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Full text of "A German course: adapted to use in colleges, high schools, and academies"

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GERMAN COURSE; 



ADAPTED TO USB IN 



COLLEGES, HIGH- SCHOOLS, AND ACADEMIES. 






By GEORGE F. COMFORT, A.M., 

PBOFESSOB OF MODEBX LANGUAGES AND JEBTnBTIOS, BTBAGU8B UNIYEBSITT, 
NSW TOBK. 




JV£fV YOUK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
'franklin squake. 

1875- 



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. ;•. 



• • • 

••• • 

• • • 



COMFORT'S GERMAN SERIES. 



A FIRST BOOK IN GERMAN: to Precede the "German Course." xamo, 
Half Leather, ^i oa 

A FIRST GERMAN READER: to Succeed the "First Book in German.*' 
izmo, Cloth, 80 cents. 

A GERMAN COURSE, Adapted for Use in Colleges, Academies, and High* 
Sdiools. lamo, Half Leather, ^2 00. 

A TEACHER'S COMPANION to the German Course. lamo, Goth, 75 cents. 

A GERMAN READER, with Notes and Vocabulary. x2mo. Half Leather, 
%2 oa 

A MANUAL OF GERMAN CONVERSATION, xarao, Half Leather, %\ 50. 



HARPER &> BROTHERS, PuUishers, New York. 

Gl\ A 

IV'-. ii^v\ A" 



vj_> \1.C»-^ 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in tiie year 1869, by 

Harfbb & Brothebs, 

Id tbe Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for th 
Southern District of New York. 



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( 



CONTElfTS OF THE GERMAN COURSE. 



INTRODUCTION iu 

PART FIRST. 

PRACTICAL LESSONS. 

Lewon 

I. Pronanciation ...»*.* 11 

II. Pronanciation (continued) J 4 

III. Present and Imperfect Tenses of the Verb feilt^ to he 17 

IV. Present and Imperfect Tenses of Eegular Verbs. The Definite 

^■ifilfi. The Accusative Case.... h » 19 7^ 

V. Present and Imperfect Tenses of (a^tlt^ to have* Accusative 

Case of Personal Pronouns *» 21 

VI. Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses of Regular Verbs..* 24 

VII. Prepositions with the Accusative Case. Gender of Nouns 26 

Vni. The Genitive Case...» 28 

IX. The Dative Case » 31 

X, Prepositions with the Accusative and Dative Cases 34 

XI. personal Pronouns . Forms of Address. Contractions of Prep- 
ositions with the Definite Article 3C "^ 

XIL The Irregular Verb UtXhpl^ta become^ Future Tenses 39 

XIII. German Current Hand 42 

\XIV. Conjugation of Irregular Verbs./ 45 

XV. PlurgLfif Nouns and of the 12^filUtfi-^i^le 48 

XVI . Th«^ XBi^yfini^A ^^jph. ,, 61 -/ 

XVIL Cardinal Numbers 64 

\ XVIII. Adjectives used predicatively and attributively. Old Declen- 
sion of Adjectives./. 57 

XIX. Possessive Pronou ns 60 vC 

\ XX. New Declension of Adjectives., y 63. 

NXXI. Mixed Declension of Adjectives. /. 66 

\ XXII. Comparison of Adjectives/. 69 

XXIIL Ordinal Numbers. 73 

XXrV. Irregular Verbs of the First Class./. 77 

XXV. Irregular Verbs of the Second, Third, and Fourth Classes 80 

XXVI. Irregular Verbs of thp Fifth and Sixth Classes 83 

XXVn. Irregular Verbs of the Seventh Class. Recapitulation of Irreg- 
ular Verbs 86 



873658 

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IV CONTENTS OP 

LMMm VMfc 

XXVin. Verbs with (fin, to be, as AuxiliaFy fc9 

XXIX. The Infinitive Mood./. 92 

XXX. Participles./ * 96 

XXXI. The Potential Verbs UmtU and miiffetl.^r 99 

XXXII. The Potential Verbs mUtU and mif^tVi A 102 

XXXHL The Potential Verbs foKett and bitrf en./ 105 

XXXrV. Separable Compound Verbs 108 

XXXV. Inseparable Compound Verbs Ill 

XXXVL Compound Nouns 115 

XXXVII. Derivative Nouns 120 

XXXVIIL Derivative and Compound Adjectives 128 

XXXIX. Cases governed by Adjectives 135 

XL. Use of the Article 139 

XLI. Personal and Possessive Pronouns 141 

XLIL Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns 147 

XLIII. Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns ; 147 

XLlV. Reflexive Verbs 150 

XLV. Agreement of Verbs with Nominative. Verbs governing 

the Accusative Case. Apposition 164 

XLVI. Verbs governing the Genitive Case 158 

XL VII. Verbs governing the Dative Case 161 

XLVm. The Passive Voice / 163 

XLIX. Construction of Prepositions 166 

L. Adverbs. Conjunctions. Order of Words 168 

LI. Imperative, Subjunctive, and Conditional Moods 170 



PAKT SECOND. 
I. Conversations. 



No. Page 

1. Salutation, a visit 175 

2. At Breakfast in a Hotel 176 

3. Dinner 177 

4. In a Confectionery Shop 178 

5. The Hotel 178 

6. TheRaihroad 179 

7. The Steamer 180 

8. Th© Custom-house 182 



No. Fafft 

9. The Post-office 182 

10. At a Banker's 183 

11. In a Bookstore 183 

12. At a Tailor's 184 

13. In a Dry Goods Store 185 

14. At a Shoemaker's 186 

15. With a physician 187 

16. At a Watchmaker's 188 



n. German and English Idioms. 

1. Idioms with (atCtt and to have 189 

2. Idioms with fein and to be 190 

3. Idioms with tX>tthtU and to become 191 

4. The Potential Mood and Future Indicative of the English Verb .... 192 



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THE GERMAN COURSE. V 

No. Pag* 

5. Idioms with the verb (afftit/ to leave, to let 193 

6. Idioms with the Verb to get 193 

7. Idioms with Prepositions 194-197 

III. Examples of Synonyms. 

1. Slcfer, gclb, 2anb 198 

2. 2l(fcr8mann, SanbttJtrt^, Sauer 198 

8. 5tufpc^cn, crftc^cn, aufcrpc^en 198 

4. 2lu«fil^ren, tooUbringcn, tooUfil^ren, toottjte^cn, tjottflrcdcn 199 

5. Tlttx, ^ec 199 

6. SiZafcttJctS, ncugterig, toorttJitjig 200 

7. SWSgcn, tooUcn 200 

lY. Letters and Forms of Business. 

1. ©in SfJcffc mclbct fcincm Onfcl bcu 2:obc«fatt fctncr ©c^^tocfier 201 

2. mMxom\6) gum OcBurt^tag ciues Sl^atcr^ 201 

3. eeremonicHc gorm bcr ©inlabung 202 

4. Slnttoort auf bicfcli&c 202 

5. SSertrauItd(^c gorni ber ©inlabung 202 

6. SCnttoort auf bicfclbc 202 

7. $5pi(3(^c gorni bcr ©iulabung 203 

8. flnttDort auf bicfelbc 203 

9. SBe^fctbricf 203 

10. flnwcifung 203 

11. Ouittung , 203 

V. Beading Lessons. 

^khtni\6)t<Bpxa6}t 204 

S)cr ^traficniungc 205 

S)c8 2)cut{dt^cn a3atcrlanb 205 

S)cr iuugc SWuftfcr 206 

2)er ©cttlcr unb bcr ^aifcr gricbridf^ 207 

(gin Slbcntcucr 207 

2)ieJ&unncn 208 

(Sintritt in btc bcutf^c ^6)mxi 209 

3o^ann SBoIfgang bon ©iJt^c 209 

2)c8 mmQ9 ®rab 211 

Slufruf bc« «Bnig« bon ^rcugcn 2ii 

^rjttjcilige gragcn 212 

9»ccrc«fliKc 213 

3)cr (Strfntfecr @cc 213 

2)cr ^orftd^tigc 2:rSumcr 214 

SS8a« bcr aWonb crja^U 214 



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VI CONTENTS OP 

PART THIRD. 
COMPEND OP GERMAN GRAMMAR. 

I. Introduction. 

K«. IV* 

1. History of the Crerman Langaage. 217 

2. Characteristics of the German Langaage 228 

3. Extent of Use of the German Language 230 

4. German Dialects 231 

5. Comparison of Words in the Indo-European Languages 23 1 

6. Comparison of Words in the Teutonic Languages 236 

7. Illustration of the Historical Development of Words in the German 

Language 238 

n. German Grammar. 

I. Orthographit 2i0 

1. Vowels and Diphthongs 241 

2. Consonants 243 

8. Division of SyUables 245 

4. Accent ', 246 

5. Capital Letters 247 

6. Comparison of German and English Words 248 

II. Etymology and Syntax 252 

1. The Article 253 

Syntax of the Article 254 

2. The Noun 255 

1. Accidents of the Noun 257 

2. Gender of the Noun 258 

3. Declension of the Noun 261 

4. Syntax of the Noun 266 

3. The Adjective J. 269 

1. Declension of the Adjective./. 270 

2. Comparison of the Adjective 272 

3. Syntax of the Adjective 2T6 

4. Numerals 276 

1. Cardinal Numbers 277 

2. Ordinal Numbers 278 

3. Numeral Nouns * 280 

4. Numeral Adverbs 281 

5. The Pronoun 281 

1. Personal Pronouns 282 

2. Possessive Pronouns 283 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns 284 

4. Indefinite Pronouns , 286 



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THE GERMAN COURSE. VU 

No. Ttc 

5. Interrogative Pronouns , 289 

6. Relative Pronouns 290 

7. Syntax of the Pronoun 291 

6. 27ie Verb // 292 

1. Conjugation./ ^ 293 

1. Moodsy. 293 

1. The Indicative Mood../ 293 

2. The Subjunctive Mood./ 294 

3. The Conditional Mood/ 294 

4. The Imperative Mood/ 295 

5. The Infinitive Mood./ : 295 

2. Participles/. 296 

1. The Present Participle/. , 297 

2. The Perfect Participle../. 297 

3. Tenses 298 

.4. The Passive Voice ./ 299 

2. AuxiUary Verb8.jr. 300 

1. Conjugation of ^a^Cn^ '0 have./, 301 

2. Conjugation of (ein, ^o ie /. 303 

3. Conjugation of UfCrbcn^ 'o become/. 305 

8. Regular Verbsi^ '. 307 

Conjugation of the Regular Verb Utf^tU^ to love 307 

4. Irregular Verbs 310^ 

1. Classified List of Irregular Verbs 311 

2. Alphabetical List of Irregular Verbs 314 

3. Conjugation of the Irregular Verb fc^IagCtl/ to strike 322 

4. Conjugation of the Irregular Verb jfontmcn/ to come 324 

6. Compound Verbs.^ 32G 

1. Separable Compound Verbs / 32G 

Conjugation of the Separable Compound Verb atltlC^tnCtt/ to 
accept. 4f. 328 

2. Inseparable Compound Verbs ./ 329 

Conjugation of the Inseparable Compound Verb (JtrftC^Ctt/ 
to understand. y, 332 

3. Doubly-compounded Verbs, u^ 334 

6. Reflexive Verbs (Conjugation of)..4f 335 

7. Impersonal Verbs /T. 337 

8. The Passive Voice 338 

9. Tlie Potential Verbs.^. 340 

1. The Verb fotten./ 340 

2. The Verb mUtn^- 343 

3. The Verb UnUtUJ. 345 

4. The Verb mbgen./ 347 

r». The Verb bttrfett/ 349 

C. The Verb miiffen/. 352 



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VIU CONTENTS OP THE GERMAN COURSE. 

Vo. F^ 

JO. The Syntax of the Verb 354 

1. Verbs governing the Accusative Case 354 

2. Verbs governing the Genitive Case. 35G 

3. Verbs governing the Dative Case 358 

7. The Adverb 360 

1. Classification of Adverbs 366 

2. Comparison of Adverbs 368 

3. Syntax of Adverbs £69 

8. Prepositions^...,, 372 

1. Construction of Prepositions /. '. 373 

2. Prepositions governing the Genitive Case/C 375 

3. Prepositions governing the Dative Case/ 380 

4. Prepositions governing the Accusative Case/ 385 

6. Prepositions governing the Dative and Accusative Cases/ 388 

6. Remarks upon Prepositions/ 392 

9. Conjunctions 894 

1. List of Conjunctions./ > 395 

2. Co-ordinative Conjunctions u? 396 

3. Subordinative Conjunctions..^ 397 

4. Remarks upon Conjunctions 398 

10. The Interjection 404 

11. Arrangetnent ofWords.f/. 405 



PART FOURTH 
VOCABULARIES. 



L Personal Proper Names 415 

IL Geographical Proper Names 417 

in. Abbreviations 420 

IV. German Moneys, Weights, and Measures 422 

V. Classified list of Words 423 

VI. German-English Vocabulary , 436 

VII. English-German Vocabulary 477 

VIIL General Index 495 



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> • •• • 



A GERMAN COURSE. 



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Google 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

GERMAN COURSE. 



In preparing this German Course, i1>ias'tfeeii the aim^f 
the author to incorporate the most advanced' •view^:fuid 
principles of linguistic instruction/aslielSr'by the Tjest vo- 
ters upon philology, and the best practical educators in 
Europe and America. Especial preference has been given 
to those features of approved works for the study of mod- 
em languages which, in Europe more especially, have stood 
the test of practical use. A few other features have also 
been introduced, which have been adopted with eminent 
success by the most able professors of modem language in 
their personal instruction, but which have not heretofore 
found their way into text-books. 

Care has been taken to give due relative prominence to 
each of these tried and approved principles, and to mould 
them into a homogeneous system adapted to the wants of 
classes in the Colleges, Academies, and other high-schools 
of learning in America. Farther than this, but little claim 
is laid to originality, and none is laid to novelty of method. 

The German Course consists oifourjparts : 

Part First; containing practical lessons for learning to 
read, write, and speak the German Language. 

Part Second; containing familiar conversations in Ger- 
man and English, models of letters, and forms of business, 
and selections &om German literature. 

Part Third; containing a compend of German Granmiar, 



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4 INTEODUCnON. 

with an introduction upon the history, characteristics, and 
dialects of the language. 

Part Fourth; containing tables of German moneys, 
weights, and measures, abbreviations, personal and geo- 
graphical proper names, and German-English and English- 
German vocabularies. 

In Paet FmsT, the Lessons are arranged with reference 
to the rapid and natural learning of the German Language, 
both for the purpose of understanding and of using the lan- 
guage. 

-;; 3^ -person fitWJY^ suddenly into a foreign country, the 
lan^ifege oJ^wIifcH ho wishes to learn, finds himself embar- 
lr&^^:5A^«tijerj)Jits^tAyfiye chief wants. He needs equally 
atia lihftifediat^lydl ^"fHoC&bidary ofwords^ a knowledge of 
grammatical forma^ of syntactical laws^ and of idiomatic 
construction^ and of the laws of pronunciation. 

It is the aim, in the Lessons, to meet these wants, in such 
consecutiveness of order as to make the knowledge of the 
language a natural and symmetrical growth. 

The points of contact and resemblance of the German 
with the English language arc presented first, more recon- 
dite, complicated, and divergent principles being reserved 
till later in the lessons. 

As far as possible, every word and grammatical princi- 
ple is presented in a living, natural sentence, before it is 
defined or explained. The concrete thus precedes the ab- 
stract. The practice precedes the theory. The principles 
of the language are presented to the mind of the leanier as 
the result of his deductions from the examples, which are 
given before the iniles. Many expert students will indeed 
detect the meaning of the new words and the new gram- 
matical laws without referring to the vocabulary or to the 
grammatical part of the lesson. The habits of scrutiny, 
of investigation, of independent analysis and classifi^cation, 
which are so strongly developed in translating works of the 
classic authors, and which are justly esteemed to be among 



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INTEODUOnON. 5 

the most important results of linguistic study, are by this 
means called into exercise at the very outset in the study 
of the language. Experience shows, also, that tiiis method, 
while of gi'eat value to the earnest student, at the same 
time awakens interest and even enthusiasm in the compar- 
atively listless scholar. 

The Lessons are usually composed oi five parts. In the 
first part a few sentences ure given, with Kiglish transla- 
tion, and containing the new grammatical principles of the 
lesson ingrafted upon words aJl/ready known. The atten- 
tion is thus drawn at first solely to the new principle. 

Secondly J the same principles are applied to sentences, 
without tramlationj and containing n^ew words. From 
similarity to corresponding English words, or from the 
connection of the sentence, the meaning of these new 
words will often be surmised. 

Thirdly^ the Vocabulary contains the new words used 
in the lesson. These are not arranged alphabetically, but 
they are grouped according to their logical or grammatical 
similarity or contrast in meaning and %cse. 

Fourthly is given an explanation, with appropriate illus- 
tration, of the new grammatical principles involved in the 
preceding exercises. Advantage is taken, both in the para- 
digms in the lessons and in the formal grammar of Part 
Second, of heavier type and of spaced letters, to attract the 
eye to the variable part oi the inflected word. 

Fifthly ;^ the lesson closes with an exercise of English 
sentences containing the new words and principles, to be 
translated into German. 

The exercises in pronunciation contain short and simple 
sentences with many proper names. They contain no words 
the meaning of. which is not readily discerned, nor do they 
involve more difficulties of pronunciation than occur in 
ordinary discourse. 

In the exercises of the subsequent lessons two things are 
avoided : on the one hand, platitudes and unmeaning or 



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6 nrtRODUcnoK. 

unnatural sentences; on the other hand, proverbs and sen- 
tences of recondite meaning. As far as possible, the sen- 
tences are such as would be used in ordinary conversation. 
Facts in German liistory, geography, biography, literature, 
and daily life are frequently introduced, thus assisting the 
student to feel that he is learning the Germ<in language. 

That the student may not unconsciously ticquire the habit 
of translating every thing from English into German liter- 
ally, a few simple idiomatic expressions are introduced 
early into tlio lessons. But, in order not to bewilder the 
student, idioms are not given extensively imtil after the 
development of tlie laws of etymology and syntax. 

As it is desirable to introduce the difficulties to .the lan- 
guage gradually, the use of the German Current Hand is re- 
served until the eye of the student shall have become famil- 
iar with the printed German type. The formation of deriv- 
ative and compound verbs, nouns, and adjectives is iUustra' 
ted with much fullness. In the latter part of the Lessons, 
after the student has gathered gradually and progressively 
a partial knowledge of the grammatical principles of the 
language and has applied tiiese principles to groups of 
words, he is i^ef erred to appropriate portions of the Com. 
pend of German Grammar in Part Third for the further 
elucidation of grammatical principles, and to the vocabula- 
ries in Part Fourth for new words that may occur in the 
Exercises. In order to familiarize the eye with different 
kinds of type, various sizes and styles of letters are intro- 
duced in the exercises of the last few lessons. That the 
student may also be finally thrown entirely upon his own 
resources, the English exercises, to be translated into Ger- 
man, are omitted from several of the last lessons. 

Part Second can be used by travelers and others, to 
whom a facility in conversing and in using forms of busi- 
ness is an immediate necessity. The references to the les- 
sons and the Grammar will assist in understanding the 
construction of the sentences. The conversations wiU also 



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iNTEODucnosr. 7 

serve to initiate the student, who has passed through the 
lessons of Part First, more fully into the idiomatic spirit of 
the German language. The reading lessons will suflSee to 
prepare the way for the German Reader, 

Part Third contains a Compend of German Grammar, 
wliich is suflSciently comprehensive to meet all ordinary 
wants, even in reading classic autliors. The Grammar is 
preceded by an Introduction^ which will servo to show the 
]>osition the German language occupies among its cognate 
languages, the chief epochs of its history, its most promi- 
nent characteristics, and, above all, to show that the Ger- 
man, like all other living languages, has been, and is yet 
subject to gro\vth, development, and change. In the body 
of tiie Grammar itself are also introduced frequent notoi 
upon the history and development of grammatical forms. 
To the earnest student, this philosopliical and historical 
method of studying the German language will serve as a 
stepping-stone to higher studies in the broader fields of 
philology. 

Part Fourth contains, in addition to the usual vocabu- 
laries and index, a list of the most important abbreviations, 
and tables of the moneys, weights, and measures of the lead- 
ing states of Germany. 

In conclusion, the author commits the German Course 
to tlie American public, witli tlie hope tliat it may contrib- 
ute something to the promotion of the study of this noblo 
language, with its rich treasm*es in every bi'anch of litera- 
ture, science, history, and criticism, and to the introduction 
of a more practical, and, at the same time, of a more truly 
philosophic metliod of studying the living languages into 
our Colleges and other schools of learning. 



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Part IxvBt; 



coxtxaasQ 
PRACTICAL LESSONS 

FOB LEARmNO TO BEAD, WBITE, AKD 8PEAK THE 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. 



A.2 

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( .:ivf:rsity ) 



GermoH 
Letters, 



8ater, 

Seffer, 

Serlin, 

@tnb, 
9»arie, 

9htliett«, 
Sntber, 

Sraittt, 
Wftin, 
mux, 

Bitn, 

mi, 

mmn, 

(Eicero, 
Onotteitt, 



LESSON L 

PRONUNCIATION. 



Exercise L 



Homan 
Letters, 

Karl, 

Vater, 

Paar, 

Peter, 

Gehen, 

Besser, 

Elisa, 

Berlin, 

Ist, 

Sind, 

Marie, 

Qotlia, 

Polen, 

Solin, 

Morgen, 

Rubens, 

Bmder, 

Mutter, 

Braun, 

IHiein, 

Mai, 

Europa, 

Wien, 

Johann, 

Juli, 

Lektion, 

Cato, 

Cicero, 

Quotient, 



EngUih 
Pronvnciatum, 

Fah'-ter, 

Pahvy 

Pay'-ter, 

Gay'-eUy 

Bes'seVy 

Ay-lee'-zahj 

Ber-leen'j 

Ist, 

Zintj 

Mahrree'y 

Oo'-taky 

Po'-len, 

Mor'-gen, 

Roo^-hens, 

Broo'-der, 

Moot'4er, 

Brown, 

Bhine, 

My, 

Oy-TO^-pah, 

Veen, 

Y(hhann\ 

Yoo'4ee, 

Zek'Uee-onf, 

CaK'to, 

T8ee^48ay'T0j 

Qao-Uee-ervt' , 



E»gVuk 
JVaju/a^um. 

Charles. 

Father. 

Pair. 

Peter. 

Go. 

Better. 

Elisa. 

Berlin. 

Is. 

Are. 

Mary. 

Gotha. 

Poland. 

Son. 

Morning. 

Eubens. 

Broflier. 

Mother. 

Brown. 

Khine. 

May. 

Europe. 

Vienna. 

John. 

July. 

Le^n. 

Cato. 

Cicero. 

Quotient. 



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12 




raosvsdATios. 
















1. The German Alphabet has twenty^ix lettere 


: 


German 


Soman 


Nameiof 


German 


Roman 


Name* of 


Letters. 


Letters. 


Letten. 


Letter*. 


Letters, 


Letter*. 


%a, 


A, a, 


Ah. 


%Xl, 


N,i., 


Enn. 


»,«». 


B,b, 


Bay. 


0/»/ 


O,o, 


Oh. 


K/t, 


C,C, 


Tsay. 


*,», 


P,P, 


Pay. 


2),1», 


D,d, 


Day. 


-^,i\, 


Q,q, 


Koo. 


(S,t, 


E,e, 


Ay. 


-^,x, 


R,r, 


Err. 


8f,f, 


F,f, 


Eff- 


@.f,(«) 


,8,8, 


Ess. 


'®,i, 


G,g, 


Oay. 


%,U 


T,t, 


Tay. 


^,<l, 


H,h, 


Hah. 


%% 


U,u, 


Oo. 


%i, 


I,i, 


Ee. 


»,», 


V,v, 


Fow. 


%h 


J,j, 


Tote. 


n,% 


W,w, 


Vay. 


S,!, 


K,k, 


Kah. 


X/f, 


X,x, 


Iks. 


2,1, 


L,l, 


EU. 


%^, 


Y,y, 


Ip'-*ee4<m 


m,m, 


M, m, 


Emm. 


^,h 


Z,z, 


Tset. 



Rem. The short form ^ is used at the end of syllables: 9}lt'«fi(]|^/ ^Ot^* 

2. The Vowels a, e, i^ O, tt are pronounced thus : 

/ I. %ti,\i\ie a in father: aSa^:?tcr,e:aMo,«arl,®o'4a- 
/ 2. 6, t, " a " wwj^/ "^t'Atx, ®e"4cn, ffi'^b^n. 
3-3, i^ " ee'^Tneet: (g^i^^a, S^^fi^bor, S3cr4in^ 
4* D,o, " " mo^; ©o'^t^a, ^oMcn, ?cf4Un^ 

3. The Diphthongs ait, t\, ttt are pronounced thus: 

1 . ^Vip an, like ot^ in mound : S3raun, Sltt'^gujl, ^wi. 

2. ei, ei, " «; ''might: fRffdn, <Std'^txmaxt 

(2tl,al), " " « " / 2«ai, aWainj, S3ai^^crm 
3* 6tt, en, " oi '^ m^ist: ffiu^ro'^pa/ 9lcu^cngManb» 

iSem. The form t)) is used only in a few proper names ; the form ai U used 
h) bat a few words. 



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PEONUNCIATICN. 13 

4. The Vowel is long: 

1. When doubled in the same syllable: ^aar, ©))ree» 

2. With silent^ '' « " " : ©o^n, S«ot^. 

3. When it closes a syllable (especially when it is ac- 
cented): aSa'^tcr, (g^r^a. W^^ttx, ^o'Atn, ia, fo. 

Retn. 1. 3^ followed by silent t, is long : 9931 tit (veen), ^a^tit'^ 
Hem. 2. Diphthongs are always long: Sttt'^gUft, ©ttl'stm, ©nsro'^lJa^ 
/2ei?i. 3. Great care is necessary not to give a short sound to long vowels, 

5. The Vowel is short when followed by: 

1. Double consonants: SWut'^tcr, bcf^fcr, 3o4<^nn^ 

2. Two consonants (as a rule) : itUiuon', fRn'^Uni. 

3. A single consonant (in a few monosyllables); as: 
in, mit, ia9, ti, mm, toai, bin, ^at, etc. 

Hem. In most unaccented syllables, the ( is almost suppressed : ^t'»itt, 
Bd'^cn, ¥o'4cn, S5a'4cr, »ni'*bcr, Shif'tcr, 

6. The Consonants are pronounced thus: 

!♦ 5B, b, f^ ff, I, I, m, n, p, H, t, t are pronounced like 
j5, djf, h, kylytn^ w, jp, q, r, t in English. 

Exc. 1. IB/ at the end of a syllable, likejo in deep: Sfci/ thief. 
Exc. 2. 2), «* " " «* f " hoat: 9^^, hath. 

Exc. 3. %i, not beginning a syllable, is trilled : ©Ttt's^bwr, Bfl'stCr* 
JEurc. 4. ^, in final stiHlt (not preceded by ^), like t^ : StMi^Olt'* 

,2. K, before a, O, or tt (or before a conso- 
nant) is pronoimced like k in hing : Sa'tO,Sor^ jtca* 

K, before other vowels " <« " ?7ii^5; ei'cero,Se're«* 
3.®^ « g " 17^.- ®o^t^a,gc^'cn* 

" at the end of a syllable (see Less, ii., 2). 

4. 3, ........... like y " yoke: 3o^ann'3u1t. 

5* @, before a.vowel " z " zone: ©ol^n, (SU'fa. 

" before :|l or t, and at tlie beginning of 

a radical syllable, like sh " shij) : ©prce, ©tcln* 

^^ otherwise " « " Z^« / SRu^bcn^, bag. 

«. » (in native words), " / " fine : SBa^ter, |)a'»cU 

7*aB, " V " -ytW; Sicn^aBorga* 

«*X,. ......... . " aj " wax: SWar, gdir. 

9.3, " ts '' mits: 2»mna,3i'on. 



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11 



PRONUNCIATION^ (CONTINUED). 



Exercise 2. 



5tarl 93raun ijl in 93er4in'/ 
eU'^^fa a3raun ift in ®o'^ti)a, 
aWa^rie' fRiVktx ift in SBien, 
ffiiKs^^clm toax in S3a'^ben, 
er ifl jc&t in granf^furt, 
Sir ma':?ren in Wlam'^^im, 
SWrin SSr^tcr unb mcin Sru'^? 

bcr finb in ^aVAt, 
^At^XM'Mx »on ^um'^bolbt, 
SBir^rittt »on $um';^bolbt, 
^e^4cr ^aul 9lu'^bcn«, 
3aMob unb ffiil'^elm ©rimm, 
^crr 21. 2). 8in^^bc^mann, 
grau »on SBors^fcn^^flcin^ 
SMainj, ^o'^blcnj, JBre'^mcn^ 
^mt'M4a, (&u-^xo'^pa, 
8l'.ft.en,r^fri^fa,3n^^bi^cn, 
34a'4i^ctt, ©pa^^ni^cn, 
^or^anb; Un'^garn, ^o'4en, 



Charles Brown is in Berlin. 
Eliza Brown is in Gotha. 
Mary Ritter is in Vienna. 
William was in Baden. 
He is now in Frankfort. 
We were in Mannheim. 
My father and my brother 

are in Halle. 
Alexander von Humboldt. 
William von Humboldt* 
Peter Paul Bubens. 
Jacob and William Grimm. 
Mr. A. D. Lindemann. 
Mrs. von Wolfenstein. 
Mayence,Coblentz,Bremen. 
America, Europe. 
Asia, Africa, India. 
Italy, Spain. 
Holland, Hungary, Poland 



LESSON II. 

PRONUNCIATIOX (CONTINUED). 



1. The Um'-lauts ii, b, il, Sit are pronounced thus : 
1. 2fc, a, called ah! -umlaut^ like t (see Less. I., 2, 2). 
2« Dt^ 0/ called oA'-timiz'i^^, has no equivalent in 
English. It is like the French eu. Its pro- 
nunciation may be approximated by producing 
a sound between that of oo in hoon^ and that ol 
UT in hum : S36rfc, Exchange^ fd^on, leautifvl. 

3. Vitp fi, called oo'-umlaut^ has no equivalent in 
English. It is like the French u. The pronun- 
ciation of Sub {south) may be approximated by 



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PBOKimCIATION (CONTINUED). 15 

placing the lips as if to whistle, and then trying 
to pronounce the word seed: 2)uf s^fetfcorf* 

4. %tVif tiUf has the same sound as ett (Less. I., 3, 3) 
i. ^., that of oi in moist: SWau^^fc, mice. 

2. There are two Guttural Bounds in the German that 
do not exist in the English language : 

1. ^\^, ll^ (and g^ when ending a syllable) after a, 0, 
II, or M, have a rough aspirate sound, formed 
deeper in the throat and much stronger than 
that of A in hope: l^od^ {hohh) high; Z\x^ {toohh)^ 
doth; Sag {tahh)^ day; madden {ma'-hhen\ to mxike, 

2. After other letters (and in the diminutive sylla- 
ble ll^en), they have a softer sound, made higher 
in the palate, and inclining to that of sh iiL shall: 
td^ (a«*),7; TCd^t (reh'^t), right; RW^d^tn {kind'- 
h'^en)y a child; SWutt^sfd^cn {miin'-h^^en), Munich. 

Rem. 1. In words of Greek origin, i^ sounds like hi (|[^or, choir. 

Bern. 2. Also before ^ in the same radical syllable, like ki SESa^9, wax- 

3. The Consonantal Combinations f^, i^, ttg : 

1. @<^,like sh in shaU : ©d^all, sound; gifd^, fish. 

2. {^, " t '' tone: %^m,clay;%^^'^mci^, Thomas. 

3. ng, '\ng'' sing: ^\X[^ftXi,tosing;%XX[^^^tX,finger. 

4. The Compound Consonants, or those joined together 
in printing, are i^ (cA), d {ck\ ft {st)^ g {sz), ^ (tz). 

1. d is pronounced like 7c in hake : fcer ^Ciif^tx, hdker. 

2. f" " " s^'less: &t-.fa^\ a vessel. 
8. ^ " *' " ts " mits: 5«ur^Ii^, useftd. 

5. Doubled Letters are named separately in spelling : 

ait^ aa . . . aA-aA. 



Ce^ ee . . . ay^tf. 
$$f' 00 . . . oA-oA. 



ff, ff . . . . eff-eff. 
ff^ ss . . . . esg-^88. 
tt/ tt ... . tay'tay. 



Rem. The vowels I and It t-re never doubled. 



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16 PRONUNCIATION (CONTINUED). 

6. There are no silent letters in German, except: 

1. (, when used to indicate the long sound of a vowel ; 

2 # (( ii it (( /; ti t( (( I « 

3. tO^ after (occuring in a few proper names). 

7. The Accent may be understood to be on the Jlrst 
syllableywhen not otherwise marked in the vocabularies. 

8. Capital Letters are used as initials to aU nounsy and 
to the pronouns ®ic (you) and ^f)x (your). 

2)rttte ^itfgak* 

^err SBc'^bcr tfl in 53er4in^ Mr. Weber -s in Berlin. 

SBo tft $crr SWc9^^er4eim? Where is Mr. Meyerheim? 

Sr tfl je^t in 2)cutf(3^'^lanb, He is now in Germany. 

SBil^^clm unb ^arlSRit'^cr ftnb William and Charles Ritter 

titd^t in SMag'^be^burg, are not in Magdeburg. 

©tc jtnb jcftt in 'X)WMXi, They are now in Dresden. 

S5cr4itt^ tfl in ^rcu^^pen, Berlin is in Prussia. 

SBien tfl in Dc'^^flctJ^rct^, Vienna is in Austria. 

2)reg'^bcit tfl in ©ad^^s^fcn, Dresden is in Saxony. 

?cip^ig tfl in ©ad^^^fcn, Leipsic is in Saxony. 

SBar'^'^^^u ifl in ^o^4en, Warsaw is in Poland, 

^rag ifl in ^i\)'^mtn, Prague is in Bohemia. 

SSicrte aufgak. 

Sr^^fle, lXOtVAt,\)X\Vi^Xt, "oWAt, First, second, third, fourth, 

fu*f' 4e, fc(^r4c Scf^ti^on^ fifth, sixth lesson. 

'SixWAt, X>W^\t Sluf ^go^be, Third, fourth exercise. 

2Witn^?d^n, Slug^'^burg unb Munich, Augsburg, and Nu- 

SWitrn^^bcrg ftnb in 55ai^^crn, remberg are in Bavaria. 

3>rag,SBicn/2;ri^cfl^ttnb3nn$'^ Prague, Trieste, and Inns- 

brudf jtnb in Oe'^flcr^rei(3^, pruck are in Austria. 

^tVMXMx^ ifl in ^a'Mn, Heidelberg is in Baden. 

2)ilf ^fctborf ifl in ^reu^^f en, Dusseldorf is in Prussia. 

2)cutfd^Manb, ^Aa'Avin unb Germany, Italy and Bussia 

SRup^^anb ftnb in ©u^ro'^pa, are in Europe. 

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PBESEXT AKD IMPERFECT TEKSES OF fttlt, TO BE. 17 



LESSON III/ 

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSES OF THE VERB ftlll^ TO BE. 



3}l ^err 2Ren''^jcl in SSer^in''? 
SWcin, cr ifl in ^otn, 
SEBo wa'^ren ®ic ge'^^Pcru ? 
SBir nja'^rcn in ^aVAt, 
2)a8 Sdn6^ war niiJ^t f|)Ctt'^cr, 
(£d ifl l^cu'^tc fe^r warm, 
^eu'^te ijl c8 fc^r warm, 



Is Mr. Menzel in Berlin? 
No, he is in Cologne. 
Where were you yesterday ? 
We were in Halle. 
The book was not dear. 
It is very warm to-day. 



giitifte ^ufgabc. 

l.SBo jtnb ^err SWcin^^rbt unb ^crr SWen'^jel? 2. ^txx 
9ietn'4^tbt ifl in S3cr4in', unb $crr SWen^^jcl ijl in ^otg'^bam. 
3* SBa^i^ren ©ie ge'^jlern in Soln? 4. 3lm,i6^ war gc'^jlcrn 
in granf^furt 5* 3jl grau Slcu'^mann f)tn'4t in 93cr4ir? 
6. 3a, ftc ifl in SScr^^Iin^ 7. 3fl grauMein S»cu^;=mann aud^ 
in S5cr4in'? 8. 5Rcin, fte ijl W^At in 2)re8'^bcn* 9. SGBo ijl 
ba8 S3ud^? 10. ^icr ijl e^. 11- 2)a8 Sffict'^cr ijl jeftt fe^r 
warm* 12. SSor^^gc^jlcrn war e$ fc^r fait 13. ©e'^jlern 
wa'^rcn wir in ^ot^'^bam. 14. ^of^^^bam unb JWag'^bc^htrg 
finb in ^rcu'^^^n. 15. fxt\i'4^n, S3ai'^ern, ©ad^^^en, S3a':^ 
ben, Dl'^bcn^burg unb SWc(f ^cn^urg ftnb in !Deutfc^'4anb* 



^cn9il.,Mr.N. 

grfiu'4cmiR.,Mis8N. 
3)09 iBu^f, the book. 

„ Sit(^, the cloth. 

n 2Bcf *tcr, the weather. 
©U'4lg, cheap. 
X^'*cr, dear. 
SBonn^warm. 
^^%f hot. 
J{aIt,cold. 
^Ot«''t)am (seepage 419). 



Vocabulary. 

dx, he. 
@ic, she. 
@«,it. 
SBir, we. 
@ic, you. 
@ic, they. 
9a, yes. 
iRein, no. 
i»i^t,not. 
Unb, and. 
^u6), also. 



Sann? when? — 
3et5t, now. 
^cu'4c, to-day. 
®c'*fleni, yesterday. 
SSor'*gc*flern, day befort 

yesterday. 
yio<if, still, yet. 
©C^r, very. 
SBo? where? 
$ier, here. 
2)a, there. 
3n, in. 



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18 PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSES OP fcilt, TO BE. 

Orammatical. 
1. The Present and Imperfect Tenses of the Irregular 
Verb feill, to ie, are conjugated thus : 



Present Tense. 

t(^ 1o\Vi, I am. 

@ic floil, yoa are. 

et \% he Is. 

voir floil, we are. 

@ic flnil, you are. 

ftc (toil, they are. 



Imperfect Tense, 

t^ loar^ I was. 

@ic tt>ar'*cil, you were. 

tx toar^ he was. 

tt>ir war '*cil, we were. 

@tc warden, you were, 

fic tt>ar'*eil, they were. 



RejH. A single consonant between two vowels is pronounced with the last 
vowel. The vowel* are divided in the paradigms so as to show the terminal 
iions, not as the words are pronounced. 

2. Adverbs of time usually precede those of place: 

(5r war ge^etlt T^icr, He was here yesterday. 

(Sx ijl je^t in S3er(tn, He is now in Berlin. 

3. When the adverb, adverbial expi'essions, or adjective 
j>recedes the verb, the nominative ybZfot(?« the verb: 

§icr tfl ce, Here it is. 

$eute tfl c« fe^r fait, It is very cold to-day. 

^a(t ifl c8 ^cutc, It is cold to-day. 

3n S3crUn tt> a r c r nt^t, He was not in Berlin, 

Rem, This inversion is much more common in German than in English. 

It is especially appropriate where emphasis is placed on the adverb or 
adjective. 

Exercise 6. 
1. Wliere is Mr. Hoffmann to-day ? 2. He is in Magde- 
burg to-day. 3. When was he in Berlin? 4. He was in 
Berlin day before yesterday. 5. Mrs. "Weber and Miss We- 
ber are now in Frankfort. 6. Yesterday they were in 
Cologne. 7. The weather is cold to-day. 8. Yesterday it 
was very warm. 9. Where is the cloth ? 10. There it is. 
11. Is the cloth cheap ? 12. Yes, it is very cheap. 13. Is 
Mr. Meyerheim yet in Cologne? 14. Yes, he is there yet. 
15. Is Breslau in Prussia? 16. Yes, Breslaii, and also 
Magdebiu'g, Berlin, and Gottingen, are now in Prussia. 
17. Mr. Dietz is now in Halle. 18. Mr. Weber is in Frank- 
fort. 19. Yesterday I was in Leipsic and in Halle. 



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PBESENT AND IMPERFECT OJT BEQULAB .YEBBS. 19 

LESSON IV. ^ 

PBESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSES OF REGULAR VERBS. THE DEFINITE 
ARTICLE. THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 

©ad faufen ®te ? What are you buying? 

^6) faufe fctpxtf, I am buying paper. 

Dcr ©(i^ttciber fauft Zn6), The tailor is buying cloth. 

2Bo wol^ncn ©te jleftt? Where do you reside now ? 

SGBir wol^ncn jc^t in ©crtin^ We reside now in Berlin. 

^orcn ®ic voai cr fagt ? Do you hear whathe is saying? 

3^ W^ Wa0 cr fagt, I hear what he is saying. 

3Ba8 fauftcn ®ic ? What were you buying? 

3(^ laufte l^apier', I was buying paper. 

Cr tt)o]^ntc in SWagbcburg, He resided in Magdebui-g. 

„ „ „ n He was residing inMagdeburg. 

„ „ „ „ He did reside in Magdeburg. 

@ie(ente 9(ufgabe. 

1. SBo m^nt ^crr ©d^umantt? 2. @r wo^nt jeftt in granf^ 
fitrt. 3* (£r mol^ntc fritter in ^ctbelberg* 4. SBo^ncn ©ic in 
^allc? 5. 5Wetn/tt)tr mo^nen nii^t in $aUc, wtr wo^ncn in 
gcipjig. 6. fauftcn ®ic bad 2:ud^? 7. SRein, ic!^ fauftc cd 
nid^t; cd war fe^r t^cucr unb nid^t fc|)r gut* 8. .?)6rt bcr ®d^u^ 
Icr, wad bcr ?c^rcr fagt? 9. 3^/ bcr ©dealer ^ort wad ber 
?c^rcr fagt 10. 2)cr ^aufmann ()i)rtc wad bcr ©(J^ncibcr fagfc* 
11. ^iJrtcn ©ic wai ^cinri^ unb SBit^clm fagtcn? 12. 3a/ 
id^ ^ortc wad jtc fagtcn. 13. !Dcr SSatcr unb bic SWuttcr Hcbcn 
bad «inb. 14. 1)ai «inb licbt ben SBatcr unb bic SMutter. 15. 
SBo fauftcn ©ie bad S5ud^? 16. 3d^ f^ufte ed »orgejlern in 
?cipjig. 17. 2)er ©driller fauftc bad S3ud^ unb bad "fapxtx. 18. 
SSBann warcn ©tc in Slugdburg? 19. 3d^ war ^orgcjlcrn in 
Slugdburg. 20. ^crr SWc^crbeim, ^err SRofentbat unb ^crr 
C^rlid^ wobnen in ^6ln, ^crr ©d^lcicrmad^cr unb ^err 2luerbad6 
wo^nen in SWagbcburg, grau gorflcr unb graulcin Sggcrd wob^ 
nen in ©oti^a, unb ^crr ?inbcmann wobnt in SWfind^cn. 

Rem, These sentences can of course be multiplied indefinitely. 



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20 



i^ffiSENT AND IMPEEFECT OP EEGULAE VEKBS. 



Vocabulary. 



^et SO^onn, the man. 

t, ' ^attx, the father. 

I, ^aufmann, the merchant. 

„ ?e^rcr, the teacher. 

tf 0^neiber, the tailor. 

tt @(^il(er, the scholar. 
Sie grau, the woman. 

n SWutter, the mother. 
^a9 ^nt), the child. 

„ $aj>tcr', the paper. 
^mx\6}, Henry. 
SGBil^crm, William. 



^3r*«cn, to hear, 
^auf^cn, to buy. 
Sicb*cn, to love. 
ScB*cn, to praise. 
@ag*cn, to say. 
S8o^n«en, to ixiside. 
SBcr?who? 
a©a«?what? 
%i>tt, but. 
Out, good, 
gril^ier, formerly. 
^tui\6)f lately. 



OrammatioaL 
1. The regular Verb HeBcn, to love, is conjugated thus: 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense, 
\(if litV^t, I love. 
®tc lith'^tUf you love. 

cr Hcb%t^ he loves. 
Xt>xx Itcb'^en, we love. 
@tc Itcb'*cil^you love. 

fiC ncb'*Cfl> they love. 



Imperfect Tense, 

i^ llth'^tt, I loved. 

(Sic ncb'*teil, you loved, 

cr licB '*tt, he loved. 

tt>ir Itcb'*ttlt, we loved. 

@ic Itcb'»teil, you loved. 

fiC It c b '*tCll, they loved. 



2. That part of the simple verb which precedes the ter- 
mination of the infinitive (eil) is called the steniyss: UcB>-cn, 
fauf^CH/ fag^cn, wol^n^cn. 

Rem, In regular verbs the stem remains unchanged in conjugation. 

3. For the three Jbrms of conjugating the verb in Eng- 
lish, the German has iut one — the mwplefoTni : 



3(3(> faufc, 


I buy, 


I am buying, 


or I do buy. 


mx lauftcn, 


We bought, 


We were buying, 


" We did buy. 


«aufcn@tc? 


Buy you? 


Are you buying? 


" Do you buy? 


^auftcn etc? 


Bought you? 


Were you buying? 


"Did you buy? 


3d^ lauftc nid^t, 


I bought not, 


I was not buying. 


" I did not buy. 



4. The German language has four Cases : the Nomina- 
twe, the Genitive^ the Dative^ and the Accusative. 



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PEESENT AND IMPERFECT OF REaULAR VERBS. 21 

1. The Nominative corresponds to our Nominative. 

2. The Accusative is rendered by our Objective. 

5. The form of the Definite Article varies according to 
the gender of the noun which it limits. The form of the 
accusative of the masctUine oiiZy of the article differs from 
that of the nominative : 

Nominative: ^tx SWann, bit gtau unb bod ^nb finb ^icr. 
'' The man, the woman, and the child are hen. 

Accusative : 34 fe^e belt Mcixm, bie S^au unb bal ^nb. 
Objective : I see the man, the woman, and the child. 

Exercise 8. ^ 
1. The teacher praises the scholar. 2. The father praised 
the child. 3, Did you hear what Henry was saying? 4. 
No, I did not hear what he said. 5. We heard what he 
said. 6. Did he not hear what the teacher said ? 7. Yes, 
he heard what the teacher was saying. 8. The merchant 
was buying the cloth. 9. The woman did praise the child. 
10. The child loves the woman. 11. Where did you buy 
the book ? 12. I bought it in Berlin. 13. When did you 
buy it ? 14. 1 bought it day before yesterday. 15. Do you 
hear what Miss Steffens is saying? 16. 1 hear what she is 
saying. 17. Wliere does Miss Steffens reside ? 18. She is 
now residing here in Berlin. 19. Formerly she resided in 
Hamburg. 



LESSON V. 

PRESENT AND IMPEIiFECT TENSES OP |a(ftl^ TO HAVE. ACCUSATIVE 
OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

J&abcn ®ic ba? 95ud) ? Have you the book ? 

3a, i^ l^aBc e$, Yes, I have it. 

^elnrici^ liat ba? 3Wcffcr, Henry has the knife. 

SBHHw liatte baS ©ud^, William had the book. 
Seftt^tcn ®tc ^crm .^raft, al$ Did you visit Mr. Kraft when 

©ie in Scrltn ttarcn ? you were in Berlin ? 

3^/ trir befud^tcn i^n [c^r oft, Yes,we visited liim very often. 



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22 



FBESENT Ain) IMPERFECT OF BEGULAB VERBS. 



1. 2Bcr ^at bag ©ud^? 2. 3^ l;abc e$ nid^t ; So^ann ^alte 
e«, ate er l^ier war* 3* SBag l^abcn ®ie ba ? 4. SBir l^aben 
bag Su(3^ unb bag hapten 5* ^err ©d^abe bcfud^tc mi fe^t 
oft, atg roxx in ©otl^a warcn* 6- ^err Hoffmann befud^t ^erm 
giittcn 7.aeBagfud^ctt@tc? 8. 3d^ fu^e bag 2Re[fcr. 9.^icr 
ijleg* 3d^^abceg* lO.aBagfauftcbcr^od^? ll*@rfauftc 
93rcb, gleifd^ unb Dbfl. 12* Dag Simmer ifl »tcl ju ftein* 
13. 2)er Bintmcrmann tjcrfaufte bag ^aug. 14. Dcr ^auf^ 
mam faufte bag ^aug* 15. SEBo jlubirte ^cinrid^ SWeumann, 
alg cr in Deutfd^lanb war? 16. dx jlubtrte in ^etpjtg unb 
SBcrlin. 17. ®o^nt ^crr SWicbncr in ®ot^a? 18. SWcin, er 
m^nt in Dregben, aber er wol^nte frii^er in ®ot^a. 



Vocabulary. 



Ser S3S(fcr, the baker. 

rf ^0(if, the cook. 

ff 3tmmennann, the carpenter. 
Sad ^ob, the bread. 

tf S^^fi^r the meat 

tf SD'^e^I, the flonr. 

n SWcffcr, the knife. 

„ OBfl, the fruit. 

t, 3immcr, the room. 
S3cfud^'*cn, to visit. 
@u(i^'*cn, to seek, look for. 
©tubir'^en, to study, 
^erlauf *cn, to sell. 



6, large, great, 
^tetn, small, little. 
^6fjin, beautiful, fine. 
(S^lcc^t, bad. 

gletgif), industrious, diligent 
^auif indolent, lazy. 
2tt0 (conj.), when, as. 
S$iel (adv,), much. 
3u (adv,), too. 
Oft (adv.% often, frequently. 
SRo^ (arfy.), yet, still. 
@eltcn (adv.), seldom. 
3utt>et'4en (adv,\ sometimes. 



OrammaticaL 
1. The Irregular Verb Ijaiett/ to Jiave, is conjugated thus: 





INDIOATIVE MOOD. 




Present Tense. 


Imperfect 


Tense. 


I* iol'.e, 


I have. 


^ W^it, 


I had. 


@ic ^ab'»eit, 


You have. 


@ic Ht^teti, 


You had. 


er |at, 


He has. 


cr ^at'^te, 


He had. 


tDtr ^ab'*eit, 


We have. 


tt>ir ^at%teti, 


We had. 


6tc ^ab'^eii, 


You have. 


etc ^at'*teii, 


You had. 


pc ^ab'^eii, 


They have. 


fie i^aV-itn, 


They had- 



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^lESEXT AND IMPERFECT OF f^ahtU, TO HAVE. 23 

2. Nominative and Accusative cases of the Personal 
Pronouns : 





BINGUTiAR. 






PLITRAU 




Norn. 


Norn. 


Ace. 


Obj. 


Norn. 


Norn, 


Ace. 


OhJ. 


!*, 


I, 


mm, 


me. 


toir, 


we. 


Ultl, 


us. 


eit, 


you. 


©ft, 


you. 


©ft, 


you. 


@le 


yoo. 


tx, 


he. 


m, 


him. 


fie, 


they. 


fie, 


them. 


fit, 


she. 


fit, 


her. 


n 


they. 


n 


them. 


e«, 


it. 


e«, 


it 


n 


they. 


n 


them. 



3. The word ^tXl takes -Vi in all cases of the singular 
except the Nominative : 

^crr traft bcfu^tc ^crr*ll ^letn, Mr. Kraft visited Mr. Klein. 

4. The conjunction al8, wlien (called in English Gram- 
mar a conjunctive adverb), refers only to jxist time. It 
requires the verb following it to be placed at the end 
of the (subordinate) sentence : 

^mx\6f faufte ha9 ^u^, old er in Henry bought the bcok when he was 
^belberg toar, in Heidelberg. 

5. The adverb tiitfyt (not) is generally placed after the 
object of the verb : 

(Sr ht\u6ftt un9 ni^t, He did not \isit us. 

Exercise 10. 

1. Did the merchant sell the cloth ? 2. Yes, and tlie 
tailor bought it 3. The baker buys flour and sells bread. 
4. Where did William Diez study when he was in Ger- 
many ? 5. He studied in Heidelberg and Berlin. 6. Did 
you call upon (visit) Mrs. Hoffmami when you were in 
Magdeburg? 7. Yes, we called upon her. 8. Wliat are 
Henry and William looking for ? 9. They arc looking for 
the book. 10. There it is. 11. The scholar is very indus- 
trious to-day. Sometimes he is not very industrious, and 
lie does not study very much. 12. Is the weather very hot 
in Gennany t 13. No, the weather is rarely very hot in 
Germany, but in Italy it is often very hot. 14. Berlin is 
very large and beautiful. 15. Wlio has the book and tlio 
paper ? 16. The scholar has them. 



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24 



FEBFECT AND PLUFEBFECT OF BEaCUlB TEBB8. 



LESSON VI. 

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES OF REGULAR VERBS. 



fficr 1)at ia& 33ud^ gcfaufr? 

3(i^ ^abc ti gcfauft', 

^abctt @ie gcl^Srt^, wag $err 

SBcbergefagfliat? 
er l^at gefagr, bap ^err aKci;er 

bag ^aug gefauft^ f)at, 
Sr l^attc ben ©d^iiler gclobt^ 
@g ^atte langc gereg^net, 



Who has bought the book i 

I have bought it. 

Have you heard what Mr.Wo- 

ber said? 
He said that Mi\ Meyer hae 

bought the house. 
He had praised tlie scholar. 
It had been raining long. 



@Ifte ^ufgade. 

1. *^err Slumenba^ ^attebag $aug fc^on gefauft. 2. ^arl 
fagt, ba§ cr bag 33ud^ in ?cipjig gcfauft ^at 3* ^cute l^at eg 
fe^r jlarf gebon'nert unb gereg'net. 4. @g ^at gejlern fe^r flarf 
gereg'net, alg mx in ^otgbam waren* 5- $err ©edfer l^attc bag 
©emal'be fd^on »orgejlern »oUen'Det» 6. (£r matte eg, alg tt?ir 
i^n befuc^^tem 7. SBag mad^t bag «tnb? 8/ eg fpielt 9. 
®(]^nei'et eg je^t ? 1 0. SRein, eg \)at ^eute i>iel gefd^nei'et, abcr jcftl 
fci^neiet eg ni^t mt^x. 1 1 . ^aben ©ie bag aWufe'um oft befu^t', 
alg ®ie in S3erlin waren? 12. 3a, mx befu(i^ten eg fe^r oft. 
13. eg tfl mxm6) febr grog unb fef)r fci^on. 14. 2)ag JWufeum 
in Dregben ifl aud^ fcl^r fci^on. 15. 2)cr 3intmermann l^attc bag 
^aug fd^on gebaut^ 16. Dag ^aug ijl mirHid^ fe^r grop, aber 
fe^r f^on iji e? nid^t. 

Vocabulary. 

%u6) (ndv.\ also, too. 



©au'^cn, to build. 
Wlci6f»tm, to make, to do. 
SWal'^en, to paint 
@^icl'*en, to play. 
SSottcnb'^en, to complete. 
23li(}'*en, to lighten. 
2)cn'ncr*n, to thunder. 
§a'gcl*n, to hail 
9^cg'*nen, to rain. 
©(^nci'*cn, to snow. 



S)a6 (con;.), that. 
San'««ge(ckZr.), for a long time. 
SWc^r (adv,), more. 
@^cn (ac?o.), already. 
^taxl{adv.% hard, severely. 
aBitr4t(i^(a<fy.), really. 
^er SWaMcr, the painter. 
^tt8 ®cmar*be, the picture. 
tt aWufe^um, the museum. 



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PEEFECT AND PLUPEEFBCT OP BEGULAB VEBB8. 25 

OrammaticaL 

1. The Perfect Participle of Begvlar Verbs is formed by 
prefixing ge=, and adding A to the stem : 

licb'*eit, to love; gC'ftcb*!', loved. bou^eit, to build; gfbou^t', btnlt. 

2. Verbs with inseparable ^prefixes (as bc, cnt, tx, gc, »er, 
jcr)/ and those ending in j^lren, do not take fle= : 

B C * f U «]^ '* rit, to y\&\t, b C^U d^*f , visited. 

Pu»bir'*cit, to study. flu*btr*f, studied. 

3. The Yerb has three principal parts, as in English : 

Present Infinitive. Imperfect Indicative. Perfect Participle. 

H c b '* en, to love. He b'*te, loved. ge * 1 1 c b '* t, loved. 

^ a 'd e ( « n, to hail. ^ a 'O e I ' te, hailed. %t*^CL'^t\^tf hailed. 

Be*fu^'*rit,tovisit. b C * f U d^ '>» tC, visited. b C «• f U d(> '* t visited. 

i)cr*!auf'*eii,toselI. i5cr*!auf'str, sold. i)er*fauf'*t, sold, 

p U * b i r '* Cll, to study, fl u* bit'" tC, studied, fl u * b 1 1 '* t, studied. 

4. The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses of Transitive and 
Impersonal Verbs are formed by the use of tiie auxiliary 
i^dfieit, to have^ and the perfect participle. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Pluperfect Tense. 

\^ %tLX*it geliebf, I had loved. 
@ic ^af "'tm n you had loved, 
cr ^at%te n he had loved. 
Xoxx ^at^tett »r we had loved. 
@ie ^af 4eit n you had loted. 
fie ^at'»trtt n they had loved. 



Perfect Tense. 

xij l^iBe gelfeW, I have loved, 

©ic ^ab'*ett n you have loved. 

cr ]|at u ^e ^^ loved, 

toir bttb'*eil n we have loved. 

@ic ^b'*ett rr you have loved. 

|te ^ab' *eit rr they have loved. 

5. The Participle is placed at the end of main sentences: 

3^ ^abc ba« 23u^ griattft, I have bought the book. 

Rem. In suboidinate sentences, the auxiliary of compound tenses is placed 
qfter the participle : 

(St fagte, bag er bad 8u4f f(^cn getauft (at« 
He said that he has already bought the book. 

\ 6. The Perfect Tense is often employed where in English 
the Imperfect Tense would be used : 

(Sr %tii bad ^4f geflern gefottft, He bought the book yesterday. 
7. When the stem ends in sfl or scr, usually only sn (in- 
stead of sCIl) is added for the termmation of the Infinitive : 
&a'ficl*tt. to hail. 2)on'ncr.-«tt, to thunder. ©ctbcffer-ii, to improve, 

B 

'I 

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^6 pREPosmo:N8 with the accubative case. 

Exercise 12. 

1. It rained very hard when we were in DUsseldorf. 
2. Mr. Euprecht says that it snowed yesterday in Bran- 
denburg. 3. It has not snowed here yet. 4. The cook has 
already bought the bread, the flour, and tbe meat. 5. The 
merchant has not sold the cloth yet. 6. The painter had not 
finished the painting when we were in Magdeburg. 7. 
Yesterday Jolm had not yet bought the book. 8. It has 
already been raining a very long time. 9. What is William 
doing? 10. He is not hei'e. 11. Where is he? 12. He is 
visiting Mr. Lindemann. 13. The child lias already been 
playing too long. 14. When did you buy the painting? 
15. We bought it when we were in Berlin. 16. It is really 
very beautiful. 17. Have you heard what Mr. Niedner 
said ? 18. No, I have not heard what he said. 



LESSON VII. 

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. GENDER OF NOUNS. 

3il ba« ^n6) fur ben SWalcr? Is the book for the painter? 
5Rein, eg ijl fur ben ^aufmann, No, it is for the merchant. 
3)er SBalb ifl fel^r grof , The forest is very large. 

2)cr* 35ger ffl^rte ben SWalet The hunter conducted the 
burd^ ben SBalb, painter through the forest. 

2)er 58erg ijl fel^r l^o^, The mountain is very high. 

Sr ijl an6) fel^r fleil, It is also very steep. 

!Die ©tabt ijl fel^r grof , The city is very large. 

®ie tfl au6^ fe^r fd^on, It is also very beautiful. 

S)reiie]^ttte ^ufgak. 

1. ^at Sllbred^t ben $ut gcfauft ? 2. SWcin, er ijl fur il^n ju 
grog* 3. ^aben @te ba« S3anb? 4. SRein, e^ ifl urn ben ^nU 
5. ^aben ®te ben Steiflift ? 6. 3c^ l^abe x^n gel^abt, abcr id^ 
^abe i^n je&f nid^t. 7. Sld^ (oh), ba ijl er! 8. 2)ie 5Rad^t ijl fe^r 
warm unb fd^on, aber aud^.fe^r bunfel. 9. Die ^irdbe ift febr 



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J'REPOSITIONS Wirn THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 



27 



^rog, it>6) fe^r \6)on tfl jte nid^t 10. $at ber 5to^ t>ic ©utter 
fd^on ge^olt ? 11. 3a, cr l^at fte gcjlern f^on gc^olt- 12* ^at 
ber ®d^u(er ba« 93tt^ xmb ba« papier? 13. 3a, er ^at jte. 
14. $at 2Wane ben |)ut gefauft? 15. 3a, jie ^at i^n gefauft. 
16. giir wen l^akn ®ie bag S3ud^ gefauft ? 17. 3c^ i^abc e3 
fur bag ^inb gefauft. 18. ®eflern war eg big gegen Slbenb fel^r 
n)arm,'aber bie ^a6)t war jiemUcI fait. 19. |)eute 3Worgen 
(this morning) ()at ^err Steumann ung burd^ bag 2Wufeum ge^^ 
fu^rt. 20. Der SRocf iji ni^t fur mid^. O^ne Sw^eifel if} er 
fur ^errn Seder. 



Vocabulary. 



ier SlBcnb, the evening. 

n SD>2orgen, the morning. 

n ^erg, the mountain. 

t, ^agel, the hill. 

n 23alb, forest, woods. 

„ 3Sgcr, the hunter. 

tt Sleiflift, the lead-pencil. 

„ $ut, the hat, bonnet. 

tf ^odf the coat. 

tf 3weifct, the doubt. 
^ie ©tabt, the city. 

tf ^xdftf the church. 

tf 3la6ft, the night. 

„ S3utter, the butter. 
Sod ^anb, the band, ribbon. 



3ir6rcc^t, Albert. 

^at^ari'na, Catharine, 

2)unfcl, dark. 

^06f, high. 

@tcit, steep. 

3tcmli(]^, quite, somewhat. 

gil^rcn, to conduct, to guide. 

$oten, to procure, go and get. 

S3i«, until, till. 

SDurci^, through. 

gilr, for. 

@cgcn, towards. 

O^nc, without. 

Um, around. 

SBlbcr, against 



Orammatical. 

1. The seven prepositions big, bur(|, fiir, gegen, ol^ne, um, 
and wiber govern the Accusative Case. 

2. Many nouns, which in English would be in the neuter 
gender, in German are in thfe masculiiie or in ^a feminine 
gender. 



^er $Ut, the hat. 
rr 9tccf , the coat, 
rr Xifc^, the table. 



^f e ®tabt, the city. 
^x^tf the church. 



ItVii '^VL^, the book. 
ff 2:u^, the cloth. 
u S3rob, the bread. 



iRa(^t, the night. 

Rem. The gender ofnauns is one of the most difficult features in the study 
of the Grerman language. At the same time it is one of the most important, 
Bince the form of the artkle is determined by the gender of the nonn« 



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28 THE GENmVB CASE. 

3. Personal Pronouns must have the grammatical gender 
of the nouns for which they stand : 

$abcn @tc tien ©leifHft ? Have you tho lead-pencQ ? 

Sf^cin, td^ ^^ i|tt ntci^t, No, I have not it (Atiw>. 

4. The Accusative of the Interrogative Pronoun toCt is 
wen. The Accusative of toaS is like the Nominative : 

gilr toien tfl bcr 9lo(f ? For whom is the coat? 

SBod ^abcn @ic ba ? What have you there ? 

Exercise 14. 
1. For whom is the coat ? 2. It is for me. 3. Is it not 
too large for you ? 4. It is rather large. 5. When did 
Catharine buy the book? 6. She bought it wTien she was 
in Dresden. 7. Witliout doubt Mr. Ehrlich has already 
bought the painting. 8. Yes, Albert says, that he bought 
it yesterday. 9. Has the cook been to get (l^olen) the butter 
and the fruit ? 10. Yes, he got them this morning. 11. 
The hunter conducted us tlirough the forest. 12. Have 
you the lead-pencil ? 13. Yes, I have it. 14. The hill is 
very steep, but it is not very high. 15. Did Mary buy tlie 
bonnet ? 16. Yes, she bought it. It was very beautiful, 
and not very dear. 17. Miss Neuman says that it was very 
warm in Potsdam towards evening, but she says that it did 
not rain. 



LESSON VIII. 

THE GENITIVE CASE. 

Slnflatt t)f« ©ttd^c8 ^at ber Instead of the book, tlie schol- 
S^ulcr bag papier gcfauft, ar has bought the paper. 

Dag k^mi beg ^aufmanneg ifi The house of the merchant is 
fc^r grop unb impofanr, very lai^ and imposing. 

|)ier ijl beg ®(3^illerg ©ud^, Here is the scholar's book. 

Six {fl beg ©d^wafteng mube, He is tired of the chattering. 

^ier if! ^einrid^g S3ud^/ Here is Heniy's book. 

2Bo ifl bag ^aug beg ^errn Where is the house of Prof ess- 
^rofeffor »Ott SBolfenflein ? or von Wolfenstem ? 

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TIIE GENITIVE CASE. 29 

!• 2Bo waxen ©ic waf^rcnb beg ^riegeg in Dcutfd^tanb? 2. 
®ir waren in ?eipjig» 3, SBa^renb beg ©turmeg waren ^en 
®eber unb ^err ^raft in ^otgbam* 4. SGBarum |iat ^err 
Sd^ul^ bag ^aug nid^t gefauft ? 5, SBegen beg ^reifeg* 6. 
!Dag .&aug ifl fef)r fd^6n unb fe^r kquem, aber ber ^reig ijl »iet 
gu \)o6). 7- !Dag ^aug beg ^errn ^rofeffor SWe^er^eim ifl 
au§erbalb ber etabt 8. 2)ag ^erj ber SKutter ijl i>oU Slngfl, 
weil rag ^inb fo franf ijl* 9. 2)ag 2)a^ beg ^aufeg ifl fe^r 
fleil. 10* Die ©ef^id^te ber ©tab! ijt fe^r intereffann 11. 
2)er Z^nxm beg 2)omeg in SWagbeburg ifl fe^r ]^o(]^ unb fe^r ini;: 
pofant 12* 2)er Stf^urm beg 2)omeg in ®ien ifl a\x6) fe^r l^0(3^ 
unb fe^r f(i^6n. 13. SBeffen S3u^ l^at ®eorg? 14. (&x ^at 
^einrid^g S3ud^- 15. ^atMna ^at SWarieng 33u(3^. 16. 3)er 
8el^rer ^at beg ©d^ulerg »ud^ (or bag f&u6) beg ©d^iilerg). 

Vocabulary. 



Jcr 2)o!tor, —3, the Doctor. 

rr J?tofcf'for, — <J, the Professor. 

rr 2)om, — C5, the cathedral. 

„ $tm^, — 19, the war. 

„ ^rciS, — -eS, the price. 

n ©turnt, — e§, the storm. 

ft XifVLxm, — e«, the tower, spire. 
Sie 2[ngfl, — , the anxiety. 

„ grcubc,— ,thejoy. 

t, ©cfo^t', — , the danger. 

„ ®t\6)\6f'tc, —, the history. 

„ @^i^c , — , the point. 
3Dtt0 3)ad?, — e«, the roof. 

„ ^erj, — (cnS), the heart. 



Slnflatt, instead of. . 

Slu^er^alb, outside of, witbaut, 

3nncrl^aIB, inside of, within. 

Sd^renb, during. 

Scgen, on account of. 

®CTOa^r\ aware. 

SSott, full. 

S3cqucm', convenient. 

3m^ofant', imposing. 

3Jntercffant\ interesting. 

^onf, sick. 

SBarum'? why? 

9Bci(, because. 

^od}, still, however. . 



Orammatical. 

1. The Genitive Case is iised with the prepositions anflattr 
ttufer^alb, inner^alb, wa()renb, wegen, etc. 

Hnfiatt be9 ^aufmanned, Instead of the merchant. 

2. The Genitive Case is used without a preposition : 

1 . Instead of the English Possessive : 
^a9 $uc^ bed Se^rerd, The book of the tfixchor. 



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XABCULINE. 

Norn. Gen. 



KEUTER. 

Nom. Gen. 



80 THE GENTITVE CASE.' 

2. After some adjectives^ as : QCtta^r, toctt, tnilbc, etc. : 

(Sv ifl bed @(!^toat}en9 mitbe, He is tired of the chattering. 

3. In most cases where the relation is expressed in English hy the prep- 
osition of, the Genitive is used in German without a preposition, 
especially where limitation is indicated : 

2)ic <3t\6)\6)tt bed ^ric0e«, The history of the war. 

3. As to the form of the Genitive Case : 

1. With feminine nouns it is the same as that of the nominative. 

2. With masculine or neuter nouns, usually tS, d, ett^ or ll is added to 
the nominative. 

3. TIk Genitive of the definite article (bcr, bic, bag) is ht9, htt, M* 

FEMININE. 

Nom. Gen. 

Slegrau, 2)ergrau. 
@tabt, „ @tabt. 

$dx6)t, n ^rd^c. 
Rem. The Genitive of nouns is given hereafter in the Vocabularies. 

4. As in English, the noun possessed may be placed 
without its article after the name of the possessor : 

S)er ©ruber bc« ?c^rcre, or bcS 2c^rer« S3rubcr. 
The brother of the teacher, or the teacher's brother. 

5. Tlie Genitive of Proper Names of Persons is usual- 
ly formed by adding ?♦ But masculine names in ft, f(^, y, 
j, and feminine names in C, have the genitive in =cn8 : 

iVbm. ©rinric^, SBil^etm, $err iRcumamt, grmta, SD^arie', 
Gen. ^etnrici^«. 2Bit^e(m3. ^crrn SReumannS. grangcnS. aRari*ett^» 

6. To titles of office or dignity, the word ^tXl or gtttll 
is usually prefixed (especially in direct address) : 

$crr ^rofcffoir S3c(fcr, (Mr.) Professor Becker. 

$err @raf iDon SBt^marcf, (Mr.) Count von Bismarck. 

grau @r5fln t)on S3i«mat(!, (Mrs.) Countess von Bismarck. 
Rem. Especially in the oblique cases, the definite article also may be pre* 
fixed (the ^ being in this case omitted in the (genitive) : 
2)a« ^au« be« ^crm 2)o!tor S^cumann, or $crrn 2)o!tor iRcumamiS ©au8. 

7. Most Geographical Proper Names form the Genitive 
by adding i : 

2)ie ® cfd^i^tc SSerlin^, The history of Berlm. 

8. The Genitive of tter {who) is tteffeil (whose). 



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THE DATIVE CASE. 3^ 

Exercise 16. 

1. Doctor Friedrich resides outside of the city (as of the 
city walls). 2. Professor Lindener's house is outside of the 
city. 3. Whose book have I? 4. You have Heniy's book. 

5. The history of the war in Germany is very interesting. 

6. The tower of the Cathedral in Freiburg is very imposing. 

7. The price of the book is too high. I did not buy it 

8. Were you in Germany during the war? 9. Yes, we 
were in Prussia. 10. The roof of the church is too steep. 
11. The spire of the church is very beautiful. 12. Why did 
you not buy the coat? 13. On accoimt of the price; it 
was much too dear. 14. It rained quite hard during the 
night 15. The father is full of anxiety, because the child 
is very sick. 16. Where is Maiy's pencil? 17. Catharine 

s.Jb0&.it 18. Mary has Catharine's book. 



LESSON IX. 

THE DATIVE CASE. 



^txx SBeber ifl ni^t gu ^aufe, Mr. Weber is not at liome. 
i>k 5Wad^rid^tcn r^on bent ^rtcge The news from the war is 

iinb I^CUtC fe^r intercffanf, very interesting to-day. 
Dcr.^unbfol9tbcm3aflerna(!^ The dog follows tlie hunter 

bem SEBatbe, ' to the forest. 

2)ic 9lad^rid^t ijl bem ^aufmanu Tiie news is very disagreeable 

fel^r unangencl^m, to the merchant. 

©iebensel^tite ^ufgak. 

1. SSJem gc^oit bcr S3leijlift ? 2. ©r gcl^ert bcm SWatcr. 3. 
^txx SRuprc^t ^at ben ^o^ m6) ber @tabt gefd^itft 4. !Der 
SSater l)at ba« f&n^ bem ^inbe gefci^enft. 5. ^err Sergmann 
^t bem SWaler ba? ©emalbe gejeigt. 6. ^err Sernl^arb m^nt 
augerl^alb ber Stabt. 7. 2)ie 55ibliotl&ef ifl gegeniiber bem ^JIup 
feum (or bem SWufeum gegenuber) . 8 . !DaS ^aixi be« ^errn $ro> 



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S2 



THE DATIVE CASE. 



feffor (£6er^arb ifl bent ^aufc bed ^rm ?eutner fe^r afinlid^, 
9. aBem ge^ort bic Seitung ? 10* ®ic ge^ort ^rrn «(ein. 
IL SBo ifl ^einric^ ? 12. ©r t|l ju ^aufe. 13. SBir ^abcn 
bag 33u(| nad^ ^aufc gefd^idft. 14. 2)ag Sdn6) mx t^m fe^r 
nuftli^. 15. ^crr mba^n ifl au« Drcdben. 16. ^ai Stini 
fpielt mit bem ^unbc. 17. ©corg fii^rte un« jjon bem 2«ufeum 
nac^ bcr S3iMiotf)cf. 



iBcr^unb,— c«, thedog. 

r/ ^nabc, — n, the boy. 

,/ <Sotbat', —en, the soldier. 
Sie ^iUioii)tV, —, the library. 

r/ 9'iad(>rt(i^t, — , the news. 

n S^itung, — , the newspaper. 
^t^nlidf, similar, like. 
llnS^nnti^; dissimilar, nnlike. 
^ngcnc^m, agreeable. 
Unangene^m, disagreeable. 
mifiid), useful. 
©c^viblidjl, injurioas. 



Vocabulary. 

gorgen,tofoUow. 
®c^5'rcn, to belong. 
^6}tnttn, to present, to gjivo, 
3«gcn, to show. 
51u«, out of, from. 
5Cugcr, outside of, besidep. 
©egcnil'bcr, opposite. 
mt, with. 
^ad}, towards, to. 
SSon, from, of. 
3Wf to, at. 
©cra'bc (adv.X directly, just. 



OrammaticaL 

1. The Dative Case is governed : 

1. By BomePrepositionsySis: au^, aupcr, gegenuber, mit. 
m^, Don, in, etc. 

2. By some Adjectives,^: a^nlid^, angene^m, etc. 

3. By many Verbsy as : folgen, gel^firen, fd^idfett, etc. 

Hem. The Dative Case frequently corresponds with the English objectiye, 
preceded by to, either expressed or understood, especially when it is the »Wh 
rect object of a verb. 

(gr f(^^i(ftc bem (Sdj^flter ba« SBiwi^, He sent (to) the scholar the book. 

2. Examples of the declension of the defmite article and 
of nouns in the singular number : 



Masculine. 


x* etntntne. 


iVett^«r. 


Norn, bet SWann. 


hit grau. 


bad ^inb. 


Gen. M 3Wann*C«. 


ber grau. 


bed ^inb'e9« 


Dat. bem 2Wann*e. 


ber grau. 


bem5?tnb»e» 


Ai^. belt 3)7 a nn. 


bit grau. 


bad ^ in b. 



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THE DATIVE CASE. 33 



Rem, 1. Some mascoline and neater nouns are declined as follows : 

Hi Setter* 
M SBetter^d^ 
bemSBetter* 
M SQSetter. 



iVbwi. ber 35ater, ©err, @oIb^at'* 

Gen. hti SSatcr*^, ©err*ii, ©olbat'sCH* 

Dat. bem^atcr, $err*ii, @oIbat'*eii* 

Ace. bti SSater, ©errsH, @olbat'*eiu 



RetH, 2. Feminine noons are unchanged in the singular. 
Rem. 3. The t is often dropped from the termination of many nouns that 
have t§ and t in the genitive and dative. 

3. The English Cases are rendered in German thus : 

1. The Nominative by the Nominative in German. 

2. The Possessive by the Genitive in German. 

3. The Objective by the Oen,,^ Dat,^ and Ace, in Germ. 

4. Among the idiomatic uses of the Dative Case^ the fol- 
lowing may be noticed : 

1. Adjectives yb/Zott; the noun they govern in the dative : 

2)a9 9u(i^ ifl bem @d(^ii(er nitt^Ui^, The book is useful to the scholar. 

2. QegettJtbet may precede, though it usually /o//oid« the noun: 

2)cr $dt6ft gegenilber, or gegenilScr ber ^x6ft, Opposite the churcK 
8. With two personal nouns the accusative precedes the dative case; 

a personal noun precedes one referring to a thing, whatever the 

case of either may be ; 
Qx ffat ben Ihtaben bem Wlaltx Qt\6f\dt, He sent the boy to the painter. 
(Sr \^\dtt htm SRoIer bad ^u^, He sent the book to the painter. 

4. 9Ul4 l^ttttfe means towards home; gu l^aitfe means at home, 

5. w^err SBcBer ifl and 53crlin", means that Berlin is or was Mr. We- 
ber*s permanent residence or his native place. 

6. 9hll| indicates motion to a place ; gtt, motion to a person. 

Qx fil^rte vm9 na6f bem SD^ufeum, He conducted us to the museum. 
Qx fil^rte un« ju bem TlaUx, He conducted us to the painter. 

6. The Dative of locr (who) is tocttt (to whom, etc). 

Exercise 18. 

1. To whom does the house belong? 2. It belongs to 
Mr. Schumann. 3. Did the boy hear what the soldier said ? 
4. What did the merchant send to the tailor? 5. He sent 
the cloth to the tailor. 6. The professor gave the boy the 
pencil. 7. The coat belongs to the soldier. 8. The book is 

B2 

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8i PKEPOSinONS WITH ACOUSATIVB AND DATIVE. 

very injurious to the child. 9. The child is following his 
father to the city. 10. Mr. Riegel has sent the book to 
Professor Kraus. 11. The book belongs to Mr. Riegel. 
12. The news was very agreeable to the soldier. 13. Mr. 
Auerbach is from Magdeburg. 14. The church is just 
opposite to the house of Mr. Dietrich. 15. The painter 
showed Mr. Krumm the painting. 16. The child is very 
unlike the father. 17. To-day the newspaper is very inter- 
esting. 18. The teacher presented the book to the scholar. 
19. The boy was playing with the dog. 



LESSON X. 

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE AND DATIVE CASES. 

I)a« S3ud^ ifl auf bem Ti\6)t, The book is on the table, 
i^cinrid^ legtc c^ auf ben Xi(6), Henry laid it on the table. 
i)er <Btni)l ifl dot im Oftn, The chair is before the stove, 
gr flellte i^n twr ben Dfen, He put it before the stove. 
J)a« 93ud^ tjl nekn bem ^a^^The book is close by the 

pkf, paper, 

©r legte ti ncben ba« ^apkf, He laid it close by the paper. 
2)er S3rief ifl in bem 93ud^e, The letter is in the book. 
^6) legte i^n in bag S3ud^, I laid it in the book. 

1. Sr ^angte bag ©emalbe uter ben Sif(^. 2. 3^ fc^idte 
ben S3rief fiber Hamburg nad^ SlmeMfa. 3. Dag Dorf ifi itou 
f^en bem ffialbe unb bem SSerge. 4. Der 93Ieifiift ifi jwifd^en 
bem ©ud^e unb bem papier. 5. ^einrid^ legte ben SSleiftift jwi^ 
fc^en bag ©ud^ unb bag papier. 6. Der ^unb ifi in bem ®ar:^ 
ten. 7. Dag 93oot ifl unter ber 93rudfe. 8. Der SBIeiflift ifl 
unter bem SBud^e. 9. ffier ^at i^n unter bag S3ud^ gelegt? 10* 
^err 2Wei)er l^at bem 2Waler gefagt, bap er ben S3rief fiber SBre^^ 
men gefd^itft ^at. 11. ffiir l^aben bag ©emalbe an bic SSBanb 
ge^angt. (£g war auf bem 93oben. 12. $err aWe^er l^at ung »ott 



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PEEPOSmONS WITH ACCUSATIVE AND DATIVE. 35 

ber ^ird^e m6) ber SiWiot^el gefu^rt 13- ^arl ^at ba« SBud^ 
langc gefud^t. 14. ^cute SWorgen l^ak td^ ben S3rief unb bad 
33ud) bem |)erru 'JJrofcffor 93urdt^avt gef^icft 15. 2Bo wo^n* 
er ? 16. er »o()nt in. geipjig. 17. Dag 33oot ijl an bent Ufer* 

18. 3c^ ^(^bt bad ©eraalbe noc^ nic^t an bie SBanb ge^iangt 

19. 2)ie iam'pc ijl auf bem Stifd^e. 



Vocabulary. 



Ser 53rief, — e«, the letter. 

If 53obeii, — 8, the floor. 

„ ©arten, — 8, the garden. 

I, Ofcn, — 3, the stove. 

tf @tu^I, — e«, the chair. 

„ Xi\6f, — c«, the table. 
^ie S3rildc, — , the bridge. 

„ aSanb,—, the wall. 

If Som^e, — , the lamp. 
®tt3 53oot, — c«, the boat. 

f/ Ufcr, — 9f the shore. 

s» 2{6}t, — e«, the candle. 



%n, on, to, at. 
Sluf, upon, on. 
Winter, behind. 
3>n, in, into. 
Silthm, near, close bj. 
Ucbcr, above, by way o£ 
Untcr, under, below. 
SSor, before. 
3»tf(](fen, between, 
©vingcn, to hang (active), 
Scgcn, to hy. 
©tctten, to place, to put. 



OrammaticaL 

1. The nine prepositions an, auf, ^inttx, in, nekn, iikr, 
unter, t?or, gwifd^en, govern the Accusative Case when 7notion 
towards the object they govern is expressed. 

They govern the Dative Case when rest or motion 
within specified limits is expressed : 

(gr Icgte ba« 33u(]^ auf ben %yS^, He laid the book on the table. 
S)a3 5Bu(](f ift auf bem Xifd^c, The book is on the table. 

2. The correct use ofprejtosttlons is one of the most difficult things to be 
ficquired in learning any foreign language. This is owing largely to the fact 
that there are so many idiomatic expressions connected with their use which 
ean not be literally translated from one language to another. 

Sr ge^t uad^ ^aufc, He is going home. 

(gr tfl gu $aufe. He is at home. 

(Ex Qtfft liber mn, He goes by way of Cologne. 

2)a« 8oot ifl an bem Ufcr, The boat is by the shore. 

Qx ptft an bem Xifc^e, He is sitting at the table. 

(Sr ifl cu8 ©crlin', He is from Berlin. 



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36 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



3. This diflSculty is also increased to the English-speaking person in learn- 
ing German by the feet that, in German, prepositions govern three cases, the 
Genitive, Dative, and Accusative ; and by the fact that circumstances deter- 
mine whether cei*tain prepositions shall govern the Accusative or the Dative, 



Genitive. 


Dative. 


Aamsative. 


Ace. or Dat. 


Slnflatt. 


3(U«. 


S3i«. 


%n. 


%n^txi)CLlb. 


Slugcr. 


2)UV(i^. 


%Vi]. 


3nncr^alb. 


©cgcnilbcr. 


Pr. 


Winter. 


SBa^renb. 


miu 


©cgcn. 


3n. 


aSegcn 


3lCL6f. 


O^ne* 


iRcben. 


(and many 


85on. 


Urn. 


Ucbcr. 


others). 


3« 


SSiber, 


Unter. 




(and some 




SSor. 




others'). 




3tt)ifd?cn. 



Exercise 20. 
1. Mr. Bauer lias not yet sent the book to tlio teacher. 

2. We hung the painting on (an) the wall yesterday evening. 

3. The candle is on (auf) the table. 4. William placed tlie 
chair between the table and the wall. 5. The Cathedml 
is between the Museum and the Library. 6. The book is 
on (auf) the floor. 7. The painter put the painting on tho 
table. 8. Where is the letter? 9. It is in the book; I laid 
it in the book. 10. The boy took (ful^rtc) us from the Cathe- 
dral to the Museum. 11. The garden is behind tlie house. 

12. The bridge is between the village and the mountain. 

13. The book, the pencil, and the paper are on the table. 



LESSON XI. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. FORMS OP ADDRESS. CONTRACTIONS OF 
PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 



2)cr SBrief ijl nic^t »oii t^m, 
^err ^ranjlcr ^attc 3^ncn bie 

Seitung fd^on cjefd^idft, 
^einrid^ war nid^t mit i^nen, 
^afi bu bie 3^ itung gc^abt ? 
SBiIf)eIm tfl tm 2Wufcum, 
granffurt am 2Wain, 



The letter is not from liim. 
Mr. Kranzler had already 

sent you the newspaper. 
Henry was not with them. 
Have you had the newspaper \ 
William \& in the Museum. 
Franlrfort-on-tlie-Maine. 



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PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



Sittitnbjtoattitgpe SnfsaBe. 



87 



1. J^ajl bu ben SBIeiflift? 2. SWein, id^ \)ait i^n ntd^t 3. 
^ajl bu bie Slufgabc fd(|on »oBcnbet? 4* 3a, id^ fiabc jie »oU:^ 
enbet. 5* ^mxx6), l^ajl bu ge^ort, toai ber ?f^rer gefagt l^at? 
6* 3a, i6jf l^abe c« ge^ort 7* ^abt i^r gc^ort wag ber Secret 
fagtc ? 8. 3a, n)ir l^aben eg gel^ort 9. ^ajl bu bag 93u(i^ auf 
ben ©tul^l gelegt ? 10. SRein, id^ l^ak eg auf ben lifd^ gclegt 
11. ®o^ut ^err 5Beber weit (far) »on ^erm ^raft? 12* S«ein, 
er tt>o))ni i^m gerabe gegenuber. 13. 2)er SWaler geigte mir bag 
©emalbe. 14. Dag ©emalbc gel^ort ^txxn SWeper; ber 2Wa^ 
let l^at eg tf)m l&eutc SWorgen t)erfauft. 15, Die SBibliot^ef tjl 
ni(|t njeit »om SWufeum. 16. @r legtc ben S3rief ing SBud^. 

17. ^err ©d^u^mad^er ^at ung ^eutc burd^g SWufeum geful^rt. 

18. grau 5luerbad^ unb S^aulein Sluerbad^ waren gefiern unb 
5>or9cfiern in granffurt am SWatn. 19. ^cinrid^ SWemen^ofer 
wol^ntc fruiter in granlfurt an ber Dber. 



OrammaticaL 
1. The Personal Pronouns are declined thus: 


! FIRST PERSON. 


SECOND PERSON. 


Sinffular. 
Nom. i*, I. 
Gen. mdner, ofme, e/c* 
l>at. mir, tome,6^c.* 
Ace. mi^if me. 
Plural. 
Nom. totr, we. 
Gen. ttnfer, ofus, c^c* 
J>at. nu9, to us, etc. 
Ace. nUB, us.^ 


Singular. 
bit, thou. ((Bit, you.) 
betner, of thee, etc. (S^rcr, of you, etc.) 
hitf to thee, etc. (3^ncu, to you, etc.) 
bicj, thee. (<B\t, you.) 

Plural, 
if^t, you. (8ic, you.) 
CUer, ofyou, efc. (3^rcr, ofyou,€<c.) 
en^, to you, etc. (3^ncn, to you, etc.) 
tn^f you. {Bit, you.) 


^ THIRD PERSON. 


Singular. 
Nom. er, h#. fit, Bhe. t§, it. 
Gen. \t\ntt, of him.* f^rer, of her. f ctner, of if . 
Dat. I^m, to him. f jr, to her. ijm, to it. 
Ace. ii^n, him. fit, her. C^, it. 


Plural. 
fit, they. 

ijrer, of them. 
ijnen, to them. 

fie, them. 



* For the use of the cases, see Lessons VII., VIII., and IX, 



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88 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



2. The forms of address in German differ from those in 
the English : 

1. In ordinary discourse the form of the third jper- 
son plural is used instead of the regular forms 
of the second person of both numbers. When 
thus used the pronoun begins with a capital 
letter. 

2. Besides using bit in addressing Deity, the regu- 
lar forms "^Vi and il^r are employed in speaking 
to near relatives or very dear friends, and also 
in speaking to servants and often to children. 

Rem, This use of the form of the third person plural for the second person 
of both numbers has been constantly increasing since its first introduction at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

3. In the Pres. and Imperf. Tenses of Regular Verbs : 

1. The second pers. sing, adds to the stem ^jj or 't\U 

2. The " " plur. " " " " A or ^Ct 

Sing, bu n C b '*|l, thou lovest ; bu It C I) '4t\i, thou didst love. 
Plur. \[fc\\th '4, you love ; i^r li c Ij '^ti, you did love. 
Rem. 1. When the stem ends in 5^ t (or gn)^ ^tjl and sft must be added : 
Sing, bu tt) a r t * t% thou waitest ; bu tt) a r t * tit% thou didst wait. 
P/ttr. i^r tt)art*ct^ you wait; x^xXocLXi^tXti, you did wait. 
Rem. 2. The present indicative of feitt has hVi Hift, and t^r fcib« 

The present indicative of l^albttt has 5lt \^a% and fj^r l^albt^ 

4. The following contractions of prepositions with 
the definite article are allowable and are sometimes 
necessary : 

2.WithDat.Sing. 
Feminine bW X 

int for ju bcr. 



\.With Dat. Sing. bCKt 

cm for on bcm. 
fieim " Bcibcm. 
f^intttm " Winter bcm. 
im " in bcm. 

nnterm " untcr bcm. 
Dom " t)on bcm. 
jitm " ju bcm. 

granJfurt am SWatn (an bcm 3Wain), 

dx tfl im ©aufc (in bcm ^aufc), 

C^r f ommt \>om iOhifcum (t)on bcm Win].), He comes from the Museum 

S)a« ^ud) ifl filr^ ^inb (filr bag ^nb), The book is for the child. 

(Sr gcbt !n^ $aud (in bad $au9X He goes into the house. 



S. With. Ace. Neut.ha9x 
m9 for on bag. 
attf« " aufbas. 
hUt(Sl§ '^ bnrd^bag. 
f«r« " filr bag. 
in^ " inba«. 
nmS " umbag. 



Frankfort-on-fhe-Maine. 
He is in the house. 



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THE IBREOULAB VEBB tOttbttt, TO BECOME. 39 

Exercise 22. 
1. Charles, hast thou not had the lead-pencil ? 2. 1 put it 
into the book. 3. What art thou looking for ? 4. 1 am look- 
ing for the pencil. 5. What are you looking for? 6. We 
are looking for the book. 7. Hast thou been to get (l^olcn) 
the bread ? 8. 1 got it this morning. 9. Where wast thou ? 
10. 1 was in the garden. 11. Did you (®ie) buy the paint- 
ing? 12. No, I did not buy it. 13. When did you (®ic) 
send the letter to Professor Hoffmann? 14. 1 sent the let- 
ter to him yesterday. 15. The letter is in the book. 16. 
The church is not far (mit) from the Museum. 



LESSON XII. 

THB IRREOCLAR VERB tOttt^tU, TO BECOME. FUTURE TENSES. 

Dag SGBettcr voixi fait, The weather becomes cold. 

©ic mxicn reic^, They are becoming rich. 

(£i wurbe fe^r l^cip, It became very hot. 

di n)irb balb regneit, It will soon rain. 

©le totxitn in ©erliit^ wol^nen, They will reside in Berlin. 

2)cr aWaler \mt> bag ©emal'be The painter will probably 
wal^rf^ein^ic^ {ibermorgen have finished the paint- 
»ollcn''bct f)abtn, ing day after to-morrow. 

3)rcuinb3ttan3tgfte ^ufgaibc* 

1. .^cute n>ivb e« gcwip^ fc^r l^eip fcin. 2. Dag SBud^ wirb 
(angttjcilig. 3. ©cgcn Slbenb wurbe bag SBctter fait, m^ unb 
fel^r unangene^m. 4. Der ^aufmann wurbe fc^r reid^. 5. @g 
anrb fd^will. 6. @g n)irb wal^rfd^cinlid^ »or 8l6enb rcgnen. 7. 
SMorgctt ttJirb ber 2Halcr bag ©emalbc ganj gcwi^ ^ollcubet \)a^ 
ben. 8. Der lifd^Ier wirb bic ^ommo^be morgen rcpari^rcn. 
9. Der S3auer wirb bag Jtom Derfau'fen. 10. Der SBater wirb 
bag ^inb loben, mil eg fleipig ijl unb well eg bic Slufgabe fo 
fc^nell »oBenbet l;at. 11. ^cute 9ltenb (this evening) wirb 
ffiil^elm ®d^r6ber ben Dircftox beg aWufeumg befuc^en. 12. 
SWorgen ?lbenb (to-morrow evening) n^erben xbix ben ^errn 



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40 THE IRREGULAR VERB tOCrbttt, TO BECOME. 

^rofcffor ©ickrt au? SBien kfud^en^ 13^ SBa^rcnb bcr Slad^t 
vouxtit eg gicmli^ UU, aber je^t ifl bag SBcttcr toaxm unt> ange^ 
ncl^m, 14* S)er ^nabc n)irb tic ?cf Hon'' bait) gelcrnt l^aben*^ 15^ 
SBir wcrben bag |)aug nid^t faufcn* 16» Sg l^at gebon^'ncrt; eg 
»irb balb regnen. 

Vocabulary. 



^rr Slrjt, — C«, the physician. 

rr 53aucr, —8, the peasant. 

If 53ibUot^ctar', —9, the librarian. 

„ 2)ircf tor, -—«, the Director. 

r, %\]6)Ux, — 8, the cabinet-maker, 
tt, — ^, the wheat. 
n, —8, the rye. 
^ie ^ommo'bc, — , the bureau, 
^ad Soru, — c«, the grain. 
S8c6au'cn, to cultivate, to till. 
Semen, to learn. 
SWietben, to rent, to hire. 
Xabcin, to blame. 
9ic)?an'reii, to mend. 



5Cnn, poor. 

9ieid?, rich. 

greunbltd?, kmd, friendly. 

^oftbar, costly. 

Sangti?eiltg, tedious. 

iRag, wet. 

@^mft(, sultry. 

SSalb, soon. 

@oe'ben, just now. 

SWorgen, to-morrow. 

Uebermor:gen, day afier to-monx)w. 

©d^neU, fast, quick. 

©etcijj', certainly. 

2Ba^.rf(^ctn'(id^, probably. 



Orammatical. 

1. The Irregular Verb mtbtn, to heco7ne, is conjugated 
thus : 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense, 

5^ toCrb'^e^ I become. 

3)u tOit% thou becomest. 

^x toixhp he becomes. 

SBir VD e r b '* ttt/ we become, 

^br n)erb'*et^ you become. 

vSie tt)erb'*eil^ they become. 



Imperfect Tense. 
3^ Hmrb'^e, I became. 
2)U tt) U r b '* Cfl^ thou becamest 
@r n)urb'*C, he became. 
2Btr tt) u r b '«= cn^ we became. 
3hx tt>uvb'*et, you became. 
@te tt> urb'^en^ they became. 



2. The Present Tense of tDetbcit, to hecome, is used in 
forming the Future Tenses of all verbs : 

First Future : ©g toirb regnen, It will rain. 

SecoTid Future : @g toirb geregnct l^aben, It will have rained. 

• Rem, The Future Tenses in German express simple futurittf, and not in- 
clination or desire, as is often the case in English. 



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FUTURE TENSES. 



41 



3. The Indicative Mood 

Preieiit Tense, 

\ii ixtW* t, I love, 

bu Hcb'^ft, thoulovest 

cr licb*t', he loves. 

»ir lie 6'* en, we love, 

i^r Hcb'*t, you love, 

lie lieb'^eil, they love. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have loved, etc, 

t^u ^aft geliebt'. 
er \iai geliebt'. 

H):t ^ab'*cil gelicbt'. 
i^r ^ab'st gclicbt'. 
fic ^ab%cit gelicbt'. 

/7rs^ Future Tens6, 
I shall love, €<c. 

i^ tterb'sf Ifelieii* 
t>u loirft Heben, 
cr lotrb Ueben. 

toir VDcrb^eilliebcn. 
i^r toerb^et lieben. 
fie toerb'^cit lieben. 



of litltn, to love. 

Imperfect J'erifs, 
x6) Hcb'^te, I loved, 
bu H e b '* teP, thou lovedrt. 
cr li c b ^ tC, he loved. 
tt?ir licb'^tcn, we loved, 
i^r licb'^lct, you loved. 
flC li C b '* Icn, they loved. 

Pluperfect Tense, 
I had loved, etc. 
i* Wit %tlithr. 
bu ^at'stejl gcliebt'. 
cr iat'»tC gelicbt'. 
tt>ir ^at'»ttn gcHcbt', 
i^^r \)at'*tti gericbt'. 
pc ^at'^len gcHcbt'. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have loved, etc. 

idf loerb'st geliebf ^atcn* 
bu loirft gcliebt' Oabcn. 

er toirb gelicbt' Hbciu 

tt?ir tt)erb'*Ctt gcttebt' ^abcn. 
i^r n)crb^'*et geliebt' ^abciu 
pe tt? c r b '* Ctt g c I i c b t ' ^ a b c n. 



Exercise 24. 
1. The physician will visit Mr. Meyer to-day. 2. The 
carpenter is building the house. 3. The peasant is till- 
ing the field. 4. The merchant is becoming very rich. 
5. The tailor became very poor. 6. The history became 
very tedious. 7. It is becoming sultry. 8. It will soon 
rain. 9. It is thundering now (foeben). 10. The peasant 
will sell the wheat and the rye. 11. The director of 
the Museum was very kind towards (cjccjen) us. 12. He 
took (fiil^ren) us through the Museum. 13. The librarian 
took us through the Library. 14. The Library is very 
large and costly. 15. The teacher blamed the child 
because it did not learn the lesson. 16. We have rent- 
ed the house. 



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42 GERMAN CURRENT HAND. 

LESSON XIII. 
GERMAN CUBBBNT HAITD. 

1. Capital letter:. 
A B C D E F G H ] J 

K L M N V Q R S T 

^^'^^ p ^ 

U V W X Y Z 



3. Small Letters. 



a b c d e f g h I j k I m n 



ex 



o 'p q r 8 $ t u xt w X y z 



3. XJmlatit Vowels and Combined Consonants, 
ii 6 u iia ch sch st sz tz 



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GERMAN CUKREKT HAKD. 



43 



giinfuribitoanjigftc Slafgabe* 






^oWbaw, 



aBtcn, 



tyrantfurt. 



;^ 






a£j:^/Z^,J: <^/^^^..^ ^Lj^^. 



S)eutf(!^Ianb, 



?(meriTa, 



5prcu|cii, 









V 



«^^ 



tSnna. Sluguftc. 




;^' ^tC^^ a9±y^y 



^err S<^mifct, 



t^rau £ictn(!^. 



grSulein 3R&^lba(^. 



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44 



OBSMAN CURRENT HAND.' 



(1.) 



©ct^Sunbawansigftc Stnfgabc. 






(2.) ^^,.^:?^;^^^^^;.^^^.^^^^. 
(3.) a^L^W^^..^^,-^^^ ^ 
(4.) ^^tCiu^u 



J" ^ -y -y <^ y^ ..y 

^C*.^**^^-^*-»-*i*-5>f- -*-^^t '^tm-'^-M' '^tA'-a^^ ■*-*-*.*.-*/^ 



(7.) ^L.,.. a^L:^^6.^JL. yy J:./' 



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CONJUGATION OF IBBEQULAB VERBS. 45 

LESSON XIV. 

CONJUGATION OF IRREQULAk VERBS. 

©pret^en ®ie 35cutfd^? Do you speak German? 

yitxn, id) fprcd^c nur ffinglifd^^ No, I speak only English, 

^err SWe^er fprid^t 2)eutf4, Mr. Meyer speaks German. 

htxx ^lein fpraii^ mit mi, Mr. Klein spoke to us. 

(£r ^at mitmi gefprod^'cn, He has spoken to us. 

SWarie fingt fcfir fd^Sit, Mary sings very finely. 

©ieBctittttbstoattstgfte Sufgaibe* 

1. ©prcd^eu ®ic Deutfd^? 2. 2Bir fpred^cn nur Snglifd^. 
3. grau Dictrid^ fprid^t 2)eutf(i^ mi Sranjo'jifd^. 4. graulctn 
^afenclejjer fprid^t granjSfif^, 3talia'mf(| mi ©panifd^. 5. 
£)er ^ud^bittber \)at iai ^u^ im^ gut gebunb^en. 6. 2Bo ^aben 
©ie ben S3r{ef gcfunb'cn ? 7. 3t^ fanb i^n tm S3u(^c. 8. ^xan^ 
Icin ^ilbcbranb ^at ba8 8ieb fe^r \6)in gcfung^cn. 9. 3a, ftc 
fang e« wirflici^ fe^r fd^6n. 10. Der Dicb l^at bag ®clb geflol)'^ 
Icn. 11. Da« Itinb ^at mit bem ©torfe gefpidt. 12. 3a, unb ti 
l^at i^n aud^ gcbrod^^cn. 13. 3c^ i^abe ^eutc SWorgen ntit ^errn 
Sdxam gefprod^'en. 14 » 3<^ ^ak bad ^u6) lange gefud^t, abcr id^ 
^abe eg nod^ ntd^t gefunben. 15. 3o^ann l^at eg. 

Vocabulary. 



Scr Su^Hnbcr, --«, the bookbinder. 

,, S>tcb,—C«, the thief. 

n @tO(f , — c8, the cane. 
Stt^ ®€tb, — c«, the money. 

fr ?icb, — c«, the song. 
9lut (acfo.), only, but. 
SStnig (oc/t?.)) a little. 
@anj (a</i7.'), entirely, very. 



2)cutfc^^, German. 
^ottSnbifci^, Dutch. 
@ng(tf(^, English, 
grange'fifd?, French. 
3taIv»&'*mW, Italian. 
@panif^, Spanish. 
8atci'nif(^, Latin. 
®ne(i(^if(^, Greek. 



Present Infinitive, Imperfect Indicative. Perfect Participle, 

(iab'seit, to bind, tmi, bound, Qtsbuuh'^tti, bound. 

fiiib'*cn, tofind, f«nb, found, (je*f unb'* en, found. 

fing%ctt, to sing, fang, sung, ge*fung'*cn, sung. 

f)nrei|'«en, to speak, f)inu^, spoke, ge«f)iro(^'«en, spoken, 

brc^'* en, to break. Brad?, broke, gc*bro(^'*cn, broken. 

Be^T'tn, tosteol, Pa^l, stole, flc^poOT* en, stolen. 



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46 



CONJUGATION OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Orammatical. 
1. Irregular Verbs have the following peculiarities: 

1 . They have the ending stU instead of st in the Perfect Participle. 

2. The radical vowel of most Irregular Verbs is changed in forming 
the Imperfect Indicative and the Perfect Participle. 

3. The Imperfect Indicative is usually a monosyllable (ha,\\ng the Jir$t 
and third persons singular alike, and rarely take the ending sit)* 

4. Most verbs with t in the radical syllable change it to i or \t in the 
second and third person of the present singular. 



2. The Indicative Mood 

Present Tense, 

^ f^jrC^l'sC^ I speak, 

bu fiirit^'ft^ thon speakest. 

er f^irt^'t^ ^^^ speaks. 

tt>ir \pxt6)*^tn,we speak, 

i^ir j^rc^'*t^ you speak. 

flC \pxt6f'^ tn, they speak. 

Perfect Tense. 
1 have 8ix)ken, etc. 

bu l^ttP gcf^rcc^'ciu 
cr l^ttt gcf^rod?'cn. 

toxx ^ab'^cil Qt\pxo(i)'tn. 
ibx ^ab'^t gcf^rcc^'cn. 
fic ^ab'*cil Qt\pX96f'tn. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall speak, etc. 

bu toirfl f^rc(^'cn. 

cr totrt " f^>rc(^'cn. 
toxx ttjcrb^en f^rcc^'cn. 
'x\)x n)crb'*el f^rcc^'cn. 
flc iDcrb'^cil f^rcc^'cn. 

3. The Indicative ftood 

Present Tense. 
X^ \itf(i''t, I steal, 
bu ftietl^fi/ thou stealest. 
cr ^tlUi, he steals. 
mx ftc^r*eil,we steal, 
t^r \tthV'i, you steal, 
pc flef)r*cn^ they steal 



of\)fitifycn,to^ea7c: 

Imperfect Tense. 
X^ f^ira^^ I spoke, 

bu f ^ r a ^ 5 ft, thou spokest, 
tr f))ta4, he spoke. 

tt>tr f ^ r a d; % en, we spoke, 
i^r f j) r a (3^ % t, you spoke, 
fie f i) r a (^ '* en, they spoke. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had spoken, etc. 

id? ^al'»te %t\^xo<h't\x* 
bu Mt'^teft gef^rod^'cm 
cr ^at'*te Qcf^ro^'cm 
totr ^at^ten Qt\pxo6f'tn. 
x\fx ^at'*tet Qt\pxo6)' tn. 
fie ^at'^ten gefi)rc(3^'cn. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have spoken, etc. 

i^ tBtt\^'ft gef))ro(^'en^aikem 
bu toirft gef^rod^'cn ^abcu. 

cr toirb gcfi>ro(]^'cn ^abcn. 

xoxx » c r b '* en Qt\pxo6f'tn ^ a b c u. 
t^r tt>crb'*et Qt\pxo<if*tn ^abcn. 
ftc tt)crb'*en flcfi)ro(<?'cn ^abcn, 

o{ \tcffUn, to steal: 

Imperfect Tense, 
x6f fteW, I Ptole. 

bu ft a( Is ft, thoustolest. 
cr ftttfti, he stole, 

voir fl a ^ t '* eU/ we stoic, 
i^r flatlet, you stole, 
fic pa^l^en, they stole. 



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CONJUGATION OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 



47 



Perfect Tetm. 

\^ Hit geftoljreii, 6ic., 

I have stolen, etc. 

First Future Tenae, 

^ toerbe 9tiiVtn,€tc., 

I shall steal, etc, 

4. The Indicative Mood 

Present Tense. 
i* Wllb^e, I bind, 
bu (inb'j: eft; thou bindest. 
et hinh'^ttf he binds. 
tt)tt b i n b '* en, we bind, 
i^r btnb'*et; you bind, 
fie b i n b % en, they bind. 

Perfect Tense. 

i^ Jabe ocbimb'eit,6<c., 

I liaro bound, etc. 

First Future Tense, 

\6) mtht UuVtn,etc., 

I shall bind, etc. 



Pluperfect Tense. 

id) $atte ge^ol^reit, etc, 

I had stolen, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

x^ mxht %t^Wtn Hf>tn,etc,^ 

I shall have stolen, etc. 

of ibinben, to hhid : 

Imperfect Tense. 
id) iaitb, I bound, 

bu b a n b '« eft, thou boundest. 
et ianb, he bound, 

wit banb'^eil, wo bound, 
i^t banb'*et, you bound, 
pc b a n b '* en, they bound. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

td^ ^tttte gebjtiib'en, etc., 

I had bound, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

i(if mxht oebunb'en \)aUn, etc., 

I shall have bound, etc. 



5. Adjectives are used as adverbs without change of 
form. 



@ie fingt f^ilii, 



He speaks well. 
She sings beautifully. 



Exercise 28. 



1. Do you speak French? 2. No, I do not speak 
French. 3. Mr. Kreutzner speaks German, Dutch, Italian, 
and Spanish. 4. Prof. Schmidt speaks Latin and Greeks 
5. You have broken the cane. 6. The thief has stolen 
the hat and the coat. 7. Where did you find the pencil? 
8. 1 found it under the book. 9. George had tied (Mttj? 
ben) the band on (um) the hat. 10. Mary sung the song 
very well. 11. Mr. Neidner is speaking; do you hear 
what he is saying? 12. 1 was looking for the news- 
paper. 13. Henry will sing the song. 14. The child 
had broken the cane. 15. John will find the book. 16. 
Mr. Krause will buy the house. 



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48 



PLUBAL OF KOUNS. 



LESSON XV. 

PLURAL OF KOUN8 AND OF THE DEFINITE ABTICLE. 



35ic Scorer loben bic ©d^ulcr, 

Die ©artcn finb fc^r grog, 
2)ic SBcrgc ftnb flcil; 
Die ^unbc folgcn ben Sagern, 
Die SRad^te jinb fait, 
Sllbred^t ^at bie S3ud^er, 
Die ^ir^en jinb fd^Sn, 
SBer ^at bie S^itungen ? 



praise 



the 



The teachers 

scholars. 
The gardens are very large. 
The mountains are steep. 
The dogs follow the hunt- 
The nights are cold. [ers. 
Albert has the books. 
The churches are beautiful. 
Who has the newspapers ? 



9{eunuQbstoan}tgfte ^ufgabe. 

!♦ Die ©driller l^aben bie 5lufga6en »oUenbet 2. Die ^n^ 
gel jinb nid^t fe^r ^oci^. 3. Die 3i«imer ftnb ju flein* 4. Die 
©emalbe ftnb fd^Bn, aitx fe^r t^tntx. 5. 3o^ann ^at bie S3teii^ 
flifte auf ben Xifc^ gelegt 6* Die 33leiflifte ftnb neben ben 
Sitc^ern. 7. Die SEifd^e finb in ben 3intmern. 8. Die Diebe 
l&aben bag ®elb gejiol^len. 9. Die Dad^er ber ^aufer in ben 
Dorfern ftnb fe^r fieiL 10. Die SE^iinne ber ^ird^en in ben 
©tabten finb l^od^ unb impofant 11. Die aWaler l^aben bie ®t:^ 
malbe an bie SEBanbe ber 3tmmer ge^ngt. 12. Der aWaler ^ai 
ba« ®emalbe an bie SBanb be« 3iwmer« ge^angt. 13. $crr 
Dietrich ^at bie Sriefe fiber S3remen nad^ 5lmerifa gefd^idft. 14. 
^err S3lumenbad^ unb $err Dundfer \)aUn bie ?ieber ganj fc^Bn 
gefungen. 

Orammatical. 

1. The Definite Article is declined as follows: 





BINOtJLAB. 




Jfastuline. 


Femnine, 


Neuter, 


(The man.) 


(The woman.) 


(The chad.) 


Nom.htt ManiL 


Me grau. 


ba« ^inb. 


G<m. M iD{ann«e9. 


Ul gtau. 


be^ ^inb^ed. 


Dat, bent aWann^e. 


ber gra«. 


beiii«ittb*c 


Ace, ben SD'^ann. 


Me grau. 


btt««inb. 



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PLURAL OP NOUNS. 



49 



Masculine. 
(The men.) 
Norn, bit 9M&nn*cr. 
Gen. htt 2W5nn*cr. 
Dat. htn aWfinn^crn, 
Ace. hit 3KSnn»cr. 



PXiUBAL. 

Feminine. Neuter. 

(The women.) (The childran.) 

bie grau*en. Me 5tinb*cr. 

bet 8ra«*cn. ber ilinb*cr. 

ben Srau'cn. ben^inb^etu. 

bie gtau*en. bfe ^inb»er. 
Rem. The Definite Article has the same form in the plural for all genders, 

2. The Plurals of Nouns are formed in several ways: 

, V 1. With some nouns the nom, plural is like the nom. singular. 

2. Some nouns take merely on umlaut on the radical vowel, when the 
vowel is capable of it. 
, 3. Some nouns merely add st to the singular. 
' 4. Some nouns add st and also take the umlaut. 

^5. Some nouns add sCt (with the umlaut, when the vowel is capable of it). 
0. Some nouns merely add s|t to the singular. 
7. Some nouns merely add stVL to the singular. 

3. Nouns that add -n or sCn in the plural (and also in 
the ffen., dat., and ace. sing.^ if the nouns are masculine) 
are said to be of the New Declension. 

. Those that take ^tt or sCtt in the plural, and -8 or ^ti 
in the gen. sing.y are said to be of the Mixed Declension. 
All other nouns are said to be of the Old Declension. 

Bern. 1. The Old Declension includes by far the greater portion of nouns. 
Bern. 2. No neuter nouns belong to the New Declension. 
Ran. 3. No feminine nouns belong to the Mixed Declension. 

4. Tabular view of the singular and plural of nouns : 



(Singular.) (Plural.) 


(Singular 


.) (Plural) 


(Singular.) (Plural.) 




1. 




2. 


xm, 


XW. 


Scaler, 


aWater. 


SSatct, 


955tcr. 




4. 


Se^rer, 


?c^rcr. 


©artcn, 


@«rtcn. 


^Od?, 


m6it. 


&mux, 


©(filler. 


Cfen, 


Ocfcn. 


argt, 


Sleratc. 


»5(fcr, 


©ficfen 


aWutter, 


SWfltter. 


*ut, 


?>iltc. 


Sfiflcr, 


35gcr. 




3. 


9eo(f, 


md^. 


SWeffer, 


aWcffer. 


abcitb, 


STbcnbc. 


@tuKf 


©tii^rc. 


Stmmet, 


Simmer. 


5Berg, 


SBcrgc; 


SfJad^t, 


m^iu. 


aWorgcn, 


iWorgen. 


SBteiptft, 


S3rctpiftc. 


@tabt, 


@t5bte. 


Waei, 


^flflcl. 


©rief, 


©ricfc. 


XSanb, 


B«nbc. 



c 



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50 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



{Singular,') {Plural,) 

6. 

Tlam, Tldnntx. 
SBoTb, SBiirbcr. 

S)orf, S)»rfct. 

®etb, ©crber. 

Oau9, ©Sufer. 

2)a(&, XSi6)tx. 

^nb, ^nber. 

5. Examples of 



{Singular,) (Pharal,) {Singular. 

6. 

S3aucr,* 53aucm.* 2)ottor,* 

Stncibt, ^naben. ^rr, 

aufgabc, Slufgaben^ ^rofeffot/ 

©riltfc, SBrfttfeu. @otbat', 

greubc, grcuben. 2)ircrtor,* 

(3t\(i)x6)'it, @ct(^i(^f en. S3ibIiot()cr 

^x6^t, ^rc^cn. gtau, 

^ommob'c, ^ommo'ben. ©cfa^r', 

@%>itjc, @^>ttjcn. Scttion', 

the Declension of Nouns: 



.) {Plural.) 
7. 

2)oftor'cn.* 

^txxm. 

^rofeffor'cn.* 

©olbafcn. 

2)ireftor'cn. 

©ibftot^d'ctt. 

grauen. 

Scftion'ctt* 



1. Old Declension. 



8INOULAU. 



1. Painter. 

N. ber maltx, 
O. bes WlaUx^^, 
D, bcm 2WaIcr, 
J. ben abater. 



2. Father. 

Der 3)ate^ 

5em !i5ater, 
>cn 5$atcr. 



3. Mountain. 

ber 9er0^ 

:'em S3crg*c, 
:)en SBerg. 



4. Citv. 

Me ^iaii, 

ocr @tabt, 
?ct @tabt, 
3tc @tabt. 



5. Man. 

ber a^ann^ 

bem SWann^c, 
DCtt 3Kann. 



N, bie 9»aler, 
C?.bet aWaler, 
D, ben 2RaIcr*ii, 
^. bie aWalcr. 



bte Sttter, 
bet S5Stcr, 
ben $ater*=ii, 
bie SSatcr. 



bte Sero^e, 

bet SBerfl*e, 

ben ©crg^en, 

bie S3erg*e» 



bie ^mut, 

bet @tSbt*e, 
ben ©tSbt^en, 
bie ©tabt^e* 



bte Wiwx'^tx, 

ber 9Wann>cr, 
ben 9K5nK='Ctn, 
bie SDWnn^cr. 



2. New Declension. 



3. Mixed Declension. 



6. Boy. 

N, ber ^iiaie, 
G. be9 ^nabe^n^ 
D. bem ^abe^^n^ 
^. ben ^aBe*ii, 



7. Woman. 

bte gran, 

ber grau, 
ber grau, 
bie grau. 



8. Peasant. 

ber Waiter, 

bc« S3auer*g, 
bem S3auer, 
ben S3auer. 



9. Doctor. 

ber So!tor» 

be6 2)o!tor^5, 
bcm SDoftor, 
ben 2)oftor. 



N. bie ^itabe^n, 

G, ber ^abe*ii, 

D. ben ^naBe*ii, 

A, bie ^aBe*ii. 



bie Sran^en, 

ber grau*eil, 
ben grau^en, 
bie grau^en* 



bie ^auer^^n, 

ber S3auer*ii, 

ben S3aucr*ii, 

bie 8auer«]t« 



bie 3)o!tor^en^ 

ber 3)ottor'*eii, 

ben 2)o!tor'* en, 

bie 2)o!tor'*cn* 



Rem. 1. The genitive and accusative of the plaral number have the same 
form as the nominative plural. 

7?e»i. 2. An stt is always added in the dative plural if the nominative 
plural does not already end in that letter. 

♦ In the Mixed Declension, 



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THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 51 

Exercise 30. 
1. The scholars have bought the books. 2. The books 
of the painters are on the tables. 3. The cabinet-makers 
have mended the tables. 4. The stoves, the chairs, and 
the tables are in the rooms. 5. Miss Neumann sang 
the songs very beautifully. 6. The nights are now 
very cold.. 7. The towers of the churches in the city 
are very high. 8. The news (pi.) in the newspaper is 
to-day very interesting. 9. The gardens are not very- 
large. 10. The soldiers are in the city. 11. Where did 
you find the pencils ? 12. The pencils were under the 
books. 13. The tailors have mended the coats. 14. 
The children are playing with the dogs. 15. We sent 
the letters by way of Hamburg. 



LESSON XVI. 

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

@r ^at tin ^ani cjcfauft, He has bought a house. 

.56) fUi^c cinen SSIcifttft; I am looking for a pencil, 

^abcn @ic eine B^itung ? Have you a newspaper? 

(£r Unfit tin $funb Z^tt, He bought a pound of tea. 

©r faufte em $aar ©ticfel, He bought a pair of boots. 

2)a« Zn6) fojtet eincn Zi)akx The cloth cost a dollar a 

t>ie @ae, yard. 

2)a« Xn6) ifl cine SHe ixtit, The cloth is a yard wide. 

ginunbbreipgftc 3(ufgak. 

1. ^err %ntxU6) ^at ^tntt tin ©ernalbe gefauft. 2. ^tin^ 
xi6) l^at f)tntt einen JRodf, etnen $ut, tin faax ©tiefel unb em 
^aar <B6)n^t gefauft 3. 2)er ^o6) ^at tin ^funb S^itx, tin 
^fnni ^affee unb tin $funb SC^ee ge^olt. 4. SBilnf^en @ie 
eine SEaffc ^affee ober eine SEaffe J^ee? 5. 3(^ wunfd^e nur 
ein ®la« SBaffcr. 6. T^ai ^inb wunf^t ein ®la« SWilc^ itnb 
fin ©tudf 33utterbrob (bread and butter). T^^^je^affen 




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52 



THE INDEFINITE ABTICLE. 



finb fe^r fc^on- 8. SBcrben ®ic tin 53ud^ ^a})ier ober tin diiti 
papier faufen? 9^ 3^ totxit tin diiti fapitx faufen* 10- 
Da« Z\x6) ijt cine dUt ixtit IL e« fojlet cincn 2:^alcr bie 
eilc- 12. Dcr Xf)tt fojict cinen S^yalcr bag ?)funb- 13, Die 
@ier fojlen je|>n (ten) ©rofc^en ba« !Du0enb* 14. ^ehtrid^ ^at 
einen X^alcr unb je^n ©rofd^en fitr bag ©ud^ beja^lt 15. 2)ag 
SBanb ijl einen 3oll breit; eg fojlet jwei (two) ©rofi^en unb 
fed^g (six) ^fennige bie @lle. 16. SSor etnem Sal^re (a year 
ago) waren mir in Deutfd^lanb. 17. 3(i^ milnfd^e ein Quart 
2Wilc^, cin ^funb X|iee unb ein Duftenb Sicr. 

Vocabulary. 



2)cr Xifakx, —«,/>/. — , doUar. 

ti Orof^cn, —9fpL — , groschen. 

„ pfennig, —4, pL — c, pfennig. 

»r gug,— c«,/>/.p6c,foot. 

»r S'^ttf ~~^^t P^' "~^f inch. 

rr S3ogen, —8, ;j/. — , sheet. 

n @^U^, — C8,jp/. — C, shoe. 

„ ^anbf^u^, —eg, j?/. — c, glove. 

» @ttefct, —8, ;?/. -— , boot. 

n ^antof fct, — «, pi —n, slipper. 

rr ^affec, — 8, ;?/. — , coffee. 

M S^cc, —«,!>/.—, tea. 

„ 3wtf^iff -"^f sugar. 

rf 8Jci«, — e0, rice. 
Obcr, or. 
53c5a^rcn, to pay. 
2Bilnf(i^cn, to wish, desire, 
©rcg, large, tall. 



Sie (gffe, — , pL ~«, yard, ell. 
rr 2^affc, — , ;>/. — n, cup, cup and 
saucer. 

„ amr(]^, —, milk. 

®aS 3a^t, —t%,pl — c, year. 

rr 2)utcnb, — c8, />/. — c, dozen. 

rr (St,—c«,|>/.— et,egg. 

» ^at, — c8, p/. —c, pair. 

rr 92tC8, — -e8, ream. 

rr S3ud^, — c«, quire. 

tf $funb, — c«, />/. — c, pound. 

rr @ttt(f , — c«, !>/. — c, piece. 

rr ®Ia0, — c«, pL ©rSfer, glass. 

rr SBaff cr, —8, ;?/. — ^ water. 

r, Ouart, —cS, /7/. —c, quart. 
Srcit, broad, wide. 
Sang, long. 
a:icf , deep. 



OrammaticaL 
1. The Indefinite Article citt^a or an^'i^ declined thus : 



MASCULINE. 

(A man.) 
Norn, cin 2Kann. 
Gen. cin'stS SWannc«. 
Dat. cin'^em SWannc. 
Ace. t\Vi'*vx SWann. 



FEMININE. NEUTER. 

(A woman.) (A child.) 

cin'se Srau. etn ^nb. 

cinder grau. cin'*c^ ^nbc«. 

cinder grau. ctn'^cm ^inbc. 

ein'^e grau. cin 5finb. 
Rem, The Indefinite Article takes the gender and case of the noun with 
which it is employed. 



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THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 53 

2. The following Idioms are used with nouns of weighty 
measure^ quantity, and price : 

1. Nouns of weight, measure, and quantity are in apposition with the 
noons they limit. Those in the feminine gender alone take the pi, form^ 
the masculine and neuter nouns retaining the singular form in the plural. 
(St faufte ein $funb Bucfer unb gtoei He bought a pound of sugar and 

^fUttb %^it, two pounds of tea. 

@tc fauftc nur cine ©ttc %\x6i unb She bought only one yard of cloth, 
ni(i^t jtDci gtteil %Vi^, and not two yards of cloth. 

2. Verbs and adjectives indicating weight, measure, quantity, and price 
require the noun expressing the weight, etc, to be in the accusative case: 
(5« ttJtcgt ctn ^{unb, It weighs a pound. 

@d foflet eineit Scaler, It costs a dollar. 

2)a« SBaff cr ijl eillCIl gug ticf, The water is a foot deep. 

3. Nouns expressing the quantity, following nouns expressing price, are 
preceded by the definite article ; 

@d foflet eineu Xi^aitx ha9 $funb, It costs a doUar a pound. 
(Sd foflet etnen Zifakx bie (SUe, It costs a dollar a yard. 

3. Prussian Money is the standard in North and Central 
Germany. 

1 2:^alcr=*30 ®rofd^en=360 $fcnm9e=73 cents in gold. 
1 ®rofc^cn— 12 ^fennige= 2| cents in gold. 
1 pfennig = \ of a cent 

Hem, Foreign Exchange to all Germany is usually made in Prussian thlrs. 

Exercise 32. 
1. Have you a pencil? 2. There is a pencil on the 
table. 3. William bought a pair of shoes and a pair of 
slippers. 4. The cook will go and get (()oIcn) a dozen 
eggs, a pound of sugar, and a quart of milk, and a pound 
of rice. 5. The book will cost a dollar and twenty 
(jwanjig) groschens. G.William wishes a glass of wa- 
ter. 7. Do you wish a cup of tea or a cup of coffee ? 
8. 1 wish a cup of coffee. 9. The cloth is a yard wide. 
10. It costs a dollar a yard. 11. 1 paid a dollar and ten 
(}C^n) groschens for the book. 12. The ribbon is a yard 
long and an inch wide. 13. It cost ten groschens a yard. 
14. The tea cost a dollar a pound. 15. Have you a 
sheet of paper? 16. He has a ream of paper. 



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54 CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

LESSON XVII. 

CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

Die ^ird^c J)at jmcl J^l^urme, The church has two towera 
Der Sagcr l^at »ier $unt>e, The hunter has four dogs. 
2)er ^od^ l^at fed^« ^funb 9let« The cook got six pounds of 

unb ad^t ^fuitb ^ndtx ge^ rice and eight pounds of 

l^olt, sugar, 

^arl ifl »ierje^n ^af)xt alt; Charles is fourteen years 

old. 
$err Dictrtd^ ifl l^eute merunb^ Mr. Dietrich is to-day sixty- 

Mjig S^l^rf alt; four years old. 

3m Sai^rc a^tjcl^nl^unbcrt »ier^ In the year eighteen hun- 

unbfed^jig war ^^crr ^rofcffor dred and sixty-four Pro- 

Sel^r in !Dcutf(^Ianb; fessor Behr was in Ger- 

many. 

2)retunbbretgtgfte ^ufgaBe. 

l-|)crr SWe^er ^at brci ^aufer in ®ot^a gefauft- 2. J)a« 
X\x^ ifl cine ©He breit itnb ncun @llen lang. 3. !Dcr ^od^ i)at 
gwei Du^enb @ier, fiinf f funb 3udfer unb jtebcn ^funb 9tei« ge^ 
^olt. 4. 2)a« ^uc^ fofiet ac^t Scaler unb fiinfunbgmanjig 
©rof^en. 5. 3^ ^abc fiir baa SBanb fiinfunbjwanjig ©rofd^cn 
unb \t6)9 ^fennige begal^It. 6. ^einrid^ ifl »icr guf unb elf 
3oU grop. 7. Die fdxMt ifl »ierunbad^tjig Sup lang. 8. Der 
SC^urm beg Dome« ju (at) 2Wagbeburg ifl brei^unbert unbbrei^ig 
gup l^od^. 9* Der SC^urm be« Dome? ju SCBien ifl »icrl^unbert 
fed^gunbbreipig gup ^o^. 10. Die SBiMiot^ef ju S3erlin ^at 
fe4«|iunbert unb fiinf jig taufenb 53ii^er. 1 1 . SBerlin l^at iiber fte^ 
benliunbert taufenb ©inwol^ner (inhabitants). 12. Dre^ben ^at 
^unbert unb i)ierjig taufenb (Sinmo^ner. 13. SWagbeburg l^at neun^ 
jigtaufenb (Sinwo^nef. 14. 3m 3a^re ad^tjebnl^unbert (or im 
3a^re eintaufenb ad^t^unbert) breiunbfe(|jig wobnten^err grieb^ 
lanb unb $err ffiolf in ^eibelberg. 15* ^m SBraun mx geflem 
a^tunbfiinfjig 3al^re alt (old)* 



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CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



55 



Grammatical. 
1. The Cardinal Numbers are formed as follows : 



1. Sm«. 

2. 3n)ci. 

3. 2)m* 

4. «tcr. 

5. giinf. 

6. @cd)«. 

7. @ic6cn. 

8. «(^t. 

9. ^t\m> 

10. 3e^n. 

11. eif. 

12. 3tt)5lf. 

13. 2)tdjc^n. 

14. ^tcrje^n. 

15. gftnfjc^n, 

16. @c(i^«je^n. 

17. @icbenjc^n or ^tel^jc^n. 

18. 3[d^tje{>n. 

19. 9'iemtjc^n. 

20. Smanstg. 

21. (ginunbjtDanjtg. 

22. S^ciunbjtDonjig, etc. 
SO. S)rd6tg. 
31. Sinunbbreigtg, etc. 



40. S5tcrjtg. 

60. gflnfeig. 

GO. @C(^gig. 

70. @icbenjtg or ^icbgig* 

80. ^c^tjig. 

90. S^ieungig. 

100. ^unbcrt. 

101. ^unbert unb ctn5. 
110. $unbcrt unb ge^n. 

120. $unbcrt unb gtoanjig. 

121. $unbert dnunbgwangig, 
125. .©unbert fflnfunbgwongig. 
136. ^nubert fc(i^8unbbrdgig. 
150. ^nnbert unb fftnfeig. 
200. 3n)d^unbcrt. 

225. 3n)ei^unbcrt fUnfunbgwanjlg 
500. Pnf^unbert. 
1,000. (gintaufcnb. 
1,005. (gintaujenb unb filnf. 
1,025. (gintaufenb filnfunbgtDanstg. 
1,500. (Sintaujcnb filnf^unbcrt. 
2,000. 3»dtautcnb» 
20,000. Snjanjigtaufenb. 
200,000. 3mdl;unbcrt taufcnb. 



1869. ^Id^tjejn^unbcrt unb neunuubfe^jig, 

(or) (Sintaufenb ati^t^unbcrt ncununbfec^gig. 

2. When used with a noun, and not preceded by a 
definite article, @tn, one is declined like the indefliiite 
article {see Less. XVI.). 

Rem. 1. The numeral tin takes a stronger emphasis than is given to the ln< 
definite article. 

Retn. 2. The indefinite article is in fact only a modification in signification 
*nd use of the numeral tin* 
Rem. 3. The form dlt^ is used in counting and in multiplying : 
®in«, Jtt)d, brct, toicr, etc., One, two, three, four, etc. 
^inmal @ind ifl (i\n9, Once one is one. 

3. The Cardinal Numbers are usually undedined. 

Rem, This is especially the case when they are joined to nouns and are 
preceded by prepositions. 

®t ^at gc^u ^ogen Pa!|)icr, He has ten sheets of paper. 
^i ge^n ©ogicn ^aj?icr. With ten sheets of paper. 



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56 CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

4. Single words are usually formed of units and tens^ 
of multiples of a hundred^ and of multijdes of a thousand 
up to a hundred thousand. 

S5ieninbjtt>an5ig, Twenty-four. 

2l(]^t^unbcrt, Eight hundred. 

^(]^tse^n^unbert, Eighteen hundred. 

3l(]^tjij)tautenb, Eighty thousand. 

$unberttaufenb, A hundred thousand. 

SBtet^unbert taufenb, Four hundred thousand. 
Rem. 1 . Some writers put no divisions between numbers : 

(Sintaufcnba(^t^unbcrtimbfec^«unbg»ansi0(i826). 
Renu 2. {^\Xi, one (a) is not used before (nnbCrt and tauftltb* 

2)a« ^u6} ^at ^unbert (getten, The book has a hundred pages, 

5. .3in ^a^Xt is inserted before the number of the year. 
^m 3a^re 1868 toax cr in ^$tn, In 1868 he was in Cologne. 

6. The tc is short in btcrjel^n and tiierjtg* 

Exercise 34. 
1. The cook has bought two pounds of sugar and six 
pounds of rice. 2. Mr. Friedland paid fifteen dollars 
for the books. 3.William is five feet and seven inches 
high. 4. The tower of the Cathedral at Strasburg is 
four hundred and thirty-six feet high. 5. The two tow- 
ers of the Cathedral at Munich are three hundred and 
thirty-six feet high. G. The bridge on the Elbe, in Dres- 
den, is one thousand six hundred and fifty feet long and 
fifty feet wide. 7. The castle {2>6)lo^) in Berlin is six 
hundred and twenty-six feet long, three hundred and 
seventy-three feet wide, and a hundred and one feet 
high. 8. It has six hundred rooms. 9. Bremen has sev- 
enty-eight thousand inhabitants (©inwol^ner). 10. Ham- 
burg has a hundred and ninety-six thousand inhabit- 
ants. 11. The Library at Munich is two hundred and 
fifty feet long and eighty-five feet high. 1 2. It has eight 
hundred and fifteen thousand books. 13. In 1865 (im 
3a^rc, etc.) Mr. Kohner was in Germany. 



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OLD DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 57 



LESSON XVIII. 

ADJECTITES USED PREDICATIVELY AND ATTRIBUTIVELY. 
OLD DECLENSION OF^ADJECTIVES. 

©aS Xvi6) ijl fel^r fctn, The cloth is very fine. 

3Bunfc^cn ® ie fcineg Xn^ ? Do you wish fine cloth ? 

^6) i)abt jtt)ci neuc S3uc^cr, I have two new books. 

2)cr Sttfd^Icr l^atbcn lifc^ mit The cabinet-maker has cov- 
flrunem Scbcr ititdt, ered the table with green 

leather. 

^aben @tc bcutf(|c SBild^cr ? Have you (any) German 

books ? 

^a, tt)ir ^abtn beutfc^e, engltfd^c, Yes, we have German, En- 
franjSftfd^e; italianifc^c, latei^ gli8h,French,Italian,Lat- 
ntfc^c unb flricci^ifd^e SSud^er, in, and Greek books. 

SUttfunbbreigtfifte %ufgak« 

1. Dai aSaffer ifl fait. 2. SJunf^en ©ie taim SBaffer? 
3, ^6) wunfc^c warmed SBafTer. 4. Der ^o6) ^at einen ^rug 
i^ott ^ci^cit SBafferg (gen.). 5. Der ©ud^binbcr \)at bad 93ud^ mit 
rotliem ?eber gebunben. 6. Dcr ©d^neiber ^at ben SRodf mit 
fd^warjem SEud^e gefuttert. 7. ^at|iarina ^at im ©arten jmer 
weipe unb bret rot^c SRofen gejjfliicft. 8. graulein ^ilbebranbt 
f)at gejiern Slbenb jwet fd^one beutfd^e ?ieber gefungen. 9. 93er^ 
lin unb SBien ftnb grofc unb fd^6ne ©tabte* lO.^err^rofef^ 
for ©ber^arb ^at beute jmei italienifd^e unb »ier fpantfd^e ©iitJ^er 
gefauft. IL S5Junf(|en ©ie graucg ober gruncd Stud^? 12. 
3c^ wiinfci^c brauneS. 13. ?ebrreid^e SBiid^er ftnb jumeilen febr 
langweilig. 14. 3)cr 3)om ju 2Wiinc^cn bat jwei bobe SCbiinne- 
15. SBcrlin b^t brettc ©traf en. 16. ©raunfd^meig (Brunswick) 
bat enge, frumme ©trapen. 17. 2)ie ^aufer in SSraunfd^meig 
l^aben jleilc Dad^er. 18. X)ai $au« ijl grop unb bequem, aber 
ed ifl jtt t^euer. 1ft 35er ©attlcr l^at fd^marjed, gelbe« unb 
brauned ?ebcr gefauft. 

C2 



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58 



OLD DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



Vocabulary. 



S)cutf(]^ (*tx, *t, *ti), German. 
(Sngtifd^ (*er, *c, *c«), English. 
granjS'fifd(> (*er, *c, sCS), French. ^ 
^ottSnbifd^ (*cr, *c, *e«), Dutch. 
3tafttf nifd^ (*cr, *c, *c«), Italian. 
@^amf(i^ (''Ct, *c<, *^)f Spanish. 
8c^rrci(^f (*cr, *e, *e8), instructive. 
8I«6i9 (*et, *c, *c«), industrious. 
S3equcm' (*cr, *c, *c«), convenient, 
fiofifcar (*cr, *c, *c«), costly. 
®nt (*cr, *e, «c«), good. 
®rau (*cr, *c, *t^), gray. 
^0^ (*er, 'C,*C«), high (§ 89, Rem, 9). 
@ng (*er, *c, *c«), narrow, 
^rumm (*er, -c, *c«), crooked. 
gcin(«er,*c, *c«),fine. 
> (=*cr, «c, «cS), coarse. 



SBcig (^cr, *c, e«), white. 

©d^tDarj (*cr, *c, *e«), black. 

9fiot^ (*cr, *e, *c«), red. 

53(au (*cr, *e, **e8), blue. 

®c(b (*cr, *e, *c«), yellow. 

®dln (*cr, *c, *c«), green. 

SBraun (scr, *c, *c«), brown. 

Set ^ug,— C8,;j/. ^llge, the pitcher 

,r ©atttct, —«,;?/. -— , the saddlec 
Sie 9lofc, —,/>/. — -n, the rose. 

ff ©tragc, — , pi — n, the street 
SaS gutter, —«,/>/. — , the lining. 

rr Sebcr, — «. />/. — , the leather. 

f, SSaffcr, — 8, pi - , the water. 
Qcbcdf'en, to cover, 
guttcrn, to line, 
^flilcfcn, to pluck, pick. 



Grammatical. 

1. Adjectives, when used to complete the statement 
or predication of fcin, toetbett; and some other intransi- 
tive verbs, are said to be used predicativdy : 

2)ad SBetter ifl ](ei|, The weather is hot. 

2>ad Setter tBUh ^ti^. The weather is becoming hot. 

Rem, 1. When thus used, they are frequently termed predicative atliectivet. 
Rem, 2, Adjectives used predicatively are indeclinable, 

2. Adjectives, when used before nouns to directly 
modify them, are said to be used attributively. 

Rem. When thus used, they are frequently termed att7nbutive adjectives, 

3. Adjectives used attributively, and not preceded bv 
other qualifjring words, are declined as follows : 



Mascidine. 
(Good man.) 

Nom, gut s er SWann. 
Gen, gut* en SDlanneS. 
Dat, gut'Cm SDlannc. 
Ace, gut* en SWann. 



SINGULAR. 
Feminine, 
(Good woman.) 
gllt^e grau. 
gutter grau. 
gutter grau. 
gut^e gr.u. 



Neuter, 
(Good child.) 
gllt*e« «mb. 
gut«eit ^be9 
gut^em^mbe. 
gut^e^ ^nb. 



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OLD DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 59 

PLUKAL. 



iVbm. flut*e SWfirmcr. 
Gen. gutter 3KSnncr. 
Dat, 9 tt t * en SWiinncrn. 
Ace, gutst SWSnncr. 



gut*e grauen. gut*e Ifiiibcr. 

gutter grauen. gutter ^nbcr. 

gut* en graucn. gut* en Ifinbcrn^ 

gttt*c gtaucit. gut^'C ^nbcr. 

Rem. The plural of the adjective is the same for all genders. 

4. Adjectives declined as above are said to be of the 
Old Dedermon. 

5. The same termination is given to the adjective 
when the noun is understood as when it is expressed : 

(Sr ^at l^Iaite^ $a^ter Itilb He has blue paper and 
ic^ ^abc tt)€i|e^ (?<M>ict), I have white (paper). 

6. In German, proper adjectives formed from names 
of countries do not begin with capital letters : 

$abcn @ie beutfd^c SBiliJf^er ? Have you German books ? 

Rem. 1 . Titular epithets, however, usually begin with capitals : 

3)cr Sliotbbeutfti^C 53unb, The North German Confederation. 

Rem. 2. Proper adjectives formed from names of cities or of persons begin 
with capital letters : 

2)tc ^8(nifd^ S^tung, The Cologne Gazette. 

2)ie SvWtf(^c ^f|iIofoi>^ie', lint's Philosophy. 

Exercise 36. 
1. Professor Lindemann has two Italian and three 
French newspapers. 2. Have you (any) Dutch books ? 

3. No, but we have German, French, and Spanish books. 

4. Mr. Meyerheim has laid two beautiful and expensive 
books on the table. 5. The saddler has been buying 
yellow and black leather. 6. The bookbinder has not 
bound the books with green leather. 7. He has bound 
the books with red leather. 8. The tailor will line 
the coat with brown cloth. 9. The child has picked 
three white roses. 10. Costly books are sometimes not 
very instructive. 11. The Cathedral at Cologne will 
have two very high towers. 12. They will be four hun- 
dred and seventy-six feet high. 13. Mr. Eieger bought 
two large and beautiful paintings. 14. He paid for the 
paintings eight hundred and ninety dollars. 



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00 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

LESSON XIX. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

SJlein ©ruber l^at mctn Sud^, My brother has my book 

SBcr i)at metncn 53leijlift? Who has my pencil ? 

3o^ann f)at 3f)xtn ©Icifltft, John has your pencil. 

SWcin ©ruber f^at feme 53ud^er; My brother has his books. 

SBo ftnb beine ©iii^er ? Where are your books ? 
SBo ftnb eure 53ud^er ? „ „ „ „ 

aBoftnb3^rc5Buc^er? „ „ „ 

©ie ^aben il^re ©uc^er, They have their books, 

eie i)at xf)xt ©iid^cr, She has her books. 

@r \)at fetne SBitc^er, He has his books. 

aSir \)aUn unfere ^ix6)tx, We have our books. 

@iebcnuubbretgtgftc ^itfgabc. 

1. SBa^ fud^en ®te ? 2. .3d^ fud^e meine ©uti^er. 3. 5Wetn 
JBater ifl nid^t gu $aufe. 4. aWein @rogt>ater l^at nteinem S3ru^ 
ber ein SSud^ gefc^enft. 5. •f)err 35iej, feine grau unb fetne 
Sod^ter ^at^arina jtnb ^eute in ^ot«bam. 6. 2Wein SBetter \)at 
vorgejlern fetne gltern in 3ena befud^t. 7. ^arl; l^afl bu beU 
nen SBleijiift gefunben ? 8. ^inber, \)ait t^r eure Slufgaben t>oU^ 
enbet ? 9. Die @d^u(er ^ahtn H)xt ?eftionen fe^r gut gelernt. 
10. aWarie \)at gefagt^baf fie i|ire Xante f)ZVik wa^rfd^eiuHd^ be^ 
fuc^en wirb. 11. .t>aben ®ie meinen ©ruber f^tixtt gefeben? 
12. 3a, idb fab 3b^^n ©ruber beute aWorgen tm 2Wufeum. 13. 
©eben Ste nid^t ben Xburm be« Domes ? 14. 3ld^ \a, x6) febe 
ibn! 15. ^aben @ie bie 5Rad^rid^ten b^ute SWorgen gelefen? 
16. 3a, icb la« fte in 3brer Bettung. 1 7. 5Ca« lefen eie ? 18. 
3d^ lefe bie ®efd)ic^te Deutfd^(anb«. 19. SWein Dbeim bat ntei^ 
ner ®d^tt)efier bag ©ud^ gegeben. 20. ^err SRieme^er ^at mix 
geflern 5lbenb gefagt, bap er vorgeflern meinen ®rb§»ater unb 
meine ©ropmuttcr in aWagbeburg gefcben })at. 21. SWeine QU 
tern ftnb beute in SWagbeburg. 



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POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



61 



Vocabulary. 



Ser Tlam, '—t9,pi aWanncr, the man, 
the husband. 

n SSater, --«,;>4 SSStcr, the father. 

f, @o^n, — €8, pL @5^nc, the son. 

„ S3rubcr, —8, ;>/. ©rilber, brother. 

n O^^cim, — 9, pi, — e, the uncle. 

M SJettcr, — 9,pL — n, the cousin. 

n S^cffc, — n, pL — It, the nephew. 

n ®rogt>ater, the grandfather. 

n Urgrogtjatcr, the great-grandfa- 
ther. 

n ©nfef, — 8,/>/. — , the grandson. 
Sic Altera, the parents (has no sing,)' 
Ser @(i^miegcrt>ater, father-in-law. 

rr @(i^micgcrfo^n, son-in-law. 

•I @d^tt>agct, —8, jy/. ©c^fWagcr, 
brother-in-law. 

n @tieft)ater, stepfiither. 

n ©tteffo^n, Stepson. 



®ie grau, — , ;>/. —en, the woman, 

wife. 
„ iWutter, — , pi aWftttcr, mother, 
rr Xo(!^ter,--, ;>/. 2:5(!^ter, daughter. 
rr @(!^n)cfler, —,/>/. —n, the sister. 
It Xante, — , ;>/. — n, the aunt. 
If (Soufi'nc, — , pi, — n, the cousin. 
u Sliid^tc, —, /i/. — n, the niece. 
u @rogmutter, the grandmother. 
rr Urgrogmnttcr, the great -grana- 

mother. 
r/ GnWin —,pl — :ien, the grand 

daughter, 
rr @(J(^toicgcrmutter, mother-in-law. 
rr @(i^tt>iegcrto(!^tcr, daughter-in-law 
rr @d^tt>iigerin, — , ;>/. — ncu, sistei- 

in-law. 
rr ©tiefmutter, stepmother. 
tf @tiefto(^ter, stepdaughter. 



Present Infinitive, 
%tV* en, to give, 
Ief'*en,toread, 
fe^'*en, tosee, 




Imperfect Indicative. 
fiat, gave, 
Ia«,read, 
fa^,Baw, 

OrammaticaL 


Perfect Participle, 
ge^geb'' en, given. 
fle*Ief'*en, read. 
fle*fe^'*cn, seen. 


1. The following 


[ are the Possessive Pronouns : 


Masc, Fem, 
mein, tnctn*c, 
bein, bein^e, 
fetn, fein^e, 
t^^t, i^r*e, 
fetn, fein-e, 


iVe«^ 

mein, 

bein, 

fetn, 

if^r, 

fetn, 


my. 
thy. 
his. 
her. 
its. 


Masc, 

unfer, 

euer, 

i&r, 


Fem. Neut. 
unfcr^c, unfer, our. 
cur»e, euer, your. 
ibr*e, tbr, their. 
30r^e, 9()r, your.) 


2. The Possessive Pronoun mcin^ ^ 
follows : 


72y, is declined as 






SINGULAR. 




MascuUne, 
(My brother.) 

Norn, mein Srubcr. 
Gen. mtiu^t^ ©rubers. 
Dat, nttiK^tm ©ruber. 
Ace, nteilt^eit ©ruber. 


Fenm 
(My si 

TOCln^e ^ 
jiicln^cr ^ 
wcln*er ^ 
meftt^e ^ 


itnc. 

ster.) 

5d?tt)cfler. 

5(i(>tt>efler. 

Sd^wefler. 

5An)efler. 


A'Vtt^cr. 
(My book.) 

mein ©u^. 
metii*c« ©u(3^e«. 
mei»-em ©u(3^e. 
mcfii ©u(^. 



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62 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



Norn, mein-e SSrilbcr. 
Gen, mcitt^cr 33rilbcr. 
Dat, mctnsen S3rilbcrn. 
Ace. mcinsc 33rilbcr. 



PLtEAL. 

metn't ©c^^wcpcrn. mctttsC Silver. 

mcin^er ©(^tpcftern. mcin^cr S3il^cr. 

ntetn^n ©(^^weftcrn. metn^en 53tt4>cm. 

cteitt^ @(ij^tt)eftern. mctn«c SBil^cr. 

i2em. The plural is the same for aU genders, 

3. Possessive Pronouns are declined like Htcin^ 

Rem, 1. In declining ttltfCt/ C is sometimes dropped from the termination* 

*eg, -em, scn» 

i2e7/i. 2. In declining tfXtX, the t after CU is usually dropped. 



