073], He could hardly have been born after 1055.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 15
1 Gruffudd was a true Cymric Celt. Round and ruddy
faced, with yellow hair, large eyes and full beard, in youth
he had been straight and strong-limbed ; with the hot
temper of his race ; their eloquence and skill in debate ;
their reckless bravery ; and if we are to believe the con-
current voice of history and tradition, their love of music
and poetry. 2 We are told that from Ireland he introduced
the pipe, which may have solaced the weary days of his
exile ; 3 and we know that the first of the Gogynfeirdd was
a bard at his court, and wrote an elegy on his death.
If Gruffudd ap Cynan was the hero of Welsh defensive
warfare, Owain was the hero of victory. The son he left
to succeed to the head rule in Gwynedd was worthy to
guide his nation. Had not the inherent weakness of the
Welsh system of hereditary succession prevented him from
uniting the whole race under his banner and leading the
Cymry in peace and war, the work which he did would
have had more scope and been more lasting.
4 Owain was now between forty and fifty years old. He
did not delay in putting himself to his work, the aim of his
life, the diminution of the Norman power in Wales. 5 Early
in 1138, having made an arrangement with the piratical
princes of Dublin whereby they were to furnish him with a
fleet of fifteen ships, Owain with his brother Cadwaladr
advanced once more to Aberteifi, which had been fixed as
the place of meeting. There he was joined by Anarawd
and Cadell, the two eldest of the sons of Gruffudd ap Rhys,
and by the fleet from Ireland. But nothing was done, and
i. See Hanes Gruff, in Myv. Arch., p. 728. 2. Stephens, Literature of the Kymry, pp. 55 69
3. Meilir's elegy in Myv. Arch., pp. 140, 141.
4. He is first referred to in Brut, ad. 1111 = 4, i n connection with Henry the First's campaign.
5 Ann. Camb. an 1138 in MS. C,
16 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
a treaty of truce was concluded with the Normans to last
till the iith of November. This, however, probably
displeased O wain's Irish allies. They determined not to
withdraw without some plunder.
Beyond the Teifi lay the Cantref of Cemmaes, of which
Robert Fitz Martin was Lord Marcher. His father, Martin
de Turribus, had conquered the district, and at his death
Robert became one of the greater Norman nobles of South
Wales. In 1 126 he had been one of the witnesses to the
Charter of Agreement between the Lord of Glamorgan and
the Bishop of Llandaff; and about the same time had
founded the only establishment of the Tironian Benedictines
in Wales, at St. Dogmael's or Llandydoch, which was the
chief seat of his influence. ' We have contemporary
evidence of the vigour of the new institution, and it is
probable that with the Welsh it must have excited much
distrust from its increasing wealth. It was situated favour-
ably for a coup-de-main near the estuary of the Teifi ; and
the pirates seem to have been unable to withstand so great
a temptation. In spite of truce, village and church alike
they sacked, and bore off to their ships a very large booty
Owain and Cadwaladr returned to Gwynedd.
Late in the spring of this year war began in the Welsh
Marches. The reason of the hostility to Stephen which
the Welsh seem to have shown throughout the reign, was
due, partly to the identification of that prince in the Welsh
mind with the Norman monarchy which had been so
formidable under the two Williams and Henry, and partly
to the fact that the great nobles who owned Welsh land
i. See in Arch. Camb. Fifth Series, Vol. vii., pp. 205 8, Canon Sevan's Extracts from the Statute Book
of St. David's Cathedral, concerning the appropriation of the land and the church of St. Mary
of Ccmaes and the Abbey of St. Dogmael's ; temp. Bernardi,
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 17
were the chief opponents of the crown, and had Welsh
mercenaries or auxiliaries in the war. On the one hand, it
was clear, that more the king became powerful, the more
chance there was of vigorous and united action on the
Norman side, and the more danger to Welsh independence.
On the other and the Welsh princes knew it well the
most energetic enemies of the king's increasing power
were the great marcher nobles, who feared for their
immense influence and the unusual privileges they enjoyed
in their Welsh lands. Robert of Gloucester, the great
enemy of Stephen, who, by the right of his wife was Lord
of Glamorgan, was a bastard of Henry's ; he had inherited
the ability and vast energy of his father and grandfather,
more than his grandfather's tact in government, more than
his father's tastes for literary pursuits. ' The popularity
which Stephen had acquired at first by his sympathetic
character, and a lavish expenditure of his uncle's hoarded
treasures, had forced Robert to recognise him as King at
Easter, 1136, but only on condition that his own rights and
estates were guaranteed, and no doubt provisionally, await-
ing a more favourable time for opposition. Miles Fitz
Walter and Pain Fitz John had followed the same course ;
Ranulf of Chester, an ambitious and unscrupulous man
who played with any party to gain his own ends, also
But these provisional successes were soon to be counter-
acted by greater mischances. No race has shown itself
more prone to treason than the Normans ; and when after
crushing the first attempts at rebellion in 1136, Stephen,
departing from the policy of his predecessors, spared the
i. Wm. of Malmesbury, ii. 541 ; Gesta Steph p. 329.
1 8 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
conquered, treason became rife against him. He had
prodigally thrown away the treasure he had acquired, ' and
in May, 1138, while spending Rogation tide at Gloucester,
he heard that Geoffrey Talbot had fortified Hereford Castle
against him, and that a new revolt had broken out.
2 Morgan ab Owain, of Caerlleon, was to hold Usk ;
William de Moun, Dunster, in Somerset. The castles of
the younger Peveril, 3 Whittington, Bryn, Overtoil, Elles-
mere, were clustered together in North Shropshire and the
Flintshire Cantref of Maelawr. The insurgents relied upon
the help of the invading Scots.
Stephen at first showed vigour in coping with his
difficulties. 4 Gilbert Fitz Gilbert had succeeded his brother
Richard as chief of the house of Clare. From his uncle
5 Robert he had acquired estates in Normandy, and the
death of Walter, another uncle, lord of Nether Gwent and
founder of Tintern, made him powerful in that district. To
conciliate him and bring over his great influence to his
side, the King created him Earl of Pembroke, and des-
patched him to oppose his enemies in the North. 6 He
himself marched on Hereford and remained before it four
weeks, during which time the town below the Wye bridge
was burnt. At last he forced the castle to surrender. He
spared its garrison. Pursuing Talbot, he took Weobley.
Having manned these two castles, the King withdrew.
But hardly had he left when Talbot, re-appearing, burnt all
1. Cent. Fl. Wigorn.
2. This is what I gather from the " Morgan Gunlus Ucham tenuit" of Ord. Vit v. no.
3. In Ord. Vital, v. in. they .ippear as : Brunam, Elesmaram, Obretotiam et Guitentonam. See note 2 ;
Forester suggested Overtoil (Rutland), and Geddinglon (Northampton). These suggestions are
wrong ; the Overtoil referred to is evidently Overtoil in the Cantref of Maelawr.
4. Ord. Vit. v. 112.
5. In 1136 Robert died. See lit. de Monte ; Walter possibly in 1139. See Brut y Saerson ad. ami. tT38
in Myv. Arch. p. 676.
6. Ord. Vit. v. no 4; Cont. Fl. Wijjorn, ad. ann. 113^.
CHAP. i.J THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 19
the city beyond Wye, and then fled to Bristol, held by
William, son of Robert of Gloucester, who had now
renounced his allegiance. This outrage revealed the King's
weakness. Things went worse. A powerful Shropshire
noble, William Fitz Alan, who had married Gloucester's
niece, joined the rebels ; Paganel followed suit ; and the
castles of Shrewsbury and Ludlow in the Welsh Marches
were closed against the King.
Stephen seems to have been aroused by these news,
and to have resolved on stringent measures. He ravaged
in succession the lands of Gloucester and those of Paganel,
and then marched against Fitz Alan. The latter did not
dare to remain himself, but left Shrewsbury strongly
garrisoned. Nothing availed. The town was taken by
storm in August, and Fitz Alan's uncle, Arnoul de Hesdin,
hanged, and the whole garrison put to the sword. The
news of this unwonted severity struck terror into the hearts
of many, and Paganel, among others, fearing for his Castle
of Ludlow, hastened to make peace with the King.
Fortune again smiled on Stephen. The invading army of
the Scotch, from whom his enemies had hoped much, was
broken on the 22nd of August on the Yorkshire plains at
A little peace, that was no peace, followed. At Christ-
mas Stephen took Slede. And after a march to Scotland,
he returned to take Ludlow in May. He was always at
his best when fighting, but he failed dismally at everything
else. By an insane political blunder he now threw the
whole weight of the Church into the scale against him.
His enemies no longer hesitated. In August, 1139,
Matilda and Robert came over to Portsmouth, Hence
20 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP, i
Robert hastened to Bristol, where his son William and the
chief seat of his influence were, there to concert with Miles
Fitz Walter, Brian Fitz Count, and his other allies, the plan
of campaign. Matilda, at first besieged by Stephen in
Arundel, was by him foolishly allowed by treaty to join her
brother at Bristol.
Then followed a truly miserable time. The Welsh
Marches suffered more than can be told. Wales and the
West had declared for Matilda, and on them she relied.
' Robert of Gloucester constantly employed Welsh mer-
cenary troops ; more than ten thousand, one writer tells us,
were scattered through England, where, careless alike of
human life and reverence for consecrated places, they
plundered and burnt and slew, mindful, perhaps, of other
days when their father's blood had called for vengeance
on the Saxon, and their own holy houses been wantonly
profaned by the Teuton foe. The year 1140 was spent
in endless, hopeless fighting, without any clear gain to
2 But a change came. It did not close before Ranulf of
Chester, and his half brother, William of Roumare, had
surprised and taken Lincoln by strategem. Ever vigorous
in action, Stephen rushed northwards, and immediately
after Christmas blockaded his foes, with their wives, in
their new town. A bold blow was necessary to avoid the
resentment of the King. Ranulf escaped by night with a
few men from the beleaguered city, and sending word to his
father-in-law, Gloucester, to come to his assistance, hastened
to his own Cheshire, where he quickly gathered together
1. Ord. Vit. v. 112 : " Gualis ad auxilium sui ascitis " sq. ; Wm. of Malm. ii. 557.
2. Ord. Vit. v. 124 6 ; W-n. of Malmesbury, ii. 369 70.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 21
a large force of his subjects, of men disaffected with
Stephen's rule, of Welshmen from Powys and Gwynedd.
Robert of Gloucester, with the forces he could muster,
joined him, and they hurried to the relief of Lincoln.
'On the 2nd February, 1141, the armies met. Ranulf
of Chester led the van, and Robert of Gloucester the rear ;
on the flank were the Welsh, badly armed for a war outside
their own land of hill and forest, but formidable from their
numbers and their wild valour, with two brothers, 2 Mare-
dudd and Cadwaladr at their head. The battle was fierce.
But treachery, as usual, told against Stephen. His
Flemings and Bretons were the first to flee ; and at this
sign of defeat Gilbert de Clare left the field. But the King
himself fought like a King, wielding his double-edged axe
of battle, one against all, until the axe, unable to do its
work, broke in his hands ; then fronting his foes with his
sword, until that too, splitting, left him unarmed, and he
was made a captive. Baldwin de Clare, who had addressed
the King's host before battle, and had fought on with him
to the end, also fell into the enemies' hands. Stephen was
incarcerated in Bristol.
3 The terrified citizens fled at the news of the King's
defeat, and more of them perished drowned in the river
than had been killed of soldiers in the field. They left
their wives and their town of Lincoln, a prey to the troops
of Chester ; and the Welsh, in their fury of race, took
1. For the account of the Battle of Lincoln see: Ord. Vit. v. 126 9; Anglo Saxon Ckron. t ad. 1140;
Cont. of Flor. Wigorn, ad. 1141 ; R. de Monte ; Henry of Huntington ; William of Malmesbury,
ii. 571 2 ; Gesta Steph. pp. 3779.
2. " Mariadoth et Kaladrius" in Ord. Vit. v. 127. The fact that they are distinctly referred to as
brothers precludes the confusion of Kaladrius with Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd, who had no brother
called Maredudd. The only princes in Welsh history of the time to whom reference is possible
are Maredudd and Cadwallon, sons of Madog ab Idnerth.
3. Ord. Vit. v. 129.
22 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
pleasure in the slaughter of those who had been unwilling
or unable to flee.
While the Cymry were carrying far into England their
arms and their valour, events were happening nearer home
which had plunged large tracts of Central Wales into the
most deplorable petty warfare. Powys, under the chieftain-
ship of Maredudd ap Bleddyn, had shown more resistance
to the Normans than any other part of the country, and
against that district Henry I. had twice led his Welsh
expeditions. 'But the death of Maredudd in 1132, and
more than that, the steadily growing power of Gwynedd
under O wain and Cad waladr, tended much to the diminution
of Powysian influence, and to the growth of enmity between
the two regions.
2 Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, had died four years before
his father. It is probable that of his other sons, Madog
and Howel succeeded to most of his power, and we have
reason to believe that Howel commanded the troops of
Powys when 3 Cynfrig, son of Owain, was killed in 1140,
and the breach between Powys and Gwynedd widened.
4 But in 1142 Howel was slain, and Madog practically ruled
alone for the next eighteen years.
Meanwhile Howel ap Maredudd, of Brycheiniog, died,
and in 1140 s his son Maredudd was slain by the men of
Powys, so that his other son, Rhys, was his successor.
6 This Prince was soon engaged in war with Howel ap
Maredudd ap Rhydderch, lord of Cantref Bychan, and in
1141 he slew him with his own hand.
j. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 1129=1132. 2. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 1125-8.
3. Ann. Camb., C.MS. 4. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 1141 = 2.
5. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 1139 = 40. 6. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 11401.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 23
In the same year, 1140, not only Howel and his son
Maredudd, but another Prince, who had fought the good
fight for the independence of his country and lived to see
it consummated, viz : ' Madog, son of Idnerth, lord of
Wales between Wye and Severn, died. His death was
the signal for an outbreak of fearful anarchy. 2 Maelienydd,
Elfael, and Gwerthrynion became infamous for the policy
of blinding and castrating cousins which had been chiefly
confined to Powys during Henry the First's reign.
? Madog's own sons fell out at once among themselves,
and two of them, Howel and Cadwgan, were killed in 1 142.
Meanwhile, the personal power of Miles Fitz Walter in
the Welsh Marches had been increasing steadily. In 1139,
Matilda had given him St. Briavel's Castle and the Forest
of Dean ; and by a grant of the 25th of July, 1 141, as a
recompense for his faithful services in her cause, 4 he had
obtained from her the earldom of the shire. For Matilda
was then at the height of her triumph. But before the
end of September her brother Robert fell into the hands
of the enemy and 5 then was exchanged for Stephen. This
caused a renewal of the hopeless warfare of the two years
which had preceded the fight at Lincoln, and, though both
parties were exhausted, the fate of war turned more and
more against Matilda. Miles, however, was her constant
friend, 6 and there is singular unanimity in the chronicles
i. Ann. Camb. ; Brut. ad. 1139 = 40. 2. Gir. Camb. vi. 19.
3. Brut ad. 11412; the Ann. Chmb. C.M.S. adds "machinante Elya de se,' which is unintelligible
Elya is possibly a mistake for Enea, which would suggest that these two princes perished by
the machinations of their brother Einion Clud. As usual the compiler of the Gwentian Chron.
seems to have misunderstood his authorities, or to have added from the mere love of adding.
He says : " Ac y bu ymryson rwng Hywel a Chadwgawn, meibion Madawc ab Idnerth, ac
y lladdasant y naill y Hall."
4. Rymer's Foedera, Syllabus i. 4 ; Gir. Camb., Op. vi. 29.
j. Will. Malm. ii. 583 ; lien. Hunt. 6. Gesta Steph., p. 370.
24 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. i.
of the period testifying to his fidelity to her cause. ' So
we find her in 1 142 giving him permission to hold of Brian
Fitz-Count the Castle of Abergafenni, which, forming a
connecting link between his possessions in Brycheiniog
and those in the Forest of Dean, remained in his family
until, after extinction of the male line, his daughter Bertha,
by marriage, brought it to De Braose. 2 To further
consolidate his power Miles, probably in the summer of the
same year, made a close alliance with Robert of Gloucester,
and gave him his youngest son Mahel as a hostage.
3 But in 1 143, being much in want of money to pay his
troops, he was forced to lay his exactions upon the churches
of the diocese of Hereford, and came into conflict with
Bishop Robert, who promised him excommunication if he
did not withdraw his demands. Miles, enraged at this
unusual display of energy, ravaged the Bishop's land.
The threatened sentence was formulated against him, and
his lordship placed under an interdict. Seeing that the
efforts of his kinsman Gilbert Foliot for appeal to the Pope
were unavailing, and fearing he had gone too far, Miles
came to terms with the Bishop, and promised indemnity
for the losses sustained by the churches of the diocese at
4 He was still engaged in legal proceedings with the
latter, when, hunting deer on Christmas eve, he was struck
by an arrow in the breast ; and the superstition of the time
1. Dy. of Lanes. Charters, No. 17 (Publ. Rec. Off.).
2. This alliance was renewed later by their sons, Earls Roger of Hereford and William of Gloucester
[Dy. of Lancaster Charters, Publ. Rec. Off.].
3. Gesta Steph., pp. 402 4.
4. Gerv. Cant. i. 126 ; Gesta Steph., p. 403 ; Ann Camb ; Brut, ad ann. 1142 = 3.
CHAP, i.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 25
saw in his fall the just judgment of God. ' A dispute arose
between Llanthony and Gloucester for- the possession of
his body ; and the bishops of Worcester, Hereford and
St. David's tried the case, and on the 28th of December,
gave judgment in favour of the former. 2 Miles left his
earldom and his immense influence in the Marches to the
eldest of his five sons, Roger, who had already by marriage
obtained the lands of Pain Fitz John. This young noble
was a brilliant soldier, and seems to have had much
ability ; he continued his father's policy, keeping to the
alliance with Gloucester and the party of Matilda ; but he
never forgot his father's excommunication, and was a
vigorous enemy of the Church till his death.
1. Miles had in 1136 transferred the original house of Austin canons at Llanthony, in Monmouthshire,
to a site on the south of Gloucester. This was henceforth known as Llanthonia Secunda.
[Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vi. (i) 127, 132] For a Xllth Century account of Llanthony, see Gir.
Camb. Op. vi. 3745.
2. Gerv. Cant., i. 126; Gesta Steph., p. 40.4.
26 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNED1). [CHAP. 2.
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF WALES FROM 1135 TO 1147.
Struggle for Independence of Welsh sees from the Norman Archbishop of Canterbury
Bernard of St. David's His conflicts with the Bishop of Llandaff His alienation
of Ecclesiastical Lands Claims the right of a metropolitan see for St. David's
Obtains support from the Welsh princes- -Election of Uchtryd, a Welshman, to the
see of Llandaff, 1139, and of Meurug, another Welshman, to the see at Bangor
Meurug swears fealty to the King Owain Gwynedd appeals to Bernard of
St. David's against him Conference at Aberdyfi, 1140 -Action of Bishop
Uchtryd with regard to Western monasteries holding land in Wales Conflict with
St. Peter's, Gloucester Conflict with Goldcliff, 1143 Conflict with Tewkesbury ;
arbitration by Robert of Gloucester Gilbert consecrated Bishop of St. Asaph, 1143.
OIDE by side with the struggle for political indepen-
dence, another was going on throughout Wales for
the liberation of four Welsh sees from the yoke of the
Norman Archbishop. Till the time of King Henry's
death, the vigorous Bernard of St. David's had been
chiefly engaged in continuous disputes with the Bishops of
Llandaff and Hereford for the spiritual jurisdiction of
certain debateable lands on the frontier of the three
dioceses ; but the war of independence and the national
success opened a new field to his activity.
1 Bernard was a man of learning. Accustomed to the
luxurious life of the court of the Norman, he was not
contented by the revenues of his see, 2 and to face his
expenses was compelled to alienate many of its lands,
1. Gir. Camb , Op. iii. 152 4.
2. Gir. Camb., iii. 154.
CHAP. 2.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDI). 27
notably the cantref of Pebidiog, which the generosity of
the princes of Deheubarth had bestowed on the Church.
1 He had applied himself with energy to assimilate the
clergy of St. David's to Roman ritual and discipline ; and
had established a body of canons but without a Dean, at
his Cathedral. 2 He had been the first bishop of Mynyw
who was not Welsh by race ; but the same motives of
ambition, which had urged him to accept the oath of
illegiance to Canterbury, when he obtained promotion to
the see, now influenced him to make an effort for the
delivery of his Church from a foreign servitude.
3 Giraldus deliberately states that Bernard did not
formulate the metropolitan claim of St. David's till twenty
years had elapsed from the time of his consecration. He
applied to Pope Innocent II. for the pallium, and we may
gather from Giraldus Cambrensis that the pontiff promised
to view the matter favourably, but put off his decision to
a future occasion. 4 Bernard turned to the Welsh princes
for support, and not only Anarawd ap Gruffudd, prince
of Deheubarth, but Owain and Cadwaladr of Gwynedd
gave him help in his efforts. 5 He also relied on the
Welsh clergy ; his own chapter was heart and soul with
with him ; and Archdeacon Simeon t>f Bangor seems to
have been on his side. 6 At any rate, Bernard interrupted
the prescriptive rights of Canterbury over St. David's, and
in his confidence caused the cross to be carried before him
in his episcopal journeys.
i. Gir. Camb., Op. iii. 153, 154, 184. 2. Brut, ad 1112=1115.
3. Gir. Carab., Op. iii., 49 ; 58. 4. Gir. Camb., Op. iii. 50.
5. Gir. Camb., Op. iii. 59, 60. 6. Gir. Camb., Op. iii. 109, 153, 155.
28 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 2.
1 Another triumph for the Welsh clergy was the filling
of the see of Landaff, which had been vacant six years.
2 Uchtryd, who had been Archdeacon at any rate as early
as 1 126, when he had taken part in the agreement between
the Bishop of Landaff and Earl Robert of Gloucester, had
probably governed the see in the meantime. 3 He was
looked upon with great disfavour by the stricter churchmen,
and was afterwards branded by Giraldus as a man of
scandalous life. As a matter of fact, he was a Celtic
bishop, uninfluenced by the dictates of the Roman Church
on the celibacy of the clergy, and had married. 4 His
daughter Angharad, by her union with lorwerth, brother of
Morgan ap Owain of Caerlleon, had allied him with the
great Welsh families of Gwent. Above all, he was a
vigorous defender of the rights of his see, and in 1 139 was
elected Urban's successor.
5 In the North, too, Dafydd had died, and the people
and clergy of the church of Bangor, chose as bishop a
pious clerk called Meurug. At the beginning of December,
1139, accompanied by Robert, Bishop of Hereford, and
Sigefrid, Bishop of Chichester, he presented himself before
King Stephen at Worcester to obtain confirmation of the
election. Alleging the authority of Simeon, the Arch-
deacon of Bangor, a man whose influence was great and
who seems to have been the head of the Anti- Norman
party in Church matters in Gwynedd, Meurug refused to
1. Urban died in 1134. See Hen. Hunt., Rolls. Ed. p. 253.
2. Concordia inter. Urb. et Rob. cons. Glouc. in Lib. Land.
3. Gir. Camb. , Op. iii. 53.
Howel ap lorwerth was his nephew. Brut, ad 1171, pp. 212 3
5. Cont., Fl. Wigorn ad ann. 11^9.
CHAP. 2] THE AGE OF OVVAIN GWYNEDD. 29
swear fealty to the king ; but he eventually did so, influ-
enced by the arguments of his brother Bishops, and
perhaps but too well pleased to show his independence of
the popular archdeacon.
T Meurug was consecrated with Uchtryd of Llandaff
early in 1140, by Archbishop Theobald, in the presence of
the Bishops of Hereford and Exeter. 2 Owain and Cad-
waladr, indignant that Meurug should have done fealty to
the King of England in spite of their wishes and have
obtained consecration from Canterbury, determined to
oppose him with vigour. To the energetic Bernard of
St. David's they appealed, complaining that Meurug had
entered the church of Bangor like a thief, and asking
Bernard to hold a conference with them to oppose Norman
ecclesiastical influence. It was proposed that Owain
and Cadwaladr should meet Anarawd ap Gruffudd and
Bernard at Aberdyfi, on the ist of November, 1140; but
we are left in utter ignorance as to what was said
and done at that conference, and we know nothing more
of Meurug's life.
In the South, Bishop Uchtryd had at once commenced
his war upon the Western monasteries which had con-
tinually been receiving grants of land in Wales from the
Norman lords of the country. This had caused endless
confusion ; Tewkesbury, Gloucester, and the others
claimed for their Welsh lands exemption from the juris-
diction of the Bishop of the Welsh diocese. The first to
attract Uchtryd's wrath was St. Peter's, Gloucester. Not
only in Gwent and Glamorgan, but as far west as Cere-
1. Cent. Fl. Wigorn, ad ann. 1140.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. iii. 59.
30 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 2.
digion had this monastery obtained a hold ; x for there
Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare had made to it donations of
land at Ystrad Meurug and Llanpadarn and in the valley
of the Clarach, in the early days of Bernard's episcopate.
2 In Glamorgan, Robert of Gloucester and his father-in-law,
Fitz Hamon had given land themselves at Cynffig and
Llancarfan ; their nobles imitated this example, and
Maurice de Londres and Gilbert de Turberville dis-
tinguished themselves by their generosity. 3 The former
founded Ewenny Priory as a cell of Gloucester, and in
1141, confirmed all his grants in Ogmore, Gwyr, and
Cydweli. Uchtryd's opposition to such grants roused
Gilbert Foliot, who had become two years before Abbot
of Gloucester through the influence of his kinsman Miles
Fitz Walter, and was not a man to allow tampering with
what he called his rights. He wrote to both Archbishop
Theobald of Canterbury and Bishop Henry of Winchester,
who was then legate of the Apostolic See, complaining that
churches were built in Llancarfan without his permission,
and begging the prelates to extend their protection over
De Londres' grants in Ogmore; 4 and letters are extant
from both Canterbury and Winchester to Uchtryd,
supporting Gilbert's claims.
5 In 1 143 Uchtryd was engaged in another quarrel with
the Priory of Goldcliff in Monmouthshire. Theobald
summoned the disputants before him, but Uchtryd was too
1. Cart. Monast. S. Pcir. Glouc. ii. 73-9. Between 1115, the year of Bernard's consecration, and
1117 that of Gilbert's death. -
2. Cart. Mon. S. Petr. Glouc. ii. 10, 14.
3. Hist. Sti. Petri. Glouc., i. 75.
4. Cart. Sti. Petri de Glouc. ii. 14
5. Epistles of Gilb. Foliot., xlvi., xlvii., xlviii. See in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, . 346 7
CHAP. 2]. THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 31
crafty to give up his case so easily, and alleging in suc-
cession the difficulties of the journey, the wiles of his foes,
his own age and growing infirmities, he succeeded in
forcing the Archbishop who went abroad before Christmas,
to put off at Foliot's suggestion, the hearing of the case
till his return in the following year.
1 In 1 145, Richard, the first abbot of Neath, died. 2 In
the next year Uchtryd's quarrel with the monastery of
Tewkesbury was brought to a close by the arbitration of
Earl Robert of Gloucester. It was agreed that in return
for the concession to the bishop of their whole tithe on
land between Taff and Ely, and two-thirds of their tithe
at Merthyr Mawr, Uchtryd would allow abbot Roger
and the Convent to hold all tenths and benefices legally
granted them. Meanwhile Uchtryd constantly maintained
his own rights to ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the diocese,
and in the same year (1146), 3 he settled in the episcopal
court a dispute between the monks of Bassaleg and Picot,
chaplain of St. Woollos at Newport.
St. David's, then, practically independent under Bishop
Bernard; at Llandaff, a Welsh bishop, holding the position
of a Lord Marcher, fighting constantly for the rights of his
see; and Bishop Meurug at Bangor probably reduced,
as Owain's power grew, to a nullity of influence even in
church matters ; such is the picture we have of the position
of the three sees.
The fourth Welsh bishopric had passed into inglorious
obscurity since the day of Asaph and Kentigern. In no
1. Ann. of Margam. in Ann. Monast. i. i,\.
2. Cotton MS., Cleop. A. vii. P. 686 ; N. Mon. ii. 67. Found in Clark : Cart, et Munim. de Glam. i. TO.
3. Cart. Monast. S. Petri Glouc. ii. 55.
32 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 2.
authoritative record do we find reference to it, and though
it is probable that as Gwynedd had Bangor, and Deheu-
barth, Mynyw, and Gwent and Glamorgan, an episcopal
seat at Llandaff, so Powys must have had its own see and
bishops ; yet it is not till the year 1 143 that we are clearly
convinced of its existence. ' Gilbert, who was consecrated
Bishop by Archbishop Theobald at Lambeth before
Bishops Robert of London and Ascelin of Rochester had
probably been elect of St. Asaph for several years ; his
Norman name, his profession of allegiance to Canterbury,
and the fact that Owain Gwynedd had been practically
master of St. Asaph and the country around since the
outbreak of revolt, make it probable that he never visited
i. See Gerv. Cant, i 126.
CHAP. 3.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 33
MILITARY AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALES FROM 1143 TO 1147.
Owain Gwynedd ; his policy of union with South Wales Anarawd of Gruffudd slain
by the troops of Cadwaladr of Gwynedd Cadwaladr driven by Owain to Ireland
Relations between Ireland and North Wales at this time Cadwaladr returns with
mercenaries from Ireland Reconciliation with Owain Defeat of the mercenaries
Anarchy in Central Wales Conquest of Maelienydd and Elfael by Hugh de
Mortimer Invasion of South Wales by Gilbert Strongbow He rebuilds
Caerfyrddin He is defeated at Aberteifi, 1145 Position of Nest's descendants in
Dyfed Gilbert builds a castle at Dinweileir It is taken by Cadell ap Gruffudd
Capture of Caerfyrddin and Llanstephan by the Welsh Death of Gilbert
Strongbow, 1 147 Treaty between Cadell ap Gruffudd and the Fitzgeralds They
attack the Flemings and take Castell Gwys War between Owain Gwynedd and
the Earl of Chester Ravaging of the Earl's lands Battle of Nantwich Capture
of Gwyddgrug by the Welsh War between Stephen and the Earls of Gloucester
and Hereford Decay of Matilda's Party Death of Robert of Gloucester, 1 147
Glamorgan in his lifetime His foundations.
OINCE their father's death Owain and Cadwaladr had
^ acted together in public affairs. Of great moderation
and perspicacity, Owain pursued throughout his life a policy
of union with the princes of Deheubarth. We have seen
that he worked hand in hand with his nephew Anarawd
both in political and ecclesiastical matters. He now pro-
posed to marry one of his daughters to the young prince,
but it appears that neither his brother Cadwaladr ' nor the
lady herself looked with favour on the match. 2 At any
rate, in 1143 Anarawd was treacherously slain by the
household troops of Cadwaladr. Owain took this ill and
dispatched his son Howel against the offender. Cadwaladr
had received a considerable portion of Ceredigion after its
i. The words : A mynnu Kadwaladr y vrawt a wnaeth, in the Brut, seem to suggest tha
marriage with Cadwaladr, her uncle. The compiler of the Gwentian Chroni'
perhaps at the suggestion, has given a different version.
lat she desired
t. Brut, ad 1143 = 3 ; Ann. Camb.
34 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 3.
conquest from the Normans, and this Howel invaded ; the
young man showed in this his first campaign his soldierly
qualities, for he rapidly conquered the country and burnt
his uncle's castle at Aberystwyth.
1 Cadwaladr, unable singlehanded to cope with Owain,
sent to Ireland for help. Gwynedd was more than any
other part of Wales in connection with the neighbouring
isle. There probably was the last stronghold of the
Goidelic Celts against the conquering Brythons ; 2 there
the Scandinavian pirates who had made Erin their home,
had carried on their fiercest ravages. 3 Cynan ab I ago had
married a Dane, daughter of Olaf of Dublin, and his son
GrufTudd was brought up in youth in his mother's home.
4 Howel himself was the son, according to the Gwentian
Chronicle, of Owain Gwynedd by an Irishwoman named
Pyfog. Not only Gruffudd ap Cynan, but Cadwgan ap
Bleddyn, Gruffudd ap Rhys and others had found a
safe shelter on the other side of the Channel in the
time of misfortune, and Gruffudd ap Cynan introduced
Irish customs at his courts and Irish music at his feasts.
The Irish slave market seems to have been the great outlet
for the captives made by the Welsh in war, and the Irish
piratical fleets, the great recourse of the Welsh princes after
defeat. These facts show the close intercourse between
Ireland and Gwynedd, more especially during the first part
of the twelfth Century.
Cadwaladr, then, found no difficulty in obtaining a fleet
from Dublin, commanded by a son of 5 Turcall, who was
probably a brother of Raghnall, the reigning King.
i. Brut. adii43 = 4; Ann. Camb. 2. Brut, ad 969, 970, 977, 979. 986, &c.
3. See Hanes Gruffudd in Myv. Arch. p. 722. 4. Gwentian Chron. ad 1169.
5. Turcall was still living in 1133 [Ann. Loch Ce ad ann.] His son Raghnall perished in battle in 1146.
[Chron. Scot, ad ann.]
CHAP. 3.] THE AGE OF OVVAIN GWYNEDD. 35
Othir, son of another Othir, and a son of Cherulf are
mentioned as taking- part in the expedition. With these
1 the Welsh prince landed at Abermenai. But before a
conflict could take place, a reconciliation was brought about
between the brothers by the noblemen of Gwynedd, and
Cadawaldr received his lands anew. 2 On hearing this, the
commanders of the Irish fleet refused to liberate him, until
two thousand bondmen were handed over to them as the
price of his ransom. Owain waited for his brother's
liberation before he took the offensive against the enemy.
He was victorious in the battle, many of them were slain,
many taken ; the rest hastily returned to Dublin.
While this was going on, the fearful anarchy consequent
on the death of Madog ab Idnerth and the wild quarrelling
of his sons, had given an opening to the Normans to
recover some of their old power in the land between
Glamorgan and Powys. Miles Fitzwalter had been the
ruling spirit in that region, and no doubt handed over a
suzerainty over Brycheiniog to his son Roger. His death
was the commencement of the disintegration of the
powerful party which had supported Matilda ; and from
that time onwards the Marcher Nobles turned once more
a closer attention to Wales. 3 In 1 144 Hugh, son of Ralph
de Mortimer, reconquered Maelienydd from the sons of
Madog, and as a means of keeping it, built the castle of
Gemaron. By the banks of Edw, a few miles from where
1. In 1144. See Brut, ad 1143 = 4; Ann. Camb. ad 1144.
2. Some MSS. of the Brut, say the pirates [called Germanwyr] blinded Cadwaladr. This is very
improbable, knowing what we do of his after life. It is probably due to a confusion by the
scribe of the words dellis and delis. Both the MSS. of the Ann. Camb. say tenuerunt.
3. See Brut, and Ann. Camb. The Gvventian Chron. wrongly ascribes the building of these castles to
Randulf of Chester. The castles are also wrongly named. Colunwy=Clun in Shropshire.
Rev. Thos. Price in his " Hanes Cymru," p. 546, attributes them to Hugh, Randulf of
Chester's son. This Hugh was a child in 1144, and probably still a minor at his father":
in Dec. 1153. By too great reliance on the aforesaid chronicle, The " Hanes Cymru " h
made utterly useless for this period.
36 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 3.
its waters mingle with the Wye, the castle of Colwyn was
built in Elfael, and that province also became subjected to
Norman rule. ' In the next year, 1 145, Hugh de Mortimer
defeated Rhys ap Howel and took him prisoner, with many
of his men, keeping him in close confinement for two years.
2 In 1 146 he killed Maredudd, a son of Madog ap Idnerth,
3 and in 1147 blinded Rhys ap Howel in his prison. After
the death of their brother, Caclwallon and Einion Clud, the
surviving sons of Madog, seem to have divided their
father's lands between them ; for we henceforword find the
name of Cadwallon and his sons connected with Maelienydd,
and that of Einion with Elfael.
While the house of Mortimer was commencing that
connection with Central Wales which was not to cease even
when the final subjection of the Country was brought about,
another noble family was making a similar effort to recover
lost ground in the South. Gilbert Strongbow, who had
received the title of Earl of Pembroke, and was a son of
4 Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare, had tired of a civil war,
which was alike without interest or profit, 5 and in 1145
appeared in South Wales to reconquer the lands lost after
the death of his brother Richard, some nine years before.
He invaded Cantref Mawr, recovered Caerfyrddin and
rebuilt its castle, and erected another at Llanstephan to
hold the cwmwd of Mabudrud ; and then marched west,
towards Ceredigion. From what we can gather of the
course of events, these successes must have startled Cadell,
who since Anarawd's death had become the chief prince of
i. Brut, ad 1144 = 5 ; Ann. Camb. 2. Brut, ad 1145 = 6 ; Ann. Camb. 3. Ann. Camb. ad 1148 = 7.
4. In 1146 Gilbert Fitz Gilbert attempted to obtain from the King some of the castles of his nephew,
Gilbert Fitz Richard, Earl of Clare, who was kept as a hostage for Randulf of Chester. For
these events, and also Gilbert's consequent revolt, see Gesta Stephani, pp. 4224.
5. Brut. 1 1 44 = 5 ; Ann. Camb.
CHAP. 3.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 37
Deheubarth, and assistance was asked from Gwynedd.
Owain's two sons, Howel and Cynan, hastened south to
help their kindsmen ; ' a great battle was fought with the
enemy at Aberteifi ; victory again crowned the efforts of
the Welsh princes. Howel and Cynan returned home with
Gilbert's cause was that of the Normans who still held
lands in Dyfed. 2 For whether they themselves by their
ability and valour kept their grasp over the country after
the great defeat of Crugmawr, or the Welsh recognized
their claims through a daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, it is
certain that the descendants of the famous Nest were still
masters of the seven old cantrefs of Dyfed. Her bastard
by King Henry held Arberth and the cantref of Pebidiog,
which he had possibly acquired by purchase from the
Bishop of St. David's ; William, the eldest of her sons by
Gerald, had suceeded the latter in Penfro ; of his own
brothers, the one David, had entered the Church, and
become canon of St. David's and archdeacon of Ceredigion,
the other, Maurice, was lord of Llanstephan. Robert,
Nest's son by the Constable Stephen, had succeeded his
father at Cardigan, and inherited the Cantref of Cemaes
from his uncle Robert Fitz Martin. Of those of her sons
whose paternity is less known, 3 William Fitz Hay had
St. Clare, Walter and Howel two small lordships at
Llanbedr and Felffre. Both her daughters, Angharad and
Gwladys, had married nobles of the district. The former
1. The battle of Aberteifi is placed after Gilbert's invasion, but what appears to be the right order is
given in the C. MSS. used for the Ann. Camb.
2. For the possessions of the family, see Gir. Camb. i. 5860.
3. He is by Giraldus, called Wm. Hay at i. 59 ; Wm. Fitz Hay at i. 28 ; the Brut, calls him Gwilim ab
Aed ; and Brut, y Saeson in Myv. Arch. p. 677, William or Hay.
38 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 3.
was wife of William de Barri, lord of the cwmwd of
Maenorbir, and ' about this time became mother of Giraldus
Cambrensis. It was evident that alliance with so powerful
a family was valuable, and Gilbert relied on them as well
as on the Flemings of the Cantref of Rhos, who had re-
covered from their defeat, but to vow vengeance on the
descendants of Gruffudd.
2 In the winter, probably, De Clare built the castle of
Dinweileir. The erection of so advanced an outpost again
aroused Cadell, who, in 1146 fought against it with his
brothers, Maredudd and Rhys, took it by force, and put the
garrison to the sword. Howel ab Owain now arrived from
Gwynedd, and the two princes invested Caerfyrddin. At
all times has this position, by its nature, the key of South-
west Wales, attracted the envy of the contending races by
its importance in war. 3 After a desperate struggle it was
taken, and its garrison suffered the same fate as that of
Dinweileir. In the peninsula between the estuaries of Taf
and Tywi, crowning a bold hill overlooking the waves of the
bay, the castle of Llanstephan next challenged the efforts
of the Welsh princes. 4 It too fell, and was handed over to
the custody of Maredudd ap Gruffudd, who was now
sixteen. The Fitz Geralds and their half-brother William
Fitz Hay, with a strong force of French and Flemings,
attacked it a few days after, but the valour and skill of
Maredudd and the great strength of the place baffled them,
and they withdrew with loss. This success enhanced the
growing popularity of Maredudd, and henceforward he is
1. In 1147 according to J' S. Brewer, in Roll's Ed. of Gir. Camb., Vol. i. preface, p. x. and Note.
2. Brut, ad 1145 = 6; Ann. Camb. ad 1147 = 6. 3. Brut, ad 1145 = 6; Ann. Camb. ad 1147 = 6.
4. Brut, ad 1145 = 6 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1147 = 6. Two MAIS, of the Brut, say that Maredudd was beseiged
CHAP. 3.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNED1). 39
found taking a leading part in every campaign in Deheu-
barth. ' It had probably the effect of bringing about a
treaty between the Fitz Geralds and Cadell, to which the
death of Gilbert Strongbow in 1147 also perhaps con-
tributed. At any rate, in that year we find them united in
attacking the castle of Gwys in Deugleddyf. It resisted
with vigour. Once again the warlike Howel was summoned
from the North. He gathered a strong force and joined
his allies. They received him with honour and left to him
the conduct of the seige, and he brought it to a successful
issue before returning to Gwynedd.