SINGtJLAE. PLURAL. 

Ncm, unfcr, iinferc, iinfcr ; iinfcrc. 
Gen. utiferS, iinfcr^f, unferS ; iinfcrcr. 
Z>a^. iinfcrm, unjcrer, unfcrm ; iinfcm. 
Jcc. unfem, unfcrc, iinfer; iinfcrc. 

Rem, The same laws that govern the use of bit and iljr {see Lesson XL) 
govern the use of their derivatives bcin and VXtX* 

4. The Indicative Mode of geiett^ to give : 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

cuer, cure, cucr; cure, 

cures, curer, cures ; curcr. 

curem, curcr, curem; curcn. 

curcn, cure, eucr; cure. 



Present Tense. 
\^ fiCb'se, I give, 
bu %\W\, thougivest. 

cr 0ibt, he gives. 

iDir gcb'^en, we give, 
i^r gcB'*t, you give. 
fiC gcb'*eil/ they give. 

Perfect Tense. 

\^ l^aJc oefied'ctt, etc, 

I have given, etc. 

First Future Tense, 

16) mtht ocb'ett,e/c., 

I shall give, etc. 



Lmperfect Tense, 
\6) gaJ/ I gave, 

bu gabft; thougavest. 

cr gab/ he gave. 

tt)ir gai'^ett/ we gave, 
i^r Q ah' 'ftp you gave, 
flc Qah'^tU, they gave. 

Pluperfect Tense, 

x(S) f^aitt gefieb'eu^ete., 

I had given, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

x6) mtht gegeb'en fiahtn,ctc,, 

I shall have given, etc. 



5. The Present Tenses of IcfCtt, to read, and of fcl^Clt, to 



see: 

i^ ItV't, I read, 
bu Hefeft, thoureadest. 
cr Keft/ he reads, 

loir Icf'*eit, we read, 
i^r lt\'^t, you read, 
fie Icf'^eit, they read. 



X^ W^t, I sec. 
bu \xtWf ^^0^ ^^^^* 
cr ficW/ he sees. 
Wir f c ^ '* ttt, we see. 
i^r \ty*t, you see. 
fie \t\)'^tn, they see. 



Rem. The compound tenses of leftll and fcjeu are formed in the same 
manner as those of gcbcn^ 

S^ i)ciU gclefen, etc. ^6) f^aU gefc^cu, etc. 



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NEW DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 63 

Exercise 38. 

1. Have you seen my gloves? 2. Yes, your gloves 
are on the table. 3. The child sees its father and its 
mother. 4. Have you read the letter from your uncle 
in Bonn ? 5. 1 have not read it yet. 6. Our teacher 
says that we have learned our lessons very well. 7. 
John, hast thou finished thy exercise? 8. Children, 
have you found your books ? 9. The news {pi) from 
America in your newspaper is very interesting. 10. 
William Meyer says that his parents are now in Dres- 
den. 11. Henry Eauh says that his aunt is very sick. 
12. John Meyer says that his uncle has sold his house 
and his garden. 13. My sister has not yet read the 
book. 14. My father gave me {dat) the book. 15. The 
tailor has mended my coat. 16. William is visiting his 
great-grandfather. 17. Miss Weigand is my cousin. 18. 
Mr. Kichter is my brother-in-law. 



LESSON XX. 

KEW DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 

Der grope Z\\6^ iji in bem gro^ The large table is in the 

feu Si^ttt^J^/ large room. 

!Diebeutf(]^e®prac^eijltt)irHid^ The German language is 

fei^r fd^ttJierig, really very difficult. 

3^ l^Ste bag gro§c SBud^ auf I laid the large book on 

ben gro§en Z\\6^, the large table. 

!Die beutfd^en SSud^er jtnb auf The German books arc on 

ben gropen Xifc^en, the large tables. 

9?euniinbbretgigfte Wnfpk. 

1. Die Slu^fprad^e ber beutfd^en ©prad^e ifl fe^r fraftJ^ott, 
ober jie ijl xxx^i fe^r n)eid^. 2. 2Bem ge^oren biefe neuen 95u.^ 
4er? Z. ©ie ge^oren jenem reid^en ^aufmanne. 4. ^\6^\ alle 



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64 



NEW DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



r^ 



le^rreid^en Siid^er jint> intereffant 5* iRid^t jebc? SBud^ ifl Ic^r^ 
reid^^ 6. |)err Sd^auer woJ^nt in jencm gropen ^aufe gcgeni^ 
fiber bcm Sleucn SWufeum* 7. SSor einigcn JEagcn (some days 
ago) ^ak id^ einige beutfc^e unb franjoftfc^c 33uc^cr in ?eipiig 
gefauft. 8^ ^err ^rofeffor ©d^aucr l^at mele italienifd^c S3ud)er 
in feiner Sibliotl^ef. 9» Scner fd^warjc Ucberrod ifl i;u grog 
fur mid^. 10. 1)icfc amcrifanifd^cn ®ummifc^uf)e foftetcn brci 
Z\)Oi\tx. 11. Die garbcn bcr prcugifd^cn ^ol^^u jtnb fi^warj 
unb tt)clp. 12. Die garbcn ber amcrifanifd^cn ga^ne fmb rotb, 
wcip unb blau. lo. Die 9(rmee bcS Siorbbcutfc^en SBunbe^ fjat 
jc^t ad^t^unbcrt taufenb Solbatcn. 14* 3n it^cld^en Stabten 
Dcutfc^lanbS xoaxtn ©ie? 15. SBir warcn in mel^rcrcn grofcn 
©tabten, bcfonbcrg in 33crlin, Dreesben, aiBien, 2Wund^cn, Stutt^ 
gart unb ^oln. 16. ^oln i^ auf bcr linfen Seitc unb DuffcU 
borf ijl auf bcr rcd^tcn ©cite beg Slicing. 17* |)crr Subcmann 
TOo^nt auf ber red^ten ©cite ber Stra§e, bcr neuen ^ir^c gegen^ 
fiber. 18. ©ad^fen ge^ort je^t gum Jlorbbeutfc^en S3unb. 19. 
Diefer UeberrodE gef)ort ^errn Dr. 2)?eiycrfd)mibt. 



^nbcrcr, — :, — c§, other. 
S)icfcr, — c, — c«, this, 
^iniger, — :, — c5, some, any. 
(gtlidf^cr, — e, — C3, some, any. [eJ. 
(gmS^n'tcr, — C, — e«, before mcntion- 
golgenbcr, — c, — e8, following. 
3ct>cr, — c, — C8, each, every. 
3encr, — c, —e^, that. 
SJiand^cr, — c, — e8, many (a). 
SJic^rcrc (on/y «n />/.), several. 
^oi^tXf — c, — c«/8ach. 
S>erf(if^lc'bcner, — -e, — c», various, 
dicier, — e, — e8, much, many. 
SSel^cr, —c, —eS, which ? what ? 
SSentgcr, — c, — e«, little, few. 
^iorbbeutfc^^, North-German. 
$reu6tfd?, Prussian. 
^airi{(^, Bavarian. 
2>l^\\\ii, Saxon. 



Vocabulary. 

^Cr 23unb, — c«, Confederation. 
„ Uebcrrorf, — c«, pL UcberrSdc, 

overcoat. 
„ ^\xn\m\^u\), — c«, ;//. —z, India 
rubber over-shoe. 
Sic Slrmce', —,;>/. 5lrme'cu, oi-my. 

ga^nc,— ,/>/.— n, flag. 

garbc, —,/)/. — n, color. 

@citc, —tpL — n, side, page. 

@^)raci^c, — ,;>/. —n, languagv 

5luSf^rad^e, pronunciation. 
3irt, old. 
il'icu, new. 

^aftt)olI, full of power, energetic. 
iSBeidt^, weak, soft. 
9lcc(;t, right (right hand, adj,\ 
Sinf, left (left hand, adj.). 
bcfon'bcr^, especially. 
Omenta' nifd^, American. 
Snglifd^, English. 



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NEW DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



65 



Grammatical. 
1. Adjectives are declined in the New Dedermon as 



follows ; 

Masculine, 
(The good man.) 
Nom, bcr gut s c iWaitn. 
Gen, bc« gut* en 2D'knnc«. 
Dau bent gut«ett iil'^anne. 
Ace. ben flut^en SWann. 



AToifi. bie 9 u t * en iK5nncr. 
Gen. bcr g u t * at SWSnncr. 
Dau ben g u t * en SWSnncrn 
Ace. bie gut$en iDliinner. 



SINGULAR. 

Feminine. 
(The good woman.) 
bie fitttsC grau. 
bet gut'tn %xwx. 
ber gwt*ett grau. 
bie g u t * c grau. 

PLL^RAL. 

bie gut*cn grouen. 
ber g u t * en grauen. 
ben g u t * en grauen. 
bie gut^en grauen. 



Neuter. 
(The good chUd.) 
bag gntsf «inb. 
be« gut^en JKnbe«. 
bem gut* en ^nbe. 
ba« gut*c ^nb. 

bie gut* en Irtitbcr. 
ber g u t * en Winter. 



ben g u t * en Unbent, 
bie g u t * en ^ubcr. 

2. Adjectives are declined according to the New De* 
dension when preceded by : 

1. The definite article ber, bie, ba«. 

2. Any adjective pronoun that is declined accord- 
ing to the Old Declension, as bicfcr, jeber, jencr, 
mand^er, fold^er, n^eld^er (including all adjective 
pronouns except the possessive pronouns). 

Rem. After the/)/ara/« attc, anbcrc, cinigc, ctlidt^c, fcinc, mand;e, foI(^e, twetdj^e, 
me^rere, loiele, tweuige, the adjective usually drops sn in the nom. and aec. 

PLUEAL. 

Nom. aHe gut<e 53il(3^cr. 
Gen. attcr gut*cit SSilc^cr. 
Dat. aUcn gut-Ctt S3il^ern. 
Ace. alle gut^e 53il(^er, 

3. If several adjectives succeed the words allcr, ber^ 
bicfer, etc.^ they all follow the New Declension : 

(£r ^at biefc ncu*en bcutfc^^en He has bought these new Gennan books. 
S3il(^r gcfauft, 

4. The preposition Jtt is used after gepreit when this 
verb signifies to helong to^ in the sense oito he apart of: 

©aci^fen ge^ort jum 9^orbbcut* Saxony belongs to (is a part of) the 
fd)en 9unb, North German Confederation. 

Cbut) 2)a« ©ttci^ ge^»rt JcW Se^rcr, The book belongs to the teacher. 



ctnige gut*e SBild^cr. 
ciniger gut'ttt S3il(i^er. 
einigen gut*«eil 23il(i^ern. 
eiuige gutsc ©llci^er. 



loicle gut*c Silver, 
toicler gut^en S3il(i^cr. 
loielcn gut*en S31l^eru. 
toicle gut*e SBilci^er. 



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66 MIXED DEGLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 

Exercise 40. 
1. The pronunciation of the Italian language is soft, 
but still (boc^) energetic. 2. To whom does this new 
hat belong ? 3. It belongs to Mr. Behr. 4. Frankfort 
belongs now to Prussia. 5. The New Museum in 
Berlin is very large and imposing. 6. It is 340 feet 
long. 7. The Old Museum is not so large. 8. It is 276 
feet long, 170 feet deep, and 83 feet high. 9. The New 
Museum is behind the Old Museum. 10. The colors of 
the Austrian flag are black and yellow. 11. The col- 
ors of the Italian flag are red, white, and green. 12. 
On which side of the street do you live (reside)? 13. 
We live on the right side of the street, just opposite 
the new house of (the) Mr. Kranzler. 14. What does 
this cloth cost a yard? 15. The blue cloth costs five 
dollars a yard. 16. The black cloth costs four dollars 
and twenty groschens a yard. 17. The Austrian army 
has eight hundred thousand soldiers. 18. The tower of 
the new church is a hundred and forty feet high. 19. 
I bought a few (cinige) German books this morning. 20. 
I have not many (t)ic(c) German books. 21.1 have read 
many (manege or J)iclc) German books. 22. I have only 
a few (nur tt)emge) German books. 



LESSON XXI. 

MIXED DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 

SWcin ttcucr SRodE ifl gu gro^, My new coat is too large. 

Mx\ \qX mcincn ncucn SWocf , Charles has my new coat. 

Da^ i^inb \<x\ cin neucS S3ud^, The child has a new book. 

53crlin ifl cine grof^e unb cine Berlin is a large and very 

fe^r fd^Sne ©tabt, beautiful city. 

C)abcn ®ie unfer ncucS S^^vA Have you seen our new 

gefel^en? house? 

2Bo ifl 3^r ncuer S3(ciflift ? Where is your new pencil ? 



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MIXED DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



67 



Stttuttbtoterjigfte Wufgak. 

1, ^abcn ®te mcine bcutfd^e ©ramma^tif locate gefefjen? 2* 
3^r bcutfd^c^ Scfebud^ ift auf mcincm Stfc^e^ncben mcincr fran^ 
goftfd^cn ©rammatif, abtx 3^rc bcutfd^e ®rammatif l^abe t^ 
Itntt nid^t gcfcl^cn. 3. 2Waric l^at t^re italicnifd^e ©rammatif 
»erlegt; l;abcn Sie fie gcfc^ien? 4. 3^ Hit jte locate nid^t 
gcfe^^n. 5^ 2)ic Slcrmel 3^rc^ ncucn graded jtnt) gu (ang. 6. 
9Jein, bcr ©d^nciter l^at i^n ganj (exactly) nad) bcr ncucn 
2)iobe gcmad^t^ 1. ^dnxx6) !Dietric^ l^at einen fd^marjcn Ucber^ 
rod beftcUt. 8^ 2)er ^ragen nteiner tt)ei^en SBcflc tfl gu breit 
9- ^ber bic SBcjic pa^t 3f)ncn ganj gut. 10. !iDer SSater ^at 
bem itinbc cin f(^5neg neucg 33ud^ »crfprod^en, mil e? fcinc 
beutfci^cn Slufgabcn fo gut unb fd^nctl gclcrnt ^t 1 1 . ^err 
SSepcrlein bcl^auptet, bap |>crr ©ellert fiir fcine ncucn ©emalbe 
jwcitaufcnb ad^tl^unbcrt unb mcrjig 5:|ialcr bcja^lt ^l 12. ^in 
Dicb l^at mir l()cutc ba^ SEafd^entucfc auS bcr JEafd^c gcfloJ)lcn. 
13. SBill^elm \)at ben ncucn ^rug gcrbrod^en. 14. 2)a^ 2JJuflcr 
3^rc* ncucn Slcibc* ifl fcl^r fc^on. 15. 3lnna l^at f)cute cin 
fd^wargc? iticib, cincn Slcgcnfd^irm, cinen ©onnenfd^trm unb cu 
ncn blauen ©deleter gcfauft. 16. Da* gormat^ bicfer frangojt^ 
fc^en ©rammatif ijl ju grop. 



Vocabulary. 



Xcx 5CermcI, — «, pL —, sleeve. 

n ^agen, —8, ;?/. — , collar. 

t, gracf, — c«, ;?/. grade, dress coat. 

„ @d(>Ictcr, — 8, i>/. — , veil. 

tf 9Jcgcnfd^irm, —cS, ;>/. — c, um- 
brella. 

t, ©onncnf^irtn, — c8, pL — c para- 
sol. 
S)ic SWobe, —,;?/. — n, fashion. 

ry SDWl^C, — -, ;?/. — n, cap. 

n Xa\6)Zf — ,pl. — n, pocket. 

ft SBcftc, — , pL — n, vest. 

n ©romma'ti!, — , pL —en, gram- 
mar. 
f^\pxt' 6f en (irreff,), to promise. 



2)a8 gomtat', — c8, p/. — c, the form 
and size (as of a book). 

t, SWuftcr, — ^,pl. —, the pattern. 

n ^Icib, — c«, p/. — er, dress. 

(pi. Mctbcr, dresses, clothes.) 

If SefeBud^, reading-book, reader. 

,; £af(^^entU^,pocket-handkerchief 
^Ci6)f according to, after. 
SSc^au^'ten assert. 
53emer'fen, observe, notice. 
53cjlcr(cn, order, engage. 
SSerlc'gcn, to misplace, 
^affen (tcith dat,\ to fit, become. 
3erBre'^en {irreg.\ to break in (of 

into) pieces. 



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68 MIXED DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 

Grammatical. 

1. Adjectives are declined according to the Mixed 
Declension when preceded h j a j>ossessive pronoun, hy 
cin {one, ay an), or by lein {no, not any) : 

SINGULAK. 

Feminine, 

(My new vest.) 

mcinc ncu*e Scpe. 

mrincr ncu^eii Scfte. 

mciner iicu*eil Seftc. 

mcine ncu*e SBcjlc. 

PLURAL. 

meinc neu^en 2Bef!en. mdnc neu^eil SBilc^icr. 
mciner ncu*eil SBcftcn. 
meinen neu^en SSeflen. i 
meine neu^ett SBejIen. 

2. Table of the terminations of the three Declensions 
cf adjectives : 

1 . The Old Declension : Adjective alone before the substantive. 

2. The New Declension : Adjective preceded by htt, McfCt/ etc. 

3. The Mixed Declension : Adjective preceded by (fit/ tUtlU, etc. 



Masctdine. 
(My new coat.) 
Norn, mcin ncu*er 9^o(f, 
Gen. meinc« ncu*en 9io(fc«. 
Dot. tncincm ncu*eil 9lo(fc. 
Ace. meinen ncu*eil 9io(f. 

Norn, meine neu^eii SRiJde. 
Gen: meiner neu*en 9li5cfe. 
Dat. meinen neu^en 9lb(fen. 
-Ice. meinc nen*cii SliJdc. 



iVetifer. 
(ITie new book.) 
mein neu.»eS 23u(i^, 
meinc« neu'tii ©u^e«. 
meinem neu^en ^nd^e. 
mein ncu*e^ ^u6f. 



meiner neu^eit Sflc^^er. 
meinen ncU'Cn Sii^em. 
meine nen^eil ©il(3f^cr. 



1 


1. Old Declen- 
sion. 


2.NewDeclen- 
,^1 sion. ve^ 


3.MixedDeclen- 
ft.^ sion. -vr 


Masn. 


Fern. 


iVett/. 


iffl»r. Fm. iVctt/. 


lfa«T. 


Fern. 


Neat. 1 


.er, 
.en, 
•'cm, 
«»en, 

*cr, 
*en, 


-cr, 

*er, 
*en, 


*C8. 

*cn. 
*cm. 

*e. 
*er. 
*cn. 
*e. 


*e, ^e, -f. 
*en, *cn, <cn. 
*en, *en, ^cn. 
*en, <c, ^c. 

=*en(e),^en(e),*cn(e). 
*cn, *en, *en. 
^tn, *=en, *en. 
^en(e),*en(c), <*cn(e). 


^er, 
*en, 
*en, 

*en, 
*cn, 
*cn, 
*en, 


*cn, 
*cn, 

*en, 
*en, 
*en, 
*cn, 


*e«. 
'Cn. 
*en, 

^n. 
*cn. 
*cn. 
*cn. 



Mem. 1. In the seventy-two endings of these three declensions, *Ctl occur* 
forty-four times, *( fifteen, *(r seven*, C^ four times, and «Cttl twice. 

Bern. 2. The mixec? declension is like the o/(i in the nominative and accusa- 
tive singular ; in the other cases it is like the new declension. 

Rem. 3. The similarity between the new declension of nouns and the new 
declension of adjectives is very striking. 

Rem. 4. The dative plural of all articles, nouns, adjectives, and pronouns 
(except ttttS and ttt(()) ends in «lt* 



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COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 69 

Exercise 42. 
1. I have mislaid my German Beader; I have been 
looking for it a long time, but I have not found it yet. 

2. There it is on the table under my German Grammar. 

3. Have you read your German newspaper? 4. No, I 
have not yet read it ; do you wish it ? 5. Have you 
noticed the new cap of the child ? 6. Yes, it fits him 
very well. 7. Have you found your umbrella ? 8. Have 
you seen my German Reader? 9. Have you ordered 
a pair of boots ? 10. No, I ordered a pair of shoes. 11. 
The collar of his overcoat is too wide. 12. The child 
has broken the cup and the saucer. 13. Charles bought 
this morning a dozen pocket-handkerchiefs, a new vest, 
an umbrella, and a pair of India-rubber over-shoes. 14. 
Breslau has a hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants. 
15. The Cathedral at Freiburg is three hundred and 
twenty feet long and a hundred feet wide. 16. The 
tower is three hundred and ninety-six feet high. 



LESSON XXII. 

COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

Dicfe ^ird^e ifl fd^on, jene ifl This church is beautiful, 
fd^oncr, unto jcnc bort ifl bic that (one) is more beauti- 
fc^Ottfle t>on alien, ful, and that (one) yon- 

der is the most beauti- 
ful of all. 
grauleitt 55raun jingt fc^OH/ Miss Brown sings beauti- 
grauleitt @tcin jingt fd^Bncr, fully. Miss Stein sings 
akr graulein ?angc (ingt am more beautifully, but 
fc^5n^en, Miss Lange sings most 

beautifully. 
i>tutt wcrbcn tt)iv bcffcre? SBct^ We shall have better weath- 

ttx ^aUn, er to-day. 

Gr wunfd)t iai bcfle Zni), He wishes the best cloth. 



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70 



COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 



2)retitttb)iiersigfte 9(ttfga(e. 

1. DiefcS ©emcilbe ifl mel f^Bner al« im9. 2. ^eute tjl 
tai ©etter milber ate c« gejlcrn war^ 3. *5><i6^n ©ic tie ncue^ 
fteu 9ia(^rid^ten ge^ort ? 4. ^abcn @ie bie (e^ten Slad^rid^tcn 
gelefen? 5. 2)cr i^urm be* Dome^ ju ®icn i|l ber I^Bc^fie in 
bet SBclt 6. Die Sc^neefoppe, ber ^oc^fte S3erg in SRorb^ unb 
aWittel:^Deutfd^lanb, ifl 4960 gu^ l&o^. 7. Die Donau ifl ber 
langfle glup in Deutfd^Ianb. 8. Der fiirjefle SBeg »on 33erlin 
nac^ ^ariS ifl iiber aWagbeburg unb ^oln. 9. ^eute ifl ber 
fiirgefle Sag be? 3af)re*. 10* 33aron j)ou SRot^^ifc tt>ax ber 
reid^fle SWann in ber 3SSelt» 11. Sllbrec^t Diirer tt)ar ber berubnt:^ 
tefte beutf^e 2Waler m 3Wittelaltere. 12. 3n 5Riirnberg befon^ 
ber? bat er i>iele f^iJne ©emalbe gemalt. 13. Der Heine gri^ 
(Freddy) ifl ein allerliebfle? ^inb. 14. ^einrid^ ifl nid^t fo 
alt tt)ie Sol^ann, aber er ifl gtt)ei 3a^re alter ali ©il^elm. 15. 
^err General ^on granfenflein tt)ar in ber ©d)lad^t mel^r tapfcr' 
ate sjorfid^tig. 16. Die ©ef^id^te be? brei^igja^rigen ^riege? 
tfl p^fl intereffant. 17. 3»ein jiingfler ©ruber ifl fe^? 3a^re 
alt. 18. 3Wiind&en ifl bie grSpte ©tabt in S3aiern. 19. ®ie ifl 
j)iel grower ate 9?iirnberg ober 3lug?burg. 20. SSaben ifl ein vot^ 
nig grower ate ©ac^fen. 21. SBaiern ifl »iel groper ate SSaben* 



Vocabulary. 



^cr 23aron', — 9, pi. — c, baron. 

, General', — «, pi. Ocncralc, gen- 
eral. 

„ Obcrfl, —en, pi. —en, colonel. 

H Sru6,—c8,/»/.gIilffc, river. 

„ 2Bcg, — C8, ;>/. —t, way, road. 
S)ic ® d^la^t, — , pi. —en, battle. 

„ SBcIt, —fpL —en, world. 
2)a« 3Cftcr, —«,/>/. — , age. 

„ aj^ttdaltcr, Middle Ages. 
9Wittct*2)CUtfd^Ianb, Central Germany. 
SScnig (adj. and adv.), little. 
%19, as, than. 
2Btc, as, than. 
3?ieliet(^t', perhaps. 



Bcril^mt', famous, renowned. 

^ith, dear, cherished. 

2)rci6igj[ii^rig, thirty years' (war). 

©iebenjifi^rig, seven years' (war). 

mi\>, mild. 

©tttrmifd^, stormy, tempestuous 

X(Op\tx, valiant, brave. 

33orji^ttg, prudent. 

3ung, young. 

^urg, short. 

Xxm, true, faithful. 

©on J (adj.), entire, whole. 

Sctjt, last, latest. 

$orig, last, preceding. 

5)ort, there, yonder. 



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COMPARISON OF ADJECTIYES. 



71 



GrammaticaL 
1. Adjectives are compared by adding to the positive 
degree =cr for the comparative degree, and^ft or ?eft for 
the sujperlMive degree. 



Rem, When the positive ends in A^, «t/ 
Buperlative is formed by adding ^Cft* 



'^/ 4/ *3/ *W/ 4/ *\, or *tt, the 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


fetn, 


fine, 


fctn^er, 


finer, 


fcin^ft, finest. 


rcid^, 


rich, 


xnii^ttf 


richer. 


rcit^^ft, richest. 


fd)5n, 


beautiful, 


f^Sn*er, 


more beautiful, 


ft^bn^t, most beautiful. 


milb, 


mild, 


milb^er, 


milder, 


tnttb^eft, mildest. 


tot, 


loud, 


totter, 


louder, 


laut^Cfc loudest. 


l?eie, 


hot. 


^cifi^er, 


hotter. 


^Cig*cft, hottest. 


folfd?, 


false, 


\<AWtXf 


falser, 


falfc^'-Cft, falsest. 


frot), 


happy. 


\xtHtf 


happier. 


fro^^eft, happiest. 


fret, 


free. 


frci^er, 


freer, 


frct^eft, freest. 


trcu, 


true, 


treu^cr, 


truer, 


treu=*efc truest. 



2. When the positive is a monosyllable, the radical 
vowel, if a, 0^ or U; usually takes the umlaut in the com* 
parative and superlative degrees : 



alt, old, 

loarm, warm, 

to0, long, 

groBp coarse, 

lur}, short, 

jung, young. 



SIt*cr, older, 
tt)arm*Cr, warmer, 
I5ng*er, longer, 
flri5b*cr, coarser, 
filrg^er, shorter, 
jilng^er, younger. 



m^t% oldest, 

tofirm^ft, warmest. 

15ng*ft, longest. 

gr6b*ft, coarsest. 

Iflrg^eft, shortest. 

ittng*ft, youngest. 



3. Adjectives ending in ?el or ^eil reject the e of this 
syllable in the comparative degree : 

Cbcl, noble, cbl*et, nobler, cbcl^ft, noblest, 

trodcn, dry, tro(fn='er, dryer, tro(fcn*ft, dryest. 

4. The following adjectives are compared irregularly; 
gut, good, beffcr, better, bcfl, best. 

$0^, high, ^o^cr, higher, ^5ci^fl, highest. 

na^Ic, near, nS^cr, nearer, ttad^fl, nearest, 

ijiel, much, mc^r, more, tncifl, most, 

grog, great, gtiJficr, greater, grbgt, greatest. 

5. Adjectives in the comparative and superlative de- 
grees are subject to the same laws of declension as ad 
jectives in the positive degree. 



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72 COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

v6. The regular superlative form (as itX Jcftc) is only 
used attributively, i. e., with a noun expressed or under- 
stood : 

S)icfe« ifl ba« bcflc Xn^, This is the best cloth. 

2)icfcS Xuci^ ifl ba« bcfte (ZvLd}), This cloth is the best (cloth). 

yj. To express the superlative^<^i<3a^iv^Zy, the dative 
preceded by am (an fcem) may be employed : 

2)iefc8 Slud^ ifl am it\ttn, This cloth is the best. 

2)iefe ^lume ifl ant fd^iinfteit/ This flower is the most beautifuL 
Rem. This predicative form of the superlative is also used adverbially : 

SKaric fingt am f>t9tU, Mary sings the best. 

^. By way of emphasis, the genitive plural of dUtX is 

frequently prefixed to the superlative : 

2)icfc S3Iumc ifl bie afftrWiJnflc, This flower is far the most beautiful 

S)icfe SBtume ifl am atterfdffiJnflcn, of all. 

,rSr ifl cin attcrlielbfleS ^nb," " He is a dear little chUd." 

\9. The absolute superlative is expressed by prefixing 
to the positive degree such adverbs as f cl^t, ^^fff\t, (ilt^etft : 

2)ie 9'lad;ri(i(^t ifl f}'66f^ intcreffant, The news is extremely interesting. 

f, rr rr&Ugcrfl „ 

\10. When two qualities are compared together in the 
comparative degree, the adverb IXttfft is used instead of 
the ending ^tt : 

CJr ifl mtfft ta))fcr aU toorfid^tg, He is more brave thair prudent. 

Exercise 44. 

1. My oldest brother is twelve years, and my young- 
e'st brother is six years old. 2. Do you wish finer cloth? 
3. No, this cloth is fine enough. 4. To-day is the long- 
est day in the year. 5. Charles is five years older than 
his brother. 6. Mr. Krause sings very well (ganj ftUt), 
but Mr. English sings much better, and Mr. Eberhard 
sings the best of all (tJOtt alien). 7. The weather is very 
disagreeable to-day, but it is more stormy than cold. 
8. The Colonel was not less prudent than courageous 



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OBDINAL NUMBERS. 73 

in the battle. 9. Mary Kranzler sang the German songs 
extremely beautifully. 10. William Friedlander is just 
(gera'^be) as (fo) old as (luic or ate) Frederick Schnaase. 
11. This paper is not so good as that. 12. That book 
is larger than this. 13. The Oder is the longest river 
in North Germany. 14. It is longer than the Elbe. 
15. Have you read the. last news? 16. Albert Diirer 
was among (unter) the most distinguished painters of 
Germany. 17. The shortest road from Berlin to Trieste 
is by way of Dresden, Prague, and Vienna. 



LESSON XXIII. 

ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



2)cr erfle SCag bc8 2Wonatg, The first day of the month. 

2)er gttjcite lag be? $Dlonat«, The second day of the 

month. 

Die britte ©cite be? 53ud^c«, The third page of the book. 

Der »icrte Suit 1776, The fourth of July, 1776. 

Sim neunjel^ntcn Slugup, On the nineteenth of Au- 

gust. 

2)ic brciunbgwangigfle ?eItion, The twenty-third lesson. 

2)ic funfunbSJierjigpc Slufgabe, The forty-fifth exercise. 

er flarb ^xa brittcn 3)?at, He died on the third of 

(or) er flarb ben britten SWai, May. 

PiifiiiibbicrjiBfte attfpk* 

1. 3(^ l^abe l^eute »om |>errn $rofeffor ®teinmei;er ben er^ 
pen SSanb ber ©efdbid^te ber beutfd^en Siteratur J)on ^einrid^ 
^rj ftebotgt- 2. ^err ©d^onberg wo^nt tm ixotxXv^ ©tod be8 
funften l^aufeg auf ber red^ten ©eite ber 5riebrid^«^®tra§e. 3. 
2)ie angeigcn jtnb auf ber jlebenten unb ad^ten ©eite ber 3e{^ 
tung. 4. !Die telegtap^ifd^e 2)epeTc^e »on Slmerifa tft ungefa^r 
in bet 3Ritte ber t>ierten ©^alte auf ber britten ©eite ber ^iejtgen 

D 

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74 ORDINAL 27UMBERS. 

I^euttgen Seitung; bic 2)q)erd^e ifi »on fe^r gropem 3ntcreffc. 
5* 2)ctt Urfprung be« ©ortc^ ,,5Kcffer" wcrtcn ®ic im gtt)ci^ 
ten 93anbe ber Written Slupagc be^ beutfd^en SBortcrbud^eS ^on 
„®d^mitt]^cnncr", auf bcr l^unbert ad^tunbi)icrgi8flett ©cite, in 
bcr ncununbxwanxigficn 3^tle »on unten, finben* 6* e^rifiopl^ 
golumtu^ ^at Slmerifa am llten DhoUx 1492 entbedft^ 7* 
gricbrid^ bcr 3»eite, gewS^nlid^ ber ©rope gcnannt, fiart am 
17ten Slugufi 1786* 8* ©r tt)ar bcr britte ^onig t>on ^reu^cn* 
9. grifbrid^ SSill^cIm bcr SSierte, ber fcd^jle ^onig »on i)reupen, 
flarb am 2tcn Sanuar 1861* 10.®H^t flarb in fflBcimar am 
22flen SWarj 1832. IL ©d^iflcr fiarb in SBeimar am 9ten 
SWai 1805- 12; 5llbrcd^t Durer roar bcr groptc bcutfc^c aWalcr 
bc« 16ten unb I7ten 3al^r^unbcrt«* 13» SWontag roar bcr crftc 
Sanuar* 1^* 3)icnflag roar tin fcl^r ^cipcr SCag. 

Vocabulary. 



2)cr S3anb, —t9,pL SBSnbc, volume, 
w ^5mg,— 9,;;/. — C,king. 
„ ^aifcr, — 8,;?^—, emperor. 
„ ^cu53ug,—c8,;)/.^eU35ilge, cru- 
sade. 
1, @to(f , — 19, story (of a ho|ise). 
„ ^^Uofo^jy,— cn,/>/. — cn,plulos- 



„ Urfrrung, — «, origin. 

SHe S(njdgc,T-,;>/.—ii, advertisement 

w SlufCagc, — , pL — n, edition. 

„ 2)ci>c'f(^C, — , />/. — n, dispatch. 

„ Sitcratur' , — , pi. —en, literature 

„ SWittc, —ipl — n, middle. 

t, @^a(tc, — , pi. —n, column. 



2)a« (Snbc, — «,y. — n, end. 
It 3ntcrcf fc, —8, interest. 
„ SBort, — e8, ;>/. SBBbrtcr, word. 
It SBiJrtcrbud^, dictionarj-. 

S3orgcn, to borrow. 

2)aucrn, to last, endure. 

@ntbe(f en, to discover. 

@terBcn {irreg,\ to die. 

©enonnf , named, called. 

(§>zxa^v!\x^f usual. 

Ungcfd^r (adv.\ about, nearly. 

3Son olben, from above, from the top. 

SSon unten, from below, from the bot- 
tom. 

^enttg {adj.\ of to-day, to-day*8. 

^iefig (aJ/.), of this place. 



Grammatical. 
1. The Ordinal Numl)ers are formed from the Cardinal 
Numhera : 

1. By suifixing M, from JttCl to ncnnjcl^tt* 

2. " " 4tc, " Stoanjig upward. 

Hem. In compound numbers onli/ the last one takes the suffix. 



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CmDINAL NOMBEBS; 



75 



iBt 2)cr crftt* 

2d 

3(1 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

8th 

9th 
10th 
11th 
12th 
13th 
14th 
,15th 
16th 



17th 
18th 
19th 
20th 
21st 
25th 
30th 
35th 



aioet4e* 

,/ Mt4u 

„ toier*te* 

,, \t^94t. 

I, ftcben^te* 

It a^t^c* 

„ ntm4u 

„ breije^n^te/ 

„ ficbengc^n^C/orficbgc^n^te* 

„ ad^tgc^n*te* 

„ ncungc^n^tC^ 

„ einunbgtDangig^flte* 

n filnfunbgtoonjtQ-fte* 

V brci6ig*fte» 

„ filnfunbbrdgtij.ftc* 



40th 2)cr toicrjig-fte^ 



50th 


rr filnfsi8*fte» 


60th 


It fc(3t>Jt9*fte» 


70th 


„ ficlbengig.jle, or peb* 




m^^. 


80th 


11 (^¥m9u 


90th 


f, ncungig.ftc* 


100th 


ft ^unbcrt'fte* 


lOlst 


tt ^imbcrt unb erfte^ 


125th 


,t ^unbcrtfttnfunbgn?an* 




„ gtDci^unbcrt-fte. 


200th 


500th 


„ fftnf^unbert^fte^ 


1,000th 


„ taufcnb^te^ 


1,001st 


1, taufcnb uni? erfle. 


1,026th 


It taufcnb fed^sunbgtran* 




m-Su 


1,626th 


It taufcnb fcdf>«^unbcrt 




unb fc4^«unbgtoan* 




mftt. 


2,000th 


If jtoeitaufenb^fte* 


20,000th 


It sn)angt0taufcnb*|le* 


100,000th 


1, ^uubcrttaufcnb*fte* 


500,000th 


„ filnff^unberttaufcnbsftc^ 



Bern, 1. The forms bttt^^tt and a^t^t are euphonic variations from the 
mle for forming ordinal numbers. 

' Rem, 2. Ordinal numbers aj^ subject to all the laws of declension of adjec- 
tives (see Lessons XX., XXL, and XXII.). 

2. Names of the seasons^ oim.ontJi8y and of the days of 
the weelcy are mdsculine : 



1. The Seasons (bic ^al^rcSjcifcn): 



2)cr @ommer, —Qfpl ■ 



Ser SBtnter, — «, pi — , wmter. 
„ grfl^ftng, ^, pi. -c, 
• spring. 
(Exc. %ti^ gril^jo^r, —t^tpt — c, spring.) 

2. The Months (bte SWotiate) : 



-^ summer. 
t, autumn. 



2)cr 3a'nuar, —8, January, 
r/ gc'bniar, — «, February. 
ft aWarj, —cS, March. 
ti 2H)rir, —68, April, 
f/ SWot, — C8, May. 
u 3imi, — '«, June. 



S)cr 3nn,— %July. 
» ^Cuguff, — c«, August. 
It ©e^tcm'ber, —8, September. 
„ D!to'6er, —«, October. 
„ 9?obcm'bcr, —8, November. 
ti 5)Cjcra'(>cr, —8, December. 



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76 ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

3. The Days of the Week (bic Xa^t bcr SBo(^C): 



2)cr ©onntag, ~8, pi. — c, Sun- 
day. 

ri SWontag, — 9, pi. —t, Mon- 
day. 

t, 2)icnflag,— 0, />/. — c, Tues- 
day. 



2)er TOttttJod;, —•,/>/. —e, Wednesday 
,r 2)onnerftag, —3, pi. — c, Thurs- 
day. , 
„ grcttafl)— 8,;?/.— c, Friday, 
r, ©amflag, — «, pi. — e, Saturday. 

0/ @omiabcnb,— 8,1)/.— c, ** .) 



3. Present and imperfect tenses of ftctBett, to die : 



Present Tense. 

x^ flerb'-e, i die. 

bu ftirbjt, thoudiest. 

cr ftirbt, he dies. 

tt)ir flcrl)'*eil/ we die. 
i^r jlcrl)'*t, you die. 
fic P c r b '* tXL, they die. 



Imperfect Tense. 
i^ fiart, I died, 

bu \iWCh\if thoudiedst. 

cr ftarb/ he died. 

Xoxc flarb'*=eil/ we died. 
W^x flarb^t, you died, 
fic p a r b ^ eil/ they died. 



4. In German the verb is often removed to the end 
of very long sentences {see sentence 5 in Exercise 45). 

5. When the adverbial expression of time is very 
long, it may follow that of place {see Less. III.^ 2). 
Sd^iUcr flarb in SScimar am 9tcn 9Wai Schiller died in Weimar on the ninth 

1805. of May, 1805. 

Exercise 43. 
1. 1 am now reading the third volume of the history 
of Germany by K. A. Menzel. 2. On what page are 
you reading? 3. I am reading on the hundred and 
fifty-third page, seventeen lines (m the seventeenth line) 
from the top (ijon oben). 4. The advertisement of the 
sale of the house is in the third column of the fourth 
page of to-day's paper. .. 5. Francis the Second, em- 
peror of (»on) Austria, and the last emperor of Ger- 
many, died in Vienna on the second of March, 1835. 6. 
Charlemagne (^arl bcr ©ro^e), the first emperor of Ger- 
many, died in Aix-la-Chapelle January 28th, 814. 7. 
The Crusades lasted from the end of the eleventh till 
towards the end of the thirteenth century. 8. Friday 
will be the first of January. 9. Saturday was the cold- 
est day of this month. 10. Wednesday will be the 



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IBREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 77 

shortest day of the year. 11. Immanuel Kant, the 
greatest philosopher of the eighteenth century, died in 
Konigsberg on the twelfth of February, 1804. 12. He 
was eighty years old when (al$) he died. 



LESSON XXIV. 

lABEGULAR TERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 

1. 2)cr ©olbat bint>et fein Safd^cntud^ urn feinen 8lrm» 2. 
SBcrlin unb Hamburg ftnb bur(3^ eine Sifcnbal^tt i>erbunbcn» 3. 
2)cr SBunbarjt \)at iit SBunben bc« ©olbatcit »crbunbcn 
(dressed). 4. 2)er S5ud^binber f>at iai 55ud^ »erbunbcm 5, 
3d^ ^abc tie ^orlcftte, aber nici^t bie leftte Sluflagc bed SB6rfer^ 
iud^cd in bcr 93u^^anblung ttoit |)ertn SWe^cr gefunben. 6. 
e^rijlop^ ©ottlicb ©d^rStcr, (an) Drganifl in SRorbl^aufcn, l^at 
im 3a]^re 1717 bad ^la^ier erfunben. 7. SCrinfen ®ic lieber 
(do you prefer) Zi)tt ober ^affce? 8. 5^ trinfe licbcr S^ee* 

9. 2)ic ©dealer l^abcn i^rc beittfd^en Slufgabcn fd^on bcgonnen^ 

10. $crr ©tradf ^at ba« $au« tm Jjorigcn Sal^re fiir 8500 Z^u 
gcfaufi ; cr l^at e« jjotgcjlern fiir 9100 SCblr. xjerfauft. 11. ©r 
^at babci' 600 SC^Ir. gcwonncn. 12. 2)ic 93auerin l^at bad 
®artt ganj gut gcfponncn. 13. 2)cr aSerbred^cr l^at bie ©efefte 
beg ?anbed gebrod^en. 14. Sld^, lieber griebrid^ I 2)u l^ajl biefe 
f^one neue Safe ganj jerbrod^en. 15. $err SRiebner fprid^t gu 
3Ncn. 16. 2)ie Sludgaben ber SRegierung waren »iel gu grog ; 
fte entfprad^eit gar ni6)t ber Slrmut^ bed ?anbed» 17» 2)et 
Sauer brifd^t ben aBeigen. 18. Dad ^inb fiat bad beutfd^e 
2B5rterbud^ »on bent SCifd^e genommen. 19. 2Bir l^aben |)erm 
^ird^l^off l^eute SWorgen auf ber ©trage getroffen. 20. SBir 
treffen i^n fel^r oft im SWufeum. 21. 2)er 3ager l^at ben |)afett 
ni^t getroffen. 22. 2)ad ^inb ^at ben S5aU fiber bad $aud ge^ 
njorfen^ 23. Der ©auateijier ^at einen fe^r fd^5nen ?>Ian fur 
bad neue Slatfi^aud entmorfen. 24. ©o? |)aben ®ie i^n gefe^ 
1^ ? 25. SRein, aber $err ffiof ^at gefagt, bap er fe^r fd^Jn ijl. 



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78 



IBBEGX7LAB VBBBS OF THE FIRST CliA^. 



Vocabnlary. 



2)cr Wm, —t^rpL — c, ann. 
,, ©all,— c«,/>/. «fiac,balL 
t, S3aumcipcr, — «, pL — > architect 
„ Drgoniji', —en, pL —en, organ- 
ist. 
„ Pan,— e8,;>/. pane, plan, 
f, iclegr(4)y , — en, pL —en, tele- 
graph, 
f, SerBrc'^cr, •^, ;>/. — , criminal 
„ SBd3en,—«, wheat. 
„ SBunbarjt, — e«, surgeon. 
2)ic ^[nnut^i, —, poverty, 
rf 51u«gaBc, — , pL — ^n, expense. 
n ©fiuerin, — , pi — nen, peasant 

woman, peasant^s wife. 
tf 9lcgie'mng, — , pL —en, govern- 
ment. 



2)ie (5ifcnBa5n,—,i>/.— en, railroad. 

'* 3Saf e, — , pi. — n, vase. 

r/ SBunbc, — , pL —n, wound. 
S)a« (Sintommen, — S, income. 

tf ®arn, — e«,i>/. — e, yam. 

„ ©efc^', — e«,i)/. — e, law. 

rf ^orn, — e8, pi ^^vntx, grain. 

„ Sanb, — e«,i>/. Sfinber, land, coun- 
try. 

„ ^at\fyau9, — eS, jo/. 9lat^^5ufer, 
city haU. 
2)aBci', thereby. 
@ar (adv,\ at alL 
@tet^, immediately. 
Sicber, rather, 
(gtcrtrif^, electric, 
^orle^t, next to the last 



Rem, It will have been noticed that most masculine and neuter nouns be- 
long to the Old Declension, and that most feminine nouns belong to the New 
Declension* 

Grammatical 

1. Irregular verbs are divided into seven classes^ ac- 
cording to the changes which the radical vowel under- 
goes in forming ihe jprincipal jparts : 

2. In the irregular verbs 
of the^r^^ class each princi- 
pal part has a different rad- 
ical vowd. Thus : 

3. Irregular verbs of the^r*^ dass 



Pre*. Jnf. 


I^. Jnd. 


Perf.Part. 


(<»-)t. 




n. 

0. 
0. 



Present Infinitive, 


Present Indicative, 


Imperf, 


Perfect 


2d and Zd Persons, 


Indicdt, 


Participle. 


iinb'en, to bind. 


(formed regularly.) 


hatih, 


gefondem 


)5erbittb'*en, to unite, to tie up, 


(( <t 


Derbanb, 


ijcrbunben. 


finb*en, to find, [to bind wrong. 


{( li 


fanb. 


gcfuttben. 


erflnb'*cn, to invent. 


C( (( 


erfanb. 


etfunben. 


ftng^en, to sing. 


{( 4( 


fang, 


gcfungen. 


trint'en, to drink. 


<{ (i 


tran!. 


getmnfcn. 


>egitttt'*en, to begm. 


(formed regularly.) 


f>mim, 


htqomttt^ 


gewinn'^'en, to gain. 


K U 


getDonn, 


getoomten. 


ft?lnn*en, to spin. 


U 


fponn, 


geft>oim©; 



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IBBBGULAR VEBBS OF THE FIBST CLASS. 



79 



5re^*en, to break. 

jcrbrcd^'^cn, to break to pieces. 
f^)rc^*cn, to speak. 
cntf^)rcd^'«»cn, to correspond to, 
or with (governs the dative'), 
t)crf^)rc(^''Cn, to promise. 
brcfd^^CH; to thresh. 
nc^m*cn, to take. 
flcrb*cn, to dia 
treff^'Cn, to meet, hit, shoot. 
tt)crf*en, to throw, 
cnttoerf ''Cn, to project. 



bu (rt4fit,er6ri4t/ 

„ gcrbric^jl, „*brid)t, 

r, cntfrrid^il,„*frn^t, 



jcrbrac^, 
cntfj)rad^, 



jcrbro^ciu 
cntfJ>ro^cn. 



„ bcrft)rid?|l, ^^^ri^t, t>crf^)ra^; Dcrfrro^cn 
brif(3^fl,„ brif^t, braf^, gebrof^cn. 
nimmjl » nimmt na^m, {jcnommcn. 
flirbfl, „ jUrBt, jlarb, gcjlorben. 
triffft, u trifft, trat getroffcn. 
ttjirffl, „ tc\x% toarf, gcttotfcn. 
r, cnttt)irffl, w*tt)irft, enttoarf, cnttcorfen. 
i^em. 1. The first class contains ^rfy-;/?pc verbs. 

RerA. 2. The inseparable prefixes tC/ %t, tXdp \>ttf %tt, etc., give modifica« 
tions to the significations of verbs analogous to those given in English by the 
syllables he and^br ; 

To have, hold, speak, come, give, get. 

To behave, behold, bespeak, become, forgive, forget. 

Exercise 48. 

1. The child is tying the ribbon on. (um) his hat. 2. 
The surgeon has been dressing the wounds of the sol- 
diers. 3. The bookbinder has bound this German Dic- 
tionary wrong. 4. Professor Morse invented the Elec- 
tric Telegraph in 1838. 5. Do you prefer tea or coffee ? 
6. 1 prefer (trinfe licbtx) coffee. 7. The peasant's wife is 
spinning the yarn. 8. That old criminal has often 
broken the laws of his land. 9. His expenses did not 
at all correspond to his income. 10. The peasant is 
threshing the grain. 11. Have you taken my umbrel- 
la? 12. William says that Henry took it. 13. I met 
your uncle, Mr. Rahn, yesterday in Leipsic. 14. The 
hunter has shot the hare. 15, The child has thrown 
his ball into the water. 16. The architect has designed 
(cntwerfcn) a very fine plan for the new church. 17. Karl 
Friedrich Schinkel, the most distinguished architect of 
the nineteenth century, drew (entwcrfcn) the plan for the 
Old Museum in Berlin* 18. Potsdam and Berlin are 
connected by (»ertunbcn burd^) a railroad. 



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80 



IBBEOUIAB YEBBS (CONTIinTED). 



LESSON XXV. 

IREOULAB VERBS OF THE SECOND, THIRD, AND FOURTH CLASSES. 

1* ^aben ©ic bie l^cutige B^itung gclcfcn? 2* Vim, i^ l^abe 
fte ttO(^ tti^t flefe^en* 3* 2)cr itaufmann l^at ba« SCu^ gfmcf? 
fen* 4. 2)er aWeffer mi^t bad gclb* 5* (Sffen ©ic gem (do 
you like) ©bji ? 6. D^, i^ cffc ti fe^r gem* 7* 2)a« ^inb 
i§t eineit ^pftl 8. (J« l[yat ba« JButtcrbrob gcgeffen mi ik 
mi^ getrunfcn. 9. 2)a« $ferb frift ba« $cu- 10. ^ari l^at 
fein a3ud^ mgeffen* 11. 3l45ti$,bu trittji auf bie fd^6nen 
SRclfctt unb SCulpcn* 12. ®raf »on ©erndborf f)at ben ^ontg 
»on ?>reupcn im ©uropaifd^cn ^ongrcg^ gu ^ari«^ »ertreten. 13. 
2)cr 33aucr grabt cinen ncucn ©runnen. 14. 2)er 35ger fd^lagt 
fcinen ^unb, ttjcil cr ben aWann gcbiffen (bitten) f)at 15. 
SWein Dtener ttJtrb bie Slepfel itnb bte SBimen nad^ ^aufe tra;« 
gen. 16. graulein granj ^af geflem 5lbenb ein fd^wargeg feibe^ 
ne« ^leib getragen. 17. gine |)anb Wfci^t bie anbere (one 
good turn deserves another). 18. ^eute 3Worgen f^aben 
ttJir breige^n gorellen gefangen. 19. ^err ©teinbad^er l^at un8 
fe^r freunbli(]^ empfangen. 20. 3^^ i^alte i^n fur (I consider 
him) einen e^rli^en 3)lann. 21. 2)er ^ommid' l^at fein ®e^ 
f)aW erijyalten. 22. 2)ie ©ibliot^el ju Dre«ben ent^alt 300,000 
©anbe unb 2800 ^anbfd^riften. 23. SBo ifl |)einrid^? 24. 
@r f(^laft nt>6). 25. gr l^at fd^on ju (ange gefd^lafen. 26. 
SBo tji ©il^elm ? 27. (Sr ifl im ©arten; id^ werbe i^n rufen. 



Vocabulary. 



2)cr a^jfcT, — S,;>/. 2lc^)fel, apple. 

(T S3ruiinen, — 8, ;?/. —, well. 

n SHcncr, — 8,;?/. — , servant. 

9, StommW, — , jd/. —, clerk. 

„ ^ongrc6', — C^f Congress. 

t, 2Wcffcr, ^—8, p/. . — , surveyor. 

S)ic S3trnc, — , ;>/. — n, pear. ' 

„ gorcric, — , pi. -—n, trout. 

» 3lt\it, — fpl. — n, pink. 

„ %vitpt, —, pL —n, tulip. 

V ^anb, —,/>/. ^nbc,han4. 



2)ic @(3^rift,—,;>2; —en, writing. 

tt ^anbf^rift, mannscript. 
2)o« gclb, —i9,pL —tt, field. 

rr ®C^aIt',—C«,p/.—e, salary. 

„ $cu,— c«, hay. 

rr ^ferb, — e«, pL — c, horse, 
©crn (ocfo.), gladly, willingly. 
Slnbcr (a<§*.), other. 
C^^rlic^ (a^'O? honest, honorabie. 
©etben, silken, silk. . 
(Suro)>d'if^, European. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IRREGULAR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



81 



OrammaticaL 
1. In irregular verbs of the second^ third, dkXidifouHh 
classes, the radical vowel of the imperfect only varies 
from that of the present : 





Pres.Inf, 


Imp, Ind. 


Per/,ParL 


. 

No. of Verbs. 


Second Class, 
Third Class, 
Fourth Class, 




ie(i), 




14. 
10. 
14. 



2. Irregular verbs of the second doss : 

Present Infinitive, 

^th^txif to give, 
tcrgcb'^en, to forgive, 
fc^en, to see. 
Icf*cn, to read. 
Tncff*cn, to measure. 
cff*en, to eat. [wia/«). 

frcff*cn, to eat (said o/ani- 
Dcrgcff' f«t, to forget. 
tttUttt, to tread, step. 
»ertrcf *cn, to represent. 
iertrct'*en, to tiead. 

3. Nearly all irregular verbs with a, 0, or au, as the 
radical vowel, take the umlant in the second and third 
persons singular of the present indicative. 



Present Indicative, 


Imperfect 


Perfect 


2d and M Persons. 


Indicat. 


Participle, 


bu ^m, 


cr BiM, 


gab, 


gegeBen. 


„ tocrgibft, 


1, *fiiBt, 


tcrgalb, 


tcrgcfeen. 


» m% 


n fit% 


fa^, 


ficfc^en* 


f, Hefejt/ 


ff lief't, 


Ia«, 


0clcfcn. 


r/ miffejl, 


w ntigt, 


mag, 


gcmcffciu 


fi iffep, 


If ^6tf 


06, 


gcgeffcn. 


rr fnffcfl, 


« fnfitf 


fraf, 


gcfrcffcn. 


„ t^ergiffcft, 


n *0t6t. 


JJergag, 


tjcrgcffcn. 


„ trittjl, 


w tritt, 


trat, 


gctrctcn. 


„ i)crtritt|l, 


» -trttt, 


t)crtrat, 


t)crtrctcn. 


„ gertrittft; 


tf 'tritt, 


3crtrat, 


jertrcten. 



Present Tense. 
t<^ Wag'^e^ I strike. 
bU Wiifl^fl, thoustrikest, 

Ct f<|lii0$t^ . he strikes. 
toxx \^i(iQ'*tU^ we strike. 
t^r.f^log%et^ you strike. 
fu 1 4 '^ fl '" Cir, they strike. 

4. Irregular verbs of the third class 

Present Indicative, 
2d and Sd Persons. 



Imperfect Tense, 
i^ Wnq, I struck, 

bu .f0l]t§$fl/ thou struckest. 

cy f^Illg/ he struck. 

U)ir f ^ I u '* en, we struck, 
t^r \^iUQ'*it, you struck, 
flc f ^ I u g '* en, they struck. 



Present Infinitive. 

graven, to dig. 
f(i^lag«en, to strike, 
trog'tn, to carry, wear. 
t^\(iff€tt, to wash. 



bu fixdhft, tx graBt, 

if mm, rr Wfigt, 

,r trSgfl, „ trfigt, 
D2 



Imperfect 
Indicat. 

tnig, 



Perfect 
^ Participle^ 

^taxahtn* 

gcf^tagen. 

gctragcit. 

getoafc^en. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



82 



IRREGULAR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



5. Irregular verbs olthejfburth class: 



fongscn, to catch. 


bu 


fii«Bfl, « fgngt, 


cm^fanflcn, to receive. 


tf 


enH)fSnafi, „anl>fan8t, 


fyilUtn, to hold. 


It 


^aitji, „ mt, 


ent^ialt*cn, to contain. 


n 


ent^aitfl, „ 4ait, 


cr^alt'Cn, to receive. 


II 


erDaitfl, „ mi, 


be^Ucn, to retain, keep. 


n 


bt^Itjl, „ .mi, 


{df^laHn, to sleep. 


II 


\d)im, u \m% 


tuf*cn, to caW. 




(formed regularly.) 


ftoptn, to hit, bump. 


It 


^w, » ^m. 



^iert, 
ent^iett, 
cr^tclt, 
bc^icU, 

ricf, 
Pice, 



gefattgeiL 

cm^jfangen, 

gc^altcn. 

cnt^alten. 

cr^altcn^ 

be^dtcn. 

gcrufen. 
gcjlogcn. 



6. Many foreign words retain their original pronunci- 
ation. Thus the final 8 is silent in ^ommi^^ 

Exercise 50. 
1. Have you read the history of the German litera- 
ture by Heinrich Kurz ? 2.1 bought it a few months 
ago (tjor cinigcn 5Dlonatcn), but I have not yet read it. 3. 
Have you measured the cloth? 4. Yes, it is thirty 
yards long. 5. What are the boys eating? 6. John is 
eating an apple, and William is eating a pear. 7. The 
horse has eaten the hay. 8. The scholars have forgot- 
ten their lessons. 9. You have stepped on the tulip. 
10. The peasant has dug a deep well. 11. The boy has 
struck the dog. 12. The servant has carried the apples 
and the pears home. 13. William wore yesterday even- 
ing a black coat and a white vest. 14. 1 caught five 
tro^'vt yesterday. 15. Professor Bauer received (cmpfan^ 
gen) them very kindly. 16. The library at Vienna con- 
tains over 300,000 volumes and 16,000 manuscripts. 

17. Have you received (crl^altcn) your to-day's paper? 

18. Mr. Kraus received a letter this morning from his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Blumenthal. 19. Mr. Friedlander 
says that he will sell his new house. 20. Why will he 
not keep the new house? 21. The old house is more 
convenient, and warmer than the new house. 22. Is 
the child sick ? 23. Yes, but the doctor says that it 
has slept long enough. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



lEEEGULAB VERBS (CONTINtJED). 83 

LESSON XXVI. 

IREEGULAH VERBS OP THE FIFTH AND SIXTH CLASSES. 

(Sinunbfunfjigftc ?tufgak* 

!• a5e« SScjerg ^unb ^at tie ^n^ m S3aucr3 gebiffen. 2. 
eine ^lapperfc^lange ^at ben ©o^n be« S3aucr« iJorgcjlern gc^ 
Mffen, al« cr auf bem Serge ^eibelbeerett pflutfte. 3. !Dae 
«tnb flreift naci^ feinem S3ilbe im Spiegel 4. 2)er ^olijei'bie^ 
net \)at ben Safc^enbieb ergrtffen, gleid^ nad^bem er bag ©etb ge^^ 
jlo^leh ^Mt. 5. 2^ begreife ni^t, mx\m griebri^ nod^ nici^t 
an itn« gefc^rieben ^at* 6. 2Ber \)a\ gepfiffen? 7. 2Ber ^at 
in ba« S3ud^ gefc^nitten? 8. 2)er ©c^neiber fd^neibet ba« SCud^. 
9* $err ^arfunfel ^at bem ^aufmantt 800 x\)lx. gelie^en- 10. 
^err SRaumer l^at in feinem S3riefe feine SWeife na^ bem SRiefen^ 
gebirge ganj leb^aft befc^rieben: 1 1* SDer S3auer treibt bag SBie^ 
auf (to) bie SBeibe. 12. ©ie gie^en ©et inS geuer (" you add 
fuel to the flame"). 13. 2)er ^ellner ^at ben SBein in bie 
©lafer gegoffen. 14* ®ie l^aben bag 3iet nid^t getroffen, ©ie 
l^aben ju l^o^ gefd^offen. 15. ^eute ifl baS SWufeum gefd^lof^ 
fen. 16. ^err Surdf^arbt I;at geflern fein ^ortemonnaie tjeriOi^ 
ten. 17. SSier ?>ferbe jie^en ben SBagen. 18. $err ©raun ^at 
Nte einen SBec^fel tjon 600 S^ir. auf ^errn ajietrid^ gejogen* 
19. 3>ie SCBolfen jie^en (move) nad^ ©iiben. 20. 2)ie ©olba^ 
ten \)abtn fe^r tapfer gefod^ten* 21. 2)er ^orbmad^er flid^t ei^ 
nen Sorb. 22. SWarie l^at einen febt fd^Snen Sranj geflo^ten. 
23» er ^ob ben Sorb auf feine ©d^ulter. 24. er er^ob bie 
©timme unb fd^rie um (for) ^iilfe. 25. 2)er 2)ieb l^at gelcgen 
unb ben Saufmann betrogen. 

Vocabulary. 



5rbe, basket. 


2)er Xa\6)tnt\i^, — c«, pickpocket. 


basket-maker. 


„ @ttben,— 8,south. 


^rSnjc, crown, 


,, ^oxhtn, —8, north. 


h. 


„ SBagcn, —8, ;>/. —/wagon. 


^,pl. — ;policc- 


ff Sffic^fcr, — «, jd/. — , bin of ex. 




change, draflt. 


— , mirror. 


„ SBcin, —8, p/. — c, win«. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



84 



IRREGULAR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



3)tC SBccrc,;>il —n, berry. 

** ^cibe!bccre, — , whortleberry. 

@(^^langc, —fpL —n, snake. 

n ^ta)))>erf(^Ian9e, rattlesnake. 

t, Sbiiff — , pi ^tt^e, cow. 

u dtd\t, — , pi — en, journey, trip. 

n gutter, —,pl — n, shoulder. 

n @timnic,—,i)iL—n, voice, [ure. 

w SScibe, — , pi — ^n, meadow, past- 

H SBolfc, — , pL — n, cloud. 



S)a« ©Ub, —€«,/>/. —er, image. : 

„ gcucr,— 9, /)/.—, fire. 

„ fOd,--c9,pl—t,oil, 

n ^ortemonnaic', —9,pL — 8 ( prth 
nounced p6rt-m6-nay'), purse, 
pocket-book. , 

„ 35ic^|, —t9,pL —t, cattle. 

„ 3icl,— €«,;>/.— c/ mark. 
Seb^aft {adj, and (ulv.), lively^ spirited, 
g'^adi^bcm (conj,), after. 



GrammaticaL 

1. Irregular verbs of the Jifth and sixth classes have 
the same vowel in the imperfect tense as in the per* 
feet participle. 

2. The radical vowel in verbs of thie j?/?A class is al- 
ways ei; in those of the sixth class it is usually ic or C. 

3. The following table shows the vowel changes : 





Present 
Infinitive, 


Imperfect 
Indicative, 


Perfect 
Participle, 


No. of 
Verb*. 


Fifth 
Class. 




it, 


it. 


40. 


Sixth 
Class. 


ie. 
t, 

^,etc 


0, 


Of 


52. 



4. Irregular Verbs in the^^A doss . 



Present Infinitive, 

llei|*cn, to bite. 
greifsCn, to grasp, seize (after), 
begreif scn, to comprehend, 
crgreifcn, to seize, lay hold of. 
^)fcif*cn, to whistle. 
Wneib*cit, to cut. 
frlei6*en, to split. 
lei^^en, to lend, loan, 
fci^rctbfcn, to write. 
b«f(^^rcib'*cn, to describe. 
fd^rei*en,*o ciy (o.ut). 
treib«en, to drive. 



Present Indicative^ 


Imperf 


Perfect 


2d and Qd Persons, 


Indicat, 


Participle, 


(formed regularly.) 


m, 


geMffctt* 


4( (< 


m% 


gcgriffcn. 


(( (( 


Begriff, 


bcgriffcn. 


t( C( 


ergtiff, 


crgriffcn. 


i( (( 


m^ 


Se^>fiffcn. 


(( II 


Wnttt, 


gef^ntttcu. 


« (( 


\m, 


gef*)ri(fcn. 


(formed regularly.) 


m. 


gclie^eit* 


(( «( 


fdffricb, 


gcfd(>ricbcn. 


U ' it 


6cf(!^ricb, 


bcfd^ricben. 


(i (( 


f^tic, 


gef(bricen. 


<( it 


tricb, 


getrieben. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IBREGtJLAR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



85 



5. Irregular verbs of the siath doss : 

Present Infinitive. 

giegsen, to pour, 
fcf^itg-cit, to shoot. 
i^Ueg^eu, to close, shut. 
)5crlicr'*cn, to lose. 
jic^*cn, to draw, 
f ec^t^en, to fight. 
flc^t*en, to braid. 
^eb«en, to lift, raise. 
Vii'tSLf to lie. 
6ctrfl9*cn, to deceiye. 

6. The definite article is omitted before names of the 

points of the compass (see § 55, 2, 2) : 

Xxt iBoUen ^ie^en gegen 9?orben, The clouds are moving towards the 

north. 

7. Some foreign words retain much or all of their 
original declension : 

Singidar. 



Present Indicative^ 


Imperfect 


2d and M Persons, 


Indicat, 


(formed regularly.) 


toft, 


(t (( 


\m. 


(( ii 


wtee, 


ift (( 


»etIor, 


t( (( 


jea. 


bup^tfl, crfldjt, 


fl>*t, 


,, fa^tfi, „ fii^t, 


flO(^, 


(formed reguhurly.) 


i,0i, 


tt 4( 


loS, 


U (( 


brtrog, 



Perfect 
Participial 

fiegoffen* 

gef(^offcn. 

i)crlorcit. 
ficjogcn. 

gcfloii^tcn. 

Qclogcn. 
bctrogcn. 



2)a9 ^ortemomtote. 
2)ed $ortemonnate«^« 
2)em ^ortemonnaie. 
2)08 ^ortemonnoie. 



Plural. 
S)te ^ortemoimatc*^* 
2)et ^ortemonnat(«9* 
2)en ^ottemonnaic*^* 
S)ie ^rtemonnate^d* 



Exercise 52. 
1. The dog has bitten the child. 2. A rattlesnake 
bit the peasant-woman this morning. 3. The policeman 
seized (crgteifcn) the pickpocket immediately after he 
had stolen the pocket-book from Mr.Wieland. 4. There 
goes the whistle ! (e^ j)fetft !) 5. The cook is cutting the 
bread. 6. Professor Hausser, in his History of Germany, 
has described the battle of Leipsic in a very spirited 
manner (Icbl^aft). 7. The peasant has driven the cattle 
to the pasture. 8." He has only added fuel to the flame." 
9»^The hunter has shot four hares this morning. 10, 
The Library and the Museum are closed to-day. 11. 
John lost his German Grammar yesterday. 12. Yes, 
but he found it this morning on his brother's tabTe. 13. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 IRREGULAB VERBS (CONTINUED).' 

Only one horse is drawing the w&gon. 14. I shall 
make a draft (einen SSBed^fcl gie^cn) on Mr. Niedner to-day 
for five hundred and seventy-five dollars. 15. The bas- 
ket-maker has made (ffcd^tcn) two baskets this morning. 
16. Mary has made (flicd^ten) a beautiful garland. 17. 
They are crying for help ! 18. The pickpocket has sto- 
len three thousand and five hundred dollars from the 
merchant. 19. The German soldiers have fought very 
bravely in the battle. 



LESSON XXVII. 

IRKEOULAB VERBS OF SEVENTH CLASS. RECAPITULATIOK OP IRREO. VERBS*, 

2)tetunbffinfst8fte Wufgafie. 
1. SBtffeit <Bxt,m ^crr ©rinfenl^ofcr tt^ol^nt? 2. 9lcin,i(]^ 
njci§ m6)t, mo cr wol^nt. 3. 3^ wupte nid^t, bag |)err <S6)int^ 
berg in Scrim ifl* , 4. ^cnnen ©ic 4>errn ^rofeffor Sirautmann ? 

5. M) ja, mir fanntcn i^n fd^on, ate toix in 2)eutrd^Ianb mxtn. 

6. SBic ncnnen ©ic bicfc S5lumen ? 7. 2){efc iji tint ^^acint})t* 
itnb jlene tji tin SBergipmeinnid^t* 8. SBu? brennt? 9* 2)a« 
$au« gegeniiber un3 brennt (is on fire). 10* 2)er ^od^ ^ai beit 
^affce gebrannt (roasted). 11. ^txx SEcifmanbcl ^at 3^nett 
cinen S3rkf .»oit ^crm Cramer in SBlen gcbrad^t 12. |)crr 
l^etbcl brad^te 5Wad^rid^J »on unferm Ol^eim in SWagbcburg. 13* 
^ari,tt)ei§t bu,n)0 mcin 33lcijiift ifl? 14. 9lein, id^ ^abt i^n 
l^eute nid^r gefcl^cn. 15. ^abtn ©ic bic 9iad^rid^t i)Ott Slmerila 
in bcr l^cutigcn ^icjigen B^itung gclcfen ? 16. SRein, id^ l^abe bic 
^eutigc S^tung no^ nid^t gcfc^cn. 

GrammaticaL 

1. Irregular verbs of the seventh class follow, in con- 
jugation, partly the laws of regular, and partly those 
of irregular verbs. 

2. Present and imperfect tenses of )Ot{fetl> to know : 



* See page 48G. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IBEEGULAR VERBS (CONTnitlED). 



87 



Present Tensdi 
idf mi^, I know, 
bu tOti^t, thouknowest. 
ec tttilf be knows, 

toirloiff^'eir, we know, 
i^r toiff'Ct, yoa know. 
flC tt)i{f*eir, they know. 



Imperfect Tense. 
idf toni'ttf I knew, 
bu tOU^'tt\i, thouknewest 
cr toufi^tC, he knew. 
tt)ir tt) U 6 * ten, we knew, 
i^r to u § * tti, you knew, 
fic tt) u § * ten, they knew. 



3. Irregular verbs of the seventh dass : 



Present Infinitive, 


Present Indicative, 
2d and Zd Persons. 


Imperfect 
Indicative, 


Perfect 
Participle, 


Brlttg^en, to bring. 
benf*cn, to think. 
brenn*cn, to born. 


(formed regularly.) 


ba(^4c, 
brann*tc, 


ge*ba^*t. 
gc^branu't. 


fcnn^cn, to know. 


a (( 


laun^tc, 


ge*!ann*t. 


nenn^en, to name. 


(( (( 


nonn^te, 


gc*nann4. 


»iff*cn, to know. 


bu iDcigt, cr tocig. 


tOVi^At, 


gc*tt)u64. 



4. To Jcnowj meaning to he acquainted with^ is rendered 

by lennen^ 

5. General view of the changes the irregular verbs in 
all seven classes undergo in forming the principal parts : 



Class. 


Present, Imperf, Partic, 


Examples, 


Ko. 


Ist 


i (or e)^ a^ U (or 0)* 


binb*cn, banb, gc*bunb*cn» 


45. 


2d 
8d 

4th 


t, a, t. 

H, XL, tt. 

a, ie(ori),a» 


gcb*cn, gab, gc*«gcb*cn* 
fd^Iag^cU; f^Iug, gc-t^lag*cn. 
Mt*cn, ^ielt, gc*^iart*cn. 


14. 
10. 
14. 


6th 
6th 


ei, i (or te),i or (ie). 

it(X,etc,),^, fl. 


bcigscn, big, gc*biff*cn. 
glc6*cn, gog, gc-goff^cn. 


40. 
62. 


7th 


anomalous. 


briug^cn, brac^-tc, gc*=bra(^^t. 


16. 


Total number of i 


rr^^nlar verbs . , 


191. 









6. Examples of the seven classes of irregular verbs : 

1. First Class, 

Binb^en, l^wx^^ ge^nttb^en. 

flnb»cu, fanb, gc*funb*cn. 

fingsen, faug, gc*fung*cn. 

bc*ghill*en, bc*gttiw, bf*gMtt*cn. 

flc*ti)inu«cn, ge^uxtnu, g6«toonn«en* 

l|»inn*cn, fpann, gc*fj>onn*cn. 



6re(J*cn, 


6ra*, 


gc4rfl4*cn. 


f^)rc^*cn, 


f»)ra^, 


gc*f^)ro^*cn. 


brcf^*»cn, 


braf(3^, 


gc^brof^'Cit. 


nc^m^cn, 


ua^m, 


gc*nomm*en. 


flerb*cu. 


parb, 


gc*ilorb*cn. 


trcff^cn. 


traf, 


gc*troff<en. 


tt)crf<en, 


n>arf, 


gc*tt>orf«'cn. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 



lEREGULAB VEEBS (CONTINUED). 





2. Second Class, 


5. 


Ft/th aass. 


OeB'Cn, 


flaft, 


gc*geft*cn. 


iti^'tn, 


t>ih ge4if|*cn. 


lef*cn, 


lad, 


gc4cf'.cu. 


greif*cn, 


S^fff gc^griffsen. 


fc^*en, 


fal?, 


gfc»je^*cn. 


f(^^itcib*cn, 


\6)mit,^ Qt^\6fmn*in. 


cff*cn, 


a6, 


gegfcff^cn. 


jd^reib*en, 


\i}mh^ gc*fd^rtcb*cu 


frcff'cn, 


frae, 


gc^frcff^n. 


trcib^cn, 


trieb, ge*trieb*cn. 


mcffscn, 


mag, 


gc*mctf*cn. 






tergefl^^cn, 


t)crga6, 


t)crge{|<cn. 


6. 


Sixth Class, 


trcfc*cn, 


trat, 


gctret^cn. 




Woe, gc^(^|of|*cn. 




3. Third Class, 


h\ti)'tn, 


Sog, gc^og*cn. 


ffcai'tn, 


fitltb, 


gc*grtt6*cir. 


fe(^t*cn, 


fodj^t, gc*fodj>t*cn. 


fc3^lag*cn, 


Wh, 


gc*t(^^Iag^cn. 


^>cb*cn, 


^ob, gc^ob^cn. 


trag*en, 


trug, 


0c*trag*cn. 


7. 


Seventh Class. 




4. /W-M Class. 


benf*cn, 


bad^*tc, gc*bac^^t. 


Um-tn, 


^Hf 


ge-fttng^cn. 


brcnn^eii, 


brann*tc, gc4rann*t. 


^altscn, 


W% 


gc*talt*cn. 


!cnn*cn, 


iam4t, gc^'fann^t, '^ 


fW^en, 


WUef, 


gc*f(3^Iaf*cn. 


nenit^cn, 


nann^te, ge*iiann*t. 


ruf^cn, 


rief, 


gc*ruf*cn. 


U)if|*cn, 


tDug*tc, gc*tou6t 



TJfw. 1. With most irregular verbs, the original length of the radical vowel 
is preserved in all the principal parts : 



1. Vowel long, 

\t\*tMf lag, ge4ct*cn. 
trag*en, trug, gc*trag*cn. 



2. Vowel short, 

frcff*cn, frag, gc*freff*en. 

brcnn*cn, brann*tc, ge*brann*t 



Rem, 2, With some verbs the length of the radical vowel is changed in one 
»r more of the derived principal parts. The change is more frequently from 
long to shorty than it is from short to long : 

Beig^en, Uf^, ge^lbiff^en, I nel^tn^en, nalnt, ge«notnm«en. 

fcl;ncib*en, f^uitt, ge^f(3^nitt*cn. | trcff^cit, traf, gc*troff«=cn. 

Rem, 3. In the sixteenth century the participle of tffttt was formed regu- 
larly gteffeit« This was then contracted into ^tf{tn* In the seventeenth cen- 
tury another gt* was added, by false analogy, and hence the double prefix 

Exercise 54. 
1. Are you acquainted with General von Lichten- 
stein? 2. No, I do not know him. 3. What do you 
call (ttJtc ncnnen ®ie) this fish? 4. That fish is a trout. 
5. The fire does not burn. 6. The cook has not yet 
roasted (brennen) the coffee. 7. The house of Mr. Kraft 



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VERBS WITH fein^ TO BE, AS AUXILIARr. . 89 

is on fire (brcniten). 8. Do you know where Mr. Kuprecht 
is? 9. He is now in Munich. 10. Charles, dost thou 
know when Alexander von Humboldt died ? 11. Alex- 
ander von Humboldt died in Berlin on the sixth of 
May, 1859. 12. Children, do you know how old Schil- 
ler was when he died? 13. He was forty-five years and 
six months old. 14. When did you meet Mr. Rosen- 
berg? 15. We met him this morning in (auf) the street. 
16. Where didst thou find the German grammar? 17. 
I found it on my brother's table. 



LESSON XXVIII. 

VERBS WITH fein^ TO BE, AS AUXILIJLRT. 

Qx ifl fel^r reid^ gcwefen, He has been very rich. 

@r ifl arm geworten/ He has become poor. 

@r iji na6) ^aufe gegangcn, He has gone home. 
@r ttjar m6) ^aufc gcgangen, He had gone home. 
@r voixi wal^rfd^einlid^ nad^ ber He will probably have gone 
©tabt gegangcn fein, to the city. 

guiifunbfiiiifjigfte ?tiifgak. 
!♦ Qx ifl gtt ^aufc. 2. dx war gu ^aufc. 3- @r i|l ju 
^aufe flcwcfcn- 4, (Sr war ju |)aufc gcwefen* 5. (&x toxxi gu 
^aufc gewefcn fcin* 6. 2)a« SSBettcr i|l jic^t fe^r l^cif gcworben. 
7. |)err italtfd^mtbt tfl ^aufmann gcworbcm 8. Da«3Bct^ 
ter wax fd^on fcl^r l^cif geworben, al« toix m^ 3mlien gingen* 
9. SSBic jtnb ©ie »on ber ©tabt gcfommen? 10. SBir ftnb ge^ 
fa^ren. 11- gricbrtd^ tfl ju guf (on foot) na^ ber ©tabt ger 
gangcn, aber Sffiil^elm tfl gerittcn. 12. Da« ^ferb iji uber ben 
*®raben (ditch) gcfprungcn* 13. 2)cr S3lcipift lag auf bcm 
SCifd^. 14. 2)ie 93ud^cr Uegen auf ben SCifd^en. 15. 2)a« ^inb 
war f^on geflorben, aU ber SBater nad^ %ufe fam. 16. Dem 
Sagcr i|l fein ^unb na^ bem SBalbe gefolgt. 17. 3d^ werbe 
na^ bem 2»ufcum ge^en, aber $err Wrangler wirb wa^rfi^ein^ 
li^ f^on na^ |)aufe gegangen fein. 



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90 



VERBS WITH f eitt, TO BE. 



Grammatical. 

1. Most intransitive verbs take feill, to hey instead of 
^aitn, to have, as their auxiliary. 

Rem, 1. The greater part of intransitive verbs arc primitive or derivative 
irreffular verbs. 

Hem, 2, Nearly all regular verbs and many irregular verbs' are transitive^ 
and, as such, take ^ft^tlt for their auxiliary. 

Hem, 8. All impersonal verbs take (a^ttt as their auxiliary. 

Hem. 4. It will be indicated in the vocabularies hereafter when the verbs 
take ftin as their auxiliary. 

2. Indicative mood of fetit, to be: 



Present Tense, 

\6) Hn, I am. 

bu Ibtft, thou art. 

cr ip, he is. 

tt>xx Itttb/ we are. 

i^r feib, you are. 

fic jinb, they are. 

Perfect Tense, 
I have been, etc, 

\^ iin gctoefett^ 
bu Mjl gcwcfcn. 
er i|t gctocfcn. 
toit fittb gctocfcn. 
i^if f eib g c ft) c f c n. 
pe fmb gctocfcn. 

First Future Tense, 
I shall be, etc. 



id? 
bu 
cr 



mtht 
toirfl 

toir ft) c r b * en 
i^r tt)crb*et 
fic tocrb*eii 



feim 
fetn. 
fcin* 
felii^ 
feiii* 
feitu 



Imperfect Tense, 
^ toatf I was. 

bu toat^^y thou wast 
er tootf he was. 

tt)ir toax^tU, we were, 
t^r U)or*t, you were, 
fic toax*tn, they were. 

Pluperfect Tense, 
I had been, etc, 

i^ )oar getoefett. 
bu toarft gctocfen. 
er koar gcnjcfcu. 
tt)ir to a r * en e n) c f e n. 
i^r tt>ar*t octDcfcu. 
fic toar^eu gctocfcn. 

Second Future Tense, 
I shall have been, etc 

x(if tterbe getoefeit feiiL 

bu tolrft gctocfen fein* 

er ttirb gcwcfcn feiii* 

toirn)crb*eii gcwefcn f eiu* 

t^r tt)crb*et gctoefcn feim 

fic tt>crb*eit gcwefcn (elii* 



3. Indicative mood of toerben,^ become: 



Present Tense, 



\^ toerbse^ 
bu ttirft, 
er ttrtrb, 
toir to e r b * en^ we 
i^r to e r b * ti, you 
He tt)erb*en, 



I become, 
thou becomest. 
he becomes. 

become. 

become, 
they become. • 



Imperfect Tense, 
t(^ tontb:^/ I became, 
bu to U r b «• eft, thott becamest 
er tourb't/ he became, 
toir tourb<eu^ we became, 
i^r tDurb*et, you became, 
fic tourb*eit, they became. 



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TEBBS WITH fcill^ TO BE, AS AUXILIABT. 



91 



Perfect Tense, 
I have become, etc, 

bu iift ge.toorben* 
cr ifl gcttjorbcn. 
toir fUlb ge\Dorbeit. 
i^r feib fletoorbcn. 
fie {tub gett>orben« 

First Future Tense, 
I shaU become, etc, 

i^ koer^e uierben^ 
bu toirfl n>erbett. 
cr tolrb tocrbciu 
^ir twcrb-'ett ttcrten* 
t^r tt>ctb*et twcrben. 
fic tocrb^en toerbcn. 



Pluperfect Tense, 
I had become, etc, 

\^ toar getoDtbeit^ 
bu toatfl getDorbem 
er mx gctoorbcn. 
xoxx tDor*cil fictoorbcn. 
t^r tt)ar*et gctoorbcn. 
fic toar*c« 9Ct»orbcu* 

Second Future Tense, 
I shall have become, etc, 

i(^ mx^t Brtoflrbeu fe!ii» 
bu toirft gctt>orbcn fcin* 
er loirb getporben \t\xu 
xoxx toerb*eti gctDorben feiii^ 
i^r tocrb^et getoorbcn feitt* 
fic ttjcrb^cu gcttjorbcn feiu* 



4. The indicative mood of lommctt, to come: 



Present Tense, 

t(^ fomm^e^ i come. 

bu ! m m * ft, thou comest. 
er lotnm^t, he comes. 
n>ir ! tn OT * tVi, we come, 
i^r ! tn OT * t/ you come, 
pe lomm^tVi, they come. 

Perfect Tense, 
I hare come, etc, 

\^ Bin tefonmteit^ 

bu Mfi gefoutmen. 
er ift gcloTnmcn, 
)t>ir ftub gelcntmem 
i^r feib gclommeu. 
fte flub gelommen. 

First Future Tense, 
I shall come, etc, 

\^ ttetbsc fommeii* 
bu toirfl loinmem 
er tsXxi to mm en. 

toir tt>^tb*eil !ommcn. 
i^r »erb*et fommen. 
lie iverb^ett lommen. 



Imperfect Tense, 
\^ !aw, I came, 
bu 1 m * ft, thou camest. 
er fant, he came. 

tt>ir 1 m * en, we came, 
ifer I am t^ if you came, 
fic 1 a m * Cn, they came. 

Plupetfect Tense, 
I had come, etc, 

x6) mx gelommett. 

bu tt)or*ft gclommcn. 
cr toat gefommem 
tt)ir xoax^tn gelommeu. 
i^r war^t gclommcn. 
fic warden gclommcn. 

Second Future Tense, 
I shall have come, etc, 

x6f toerb^e gefommen fein* 
bu toirjt gctommcn fcin* 
cr ttitb gefommcn feitu 
xoxx tocrb*en gclommcn fciiu 
ifer tt)crb*et gclommcn feim 
ftc tt>erb«eit gclommcn fein« 



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92 



VEBBS WITH feltl^ TO BE, AS AUXILIART. 



5. Some intransitive verbs (having f eitl as auxiliary) ; 



Clou, 


Present Infinitive, 


Imperf, Indie. 


Perf. Part. 


2. 


fcin, to be. 


XOOX, 


flett>cfciu 


1. 


n)crb*cn, to become. 


tDurbc, 


flctoorbcn. 


4. 


fatt*cn, to fell 


per, 


flcfattcn. 


3. 


f a^r*cn, to ride. - 


tul?r. 


gefa^retu 


4. 


0e^*«n, to go. 


fling, 


flegangciu 


1. 


f omm*en, to come. 


tatn, 


. gelotmnetu 


2. 


licg^cn, to lie. 


Hf 


fletcgcn. 


1. 


f ^ring^cn, to leap, spring. 


frrattg, 


gcf^ruitgcn. ^ 


1. 


flcrb*en, to die. 


flarb, 


gcflorbcn. ' 


Reg, 


f oIfi*cn, to follow. 


folgtc, 


gcfolgt. 


Rem. 1. Sftttten and fttjreil take the umlaut in the 2d and 3d persons of the 


present singular. 






Rem* 2. |}a)ieu means to ride in a carnage or other means of conveyance. 


afjeiten mea 


ns to ride on a horse. 







Exercise 56. 
1. Has Mr. Franz been here ? 2. No, he has not been 
here. 3. The weather has become very cold. 4. Where 
is Mr. Stromberg ? 5. He has gone to Magdeburg to- 
day. 6. Did Mr. Meyerheim go to Potsdam in his car- 
riage (fasten)? 7. No, he went on horseback (reiten). 

8. We went to Charlottenburg on foot this morning. 

9. Mr. Wiedner has not come home yet. 10. Cologne 
lies on the left, bank of the Rhine. 11. Your German 
newspaper is lying on the table. 12. The daughter of 
Mr. Friedlander had already died before (c^e) he came 
home. 13. Whom do you wish ? 14. 1 am looking for 
Mr. Wiegand. 15. He has gone to Dresden to-day ; he 
will be here to-morrow. 



LESSON XXIX. 

THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Dcr 53rief tjl fd^wer ju lefcn, 
(gr wuttfd^t bag S3ud^ gu fe]()en, 

2)a« ^Mi ifl ju tjerfaufen, 



The letter is hard to read 
He wishes to see the book. 
What is to be done? 
The house is for sale. 



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THE INFINITIYE HOOD. 93 

3^ l^ortc fie ftngen, I heard them sing. 

@ie madden mid^ lad^en, You make me laugh. 

2Bir gcl^eit fpajie'ren, We are going to take a walk. 

dx ijl fpajicren gefa^ren, He has gone to take a ride. 

©ietenitttbfiinfsigfie ^ufgak* 

1. Dcr ©d^ncitcr ^at t)erfprod^cn, mix ben 9lo(f l^ute Wlox^ 
gen gu fd^iifen* 2* ©« ifl meine Slbftd^t, ubermorgen nad^ dx^ 
langen ju gel^en. 3. 3d^ wiinfi^e mit ^errn ©d^norr gu fpre^ 
d^en. 4* gr ifl augenWidflid^ nid^t ju ^aufe* 5* (J« toxxi fpat ; 
e« ifl bie l^od^fle ^tit (high time), nad^ ^aufe gu ge^en. 6. 
2)iefe« ^a\x9 ijl fogleid^ gu t)erfaufen* 7* ^ier ftnb t)ier m8^ 
Mirte 3iJtt»ter gu t^ermiet^en* 8* ©ine l^enfd^aftlid^e SBo^nung 
nebfl ®a« unb SBafferleitung ifl in bet Seipgiger ©traf e gu ^x^ 
miet^en* 9. Sir ^abtn feine 3^it gu tjerlieren* 10* Slnflatt 
ia9 ^au« gu bel^alten, l^at ^^rr ©igel e« t^erfauft 11* grieb^ 
rid^ kxaft ifl nad^ SBien gegangen, urn feinen ®rop»ater gu U^ 
fui^en* 12* ©ufla^ 3Jlnf)\^timtx ifl nad^ 53erlin gegangen, urn 
auf (at) ber bortigen Unitjerfttat gu flubiren. 13. 2)a« 9lau^ 
d^en ifl eine fd^led^te ®e»o^n^eit. 14. SSJag ifl gu tl^un? 
JWeine beutfd^ ®xammatxt ifl nid^t gu finben. 15. SWarie unb 
ftat^arine lemen jeftt bag ^la»ier fpielen. 16. ©inb @ie l^eute 
SWorgen fpagieren gegartgen ? 17. 5Wein, id^ Wn geritten. 18. 
^eute werben wir fpagieren fal^ren. 19. ffiarum bleibfl bu 
fiften? 20. (5r hit bag S3ud^, o^ne eg gelefen gu ^akn. 

Vocabulary. 



3)ic ^h^6ft, —,pL —en, intention. 
n Sctoc'flung, — ,i>/. —en, motion, 

exercise. 
„ (BttoefftCf^, — , pL —en, haWt. 
„ Umt)erfitfif , — , pi —en, univer- 
■ity. [ter-works. 

n ©afferlettnng, — , pi. —en, wa- 
n ffio^nung, — , ;>/l— en, residence, 

suite of rooms, apartments. 
" B«t, — , pi. —en, time. 
2)ae 01?,— e?,/)/.— f,ga8. 



^ngen6Ii(f(td^, for the moment, 
©ortig, of that place. [noblemen). 
^tVT\6fa\didff fine and spacious (fit for 
mmixt:, furnished. 
BtlxQ, blessed. 
e^Iei^t, bad. 

®ogIct(3(^ (adv,% immediatelj. [with. 
iRebfl (prep, with dat.), with, together 
9iand^cn (rep,), to smoke, 
©^agte'rcn (see 6, 2, p. 05). 
3?crmtc't^ (reff.X to rent, let. 



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94 



THE INFINITIVE HOOD. 



6. 


©Iciben (fcin otfx.), to remain. 


bUc^, 


geBIickn, 


2. 


©it^en (fein atu:.), to sit. 


fafi, 


gefcffcn* 


6. 


Xi)\xn, to do. 


t^at, 


Oet^an* 



QrammaticaL 
1. In German, as in English, the Infinitive Mood has 
two tenses, the Present and the Perfect: 



Present Tense, 

lith^tn, to love, 
bau^cn, to build, 
finb^cn, to find. 
gc^*cn, to go. 
Wcrbs'Cn, to become, 
fcin, to be. 



Perfect Tense. 

fleHeftt ^aben, to have loved. 

gebaut i)abtn, to have built, 

gefunben i)ahtn, to have found, 

gcganacn fcin, to have gone, 

gctoorbcn fcin, to have become. 

0Ctt)cfen fcin, to have been. 



2. The Infiyiitive is usually preceded by jtt, to : 

^^6^ tt)ilnfd^C mit t^m )tt f^rcd^cn, I wish to speak with him. 
2)cr SBricf tfl fci^tDCr p (cfcn. The letter is hard to read. 

Wx gotten gcnug yn t^nn. We had enough to do. 

3. While in English both the present participle and 
the infinitive mood are used as verbal nouns, in German 
only the Infinitive is thus used : 

Sa^ 9leitett tjl cine angcnc^mc 2?tcftn^ is an agreeable exercise. 

©ctwcgung, 
@e6en ijl fcliger aid nel^meit, it is more blessed to give than to re- 

ceiue, 
Renil The Infinitive, used as a noun, takes the neuter gendkr : 'SuS fUtlttU* 

4. The Infinitive (with Jtt) may be preceded by the 
prepositions aitftatt, d^nt, Utu: 

3lnfiatt p gc^cn, Heibt cr, Instead ongoing, he remains. 

(Sf-icbt baS SBud^, o^ne C3 gclcfcrt He praises the book, without having 
3U ^abcn, read it. 

Rem. The preposition Ittit is used before the Infinitive : (1), ta express 
purpose or desire ^ (2), after adjectives which are preceded by yx (too), or 
which are followed by gtttttg (enou^/O : 

(gr ijl na^ bcr @tabt gcgangcn, lie has gone to the city to buy a 

am ciit S3u^ 511 toufcn, book. 

S)aS ^nb ifl p jung, atw attcin in The child is too young to go into the 

ben Salb gtt gc^cn, woods alone. 

(Sr ifl ni^t alt gemtg^ lini r.Ucin He is not old enough to go into the 
in ben SSalb ju gebcn, Avoods alone. 



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THE mFimmvE mood. 95 

5. The Infinitive is sometimes used in Sk passive sense: 
2Ba« ifl ju t^un ? What is to be done ? 

2)a8 S3u^ ifl md(>t ju J^aBcn, The book is not to be had. 

6. 3tt is omitted when the Infinitive is prieceded: 

1. By the verbs ma(S)tn, l^clfttt, prctt, ful^Ieii, fel^ttt^ 
ffti^tn, ntmtn, U^xtn, Icrncn : 

Bk mad^tn mid^ ladf^en, You make tne laugh. 

2Bir ^I5rten i^n ftngen, We heard him sing. 

6r le^rtc nti^ bag Master f^ietcn, He taught me to play the piano. 

@ie Icmeit i)a« SUa'oitX f^telcn, They are learning to play the piano. 

2. By the verbs Wihttt, flCl^en, ftC|Ctt, liCflCH, uittn, 
\(iffXtttf fftAtti, fcilt, in certain idiomatic expres- 
sions : 

@r bleibt ft^ttt^ He keeps his seat. 

(5r gc^t flia jiCreil/ He is taking a walk. 

(5r fci^rt f^ajicren, He is taking a ride (in a carriage). 

@r rcttet j^Jajiercn, He is taking a ride (on horseback). 
Item. 1. 3)^ is also omitted after other verbs, as will be hereafter explained. 

Rem. 2. BH^ltttU (used with qt^tn, ttittn, folren) means to go {to 
walk or ride) for pk^sttre. 

Exercise 58. 
1. The merchant promised to send us the cloth yes- 
terday. 2. It is his intention to go to Augsburg to- 
morrow. 3. I wish to buy a German Dictionary. 4. 
The large house opposite us is for sale. 5. Here is a 
large and elegant suite of rooms (cine l^errfd^aftUd^c SBpl^^ 
nung) to let. 6. The large house in Wilhelms Street, 
with gas and water (ncbjl ®a$ unb SBaffcrleitung), is for 
sale immediately. 7. Instead of coming by way of Co- 
logne, he came by way of Frankfort. 8. 1 have no time 
to lose ; I am going to Leipsic this evening. 9. " It is 
more blessed to give than to receive." 10. Why does 
Charles keep his seat? (6,2, above.) 11. What is to be 
done ? 12. It is high time to go, and the tailor has not 
yet sent me my overcoat. 13. Mr. Dietrich has gone to 
take a walk. 14. I am going to take a ride (on horse- 
back). 15. They have gone to ride (in a carriage). 



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96 PABTICIPLES. 

LESSON XXX. 

PARTICIPLES. 

©er folgenbe Xa^ wax \cf)x l^eip The following day was very 
unb fd^wul, hot and sultry. 

2)ag 53ilb ifl rcijcnb, The picture is charming. 

2)cr »on alien fcincn greunben Professor Behr, who was 
fe^r gelicbtc unb gecl^rtc ^err greatly beloved and re- 
^rofeffor 93e^r ijl gejient spectedby all his friends, 
kbtni an bcr @d^winbfu(i^t died suddenly yesterday 
j)l6ftHd^ gcflorben, evening of consumption. 

2)ic SSercinigten ©taatcn, The United States. 

9leuttuttbfiinfitgfte ^ufgaie* 

!• 9lm folgenbcn SCagc gingcn toxx na6) SBien* 2. Son un^ 
ferm ^aufe l^akn wii einc ganj reijenbe 2lu«|td|t» 3* SBicn ifl 
bie grof te unb bic bebeutenbfle ©tabt in Deflcrrci^* 4» SRilm.^ 
berg l^at tm 3Wittelalter cine glangenbe ©efd^id^te gel^aBt 5* 3n 
inbujlriellen Segie^ungcn ijl SRftrnberg je^t bic bcbcutcnbflc ©tabt 
in 93aicrn* 6* 2)ic brcijcl^ntc, t^crmc^rte, nnb ^BHig ncn bear^^ 
bcitete 5lu«gabc bcr ®cfd^i(^te bcr bcutfd^cn ?itcratur ifl jcftt in 
alien Sud^^anblungen gu l^abcn* 7* SWeue nnb gebrauiJ^te S3u^ 
d^cr in altenunb mobernen ©prad^n ftnb in bcr Sud^fjanblung 
t)on ^reifd^ner unb SHobenierg billigfl ju t^crfaufen. 8* 3)er 
aSertrag awifd^en ben SScrcinigten <Btaattn nnb bem SRorbbcut^ 
fi^en 58unbc ifl jc^t abgcfd^loffen (concluded)* 9* 2)ic im 
Sa^re 1809 gefliftete Uniwfttat in 93erlin ifl je^t bie befu^^ 
tefle unb bic beflc in SDctttfd^Idnb- 10* 2)ie S<^^ bcr ^rofef? 
foren ifl l^unbert unb t)ierunbncunjig ; bie 3<^^ k^r ©tubiren^ 
ben ifl itber 3000* IL 2)ie im 3a^re 1818 gefliftete Uniuer^ 
fttat au S3onn ifl bie jlitngfle in Dcutfi^lanb* .12. 2)ie Qa^ bcr 
©tubirenben ifl iikr 1000 ; bie 3^1^l fcer ^rofefforen ifl l^nbert 
unb fed^«. 13. ^err ^rofeffor ©d^mibt ifl ^rofeffor bcr mober^ 
nen ©prad^en an bcr ^ieftgen Uni»erfttat. 14. Slrtred^t Durer 
txxxx bcr beru^mtefle beutfd^e SWaler be« SWittelaltere. 



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PARTICIPLES. 



97 



Vocabulary. 



2)cr grcunb, ^t9,pL — c, friend. 

„ Btaat, — e«, pi, —en, state. 

r» Scrtrag',— c«,jt;/. SSertragc, treaty 
2)ic 3lu8|t(i^t, — , pL —en, prospect. 

n Scjicy ung, — , iii —en, relation, 

„ JBut^^anblung, — , />/. —en, book- 
store. 

n ©t(^tt)inbfud^t, — , consumption. 

w B^% —fP^' — fn, number. 
2)a8 »ilb, — e8,;>/. — er, picture. 
?5ear'6eiten, to revise, work over. 
dtdlta, to charm. 
SSebeu'ten, to signify. 
@ISn}en, to shine. 
9rau(^en, to use. 



^It, old, ancient. 
SD^obem', modem. 
OnbuftrieU', industrial. 
WVi^, sudden. 
935ttig, fdl, complete, 
^edi^mf , £eunous, distinguished. 
(S^ren, to honor, respect 
©rilnben, to found. 
@tiften, to endow, found. 
SSerein'tgen, to unite. 
SSermeVrcn, to increase, enkrge. 
9ietjenb (adj.), charming. 
S3ebeu'tenb (adj,% important. 
(SlSnjcnb {adj.), brilliant. 
®cbrau(3(^f (adj.), second-hand. 



Grammatical. 
1. In German, as in English, the verb has two Parti- 
ciples: thePr^^n^ and the Perfect. 

1. The Present Participle is formed by adding stnb 
to the stem of the verb. 

2. The Perfect Participle is formed by (1) adding A 
to the stem of regular^ and sttl to the stem of irreg- 
ular verbs ; and (2) prefixing sge to the stem of 
all verbs, except those having an inseparable prefix 
(6e-^ eutv ^ttHl=^ etc.\ and those with nrttt (^ icren) in 
the infinitive. 

Rem, The radical vowel of many irregular verbs is changed. 



Present Infinitive. 
lie^en, to love. 
hm*ta, to build. 
ftnb«en, to find. 
crfinb'»en, to invent. 



Present Participle, 
U e b * cnb, loving. 
)iaVi* Cnb, building, 
f t n b * cub, finding, 
e r f t n b'* enb, inventing. 



Perfect Participlt. 
ge * H e b * t/ loved, 
ge ' 6 a u ^ t^ built, 
gt'funb* en, found. 
erfunb'*Cll, invented. 



2. Participles are often used adjectively. They are 
then subject to all the laws of declension and com/par- 
ison that apply to adjectives: 

Km folgenben 2:agc, On the following day. 

2)ie ©ereinigten @taatcn, The United States. 

E 



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98 PARTICIPLES. 

Rem, The participle often takes a purely adjective signification : 
2)a« rcijenbc ©ilb, The charming picture, 

©ebraut^tc SSilc^^r, Second-hand books, 

^er beril^mtefie Sl^aler, The most famous painter. 

3. TYie present participle is used much less in German 
than in English. It is rarely used after feitt; to le^ ex- 
cept when it has an adjective signification. 

S)a« SBttb ifl rcijcnb, The picture is charming. 

4. The perfect participle, on the other hand, is used 
much more than in English^ 

5. Participles are frequently translated into English 

by the verb, with a relative pronoun for its subject: 

2>ic im 3abrc 1809 gegrilnbctc The University ofBerlin,i^1iich was 
Um^erfitat gu SBertin, founded in 1809. 

Exercise 60. 
1. On the following day they went by way of Frank- 
fort to Cologne. 2. (The in 1520 completed cathedral 
in Magdeburg is among the most beautiful churches 
in Germany.) 3. From the tower of the cathedral we 
have a most (gang) charming prospect. 4. Breslau, the 
largest and the most important city in Silesia (Sd^lc^? 
ften), has 160,000 inhabitants. 5. The university in 
Prague, founded in 1348, was the first university in Ger- 
many. 6. The university in Leipsic, which was (en- 
dowed) in 1409, was the second university in Germany. 
7. (The twenty-second enlarged and fully revised edi- 
tion of the German Grammar of Mr. Dr. Heyse is now 
to have.) 8. Second-hand books in all languages are 
for sale here cheap. 9. (The on the twenty-fourth 
March on the consumption suddenly died Mr. Prof. Behr 
was the oldest professor on the here [^iepge] univer- 
sity.) 10. The treaty between the United States and 
Austria is not yet concluded. 11. Peter von Cornelius, 
who died in the year 1867, was the most distinguished 
painter of the nineteenth century. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS UmtU AND mUffCtt^ 99 

LESSON XXXL 

THE POTENTIAL YEBBS iSltliett AND mSffCtt* 

3^ fann ed niti^t Icfcn, I can not read it. 

^annji bu c^ lefen ? Canst thou read it ? 

gr fann e^ Icfen, He can read it. 

aSir f 6nnen ed xd^t Icfcn, We can not read it. 

©ie fonncn ed lefcn, They can read it. 

®ie fonnteu cd lefcn, They could read it. 

>OSr ^at ti Icfcn f onnen, He has been able to read it. 

<Er mxi ti lefcu fonncn, He will be able to read it. 

©r ^at ti nx6)t gefonnt, He has not been able to 

do it. 

^err 93raun fann Deutfc^, Mr. Braun knows German. 

@tnunbfe<^ji0fte ^ufgaic. 
1. 3^ fann feinen 93rief gar nid^t lefcn* 2. ^arl fagt^ba^ 
cr feine beutfd^c @rammatif iiid^t finben fann» 3» fonncn ®ic 
mit mi fpajieren ge^en? 4. 9lein, ^eutc f6nnen wir nid^t fpa? 
jieren ge^cn. 5. ^err Cramer fagt, bap cr ben Sricf nid^t Icfen 
fonntc (or bap cr ben 93rief ni^t l;at Icfen fSnncn). 6* ^err 
Raxl ^artmann fann Deutfd^ unb ©panifd^^ 7* SBarum ^at 
Wlaxxt iai beutfd^c Sieb nid^t gcfungcn? 8* ®ie ^at eg nid^t 
gefonnt (or ftc ^at ti nid^t fingcn fonncn) • 9. dx wirb ben 
33ricf nid^t lefcn fonncn* 10* 3d^ mup l^cute cinen 93ricf an 
^errn SWapmann f^rciben* 11» ^?)crr Dictrid^ l^at mir gefagt, 
bap cr ^cutc nac^ Hamburg gcl^cn mup, urn cinigc grcunbc ax\9 
5lmcrifa gu trcffcn* 12. SBir fonntcn nid^t langcr blciben; wir 
mupten nad^ ^aufe gc^cn* 13. ^cutc SWorgen l^albc tc^ fo »tcle 
33ricfc fd^rciben muffcn, bap id^ nid^t nad^ bem SKufcum l^abe gc^ 
^en fonncn. 14. SWorgcn wcrbcn wir nad| DreSbcn unb fibers 
morgen nac^ ^rag gc^cn. 15. $crr®d^norr lounfd^t dnen 8c^^ 
TCI fur feine gwei ^inber ; ber 8cbrcr mup (Snglifd^, 3)eutfd^ unb 
granjSfifd^ gclau'fig (fluently) fprcd^cn fonncn. 16. 3d) ^abe 
bic brine Slu^gabc ber ©cfd^id^tc 5)on 2)cutfd^Ianb in ber ganjen 
etabt nid^t finbcn fonneu. 



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100 THE POTENTIAL VERBS Umtti AND IttUffett. 



Grammatical. 

1. The German verb has nojpoteiitial mood. The po- 
tential mood of the English verb is in most cases trans- 
lated into German by the use of the verbs lotlltCtt, can; 
tniiff ClI; mt^^ / etc. 

2, The Potential Verbs (lonnctt, muffcn^ etc.) have a com- 
plete conjugation. They take l^aicn as their auxiliary. 
They belong to the seventh class of irregular verbs : 



Present Infinitive. 
Hntt^en, to be able. 
Uliijf * en , to be obliged. 



Imperfect Indicative. Perfect Participle. 

Hem. The use of the Potential Verbs is much more extensive than that of 
the auxiliaries of the potential mood in EnglifUi (may, can, must, etc.). They 
are often translated by circumlocutory phrases, as liJltllttt^ to be able,' milfs 
ftllf to be compelled, to be obliged (to have to). 

•3. The Potential Verbs (called in German the aux- 
iliaries of mode) are never used as independent verbs. 
They are only used to limit or qualify the infinitives 
of other verbs (though the limited verb is frequently 
understood) : 

^^ fanit C« nt(3^t, I ^an not (do) it. 

3^ ^tt6e C« VCi^K gefonnt, J was not able (to do) it. 

(5r \^ilX t% gCmit^t, li« was compelled (to do) it. 

4. Sonneu (to he alile^ can) indicates : 

1 . Moral or physicial possibility : 

Sr faun tcfen unb fci^rctBen, Hp "ah read and write. 

2. A possibility or contingency: 

@ie liinttett nti(^ crtwartcn, You 'n&y expect me. 

3. ftBmien is frequently used with th^ verbs lefCH, HUtn, f^rei|eil| 
Uttftel^eit (to understand), and tf^nU (*o do), understood: 

§crr SfJot^ fatttt S)cutj(^, Mr. B^fh knows German. 

5. Indicative mood of !onttCn, to he aJble^ can : 



Present Tense. 

i^ !ann, i can. 

bu lann^^fl^ thou cnnst. 

cr fami, he can. 

iDir f «5 n n «» Cll, we can. 

tbr f8nn*t^ you can. 

pC fi5nn*cn/ they can. 



Im(^e^tect Temfi, 
t6 ImxM, I could, 
bu f U n * tCJl* thrm couldftt. 
cr foun*tC, he could, 
trir f u n '^ iin, we could, 
ibr fo nn*tct, you could, 
fie !onn*tcn, thevcodx!. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS littntU iiNl):'mfi{ft^«^ ItJl 



I had been able, ete. 

bu ^at'teft gelonnt 
cr ^(xiAt gefonnt. 
xckz ^at^tett getonnt 
i^r ^at^tet gcfonnt. 
fte ^at^^ten gefonnt 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have been able, etc. 

mth't o^Ionitt ffahtn^ 
toirft getonnt f^abtn^ 
toirb gelonnt i^ahtn. 
n>ir iDerb^en gelonnt ifaitn* 
xf)x n>erb:'et gelonnt ^afien^ 
fte n)erb«en gelonnt ^aj^tn* 
derived from ttUUtUf to know. The English 



Id? 
bn 
er 



Perfect Tense. 
I have been able, etc. 

i^ (ab^e gcfonttt* 
bu ^aft gcfonnt. 
er f^at getonnt. 
toir ^ab^en getonnt. 
ibr ia^A getonnt. 
fic \)ah'tn gefonnt. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall be able, etc. 

x6) mtt^^t fimtn* 
bu iDirft fonnen. 
er tDttb f5nnen. 

loir tt)erb*Ctt tSnnen. 
ibr tt)erb*et fiJnnen. 
fie toerb'Cn fSnnen. 

Bern. Riinnen^ to be able, is 
ean is from the same root 

6. 3){u{fcn (must) is frequently rendered into English 
by such expressions ^s to be ohliged^ to he comjpelled, 

7. Indicative mood of miiffcit, to he obliged^ must . 

Present Tense. 
i(^ mVi^, I must, 

bu WX^ip thou must, 

er nral, he must 

loir milff*ett/ we must 
i^r milff't/ you must 
fie miltf*cn, they must 

Perfect Tense. 

\^ (aie gemngt, etc., 

I have been obliged, etc. 

First Future Tense. 

^toerbemllffen^c^c., 

I shall be obliged, etc. 



Imperfect Tense. 
id) muHtf I was obliged, 
bu m u g « it% thou wast obliged, 
er mng'te, he was obliged, 
totr m n 6 «= ttn, we were obliged, 
i^r mu6*tCt, you were obliged, 
fie mug* ten, they were obliged. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

t<^(atttgemn|t^efc., 

I had been obliged, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

t(^ mxH gemngt %aUxL,etc., 

I shall have been obliged, etc. 



8. The participial form is only used when the princvpati 
verb is understood. The infinitive form is used for the ] 
participle when the principal verb is esypressed: I 

3<i^ ^aBe nid^t ^Bren Hnnen, I could not hear. 

3(i^ ^atte ge^cn miiffen, I had been obliged to go. 

0>iit)3<^ ^a^ e« ni^t gefonnt, I could not (do) it 

(Sr ^at e9 gemugt, lie has been compelled (to do) it 



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!&•.•* TH^**p6tEkiiiL VERBS mUtu AND ntogctt* 



-•• •.••■• 



•.: ST.rTPlie.fotfeH^ial Verbs follow the same laws of posi- 
tion in the present and imperfect tenses as the auxilia- 
ries ffaJ^tn, fcitt, and toerben* In the compound tenses 
the infinitive form of the potential verb is placed after 
the infinitive of the modified verb : 

@r I0irb ed tefen fSimett, He will be able to read it. 

(&X f^at ed lefen Vimtn, lie has been able to read it. 

Exercise 62. 
1. 1 can not find my pencil. 2. Freddy, canst thou 
bring me my German Dictionary? 3. The teacher can 
not hear what we are saying. 4. We could not hear 
what he said. 5. They will not be able to read this 
letter. 6. (Charles, thy father says that thou imme- 
diately [gleid^] home go must.) 7. We must send this 
letter to America by way of Liverpool. 8. 1 could not 
go to walk with them ; I had to remain at home and 
write my German exercise. 9. Mr. Kraft will have 
(muffcn) to sell his new house. 10. We will not be able 
to go to Augsburg to-morrow ; we will go to Nuremberg 
to-morrow, and day after to-morrow we must {Ist Fut) 
go to Augsburg. 11. Mr. Krahn wishes a clerk; he 
must be able to write and speak German with fluency 
(gelSufig). 12. Why did you not read the letter? 13. 
We could not (it). 



LESSON XXXIL 

THE POTENTIAL VERBS tDOttCtt AND tttOgCtt* 

3^ will gleid^ gc^en, I will go immediately. 

3^ tt^^ffc^ fil^i^ fl^^en, I shall go immediately. 

aBoUen @ie mii un« ge^cn ? Do you wish to go with us ? 

SBir woUten ba« SSud^ faufcn, We wished to buy the book. 
2Bir ^akn ba« 33u^ f aufen woUcn, 

2)u magjl mit un« gel^cn, Thou mayst go with us. 

3(i^ rti(K^ bicfc« Stu^ ni^t, I do not like this cloth. 

Sr mag fagcn xoai tx win, He may say what he will. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS tOOSetl AND IttOgeit* 103 

2)reinQbfe<^3i8fte ^ufgok. 

1* SBoDen Sie mit un^ m^ itx <Ztat>t fa^rcn? 2. ^mtt 
SWorgen \)aU i^ feinc ^dt, m^ ber ®tatt ju fal^ren, i^ mu§ 
eincn 93rtcf an (to) mcine dlttxn fd^rcibcn* 3* 3d^ wifl l^icr in 
geipjig nic^t (anger bleibcn, bag Setter ijl jeftt fo fait, nag unb 
unangenel^m ; id) werbe iibermorgen nac^ ^eibelberg gel^en. 4. 
SBir woUten geflern nad^ ^ot^bam gel^en, urn bie grope para^be 
iu fe^en, akr ti ^at ben ganjen 2ag geregnet, unb wir ftnb ben 
ganjen lag ju ^aufe geblieben. 5. SQBarum ^aben Sie geflem 
Slbenb bag ?ieb nic^t ftngen n?ollen ? 6. 3c^ l^abe eg gewoUt, 
aber i^ l;abe eg nid^t gefonnt ; id) ^abe bag ?ieb no6) nid)t ge^ 
lernt. 7. ^err ^raft wirb bag ^aiig gewip nic^t faufen woUem 
8. 3IlMtX^M.M0d)tLS^Qfm (would like very much) mit 
^dtixid) Stuxi md) bent aWufeum geben^ 9. D j|a, bu magjl mit 
i()m ge^en, wenn (if) bu tt?illji, aber bu mugt nid^t ju lange blei^ 
itn ; bu ^afl beine beutfd^e Slufgabe l^eute nod) nid)t gefd^rieben* 

10. Diefeg Znd) iji t)iel ju t^euer ; tt?ir werben eg nic^t faufen. 

11. @r mag fpajieren ge^en, wenn (if) er mill, aber mir n?erben 
gu ^aufe bleiben. 12. SBunf^en eie biefeg 93ud^? 13. 5Wein, 
id^ will jeneg nel^men. 14. 3d^ tt^erbe eg 3^nen fd^idten, wenn 
®ie woDen. 15. SBo wol^nen ©ie? 16. ®ir wo^nen in ber 
3immer>®trape, gegeniiber bem neuen ^aufe beg ^emt JHief^ 
fia^l. 17. ©ie fonnen tl^un \oa^ ©ie wollen (you may do 
what you like). 

Orammatical. 

1. The Potential Verb tooflctt usually indicates willing- 

nesSy inclination^ desire, intention, or determination : 

3^ loitt filcic!^ gcbcn, I wUl go immediately. 

SSoflett Sic bcn53rief Icfcn ? Do you wish to read the letter? 

2. The indicative mood of tOO0en;^(> he willing, to wish: 

Imperfect Tense, 

id) )00ll4e, I was willing, 

bu tt) H * teft, thou wast willing, 

cr tt)on*te, he was willing. 

ttJtr tt)0 listen, we were willing, 

i^r tDoH^tet, you were willing. 

flC W U * teili they were willing. 



Present Tense. 

X^ ts\% I am willing, 

bu tDitt'^fl^ thou art willing. 

CT mitt, he is willing. 

iDtr to U * tXLf we are willing, 

t^r Xo^\\*if you are willing, 

flc tooll^'ett/ they are willing. 



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104 THE POTENTIAL VERBS tOOUtn AND inO0ett; 



Perfect Tense. 

t* ^abc ^mout, etc, 

I have b^ willing, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

i(^ toerbe mUtn, etc., 

I shall be willing, etc. 



Pluperfect Tense. 

i^ (atte oetoottt^ etc., 

I had been willing, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

i^ mtht oemottt f^ahtu, etc.. 

I shall have been willing, etc. 



3. The Potential verb mogttt (inay) indicates pemiis- 
81071, concession^ and sometimes desire or liking : 

^"^ Wtt0 ge^cn, He may go. [soldier. 

Sr mao cin ta^fercr @olbat fcin, (I concede that) he may be a brave 
^^ mag bicfeg !j:ucl^ n\6^X, I do not like this cloth. 

4. Indicative mood of Ittbgett^ may, to he permitted : 

Present Tense. 
\^ tnag/ I may. 

bu ntflg^ft, thoamayst. 



er mag, 



he 



may. 



tOXX miJg^en, we may. 
i^r m3g*t^ you may. 
fiC mfi<J*CII, they may. 

Perfect Tense. 

td;^a6cocmo(!Jt,€te., 

I have been permitted, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

t(^tocrbem(igtii,€fc.. 



Imperfect Tense. 
X^ VM^i^itf I might, 
bu mo^^ttft, thoamightst. 
er mt>^*it, he might. 
Xo\x mod^^tCIt/ we might. 
il;r mo(^*tet/ you might. 
fiC mi>ii^XtM, they might. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

t^ iftatte gemo4t, etc^ 

I had been permitted, etc. 
Second Future Tense, 

\6^ toerbe ocmorjt ^abcn, c/c, 

I shall have been permitted, et\ 



r shall be permitted, etc. 

5. Time how long is put in the accusative case : 

(5r BUcb bett gattSttt !Eag, He remained the whole day. 

Exercise 64. 
1. Shall you go to Potsdam to-day? 2. Do you wish 
to go to Potsdam to-day? 3. Would you like (ttJoHen 
®ie) to read this letter? 4. From whom is it? 5. It 
Is from our friend Mr. Diez ; he is now in Rome. 6. 
Why will (ttJoUcn) you not go with us to the Museum? 
7. I must stay at home and write a letter to my 
brother. 8. Can you not write it this evening? 9. 
No, this evening I must call upon (kfud^cn) Mr. Behr. 
10. Did you go to the Museum this morning ? 11. Yes, 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS fottttl AND blirfClt* 105 

but we could not see the paintings (because [well] the 
museum closed was). 12. What paintings did you wish 
(wollcn) to see? 13. I wished to see the famous paint- 
ing by (t)on) Holbein. 14. 1 have often wished to see it, 
but I have never been able to see it yet. 15. Charles, 
thou mayst go with us to walk, if thou wishest. 16. 
I do not like this book ; it is not at all interesting. 17. 
Mr. Beyerlein says that from his house he can see the 
spire of the Cathedral of Freiburg. 



LESSON XXXIII. 

THE POTENTIAL VERB fOHCtt AND blirfCtt* 

SBer fofl ge^n? Who shall go (is to go)? 

Du foflfl &f>tt, beinctt ^errn Thou shalt love the Lord 
Heben 'oon ganjem ^erjcn, thy God with all thy 

heart. 
SBir foUtcn m^ ^aufe ge^en, We ought to go home. 
Sr foil fe^r frani fein, They say he is very sick, 

^err ^u^n foil tm ^a^xt 1842 Mr. Kuhn is supposed to 
m6) ?lmcrifa gegangcn fetn, have gone to America in 

1842. 

giinfunbfe^Sigfte ^ufgak. 

1. 2Ba« foUen wir tf)un? 2. SBcr foil na6) bcr ©tabt gd^en, 
urn iai S3u(^ gu ^olen, ^einrid^ obcr id)? 3. ^cinrid^ foil Qt^ 
t)tn, bu f)aji beinc bcutf^c Slufgabe no(^ ni6)t gefd^ricbcn. 4. 
3d^ foUtc cincn 93rief an ^crrn ^utfammcr fd^on geflern ge^ 
f^ricbcn If^akn. 5. |)crr JRal^n tji tm Sal^re 1845 m^ Slme^^ 
rifa gcgangeit ; cr foil bort »or ungefa^r »ier Sa^ren gejiorten 
fcin. G. .^err ^rcnjler foil fe^r rcid^ fetn. 7. Sie ijl 3^r ge^ 
carter SWame (name) toenn x6) fragcn (ask) barf? 8. SWein 
9lamt tji ©ufias) SBcnblcr. 9. SWeine ^errcn (gentlemen), 
^ier burfcn ®ic nid^t raud^en. 10. gr barf itid^t fontmcn of)ne 
bic erlaubnig (permission) fcitteg Satcrg. 11. ?iebc aWuttcr, 
barf t^ mit SBil^clm Sldfermann utib ^mxi6) Matter fpajieren 

E2 

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106 THE POTENTIAL VERBS foBttt AND bfirfeU* 

ge^en? 12» ^ajl bu atte beine Slufgabcn gefd^rieben? 13* 
SWeinc teutfd^e Slufgabe ^abe 16) gcfd^ricben, abcr bic franjoftfc^e 
Slufgabe ^abt 16) no^ nic^t gang t)olIenbct ; ic^ fann ftc boc^ 
^tutt 9lknb t)oUenben- 14» 3<X/ bu magfl gcl^cn, abcr bu mu§t 
geitig (early) nad^ ^aufe fommen* 15* 3)ag SBcttcr war in 
aileranbrien fo \)ti^ gcworben, bap wir bort nici^t langer blcibcn 
burftcn* 16* 25on 3llcranbricn gingcn toxx bireft' (directly) 
na6) ©m^rna. 

Grammatical. 

1. The Potential Verb foKttt indicates : 

1 . Moral obligation or duty : 

er f olltC fic^cn, He should (ought to) go. 

2. Obligation or duty dependent upon the will of another: 
28er foil ge^cn ? Who shall go? — is to go? 

2)u fotlft @ott, bcincn $enit, Thou shalt love the Lord thy Goa 
licbcn l>on ganjcm §crjen, with all thy heart. 

8. A r^orf, rMwior, or general impression : 

@r foil fe^r fran! fcin, They say he is very sick. 

$crr ^^n foil nai^ 31incrifa Mr. Kuhn is supposed to have gon« 
gcgaiigen fetn. to America. 

2. Indicative mood of foKctt^ aJiall^ should^ ought: 



Present Tense. 

\^ \n% I ought, 

bu foH^ft, thou oughtest 

cr fOtt, he ought. 

ttJtr f n •» tVi, we ought, 

t^r fon*t/ yott ought, 

pe foil* en, they ought. 

Perfect Tense, 

1 have been obliged, etc. 
First Future Tense, 

i^ ttcrbe follcn, etc., 

I shall ie obliged, etc. 

3. The Potential Verb bilrfttt indicates : 

\, Permission (by law, or by the will of another): 
3fefet biirft U;v ftjictcn, You may play now, 



Imperfect Tense. 

i^ fOlI4t/ I should, 

bu foil* ttfl, thou shouldest. 

cr fon*tC, he should. 

tt>ir f It «» ten, we should. 

il)r foH^tCt, you should. 

fiC foils* ten, they should. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

x(i}f)attt(it\M,€tc., 

I had been obliged, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

id) mtht gefollt i^aitn, etc. 

I shall have been obliged, etc. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS foDCll AND iStfen* 107 

2. With a negative, bUrfttt is usually translated by " mwt not:" 
$icr bitrfeit ®ie nic^t xaudftn, You must not smoke here. 

3. It sometimes has the signification of ** to chre ;" 

@r barf nid^t fommcu, ol?ne bic He dares not come Tvithout his fa« 
(Sriaubnig feineS ^atcr«, ther's permission. 

4. Indicative mood of biitfett, to he permitted : 

Present Tense. 
i^ bdtf^ I am permitted, 

bu bfltf^ft/ thou art permitted, 
er hdtip he is permitted, 

toir b ft r f * en, we are permitted, 
i^r bftrf^t/ you are permitted, 
fie b ft r f * en, they are permitted. 

Perfect Tense. 

\6)fiaU%thntUfetc., 

I have been permitted, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

i^ tocrbe bilrfcn, etc, 

I shall be peimitted, etc. 



Imperfect Tense, 
i^ bltrf'tt^ I was permitted, 
bu b U r f * teft, thou wast permitted, 
cr burf*tt^ he was permitted. 
tt>ir b U r f *» ttUf we were permitted, 
i^r b u r f * ttt, you were permitted, 
fie b u r f * tin, they were permitted. 

Pluperfect Tense, 

t^^attedeoitrft^e^c., 

I had been permitted, etc. 
Second Future Tense, 

id^ loerbe gebitrft f^aUn, etc., 

I shall have been permitted, etc. 



Imperfect 


Perfect 


Indicative. 


Participle, 


m-K 


fie^oll-t 


iDOff^tC, 


Qt'-mU*t 


!onn*te, 


9C^l0tttt*t 


mo(^-tc, 


Qtmo^'t. 


bitrf^c, 


gc*bttrf*t. 


nittg-tc, 


^ gc-muH 



6. Principal parts of all the Potential Verbs: 

Present 
Infinitive. 
fotf*en (ought), 
toott^en (will), 
!Jinn*cn (can), 
miJfi^cn (may), 
bllrf*en {dare), 
miiff^en (must), 

6. The explanation of the many uses of the potential 
verbs in the subjunctive and eonditiotial moods must be 
reserved until these moods are given. 

Exercise 66. 
1. What shall (follcn) I say to him ? 2. 1 shall (wcrte) 
say that I can not go to-day. 3. 1 ought (foUtc) to write 
a letter to my brother this evening. 4. Mr. Kelle is 
said (foB) to be the richest man in the city. 5. Mr. 
Berghaus went to Texas in 1858 ; he is supposed to 
have died during the war. G. May (biirfcn) I ask what 



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108 SEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

this book cost ? 7. The price of this book was seven 
thalers and twenty groschens. 8. He may (mogcn) say 
what he likes (WoUcn), I shall not buy the painting ; 1 
do not like (mogcn) it at all. 9. What is your (honored) 
name, if I may take the liberty to ask ? 10. Children, 
you must (biirfcn) not play here ; you may (fonncn) go 
into the garden, and there play as much as you like. 
11. He can not have the book to-day ; it is not yet 
bound. 12. Will (woDcn) you go with us to Potsdam to- 
day? 13. The doctor says that I must stay in the 
hoiise (ju |)aufc) to-day. 



LESSON XXXIV. 

SEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

@r wirb ti nic^t annc^mcn, He will not accept it. 

Sr nimmt c^ an, He accepts it. 

@r na^m c^ an, He accepted it. 

dx \)at ti angcnommcn, He has accepted it. 

Sr ^attc e« angcnommcn, He had accepted it. 

Gr tt)irb eS angcnommcn ^ahtn, He will have accepted it. 

@iebcniinbfe(^it{tfte ^ufgabc* 

1. 3d^ mup ben Sricf abfc^reiben. 2. ^arl ^ai feinc bcutfd^c 
Slufcjabe abgcfd^ricbcn. 3. 3)u ntu^t beinc 5lufgabc abfc^rciben, 
ebc bu auiJgc^cfl. 4. dx fc^ricb fdnc Slufgabc ab, c^c cr au^i 
fling. 5. dx fagt, bap er fcinc Slufgabc nid^t abgcfd^ticbcn \)at 
6. 3d^ f)attc fcinc Beit, ben 33ricf geflern abjufd^reiben. 7. Die? 
fc^ 2Bort ifi fcbr f^wer au«jufpted)en. 8. ^etr ^tcin l^at feine 
aWeinung (opinion) ganj beutlid^ (plainly) au^gefpro(?^en. 9. 
Der SWaler bat feine ®emalbe au^geflellt ; er wiH fie »erfaufcn. 
10. 9Ber l^at meine ©rammatif weggenommen ? 11. 53ir ge- 
ben je^t nad^ bem 2Wufcum ; woUen Sie mitgebcn (or woUen 
®ie ntit)? 12. SBoUen Sie ba« S3ud^ ntitnebmen? 13. J)er 
beriibmtc Saumeifler unb SDialer, (rc^infel, l^at bie gropen ®e^ 



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SEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



109 



malbe in ber Sot^allc (vestibule) bc« SWufcumS in 35er!in tnU 
roorfen, abcr fein ©ci^iilcr, Sorneliu^, ^at jtc au^9eful)rt. 14. 
di ftng an gu tcgncn. 15. SS l^attc angefangen ju rcgncn, 
c|)e mr au^gingcn. 16. ®tc flingcn an^, e^c cS gu vcgncn an^ 
gcfangcn \)atk. 11. ^6) wu^tc ni^t, ba^ er ben ^rief a6fd)rci;^ 
kn woUtc. 18. aSann ijt ^crr S3raun ongefommen? 19. gr 
fam gcftcrn Slbenb an. 20. Sffiann fommcn ®ie miebcr? 21. 
SSBir mcrben iibcrmorgcn miebcrfommcn. 22. !Dic 33}al;( (elec- 
tion) ^at gcficrn jlattgcfunben. 23. ©ic ^aben i^n frcigefpto^ 
^cn» 

Grammatical. 
1. Separable Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing cer- 
tain prepositions^ advei^bs, noimSy or adjectives to simple 
verbs : 

^r tt>irb ben SBricf aBfd^rcibcn, lie will copy the letter. 
@ic tt>erbenmorgcn trtcbcrfommcn, They will retarn to-morrow. 
2)ic SSa^I tcirb Pattftnben, The election will take place, 

©ic tt>erben i^n freif^rc^cn, They will acquit him. 

Rem, By far the greater number of prefixes of compound verbs are prep- 
ositions. 

2.Pnn€ipalvarts of some separable compound verbs: 



Present Infinitive. 



ah'* fc^^rciku, 
an'^fangen, 
on'* ue^men, 
wit'* ne^mcn, 
toC0'* nc^nncn, 
ttitS!'*gc^en, 
mit'^QC^en, 

on'* fommen, 



to execute, 
to exhibit, 
to copy. 



(With Stt). 

auS'juftcffcn, 
al'juf^rciben, 



to commence, an'^iif angcn, 



to accept. an'suncOmcn, 
to take with, mit'juncf^mcn, 
to take away. trCij'junc^mcn, 
to go out. au^' juge^cn, 
to accompany.mit'gugcl^en, 
to go away. »eg'juget)cn, 
to anive. an'gufotnmcn, 

mic'bcrjufommcn, i 
, auS'^uf^jred^cn, 
, flatt'jufinbcn, 
frei'aU{^rc(^cn, 

Hem. It will be no'. iced that the prefix of separable compound verbs takes 
the primary accent. 



tBXt' ber*f ommcn, to return. 
ftlt^'* Spxt^ftrtf to pronounce. 
ftatt'* pnbcit, to take place. 
f rci'* fprcd^cn, to acquit. 



Imp. Ind. 

au^'fii^rtc, 

aug'ftcttte, 

ab'fc^rieb, 

an'fing, 

au'na^m, 

mit'ua^m, 

wcg'nal^ni, 

aue'Qtng, 

mit'ging, 

n?eg'giiig, 

an'fam, 

tt>ic'bcr!am 

au§'f|}ra^, 

Patt'fanb, 

frei'j^ra4 



Perf. Participle, 

aus'gcjabrt. 

aus'gcftellt. 

ab'gcfd^ricben. 

an'gefangcn. 

an'gcnommcn. 

mit'^enommcn. 

n?C9'gcnommcn. 

au«'gcgangcn. 

mit'gcganQcw. 

n?cg'gcgancjcn. 

an'gcfommcn. 

iDicbcrgefommcn 

auS'gcj^rod^en. 

flatt'gcfunbcii. 

frci'gcfjjrod^cn. 



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110 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



Bern. 2. When jn is used with the infinitive mood, it adheres to the simple 

rerb: ait§'pfUrc(icn, ttcfi'sttgcjcm 

Bern. 3. In the perfect participle the syllable jJC* is retained, and is placed 
between the prefix and the verb: aU^'gCfUW^CH, ttCg'gcgangcm 

Rem. 4. It will be noticed that many verbs, which are compound \n German, 
are translated into English hy simple verbs: nV \iS^Xti^VX, to copy. 

3. Indicative Mood of anncl^mcn, to accept : 

Imperfect Tense. 
\6^ nal^m— an/ I accepted, 
bu na^mft — an, thou acceptedst 



Present Tense. 

\^ iicjmc— an/ i accept, 

bu nimmji— an, thou acceptest 

er nhnmt— an, he accepts, 

toir nc^)mcn— an, we accept, 

t^r nc^mt— on, you accept, 

fie nc^mcii— an, they accept. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have accepted, etc. 

t^ ^abe an'genommeit. 
bu ^afl an'gcnommcn. 
cr ^at att'gcnommcu. 
tpir ^abcn ou's e n o m ui c u. 
i^r t)abt on'genommcu. 
fic ^abenan'senommcn. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall accept, etc. 

t(^ lotrbe au'nei^men. 
bu tPirfl au'nc^mcn. 
cr tt)irb an'ne^mcn. 
xoxx tDcrbeu on'u c ^ m c u. 
i^r tDcrbct au'nc^men. 
fic tocrbcn an'u e ^ m c n. 



cr na^m— an, he accepted. 

tt>tr na^mcn— an, we accepted, 

i^r na^mt — an^ you accepted, 

pc na^mctt— an, they accepted. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had accepted, etc. 

i^ %Mt an'genommen* 

bu ^attejlan'gcnommcn. 
cr ^attc an'gcnommcm 
xo\x fatten an'g c n o m m c n* 
i^)r^attct an'scuontmcu. 
fic ^fattcnan'scnommcu. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have accepted, etc, 

\^ toerbe an'genommtn %(Atxu 

bu ipirfl att'gcnommcu ^abcu. 
cr toirb an'gcuommcu ^abcn.. 
xoxx ipcrbcu an'g c u o m m c u ^abcn. 
i^r iDcrbct an'g c u o m m c u \:fcibta. 
fic ipcrbcu an'gcuommcu ^abcu. 



Rem. The prefix adheres to the verb except in the simple tenses when used 
in direct or leading sentences. In such cases it is separated from the verb 
and placed after it (and also after the object of the verbj if the verb is transi- 
tive) : 

^aifm cr C8 au ? Bid he accept it ? 

3a, cr ua^m C8 an, Yes, he accepted it. 

(but) SScr fagt, bag cr c« ouna^m ? Who says that he accepted it ? 

4. The indirect object may be omitted after mttgel^etlf 

mttttel^meti : 



SBolIcn (Sic mitgckn ? 
SBottcn @tc c8 mituc&mei! ? 



Will you go with (us) ? 
Will yon take it with (you)? 



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INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. Ill 

Exercise 68. 
1. Have you copied your exercise ? 2. (No, I have it 
yet not copied, but I shall it this evening copy.) 3* 
These words are hard to pronounce. 4. When will you 
return ? 5. We will return to-morrow or day after to- 
morrow, 6. We can not go out. It is beginning to 
rain. 7. Mr. Kranzler says that the architect will ex- 
hibit the plan of the new city hall. 8. We are going 
to Potsdam to-day; can you go with us ? 9. 1 can not 
go to-day ; the physician says that I must not go out 
to-day. 10. When will the election (t)ic SBal^l) take 
place ? 11. It will take place day after to-morrow. 12. 
Who has taken my German Dictionary away ? 13. He 
was not willing to accept the book. 14. If you go to 
walk now, you will have (miiffen) to copy your exercise 
this evening. 15. 1 have already copied it. 



LESSON XXXV. 

INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

3^ »crftc]^'c c3 nid^t, I do not understand it. 

3^ »crjlanD' cd nid^t, I did not understand it. 

34 ^^^^ ^S «i^t tjcrjlanb'ctt, I have not understood it. 

3d^ l^attc ti nic^t ux^anVtn, I had not understood it. 

3^ W^^t>^ ^* »crf}c]^^en, I shall understand it. 

3d^ ttjcrbc ti »crjlanb'en l^abett, I shall have understood it. 

di ifl fd^wer gu Jjcrflcl^'en, It is hard to understand. 

SBir l^abctt ben S3crg umgang^cn, We have avoided the moun- 
tain. 

35BirwcrfcCttben93ergumgc]^'cn, We shall avoid the moun- 
tain, 
^iffitr umgin^gcn ben ©erg, We avoided the mountain. 

6; l^ofte iai Sdnd) voxticx, He got the book again. 

tx tt)icber]^ol^tc locate, wa^ cr He repeated to-day what he 
ijorgcflcrn fagtc, said day before yester- 

day. 

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J5 



112 



INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



1. 2Cir l)abtn gar nid^t »er|le^'cn fonnen, wa^ cr fagtc^ 2. 
3^ l^abe ta^ S3ud^ ni^t gelefen, i^ \)aU e« nur fe^r piid^tig 
burd^'gefel^en. 3. !Drci ©olbaten ftnb gum gcinbe iibcrgcgangcu. 
4. 2)ie ©onue wirb bait) un'tcrge^cn ; mir tniif fen gleid^ nad^ 
4i)aufe (gel^en). 5. ©ic ijt f^on un^tcrgegangen. 6, ®ie |)abcn 
bic Slcd^nungen be3 ^aufmanncS ganj gcnau unlcrfud^f , abcr fte 
l^aben gar feincn gcl;ler gcfunbcn. 7« I)cr SBunbarjt l;at btc 
SBunbc bc^ ©olbatcn untcrfuc^r (probed). 8, ^err ^raue 
\)at fcinen ®arten mit cinem fe^r f^onen B^une umgcb'eu. 9. 
|>err ©eneral »on SScrnflcin ^at ben Sefel^l n>tberru'fen. 10, 
gr l^at alle feine 5lufgaben burd^gefe^en. 11. Sie n?olIcn mor^ 
gen wie^berfommen. 12. @r it)icber(;oIt' wag er nn^ gejlcrn ge^ 
fagt \)cit 13. einb Sic fiber ^anno'rcr uub SBraunfd^mcig 
gcfom^mcn? 14. ^a, aber id& bin nur bireft' burd^^gcretfl, mcil 
id) meinen SSater morgeu in ^eibelberg trcffcn ntu^ 15. ffiir 
baben !£)eutfct)Ianb burd^reijl^ 16. 1)er gifd^er ^ai uuS u^bcrge^j 
fe^t. 17. ^crr Dietri^ bcit bie ®cfd^idl)tc »on !Dcutfd)lanb fibers 
\t^t/ 18. ^crr ^rofeffor Diefenbad^ \)at un« ben gangen Slbenb 
mit einer l;6d^fl intcreffautcn 93cfd^reibung fciner le^ten Sieife in 
Spanien unter^aften. 19. 3d^ mx\^ ba^ S3ud^ mie^berl^olcn. 
20. SBie gefatlt^ Sb^en bie ncue kird^e? 21. Sie ^ai mir ganj 
gut gefal'len. 22. ®ic jtnb fel^r um^gegangen. 23. SBir moU^ 
ten ben 93erg umge^'en. 24. 3d^ ^be xjerfud^f, ben S3rief gu 
lefen, aber id^ ^abe e^ nid^t gefonnt. 25. ^err ginfenjlein ^at 
un« ^orgeflern 2lbenb befui^t. 26. ^aben Sie 3b^^ beutfd^en 
Slufgaben uberfe^t ? 27. S)er S3aum n?ar um'gefallen. 

Vocabulary. 



2)cr S3cfe^r, — c§, pi, — e, command. 

t, gcinb, — t^,pl. — C, lenemy. 

tt 5^^tcr, — ,pl. — , fault, mistake. 

„ gifc^er, — 9, pi. — , fisherman. 

„ 3<^^uif — eS,/)/. Saunc, hedge. 

„ Tlonh, — c8, pL — c, moon. 
glilAtig, hasty, fleeting. 
2)irctt', direct. 



2)ie S3efd()rctl>'un<j,— ,;}/.— cit, descrip- 
tion. 

„ 9led(>nung, — , pL —en, account. 

t, 9tcifc, — , pi. — n, journey, trip. 

t, 9iic^tung, — , pi. —en, direction. 

t, @onne, — , pi. — n, sun. 
SReifen, to travel, journey. 
®cnau', exact, careful. 



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INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



113 



Grammatical. 
1. Compound verbs, having as prefixes the Inseparable 
Particles fiC-, Cllt-, tX-, gc-, t^tX-, itX-, are Inseparable in 
all their tenses : 

Present. 3^ HX^'^tth't C« lli^t, 
Jmperf, 3c^ Uct * ft a H b ' c« nid^t, 
Perfect. ^6) ^abc c8 nicj^^t tict '^ P « n i> ' e n , 
Pluperf. 3d^ ^attc e8 nii^t lier * ft a n b ' c u , 
Uf /«^. 3[dt) tDcrbc c« lier * P c ^ ' c n , 



I do not nnderstand it. 
I did not understand it. 
I have not understood it. 
I had not understood it. 
I shall understand it. 



2d Fut. 3^ tDcrbc C3 Ucr * ft a nb ' c n ^abcn, I shall have understood it. 
Iiijinit. (g« ift f(^tt>cr juUCr * ft e () ' C n , It is hard to understand. 
Rem. The principal parts of the irregular verb fttl^Ctt/ to stand, are ftC^CIt; 

ftanb, oeftanbem 

2. Of compound verbs having the prefixes huxd), l^itltcr, 
fiber, unter, urn, ttieber, toibcr, some are Separable and 
others are Inseparable : 



Separable, 
Snr(^' f c ^ c n , to look through. 
Hc'icr * 9 c ^ c n ,* to go over, desert. 
lltt'ter* g c ^ c n ,* to go down, set. 
ilm''' f a 1 1 c n ,♦ to fall dow-n. 
SBiC'btr sbringcn,to bring back. 
SBic'bcr * ! o m m e n ,♦ to return. 
ffiic'ber * r u f e n , to call again. 



Inseparable. 
3) u r (!f> * rei'f Ctt^ to traverse. 
U c b c r * trcf fen^ to surpass. 
U n t C r * fU(4'en^ to examine. 
U m # gc'^ett^ to surround. 
2B i b c r * flirt'^eit, to contradict. 
2B i C b C r * I^O'kn^ to repeat, 
as i b C r * tn'^tUf to revoke. 



3. Many of these compound verbs having the prefixes 
hnxtif, fiber, urn, unter, toieber, are used both as Separable 
or Inseparable^ according to the signification they re- 
ceive : 



Separable. 
®ltr(^'* r c i f c n , to travel through. 
lle'^tr * f c <} e n , to put over. 
Hni'* g C ^ C It ,* to go out of one's way. 
lln'ter * ^ a 1 1 c n , to hold under. 
Ste'lier « ^ O I e n , to bring back again. 



Inseparable. 
3) U r d(| * reif'ett^ to traverse. 
U c b c r * \t%\Vi, to translate. 
Utn*gC^'eit, to avoid. 
U n t C r * ^alt'eit, to entertain. 
2B i c b c r * l^ortlt^ to repeat. 



4. Inseparable compound verbs, having the particles 
be^ ent, Cr^ bur<^^ ttber^ ete.^ as prefixes, do not take ge^ iu 
the perfect participle. 

* With f tin as auxiliary. 



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114 



INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



Imperfect 


Perfect 


Indicative, 


Participle, 


bcfud^'tc, 


bcjuc^t\ 


cntbccf'te, 


cntbccff. 


em^fing', 


ettH)fan(j'cn, 


crfanb', 


crfunb'cn. 


gcftcr, 


gcfatt'cn. 


toerflanb', 


loerjianb'etu 


jcrbrad?', 


gcrbrocS^'cn, 


burd^rcifte, 


burd^rcifl'* 


ilbcrtraf, 


ilbertrofi'em 


umging', 


umgang'cn. 


toibcrfprod^', 


tt)ibcrj^ro(3^'eiu 


tPicber^ol'tc, 


ipibcri^olt'. 



Present Infinitive, 

JC*flt^'cn, tOAisit. 
Cttt * b c (f ' e n , to discover. 
tVX^ <fang'cu,to receive. 
er*fitlb'cn, to invent. 
ge*faircn, to please. 
l^tX * P C b ' C n , to understand. 
5Cr*brec3t^'cn, to shatter. 
bttt(ft * r c i f ' c u , to traverse, 
ilicr^trcff'cn, to surpass. 
Ilitt * g f I)' ^ 1^ / ^o avoid. 
)9tl>Ct sf^red?'cu,to contradict, 
toitbcr * I; r c n , to repeat. 

5. Some verbs, as reiteii, reifeii, laufen, f^jringen^ etc. 

(§ 135, 2, Rem. 1), take fcitt as the auxiliary, when indi- 
cating a motion towards a particular jplxiGe ; otherwise 
they have \^^V\ for the auxiliary : 

(Sr ift na^ S3erttn oercift'^ He has gone to Berlin. 

(but) Sr \i^i toiet gerCtft'^ ' He has traveled much. 

6. Verbs that are intransitive when simple often form 

transitive compounds : 

@r ijl nad) bcr @tabt gtgang'ett^ He has gone to the city. 

@ic l^aBeit ben gctnb Itmpitg'Ctt/ They have outflanked the enemy. 

7. The inseparable particles it, tnt, tx, flC^ t>tt, jCr, 
burifl^ ilbcr, ^^^j., are unaccented. 

Re7n, The dissyllables HBcr, ttttttr/ tOltbCr, tOlbCt^ however, take a light 
or secondary accent. 

8. The verb gcfaflctt governs the dative case : 

SBic QCf iittt' C3 3(neit ? How does it please you ? 

Exercise 70. 
1. 1 have only glanced through (burd^fe'^cn) the letter 
very hastily. 2. The soldiers are deserting to the en- 
emy. 3. Has the moon gone down ? 4. The sun had 
already set when they arrived. 5. The merchant has 
examined the accounts of the tailor. 6. Mr. Kranz and 
Mr. Meyerheim have traveled through (burc^rcif en) many 



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COMPOUND NOUNS. 115 

lands. 7. The fisherman took us over. 8. Mr. K5nig 
has translated the history of the German literature. 
9. Mrs. Friedlander entertained us with a description 
of her trip from Hamburg to Heidelberg. 10. How do 
you like (^. e. how pleases you) the new cathedral ? 11. 
The garden is surrounded with a beautiful hedge. 12. 
Why did you go so much (fc^r) out of your way (um^gc^j 
I^Ctt) ? 13. We wished to avoid the high mountain be- 
tween Schonfeld and Liebeneck. 14. He attempted to 
translate the book, but he was not able to do it (ti nid^t 
fonnen). 

LESSON XXXVI. 

COMPOUND NOUK8. 

^ier itnb 3^tc ^anbfd^u^c, Here are your gloves, 

^aben ®ic ein getcrmeffcr ? Have you a penknife ? 

i)ai 2)ampffd^iff tjl angefom^ The steamer has arrived. 

men, [mul^lc, 

^crr SRotl^ \)at cine !Dampf^ Mr. Roth has a steam-mill. 

2)a^ ^ferb ifl ein ?afltl^ier. The horse is a beast of bur- 

3d^ l^abe iai gal^rgelt) beja^It, I have paid the toll. [den. 

ginuttbfiebjtBftc ^tufgabe* 

1* ^aben ®ie iai neue Q6)nl^au^ gefe^en? 2. SBa^rcnb ber 
leftten gwaniig ^df)xt \)at ba« ?anb augerotbentUd^e (extraordi- 
nary) gortfd^titte ^mad^t 3. ^icr ifl ber Slu^gang (way 
out). 4. ^6) Urn feinen SlugenbUd langcr bleiben ; i^ map glei^ 
m6) J^aufe. 5. Der »ierte 93anb ber ®t\6)x6)k ber 93aitfun|l 
Jjon 2)r. grani bugler ifl je^t in alien SBu^^anblungen ju ^a^ 
ben. 6. ^aben ®ie bie berii^mte ©inbrnu^le tn ^ot^bam ge^ 
fel^en ? 7. 2Warie, ^fi bu meinen gingerbut gefe^en ? 8. |>err 
Dr. ©(^mibt t|l ^rofeffor ber beutfd^en ©prac^e an (in) einer 
Zi6)itx{ink in ^itt^burg. 9. 3)a« 3)ampffd^iff ,,®ermania" 
ifl gejlern 5lbenb angefommcn. 10. 2)a« Earned tjl ein ?aji^ 
titer, unb ber Siger ijl ein SRaubtl^ier. 11. 2)a« Sffiort „@ram^ 



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116 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

matif'^ijl em grembmort* 12, 3ft fca« griii^ftudf fcrtig (ready)? 
13* 3a, ba« gru^jlutf tji fc^on fertig. 14. 2)ic goltenc ^o^^ 
gcit witb l^eutc aWorgcn ftattfintcn, 15. 3)cr ©d^nelljug »on 
?cipjig ifl foebcn angcfommen. 16. ^onncn ©ie mir cine 
©tecfnabel geben ? 17. .?)eute SWorgen l^aben mir einen fe^r 
fi^onen ©pajier^gang gemac^t. 18. 2)er ©aulengang beS SWufe:^ 
um^ in Serlin ifl ein ^^auptmerf ber mobernen ©aufunjl. 19. 
2)ie ^auptfeber meiner S^afd^enul^r ifl gebrod^en. 20. 33erUn ifl 
bie ^auptjlabt tjon ^reupen. 21. SWein ©ro^jjater mo^nte fritter 
in SWagbeburg ; er wo^nt jefet in ^oln. 22. 3^ i^abe mein 
gebermeffer gejtern 2Worgen »erloren. 23. „3tt>anjig" ijl ein 
3a^toort. 

Grammatical. 

1. While compound verbs are mostly formed by pre- 
fixing prepositions to simple verbs, Compound Noons are 
mostly formed by prefixing to nouns other nouns. 

Rem, ] . The prejix noun has an adjective signification, as it modifies oi 
limits the signification of the noan to which it is prefixed. 

Rem, 2. Adjectives, nmnerals, pronouns, verhs, adverbs, prepositions, and 
conjunctions (including thus all parts of speech except the article and inters 
jection) may also serve as prefixes of compound nouns. 

S)a8 ©(Jul'^^w^r school-house (btc @(^utc, school ; bag ^aug, house). 

S)a« 2frcml)'''tt)ort, foreign word (fremb, foreign ; ba8 2Bort, word). 

S)cr 3wci'-fam|)f, duel (jtDct, two ; ber ^anH)f, battle). 

S)cr @eIbft'*morb, suicide (felbfi, self ; ber 9Korb, murder). 

S)a« gfa^r'^gclb, toll (f a^ren, to ride ; baS ®clb, money). 

S)e-: gfort'* jci^ritt, progress (fort, forward j ber @ci^ritt, step). 

S)er ^nS'^gang, exit • (au«, out ; ber ®ang, passage). 

2)er W'bcr^glaubc, superstition (aber, but ; ber @UvL%t, belieO. 

2. lihe^mary accent falls upon the prefix. 

3. With but very few exceptions, Compound Nouns 

take the gender of the last noun (§ 67). 

Set Stu'genbtid, moment (baS Sluge, eye ; Hx S3(t(f , glance). 

„ iBau'mciftcr, architect (ber S3au, building ; btr 9Kcifter, master). 

,t S3tu'menfo^i, cauliflower (bic SBIumc, flower ; ber So^I, cabbage). 

ff SBilr'gerfricg, civil war (bic Silrgcr, citizens ; ber .^cg, war). 

„ S)anH)f feffel, boUer .(ber 2)am^)f, steam ; bcr ^t^t\, kettie). 



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COMPOUND NOUNS. 



in 



(ha9 Si«, ice ; 
(ber ginger, finger; 
(bic $anb,hand; 
(bcr dttQtlXf rain ; 
(bic @onne, sun; 
(bic 2:afd^c, pocket ; 
(bcr S3au, building ; 
(bcr S3aum, tree ; 



Ser @i«'b5r, polar bear 

tf gin'gcr^ut, thimble 

„ ©anb'ft^u^, glove 

„ Sftc'gcnf^^irm, umbrella 

„ @on'ncnf4^irm, parasol 

„ 2^a'fdf^enbieb, pickpocket 

Sic Sau'tunP, architecture 

„ Saum'tPoHe, cotton 

„ 8erg'fcttc, mountain range (bcr S3crg, mountain ; 

„ 2)am^f tnii^le, steam mill (bcr 2)am^f, steam ; 

„ ©i'fenba^n, railroad (ba8 ©ifcn, iron ; 

„ gtil'gett^ilr, folding door (bcr gtilgct, wing ; 

„ Z^(i}'ttx\6)uU, girls* school (bic SBt^ter, daugh- 

„ SSoIf 8'f (^ule, common school (ba8 SSolf , people ; [ters 

„ S^a'ft^cnu^r, watch (bic 2^afd^c, pocket; 

„ SBanb'u^r, clock (bic SBanb, wall ; 

„ SBinb'mil^Ic, windmill (bcr SSinb, wind ; 
Sa^ S3utterbrob,bread and butter (bic S3utter, butter ; 



S)am))f boot, steam-boat 
2)anii)nt^iff, steamer 
ge'bcrmcjf er, penknife 
©am'mclficifc^, mutton 
^alb'fleift^, veal 
9einb'fleifd(?,beef 
@^tDci'ncpcif(i^, pork 
Saji't^icr, beast of burden 
Slaub'tl^ier, beast of prey 
3ug't^icr, draught animal 
@4^ur^au8, schoel-house 
SSfir'tcrbu^, dictionary 
3fl^r»ort, numeral 



(bcr 2)am)3f, steam; 

(bic gebcr,pen; 
(bcr $ammcl, sheep ; 
(ba^ Mb, calf; 
(ba«9fiinb, cattle, 
(bag @d^tt)cin, hog ; 
(bic Sajl, burden; 
(bcr dtanh, prey ; 
(bcr 3^9, draught ; 
(bic @d?utc, school ; 
(bic SBSrtcr, words ; 
(bic 3^Wf number ; 



ber S3Sr, bear). 

ber ©ut, hat). 

ber <B(i)u\), shoe). 
bcr @t^irm, screen). 

bcr 2)icb, thief). 
bic ^unfi, art). 
bic SSottc, wool). 
bic ^CttC, chain). 
bic2Kil^lc,miU). 
bic ^a^n, road), 
bic St^ilr, door). 
blC ©(^ulc, school). 

; " ** ) 
bic Ul^r, clock). 

bic aWil^tc, mill). 

baS33rob, bread). 

ba^^oot,boat). 

bag @4^iff, ship). 

bag Sl^cffcr, knife). 

balglcif4^,meat). 
(( (( \ 

(( (( \ 

ti a \ 

bag X^tcr, animal). 
{( (( \ 

<« i( ^ 

bag ^oud, house), 
bog S3U(^, book), 
bag SSSort, word). 



4. Examples of Compound Nouns with adjectives as 
prefixes : 

S)cr (g'bclflctn, jewel (cbcl, noble; 

3)cr grci'maurcr, freemason (frci, free; 

S)a« grcmb'tt)ort, foreign word (frcmb, foreign ; 

3)a« griiy fWlcf , breakfast (fril^, early ; 

2)cr @Ici(^'mut^, equanimity (glcic^, like ; 

S)cr ©rofi'ttotcr, grandfather (grofi, great; 

S)ic ®ro6'muttcr, grandmother ( " ** 

S)er C^O(^>'niUt^, haughtiness (^od^, high ; 

2)ic ^o^'jcit, wedding ( " ** 

3)cr @c^ncirjug, express train (WncII, fast; 

2)cr i^oU'monb, full moon (t>ott, full ; 



bcr ©tcin, stone), 
bcr SWaurcr, mason). 
ba« SEIJort, word). 
ba« @til(f , piece), 
bcr 3Kut^, mood), 
bcr SSatcr, fether). 
bic SWuttcr, mother) 
bcr aWutb, mood), 
bic 3cit,time). 
bcr 3"Sf train), 
bcr 9Woab, moon). 



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118 



COMPOUND NOUNS. 



5. Examples of Compound Nouns with verbal prefixes: 
S)a« SBrcnn'^oIj, firewood (Brcnnen, to burn ; ba9 ©otj, wood). 
2)a8 ga^r'getb, toll (fasten, to ride ; ba« ®clb, money). 
3)a« ge^r ja^rjear with bad crops (f e^Icu, to mistake ; ba8 3a^t, year). 
2)a8 Se'febut^, reader (i«{cn, to read ; ba« S3u^, book). 
S)a« Sc'fcjtmmcr, reading-room ( *' ** ba8 3inimcr,room). 
2)tc ^^'mo\6yiXitf sewing-ma- (nfi^cn, to sow ; bic SWaf^^inc, ma- 
chine chine). 

S)tc 9ifiynabcl, needle (nfi^cn, to sow ; bic SSia\>t\, pin). 

2)ic @tc(f nabei, pin (jlcdcn, to stick ; ** *' ) 

2)ic @trt(f nabcl, knitting-needle (ftridcn, to knit; " ** ) 

S)a8 ©d^rcib'^jo^ier, writing paper (f (^rcibcn, to write ; bag ^a^icr, paper). 

2)er 3ci'gcfingcr, index finger (jcigcn, to point ; bcr ginger, finger). 

6. Examples of Compound Nouns \f\i\i j>repodtion8 as 
prefixes : 



25ic Slb'rcifc, departure 
25cr Sluf gang, rising, ascent 
S)tc Slue' gabc, edition 
2)cr 2)urci^'fci^mtt, average 
3)a« gilr'tDort, pronoun 
2)a8 ©e'gcngift, antidote 
S)cr Qn'^olt, contents 
2)cr SWit'bilrgcr, fellow-citizen 
2)ic aWit'gift, dowry 
2)ic 9'iadff'fragc, demand 
3)cr Ue'berrod, overcoat 
2)cr Ue'berbau, superstructure 
2)ic SSor'flabt, suburb 
S)cr 3w'f^^ accident 



(ab, away ; 
(auf,up; 
(au8, out ; 
(bur^, through ; 
(fftr,for; 
(gcgcn, against ; 
(in, in; 
(mit, with ; 

(na(^, after; 
(ilbcr, over ; 

(i)or, before ; 



bie S^eife, journey). 
bcr @ang, passage), 
tie @abc, gift), 
ber @<3^nitt, cutting). 
baS SSort, word). 
baS ®ift, poison), 
bcr $att, holding), 
bcr ^ilrgcr, citizen), 
bie @ift, gift), 
bic gragc, question), 
bcr "^tid, coat), 
bcr SBau, building), 
bic ©tabt,city). 
bcr gall, falling). 



S)cr 3wfant'mcn^ang, connection (gufammen, together; bcr $ang, hanging). 
2)cr 3»i'f<^cnraum, interstice (jtDif(^cn, between ; bcr Gianni, space). 

7. Compound Nouns are formed much more exten- 
sively in German than in English, as is shown by the 
following examples : 

1. Compound Nouns formed by adding prefixes to 
ber %M%f a noun derived from gel^Ctt {to go)^ and 
meaning a going^ ajpassage. 

Slb'gang, departure (ab, away). 

Sluf gang, rising (auf, up). 

HuS'gang, exit (ane, out). 

SBaum'gang, shady avenue (53aum, tree). 



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COMPOUND NOUNS* 






©o'gengang, arcade 
2)urdt^'gang, thoroughfare 
eingang, entrance 
(Srj'gang, vein of ore 
gort'gang, progression 
^er'gang, event 
§higang, death 
2)W6'gang, foilure 
SD'lor'gengang, morning walk 
Sfiild'gang, retreat 
©iiu'tengang, colonnade 



(Sogen, arch)s. ^ 
(Dur(^, through).' ' 
(em, in), 
(eij^ore). 
(fort, forth), 
(i^cr, hither), 
(^in, thither), 
(miffcn, to miss), 
(morgen, morning), 
(rilcf , back). 
(@aulc, column). 



@;|)ajier'gan0, walk for pleasure (f^ajtc'ren, to walk for pleasure;. 



@df^at'tcngang, shady walk 
Uc'bcrgang, transition 
Um'gang, intercourse 
Un'tcrgang, destruction 
!5Sor'gang, precedence 



(@d^attcn, shadow), 
(ilbcr, over), 
(urn, around), 
(untcr, under), 
(ttor, before). 



Compound Nouns with hdi 

prefix : 

2)cr $au^t'altar, high altar 
2>cr $fluj)t'an!cr, sheet anchor 
S)ic ^aui)t'armcc, main army 
2)cr ©au^t'artifcl, leading editorial 
2)er ^anpt'halUn, architrave 
2)er ^anpi'ha^, thorough-base 
2)d $aui)t'begriff, leading idea 
2)ic ©aui)t'febcr, main-spring 

'^ 2)cr ©a«i>f fester, chief fault 
2)ie ©au|)t'frogc, main question 
2)ie ©au:^t'fir<3^c, cathedral 
2)er ^au^t'inann, captain 
S)er $aui>t'inafi, mainmast 
2)ie $au ^frolic, principal part 
2)ic ^aui>t'fad(^c, principal thing 

. 2)ie $au^t'fSngenn, prima donna 
2)ad $au:|>t'fegel, mainsail 
2)ie ^au^t'ftabt, capital 
2)ie ^au^)t'jlva6c, main street 
2)cr iE>au:|)t'ton, key note 
2)te ^au^t'tugenb, cardinal nrtue 
3)a« $au^t'U?ort, masterpiece. 
2)a« §aui>t'tt)crf, noun 
S)ic .^aupt'jeitc, head-line (of a page) 
2)er $aiH>t'5Cugc,prMcipal witness 



$au)lt, t/ie A^ad, as 

(bcr 3lltar', altar), 
(ber Sinter, anchor), 
(bie Slrmcc', army), 
(ber ^Irti'fcl, article), 
(bcr S3alfen, beam), 
(ber S3og, base), 
(bcr ©cgriff , idea), 
(bie gcber, feather), 
(bcr gc^Ier, fault), 
(bie gragc, question), 
(bie ^x6)t, church), 
(ber aWann, man), 
(ber SWajl, mast), 
(bie 9lotte, part), 
(bie <Ba6)t, thing), 
(bie ©fingerin, singer)t 
(ba« @egel, sail), 
(bie @tabt, city), 
(bie ©tragc, street), 
(ber Zon, tone), 
(bie 2;ugenb, virtue). 
(ba« 3Ber!, work). 
(ba« 93?ort, word), 
(bie 3ctle, line), 
(bcr S^^J'iJ'^/ witness). 



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120 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

Exercise 72. 
1. Have you ever (JO seen a polar bear? 2. The 
pickpocket has stolen my gloves. 3. Mr. Grein is 
teacher in the common school in Elberfeld. 4. 1 can 
not find my penknife. 5. The school-house is opposite 
the church. 6. Mr. KirchhofF has bought a clock and 
a sewing machine. 7. Can you give me a needle? 8. 
Here is the entrance, and there is the exit (way out). 
9. The contents of the book are (ijl) very interesting 
and instructive. 10. The word f,^ani" is a noun, and 
„n)ir" is a pronoun. 11. Charlottenburg is a suburb of 
Berlin. 12. The main army arrived in Leipzig yester- 
day evening ; it will arrive in Berlin to-morrow. 13. 
The express train from Hamburg has not yet arrived. 
14. Mr. Auerbach is in the reading-room. He is read- 
ing the newspapers. 15. I wish a quire of writing-pa- 
per. 16. Did you read the leading editorial in to-day's 
paper? 17. Vienna is the capital of Austria. 



LESSON XXXVII. 

DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 

1. ©iitt) ®ic a\x9 ®ot^a? 2. S«cin, ici^ bin em SBcrlincr (or 
i^ bin auS ©crlin). 3. 3fl ^err !Dictrid^ aud gtanffutt (or 
ijl ^crr 2)ictrid^ cin granf farter) ? 4* Slein, er ijt ein ^^x^m^ 
burger, aber |>err Diefenbad^ ifl ein granffurter, ^err ^raufe 
ifl ein aWccflenburger* unb |)err ©c^norr ifl ein Dfoenburger. 

5. ©ejiern 9lbent) l^abe i6) einen (Snglanber, einen ^otlanber nnb 
einen ©c^weijer bet (at the house of) ^erm ©tein getroffen. 

6. Unfere ?e^rerin in ber beutfd^en ©prad^e ifl eine SWetflenbur^ 
gerin, ani ©d^werin^ 7* grau Sernl^off ifl au8 SSerlin (or ifl 
eine Serlinerin), grouletn ©d^ntibt ifl eine ^amburgerin, unb 
grau »an 2)om ifl eine ^oUanberin* 8. 2)a8 SWabd^en l^at ein 

* For words not found explained in the lessons hereafter, see the Dictirn- 
ary m Part Fourth. 



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PEEIVATIVE NOUNS. 



121 




V* 



> 2 



23rrfnifflr«^m ©artm gcppiirft. 10. Die ®ute dm ®cHcfitc« 

•^e^^- Wi>^ »on ber 5«etn^eit fccr 5«eimc at (at^ansen). ii. 

^jm \\)xt gropte ^6^c unb bic Sage cmic|en t^re 

P m 22. 3unu 12. 2)cr glup ^at ^ier eine Jicfc 

^ mb einc Sreitc t)on 800 gu^. 13. Der ©utc 

^ . ber SBeifc fuc|t iai 9Ba^re, bcr ^iinjiler fuc^t 

S ^ ter wa^rc 35^itofop^ fuc^t bag ®ute, bag 3Ba^rc 

JNte- 14. SBa^rcnb feincr langcn ^ranf^cit Ui 

TOc^t au8 bem ^aufc gc^en fonnen. 15. 2)ic 

JsSanbfd^aft in bcr 5«a^c »on 2)regben l^at uitg fo 

S mx ben ganjen ®ommer in Dregben geblieben 

^ ©eneral ^at bie Stapferfeit ber ©olbaten gelobt. 

Grammatical. 
^^^Ifoum are formed by adding prefixes or 
^^^::*bs, adjectives, or other nouns. 
"^^fies the umlaut is also added to the radical vowel. 

^flBxes form con<yt^€te nouns, as =cr, AM (or 
Uffix -cr usually denotes vude persom^ as : 

^<x\Xtt, peasant {fromUutn, to cultivate). 




bicncn, 

jagcn, 

le^rcn, 

malcn, 

f(3^ncibcn, 



to serve), 
to hunt), 
to teach), 
to paint), 
to cut). 



ba« gleifc^, meat), 
bcr ©artcn, garden), 
ber ©attcl, saddle) 



«Hener, servant ( 
„ ^Sger, hunter ( 
n Scorer, teacher ( 
„ Wlaltt, painter ( 
t, @(i^ncibcr, tailor ( 
,, %ii\Wx, butcher ( 
,, ©Srtncr, gardener ( 

„ @atttcr, saddler ( „^ „„«„.v.y. 

22cwi. 1. Nouns in str are formed from both nouns and verbs. 
Rm. 2. The suffix ^tX (or slicr) is added to the names of many countries 
and cities in forming masculine national and civic nouns ; with some nouns 
the umlaut is added, with others it is omitted ; as : 

®Cr ®«if^^'"^^' citizen of Berlin (/row Berlin, Berlin).* 
„ ^onitoger, citizen of Hamburg ( ** ©atnBurg, Hamburg). 
„ amerifa'ner, the American ( *' SCmcrita, America). 
„ gngtanbcr, the Englishman ( " ^ngtanb, England). 
^ ^oKanber, the Dutchman ( " eoffanb, Holland). 
„ ed;»eiicr, the Swiss ( *' btc @dj;n?cig, Switzeriand). 

F 



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122 



DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 



2. The suffix 4tt (orms yeminine from many masca 
line personal nouns, as : 



Sle ©auerm, 


^Tn^fe} (/-berSBauer, 


peasant;. 


„ S)ienerin, 


female servant ( " bcr 2)icncr, 


servant). 


„ grcunbin, 


female friend ( ** bcr grcunb, 


friend). 


ri ^atfcrin, 


empress ( " bcr ^aifcr, 


emperor). 


„ ^Snigin, 


queen ( *' bcr ^iJnig, 


king). 


rr «S*i«r 


female cook ( *' bcr ^0(^^, 


cook). 


„ Secretin, 


female teacher ( ** bcr Scorer, 


teacher). 


,1 B6)iSL\txm, 


female scholar (' *' bcr ^6)iJiUx, 


scholar). 


,, ©crii'nerin, 


the Berlin lady ( ** bcr ©crUncr, 


Berlin! 


„ $atnbur()ertn 


, the Hamburg lady ( *' bcr ^amBurgcr, Hamburg). 


,, 3lfrifa'nerin, 


the Africaness ( *' bcr Slfrifancr, 


African). 


rr Slmerita'ncrir 


I, the American lady ( " bcr Slmcrifancr 


, American). 


ft C^ngldnberin, 


the English lady ( " bcr SnglSnbcr, 


Englishman), 


tf ^oUSnberin, 


the Dutch lady ( ** bcr ^ottSnbcr, 


Dutchman). 


., ^(ifcoditxxn, 


the Swiss lady ( " bcr edjitDcigcr, 


the Swiss). 


Rem. 1. Formerly the termination ?!«« was much used ; the phiral ending 


of nouns in sin is s 


Innen^as: 




5)ie ^Suigin (tiJnigtnn), queen ; pL bic ^Bmgtnncn, queens. 


Hetn. 2. With some nouns the umlaut is added : b e r ^ (^, MC ^OC^itt* 



3. Diminutive nouns are formed by adding the suf- 
fix s(||Ctt or AtiU to many nouns ; the umlaut is 
added when the radical vowel is capable of it : 



Sa^ SB^umd^cn, the small tree 

n StnWdn, the small boy 

tt ^\iim6ftn, the little flower 

1, ©tSbtd^cn, the small city 

I, 2WSb(^cn, the girl 

tt grSulcin, the young miss 

tt ^x'6t>6)m, thesmallloaf of bread 

tt $Su«d^>cn, the small house 

Stcb^cn, the sonnet 

^f crbci^cn the little horse 



from bcr Saum/ tree). • 

f, ^nabt, boy). 
bfC SSIumc, flower). 

r, ®tabt, city). 

„ 9Kagb, maid). 

rr ^xan, woman). 
boSSrob, bread). 

t, 5au§, house). 

tt Sicb, song). 

tt ^xh, horse). 



It 
It 

Rem. 2. These diminutive nouns all take the neuter gender, whatever may 
be the gender of the nouns from which they are derived. 

Rem. 2. These diminutive terminations often express affectionate feeling 
or regard : 

2^a^ SSatcri^^cn, "father dear" (from bcr 3Satcr, father). 
„ SWflttcr^cn. " mother dear" ( *' tic SWiitter, mother). 



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DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 123 

4. The suffixes :^t, -f^txt (or ::Icit)^ m^, 4^tt|tf -tftum, 
snug form mostly abstract nouns. ^ 

1. The suffix sC (with umlaut to the radical vowel) 

forms nouns from adjectives: 

Sle®iite, goodness (from gut, good). 
„ ^iJ^C, height ( *' (>0(^, high). 
„ Sangc, length ( ** lang, long). 
„ %u\t, depth ( ** ticf, deep). 
„ 53vcitc, breadth ( " brcit, broad). 

Eem. Nouns thus formed are not to be confounded with adjectives used 
substantively, and referring to persons, as : 

Set @UtC, the good man ; bie @UtC, the good woman. 

„ Scife, the wise man ; tt SBcifc, the wise woman. 

„ 2)CUt{c^C, the German (man) ; „ ^tVit\6)t, the German (woman). 

Nor with the neuter of adjectives when used to indicate the quality of the 
adjective regarded as a concrete thing, as : 

Sa^ ®ute, the good (from gut, good). 

„ aSa^rc, the true ( ** lua^r, true). 
„ ©c^iJuc, the beautiful ( ** \6f'6n, beautiful). 
„ er^a'benc, the sublime ( ** cr^a'bcn, sublime). 

2. The suffix -Iftit or (^Icit) forms both abstract and 

concrete nouns from adjectives: 

Ste ^anf^ett, sicknesa (fron 

„ ©(^iJn^it, beauty ( *' 

„ SBa^r^cit, truth ( ** 

I, 9icin^>cit, purity ( *' 

,, 2)un!cH>cit, darkness ( *' 

„ Slc^fulic^tcit, similarity ( ** 

t, grcunblic^fcit, friendliness ( *' 

» S3illig!eit, cheapness ( " 

t, ^ftbarfctt, deamess ( ** 

„ gurt^tfamtcit, fearfiilness ( " 

t, 2:a:|)fcr!cit, bravery ( ** 

tf eitcllcit, vanity ( ** 

Rem, 1. The suffix $!eit is added to adjectives ending in A^p 41$/ 4^01/ 

Rem. 2. The suffix s^tli is also added to some personal nouns, as : 
Sle ^tnb^Ctt, chadhood (from ba« ^nb, chUd). 
n 9Wenf(^^^cit, humanity ( ** bcr SWcnft^, human being). 
t, (S^ripcn^cit, Christendom ( " bet (Shrift, Christian). 



frauT, 


sick). 


fd)iJn, 


beautiful). 


toa^x, 


true). 


rein, 


pure). 


bunfcl, 


dark). 


fi^nlid^, 


similar). 


frcunblid^, friendly). 


bittig, 


cheap). 


foflbar, 


dear). 


furc^tfoni 


, fearful). 


ta^fer, 


brave). 


citcl, 


vain). 



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124 



DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 



3. Derivatives ending in ^Ilil are usually formed 
from verbs, but they are sometimes from nouns 
and adjectives, as : 

3)le ^enntnig, knowledge (from lennen, to know). 

Sa^^m^ntig, impediment ( '* ^inbern, to hinder). 

^a9 ©crfl&nb'nig, understanding ( " bcr ^Scrjtonb', reason). 
^le ginPcrnifi, darkness ( ** finflcr, dark). 

4. Derivatives ending in 'f(|l(lft are formed from 
nouns and adjectives, as: 

$le grcunbfd^^aft, friendship (from bcr grcunb, friend). 

„ Sanbfc^aft, landscape ( " ba«!tJanb, land). 

t, ©aucrnf^aft, peasantry ( ** btc SBaucrn (;>/.), peasants). 

Ortft^aft, neighborhood ( ** bcr Ort, place). 

( ** bcrcit, ready). 

m 'tl^ntU are formed from 



n SBcrcit'ft^aft, readinesis 

5. Derivatives ending 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs, as: 

I5a^ $ciligt^um, sanctuary (fronfi ^citig, holy). 

ti ^aifcrt^um, empire ( ** ber ^dfcr, emperor). 

M $ricpcrt^um, priesthood ( " bte ^ricflcr (;>/.), priests). 

Set ^cic^t^um, richness ( " rcic^, rich). 

6. Nouns formed from verbs, by adding the suffix 
sung^ usually denote a condition, what produces 
a condition,or a thing put into a certain condition: 



2)te 3tc^tung, 


respect 


(f' 


rom a6)tznf 


to respect). 


„ SBiibung, 


formation, culture ( 


" bUbcn, 


to form). 


„ SBebing'ung, 


condition 




*' I)cbin'gcn, 


to stipulate). 


„ (gntfaftung, 


unfolding 




" cntfal'ten, 


to unfold). 


.„ (grfa^rung, 


experience 




** crfa^rcn, 


to experience). 


„ ero'bcning, 


conquest 




" cro'l^cra, 


to conquer). 


,, gor(d(fun9, 


investigation 




'^ forjd^cn, 


to investigate). 


M |)anbrun9, 


trading-house 




" I^anbctn, 


to handle). 


f, Sanbung, 


landing 




" ranbcn, 


to land). 


r, aWeinung, 


opinion 




** meincn, 


to think). 


„ ^rftfung, 


examination 




" ^xm, 


to examine). 


„ 9ei(^^tung, 


direction 




" rii^^tcn, 


to direct). 


„ @ammlung, 


collection 




" fommcln, 


to collect). 


rr @i!3ung, 


session 




" fifeen, 


to sit). 


rf ©crfamm'Iung, assembly 




" bcrfam'mctn 


, to collect). 


n iBcrt^ci'bigung, defense 




" bcrt^ci'bigcn 


, to defend). 


t, Sarnung, 


warning 




*' »arncn, 


to warn). 


» 3ci^n«n9r 


drawing 




** gcidjncn, 


to draw). 


„ 3crfirrung, 


destruction 




** jcrpiJ'rcn, 


to destroy). 



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DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 



125 



RejH, I . Nouns ending in $lin§ may be formed from nearly all verbs, both 
simple and compound. 
Mem, 2. A few collective nouns in sung are formed from nouns : 
2)(C$o(jung, forest (from ba3 $olj, wood). 
„ itcibung, clothing ( " ba«^lcib, garment). 
„ ^tattung, stabliog ( ** bcr @tatt, stable). 
„ aSalbung, woodknd( *' bcr SBalb, forest). 

5. (1), Personal nouns ending in -et are masculine. 
(2), Nouns ending in An, -tx {'Xti), -^tit {-Uit), =f(|iaft, 

-ttttg are feminine. 
(3), Nouns ending in sd^CII- {ItitO, stJ^uru are neuter. 

JErc. The nouns b e r 3r r t^U m (error) and bcr ^tx6)ti)Um (richness, 
riches) are masculine. 
Rem, Some of the nouns ending in s|tt| are feminine and some are neuter. 

6. The most important jw^^/Kz^^ in forming derivative 
nouns are gc-, miftv ^^-f ^v ^^'* 

1. The prefix %t^f to nouns formed from verbs or 
from other nouns, denotes collectiveness, union, 
completion, or repetition: 
%tt ®cf 5^r'tc, companion (from bic ga^rt, journey). 

n @C^iirfc, assistant ( 

n ®t\if\t*\tf play-mate ( 

$fe®cBril'bcr (;>/.), brothers, brethren ( 
n ®cf(^^tt)t'flcr * * brothers and sisters ( 



„ ©cbulb', 

„ ©cfa^r', 

r, ®cW(^'tc, 
So^^cbau'bc, 

n ®cbi(^^f , 

» ©cWitf, 

n @crtdj|t', 

n ©Crii^bf ^ 

n @Cfl*f, 

n ©cbtr'fic, 

I, ©cflc'bcr, 

m ®ctr5nr, 
@c»ifter, 



patience 

danger 

history . 

edifice 

poem 

fate 

court of law 

dish, plate 

law 

sight, &ce 

mountain range 

plumage 

potation 

thunder-storm 



bic ^fllfc, help) 
ba«@^)icl, play), 
bcr SBrubcr, brother), 
bic @^tt)cflcr, sister). 



die dult, 

diefahr, 

QcWc^cn, 

baucn, 

bid^^tcn, 

\6}xdm, 

ric^tcn, 

a 

fc^cn, 
Men, 
bcr S3crg, 
bic gcbcr, 
bcr 2^ranT, 
ba^SScttcr, 



patience). 

fear). 

to happen). 

to build). 

to write poetry). 

to send). 

to direct). 

to order). 

to establish). 

to see). 

mountain). 

feather). 

drink). 

weather). 



Mem, Most nouns with the prefix gt« are of the neuter gender. Nearly aQ 
Dooiu.with the prefix gt^ also take the umlaut. 



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126 



DEKIVATIVE NJUXS. 



2. The prefix vAp denotes negation, perversion or 
incompleteness, or negation of quality : 



S)cr 3Ki6begrlff, 

„ aWigton, 
S)ie amgernte, 
„ aKiegcflolt, 
„ aKiggunfl, 



misconception 
misuse, abuse 
discord 
bad harvest 
deformity 
disfavor 
ill treatment 



(frombcr ©cgrtff', 



So^3]'ti6t>ev(&Itntg, disproportion 



bcr Son, 
bic erntc, 
bic ©cflaltr, 
bte ©unfi, 
bic ^nblung. 



conception). 

use). 

sound). 

harvest). 

form). 

favor). 

treatment). 



ba« 55cr(^filt'nt6, proportion). 



3. The prefix ttll- denotes negation or perversion of 
quality : 

ingratitude 
misfortune, disaster 
disobedience 



inhuman being 
nonsense 



Scr Unban!, 

r. Unfaa, 

„ Unge^orfam, 
. „ Unmenfdj^, 

ft Unfimt, 
Sfe Unc^rlt^trit, dishonesty 

„ Uncnb'(i(itfcit, infinity 

ft Unfd^igleit, incapacity 

n Ungebulb, impatience 

t, Unorbnuug, 

t, Untune, 
. „ Untrcuc, 
3)agUngm(f, 
Untrdut, 



(frombcr S)ant, thankfulness). 

( *' ber gaa, chance, fall). 

( " bcr ©c^orfam, obedience). 

( " bcr Tlm\6), human being). 

( " bcr ©inn, sense). 

( 

( 

( 

( 

( 

( 

( 



bic C^^rU^fcit, honesty). 

bic Snbltcii^lcit, finiteness). 

bic gS^igtcit, capacity). 

bic ©cbulb', 

bic Orbnung, 

bic 9hi^c, 

bic 2rcuc, 

ba«®m(!, 

ba« ^aut, 



patience). 

order). 

rest). 

faithfulness). 

fortune). 

herb). 



disorder 
disquietude 
faithlessness 
misfortune, calamity ( 
noxious weeds ( 

Rem. The prefix ttlls can be used especially to the nouns in s^txt and stciU 

4. The prefix llt^ denotes source, origin or cause, or 
ft thing in its original condition: 

Set UrBcn^o^ncr, aboriginal inhabitant (from bcr ^ctoo^'ncr, inhabitant). 

t, ttrquett, primary source 

,; Urf^)rung, origin, source 

t, UrtDatb, primeval forest 
tSIC Itvhinbc, document, record 

tt Urfa(^e, origin, cause 

„ Urf^ra^c, primitive language 
Sal Urbitb, prototype 

,t Urbolf, aboriginal people 

5. The prefix ttjs denotes the first or greatest: 

2er SrjbiWof, archbishop (from bcr 83if(^^of, bbhop). 

ft (Srjbicb, arrant thief* ( " bcr 2)icb, thieO- 

„ C^rjmarfd^^aK, lord high-marshal ( " bcr Wlax\6)oiXV, marshal). 

Sfe (Srjtugcnb, cardinal virtue ( " bic 2:ugcnb, virtue). 



( '^ 


bcr OucH, 


source). 


/ t( 


bcr @^rung, 


spring). 


c ** 


bcr SBalb, 


forest). 


( ** 


bic ^unbc, 


knowledge). 


( *^ 


bic ©ai^^c, 


thmg). 


( ** 


bic @^ra^, 


language). 


( '* 


ba« ©ilb, 


form). 


( ** 


ba« 5>^ori, 


people). 



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DEBIVATIVE NOUNS. 127 

6. Many words in the German, as in the English lan- 
guage, have undergone great changes in form during the 
known history of the language. Some derivatives have 
also been formed from words that are no longer used. 
Thus: the word @ eb ulD (from an old word die «/«/<= patience) has un- 
dergone the following changes of form : kidult, yidult, gedult^ @ e b U I b. The 
word ® c f a ^ r is from an old word diefahr= fear. 

Exercise 74. 
1. The first session of the Assembly will take place 
to-morrow, at ten o'clock. 2. Have you seen the new 
drawings of the artist? 3. The collection of antiquities 
from Egypt in the Museum of Berlin is very large. 4. 
Mr. Breitkopf has just bought the first five vohames of 
the German dictionary of the brothers Grimm. 5. How 
many brothers and sisters have you? 6. I have two 
brothers (SBru^er), and one sister. 7. It is very sultry, 
we will probably have a thunder-storm before night. 8. 
This book contains the best poems of Goethe, Schiller, 
and Heine. 9. Did you notice the disproportion between 
the height and the breadth of the building? 10. 1 have 
never heard such nonsense. 1 1 . The papers on this table 
are lying in the greatest disorder. 1 2. His dishonesty 
was a much greater misfortune than his incapacity for 
the work. 13. The aborigines of America were the In- 
dians. 14. Have you ever seen a primeval forest? 15. 
Do you know the origin of the word „Unenblid^fcit" ? 16. 
J)o you know the cause of his disquietude? 17. The arch- 
bishop of Mayence has gone to Cologne to-day. 18. The 
beauty of these drawings is very extraordinary. 19. Miss 
Kreutzer is from Germany, but MissRobelli is an Italian. 
20.Mr.Flander is a Swiss, but his wife is a German. 21. 
The teacher (/em.) has in her school twenty-two scholars 
(fern.). 22. Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, died on 
the thirteenth of April, 1807. 23. Louise Auguste, Queen 
of Prussia, died on the nineteenth of July, 1810. 



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128 FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES. 

LESSON XXXVIII. 

DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 

(Ifiinfttnbfteisigfte ^nfgak. 

1. 3tt biefer ^injtd^t ift er gegeit feinc SBorganger nid^t ianh 
hat. 2. Der S3obett urn S3erlin tjl fanbig unb nid^t fe^r frud^t^^ 
bar. 3* 3^ »eip ntd^t ob bic S3rude fci^on gangbar ifi. 4. Der 
^lan ijl ganj unaudfu^rbar. 5. SBir l^aben ben ganjen 2:a9 
feitt trinfbarcg SBaffer gefunben. 6. ^err 2)orn leibet an einer 
un^eilbaren ^xant\)txU 1. ^m ^iefewetter l^at feinc neuc gol^ 
bene U^r ^eute SWorgen »ertoren. 8. „9lur tn bem geenlanbc 
ber ?ieber lebt nod^ beine fabel^aftc <SpnxJ' 9. Der SMaler l^at 
eine auperorbentUd^ leb^aftc einbilbungdfraft. 10» Diefe feljigc 
©egenb ifl »oU i)on ^lajjperfd^langen. 11. $cute l^aben »ir 
fc^r fi$6ne«, fonnige« SBetten 12. SBarum ftnb ®te fo traurig? 
13. Robert ®ic bic malerifd^e ?anbfd^aft in ber fad^jtfd^en 
<B6)m\i, S^ifd^en Dre^ben unb ^rag gefe^en? 14. Die 
jlabtifd^en 35e]&6rben ^aben befd^loffen, eine neuc 5lnlei^c »on 
500,000 X^lx. ju maiden, nm eine neue ©tra^e t)om griebiid^*:^ 
^laft bi« jum ©abowa^^la^ burd^juful^ren. 15. Son bem 
©rimmTd^en ©6rterbud^ finb bi« je^t erjl fed^e SSnbe erfd^ie^ 
nen. 16. Die „3lug«burger 5lllgemeine B^tung" ifl bie grSpte 
unb bejlc politifd^e B^itung in ©iibbeutfd^lanb. 

arammatical. 

1. Dernvative Adjectives are formed from nouns, adjec- 
tives, numerals, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and preposi- 
tions, by adding the suffixes sftat^ «Ct (*etn)f ^\^\if *i0f 
'if d^ (-cr), sHd^^ and sf am^ according to the following rules : 

\ 1. The suffix sfiar^ added to a noun or to a verbal 
stem, indicates ability or possibility of a quality 
or of an action : 



> ^an!6ar, 


thankful 


(from ber 2)anT, thank). 


^bicnjlbar, 


serviceable 


( ** ber 2)ien(l, service). 


^f^^d^tbar, 


fruitful 


( ** bic grui^^t, fruit). 



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FOBHATION OF ADJECnVES. 



129 



furci^tBar, fearful 


(firom b!e ^ur^t, 


fear). 


\ gangbar, passable 




bcr @ang, 


passage). 


foflbar, costly 




bic ^oflcnCp;.)* expenses). 


fd^einbar, apparent 




bcr @^cin, 


appearance). 


flrcttbar, contestable 




bcr ©trcit, 


contest). 


tounbcrbar, wonderful 




ba« Snnbcr, 


miracle). 


brcnnbar, combustible 




brcnncn, 


to bum). 


bcnibar, conceivable 




bcnfcn, 


to think). 


cgbar, edible, fit to eat 




effcn, 


to eat). 


ouSffl^rbar, practicable 




au«fil^rcn, 


to execute). 


^aftbar, tenable 


( " 


fatten, 


to hold). 


^cilbar, curable 


( *' 


icUcn, 


to heal). 


^Brbar, audible 


( *' 


^iJrcn, 


to hear). 


crKar'bar, explainable 


( ** 


erlia'rcn, 


to explain). 


Ic«bar, legible 


( ^* 


rcfcn, 


to read). 


toermctb'bar, avoidable 


( ** 


bcttnci bcu, 


to avoid). 


ncnnbar, tbat may be named ( " 


iicnncn, 


to name). 


gcnicg'bar, enjoyable 


( " 


gcnicgcn, 


to enjoy). 


crrcti^^'bar, attainable 


( " 


erreid^cn, 


to attain> 


trennbar, divisible 


( " 


trcnncn, 


to divide). 


trinlbar, fit to drink 


(" 


trintcn, 


to drink). 


^ 2. The suffix =ett (:^ern) 


is added only 


to nouns c 


noting material : 








\ ®olbcn, golden, gold 


Cfromba«®olb, 


gold). 


fWbcrn, of silver 


(" 


ba8 ©ilbcr, 


silver). 


\ fu^jfcm, of copper 


( " 


ba« 9ttt)p\tt, 


copper> 


V bleicm, leaden 


( " 


ba« SBIci, 


lead). 


(cbem, of leather 


(" 


ba8 Scbcr, 


leather). 


^Stjem, wooden 


( " 


ba« ^otj, 


wood). 


vfitafcm, of glass 


( " 


ba3 ®Ia«i, 


glass). 



Hern, When the noun (as ^ u !|) f C r) ends in sr^ only stt is added. 

I 3. The suffix ^^l^dft denotes possession of or inclina- 
tion toward the quality of the noun to which it 
is suffixed: 

y^2)aucr^aft, 
ernpaft, 
vfabcl^ft, 

rcb^aft, 
ittongcl^aft, 
ricfen^iaft, 
jttjctfet^aft, 



durable 


(from bic S)aucr, 


duration> 


earnest 


( " bcr (ixn% 


earnestness). 


fabulous 


( " bic gabcl, 


fable). 


faulty 


(" bctgc^Icr, 


fault). 


Hvely 


( " ba« Scbcn, 


life). 


defective 


( " bcr mm^a, 


lack). 


gigantic 


(" bcr^eicfc, 


giant). 


dubious 


( " bcr Sweifcr, 


doubt). 


flattering 


( " bic @(i^mct(^ci' 
F2 


, flattery). 



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130 



FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



^ 4. The suflSx sig denotes the possisssion of the qual- 
ity or relation that is expressed by the noun, 
adjective, numeral pronoun, verb, preposition, or 
adverb, to which it is suffixed : 



\«rtig, 


polite, well-behaved 


(from bic 2(rt, 


way). 


bSrtig, 


bearded 


( " bet ©art, 


beard). 


^etfltSf 


mountainous 


( " bcr«crg, 


mountain). 


blutig, 


bloody 


( " ba«5BIut, 


blood). 


cifrig, 


zealous 


( " bcr (gifcr, 


zeal). 


etfig, 


icy 


( " ba«(gi8, 


ice). 


^ feifig, 


rocky 


( " bergel«, 


rock). 


Petgig, 


industrious 


( " bcr grcig, 


industry). 


P*tig, 


fleeting 


( " bic gtu^t, 


flight). 


g«|Wg/ 


referring to the spirit ( " bcr ®d% 


spirit). 


getsig, 


avaricious 


( *' bcr®cij, 


avarice). 


fliftig, 


poisonous 


( " ba3@ift, 


poison). 


flilriftig, 


favorable 


( " bic (3m% 


favor). 


Wm 


woody 


( " ba«$orj, 


wood). 


Mftig, 


powerful 


( " bic ^aft, 


power). 


mSe^ftig, 


mighty 


( " bic ma6ft, 


might). 


* mfigig, 


moderate, temperate 


( " ba«3»ag, 


measure). 


niJt^ig, 


necessary 


( " . bic 9(lot^, 


want). 


ru^ig, 


quiet 


( ** bte 9eu^c, 


rest). 


ricfig, 


gigaatic 


( ** ber?Rtefc, 


giant). 


Wg, 


salty 


( " ba«@alj, 


salt). 


fanbig, 


sandy 


( " bcr @anb, 


sand). 


ft^ulbig, 


guilty 


( ** bic @*utb, 


gnilt). 


fonnig, 


sunny 


( " bic @onnc, 


sun). 


traurig, 


sad, sorrowful 


( " bic 5trauer, 


sorrow). 


t)crbSd;tig, 


suspicious 


( " bcr 35crba(^t' 


suspicionX 


iDflrbtg, 


worthy 


( " bic SSilrbc, 


worth). 


, butn^fig, 


damp 


( " bum^f, 


damp). 


IcBen'big, 


lively, active 


( " tcknb, 


living). 


gftttg, 


good 


( " gut. 


goo^). 


t)5mg, 


fully 


( " VJOtI, . 


full). 


cittig, cinjig, 


sole, single 


( " cin. 


one). 


bcifitg, 


biting 


( " bcigcu, 


to bite). 


crgicbig, 


productive 


( *' cr^c'bcn, 


to yield). 


^bortig, 


of that place 


( " bort^ 


there). 


WH. 


of this place 


( " ^ier, 


' here). 


^eutig, 


of to-day 


( " ^?ute, . 


to-day). 


utebng, 


low 


( ** nicbcr, 


down). 


"^^Jorig, 


former 


( ** bor, 


before). 


\ilbrig, 


remaining 


( ** ilbcr. 


oyer). 



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FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES. 131 

\.5. The suflfix A\iff, attached to personal common 
nouns (and to a few verbs), denotes similarity or 
inclination to a quality ; and often conveys also 
the idea of contempt or unworthiness ; 
^aurif(^^, referring to the peasantry (from ber S3aucr, peasant), 
bid^tcrifd^, poetical ( " bcr S)i(^tcr, poet), 

biebifd?, thievish ( *' bcr 2)ieb, thief), 

^immlifci^, heavenly ( ** bcr $immd, heaven). ^ 

V irbift^, earthly ( " bic ©rbc, earth), 

faufmannifd^^, mercantile ( " bcr ^aufmann, merchant). 

finbiW/. chUdish ( ** ba«^nb, child). 

^ malcrifci^j picturesque ( " bcr iDiolcr, painter). 

> flabtij(i^, civil ( " bic @tabt, city). 

ncibif^, suspicious ( ** ncibcn, to envy), 

t Bern. 1. The umlaut is usually added when the vowel is capable of it. 

\ Rem. 2. In many adjectives derived from the Latin and Greek languag "€, 
die ending 4f (!^ in German corresponds to the English ending -ic or -ical. 

$^iIofo>^iW, philosophic (al). brama'tif^, dramatic (al). 

t^Coto'gtW, theological C^)iW, epic(al). 

p\'(i(SfoWQX\<S), psychological. t^nfdff, . lyric (al). 

gcofo'gtfd^, geologic (al). tJOC'tifdff, poetic (al). 

^6t?ftf^, physical. fritifd), critical. 

^cmi((^^, chemical ^iflo'rifdff, historic (al). 

Mem. 3. The suiHx sff (ft («'f (ft) is added to personal proper names : 

2)ic 2ut^c'rif(^c iSirdj^c, The Lutheran church. 

S)ic S'ictoto'nifc^c 2^^coric, The Newtonian theorj\ 

S)a0 @nmm*f(i^c 2B8rtcrbU(^^, Grimm's dictionary. 

2)ic ^ant'fd^ ^^Uofo^^ic, Kant's philosophy. 

Hem. 4. National and civic adjectives usually take the ending sff (ft t 

3(mcri!a'nifd{?, American. ©crU'nlfc^, of Berlin, 

ftfrifa'mfc^, African. ^amBurgifc^, of Hamburg, 

italifi'mf^, Italian. ^Slnifc^, of Cologne, 

^jortufltc'fifd^, Portuguese. SOfJagbcBurgifc^, of Magdeburg, 

ruffifd^, Russian. ©attif^, of Halle, 

bairifd^l, Bavarian. @(^^(cji(c^, Silesian. 

I Obs. Many adjectives are formed ^om names of cities by adding the suffix 
ttt f this endiQg h^is the remarkable quality of not being capable of inflexion : 



\ The Magdeburg Cathedral. 
Nom.y bcr SWogbcburgcr S)om. 
Gen., bc« SWagbcburgcr 2)omc«. 
Dat., bcm aWagbcburgcr 3)om. 
Acc.y ben SWagbcburgcr S)om. 



The Augsburg Journal. 
Norn., bic SlugSburgcr 3c^"9* 
Gen., bcr Slug«burgcr 3«tung. 
Dat, bcr 3(ug«burgcr 3«tMn9* 
Ace, bic 3lug«]&urgcr 3cttung. 



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182 



FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



6. Adjectives with the siiflSx AOSf are formed froiB 
nouns, other adjectives, and verbs: 



Slfcenblic^, 


evening 


(from bcr Slbcnb, 


evening). 


morgcnlidi^, 


morning 




bcr SWorgcn, 


morning). 


tsim, 


daily 




bcr 2ag, 


day). 


to'66)tnt\\<if, 


weekly 




bic SBod^c, 


week). 


tnonatlii^^, 


monthly 




bcr aRoimt, 


month). 


idi}xix^, 


yearly 




ba« 3a^r, 


year). 


- hmx6), 


figurative 




ba« ©ilb, 


figure). 


bricfli^, 


by letter 




bcr ©ricf , 


letter). 


brilbcrlit^, 


brotherly 




bcr ©ruber, 


brother). 


Mx^exix^f 


pertaining to a citizen ( " 


bcr 5Bilrgcr, 


citizen). 


t\)xlx6), 


honest 


(" 


bic a^fxt, 


honor). 


tat>{\(if, 


final 


(" 


ba« (Snbe, 


end). 


\tmnt>\x6), 


friendly 


(" 


bcr greunb, 


friend). 


filildli*, 


fortunate, happy 


(" 


baS^IM, 


fortune). 


\)Sinm(i), 


domestic 


( " 


bad ^am, 


house). 


vm^. 


courteous 


( " 


bcr ^t>l 


court). 


i(d\txlxtiff 


imperial 


( " 


bcr ^aifcr, 


emperor). 


fiublid?. 


childlike 


( " 


ba« mnt, 


child). 


f9nigU^, 


royal 


(" 


bcr SiJnig, 


king). 


mtn^6)U(if, 


human 


( " 


bcr mtn\6), 


man). 


\dfmtxi\x6), 


painful 


( " 


bcr @(i^nicrj 


, pain). 


fd^rcdli*, 


terrible 


( *' 


bcr ©^rcdcn, terror). 


ttMinbcrlit^, 


wonderful 


( " 


ba« SBunbcr, 


wonder). 


tod^\x6), 


whitish 


( *' 


tt)ei6, 


white). 


x'cm^, 


reddish 


( " 


rotff, 


red). 


filtUd^, 


oldish 


( " 


oft, 


old). 


mm, 


happy, cheerful 


( " 


fro*, 


happy). 


!r5nni^, 


sickly 


(" 


frant, 


rick). 


BffcntUe^, 


public 


( " 


offcn, 


open). 


xd6)lx6), 


rich 


( " 


rcic^, 


rich). 


ixtnlxdf, 


true 


(" 


trcu, 


true). 


au«fil^r'Iid? 


, comprehensive 


( " 


andfil^rcn, 


to execute). 


bcgrctflic!^, 


comprehensible 


(" 


bcgrci'fen, 


to comprehend). 


bctocg'li*, 


movable 


( " 


bcttjc'gcn, 


to move). 


cm^flnb'Iit^ 


, sensitive 


(" 


cin^)flii'bcn, 


to feel). 


txUx'lx6f, 


explicable 


(" 


erlld'rcn, 


to explain). 


flcrbli^, 


mortal 


(" 


flcrbcit. 


to die). 


»cnncib'ft(^ 


- avoidable 


(" 


)9cnnci'bcn, 


to avwd). 


Itxhxtdf'ltif, fragile 


( " 


jerbtc'^cn, 


to break in pieces). 



Mem, Some adjectives ending in slitSf are closely allied in signification, and 
are almost interchangeable in use with adjectives derived from the same word 
and ending in $6ar : compare crf(5rbar and crIIfir(i(4,t>(rmctbbaT 
andt>ermeibtt(i!^« 



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FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES, 



133 



M. Adjectives with the suffix sfaw (formed from 
verbs or verbal nouns) indicate the possession 
of or inclination to the quality : 
Sfufmerffam, attentive (from auf mcrfen, to pay attention). 



^Wcgfam, 


pliable 




bicgcn, 


to bend). 


\ butbfam, 


patient 




bulbcn, 


to tolerate). 


V gcnilg'fam. 


sufficient 




ficnflg'cn, 


enough). 


iDicIfam, 


efficient 




toirlcn, 


to have eifect). 


orBcttfam, 


laborious 




bic Slrbcit, 


work). 


beba^t'fam, 


mindful 




bet ©cba^t' 


considerateness).' 


betrtcb'fam, 


diligent 




bcr S3ctricb', 


driving). 


furi^tfatn, 


fearful 




btc gurc^^t, 


fear). 


0Ctt)att'fam, 


violent 




bie @c»aU', 


violence). 


graufam, 


ferocious 




bad ©rauen, 


horror). 


(fcilfam, 


wholesome 




ba« $dt, 


healing). 


ntfl^fam, 


toilsome 




bic aWil^c, 


toil, pains). 


forgfam, 


solicitous 




btc @orgc, 


care). 


»u«bcrfam, 


wonderful 




bad^unbcr, 


wonder). 



Rem. 1. Two adjectives ending in sfant are formed Trom oth^ adjectives : 
©cmcin'fam, mutual ( " gemcin', conmion). 
langfam, slow ( " lang^ long). 

Hem, 2. The adjective f C It f am (rare) was formerly spelled sehsan. 

Hem. 3. The adjectives ending in sfdQt are few in number compared to those 
ending in sfg, sifrft, and 41 (ft^ A few are similar in signification to those of 
the same derivation ending in sJaiT^ as: ttjunbcr f am, ttJunbcrbar. 
The adjectives ending in sbdt have usually a passive, those in sfdQt usually 
an active signification : 

(ginc ^cilbarc ^anf^eit, A disease that can be cured. 

Sine ^eilfomc 3lrjnci', A healing remedy. 

2. Nearly all derivative adjectives can receive the 

negative prefix s|lll^ as : 

Unbonlbar, ungrateful. itnneibif(^, unenvious. 

unle^bar, illegible. uncnbU(^, infinite, 

itnfe^tcr^aft, faultless. itnmenfd^lid^, inhuman, 

imfc^utbig, innocent. unaufmertfam, inattenti>'B. 

3. Compound Adjectivea are formed by prefixing to an 

ndjeetive a noun, a preposition, or another adjective, as : 

©cttcrarm, beggarly poor (bcr ^cttel, begging; arm, poor). 

Pngcrbttf , thick as one's finger (bcr ginger, finger j bidf , thick), 

fcucrfejl, fireproof (ba« gcucr, fix« ; fcjl, fast). 

^imtnct^O^, high as heaven (bcr ^immct, heaven ; ^o(i^, hi^). 



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134 



FOBMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



ricfengrog, gigantic 
Pcin^art, hard as rock 
ci^talt, cold as ice 
baumlecr, destitute of trees 
16artIo«, beardless 



(bcr 9liefc, giant ; 
(bet @tcin, stone ; 
(ba§ (Sis, ice ; 
(bcr SSaum, tree ; 
(ber S3art, beard ; 



grog, large). 
^art, hard), 
talt, cold). 
Iccr, empty). 
(o«, destitute oO- 



dt^arartcrtoS, without character, (ber (S^araltcr, character ; *' '* [to), 

regclmagig, regular (bie 9legcl, rule ; mafiig, confoiming 

(bcr 3»ccf, purpose ; *' *' 

(bic 8c^re, learning ; xd6f, rich). 

(bic 3a^I, number; 

(bcr ^U(5, lightning; 



gttJCcfmSgig, practical 
U{fxxt\6), instructive 
iai)U66}, numerous 
blifefc^nctt, quick as lightning 



njunbcrfc^5n,extremelybeautiful(ba« SBunber, wonder; 



lltbtOoU, affectionate 
:|)ra(^^tt)ott, magnificent 
tneilcnlDcit, miles distant 
Iic'&cn«tt)ilrbig, anaiable 
altgcmein, general 
aUmfid^^tig, almighty 
buntetbtau, dark blue 
i)tW>lau, light blue 
gclbrot^, orange 
taubjhimm, deaf and dumb 



(bic SicBc,lovo; 
(bic $ra^t, splendor ; 
(bic iSfl^Uf mile ; 
(ba^SicBcn, loving; 

(all[cr],all; 
/ (( (( 

(bun!ct> <lark j 
(^clt, light ; 
(gen>,yeUow; 



\6fntU, quick). 
\(i)^n, beautiful). 
tooH, full). 

»cit, distant), 
toflrbig, worthy), 
gcmcin', conmion). 
mfid^tig, mighty), 
blou, blue). 



rot^, red), 
flumm, dumb), 
fd/ulbig, guUty). 



(taub, <Jeaf ; 
mitfc^iutbig, accessory to a crime (mit, with ; 

4. It is becoming customary in Germany to print books and journals of a 
high scientific and critical character in the Roman instead of in the German 
type. It is greatly to be desired that this custom may become general, and 
that thus an unnecessary barrier to' the beginning of the study of the German 
language may be removed. We give below a German exercise in Boman 
type. 

Sechsundsiebzigste Aufgabe. 
l.Das Litera^rische Centrarblatt, die beste kritische 
Zeitung in Deutschland, erscheint wochentlich. 2. Die 
Leipziger Illustrir^te Zeitung erscheint auch wochent- 
lich. 3. Herr Hagemeyer ist ein ehrlicher Manp. 4. 
Ich wiinsche Ihnen eine gliickliche Reisel 5. Bei dem 
schrecklichett Unfall in den Bergwerken zu Freiberg 
sind vierzig Menschen urn's Leben gekommen {have lost 
their lives). 6. Das Grimm'sche JWorterbuch wird das 
ausfiihrlichste und vbllkommensteWorterbiichder deut- 
schen Sprache sein. 7. AUe offentlichen Schiilen sind 
wahrend der Ferien geschlossen. 8. Die konigliche 



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CASES GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVES. 135 

Bibliothek in Berlin .Ist in einem Theiie des kdnig- 
lichen Palastes. 9. Die Lehrerin sagt, dass die Schiller 
^ehr aufmerksam sind. 10. Dieser Brief von Herrn 
Tiedemann ist fast unlesbar. 11. Das Museum ist ein 
feuerfestes Gebaude. 12. Ich finde diese neue Ma- 
schine sehr zweckmassig. 13. Der prachtvolle Kolner 
Dom ist das Meisterstiick der deutschen Baukunst. 

14. Frau Bernsdorf ist eine sehr liebenswurdige Dame. 

15. Ich werde drei Ellen von diesem dunkelblauen 
Bande und sechs Ellen von jenem breiten, gelbrothen 
Band nehmen. 



LESSON XXXIX. 

CASES GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVES. 

@te&etiutibfteijigfte ^nfgabe. 

!♦ @« tjl unkfd^reibliij^, ml6)t ©el^nfud^t id^ empfanb, nur 
eine« aWenfd^en anjttltig gu werbeit (Sd^*). 2. ®raf Sulcnfelg 
toax nx^ an ®nt, bod^ arm an ?ekngfreuben. 3. ®te finb allc 
i^reg aSerfprc(]^cn« cingcbenf gcwefcn (X.). 4* dx ijl jiebcr Sluf^ 
opferung fa^ig (or.er ijl ju jebcr Slufopfcrung faf)i9)* 5. dx tjl 
fd^ott bc« ©icgcg Qtroxfi: 6» ©ic finb aHer ©orgcn fret (or jtc 
fliitb fret »on alien ©orgen). 7. ^err Jl^ompfon ijl nx6)i ber 
beutfd^en ©prac^e funbig. 8* D^ne $erj ijl bie 3BeU ber Sreu^ 
belt leer. 9. 2)ie 53aume ftnb jeftt tjon-grud^teit leer. 10. 
2)a8 Oebid^t ijl »oll l^od^traknber ?J^rafen, aber leer an tiefen 
Oebanfen. 11. Dtej^g SBirt^g^au* ijl nie leer ijon ®ajlen. 
12. ^err SBilliamg l;at ben S3rief ganj gelaufig gelefen ; er ijl ber 
beutfd^en Qpxa6)t jjoUfommen nta^tig. 13. ^6) bin be« 
©d^mafteng mube.. 14. 3(| Un miibe »on fo melen ^ergeblid^en 
^nflrengungen. 15.^r ijl fatt ber SBelt unb i^reg sjeraangli^en 
aiu^meg. 16. er ijl fetneg dibti quitt. 17. Slu^ bu |)attjl 
mi^ ber fd^weren ©finbc fd^ulbig (©d^.)? 18. SDort jtnb jte 
t^re« itUni nid^t jid^er. 19. 2)ie @rbc tjl sjoU ber ®iite be« 
^txxn (^falrn 33, 5). 20. 2)a« 93ud^lein ijl 5?oll allerliebfter 
Semerfiinflen (©.). 21. Da ijl ein ^oxi i^oU reifer Slepfel. 



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136 



CASES GOYERIOiD BY ADJECTIVES. 



arammaticaL 

l.Many adjectives govern substantives in the oblique 
cases (i. e.j the genitive, dative, and accusative cases) 
without the use of a preposition between the adjective 
and the substantive. 

2. The following adjectives govern the geniti/vecase: 



Slnfl^ttg (tt>f rbcn), to get a view (of), 
arm (antiquated with gen,"), poor, 
l&ar, bare, destitute (of). 
Bcbilrf tig, destitute, in need (of). 
Begie'rig, desirous, anxious (for). 
Ben5't^igt, in need (oO. 
BctDugt', conscious (oO- 
blo6, free (from), 
cin'gebcnt, mindful (oO- 
cinig, agreed (concerning). 
ctn«, " " 

cril'brigt, dispensing (with), 
crfayrcn, experienced (in), 
fvi^ig, capable (of), 
frci, free (from), 
f ro^, happy (about), 
gcbcnf , conscious (of). 
gcftSn'Dtg, confessing (to), 
gctoa^r*, conscious (of), 
getv^r'tig, awaiting. 
gctt)i6', certain (of). 



gekQO^nt', accustomed (to), 
^ab^aft, in possession (of). 
!unb (or funbig), acquainted (with), 
(cbig, free (from). 
Iccr, empty (of). 
(o«, free (from). 
'inSt^^tig, in command (of), 
mftbc, tired (of), 
tnilgtg, free (from), 
quitt, free (from), 
fatt, satiated (with), 
fd^^ul'big, guilty (of), 
ji^cr, sure (of). 

t^eil^aft' (or *ig), participating (in). 
Hberbrilfflg, weary (of). 
bcrbSt^'tlg, suspected (of). 
J>criu'|itg, deprived (of). 
»oa,full(of). 
tt)crt^, worth. 
tt)fttbig, worthy (of), 
jufric'ben, contented (with) 



Rem, 1. Some of these adjectives can take the n^ative prefix s|tlt^ ^ : 



Unbcgtc'ng, undesirous (of). 
unbcttJugt, unconscious (of), 
unerfa^rcn, inexperienced (in). 



unf^ulbig, innocent (of), 
unjl^r, not sure (of), 
untoilrbig, unworthy (of). 



Rem, 2. Of the above adjectives, the following are frequently employ fld, in 
ordinary discourse, with the accusative case, viz : Stnflt^^tig, Bctougt, fS^g, ge* 
P&nbig, gctoa^r, getoo^nt, ^ab^aft, lo«, inilbc, fott, Wutbtg, ilbcrbrflffig, tt)Crt6. 
jttfiicbcn : 

3cJ; bin i^m ef nCtt Sljalcr Wulblg, I owe him a thaler. 
(S« ip leittCIl pfennig Wcrt^, it is not worth a penny. 

Rem, 8. Many of these adjectives may be followed by certain prepositions^ 
which prepositions govern their own cases (§ 81, § 82, § 83), as : 



(I) 55cgtcrig, by na^ or anf* 
(2)bcrctt,Wg,bysii. 
(3) arm, gctoo^nt, leer, by on* 
(*) fro^f 0«»5i6, einig, by Jlber* 



(5) fret; (cbig, Io«, (ecr, bott, etc., by 

lion* 

(6) einig, ^rfa^ren, fro^, by fa, 

(7) awfriebcn,bymftor|>oii^or||lier. 



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CASES GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVES. 



137 



Ohs. Onlyafew(asbcn3t^igt,gctt)i'irttg,t^ctt^aft,il]&crbrilf' 
fig, ^ e r I u ft i g) must be used as governing t1»e genitive case. 

3. Many of the adjectives that govern the genitive 
case frequently can not be translated into English by 
adjectives, but must be rendered in the English idiom 
by verbs or nouns, as : 



eincr <Sa(^c anfi(^ttg ju tDcrben, 
/ Siner @ad?c ctngebcnf ju fein, 

v/ @r ifl bcr bcutfd^cn @))rad^c mSc^* 

tig, 
Siner @a(!^c geflanbig ju fcin, 
er ifl bc« 2Segc« funbig, 
er ifl fcinc« eibc8 quitt, 

SBir xoccctn bicfc« 3lu«gange« bcr 
@ad^c nid^t gctt)Srtig, 

(5r ifl otter SSort^citc om« bicfcm 
©cfd^Sftc i)crlttfHg, 



To get a view of a thing. 

To bear a thing in mind. 

He is master of the German lan- 
guage. 

To confess to a thing. 

He knows the road. 

He is free from the obligation im- 
posed by his oath. 

We did not anticipate this terminal 
tion to the affair. 

He lost all the profits that came from 
this business. 



4. A large number of 
case^ as : 
a&trilnmg, faithless (to). 
fi^nti(]^, similar (to), 
angcborcn, hereditary (to), 
angelcgcn, adjacent (to), 
angcne^fm, agreeable (to). 
onflSgig, offensive (to), 
bclannt, known (to), 
bange, apprehensive (of), 
beqnent, convenient (to). 
Ibetougt, known (to), 
banfbar, thankful (to), 
bienlici^, serviceable (to), 
bicnfl^r, ** 
eigcn, peculiar (to). 
eigcnt^ilm'Iid^, peculiar (to), 
eige'lben, addicted (to), 
fcinb, hostile (to), 
fern, distant (from), 
gemetn', common (to), 
gemcin'fcmi, mutual (with), 
geneigt', favorable (to), 
getreu', faithful (to), 
getoo'gen, well disposed (toward). 



adjectives govern the dative 



glcic^^, like, similar (to), 
gnabig, gracious, merciful (to \ 
gram, averse (to), 
gut, good, kindly (to), 
na^c, near, close (to). 
neu, new (to). 
nUt^g, necessary (to), 
offen, open (to), 
offcnbar, plain, open (to> 
^)affenb, fitting (for). 
:j>einli(i^, painful (to), 
rcci^t, right (to). 
fd^5bli(i^, injurious (to), 
fd^mcid^et^afi, flattering (to) 
fc^^mcrjlid^, painful (to). 
f(!^ulbtg, in debt (to). 
Wwer, difficult (for), 
filg, sweet (for), 
t^ieuer, dear (to), 
treu, true (to), 
ilbel, offensive (to), 
llbcrtc'gcn, superior (to), 
untcrt^an, subject (to). 



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138 CASES GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVES. 



ioerbcrb'fid^, destructive (to). 
t>erti)anbt', related (to). , 
toort^cil^aft, advantageous (to). 
XOt\), painful (to), 
tocrt^, worth (to). 



toi^tig, important (to). 
ttJtberU(i^, offensive (to). 
ttJittfom'mcn, welcome (to). 
XOoi)\, fortunate (to). 
gtt)eifcl^aft, doubtful (to.) 



5. The idiomatic spirit of the English language often 

requires that a verb or a noun shall take the place of 

an adjective which in German governs the dative case : 

@incr ^artei' abttilnnig Werbcn, To desert a party. 
@r ifl feinem SSater fc^r fi^ntid^, He resembles his father very much, 
^ann i^ 3^nen be^flipic^ f ein ? Can I be of any senice to you ? 
@S ijl tntr nic^^t erinnerlici^, It has escaped my memory. 

28ic i)icl bifl 2)u i^m f^ulbig ? How much do you owe him ? 

6. Adjectives expressive of value, weight, measure, or 

age govern the accusative case : 

e« »ar leineil $f ettttig » e r t ^, It was not worth a penny. 

@« ifl nur eineil 30tt !> r e i t, It is only an inch wide. 

S« ifl eitt $fntlb fc^tucr, It weighs a pound. 

<5r ijl je^tt SJc^re alt, He is ten years old. 

Achtundsiebzigste Aufgabe. 
1. Herr Eitelberg ist seiner Partei^ abtriinnig gewor- 
den. 2. Diese Kinder sind ihren Eltern sehr ahnlich. 
3. Es ist mir unbegreiflich, wie er solchen Unsinn ver- 
tragen kann. 4. Kann ich Ihnen auf irgend eine Weise 
behiilflich sein ? 5. Der Zustand des Kranken ist dem 
Arzte heute sehr bedenklich. 6. Die Umstiinde des 
Verlustes des Dampfers sind uns bis jetzt noch nicht 
bekannt. 7. An welchem Tage die Schlacht bei Jena 
stattgefunden hat, ist mir augenblicklich nicht erinner- 
lich. 8. Unter solchen Umstanden war seine Gegen- 
wart natiirlich der Gesellschaft sehr unwillkommen. 

9. Der Kaufmann ist dem Banquier 800 Thlr. schuldig. 

10. Seine Mitwirkung war ihnen mehr hinderlich als 
forderlich. IL Er ist seinem Eide treu geblieben. 
12. Die deutsche Sprache richtig auszusprechen ist den 
Amerikanem im Anfang sehr schwer. 13. Wir fahren 
sehr langsam, weil der Wind und die Fluth uns widrig 



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USE OP THE ARTICLE. 139 

sind. 14. Dieser Rock ist mir zu gross. 15. Mir ist es 
sehr kalt hier. 16. Das Tuch ist eine EUe breit und 
dreissig Ellen lang. 17. Diese Kugel ist nur 68 Pfund 
schwer, aber jene Kugeln sind 120 Pfund schwer. 18. 
Er ist fast einen Kopf grosser als ich. 19. Wilhelm ist 
zwdlf Jahre, einen Monat und einen Tag alt. 



LESSON XL. 

tJSE OP THE ARTICLE. 

9}euniinbfteB3tgfte ^nfgaBe. 

1- S)er SWenf^ tjl flertli^. 2. Da^ ?ebcn ijl hx^. 3. 2)ae 
©olb tjl iai foflkrfle aWetall- 4. Da« geuer unb bag SBaffer 
jtnb gutc 2)iener, akr bofe SWeiflen 5. ^err S3raumuUer l^at 
ben jttjeiten SBanb »on bugler's ©cf^id^te ber SWalerei, unb ben 
tjterten S3anb »on Dundfer'g ©efd^id^te beg Slltert^umg ^eute ge^ 
fauft 6. !Der ©ebraud^ ijl ber ©efe^geber ber ©pra^en- 7» 
griebrid^ fRa^n flubirt ^^tlologie, unb SBil^elm SGBeibmann flu^ 
birt aWebicin. 8* ^rofeffor griebri^g tjl ?)rofeffor ber nafft:; 
fd^en Slrd^aologie an ber Umjjerjttat gu 93erlin* 9* ^err 93raun 
wirb l^eute Slbenb eine SSorlefung fiber ben Urfprung ber got^t=? 
fi^en Saufunjl ^alten* 10. 2)er griebe ber eeele gilt me^r ate 
SRet^t^um- 11. 2)a« gru^jlfid ijl no(^.nt(|t fertig. 12. 5Wa(^ 
bem Slbenbeffett werbeh toxx ind Soncert gel^en. 13. Dag fejle 
SWagbeburg ]^at2;tU9 amlOten 2)lai.l631 mit ©turm genome 
mtn ; aufer jwei ^ird^en unb 130 ^aufern |iat er bie ganje 
©tabt niebergebrannt unb 30,000 »on ben ©nwol^nem ermor^ 
bet; biefc ©rauel l^at er bie ,,2Wagbeburger ^od^jcit" genannt. 
14. a)er »ortge Slpril war fe^r fait unb undngene^m. 15. ^err 
©ieJler unb feinc gamilic jtnb jeftt in ber ©^metj ; wir.wcrben 
auc^ in a^t Jagen nad^ ber ©d^weig gef^en. 16. ^onjlanti:^ 
nopel ijl bie |)auptjtabt ber Sturfei. 17. Diefeg Xvl6) fojlet gwei 
I^aler bie GUe. 18. dx flanb ntit bem $ut auf bem ^opf. 
19. dx toax beg ©epi^lg nid^t mad^tig. 20. Die 3leid^g»erfamm^ 
lung gu^rag erwa(>Ue gricbrid& ben gunften gum ^onige. 21. 



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140 USE OP THE ARTICLE. 

SKir fegclten gegen ©ubcn, unb bann gcgen SBcflen. 22* |)en: 
2)laurcr l^at einen Slrtifel u6cr tie fRt6)tt ber grauen gefd^riekn. 
23* Dcr SSater unb bie ®of>ne jtnb fpajieren ge^anaen* 

Grammatical. 

l.One of the most marked differences between the 
English an4 the German languages is in the use of the 
Article. This difference arises in many cases from the 
fact that the German idiom often requires the noun to 
be conceived as concrete, where the English idiom re- 
quires it to be conceived in a general or abstract sense.' 
Thus, in the sentence 

2)cr Wltn\d) tjl flcrMidf^ (Man is mortal), 
if we translate ber'SWenfd^ by ^'the human beinffy^ we will 
have the spirit of the German idiom. . 

2. The most important points in which the German 
varies from the English in the use of the Article are 
given on page 254. 

Rem, The variations to the rules there given (especially those to the first 
rule, § 55, 1, 1), must be learned hy practice. Their exposition here would 
only cause confusion. 

Exercise 80. 
1. Platinum is the heaviest metal, and lead is the 
softest metal. 2. William Pressnitz is studying philos- 
ophy, and John Pressnitz is studying astronomy. 3. 
What are you reading ? 4. 1 am reading Jahn's History 
of Astronomy. 5. Mr. Preu is studying theology at (an) 
the University of Halle. 6. Prof. Hoffmann is professor 
of chemistry in the University of Berlin. 7. The good 
fear not (the) death. 8. (The) virtue leads to (the) hap- 
piness. 9. (The) pride is contemptible. 10. (The) last 
summer was very hot. 11. (In the) next winter we will 
probably go to Italy. 12. After breakfast we will go 
to (auf ) the market. 13. Dinner is not yet ready. 14. The 
ruins of old Greece are among the most interesting in the 
world. 15. Switzerland lies between Germany and Italy. 



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PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 141 

16. Smyrna is the largest city in Turkey in Asia (in the 
Asiatic Turkey). 17. Bucharest is the capital of Wal- 
lachia. 18. We take lessons (f)aben ©tunben) in music 
four times a week (§ 105). 19. He stands there with his 
hat in his hand. 20. They elected him president unan- 
imously. 21. The defendant admits that he was an ac- 
complice in the crime. 22. The ship will sail toward 
the North, and then it will sail toward the East. 



LESSON XLI. 

PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Sinnnbad^tjigfte ^nfsaBe. 

1, Sr l^at e« meinet^alben getljan* 2. @« toaxtn unfer iwan^ 
gig in t>cr ©efellf^aft ; »ier »on mi ftnb urn je^n U^r m6) 
^aufe flcgangcn ; t>ie iibrigen Wieben bi« 3Rxtttxm6)t 3. eg 
war cinmal tint grope ^unger^not^ im ?anbe* 4* SBer ift ba ? 
5-3d^ Mn ba, 6. Sffier war ntit 3^nen? 7. @0 war rneht 
©ruber unb meine ©d^mefler* 8. 3c| lobe mid^ (or td^ lobe 
mi6) felbji). 9. SBarum lobfl bu bi^ fclbjl? 10. ^aitn wir 
un« gelobt? 11. 3a,i^r ^abt eu^ gelobt 12. ©r lobt fid^ 
felbfl. 13. ®ie lobt jt^ ni^t. 14. ®ie toben jt^. 15. ©r 
felbfl fyat e« get|)an. 16. 3ci^ felber fann e« t|)un. 17. ®elbfl 
feine geinbe a(|ten i^n. 18. SQBir Kx^t^tn einanber (or mi 
einanber) ganj gut. 19. (£r l^at bag i)au« fiir 2,000 Stealer 
mfauft ; er ^atte bafitr^ 1,500 Stealer gegeben. 20. eg joaren 
125 ©timmen bafur' unb 87 ©timmen bage'gen. 21. Diefe 
titnt gcber l^abe x6) l^eute gefauft ; i6) })abt ben 93rief bamif 
gefc^rieben; 22. 3c^ I;abe ben 2;ifd^ ing Siwtmer gebrad^t unb 
bie SBu^er barauf gelegt* 23. X)ai Stu^ ^at i^m fe^r gefaUen ; 
er l^at ba»on^ einen dioi unb etne SBejle ma^^tn laffen. 24. 
(Stitrt ©ie worgen mit ung nad^ 2)regben ? 25. 3d^ toerbe ntit 
3^nen l^eute. Slbenb barii'ber fpred^en. 26. 3^t 93ruber ifl mit 
bem 2)?einigen fpajieren gegangen. 27. ©r l^at fcinc Sud^cr ein^ 
gepadEt unb nad(> 3lmcrifa gcf^idft, id) wcvbc bic 2Wcinigen aud^ 



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142 PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PE0N0UN8. 

itad^ Slmcrifa fc^idfen ; wa9 mxim @ic tnit ben S^rigcn ma(|cn? 
28* 3^ werbe bic SWtinigcn ^ier in S3erlin laffen, bi« x^ »on 
Stalien gurucffomme^ 29* Du l^afl bag Dcinige getf^an j bic 
Slnbern muffen jc$t bag S^tige t^un. 

Grammatical. 

1. The most important rules with reference to the 
use of Personal Pronouns are given on pages 282 and 
283. 

Rem, 1. The reflexive use of the personal pronoun is illustrated in the fol 
lowing paradigm : 

^^ lobe VXX&^f I praise myself, 

bu lobfl bid)^ thou praisest thyself, 

er lobt ftd)/ he praises himself, 

fte lobt ftd)^ she praises herself. 

eS (obt fld)^ it praises itself. 

ttJtr toben IXViif we praise ourselves, 

i^r tobet ettd)/ you praise yoursdves. 

fie Icben fid)/ they praise themselves. 

(@ic loben ftd)^ you praise yourselves.) 

Rem, 2, The reciprocal use of the personal pronoun is necessarily confined 
to the plural number : 

2Bir toben m9, We praise each other, 

t^r lobt end)/ you praise each other, 

fte loben fldl^ they praise each other. 

(jBk loben ^dl^ you praise each other.) 

2. The dative and accusative cases of personal pro- 
nouns, when not referring to persons^ are rarely used 
with prepositions. In their stead are usually employed 
compound adverbs, formed by uniting the adverb ba 
{there) with the preposition, as : 

2)abei' (for bet t^m, ibr, tbm ; ibnen), by or through it or them, 

baburd?' ( ** bnr^ tbn, fie, c§ ; fie), by or with it or them, 

bafilr' ( " filr tbn, fie, e« ; fie), for it w them, 

bage'gen ( ** gegen t^n, fie, e« ; fie), against it or them, 

bamif ( " mit i^m, i^r, tbm ; ibnen), with it or thorn. 

Rem. 1. When the preposition begins with a vowel, the original X of ifl 
(formerly written bcr) is retained, as : baran', baranf, barm', badl'ber, etc 



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PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PEONOUNS. 



143 



Rem. 2. Similar compound adverbs formed with f^itt (here) and a preposi- 
tion are sometimes employed : 

^kxUV (for bei t^m, i^r, i^m ; i^ncn), with it or them, 
^ietmit' ( ** mit i^m, i^r, i^m ; if^nen), with it or them. • 

Hem. B. These compound adverbs are frequently used instead of the de- 
monstrative pronouns also (see § 188, Rem. I and' Rem. 2). 

3. When the absolute possessive pronoun is used pred- 
icatively (not being the emphatic word in the sen- 
tence), like other predicate adjectives, it is undedined: 
S)cr ©ut ifl' mcin, The hat is mine. 

2)enn 2)ein ijt bie (S^re, For Thine is the Glory. 

Rem. 1. When the stress of voice falls upon the absolute .possessive pro- 
noun, it takes the termination, as shown in the first column in § 110: 
2)tefer $ut ifl meincr, ni^t (ciner, This hat is mine, not his. 
Rem. 2. Frequently the definite article precedes the posessive pronoun : 
2)iefcr ^tt ifl ber Tltint, iener This hat is mine, that one is his. 
ijl bet @etne» 

Rem. 3, More usually, in modem German, the fonn ending in sig is em^. 
ployed: 

2)tefct $nt ifl bcr SWeintge, jcnet This hat is mine, that one is his. 
ijl ber @eintgc, 
Rem, 4. The formJbcr SWeintge (mine) is declined thus: 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Masculine, 

2)et SWcinigc, 

bc« Peintgen, 

bem aWeinigen, 

. ben: aJictnigen. 


Feminine, 
2)ie 3Keinige, 
ber SDZeinigcn, 
ber SWetnigen, 
bie aWeinige. 


Neuter. 
2)a« aWeinige, 
bes aWcinigen, 
bem SD^Zeinigen, 
ba« iWetntge. 


All Genders. 
2)ie aReimgen, 
bet ayietnigcn, 
ben aWetnigcn, 
blc aWeintgen. 



Retn. 5. The neuter singular of the absolute possessive pronoun is frequently 
employed as meaning the property ofy the duty of, etc. : 

@r i)at ba8 ©etntgc berlorcn, He has lost his property. 

(gt ^ot ba« @etntge get^an, He has done his duty. 

Rem. 6. The plural frequently refers to the family, friends, followers, 
dependents, etc. : 

2)te ai^Zcintgen tt)iffen nid(;t, »ann My relatives do not know when I 

i^ jurilrf fomnicit tDcrbe, will return. 

S)er ©enerot jog mit ben ©etnigcn The general retreated with his forces, 
gnrild; 



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144 IKDEFINITE PBONOUHS. 

Exercise 82. 
1. 1 did it on his account. 2. They did it on our 
account. 3. There were ten of them ; four of them came 
with us ; the rest remained at Leipzic. 4. There was 
once a very rich man — . 5. Who was in the room ? 
6. It was I. 7. There are many large trees in this 
forest. 8. I understand myself 9. He injures him- 
self. 10. We understand ourselves. 11. They under- 
stand themselves. 12. They understand each other. 
13. Even his enemies acknowledge his worth. 14. Mr. 
Dietrich has sold his horse for 360 Thlr. ; he paid 400 
Thlr. for it last year. 15. The Government will im- 
mediately make a new loan of 150,000,000 Thlr. ; there 
were 250 votes in favor of (for) it in Congress, and only 
36 votes against it. 16. Will Mr. Eitelberg go with us 
to Gotha? 17. He will come here and speak with you 
about it this evening. 18. Why did you not tell William 
that he must not go out in (bet) this bad weather? 19. 
I did tell him so twice. 



LESSON XLII. 

INDEFINITE AND INTEBROOATIVE PRONOUNS. 

S)reittttbad^t3ifl[te ^nfgaBe* 
1. einigc »ott ben Sdn6)txn Inb wo^l gut gcbunbcn, abet bic 
meiflen (most of them) ftnb fe^r fc^Mt gebunbcn. 2. !Der 
einc })at feinc Slufgak ganj ol^nc gc^ler flef(|riebcn, ber afnbcrc 
^at t)iclc Scaler barin gcmati^t S.^mtge wenige ©ebid^tc ber 
®ammlung fxni sat, man6^t jtnb fd^le(|t, »ielc ober bie meiflen 
ftnb mittelmaptg* 4. SSon SRolanb fang er unb mand^em from^ 
mm ^elb (®^.)» 5» C« ifl »on man^m ^of)tn 93anm bie 
ffiurael fauL 6. ^txx 2)icfenbad^ ^at me^rcre 3a^re (§ 83, 4) 
in 2)eutj^ranb gt^cbt 7. ©r l^at mir fein S5ud^ gefd^tdtt 8* 
©ein ei^rgcia fennt fcine ©renjen. 9. aWir gefaUt feined »on 
alien biefen ©u^ern. 10,(£« fann feiner baruber entf^ieben 



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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 145 

urt^^ilctt^ 11. e« wax »tel ?arm urn 9li(|t« ; »iel ©efi^ret unb 
wenig SBoHe. 12. gr l^at eg nur im6) »iel (or »iele) 5lrbeit 
getfian. 13» 3t^ l^abc t9 mxt »tel (or »iclem) SSergniigen getl^an. 
14. aWan fann bei »ielem ®clbc unglucflid^, unb o^ne »iel ®elb 
fel^r glMid^ fein. 15. Du l^afl »iel gelefen, abet wenig gelcrnt 
16. ©r l^at »iel gcreifl nnb asicle? gefe^cn. 17. fflielc ^5^c 
»crfaljett ben Sret, 18. ©tubiren jieftt »iel (or »iele) 5lmcrifa:^ 
mr in ©erlin? 19. 5Wur wenig 2Wenf^en fmb fo ungemcin 
glMid^. 20. 3^ mup eitt wcnig 3lu^c fu(|cn. 21. 3ci^ l^abe 
ba$ S5ud^ fur nur wenigc ©rofd^en gefauft^ 22. g« jtnb mnu 
ger Slu^nal^mett ate bu benfjl. 23. SBenige l^aben c« uxfn^t, 
unb nod^ ffienigern ijl eg gelungen. 24. 2Wit Sielem mt man 
^aug, mit ffienigcm fommt man au«. 25. @r l^at wcniger 
(comparative) Sor{t(|t ate Xapferfett 26. Dag ®c|)eimnip 
ijl tm Scjtfte nur tt^eniger (gen.jpl.) ^erfonen. 27. Sr f)at bag 
wcnigjle @elb unb bie wenigflen ©orgen. 28. 5Wur bei ben we^ 
nigjlen %\xmxi finbet m<vx fold^e ©ewol^nl^eiten. 29. 2Wit a(|t 
eUen werben jie Zvi6^ genug fur einen SRodf unb eine Sefle \a^ 
ben. 30. 3^ l&^^bc genug »on feiner Slapferfeit ge^Brt. 31. 
SBomit l^aben Sic ben SBrief gefd^rieben? 32. 3c^ l^^^be i^n 
mit einem SBleiflift gefc^rieben, weil \^ feine geber bei mtr b^tte. 
33.ffioriiber l^at ^err ©d^norr gefprod^en? 34. @r fprad^ 
fiber feine SReife na^ 3talien. 

Grammatical. 
1. For the general rules governing the use of the 
Indefinite Pronouns, see page 286. 

Rem, 1. When ntatt^tt is used before an adjective without its termination 
(§ 112, 2, Rem, 3), the adjective follows the old declension: 

2Ran(^ to^fr^er ^etb, or mand^cr to^frc $clb. 

aWanci^ ticb^e^ ^nb, ** mand^c« tick ^nb. 

SflfHt manci^ ta^fr*ew $ctbcn, " mit mand^cm ta|)frcn $clbcn. 

"SRsLU^ ta^fr*e i^clbcn, ** maiK^c to^frcn ^clben. 

Rem, 2, fBlti and tottttg can be used with or without inflection, according 
d8 the idea of collectiveness or individuality is made more prominent : 

(g« \)at toiel Wliiift gefoflet, or c8 f)at toicte Tlii\)t geloflct. 

SBic toici ncuc geinbc I (@^.) ** tt)ie toteic neuc gcinbc I 

(g« pnb tocnig SWcnfciffen, ** e« finb wcnige SWcnWou 



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146 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

Obs, The comparative of tOCttig (tOtttiget) is more usually uninflected : 
(Sr ^at kQcniger !^orft^tiglett al9 He has less prudence than valor. 
2:a^fcr!cit, 

Rem. 3. The indefinite pronoun matt (§112, 6) is used in most general ex- 
pressions; it is translated by one, people, etc, : 

Tim (O0t, one says, they say, people say, it is said. 
Wlcai giavhif one brieves, they believe, people believe, it is believed. 
06s. 9)|att is indeclinable. When oblique cases are required, they are formed 
from tiVLtX* When a possessive pronoun referring to tttfUt is required, ftilt 
is employed (see Sentences 5 and 6 in Exercise 84). 

Rem, 4. Sttoa^ (§ 112, 8) and mUft^ (§ 112, 9) are frequently used in ap- 
position with the neuter of adjectives used substantively (Sent. 19 and 20). 

Obs, The first syllable (tU) of tttOtti? is frequently dropped in conmion 
conversation. 

Rem. 2. In asking questions, the indefinite pronoun some or any is in many 
cases not translated : 

$abcn @te S3uttcr gctauft ? Did you buy any butter ? 

$aben @tc 2lc:|)f et gefauft ? Did you buy any apples ? 

Obs. In some cases some is translated by tttOO^ (see § 112, 8, Ran, I). 

2. For the chief rules with reference to the use of 
Hdative Pronouns, see page 289. 

Rem. For the compound adverbs tOOtttit^ tOOHOtt^etc, see § 188, Rem, 3. 

Vierundaclitzigste Aufgabe. 

1. Man reist von Berlin ndch Kbln mit der Eisenbahn 
in einem Tcige. 2. Bei una ypricht man auch von Ge- 
f^enstem; aher in der Hegel Twhen nivr '^die Leut^^ und 
das selher unsi<ihibare und spuTchafte " maTi" s^ie gesehen. 
3. Was sa^ man in der Stadt uber die neue Ardeihef 4. 
Man ist daruber sehr umufrieden. 5. Man lacht ge- 
wbhnlichy wenn einem etwas Ldcherliches hegegnet. 6. 
Man ist frohy wenn *inan eine Arbeit geendet hat, 7. 
Jemand Jdqpft, 8. Es ist Herr Wedd. 9. Kennen 8ie 
Jemand {or Jemanden) aus der GeselZscha^f 10. Ich 
Jcenne Niemand {or Niemanden) ausser Herrn BtuprecJvt 
und seiner Frau. 11. Hat Jemand es Ihnen gesagt ? 12. 
Nein^ Niemand hat es m^ir gesagt^ ich Jwhe es selbst heute 
Morgen in der Zeitung gelesen. 13. Seine Sand wird 



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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 147 

wider Jederman^ wid Jedermanns Hand wird wider ihn 
sein (1. Jlfos. 12, 16). 14. Man soil sein Herz nicht Jeder- 
mann offeribaren. 15. Hahen Sie etwas von dem neuen 
UnfaU in den Bergwerken gehort? 16. It'ein^ ich hdbe 
NiclitB davon gehort 17. Wiinschen Sie noch etwas f 18. 
left werde noch etwas Butter nehm&n. 19. Di^es Tuch 
ist etwas gam Neues. 20. Er hat etwas gam Anderes ge- 
meint. (21. Jlier iM gam was Neuei). 22. Hahen Sie 
noch Gold? 23. Ja^ ich habe noch welches. 24. Hahen 
Sie. heute Morgen Aepfel auf (in) dem Marht gesehenf 
25. Ja^ ich hajbe weLche gesehen^aher sie wa/ren schlecht und 
sehr theuer, 26. Ich weiss nichtj wovon Sie sprechen. 27. 
Konnen Sie mir sagen^ woruber Professor Schmidt heute 
Abend sprechen wird? 28. Er wird uber die Geschichte 
der Stadt Berlin vor dem vierzehnten JaJirhundert 
sprechen. 



LESSON XLIII. 

DEMONSTKATIVE AND RELATIVE PIIONOUNS. 

1. 3d^ l^ak l^eutc 2)?orgen biefc jwci 93ud^er gefauft ; biefe« 
war fel^r billig, jene^ xoax fef^r tl^eucr. 2. DaS (jene?) 93u^ 
l^abc t^ f(|ott gelcfcn. 3. 2)iefett ^errn fennc id^ fc^r gut, abcr 
jenctt |)errtt bort ^oAt id^ nie i)or^cr gefef^en. 4. 2)ic SRuinen 
»on ^ompcji fmb grower unb inteveffanter alg bie jjon ^ercula^ 
neum. 5. 2)cr ijl cin fe^r gclc^rtcr SWann. 6; SBann ttJirb ^cn 
SRot^ tt)icbcrfommcn? 7. 2)a$ weig id& nici^t. 8. Da« ifl be« 
fiaifcrg ^anb unb ©iegel (®(i^0^ 9- 3)a« jtnb SlUeg neuc 
|)aufcr in btcfer ©trafe. 10. Sr malte fetnen Setter unb beffen 
©o^n. 11. Der SJu^m beffen, ber liigt, bauert ni^t langc. 
12. @r ijl nid^t »on benen, bic mit 2Borten tapfer jtnb. 13» 
2)ie«(i^e«) finb reife Slepfel. 14. Da^jenige S3ud^, mX^ti bu 
wiinfd^efl, ^at ber S3u(iHnber nod^ nid^t guriidfgebrad^t. 15. 
Derjeniae ^err, ben (or n^clc^cn) mir gejlern im SWufcum fallen, 



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148 



HBLATIVE PRONOUNS. 



tjl t>er ©ruber t>e« ^errn ?iebred^t» 16* !Da ift berfclbe ^err, 
ben (or wel^en) xoxx gejlern Slbenb ki ^erm ©runott) trafen, 
17* SBer nid^t fioren will, mug fui^len (or ber mup ful^len)^ 18^ 
2Ba« bu lf)eute tl^un fannfl, foUfl bu ni^t auf morgen »erfd^ieben 
(or bag follil ....). 19. Mti, wa9 wir l^eute in ?)ot«bam 
gefe^en ^aUn, l^at mi fef)r gefallen* 20. |)ier l^abe id^ etwag 
in biefem 33u(|e gefunben, wag id& gar nic^t ^erjlel^en fann. 
21 • Die ©efd^i^te ijl im @anjen ri^tig, bod^ ^abe i(| SWand^g 
gefunben, toai i6) nid^t biUigen fann. 22* SBeffen S3rob bu 
iffell, beffen ?ob bu ftngejl (©pri^mort). 23. eg war eine 
fold^e |)i^e in ber ©tabt, bag wtr fafl alle franf batjon wurben. 
24. Sei fold^ einer ^i^e (or einer fold^en |)i0e) fann man leid^t 
franf merben. 25. ©old^ einen 2Wenf(|en (or einen fold^en 
aWenfc^en) f)attt i6) nie gefc|)en. 26. ;,3)ag wiffen wir, bie 
toix bie ®emfen jagen" (@d^.). 27. 2)ag weif i^, ber i^ felbft 
eg gefe^en |)abe. 28, 2)ag jtnb bie ^aufer, tt)o»on i^ gefprod^n 
l^abe. 29. ^kx ijl bie geber, womit id^ ben 93rief gefd^rieben 
babe. 

Orammatical. 

1. The chief rules governing the use o{ Demonstrative 
and Melative pronouns are given in § 111, and § 114. 

2. The demonstrative pronoun betjenigC (that) is de- 
clined thus : 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Masculine^ Feminine. Neuter. 
Norn. 2)crienigc, bicjcnigc, baejcnigc, 
Gen. besjemgen, bcticntgcn, bcsjcmgcn, 
Dat. bemienigcn, bcrjcnigcn, bcmjcmgcn, 
Ace. bcnjcmgcn. btcjicnigc. basjcutgc. 


All Genders. 
bieienigcn, 
bcTjicttigtit, 
benicnigcn, 
bicicnigen. 



Rem. 1. Setiettigt is employed only when a relative follows the demon- 
strative pronoun. 

2)crj[tntgc $crr, ben toir fo^cn, The gentleman, whom we saw. 
Rem. 2. Setietttge has usually a more indefinite signification than itUtXf 



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DEMONSTRATIVB PRONOUNS* 



149 



3. The pronoun bctfclbe (^A^ sami) is declined thus : 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, 
Norn, 2)crfclbe, biefctbc, ba«felbc, 
Gen. bc«felbcn, bcrfclbcn, bc«fe(bcn, 
Dat, bemfclbcn, bcrjctbcn, bcmfclbcn, 
Ace, bcnfelbcn. bicfclbc* bosfctbc^ 


All Genders. 
bicfclbcn, 
bctfelbcn, 
bcnfclbcn, 
bicfclbcn. 



4. The singular of the neuter gender of the demon- 

strative pronoun 2)a8, 2)iefe8 (2)ie8), ^tUti, %titi, etc., 

is used in an indefinite way, without distinction of gen 

der or number, like the neuter of the third person of 

the personal pronoun ti] thus used, these pronouns do 

not control number and person of the verb : 

Sa^ flnb Wit^ ncue $5ufcr^ Those are all new houses. 

%\t^ finb rcif e (grbbecrcn, Those are ripe strawberries. 

5. Instead of relative pronouns (not referring to per- 
sons) preceded by prepositions, compound adverbs are 
usually employed (see also § 188,i?^m. 3) : 

^m ifi bad ^Vi6^ lOOllOtt (or bon Here is the book of which I spoke. 

wct^^m) i6i gcf^ro^cn ^abc, 
©icr ifl bcr ©icifHft (or bic gcbcr) Here is the pencil (or the pen) with 

lOOmit i^ ben ^ricf gefd^rieben which I wrote the letter. 

^abe, 

Exercise 86. 
1. This cloth which you bought to-day was much too 
dear. 2. The cloth, from which the tailor made these 
coats, was very good, but it was very dear. 3. Here is 
the book of which I spoke. 4. There are the books of 
which I spoke. 5. The Cathedral of Cologne is much 
larger than the one (bie) at Ulm. 6. These books are 
new, but those (jcnc) books are not new. 7. These are 
all new books. 8. How much did this house cost? 9. 
(That) I do not know. 10. (That) I can not say. 11. 
There is the same carriage that we saw this morning. 
12. Did you find any thing that you do not understand? 



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150 KEPLEXIVE VERBS. 

13. No, I have so far (ixi je^t) found nothing that is not 
very easy to understand. 14. What he said about the 
battle is indeed (tt)ol^l) possible, but it is not probable. 
15. 1 can not write with such a pen as (wic) this. 16. 
There is the man in whose (bejTen) house we reside. 
17. There is the physician with whom I made the trip 
through the Riesengebirge (mit wcld^em or tnit bem td^ tint 
SRcife bur^ iai SWiefengebir^e gemad^t l^k). 18. That man is 
the one whom we saw at the (im) concert yesterday 
evening. 



LESSON XLIV. 

BEFLBXIYB TEBBS. 

@teBettttubad^tjtgfte ^ufgaBe. 
1. 2Btc langc ^aitn ©ie ftd^ in SWund^en aufgel^alten? 2. 
3m ^origen 2df)xt ^ahin toxx ung nur bret 2Bod^en in 3Wund^en 
aufge^alten ; abcr jjor »ter ^a^xtn jtnb tcix uicx »ter SWonate 
in aWuttd^en geblieben. 3. 2Bie befinben jtc jid^ (how do you 
do)? 4. 3d^ befinbe mi6) gang m% i6) banfe* 5. |)err 2>ic^ 
fenbad^ unb feinc ganje gamilic f^aben ftd^ na6) ^elgolanb begc:^ 
ben, urn bort ©ccbabcr ju nel^men* 6. ®arum bcfummern Sie 
ftd^ fo fe^r urn fcinc 5lngelegcn^eitcn ? 7. 3d^ l^abc mi6) enblid^ 
cntfd^loffen, nad^ 3taUen ju gel^en* 8. 5lu« bem Qamtn tnU 
toidtlt ftd^ bie ^flanje* 9. Son bcr 3eit an cntwidfcUc jtd^ bie 
empBrung fel^r rafd^. 10. 5lm 1. SRotjember 1755 creigncte jtd^ 
bag ©rbb^bcnin ?iiTabom 11* ®r l^at jtd^ fiber feine (£nt^ 
bedtung fe^r gcfreut. 12. SUdt^ einer langen JBelagenmg l^at bic 
geflung ftd^ auf Onabe unb Ungnabc ergebcn muffen* 13. ®r 
^at jid^ burd^ ©tunbengeben tma^xtn milffen. 14. aWan tx^^ 
funbtgte fid^ unfer ber ^anb fel^r fd^atf, too fit ftd^ tt>af)rcnb bcr 
SWorbt^at befanben. 15. 3d^ furd^tc niidj> t)or feiner SRad^c 
nld^t (or i^ furd^te feine 9lad^c nid^t). 16. ©3 ifl fe^r fdf^wer^ 
ftd^ an einc ganj neuc ?eben«art gn gett>5f)nen. 17. 3rren ©ic 
ftd^ nid^t, mein |)ert, l^aben ®ie nid^t meinen $«t genommen? 



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REPLEXITE VERBS. 151 

Grammatical. 

1. For the chief rules that govern the use o{Iieflexive 
Verbs, and for the paradigm of these verbs/see § 158, 
and § 159. 

2. Most reflexive verbs are intransitive. Those that 
have the reflexive pronoun in the dative case govern 
an object in the accusative case. Some govern an in- 
direct object in the dative case. Some are followed 
by a substantive in the genitive case. Some are fol- 
lowed by a preposition. 

3. The following are among the most commonly em- 
ployed of the reflexive verbs. 

Hem, 1 . See also those verbs below which require the reflexive pronoun to b© 
in the dative case. 

^16) firgern (ilber), to be offended (at). 

fi6f an\^\dtn (ju), to prepare (for). 

fi^ ouf^attcn, to remain, stay. 

fid^ anffd^tDtngen, to mount, to soar. 

fid^ fiu6ctn/to express one's self. 

\i6) bcbanlcn (fftr), to give thanks (for). 

\i6) beflnben, to find one's self (to be, to do). 

f!d^ bcbcntcn (gen,), to deliberate about, to devise. 

fid^ bcflcifien > , ^ , 

ft* bcffcigigenl ^^'-^^ *^ ^PP^J" ^°® « self (to). 

[i6) bcgcbcn, to resort to, to repair to, to betake one's self to. 

fid^ be^clf en (mit), to resort to, to help one's self by means of. 

\i6) beflagen (ilbcr), to complain (of). 

fi6} befilmmcrn (um), to trouble one's self (about) ; (fiber), to grieve for. 

fid^ bcmSc^^tigen) . . , . , ^ 

fKi^ bemeifiem > ^^'^' *^ **^® possession (oQ, to seize. 

fld^ befinncn (gen,, or ouf or fiber), to recollect, to try to remember 

pd^ cntSugcm (gen,), to dispose of, to part with. 

fid^ cnt^altcn (gen,), to restrain one's self (from). 

fid^ cntfd^Iiegen, to resolve, to determine, to decide, 

fici^ entfinnen (gen.), to recollect. 

jtd^ enttDtdeln, to expand, develop. 

Ti^ crbarmcn (gen., an or fiber), to have mercy (upon). 

flc^ eretgnen, to happen, to take place. . 

fld^ erfrcucn (gen, or fiber), to rejoice, to be glad (at). 

fvif ergeben (dat.), to surrender, to addict one's self (to). 



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152 QEFLEXIYE VERBS. 

^6) tvn^xtn, to gain one*s livelihood. 
{l(^ etinnern (gen, or an), to remember. 
Jix6) erMIten, to take a cold. 

jl^ erlunbtgen (gen,, na6) or an or HBer), to make inquiries, to inform 
fi^ frcncn (fiUx), to rejoice (at). [one's self. 

\i6f \iix6)ttix (t)or), to be in dread (of), 
fl^ gctr&jicn (sen,), to hope (for), 
ji^ gctoi5^ncn (an), to accustom one's self (to). 
\i6) grSmcn (ilbcr or um), to grieve (over or at). 
ji(^ ivren, to make a mistake, 
ji^ ndf)txn (dot), to approach. 
fid) x^mtn (gen,), to boast (of). 
ji(]^ f(!(^amen (gen,, ilbcr or tocgcn), to be ashamed (of). 
fid) in bie Umft^nbe fc^tden, to adapt one's self to circumstancw. 
fid) \6)tutn (pox), to stand in fear (of). 
[i6) jc^ncn (nad?), to long for. 
fi6) fe^eU; to take a seat. 

fi6) tr5jicn (gen. or mit), to console one's self with. 
fi6) JUitcr^altcn, to converse, to amuse one's selfl 
fi(i) tocrge^cn, to go astray, to lose one's way. 
fi(3(^ tocrirrcn, *' " '* " 

fi^ tocrlaffcn (auf), to rely (upon). 

^6) tocrf^rc(3(;cn, to misspeak. ^ 

jtc^ t)crfc^cn (j;en.), to expect; (an), to be frightened at ^ 

jii i)crfi(^^cm (gen, or t)or), to make sure (of). 
fi(i) \itx\)pdtm, to come too late. 
fi(^ t)er^etten, to disguise one's sel£ 
^6) toorbereitcn (auf or ju), to prepare one's self, 
fl^ njcigcrn, to object, to refuse, 
ftc^ tDtberfetjen (dat), to oppose, to withstand, 
fi^ tt)unbcm (fiber), to wonder (at). 
Hem, 2. Many other transitive verbs besides those that are included in the 
above list are often used reflexively, as : 

3^ bcrflc^c ba0 nic^t, I do not understand that. 

3^ t>erjie^e mx6), I understand myself. 

2)a9 t>erfle^t fl^, That is a matter of course. 

Hem, 3. Beflexive verbs take (aittt for the auxiliary. 

4. The following refleiive verbs require the reflexive 
pronoun to be in the dative case: 

@t^ anmagen, to presume, to arrogate to one's 6cl£ 

fi^ auSbcbtngcn, to reserve to one's self. 

fid^ au9bitten, to ask for. 

fi4 benTen, to imagine. 

fl(^ einbUben, to imagine, to fancy. 



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BEFLEXIYE VERBS. 153 

fld^ getrauen, to dare, to yentora. 
jl(^ erIauBen, to indulge one's self (in). 
fi6f fd^mc^cin, to flatter one's self, 
ji^ tocrf(3(^affcn, to provide. 
fi6) tocmc^mcn, to propose to one's self. 
\i6) toorflcttcn, to imagine, to place before one's sell 
Heui, 1. These verbs govern an object in the accusative case : 

2)ad ^afi bu hit eingebilbet, Thou hast imagined that. 

Mem, 2. Reflexive verbs that have the reflexive pronoun in the dative case 
are conjugated thus : 

Infinitive : QUf^ tiuUlhtVLp to imagine. 
Present Indicative. 
\6f bttbe ed ntir etn^ I imagine it. 
bu bilbe|l e9 bit etn, thou imaginest it. 
er bitbet ed f!(^ etn, he imagines it. 
tDir bilben e9 m9 ein, we imagine it. 
i^r bKbet ed en4 ^n, yon imagine it 
fie btlbett ed ^4 etn, they imagme it. 
(@ic bttbm c« flt^ ctn, you imagine it). 
Imperfect Indie, : td^ btlbete e9 WiT etn,eto., I imagined it, ere. 

Perfect Indie, : x6) ^abc C0 Wir Ctngcbtlbct, 6te., I have imagined it, etc. 
Pluperfect Indie, : lij ^atte C8 mlr etngebtlbct efc, I had imagined it, etc. 
First Fut, Indie. : \^ mx\>t e9 mit einbUbot, etc, I shall imagine it, etc. 
Sec, Fut, Indie. : \6) tDcrbe €9 wtr etttgebtlbet ^aben, I shall have imagined it. 

5. For the use of reflexive verbs governing the geni- 
tive and dative cases, see Lessons XL VI., and XLVII. 
Exercise 88. 

1. How long shall you remain in Berlin ? 2. We will 
probably remain there two months. 3. Good morning I 
How do you do? 4. 1 am very well, I thank (you). 
5. During the hot weather we usually betake ourselves 
to Stettin or Danzig, for the purpose of taking sea-baths, 
and of escaping the bad air of this large city. 6. We 
have concluded to return to Berlin in October. 7. The 
conspiracy developed itself with astonishing rapidity. 
8. A great freshet (overflowing) of the Rhine took place 
last spring. 9. He rejoiced over the arrival of his broth- 
er. 10. The entire army was forced to surrender at 
discretion. 11. He had to earn his livelihood by work- 

G2 



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1 54 AGREEMENT OF VEBB. 

ing with his hands {^atitxxitxi) until he could get a 
better situation. 12. It is not easy to accustom one's 
self to the usages and customs of other lands. 13. We 
are mistaken {or we have made a mistake) ; that is 
Mr. Rahn's house. 14. We can not rely upon his help. 
15. 1 long to see my native land (SBaterlanb) once more. 

16. May I rely upon your standing by me in this affair? 

17. Of course you can. 18. It is often necessary for us 
to adapt ourselves to circumstances. 



LESSON XLV. 

AOREEMEirr OF VEHB WITH NOMINATIVE. TEBBS G9V£RNiyG TUB ACCU- 
SATIYB CASE. APPOSITION. 

l*3o^antt gcl^t ttad^ bcr ©tabt- 2. Sol^ann mi S3Bilf;clm 
flc^cn m6) bcr ©tabt . 3. di jinb »iclc fd^Snc ©ta^ljlid^c in 
biefcm Sdn6). 4. SGBir toaxm c$ nid^t, bic auf bic SBlumcn gc^ 
tretctt l&abctt- 5. DicS jtnb %M ncuc ©iid^er auf biefem Jif^e, 
aber bag jinb SlUcg S3ud^er mi ber gtt?eiten ^anb* 6. ©eine 
aWajejlSt SBilMtti ber Siertc, ^onig »on ^rcugcn, l^aben allcr^ 
gnSbigjl gcru^t, ju bcfc^len, bag, etc. 7. ®ie, 3^r SBruber, 
mcin 93atcr unb ic^ f onncn (b» ^* tt)ir f 6nncn) in bicfcm Soup^ 
fal^rctt* 8* Du, Dcin SBrubcr itnb 35cine ©d^wejlcr mxitt (b. 
I), i^r werbct) flai^ in bcm nad^flen SBagen ftnben* 9. !Du itnb 
2)ein ©ruber llnb »on ^errn ^obel eingelaben, mit x\)m unb fei^ 
ner Srau nad^ Xegel ju fafiren, urn bag ®rab ber ©ebru^ 
bcr |)umbolbt unb bie ^unjlfd^afte im ^alajl $u fc^en* 10. 
2)a8 faltc SBettcr, ml6)t& toix jeftt l^abcn, l^at fd^on langer alg 
eincn 2Wonat gebauert. 11* SBie »icl wiegcn ©ie (or wag ifi 
3^r ©ewid^t)? 12» 3£^ wiege l^unbert unb breigig ^funb; 
mein ©ruber 3of>ann wicgt l&unbert »ierunb»ierjig ^funbZ 13; 
Diefcg Z\x6) foflet eincn unb eincn l^albcn Jbalcr (or anbcrt^alb 
Stealer) bie dUt. li. Hamburg licgt ungcfa^rbreigig beutfd^e 
(b. h imUxt unb jwanjig englifd^c) 5Weilen ncrb»e[Hid^ »on 



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AGREEMENT OF VERR 155 

©erlitt* 15^ |)crr 3lot^ tt)irb mit fciner gamilie wal^rfd^cinlid^ 
bicfcn 8l6cnb (or l^eutc Slbcnb) »on Diiffclborf anfommcn* 16. 
$crr Dictrid^ fam fru^cr urn 10 U^r SSormittagg, urn mi itnU 
f^ctt Uttterrid^t gu crt^cilen ; jc^t f ommt cr urn brei U^r SWad^^ 
mittagg. 17. 2Bir ftnb nur gegcn Slbcnb bcn*9Scfu5) l&inauf gc^^ 
gangen, mil wir ben ^errlid^cn ©onnenuntcrgang »on bcr ©piftc 
beg aSulfanS fe^en woUten. 18. S3alb nad^bem bie ©onne unter^ 
ging, fam ber aSollmonb fierauf j abtx ber |)immel fiat ftd^ gleid^ 
barauf mit SBoIfen bebecft, fo bap eg fe^r bunfel war, ate roix ben 
S3erg l^erunterfamen. 19. ginben ®ie eg fait l^ier? 20. 3a, 
mid^ friert eg. 21. eg freut mic!^,gu ^oren, ba§ 3^re ®efunb^ 
^eit wieber^ergeflellt ijl. 32. ©g ge^t i^n gar nid^tg an, ob wir 
bag |)aug faufen ober nic^t. 23. eg giebt »iele ungeHlbetc 
?eute in Deutfd^Ianb, befonberg auf bem Sanbe, bie an ©pufen 
itnb ©efpenjier glauben* 24* D(me SBeitereg gu fagen, ging er 
feinen SSBeg. 25. |)err S3ernjlein le^rt mid^ bie SWuftf unb bag 
Seid^nen. 26. SBiffen ®ie wann $err SBe^r j)on Seimar tt)ie^ 
berfommen wirb ? 27. 3^ein, id^ l^abe i^n gn^ar barnad^ gefragt, 
aber er fonnte eg mir nid^t genau fagen. 28. ®r nennt xf)n 
feinen Sreunb, itnb bod^ l^at er i^n in biefer unfreunblid^en Seife 
be^anbelt. 29. 2)ie ©inwol^nerga^l beg ^onigreidbeg ^reupen be^ 
lauft jtd^ auf ma 24,000,000. 30. 3lad^ ber SSerbannung beg 
^aiferg IKapoleon l^at ^reupen einen mel^r alg fiinfgtg 3abte 
bauemben grteben genojfen. 31. 2)urd^ ben griebengcertrag gu 
^arig, im 3a^re 1815, ^at 5)reu§en bie SW^ein^^ro^ingen befom^ 
men. 32. SBom Slnfang beg SWonatg Slugujl big gum ©nbe beg 
SWonatg September (or 5)on Slnfang Slugujl big (£nbe ©eptem^ 
ber) ^aUn toix fe^r trodfeneg SBetter ge^abt. 33. !Der ©d^ul^^^ 
mad^ergefeH ifl mit gwei ^aar Sd&ul^en unb brei ^aar ©ttefeln 
nad^ ber ©tabt gegangen. 34. 2Bit bem beflen SBillen fonnten 
bie ©d^iiler fo lange Scftionen nid^t lernen. 35. 2)er SWame ber 
©tabt ^otgbam ijl f(a»ifd^en Urfprungg unb bebeutet „unter ben 
eid^en." 36. Die SBerra unb gulba erfialten nad^ i^rer ffiereint? 
gung ben Jlamen SJefer. 



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156 AGREEMENT OF YEBB. 

Orammatical. 

1. For the chief rules with reference to the agree* 
ment of the subject with the verb in number and per- 
son, see § 115 and § 175. 

Rem, 1 . The use of a plural verb with courtly titles in the singular number 
is customary in official documents and in direct address ; but in speaking of 
the persons having these titles, it is common to put the verb in the singular 
number: 

3 jt @cinc C^^xcUcnj gu $auf C ? Is his Excellency at home ? 

2. The third person singular of the verb ftetctt (to give) 
is frequently employed impersonally in the signification 
of there is, there was, etc. : 

@8 gicbt Scute, btc Wi ©cf^Jenjler There are people that believe in 
glauBen, ghosts. 

3. For the use of Dimidiative Numerals, see § 103, 2. 

4. For the chief rules oi Apposition, see § 85. ' 

Rem, 1 . If one of tvjro nouns in apposition is a proper name, the proper 
name is not inflected : 

2)ic ©rcxigcn be8 ^iJmgreid^S The boundaries of the kingdom of 

^rcugen, Prussia. 

2)ic SJcrbannnitg beS ^atfcrS iRa* The banishment of the Emperor Na- 
l^olcon, poleon. 

(bnt)9i«(3(^ bcm 2;obc ^art8 bc^ ©rogcn, After the death of Charlemagne. 
'* iRa(3^ aSit^cIm bcm SSicrtcn, After William the Fourth. 

Rem, 2, Tlie name of the month is not inflected when the word SRoitttt 
(month) precedes the name of the month : 

^m 3lnfang bee aRonate %)^x\\ At the beginning of the month of 
(or am 3lnf ang Sl^rilS), April (or at the beginning ofApril). 

Rem, 3. The non-inflection of nouns indicating weight, measure, and num- 
ber (see Lesson XVI., 2), when they are of the masculine or neuter gender 
is explained by some German grammarians by considering them as cardinal 
numbers ; the case is sometimes indicated by the limited noun : 
Tilt (jtoet 2)utetib) Siern, With two dozen eggs. 

2Rit (brei ^aar) ©d^u^en, With three pairs of shoes. 

Obs, The limited noun is itself, however, also more usually not inflected : 
T^i jtoet S)ut3enb dxtc, With two dozen eggs. 

2Rit jtoet $aar ©ttefcl, With two pairs of boots. 

Sluger einem ^ug SBcrffer toilnf^t He wishes nothing except a pitcher 
txm6)i9, of water. 



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AGREEMENT OF VfiRB. 157 

5. The article is usually used before names of moun- 
tains (see § 61, 7) : 

2)cr §ars ; bcr 35cfut) ; bcr ^ttia, The Hartz ; Vesuvius ; Hecla. 

6. The following nouns formerly ended in ^cn ; the 
m of the nominative is now usually dropped : 

IScr gricbe, peace. bcr §aufc, heap, bcr @amc, seed. 

„ gunic, spark. „ ^ar^fc,carp. „ ^abc, damage. 

„ Ocbanfc, thought. „ 9fiamc, name. „ SSittc,will. 

t, ©(aXlBc, belief, faith. 
5B5^rcnb bc« grtcben^, During the pea^e. 

Exercise 90. 
I.William and his father will soon go to Stuttgart, 
2. There are in this album many beautiful photographs 
of the most important cathedrals and other public 
buildings in Germany. 3. Those are all photographs of 
paintings in the museums (§ 77) of Berlin and Dresden 
4. My brother and I went to Potsdam yesterday. 5. You 
and your brother are invited by (»on) Mr. Niemeyer to 
go with him to-morrow to (Uttl — ju) see the collection 
of German and Scandinavian antiquities which Count 
von Eitelberg has just brought from Pomerania to Ber- 
lin. 6. The hot weather which we had last year lasted 
almost a month. 7. Weber's History of the World 
(SEBeltgcfd^id^tc) costs two thalers and a half a volume, 
unbound ; such binding as this will cost a thaler and 
a half a volume ; that binding is very strong and good ; 
it costs only half a thaler a volume. 8. The express- 
train from Frankfort -on -the -Oder arrives at eight 
o'clock in the morning ; the freight-train leaves at four 
in the afternoon. 9. The concert will take place at 
eight o'clock this evening (§ iSiyliemA). 10. We went 
up the mountain very slowly, but we came down the 
mountain very fast. 11, We are very glad (§ 177, 3) to 
hear that his health has almost entirely been restored 
(that his health itself almost entirely restored has). 
12. It surprises me to hear that he has not yet arrived. 



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158 VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 

13. There are many beautiful houses in the neighbor- 
hood of the Thiergarten. 14. It is none of his business 
(it does not concern him at all) whether we sell the 
house or not. 15. Mr. Kuhn taught my sister music, 
when we were in Berlin. 16. Soon after the death of 
Alexander the Great, the Greek empire fell into pieces 
(JU ©runbc gc^cn). 17. We will remain in Munich from 
the beginning of the month of November till toward 
the end of the month of March (or from the beginning 
of November till toward the end of March). 18. The 
name of the city of Cologne is of Latin origin ; it sig- 
nified originally ** Colony." 19. Do you know the name 
of that river (wiffctt ©ie fccn 9iamctt jencS Sluffe^, or wtffcn 
®ie tt)ie jener glup l^cipt) ? 20. That is the Havel. 



LESSON XLVL 

VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CAS*. 

@mitnbneun}tgfte ^ufgak. 

1. 2)a0 SBcib bcbarf in ^cgc8n5t^en bc8 ScWtjcr^ (<Sd(>.). 2. ^r It* 
burftc je^t mc^r ote jcmals bee gutcn SSittcnS bcr ©taatcn (@(3(>.). 3. ©in 
(S^farlatan bcborf nur 9lu^m ju ^aBcn. 4. 2Bcr bcr ©cfa^r frottet, gcbcnft 
i^rer ; bcr toa^rc $elb abcr bcnft gar xC\^\ an btc ©cfal^r. 5. 3^rcr 2)icnpc 
fonn \^ cntrat^cn (©d^O* 6» ^"^ ^«^ gtilcflid^flc iaient faiin bcr (gintoir* 
hing cincr guten ©dj^urc nidj^t cntrat^cn (©.)• 7. %\% toir auf bad ^^\^ 
famcn, fanbcn toir, bag bic ©dS^iff&rcutc wx^ bcr nSt^tgflcn ScbenSmittcI crman* 
gcltcn. 8. 3<^ frottc fcincr S)ro^un<j ; ftc f(^rc(ft mi^ gar ntdf^t, tt)d( id? mid^ 
im 9'iotMatt gu tjcrt^cibigcn tocig. 9. @tc gotten mcincr, ^ring (<S^.). 10» 
e« fmb ni(^t altc fret, bic i^rcr Scttcn ft>ottcn. 11. ©in fd^wanfcnbcs ©cMubc 
Braud^t bc8 (grbBcBcnS nid^t, nm fiber ben ^ufcn gn fatten (@(^.). 12. @ie 
fSunen bad S8n^ mttnebmen ; i^ braudf^c c« }c(5t nidf^t 13. S)cr $abfft(3(?tigc 
a(^tct iebcs S5ort^cil8"(b. %, bcr C>aBffid(?tigc ^at 2ld(?t auf jcbcn SSort^cil). 14. 
Sinen Sfigner !ann man nid^t a(](?tcn(b. ^., nidf^t.c^rcn). . 15. ^crr @d(?norr ifl 
fo grogmfit^ig, bag cr bicfcr S3elcibigung tocrgcffcn »irb (b. ^^ ^^^6 ^if i>^^fc ^C' 
leibtgung mit 2lbfi(^t auS bent OebSd^tntg entfcmcn »trb). 16. 3<^ ^abe bic 
3a5rc«ga]^t ganj toergcffcn (b. %, o^nc 2lbfi(3(?t auS bent ©cbfii^tnig tocrlorcn), 
17. 9lttc ta(i?cn fiber feine 2:^or{>cit 18. 5)c0 ©utcn, toad ntan^at, fottte man 
gcniegcn ; nnb man fottte bcffcn cntbc^rcn lernen, tucffen man ni^t bebarf 



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VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 159 

(more usoallj with accusative cases, thus: 2)ad ®ute, toad man f)at, follte 
man Qcmcgcn ; ho6) man foEtc bad cntbc^rcn lemen, toa^ man ni^t ibebarf). 
19. 3^ bin bcr SWeinung, ba6 tt)ir t)or jc^n Vii)x be« ^bcnbs ni(i(^t anfommcn 
wcrbcn (or mcincr iWeinung na(3(^ tocrbcn toir t)or jc^n U^r bc« 3lbcnb« ntd(^t 
anfommcn). 20. S3d attcn bicfcn Unf Sttcn tjl cr gang gutce SUhxt^es (or gutcn 
mut^t», see § 89, Rm, 1). 21. 3(i(^ tear SKiUcnS (or t^ ^>atte cben bic W>[\^i) 
mm Sricf on t^n ju f^rcibcn, al8 cr ganj uncrwartct in mcin 3tmmcr ^crctn* 
fam. 22. @cltg, bic rcincS ^cqcnd (§ 78, i?cw. l) ftnb, bcnn flc locrbcn ®ott 
fdf^aucn (Matt. 5, 8). 23. gran Sicbcmann tjl cinc« |)liJt5n(^cn 2:obc« gcjlor* 
ben. 24. 3jl jlc cineS natilrlii^cn 2:obc« geflorbcn ? 25. 9ficin, fic ifl am gc* 
brodj^cncn ^crjen gcflorben, tocil t^re gtoci ^5^nc cine 2y?orbt^at tocrilbt ^abcn 
unb bafilr jum Xobc tocrnrtl^cilt Pnb. 26. 2)cr armc SScttlcr ijl bc« hungers 
(or t)or hunger [§ 252, Rem, 2], or am hunger) gcjlorbcn. 27. S)cr ^o6)» 
altar panb an bcr @tcttc, too Gilbert toon Ocfhcicif^ be« SobcS toerbli^. 28. SKa« 
filr Sanbslentc fmb bic ^auftcutc? 29. (Sincr ifl cin 2)cntfd^er, bcr 3lnbcrc ifl 
ein .^oUSnbcr. 

GranunaticaL 

1. For the chief rules relating to the government of 
the Genitive Case of substantives by verbs, see § 178. 

Rem. 1. Some of the reflexive verbs given in § 178, 3, may also have the 
reflexive pronoun in the dative case, and be followed by the complementary 
object in the accusative instead of in the genitive case : 

3^ mage midi bcffcn m^^i an, > _ , ^ * .^ * 

(or) id? mafic mtr m nid;t an, I ^ ^^ "^^ P^^"°^« *^ '^^' 
Rem. 2. The preposition that is to follow the verb (see § 178, 3, Rem.) will 
oftbn depend upon the shade of meaning given to the verb : 
3(3(? frcuc mid^ anf fctncn Scfudb, I am glad of his visit. 
@r frcut fi^ ihtl ben ©c^abcn He rejoices over the misfortune of 
Slnbcrcr, others. 

2. Many compound nouns, having ^mann for the last 
component, have two forms in the plural (^^manncr and 

AtViXt) : 

2)cr ^aufmann, merchant ; pL bic SaufmSnncr, or bic ^aufreutc. 

^d6)t 9:avi\^ unb ^anbclSmanncr Rich merchants and traders. ^ 
(see § 50, 2). 

3tt)ci Sfiilrnbcrgcr ^anflcutc, Two Nuremberg merchants. 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the plural ending 4etlte refers to a class of persons, 
the prefix having an adjective signification (see Lesson XXX F/., 1 , Rem. 1) : 

2)cr ©Niemann, husband, married man ; pi. btc (S^cmSnncr, married men. 

S)tc (Sbcfrau, wife, married woman ; pi. bic S^efraucn, married womea 

2)tc (Sbctcntc (pi.), married people. 



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160 VERBS GOVEBNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 

Rem. 2. With 8omo nouns the ending stttfittnct is rarely or never used, but 
the ending 4ttttt is the usual plural termination, as : 
^Cr ©bclmann, nobleman ; pi bit ^bcltcutc, the nobility. 

„ ^au^tmonn, captain ; *' bte $au^tleute, captains. 

f, ^aufmonn, merchant ; " bic ^auflcutc, merchants. 

t, Sanbmann, countryman, farmer ; " bic Sanblcute, country people. 

„ SanbSmann, (fellow) countryman ; * * bte 2anb«Icutc, (fellow) countr}'men 

„ 3immermann, carpenter ; *' bic Simmerlcutc, carpenters. 

Zweiundneunzigste Aufgabe. 

1. Man hat den General von Fischel des Hochverraths angeklagt. 2. In 
der letzten Nacht ist ein Dieb durch das Fenster in Herm Roths Zimmer ge- 
drungen und hat ihn seiner goldenen Uhr nnd seines Fortemonnaies (mit 
460 Thalem und werthvollen Fapieren darin) beraubt. 8. Herr Klein hat 
seinen Kutscher des Diebstahls beschuldigt. 4. Man hat den Folizeidiener 
wegen oft wiederholter Betrunkenheit seines Amtes entlassen. 6. Nichts 
kann ihn seines Eides entbinden {or nichts kann ihn von seinem Side ent- 
binden). 6. Ich versichere Sie meiner Hochachtung nnd Freundschaft (or 
ich versichere Ihnen meine Hochachtung und Freundschaft). 7. Ich bin sei- 
ner Unschuld iiberzeugt (more usual at present — ich bin von seiner Unschuld 
tiberzeugt). 8. Man hat den Angeklagten der Theilnahme am Morde frei- 
gesprochen (or von der Theilnahme, etc. ). 9. Welcher Siinde zeiht dich dein 
Gewissen? (Sch.) 10. Die Richter haben den Verbrecher des Landcs ver-. 
wiesen. 11. Der Bischof hat den Priester seines Amtes entsetzt. 12. Der 
Gerechte erbarmt sich seines Viehes. 13. Wir konnten uns kaum des La- 
chens enthalten. 14. Was ist der Mensch, dass Du sein gedenkest und das 
Menschenkind, dass Du Dich sein (§ 107, Rem. 1) so annimmst (Psalm viii, 4). 
15. Ich bediente mich der Gelegenheit, die zwei neuen Gemalde von Kaulbach 
zu sehen. 16. Deiner heiligen Zeichen, o Wahrheit, hat der Betrug sich an- 
gemasst (Sch.). 1 7. Wahrend der letzten zwei Jahre hat Wilhelm Zahn sich 
der Rechtswissenschaft beflissen (d. h. das Recht studirt). 18. Ich bin nicht 
der Archaologie beflissen (d. h. ich studire sie nicht). 19. Die Armee hat 
sich nach einem langen blutigen Kampfe der Festung bemachtigt. 20. Ein 
tiefer Schmerz bemachtigte sich meines Herzens. 21. Ich kann mich seines 
Namens nicht entsinnen (or ich kann mich nicht auf seinen Namen besinnen). 
22. Ihre Majestat besinnen sich vielleicht noch des Vorfalls (Sch.). 23. Ich 
hoffe mich lange seiner Bekanntschaft zu erfreuen. 24. Wir erinnern uns 
seiner recht gut {or wir erinnern uns an ihn recht gut). 25. Jetzt erinnere 
ich mich ganz genau der Umstande. 20. Ich erinnere mich, dass ich ihn 
dort gesehen habe (or ihn dort gesehen zu haben). 27. Du darfst dich deiner 
Wahl (or iiber deine Wahl) nicht schamen. 28. Er triistet sich des Verlusttti 



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VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 161 

ftdner Mutter (or fiber den Verlust seiner Mutter). 29. Wie kann ein Mensch 
sich einer solchen Schandthat ruhmen (or fiber eine solche Schandthat rfih> 
men) ? 30. Ich ruhme mich, ihn meinen Freund nennen zu dvirfen. 31 . Ich 
freue mich auf seinen Besuch. 32. Man soil sich nicht fiber den Schaden 
Anderer freuen. 33. Ich schame mich wegen meiner Nachlassigkeit (or dass 
ich so nachlassig gewesen bin, or so nachlassig gewesen zu sein). 



LESSON XLVII. 

T£RBS GOYEBNINO THE DATIVE CASE. 

Dreiundneunzigste Aufgabe. 

1. Ich danke Ihnen herzlichst fur das Buch, welches Sie mir vorgestem 
geschickt haben. 2. Man kann nicht zweien (§101, Rem, 1) Herren dienen. 
3. Ich habe der hispanischen Monarchic gedient, und der Republik Venedig, 
und dem Konigreich Napoli (Sch.). 4. Diese Zeitworter folgen in ihrer An- 
wendung dem Faradigma. 5. Diese Medizin hat ihm in seiner Krankheit 
nicht viel geholfen. 6. Der Knabe hat mir fiber den Strom geholfen. 7. Es 
mangelte ihm nicht an Ausdauer, sondem es mangelte ihm an Gesundheit 
und Kraft. 8. Als wir der Stadt naheten (or als wir uns der Stadt naherten), 
fing es plotzhch an zu regnen. 9. Dieser Rock passt Ihnen sehr gut. 10. 
Wie schmeckt Ihnen dieser Schweizer Kiise ? 11. Die Suppe schmeckt nach 
Rauch. 12. Seine Art und Weise den Gegenstand zu behandeln scheint mir 
ganz meisterhaft. 13. Man kann ihm trauen; er ist treuherzig. 14. Man 
sucht yergebens diesem Uebelstande abzuhelfen, so lange die Quelle des Uebels 
iiicht verstopft ist. 15. Seine Aehnlichkeit mit seinem Bruder fiel mir sehr 
auf. 16. Das ist ein sehr auifallendes Gleichniss. 1 7. Ich bin Ihrem Brudet 
heute Morgen auf der Strasse begegnet. 1 8. Wir stimmten ihnen bei. 19. 
Der Dieb ist dem Polizeidiener entflohen, ehe man ihn ins Gefangniss brin~ 
gen konnte. 20. Dem Tode kann man nicht entgehen. 21. Diese Insekten 
Bind so klein, dass sie dem blossen Ange entgehen. 22. Die Unsrigen gingen 
dem Feinde muthig entgegen. 23. Oesterreich schien seinem Zerfall entge- 
genzugehen. 24. Er wird Ihnen auf dem halben Wege entgegenkommen. 
25. Falsch ist der Inhalt, wenn er der Wirklichkeit widerspricht ; wahr, 
wenn er ihr entspricht. 26. Das erste Haus hat uns sehr gefallen, aber das 
zweite Hans gefallt nns gar nicht. 27. Man soil Gott mehr als dem Men- 
schen gehorchen. 28. Es ist ihm endlich gelungen, seinen vortreffllchen Plan 
durchzufuhren. 29. Es gelang ihnen nur einen kleinen Theil der Hauser in 
dieser Strasse vor den Flammen zu retten. 30. Der Affe ahmt dem Men. 
schen nach. 31. Der Landschaftsmaler ahmt die Natur nach. 32. Dieser 
Maler eifert vergebens den grossen Kfinstlem des Mittelalters nach ; aber er 
steht wirklich auch den Kunstlem zweiten Ranges unseres Zeitalters bei 
weitem nach. 33. Dieses Wort kommt schon in der gothischen Sprache Tor. 
34. Das ist dir gewiss im Traume vorgekommen. 35. Das kommt mir sehr 
komisch yor (d. h. das scheint mir sohr komisch). 



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162 VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 

Orammatical. 

l.For the chief rules with reference to the govern 
ment of the Dative Case by verbs, see § 179. 

T^ff. In some cases, yerbs that are transitive in English are rendered into 
German by intransitive verbs ; by reason of this, the direct object of some En- 
glish verbs is made the indirect object of corresponding German verbs, as : 

3^ ban!c 3<>nen, I thank you (or I am thanhfid to yon). 

5Jaim i(3(^ 3tncn bienen ? Can I serve you (or he serviceable to yon) ? 

(Sr fotgt fetncm 53rubcr, He follows (or is a follower to) his brother. 

@r ^alf mtr, He helped me (or was of help to me). 

(S§ fc^abct i^m, It injures him (or is injurious to him). 

2. Some personal verbs in English are rendered into 

German by impersonal verbs : 

(Sd totrb i^m ni(^t gelingen, He will not succeed in it. 

@8 mangeit i^m on ^\6ii%, He lacks for nothing, 

©^medt C0 S^ncn? Do you like (the taste of) ii? 

3. Upon a more intimate knowledge of the German 
language, it will be found that some verbs are used is 
several constructions^ according to the different shades 
of meaning that may be given to the same verb. 

Rem, 1. Various constructions with the same verb from the different dia- 
lects of Germany (§ 23) have from time to time risen up into the language 
of literature (§ 86). Many constructions, that were formerly in common 
use, have now become antiquated (§11 and § 14). 

Rem, 2. The various constructions of some verbs may be illustrated by the 
examples of the use of the verb IfjifyxtXi, to reward, that are given in senten- 
ces 7, 8, 9, and 10, in Exercise 91. 

4. There are several examples in the German lan- 
guage of two nouns of analogous significations being 
followed by a verb in the singular number, as : 

S)cr ^attftel itttb Serfel^r 3t»if(3(^cn The traflSc between Berlin and Ham- 
S3crltn unb Hamburg ijl fc^r burg is very active. 

@etne 9(ttltnft SSeife ben ®cgen« His manner of treating the subject 
flanb ju ^>c^cmbcln, ijl ju lobcn, is to be praised. 

(3(^ f^aBe ed on JOl^t Itnb ©telle I have seen it in the place itself.) 
ficfc^cn, 



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VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 163 

Viemndneunzigste Aufgabe. 

1 . Wilhehn hat mir den Brief gebracht. 2. Frau Reichenbach hat ihrer 
Nichte Schiller s Gedichte als Weihuachts-Geschenh gegehen, 3. Unser Ian- 
(jer Aufenthalt in der. Schweiz hat una keine Zeit gelasseUf um nach Italien 
zu gehen, 4. Die Handwerker lie/em selten die Arbeit zur yersprochenen 
Zeit, 5. Die russische Armee hat dem Fdnde eine Schlacht geliefert, 6. 
Das Werk erscheint in monatlichen Lieferungen von Je zehn Bogen. 7. Der 
Acker lohnt dem Landmann seinen Fleiss mit reichem Segen. 8. In Amerika 
lohnt (bezablt) man die Arbeit besser als in Deutschland, 9. Das lohnt sich 
nichtfur meine Muhe, 10. Es lohnt sich der Miihe nicht, dass man davon redet, 
11. Mein Freund meldet mir in seinem Brief die Ankunft meines Bruders 
in Wien. 12. Dieser Unfall hat ihm alle Hoffnyng gendmmen, 13. Der Ta- 
schendieb hat mir das Portemonnaie genommen, 14. Der Arzt nahm ihm die 
Binde von den Augen, 15. Der Hausknecht hat Herrn Lippard eine goldene 
Uhr fine? 300 Thaler gestohlen, 16. Herr Siegel hat sein letztes Werk uber 
die Geschichte der Insel Beroland seinem Grossvater gewidmet. 17. Der 
Brief trager hat mir den Brief um 10 Uhr abgegeben, 18. Die Schrift lehrt 
unsy demy der uns aufdie rechte Wange einen Streich giebt, auch die andere 
darzubieten; wahrend wir gewohnlich ihm Gegenschlage anbieten, und, wenn 
wir stark genug dazu sindy auch verabreichen, 19. Man hat ihm den Dolch 
entrissen, 20. Ich Jiihle mich sehr krank; mir schtcindelt, 21, Fs ahnt 
mir, dass wir uns nie wieder sehen werden, 22. Es ist mir heute nicht wohl; 
ich habe ein heftiges Kopfweh. 23. Wie geht es Ihnen hier in Berlin f 24. 
Wie sitzt mir dieser Rock f 25. Es thut mir sehr leid, dass sie nicht longer in 
Berlin bleiben konnen. 26. Heivr Prell hat seinen Bruder in der Germania 
ZebenS'Verskherungs-Gesellschaft (§ 50, Rem, 3) versichert, 27. Ich ver- 
tichere Ihnen meine Hochachtung, 



LESSON XLVIII. 

THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

guufuttbttcuujtgfte Stuigak* 

' 1* 2)aS SBctter wirb fel^r l^eif. 2. 2)a8 SBctter wurbe fel^r 
l^cip* 3- !Da« SBetter ijl fcl^r l^cip geworbem 4. Dag SBetter 
tt)irb l^eip wcrtcn. 5. 35a« ^au« wirb jc^t gebaut 6. 2)ie 
Sud^cr werben gcbrudtt- 7* !2)ic SBud^er wurben gebrudt, al8 
xoxx in ber SBud^brucfcrei xoaxtn. 8* 3e$t finb bic SBftd^cr allc 
gebrutfh 9/$tcr tt)irb bcutfc!^ gcfprod^cn* 10* eine j^rad^t^ 
»oUc ncuc ^ird^c n>irb je^t in eimcrSborf gckut !!♦ 35a* 
3leuc 5Wufcum in Scrlin tt)urbc im Sa^rc 1853 »olIenbet 12. 



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164 THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

Die llnber|ttat in SBerlin wurbc im 34rc 1809 gcgriinbet* 13* 
2)ic SBud^brudterfunjl remit im 14ten 3af)r^unt)crt crfunbcn* 
14. SlHc faifcrlici^ctt ©olbatcn, ml&t bcm })ommerf(!^ctt Sanb^olf 
in bie ^anbe ftelen, wurben o^ne SBarml^crjigfcit crmorbet 15* 
Untcr bicfem Sorwanb wurbc SlUeg »cr^ccrt unb gcpliinbcrt. 
16- 2)ic geflung ifl mit ©turm gcnommen tt)orbem 17* 2)er ®e^ 
nerd »on SRiegcl ijl beS |)od^wrat^« angeHagt, abet er ijl »on 
ber Slnftoftc frcigefproci^cn mxitn. 18. 35ic SRad^rid^t »on bem 
Jobc bcS |)erni ^inbcmann ijl feincr grau no^ nid^t mitge^ 
t^cilt tt)orbcn. 19. SBann wirb ba^ SBerf ^ollcnbet werbcn? 
20. 2)aS ®crf tt>irb crjl nac!^ brci 3af)ren ^oUcnbet werben. 21. 
So^ann SBolfgang »on ®6t^c wurbe am 28. Slugufl 1749 gebo^ 
ten. 22. 3o^» Gl^riflopfi gricb. ». (5<]^iHcr wurbe am 10. 9lo»em^ 
kr 1759 geboren. 23. di wirb je^t fcf)r tjicl gcrebet ijon eincm 
neucn ^anbcISsjertragc gwifd^en bem 9lorbbeutfd^en55unb unb ben 
aSereinigten (Staattn. 24. |)ier wirb nid^t geraud^t. 25. 2)a« 
SWaud^en ifl l^ier nid^t geflattct. 26. ®8 wirb jleftt im ©aale ge^ 
fungen. 27. di n>irb fd^on gegeffen. 28. @« wurbe i^m t)om 
Slrjtc nid^t erlaubt, in« Bttnnter, tt)o fein ffiater am Sl^p^ug bar^^ 
nieberlag, ^inein gu gel^en. 29. 3Wan eriaubtc il^m nic^t, xn9 
Simmer ^inein gu ge^en. 30. 2)tefe« SRat^fel lofl ftd^ fel^r leid^t 
(or ijl fe^r leid^t gu lofen). 31. 2)a« mfie^t jld^. 32. 2Ba« 
ifl gu t^un? 33. 2)a« ijl nid^t leid^t gu fagen. 34. $err $rej^ 
let fagt, bag biefeg ©pital im »origen 3<J^t^unbert gegriinbet 
wurbe. 35. !DaS ^ani mar gang unb gar abgebrannt. 

OrammaticaL 

1. For the chief rules concerning the use of the Pas- 
sive Voice, see § 134 ; for the paradigm of the Passive 
Voice, see § 161. 

Hem, As is indicated by the auxiliary tx^txhttt (to become), the action is 
considered as becoming accomplished, that is, as taking place at the time al- 
laded to : 
2)a3 $au« tofrb atUnt i^^ ^°^® ^^ becoming built, I. e. is being buUt. 

((or) The house becomes built (or) is built. 
rrs«« «^ c^ « X (The house was becomingbuiltjt.c. was being built 
©aS^uStoltrbescBaut, |(or)The house became built (or) was built 



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THE PASSIVE VOICE. 165 

2. The passive voice is much less employed in Ger- 
man than it is in English : 

Rem, 1. VHien the active agent is indefinitely alluded to, the active voice 
of the verb (with Qtait as the nominative) is frequently employed : 
Tlan f agt ; man glauBt, It is said ; it is believed. 

Hem, 2. When the active agent is not specified, the reflexive form of th# 
verb is frequently employed instead of the passive voice : 

2)a« txMxt P^ fc^r Icidf^t, That is very easily explained. 

2)a0 tocrflc^t fi6f, That is a matter of course. 

Eem. 3. The infinitive of the passive voice in English is often translated 
into German by the infinitive of the active voice (§ 128, 3, Hem. 2): 
SKa« ijl xu t^un ? What is to be done ? 

2)a8 tp Icid^t 3U Dcrjlc^cn, That is easy to be understood. 

3. The verbs that govern the dative case (§ 179, 1), 
though intransitive in their nature, may still be used 
impersonally in the passive voice: 

@8 tourbc t^m criaubt, He was permitted (it was permitted 

@6 totrb t^m ni^t gcglauBt, He is not believed. [to him). 

Exercise 96. 
1. The book is now being printed. 2. The houses of 
which he spoke are not yet finished ; they are now 
being built. 3. The books which I bought are not 
bound ; they are now being bound. 4. The University 
of Prague was founded in 1348. 5. The comer stone 
of the Cathedral of Cologne was laid in the year 1248. 
6. These poems have never been translated into (in?) 
English. 7. French and German are spoken here. 8. 
The fortification will probably be taken by storm. 9. 
America was discovered by Columbus in the year 1492. 
10. Mr. Eberhard's design of the new bridge will prob- 
ably be accepted by the city authorities. 11. There is 
no smoking here (c^r smoking is not allowed here). 12. 
They are singing in the church. 13. We will not be 
permitted to see the engravings without permission 
from the Director of the Museum. 14. This question is 
very easy to solve. 15. The key has been found (reflex.). 



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l66 CONSTBDCTION OP PBEPOSITIONS. 

LESSON XLIX. 

C0N8TEUCT10N OF PREPOSITION?. 

Gieknnnbnemijigfte ^ufgak. 

1. 2)ujyeltiorf liegt t>tc«feft mi mn jenfcit m fR\)tmi. 2. 
^err ©toUbcrg ijl ©cfunt>^cit« ^albcr nat^ ©aflein gcgangen. 
3. 9iuniberg l^at inner^^alb unb au^cr^alb ber SWaucrn »iclc flatt^ 
lid^c ®eMube. 4. 2Borm« licgt ober^alb unb SBingcn liegt untcr^ 
^alb bcr 93unbe8fefluttg SWatnj* 5. ?ang« m 2Wittelr^cin« 
fle^cn »ielc altc SSurgcn^ 6* SBir l^attcn ben ganjcn Sag gcjagt 
entlang be? SBalbgebirge? (@d^-)* ?• ?aut fru^erer SSertrage 
ma6)k griebrid^ ber ©rope feine Slnfprud^e auf ©^lejien geltenb* 
8. !Dampffd^iffe werben jeftt mtttelg (or »ermittelfl) einer ©d^raube 
bemegt. 9. Slnflatt ber ©anfefiele bebienen wir un? gegenmarttg 
meifl ber Sta^Ifebern. 10. Xxo^ be« feinblic^en ©efd^ii&e? 
ton^itn ftd^ bic ^romantfd^iffe 93af)n gu ber ®tabt gu madden* 
11. Urn be? grieben? SBiUen l^at er e? nid^t get^au. 12. 2)a? 
©ternbilb ber ?eier jlef)t unfem (or mtotxt) ber SWild^flrape^ 
13. Sllle ^orper flreben »erm6ge i^rer ©d^icere itad^ bem WitUU 
pmit ber Srbe. 14. !Durd^ ba? ©d^erbengerid^t f onnte Semanb 
au? Slt^en ^erbannt werben, unbefd^abet feine? SBermSgen? nnb 
feiner @^re. 15. SBa^renb meiner ^ani\)tit l^at |)err ^un0 
mid^ offer? befud^t. 16. Die gepanjerten ©d^iffe ftnb, il^rer 
©d^ttjere wegen, nid^t red^t feetiid^tig. 17. Bufolge gemagter 
©pefulationen ifl fd^on 2Wand^er an ben SBettelflab gefommen. 
18. !Den neueflen 5«ad^rid^ten gufolge ift ber 2)ampfer ^bd^ nid^t 
angelommen. 19. Slngeftd^t? ber ©efal^r woUte ber ^apitan 
bei bem ^eftigen ©turm nid^t abfegeln. 20. 35a? weif id^ felbfl 
ani ©rfa^rung. 21. @r war auger ftd^ »or greube (he was 
besides himself for joy). 22. 93innen jwei ^a^xm wirb ba? 
neue SRat^l^au? ^oUenbet merben. 23. 2Bir ful^ren fe^r langfam, 
weil ber SBinb itn? entgegen war. 24. SBir flanben mit Xage?^ 
anb.rud^ auf* 25. S? ge^t nidbt immer nad^ unferen SQBiinfd^en- 
26. !Der ^ronprinj ritt bem ^onige gunad^fl. 27. Die ©tabt 
fa^ ben hunger neb|l feinem gangen ©efolge ftd^ na^ern (©d^0» 



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CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 167 

28* ®a« ©c^iff fammt feiner ganjen 5Wannfc^aft unb ?at>ung 
iDurbe tin diauh bcr SBeUen. 29. Sie lange finb (§ 132, 2) 
©ie in 2)cutf^lant> ? 30» Sir ftnb feit bcm crjien ^pril in 
SDcutfd^lanb* 31. SBil^elm SRot^ ifl flein t)on ©ejlalt 32. 
^eute ^abe i(^ bag SWufeum jum erflen SWal kfuc^t 33. 28a« 
er fagt i|l ber gefunbcn SBernunft juwiber. 