There Owain's great Norman enemy was Earl Ranulf
of Chester. 2 This noble had invaded North Wales after
King Henry's death, but his efforts to oppose the revolt
had been distinctly unsuccessful. Owain's power grew
steadily. His reconciliation with Cadwaladr in 1144
enabled him to act with vigour. While his sons, Howel
and Cynan, were gaining fame and influence in the South,
3 Owain's troops in 1145 ravaged the lands of Ranulf,
burnt the towns and bore off much booty. Ranulf, who
had already joined Stephen at the seige of Wallingford,
went, in 1146, to Northampton, where the court was. He
complained of the savage harrying of the Welsh bands in
his domains, and implored the king, by his presence at the
head of an expedition, to strike terror into the hearts of his
foes. Stephen's counsellors reminded him of the invariable
accompaniments of a Welsh invasion, the difficulties of the
country, the dangers of ambush, the impossibility of keep-
ing a sufficient supply of troops for an army. They suggested
1. Brut, ad ann. 1146 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. B. MS. ad 1149, C. MS. ad 1148 = 1147.
2. Sym. Dunelm. ii. 287. 3. Gesta Stephani, pp. 419421.
40 THE AGE OF OVVAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 3
treachery on the part of the Earl, whose notoriously
unscrupulous and faithless character gave colour to the
charge. He was thrust into prison, and not allowed to go
free until he had yielded the town and castle of Lincoln.
This action was far from diplomatic, and turned Chester into
an irreconcilable enemy of Stephen, ' The Welsh took
advantage of his captivity to burst into the Cheshire
valleys, and harass them with fire and sword. They were
intercepted at Nantwich, and repulsed into their own
borders. But the year closed with another triumph for
them ; the strong castle 2 of Gwyddgrug in Tegeingl,
which had long resisted attack, was taken by the household
troops of Owain and burnt, and the men of the garrison
taken prisoners. The Chronicles tell us how Owain
Gwynedd had just been prostrated by grief for the loss of
his son Rhun, a young prince of great gift and promise,
but the news of the great success of his troops aroused him
again to his wonted energy, and filled him with great joy.
A narrow strip of land on the sea coast, studded with
castles, was all that was left to the Normans in North
3 The Earls of Gloucester and Hereford continued to
lead the West against Stephen. The king was defeated in
1143 at Wilton. The two Earls in the following year
came upon him with a large force and offered battle near
Tetbury, but from fear of the superior numbers of the
enemy, and the fierce rush of the Welsh auxiliaries, he was
induced by his advisers to refuse it. But this was the last
triumph of Matilda's party. The king avenged himself
1. Chronica Monasterii de Melsa i. 129 ; See J. Brompton.
2. Mold in Flintshire. For what follows see Brut, an 1145 = 6 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1147 = 6.
3. See Gest. Steph. pp. 3978, 40810; Kent. Hunt ; Gerv. Cant. i. 1256.
CHAP. 3.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 41
by taking the new castle of the Earl of Hereford at
Winchcombe by assault, and ravaging the lands of Hugh
Bigod. In 1145 ne to k Farringdon Castle, and this seems
to have marked a decisive turn in his fortunes.
The party which had put forward Matilda's personal
claims to the crown of England, steadily decayed. Its
death came with that of Robert of Gloucester. ' This
prince, alike from his high birth and the immense power he
derived very largely from his Welsh lordship in Glamorgan,
and above all, by his proved moderation, more than any
other Norman, seems to have had favour with the Welsh
nation. His attention to Glamorgan had probably been
given before his father's death, and it is to him that is due
the consolidation of Fitz Hamon's conquest. He took the
place of arbiter in the disputes between Norman marcher
lords and the Welsh mountain chiefs, between the Welsh
bishops and the foreign monasteries. 2 He himself came to
an agreement with both Bishop Urban and the descendants
of lestin ap Gwrgant, whom tradition describes as the last
Welsh prince of the district, and whose son Caradog was
left in the position of a Norman lord Marcher, in a position
as one writer has well said, which was never retained in
England by men of Saxon descent. Other sons of lestin
were established at Solfen and Rhuthyn, and Miscyn and
Sainghenydd became the names of Welsh lordships not
1. He was Henry's eldest bastard How the legend arose that he was a son by Nest, daughter of Rhys
ap Tewdwr, I find it difficult to ascertain, as no reference to it is found in any Twelfth
Century authority. It occurs in that very late, very untrustworthy Gwentian Chron. ad ann.
ITIO. To the same year it refers : (a) the blinding of Madogap Rhirid. 1113 [Brut, ad mo 3];
(6) the death of Robert Fitz Aymon, 1107 [Ann. Theok.]; (c) the marriage of Robert of
Gloucester and Fitz Hamon's daughter, probably in or shortly before 1116 ; (d) the taking of
Cardiff by Ifor Bach, who is called son of Cedrych. and not as he should be, son of Meurug,
who is connected with Earl Robert, not as he should be, with Earl William, 1158, [Ann. Marg. ;
Gir. Camb. vi. 6-5] The strongest argument against this late tradition is that Giraldus does not
speak of Robert m the list of Nest's descendants, a very unlikely omission in one so proud of
his kindred ; [op. i. 58 60.]
2. Concordia inter Urb. cpisc. et Rob. cons. Glouc. in Lib. Land See Clarke's Land of Morgan.
42 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 3.
belonging to the house of lestin. Robert's own castles
were at Cardiff and Cynffig, and the lands of his vassal
Norman nobles lay chiefly between the two. The most
powerful was De Londres, who, in addition to having lands
in Ogmore, was lord of Cydweli. Turberville held Coety,
and Siward, Talafan and Merthyr Mawr, while the three
other families of Granville, Umfraville and St. Quintin also
had broad lands near the coast.
Robert was a great benefactor of the Norman monas-
teries, and in the last year of his life, gave another proof of
religious munificence by the foundation of the ' priory of
Cardiff and the 2 Cistercian Abbey of Margam. 3 He died
on the 3ist of October, 1 147.
1. Hadden and Stubbs, Councils and Eccl. Docts. i. 351, referring to Dugd. Mon. iv. 632, vi. 431.
2. Ann. Marg. ad 1147. For other authorities see Haddan and Stubbs, Councils i. 351.
3. Brut, ad 1146=7 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1149 = 7 ; Ann. Marg., Ann. Theokesb.
CHAP. 4.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 43
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN WALES FROM 1143 TO 1148.
The foundation of Monasteries by the Normans Cwmhir a Welsh foundation
Ty Gwyn Caerfyrddin Wales and the Crusades Bernard of St. David's negotiates
with the popes for the recognition of his claims as metropolitan of Wales Council
of Rheims in April, 1148 Decision postponed Terrible mortality in Wales during
1 148 Death of Bishop Bernard Election of a Welshman by the chapter cancelled
David Fitz Gerald consecrated as Bernard's successor.
" I "HIS was indeed a period at which monasteries multiplied
A in the country. It is probable that the Normans
looked to them as to their castles as a means of holding
their Conquest, and veiled their designs by granting land
for cultivation, for the clearing of forest ground and the
recovery of marshy soil. ' Certain it is that the first founda-
tions were highly unpopular with the Welsh, and were
distinctly Norman in spirit. Only one monastery of the
first half of the twelfth century is claimed as a Welsh founda-
tion ; Cwmhir was established in 1143, it is stated, by
Cadwallon, son of Madog, and lord of Maelienydd. In a
beautiful and secluded vale, where flow the waters of
Clywedog, verily a rugged region, an abbey was built for
sixty Cistercian monks. Nothing is against it ; on the
contrary, the fact that Cwmhir was a house of the Cister-
cian order, the most popular of the Orders on Welsh soil,
added to the fact that Maelienydd was not reconquered by
the Normans till the next year, are in favour of the claim,
and we know that the descendants of Cadwallon were
buried in the abbey.
i. Dugd. Mon. v. 458. Fundata est Cwmhyre in Wallia, filia Blanchland.
44 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 4.
1 In the same year as Cwmhir was founded, another
body of Cistercian monks was introduced into Wales by
Bishop Bernard, and established at Trefgarn in the cantref
of Deugleddyf. Thence they must have moved almost
immediately, to occupy the far more famous site of Whit-
land or Ty Gwyn ar Daf, where a Celtic monastery had
long before existed, and it was believed that Howel Dda
had gathered the Welsh scholars and clerics for the
compilation of his code of Laws.
2 And then came the Priory of Caerfyrddin to which
possibly we are indebted for the Black Book, the oldest
continuous manuscript in the old language of the Cymry.
All these monastic establishments on Welsh soil testify
to the fervour of the Normans of the country rather than
to that of the Welsh themselves. Powys and Gwynedd,
which had been less tainted by foreign invasion and con-
quest never saw 3 this multiplication of the religious houses
of a foreign Church, and further, the ecclesiastical energies
of the Welsh people were for the moment working in
4 For we must not suppose that Wales was devoid of
the Christian enthusiasm which created the Crusades.
Even now Europe was preparing, at the call of Innocent III,
for a new expedition to the Holy Land. And we have
evidence that many Welsh pilgrims, chiefly from Dyfed
and Ceredigion, were drowned in 1144 on their way to
1. Ann. Camb. ad 1144.
2. Councils and Eccl. Docts. of Haddan and Stubbs i. 351, referring to Dugdale, Mon. iv. 632, vi. 431.
See the Palaeographical Introduction of Gwenogfryn Evans to the Black Book of Caerfyrddin.
3. See Gerv. Cant. ii. 443 4.
4. Brut, ad 1143=4 ; C. MS. of Ann. Camb. Cf. Gwentian Chron. ad 1145.
CHAP. 4.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 45
1 Pope Innocent, too, had died in 1143, and Bernard at
once renewed his suit at the court of Rome. Celestine II.'s
short reign had no influence on the question, but Lucius II.
did not go further than Innocent ; in a letter of the I4th of
May, 1144, he assured Bernard, as his predecessor had
done, that he would inquire into the claim of David's to
metropolitan authority. He was pope but eleven months,
and Eugenius III., who succeeded, was more inclined to
listen to Bernard's plea, and to that of the Chapter who
forwarded letters to him, immediately after his accession,
in defence of the rights of the see. 2 The Sulien, son of
Rhygyfarch who died at the close of 1 146, was probably the
head of the Welsh party who preserved the traditions of
the Celtic Church under the great Sulien.
3 Eugenius summoned the bishop of St. David's to
appear before him at the Council to be held at Rheims in
March, 1148. We still have a letter of Bernard to Arch-
deacon Simeon of Bangor, asking him to accompany him
and give evidence in his favour. Robert, Bishop of Bath,
on the other hand testified against him, and swore to his
oath of allegiance and to the suffragan character of his see.
4 Bernard attempted to influence Eugenius by promising a
substantial increase in the Papal revenues derivable from
Wales. 5 At Meaux on the 28th of June, the Pope gave
judgment against Bernard personally, but informed Theobald
that he fixed the feast of St. Luke in the following year for
definitely ascertaining the rights of St. David's as a see.
1. Gerv. Cant. ii. 443 4.
2. Brut, ad 1145 = 6., he died on the 22nd of September. One MS. says the 2ist of October.
3. Gir. Camb. Op. iii. 59. Testimonkim Robert! Bathoniensis in MS. Cott. Cleop. E. i.
4. Gir. Camb. Op. iii. 55, 78, 175. 5. Gir. Camb. Op. iii. 518, 180 i.
46 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 4.
1 But 1148 had been marked in Wales as a season of
fearful mortality, and among the famous victims was
Bernard. His death put an end for half a century to the
efforts of St. David's for ecclesiastical independence of
Canterbury, and gave an opportunity for the outbreak of
the animosity which had been brewing, during his rule of
the see, between the Welsh party and the Anglo-Norman.
2 The former desired a bishop of pure Welsh blood, keeping
to the traditions of the old Celtic church, and being in a
majority on the Chapter, they succeeded in securing the
choice of a man worthy of the position. But the others
had the ear of Archbishop Theobald, and induced him to
cancel the election. Their nominee was David Fitz Gerald,
Archdeacon of Ceredigion, in whose veins ran both Welsh
and Norman blood, and who was willing to renew the oath
of allegiance to Canterbury and to desist from the pursuit
of St. David's archiepiscopal claim. 3 Theobald approved of
him, and he was consecrated on the i9th of December, 1 148.
This was an evil day for the Welsh Church. It never
had the same opportunity of obtaining a nominee of its
own ; as on this occasion, so twice again such were thrust
aside, and an obedient servant of Canterbury consecrated.
4 David spent the years of his episcopate in ceaseless
conflict with his chapter, and in distinct opposition to the
more worthy policy of Bernard, who, with all his faults, had
worked for what were the interests of the majority of his
flock, his successor, in the midst of a Welsh population,
gave himself to the Norman party and to a disgraceful
i. Brut, ad 1147 = 8. 2. Gir. Camb. Op. iii' 431 and 154.
3. Gerv. Cant, i., 138 ; Gir. Camb. Op. iii. 431 ; his professio in MS. Cott. Cleopatra E. i. The
December fell on a Sunday in 1148.
4. Gir. Camb. Op. iii. 4314.
CHAP. 5.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 47
THE MILITARY AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALES FROM 1147 TO 1154.
Renewed war between Owain and Cadwaladr Howel invades Meirionydd Storming of
Cynfael Castle, 1147 Cadwaladr driven before 1152 from North Ceredigion and
Mon. Owain wars with Powys Building of Oswestry Castle Policy of Madogap
Maredudd He obtains help from Ranulf of Chester Battle of Cwnsyllt, 1150
Power of Owain in Pow}s Death of Ranulf, 1153 Wars of the sons of Gruffudd
ap Rhys in South Wales Their conquest of South Ceredigion, 1150 -Their war
with North Wales and occupation of North Ceredigion, 1151 Cadell, wounded by
the Normans, retires from active life Maredudd and Rhys burn Aberllychwr, 1 151
Renewal of the war with Howel in North Ceredigion, 1153 Capture of Tenby
Death of Bishop Uchtryd of Llandaff Consecration of Nicholas ap Gwrgant
His mediation between Welsh and Normans Restoration of the old Celtic
Churches Maredudd and Rhys invade Glamorgan Rhys harries Cyfeiliog
Owain's family difficulties His second marriage.
1 T N 1 147 the disagreement between Owain and Cadwaladr,
soothed into peace three years before, broke out
anew. Hardly had Howel returned from his expedition
against the castle of Gwys, when war began, and he and
his brother Cynan, each with a separate force, marched into
Meirionydd. They united before the castle built by
Cadwaladr at Cynfael, of which Morfran, abbot of Ty
Gwyn, was Constable, and after vainly endeavouring by
threats and promises to induce its surrender, they had
recourse to force and took it by storm. 2 The loss of
Meirionydd split Cadwaladr's possessions into two halves,
and thinking himself unable to retain both, he built a castle
in 1149 at Llanrhystud, not far from the sea; and gave
both it and his share of Ceredigion to his son Caedfan,
1. See Brut, ad 1146 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1148 = 7 ; also " Canu a Gant Kyndelw y Hywel M. Ewein,"
in Myv. Arch., p. 117. Morfran is wrongly called by the Gwentian Brut., Merfyn.
2. Brut, ad 1148 = 9; Ann. Camb. ad 1151 = 49; Cadwaladr's son is invariably called Cadfan in the two
MSS. used for the Ann. Camb ; also in the Brut, y Tywysogion at the 1149 = 50 entry, but at
1148 = 9, he is called Cadwgan by all MSS. The Brut, y Saeson of the Myv. Arch follows the
B. y Tywysogion.
48 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 5.
while keeping his northern possessions in his own hands ;
"but in 1150 Howel attacked Cadfan, took him prisoner,
captured Llanrhystud and conquered North Ceredigion,
2 and in 1152 Owain drove Cadwaladr himself from his
last stronghold in Mon.
Meanwhile Owain had gone to war with Powys.
Madog ap Maredudd, like the other Welsh princes of his
time, took advantage of Stephen's misrule to extend his
own power, and recovered no doubt all the ground lost in
the preceding reign. 3 In 1149 he built a castle at
Oswestry, on territory which had been in English hands
for centuries. Though his rule appears to have been
beneficial and peaceful, Powys during this time was not
altogether free from gravelkind warfare, 4 and in 1146
Madog's cousin Meurug Tybodiad, son of Madog ap Rhirid,
was killed in treachery by his own men. s The prince,
however, averted civil broils by a wise arrangement with
his nephews Owain and Meurug, the sons of his brother
Gruffudd. In 1 149 he gave them in South West Powys,
the Cantref of Cyfeiliog, from which henceforward Owain,
the elder of the two, derived the name by which he is best
During the whole of the time, the power of Gwynedd
had steadily increased, and although we have no clear
authority for the statement, yet it seems that Owain had
established some sort of supremacy over Powys. 6 In 1 149
he built a castle in the cwmwd of lal, a fact which does
much to show the great extent of his direct influence. It
t. Brut, ad
3. Brut, ad
4. Brut, ad
5. Brut, ad
6. Brut, ad
149 = 50; Ann. Camb. ad 1153 = 50. 2. Brut, ad 1151 = 2.
148=9; Ann. Camb. ad 1151 = 49. Oswestry is the Welsh Croesoswallt.
145 = 6; Ann. Camb.
148 = 9, Ann. Camb., ad 1151 = 49. Gruffudd died in 1128. See Brut, ad 1125 =
148 = 9 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1151 = 49. lal is the English Yale.
CHAP. 5] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 49
had the effect of terrifying Madog into revolt, and to this
he was no doubt urged as much by advice and promise of
assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester as by his own fears.
1 At any rate, he was not successful, the forces of Owain
blocked his advance at the pass of Cwnsyllt in Tegeingl,
the auxiliary forces which Chester had supplied were cut to
pieces, and Madog's own troops fled from the field. .The
failure of this attempt increased Owain's hold, and diminish-
ed Norman influence, for some time in Powys ; 2 and
perhaps we may see some result of a more national policy
in the slaying of Stephen Fitz Baldwin, a noble of the
Shropshire marches, by Prince Llewelyn, Madog's son, in
1152. It was not till Henry Plantagenet had firmly estab-
lished himself on the English throne, that Madog renewed
his intrigues against Owain Gwynedd.
The latter's enemy, Ranulf de Gernons, had been
baffled at Cwnsyllt. But in England his power had never
been so formidable. Careless of scruple, and mindful of
nought but his own gain, he extorted in return for his
promise of support, 3 first from Stephen and then from the
young Plantagenet, charters making to the great noble,
concessions so extraordinary, that we can only suppose
that they were given with the object of gaining time.
4 His immense power was at its height, when still in the
prime of life, he was struck down, at the close of 1 153, by
death. 5 William Peveril whose lands had been granted to
1. Brut, ad 1149 = 50. Cwnsyllt is the English Coleshill in Flint.
2. Brut, ad 1151 = 2.
3. Reports of the Depy. Keeper of the Pubc. Records, No. 31, p. 2; Cott. Chart. XVII. 2; Dugdale,
Baronage, i., 39.
4. On the i6th of December probably. See R. de Monte ad 1152 = 3 ; Gerv. Cant, i., 155; Brut, y
Tywysogion ad 1152 = 3; Ann. Camb. ad 1154=3.
5. Dudgale, Baron, i., 437. His estates forfeited early in 1155 February ?.) See R. de Monte ad 1155
5 o THE AGE OF OWAIN GVVYNEDD. [CHAP. 5.
Chester by Henry's charter, was accused of having
removed him by poison, and in the next year, his lands
were forfeited for the crime. ' Ranulf was succeeded in
his earldom by Hugh, a son begotten of Maud, daughter
of Robert de Gloucester.
The sons of Gruffudd in South Wales were during this
time engaged in ceaseless warfare, chiefly with the object
of extending their influence to the North and East of
Ystrad Tywi. 3 In 1150 Cadell repaired the important
castle of Caerfyrddin, 3 and ravaged the lands of De
Londres in Cydweli. 4 With his two brothers Maredudd
and Rhys, he led an army into Ceredigion, and subdued it
as far as the river Aeron. Before the close of the year,
Ceredigion north of the river belonged to Howel, son of
Owain Gwynedd, and Ceredigion south of it to the three
sons of Gruffudd. This did not last, and early in February,
1151, the long peace between North and South Wales was
broken. The sons of Gruffudd marched into Howel's
territory, took Llanrhystud Castle after a long siege, and
reduced to submission all the North of Ceredigion except
the castle of Pengwern yn Llanfihangel which successfully
resisted their assaults. They bore off many prisoners and
much booty. Soon after Howel ab Owain came, took
Llanrhystud Castle by force, burnt it and put the garrison
to the sword. In order to hold the conquered country, the
sons of Gruffudd then rebuilt the castle of Ystrad Meurug
1. R. de Monte ad 1152 = 3.
2. Brut, ad 1149 = 50; Ann. Camb. ad 1153 = 50. The Ann. Camb. speak only of the ravaging of
Cydweli. The two most inaccurate MSS. used for the Rolls Edtn. of the Brut, say Cydweli
was fortified by Cadell, by an evident omission in transcribing the full version found in the
three best MSS. of that chronicle.
3. Maurice de Londres was probably still alive in 1149. At any rate his son William's " Confirmatio " of
grants was made in the lifetime of Bishop Nicholas of LlandafF ; 11491183. It was attested
by Adelise, Maurice's widow. By her he had two other sons, Richard and John.
4. Brut, ad 1149, 1150, 1151 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1153, 1154=1150, 1151.
CHAP. 5.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 51
destroyed fourteen years before ; and Howel, hoping to
put a check to further advance, put up again that of
Humfrey in the Vale of Calettwr.
1 Not long after, Cadell, the eldest of the three brothers,
while hunting near Tenby, was surprised by a party of
Normans, and so severely wounded that he was left for
dead. He escaped, however, but took no further part in
the affairs of the country. 2 In the fervour of his grateful-
ness, he undertook two years later a pilgrimage to Rome,
and left to his brothers the administration of his lands. He
must have remained at least two years abroad, but we
have no means of fixing the date of his return. Whether
the wound he had received was such as to affect his
intelligence, or his religious fervour was not the passion of
a day, certainly he is never again mentioned as ruling any
part of Deheubarth ; and the fact that 3 he assumed the
religious habit at his brother's monastery at Ystrad Fflur,
and died in 1175 of a severe distemper, are not without
tending to show that both solutions are possible.
4 Maredudd and Rhys, left alone in command of the
forces of Deheubarth, immediately made an expedition into
the peninsular of Gwyr in which the Fleming settlements
were prosperous and unpopular, and several Norman nobles
held lands. They fought against the castle of Aberllychwr
that had been built on the eastern shore of the estuary,
where it widens out towards the Channel. They took and
burnt it and devastated the country. 5 In the same year,
1151, the brothers repaired the strong castle of Dinweileir,
1. Brut, ad 1150=1 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1154 = 1.
2. Brut, ad 1152=3 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1157 = 6. The latter must be wrong.
3. Brut, ad 1175. 4. Brut, ad 1150=1 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1154 = 1.
5. See Brut, ad 1150=2; 1151 = 3.
52 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 5.
which had been dismantled after its capture from De Clare.
After a year of peace with Howel, they again led their
forces into his territory early in 1153, reduced the Cantref
of Penwedig, and took and dismantled the castle he had
built. Then, in revenge for the outrage on their brother
Cadell, they attacked the castle of Tenby, took it by night,
and handed it over to William Fitz Gerald, Lord of
Pembroke, with whom they were still in alliance. Another
military expedition of the same year was carried out by
Rhys who laid waste the castle of Ystrad Cyngen.
1 Robert of Gloucester had been succeeded by his son
William, a man already somewhat advanced in years. The
new Earl was devoid of much energy, and as long as she
lived, his mother Mabel, in whom the blood of Fitz Hamon
ran strong, took more part than he in the affairs of
Glamorgan. Very shortly after his accession, the Bishopric
of Llandaff became vacant. 2 The vigorous Uchtryd died
in 1148 after earning the name of Defender of the
Churches. 3 Nicholas ap Gwrgant was consecrated bishop
on the 1 4th of March, 1149, by the Archbishop of
From what we know of him, his election was a second
triumph for the Welsh party, and during his episcopate he
showed much of his predecessor's force of character.
Nicholas gained influence both with the Normans and
with the Welsh, and was called upon to mediate between
Earl William and the lord of Aberafan, Caradog ab lestin.
He obtained from the former, the confirmation of Robert's
1. William is first spoken of as Castellan of Bristol in 1138 in the Contn. of Flor. Wigorn. For his
character portrayed by a political opponent, see Gest. Steph. ed. Bohn. p.p. 428 9.
2. Brut, ad 1147 = 8. Gwrthwynebwr yr eglwysseu. Ann. Camb. ad 1150=1148. Ann. Theokesb. ad
1148. See also the Gwent. Chron. ad 1146.
3. Liber Landavensis, ed. Evans, p.p. 2957.
CHAP. 5.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 53
grants to his Welsh subjects, that is, government according
to the Welsh laws, privilege of market, and the right of
every Cymro to freedom except in case of proven murder.
1 He also applied himself to restore the old Celtic Churches,
crumbling in ruins and deserted since the conquest. Llan-
carfan, Llanilltyd, Llandydoch, Llanffagan, and many more
recovered the right of sanctuary. We are told that these
reforms made Glamorgan a haven to which fled all who
tired of Norman injustice or wild tribal warfare.
2 Still war did not cease to visit Glamorgan, and in
1153 Maredudd and Rhys of Deheubarth laid waste the
Vale of Afan. The pretext for this invasion is not known ;
the Gwentian Chronicle affirms that the lord of Aberafan
refused to join in a confederacy of the Welsh princes
against the Normans, satisfied perhaps with his own
position as a great Lord Marcher. In May his castle was
burnt, the garrison slaughtered, and immense spoil borne
away by the victors. This was not the last exploit of the
year. 3 A little after Rhys harried the Cantref of Cyfeiliog,
belonging to Owain ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd, a prince
who was, or afterwards became his own son-in-law. But
this bond did not imply any sympathy between the princes,
and for many years they remained persistent enemies.
More, possibly than any Welsh prince of his day,
Owain Gwynedd, was unfortunate with his own family.
Such a result was to be expected from his curious matri-
monial relations and the evils of gavelkind. He was ten
1. The Gwentian Chronicle ad 1150.
2. Brut, ad 1152 = 3. The Gwentian Chron. ad 1151 says Morgan ap Caradog ap lestin was lord of
Aberafan. But I am not clear that Caradog was dead, and more evidence is required before we
accept the statement of a document which speaks of the grandsons of lestin as warring in 1099.
See App. iv.
3. The Brut says it was the second time he was harrying Cyfeiliog. The Ann. Camb. merely says
" Resus vastavit Keiwelauc."
54 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 5.
years at war with Cadwaladr ; 'in 1 1 50 he was forced to
imprison his son Cynan ; a two years later he blinded and
castrated his nephew Cunedda, the son of his brother
Cadwallon, from fear of his contending for succession.
Some time before this, he must have married a second
time. Gwladus, daughter of Llywarch ap Trahaiarn, by
whom he had his eldest son lorwerth, was no doubt dead,
3 and he chose Chrisiant, daughter of Goronwy ab Owain
ab Edwin, to replace her. This lady was his first cousin, and
within the. degrees prohibited by the Roman Church. 4 Such
a connection between cousins, however, was by no means
rare among the princes of Wales at this time. Incessant
intermarriage took place among the chief families of the
country, and especially the five greater clans. Owain had
children by his first cousin, 5 Rhys by his niece, 6 and it may
be a correct interpretation of a passage in the Brut to sup-
pose that one of Owain's daughters preferred marriage with
her uncle Cadwaladr to marriage with her first cousin
Anarawd. Concubinage was universal ; 7 Cadwgan ap
Bleddyn had children by at least six women, his brother
Maredudd, by at least four, and not only Gruffudd ap
Cynan and Owain Gwynedd, but most of the Welsh chiefs
of the twelfth Century had a numerous illegitimate
1. The Brut, ad 1149=50. Curiously the B. MS. of ab Ithel (from the Hengwrt library) says : Y
carcharwyt Ywein vrenhin Gwyned a Chynan y vab.
2. Brut, ad 1151 = 2.
3. Owain Gwynedd was son of Angharad, daughter of Owain ab Edwin.
4. Gir. Camb. vi., 213. This author says that cohabitation was usual before marriage.
5. Brut, ad 1173. 6. Brut, ad 1142 = 3.
7. Brut, ad 1113 = 6, pp. 13841 in Rolls Edn. The sixth was Owain's mother, who is called Iwerydd
daughter of Edwin.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 55
LITERARY HISTORY AND STATE OF PEOPLE. 1135 TO 1170.
Effect of Stephen's reign on Welsh history The building of castles by the Welsh
Revival in National Life The bards Addresses to the native rulers--Lost works
Gwalchmai-- Social standing of the bards Howel ab Owain Gwynedd and Owain
Cyfeiliog Cynddelw and Seisyll Bryffwrch Minor poets Preservation of geneal-
ogies Dramatic compositions Prose works The Mabinogion Geoffrey of Mon-
mouth Walter of Oxford Caradog of Llancarfan The Book of Llandaff The
Hanes Gruffudd ap Cynan Music Copying of Manuscripts The Laws
Religious Life The Crusades The Cistercian movement The Abbeys Grants
of land by the Welsh Burial of the chiefs The Welsh Characteristics and Cus-
toms Growth of National feeling.
'OTEPHEN died at last on the 25th of October, 1154, His
^ son Eustace, his gallant wife Matilda had gone
before, and the poor king, bereft of all that which might
have consoled, passed away a broken hearted man. His
reign, which in England was but one long record of misery
and lawlessness, afforded to Wales the opportunity she
required to thrust off the Norman rule, and add a century
and a half of independent life to her long history. 2 The
Welsh learnt how to build a castle to hold a neighbourhood
in subjection, and when a new king attempted to recover
the authority of his forebears in the land, he found it pro-
tected now not alone by the wild valour of the inhabitants,
1. Anglo-Saxon Chron. ; Robert de Monte ad 1153 = 4; William of Newburgh, Lib. i. Chap, xxxii.,
Gerv. Cant, i., 159 ; Brut, ad 1153 = 4; Ann. Camb. (c.) ad 1155 = 4, &c.
2. In the first fury of the war of independence, the invariable rule with the Welsh was the destruction of
the Norman castles that fell into their hands. The first castle, the building of which is distinct-
ly attributed to a Welsh prince, is that of Cynfael which stood near the modern Ffestiniog in
North Merioneth. Cadwaladr built it some time before 1147, [Brut, ad 1146 = 7]. Hence-
forward the erection of castles by the Welsh was common, as was also the garrisoning with
Welsh troops of strongholds originally Norman. If the Ucham of Ord. Vital, v., no, is as I
think, Usk, it is clear that a Welsh prince garrisoned that castle as early as 1138.
56 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
and the difficulties which nature seemed to have taken
pleasure in strewing in the path of a would-be-conqueror,
but by every defence wherewith art had taught those mas-
ters in building, the Normans, to supplement the defects of
nature and courage. The effort which was necessary to
attain to freedom of political life drew upon the living
sources of the strength of the people. The fiery energy
called forth showed itself in many a siege and battle ; but
to it must also be assigned the extraordinary revival in
literature, art, religion and law which characterized the
The political literature of Wales is traditionally connect-
ed with the Bards. ' They were a powerful and numerous
body, possessing a definite organisation. Each prince had
his pencerdd, and 2 we hear of a contest between Cynddelw
and Seisyll Bryffwrch for the office at the court of Madog
ap Maredudd of Powys. The position did not entail any
subserviency ; all the Bards of the twelfth century addressed
their verses indifferently to the princes of the various
divisions of Wales. Thus Seisyll Bryffwrch was victorious
at the above contest and became pencerdd of Powys, yet
of the three poems of his composition that have come down
to us, one is addressed to Rhys ap Gruffudd, the other two
are elegies on Owain Gwynedd and his son lorwerth
Drwyndwn. 3 The only reason of preference would be the
1. For the organisation of the bardic body see Aneurin Owain's Edn. of Welsh Laws, vol. i., pp. 125
32 5, 258 9, 6603, &c. For the the number of the bards see Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 187.
2. Amryson Cyndelw a Seisyll Bryfwrch . am Benceirdiaeth Fadawg Mab Maredudd . a Chyndelw
a dechreuwys in Myv. Arch. p. 154.
3. We have in the Myvyrian Archaeology poems in honour of the following princes of this period :
(a) Gruffudd ap Cynan. Owain Gwynedd and his sons Howel, lorwerth, Dafydd, and Rhodri.
Gwalchmai also refers to Cadwallon and Cadwaladr, sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan, as patrons of
the bards. (b) In Powys, Madog ap Maredudd and his sons Llywelyn and Owain, and his
* ^-S3. daughter Efa; lorwerth Coch ; Owain Cyfeiliog. (c) Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth ;
Rhirid Flaidd of Penllyn : Einion, son of Madog ab Iddon of Gwent ; Howe, ab leuaf of
Arwystli ; Cadwallon ap Madog of Maelienydd.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 57
amount of protection and encouragement which an individual
prince might give to literature, and Owain Gwynedd and
Madog ap Maredudd are singled out by the Bards for
1 Though Gwrgant ap Rhys is spoken of by the Brut,
as the best poet of his day, we have not a single one of his
compositions, and there are many others whose names are
forgotten and whose works are unknown. Of the twelfth
century bards, not more than twelve have had a few of
their pieces preserved. * Gwalchmai, first of our period in
order of time, is first in merit. He was son of Meilir and
from him inherited poetical genius. He lived in Gwynedd
and most of his poems are addressed to members of its
royal house. A warrior, like most Welshmen of his time
he delighted in the conflict, but with remarkable versatility
turned from scenes of warfare to communion with nature.
His poems, when they are not mere eulogies of princes,
blend his joy in the din of battle with love for the songs of
the birds, for the murmur of the streams in the deep woods
and lofty hills for which his country was renowned.
The social standing of the bards was never afterwards so
high as in the twelfth century. 3 The bard of the prince
took his place among the officers of the household, and his
1. Brut, ad 1157 = 8 : Y lias Morgan ab Owein drwy dwyll y gan wyr Ivor uab Meuruc a chyt ac ef y
lias y prydyd goreu, a hwnnw aelwit Gwrgan uab Rys. The last part of the quotation is not
found in the D. & E. MSS. of ab Ithel. The account in the Gwentian Chronicle is different,
and the writer seems to suggest that Gwrgant was a son of Rhys ab lestin of Solfen : Y lias
Gwrgan ab Rhys ab lestin gwr dysgediccal o Brydydd a gaid yn ei amser y gan Ifor ab
Meuryg o Sainghenydd, a Morgan ab Owain ab Caradawc a fynnai ddial hynny, a myned am
benn Ifor ai ladd o dwyn ei diroedd.
2. What we know of the bards is almost entirely gathered from the internal evidence of their own works.
It is difficult to fix the date of Gwalchmai's death. He flourished from 1140 to 1170, and wrote
elegies on Madog ap Maredudd (d. n6o)and Owain Gwynedd (d. 1170) His last poems are
the A wdl i Dafyd mab Owain and the Canu a gant Gwalchmai i Rodri fab Owain. Gwalchmai's
12 poems are found on pp. 1429 in the Myv. Arch., ed. 1861.
3. For the privileges, &c. of the " pencerdd " see Aneurin Owen's edition of the Welsh Laws, vol.
58 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
rights and privileges were minutely described by law. No
taeog's son could become a scholar or poet, and the liberal
professions became a close privilege of the freeborn Cymry.
As in the days of Llywarch Hen, princes spurned not to
take the pen, and ' Howel, son of Owain Gwynedd, and
2 Owain Cyfeiliog have left us poems, that testify to their
ability. Here again we wonder, knowing the turbulent life
of the two princes, at the vigour which could manifest itself
in so many phases. For they were no ordinary bards and
their works no panegyrics and elegies so common with
others. They bear a stamp of originality denied their
meaner brethren ; the short love odes of Howel are instinct
with grace, and Cyfeiliog's Hirlas abounds in passages of
Cynddelw and Seisyll Bryffwrch were both men of
conspicuous ability. Curiously, though we have still forty-
six poems of the former, only three of the latter have been
handed down. Thus we have not the same amount of
material to help us to a judgment on their relative merit.
3 Still, what we have of Seisyll does not justify the sum-
mary treatment of Stephens, who, deceived perhaps by the
position of his poems in the Myvyrian Archaeology, has re-
1. Howel's poems, eight in number, are in the Myv. Arch. pp. 197 9. Three poems, all contemporary,
which add to our knowledge of the prince's life, have the following subscriptions in the Myv.
Arch. :-^-(a) Canu a gant Kyndelw y Hywel M. Ewein, pp. 1869. (*) Awdyl . Nis
Gwyddis pwy ai cant., p. 281, but very probably a work of Peryf ab Cedifor, according to the
suggestion of Thos. Price in Hanes Cymru, pp. 5847, adopted by Thos. Stephens in the
Literature of the Kymry, pp. 39 41. (c) Peryf fab Cadifor ai cant i Hywel ap Ywain p. 346.
2. Owain Cyfeiliog is applauded by Giraldus for the administration of his country. He seems to have
had a good conversation and ready wit. [Gir. Camb. vi. , 144 5]. We have two poems of his in
the Myv. Arch., pp. 1902 : The Hirlas Euein, and Englynion a gant teulu Ywem Kyueilyawc
i Gylchyau Kymry. Of Cynddelw we have : -(a) Canu y Ywem Kyueilyawc, pp. 161 3.
(b) Englynyon v Ewein Kyueilyawc, pp. 170 i. He must have passed into Norman story,
for he is referred to in the Legend of Fulk Fitz Warin, published in the Rolls series in the same
volume as R. de Coggeshall, p. 318 : -Atant vint Yweyn Keveylloke, un chevaler hardy e fer, e
de une launce de freyne fery Fouke parmy la voyde du cors This is equivalent in modern
French to : Alors vint Yweyn Keveylloke, un chevalier hardi et fier, et d'une lance de frene
frappa Foulques a travers le corps.
3. Seisyll's poems are in the Myv. Arch. pp. 2357, immediately preceding those of Llygad Gwr. The
editors assign to him the period 11601210 ; but he must have flourished before the death of
Madog ap Maredudd, and his latest work is the elegy on lorwerth Drwyndwn, who died befare
1194. In the absence of further evidence, his floreat must be given as 11501190.
CHAP. 6.J THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 59
legated him to the early thirteenth century. J His pane-
gyric on the campaign of 1159 is a valuable contribution to
history. It is devoid of much poetic merit, being in a rapid
and difficult metre, but it is full of the double spirit of piety
and warfare which is so characteristic of the epoch. Like
most of the work of the bards it was destined for public
recitation, and before launching forth on a glowing eulogy
of Rhys, and a vivid description of his triumph, he asks
God to inspire his rhyme, and bestow the gift of eloquence
upon him. Seisyll is one of the least obscure of these bards,
and his elegy in memory of lorwerth ab Owain is one of
the most clear and moving we have.
Seisyll's rival, Cynddelw, is often referred to as y
Prydydd Mawr. 2 He must have been a well known poet
before 1 160 when Madog ap Maredudd died, and no doubt,
as some of his pieces are in honour of Llywelyn of Gwynedd,
he saw the last years of the century. 3 Probably more than
half of his known work belongs to our period, which was
that of his vigour. Many of them, like his address to
Howel ab Owain, throw a valuable side light on history ;
nearly all of them add to our knowledge of the life and
customs of the times; the wild career of the Welsh chieftains
whose revenue was derived partly from taxes on their sub-
1. Cani'r Arglwydd Rys. Seisyll Bryffwrch ai cant. , It is a poem of 88 lines in Myr. Arch.
2. Cynddelw, we gather from his works, lived to a great age and flourished from 1150 to 1210. The fact
of his contending for the " pencerddiaeth " at the court of Madog ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn,
shows he must have composed poems and gained some fame, as early as 1150. We have from
him elegies on Madog (d. 1160) ; Owain Gwynedd (d. 1170) ; Cadwallon of Maelienydd (d. 1179) ;
and Owain Fychan (d. 1186). His latest piece is the Cylch Llywelyn in Myv. Arch. pp. 1756,
it was written after 1207 as verses 14, 19, etc., refer to the campaign against Gwenwynwyn and
the destruction of Ystrad Meurug, perhaps after 1215 when Llywelyn raised Caerfyrddin to the
ground. [See v. 20, and Brut, ad 1207 = 1215].