Orammatical. 
1. The chief rules governing the use of Prepositions 
are given in § 197-§ 258. 

^d^tunbneunjtgfte ^ufgafie. 

1. Von Ostern bis Pfingsten sind sieben Wochen. 2. 
Wir werden heute bis Prag reisen. 3. Ich halte Herrn 
Both fur einen Mann von Ehre. 4. Es waren gegen 
funfhundert Personen in der Versammlung. 5. Es wa- 
ren sechszig Personen an Bord, ohne die Kinder. 6. 
Dife Sonne geht jetzt um sechs Uhr auf. 7. Hier ist ein 
Gedicht an den Mond. 8. Herr Gellert arbeitet jetzt 
an einer Geschichte seiner Vaterstadt. 9. Es waren an 
fiiriffaundert Menschen versammelt. 10. Ich erkannte 
ihn an der Stimme. 11. Ist Herr Cohn zu Hause? 12. 
Nein, er ist heute auf die Jagd gegangen. 13. Marie 
sitzt neben ihrer Schwester. 14. Hedwig hatte sich 
neben ihre Cousine gesetzt. 15. Heute liber vierzehn 
Tage werden wir nach Dresden abreisen. 16. Der 
Brief ist iiber Triest und Wien gekommen. 17. Unter 
solchen Bedingungen kann ich naturlich das Amt nicht 
annehmen. 18. Sie weinte vor Freude. 19. Das Dampf- 
schiff wird wahrscheinlich heute Abend zwischen acht 
und neun Uhr ankommen. (Here may be translated 
the verses of poetry found under § 197, lion. 2 ; § 199, 
Bern.; § 200, Hem.; § 235, Obs.; § 243, Obs.; and § 253, 
Obs.) 



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168 ADVEBBS,-r-C02MUNCTI0NB. 

LESSON L. 

ADTEBBS. — CONJUNCTIONS. — ORDER OP WORDS. 

9{ettttttttbneun)igfte ^ttfgabe* 

1. 2)tc Scrd^c jlngt f^6n (§ 181, l). 2, 2)cr SJcrfaffcr icnc« ©erlcS ^at ben 
©egcnflanb fc^r ttJtffcnf(3^aftU^ be^anbelt. 8. 2)cr «anarient)ogct fingt bic( 
fd^5ncr (§ 190) al8 bic Scrdj^c. 4. 3n bicfem 2Bi5rtcrbu^ tfl bic St^mologtc 
ttjtffenf^aftli(i;er fcc^anbett al« in icncm. 5. Unter (§ 257, Rem. 8) alien @ing* 
b5gcln flngt bic S'la^tigott am fe^Snflcn. 6. „3Kit ©o^a^tung bin i^ erge* 
Bcnjl (or gc^orfamfl) bcr ^^rigc... aBil^clm 9tot^." 7. 2)icfc8 SBSrtcrbu^ 
ifl bom SScrfaffcr bSttig unb aufs gctciffcn^fafteflc umgcorbcitct. 8. 36^ ttjcifi 
ni(3^t, ob tt)ir ^eutc ins iWufcnm gc^en liJnncn, abcr toxx ttjcrbcn ttjcntgflcn« ben 
SScrfu^ ma^cn. 9. 2)ie ©tabt ^fat jcfet minbcjlcns 60,000 (Sintoo^ncr. 10. 
SBonn ifl §err Sinbcmann gu frrc^cn ? 11. <Scinc @^)rcd(|Punbc ifl toon ncnn 
Bi« gc^n U^r bc8 9Worgen«. 12. SOBir tootttcn ^entc 3Sormittag (§ 177, Rem. 2) 
abrctfcn, abcr nnglilcfli^f^crwcifc gicbt c« tcincn ©^ncttjug na^ @tnttgart bor 
brci U^r bc8 S^Jai^tmittagS. 13. SSor gtoiJlf 3a^ren toarcn wir in ©eriin ; ba* 
mal« toar bic aiingmaner nm bic ©tabt no^ m6)i nicbcrgctiffcn. 14. @ic 
tonrbc crfl im 3a^rc 1867 nicbcrgcriffcn. 15. S)ic ^atmcn ^abcn gcriitgcttc, 
bistoeilcn (or guwdtcn) fla(3^eU(i(^tc ^^^\tt (§ 188, 5). 16. SSSir tocrbcn bet* 
f^)iel«tt>afc (or jum 8cif^)icO ben Urf^)rung bc« 3citt»ortc6 „fctn" na^fc^cn 
(§ 137). 17. (5« ffingt bcrcit« (or f^on) an ju regncn. 18. 3fl ©err Slcin 
guriitfgclommcn? 19. 3a, cr ifl f^on toorgcflcm jnrildEgcIommcn (§ 155, 5). 
20. 2Bo ifl SBil^elm ? 21. dx ifl obcn (§ 187, 1) in fdnem Simmer. 22. (gr 
Prgtc ^fin^jtlings bic %xm^ ^innnter (§ 188, 8). 23. 3* glaubc f^tocrtid^, 
bag ttjir bic gat bagu ^aben tt)erbcn. 24. SDer SBobcn cr^cbt fi^ ^icr flufen* 
loeifc (§ 188), bi« bag cr cine ©iJ^c bon 2500 gug fiber bcr aWcerc«p^c cr* 
reid^t 25. 2)ic« flnb gr86tcnttcil« bcutfd^c Sii^cr. 26. ©err 3. g. @^mibt, 
^ierfcrbfl too^n^aft, toon ctoangeUf(3^cr (or fat^oftf^cr, or jilbifdfier) ^onfcffion, 
ifl tocgen cine« am 20. 3nU toerilbtcn 2)icbfla^t« fle(fbricfli^ tocrfolgt toorben. 
27. (gr ifl bureaus (§ 188, 9).bafilr (§ 189, 8, Rem. 1), bafi toir toor Sagedan* 
bruc^ abrcifcn f ottcn. 28. 3n«lftnftigc (or in« ^ttnftigc, or toon nun on) tocrbcn 
bic SUhifccn toier Sage bcr SSo^ nncntgcltltd^ gcSffnet fein. 29. SSon ba an 
ging bic gjc^ubU! SScnebig m6) unb na^ bem SScrfatt entgegen. 30. SSortoSrte 
(§ 189, 2) mngt btt (ge^cn), bcnn rfi(ftt)firt« lannfl bu ni^t (@^0^ Si. SCBer 
^at 3^ncn gefagt, bag e8 toorgcflcm in 8ci»)gig fo flar! gercgnet ^at? (§ 154, 2). 
32. 2)a6 2)amMf^iff bon ©amburg ifl crfl ^cutc 2Rorgen (§ 195,2) angctom* 
men. 38. @ic tocrben ja mit nn« in« Concert gc^cn. 84. @ci cr no^ fo gc* 
Ic^rt, bo(3^ tocig cr ni^t OTc«. 35. eic ^abcn xcti^l bic 2)cj)cf(^^cn toon 3lmcri!a 
in bcr i^cutigcn Scitnng gelcfcn? 



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ORDER OP WORDS. 169 

GrammaticaL 
1. For the chief rules with reference to the use of 
Adverbs, see § 181-195. For the rules governing the 
use of Conjunctions, see § 259-274. For the order of 
words in sentences, see § 276-284. 

Hondertste Aufgabe. 

1. Da (§ 260) er gestern nicht zu Haase war, habe ich es ihm erst heute 
Morgen sagen konnen. 2. Wahrend Sie den Brief schreiben, werde ich ein- 
packtn (or die Sachen in die Beisekoffer einpacken). 

8. Da noch alios lag in welter Feme, 
Da hattest Da Entschluss and Math ; 
Und jetst, da der Erfolg gesichert ist. 
Da {% 195, 1, Item.) fangst Da an zu zagen (Soh.)* 

4. Wie kann Herr Flint nach Italien gehen, ohne seine Frau mitzunehmen ? 
(§ 264, Rem,) 5. Der Strauss hat Fliigel, er kann aber nicht fliegen (§ 263, 
1, Rem,y. 6. Yon zwd bis sieben Uhr wurde der Sturm immer heftiger 
(§ 263, Rem,), 7. Wir hofften, dass mit Sonnenuntergang die See mhiger 
werden wttrde (§ 263, 2), allein wir &nden uns getauscht (§ 263, 2). 8. Da- 
gegen nm 10 Uhr wurde die Gefahr so gross, dass der Hauptmann die Bet- 
tungsboote mit Nahmngsmitteln versehen liess. 9. Er ist zu klu^, als dass 
er an Gespenster glauben soUte (§ 266). 10. Wer sonst ist Schuld, als Ihr 
in Wien? (Sch.) 11. Sei king wie die Schlangen und ohne Falsch wie die 

Tauben. 

12. Wir fahren za Borg, 
Wir kommen wieder, 
Wenn der Kukuk ruft, 
Wenn erwachen die Lieder (Sch.)* 

13. Du sollst deinen Vater und deine Mutter ehren, auf dass du lange auf 
Erden lebest 14. Er ist zu edelmilthig, um sich zu xiichen. 15. Obgleich 
der Lehrer mit den Anfgaben der Schuler im Ganzen sehr zufrieden war, so 
war doch in einigen Anfgaben Manches zu tadeln. 1 6. Wenn Herr Stolberg 
auch sehr alt ist, so hat sein Geist dennoch die Frische der Jugend. 17. 
Der Schnee auf dem Gebirge fangt ah zu schmdzen, daher werden die Flusse 
im Thale wahrscheinlich bald anschwellen. 18. Es gefiel ihm nicht mehr 
nnter den Menschen, daher (or deshalb, or deswegen) hat er sich in die Ein- 
samkeit zuriickgezogen. 19. Er hat es selbst gethan, daher kann er Nie- 
mand ab sich selbst tadeln. 20. Wilhelm ist wirklich far sein Alter sehr 
king, iibrigens ist er alter als man glauben soUte. 21. Ich besuche ihn jetzt 
mehr als Freund, denn als Arzt. 

H 




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Googit: 



170 IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 

LESSON LI. 

IMPERATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, AND CONDITIONAL MOODS. 

^uubertunberfte ^ttfgabe. 

1. ^eUner, btingen ©ic mix, id) bitte, no(^ einc Za^tSta^tt. 
2;3emanb flopft 3- (5tommen ®te) ^txtinl 4. (3^) MttC; 
ncfimen ®te $laft! 5. ©ut^en ®ie etn S3ud^ au0,t)a0 3^nen 
gefaHt. 6. ©d^weigc (bu) fliU ! 7. (®tcb) e^re, bcm S^rc gc^ 
bu^rt. 8. aSater Unfer ! bcr bu bifl im ^immcU 9* ©e^eiligct 
wetbc 2)em S«ame! 10. Dein SReic^ fommc! 11. Unfer ia^^ 
lid^e^ ©rob gicb un« f)tnitl 12. Unb fu^te un^ nid^t in SSer^ 
fttd^ung! 13. ©onbern eriofe itn« »on bent UebeU 14. ^arl, 
bleibe bu l^ier, Hi id) mieberfomme. 15. greue 2)id^ n^t fiber 
5lriberer ©c^aben. 16. 2Wad^e bie X\)mt auf. 17. ^inber, 
fd^weigt (ibr) fWl. 18. 3e^t gebe 3eber feine« SBegeg {2>^.)l 
19. Sleiben 'toxx bier, bi« ^einri^ bie SiUet^ i)olU 20. 2)a 
ubemimmfl bie fpanifc^en SRegimenter, mad^fl immer Slnflalt 
unb bifl mentals fertig, unb treiben fte bi(^, gegen mx6) ju giebn, 
fo fagfl bu 3a; unb bletbfl gefeffett ftel^n (©c^O* 21. !Die 
^trommel gerubrt! 22. ©ie^ tn« 33ud^ J)mxn ; nur nic^t lefcn, 
immer jtngen (®.). 23. ^err gubemann fagt, bap bie 5lrmee 
\6)on in Sewegung fet. 24. 3tJ^ fragte ^errn eberleiU; toann 
tx md) SWund^en abreifen merbe ; er fagte mtr, bap er SMorgen 
frufy abreifen mirb. 25. 3d^ bejweifelte, bap fie f^on in SGBien 
angefommen fet. 26. Du foUfl 2)einen aSater unb Deine aWut^ 
ter ef>ren, auf bap (§ 267, liem. 4) bu lange lebefl auf ©rben. 
27. 3d^ ratbe bir, bap bu fleipiger werbefi. 28. %i)l toaxt 
mein ©ruber bod^ tt)ieber gefunb! 29. aWod^te er balb genefen! 
30. $Ba0 bie beulenbe Stiefe ba untcn ^erbe^le, ba« erga^It fetne 
lebenbe, menfd^Iid^e ©eele (©d^.)- 31. Der 2Wenfd^ erfa^rt, er 
fei aud^; mer er mag, tin Ic^tc? ®ludE unb einen le^ten Stag (®.). 

Qrammatical. 
1. For the general rules governing the use of the 
Imperative^ the Conditional^ and the Subjunctive Moods, 
Bee pages 294 and 295. 



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CONDITIONAL MOODS. 171 

2. One of the greatest difficulties which the English- 
gpeaking student encounters in learning the German 
language is in the use of the Moods of the verb. 

Rem. 1 . The chief difficalty is in the use of the Sahjanctive Mood. To the 
general principles laid down in § 124 there are many modifications and ex- 
ceptions that can not be introduced into an elementary grammar, as they 
would require too much space, and they would also only cause confusion in 
the mind of the student. 

Hem, 2. It will be noticed that the SubjunctiveMood is often used when 
the Indicative Mood would be employed in English. 

Bern. 8. It will be seen that the Potential Mood of the English yerb is ren- 
dered into German partly by the Potential Verbs (§ 162), partly by the Cot^ 
ditional Mood (§ 125), and in some cases by the Subjunctive Mood (§ 124, 
3, and Rem.). 

3. The chief rules governing the position of words 
in sentences are given in § 276-284, § 194, and § 255. 

Rem. 1. In poetry and other dignified styles of composition, some Taria% 
tions from these rules are allowable. 

Rem. 2. As the syntax of the High-German Language (§ 6) has only been 
established during the last one or two centuries, many variations from the laws 
at present prevailing in the arrangement of words are to be met with in Lu^ 
therms translation of the Bible and other works that date from the earlier pe- 
riods of the language. 

Handertzweite Aufgabe. 

1. Melde ihm die Nachricht, ehe er sie durch Andere erfahre. 2. Thut, 
als Wenn Ihr zu Hause waret. 3. Darum eben leiht er keinem, damit (§ 267) 
er stets zu geben babe (Less.). 4. Ziele gut, dass du den Apfel trefiest (Sch.). 
5. Bleibt nicht in England, dass der Britte nicht sein stolzes Herz an Eurem 
Unglfick weide (Sch.). 6. Ninmi dich in Acht, dass dich die Rache nicht 
verderbe (Sch.). 7. Willst du, dass alle Chefs zngegen seien ? (Sch.) 8. So 
willst du, dass es gleich vollzogen werde ? (Sch.) 9. Ich gebe nicht mein Ja 
dass es geschehe (G.). 10. Befiehl, dass man von Neuem untersuche. 11. 
Es war nicht zu erwarten, dass er so bald nach Hause kommen werde. 1 2, 
Daranf schrie er in die Gassen hinab, er sei der Bosewicht, der Maria falsch> 
lieh angeklagt habe, er sei ein falscher Zenge (Sch.). 13. Auf die Yersiche. 
rung der Begentin, dass die Frovinzen einer vollkommenen Buhe genossen, 
nnd von keiner Seite Widersetzung zu furchten sei, liess der Herzog einige 
dsutsche Begimenter auseinaiider gehen ^JSch.). 14. Der Prinz von Oranien 
hatte die Yorsicht gebraucht, die BriicKe abbrechen ;eu lassen, damit, wie ef 



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172 CONDITIONAL MOODS. 

Torgab, die CalvinLsten der Stadt nicht versucht werden mochten, sich za dem 
Heere des Toulouse za schlagen ; wahrscheinlich aber, damit die Eatholiken 
den Niederlandem nicht in den Bucken fielen, oder auch Lannoy, wenn er 
sieg^n wilrde, nicht in die Stadt eindrange (Sch.). 15. Herr Weber sieht 
au8, alfl ob er gar nicht wohl sei (§ 274, Hem. 5). 16. Ich kann dir den Apfel 
nicht geben, indem ich ihn deinem Bruder yersprochen habe (§ 274, Rem, 8). 
17. AUe Nachrichten von der Sprache der Chinesen sagen, dass sie zur Ge- 
8taltung dieses Yolkes viel beigetragen habe. 18. Der Habsiichtige wird nie 
sagen, er habe genug. 19. Za spat wird er einsehen, er habe Unrecht gethan. 
20. Manche Menschen handeb^ so, als ob sie nie sterben milssten. 21. Bei 
solchen Umstanden wilrde ich es nicht thun (or thate ich es nicht). 22. Das 
wfiirde ich nicht gethan haben (or das hatte ich nicht gethan). 23. Wenn du 
fleissig warest, wiirdest du Etwas lemen (or lemtest du Etwas). 24. Wenn 
dn fleissiger gewesen warest, wiirdest du \nehr gelemt haben (or hattest da 
mehr gelemt). 25. Wenn mancher Mann wusste, wer mancher Mann war*, 
that* mancher Mann manchem Mann manchmal mehr Ehr* ! 26. Hattest da 
von Menschen stets besser gedacht, du hattest auch besser gehandelt (or wenn 
du stets besser von Menschen gedacht hattest, so wurdest du auch besser ge- 
handelt haben). 27. In seiner Lage hatte ich das Haas nicht gekauft. 28. 
Wenn mein Grossvater noch am Leben ware, so wiirde er jetzt 90 Jahre alt 
sein. 29. Ich habe HermGeroldum Rath gefragt(§ 279, i2em.l). 80. Ich 
tru^Herm Gerold am Bath. 31. Man hat den Kaufmann dcs Diebstahls 
angeklagt (§ 279, Rem, 2). 32. Um zehn Uhr des Abends kommt der 
Schnellzug von Miinchen (§ 280, 3). 33. Ich war zu sehr gewohnt, mich mit 
inir selbst zu besch'aftigen, als dass ich mit Anfinerksamkeit hatte ein Kunst- 
werk betrachten koaaec (282, Rem, 1). 

♦Antiquated and provincial for fragtc. 



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part ^tconh; 



COKTAINIKO 

FAMILIAR CONVERSATIONS IN GERMAN AND ENGLISH; 

IDIOMS AND SYNONYMS; 

LETTERS AND FORMS OF BUSINESS; 

AND 

SELECTIONS FROM GERMAN LITERATURE, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I. CONVERSATIONS. 
(®cflira*eO 

Rem, These Conversations are arranged for the purpose of presenting 
the most familiar expressions and idioms of ordinary discourse. This neces- 
sitates, of course, frequent and abrupt interruptions in the connection of the 
sentences with each other. 

1. Salutation, a visit. 

(2)a« ©riifen, cin SJcfu^.) 



©uten aWcrgcn, §crr ^. I 

S^ »ilnf(i^e 3^ncn* cincn* gutcn^ Wlox* 

fjcn, Xa^, ^benb, cine gutc ^a6)i, 
Mi fccpnbcn @ic fld^ ?* 
3^ bcpnbc mt^ fc^r wo^t, i^ banic* 

3^ncn, 
25tc flc^t« c8 mit'35rcr Ocfunb^cit? 
@c^r gut ; f gicmli(3^ ; ni^t f e^r gut, 
@ic febcu tt>o^l au«,® 
2Bic gc^t e« 3^rcr grau ©ema^Iin? 
@eit^ cintgcn 2:agctt ift ftc ni^t re^t 

tt>oW, 
3)a8 t(>ut mir* fc^r tcib, 
aBa«fc^rti^r? 
@ic l?at fi(3^* par! erfaltct, 
3(^ ^cffc, bag flc balb wicbcr ^ergc* 

Pcttt fcin wirb,' 
3^ baufc 3^nen rc^t fc^r, 
SSic bcflnbct p<it 3l)re grau abutter? 
SGSic 9ett)8^nlt(3^ ; flc mug*® immcr ba« 

3immer pten, 
S8 (or man") flirigclt, Ito^)ft, 
®e^c unb fic^, t»er c8 ifl, 
Oeffnen @tc btc ZMv, 
©utcn SWorgcn, $err, grau, grSulcin 

©ranfen^^off, 
l^ommen* 8ic ^crcin (tretcn @ie nS^cr), 
©itte, nc^men @ic $Iat5, 
©e^cn @ic fu^* Qcfattigfl auf ba8 

@o^)^a, 
@lc laffen fl^ fdten fc^cn," 
3^ bin (ange ijcrrcift Qttot\m, 



Good morning, Mr. N. ! 

I wish you a good morning, day, 

evening, a good night. 
How do you do? 
I am very well, I thank you. 

How is your health? 

Very well ; pretty well ; not very welL 

You are looking well. 

How is your wife? 

For some days she has not been very 

well. 
I am very sorry to hear that. 
What is the matter with her? 
She has taken a heavy cold. 
I hope that she will soon recover. 

I thank you very much. 

How is your mother? 

As usual ; she is still confined to he%: 

room. 
Somebody is ringing, knocking. 
Go and see who it is. 
Open the door. 
Good morning, Mr., Mrs., Mi«i 

Blankenhoff. 
Come in. 
Take a seat. 
Please take a seat on the sofa. 

You are quite a stranger. 

I have been away a long time. 



» Lesson XL, §107. 


*L. 5108. 


^L. IX., 5 82. 


10 L. XXXI. 


»L.XVI.,553. 


»L. IX., 582, 3, 2. 


8 L. XXXIV. 


n5112,e. 


•L.XXIL, 888,8. 


•n44.& 


•L.XIL 


"L. XXIX. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



176 



CONVERSATIONS. 



3<^ Wn ficflern ^ier gctoefcn," urn 3^* 
ncn cincn ^t\u(if a^juflattcn,* or 
(urn tncinc 3luftt>artung ju madden), 

3a, c«t^utmir Icib, bag td^ cbcn auS* 
gcgangcn toot,' 

aRittag f^fcn? 
S^ ban!c3^ncn ^^crgfi^, 
@« ijl mir* ^fcutc urnnSgU^, 

^ommcn @ic balb wtcbcr, 
^bieu I Seben @te too^I 1 
^ommen @ie g(ii(flt^ naUf ^aufe/ 
auf SSiebcrfc^cn I 



I was here yesterday to call npon 
you. 

Yes, I am sorry that I had just gone 

oat. 
Can yon not stay and dine with us 

to-day? 
I thank you very much. 
It is impossible for me to do so to-day. 
My aunt from Breslan is visiting us 

now. 
Come again soon. 
Good-by! {May you live weUl 
May you get home safely, 
Aurevoir!) 



2. At Breakfast in a Hotel. 

(S3eim ^rit^flucf in etnem ©afl^of.) 



Outcn 2JJorgcn, $crr ^aiijlcr I 
©aben @tc f*on gcfriUfPcft?^ 
^o6) ni^t ;• i6f iemmt, um mit 3^ncn 

au fril^fHlcf en, 
^abcn @ic gut gcj^Iafen? 
@anj gut, i^ ban! c, 
2)cr SttUntx tommt glcid^, 
(gr ^oft mir cine JCaff c «aff/e, 

aSotten@ic^affee,2:^ obcrC^ocorabe, 
S3ittc, bringcn @ic tnir ^affce, 
SOSaS wilnf ^en @ic ne6) l« 
SBringcn @ic mir jtt>ci tocidf^^^ gcfo^te 

@ier unb ein StcdH^dottUttt, 
XBic fd^mcdt 3^ncn bcr «affce? 
(gr" iji bortrcffUd^, 
^ettncr, brtngm Bit mir cincn (Sicr* 

ttt^cn, 
^er ift bic 2Wird(| (bcr 3u(f cr, bic ©cm* 

mcl, bcr 3tt)icbad, ba« aOScigbrob, 

bic Sutter unb bcr ^afe), 
SBilnf ^cn @ic no^ ettoas ? [taff ce, 
©ringcn @ic mir nod^ cine Xa\\e* 



Good morning, Mr. Kranzlerl 

Have you had breakfiast? 

Not yet; I am coming to break&st 

with you. 
Did you sleep well last night ? 
Very well, I thank you. 
The waiter will come soon. 
He has gone to bring me a cup of 

coffee. 
Do you wish coffee, tea, or chocolate. 
Bring me some coffee, if you please. 
What do you wish besides? 
You may bringmetwo soft-boiled eggs 

and a veal cutlet. 
How do you find the coffee? 
It is excellent. 
Waiter, bring me an omelet. 

Here is the milk, sugar, rolls, biscuit/ 
wheat bread, butter, and cheese. 

Do you wish any thing else ? 
Bring me another cup of coffee. 



»L.nL, 5187. 

M160.8. 

»L.VL,Bi,/tenu 



♦L.XXXI. 
•L.IX.,1. 
«L.IX.,4,4. 



' 5 16T, 2, iJem. 8. 
• 8194, 2, iSem. 
^$196,4. 



10 5 184,1. 
nL.Vm.,S. 
"580, L 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



177 



3. Dinn^. 

(!Da« SWittagcffeti.) 



©ic toerben* ^offcntli^ mit un8 gu 

aRittag ^cifcn? 
Urn tt)ic toicl U^r frcifcn @ic? 
3n etner Hetnen ^Kxlbcn ©tunbc, 
2)a« aWittagcff m ijl fcrttg, 
2)er Xx\^ ijl gcbetft, 
3)a8 Sffcn ijl aufgctwgcn, 
@c^cn tt)ir in' ben @^cifc*<SaaI, 
ee^n <Sie ft^ defsaigjl ba^in, 
3jl 3^ncn' ^a8 9lci«|tt^^c gcfSttifl, 

ober iie^en @ie i)^ubelju)>f>e t>or? 

(gin toeidg 9lttbct}m>)>c, tocnn i^ Mttcn 

barf/ 
2)arf i^^ 3^ncn cin ^tilcf > on bicfcm 

3linbflcif^ onMctcn? 
34 fiird^te, bag t» d^nen ni(!^t gar 

gcttug ijl, 
36f mag* e9 ni^t gu jlart geto^t, 
©ringcn @ic wir cin SWcffcr, bo« gut 

Wneibet, 
(3itb* bem i^erm etUHid 8rob, 
SBc^fcTe bic Setter, 
Stinrat^ h\^ in ^(i^t, bu ^jl ^ance 

(mf ba9 ^tj^ti^df^ d^^f[^#' 
Cringe mir eine @ert)iette, 
S3a9 fiir (Semilfe ijl 3^nen gef^ig? 
©efe^Ien @ie ^artoffrtn ((grbfcn, «o^ 

nen, Stoiekfe, ^Wlben, «o^r, ^Jettig, 

ej>tnat)? 
2)arf idt^ urn ben @enf (^feffer, SWeer* 

rettig, (gffig, ba« @alj, Oel) bitten? 

8ie ^oktt no^ feinen gif^ gelojlet, 
©0^ aie^en ©iei^er," 2ad^« ober $ec^t ? 

Ke^men" @ie ettooS 9le^Braten(^am* 
melfleif^," @4^in!en, ^alb«bratcn, 
9ltnberbraten, 9leb^fl]^ner«^jlete, 
^fl^ner*¥ajlete)? 



Will yon not staj and dine with us? 

At what hour do you dine? 

In a little less tluni half an hour. 

Dinner is ready. 

The table is set. 

The dumer is on the table. 

We will go into the dining-room. 

Take a seat there if you please. 

Will you take some rice soup, or 

would you prefer some yermicelU 

soup? 
A little vermicelli soup, if you pleaseu 

May I offer you a piece of this roast 

heef? 
I fear that it is not done enough to 

suit you. 
I do not like it overdone. 
Bring me a knife that will cut 

Give (Mr. N.) some hread. 

Change the plates. 

Take care ; yon have spilt some gravy 
on the table-cloth. 

Bring me a napkin. [you ? 

What kind of vegetables shall I give 

Shall I give you some potatoes (peas, 
beans, onions, turnips, beets, rad- 
ishes, spinage)? 

I would thank you for the mustard 
(pepper, horseradish, vin^;ar, salt, 
oU). 

Ton have not tried any fish yet 

Which do you prefer, some salmon 
or some trout? 

Will you have some venison (mutton, 
ham, roast veal, roast beef, par- 
tridge pie, chicken pie) ? 



»L.xn. 


* L. XXXIIL 


^5148. 


»L.VIL,«88. 


»L.xxxn. 


• 9144. 


3«M,1. 


•S146. 


•L.VI. 



»o L. XXXIV. 
»> LL 
"L.XXXVL 



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178 



CONVERSATIONS. 



2>arf i^ 3^nen tttoai 9tei9«$ubbtn9 

((5^artottc*9euffe,^d^)tmMctm? 

SBottcn @te btcfc Slc^jfel (©intcn) 

53tttc, bcbicncn @ic p^, 
SSottcn @ic no^ ettoas ©rob? 
3(i^ banic/ 



M«y I offer you some rice pudding, 

Charlotte russe, cake ? 
Will you try some of these apples, 

pears? 
Help yourself, if you please. 
Will you take some more bread ? 
No, I thank you. 



4. In a Confectionery Shop. 

(3tt dner itonbitorcii.) 
Sfi^«iP3^Jiengcffitti8,n!citie$crrcn?* What win you have, gentlemen? 



^aUa ©icfrifdt^c (gtbBeercn? 

3a, fie flnb ^eute SKorgen crfl Q^fiUdt 

toorbcn,* 
©ritigcn @ie vm9 brci ^ortionen' (gtb* 

Utvttt mit ©a^ne unb brci ^ortio* 
: run ®t\toxtu», 

^eUner, bringen (Bit un9 onflatt brei 
'^ ^orttDncn Oefroriic^, cin Ocfromcs, 

cin ®la«*2imottabc unb tine 2:offc* 

SttUnttf ^bcn @te bcutfti^ Scttungen ? 

3a, tt>ir ^abcit bic 9^attonaI*3citunfl, 
bie l^nmf(!^ 3^^i^d ^^^ ^^ ^ugd*« 
burger ^llgemeine ^dtxaiQ, 

^aben @ie bic Oiltc, mcin $crr, mir 
bte» 3"^tt0 3" ^t^^» na^cm @ic 
pc gclcfeu ^abcn (werbcn), 



Have you fresh strawberries? 

Yes, they were only picked this morn- 
ing. 

Bring us strawberries and cream for 
three, and ice-cream for three. 

Waiter, instead of three dishes of ice- 
cream, bring us one ice-cream, one 
glass of lemonade, and x>ne cup of 
tea. 

Waiter, have you any German papers ? 

Yes, we have the National Zeitung, 
the Cologne Gazette, and the All- 
gemeine Zeitung of Augsbmg. 

Please be so kind, sir, as to give me 
the paper, when yon have finished 
reading it. 



5. The 

(Der (S 
ilennctt @ie un8* cinen gutcn ©afl^of 

tnaQ3icneuH)fe^lcn? 
2)a« w^otd gum ©^toarjcn ?lblcr« 

unb bcr „33airifd(^ $of" finb bcibe 

fe^r gut unb m6)i fcftr t^cucr, 
©ic finb nur filnf' SDWnutcn born' 

S3a^n^of, 
2)ie „@olbcnc Sxom'* ijl cttca*" tt>etter 

cntfcmt, 
SBicbicI toflct c^ tSgli^ in bcr Ootbc* 

nen^ouc? 



Hotel. 

(afl^of.) 

Can you recommend to us a good ho- 
tel in Vienna ? 

Hie hotel of the Black Eagle ajid 
the Bairischer Hof are both very 
good, and are not very dear. 

They are only five minutes from the 
ndlroad station. 

The Golden Crown is somewhat far- 
ther ofL 

How niucli does it cost a day in the 
Golden Crown ? 



iL.XLVn.,1. 



«L.XLVm^5161. »L.I3f.ilj3,582,8. 
♦ L. XVL, ^ J, 58Bw • L. IX., 1, 2, Rem, 



'L.XVIL 

8 9112,8, item. 9* 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



179 



nngefabr bret X^altt, 

aSa« fiir* 3immcr tt)ilnf(3^m @ic ? 

2Bir n)flnf(^^cn cincn ^aal mii gtoci 
anflogenben ©d^Iafjimmcm unb 
jtDei 8^tafeimmcr oi^nc' @aal, 

SBir ifahtn yt^t nur gtt)ci @Slc f rci, jc* 
bcnmit jwei ^abinctten, 

eincr ijl cine unb bcr anbcrc* ijl jtoci 

2:rcj)^)cn ^o(^, 
«ettncr, bringcn <Sic unferc Slcd^nung, 
$icr tfl flc :* 



About three dollars. 

What kind of rooms do you wish ? 

We wish a parlor with two bedrooms 

opening into it, and two. bedrooms 

withoat any parlor. 
We have now unoccupied only two 

parlors, each with two small sleep- 
. ing-rooms. 
In which story? 
One is in the second, the other is m 

the third story. 
Waiter, bring our account 
Here it is : 



^c6)nunQ filr ©crrn (grlanger. 



Thlr. Gr. 



BwciStJnmerncbll^abtnettcn, AZa^t 8 — 

grfl^pdt fflr 5 ^crfoncn „ „ 7 20 

Table d*h6te filr 5 ^foncrt.. 3 „ 22 15 

3lbcnbcffcn filr 5 ^crfoncn 4 „ 6 — 

8i^t« „ „ , 8 10 

^ebicnnng » u 4 — 

@qui|)agc (9 ©tunbcn, 1 S^^ater pro <Stunbc) 9 — 

gtafcr (t>om ©a^n^ unb na^ bem 53a^nH) 3 — 



5otd jur wOolbenctt ^onc", 
SB ten, ben 14. @e))temBer 1869. 



Summa Thb*. 63 15 

©eja^tung bonlenb emjj^gen. ^^^ 
?J. @(^^nciber. 



6. The Railroad. 

(!Die ©fctti&a^n.) 
^aben @ie etnen (gifenba^nfa^r^)Ian ?* Have you a railroad time-table ? 



S'icin^aber ^ier ijl ^enbf^ett'8 fours* 

bu(3^, tt)orau8 @ic* 2lttc« crfc^eit 

t($nnen, 
ffiiffcn^ ^ie, um Wtc biet U^r ber crflc 

3n0 abge^t? 
2)er trfle 3«9 fl^^* um \icXb fieben 

be6 aWorgenS,® 
2)er nSci^fle Sug ifl ein ®(i(^ncttjug, 
©tetgcn tt>tr ein, 
(g« ifl feine 3eit ju tcrfiercn, 



No, but here is Hendschell s Bailroad 

Guide, which tells all about the 

trains. 
Do you know at what hour the first 

train leaves? 
The first train leaves at half past six. 

in the morning. 
The next train is an express train. 
Let us get into the carriage. 
There is no time to lose. 






» 5112,1. 
♦KVII.,8. 



»L. XXXVI. 

•510T,itom.B. 



•KXXVII, 

•$81,9,4. 



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189 



CONVERSATIONS. 



^itx fuib n)tr fd^cn can ©o^nl^fe, 
^olen <B\t tie ^xM9, id^ toerbe fiir 

t»a« ®c^fi(f forgcn, 
S3ad tofiet eiti billet \>t>n mm na(^ 

Crflc* maffc. . ♦ Xf}lx, 10 ;o @gr. 

SWCitC Piaffe* . . ,r 7 25 „ 
2)rittc maffc. . • „ 5 20 „ 
Saffcn n)ir gcfci^wtnb unfcrc Coffer 

m\6fxdhtn, 
^ier fmb bic @c^)fidtf(^nc, 
e« Wtrb* jum jtocitm SWal fleWutct, 
Mc«cingcfHcgcn?' 
2)icier SBaggon ^at fflnf Cou^)^, 
3n bicfcm (5ou^^ toirb' ni^t gcraiici^t, 
(S« tt)irb» jur ai^fa^rt gc^pffcn 1 
SBtr fo^rcn* fe^r f^nett, 

Urn tDie loiet U^r ^^t man on, inn' in 

WPdtcn? 
^cr tft bie gril^flildflation, 
2Sie range ^filtbcrSng? 
3tt)angtg SWinutcn ; bcnn totr wartcn 

tier auf cinen 3ug toon ber 3*^fl* 

baf;n, 
3^ ^Src bic Solomotitoc ^)feifen,« 
3)ie ?oIomotitoc flc^t attf cincr aSci^K, 
e« fmb fed^ ©elcife, 
SDie @(i^iencn finb mit ©tal^I bctegt, 
©c^ort btefc eifenba^n bem @taate? 
^m, fie ge^iJrt ciner SC!tien*®efett=* 

Waft, 
$crr Sraun tfl SltttonSr' biefer @cs 

ftttfd^aft, 



Here we are at the station. 

Get the tickets, I will look out fox 
the baggage. 

What is the price of a ticket from 
Vienna to Prague? 

First Class. . . . Thk. 10 lOSgr. 

Second Class. ..." 7 25 " 

Third Class. ..." 5 20 " 

Let us huny and get our trunks reg- 
istered. 

Here are tickets for your baggage. . 

The second bell is ringing. 

All aboard! 

This car has five conp^. 

This is not a smoking coup^. 

There is the whistle for starting I 

We are going very fest. 

We have already gone twelve (En- 
glish) miles. 

At what hour do we stop for break- 
fast? 

Here we stop for breakfast. 

How long does the train stop ? 

Twenty minutes ; for we wait here 
for a train on the branch road. 

[coming. 

I hear the whistle of the train that is 

The locomotive is standing on a side 

There are six tracks. [track. 

The rails are covered with steel. 

Does this railroad belong to the state ? 

No, it belongs to a stock company. 

Mr. Brown is a shareholder in this 
company. 



7. The Steamer. 

(5Da« Dam^ffd^iff.) 
SBann gc^t baS 3)am^ff^iff toon 9^ctt>* When does the steamer leave New 

?)orf na^ ©ambnrg ab ?'' York for Hamburg ? 

3cben ©onnabenb nm 12 U^r ge^t cin A steamer leaves every Saturday at 

S)ant^ff^tff ab,® noon. 



1L.XXIIL 
»L.XLVIII. 



♦L.XXVIIL 



»L.XXIX. 
•L.XXIX. 



^565,3 

eL. XXXIV. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



181 



SSic langc baucrt bie UcBcrfa^irt ? 
3n bcr Slcgcl fcd^je^n Xagc, 
2)ie ^rcifc finb : 

pr bic crjlc ^ajfltc. . . S^Ir. 150 

gilr bic atocttc ^ajilte* • ^^Ir. 90 

StDxf^cnbcdt 2:^Ir. 40 

2Bie btel ®cj)a(f !ann man fret tnit* 

ne^mcn?* 
S)rciSoffcr, 

2)ic S3cI8fligung tfl inbcgriffcn,* 
^abtn @ic i)iclc= ^affagicrc? 
(gin 2:tcil bcr gra^t ijl no^ ni^t 

flctabcn, 
SSann fasten @ical)? 
3RitbcrnS(^^flcn»gIut^, 
Urn toic toici U^r tritt bie gfut^ tin?' 
$Uiit 2:agc«anBru^. 
S)ic(gbbciflflarf, 
SBir fasten f^nett, 
SBir tocrbcn* ni^t fo f^nctt fasten, 

tocnn tt>ir auf ^o^cr @cc pnb, 
S)a8 SWccr ijl fc^r ru^ig, 
3)a« aWecr ijl pnnif^, 
©c^cn tt)ir auf ba« 85crbedt, 
3^ tt>crbc bic <Scctran!^cit befommen, 

tocnn i^ l&ngct* in bcr ^ajiltc bicibe, 
SSa8 mtci^ bctrifft, x6) bin nic fccfranf , 
@ic flnb fc^r gtMi^, 
Sic ^abcn @ic bic S'la^t jugcbrad(^t? 
@^tcd^t gcnug, 
2)ic SWafdnnc ^at mi^ gar m6}i f^ta* 

fen (affcn,* 
2Bic tide ^notcn fegctn toir in cincr 

©tnnbc? 
gragcn n>ir ben SWann am 9lubcr, 
^an barf ^ mit i^m ni^t \pxt6ftn, 
36) gloube bic ^flc gu fc^en, 
8ic ^aben 9tc(^t, 
(g« fmb bic @cittt>*3nfc(n, 
SBir njcrben IJcntc ?lbcnb« ben 2tn6)U 

t^urm toon ?anb0enb fc^cn, 
TtoxQttt 3lbenb lommcn Wir in @out^* 

om^ton an, 



How long does the passage last? 

Usually sixteen days. 

The prices are : 

In the first cabin . . . . Thhr. 150 
In the second cabin . . Thlr. -90 
For deck-passage. . . . Thlr. 40 

How much baggage can one take free 
of charge ? 

Three trunks. 

You do not pay extra for your meals. 

Have you many passengers ? 

The freight is not yet all on board. 

When do you start ? 

At the next high tide. 

At what time is high tide ? 

At daybreak. 

The tide is going out very strong. 

We are going veiy fast. 

We will not go so fast when we are 

on the open ocean. 
The oceau is veiy quiet. 
The ocean is stormy. 
Let us go upon deck. 
I shall be seasick if I stay any longer 

in the cabin. 
As for me, I am never seasick. 
You are very fortunate. 
How did you pass the night ? 
Badly enough. 
I could not sleep at all on account of 

the engine. 
How many knots do we make an 

hour? 
Let us ask the man at the helm. 
It is not permitted to speak with him. 
I think I see the coast. 
You are right. 
It is the Scilly Islands. 
We shall see Land's End light-house 

this eirening. 
To-morrow evening we fehall arrive at 

Sonthampton. 



»L.xxr 

»ni«,4. 



5 592. 

♦ L.vn. 



6 §81. 

•Pagel«a 



'Lxxxra. 

8L.VII 



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182 



CONVERSATIONS. 



8. The Custom-house. 

(Da« SoUamt) 
©al&en <Ste et»a«^ @teuer^Jflt^tigc«?» Have you any thing that is liable to 

duty? 
3^ totxht We ^ffcr aufma^cn, I will open the trunks. 

%6f, bttte, tocrfen ^ie mir ntd(^t 3lttc«' Pray, do not turn every thing upside 

unttx manitx, down. 

2)tcfc SBH^er fUlb gons ncu,* ntd(^t These books are new, are they not? 

3^ i)aU fit fflr mctncn @o^n fictauft, I bought them for my son. 

2)a8 ijl ctnerlci/ ba8 (^cfctj ifl be* That makes no difference ; the law is 

fHmmt, expUcit. 

2)tefcn 2;aBat tt)erbe i(3(f in ©cf^fag I shall have to seize (attach) this to^ 

ne^mcn mllffen, bacco. 

S3itte, 3^re «paff c, ntctnc ^erren, Your passports, if you please, gentle- 
men. 



§ier ftnb (gm^angSf^ctne bafilr,^ 
2)cr ^oliaeibiener tt)irb ftc 3^neii haU 
big^ na(i^ 3^rem ©aji^of bringen, 



Here are receipts for them. 
The policeman will deliver them to 
you very soon at your hoteL 



9. The Post-office. 

(!Dft« 3)oflamt.) 



3fl baS ^oflamt twett bon ^ier ? 

(58 ijl ganj in bcr« Mf)t, 

@inb S3riefc fflr mt^ angcf ommen ? 

® te ijl 3f)x tocrt^er Sfiome ?» 

3^ cmarte*'' ctnigc ©ricfe" poste 

restante,* 
3^ tt)ftnf4« «mgc S3ricfmar!en, 
aSann gc^t bte $ojl nad(^ SSreSlau ab? 

2)er 33ricf ifl no^ ntd^t gcpcgclt, 
aSoiflbcr ©tcgellacf? 
$icr ifl ba8 ^etfd^aft, 
3^ ^abe bie Slbrcffc gef^rieben/* 
S)cr SBrief ntug fronftrt tocrben, 
2)ie $ofl ifl angctommen, abcr bte 
S3riefe finb nod^ nt(3^t bert^eilt, 



Is the Post-office far from here ? 

It is right near by. 

Have any letters come for me ? 

What name, if you please. 

I am expecting some letters "poste 

restante." 
I wish some postage-stamps. 
When does the mail leave for Bres- 

lau? 
The letter is not sealed yet. 
Where is the sealing-wax? 
Here is the seaL 
I have addressed the letter. 
The letter must be prepaid. 
The mail has arrived, but the letters 

are not yet distributed. 



* Letters addressed ^^ poste restante" are to remain in the post-office till 
called for. 



1 5 112, Refnu 1. 
9 § 89, Bern, 10. 
s f HI. 



*L.XVIIL,1. 
ft Lit, not true? 
• fi 108, 8. 



7 5 188, 10, item. 1. 10 5166,8. 
eL.X.,1. "574»8,4. 

» i 49, 8. " L. XX. 



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CONVERSATIONS- 



183 



10. At a 

(Set eiticm 
SSo^nt ^icr $crr iRcumann, feer SBan* 

qutcr? 
@tc »crbcn t^n tm» C[omi|Jtotr pnben, 
2)arf id(^ fragen, mit twcm" \^ bic (5^rc 

SWcttt ^cant tp ©UbcBranbt, 

3^ Bin* avL9 SStcn, 

3^ ^abe cincn em^fc^lungsbrief an 

@tc i[>on ^crrn* ^anjlcr, 
3^ freuc mt(3^ fc^r, 3^rc SBcfarmtf^aft 

gu ma(]ffen, 
©err ^anjlcr ^t nttr cincn SSc^fcI 

auf 3^r $an8 gcgcbcn.« - 
2)cr 2Sc(3^fcI ifl ga^ISar na^ @t^t,' 
3d(^ tocrbc t^n 3^ncn f of ort in SSanf* 

notcn an«3a^flcn, ttjcnn c« 3^ncn* 

rc(^ ifl, 
^5nntcn @ic ntir cincn S^^cil baijon' 

in @oIb gcBcn ? 
©ic t5nntcn ba8 SCgio bi«!ontircn, 

S)a« tfl aiir cincrlci,^® 
3fl ba8 3nbojfcmcnt barauf ? 
3a, cr ifl auf mcinc Orbrc inboffirt, 
©(3^5n, ^icr fmb jtt)ct Sanfnotcn, jcbc** 
ijon filnf^unbcrt^" 2;^alcrn, :|)rcu6i* 
fd^c« (Sonrant, cine ijon taufenb/* 
cin^unbert" gricbnc^8b*or, unb bcr 
8lefl in ©irbcr ;nnb ^u^fer, 



Banker's. 

Sanquier.) 

Does Mr. Neumann, the banker, re- 
side here ? [room. 

You will find him in the counting- 
May I ask with whom I have the hon- 
or to speak ? 

My name is Hildebrandt. 

I am from Vienna. 

I have a letter of introduction to you 
from Mr. Kranzler. 

I am very glad to make your ac- 
quaintance. 

Mr. Kranzler gave me a letter of credit 
on your house. 

The bill is payable at sight. 

I will pay it to you immediately in 
paper money, if you desire it 

Could you give me a part of it in 
gold? 

You could discount the premium (on 
the gold). 

It is all the same to me. 

Is it indorsed ? 

Yes, it is indorsed to my order. 

Very well ; here are two bank-notes, 
each of five hundred Prussian tha- 
lers, one of a thousand, a hundred 
Friedrichs d*ors, and the odd mon- 
ey in silver and copper. 



11. In a Bookstore. 

On einer S3u($Hnblung.) 



^Bcn ©ic ein SScrjeitJ^nig bon 3^rcn 

«fl(^fcrn? 
©icr ifi cins, toti6)t» crfl toor cinigen 

Xagcn crf^iencn ijl, 
@ie tocrbcn barin ntcinc S5crfag«»crfc 

nnb cine 31u8tt)a^I in* nnb an«ISn* 

bifd^cr SBerlc pnbcn, 



Have you a catalogue of your books ? 

Here is one that was published only 
a few days ago. 

You will find in it the books I pub- 
lish, and a selection of German and 
foreign books. 



>L.XL,4. 


♦ 5 187. 


7 §66, 2. 


10 5 108, 8. 


a 5118,1. 


»5T«,i&»n.l. 


8 510T. 


"5 111. 


»U86. 


•L.XXV.,2. 


9 5 188, 10, Rem, 1. 


"5 99. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



184 



CONYEBSATIONSi 



ffioHeR ©ic inir Qcfattt^ bie ncucjlen 
bcutf(^fcn SBcrfc gcigcn ? 

©icr ijl 3Koinmfcn'« SiSmifd^ ®c«» 
fc^i^tc, bic jtDcttc* Sluftagc bcr 
^nflgefd?t(i^tc' toon @(i^naafc, bic 
Icfetc au«Qa]bc» bcr @(^|iEcr'f^m* 
Ocbt^tc, 

<>abcn@ic fcinc ^^Uofo^W^cn SBBcrfc? 

@tc pc^cn am Cnbc bc« Catalogs,* 

3^ ifobt ^icr auf bicfcm Xif ^c ctnigc 
fc^r fcftcnc ^Hd^tx au8 jtocitcr 
$anb (or Qt^xaudfit S3il4^t), 

SBa«Ioflctbicfc«S3u^? 

S)a« ifl fc^t t^cucr, 

S)ic Stufiagc ifl Idngfl bcrgnftcn, 

$aBcn ^ic ctn ^nttquar«^ircm:|)Iar 
bc« ©rimm'f^^n* SBfirtcrbuc^c^ ?» 

iRcin, abet i^ f^aU @anbcr'8 bcutf^ce 
2B5rterbud^, 2uca«'* bcutW*cngft* 
fd^« unb eng(iW*bcutfd(^c8 SBdrtcr* 
bud^ in toicr SSdnbcn, 8vo, unb 3Ro* 
gin'8 bcutWsfransi5fif^« SBCrtcr* 
bu^, aud^ in bier 53Snbcn,« 

$abcn @ic cine eifcnba^n*=iartc bon 
(Suro|>a? 

©ier ift ^bf^n*« (£our8*Su^.; c« 
cnt^&It cine S^eifefarte bon (&uxo}pa, 
unb Sf^otigcn flber^ atte ©ifenba^n* 
unb 2)am^ff(i^iff«'2inicn, 

$abcn @ic 9ecifc^anbbil(3^er ? 

SBir ^abcn S3abclcr'« p^rcr burd^ 
2)eutf(!^(anb, granfrei^, Staticn unb 
Cnglanb ; fic finb too^I bic bcficn,' 



Will yon please show me the latest 

German books ? 
Here is Mommsen's Roman History, 

the second edition of Schnaase's 

Histoiy of Art, the last edition of 

Schiller's poems. 

Hare yon no philosophical works? 
They are at the end of the catalogue. 
I hIiYe here on this tahle some reiy 
rare second-hand books. 

What is the price of this book ? 

That is very dear. 

It has been out of print a long time. 

Have yon a second-hand copy of 
Grimm's Dictionary ? 

Ko, but I have Sanders's German Dic- 
tionary, Lucas's German -English 
and English -German Dictionary, 
in four volumes 8vo, and Mozin's 
German-French Dictionary, also ia 
four volumes. 

Have you a railroad map of Europe ? 

Here is Hendschell's Eailroad Guide $ 
it contains a traveling Map of Eu- 
rope, and information about all the 
lines of railroads and steam-boats. 

Have you guide-books ? 

We have Badeker's Guide for Ger- 
many, France, Italy, and England ; 
they are the best. 



12. At a Tailor's. 

(8ci dncm ©t^ncibcr.) 
gSBaS* ijl 3^ncn gef Sttig, mcin ^rr ? What can I serve you with, sir ? 
3^ tt)llnf(J^c eincn" 9locf, ctncn gracf , I wish a coat, a dress-coat, one silk 
*•-*" fcibcnc SGBcfle, gtt)ci" ^oar vest, two pair of pantaloons, and a 



cmc^' 



33ctnlleibcr, unb cincn ©ornmcr* 
Ueberrod, 



summer overcoat. 



>L.xvni. 

« L. XXXVI. 
» L. XXXVI. 



*L.XXXVIL,& 

•574,8,8. 

ef69,fi80,8. 



7 § 88, 1. 
8S98. 



10 5 54. 
»»5 98. 
" f 101. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONVERSATIONS. 



185 



toon" bicfcm 3^"9*? 
2)icfc« |d(^tt)aTjc Xu6) \6)mt lurj ge* 

f^orcn unb fern ju fcin, 
eg ijl aadf fc^t baucr^ft,^ 
S^icbmen @tc mtr ba« 3Ka6 gu 'Siod, 

^ofc, SScflc tt«b Ucbcrrocf, 
2Biinf(i^n ®ie^ fie na(^ ber neuefien 

aWobc? 
aKon* ma^t btc 2:aittc jtcmri(Jf^ lang, 

bie ^(i^Sge reid^en fafi bt9 on bie 

^niec, bie Slcrmcl fiitb jtcmft(3^ tocit, 
©ammct*^agen fuib jc^t ganj au«* 

bcr aWobc, 
^robiren @ic ben 9Jo(f an, 
(gr ijl ju cng unter' ben %xmta, 
2)a0 afif fl^ tei(3^t Snbem, 
3(]^ tt>erbe ben UcBetrod au(^ onjic^cn, 
^ann er jugefnS^ft tocrben? 
gic^cn @ic fa9onirtc ober glotte 3Rufler 

filr bie SBefle toot? 
2)ie fcibene SEBe^e fott fa9onirt, bie 

©ammct^SSefle fott* einfac^ fein, 
©ertlrid^ btef e gaxbe rniJ^t fe^t f ^ne« ? 
3(i} tann jie al« 1x6)1 garantircn, 
SGSann toUnf^ @tc bie ^leibcr? 
aOWtttood^^'* aWorgen urn ge^n U^r, benn 

i6f reife urn gtoiJIf U^r" nadji SBten 

ah, 
@ie fiJnnen jt(i^ baranf toeriaffen, bag 

Wit^ fertig fein" torch, 



Do you wish a complete suit from tbis 
piece of cloth? 

This black cloth seems to be fine and 
of a short nap. 

It is very durable also. . 

Take my measure for a coat, panta- 
loons, vest, and overcoat. 

Do you wish them in the latest fash- 
ion? 

The waist is made rather long, the 
skirts reach almost to the knees, 
the sleeves are made rather wide. 

Velvet collars are now all out of 
fashion. 

Try the coat on. 

It is too tight under the arms. 

That can be easily changed. 

I will try on the overcoat also. 

Can it be buttoned? 

Do you prefer figured or plain pat- 
terns for the vest? 

The silk vest may be figured, the 
velvet vest may be plain. 

Does not this color &de very easily? 

I can warrant it not to fade. 

When do you wish the clothes? 

Wednesday forenoon at ten o'clock, 
for I leave for Vienna at noon. 

You may rely upon their all being 
ready. 



13. In a Dry Goods Store. 

(3n einem 2:u($laben.) 



SBaS filr ©cibengcngc f^abta @ie? 
^\x ffahta <Betbe in alien <S(^atttrun« 

©rand^en @tc @etbe ju einem ^etbe 

ober gu einem SWantel ? 
2)tefc garbcn flnb je^t 9Kobe, 
2)a« aRujlet gefattt mir nic^t, e8 tfl gu 

bunt, 



What kind of silks have you ? 
We have silks of all colors. 

Do you wish silk for a dress or fo' a 

cloak? 
These colors are now in fashion. 
I do not like that pattern ; it is ttK> 

gaudy. 



»L.xxxn. 

«L.IX.,1. 



« i 107, Bern, 6. 
6«112,«, 
•8 82,2. 



7 5 82, 1. 

8 14 4,4. 

>L.xxxni. 



»• L. xxra., 8. 

1 1 Twelve o*clocfc 
WL. XXVIII. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



186 



CONVERSATIONS. 



©ic pnbcn» ©tc btefc i)unfttrte ©cibe? 

3(^ jie^c" biefc gcflrciftc bor, 

SStcbrcUtjlbicfcratIa«? 

er ijl cine (gttc breit, 

®te n>erben mit aii^l^^n (Sllen au9« 

$abcn @tc au(^f guttcrfeibc? 

SBottcn @ie ctncn fcibcnen^^ut obcr 
cinenStro^^ut? 

S)icfc8 tfl bie ncucflc 3Kobc, 

2^cr SSobcn biefc« ©utce tfl ju flcin, 

S)ic Oamirung gcfdttt mtr nic^t, 

€ott i(J^ totctte^t anbcrc^ S3anb 
baraut* fcfeen ?* 

©al&en @ic ©^itjcnWeicr? 

3d(> ^abe »cl(^ bon SBrfifJcIcr ©^ifecn, 
btc ausgcgctd^nct fmb, 

^ier ftub au^ <Sd^leier bon gefH(item 
OKuffcItn, 

3(^ tt>ilnf(^ ciii ^aar ©(ac^onb* 
fd^u^c toon bcr bcften OuoIMt, etn 
S3rtcf« 9f^a^nab€ln, etn ©rief @tc(f* 
nabein, cin 2)ufecnb» 2:af^entil(i(^r, 
cincShratootte, fc^8 ^aar« ®tninii)fc, 
@eife, etncSa^nMrfle, ctncn 9{cgen* 
fd^irm, geug gu S3ctttil(3(^crn, ^at* 
tun, cincn @^an?I, 



How do yon like this spotted silk ? 

I prefer this striped piece. 

How wide is this satin ? 

It is an ell wide. 

Eighteen ells will be all you will need. 

Have you also silk for lining? 

Do you wish a silk hat, or a straw 
hat? 

This is the latest fashion. 

The crown of this bonnet is too small 

I do not like this trimming. 

Shall I put another kind of ribbon on 
it? 

Have you lace veils ? 

I have some of Brussels Lace that are 
extremely fine. 

Here are also veils of embroidered 
muslin. 

I wish also a pair of kid gloves of the 
best quality, a paper of needles, 
a paper of pins, a dozen pocket- 
handkerchiefs, a cravat, six pairs 
of stockings, soap, a tooth-brush, 
an umbrella, cloth for sheets, calico, 
a shawl. 



14. At a Shoemaker's. 

(8 ft ctttcm © 4^ u|^ madder.) 



^aBcn ©ic fcrttgc ©ttcfel? 

^icr ift etn $aar ba« \35ncn tt)o^( 

^affcn xoxxh,^ 
$ter tjl ber @ticfennc(!^)t, 
S^ic^men @ie lieber fca« SWafj filr cin 

ncueS $aar, 
^ie bilrfcn nid^t gu cng fcin unb bic 

^bfa(3C nic^t gu f)0(i),^ 
SBiinfd^cn ©ic birfc @ol^Icn? 
^x, unb taS Dbcrlebcr gicntUd^ flar!, 



Have you ready-made boots ? 

Here is a pair that I think will fit 

you. 
Here is the boot-jack. 
I would rather have you take my 

measure for a new pair. 
Do not make them too tight, nor the 

heels too high. 
Do you wish the soles thick ? 
Yes, and the upper-leather rather 

heavy. 



> L. XXIV. 
8 L. XXVII. 



SS86,2,2. 

♦ filSS, 10, iJem. 1. 



6U03. 
•L.XVL,2. 



1L.XII. 
8592. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



.CONVERSATIONS. 



187 



8i«> xoann f5nnen ®te mir cin $aat 

@tc tSnncn btc @(^u^c W« 2)'2orgcn 

S)ic ©d^uftc brilcfcn mir^ bic Sc^^n^ 
SKa^cti @tc tnir cin ^aar ^antoffeln 
i[>on Saffian, 



When can you make me a pair of 
shoes? 

You can have the shoes by to-morrow 
eyening. 

These shoes pinch my toes. 

Make me also a pair of morocco slip- 
pers. 



15. With a Physician, 

(23ei einem ^rjte.) 



^aben Bit ben Slrgt nifen kffcn? 
@r tDirb foglct^ tommen, 
2Boran»Ieibctt@tc? 

2Kit ifl Qani fd^toinbltci^, 

36f fonn mx^ faum auf* ben gflficn 

^alten, 
gil^fen @te ©d^mcqen tm* 9lilcfen? 
2ajf en ©te mi(^ bic 3ungc f e^en— fic ifl 

ctwa^Mcgt, 
Saffen Sic mi^ ben $ul« fil^ten, 
(gr ifl giemli^ flart nnb gcfd^tmnb— - 

gc^t fe^r unru^ig— @ic ^abcn gic* 

bcr, 
^altcn @ie meinc ^anf^cit filr gc* 

S^icin, altt ne^men @ie fxtSf in ^6)t, 

bag fie c« ni(3^t tocrbc,* 
S^ tocrbc 3^nen ^(rjnet berf(3^rcibcn, 
©(ciben @ie ru^ig im Sett bi« id; 

t^)icbcrfomme,^ 
2Bic ^aBen @ie bic ^a6)t gufiebrad(>t? 
3^ i)(iU ct»a8 gefd^Iafcn— (i^ ^abt 

!cin Huge gefd^Ioffen),® 
^Ben ©ic einen bittcrcn ©cfd^macf im 

STOunbe? 
5^ ^Bc flet« einen bittcrcn Ocfd^madC 

im SJhtnbc^ »enn id^aufwa^e, 
S)a« gieber ^at flart na(3^gelaffcn— Bat 
• fafl anfgeBBrt, 
3^ ^e mi(^f flartcrlfittct, 



Have you sent for the doctor ? 
He ^111 come immediately. 
What is the matter with you ? 
I have a great headache. 
I am very dizzy. 
I can hardly stand np. 

Do yon feel pain in your back ? 

Let me see your tongue — it is some- 
what coated. 

Let me feel your pulse — ^it is quite 
strong and rapid — ^is very flurried 
— ^you have a fever. 

Do you consider my sickness danger- 
ous? 

No; but be very careful, lest it become 
so. 

I will write out a prescription for you. 

Keep quietly in bed till I come again. 

How have you passed the night? 

I have slept some — (I did not close my 

eyes). 
Have you a bitter taste in your mouth ? 

My mouth is always bitter when I 
wake up. 

The fever has subsided a good deal- 
has almost ceased. 

I have taken a bad cold. 



« L. XI., 4. 
«5138. 



^ L. XXXIV., 8. 
8 L. XXVI. 



»««8T. 
>fi06,l, item. 1. 



' i 188, 10, i2m.8. 
«S24d. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



188 



CONVERSATIONS. 



fd^mcrjcn— id? ^abc Slngcntciben, 
(S9 to^ire gut ein gugBob )u ne^men,* 

(gr (eibct* an 3l^ctnnati«mue— on bet 

@id?t, 
©err Sii. tfl an bet @d6i»inbfud(?t ge* 

Pot6en,»--am Zt^^pifu^ gcjlotBcn, 
$ett Wl. tjl bom @^fag Qetfl^tt »ot* 

ben, 



I haye a cold — I have a 8ore throat 
— my eyes pain me. 

It would do you good to take a foot- 
bath. 

He has the rhemnatism — the gout. 

Mr. N. died of consumption — of ty- 
phus-fever. 

Mr. M. has had a stroke of apo- 
plexy. 



16. At a Watchmaker's. 

(8ei einem Uf rma^er.) 
^et tft bed U^tma^etd Saben— ge^ Here is the watchmaker's shop— let 



tt)it ^inein,* 
36^ mB(3^tc* cine gute U^t faufen, 
SQJoiffcn <Ste cine <S:|)inbeIu^t— cine 

Slntetu^t— cine (S^tinbctu^t, mit 

com^enfittet S3ett>egunfl? 
3(^ toilnWe eine 3leJ)ctitu^t, 
^ict ifl cine an« einet bet bepen ®enf et 

gabti!en, 
(Bit ifi 5U« flein, 
entf(^ulbigen @te, e« ifl je^jt 2Jlobe, 

fe^t Keine U^ten ju ttagcn, 
S)a« ijl mit gleicitoilltig, id} toiin\6ft 

cine gtbgcte,^ 
3df toctbe biefe nel)mcn, nntet bet 

©cbingung, bag @ie filt gtoci 3a^te 

gatantitcn,® 
iWeine U^t gel^t ni(^t ti^tig— fic^t 

jcben %a^ eine ^Ibe @tnnbe J)or«— 

eine Siettcljhmbe nad^, 
3^ tDctbe nad^f cben,— e8 ijl ettt)a« gcr* 

Uodftn-~x6f glaube bie ^ctte ift jet^ 

f|>ten9t— bie gebet ifl gebto^en, 
<gie mug tej)atitt (or au«gcbejfett) 

n)etben— flcteinigt toetben, 
S3i« t»ann Wnnen @ie bie UI?t fettig 

^abcn? 
33i« motgen urn neun U^t SSotmit* 

tag«, 



usgom. 

I wish to buy a good watch. 

Do you wish a lever watch, an an« 
chor watch, a cylinder watch, with 
a c(»npensation balance? 

I wish a repeating watch. 

Here is one f^om one of the best G€^ 
neva manufactories. 

It is too smalL 

Excuse me, it is now the fiidiion to 
wear very small watches. 

I do not care for that; I wish a larger 
one. 

I will take this one under the con- 
dition that you will warrant it for 
two years. 

My watch does not go ri^t— gains 
half an hour every day — closes half 
an hour. 

I will look at it — something is broken 
— the chain is broken — the main- 
spring is broken. 

It must be repaired— be cleaned. 

When can yon have the watch 

ready? 
By nine o'clock to-morrow forenoon. 



»L.XXIV. 
• 144,5. 



8 L. XXVI. 

♦U67,l. 



ftL.XXXIL 
« Adverb. 



'892. 
•5139,8. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



11. GERMAN AND ENGLISH IDIOMS. 

Hem, For the purpose of showing the difference between the idiomatic 
stmctnre of the German and English languages more at length than was pos- 
sible in thelessons of Fart First, there are given below a few classified lists of 
such idioms as are in most common use in both langoages. 

To correctly apprehend the idiomatic spirit of a language, it is necessary, 
in the first place, to have an accurate idea of the primary and fundamental 
signification of the words of the language ; secondly, to know the modifications 
of meaning to which the words have been subjected, and the figurative signi- 
fications in which they are employed ; and, thirdly, to know how fiur expres- 
sions, phrases, and sentences (especially set phrases and proverbs) are ellip- 
tical 

1. Idioms with f^aitn and to have. 

I intend to start for Munich to-mor* 

row. 
Take care ! look out I 
That meets our approval. 
We have no objection to that, 
it admits of no delay. 
There is no haste about it. 
We like him very much. 
You may well laugh. 
I am thirsty ; I am hungry. 
Have you ennuie? 
He has no desire to do that. 
I should like to tell it to him. 
Early to bed and early to rise, makes 

a man healthy, w^ealthy, and wise. 
He is hard pushed for money. 
I will do it, although I am in no way 

obliged to. 
He derives no ad^*antage from it. 
You are right; he is wrong. 
That is of no consequence. 
He who loses may be sure of being 

laughed at in the bargain. 
Whose &ult is it that the letter was 

not sent to the post-office ? 
It is not his fault. * 



S^ IfaU bte %h\^dft, morgen na^ 

Wbx6ftn aBgurcifcn/ 
^bcn eie «^t I or f^aU (bu) %6ft 1 
S)a« f^at unfcrn SBcifatt, 
aSir ifabtn iRid^tS* baflegcit,' 
C^d ^at grbge (Site, 
(50 ^at tcinc* (gtic, 
9Bir ffaUtt t^n fe1?r gem, 
@ie fiahm gut ladftn, 
36f fyiU 2)urfl ; \(if fyiU hunger, 
^ben @ic Sangctoetic? 
(Sr ^ot tetne Suft e9 ju* t^un, 
S^ ^5tte* Sufi e9 i^m )u fagcn, 
aWorgenfhinbc ^at @otb tm SWunbc 

(gr M ®rf^ fe^v n»t^ig, 

3d^ »crbc c« t^un, obt»o^r id^ c« ni^^t 

nBt^ig ^e, 
(Sr ifot teinen 9hi^ boioon, 
Bit i^ahtn ^t6)t, er ^ot Unre^^t, 
2)a9 ^ot 9hd^t9 )u fagen, 
Set ben ^d^oben f^at, i>xau6ft ffir ben 

@^ott ni^ ju forgen (*S^r.), 
SBer ^ot @^Ib baran, bag ber ©ricf 

nt^t naiif ber ?ojl gefd^(!t t»urbe?* 
(Sr ffot tetne ^t^ttb baran, 



» 5 150, 8. 
a 5112,9. 



s§lS8,iiem.l. 
♦U12,3. 



» § 12T, Exc, 4. 
s$125. 



'52C8 
8(134. 



V 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1 



IDU 



IDIOMS. 



SBir ^abeit fetnen Utngang^ mit xifnm, 
@ic i)aUtt bic SBa^I, 
^ir ^aben ni(^t toeit na(^ $aufe, 
3d7 mug ^eute ^xtlt ^z^ndft tna(i(^, 
^6} tDcrbcSWorgcn na^2)rc«bcn ge^en 

miljfcn,* 
S^ ^abe f ilnf S3ricfc f^rribcn milff en, 

bctooT id(> gc^cn tonntc, 
5^ cr^ielt toon mciKcm ©ruber eincu 

Srief beute aJiorgen, 
3GSir tDcrben toor Slbcnb ein OciDitter 

befommeu, 
3^ ^abc e« toon i^m fclbft* gebfirt, 
3d^ benfe* baran, mir cincn dtod 

ma6)tn ju laffcn, 
©laubc mir, bag betn SBo^t bcinem 

SSatcr am §ergcn ftegt, 
@r n)ci6 feine Stnfgabc au«n)enbig, 
?ln grcunbcu fc^flt c« i^m nt(3^t, 



We do not associate with them. 
You may take your choice. 
We have not for to go home. 
I have man^' visits to niake te day. 
I have to go to Dresden id morrow. 

I had to write five letters before I* 

could go. 
I had a letter from my brothel this: 

morning. 
We shall have a thunder-storm before 
. evening. 

I have this from his own month. 
I am thinking of having a coat made. 

Believe me, your father has yom* wel- 
fare at heart. 
He has his lesson by heart. 
He^as friends enough. 



2. Idioms with f ein and to he. 



@o toici (xa. mir tfl, 

S)cr ^Wonb ti)ar no^ ntc^t auf,* 

2)a« genflcr ifl auf, 

3Kir iji fait ; mir tp tt)arm, 

2»ir« ift nici^t tt)o^I, 

S)a« §att8 ifl mir nid^t fcir (or aJZcin 

§au« ifl niii^t ju tocrfaufen), 
' 3d^ bin i^m berjlid^ gut, 
^^ bin ber 3Jlcinung,^ 
©eicn @ic (or @ci) gute6 2Jiut(;c8 !** 
@in ©ebulbigcr ift bcffcr bcun ein 

Starter; unb ber feiueS 9Kut^c« 

$err ifl, benn ber @tabte gewinnet 

(e|>rilc^>e 16, 32), 
aJiir tt)ar babei nid^t tt>oi^t gu ajJut^c, 
2Ber ifl ©d^ulb baran? 
er ifl nid^t @d^ulb baran, 
2Bic »ie( fmb ®ie ibm fd^utbig? 
3d^ bin i^m 500 Skater fc^ulbig, 
@inb <Sie im @tanbc e« i^m ju bcja^ten? 
SSorlciufig bin i(^ e8 nid^t im ©tanbc, 
Sr ift S53illen« ettt?a« gu gebeu, ' 



As far as is in my power. 

The moon had not yet risen. 

The window is open. 

I am cold ; I am warm. 

I do not feel well. 

My house is not for sale. 

I love {or like) him very much. 

I am of the opinion {or I think). 

Be of good courage {or cheer) ! 

He that is slow to anger is better than 
the mighty ; and he that ruleth his 
i^pirit, than he that taketh a city 
(Proverbs XVL, 32). 

My feelings upon that occasion were 

Whosfe fault is it ? [not agreeable. 

It is not his fault. 

How much do you owe him ? 

I owe him* five hundred thalers. 

Are you able to pay him? 

At present I am not able to do it. 

He intei^ds giving something. 



2*162, /2*jn. 2. 



H-139. 



5§1S1,1. 

6 5 179, 2, i2em.4. 



1 5 ITS, 1, Biem, 2. 
• 5 89, Rem, 1. 



Digitized ^ VjOOQIC 



IDIOMS. 



191 



<gr tjl^ f^on angcfommcn, 
C^r toax fc^on angcfommcn, 
SBcnn cr nur Ifingcr gcbUcbcn' »arc, 
I was at the meeting, but I did not 

see yon, 
He is beside himself, 
He is in love with her, 
He is engaged to (be married to) her, 
He is of a robust constitution, 
I am oat of that book at present, )^ 
I have not that book at present, i 
He is not yet of age. 
To be sure, 
Letthat.be! 



He has already anived. 

He had already arrived. 

If he only had remained longer. 

S(i) too^ntc bcr 35crfammlung bci,» 

ja^ Bit aUx nidft 
(gr tfl toerrfltft.* 
(gr ifl mit i^r locrticBt.* 
(gr ifl mit t^r tocrlobt 
(gr tjl 4>on jiarfcm ^Sr^crbau. 
3(i) i)aU ba8 S5u^ augcnblirfUd^ nid)t 

toorrat^ig. 
(gr ijl no6f nid^t milnbig. 
!5)a« 4>crfle^t fid). 
9ea^rc ba« ntdS^t an !• 



3. Idioms with ttietben and to become. 



2Bil^efm ^^in tfl 2(rjt gctoorbcn, 
^ie tDurbe ^I34^U(^ fe^r Mag, 
(g8 »)trb ba(b griebc tt)crben, 
!5)a« ®cbr(ingc^ tDurbe gu grog, 
2)urd^ @(^aben totrb man !tug, 
2)ie Xagc tt>crbcn ISngcr, 
3)ic 3«t n)irb mir lang, 
@ott f^ra^ : c8 trerbc ?id(^ ! unb c6 

tt>arb 8idi>t I 
@ie »urbc rot^ (or crrSt^cte), 
2)cr 9labc trtrb fc^r alt, 
5Wfo »arb ber 3Rcnfd) cine (cbcnbigc 

@ccrc (ba« erflc S3uci^ aKofc,2, 7), 
3^ tDcrbc fd^winbU^ (id^ fc(>»inblc, 

e« f^minbclt mtr, mir fc^^tuinbclt), 
3^ bin fcincs @(J^»a<jcn« ilbcrbrilfftg, 
!5)a« ifl bei un« jum ©^ric^njort gc=* 

tt>orbcn, 
3)cr SBaum ifl ju @tctn gctoorbcn, 
3)a8 foil 2)ir gur @trafc tocrbcn, 
2)cr ^anfc toirb toicbcr gcfunb, 
SBa«fottbamit»crbcn? 
aajir tocrben morgcn abrcifcn, 
25cr ©mnbfletn bcr ^ird^c »irb fiber* 

morgcn gctegt wcrben,* 
Cincncuc 33rilcfc loirb jcfet gcbaiit, 



William Kuhn has become a physi- 
She suddenly turned very pale. [cian. 
We shall soon have peace. 
The crowd (press) became too great. 
By experiencing evil one becomes wise. 
The days are becoming longer. 
Time hangs heavy on my hands. 
God said, Let there be light, and there 

was light. 
She blushed. 

The raven lives to a great age. 
And man became a living soul (Gen. 

IL.T). 
I am getting dizzy (I am dizzy). 

I am tired of his chattering. 

That has become a proverb with us. 

The tree has become petrified. 

That shall be your punishment. 

The patient is recovering. 

What shall be done with it ? 

We shall leave to-morrow. 

The comer-stone of the church will 

be laid day after to-morrow. 
A new bridge is now being built. 



» 5135,2. 

8} 125,8, item. 2. 



3 5 160, 2. 

* § 134, Rem. 1. 



Ȥ155. 
• 5 ISO, 2. 



^§60, 3. 
8 5184. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



192 



IDIOMS. 



4. The Potential Mood and Fntnre Indicative of the 
English verb. 



We can go to-day, 
We can not go to-day, 
We can go to-morrow, 
We could not go yesterday, 
We could have gone yesterday, 
He may say what he will, 
He may go, if he likes, 
He says that he can go to-day. 
He might go, if he wotdd, 
(It) may be it will rain. 

We must go early, that we may get 
a good place (or so as to get agood 

As &st as may be, [place), 

If I may ask. 

We must go to-day. 

We would have been obliged to go 
yesterday. 

We shall leave to-morrow, 

Shfdl you leave to-morrow ? Yes. 

Shall you be able to visit us to- 
morrow? 

I hope I shall. 

Shall I bring the book? 

Shall he be rewarded ? 

He should go immediately. 

Should he go immediately {or if he 
should go immediately), 

I should like to know, 

I should not have done that, 

I will bring the book, 

I will try it, 

I would go with you, if I had time. 



I would ndk have given it to him, 

I would rather n^t go. 
Would that I had not done it I 



SBtr f Snnen ^eute ge^en. 
^eute !&nnen n>tr ni^t ge^en. 
SBir toerbcn morgcn gc^n fSnncn.* 
©cjlcrn f onutctt tt>ir nid^t gc^cn. 
SBtr ^fitten* gejlcrn gc^cn ISnncn. 
et mag fagcn, toa« cr toiff.' 
(gr tann gc^cn, tocnn cr »iff. 
(Sr fagt^ bag er ^ente ge^en !ann. 
@r !9nnte ge^en, menn er ge^en toollte. 
S« f6nntc rcgncn (totetteic^t »irb c« 

regncn), 
SS3ir miiffen fdl( (tnge^en, bamit xoxx 

einm guten Pa^ befcmmen.* 
@o gcf (i^toinb (or fc^fnctt) al8 mfigU^. 
aScnn xiif fragcn barf. 
SBir milffcn <^cutc gc^cn. 
©it ^fitten gcjlcm gc^n mUff en. 

Sir ttJcrbcn motgen aBrctfcn. 
SSerbcn @ie morgen abrctfcn? 3a. 
aSirb c« 3^nen xai^Xvi^ fctn, un« mor* 

gcnjubcfttt^oi? 
3^ ^offe c«, jo. 
@oa»idi^ba8«u^]^oIcn? 
@ott cr Mo^nt tocrben? 
<Sr fcttte g(ci^ ge^en. 
©offtc cr glcidSf gc^cn (or t»f nn er gfct(!^ 

ge^en fottte). 
3ci^ iivb^Xt^ gem njtffeiu 
^6f tt)ftrbe ba« VLvi^i gett^an ^oSiVX (or 

t(^ \lMt ba9 nid^t get^an). 
3^ »erbe bas S3u^ ^olcn. 
3<^ tola ed loerfud^en. 
^if toftrbe mitge^enKor t(^fginge«mit, 

tt>enn td^ bie geit bagu ^Sttc (or ^fdtte 

t^ bie 3«t fe«8u)» 
3^ »fitbe e« i^m ni^t gegcBcn ^aBen, 

(or \6i ^(itte e« il^m nt^^t gegeben), 
3(^in5(^te Ueber nic^t ge^cn. 
Senn vi^ ed nur nid^t get^on ^Sttet 






M165. 
M124. 



SU63. 
•«124,8. 



'5125. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IDIOMS. 



193 



5. Idioms with the verb Idff ett; to leave^ to let. 



©er ^at bic S^ilrc offen gelaffcn? 

Sag m\^ in Siu^' I 

aSo ^at cr ba« 33u(3^ gelaff en ? 

(Sr ^at bte ©elegen^eit aud ben $^n« 

ben gelajfcn, 
(gr licg* feincn ©cffl^Ien freien 2auf, 
(gt ^at fie 0C^ laffcn, 
3(^ tDcrbc e« i^m iDiffen taffen, 
(2r toirb ft(i^ nid(^t baijon abj^recfcn 

laffcn, 
3d^ tocrbc mtr bei bem ©dj^nctber ei* 

ncn 9Jocf madden laffen, 
^Hf ^fabe meincn Ueberrotf " ausbeffcrn 

laffen, 
@r tDtrb ein $au9 bauen laffen, 
2)er $au^)tmann Uc6 bte ga^ne auf* 

gie^cn, 
(gr Itefi bie SCnffl^rer erf^tegcn,' 
SWein 53rubcr lagt 2)t(^ QrUgen, 

(gr Reg bte alten Ocfetje* mieber in 

^aft trcten, 
3^ laffe mi^ m^i bamit* t5uf(^^iu 
Wx mflffen t^n nid(^t toarten laffcn, 
2)ad lagt ftc^* lei^ bcgreifen, 
2)ad lagt ft^ bcnfen, 
©icraus lagt fl(3^ f olgern, 
(gr mugtc fi(^ bie SSclcibigung gcfaHcn 

laffcn, ftSren, 

(gd I5gt ft(^ ^ier 9Hemanb fe^en unb 
S« Ifigt P^ ^»«^ angenc^m' Icben, 



Who has left the door open ? 
Leave me alone ! (leave me in peace I) 
Where did he put the book ? 
He has let the opportunity slip. 

He gave free vent to his feelings. 

He let them go. 

I shall let him know it. 

He will not let himself be frightened 

from it. 
I shall have the tailor make me a 

coat 
I have had my overcoat mended. 

He will have a house built. 

The captain ordered the flag to be 

raised. 
He ordered the leaders to be shot. 
My brother wishes to be remembered 

to you. 
He had the old laws put in force 

again. [that 

I do not let myself be deceived by 
We must not keep him waiting. 
That can be easily imagined. 
That can be imagined. 
From this may be deduced. 
He had to put up with the offense. 

Nobody is to be seen or heard here. 
It is agreeable living here. 



6. Idioms with the verb to get. 



I must get (procure) the book, 

He could get (find) no employment 

in the city, 
The cook has gone to the bakery to 

get s<»ne bread, 
I shall get a new suit of clothes made, 

I must get my photograph taken. 



3(^ tnug ba8 SSnd^ anf(]^affen. 

(gr tcraitc feine Scfd^ftigung'in ber 

@tabt flnbcn. 
2)er jb<^ ifl nad^ ber ^Hdtcd gcgan^ 

gen, um ^ob gn ^olen. 
SitDCtbc niit einen neucn ^(njug mo* 

ipen laffcn. 
3ci^ mug xavii :|)5otogta^§iren laffcn. 



H144,4. 
•158. 



3 fi 155, 3. 
M67,3,l; 500,3. 



Ȥ188,10,i2etn.l. 
6 §120; $134,2. 



'5174,1. 

8557, 2,S; 565,8. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



194 



IDIOMS. 



I must get my hair cut, 

I mast get my boots mended, 

He mast get his lesson by heart, 

The cook is getting dinner (ready), 

I must get ready for my joamey. 

He has not got back yet, 

We shall get home before evening. 

Why don't yon get married? 

They have not got (moved) into their 

new hoase yet. 
He has got possession of the house, 
They could not get the ship off. 

He got all the money out of him he 
could, and then he left him, 

William is getting along well in his 
studies, 

Mr. Schmidt is getting along well in 
business, 

I could not get free from him. 

He has got out of debt. 

We can not get through here. 

We did not get to the top of ihe 

mountain. 
We did not get quite to the top of 

the mountain, 
They. got together at seven oVlock, 
It is high time to get up, 
I can not get up there, 
Get down from there immediately, 
It is getting late. 
The days are getting longer, 



3(it mug mtt ba9 ^ar f (i^eiben laffen. 
36f mug mcinc ©tief el xei)anrm kfjcn. 
(Sr mug feine SLufgobe oudtoenbig 

letncn* 
2)er ^o6f bereitet bad SJHttageffen. 
36) mug mtd(^fllr bic 9tcifcborbcrci^cn, * 
C^r ijl nod(^ nid^t jutfldfgctimmcn, 
2Bir twrbcu bor Slbenb na<3^^ufc !om* 
SBBarum ^cirat^cu @ic nic^t ? [men. 
^ie flub nc^ nid^t in i^r neued $aud 

fiegogen.' 
(Sr ift in ben Seft^ bed $aufed gekngt 
Wlan fcmite bad ^(^iff nidjft tvtebex 

flott ma(^en. 
(Sr et:|)regte t^m f o btel Oelb aid er nur 

foraite, unb bann berlieg' er i^n. 
2BilHm ma^^t gute gortf^rittc in ber 

@(^ulc. 
^err ^d(^mibt mo^^t gute ©efd^fiftc. 

3dif !onnte mi^^ bon i^m ntd^ lodmo* 
(gr ^at feine ©djfulbcn bega^>(t♦ [(J^en. 
$ier ifl fetn i2)urdf>gang (or^ter lUnnen 

tt)ir ni(^t bur^fommcn). 
SSit ^aben bic ©Jntje bed 53ergcd nt(^;i 

errei^t. 
SBit finb ni(^|t gonj bid an bie ^Infte 

bed S3erged ^finaufgefommen/ 
€>tc toerfammeften fid? um fieben U^r. 
©d ifl bic ^&#c« Sett aufgufle^en. 
3d) tarai ba ntd?t ^inauffommen. 
Tld6f% bag bu gIei(Jf? ^etunter* fommfl. 
ed totrb f^on f J)fit. 
3)ic 2:agc ttjetben langcr^ 



/ 



7. Idioms with prepositions. 



1. 9lnd (§ 220 
3^ berfor^ t^n aud beijt 5(ugen, 
Slud f einem ©ricfe erfe^e td(^ . 
©err SBraun ifl and ©etiin, 
dx flammt aud einer alten 0amtlte/ 
©tub blcfe S3ft(^er m^ ber atoctten 
©onb? 



), ottfer (S 221). 
Host sight of him. 
I perceive from his letter — 
Mr. Braun is from Berlin. 
He comes from an old fiimily. 
Are these second-hand books ? 



1 5 157, 2, Rem. 3. 



'8158,8. 
♦5m; 5150,8. 



M90. 
•H88, 



M144,6. 
•587. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IDIOMS. 



195 



au8 tDcI^cm ©runbc Bcttjctfcn ^c 

ba«? 
er (ebt oue bcr ^atib in ben Tbrnh, 
S)a9 tonn man natftrlti^ nt(^t aud bem 

^^fc fagcn, 
SWan ^ t^n au« Blogem SScrba^t bcr* 

*aftet, 
(Sr ^at t» au9 $crfa^ get^an, 
2)a8 tocig i^ au« ^rfa^^witg, 
2Ba8 tt)irb au« t^m tDcrben? 
3(^f bin begtcrig gu »if|cn, »)a« au« 

bcr @ad^c toirb, 
3)a toarb au8 SWorgcn unb SCbctib bcr 

crflc> Za^ (1. ajf^of. 1, 5), 
SHc Sett ijl an9 (§ 181, 1), 
Xrintc bu t9 gang aud, 
@«i{iau9mttt^m, 
S3on $aufc au8 tfl cr* confcrbatito, 
(gr ijl auger fl(^f bor grcubc, 
2)tcfe« aSort ijl jefet auger ©cbraud^, 
(gr »irb e« ui^t t^iun, auger (§ 260) 

tDcrni @ic mit i^m barilbcr \pxt6ftn, 

2. Sci ( 

©ci 5(ttc bem, ifl cr cin aWann bon 

g^rc, 
Beim' crpcn SlnbUd ^ttc* t(3^ nic^t gc* 

fifaubt— 
(58 ijl uid^t me^r @ittc bet un«, 
S3cl ben 9l5mern tourbc e« @itte, 
^err 9la^n ifl beim @ffen (bet 2:if^c), 
@ic fifet beim offcncn gcnfler,* 
S3cibiejcr®e(cgcn^it, 
55ci Seben^jcit tneincs 95atcr8, 



How do you prove that ? 

He lives from hand to mouth. 

Of conrse one can not hold all the 
paiticolars of that in one^s head. 

They arrested him upon mere sus- 
picion. 

He did it intentionally. 

That I know by experience. 

What will become of him? 

I am curious to know how the matter 
will turn out. 

And the evening and the morning 
were the first day (Gen. I., 6). 

The time is up. 

Drink it all up (down). 

It is all over with him. [servative. 

He is originally (and naturally) con- 
He is beside himself from joy. 

This word is now obsolete. 

He will not do it unless you speak to 
him about it. 



For all that, he is a man of honor. 

At first sight, I would not have be- 
lieved — 
It is not the custom with us. [mans. 
It was custom with (among) the Ro« 
Mr. Bahn is at the table. 
She is sitting at an open window, 
Upon this occasion. 
During my father's life-time. • 



^y^ 



8.!Dtit(§227). 



96f ffoibt c8 mit etgenen 3(ugcn gefe^en,* 
(gr ^at ba« $au8 mit baarem @clbc 

bega^It, 
(gr ^at c« mit ©ewalt genommcn, 
3Kit cinem SWale gtug e« (o«,' 
(gin ^rr, mit S'lamcn 3o^. @(i^mibt, 
3(!^ ^abc mit S^iltffe^r bcr $oft etnen 

©rief t9on i^m bcfonraien,* 



I saw it with my own eyes. 
He paid for the house in cash. 

He took it by force. 
All of a sudden it exploded. 
A man by the name of John Smith. 
I received a letter from him by return 
mail. 



sS40,2;f40,8,i2m. 



3 564,l,iJeTfi.2,3. 
♦$125. 



Ǥ68. 
eS144,2^ 



' 152, 3. 
8U56,1. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



196 



IDIOMS. 



• c 



^Qx ffot e« mit Sorfo^ get^on, 
(Sr ^ot ed mtt letfer @timme gelefen, 
2JWt ber 3cit ^P(!t man ^iofcn, 
2)ie 9{cta tourbe mit ^rotefl inxHd* 

2)ie 3ttf(^ftift ifl mit gofbcncn ^vl6)* 

ftahm gefd^ricbcn, 
^\x ge^n nad^ bem iIJ2ufeum ; tooUtn 

@icmit? 
aSoHcn^ ©ie ba« 53u^ mit (fid^^) nc^* 

men? 

^latil^ gct^cmcr SlrBcit ijl gut ru^cn, 

(S9 f ott gana na(Jf^ t^rcm S3cliebcn gc* 
(S0 M i^t fe(^ Xage na(^ einonber 

gmgnet, 
3m 3a^^tc 1820> na^ (i^rifH ®eburt, 
2)a0 ^leib ifi ni(^t nod^ meinem ®t* 

\6)mad, 
2)08 Olbji torch in 2)eutWlanb na(]^ 

bcm ®tto\(i)t tcrtauft, 
Sf^aiJf^ meincr U^r ifl e8 jc^t brci SSicrtcI* 

auf @c^8, 
2>ft8 2)anH>ff^iff ifl m6f ^amturg 

ibcfHmmt, 
2)cr SWoIcr ^at bicfc* Sonbfd^aft na^ 

bcr ^atm gcacidjfnct, 



lie did it designedly. 
He read it in a low, soft Yoice. [about 
Time and patience bring every thing 
The note was returned under protest. 

The inscription is written in golden 

letters. 
We are going to the Museum ; will 

you go along ? 
Will you take the book with you ? 

(§228). 

Sleep is sound when the work Is 

done. 'N 
It shall be done exactly as you desire. 
It has now been raining six days in 

succession. 
In the year of our Lord 1820. 
The dress is not to my taste. 

In Germany the fruit is sold by weight. 

By my watch it is now a quarter to 

six. 
The steamer b bound for Hamburg. 

The painter drew this landscape from 
nature. 



^rr ^ein ifl ein 2)cutf(](^cf bon @cs 

burt, 

SBae tocrlcmgcn ©tc bon un« ? 
ectr 9eot^ ifl ein 3lrjt bon-^rofefpon, 
i^r ifl ein Wlann toon cttoa filnfgig 
/ 3a^ren, 
I Son $ctgcn« ©runbe, 

Cr tt)urbe bon c^rft^^n (SUcm gc* 

boren, 
(gr ttjurbe bon Stttcn gelicbt, 
(5r Icbt J)ott fdnen einfilnftcn, 
3)a« toax fc^r frmubUtil^^ bon i^m, 
(g8 toax fe^r Unrest bon i^m ba6,6te., 
2Bir too^nen jc^n SWcilen toon ^ier," 



5. »Ott(§234). 

Mr. Klein is a German by birth. 



\l 



What do you ask (wish) of us ? 
Mr. Roth is a physician by profession 
He is a man about fifty years old. 

From the bottom of my heart. 
He was bom of honest parents. 

He was beloved by alL 

He lives upon his income. ^ 

That was reiy kind in him. 

It was very wrong in him that, etc. 

We reside ten miles from here. 



»H34;U61. 
* 6 118. 8; 5106. 



*n04,2. 



» 5 111,1. 

« i 89, Rem. 10. 



^86, 2, 6. 

8S256. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IDIOMS. 



197 



6.311 (§235). 



2Bir tocrbcn, jum S3cif^iel*— 
$eutc toirb in bcr ^rc^fc'cinc ^atnm* 

lung'jum SScjlcn bcr airmen in ber 

etabt ge^aTtcn,' 
S« tDttb i^m ttid^t jur @^rc gcrelc^fcn, 
!S)er ^eg toirb balb ^u @nbe fein, 
3«m erflen, gum anbcrn,* jum brit* 

ten (3»aD I 
gr fa^i gum gen|ter ^inaue, 
3(^ ^abc ba« 2;ud) ju brei S^^ojcr bic 

eile gcfauft, 
' 2)ae 92eid^ tfi gu ©runbe gegangen^ 
^icr ijl cm SIJhjfitfHld gu Dier ©finbcn 

(or fftr Dicr ^anbc), 
3)er S3aumciflcr ^at bicfcS $au« gum 

SWobcH gcnommcn, 
3ui» fcIBcn 3ett, 

(Srt{lgum^u))tmannemamitto)orben,* 
3tt tod^fttw B'^tdt ^f at cr baf get^on ? 



We will, for example — 

A collection will be taken in the 

church to-day for the ben^t of the 

poor in the city. 
It will not redound to his honor. 
The war will soon be at an end. 
Going, going, gone I (at an auction). 

He was looking out of the window. 
I paid three thalers a yard for the 

cloth. [to ruins). 

The empire has fallen to pieces (gone 
Here is a piece of music arranged for 

four hands. 
The architect has taken this house 

for his model, y 
At the same time. ' 
He h^ been appointed captain. 
For what purpose lias he done that ? 



9. «n(§245). 



SBcnn \^ <m 5^xtx etettc toSre, 

?ln tocm ijl c« gu Icfcn ? 

2)ic dtdfft ijl an mir, gu Icfcn, 

(5« ijl an gricbrlc^f, 

S)cr SWautt gc^t an StcHdm, 

(St flfet am gcnjlcr,' 

& tjl ntd^te an ber @a^e, 

(Sine 9{ebe an ben j^nig, 

«n unb fftr fld^, [wefenb. 

e« toaren an fflnf ^unbert ^erf onen an* 

34 ^<^^ n^<^ <nt t^n gen^enbet^ 



If I were in your place. 

Whose turn is it to read ? 

It is my turn to read. 

It is Frederick's turn. 

The man goes on crutches. 

He is sitting at the window. 

There is nothing true in it. 

An address to the king. 

In and of itself (per se). [sons present. 

There were toward five hundred per- 

I applied to him. 



8. «nf(§246). 



Tim i^rubev tfl auf bet 3agb, 
(Sine ^ntiQDort ouf etnen Srief, 
©ie war bfifc* auf i^n, 
(gr M bid @elb auf ©fl^er gewanbt, 
mifftfm ge^t auf ben iDf^arlt, 
©i« auf toeiteren ©cfe^I, [fen, 

3luf bie ©efunb^ieit einer ^erf on trin* 
SBir ^oBen lange auf il^n getoartct, 



My brother has gone hnnting. 

An answer to a letter. 

She was angry at him. 

He has spent much money in books. 

William is going to market. 

Until further orders. 

To drink to a person's health. 

We hare waited for him a long time. 



>963. 
Ji57.S.a 



'9104. 
«S102,iiem.S. 



ftS54,i2ef?kS. 
« U31, iZem. 8. 



^568, ja 
sfi9S8. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



III. EXAMPLES OF SYNONYMS. 
1. «(Ier, gclb, 8anb/ 

8 a n b l&ejci^nct cincn X^cil bcr Srbe im Slllgeraeincit, im* ©cgcnf a^ gcgcn 
fold^e, bte mit SBaffer Uhtdt ftnb, unb o^ne dtiidrid^t auf feinm totrt^{(i(^ft* 
lid^n S'lutjcn (gcjilanb, ©renjlanb, ©um^ftanb, £icf(anb). gel b ijl 2anb, 
c9 mag gcibaut fcin, grildj^te* tragcn obcr nic^^ (33radj;f elb, SBintcrfclb, SBcigen* 
felb). 3l(f er ^eigt nur toxxUidf gcbautcs gelb (^aferadcr, StUtadix, StoffU 
atfer, ^artoffcladcr;. (@bcrt>arb.) 

2. ^tferdmatin, l^anbtoirt]^, Sauer. 

@m 3l(f ersmann tfl bcrienige, bcffcn $au^)tgefci(^5ft ber ^dfcrbau \% er 
mag iibrigend in ber @tabt o^er auf bem Sonbe n^o^nen. Sanbtoirt^ unb 
©auer f(^liegen» noc^f ba« SWcrfmal cin,» bag ein fold^er m6)t in ber @tabt, 
fonbem auf bem Sanbc too^nc* Unter fldj^ flnb Sanbwirt^e unb ©auer borin 
Derfc^fieben, bag, nat^ bem ie^jigen* ®ebrauci(^, ba« le^jtere SKort nitij^t blog ba« 
©efd^fift, fonbem aud^ ben @taijb (in ber bilrgerlidj^en ©efeKft^aft), ba« erflere 
^fingegen blog bae @efc^>5ft anjeigt unb ben @tanb gar ni^t anbeutet. (gin 
(gbdmann, bcr ein fretes 9fJittergut bepfet, auf bemfclben* lebt unb es fclbjl be* 
n)irtM<^aftet, ifl ein SanbtDirt^ ; aber er ift fcin SBauer, benn ev ge^Srt nici^t 
ium Sauernflanbe. (2Raa«.) 

3. Mufftc^en, crfte^en, auferfte^eti* 

2)iefe Sorter ^eigen eigentli(j(^ : aus bcr liegenben ober fifeenben in bie jlc^enbe 
©tettung llberge^en. gtgftrlicii^ llber^au^)t : fld^ er^cben (ton einem @ilnben* 
fatte auffle^en, erfle^en, auferfle^en). 2)ie ©etoegung in bie ^iJ^e »irb in 
auffle^en burd^ ba« ?luf bejHmmt unb unjtoeibeutig bejei^net. er in 
<» r fl e ^ e n brildt biefelbe j»ar antif au«, aber m^ einer unbejttmmten Seife, 
tenn @r fannautJji %vl9 bebcuten(ertoS^len ^eigt au«tt>a^Ien). ^ier* 
in liegt bcr @runb, toarum man ju e r fl e^ e n, tod6)t» bie fril^ere gorm tt>ar, 
noc^f a u f ^ingufcfete, um bie 3»eibeutigfeit^ jn toermeiben, unb auf biefe SBcife 
auferfie^cn bitbete, S)er nad;if olgenbe S^ra^gebrant^ befHmmtc bann bie* 
fen 2lu«bru(f, iJcrraut^K^ »eil er bur^ bie grogerc gMc me^r geierli^« gn 
^aben fcbien, infonber^eit filr ba« 51 u f e r jl e ^ e n au« bem @rabe, unb ne<if 
me^r ha9 ^au^)t»ort 31 u f e r fl e ^ u n g, bergleid^ in btefer gorm Jjon er* 
ft e ^ e n toenig, unb t>on 3t u f jl e ^ u n g gar nic^ft gcbrauci(^t toirb. (@r ifl ijon 
f einem Sronlenlager gar nid^t aufgcjlanben [or er flan ben]. <Seine 
^6}t ru^et f d;on in ber @rbe unb garret ber ^ u f e r fl e ^ u n g.Q (SKaag.) 

»564,i2cni.8. sfilSl.l. 6fi8«,2. 7{6T,2,8. 

>n4,3,4. 45124. •L.XLUI.S. 8562,2,8. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EXAMPLES OP SYKONYMS. 199 

4. Ausf jihren, voUbringen, voUf uhren^ volMehen, vollstrecken. 

Vottbringen bezieht sich^ bloss auf die Handlung selbst, nnd heisst eigent- 
llch : Etwas so weit bringen, bis es voll, vollstandig, yollendet ist. (Die £rde 
Yollbiingt ihren Lanf um die Sonne in 365 Tagen und einigen Stunden.) 
VoUziehen ist von ansfuhren bloss dadorch' verschieden, dass es sich mehr auf 
das Ende der Handlungj ausfuhren mehr auf die ganze Handlung, nach ihrem 
Anfangc und Ende bezieht. Die Ausfuhrung giebt dem Yorsatze seine Yoll- 
endung auch schon durch den An&ng der Handlung, die Vollfuhrung erst 
durch die voliige' Beendigung derselben. (Man ist schon seit langer Zeit mit 
der Ausfuhrung des Entwurfs der Austrocknung der pontinischen Siimpfe 
beschafdgt, aber noch immer von der Vollfuhrung desselben weit entfemt.) 
Durch eine Handlung, welche einem Beschlusse, der auf einer Verabredung 
beruhet, seine Yollendung giebt, wird der Beschluss vollzogen. Dieser Be- 
schlnss mag ubrigens^ ein Gesetz, oder eine Yerordnung, oder ein Befehl, oder 
ein Urtheilsspruch sein. (Man voUzieht das Urtheil an einem Missethater. 
Man klagt, dass die vielen Gesetze, Yerordnungen und Befehle, die man in 
manchen Landem giebt, nicht gehorig volhogen werden.) Der Gebranch 
Ton vollstrecken ist so eingeschrankt, dass er eine unmittelbare YolLdehnng 
bedeutet ; so sagt man : einen Befehl, ein UrtheiP voUstreeken ; nicht aber: 
ein Gesetz, einen Yertrag, erne Eheyerbindmig vollstrecken, (Entwiirfe 
werden ausgefuhrU Gesetze, Beschlilsse nnd Urtheilssprilche werden voU- 
zogen, and diese letzteren mm, sofem es sogleich nnd nnmittelbar geschieht, 
vollstreckt. Die vollztehende Gewalt that also das,* was die gesetzgebende 
vnd richterliche beschlossen^ hat.) (Eberhard.) 



5* STOcer, @ce* 

3)ic SBCrtcr @ e c unb Wlttx totxhtn jufSrbcrfl ibcibc bcm gonjcn Ocean, 
^tem^df^fl aber an6f batb bad @ine ober bad ^nbere, M\> beibe gugleid^ g&> 
tmffcn befonberen Xi^tn beffelben beigclegt S)er ©runb bon btcfer SSer* 
Weben^ett in ber ©enenniing ber ^^eilc be« Oceans fdj^etnt offenbar feinc an* 
bere ju fein, al« bag bic $?lf crflfimme, tt>el^ beibc SSSBrter, @ e e unb 9W e e t, 
^cn, bie ©etofiff cr, bie flc bur* bie latetmf^c* ober barau« entflanbenc @<)ra* 
*en fetmen (emten, Ttttxt,hxt onberen SBRerfl^mme aber, xod6)t bad SBort 
@ee ^en, fotoo^l ben Ocean aid feine X^eile <See nannten* Ungead^tet 
jene alfo bad SBbrt @ e e fatten, fo gebron^ten fie bo(^ bad SBort ^ttxM 
ben Xff^m bed Oceand, beren S&enennung fie t)on ben dtBntem entle^nten* 
^9 tt>irb boburt^ gou) augenfi^t^i*, bag eintge ®eU)5ffer eine bo)>)>eUe ^e* 
nennnng ^aben, eine rgmifc^fe unb eine urT^)din9lt(^ bentfc^fe. g)ie iy?orbfe< 

MlSa. »58«.«,4. »86T,8,4. 78144,«. 

•Jia>,4. •8278. • 8 111, 2, itom. 8. ^iiX^IUm. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



200 EXAMPLES OF SYNONYMS. 

^rigt ^^ ^^^ 2)eutf ^* aWcer (mare Germanicum), unb bic Oflf cc ba« 53aWf ^c» 
SDteer (mare Balticmn). 9[u^ bie XfftlU bed Oceond, tntt benen tt>ir ut ber 
neueren ^dt burt^ bte CSnglSnber Befatmt getoorben finh, toerben ® ee unb 
nid^t Tlttx genannt (toie bie @ft b f e e, bte toir am befien burd^ (Sotfd* unb 
gorjler« ©eercif en f ennen). SKenn ber gangc Occon belbc«, @ e e wnb Tlttx 
gcnannt totrb, fo gefd^e^t ba« nad^ ber^iebcncn StnftdS^ten. @ c e ttJtrb e« 
na^^ feincr aWoterie, Tlttx nat^ fetncr gorm genannt. 2)ie @ee ijl ber 
Ocean, ober ber Zlfdl ber Obcrflfit^e ber (Srbe, ber' nitij^t feflc* Sonb tfl; ba« 
2W e c r, f fern c« Don biefcm f eflen Sanbe eingef (i^loff en ifl, (SJian fagt : f e c * 
tt>firt«,cntgcgcngefett bon Ianbtt>firt« ; @ee»inb, entgegcngcfc^tbem Sanbtoinb ; 
^ttma^t, ^ecfolbaten, @cerei[en, ©ccr5uber, k., cntgcgengefcfet ber 
Sanbmad^t, Sanbfolbaten, Sanbretfen, 9t&uber auf bent f eflen Sanbe, tc. (Sben 
fo fagt man @eett>af[er, ©eeMber, jc.; ^ingegen fagt men aJZcerbufet*, 
SWeerenge). ((gber^arb.) 

6. NaseweiSj neugierig, vorwitzig. 

Der Naseweise verlangtEtwas zu wissen, and fragt, nm zn zeigen, dass er 
Yerstand und Erfahmng genag^ besitzt, von einer Sache, die noch Uber seiner 
Sphare ist, mitzasprechen. Man nennt Fersonen naseweis^ nnd besonders 
kleine Enaben und Madchen, wenn sie iiber viele Dinge urtheilen, die de 
nicht yerstehen, imi ihren Witz and Yerstand za zeigen, insonderheit' wenn 
sie darch ihre Toreiligen Urtheile Fersonen, denen sie Achtnng schuldig* slnd, 
beleidigen, oder sie darch ihre anbescheidenen Fragen in Yerlegenheit setzen. 
Die Neugierde ist die leidenschaftliche Begierde eines Menschen, das Neae 
zu wissen, bloss weil es ihm neu ist ; der Vortoitz ist die Begierde, das zu 
wissen and zu erfahren, was^ er nicht wissen kann, und niclit zu erfahren 
sucben soil. Zu dem, was uns zu wissen yorenthalten ist, gehort besonders 
die entfemte nnd nngewisse Zukunft. Diese ist es gerade am meisten, welche 
den Vortcitz unwissender und schwacher Menschen reizt. (Eberhard.) 



7. Mogen, wollen. 

Was wir thun, das miissen wir tPoUen, selbst alsdann, wenn wir es tmgem 

thnn. Sollen wir es so loollen, dass wir es gem thun, so muss es entweder 

gar nicht missfallen, oder doch in betrachtlichem Grade mehr wohlgefallen, 

als miss&llen. So fern nun das, was wir wollen gef allt, so fern es nns Lust 

und Yergniigen macht, mdgen wir es. So wie wir Munches wollen^ was wir 

nicht mSchten, wenn wir miissten,^ so md^en wir anch Munches, was wir nicht 

wollen. (Eberhard.) 

»L.XVni, 3, item. 3m4,8, '■ «$118,12. 7S114» 4, /{tm. ' 

. »in. «S112,6,£em«l. «696,1. 8S124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IV. LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 
1. Ein Neffe meldet seinem Onkel den Todesfall seiner Schwester, 

Beilin, den 9. April 1869. 
Lieber Onkel. 

Eine ausserordentlich schmerzliche Begebenheit zwingt mich heute Dir 
za schreiben.^ Nach neuntagigem schweren Leiden ist gestem meine liebe 
Schwester Adelheid am Typhus gestorben.' Wie gross der Scbmerz im 
Hause und die Tfaeilnahme aller Bekannten ist, kannst Da Dir denken, da 
Da ja wohl weisst,^ wie sehr sie der Liebling aller derer war, mit denen sie 
in Beruhrang kam. 

Wenn ich mich auf diese karze traurige Mittheilung beschranke, ohne 
irgend welche Nebenumstande zu erwahnen, so schreibe^ das dem tiefen 
Schmerze za, der mich bewegt. Alles Andere, so mittheilenswerth es anch 
sonst sein mag, erscheint mir diesem Ereignisse gegeniiber bedeutungslos und 
unwesentlich. Mit herzlichem Grass 

Dein treuer Neffe 

Gottfried FQrster, 



2. @Iii(ftouuf($ sum ©efiurtstage mti %^itxi. . 

© a m b u r g , ben 7. 3um 1869. 
SKein (teber SSater. 

Wit {jeruc tearc id^ ^eutc in bcr SWittc unfercr gamitic, urn S)ir <)crf3nU* 
meinen Olflcfujunft^ barbringen gu !8nncn. ^nm crjlen 3Kale ift c« mir "otx* 
fagt, ben gcjltag mit @ud(>* ju fetcnt, unb c« toirb mir gang tt>c^ ju SWut^c, 
toenn tc^> baran bcnfc. SWiJ^tc bcr fc^fiJnc ^og no^ redj^t oft totcbcrfc^ren unb 
ttn9 ^Ile urn 2)1^ Deretntgt fe^en. 2)amit i^ aber nt^t gang in bem ^etmtfc^en 
^eifc wm ben geft^mildtcn gril^jliltfstifti^ mit ber grogcn ©eburtstogstorte 
fc^flc,* fo \&f\dt ^ S)tr mctn ©ilb, bcnn tdj^ toctg ja bodj;, bag 2)tt mi^ felbjl 
— toenn e« wx6:i nur mctn 93ilb ifl— (icbcr nimmfl,at« OTc0,tt>o« i(^ 2)ir 
fonjl fd^icfcn !8nnte. SSicUcidj;t fottte vi^ ba« nic^ft fo grabc ^erausfagen/ aber 
loarum bcnn am (Snbe nic^t ebrlici^ audf^^red^cn, toad man benit unb fii^It. 

2)cr ^ag tfl no^ taum angcbro(^en. Kllein t(i^ toollte ni^t fc^on gcftcm 
f d(fretbcn, toeil ^ bann gar vx^i f o xt^i in gcflfHmmung gctocfen tofire.^ 3c(jt 
trage i^ ben 8rtcf glcic^f fclbft auf bie ^oft, bann gc^t er mit bem grfl^sng cib 

>U2T. 3$144,7. »n07,l?«w.4. -^SIST,!. 

a 5135, 2. ♦5161,1. «5124. «5 288. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



202 LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 

unb lommt gerobe an,* tt>eim 5f^x (Sudf^ an ben gMi^fHiddttf d^ fe($t unb 9la^Bar 
^mibt nad^ getoo^nter ^eife gum ©ratuliren ^edikrtommt. 3Benn t^^ Don 
bcr ^ojl jurild bin, bann tocrbe itS) mir fctbft in ntcincm @tflb(^cn ba« altc 8icb 
borfingcn, mit bcm* tt>ir ®efci^tt>iflcr !Did^ icbc« 3a^r an 2>cincm e^rentage 
aufecttjcdt ^abcn. Xtx ©cbante mag cttt)a« jn tinbifd(>» fftr cincn fo grogcn 
3nngen fein ; abcr c« ijl gar fo f(!(^5n fidf^ in bic ^nbcrja^rc jndldgubentcn, 
namentUd^ an fold^en ^citcrcn gamiUcngcbcnftagcn.* 

®ril6c SWuttcr unb bic @cf(^tt)iflcr retij^t fe^^r 
nnb fei* felbjl ^rglid^ umarmt unb gcfil^ t>on 2>cincm @o^nc 
Ojto. 

3. Ceremonielle Form der Einladnng. 

Ilerr and Madame Eberhard versichern Herra and Madame Prenzler ihrer 
g&nzlichen Hochachtung und bitten Sie, ihnen die Ehre zu erweisen, Mitt- 
woch um 5 Uhr bei ihnen speisen zu wollen.' 



4. Antwort auf dieselbe. 

Herr and Madame Pretzler beeilen sich, der ihnen so freundlich geworde- 
nen Einladnng Folge zu leisten, und empfehlen sich Heim* and Madame 
Eberhard auf das Ergebenste. 



6. Vertrauliche Form der Einladnng. 

Lieber Herr ReicherU 
Wenn Sie nicht fur Morgen Mittag bereits versagt sind, so sind Sie frennd- 
lichst eingeladen, mit uns am 4 Uhr zu speisen. Herr Professor Bemhard 
und Dr. Kunge haben uns versprochen zu kommen. Dr. Runge fl^ut sich 
besonders daranf, Ihre Bekanntschaft zu machen. Sie soUten die Gelegen- 
heit nicht voriibergehen lassen, da er schon in drei Tagen nach Berlin zu- 
riickzukehren gedenkt. Mit freundschafdichem Grass 

Michads StrasseNo. 126. Ihr 

Mittwoch, den 6. October 1869. Joh. Wilh, Engelmann. 



6. Antwort anf dieselbe. 

Lieber Herr Engelmann. 
Leider bin ich schon seit mehreren Tagen fiir morgen Mittag versagt, und 
kann daher Ihrer freundlichen Einladnng' nicht nachkommen, so sehr idi be- 
dauere, Dr. Runge nicht sehen zu konnen.® 

Brandenburger Strasse No. 89. Ihr 

Mittwoch, den 6. October 1869. Fried. WiUi, ReicherL 

» 5 150, a. 3 88«,2,5. «U«6. 'J179,l. 

M114,a. 4516I. .•5T5»/J«n.l. •H«T. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 203 

7. $of(t($e Sorm ber @ittlabuttg. 

?Jcrr unb SWobomc S)tetri(^ ibittcn ^crni wnb SWabontc ^cfcwctter, gef SUigf* 
nS^pcn* S)tcnpag um 6 W)x bet i^ncn f^)cifcn ju tooUm, unb cm^jfe^tcn ftdj^ 
3^ncn bci bicfcr ©clcgcn^cit oufs grcunblic^pe." 



8. %ntmtt attf biefelbe. 



$err unb iD'Zabame ^efetpetter tperben bad SSevgnilgen i^aben^ ber ^tnlobung* 
ton $erm unb aj^abame ^ietri^ golge ^u leiflen,' unb em)>fe^Ien ft^ 3^neu* 
freunbf^ftUdf^p* 



9. Wechselbrief. 

Gut fur 1500 Thlr. Pr. Cour. 
An die Disconto-Gesellschaft zu Berlin. 

Nach Sicht, belieben Sie, auf diesen Prima-Wechsel, an Herm Fr. Wilh, 
Lindemann die Snmme you f iinfzehnhundert Thaler, Frensisch Conrant, 
ansznzahlen. Werth empfangen, den Sie in Rechnnng stellen wollen lant 
Bericht. JoH. W. Eitelbero, 

Wien, den* 12. August 1869. Banqiiier in Wien. 



10* antoeiftwiB* 

©utfilrSOOS^Ir. 
3n t>ier SWonotcn (ober auf SScrlongcn) t>cr^fli^te id^ m\6), an ^rrn ^otl 
^ettt ober beffcn* Orbre, bie @umnie bon ac^ft^unbcrt 2:^alcr, ^rcugtfc^^ 
Couraut, au«guja^lcn. SBert^ in SBaaren (ober baar) enH)fangen. 

gricbri^ Stugufl ^rani^. 
©tuttgart, ben 7. 2)egcmber 1869. 



11* Onittung^ 

500 %\}U. 
(gnH)fanaen'bon J&erm 2. ^avi9, fflnftunbert Skater, ^reu^if^ Couront, 
al« ©ega^ilung in boK.» ffiil^elm «rau«. 
@ot^a, ben 4. Oftbber 1869. 

»«9«. »5179,8. ftS83,4. 79144,4. 

>M90,9,2. •817»,1. •8111,2. ^il88,U,Rem, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



V. READING LESSONS. 
2)ie beutf($e ^^taHfU 

2)tc beutfci^c 'Bpxa6ft ifl cine* bcr S(teflcn,» rclnpcn unb geibilbetpen untet 
ben Icbcnbcn ^pxadftn. 3l)Xt ^eilbimgSgcMfid^tc umfagt ungefS^r jwcitoiifcnb 
3a^re.» @ic iR bic utfrrfinglid^c mt» altcn, in tcrf^^icbcnc @t&mmc* get^cil* 
ten, grogcn S5otte«, »)eldiK« Won fc^r W «««* f""^ «^tcn ©o^nfltjen in ^o^- 
aftcn na^ e«ro^)a toanberte, unb bcfonbcr« bcjfen n5rblici(^cn wnb mittleren 
%f)dl bet)5I!erte. 

S)cr i^ame „bcutf^" flammt ni^t iwn bcm onficbti^n @ottc unb 
©tammbatcr biefc« ^oltt», 2^ui«fo, ab,« fonbem toon bcm got^if^en 
SBortc MtWw— oltbcutft^ rfio/, rfte/— ba« ^cigt SSolf, unb bebeutet etgcntlici^ : 
„jum35olfe gc^iJrcnb^, „bcm SSolIe cigcn", Untcr bcm 9'iamcn 
® crmanen tourbcn' bic S)cutf^cn jucrfl ben 9i&mern bcfannt 

©rogcn einfCug auf bic !Dcutfd^cn unb i^rc <Bpva(i)t ^attc bie $B(!em)an- 
bcruufi (375—500) unb bic Stu«brcitung bcr ^j^riflU^cn 9lcUgion, S)cr 
©if^of Ulfi(a« (360—380) tear bcr (grflnbcr obcr bot^ bcr SScrbotttommncr 
cincr bcutf(]^cn S3u^flabcnf(^rift, unb Ucbcrfcfecr^ bcr SBibcl in« ®ot\}\]6}t. 

Staxl bcr ©rogc (768—814) tear cin testifier SBcfSrbcrcr bcr bcutftij^cn @^ra^ 
bilbuufi, Untcr ben ^o^cnjlaufcn cr^ob fic^> bic SlKemanif^c obcr @^tt>Sbif^e 
2Runbart (^xMf}t>^\>tui\(^ @^ra^c), bercn' ftc^f bic SWinncfSngcr bcbicntcn* 

2)ic iJrofaif^e ^pxa6)t gctoanu an SSlu^bc^nung, 9ici^t^um unb fUtQtU 
magigfcit burt^ ben bergrSgerten So^tpanb bcr @tSbtc unb bic cr^S^tc attgc* 
meinc ©ilbung, auf totl6}t JjorjflgU^ folgcnbc UmflSnbc bort^cil^aft cinteirftcn: 
bic Srri^tung bcr UnitocrfitSt gu $rag (1348), SBien, ©cibclbcrg, Mn, k,; 
bic erfinbung bc« 8um^)crt|)a^cr« unb bcr ©uij^brudcrfunfl (1446) ; bie ©r* 
obcrung Sonflantino<)cI«(l453); bic (gntflc^ung bcr 3citungen ; bic entbcdfung 
Don 3lmcri!a (1492) ; borjilglit^^ abcr bic ^Reformation (1500). 

!&ut^cr (1483— 1546) bcgrfinbetc burti^ fcinc ©ibclflbcrfcfeung unb hux6f feinc 
ilbrigcn @c^>riftcn, bcfonbcr« ^rcbigtcn unb 2icbcr, bic ^cutigc aUgcmcinc 
©d^riftf^rac^fc untcr bcm S^iamen bc0 $ o ^ b c u t f ^ e n (gcnaucr ifi c u ^ o d;> 
bcutfii^ gcnannt). 

@« jinb in bcm langcn ScbcnSlaufc unfercr <Bpxa6)t bier ^aupi^^podftn 
gu uutcrf^eiben, in bcncn bcr @trom i^rer fort^fi^renben SScrfinberung fftr 
cine 3^tlang gc^cmmt unb pc aU @c^>riftf^ra(]^c ju mc^r obcr toeniger fc^cr 
®cpalt gebic^cn ju fcln \<ifdnt 2)iefc Dier e^oc^fcn pub : 

»$100. 3574, 3, 4,1. »«220. 'L.XXXVI.,«. 

««91. ♦674,8,4,1. •5161,1. . 8114,2. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SEADINO LESSONS. 205 

1. ba« ® 1 ^ i f ^ e , h\9 jum 4. 3a^riunbcrt unfcrcr Bcitrcd^nung ; 

2« bad ^uio^beutf^c^bom 7«bi9)umll. do^r^unbert; 

8. bad Wlxtitlffe<if^tui\(S)t, torn 12. bid ^um 14* da^r^unbert ; 

4. bad ^tu^e6)ttni\<ift, feit bent 9[nfang bed 16. 3a^r^unbertd ; be- 
f onberd burd^ 8ut^r bcgrfinbet, aber erfl ntit bem ?lnfbliH>cn unfcrer neueren 
clafflf^ Siterotur, feit ber amtte bed 18. Qa^r^unbert, atlmfilig gu feiner 
^eutigen ®efta(t gebie^en* 

(St. SB. 8. $et?fe, 1797—1855.) 



2)er @tra|etfitttt0e« 

©n ^tragenjunfle, ber bon einem anbcm cine Tlau\\6ftVit er^olten ^otte, 
»urbe gefragt,* tt>anim* er biefelbe m6}t jurildgcgeben ^fitte. „2)arum", ant* 
tt>ortete er, „tof\l t^ ba^te, toir to^ven nnfer nur gn^ei, unb bann toiirbe* bie 
fftnift t>c6f Qld6f toieber an mx(i}* lommcn." 

(3ul. SSilb. 3in!firef, 1591—1635.) 



^a9 ifl bed 2)entf^* Saterlanb ? 
3fi'd ^rengenlanb, ifl'd @(i(^»abentanb? 
3ft*d tt)o am* dtffda bie fUtU blft^t? 
3il*d too am S3elt bie SWSbe gie^t?^ 

O nein I nein I nein 1 

@ein ^aterlanb mug grBger feim 

S^d ift bed 2)entf(^ 9^ater(anb? 
3ft'« Soierlanb, tfl'd ©teierranb? 
3fl*d too bet SWorf en Sltnb ft* fhreift ? 
3fl'd too ber aR&rfer ©fen redft? 

O nein I nein I nein 1 

@ein IBaterlanb ntng grSger^ fein. 

SBa^ ifl bed 2)eutfd^en SSaterlanb? 
3P'd ^ommemlanb,aBeflfalcnlanb? 
3fi'd too ber @anb ber S)anen toe^t? 
3fl'd too bie 2)onau braufenb gc^t? 

O nein I nein I nein I 

@ein S5ater(anb mug grSger fein. 



'1184; 161. ^nSS. «S89,i{0m.lO. ^144,0. 

*ill8.1,i2cm.<,8. ♦HOT. • $ 64, 1, ifm. 2, 1. •fi91. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



206 BEADING LESSONS. 



2B(tf ifl be9 2)etttf^.S$atetIanb? 
^0 nenne mvt bad groge Scmb^ 
3jl'« 8anb bcr @.id(ftt>cigcr, ifl'« Sterol ? 
2)a« Sonb unb ^oW gcfiet* mir ttw^l ; 

O ncin I tictn I nein I 

^m ^terlonb mug gri^ger fetn. 

©08 ifl be« S)cutf ^ Sotcrlonb ? 
@o neraic* mir ba« gtogc 8anb I 
®ctoi6 ift e« ba« Ocflerrcic^^, 
SCn' CS^rm unb an ©tegen rd^? 

D nein I nein ! nein ! 

@ein $aterlanb mug grSger fetn* 

aBa« ifl be« 2)cutfd^ Saterlanb? 
@o nennc enbU(^^ mir ba« Sonb I 
@o toeit bic bcntfci^ ^vinQt llingt, 
Unb @ott* im ^immel Sicber fmgt, 

25a« foE* e« fcin I 

2)a«, toatfrer 2)eutfd^, nenne beini 

2)a« ifl be« 2)eutf(i^cn Satcrlanb : 
2Bo Sibe fd^toBrt ber 2)ru(! ber ^nb, 
SS^o Srene ^ell k>om ^uge bli($t, 
Unb Sicl&e toorm im ^rjen fi^jt, 

!Da« f ott c0 fein I 

2)a«, teadrer S)eutfAcr, nenne beinl 

2)a8 gahse ©cuif^Ianb foil e« fcin I 
O @ott ! toom $immel fie^* barein ! 
Unb gieb un« rcci^cn bcutf(i^en Tbxt^, 
!Da6 tt>ir e^liclberi tren unb gut ! 

S)a« fott c« fetn 1 : 

2)a« ganjc 5)eutf^(anb foE ee fcin, 

((Smfl Wloxxii ambt, 1769—1860.) 



S)cr iuttge SRuftlen 

©ne ®efeEf(3^ft bon ©^iJttem toofite [i6) fiber eincn jungert 3Wuflfer, bet 
t^nen^ Dorf^ette, luflig ma6^ unb ricf : w@r f^iclt fo liebnd; wie Or^^eug V* 

ff3<i", anttoortcte ber ^finflter, wborum® ^abe x6} m6} einen ^aufcn S3Srcn 
unb ^ont^icr urn mid? ^r.« (3. SB. Sin'S^cf.) 

1M44,4. 35245. »im '8101. 

>U44.7. «S74,2,4. «n44,2. • U88, 10, iSem, 1. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BEADING LESSONS. 207 

2)er fBtitUx mh @aifer Snebri(^. 

4tt« ctnc« 2^0C«> ju Siiilmbcrg ctit S3ctt(cr ju Saifer griebric^^ lam unb ifen 
urn ein 3lImofen anf^ra^, mtt bem ^u\<iii, cr teSrc* taifeirti^er 9Kaj[cflSt» S3ru* 
bcr, wcU oEc SWeiifd^ Don cincm SSotcr — bcm Slbam — olbjlammten, alfo «n* 
ter cinanbcr SBrilbcr tofiren, lieg i^im ber Saifcr nitij^t mc^r al« ctiien ^cujcr 
gebcn. 2)cr S3ettler »oIltc* ftd^ U\dfmxtn, bag e8 filr cincn Saifcr ju njcntg 
tt)5rc, 3W(ctn* griebrid^ tt>ic« i^n mit ben Shorten a]& :• rrSKcrai bir cin jcbcr 
©ruber fo t>ic( gibt, wirp bu rcici^r fcin al« i(^ fclbfl," 

(3. SB- Stn^el) 



„S3effcr (gt»a0« 

@l)ra(i^ ber SBoIf, „benn ^^Jid^ts," 
«te er m^ einem ©d^afe f(^na^J>tc, 
Unb bafilr eine aRilcf* erta^)^te. 

SWan^r ISnnt' bie StaHpipt ^aren : 

SWan erfennt i^in fo Won filr etnen iRarren. 

@itt ^etttener. 

Sir Magerten, \6f tt?elg ni^t nte^r, tottdft <^abt* 2)em gelbmarf(^ koar 
gan3 erflaunU^ biel an genauer ^nbf<3^ft ge(egen,tt>ie bie @a^n in ber 
gefhtng pnben. (S9 fd^ten Sugerjl f^tt>er, Ja fafl unmBgU^, bun^t^ atte $or^ 
|>o{len/ S8a(^ unb gefhtng^n^erfe ^ein ^u^ gelangen. $or 3Hut^ unb 
2)ten{letfer fafl ein tpenig attgn xa\df, fleQe iif midf^ ueben eine ber gri^gten 
^anonen, bie foeben na^ ber gefhing abgcfeuert ttmrb,* unb f^jrang im $ui auf 
bie Ihigel, in ber %h[\6}i, m\€f in bie geflung ^ineintragen gu laffen.* %U idf 
aber ^a(6»eg« burti^ bie 8uft geritteu war, ftiegen mir allerUi n\6ft uner^eb* 
Iid>e 93ebenfli4>feiten gu «o^fe. ^m I hadfit x6f, ^ineinfommen fannft bu nun 
»oi(,attein toie ^rnad^ fpglcic^f tDieber ^erau«? Unb toie faun bir'« in ber 
gefhing trge^en? 3Wan toirb t)x6) \oifti6f aU @^ion erfenncn unb an ben 
nS^en Oalgen bSngen I 

ein foI(i^ ©ette ber e^re wottte i^ mir benn bod) too^l berbitten. ^atf) 
biefen unb &^nlx6fttt ©etraci^tungen entfcl^Iog i^ m.d^ !urg, na^m bie glilcflid^ 
©elegen^ ti>a^r, al9 eine ^anonenhigct au8 ber gefhmg einige @^ritt bon 
mir borilber na^ unferem Sager fCog,»* f^)rang" bon ber SWcinigen auf bicfe 
binftber, unb !am" jtoar uni)errid;tctcr @ac^>c, jcboc^ teo^lbc^otten bei ben lie* 
ben Unfrigen toieber an. (Saron bon ^Undfyau^tn, 1720— -970 

•L.in.,1187. •L.XXXI. fim.Bxe,^ WL.XXX. 

a81»4. »L.IX.,1. 88138. »»515T,1. 

>L.VI.,6,/l«n. •L.IX.,4,4. »U44,4. "580,1. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



208 READING LESSONS. 

Die Hoimen. 

Der Geschichtschreiber Ammianus Marcelliniis (A.D.410) macht von 
den Honnen folgende Beschreibong: ''Sie sind bartlos and hasslich von An- 
gesicht, scheusslich Ton Gestalt nnd knunmbeinig.^ Sie bediirfen keinef 
Feners noch schmackhafter Speisen ; ihre Nahrang besteht aus Worzeln von 
Krantem des Feldes and halbrohem Fleische von jedwedem Yieh. H&user 
haben sie nicht and meiden sie wie die Graber, selbst HUtten von Bohr 
findet man bei ihnen nicht. Unstat darch Grebirg and Wald nmherstreifend, 
lemen sie von Kindheit an, Hanger and Burst and den Wechsel der Wit- 
terung ertragen. Ihre Kleider sind von Leinwand, oder ans Fellen von 
kleinem Wild zasammengenahet.' Mit gebogenen Miitzen decken sie den 
Kopf, mit Bocksfellen den Korper, ihre anformlichen Schahe hindem sie an 
freiem Gang, desshalb sind sie zu Fassmarschen ontilchtig. Aber aaf ihren 
Pferden, die zwar hasslich, jedoch dauerhaft sind, hangen' sie wie angewach- 
sen and verrichten auf denselben ihre gewohnlichen Geschafte. Bei Tag 
and Nacht ist jeder za Pferde, kauft and verkauft, isst and trinkt and schlaft 
aaf den Nacken des Thieres gelehnt. Za Pferde halten* sie die Versamm- 
lungen and Berathungen. Kein strenges Herrschertham fesselt sie; sio 
folgen ihren Hanptlingen ohne festes Band. In den Kampf gehen sie keil- 
formig geordnet and mit grasslich lantern Geschrei. Gewandt and behende 
wie sie sind, sprengen sie dann absichtlich mit einem Male aaiseinander and 
zerstreaen sich za wiistem Morden. 

Aus der Feme kampfen sie mit Wurfspeeren, deren Spitzen kiinstlich aus 
scharfen Knochen gefertigt sind, in der Nahe mit dem Schwert. PflQge 
haben sie nicht. Ohne Hof and Herd, ohne festen Sitz and Gesetz schwei- 
fen* sie anstat gleich Fluchtlingen mit ihren Wagen umher; dies sind ihre 
Wohnangen, wo sich ihre Weiber and Kinder befinden, bis sie erwachsen 
sind. Anderswo geboren,' in femen Landen aufgezogen, weiss keiner anza- 
geben, woher er stammt. Treulos, wankeknttthig, jeder neaen Hoflfhang' 
hingegeben, folgen sie ganz dem Drang des Triebes. Wie das nnvemunftige 
Vieh kennen sie keinen Unterschied zwischen Tugend and Laster. Von 
Glauben and Religion haben sie keinen Begriflf. Nach Geld sind sie so aas- 
nehmend lustern and so leicht gereizt, dass sie wohl mehrmals an demselben 
Tage sich' entzweien and wieder versohnen. 

(Weber's Weltgeschichtc.) 



SQSenn'd m^t ge^t, tote man toxU, 
aWug man t^nn toic man Urn. 



»L.Xn. 3L.xXXni. M16T,1. »l.xxxiv. 

»L. VII., 8 83. ♦!*. XXXII. •ui8,a "nss. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BEADIHQ LESSONS. 209 

@totritt itt bit betttft^e @<^toei). 

grciet* at^mct fdf^on bic 33ruj!, 
^^tx* f(^lSgt cinfamc 8up, 
gricbc ijt c«, tt>a« ^icr toc^t, 
©onft gtt inncrm ©crjen gc^t, 
3)a6 Icin @d(>mcrj ba nimtnct pflrmt 
SKic fxdf 33erg auf S3crg ant^ilrmt, 
^^c« @^t»eigen un« ergrcift,' 
aBilbc« ©trclbcn nic^ft mc^r fc^^toeift 
^icr auf jHttcr 53[(<)cn^i5^',* 
SSo bcr fcrncn ©i^fcl @<3^ncc, 
<^o bie ^olfen golben malt, 
(5m{l 5U und ^entieber {ha^It 
@elig,*»er ba ^ilttcn hant, 
(Sinfam ber 9latur Dertraut, 
2)cr (Srinncrung nur Icbt, 
©ana P^ fcl^P in P« bergrfibt, 
(Singtg auf bad Sieb nur benft, 
2)a$ i^m ®ott ind ^ev) gefenlt; 
2)er ben ^ti^ter auder!or, 
2)a6 cr bric^^t an'« 2x^t ffttoox^ 
3Htcn ^clbcn0cijlc«' @J>ur I 
©titter @(^i5n^cit SlumenfCor, 
gem toon iener toftften SBelt, 
2)ic un« 2ltt' in geffcfe f}dit 
TIW i6) einft fo ginmi^i) fein, 
@oI(!^n griebend mi(i(^ in freu'n ; 
SHefer fd(>8nett 93ergc ^b^n 
92o^ aid ^eimat^ toieberfe^n. 

(griebrid^ toon e^Icgel, 1772—1829.) 



Johann Wol^ng von Ooethe. 

Joh. Wolf. Ton Gothe worde geboren den 28. August 1749 zu Frankfurt 
am Main, woeelbst sein Vater kaiserlicher Rath war. Im Jahre 1765 ging 
er nach Leipzig, wo er die Rechte studiren sollte, sich aber am meisten 
mit Dichtkunst beschaftigte, nnd anch Versuche im Kupferstechen machte. 
Von 1768 lebte er wieder in Frankfurt und studirte chemisdie Werke. Im 

M184»l. »81«A8. »L.XVm. '88,1. " 

tfiM. «fi57,2,l. «157,1. "IMtS. 



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210 READING LESSONS. 

Jahre 1770 bezog er die Universitat Strassborg, dort lerntc er Herder ken- 
nen^ und ward Doktor der Bechte. In das vaterliche Hans zoriickgekehrt, 
waren Shakspeare's — des grossen engUschen Dramatikers — ^Werke Gregen- 
stand seiner eifrigsten Studien. Im Jahre 1773 scbrieb er das Scbauspiel 
"Gotz von Berlicbingen," and 1774 den Roman: **Leiden des jungen 
Werther." Beide Werke begriindeten des Dichters* Ruf. Im Jahre 1776 
emannte ihn der Herzog Karl Angost von Weimar, mit dem er personlich 
bekannt geworden, zum Legations-Rath. Der Aufenthalt in Weimar, dem 
Mittelpunkt der deatscben Dichtknnst, hatte anf sein Leben nnd dichterischcs 
Wirken den entschiedensten Einfluss. Im Jahre 1786 reiste er nach Italien, 
wo er zwei Jahre verweilte und sich meistens in Rom aufhielt. W&hrend 
dieser Zeit' scbrieb er seine vollendetsten dramatischen Werke: ''Iphigenie 
in Tauris"— **Egmont"— "Torquato Tasso." Im Jahre 1792 machte er 
mit dem Herzoge yon Weimar im preussischen Heere den Feldzng g^en die 
Franzosen mit. Um* sich ganz der Poesie and Wissenschaft widmen za 
konnen, liess er sich seines Staatsdienstes entheben,* doch warde er sp&ter 
zam ersten Minister (Minister-Pr&sident) in Weimar emannt. Nach dem 
Tode des Herzogs im Jahre 1826 zog er sich zurQck. 

Gothe gilt als Haopt-Representant onserer zweiten classischen Periode. 
Er ist einer der grossten deatscben Dichter, wenn nicht der grosste. In fast 
alien Zweigen der Dicbtknnst hat er das aasgezeichnetste geleistet. Er ist 
gross in jeder Gattnng, am grossten* aber in Drama und Roman. Seine 
Tragodien: "Gotz von Berlichingen," "Egmont," *'Iphigenie in Tauris," 
"Tasso," etc., werden allgemein bewundert. Seine Tragudie "Faust" aber 
ist als sein hochstes Weik in d^ Poesie, als die Krone sein^ Dlchtungen 
betrachtet. Seine Lieder, Elegien, Balladen, gelten als Master. Grosses'* 
leistete er im Epos durch eine Bearbeitung des "Reineke Fnchs'* and durch 
* * Hermann and Dorothea," im Roman durch " Werthers Leiden, " " Wilhelm 
Meisters Lehijahre," und "Wilhelm Meisters Wandeijahre." 

Bis zu seinem Tode hatte er sich einer^ angewohnlichen geistigen Frische, 
der voUkommensten Gesundheit and der heitersten Gemuthsstimmung za 
erfreuen. Er starb nach kurzem and schmerzlosem Krankenlager am 22. 
Marz 1833, fast vom ganzen Volke als der "deutsche Dichterf tti-st" verehrt, 
von etlichen angefeindet, von mehreren zum Crott gemacht. 

(Dann.) 



(gin SBoIf im @^(af i $an« o^nc glctg . 

gfingt ntc ctn @^af. | SBirb nimmcr iDcif. 

iS144,7. »fi 15,1,1. * 5144, 6. ^ 5 89, iZem. 10. 

.sfi74,l,l,l. «S26T,iiem.e. «S93,iicm.2. 8fi88»8. . 



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BEADING LESSONS. Sll 

SDtc SBejlfiot^cn njollten burc^ 3taUcn na^ Hfrifa ttjanbcnt, untcrttjcgs* florB 
pU^ix6} ^taxi6}, t^r ^i5mg, ben fic ilber bic 2Kage (tcbtcn, S)a ^uben fie art,' 
unb leitetcri ben glug 53arent, bcr ncbcn bcr @tabt (Sofcntict ijom gugc bc8 
S5ergc8 picgt, au« fcincm S3ettc ai6.' 2Rittcn in bcm SBctt Kcgcn pe nun burd^ 
cincn ^aufcn ©cfangcncr ctn ®rab Qxabm, unb in ben @(?(>o6 bcr ©rube be* 
Jtatteten fie, nebfl* toielen ^oftbarfeitcn, i^rcn tSnig ?llarid(^. ; 2Bie bag gefc^^bcu 
xoav, tclteten fic bae SBaffcr ttjieber in« a(te S3ette jurild, unb*t6bteteft, battiit bic 
^tfittc bon ntcmanb ijcrrat^en njilrbc, aUc bic, ml(i)t ba« ®rab gegraben fatten. 

(®agc, t>on ben 93rftbcrn ©rimrn.) 



Aufruf des Eonigs von Preussen. 

An mein Voik. 
So wenig f iir mein treaes Vdk als fur Deutsche bedarf es*einer Bechen- 
schaft uber die Ursachen des Kriegs, welcher jetzt beginnt : klar liegen sie 
dem unverblendeten Europa vor Augen. Wir eiiagen^ unter der Uebeimacht 
frankreichs. Der Friede, der die H'aifte meiner Unterthanen mir entriss, 
gab uns seine Segnungen nicht, denn er schlag nns tiefere Wunden, als sdbst 
der Krieg, Das Mark des Landes ward ausgesogen. Die Hauptfestungen 
blieben vom Feinde besetzt, der Ackerbau ward gd&bmt, sowie der sonst so 
hochgebrachte Kunstfleiss unserer Stadte. Die Freiheit des Handels ward 
gehemmt nnd dadarch die Quelle des Erwerbes und des Wohlstandes ver- 
stopft. Das Land ward'ein Ranb der Yerarmung. Durcb die strengste £r- 
fullung eingegangener Verbindlichkeiten hoffte ich meinem Volko Erleicbte- 
rung zu vcrscbafifen, und den franzosischeh Kaiser endlich zu iiberzengen, 
dass 06 sein eigener Vortheil sei, Preussen seine Unabhangigkeit zu lassen. 
Aber meine reinsten Absichten wui'den durcb Uebermuth und Trenlosigkeit 
vereitelt, und nur zu deutlich sahen wir, dass des Kaisers Vertrage mehr 
noch wie seine Kriege uns langsam verderben mussten. Jetzt* ist der Augen- 
blick gekommen, wo alle Tauschung iiber unsem Zustand scbwindet. Bran- 
denbnrger, Preussen, Schlesier, Pommem,^Litthauer I Ihr wisst, was ihr seit 
sieben Jahren erduldet habt ; ihr wisst, was euer trauriges Loos ist, wenn 
wir den b^nnenden Kampf nicht ehrenyoU enden. Erinnert euch an die 
Vorzeit, an den grossen Kurfursten, an den gross'en Friedrich. Bleibet^ein- 
gedenk^ der Guter, die unter ihnen unsere Vorfahren blutig erkampften : Ge- 
wissensfreiheit, Ehre, Unabhangigkeit, Handel, Kunstfleiss und Wissenschaft. 
Gedenkt des grossen Beispiels unserer machtigen Verbiindeten, gedenkt der 
Spanier und Portugiesen ; selbst kleine Volker sind fur gleiche Guter gegen 
iU88,&. 35151,1. »fil44,2. . 1875,4. '■ 

»an*elctt. *5230. «li48. •iiw.i. 



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212 BEADING LESSONS. 

m&chtigere Feinde in dea Eampf gezogen und haben den Sieg errangen ;* 
erinnert euch an die lieldenmttthigen Schweizer and Niedcriander. Grosse 
Opfer werden yon alien Standen gefordert werden,^ denn unser Beginnen ist 
gross, and niclit gering die Zahl and die Mittel anserer Feinde. Ihr werdet 
jene lieber bringen fur das Vaterland, fur enren angeborenen Konig, als fur 
einen firemden Herrscher, der, wie so viele Beispiele lehren, eare Suhne and 
eare letzten Enfte Zwecken widmen wurde, die each ganz fremd sind. Ver- 
tranen' aaf Gott, Aasdauer, Math and der machtige Beistand anserer Bnn- 
desgenossen werden nnserm redlichen Anstrengen siegreichen Lohn gewfihren. 
Aber welche Opfer auch yon einzelnen gefordert werden mugen, sie wiegen 
die heiligen Giiter nicht aaf, f iir die wir sie hingeben, f Ur die wir streiten and 
siegen mttssen, wenn wir nicht aaf horen wollen, Freassen and Deutsche zu 
sein. £s ist der letzte entscheidende Kampf, den wir bestehen f Ur unsere 
Existenz, nnsere Unabhangigkeit, nnsem Wohlstand. Keinen andem Aus- 
weg gibt* es, als einen ehrenyollen Frieden oder einen mhmyollen Untergang. 
Auch diesem wiirdet ihr getrost entgegengehen, weil ehrlos der Deutsche nicht 
zu leben yermag. Allein wir dUrfen mit Zuyersicht yertrauen, Gott and un^ 
set* fester Wille werden anserer gerechten Sache den Sieg yerleihen, mit ihm 
einen sichem glorreichen Frieden and die Wiederkehr einerglticklichenZeit. 
Breslau, den 17. Marz 1813. Friedrich Wilhelm. 



(Sin iD'^il^tfiem nnb etn iV^enf^en^eq 
SSirb flets ^crumgctricBcn ;• 

SSirb «cibc« fclbfl gcrricbcru* 



SnrjioetUge ^ragen. 

1. 2Ba8 tjl ni^t rc^t unb boc^^ fcinc @llnbc ? 

2. SBcnn fUnf OSfic flnb nnb fUnf (Sicr aufgctragcn ttjcrben, ttJic !atm Jcbcr 
cin (Si lic^mcn unb bo^ julc^t nod^ eincs in bcr @^ft(fcl bicibcn? 

8. Scl^c flnb bic ^Sttcjlcn' SWlffc? 

4. 9Bie tonn nton and einem @a(f bott ^orn jtoet folder SSde augletfi^ tooO 
ntftc^n? 
6. aSarum ijl in Ulm ciu ®rof(!^brob grSgcr bcnn in ©df^aff^aufcn? 

6. SBaS fic^t jtoifd^cn SBcrg unb 2:^ ? 

7. 2Bann t^un bcm ^fcn bic 3^^nc toc^ ?® 

8. ntW SWcnfc^^cn gc^cn auf «8^)fen? 

9. (Sin i^Itnber fa^ einen $afen laufen, etn Saunter ft>tang il^m na^, unb ein 
S'^atfter f!c(!t i^n in bie %Ci\6^t ; tt)a« ifl ba« ? 

10. gBel^er tft ber \iiXott^t @tab? 

» 5144,1. 3$ 268. « 5 16T, 1. '591. 

s5iei. «L.XLV,8. «5144,6w Bn4ft. 



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READING LESSONS. 213 

1. !Dett Fuifctt ^onbf^tt^ cuf blc rcd^te ^ant) iic^m. 

2. !Der Sc^te nimmt cined fammt ber ©c^uffel. 
8. SBetrubniffc unb QJefangniffc. 

4. SWan muf jwei <Sdtfe» fiber etnanberjlc^cn unb ben inncrflcn ffiUen. 

5. SS3etI man ed ^xhitt UdU 

6. Da« aBSrtlcitt „unb." 

7. SBenn bic ^unbc i^n beigen. 

8. !Dic S'iagcl'' in ben ©tiefeln ^oben. 

9. ©nc CuQc. 
10. Der S3ettelilab. 



2»cerc8ftiDe* 

2:tefe ©titte ^errfc^t im SBaffer, 

O^nc SRegung ru^t ba« Tlttx, 
Unb beKlmmert fie^t ber @d;tffcr 

©latte glSci^c ring« um?>er. 
^einc 2uft, Don fetner ©cite 1 

2:obe8fHtte, filrd^tcrti^ I 
3n ber unge^curen 2Bcitc 

9legct fcine Sa3ette fid^.' (®5t^e.) 

Der Cirknitzer See. 

An den julischen Alpen liegt in Krain der berUhmte Cirknitzer* See, von 
jeher das Wander und Bathsel der Gegend. Oestlich von Adelsberg, da wo 
die Geheimnisse der Unterwelt^ in hundert Gewolben und Kalkfelsen ver- 
schlossen sind, breitet sich der wunderschone See TOn Cirknitz aus, wie ein 
Spiegel Yon drei Quadratmeilen. Aus ihm ragen hervor* f unf Inseln und 
eine derselben tr'agt selbst das Purfchen Ottok. Mehrere Fltisschen^ fallen 
hinein. £r ist sehr reich an Fischen und Wasservogeln, und die ganze 
Thalgegend umher ist romantisch schon. Nordlich erhebt sich das Silvi- 
nitza-Gebirge, westlich und siidlich der grosse Javornik. Neun Dorfer, 
zwanzig Kirchen un4 zwei Schlosser reihen sich um den See. Bei vielem 
Regen gewinnt er an Umfang, aber bei sehr trockenem Wetter verschwindet 
sein Gewasser und zieht in den geheimen Schooss der Unterwelt, begleitet 
vom Wassergefliigel und alien Fischen. Tritt diese wunderbare Erscheinung 
ein, dann lanten die Dorfglocken umher, um noch zu fischen so viel als mog- 
lich. Yon Stnnde zu Stunde sinkt tiefer der Spiegel, denn eine Menge Ton 
Lochem im Grande des Sees verschluckt sein Gewasser. Unterirdische 
Hohlen yon unermesslichemUmfang, die nie ein menschliches^Auge geschaut, 
nehmen es auf. Jetzt schaut der Grand des Sees sum heiteren . Himmel 

' i T4, 3, Rem. '. 3515S.' 6(68,1. 1 5 57, 1, 1. 

«fi74,l.l,l. *§86,2,5,iJcm.2. M187,l. «»«86,2,«. 



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214 BEADING LESSONS. 

hinauf, er trocknet ab; and der riihrige Mensch erntet Gras, wo er sonst 
fischte, er wagt za saen und erndtet Hirse and Bnchweizen, er nimmt statt 
dcs Ketzes das Fenerrohr and erlegt Wildpret. So ist der wonderbare See 
mit Recht in dem Rufe^dass man in ihm fischen, jagen und emdten kann ; 
bis die Zeit sich wendet, haufige Regengusse and starke Grewitter sich ein- 
stellen. Dann tritt das Gewasser aas den Grundlochem gewaltsam heranf. 
£s speiet die Unterwelt Gewasser and Fische and Seevogel heranf, so dass 
binnen vierondzwanzig Standen der See gleichsam wieder nen geschaffen ist. 
Der Zasammenhang dieses Sees mit nnterirdischen Wasserhohlen, die theils 
nnter ihm, theils hoher als er liegen, giebt die Erklarang des Wanders. Man 
hat selbst Modelle erfanden, wdche den Yorgang versinnlichen. 

(J. C. F. Gats Maths.) 



2)er liorft^ttge S^rinmer. 

3n bem ^t&bt^en SBttU9ba(!f^ m CEonton i^ent toar etnmol ein grember flbet 
^a6ft, unb aid er ind Sett ge^en toollte, jog er no(!f^ ein $aar ^ontoffeln aud 
bem Silnbel, legte fie an, banb fte ntit ben @trum)>fb5nbem an ben gfigeit fefl, 
unb (egte fl^ alfo ind Sett. 2)a fagte ju t^m ein anberer SQSanberdmonn, ber 
in ber nfimlid^en hammer flbemdd^tet tear : «®uter greunb, toamm t^ut t^t 
bad ?'* 2)aranf ertoiberte ber ©rfle : wSSegen ber S5orf!df|t. S)enn \6} bin: ein* 
mat im Xraum in eine Oladfdf^erbe gctrcten. ©o ^abe i^ m @d(>(af folc^^c 
©^merjen babon em)>funben, bag i6) urn tetnen ^reid me^r barfug \6flci\m 
m^tt.** (3. ^. ©ebel, 1760-1826.) 



BaS bet 9Ronb ersplt. 

^i5re, tt)a6 ber ilKonb mir erjS^tt I 3^ ))aU ben ^abettcnofpgier toerben unb 
\i6) yam erjlen SWale in feine iprSd^tigc Uniform flciben fc^cn ; x6f ^abe ba« 
iunge Wt^'t)6)tn in i^rcm Srautflaat gefc^en unb bee gftrflen jungc Sraut 
9(il(ttidSi in i^rem ^ra(i(^tanjuge ; aber nie ^abe \6f eine @e(tg!eit erblidt, fi^n* 
U^ ber eined Heinen bterji^^rtgen Wl8!t>6)tn9, to>d(i^d x6f ^ute ^benb beob* 
ac^^tete. @ie ^atte ein neue« b(aue« ^eib er^ten unb etnen neuen 3lofa*4>ut; 
ber @taat n>ar eben angelegt unb Me rtefen nadf Sidt>t,benn bed ST^onbed 
@tra^len, bic burd^ ba« genjier brongen, toaren nid^t ^ett genug, gonj anbere 
Sici^ter mugten ongebrannt toerbem 2)a flanb ba« Keine aWfibdS^en, jieif tote 
cine ^n^^e, bie Strme Sngfllid^ bon bem ^leibe cib auSjlrecfenb, bie ginger toeit 
au«cinanber gef})retjt» O toeldfie @eltg!ett fhra^Ite au« i^ren S(ugen/au« i^rem 
ganjen ®t\i6)t I tMoxQtn fottfl 2)u in bem ^etbe au9ge^en I" fagte bie SD'^ut' 
ter, unb bie^(eine blitfte auf gu i^rem ©ut unb toieber nieber gu i^rem ^leibe 
unb W^elte feftg. „9Wntter !" rief fie, wtt)a« toerben tooijH bie fleinen ^ftnb* 
dftn benten, tbenn fte mic^ in biefem ©taate erbliden?" 

(^an« (5^r. ?(nberfcn.) 



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"•N 



part <2:i)trb: 

A COKPEKB OF 

GERMAN GRAMMAR; 

WITH AN 

INTRODUCTION UPON THE HISTORY, CHARACTERISTICS, 

EXTENT OF USE, AND DIALECTS OF THE 

GERMAN.LANGUAGE. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



1. History of the German Language. 

% 1. Indo-European Historiaiis are united in the opin- 
Languages. ion that the greater portion of the 

present inhabitants of Europe and Hindostan are descend- 
ed from one common stock, which had its early home in 
the western part of the Himalaya Mountains. From this 
mountain region, one portion of this original stock moved 
down to the rich plains of India, and developed the San- 
scrit language and literature, and the Buddhist religion. 
Another part went to Persia, and there developed the Bac- 
trian language and the Parsee religion. Successive migra- 
tions passed also to the west or northwest, and settled in the 
different parts of Europe. From these western migrations 
have sprung the chief groups of European nationalities 
and languages. The most important of these are the 6^r^- 
cian^Italic^Kdtic^TeutonWj and Slavic. 

When classed together, the inhabitants of Europe and 
India are called the Indo-European branch of the human 
family. Their languages, termed the Indo-European lan- 
guages, are more perfectly developed, and are richer in lit- 
erary treasures, than any other languages in the world. 
Upon the study of them has been based essentially the very 
important modem science of Philology. 

§ 2. Teutonic The Teutonic was one of the largest of 

Languages, these migrations. Moving through cen- 

ti*al Europe, it divided into three branches. One portion 

K 



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218 INTEODUCTION. [§ S. 

passed over to the Scandinavian peninsulas of Norway and 
Sweden, and of Denmark. Another part moved westerly 
and settled in Germany. The third division, composed of 
the Gothic tribes, passed through Poland and Kussia down 
to the Black Sea, and then moved up the Danube. Urged 
by their restless spirit of conquest, the Goths pushed for- 
ward into Western and Southern Europe, and established 
two brilliant, but short-lived kingdoms upon the ruins of 
the Roman empire. That of the East Goths covered Italy, 
Switzerland, and parts of Bavaria, Austria, and European 
Turkey. That of the West Goths covered most of France 
and Spain. In the eighth century the Goths disappeared 
completely and finally from history. Of their language 
and literature, the only monuments extant are parts of the 
translation of the Bible, made by Bishop Ulfilas in the 
fourth century, a fragment of an almanac, and two short 
bills of sale. These meagre remains of the Gothic lan- 
guage furnished the starting-point for the comparative 
study of the Teutonic languages. 

The same principles of linguistic science that were ap- 
plied by the brothers Grimm and others to the Teutonic 
languages, were applied by Bopp and his colaborers to the 
wider field of the Indo-European languages. And thus has 
arisen, within the last fifty years, the new and interesting 
science of Comparative Language. 

By the ninth century after Christ, the great majority of 
the Scandinavian and German tribes liad settled down 
within their present dominions, and they have there devel- 
oped their separate nationalities, languages, and literatures. 
The Germans pressed back to the west of the Eiver Ehine 
the Kelts, whom they found extending their dominion as 
far east as the present cities of Berlin and Vienna. The 
Germans were in turn pushed forward to the west by the 
Slavic tribes as far as to the River Elbe and the city of 
Coburg. A reflex movement afterward set in. The Ger- 
man language, which has already spread to the eastward 



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§3.] 



HISTpEr OF THE GEBMAN LANGUAGE. 



■ 219 



as far as the 
lau in the P; 
Austria, is sti 
the Prussian 
and Silesia, 
ravia, and 
guage is 
on the 
Alsace 
Ther< 



an( 



[tic provinces of Eussia, to the city of Bres- 

dan province of Silesia, and to Vienna in 

gaining ground over the Slavic dialects in 

provinces of East and West Prussia, Posen, 

" in the Austrian provinces of Bohemia, Mo- 

■alicia. On the other hand, the French lan- 

ling on the German in the regions bordering 

le, and especially in the French provinces of 

Flanders, and in Belgium. 

ftonio languages have thus three chief divisions: 



The GOTmC, which in the ninth century entirely 
lisappeared from history. 

2. Tlie SCANDINAVIAN, covering Sweden, Norway, 

Denma/rk, Iceland, and Greenland. 

3. The GEBMANIC, covering Germany, Holland, parts 

of Switzerland and Belgium, England, the United 
States, British America, and Australia. 

§ 3. Germanic Differences in the dialects of the Ger- 
Langoages. man tribes are noticeable as early as 
when the Eomans first came in contact with them. As 
these tribes, still in the rudeness and ignorance of barbar- 
ism, became permanently settled in their present localities, 
and thus ceased to have much intercommunication, the dia- 
lectic differences in language were rapidly increased. And 
now almost every province, city, village, valley, and moun- 
tain district has its distinctive dialect. The difference be- 
tween the dialects has become so great, that a peasant from 
Ba^^a or Wirtemberg, in passing through Hamburg or 
Busmen on his way to America, can only with the greatest 
diflSculty convwse with his fellow-emigrant from Bremen, 
Hamburg, Holstein, Mecklenburg, or Pomerania. 

From this multitude of dialects have arisen several of 
the most cultivated languages of modem times, as the Ger- 
man, Dntch« and English languages. The German dialects 



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INTEODUCnOK. [§ 4-6. 

are divided, by a line running from Aix-la-ChapeUe to 
Berlin, into Upper-Germcm ^xA Lower-German dialects. 

§ 4. Lower-German The Lower -German dialects (and 
Dialects. the languages that have sprung from 

them) occupy, or originally occupied, the low sandy plain 
which lies between the German Ocean, Denmark, and the 
Baltic Sea on the north, and the line above indicated on 
the south. They extend also from the French province 
of Flanders on the west, to the Russian confines on the 
Baltic on the east. From Lower -German dialects have 
sprung the Dutch and the English languages. 

During the early Middle Ages the Friesan language, spo- 
ken on the coasts and in the islands off the shores of Hol- 
land and Hanover, rose to a perfection nearly equal to that 
of any contemporaneous Teutonic language. But it has 
long since sunk back into mere local dialects. 

§ 5. Upper-German The Upper-German dialects occupy 
Dialects. the high mountainous region ex- 

tending from the line above indicated on the norfii, to the 
Alps on the south, and from the French province of Al- 
sace on the west, to Hungary and Poland on the east. 

§ 6. The High-German Li the fifteenth century com- 
Language. menced a chain of circumstances 

beginning with the translation of the Bible by Luther, which 
has resulted in the formation of a national German Lan- 
guage. This High' Oerman Language, more " commonly 
called in English simply the German Language^vj^ based 
primarily on one of the dialects of Saxony, in Central 
Germany, which was intermediate both in character and 
in geographical position between the Upper and the Lower 
German dialects. Both the Upper and the Lower German 
dialects have contributed to the grammatical features as 
well as to the vocabulary of the national language. 



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§ 7-9.] niSTOBY OF TIIE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 221 

§ 7. History of the German The history of the German 
Language. language is divided into four 

chief periods ; the Pre-IRstoTiCy the Old-Germcm^ the Mid- 
dle-Germany and the New-German. 

§ 8. Pre-Historic Period, The Pre-Historic period is so 
till 7th Century. named because no remains of 
the German literature, and but a few proper names in the 
language of that time, have been preserved. From this 
period, which ends with the seventh century after Christ, 
there are extant literary works in several of the other Teu- 
tonic languages, as, the translation of the Bible into the 
Gothic language, made by Bishop Ulfilas (A.D. 360-388); 
ihe Anglo-Saxon -poemy Beovulf, the earliest Teutonic epic, 
evidently of heathen origin and composed at a very early 
date, though the earliest manuscript of it extant is from 
the eightli century ; and the Scandinavian Eddas^ also of 
very early and unknown date, and of heathen origin. 

§ 9. Old-German Period, The earliest literary remains in 
7th to 11th Centuries. the German language that are 
extant consist almost entirely of translations of ecclesiasti- 
cal documents from the Latin and the Greek. The oldest 
of these date from the seventh century. They are of but 
little literary merit, but they are of great importance in 
studying the literary development of the German lan- 
guage. The oldest preserved German poem is the Song 
ofRildehrandt (^ilt)Cbranbtg^?ieb), dating from about the 
eighth century. It is written in a Lower-German dialect, 
but it contains many Upper-German words. The next im- 
portant poem is the ^cUanb; a religious poem of about the 
ninth century, written in the Old-Saxon dialect. The SBelt^ 
©cfd^reibung, composed in the eleventh century, is the old- 
est preserved German poem that does not treat of a relig- 
ious subject. 

Like all new languages, the German dialects were orig- 



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222 rNTBODuonoN. [§ 10 

inally very poor in words. They were, liowever, mnch 
richer than the modem German in^ grammatical forms. 
Dmdng the Old-German period, the dialects were enriched 
from the Latin and Greek by many words, whose nse was 
made necessary by the introduction of Christianity and of 
a higher civilization. From this period date many such 
words, as ©ngel (Gr. ayycXoc), ^ird^c (Gr. icvpiaicn\ ® ^reibcn 
(Lat. 8crihere\ bid^ten (Low-Lat. dictare\ ^lojter (Lat. clavS' 
tTum\ ^rtefler (TrpEa/Surtpoc). 

§ 10. Middle-Qennan Period, Before the Middle-Ger- 
12th to 16th Centuries. man period, no dialect had 
acquired any great predominance over the others. In the 
twelfth century, German commerce, manufactures, chival- 
ry, and poetry flourished most luxuriantly on the Lower 
Ehine, and especially in and around Flanders. At tliis 
time the Lower-German dialect of Flanders became the- 
most cultivated in Germany. Soon, however, the Flemish 
poetry was eclipsed by the songs of the Minnesingers 
(SWinnefanger) of AUemania and Suabia, on the Upper Ehine 
(A.D. 1150-1250). These were sung so widely through 
the courts of Germany that they almost made a national 
language from the dialects of AUemania and Suabia. With 
the last of the Crusades (A.D. 1250) the spirit of chivalry 
died out of Europe, and with it perished the poetry it had 
nourished. During this period of the Minnesingers arose 
the 9lolanb0??iet) : the great German epic— the yiiebclungen^? 
?ieb : and many other popular legends and romances. 

In tlie latter part of the thirteenth century, clubs of lyr- 
ic poets, called Master -singers (2)161 jlerfcinger), were organ- 
ized in many parts of Germany. These had their terms 
and rules of membership, like the many trades-unions of 
the Middle Ages. The spirit of their poetry spread to the 
people. From this period date the great mass of the beau- 
tiful popular songs (SSolf^^-gtebcr) of Germany. Under the 
influence of these Master-singers, the vocabularies of many 



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§ 11,12.] raSTOBY OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 223 

dialects were greatly enriched, but still no one dialect gain- 
ed any great supremacy over the others. 

The universities that were established in Germany, on 
the model of those in Italy (the first in Prague, A.D. 1348) ; 
the commercial prosperity of the free cities, and the conse- 
quent flourishing condition of the fine and useful arts ; the 
conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (A.D. 1453), and 
the consequent dispersion of Greek scholars over all Eu- 
rope ; the invention of printing (A.D. 1450) ; the estab- 
lishing of newspapers (A.D. 1488) ; and, finally, tlie Refor- 
mation in the sixteenth century, were all additional influ- 
ences that greatly enriched the more cultivated dialects 
during the latter part of the Middle-German period, and 
pi'epared the way for the last, the New-German period. 

§ 11. Changes in the Language During the fifteenth cen* 
during the 15th Century. tury the poetic side of the 
language lost much in purity, beauty, pathos, and power. 
On tlie other hand, the dialects were greatly enriched by 
the addition of teclmical, scientific, metaphysical, and theo- 
logical terms, as was required by the advance of science, 
invention, commerce, and pulpit eloquence, of prose in pre- 
dominance over poetic literature, and by the increase in 
the general intelligence of the people. 

§ 12. New-German Period, The extensive circulation 
16th Century till present time, throughout Germany of 
the translation of the Bible made by Luther (1522), and of 
the sermons and h5Tnns published by Luther, Jonas, Speng- 
ler, and othera, soon made the new High-German Lan- 
yuage (§ 6) in which they were written very widely known 
in all the German states. Additional impetus was given 
to the High-German language by the pubUcation in it of 
humorous and satirical poems and fables, collections of 
proverbs, works of history and of natural history, transla- 
tions of works of classical writers, and other books that 



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224 iNTEODucnoN. [§ 13, 

were read largely by the people. Above all, a foundation 
was laid, by the publication of grammars and dictionaries, 
for a critical and scientific knowledge of the language. 
The High-German has added to its vocabulary from the 
local dialects (§ 6) and from ancient and modem foreign 
languages, and has become the sole language of literature, 
of official intercourse, and of polite society throughout all 
Germany. It has not, however, displaced any of the local 
dialects. These retain their vitality with great tenacity, 
especially among the peasantry. 

§ 13. Foreign The use of Latin in scientific writings, in 
Influences. lectures at the universities, and as the lan- 
guage of intercourse among literary men of different na- 
tions during the Middle Ages, greatly retarded the develop- 
ment of the German as a cultivated language. The polit- 
ical predominance of France during the reign of Louis • 
XIV., the spread of the French as the language of the court 
throughout all Europe, and the immigration from France 
of the banished Huguenots after tlie revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, 1685, caused the introduction of many French 
words and idioms into the German language* 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, some bold 
German scholars, as Gessner and Leibnitz, ventured upon 
the great innovation of lecturing in the xmiversities, and 
publishing their scientific writings in the German language. 
A general movement soon set in to rescue the language 
from the comiptions that had crept in during the preceding 
century. This movement, so ably begun by Gessner, Leib- 
nitz, Opitz, and others, and afterwards so greatly strength- 
ened by the pure style in German prose and poetry of such 
writers as IQopstock, Wieland, and Lessing, received a great 
check by the second invasion into Germany of French man- 
ners, morals, literature, and philosophy, which was led on 
by Frederick the Great during the latter part of the eight- 
eenth century. 



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§ 14.] HISTOBY OF THE GEEMAN LANGUAGE. 225 

Tlie brilliant and numerous constellation of writers in 
every branch of literature, science, philosophy, and criti- 
cism, which arose in Germany during the first half of the 
present century, including such names as Goethe, Schiller, 
Schlegel, Humboldt, Fichte, Hegel, Eanke, Heyne, Grimm, 
etc., liave made this tlie second classic period of the Ger- 
man language and literature. The present purity, richness, 
and elegance of the language are also owing in no small de- 
gree to the fact that the German has displaced the French 
as the language of court, and the Latin as the language of 
scientific and pliilosophical literatin*e. 

§ 14. Grammatical Changes in the During its develop- 
Language during its History. ment from the sev- 
enth century after Christ till the present time^ the German 
language has undergone many and very radical changes. 
In the Old-German there was a much more complete and 
complex system of grammatical forms in the inflection of 
the verb, noun, pronoun, and adjective than there is in the 
New-Gennan. 

The Old-German had twenty-fim^ and the Gothic forty 
endings in the inflection of the noun, while the New-Ger- 
man has but seven (e, c^, ^, en, n, er, em). There was an in- 
strumental case ; three forms for tlie three genders of the 
plural of the pronoim fte, they (m. sie, y! sio, n. siu) ; and 
three forms for the plural of the adjective (as, for blinbe, 
hlind; m. plinth, ^ plinto, n. plintu). 

The very extended conjugation of the verb gave the 
Old-German more musical beauty and more adaptation to 
poetry, while on the other hand tlie Old-German is infe- 
rior to the New-German in its capacity to express thought 
and scientific truth. Wliile some radical words disap- 
peared during the Old and Middle -German periods, the 
vocabulary of the New-German has been enriched by many 
new derivatives and compounds of native words, and by 
the addition of many foreign words. 

K2 

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226 INTRODUCTION. [§ 15. 

§ 15. History of the No critical work on the German 

Critical Study of the language appeared until several 
German Language. centuries after grammars had been 
written upon some of the other languages of Europe, as the 
Italian, Spanish, French, and Anglo-Saxon. The first Ger- 
man grammar was written (1540) hj IckeUamer^ a contem- 
porary of Luther. The first treatise on German prosody was 
by Ojyitz (1624) ; the first German dictionary was by Ge- 
nisch (1616) ; and the first work on German synonyms was 
by Gottschedd (1758). 

The wrong principles of grammatical analysis, which 
had crept into the German grammars during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, were checked and correct- 
ed hy Addung^vfho^ great German grammar and diction- 
ary (1793-1801) marked an epoch in the critical study of 
the German language. It was reserved to the present cen- 
tury, however, to develop the true principles of compam- 
tive and historic study of language. And within the last 
fifty years have appeared the great comparative and histor- 
ical grammars of Grimm^ Heyse^ BecJcer, Kehrein^ Kelle^ 
and others ; and the dictionaries oiHeyse^ Wei^andj Meyer , 
Sanders J Schmitthenner^ and Grimm, That of the broth- 
ers Grimmy when complete, mil fill about twenty octavo 
volumes, and will be the most complete dictionary ever yet 
produced of any language. Many noted philologists in Ger- 
many and many learned societies are constantly adding, by 
their researches, to the knowledge of the German language 
and its dialects. 

During the histoiy of the language, letters have been ex- 
changed, addei, and dropped ; nouns have passed from one 
gender to another, and from one declension to another. 
Within the last fifty years uniformity has been introduced 
into the spelling, and the complicated construction of sen- 
tences, which formerly prevailed, has to a degree been re- 
placed by the original simplicity of German syntax. 



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-^ 



§ 16.] HISTOEY OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 227 

§ 16. B68Tun& We thus find the history of the German 
language to be divided into four chief periods, with subdi- 
visions as follows : 

1. The PRoil-HISTOKIC TERIOB, endin/j with the Sev- 

enth Century; with no remains of the language 
extant except a few proper names. 

2. The OLD-GEKMAN PERIOD, /rc^m the Seventh to 

the Seventh Century ; translations from Latin of 
legal and ecclesiastical documents, ^ilithxaxiit^^ 
?ieb, ^elianb,2Belt^93efd^reibung. 
8. The MIDDLE -GERMAN PERIOD, from the 
Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century : 

1. Flemish poetry, in the Twelfth Century. 

2. Minnesingers, Slolanb^ ^ ?icb, 9iiebelungcn:^?icb, 
legends and romances; ik\Q First Classical Pe- 
riod oi the German language (1150-1250). 

3. Master -singers, popular songs; decadence of 
poetry and prose (1250-1500). 

4. The NEW -GERM AN V'E.RIOJ), from Luther's 
J>ranslation oftheBihle (1522) to the present time : 
Ijirt- ' 7 ^ ^ ^ 1. Sixteenth Century ; religious hymns, sermons, 
univereities, public schools, printing ; introduc- 
tion of many technical terms in science, art^ 
/ ' 1 ^ - / 7 ^ ^ ^^^ pliilosophy. 

2. Seventeenth Century ; decadence of the lan- 
guage tlu'ough French influence. 

3. Eighteenth Century; purifying of the lan- 
guage from foreign elements, and foundation 
of tlie language as it now exists ; German dis- 
places Latin in the universities.^ 

4. Middle of the Eighteenth Century ; second de-^ 
cadence of tlie language under French influ- 
ence. 

6. Nineteenth Century: Adelung, Lessing, Goethe, 
Schiller, Grimm, Bopp, Humboldt, etc. ; Second 
Classical Period of the German language. 



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228 mTBODUcttoN. [§17~19. 

2. Characteristics of the German Language. 

§ 17. First Impression. To most foreigners who go to 
Germany without an acquaintance with the language, and 
especially to those speaking English, French, Italian, or 
Spanish, the German language "has an energetic but harsh 
sound. This is owing mostly to the great j)redominance of 
consonants over vowels, and to the frequent recurrence of 
the sharp diphthong ei, of the f(^, of gutturals^ and of 
dovhle consonants. The energy of tlic language is greatly 
increased by the accent falling so frequently upcn the first 
syllable, as is the case even in very long words. The ca- 
dence and intonation of the sentences in the German are 
very different from the same in the English language. 

§ 18. Fullness of A nearer acquaintance shows that the 
the Vocabulary. German language is extremely rich in 
words; that, though full of energy and force, the language 
has also an abundance of words expressive of the most del- 
icate sentiments and emotions ; that it successfully express- 
es the deep feeling, the warm friendship and hospitality, the 
humor, wit, and pathos, and the brilliant and highly poetic 
imagination of the Gennan people ; and that its vocabula- 
ry is sufficiently extensive to meet all the requirements of 
modem civilization. 

TheriB is in tlie language an unlimited power of multi- 
plying words, by forming compounds from simple words. 
Indeed, the very great majority of German words can be 
traced back to a very small number of primitive roots, na- 
tive to the lanffuasje itself. 

§ 19. Purity from In the German language there are 

Foreign Elements, about forty thousand words of foreign 

origin, which are not so fully naturalized but that their for- 

eignness is still felt. Many of these are but rarely used, and 

most of them may be replaced by words of German origin. 



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§ 20.] CHAI£ACTERI8TIC8 OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 229 

Some thousands of words, however, which have been intro- 
duced since the seventh centiu'y (as fd^reiben, $ferb, dnQtl, 
Sird^e), are so completely incorporated into the language 
that their foreign origin is now " no longer felt." Still tliere 
are but few languages in which foreign words are so little 
used as in the German. The rigidness witli reference to 
the exclusion of foreign words, which the so-called "pur- 
ists" introduced into the language in the early part of tlie 
present century, lias of late very greatly relaxed. 

§ 20. Comparison of The German grammar is far more 
German and English complicated than the English. The 
Grammar. definite article, and every adjective, 

or adjective pronoun, have six forms, while in English each 
has but one form. In the declension of the noun, seven 
terminations may be used (besides the umlaut on tlie radi- 
cal vowel), while in English there are but two terminations, 
and no modification of the radical vowel. Adjectives and 
adjective pronouns may be declined in three ways, or may 
be used without declension, while in English they are al- 
ways without declension. The gender of nouns is arbi- 
trary and not natural, many nouns that are neuter in En- 
glish being masculine, and others being feminine in Ger- 
man. In the conjugation of the verb, the radical vowel oft- 
en takes tlie umlaut. Tlie past participle generally adds 
a prefix syllable, and always has a participial termination. 
In compound verbs, the prefix to die verb, whicli in En- 
glish can not be i*emoved farther than to immediately after 
the object of the verb, in German may be placed at the 
close of even a long sentence. One or more long quali- 
fying clauses may intervene between the article and its 
noun. The order of sequence of auxiliary verbs is entire- 
ly reversed in conjunctive sentences. Prepositions and 
verbs govern three cases of the substantive instead of a 
'single one, as in English. The object precedes the verb 
more frequently than in English. 



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230 INTRODUCTION. [§ 21. 

The German has the advantage over tlie English lan- 
guage in several respects. The infinitive of verbs is always 
indicated by a termination (-en). The past participle is 
marked by a termination (-t or -en),- and generally also by 
a prefix syllable (ge-). The termination of the article, ad- 
jective, or adjective pronoun often indicates the gender, 
case, or number of the qualified noun. The additional 
cases (the Genitive smd Dative) diminish tlie use of prepo- 
sitions. Somewhat more inversion in the position of words 
is allowed, giving rather more freedom of style in express- 
ing emphasis or shades of meaning. The freedom Avith 
which compound words are formed gives great tei'soness of 
expression. Owing to the method of forming compomid 
words and the comparatively rare use of foreign words, 
there are but few, even of tlie longest words, that can not 
be immediately understood by persons of comparatively 
limited education. 



3. Extent of Use of the German Language. 

§ 21. Extent of Use. The German language is tlie ver- 
nacular of the entire population of the smaller German 
states ; of all the inliabitants of Prussia, except the small 
Slavic-speaking population of Prussian Poland ; of about 
one fourth the inhabitants of Austria (being spoken mostly 
in the western part of that empire) ; of two tliirds the inhab- 
itants of Switzerland; of the province of Alsace in France; 
of tlie German colonists of Courland, and other pro\inceg 
and cities in Eussia ; and of the German immigrants in tlie 
United States, Brazil, and some other countries of the Old 
and New World. It is thus spoken by about seventy mil- 
lions of people. This is nearly equal to the English-speak- 
ing population of tlie entire world, and is greater than tlie 
number that speak any other language of European origin. 
These two, the German-speaking and tlie English-speaking 
branches of the Teutonic division of the Indo-Euroi^ean 



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§ 22, 23.] GERMAIN DIALECTS. 231 

portion of the liiiman race, represent to-day more of the 
active, intellectual, political, religions, artistic, commercial, 
and industrial forces of the world than any other family 
of the nations of Em*ope or of the world. 

§ 22. Literary Treasures. The number and value of the 
works in every branch of human learning in the Gennan 
exceed by far those in any other language. The German 
belles-lettres literatm-e rivals that of any other nation. Ger- 
many is the home of modem music and art-criticism. The 
German language is therefore studied, both as a means of 
education, of culture, and of enjoyment by tlie scholars, art- 
ists, educators, and travelers from all civilized lands. A 
knowledge of the language is also essential to success in 
many branches of domestic and foreign industry and com- 
merce. 

4. German Dialects, 

§ 23. Formation of Dialects. When the tribes of tlie Ger- 
man branch of the Teutonic family first settled in Ger- 
many, there were probably but few differences in tlieir lan- 
guage. As tliese ignorant and almost barbarous tribes 
became permanently settled, intercommimication between 
them soon almost entirely ceased. In every province, city, 
secluded valley, or mountainous region, dialectic changes 
immediately began to be developed. Words rapidly be- 
came modified in prommciation and in meaning. New 
words grew out of old roots. With some tribes words 
passed out of use. Different vowel and consonant sounds 
gained a predominance in certain regions^ Grammatical 
forms were dropped, modified, or added. Xew words from 
foreign sources were added to one dialect without being 
adopted by its neighbors. Thus within a short time were 
formed a great number of dialects in all parts of German j-. 

Other influences, on the other hand, soon set in to retard 
tlie growth of dialects and to permanently fix tlieir forms. 



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232 INTRODUCTION. [§ 24. 

There has, indeed, been less change in the character of the 
local dialects of Germany since the seventh century, tlian 
there has been in tliat of the cultivated High-German lan- 
guage since tlie sixteenth century. 

As we have seen above (§ 12), one of the Upper-German 
dialects in Saxony became the grammatical basis of the 
present German language (§ 6), which is spoken by the edu- 
cated classes in all parts of Germany. But the great mass 
of the people, and more especially of the peasantry, still 
speak their own local and provincial dialects. Even the 
educated classes are but rarely entirely free from provincial- 
isms, both in pronunciation, in the intonation of sentences, 
and in the use of words. 

The dialectic differences between the languages of the 
tribes of North and those of South Germany (which were 
indistinctly marked in the proper names handed down to 
us by Roman wiiters) have, in the course of time, been suf- 
ficiently developed to give a basis for a classification of the 
dialects of Germany. 

Tliey are divided by a line running nearly from Aix-la- 
Chapelle to Berlin (§ 3) into two chief groups, the Upper- 
German and the Lower-German dialect««. 

§ 24. Upper-German Tlie dialects of Upper or South. 
Dialects. Germany, extending south as far 

as the Alps, are, like all languages of moimtainous districts, 
full of terse and short words and expressions. The words 
are apparently clipped off or contracted, and are strength- 
ened by doubling the consonants. The Upper-Gennan dia- 
lects are fuller of consonants and of harsh guttural sounds 
than is the cultivated national language, and much more so 
than are the dialects of North Germany, or than are any 
other of the Teutonic languages. They are thus both 
harsh to the ear and difficult of pronunciation. 

They are subdivided into four groups : the Bavaro- . 
Austrian^ the Sudbian^ the Allemanian, and the Frankish. 



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§25-27.] GERMAN DIALECTS. 233 

§ 25. Lower-German The Lower- German or North- Ger- 
Dialects. man (called also the Platt-Deutsch) 

dialects, like all languages in low and plain countries, are 
softer to the ear, freer from consonants and gutturals, and 
fuller of vowels and liquids, than those of South Germany. 
The Lower-German dialects are in many respects inter- 
mediate in character, as they are in geographical position, 
between those of South Germany and those of Scandinavia. 

They are also subdivided into four chief groups: the 
JLower'Sdxon^ the Westphaliany those of the Lowei*'Bhin€y 
and the Friesan (§ 4). 

§ 26. Characteristic In a large number of words where 
Differences. the Upper-German dialects have 

f^ f , $ or g, f(^, 5, ei or tf the same words in the Lower- 
German dialects have t, iff l, f, to, and !!♦ From the fre- 
quent recurrence of the t for the f , some writers call the 
Lower-German the ,,bat" dialects, and the Upper-German 
the ,,ba8" dialects. 



§ 27. Tables in For the purpose of presenting to 

Comparative Language, the eye at a glance a few of the 
verbal analogies upon which the theory of the relation- 
ship, and of the history of the development of languages ifi 
to a large degree based, we give the three following tables, 
presenting : 

1. Comparison of words in the Indo-European languages. 

2. " " " Teutonic " 

3. Illustrations of the historic development of words in 

the German language. 
The intricate and subtle laws of vocal changes, a knowl- 
edge of which is necessary for the complete understand- 
ing of these tables, must be reserved for explanation in 
more advanced works. In these tables the vowels are pro- 
nounced as in German. 



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234 



INTRODUCTION. 



English, 

Fathevy 
Mother^ 

SOUy 

Daughter^ 

Brother^ 

Sister^ 

Sun, 

StaVj 

Bay, 

Yesterday, 

Night, 

Month, 

Eye, 

Knee, 

Salt, 

Name, 

lied. 

To bear, 

Am, 

Art, 

/, 

Me, 

Thou, 

Thee, 

One, 

Two, 

Three, 

Six, 

Tm, 

Over, 



Sanscrit, 

pitar, 

matar, 

8unis, 

duhitar, 

bhratar, 

swasar, 

syona, 

stri, 

dyu, 

liyas, 

nakta^ 

mas, 

akshi, 

jano, 

naman, 

rohita, 

bhri, 

asmi, 

ii&i, 

asti, 

aham, 

m^m, 

tvam, 

tvam, 

dwi, 

tri, 

shash, 

dagan, 

upari, 



§ 28. Comparison of Words in 

Bactrian, (Neto-Pei'sian.) Greek, 

padar, Trarfip, 

mata, mader, jULtirrip, 



datar, 
bratar, 



ahmi, 

as-si, 

a5ta, 

azem, 

mam, 

tum, 

thwam, 



doktarah, Ovyarrip, 
brader, 0/)arii/>, 
lihaher, 



Bitarali, 
di-ruz, 



am. 



nam, 
surkli, 

em, 

h 

est, 

man, 

mara, 

til, 

tara, 

yak, 

dii, 

sill, 

shesh, 

dah, 

bala. 



OKog, 

ovofjia, 
BpvOpog, 
tpCpiiVy 
tifii, 

tan (v), 

TV, 

•* ft 

Svo, 
rphg, 

€% 

virip. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COMPAKATTVE TABLE. 



235 



the Indo-European Languages. 






Latin. 


Keltic. 


Slavic. 


(Lithuanian.) 


Gothic 


pater, 


aitliar. 


patr, ' 




fadar. 




mater, 


mathair. 


matka, 

CITI 


mota, 


mSdar. 




dear, 
brathair, 


bill, 

decra, 
bratr, 


sunus, 
duktS, 
brolis. 


sunus. 

dauhtar. 

brothar. 


frater, 


soror. 


piuthar, 


sestra. 




svistar. 




sol, 
Stella, 




slun, 
hwezda. 




sauil. 
stiamo. 










dies. 


dia. 


den. 




dags. 




hestemiis, 




wcera, 




(gestren). 






nox (nocti8),noclid. 


noc, 




nahts. 




mensis, 


mios, 


r.i&je. 


akis, 


menotlis, 


npnlnsi 




oko, 






I^OILLUO, 






augo. 


genu, 




koleno, 




Imin. 






flfil 


salann, 

mmn 


soly, 
gmeno. 




salt 
nomo. 


L DdiX, 




JlV/lXXC/Xl, 


cUllULi, 




(rutilus). 


ruadli. 


cerwenij, 




rauds. 




TPTTP 


beir. 


(brati). 




bairan. 


XdXC, 




sum. 


is, 


gsem, 


esmi. 


im. 


es. 


is, 


gsi, 


esi. 


is. 


est, 


is. 


gest, 


esti. 


it 


ego, 


mi, • 


azu. 


az'. 


ik. 


me, 


mi. 


me. 


mane. 


mik. 


tu, 


thu. 


ty,' 


tu, 


tlm. 


te, 


thu. 


ti, 


tave, 


thuk. 


^ unus, 


im. 


gedno, 


venas, 


ains. 


duo. 


do. 


dwa, 


dwi. 


tvai. 


tres. 


tri. 


tri, 


trys. 


threis. 


RAT* 




shestj, 


szessi. 


saihs. 


DC A., 




decern, 


deich, 


deset, 


deszimt, 


taihun. 


super, 


OS, 


pres, 




ufar. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



236 


• 


INTEODUCnON. 










§ 29. Ciomparison of Words 


(1.) Gothic. 


(2.) 


Scandinavian, 


English, 


Gothic, 


Icelandic, 


Swedisfi, 


DanisL 


Father^ 


fadar. 


fadir, 


fader, 


fader. 


MotJieTy 


modar. 


modhir, 


moder, 


moder. 


San, 


sunus. 


sonr, 


son. 


son. 


DaugKter, 


dauhtar. 


dattir, 


datter. 


dotter. 


BroiheTy 


brotliar. 


brodhir, 


broder. 


broder. 


Sister, 


svistar. 


systir, 


syster, ' 


scister. 


Man, 


man. 


madlir, 


man. 


mana. 


Sun, 


sauil. 


sol, 


sol. 


soel. 


Moon, 


m^iia. 


mani, 


mane. 


moane. 


Star, 


Btaimo. 


Btima, 


stjema, 


stierne. 


■Day, 


dags. 


dag, 


dag, 


dag. 


Night, 


nahts. 


nott, 


natt. 


nat. 


Good, 


gods. 


godr, 


god. 


god. 


Better, 


batiza. 


betm. 


battra. 


bedre. 


High, 


liauhs. 


ha, 


liog. 


hoi. 


Bluer, 


baitrs. 


bitr. 


bitter. 


bitter. 


Sweet, 


sutis. 


sotr, 


sot. 


sod. 


One, 


ains. 


einn, 


en. 


een. 


Two, 


tvai. 


tvein. 


tva. 


to. 


Three, 


threis. 


thrir, 


tre, 


tre. 


Ten, 


taihiin. 


till, 


tio. 


ti. 


To have. 


liaban. 


hafa. 


hafva, 


have. 


To come. 


quiman. 


koma. 


komma. 


konmie. 


Togo, 


gahan. 


sia, 


ga, 


goa. 


In, 


in. 


h 


h 


i. 


Out, 


nt. 


ut. 


nt,. 


ud. 


Over, 


ufar. 


yfir. 


ofver, 


over. 


No, 


n6. 


nei. 


nej. 


nei. 


Tea, 


ja. 


ja, 


js 


ja. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OOMPAEATIVE TABLE. 



237 



in the Teutonic iMagn&ges. 

(3.) Germanic. 



German. 


Lower- German, 


Friesan. 


DiUck. 


Angh-Saxcn, 


aSatcr, 


fadder, 


fader, 


vader, 


fader. 


SWutter, 


mudder, 


moder. 


moder. 


moder. 


©o^n, 


san, 


son. 


zoon. 


sunu. 


Zo^ttr, 


doclitcr, 


dochter. 


dochter. 


dohter. 


©ruber, 


broder, 


broder. 


brooder. 


brodher. 


<Sd^»ejler, 


swester, 


swester. 


zuster. 


swyster. 


aWonn, 


man, 


man. 


man. 


man. 


©onne. 


sunne, 


sunne, 


zoen, 


sunna. 


aWonb, 


moand, 


mond, 


maan. 


mona. 


©tern. 


steern, 


stera, 


ster. 


steorra. 


Safl, 


dag, 


dei. 


dag, 


daeg. 


ffla^i, 


nacht, 


nacht. 


nacht, 


niht. 


flttt. 


god, 


god, 


good, 


god. 


bclTcr, 


bater, 


beter. 


beteren. 


beterian. 


^od^. 


hoch, 


hag. 


hoog, 


heah. 


bitter. 


bitter, 


bitter. 


bitter. 


biter. 


m, 


BOt, 


swet. 


zoet. 


swete. 


cin, 


een, 


an, 


een, 


ain. 


ml 


twee, 


tw6ne, 


twee. 


twa. 


brct, 


dree, 


tlire. 


drie. 


thri. 


ae^n. 


tein, 


tian. 


tien. 


t^n. 


\}aitn, 


hebben, 


hebba. 


hebben. 


habban. 


fommen. 


koamen, 


kuma. 


komen, 


cuman. 


ge^en. 


goaen. 


g^^j 


gaan, 


gangan. 


in. 


in, 


in. 


in. 


in. 


flU^, 


nut. 


% 


utt. 


fit. 


flter. 


over. 


over. 


over. 


over. 


neiit. 


ne. 


nS, 


ne. 


na. 


jfl. 


joa, 


ie. 


ja, 


gese. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



238 




INTEODUOnON. 










§ 30. lUustratioii of the 










Words in tho 


Englith. 


(Gothic.) 


Old-German. 


Middle- German. New-German. 


Father^ 


fadar, 


fatar, 


vater, 


aSater. 


Mother^ 


modar, 


mnotar. 


. mnoter, 


3Kuttcr. 


Son^ 


sunns, 


snnu, 


sun, 


©ol^n^ 


Daughter^ 


danhtar, 


tohter, 


tohter. 


loiter. 


Brother^ 


brothar, 


bmodar. 


bruoder, 


©ruber- 


Sister^ 


svistar, 


snestar. 


sweater. 


©d^weficr* 


Marij 


man, 


man, 


man, 


3Kann. 


Friend^ 


frijonds, 


friunt, 


ATiunt, 


grcunb* 


House J 


hus, 


hiis. 


has, 


^<i\X^. 


Suuy 


sunno, 


sunna, 


simne, 


Sonne* 


Moon, 


menoths, 


manoth. 


manot, 


aWonb. 


Star, 


sfaimo, 


stemo. 


stem. 


etern. 


Day, 


dags, 


tac. 


tach. 


Sag. 


Night, 


nahts. 


naht, 


naht. 


5«ad^t 


Good, 


gods. 


guot, 


guot. 


gut. 


Better, 


batiza. 


beziro, 


bezzer. 


bcffer* 


Beat, 


batists, 


bezist, 


bezzist. 


beft. 


High, 


liauhs. 


hoh. 


hoch. 


^0(^- 


Bitter, 


baitrs. 


bittar. 


bitter. 


bitter. 


Sweet, 


sntis. 


snazi. 


siize. 


faf- 


To hear, 


hansjan, 


horan, 


horen. 


boren* 


To come, 


qniman. 


chuman, 


komen. 


fommen. 


Togo, 


feahan). 


gen, 


g^n, 


ge^ett. 


To see. 


saihvan, 


sehan. 


sehen, 


fe^en. 


To eat, 


itan. 


ezzan, 


ezzen, 


effen. 


^ 


ik, 


ih, 


ich. 


x^. 


Me, 


mik, 


mih. 


mich, 


mxi^. 


Thou, 


thn. 


du, 


da. 


bu* 


Thee, 


thuk, 


dih, 


dich. 


m^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HISTORICAL TABLE. 



239 



Historical Development of 
German Language. 



EngUsh. 


(Gothic.) Old-German. 


Middle-German 


, New-German. 


He, 


is, 


IT, 


er, 


er. 


She, 


si, 


sin, 


siu (sie), 


fJe. 


It, 


it, 


iz. 


si, 


ee. 


We, 


veis, 


wir, 


wir. 


wir. 


Tou, 


jus, 


ir, 


ir, 


t^r. 


Tim,, 


eis, 


eis, 


sie. 


fte. 


Who, 


hvas, livo, 


liwer. 


wer. 


wer. 


Which, 


hveleiks, 


hwioliliher, welher. 


welder. 


One, 


ains, 


eines, 


eines. 


ein%. 


Two, 


tvai, 


zw^ne, 


zwene. 


jwei. 


Three, 


threis, 


dri6, 


driS, 


tret. 


Four, 


fidvoreis, 


fiori. 


viere. 


sier. 


Five, 


fimf, 


fimfi, 


viinve. 


fiinf. 


Seven, 


sibiin, 


sibun, 


siben. 


Ittkn, 


Eight, 


ahtau, 


ahto, 


aht, 


o^t. 


Nine, 


niun, 


niun. 


niun. 


neun. 


Ten, 


tailnin, 


zehan, 


zehen; 


je^it. 


No, 


ne, 


ne-ein, 


nein. 


nein. 


Yes, 


ja. 


j^, 


ja, 


ja. 


To write. 


(L. 8erihere)j 


scripan. 


schrlben, 


fd^reiben. 


Boundary, (Pol.^am(;a),grenitz, 


grenitz, 


©renje. 


Cabhage, 


(Ital.caot?&>), 


cholo, 


kol, 


«o^l. 


Nation, 


(L. natio^ Fr. natwn)^ 


nation. 


Station. 


Excited, 




ii^enominen. 


au^genommen 


Muscle, 


(L. mU9CulU8)j 




mmm. 




Museum, 


(L. museum) 






SWufeum. 


} 




Coke, 


{English)^ 






eoof«. 






Coffee, 


(Arab. IcaTiKoh, TPr.cafS), 




Coffee. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GERMAN GRAMMAR. 

(Sentf^e ®rinmnatifO 

§ 31. GERMAN GRAMMAR, like that of all cultiva. 
ted languages, is divided into four parts: 

Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 

IteTn, In this -worV prosody is omitted entirely. Syntcix is not treated sep< 
arately, but the etjrmology and syntax of each part of speech are given in 
the same chapter. Many portions of the German grammar are omitted 
where the same laws prevail as in the English language. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



53, b 



§ 32. The Oerman Alphabet has twenty-six letters 



.Ah. 
.Bay. 

. Tsay. 
.Day. 
.Ay. 

•Eff- 
.Gay. 

.Eah. 

.Ee. 



®,f(e). 

set.. 
U,u.. 

ss,».. 

SB,w. 

3,a 



.Esa. 
.Tay. 
.Oo. 
,Fow. 
. Vay. 
.Iks. 

. Ipsedon. 
.Tset. 
(See Lesson L, 1.) 

Ban. The German Alphabet, like those of all other European nations, was 
developed from the Latin. Under the influence of the artistic spirit of the 
times, daring the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, when in architectnre the 
pointed arch took the place of the round arch, pointed letters took the place in 
manuscripts of the round Latin letters. The pointed letters were adopted 
also in the first books that were printed both in English, French, and Lat- 
in, as well as in the German language. With the rertval of classical taste 
there was a return to the use of the Latin alphabet, first in Italy, then in 
France, England, Holland, Poland, and other European countries. The 
Latin letters are now also used in many German books and periodicals. 



8,1.. 
3W,m 

0,0. 
^,|). 

9i,r.. 



Tote. 
.Kak. 

.Ea. 

.ETHTin,. 

.Enn. 

.Oh. 

• Pay. 

.Koo. 

.Err. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



§33-37.] VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 241 



1. VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 
(Solale uuh 2)i|)]ftt](onge«) 
§ 33. 1. There are seven simple Vowel Sounds: 

2. And three Diphthongal Sounds: ei^ m, ett« 

Rem, 1, All the seven vowels have both lon(f and short sounds. 

Bern, 2. The three wtUdut vowels fi, 8, ft (also written at, ttt, Ut) represent 
distinct vowel sounds, not modifications of the vowels a, 0, U* 

Mem, 3. The a and ii first appeared in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; 
the 8 and fin (also Ctt) first appeared during the Middle-German period. 

§ 34. The Vowel is long: 

1. When doubled in the same syllable: ^aax, ©prcc* 

2. With silent 1^ in the same syllable : ©o^n, Slotfl* 

3. When it closes a syllable (especially if it is accented) : 
»a'4er, S^i'^a, Su'^lt, Sdxu'Mx, le^^en, ba, fo, in, gu. 

4. In radical syllables and monosyllables which end with 
a single consonant : ^ab'^^fud^t, Wi^iax, txa^'Mx ; cr, 
mxi, bcr, bcm, ben, bar, »or, fiir» 

JErc The vowel is short in aB, on, U9, in, init, um, t)on : ob, ^in, tt)cg ; t9, 
man, »a« ; ba«, bc«, im, torn, jum ; bin, ^at. 

§ 35. The Vowel is short : 

1. When followed by a double consonant : fal'i^lcn, U\'^\tx, 
WxVAt, aWann, 33ett; foU, SRuU. 

2. Or by two or more consonants : 33anb, bil'^benb, tfl. 

£xc. 1. The vowel is long: in the contracted words, SOiagb, SWonb, SWon* 
tag, Obfl, Oflcm, ^fl, ajojl, Zxo% grSfit, ^iSdf^jl, nfidf^jl, trBflcn, and tollfl 
(/rom Mid.-Ger. m&get, m&n6t, obez, ostardn, b&best, grcezest, hcehest, etc.), 

Exc, 2, Also in some contractions of verbs, as : ^abt (^abet), (ebfi (lebet). 

£xc. 3.' And before t in 3lrt, ^rjt, 55ar«, ©art, Ouarfe, jatt ; (grbc, ^rbc, 
^b, ¥fcrb, ©<i(|tt>ert ; ©orb ; ©cburt. 

§ 36. Diphthongs are always long: gaujl, Icijlen, feuti^t. 

§ 37 Vowels belonging to different syllables must be pro- 
nounced separately: gecnbct (gc^cn^^^bet), Slmecn {^xmt'^tn), 
?imc (Si'^ni^^c), Canaan (^a'^na^an), Boologic (3o^o4o^gic')^ 

L 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



242 ORTHOGRAPHY. [§ 38. 

§ 38. Vowels and Diphthongs arc soiuided thiib : 

1. %, a* 1. The lonff sound, like a in father : SJatcr, la^* 

2. The short sound is shorter and sharper, but not as 
flat as in hat : l^at, bo^, laffcn, SWann. 

2. @^ tf has three sounds : 

^ 1. Long^ like a in mate : ©d^itec^ mel^r, teit; tern. 
' 2. Short, like ^ in helt^ bed : bcHt, 53ctt, be jfer, befl, ffien^ 
tung, Srennung. 

3. It is almost suppressed in terminations and pre- 
fixes : fiaben, meine, ©d^neiber, gclobt, ®ebaufcc» 

3. 3, i* 1. The long sound, like ^ in meet : SPline, i^m» 
2. Tlie sfiort sound, like i in hit : bitter, miloe, in, ifl» 

i2e}/t. 3 is never doubled ; when followed by silent tp it has a long sound : 

bic, 2)icncr, Dicr. But it is short in tjierscftn, liiersig, liiertel. 

4. JO, p* 1. Tlie long sound, like (? in note : SRotl^/ S3oot. 
2. Tlie short sound is intermediate between that of o 

in zone and that of it in s^m : ©cnne, 93olf, bcppelt. 

5. U^ U^ 1. The long sound, like t>o in moot : SWut^, tf)un. 
2. The ^Aor^ sound is intermediate between that of oo 

in pool, and that of u in puU : ^ult, 53unb, furj. 

6. ?), ^, sounds likeii(§ 38, 9) : Sleg^jJtett, ©pntar, ©^flem. 

Rem, In all words of German origin, where )| was formerly used, as well 
as in foreign words that are fully naturalized, it is now replaced by i (§ 38, 10). 

7.Ste,8,Bomid8likee(§38,2). 

Rem. Strictly speaking, a somewhat more open sound than that of a in 
mate, one intermediate between that of a in vary and that of e in very, is given 

to 8, and also to t in some words (as toer, bcr, (£rbc ; Icbeii, (jebcii, Heteii, 
gegeit, @*iiee, etc.). 

8. Dc, 3 {oh-umlaut), has no equivalent in English. 

Rem, It is like the French eu. Its sound may be approximated by pro- 
ducing a sound intermediate between that of a in bane and that of ttr in 6t<ni: 
SSSrfc, ©e^mcn, @df?8n, 88ffcl, QcfUft^t. 

9. Mtf ii (oo-umlaut), has no equivalent in English. 

Rem. It is like the French u. Thus @flb may be approximately pro- 
nounced by placing the lips as if about to whbtle, and then trying to say 
seed: @ttb, mttbc, 9Kftttcr, @d;Ul[fcl. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 38-40.] CONSONANTS. 243 

10. %l, ai (or ©I, ci), like i in might : mm, W^m, Beit. 

Eenu Of the four forma ai/ a^/ tif C))/ which have contested for supremacy 
in the German language since the fourteenth century, the form ti has come 
off the victor. At present a)| is dropped entirely ; t^ is used only in some 
proper names (^et^ne, Wit^tXf etc.); and ai is used in but few words (as 
SWainj, aWailaub, Saifcr, a«at). 

11. %vi, m, like ou in mound : SWauer, laut, ^aug. 

12. gii, ctt (or Stcil/ fiu), like oi in 7?io^^ ; ?eute, SWaufc. 

/2ef». oi^ used only in u few proper names, has the same sound: ^rol^ait. 

§ 39. In tlie development of all languages, vowels (and also the liquids, 
1/ VHf tt/ 1) are more subject to change than are consonants. 



2. CONSONANTS, 
(^ottfottantett.) 
§ 40. The Consonants are sounded as follows : 

1. 8, 6* 1. Beginning a syllable, like h : 93ilb, Srett. 

2. Ending a syllable, nearly like ^ : 2)ie!>, fialb, (A, o]&. 

Exc. It has the sound of h before 6 or b : @&I)e, ©elil^bf . 

2. ^ft^ 1. Before a, P, or tt (or before a consonant) is 
pronounced like k in king : Sato, actitj. 

2. Before other vowels, like ts in mits : Sicero, Sere?. 

3. 2), b^ 1. Beginning a syllable, like d : 2)om^ brei, ba. 
2. Ending a syllable, nearly like ^ / ^anb, 93ab, SRab. 

JSlrc. The sound of b is given in bb : ^bber, SSibber. 

*• 5/ f (8/ *^/ or ^||, <il)), like/in/;i^ .- fein, Sreunbfc^aft ; 
»ier, ba»ott ; ^^ilofopl^ie. 

Rem, 1. In foreign words ll sounds like v in etfer.* @!(at)f, $ret)el, Bra^. 

i2e>n. 2. For a long time f and ll were used interchangeably. Their use 
has finally become settled, but in a purely arbitrary way ; the f largely pre- 
dominates. 

Rem. 8. The )|^ only occurs in words of Glreek origin, as in* ^^tlofo^^tc, and 
in a few German proper names, as : 5lboI^^ (or ?lbolf), 9lubol^^ (f), SBcfl^^o* 
(en. 

5. ®, g* 1. Before a vowel, like g in gay : gel^eit, ©ntnb. 
2. After a vowel (and not before u), sec § 40,17. 



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14A OBTHOGSAPHT. [§ 40. 

6. $, ]^» Like A in hotcse : ^cM, l^od^, crl^cben, Sol^aiut. 

Exc, The letter % is silent : (1) in the combination t^, as in X^on, iRot^ ; 
(2) after a vowel, as in (go^n, So^n ; (3) after r in 9t(;cbc, 9J^cin, sii^abarbcr ; 
(4) after I in some proper names, as ^&(f ^« 

7. 3, !♦ like y in yt?^<?; 3o^atttt; 3uli, ^d^x, Sanuar. 

8. ®, !♦ like ^ in Jdng : ^Jnig, fommctt^ ^uttft, ^oln. 

i^em. In those foreign words that have become fully naturalized, f has al- 
most entirely dispkced c: $un!t, ^ongteg, ^5In. 

9. 8, 1, SW; VXf 31, II, ^f ^f D, q, have the same sound as 
Z, m, 71, J?, q in English : ?amm, ?eimpittfcl; Dual. 

Rem, Before f, n takes the sound of ng (§ 40, 16) ; 2)anf, bcnfcti, liute. 

10. 9?, !♦ 1. At the beginning of a syllable, X has a sound 
somewhat rougher and deeper in the throat than in 
English: SWotf), runb, SR^ein. 

2. In other positions it is trilled : 93rob, S5art, ber, mcr, 

11. @, i (jf or f ). 1. like 8 in Z^^^ ; tag 3»cffer, ifi, bag. 

2. But a single f before a vowel sounds like z in sone : 
©o^n, jie, (glifa, gelefen. 

3. When before !|l or t and at tlie beginning of a radi- 
cal syllable, f sounds like sh in bIwU: ©prce, Stein, 
»crjlcf)ett, auggcfpro^cn. 

Rem, 1. In former periods of the language, f, ff, and ^ were very largely 
interchanged. Even yet authorities vary in the use of ff and J. 

Rem, 2. The short ^ is used at the end of syllables : 2)rc«bcn, $ot«bant, 
la8, ou«cinanbcr, 2)onncr«tog. 

12. %^ X (or %^f X\j. 1. Like t in tone : Zm, SEl^on, 2Wut^. 
2. Like ^ in mi^, in final j^tion, A\d\, AxtXiX, not pre- 
ceded by f ; ?eItiott, Quotient. 

Rem, 1. The sound of t is preserved when the accent is on the W, as in 
2)empfrotic, $arttc, i0ii(ttabc«. 

Rem, 2. Also when ti is preceded by f : OucfHon', 53afiion'. 

Rem, 3. In the history of the language there have been many interchanges 
between t, b, and tl^. Some modem vmters, called '* purists,'' reject the tt 
entirely, and ^mte tttt (2:^ci0, ttttt (X^un). 

13. 3S^ to* Like 'y in wtk? .• SBein, ®ien, jwet, tt)arum. 

Rem, S93, after 0, occurring in a few proper names, is silent: $anfoko* 



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§ 40-43.] C50NSONANTS. 245 

14. 1, ^ Like aj in hoin: Sorar, ©rcmjjel, ^tnti, ^txt, fir. 

Rem, The letter J is used mostly in words of foreign origin. 

15. 3/ J (^ and jj). Like ts in fits : 3eit, pttfeen, ®%e. 

iZefit. The use of %, %, %% has varied greatly in the different periods of the 
language. 

16. 9?g, ng* Like vig in ^715^; jingeit; ginger, brangen. 

Rem, A slight h sound is given after tig when it follows a vowel : fitftltg 

17. K|^ ^, and g have ^-i^?^ guttural sounds: 

1. K^; d^ (and g, when ending a syllable), after a, 0, 
U, or an, have a rough aspirate sound, formed 
deeper in the throat and much stronger than 
that of h in hope : l^o^ {Jiohh) high ; Sud^ {toohh)^ 
doth; %<x^ (tahh), day; ma^en (ma^'hhen)^ to make. 

2. After other letters (and in the diminutive sylla- 
ble ^CH), they have a softer sound, made higher 
in the palate, and inclining to that of sh in ahull: 
i^ (ih'%1; re^t {rehH^right; ^inb'^en Qdvid'- 
h^eri)^a child; aWtttt^i^iJ^ett {munf'h*''en\ Munich; 
bilMig {UVlih'^% 3eug {tsoyh^\ ©erg (J>€rh^). 

Rem, 1. In words of Greek origin, d^ sounds like k: (S^or, choir. 

Rem, 2, Also before ^ in the same radical syllable, like k : S8a(^d, trox. 

§ 41. Many foreign words retain their original pro- 
nunciation, as : S5urcau, ^alaii, gagon, ^aiox, ®out)erncur, 
abicu, Slb»erb, from the French ; SRoajlbcef, Slub, from the 
English ; ©olo, S^rio, from the Italian. 

Rem, In a few words the foreign pronunciation is retained in only a part 
of the word : ^cnfion {pore^-si-one), 

§ 42. The pronunciation of the educated classes and in polite circles in the 
city of Berlin is at present the standard of good pronunciation throughout 
Germany, llie above rules are given in accordance with the usages now 
prevailing in Berlin. 



3. DIVISION OF SYLLABLES, 
(©t^aetttretmuitg.) 
§ 43. Li Pronouncing, the following laws prevail : 



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246 ORTHOGRAPHY. [§ 43-45. 

1. In simple words : (1.) A single consonant, between 

two vowels, is pronounced with the last vowel, as in : 
SSa'i^ter, ©ru'^bcr, Xt'Mxi, ^^'Mxi, mei'^ner, gu'^en. 
(2.) Of two or more consonants, the first is pronounced 
with the preceding, and the remainder with the 
following vowel : "MM At, f^im^^pfctt, 2)eut';^fd^c. 

2. In derivative wordsj prefixes, and sufiixes not begin- 
ning with a vowel, are pronounced in separate sylla^ 
bles: ©e^jlalt", Sngfl'^i^; bulb'^am ; ®tant)'4aft%Ieit, 
but gurf 4in, ^lei^^bung, garbe^rei^ ®u'^te. 

3. The parts of compound words are pronounced sepa* 
rately : au^^^ein^an'ber, 2)ott'nerg4ag, fort'^l^cbett; l^er^um'. 

Rem, Some writers mark the division of syllables according to the pro- 
nunciation, others according to the roots of words. The latter method is 
more convenient in paradigms: Iicb'*cn, mein'^^cr, gut'=«cr, QUt^C, Breit'*=cp. 



4. ACCENT. 

(accent) 

§44. The Primary Accent is on the radical syllable of 

simple words, whether primitive or derivative ; inflectional 

endings, and most prefixes and sufiixes (§ 45, 3, Bern.), are 

unaccented: litV^tXi, meitt^^eit, lWAi6)mn, ^a'Atx, ©e^jlalt^; 

£xc. The accent is not on the radical syllable in IelJen'*bt(j. 

§ 45. In Compound Words, the radical syllable of tlie most 
emphatic component takes the primary accent: 

1. The^r^^ or modifying word of compound nouns and 
adjectives, and of separable compound verbs, takes the 
primary accent : Siauf ^mann, SBor's^fd^rift, geft^s^rot^^ aW^^ 
gel^cn, ein^^fu^rctt; um^er'^gc^en, mip'^ttaucn* 

Exc, 1. The nouns 3a^r^uii'«'bcrt, 3a^rtatt'*fcnb, Sfiorbtocjf, ©ilboff, etc. 

Exc. 2. The adjectives i)oflfom'*mcn,not^tt)cn'*btg, toa^r^af *ttg,Ictb^af *ttg, 
bann^cr'*jtg, glildfcMig, Idbct'*gen ; aUtwci'^fc, ottmS^^tig, 9ro6mS(3^''tt0, 
(o^ab'»eIig (and some other titular epithets). 



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§ 45-48.] ACCENTS. 247 

2. Tlie accent is on the last syllable of adverbs com- 
pounded with prepositions, and of those compounded 
with ^iii, j^cr, aU, and bid: wot^on^ womitO ba^on'; l^er^ 

Z. Inseparahle prefixes are not accented: bewei^^fen, t)er^ 

Exc. 1. S(ttt'*n(3, and ?lnt'*tt)ort (and its compounds). 
Exc, 2, All words compounded with CfJ* and itt*; and many of those com- 
pounded with mi^ and UU'I @rg'*btf(^fof, Ur^fat^c, miB'^anbcln, un'*glctd^ 
(but migfalMcn, uncnbMtd^, efc). 
i^ef/i. 1. Some long words, however, have several subordinate accents: 
greitlib'f*aftfi*!cit'cn,gfeit'er*bcrfi(^f'crung«*gefett'fd^aft, 
@taat^'*ft^urbcn*tirgung8*fof fcn^but^'&altcr (§ 5i,Rem.i). 
Rem. 2. Such very long words as the last are only tolerated in official lan- 
guage, and even there they had better be avoided. 

§ 46. Most Foreign Words retain their original accent 
This is generally on the last syllable in words from 

1. The French : ©ffiaief , QonmV, mu[ir, SWaiefllat'. 

2. The Latm and Greek: SRatur^ ©tubent^ I^eologic^ 

Rem, 1. The foreign terminations sCt, Att, Aff, Attn (fettlt), ^Ut, '(l9, 

etc, take the primary accent, whether in words of German or in those of for- 
eign origin ; gSrBcrct', 53arbtcr', S3(«mtfl', ^oU'rcn, ©lafur', SWorajl'. 

Rem, 2. The accent is changed in the inflection, and in the derivatives of 
some foreign words: 2)ot'*tor (2)otto'*rcn), (S^ara!'=»tcr ((£l^aralte'*rc), SKujlf 
niufifaMif^), ©ramma'^ttf (grammotifa'*lif^). 

Obs. Differences in the position of the accent upon words, 
and in the position of emphatic words in sentences, are 
among the chief causes of the great difference existing be- 
tween the intonation and the cadence of the English and 
of the German languages. 



5. CAPITAL LETTEES. 

§ 47. Capital Letters are used as initials to: 

1. All Courts, other parts of speech used as nouns, and 

nouns used adverbially: ber 5Dlantt, bie ©tabt^ba? $au^ ; 

bcr ®tttc, iai 8efcn ; ^orgcn^, Slbenb^, SSormittag^. 



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248 



OETHOGEAPHT. 



[§48-49. 



2. The Indefinite Pronouns : Scmanb, SRiemanb; S^bcr^ 
mann ; also (£ttt>a^ and 3l\^\i, when not before nouns 
or adjectives; and WXt,WXti, (gittige, WiaXi^tX, ^\t\t, 
when used substantively. 

3. The Numeral (Jin, when used in contrast to Slnbcr. 

4. The Absolute Possessives : ber SWeinige; ba^ 3Nfl^/ bie 
SWcinigen, bie ©einigcn, etc. 

5. Adjectives^ derived from proper names of persons or 
cities : bie ^antifi^e ^^ilofo})|)ie, ber Joiner 2)om. 

Reni, Other proper adjectives do not begin with capital letters : bic bcutfd^ 
@^)raci^e, ber bcutfc^c S3unb, einc amcritanif^c Scitungi 



6. COMPARISON OF GERMAN AND ENGLISH 
WORDS. 

§ 48. Great chanp^es have taken place in the words of 
the German and English languages during the fourteen 
centuries especially that have passed since their separa- 
tion. 

1. A few words only have the same radical foim, or, with 
different spelling, are pronounced alike, as : 



SJ^ann, man. 
^onb, hand. 
®rad^ grass. 
@Ia9, glass. 
SJing, ring, 
ginger, finger. 
§ungcr, hunger, 
^uf, hoof. 



$aud, house. 
3)^au$, mouse. 
Braun, brown, 
faucr, sour. 
tDdttn, warm, 
bitter, bitter, 
blinb, blind. 
mi(b, mild. 



tvilb, wild, 
fein, fine, 
meln, mine, 
in, in. 
bei, by. 
dfo, also. 
^>ier, here. 
f(3^ter, sheer. 



fatl*en,tofall. 
^attg<»en, to hang. 
binb*en, to bind. 
finb*en, to find. 
bring*en, to bring. 
{tng*en, to sing, 
fln^en, to sink. 
f))tnn>^en, to spin. 



2. The following examples illustrate the most striking 
variations in the development of letters and of sounds : 

(1.) a. ^aor, hair. @(3^aaf , sheq?. ^"^-t oW- 

©rob, grave. ^aar,pair. @(^taf, sleep. , gatte,fold. 

9?abe, raven. aiS^t, eight. Sfiabel, needle. $aU, hold. 

©Katoe, slave. gra^t, freight. ftor, clear. ^^^t cold. 

5htabe (knave). Hal, eeL ^nf, hemp. ' ^a(f e, hoc. 

Pa(3, place. 5Ka^I,meal. ©ajt, guest. SRafe,nosfl. 

.^a^n, crane. ©tal^I, steel. »aren,were. , ^fcn, hook. 

toar,was. I@aat,seed. l^amm,comb. <2to9« goose. 



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COMPAKISON OF GEEMAN AND ENGLISH WORDS. 249 



(2.)e,tt. 

- 9led^en, rake. 
J6rcd(>Ctt, break. 
SBeg, way. 
Seng, lance. 
SWerf , mark, 
^erj, heart. 
(Sd^merg (smart), 
jterbcn (starve), 
fd^mcdcn (smack), 
f eft, fast, 
fctt, fdt. 
fe^en, see. 
fle^Ien, steal, 
cffcn, eat. 
meffcn, mete, 
gelb, field. 
ge(in, ten. 

geBcn, give. 

leBcn, live. 

bcnfen, think. ; 

fenten, sink. 
-- ^ed^, pitch. 

\t6)9, six. 

mctten, milk. 
^ lc(fen,lick. 

fle^en,go. 

(iie),no. 

©cf^nce, snow. 

@ecte, soul. 

^6)totxt, sword. 

fd^ltcn, scold. 
^ Sltt, clover. 
^ SBert^, worth. 

SScr, who. 

9legc(, rule. 

Stc&i^t, crow. 

tn^en, mow. 

fS^en, sow. 
/f^)a^cn,spy. 

tt)5rc, were. 

I56t,let8. 
/ Setter, Others. 

fSgen, saw. 

SBfiffer, waters. 



(3.)i,le. 

33tcne, bee. 
tort, we. 
gitjr felt. 
@innc, sense, 
^rf^e, cherry, 
^infel, pencil 
fiel)en, seven, 
irren, err. 
i(^,I. 
liegen, lie. 
lieben, love, 
fcf^teben, shove, 
fiebcn, sift, 
fcf^iegen, to shoot, 
fpriegcn, spront. 
jpielen, play. 
^x6)t, church, 
^ffcn, cushion. 

(4.) 0, 0. 

glocf e, flake. 
gro6, great, 
ro^, raw. ' 

8tro^, straw. 
Soc^ter, daughter. 
O^r, ear. 
33o^nc, bean. 
Sfloti}, need, 
rot^, red. 
S3rob, bread. 
f}06), high. 
9ioggen, rye. 
<Sotntnet, summer. 
SDonncr, thunder. 
@onnc, sun. 
@o^n, son. 
tooa,full. 
@^oni, spur. 
^9ren, hear, 
f^tvbrcn, swear. 
jttjblf, twelve, 
^bnig, king. 
WixtH, mortar. 
Oct, oiL 
3Wi5rber, murderer. 



(6.)tt/tt- 

nnb, and. 
$ut,hat. 
S3u^, beech, 
fud^en, seek. 
kn% kiss. 
33rufl, breast 
©d^ultcr, shoulder 
gud^«, fox. 
/ ^u^fcr, copper. 
(Stumt, storm. 
SBurm, worm. 
33Iumc, bloom, 
t^un, do. 
^u6), book. 
33ruber, brother, 
abutter, mother, 
^u^, cow. 
U^r, hour. 
@runb, ground. 
SD'hinb, mouth, 
^funb, pound, 
runb, round. 
@unb, sound. 
SBunbe, wound, 
(jenug, enough, 
fil^len, to feel, 
griln, green, 
filg, sweet. 
%ii^t, feet. 
AM, evil. 
$illfe,hclp. 
filnf , five, 
lilgcn, lie. 
^agcl, hill. 
aWtt^Ic, mill. 
(Silnbe, sin. 
glil(icn, glow, 
i^fle, coast, 
gftrfl (first), 
'fcriltcn, brood. 
,^iH)fen,hop. 
©fld^fc, box. 
@ilb, south, 
^^c, cows. 
©ril^C, broth. 



(6.)ttit. 

0rau,gray. 
/8aub, leaf, 
taub, deaf, 
^aufe, heap. 
@aum, seam. 
Saud^, leek. 
$au^t, head, 
^uge, eye. 
^raut, bride. 
\6fiaUf sly. 
gaufl, fist. 
%an, tow. 
S^aubc, dove. 
dtanm, room, 
bku, blue. 
2^^au, dew. 
^auen, hew. 

(7.)ef. 

2Reifler, master. 
^eiHhaU! 
jjjreifen, praise, 
brct, three, 
frei, free. 
Meid^en, bleach. 
tt>tx6f, weak, 
^ctlcn, heal. 
SBcijen, wheat. 
3tt)cig, twig, 
cin, one. 
allein, alone, 
beibc, both, 
eigen, own. 
@id^e, oak. 
^Bpd6)t, spoke. 
^Icibcr, clothes, 
@eifl, ghost. 

t, (ghastly). 

tf (gas), 
(ei^en, loan, 
metfl, most. 
9lei^c, row. 
<Seife, soap, 
reiben, rub. 
jtt>et, two. 



L2 



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250 COMPABISON OF GERMAN AND ENGLISH WORDS. 



(8.)ett.att, 

5cu, hay. 

gcucr, fire. 

lieun, nine. 

grcunb, friend. 

neu, new. 

fhcuen^ strew. 

trcu, true. 

$reugcn, Prussia. 

kttVLi, cross. 
^duU, owl. 

^culcn, howl. 
. SKSufc, mice. 

babcn, to have. 

^cbcn, to heave. 

lebcn, to live. 

cBcn, even. 

9laBc, raven. 

XauU, dove. 
^ S3ibcr, beaver. 

fUeBeii, cleave. 

fiebcn, seven. 
_- @iclj, sieve. 

oben, over. 

®xab, grave. 

S)ielj, thief. 

Sebcn, life. 

fiebcn, sift. 

2Sdb(wife). 

@(3^tt)atbc, swallow 

SStrnc, pear. 
^ mp\(ft, cUff. 

Sfti^^c, rib. 

©to^^cl, stubble. 

^au^)t, head. 

(10.) i>. 

bcr, bic, ba«, the. 
bicfc, these, 
bu, thou, 
bcin, thine, 
bann, then. / 
bcnn, than, 
©ruber, brother. 



gcbcr, feather. 
!i*cbcr, leather, 
ficbcn, seethe. 
2)aumett, thumb, 
bcnfcn, think. 
2)ing, thing. 
3)om, thorn, 
bref^cn, thresh, 
brei, three, 
burd^, through, 
bcibc, both. 
@ilb, south. 
@rbc, earth. 
SSftrbc, worth. 

(ll.)f.t>.rt. 

@cl^aaf, sheep. 
^6)la\, sleep. 
@^iff, ship. 
$anf, hemp, 
reif , ripe, 
^clf en, help. 
@aft, sap. 
fc^arf, sharp. 
auf,up. 
offcn, open. 
fftnf,five. 
Ofcn, oven, 
bier, four, 
bcbor, before. 
bcrgcffen, forget. 
(ipifcn, i>7. 

(12.) 0. 

Xa^, day. 
ntag, may. 
tag, lay. 
fagcn, say. 
3lugc, eye. 
5ftoggcn,r3'e. 
gttegc,fly. 
^omg, honey, 
pfennig (penny). 
(^wcn, yam. 
gclb, yellow. 
ge[tcrn, yesterday. 



fd^Iogcn (slay). 
$agel, hail, 
gfjagcl, nail. 
@cgel, sail, 
glegel, flail. 
SRegcn, rain. 
@iege(, seal 
9tegel, rule. 
$ilgel,hilL 
f Sgcn, to saw. 
glcicf^, like, 
genug, enongh. 
gelDa^r, aware. 
2:cig, dough, 
^flug, plough. 
S3ogcn, bow. 
borgcn, borrow, 
morgcn, morrow, 
forgcn, sorrow, 
f olgcn, follow. 
S3alg, bellows, 
.©algcn, gallows. 
®lodt, dock, 
itagen, gnaw. 

(13.)*. 

toanxif when. 
tt)cr, who. 
totl6}t, which. 
tokf how. 
tt)0, where, 
ttjeil (while), 
njctgf white. 
SQSctjcn, wheat. 
tt)cbcr (whether). 

(14.) i. 
ia, yes. 
3a^r, year. 
-^0^, yoke. 
3a!ob, Jacob. 
Jung, young. 
3a(fc, jacket. 
3o^ann, John. 
3ubc, Jew. 
3um, June. 



3uno, Juno. 
3uU, July. 
^ntott, jewel, 
ajjajor, major. 

(15.)!,i!,i|. 

fauen, chew, 
^afc, cheese. 
^nn,chin. 
^nb^ child, 
^jtc, chest, 
^r^c, church. 
^rft^C, cherry. 
@tdrfc, starch. 
@!labc, slave. 
Wlaxt, marrow. 
@(f c (edge). 



©rildc, bridge. 
3u(fcr, sugar. 
£lucttc(well). 

(16.)!. 

al^f as. 
foI(^, such. 
tctlS), which. 
2JiiJrtcl, mortar. 
gcffel, ffetter. 
<BaM, sabre. 
- Slitting, twin. 
@i(^e(, acorn. 
\6}in6)VHf sneak. 

(17.) m. 

?atnm, lamb, 
flimmcn, climb, 
^^amm, comb. 
S)aumcn, thumb. 
^6)xxmf screen. 

(18.) n. 
S3efcn, broom. 
3llaun, alum, 
feltcn, seldom. 
Orbcn, order. 
!5)cgc«, dagger. 



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COMPABISON OF GERMAK AND ENGLISH WORDS. 251 



©tern, star. 


@ifcn, iron. 


(28.) ^<^. 


fern, far. 


$afc, hare. 


gal^m, tame. 


@^orn, spur. 


tiicfen, sneeze. 


3a^n, tooth. 


33inie, pear. 


txaiitn, scratch. 


gc^n, ten. 


SSicnc, bee. 




Sinn, tin. 


@an§, goose. 


(21.)tti. 


3ofl, toll. 


3a^n, tooth. 


ZaQ, day. 


;u, to, too. 


f ilnf, five. 


Sraum, dream. 


I'mtx, two. 


onbcr, other. 


Softer, daughter. 


glDMijig, twenty. 


«inb, child. 


tobt, dead. 


gilj, felt. 




X^alcr, doUar. 


©erg, heart. 


(19.) r. 


Xf^avL, dew. 


@at:, salt. 


!urcn (choose). 


t^un, do. 


^a^e, cat. 


friercn, freeze. 


i^ilrc, door. 


titJ, kid. 


tocrficren, lose. 


t^euer, dear. 


S)u(5cnb, dozen. 


tt)ir, we. 


S3ctt, bed. 


^eu^, cross. 


tt?cr, who. 


mm, blood. 


$(a^, place. 


tDarten, wait. 


33aTt, beard. 


3u(fcr, sugar. 


toax, was. 


ajhitb, mood. 




fj)rc(^cn, speak. 


glut^, flood. 


cnx^^-)*- 


(>cifcr, hoarse. 


©(gutter, shoulder 


S^la^t, night. 




leitcn, lead. 


2Kad(;t, might. 


(20.)f.ff,§. 


reitcn, ride. 


Ici^t, light. 


(m9, out 


fjicitcn, glide. 


2x6)t, light. 


effcn, eat. 


SSater, father. 


fed^ten, fight. 


meff en, mete. 


WintttX, mother. 


fncd^t (knight). 


^affcn, hate. 


taucn, thaw. 


grae^t, freight. 


laffcn, let. 


taufcnb, thousand. 


mac^cn, make. 


flroB, great. 


3lnttt)ort, answer. 


Bremen, brake. 


Soo«, lot. 




\n6}tn, seek. 


%n% foot. 


(22.) to. 


33ud^,book. 


9iu6, nut. 


@ett)inn, gain. 


glei^l, like. 


fil6, sweet. 


'Bdftot^tX, sister. 


^^cn, cake. 



2tx6}t, lark. 
\t6)9f six. 
gu^«, fox. 
O^S, ox. 
glades, flax. 
2Ba^8, wax. 
2:ci(3^, ditch. 
b«rc3^, through. 
ia6)tn, laugh. 
man(3(>, many. 

(26.) f«. 

©d^mteb, smith, 
fcj^mal, small. 
@tein, stone, 
©c^wert, sword. 
grofc^, frog, 
fktfc^cn, clap. 

(26.) «. 

S(^)fet, apple. 
i}iXp\tn, hop. 
^^)fcr, copper. 
D^fer, offering, 
^fcffcr, pepper. 
^feifc,pipe. 
^firfi(3t>, peach, 
^flange, plant. 
$floutne, plum, 
^flajter, plaster. 
^Pd en, pluck. 
$f(ug, plow. 

3. In a few cases, foreign words retain their original 
forms, or have developed, in both languages, into the same 
modification of fonn : 



Heb. s&raph, 


@e'ra))f), 


seraph. 


Lat. 


natio, 


^Ration', 


nation. 


Gr. fieHiopovj 


a«etcov', 


meteor. 


LowL. parens, 


¥arf, 


park. 


Lat. studens, 


@tubent', 


student. 


Ital. 


solo, 


@ob, 


solo. 


4. More usually the forms ^ 


rary: 








Or. dyytWoCy 


engci, 


angel. 


Arab. 


masjid, 


SRofd^ee', 


mosque. 


Lat Johannes, 


3fobann, 


.Tohn. 


u 


laimun, 


Slmo'nc, 


lemon. 


** Colonia, 


tain, 


Cologne, 


Peps. 


mAmiji, 


5I«u'mie, 


mummy. 


Low L. missa, 


iWeffc, 


mass. 


Ind. 


tabaco. 


SCa'Sat, 


tobacco. 



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ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX. 

§ 49. Etymology treats, (1.) Of the origin, development, 
changes, decay, and death of words and grammatical forms. 
(2.) Of the classification of words mio j>art8 of speechj 
and of the changes words undergo by inflection. 

(3.) As to their origin, words areprimitive or derivative. 
As to composition, words are simple or compound. 

1. Primitive or radical words are either: 

1. Original root-words, as: \6), bu, tin, in, <JUt, grog, ^olj, S5u^e. 

2. Or they have added the verbal ending tU I ^ab'^lt, binl>'>eu, fe^'^CIU 
Hem, By for the greater number of primitive words are verbs, 

2. Derivative words are formed from primitive words : 

1. By modifying the original root : (|iitUl«en), $anb, 8unb. 

2. By adding prefixes and suflSxes: ( „ „ ), ©tnbcr, 33tnbc, Sftnbcl, 
©ebtnbc, ©anbc, S3finb(]^cn, bfitibig, bfinbtgcn, 53finbigcr, ©finbtgung, 
bilnbcln, bitabig, ©ftnbigtrit, ©ftnbnifi. 

Rem, Many derivative words, the derivation of which is " no longer felt," 
are usually called primitive words, as : 9Rann, from Old- German menan (or 
Gothic minan), to think; rot^, from Sanscrit rudhira, blood f Oct, from Latin 
oleum, oil; ^of^(, from Italian cavolo, cabbage, 

§ 50. Compound words are formed by joining two or more 
simple (or single) words into one word. 
gcbermcffer, Penknife. 

S3aumtt)oUe, Cotton. 

3lu«ge^en, To go out. 



©tattfinben, To take place. 



$tmmeIHait, Blue as the sky. 

©clbrot^, Orange-colored- 

SBomtt? Wherewith? 

3$tcUctd(ft, Perhaps. 



Hem, 1 . Sometimes very long compound words are formed : 
@taat«jcf^utbcnti(gung«!affcnbud^^alter, The keeper of account of the fun* 
devoted to the payment of the national debt (§ 45, 3, Rem, 2). 

Re7n, 2. Two or more compound words of the same kind may be united 
by a hyphen : 
gelb**, ©arten* iinb ?(dfcrbau, Drainage, horticulture, and agriculture. 

Rem, 3. Parts of long words are often united by hyphens : 
geucr*3>erfid;crung«^@cfcUfd)aft, Fire Insurance Company. 

Rent. 4, Compound words are much more largely used in German than in 
English. New combinations may be formed indefinitebr. 



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§ 51-54.] THE ARTICLE. 253 

§ 51. There are ten parts of speech in German : 

1. Flexible : the Article, Noun, Adjective, Numeral, 
Pronoun, Verb. 

2. Inflexihle: the Abverb, Preposition, Conjimction, 
Interjection. 

§ 52. Syntax treats of the power certain words or parts 
of speech have in determining the fonns and position of 
other words, or parts of speech. 



THE ARTICLE. 
(2)er fCrtifel.) 

§ 53. In all languages where the Article exists, the Def- 
inite Article is derived from a Demonstrative Pronoun ; 
the Indefinite Artide is derived from the Numeral One. 

In German there is no difference between the forms: 

1. Of the Def. Article bct, and the Dem. Pron. bet* 

2. Or of the Indef. Article tin, and tlie Numeral tin* 

Rem. The Article is distinguished from the Pronoan or Numeral : (1.) By 
never recei\ing a strong emphasis. (2.) By never being used without a noun. 



§ 54. Declension of the Article: 






1. Definite, \^tx, the. 


2. Indefinite, cill, 


a, an. 


SINGULAR. PLURAL. 




SINGULAR. 




Masc. Fein. Neut. All Gen. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Nofn.htt, hit, ha^. Uu 


tin, 


tln-t, 


tin. 


Gen. bC«, htt, m. htU 


thU't^, 


tinker, 


tin*t9. 


Dat. htm, htt, htm. ben« 


tin^tm, 


tin^tt, 


dn«em« 


Ace. htn, hit, ha9. hiu 


diiseii, 


tin^t, 


eiK. 



Rem. 1. The vowel is short in ha9, bc«, and long in bcr, bcm, belt. 

Rem. 2. When no obscurity of meaning or harshness of sounds is thereby 
produced, the following contractions of prepositions with the definite article 
are allowable {Lesson -X., 2) : 

1 . With Dat. sing.(yn, and n.) bettt : am, Bctm, ^intcrm, tm, bom, jum, utitcrm 

(an bcm, bci bcm, Winter bcm, in bcm, bon bcm, ju bcm, wntcr bcm). 

2. With Dat. sing, (/cm.) bet: %ViX (ju bcr). 

8. With Ace. " (neut.) H%i an8, auf«, butd^, fftr«, in8, um« (an baS 
auf bad, bnr^ bad, fiir bad^ in bad, um bod). 



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]': 



254 BXNTAX OF THE ARTICLE. [§ 55. 

§ 55. Syntax of the Article. The following are some of 
the most important points in which the German varies from 
die English in the use of the Article. 

1. The D^nite Article is employed: 

1. Before nouns used in a general or abstract sense: 
®er 3Kcnf(!^ ift flcrMi^, Man is mortal 
!Dlc ©efdjfi^tc bet 9m% The history of art 
Sad (9o(b i{l toft^r, Gold is costly. 

2. Before some individual concrete nouns: 

Sttd grfl^|Ml(f ifl fcrtig, Breakfast is ready. 

9la^ bent ?lbcnbcjf en, After supper. 

8. When a proper name, or the name of a division of time, is preceded 

by an adjective : 
Sttd feflc SWaflbcburg, Strong Magdeburg. 

®er toorigc 9Kal »ar XoXX, Last May was cold. 

4. Before feminine geographical names : 

®ie @(^tt)Ctg ifl fef^r \^^n, Switzerland is very beautiful 

SBarcn @ic in bet Xllrfct? Have you been in Turkey? 

5. Before nouns of number, weight, and measure (while in English the 
Indefinite Article would be used)* 

3tt)Ct 2:^alcr H% ^funb, Two dollars a pound. 

SSicrmal \At SSo^c, Four times a week. 

Rem. 1 . The Definite Article is often used where in English the Personal 
Pronoun would be employed : 

Wxi bent ^ut in bet $anb, With his hat in his hand. 

Rem, 2. The dative of the definite article, contracted with the preposition 
yiXf is used to express promotion or election to office or rank : 
@r n>ar pnt ^rSpbcntcn gc»5^lt, He was elected President. 

2. The Definite Article is orriitted : 

1. Before many legal terms and some words in ordinary life: 
S())^ctlant, SBcftagtcr fagt— The plaintiff, the defendant says— 

Ueberbringcr bicfcS, The bearer of this. 

^ 2. Before names of the points of the compass : 

@ie fcgcltcn gegcn iRorbcn, They sailed towards the north. 

8. The Article must be added if the case of the noun cannot be dete^ 

mined without it: 
2)ic fftc^tc ber grauen, The rights of women. 

4. With two or more nouns of different genders or numbers, the Article 

must be repeated : 
S)er ©ruber unb \At @d^tt)cflcr, The brother and sister. 



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§ 56, 57.] THE NOUN. 255 



THE NOUN. 

§ 56. Nearly all Nouns may be traced back to verbal 
roots (§ 49,1, Rem.). With the exception of the very 
small number that are radical words, German nouns ara 
formed : 

1. By the modification of a verbal root (§ 48, 2, 1). 

2. By adding prefixes or suflSxes to other words (§ 67, 58). 

3. By compounding nouns with other words (§ 58). 

Rem, The formation, inflection, and syntax of the German are far more 
complicated than those of the English noun. On the other hand, as the 
German nouns are mostly formed from native roots, they are more easily 
understood than English nouns, which are so largely imported from foreign 
languages. 

§ 57. In forming Derivative Nouns, the c\iiei suffixes are ; 
1. Those that form concrete nouns, ^Cll, cl, cr, ill, ling : 

1 . s^CIl and sitilt — ^with umlaut to the radical vowel, where possible 
— form diminutive nouns : 

$au«(3^cn, a little house. ^a6)ldn, a small brook. 

SWiltterc^fcn, dear mother. ^6}tot\ttx6)tn, dear sister. 

2. itl usually denotes material instruments : 

^tM, a lever (from ^eben, to heave, lift). 
2)e(f ci, a tfover (from htdm, to cover). 

8. str denotes (1) male persons: Scorer, a teacher, danger, a singer, 
SSittttJcr, a widower, @d(ftt)cijcr, a Swiss. 

(2) animals: <BptxUx, a sparrow-hawk, ©d^rbtcr, a beetle. 

(3) instruments : S3o^rcr, an auger, SScdcr, an alarm clock. 

4. AU (or 4ttlt) forms /cmininc from masculine nouns : 

^H\Q, a king. .^Snigin, a queen. 

Scorer, a male teacher. Secretin, a female teacher. 

@(3(ftt)ctjcr, a Swiss. ©c^tDcigcrtn, a Swiss lady. 

5. AiU% modifies the meaning of nouns, often indicating dependencCj 
contempt, or low valuation : 

3flngling, a youngster. 9JKct^Iing, a hireling. 
Stirling, an apprentice. 2>i(i^tcrling, a poetaster. 



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256 THE NOUN. [§ 57. 

2. Suffixes forming mostly abstract nouns, e, ci (rci), 
\t\i (leit), vX%, fal; ft^af t, tl^itm, ung : 

1. »C (with nmlaut to radical vowel) forms nouns from adjectives; 
@iltc, goodness, $6&c, height, Sangc, length, Xicfc, depth. 

2. sCi (or $rti)^ in nouns formed from verbs, denotes a repeated or con- 
tinued action, often with the idea of contempt : @(i^mci^clct, flattery, 
©^tclcrct, foolish sport. 

8. s|tlt (or sftit) forms (1) a6«froc/ nouns, from adjectives or participles : 
©(H^iJn^^t, beauty, ©manb^eit, dexterity, 2)anfbar!cit, thankfulness} 
{^^concreU nouns, from adjectives : ^Ictnigfctt, trifle ; (3) nouns, from 
personal nouns: ^ott^^ett, Godhead, ^ub^ett, childhood. 

4. stti| denotes (1) condition or completion of a quality or action: gin* 
flcmig, darkness, ^cnntnig, knowledge, SScr^Sltni^, relation ; (2) in 
concrete nouns, the accomplishing agent or the accomplished object : 
©efangnijj, piison, SScrjci^nig, catalogue. 

5. sffll denotes (I) a condition : 2:nlbfal, sadness, @(^irff at, fete ; (2) the 
cause of a condition : @(i(^cufal, a monster (causing horror). 

6. $f(!(aft denotes (1) relationship or condition of persons : greunbfd^ft, 
friendship, 53ercitf(if^aft, readiness ; (2) a collection of persons of a 
certain grade or calling: 9ltttcrWdft, knighthood, S3aucmf^aft, 
peasantry; (3) a collection of things of the same kind: ©crSt^t^ft, 
tools ; (4) collective appellations of places : Ortf^aft, neighborhood. 

7. «t^ltttt^ (1) to adjective or verbal roots, denotes quality or condition, 
or that to which this quality adheres : Sleit^t^um, richness or riches, 
2Ba(!^«t^um, growth, ^citigt^um, sanctuary; (2) to personal nouns, 
it denotes condition, office, or dominion : ^otfcrt^um, empire. 

8. sllllg, (1) denotes condition, what produces a condition, or a thing 
put into a certain condition : S^rcnnung, division, 9Rif(3^un0, mixt- 
ure ; (2) forms collective nouns : SSaIbung,forest, ^Icibung, clothing. 

3. The most important ^^^Ka?^ are ge, X^\%f llll, VXf Ctj: 

1 . gts denotes coUectiveness, union, completion, or repetition : ©eBirgc, 
mountain range, ®cfa6rtc, companion, ©eBSubc, edifice, ®CTfiuf(if^, 
a continued noise (as of rivers, arms, machinery, cte.). 

2. ntf^^ denotes negation, incompletness, or negation of quality: SJ^tf}* 
ton, discord, OTpcgrtff, misconception, aKifjgunjl, disfiivor. 

8. nils denotes negation or per\ersion of quality: Unglildf, misfortune, 
Unmenft^, inhuman person, Unfc^ulb, innocency. 

4. ViX* denotes source, origin, or cause, or a thing in its original con- 
dition: Urf^)rung, origin, Urfat^c, cause, Urtt)alb, primeval forest. 

5. et)« (arch) denotes the first or greatest : @T)Bif(^of , archbishop, 
Sribieb, arrant thief. (grsmarWafl, lord high marshal. 



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§ 58, 59.] ATTRIBUTES OP THE NOUN. 257 

§ 58. Compound Nouns (L. XXXVI.) are formed : 

1. By prefixing to nouns modifying words^ which may- 
be of any part of speech, except an article or interjec- 
tion : 

S)a« @(3(^U4l^au«, schoolhouse. 2)cr ^aufmann, merchant. 

t, grcmbttJort, foreign word. 2)tc ^erfunft, origin. 

3)er 3tt)«!am^f, duel. 2)er ©ingang, entrance. 

„ ©clbjhnorb, suicide. 2)cr 3lberglaubc> superstition. 

2. By uniting the words of some familiar expressions : 

S)a$ SSergtgmrinniii^t, the forget-me-not. 

2)cr 2:augcnt(i^t«, the good for nothing fellow. 

S)a« aclangcrjeltebcr, the honeysuckle. 

2)er S^tingindfelb; the romp. 

Rem, 1. In a few cases the first word is in the gen. sing, or the gen. pi. : 

2)a« XaQt9l\6ft, the daylight. 2)a« 2B5rtcrbU(]^, the dictionary. 
Rem, 2. By a false analogy, some nouns take on the gen, ending^ i (C8) : 

!S)er dteUgton^frieg, war having its origin in religions feuds. 

S)ic geucrs35crfi(3(^crun0«*<Scfcttf(^KJft, Fire Insurance Company. 
Rem, 3. In a few compound nouns the adjective also is declined : 

Norn. sing., htx §o^c^)ricjtcr. Nom.pL,t)it ©o^cn^ricjtcr. 

Gen, " ht» §o^cn^ricjler«. Gen. " bcr |)o^eni)ricfler. 

Dat, " bcm $o^ctii>ricflcr. Dat, *' ben ^o^cni)ricftcm. 

Ace. " ben ^^en]f>riefter. Atx, " bte ^o^eni)ric|!er. 



1. ACCIDENTS OF THE NOUN. 
(attriHitte M $au)itt9orte^0 

§ 59. The Attributes of the Noun, as well as of all other 
flexible parts of speech (§ 50), except the verb, are: 

1. Two Numhera: Singular and Plural. 

2. Three Genders : Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. 

3. Four Cases : Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and 
Accusative. 

Rem, Suhstantives, whether nouns or pronouns, control the gender, number, 
person, and case of all other flexible parts of speech. Hence a knowledge 
of the attributes of the noun, while one of the most difficult, is at the same 
time one of the most important things in the study of the German language. 



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258 GENDER OP NOUNS. [§ 60, 61. 

2. GENDER OF NOUNS. 
(3)a^ ®tWt^i bet ^att^ittoorter*) 
§ 60. 1. Only in nouns referring toj>ei'8on8, and in the 
names of some animals, is the natural gender observed : 
Scr iWann, the man. 3tc grau, the woman. ®er 88tt)C, the lion. 

2. Of names of animals^ some are masculine, others 
are feminine, and a few are neuter : 

Scr 3tb(cr, the eagle. Sic gltcgc, the fly. Sa§ ^fcrb, the horse. 

3. Of names of inanimate objects and abstract nouns, 
all of which are neuter in English, some are masculine, 
some feminine, and some neuter: 

®Cr 2:if(^, the table. %\t %^^xtf the door. Sa5 ^au5, the house. 
n SD'^ut^, courage. n @iite, goodness. „ <Snbe, the end. 
Rem. The Gender of German nouns can only be learned by long practice. 
During the history of the language, many nouns have passed hom one gender 
to another. Of a few nouns the gender is not yet settled. 

4. The following will serve as general rules in fixing 
the gender of nouns : 

§ 61. Nouns Masculine by meaning are the names of: 

1. Male Beings: bcr 9Jiann, ^iJmg, SBttJC; the man, king, lion. 

2. Deity and Angels: bcr (Sott, ^ngcl, (S^erub, @cra^>^, %tXi\t\ ; 

God, angel, cherub, seraph, devil. • 

3. Seasons: bcr SBtntet, gtil^Itng (but H^ grfl^iabr), ©ornmcr, $crbp ; 

Winter, Spring (Spring), Summer, Fall. 

4. Months: bcr 3anuar, gcbruar, ^Warg, 3(^)ril, 2Rat, 3uni, 3uK, etc. 

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, etc, 

5. Days of the Week: bcr 3Kontag, 2)icnPag, 2JKttnjo(]^, S)onncrflag,€^c. 

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, etc, 
C. Points of the Compass: htt S^iorb, @ilb, Ofl, SSejl ; North, South, etc. 

7. Mountains: htt $arj, $cful), Slctna, the Harz, Vesuvius, Etna. 

8. Large Birds: htt 5lblcr, ^abi^t, ©cict ; the eagle, hawk, vultur^ 

9. Fishes: htt 3(al, ^t6}t, ^a6}9; the eel, pike, salmon. 

10. Bvgs and Worms: htt 2Wat!fifer, S3(utcgel; the May-bug, leech. 

11. Fndt-trees, Grains, Shrubs, and wild Plants: htt 3l^)fclbaum, SBcigcn, 
^otCunbcr, Saud^; the apple-tree, wheat, elder, leek. 

12. Winds: bcr @amum, @iro!!o, Orfan; simoom, sirocco, hurricane. 

. 13. Mineral Substances (except metals, §63): htt SHttttiant, ®(!(;n>cfc(, 
€^tein, iD'Sarmcr ; diamond, sulphur, stone, marble. 



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§ 62-66.] GENDER OF NOUNS. 259 

§ 62. Nouns feminine by meaning are the names of: 

1. Female Beings: \l\t grau, ^iJntgin, 2i5ttJm, woman, queen, lioness. 

2. Simller Birds and Insects : hit 'UladfiXQaii, S)rof]cl, gliegc, 5Banjc, 

the nightingale, thrush, fly, bug. 

S. Forest-trees, Fruits and Flowers, especially if ending in C X blC (Si^C, 

S3irne, 9tofe, the oak, pear, rose. 
4. Most Rivers: hit S)onau, (SllJC, @^>rcc, the Danube, Elbe, Spree. 

Exc, bcr DJl^cin, SOiain, etc, the Rhine, Maine, etc. 

§ 63. Nouns neuter by meaning are the names of: 

1. Most Countries and Places: ta3 bctjic 3taUcn, hot Italy, btt^ f^^ttC 
S3crlin, beautiful Berlin, ha& fcftc SDiagbcburg, strong Magdeburg. 

2. Collective Nouns: ha^ S>oIf, §ecr, the people, army, ha^ (3xa9, ^W> 
9lo^r, grass, sedge, reeds. 

3. Metals: ha§ 'Bxtbtx, ®oIb, S3Ici, Sifcn, silver, geld, lead, iron. 
Exc, htt @ta^(, St^ni, Cobalt, steel, zinc, cobalt. 

§ 64. Nouns masculine ty form are : 

1. Most monosylUihic nouns not ending in t (§ Cn): hit Sni^, 2)ailT, 
gfltt, $ci(}, Cuctt, the breach, thanks, fall, hatred, source. 

2. All nouns endintj in \^, \^, ivi%, \\Xi%, VX X bcr @tid;, $onig, faring, 
Settling, ©dm, the sting, honey, herring, apprentice, helmet. 

Exc. ba^ 3Reffing, brass, hti^ S)tng, the thing. 

§ 65. Nouns feminine by form arc : 

1 . All dissyllabic nouns endiwj in t, and not denoting male beings ; 
biC ^rd^C, ^rfd(>c, @onnc, (Srbc, the church, cheiTy, sun, earth. 
Exc, 1. ha^ 3tugc, @nbc, (5rl)C, the eye, end, inheritance. 

Exc. 2. bcr Sfiamc, Sittc, the name, will. 

2. Most nouns ending in aiftt, Miftt, lllb, Unft; bie 9fiad(^t, glu(^?t, ©C* 
bulb, SScmunft, night, flight, patience, reason. 

8. AU derivatives ending in f^tit, U\t, \MH^ t\, fit (init), UU^, aiff, ltt| : 

bit grci^rit, 2)an!bar!cit, grcunbf(J^aft, Saderri, ^5mginn, ^offnung, 
^ ^eimat^, 3lrmut^, freedom, thankfulness, friendship, bakery, queen, 
hope, home, poverty. 

Exc, tier (or btt^) Stcrrat^, the ornament, ha^ ^ctf^aft, ®c\6)xti, 
the seal, the ciy. 

§ 66. Nouns neuter by form are : 

1. Diminutives (in (^CH^ ItlU, see § 57, 1, 1), whatever may be the 
natural gender : ha§ ^fcrb^cn, SBil^Idil, the little horse, little book; 
btt^ grfiulcin, Wl^tdfttt, ^nblcin, the young lady, girl, child. 



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260 THE NOUNS. [§ 67-69. 

2. Derivatives ending in f a(, f tl, ttfttltt t ha9 @4^i(f fal, 9JatMeI, fiaifcr- 
t^um, (S^riflcnt^um, fate, riddle, empire, Christendom. 

JExc, 1. btr 2Bc(i^fcI, 3rrt^um, 9lei(i^t^um, the change, error, riches. 
£xc, 2. hit 2l4^f el, 2(mfel, 2)ddf^fcl, the shoulder, blackbird, adze. 
Hxc, 3. bit (or ha9) Wiff\al, %xiih\al, the distress, sorrow. 

3. Uouns with the;>r^^x get btt^ ©ebfiubc, Oefctj, the building, law. 
Hxc, 1. ber @cbrauc^,@eban!c,®e^orfam,®cnufi,®cfang,®efd?ma(f, 
©etDtnit ; the use, thought, obedience, enjoyment, song, taste, gain. 
£xc. 2. hit (3thiif)x, ©cburt, (Scbulb, ©cfa^r, Ocmcinbc, Ocnftgc, 
®t\^6}tt, ©cjialt, the duty, birth, patience, danger, community, 
satisfaction, history, form. 

§ 67. Compound Nouns take the gender of the last noun : 
ber @(J(^uttc^rer, the school-teacher (bit @4^ule, htt Scorer). 
bit $offiT(J(^c, the court church (ber $of, bit ^rc^^e). 
ha§ @(^u((iau9, the school-house (bie k>6}uU, ha^ $aud). 
£xc, 1. ®er Slbft^eu (bie @(^cu), ber iWittroo^ (bie aBoc](;c). 
JSxc, 2. ®ie 3(nmut^, 2)eiltut^, ©ro^mut^^, Sangmut^, ©anftmutft, 
^6}mxmui\}, SSc&mut^ (ber Tlnii), ^ot^^mut^, cfc); bie 3lnt* 
iDort (ba« aSort). 
JTxc. 3. S)a« Oegent^cir, ba^ (or ber) 35orbert^eiI, etc. (ber X^ctO. 
JSxc, 4. Names of cities are neuter, whatever the compound may be : 
Sa^ fcjte aJiagbeburg (bie 33urg), strong Magdeburg. 

§ 68. Foreign Nouns usually retain their original gender : 

Sie XiftoloQlt, theology (from Gr. i) ^loXoyia, theology). 
Exc. But some foreign words have been drawn out of their original 
gender: ber ^iJr^er, bie 9^ummer, ba^ genfler; 
Jro7H Lat. (neitf.) corpus, (masc.) nnmerus, (/em.) fenestra. 

§ 69. A number of nouns have two genders, with dif- 
ferent signification for each gender, as : 

2)er $anb, the volume.' !S)ad ^nb, the ribbon. 

„ ©auer, the peasant. ,t S3auer, the cage. 

tf ^nnh, the alliance. n ^unb, the bundle. 

tt (S^or, the chorus. ,/ (S(|or, the choir. 

rr dxhtf the heir. „ (Srbe, the inheritance. 

3)ie Srlenntnig, knowledge. „ (grtenntnig, the sentence 

2)er ^arg, the Harz Mountains. „ $arj, the resin. 

„ ^eibe, the heathen. 2)ie ^eibc, the heath. 

f, ^efcr, the jaw. „ ^efer, the pine. 

tt ^unbe, the costimier. tt ^unbe, the knowledge. 

tt Setter, the leader. r, Setter, the ladder. 

y TlanQil, the want. u SO^onget, the mangles. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 70-72.] DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 261 

!S)te Wlaxt, the markgraviate. 2)ad iD'2arT,the marrow. 

2)cr SWcff er, the measurer. „ 3Jicff cr, the knife. 



, the shield. tf @^i(^/ the sign. 

„ ^6)t0VLi\t, the bombast. 2)ic @(^|tt)ulfl, the swelling. 

ff @ec, the lake. f, @cc, the ocean. 

„ @^roff e, the sprout tt @^toff c, round of a ladder. 

S)ic @tcucr, the tax. 2)a« @tcucr, the rudder. 
2)cr @tift, the handle. „ @tift, the endowment 

„ X\)OX, the fool. w 2;^or, the gate. 

„ SScrbtcnjl, the reward. „ S3crbtcnfl, the merit 

2)te SEc^r, the bulwark. ,, SJSc^r, the wier. 

§ 70. During the history of the language some nouns 
have passed from one gender to another: 

Gothicy der luftus, der sidus, das leik, , , 

Old Ger.f der Inft, der situ, die lech, das saf, die ribba, 

Mid. Ger,, der luft, der site, die lich, das saf, das rippe, 

New Ger,, btc 2uft, btc @ittc, btc 2ei^c, bcr @oft, btc dt\i(>pt, 

the air, the custom, the corpse, the sap, the rib. 



3. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 
(3)eniitatioit htt $ait))ttoortcr«) 
§ 71. The influences which have produced the great 
variety now existing in the declension of German nouns 
are still at work. The most important of these are: 

1. The increasing use of the umlaut 

2. Tlie tendency of terminations to lengthen root vowels. 

3. The passing of nouns from one gender to another. 

4. The increasing number of masculine nouns with stt in the plural. 

§ 72. The many different ways in which common 
nouns are declined may be most conveniently grouped 
into three classes or Declensions: 

1. The Old Dedension, containing masculine, feminine, and neuter 
nouns, and having three forms in the plural. 

2. The New Declension, containing masculine and feminine nouns, and 
having omeform. sU (stttj in the plural. 

8. The Mixed Deolention, containing masculine and neuter nouns, and 
having onefonn sU (stll) in the plural. 
Rem. The following table illustrates these three declensions: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I 







• 
. «> «J «^ w 


/-> 










:^ 








5525 M*»2 5t« 


•d 


^ ♦ s s s ?* 






(D(^(^^ ^\§>^^ 


1 


^ Y *^ V V V V 




/^ 






^SS-sO^sXS- ^SS' s»- s»- si> 




fe; 


^ 


QQQQ QQQQ 




r 


, ♦ 




'SopSQ WMtSo 




£*i 


tc ccZc 


§ 


O ^ S cs t^ «> o .^ 




^' 


«4-t-e- ««-4-e- 






« o«« :«w5tcJ"3 


*S 






>^-' 


S^gpSPS? S^SQ^^ 


S 


* ♦ ♦ ♦ 




i 


es§g^t:S.si 


43 


.«; ?5ss 


1 

i 






1 


^ ^ J-' >*• 1^ V V V 
oooo oooo 






CO 




§ 




^j^jjijzi SSjO-oju 














1 


1 






gggg gggg 


TJ 


1^ 


«rt w ♦ tJ ♦ 




.SJ S 13 .Si .!i tJ g .-i 




1 




ft,' 


,f:i x> Xi ja jsi j:^ jLt jL» 




^ 


ggg^^ggg 


s 


♦ ♦ ♦ ^ ♦ ♦ ♦ 




►H 






«»88 »888 




M 


iSlls^ls 












^ » :S :o ^ -5* -S 55* 








1 


o^cwcwGw ^wc^a^ 




/^ 










^lll^5l:2 


1 


.ggg isgg 






S "gl""g g'g"g¥ 




1^ 


tJ S § g .^ S5 g .Si 




JgSlls^ls 




t-i 


Ij^lllll 




1 § ;s' §• 1 i i si 


'j,vin6u%s 'pjnjj 


'^tjjnSutgf Yo-m/j- 



o 
o 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 73, 74.] DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 263 

Rem. 1. All feminine nouns remain unchanged in the singular. 
Rem, 2. All nouns have sji in the dative plural — as do also all articles^ ad' 
jectivesj and pronouns (except UIl^^ tu6ff fl^). 

Rem, 3. The umlciut is used only in the Old Declension, 

§ 73. The 014 Declension includes by far the greater 
part of all German nouns, especially of those of the 
masculine and neuter gender. 

Reni. 1. It includes the greater part of: (I) masculine and neuter primi- 
tive nouns ; (2) derivatives in cr, (^Ctt, Icitt^ i(^, \<jl^i, \%, \Vi^, ling, n% 

Rem, 2. Where no harshness of sound is thereby produced, the c may be 
dropped from the ending of the genitive and dative (especially of the 
dative): (l)of nouns not ending in §,§, f(J or M^] (2) of nouns preceded 
by prepositions : Ipon Ort gu Ort (but ju §aufc) ; (3) of the word @ott (in 
dat.yhvit not in gen.)\ uitt @ott (but um @ottc« SBitten). 

§ 74. Nouns of the Old Declension are divided into 
three classes^ according to the way in which their plurals 
are formed : 

First class ' plural like singular (but sometimes takes the umlaut). 
Second class: plural adds sCf (and always " " ** ). 

Third class: plural adds sC (and generally *' " " ). 

1. To the first class belong: 

1. Masculine and neuter nouns in el, ett, tXX 

1. The masc, mostly with umlaut in plural: bcr S?atcr, pi, SSStCt. 

2. The neut., " without *' " ** ; baS Staffer/* SSaffcr. 

2. Neuter diminutives in ^c», Icfli: baS SWfib^cn, graulcin, ^tilmd^en. 

3. Neuter derivatives with the prefix (JC, and the suffix e: baS ©cbfiubc. 

4. The two feminine nouns, bie SIKuttcr, 2:o^tcr {pi, SDlilttcr, 2i}d;tcr). 

2. To the second class belong mostly neuter nounSy as : 
1. 3)0^ 2lmt, S3ab, SBIatt, SBuA, 2)a(3^, 2)orf, (Si, gadi, %a% gctb, @clb, 

®M, @Ucb, @rab, @ra«, @ut, ^u^Jt, $a««, $uf;n, ^aK\ ^inb, 
tlcib, «orn, ^au\, Samm, 2o(^, 2«aul, Sflt% ^fanb, §Rab, 9eclm, 
Sfttnb, @(J^ro6, @^tt)crt, 23o«, 2SciB; ba« ®etniit6, ©cfd^Ici^t. 
. 2. AH words in t^jtm: btt^ (S^rtflcitt^um, Mfcrt^um, bcr 9?ct(!^t^um, etc, 

8. A few foreign words: ha^ §of^ttaI, 9Jegtmcnt, e<c. 

4. Also a few masculine nouns, as : hit @Ctft, @ott, Sctfe, 9Kann, SBalb. 

3. To the third class, which includes nouns of all gen- 
ders, belong : 

1. All derivatives in nig^ (alt hit ^cnntnig, ba9 SSilbut^, ©ci^idfal: 



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264 THE NOUN. L§ T^' 

2. Masc and neat. deriTatives in aitb^ Hi, i^t, ig, ittg^ litt^, tt4 1 ^tt 

3. Some foreign nouns: bet %U,%ltax, Q^eneral; ba^ (Concert, (SoncU. 

4. Many others of all genders, as: (1), htX 5lal, %r^t, S3aum, ©lit}, 
<5ib, gtfd?, $alm, 4>irf^, ^mt, Sncc^t, 9laum, @a^, 2:teil, 2tf^* 
(2), bie «J?t, S3raut, «rujl, gruci^t, §anb, ^aft aWad^t, ^a6)U 
(3),ba« S3cil, S3ctn, Soo«, 3»oo«, $ult, @c^^ff, 2^or, Serf, ®tUnt 

Rem. The umlaut is added to the plural of all feminine nouns that are 
capable of it, to most masculine noons, but only to three neuter nouns (ba9 

§ 75. No neuter nouns belong to the New Declension. 
This declension includes : 

1. Xott feminine nonni : (1), monosyllables ; bit ^^^ $a^n, glur, 

gtut^, 3asb, Sojl, 2afl, ^fli^t, Oual, @aat, @^aar, -S^la^t, 
©thrift, @^ulb, @^ccr, %^cA, St^ilr, U^r, 2BcIt, 3a^I, etc, 
(2), derivatives in t^ t\, tt (except SDfhitter, Slod^tcr, § 74, 1, 4), tA%, 
t\, tx^, %t\i, felt, in (It), fiftaft, ititg : bit »cbc, e^flffcl, ©^wcflcr, 
^eimat^, gMcrci, Qugcnb, SSa^r^eit, 2)anfbar!eit, ilSmgin, grcunb* 
f^aft, Orbming. 

2. Many maaonlins nouns: (1), monosyllables : btt ^5r, ^^tifl, $$inT, 
garji, ®raf, ^elb, $crr, ^irt, SWcnfc^, iWo^r, 9fiatt, 0(]^«, X^or. 
(2), polysyllables ending in sf: bcr ^ffc, Sotc, ©ubc, (grbc, ®attc, 
^afc, 3ungc, ^abc, SSlt^t, SJabc, Seicfc, granlc, ©ried^e, SJuffe. 
(3), personal nouns, with prefix gt*: btr ©cffi^rtc, ©c^iWfe, ©efctte. 

8. Many mase. and fern, foreign noons : htX 31bl)o!at, ^anbibat, SWonar^, 
^rSpbent; bie gacultst, SWclobic, O^cr, ^crfon, a^cgct. 

4. Kamss of nationaUty, as: btr S3aicr, Saffcr, Ungar, 2:atar, ^ofa!. 

Rem. 1 . The termination sU is added to nouns ending in C, or in unacccnteil 
<\, 'tt, sat: to other nouns stll is added; 

N. Sing., bcr 2»tt)e, Ungar, SWcnW («xc. $crr); btc 9Jcbc, grau. 

C7. 5tni^.,bc«25tt)cn, Ungarn, SKcnWcn( ** ^crrn); bcr 9lcbc, grau. 

iv: P/ur., bie SiJwcn. Ungam. SWenfc^cn ( " $crrcn); bie SJcbcn, grauen. 

Rem. 2. Relics of the former declension of feminine nouns in the singular 
are retained in some familiar expressions, and in some compound words : 
auf ©rbcn, ju ®unj!en, toon ®ottc« ©nabcn, bad @onnenU(i^t. 

Rem. 3. The monosyllabic masculine nouns of this declension (§ 75, 2). 
are contracted from longer original forms, as : 

Old German: der hero, crist&ni, fifristo, gr&vee, (helid), hdrro, hirti. 
Mid. German : der ber, kristen, viirste, gr4ve, belt, herre, hirte, 
New German: bCT^^. (S^rifl. gttr^ ®xal »^Ib. 4>err. $irt. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 76-78.] DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 265 

§ 76. The Mixed Declension contains a few masculine 
and neuter nouns which follow the old declension in the 
singular^ and the new declension in the plural^ as : 

1. Masculine : Str 31^n, 33auer, 2)orn, gorjl, ®aut, ®c*)attcr, §alm, 

d^el, ©tra^I, St^ron, SJctter, Untcrt^an, 3ierat^. 

2. Many foreign nouns in dtl ®er 2)o!tor, 9leftor, ^rofcffor, ^aflor. 

3. Neuter: 3)a« Slugc, S3ett, enbc, §cmb, ^crj, 2etb, O^r, 3nfcft. 
Bern, 1. 2)a8 ^erj is) S. baS $erj, be8 ^erjcil^^ bcm ©crjcil^ ba« $erj ; 

irregular. > P. bit ^crjen, bcr ^erjcn, ben ^crjen, btc ^crjcn. 
Rem. 2. S)er ^a6fhax, ber Untert^an, usually follow the new declension in 
the singular, as sometimes does ber @e)^atter. 

§ 77. Some Foreign Nouns which have not yet been 
fully naturalized are irregular. Some of them retain 
very much of their original modes of declension, as : 

Norn, Sing,, 2Kufeum, ©J^mnafiuttt, 9J^tjt^mu6, @^)onbcu«, goffif, 
Gen, Sing. J SWufeuntS, ©tjmnafiumS, 9J^^t^mu6, ©^onbcus, gojfiis, 
Norn. Plur., SWufcen, ©tjmnapen, Sft^i^t^men, S^onbecn, goffiJien, 
Dat, Plur,, aRujeen. ©i^mnaficn* ^i)titi)mzn. ©i)onbcen. goffilten. 
Norn. Sing.y ?orb, Sabtj, Oenic, Slfteur, ^afd^a, <Boio, ^aftno, 
Gen. Sinf/., 2orb8, 2ab^, @ente«, 3l!teur«, ^afc^aS, (£oIo«, ^afmoS, 
iVbw. Plur., Sorbs, 2abie«, ©enies, ?t!teur3, ^afc^aS, ©olos, .^afinoS, 
Z>af. P/ttr., 2orb«. 2abte«. ®eme«. ?lftcur«. ^afc^as. eoIo«. ^aflno«. 

iVom. .Sw^., Slbiectii), StapM, S5erBum, aJiufihiS, St^ema, 

Ccn. Sing., 3lbiectiJ)3, ^a^ttal«, a5crl)um«, aJluflfuS, %i)ma9, 

Norn. Plur.,l%titQtx^a, ^a)pitaU, 55erba, SWurict, 2:^emata, 

" '* > abjectiijen. ^a^italicn. SSerkn. aKufiter. St^emcn. 

§ 78. The Declension of Proper Nouns differs greatly from 
that of common nouns (§ 72). 

1. With names oj^ persons : 

1. The genitive is usually formed by adding $^» 

2. But masc. names in ft, ^^ \^^ ^^ 3, and fem. names in C, take iVHi* 

3. The plural of all names is formed according to the old declension 
except feminine names in t, which follow the new declension : 

Norn. Sing., ^cinrici^, Subwtg, B6}\Utx, ®liti)t, granj, 

Gen. Sing., ^etnrt(^«, SublDtfiS, @^itter6, @6t^e«, granjcnS, 

Norn. Plur., ^t\nx\i}t, ?ubtt)tfje, ©d^itter, ®8t^c, grange, 

Dat. Plur., ^eiarid^cn. Subivigen. ©d^ittem. ©iJt^fcn. 5ranjen. 
M 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



266 THE NOUN. [§ 79, 80, 

Norn, Sing., Sdtttifa, Simna, Slbcl^b, ^blDtg, Tlaxxt', 
Gen, Sing., 33crt^«, Smma$, W>tii)dh9, ^ebtt)ig6, 2Wari*cn«, 
Nom, Plur., 58crt^a«. (gmma«. 2lbcl^ctb«. ^ebwigS. SWari^cn. 
Rem, Proper nouns are not inflected when preceded by the article or an 

adjective prononn: bit ©Ubffiulc bc« ?)orf ; btc SScrIc bc« 3o^ann ©cbafHon 

^(nii (or 3o^ann ©cBafHou ©ad(^ SScrlc). 

2. Names of a^*^ or countries, not ending in 8, J, or 
J, take i in the genitive ; Serlin^ Umgebuncjen ; bic ©tabte 
2)eutfd()lanM- 

Rem, Those in ^^ ), and ^ mnst be (and others may be) preceded by ))01t^ 
ht9, or a qualifying noun : bie (&vatoof)ntx toon SJ^ain) (or bev ©tobt SJ^ain}). 

§ 79. The chief irregularities in the plural are thes({^: 

1. Nouns indicating t^J^/j'A^j^/iefl^^r^, and number retain 
their singular form, even when used in the plural. 

3)rci ^firnb ^udtx; \t6f9 gug i)c6} ; toierjig SWonn 9icitcrct. 
JExc, But feminine nouns in t, and nouns indicating divisions of time, take 
the plural form ; t)iet WldUn entfemt ; gtt>ei £age long. 

2. Some nouns have two forms in thi3 plural, as : 
2)ct 2)orn ; pi. Xoxntn, or 2)»mcr. 2)a« i\6}t ; pi, ^i6)tt, or 2i<3^ter* 
3)a8 8anb ; pi. 8anbe, or SSnbcr. 2)a« 2;^al ; ;>/. %i)aU, or X^atcr* 

i26m. 1. With some nouns one form (as Sanbe, ^ale) is poetical. 
Rem. 2. Sometimes the different forms have differeot meanings, as : 

2)ct S3anb, volume, pL ©dnbc. 2)a8 ®cji(i^t, eyesight, pi (wanting). 

S)aS SBanb, ribbon, pi, S35nbcr. » w face, p/. (SeficS^tcr. 

(no «ny.) fetters, p/. 33anbc. ,, tf vision, />/. ®cfi(J(^tC. 

3. Some nouns have no singular number, as : 
$IC Sl^ncn, (Sltcrn, ©cbrilbcr, ©efcS^wiflcr, Scute, SKafcrn, 5lH>cn. 

4. Some nouns have no plural number, as : 
3)er Scginn, S)ru(f , jammer, @anb, @trrit, Untcrjrtti^t 

^f e 3lf(§c, (Sifxt, glu(]^t, gur(^t, Onabc, Sicbc, '^ta(i)t, ©anftmut^. 
Sag 3lnfe^n, (gintommcn, (gntjilcfcn, (gtcnb, @Ifi(f , 8cl6cn, 8oK 



4. SYNTAX OP THE NOUN. 
(@9itta| M ^an^moxMO 
§ 80. The Nominative Case in English corresponds 
in use to the same case in German. The Possessive is 



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§81,82.] SYNTAX OP THE NOUN. 267 

usually translated by the Genitive in German, and the 
Objective by the Genitive, Dative, or Accusative. 

Rem, 1. The original idea of the three oblique cases, which exist in all the 
Teutonic languages (§ 2), including the Anglo-Saxon, appears to have been : 

1 . Of the Genitive : whence, from what place — origin ; 

2. Of the Dative : where, in or at what place— ^ost'a'oR ; 
8. Of the Acensative : whither, to what place — direction. 

Rem, 2. In the development of the different Teutonic languages, the uses 
of the cases have undergone so many modifications that their correct appli- 
cation in passing from one language to another has become very difficult. 

§ 81. The Genitive Case is used : 

1. After the derivative prepositions attftatt^ ait^etl^ali, 

too^renb, loegen, lenfeit, \m%if tro^, jnfolge, etc. (§ 202) : 

Slnjiatt bc« S3rubcr«, Instead of the brother. 

SBS^rcnb bc0 ^riegc«, During the war. 

2. Without a preposition : 

1 . After nouns of limitation, possession, etc, (for the English possessive): 
2)ic ©efc^ic^tc 2)cutf(if^lanb«, The history of Germany. 

2)e« ^6^^\ixi S3u^, The scholar's book. 

2. After the adjectives attficftttg, btgier!^, mttbe, UU, etc, (§ 91) : 
$ott bcr grcubc, Full of joy. aMbe bc« 2ebcn«, Weary of life. 

8. After the verbs tO^itVi, Cttttt^rCIl, Itt^Cll, ftcritlt^ etc. (§ 178) : 

Wit la^cn fcinct (giteKeit, All laugh at his vanity. 
4. In many adverbial expressions : 

2)c0 SWorgen^, bcS ^bcnb^, In the morning, in the evening. 
@Iil(f(ic^ertt}Ctfe, Happily. 

Rem, 1. By false analogy, the form bC^ 9l(l(^t$ (/^''^O is used. 
Renu 2. The genitive case was formerly used much more than it is at pres- 
ent. 

§ 82. The Dative Case is used : 

1. After the prepositions tttl, ttnf, l^inter, ill, etc. (§ 244), 
when signifying rest, or motion within certain limits : 

2)a« ^inb ifl im ©artcn, The child is in the garden. [den. 

2)aS ^nb (auft im ©artcn, The child is running about in the gar- 

2. Always after the prepositions tttt8, aufer^^^c. (§ 220) : 

(Sr f ommt au9 bem ©arten, He is coming out of the garden. 

3. Without a preposition : 

1. After the adjectives ^vXX^, m^tXit^VX, to!br!0, etc, (§ 95) : 
(Sr ift fcincm 58rubcr St^nlic^, He is like (or resembles) his brother. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



268 THE NOUN. [§ 83-85. 

2. After tha verbs a^lteit, ttttftDOrttll^ bttnf tW^ folgetl^ etc. (§ 179): 
(Sr folgt feinCttt ^rubcr, He follows his brother. 

8. As the indirect object of maDy verbs (§ 179, 2) ; 
(Sr gab tttir bad 8u(^, He gave me the book. 

§ 83. The Accusative Case is used: 

1. After the prepositions atl, aitf, JiS, ill, ftor, etc 
(§ 82, 1), when signifying motion towards an object: 

(5r fling in ben ©arten, He went into the garden. 

2. Always after the prepositions burd^, fur, etc. ( 237) : 

(gr ging burcif^ ^VBL ©artcn, He went through the garden. 

3. To express the direct object of transitive verbs: 

Sr laufte btll Sleiftift, He bought the pencil. 

(Sr gab mtr bud )Blt4^ He gave me that book. 

4. After verbs and adjectives, expressingprice, weight, 

measure, definite time, age, etc. (§ 177, 2 ; § 96) : 

@d toflet etnen %%iAtXf it cost one dollar. 

(g0 tuiegt till ^fll»b^ It weighs a pound. 

er blieb CillCIl gaitsen Scg, He remained an entire day. 

60 t|l nur dllCll 30tt ^ifcit# It is only an inch wide. 

§ 84. Some verbs are followed by two nouns in the same case; others by 
two nouns in different cases ; and some by a substantive whose case is deter- 
mined by the signification of the verb, while the practice of good writers varies 
as to the case that should follow some verbs (see syntax of the verb, § 175). 

§ 85. In addition to the rules of Apposition which pre- 
vail in the English language, the German has the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Nouns expressing weight, measure, and number (when not used parti- 
tively) are in apposition with the nouns they limit : 

@in ¥funb 3u(fcr, A pound o/* sugar. 

(but) (Sin ^funb b!efe§ 'Si^dtx^, A pound of this sugar. 

@in ®Ia« Staffer, A glass </ water. 

2. Proper names of countries, cities, efc, and of months are in apposi- 
tion with the specifying common noun : 

3)a« ^6mgtctd(> ^rcugen, The kingdom o/ Prussia. 

2)ic ^tabt 33crlin, The city o/ Berlin. 

3m ^onat ^ugnjt, In the month o/* August. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 86.] THE ADJECTIVE. 269 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

§ 86. Adjectives are primitive, derivative, or componnd. 

1. With primitive adjectives are also reckoned many, 
of which the verbal origin is "no longer felt" : gitt, Cllt^ 

2. Derivative adjectives are formed by adding the suf- 
fixes -hat, ^tt (nxn), 'W, -A^, ^tfd^ (^er)^ Axitf, -or^fom, to 
words of any part of speech, except the article, con- 
junction, pr interjection: 

1. sftar (Old Get-man: beran, to bear), added to the noun or a verbal 
root, indicates ability or possibility of a quality or action : 
ftU(]^tbar, fruit-bearing, bicn|!bar, 8er\'iceable, cgbar, eatable. 

2. stn (sew) is added only to nouns denoting material : 
golbcn, filbcm, lebcm, bSIjcrn, gififcrn. 

3. sf^a]t (Old Ger. : haft, holding) denotes possession of the quality of 
the noun, or inclination towards it : tugenb^aft, virtuous, f(^met(^el^aft, 
flattering. 

^ Rem. p\)a\t is added to but three adjectives: boS^aft, franf^aft, Iccfcr^ft. 

4. sf0 denotes possession of the quality or relation, expressed by the 
noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb, preposition, or adverb, to 
which it is suffixed : mfici^tig, mighty, lebcubig, lively, bcr mcinigc, 
mine, ctmg,sole, ctngtg, single, btfpg, biting, jctjtg, present, Ijorig, pre- 
ceding, niebrig, lowly. 

6. sifdj (sCr) denotes origin, similarity, or inclination: ^rcujjtf (3^, Prus- 
sian, \x^\\6), earthly, ncibifc^, envious. 

Rem. 1 . The sffd^ takes the place of ic or teal in many English adjectives : 
bramatift^, ^>i>ctif(!^, logift!^, ^iflorif(i^. 

Rem. 2. In proper adjectives fi^uently the termination stt is preferred to 
sifdj; the ser takes no inflection : ber iWagbcburger 2)om, bic 2ct^)jtgcr ^d* 
tung, ba« ©ranbcnburgcr %\fox (gen. bc« iWagbcburgcr 2)om«), 

6. sl\6^ (compare Englisli like, ly) forms adjectives from nouns, and di- 
minutive adjectives from adjectives: finblit^, childlike, tSglidj^, daily, 
rStbti^, reddish. 

7. sfam (related to jufammen, Lat. semper, Greek afia, Eng. same), add- 
ed to verbs and verbal nouns, indicates possession of or inclination to 
the quality: orbettfam, laborious, mil^foni, wearisome. 



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270 THE ADJECTIVB. [§87,88. 

3. Corwpound adjectives are formed by prefixing to ad* 
jectives a noun, preposition, or other adjective : 
2)unfclblau, dark blue. 2iebcn«tt>iltbig, amiable, 

^aubflumm, deaf and dumb. SD^tf(^u(big, accessory to a crime. 

^ § 87. Adjectives are called predicative when they are 
used to complete the predications of the verbs fein^ 

toerben^ (leikn^ f d^einen (auSfel^en)^ biinlen, l^eifen : 

2)a« Sebcn ifl fitrs* Life is short. 

2)a8 SBcttcr Wirb Jeif^ The weather is becoming hot. 

Bern, 1 . Adjectives osed predicatively are not declined. 
Rem, 2. Some adjectives are used onhf predicatively, as : ongfl, Berett, feinb, 
gram, ^cil, irrc, lunb, qucr, quit, fd^ulb, abwenbig, anfic^tig, cingcbcnf , gctrofl, 
QCtea^r, ^abbaft, t^ctl^aftig, toprluflig. 

"Rem, 3. The following are rarthf or never used predicativ^ly : (1), the 
simple form of superlatives (§ 93, Rem. 2) ; (2), adjectives in stlt/ golben, fit* 
bern, tic, ; (3), some other adjectives, as : bortig, ^lieflg, franif^, bergcbcn. 



1. DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 
(Senination ber etgenf^aft^toiirterO 
§ 88, Adjectives used attributively, that is, when placed 
before the noun to express some of its well-known at- 
tributes, are subject to three modes of declension, 
termed the Old^ New, and Mixed Dedenaions. 

1. The Old Declension is employed when no article 
or adjective pronoun precedes the adjective (§ 89, Rem. 2): 

(§>yxi^tX aWonn, gut*c gtau, 0ut*c^ ^ub, 

Good man. good woman. good child. 

2. The Ifew Declension is employed when the adjec- 
tive is preceded by : 

1 . The definite article htX*, 

2. All adjective pronouns that are declined according to the Old De- 
clension, as \At\tx, ieber^ iener^ folder, loel^er^ thus including au 

adjective pronouns except the possessives (§ 88, 3) : 
2)ct 9Ut*c Wioam, bic gut^c grau, ba8 {jut*c 5finb, 

The good man. the good woman, the good child. 

Rem, 1. The compound adjective pronouns bttitlti0t^ bttftlBC^ cause an 
adjective following them to be in the New Declension, by the force of the \^tl* 
Rem, 2. Many writers give the New Declension to adjectives following 
certain participles that have a determinative signification, as : f OlgCttbtt/ tX* 

to^lWtt, berf^febener. 



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§89.] 



DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



271 



3. The Mixed Declen&ion is used when the adjective 

is preceded by a possessive pronoun, by tin, or by fein : 

ein gut*cr 3Jlann, cine gut^c grau, ctn gut^c^ ^nb, 
A good man, a good woman, a good child. 

§ 89. Table of the three Declensions of Adjectives. 






Moksculine, 

iV. gutter, 
G, gut* en (c^), 
D. gut^em, 
4. gut*en^ 



N, bcr gut*c^ 
G, t)c« gut*cir, 
D, bcmgut*cii, 
A, ben gulden/ 



6INGULAE. 
Feminine, 

gut^c, 
gwt*cr, 
gu-t^er^ 
gwt*e, 



bic gut^e, 
ber gut^eir^ 
bet gut*eir/ 
bie gnt'^e^ 



Neuter. 
gut*C§. 

gut*eti(eSX 

gut*em. 

gut*e«. 



bag g'ut^e* 
bc« gut* en* 
bcmgut*eii^ 
ba3 gut*c* 



PLURAL. 
All Genders, 
3Ut*C* 

gutter* 
gut*eii* 
3«t*c» 



bie gut*cn(e> 
ber gut*c«^ 
ben gut*cm 
Die gut*eii(e). 






N. mcin gut*cr^ 
G. meine« gut*cil, 
Z). mctncm gut*cir^ 
A, ntcinen gut*Ctt^ 



mctnc gut*e, 
meincr gut*en^ 
meincr gut*cir, 
ntetnc gut*e, 



mcin gut*c^. 
meincr gut*eit* 
mcinem gut*ett« 
mcin gut*c^. 



mcinc gut*cir* 
meincr gut*cil* 
meinen gut*ctt» 
meinc gut*en. 



Rem. 1. The former tennination sC§ of the genitive singular in the masca • 
line and neuter genders of the Old Declension is now generally rejected by 
most writers, but it is yet retained in many^arerf expressions: 
@ctcn @ic guteS SDlhit^eS, Be of good courage, 

^einc^megd, By no means. 

Rem, 2. Adjectives take the Old Declension when preceded by the following 
nndecHned words: etttiad^ Itt^t^, Dttl^ toeitig; fol^, tOtll^^ tttOttC^ ; car* 
dinal numbers; btttt^Oli, ^WSXtX, HX%lt\^tXi, etc, : 

S)rei cbic ©rafcn folgcn (U^.), Three noble counts follow. 
@oId^ gtofic (Sc^Stje, Such great treasures. 

Wxi ct»a« iDci^em ^a^icr, With some white paper. 

3lttcrlet gutc« %Vi^f All kmds of good cloth. 

Rem, 3. After the plurals attc, anbcrc, etnigc, ctli^c, fcinc, man^, fotd^, 
koeldf^e, me^rcre, loicle, mentge, the adjective usually drops sVi in the nom, and ace. 



Norn, atCc gut*C/ 
Gen, otter gut^ctt^ 
Dat, attengut*cil/ 
Ace. otte gut*e* 



PLURAL. 

cinigc gut*^, 
ciniger gut*en^ 
cinigen gut^eW/ 
cinigc gut*c» 



bide gut*e, 
bicter gut*eil, 
toicten gut^eil/ 
bide gut*e» 



Rem, 4. The similarity between the new declension of nouns and the new 
declension oi adjectives is very striking. 



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272 THE ADJECTIVE. [§ 89,90. 

Rem. 5. The Mixed Declension is like the Old in the nominative and ac- 
cusative singular ; in the other cases it is like the Neio Declension. 

Rem, 6. After the personal pronouns t^^ bit/ \0\tf \\^tf the adjective takes 
the Old Declension in the Nam, Sing, ; in the other cases it takes the New 
Declension : 

S)u, gutc« ^nb I Thou, good child ! 

3^r, armcn Scute ! You, poor people ! 

Rem, 7, In poetic language the termination itmy be dropped from the nom, 
and ace, sing, neuter of adjectives of the Old and Mixed Declensions : 
^alt SBaff cr ; alt ©ifcn, Cold water ; old iron. 

@in gut SSort, A good word. 

Rem. 8. When, in poetic composition, two or more adjectives are joined 
to the same noun, onlg the last one is declined : 

2)er farf(i^,tcrr5t^erif(3(|cSRat^, The fidse, treasonable counsel. 
Rem, 9. An attributive &d}ectiye, following the noun, is not declined : 

ein 9liefc, grojj unb tt)ilb, A giant, large and fierce. 
Rem, 10. Adjectives used substantively retain their adjective tenninationsr 

ein 2)cutfd^cr, bi: !5)cutjd^en, A German, the Germans. 
Rem, 11 . Participles used adjectively are declined like adjectives : 

5(m fotgcnben Xagc, On the following day. 

Rem, 12. Adjectives ending in srf^ sCll, or sCti when declined, usually drop 
an C either before or after I, U^ t : 

(Sr ifl ein ebltr ^Jleufc^, He is a noble man. 

3Bir l^aben ixt^fyit^ SBetter, Wo are having dry weather. 

Rem, 13. The adjective 1^0^ drops ( when it is declined: 

(Sin fe^r (Ol^er Berg, A very high mountain. 

Rem, 14. If two adjectives stand in equal logical relation to the noon, they 
both follow the Old Declension : if the second adjective stands in more inti- 
mate relation to the noun than the first, it follows the Mixed Declension : 
92a^ gutcr (unb) alter @ttte, According to good old custom. 
S$on aitcm [bfauen ^o^ier], From old [blue paper]. 



2. COMPAKISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

(StetQerttng ber (Sigeuf^aft^toSrterO 

§ 90. In the German, as in all Teutonic languages, 

the convparative degree is formed by adding ^tX, and the 

superlative by adding sft (or scft) to the positive degree. 

Rem, 1. When the positive degree ends in sb, A, *^^ *f^ *3/ A^f *^f '^t o' 
•II, the superlative usually takes sCft J otherwise it takes sft* 



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§ 91.] COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 273 

Rem, 2. The few adjectiyes ending in *tf take only sf in tbc comparative. 



Positive, Compar. Superl. 


Positive, Compar, Superl. 


fein, fine, fctn*cr, feinsjl, 
iaui, lazy, faul-cr, faul*|t^ 
x^x6), rich, xd6)*tt, rcid(^sjl* 
\6)'6n, fine, W^^-tt, W^n^ft 
mib, mild, milbser, milb^'CfU 
(aut, loud, (aut^er, laut^cft^ 


^cifi, hot, ^cie*er, ^cifi-cft 
fdfd^, false, falfd^^er, falfcS^cfU 
froj^, happy, fro^^er, fro^-Cft* 
frci, free, frciscf , frei*efL 
trcu, true, trcu^er, treu*c|t. 
milbe, weary, tnilbc-r, inftbc*|t. 



Retn, 3. Adjectives ending in sttp ^VX, or t^tt, reject the t of this syllable in 
the comparative degree : 

(gbcl, noble, ebl-er, nobler, t\^t\*^, noblest. 

§ 91. When the positive is a monosyUahle^ the radical 
vowel, if a, 0, or 11, usually takes the umlaut in the com- 
parative and superlative degrees : 



Positive, Compar, Superl. 



Positive. Compar, Superl, 



alt, old, HUtx, mU(t% 

ttjarm, warm, toiirm^cr, toarmscjl 
tang, long, lang-cr, I8ti0*jl. 



grob, coarse, ffcih^n, ffU^ft. 
lurj, short, fiirjser, larjscjl. 
Jung, young, ittttfiscr, iBuH- 



Mem. 1. The umlaut is not used in the comparison of: 

1. Adjectives with the diphthong CU in the radical syllable: 

taut, loud, laut^et^ iauUt% 

2. Derivative adjectives (ending in i%W[, ^\, *%^% A^XSip ^^c*)' 

bonlbav, thankful, bonlbat'et/ banlbar«|t 

3. Adjectives having €[iq participial prefix gtsJ 

gctoanbt, dexterous, gctt>anbt*er, gctwonbtsep^ 

4. Some adjectives oi foreign origin : 

brat), falfd^, matt, ^latt, jart, nobcr, Polj, etc 

5. The following monosyllabic adjectives of German origin : 

1. With a: barfd^, blanf, fa^t, falB, flad^, farg, fnaj)^, (a^m, (ag, 
nadt, raf^, fad;t, fanft, flatt, f^Iaff, fd^lanf, flarr, flarf, toa^r. 

2. With c: fr6^, ^o^r, ^otb, to«, morf^, ro^, Wroff, toff, tooff. 
8. With It : bunt, bum^f, ^(um^ runb, jlumm, fhim^f, tounb. 

Rem, 2. The use of the umlaut continues to extend more and more, both 
in the language of the common people and in the works of good writers. 
Thus, Goethe uses fiS^et/ flaret ; Elopstock uses ^itrtet; Kinkel uses ^ViU 
teftom The use also varies with 1^m%, Mag, fromtlt^ na^/ gtfltltll, etc, 

M2 



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274 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



[92, 93. 



§ 92. A few adjectives are irregular and a few are 
defective in comparison: 



Positive, 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


gilt, good, 


bcffcr, better. 


kft, best. 


ijici, much. 


me^r, more. 


mcijl, most. 


^od^, high. 


^o^cr, higher. 


^od;ft, highest. 


nal^c, near. 


nfif;cr, nearer. 


nad;jl, nearest. 


(augcn [ac/w.], without). 


fiuficr, exterior. 


fiufjcrfl, extreme. 


(innen [arfw.], within). 


inner, interior. 


inncrfl, mnermost. 


(i)or [prep.], before). 


t)orbcr, anterior. 


toorberft, foremost. 


(^intcn [ac/v.], behind). 


Winter, hinder. 


^intcrft, hindmost. 


(oBcn [at/u.], above), 


obcr, upper. 


oBcrfl, uppermost. 


(untcn [ac?y.], below. 


untcr, lower. 


nntcrfl, lowermost. 


(min [adj. y adv. \ little), 


mtnbcr, less. 


minbcjl, least. 


(er [_Old German for the 


(erer \_Old Ger. for 




adverb c^c], earlj). 


Me acfw.c^cr], earlier), 


crflc, first. 


(laz \_Old Ger,'], lazy). 





Icfetc, last. 


(crft, first), 
(Ic^t, last), 


crjlcr, former, 
letter, latter. 









§ 93. Adjectives, especially if they are polysyllables, 
are sometimes compared by placing before the positive 
the adverbs mt^X, more^ and am metftett, most : 

©cwanbt, dexterous, mc|r gcwanbt, OW meiftCll gctoanbt. 
Rem, 1. In comparing two adjectives with each other, lttt|t must be used: 
@r ifl XX^l to^fer al^ tM^rfi^ttg, He is more brave than prudent. 

Bjem, 2. To express the superlative predicativelyy the dative, preceded by 
ant (ttH beW), may be employed: 

!^iefe ^lurne ifl an f^iittftett^ This flower is most beautiful. 

Rem, 3. By way of emphasis, the genitive plural of aKW is frequently pre- 
fixed to the superlative: 

2)iefe^tumei{lbie atterf (^i^nfle, This flower is fiir the most beautiful. 

Rem, 4. The absolute superlative is expressed by prefixing to the positive 
such adverbs as \t%X, P(ftft, ait|ecft, etc, : 

S)tc iRac^ric^ttjl^Bc^flintereffant, The news is extremely interesting. 

Rem, 5. Adjectives in the comparative and superlative degrees are subject 
to the same laws of declension (§ 90) as though in the positive degree: 
S)cr bcjlc greunb, The best friend. 

50iein l&cfter greunb, My best (m Engl, my good) friend. 



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§ 94-96.] SYNTAX OP THE ADJECTIVE. 275 

3. SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVE. 

§ 94. Adjectives, adjective pronouns, and participles, 
when used attributively ^ take the gender, number, and 
case of the substantive which they qualify (L. XVIII). 

§ 95. The following adjectives govern the genitive case 
without the use of a preposition (§ 81, 2, 2) : 

1. Stnfi^tig, arm, 16ar, Bcbilrftig, Bcgicrig, BenSt^tgt, Bctougt, Blog, m» 
gebenf, ctrng, etn«, crilbrigt, crfajrcn, fS^tg, fret, frob, gcbcitt, gcftan* 
big, gcttja^r, gctt)arttg, gctoif , gctoo^nt, ^aB^aft, innc, funb, filnbtg, 
lebig, leer, Io8, mfici^tig, milbc, milfflg, quitt, fatt, fd^ulbtg, flcd^en, 
t^cir^aft (*tg), ilbcrbrilffig, berbficJ^Hg, bcrrufHg, t)oU, twcrt^, toflrbtg. 