3. The Cannau Cynddelw Brydyd Mawr in the Myv. Arch. pp. 149 190 are 49 in number. These
include the Amryson Cyn<1elw a Seisyll Bryfwrch am Benceirdiaeth, p. 154 ; one englyn, p. 184
considered doubtful by the editors ; the Marwnad Uletynt Vart, p. 184, which can hardly be his
unless we admit the existence of another Bleddyn Fardd than the one who flourished at the
close of the Xlllth. Century, and whose poems are found in the Myv. Arch. pp. 251 5.
Cynddelw's genuine poems are reduced to 46.
60 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6
jects, but chiefly from their predatory excursions on the
richer land of the Saxons ; their prowess in hunting ; the
hospitality, always a mark of the Celtic race, which led the
princes to keep open board ; ' the rivalry of the bards and
monks ; the keen delight in oratory and wit, in the public
recitation of the prose tales and the poems of the bards,
in music, in the amenities of social intercourse. 2 One side
of bardic thought is seen in the poem addressed by Cynddelw
to God, and it makes clear that the theological conceptions
of his class were of a high order, and at the same time
points to one of the factors in the hostility of the monks to
himself and his brethren.
3 The other bards of the period of whom we know any-
thing were Daniel ap Llosgwrn Mew whose elegy on
Owain Gwynedd makes us wish we had more of him.
4 Llywarch Llew Cad ; 5 Peryf ap Cedifor, who was a
partisan of Howel ab Owain ; and 6 Gwynfardd Brycheiniog,
a South Welshman probably, as of his remaining works,
one is addressed to Rhys ap Gruffudd, the other to St. Dewi.
The bards had other duties than those of writing pane-
gyrics and elegies on the princes of the time. To them
1. Llyma Englyn a gant Cynddelw gwedi anfon Mynach o Fyneich Yschad Marchell iw wrthod ac
ddywedyd nas cleddynt yn eu Monachlog. Myv. Arch p. 190. Ystrad Marchell was founded
in 1170 according to Dugdale, Mon. v., 636.
2. Myv. Arch. pp. 179183. The poems of all the bards show some of this religious feeling. Nearly all
the poems of Einion and Meilir, sons of Gwalchmai, are addressed to God. Myv. Arch. pp.
226 232. They fl. 1170 1210.
3. Marwnad Ywein Gwynet . Danyel ab Llosgwrn Mew ae K. Myv. A. p. 193.
4. The name is taken from his own poem, pp. 280 i of Myv. Archaeology.
ana mat several were Killed in nis cause, iwo were uuucu wnu uuu >u *uu ^.VY. *uv.-,.
Price, Hanes Cymru, p. 584. desires to identify their father with Cedifor Wyddel. See in Myv.
Arch. p. 174 : Marwnad Ithel apCadifor Wyddel . Cynddelw ai Cant.
6. His poems in the Myvyrian Arch. : (a) Gwynnuart Brycheinyawc a Gant yr awdyl honn yr Arglwyt
Rys, p. 199. (i) Canu y Dewi. Gwynnuart Brycheinyawc ae Cant. pp. 1946.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 61
was entrusted the "preservation of the genealogies and
historical documents of the chief families of the land ; theirs
it was to bear messages from one lord to another ; theirs to
incite the chiefs to warlike courage ; and the law required
that before the battle, 2 they should address them on the
Monarchy of Britain, no doubt to remind them of the loss
of the Celtic supremacy of the island, and of the deeds of
valour of their forefathers against their Saxon rivals.
3 Again and again in the poems we find their fierce hatred
of the English, and to it in part we must attribute their
attacks upon the monks of the Latin church who were
looked upon as aliens encroaching upon Welsh land. It is
difficult to underestimate their importance as leaders of
opinion, in keeping up the fever of war and the hatred of
race ; but the English kings understood it as well as the
early Ethelfrith, and by severe laws attempted their
There was at this time a tendency towards the production
of a drama. We know from the Four Branches of the
Mabinogi- that conversation was an art prized at an early
period by the Cymry ; and the repetition of such phrases
i. See the valuable passage in Gir. Camb. Op. vi.j 167 8, where he clearly states that tbe bards kept
ancient and authentic genealogies of their princes in the Welsh tongue. The genealogies of
Owain ap Howel Dda and his mother Elen in Harleian MS. 3859 most probably date back to
the Xth Century, and are evidently from a Welsh original. It has been the fashion to deride
Welsh genealogies, but they are no less worthy of trust than those of other nations. Giraldus
speaks of the regard of Welsh for high birth, and their great care of their pedigrees (Op. vi. 200.)
Rhys ap Tewdwr ap Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ap Howel Dda. By leaving out the Cadell,
In Descriptio Cambriae (Op. vi. 167) he gives us the correct descent of Rhys ap Gruffudd
great confusion has been caused by certain writers. Tewdwr ab Einion died according to the
Brut, in 993 = 995, probably. So Rhys ap Tewdwr was made, even if a posthumous child, to be
between ninety and a hundred when he ruled South Wales. As a matter of fact, Rhys ap
Tewdwr ap Cadell ab Einion must have been quite a young man when he is supposed to have
begun his reign, perhaps in the Autumn of 1078, and cannot have been much more than forty at
his death, during Easter week of 1093. His son Gruffudd was a child, and fled to Ireland,
where he remained until he reached manhood. From the account of the Brut, ad 1112 = 5, ne
must have come back to South Wales in 1113, a clear proof of his extreme youth at his father's
a. Unbeinyaeth Prydein. W. Laws, ed. Aneurin Owen, i., 34 5, 660 i.
3. Curiously it is not y Ffreinc, y Normanyeit of the Brut., but y Saeson, yr Eingl, y Lloegrwys, against
whom the hatred of the bards is directed. Gwalchmai : Gwalchmai ym gelwir gelyn y saeson ;
Myv. Arch. p. 143. Danyel ap Llosgwrn M. : Gwr a wnaei ar lloegyr llwyr anreith. A dwyn
y dynyon yn geith ; Myv. Arch. p. 193. Seisyll Bryffwrch : Ac eingl ar darf godurf giliaw ;
Myv. Arch. p. 237.
62 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
as " ymdidan a wnaethant," and the frequency of short
dialogues interspersed in the narrative, shows an inclination
to dramatic effect. The dialogue in prose easily passed
into the dialogue in verse. The rhymed conversation
called Kyvoesi Myrdin a Gwendyd y Chuaer consists of
one hundred and forty-one verses. Myrddin, in answer to
Gwenddydd, predicts the succession of Welsh sovereigns
from the time of Rhydderch Hael. The list given is
correct, and the names are exact, till the reign of Howel
Dda. Thenceforward all is obscure ; Howel's successors
are called Bargodyein or Border-men, Brehyryeit or Barons,
and so forth. ' From this circumstance Llwyd assigned
the poem to the middle of the tenth century. If verses 71
to 84 which refer to Henry II. and his successors and to
Owain Gwynedd be recognized as interpolations, there can
be no doubt that the internal evidence of the rest of the
poem is in favour of his view.
Whatever be the opinion adopted on this, there can be
no doubt as to the antiquity of the dialogue between
Taliesin and Myrddin, which is found on the first three
leaves of the Black Book of Caerfyrddin, written 2 in the
large hand attributed to a scribe of the reign of Stephen.
j. Thos. Stephens, Lit. of the Kymry. pp. 2027. He refers it to about 1080 and thinks it was written
to promote the interests of Rhys ap Tewdwr. He identifies the confused personages mentioned
in the poem with princes of the Xth and XI th Centuries. Thus in the order of the poem :
The Bargodyein are leuaf and lago, sons of Idwal Foel.
The Brehyryeit are Howel and Cadwallon, sons of leuaf.
Kynan y Cwn is Cynan ap lago.
Serven Wynn is Sifnerth of Dyfed.
Gruffud is Gruffudd ap Llywelyn.
Cuyn Guarther is Bleddyn ap Cynfyn Gwyn.
Gylvin is Glwncayn, son of Abloyc of the Brut.
Machy dau banner is Macht ab Harallt of the Brut.
Beli Hir is Trahaiarn ap Caradog.
These identifications are ingenious, but more than conjectural. Recognized Sovereigns of Wales are not
mentioned, and some are given as such who had not the remotest connection with the govern-
ment of the country. Thus Glwmayn is none other than Gluniarainn mac Amhlaibh of the
Chron. Scotorum ad 987 = 9, and yet this Irish prince is made to follow Bledhyn ap Cynfyn who
was killed in 1075 [Brut, ad 1073], in the government or pennaeth of Wales.
2. See the Palaeographical note of J. Gwenogfryn Evans, prefaced to the Facsimile of the Black Book of
Carmarthen, Oxford, 1888.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 63
It suggests to us that rhymed dialogues were, by the middle
of the twelfth century, much in vogue, ' and we have several
which certainly go back to this period and confirm the
suggestion. 2 One writer has been of opinion that miracle
plays were already acted in the Welsh language, but un-
fortunately he relies far too much on the Gwentian
Chronicle and his theory consequently requires revision.
The literature of the time was not confined to poetry.
""What are known as the Pedeir Kainc y Mabinogi are
a series of prose tales contained in manuscripts of the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but which show indica-
tions of being copies from originals of the twelfth. Even
if in their present state they go back no further, the
materials which have gone to form them were of high
antiquity. The titles of the tales are Pwyll Prince of
Dyfed ; Branwen, daughter of Llyr ; Manawyddan, son of
1. We have the following dialogues :
(a) Kyvoesi Myrdin a Gwendyd y Chuaer, printed in the Myv. Arch. pp. 108 115.
(i) Ymdidan rhwng Myrdin Wyllt a Thaliessin, on the first three leaves of the Llyfr Du
Caerfyrddin, printed in Myv. Arch. p. 45. Transcribed about 1150.
(c) Dialogue between Myrddin and Ysgolan on f. 41 of the Llyfr Du. Printed on p 104 of the
Myv. Arch, with the following superscription : I Yscolan. Myrddin Wyllt ai Cant.
(d) Ymddyddan Arthur a Chai a Glewlwyd on p. 127 of Myv. Arch, on f. 476 of Llyfr Du.
(e) Ymryson Gwyddneu a Gwyn ab Nudd, Myv. Arch. pp. 126 7, Llyfr Du. f. 49.
(/) Yradiddan rhwng Ugnach ab Mydno, o Gaer Seon, a Thaliesin o Gaer Deganwy. Myv.
Arch., p. 44, Llyfr Du, f. 51.
The fact that with the exception of two elegies on Madog ap Maredudd by Cynddelw, there is not in
the Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin ?.ny poem of the known bards of the Xllth Century, does certainly
suggest that the scribe preferred to copy older work. Without building too much on a slight
foundation, I am inclined to believe that most of the poems in the Llyfr Du are older than the
middle of the Xlltb Century.
There are other dialogues in the Myv. Arch., the date of which it is difficult to fix. [M. A. pp. 123 4,
130 3]. Cf. also the Amryson Cyndelw a Seisyll Bryfwrch.
2. He bases his arguments on :
(a) The words : A chynnal pob chwareuon hud a lledrith, a phob arddangos in the Gwen-
tian Chron. ad 1135.
(4) The rhymed dialogues.
(c) The frequent use of of the word miragl in the poems of the bards in connections which
forbid our supposing they refer to the Miracles of Scripture. For this see Lit. of the
Kymry, pp. 69 83.
3. See Rhys ; Arthurian Legend, pp. i 6, 282, 377, 3878, &c.
64 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
Llyr ; and Math, son of Mathonwy. They are completely
free from the knight-errantry which enters so much into
the later Welsh stories which have been influenced by
Norman ideas. Arthur is not once mentioned, and the
heroes of the play are taken from Goidelic parts of Wales,
and chiefly from Dyfed, the home of Pwyll and Pryderi.
Prominence is given to magic and the supernatural, to
Dyfed, the land of enchantment. The Mabinogi formed
the repertoire of the young apprentice bard, and he recited
them no doubt at prices fixed by the law of custom. As
we have them now they are delightful in their simplicity,
their short flowing sentences, their appeals to magical
effect, the clearness with which they reflect the ideas of a
bygone age, the love of social entertainment and conversa-
tion. To the student they are invaluable for folklore, pre-
historic archaeology and ethnology ; and they add to our
knowledge of social and political life under the tribal
Other tales, too, which were gathered together with the
preceding, and entitled Mabinogion, but had no claim to
the name, go back to this period, although as they now
stand, they bear the impress of later days. Thus the story
of the Dream of Rhonabwy is evidently later than the time
of Madog ap Maredudd, as both he and his brother
lorwerth are therein mentioned ; but the reference is a
superposition on older matter, and the fact that Norman
ideas of chivalry do not find their way either into this story
or into that of Kilhwch and Olwen, is in favour of the
antiquity of both. Even those tales which undoubtedly
show traces of Norman manipulation, were drawn often
from earlier Welsh originals, the materials for which go
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 65
back to a remote period. ' The ystoriawyr or story tellers
gained fame from where they displayed conspicuous ability ;
and Bledri is mentioned by Giraldus as one of the most
renowned of the age.
Curiously, of the Welsh literature of this century, the
poetry extant is chiefly from the pen of North Welsh bards,
but for the prose we are indebted to South Wales. Not
only the lighter tales, but most of the historical work of the
time show a Southern origin. 2 The greatest literary name
of the time is that of Gruffudd ab Arthur, commonly known
as Geoffrey of Monmouth. To few men has it been given
to influence so widely the literature of the world. 3 The
Gwentian Chronicle says he was connected by blood with
Bishop Uchtryd of Llandaff. He entered the Church, and
obtained rapid promotion by family influence and his con-
nection with the house of Gloucester. His learning gained
him renown ; he studied Celtic literature, was on intimate
terms with Welsh men of letters, and at the request of
Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, published a Latin translation
of prophecies of the famous Merlin. Meanwhile he was
actively engaged in writing the Historia Britonurn, which
was dedicated to Robert of Gloucester. This work sealed
his reputation, and he was chosen a few years after as the
successor of Gilbert in the see of St. Asaph. 4 On the i6th
of February, 1152, he was ordained priest, and on the 24th
1. " Famosus ille fabulator Bledhericus, qui tempora nostra paulo praevenit," says Giraldus [Ap. vi. 202].
2. Gruffudd is the name of the son of Seisyll ab Dyfnwal in the Brut. MSS. A. B. C. ad 1175 ; but the
MSS. D. E. of the Brut, and B. C. of the Ann. Camb. give Geffrei, Gefrei or Geffre. Cf. the
curious variations in the name of Bernard's predecessor to the see of St. David's. Ad 1083 = 5
in the Brut, he is called Wilffre, Giraldus calls him Wilfredus (Op. vi. 90) and Wilfre (vi. 104).
Ann. Camb. ad 1115, Wilfre and Wilfridus. Brut, ad 1112 = 5 calls him leffrei ; one MS. (D.)
Geffrei. The Gwentian Chron. ad 1112 Griffri.
3. Gwent. Chron. ad 1152.
4. Gerv. Cant, i., 142 ; ii., 325.
66 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
of the month consecrated bishop by Theobald at Canter-
bury. He does not seem to have visited his diocese ;
We find him on the i6th of November, 1153, witnessing
the Charter of Agreement between Henry and Stephen ;
1 and in 1155 he died suddenly at the celebration of mass in
The question of the materials employed by Geoffrey for
his work, has been and is still involved in much obscurity ;
but there is no sufficient reason for doubting his own ver-
sion. He probably translated a Breton original, and used
the Latin Nennius and possibly some Cymric manuscript
embodying the national legends ; and in welding them into
a harmonious whole, he has displayed evident literary skill.
The Historia Britonum is an epic in prose, telling the story
of the ancient British race from the days of Brutus to the
death of Cadwaladr Fendigaid ; and Arthur is its real hero,
and no inconsiderable part is given to a description of his
deeds. The deliberate blending of truth and lie in history
has been laid to Geoffrey's charge, and yet he did not claim
to be so much a historian as a translator ; and a man of his
learning would have found no difficulty in adding to their
appearance of truth, had he merely wished to concoct fables
of his own. We must all consider the mark of a man on his
age, on posterity. It is when judged by such a standard that
Geoffrey will assume gigantic proportions. 2 His influence
was immediate and permanent, and some of the chefs
d'oeuvre of European literature owe to him much of their
Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, here deserves mention
i. Brut, ad 1154 = 5. He is wrongfully called Bishop of Llandaff. Cf. Gwentian Chronicle ad 1152.
?. T Gibray has left an excellent sketch of Geoffrey's literary influence.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 67
on account of his ' connection with Geoffrey of Monmouth.
He was much interested in British antiquities, and visited
Brittany whence he brought the famous manuscript used
by Geoffrey. 2 It has been maintained that he was a
Welshman, but no sufficient proof is forthcoming, and the
statement may be due to a confusion with his namesake of
the close of the century.
Another historian of this time was Caradog of Llancar-
fan. He wrote, in Welsh, a Chronicle from the death of
Cadwaladr Fendigaid to the twelfth century. He was a
man competent to do his work, and his Chronicle no doubt
formed the basis of the annals preserved at the Welsh mon-
asteries of Ystrad Fflur and Aberconwy. 3 These were
afterwards multiplied by the bards, very many of whom
made transcriptions for their own use, adding rarely a
scrap of information derived from tradition or some other
Chronicle in their possession. The divergence in the
fullness of the historical account of the Brut y Tywysogion
of the Rolls Series, the original manuscript of which
must have been the Annals of Ystrad Fflur, is very
marked about the end of the first quarter of the twelfth
century, and the political sympathies of the writer change ;
1. Geoffrey visited Oxford in 1129 when with Archdeacon Walter he was a witness of the Osney Charter.
[Sir F. Madden on the Berne MS. in Journal of Arch. Institute, 1858, p. 305.
2. There were three Archdeacons of Oxford in the Xllth century called Walter : (a) Walter some-
times called Calenius, who was still living in 1151 and was Geoffrey's friend. (b) Walter de
Coutances, archdeacon in 1183. (c) Walter Map or Mapes, archdeacon in 1197, still living
in 1208. The first and third have been often confounded. Thos. Stephens, among many others
has been led astray. Walter Map was undoubtedly of Welsh stock, [see his De Nugis, ii, 20,]
and calls himself a marcher of Wales [ib. ii, 23]. He has been claimed as a native of Pembroke-
shire [Notes and Queries, 3rd Series, XL, 386 ; and Hardy's Cat. Brit. Hist., ii, 487] ; and of
Herefordshire [Ward's Cat. of Romances in the Mus. Brit., i, 7368] ; while others say he was
a son of Blondel de Mapes by Fflur, daughter of Gweirydd ap Seisyllt of Llancarfan in Gla-
morgan, and attribute the foundation of Trewalter to him. [Stephen's, Lit. of the K.
pp. 310 i, &c.]
3. The list given by the poet and grammarian John Rhydderch of persons who wrote Histories of Wales
or Britain, refers probably to bardic transcriptions or abbreviations of known Chronicles, and
especially the Brut y Tywysogion. The Llyfr leuan Brechfa, and if it be the transcription of
Guttyn Owain, the Llyfr Du Basing, would be indications of this,
68 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
1 and I am inclined to attribute this to the use of Caradog's
Chronicle for the first part of the work, which was after-
wards supplemented by regular additions at stated periods.
2 Little is known of Caradog, but he was on terms of friend-
ship with Geoffrey, who, according to one authority,
supplied him with materials for his work.
The same time which saw the publication of the histories
of Caradog of Llancarfan and Geoffrey of Monmouth,
was distiguished by the completion of the valuable compila-
tion known as the Book of Llandaff. The records of
grants of land are generally the earliest elements in the
history of a diocese, and it is probable that by the tenth
century some effort was made to obtain a clear recognition
by written charters of the possessions of the see ; and a
great impetus to this movement was no doubt given by
Urban, who was continually disputing with his neighbour
bishops about the frontiers of his ecclesiastical domain.
3 The Book of Llandaff received its definite form certainly
after the death of Urban, and probably before that of
Stephen. 4 It must be considered as a plea for the Church
of Glamorgan, and it has certainly been put together with
1. This would agree very well with the date, 1124, assigned for Caradog's death by the editors of the
History and Antiquities of St. David's, referring to Nova Legenda Angliae, fol. iv ; but it
probably refers, unfortunately, to Caradog, the Hermit. The bard and herald Gutyn Owain
(fl. 1451 1495,) gives 1156 as the date, and it has been generally accepted. But it seems certain
that Caradog died before the publication of the Histona Britonum, the latest date for which
2. He was a monk of Llancarfan in Glamorgan, and perhaps one of the band of literary men who
gathered round Robert of Gloucester. He is said to have written : Commentarii in Merlinum
De Situ Orbis and Vita Gildae. [Bale, Script. Brit. Cat., p. 196] of the first two nothing
is known ; the Vita Gildae, published by Stevenson for the Eng. Hist. Soc., is possibly his.
He has been confounded by Ab Ithel, and others with Caradog the Hermit, of whom we hear
much from Giraldus, who was himself the author of a Vita S. Karadoci ; but there is no
evidence to prove that they were one and the same person. Ab Ithel in his preface to the Brut,
p. xxiii., says he was a son of Llefoed Wynebglawr or Flat Face, whose poem entitled
Gorymdeith Llevoet Wyneb Glawr is found in Myv. Arch. pp. 118 9. Several poems have
been attributed to Caradog himself, such as one addressed to Gwgan the Bearded in the Myv.
Arch., and two in the lolo MSS. entitled, Englynion yr Asswynau and Englynion y Gorugan,
which have also been attributed to Llefoed and Geraint y Bardd Glas.
3. On p. 85 of the Oxford edition of Rhys and Evans we hear of Urban as praedictus episcopus vir
4. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, in preface to Book of Llandaff, gives reasons for supposing Geoffrey of
Monmouth to have been the author.
CHAP. 6.J THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 69
no mean ability. The lives of the first bishops of that
Church are no doubt largely overgrown, like most lives of
saints, with legends ; but even they, perhaps, contain germs
of truth. From the Book of Llandaff we derive most
of our knowledge of the early history of Morganwg, and
1 the most competent authorities are in favour of the
authenticity of its records.
Another work which may be considered to date back in
its original form to the twelfth century is 2 the Hanes Neu
Buchedd Gruffudd ap Cynan, printed in the Myvyrian
Archaeology. Unlike the histories of Caradog and Geoffrey
which lay claim to equal antiquity, it has received but scant
attention. Evidently a native of Gwynedd, and an enthu-
siastic supporter of its royal house, the author, 3 Sir John
Wynne tells us, was an old Welsh monk ; and his book
was in the sixteenth century translated into Latin by
4 Nicolas Robinson, Bishop of Bangor. 5 The original seems
to have been undoubtedly Welsh, and the Latin headings
and references to Simeon of Durham and Ordericus Vitalis
are perhaps to be attributed to the Bishop, and were not
found in one of the manuscripts used by the editors of the
Myvyrian Archaeology. The fullness of the narrative sug-
gests that it was written but shortly after Gruffudd's death,
by one who used an historical work on the eleventh
century now lost. For it is evident by the most cursory
glance at this biography, that quite a disproportionate part
i. Seebohm, Tribal System in Wales. 2. Myv. Arch. pp. 721 734.
3. Sir John died ist March, 1626 = 7. History f the Gwydyr Family.
4. Bishop in 1566, died 3rd February, 1584 = 5 ; Le Neve, Fast. Eccl. Angl.
5. Thos. Price (Hanes Cymru, p. 528 note), based his opinion that the work was originally written in
Latin on :
(o) The division of the work by Latin headings.
(4) The Commentary on the Prophecy of Merlin.
(c) Certain turns of phrase which suggest translation from Mediaeval Latin.
70 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6
treats of Gruffudd's early career, and that scarce one-seventh
of it refers to the last thirty-seven years of his life. The
genealogy of Gruffudd forms a preface to the work. Its
length and complexity fully bear out Giraldus' statement
about the care of the Welsh for their pedigrees and their
pride of race. The writer casually refers to the descent
from Rollo of William the Conqueror and his two sons, and
Stephen his nephew, but he mentions no later English
monarch. * We are led, till further evidence from manu-
scripts and a good edition of the work permit a revision of
the opinion, to believe that the Hanes Gruffudd was written
in the middle of the twelfth century.
2 The Welsh were even then a remarkably musical
people. They played the harp, the violin and the pipe ;
and prominence was given to these instruments in the great
feasts which from time to time were held by the principal
chieftains. 3 Giraldus describes their singing in parts as
distinguished from singing in unison ; and of their singing
in general speaks in terms of high praise.
4 There was also at this time a movement in the direc-
tion of multiplying the manuscripts of the country. The
Kymric school of writing, especially in Deheubarth, was
under the influence of French models ; but very little work
of the time has been preserved. The oldest manuscript
known is the famous Black Book of Caerfyrddin which
contains forty-three pieces, chiefly in verse, of the twelfth
and preceeding centuries. The first transcripts are in a
1. The publication of a critical edition of this work, after collation of existing MSS. would be a service
to Welsh history.
2. Thos. Stephens, Lit. of the Kymry, pp. 5569. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 1867.
3. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 189.
4. See Gwenogfryn Evans' introduction to the Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 71
large bold hand, whereas the latter are in small writing ;
but the whole of it is quite legible.
Little doubt can exist that a period distinguished by
fertility in other branches of human activity, was marked
by attention to the institutions of the land ; though the
number of authoritative references to definite legal changes
is small. The Laws of Howel Dda were themselves but
an adaptation of former observances to the phase of tribal
life found in the tenth century ; and in the twelfth they
received considerable modification, thought necessary owing
to the new conditions which the struggle with the Normans
brought about. It is probable the Welsh Code as we have
it now, takes us back to this period, and one * manuscript at
least appears to be of the close of the century. The
majority of those extant are much later, but they are bardic
transcripts of the earlier, just as the numerous copies of the
Brut, derive from an original of about 1290. The political
and social wisdom everywhere manifest in the laws points
to a long experience of the tribal system ; and gives them
much value in the comparative study of human institutions.
For Wales as it was for Europe, the twelfth century
was an era of change in religious life. The violence of the
Norman usurpation had brought her, face to face with Latin
Christianity, fashioned anew by the genius of Hildebrand ;
and when her own church succumbed, she adopted perforce,
though gradually, the celibacy of the priesthood, the Roman
discipline and ritual. This brought her into closer contact
than she had been with the rest of the western world, and
the same high motives and aspirations, which influenced
the rest of Christendom, had their effect upon her people.
i. See Aneurin Owen's Preface to his edition of the Welsh Laws, pp. xxv., xxvi., xxvii.
72 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. CHAP. 6.]
We have evidence that the first two crusades did not leave
her indifferent ; and pilgrimages to Rome and the places
revered of Christians in the distant East were not uncommon.
Another great factor in the communication of Wales with
other parts of Europe, was the influence of the religious
orders. The Cistercian movement which received immense
impetus from the Normans, was finally supported by the
Welsh themselves, so that the three abbeys of Tal y
Llychau, Cwmhir and Ystrad Fflur in the south, most
probably owed their origin, and at any rate, eventually, a
large part of their endowment, to their own princes.
"Further, in Glamorgan, to such abbeys as Neath and
Margam, which were founded by Normans, the Welsh
princes and people became great benefactors almost from
the first ; and there is no interruption during the twelfth
century in their grants of land.
But in addition to this excitation of religious feeling
from without, there was great fermentation and fervour
within. The Celtic church did not disappear before its
rival, as some would fain believe, like a shadow ; and the
age is full of instances of the violence and bitterness of the
conflict. At every vacancy of a bishopric the old Welsh
party attempted the installation of a nominee bound to its
views ; but the Norman monarchs and archbishops would
never permit the government of a Welsh see by a Welsh-
man. Every motive was adduced against such a course ;
but the real one was its alleged impolicy. The Welsh
native clergy was accused of ignorance and superstition ;
but unless we are to suppose that the priests were inferior
in intellectual level to their contemporaries, the chieftains
i For Ncath and Margam Charters see G. T. Clark's Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 73
and bards, the plea that they were ignorant must be
rejected. Certainly superstition was rife, but not a country
in Christian Europe was then free from the stain. As a
matter of fact, the ecclesiastical policy of the English kings
in Wales was due to a belief that Norman bishops would
form valuable allies in the subjugation of the country.
The Welsh princes, too, whose wild life of war would
seem to have debarred them from more peaceful pursuits,
were men influenced by religious motives, as much as by
literary effusion and oratory. Many of them built
monasteries, like their Norman neighbours, for the salva-
tion of their souls. 'The Brut delights in showing how
before death they underwent penance and made a holy
confession of their sins, and after communion of the Body
of Christ, and extreme unction, were buried in the sacred
precincts of a religious foundation of their own. And
lastly, the works of the bards add their evidence to prove
that at this epoch as in others of Welsh history, religion
was a great factor in the life of the people, and in different
ways affected the higher and lower classes of Welsh Society.
History shows us that the character of a people does
not easily change. Great migrations, social, political, and
even religious revolutions, while they tend no doubt to the
gradual modification, have nowhere wrought a radical
transformation of racial tendencies. More perhaps than
many, the Cymric nation has suffered from such. The
migrations of the fifth century, the loss of independence
in the thirteenth, the social and religious changes of the
sixteenth, have all been brought to bear upon a people
i. Brut, ad 1129=32; 1136=7; 1159=60; 1169=70. Deaths of Maredudd ap Bleddyn, Gruffudd ap
Cynan, Madog ap Maredudd, and Owain Gwynedd.
74 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
eminently sensitive, but while they have wrought super-
ficial changes, they have not profoundly modified the
1 In the twelfth century, the Welsh were as a nation
given up to war. The lances of the North, the bowmen of
the South of Wales, and especially of Gwent, were famous.
At the first sound of battle, the noble left his castle, the
husbandman his plough. The former fought on horseback ;
but the bulk of the Welsh forces were foot-soldiers, lightly
armed, as was necessary in a land of mountain fastness and
forest. In a charge, their dashing valour astonished their
foes, who did not understand how an enemy on foot, un-
protected by armour, dared meet the Norman mailed horse.
But did they meet with stubborn resistance, they fell back
as quickly as they came, only to return, if opportunity
offered, to the onslaught.
2 They were distinguished by thrift and sobriety, and
endurance of hunger and cold. 3 They reverenced chastity.
Their hospitality was remarkable ; 4 the host and hostess
waited in person upon the visitor, and he was entertained
with the company of girls, the music of the harp, and
every variety of social cheer. The women wore white
turbans covering the head. Both men and women took
great care of their teeth ; the former shaved the beard, 5 but
left the hair of the upper lip.
6 They lived in wattled huts near the skirts of a wood
1. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 179181. See also vi. 54, 177.
2. G. C. Op. vi., 182, 212.
3. Giraldus' testimony is of no value, because he looked at Welsh customs from the point of view of a
member of the Latin church. But see the Pedair Kainc y Mabinogi.
4. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 1834.
5. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 185. Cf. Caesar, De Bello Gallico, lib. v., cap. 14.
6. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 176, 180, 207, 211, &c.
CHAP. 6.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 75
in constant fear of a foe. They preferred to maintain
themselves by the excitement of rapine, than by the peaceful
ploughing of land ; their agriculture was consequently
primitive ; but they took great care of their cattle, for they
lived rather by their flesh, and on butter, cheese and milk,
than by bread. They cared but little for commerce either
by land or sea, and those mechanical arts which were not
of service to war, received little support. Above all they
were proud of their blood, "and an adherent of Henry's in
the campaign of 1 1 63, affirmed the popular belief that
neither the Welsh race nor their language would ever cease.
It was no doubt the bad government of England for
nearly twenty years, which was the prime cause of the
success of the rebellion against the Norman yoke. But it
was not the only one. Wales under Beauclerc's reign was
thoroughly under Norman control. The annals of Gwynedd
in the Brut during those thirty-five years are almost a
blank ; and we learn from other sources that it enjoyed
profound tranquility under Gruffudd ; and that agriculture,
commerce and the arts of peace flourished. Deheubarth
itself was partitioned among the foreigners, and though
once or twice Gruffudd ap Rhys had raised tumult in the
country, yet it was comparatively quiet, and for the last
nineteen years of the reign is hardly mentioned by the
Brut. Powys alone resisted Norman influence, and was
a scene of continual violence and bloodshed. It seems
that to this must be attributed in part the decline of
Powysian influence after the death of Maredudd ap
Bleddyn. The population of the district diminished in
Henry's reign, while that of Gwynedd and Deheubarth
i. G. C. Op. vi., 227.
76 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 6.
increased by rapid bounds. ' One writer waxes enthusiastic
over the iron government of the Southern districts by the
Normans, and the restoration therein of law and order, and
asserts that in fertility and plenty, they could compare with
the most productive parts of Britain. 2 This increase in
wealth and population was the determining factor which
enabled Wales to profit by Stephen's misgovernment.
The natural strength of the country, the adoption of Norman
tactics where they were of advantage, of the system of
castle building for the defence of land, above all the growth
of a strong national feeling which forced the numerous
native princes, from inclination or policy, to cease from
their fatal broils of the beginning of the century, and to
tend rather to union against a common foe, all these were
so many aids to resistance of aggression, which the
undoubted talent of two Welsh princes, Owain Gwynedd
and Rhys ap Gruffudd, turned to account against a far
greater enemy than Stephen had ever been.
1. Gesta. Steph. p. 329. He says Wales, but his remarks can only apply to South Wales.
2. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 217 8.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 77
MILITARY AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF WALES FROM 1154 TO 1167.
Henry II. Roger of Hereford's opposition to him Reconciliation - Mortimer's revolt
The King Wars in the Marches Mortimer's submission Death of Roger of Here-
ford, 1155 Death of Maredudd ap Gruffudd of South Wales His great ability
Rhys ap Gruffudd The Flemings in Rhos and Gwyr Hostilities between Owain
Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffudd Intrigues of Cadwaladr of Gwynedd and Madog
of Powys with Henry Henry's first invasion of Wales, 1157, and its failure Events
in South Wales Earl William at war with the Welsh Ifor Bach storms Cardiff
Castle, 1158 Henry treats with Rhys ap Gruffudd Clifford and Clare return to
Wales to occupy their fiefs - Plundering of Rhys' land Rhys takes Llanymddyfri
and drives Clare from Ceredigion - Henry's second invasion of Wales, 1158 Rhys
besieges Caerfyrddin, but is forced to raise the siege Death of Madog ap Maredudd,
1160 Diminution of the influence of Powys in the Welsh affairs War in Maelien-
ydd and in Powys Rhys ap Gruffudd's successes in South Wales Henry's third
invasion of Wales, 1163 Rhys submits The Welsh princes do homage at Wood-
stock Henry II's policy Rhys again at war in South Wales, drives the Clares from
Ceredigion Owain's activity on the North East frontier Henry's fourth and last
invasion of Wales, 1 165 Unity of the Welsh Henry's failure Rhys takes Aberteifi
and Cilgerran Foundation of Strata Florida Negotiations of Owain with Louis VII
of France Capture of Basingwerk, 1166 Owain Cyfeiliog attacked by Owain
Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffudd Fall of Prestatyn and Rhuddlan before the Welsh,
HHHE prince that succeeded that gallant but feeble
monarch on the throne of England, was destined to
play an important part in Welsh history. ' He was a scion
of the house of Plantagenet, which had risen to eminence by
continual conflict with its Norman and Breton neighbours.
Popular legends, influenced by the wild and inconsistent
character of its members, traced the origin of that house to
the intercourse of the Devil with a daughter of Anjou.
2 Henry II. was himself a native of those smiling provinces
which are watered by the Sarthe ; he was a son of the
1. The first who bore the name of Plantagenet was Henry's own father, Geoffrey V. of Anjou.
2. Henry II. was born at Le Mans, on Mid-Lent Sunday, $th March, 1133. [Acta Pontif. Cenomann.
c. 36, in Mabillon, Vet. Analecta., p. 322],
7 8 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD, [CHAP. 7.
French soil, and a Frenchman at heart ; and it was on his
French provinces that he lavished alike his wayward affec-
tion and his direct beneficence. At his accession he was
barely twenty-one. J He seemed to have united in his own
character most of the distinctive features of his race, its
vices as well as its virtues, its weaknesses as well as its
talents, its uncontrollable passions as well as its calculating
prudence in policy, in fine, all those contradictions of temper
which had made the descendants of Ingelger a byword
among men. The immense possessions which by inherit-
ance, by marriage or by conquest, were brought beneath
his sway, joined to his qualities as an able general and an
astute diplomat, made him formidable ; and he was one of
the most dangerous enemies that the Celtic-speaking
peoples have had in their long history. During his reign,
not only Wales, but Scotland, Ireland and Brittany, felt his
power and acknowledged his supremacy.
Henry's great object at the beginning of his reign was
the recovery of the royal castles, and the dismantling of
those which the nobles had put up in the reign of Stephen.
And he took no pains to hide his views, knowing that they
were popular with the body of the nation, who had tired of
ravage and slaughter. But the great nobles feared for the
power they had exercised without hindrance for so long.
Earl William of Gloucester was too timid, 2 Earl Hugh of
Chester, too young to commence a vigorous struggle, 3 but
Roger of Hereford withdrew from court, and hurried west
to prepare Gloucester tower and his Hereford castles for
1. For Henry's character see a good description by Dr. Stubbs ; Preface to vol. ii. of the Gesta. Reg.
Henr. Sec. Benedicti Abb. in Rolls Series ; and Miss Kate Norgate's Article on Henry II. in
the Diet, of Nat. Biography.
2. Will. Malm, ii., 569, says : Is comes [Randulfus] filiam comitis Gloecestrensis jamdudum a tempore
regis Henrici duxerat.
3. Gerv. Cant, i., 161.
CHAP. 7] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 79
defence. Many who feared openly to avow his cause,
favoured him in secret, T but the only noble of mark who
actively supported him was Hugh de Mortimer, who fortified
the castles of Cleobury, Wigmore and Bridgnorth against
the king. 2 From the Welsh, however, who looked to him
as a descendant through his mother of Kings Gruffudd ap
Llywelyn and Trahaiarn ap Caradog, and who were further
ever ready to join an opponent of the English crown, the
Earl received hearty support, and they garrisoned in
numbers his castles in the Marches. Eventually Gilbert
Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, Roger's own kinsman, came to
him and showed him the danger of embarking, without
support, on war with a popular king. Persuaded by the
eloquence of Gilbert, Roger was reconciled to Henry on
the 1 3th of March, 1155, and gave up the royal castle of
Gloucester. 3 But Hugh de Mortimer, who is described
by his contemporaries as a man of dashing valour, but of
presumptuous arrogance, refused to yield Bridgnorth. The
king acted with promptitude, and besieged his three castles
all at once. Cleobury he took and burnt. On the 7th of
July, Mortimer submitted, surrendering Bridgnorth and
1 Earl Roger was confirmed in his hereditary estates,
but before the end of the year he died. Henry, who was
determined to diminish the power of the great families,
swollen to excess in the preceding reign, retained the earl-
dom of Hereford and the city of Gloucester in his own
hands. Walter, Miles' second son, only succeeded to his
1. For the revolt of William of Aumale in Yorkshire, see Will of Newburgh.
2. Gerv. Cant, i, 162.
3. For different references to his character, see Wm. of Newburgh, lib. ii., cap. iv. ; Robt. de Monte ad
1155 ; Gerv. Cant. L, 162.
4. Brut, ad 1154 = 5 ; Robert de Monte ad 1155.
8o THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
brother's lands and revenues in Wales and the Marches,
conspicuous among which were the lordship of Brycheiniog
and the castle of Abergafeni.
'In the same year, 1155, the Welsh sustained severe
loss by the death, at the age of twenty-five, of Maredudd
ap Gruffudd. There is unanimity of praise with regard to
this prince ; 2 twice the Brut departs from the dry record of
events to speak warmly of his virtues ; and 3 Giraldus lauds
the moderation of his rule. Certainly his ability was
great ; he was four years only the chief ruler of Deheu-
barth, during which he much extended his sway and
consolidated the authority of his house ; and 4 the Brut
emphatically calls him the King of Dyfed and Ceredigion
and the Vale of Tywi, for the last time giving the royal
title to a Welsh prince in South Wales. Death, when life
had barely begun, and his bravery and talent gave such
hopes for the future, aroused suspicion, 5 and some were
found to attribute his end to poison.
1 Rhys, the youngest of the sons of Gruffudd, survived
i. Brut, ad 1144 = 5; Ann. Camb. ad 1156 = 3. 2. Brut, ad ii45 = 6and 1154 = 5. 3- Gir. Camb. vi. 145.