2. Such of these adjectives as take the negative prefix UVi^, as : 
Unbegierig, uncrfa^ren, unmd(i^tig, unfd^ulbig, unfic^er, unwflrbig. 

(Sr tjl otter @orgen fret, He is free from all cares. 
(Sr ijl M SScgeS funbig. He is acquainted with the road. 
(g« ijl nt^t ber 2)Wl^e tocrt^. It is not worth the trouble, 
(gr ip ber 3l(i^tuug untoilrbtg, He is unworthy of respect. 

Rem, 1 . Some of these adjectives may be followed by certain prepositions 
<^which govern their own cases), as : 

(1) begierig, by ita4 or ttttf ♦ (5) frel, Icbig, leer, Io8, boH, etc.^ 

(2) bereit, fS^irt, by p, by DOK. 

(3) arm^ get»o§nt, leer, by tttl* (6) eintg, crfa^rcn, fro^, by iit« 

(4) fro§, getotg, etntg, by ilber^ (7) jufrieben, by wit 

er tft frei bon atten <Sorgen, He is free from all cares, 

(gr t|l arm an ®elb, He is poor in money. 

Rem. 2. Some of these adjectives are used, though rarely, as governing the 
accusative case, as: anftd^ttg, betougt, fS^tg, geflSnbtg, getoo^r, getoo^nt, \ia\>* 
^aft, toS, mdbe, fatt, f^ulbig, dbcrbrilffig, toert^, jufrteben. 

(g8 ijl nic^t bic SDWl^e tocrt^. It is not worth the trouble. 

§ 96. Many adjectives govern tJie dative case without 

the use of a preposition (§ 82,3,1), as: 

li 3lbtrilnntg, fi^nK^, angcboren, angelcgen, angene^m, anflSgig, be* 
fannt, bange, beqirem, bctougt, biJfe, bonlbar, bienltdj^, btenflbar, etgen, 
rigcnt^dmU^, crgeben, fcil, fetnb, fern, folgfam, frcmb, gc^orfam, gc* 
metn, gemcinfam, genctgt, getoifi, getoogen, gfei^, gnfibig, gram, gut, 
na^e, ncu, ti6t^tg, offcn, offcnbar, ^affenb, ^cinlid^, rc^t, fd^fiblid^, 
fd^mcidf^el^aft, fcj^merjUd^, fc^ulbtg, fc^toer, filg, t^cucr, treu, ilbcl, 
llberlegen, untcrt^an, bcrbSc^ttg, toerberbli^, toertoanbt, t)ort^eit^aft, 
»e^, toert^, tt)i^tig, totberti^, toittfommen, toobi, itocifel^aft. 



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276 



NUMERALS. 



[§97,98. 



2. The negatives of these, formed by adding the prefix Mils or at*: 
K With un: una^nlid^, unangcnc^m, unBcIannt, unnUtr^tg, unfd^ul* 
2. With ah t abgenetgt. [big, wnstDcifcI^af t, etc. 

36} Hn 3^ncn fc^r banfbar. I am very grateful to. you. 
(Sd ifl xf^m ^df&hlid), It is injurious to him. 

^x ijl mir unbefannt, He is a stranger to me. 

Rem, I. It is usually a personal noun that takes the dative after these ad* 
jectives, and which may be treated as the '* indirect object" of the adjective: 
(S9 tt>ar iJ^Ot nid^t ber Wifft totttf), It was not worth to him the trouble. 
(5r ijl mir jc^n X^alcr fci^ulbtg, He is ten dollars in debt to me. 
Bern. 2. Many of these adjectives may be followed by prepositions : 
Sdf bin mtt t^Ot ^erU)anbt, I am related to him. 

3)cr^i5mgtt>ari^m(or 0eoen i^n) Tl.e king was not merciful to him 
ntci^t gnabig, (or towards him). 

§ 97. The^C(??^a^iy^is governed by adjectives express- 
ing value, weight, measure, or age (see § 94, Hem. 2) : 
<5« war feilten pfennig tocrt^, It was not worth a penny. 

(S8 ijl nur tiutU ^oU brcit, It is only an inch wide. 

<5r ifl Itf^n 3a^rc alt, He is ten years old. 



NUMERALS. 
(SaWtoSttcr.) 
§ 98. The primitive Numerals are cin, JtilCi, brei, ttier, 
ffinf, \t6)i, ficben, ^i^t, tteun, JCl^n* All other numerals 
are derivatives or compounds of these primitive words. 

Rem, 1. The apparently primitive numbers elf, itoSlf/ JUllbCrt, and tttlt« 
f eitb have been thus developed : 





Gothic, 


Old- German, 


Mid,-Ger, 


N.-Ger, 


11, 


ainlif, one over (ten), 


einlif, 


eilf, elf, 


clf. 


12, 


tvalif, two over (ten), 


zwelif, 


zwelef,zwelf, 


jtpeif. 


100, 


taihuntaihund) ten times 
or hunt > ten, 


huntarot) 
or hunt,) 


hundert. 


^unbcrt. 








1000, 

.rr:::^ 


thusnndi, ten hundred, 


dCksunt, 


tfisent, 


taufcnb. 



Rem, 2. The high numbers SKittion, Million, etc, are from the French. 

Rem. 3. Numerals are either adjectives, nouns, or adverbs. It is more con- 
venient, however, to treat them as forming a separate part of speech. 

Rem. 4. There are three classes of Numeral Adjectives: (I), Ca r d i na l Vast 
b€rf ; (2), Ordixial Numbers; (B), Compound Numeral AdJfctlTes. 



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§99.] 



CABDmAL NUMBERS. 



27T 



§ 99. The Cardinal Numbers are formed as follows : 





1. (Sin«* 




60. ^t^m. 




2. 3tt)ci. 




70. ©icbcnjig or ©icbgtg. 




8. 2)rct. 




80. %^tixQ. 




4. SSicr. 




90. ^i^cunjig. 


6. gilnf. 




100. $unbcrt. 




6. ©cc^8. 




101. ^unbcrt unb cin«. 




7. (Sict>cn. 




110. ©unbert unb ge^n. 




8. Sld^t. 




120. ©unbcrt unb gtoanjig. 




9. gicun^ 




121. ©unbcrt ctmmbjwanjig. 


, 


10. 3c^n. 




125. ^unbcrt filntunbjttjangig. 




11. (gif. 




136. ^nbcrt fc^^unbbrctgig. 




12. 3tt>i5If. 




150. ^unbcrt unb ffinfttg. 




13. S)rci5c{>n. 




151. ^unbcrt rinunbfilnfjig. 




14. SJicrgc^n* 




200. 3tt>ci6unbcrt. 




15. gftnfte^n. 




225. 3tt>ei^unbcrtfilnfunbstt)ang\gi 




16. ^t^fiti^n. 




500. gflnftunbcrt. 


1 


17. ©icbengc^n or (giebgc^n. 


1,000. Sintaufenb or Xaufcnb. 


f 


18. 3l(i^t5e^n. 




1,005. (gintaufcnb unb filnf* 


1 

1 


19. iReunje^n. 




1,025. (Sintaufenb filnfunbjtoansig. 




20. 3tt>anjig. 




1,500. (Sintaufenb filnftunbert^ 


f 


21. (ginunfegtoanjig. 




2,000. 3»citanfcnb. 




22. 3tt>«unbgtt)anjtg, 


etc. 


10,000. 3e^ntaufenb. 




80. 2)rct6ig. 




20,000. 3tt)angtgtaufenb. 




81. (ginunbbrcigig, etc. 


100,000. ©unbcrt taufenb. 




40. SSicrgtg. 




200,000. 3tt>ei^unbert taufenb. 




50. gilnfeig. 




1,000,000. Sine aWiUion. 




65. pnfunbfanf jig. 




2,000,000. 3tt)ei aWiUioncn. 




1869. 


Sl^tjc^n^unbcrt unb ncununbfc<3t>jig, or 
(Sintaufenb a{i^t^>unbcrt ncununbjcc^jtg. 



Rem. 1 . Single wordi are usually formed of units and tens, of multiples of 
a hundred, and of multiples of a thousand up to a hundred thousand. Bat 
'writers vary greatly as to the method of dividing compound numbers. 

Hem. 2. All the other numerals, whether numeral nouns, adjectives, or ad- 
verbs, are formed from cardinal numbers. 

Hem. 3. From their constant and universal use, cardinal numbers retain 
a fixedness of form not surpassed by that of any other words in a language. 
They are therefore of great value in tracing the relationship of allied lan- 
guages (see § 28-30, and § 106, Hejn. 3). 

Hem. 4. When used as abstract nouns, cardinal numbers take the feminine 
gender, being in apposition with bit A^X understood : 

2)ie @icben tfl bci ben 3ubcn cine l?even is a sacred number with the 
^eiligc 3<itTJ* Jews. 



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278 



NUBfERALS. 



[§ 100-102. 



§ 100. The numeral eitt usually receives a strong 
emphasis in pronunciation {see § 53, Rein,), 

1. Used toith a noun, tiVi is declined like the indefinite article (§ 54). 

2. In the expression Ctll ttllb ^tt\t\^t, Ctn may be undeclined. 

3. When used without a tumn, it begins ^vith a capital letter (®{ntf/ etcj), 

1. Not preceded by htt^ it follows the old declension of the adjective. 

2. Preceded by htt, it follows the tiew declension of the adjective, 
and is used both in the singular and plural numbers (bet (&iutf 

bte i£\nt, ba« ginc; bic (&intnX 

Rem, It is thus used (as the one, the ones) in opposition to htt %nbttt, 
hit STttbern (Me other, the others), 

4. The form gillg is used: (1), in counting, cin«, gtt>Ct, brct, Dicr, etc, , 
(2), in multiplying, etc, cinmal Ctn« tjl Cin8 ; * 

(3), in giving the time of day, when the word U^r is omitted : 
@« ^at (Sui^ gcfd^tagcn, It has struck one. 

§ 101. The other Cardinal Numbers are declined like 
the jplural of adjectives of the Old declension^ But 
jtiici and brei take no termination in the nominative 
and accusative : 



Nom, jtt)Ci, 

Gen, jWci^Cfi 

Dat. stoet^eU; 

Ace, gtt>et^ 



brct. 


toicrsC, 


fc(^«-e, 


je^n^e. 


breiser, 


Dicr^cr, 


fcc^«*cr. 


Sc^n*er, 


hxtVVBi, 


»tcr*ett, 


\t^%*tVif 


gc^n^en, 


brei. 


toicrJe* 


\t^^U 


sc^n*e* 






-Kcm. 1. Stt'rt and S)f ti are only declined when not preceded by an ar- 
ticle, adjective, or adjective pronoun : 

2lu8 jtocier obcr brcier '^tVif^tn Out of the mouth of two or three 
STZunb, witnesses. 

Rem, 2. The other numbers are rarely declined, except when, in the dative 
case, they are used without a noun : 

%yx\ alien Simit Wcd^cn, To creep on all fours. 

SOiit @e(!^{en fa^ren, To ride in a "coach and six." 

R^sm, 3. $ttttbt(t and SattfCttb are sometimes used as collective nouns, and 
as such are declined after the third form of the old declension. 

Rem, 4. The foreign words bit Wlitiion', StUiolt'/ etc, are declined like 
feminine nouns of the new declension, 

§ 102. The Ordinal Numbers are formed from the Car- 
dinals: 

1. By suffixing 4t, from gtiiei to neUHJCl^tt* 

2. By suffixing sftt, from Sttianjig upwards. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 102.] 



ORDINAL NCHBEBS. 



279 



1st 2)cr erfte* 


60th 


2)cr filnfstQ'^ftc* 


2d 


u 


jtoct^tc* 


55th 


„ filnfunbfilnfjig^te* 


8d 


tf 


brtt^c* 


60th 


It fe^jig^tC* 


4th 


tf 


t)ier4C4 


70th 


„ ftcbcnjigsfte or fieb* 


5tli 


tf 


\nn\4u 




3i5*fte» 


6th 


tf 


fcd^S^e* 


80th 


It adf^tjigsftc* 


7th 


tf 


ficBcn^tC. 


90th 


1, ncunjig^ftc* 


8th 


It 


a6)Ut. 


100th 


„ ^unbcrt-ftc* 


9th 


tf 


ntun4u 


101st 


„ ^unbcrt unb erfte* 


10th 


tt 


5c^n4c» 


125th 


t, r^unbcrtfilnfunbjtoan* 


11th 


tt 


clf4c* 




5ts4te- 


12th 


II 


ltt>m\4t. 


200th 


„ jtt)eitiunbert*jite» 


13th 


tf 


brctjc^n^te* 


500th 


„ filnf^unbcrt^fte* 


14th 


tf 


toicrgc^n*te* 


1,000th 


„ taujcnb^tc* 


15th 


If 


fttnfee^mte* 


1,001st 


„ taujenb unb erflc* 


16th 


tf 


fed^gc^n^e* 


1,025th 


„ taufcnbfilnfunbjwan* 


I7th 


II 


fiebcnjc^n^te, or fict)jc^n*te* 




3tg4te* 


18th 


tf 


a6)titf)n*tt. 


1,626th 


1, taufcnb fc^s^unbert 


19th 


tt 


neunje^n4c» 




unb fcd^sunb* 


20th 


II 


jt»aTi3ig*ftC* 




5t»angtg*|te* 


21st 


tt 


cinunbgtoonatg-jle* 


2,000th 


„ gweitaufenb^fle* 


25th 


II 


filnfunbjtt)anjts4te* 


20,000th 


It gnjanjigtaufcnb^fte* 


I 80th 


It 


brcigig^tC* 


100,000th 


„ i^unbcrttaufcub*pe* 


, 35th 


tt 


filnfunbbrcigig^flc* 


500,000th 


„ filnf^unberttaufcnbfte 


40th 


It 


toicrjig^te* 


1,000,000th 


45th 


If 


fflnfunbijicrjig^fle* 


2,000,000th 


„ gnjcimittion^tc* 



lieffi. 1 . The forms bHt^tt an<l di^Ut are euphonic variations from the rule 
for forming ordinal numbers. 

Hem, 2. Ordinal numbers are subject to all the laws of declension of ad- 
jectives. 

Rem. 3. ©r jlc is the superlative of the obsolete adverb tx (§ 92). 

Rem, 4. All the ordinals were probably originally superlatives, formed after 
the analogy of erftt* 

Rem, 5. ^tBtltt was first used in the sixteenth century. Before that time 
bet OltbttC meant the second of any number, as it now means the second of 
lut two. 

Rein, 6. Since the Old- German period, the termination stt or sftC is added 
only to the last one of compound numbers. 

Rem, 7, Examples of the historic development of ordinal numbers : 



Gothic: , 

Old- German: 6risto, 
Mid.- German: drste, 
New-German: crflc. 



anthar, 


thridja. 


saihsta, 


taihunda, 


andar. 


dritto. 


sebsto. 


zchanto. 


ander, 


dritte. 


sehste. 


zehende, 


anbcr. 


brittc. 


fc^tc. 


ge^nte. 



tvalfta, 
zweUfto^ 
zwelfte, 
gtoSlftC. 



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280 



NUMERALS. 



[§ 103, 104. 



Gothic : 
Old-German: 
Middle- Germa-'i : 
New-German: 



tvaigjSsta, 
zweinzicosto, 
zweinzegoste, 
jmansiijftc. 



drizegeste, 
drizugosto, 
brcigigftc. 



feorzugosto, 
vierzegeste, 
^icrgtgfte. 



thusnndgosta, 
ddsuntostc. 
tftsentste, 
taufenbftc. 



§ 103. There are three classes of Compound Numeral 
Adjectives: 

1. Distributives^ indicating how many at a time: 
3tuci unb jtoci, jc gtoei, gu jnjcicn, Two at a time, by twos. 
3e^n unb jc^n, je jc^n, ju je^ncn, Ten at a time, by tens. 

2. Dimidiatives^ indicating the whole of all up to the 
number mentioned, with a half of that number : 

Slnbcrt^atb, One and a half (one and a half of the second), 

©rittel^alb, Two and a half (two and a half of the third), 

SSierte^alb, Three and a half (three and a half of the fourth), 

gttnf tcl^alb, Four and a half (four and a half of theffth). 

Rem, 1. The e is often dropped: britt|altl, tJierftalfi* 
Rem. 2. Dimidiatives higher than brtttl^Old are rarely used. 
Rem, 3. The fuller forms ettt unb tilt \^tiViS, etc, are also used. 
S)ad %Viii toflet eUtett unb etnett The cloth costs a dollar and a half 
ialben X^oler bie C^Ee, a yard. 

3. VariativeSy indicating of how many kinds : 

dmxAti, ltodtx4ti, Of one kind, of two kinds. 

Rem. 1. Since the Mid.- Germ, period the syllable Id has been attached to 
the numeral. It is from Lat, lex, Provencal ley ^ Middle-German leige, leie. 
Thus, ^tnetltt was in the Middle- German einer leige, einer leie. 

Rem, 2. Distributives, Dimidiatives, and Variatives are indeclinable. 

Rem, 3. Many compound adjectives have cardinal or ordinal numbers for 
the Jirst or modifying component, as : 

Sinfac^ or cinf SIttg, simple. 3tt>ttbewtlg, of double meaning. 

3tt)cifa(3(| or jtoeifaltig, twofold. S)rci^filnbig, weighing three pounds. 
©inftimmiQ, unanimous. ©ingcborcn, only begotten. 

©iniS^rig, one year old. (Srftgcborcn, first bom. 

§ 104. Numeral Nouns are of two kinds : 

1. Those with the suffix r-tt or j^Iing {masculine nouns): 

Sin 2)ret6igcr, A man from thirty to forty years old. 

(Sin 2)reier, A three-pfennig coin (worth about a 

gftnfunbfcti^jtgcr, Wine made in 1865. [cent). 

Sin 3tt>ttttn3, cin S^riHtna, A t>vin, a triplet 



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§ 105, 106.] THE PRONOUN. 281 

2. Those with the suffix Htl (neuter nouns), as : 

ein 5)rittcl $funb, A third of a pound. 

(Sin Sld^tcl %\)akx, An eighth of a dollar. 

2)rci %6)id ^oU, Three eighths of an Inch. 

Hem. 1. The syllable »tCl is an abbreviation of ^j^Ctl, a part. Thus S)rtt» 
tcl is abbreviated from 2)ritt^cil (for S)nttt^ciO, Middle- Gei-man dritteil. 
Hem, 2. "A half' is rendered by the noun btC ^fllftt^ usually followed by 

U0n; or by the adjective f^alh (tttt fialhtt, tint f^alU, tin Wht§)i 
2)te §alftc \?on bcr (Stabt, A half of the city. 

@8 f oftct etncn ^dbcn X^afcr, It costs half a dollar. 

06s. When before neuter liames of cities and countries, and not preceded 
by an article or a pronoun, f^M (and gan)) are undeclined : 
§aI6S8crItn,^aI6(gaiij) 3)cutf(3(;Ianb, Half Berlin, half (all) Germany, 
(but) baS i)alht 2)cutfd^Ianb, Half Grermany. 

§ 105. Numeral Adverbs are of two kinds : 

1. Reiteratives, formed by compounding Cardinal If urn- 
lers yriih 9R(tI, a time : 

(£inmar, once. 3^«^"^*^f *wice. ^^^^^xmcX, ten times. 

2. Ordinal Adverbs, indicating in what place or order: 
(grpcnS, erftfid^, or jucrp, In the first place, firstly. 
3tt>Cttcn8, brittcnS, etc. In the second, third place, etc. 

Rem. The form tx\t*tu9 (Middle- German ersten), etc, has been devel- 
oped in the New- German period by adding *§ to the genitive singular^ after 
the analogy of such nouns as 9l01ttCtt^/ hy name of. 



THE PRONOUN. 
(^ad Pr)00tt) 

§ 106. Pronouns are divided into six classes: Personal^ 
Possessive^ Demonstrative^ Indefinite^ Inten*ogative^ and 
Relative, 

Rem, 1. AH the Personal Pronouns, the Demonstratives btt^ bftftt/ \tVitX, 
the Indefinite Pronouns nVittf )S\t\f and the Interrogatives )a>ttf tOd^^ are 
primitive words. All other pronouns are derivatives or compounds. 

Rem, 2, The pronouns are much simpler in declension as well as fewer in 
number in the New-German than they were in the Old and Middle-German. 

Rem, 3. Pronouns, from their constant and universal use, have great fixed- 
ness of form, and therefore they are of great value in tracing the relationshif 
of allied languages (§ 28-30, and § 99, Rem. 3). 



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282 



THE PRONOUN. 



[§ 107. 



§107 



1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS, 
(^erfiitdi^e ^itrtoiirttr.) 
The Personal Pronouns are declined as follows ; 



FIRST PERSON. 


SECOND PERSON. 


Singular, 
Norn, i*, I. 
Gen, mtintt,ofme,etc,* 
Dat, mit, U} me, etc.* 
Ace. mt4/ me. 
Plural, 
Norn, toir, we. 
Gen, m\tt, ofvLS^etc* 
Dat, m^, to us, etc. 
Ace, 11115, us. 


Singtdar, 
hn, thou. (@ie, you.) 
htintt, of thee, etc, (3tncn, of you, etc) 
hit, to thee, etc, (3^ncn, to you, etc) 
M(I|, thee. ((Sic, you.) 

Plural, 
QlX, you. (^ic, you.) 
euer, ofyou, efc (3^rcr, ofyou,€<c.) 
VXd^p to you, etc (3^nen, to you, etc.) 
tni^, you. ((Sic, you.) 


THIRD PERSON. 


Singular, 
Nom,tt, he. fie, she. t9, it. 
Gen. \tintt, of him.* i^rtr, ofher. f cinet, of it. 
Dat, t^m, to him. 1% to her. if^m, to it. 
Aee, if^n, him. flC, her. t^, it. 


Plural. 
fit, they. 
if^ttt, of them. 
Unetl, to them, 
(le, them. 



i?em. 1. The old genitive forms nttilt, htiU, \tin, are now obsolete, except 
in poetry and in some expressions : 

SJcrgig ntettt nic^t, Forget me not. 

Rem. 2. The genitive of the personal pronoun and the prepositions |al(ttt, 
lOegCtt/ tOt0ett, are often united into one word, t or et being added as letters 
of union: 

3Jicincttt)cgcn or mctnct^albcn, On my account. 

Rem, 3. The genitive plural of the personal pronoun is only used when all 
of the persons alluded to are included ; the partitive genitive is expressed by 
))0tt with the dative: 

@8 tt>arcn unfcr gtoiJIf , There were twelve of us. 

(3tt)5lf i)on iin« gincjcn), (Twelve of us went). 

Rem, 4. Besides using hu in addressing Deity, the Germans employ lin and 
{](r in speaking to near relatives or very dear friends, and also to servants or 
children. 

Rem, 5. The use of the form of the third person plwral^ @it (beginning with 
a capital letter), for the second person of both numbers, was introduced into 
the German language in the eighteenth century. The use of this, as the form 
of address, has been constantly increasing since that time. 

♦ For the use of the cases, see § 81-83, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 108, 109.] POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 283 

Hem. 6. The nominative neuter t§ is used for the expletives it, there, and 
for so. Thus used, C^ does not control the number or person of the verb : 
g8 roar cin Tlann, There was a man. 

& flllb i)ie(c Seutc, bic— There are many people who— 

SBcr ip c« ? ^df bin'«, Who is it ? It is I. 

@cib aufri^ttg I SQSir finb t9, Be honest ! We are (so). 

Rem. 7. To prevent unpleasantness of sound or ambiguity of meaning, tt, 
(iC, t§ are often repkced by htt\tlht, bitfcttC, baffClJt: 

@o]&aIb bic 9Jhittcr t^rc 2^o(i(^tcr As soon as the mother s>iw her 
\ai), fragtc jic bicfel^e^ daughter, she asked her. 

§ 108. When the personal pronouns are used reftex-^ 
ively or reciprocally^ the regular forms are employed in 
the first and second j>er8on8. But in the third ^person 
|i(^ is employed in the dative and accusative of all gen- 
ders and in both numbers : 

^tSi) crinncrc mi^ baran, I remember it. 

2)a« ijcrjlc^t ft^, That is a matter of course. 

@ic tocrftcBcii fid) (They understand themselves, or 

' " ' ^' (They understand each other. 

Srinneni @ie SS^ ? Do you remember ? 

Rem. 1. To avoid ambiguity, tittattbtt may be used in reciprocal expres- 
sions, either with or without the reflexive pronoun : 

2Sir \?crftc5cn ctnanbcr, or ) trr ^ ^ j i 

SBir berMen «n8 einanberj ^* understand ourselves. 

^ Rem. 2. When myself, himself, etc., are only emphatic repetitions of the 
nominative, they are translated by fclift or feltltt : 

er t^at e8 felbjl, He did it himself. 

(gr felbcr lann e« t^un, He can do it himself. 

^Rem. 3. @eltft (or (etttr) is often translated by the adverb even : 

©elbfl fcine gcinbe adt;ten i^n, Even his enemies respect him. 



2. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 
OBert^attittQeitbe pmiirterO 
§ 109. The following are the Possessive Pronouns: 



Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 




incin, 


mcin='C, 


tticin, 


my. 


unfcr, 


Vin\tx<, 


unfcr, 


our. 


bctn, 


bcin^c, 


bctn, 


thy. 


euer, 


cur^e, 


eucr, 


your. 


fcin, 


fringe, 


fcin, 


his. 


i^r, 


t^r*c, 


i^r, 


their. 


iDr, 


i^r^'C, 


il?r, 


her. 


(3^r, 


S^r-c, 


3K 


your> 


\m, 


fcin^c, 


\dn, 


its. 











Digitized by VjOOQIC 



284 



THE PRONOUN. 



[§110,111. 



The Possessive Pronouns are declined in the singular 
like the indefinite article citl (§ 54), and in the plural 
like adjectives of the Old Declension (§ 88. See also 
Lesson XI X,^ 2). 

Rem, 1. In declining ttltfCt^ ( is sometimes dropped from the terminations 

In declining ttttt/ the ( after tit is usually dropped {see, Less. XIX,, 3). 

Rem. 2. As they are used onhf adjectivehf, possessive pronouns agree, like 
all other adjectives, with the noun to which they belong (i. e., the noun pos- 
sessed), in gender, case, and number. 

Rem. 3. In the German, as well as in all other Teutonic (and also in the 
Latin and Greek) languages, the Possessive Pronouns are formed from the 
genitive case of Personal Pronouns. 

§ 110. There are three ways of rendering into Ger- 
man the Absolute Possessive Pronouns (as mi7ie^ thine^ oursy 
youTSy etc.) : 



metner, mcine, metnes, 


bcr, bic^ ba8 SWcimge, 


bcrSWeine, 


mine. 


bcincr, bcinc, bcinc8, 


„ „ „ 2)cinige, 


„ S)einc, 


thine. 


fcincr, fcine, fcinc«, 


r, „ n ©cintge, 


„ @cinc, 


his. 


t^rcr, i^rc, t^rc«, 


It It It 3WWt 


It 9&re, 


hers. 


fcincr, feinc, fcincS, 


t, „ „ ©cintge, 


u @ctnc, 


its. 


unfcrer, unfcrc, unferes, 


„ „ „ Unfrigc, 


„ Unfere, 


ours. 


euret cure, eures, 


„ n f, (Sungc, 


r; (Sure, 


yours. 


3^rer, 3t^rc, 3^rc8, 


It It It 3^ngc, 


It 3*re, 


yours. 


itircr, itirc, i^rc8, 


It It It 3^ngc, 


It 3^rc, 


theirs. 



Rem. 1 . ^tXVitX, Stttttt/ etc. (in the first form), are declined like adjectives 
of the Old Declension. 

Rem. 2. J)er SWeilltge^bcr WtXnt, etc, (of the second and third forms), are 
declined like adjectives of the New Declension (see Less. XLI.), 

Rem. 3. J)er WttXViX^t, S)eiltlfie,€fc. (of the second form), are frequently 
used, not as referring to nouns already spoken of, but having certain conven- 
tional meanings: 

2)ic9Wcinigentaffcnfl^3^ncnunb My femily send their compliments 

ben 3^ngen em^fe^ten, to yourself and your family. 

(Sr ^at bad ^eintge get^ian, He has done his part 



3. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, 
(^intocifenbe PrioBrtcrO 
§ 111. There are nine Demonstrative Pronouns. They 
may all be used either substantively or adjectively. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 111.] 



DEMONSTEATIVE PEONOUNS. 



285 



SINGUT.AK. 


PLURAT.. 


Masculine. Feminine, Neuter. 
bicfer, bicfc, bicfc«, 
jcncr, jcnc, jcncS, 
bcr, bic, ba8, 
bcrjcmge, btcjcnigc, basjcnigc, 
berfclbc, bicfclbc, baffclbc, 
fammtli^cr, fammtlic^c, fammtlid^cs, 
jebcr, jcbc, jebcs, 
folc^cr, fol^c, Wc6, 
attcr, aUc, aUt9, 


this. 

that. 

that. 

that. 

the same. 

entire. 

every. 

such. 

all. 


Ali Genders. 
bicfc, these, 
jcnc, those, 
bic, those. 
bicjcnigcTt, those, 
btcfclbcn, the same. 
f^mmtU(^c, all. 


\til6)t, such. 
aUc, all. 



1. S)icfer, icncr, fammtH(^cr, [titx, folt^cr, and attcr fol- 

low the old declension of adjectives (see page 149). 

2. 2)cr is usually translated by thaty though it some^ 
times is rendered by this : 

Rem. 1. The relative Hi and the definite article \stX are but the demon- 
strative pronoun lltt) with modified meanings : 

IBertp^g bcm W^ tocrf^od;cn ^abc, It is this one to whom I have prom- 
Unb ber tottt CS ^abcn, ised it, and that one wishes to 

have it. 
Rem. 2. Used as a demonstrative pronoun, bCt receives a /tt//, strong em* 
phasis ; as a relative, a medium emphasis ; as a definite article, no emphasis. 
Rem. 3. Scr, used adjectively, is declined like the definite article (§ 54); 
used substantively, it is declined as follows: 



SINGULAR. • 


PLURAL. 


Masculine. 


Feminine, 


Neuter. 


All Genders. 


Norn. hVt, 


Me, 


m, 


w, 


Gen. beffen. 


bttcn, 


beffen, 


Um, 


Dat. bcm, 


bcr, 


bent, 


beiteit, 


Ace. ^cn» 


bte. 


bad. 


bit. 



3. Both parts of betjCltigC (compounded from bcr and 
jencr) are declined, the latter part following the new 
declension of adjectives (see Less. XLIII.). 

4. Both parts also of bcrfelbc (kf and felbc) are de- 
clined (see Less. XLIII.). 

Rem. Set T^antlifte {the same) is more emphatic than betfttftc, and 
Cbcnbttftlbt 0^^^ the same) is still more emphatic than either. 



Digitized by.JyjU^^^J^ 



286 



THE PRONOUN. 



[§ 112. 



5. For 3cber, the forms icglic^er and jebtiicbcr are 
sometimes used. All three are employed in the sin- 
gular only. 

6. @0l(^er usually follows the article. When it pre- 
cedes the article, it drops its termination: 

(gin folder aJicnfc^, > « i. 

©0lichi2«cnf(^; I Such a man. 

7. Before the definite article or a pronoun, oQ drops 

its termination, especially if it does not receive an 

emphasis: 

2Ba« fott ctt bcr @d(^merj? What means all this sorrow? 

(Sr UJcig i)on att bcm 9^id^t«^ He knows nothing of it all. 

Rem. 1 . The demonstrative pronouns have been developed thus : 



Gothic: 
Old-Ger.: 
Mid.-Ger, 
New- Gen: 

Gothic: 
Old-Ger.: 
Mid.-Ger, 
New-Ger. ; 



sa, so, thata. 

der, diu,daz. 

dcr, die, daz. 

bcr, bic, bag. 



(Gen.) thizuh, , thizuh. 



(der jener). 
bericmgc. 



deser, 
diser, 
bicfcr, 

der selpo, 
der selbe, 
bcrfelbc. 



deisu, ditzi. 
disiu, ditzp. 
bicfc, bicfc«, 



jains, jaina, jainata. 
jener, genu, genaz. 
jener, joniujjenez. 
jener, jene, jcnc?. 



iowedar, 

ieder, 

jebcr. 



svaleiks, 
solihher, 
solicher, 
fol(3j^cr. 



alls, 
aller, 
aller, 
alter* 



4. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 
(Uttbcptmmtc PrioBrtcrO 
§ 112. Some Indefinite Pronouns fcan be used both suh- 
etantivdy and adjectwdy ; others can be used only as 
substantives. 



As substantives or adjectives. 
Slnbcr^er, other. 
(Sinig*cr, some, any, a few. 
etlid^^cr, " " " 
iKand^scr, many a (pi. many). 
^ti^xtx^t, pl. several. 
^ein*er, no, not any, not any one. 
SSicl^er, much (pi. many). 
SScntg^cr, little (pi. few), 
©cnua, enough. 



Only as substantives. 
SSlaw, (they, people, etc.). 
3cmanb, somebody, any body. 
iWiemanb, nobody, not any body, 
^cbermonn, every body. 
(SttuaS, sconething, any thing. 



S'iicJ^tS, nothing, not any thing. 
2Bc((3^c (;?/.), some. 



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§ 112.] INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 287 

1. anberc, -C, -e8 (contracted anhttt, -C, -ti), may be 
used in all the three declensions of adjectives. 

Hem, 1. $(ttbtt and tilt may be joined into one indeclinable word, tittaits 
htt, each other (see § 108, Rem, 1). 

Rem, 2. The German mhtt (Gothic anthar, Old-Ger, andaVy Mid,- Ger. 
ander), the English other, and the Latin alter, are all comparatives, from a 
positive which is now found only in Sanscrit (anya, not the aame), 

2. einiger; etli^er, mtffxtxt, and mUjt, follow the old 

declension of adjectives. 

Rem, 1, diui^'tt (Old-Ger., einie; compare English any; formed from 
tiUf one) disappeared during the Mid,-Ger,, but reappeared in the New- G or. 

Rem. 2. {StUH^stt (Old-Ger. etei]ih; Mid.'-Ger. etelih) is compounded from 
the obscure root eta, and lih, like. 

Rem. 3. SWttIl(^*cr(G^oM.,manags ; O.-G^., manag; -Jf.-G.,maneg; Enff., 
many ; allied to Old Slavic mnog, much, but of obscure origin, and probably 
derived from TlWVH), when not emphasized, or when used before citt^does not 
take the termination : 

Wlund) ta^frer $elbl Many a brave hero! 

Rem. 4. Tltf^tttt (plur.), a double comparative (from Ittt(O) ^ used by 
some writers also in the singular, 

3. ^ettt, used as an adjective, is declined like Ottitt 
{Less. XlX.y 2) ; used substantively, it is declined like 
an adjective of the Old Declension (Itin-tX, =C, ^C8). 

Rem. ^tiU (O.-G., nih-ein ; M.-G., nechein, nekein, enkdn, chcin, kein) 
meant originally ni^t t\Xi* 

4. SJicI and ttlCtlig are not declined when they refer to 
individuals collectively ; referring to individuals taken 
separately^ and especially if, used substantively, they 
refer to persons^ they are declined like adjectives of 
the Old Declension. 

Rem. ]. SHXtl and lotllig are also used adverbially. 
Rem. 2. JBiel (Goth., filu; O.-G., filu, -sil; M.-G., vil, viel) is allied to 
the Greek iroXvc and the Latin plus. 

Rem.X SStttiO (O.-G., wcnag ; M.-G., wencc) is from ttlCiltCII^ to weep^ 
und meant originally what causes sorrow, unfortunate, small. 



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288 THE PBOXOCN. [§112. 

5. ®tllBg is used as a substantive, an adjective, or an 
adverb. 

3&f (oSe QtnttQ gcfe^, I hMxe seen enoogfa. 

(St fiat m&ft Xndf gtmig, He has not enough doth. 

2)09 %n6f ift brttt gtmig, The cloth is wide enough. 

Rem, 1. As mn adjective or adrerb, it foUows the modified word. 

Bern, 2. @CX1§ {Gotk., ganohs; O.-G., kinaoc; M.-G.^ genaoc) is, like 
the English emmgk, from pa-makam, to soflke. 

6. SMm is used only in the nominative singular {see 
Lesson XLII). 

Rem. ^tOi is from SROBl^ man (compare with French on^ from Lat. homo), 

7. Scntaitb, 9{teiitaiib, and Scberntaitit are used only in 
the singular. They are declined thus : 

9WanaEt*S,or *t^, Scbcrmottiis^, 
Wemanb, or *eiii^ 3cbcrmann, 
SRiemonb, or •eil* 3et>cnnann. 

Rem. 1. Stntllllil (O.-G., doman, iaman, ieman ; M,-G. ieman, imande) Is 
compounded of \t, ever, and SROKl* 

Rem. 2. 9liCtltllttb (^O.-G., ndoman, niamen, niemand ; M.-G,, nienum) is 
compounded of ni-eoman (not any man). 

Rem. 3. Sebemtattlt first appeared in the M.-G. (ieder man, Jcbct iWonn). 

8. 6tkoa9 is indeclinable. (Lesson XLII, 1, Iie7n. 4.) 

Retn. 1. (Stma^ is often used in apposition with a noun: 
SBoHeit ^ie titna§ 8rob ? Do you wish some bread? 

Rem. 2. {5ttO(l9 is often used adverbially, meaning somewhat: 
@t toax tttOd^ aufgcrcgt, He was somewhat excited. 

Retn. 8. (£i\oa9 is formed from m^ and the root Sta (§ 112, 2, Rem. 2). 

9. 9tt(l^td is indeclinable. 

Rem. ^i^t^f originally a genitive of vM^i, first appeared in the 15th cent. 

10. The nominative and accusative cases of toel^er 
are sometimes used in familiar language, meaning some : 

3^ &cibc nod^ Xo^^t^, I have some yet. 

3^ ^atc tocld^c Qcfc^cn, I have seen some. 

Rem. SBtldJCr, when thus used in a contraction of the antiquated pronoun 

etiocl^er. 



Nom. 3cmanb, 

Gen. 3ananb*S,or 3€mcmb»t^, 
Dat. 3«nanb, or 3cmanb«t]tt^ 
Ace 3emcmb, or 3emonb*ai» 



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§ 113.] INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 289 

5. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

§ 113. There are three Interrogative Pronouns: 
»er? who? mS ? what ? tteW^C?? which? what? 

1. S5e? and toai are used only substantively: tOtt re- 
fers only to persons ; toad only to things. They are 
thus declined : 



)oa^?what? 
toa«?what? 



Norn, loer? who? 
Gen. lOCff en ? whcwe ? of whom ? etc* 
Dot. toent? to whom? e^c* 
Ace. t»tu2 whom?* 
Rem. 1. The antiquated genitire )0(g is still used in some compound words : 

aBc6»cgai? Weg^olb ? On what account ? 

Bern. 2. 893ad can not be used after prepositions (except O^ltCf tDihtt, and 
•ometimes UttO* In its stead is used the adverb tOOp where, compounded 
with the preposition into one word, as; mmitp lOOtlOll/ tOdlU, )00bltr(^« 

1. The original t of )00 {Gothic, huar; Old-Ger., huar; Mid.-Ger., 

war; New-Ger., too) is yet retained when the preposition begins 

with a Yowei, as: miiu, mtm9, mxm* 

2. The original d also is retained in toUtttm (Mid.-Ger,, war umbe). 
Bern, 3. SBcid is sometimes used for tOOtltltt : 

©ae jittcm @ic bcnn? Why do you tremble? 

Bern. 4. JS)tt and load have been developed thus : 

G^o/Atc, hvas, hvd, hva; Old-Ger., hwer, hwiu, hwaz ; Mid.'Ger., wer, 
was ; New-Ger., tott/ I0a§» 

2. f&tliSftX, ^tf ^tif used both adjectively and substan- 
tively, is declined like an adjective of the Old Declen- 
sion. It may refer to persons or things. 

Rem. 1. When tOtlt^Ct is followed by eiQ^ the ending tx is dropped. 

SBeI(i^ etu 9{iefe I What a giant ! 

Rein. 2. IBDCId^tt was originally a compound wwd : Gothic, hvelmks, ^' what 
like;"OW-CT€r.,hwiolihher; ificf.- G^er., welher; NeW'Ger.,tBtliitX* 

3. fE&ai filr? {what kind of f) maybe treated as an un- 
combined indeclinable pronoun, referring to both per- 
sons and things : 

Sad fSt S)intc ^abcn @ic ? What kind of ink have you ? 

SPltt iDttg fftg S)inte? With what kind of ink? 

* For the use of the cases, see § 81-^3. 

N 



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290 PRONOUNS. [§ 114 

Rem. 1. When the particukr individual is referred to, dlt is added: 
Vdai fiir tin iD'^ann tfl er ? What kind of a man is he ? 

Rem, 2. Gin, if used substantively, follows the Old Declension (tilttV): 
9Ba9 fiir eilier ? What kind of a one? 

Rem, 3. The words )oa^— fiit are sometimes separated: 
Sad ifl bad fiir eine ST^or^eit I What a foUj that is ! 



6. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 
OdtMmt Prioiirter.) 
§ 114. There are no primitive Hdative Pronowia; 
but with the power of Relative Pronouns {i.e. as relat- 
ing to antecedent substantives) are employed: 

1 . The Interrogative Pronouns, tBttf tBU^, and tOtl^Ct i 

2. The Demonstrative Pronoun, htU 

1. The same laws that govern the use of totr and toa9 
as Interrogatives, apply to them when they are employ- 
ed as Relative Pronouns. 

Rem. 1. SStt and toft^, as relatives, can be used only in general or indefi- 
nite expressions, never when a particular person or thing is referred to: 
®er ni^t ^5rcn tt>itt, mu6 ffl^lcn "Who will not hear, must feel." 

(or bcr mu6 platen), 
®ad bu ^utc t^un fannfl, i)cr* What you can do to-day, put not off 
f^icbc ni^t auf SWorgcn (or ha9 till to-morrow. 
i)erf(i^cbc nt^t auf SWorgcn), 
Rem, 2. The antecedent of )Ott or tOd^, when in the same case as the rel- 
ative, is thus often omitted. 

2. Euphony alone determines whether tOtlUftX or bct 
should be used, except in the three following cases : 

1. When the relative is used adjectively, lOtl^tt must be employed : 
®9t^/)Oe((^e0 gro^cn 2)id?tcr8 Gothe, with the works of which 

SEBerle i^ tenne, great poet I am acquainted. 

2. When the genitive of the relative is used substantively, the genitive 
of htt (sing. htf\tn, htttU, htfitUfplur, ^tttU) must be employed : 

S)cr Wlaxmfitfitn @o^n f o front ifl, The man, whose son is so sick. 
8. After personal pronouns of the first and second person, htt must be em- 
ployed (§ 115, 3, iZcw. 3) : 

3^, ber (or /em, hit) t^n fa^, I who saw him. 

3. The antiquated relative fo is now used only in 
poetry or other dignified styles of composition. 



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§ 115.1 SYNTAX OP THE PRONOUN. 291 

4. Antecedent and relative pronouns are used cor- 
relatively as follows : 

Antecedent. Relative, 

bcr tocli^cr. 

bcr. . bcr. 

berjcnigc. ...... toclci^r. 

berjcnigc .bcr. 

icbcr. ........ bcr. 

Relative, Antecedent. 

tocr (bet). 

tOQA . (ba«). 



> he-who, the one-who, that-which. 



every (one) who (or which). 



whoever (or who), 
whatever (or what). 



Rem. The following neuter indefinite prononns and demonstratives used 
indefinitely, ttWk^, lli^t^^ iMtif loeitige^, VXWXi^ti, iHld, H^lUX^t, are 

followed by the relative ttia^ : 

^Itcd lOa^ i^ ^aBe, All that I have. 

!S)a9 ifl cttDad, load i^ itit^t bcr^ That is something that I do not un« 
jlc^C, derstand. 



7. SYNTAX OF THE PRONOUN. 
(@9itta( kd Prtoorte^O 
§ 115. 1. Personal pronouns take the person, the 
number, and the grammatical gender of the nouns for 
which they stanij. 

2. Adjective pronouns follow the laws of syntax that 
govern adjectives (§ 94). 

3. Relative pronouns take the gender and number of 
the antecedent. 

Rem. 1. The relative pronoun can never be omitted : 

^cr ^<xm, ben i^ gcficnt fa^, The man I saw yesterday. 
Rem, 2. S^ used expletirely, and bd^ and biCd used in a collective sense 
(see Less. XLIII., 4), do not control the number or person of the verb : 
(g« finb Scute, bic— There are people that— 

3)a« finb 2)ingc, bic— Those are things that— 

Rem, 3. The personal pronoun, if in the first or second person, is usually 
repeated after the relative : 

2)a8 totffcn toir, Wt toir bic ©cm* That know we, who the chamois 

fen jagcn (@4^.), hunt. 

3^t, Sie il^r ^eg fil^rct gegcn You, who make tr&r against my 
meincn 'Sojn (@^.), son. 



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292 THE VERB. [§ 116-118. 



THE VERB. 
(S)a« 3eittoort) 
\ § 116. Verbs may be classified in several ways: 

1. By deriTation into primitive^ derivative, and compound, 

2. By me ** independent, auxiliari/, oadpotentiaL 
8. By meanixig *' transitive and intransitive, 

4. By inflection ** regular, irregular, and defective. 

^ § 117. Classification of Verbs by their derivatioxi: 
^1. Primitive or radical Verbs are such as can be 
traced for their origin to no other radical words : 

^ai*m, to have. Xx\nl*tn, to drink. Sa(^«en, to laagh. 

Rem, The constancy of their use gives many primitive verbs a fixedness of 
form that is of great value in tracing the relationship of languages (§ 28-30). 

^ 2. Derivative Verbs are •formed from verbs, nouns, or 
adjectives, the radical vowel usually taking the urn- 
lauty when capable of it : 

^'dd^tUn, to smile (from lat^^n, to laugh). 
^atUifitn, to warm (fi-om toorm^warm). 
^flffljscn, to plow (from ^dltg, plow). 

^ 3. Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing to a verb 
a preposition (separable or inseparable), a noun, an ad- 
jective, or an adverb : 

8lll§s0c^cn, to go out. I ganbs^aBcn, to Lundle. I gort*9C^cn, to 
gr^flnbcn, to invent | §ret*frtc^cn/to acquit. [ go forth. 

"^ § 118. Classification of Verbs as to their use: 

^1. Independent Veris can be used without other verbs : 

<Sr lad ba9 ^n<ff, He read the book. 

2. Auxiliary Verbs include the three (f cin, ffobtn, tOtX^ 
bCtt) that are employed in forming the compound tenses 
of ^ verbs: ^ 

(Sr Hot ba9 93u^ gefefen, He has read the book. 

Sir totxhtn bad 8u(^ lefen, We will read the book. 
Rem, They may also be used as independent verbs. 
Qx f^at bad ^ndf, He has the book. 



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§ 119-123.] CLASSinCATION OP VERBS. 293 

3. Potential Verbs (foflett, tooflen, Written, mSgett, bilrfett, 

Ittttffett) are employed to limit or qualify the meaning 
of the infinitive of independent verbs : 

^x ntltl bad i&u^ lefen, He most read the book. 
Bern, Saffttt is also often used as a potential verb, 

§ 119. Classification of Verbs by theirmeaning: 

1. Verbs which govern an object in the accusative 
case are called Transitive by German grammarians : 

<Sr neft ba9 ^u^, He is reading the book. 

2. Other verbs are called Intransitive : 

1. Some intransitive yerbs govern no object : 

(Sr \^\^% \hi% ge^t, He sleqw, runs, goes. 

2. Others govern an object in the genitive or dative case : 
@te f^otten mtXutX, $nn) I You deride me, prince ! 
<Sr folgt f einent Sritlier^ He follows his brother. 

§ 120. When the subject and object of the verb denote the same person of 
thing, the verb is termed reflexive : 

3^ BefCei6i0C VX\it^ I apply myself— 

Rem, When the action is mutual between the individuals that form the 
subject of the verb, the verb is termed reciprocal : 

@ie f^mei^llt einimlierf They flatter each other. 



1. CONJUGATION. 

(S^oniitgatioitO 

§ 121. The Accidents of the Verb are (as in English) 

Moods^ Tenses, Persons, Nurnbers, Pa/rticvples, and Voices. 

1. Hoods (SRoM). 

§ 122. The German Verb has five Hoods: the IndicOf 

tive, S'ijJjjunctive, Conditional, Imperative, and Infinitive. 

JRem. The Potential Mood in English is translated into German partly by 
the potential verbs, and partly by the subjunctive and conditional moods. 

§ 123. The Indicative Hood is used in expressing or de- 
nying that which is conceived by the speaker to be certain : 
(Sr }^tii bad $au9 bertauft, He has sold the house. 
Rem, The indicative may be used in some conditional sentences where in 
English the subjunctive would be employed : 

3fl cr rei^, fo tonn cr Xfxd gcBcn, If he be rich, be can give much. 



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294 CONJUGATION. [§124,125. 

Hem, 2. The present indicative may be used/or the imperative in express- 
ing a command which is conceived as already carried into execution : 

2)U llbcmimmjl bic f J)anit(^cn 9lc* Take charge of the Spanish regl- 
gtmcntcr (@^.)> ments. 

§ 124. The Subjunctive Mood is employed: 

1. In repeating statements of other jpersons, without 

vouching for their accuracy, or about which there may 

be some doubt in the mind of the speaker : 

(gr fagtc, ba6 bic Slrmcc f^on in He said that the army is already 

53ett)C9ung f ef , in motion. ^ 

Tlan fagt, er \ti geflotBen, It is said that he is dead. 

2. In indirect questions, treated as quotations: 

3^ fragtc i§n »ann cr na^ ©cr* I asked him when he will go to 
lin gc^ctt toerbe^ Berlin. 

3. In expressing what is problematical, h3rpothetical, 
desired, or what is conceived of as possible, without 
having really transpired: 

Witt er bo^ gcfunb 1 Oh ! that he were well! 

Wi^it cr gencfen 1 Oh I that he might recover I 

3^ toilnf^te, bag er Xim, I wished that he might come. 

Rem, The subjunctive mood is thus often used in subordinate sentences, 
especially after verbs expressing doubt, uncertainty, fear, hope, purpose, sup- 
position, exhortation, advice, etc, : 

3^J6cjn)eifctte,ba6erf^nin53er* I doubted that he had ali-eady ar- 

lin ongclommcn f ei, rived in Berlin, 

^u f ottfl 2)etnen Sater unb SDeine Thou shalt honor thy &ther and thy 
Wtntttx tf)xm, auf bag bu lange mother, that thou mayest live 
auf C^ben leBeft^ [loerbeff^ long in the land. 
3d^ rat^e 2)ir bag ^u fletgiger I advise you to be more diligent 
Obs. The imperf. and pluperf. tenses of the subj. mood are often used in- 
stead of the present and perfect tenses of the conditional mood (see § 125). 

§ 125. The Conditional Hood is used to express a result 
dependent upon certain conditions. It corresponds in 
general to the Potential Mood in English, when used 
with the auxiliary would or should: 

28etm ba« SBrtter W5ner tote | j^ ^^e weather were finer, I would 
tottrbe t* ousgc^en («>«rf.),(or) > ^^^^^ 
QittSe i* au9 (subj,), ) 

2)a8 »«rtC i(5 m*t t^un (amd.),) j ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
(or) ba« t^ate i^ m^t («%.)/ > 



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V 



§ 126-128.] mpEBATiVB mood. 295 

§ 126. The Imperative Hood is used as in English. But 
with an imperative signification may also be used : 

1. T}iej>re8ent indicative (§ 123, Eem. 2). 
. 2. Thejpe^^/ectjparticijple, the action being regarded as 
already completed : 

2)te Xtommel geriilirt ! Beat the drums ! 

3. The infinitive present^ in expressions of childish or 
of highly excited passion : 

@ic^ inS 33u^ l^inrin : nut nit^t Keep looking into the book : onlj 

lefClt, itmncr fittgen (©.), do not read, keep singing. 

SSlx^i IwAtVif 3Jhltter I Do not scold, mother ! 

§ 127. The Infinitive Mood is always dependent upon 
another verb (except in the cases given below) : 

<Su^e ya f eut^ toad bu Jtt f ^Cittett Seek to be what thou wishest to ap- 
»ilnf^cjl, pear. 

Exc, 1. When there is a manifest ellipsis^ as : 
(@oU) 3^ meinc« S3rubcr8 ^n* (Should) I not recognize my broth- 
bcr ni^t ctlenncn I er's children I 

Exc, 2. When used for the imperative (1 26, 3). 
Exc. 8. When used as a verbal noun : 

2)a8 ©(i^Iafcn crquidt, Sleep is refreshmg. 

Rem, The infinitire of any verb may be used as a (neuter) verbal noun 
when there is no corresponding substantive already existing. The infinitive 
is often used substantively even when it does not take the article : 

@diicn gctnbcn t^tt^^tn ifl ebcl, To forgive one's enemies is noble. 
Exc, 4. The infinitive is used after certain nouns and adjectives : 

(8« ill 3tit ju QC^en, It is time to go. 

^r Jat SMttt^ JU 15nH)fcn, He has courage to fight 

SDcr SBrief ift f (Utter ju Icfcn, The letter is hard to read. / 

3^ iitt BC0teriO S^ toiffen, I am curious to know. • 

§ 128. The use of Jll as a sign of the Infinitive Mood 
has been constantly increasing since the sixteenth 
century. It is now omitted only in the following cases : 

1. After the potential verbs f ottttt, tooflcn, MttttCtt^mS^ 

gett, biirfett, miiffett (and laffett): 

3(i^ fatm e9 niti^t Ufeil^ I can not read it. 



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2% * THE YEBB. [§ 129. 

2. After the verbs \^Un,ftti^tn,^t\\tn,^ittn,ltffttn, 

^ad Itta^t m\6f iittent, Thieit makes me tremble. 

SBir ^^rteit fit ftngen, We heard them smg. 

3. After the verbs ilttiett, fal^ten, gtlpcit, Itcgett, ?ettett, 

ftel^en, and l^abctt and fein, in certain expressions: 
(Sr UdU ft^eit, He keeps his seat, 

^ir gc^ett \paikxtti, We are going to take a walk. 

22em. 1. The infinitiye with lU is used after the prepositions attftOtt^ 

finite. Km: 

Sdtfiatt }1t de^en, BlieB er, Instead of going, he remained. 

D^llt ba8 p tDtjfCtt— Without knowing that— 

Rem, 2. The infinitiye of the active voice is often translated into English 
by the infinitive of the passive voice : 

SBoB i|l p tl^lttt? What is to be done? 

Hem. 8. In ine German only the infinitive can.be used as a verbal noon 
(and not, as in English, the present participle also) : 

(Sr i{l lie^ @4ttia^ett^ mfibe, He is tired of the chattering. 

2. Participles (?artiai|iiett}. 
§ 129. There are two Participles, the Present and the 
Perfect. 

Hem, 1, Participles are used attributively in German to a fiur greater ex- 
tent than in English. When thus used they are subject to all the lawg of 
declendon of attributive adjectives : 

2)erant 5. ©e^tember tierftorieite The mayor of Kronfeld, who died 
^rgermetjler t)on ^onfdb^ on the fifth of September. 

Rem, 2. Participles are frequently preceded by the case th^ govern, by 
a modifying adverb, or a limiting clause : 

SHc ^onig f ammelltbe Sienc, The honey-gathering bee. 

^ad un9 )ierfol0ettbe ©eft^id, The fate that is pursuing us. 

S)er foeBcn toon Set)>)tg atl0eloitt« The express train that has just ar- 

mttte <S(^nett2Ug, rived fix>m Leipsic. 

SDer <S(^net(iug toon Set)>2ig ifl fo^ The express train has just arrived 
eBen angelontltteit^ from Leipsic. 

Rem, 8. The adverb and the direct object (if a noun) is often joined to the 
participle into a compound word: 

SHe gefe^debenbe Serfommlung, The legislative assembly. 
2)ic neitgcBunbcnen ©fitter, The newly-bound books. 

Rem, 4. Participles, like adjectives, may be used as nouns or as adverbs : 
(g« QtcBt totctc @e(e)rte]t^ bie— There are many learned men, who— 
Wi liebeitll ^eigem SBaffer, With boiling-hot water. 



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§ 130, 131.] PARTICIPLES. 297 

§ 130. The Present Participle is formed by adding ^i to 
the present infinitive : 

^aNtlf to have ; l^ahtuh, having. (gt^^tU, to go ; ithtuh, going. 

JRem, 1. If preceded by JH, the present participle takes sk passive significa- 
tion (compare the Latin passive participle in andua, or endus), 

@in au tiermcibeitber Seller, a &nlt that should be avoided. 

Rem, 2. The participle thus nsed was not declined before the last centoiy. 

Rem» 3. The present participles of many verbs are used mostly, and in some 
cases only, with adjective significations: 



^{Hmtnenb, discordant. 
2lb»cfcnb, absent. 
Slntocfcnb, present 



^ebeutenb, important. 
S)nn$enb, urgent. 
9{d)enb, charming. 



§ 131. The Perfect Participle is formed (1) by adding 4 
to the root of all regular verty^u^d ^VX to the root of 
all irregular verbs ; and (2) by prefixing sge to the root 
of all verbs, except the inseparable compounds (§ 154), 
and those with siren (-icrcil) in the infinitive : 



Perfect Participle. 
ge^IieM^ loved. 
0e'0cbsClt, given. 
t>erge6seit^ forgiven. 
Bcbccf't, covered, 
fhtbitst^ studied. 



Iii{finit%ve. 
HeJscn, to love, 
geftscn, to give, 
UergeJsen, to forgive, 
iebetf«en, to cover, 
fbtllU^r to study, 
Bern. 1. In separable compounds %ti adheres to the root of the verb : 
on^^f ^ r e ^ « en, to pronounce, aud$gCsf)>to^'en, pronounced. 

Rem. 2. When the verbs foUett^ mUVBi, XiUXLtU, Vl&^tn, bttrfttt, mfiffCII, 
laff en, (ei|en^ f C^eit, Pren, ^elf en are preceded by the infinitive of another 
verb, tiiey take the form of the present infinitive for that of the past participle. 
The participial form of the potentiql verbs is only used when they are em- 
ployed as though independent verbs (the independent verb which they modify 
being understood) : 

3^ ^Bc c« nit^t lefcn liilttteil, I could not read it. 
3m ^Bc i^n ftagcn l^'ittn, I have heard him sing. 

36f ^Be eS nie gtlOtUtt/ I have never been able (to do) it 

Rem. 8. In forming ihe passive voice, tteritlt drops ge^: 

(Sr ifl Beflvaft mthtn, He was fined, 

(but) (gr ifl rei^ %tMthtn, He has become rich. 

Rem. 4. Many perfect particifdes have almost lost their verbal signification, 
and are used as adjectives : 

N2 



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298 THE VERB._ [§132,133., 

1. From active verbs : Momit, well-known ; gde&rt, learned. 

2. From reflexive verbs: Bcf^eibcn, modest ; bctrunlcn, drunken; "bis 
trilbt,Bad; gcf deleft, skillful; gcbrauctt, second-hand. 

3. From o6«o/c^e verbs: attgcfcff en, resident ; Dcrjd(^tebcn, different. 

4. Participles from nouns, with no con-esponding verbs: gcfUefelt, "in 
boots;" gcfUrnt, starry; bcja^rt, full of years. 

Rem. 5. The perfect participle of some verbs, as IaUfClt^fa(rtlt^UUt]t^6^c.y 
IB used after lontntttt (the present participle being used in English): 
St torn Qtlaitf en, He came running. 

3. Tenses (Bcttfomen). 

§ 132. The Present Tense is used in German more fre- 
quently than in English instead of other tenses. 

1. Instead oii\ie future tense: 

3(^ lomme Batb b^ieber, I shall come back soon. 

Rem. Until as late as the fourteenth century future time was always ex- 
pressed by ihQ present tense, 

2. Instead of iYie j>erfect tense in speaking of the 
length of a period of time not yet completed: 

2Bic lange ftttll @ic in S3crlin ? How long have you been in Berlin ? 
34 iitt f^on a^t 3ft^te ^ier, I have been here eight years. 

3. For the imperfect tense^ in lively narration : 

34ge(e gcjlcrnmit mdnem^nbc I went yesterday with my child to 
umbic^arabcjutc^cn^tierlicre see the parade; I lost sight of 
c« au0 meincn SCugcn— it— 

§ 133. The Imperfect and Perfect Tenses are employed 
as in English, under the following limitations : 

1. The jperfect is often employed, when in English the 
imperfect would be used : 

34 ffOiC ^^n ge|lem fiefCl^etl^ I saw him yesterday. 

2. The progressive form of the imperfect in English 
must be rendered by the imperfect in German. 

34 ^^* ^^^ 3^*^"9 ^^ ^^ ^crcin* I was reading the newspaper when 
fant, he came in. 

jRem, The imperfect is always employed after the adverb al^» 



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§ 134.] PASSIVE VOICE. 299 

3. The imperfect is frequently used in general ex- 
pressions, in which the perfect would be employed in 
English : 

SSarCtt @ic \^tVi in SBien ? Have you been in Vienna? 

4. When the speaker wishes to convey the idea that 
he was personally cognizant of an event, the imperfect 
is usually employed : 

$orgefiern ftari bet mir unf er ^t* Day before yesterday oar dear friend 

licbtcr grcunb, $err iR.— Mr. N. died at my house. 
Rem, With the perfect (and also with the pluperfect) the auxiliary may bo 
omitted in subordinate sentences : 

2)a8 ^au«, tocld^cs id^ ^cutc 0t» The house which I saw to-day is 

fCl^tlt; ifl fe^r Bcquem, aBcr C0 very convenient, but it is too 

ifl ju t^cuer, dear. 

4. The Passive Voice (^ic ^afPform). 

^ § 134. The Passive Voice is formed by joining the auxil- 
iary tDtxitUf to lecomej to t\iQ perfect participle {seepara- 
digm^% 161): 

$ter toirb 2)eutf(^ gtf)irO(!^eit^ German is spoken here. 

2)er getnb lOlttbe Qefitlageit, The enemy was defeated. 

^ Rem, 1. The action is considered as becoming accomplished^ that is, as taking 
place at the time alluded to. When the action is considered as completed the 
verb fcill is used, and the participle is usually treated as a predicative ad- 
jective. 

S)aS $au€ War \6)on aBgebrannt, The house was already burnt down 
a(8 bic geucrtoc^r mtam, when the fire-company arrived. 

• Rem, 2, In the Gothic \t\U was always employed. In the Old-Ger., tOtt^ 
bttt was frequently used for the future tenses. In the Mid,-Ger.j tOtthtU 
was frequently used in the past tenses. In the New-Ger,, \tlu was some- 
times used as auxiliary; in the imperative mood it is always employed. 

S)ic ^di)la6)i toax Dcrlorcn, The battle is lost. 

®ott fei gelobt ! God be praised! 

1. When the active agent is indefinitely alluded to, 
the active voice, with Qtatt as nominative, is employed: 

„$cut' nitrnnt man nid^t gcfangcn/' * ' No prisoners will be taken to-day.** 

2. When an intransitive idea is expressed by a transi- 
tive verb, the reflexive form is employed : 

2)a9 tierftelftt f^xibr '^^^^ '^^ ^ matter of course. 



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300 THE VERB. [§ 135. 

3. When the object of the action is made the subject 
of the verb, and the agent is not alluded to, the reflex- 
ive form is usually employed : 

(Sine neue Otbnung bcr S)ingc A new order of things is established* 
Wrtfi^cin, 



2. AUXILIARY VERBS. 

§ 135. There are three Auxiliary Verbs, ffaitn, fcitt, and 
ttCtben« They are employed as follows: 

1. Transitive J Reflexive^ Impersonal^ and Potential 

Verbs take fftAtti as the auxiliary: 

3^ )a(e t^n gefe^etl, I have seen him. 

(Sr (at P^ flcfrcut, He has rejoiced. 

(g« f^at ^cutc gcrcgnct, It has rained to-day. 

@t fiat e9 setnugt, He has been compelled (to do) it. 

2. Intransitive Verbs denoting a change of condition^ 

or a motion from one particular place to another, take 

f cln as the auxiliary : 

(Sr ill angefommen, He has arrived. 

(gr ijl nac^ S3erfin gereifl, He has gone to Berlin. 

(but) @r i^aX ^iel ^jxi\^, He has traveled mnch. 

Bern. 1. The verbs ctlcii,fa(reii,flieieii,5{tt!eii,iageit,netteai,lrie*c«, 
lattbett^ lattfctt^ queffeit^ retfett^ teiten^ (initett^ f egeltt, f ((iffeit^ f 4)oimmeit^ 

ftiringett, ftottn, treiieit, toanbertt^ when not indicating a motion to or from 
a particular place, have (n^tlt as the auxiliary : 

@r l^at t)tel gereifl, He has traveled much. 

Bavh, 2. ©ein^ toerbClt/ and Ueiien take fein as the auxiliary: 

(Sr ift in Berlin getoeftlt^ He has been in Berlin. 

@r ift ^aufmann gtttorlieil^ He has become a merchant. 

3. Other Intransitive Verbs take l^aitlt as auxiliary : 

1. Those governing an indirect object in the geni- 
tive or dative case : 

SBir fatten i^m gc^olfcn, We had helped him. 

OTc l^attttt feincr (Sitclfcit gclad^t, All had laughed at his vanity. 

2. Those expressing absolute rest : 

<Sr (at fe^r lange gcfianben, He has been standing very long. 



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§ 136.] 



AUXILIABT VERBS. 



301 



Rem. 3. Some verbs, with two or more significations, take (aUdt or fei|t| 
according to the signification with which they may be used : 
@r ttiar ^on ber <Stabt fortgefa^ren, He had driven ont of the city. 
dt f^attt fortgefa^rett im Sefen^ He had continued to read. 

• 3. SStrbeit is used in forming the future tenses of the 

active voice, and in forming the passive voice. 

§ 136. The verb ffaitU, to have, is conjugated thus: 
Principal Parts: ffaV^tn, ffat^t, HUJ^aht^ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.* 

Present Tense, 



t^ 5a6*e, I have. 


i* liaU, 


I have. 


bu JaU, thou hast. 


bu ^aB*cfl, 


thou hast. 


er iiat, he has. 


cr ^aB*e, 


he has. 


tt>ir iah*tn, we have. 


toir ^aB*c«/ 


we have. 


i^r l^aB*(e)t,you have. 


i^r ^aB*ct, 


you have. 


flc i)ah*tn, they have. 


pc ^aB*eit^ 


they have. 


Imperfec 


t Tense. 




i6} liaUit, I had. 


id) nuit, 


I had. 


bu i)at*tt9, thonhadst. 


bu ^fit^tefl, 




cr ifat*U, he had. 


cr ^fit*te, 


he had. 


iDtr ^at*te«, we had. 


xo\xifU*ttn, 


we had. 


i^r i}at*itt, you had. 


iBr Bfit^tet, 


you had. 


fie ^ at* ten, they had. 


flc ffSiUitu, 


they had. 


Perfect 


Tense. 




1 have had, etc 


I have had, etc 


id) JaU-^e %tmt 


i(^ )aB«e 


ge^aBt 


bu (afi ge^aBt 


bu ^aB*eflgc^aBt. 


cr f^ai fic^oBt* 


cr i}ah*t i 


jc^aBt. 


tt>tr ^aB^eil ge^aBt* 


toir B<^B«eilgeBaBt. 


i^r^aB*t gc^aBt. 


i^r ^aB*et ge^aBt. 


Pc ^aB^eu ge^abt 


fie ^aB*Cttgc^aBt* 


Pli^erfei 


:t Tense. 




1 had had, etc 


I had had, etc. 


i6f )aMe geiatt 


id) nuit 


gc^aBt 


bu ifat*itft ge^aBt 


bu ^st^tefl 


gc^aBt. 


cr ^at*te gcHBt 


cr Ht'te 


gcBaBt. 


toir iat*tt« ge^oBt. 


»tr Ht'ten 


gc^aBt. 


% ^at'tct gc^aBt. 


i^r ^fit*tet 


gc^aBt. 


flc ^at*tt« gc^aBt. 


fic Ht'teii 


gc^aBt 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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302 



THE VERB. 



[§ 136. 



I shall have, etc, 

bu loirfl ^aben. 

er loirb i^ahtn. 

toir to)crb*ett ^abc«, 

fic n)crb*Ctt i^ahtn. 



First Futwre Tense. 

I shall have, etc, 

i<^ toetb^e %iAta* 
bu toerb'tfl ^aben* 
cr tt)crb*e l^abcn. 
n>tr ta)erb«eit ^aBen. 
t^r tt)crb*ct iaBcn. 
fte toerb'Ctt ^aben. 
Second Future Tense. 



I shall have had, 6fc. 

i^ loetb^e gel^abt Italiett* 
bu lotrfl sef^abt lialiett. 
er U)i(b ge^abt l^abett^ 
n>tr tDerb^en ge^abt (abett* 
i^r n)crb*et gc^abt l^abett* 
ftc n)crb*ctt gci^abt l^abett* 



I have had, etc 

x^ U)erb«e gel^abt Kabeit* 
bu lotrfl ge^abt liabett^ 
er loirb ge^abt (abett^ 
xoxx n)crb*cii gei^abt (abttt* 
t^r toerb'tt gci^abt (abett« 
fie tDerb'tit ge^abt ^abtu^ 



i* to8rb*e 

lu to)ilrb*efl l^abeu, 
er tollrb'e ^aben, 
n>ir toiirb'ttt l^aben, 
i^r tDilrb'Ct l^aben, 
fte tDilrb^en ^aben, 



x^ U)iirb::e 

bu tollrb*efl gc^abt (aben, 
er wftrb^'C gei^abt (abett, 
n>ir toftrb*eii ge^abt l^abett, 
i^r tt)ilrb*et ge^abt ^oben, 
fie koltrb^^en ge^abt l^abeU/ 



C50NDmONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would, or I should have, etc. 
^abeil, or x6^ ^fitstC (Jmperf. Subjunc.) 
" bu Ht'tCfl " ** 

" er Ht'te " " 

"toirHt'teu " " 

•'t^r ^fit*tct " ,** 

" fie ffdUttn •* " 
Perfect Tense. 
I would, or I should have had, etc. 

ee^abt ^abcii, or i^ ^fiMe flc^obt (Plup.Suhj.) 

* bu ]^fit*tefl ge^abt 

* er if&t'it ge^abt 

* n>tr ^at'tett ge^abt 

* i^r ^fit*tct ge^abt 

* fie Ht*itn ge^abt 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



t^aht (bu), have thou. 
(ttb't (er), let him have. 



(ab^eit totr, let us go. 
Jttbstt xf}X, have (you). 
(ab^tn fte, let them have. 



iNFmrnvE mood. 

Pres. Jabseu, to have. | Pei/.ge(abt (obeu^tohavehad. 

Participles. 
iV€«. JttbsCUb, having. | Per/*. ge^Obt, had. 

Hem. ^abeU/ Gothic hahan, is allied to the Latin habere (to have), from 
which are derived the Spanish haher. Port, haver, Ital. avere, French avoir. 



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§ 137.] 



AUXILIABT VERBS. 



303 



§ 137. The verb fein^ to he, is conjugated thus : 
Principal Parts: fein^ toar^ fle^toeren^ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, 



i^ Mil, I am. 

bu 1^\% thou art. 

cr ift, he is. 

Xoxx (IttI), we are. 

t^r feib, you are, 

flc ttel), they are. 

i^ tear, I was. 

bu lOOtsfl, thou wast 
er loar, he was. 

n>tr » a r * en, we were, 
t^r tt)ar*(e)t,you were, 
fie war 'til, they were. 



td^ fef, I am. 
bu fci^cjf, thou art. 
cr fel, he is. 
toir fct*Ctt, we are. 
i^r fct*Ct, you are. 
fiC fct^en, they are. 



Imperfect Tense. 



I have been, etc, 

x^ (ftt geioefeit* 
bu Ufi getDcfen. 
cr ift gctocjcn. 
xoxx ftnb getDcfcn. 
t^r feib gctocfcn. 
flc ftab gctocfcu. 

I had been, etc. 

t^ U)ar getoefeit* 
bu loor^fi gckDcfcn 
cr U)at gctDcfcn. 
tDtr n)ar«eit gctocfcn, 
i^r koar^t gcn)efcn< 
flc toar^en gekoefen^ 

I shall be, etc. 

tdff toerb*e fefm 
bu toirfl fcin. 

cr U)ir^ fctu. 

toir tt)crb*cil fcin. 
t^r tt)crb*tt fcin. 
flc xotx^*tVL fcin. 



t^ U)iir^(, I wan. 
bu tt)5r*c|l, thou wast, 
cr Xo^x*tp he was. 
U>ir to^x*tVLf we were, 
i^r XO^x*ti, you were, 
flc to & r « eit, they were. 

Perfect Tense. 

I have been, etc. 

td^ fei geioefett. 

bu fci'Cfl gctocfen. 
cr fel gcwefen. 
toir fci*cil gctocfcn. 
i^r fct'tt gcwcfcu. 
flc fci^cii gctt>cfcn. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

I had been, etc. 

i^ U)8r^e getoefen. 

bu tofir*efl gctocfcu. 
cr tt)fir*e 0Ctt)cfe«. 
n>ir toSr^'Cn gctocfcn. 
i^r n)fir*ct gctocfcu. 
fic tt>fir*ctt gcwcfcn. 

First Future Tense. 

I shall be, etc. 

i^ totrisc fefrr* 

bu tocrb^cflfcitt. 
cr tt)crb*c fcin. 
tt)ir tt)crb*eil fcin. 
i^r tt>crb*et fcin. 
fic tocrb^ett fcin. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



304 



THE VEBB. 



[§ 137. 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been, etc, 

x6f mxh^t fictoefett fcitt* 

bu totrfl flctocfcn feim 

cr loir!) gctocfcn fciii* 

tt)ir tt)crb*cii gctocfcn feim 

i^r to)crb*et gctocfen fetll* 

fie »ctb*ctt 9Ctt)cjcn feitt* 



I shall have been, etc. 

\6) ttierb-e geioefeit fefm 
bu to)crb*ejf gctocfcn feiii* 
cr tt)erb*c gctocfcn feiii* 
toxx tt)crb*ett sctocfcn feiii* 
i^r tt)crb*et gctocfcn fciii* 
fic tocrb*ett gewcfctt feiit* 



btt toilrb*e|lfe!ii, 
cr toilrb^e fcitt, 
ton tt)ilrb*ettfcitt, 
i^r »ftrb*et fcitt, 
fie to)ilrb^ciifet«, 



CONDinONAIi MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would, or I should be, etc, 
fdll, or x6f tBiUt (Imperfect Subjunctive'), 
" bu toar^cjl " 



cr tt)fir*e 
" n>ir todX'VX 
" i^r n)fir*et 
*' fie tt)Sr*cil 

Perfect Tense, 
I would, or I should have been, etc. 



\df toM^t getoefeit feitt, 

bu toftrb'^efl setucfeu feiu, 
cr h?ilrb*c getoefcn fcitt, 
h?ir tt)ilrb*ett getoefcu fciii, 
i^r tt)ilrb*et getoefcn fefll, 
fie tt)ilrb*etl gctoefctt fciii, 



or x^ w'dt't ^tm\tn (Plup,Sub.) 
" bu xoSiX't^ gc»cfctt 
" cr tofir*c getocfeu 
*' toxx h?fir*Ctt gctoefeu 
" i^r xo&x^tt gctocfeu 
** fie wfir^'Ctt (jetoefeu 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

fei (bu), be thou. feiseu toxx, let us be. 

I ci er, let him be. fttstt i^r, be you. 

fei^eit ftc, let them be. 



Pres, feitt, to be. 
Pres. fei^eitb, being. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

I Perf, flCloef en f till, to have been. 
PARTICIPLES. 

I Per/: (jeiOCfeU, been. 

Jlem, The different parts of ftlll are to be traced to three roots: 

1 . ^iU; Mil (and EngL be, been), are probably related to IiaUCtt, to huild, 

2. @Cltt; fei, feib; fiub, and tft (with Engl, are, art, is) are from a verb- 
al root that is now only found in Sanscrit as and Latin esse (to be). 

3. @etOefttt/ tOdXf tO&tt (and Engl, was, were), are from an obsolete 
verb, in Sanscrit was (to reside), in Gothic vivian (to remain, to be), 
Old-Ger. wSsan, Mid.-Ger. tcSsen, The former present participle 
wSsejid is now only used in the adjectives anl0(f titb/ ail0(f tltb* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 138J 



AUXIUABY VERBS. 



305 



§ 138. Conjugation o{mxitn,to become : 
Principal Parts: tocrb'^en^ tourb'^e (toarb)^ flc-toorb'sen* 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



t(^ tOtthstf I become, 
bu toitjtf thoa becomest. 

cr tBithf he becomes. 

to)ir t&txh*tn, we become, 
i^r t&txh'ttf you become, 
fic tt>crb*eil, they become. 



Imperfect Tense. 



i(^ t^ttt^tf I become. 

bu to e r b « (ft, thou becomest. 
cr tocrb*e, he becomes. 
to)ir to e r b « tit; we become, 
ibr tt)crb*etf you become. 
fiC tocrb'tll^ they become. 



i^ iDltrb^C,* I became, 
btt n> u r b ' (ft, thou becamest. 
er n)ttrb^(, he became. 
tt>tr » tt r b * tn, we became, 
i^r 1»urb*(t, you became, 
fie tourb^(Q, they became. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have become, etc. 

i(^ Hit ^trntttn or toorbem 
bu Hft getoorben " worben. 
cr ift gctoorben " toorbcn. 
toirfittb gcJoorben " toorbcn. 
t^r fclb gctt)orbcn ** toorbcn. 
pc jitti) 9Ctt>orbcn " Worbcn. 



i(^ tOiirb'(, I became, 
bu to il r b <» (ft, thou becamest. 
cr loilrb«'(, he became, 
toir toilrbs'ttt, we became, 
i^r tDilrb^(t, you became. 
f!c t©ilrb*(ll, they became. 



I have become, etc, 

i^ fei 0()oorb(it ortoorb(it« 
bu fet*(jl gctoorbcu" toorben. 
cr fel gctoorbcn** toorbcn. 
toir feisen gctoorbeu*' toorbcn. 
i^r fct*(t getoorbcu " toorben, 
Pc jci*cii getoorbcn" toorben. 



Plvperfect Tense. 



I had become, etc. 

\^ ttmt 0cto0rb(nortoorbett. 
bu loarft gctoorbcn " toorben. 
cr loar gctoorbcn " toorbcn. 
toir tt>ar*(tt getoorbcn " toorbcn. 
t^r toar*t gctoorbcn " toorbcu. 
pc toar*(tt gctoorbcu *' toorbcn. 



I shall become, etc. 

x^ to(rb^( tocrbem 
bu toirft tocrbcn. 
cr loirb tocrbcn. 
toir tocrb^cu tocrbcn, 
t^r tocrb'Ct tocrbcn. 
fic tocrb*(tt tocrbcn. 



I had become, etc. 

\^ ioiir$( gctoorbcitortoorbeit* 

bu tofir*(ft gctoorbcn ** toorbcn. 
cr to5r*( gctoorbcn " toorbcn. 
toir to fi r * (tt gctoorbcn " toorbcn. 
t^rtofir*(t gctoorbcn " toorbcn. 
pc toSr*(ii gctoorbcn ** toorbcn. 
First Future Tense. 

1 shall become, etc. 

\^ tBtth^t mthtn. 

bu tocrb*(ft tocrbcn. 
cr tocrb*( tocrbcn. 
toir tocrb*(tt tocrbcn. 
\f)x tocrb*(t tocrbcn. 
fic tocrb:*en tocrbcn. 



* In the singular of the Imperfect Indicative the forms i(f| toarb^ hU tOdthft, 
tt tBOXh are sometimes employed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



306 



THE YESB. 



[§ 138. 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have become, etc, 

\^ loerb^^e getonrben feiit. 
bu toteft gctoorbcn fei«* 

cr toirb 0ett)orbcn fciii* 

toitr tt)crb*ctt gctt>orbcn feiii* 
i^r tt)crb*ct gctoorbcn feim 
fic toctb*cii 0cti)orbcttfeiii» 



I shall have become, etc, 

i^ toerb-e %tmthtvi feim 
bu h?crb*cft flcworben feiiu 
cr tt)crb*c fictoorbcn felir* 
n)ir n)crb*eil getootbcn fefiu 
t^rtocrb'Ct fictoorbcn fdli* 
fic toetb*ctt gctoorben fdil. 



x^ loiirb^e 

bu h?ilrb»efl tocrbcn 
cr to)ilrb*e tocrbcn 
n>ir wftrb^eu tocrbcn 
i^r tt)ilrb*ct tocrbcn 
fic toilrb^eu wcrben 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would, or I should become, etc. 
lOtrtien or Xe^ tOilrb^C (Imperf, Subjunctive). 
" bu Wilrb'tfl 
" cr tt)llrb*c 
** n>ir »ftrbi*cil 
" i^r tt>ftrb*ct 
" pc toilrb^ett 
Perfect Tense, 
I would, or I should have had, etc. 



i^ toiirb:^e getoorben fetu 

bu tt)llrb*efl0c»orbcn fete 
er »flrb*e gcworbcn fete 
toir tt>ftrb*cil gctoorbcn fete 
i^r tt>ilrb*et gctoorbcn fete 
fte toilrb^eit gctoorben fete 



or \6^ U)8r«e getoorben (PLSub.^ 
** bu tt)5r*eft gctoorbcn " " 
" cr tt>Sr*e gctoorbcn " ** 
" toir tofir*eti getoorbcn ** " 
" i^r tofir^et gctoorbcn " " 
** fic toax^tn gett>orbcn " " 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



loerb^e (bu), become thou. 
n> c r b * e (cr), let him become. 



tOtthstn toir, let us become, 
to e r b * et t^r, become you. 
to c r b ' en fic, let them become. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, toerbsen, to become. | Per/. gCtOHrbeit f elll, to have become. 

PARTIdPLEe. 
Pres, toerbseitb/becommg. | Per/*, gc^toorb'eil, become. 

Rem, S^erbett (Middle-German werden, to take a direction) is allied to the 
Latin vertere Qo turn). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§139,140.] 



BEQULAB VERBS. 



807 



3. REGULAR VERBS. 
(Beittoiirter htx \^wa^tn ^oniitgatiottO 
§ 139. Under Regular Verbs (termed by German gram- 
marians verbs of the Weak Conjugation) are included : 

1. All derivative verisy as: warmcit, l^ammcrit, p^n^tn, 
Icgen, feftcn, flcUen, trSnfen. 

2. A {ew jmmitive verhsy as : fagcit, rettcn, fud^cn. 

3. Foreign verls (except pfeifen, preifen, fd^rcikn)* 

Rem. 1. Most regular verbs are trarisitive. 

Rem, 2. Regular verbs never take the umlaut, nor do they change the radi- 
cal vowel in inflection. 



tt>Srm*cn, to warm ( fi-om icarm). 



ff^mmtx^n, to hammer ( 
baWn, to bathe ( 
^>pflg«cn, to plough ( 
Icg*cn, to lay ( 
fcfe^en, to set ( 



' jammer). 

Ucgcn), 
ftfecn). 



ftctt^cn, 

trfinf^en, 

fasten, 

rctt*cn, 

fhibir'^en, 

ifapet'*en, 



to place 
to water 
to say 
to save 
to study 



(fromflc^cn). 
( " trinfen). 
(primitive). 

( " )• 

(from Latin). 



to chastise ( " *» ). 

§ 140. Conjugation of the Regular Verb lithtU,to love: 
Principal Parts: Ixth'^tu, Iieb'4e, fle-IieBt^ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



id} KeBsC, I love, 
bu Iiel6«{|; thoulovest 
cr ncb*t/ he loves. 
tt>tr Hcb*ett, we love. 
i^r HcB't, you love, 
fie ttth*tU, they love. 



\(f} iitht, I love. 
bu n C b * Cp/ thou lovest. 
er lxth*tf he loves. 
to)ir licb'tll; we love, 
i^r ncl&*et, you love, 
flc ltcb*ett, they love. 



Imperfect Tense. 



i* Hrt4e, I loved, 
bu n e b ^ tt% thou lovedst. 
er (teb'te, he loved, 
toir U e b « ttn, we loved, 
i^r Heb^'tetf you loved, 
fie tteb'teu, they loved. 



i^ lieb'te, I loved. 
bu neb 'tefl; thou lovedst 
er Itcb*te, he loved. 
tDtr { ie b « tttt, we loved, 
i^r lieb'tet, you loved, 
fie Ixt'b* ttn, they loved. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



808 



TEE VERB. 



[§ 140. 



I have loTed, etc. 

i^ (ab^ geliebt 
bu iaft Qtlitlt. 
cr iat gcltei&t. 
h>tr ^ab^eit geltel^t 
t^r ^abst 0clicl6t. 



I had loved, etc. 

i6f f^at4t gelielit 

bu ^at'teft settel^t 
er ^at^te getiebt 
n>ir ^at^tett geUebt* 
i^r ^at*tet gcUcbt 
fic ^at'ten scUcbt. 



I shall love, etc. 

bu loirft Heben. 
er loirb lieben. 
tt>ir tt)crb*ett licbcu. 
i^r tt>crb«»et (icbcn. 
pc toerb^Ctt liebcn. 



Perfect Tense. 

I have loved, etc. 

x^ ^ai^ geltelit 
bu ^ab'Cfi getiebt 
cr ^ab*c geltcbt 
toir ^lab^eil gcHcbt 
i^r ^ab^et geliebt 
fic ^ab*ai gcUebt 

Pltgserfect Tense. 

I had loved, eto. 

i^ f^&utt geliebt 

bu ^St^tCftgeUcbt 
cr ]^fit*tC gcUebt 
totr l^St'tett gcHcbt 
t^r Ht'^M gclicbt, 
fic ifdt'tttt gclicbt 
First Future Tense. 

I shall love, etc. 

i^ mth^ iitiau 
bu tocrb^'Cfl Ucben. 
cr tocrb*e Hcbcn. 
n>tr ta)crb<*eit Hcbcn. 
i^r tt)crb*et Hcbcn. 
ftc tt)crb*ctt Hcbcn. 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall have loved, cte. 

i^ tBtth^ geltebt l^aben* 
bu lolrft gcHcbt (aben. 
er toirb gcHcbt Jaben^ 
loir tt)crb*Ctt gclicbt baben* 
i^r tocrb^et gcHcbt l^aben* 
fie kocrb'Cn gclicbt baben* 



I shall have loved, etc. 

x6f tBtthn gelfebt babeik 
bu tocrb«^efl gclicbt babau 
cr tt)crb*e gcHcbt (abeiu 
n>ir tocrb*eii gcHcbt babau 
i^r tt)erb*et gcHcbt (abeiu 
fic tocrb^en gcHcbt bobex* 



x6) tBJith't 

bu t»ilrb*eft Hcbcn, 
cr h?llrb*c Hcbcn, 
tt>ir tt)ilrb*ett Hebtn, 
t^r tt)ilrb*et Hcbcn, 
fic toUrb^en Hcbcn, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I woidd, or I should love, etc. 
Keben, or x^ I!eb4e (Jmperf. Subjmc.) 
" bu licb^teft 
" cr Hcb*te 
" tt)ir ticb*teil 
" i^r Iicb*tet 
" fie licb^ten 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ Ul.] 



BEOULAB VERBS. 



309 



(^PLSubJO 



Perfect Tense, 
I would, or I should have loved, etc, 

geUebt ffaitn, or x6f (St4e gelielit 

■ bu ^fit*te|l gclicbt 

cr ^St*te ficHcl&t 
ton Ht^ten getiebt 
i^r ^St^tet gelicBt 
fie ^eit^^ten geltebt 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

tithtn toxx, let US love. 
lithtt i^x, love you. 
litbitn fiC, let them love. 

niFINinVE MOOD. 

Pret. Ixthtn, to low. | Per/, gelltJt ^aJeil, to have loved, 

PARTICIPO:S. 

Pres, lititnh, loving. | Per/. gcUtJt, loved. 

§ 141. Table of endings of Regular Verbs: 



\6f loiltM 

btt koilrb^efl geltebt f^aUn, 
ct toftrb't ficltcbt ^aberi/ 
roxx toUxh'^tn getiebt l^abett, 
xffx toftrb^et QcUcbt l^aliett, 
{le kDiirb^en geliebt l^aliett, 



litb^t (bu), love thou. 
licM er, let him love. 



Present Tense. | 


Imperfect Tense. 


Indie, 


5«6;. 


Imperat, 


Indicative, 


Subjunctive, 


1 Pers. Sing. 

2 Pers. Sing. 

3 Pers. Sing. 

1 Pers. Plur. 

2 Pers. Plur. ' 

3 Pers. Plur. 


*ct, *t, 

*ct, *t, 
*cn. *cn. 


*cn, 
*eii. 




*tc, *etc, 
*te(l, -etcfl, 
4t, *etc, 

4cn, .»cten, 
*tct, «»ctct, 
*teit. "Cten. 


At, *etc, 
*tc(l, *etcfl, 
*tc, -tit, 

"ten, *etcn, 
*tct, *ctet, 
*tcn. *ctcn. 


*cn, «cn, 
*ct, *t, 
*cn. *en. 


Ii^finit. *cn, *n. 


Prc». Part, *enb, *nb. 


Per/. Part, gC— Ct, gC— t. ( 



For the sake of euphony, or of the metre in poetry, 
the first t of terminations is frequently dropped. 

Rem, 1. It can never be dropped, however, when the stem of the verb ends 
in A^f 4/ or $gtt (contracted firom sg(]t)« 

Bern, 2. The contraction always takes place in 9tVip sCnb/ when the stem 
ends in ttX or stX* (In the 1st Pers. Sing, of the Pres. Ind., and in the 2d 
Pers. Sing, of the Imperative, the t of the stem is dropped.) 

Bgm, 3. When the stem ends with a vowel, sC from sCIl is frequently dropped. 

Rem, 4. In it% the t is not dropped when the stem ends b^ i, ip ^p Ip f (^^ 

Rem, 5. The contraction rarely takes place in the subjunctive mood. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



310 



THE VERB. 



t§ 1 42, 143. 



reif^cn, 

bab*cn, 

fcgn*cn, 
tabcl*n, 



to love, 
to seek, 
to travel, 
to fish, 
to bathe, 
to lead, 
to bless, 
to blame, 
to wander. 



rctf*c, 

(cit*C; 
ta(W>e, 



'f», 'tf 


.tc, 


.jl, 4, 


.tc, 


•eP, 't, 


.te, 


■efl, «t, 


.te, 


=ej!, .et, 


.ete, 


.efl, < 


.etc, 


•ejl, .ct, 


*cte, 


'I*, 't, 


•te, 


•f», -t, 


•t<r 



gcttcB^t. 

gcrei=«(l. 

gcbab*ct. 

gcleit^t, 

gcfcgn*ct. 

flctabcl*t. 

gctoanbcr^ 



^ 4. IRREGULAR VERBS. 
(StiMxttx ber ftarfen ^oniugatiott.) 

§ 142. The Irregular Verbs (called by German gram- 
marians verbs of the Strong or Old Conjugation) are all 
native German verba (except the verbs l|lfeif eit, l|lteifen, and 
fd^retten, which are derived from the Latin; «^^ § 145). 

Rem, There are one hundred and ninety-one Irregular Verbs. 

§ 143. Irregular Verbs are divided into seven classes. 
The classification is based upon the changes which the 
radical vowel undergoes in forming the j)rincipal jparts : 

1. Verbs of the first class have a different radical 
vowel in each principal jpart. 

2. With verbs of the second, third, and fourth classes, 
the radical vowel of the im/perfect only varies from that 
of the present. 

3. Verbs of the fifth and sixth classes have the same 
vowel in the imperfect tense as in the jperject jparticijple, 

4. Verbs of the seventh class are anomalous. They 
follow in conjugation partly the laws of regular, and 
partly those of irregular verbs. 

Rem. The following table represents the changes the radical vowels under- 
go in forming the principal parts of the seven classes of irregular verbs. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 144.] 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



311 



§ 144. Classified list of the Irregular Verbs: 



Class. 


Present. Imperf, JPartic. 


Examples. 


No. 


1st 


i (or t), a, XL (or O). 


binb*e«, banb, gc*bunb*cn. 


45. 


2d 
3d 
4th 


t, a, c* 
a, n, 0. 

0, ie (or !), 0* 


f^Iag^en, Wvlq, gc-fdf^kg^cn. * 
^a(t*cn, ^iclt, gc*^alt*en. 


14. 
10. 
14. 


5th 
6th 


t\, t(orie),tor(ie). 
\t(t,etc.'),^, 0, 


bcifiscn, big, gc*biff*cn. 
gtc6-en, gofi, gc^^goff^cn. 


40. 
52. 


7th I anomalous. 


bnng*en, \>xa^At, gc^brad^t. 


16. 


Total number of irreflfular verba 


191. 









1. Irregular verbs of the ^r*^ cldsa: 



^ flnbett, 
f(^tt)tnben, 
iDtnben, 

ibringen, 
flettngeit, 

rtngen, 

fd^Ungen, 

f^toinden, 

flngcn, 

fpringctt, 

8tt)tngcn, 

(Infen, 

|litt!e«/ 

trinfeiv 

bcgintiett, 

getoinnen, 

rtnnen, 

fptnnctt, 

(fommen, 



gentfen, 

efffit, 

frcfTcn, 

mefffit, 

uergcffcn, 



bonbr 

fanb, 

f(^tt)anb, 

toanb, 

brang, 

getang, 

Hang, 

rang, 



Wwang, 

fang, 

fprang, 

^ang, 

fanf, 

flanT, 

tranf, 

getDann, 

rann, 

fann, 

fponn, 

f(^n)antnt, 

fam. 



0Cbuttbett. 

gcfunbcn. 

gefc^munben. 

gewunbcn. 

gcbrungcn. 

gelungen. 

gcHungen. 

gcrungcn* 

gefd^tungcn. 

gefd^mungen. 

gefungcn. 

gefprungcn. 

gcj»ungen. 

gefunfen. 

gcfhtnfcn. 

getrunfcn. 

begonnen. 

gemonnen. 

gcTonnen. 

gefonnen. 

gefponnen. 

gef(^mommen. 

gefommen). 



hxtd^tn, 

fprcd^cn, 

jicd^cn, 

brcfci^n, 

jlcrben, • 

»erber^ett, 

toerbcn, 

tDcrbcnr 

toerbcn, 

bergcn, 

berjlcn, 

gcbSrcn, 

*clfcn, 

tocrfctt, 

treffcn, 

ftctfcn, 

fd^rctfen, 

flc^Ictt, 

befeflen, 

empfe^Icn, 

ne^mett, 

geUcn, 

fc^Uen, 



fprad^, 

Mr 

braf4 

i^arb, 

vcrbarb, 

tt)arb, 

tt)arb, 

tourbe, 

barg, 

barjl, 

gebar, 

toarf, 

traf, 

flacf, 

fd^racf, 

i^aW, 

befabt 

cmpfa^l, 

naWr 

gait, 



0cbroc|»(tt. 

gefpro(bcn. 

gejiod^. 

gcbrofd^cn. 

gcftorben. 

verborbcn. 

gett)orbcn. 

gctoorben (or 

gett)orben). 

gcborgcn. 

geborflen. 

geboren. 

gebolfen. 

gc»orfcn. 

getroffen. 

geflod^en* 

gcfd^rocfen. 

gcjloblcn. 

bcfo'^lcn. 

cmpfo^lcn. 

genommen* 

gegoltcn. 

gefd^olten. 



2. Irregular verbs of the second doss : 



flab, 

la^, 
gcnad, 
a§, 
fra§, , 

Pergap, 



flegebett* 

gelcfcn. 

gencfen. 

gegeffen. 

gefreffen. 

gemcffen. 

Pergeffcn. 



tretcn, 

Men, 

gcfd^ben, 

(bitten, 

(liegen, 

(f^^en, 

(fcin, 



trat, 

fab, 

gefd^ab, 

bat, 

lag, 

fa§, 

»ar. 



getrctcn. 

gefebcn. 

gcfd^cb-'n. 

gebeten.) 

gelcgen.) 

gefeffcn.) 

gcwcfen.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



312 


• 


THE 


VERB. 




[§14 




3. Irregular verbs of the third doss 


* 


UOtn, 


hui, 


scbocfau 


Wofleii, 


f*Iii9r 


0(f<^la0(ii« 


fttjrcn, 


fu*r, 


geftt^rctt. 


tragcn, 


trufl, 


getragen. 


%xQbtn, 


firu^r 


gegra^en. 


f^Ktffen, 


Wuf, 


gefd^ffen. 


hhtn, 


lub. 


gelobcn. 


»a4>fen, 


mH^, 


geu>a4^fetu 


vMUlm, 


(muW/ 


ficmajint. 


»af(^, 


»uW. 


getoaf^eiu 




4. Irregular verbs of the fourth class : 


UUm, 


flel, 


0tfaaau 


fansett. 


f(n9, 




Joltctt, 


*tett, 


gf^aUeit. 


iongfti. 


*tn(j, 


ge^ongetu 


hxdttn, 


Imt, 


gebrtttcn. 


(flf^ttr 


flinSr 


gegongen.) 


tttt^eit. 


m, 


gerttt^cii. 


loufeit, 


lief, 


gelottfen* 


Wtefett, 


WUef, 


flefWfiu 


^(tUClt, 


m, 


gefoueiu 


tlofcn, 


Wic«, 


firtlafcn. 


(togcn, 


fKcfc 


geflofen. 


laffen, 


lied, 


ficlaffen. 


rufcti, 


rief, 


gerufen* 




5. Irregular verbs 


of the,;?/?AcZtw5 


; 


M^tn, 


m, 


0eMffint* 


Idbcti, 


Rtt, 


gefilteit* 


umiixt, 


m\% 


5eflt[fciu 


Wncibcii, 


\m% 


gefd^ttitteit* 


rcifftt, 


ri§, 


gcrifTen. 


fnetpett, 


tnipp, 


geittippen* 


Wlcijjen, 


WUfc 


ficfc^ttfTen. 


Uci»«ti, 


Uicb, 


0(Mi(((W« 


WmeiScn, 


Wmlfc 


gcfd^miffcii. 


rdbm, 


rieb, 


geriehn. 


WeiSftt, 


frUfc 


6cfl>Kffcii. 


f(^c»eii, 


Wric^ 


gef^riebeiu 


(Itid^ftif 


Wi*, 


fleWi(»m 


trd^dt, 


trieB, 


getdei^m* 


fiWS^, 


m. 


degltd^ 


Wihi, 


lieV 


gelie^ett. 


Wlcii^, 


WR* 


gefc^ttd^. 


Mrcien, 


Writ, 


gefd^tiecit* 


{trri(i^, 


fW4 


gcflrid^. 


fpcicttr 


fpie, 


gefpieen. 


toeid^. 


»i4 


0et9icpcii* 


Sci^, 


Sic*. 


gesie^en. 


Oretfcii, 


firiff, 


gegrlffcn. 


gebcijeti, 


fiebicjr 


gebie^en. 


fcifcitr 


fiff. 


fieRffeti. 


meibtn, 


wieb, 


gemiebeiu 


fneifettr 


fniff, 


gefniffftt. 


f(Wbcn, 


WtCbr 


gefd^eben. 


1>Wf«t, 


m. 


gei^Pffeti. 


^jrcifen, 


pried, 


gepriefe«. 


Wlcifctt, 


\m% 


fiefd^Uffen. 


voctfeit, 


tt>ied, 


getoiefen. 


flltttw, 


filitt, 


0f0littetu 


Wwrigtn, 


W»ieg, 


gefd^toiegeiu 


rdtcti, . 


titt^ 


g(7itteit* 


fld«cn, 


(Heg, 


gefliegeti. 




Wrttt, 


0cfd^(Utetu 


m^n. 


Wien, 


gefd^eii 




fWtt, 


gefhittcit* 


(m*% 


»ief. 


ge*eife»-) 




6. Irregular verbs c 


if the sixth class : 




9icfcn# 


sot. 


fltgofFifii* 


ttgfli. 


lOflr 


gelogftt. 


genie§nt, 


flcnof, . 


fiCttOffftt. 


trugm, 


trog, 


getrogett. 


ffifScn, 


ffofc 


geffoffttt* 


Dffegcn, 


t>ffog, 


gepffogcH. 


f(^e§fn, 


WoR 


ficf^offctt. 


l^beti, 


foB, 


ge^oben. 


Wtiefm, 


Wlofc 


flef(»tofTctt. 


t»e^, 


t»oB, 


getoobeii* 


fl»rie§ni, 


fl)rofc 


ficf|MrofF«. 


fiWrcn, 


Wor, 


gefd&wett. 




»erbrog, 


t^erbroffcn. 


fi«»rctt, 


gojr, 


gego^reii. 


nirtctt, 


noB, 


aenoben. 


\ifnSxv^^ 


fd^tOQTf 


gefd^cK* 


fd^^ 


Wo^ 


0tf(9O^. 


wfigeji, 


tt)Ogr 


getoogen* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 144.] 



IBBBOULAB VERBS. 



313 



WnlcBcn, 


Wno^ 


0tfd^noben. 


Jctoegen, 


bct»og, 


bcttjogeiu 


llirtcn, 


Po6, 


geflobcn. 


fed^tcn, 


Mt 


gefodl^tem 


bictcn, 


ibot, 


geioteit* 


flec^tctt, 


flot^t, 


gejlod^tcn. 


fleben. 


fott, 


gcfottctt* 


melfcn, 


molf, 


gemolfen. 


lit^tn, 


N, 


fiebOBot. 


Wmelgen, 


Wmolg, 


gcfd^molsctt. 


flteaen, 


Mf 


flcflegen. 


Wweflm 


f(^»on, 


gefd^molleii. 


wieflen. 


»09, 


getoogctt. 


(tueQftt, 


quoIL 


fi^uoQett. 


Wei^n, 


Iroc^r 


gefroc^cn* 


fWen, 


Won 


geWeUcn. 


rlecitn, 


ro(^, 


gcrod^en* 


faufett, 


foffr 


gefoffcn. 


Wen, 


flo*, 


gefloien. 


faugcn, 


fog, 


gcfogciu 


mttt, 


m^ 


gejogfii. 


WrauJcn, 


WroB, 


gef^tobcn« 


fricTcn, 


fror, 


gcfroTcn* 


WtoSreti, 


W»or, 


gcf(j^tt)OTntt 


^crUerctt, 


»erTor, 


i9crlot(n* 


crloWcn, 


crIoW, 


crlofd^ttt. 


triefftt, 


troff, 


fictroffen. 


(Mttfien, 


bung/ 


gcbungcn.) 


flinuncn, 


flomm. 


genommen. 


(Winben, 


fd^unb, 


gcfd^unbctt.) 


gKntmcit, 


glonutt, 


gcglonuncn* 


(Men, 


ftanbf 


geflanben.) 


tdlcmmctt, 


(eHomm, 


(enommcn* 


(t*un, 


tied, 


gct^on.) 




7. Irregular verbs of the seventh class 


; 


^bdi. 


^ttt, 


gcNM. 


ibvin0ctt^ 


htadfU, 


ethtadfU 


foDeit, 


foflte, 


ficfoflt 


benfen, 


bad^te, 


gcbad^t. 


tooHen, 


mutt, 


getvoOt 


l^tnnnt, 


bTdnntCr 


ge^rannt 


foirncn, 


hxmk, 


gefomit 


feRnnt, 


!annte, 


gcTannt 


mSflen, 


me^Uf 


gemoii^t. 


nenticit, 


mmtt, 


genannt. 


burfen, 


burftc, 


flebur^ 


rntnen, 


rannte, 


gcrannt 


mfiffeti, 


mujte, 


Qmnit* 


fenbftt, 


fanbte, 


gcfanbt. 


»«fT«i, 


tottftc, 


flCtDUft* 


toenbcn, 


toonbtc, 


gciDonbt. 



Bern. 1. To avoid the necessity of multiplying the classes, the verbs !om» 
men, bitten, liegen, fi^en, fein, gc^ien, ^etgcn, bingen, fdf^inbcn, gc^cn, t^un, are 
placed under those of the above seven classes, where, by the analogy of vo- 
cal changes in forming the principal parts, they seem most appropriately to 
belong. 

Rem, 2. The simple verbs from which the compound verbs given in the 
above list (bc*ginnen, Bc^Peigen, be*!Iemnten, k^toegen, em^*fc^Ien, cr*I8f^cn, 
ge4ingen, gc^toinnen, ge^baren, ge^ncfcn, ge^f^c^en, gc^bei^cn, ge^niegcn, toer* 
berbcn, i)cr»gcffcn,i)er*briegen, tcr*Ueren) are derived, are now either antiqua- 
ted, or provincial (as tOinnCtt), or are entirely obsolete (as 0,-0. nesan). 

Rem, 3. Some of the irregular verbs are also used as regular in the whole 
conjugation (as Itiita, (ratttt) or in part of the conjugation (as J^tatCQ/ 00^* 

Rem, 4. Many of the German verbs are allied to words in other branches 
of the Indo-European languages, as the Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit. 

Rem, 5. For these and other features of the individual verbs, see the notes 
'othe following alphabetical list of irregular verbs: 

o 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



314 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



y- 



No, of 
Class. 



§ 145. Alphabetical List 



8. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
5. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
G. 
1. 
2. 
4. 
5. 
5. 
4. 
1. 
7. 
7. 
7. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
7. 
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
4. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
2. 
C. 
6. 
1. 
2. 

1. 
1. 



1. 



4 



Present Infinitive. 



^acfen/ to bake. >^ 
S3eMlctt,' to command. 
^ejlct^cn, to apply, 
©f^mncn,^ to begin. 
S)ct§cti/ to bite. 

* S)efIemmcn,,*o press. , 

* SBeraen,* to conceal. 

* S^erjten, to burst. 

* S3en)cgen,* to induce. 
©teflen,* to bend, 
©ieten, to bid. 
SBinbcti, to bind. 
SJittcn, to beg. 
S3lafen,'toblow. 
S3leibcn,^ to remain. 
SJletc^n,'' to fado. 
©ratea, to roast. 
S3rcc^cn,**'to break. 
S^rcnncn, to bum. 
©ringen, to bring. 

* X>mUn, to think. 
Dinaen, to hire. 
2)reften,»^ to thrash. 
!Drtn9en, to press. 
3)urfen, to be permitted. 
(Smpfefylcn, to recommend 
effcm^Hoeat. 
^al^rett, to ride. 
gaUen, to fall. 
Sangen,^* to catch. 
Bec^ten, to fight, 
ginbcn, to find, 
glcc^ten," to braid. 
BUcaen, to fly. 
8Ue5fn, to flee, 
gltef cn,*« to flow. 
^effcm^Uo devour, 
grteren,*® to freeze. 
^fil^rettf to ferment. 
®eb5ren, to bear. 
®eben, to give. 
®ebei§cn, to thrive. 
®e^en, to go. 
©elingcn,** to succeed. 
®cUett, to be worth. 
Ocncfen, to recover. 
(SJenic^en, to enjoy. 
®ef(^e^cti,*» to happen. 
®cttjtnnen,*" to win. 
®ic§cn,'* to pour. 
^XiX^^Xi,^^ to resemble, 
©leiten," to glide. 



2dandddPers. Sing. 




[not giveti when 
formed ' 
regvlarly.'l 

Jtrnft birat, 
Mrjtejl, birji, . 



bWfejl, bldf(e)t 



*brdtjl, bra 
bric^fl, bric^t, 



MW% brifc^t, 



(i(^l I, barf jl, barf, 

ill ipt 

fa r faJjrt, 

fd fdUt, • 

fd fdnflt 

fie ifl, ftd^t, 



fli*t(c)f 


imtw. 


frilled 


W' 


fiicbjl/ 


sbiert, 
fiicbtf 


fiiltfl. 


fiiltr 





ficWe^t, 







Imperfect 
Indicative. 

buf, y^ 

bcfabl 

beflii 

bc^oim/ 

bip, 

beflomntf 

barg, 

ba(o)rfl, 

ben>ofl, 

bofl, 

bot, 

banbr 

bat, 

blie<3, 

blieb, 

bli*, 

* brtct, 

brac^r 

brannte/ 

brad^tCf 

buncjr 
bra(o)f(^/ 
bran(j» 
burftc, 



Imperfect 
SuhjH7ictive. 



butc, 

befo^lc, 

befliife, ' 

bead(or^6)nnt 

biffe, 

bellemmctc, 

bdrgc, 

bd(o)r|lC/ 

bcwogc, 

boge, 

bote, 

bdnbCf 

hcitc, 

bliefc, 

bliebc, 

blic^C/ 

brietc, 

brdc^c, 

brennete* 

brdd^te, 

bunge, 

brd(o;fd^e# 

brd(u)nfle, 

burftc, 

(ttipfaf)lo 

dec 
mtc, 

ftclc, 

ftnflc, 

fot^te, 

fdnbc, 

pd^ter 

floge, 

Pobc, 

nm 

frd§e, 
frorc, 

gebdre, 

fidbf, 

gebicl^fr 

flinfifr 

fleldnflc, 

fidltc, 

flcndfer 

flenoftc, 

def(^d(ye, 

fietodimef 

fioffe, 

filidje, 

fllitte, 



• The asterisk indicates that the whole verb (or the 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 145.] 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



315 



ofthelm 



Imperative 
Mood. 



haac, 

umi 

be[let§f, 
Uaimt, 

m, 

Mkmmt, 

hkt^t), 

bittf, 

l)laf(e), 
hUib{t), 

l)rat(f), 

benft, 

bing, 
brit% 

(uwnWfk;), 

fal^r(c), 

faU(e), 

fangCc), 

finb(e), 
mu 

fliei(c), 

trip. 

fricr(e)/ 

flcMcr, 

fitcb. 

0ebciKe)f 

gilt. 
Gencfe» 
gcnie§(c), 
{ufanting)^ 

flettinne, 
0ie§(c), 
gW4 
fllcite, 



egruar 



Verbs. 



Perfect 
Participle, 



JRemarka, 



gebacfeti/ 

befoblen. 

befliffen. 

begonncn. 

gebiffen. ' 

beflomjiictt. 

geboraciu 

gcborftctiv 

bewogcii; 

gebogcn; 

geboten. 

fiebunben. 

gcbctcn, — 

gcblafcn. 

gcbliebcn. 

0ebli(^en; 

gebrotcHi 

gfbro(^e!t. 

gebrannt 

gcbrad^t. 

gebad>t. 

gcbungen. 

gcbrof(^en. 

gebrungcn. 

geburft. 

fie 
fl< 

fle 

fle 

fie 

fie 

gel 

ge' 

ge 

ge' 

ge 

ge 

fl< 

gt 

gei 

gei , 

gcgangcn. 

gclungen. 

gegolten. 

genefen. 

genoffeit. 

geft^e^cn.. 

gett)onncn. 

gegeffen. 

gealid^en. 

gelitten. 



Hem. 1. The following verbs in the sixth class, biegett/ 
bfeten, Pteaen, flie^en, fliepen, genie^en, aie^en, frte(^en, lugcA, 
fd^lie§en, fprtegen, triefen, »erbriegen, gte^en, formerly had 
parallel forms in ett in the 2d and 8d pers. sing, of the 
pres. ind., and in the imperative (as bu fmitfk, et bcut ; 
bettt) ; these forms are now only used in poetry. 

Hem. 2. Final e of the imperative of some verbs, as bics 
gen, bict(tt, hlaitn, is dropped by some writers. 

Hem. 3. Some verbs (as hnfken, tufd^n, etc.) have two 
or more forms in the imperfect indicative or subjunctive. 



Remarks on the IndimdtuU Verba, 

^ 93acf(tt is also regular except in participle; it is allied 

to Gr. tpotytiVj to roast, and Latin/ociMt(ajlrg>^acc). 

* First appeared in the 15th century j from Gothic filhan, 
' From O.-G. kinan, to yavm, open. [O.-G. felahan. 

* From htt^tn are derived bcr ©erg, fcie Surg. 

* Regular when meaning " to move from a place." 

* Allied to Sans, hhug, Gr. tbivyuv, Ltii. fugere ; from it 
are derived ^o^tn, bow; iiu^t, bight (and the French 
boiigevy English budge), 

^ Compare English blast, blaze. 

* Related to Gr. Xsittuv, Lat. linquere ; comp. Eng. leave. 
'The derivative bldc^ett^ to bleach, is regular. 

*® Allied to Ltit, frangere, Gr. pnyvufii, 

'* Sometimes used as regular, except in the participle. 

** M,-G.e2zen,0,'Q,Uan, Ang. -Sax. e^afi^Eng.ea^ (allied to 
Lat. edere,QT. idtw, Sans.acf^Kelt. Uh) ; comp.Eng. etch. 
In the 16th cent., the participle was formed regularly, 
0(cff(n (yet existing in some dialects) ; this was con- 
tracted geffcit ; in the l7th cent, another ges was added 
by false analogy, hence the double prefix in gegeffen* 
Comp. Eng./awflr (and the obsolete verb to fang), 

'* Allied to Lat. plectere (plicare), Gr. irXiKiw; from the 
root of flcd^ten comes also ^lad)i,flax. 

' * From the same ultimate root (beginning with^) as fitc* 
geilf flie^cit, etc. ; allied to Lat. fliiere {pltiere), Jluvium 
(pluvium), Gr. itXvveiu {to tcash), Sans, phi (to flow). 
From fltepen comes 9Iufl (compare Engliah floss). 

^^ Contracted from Derseffett. 

*® The original ft (friefen) is yet preserved in some dia- 
lects ; it appears in Wtofl. 

*• Only used in the third person (c^ gelingt etc.). 

" The simple form (M.-G. toinnen, O.-G. winnan) is obso- 

** Allied to QT,.xviiVjto pour. [lete. 

^' From %Uid^t a contraction of g^etd^ (from lih, like). 

^^ From the same root comes gtatt (smooth) ; and En- 



part to which it is attached) is also conjugated regularly. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



316 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



Alphabetical List of the 



Class. 



Present Infinitive, 



2d and Bd Fers. iSing. 
cf Present Indicat. 



Imperfect 
Indicative. 



Imperfect 
Subjunctive. 



6. 
8. 
5. 
7. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
6. 
5. 
1. 
5. 
7. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
5. 
5. 
1. 
7. 
6. 
8. 

6. 

5. 

2. 

2. 

6.- 

6. 

8. 

6. 
*t2. 

7. 
7. 
1. 
7. 
5. 

t 

5. 
5. 

7. 

u. 

1. 

4. 
* 6. 
-V6. 
-fS. 

6. 



* ®ltmmen,* to glimmer. 
(5Jrd>cn,' to dig. 
®rctfctt, to grasp, 
^abett/^ to have, 
^altcn,* to hold, 
^angen, to hang. 

* ^auen,' to hew.- 
•^ebcn,* to heave, lift. 
iei^^f to command. 
Wfcil,^to help. 

* 5leifett, to chide. 
5lcnncn,* to know. 

* ^Ucbcn," to cleavft. 
jnimmen, to climb. 
itUngcn,*" to sound. 

itommcn, to come. 
Aonnen/' to be able (can) 
5lm d^cn, to creep. 
iCabcti," to load. ' 
i^affeit, to let. 
i^aufen/* to run, 
i^ciben, to suffer. 
Set^CHf to loan, 
l^efen, to read. 
Ctegcn/'to lie. 
*£of(^en,^* to extinguish. 
Sugen, to lie. 

* aota^lett/^ to grind. 
SWetbcn, to avoid. 

* SWelfen/8 to milk. 
SKeffcn,*' to m©ftsure. 
Woatn,^'* to be permitted. 
5Wuffen, to be obliged. 
^if)mtn,^^ to take. 
9?enncn,** to name.' 
Vfeifcti,^* to whistle. 

* ^^t^tn, to cherish. 
9)relfen,'^ to praise. 
iQueaett,^^ to spring forth 
9tatf^n, to advise. 
SReiben, to rub. 
SRei§en,^* to tear. 
fRtittn,^^ to ride. 
SRennctt, to run.^ 
9lied^en,»' to smell. 
SKngen,^^ to wrestle. 
9linnen,»» to run. 
IRiifen, to call, 
^aufettr^^ to soak. 

* ©augcn,^* to suck. 

* Sc^affcn," to create. 

* Sc^Uen,'* to resound 



QxSb\t, Qxcibt, 



uit% kit, 



Wft, W% 



(t^!ann),!atinP,!ann, 



iatik, Wtt,* 

Idufjl, Wuft, 



milfcfl, mtlffi, 

miffejl, mift, 
(i^ maa), maajt, maa, 
{\^ nxui),mm,mvif, 

ttimmfl^ nimmt, 



licfcfc Kcjl, 



lifc^eft liWt, 






faufn, ffitift, 



dlomutf 
flrub, 
flrtff, 
fiatte, 

ping, 
meb, • 

m 
m, 

fanntc, 

flob, 

Homm, 

flana, 

fttiff, 

fnipp, 

Urn, 

fonntc, 

fro(^, 

m, 

lief, 
litt, 

m, 

lafl, 

low, 

log, 

mafflU, 

mifb, 

molf, 

ma§, 

mo^tc, 

mugte, 

nanntc, 

t>flO0, 

prte^, 

rict^, 

rieb, 

ri§, 

ritt, 

rannte, 

ro4>f 

rang, 

rann, 

ricf, 

fofff 

fOgr 

f*uf, 
WoU, 



griibe, 

gegriffcn, 

Httt, 

l^ielte, 

^inge, 

biebc, 

9obe, 

^ic§e, 

^<Jlfc, 

me, 

fcnnete, 

flobc, 

flomme, 

fldngc, 

!ntf|?, 

!nippe, 

fame, 

fonntf, 

me, 

lie§e, 

liefe, 

litte, 

Uejie, 

lafe, 

lage, 

low 

I5ge, 

mal^lctCr 

mtebe, 

m5lfe, 

ma^e, 

mod^te, 

miigte, 

nennete, 

pP[5ge, 

pnefe, 

<(udlle# 

tittf)e, 

rtebe, 

riffe, 

ritte, 

rennete, 

rodbe^ 

rdnge, 

rfi(o)mt^ 

ricfe, 

f6ffc# 

foge, 

f*iife. 

{(^&Uer 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 145.] 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



317 



Irregular Verbs (continued). 



Imperative 
Mood. 



Perfect 
Participle, 



Remarhe. 



fltimme, 
flrcife, 

iau(e), 
4eb(c), 

m 

fenne, 

!Ueb(e), 

nimme, 

flin^e, 

Inciter 

fneiper 

fomm(e), 

{wantiiig), 

fricd^.'e), 

lab(e), 

lauf(e), 
letb^ejf 
Iei^(e;, 

llegc, . 

m. 

luge, 

mcib(c), 

mtif, 

mig, 

{wa-nting), 
it 

ttimm, 

nenne^ 

Pfleae, 

pretKe), 

quia, 

reib(c), 
rfi§(e), 
rett:e), 



geglommeti. 

gegrabcn. 

9C 

3C 
ge 
dc 

ae 

0f 

genommen. 

geflungcn. 

gefntffen. 

gefnijjpen. 

gcfommcn. * 

gcfonnt. 

gdabeti. 

getaufcn. 

Oelitten. 

gelie^cn. 

gelefctt. 

gclcgctt. 

gelopen* 

gelogen. 

gemieben* 

gemolfen. 

Qemeffcn. 

gcmoAt. 

gcmu§t. 

genommen. 

genannt. 

gepffffeiSf 

gcpflogen. 

gepriefcn. 

gequoQen. 

geratlfirti. 

gericben. 

gcriffen. 

gerittcn. 

* gcrannt 

gero^cn. 

gcrungen. 

gcronnen. 

gcrufen. 

0eioffen« 

gefogcn. 

gcfdjaffen. 

gcfdfoDen. 



glish fflad {smooth, bright) and gladCj opening in the 
woods. 

* The provincial glum, gtimitg, Eng. gloomy gloomy, glum 
(and Anglo-Saxon gldm, twUigfU), are from the same 
root as gUmmen, to glimmer, 

•Allied to Gr. ypa<ptiv^ to write ; from grabcn are de- 
rived ^a^®Tahf grave; ^tt®tahtn, ditch; t\t®tviibt,pit. 
' Hence Me ^abe^posseMion; ttt^a^tn, haven ; l^anb^abctt 

* From "fatten is the inteijeotion l^alt! halt! stop! [is reg. 
^ Hence bie ^acfe, hoe; baft ^nt, Aa^; ber ^ieb, Uow. 

' Hence bet ^ebel^ lever; bet ^obel^pZa/ze. 

7 Hence ^elferft^yelfer ; bie^ilfe, l^ilfloft, be^olfen, etc, 

• Allied to Lat. genui; Gr. ycyi/av. 

• Mostly provincial. From fltcbcn are derived bet B\Of 
iHnt pulley ; ble Sthxft, cltft; bie Slnppe, pincers. 

^^ Allied to, if not der. from Lat. clangere (Gr. kKdy/BLv). 

^neifen has come into the High-German from the Up' 

per-German, (neipeit from the Lower-German dialects. 
^^ Allied to fennen. From the same root are funb, bit 

^unfl, baft ^inb, bet ^dtiig. 
1' €aben, to invitey is regular, is from a different root, and 
'* Compare English leap, lope, [is allied to Gr. KaXtiv, 
^ ^ Hence legen, to lay ; bie €o0e, site ; baft 2aect, the camp. 
'• Now used mostly in compounds. 
^' SOtablen is regular except in the participle. The im- 

perf. is reg. in the N.-G. The irreg. form ntu^I (from 

M.-G. mwoi) is now only provincial. 
** Now generally regular. From the same root are bie 

Wtil6^, milky and bie tEftDlU, whey. 
** Hence baft ^afi, measure. fWcffen is allied to Sana. 

md; Gr. fiixpov; Lat. metrum (meter), from metire {to 

measure) ; also to Lat. modus. Compare English mete. 
ao From mogen are mi^lidt, possible ; bie fSfta^t, might. 
'^ 9te^meti and nennen are from the same ultimate root 

as bet 9tame^ name (allied to Lat. nomen; Gr. ovofia; 

Slav, imja; Sans, ndman). 
'• Not found before Mid.-Ger. j derived from Latin pi- 
pare {to peep [said of birds], in Low Latin to whistle). 
•' From Low Latin predarc (from Jj&tin pretium, price). 
•* C^inqueUen is regular. 

»* Hence bet WelS/ charm; bet mfi, rent; tie ^ii^c, rift. 
'* Setctten, to ride over, is regular (not to be confounded 

with berciten, to prepare — from beteit, ready), 
«^ From riedjen come ttt ®etud^, odor; bet ^audt, smoke. 
*® From bet Slitifl; it signifies also to taring {clothes), 
•' As of fluids. Hence tennen, to run; bie 9linne, gutter, 
30 Hence bie <Bvippt, soup; compare English sop. 
'* Allied to Latin svgere {to stick) and succus Quice). 
33 With other significations, ft^affett is regular. From it 

is derived fc^dpfen, to create ,* compare English shape. 
" Hence bie ^d^Uc, a small bell, and bet ^c^iQing, f^U' 

ling {sounding metal). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



318 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



Alphabetical List of the 



No. Of 








Class. 






5. 


€ 




5. 


(s 




1. 


€ 




6. 


€ 




6. 


(s 




6. 


(s 




6. 


<s 




4. 


(s 




3. 


€ 




5. 


(s 




5. 


« 




5. 


» 




1. 


^ 




6. 


^ 




6. 


« 




5. 


(S 




6. 


(s 




6. 


* 




1. 


* 




5. 


<2 




5. 


<S 




6. 


<2 




6. 


5 




6. 


€ 




6. 


^ 




1. 


€ 




1. 


(s 




1. 


€ 




6. 


€ 




2. 


€ 




2. 


<S 




>T 


* Scnbeu, to send, 
©iebeiir to seethe, boil. 




«ntte, 
ott, 


i • 

6. 








2, 


(Btngem to sing. 




anf; 
ann, 

oUte, 






\^ 


©infen, to sink, 
©tnneii, to muse. 
vSiftcn,^' to sit. 
^oUftt; to be obliged. 




2. 

7. 






(u^ foU), foUH, foD, 


5. 


©pcien/ to spit. 




ptc, 


1. 


(Spinnen,^® to spin. 




pann, 




5. 


eplci§en,3i to split. 




M' 




1. 


©pr«faenr" to speak. 
©prieBen,*' to sprout. 


fpric^H, fpric^t, 


prac^f 


6. 




prog, 


1. 


©pringen,** to spring. 




fprang, 




1. 


©tec^cn," to stick. 


jlic^lX jlij^t, 




1. 


* (Stc(fcn,»« to stick. 




6. 
1. 


©te^en," to stand. 
©tel^Ien, to steal. 




lanb 


jlie^lfl, jWe^It, 


5. 


©tetflcn, to mount. 




Heg, 


1. 


©terben," to die. 


flirbjl, fKrbt 


larb, 


6. 


©ticben," to fly (as dust}. 




lob, 


1. 
4. 


©tinfeHf to stink. 
(Sto§en, to hit. 




He§, 


flo§eilr flofct, 


5. 


(Btreid^eiir to stroke. 




Wd^, 



fcnbete. 

fotte, 

fangc, 

fdnfc, 

fanne, 

'oUtc, 

ipicf, 

ipiSnner 

'pUffe, 

iprdAe, 

tproffe, 

fprdnge, 

Wc 

ftdnbc, 

":dWe. 

lege, 

" be, 

m, 

tdnfc, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 145.1 



IRREGULAR VERBS* 



319 



Irregular Verbs (continued). 



Jiemarks, 



ipricfCc), 
ftccff, 

!}crbe(c), 
Iheb(c), 
fiinf(e), 
|lo§(e), 



gcfproffen. 

gefprungen. 

gcftodjen. 

gcjlocfcn. 

gejlanben. 

gejlo^len. 

gcjlicgcn. 

geflorben. 

gcjloben. 

gefhintcn. 

9eflo§cn. 



* Regular as an activre verb; allied to Latin sci{n)do^ 
Gr. (rxiX,uv, From ft^ctbeit is derived tcr ^c^eitel^ top 
o^' <Ac /ietidi (where the hair is parted). 

' From fc^crcn are Me <^^aat, division^ troop; He ^^^ar, 

{plough) share; allied to f<^arf, sharp. 
3 Hence Me (Sc^iippe (and Me ^c^aufel), «^(wc?. 

* Compare English skin. 

* Hence ber <B^\a^, blow; tie ®(^Ia4»t, batUe; compar© 
English slay. 

* Reg. when meaning to dra^ alonffy demolish ; comp. Eng. 
dip; fd^leifen is allied (in li) to fc^leic^cnf glcid^cn, glciten. 

' Regular when intransitive. 
® Hence bie ^c^Iange, 8«aA:c. 
' Regular when active. 
^® Reg. when trans. ; irreg. when intransitive (to be alarm" 

ed); more usually employed in compounds, as erfc^vctfcit. 
*' From Lat. scribere (to write) j hence bie <B69ti\t, writing. 

Hence ber (S4)iDaU, swelling {of the sea) ; tit ^(S^wtUc, 

{door) sill ; ber ®c^toulfl, bombaat. 
^3 Hence ber (Zdft»amm, sponge; ber ®um^f> swamp. 
^* Hence bie ^dfmintiud^t, consumption. 
^^ Hence bie ^d^toin^e, winnow. 
^^ Hence ber ^tfywnv, oath. 
^^ Hence bie (S^idft, sight ; bad ®eflc^t,/a^. 
'* See§138i&m. 
^^ Hence fe<^en, to ic/; ber ^effcl, clmir; ber ®i^, S06rf; 

ber ®a^, sentence. Allied to Latin «ed«^ ; Greek 'CC^uv ; 

Russian sidjeC ; Sanscrit sad. 
*® Hence bie <Spinbcf, spindle, distaff; baS ®efpinn{l, ya7*n 

(whatever is spun) ; Me <3ipinnt, spider; ipanntn, tospan. 
^* Hence ber ^plitUt, splinter; bie (Spalte, column. 
" Hence bie ^ptaO^e, language; ber ^ptndf, adage. 
*' Hence ber ^proffe, sprout; bie (St»roffe^ row/itZ of a 

ladder. 
^* Hence bie ^pringqncde, spiking ; ber ^primg, leap; ber 

Urfpruttfl^ origin. 
^^ Hence tcr ^tid), sto&; ber ®tt(^cl, burin; ber ®ta<^ef, 

«<*»</ (bie (Stoc^elbcere, gooseberry) ; baft ©tticf, piece ; 

ber ®tocr, cane ; bie ^tange, stake ; flcc^cn is allied to 

flicfeti, to embroider. 
** Regular when transitive; regular or irregular when 

intransitive. 
*' Hence ber <3tanb, condition; bie (Stnnbe, hour; bie 

Statt, «<ea<ir bie <Btatt, city; fcer @tabel (StaU , 

«(a6fe; ber ©tottett, support; ber @tu^l, cAair; fliieen, 

to mpport ; fletten, to place; fliit, steady; ftetft, continu- 
ally, ^te^cn is allied to Latin store; Greek iirrdvui; 

Slavic «to« ; Sanscrit sthd. 
*« Compare English to 8<arvc 
3' Hence ber Stattb, diMt. 



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320 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



Alphabetical List of the 



No. of 
Class. 



Present Infinitive, 



2d and id Fers. Hing. 
of Present Indxcat. 



Imperfect 
Indicative. 



Imperfect 
Sul^unctivc. 



5. 
6. 
3. 
1. 
6. 
2. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
2. 
6. 
3. 
6. 
8. 
6. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
1. 
1. 

1. 
6. 

1- 
7. 
7. 
5. 



©trciteitr to contest. 
Z^ttn/ to do. 
XxMcn,* to carry. 
areffen, to hit. 
Ireiben, to drive. 
Zxcttru to tread. 
Irtffen,' to drop. 
ZmUn,* to drink. 
XxvL^m, to deceive. 

* Skrberbeti/ to spoil. 
Serbrie§en, to vex. 
SJergeffcn,* to forget. 
SJerlieren,^ to lose. 
aeBaciMini,® to grow. 
SBdaen, to weigh. 
SBafc^en,' to wash. 

* SBcben, to weave. 
2Beid^em»» to yield. 
SBcifen," to show. 
*2Benbett,"to turn. 
SEBerben, to sue for. 
SBerbcn,*^ to become. 

SBerfcit/ to throw, 
SBicgetl; to weigh. 
SBmben, to wind. 
SBiffcn,** to know. 
^oUen, to be willing. 
Stiff tn, to accuse. 
Bic^r** to draw. 
3»wi0en," to force. 



trdaft trdat, 
trirffl, trifft. 



trittfl tritt 



tbitbfk, ttitbt. 



''fiiffeft -fii9t, 



I9&4^f(r^, ii>a<^^, 



todfc^ft iDdfd^t, 



toirft »ivb, 
toirffl tt)irft. 



(idbn)eiS),»ci§t,wclO 
(idbtt>iU),»tafltt>iU, 



flntt, 

truo, 
traf; 
trieb, 
trat, 
troff, 
tranf, 

itttbath, 

ed »erbro§ 

t>eraa§, 

»mor, 

tt)oa, 

tt>obf 

tt)icd, 
nxmbte, 
tt)arb, 
t»urbe(or 
n>art), 
»arf, 
«)09, 
toanb, 
n>u§te, 
tt>oUto 
iicff, 
|09, 
jmojtg. 



jlritte, 

triiae, 

trdfc, 

tricbe, 

trdte, 

troffc, 

trdnfc, 

trofic, 

JMttiktht, 

ed »crbr5(fc^ 

»etad§c, 

»crlorCf 

tt)5tte, 

mixfdKf 

»5be, 

n>id)e, 

»icfe, 

toenbelf, 

tt)urbc, 

tt>ixrber 

tourfe, 

tt>dnbr, 

woUte, 



§ 146. Table of endings of Irregular Verbs. 



Present Tense. 


Imperfect Tense. 




Indie. 


Subj, 


Imperat, 


/nAca fire. 


Suhjwnctive, 


1 Pers. Sing. 

2 Pers. Sing. 

3 Pers. Sing. 

1 Pers. Plur. 

2 Pers. Plur. 

3 Pers. Plur. 






r 

*cn, *cn. 


— *tc, 

*cn, •'ten, 
4, 4ct, 
*cn, *ten, 


.et, *tc, 
"Cn, *tcn, 
*cn, *tcn. 


Injinit, »cn, *n. 


P^ea. Pw^ *cnb,*nb. || Perf. Part, ge— en, gc— t. 1 



Hem, 1. The t is dropped from the terminations sffl^ and sft of the second 
and third person singular of the present indicative, when the radical vowel is 
changed (C to t or it; or tt to (|): iA HirCJfte, tU \^tW, tt Hlrilftt 



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§ 146.] 



IRBEGULAB VERBS^ 



321 



Irre^ar Verbs (continued). 



Imperative 
Mood. 



ti>nt, 

traa(e), 

treib(c), 

tritt, 

trtef(e), 

trinf(c), 

truge, 

i»ttbifb, 

{obsolete)^ 

Jjcrlicrc, 

»ebc, 

tt)cid>(e), 

»eife, 

teente, 

xovch, 

»crbe, 

toirf, 

»teae, 

wtnoe, 

»oUe, 



Perfect 
Participle. 



gejWttcn. 

getraactt* 

getroffen. 

getricbcn. 

gctreten. 

flctroffen. 

getrunfen. 

getrogen. 

ocrborbctt. 

*»erbroffcn. 

»crgeffen. 

»erloren. 

gewoaen. 

gewafdjen. 

* gemoben. 

ge»i(^en. 

ge»iefen. 

gewanbt 

gcworbeti* 

geworbeti. 

geworfen. 
gctt)ogen. 
geruunben. 



getvoUt. 

gejogen. 
ge^tDungen. 



Remarks. 



» Hence bie Xffat, deed; bcr S^fitet, doer; t^jfitlg, ac«w; 
t^unU(^,/e<m6;e. In many dialects t^>un is used as auxilia- 
ry, as in EngUsh : iSt tf)at ni<^t f ommrti, Jie did not come. 

« Hence Me Xvadft, costvme, and baft ®etrcib(, grain. The 
derivative verbs beontragen, and beauftragm (from bcr 
^ntrag and ber $[uftrag) are regular. 

» Hence bte Zraiife, trovgh;^tt%t9p\tn,drop. [drunken. 

* Hence bet Ztata, dnnk ; ertrinfni, to drown ; bcttmtlctt, 

* The simple verb betben is yet used in the Bavar. dialect. 

* Compare the Bnglish verb get. 

' The original ft of »erlteren {Goih. fraliusan; O.-Q.far- 
liosan ; M.-G. veriiesen ; N.-G. verlieren) appears in the 
adjective loft, loose; and the noun bcr S^crlii^, loss, 

^ Compare the English verb to toax (and toane), 

' Hence bie aGBJifd^e, toasfdng. 

*•» Hence xocid^, mak (whence wcic^cn [reg.], to soften), 

" From the adjective meifc, toise. 

'« Hence bJc SEBanb, waW ; ta^®twant, raiment; geioonbt, 
dexterous; bie SeinnNmb, linen; bie fiBinbe, windlass; 
wcnbeti, to turn ; loanbent, to icander; bie fiBunbe, vmind, 

*' Allied to Latin veiierej and to siofirtft (English -loard). 

** Allied to Lat. videre; Gr. Utlv; Sans. !«<«. From tpiffcn 
are derived flewtft, certain; boft ®eiDiffettf conscience; 
bie fiBiffenft^ft, science; bet fiBi^, idf. 

* Hence bet Sttji, dra/l5, frain/ bet Siigel, rd««, bridle; 
bie Sliest, rearing ; iucfen, tojei'k; Micfen, to (2raw (a« a 
sword); enttiicfeti, to charm; bet ^iO0 (bcr mit bcm 
^cte au^jieibt = ^eerfu^rer), duke. [mals). 

^^ Hence bet 3n»ang, violence; bcr Smiitocr, c<i^6 (for ani- 



(Ekdings of Ikregulab Verbs — continued). 
Exc, The t is usually retained in ct% when the radical syllable ends in i^, 

4/ *ff/ 4*/ *S : as i4 Icfe, bit \\t\t% tx Heft 

22eOT. 2. The full forms ^cfl and stt must be used in the indicative when the 
item ends in b or U With other verbs also the full forms are often used. 

Rem. 3. The t is dropped from the imperative of all verbs that in that 
mood change the radical vowel e to i or d : inf. tttl^lttttt ; imp, nilttltt^ 

Rem. 4. Some of the best German grammarians prefer that the final =C 
should always be dropped from the imperative of many verbs that do not 
change the radical vowel. But the general usage is in favor of its retention, 
though it is often dropped in poetry. 

Rem. 5. The t of sttt and stttb can only be dropped when these endings 
follow a vowel or a silent % : Ut(ftel(tt, ^tftl^V* 

02 



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822 



THE VERB. 



[§ 147. 



§ 147. Conjugation of the Irregular Verb fd^Iagett, to 
strike (having J^albett for its auxiliary) : 
Principal Parts: f^Iag^Ctt, f (Ullttg, ^tA^iU^^tM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

X^ Wlag^e, I strike.* 
bu f(^>Ug*Cft, thoustrikest. 
er f(^>lag*e^ he strikes. 
Xoxx f(^>lag*en^ we strike, 
i^r f(^lag*ct, you strike. 
fiC f(3^Iag*en, they strike. 



id? S&ii^^'t, I strike, 
bu {(^liig'ft^ thoustrikest. 
er f^Iagst^ he strikes. 
Xc\x \ii\ci^*tXi, we strike, 
t^r i(^Iag*t^ you strike, 
fic j c^ I a g * en, they strike. 



t^ WVi%, I struck, 

bu f(^lUgsfi, thou strnckest. 
cr f(4I)tg, he struck. 

n)ir fd)lug*cn, we struck, 
i^v f(^lug*t, you struck, 
flc j (3^ lug^cn, they struck. 



Imperfect Tense, 



i<^ 
bu 
cr 



I have struck, etc. 



i^r ^al>' 



^aft 9cf(^>lagcn. 

l^at gcfd^Iagcn. 

toir ^aB*cit gcj(^Iagcn. 

t get(^>Iagcn. 

*eil gcf(i^Iagcn. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had struck, €<c. 

bu ^at*tefl gcf(^Iagcn. 
cr ^at*tC gef(?^Iagett. 
toir ^at*teil gcfd^Iagcn. 
i^r ^at*tet gcf(^>Ugeri. 
fie ^at^tcn gcj(^Iagen. 



i^ Wlilg^C, I struck, 
bu j (^ I ii g * eft, thou struckest 
er \^\i\Q*t, he struck, 
toir j (i^ I ii g * en^ we struck, 
i^r j(^Ulg*et, you struck, 
fie j (^ Ul g * en, they struck. 
Perfect Tense. 

I have struck, etc, 

x^ iftad^e otWagen* 

bu ^ab*eftgef(i^Ugcu. 

er ^aB*e gcjc^lageu. 

xoxt r;aB*etl gcj(^Iageu. 

if;r ^ab*et gej(felageu. 



fie ^alb^eu gcfd^lagen. 



I shall strike, etc. 


t^ tocrb^e 


Wmn. 


bu tDirft 


f(^Iageu. 


cr loirb 


f(^>Iagen. 


n)ir »)erb* 


.enfti^Ugen. 


i^r n)erb< 


et f^Iagen. 


fie ttjcrb* 


enfc^Ugen. 



I had struck, etc. 

x&i \jiiuit gef^lagett. 

bu Ht*teft gef(^>Iagen, 
er ^St*te gcf(^Iagcn. 
n)ir ^St*tcri gef(^Ugen. 
i^r ii^i^iti gcfi^Iagcn* 
fic ^at*te« gejd^Iageu. 
First Future Tense. 

I shall strike, etc. 
x^ mxh^t Wil%ttL 
bu n)crb«eft j(!^lagcn. 
er »)erb*e jc^lagen. 
n)ir »)erb*eiif(^Iagen. 
i^r »)erb*et fc^lagcm 
fie n)erb*e« f(3^lagcm 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 147.] 



IRBEGULAB VERBS. 



323 



Second Future Tense* 



I shall have struck, etc, 

bu Joirft QtWaQtn Jobcn* 
cr toirb 9cf(^Iagcn f^ahtn. 
n)ir tt>erb*cii gcjd^Iagcn i^aitn. 
xf)x tt>crb*ct gcWIagen iahtn* 
fic wcrb^eil geWIagcn ^aiett. 



I shall have struck, etc, 

bu ttjerb'^eftgcWagcn l^abtit* 
cr tt)erb*e ficfd^tagcn ^aBen* 
n)ir tt>crb*eii gef(^Iagcii Jafteii^ 
i^r »)erb*ct 9cf(^(agcn l^abtm 
fic tt)crb*etl 9cf(^|Iagcn Itaieit* 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

I would or should strike, etc. 



t^ loiirb^e f^lagett, or 

bu tt)iirb*eft jc^flagcu, '* 
cr tt)ilrb*e fc^Ugcn, " 
tt>tr tt)ilrb*eit jcJ^lagcn, " 
ibr »)ilrb*ct f(^>Iagcn, " 
fic tt>ilrb*cit \6)laQtn, ** 



(Lnperf, Subj,), 



bu fc^liig-eft 
cr fc^Iilg^e 
tt)lr f^Iil9*'e« 
i^r fd?Illg*ct 
fic \6fiiiQ*tn 

Perfect Tense, 
I would or should have struck, etc, 

i^ toMn %tWa%tniaitn, or ^ f^autt gefiKageit (P/. ^«(j 

bu ttJilrb^cft gcfc^Iagctt l^alitlt, " bu ^fit^tcftgcfd^lagcu 

cr »)ilrb»e gc^Iagcu fiahtn, ** cr ^&t*te gcfd^Iagcu 

toir n)ilrb<>ett gcf(^tagcn l^aBeit, '* toir ^dt^ttitgcji^Iagcu 

i^r tt)ilrb«ct gcWIagcn ^abtit^ " i^r Ht*tet gcf^Iagcn 

fic tt)ftrb*eil gefd^tagcn f^aitn, " fic ^ & t * ten 0cf(!^lagctt 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



f4(ag^ (bu), strike thou, 
f^iagst cr, let him strike. 



f 4(ag:sett VDir, let us strike. 
Wlag-et (i^r), strike you. 
f^lag-ett fic, let them strike. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, f^lag^en^ to strike. I Per/, gef^fogCtt HUU, to hav* 

I struck. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. ((^laflstttb, striking. | Per/. flCWaflCIl, struck. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



324 



THE VERB. 



L§ 148, 



§ 148. Conjugation of the Irregular Verb lommctt, U^ 
eome (having f citt for its auxiliary) : 

Principal Parts: lommen, lam, gelommett. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



t^ fomm-e, i come. 

)^u 1 m m *> {i^ thou comest. 
er tomm^'t, he comes, 
toir tomtn*'Cit, we come. 
i{>r foinin*t, you come, 
^c f m m * CIl, they come. 



ic^f fonntt^e^ I come.* 
bu ! mm « efl, thou comest. 
er tomm^^et^ he comes. 
tt>ir fomms'tll^ we come, 
i^r fomm*et, you come, 
fie fomm*ClI^ they come. 



\^ fOltl/ I came, 

bu tam»{i, thou camest. 
er !am^ he came. 
tt>tr !am*eil^ we came, 
f^r fam*«t, you came, 
fie tarn « en, they came. 

I have come, etc, 

\^ Mn gelommeit. 

bu Mft gefommen. 

er ift gefommeu. 

tPtr jittb gefommcn. 

i^^ ftib gefommen. 

fie jinb gefommen. 

I had come, tic, 

\^ toar gelommett. 
bu loarsft getommen. 
er loar gefommeu. 
toir toar^eiigclommeu. 
i^r tDar^t getommen. 
fie toars'Cll gefommeu. 



Imperfect Tense, 



\^ XiX^'tf I came, 
bu t a m ^ efl, thou camesk 
er lam^C^ he came. 
tt)ir !am^en, we came, 
i^r Ifim^^et^ you came. 
- fie lam* en, they came. 
Perfect Tense, 

I have come, etc, 

t^ fei gelommen* 
bu fei^'eflgefommen. 
cr fci getommen. 
h)ir fci*cn gefommeit. 
i^r fei*ct getommen. 
fie fci* en getommen. 
Pluperfect Tense, 

I had come, etc. 

\^ toar-e getommen^ 

bu h>fir*eft getommen. 
cr »)fir*e getommen, 
tt)ir »)fir*ett getommen. 
i^r »)iir«*et getommen 
pe tt)iir*en getommen 



First Future Tense, 



I shall come, etc, 

t^ tnerb^e lommen* 
bu lotrft tommen. 
er toirb tommen. 

toxx tt)erb*en tommen, 
i&r n)erb*et tommen. 
fie tt)erb*en tommen. 



I shall come, etc, 

xHf mxt^t tommen. 

bu »)erb* eft tommen. 
er »)erb*e tommen. 
tt)ir »)erb*ett tommen. 
i^r »)erb*et tommen. 
fie tt>erb*ett tommen. 



' See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 148.1 



IBREGULAB VERBS. 



326 



I shall have come, etc, 

x^ toerb'C oefommen fetn. 
bu toirft gcfommcn fcin* 
cr toirb gcfommen fcin* 
toir n)erb*Ctt gcfommcn jcitt^ 
'xi)x tt>erb*ct gc!ommcn fcitt* 
fie totvh'tn flcfommcn (cin* 



Second Fxiturc Tense, 

I shall have come, etc. 

\^ tocrbsc flcforamctt fdm 
btt tt>crb*cft s^bmmen fcin* 
cr tt>crb*e vjclommcn fetn* 
tt)ir tt)crb#ctt cjcfommcn fcin^ 
i^r tt>cvb*ct gcfommcn fcim 
fic toerb^cil gctomracu (diu 



\6i tofirb-e 

bu »ilrb*cj3t fommcn, 
cr n)ftrb«»e fommcti, 
toir tt)ftrb*ett lommcti, 
i^r tt)ilrb*et fommcn, 
fIc tt>ilrb*cil fommcn, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would or should come, etc, 
lommcn^or \6^ Vim^t {Imperf, Suhj,). 



bu f^m^eft 
cr I5m*e ** " 
tt)tr Ifim^cir " " 

fic ffiin*eil " " 
Perfect Tense. 
i would or should have come, etc. 

gclommcn fcfn, or ^ toiir^e %tUvxvxtXiiPl Suh.y 

bu tt) & r * eft gcf ommcu 
cr n)ar*e gelomnicn 



l^ Jo8rb*e 

bu »)ilrb*i|l gefommen fein, " 

cr tt>ilrb*e gefommen fciii^ " 

totr »)il-rb*cil gefommen fciii, " n)ir » S r * en gefommen 

i^r tt>ttrb*et gefommen fein, *' i^r tt)Sr*et gefommen 

pe tt)ilrb*cii gefommen (ciii, " fic » fi r * cil gc|ommen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



f Ontm^t (bu), come thou. 
lOtUtU^e cr, let him come. 



lomm^ett XOXX, let us come. 
!omm4 (t^r), come you. 
lomm^^en p^ let them come. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, fomm-en^ to come. I Perf. gclommcn f Cin, to have cc ma 

TABTICIPLES. 
Prts. lomm^enb^ coming. I Perf. gclommcn, come. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



326 THE VERB. [§ 149-151. 



% 5. COMPOUND VERBS. 
(3ttfammcngcfc^te AtittoMtt.) 
§ 149. Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing j?r<?p- 
osition^j adverbsy noims^ or adjectives to simple verbs. 
They are either Separable or Inseparable. 