4. All the MSS. used by Ab Ithel for his edtn. of the Brut. Repeat : Y bu uarw Maredud uab Gruffud
ab Rys brenhin Keredigiawn ac Ystrat Tywi a Dyfet. The Brut, y Saeson, Myv. Arch. p. 678,
says, ad 1154 = 5 : Y bu varw Moredud ap Grufud ap Rys o Keredigion oc ystrattywi adyvet.
5. Ann. Camb. c. MS. ad ann. 1156 = 5.
6. It is necessary to protest against the erroneous idea that Rhys at once succeeded to the government on
his father's death. It is due to the Gwentian Chron. : " Oed Crist 1136, bu farw Gruffydd ap
Rhys, a Rhys ei fab a gymerth ei le." It has led the Rev. Thos. Price, among others, in
Hanes Cymru. pp. 514 sq., to assume that Rhys was the eldest son of Gruffudd ap Rhys, and
the multitude of other errors into which he has fallen, will be seen from the following short
paragraph on p. 545 : " Heblaw Anarawd. a'i frawd Yr Arglwydd Rhys, gadawodd Gruffydd
ap Rhys ap Tewdwr, ddau fab erall, sef Cadell a Meredydd, gwyr ieuainc dewrion a chlodwiw.
Yr oedd Meredydd yn arglwydd Ceredigiawn, a. Chadell yn meddiannu tiriogaelh yn Nyfed ; ac
ymddengys fod Rhys yn mwynhau arbenicter Deheubarth, eithr ni ddeallaf pa beth ocdd
etifeddiaeth Anarawd." There is no authority for this division of territory, and it is no wonder
that he could not assign any particular district of Deheubarth to Anarawd, as the latter was
prince of the whole from 1137 to 1143. Similarly, Cadell in 1143, and Maredudd in 1151,
assumed the chief government of the country, and it was not till 1155 that Rhys could be said
to enjoy it. In Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 85, after a reference to Richard, who was son of Tancard,
castellan of Haverford and succeeded to his father's lands after the death of all his elder brothers,
we have the following words : " Similiter ad Resum Griphini filium. sublatis de medio multis
antea fratribus probris et pulcherrimis, dextralis Kambriae dominium est devolutum." This
extract clearly shows that Rhys did not succeed to the government of Deheubarth till after his
brother's death. Maredudd was 25 in 1155, and consequently was born in or about the year
1130; and Rhys, who was younger than he [Ann. Camb. ed. 1156 = 5] can hardly have been
born before 1132. He would have been barely five years old when his father died-
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 81
them. He was now about twenty-three. Like his
brothers before him, he inherited much of his father's
ability. He was as prudent in negotiation as he was brave,
in battle ; and he had literary tastes, for from the very first
years of his government of the country, he gave support to
the bards of his time, and enjoyed great popularity among
them. His youth might have excused the want of a settled
policy ; but he seems to have begun very early the group-
ing around himself of all the princes of Welsh blood in
South Wales ; a thing very necessary when we consider
that the lords of Maelienydd and Elfael, of Gwent and
Glamorgan, of Gwerthrynion and Deheubarth, had hitherto
been conspicuous rather from the wild incoherence of their
aims than from any attempt to combine against their Nor-
One of the first acts of Henry's reign had been the
expulsion of Flemish marauders, who, in large numbers,
devastated the country. They received an order to leave
the kingdom by an appointed day. They left ; but the
Chroniclers of the time give us no clue to trace their des-
tination. Some no doubt returned to Flanders ; ' but there
is a tradition that of them many came to reinforce the
settlements of their kinsmen in Rhos and Gwyr. Though
we have no positive evidence, it is very probable that this
was so ; and certainly the Flemings, during Rhys' lifetime,
recovered much of their power and unpopularity.
2 In 1 156 Owain Gwynedd prepared to recover Ceredi-
i. We find in the Gwentian Chronicle ad ann. 1154 : "Pan oedd Ystyffan yn Frenin fe ddaeth gydag ef
laweroedd o Fflandrysiaid i Ynys Prydain, a'r rhai hynny a'i carent, ac efe a ddodai
lawer o roddipn ac anrhydedd iddynt, canys goreuon o'i Bleidyddion oeddynt, a gwedi dyfod
Harri'r ail ni chaent arcs yn Lloegr, achaws hynny daeth niferoedd mawrion o honynt i
Cymru, a llawer o'r Saeson a gerynt Ystyffan, a'r dieithraid hynn a aethant yn wyr
damdwng i Bendefigion y Ffrancod yng Ngheredigiawn a Dyfed." = For the expulsion of the
Flemings from England, see Robert de Monte ad ann. 1155 ; William of Newburgh, lib. ii.,
cap. i. ; Gerv. Cant. Op. i., 161.
7 Brut, ad 1155 = 6; Ann. Camb. ad 1157 = 6.
82 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
gion, lost by his son three years before. Rhys led an army
to oppose the invasion, and marched as far north as
Aberdyfi. There he made trenches and awaited battle ;
but Owain declined the contest. Rhys then built a castle
at Aberdyfi and returned to South Wales. This expedition
of his paved the way to the future acquisition of Meirionydd.
1 Henry II. had gone to Normandy in the beginning of
1156. His successes in the short time that had succeeded
Stephen's death, had been brilliant, and it was natural that
his attention should soon turn to affairs beyond the Marches
with the desire of adding Wales to his dominion. A pre-
text was soon found. History can but condemn the two
princes who preferred their country's woe to their own.
Madog ap Maredudd had long chafed against the yoke.
Since the defeat at Cwnsyllt we hear no more of him for
some time ; 2 but in 1 156 he built a castle near Cymmer in
Caereinion, possibly with a view to the future operations.
His English sympathies grew with Owain's power. He
found a collaborator in Cadwaladr, who, since his expul-
sion from Mon, must have been a fugitive in England.
3 This prince was apparently the youngest of the three sons
ofGruffudd and Angharad, and was endowed with many
gifts that go to make a popular chief. 4 He was one of the
most liberal men of his time, and a generous patron of
literature. 5 The Brut, couples him with his brother Owain
1. Robt. de Monte ad ann. 1156.
2. The five MSS. used by ab Ithel ; say : Ygkaer Einawn yn ymyl Kymer. The Brut. ySaesonin Myv.
Arch. p. 678, differs slightly : Yngereinawn kyverbyn Kymher. What is known now as
Castell Caereinion is a village to the South-West of Welshpool.
3. The order Cadwallon, Owain, Cadwaladr is supported by what evidence we have. See Hanes
Gruffudd in Myy. Arch., Brut, ad 1122=5. The oldest MS. of the Brut. [Hengwrt, B.
of ab Ithel] assigns the invasion of Meirionydd in 1124 to Cadwailon and Owain, not
Cadwaladr and Owain. See Brut, ad 1121 = 4. Cadwallon was killed in 1132 [Brut, ad
1129 = 32; Ann. Camb.] Several MSS. wrongly refer to him as Cadwgan, son of Gruffudd
4. Gir. Camb. Op. vi., 145; see also Awdl a Gant. Gwalchmai i Dafyd mab Owain in Myv. Arch.
p. 146., lines 23 4 of the poem.
5. See Brut, ad 1135 = 6.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 83
in a long panegyric and asserts that he was an ornament of
the Welsh nation. * By his marriage with Alice, daughter
of Richard Fitz Gilbert, Cadwaladr had become a land-
owner in Lancashire and Shropshire, and we have a
charter by which he made donation of lands between
Mersey and Ribble to the Church. By her, too, he was
brother-in-law of the young Earl of Clare and no doubt
used the influence of that noble at court to further his own
interests. It was the disastrous system of gavelkind that
prevented Owain from gathering round him all Gwynedd
and turned into a mere partisan fighting for land, a man
who might have done incalculable service by steady co-
operation with his brother in a national policy.
Henry thought the claims of the two princes plausible,
and sufficient to justify an expedition. 2 He returned from
Normandy on the 7th of April 1157, and at the end of
June commenced preparations on a large scale for the
invasion and subjugation of Gwynedd. From all England,
three knights were called out to military service for every
two which had formerly been deemed sufficient. 3 In the
middle of July, Henry's forces concentrated in the plains of
Chester, while Owain Gwynedd with his sons and all the
forces he could muster, entrenched himself at Basingwerk
to oppose them. 4 The position must have been too strong
for direct attack, for Henry determined it to turn it by a
flank movement. Along the sea-coast of the Cantref of
1. The Charter of donation is found in Sir John Wynne's Hist, of the Gwydyr family; see Price,
Hanes Cymru, p. 549. It may be dated 1153 ; for among the witnesses we find R. comes
de Clara, and Ranulphus comes Cestriae. Now Roger succeeded his brother Gilbert
as Earl of Clare in 1153 ar >d Ranulph of Chester died in December of the same year.
For the lands in Shropshire see Pipe Roll ii. iii. iv. Henr. ii., p.p. 43. 88.
2. R. de Monte ad 1157. 3. After the lyth of July according to Gerv. Cant.
4. For what follows cf. Brut, y Tywysogion & Brut, y Saeson ad 1156 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1158 = 7 :
Wm. de Newburgh, lib. ii., cap. v. ; Gerv. Cant.
84 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
Tegeingl, with a body of picked men, the king in person
made a secret march, leaving the bulk of his troops to face
But Henry knew nothing of the difficult warfare of
Wales ; while threading their way through the wood of
Cennadlog near Cwnsyllt, he and his army were surprised
by Owain's two sons Dafydd and Cynan, who had intelli-
gence of the movement. At one time the king himself
was in danger and some spoke of his death. Henry of
Essex threw down the royal standard, and fled, telling of
the king's end to all he met. In vain, Henry showed
himself and succeeded in rallying his men. He escaped
with difficulty into the open plains. Eustace Fitz John
and Robert de Courci were among the many slain.
Owain, afraid of being outflanked, prudently retreated ;
and Henry gathered together all his troops at Rhuddlan.
1 Meanwhile the king's fleet had sailed to Mon. The
knights on board disembarked and ravaged the island,
plundering the cwmwd of Rhoshir and spoiling the
churches of St. Peter, St. Mary and St. Tyfrydog. The
men of Mon gathered together for vengeance on the
foreigners, and though themselves fewer in number and
badly armed, defeated them completely. Henry, son of
Nest by Henry I, carried away by his own courage, and
left with but a small following, was killed in the front rank,
and with him William Trenchemer and other knights of
name. Robert Fitz Stephen, another of Nest's sons, took
part in this expedition. He was grievously wounded in
i. For the operations of the fleet see Brut, ad 1156 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1158 = 7 ; Gir. Camb., Op. vi.
1301 ; William of Newburgh, lib. ii. cap. v. One MSS. used by ab Ithel [D.] for the Brut,
v Tywysogion, and also the Brut, y Saeson in the Myv. Arch. p. 678, make Madog ap
Maredudd of Powys, the commander of a portion of the king's fleet.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OVVAIN GWYNEDD. 85
the engagement, and with difficulty made his way to the
ships. Nearly all the leaders of the fleet were slain.
The news of this second disaster decided Henry to
make peace. He had not found war in Wales an easy
matter. Indeed, Owain lay still fronting him at Llwyn
Pina, and harassed his army night and day. Madog ap
Maredudd had arrived with the forces of Powys ; but
instead of joining Henry, 'he had taken up a position
between the two opponents, awaiting events. 3 The king
contented himself, therefore, with obtaining Owain's
homage, and the restitution of Cadwaladr's territory which
had been one of the ostensible pretexts for the expedition.
He cleared some forest ground and opened up a few roads;
he fortified both Basingwerk and Rhuddlan, and between
the two built a house for the Knights Templars. Rhudd-
lan castle was entrusted to Hugh de Beauchamp. Whether
Henry obtained advantageous terms for Madog of Powys
is not so clear, but we know that before the close of the
campaign lorwerth Coch got possession of the castle which
Owain Gwynedd had built in lal, and burnt it.
The scene of war now changed. The little success
that Henry had met in Gwynedd encouraged South Wales
to resistance, and seems to have aroused even the Welsh
of Glamorgan to attack the Normans. Sainghenydd was
a Welsh lordship, stretching north of Cardiff far into the
Glamorganshire hills to the very borders of Ewyas, and to
the East touching Gwent. It was held at this time by
I for, son of Meurug, a man of little stature but immense
1. The Brut, says : A Madawc uab Maredud Arglwyd Powys a dewissawd y le y bebyllyau rwg llu
y brenhin a llu Owein val y gallei erbynyeit y kyrcheu kyntaf awnelei y brenhin.
2. Wm. of Newburgh, cap. ii. lib. v. ; Robt. de Monte aH 1157; Brut, ad 1156 = 7 ; Ann. Camb. ad
1158 = 7-
86 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
courage, known best to his countrymen as I for Bach.
1 Early in the year 1158, Morgan ab Owain, lord of Caer-
lleon, had been slain in treachery by the troops of I for, and
lorwerth, Morgan's brother, had succeeded to most of
his authority. Other changes had taken place. Fitz
Hamon's daughter had died in 1157, and Earl William
assumed the sole government of his lands. His first acts
do not seem to have been wise. His Welsh subjects were
excited to revolt by restrictions on the action of their own
laws, and an attempt to take over a part of Sainghenydd
fanned the discontent into flame. 2 From the hills hard by
I for dashed down on Cardiff Castle one night. It was
strongly fortified, defended by one hundred and twenty
knights and many soldiers ; and the town itself contained
numerous retainers capable of bearing arms. Careless of
these dangers, I for and his Welsh, by means of ladders
scaling the walls, entered the castle in triumph. William,
his countess Hawise, a daughter of Robert le Bossu, Earl
of Leicester, and Robert their only son, still quite a child,
were borne away prisoners to the woody heights. They
obtained their liberty by the restoration of the confiscated
land, and many other concessions to their victor.
3 Meanwhile Rhys ap Gruffudd, from his position in
Ystrad Tywi, continued to defy the king. Henry sent
messengers to him asking him to court, with threats of
compulsion in case of refusal ; and Rhys, by the advice of
his nobles, complied. He himself was not inclined to
make peace, but was prevailed upon to accept the king's
i. Brut, ad 1157 = 8 ; Ann. Camb. ad i T sg = 8.
a. Ann. Marg. ad 1158; Gir. Camb., Op. vi. 634. See the distorted account in Gwentian Chron.
3. Brut, v Tywysogion and Brut, y Saeson ad 1157 = 8 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1159=8.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 87
terms. By these he was recognised lord of Cantref Mawr,
and was promised another Cantref bordering upon it. If
the treaty was to be taken literally, Rhys would have
abandoned all control over the rest of Ystrad Tywi, not to
speak of Dyfed and Ceredigion. Whether or not he
himself gave such an interpretation to the words of the
treaty, it was evidently that of the Norman lords whose
claims to land in South Wales had only been left
in abeyance during Stephen's reign because they could not
be made good. T Walter Clifford seized Llanymddyfri and
Cantref Bychan. 2 Roger Fitz Richard who had succeeded
his brother Gilbert five years before as Earl of Clare, also
thought the moment come for reclaiming North Ceredigion,
and at the beginning of June 1 158 he occupied and garrison-
ed Rhys' castles at Aberdyfi, Ystrad Meurug, Dineirth and
Llanrhystud and in the Vale of Calettwr. Meanwhile
Henry himself had not honourably fulfilled the treaty.
Influenced no doubt by interested parties, he gave Rhys
a Cantref separated from Cantref Mawr by the land of
several Norman barons. Rhys accepted it and still kept
the peace. But Clifford plundered Cantref Mawr and
killed many subjects of Rhys who applied to the king for
the punishment of the offender. Henry refused to inter-
fere. The revolted Welsh were already blockading Llan-
ymddyfri ; Rhys, confident of gaining more by force of
arms than by legal procedure, joined them and at the first
attack took the castle.
Thence he marched into Ceredigion. His nephew
1. Walterus Clifford, dominus Cantref Bethan in Ann. Camb. ad 1159 = 8. Walter was son of a
Richard ; he was evidently the heir, perhaps the son of the Richard, son of Ponson, mention e
in the Brut, ad 1113 = 6 as the first Norman lord of Cantref Bychan.
2. Ann. Theokesb. ad 1153.
88 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
Einion, sun of his elder brother Anarawd, chafing against
the inaction imposed by the late treaty, had already broken
the peace, taken the castle of Humfrey in the Vale of Calettwr
and put the garrison to the sword. Rhys completed his
work ; he took and burnt all the castles held by Clare in
the district. ' Henry hearing of these events appeared in
South Wales with an army ; he did nothing, however,
towards restoring tranquillity ; several engagements took
place ; and some assert that a treaty was made, and
hostages were extorted from Rhys. The king crossed
over to Normandy on the i4th of August, 1 158.
2 But the treaty, if treaty there was, did not prevent
Rhys from continuing his successes. The recovery of
Ceredigion was followed by the recovery of Dyfed. The
descendants of Nest had joined Henry in his attack on
Gwynedd, and identified themselves with the Norman
party. No doubt their subjection to the sons of Gruffydd
since the defeat at Llanstephan was irksome to them.
Rhys harried their country, and throughout Dyfed burnt
the Norman castles.
3 Then he invested the fortress of Caerfyrddin. To
save this important place, a formidable but mixed army
was gathered by the uncle of the king, Reginald Earl of
i. As this expedition is not referred to in English historians, it will be interesting to give the authorities.
The Brut y Tywysogion says: "A gwedy clybot or brenhin hynny kyrchu Deheubarth a
wnaeth a llu gantaw. A gwedy mynych wrthynebu o Rys ac wyr id aw ymchoelud awnaeth y
Loegyr. Ac odyno yd aeth drwy y mor." One MSS., however, [C. of ab Ithel] agrees with
the rendering of Brut y Saeson in Myr. Arch. p. &78ad 1157 = 8 : " A gwedy Klywet or brenhin
hynny, y doeth yr eilweith y deheubarth Kymre a chymryt gwystlon y gan Rys ap Grufud a
dychwelut y loygyr, ac yn lie ydaeth drwy vor." The Ann. Theokesb. merely says : " Rex
facta pace cum Reso transfretavit." The Vatican MS. of Robert de Monte according to Dom
Bouquet xiii. 300, says : [A.D. 1:58] " Having subdued Wales and made the whole of it pay
tribute to him, on the vigil of the Assumption of St. Mary, King Henry crossed over to
a. The conquest of Dyfed took place in 1139- Rhys, no doubt, took advantage of Henry's absence on the
Continent. Brut ad 1158 = 9 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1160 = 59.
3. For this 1159 campaign see Brut ad 1158 = 9 ; Ann. Camb. ad n6o59 ' and Seisyll's poem to Rhys in
Myv. Arch. pp. 236 7.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GVVYNEDD. 89
Cornwall, a bastard of Henry I. Reginald had interests
in Wales, and all the great Norman landowners gathered
to support him. J Among them were Roger, Earl of Clare,
William of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan, Richard
Strongbow, son of Gilbert, Earl of Chepstow and Pem-
broke. From Gwynedd came Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd and
the two sons of Owain, Howel and Cynan, either bound by
some treaty with the king or anxious for vengeance on
Rhys for his action in Meirionydd three years before.
With so formidable an array, 2 Rhys felt the imprudence of
battle, and raising the siege, entrenched himself to the
north-east of Caerfyrddin on the height of Cefn Rhestr ;
his enemies did not dare to assail his strong position and
offered him a truce. Rhys accepted it and disbanded his
forces. But he had shown his strength, and some of the
exultation of the national party in the South may be seen
in the poem of Seisyll Bryffwrch in his honour.
For the three years that succeeded Henry's campaign
in Gwynedd, Madog ap Maredudd recovered independence
from Owain ; 3 but on the other hand he was compelled
to the payment of an annual tribute to England.
1. The Brut and Ann. Camb. only give the names of Reginald of Cornwall, William of Bristol and
Roger of Clare ; but they add that two other earls took part in the campaign against Rhys.
The names of these two are given in the poem of Seisyll Bryffwrch as iarll gwent, evidently
Richard Strongbow, Earl of Striguil or Chepstow ; and iarll padrig whom it is difficult to
identify, but who is possibly the same as a comes Patricius present at the Council of Clarendon
in January, 1164 [Materials for Hist, of Archb. Becket iv. 207.]
2. Kefyn Restyr is the reading of the A. & C. MSS. of Ab. Ithel. B. gives Kynen Rychter mein, and
D. kynen rychtir mein. The B. MS. of the Ann. Camb. says Resterwein. From the account
in the Brut it would appear as if the campaign was bloodless. The C. MS. of the Annales
Cambriae, however, says: " Resus fugatus est apud Cayrmardyn." The B. MS. has before
the retreat on Cefn Rhestr, the significant entry: ' ' Goroun bun frater Resi occisus est." Goroun
bun is probably for Goronwy, but he can not have been a brother of Rhys ap GrufFudd.
Seisyll's poem also points to bloodshed. It is difficult to say what is the twr Gwallter of the
poem ; but the lines beginning Lliwgoch tref Hat seem to show that the peninsula of Llan-
stephan was a scene of conflict.
3. Pipe Rolls ii. iii. iv. Henr ii. pp. 89, 170.
go THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
1 His last years were spent in peace, in the lavish hospitality
and enlightened encouragement of literary effort in con-
nection with which his name has come down to us.
2 There is a tradition that he spent some time in a visit to
the English court, 3 and he may have been the Welsh
prince who fought with Henry at the siege of Toulouse.
4 In 1 1 60 he died, and was buried in the precincts of the
church of St. Tyssilio at Meifod.
5 His power had stretched from Plynlimmon to the
gates of Chester, and from Bangor Iscoed to the extremity
of Merionydd. Nothing shows so much the diminution of
the influence of Powys in Welsh affairs as the fact that
Madog was undoubtedly lord of the whole country for a
long period, and yet never took any decisive part in
national affairs as his father Maredudd had done. When
1. See Gwalchmai's poems with the following superscriptions in Myv. Arch. pp. 146 51 :
(a) Awdl o Gant Gwalchmai i Dafyd mab Owain.
(A) Arwyrain Madawg mab Maredud. Gwalchmai ai Cant.
(c) Marwnad Madawg mab Maredud. Gwalchmai ai Cant.
(d) Breudwyd Gwalchmai.
See Cynddelw's on pp 154 6 :
(a) Arwyrain Madawg fab Maredud. Cyndelw Brydyd ai Cant.
(A) Tri Englyn ai gant Cyndelw Fawr i Fadawg fab Maredud.
(c) Llyma Englynion a gant Cyndelw Fawr i Fadawg fab Maredud.
(d) Marwnad Fadawg fab Maredud. Cyndelw ai Cant.
(e) Englynyon a gant Cyndelw y Deulu Madawc M. Maredut. Pan un uaru Madawc.
Am Glybod eu Godwryf.
The last two of Cynddelw's are found in the Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin. ff 52 3 B.
The last line of the Englynion Tyll eu hysgwydaur teruysc vawr vaon is evidently the
commencement of a new stanza, but it is not found in the Llyfr Du, and could hardly have
belonged to the original poem in which every englyn begins with the words Godwryf a gly waf.
2. See the Guest edition of the Mabinogion, 1877. Gwallter Mechain found the tradition in M.S.
Madog is said to have married a Norman lady, Matilda Verdun, who inveigled him to Win-
chester ; there he was on some pretext kept in durance and prevailed upon to settle the lordship
of Oswestry on her and any children she might have after his decease. She married John Fitz
Alan soon after her first husband's death.
3. Quidam rex Gualiae certainly suggests one of the princes of the larger divisions of Wales. See
4. Brut ad 1159 = 60; Ann. Camb. ad 1161 = 60.
5. Gwalchmai's elegy of Madog in Myv. Arch. p. 148 ; also the introductory part of the Dream of
Rhonabwy. There is an erroneous idea prevalent, and derived from Powel, Hist, of Cambria,
ed 1584, p. 153, that Maredudd ap Bleddyn divided Powys between Gruffudd and Madog, two
of his sons, and that the latter obtained Northern Powys and gave it his name. As a matter of
fact Gruffudd ap Maredudd died before his father in 1128. The distinction between Powys
Fadog and Powys Wenwynwyn arose at a latter date when Madog ap Gruffudd Maelawr was
lord of the northern part, and Gwenwynwyn lord of the southern part of Powys.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 91
he died, no one succeeded to the chief government of the
country, which unfortunately became the prize of the
boldest and most unscrupulous. 1 Madog's own sons
divided his inheritance between them. Very soon after
2 Llywelyn, one of them, was slain. With him, says the
Brut, went the hope of the men of Powys. He was a
brave soldier and a great huntsman, and his death left his
cousin, the able Owain ap Gruffudd of Cyfeiliog, now in the
prime of life, the most powerful chieftain in Powys. For
nearly forty years after Madog's death, this country, lack-
ing unity under a single ruler, ceased to play an important
part in the affairs of Wales.
Madog ap Maredudd is said to have had by his wife Susanna, daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan [Hanes
Gruff, ap Cynan in Myv. Arch, p 730] three sons, Gruffudd Maelawr, Owain Fychan and
grant in Dugd. Mon. v. 263.] Owain Brogyntyn married :
(a) Sioned, daughter of Howel ap Madog ab Idnerth, by whom he had no issue.
(4) Marred, daughter of Einion ap Seisyll of Mathafarn, by whom he had Gruffudd,
Bleddyn and lorwerth. His posterity long had rights of lordship in Dinmael and
Edeyrnion. For Bleddyn ab Owain Brogyntyn see Rymer's Foedera, ed. 1839,
i. 76. I am indebted for some of these facts to the article of John Edward Lloyd
on Owain Brogyntyn in the Diet. Nat. Biogr. xlii. 395.
Another daughter of Madog married Howel ab leuaf of Arwystli, who had a daughter,
Susannah, by her. [Brut, ad 1205.]
2. Brut ad 1159 = 60 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1161 = 60. For Llywelyn ap Madog see :
(a) Dau englyn a gant Cyndelw i Gynydion Llywelyn am Madawc am Maredud ac iw
gyrn o achos rodi ido y carw a ladassant yn ymyl ei dy. Myv. Arch. p. 159.
(6) Englynyon a gant Llywarch Llaety y Lin. ap Madawc ap Maredud. Myv. Arch,
pp. 2801. Thos. Price, Hanes Cymru. pp. 566 8, and Thos. Stephens,
Literature of the Kymry, pp. 51 5 call the poet Llywarch Llew Cad, because
he so refers to himself in line 3 of the i-jth verse. It is clear, after reading the poem,
that he lived in Llywelyn's own time, i.e. circa 11401160; and I know not on
what evidence the editors of the Myvyrian assigned the date 1290 1340 to him.
(c) Englynion a gant Llywarch y Nam i Llywelyn fab Madawg Mab Mareddudd. Myv.
Arch. p. 335. It is possibly the same Llywarch, although Llywarch y Nam,
according to the editors of the Myvyrian, flourished 1310 1350.
92 THE AGE OF OWAIN GVVYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
1 About this time there was a renewal of the war
between the surviving sons of Madog ab Idnerth. Cad-
wallon of Maelienydd succeeded in making his brother
Einion Clud a prisoner, and handed him over to Owain
Gwynedd. The latter in his turn gave him over to the
representatives of the King of England, and Einion was
imprisoned at Worcester. He was not long in making his
escape ; with the help of his friends, he left Worcester and
hurried back to his lands in Elfael.
The death of Madog perhaps permitted Owain
Gwynedd to extend once more his influence over Powys.
At least, he seems henceforward to have interfered in its
affairs as suzerain. 2 Thus when in 1 162 Howel ab leuaf of
Arwystli invaded the Cantref of Cyfeiliog, captured Tafal-
wern Castle by treachery, and bore off much booty beyond
Severn, 3 Owain took it as an affront, and hurried an army
to Llandinam in pursuit, and engaging Howel's force of
three hundred men, defeated them with great slaughter,
more than two-thirds being left on the field.
In the next year the princes of Powys fell out among
themselves. The event is mentioned by the Brut, but
i. One MS. of tbe Brut y Tywysogion [D of Ab Ithel] agrees with the Brut y Saeson, Myv. Arch,
p. 679 : " Ac y dalpwyt Cadwallawn ap Madoc ap Idnerth y gan Einaun Glut y vraut." The
true version is found in the other MSS. used by Ab Ithel for his edition of the Brut y Tywysog-
ion, and the 2 MSS. of the Ann. Camb. The curious way in which the Gwentian chronicle
corrupts the facts of history is again seen : " Yng nghylch yr un amser y daliwyd Cadwallawn
ab Madawc ab Idnerth gan Owain Gwynedd, yr hwn ai dodes yng Ngharchar y Brenin yn
2. Howel ab leuaf is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls, 3 Henr. ii. , ed. 1844, p. 89, as Hoelo filio
ioaf. He died in 1185 [Brut]. See Englynyon a gant Kyndelw y Hywcl vab leuaf, Myv.
Arch. p. 184.
3. The Brut y Tywysogion represents Owain as grieved for the treacherous capture of Tafalwern. The
Brut y Saeson, Myv. Arch. p. 679, gives a different reason : " Ac am hynny y kymyrth Owain
ap Gruffudd tristwch yndaw am varw y vam. hyt na allei dim y digrifhau."
Curiously the C MS. of the Ann. Camb. says : "Res filius Grifut castella de Walwerin et
de Lanamdewri vi cepit." The Walwerin is probably a mistake for the Dinweilir of the B MS.
The Gwentian Chronicle is very mixed : " Oed Crist 1160 bu ymladd a diffeithiaw cyd-
tiroedd rtwng Owain ab Madawc ArglTydd Cyfeiliawc a Hywel ab Cadwgawn Arglwydd
Cyfoeth Elystan Glodrydd, heb nemawr ynnill a gorfod i'r un na'r Hall." In reality Owain ap
Gruffudd was lord of Cyfeiliog ; and the land of Elystan Glodrudd was partitioned among
several princes, and the only Howel among them was Howel ab leuaf of Arwystli. The
Gwentian Chronicle is giving a garbled account of the defeat of the latter by Owain Gwynedd.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 93
there is great obscurity in the readings. The more
probable story, however, is that the brothers quarrelled.
Nothing was commoner in Wales, and ' Giraldus lays the
blame for constant fatricide on the system of foster fathers
holding among the Welsh as among all early Celtic peoples.
Owain Cyfeiliog eagerly took advantage of this to extend
his own influence, and sided with Owain Fychan against
Gruffudd, lord of lal and Maelawr. The two Owains
helped perhaps by Howel ab leuaf, the lord of Arwystli,
2 besieged the castle of Careghova, near Oswestry, and
took it by force.
During this time Rhys ap Gruffudd was not idle. The
king's long absence from England gave him a free hand.
3 In October, 1161, in vengeance for Gloucester's invasion
of his territories, Rhys' troops harried the lordship of
Glamorgan, and burnt the grange of the monastery of
Margam. 4 In 1 162, Walter Clifford was again driven out
of Cantref Bychan, and Rhys made himself master of the
strong castles at Dinweilir and Llanymddyfri. Clare and
1. Gir. Camb. Op. vi. 211, 225.
2. The 5 MSS. of the Brut used by Ithel agrees in saying that Careghova was taken. By whom it is
difficult to find. The 3 best MSS. say : " Y gan Owein ab Gruffudd ab Owein ab Madawc a
Maredud vab Howel." Cleopatra B v. says : "a Maredud a Howel." The Llyfr du Baring
says : "ap Maredud a Howel ap Madog i vrawd." The Brut y Saeson in Myv. Arch. p. 679
says: "Y gan Owein ap Grufudd ac Owein ap Madoc a Maredud a Howel."- It should
perhaps be : " Y gan Owein ap Gruffud ac Owein ab Madawc ab Maredud a Howel." I know
of no son of Madog called Howel and should be inclined to suppose that Howel ab leuaf of
Arwystli, so lately mentioned in the Brut, had joined the two Owains in an attack on Gruffudd.
There is no Maredudd ap Howel at this time, and the well known prince of that name had
been killed in 1140.
3. See Ann. Marg. ad ann. 1161.
4. See Ann. Camb. ad 1163 2. The Clifford family claimed descent from Pons, who left five sons,
Walter, Drogo, Osbern, Simon, Richard. Richard Fitz Pons, who received Cantref Bychan
from Henry I [Brut ad 1113 = 6!, married Maud ; and Walter Fitz Richard inherited not only
his father's lands, but those of his uncles Drogo and Walter, [Eyton, Shropshire; Doomsday
Book], In 1138 he witnessed a Gloucester Charter [Eyton v. 148 ; Monasticon i 551]. He
appears as a Hertfordshire landowner in Pipe Rolls of 1157 8 [p. 144]. We find him master of
Bronllys before 1170. He was a benefactor to several monasteries, Haughmond, Dore, Godstow
[Monasticon yiii, 551, and Eyton]. He was still living in 1187, and died according to Eyton in
1190. His wife, Margaret, could not have been, ashas been stated, a daughter of Ralph de Tony.
He left three sons, Walter, Richard, William ; and three daughters, Lucia who married Hugo de
Sai, Amicia who married Osbein Fitz Hugo, and the celebrated Rosamond, mistress of
94 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
Clifford both harrassed ' Henry with complaints, and on
the 25th January, 1163, 2 he landed in England, vowing
vengeance on Rhys. Robert de Montfort had publicly
accused Henry of Essex of traitorous cowardice in the first
Welsh campaign. 3 Thinking the affair opportune, the
king gave permission for a duel, and Essex was vanquished.
His estates were confiscated, and he became a monk at
Reading. 4 After this exemplary punishment, Henry
marched through South Wales, keeping close to the sea
coast as far as Caerfyrddin ; he then turned abruptly north-
wards, and penetrated through the western part of Ystrad
Tywi to Pencadair. 5 Thence he sent a Breton knight who
enjoyed his confidence, to Dinefwr, under the guidance of
Guaidanus, dean of Cantref Mawr. He was to mark the
means of approach and the degree of strength of the
castle. The wily dean, forewarned, took the Breton by a
difficult road, and by ingenious devices impressed him with
the barbarous nature of the country and its people. 6 Mean-
while Rhys had surrendered. Henry on hearing his
envoy's relation decided to accept the Welsh prince's
overtures ; Clifford and Clare were to receive their lands ;
1. As early as 1161, Herbert of Bosham, in Vita S. Thomae [lib. iii., cap. i], published by the Master of
the Rolls among the Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket, vol. iii., p. 180 speaks of
the king's concern at the crebrae Wallensium infestationes.
2. Plurimum Wallensibus imprecans are the words of Diceto ad 1163.
3. William of Newburg, lib. ii. cap v. ; Robert de Monte ad 1163. Diceto ad 1163 adds nothing to
Robert de Monte. Dugdale, Baron i. 463.
4. Brut ad 1162 = 3 Ann. Camb. ad. 1164 = 3; Gir. Camb. Op. vi. 62-3, 81-2, 138, 227. Giraldus tells us
that when Henry crossed Nant Pentcarn, the Welsh were much discouraged on account of the
following prophecy of Me-ilin : " Cum fortem lentiginosum in dextrales Britones irruere videris,
si Red Pencarn transierit, Kambriae vires noveris enervari." Nant Pentcarn has been identified
with the river Ebbw or Ebvvy, which runs into the Usk estuary.
5. These details are found in Giraldus, Op. vi. 81 2.
6. Giraldus Cambrensis, Op. viii. 216, seems to say that Owain Gwynedd induced Rhys to surrender.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 95
1 Rhys was to do homage in England ; and hostages were
to be given for his future conduct. 2 The king returned to
his country through the mountainous districts of Central
Wales by way of Maelienydd, to Radnor and Hereford.
3 He then called a great court at Woodstock to witness the
homage of his subject princes. Malcolm came from Scot-
land ; Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffudd from Wales,
accompanied by other princes of minor rank, and all on the
ist of July, 1 163, did fealty to the king and his little heir, a
boy named after his father and now but eight years old.
This was the first time since the great Revolt that the
leaders of l:he Welsh nation had been found united in
acknowledging the supremacy of the King of England.
But this ceremony of homage at Woodstock showed the
difference between the Welsh policies of Henry I. and
Henry II., and how much the nation had gained during the
twenty-eight years that followed the former's death.
Beauclerc governed Wales with a rule of iron. He super-
posed, especially in South Wales, a Norman aristocracy
who reduced the older Welsh lords to mere stewards of
their lands. Henry II. desired to feudalize the Welsh
princes themselves, to assimilate them to the rank of the
great Norman earls, holding their lands from him, but he
i. I am not of opinion that Rhys returned directly with Henry to Eng'and. The Brut says simply :
"Ac y daeth hyt ym Penn Cadeir. A gwedy rodi gwystlon o Rys idaw ymchoelut y Loegyr a
wnaeth." Similarly the C MS. of the Ann. Cambriae : " Henricus venit contra Resum usque
Pencadeyr, et pacifice in Angliam reversus est." But the B MS. says : " Henricus ad bellan-
duin Resuni usque and Penchaideirn pervenit; sed Resus cum rege, facta pace, in Angliam ivit."
There is perhaps a mistake in punctuation, and the comma should come after Resus and not
after rege. On the other hand in his account of the proceedings, Giraldus Op. vi. 81 2,
says : " Reso Griphino filio, nostrls diebus, ad deditionem dolose magis quam virtuose compulso,
et in Angliam ducto etc," which seems to suggest that he was taken by Henry to England.
Further, however, after the return of the king's envoy from Dinefwr, presumably to Henry at
Pencadair we have : "demum fidei sacramentique nodis, necnon et obsidum vinculis abstrictum,
Resum rex ad sua remisit." The balance of evidence is much in favour of Rhys merely promis-
ing to come to England to do homage as he did on the ist of July.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. vi. 138.
^. Radulfus de Diceto ad 1163.
96 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
never attempted to remove a Welsh prince or to substitute
a Norman for a Welsh landowner. He was, in a word, the
defender of the existing state of things ; with this
exception, that he aimed at a feudal rather than a tribal
The ceremony had little immediate result. No long
peace could Rhys keep with his neighbours, the Norman
lords of South Wales. ' At the instigation of Roger de
Clare, his nephew Einion had been assassinated in his
sleep by a subject, Walter ap Llywarch ; and Walter Fitz
Richard Clifford had killed Cadwgan ap Maredudd.
2 Before 1163 was over Rhys had mastered Cantref Mawr
and taken Dinefwr from Clifford. 3 In the next year,
meeting with no sympathy from the king in his complaints,
Rhys, once more taking matters into his own hands,
attacked Clare and drove him from Ceredigion, after
burning his castles at Aber Rheidiol and Mabwynion.
Again the Welsh hatred of the Flemings was shown, for
those settled by Clare in his lands were ruthlessly spoiled
There had been steadily growing among the Welsh
princes a distrust of Henry, due to the curiously faithless,
unscrupulous policy he had hitherto pursued in his dealings
with the Cymric population, and which he changed in his
later days when instructed by wider experience and con-
tinuous defeat. 4 This distrust grew to a head in 1164,
1. Brut ad 1162 = 3 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1164 = 3.
2. Brut ad 1162 = 3.
3. Brut ad 1163 = 4 > Ann. Camb. ad 1165 = 4.
4. Brut ad 1163 = 4 ! Ann. Camb. ad 1165 = 4. See also R. de Monte, who says ad 1164 : " The Welsh
did not keep faith with King Henry, but ravaged and overran the country nearest to them,
influenced thereto by a certain prince of theirs, named Ris, and another person named Oen, the
uncle to Ris, and as bad as himself."
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 97
and a preliminary agreement was made by Owain Gwynedd
and Rhys ap Gruffudd against the king. While Ceredigion
was reduced by Rhys, Owain also ravaged the Norman
lands on the north Welsh frontier. 'Early in 1165, his
elder son by Chrisiant, Dafydd, invaded Tegeingl, and bore
off the population wholesale to the Vale of Clwyd. The
castles built in the Cantref by Henry in his first campaign
against Owain, were now in great danger, and hurriedly
gathering an army, the king advanced to Rhuddlan, where
he remained three days, probably to see to the proper
garrisoning and victualling of the Castle. He then
returned to England, where he made preparations on a
large scale for a Welsh invasion.
The summer of 1165 had begun when Henry
advanced into Wales through Oswestry. The impending
danger strengthened the bonds of union between the Welsh
princes, and with pleasure we see Gwynedd, Deheubarth
and Powys acting together against the foe. The rendezvous
of the Welsh princes was in Edeyrnion, at Corwen in the
Valley of Dee, and to it came Owain and Cadwaladr with
the troops of Gwynedd ; Rhys from Deheubarth ; Owain
Cyfeiliog, lorwerth Coch, and the sons of Madog ap
Maredudd with the whole force of Powys ; and the sons of
Madog ab Idnerth, Cadwallon and Einion Clud, with the
men of Elfael and Maelienydd. Alone the princes of Gwent
and Glamorgan did not join the national alliance, but again
affirmed their severance from the great body of the Welsh
i. See Brut y Tywysogion ad 1164 = 5.