§ 150. With Separable Compound Verbs: 

1. The prefix takes t\iQ primary accent: 
2lu«'*gc^en, to go out 2luf ^gebcn, to give up. 

2. The prefix is separated from the verh^ and is placed 
after the verb, and often at the end of the sentence, 
when the verb occurs in main sentences, and is in the 
present or imperfect tense of the indicative or subjunc- 
tive mood, or in the imperative mood : 

@r tttmmt bad $U(^ ott^ He accepts the book. 

@r no^m bad iBuc^ an, He accepted the book. 

SSixmvX bad $ud^ m ! Accept the book ! 

Slaljm er bad 33ud(^ an ? Did he accept the book? 

Rem, In the compound tenses, and in the simple tenses when occnrring in 
subordinate sentences, the prefix is not separated from the verb: 
@r toirb bad ^u^^ an'nel^men, He win accept the book. 
@^e er bad )6u(^ an'na^nt, Before he accepted the book. 

3. The jtt of the infinitive, and the prefix gc- of the 

perfect participle, adhere to the verb : 

2(n|latt bad S3ud^ an'Snnetmen— instead of accepting the book- 
er ^at bad ^U(^ an'gtnomnten/ He has accepted the book. 

§ 151. The Separable Prefixes are : 

1. The particle 5 tb, an, m],Mf H i^tii), m, cm^ior, 
fort, gegen (entgegen),]^eim, ^et^l^in, mxt, mi^, taiiebet, oi, 
Hon, m%, Jtt, juriirf, JUfammcn (together with the com- 
pound separable prefixes l^etettt, l^cratt8,<5^c.,§ 157), which 
are ahoays separable. 

2. The particles butc^, l^itttet, iiitt, ttm, mttx, and taiie^ 
bcr, when they receive the primary accent (§ 154). 



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§ 152.] 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



327 



3. Some nouns and adjectives used as prefixes are 
separable (§ 154, 5, 3). 

§ 152. Sometimes compound verbs take, in addition 
to their literal meaning, also a modified or figurative 
meaning : 

5luf gcbcn, to give up, deliver, surrender, abandon. 
Slu^'ftt^ren, to carry out, achieve, accomplish. 
V , 1 . Examples of compound verbs with prefix particles always separable : 



\y Prefix, 
ab, off, down ; 
an, on, to, at ; 
auf,up; 

auS, out, out of; 
bei, by, with ; 
ba, there ; 
(bar, there) ; 
tvaHptiX/ up ; 
gcgcn, against; 
entgegen, against ; 
fort, forth ; 
^eim,home; 
bcr, hither; 
^in, thither ; 
tnit, with ; 
ttai!^, after; 
niebcr, down ; 
ob, over ; 
t>or, before; 
U)cg, away ; 
JW.to; 

guril(f,back; ^^ 
pfammcn, together; 



Simple verb, 

fd^reibcn, to write; 
fommcn, to come; 
0C^cn,togo; 
fuc^en, to seek ; 
tragcn, to cany ; 
bleiben, to remain ; 
fleUen, to place ; 
^^cbcn, to heave ; 
reben, to speak ; 
ttJirfcn, to work ; 
fefecn, to set ; 
fd^icfcn, to send ; 
fommen, to come ; 
0e^cn,togo; 
ne^men,totake; 
f olgcn, to follow ; 
Icgcn, to lay ; 
flcgen, to conquer ; 
fd^Iagen, to strike; 
ne^men, to take ; 
tna(^en, to make ; 
rufcn,tocall; 
gie^en, to draw ; 



Compound verb. 

ab' f^rciben, to copy, 
an'fommen, to arrive, 
auf gc^cn, to go up, rise. 
au«'fud^cii, to select, 
bet'tragcn, to contribute, 
ba' bleiben, to remain. 
bav'fleUen, to exhibit, 
cm^or'^eben, to elevate, 
ge'genrcben, to rejoin, 
entgc'gentoirf en, to counteract 
fovt'fcljen, to continue 
r;eim'fd^i(fen, to send home, 
^er'fommen, to come hither, 
^in'ge^en, to go thither, 
mif nc^men, to take with (one) 
nat^'folgcn, to follow after, 
ntc'berlcgcn, to deposit, 
ob'ficgcn, to vanquish, 
ijor'f^tagcn, to propose. 
tDCg'ne^mcn, to take away. 
}^n'ma6)tn, to close, 
guriltf'rufcn, to recall, 
jufam'menjtc^cn, to contract, 



2. Compound verbs with prefixes which are separable when accented : 
burd^, through ; reifen, to travel ; • bur(^>'rcifen, to travel through 

ilber, over ; f e(jcn, to place ; 

urn, around ; ge^cn, to go ; 

unter, under ; batten, to hold ; 

»)icber, again ; ^oleit, to get ; 

^ 3. Compound verbs with nouns or adjectives as. separable prefixes .* 
©tatt, place; pnbcn, to find ; flatt'pnben, to take place, 

fret, free ; f^)red(>en, to speak -, fret'fi)re(^en, to acquit. 

t>on, full : giefien, to pour ; t>ott'gte6en, to pour full. 



il'berfe^en, to place over, 
um'ge^en, to go around, 
un'ter^alten, to keep under, 
iwie'ber^oten, to get again. 



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S28 



THE VERB. 



[§ 153. 



§ 153. The Separable Comp. Verb att'tttl^mett, to accept. 

Principal Parts: att'ttc^mctt, att'na^m, att'gcttommcn* 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense, Imperfect Tense, 
I accept (it), c^c— accepted (it), e<c. 

id?nc^mc(e«)an— na^m (e8)aii* 
bunimmjl „ an*— tia^ntft t, m* 
tt nimmt ,, att»— na^m n flit* 
tt)irncl^men „ tttt^— na^mcn u (W* 
t^rne^mt u an,— na^mt ,r ari^ 
fie ne^jmcn v ati^— na^mcn n an^ 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense, Imperfect Tense. 
I accept (it), efc— accepted (it), c^c. 

td? iic^mc (e«)att — naftme (c«) m* 



bu ne^mefl 
cr nc^mc 



an*— na^mcjl 



toirne^men „ am— nS^men 
i^rne^met „ am— n5{>nict 
fic ne^mcn „ an^— nfi^mcn 



att* 
am 
wx* 
atu 



I have accepted (it), etc. 

\^ i^alie (e?) angenommem 



Perfect Tense, 



bu ^aft 
er ^at 
n)ir ^aben 
i^r ^abt 
fie ^al>en 



angcnommcn, 
aucjenommeh. 
angenommen 
angenommen. 
angcnommcn. 



I have accepted (it), etc. 

t(^ ^atie (e@) angenommett. 



bu ^abeft 

tt)ir ^aben 
i^r ^abet 
fic ^bcn 



angcnommcn. 
atificnommeR 
angcnommen. 
angenommen. 
angenommcu- 



I liad accepted (it), etc, 

t(^ i^atte (ed) angenommem 



Pluperfect Tense 



bu ^attcft 
er ^atte 
tDtr fatten 
i^r ^attet 
lie fatten 



I shall accept (it), etc, 

\^ toerbe (ed) antiel^mem 



I had accepted (it), etc, 

t(^ iftiitte (e@) angenontntem 



augenommeu. bu ^ttcjl ,, augenommcn. 

angenommen. cr ^5ttc ,/ angcnommcn. 

angenommcu. tt)ir fatten „ angcnommen. 

augenommen. i^r ^Sttct „ angcuommcn. 

migenommen. fie fatten ,r angenommeu. 

First Future Tense. 

I shall accept (it), etc* 

i^ loerbe (e«) anne]ftmett> 
bu koerbefl » onne^men. 
er ttjerbc » annebmcu, 
toirtDcrbeu n anne^men. 
i^rn>erbet it anne^men* 
fie koerben u annel^men. 



bu tt)irfl V annebmen. 
cr t»irb „ anne^men. 
tcirtoerbeu „ anue^men. 
t^r tDcrbet „ annc^men. 
fie tcerbcn » anne^men. 

Second Future Tense 
I shall have accepted (it), etc. 

ic^ tocrbe W angenommen (aBett. 
bu tDtrfi ,f angenommeu ^aben. 
er tt)irb « augenommen ^aben. 
n>trn>erben » angenommeu ^aben. 
t^r ttjcrbet f, augenommen ^aben. 
fie toerbeu r; angenommeu i^obvx. 



I shall have accepted (it), etc. 

t^ toerbe (ed) augenommen (a^em 
bu toerbefl r^ augenommen \!icibtru 
er ttjcrbc „ angenommeu ^aben* 
tt)irtt)erbeu n angenommeu ^abcu. 
i^rlocrbet rr angenommeu ^abcu. 
fie n>erben n angenommen^^abtn. 



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§153,154.] 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



329 



CX)NDinONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

I would or should accept (it), etc, 

idf Joiirbe (c«) anttel^mett, or \6f na^me (e«) an (imperfect Subj.). 

bu tDilrbefl r; anne^men, *' bu na^meft n dU 
cr tt>ilrbc „ atinc^mcn, " cr na^mc „ an 

tDxx ttUrbcn „ onnc^mcn, " n)ir natmcn „ an 

i^r tt>ilrbct „ anncbmcn, *' i^r nSbmct „ an 
fte toilrben i, anne^men, '' fte na()men tf nn 

Perfect Tense, 
I would or should have accepted (it), etc, 

id} loiirbe (e«) angenommen ^alien, or x6) f^attt (c«) an8cnommen(P/.50 

bu toflrbcjl If ongcnommcn ifahm, " bu ^Sttcjl ,, angcnommcn 
er toilrbc „ angenommen ^abcn, ** cr ^dttc r^ angcnommen 
n)ir tt>iirbcn „ angenommen ^aben, " ton ^Sttcn „ ongenommert 
i^r tollrbet » angenommen ^aben, ** i^r^ttet „ angenommen 
fic tDilrben „ angenommen ^aben, " fie ^dtten rr angenommen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



t( it 
ti (( 
(t (( 



ttimm (bu) (cs) an, accept (it). 
ne^mc er „ an, let him accept 
(it). 



ncftmcn Wir (c«) an, let us accept (it). 
ncl^mct i^r ff an, accept (it), [(it). 
Uel^men flC „ an, let them accept 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, (e«) ausnnc^mctt, to accept I Perf (c«) angenommttt jn ^aben, to 

(it). I have accepted (it). 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres, (e«) amtC^mCttb, accepting I Perf (e^) angenommtn, accepted 
(it). I (it). 

§ 154. With Inseparable Compound Verbs: 

1. The prima7y accent falls upon the verb : 
^er*fley*en, to understand. Ueber*fe^'*en, to translate. 

£xc. With some verbs the prefix mi^ (§ 156, 7) is accented, as are all 
prefix nouns and adjectives except UoU» 

2. The prefix is never separated from the verb. 

3. The participial prefix %t' (§131) is not added. 

Exc, Compounds of nouns and adjectives (except tiott) take gC^^ 

4. With the infinitive, p precedes the verb, and is 
written separately. 



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330 THE VERB. [§ 154, 155. 

^5. The Inseparable Prefixes are: 

1. The particles U', tnU (C«HlO, Cr?, gC*, UU, JCt* (and mig')f 
which are always inseparable. 

2. The particles bnr^^ iidcr^ Itm^ IttttCr^ and tS^ltUt, when the piimaiy 
accent falls upon the verb (§ 151, 3). 

3. Some nouns and adjectives used as prefixes are inseparable (§ 151, 3> 

§ 155. The Inseparable Particles be, ent (emp), er, ge, ijer, 
jcr, are ohsolete jprepositions. They are used as follows : 

^ 1. 95C' expresses a more intimate relation to the ob- 
ject than the preposition bei, from which it is derived: 
53ei^ji^*cn, to sit near. ^Bc^fitj'^en, to possess. 

1. SCs forms transitive from many intransitive verbs: 

^t^^\\^'*iX[f to possess (from fi^cn, to sit). 

2. Prefixed to transitive verbs, it changes the relation of the verb to its 
object : 

)9aitme ^flanjcn : cine ©telle To plant trees: to plant & place with 
tnit ^aumen bt|)ffanseit; trees. 

3. It is prefixed to some nouns and adjectives in forming verbs : 

33c=*gaB'*cn, to endow. 53c*frci'*en, to set free. 

^ 2. ®ttt= (originally signifying against) usually denotes 

negation, conti'adiction, deprivation, or separation : 
Gnt'bed'cn, to discover. ©ntsge^'cn, to escape, 

gntslab'cn, to unload. Gtttsreig'cn, to snatch away. 

Rem, 1. It forms verbs by being attached to some nouns and adjectives: 
(Snt^JaiUlt'^cn, to behead. ent*f^urbig*cn, to excuse. 

Rem, S. (Ettt' sometimes denotes origin : 

gnt^jie^'cn, to arise from. (£llt*frring'*cn, to spring from. 

Rem, 3. It sometimes has the meaning of in (etn) : 
Gnts^alt^cn (in^altcn, cin^altcn), to contain. 

Rem, 4. Before f^ tHt is changed, for euphony, to tnt)! in the three verbs 
cm^fangcn, cm^)fe^(cn, cm^)finben. 

^ 3. St- usually denotes a motion outward or ujnoard: 
Gtsgicg'cn, to pour out. grs^eb'cn, to lift up. 

1. It sometimes denotes the passing to, or returning to a condition, 
in compounds formed from adjectives and verbs : 
(gr»riltycn, to blush. Sr^fcycn, to replace. 



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§155.] COxMPOUND VERBS. 331 

2, It frequently denotes acquisition by the subject : 

@r*bett'eln, to gain by begging. @r*rci(ft'cn, to attain to. 

V 4. ®C5 gives a modification of the meaning of most 

verbs to which it is prefixed ; it frequently indicates 

the duration or consequence of an action : 

®C*btau(i^'cn, to apply (Braud^cn, to need, use). 
@C*fteyen, to iidmit (flc^cn, to stand). 

V. 5. SScr- indicates primarily motion away: 

SStr*trci]6'en, to drive away, SJet^fftc^'cn, to flow away. 

1 . It frequently denotes loss^ errm^, spoiling^ destruction, end: 

9Jcr*f^Wenb'en, to waste, Scr*Mil^'en, to lose blossoms. 
ScMcit'cn, to mislead. SBcr^ge^r'cn, to consume. 

2. It sometimes denotes |?a56i/2^ to, or being placed in a condition, espe- 
cially when prefixed to verbs from nouns and adjectives : 

S3er*flott'crn, to idolize, deify. 8Jcr*anb'cr«n, to change. 
SBct*iiJaif'en, to make orphan. S)tr*benc^*n, to improve. 

6. 3^1= denotes se^aratmi^ dissolution^ or destruction : 
3ct*ftrcu'en, to disperse. 3ct*fatt'cn, to M into ruins. 

3Cf *i^ctg'^n, to tear in pieces. ^Cr*fc^|lag'cn, to break in pieces. 
Rbm, The Xxxseparable Particles have been developed as follows : 
Gothic; bi-, and-, us-, ga-, fair-, dis-, 
Old'Ger.; bi-, int-, ur-, gi-, far-, zir-, 
Mid.-Ger, ; be-, ent-, er-, ge-, ver-, zer-, 
New'Ger,; be*, cut*. cr*. gc*. locr*. get*. 

Obs, 1. For examples of compound verbs with bttt^^ f^iVitttp fiicr, UUttt, 
UVif and tDtebtt as separable and as inseparable prefixes, see Less. XXXV^, 
2. The two forms WXthtt (again) and toibCt (against) are employed to dis- 
tinguish the adverb from the preposition. 

Obs, 2. Inseparable compound verbs with nouns or adjectives as prefixes 
have the accent on the prefix and take gCs in the perfect participle: 

Mciftt'sfcrtigcn, to justify ; imp,, rcc^t'fcrttgtc ; per/. part., gcred^t'ferttgt. 

SJilltlJ'smagcn, to conjecture; " mut^^'magtc ; " " gemut^jmagt. 
Exc. Some compounds with Jjotts as prefix: looflgic^'en, to execute; 
part., toollgogcn* 

Obs, 3. The prefix llttfs (related to ntiffcn=<o miss) is always inseparable; 
it has the same meaning as the English prefixes mis-, ill-, dis-, des-. In some 
cases the accent is on the prefix mi^*, in others it is on the verb. In some 
cases ge? is omitted altogether from the participle; in others it is inserted 
before the prefix mi6* ; in others it is inserted between the prefix mig* and 
the verb; in some cases gts naay be employed or omitted with the same verb. 



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332 



THE VERB. 



[§ 156. 



§ 156. Conjugation of the Inseparable Compound 
Verb tierftel^en; to understand: 

Principal Parts: )^tx\it\tvi, ticrftanb'; ticrftanb'cii* 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, 



\^ lierftel^e, I understand, 
bu t>erf)e^fl, thou understandest. 
cr tocrftc^t, he understands. 
Xoxx t>crftc^cn, we understand, 
t^r i>crpc^t, you understand. 
pC t>crftc^cn, they understand. 



^ lierftel^e/ I understand.* 
bu t>erfte^eft, thou understandest 
cr t>crftC^Ct, he understands. 
XOXX t>crftc^cn, we understand, 
i^r t>crfte^ct, you understand, 
pc tocrftc^cn, they understand. 



Imperfect Tense, 



i^ lierftattb, I understood, 
bu t>crpanbft, thou understoodest 
cr tocrpanb, he understood. 
xoxx DerPanbcn, we understood, 
i^r Dcrftanbct, you understood, 
fic Dcrpanben, they understood. 



I have understood, etc, 

x^ y^tAt tierftanbett. 

bu ^afl berpatibcn. 
cr ^at bcrftanben. 
xoxx ^aBen bcrftanbcn. 
t(>r ^aBt bcrftanbcn. 
ftc ^abcn bcrpanbcn. 

I had understood, etc. 

t(^ \^Mt tierftanben. 

bu ^attejl bcrjianbcn. 
cr ^attc Dcrftanben. 
xoxx fatten bcrflanbcn. 
i^r ^attct bcrfionbcn. 
ftc fatten bcrflanbcn. 



i(^ tierftiittbe^ I understood, 
bu berftdnbcp, thou understoodest 
cr bcrfiaubc, he understood. 
XCtXX bcrflSnbcu, we understood, 
i^r bcrflSnbct, you understood, 
pc bcrftanbcn, they understood. 
Perfect Tense, 

I have understood, etc, 

\^ l^a^e tierftanbett* 

bu ^aBcjl bcr^anbcn. 
cr ^aBc bcrponbcu. 
xm ^abcn bcrftanbcn. 
t^r ^aBct bcrjlanbcn. 
Pc ^aBen bcrftanbcn. 
Pluperfect Tense, 

I had understood, etc, 

x^ Wit nerftattbeit^ 

bu ^attcp bcrjianbcn. 
cr iattc i)crpanbcn. 
xoxx l^Sttcn bcrpanbcn. 
i^r ^attct bcrpanbcn. 
pc fatten bcrjlanbcn. 
First Future Tense, 



I shall understand, etc. 


I shall understand, etc. 




\&f mxU tierfteiftem 


x&f mtU tierfteiftem 




bu njirp bcrpc^cn. 


bu iDcrbcp bcrfic^cn* 




cr njtrb bcrpc^cn. 


cr iDcrbc bcrpc^cn. 




xoxx tDcrbcn bcrpc^cn. 


xoxx iDcrbcu bcrpc^cm 




i^r wcrbct bcrpc^cn. 


t^r tt)crbct bcrpc^cu. 




pc tt)crbcn bcrpc^cu. 


pc njcrbcu bcrftc^cu. 





* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 156.] 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



333 



Second Future Tense. 
I shall have understood, etc, 

^ toerbe tierftanbett f^aUn* 

bu tt)trfl tjcrftanbcn ^abcn. 
cr tDtrb tcrjianbm ^abcn. 
»tr locrbm bcrponbcn ^abcn. 
i^r njcrbct bcrftanbcit ^abcn. 
flc »crbcn t>crflanbcn ^abcn. 



I shall have understood, etc 

xdf toerbe Herftanbett iaUn. 

bu trcrbcfl tocrjianbcn ^abcn. 

cr tDcrbc tocrjlanbcn ^Bcn* 

n)it iDcrbcn bcrftanbcn ^aben. 

t^r tt)erbct berftanbcn ialttu 

fic tDcrbcw tocrftanbcit ^abcn. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

I would or should understand, etc, 

i6) ttttrbe m\ttitn,or \6f iierftSnbe (iwper/, Subj,). 



bu iDilrbejl bcrpcf^cn, 
cr tt)ftrbc bcrpc^cn, 
toir njilrbcn bcrftc^cn, 
xi^x njflrbct bcrfte^cn, 
pc »ilrbcn bcrftc^cn, 



bu bcrftSnbcfl 
cr t>crfl5nbc 
tt)ir bcrftSnbcn 
i^r bcrftdnbet 
fic bcrftSnbcn 



Perfect Tense, 
I would or should have understood, etc, 

i^ ttfirbe iierftanbett l^abett^ or t(^ fiUtt m\tanhtn {Piup, Sub,}. 

bu ttJilrbcp bcrfianbcu ^abcn, " bu ^Sttefl bcrjianbcn 

cr iDflrbc bcrflanbcn ^abcn, ** cr ^fittc bcrjianbcn 

tt)ir wilrbcn bcrflanbcn ^abcn, " tuir ^Sttcn bcrfianbcu 

ijr tt)ilrbct bcrponbcn ^abcn, ** i^r ^Sttct bcrflanbcu 

ftc iDilrbcn bcrflanbcn ^abcn, " fic ^Sttcn bcrjlanbcn 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Herftel^e (bn), understand. 
lirtftClie cr, let him understand. 



HerftelftCtt to\x, let us understand. 
tlCrftC^t t^r, understand you. 
lierMcn pe, let them understand. 



INFmmVE MOOD. 
Prcs. Herfletett, to understand. I Per/, tietftattbett f^attU, to have un- 

I derstood. 

rABTICIPLES. 
Prts, Unfletetlb/ understanding. | Per/, Uttflaitbeit, understood. 



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334 THE VERB. [§ 157. 

^ § 157. There are two classes of Doubly-compounded Verbs: 
1. Those having as prefixes Sepa/rahle Compound Par- 
ticles (mostly compounded with bd, \^tXf l^ln, and tior) : 
baftei' (there-by) ; ileiitn, to remain ; bttllCi'MciiCtt, to persist in (it), 

ba^cr' (there-hither); fa^ircn, to drive ; ba^cr'fa^ircn, to drive along, 
ba^cim' (there-thither) ; Bringen, to bring ; ba^in'bringcn, to bring tharei 
banie'bcr (there-down) ; ttjcrfcn, to throw ; banic'bcrtt)crfcn, to prostrate, 
baran' (there-on) ; fctjcn, to place ; baran'fetjen, to hazard, 

baretn' (therein) ; fc^cn, to see ; bareiu'fc^cn, to look into. 

ieraft' (hither-down) ; Ittff tM, to let ; ^Ctaft'laff eil, to let down, 

^cran' (hither-to) ; fommen, to come; ^cran'fommcn, to advance, 

bcrauf (hither-up) ; BUcfcn, to look ; Berauf blicfcn, to look upwards. 
^erau8' (liither-out) ; gic^cn, to draw; I^ctauS'^tc^cn, to draw out. 
^erbci' (hither-near) ; rufcn, to call ; bcrbct'rufcn, to call near, 
herein' (hither-in); hffcn, to let ; bcrein'laffcn, to admit, 

^cril' bcr (hither-over) ; tommcn, to come ; ^cril' bcrf ommcn, to come over, 
^crum' (hither-around) ; flc^cn, to go ; ^cnim'gc^cn, to go around, 

^crun'tcr (hither-under) ; iic^men, to take ; berun'tcrnc^mcn, to take down. 
^ert)or' (hither-fon^'ard) ; ^eBcn, to lift ; t>^r\)or'^cbcn, to make prominent 

um^cr' (around-hither) ; treibcn, to thrive ; wmOcr'trcibcn, to roam idly about 
>lnab' (thither-down) ; fajten, to drive ; ^ittab'ffll^tCn, to travel dowTi. 
binon' (thither-up) ; fommen, to come ; r;tnan' fommen, to get near to. 
Ijiinauf (thither-up) ; flc^cn, to go ; bmauf gc^en, to go up. 

^inau«' (thither-out) ; fc^en, to see; btnau^'fc^cn, to look out. 

jincin' (thither-in) ; gc^cn, to go ; ^inein'ge^cn, to enter, 

^inil'bcr (thither-over); fa^ren, to drive; binil'berfa^rcn, to cross over, 
binwcg' (thither-away) ; jd^rcttcn, to stride ; ^nWeg'fd^reitcn, to stride away, 
^ingu (thither-to) ; ffigen, to join ; ^inju'filgen, to add to. 

llOran' (before-to) ; f^itfcil, to send ; Uorau'f^ltfeil, to send ahead. 

t>orau«' (before-out) ; fagen, to say ; l)orau6'ttt9C"r to predict, 
tjorbei' (before-by) ; fasten, to drive ; l)orbei'fa^ren, to drive past. 
t>or^er' (before-hither) ; je^ien, to see ; tjor^er'fc^en, to foresee, 

tooril'bcr (before-over) ; eilen, to hasten ; l^oril'bcrcilen, to hasten past. 

B.em, The compound separable particles are placed after the verb in the 
same way as simple separable particles (§ 150, 2) : 

@^ fiing urn bie Sf^auern i^ttViVX, He went around the walls. 

2. Verbs having prefixes compounded of (simple or 
compound) separable with inseparable prefixes, as : 
an'^er; crfcn'ncn, to recognize; an'erfcnncn, to acknowledge, 
toor^ct'^cr ; erfen'nen, to recognize; l^OT^cr'erfcnncn, to recognize beforehand. 
Rem. 1, The first of these particles is separable: 
er crfannte t^ m, He acknowledged it. 

(Sr crfannte i^n Horl^cr^ He recognized him beforehand. 



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§158,159.] REFLEXIVE VERBS. 335 

Bern, 2. Some verbs thus componnded drop the first prefix, however, when 
the position of the verb in a sentence would require the separation of the par- 
tide from the verb : 

SBa9 mx6) auhtttl^t, As far as it concerns me. 

(but) @d betrifft nti(^ m6)t. It does not concern me. 

Rem, 3. Some verbs which are formed from nouns and adjectives with a 
simple prefix have the appearance of being doubly compounded : 
35erab't($eucn, to detest, abhor (from ber W>']6)m, the horror), 
©cur't^cilen, to judge, foi-m an opinion of (from ba« Ur't^cil Judgment). 



6. REFLEXIVE VERBS*^ 
(SttrfitfJicIciibc StUMtttx.) 
§ 158. The number of verbs that are used only reflex- 
ively is much larger in German than in English, as : 

3(^^ htfxmt m!*, I remember. Ssi) fe^ttC Vtl^, I long. 

ReiH. 1. The reflexive use of transitive verbs also is much more extensive 
than in English ; many verbs take a modification of their meaning when 
thus used reflexively, as : 

3d| Uerlaffe mt(( auf i^n, I rely upon him (Herfaffett^ to leave, abandon). 

3^ Crimiere mi* barauf, I remember it (crittHertt, to remind). 

5^ frene Wllft barauf, I rejoice at it (frcntll, to make glad). 

Rem, 2, Some transitive verbs used reflexively require the reflexive pronoun 
to be in the datwe instead of the accusative case, as : 



fi(( anma^ett/ to assume. 

t, CtllWlben, to imagine. 



M \^tati6itin, to flatter one*s self. 
t, Horftettett/ to imagine. 



Rem, 3. Some intransitive verbs also are used reflexively, without change 
of meaning: 

S^ cUc (or Cile ittlft), I hasten. 3c^ na^C (or Wtt^e tttf (J), I approach. 

y Rem, 4. Transitive verbs often take a reflexive instead of a passive form : 

2)cr $immcl hthtdt f!(( mtt SQSolfcn, The sky is covered with clouds. 

§ 159. The Reflexive Verb ^<tf freneil, to rejoice: 

INDICATFVB MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, 



^ frene tn!*, i rejoice. 

bu freufi bi((^ thou rejoicest 

er freut {!(^, he rejoices. 

Xc\x frcitm un^, we rejoice. 

\\)X freut cn(^, yon rejoice, 

(ic frcucn fid|, they rejoice. 



^ freue m\^,l rejoice* 
bn frcucjl Ui^, thou rejoicest. 
cr frcuct fir^i, he rejoices. 
xcxx freucn un^, we rejoice, 
t^r frcuet cuft, you rejoice, 
fic frcucn ftft, they rejoice. 



bee Subjunctive Mood. 



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336 



THE VERB. 



[§i5a 



Imperfect Tense, 



^ freittC tnt*,I rejoiced, 
bu freutefl bi(^^ thon rejoicedst. 
cr frcutc ^^, he rejoiced. 
Xoxx frcutcn nn^^ we rejoiced, 
ibr frcutct Ctt(^^ you rejoiced. 
|ic frcutcn |i4, they rejoiced. 



\^ frcncte 
bu frcuctcfl 
cr frcuctc 
tt)ir frcuctcn 
i^r frcuctct 
fic frcuctcn 



m\^f I rejoiced. 
hxtS^p thou rejoicedst. 
ft(^|, he rejoiced. 
Un§p we rejoiced. 
enrft, you rejoiced. 
P^f thgy rejoiced. 



Perfect Tense, 



I have rejoiced, etc, 

xdf itade mi4 gefrent* 

bn ^afi bi^ gefrcut. 

cr bat ft4 gefrcut. 

to)ir ^abcn ttii^ gcfrcnt. 

i^r ^abt en4 9efrcut. 

ftc ^abcn ft^ gefrcut. 



I have rejoiced, etc, 

xdf l^abe mi4 gefreitt 
bu ^abcfl bi(( gcfrcut. 
cr ^abc {!(^ gcfrcut. 
n>tr i^aUn m^ gcfrcut. 
t^r ^abct en(^ gcfrcut. 
fic ^abcn (i^ gcfrcut 



Plvperfect Tense. 



I had rejoiced, etc, 

\6i (attc vx\^ gefrent* 

bu ^attcp U^ gcfrcut. 
cr ^attc {t4 gcfrcut, 
Xoxx fatten nn^ gcfrcut. 
i^r ^attct eu^ gefrcut. 
ftc fatten ft4 gcfrcut. 



I had rejoiced, etc 

\^ l^atte mid^ gefrent 

bu ^attcfl bi(( gcfrculf' 

cr ^Sttc {i(4 gcfrcut. 

tt>ir fatten nn^ gcfrcut. 

t^r ^attct ent^ gefrcut. 

fic fatten ft^ gcfrcut^ 



First Future Tense, 



S 



I shall rejoice, etc, 

x^ toerbe ntit^frttten* 
bn n)tr{i bi(^ frcucn. 
cr n)irb fi(4 frcucn. 
totr wcrbcn nn^ frcucn. 
i^r n>crbct ett(( frcucn. 
ftc njcrbcn {t(( frcucn. 



I shall rejoice, etc, 

x^ tterHl' mi(^ freneit^ 

bu tt)crbcjl bt(^ frcucn. 
cr iDcrbc 'Prft ircucn. 
tt)tr tt)crbcn irn^ pf&icn. 
i^r n?crbct ttt^ ftcucn. 
fic njcrbcn fi(^ frcucn. 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall have rejoiced, etc, 

i^ toerbc nti(( geftettt l^ateit. 

bu ttJtrfl bi^ gcfrcut ^abcn. 
cr tcirb ft(( gcfrcut l^abcn. 
tt>ir njcrbcn ttlt^ gcfrcut l^abcn. 
ibr tvcrbct ent^ gcfrcut ^abcn. 
ftc tt)crbcn fld^ gcfrcut ^abcu. 



I shall have rejoiced, etc, 

xdf tterbe mi4 geftent (aioio 

bu njcrbcjl bi^ gcftcut ^abcn. 
cr tocrbc fx^ gcfrcut ^obcn. 
toxx tt)crbcn ttlt^ gcfrcut ^abcn. 
i^r wcrbct Ctt(( gcfrcut ^abcn. 
ftc tocrbcn fi^ gcfrcut ^obcn. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 159, 160.] IMPERSONAL VERBS. 337 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

I would or should rejoice, etc. 

\6i ttiirbe mit^ freueit, or \6:f freuctt wtt^ {imperfect Stibj.y 

bu iDflrbcfl bi4 frcucn, " bu frcuctcfl bi4 " ** 

cr iDftrbc ft(^ frcucn, ** cr frcuctc fid^ ** " 

tt)tr iDflrbcn m^ frcucn, *' n)tr frcuctcu ntt^ *' ** • 

i^r wilrbct nt^ frcucn, " i^r frcuctcn en^ " ** 

lie tt)tltbcn Pdft frcucn, " fic frcuctcn \\^ ** ** 
Perject Tense. 
I would or should have rejoiced, etc, 

\^ ttiirbe mid^ gefteiit i(alieit, or xe^mit tnit^geftcnt (PL Sub,), 

bu tDflrbcflMt^ gefreut .^abcn, " bu^SttcflMift gctrcut 

cr tt)flrbe fi(ft gcfrcut l^aBen, ** cr ^ttc fx^ gcfreut 

»ir Mrbcuung gcfrcut ^abcn, " »ir ^Sttcn uu^ gcfrcut 

i^r njflrbct tndf gefrcut ^aBen, ** t^r^Sttct ttt^ gcfrcut 

fie wilrbeu Pd( gcfreut ^abcn, *' fic ^fittcn fiiS^ gcfrcut 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



frClte (bu) bl*, rejoice thou. 
frette er fllft, let him rejoice. 



frCltCIt tt)lr mi^, let us rejoice. 
frCltet(iW CUrft, rejoice ye. 
frenCtt fic flt^, let them rejoice. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, f retteil fl*, to rejoice. I Per/, fi^ gcfrcttt f^aitU, to have 

I rejoiced. 

PARTIOIPLEa 
Pres. f{d( frenenb, rejoicing. I Per/, ft^ gefteut; rejoiced. 



7. IMPERSONAL VERBS. ^ 
(Ximt\Mi<Sit 3eit)oiirter0 
§ 160. Verbs which express natural phenomena are 
impersonal, having the pronoun ti {it) for their nomi- 
native : 

(S@ bonnert, it thunders. (Sd f^nctet, it snows. 

Hem, 1. Some intransitive verhs are used impersonally, the logical subject 
of the verb being put in the accusative or dative case; in such cases t§ is 
often dropped if another word opens the sentence : 

(&9 friett xnx6^ or m\6f friert, I feel cold, (but id) fricrc, I am frecz- 
(&9 man^tU i^m on 9li^td, or i^m He hicks nothing. [ing). 

tnattgelt mdt;t@, 

(but) 6r Ittattgelt boaren ®clbc8, He is in need of ready money. 

P 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



838 



THB TEBB. 



[§ 161. 



Rem, 2. The passire and reflexive foim of many active verbs are frequentlj 
used impersonally: 

(2^9 tDtrb 'oxti babon gerebet, Much is said about it. 

^ier toirb nid)t gcrauc^t, "Smoking is not allowed here." 

(Sd frSgt ^^f ob — It is questionable whether — 

Bern, 3. i&i is often used exphtively (like the English expletive there): 

^^ brennt etn $au9, there bums a house (for ein $au9 brennt, a house 
is burning). 
Rem, 4. {gi ^ebt, etc., is frequently used for ti \% fUlb/ etc. (§ 107, 5). 

C« gicbt bide ficute, bic— • There are many people, who— 



8. THE PASSIVE VOICE. 
(3)it ^affibfom bn SeittoiJrtcrO 
§ 161. Conjugation of the Passive Voice of the tran- 
sitive verb Heficn, to love (§ 134) : 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 


Present Tense. 


I am loved, etc. 


I am loved, ete.* 


\^ toerb^c geliebt 


t(^^ toerb^c gelfebt 


bu toirft gclicbt. 


bu tt)crb*eft geliebt. 


cr ttirb (jcliebt. 


cr »erb*c geliebt. 


toir iDcrb^en gcUcbt. 


totr n>erb^ett geliebt. 


i^r »crb*et gcftcbt. 


i^r »crb*rt geliebt. 


|tc n)crb*eil gclicbt. 


fie n)crb*cii geliebt. 


Imperfei 


H Tense. 


I was loved, etc. 


I was loved, etc. 


\^ ttitrb^c eeliebt 


i(^ ioiirb^e geliebt 


bu n)urb*eft gclicbt. 


bu wilrb*' eft geliebt. 


cr tt)urb*c gclicbt. 


er toilrb*e geliebt. 


n)ir tt)urb*eil gcUcbt. 


tDtr tt)llrb*eil geliebt. 


i^r tourb^et gclicbt. 


ibr njflrb^et geliebt 


fic tourb-en flcltcbt. 


fic tt)ilrb*eil geliebt 


Perfect 


Tense. 


I have been loved, etc. 


I have been loved, etc. 


\^ Hilt geliebt loorbctt* 


i4 fei geliebt iDotbei. 


bn Hift geliebt iDorbeit* 


bu fei* eft geliebt iDOtbeiu 


er ift geltebt loorben* 


er fei geliebt ttorbett^ 


tDtr finb geliebt ttotben* 


tt)ir fci*cil geliebt mxU%* 


i^r fefb fleliebt ttorbctt* 


t^r fei^et geliebt ttorbCH* 


rte ftnb geliebt ttorben. 


fie fei^^eu geliebt toorbett. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 161.] 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



339 



PlAperfect Tense, 



I had been loved, etc, 

\^ toar geltebt toorbem 
bu loarlt geliebt toorben^ 
et toot geltebt ttorbeit^ 
tvir n> a r " en geUebt toorbett* 
i^r it>ar*t ficUebt toorbcn^ 
fic it>ar*cii gelicbt ttorbcm 



I had been loved, etc, 

\^ toiir^e gelicbt toorben^ 
bu tD & r « eft geliebt loorbem 
et n)5r«e geltebt toorbeit* 
toir tufir^eugcUebt lowbem 
i^r n)cir*et gcUcbt )O0rbeit« 
fic »Sr*en gciicbt loorbem 



Fint Future Tense, 



I shall be loved, etc, 

t^ toerb^e oeliebt loerbeit* 
btt ttirft ficUcbt tterben^ 
cr ttirb gcticBt tterben^ 
toir tDcrb^eu QelicBt toerben* 
tr;r tt)crb>et gcUcbt toerbem 
fic tt>ctb*eii QcUcbt toerben^ 



I shall be loved, etc, 

t(^ toerb^e oeliebt uierben* 
bu tt)crb*eft gcltcbt tterben* 
cr tijcrb*e gclicbt toerben^ 
xovc tocrb^eu gcliebt tnerbem 
i^r wcrb^et QcUcbt teerben* 
fic tt)crb*eii geltcbt toerbeii* 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been loved, etc, 

\^ mxU geliebt loorbett fein* 

bu iDcrbcjl gelicbt tt>orbcit fetii* 

cr iDcrbc gcUcbt toorbcn feiit* 

xoxx tt)crbcn gcUcbt ttjorbcn (ein* 

t^r iDcrbct gcliebt tt>orbcn feim 

fic wcrben gelicbt toorbcit feiii* 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 
I would or should have been loved, etc 

x^ toiirbe geliebt toorbett feitt* 

bu tDilrbcjl gelicbt tuorbcn feiu* 

cr tt)ilrbc gelicbt tt)orbcn fein* 

wir njflrben gelicbt iDorben fein» 

i^r iDilrbet gelicbt tDorben feilt* 

fic Mrbcn gcliebt toorfccn feiii* 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

feien xc\x geliebt, let ns be loved, 
feib (i^r) geliebt, be (you; loved. 

feieu fic geliebt, letthembeloved. 

iNFmrnvE mood. 
Pres, geliebt tteeben, to be loved. | Per/, geliebt tooeben feiii, to have 

been loved. 



I shall have been loved, etc, 

x^ toesbe geliebt toorben feim 

bu tt>irfl gcliebt ttTorbcu feitt* 

cr tt?irb geliebt worbcu feiil^ 

»ir tt>crbcn gelicbt ttjorbcn feitt* 

ibr njerbet gelicbt tt>orbcn fein^ 

fic iDcrbcn gelicbt worbcn feill* 



Perfect Tense. ^ 
I would or should be love^eic. 

idf toiirbe geliebt toerbett. 
bu njilrbcfl geliebt toerbem 
cr tDilrbe geliebt loerbem 
wir tt)ilrbcn gcliebt toetbeu* 
ibr wilrbet geliebt tterbeu* 
fic toilrbcu gcliebt tterben^ 



fei (bu) geliebt, be (thou loved). 

fei cr geliebt, let him be loved. 



Pres. 



PARTICIPLES. 

I Per/, geliebt, loved. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



340 TBE VERB. [§ 162, 163« 

9. POTENTIAL VERBS. 
($iiIf^$etttoiirter M mnhn^O 
§ 162. The Potential Verbs (called by German gram- 
marians the AtcosUiaries of Mode) are foQen, tOOHett^ Uvi^ 
ntn, miigen, bilrfen, miiff en* They are used only to limit 
or qualify the meaning of the infinitive of independent 
verbs (§120,3): 

@r mitl bad ^u^ lefen, He must read the book. 

Rem, 1. The limited or qualified independent verb is often understood: 

(it ifOt e@ d^^^S^ ^® ^Qs compelled to do it. 

Bern, 2, The Potential Verbs are inflected in all the moods and tenses like 
independent verbs, with the exception that tOOttttt alone is used in the im- 
perative mood. 

Eem. 3. In the compound tenses the participial form is employed only 
when the independent verb is omitted; when it is not omitted, the infinitive 
fi)rm of the potential verb is used instead of the participial form : 

(Sr f^at bad ^ud) (efen tttiiffttt, He was compelled to read the book, 
(but) (Sx ^at t» gemit^t^ He was compelled (to do) it. 

Hem, 4. They all belong to the seventh class of irregular verbs (§ 143-1 45> 

Rem. 5. All Potential Verbs but f ottett and ttoKett take the umlaut in the 
imperfect subjunctive. 

Rem. 6. The Potential Verbs have been developed thus : 

Gothic; skulan, viljan, kunnan, magan, thiiarban, motan, 
Old-Ger.; scolan, wellan, chunnan, mugan, durfan, muozan, 
Mid.-Ger. ; suln, wellen, kunnen, miigen, dtirfen, muezen, 
New-Ger.; foUcn, xooUm, fiJnncn, tnogcn, bilrfcn, mflffcn, 
(English); (shall), will. can. may. (dare). must. 

§ 163. The verb foDett indicates: 

1. Moral obligation or duty: 

(gr f olltc c« t^un, He ought to do it. 

SBtr f^atttn ed t^un foSett/ We ought to have done it. 

2. Obligation, duty, or necessity (usually dependent 

upon the will of another) : 

2)u fottft^ott betnen^erm lieben Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 

toon ganjcm ^crgcn, with all thy heart. 

3)icfc gur^t fott cnbigcn (@(^.) ! This fear shall end I 

%n metner ^ufmerffamfeit foK C9 There shall be no lack of attention 

nic^t f c^Icn, on my part. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 164.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



341 



3. A report, rumor, or general impression : 
* (Sr fott fe^t franl fcin, They say he is very sick. 

@r foil im ))orig6u Sa^re xiad) He is supposed to have gone to 
Slmcrifa ficgangcn frin, America last year. 

JRem, 1. @Offttt is used in many hypothetical and conditional sentences : 
©ic \dUtU CLVi6f nod) fo rctc^ fcin — Shotdd they be ever so rich— 
SBcun cr morgcn Jierben fottte— If he should die to-morrow— 

Rem, 2. @oSett is sometimes employed to express in past time an action 
that was beginning when another action took place : 

S)a8 $fcrb foffte tbm tocrfauft The horse was just to be sold when 
ircrbcn, ba fiarb t9, it died. 

Bern, The independent verb (as t^un, gc^cn, bcbcutcn) is often understood : 
SBaS f ott x^ ^icr ? What shall I (do) here ? 

@0tt bic %f)iix auf obcr ju? Shall the door stay open or shut ? 

SBogtt f ott ba« ? What is the use of that ? 

3)a« ^at cr QCfoKt, He ought to have done it. |\^ 

§ 164. Conjugation of the verb foQeit^ 

Hem. The Translation to be given to the Potential Verbs varies greatly 
according to circumstances, as is seen in the remarks on f oS(tt* The defiui* 
tions ^ven in the paradigms are therefore to be understood simply as being 
among the more usual ones. 

Principal Parts: foDcn^foDtC, flefoDt f 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense, ' 



i^ fofff 
cr fott, 

i^r foUKc)t, 

fic forr*eii, 



I ought 
thou oughtest. 
he ought, 
we ought, 
you ought, 
they ought. 



t^ foKsf, I ought.* 
bu foil* eft, thou oughtest. 
cr toH*e, he ought. 
Xoxx foU^eit; we ought, 
t^r foU*ct, you ought. 
fiC foU^CIl, they ought. 



Imperfect Tense, 



t^ \i&4tr I should, 
bu \t>l\*it% thou shouldest. 
cr \ti\\*itp he should, 
toir \ii\\*itXif we should, 
i^r foU^tet, you should, 
fic foH'ten, they should. 



\^ WAt, I should, 
bu foil* tefl, thou shouldest. 
cr fo H^te, he should, 
loir f n * ten, we should, 
tjr fo I(*tet, you should, 
fie f n * teU, they should. 



♦See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



342 



THE VERB. 



[§164; 



Perfect 
I have been obliged, eic^ 

t^ tato gefottt (or fotteit). 

tu ^afl gcfottt ( " fottcn). 

cr ^at gcfoUt ("fatten;. 

tt)ir ^aBcn gejoUt ( " foUcn). 

i^ir ^aM flcfoUt ("foUcn). 

flc ^al6cn (jcjottt ( " foUcn). 



I have been obliged, etc, 

i* ijaftt gcfottt (or fottenX 

bu ^ft'&cfl ficfoUt (**fottcn). 

cr ^abc gcfoUt ("joUcn). 

l»ir ^abcn gcfoUt ( " joHcn). 

i^r ^abct gcfoUt (" fottcn). 

fic ^abcn gcfollt C* fottcn). 



Pluperfect Tense, 



I had been obliged, etc, 

t<^ IJflttt gCfoKt(orf0tteil)* 

bu ^^cfl gcfoUt ( " fottcn). 

er ^attc gcfoUt ( " foUcn). 

tt)ir fatten gcfoUt (*' foUcn). 

t^r ^attct gcfoUt ( " foUcn). 

fic fatten gcfoUt ( " fottcn). 



I had been obliged, etc, 

x^ Wit gefottt (or foncn)» 

bu Ofittcfl gcfoUt (** foUcn)- 
cr ^attc gcfoUt (" foUcn). 
xoxx fatten gcfoUt C* foUcn), 
i^r ^attct gcfoUt (" foUcn> 
fic ^Sttcn gcfoUt (" foUcn> 



Pint Future Tense. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

\6i toerbe fottett^ 

bu »irfl foUcn. 

er njtrb foUcn^ 

XQvt »crbcn "foUcn. 

i^r tocrbct foUcn. 

ftc tt)crben foUcn. 



I shall be obliged, etc, 

\^ toerbe fottcu* 

bu iDcrbcfl foUcn. 

cr »crbc foUcn, 

tt)ir tt)crbcn foUcn. 

t^r tocrbct foUcn* 

ftc ttjcrbcn foUcn. 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been obliged, etc, 

\^ ioerbe oefoUt l^aien^ 

bu n>trft gcfoUt ^o]^. 

cr toirb gcfolD^abcn. 

totr njcrbcn gcfrfU ^abcn, 

i^r n>crbct gcfoUt ^abcn. 

fie tDcrbcn gcfoUt ^abcn. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

i(4 ttcrbc gefoUt iftabett. 

bu njcrbcfl gcfoUt ^bcu. 
cr njcrbe gcfoUt ^abcn. 
xoxx njcrbctt gcfoUt ^abcn* 
i^r tocrbct gcfoUt ^ito* 
ftc n>erben gcfoUt ^obcn* 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I. would or should be obliged, etc, 
i(iff toilrbC fottcn, or ^ Wit (imperfect SubjuncHvt\ 
bu »ilrbcfl foUcn, " bu foUtcfl 
er »ilrbe foUcn, " er foUte- 
xm tDflrbcn foUcn, ** n>ir foUten 
i^r njftrbct foUen, ** i^r foUten 
flc »ttrbcn foUen, ** flc foUten 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§ 1<>4-166.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 343 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or should have been obliged, etc, 
x6f ttiirbC %t\0UtfiaUn,or X^ f^dttt it\dUt (Pluperfect Svbj.). 
btt Mrbcfl gcfottt ^ahm, " bu ^attcfl gcfoflt 
cr tDilrbc gcfottt ifahtn, " cr ^Sttc gcjottt 
xoix tt)ilrbcn gcjottt ^abcn, " Xoxx ^ttht gcjottt 
i^r toilrbct gcjofit ^abcn, ** i^r ^Sttct gcfottt 
pc toilrbcn gcfottt ^abcn, " pc fatten gcfoUt 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, foOeil, to be obliged. I Perf gcfottt 5^6^^ ^ ^^yq been 

I obliged. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. f oQettb; being obliged. | Perf fltf oHt, been obliged. 

§ 165. The Potential Verb tooflcil usually signifies tozl- 
liiiffTiesSy incUnatiorijdesirey intention^ or detennination: 
@r toill nici^t mit un« ge^en, He is not willing (or does not wish) 

to go with us. 
3^ tttO gleldfi ge^en, I will go immediately. 

@ie !5nnen t^un toad @ie lOOSeit^ You may do what you like. 
Rem. 1. SSJotttn frequently denotes that an action is about to take place : 

!S)ie U^r toottte ebett fd^iagen, The clock was about to strike. 

Rem, 2. It may bo used to indicate that an assertion has been made by 
another person : 

(Sr toill ben ^ometen, n>e(^er tt* He asserts that he has already seen 
Wartct ttJirb, Won gcfc^cn ^abcir, the comet that is expected. 
Rem. 3. The independent verb is often omitted : 
2Ba« toollett @ic (^bcn) ? What do you wish? 

9Ba« ^ot cr getOOttt (or ^abcn tt)0l* What did he wish ? 
Icn)? 

§ 166. Conjugation of the verb ttofictl (5^^ § 164,5m.). 
Principal Parts: tooOcit, ttoOte, getooQt ' 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

i(^ tOOUst/. I am wiUmg.* 



vii la\% I am willing, 

bu toittft/ thou art wilUng. 

er loiK, he is rolling, 

toir tt>oi(*eil, we are willing, 

ibr »on*(e)t, you are willing, 

flc n) 1 ( « ettf they are willing. 



bu tDOlI^eft, thou art willing, 

cr WoK^e, he is willing, 

toir tooK^cn, we are willing, 

ibr tt)ott*tt you are willing. 

fiC XOnU^tXif they are willing. 



' See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



844 



THE VERB. 



[§166 



Imperfect Tense, 



\^ lOOtfstt/ I WAS willing, 

bu kPoIUttft^ thou wast willing, 

er »ott*tC, lie was willing, 

toit »ott*teil, we were willing, 

t^r n>olI4ct/ yoa were wilfing. 

fie tt)ott*tCll, they were willing. 



id) ttO]I4(^ I was willing, 
bu toott'teft, thou wast willing, 
er tuoU^'tC/ he was willing. 
XCiXX tt>ott*teil, we were willing, 
i^r tooMet, you were willing, 
pc »ott4tll, they were willing. 



Pei/€c< Tcaje. 



I have been willing, etc, 

\^ (oi^e getoolU (or toollen). 
bu l^afl getvottt (" tDottcn). 
er l^at gctoottt C* tDottcn). 
iDtr ^bcn gcttoottt (" gotten), 
i^r ^abt gctt)oIIt (" ttoottcn), 
fic ^<^Bcn ftctt>ottt (" Gotten), 



I have been willing, ttc, 

i(^ %^t ge)o0ttt (or ttoHenX 
bu ^abcjl fiCtt>ottt (" iDotten). 
cr ^abc gctooKt ("gotten), 
toir ^abcn gcti>ottt (*' toollcn). 
i^r b<i^ct gctoottt (" tDottcn). 
fic ^obcn gctt)ottt (" toottcn). 



Pluperfect Tense, 



I had been wiDing, etc, 

i^ ^attc geioottt (or toottetiX 
bu ^attcfl gctt)ont (" tt>ollcn). 
er l^attc gttroHt (" Gotten). 
iDtr fatten gemollt 
i^r ^attet getDottt 
^e fatten getocttt 



(" tDoKcn). 
(" n>oltcn). 
(" tooUen). 



I had 

i^ (Stte 

btt ^^ttcfl 
cr ^5ttc 
toir ^Stten 
i^r ^Sttet 
fie i^tten 



been willing, ttc 

getoattt (or tootten> 
gen>ottt (" »)oHen> 
genjollt (*' tooHen). 
gctooUt (" tooffeii> 
gctoollt (" tooIten> 
gcwottt (" »otten> 



First Future Tense, 



J shall be willing, etc, 

\^ ttcrbe mVivx* 
bu n>irp tt>otIen. 
er toirb Gotten. 
tt)ir n>crben tooHen. 
i^r tt>erbet WoIIcn. 
fie toerben tooUen. 



I shall be wOfing^ etc 

i^ »erbe loottem 
bn toerbefl woKen* 
er toerbe JDoKen* 
nnr twrben tooKen. 
i^rn>erbet woHen. 
fie kperben iDoICen* 



Second Fvtwre Tense. 



I shall have been willing, etc, 

id^ 4onbe geioom l^atett. 

bu tmrjl getoottt ^en. 
er tt)irb getDottt ^obeu. 
tc\x n>erben gen>olIt ^ben« 
i^r toerbct getoollt ^ben. 
^e iDerben getoottt ^em 



I ^lall have been willing, etc. 

i^ toetbe 0etoom iftobeiu 

bu tDerbejl ge»oKt ^jabeu. 
er twrbc getuoltt l^ben. 
ttjir toerben gewoHt ^aben* 
ibr werbct getoottt baBcn. 
fie tt)erben gewollt i^^ltvu 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 166, 167.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 345 

CONDinONAIi MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would or should be willing, etc, 
i^ tottrbt mUtUf or ic^^ mUit ilmp&rfect Subjunctive). 
bu j»ftrbc|l wottcn, " bu toolltcjl '* 
tt toftrbc tooUtn, " cr tootttc " 

n)tr tt)flrbcn njottcn, ** toir wofltcn " 
i^r tt)ilrbct Gotten, " t^r iDoUtct " 

flc tDilrbcn wottcn, " fie tooUtta ** 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or should have been willing, etc, 

\6f loiirbe geiooSt l^ateit, or t(^ l^iittc getoottt (P/tiji. ^ui/.) 

bu »ftrbcflQC»olIt \)ai>m, *' bu ^attejl getuoKt 

cr tt)ilrbc gctt>ottt ^aben, *' cr ^ttc gctuottt 

U)ir tt>ilrbcn gcwottt ^abcn, " tt)tr ^fittcn flcwoUt 

t^r wilrbct gctoottt ^abcn, " i^r ^ttct gcwoHt. 

flc toilrbcn gcwottt ^abcn, ** pc ^Sttcn gcwottt 

IMPEBATIVE MOOD. 



»0ttC (bu), be willing. 
tDOHC cr, let him be willing. 



ttOHeittDir, let US be willing. 
mtUt (t^r); be willing. 
tOOOtIt fie, let them be willing. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. mUtn, to be willing. I Per/, gdO0St ioittt, to have been 

I willing. 

PABTICIPLE8. 
Pires. mUtnh, being willing. | Per/, gttOOSt^ been willing. 

§ 167. The Potential Verb loiweil indicates : / 

1. Moral or jphysical j>08sibility : 

@r fault Icfcn unb f^rcibcn, . He can read and write. 

2. A concession or contingency: 

@tc Kuuen nti^ crtuartcn, You may expect me. 

S^ laxOi ntid) gctrrt ^abcn, I may have been mistaken. 

3. The independent verb (as tl^uit, fagcn, Icfcn, fpred^ctt^ 
Derjlel^en, etc) is frequently omitted : 

S35a« fonu i^ bafflr (t^un) ? How can I help it? 

3(^ fonu uid^t kDCttcr, I can do nothing more. 

@r ^at cd gctoollt, abcr cr ^at cd He wished (to do) it, but he was not 
Uiti^t gelOUUt, able (to do) it 

P2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



346 



THE VERB. 



L§ 168, 



§ 168. Conjugation of Umtn (see'^ 164, Hem.) : 
Principal Parts: loniicn; f onnte; flclonilt* 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

i^ farm, i can. 

bu Irum^Pf thou canst, 

er faint/ he can. 

tovc !5mt«eit/ we can. 

i^r f«5nn<e)t, you can. 

fie fSrin^en, they can. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 

x6f finn^t, I can.* 
bu fStm^tft, thou canst, 
ct f5nn*e, he can. 
tt)ir V6mi*tUf we can. 
\i)X fSnn^et, you can. 
fie !8nn*eil, they can. 

Imperfect Tense. 



\^ IWXMf I could, 
bu ! n n « teft^ thou conldst. 
er lonit'te, he could, 
toir \tiXiVi*Xv\f we could, 
t^r lotin*tCt, you could, 
fie Ionn*tCll, they could. 



i^ XimAtp I could, 
bu f5nn>teP, thoucouldst. 
er !8nn*te, he could, 
ttjir f3nn*ten, we could, 
i^r fSnu^'ttt^ you could, 
fie ISnU'teil, they could. 



Perfect Tense. 



I have heen ahle, etc. 

\^ ialie geloHitt (or liittitenX 

bu ^afl gefonnt (" fJJnnen). 
er ^at gefonnt ('* fiJnnen). 
toir ^al6en gefonnt ('* f5nnen). 
i^r l^abt gefonnt (" !8nnen). 
fie ^al6en gefonnt ('* f5nnen). 



I have been ahle, etc. 

i^ >a*e gefonnt (or ijiintciiX 

bu ^abcfl gefonnt (" fdnnen). 
er ^aBe gefonnt (" I5nnen). 
xixx l^ai^en gefonnt (** fSunen). 
i^r ^abet gefonnt (*' VbxmtvCy, 
fie ^aben gefonnt (" fSnnen). 

Pluperfect Tense. 



I had been able, etc. 

\^ iattc ocfonut (or fJnneu)* 

bu ^attefl gefonnt (" fiJnnen). 

er ^atte gefonnt (" f^nnen). 

totr fatten gefonnt (" fSnnen). 

i^r ^attet gefonnt (" fSnnen). 

fie fatten gefonnt (" fSnnen). 



I shall be able, etc 

\^ loerbc fbnnen. 

bu toirfl fSnnen. 
er toirb fSnncn. 
i&r toerben fiJnnen. 
fie tt)crbct fBnnen. 
n>ir loerben f^nnen. 



I had been able, etc. 

^ ^tttte ficfonnt (or fiimtcnX 
bu l^fittefl gefonnt (" fSnnen). 
er l^Stte gefonnt (" ISnnen). 
xoxx ^fitten gefonnt (** f^nnen). 
i^r ^Sttet gefonnt (" fSnnen). 
fie ^dtten gefonnt ('* Wnnen). 
First Future Tense. 

I shall bo able, etc. 

\^ toerbc fiinnen. 

bu toerbcfl f5nnen. 
er loerbe fbnnen. 
n?ir njcrben fUnnen. 
i^r toerbct fSnnen. 
fie loerben fSnnen. 



* S«e Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 168, 169.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



347 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been able, etc, 

\(if tocrbe gelonnt l^aBen* 

bu totrfl getomtt ^oben. 

cr wirb gcfonnt ^abcn. 

n>ir tocrbcn geloimt ^abcn. 

i^r n>erbet getonnt ^aSen. 

Pc tocrbcn gcfonnt ^abcn. 



I shall have been able, etc, 

\(if toerbe ^tUmtiaUiu 
bu tocrbefl gclonnt ffobau 
cr tocrbc gelonnt ^abcn. 
tt)ir toerben gelonnt ^abcn, 
i^r toerbct gelonnt ^aben* 
fie n>erben gelonnt ^abeiu 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would or should be able, etc, 
l^ lOllrbC iimtn, or {6} iinntt (Imper/ect Subjunctive), 
bu toflrbejl I5nnen, ** bu Wnntejl " 
cif toflrbe Wnnen, '* ct I6nntc ** 

n)ir toflrben Wnnen, " xoxx ISnnten ** 
i^r toflrbet Wnnen, ** i^r I6nntet " 
fie tottrbenWnnen, " flc I5nnten ** 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or should have been able, etc, 

i6} Mtht gelomit JaBcu, or \(if fittt ^tUnnt (PI Subj.j, 



bu toilrbefl gelonnt f^ahtn, 

er tvilrbe gelonnt ^aben, 

ton toilrben gelonnt ^aben, 

i^r tvflrbet gelonnt ^aben, 

fte tvilrben gelonnt ^aben, 



bu ^Sttefi gelonnt 
er if&ttt gelomtt 
n>tr ^Stten gelonnt 
i^r ^attet gelonnt 
fte fatten gelonnt 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Pres. Timtn, to be able. 



Per/, gelonnt iaitn, to have been 
able. 



PAETICIPLES. 
Pres, IBnnenb, being able. | Per/. QClOnnt/ been able. 

§ 169. The Potential Verb miigett indicates: / 

1. Permission or concession (like may in English): 
2)u ntagft ge^en. Thou majst go. 

<Sr ntag ein to^^feret ^olbat feut, (I concede that) he may be a brave 

soldier. 

2. Desire or liking (especially in the imperf. subj.) : 

3(^ mid^te n>iffen, I should like to know. 

WUHit ed t>06) Qt\^tffttl, Oh, that it might happen! 

3c^ ^o.U tS ni^t t^un ntiigen, I did not like to do it. 

3^ ma^ ed i^m xd^t {agen, I should not like to say it to him. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



348 



THE VERB. 



[§ 170. 



§ 170. Conjugation of WOgett {see § 164, i?^: 
Principal Parts: mSgett^ moj^te, gemoj^t. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



t^ mag^ I may. 

bU tnagft^ thoumayst. 



er mag, 



he may. 



tt>ir xai^^tVi, we miay. 
i^r tn8g*(e)t, you may. 
tic Jn5g*eil, they may. 



\^ VCii%^tf I may.* 
bu mi5g«c|tf thoa mayst 
cr m8g*e, he may. 
tt>ir Jni5g*Ctt^ we may. 
i^r mfig^^et, you may. 
fie mSg^eil, they may. 
Imperfect Tense. 



\6i mO$4e, I might, 
bu mod^^teft/ thou mightest. 
er ino(^*te, he might, 
totr jnoi<tett, we might, 
i^r mo(^4et, you might, 
fie mo&i*itn, they might. 



ic^^ ]nii$«te, i might. 

bu mBd^4eftf thoa mightest^ 

er vXii^itf he might. 

tt)tr ui54*tCtt, we might, 

i^r ni54*tetf you might, 

fie xx&ii4tVL, they might. 



Perfect Tense. 



I have heen permitted, etc, 

t(^ (aBe gemo4t (or miigeit). 

bu l^ajl 0emo(!(^t (" uiSgen). 
cr iat ficmo^t (" ui3gcn). 
tt)tr ^aBcu gcmo^t (" mSgcn). 
i^r l^aBt gemoiit (*' m^gcn). 
fie ^aBcn gcmo^t C' uiSgcn). 



I had heen permitted, etc. 

\^ l^otte gemo^tCormiigeiiX 

bu ]^attc|l gempd^t ("w«^9^n)« 
cr ^attc ^mt^i ("uiSgeii). 
toir fatten gemod^t (" mBgcn). 
i^r l^attct gemo^t ("mSgcn). 
fie l^atten gemod^t (" ni5gcn). 



I have heen permitted, ett. 

\^ (aBe 0em0$t(orm0genX 

bu l^abcfl gcmod^t (" m5gen). 
er iabc gcmod^t (*' tnBgen). 
n>ir iaben gemo(J^t (" mSgcn). 
i^r iabet gemo(J^t (" mSgen). 
fie ^aben gcmo^t (" ni5gen). 

Pluperfect Tense. 

I had heen permitted, etc. 

i^ l^iitte gem04t(ortit9ge]tX 

bu ^attcfl gcmo^t ("mbgcn). 
cr iSttc gcmo*t ("m5gen). 
n>lr fatten gcmo*t (" mSgen). 
i^r iSttet gcmo(J^t ("tnSgen). 
pc fatten gcmod^t ("mSgcii). 



First Future Tense. 



I shall Jbe permitted, etCn 

\(i) mtht mHtn. 
bu toirfl tniJgcn. 
cr njirb tnSgen. 
njir njcrbcn mbgen. 
i^r tt)erbct mbgen. 
fie ttjcrben mSgcn. 



I shall be permitted, etc. 

\6^ toerbe miigeit^ 

bu toerbcji mSgen. 

cr toerbe uiJgcn. 

toxx tt)crbcn miJgcn. 

i^r toerbct mSgen. 

fie tt)crbcn ni6gcn. 



' See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 170, 171.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 349 

Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been permitted, etc, 

\(if mtht oemo(^t Ijaiben. 
bu tt)irjl gcmo^t f)abtn, 
er n>trb gemod^t ^6en. 
tt)tr ivcrbcn gcmo^t ^abcn. 
i^r n>erbct gcmo^t ^abcn. 
jlc »crbcn gcmo^t i)cAtn. 



I shall have been permitted, etc, 

i^ mxht ^mo^tHUn. 

. bu tDcrbejl gcmod^t i)abm, 
cr tt>crbc gcmod^t i^abm, 
xoxx toerbcn gcmo^t ^aBcn. 
i^r jDcrbct gcmo^t ^aBcn. 
fic »erben gcmo(]^t l^ai^ciu 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would or should be permitted, etc, 
\^ tofirbe mifitn, or \(i) tnS^te {imperfect Suljunctwey 
bu tt)ilrbc|l mSgcn, " bu m»^tc|l " *' 

CT »iltbc mSgcn, " cr ni5d^tc " " 

n>ir toilrbcn ni8gcn, " toir m6dt^tcn " " 

i^r toilrbct tniJgcn, " i^r mS^tct '* " 

fic tt)ilrbcn tniJgcn, " flc tnS^ten " " 

Perfect Tense, 
I would or should have been permitted, etc. 

t^ loUrbe gemo($t l^ai^en, or ^ mxt %tvx^i^i {Php.Suh,'). 

bu Mrbcjl gemod^t l^abcn, " bu ]^5ttc|l gcmod^t " ** 

cr toilrbc gcmo^t l^aBcn, " cr ^fitte gcmod(^t " " 

tt)ir wilrbcu gcmod^t l^aBcn, " wir l^Sttcu gcmo^t *' " 

i^r toilrbct gcmo(i^t ^abcn, " i^r ^Sttct gcmo^t ** " 

tic toilrbcn Qcmo^t ^abcn, *' fic ^fittcn gcmod^t " " 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, miigeil; to be permitted. I Perf, geittO^t IJaJttt, to have been 

I 'permitted. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres, mBgeub, being permitted. | Perf gtmo^t, permitted. 

§ 171. The Potential Verb bilrfetl indicates: / 

1. Permission (by law, or by the will of another) : 
3cbcnn(mu Imrf SSaffcn tragcn, Every body can (legally) bear arms, 

obcr nid^t jcbcr barf baS Silb but not every body is permitted to 
f^icgcu, shoot wild game. 

Scfet bttrft i^r f^ictcn, You may play now. 

Rem, With a negative bUrfCtt is usually translated by ^^must {not"):^* 

$icr biirfen @ic nid^t raud^cn, You must not smoke here. 

2. Durfcn sometimes has the signification of " to take 

the liberty ^^ " to dare ;" 

(Er barf nid^t fommcn o^nc tic Sr* He dares not come without the per- 
lauBnifi fcinc« ^atcr3, mission of his father. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



350 



THE VERB. 



[§ 171, 172. 



3. It sometimes has the signification of may or can: 
2Bir Mirfen auf unfcrcn SBrubcr We may be proud of our brother. 

flolj fein, 
Jarf ^ mi^ barauf \)crla(f en ? Can I rely upon that ? 

4. The imperfect subjunctive often signifies: 

1. A logical possibility : 

C^d biirf te ie^t )U f)>dt fein, It may now be too late. 

2. It may be used as a polite manner of making a statement under the 
form of a hypothesis : 

@d biirfte ni^t fci^toer fein, bad It might not be hard to prove that. 
nad;jutt)ctfcn, 

5. The independent verb is often omitted : 
@r l^at Xixifi audge^en biirfeit^ He did not dare go out 

(but) (Sr ^at e9 nic^t gebltrf t, He did not dare (do; it. 

§ 172. Conjugation of bfirfeu («^ § 164, Bem)\ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, 



t^ batf^ I am permitted, 

bu batfsfl/ thou art permitted, 

cr bdtf, he is permitted, 

toir bitrf^tn^ we are permitted, 

i^r bilrf*( t)t, you are permitted, 

fic bilrf *CII^ they are permitted. 



X(f) Mitf^C^ I am permitted.* 
bu b il r f * e(l, thou art permitted, 
er bilrf^e^ he is permitted. 
toxx bflrf^tn^ we are permitted, 
i^r bitrf« tt^ yon are permitted, 
fie bitrf'tttf they arepermitted. 



Imperfect Tense, 



i^ btttf4e^ I was permitted, 
bu burf*teft, thou wast permitted, 
cr burf^tt^ he was permitted, 
voir burf'ttll/ we were permitted, 
i^r b u r f * ttt^ you were permitted, 
{te burfi'tCn^ they were permitted. 



\d^ biitf^tCf I was permitted, 
bu b d r f « ttft, thou wast permitted, 
er biirf'tt/ he was permitted. 
n>ir b ft r f * ttU, we were permiued. 
i^r bitrf «tttf you were permitted, 
fte b il r f « ttU, they were permitted. 



Perfect Tense. 



I have been permitted, etc. 

i^ f^aU gebntft (or biirfen). 

bu f)a\t geburft (" bttrfcn). 
er l^at geburft (" bflrfcn). 
tt)tr ^abcn geburft (** bilrfcn). 
i^r ffaU geburft (" bilrfen). 
fic ^aBen geburft ('* bflrfcn). 



I have been permitted, etc, 

i(if f^dbt geburft (or bilrfeii). 

bu l^abcfl geburft (" bilrfen). 
er ^abc geburft (** bflrfeu). 
toir ^aben geburft (" ^^x^ta). 
xhx ^aBct geburft (** bflrfen). 
fie tiaben geburft (" bilrfen). 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 172.] 



POTENTIAL VEEBS. 



351 



Ph^erfect 
I had been peimitted, etc, 
id? Wtt 0CbJirft(orMltfCttX 
bu ^attcfl gcburft (" bilrfcn). 
cr ^attc geburft (" bilrfcn). 
»ir fatten geburft (" btttfcn). 
i^r ^attct gcburft (" bUrfcn). 
pc fatten gcburft C' bilrfcn). 



Tense, 

I had been permitted, etc. 

t^ ftiittc geburft (or bUrfeti)* 
bu ^fittcjl gcburft (" bilrfcn). 
cr ^fittc gcburft (" bilrfcn). 
xoxx fatten gcburft (*' bilrfcn). 
i^r ^Sttct gcburft ( " bilrfcn). 
fic ^^attcn gcburft (" bilrfcn). 



Firtt Future Tense, 



I shall be permitted, etc, 

vii toerbe bttrfen. 
bu tt)ir|l bilrfcn. 
cr toirb bilrfcn. 
toir njcrbcn bilrfcn. 
t^r tocrbct bilrfcn. 
fic tocrbcn bilrfcn. 



I shall be permitted, etc, 

id? lowbc biirfctt* 
bu tocrbcfl bilrfcn. 
cr tocrbc bftrfcn. 
»ir ttjcrbcn bilrfcn. 
i^r tocrbct bftrfcn. 
ftc iucrbcn bilrfcn. 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall hare been permitted, etc, 

i^ toerbe geburft iftaiben^ 

bu tt)irfl gcburft ^abcn. 
cr toirb gcburft l^abcn. 
xoxx tocrbcn gcburft ^aBcn. 
i^r tocrbct gcburft ^abcn. 
Pc tocrbcn gcburft ^abcn. 



I shall have been permitted, etc. 

i(if toerbe gebnrft (aben^ 

bu tDcrbcp gcburft ^abcn. 
er tccrbc gcburft ^abcn. 
tt)ir tocrbcn gcburft ^abcn, 
\t)x tocrbct gcburft ^abcn. 
fic tocrbcn gcburft ^abcm 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

I would or should be permitted, etc, 

i(^ tOilrbe bilrfett^or x6f Mrfte {Imper/ect Subjunctive), 
bu bilrftcfl 
cr bilrftc " 

ttjir bilrftcn " " 

i^r bftrftct " ** 

fic bflrften 

Perfect Tense, 

I would or should have been peimitted, etc. 

i* toilrbe geburft Jaben, or ic^ ^iitte geburft (Pluperfect Subj.). 

■ -— ' bu l^attcfl gcburft " ** 

cr ]^5ttc gcburft *♦ *' 

XCAX batten gcburft " ** 

it>r tiSttct gcburft *' " 

fic fatten gcburft 



bu toftrbcjl bftrfcn, 
er toilrbe bilrfcn, *' 
n)ir ttJilrbcn bilrfcn, ** 
i^r toilrbct bilrfcn, " 
fic toflrbcn bilrfcn, *' 



bu toilrbcfl gcburft (labcn, 
er toilrbe gcburft ^aBcn, 
toir toftrbcn gcburft ^abcn, 
i^r toilrbct gcburft ^abcn, 
fic toilrbcn gcburft babcn, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



852 



THE YEBB. 



[§ 173, 174. 



INFINITIVE MOOD, 

Prei. biirfett/ to be permitted. I Perf, gcbltrft ^aBtll, to have been 

I obliged. 

PAETICIPLE8. 
Pres. Vk\tV^, being pennitted. | Perf. ^tHx\i, pt^nnitted. 

§ 173. The Potential Verb mttffen corresponds in signi. 
fication with the English verb mif^t. 

Rem. It indicates physical^ moral, or logical necessity, and in other tenses 
than the present indicative it most be rendered bj such circumlocutions as 
to he obliged to, to be forced to, to have to, 

§ 174. Conjugation of the verb miiffett {see § 164, liein.): 

Frinoipai Parts: mitffen, mn^tt, gcmugt 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

\6) ItUtg; I must, 

bu nt U g » t^ thou must, 
er mug, he must 

toxx mil n* en, we must, 
i^r milff*(e)t,you must, 
fie m il f f * en, they must. 



Present Tense. 



i(^ raiiffse, I must.* 
bu mtiff-e(l, thou must, 
cr mllff-e, he must. 
\mx milff*en, we must, 
i^r miljf*et, you must 
pe milff«»en/ they must 



Imperfect Tense. 



id) mngte, I was obliged, 
bu mugtefl, thou wast obliged, 
er mufitc, he was obliged, 
toir mugtcu, we were obliged, 
i^r mugtct, you were obliged, 
fie TOUgten, they were obliged. 



\^ ntiilte, I was obliged, 
bu mUgtefi, thou wast obliged, 
er milgte, he was obliged. 
tt)ir milgten, we were obliged, 
i^t milgtet, you were obliged, 
fte mUgten, they were obliged. 



Perfect Tense. 



I have been obliged, etc. 

\(i) H^t gemugt (or miifftn), 

bu tiafl gcmugt (" milffcn). 
er i)at gcmugt (" milffen). 
tt)ir ^abengemugt (** milffen). 
i^r ^abt gemugt (" milffen), 
fte ^abcn gemugt (" milffen). 



I have been obliged, etc. 

i^ l^aibe otnttt|t(ormiiffen)« 

bu l^aBefl gemugt (" milffen). 
er ifobt gcmugt (" milffen), 
xoxx ^aben gemugt (" milffen). 
iftr l^abet gcmugt (" milffen). 
fie ^aben gemufit (" milffen). 



* See Sul^junctive Mood, § 124, 



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§n4.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



353 



Pluperfect 
I had been obliged, etc, 

x(i) %attt gemnPCorntiiffeit). 

bu ^attcfl scmufit (" mflffcn). 
cr iottc gcmugt (" milffen), 
toir fatten gcmugt (" miiffcn). 
x\)t ^attct gemufit ('* miiffcn), 
fie l^ottcn gemugt (" milffen). 



Tense, 

I had 

bu tiattefi 

cr ^5ttc 

n)tr ^Stten 

ijr ^attct 

fte fatten 



been obliged, etc. 

gemngt (or miiffen). 

gcmugt (** miiffcn). 
gemufit (** miiffcn). 
gcmugt (" mOffcn). 
gcmugt (" miiffcn). 
gemugt (" miiffcn). 



First Future Tense, 



I shall be obliged, etc, 

xdf mtht miiffcn^ 

bn toirfl miiffcn. 
er tt)irb miiffcn. 
toir tocrben miiffcn. 
i^r tocrbct milffen. 
fie toerben milffen. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

i^ mxH miiffen* 

bu tocrbcfl milffen. 
er toerbe milffen. 
»ir toerben milffen. 
i^r toerbct miiffcn. 
fic »crben milffen. 



Second Future Tense, 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

i^ loerbe gtmn#t (aBen^ 
bu n>trfl gemufft l^aben. 
er tmrb gcmugt ^abcn. 
toir toerbcn gcmugt ^aben. 
i^r tocrbct gcmugt ^aben. 
pc tocrbcn gemugt i^aUiu 



I shall have been obliged, etc, 

x(if mtht gemnft iai^en^ 

bu tocrbefl gcmufk fiabcn. 
cr ttJcrbe gcmugt (KiT6cn. 
tt)ir ttjcrbcn gcmugt ^aben. 
xi)V^ tocrbct gemugt ^abcn. 
fie toerben gcmugt ^aben. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense, 
I would or shoald be obliged, etc, 
t^ iDiirbe mfiffen, or i^ Wfigte {imperfect Subjunctive). 
bu toilrbcfl milffen, " bu milgtcfl 
er toilrbe milffen, " er milgtc 
tt>ir toilrbcn milffen, ** toir milgten 
t^r toilrbct miiffcn, ** i^r milgtct 
fic toflrbcn milffen, ** fie milgtcn 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or should have been obliged, etc, 

i* toBrbe gemuftt ^aBeu, or ^ l^Mt ficraugt {Pi Sub.). 



bu toilrbejl gcmugt ^aben, 
er tcftrbe gcmugt ^aben, 
n>ir toftrben gemugt ^aben, 
i^r toilrbct gcmugt ^aben, 
fic toiirben gemugt ^aben, 



bu ^fittcfl gcmugt 
er ^fittc gemugt 
tDtr ^dtten gcmugt 
ibr l^dttct gemugt 
fie ^dttcugcmugt 



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354 THE VERB. [§ 175-177. 

iNFmrnvE mood. 

Pres, miiffen, to be obliged, etc. I Perf, gtmilgt ^aJfll; to have been 

I obliged. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. WfijfCttb, being obliged. | Perf, %Vm^t, obliged. 



10. SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 

§ 175. The verb agrees with its subject in person and 
number : 

6r ge^t tia(3^ bcr @tabt, He is going to the city. 

Exc, ] . The pronouns e^, btt^/ iXt^ (bieft^); ^0, aOc^, when nsed indef- 
initely as the subject of the verb, do not control the number or person of 
the verb : 

3(^ bin C«, @tC fittb C8, it is I, it is they. 

2)ad {tnb tneine Dtid^ter (^^0/ Those are my judges. 

SBcfcntU(Jj^c gc^Icr btcfe^ (2c(f.), Important mistakes these. 

Exc. 2. Courtly and official titles, though in the singular (as SWajcflfit, 
©o^cit, Sarccttcrij), have a plural verb : 

(Suer 2Jlaj[cflSt gctu^cn, Your Majesty is graciously pleased. 

Rem, 1. When, of two or more subjects in different persons, one of them is 
in the first person, the verb should be in iihe first person plural: 

2)u, bcin S3ruber unb i^ njollcn Thou, thy brother and I, will (i. c, 
(wir ttjottcn) f^)agicrcn gc^cn, we will) take a walk. 

Bjem, 2. When one subject is in the second and the others are in the third 
person, the verb should be in the second person plural: 

2)u, betn S3ruber imb bctnc @^tt)C* Thou, thy brother and thy sister, 
per fcib (i^r fcib) cingelabcn, are (t. e., you ^re) incited. 

§ 176. Some verbs, that are transitive in English, and, 
as such, govern the objective case, are rendered by in- 
transitwe or reflexive verbs in German, and govern the 
genitive or dative case (§ 178, 179). 

§ 177. The following verbs govern tlie Accusative Case: 
1. All transitive verbs (§ 118, 1 ; § 83, 1) : 

(Sr Heft bad 8u(^, He reads the book. 



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§ 177.] SYNTAX OP THE VERB. 355 

2. Verbs used in expressing weighty measurey costy 
time wheriy and time how long : 

(gg baucrtc CittCn XaO, it lasted a day. 

(S8 toicgt ettt $funb, It weighs a pound. 

^otSbam Ucgt liter SWcilCtt i?on Potsdam lies four (Geiinan) miles 
33erfin from Berlin. 

(g« !o|ict CinCll Scaler, it costs a thaler. 

(gr !ommt btCfCtt Slbtttb, He comes this evening. 

Rem, 1. When the time of the occurrence of an event is particularly speci- 
fied, it is put in the accusative case; when it is indicated in a general way, it 
is put in the genitive case: 

St lommt biCfCtt W}tnh, He comes this evening. 

dx lommt oft ht^ S92ot0ttt^/ He often comes in the morning. 

Hem, 2, The accusative case is used (mostly in connection with such ad- 
verbs as CttKanO/ l^incutf^ ^ttdh) to express the direction given to the action 
indicated by the verb : 

(gr ge^t ben Serg (tttaitf, He goes up the mountain. 

3. Many impersonal verbs, as : 

2)ilrf!cn, to make thirsty. angc^en, to concern, 

pungent, to make hungry. jammcrn, to grieve, 

fricrcn, to make cold. tocrbricgcn, to vex. 

fd^ISfcrn, to put to sleep. f(3^mcrjcn, to pain, 

frcucn, to make happy. tounbcrn, to sui-prise. 

€^ friert mi^^ l am cold. g^ tOUnbert mt(^, it surprises me. 

4. The reflexive pronouns of most reflexive verbs is 
put in the accusative case : 

3^ ftcue mid^, I rejoice. @ic frcuen fl^, you rejoice. 

Rem, 1 . Some intransitive and impersonal verbs are sometimes used with 
a transitive signification, taking an object in the accusative case : 

St ging fetneil SBcg, He went his way. 

(g« rcgnct @tettte. It rains stones. 

(gr tocintc btttCtC SJrStteil, He wept bitter tears. 

Rem. 2. The verbs (t(tttt and fragCtt may govern two accusatives, one of 
the person, the other of the thing: 

(gr Ic^rtc mt^ bic 3J2ufif, He taught me music. 

S)aS fragc id^ bt(Jj^, I ask you that. 

Rem, 3. The verbs WXWX, ^CfgCtt, fftCltCtt, Wm\tVl, tCltfCtt, govern 
two accusatives, both referring to the same person or thing : 

(gr ttanntc m&i fcincn greunb, He called me his friend. 
2)a« nennjl bu arbcttcn ? Do you call that working ? 



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356 



TOE YEBB. 



[§ 178. 



Rem, 4. For verbs governing the acctuativt and genitive cases see § 178, 2: 
for those governing the accusative and dative see § 179, 2. 

§ 178. The following verbs govern the Gejiitive Case: 
1. The following intransitive verbs: 



Sld^tcn, to regard, 
bebilrf en, to need, 
bcgc^^ren, to desire. 
brau(^cn, to want. 
flefcrau(^cn, to use. 
gcbcnlcn, to think, 
benfen, to think, 
entbe^ren, to do without, 
cmtongcln, to fail 
3)a8 SBcib bcbarf in ^cgc«n6t^cn 

etc ft)ottcn mdnet, ^rinj ! 



entratben, to do without, 
flcniegcn, to enjoy. 
gcfd^tt)cigcn, to pass by 

in silence, 
gctoa^reu, to observe, 
fatten, to wait upon, 
lad^cn, to laugh, 
lo^nen, to reward, 
tnangetn, to fail. 



^Pcgcn, to foster. " 

fc^^oncn, to spare. 

f^otten, to mock. 

tocrfc^Icn, to fail. 

toergcffcn, to forget. 

ira^rcn, to guard. 

tt)a^mc^mcn,to observe. 

toaltcn, to rule. 

toartcn, to attend. 
In the horrors of war woman needs 

a protector. 
You deride me, prince! 



Rem, 1. Of these verbs only enttattgelll and 0ef(|lOef0en are used exclu- 
sively with the genitive case. The others were also formerly used only with 
the genitive case, and are yet used with it in poetry and other dignified styles 
of composition. They are at present, however, generally used as follows : 

1 . Transitively y and followed by the accusati-ve case (the verb generally 
receiving a different signification when used transitively from that which 
it has when used intransitively): 

Gincr SJcIefbf gnng tocrgcffcn, To forget (intentionally) an injury. 

(EtttC aaJre^SaJI Dergeffen, To forget the number of a year. 

2. Or they are used intransitively and are followed by certain prepositions, 
which govern their appropriate cases, as : bentcn (gcbcnfcn), by oit; adj^ten, 
l^arren, »alten, by attf ; la^cn, gotten, toaltcn, by liber : 

SBer ber ®t\^t f^ottct, gebentt Who scoffs at danger is mindful of 
iirerf bertva^reJ^elbaberbentt it; but the true hero does not 
gar nid^t an bit @ef a^r, think at all of danger. 

^He lad^en iibet feint S^orl^eU, All kugh at his foUy. 

Retn. 2. The verbs fcf tt; ttetbett, leBcn, ftCtbcn, bCrtletftCtt, arc followed 
by the genitive in some expressions, as : 

^6^ bin htt SDIeinnng/ bog — I am of the opinion that- 

(Sr flarb eined ^IS^^Ud^en ^obe^^ He died a sudden death. 

2. The following transitive verbs require, in addition 
to the accusative of the person, the genitive of the thing : 
Slnflagen, to accuse. befc^cibcn, to inform. etiaffcn, to discharge, 
bele^rcn, to inform. befd^ulbigen, to accuse. criebtgen, to release, 
berauben, to rob. be3ci^cn, to accuse. cntlaffcii, to free from 

bcridj^tcn, to inform. cntbinbcn, to free from, cntlcbtgcn, to free from. 



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§ 178.] 



SYNTAX OP THE VERB. 



357 



cntBIiJgen, to strip. 
cnt^ebcn,to exonerate, 
cntflciben, lo disrobe, 
cntlaben, to disburden, 
cntfcfecn, to displace. 
cnttDo^ncn, to wean, 
frcif^rcd^cn, to acquit, 
gema^nen, to remind. 

cntBlnbcn, 
Tlan f}at i^n M ^nH^HXtatf^^ 



Io6frrc^cn, to acquit, 
tna^ncn, to remind, 
ilbcrfil^ren, to convict, 
ilber^cben, to exempt, 
ilbcrtoeifcn, to convict, 
ilbcrjcugcn, to convince, 
tocrjagcn, to drive out. 
tocvflagcn, to accuse. 

Nothing can fiee him from his oath. 

They have chaiged him with high 
treason. 



J)erji(j^rn, to assure. 
tocttrSJicn, to delude. 
i)crtt)cifcn, to banish. 
tt>ilrbigcn, to deem worthy, 
jei^en, to accuse. 
(and others.) 



angcKagt, 

Rem. 1. Some of these verbs maybe followed by the dative of the person 
and the accusative of the thing (§ 179, 2) : 

Stt^ tocrfid^ere \6^ ^l^neil^ I assure you of that. 

Rem. 2. The genitive is often replaced by a preposition (as Dott, \xbttf 
Qttf^ dVO, which is followed by its appropriate case : 

9{i^td !anm i^n feitted @^n?ur9 Nothing can release him from his 
(or toon fcincm @^tt)ur) entbtnbcn, oath. 

Rem. 3. If the verb is placed in the passive voice, the genitive construc- 
tion still remains unchanged: 

(St tourbe ht^ $0(^Den:at|^ onge^ He was chained with high treason, 
flaflt, 

3. The following reflexive verbs take, in addition to 
the reflexive pronoun in the accusative, a complement- 
ary object in the genitive: 



^Ic^ atimajjcn, to assume. 

f, annc^mcn, to take interest (in)- 

tf Bebcnlcn, to deliberate (ujwn). 

,, Bcbiencn, to use. 

tf beflcigcn, to apply (to). 

ft Bcf(d6tgcn, to apply (to). 

t, BcgcBcn, to forego. 

,; "htm&^^Qtn, to master. 

,/ Bcmetficnt, to master. 

n Bcfd(^cibc«, to acquiesce (in). 

,f bejinnen, to recollect. 

ff entSugcrn, to renounce. 

I, tathxt^fm, to forbear (from). 

f, cnt^altcn, to refrain (from). 

I, tnt\6)taQtn, to get rid (of). 

,; cntfinncn, to recollect. 

V, crbarmcn, to pity, bo merciful. 



@t(^ crfrcwen, to rejoice (at). 

tf crinncrn, to remember, 

tf crlil^ncn, to venture. 

t, erwc^rcn, to ward off. 

tf frcucn, to rejoice (at). 

„ getrSficn, to hope (for). 

tf tiljmen, to boast (of). 

tf f^tocu, to be ashamed (of). 

tf trSficn, to console one's self (for). 

„ ilbcr^icBcn, to take pride (in) 

,, unterfangcn, to attempt. 

tt unterflc^cn, *' *' 

„ untcrtoinben, " ** 

-r tocrgctt)iffern, to ascertain. 

„ toermcff en, to boast (of). 

tt toerfe^cn, to expect. 

rf tcrji^crn, to assure (of^. 



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358 



THE VERB. 



[§ 179. 



/ 



@i(3^ i)ertt)unbem, to wonder (at). @i^ wunbcrn, to wonder (at), 
w n?eigern, to refuse. (jand others.) 

S)er @ered^te erbarmt \vi) feints The just man is merciful to his 

mt\^t^, beast. 

C^r tann ftd^ !aum te^ Sa^tlt^ He can scarcely keep from laughing, 
ent^olten, 
Rem, After many of these verbs the genitive case may be replaced by a 
preposition (as OH, ttttf, lldCt): 

2)u barfft btd(^ beiner SSalftl(or Thou needest not be ashamed of thy 
fiber bcinc 5B3a^I) nid^t f(!(|5racn, choice. 

§ 179. The following verbs govern the Dative Case: 
1. Many (simple and compound) intransitive verbs: 



^e^nelH; to resemble, 
banfen^ to thank, 
bienen, to serve, 
broken, to threaten. 
flu(i^, to curse. 
folgcn, to follow. 
fllci(!^cn, to resemble, 
belfcn, to help. 



mangcin, to fell, 
na^en, to approach, 
nil^cn, to serve, 
^aff en, to fit. 
f(^aben, to injure, 
f^etnen, to seem. 
\iimtdtaf to taste, 
fleuem, to tax. 



3(J^ban!c3JitCtt^ft#, 
SBtr folgen i^ burd^ bm SBalb, 



trauen, to trust, 
trofecn, to defy, 
nje^rcn, to ward off. 
iDeid^en, to yield, 
tvinten, to hint, 
giemen, to become, 
giimen, to be angry. 
(and others.) 

I thank you with all my heart. 
We follow him through the forest. 



entflegenge^en, to go to- tnifitrauen, to distrust. 

ward (to meet). nacj^a^men, to imitate, 

entgcgcniommcn, to come iiacJt^eifcni, to rival. 

to meet. na^|le^en,tobe inferior to. 

cntf^red^cn,to correspond, na^flettcn, to waylay, 
eriiegen, to succumb. untcrlicgcn, to succumb. 



/Slbl^clfeit, to remedy, 
anl^angen, to adhere, 
auffallen, to strike. 
au«^clfen, to supply, 
begegnen, to meet, 
bclommen, to agree, 
bcifatten, to occur, 
beijle^en, to assist 
einfotten, to occur, 
cntpie^en, to escape, 
cntge^en, to avoid. 

S)a« bat mfr fe^r gefatten, 

(5« if! ntiir eben toorgcf ommeu, 

2. Many (simple and compound) transitive verbs gov- 
ern, in addition to a direct object in the accusative 
case, an indirect object in the dative case : 
S3orgen, to borrow. taffen, to leave. tnelben, to announce, 

bringen, to bring. lei^en, to loan. itc^men, to take, 

gebcn, to give. licfcrn, to deliver. raiiben, to rob. 

Ilagen, to complain. lo^ncn, to reward. f agcn, to say. 



gefalten, to please. 
ge(i0rcn, to belong. 
ge^or(!(|en, to obey, 
gelingen, to succeed, 
migfancn, to displease. 



toorge^en, to outstrip. 

v?orfommen, to occur. 

totberf^red^cn, to contm- 

gubiJrcn, to listen to. [iict. 
{and others.) 
It pleased me very much. 
It has just occurred to me. 



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§ 179, 180.] SYNTAX OP THE VERB. ' 359 

f^fcn, to present. flc^Icn, to steaL ga^len, to pay. 

\6}idm, to send. totiQtxn, to refuse. gcigcn, to show, 

fi^reil^, to write. n>ibmen, to dedicate. (and many others.) 

dx hxa6)tt mix ben S3ncf, He bronght me the letter. 

^^ \^xdtt i(m bad ^ndf, I sent him the book. 

^an vmUt il^nt bad @e(b, They robbed him of his money. 

3(bgeBcn, to deliver. crHSrcn, to explain. / untcrfagcn, to forbid, 

anbietcn, to offer. crja^tcn, to relate. V>ortocrfcn, to reproach, 

anjeigen, to announce. gefte^en, to confess. . borjdgen, to show, 
barbictcit, to proffer. mttt^cn, to impart. . gufagcn, to promise, 

cntrcigcn, to wrest , na^\aQm, to repeat, ju jcbreiSen, to ascribe. 

em^fe^Ien, to recommend, nad^fe^en, to indulge. (and many others.) 

3d^ crjfi(>ftc itm bic ©cfd^td^tc, I rekted the story to him. 

(Sr ^atte Un9 bie il^ad^rid^ten mit^ He had communicated the news 
get^tt, to us. 

Rem, 1. If the verb is placed in the passive voice, the indirect object still 
remains in the dative case : 

2)te ^a6)xi6}tta tourben ittt^ mit^ The news was communicated to us. 
gct^cilt, 
Eem. 2. Some reflexive verbs (§ 168, Renu 2) have the reflexive pronoun 
(as the indirect object) in the dative case (§ 174, 4) : 

36) Bilbete ed mft etn, I imagined it (to myself). 

Rem. 8. Some impersonal verbs are followed by the dative case : 

@« a^net mir, I have misgivings. SUlir f(i(|tDtnbctt, I am dizzy. 
Rem. 4. The dative of the person is used after many verbs (as fcin, toerbcn, 
ge^en, crge^en, flc^en, ftfecn) and after many verbal expressions (as (eib t^un, 
xot^ t^un, SBort ^alten, gu $iltfe tommen)^ thus: 

<Sd tfl mit nid^t to)o^(, I am not well. 

(S9 ge^t i(]tt gatt) gut, It goes very well with him. 

Sie fltjt m!t bad ^(eib ? How does the dress flt me ? 

3)a« t^ut mir Mr Icib, I am very sorry for that. 

§ 180. Some verbs are followed by the dative or the 
accusative case, according to the signification with 
which they are used : 

S 3(if t)er{t(!(|erte Qit, I insured him. 

(3<^ t)erftdt^erte i^m, I assured him. 

(Sraue nt(!(|t htm (tugeren ^Hftva, Do not trust outward appearances. 
1 2)er ^rebtger traut ha9 ^tmi^aat, The preacher marries the couple. 
Rem. A few verbs may be used with the dative or accusative without differ- 
ence of signification : 

dx te^rtc mi^ bie 9Wufif , He taught me music. 

(Sr Ic^rtc mir bic iWiifif , " " ** " 



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360 THE ADVERB. [§ 181-183. 



THE ADVERB. 

§ 181. There are but few j)rimitive adverbs. The chief 
of these are : 

1. The following particles (all of which, however, 
except alb and tin, are used also as prepositions) : 

81 J, down, downward. M, about, nearly. ItW, about, past, at an end. 

an, on, up, forward, butlft/through, thoroughly. D0r, forward, formerly, 
ttttf; up, upward. in (tin) in. Jtt/ too, also in the direc- 

nn^^ out, at an end. Udd^, after, afterward. tion of. 

2Btr tocrben aB unb gn gc^cn, We will go to and fro (up and down). 

Son nun an, From this time forward. 

3al^r an^/ So^t tin, From one year to another. 

3^ fcnnc i^n bnti^ unb bnrift, I know him most thoroughly, [merly. 

^ati tote Dotf (Afterward as before) now as for- 

2. The q.dverbs ia, {fft, oft, tmtt, ete.: 

3n, ic tf^tt, ie ftcber, Yes, the sooner the better. 

2)a9 ifl oft Qt\6)ti)m, That has often happened. 

Son nnn on, From this time forward. 

§ 182. Most Adverbs are formed (by inflection, deriva- 
tion, and composition) from nouns, adjectweSy numeralsy 
pronouns, veris,jprepositions, and adverbs. 

Hem. Of someadrerbs the derirationis *' no longer felt*' (§^^9 2) Rem,l% as : 

tolb, soon (from the Goth, and O.-G. adj. baid=bold; M.-G, h<dd=.rap%d). 

imni, scarcely :M,'G,, kiime ; 0,-G., chumo(from the Adykum=sick, weak), 

ffjr, very: M,'G,, s^r; O.-G., sdro (from the adj. 86r= painful, which is 

from the Old-German noun das 8er=zthe sore, the pain). 

§ 183. Adverbs are formed from Nouns: 

1. The genitive case of some nouns is used adverbi- 
ally (§81,2,4), as: 

fSHf^t^tU^ (bed Wlex^tn^), in the morning (gen. of ber WtoxQm, morning). 
9ntnh9 (bc« 2lbcnb«), in the evening (gen. of ber Slbcnb, evening. 
Onfanfi^^ in the beginning, at first (gen. of ber ^nfang, beginning), 

tl^ett^, partly, in part (gen. of ber 2^^l, part). 



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§183.] FORMATION OP ADVERBS. 361 

Rem, 1. Sometimes the genitire of an adjective or au adjective pronoun 
and the genitive of a noon are joined together into one word (§ 89, Mem, 1): 

itint^tDt%^, by no means (nom. fctn SBcg, gen. !einc« 2Bege«). 

gUifni^trtoeife^ fortunately (nom. gliltflid^c 28cijc, gen. gltttflici^er aSBdfc), 

berfieftolt^ in such a way (nom. bic ©cjlalt, gen. bet ©eflaft). 

ieberseit/ at any time, always (nom. jcbc 3ttt, gen. jcbCT 3cit). 

Bern, 2, In some compound adverbs the new declension has replaced the 
old in the genitive of the adjective or adjective pronoun, as : 

aOeitfaOd^ in any case. iDibtifienfaO^, in the contrary case. 

iebenfaK^, at aU events griigtentieU^/ for the most part. 

Rem, 3. In forming some compound adverbs, feminine nouns take the 
genitive termination (s0)^ as: 

ttbf eitg, aside, apart ; mctlierf CU^^ for my part (from bit @CttC, side), 
teifeit^^atoneside; fefjltrfttt^, on his part " " ** " 

Retn, 4. The termination of the genitive singular ($^) is given to some ad- 
verbs that have been formed from the genitive plural, as : 

aOetbittfid (from aUer binge), by all means ; tteite]*biltg^/ lately, recently. 

Rem. 5. After the analogy of ii^tMM,formerltf (ya.Mid,'Ger.i i mdles^^ 
qfaretime), are formed in the New-German the following adverbs : 

hamcX9, at that time. UltmaU, never. 

itntald, ever, at any time. tit^tVUM, formerly, once on a time. 

na^mal§, afterward. tl^eittal^, formerly, heretofore. 

Rem, 6. Very many adverbs take the genitive ending (s§), after the analogy 
of the adverbs that are formed from the genitive singular of masculine nouns, 
as will be noticed below (§ 184, 2 ; § 187, 2 ; § 188, 2, 4, and 6). 

2. Adverbs are formed from the dative of nouns, 
either alone or in composition, as: 

WOtJltllf to-morrow (M.-G,j nwrgeny mome; O.-G,^ morgane, which is 

the dative singular of the noun morgen, morning). 
M^S^dltUf at times (Snellen, dat. plur. of bie SBeile, a while). 

3. Adverbs are formed from the accusative of nouns, 
either alone or in composition, as: 

iDtg, away (ace. sing, of bet SBeg, the way). 

annoege, every where (ace. pi., otte SBege, all ways). 

dltntal, once (ace. sing., ein TtaX, one time). 

Seitteben^^ as long as one lives (ace. sing., bit ^tit be9 Sebend). 

lieif>ieW«ieife,bywayofexample (ace. sing., bic SBcifc). 

Q 



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862 THE ADVERB. [§ 184-180. 

§ 184. Adverbs are formed largely from Adjectives: 

1. All adjectives, whose nature permits them to be 
used adverbially, are so used without change of form : 

<^a9 ^rx6f ifl gat geBunben, The book is well bound. 

2Btr fa^rcn fc^^r (^IieM^ We are traveling very fast 

@te gotten tafitX QdSmp\t, They had fought valiantly. 

Rem, 1. Some words, that are now used only as adverbs, were originally 
adjectives (§ 182, Rem,), 

Rem, 2, Participles, like adjectives, may be used adverbially (§ 129, Rein, 4) : 

9Jht fiebenb ^leigcm staffer, With boiling-hot water. 

2. A large number of adverbs are formed from ad- 
jectives by taking a genitive ending, -S (after the anal- 
ogy of the adverbs formed from the genitive of nouns) : 

@8 fSngt itXtit^ an gu regncn, It is beginning to rain akeady. 
@C^>en @te tti^^, unb bann linU, Go to the right and then to the bft. 
(gr f)at c« anberd gcmcint, He meant it differently. 

Rem, 1. Adverbs thus formed belong mostly to the New-German period. 
Rem, 2, Some adverbs, and especially superlatives (§190, 3), take the genitive 
termination ftU^^ after the analogy of such nouns as JBoUtlt/ gen. ^alfend, as : 
Unb iibrigett^ Wotttc cr— - And moreover he wished to— 

Rem, 8. By this last analogy arc formed the ordinal adverbs, Ct{ltlt§f StQti^ 
tm, brttteU^, etc, (§ 106, 2). 

Rem, 4. A few adverbs have added an unorganic 4 to the genitive form, 
and thus they have the appearance of being superlatives, as : 

(g« »ar eillll ein ^nig— There was once a king— 

ttnlibtgjt, M toir in Berlin n)a« Not long since, when we were in 
rcn— Berlin— 

§ 185. For the formation of adverbs from Numerals, 
see § 105. 

§ 186. The chie{ simple adverbs that are formed from 
Pronouiis are the following : 

IJier^here. ha, there. ttailll, when. 

itXf hither. hum^ then. m, where. 

f^in, thither. hottp yonder. (o^ thus. 

Rem, 1. These pronominal adverbs have been developed thus : 

Goth,: — thar, thana, hvan, hvar, sua, 

0,-G.: hiar, hera, hina, d^r, danna, doret, huanne, h&ur, so, 
M.-G. : hier, her, bin, da, danne, dort, wanne, wa, so, 
N.'G,: ^^er. ^er. bin. ba. bann. bort. trann. trc. fo. 



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§ 186-188.] FORMATION OP ADVERBS. 363 

Rem, 2. ^Xttf i}ttf and l^ttt are formed from a demonstrative pronoun that 
is now found only in the Gothic (his, hija, hita=bcr, bic, ba8=thi8, that). 

Rem, 3. 2)(t^ hdUUf and hOXt are formed from the demonstrative pro- 
noun httf hitf bttd (^Gothic sa, sd, thata; acctisaiive thana, tho, thata). 

Rem, 4. SBattlt and )00 are formed from tott^ who, 

Retn, 5. The indefinite pronouns tltcl^ tOCttig^ Otttttg^ nnd tttoa^ are often 
used adverbially (§112): 

dx ifl titti grBger aid \6), He is much taller than I am. 

2)ic ©cf^ic^tc bcr (gtabt ip nur The history oftlie city is only a little 

toenig befaimt, known. 

2)ad 2^ud^ tfl nic^t breit gCttU0^ The cloth is not wide enough. 

dx toax tttBd^ aufgeregt, He was somewhat excited. 

§ 187. Derivative Adverbs are found by means of the 
terminations -etl^ ^'UtlgS^ Aiif* 

1. The termination ^t\\ is employed in forming adverbs 

from a few other adverbs : 

2lu§en, without, outward (from au«). obcn, above, aloft (from ol6). 
inncn, within, inward (from in). ^inten, behind (from ^in). 

unten, under, below (from unter). tjorn, before (from \)or). 

2. A few adverbs are formed by adding -Uttgd to ad- 
jectives, nouns, or verbs : 

©ftnblinge, blindly, rashly, at random (from BUnb, blind), 
^u^tltngd, head foremost, head over heels (ba9 $au)>t, head). 
rittUng« (reitltngS), astride, astraddle (rcitcn, to ride). [Tmck). 
X^dimQ9, backward, from behind (ber dtM, ohs, from 9tilcfen, 

tneu(^Ung9, insidiously, like an assassin (meiK^eltt, to assassinate). 

3. Many words with the termination =Ii(^ are used 
only adverbially (§ 86, 2, 6), as: 

grcilt^, certwnly, indeed. fd^toctltd^, scarcely, hardly, 

enblid^, finally, at last. fid^crlid^, certainly, surely. 

VXxfiviif shortly, recently. »a^rlt^, truly, really. 

§ 188. Of the many ways in which Compound Adverbs 
may be formed, the following are most important : 

1. By uniting two nouns (especially with 95eifc, a 

way or manner, for the last noun) : 

©^rjtoeHc, jocosely, in fun, in jest (bcr ©(^crj Joke, bic Scife, way). 
f^JOtttoeife, mockingly, derisively (ber @^)ott, derision, bie SSeifc, way). 
tro>>fentt?cifc, in drops, by drops (ber XroJ)fcn, drop, bic 3Seifc, way). 



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364 THE ADVERB. [§ 188. 

2. By uniting an adjective and a noun: 
©Id^foHd, likewise, also (§ 188, 1) (gteid^, like ; bet %aU, case). 
gr9gtent^d, for the most part (grdgten, greatest ; ber X^ett, part). 
0crabe«»ege, straightway (Gcrobe, straight; bcr SBcg, way). 

8. A numeral and a noun (especially Wldl, see % 105): 
(Stnmal, once, once on a time. breimal, three times. 

i. By uniting an adjective pronoun and a noun: 

21ttcnfan« (§ 183, 1, Bern, 6),atall nteinerfcitS (§ 183, 1), for my part. 
jcbenfattS, in any case, [events, jcbcrjcit (§ 1 83, 1 , Rem.), at nil times. 

5. By uniting a preposition and a noun : 

5K)fctt« (§ 183, 1), apart, to one side. 

Ibeigdten (§ 183, l, 2), betimes, in good time, early, soon. 

l)idU>ei(en, at times, at intervals, occasionally, now and then. 

(interdldd, from behind, behind one*s back, underhandedly. 

ii^xffanpt, in general, on all occasions, in the main, at all. 

flbcrmorgcn, day after to-morrow. 

gUtDCileit, at times, sometimes, occasionaUy. 

6. By uniting a preposition and a pronoun: 

3nbcjfcn, in the mean time. iH?crbie0, besides, moreover. 

7. By uniting a noun and an adverb (or preposition): 

SBcrgauf , up the mountain. ja^^tcin, ) year in, year out. 

htXQah, down the mountain. ja^rau^, > from one year to anothtr. 

flrontauf, up stream. Ic^fiiber, head foremost, 

flrontab, down stream. lo)>funtcr, headlong. 

8. By uniting two adverbs: 

9[(dbalb, immediately. eBenfo, just so. 

^icrfclfcfl, exactly here. foglei^, immediately, 

bafclbfl, exactly there. fobolb, as soon (as), 

bcmio^, however. DicHeid^t, perhaps, 

^tcr^cr, hither. bortj^tn, thither, 

herein, in (hither). ^incin, in (thither). 

^erau9, out (hither). ^Inoud, out (thither). 

9.. By uniting two prepositions : 
2)ur(i^«, entirely. torBci, past, over (finblied). 

tnjWifci^ in the mean time. DodlBcr, " ** ** 

10. By uniting an adverb and a preposition : 
$ierbur^, by this means. babur^, thereby, 

(ternac^, according to this. n^oburd^, whereby. 



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§ 188.] 



FORMATION OP ADTERBS. 



865 



(/or Bci bcm, Bet ben). 
" bur^ba«,bur(^bie). 
" filr ba«/filr bie). 
" 0egenba«,gegenbie). 
" initbcm,niitben). 
** an bem, an bte). 
" auf bem, auf ben). 
** au« bem, au« ben), 
" in bem, in ben). 
" ilto ba«, ilber bie). 
" urn ba«, urn bie). 
** untcrbem,ttnterbeni 
" bon bem, bon ben). 
" toiberba«,toiberbie). 
** ju bem, jtt ben). 
gtt)ifd(^ ben). 



Rem, 1. Compound adverbs, formed by uniting the adverb btt and a prepo- 
sition, are usually employed instead of the dative and accusative of the de- 
monstrative pronoun bet, biC, ha§ (§ 112, 2, lUm. 3), when used absolutely, 
and not referring to a person ; if the preposition bqgins with a vowel, the 
original t (fHHt, see § 186, Rem, 1) is retained: 
2)abei, thereby, by that, by it, by them 
babur^, thereby, by this or those means 
baftlr, for that, for this, instead of that 
bagegen, against this, against that 
bcmit, therewith, with that, with them 
baran, thereon, thereby, by it, by them 
barauf, thereupon, thence, from that 
barauS, therefrom, thence, out of this 
barin, therein, within, in it, in that 
barilber, thereover, thereupon, over that 
barnm, for that reason, therefore, for that 
bamnter, thereunder, among it, among them 
batoon, therefrom, thence, from it, from them ( 
batDtber, against this, that, or them 
baju, thereto, from that purpose, to that 

bajn^if^en, there between, between them 
Rem. 2. Compound adverbs are formed in the same manner with the ad- 
verb Hier and prepositions, instead of the dat. and ace. of the demonstrative 
pronoun bicfet (§ 111), when used absolutely and not referring to persons : 
©ierBei, hereby, by this, by these (for Bet btefem, bet btefen). 

bierburd^, '* " " " " ( " burd^ biefe«, bntii^ biefe). 

Biermit, herewith, with this, with these ( ** niit biefem^niit btefen). 
etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 

Rem. 3. Compound adverbs are formed in the same manner with the ad- 
verb 190 and prepositions, to take the place of the dative and the accusativi 
of the absolute interrogative and relative pronoun t»a§ (§ 113, 1, Rem. 2) : 
SBarnm, why, on what account, for which, for what (for unt toa8). 
toobet, whereby, at which, at what, during what ( ** Bel w8m). 
tooburd^, whereby, by what means, through what ( " burdf^ tt)a0). . 
toofflr, wherefore, for which, for what ( " fUr »a«). 

toogegen, against which, against what ( " gegen toa«). 

toomit, wherewith, with or by which or what ( " mit wim). 
tOom6), whereupon, after or for which or what ( " m6f wSm). 
tooxan, whereon, by which or what, on what ( " on toa«). 

toorauf, whereupon, upon which, upon what ( " auf toa«). 

toorau6, wherefrom, whence, out of which or what ( " au8 wim). 
toorin, wherein, in which, in what (**intt)a8). 

toorilBer, whereupon, upon or at which or what ( " ilBer toafy 
tootoon, whereof, from or of which or what ( «« ^ott wSm). 

tooju, whereto, why, to or for which or what ( " gu icSm)* 



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366 THE ADVERB. [§ 188, 189. 

Obs. The dative of tOdd (O.-G., hwemu; M,-G,, wem) is obsolete in the 
N.-G. (§ 113, 1). For the dative with a preposition, the compound ad verba 
toomit, tDona^, tDojit, e^c, must be used. 

11. Some compound adverbs have been so modified 
and contracted that their origin is ''no longer /dt^^ as : 

^ntt, to-day (Jf.-Gf.,hiute; O.-G., hiuto; contr.fram hiAtagft, on this day), 
immcr, ever (Jf.-Gf., iemer ; 0,-G,, iomSr=j[c mc^r=ever more). 
gtoar(truly) (Jf.-G.,zeware; 0.-Gf.,ziw^e=inSBa^r^eit=in truth), 
uic, never (M. -G.^me; O.-G,, nio ; Goth. , ni 6iv= not ever), 
nur, only (M,'G., neur, neuver ; O.-G^., ni ware=m^t Wfirc, or ttJcntt tS 

md(;t ttJfirc). 
ncin I no ! (M,'G., nein ; 0,'G,, nein [from niein=m(^t ctn8=not once]X 
ntmmcr, never (Jf.-Gf.,niemer; O.-G,, niomSr=mejicmc^r= not ever more), 
irgenb, any where (M,-G, , iergent ; O.-G. , io wergin=at any place), 
nirgenb, nowhere (if.-G., niergent ; O.-G,, ni iowergm= not ever at-a-place). 

12. Some compound adverbs are formed by joining 
several words into one word : 

9n0Bcfonbcrc, especially, in particular (in baS SBefonbcrc). 

tnSgefommt, altogether, collectively, in a body (tit ba« ©cfammtc). 

tnSlilnfttgc, for the future, henceforth (in ba« ^nfttgc). 

infofem, as for as, in as much as (in f o fern). 

Rem, In German, as in English, there are many adverbial expressions 
that have received conventional adverbial meanings, while the words have 
remained separate : 

2)ur^ unb bur^, entirely. in bcr 2^^at, in fact. 

na^ unb na^, gradually. in ^\U, in haste. 

)UC $anb, at hand. niit %16.% industriously. 

r>cx bcr $anb, for the present. ju $aufe, at home. 

O^UC ^tod\tl, without doubt. gur ^otif, if needs be. 



1. CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS. 
(fBintWnu0tx mtftxtkn.) 

§ 189. The following are the leading classes into 
which adverbs are divided with reference to their sig- 
nification : 

1. Adverbs of time, as : 
SBomi ? when ? SBtc langc ? how long ? SSic oft, how often ? 

jcfet, now. it, ever. oft, often, 

^fcutc^ to-day. ' nic, never. feltcn, seldom, 

borat, then. immcr, always. autocUcn, at times. 



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8189.J 



CLASSIFICATION OP ADVEBBS. 



367 



gcpcrn, yesterday. 
ntnli6}, lately, 
na^^cr, afterward, 
tnorgen, to-morrow. 
Balb, soon, 
enbli^, finally, 
frfl^, early, 
{patriate. [ing. 



mmmcr, never. 
, no(^, yet. 

lange, a long time. 

pets, continually. 
' Beflfinbig, continually. 

jettlebeitS, as long as one 
lives. 

etDtg,. eternally, 



SD^orgend, in the mom- etoigli^, eternally. 
^Benb9, in the evenings t)on nun an, from now 
^a6fi9, in the night. forward. 

^eiite Inn x6) stoefmal na^ bcr 
@tobt gcgangen, 

2. Adverbs of place, as : 
SBo ? where ? SBo^fcr I whence ! 



ttJtebcr, again, 
nod^mal, again, 
cinmal, once. 
ixomtal^ twice, 
me^nnald, several times. 
man6)moi, often. 
fWlnbii^, hourly. 
tSgli^, daily. 
to5^cntli^, weekly. 
monailiiif, monthly, 
jaf^rlid^, yearly. 
I have gone to the city Vfdce to 
day. 



^^tcr, here, 
ba, there, 
tort, yonder, 
bo^dm, at home, 
oben, above, 
unten, below, 
^inten, behind, 
torn, in front, 
braugen, vnthout. 
' brinnen, within, 
gu $aufe, at home. 
Sfltrgcnb, nowhere. 



^er, hither. 

herein, (hither) in. 

iftxava, (hither; out. 

i)txabf (hither) down. 

^cnmtcr, (hither) down. 

ton oben, from above. 

bon unten, from below. 
^ ton ^intcn, from behind. 

ton bom, from in front. 

ton fern, from afer. 
^bon oben ^erab, from 



SSo^fin? whither? 
^in, thither, 
^inein, (thither) in. 
^tnaud, (thither) out. 
^tnab, (thither) down. 
bortofirtS, forward. 
rflcftofirtS, backward. 
^etmtoSrtS, homeward, 
fort, forward, 
toeiter, further, 
nodtf oben, (toward) above, 
nad^ unten, (toward) below, 
na^ ^ufe, home (-ward). 



above, from on high. 
3)0tt ifl bcr 3Sgcr, Yonder is the hunter. 

SBorum totttfl bu brau^ttt flc^en? Why will you stand out there? 



3. Adverbs of manner and degree, as : 
SBte?how? Kyes. fe^r,very. 

geioig, certainly. 
. fx6}ttlx6), certainly. 
' freili^^, of course. 
' bod^, certainly. 

toirtli^^, really. 

toa^r^aftig, really. 

nein, no. 

ni(^t, not. 



fo, thus, so. 

ebenfo, just so. 

anberd, otherwise. 

leid^t, easily. 

f d^koer, with difficulty. 

f^ncfl, rapidly. 

longfam, slowly. 

fd(>riftltd^, in writing. 

briepid^, by letter. !eine«tocg6, by no means. toentgflcnS, at last 

3)tc Stt^cn finb f ejr l)06), The Alps are very high. 

3a, t» ifl tOirflid^ fo. Yes, it is reaUy so. 

Rem, Most adjectives, when used adverbially, become adverbs of manner. 



gauj, quite, 
giemlidjf, quite, 
biel, much* 
tocnig, little, 
genug, enough, 
ettoa, somewhat, 
rcd^t, right. 
\)^d)\tf extremely. 



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368 THE ADVBBB. [§ 189, 190. 

4. Adverbs expressive of cause, means, or instrumerU 
(being mostly compounds of VOO, ta, and l^ier with prep- 
ositions) , as: 
/ ^oran? whereupon? baron, thereupon. (ieron, hereupon, 

toobci? whereby? baBet, thereby. ^icrtet, hereby, 

toobur^? whereby? bobur^, thereby. ^tcrbur^, hereby, 

toofllr ? why ? bafflr, therefore. ^tcrfflr, for this, 

loomtt? with what? bamit, therewith. ^termit, with this, 

toona^? according to what? bona^, accordingly. ^icmaii^, by this, 

tporflbcr ? about what ? borilbcr, about that. ^icrilkr, about this. 

tDobon ? from what ? baioon, from that. ^terbon, from this, 

tnantm ? why? bantnt, therefore. ^terum, about this, 

toogu ? for what purpose ? bagu, for that. ^ictjtt, from this. 

tDedtoegen? on what account ? bedtoegen^on this or that account. 

S[egV%>tCtt toirb bobttr^ (bur^ ben Egypt is thereby (by the mud of th« 

@^lamm bc« S'iiU) befru^tet— Nile) made fertile— 
2)ie Umbre^ung bet ^rbe totrb am The revolution of the earth is best 
bcflcn hOXauh Bctoicfcn— proved by that— 



2. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS, 
(©teigemno bet %ht^ttiitn.) 
§ 190. Adjectives, when used adverbially, are compared 
in the same way as when they are used adjectively: 

$0$/ highly; Vif^tt, more highly; VMi% most highly. 

\iij!iU, beautifully ; f^Ottef/ more beautifully ; {d|0Qft^ most beautifully. 

1. The relative adverbial superlative is formed by 
uniting am {(VX bem) with the dative of the superlative : 

2)ie Ser^c pngt f (^Bii, The lark sings beautifully. [fully. 

2)cr ^anaricnbogel ftngt fd^Sner^ The Canary-bird sings more beauti- 
2)tC Sf^a^tigatt ftngt am {ddiinfttn/ The nightingale sings most beautifully. 

2. The absolute adverbial superlative is indicated in 
four ways : 

1. By the simple superlative form : 

0(^) banle gel^orfainfl, "I thank you most obediently." 

Bjem, In nteiftbietenb, 6eftm5glt^, and ttil(ftftfoIgcnb, however, the superla- 
tive has a relative signification. 

2. By uniting (Utf^, %ViX\f \XX (auf ba«, gu bent, in bcm), with the super- 
lative: 

Sr ^at un« anf^ frenitbliAlte ge* He greeted us in the most friendly 

grilfit, . way. 

iRi^t im geHligllen/ Not in the ^ghtest degree. 



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v/ 



§ 191-194.] SYNTAX OP ADVERBS. 369 

3. By the superlative with the ending stlt^ (§ 184, Hem. 2): 
Tla6)t \>od) toeitigflettd ben $erfu^! Make at least the attempt! 

Hem. The use of this form is mostly confined to the adverbs B e fiend , 
^3^flen«, ISngflen«, meiflens, nS^flcnS, f^ateflen«, toe* 
nigflcn«. 

4. By the use of the positive degree preceded by such adverbs as \tf^ty 

ttngentefn, Sngerfl^ Vi(^9f «<<^* 
dx toax Sitgeift anfgeregt, He was greatly excited. 

§ 191. Of words that are not used otherwise than as 
adverbs, the only one that is compared is oft^9fter^3fteft» 

Hem, The comparative degree with a genitive ending (Bfttf ^) is frequently 
used in the signification of oft (in the positive degree). For die superlative 
(iif teft) the word ^Sttftofl is generally used. 



3. SYNTAX OF ADVERBS. 
(@4itta| ^tx %ht^txiitn.) 
§ 192. Adverbs modify the signification of verbs, ad- 
jectives, and other adverbs : 

(Stx \6iXfM>t feltett/ He writes seldom. 

dx Wreifct fe^r felten^ He writes veiy seldom. 

(Stx Wreilbt \tix langC SSriefe, He writes very long letters. 

§ 193. Many adverbs frequently partake of the nature 
and perform the office of conjunctions (as ia, balder, bcnn, 
bo^, nun, mm, fc^r, tt)ie, barauf, balder, iamxt, inbeffcn, m, »o^ 
l^er, too^n, etc.). Such words are called by some writers 
conjunctive adverbs^ by others adverbial conjunctions 

§ 194. The following general rules apply to the posi- 
tion of adverbs : 

1. The adverb is placed before an adverb or adjective 
which it modifies : 

jS)er ^rg ifl f el^t ^o6), The mountain is very high. 

2Btr f o^ren (ejt Wnell, We are going very rapidly. 

Hem. ®tnttO (enough)^ however, when used as an adverb, and modifying an 
adjective or o^«r adverb, is placed after the modified adjective or adverb: 
Qx ifl rei^ genug, He is rich enough. 

(Sr fonmit oft genug, He comes often enough. 

Q2 



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870 THE -ADVERB. [§ 1951 

2. The adverb is placed after the verb when the 
verb occurs in simple tenses and in main sentences ; it 
is placed before the verb when occurring in compound 
tenses or in subordinate sentences : 

@ic fin^cn f e^r \^on, They sing very beautifully. 

@ic i^ahitl \t\fX fd?3n gcfungen, They have sung very beautifully. 

Wlon ffat un8 gcfagt, bag fie (e^t We have been told that they sing 
f^6n flngCK, very beautifully. 

Rem, The negative particle ttlH^t (jiot) follows this law when it refers to the 
predicate of the sentence or to the entire expression, taking the last position 
when there are several adverbs ; if it refers to a single word of the sentence, 
it is placed immediately before that word : 

@r lommt (eute nW, He does not come to-day. 

dx ifl ^CUtC ttf 4t gcfommen, He has not come to-day. 

%Ut bcnicn Xi^t toie Bit, All think not as you (t. €., all think 

differently from you). 
9li4t dUt benlen toxt ^xt, Not all think as yon da 

/ § 195. Many adverbs have no exactly corresponding 
word in English, or they are frequently used in signifi- 
cations that vary greatly from those of the correspond- 
ing English words. Thus : 

1. ^ier, here; id, here, there, now, then; bort, therey 
yonder: 
1. $itt, refers only to the place of the speaker. 
2. 2)0tt/ refers only to a place at a distance from the speaker. 

3. But hd may refer to a time or place, near or distant. 

dx tooKtc urn brci U^r ^icr fein, He was to be here at three o'clock, 

unb ifl ltO(!^ nid^t ha, and he is not here yet. 

$er¥ SK^etg tfl na^ $rag gegangen; Mr. Weiss has gone to Prague ; he 

er mug f^on ha fein, must be there by this tune. 

$otl ha CM, From that time forward. 

Retn, 2)(t b often used as a conjunctive adverb (or a conjunction) : 
Sd (conj,) nofi) ?tttc« Ia0 in »et* While all lay in &r distance, then 

tev geme, yon had decision and courage; 

^a (adv.) ^Ottefl bu (Sntf^Iug unb and now, when success is insured, 

SJhtt^ ; now yon begin to Mnt and 

Unb jc^t, ha (conj,) ber (Srfolg gc* tremble. 

fi^crt ifl, 
%a (adv.) fSngjl bu an jn jagcn (@(^.), 



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§ 195.] SYNTAX OP ADVERBS. 871 

2. @rp, when signifying ^r«^ or firstly ^ and indicating 
the priority of one action to another, receives a full 
tone of voice : 

6rft SGBortc, unb bann <Strd^c (@(^.)/ First words and then blows (** deeds"). 

Rem, Signifying only, not earlier^ not further^ not more, Ctjt does not re- 
ceive a full tone of voice ; 

@r ifl e r fl gejteilt angef oinmen, He only arrived yesterday, 
^r ifl C r P je^tt 3a^re alt, He is only ten years old. 

3. The affirmative adverb ja iyes) is often used in the 

signification of certainly {I hope that\ indeed: 

$at cr c« gct^an ? 3a I Has ho done it ? Yes ! 

@ic toerben ja lommen, You will certainly (I hope) come. 

(gr ifl ja mein 33atcr I Why, he is my father I 

4» 5Wo(^ {atiU^ yet)y used before numerals or indefinite 
pronouns, is translated by more or anotJie^* in English: 

3^ ^aBe ttHdt eine ^ttte, I have another request. 

@T ^at iui4 S^et SHc^r gefauft, He has bought two books more. 
H Hem, 9l0$ (o 19 translated by however, ever so : 

@et er OU^ ito^ fO tet^, Be he ever so rich. 

5. @(l^on (already) is frequently omitted in translat- 
ing into English : 

@r ifl ((J^Ott anficfommcit, He has already arrived. 

<Sr ifl f^Ott gcjlcm 2lBcnb lUxHd^ He returned (already) yesterday 
gelommcn, evening. 

Hem. @$Ott often expresses emphasis (as of confidence or certainty) : 

@ic tocrbcii tni^^ f(]^Ott tocrflc^cn, You will (I hope) have understood 
©(J^Ott ben folgcnbcn SD^orgcn— The very next morning— [me. 

6. SBol^I (well) frequently expresses logical poasihility 

^v prohdbility : 

@^(afett @tc )0O(n (May you sleep well !)= good-night! 

(g« lonn molill fcin, It may (indeed) be. 

@ic ^abcn c« tOO^I ficlefeu, You have read it (I suppose). 

i2e»i. SSO^I sometimes is used to express intensity or emphasis : 
3^ mS^tc IDO^I toiffcn, I should really like to know. 

3a lOO^I t Yes ! (Yes, indeed I) 



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(bi-aa 


.), thafrh, 


&tfr, 


in. 


biz, 


duruh, 


fun, 


in. 


biz, 


darch, 


vur. 


in. 


ix9, 


bur^, 


fflr, 


iiu 




(af-ana), 


feiira, 


da, 


nmbi, 


vona, 


fora. 


zuo. 


nmbe, 


vone, 


vor, 


zuo, 


urn, 


toon, 


toor, 


ju. 



372 THE PREPOSITION. L^^^' 

PREPOSITIONS. 

(2)ic SortoBrtcrO 
§ 196. Prepositions are either j[>rimUive,denvcUivey or 
corapound: 

1. The primitive prepositions are: an, auf, wxi, \i\, 
burd^, fur, in, mit, ob, urn, »or, »on, gu. 

JSew. 1 . The primitive prepositions were originally adverbs ; all except )lon 
are yet used also as adverbs ; at least they may be considered as such when 
used as prefixes to compound verbs. 

Rtm, 2. The primitive prepositions have been developed thus : 

Goth,: ana, iup, nt, bi, 

0,'G.: ana, <kf, uz, bi, 

M.'G,: ane, uf, Az, bi, 

N.-G.: on, auf, att«, bet, 

Goth.: (mith-), n^hv, (of), 

0,-G,: miti, n&h, oba, 

M,'G.: mite, n&ch, obe, 

N,'G,: mi, na^, obcn, 

2. The derivative prepositions are derived as follows: 

1. From nouns, as: ^fdb (^albcr, ^bcn), traft, laut, flatt, tro^j, tcrmSge, 
tpcgcn. 

2. From adjectives, as : gcmfifi, ISng«, mtttcls (mittclft, t)cnnitld«f t>ermtt' 
tclfl), nSd^fl, famtnt, fcit, unfcni, untodt. 

3. From participles, as : tD&^renb, itnbef^^bet, ungea^tet. 

4. From adverbs, as : augcn, binncn, bt«, ^tm^^, (lintcr, ncben, ndbfl, o^ne, 
untcr, ilbcr. 

3. Compound prepositions are mostly formed by pre- 
fixing a preposition or adverb to a noun or to another 
preposition, as : 

^nflatt, btnnen, urn— tontten, 

augcr^folb, entgegcn^ a^HflCf 

iimcr^falb, btc«fcit, jntoibcr. 

ober^^alb, jenfett, 

unter^olb, gcgcnflbcr, 

Rem, 1 . The derivation and the composition of some prepositions is now 

*' no longer felt" (§ 49, Rem, 3 ; § 223 ; § 233). 
Rem, 2. Most prepositions that are derived from nouns and adjectives, and 

most compound prepositions, have had their origin or have first been used as 

prepositions during the New-German period. 



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§ 197, 198J CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 373 

1. CONSTRUCTION OP THE PREPOSITIONS. 

(Mectiuii htx Surtoiirter.) 
§ 197. Prepositions do not govern a single case only 
(as the oijective in English), but they govern the three 
oblique cases, the genitive, dative, and accusative (§ 80, 
Hem. 1) of substantives, whether nouns or pronouns : 
Slnftatt feinc^ S3rubcr« (>€«.), Instead of his brother. 

9Wtt fctncm ©nibcr {dat,\ W\ih his brother. 

O^nc fcincn SSrubcr \acc,y^ Without his brother. 

Rem, The primitive prepositions especially are not always independent goY- 
eming words, in the same sense that verbs and adjectives are. But often thA 
preposition that is to be employed, as well as the case it is to govern (as, if 
Qccysative or dative), is determined by the preceding verb, adjective, or noun : 
@r fleigt anf ben Serg, He is climbing up the mountain. 

(Stx leibet an dl^uinattdtnudr He is suffering from rheumatism. 

(Stx ge^t in htn ©avten, He is going into the garden. 

(Sr ifi in bent (tm) ®attat, He is in the garden. 

§ 198. The following prepositions govern the genitive 
case: 

ienfeft, iM or iiermimijt), ttS^enb, 

lonKidber or boiben)^ ftatt (or anftattV ioegeti^ 

onferbalb^ nnbef^abet, tm—^Wtvi, 

iititeibalb, nngead^tet^ ViH^ (or tntiani\ 

obeibalb, ttntoeit^ tro$, 

mttetbalb, nitfent, attfolge. 

Bern. 1. The kst three, loitg^/ ttO^/ and Sttfolot/ may also govern the da- 
tive case. 

RetH, 2. The following lines, containing most of these prepositions, are com- 
mitted to memoiy in schools in Germany : 

Untocitrinittclflf fraftttnbtDdfrcnbf 

lattt ^crnt^dMtndead^tet, 

o^ertaUimbitntcTtaUf 

inncT^alb mib auitx^alh 

biedfeit irnfcit t^aXltn, torficn, 

{tattunbUngdr snfoldfrtTo^ 

flefen mit bent Oenitto, 

obcr auf bte graflf „»f|Hm?"— 

2)0(1^ ifl tier nit^t stt )»ergeffeitr 

baf bet biefen lectern brei 

<u4 ber itotto r^tig fei. 
Rem, 8. Nont but derivative or compound prepositions govern the gen. < 



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374 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 199-201. 

§ 199. The following prepositions govern the dative 
CAse: 

fiemSg, (ammt, 



c«Stt^ 


m«, 


felt. 


6ei, 


«o*. 


Don, 


liiirotn, 


tt&m, 


8«f 


entoegev, 


utm, 


mm9, 


gegeniiber, 


(o«r)/ 


antpiber. 



Rem, The most important of these are included in the following lines s 

©djrcift mit, na^, nSd^ft, VLtlfi, fammt, 
tei,feit>»on, ju, sutoibfr, 
cntgegen, an§eTr and 
(letd mit bem tTatto nirber. 

§ 200. The following prepositions govern the accusch^ 
tive case : 

)ei§/ Hxi^, fix, gegen^ o)ite, ttm^ )oil)m 
(gen), (fuiibei), 

i2e?R. Thej are included in the following lines : 
9ei burd^» \\kXp oftter uvx, 
l\9, fonbetf gefiettf iviber, 
Wrd^ jlet« bm 3lc<ufati©, 
unb nie ben Xatto niebrr. 

§ 201. The following prepositions govern either the 
accusative or the dative case, according to certain rules 
(§244—253): 

9(n, in, uttter, 

i^m. 1. The following lines, containing these prepositions, contain also the 
rules for their use : 

^ttfaitf^l^interrtteben/iiir 

itber, unter, »or imb gtt>if(|ett 

fle^en mit bem 9l<cufdtto, 

wcjitt matt fragctt fonn ; ,ri»p]bin ?" 

9»tt btm S)ati» ftel^n fie fo, 

!Da6 mott nur laun fragen „»p ?* 



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§ 202, 203.1 CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 375 

2. PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE. 

(.^om'ixitt ntit hm ®tnmo 
\ § 202. 2)ie8feit {this side of) and jcnf cit {the other sid4 
ofy beyond), refer only to place : 

Sie^feit bc« gfuffc«, On this side of the river. 

3tlt{(it bed ®thixQt9f The other side of the mountain. 

Bern. 1 . They are both used, though rarely, with the dative case : 

3 c n f c 1 1 icncm ^ilgcl (@^.X 'J*e other side of that hiU. 
Rem. 2. The addition of Ȥ gives an adverbial force to both of them : 

^X too^fnt blcdfeitS, t^ jcnfcitS, He lives on this side, I on the other. 
Bern, 3. They are both used as nouns, especially in reference to this world 
and the world to come: 

Sin 3enfcit, ba« ^lercin in3 2)ic«*- Another life that extends into this 
f cit rei^t, life. 

\ § 203. ^ali, ^alUt, ^alitn {on account of for the sake, 
a^ regards) always follow the noun they govern : 

C^r rciflc nur $ergullgcu« (alter He went to the Springs only for the 

in9 ^ab, sake of pleasure. 

2)ed @elbed ^j^M^tX, For the sake of money. 

Rem, 1 . $0(0 is rarely used with the force of a preposition except in com- 
position with a pronoun : 

SSt^Mb ? Ob what account ? Se^^olB, on this account. 
Rem, 2. ^tXi^tX is preferred to (dttttt when the noun it governs ends in stXi : 
(gr ^at, fciner Diclen @d?ulbcn %aU He had to run away on account of 
%tt, flie^en milff en, his many debts. 

\Rem, 3. ^attCK is united with the pronoun it governs into a compound 
word, taking an unorganic t or tt as letters of union (§ 107, Rem, 2): 
iD'ldnet^alben, on my account. Unfert^oT^en, on our account. 

Rem. i. Feminine nouns in ^t\i, Aldt, ^Itltg/ when followed by 'i^HtX 
and not preceded by an article or adjective, often take an unorganic ending 
s9 (after the analogy of some compound nouns, see § 58, 2, Rem, 2) : 

(Sr reifle ©cfunb^dtd (aOer inS He went to the Springs for the sake 
©ab, of his health. 

\ Rem, 4. ^otttt is sometimes preceded by ViVXf placed before the noun : 
Urn bed Sriebend (olier^ For the sake of peace. 

lUm, 5. ^ottett ia formed from the dative plural biC ^tXht {the half, 
gide); ^alBet is an irregular form of ^a(b cn ; ^alb is a contraction of 
the accusative singular (M.-G., halbe=half). 



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376 THE PREPOSITION. [§204-206. 

§ 204. From the accusative of the same noun (bie 
^afte) have been formed the four following prepositions : 

^ItferltaU^ outside of, without, beyond. 
inUttf^iUhf inside of, within. 
Olitt^oK/ on the upper side of, above, 
mttttl^tttt^ on the lower side of, below. 
Siftrnberg ^ auffttf^dii unb in? Nuremberg has many stately edificM 
ner^al^ bee iD^auem tide flatt« outside of and inside of its walls. 
li(^ ©el^Sube, 
SBormd Itegt ohttiM, Singen Worms lies above, and Bingen be- 
mtttH^h bet ^unbe^fefhtng bw Mainz, a fortification of the 
Tlami, (German) Ck>nfederation. 

\ Rem. 1. 3Kltt(]|^a(i may refer also to a specified space of time: 
Smtei^aO einer @tunbe, eined Xaged, Within an hour, a day. 

§ 205. ®raft (hy the power of^ in mrtue of\ denotes 
rather a moral than a physical cause (compare toettttoge, 
§ 215) : 

ftraft f eined tinted, By mtue of his office. 

Rem, 1 . ftraft has become a preposition by the dropping of the preposition 
\Vif which formerly preceded it : 

„!S)a er ni^t In ftraft eined terlte^ As he does not rule by virtue of a 
^cnen 2lmte« rcgiert/* borrowed office. 

jRem. 2. ftraft (^^'^ laut, t>enn50e,and I^el^ufd) has come from 
legal language (^anjleifh^l) into the language of literature. It was first used 
by good writers in the seventeenth century. 

\ § 206. gfittflS or cntlanj {along^ lengthmse of) : 

SfiXg^ bed X^oted^ Along the valley. 

Stttlaitg bed SQSotbgebirged, Along the forest-covered mountain. 

• Rem, 1. Both forms are frequently used with the dative case: 

S 5 n g S bent Uf er, Along the shore. 

C^ittUng bent @trome, Along the stream. 

Rem, 2. SitngiS is occasionally (cntlong more frequently than ISng^X 
found with the accusative case : 

S 5 n g d ben ^^ai ^htaB, Down along the Saal. 

(Sntlang ben gelfen^fob, Along the rocky path. 

Rem, 3. (Stttlang frequently /o/Zotrs the noun which it governs : 

{Gen,) S>e« SBeged entlang^ Along the way. 

{Dat, ) 2)em ^et entlang^ Along the parterre. 

IAcc) S)en ganjen Serg entlano^ Along the whole mountain. 



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207-209.] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 377 

\Rem. 4. CEltt((Utg is sometimes used (with the accusative of nouns) indicat- 
ing time (meaning through) : 

SWandf^cn jugcnblid^cn Xa^ tViU Through many a day of my youth. 

laiifl (®.), 

N. § 207. ^aVii {according to, ly the wording of) refers to 
something spoken or written : 

2ttllt bc8 SBcfc^IcS, According to the order. 

Sailt be8 95crtragc8, By the wording of the treaty. 

Rem, 1. 2ajlt is used hy some writers also with the dative case : it is es- 
pecially used with the dative plural of nouns when they are not preceded by 
an article or by an adjective : 

( Gen. ) 2 a U t f rii(mr ©riCf C, According to former letters. 

{Dat,) 2 a U t IBritfeit au« tncincr ^ci* According to letters from my home. 
inat&, 
Rem, 2. gaitt has passed to be a preposition by dropping the preposition 
Itad^ (formerly written n a (^ 2 au t C= according to the wording). 

>^ § 208. The four words witteW, mittelft, ttermitteU, tocr^ 

mittelft have the same meaning {fhrough, hy means of, 
through the instrumentality of y-noi referring to per- 
sons ; see Hx6^ (§ 238) : 

){BirfamenitlittClft(ort>ertntttetfl) We reached the shore by means of 

cinc8 Sa^nc« an8 Ufer, a skiflF. 

S)am^>ff^iffe tocrbcn ^Supg UCr* Steam-boats are frequently driven by 
ntittelft ciner ©cJ^roulbc bciPcgt, means of a screw. 
Rem, I, The form UCrmttttlft is most frequently employed; and mtttClft 
is more usual than either UCCltttttCl^^ or ItttttCl^^ 

Rem. 2. The four forms are derived from the Genitive of the adjective mit* 
t C I, which was first used adverbially (§ 107, 2) and then as a preposition. The 
form iDcrmittcIfl was current in the 17th century; mittclft first appears 
in the writings of Steinbach (1734). 

Rem, 3. The si is added unorganically to the genitive ending (§ 107, 2). 
Rem. 4. The provincial use of these prepositions with the dative case, which 
has occasionally crept into the works of even such writera as Goethe, is not 
approved by German grammarians. 

'^§ 209. ^ttAt or anftatt {instead of m place of) : 

Stnflatt (or flatt) fcincS S3rubcr«, Instead of his brother. 
Rem. 1. The placing of ^idit after the noun it governs, .which was very 
general in the Middle-German, is now considered antiquated : 

2ln fcincS 53nibcr8 @tatt (compare in English, in his brother's stead). 
Rem. 2. The noun @tatt (stead) has become a preposition by the droppiqg 
of dUf which formerly was generally employed before it. 



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378 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 210-215, 

^ § 210. Xxolf {i7i spite of^ in defiance of^ nothwithstandn 
ing) : 

SrO^ bc8 SJegcnS fitngcn Xoxx na^ In spite of the rain we went to the 
bcm aWwfcuin, museam. 

RerK 1» %Xt% indicates more active opposition than ungea^tet, and is 
therefore perhaps more properly to be construed with the dative case : 
%X9% bcin SScrBotC^ In spite of the prohibition. 

Rem, 2. %tt% has become a preposition by dropping the preposition JH (nt) 
in )ltm 2n>^ (in defiance of). 

^ §211. Unbef^abet {without injury to or detraction 

from) : 

©einer @^re UtAt\(S^(ihttr Without detmcting from his honor. 

Mem, 1. Un6efd(^abet may precede or follow the noun it governs. 
Bern, 2, It is sometimes used with the dative case. 

\§ 212. Um-UliDett {for —'a sahe^ for tJie sake of on ac- 
count of) : 

3^ bitte \A&i, xm ©otted toilklt^ I entreat you, for God's sake, not to 

ed itici^t gu t^un, doit. 

Um bc« gricbcnS isMtU, For the sake of peace. 

Rem. Occasionally, though rarely, examples are met with where one par- 
ticle (urn or toitten) is omitted. 

V. § 21S. UugCd^tet {notwithstanding^ in spite of without 
regarding) : 

Ultgea(]^ttt bcS SRcgcnS, gingentoir In spite of the rain we went to the 
na^ bcm SWufcum, museum. 

Rem, Ungca^tct may precede or follow the noun. 

\ § 214. Untoeit or tmiern (not far f rain, near) : 

@r ttJO^nt ttnfent bc8 %ifoxt9, lie lives not far from the gate. 

UntPtU bed Merged Uegt bad S)orf^ The village is not far from the 

mountain. 
Rem, 1. The parallel forms o^ntoctt, ol^nfcrn, are now rarely used. 
Rem. 2. U n tp c i t and u n f C r n are occasionally found used with the dative. 
Rem, 3. Both words have had their origin during the New-German period. 

'^§ 215. SStrtttOge (5y virtue of in conformity with^ hy the 
power of)r 

5ltte ^xptx flrcBcn tienttiige i^rct All bodies tend towards the center 

@^tt)crc na6f bcm SWittc^Junft of the earth, through their at- 

bcr Srbc, traction of gravitation. 

Scnniige bed SSertraged, By virtue of the treaty. 



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§ 216-219.] CONSTJtUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 379 

Rem. 1. Stttlliigt may be used in most cases where ftoft and tHUt are 
employed. 
Bern. 2. SScttnSgc was originally a noun preceded by n a (^. 

^ § 216. SBiil^rettb {during the time of) : 

SBa^renb be« Mege^^ During the war. 

Eem, 1. SBIi^ttltb (from tp fi ^ t C n , to endure) was first used as a parti- 
ciple or adjective (as in n>$^renbem ^ege) ; it was next used with the quali- 
fied noun in the genitive (tt>a&rcnbc8 ^cgeS, compare be8 TloxQtn, § 81, 8) ; 
it was first used as a preposition in the last half of the eighteenth century. 

\ § 217. SSScgCU {on account of ^ for the saJce^ or purpose of) : 

SStgtlt be9 9{egen9 (or bed dlegend On account of the rain I remained 

tt>egen) Mieb xif ju $aufe, at home. [strife. 

'^x^i @trcitcn« tpegtlt f am i^ (>cr, I came not here for the purpose of 

Rem, 1. SB e g e It can thus either precede or follow the noun. 

Rem. 2. SB e g e tt has become a preposition by dropping the preposition 

t) n from Don SBt0ttt^ a form that is now antiquated except in some fixed 

expressions, as : 

SOtt ^t^i^ W^ttXf For the sake of justice. 

^Rem, 3. SB eg en is suffixed to the personal pronoun, taking an unorganic 
»t or sCt as letters of union (§ 107, Rem, 2): 

3)^etnetn>egen, on my account ©etnettvegen, on his account. 

^218. B^MS^ (^^* consequence of in jpursu^ance of in 
accordance with) : 

(Sr t^at biefed S^tf 0l0( meined Huf« He did this in accordance with my 

tragd^ commission. [tions. 

Bttf0l0t gctoagtct @^)e!u(ationeti, In consequence of rash specula- 

Rem, I. When the noxm follows ^ttfolgt^ the noun is put in the dative case : 

Sttfulflt berneucjlcn ^adf^ri^ten, ) According to the latest intelli- 

(or) 2)en ncueflcn Sflad^ri^tcn ya\tX%tf) gence. 