98 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
1 The king, from Oswestry, penetrated into the Vale of
Ceiriog, and began to cut down the trees which rendered
the country so difficult ; while he was so engaged, a part of
the Welsh army attacked his force, and an indecisive battle
took place. The advance guard of Henry's army encamped
in the Berwyn mountains, which form the present boundary
between the counties of Merioneth and Denbigh. 2 A few
days after the weather changed, and torrents of rain fell,
the country, always presenting difficulties to an army, now
became impenetrable ; provisions began to fail ; Henry, in
a wild access of the furious cruelty which was so notorious
a characteristic of the Plantagenet temper, 3 bade his twenty-
two Welsh hostages be mutilated ; the boys, among them
Cadwallon and Cynfrig, sons of Owain Gwynedd, and
Maredudd, son of Rhys of Deheubarth, were blinded and
castrated ; the girls had their ears and nostrils slit. 4 It was
decided to retreat along the Dee to Chester, and there
await a fleet which had been summoned to the king's help
from Dublin. When the ships came, they were found
insufficient and sent back ; and the king in despair withdrew
to England with the intention of commencing a new
expedition at the following Easter.
i. For this campaign see Brut, ad 1164 = 5 ; Ann. Camb. add 1166 = 5 > William of Newburgh, lib. ii.
parumque proficit." The Annals of Osney and the Chron. o_f Ihos. Wykes giv _
modifications of William of Newburgh's version. They both call Owain Gwynedd, Howel
(Hoellus, Howellus). They are, of course, late authorities [late xiii Cent.] See also Gir. Camb.
Op. vi., 138143.
2. Brut, ad 1164=5 ! Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 143.
3. The three best MSS. of the Brut, y Tywysogion say : "Ac yn gyflawn odiruawr lit y peris dallu y
gwystlon a vuassei ygkarchar gantaw, yr ystalym o amser kyn no hynny. Nyt amgen deu uab
Owein Gwyned Kadwallawn a Chynwric, a Maredud uab yr arglwyd Rys a rei ereill." The
Llyfr Du Basing adds : a Howel after Chynwric. Cleopatra B. v. is evidently corrupt :
" Nyt amgen deu uab Owein vrenhin, Catwallawn, a Kynwric a Moredud meibion Rys a llawer
or rei ereill." The B. MS. of the Ann. Camb. says : " obsides Walensium, quos
potuit, oculis et testibus privavit." The C. MS.: "obsides eorum numero xxii. oculis et
testibus privavit." Roger de Hoveden says : " Justitium fecit de filiis Ris, et de filiis ac filiabus
nobilium ejus : scilicet oculos puerorum emit, et nares auresque puellarum abscitiit."
4. Brut, ad 1164=5; Ann. Camb. ad 1166=5 i Epist. Owini ad Ludovic. vij."
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 99
The success of the campaign was of great result.
1 Historians on the Norman side have been curiously silent
upon it ; and the Englishman, William of Newburgh, who
had devoted a whole chapter to the war of 1 157, passes over
that of 1 165 in a few lines in which he endeavours to show
that the king met with qualified success. It would be
difficult, nay, almost impossible, had we but the Norman
and English authorities to guide us, to gather that Henry's
army suffered a decided repulse, and that henceforward his
policy towards Wales changed and became as conciliatory
as it had been provocative. The Welsh, too, had seen the
princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth united against
the foreigner, and the national feeling had been deeply
stirred. Rhys ap Gruffudd, and even more than he, the
aged Owain of Gwynedd, his uncle, had become the heroes
of the national defence. From this time even to the day of
her fall, Wales never lacked a leader against her foes, and
it was not so much the legendary treachery of the Celt, as
the numerical inferiority of her people and her dependance
for supplies upon the very country with which she was at
war, which hounded poor Wales to her doom, and deprived
her of the independence she so long had cherished, and
Hardly was the success of the campaign assured in the
North, than Rhys ap Gruffudd threw himself once more
upon the Norman nobles of South Wales, who had
sympathized with Henry. 2 In the beginning of November,
1165, he attacked the Earl of Clare at Aberteifi ; by the
1. Diceto and, after him, Matthew Paris do not mention it. Gervase of Canterbury and Roger de
Hoveden are very concise.
2. Brut, ad 1164 5 and 1171 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1166 = 5. It is not very clear from a comparison of the
three passages whether Robert Fitz Stephen was captured at Aberteifi or Cilgerran. But
Qiraldus' testimony is decisive in favour of Aberteifi, Op. v., 229.
roo THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP 7.
treachery of a monk called Rhygyfarch, he took the castle
which he threw down and burnt ; and Robert Fitz Stephen,
one of the most powerful of Nest's sons, was made prisoner
and kept in durance. Soon after Cilgerran castle fell. All
Ceredigion was now in Rhys' hands. * There he founded,
near the site of an older house, the great Cistercian monas-
tery of Ystrad Fflur, or Strata Florida, which afterwards
became famous for its wealth, and was the burial place of
his own descendants for nearly a hundred years.
2 His success, and the captivity of Fitz Stephen, deter-
mined the Fitz Geralds of Pembroke to a great effort
against him in the following year, and with the Flemings
of Rhos they marched on Cilgerran Castle and besieged it ;
they ravaged and slew in the neighbouring Ceredigion
cwmwd of Iscoed and bore much booty away, but they
failed to take the castle. In the same year, 1166, they
made a second attempt on Cilgerran ; but the king was now
abroad, and Rhys had his forces in hand ; and they met
with a second defeat.
Owain's great character came out with prosperity.
Knowing his weakness and fearing a renewal of war with
Henry in the following year, 3 he turned to Louis VII of
France for help in his danger, and attempted to come to a
diplomatic understanding. Every means was necessary to
1. It has been denied that Rhys was the founder of Ystrad Fflur. J. W. Willis-Bund looks upon the
Clares as the true founders, but his chief argument rests on a chronological error. North
Ceredigion was reconquered from Roger de Clare by Rhys in 1164, not 1165, and Strata Florida
or Ystrad Fflur was founded not in 1164, but in 1165. For interesting articles on Ystrad Fflur,
see the sth series of Archaeologia Cambrensis, vol. vi., pp. 5 23 ; yii, i 30 ; they are by J. W.
Willis-Bund and Stephen W. Williams. See also the passage in Gir. Camb., iv., 152, where he
seems to attribute foundation of Ystrad Fflur to Robert Fitz Stephen, and asserts that Rhys was
the founder of only a small cell hard by. This is improbable.
2. Brut, ad 1165 = 6; Ann. Camb. ad 1167 = 6.
3. Epist. Owini ad Ludovic vii. apud script, rer. gallic, et francic., xvi.. 117., quoted by Thierry, Histoire
de la Conquete de 1" Angleterre par les Normans. See also Thos. Stephens' criticisms of the
Afallenau in " Literature of the Kymry," pp. 212 223. See the last verses of the poem in Myv.
Arch. pp. 117 8.
CHAP. 7.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 101
combat an enemy whose dominions were more extensive
than those of any prince of Western Europe. A Welsh
monk was twice sent over with letters to France, in which
Owain acknowledged himself Louis' vassal, informed him of
his own success in war, begged the favour of his alliance,
and promised to harass Henry in England if the French
king would do so in Normandy. 'In March, 1166, after
fortifying the Welsh Marches, Henry was forced to cross
to France and forego his projects of Welsh invasion ; and
he remained four years abroad. 2 Owain took full advantage
of this, and before the year's end laid Henry's fortress at
3 He also maintained a close alliance with Rhys ap
Gruffudd. Owain Cyfeiliog and his cousin Owain Fychan,
one of Madog's sons, had united in 1 166 against their uncle
lorwerth Coch, and having expelled him from his territory
in Mochnant, they divided it between them, Mochnant Uch
Rhaiadr coming to Owain Cyfeiliog and Mochnant Is
Rhaiadr to Owain Fychan. Owain Cyfeiliog had
twice married ; his first wife, Gwenllian, daughter of
Owain Gwynedd, bore his son Gwenwynwyn ; the second
was a daughter of Rhys ap Gruffudd. He did not agree
with his fathers-in-law ; Rhys was especially hostile to him,
and had twice before this harried his patrimony in Cyfeiliog.
4 In 1167 Owain Gwynedd, Cadwaladr and Rhys marched
into South Powys and ousted Owain Cyfeiliog ; they
rebuilt the castle of Caereinion and gave the custody to
Owain Fychan. 5 Then they assailed and took Tafalwern,
i. Robert de Monte ad 1166. 2. Brut, y Tywysogion ad 1165=6.
3. Brut, ad 1165 = 6. 4. Brut ad 1166=7 > Ann. Camb. ad 1168=7.
5. The Cantref of Cyfeiliog was undoubtedly a part of Powys.
102 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 7.
and it was handed over to Rhys with its Cantref, on the
curious ground that it had formerly been part of his
dominions. To England with his most faithful adherents
Owain Cyfeiliog fled; 'his uncle lorwerth Coch forgot his
wrongs and was ready to join him. With an army of
Norman auxiliaries, the two princes appeared before the
newly-erected castle of Caereinion ; they demolished and
burnt it and killed all the garrison.
2 The last months of 1167 were spent by Owain
Gwynedd, Cadwaladr and Rhys, in the siege and capture
of the last Norman strongholds in North Wales, Prestatyn
and Rhuddlan. Both were burnt. The great fortress of
West Tegeingl was defended for three months before it fell.
The joy of the Welsh was proportionate to the success ;
for Rhuddlan had ceased to be in Welsh hands for a
century. And thus it came to pass that for the last three
years of his life, Owain found himself undisputed master of
North Wales, while his close alliance with the South, and
the fortunate absence of Henry in France gave him great
opportunity for consolidating his work.
1. lorwerth the Red probably recovered some, if not all, of his territory. We hear no more of him
henceforward, but he must have died before 1177, when his son, Madog, did homage to
Henry II. at Oxford. [Gesta Benedicti, i., 162]. We have an elegy on his death by
Cynddelw, in the Myvyrian Arch. p. 174. Some have supposed that under the title of lorwerth-
iawn, Cynddelw has celebrated the tribe of lorwerth in his Gwelygorddeu Powys, Myv. Arch,
p. 185. lorwerth Coch was a son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn by Efa, daughter of Bledrws ab
Ednowain Bendew, one of the chiefs of the fifteen tribes of Gwynedd.- He is said to have
married Maud, daughter of Roger de Manley, a Cheshire landowner ; and such genealogical
compilations as the Llyfr Silin published in the sth series of the Archaeologia Cambrensis
attribute to him several sons : lorwerth Fychan, Madog, known as Madog Goch o Mawddwy,
and Gruffudd Fychan, y Marchog Gwyllt o Gaer Howel, who lived at Edgerly in Salop. This
Gruffudd is sometimes called lorwerth's grandson through another Gruffudd. lorwerth's chief
seat was at Mochnant. He is mentioned in the introductory part of the Dream of Rhonabwy.
He is called Gerverd Coch in the Pipe Rolls ii. iii. iv., Henr. ii. p. 89.
2. Brut, ad 1166 = 7. The on ' v MS. that gives the name of Prestatyn is the oldest. [Hengwrt MS. ;
B. of Ab. Ithel.] Ann. Camb. ad 1168=7 ; neither of the MSS. mentions Prestatyn. Rhuddlan
was almost certainly in Norman hands from th* days of the Conquest ; the Castle was no doubt
built circa 1071 by Robert of Rhuddlan.
CHAP. 8.1 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 103
THE STATE OF SOUTH EAST WALES DOWN TO 1170.
A Welsh reaction in Glamorgan and Gwent Policy of Bishop Nicholas of Llandaff
The sons of Caradog ab lestin Death of Owain and Cadwallon, sons of
Caradog Glamorgan ruled by Morgan and Maredudd, the two surviving brothers
Norman influence over the Glamorgan chieftains- -Their Welsh marriages
Their petty wars Burning of Cynffig, 1167 The Normans in Gwent Their
fortresses Wars between the Welsh of Gwent and the Earls of Hereford
Extinction of the House of Hereford The growth of the power of the house of
de Braose Rhys ap Gruffudd's war in Brycheiniog Extension of Rhys ap
Gruffudd's influence over South and Central Wales.
T N South East Wales there was beginning a movement
which might be described as a Welsh re-action,
during the life of Earl William. This noble did but con-
tinue the work his father had begun, and ' we find numerous
confirmations by him of Robert's charters and grants.
Some indications of this re-action are seen in what is known
of the career of 2 Bishop Nicholas of Llandaff. 3 On
several occasions he affirmed an independent policy in
relation to Archbishops Theobald and Becket, which was
evidence of his keeping to some of the spirit of the old
Celtic Church. 4 We know that he renewed the quarrels
1. See chiefly the Liberties of Cardiff and Tewkesbury from Cotton MS. Cleopatra A vii f 101, printed in
Clarke's Cart, and Munum, &c., Glam. iii., 78.
2. He is called in a valuable MS. of the Brut, v Tywysogion (B. of ab Itbel) ad 1147 = 8 escob Nicol uab
Gwrgant escob. This with the form Worgan in the MS. of the Brut, called D by Ab Ithel (Cott.
MS. Cleopatra B. 5) given ad 1104 = 7, an d ln the Brut, y Saeson, Myv. Arch. p. 679 ; and that
of Gwrfauin the Gwentian Chronicle ad 1103 ; has induced Haddan and Stubbs to conjecture
that Nicholas was the son of Bishop Urban. (Councils & Eccl. Doct. i). The C. MS. of Ab
Ithel calls him, Kadwgawn. Le Neve, Fast. Eccl. Angl. ed Hardy, 1854, ii., 242, says that one
Michael ap Gurgant is spoken of at present at the consecration of Thomas a Becket to the
Archbishopric in 1162. [Probably from Herb, de Bosham, lib. iii., c. 4.] He is rightly referred
to as Nicholaus Landavensis in Gerv. Cant, ad 1162. See also Epist. Saresb. cxxx : Causa
difficilis inter Michaelen Landav episcopum et Robertum filium antecessoris sui. Cf. also the
M. Dei gratia Landavensis episcopus referring to Uchtryd in the agreement between the monks
of Bassaleg and the Chaplain of St. Woolos at Newport in Cart. Monast. S. Petr. Glou. ii. 55.
3. Epist. G. Foliot xci in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, &c., i., 357.
4. Epist. G. Foliot. cxxxix ; while Gilbert was Bishop of Hereford, i.e. between 1148 and 1163
io 4 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 8.
with St. David's about the frontiers of the diocese which
Urban had commenced and which lingered on till a much
later period. ' With the monasteries of the West of
England he continued the course of action laid down by
his predecessor Uchtryd ; and confirmed his treaties with
Tewkesbury and Gloucester.
Perhaps the scantiness of our knowledge of the general
history of Glamorgan and Gwent, and in particular of the
incidents which were the outward manifestations of the
growth of Welsh feeling in the district is due to their
separation during a great part of the I2th century from the
rest of Wales. This isolation in its turn was the result
largely of the enlightened sway of Robert of Gloucester
over the former district, and it lasted almost throughout the
lifetime of his son, William, in spite of the more short-
sighted policy of that Earl. 2 Eventually Rhys ap Gruffudd
succeeded in bringing them into his own range of influence.
3 When Caradog ab lestin died, his four sons divided
his possessions. The influence of Norman custom, being
stronger in Glamorgan than elsewhere, and the early death
of two of the brothers, gave Morgan, the eldest, very soon
a complete ascendency over the land. 4 Indeed, but soon
after Caradog's death, the brothers quarrelled over their
inheritance, and Cadwallon slew Owain. 5 But this deed
brought him no good ; an evil fortune dogged his steps ;
and while with his brothers he was engaged in the siege of
a castle, he was killed outright by the collapse of the wall,
alone of all the army.
1. Cart. Sti. Petr. Glouc. ii., n 13 ; Cott. MS. Cleopatra A vii. fF68 9.
2. Probably between 1167 and 1175. 3. See App. No. 4.
4. For the story of Owain's greyhound, who was killed in the defence of his master, see Gir. Camb.,
Op. vi., 69.
5. Giraldus Cambrensis, Op. vi., 69.
CHAP. 8.J THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 105
1 Morgan and Maredudd governed West Glamorgan till
the end of the century. 2 They were great benefactors of
the Norman foundations of Neath and Margam, and their
descendants were buried there. Morgan's castle of Aberafan
had been one of the earliest built by the Welsh ; 3 a
chartered borough was there established ; and we have
evidence of the prosperity of the district under its Welsh
chiefs. They adopted the Norman armour and armorial
bearings and numerous specimens of the charters and seals
of Morgan ap Caradog remain.
But while the Welsh of West Glamorgan were more
assimilated to Norman manners than any of their brethren,
yet both they and their chieftains remained distinctly Welsh
in spirit. 4 Caradog married Gwladus, daughter of Gruffudd
ap Rhys of Deheubarth ; and 5 Nest, the name of
Maredudd's wife, sufficiently indicates her origin. They
were often at war with their overlord, and raided his lands
and those of his Norman subjects on the coast. 6 The
castle of Cynffig was more than any open to their attacks ;
and on the night of St. Hilary, the i4th January, 1167,
they burnt the borough town to the ground.
The rare evidence we have, seems to show that the
Welsh principality of Sainghenydd in East Glamorgan was
much less influenced by Norman example. Ifor Bach was
the real organizer of this district, and, no doubt determined
1. Morgan was still alive in 1208 and Maredudd in 1199.
2. See Clarke's Gartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, pamim.
3. See for what follows Clarke's Cartaet Munim. de Glamorgan.
4. Brut, ad 1175.
5. For Nest, see : Carta Mpreduth de Husbcte et Heybote [Harl. Chant. 75, B. 28] in Clark's, Cart, et
Munim. de Glam. i. 66.
6. Annals of Margam ad 1167.
106 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 8.
much of its after policy. l He married Nest, a daughter of
Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr, and by her had a son,
Gruffudd, who succeeded him.
The history of Gwent is also obscure. 2 The men of
the country had the reputation of being the most warlike of
Wales ; fond of exercises of strength and most skilled in
the use of the bow. No doubt their geographical position
contributed to the development of a martial character. The
Normans held the coast, and the more open inland places.
3 Richard Strongbow was lord of Chepstow ; the house of
Monmouth held a considerable portion of the course of the
Wye. 4 The sons of Miles of Hereford retained the castle
of Abergafeni in their hands ; and their position as
overlords of Brycheiniog made them formidable. 5 The
castle of Newport completed a quadrilateral of fortresses
destined to keep the land in subjection. As in the other
parts of South Wales where they obtained a strong footing,
the Normans established religious houses ; 6 and two abbeys
and five priories here testified alike to their fervour and
Between such tightening bonds it appeared remarkable
that two Welsh principalities should have survived. Gwent
Uch Coed in the North, Gwent Is Coed in the South
1. Brut, ad 1175. This Nest was still alive in 1193, as we know from a grant of Gruffudd ab Ivor of land
at Leckwith to Margam in the time of Bishop H. [ = Henry] of Llandaff. (Clark, Cartel
Munim. de Glam. iii., 112 3).
2. Gir. Camb., Op. vi. 54, 177.
3. He is usually called by contemporaries, Earl of Striguil. So Gesta Benedict!, Rad. de Diceto and Ann.
of Margam. The Brut, calls him ad 1171 : Rickert iarll Terstig uab Gilbert vwa kadarn.
Cleopatra B. 5 substitutes Stragbow for vwa kadarn.
_ Other MSS. of the Brut, used by the editors of the Myvyrian gave as variations for Terstig :
Trist. Strisling. Richard was the iarll gwent of Seisyll Bryffwrch. Striguil was probably a
castle near Chepstow.
4. See Appendix No. u.
5. Chepstow, Monmonth, Abergafeni, Newport.
6. See Gerv. Cant., Op. ii., 443. Abbeys of Caerlleon andTintern. Priories of Newport, Bassaleg, Gold-
cliff, Striguil (Chepstow), and Abergafeni.
CHAP. 8.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 107
defied conquest till the end of the thirteenth century.
'The latter district had been governed since 1158 by
lorwerth ab Owain. His castle of Caerlleon was well
situated for resistance to Norman advance up the Usk
valley. 2 The town that surrounded it still contained many
remains now lost of the magnificence of its Roman days ;
and in the popular mind it was connected with the early
Christian martyrs and with the court of Arthur. 3 lorwerth
had married Angharad, a daughter of Bishop Uchtryd, and
she had borne him two sons, Owain and Howel. Besides
Gwent Is Coed, he held, probably on a precarious tenure,
the extensive coast Cantref of Gwenllwg.
Seisyll ap Dyfnwal governed Gwent Uch Coed. This
chieftain had twice married. 4 By his first wife, Angharad,
daughter of Owain ap Caradog, and sister of lorwerth of
Gwent Is Coed, he had a son Morgan. s Some time before
1167 he married Gwladus, widow of Caradog ab lestin of
Aberafan, and thus connected himself with the powerful
Rhys ap Gruffudd.
Between the Welsh lords of Gwent and the Norman
lords of Brycheiniog, discord seems to have been continual.
Miles of Gloucester left five sons by his wife, Mabel.
6 Walter, who succeeded Roger in 1155 was like all his
brothers, a man of violent temper. 7 He commenced that
series of disgraceful murders which made the castle of
Abergafeni notorious. We are told that divine vengeance
1. Brut, ad 1157 = 8.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 55 6, 101, 120, 169.
3. Brut, ad 1171, ed Ab Ithel, pp. 210 3.
4. Brut, ad 1171. Angharad is called Dudgu in C and D MSS. of Ab Ithel.
5. See Appendix No. 4.
6. For an account of Walter's Cruelty to Roger or Robert de Berkeley, in which he was abetted perhaps
by Earl Roger, his brother, see the Gesta Stephani, edn. Bohn, pp. 417 8.
7. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 51, note 3.
io8 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 8.
on the criminal speedily followed. * He died without off-
spring, probably in 1 158, and Henry, the third son, became
lord of Abergafeni and Brycheiniog. He, too, must have
irritated his Welsh subjects and neighbours, for he was slain
by the chiefs of Gwent. His next-born brother, William,
had died before him, and Mahel, the youngest of all,
succeeded. His wildness of temper seems to have sur-
passed his brothers' ; 2 he was engaged in violent quarrels
with Bishop David Fitzgerald, in whose diocese his lands
were ; and he had not been a year in the possession of his
inheritance when, while receiving hospitality from Walter
Fitz Richard Clifford at Bronllys, the castle took fire and
he was killed by a stone falling from the burning tower.
Contemporaries were struck by the fall of this great
house, which seemed called to such influence in Wales and
the West. Like his brothers, Mahel was childless, and his
patrimony was divided. 3 His sister, Margaret, brought to
Bohun the lands in Hereford. 4 Bertha made her husband,
De Braose, master of Abergafeni Castle and Brycheiniog ;
and thus a house destined to a baneful influence on Central
Wales obtained the foundation of its future power.
The date of Mahel's death and the transference of the
lordship of Brycheiniog to the elder William de Braose is
not known. 5 But the country probably changed hands
before the end of the decade. 6 At any rate, in 1168, it was
1. See the great Roll of the Pipe ii., iii., iv., Henr. ii.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 29 31. The castle of Bronllys was situated near the river Llyfni to the north of
Talgarth. For a description of Bronllys Tower, see Clarke's Media?val Military Architecture,
3. Margaret was the elder daughter and brought to the Bohuns the bulk of the property [Hearne's Liber
Niger] by her marriage with Humphrey iii. de Bohun.
4. Bertha had married William de Braose the First.
5. i.e., before 1170. William de Braose the younger had succeeded his father by 1175.
6. Ann. Camb. ad 1169=8.
CHAP. 8.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. fop
invaded by the indefatigable Rhys ap Gruffudd with the
whole army of Deheubarth. He suffered defeat, and his
forces were driven into Ystrad Tywi ; but angry at the
repulse, he refused to consider it as final, and re-appeared in
the same year at the head of a new army. This time he
carried all before him. The land was ravaged with fire and
sword ; and J the castle of Buallt, so advantageously situated
at the confluence of the Yrfon and the Wye, demolished.
The king's justiciar, Richard de Luci, came to an arrange-
ment with Rhys, who withdrew in triumph to Ystrad
This campaign was probably the commencement of the
establishment of Rhys' supremacy over the Welsh of
Central Wales. This district had never ceased to be in a
state of wild unrest The native princes were here not
strong enough to turn out the Norman nobles, but were
strong enough to cause incessant strife and tumult. 2 They
weakened their own cause by war with each other, and
terrible scenes of bloodshed were common. Cadwallon and
Einion Clud were famous for their quarrels; 3 and the
former is described as a prince panting for the blood of
men. The rare records of events in this part of Wales
invariably refers to deeds of violence; and the year 1170
saw two which have been handed down to us. 4 Einion
Clud, lord of Elfael was wounded by Meilir and Ifor, sons
of Llywarch ap Dyfnwal, and 5 Meurig ab Adam ap Seisyll
1. For a description of this castle see G. T. Clark's Mediaeval Military Architecture, i., 304 8.- The
article contains several chronological mistakes.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 19. $. Radulph de Diceto.
4. This incident is mentioned in the Annales Cambriae only ad 1170 = 69.
5. Brut, ad 1169 = 70. Ann. Camb. gives it at 1170=69, but I am inclined to prefer the authority of the
Brut. Maredudd Bengoch possibly succeeded to Meurig in Buallt, for he is referred to in Llyfr
Silin fsth series of Archaeologia Cambrensis, viii, 212] as Maredudd Bengoch o Fuellt ap Llew
ap Howell ap Seisyllt ap Llew ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrudd, and we are told his daughter
married Gruffudd ap Goronwy ap Gwyn. He is, no doubt, the same as the Maredudd Frongoch
ap Llyw. ap Howel ap Seisyllt ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrudd, ap Llew being left out between
" ap Seisyllt" and "ap Cadwgan."
no THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 8.
of Buallt was treacherously slain in his sleep by Maredudd
Bengoch, his cousin. It was a gain to peace when Rhys
obtained a recognition of some kind of overlordship over
these quarrelsome chieftains, and his hands were strength-
ened for it by an event which profoundly influenced the
future of South Wales.
CHAP. 9.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD in
THE INVASION OF IRELAND, 1167 70.
Dyfed in 1167 Irish affairs ; Diarmaid forced to flee to England His intrigues with
Richard Strongbow and the South Wales chiefs- Diarmaid, with a Welsh prince,
returns to Ireland in August, 1167 Second expedition under Robert Fitz Stephen
in 1169 Capture of Wexford Third expedition under Maurice Fitz Gerald in
summer of 1169 Fourth expedition in spring of 1170 under Raymond le Gros
Fifth expedition under Richard Strongbow in August, 1170 His marriage with
Diarmaid's daughter Capture of Dublin Part of the Welsh in the invasion of
Ireland Influence on subsequent Welsh history of the Irish expeditions.
" I ^HE Norman landowners of Dyfed had never taken kindly
to the soil. Their tenure was not settled enough to
give them security. ' While they often enjoyed alliance
with, and aid from, the Flemings of Rhos, there were not
wanting occasions in which they, too, became their enemies.
The princes of Deheubarth were too powerful to be crushed ;
too restless and too warlike to leave their Norman foes in
peace. So that although nearly eighty years had elapsed
since they obtained a foothold in the land, they remained a
turbulent nobility of the early Norman type, raiding their
Welsh neighbours and, like them living on plunder.
But a change in their fortunes was to come. Westward
from Dyfed lay Ireland given up to intestine broils since
the day when Brian Boroimhe had shattered the traditional
supremacy of the Ui Neill. To the position of Ardrigh the
heads of the royal houses of each division of the country
i. See Gir. Camb., Op. L, 27 ; vi., 99, 100 ; concerning the bloody vengeance taken at Camros on the men
of Rhos, for the slaying of Gerald Fitz William de Carreu or Carew, Temp. Kg. Stephen, i.e.,
ii2 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 9.
all learnt to lay claim. 'Two years before Henry II.
succeeded to the English throne, the raid of Diarmaid
Mac Murchadha into Breifne, had added a fresh cause to
the many for continuous strife. He bore away in triumph
Dearbhforgaill, wife of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, chieftain of
the country, a man whose position on the confines of
Connacht and Uladh made him for nearly fifty years one of
the most important of the Irish leaders. He vowed
vengeance on the offender, and spent many years in
conciliating the friendship of the princes of Connacht with a
view to war on Diarmaid in Laighen. 2 The defeat and
death of Muirchertach Ua Lochlainn in 1166 gave
Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair an opportunity of recovering his
position as Ard-righ, and one of his first acts was to unite
with Tighearnan against Diarmaid. 3 The latter was not
popular even in his own country of Laighen ; 4 his castle
and town of Ferns were burnt ; 5 and on the ist of August
he fled over sea to Bristol.
Thence he hurried over to King Henry, who, 6 since
Easter, had been in France, and finding him in Aquitaine
succeeded in obtaining from him letters patent, allowing
i. There are some reasons for doubting the usual story of the vengeance of Ua Ruairc. The chief actors
in the drama were all over forty in 1152. Diarmaid was probably born in mo. [Cogadh
Gaedhel re Gallaibh, ed Todd, p. xi., and cf. note i on that page]. Dearbhforeaill was eighty-five
when she died in 1193 at the Abbey of Mellifont, and consequently forty-four in 1152.
Tighearnan Ua Ruairc first appears in the Chronicles in 1124, and then had a son.
It seems improbable that it was a criminal passion which decided the rape of Dearbhforgaill,
especially as the Ann iv. Mag. say that she returned to Ua Ruairc in 1153. I' seems more
probable that it was the harrying of his dominions that roused the hatred of Tighearnan, and
that Diarmaid's violent and vengeful character [Gir. Camb., Op. v., 225. 237, &c.] gave it great
a. Ann. iv., Mag. ad 1166.
3. Gir. Camb , Op. v., 188, 225 6, 234, &c. See also Ann. iv., Mag. ad 1141, Ann. of Clonmncnoise,
4. He burnt the town himself.
5. Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh, Text and Notes of Todd's Introduction, pp. xi., xii. The Norman poem
which its author asserts to be largely a transcription of information from Maurice Regan,
Diarmaid's Latiner, says that Diarmaid remained with Robert Herdin = Robert Fitz Harding,
in his foundation, the priory of St. Augustine's, Bristol. [Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 12].
6. Robert de Monte, ad 1166.
CHAP. 9.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 113
any of his subjects to join the Irish prince in the recovery
of his kingdom. * Diarmaid returned to Bristol early in
1167, and there in return for his daughter's hand and
and succession to the throne of Leinster, obtained
promise of assistance from Richard Strongbow,
Earl of Striguil, *a nobleman who had lost his
fortune, and does not seem at any time to have been in
favour with the king. From Bristol Diarmaid went to
South Wales. Here he met with ready offers of assistance.
3 Both Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth and Bishop David
Fitz Gerald were soon gained to his cause, the former
perhaps seeing the great advantage that would accrue to
him by an emigration of the more Norman element to the
Irish shores, the latter willing as usual, to aid his family's
interests wherever even they clashed with his own.
Diarmaid's promises did the rest. Eager to return he
resolved to precede his wavering allies with what few he
could immediately muster. 4 He set sail for Ireland in
August, 1167, accompanied by a 5 Welsh prince, who must
have been a near relation of Rhys himself, and by 6 Richard
Fitz Godoberd, a Pembrokeshire knight, with a band of
Norman and Welsh auxiliaries. 7 Hardly had he landed
when Ruaidhri took the field against him, and defeated him
in two battles. His Welsh ally was slain and Diarmaid
forced to give hostages to the victory. 8 He did everything
1. Henry II. was in Aquitaine from Dec. 1166 to May, 1167. [Eyton, Itin. H. ii., pp. 1036].
2. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 228; Norm, poem, ed Michel, p, 17. For the state of his fortune see William of
Newburgh, lib. ii., cap. 26; Gerv. Cant. i. 234.
3. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 228 9.
4. Circa Kalendas Augusti, says Gir. Camb. Op. v., 229.
5. Ann. iv., Mag. ad 1167. 6. Norm, poem, ed. Michel, p. 21.
7. Ann. iv. Mag.
8. Regan's Irish name was Ua Riacain. The Norman French poem [Carew MSS. Lambeth, 596] says he
was the Latiner = interpreter and herald of Diarmaid mac Murchadha, and professes to derive its
information from Ua Riacain's life of that king.
ii4 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 9.
to gain time, and despatched Maurice Regan, a faithful
adherent, to press the South Wales nobles to a fulfilment of
their promises. T A year went by. At Diarmaid's insti-
gation, 2 and at that of Bishop David and Maurice Fitz
Gerald, Rhys consented early in 1169 to liberate Robert
Fitz Stephen, who had been three years in prison, but only
on condition that he should bear arms with him against the
king of England. He was, however, induced to change
this condition, and allow Robert to lead a second expedi-
tion to the help of Diarmaid.
The latter's promise of large grants of land near
Wexford had the desired effect. 3 Robert bestirred him-
self and gathered a force of thirty knights, sixty men at
arms and three hundred picked Welsh troops. His near
kinsmen, 4 Meilir Fitz Henry, Robert de Barri, and Miles
Fitz David accompanied him, and at the beginning of May,
1169, he was in Ireland, and was there joined, one day
after his own arrival, by 5 Maurice de Prendergast at the
head of ten knights and many archers, chiefly Flemings
from Rhos and its port of Milford. 6 Diarmaid and his son,
Domhnall Kavanagh, hastened to join their allies with five
hundred Irish. 7 Together they took Wexford; and the
teivi, Kereticae regionis caput, cui tune praeerat, dolo suorum captus fuerat.et Reso traditus, jam
jamque per triennium in vinculis et carcere tentus " Now Robert was taken prisoner
about the beginning of November, 1165 [Brut, ad 1164 = 5 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1166 5.] His
liberation is put down to 1168 = 9 by the Brut., to 1170 = 69 by the Ann. Camb. If he was
liberated at the beginning of 1169 he would have been just three years in prison. The statement
in the Ann. Camb. is as follows : " Robert filius Stephani a carcere Resi precatu Uiermit filii
Murchath Hiberniam intravit, etc. . . ." Everything points to May, 1169, as the date of Fitz
Stephen's Irish expedition.
Camb., Op. v. 229 ; Brut, ad 1168 = 9 ; Ann. Camb. ad 1170 = 69.
Camb., Op. v. 230.
Camb., Op. v. 234 5 ; Norman poem, ed Michel p. 22.
Camb., Op. v. 232; also Norman poem. See article on Maurice de Prendergast, by John P.
Prendergast n Journal of Kilkenny Archaeological Society.
. Camb., Op. v. 231.
. Camb., Op. v. 2323 ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, pp. 245.
CHAP. 9.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 115
town and its adjoining territory were given to Robert
Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald according to the
terms of the treaty. J Two hundreds between Wexford
and Waterford were handed over to Herve de Montmaurice.
2 The allies, after three weeks of joyous revelry at Ferns,
marched into Osraighe, to punish its chieftain, Donnchadh,
for the murder of Diarmaid's son, Enna, in the previous
year. After a bloody battle, victory declared for the
invaders ; and to Diarmaid, the prince of Osraighe made
a feigned submission. But it was only feigned. 3 At the
news of his enemy's successes, Ruaidhri of Connacht
summoned all Ireland against him, and Diarmaid was
reduced to find in Fitz Stephen's immediate followers his
only hope. Strongly fortifying Ferns, they awaited
Ruaidhri's approach. 4 The latter was induced to make
peace. Diarmaid was to have Laighen, and to give his
son, Conchobhar, as a hostage for his good faith.
5 Such was the situation when Maurice Fitz Gerald
arrived with two ships and landed at Wexford with a
hundred and forty followers. This third invasion took
place late in the summer of 1 169. It caused an immediate
renewal of the war between Ruaidhri and Diarmaid, who
now began to aspire to the monarchy of the island. While
Fitz Stephen fortified Carrick, near Wexford, 6 Maurice
accompanied the King of Laighen to an attack on Dublin.
7 Early in 1 1 70, war broke out between Ruaidhri of
Connacht and Domhnall, son of Toirrdhealbach Ua Briain.
1. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 233.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 233 5. For much fuller details of expeditions into Osraighe, the territory of
the Ui Failghe and to Glenn-da-locha, see the Norman poem, ed. Michel, pp. 27 51.
3. Ann. iv. Mag. ad 1169. 4. Gir. Camb. Op. v. 243 4.
5. Gir. Camb. Op. v., 244 5. 6. Gir. Camb. Op. v. 245.
7. Gir. Camb. Op. v. 245 ! Ann. iv. Mag. ad 1170. Domhnall Ua Briain was a son-in law of Dinrmaid
u6 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 9.
Diarmaid despatched a force under Fitz Stephen to the aid
of the latter; and after several engagements, Ruaidhri
withdrew without success to Connacht, while Domhnall
definitely threw over his allegiance.
1 Diarmaid's ambitious plans led him to urge the Earl
of Striguil to a fulfilment of his promises. A fourth
expedition from the Welsh coast came late in the spring,
commanded by Raymond Le Gros, son of 2 William Fitz
Gerald, and disembarking a few miles from Waterford, near
the 3 rock of Dundunnolf, with ten knights and seventy
archers, he at once entrenched himself there. He was
very soon besieged by the citizens of Waterford, and with
them 4 Maelseachlainn Ua Faclain, lord of the Deisi. The
attack was vigorously repulsed and 5 seventy of the citizens
taken. Raymond, however, was not able to take the
offensive until the arrival of Strongbow.
That Earl had probably been preparing for his Irish
attempt very carefully for four years. The turn of events
was favourable to his schemes. 6 He had obtained from
Henry a qualified permission to go to the assistance of
Diarmaid, and had determined to interpret this as he saw
fit. The success of the first adventurers encouraged his
efforts, and at last his own expedition, the fifth that had
left the Welsh shores, 7 landed at Waterford from Milford
1. He offered his daughter, a~c. to Giraldus, in marriage to both Maurice Fitz Gerald and Robert Fitz
Stephen, who were both married. (Op. v. 246).
2. William was probably dead. He is last heard of in 1153 when Tcnby Castle was put into his hands.
[Brut, ad 1152 = 3].
3. For site of Dundunnolf see Gir. Camb., Op. v., pp. 420 i.
4. He is called in the Norman poem, ed. Michel, Del Deys Dovenald Osfelan. One Dohmnall Ua
Faelain died in 1205 [A. iv. M.] See Gir. Camb., Op. v., 248.
5. Gir. Camb.. Op. v. 2503. Herve de Montmaurice spoke for, Raymond Le Gros against their
execution. The advice of the former was followed.
6. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 246 7.
7. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 254 ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, pp. 68 72. Waterford was taken on the 25th
CHAP. 9.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDE), u?
on the 23rd of August. 1170. It consisted of two hundred
knights and a thousand infantry. This strong reinforce-
ment enabled Raymond le Gros to prosecute the siege of
Waterford with vigour and x it was taken with great
2 The capture was immediately followed by Richard's
marriage with Eva, Diarmaid's daughter. The festivities
over, the King of Laighen, gathering together all his
Norman and Welsh auxiliaries, marched on Dublin, 3 and
escaping the large army which Ruaidhri had gathered
together to oppose him, appeared before the city on the
2ist of September.
An attempt was made by Archbishop 4 Laurence
O'Toole to bring about a peace. While the negotiations
were proceeding, 5 Milo de Cogan and Raymond le Gros
made a vigorous attack upon the city. It was successful.
With their leader, 6 Asculf, son of Raghnall mac Torcaill,
the better part of the population fled. Richard remained a
few days in Dublin ; 7 then leaving it to the defence of Milo
de Cogan, he made, at the instigation of Diarmaid, a raid
into the territories of Ua Ruairc in Midhe. Ruaidhri,
indignant at Diarmaid's determination to conquer Ireland
1. Gir Cainb., Op. v., 255; Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 72 ; Ann. iv., Mag. ad 1170.
2. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 255; Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 73 : A. iv. M. ad 1170. --Richard had a
daughter, Alina, by a first marriage: and, perhaps, a son [A. iv. Mag. 1171] the Walter filii
Ricardi filii Gilberti Strongbowe avi mei of a Tintern charter of William Marshal, dated
Strigul, 22nd March, 1206. [Dugd. Mon. v. 267.]
3. Gir. Camb., Op. v. , 2556 ; Norman poem, ed Michel, pp. 758 ; A. iv. M. ad 1170.
4. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 256. Lorcan Ua Tuathail became Archbishop of Dublin on the death of its last
bishop in 1162 ; he died at Eu in the Seine Inferieure on the i4th of Nov., 1180. [Ann. iv. M.
ad 1162, 1167, 1180.] He was canonized in 1226 by Pope Honorius iii. See Vita Sancti
Laurentii in Messingham's Florilegium Insulae Sanctorum, Paris, 1624.
5. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 2567 ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, pp. 79, 82.
6. Hasculphus in Giraldus, Op. v., 257 ; Hesculf and Mac Turkil Esculf in Norman poem, ed. Michel,
pp. 79, 80 ; Asgall, son of Raghnall mac Torcaill in Ann. v Mag. ; Axoll mac Torcaill in Ann.
Loch. Ce ad 1171.
7. Gir. Camb., Op. v., 257 ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 82.
n8 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP, 9.
for himself, put his three hostages to death. ' Earl Richard
retired to Waterford, whence he made war on Cormac Ua
Carthaigh and suffered defeat at his hands. 2 Diarmaid
spent his time in making incursions from Ferns into Ua
Ruairc's lands in Midhe and Breifne.
And so the year 1 1 70 ended. 3 And such were the
elements of the situation which was made known to Henry
who had come from France in March. 4 Startled at the
success of the Earl, he affected great displeasure, and sent
immediate orders to all his subjects to return. It was
evidently necessary to propitiate him, and 5 Richard made
Raymond le Gros his envoy with orders to lay all his
conquests at his master's feet. Henry accepted the solution
and prepared to visit his new domain.
The five expeditions which preceded the landing of
Henry II. in Ireland were due entirely to Norman French
and Welsh enterprise. The troops that were employed
consisted of Norman knights from Pembrokeshire and
Glamorgan, warlike Flemish settlers from the cwmwd of
Gwyr and the Cantref of Rhos, and picked Welsh soldiers.
6 The present names of the inhabitants of the land acquired
by Fitz Stephen near Wexford testify to the origin of those
he brought with him, 7 and even the Dublin Roll of names
i. Ann. iv. M. ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 82. 2. Ann. iv. M. ; Norman poem, ed. Michel, p. 83
3. Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi ; Roger de Hoveden ; Gerv Cant.
4. See Wm. of Newburgh, lib. ii., cap. 26. 5. Gir. Cainb., Op. v., 259.
6. The names Fleming, Furlong, Wadding, Prendergast, Harry, Walsh are common.
7. H^t. and Man. Docts. Ireland, 1172 1320, pp. 3 48. The list is a hodge-podge of all kinds of names,
French, English, Welsh, Irish, Latin. The same word is spelt in a variety of ways. -Cynffig,
ex. B., appears in the following names : Tomas Kenfeg, Walmerr de Cheneuec, Wasmeris de
Kenfech, Willielmus de Kenefec, &c. So far as they can be classified the names may be divided
into four groups :
(a) Those that suggest Welsh origin : Oliuerus le Waleis, Edwinus Walensis, Walterus
filius Grifini, Cradoc de Lein, Walterus Griffin, &c.
(b) Those that suggest Flemish origin : Henricus Flandrensis, Gilbertus Flamang,
Ricardus filius lordani de Hauarfurd, Robertus de Guer, &c.
(c) Those referring to towns in S_outh Wales : Adam de Cardigan, Phillipus de Carmathin,
Elias de Ketweli, Godefridus de Sweinesea, Johanes de Cardif, P^dwacar de Niuport, Harold
tie Munemue, Gilibertus de Striguil, Johannes de Sancto Briauel, Turold de Chepstowa,
Arnoldus de Breconia, Ourei de Fissegard, Durant de Pembroc, &c.
(d) Those referring to places in Welsh Marches, West of England and Cornwall :
Vincentius Cestrie, Hugo de Scropasburi, Osbertus de Herofort, Willielmus de Ludelaue,
Ricardus filius Salomonis de Bristollo, Moriz de Bardastapla Willielmus de Bodmin, Rodbertus
le Cornwalleis, &c.
CHAP. 9.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 119
shows a very distinct preponderance of the same elements.
Richard de Clare and his uncle, Herve de Montmaurice,
were Normans of ruined fortunes, who went to repair them,
like true Normans, with their sword, but with the exception
of these nobles, the leaders of the movement were drawn
from that nobility of Dyfed, in whose veins Norman blood
mingled with the Welsh, and who looked to Nest, the
daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr as to a T common ancestor.
One after another the Fitz Geralds, the Fitz Stephens, the
Fitz Henrys left their Pembroke lands, and in the neigh-
bouring isle set to work to carve out new and wider
provinces for themselves. These descendants of Nest went
chiefly from a love of adventure and plunder, in a land
which promised to give them greater opportunity for both,
than their old quarters in Dyfed, where the Welsh, by long
experience, had learnt their tactics. 2 In a few years all the
chief of them had passed away from Wales and dwelt in
Rhys had now recovered all the power he had inherited
from his brother, Maredudd, shaken as it had been by
successive invasions from England and continuous wars
with the Cliffords and Clares. He supported the Irish
invasions, hoping to still further weaken the Normans ; and
1. That the family must have been subject to much Welsh influence is seen from their names. Of Nest's
own children, Angharad married William de Barri ; another daughter was called Gwladus ; a
son, Howel [Gir. Camb., Op. i., 59]. - Wi Ham Fitz Gerald had a son Gruffudd ; and a grand-
son referred to by Giraldus as : Reimundi nepos David, ngnominc Walensis non cognomine,
natione Kambrensis, non cognatione [Op. v., 321]. Maurice Fitz Gerald had a daughter Nest ;
Robert Fitz Stephen an illegitimate son, Maredudd. Last but not least in importance is the
name of Meilir Fitz Henry.
2. See the interesting verse in the Hoianau (No. 4), Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin, f. 27 b :-
Oian a parchellan oet reit gweti
Rac pffin pimp penaeth o nortmandi
Ar pimhed in myned dros mor heli
Y oreskin iwerton tirion trewi, etc.
The spelling, &c., is very modernized in the rendering in Myv. Arch., p. 106. Tlios. btep .ens
(Lit. of the K., pp. 24* 2) thought the five nobles were Robert Fitz Stephen, Maurice Fitz
Gerald, Herve de Montmaurice, David de Barri and Richard de Clare. I think it much more
probable that the reference is to the Norman leaders of the five successive expeditions from
Wales to Ireland.
120 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 9.
to some extent he succeeded ; for the Welsh, the immediate
result was good ; but it must not be forgotten that it was
Richard's Irish conquests which laid the foundation of the
immense power of the Marshals who inherited by marriage
the lands of the last Strongbow. Richard never succeeded
in holding Pembroke ; but the Marshals asserted and made
good their claims and eventually became the most extensive
landowners in South Wales.
CHAP. 10.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 121
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY DOWN TO 1170, AND DEATH OF
Bishop David of St. David's His Welsh manners His nepotism Absenteeism in
the Bishopric of St. Asaph Richard succeeds Geoffrey of Monmouth Godfrey,
successor of Richard, forced to flee His difficulties with Archbishop Thomas a
Becket Bishop Meurig at Bangor His death Long ecclesiastical conflict
between Owain and Becket Interference of Pope Alexander III. Becket desires
Owain to put aside his wife, Chrisiant Owain refuses Excommunication of
Owain His death in November, 1170 His character.
"\T THILE his kinsmen were thus fighting new battles,
^ * x Bishop David was chiefly engaged in alienating the
lands of his see in spite of the vigorous opposition of his
Welsh clergy. 2 The national party, unable to obtain the
bishopric for a nominee of its own, had secured, probably on
David's succession to the see, the Archdeaconry of Ceredig-
ion for Cedifor, son of Daniel, but if they founded any
hopes on this last member of the great Sulien's family,
they were dashed to the ground by his death in 1 163.
To some extent David adopted the manners and
customs of the Welsh bishops, 3 for like them he had
daughters and sons. One daughter he gave in marriage to
Walter, son of the Gwys who had built Wiston Castle ; and
with her a quit-claim to land near Llanhuadein, for which
Gwys himself had suffered excommunication. He similarly
endowed another daughter with land at Broghes and Tre-
i. See the Vita Davidis in Gir. Camb., Op. 2. See Brut, ad 1162 = 3.
3. See the Vita Davidis, ii. Kpiscopi Menevensis, said to be by a Canon of St. David's and published in
the Rolls Series among Giraldus' Works, iii., 431 4. According to this life he had at least two
daughters. Milo Menevensis of Giraldus [Op. v. 325 6] is plausibly identified by Dimock with
Regan's [Norman poem] Milis le fiz 1'evesque de Sein Davi. See Appendix B to
preface to vol. v. of Giialdus' Works, note 3.
122 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 10
fennen ; and gave Castell Cennen to another near relation,
Arnald Ddu. But his brother, Maurice, was his especial
favourite. He made him seneschal of the episcopal lands,
gave him St. Dogmael's and the land of leuan ap Seisyll,
together with fees at Llanrian and Archbold. He induced
tenants of the bishop to do homage to Maurice for their
lands. The clergy of the diocese strenuously resisted.
1 And David, when in 1 164 Archbishop Thomas was driven
into exile, thinking himself free from control, did not
hesitate to steal the common seal of the Chapter ; and thus
deprived its members of their only means of successful
Nor had the Bishopric of St. Asaph been very fortunate
in its bishops. Gilbert and Geoffrey do not seem to have
visited their dioceses. 2 When the latter died, he was
succeeded by Richard, of whom we know nothing, and who
was probably a Norman absentee. 3 Godfrey, who
succeeded Richard, did as his predecessors had done.
His character seems to have been exacting, and he was
accused of nepotism. At any rate, he did not agree with
his Welsh clergy, and very soon fled the see. 4 As early
as 1165, Thomas wrote to him, insisting that he should
return. But the Archbishop was in exile ; 5 Henry showed
himself on the other hand inclined to help Godfrey, and at
1. Gir. Camb.. Op. iii., 432. Thomas reached France at the beginning of November, 1164. Materials
for the Hist, of Archb. Becket i., 403 ; iii., 70-1, 318 26 ; iv., 54 8, 1056, 190.
2. Gervasius Cantuar, ii., 385. There is no authority that I know of for the date 1154 given by Haddan
and Stubbs. Geoffrey died in 1155 [Brut, ad 1154 = 5], and Richard became bishop in that or
the following year.
3. Gerv. Cant. ii. 385. The date of his consecration is not known. He was present on the 3rd June,
1162, at Becket's consecration [Gerv. Cant, i., 171]. Godfrey was consecrated Bishop by
Theobald, who died in April, 1161.
For Godfrey's character, see Historia Monasterii de Abingdon, p. 293. References to him
in Materials for the Hist, of Archbishop Becket, i. 213, ii. 245.
4. Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Eccl. Docts., i., 362.
5. Historia Monasterii de Abingdon, pp. 234 5, 293.
CHAP. 10.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 123
the end of October of the same year, appointed him
Administrator of Abingdon Abbey, on the death of its
titular Wulkelin ; J and the bishop, not caring for a visit to
St. Asaph now in the hands of Owain Gwynedd, a fact
which shows the hostility of his Welsh flock to him, threw
himself into the king's party. z He spent his time chiefly
in the consecration of churches and church altars in
England. 3 In 1166 he drew on himself the wrath of
Becket by absolving the nobles excommunicated by the
Archbishop at Vezelai. 4 The latter insisted that he should
go to his diocese or resign. But Thomas was still in exile,
and affairs in North Wales had taken a turn very un-
favourable to Norman interests. Indeed, had he followed
nothing but the dictates of ordinary prudence, Godfrey
would have hesitated to return to St. Asaph, while Owain
was carrying on his long struggle for the independence of
the native Church.
We know nothing of the events which may have
followed the installation of Bishop Meurug at Bangor, but
his episcopate was long. He governed the see twenty-one
years, a period completely barren of events concerning the
Church in his own see. 5 The great Archdeacon of
Gwynedd, Simeon, died in 1152; but his party did not die
with him, and the fruit of his efforts was seen when, nine
years later, 6 Meurug followed him to the tomb.
1. Owain must have held St. Asaph as early as 1165, if not earlier.
2. Matt. Paris ad 1165 ; Margin of a MS. of Diceto, Reg. 13 E. 6., f. 59 b.
3. Diceto, ad 1166. 4. Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, &c., i., 3634.
5. Symeon is the reading of the Hengwrt MS. (B. of Ab Ithel) and of Cleopatra B. 5. Ab Ithel's A& C
MSS. give Simon, and the E MS. [Llyfr Du Basing] Einion. A.B.C. call him Archdiagon
Keueilawc ; Cleopatra B. 5 [D] and Llyfr Du Basing [E] Archdiagon Kelynnawc. See Rolls
Ed. of Biut ad 1151 = 2. The Gwentian Chronicle as usual adopts the readings of the later
MSS., ad 1151.
6. Brut ad 1161 = 2. From the Brut it would seem that he died in 1162. He was dead at the time of
Becket's consecration. If we admit that he died on the i?th of August [Kalend. S. Petr. Salop.
MS. Cott. Vitel. A. viii], it must have been in 1161, as Becket became Archbishop on the 3rd
r24 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 10.
In the same year as Meurug, J Theobald died, and on
the 3rd of June, 1162, 2 Thomas a Becket was consecrated
Archbishop of Canterbury in his stead by Henry, Bishop
of Winchester. Among the many bishops who graced the
ceremony were Gilbert of Hereford, Godfrey of St. Asaph,
David Fitz Gerald of St. David's, and Nicholas ap Gwr-
gant of Llandaff. The new metropolitan showed vigour
in everything he undertook. He found the see of Bangor
vacant, and, no doubt, attempted to installate a successor
to Meurig. But the time was ill-chosen. Owain was just
preparing that revolt against Henry's authority, which was
eventually crowned with so much success. He had been
baffled in his first attempt to remove Bangor from Norman
ecclesiastical influence, but he was resolved this time to
resist to the end. No bishop was to be appointed without
his consent, and no allegiance was to be sworn to Canter-
bury. Circumstances favoured the national cause. 3 In
1164 Becket was driven into exile, and this was taken
advantage of by Owain. 4 He proposed the consecration
to Bangor of a bishop by another than the Archbishop of
Canterbury, but professing obedience to the latter. This,
however, he declared to be a grant of his own free will,
and denied that Canterbury had any right thereto. The
proposition was indignantly rejected by Becket, who
reasserted the subjection of Bangor to himself, and promised
to send a messenger to Owain to treat of the difficulties in
1. In April, 1161.
2. Gerv. Cant. ; Materials for History of Becket, i. 9 ; iii. 35 6, 1805 ! i y - 1819, 84 seq., 154.
3. See the authorities referred to in a preceding note.
4. Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket in Rolls Series, Vol. v. p. 229. On p. 230 is Becket's
letter of refusal. For an attempt at dating the letters on the Bangor controversy, see Haddan
and Stubbs, Councils, &c.
CHAP. 10.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 125
the way of a settlement. r He appointed Archdeacon
Dafydd of Bangor the administrator of the see, no doubt
with the design of making him the head of those who
favoured Canterbury's claims. 2 Arthur, a priest who acted
as the leader of the national party in the church, with
others, I ago, Uchtryd, Lorans, was in favour of an Irish
metropolitan as less dangerous to Welsh liberties, and
openly advocated consecration of the Welsh bishops and
clergy by such. 3 Becket applied to Pope Alexander III. to
bring his authority to bear, 4 and meanwhile summoned
Arthur and his supporters to appear before him to answer
charges of disobedience and disloyalty. s On the loth of
December, 1165, the Pope wrote to the clergy of Bangor
to elect a bishop within two months. 6 On the gth of
February, 1166, he wrote again to the same effect, at the
same time bidding Thomas, in case they refused, to provide
a bishop himself. But the triumphs of Owain in the field
had influenced the question and the prince felt himself
strong enough to continue his resistance. 7 Archdeacon
Dafydd, too, had joined the national party and solicited
consecration from Ireland for a nominee of Owain. 8 He
was himself a true ecclesiastic of the Celtic Church and had
married. 9 Becket, furious at his defection, wrote summon-
ing him, with his son and three or four of the Church
1. Materials, &c., v. 228.
2. Materials, &c., v. 2301. His name is variously rendered by the MSS. de Chargan. de Chargis, de
Kargan, de Bargis, de Burgis. It has been suggested that he is to be identified with Arthur de
Bardsey, whom Brown Willis asserts to have been Dean of Bangor in 1162. He does not give
3. Extract from letter of Becket to Alexander III. in Haddan & Stubbs, Councils and Eccl. Docts. i. 367.
4. Materials, &c. , v. 231 2.
5. Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket (Rolls Series) v. 225 6.
6. Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket, v. 226 8.
7. Materials, &c., v. 2356. 8. At least he had a son.
9. Materials, &c., v. 235 6.
126 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 10.
magnates of his see, to appear before him. ' Dafydd replied
that his action was due to compulsion from Owain, who had
extorted the promise that no bishop should be elected
against his will. The Archbishop absolved him and the
Bangor canons from their oath, and demanded the election
of his own nominee. So matters dragged on. Another
attempt of Becket's to provide a bishop within a delay of
four months, failed. It is difficult to say whether there was
a connection between the ecclesiastical troubles of the time,
and 2 the murder, in 1168, of Abbot Gwrgenau, and his
nephew, Llawdden, by Owain's son, Cynan. But trouble
there was, and the Pope waxed indignant at this long
vacancy of the North Welsh sees. 3 On the gth of October,
1 1 68, he wrote to Henry, urging him to fill both St. Asaph
and Bangor without further delay. 4 At the same time he
urged Becket to proceed to vigorous measures against
Owain Gwynedd and Archdeacon Dafydd. 5 The marriage
of the former with his cousin Chrisiant was brought up
against him. There was hardly a Welsh chief who had
not committed the same offence ; and it was hoped that by
striking at Owain, the blow would fall on all, and a national
failing be extirpated. The prince was ordered to put his
wife aside. He absolutely refused, publicly seized the
1. Materials, &c., v. 234.
2. Brut, ad 1167 = 8. Curiously the MS. of the Brut in Llyfr Coch o Hergest says the murder was committed
by Cynan and Owain Gwynedd. But all the other MSS. say Cynan, son of Owain.
3. Extract from letter of Alexander III. to Henry II. in Haddan & Stubbs, Councils & Eccl. Docts. i, 71
4. Materials, &c , v. 239.
5. What we know of Christiana or Chrisiant is derived from :
(a) Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 133 4. From this passage we learn that the marriage with Chrisiant
was the ground for excommunication, and that Dafydd and Rhodri were sons by her.
(b) Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket. vol. v., pp. 236 9.
(c) Awdyl. Nis Gwyddis pwy a'i Cant., but probably by Peryf ap Cedifor Myv. Arch. p. 280
She is here called Cristin, and some part in the murder of Howel seems to be
attributed to her.
(d) Welsh Books of Pedigrees.
CHAP. 10.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD 127
Pope's letters and caused the messenger to be forcibly
detained. ' This display of vigour had the desired effect.
The Archbishop's last letters showed his sentiment of
Owain's power ; the haughty champion of the Church even
condescended to flatter the victorious prince ; he reminded
him, not as at first of the ecclesiastical punishments he
would hurl at his head in case of refusal, but * rather of his
age and approaching death. He implored him to put aside
his wife, and provide for her fully from 2 his own revenues.
But Owain could not be moved. Then Becket, angry
perhaps that for a moment he should have yielded one inch
from what he thought his righteous demands, 3 pronounced
the sentence of excommunication against the King of
Gwynedd. But the sentence was null. Within his own
dominions Owain's will was law. He was held to be
fighting for his people, for their customs, for their Church.
The clergy of the see, Dafydd the Archdeacon, all were
bound to his cause. No foreigner held an inch of land in
his kingdom. 4 The Angevin monarch was too far to
seriously menace. And so it came to pass that Owain
obtained a second victory over the Norman element, and
that the last years of his life saw a triumph over the
Archbishop of Canterbury, hardly less important than had
been his repulse of the king of England, when from
Berwyn's heights that king's hosts fell back along the Dee
i. Juyenes cito moriuntur et facile, sed impossible est ut qui senes suntdiu vivunt . . . Materials, &c. v.
2 Si cognatum tuam diligis. abundas opibus, quibus ei poteris utiliter et honeste providere
Materials, &c., v.
3 Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 133.
4. Henry returned from France after four years absence in March, 1170.
128 THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. [CHAP. 10.
He was now old. x His mother, Angharad, had died
in 1162 after surviving her husband, Gruffudd, a quarter of
a century. 2 In 1165 her death was followed by that of
Llywelyn, one of Owain's most brilliant sons, whose
bravery and wisdom were conspicuous. Owain himself
could not last much longer. 3 In November, 1170, he
expired, after reigning thirty-three years over North
Wales. He was the excommunicate of Canterbury ; but
he had freed his own Church from slavery, and she took
him to her bosom ; and after making confession of his sins,
he received the communion of the body of Christ and
extreme unction ; and 4 in the cathedral of Bangor, where
already rested the ashes of his father, was buried with
It is not easy to judge a king. His contemporaries are
too near to read aright ; and posterity too remote to deal
him justice. While the men of his own time are interested
in the motives, it is rather by the results of his actions that
their descendants allow their decisions to be governed.
But Owain Gwynedd had all the characteristics of a great
ruler. 5 He was a brilliant soldier, and there is no record
of his having been defeated in battle. 6 He was a
sagacious diplomat, and knew well how, by negotiation, to
gather together all his resources in the hour of danger, and
to conciliate the opposing interests of the many chiefs
against a common foe. 7 He was a prudent governor,
working for his people. His policy was one of peace
1. Brut ad 1161 = 2. -See Hanes Gruffudd in Myv. Arch. p. 730, where the biographer gives a description
of her person ; and a list of her children : three sons. Cadwallon, Owain, Cadwaladr ; five
daughters, Gwenllian, Maryred or Marred, Ranillt, Susanna, and Annest or Nest. Angharad
must have died at a great age ; we know that her daughter, Gwenllian, had a son by Cadwgan
ap Bleddyn before mi, the date of Cadwgan's death [Brut.]
2. Brut ad 1164 = 5. 3. See Appendix No. 3. 4. Gir. Camb. Op. vi. 133.
5. The Hengwrt MS. of the Brut. [B. of ab Ithel] says ad 1169 = 70. ynn anoruodedic oe uebyt
6. Gwr anueidrawl y brudder says the Brut ad 1169- 70. 7. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 143 5
CHAP. 10.] THE AGE OF OWAIN GWYNEDD. 129
within and union with Deheubarth without, and its success
is well seen in the fact that outsiders looked upon him as
1 king of all Wales, as the prince of the whole Welsh
people. 2 He was the greatest patron of the bards, and
thus, like all the members of his family, identified himself
with the encouragement of purity of language and excellence
of literature. And more than any, these champions of the
national cause mourned his loss ; and something of their
grief is seen in the impassioned references of Gwalchmai,
in the elegies of Daniel ap Llosgwrn Mew, Seisyll
Bryffwrch and Cynddelw. The succeeding generation
called him 3 the Great ; either in memory of his mighty
deeds, or startled by the contrast his single fame presented
to the comparative nonentity of his many sons.
There is a tendency to forget the great men of a
conquered race. They are judged by the failure of their
aims, once independence, that boon of peoples, is lost.
They toiled indeed in the heat of the day ; they seemed to
live but for their country's weal ; they fought and died in
its defence ; but of what avail was it all, when the day of
doom came, and that which they had laboured to preserve
was lost for ever ?
i. He is usually called tywyssawc Gwyned in the Brut, though on one occasion ad 1149 = 50 Owein
vrenhin Gwyned. The Ann. Camb. say in one case princeps Nortwalliae, in another rex
Nqrtwalliae ad 1171. The Ann. Marg. ad 1157 speak of him as Oweyn de Wallia. Robert de
Monte calls him Oenus rex ad 1171. Becket in his letters, Rex Walliae, princeps Wallensium.
Owain in a letter to Becket calls himself Walliarum rex : in a letter to Bernard rex Wa.'liae.
Giraldus calls him princeps Norwalliae (Op. iii. 188.), vi. 134.
2 See all the bardic writings of the time, and especially Gwalchmai's awd! to Dafydd ab Owain, in My v.
Aich., p. 146.
3. Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 143. Oenus magnus.
APPENDIX No. I.
The Brut y Tywysogion was published in the Rolls Series in 1860.
It was edited by the Rev. John Williams ab Ithel. The MS. which he
took as the basis of his work and which he collated with several others,
is a part of the Red Book of Hergest at Jesus College. It has been
published separately in the Myvyrian Archaeology, pp. 602 651 ; and
quite recently in a palaeographical edition by Rhys & Evans.
The more one becomes familiar with this Chronicle, the more is one
impressed by its correctness and accuracy throughout ; and as in no
edition has an attempt been made to rectify the Chronology of the
document, it becomes necessary to establish it at any rate, for our period,
on a sound basis.
The events recorded under the dates 1134 1169 inclusive are really
a year behind, and belong to 1135 1170. A few cases in which we
know the date of the event in question will clearly show this :
1134 of Rolls Edition Henry I. died 1st Dec., 1135. [Ord. vital ; Ang. Sax. Chr.]
Richard Fitz Gilbert killed I5th April, 1136. [Cont, Fl. Wig. ;
Rt. de M.]
Gruffudd ap Rhys died in 1137. [Cont. Fl. Wig. ; Ann. de
Miloof Hereford was killed Christmas Eve, 1143. [Gerv. Cant. ;
Crusade of 1147.
Death of Ranulf of Chester, 1153. [Rt. de M. ; Gerv. Cant ]
Death of Stephen, 1154. [Re. de M. ; Gerv. Cant.]
Death of Roger of Hereford, 1155. [Rt. de M. ; Gerv. Cant.]
Death of Toirdhealbach UaConchobhair, 1156. [Ann. iv. Mag.]
Henry II. 's expedition against Gwynedd in 1157. [Rt. de M., &c.]
Henry II.'s expedition to South Wales, 1163. [Ralph. Cogges-
hall. ; Ann. de Marg.]
Henry's expedition of 1165. [Rt. de M., Ac.]
Expulsion of Diarmaid mac Marchadha, 1166. [Ann. IV. Mag.]
Robert Fitz Stephen goes to Ireland, 1169
I will give in Appendix No. 3 my reasons for believing that the
death of Owain Gwynedd must be attributed to 1170;
and that the events recorded in the Rolls Edition under
the years 1 169 and 1 170 are to be united under the single
It will now be clear that all the events of the period 1135 1170 are
in this chronicle ante-dated by one year. The only exceptions I feel
warranted in making, refer to the events dated 1137, 1138, in the Rolls
Edition, and which are really two years behind and equivalent to 1139,
APPENDIX No. II.
The Chronology of the two MSS. B. C. used by Williams ab Ithel
for his edition of the Annales Cambriae is more complicated and some-
times obscure. It is, however, correct from 1135 to 1146 inclusive.
One observation is necessary. We find the following difference
between B. and C. concerning the death of Cynfrig ap Owain :
B. at 1138. Kenwric filius Owini occisus est a familia Madoc filii Maredut.
C. at 1140. Kenwric filius Owein occiditur ab Howel filio Maredut.
By comparing with the entry in the Brut y Tywysogion, I am inclined to
favour the date 1140, and it is clear the event referred to is the same.
Howel ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn was probably his brother Madog's
penteulu, or the chief of his household troops. [See Welsh Laws con-
cerning " penteulu " ; also at the beginning of the " Dream of
Rhonabwy," Madog ap Maredudd is said to offer the Mastership of the
Household to his brother lorwerth Coch.]
The events properly belonging to 1146 are divided in the Ann.
Camb. between 1146 and 1147. The blinding of Rhys ap Howel by
Hugh de Mortimer fixed at 1148 by the B., and at 1147 by the C. MS.,
belongs to 1147. --The death of Robert of Gloucester fixed at 1149,
belongs to 1147 [Ann. Margan. ; Ann. Theokesb.] The death of
Gilbert Strongbow, fixed at 1149 by B, 1148 by C, belongs to 1147.
The events dated 1150, 1151, took place in 1148, 1149. The siege of
Malmesbury dated 1152 took place in 1152 3.
The events dated 1153, 1154, took place in 1150, 1151, if we except
the last four mentioned under 1154, which properly belong to 1153.
They are the harrying of Cyfeiliog by Rhys ap Gruffudd, and the deaths
of David of Scotland, Ranulf of Chester and Pope Eugenius III.
The events assigned to 1155 1171 inclusive belong to 1154 1170.
A few dates will shew this :
1155 in Ann. Camb. Death of Stephen, 1154.
1156 ,, Death of Maredudd ap Gruffudd, 1155. [Brut y Tyw.]
1157 ,, Events in Ceredigion, 1156. [Brut y Tyw.]
1158 ,, Expedition of Henry II. to Gwynedd, 1157. [Brut y Tyw.]
1159 ,, Death of Morgan ap Owain of Caerlleon, 1158. [Brut y Tyw.]
1160 ,, Events in South Wales, 1159. [Brut y Tyw.]
1161 Death of Madog ap Maredudd, 1 160. [Brut y Tyw.]
1164 ,, Expedition of Henry II. to Pencadair, 1163. [Brut y Tyw.]
1 165 in Ann. Camb. Campaign of Rhys ap Gruffudd in Ceredigion, 1 164. [Brut y Tyw.]
1166 ,, Campaign of Henry II. in Wales, 1165. [Brut y Tyw.]
1167 Arrival of Diarmaid, 1166. [Ann. iv. Mag. ; Brut y Tyw.]
1168 ,, Capture of Rhuddlan, 1167. [Brut y Tyw.]
1170 Robert Fitz Stephen freed by Rhys ap Gruffudd, 1169. [Brut
1171 ,, Death of O wain Gwynedd and his son Howel. I will show in
Appendix No. 3 my reason for attributing these events to 1 1 70.
APPENDIX No. III.
The date of the death of Owain Gwynedd is an important one. It
has been assumed by nearly every writer to be 1169. [Materials for
Hist, of Becket (Rolls Ser.) v. 239 note ; Haddan & Stubbs, Councils
and Eccl. Doc. i. 373 sq. ; T. F. Tout in his article on Owain Gwynedd
in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. ; Thos. Stephens, Literature of the Kymry, p.
39 ; Thos Price, Hanes Cymru, p. 579.]
I am of opinion that it must be assigned to the month of November,
1 170, for the following reasons :
i. We have shown in App. No. i that the dates 1134 1169 in the
Rolls Edition of the Brut y Tywysogion = 1135 1170. Now
the death of Owain is found under 1169 = 1170.
2. We have seen that from 1155 onwards the two MSS. used by Ab
Ithel for his edition of the " Annales Cambriae" are ante-dated
by one year. Now in the B. MS. there is an imperfect entry
concerning Owain and Cadwaladr, almost certainly relating to
the death of the former ; and in the C. MS. we have " Oweyn
rex Nortwalliae obiit " ; both entries are attributed to 1 1 7 1 = 1 1 70.
3. Robert de Monte, at the year 1171, says: " Ris, king of the
Welsh, made peace with Henry, king of the English. His uncle,
King Oen, had died in the previous year, and his sons had made
submission to King Henry." This entry seems conclusive.
4. In the letter from Thomas Becket to Owain, demanding the
filling of the see of Bangor (Materials for the History of
Becket, Rolls Series, v. 232 4 ; Haddon & Stubbs, Councils
and Eccles. Docs., i. 3723); the former says the bishopric
has been vacant nearly ten years. Now Bishop Meurug
died in 1161 2 (Brut y Tywysogion, ad. arm. 1161; See
also in Kalendario S. Petri Salop., MS. Cott. Vitell, A.
viii. : " i. id. Aug. obiit Mauricius Bangor. Episcopus.") " Fere
decennium" after 1161 2 can hardly refer to an earlier date
If the date 1170 be accepted as the correct one for the death of
Owain, knowing as we do that the events under 1171 in the Rolls Edition
of the Brut are correctly dated, it becomes probable that the events of
the two years 1169 and 1170 refer to the same year, 1170. This becomes
almost certain by the fact that in the corrupt passage in the B. MS. used
for the Ann. Camb., both the deaths of Owain Gwynedd and his son,
Howel, are referred to under the same year, 1171 = 1170. Howel would
then have been stabbed to death by his brother in November or
December, 1170. Certain it is that we have no trustworthy authority for
the two years' reign of Howel, mentioned in the Gwentian Chronicle. It
is much more probable from what we know, that he was killed immediately
after his father's death, as he was his eldest and most warlike son, and an
able and popular bard. The party of Queen Chrisiant must have been
powerful during the last years of Owain's life, as is clear from the
ecclesiastical struggles of the time. Dafydd and Rhodri, both sons of
Chrisiant, seem to have seized this opportunity of thrusting their brothers
from their heritage. We know that Cynan alone of the other numerous
sons of Owain succeeded in keeping his share of dominion and handing
it down to his sons.
APPENDIX No. IV.
The Chronology of events in Morganwg is very difficult. Not only
do we know nothing of the exact date of the Conquest [App. (Notes) in
Freeman's Norman Conquest, v. 820 2] ; but to the end of the Xllth
Century there is much obscurity. This is, no doubt, due to some
extent to the fact that too much reliance has been placed in the past in
that utterly untrustworthy work, the Gwentian Chronicle, which causes
wild confusion by blending the history of the descendants of lestin ap
Gwrgant and those of lestin ab Owain ap Howel Dda. But more is to
be ascribed to the paucity of references to Glamorgan history in better
authorities ; and much to the fact that the great majority of charters and
other documents relating to the district are undated and that we have no
chronological knowledge wherewith to supply the deficiency.
There is no doubt that lestin ap Gwrgant was a real person :
i. We find him mentioned twice in the Xllth Century Libei
Landavensis (edn. Rhys & Evans, 1893), pp. 271 3 ; in the first
case he is mentioned as a contemporary of Bishop Herewald of
Llandaff, who died in 1104 ; in the second case, of King Caradog
ap Gruffudd ap Rhydderch. Now we know pretty clearly when
the latter lived. His father, Gruffudd, must have been killed in
the early part of 1055. [Brut y Tyw., ad arm. 1054, Rolls Edn.]
Caradog himself destroyed Harold's hunting lodge at Portskewet
on the 24th Aug., 1065. [Ang. Sax. Chron.] He is last
mentioned in the Brut at the year 1076=1078. We are told in
the Lib. Land. p. 279, that he died before 1087 ; ni tne Ann.
Camb. that he was killed at Mynydd Cam in Pembrokeshire in
2. The genealogists call lestin the son of Gwrgant ab Ithel ap Morgan.
Now this Morgan died 973 [Brut y Tyw. ; Ann. Camb.] lestin
ap Gwrgant we may supposej therefore, lived in the second half
of the Xlth century.
3. lestin has been connected by tradition and legend with the Norman
Conquest of Glamorgan by Fitz Hamon. This event must have
taken place before noo; for after that date Robert is found
chiefly in Normandy [see Le Prevost's edition of Ordericus Vitalis
iv. 199, 203 4, 219] ; and there he died in March 1107.
The date of the building of Cardiff Castle is given in one MS. used
by Ab Ithel for the Brut as 1080=1082.
I am inclined to believe that the first steps at least in the conquest
of Glamorgan were made between 1071, the year of the defeat and death
of Maredudd ab Owain on the banks of the Rhymni, and 1082.
At any rate, from the facts given it is pretty clear that lestin ap
Gwrgant must have lived during the period 1070 noo.
Having ascertained what is approximately the time of the life of
lestin, we are met with as much, if not more, difficulty when we try to
assign an exact date to the life of each of the numerous sons attributed
The eldest appears to have been Caradog, and we get a safe
reference to him and to two of his brothers in the Annals of Margam at
the year 1127 :
" Rogerus Ymor a tribus filiis Gestin, Grifud, Garatauc, Guoroni,
occisus est dolo."
Caradog married Gwladus, daughter of Gruffudd ap Rhys. This
fact enables us to fix approximately the date of Caradog's death. For
Gwladus by a second marriage with Seisyll ap Dyfnwal, lord of Gwent
Uchcoed, had a son, Cadwaladr, who was killed in 1175, when he was
about seven years old. [See Brut y Tyw., ad ann 1175 ; Gir. Camb.,
Op. vi., 49, Note 2.J This would seem to prove that her first husband
was dead by 1 167,
Then Gruffudd, Gwhidus' father, was a child when his father, Rhys,
was killed in Easter. 1093. [Fl. Wigorn.] He certainly cannot have
married Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan before mi, when
her first husband, Cadwgan ap Bleddyn died. [B. y T, ad ann.
1 1 08 =111 1 ; also pp. 1389.] The fact that she had a son in 1168
suggests that his daughter, Gwladus, was born after, and probably some
years after, i r 20. At all events she could hardly have married Caradog
ab lestin before 1140. Her son, Morgan, was the eldest of Caradog's
four sons, so that Caradog could hardly have died before 1147. [Gir.
Camb., vi., 72.]
We are then led to believe that Caradog died between 1147
Of the other sons of lestin, Rhys ap lestin and his three sons,
lorwerlh, Owain and Howel, are clearly referred to in a charter of John
to Neatli, dated 1208. [See Clarke's Cartae and Munimenta de
Glamorgan i., 60.] We also find a reference to loi werth ab lestin as a
benefactor of Margam in Countess Isabel's "Confirmatio " to that
Monastery dated 1214 6 in Clarke's Cart, and Mun. Glam. iii. 300 2 ;
as well as in charters of Isabel and her second husband, Geoffrey of
Essex, given by Clarke, iii., 273 8. See a reference to the harrying of
Brycheiniog by the sons of lestin, Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 20, 21.
Caradog ab lestin left four sons, Morgan, Maredudd, Owain, and
Cadwallon. Owain was killed by Cadwallon ; and the story in Giraldus
Cambrensis (Op. vi. 69) about Owain's greyhound, whicli was presented
by Earl William of Gloucester to Henry II., when the wounds it had
received in defence of its master were but recently closed, shows us that
this event must have taken place between 1154, the year of Henry's
accession, and 1183, when Earl William died. Cadwallon himself was
killed at the siege of a castle before 1188 when the Crusade was preached
in Wales by Archbishop Baldwin and Giraldus. We have in Clarke's
Cartae et Munim. Glam. iii. 172 3, 176, an undated grant of Caradog
Verbeis, and also a " confirmatio " of the same, in which Morgan,
Maredudd and Cadwallon are spoken of, but not Owain ; and they
probably refer to the time between the death of Owain and that of
Morgan ap Caradog was one of the Welsh princes who accompanied
Rhys ap Gruffudd to Gloucester in 1175 [Brut y T.] In 1188, he was
Archbishop Baldwin's guide in his progress from Margam Abbey to
Swansea. [Gir. C. vi. 72]. He is mentioned with his brother,
Maredudd, as "plegius" to an exemplification by Bishop Henry of
Llandaff in 1 199. [Clarke, C. et. M.G.]. We have a grant of his of land to
Margam from the Penrice MSS. dated 1208 [Clarke, C. & M.G. ii., 282.]
He died probably between 1208 and the 6th July, 1213, which is the date
of the "confirmatio" by Lleision ap Morgan of all his father's grants
to Margam. [Clarke, iii., 297].
I wish now to call attention to two things :
i. We have seen that Morgan Hen died in 973, and Morgan ap
Caradog ab Itstin ap Gwrgant ab Ithel ap Morgan in or shortly
before 1213. The length of the generations from death to death
attains the very high average of 48 years, very high if we
consider the surname of the elder Morgan, and the fact that
Morgan ap Caradog was probably a septuagenarian in 1213.
2. Ies.tin apparently lived 1070 noo; it is curious that his son,
Caradog, should not have had a son till after 1140.
Another argument for a later date than that usually assigned to
lestin's sons is derived from the passage in the Itin. Kamb. of Giraldus
[Op. vi., 20 i], where there is a reference to those princes invading
Brycheiniog. This is said to have taken place after the famous harrying
by Howel ap Maredudd. This " magna ilia desolatio " refers perhaps to
the savage descent into the Vale of Llwchwr at the close of 1 135. At any
rate it is highly improbable that it should mean anything earlier. Howel
ap Maredudd died in or shortly before 1140. Further the "guerra ilia
grandis" of the sons of lestin is spoken of as one of the notable events
quae nostris temporibus contigere, which would not, I think, mean any-
thing previous to Giraldus' birth in 1147.
APPENDIX No. V.
I wish to refer to the way in which I have treated the Gwentian
Chronicle, known also as the Gwentian Brut or Llyfr Aberpergwm. It
is, I believe, the work of a XVIth Century bard who had access to
several earlier authorities. One was evidently a rather corrupt transcript
of the Brut, which the author perhaps further corrupted, especially by
unwarranted additions. I may say that it is never safe to trust this
Chronicle when it refers to the general history of Wales ; its blunders are
without number, and it would be useless to enumerate them. Many are
referred to in the notes. When it is the sole authority for a statement, I
have carefully called attention to the fact and to its untrustworthy
But for the history of Gwent and Glamorgan, it is clear that the
writer had some MS. work which is now lost to us. No doubt he may
have corrupted the original, but we must take the kernel of his statements
as probably true. So I have accepted the groundwork of his references
to Glamorgan history ad 1146, 1147, II 5> & c -
The chronology of the Gwentian Chronicle is worse than useless.
It gives the right dates for the deaths of the English kings no doubt from
some English annals ; it copies the erroneous dating of the Brut y
Tywysogion for Welsh facts, but it often compresses the events of several
years into one. In a word, wherever this work can be controlled, it is
shown to be very faulty.
With regard to the events given by this Chronicle at 1169, we have
shown [Apps. Nos. i, 2, 3] that everything warrants our assigning the
death of Owain to Nov., 1170, and that of Howel ab Owain to Nov.
or Dec. of the same year. It is impossible that Howel should have
reigned two years, been defeated and wounded in battle, and driven to
Ireland by Dafydd ; for we know from a contemporary poem that he
was killed on the North Anglesey coast, at Penrhyn near Penrhos, and
buried at Bangor. [Peryf fab Cadifor ai Cant i Hywel ap Ywein, Myv.
Arch., p. 346]. The Ann. Camb. say Dafydd was present at the death,
and the Brut definitely asserts that Dafydd killed Howel. I do not
know on what authority Thos. Price, in " Hanes Cymru," p. 583, note,
states that one Rhirid, son of Owain Gwynedd, became Lord of Clochran
In Ireland. The Gwentian Brut does not say Rhirid was son of
Owain Gwynedd, but that he was brother of Howel : Eithr Rhirid ei
frawd ai dug i long, ac yna i'r Werddon, lie y bu Hywel farw,
ac efe a roddes i Ririd ei frawd ei gyfoeth yno. We might
be tempted to believe that the reference was to his foster brother,
Rhirid ap Cedifor Wyddel, did we not know that he, too, was killed at
Penrhyn. [See the above-mentioned poem.]
APPENDIX No. VI.
The Brut y Saeson in the Myv. Arch., pp. 652684, is the Cotton
MS. Cleopatra B. v., used by ab Ithel for his edition of the Brut y
Tywysogion and referred to by him as D. For one who has not access
to the original, it is very useful to compare the two versions, as Ab
Ithel does not give all the variations. It is a rather corrupt and abridged
transcript of the Brut y Tywysogion, to which are added some English
facts, derived from the Annales Wintonienses. It has been ascribed to
the close of the XVth century. It would thus be of the same time as
the Llyfr Du Basing [E. MS. of Ab Ithel], if it is true the latter was
written by Guttyn Owain, and it very often makes the same mistakes. It
also sometimes agrees with the C MS. of Ab Ithel, a XVIth century
Venedotian MS. in the Hengwrt Library.
APPENDIX No. VII.
The succession of the abbots of the chief Welsh monasteries during
the twelfth century is obscure. The fixation of their chronological order
is useful for the approximate dating of charters and historical documents
of the period.
MARGAM was founded in 1147 ; William, first abbot died in 1153 ;
Andreas abbas secundus on the 3ist of December, 1154 or 1155 [Ann.
Marg.] Who was third abbot is not clear. In 1169, C, probably Cynan,
abbot of Margam was one of the witnesses to the foundation charter of
Keynsham. [Clarke, Cartae et Munim de Glamorgan, i., 24 5.]
Cynan was certainly abbot before 1176. [Grant of William of Gloucester
in C. et. Munim de Glamorgan, iii, 101, dated c. 1170 by Clarke, and
to which both Cynan of Margam and Cynan of Ty Gwyn were witnesses.]
He is described as vir literatus et discretus, and was still living in 1188.
[Gir. Camb., Op. vi. 67.] He is mentioned in the Symbolum Electorum
as vir bonae memoriae ; and if we admit that this work was written in
Giraldus' fiftieth year [anno quasi quinquagesimo, he tells us himself],
Cynan must have been dead in 1197. But Wharton ascribes the
Symbolum to 1204 or 1205. [Gir. Camb., Op. i. 206.] Roger appears
to have succeeded Cynan. and was certainly abbot in the lifetime of
Bishop Henry of Llandaff. [Carta Gereberti Filii Roberti in Cart, et
Munim. de Glam., i. 49 -50.] -We have a bull of Innocent III. of the
2oth of November, 1203, addressed to Gilbert, Abbot of Margam. [Cart,
et Munim. de Glam. iii., 228.] On the i7th of June, 1213, he was
superseded by John. [Ann. Marg.] -
NEATH was founded in 1130; Richard, first abbot died in 1145
[Ann. Marg.] There may have been a second of that name as Ricardus
abbas de Neth witnessed the Concessio Will. Com. Glouc. Burgagii in
Kardid [Cart et Munim. de Glam i., 12, from the Cotton MS. Vitellius
v. xi., 1006]. R. [whether for Ricardus or Radulphus is not clear],
abbot of Neath, witnessed the foundation charter of Keynsham in 1169.
Radulphus was abbot before 1176, as we see by a grant of William of
Gloucester in Cart, and munim. deGlam. iii. 101, to which he was witness
with Cynan of Ty Gwyn. Walter, abbot of Neath, was witness to a
notification of Pagan de Turberville to Bishop William of Llandaff of a
grant of land in Newcastle to Margam. [Cart, et Munim de Glam. iii.
160.] -This Walter is again mentioned with William de Llandaff in C.
et M. de Glam., i. 70 ; Clarke has confounded the two bishops of the
name, and should have dated the Decisio Willielmi episcopi de Landavia
et Walteri Abbatis de Neth, 1186 1191, not 1219 1229. Walter was
perhaps abbot in the lifetime of Bishop Nicholas. [Grant of land to
Margam in C. et M. de G. iii. 145 6 ; I am inclined to distrust the
reading Johannis (abbatis de Margam) as there is no evidence for such a
person till 1213.] Abbot Walter, vir bonus et sanctus, was alive, almost
certainly when the Symbolum Electorum was written [Gir. Camb. Op. i
206] ; which is in favour of the date 1197 as that of the composition of
that work, rather than Wharton's 1204 5 when Walter was dead.
In 1 201, A., Abbot of Neath, witnessed an agreement between
William de Barri and John de la Mare [C. et M. de G. iii.
179]; perhaps the Clemens, prior de Neth, another witness of the
agreement, is the same as Abbot Clement of Neath, who is mentioned in
Giraldus' [Op. viii. 310] work, De Principis Instructione, as venerabilis
abbas de Neth Clemens. The De Principis Instructione was probably
written in 1216. [Chronological table in Preface to Vol. i. of the Rolls
Edition of Giraldus' Works, p. xcix.] In 1218 obiit Clemens abbas de
Neth cui successil Gervasius prior ejusdem domus. [Ann. Marg.]
EWENNY dates from the Xllth century. There were two abbots in
the lifetime of Bishop Nicholas [1149 1183]. The first, Roger, was one
of the witnesses to a quit-claim to Margam of land. [C. et M. de G. iii.
92 3.] The second, Bertramnus, was also witness to a confirmation of
Margam grants. [C. et M. de G. iii., 94 5]. John, prior of Ewenny,
testified to an assignment of land by Abbot Cynan of Margam [id. iii.
YSTRAD FFLUR dates from 1165 [Brut ad 1164=5]. Dafydd, the
first abbot known to us, died in 1185 [Brut]. He was, perhaps,
succeeded by Seisyll, abbot in 1188, when with John of Ty Gwyn, he
accompanied Archbishop Baldwin through Ceredigion and into North
Wales, where he preached the cross. [Gir. Camb., Op. vi., 119, 126.]
Giraldus speaks several times of the abbot of Strata Florida without giving
his name; and we only know that Abbot Cedifor died in 1225 [Brut].
TY GWYN'S first abbot was almost certainly Morfran, who is
mentioned by the Brut as early as 1147, i.e., only four years after the
foundation of the house at Trefgarn. Then we have Cananus abbas
Albe Terre in William of Gloucester's grant in C. & M. de G. iii. 101.
This Cynan was a vir probus et religiosus [Gir. Camb., vi., 59], and died
in 1176 [Brut]. Rhydderch, probably his successor, died in 1184 [Brut].
John was abbot in 1188. [Gir. Camb., vi., 119.] Peter, abbot in
1 198, was nominated Bishop of St. David's by the Chapter [Gir. C. i. 95],
but his deposition was procured by Giraldus.
YSTRAD MARCHELL, or Strata Marcella, seems to have been founded
in 1170. [Dugd. Mon. v. 636]. It was sometimes called Y Trallwng.
The Brut speaks of the death of Abbot Ithel in 1185, and Abbot
Gruffudd in 1 196. One abbot, certainly of the Xllth century, but whose
exact date it is difficult to fix, is called Enoc and Enatus indifferently by
Giraldus, who says he was deposed for incontinence. [Op. ii., 248,
iv., 168, 172, vi. 59].
CWMHIR was founded in 1143. [Dugd. Mon., v. 458]. The Brut
speaks of the death of its abbot Meurig in 1 185. Cynawg was Abbot of
Cwmhir when Giraldus wrote the Symbolum Electorum.
APPENDIX No. VIII.
It is necessary to refer shortly to the son of Owain Gwynedd called
Madog, who was supposed to have discovered America. The story was
first fully formulated by Dr. David Powel in his History of Cambria in
1584. The partisans of the Madog theory have referred :
(a) To the passage in the 3rd series of triads in Myv. Arch. p. 401 :
Tri Difancoll Ynys Prydain.
Y Trydydd, Madawg ab Owain Gwynsdd a aeth i'r mor a
trichann yn gydag ef. mewn deg Hong, ac ni wyddys i ba
le ydd aethant. [Tr. 10.]
But these triads are from a XVIth Century MS. Collection
and there is no reference to America.
() To a passage in the Cywydd i ddiolch am y rhwyd of
Maredudd ap Rhys (fl. before 1460) in the lolo MSS. pp.
Helied Ifan, hael dyfiad
Ar y tir teg, wedi'r tad ;
Mewn awr dda minnau ar ddwr,
O fodd hael a fydd heliwr
Madog wych, mwyedig wedd,
lawn genau Owain Gwynedd
Ni fynnai dir, f'enaid oedd
Na da mawr, ond y moroedd.
Madog wyf i'm oed, ei gais
Ar foroedd hyn arferais.
This passage only makes it fairly certain that there was a son
Owain Gwynedd called Madog, who loved the sea and
paid attention to naval matters.
To two passages in the poems of one of the gogynfeirdd,
Llywarch ap Llywelyn. The first Arwyrein Rodri vab
Ywein Prydyt y Moch ae Cant Myv. Arch., p. 202, does not
contain a reference to any Madog. The second passage is
the poem Awdyl yr Haearn Twymyn. Prydyt y Moch ae
Cant on p. 205 of the Myv. Arch. It speaks of the trial of
the poet by the ordeal of fire for the murder of one Madog,
not necessarily Madog ab Owain Gwynedd at all. This last
poem was used by Stephens against the Madog theory. We
may say that we have no mention of Madog in the Chronicles,
nor in any contemporary authority. At the same time we
may consider the statements of Maredudd ap Rhys about him
as probably true.
For the Madog theory see Thos. Stephens' Essay for the
Llangollen Eisteddfod of 1856.
APPENDIX No. IX.
It is difficult to follow with certainty the fortunes of the Shropshire
Marches at this period, owing to the very rare record of events. But
what record there is points very clearly against the usually accepted
theory that West Shropshire, and more particularly Oswestry and its
neighbourhood, were English, long before the Norman Conquest ; and
tends to prove a very unsettled tenure of the land by the Normans and
the existence among them of powerful Welsh landowning families.
The Legend of Fulk Fitz Warine, in its original form of the end of
XHIth century, has been largely used for the history of the district, but
its statements must be received with caution.
The neighbourhood of Oswestry belonged to Maredudd ap Bleddyn,
and was granted, according to the Legend to Alan Fitz Flaald, Fleadd or
Flaev, ancestor of the Fitz Alans, who built a castle there. [Legend of
F.F., Rolls Edition, pp. 286 7]. The grant was no doubt made by
Henry I. after his campaign against Powys in 1121, though Eyton, on
what authority I know not, says that Alan died in 1114. He married,
according to the same writer, Aveline or Adeline, sister of the Arnoul de
Hesdin, who was hung by Stephen in 1138 [Ordericus Vitalis, v. 112 ;
Eyton, Shropshire, vii. 222 3]; according to another a daughter of
Guarin de Metz or Warin the Bald, Sheriff of Shropshire. He had two
sons, William, who succeeded him, and Walter, who has been asserted to
be the ancestor of the House of Stuart.
Meanwhile another family had acquired land somewhat to the North.
William Peveril is first heard of as witness to a charter to the Church of
Salisbury of Sept. 8th, 1131. [Round, Geoffrey de Mandeville, p. 266].
The Legend [Rolls Edition, pp. 280 8] says he succeeded his
maternal uncle, Pain Peveril, who is referred to as the cousin of the king.
William seems to have been the son or grandson of another William
Peveril; and the latter is said to have been an illegitimate son of William
the Conqueror by a daughter of Ingebric, the founder of St. Martin's-Le-
Grand, London. [Dugdale, Baron, i. 437 ; quotation from Robert
Glover the Somerset herald.] William conquered all Morlais to the
banks of Ceiriog and Dee, Ellesmere, Maelawr, and Nauhendon.
[Legend, p. 288]. He built castles at Whittington, Ellesmeie, Overton
in Maelawr, and Bryncynallt on the Ceiriog, and was at the height of his
power when in 1138 he revolted against Stephen. [Ord. Vital., v. in]
From that time his fortunes declined. King Stephen, Earl Ranulf of
Chester, Madog ap Maredudd pressed on all' sides upon his Shropshire
possessions. A charter of Henry Plantagenet gave his lands to Ranulf ;
and Peveril in his anger poisoned the Earl. After the confiscation of his
estates in 1155 he must have withdrawn into a monastery, and we hear no
more of him.
The building or re-building of Oswestry Castle by Madog ap
Maredudd in 1 149 shows that he took full advantage of his opportunities ;
and owing to Peveril's ruin and his own alliance with Henry, he must
have retained his conquests till his death in 1160. Certainly one of his
sons, Gruffudd, was his successor in lal, Maelawr, and Ellesmere.
What remained of Peveril's lands passed to William Fitz Alan and
Fulk Fitz Warine.
William Fitz Alan we first hear of in 1 136, as witness to a charter of
Stephen to Shrewsbury Abbey [Monast. Ang iii. 519]. Between 1130
and 1138 he founded Hagaman or Haughmond Abbey [Eyton, Shrop-
shire, ix., 286 7], He took part in the rebellion of 1138 against
Stephen [Ord. Vital, v. in] to support Robert of Gloucester, whose niece
Christiana he had married, Another authority [Legend of F. Fitz Warine,
p. 288] says he married Eleyne, one of Peveril's two nieces, and this
would account for the Fitzalan's claim to Oswestry and the neighbour-
hood. He was a devoted partisan of the Empress Maud and Henry her
son ; and the latter, after the suppression of Mortimer's rebellion, restored
William to his paternal fief, and gave him as his second or third wife,
Isabel, daughter and heiress of Elie de Sai, who brought him the castle
and honour of Clun or Colunwy. [For this castle, see G. T. Clark,
Mediaeval Military Architecture, i. 402 9]. From 1155 he was
sheriff and principal landowner of Shropshire. He died about Easter,
1 1 60, and was succeeded by his son, William Fitz Alan II. He left by
his first wife, a daughter, Christiana, wife of Hugh Pantulf. [Pipe Rolls,
William Fitz Alan II. inherited Clun, and probably a claim to
Oswestry, which he subsequently made good. Certainly it was at the
latter place that he sumptuously entertained Archbishop Baldwin and his
train in 1188. [Gir. Camb. Op. vi. 142.] He was head of the house in
1190. [Great Roll of the Pipe, i. Ric. i., ed. Hunter, Lond., 1844, pp.
14, 95, 144, 168, 215, 248]. He was clearly alive in 1200 [Gir. Camb.,
Op. iii. 227]. He died probably in 1210.
His son, William Fitz Alan III. died before 1215, when we find his
brother and successor, John Fitz Alan, one of the barons confederated
against King John.
The other noble who inherited of Peveril in Shropshire was Fulk
Fitz Warine I. or Foulques, second son of Guarin de Metz by a daughter
of the house of Peveril. He was head of the house in 1155 8 and died
in 1170 i [Pipe Rolls]. He had four sons, and the eldest Fulk or
Foulques II. succeeded. It was this Foulques probably who married
Hawise, daughter and co-heiress of Joce de Dinan, but failed to make
good his claim upon Ludlow. He is referred to as master of Whittington
Castle in 1195, but it is difficult to say whether he was in possession from
the first. He died in 1197. The eldest of his five sons, Fulk or
Foulques III. succeeded.
The whole of the district to which we have made reference seems to
have belonged to a chieftain called Tewdwr Trefor, who lived shortly
before or after A.D. 900 His lands were divided between his three sons,
Goronwy, Dingad, Lluddoca. The whole of the southern portion went
to Goronwy, who was, through his grandson, Elystan Glodrhudd, the
ancestor of the Princes of Buallt and Fferyllwg. The northern portion,
including Bromfield and Maelawr, went to Dingad ; while Lluddoca
inherited the central part, the neighbourhood of Chirk, Whittington, &c.
Fourth in descent from Lluddoca was Rhys Sais ab Ednyfed ap
Llywarch Gam ap Lluddoca, who was the ancestor of the Welsh lords of
Whittington, Eyton, Duddleston. Fourth in descent from Rhys Sais was
Roger ap Goronwy ap Tewdwr ap Rhys Sais, usually called Roger
Powys. From his time onwards we are able to control the Welsh
pedigrees by contemporary documents which show them to be quite
trustworthy. The Legend of Fulk Fitz Warme [Rolls Editn p. 323],
says Roger received Maelawr and Oswestry from the king. We learn
from the Rotuli Chartarum [ed. Hardy, 1837, p. 43], that in return for
this recognition of his rights, Roger acted as a kind of intermediary
between the king and the Welsh. He is called Roger de Poewis in the
Pipe Rolls of 1157 8 [ed. Hunter, p. 169].
This shows him to have been a contemporary of Henry II., as was
also his brother, lonas ap Goronwy, who succeeded him [Legd. of Fulk
F-, P- 323 ; Rotuli Chart, ed. Hardy, 1837, p. 43]. lonas died, leaving
a son Llywelyn. But his immediate successors were the sons of Roger,
named, according to the probable order of their birth Maredudd,
Meurug Llwyd, Roger Fychan, and Goronwy. Maredudd is mentioned
as holding Wrocwurdin [probably Shrowardine] in Shropshire in 1190.
[Pipe Roll, i. Ric. i., pp. 92 3]. Meurug is in the same year mentioned
in connection with Richard Fitz Warine [p. 190] . Maredudd must have
died soon after.
Fulk Fitz Warine III. who succeeded his father in 1197, seems in
some way to have incurred the hatred of John. Meurug availed himself
of the circumstance to strengthen his hold on the district. He is said in
the Legend to have bribed the king to recognise his rights over Whitting-
ton. In Rotuli Chartarum [ed. Hardy, 1837, p. 43], we have a Charter
of John of the nth of April, 1200, confirming Whittington, Overton and
their appurtenances to Meurug and his heirs in return for the same
services to John as Roger and lonas had been accustomed to do for King
Henry II. This charter is clear, and is conclusive as evidence of the
power of the Welsh landowners in the Shropshire Marches till the very
beginning of the thirteenth century. Its immediate effect was to cause
the outbreak of war between Meurug and Fulk Fitz Warine. According
to the Legend of Fulk, the former was supported by the four sons of Gwy
or Gyoun, son of Candelou of Porkyntone [perhaps Gwion ap Cynddylan
of BrogyntynJ . These four chieftains and Meurug Llwyd himself were
This victory did not much change the fortunes of Fulk at the time,
and he is represented in the Legend as fleeing from John to the court of
Llywelyn ab lorwerth [pp. 349 51]. A second charter of the ist
August, 1200 [Rotuli Ch. p. 74] confirmed the former one to the sons of
Meurug who are unintelligibly named Werennoc and Wennoneo. Meurug
Llwyd, however, had no children and his brothers Roger Fychan and
Goronwy are the persons referred to.
As showing the historical accuracy of some Welsh genealogical
compilations, it is interesting to compare the following extract from the
Llyfr Silin [a genealogical work put together between 1645 and 1728
probably, and published in the 5th series of Archaeologia Cambrensis,
Vol. vi., pp. 148 9], with the knowledge we derive from the Legend and
the Rolls :
Sir Meiric Lloyd a fu farw yn ddietifedd o'i gorff trwy ei ladd
Ffoulke ap Gwaring, yr hwn aeth a'i gyfoeth drwy drais feddiant ;
ac felly mae Swydd y Drewen yn eiddo iddo o hynny hyd heddyw.
A Roger Estwick oedd un o'i Frodyr ac etifedd nesaf i Sir Meiric
Lloyd drwy yrstad a wnaeth Llew. ap lorwerth Drwyndwn,
Tywysog Cymru, ac a'i conffirmiodd Harri y Trydydd Brenin
Lloegr o'r enw i'r Sir Roger ap Gronw Hen, a elwyd Sir Roger
Powys. Ac etifedd Sir Roger Estwick oedd Meredydd, ac i
Meredydd y bu Werfyl gwraig leuan Foel ap Gwilym ap Kynfrig
Sais , Sir Meiric Lloyd, Arglwydd y Drewen, a roddes
1 Roger a Gronw ei Frodyr, Dref Estwick a chwbl o'i fraint yn
Swydd Elsmer, yn Rhus, yn Krikod, ac Egil ; ac ar Roger ddau
Rossyn Koch noswyl leuan i Arglwydd Elsmer os doedd i'w
ofyn : ac nid oedd ar Ronwy ddim, am ei fod yn ifiangaf ; ac i
Roger y braint am ei fod yn hynaf.
Henry III. is wrongly made contemporary with Roger Powys. The
reference is to the original arrangement between Roger Powys and Henry
II., possibly confirmed by Henry III. to Roger Fychan. Whittington
was restored by John to Fulk Fitz Warine in 1204 [Rot. Patent., 1835,
A little to the south of Oswestry, the Lestrange family became lords
of Ruyton [Welsh Rwyttyn] and Knockin. The Legend says they were
all descended from Guy, one of the sons of the Duke of Brittany [pp.
290 3]. The first we know anything of was Roland Lestrange, who
was witness to a charter of 1112. Hamon, Guy and John were Shrop-
shire landowners in 1155 8 [Great Roll of the Pipe, ed. Hunter, 1844,
pp. 43, 88, 170]. In 1190 we find John, son of John, landowner in
Nesse and Chessewurdin [Shropshire] , and probably head of the family ;
and Ralph, son of Gwy, at Aludelea [Pipe Roll, i. Ric. i , p. 92] . We
have a Charter of the i6th April, 1200, to John Lestrange, concerning
his " boscum " called Suthle near Cheseword [Rotuli Chartarum, ed.
Hardy, 1837, p. 45] In 1204 Dominus Rex quietavit John Lestrange
" de demande qu' il fit de exitibus manerii de Wrotwothin," &c. In
1214 John III Lestrange was serving under King John in Poitou.
Here, again, we find Norman and Welsh landowners dwelling side
by side in the same district. Some explanation of this state of things is
perhaps to be found in the passage in the Brut ad 1113 = 6 :
Odyna ydaeth hyt yn Llan ym Dyfri lie yd oed gastell neb un
tywyssawc aelwit Rickert vab y Pwnswn y gwr y rodassei Henri
vrenhin idaw y Kantref Bychan Maredud uab
Ryderch uab Cradawc y gwr a oed yn kynnal ystiwerdiaeth
Kantref Bychan y dan y dywededic Rickert .... etc
Some such relation as that between Richard and Maredudd ap
Rhydderch existed between the Norman and Welsh lords who held the
same lands in certain parts of Central and South West Wales. Henry I.
made a grant of land, as in the case of Gilbert de Clare in Ceredigion,
and Richard Fitz Pons in Cantref Bychan ; the Norman went to the
country, built castles, and finding it impossible, owing to the great
strength of resistance of the tribal organisation, to expel the Welsh lord,
left him the control of the country, and received a tribute from him.
From time to time, roused by some action of the Norman, the Welsh
would lay his castle low ; but it was soon rebuilt, and things were as
When, however, the Welsh learnt to build castles of their own, this
state of things changed; at first, in the latter half of the twelfth century,
to the disadvantage of the Normans ; for while the Welsh had learnt the
Norman art of fortification, the Normans had made no progress in the
affections of their subjects ; but, eventually, (when the advantage of
numbers and of unity of government began to tell,) in favour of the new
nation which the thirteenth century produced, by the fusion of the
Norman and Saxon into one
The Barony of Clun or Colunwy in South West Shropshire, which
passed by marriage to the Fitz Alans was founded by Picot de Sai, one
of the Normans who attached their fortunes to that of Roger de
Montgomeri. He was probably the same as Robert de Sai " qui
cognominabatur Picot " of a charter of c. 1060 to St. Martin de Seez, and
derived his name from the village of Sai near Exmes in the Orne. In
1083 he was a witness to Roger's vow to found Shrewsbury Abbey [Le
Prevost's Ordericus Vitalis], His daughter was wife of Cadwgan ap
Bleddyn, to whom she bore two sons, Henry and Gruffudd [Brut ad
1113 = 6]. He was succeeded by his son Henry de Sai, who flourished
during the reign of Henry I. Henry de Sai's successor, Elie or Helias,
left an only daughter, Isabel, who married: (i) William Fitz Alan;
(2) Geoffrey de Vere ; (3) William Boterell.
APPENDIX No. X.
For interesting references to beavers in Wales, see Giraldus Camb.,
Op. vi., 1148, I735-
That wolves existed in Wales in the twelfth century seems certain
Florence of Worcester ad 1136 says wolves devoured the bodies of the
Norman knights slain in Gower. The Annales Cambriae ad 1166 = 5
say : Apud Kermerdin lupus rabiosus duo de viginti homines momordit,
qui omnes fere protinus perierunt.
The word ' blaidd ' is often used as a complimentary epithet by the
bards, in their poems in honour of the chieftains of the twelfth century.
" Gawr ami a llafnawr ar flawr flaid "
[Gwalchmai ai Cant i Owain, Myv. A., p. 144].
" Bleit blaengawr bar dyrawr dwr "
[Cynddelw, Marwnad Tculu Ywein Gwynet, M. A., p. 164].
" Haetad vleinyad vleit cadtu "
[Cynddelw, Marwnad Meibyon Dwywc uab lorwerth, M. A., p. 186].
" O gerteu bleityeu blaen gwryaf "
[Cynddelw, Breinyeu Gwyr Powys, M. A., p. 186].
" Rhag twr Gwallter
Blaidd traidd trymder tra niferawg "
[Seisyll Bryffwrch, Can i'r Arglwydd Rys, M. A., p. 237].
Several chieftains of the time received the nickname of the Wolf ;
thus Huw Fras or the Fat, Earl of Chester, is sometimes referred to as
Huw Flaidd ; cf. Cilin ab y Blaidd Rhudd o'r Gest yn Eifonydd, whose
daughter and heiress, Haer, is said to have been mother of Maredudd ap
Rhirid Flaidd, or the Wolf, was a chieftain of the second half of the
twelfth century. The Llyfr Silin [Archaeologia Cambrensis, 5th Series,
Vol iv., p. 132] says :
Ririd Flaidd oedd Uchelwr ac Arglwydd am y Pum Plwy
Penllyn a Yvionydd a Phennant Melangell a'r Bryn a'r Glyn yn
Mhowys ac un Dre ar ddeg yn swydd y Mwythig.
Vol. v. p. 43 : Mam Madoc ap Ririd Flaidd oedd Gwenllian
verch Ednyfed ap Kynfig ap Rhiwallon ap Dyngad ap Tudr
Trefor. Mam Gwenllian oedd Wladys uerch Elidr ap Owen ap
Edwin. Mam Ririd Flaidd oedd Generys verch Rhys Sais ap
Ednyfed ap Llowarch Gam ap Lluddoca ap Tudr Trefor.
According to the same work, Rhirid had sons : Madog (iv. 131, &c.),
Einion, Howel (v, 342), lorwerth (vi. 348). He is spoken of as Ririd
Flaidd Arglwydd Penllyn (iii. 304, viii. 99), and Ririd Flaidd lor Penllyn
We have among Cynddelw's works, three on pp. 167 9 of the
Myvyrian Archaeology bearing the following superscriptions :
1. Eglynyon Marwnad y Ririd Vleit.
2. Kyndelw ac Cant y Ririd Vleit.
3. Marwnad Ririd Uleit.
From these we learn that like most chieftains of his time he was a
great hunter, a foe of the English, and a friend of the bards. The third
englyn in piece No. 2 confirms the extract from Llyfr Silin :
Priodawr pennant pennaf uchelwr
Nyd y uleit preit y prydaf
Namyn y vleit glyw y glewhaf.
APPENDIX No. XI.
Abergafeni Castle seems to have belonged to Miles Crispin. His
widow or daughter, Matilda de Wallingfoid, brought it in marriage to
Brian Fitz Count, a son of Alain Fergant, count of Bretagne. Brian was
at Abergafeni in April, 1136, and in 1142 rented it to Earl Miles of
Hereford. His wife, Matilda, died without issue in 1151 [Maitland's
Bracton's Note Book, III. 536]. As Brian had no children, and as he
was still alive in 1153 when Henry Plantagenet raised the siege of
Wallingford, it was neither by marriage, nor by taking advantage of the
troublous times of Stephen that Miles' sons retained their hold on the
castle and eventually handed it over to the House of Braose.
William I., lord of Braose near Falaise, received large estates in
England at the Conquest. The family seat was fixed at Bramber in
Sussex. Philip his son married a daughter of Judhael de Totnes, lord of
Totnes and Barnstaple. His lands were confiscated in mo, but he
appears to have been restored to favour in 1112 [Anglo-Saxon Chron.]
Philip left sons, William and Philip. William, the elder, is mentioned in
the Pipe Roll of 11578 as a landowner in Herefordshire (p. 144), and
as holding the Honour of Barnstaple (p. 183). He was present at the
Council of Clarendon in January, 1164 (Materials for Hist, of Archb.
Becket, iv., 206 7). He married Bertha, younger daughter of Miles of
Hereford, and co-heiress of her brother, Mahel. He had been succeeded
before 1175 by his son, William III. de Braose, both in his own
hereditary estates and in Abergafeni and Brycheiniog.
I N DEX.
Aberafan (Aberavon) ... ... ... 53, 105, 107
Aberconwy ... ... ... ... ... 67
Aberdyfi (Aberdovey) ... ... ... 29, 82, 87
Abergafeni (Abergavenny) ... ... 3, 24, 80, 106-108, 150
Aberhonddu ... ... ... ... ... n
Aberllychwr ... ... ... ... ... 51
Abermenai ... ... ... ... 14, 35
Aberrheidiol ... ... ... ... ... 96
Aberteifi (Cardigan) 6, 8, 9, 15, 37, 99
Aberystwyth 5, 34
Abingdon ... ... ... ... .123
Acta Stephani ... ... ... ... ... 8
Adeline or Aveline, sister of Arnoul de Hesdin ... ... 143
Adelise, sister of Ranulf, Earl of Chester ... ... ... 8
Aeron (river) ... ... ... ... ... 50
Afan (vale of) ... ... ... ... -"53
Alan Fitz Flaald, ancestor of the Fitz Alans ... ... 143
Alexander III. ... ... ... ... See Popes
Alice, daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare ... ... 83
Alina, daughter of Richard Strongbow ... ... ... 117
Aludelea ... ... ... ... ... 148
Anarawd ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ... ro, n, 13, 15, 27, 29, 33, 54
Angharad, daughter of Owain ab Edwin ... ... 14, 82, 128
Angharad, daughter of Nest ... ... ... 37, 119
Angharad, daughter of Bishop Uchtryd of Llandaff ... 28, 107
Angharad, daughter of Owain ap Caradog . ... 107
Anglesea ... ... ... ... ... 138
Annales Cambriae ... ... I 3 2 ~3 and^owftW
Aquitaine ... ... ... ... ...112
Arberth (Narbeith in Pembrokeshire) ... .,. ... 37
Archbold ... ... ... ... ... 128
Arnald Ddu ... ... ... ... ... 122
Arnoul de Hesdin ... ... ... 19, 143
Arthur (King) ... ... ... ... 64, 66, 107
Arthur, a priest in the diocese of Bangor ... ... ...125
Arundel ... ... ... ... ... 20
Arwystli ... ... ... ... 91, 93
Asaph ... ... ... ... ... 31
Asculf, son of Raghnall mac Torcaill ... ... ...117
Aveline ... ... ... ... See Adeline
Bala ... ... ... ... ... ... 91
Baldwin Fitz Gilbert ... ... ... See Clare
Bangor ... ... ... 14, 32, 124, 126, 128
Bangor, Bishops of :
Dafydd ... ... ... 14, 28
Meurug ... ... ... 28, 29, 31, 123
Nicolas Robinson ... ... ... 69
Simeon ... ... 14, 27, 28, 45, 123
Dafydd ... ... ... 125-127
Bangor Iscoed ... ... ... ... ... 90
Barnstaple ... ... ... ... 118, 151
Barri or Barry (De),
David ... ... ... ... 119
Gerald ... ... See Giraldus Cambrensis
Robert ... ... ... ... 114
William ... ... ... 38, 119
Basingwerk ... ... ... ... 83, 85, 91, 101
Bassaleg ... ... ... ... 31, 103, 106
Bath, Robert, Bishop of ... ... ... ... 45
Beauchamp (Hugh de) ... ... ... ... 85
Becket ... ... ... ... See Canterbury
Berkeley (Robert or Roger de) ... ... ... 107
Bernard, Bishop of St. David's ,.. ... See St. David's
Bertha, daughter of Miles de Gloucester ... ... 1 08, 151
Berwyn Mountains ... ... ... 98, 127
Bigod, Hugh ... ... ... ... ... 41
Blanchland ... ... ... See Ty Gwyn
Bleddyn ab Owain Brogyntyn ... ... ... 91
Bledri, a story teller ... ... ... ... 65
Bledrws ab Ednowain Bendew ... ... ... 102
Bodmin ... ... ... ... ... 118
Bohun (Humphrey III. de) ... ... ... ... 108
Book of Llandaff ... ... ... ... 68
Book of Carmarthen, Black ... ... ... ... 70
Boterell, William ... ... ... ... 149
Bramber (Sussex) ... ... ... ...151
Branwen, daughter of Llyr ... ... ... ... 63
Braose, De :
Philip I. ... ... ... ... 151
Philip II. ... ... ... ... 151
William I. ... ... ... ... 151
William II. ... ... ... 108, 151
William III. ... ... .. 108, 151
Breifne ... ... ... ... 112, 118
Bretons at the Battle of Lincoln ... ... ... 21
Brian Boroimhe ... ... ... ... ... 107
Brian ... ... ... See Fitz Count, Wallingford
Bridgnorth ... ... ... ... ... 79
Bristol ... ... ... 19, 20, 21, 112, 113
Broghes ... ... ... ... ...121
Brogyntyn ... 91, 147
Bromfield ... ... ... ... ... 146
Bronllys ... ... ... ... ... 108
Bron yr Erw ... ... ... ... ... 5
Brutus ... ... ... ... ... 66
Brut y lywysogion ... ... ...131 and passim
Brycheiniog ... 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 24, 35, 80, 106-8, 136, 151
Bryn ... ... ... ... ... 18, 150
Bryncynallt ... ... ... ... ... 144
Buallt (Builth) ... ... ,,. ,. 108,146
Cadell ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ... ... 10, 13, 15, 36, 38, 39, 50-52
Cadfan ap Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ... ... 47,48
Cadwaladr, a Welsh prince at the battle of Lincoln .. ... 21
Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan ... 5-7, 13, 16, 22, 27, 29,
33-35, 39, 47, 54, 82, 85, 89, 97, 101, 102
Cadwaladr ap Seisyll ap Dyfnwal .. ... ... 136
Cadwaladr Fendigaid ... ... ... 66, 67
Cadwallon ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... 98
Cadwallon ap Caradog ab lestin ... ... 104, 136, 137
Cadwallon ap Madog ab Idnerth ... 21, 36, 43, 91, 92, 97, 109
Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn ... ... 34, 54, 136, 149
Cadwgan ap Madog ab Idnerth ... ... 23
Cadwgan ap Maredudd ... ... ... ... 96
Caeo ... ... ... ... 3
Caereinion ... ... ... ... 82, 101, 102
Caerfyrddin 13, 36, 38, 44, 50, 88, 89, 94, 149
Caergybi ... ... ... 14
Caerlleon ... ... ... ... 4, 18, 106, 107
Caerwedros ... ... ... ... ... 6
Calettwr (Vale of) ... ... ... 5 1 . 8 7> 88
Camros ... ... ...in
Canterbury ... ... ... 2, 27, 29, 46, 124
Canterbury, Archbishops of :
Theobald ... 29, 30, 31, 45, 46, 103, 124
Thomas a Becket... ... ... 103,121-127
Baldwin ... ... ... 137, 145
Cantref Bychan ... ... ... 22,87,93,148
Cantref Mawr ... ... ... 3, 36, 87, 94, 96
Caradog the Hermit ... ... ... 68
Caradog of Llancarvan ... ... 67,68
Caradog ab lestin ap Gwrgant 41, 52, 104, 105, 107, 136-138
Caradog ap Gruffudd ap Rhydderch ... ... 135
Caradog Verbeis ... ... ... ... 137
Cardiff ... ... ... 42, 85, 86, 135
Cardigan ... ... 6, 37. See also Aberteifi, Ceredigion
Careghova ... ... ... - 93
Carew ... ... ... ... ...in
Carrick ... ... ... ... ...115
Castell Cennen ... ... ... ... ...122
Cedifor ap Daniel ... ... ... ... 121
Cedifor Wyddel ... ... ... ... ... 60
Cefn Rhestr ... ... ... ... ... 89
Ceiriog ... ... ... ... 98, 144
Celestine II. ... ... ... ... See Popes
Celynog Fawr ... ... ... ... ... 13
Cemmaes ... ... ... ... 16, 37
Cennadlog ... ... ... ... ... 84
Ceredigion 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 29, 33, 36, 44, 48, 50, 80,
81, 87, 88, 96, 97, 100
Chepstow ... ... ... ... 106, 113, 117
Cherulf, son of ... ... ... ... ... 34
Cheshire ... ... ... ... 20, 40
Chester ... ... ... 8, 14, 83, 90, 98, 127
Chester, Earls of... ... ... See Hugh, Ranulf
Chichester, Sigefrid, Bishop of ... ... ... 28
Chirk ... ... ... ... ... 146
Chrisiant, daughter of Goronwy ab Owain ab Edwin,
wife of Owain Gwynedd ... ... 54,97,126
Christiana, sister of Ranulf of Chester ... ... ... 8
Christiana, niece of Robert of Gloucester... ... ... 144
Christiana, daughter of William Fitz Alan I. ... ... 145
Christiana, wife of Owain Gwynedd ... ... See Chrisiant
Cicely, daughter of Pain Fitz John ... ... ... 8
Cilgerran ... ... ... ... ... 100
Cilin ab y Blaidd Rhudd ... ... ... ... 150
Cistercians ... ... ... ... 43, 44, 72, 100
Clarach (Vale of) ... ... ... ... 30
Clare, House of ... ... ... 3, 5, 13, 18, 119
Baldwin Fitz Gilbert ... ... n, 12, 13, 21
Gilbert Fitz Gilbert (Gilbert Strongbow)
8, 13, 18, 21, 29, 36, 38, 39
Gilbert Fitz Richard ... ... 3, 13
Richard Fitz Gilbert Fitz Richard ... 3, 4, 8, 18
Richard Fitz Gilbert Fitz Gilbert (Richard Strongbow)
106, 113, 1 16-120
Robert ... ... ... ... 18
Walter ... ... ... 18
Walter, son of Richard Strongbow ... ... 117
Clarendon ... ... ... ... ...151
Cleobury ... ... ... ... 79
Cliffords, The ... ... ... ... 93, 119
Clifford (Walter fitz Richard) ... 87, 93, 94, 96, 108
Clochran ... ... ... ... ... 139
Clun ... 145. '47
Clwyd (Vale of) ... ... ... ... ... 97
Cly wedog (river) ... ... ... ... ... 43
Coed Goronwy ... ... 4
Coety ... ... ... 42
Cogan, Milo de ... ... ... ... 117
Colwyn ... ... ... 36
Conchobhar, son of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha ... ... 115
Connacht (Connaught) ... ... 112,116
Corwen ... ... ... ... 97
Courci (Robert de) ... ... ... 84
Crispin (Miles) ... ... ... 251
Crug Mawr ... ... ... ... 6, 37
Crusades ... ... 44
Cunedda ap Cadwallon ap Gruffudd ... ... 54
Cwmhir ... ... 43,44,72. Abbots of Cwmhir, 142
Cwnsyllt (Coleshill) ... ... 49. 82, 8 4
Cydweli (Kidwelly) 4> 3. 42, 5
Cyfeiliog 48. 53. 9*. 92, 101
Cymmer ... ... ... 82
Cynan ab lago ... ... ... ... ... 34
Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd ... 37, 39, 47, 54, 84, 89, 126, 134
Cynddelw ... ... 56, 58, 90, 91, 129
Cynfael ... ... ... 47
Cynffig (Kenfig) ... ... 30, 42, 105, 118
Cynfrig ab Owain ... ... ... 22, 132
Cyfrig ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... ... 98
Cynfrig Efell ab Owain Brogyntyn ... -.. ... 91
Dafydd, Bishop of Bangor ... ... ... See Bangor
Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... 84,97, 134
Daniel ap Llosgwrn Mew ... ... ... 60, 129
David Fitz Gerald ... ... See St. David's (Bishops of)
Dean (Forest of) ... ... ... 23, 24
Dearbhforgaill ... ... ... ... ... 112
Dee (Valley of) ... ... ... 97,98,127
Deheubarth 3, 10, 27, 32, 33, 37, 51, 75, 80, 81, 97, 98, 109, in, 129
Deisi... ... ... ... ... ... 116
Denbigh ... .. ... ... ... 97
Deugleddyf 39, 44
Dewi (St.) = St. David ... ... ... ... 60
Diarmaid Mac Murchadha (Dermot McMurrough) ... 112-117
Dinan (Joce de) ... ... ... ... ... 145
Dinefwr (Dynevor) ... ... ... 94, 96
Dineirth ... ... ... ... 6, 14, 87
Dingad ap Tewdwr Trefor ... ... ... ... 145
Dinmael ... ... ... ... ... 91
Dinweileir 3 8, 51, 93
Domhnall Kavanagh ... ... ... ... 114
Domhnall Ua Briain ... ... ... See Ua Briain
Donnchadh, chief of Osraighe (Ossory) ... ... ... n^
Dublin H, i5> 34, 35. 98, 115, 117, n8
Duddleston ... ... ... ... ... I4 g
Dundunolf ... ... ... ... ... ug
Dunster ... ... ... ... ... 18
Dyfed ... ... 10,37,44,64,80,87,88,111,119
Ebbw (river) ... ... ... ... ... 94
Edeyrnion ... ... ... ... 9I) g
Edgerly ... ... ... ... ... IO2
Edw (river) ... ... ... ... 35
Efa, daughter of Bledrws ab Ednowain Bendew ... ... 102
Efa, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd ... ... ... 9I
Eifionydd ... .... ... ... 150
Einion ab Anarawd ap Gruffudd ... ... 88, 96
Einion Clud ap Madog ab Idnerth ... 23, 36, 92, 97, 109
Einion Efell ap Madog ap Maredudd ... ... ... 91
Einion ap Rhirid Flaidd ... ... ... ... 150
Einion ap Seisyll, of Mathafarn ... ... ... 91
Eisteddfod of 1136 ... ... ... ... 9
Eleyne, niece of Peveril .. ... ... ... 145
Elfael ... 2 , 5, 23, 36, 81, 92, 97, 108
Elisse ap Madog ap Maredudd ... ... ... 91
Ellesmere ... ... ... ... 18, 144
Ely (river) ... ... ... ... ... 31
Elystan Glodrudd ... ... ... 145
Enlli... ... ... .. ... ... 14
Enna, son of Diarmaid Mac Marchadha ... ... ...115
Essex, Geoffrey of ... ... ... ... 136
Essex, Henry of ... ... ... ... 84,94
Ethelfrith ... ... ... ... ... 61
Eu ... ... ... ... ... ... 117
Eugenius III. ... ... ... ... See Popes
Eustace, son of King Stephen ... ... ... 55
Ewenny ... ... 30. Abbots of Ewenny, 141
Ewyas 7, n, 12, 85
Exeter, Bishop of ... ... ... ... 29
Exmes (Orne) ... ... ... ... ... 149
Eva ... ... ... ... ... See Efa
Eva, daughter of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha ... ... 117
Eyton ... ... ... ... ... 146
Farringdon Castle ... ... ... ... 41
Felffre ... ... ... ... ... 37
Ferns ... ... ... ... n 2 , 115
Fferyllwg ... ... ... ... ... 146
Fishguard ... ... ... ... ...118
Fitzalan John ... ... ... ... ... 90
Fitzalans (the) ... ... ... ... 143-145
Fitz Baldwin, Stephen ... ... ... ... 49
Fitz Count, Brian ... ... ... ... 151
Fitz David, Miles ... ... ... ... 114
Fitz Gerald, David ... ... See Bishops of St. David's
Maurice ... ... 114, 115, 119, 122
Raymond ... ... ... 116-119
William ... ... ... 37, 52
Fitz Godoberd, Richard ... ... ... ... 113
Fitz Hamon, Robert ... ... ... 30, 41, 135
Fitz Hay, William ... ... ... 37, 38
Fitz Henry, Meilir ... ... ... 114, 119
Henry ... ... ... ... 84
Fitz John, Eustace ... : .. ... ... 84
Pain ... ... ... ... 7, 8, 12, 17, 25
Fitz Miles, Henry ... ... ... ... 108
Mahel ... ... ... 24, 108
Roger ... 7, 24, 25, 35, 40, 41, 78, 79
Walter ... ... ... 79, 80, 107
William ... ... ... ... 108
Fitz Stephen, Robert ... 37, 84, 100, 114-116, 118, 119
Fitz Warines ... ... ... ... 144-147
Fitz William, Gerald ... ... ... ... in
Flanders ... ... ... ... ... 81
Flemings ... 6, 9, 10, 21, 38, 51, 81, 96, 100, in, 114, 118
France ... ... ... ... 100, 112, 118
Gemaron ... ... ... ... ... 35
Generys, daughter of Rhys Sais ab Ednyfed ... ... 150
Geoffrey of Monmouth ... ... ... 65-67,122
Geoffrey, Constable of Cydweli ... ... ... 5
Gerald, Steward of Pembroke ... ... ... 6
Gest... ... ... ... ... ... 150
Gilbert Fitz Gilbert, Gilbert Fitz Richard ... See Clare
Gilbert Foliot ... ... ... See Hereford (Bishops of)
Giraldus Cambrensis ... ... 27, 28, 8, 80, 93, 138
Glamorgan 16, 17, 29, 30, 32, 35, 41, 52, 53, 81, 85, 93, 97, 104, 105, 135
Gloucester ... ... ... 7, 18, 78, 79, 137
Gloucester ... See St. Peter's, Gloucester, Robert, William
Glyn ... ... ... ... 15
Gogynfeirdd ... ... ... ... *5
Goldcliff ... ... ... ... 3. Io6
Goronwy ap lestin ap Gwrgant ... ... 136
Goronwy ab Owain ab Edwin ... ... 54
Goronwy ap Roger ap Goronwy ... 146, 147
Goronwy ap Tewdwr Trefor ... ... ... ... 145
Granville family in Glamorgan ... ... ... 4 2
Gruffudd ab Arthur ... ... See Geoffrey of Monmouth
Gruffudd ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ... ... 149
Gruffudd ap Cynan ab lago 3, 5, 9, 13, 14, 15. 34, 54, 69, 70, 82, 128
Gruffudd ab lestin ap Gwrgant ... ... ... 136
Gruffudd ab Ifor ap Meurug ... ... ... 106
Gruffudd Fychan ab lorwerth Coch ap Maredudd ... ... 102
Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll 12, 79
Gruffudd Maelawr ap Madog ap Maredudd 9 1 , 93
Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn ... ... 22, 90
Gruffudd ab Owain Brogyntyn ap Madog ... ... 9 1
Gruffudd ap Rhydderch ... ... ... X 35
Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr 3-7, 9-11, 34, 3 8 , 75, I0 5> J 3 6
Guaidanus, dean of Cantref Mawr ... ... 94
Guttyn Owain ... ... X 39
Guy, son of Duke of Brittany ... ... 148
Gwalchmai ... ... 57, 90, 129
Gwenddydd ... ... 6 *
Gwenllian, daughter of Ednyfed ap Cynfig ... ...15
Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan ... 4, J 3 6
Gwenllian, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd ... ... 9 1
Gwenllian, daughter of Owain Gwynedd ... ... 101
Gwenllwg ... ... I0 7
Gwent ... ... 28, 29, 32, 74, 81, 85, 97, 104, 106-108
Gwent Is Coed ... ... ... Io6 > I0 7
Gwent Uch Coed ... ... Io6 > I0 7
Gwentian Chronicle ... ... 138-139 and passim
Gwenwynwyn ... ... ... ... 90, 101
Gwernhefin ... ... ... ... ... 91
Gwerthrynion ... ... ... ... 23, 81
Gwion ap Cynddylan ... ... ... ... 147
Gwladus, daughter of Nest ... ... ... 37,119
Gwladus, daughter of Llywarch ap Trahaiarn ... ... 54
Gwladus, daughter of Griffith ap Rhys ... ... 105,107,136
Gwrgant ab Ithel ap Morgan ... ... ...135
Gwrgant ap Rhys ... ... ... 57
Gwrgenau ... ... ... ... ... 126
Gwyddgrug (Mold in Flintshire) ... ... ... 40
Gwynedd 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, 21, 32, 34, 35, 37-39, 44, 48, 57, 75,
83, 85, 88, 97, 98
Gwynfardd Brycheiniog ... ... ... ... 60
Gwyr (Gower) ... ... ... 2, 10, 30, 51, 81, 118
Gwys ... ... ... ... 39, 47, 121
Haer, mother of Maredudd ap Bleddyn ... ... ... 150
Harold, king of England ... ... ... ... 135
Harold, son of Earl Ralph ... ... ... ... 12
Haughmond ... ... ... ... ... 144
Ha wise, wife of William of Gloucester ... ... ... 86
Henry I, king of England 1-3, 7, 10, 12, 17, 23, 26, 37, 39, 75, 89, 95
Henry II, king of England 49, 62, 65, 75, 77-79, 82-90, 92-102
112, 114, 116, 118, 122-127, r 46
Henry III, king of England ... .. ... ... 147
Henry ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ... ... ... 149
Hereford ... ... ... ... 7, 18, 95
Hereford Castle ... ... ... ... ... 18
Hereford, Bishops of:
Robert ... ... ... ... 24, 25, 28, 29
Gilbert Foliot ... ... 24, 30, 31, 79, 103, 124
Hereford, Earls of ... ... See Miles and Fitz Miles
Hesdin ... ... See Arnoul de Hesdin
Hildebrand ... ... ... See Popes
Honorius III ... ... ... See Popes
Howel Dda ... ... ... ... 44
Howel ab leuaf ... ... ... ... 9 I- 93
Howel ab lorwerth ab Owain ... ... ... 107
Howel ap Madog ab Idnerth ... ... ... 23
Howel ap Maredudd of Brycheiniog ... 2, 5, 6, 22, 23, 137
Howel ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn ... ... 22
Howel ap Maredudd ap Rhydderch ... ... .... 22
Howel, son of Nest ... ... ... 37. Ir 9
Howel ab Owain Gwynedd ... 33, 34, 37~39 47. 5-5 2 > 5 8 - 6o >
89, 133. J 34
Howel ap Rhirid Flaidd ... ... ... ... 15
Howel ap Rhys ab lestin ... ... ... ... 136
Hugh the Fat, Earl of Chester ... ... ... 150
Hugh (son of Ranulf), Earl of Chester ... ... 50, 78
Humphrey (castle of) ... ... ... ... 88
lago, priest in the diocese of Bangor ... ... . . 125
lal(Yale) ... ... ... ... 48,85,93,144
lestin ab Owain ap Howel Dda ... ... ... 134
lestin ap Gwrgant ab Ithel ... ... ... 134-138
leuan ap Seisyll ... ... ... ... ... 122
Ifor ap Llywarch ... ... ... ... 108
Ifor ap Meurug ... ... ... ... 85, 86, 105
Ingebric ... ... ... ... ... 144
Ingelger ... ... ... ... .. 78
Innocent II ... ... ... ... See Popes
lonas ap Goronwy ap Tewdwr ... ... ... 146
lorwerth ab lestin ap Gwrgant ... ... ... 136
lorwerth Fychan ab lorwerth Coch ap Maredudd ... ... 102
lorwerth Coch ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn 64, 85, 97, 101, 102
lorwerth ab Owain Brogyntyn ap Madog ... ... 91
lorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain Gwynedd ... 54 69, 91
lorwerth ab Owain of Caerlleon ... ... 4, 28, 86, 107
lorwerth ap Rhirid Flaidd ... ... ... ...150
lorwerth ap Rhys ap lestin ... ... ... ... 136
Ireland ... ... ... ... 15, 34, 111-120
Irish Allies of Welsh ... ... ... ... 16
Irish Slave Market ... ... ... 7, 34
Isabel ... ... ... ... ... 136
Iscoed, Cwmwd of ... ... ... ... 100
Jerusalem ... ... ... ... ... 44
John, king of England ... ... ,.. 136,145,146
Kentigern ... ... ... ... ... 31
Kilhwch ... ... ... ... ... 64
Knockin ... ... ... ... ... 148
Laighen (Leinster) .. ... ... 112,113,115
Lambeth ... ... ... ... ... 32
Lancashire ... ... ... ... ... 83
Leicester, Robert le Bossu, Earl of ... ... ... 86
Lestrange family in Shropshire ... ... ... 148
Lincoln ... ... ... ... 20, 21, 23, 40
Lincoln, Alexander, Bishop of ... ... ... 65
Litard Littleking ... ... ... ... n
Llanarmon ... ... ... ... ... 14
Llanbedr ... ... ... ... ... 37
Llancarfan ... ... ... ... 3> 53
Llandaff ... ... ... ... 32, 65
Llandaff, Bishops of :
Herewald... ... ... ... ... 135
Urban ... ... ... 16, 26, 28, 41, 68, 104
Uchtryd ... 28-30, 52, 65, 104
Nicholas ... ... ... ... 52, 103, 125
William ... ... ... ... ... 140
Henry ... ... ... ... 137
Llandinam ... ... ... ... . 92
Llandydoch ... ... ... ... 16, 53
Llanffagan ... ... ... ... ... 53
Llanhuadein (Llawhaden in Pembrokeshire) ... ... 121
Llanilltyd ... ... ... ... ... 53
Llanpadarn ... ... ... ... ... 30
Llanrhystud ... ... ... ... 47, 48, 50, 87
Llanrian ... ... ... ... ...122
Llanstephan ... ... ... 8, 13, 36-38
Llanthony ... ... ... ... ... 25
Llanymddyfri (Llandovery) ... ... 87,93,148
Llawdden ... ... ... 126
Lleision ap Morgan ap Caradog ... ... 137
Lluddoca ap Tewdwr Trefor . . . ... ... 145,146
Llwchwr (river) ... ... ... 2, 137
Llwyn Pina ... ... 85
Llyfni (river) ... ... ... 108
Llywarch ap Dyfnwal ... ... ... 109
Llywarch Hen ... ... ... 5^
Llywarch Llew Cad ... ... 60
Llywarch ap Llywelyn ... ... ... *43
Llywarch ap Trahaiarn ... ... ... -"54
Llywelyn ab lonas ap Goronwy ... ... 146
Llywelyn ab lorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain Gwynedd 59, 91, 147
Llywelyn ap Madog ap Maredudd ... ... 49> 9 1
Llywelyn ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... 128
London, Robert, Bishop of ... ... 3 2
Londres, Maurice de ... ... 4, 5> 3. 4 2 > 5
William de ... ... 4
Lorans, priest in the diocese of Bangor ... ... 125
Louis VII, king of France ... ... ... 100, 101
Luci, Richard de... ... ... ... ... 109
Lucius II ... ... ... ... See Popes
Ludlow ... ... ... ... 19, 145
Mabel, wife of Robert of Gloucester ... ... 52,86
Mabel, wife of Miles Fitz Walter ... ... ... 107
Mabinogion ... ... ... ... 63-65
Mabudrud ... ... ... ... 8, 36
Mabwynion ... ... ... ... ... 96
Madog ab Einion ab Urien ... ... ... ... 91
Madog ap Gruffudd Maelawr ap Madog ... ... ... 90
Madog ab Idnerth ... ... 5, 6, 23, 35, 92
Madog ab lorwerth Coch ap Maredudd ... ... ...102
Madog ap Maredudd 22, 48, 49, 56, 57, 59, 64, 82, 85, 89-91, 97, 144
Madog ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... .., 142, 143
Madog ap Rhi rid ... ... ... ... 48
Madog ap Rhirid Flaidd ... ... ... ... 150
Maelawr ... ... ... ... 18, 93, 144-146
Maelgwn ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ... ... ... 5
Maelienydd ... ... 5, 23, 35, 36, 43, 81, 92, 95
Maengwynedd ... ... ... ... ... 91
Maenorbir ... ... ... ... ... 38
Maer Ddu of Rug ... ... ... ... 91
Mahel ... ... ... ... See Fitz Miles
Malcolm of Scotland ... ... ... ... 95
Manawyddan, son of Llyr ... ... ... ... 63
Manley, Roger de ... ... ... ... 102
Maredudd, a Welsh prince at the battle of Lincoln ... ... 21
Maredudd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn ... 22, 54, 75, 143, 150
Maredudd ap Caradog ab lestin ... ... 105, 136
Maredudd ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ... ...10, 38, 50-53, 80
Maredudd ap Howell ap Maredudd ... ... 5. 6, 22, 23
Maredudd Bengoch ap Llywelyn ap Howel ... 109, no
Maredudd ap Madog ab Idnerth ... ... .. 36
Maredudd ab Owain
Maredudd ap Rhydderch ap Caradog
Maredudd ap Rhys ap Gruffudd
Maredudd ap Rhys, the poet
Maredudd, son of Robert Fitz Stephen ..,
Maredudd ap Roger ap Goronwy
Margam ... 42, 72, 93, 105, 136.
Margaret, daughter of Miles of Gloucester
Marred, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd
Marred, daughter of Einion ap Seisyll
Martin de Turribus
Math, son of Mathonwy
Matilda, wife of King Stephen
Matilda, daughter of Henry I
Matilda Verdun ...
Maud, daughter of Robert of Gloucester . .
Maud, daughter of Roger de Manley
Maud, daughter of Henry I ...
Meilir, the poet ...
Meilir ap Llywarch
Merthyr Mawr ...
Meurug ab Adam ap Seisyll ...
Meurug ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Meurug Tybodiad ap Madog ap Rhirid ..
Meurug Llwyd ap Roger ap Goronwy
Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford 7,
Abbots of Margam 139-140
... 1 08
. 19, 20, 23, 25, 35, 40, 145
... See Fitz Gerald
... ' 45
49, 82, 89, 90, 97
65. See Myrddin
3 1 . 42
8, 12, 17, 20, 23-25,
30, 35, 106, 107, 151
Miscyn ... ... ... ... ... 41
Mochnant ... ... ... ... 101, 102
Mon ... ... ... 48,82,84. See Anglesea
Monmouth (Henry of) ... ... ... ... 106
Montfort (Robert de) ... ... ... ... 94
Montmaurice (Herve de) ... ... ... 115,116,119
Morfran ... ... ... ... ... 47
Morgan Hen ... ... ... ... 135, 137
Morgan ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ... ... ... 5
Morgan ab Owain ... ... ... 4, 18, 28, 86
Morgan ap Seisyll ap Dyfnwal ... ... ... 107
Morlais ... ... ... ... ... 144
Mortimer (Ralph de) ... ... ... ... 35
(Hugh de) ... 35> 36, 79, '45
Moun (William de) ... ... ... ... 18
Muirchertach ... ... ... ... See Ua Lochlain
Mynydd Cam ... ... ... ... ... 135
Mynyw ... ... ... 13. See St. David's
Myrddin ... ... ... ... 62. See Merlin
Nant Pencarn ... ... ... ... ... 94
Nantwich ... ... ... ... ... 40
Nauhendon ... ... ... ... ... 144
Neath ... 72, 105, 136. Abbots of Neath ... 31, 140, 141
Nennius ... ... ... ... ... 66
Nest ... ... ... ... 37, 88, 119
Nest, wife of Maredudd ap Caradog ab lestin ... ... 105
Nest, wife of Ifor ap Meurug ... ... ... 106
Nest, daughter of Maurice Fitz Gerald ... ... ...119
Nether Gwent ... ... ... 18. Cf. Gwent Is Coed
Neufmarche (Bernard de) ... ... ... ... 7
Newburgh (William of) ... ... ... ... 99
Newport ... ... ... 106. See St. Woollos
Normandy ... ... ... ... 82, 83, 88
Normans ... ... ... ... 6, 7, 9,
Northallerton ... ... ... ... ... 19
Northampton ... ... ... ... ... 39
Ogmore ... ... ... 4 , 30, 42
Olaf of Dublin ... ... ... ... ... 34
Olwen ... ... ... ... ... 64
Ordericus Vitalis... ... ... ... ... 69
Osraighe (Ossory) ... ... ... ...115
Oswestry ... ... 48, 90, 91, 93, 97, 98, 144-146
Othir ... ... ... 35
Overton ... ... ... ... 18, 144, 146
Owain ap Caradog ab lestin ... ... ... 104,136
Owain ab Edwin ... ... ... ... 14
Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffudd ap Cynan 5-7, 13, 15, 16, 22, 27, 29,
3 1 , 33-35, 39, 40, 47, 49, 53, 54, 5 6 > 57, 60. 62,
76,81-85, 92, 95, 97, 99-102, 124-129, 133-134
Owain Cyfeiliog ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd 48, 53, 58, 91, 93, 97, 101, 102
Owain ap Howel Dda ... ... ... ... 61
Owain ab lorwerth ab Owain... ... ... ... 107
Owain Brogyntyn ap Madog ap Maredudd ... ... 91
Owain Fychan ap Madog ap Maredudd ... ... 91, 93, 101
Owain ap Rhys ab lestin ... ... ... ... 136
Oxford, Archdeacons of ... ... ... ... 66
Paganel ... ... ... ... ... 19
Pain... ... ... ... ... See Fitz John
Pantulf, Hugh ... ... ... ... ... 145
Pebidiog ... ... ... 27, 37
Pembroke ... ... ... 6, 18, 52, 100, 119, 120
Pembrokeshire ... ... ... ... ... n8
Pencadair ... ... ... .. ... 94
Penfro ... ... ... ... ... 37
Pengwern yn Llanfihangel ... ... ... ... 50
Penllyn ... ... ... ... 91, 150
Penmon . ... ... ... ... 14
Pennant Melangell ... ... ... ... 150
Penrhos ... ... ... ... ... 138
Penrhyn ... ... ... ... 138, 139
Penwedig ... ... ... ... ... 52
Peryf ap Cedifor . . . ... ... ... 60, 139
Peveril ... 1 8, 49, 144, 145
Picot, chaplain of St. Woolos, Newport ... ... 31, 103
Plynlimmon ... ... ... ... ... 90
Popes of Rome :
Gregory VII (Hildebrand) ... ... ... 71
Innocent II ... ... ... 27, 44
Celestine II ... ... ... ... 45
Lucius II ... ... ... ... 45
Eugenius III ... ... ... ... 45
Alexander III ... ... ... ... 125
Honorius III ... ... ... ...117
Porkington ... ... ... ... ... 91
Portskewett ... ... ... ... ... 135
Portsmouth ... ... ... ... ... 19
Powys 21-23, 35. 44, 48, 75, 9, 9 1 , 97, 9 8 , r 43
Prendergast (Maurice de) ... ... ... ...114
Prestatyn ... ... ... ... ... 102
Pryderi ... ... ... ... ... 64
Pwyll, prince of Dy fed ... ... ... 63,64
Pyfog ... ... ... ... ... 34
Radnor ... ... ... ... 95
Raghnall of Dublin ... ... ... 34, 117
Ralph (Earl) ... ... ... ... ... n
Ranulf, Earl of Chester ... 8, 17, 20, 21, 35, 39, 40, 49, 144
Reading ... ... ... ... ... 8, 94
Regan (Maurice)... ... ... ... 113, 114
Reginald, Earl of Cornwall ... ... ... ... 88
Rheims ... ... ... ... ... 45
Rhirid ap Cedifor Wyddel ... ... ... ... 139
Rhirid Flaidd ... ... ... ... ... 150
Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... ... 139
Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... 134, 143
Rhonabwy ... ... ... ... 64, 102
Rhos ... ... 6, 9, 10, 38, 81, 100, in, 114, 118
Rhoshir ... ... ... ... ... 84
Rhuddlan ... ... ... ... 84, 85, 97, 102
Rhuddlan (Robert of) ... ... ... ... 102
Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd ... ... ... ... 40
Rhuthyn ... ... ... ... ... 4
Rhydderch Hael . . . ... ... ... ... 62
Rhygyfarch ... ... ... ... ... 45
Rhygyfarch ... ... ... ... ... 100
Rhymni (river) ... ... -.. ... ... 135
Rhys Sais ab Ednyfed ap Llywarch Gam ... ... 146, 150
Rhys ap Gruffudd ap Rhys 10, n, 38, 50, 51, 53, 54, 56, 76, 80-82,
86-88, 91, 93-97, 99-102, 104, 105, 109, no,
113, "9> !33. *37
Rhys ap Howel ap Maredudd ... ... 5, 6, 22, 36
Rhys ab lestin ap Gwrgant ... ... ... ... 136
Rhys ap Tewdwr ap Cadell ... ... ... 3,37,119,136
Richard Fitz Gilbert, Richard Strongbow... ... See Clare
Richard de la Mare ... ... ... ... 5
Richard Fitz Pons ... ... 148 See Cliffords
Robert of Gloucester 17, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 30, 31, 40-42, 52, 65,
103, 104, 144
Robert, son of William of Gloucester ... ... ... 86
Robert Fitz Harold ... ... ... n, 12
Robert Fitz Martin ... ... ... 6, 16, 37
Robinson, Nicholas ... ... See Bishops of Bangor
Rochester, Ascelin, Bishop of ... ... ... 32
Roger Fitz Richard ... ... ... See Clare
Roger Fitz Miles ... ... ... ... See Fitz Miles
Roger de Manley... ... ... ... See Manley
Roger ap Goronwy ap Tewdwr ... ... ... 146
Roger Fychan ap Roger ap Goronwy ... ... 146, 147
Rollo ... ... ... ... ... 70
Roumare (William de) ... ... ... ... 20
Rosamond Clifford ... ... ... ... 93
Ruaidhri ... ... ... See Ua Conchobhair
Rug ... ... ... ... ... 91
Ruyton ... ... ... ... 148
Sai (Orne) ... ... ... ... ... 149
Sai, Elie de ... ... ... ... 145,149
Henry de ... ... ... ... ... 149
Isabel de ... ... ... ... 145, 149
Picot de ... ... ... ... ... 149
Sainghenydd ... ... ... ... 4*1 85, 86, 105
Scotland ... ... .. 19. See Malcolm
Scots... ... ... ... ... 18, 19
Seisyll Bryffwrch ... ... ... ... 56, 58, 89, 129
Seisyll ap Dyfnwal ... ... ... 107, 136
Severn ... ... ... ... ... 6, 7
Shrewsbury ... ... ... ... 14. 19. i44> 149
Shropshire ... ... ... ... 7, 83, 146, 150
Shropshire Marches ... ... ... ... 143
Shrowardine ... ... ... ... ... 146
Sibyl, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarche ... ... 7
Simeon of Bangor y . ... ... See Bangor
Simeon of Durham ... ... ... ... 69
Sioned, daughter of Howel ap Madog ... ... ... 91
Siward family in Glamorgan ... ... ... ... 42
Slede... ... ... ... ... ... 19
Solfen ... ... ... ... ... 4 1
Stafford ... ... ... ... ... 7
St. Asaph ... ... ... ... 123, 126
St. Asaph, Bishops of :
1. Gilbert... ... ... ... 32, 122
2. Gruffudd ... ... See Geoffrey of Monmouth
3. Richard ... ... ... ... 122
4. Godfrey ... ... ... 122, 123, 125
St. Briavel's ... ... ... ... 23, 118
St. Clare ... ... ... ... ... 37
St. David's (Mynwy) ... ... n, 13, 45, 46, 104
St. David's, Bishops of :
1. Bernard 25-2 7, 29-31, 37, 44-46
2. David Fitz Gerald ... 37, 46, 108, 113, 114, 121, 125
St. Dogmael's ... ... ... 16, 124. See Llandydoch
Stephen, King of England 7, 11-13, 16-20, 23, 28, 40, 48, 49,
55, 62, 65, 68, 70, 76, 78, 82, 144
Stephen, Constable of Cardigan ... ... ...6, 37
St. Lawrence O'Toole ... ... ... See Ua Tuathail
St. Martin's le Grand ... ... ... ... 144
St. Mary of Cemaes ... ... ... ... 16
St. Mary (Anglesea) . ... ., ... 84
St. Peter's, Gloucester ... ... 12, 25, 29, 30, 104
St. Peter ... ... ... ... ... 84
St. Quintin family in Glamorgan ... ... 42
Strata Florida, Strata Marcella See Ystrad Fflur, Ystrad Marchell
Striguil ... ... ... ... See Chepstow
St. Tyfrydog ... ... ... ... ... 84
St. Tyssilio .. ... .. ... ... 90
St. Woolos, Newport ... ... ... 31, 103
Sulien ... ... ... .., 45, 121
Sulien, son of Rhygyfarch ... ... ... ... 45
Susanna, daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan... ... ... 91
Susannah, daughter of Howel ab leuaf ... ... ... 91
Swansea ... ... ... ... ... 137
Taf (river) ... ... ... ... ... 38
Tafalwern ... .. ... ... 92, 101
Taff (river) ... ... ... ... ... 31
Talafan ... ... ... ... .. 42
Talbot (Geoffrey) ... ... ... ... 18
Talgarth ... ... ... ... ... 108
Taliesin ... ... ... ... ... 62
Tal y Llychau ... ... ... ... ... 72
Tawe (river) ... ... ... ... ... 2
Tegeingl 14, 4, 49, 84, 97, 102
Teifi (river) ... ... ... ... 7, 13, 16
Tenby ... ... ... ... ... 52
Tetbury ... ... ... ... ... 40
Tewdwr Trefor ... ... ... ... 145, 150
Tewkesbury ... ... ... ... 29, 31, 104
Roger, Abbot of ... ... ... 31
Theobald ... ... ... ... See Canterbury
Tighearnan Ua Ruairc ... ... ... See Ua Ruairc
Tintern ... ... ... ... 18, 106
Tironian Benedictines ... ... ... ... 16
Totnes (ludhael de) ... ... ... ... 151
Toulouse ... ... ... ... ... 90
Trahaiarn ap Caradog ... ... ... ... 5, 79
Trallwng (y) ... ... ... See Ystrad Marchell
Trefennen ... ... ... ... ... 122
Trefgarn ... ... ... ... ... 44
Trenchemer (William) ... ... ... ... 84
Turberville (Gilbert de) ... .. ... 30,42
Turcall of Dublin ... ... ... ... 34
Ty Gwyn ... ... 44. Abbots of Ty Gwyn, 47, 141
Tywi ... ... ... 38. See Ystrad Tywi.
Ua Briain (O'Brien), Domhnall ... ... 115,116
Ua Carthaigh (O'Carthy), Cormac ... ... ... 118
Ua Faelain, Maelseachlainn ... ... ... ... 116
Ua Lochlainn, Muirchertach ... ... ... 112
Ua Riacain ... ... ... ... See Regan
Ua Ruairc (O'Rourke), Tighearnan ... ... 112, 117, 118
Ua Tuathail (O'Toole), Lorcan ... ... ... 117
Uchtryd ... ... ... See Bishops of Llandaff
Uchtryd, priest in the diocese of Bangor ... ... 125
Ui Failghe ... ... ... ... ... 115
Ui Neill ... ... "I
Uladh (Ulster) ... ... ... 112
Umfraville family in Glamorgan ... ... 42
Usk.. ... ... n> l8 > I0 7
Verdun (Matilda) ... 9
Vere (Geoffrey de) ... ... 149
Vezelai I2 3
Wallingford ... 3 39
Wallingford, Brian de 3. 39
Matilda de I 5 I
Walter de Bee ... 5
Walter deClare... See Clare
Walter, son of Gwys ... ... 121
Walter ap Llywarch ... ... 96
Walter Fitz Miles See Fitz Miles
Walter, son of Nest ... 37
WarinofMetz ... " *44
Waterford ... 115-118
Welsh Laws ... 9
Welsh Marches ... ... 16, 19, 30, &c.
Weobley ... " l8
Wexford ... ... . "4. "5, "
Whitland See T y Gw y
Whittington ... l8 ' 1 44- 146
Wigmore ... " *" 79
William the Conqueror ... ... 70
William Fitz Miles - See Fitz Miles
William de Gloucester 19, 20, 24, 52, 78, 89, 93, 103, 104, 136, 137
Wilton .. ... " 4
Winchester ... % " "' 9
Winchester, Henry, Bishop of
Wiston (Castell Gwys)
28, 92. Bishop of Worcester, 25
3, 6, 18, 19, 36, 109
Ystrad Cyngen ...
Ystrad Meurug ...
Ystwyth (river) . . .
51, 67. 72, 100. Abbots of Ystrad Fflur, 141
13, 29, 50, 87
3, 6, 8, 10, u, 13, 50, 80, 86, 87, 94, 109
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
Anwyl, Prof. E., M.A., 62, Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth.
Bannett, Richard, Tanyffynon, Dolgelley.
Blackwall, Henry, 56 University Place, New York (3 copies).
Cardiff Free Libraries Committee, Central Library, Cardiff.
Corfield, W. R., "St." Lawrence, Chepstow.
Davies, Gwynoro, Barmouth.
Davies, D., & Son, Ystrad, Pontypridd.
Davies, N. O., Woodlands, Whitchurch Road, Cardiff (2 copies).
Davies, J. H., M.A., Cwrtmawr, Llangeitho.
Davies, John, 34 Bridge Street, Lampeter.
Davies, John, Abersychan.
Duncan, John, J.P., " South Wales Daily News," Cardiff.
Edwards, Ellis, M.A., Theological College, Bala, N.W.
Edwards, Owen M., M.A., Chief Inspector of Schools for Wales, White-
hall, London, W.
Empire Book Dep6t, Frederick Street, Cardiff (6 copies).
Evans, D. E., Cemmaes, Mont.
Evans, George Eyre, Tanybryn, Aberystwyth.
Evans, J. Gwenogfryn, Tremfan, Llanbedrog, Pwllheli.
Evans, S. J., M.A., County School, Llangefni.
Evans, E. Vincent, 64 Chancery Lane, London, W.C.
Evans, T. J., 13 Canonbury Park South, London, W.
Evans, Isaac, Treflys, Menai Bridge.
Evans, Beriah G., Carnarvon.
Galloway, V. Sidney, Bookseller, Pier Street, Aberystwyth.
Genner, E. C., The Librarian, Meyrick Library, Jesus College, Oxford.
Goodwin, D. G., Uffington, near Shrewsbury.
Griffiths, Peter Hughes, n Fieldsway House, Highbury Fields, London, W.
Gulston, Alan Stepney, Derwydd, Llandebie, Carmarthenshire.
Harrassowitz, Otto, Leipzig, Germany.
Herbert, Col. Sir Ivor, M.P., Llanarth Court, Raglan.
Howell, Thos. H., Cader Idris, Stow Park, Newport.
Hughes, Gabriel, 28 Vale Road, Rhyl.
Hughes, John E., J.P., Cwrt-y-cadnaw, Llanilar, Aberystwyth.
Hughes, Richard, Tyhenisaf. Llanerchymedd, Anglesea.
Hughes, H. Powell, Commission Agent, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire.
Hunt, Chas. H., Central Library, Bootle, Lancashire.
James, David, Public Library, Aberystwyth.
James, H. E. H., B.A., Springfield, Haverfordwest.
Jenkins, J. Austin, B.A., University College, Cardiff.
John, Ed. T., Riversdale, Eaglescliffe, Durham.
Jones, R. W., Lewis's School, Pengam, near Cardiff.
Jones, David, Trosnant Lodge, Pontypool.
Jones, Edwin, Trewythin, Llanidloes, Mont.
Jones. E. D., J.P., M.I.C.E.. 6 Addison Road, Kensington, W.
Jones, J. Edmund, Fforest Legionis, Pont-neath-Vaughan, nr. Neath, Glam.
Jones, J. Owen, Trigfa, Biggleswade, Beds.
Jones, Sir D. Brynmor, K.C., M.P., 27 Bryanston Square, London, W.
Langstaff, W. J., Council Schools, Ely, near Cardiff.
Lewis, Henry, Brynhyfryd, Conway.
Lewis, Sir W. T., Bart., The Mardy, Aberdare.
Lewis, J. Herbert, M.P., Penucha, Caerwys, Flint.
Lewis, H. Elvet, M.A., 37 Highbury New Park, London, W.
Librarian, Public Library, Swansea.
Librarian, David's College, Lam peter.
Librarian, Free Library, Carnarvon.
Librarian, Public Library, Cardiff.
Librarian, Workmen's Library, Treorky.
Lloyd, H. Meuric, Delfryn, Llanwrda, Carm.
Martin, Edward P., J.P., The Hill, Abergavenny.
Matthews, T. Eryl, Llandebie.
Matthews, Thos., County School, Fishguard.
Moore, Thos., 15 Alma Street, Newport.
Morris, A., F.R.Hist.S., Newport.
Morgan & Higgs, 9 Portland Street, Swansea.
Nicholas, J., Central School, Port Talbot.
Owen, Bulkeley, Tedsmore Hall, Oswestry.
Owen, D. C. Lloyd, M.D., 41 Newhall Street, Birmingham.
Owen, Edward, Barrister-at-law, India Office, Whitehall, S.W.
Owen, J. Dyfnallt, Maesuchel, Pontypridd.
Parry, T. E., Stanley Buildings, Conway.
Percy, Sarah, Marchwiel Hall, Wrexham.
Powel, Prof. Thomas, M.A., University College, Cardiff.
Preece, W. H., Penrhos, Carnarvon.
Price, R. J. LI., J.P., Rhiwlas, Bala.
Rees, T. Mardy, 44 Markham Square, Chelsea, London, S.W.
Reynolds, Llywarch, B.A., Old Church Place, Merthyr.
Rees, Daniel, The Cottage, Paul's Cray, Kent.
Rhys, Sir John, Jesus College, Oxford.
Richards, D. M., Wenallt, Aberdare.
Richards, E., 4 Park Walk, Chelsea, London, S.W.
Reichel, Principal Sir H. R,, Penrallt, Bangor.
Roberts, Lewis J., M.A., H.M. Inspector of Schools, Rhyl.
Roberts, O. Jones, Public Library, Colwyn Bay.
Roberts, E., M.A., Plas Maesincla, Carnarvon.
Rowlands, J., Rock Villas, Machynlleth.
Salmon, David, University College, Swansea.
Thomas, D. A., M.P , Llanwern Park, near Newport.
Thomas, Dan, Plymouth Arms Inn, Merthyr.
Thomas, W. T., Brynderwen, Caerphilly.
Thomas, T. H., 45 The Walk, Cardiff.
Thomas, Edward, (Cochfarf), 3 Windsor Place, Cardiff.
Thomas, W. A., Gorphwysfa, Treorky.
Thomas, G. Caradoc 88 Mosley Street, Manchester.
Tredegar, The Viscount, Tredegar Park, Newport.
Turberville. T. P., Ewenny Priory, Bridgend, Glam.
Vaughan-Williams, F., Hollyhurst, Barton-under-Needwood, Staffs.
Venmore, Jas., J.P., 27 Anfield Road, Liverpool.
Williams, W. J., M.D., Grange Road, W. Middlesborough.
Williams, Mallt, Llanarthney, Carmarthenshire.
Williams, Sir John, Plas, Llanstephan, Carmarthenshire.
Williams, Thos., B.A., Braceland, Buarth Road, Aberystwyth.
Williams, A. Aneurin, Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon.
Williams, G. O., B.A., County School, Bridgend.
Williams, W. Pritchard, Cae'r Onnen, Bangor.
Williams, Hugh, Theological College, Bala.
Williams, O., Gaianydd, Rowen, Talycafn.
Williams, D. D., 63 Cecil Street, Greenheys, Manchester.
Williams, Robert, B.A., Llanbedr Rectory, Talycafn.
Williams, J., M. A., County School, Abergele.
Williams, Wm., Workmen's and Tradesmen's Library, Treharris, Glam.
Welsh Library, University College of North Wales, per T. Shankland,
DA Barbier, Paul
715 The age of Owain Gwynedd
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