Rem, 2. Formerly the two words were separated (Jit 9o(gt)» 

§ 219. Many other words are used as prepositions, 
governing the genitive case (especially in the language 
of trade and commerce), as: 

Shtgefiddt^^ in view of {from ba8 Hngefi^t, fece). 
liCittf^, in behalf of ( " bcr 53e^uf, behalf, behoof ). 

namClt^, in the name of ( " ber iRaincft, name), 
feiteil^, on the part of ( " bic @eitc, side), 
jillflllltti^^ with respect to ( " bic ^infid^t, respect). 
riltf|i*tti*f with regard to ( •* bie 9ia(frief^t, regard). 



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380 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 220, 222. 

Vigefi^t^ bet ©efa^r, In view of the danger. 

Slameitd bed ^mtmann9, In the name of the o£Scer. 

@eitCltl bet (SlUxn, On the part of the parents, 

{^infl^tlidd bet %oiQtn, In view of the consequences. 

%iitfft4tli(^ bed ^ott^eild, With regard to the interest. 
Rem,When used with personal pronouns, the form fcitl (instead of f Citttt^). 
is employed (§ 109) : 

Sl'^etf eitd, for mypart. ©etnetf eitd, on his side. 



3. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE CASE. 

OBomitin mU bent SatitiO 
\§ 220. %nS {otit ofjfrovi) primarily refers to place, 
indicating origin, source, or the place whence : 
%n9 bet @tabt fotnmen, To come out of Ae city. 

St pammt and einct eblen gamilic, He comes from a nohle family. 
Rem, 1. ^ u 9 sometimes is used as refening to a period of time: 
@in 2)i^tet an9 bem bteijc^nten A poet of the thirteenth century. 
Sa^t^unbctt, 
Rem, 2. It often refers to the material or to the parts of a thing : 
Sin ®cfS6 ait^ X^on, A vessel of clay. 

2)et Tltn^df befle^t au9 Setb unb Man cosnists of body and souL 



Rem, 3. It may refer to the inner motive cause of an Action : 
(St ^anbelt fo m9 ®txi, He does so from nvarice. 

Rem, i. It may refer to the material or parts of a thing: 
36) etfe^e au^ feinem ^tiefe, bag I see from his letter, that h« is sick. 

et ftanf tft, 
2)a9 tt>etg lif im9 (Stfa^tung, That I know from experience. 

^ § 221. 9(tt§et (put of J outside of heyond^ except) refers 
only to position — not to motion : 

S^nfCt bem ©aiifc gu fctn, To be out of the house. 

Ct ijl an^et ©efa^t, He is out of danger. 

tSltf Cr i^in, ^aben Mc i^tc ^Pid^t All except him have done their 
get^an, duty. 

Rem, 5lu6et (Mid^'Ger., (Izer; Old-Ger., iizar) is from the Old-Ger,^ 
lb (au8), the ar being a derivative syllable. 

s § 222. S5ei {near^ aty with) refers only to position — not 
to motion : 

IBci bent $aufe fle^t eitt ^anm, Near the house stands a tree. 
^ bet @(^(a^t iei ^^m, In the battle of (near) Leipsic 



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§ 223-225.] PREPOSITIONS with the dative case. 381 

^Eem. 1. 8e{ may indicate approximation, connection, possession, etc : 
Qv »0^nt M mir, He resides with me. 

3^ ffait fcttt @db Jef tnir, I have no money with mt. 

8ei bicfcr ^ad)xx6ft, At this news. 

Hem. 2. 9ti is nsed in making oaths or protestations : 
8ci tncincr S^rc, Upon (by) my honor. 

"^ § 223. 93itiuen {withm^ inside of) refers only to definite 
periods of time : 

^ Sinttttt cinct@tunbc Wcrbc i^ Within an hour I will take my d^ 
ol6reifen, parture. 

8tiraeilctncin3o^«e, Within a year. 

Rem. 1. ©innctt (M,-G,, binncn), has come from the Lower- German (§ 4) 
into the High-German (§ 6), and is a compound of he innen (bci innCtt). 

Hem. 2. The reference to space originally indicated by binncn is now re- 
tained only in such compounds as : 

S)cr ibbllteitfee, inland sea. 2)a« IBimttltlanb, the interior part 

of a country. 

'^ § 224. ^tttgegen (towardsy agaimt) expresses a direc- 
tion of or tendency to a motion toward an object, either 
in a friendly or hostile sense : 

S)cr aWenWcnfrcunb fommt bem The benevolent man meets in a 

Sittcnben frcunbli^ CtttgtQttt^ kindly way one who asks a favor. 

S)er £a))fere ge^t bem getnbe mu«« The brave man goes courageously 

t^i0 eitflCgeil, to meet the enemy. 

2)er ^inb Xoox un9 etttgegttt/ The wind was agamst us. 
Rem, 1. @1tt0tgt1t always comes after the noun it governs. 
Rem. 2. When motion is indicated, ttttgtgtlt may perhaps be considered 
an adverb (t. e., a prefix of the compound verb, asentgegenge^en). 
Rem. 3. SlttgtQCIt is sometimes nsed as synonymous with ploibtt : 
(Sr ^at bem ^efe^Ie etttgegcn (or He has acted contrary to the com- 
JltlPtter) ge^onbclt, mand. 

Rem. 4. The word entgegctt (3f.-G?., eng^gen; O.-G., ingegin, inkakan) 
was formed by the union of in kakan^z'm 0egcn=en4*gcgcn. The t is add- 
ed by false analogy, after imitation of tut in inseparable compound verbs. 

^ § 225. %t^tvMtX {over against^ opposite to) refers to 
the relative position of two objects (which often have 
a hostile relation to each other) : 

Set 3i>niboTf flonben bie 9^ffen At Zomdorf the Russians stood ar- 
ben freugen gCgenlilcr^ rayed against the Prussians. 



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382 THE PBEPOsmoN. [§ 226-228. 

Rem, 1. This preposition sometimes precedes the noun it governs: 
@tgeitii(et bem Sl^ufeum ifl bie Opposite the Museum is the new 
ncuc Sibttot^f, Libraiy-huilding. 

Rem. 2. ®egtltii(tt is compound of gcgcn fiber = toward over {or over 
toward). 

^ § 226. ©estiil {in conformity with^ agreeably to) may 
precede or follow the noun it governs : 

@eina| Weiucm SJorfa^C (or mci* I do as I had intended (or according 
nem $or{at$e gtmal)^ ^anble to my intention), so do I act. 

R^M. ® c m a 6 was formerly an adjective (in M.-G,, gemaeze ; in O.-G,, 
gimnzi, kimazi=na(i^ bem Wia^t). 

\§ 227. Wilt {toithj in connection with) : 

2)ev Sater ge^t mit ben Unbent The father goes out with his chil- 

au«, dren. 

Srtroge beine Sciben wit ©cbulb I Bear thy sorrows with patience ! 
Rem, 1 . ^iXi is often used to denote the identity of time of one event with 
another : 

2Bir flanben mit Xagc8anbru(3f| auf , We arose at daybreak. 
Rem. 2. SWit is frequently used in denoting the means of conveyance : 
@tnen SBricf mit bcr ^ofl fd^idcn, To send a letter by mail. 
8>lit bcr ©ifenba^n fa^rcn, To travel by railroad. 

'^ § 228. 9la(|l denotes primarily motion or direction to 
or toward ajplace {see gU; § 235) : 

@r tfl ttadt Berlin gegangen, He has gone to Berlin. 

@ic fegcltcn 1ta4 ^Rorbcn, They sailed toward the North. 

Rem. 1. The particle )tt or j^iit is frequently added, being placed after the 
noun that is governed by Itad^): 

2)cr ^afc Uef nadd ber ©tobt %% The hare ran toward the city. 
@d boniiert nad^ bem @ebtrge ^itt^ It thunders in the direction of the 

mountains. 
Rem, 2. 9l(l4 ^^ ^^^^ inexpressing a motion toward a person or thing, 
for the purpose of reaching, touching, or procuring it: 

9lad!| 3emanb fcif^Iagen, To strike at a person. 

SladI bem 2lrjt f^iden, To send for a physician. 

Sladft demanb fragen, To ask ah<mt a person. 

Rem. 3. SWaiH frequently signifies ^^after,''^ whether referring to time or to 
place : 

91a^ bem filitftcn Wlax, After the fifth of May. 

(Stner ging nadft bem intern, One went after another. 



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§ 229-233.] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 383 

Hem, 4. 5Rll(ft frequently signifies according to, or in accordance witkj used 
in this signification, UUHf may be placed after the noun it governs : 

(Sd ge^t nid^t immcr ttadd unfern Everything does not always go ac- 

SBilnfci^cn, cording to our wishes. 

2)ad {dt^medft Ita4 ^^, That tastes of wine. 

dx malt na^ bet ^atux, He paints from nature. 

aWeincr SWctnung uadl, In my opinion. 

§ 229. 3ltiify\t or jttttiW^ft next to or nextajier): 
dx fag 1ta(]^ft tntr. He sat next to me. 

2)cr ^on^>rtnj ritt )lt]ta(]^ft bcm The Crown Prince rode next to 
^MQt (or bcm Sonigc jnitiif^^ft)^ the king. 
Hetn, 1. 3 U n S ^ fl may precede or follow the nouns it governs. 
Hem. 2. S^i S (3^ fl , the superlative of n a (; C (§ 92), was not used as a pre- 
position before the New-German period. 

\§ 230. 91cb[t (together with) refers to a connection 
existing in thought rather than in reality : 

S)ic @tabt Ja^ ben hunger Itel&ft The city saw famine, together with 
fcincm ganxci;®cfo(gcmit Jd^rcrf* {or and) all its consequences, ap- 
Xviftxi ©Written fi^ n&^crn (^d^.), proach with fearful stcjis. 
Rem, 1 . 92t({i is an irregular derivative from n e t c n. 

§ 231. Db, denoting position over or dbove^ is obsolete, 
except in poetry or in legal language : 

Oi bcm SWtar l^tng cine 2Wuttcr Over the altar hung a picture of the 
@OttC« C@d(^.), Virgin Mary; 

Rem. For q( {M.-G., ob; O.-G.,, obe, oba) in New-Gcr.,, il I> c r is used. 

\§ 232. @aQtint (together with) indicates a more intimate 
or natural connection than is expressed by ncbfl and mit: 

2)a« @(3^iff fammt bcr ganjcn The ship, together with the entire 
2Wamif(3^aft unb Sabung tuarb crew and cargo, became a prey to 
ein dtauh bcr SSclIcn, the waves. 

Rem. 0amtttt (lf.-Gf.,samet; 0.-(t., samant) is derived from the Old- 
German adjective sain (compare the English ^^same'')^ which is allied to the 
Latin semper (always) and the Greek avv (with). 

^ § 233. ©eit (since, during) refers to a period of time 
that is specified with reference to the moment of its 
commencement, or to its duration : 

Qtit t)orgcPcm i^obe i^ i^n nid^t I have not seen hnn since day before 

gcfc^cn (§ 256), yesterday. 

®r ift felt cincm 3at)tc Iranf, He has been sick a year. 

Rem. ©Cit(3f.-6?., sit; O.-G.^ sid) is allied to the Goth. adj. seithu=lato. 



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384 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 234, 235. 

"^ § 234. Son (from) indicates source or origin in the 
most general way : 

Sun SBcrlin gingcn Xovt nad^ 33onn, From Berlin we went to Bonn. 

IBOtt bicfcm 2^age an^ From this day forward. 

Rem, 1. Son is also used to express the material of which a thing is made, 
or the contents or property of a thing : 

2)er %x\6i ifl Hon ^ih The table is of wood. 

^x ifl ein SRonn Hon (S^re, He is a man of honor. 

Rem, 2. It often denotes separation, and is also frequently used for the 
partitive genitive : 

3e^n Hon ^unbert abjie^en, To take ten from a hundred. 

3»et Hon meincn grcunbcn, Two of my friends. 

Rem, 3. J8on may denote possession : 

2)cr ItSnig Hon ^rcugcn, The king of Prussia. 

3)ic Umgclbungcn Hon ^Berlin, The environs of Berlin. 

• Rem, 4. It is used in limiting the signification of some adjectives and verbs : 
(Sr ifl !(ein Hon ©eflatt, ^ He is small in stature. 

S^ fenne i^n Hon ilnfe^^n, I know him by sight 

Rem, 5. 8on may be used to express the originator, the instrumenti or 
the cause of an action or a result : 

QSXi ©etnSIbe Hon 9{uben9, A painting by Rubens, 

^er $unb tt>utbe Hon bent ^emt The dog was beaten by the man. 
ficf^Iagcn, 

"^ § 235. 3tt indicates, primarily, motion to a person : 
^x ge^t 3n feinem ^ruber, He goes to his brother. 

@te fang %Vi i^m, fte f))ta(]^ )n She sang to him, she spoke to him. 
i^m (©.), 
Rem. 1. 3n indicates also position or rest in a place (being used in this 
sense before names of cities and villages especially) : 

@r tDo^nt 3n Berlin, He resides in Beriin. 

2)ic Umt>crfltfit )n ®5ttingcn, The university in Gottingen. 

Rem, 2. 3n indicates motion to an object or place, in many fixed expres- 
sions, that were established during the Middle-German period : 

Q^ gel^t Hpn Ort }n t>xi, He goes from pkce to place, 

2)a« lltnb gc^t jn ©ett, The child goes to bed. 

Rem, 8. 3lt ^ tised in indicating time when, especially in many general 
expressions (compare also an, § 245 ; and nnt , § 242 ) : 

3n (Knbc bc« 3a^^re«, At the end of the year. 

3nnt erflcn SWolc, For the first time. 



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§ 236-238.] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 385 

Htm, 4. 3tl is employed in expressing many relations that grow out of the 
primary meaning of motion towards (and that of rest in) a place, as : 
(Sr ge^t Sit gu6, )1t $f crbc, He goes on foot, on horseback, 

^ommctn gc^Srt p ^rcugctl, Pomerania belongs to Prussia. 

(2r tauftc Zn6f jit cincm ^od, He bonght cloth for a coat. 

Jtem, 5. 3lt was originally an adverb ; it was first used as a preposition in 
the O.-Ger. period. Being first used with pronouns, and then with reference 
to persons in the Mid.-Ger. period. Its use was then extended to names of 
things, indicating motion or position with reference to them. 

§ 236. 3^^^^^^ {agaimty contrary to) indicates a mo- 
tion or tendency in a stronger or more hostile sense 
than that which is expressed by c tt t g c g e n (§ 224) : 
S)a9 ®IM toar und ^UtX>it>tt CB^b.), Fate was against us. 
2)cr gefunben SScrnunft pltBihttf Contrary to sound reason. 
^Eem. 3 U to i b e t always follows the noun which it governs. 

Obs, The following verses contain several of the prepositions that govern 
the dative case. 

^ap^nU an hit fittelle. 

Vta^ bit \^ma^V \di,iuhit tiV i^, btt fieliebte QueQe. bu! 
«ii* b i r f^Bpf id^, fed b i r ruV i^t W bem (Spiel bet Scflcn gu ; 
TOIt bit fcierj* ic^, ©on b ir Icm* t^ ^clter burc^ M ficbcn roaUtn, 
^naelo^t i>oit ^u^Rnddblumnt unb begriif t wn fRad^tiganen. 



4. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 

(Somiirter nit hm VccitfatiuO 
^ § 237. S5i8 {tiUy until, as Jhr as, to) refers to both time 
and space : 

35on ©criin Hid ^ot«bam finb "ovtx From Berlin to Potsdam it is four 

bcutf^e ayicilen, German miles. 

I^on Oflem W ^ftngflen {Inb t>ter From Easter until Whitsuntide it 
^o^en, is seven w^eks. 

V ReoL 1. The article can not be used before a noun governed by ii|« 
\ Rem, 2. Some other preposition frequently follows Hid : 
IBid 1ta4 iD^ittema^ft, Until after midnight. 

9id anf ben te^jten ^Her, Down to the last £uthing. 

^ § 238* S)ltr(|l {through, ly means of,hy)i 

9Bir fu^ren bntdft btc ©tabt, We rode through the city. 

!^ltr4 bd« gangc 3a^t, Through the entire year. 

Snt A St«6 bat ct c« crrctc^t, He has acquired it by diligence. 

R 



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38G TdE PREPOSITION. [§ 239-240. 

^ § 239. ^Hix (foTy instead of, in favor of) : 
(gr flarB filr bfl^ Satctlonb, He died for his countiy. 

^^ ding fiit feuten ^rubev in ben He went to the war instead of his 

^eg, brother. 

Sin ©cf^nf filr cincn greunb, A present for a friend. 
Rem, 1. gfi r is used in many expressions where a noun is repeated : 

©d^ritt filr @^ritt ; Xag filr Xag, Step by step ; day by day. 
Rem, 2. f^ il V is used before a noun taken as the equivalent of another sub^ 
stantive noun, in such expressions as : 

3(Sf fydtt i^n fiit einen e^rlii^en I consider him to be an honest man. 
mam, 
Rem, 3. gilt loses its prepositioital power in tBd9 fiic (see § 113, 3). 

\ § 240. ®(g(n (towardj against) indicates motion, direc- 
tion, or tendency in either a friendly, hostile, or indif- 
ferent sense (see tt)ibcr, § 243) : 

SSit fegcltcn gegttt iRotbcn, We sailed toward the North. 

©r tt)at fc^r frcunbU^ 0(0ttt un8, He was very kind toward us. 

3)ic S3crMnbctcn jogcn gcgttt bic The Allied forces moved against the 
gronjofcn, French. 

Rem, 1. ® e gen may also indicate direct contact (against): 

(St le^nte fid^ Otfidt bie SS^anb, He leaned against the waU. 
Rem, 2, It may indicate approximation of time or number: 
» @t9ttt ficben U^r bed SWorgenS, Toward seven o'clock in the morning. 

@tQeit ad(^t^unbcrt ^etfoncn, Toward eight hundred persons. 

Rem, 3. ® e g e n may be used in expressing a comparison of two objects: 

^x ifl gegen ^^ tin ^it\t ! He is a giant compared to thee! 

Rem, 4. @ e g e n may be used in expressing exchange : 

9'iur gcgtn baare S^^^wnSf ^^^7 ^^ ^^^ payment. 

Rem, 6. ® e n, an abbreviation of g e g e n, is only used now in some fixed 
expressions ; it is never followed by the article : 

®tU ^immel ; gtn Open, Toward heaven ; toward the East. 

\ § 241. jD^ne (loithouf) is in general the opposite to 
mit in signification : 

jD^nt ®elb ; Ol^ltt ^totx^l, Without money; without doubt. 

Refn, 1. The former construction of ^ n e with the dative (in the Middle- 
German) is yet preserved in the adverb o ^ n eb e nt (besides that). 
Rem, 2. The use of ^ n e in the sense of besides (a u {j e r) is antiquated : 
(S8 toarcn filnfeig ^evfonen nfint There were fifty persons without 
bie Sinbcr, (counting) the children. 



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§ 242, 243.] CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 387 

Rem. 3. The use of foitbct/ instead of tXfVitf is now antiquated, or poetic ; 
f n b c r can never be followed by the article : 

2BcI(^> cin 25trt^8t)au8 f onbcr ®(ei* What an unequaled inn ! 

'^§ 242. Uw {a/round, €Aout\ implying either motion or 
rest : 

SBir fitngcn nut bic @tabt ^crum, We went around the city. 

2)ic ®Sftc fagen nut ben 2:if^, The guests sat around the table. 

Rem, 1. Before the hours of the day ]}ltl denotes a specific time : 
S)ic @onnc gc^t jcfet nttt ^a(6 fcd^S The sun rises now at half past five 
U^r auf, o'clock. 

Rem, 2. Um is usea before some other divisions of time to express approxi- 
mation of time {about) : 

Sr \Dtrb nttt SDltttag fommen, He will come about noon. 

Reni. 3. Itttt may be used to express price, reward, etc: 

S)a8 ipcrbc i^ nm Ictnen^rciS t^un, That will I not do for any price. 
Rem, 4. IttU is used in comparing number, size, or degi*ee : 

@r fam nm Jtcct 2^agc ju f^fit, He came too late by two days. 
Rem, 5. Hui frequently signifies /or, concerning: 

Uvt ©illfc rufen, To call for help. 

8id^ Itttt ttXoa9 hdiimmttn, To concern one' self about a thing. 

Rem, 6. Ullt in some figurative expressions signifies loss, overthrow, de- 
itruction, etc. : 

@r ifl itm iein SSermiJgcn gcf ommcn, He has lost his property. 

"^ § 243. SEBibet (against) implies hostile opposition : 
& toax totbct fetnen bitten, It was against his will. 

2Bcr Tttd^t f ilr tnic^ ifl, bcr ijl Who is not for me, is against me. 
tpibct tnid!^, 

Retn. The adverb tt> i C b C r (again) was written in the same way as the 
preposition to i b C r {against) until the beginning of the last century. 

Obs, The following verses contain most of the prepositions that govern the 
accusative case : 

^j^iUfitott an feinett ^tennb* 

CtwtO^ !J) i (^ ifl ble SBcTt mtr fd^Bn, o^nt !J) i ^ tt)urb» x^ f!e ^affen ? 
^fir !J) i (^ Ub ic^ flanj aUcittf tim !J) i d& win id^ gem erblaff en j 
©egm 25 1 (^ foU !cln SJerliJumbcr uttgefhraft jid^ jc »cr0c"^n, 
»ibct !J)td^ Ifin fjfelnb fid^ toaffnen; id^ »ia 2>ir jur ©eite f!c^tt. 



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388 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 244, 245. 

5. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE AND 

ACCUSATIVE CASES. 

OBnmMtt mit bent Satin ttnb Stccnfatino 

§ 244. The nine jprepoeitions an, auf, "^inttx, in, neben, 

liber, unter, »or, gwif^en, govern the Accusative Case when 

motion toward the object they govern is expressed. 

They govern the Dative Case when rest or motion 
within specified limits is expressed : 

(&x (egte bad f&nd) auf htn Zx\^, He laid the book on the table. 
!S)a9 ^n6f Itegt auf bent Xif(^, The book is lying on the table. 
Rem, 1. In general when these prepositions have reference to place or to 
space, they govern the dative if they answer to the question where t — and 
the accusative if they answer to the question whither? {see § 80, Rem, 1). 

Rem. 2, Usually even when these prepositions are employed otherwise than 
with reference to space, the above general rule will sene as a key to the cor- 
rect use of the cases, as : 

(Sin ®ti>x6ft an ben Tlon'b, A poem to the moon. 

(Sr ar^eitet an einem SSerfe, He is laboring on a work. 

Rem, 3. Where the use of the prepositions rests upon relations that are too 
abstract to be governed by the above laws, the following general rules will be 
of assistance : 

1. 9lUf and H^et are generally used with the accusative case. 

2. %n, in^ nnter^ UOr and ^lOifdHen are generally used with the dative case. 

"^ § 245. %n {on) indicates primarily nearness or contact 
upon the upper surface of a body, or lengthwise with 
a body : 

(Sr ^5ngte bad ^ilb an bie ^anb, He hung the picture on the walL 
(Sincn 9Jing an bcm ginger tragcn, To wear a ring on the finger. 
Rem, 1. %u is employed in expressing definite time when (especially be- 
fore days of the week or the month ; see nm § 243 ; and § 83, 4) : 

er flarlb ant 5. Wlax 1847, He died on the fifth of May, 1847. 

%m iDorigcn SDWtttco^ nm 6 U§r, Last Wednesday, at six o'clock. 
Rent, 2. Sin may be employed in expressing, a number or measure ap- 
proximately : 

S8 toaren an fe^S^unbert ^crfo* There were about six hundred per- 
nen t)erfammelt, sons assembled. 

Rem. 3. %U may be used in expressing grounds of proof drawn from ex- 
ternal signs : 

5Btr crlannten i^n m bcr ^timme, We know him by his voice. 



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§ 245-247] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 389 

Rem, 4. %Xi is used in many cases to express the direction of an action of the 
mind or feelings : 

3d^ gtaulbc att cincn ®ott, I believe in one God. 

©icr ifl cin ^rtcf att @te, Here is a letter, directed to yon. 

Rem, 5. 9ltt with the article (am) is used in foiming the relative superla- 
tive of adverbs (§ 190, 1). • 

Rem, 6. 3(tt is used to express the relation of office : 

@r ip ^rofcffor att bcr Unitocrfitat He is a professor in the university 
ju ©iJttingcn, of Gottingen. 

Rem, 7, $ltt is used, instead of the genitive case, in completing and limit- 
ing many predications : 

dx letbet att 9{^eutnatt9mud, He is suffering from rheumatism, 

(gt ifl jung att 3a^rcn, He is young in years. 

"^1 246. %u] (on^ upon) denotes primarily position upon 
the upper surface on the upper part of a body : 

dx legte bad ^u^ ottf b e n %x^6), He laid the boo^ upon the table. 
2)a« ©u^ (icgt attf b C m Xif ^C, The book is lying upon the table. 

Rem,l, SJttf often indicates position or direction, in a very general manner; 

dx IDO^int attf ber Xt6)tm ©cite bcr He resides on the right-hand side of 

©trage, the street. 

(Sr ftetgt attf ben 2^^urm, He is going up the tower. 

(Sr ifl attf ber dagb, He has gone a hunting. 

@r ifl bSfe attf un«, He is angry at us. 

C^r tpartet attf feinen ©ruber, He is waiting for his brother. 

Rem, 2, ?litf is used in indicating exact expressions or limitations of time, 
measure, or number : 

@et attf blc @tunb e ba I Be there at the hour. 

(Sr &at feine 9le(^nung U9 attf beti He has paid his account to the last 
le^tcn fetter bcja^lt, .ferthing. 

Rem, 3. SJttf is used to express sequence of time or order : 
Jtltf 9lcgett folgt ©onnenf^ein, Sunshine follows rain. 
3^ ^abce« attf feinen SSefe^lget^an, I did it by his order. 

Rem, 4. SIttf is used in some adverbial expressions (especially in expressing 
the absolute superlative § 190, 2). 

^§ 247. $ittter {behind, back of) almost always refers to 
place : 

2)er $unb lief f^initX bad ^an9, The dog ran behind the house. 
S)er ® arten ifl ^itttet b e m $auf e, The garden is behind the house. 



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890 TflE PREPOSITION. [§248-250. 

Rem. 1. When both of the bodies referred to are in motion, })inttx gov« 
•nis the dative case, and the adverb ^ er is added : 

9{o(anbntt(ttttetm$ater^r(UO, Holand rode behmd (t. e. following) 

his father. 

^ § 248. 3»tt (in, into) refers especially to place, time, 

condition, manner, material, or contents : 

Sir gingen in b i C ©tobt, We went into the city. 

(Sr ttJO^nt in b C r @tabt, He resides in the city. 

dx flarb im borigcti OftoBcr, He died last October. 

@r ifat t9 im ^d}tti gefagt, He said it in a joke. 

2)afiir \)at er sti>ei^unbert Zf)akx He paid for that two hundred tha^ 

in ®oIb Uiaifli, lers in gold. 

^ § 249. 3ltit\i (Jy, neavy close to, h/ the side of) refers al- 
most always to place: 

<Sr fag nc^eit feinem ^ruber, He sat near (next to) his brother. 

@r fe^te ft^ iteiat feinen ^ntber, He seated himself near his brother. 

Bern, When both objects are in motion, n e B e tt governs the dative and the 
adverb ^cr is added (see ^intcr , § 247): 

S)cr ©ebicntc ging ncfien bcm The servant went along at the side 
Sagcn ^cr, of the wagon. 

\ § 250. Uebct {over, above, across) refers primarily to 
place : 

mx gingen Whtl b i c ©riltfc, We went over the bridge. 

S)er^ak^atfeincnS3attilJcrba8 The boy has thrown his ball over 

^au8 in ben ©arten gctoorfcn, the house into the garden. 

2)a« ©cmalbc ^Sngt ilBer bcr The painting is hanging over the 

2^prc, door. 

^ Retn, 1. With the dative case ftbcr denotes position above an object, 
without coming in contact with it ; with the accusative, it denotes motion 
over or across an object, either with or without contact with it. 

"^ Rem, 2. U eB cr may also signify beyond, or the other tide of: 
Mt^tX bcm 2Kccvc, Beyond the sea. 

S)a« ge^t iiaet fclnc «rSfte, That is beyond his strength, 

^cutc liacr a^t Sage, A week (eight days) from to-day. 

^ Rem, 3. VithtX signifies also hy way of {via) x 

2Bir fxnb bon ^ari« il Jcr ^8In unb We came from Paris by way of Co- 

^annotocr gcfommen, logne and Hanover. 

3d? ^al6e ben S3ricf Bfier SSrcmcn I sent the letter by way of Bremen. 
flef(^>i(!t. 



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§251,252.] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 391 

^ Rem. 4. Vithtt is in many cases used before the object to which a feeling 
or sentiment is directed : 

Me ladf^en ii^cr fetne (Sitdfeit, All laugh at his vanity. 

(Sr tfi bl^fe ii^et irgenb (Sttoad, Ue is angry at something or other. 

Rem, 6. Ucfitt (M.-G., fiber ; O.-G., uban ; Gothic, ufar) is derived from 
the same root as ot (in Gothic, uf=:up), see § 231. 

^ § 251. Uuttt {under, helow, leneath) refers primarily to 
place : 

2Bir fagcn itntcr b c m SSaumc, We were sitting under the tree. 
SBir fet^ten und mill ben ^aum, We seated ourselves under the tree. 

Rem, 1. Unter is also used in many figurative expressions, as in those 
Indicating submission or subjection to superior authority : 

2)ad Sanb n>ar bamald nttttt The land was at that time under 

gremb^cnfd^aft, foreign sway. 

VMtX foI(i^en ^ebtngungen, Under (upon) such conditions. 

Rem, 2. In expressions relating to tiijie, Ultt er usually signifies during: 
<S9 tDar llttttr bet 9tegterung It was during the reign of Frederick 
griebri^S bes Orogen, the Great. 

Rem, 3. Untet frequently signifies among, between: 
04 fag mitt ben Suf^auem, I sat among the spectators. 
S(k xt6fnt i^n mitt nteine gteunbe, I count him among my friends. 

Rem, 4. Unter (M,-G,, under; O.-G,, and Gothic, undan) is probably 
allied to the Latin inter, and the Sanscrit antar= among, 

\ § 252. SSot {iefore, in front of, in the presence of, ante- 
cedent to): 

(Sr flanb tlOt bem $aufe, He was standing in front of the house. 

(Sr et{(i(^en Dot bem 9{i(^ter, He appeared before the judge. 

(Sr fam Dot <Sonnenaufgang, He came before sunrise. 

V Rem. 1. jQQt is rarely used with the accusative, except with its primary 
signification which refers to space (i. e., before, in front of) : 

Sr trat ))0r feinen Slitter, He took his place before the judge. 

\ Rem, 2. J80t is frequently used (with the dative) in expressing the cause 
of a feeling or action : 

@ie tocintc Uor grenbe, She wept from joy. 

®r jittcrte Dor Slngfl, He trembled from fear. 

Rem, 3. SBOt and fiit formerly had the same signification. In the Lower- 
German dialects to 1 is yet used to a great extent for f il r. 



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892 



THE PBEPOSITION. 



[§ 253, 254. 



Germany. 
He arrived between nine and ten 

o^clock in the morning. 
The enemy sowed tares in (the midst 

of) the wheat. 



\§ 253. Btt'if'^^tt {between^ hetwixt, in the midst of) 

SSelgtcn licgt gtoifl^ttt granfrci^ Belgium lies between France and 

unb 2)eutff^Ianb^ 
6r Tain stoif^en neun unb je^n 

U^r bed 3J2orgend an, 
ir^er getnb fdete Unltaut sioif^eit 
ben SSeijen," 

Rem, 3t0tf4tn is a contraction from the Middle-German en-swiKhen 
(O.-G., in zwisken, which is from theO.-G. adj. 2tii-t8e=)toetfa^= twofold). 
Obs, The following verses contain the propositions that govern the dative 
and accusative cases : 

9ltt ^ett tStottb. 
9liif 2)i(i^ MtdTet otif !Z>tr tofiirt oft metn Kug' fn f it Ser fiuf!; 
an !D ir ^aft* i^, an !Di(3(^ fcnb* \^ mow^ (Skfu^I ott« fro^ct Btufil 
^ut)i^ fe^et, in 2) it frnbrt meine ^^ontajle ^itl (Scenen, 
llnter b i e fie grni \i^ trdumrt, imtcr b e n e n bort bie f(3|>6ncn 
©eelett/ fiber b i e f c Crb* cr^oiet, fibct ©rfibrni wanbeln. 
Oor m td(» tritt bann, »or mir jle^t bonn ber (£ntf(^Iu§ red^t gut }U "^anbtUu 
Swiidun b i e f e n etrdud^en fifi' i(^r iMidan f i e flie^U fid^ 2)ein @tra|)U 
Kcbot mid(^ ftnft/ tuben mir ru^t ficr bie 8rreunbin metncr SBa^l; 
^intttmi^ jlia ^utdefc^Uf^enr flonb f!e lad(»enb Winter mi r, 
Unb »tr rcbcn ]9on ben 8temetw unfren fiieben unb 9on X)tr. 



6. Bemarks upon 

(Senterfungen fiber 

§ 254. The following is an 
ositions, with their primary 
they govern : 

2ln (ace. and dat.X on, at. 

onflatt (see fiatt). 

auf (ace, and dat), on, npon. 

au0 (dat)y out, out of. 

auger (dat,), outside of. 

ouger^lb (>en.), outside of. 

bei (dat,)f near, by. 

binnen (dat), within. ' 

bis (ace), until. 

bieSfeit (gen.), on this side o£ 

bur^ (ace,), through. 

CntgCgen (dat), against. 

cntlang (see (SngS), 

fflr (ace.), for. 

gegen (ace), against. 



Prepositions. 

bie a5or»5rter.) 

alphabetical list of prep- 
meanings and the cases 

gegenfibet (dat), opposite ta 

^alb, ^albcn, or ^olbcr (^cn.), in be- 
half of. 

(inter (occ), behind. 

in (ace, and dat,), in, into. 

inner^alb (gen.), inside of. 

ienfeit (gen.), on the other side ot 

fraft (gen,), by the power of. 

l&ngS (gen. and dat.), along. 

laut (gen.), by the wording of. 

mit (dat,), with. 

mittelS, nitttclfl (gen.), by tho 
means of. 

nac^ (dat), after. 

neben (ace, and dat,)y near. 



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255-257.] REMARKS UPON PREPOSITIONS. 393 

nebfl (dat.)f together with. unter (ace, and dat), under. 

oh (daQ, over. iinter^alb (^ew.), on the under side of. 

cber^alb C9'««0» ^^ the upper side, untocit (g^-)* ^^^ far from. 

o^^nc (ace), without. tJcrmitteW, toemiittclfl (see mtttcle). 

\ammt (dat,), together with. toemiSge (gen.)y by means of. 

fcit (dat.), since. tJOtt (dat,), from. 

fonber (ace), without. toor (ace and dat.), before. 

patt (gen,), instead of. »fi^renb (jen,), during. 

tro(5 (gen. and dat,), in spite of, t»cgcn (jgen,), on account of. 

fiber (ace, and efa/.), over. tPtber (ace), against. 

um (occ), around. JU (dat,), to. 

um-toiHen (^en.), for the sake of. gufolgc (gen, and dat.), according ta 

unbcfc^^abct (gen.), without injur- gunfic^fl (dat.), next to. 

wnfcrn (gen.), not far from. [ing. jutDtbcr (dat.), against. 

imgca^tct(yen.), notwithstanding, jwif^en (ace, and dat,), between. 

§ 255. With the following exceptions all prepositions 
jyrecede the nouns they govern: 

Exc, 1. $alb (^ albe r, ^alben), and ^utoiber a/toays follow the noun. 

JSjtc. 2. (Sntgegen, gt g enilb errand 3 unS ^fl ttfua% follow the noun4 

Exc, 3, ©cmSg, na^, ungca^tct, tt)tficn, andgufotgemay pre- 
cede or follow the noun. 

Rem. When g uf 1 g c follows the noun, the noun is put in the dative case. 

Exc. 4. The noun stands between the two parts of U m-t» 1 1 1 C n. 

§ 256. In German, as in English, many adverbs of 
time and place maybe used as indeclinable substantives, 
and may be preceded by prepositions : 

@9 tfl m(^t toett t) n f^itt. It is not far from here. 

93 n ba an, From that time forward. 

©r ifl a II f ^eiltt bcrfagt, He is wigaged for to-day. [morrow. 

^ongeftentbidiibemorgett^ From yesterday till day after to- 

§257. Some prepositions may govern an entire subor- 
dinate sentence (instead of a single word) ; when thus 
used, they have rather the character of conjunctions 
than of prepositions : 

^x ging toeg, ol^ttt und ettoa9 ba^ He went away, without saying any- 

ton 5U fagen, thing about that, 

(gr gejlanb 3ltte«, aujet tt>cr fdtic He confessed everything, with theex- 
iKRitf ^ulbtgen f cicit^ ception of who his accomplices were. 

(Sr lobte mx^, fiaii mx^ ixi tabein, He praised me instead of blaming me. 

R2 



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394 THE CONJUNCTION. [§ 258-260. 

§ 258. Many of the idiomatic differences between the 
English and the German languages are owing to the 
fact that many verbs, adjectives, and nouns are con- 
ceived in such different ways as to require different 
prepositions after them in completing predications : 

3c^ g ( a u b e att einen ® ott, I believe in one God. 

@ritlret^att®ittem^akrarm He is rich in landed estates, but 

att Baarcm (9e(be, poor in ready money. 

CSin Wlan^tl m ®tlt>, A lack of money. 

2)er @efangene ijl flol) anf feme The prisoner is proud of his inno- 

Unf^ulb^ cence. 

er ijl fe^r bcgiertg anf Sllbcnteuer, He is very desirous o/" adventures. 

2Ba« toirb m§ i^m » e r b e n I What will become of him ? 

Sf^Btn gan) erflaunt iiiet fein I am quite astonished at his be- 

©ctragen, havior. 

(Sr ifl g r S \)m ©eflalt. He is large in size. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

(Sal 8iitl>ctoort.) 
§ 259. Only a few Conjunctions are primitive words, as: 

Uubf and (Af,-G,, unt, unde; O.-G., endi, enti, anti; Anglo-Saxon, and) 
%htX, but (M.-G.j aber, afer ; O.-G., afur, nfiir ; G^oM., afar [from af=ab]). 
fOhtXf or (M,'G,y Oder; O.-G,, odar; Goth., aiththau). 

Rem, Of a few conjunctions the origin is "«o longer feW (§ 49, 2), as: 
SSctitt/ neither (from M,'G,, en — weder, ne — weder=not of the two; the 

negative particle ne has been dropped). 
(EnttOCtitt/ either (Jf.- G,, eintwSder, from ein — de — ^weder=one of the two). 

§ 260. Almost all conjunctions are, (1) either adverbs 
or prepositions, used as conjunctions: or (2), deriva- 
tives and compounds of adverbs and prepositions with 
each other or with nouns or pronouns : 

^a er xxx^i fcrtig trar, mugte er As he was not ready, we had to go 

ottein ge^cn, alone. 

SEBStl^tnb @ie lefcn, n?erbe t^ While you are reading, I will write. 

Wreti&en, 

CSr gtng na(^ ber @tabt; lta4t)ettt He went to the city after he had 

er ben SBrief gef^rieben ^atte, written a letter, 

(tc^ fanb i^n ni^t; oigld^ i^ ^^n I did not find him, although I look« 

lange fuc^te^ cd for him a long time. 



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§ 261.] 



THE CONJUNCTION. 



395 



Bern. From the £ict that they serve also to connect subordinate with main 
sentences, relative pronouns may also be considered as conjunctions : 

SSo ifl bad $U^, toeld^td ^ie I^eute Where is the book which you bought 
iU^orgen gefauft \)ai>tn, tliis morning. 

§ 261. The most important Conjunctions are the fol- 
lowing : 



abcr, but. 

allein, but. 

cil9, as, then, when. 

aid ob, as though. 

alfo, consequently. 

an^, also. 
^ auf bag, in order that, 
^augcrbem, moreover. 

betoor, before. 

bid; until 

ba, since. 

ba^cr, therefore. 

bagcgen, on th6 contrary. 

bamit, in order that. 
^barum, therefore. 

bag, that, in order that. 

^enn, for, because. 

bennoc^, notwithstanding. 

bcd^alB, therefore. 
V bcjfcnungea^tct, nevertheless. 
Vbcd»cgen, therefore. 

bo^, yet, stilL 

C^C, before. 

fattd, in case that. 

ferncr, further. 

folgtid^, consequently, 
^glcic^^too^r, however, yet. 

(>ingegcn, on the contrary. 

tnbetn, while, because. 

inbcjfen, however, yet. 

JC nac^^bcm, according as. 

{ebo^, however. 



mitbin, consequently. 

nad^bem, after. 
, nidt^tdbeftotocnigcr, nevertheless. 

nur, but, only. 

nun, therefore. 

ob, whether, if. 

obgletcfi (obftjj^on, obtoo^I)* al- 

o^ne, except, [though, though. 

fett, since. 

jcitbcm, since. 

o^ngea^tet, notwithstanding. 

fo, thus, therefore, if. 

fobalb al9, as soon as. 

fonp, otherwise. 

ilberbied, besides. 

ilbrigcnd, furthei-moro. 

ungead;tet, notwithstanding. 

um, in order (to). 

bielmc^r, rather. 

tofi^rcnb, while. 

toam, when. 

n)ei(, because. 

»enn, when, if. 
>tpenn au(]t^, although. 
SitDenngteic^, although. 
, totm\<i)on, although. 

text, as, when. 

, n>ten)o^(, although. 

tuo, where, when. 
-tDofcnt, in case that 
gu bcm, besides. 
Itoax, indeed. 



Rem, The most important corresponding conjunctions are the following! 
balb — ba(b, sometimes — sometimes. 

errtwcber— cbcr, dther— or. 

ntd)t— {onbcm, , not— but. 



the— the. 



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THE CONJUNCTION. 



[§263. 



itic^t nur— j 

xix6fi oHcin— V fcnbcni au6f, 

ni^t Blog— ) 

»cbcr— no^, 
tt)ic— fo, 



not — but ratfier. 

not only — but also. 

although — still, 
as well — as. 
partly — ^partly, 
neither— nor. 
OS — so. 



§ 263. Conjunctions may be divided, with reference 
to the grammatical office they perform in connecting 
sentences, into two classes : 

1. Co-ordinative ConJunctionSy which are used to con- 
nect equally independent sentences : 

1. The following seven co-ordinative conjunctions cause no alteration in 
the position of the verb in the sentence: 

Unb, abcr, fonbcm, fo»c^t-at«. 

cbcr, aUcin, bcnn, 

S3tr gtngen na6) ^aUt, itttb toon We went to Halle, and from there 

ba gingctt tt)ir na6) ^^PM, we went to Leipzic. 

2Sir gingcn iric^t ncaif ^rag, fans We did not go to Prague, but we 
btm tovc gingen na6f Tliin6)tii, went to Munich. 

Rem, %htv, however, may also be placed after the subject, or after the verb : 
S)cr SSatcr a B c r f ^rac^ But the father spoke— 

Xtc ©traug ^at glitgel, er !ann The ostrich has wings, but he can 
ahtx nid^t flicgcn, not fly. 

2. The following co-ordinative conjunctions are usually placed at the be- 
ginning of the sentence or clause ; when so placed they cause the subject to fol* 
low the verb in simple tonses, and to follow the auxiliary in. componnd tenseg 
(see § 280) : 

beStoegen, 
(ic)— bcflo, 
(bcflo)— bcjlo, 
boc^, 
ettttoebcr, 
fatt«, 

folgli^, 

glet^too^I, 

^ingcgcn, 

tnbcffcn, 

tnfofcrn, 



audf, 

au§erbcm, 

Balb— fcalb, 

bagcgcit, 

tafftx, 

barum, 

bemnad^, 

benno^, 

bcjfcnungca(?^tct, 

bcs^alb, 

bc8glei(icn, 



iebo^, 
mtt^in^ 
niii^tdbeflotoeniger, 

nt(^t nur, 
nt^t attein, 
nic^t Mog, 
nur, 

o^ngca^tct, 
t^eile— t^eU«, 
ilberbie«, 
ilbrigen«, 



'■' ) 

I, ) 



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§263.] THE CONJUNOTIOK. 397 

tt)fi^>rcnb, (tocbcr)— ncd^, jtoar. 

S)ie @onne \6)t\\ii, b a ^ e r ift t9 The sun shines, therefore it is so hot. 

^ a U m ^attt Ct bae g C f a (J t— Scarcely had he said that— 

2. Svhordinative Conjxcnctioiu^ which are used to con- 
nect subordinate to principal sentences ; they cause the 
verb to be placed at the end of the subordinate sen- 
tence: 

%Uf '\t nad^bem, ungeac^tet^ 

^ ol3 oB, nad^bem, ttS^rcnb, 

auf bag, nun, tpann, 

bct>or, ob, »cU, 

bis, obglci^, »cnn, 

ba, obft^ion, »enn nic^^t, 

bamit, obn)c^(, toenn au^, 

bag, feit, wic, 

c^c, feitbcm, njicwo^t, 

fatt«, fobalb a(«, »o, 

tm gatt bag, jo oft al«, toofcrn, 

inbcm, fo (ange a(8, j^ar, 

(Sd tvar fd^on fe^r fpat, aU t^ na(^ It was already very late when I 
$aufe ! a m, came home. 

Rem. 1. In subordinate sentences the auxilaries of compound tenses and 
the simple tenses of the potential verbs are placed after the main verb : 
/ @(|e toir nac^ $aufe c^efommen Before we had come home, it had 
toarttt, ^atte e9 \^txi angefangen abeady begun to rain, 
gu rcgncn, 
Rem, 2. When the compound tenses of the potential verbs are used in sub- 
ordinate sentences, the auxiliary of these verbs is placed between the nomi- 
native and the infinitive of the main verb (see § 131 , Rem, 2, § 282, Rem, 1) : 
(Sr fagt, h^^ er e9 ni^t ^ a t f tn« He said that he had not been able 
ben !5nnen, to find it 

Rem, 8. When bll§ is omitted, the natural order of the words is preserved : 
3^ glanbe er ifl no(!^ nic^t ange« I think that he has not arrived yet. 
tommen. 
Rem, 4. If tOttttt is omitted, the order of words in the subordinate sentence 
is the same as in interrogative sentences («ee § 280, 4) : 

SBenn i(!^ bic 3cit bagu ^attc (or If I had the time (or had I the time), 
Wtte t^ bic 3ett boju), f o toilrbc I would like very much to go to 
i^ fe&r (jern mit 3^ncn bcutc Potsdam with you to-day. 
na(^ ^ot«bam ge^cn, 



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398 THE CONJUNCTION. [264-266. 

Bemarks upon Conjunctions. 

(Scmcrfunflctt ul&cr bie Sinbctoortcr.) 
Obs. The number of words that perform the office of conjunctions is veiy 
large, and their correct use must be learned mostly by practice. We give 
below remarks upon the signification and use of some of those which the 
English-speaking person would be most apt to use erroneously. 

§ 264. Itllb (and) is employed almost entirely as in 
English : 

2)cr SSatcr unb ber @o^n, The fether and the son. 

Rem, In a few cases, however, the German idiom does not permit the direct 
traiislation of and by U tt b; as : 

How can you go out and not take SBie !5nnett @ie au^ge^en, oi)m 

him with you? t^n mitjutic^mcii. 

He became better and better, (gr tourbc i m m c r Bcff er. 

It became hotter and hotter, @8 tt>urbc i m m c r ^cigcv. 

§265. Slber, aUcin, fonbcrn, tiklmtf)x (hut): 

Hem. 1. ^HCttt indicates a contradiction, in some degree, to the statement 
in the preceding sentence, or of the consequences which might foUow from it ; 
ahtt simply indicates something different from the preceding statement; 
abcr can always be used instead of aUcin, but aUcin can not always be 
used instead of a b c r : 

3^ ^offtc C0, affCin (or at cr) id(^ I hoped for it, but I found myself 
fanb m\6) getdufc^t, mistaken. 

Rem. 2. @0nbCttt is only used after a negative sentence; it indicates that 
the second sentence corrects an error in the first ; Qbtt is used (after nega- 
tive sentences even) when no contradiction exists between the two sentences : 
Sr befic^tt C8 nidbt, fOttbertt cr He does not order it, but he de- 

toiin\6ft C0, sires it. 

dx Bcfic^tt C8 (itoax) ni(?^t, after He does not order it (it is true), but 
cr tt>ilnfc^|t c«, he desires it. 

Rem. 3. SJitltttCl^C is closely allied in signification and use to f n b e r n, 
but is often more emphatic or definite in meaning : 

3(if\iXx6}tt\f}nnx6)t,))itimtfH^tx* I do not fear him, but. rather I 
a(i^tt xdf x\}n, despise him. 

§ 266. %U, tX>it, mm, mm, are used as follows: 

1. As an adverbial conjunction, alS {whe^i) refers only 

to past time : 

?IW »ir in Serftn aniamcn, n^ar Mr. Kraft had ahready left for Dres- 
den Sraft fc^on nac^^ 3)rc«bcn den when we arrived in Berlin. 
abflercifl, 



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§ 266.] THE CONJUNCTION. 399 

Rem. 1. ^ I d (than) is used after the comparative degree of adjectives or 
adverbs: 

§eiite ifl ba8 SBcttcr mitbcr To-day the weather is milder than 
al9 C« gcpcrn toax, it was yesterday. 

Rem, 2. %l9 bag (preceded by ^ u) gives a negative signification to tho 
subordinate sentence which it introduces : 

C^r ifl ) u !(ug ali ha^ er an ®t* He is too intelligent to believe in 
f))en{ler glaui^en foQte, ghosts. 

Rem, 3. After a negation or an expression eqiuvalent to a negation, dl§ 
signifies exciy)t : 

Sflx(i)i9 itennt er fein^ (d§ feinen He calls nothing his own, except his 

gilittermantel (@ci^.), knightly mantle. 

2Bcr f n fl tfl ©c^^ulb baran, al§ Who else is to blame for it, except 

3^r ill ©icn? (@(^^.) you in Vienna? 

Rem, 4. 9 ( 6 is often tised interchangeably with toiC^ as {see No. 2, below). 

Rem, 5. 81IS is often followed by olj or tt)C nn : 

(Sr fte^t au9 al^ oi er franf fet, He looks as though he is sick. 

^x fie^t aud aid )Otntt er Iran! He looks as though he were sick. 
»fire, 

2. SSie (a«), preceded by fo, is used in comparing to- 
gether two adjectives or adverbs in the positive degree : 

$cute ifl ba« SBcttcr nid^t fo ^cij3 The weather is not so hot to-day 
ttic C8 gcpcm »ar, as it was yesterday. 

Rem. 1. In Crerman, as in English, (o (as) is often omitted : 
w@et fliig X0\t bic ©ci^Iangcn, iinb " Be wise as serpents and harmless 
o^ne \oX\ii ttlit bic Xauben," as doves." 

Rem, 2. 91(1 is often nsed instead of tv i C : 
(58 i|l cbcn fo ^cig Ol^ (or Xoxt) c8 It is just as hot as it was yesterday, 
gcjlcrn »ar, 

Rem. 3. Used as an adverbial conjunction, tOiC signifies " Aotr," as : 
3^ »eig ttJtrflt^ nid(^t, X0\t \^ ba« I really do not know how to do 
mac^^cn fott, that. 

3. SSatttt {when) refers to time past, present, or future ; 
it is only used as a conjunction in introducing indirect 
questions : 

3^n)ei6^no<^^ni^t,tottl«lt©ir al>* I do not know yet when we will 
retfcn tt)erbcn, leave. 



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400 THE CONJUNCTION. [§ 267. 

4. SSctttt (when), when referring to time, applies only 
to indefinite time : 

SGBir fa^rcn ju SBcrg, We go to the mountains, we return 

SBir fommcn toicber, again, when the cuckoo calls, 

fSdtnU ber jtufuf ruft, when the songs awaken. 

aBciw crtoa^cn bic Sicbcr (<S^.)/ 
Rem, SStntt is more generally used in hypothetical sentences, signifying if: 

SBenit bic ®Io(f ' foil aufcrfic^cn, If the bell is to come forth, the 
SWufi bic gorm in ©tilcfc gc^>cn (Sc^^O mould must be broken to pieces. 

"^ § 267. 2)amit, urn JU, auf ia^ {in order thaty in order to): 

Rem, 1. SD a m i t, originally an adverb (signifying therewith), when used as 
a conjunction, usually refers to the means of accomplishing a purpose : 

3^ bejirafc i^n, hamit cr [x6) U\* I punish him, that he may become 
fere, better (by it). 

'"^Rem, 2. When especial emphasis is to be laid upon the causal relation of 
bam it, bdtltttt is often placed at the opening of the main sentence, which 
precedes the subordinate sentence : 

Saturn eBen tei^t er ^cincm, Just for that reason does he lend to 

S)amit er jlct8 gu gebcn ^abe (?cff.) nobody, that he may always have 

something to give. 

N Rem, 3. 2)amtt nic^t frequently signifies lest or that not : 

S^ fage bir eS noiJ^maU, baratt I say it to you once more, lest you 
bu c« n i (^ t toergiff cjl, should forget it. 

Re?n, 4. ^uf bagis now rather antiquated : 

rrS^re SSater unb SJhitter, anf ha{} " Honor thy father and thy mother, 
C3 bir njo^t gcOe auf @rben," that it may be well with thee in 

the land." 

Rem. 5. The single conjunction hdj} is frequently used for a uf bag: 
^(eibt mtift in C^nglanb, btt| ber Do not remain in England, that the 
©rite nic^t fein fiolje« ^erj an Briton may not feast his proud 
Surcm Unglild tocibe (®(3^0/ heart upon thy misfortune. 

Rem, 6. When a shorter expression is desired, UVX — Jll (with an infinitive) 
ii frequently used instead of a U f b a |j : 

S<i} bcpraf e i^n, itm i^n in bcffcm. I punish him to make him better. 
Rem, 7. Uot p is also used after an adjective or adverb preceded by gQ : 

dx ifl p ebc(; itttt ft^ iu rS^en, lie is too noble minded to avenge 

himself. 



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§ 268, 269.] 



THE CONJUNCTION. 



401 



whole satisfied, still there were 
many things to be found fault with. 
I know it, though no one of you in- 
formed me of it. 



§ 268. OHlti(Sf, obfi^ott, ohmffl, mm%lti(Sf, mm \<ifon, 

toenil dUif {though^ althougit) : 

Rem, 1. When the subordinate sentence precedes the main sentence, the 
latter is usually introduced by fo^ followed by bOd^ or btnitO^ (still)'' 

D(g(et4 ^^ Se(>rer im ©anjen gu^ Although the teacher was upon the 
fricbcn toax, fo toax bo(J^ man* 
^c« Singeinc gu tabcin, 
3c^ tvetg ts, obglei^ (or dimfjIO 
Reiner bon 3^nen mi^ babon 
benac^ri^ttgt ^at, 

\ Rem. 2. OB— glctci^ and totttn gtci^ often take a pronoun or other 
monosyllabic word between their parts : 

Ob t^ gld^ d^f^^dt ffobt — Although I have said — 

\Rem. 3. SBcTtTt — a 11^ often signifies even if; the two words are often 
separated, or reversed: 

2)cr 95crfu(^ war noii) rmmtx rci^ 
lic^ belo^nt, toetttt ttlt^ nur eitt 
Zi)txl bc« SScrf^rc^enS crfilttt 
»urbc (B6f,), 
!S)a9 fonnte gefdtie^en, ait^ tottttl 
®uflab abolf jc. (@d?.)f 
(but) SBcmi cr attt^ alt ijt, fo ijl bo^ 
fein ©eifl jugcnbU^, 



The attempt was still richly re- 
warded, even if only a part of the 
promise was fullfilled. 



That might have taken place, even 
if Gustavus Adolphus, etc. 

Although he is old, still his spirit is 
youthfuL 



§ 269. ^alftt, barum, MJfalh, htStotitn, alfo, folglii^, 

imM(Sf, mitffin {conaequently, therefore) : 
Rem, 1. 2)fi(|tt has reference rather to the physical cause : 
Xtx ©c^nee t{l auf ben ©ebtrgen The snow has melted upon the 
gefci^moljcn ; \^^%tt ftnb bic mountains; therefore the rivers 
gtiiffe ongefc^tDonen, have risen. 

Rem,'2. !S)arum, bed^alb, b e 9 n> e O e n, refer more to tlie moral than 
to the physical cause: 

@8 gcflet i^m ni^t mc^r untcr ben 
Wita\^tn, ^^\^tt (or be^toegen) 
gog er fi^ in bie (Stnfomfeit gu^ 

(Sr i{l su let^tftnnig^ beilftaO !ann 
id) gar nid^t mit i^m gufrieben 
fein, 

Rem. 3. SD a r U m is used in a most general way, to indicate a physical, 
moral, or logical cause : 

(S« ifl \6f^nt9 %SMtx ; bontm It is fine weather, therefore I will 
ge^e xif f)>aiieren, go and take a walk. 



He no longer enjoyed human so- 
ciety, therefore he retired to sol- 
itude. 

He is too trivial, therefore I can 
not be at all pleased with him. 



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402 THE CONJUNCTION. [§ 269-271. 

Obt. Xaxnm is sometimes contracted into brum: 
(Sine 2)urc^Iauc^|ti0fett lagt cr fi^ He has himself called "his Excel- 
ncnncn ; bruttt mug cr @o(ba* lency," therefore he must be able 
ten ^altctt fSnnen (@t^|.), to have his soldiers. 

Bern. 4. SHfo^ folfili^, btmua^/ mitlftftt/ indicate rather a logical conse- 
quence : 

(Sr ffat ed feI6{l get^an, unb faun He did it himself, therefore he can 

alfo 9ltemanb tabein, blame nobody, 

^ir flub SRenfd^en, folgU^ P^^ "VVe are men, therefore we are mor- 
ttJtr |lerl&li(!^, taL 

Obs, 1. SemUU^ (^^^ ^^4) ^ frequentlj equivalent to according to that: 
dx i{l gefiem abgeretfl, uub fonn He started yesterday, and may con- 
btmna^ ^^U^^ an!ommen, seqnently arrive to-day. 

Obs, 2. 9^it](tlt indicates that the conseqaent is included in or grows nat- 
urally out of the preceding statement : 

Wlm ^ruber !ommt ^eute ^benb My brother does not come this eren- 
tddfi, mit^tlt {tub U?ir oQein, ing, so we will be alone. 

% 210.^tt>t>X,t}ft (iefore): 

Hem, 1. SC^Ot refers only to time ; cjt may also express a preference or 
choice : 

8cto0r(orc5c)er btc@tabtbcrlic6, Before he left the city. 
(E(t x^ mir bad fjef alien laffe, toxU Before I put up with that, I will 
id^ Ueber auf jebcn ctt»aigcn SSor* rather renounce every possible ad- 
t^eil terjitjf^ten, vantage. 

JRem, 2. Sc^Ot is now much less used than tffU 

Item. 3. The comparative degree tf^tt {sooner) is sometimes placed in the 
sentence preceding the one containing tf^t or htt}tt t 

S)iriRi^t8 c^tr gu fagen, Bebor To say nothing to you, before twelve 

jtoiJIf Xagc gcfc^^wunben (ftnb), days are past. 
^0^ e(t( fc^Unge ^e((ud mx6) And may Tellus swallow me down, 
^inab, t(e x6f meinen @ib tocr« rather than that I should break 
letjte (@^.)r ^7 oath. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes n i c^> t is added, pleonastically, after t^t f especially is 
this done when there is a negative in the preceding main sentence : 

SJ^an foU ut(!^t fril^er auf^Sren^ One should not cease before the 
Ctt bie $dnbe nid^t erla^mcn, hands become weary. 

^§ 271. gattg, im gatte (U^), m\txn (in case that, if) : 
Hern, These forms are especially appropriate when their use would prevent 
an unpleasant repetition of W C U n (i/) in the same sentence. 

36) n)ill'« 2)tr tei^cn, f allS 2)tt I will loan it to you, in case that 
mir'S balb tt>icbergebcn tannfl, you can soon return it to me. 



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§272-274.] THE CONJUNCTION. 403 

§ 272. SBo {where) is also used referring to time {when) : 
^ennfl bu baS Sanb, too bic 3itro* Do you "know the land where the 

ncn Milken (®0f citrons bloom ? 

3n bcr ^txt, too— At the time, when— 

Hem, SBo was formerly much used instead of n) e n n ; this signification is 
now given mostly in rather short and in fixed expressions, as : 

SBO m(i^t ; m i^ md^>t irrc, If not ; if I am not mistaken. 

\ § 273. IteBrigeuS, iiitthki, in bem {moreover.hesid^s) : 

(gr tfl filr fcin Sifter Hug, iltrigCttS He is shrewd for his age ; moreover, 
ijl cr fitter aU @ie gtauben, he is older than you think. 

Hem, UtbtXhit^ and Jtt bCW are more specific than fib r t g c n «♦ 

§ 274. ^etttt; id, ittbeot/ tOtil {because^ for yasy since) : 
Rem. 1. 2)t]ttt gives rather the explanation of a statement : 
3^ ge^e nic^t aud, betttt e^ regnet I do not go out, for (t. e., as you see; 
forttiofi^renb, it keeps raining continually. 

Rem, 2. SBtfl (because) answers to the question toamttt ? {why ?) : 
2B a r u m ge^en @ie nic^^t ayx^ ? Why do you not go out ? 
SBtil e8 f ortwS^rcnb rcgnet, Because it keeps raining continually. 

Rem, 8. 2) e n n is frequently used to introduce explanatory sentences that 
are interposed between the words of main sentences : 

^6i bin — benn »arum foil id^ eS I have been— for why shall I deny 
ISugnen— fe^r pd^tg gctoefen, it— very industrious. 

Re:m, 4. 2) C 11 It (meaning thari) is not used now as much after compara- 
tives as it was formerly ; its present use in this signification is rather con- 
fined to dignified composition : 

„3Keinc ©ilnbe i|l grSger, bcnn fic "My punishment is greater than I 
inir tocrgebcn tuerbcn m6ge", can bear" (Gen, 4, 13). 

Rem. 6. 2) e n n is, however, frequently used to prevent the repetition of al^ : 
3(J^ befu(^C t^n je^t tne^r alO I visit him now more as a friend 
greunb, bCnU ale Slrjt, than as a physician. 

Re:tn, 6. 2) cntt is often used expletively, especially in questions: 

2Ber !ann eS i^m beim gef agt ^aben ? Who can have told it to him ? 
Ohs, Thus used, b C n it does not receive an emphatic tone of voice. 
Rem, 7. ®C^ though primarily an adverbial conjunction of time (signifying 
when, [see § 266, 4, and dl§^ § 263, 2]), is sometimes used to express the logical 
cause, especially when the main sentence contains a question : 

®a er nt(!^t gcfommcn ijl, tnu^ er As he has not come, he must be 

fran! fetn, sick. 

2Bie famet t^r bur^ baS SBaffer, How did you come through the wa- 
b(t ^o6^ ber ©trorn bie Sriicfe ter, since the stream has carried 
f ortgefft^rt [M t] ? (©*.) the bridge away ? 



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404 THE INTERJECTION. [§275. 

Rern* 8. 3ltbtttt^ like hd, is primarilj a conjanction of time; it also is used 
to express the logical cause : 

3ttbettt er aber alfo geba^te, {te^e! But while he was reflecting, behold! 

ba erf^ien i^m etn (Sngel, an angel appeared to him. 

S(i} !ann t» bit ni^t geben, inbettt I can not give it to you, for I have 

i^ t» i^m f^on frl^^ct bcrfpro* ah-eady promised it before to him. 
^en ^abe, 



THE INTERJECTION. 
(2)ad Snqiflitbnitg^koort.) 

§ 275. Among the principal interjections, or words 
used as such, are the following: 

1. Of joy, as : a^ I— ^a I— et I— juc^ (ju^^C I ^eifa I or ^o^ !)=AttmiA/ 

2. Of sorrow, as : a6) I— »C^ I or o WCl^ I=a/a5/— Ictber l=mfortunately I 

3. Of astonishment, as: a6) \—ai) !— t^ I— ^ola I— ^o^jtaufenb I 

4. Of laughter, as: \)ai)a\ 

5. Of aversion, as : p\m I p\uV l=/)sAaw/— pc \=JieI 

Rem. 1. The word (0 ! is used in a great variety of connections, as, for ex- 
ample, to indicate astonishment, inquiry, assent, or satisfaction. 

Rem, 2. Many words that belong to other parts of speech are frequently 
used with the force of interjections, as : 

@ut ! good ! SSo^lan ! be of good courage I 

$eU I hail ! ©ottlob ! God be praised! 

S5ortt>firt« ! forward I ®ott bctoa^re ! God forbid! 

$alt ! halt ! stop ! ^bieu ! Good-by ! 

Reni, 3. The interjections ^eil ! and XOti^\ I and others, are followed by the 
dative case, as : 

SBo^I (fei) t^m ! May it be well with him! 

$cil (fci or toerbc) bir ! Hail to thee I 

Rem. 4. Some interjections may be followed by the genitive case, as : 
£)(», be9 %\itiXin I Oh, the fool ! $fui, ber @4^^c ^ Pshaw I the shame ! 

Rem. 5. Sometimes the genitive is replaced by the preposition ilber, as*. 
$fut, liber bie @(i^anbe ! Pshaw ! for shame ! 

Rem, 6. As most inteijections are elliptical expressions, some of them, 
may be followed by a noun in either of the cases, as : 

O, %^t>x \ 0, bcr 2:^or I Oh, the fool I 

O, bcm X^orcn (!ann t» vx^i fd^abcn) I 
O, ben X^oren (!enne i^) I 



it a 



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§ 276-278.] ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 405 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

(2)ie SBortfoIfitO 

§ 276. In nothing is the genius of a language more 

strongly manifest than in the arrangement of words in 

sentences. The two following are among the most 

prominent characteristics of the German sentence : 

1. The order of words in main sentences differs from that in subordinate 
sentences : 

C^riftfranf, He is sick. 

(Sr tann nid^t au9ge^en, toeil er He can not go out, because he is 
frantift^ sick. 

2. There is a marked tendency to present the sentence as a unit — that is, 
with the modifying and limiting words and clauses enclosed between thec^BukL 
and jKl^ilicaie in main sentences, and between the subject an d copula in subor- 
dinate sentences : 

$crr S33d6 f^t (fcincm fitteflen Mr. Weiss has to-day given to his 

@0^n, SBU^clm, bic UfetC %U^* son William the last edition of the 

gafcc bcr bcutf ^cn Sitcratur*®e'» History of the German Literature 

\6}x6)tt t)On ^cinri^ ^rj, ^eutC, by Heinrich Kurz, as a Christmas 

ol8 SSct^naci^tSgef c^cnl)gC8Ct^lt^ present. 

SBic WoHten geflcm na<if $ot«bam We wished to go to Potsdam yester- 

ge^en,b)dt])a^S3etttr(fiirbiefe day, because the weather was so 

3a^rc8jctt fo ganj augcrorbent* very unusualy beautiful for this 

Ii(i|^ ff^i^n) iatf season of the year. 

§ 277. The essential parts of a sentence are the suijecty 
the jpredicate^ and the copula. 

1. The subject is the nominative of the verb. 
V 2. The predicate expresses what is affirmed of the subject. 
\3. The copula is the inflected part of the verb. 
Hem. The predicate is often included in one word with the copuk. 

§ 278. In main indicative sentences the regular order 
\a: (l)jthe stibject; (2), the copula; (d), the predicate. 



Subject, Copula. Predicate, 

2)a« SBettcr tjl f)n% 

The weather is hot. 

S)a« SBctter tvurbc ^eig, 

The weather became hot. 



Subject, Copula, Predicate, 

2)a8 Setter WeiH ^eig, 

The weather remains hot. 

$err ^aft tfl ctn ©eutfcJffci:^ 

Mr. Kraft is a German. 



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406 



ARBAKGEHENT OF WORDS. 



[§279. 



Subject. 

I 


Copula, 
have 


l^tdicate, 
read. 


Subject, 
2)a8 SBettcr 
The weather 


Copula, 
has 


Predicate, 

i)t\b <jctt)cfcn, 
hot been. 


S33ir 
We 


milffctt 
must 


toartcn, 
wait. 


SBtr 
We 


^aben 
have 


njartcn mfiffen, 
wait (must). 


He 


font 
arrived. 


an, 


He 


has 


anQtioxtttnttif 
arrived. 


2)ie $6gcl 
The birds 


fingen, 
sing. 




SBir 
We 


»crbcn 
shall 


fictocfcn fein, 
(been, be). 



§ 279. The object of the verb is placed between the 
copula and the predicate : 

Subject, Copula, Object, Predicate, 

S)cr ^aufmann ^at ba« $au8 Ucrlauft, 

The merchant has the house sold. 



He 

(Sr 
He 



fc^^rciBt 
copies 

fd^rciBt 
writes 



ben S3ncf 
the letter. 

ben S5rief, 
the letter. 



aB, 



3<if ^aBe ba8 S3u^ fletefcn, 

I have the book read. 

Rem. 1 . The object of a verb, whether direct or indirect, stands between 
the copula and the predicate (or after the copula when the copula and the 
predicate are combined into one word) : 

Subject. Copula, Object, Predicate, 

Qx tfl feincm ©ruber flcfolgt, 

He has his brother followed. 



dx 
He 


iff 
has 


cinee SSerBrcci^cne 
with a crime 


ancje!Iagttt)orben, 
charged been. 


3* 

I 


^aBe 
have 


nicinen grcunb 
my friend 


(urn %taiff (jcfragt), 
for advice asked. 


©tc 
They 


^aBcn 
have 


their scheme 


tnS SBcr! gefetjt, 
into execution carried. 


©tc 
They 


fetjten 
carried 


t^r $or^aBcn 
their scheme 


tnS SBcr!, 
into execution. 


They 


^tcltcn 
held 


ben 2)icB 
the thief 


&8t. 



Obs. In some phrases (as nm 8lat^ fragen, in8 SBerf fc^en, feP^alten) the 
words preceding the verb follow the same laws of position as the prefixes of 
separable compound verbs. 



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§ 279, 280.] ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 

Rem, 2. When there are two noans governed by a verb, the 
takes the precedence : 

Subject Copula, Personal noun. Object. 
2)er SSatcr ^at fcincm @o6nc cin S3u(^ 
The father has to his son a book 

2)cr Skater f(3^cnftc feincm @o^nc cin ^u^, 
The father presented to his son a book. 

@ic ^aUn ben ©encral bc8 ^od^toerrat^s 
Thej have the general v^rith high treason 


407 

personal noun 
Predicate. 
given. 




angeflagt, 
charged. 



Obs, But when particular emphasis is placed upon the personal noun, it is 
pkced after the noun referring to a thing : 

S)cr SSatcr ^at cin S3u^ fetnem ©Olftttt 9cf(3^cnft. 
Mem. 3. A personal noun in the accusative precedes one in the dative case; 

3^ f)aht i^rcn @o^n mcinem grcunbc cm^jfo^tcn, 
• I have your son to my friend recommended. 

Rem. 4. The oblique cases of personal pronouns precede other substantives 
(nouns or pronouns) in the oblique cases : 

3c^ ^abc i^m 3^rcn @o^n cnH)fo^tcn, 

I have to him your son recommended. 

3^ ^abc c8 3^rcm ©ruber 0cf^tdt, 

I have it to your brother sent. 

S^ l^abc i^m ba8 O^f^^St^ 

I have to him that said. 

Rem. 5. Of two personal pronouns in different oblique cases, the one in the 
accusative precedes the one in the dative or genitive case : 
3^ ^abc c9 t^m Qcfagt, 

I have it to him said. 

3^ fagtc c8 t^m, 

I said it to him. 

S(i) tt)crbc i^n 3^ncn toorjlcUcn, 
I shall him to you introduce. 

§ 280. The subject is placed after the copula in the 
following cases : 

1. In interrogative and exclamatory sentences. 

2. With the imperative mood. 

3. When an adverb or adverbial conjunction introduces a main sentence. 

4. When » c n n is omitted (see § 263, 2, Rem. 4). 

5. When the predicate introduces a sentence. 



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408 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



§ 280.J 



6. When the object of the verb (not being a relative pronocm) introduces 
a sentence. 

Copula, Subject, Predicate, 

3jl bcr3Wciif(^ flerbU(^? 



Is 



mortal? 





©aben @ic 
Have you 

©d^ctnt btc @onnc? 
Shines the sun? 

2SSrc cr 
Were he 

@cib i^r 
Be (ye) 

^Jomincn ©ic 
Come (you) 

ijl ba« ^n6), 
is the book. 

ifl bae SBcttcr 
is the weather 

fanit i^ 
can I 

SBarc ba« SBcttcr 
Were the weather 

tear bcr Xa^, 
was the day. 

ifl bae Scbcn, 
is life. 

mflffcn SM(c, 
must alL 

totUm tDtr 
will we 

^at bcr Wxi\), 
has bravery. 

'■ct). Copula, Subjec 

Jlann ^abc \6f 
man have I 

n fcnnc i^ 
n know I 


ba« S3ud) 
the book 


gclcfcn? 
read? 










bo(^ 
(only) 


gcfunb ! 
weU! 

aufmcrlfaml 






©tcr 
Here 

©cute 
To-day 

S)a^cr 
Therefore 

^Predicate,) 

mt 

Cold 

grttjl 
Earnest 

©tcrbcn 
Die 

Slbtreibcn 
Drive off 

©cjlcgt 
Conquered 

(Obji 
S)en2 
That 

3^ 

Hit 


balb 
soon 


totcbcr I 
again! • 








fc^rfcj^5n, 
very fine. 

m6)i trauen.. 
not trust 

fo^etfi, 

so hot 

(Object.) 




him 

ni^t 
not 


























tV- u-*^^ ^ — »-»«„:^-« 










t. 

ntc 
never 

ttt(^t, 
not. 


Predicate, 
^cfannt, 
known. 





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§ 281.] ARBANGEBIENT OF WORDS. 409 

§ 281. There is more definiteness in the position of 
adverbs and adverbial phrases in the German than 
there is in the English language : 

Bern. 1. Adverbs of manner stand immediatelj before the predicate (or at 
the end of the sentence, if the predicate is included in the copula): 



Subject, 


Copula, 


. Object. 


Adverb. 


Predicate. 


She 


has 


bas 2tcb 
the song 


t>otttcff(id^ 
admirably 


gefuttflcn, 
sang. 


@te 


fang 
sang 


bae Sicb 
the song 


tootttefflid^, 
admirably. 




She 








3c^ 

I 


^abc 
have 


him 


emfllid^ 
earnestly 


getoantt, 
warned. 


3* 

I 


(abe 
have 


it 


auf bicfc SBcifc 
in this way 


get^an^ 
done. 



Retn. 2. Adverbs of time or place precede adverbs of manner: 

@ic ^at ba8 2icb gejlcni W>cnb toortrcfflid^ ficfungcn, 
She has the song yesterday evening admirably sung. 

ffitr ^bcn in S5crlin fc^r angcnc^m gelebt, 

We have in Berlin very agreeably lived. 

Item, 3. Adverbs of time usoally precede adverbs of plac« (L. XXIV., 6)* 

SBirfinb tot toier Xagen in Berlin ongelommen, 
We have four days ago in Berlin arrived. 

JRem, 4. Of two or more adverbs of the same kind, as of time or place, the 
more particular usually follow the more general: 

@tctt)crbcn morgcn 3lbcnb uma^tU^r anlommen. 

They will to-morrow evening at eight o'clock arrive. 

<Sie fatten in Scrtin in 5>i!toria«=@tTa6c 9iumcro 20 gcwo^nt, 
They had in Berlin in Victoria-street number twenty resided. 

SBirWraicn ba8 SSud^ mrgenbs im^aufc pnbcn, 

We can the book nowhere in the house find. 

Exc, The adverbs of time \dfen (already^ n a d) (still) j cr jl (Jirst) may 
precede or follow a more definite adverbial expression of time, as : ^eute no(^, 
or ne6f ^eiite; morgen f(if|on, or \6)tn morgen; erfl (eute morgen,or l^cute 
^RoxQtn erf. 

Mem, 5. When adverbs have more special reference to a substantive, they 
moaUy precede it: 

@ogar fetnc Ocgttcr crfcnnen fetncn ©ert^ cm, 
Even his opposers recognize his worth. 

s 



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410 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. § 28i, 282.] 



Jtetn, 1. This inversion of the sabject and copala takes place also when the 
personal pronoun t^ is used expletivelj for the sabject : 

((Sd) koitbein®ekottter torn* There will a thonder-storm come. 

men, 
((Sd) finb Serbred^en ht^an* There have been crimes committed. 

Rem. 2. It also takes place when a relative sentence precedes a main sen- 
tence : 

S3er ed ifl, to e i g i d) m6)i, I do not know who he is. 

Retn. 3. Sometimes the subject precedes the copula in interrogative and 
exclamatory sentences : 

@ ott f ei bir gnSbig I God be gracious to thee! 

^t m9ge glil(f(i(^ fein ! May he be happy. 

§ 282. In subordinate sentences the general order is : 
(1), the svhject; (2)f'thej>redicaU; (3), the copiUa : 



3d(^tt)cie,ba6 
I know that 


Sulfject. 

ber 3»cnfd^ 

man 


Predicate, 
Pcrblid^ 
mortal 


Copuh. 
is. 


36) bcgreifc m6)t, xoaxum 
I understand not why 


er 
he 


f unjufrieben 
80 discontented 


UHir. 
was. 


S)cr3»ann, 
The man, 


ber 
who 


fofraul 
80 sick 


tear, 
was. 


3)er ^Imcrilonfr, 


ber 
who 




^eitte dtilatn, 
to-day arrived. 


jLUv xiiiioumm. 




9ft^nn 


bie@(i^»alben 
the swallows 




^tmtt>{trt9ate^ 
homeward fly. 






TT JiCU 




Rem, 1. When the compound tenses of the potential verbs, or of the verbs 
laffcu, ^cigcn, fc^cn, ^8rcn, ^c(fen(5€€§13l,/2em.2),are used in 
subordinate sentences with the infinitive of other verbs, the copula (auxiliary) 



is placed before the predicate or before the object of the verb : 



SSeit er ed nt^t (at t ^ u n !9nnen, 

Obgteidfl x^ i^m nt^t ^a6c a r b e i« 
ten^clfenbilrfen, 

©ertngere SBilrgcr, toeld^ SHx^i^ 
kfagen, toad i^nen S^oterlottb 
unb $erb (itttt Heb mac^en 
Wnnen (@(^.), 

3^ tt>ar iM fe^r getoo^nt, xax^ mtt 
mir fetbfl gu bef^Sfttgen, a(9 bag 
\&f mtt ^ufmerlfamfett ^litte ein 
tunflwer! betra^tcn. f oUen (@. ), 



Because he was not able to do it 

Although I was not permitted to 
help him work. 

Citizens froi& the lower classes, who 
possessed nothing that could make 
their country and their homes dear 
to them. 

I was too much in the habit of oc- 
cupying myself with my own 
thoughts, to consider a work of art 
with attention. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



§282-284.] ARBANGEMENT OP WORDS. 411 

Rem, For the sake of euphonj, the copula is often omitted when the verb in 
the subordinate sentence is in the perfect or pluperfect tense : 

3<i) t>er(or Itid^t ^e9, ba fotc^er I did not lose all, as such a friend 
^rennb im Unglild mtr QtUit* has remained to me in mymisfor- 
ben[ifi](@(^|.), tune. 

SBa9 toax mein ^anl baffir, bag What was the reward to me, that I, 
x6), cin trcuet gilrflcntnc^t, bctt a true servant of the prince, who 
!6i5(terfCu(!^ anf mi(i(^ gebfirbet had drawn upon myself the curse 
[^attc], bicfcn ^cg, ber nur i^n of the people, had made the princes 
grog gcma^t [^at], btc gilrflcn pay for the war which has made 
[^abe] laifitn laffen ? (8(^.) him alone great ? 

§ 283. Attributive adjectives usually precede the 
noun they qualify : 

2)er gute ^ann, The good man. 

Rem, 1. Very long attributive adjective clauses are frequently employed in 
the German language ; these are usually translated into English by subordi- 
nate relative sentences : 

C^iit (ber bentfdten ®pva6}t boU* Aforeigner(who is) well acquainted 

lommcn lunbtgcr) grcmbcr, with the German language. 

2)te (bem ^an^n fe^r ^(fame) The medicine that is very beneficial 
^rjnei, to the sick man. 

Rem, 2. Sometimes the attributive adjective is placed, as for the sake of 
emphasis, after the noun which it qualifies : 

SWcmoub a(« 2)U, foil bicfcn ^cg, Nobody but yourself shall end this 
ben \fiv6fttcl\6}ta, cnben (@^.)f fearful war. 
Rem, 3. For the sake of euphony, the attributive adjective clause may be 
placed, as in English, after the noun it qualifies ; in this case the attributive 
adjective is not inflected (§ 84, Less. X VIII, 1) : 

9ud^ man^en ^ann, Also many a man and many a hero, 

Unb man^en $clb, good in peace, and strong in war, 

3m grieben gut vas bom in the Swabian land. 

Unb^tmgctb, 

®ebar ba« @d^tt>abenl(mb (©^.)f 

§ 284. For the prepositions that foUow the tvhstantivej 
instead of preceding it, see § 255. 



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part Joitrtl); 



CONTADmvO 



VOCABULARIES. 



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I. PERSONAL PROPER NAMES. 

Rem, 1. In this list are included onlj the most usual of sach names as have 
different forms or different pronunciation in the German and English lan- 
guages. 

Rem, 2. A few proper names from the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew languages 
are also added. The final syllable is dropped from many Latin and Greec 
proper names. 



Vhtfbttt, (gen.— «)^ ffi., Ethelbert. 
abc'Ic or Slbclt'nc, —«,/., Adeline. 
Sl'bcl^cit, —8,/., Adelaide. 
3l'bo(f or %*tolpi}, —6, m,, Adolphus. 
SlcStulo^', —9, m,y Esculapius. 
Slcfo^',— 8, jw., Esop. 
5lga't^c,— n8,/., Agathe. 
«g'nc8,—,/., Agnes. 
Sl'Iari^, — 8f »».» Alaric. 
SW'bcrt or 3Ubrc^t, —8, m., Albert. 
5irc'^8,—,/., Alice. 
Sdfon'fo, —8, »n. Alphonso. 
Sltna'Uc, — n8, f., Amelia. 
5lnbrc' a8, — , wi., Andrew. 

Sin' ton, — 8, !«., Anthony. 
Slu'gufi, —8, »!., Augustus. 
Stugu'flc, — n8,/., Augusta. 
^tVH% -zi, m.j Baldwin. 
ScUfar', —8* »t., Belisarius. 
Slon'f a, — 8, /. , Bhmche. [fiice. 
Sonifaj', — cn8, or — iu8, w., Boni- 
55ourbo'ncn,p?., Bourbons. 
Crigif te, — cn8,/., Bridget. 
(SaDlin^ —9, m., Calvin. 
C^arlot'tc,— n8,/., Charlotte. 
Clob'toig, —8, m., Clovis. 
C5ri'fhl8, — t, m., Christ. 
CIc'mcn8, — , »!., Clement. 
SiOnQ^'^ — , m,, Dionysins, Dennis. 

2)otot^ec\— n8,)'^ ' "^ 

K'^W^arb^-H?, m., Eberhard. 
(g'buarb, —8, »»., Edward, 
(glcono're, — n8, /., Eleonora. 
SIi'a8, —,»«., Elisha. 



eU'fa,— 8, or eU'fc, — n8,/., Eliia. 
(S'mil, —8, iw., Emilius, EmU. 
(gmi'Uc,— n8,/., Emily. 
S^ifur', —8, jh., Epicurus. 
S^ifur&'cr, — 8, j«., Epicurean. 
c^tfurfi'if(^|,ac[;;, Epicurean. 
(Srnjl,— cn8, w., Ernest. 
(Suflcn', —8, WI., Eugene. 
(Sugc'nic, — n^, /:, Eugenie. 
S'ba, —8,/., Eve or Eva. 
^fto'reitaf — ett«, w., Florence. 
Jtorcn'tia,— 8,/, Florence, 
grang, — cn8, w., Francis. 
gran3i8'!a, —8,/., Frances, 
gricb'riib, — 8, w., Frederick. 
®an^VHtiif§p w., Ganymede. 
®c'org, —8, w., George, 
©cr'^arb, —8, »«., Gerhard, [tmde. 
©cr'traub or ©cr'trub, —8,/., Ger- 
©o'liat^, —8, m., Goliath, 
©ott'fricb, —8, »!., Godfrey, 
©otf ^larb, —8, »!., Godard. 
®otf licb, —8, »»., Theq)hilu8. 
©rc'flor, —8, m., Gregory, 
grcgoria'nif^, ckj;., Gr^orian. 
®ui'bo, —8, m., Guy. 
©u'flab,— 8, JM., Gustavus. 
^an'ttt, — «^//., Jane. 
^(m8, — cn8, IB., John, 
©cb'toifl,— 8,/., Edwiga. 
^ctn'ri^, — 8, in., Henry. [Helena. 
^c(c'nc,-n8, or Helena, -8,/., Helen, 
©cUobor', — 9, m., Heliodorus. 
^cnrict'tc,— n8,/., Henrietta, Harriet 
©cr'mann,— 8, to., Herman. 
^cro'bc8, — , TO., Herod, 
©crobof , — 8, TO., Herodotus. 



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416 



PERSONAL PROPER NAMES. 



^'ob, —«, »«., Job. 
Corner', — 8, w., Homer, 
^omc'rifc^l (,adj\), Homeric, 
^oraj', — , iw., Horace, 
^um'fricb, — 9f TO., Humphry. 
3n'ltOCtlt3, — Ctt^^TO., Innocence. 
3'faa! O'^'fo^at), — , to., Isaac. 
3fat'a8, — , TO., Isaiah. 
3«'mac(, — «, TO., Ishmael. 
3a'fo(^ —H?, TO., Jacob, James. 
3a'fon,— «, TO., Jason. 
3fcrcmi'a8, — , to., Jeremiah. 
3c'fu6, — , TO., Jesus. 
3o'ab, — 9, TO., Joab. 
^o^ann', — «, m., John. 
3o^aii'na, -^,/., Joan, Jane. 
3fo'na8, — , TO., Jonah. 
3o'fe^^, — 9f TO., Joseph. 
3o'fua, — 8, TO., Joshua. 
3n'ftu«, — , TO., Julius. 
3n'fia,—«,/., Julia. 
3uUatt',— «, TO., Julian. 
^ufKntan', — 9, to., Justinian, 
jujlinia'ntf^ (adj.), Justinian. 
^a'ilt (^a'4n), —4, to., Cain, 
^art,— 8, TO., Charles. 
Start bet ®roge, Charlemagne. 
^aroU'nc,— n8,/., Caroline, 
^a'flor,— 8, TO., Castor, 
^at^ari'nc,— n8,/., Catharine. 
St'onl^aib^ — ^, to., Leonard. 
Scono'rc,— n8,/., Leonora. 
Si'li>iu8,— , TO.,Livy. 
So'rcnj, — cn8, to., Lawrence. 
Suci'c, — n8,/., Lucy. 
Sub'toig, —8, to., Lewis, Louis. 
?m'fc,— 8,/., Louisa. 
Sn'fa8, — , TO., Luke. 
Jufrcj', — cn8, TO., Lucretius. 
fBla'f^nmthf —9, to., Mohammed. 
SWari'a,— 8,/., Maria. 
aWoiic', — n8,/., Mary, 
ai^ar't^a,— 8,/., Martha. 
iWat^il'be, — n8,/., MatUda. 
SWatt^fi'u8, — t, TO., Matthew. 



SWaar, — cn8, or 9»a|rimi'Uan, — «, to., 

Maximilian. 
Wltttnt*, — 8, TO., Mercury. 
SWct^u'falcm, — 8, to., Methusaleh. 
M'(i}atl (2Ki^^a*cI),— 8, to. ,Michael 
aWo'rig, — cn8, to., Maurice. 
SD'Jo'fc8 (gen. 3Wofi8), to., Moses. 
SDJofa'tfcif^ (adj.\ Mosaic. 
92a'l(an^ -HJ, «., Nathan. 
9{e^emi'a8, — , to., Nehemiah. 
yitptan'f — 8, TO., Neptune. 
5Rt'!o(au8, — , TO., Nicholas. 
Oboa'Ctt^ — iJ, TO., Odoacer. 
Orcft',— 8, TO., Orestes. 
Ototb', —8, TO., Ovid. 
^HUlf — §p TO., Paul. 
?Pc'tcr,— 8, TO., Peter. 
^Pbt'lt^Jj),— 8, TO., Philip. 
pla'tu8,—, TO., Pilate. 
^U'mu8, — , TO., Pliny. 
^omJ)c'iu8, — •, TO., Pompey. 
^ro^crj', — cn8, to., Propertius. 
9ia'<^eI,—«,/, Rachel. 
9^at'munb, — 8, to., Raymond. 
9Jcbc!'ta,— 8,/., Rebecca. 

9eu'boi|)^ or aeu'boif, —8, to., luipii, 

SRut^, —8,/., Ruth. [Rudolph. 

©alOlttO^ — i?^ TO., Solomon. 
(Sc'barb, —8, TO., Sebaldus. 
@tcg'munb, — 8, to., Sigismnnd. 
©im'fon, — r8, TO., Samson, 
burton', —8, TO., Suetonius. 
Sa'Citlt^^ — , TO., Tacitus. 
Xtttni*, — en8, to., Terence. 
2:^c'obor, —8, TO., Theodore. 
S^c'fe, — tt8,/, Theresa. 
2:]^o'ma8, — , TO., Thomas. 
Si'tion, —8, TO., Titian. 
8ett,--«, TO., Vitus. 
S3trgil', —8, TO., VirgU. 
»arter,~«, TO., Walter. 

U'l^clm, —8, TO., William. 
SBill^cImt'na, —8,/., Wilhe 
SBolf gang, —8, »*., Wolftang. 
Xa'Het, —4, w., Xayier. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



II. GEOGRAPHICAL PROPER NAMES. 

Rem, In this list are given only those names that are most freqaently em- 
ployed, and which differ materiallj in form and pronunciation from the cor- 
responding names in English. In many cases the personal noons and the ad- 
jectives that are formed from names of places are also given. 



Ha'^tUf — 9^ Aix-la-chapelle. [tains, 
^e Sbruj'^en, pL , the Abnizzi Moonr 
^bl^fft'nien, — , Abyssinia, [sinian. 

(gin Slbi^ffl'mcr,— 8, jd/.— , an Abys- 

W>^\fi'td\df{adj.)f Abyssinian. 
S)a8 «bria'tif(^K SWccr, —8, Adriatic. 
5l'fri!a, —8, Africa. 

(gin ^Ifrifa'ncr,— 8, pL^, an Afri- 

Slfnfa'mfdf^ (««&*•)> African, [can. 
SHc Stt>cn,p/., the Alps. 
2)te Su'Ufd^en 'Silptn, Julian Alps. 
Wnt'xxia, —-8, America. [American. 

2)cr Slmcnfa'ncr, —8, pi.-—, the 

Slmcri!a'mf^(a4;.), American. 
2)te %n'hm,plf the Andes. 
S)ie %n'Qtln, pi , the Angles. [on. 
2)ie Sngetfadf^'fen, pLy the Anglo-Sax- 

^ngelfSd^'jtf dfl (adj.), Anglo-Saxon. 
Slnttt)cr'i)cn, —8, Antwerp. 
2)ie 9))entn'nen, pL, the Apennines. 
?Cra'bicn, —8, Arabia. 

(gin %'xaUx, —8, ;>/. — , an Arab. 

Sra'bifd^ (<^'0) Arabian, 
a'ficn,— 8,Asia. 

(Sin^^c^f-^fpl—tn, an Asiatic. 

3lf!a'tif(^| (<m(/-)» Asiatic. 
3(ff\^'ricn, —8, Assyria. 
3(t^', —8, Athens. 
2)a8 atlon'tif^ 3Kccr, —8, the Atlan- 
^ufhra'Hen, —8, Australia, [tic Ocean. 
^t%lo'n\dfta Sn\tln,pL the Azores. 
2)08 S^o't^if ^e 3)>{eer, the sea of Azof. 
Sa'bOl^— U, Baden, 
©ai'cni, —8, Bavaria. 

(gin ©a'tcr, — n,p/.— n, aBavarian. 
SHe ^Oebut'nen.pil, the Bedouins, 
©cffilcn, —8, Belgium, 
©erbcrei', — , Barbary. 

(gin ©cr'bcr,— 8,i>/., — , a Berber, 



fdtxM, —8, BerluL [ner. 

(gin ©crft'ncr, —8, pil— , a Berli- 

ettlVm\<if (adj.), of Berlin, [cay. 
(S)cr ®oIf t5on) S5i8!a'i>a, Bay of Bis- 
2)er So'benfee,— 8, Lakeof Constance. 
©9^'men,— 8, Bohemia. [mian. 

(gin SSyme, — n, pi —n, a Bohe- 
SS^'ntifd^ (a((/.), Bohemian. 
2)er ©ot^'niWc 3»wr'bufm, Gulf of 

Bothnia. 
SSraun'f^meig, —8, Brunswick. 
Sriirfel,— 8, Brussels, 
©urgunb',— 8, Burgundy. 
C|i'«a,—U, China. 

(&m (S^ittc'fc, — n, j*iL — ti, Chinese. 

(S^tnc'pfd^ (a4;.), Chinese. 
(5^ur, —8, Coire. 
(5li>crn, —8, Cyprus. ^^ 
*Si'ntmW[t, —8, Denmark. 

(gin 2)&'nc, -^,pl — n, a Dane. 

2)fi'mf(^(a4;.), Danish. 
2)cutfd^'Canb, Germany. 

(gilt S)euf f^, a German. 

(gine S)euf f^, a German. 

a)Ctttfd^ (<M$*.), German. 

iftorb'bcutf^ (««&'.), North-German. 

©ilb'beutfd^ (adj.), South-German. 
2)ie S)o'nau, — , tlje Danube. 
2)re8'ben, —8, Dresden. 
S)ie S)ft'nen (;>/.), the Downs. 
^Hn'^dfrn, —8, Dunkirk. 
2)ilffcrborf, —8, Dusseldorfl 
(£0)Ml'ie«,— 9^£;gypt. [tian. 

(gin (g9i>J)'ter, —8, p/. — , an Egyp- 

^SW'tif^ (««&'•)» Egyptian, 
(gl'fag, Alsace. 
(Eng'tonb, —8, England, [g^ishman. 

(gin (gnfl'Ifinbcr,— 8,/>iL— , an En- 

(gng'Hfc^ (a<^'.), Engliish. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



418 



GEOGRAPHICAL PBOPEB NAMES. 



2)te (St\df, the Adige^ 

(5uro>a,— «, Europa. 
iSm dwcep&'tt, — «, pL —, a Euro- 
(Sttrot>5'if(^ (odJ,\ European, [peon. 

9(tni'tltttlf~^#^<^cler8. [of Flanders 
(Sin glam'Ifinber,— 9,p/.— ,a dtizen 
g(&'mtf^ (adj.\ Flemish. 

gtoreit)', Florence. 

^aaVvndf, Fhince. [Frenchman. 

. Cin granjo'fc, — n, plw, — «, a 
(Sine gr.aiij5'|ln, — , i>/. — ncn, a 
granjrftf(^|, French. [French lady. 

©ali'alW/— ^/GaUda. 

©ol'Iicn,— «,GanL 

et'nua, — «, Genoa. 

©cor'flicn, — «, Georgia. 

3)ie ®ot^en,i>/., the Goths. 
©o't^iW (o«&'.), Gothic 

@ric'<i^anb, — «, Greece, 
(gin ®ric'ci(^c, — n,i>/. — n, a Greek. 
®xit'^\^ (adj. \Gie)6k. 

©rofibriton'mm, —8, Great Britain. 

(^roggrte'^enlcmb,— 9, Greda Magna. 

iSet ^oag, -d?^ the Hague. 

^abe'burg; — «, Hapshnrg. 

^om'burg, Hamhui^. 

^anno'ioer, Hanover. [Hanoverian. 
dm ^amioDera'ncr, — «, pL — , a 
$annoDcra'mfci(^,> Hanove- 

$anno't5crif(^, j" C«q;.;» rf^n. 

Cin ^cBrS'cr, -^^pl — , a Hebrew, 
^cbr&'if^ (adj.), Hebrew. 

^ol'Ionb, —6, Holland. [man. 

(gin ^onSnbcr, — 8,i)/.— , aDutch- 
©orifinbiW (adj.), Dutch. 

2)ie $un'nen,/i/., the Hunns. 

3n'bitn^ -r-^, India, [lean) Indian, 
©in Snbia'ncr,— «,j)/.— , an (Amer- 
(gin 3n'bicr, — «, /i/. ^, an (F^t) 
3n'bifd^ (a(§'.), Indian. [Indian. 

3r'(anb, — «, Ireland. 

2)cr 3i'Ifinbcr, — «, ;>Z. —, the Lrish- 
3'riW(a(//.), Irish. [1 

3«'Ianb^ — «, Iceland. 

3taTten,-T«, Italy. 



Citt atoIiS'ttcr, — «, j)i: — , an Ital- 

3toIiS'mf^ (adj.), Italian. [ian. 
aNfUttH,—^, Japan. [nese. 

(gin 3at)atte'fc, — n, j>?. — n, a Japa- 

3ft\xinc'Pfci(^ (adj.), Japanese. 
3nbS'a, — 9, Judea. 

©n 3tt'be, —n,pl. — n, a Jew. 

©inc 31l'bin,— , pl.—ntn, a Jewess. 

3a'bif(^? (o^^*.), Jewish, 
ftitrn'tlien. -^^ Carinthia. 
2)a9 $a9>tf(^ SReer, —9, the Caspian 
^'fingen, —8, Eissingen. [Sea. 

Stoh'lmi, Ck>blenz. 
StSKn, — «, Ck)logne. 
Dec ^o'merf ee, Lake Ck>mo. 
fion'flon), Constance. 
Stoptn\fa'Qttt, —8, Copenhagen, 
^rinty , — «, Ck)rinth. 
^(ttn,— 9, Camiola. 
^a'tan, —8, Cracow, 
^rim,— , Oimea. 

2el|>'aifl/— ^fi^P«c. 

Si'banon, —9, Lebanon. 

2if (abon, — «, Lisbon. 

Si't^ancn, — «, Lithuania. 

2)ic Sombarbei', — , Lombardy. 

3)cr So'rcnjbnf en,— «, Gulf of St.Law- 

Sotyringen, — «, Lothaire. [rence. 

2ilfti(^,—«, liege. 

Sujern', — , Lucem. 

aRfil'reil^ —15, Moravia. 

SO'^ai'Ianb, —9, Mihin. 

SDJdnj, Mayence. 

aWatoffo, —0, Morocco. [Moor. 

C^in SWarrofla'ner, — «, piL — ^, • 

SWaroIfa'ntf^ (adj.), Moorish. 
2)ie SD^arf, — , the Mark (of Branden- 
burg). 

aWSr'fifd^ (arfy.), of the Mark. 
2)ie SWar'fen (;>/.), an ancient people 

of Korth-CWmany, near Ems. 
3»e'd^eln,— «,Malines. 
2)a« ajaf tcKfinbif^ie iWeer^ — e, the 

Mediterranean See. 
S)ie SD^orban, —, Moldavia. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GEOGRAPHICAL PROPER NAMES. 



419 



S)tc iWorbau,—, the(river) Moldavia. 
SWo'fcI,— , MoseUe. 
SWoS'fau, —3, Moscow. 
TlHrCdftn, —0, Municfi. 
SWamUt'— ^^Namur. 
^ta'pd, —3, Naples. 
S)ic 9iie'berlanbc,i)/., the Netherlands. 
9fiic'berlSnbif(^?(ad;.),of the Nether- 
Sfior'toegcn,— 8, Norway. [lands. 
^HxrCUxQ, Nuremberg. 

Deft'errei*^ —3, Austria. 

eUt Oc'pcrrci(^?cr, —8, an Austrian. 

Oc'flcrrci(i^ifci(^ (adj,), Austrian. 
Oft'0ot^cn,i>/., Ostrogoths. 
DjHn'bicn, —8, East India. 

^arfr, Paris. 

^elo^onneS' — , Peloponnesus. 
^cr'Pcn, —8, Persia. 
00'lcn, —8, Poland. 

(gin ^o'lc, — n, jtf/., — n, a Pole. 

?ormf(^ (o^;.), Polish, 
ipom'mcrn, — , Pomerania. 

@in ^om'mer, —9, pi. — n, a Pome- 
^or'tugal, —8, Portugal. [ranian. 

©in ^ortugtc'fc,— n,/?/. — n,aPor- 
tnguese. 

^ortugic'fiW (a<$*0» Portuguese. 
^Ot8'bam, —8, Potsdam, 
^rcu'gcn, —8, Prussia. [sian. 

(Sin ^rcu'fie, — n,i>/l — n, a Prus- 

^CUfitfd^ (adj,\ Prussian. 
9le'8ett«to0^ — ^, Ratisbon. 
2)cr 9?^dn,— 8,Rhine. 
2)a8 aiic'fcnficBirfiC,— 8, the Capathian 
dtom, — 8, Borne. [Mountains. 

(&m IftS'mer, —8, ;>/.—, a Roman. 

SR5'mif^ (adj.\ Roman, Romish. 
3lu6'Ianb, —8, Russia. 

(gin Iftuf fc, — n, pi — n, a Russian. 

91 uf 'jif ^ (adj\ ), Russian, 
©aft'feit^— 8^ Saxony. 

@in @a^'fc, — n, p/. •— n, a Saxon. 

^^6}'fi\6) (adj\), Saxon, 
©(^(c'pcn, —8, Silesia. 
©4ott'(anb, —8, Scotland. 



(gin ©^ot'tc,— n,p/. —n, a Scotch. 

©(i^ot'tifdji (adj\), Scotch. [man. 
<S(i^toa'5cn, —8, Suabia. [bian. 

(gin @(]^»a'fcc, — n, pL — n, a Sua- 

@(^|tt>ci'bif(^ (adj.\ Suabian. 
©c^toc'bcn, —8, Sweden. 

(gin @(^»c'bc,— n,;>/.— n, a Swede. 

@(^|ti)C'bif(^ (adj.\ Swedish. 
2)ie @^»cig, — , Switzerland. 

(gin ©^ttJci'jcr, — 8,i)/. — , a Swiss. 

(ginc ©d^ttjci'gcrin, — ,i)/. — ncn, a 

B^tx>d'^txx\6) iadj,\ Swiss. [Swiss. 
(Sibi'rien, —8, Siberia. 
©ici'Ucn, —8, Sicily. 
6j)a'mcn, —8, Spain. [iard. 

(gin @^)a'mcr, — 8,ij/. — , a Span- 

@^a'nifd(> (a<§*.), Spanish. 
@^ci'cr, —8, Spires. 
@tcl?'crmar!, —8, Styria. 
!5fe Satoref, — , Tartary. 

Sin 2:atar', — 8,p/. —en, a Tartar. 
2:^c'^cn, —8, Thebes. 
2)ic 2:^cm'fc, — , the Thames. 
2:^il'ringen, —8, Thuringia. 
2)ic 2:i'bcr, — , the Tiber. 
"^^9 X^^xqV, —8, the Tyrol. 
2:o8la'na, —8, Tuscany. 
2:rient', —8, Trent. 
Xri'cr,— 8, Treves. 
2:ricjl', —8, Trieste. 
S)ic 2:ttrfci', —, Turkey. 

(gin 2:flr'lc, — n,p/. — n, a Turk. 

Xllr'fifd^ (arf/.), Turkish. 
Ult'garit^ —9, Hungary. [rian. 

(gtnUn'gar, •^-8,/?/.— en, a Hunga- 

Un'garifc^ (««&*.), Hungarian. 
S)iC SSattba'Ien^i?/., the Vandals. 
SScne'big, —8, Venice. [netian. 

@in SSenejjia'ner, —8, pi, — , a Ve- 

9$enegia'nif(i(^ (adj,\ Venetian. 
2)ie SJerei'nigtcn ©taa'tcn toon STme'- 

ri!a, the United States of America. 
S5irgi'mcn, —8, Virginia. 
2)1 e aBaffa*Ci% — , Wallachia. 
SScft'flOt^en (/>/.)» Visigoths. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



420 ABBEVUXIONS. 



3)ic SBcic^'fcI, —, the Vistula. 
SBcflfa'Icn,— «, Westphalia. 
SBien, — «, Vienna, 
ein SBic'ner, —«, j>L — , a Viennese. 



ffiic'ncrifii^ (o^f.), "Vlennesa. 
2)ic SBol'sa, — , the Volga, 
^ormd, Worms, Bormio. 
SSftt'tcmbcrg,— «, Wirtemberg. 



III. ABREVIATIONS. 



Rem, Abreviations are employed in German to a far greater extent than the^ 
are in English. The list below inclades only the most usual abbreviations. 

a. a. O am anbcnt Ottc at the other place. 

a. a. O am angeffl^rten Orte. at the place mentioned. 

Slbf(^n Slbfci^mtt section. 

a.b an bcr (Ober, etc,') on the (Oder, etc,\ 

a. SR.^ora/SJt am SD'latn on the Maine. 

Slnm Slnmcrhmg remark. 

SlufC.,or3lu89 SluPagc, or SluSgabc edition. 

S3b. (SBbc.) ©anb(©Snbc) volume (volumes^ 

bcb bcbcutct signifies. 

bcf., or befonb bcfonbcrd especially. 

S3r Stritc latitude (lat). 

(5., (Sour (Sourant currency. 

baf bofcIBjl there, at that place. 

b.®r bcr®ro6c the Great. 

bQl.^orbcrgt bcrgtci^cn... the like, such. 

b. ^ bad ^dgt that is to say, that is. 

b. t baSip that is. 

2)i«t 2)i8!onto discount. 

b. 3 biefc«3a5rc« this year. 

b. 9R., or b«. 2W8 btcfc« 3Wonat8 this month (inst.). 

b.SS ber 33crfaffcr the author. ^ 

f- 9v fev fiJ9 •••• folgcnb (*cr, <, »e«) following. 

gortf. f gortfcftung folgt to be continued. 

fr franco post-paid. 

gr grau Mrs. 

gr( grSuIcin Miss. 

grb'or gricbrt^eb'or Frederick d*or. [schen. 

®.,®r.,or@gr ®rof(^cn,or ©ilbcrgrofd^icn Groschen or Silvergro- 

geb geboren bom (t. «., the maiden 

gc& gc^cftct stitched. [name). 

^efl fic^orbcn dead, late. 

$b(@f))r $anbe(9f))ra^e language of commerce. 

$^tn} ^au^ttoort noun. 

§^tjl ^aulptjlabt capital. 

§r.($i&.) $en($errcn) Mr. (Messrs.) 

3 3ajr year. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ABBEVUTIOKS. 421 

30^1^ 3a^r^unbert century. 

ftotf., or ^atferl faiferiidfi : imperial. 

«at^.^ , f atHtfdS^C «ir^c CathoUc Church. 

53n., or ^iJiiigl WnigUd^ royal 

St, St fatfcrlid^'tSniQli^ imperial and royal 

Stq/.. ^cujcr creuzer. 

S fifingc longitude (long). 

lat latcimf(^ Latin. [(inst.). 

Icuif. SWon (aufcnben SWonatS in the current month 

Sfg fiiefcrung number. 

Sih( ¥funb (Sterling pound sterling. 

SW. $. (9K. $. $.) 3Wcin 5>crr (SWctnc^crrcn) Sir (gentlemen). 

nt. St. mittSgltd^e ^reite southern latitude. 

It. ^.^or 9^.^nb nadfi Unbent according to others. 

iftgr. S^cugrof^n New Groschen. 

yi. S3 n0rblt(i^c Srcitc northern Uititude. 

9io., ^x,, S^lro. (i)fho«0 Sflumvco, 9'himmct(— n)... number (numbers). 

^. @ iRad^f(^|rift Postscript (P.S.). 

O. 2 SfWid^c Siingc east longitude. 

?Jf.,?Jfg ?Jfcnnig Pfennig. 

^ ^fwnb pound. 

^^. 2) 3)ottor bcr ^^ilofo^^ic . ... Doctor of Philosophy. 

^rotcfl ^)rotCJlantif(^ Protestant. 

O. g Cuobratgug square foot. 

£X,Tl Ouobrot SWcilc square mile. 

dt SRcaumur Reaumur. 

fftdb SRabatt abatement, discount. 

8l^n atfeeinif^ Rhenish. 

8lt^Ir.,orrt^ 9Jci(i^«t^aIcr RixdoUar. 

©.(@.,orf.) @citc(fie^e) page (see). 

|. b ©ic^c btcfc* see this (article). 

f. g fogenannt so called. 

i^pv ^pxadift language. 

\px \px\6f pronounce. 

P jlarB (flatt) died (instead of). 

f. 3 feincr 3cit at time. 

2:^tr.,X^t %ffattx Thaler. 

U. (U.) Il5r(unb) • o'clock (and). [ers. 

It. ^.(u.a.) untcr anbcm (unb anbcrc). among others (and oth- 

«. a. a. O unb an anbcni Ortcn and at other places. 

u. a. @t unb <mbem@tcttcn and other places. 

u. bergt. tn unb betgteitJf^ tnc^t l and more of the same 

u. nt. bgl unb uic^r berglctc^ien j •••' kmd. 

u. f. f unb fo femcr > , r -*i 

u.f.iD unblottcitct} -•• "■"'"'fo"'*- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



422 MONEYS, WEIGHTS^ AND MEASURES. 

».3 botl3cn3a^r« last year. 

». 3Jl twrigcn SDlonot^ last month (ult.). 

ij. tonobcn from above. 

». u ton untcn from below. 

SS SKcjlen west. 

3 3ott, (Seilc) inch (line). 

J. 53 jum 5Bcif^icl for example. 



IV. MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 

Mem, These vary greatly in the different states of Germany. We give 
only some of the leading coins, weights, and measures of the principal Ger* 
man states. 

L Prussian Money (used in North Germany). 

(®olb) (gin htppdttt gricbri(]^b'or=lO 2:^alcr= f 7.12 

„ (gin ^rcugiWcr gricbri^«b'i)r=5 Zf^U. 20 @fir.=... 4.20 

(@iI6cr) Sin XffaUx=$0 @iIbcrgrof(^cn=360 ^fcnntgc= 71 

M (gin @i(bcrflri)f(i^cn=l2 ^fcnmgc=.. 2J 

(^u^fer) (gin @C(^fcr=6 ^fcnm3C= IJ- 

t, (gin 3)rcicr=S ?Pfcnntgc= | 

r» <gtn ?Pfcnntg= J 

2. Bavarian Money (used in Southwestern Germany). 

(®o(b) Sin S)u!at=5 @u(bcn 40 ^cu5cr= $2.26 

CB'iiUx) (gin 55crcin«tMer=8i ®ulbcn=2 ^reng. X^tc= 1.42 

M Sin 3tt>ciflulbenjlil(f =120 ^cngct= 82 

t, -.... Sin @urben=60 «rcn5cr= 41 

t, Sin $aIbgu(bcnjlM=30 Srcugcr= 205 

C^u^fcr) Sin ^cujcr =4 fetter = f 

« Sin$ctter= } 

3. Austrian Money. 

(®olb) Sine «ronc=l3 ©ulbcn 755 9fl^rcugcr= $6.48 

„ Sine ^oTbc ^onc=6 ©ulbcn 87i 9iWb:cugcr= 3.24 

(Silbcr) Sin Stoeigulbenpdt =200 9^cujcr= 96 

tt Sin ©ttlbcn or gIorin=lOO 9'i^euacr= 48 

f, Sin »imclfIorinflfl(f =25 'SlStttttitt= 12 

(^u^fer) Sin SSicrfrcujcrptf =.. 2 

n Sin ^cugcr= 5 

„ Sin ^albhcttjcrptf = j 

Eern. SSicr ^rcugifd^c 2:§aler=flebett ©airifci^c ®u(ben=fc(^« Dcjlcrrcid&ifcite 
grorin=$2.81. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 



423 



4. Qerxnan Weights. 

Sin 3ottcetttner=lOO 3ott^funb=50 ^Iogrammc8= English pounds 98.04 

(gin 3olH)funb=^ «iIogrammc= ** " 98 

ein ^cugif^cs $funb=32 2otH468 @ramme«=... " " 97 

(gin 2ot§=14.6 @rammc8= English ounces 48 

5. Oerman Measures. 

1. LINEAR MEASURE. 

Sine bcutfAc (gcogro^^ifdj^c) Tlvlt (15 3y?eilctt=l° gco* 

gro^^iWe S3reite)= English miles 4.06 

(Sine ^reugiWc 2KciIc = 24,000 ^l^ciniWc gu6 = 5372 

M^tres= *' *' 4.07 

(Sine @tunbc=einc ^>albc beutf^e 2Weite= ** " 2.03 

(Sine giut^e=12 Sl^einif^C gn6=3.766 M^tres= English feet 12.36 

(Sin 9e^cinif(^er gu6=12 3ott=313 Mimm^tres= ** *' 1.03 

Sin 3oE=12 2inien=26.2 Millim^tre8= English inchesl.03 

2. SURFACE MEASURE. 

Sine Ouabratmeilc (^reu6if^)= English square miles 21.09 

Sine Duabratmt^c=144 Duabratfu6= English square feet 162.67 

Sinay^orgen in ^reit6en=l80 Ouabratrut^en ; in 53aiern=400 Ouabrat* 
rut^en ; in @a^fen=2 ^(fer=l50 Ouabratrut^en. 

8. MEASURE OF CONTENTS. 

Sin ^reugifc^eS Ouart=64 ^BiIgott=1.145 Litres= English quarts 1.28 

Sin ipreugifci^cr Simcr=60 Cluarti=69.1 Litres= English gallons 19.00 

Sm ipreugifc^er @(^effel=48 Ouart=55.88 Litres=.. English bushel 1.92 
Sine 2Ket5e=f5 @d^cffet=3 Clnart8=3.435 Litres=.. English quarts 3.88 



V. CLASSIFIED LIST OF WORDS. 



2)ai? mataU. 

3)cr ®ott, -H»,pL(3Mtx, God, gods. 

I, ©(i^iJ^'fer, —8^ the Creator. 
3e'fu8 S^ri'jiug,— fH, Jesus Christ. 
2)er ^ci'Iige @ciji, —eg, Holy Ghost. 
S>ie 2)rcici'nig!eit, — , the Trinity. 
2)er Sn'gel, — «, the angel 

I, 2:ett'feI,—«, devil. 

tt ^m'mcl, — 8, heaven. 
2)ic©5ne,— ,hell. 
2)a0 ge'gefeucr,— «, purgatory. 



!♦ 



The Universe. 



3)ic ^(Anx^, — , Nature. 

^at&x'iid), natural [ter. 

2)ie aWate'rie, — , ber @tcff, — e8, mat- 

iWateriett', Wpttlxd}, material. 
S)a« 3(toni' , — c«, pL — c, atom. 

I, ^3r>er,— «,!>/.—, body. 

Sin fe'fler «8r>cr, a soUd body. 
2)ic ge'jiigleit, — , solidity. 
2)a« ®a9, -^t^fpl. —tf gas. 

n ©efd^S^f , —ee, pi — e, creature. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



424 



UST OP WORDS. 



y 



2:er 3Rann, — c«, pi. SWfinncr, man, 
husband. 
u 93a'ter,— «,/>/. 35fi'ter, fether. 
„ @o^>n,—c«,/>/. ©syne, son. 
„ ©ru'bcr,-^,p/.©rti'bcr, brother. 
O'^ctm, — S,i)/. — c, uncle. 
SJct'tcr, —9, pi. — n, cousin. 
„ 9icf fe, — n,i?/. — n, nephew. 
„ ©rog'ioater, grand&ther. 
r, Ur'gro6t>atcr, great-grandfather. 
„ (gn'tcl, -^iPl' — f grandson. 
2)tC (S'ltcrn^pftrents (Aa« no sing.), 
2)cr ©c^totc'gcrtatcr, fether-m-law. 
,f @d^tt>ic'gcrfo^n, son-in-law. 

brother-in-law. 
„ @ticf tootcr, stepfather. 
n @ticf'fo^>n, stepson. 

,, S3rSu'tt0am,—«, bridegroom. 

„ SBitf tocr, —%, widower. 

S)a8 «rtcr, — «, old age. 
^ 3)cr OrciS, — c8, />/. — c, old man, 
rr ^na'6c, — n,i>/. — n, boy. 
2)ie®cburt',—, birth. 
— -tt 25cr(o'tung, — , betrothal. 



KuL 

2)ic grau, —,pL —en, woman, wife. 

„ 2Jhjf ter, — , pi aWilf tcr, mother. 

„ 2^o^'tcr,—,i)/.S3c!^'ter, daughter. 

„ ©d^tee'jier, — , pi — n, sister. 

rr S^on'te, — fpl — n, aunt. 

,r (Souji'ne, — ,;>/. — n, the cousin. 
—IT ^vifit, — , pi — n, niece. 

rr ©rog'mutter, grandmother. 

r, Ut'grogmutter , great -grand- 
mother. 

rr (Sn'feltn, — , /?i — nen, grand- 
daughter. 

rr @(i^»ie'gennuttcr, mother-in-law. 

rr @(i^ti)te'0CrtO(i^tcr, daughter- in, 
law, [in-law. 

» @c!^tt)S*gerin,--,i>/.—nen, sister. 

rr @tief mutter, stepmother. 

rr @tief'tod(^ter, stepdaughter. 
■— rT S3raut, —,/?/. S3rSute, bride. 
-^ SBttf »e, — , pi —en, widow. "^ 

It 3u'genb, —, youth. 
JfS^tc ^"ml'Wm^, —9,pL — e, twin. 
3)a« 3Jl5b'd(^en, — «, pi — , girl. 
2)er £ob, — es, death. 
I 2)te (g'be, — , marriage. 



2)er ^Srtier. 

- — 2)ie 3l'ber,— ,!>/. — n, vein. 
2)er 3lnn, — e8,i)/. — e, arm. 
2)00 ^lu'ge, — «,i)/. — n, eye. 
^^ 2)er «ug'(H)fel, — «, /»/. aug'S^jfi 

eyeball, profile of the eye. 
- — 3)te Slu'genbraue, — ,i)/. — n, ) eye-^ n 
„ 3tu'Qenbr<mn,— ,!>/.— en, f brow. 
2)a« Slu'genlib, —9, pi — er, eyelid. 
— 2)er©a'(fen,—«,j>/.—, cheek, 
rr ©art,— e8,ij/.«eirte, beard. 
2)a8 ©etn, —^^^pL — e, leg. 

rr «lUt, —eS, blood. 
2)ic «mjl, —,/)/. ©riljle, breast. 
— 2)er ©u'fen, —9, pi — , bosom. 
-*- rr S)ou'men,— 8,jo/.— ,thumb, 
— « (gtt'6ogen,—«,i>/.—, elbow. 
3)ie gaujl, — ,i>/. gfiujle, fist 



3* . The body. 

*|~S)tc gcr'fe, —,pl — n, heel 
2)er gtng'er, — 8,i)/. — , finger. 
II gH6r--e«,;?iP6e,foot. 
©au'men, —«,;»/. — , palate. 



2)a« ©e^trn',— e«,i)/. — e, brain. 
@eIenl',—e«,i>/.—e, joint. '' 
®t^6}t\ — «, sight, face. [ber. 
rr ®lteb, — 19, pi — er, limb, mem- 
3)er ^I«, — e«,/)/. $5Ife,neck. 
2)te $anb,— ,i)/. ©5nbe, hand. 
3)a« ©ou^t, — e«,p/. $5uJ)'ter, head. 
S)te $out, —,pl ^5ute, skin. 
3)o« $era, — en«,i>/. —en, heart. 
-f3)ie 4>ilf te, —,pl — n, hip. ^ 
— ,1 ^c^'le, — , />/. — n, throat. 
2)a* ^nte, —«,!»/. — e, knee. 
2)er ^o'c^^en, — «,p/. — , bone. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



LIST OP WORDS. 



425 



— 3)cr SM'^i, —ifpL —, knuckle, an-|^er 

S)ic Sc'bcr, — , pL — n, liver. [kle, 
— „ Si^^C— ,/>/;— n, lip. 
„ So'de,— ,i)/. — n,curl. 
f, Sung'c, —,!)/. —n, lung. 
^ 2)er aWa'gcn, — «, />/. — , stomach. - 
- — ®a« Tlaxt, —9, marrow. 

S)cr aWunb, —t9,pL SDWlnbcr, mouth. 

2)tc 2Ku«1cl, —,pl — n, muscle. 

2)cr iWa'gcl, — «,!>/. S'lSgel, nail. 

S)ic iWa'fc, —, pL — n, nose. 
— S)cr SfJcrtj, — cn,/>/. —en, nerve. 
- — 2)ic SfJic'rc, —,/>/. — n, kidney (loins). 

2)a« O^r, — «,!>/. —en, ear. 
— ^ie Wp'pt, —,pl. — n, rib. 

2)er aitt'den,— 0,i)/. — ,back. 



8lft(f grat,— e«, pl—t, backbone^ 
„ ©d^a'bcl,— «,;?/.— , skulL [spine- 
t, @(i^en'lel,—«,i)/.—, thigh. 
2)ic @(3^tei'fc, — , j>/. — n, temple. 

rr ©(j^lag'aber,- ,i)/.— n^arteiy. ^ 
3)er@d^oo6,—e«, />/.—€, lap. ^ 
2)tc ^(Jt^urtcr, —fpL — n, shoulder. 

r» @ei'tc, — fpL — n, side. [brow, 
-rr ©tint, — , pL —en, forehead, 
. „ aSa'be,— r/'^-— n,calf. ' 
- ,r SBaitg'c, — ,i)/. — n, cheek. 
3)cr 3a^n, — c«,/>Z. S^^wCf tooth. 
3)a8 3tt!?tt'flcifc^, — e«, gum. 
2)ie 3e'^e, — , ;>Z. — n, toe. 
w 3"W8%— //'^••"^ftongne. 



ftletterPde* 



4; 

.[letr1-®cr 



Articles of Dress. 



-■5)er^ 



-^cj 



, dress-coatr- -SJie 



— sDer Her'mel, — 8, p/. — , sleeve. 
2)a« ^trm'bonb, -«,/)/.-bfinber, brace- 

2)er ©atilf, — e«, />/. — c, cambric. 

S)ic©cin'netber (jo/.), pantaloons. 
— "S)er ©etatj',— e«, jo/.--f%,trimmin] 
— S)ie ©ril'le, — , pL — n, spectacles. 

w ©niffnobel,— ,/)i— n,brea8tpinr 
— „ ©ilr'jle, —, pi —n, brush, 
^er 2)e'gcn, — «, />/. — , sword. 
_rr gfi'*er,— «,/»/.—, fan. [ring. 
« ging'erring, — e«, pi — e, finger- 
— - w 8^«)r, — e«, /)/. glSre, crape, 
r, gratf, —«,/>/. grSdte, 

— 2)ie gran'fc, — , pi — n, fringe. 
3)a« gut'ter, — «, jii — , lining. 

„ @ef<3^mei'be, —«, jewelry. 

„_— 2)er ©ftr'tcl, — «, />/. — , belt, sash. 

n @um'mtf(^U^, India-rubber over^^e 
shoe. 
2)ie ^aor'bilrflc,- ,/>/.— n,hairlMTi8fc43)ie 
M $aat*nabcl, — , pL — n, hairpi 

— 2)er ^h'f(i^mu(f, — e«, necklace. 
2)a« ©al«'tud(^,— e8,p/. *til(i^cr, cravatr- - 

ly $emb, —tfifpl —en, shirt. 
2)ie ^o'fett {pl\ pantaloons. 

— n J&o'fentrSger (p/.), suspenders. 
.a)er ^amm, — e«,i>i ^Smme, comb. 



^attun', — e«,i>/. — e, calico. 
2)a8 ^letb, — e«, pZ. — er, dress-coat. 
S)te ^(ci'ber (p/.), clothes. 

^o^f^U^,--e«, head-dress. 
It ^a'gen, —9, pi — , collar, 
ami^e,— ,/>/.— n, cap. 
^ « 9^Sy nabel, — , p/: — n, needle. 
2)er O^r'ring, — e«, pi — e, earring. 
3>ie ipoma'be, — ,i)i — n, pomade. 
3^r 8te'genfd(^tnn, — «, umbrella. 
r» 8ting,— e8,/>/. — e, ring, 
rf Stod,— <8,p/. TOdte, coat 
@^'re, —,/>/. —n, shears. 
2)er @d|^laf rod, — e«, dressing-gown. 
~w @(3^Iet'er, — 8,p/. — , veil. 
J^t^viXLx'hxvi% pi »Brlljle, stays. 
2)er @<!^u^, — e«, p/. — e, shoe. 

@<3^ilr'se,—,p/. —n, apron. 
^ @Ott'«enfd(^inn,— «, parasol. 
@<)i^ (jp/.), lace. 
n @^o'ren {pl\ spur. 

@tie'fel,— «,p/.— ,boot. Qack. 

„ ©tie'felfne^t, —8, p/. — e, boot- 

@tic*fel»i(Jt^fe, — , shoe-blacking. 

@tn«nj)f, -e«, pi ©trflm'^e^ 

stocking. 

S)ie Xaf d(^, — , p/. --en, pocket 



— -S)er( 



-.5)ic< 
— -2)er ' 



Digitized^by Voil^llJ^O 



420 



LIST OF WORDS. 



handkerchief. [coat 

2)er Uc'bcrrod, — c«, pL *r5(!c, over- 
2>ie Un'tcr^ofctt (/>/.), drawers. 



2)te fBk'ftt, — , ;>/.— n, vest 

bmsh. [pick. 

4€)cr Stt^n'jlod^cr, — «, pi — , tooth- 



firoitlilieiteiu 



5* 



Maladies. 



^l£)eri 



' — 2)CT Hn'faa, —«,/>/. 'fattc, fit 
— 2>ie ©(ancrn (p/.), small-pox. 

rr dillb'^, —, blindness. 
— 2)er ©tu(!^, — c«, pi. ©rfldjff , ruptur8r|2)cr 
^-2Hc gott'fui^t, — , apoplexy. 
2)a« gic'bcr, — «, pi. — , fever, 
r, be«'arttgc gicbcr, malignant feve^ _ 
,, brci'tfigige gicbcr, tertiary fever, 
rr grt'bc giebcr, yellow fever, 
w ^fi'feiflc gicbcr, burning fever, 
rr lol'tc gicbcr, fever and ague. 
„ ncti)5'fc gtcBcr, nervous fever. 
— ' „ ©^ar'IaiJt^ficbcr, scarlet fever. . 
.*--2>cr 2:t>>^tt8, — , typhus fever, 
-^tc groji'bcule, —,pl — n, chilbl 
„ @cf<!^»UIjl',—,jo/.*illflc, swelling 
S)a«®cWtt)llr',—c«,pZ.—e, ulcer. ^ 
''^tc ®t(^t, — , gout. ^. 

n ©ci'Iung,-— ,i)/.— en, healing, cure 
rr $ci'fcr!cit, —, hoarseness. 
— ^ ^ei'fer, hoarse. 
*— 2)a« ^iiyncraugc, —t9,pl. — ti, com. 



!S)ie 5unb«'»Ut^, — , hydrophobia, 
^u'jlcn, — «, cough, 
^u'fien, to cough. 
Stcth9, — «, canc^. 
2)ie aWa'fcm (;i/.)r measles. 
„ Sflor'bc,— ,p/l— n, scar. 
t, D^n'ma^t, — , faintmg. 
— ,, ^otfcn (joZ.)» small-pox. 
— w Ouct' Wung, — , pL —en, contu- 
S)er @d(^nu'i)fctt, — «, a cold. [sion. 

fl<]^ erWrtcn, to take cold. 

3>ic @^tt>fi'(!^, — , fointness. 
„ @(i^ttjinb'fu(!^t, ■—, consumption. 

@et'tcnfte^, —9, pleurisy, 
rr @tam'meln, — §, stammering. 
3>ic ©tumm'^eit, — , dumbness. 
_„ (fal'Ienbe)©u^t,—, epilepsy. 
«,r iaub'^eit, — , deafness. 
_^ Ue'belteit, —, nausea. 
„ SJcrren'tung, — , pi —en, disloca- 
SKaf'fctfud^t, — , dropsy, [tion. 
„ SSun'bc, —, pi — n, wound. 



.J2)a« ' 



2)a^ $au^* 6* The House. 

1. KINDS OP HOUSES. 2. PARTS OP A HOUSE. 

S)tc «anl, — , p/. —en, bank. - ■S)er SBoT'len, — «,!>/.— beam. 

,r ©tbliot^er —,/>/. —en, Ubrary. - -2)08 «rett, — e8,i»/. — er, board. 

„ «er'fe, — , pi — n, exchange. 2)er JBrun'nen, — «,i»/. — , weU. 

w 55rft'(!e, — , pi — n, bridge. 2)a« ^a6f, -H»,pl SDS^et, root 

„ (£a^'Ie, — , />/. — n, chapeL - ^e SHe'lc, — , pi —en, ceiling. 

.-^r (Safer'ne, —,/>/. — n, barrack. - -©aS (Srb'ficWog, — e8, ground floor, 

S^er Si'fenbfli^n^fof , —t», railroad sta- parterre. [shutter. 

tion. ^ 2)er gcn'fterlaben, —«,/>/.—, window- 

.^"3X19 ®ef«ng'nt6, — e8, ;>/. — e, prison, rr gug'bobcn, —8, pi *b8ben, floor. 

. „ @ctt>fi(^'^au«,— e«, green-house.- -S)a« @e»»rbe, -^,pl — , vault. 

S)tc $ftf tc, — , pi — n, hut. - '2)er ^amtn', —eg, />/. — e, chimney, 

rr ^r'^, — , pi — n, church. -+3>ic ^orn'mer, — ,i>/. — n, chamber. 
S)er ^r(i^ Vf, church-yard, cemeteryr| 2)er teller, —«,/>/. — , cellar, 
rr «ir<!if't^>nrm, — <8, church tower. 2)ie ^ft'^e, — , />/. — n, kitchen. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



UST OP WORDS. 



42T 



. — SHc @a!rittd', sacristy, vestiy, 

2)a« StW^tx, -«, pL miJ'pcr, 
„ 8anb'^au8, country house, Tilla. 
— S)tc SDWln'jc, — , i?/. --41, mint (coin). 

2)a« 0'^crn^au«, — cS, opera-house. 

2)cr ^aratf, — c«, ;?/. ^al&'pc, palacert^ 

2)ic ^0 jl, — , pi —en, post-office. -4-? 

2)a« @i^au'frid^a««, theatre. 
^ S)tc ©(!^cu'nc, — , !>/.— n, bam. 

2)a8 @^itar',— ,i>i @»)ttSIct,h( 
— ,> 2reiB'^u«, hot-house. 

„ ^oU'fion9, cnstom-houso. 



SHc ^um'^e, — ,^/. — n, pump. 
cloisterr|5)er ^WQtl,—9,pl.—, bolt, door-bar. 
I, @aal, — c«, jo/. @Stc, parlor. 
2)a«'@(!^Iaf3immcr, — «, jo/. — , bed- 
room, [ney. 
^e^orn'ftctn, — «, p/. — c, chim- 
-7, @to(!,--c8, >. 
S)a8 @to(f »crl,-c«,> ^^'•» ^^^'y- 
ic @tu']6c, ■—,/>/. — n, room. [step^. 
„ 2:rc:|)'^, — , /»/. — n, stairway, 
Sre:|>':|>ettge(&nber, baluster. 
— „ 2^rc^'^)cn^att8, baluster, [story. 
(Sine Xxtppt \fo6f, in the second 



[tal.--®a8! 



Wittln. 



S)cr ©c'd^cr, — «, />/. — , tumblar, cup.- 
2)a« S3ctt, -c«, jo/, —en, bed. 
3)ic JBctt'bcdc, — , i>/. — u, coverlet. - 
S)a« S3ctf gcjicU, — «, bedstead. 

,, ©ctftudf^, —«,;>/: *til^cr, sheet. 
2)cr ©troyfadt, — c8, straw bed. 
2)ic aWatra'tjc,— , />/. —en, mattress. 
Xa9 ^o^fRffcn, — , />/. — , willow. 

„ gc'berbett, feather bed. 
> „ «il'<]^crbrett, book-shelt 
-2)er S3il'(i^crf^ran!, bookcase, [goose. 
2)a8 ©ll'gclcifcn, flat iron, tailor'i 

Bft'geln, to iron. 
2)te (Sommobc, —,;?/.— n, bureau, 
2)cr (gi'mcr,— 8,/?/^ — , bucket, 
S)a« gag, — c8, /)/. gSffcr, cask. 
'S)tc gcu'crjangc, — , />/. — n, tongs, 
2)a« ©emSrbc,— «, />/. — , painting.- 

„ $onb'tu^,—c8,i)/.*til(i^cr, towel 
3)cr ^cHcI, —8, /?/. —, ketae. 
3)tc Ser'gc, — , p/. — n, wax candle. 

„ ^'Pc,—,p/.—n, chest 

rf So^'Ic, — ,i?/. — n, coal. 

n ©raun'to^Ic, lignite. 

„ §oIj'!o^tc, charcoal. 

S)cr ^orB, — e8, pL StMt, basket. 
„ ^on'Icud;tcr, — «, chandelier. 
„ ^tug,—c0,p/.^rilgc, pitcher. 



7» 

ip.qr^a8 



Fnmitore. 



2)cr ^'d^cnrojl, kitchen range, grate. 
2Hc 8am>e, — , pi. — n, lamp. 

„ Satcr'nc,/>/.—n, lantern, [candle. 
2)a« Std^t, — c8, pi. — c or — cr, light, 
^Ocgo'gcnc Sifter, mould candles. 
'-@C0of fcnc Sifter, dipped candles. 
"^ 2)er 8td?t'bo(i^t, candle-wick. 
^S>ic 8t^f ^utJC, snuffers. 

2)cr Scud^'tcr, — 8, candle-stick. 
-2)tc $fan'ne, —,/>/. — n, pan. 

- -^cr ^fro'^fcn, — 8, jo/. — , cork. 
2)cr.$fro'^fcnjic^cr, the corkscrew. 

paiL- -©tc @d^au'fcl, p/. — n, shovel, [board, 
-■^cr @di^ran!,— 8, p/. @df>r5n!e, cup< 
H^e @(^^uB'Iabc,— , j>/. —en, drawer. 
-2)a8 ©^c'fcl^lg'i^cn, match. 
2)cr ©^tc'gcl, — 8,/>/. — , muTor. 
rr @tu^I,—e8,/)/.@tft^Ic, chair. 
'$>a9 @tcb, — e8,/>/. — c, sieve. 
f, @o>^a, — 8, p/. —8, sofa. 
-4®cr 2^c:i)>t(!^, —t^,pL — c, carpet. 
-„ SDic'gcl,— 8, p/.—, skillet. 
2)cr 2:iW, — e8,/>/.— c, table. 

^a9 2:if^'tu^, tablecloth. 
-„ Si:o»)f,-c8,p/.28^fc,pot. 
2)ie aSanb'u^ft, —,/>/. —en, clock. 

- -^a^ SBafc^'bcctcn, —8, washbowL 
T2>le SBic'ge, —,;?/. — n, cradle. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



428 



LIST OP WORDS. 



SRa^Ijeitett uttb ®eri4te» 8» Meals and Dishes. 

1. MEALS. -4-^ad (SVtod% the white of eggs. 

S>a« griiyfHltf,— c«,p/.— c, breakfestj 2)cr |>£tcr, — «, the yolk. 



grii^fmden, to breakfast, 
rr ^lit'taQt^tttf — «, dinner. 
3u iWittag effen, to dine. 

— 3u 3l6enb cffcn, to take sapper. 
_ tf ©affmo^fl,— c«,/>/.'mS^lcr,ban- 
S)« @a% —t», pi. ®5fk, guest, [quet. 

,f %ppt^\ — 9, appetite, 
©efcg'nctc 2Wa^rgcit I (a blessing on 
the meal!) 



2. DISHES. 

S)a8 53rob, — c«,/>/. — c, bread. 
2BeiB'6rob, wheat bread. 
@cf^ttjarj'6rob, brown bread. 
, — Sllt'bad cnc8 S3rob, stale bread. 
Sut'tcrbrob, bread and butter. 

— 2)te ^u'mc, —,/>/. — n, crumb. 
, — It ^ru'flc, — ,pl. — ^it, crust. 

r^ f, ^tci'e, — , bran. 

— 2)cr 2:et3, —cs, dough. 
^ w S)te $c'fc, —, yeast. 

2)icS3ut'ter,— abutter. 
- 2)a« (gt, —t9,pL — er, egg. 

— 2)cr ©i'erfudf^cn, — «, omelet. 

— ©c^'cier, poached eggs. 

— Slfl^r'cter, scrambled eggs. 

@etrdlie unb ©entiife* 

2)ie S3o^'nc, — ,i>/. — n, bean. 

— rf (Srb'fc,— ,j>/. —n, pea. 
S)cr gla^s, — e8, flax. 

^ 2)te ©cr'Pc, — , barley. 

2)a« ®xa9,—t»,pL ®r5'fer, grass, 
-^ 2)ic ®ur'!c, —pi — n, cucumber. 

— 2)cr $a'fer, —0, oats. 
^a9 $eu, — C8, hay. 

— 2)tc $ir'fc, — , millet. 

I, ^artoffcl, — , pi — n, potato. 

— S)cr tice, — «, clover. 

u ^0^1,— e8, cabbage. 



!i)cr Sf'Pdf — ^/ vinegar. 
S)a8 glcifci^, — c«, meat. 

4>ani'mclf(cif(i^, mutton. 

^alb'Pcif^, veal. 

^Itnb'Petfd^, bee£ 

— @(^»ci'ncf(eif^, pork. 
@cbra'tcnc« glcifd^, roast meat. 

— ^m'mctbratcn, roast mutton, 
^albe'bratcn, roast veal. 
9iinb8'braten, roast beef. 

-f^ic Mb«'cotctcttc, — , pi — n, 
S)cr «a'fe, --9, pi—, cheese. 
2)tc3)«r(3(?,--,milk. 



veal 



2)cr 8ta^m,— c«,) 



cream. 



S)ic <Saync, 
II iWolfen (jp/.), whey. 
n ^ut'termil(^, buttermilk. 
2)a«Dbp,—c«, fruit. 
- — etn'gemad^ttS Objl, preserved fimit. 
Xa8 ^>fclmu6, apple-sauce. 

^om^ot', — «, sauce. 
2)cr iPfcffcr, — «, pepper. 
2)a« ealj, — c#, salt. 
3)ic ©arbcl'Icn (/>/.), sardines. 
— 3)er ®cnf, — c«, mustard. 

S)ic@u^)>e,— ,soup. 
- „ 2:or'tc,--,i?Z. — ii,tart. 
— L I, SBurJl, —,pl SSBilrjlc, sausage. 

9* Grains and VegetaWes. 

S)crS3Iu'mcnIobI, cauliflower. 

II ^xavLxCio% brown cabbage. 

II @au'cr!o^I, ) „^„,t«.«* 
©aseau'erfraitj'^"-^"^"*- 
2)a8 ^orn, — c«, grain. 
- ,r «raut, — c«,i?/. ^Su'tcr, herb. 
-« Un'fraut, weed. 
2)ie ^effc,—,!*/. — «, cress. 
-~ - rr Sin'fe, —, jt)/. — «, lentiL 
3)cr SWaiS, —eg, Indian com. 
S)ie «pa'fitnaTc, ~ /lil — n, parsnip. 
^Ctcrfi'ltc, — , parsley. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LIST OP WORDS. 



429 



^—1^ ^Uj, —««, pL —C, mushroom. 

n ^ei«, —€«, rice. 

9, 8tcf%—e«,pZ.—e, radish. 

n Sl'^eer'rettig, horseradish. 
— n Stog'gCtt, — 9, rye. 
^ a)tc 8m'6e, — , pi. — n, rape. 
_ ir gclbc aiil'bc, carrot 



2)te rot^c ^lil'be, beet. 

„ tDdge 9tiibe, tnmip. 
2)cr ^tVltxxt, — , cel^. 
S>er S^ar'gel, —9, asparagus. 

„ ^ipindf, — 9, spinage. 
% S05daen,—«, wheat 
-2)ic 3»tt'Bd, — , i?/. — n, onion. 



CliftiittbjDtfaiutme* 10. Fruits and Fruit-trees. 



- — S)ic %'mm9f — fpL — , pine-apple. 

S)cr Wp\tl, —9,pL %tp\ti, apple, 
-'^e 2t|)fclfi'nc, —,/>/. —n, orange. 
„ 2t|)ri!o'fc,— ,!>/.— n, apricot _ 
2)cr ©aunt, — c«, p/1 ©Sume, tree. 
Wp\db(mm, apple-tree. 
' — Sirn'baum, pear-tree, 
^flou'menl^aum, plom-tree. 
gci'gcnbaum, fig-tree. 
2)a« «Iatt, — c«,/)/. «lfittcr, leaf. 

— a)cr@tamm,-c«,p/.@tSmnie, trunk 

— 2)ie8etn'be,— f/'^-— n,bark. 
2>cr 3tt>«S/ — ««f -P'- — «/ bough. 
2)ic SBur'gel, — ,i»/. — n, root 

S)ie ©ce'rc, — , />/. — n, beny. 
9rom'6eere, blackberry. 
(Srb'bccrc, strawberry. 
^'hdbtttt, bilbeny. 
^ixn'Utvt, raspberry. 
3i)^'m«5ccrc, currant 



SKauri&cere, mulberry. 

@ta'(]^bcere, gooseberry. 
2)ie ©irne, — , />/. — n, pear. 
^^ (Sitro'nc, — , />/. —n, lemon. 

„ 2)aftcl,— ,p/.— ii,date. 

## gei'fi^ — P^.— «/% 
-^ ^ajia'ttic, — ,;>/. — ^n, chestnut 
_,, aWan'bcI, —,/)/. —n, almond. 
„ SDMo'nc,— ,/>/.— n, melon. 
-^ gihtg,— ,/>/. 9'lilffe,nut 
53tt<3^'nu8, beechnut 
^'fdnug, hazlenut 
SBaWxm^, wabiut 
2)ic Dft'toc, — ,j»/. —en, olive. 
^„ ^Pt'fi(^,^,/>Z.—C, peach. 
„ ^flau'mc, — , pi, —It, plum. 
^, 0)lit'tC,—,p/.—n, quince. 
-„ SBetn'trauBe,— ,/>/.— n, grape. , 
-44J)cr aBein'podt , — c«, pL *flikf e, grape- 
vine. 



" — &mhtn itttb aBalbiSitmc. 

. — *Skx %'ffem, --9,pL — e, maple. 
2)tc ©ir'tc, —,/>/. —V, birch. 
M S3u'(!^,—,/>iL—n, beech, 
rr (£c*bcr,—,p/.—n, cedar. 
tt (£l>J)rcrfe,—,j»/.—n, cypress, 
tf (gi'd^e, — ,/)/. — n,oak. 
•IT" (Sr'Ic, — , pi. — «, alder, 
ff (5'fd^C,— -,p^— ll,ash. r\~-ff 

m (J«'^, —,;>/.— n,aiq)en. 

edtntett 12* 

S)a« ®ri«'b(att, > honeysuckle. S)er 

M 3cISn'gcriclic'6cr,l' woodbine. 2)ie 
2)tc ©olb'blumc, marigold. 



11« Shrubs and Forest-trees. 

"Die gi^'tc, —,/>/. — n, pine. 
Sfir'd^, — , pL — n, larch. 
Stn'be, —,pl — n, lime-tree. 
SR^rt^f — /P'- — «/ myrtle. 
^(H)>el, —fph — tt, popl^. 
ian'ric,— , />/. — n, fir. 
Urmc, — , pL —n, elm. 
©ci'bc, — , pL — n, willow. 



Flowers. 

3a9mtn', — C«, jasmine. 
?i'(tc,— ,K — n, lily. 
SWai'Wumc, lily of the valley. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



430 



JJST OP WORDS. 



2)ic awarj'licBc, — , pi — n, daisy. 

n SWo^m'Mumc, poppy. 

, — „ m'lc,— ,;>/.—«, pink, 
r, Silcrfcl, — pi. — n, nettle. 

2)er 8ttf tcrf^orn, larkspur. 

2)ic 9lo'fc, — , pi —n, rose. 
— „ ©^iinelMumc, prinirose. 

2)er SSo'gcr, —«,;:>/. »&ficl, bird. 
„ aiaub'togcl, bird of prey. 
„ ©ing'togei, birdofsoBg. 
„ @umJ)f»ogeI^ wader. 

Slb'Icr, —0, /)/. — , eagle. 



2)ic ^on'nenMume^ sunflower. 
S)cr ^tori^t^'f d^nabcl, crane's biU (gei^a- 
nium). > 

H^ae 2^au.'fcnbf(3t^Bii, pansy, heart's ease 
S)tc XurijJe, —,/>/. —n, tulip. 
jDad Sergtg'meinnici^t, forget-me-not 
r SBtnb'r5d(^en, anemone. 

13» Birds. 

" "©er ^a'ni^, —«, j»^* — C/ crane, 
^'fu!, — «, cuckoo. 

2)ic 2cr'<i(^c, —,;>/. — n, lark. 

- „ mi>"0t, —, /?/. — n, guU. [gale. 

„ S'la^'tigatt, —, pL —en, nightin- 
SiJ)cr ^a^agci', —en, pi —en, parrot. 



S)tc 21m' fel, — , />^. — n, blackbird. — „ ^fau, —en, pi —en, peacock. 



S)er »ud(^'flnf,— en, /^/.— en, bullfinch. 
— 2)ie 2)o^>'Ic, — , ;>/. — n, jackdaw. 
^ „ S)rof fel, — , pi — n, thrush, 
-i- „ ei'fler, —,!»/. — n, magpie. 
^„ eu'te,—,;;/.— n, owl. 
*- „ @n'te,— ,/)/.— n, duck. 
^ S)er gar'le, — n, ;?/. — n, felcon. 



9?a'bc, — en, pi —en, raven. 
'2)a6 9{cb'^n(;n, partridge. 
— 2)er ^let'^ier, — «, pi — , heron. 
- -©a^ Slctyfe^l^en, robin redbreast. 
•- 3>ic @(^ne>f e, — , ;>/. — n, snipe. 
^ „ @d(^tt)arBc, -,;>/. —n, swallow. 
S)er ®i»an, — «, />/. @<!^tt)Sne, swan. 
•— "S)cr gafan', —en, />/. —en, pheasant. - - „ ©^er'ltng, — «, ;>/. — e, sparrow. 
S)te @an«,— , jo/: ©anfc, goose. „ @tor^, — e8, p/. @t»rd(^e, stork.. 

S)er ©a'H^t, — «, p/. — e, hawk. • -7, ^traug, —en, />/. —en, ostrich. 

,^_ ^^ ^^„^ -.e«> pi ^fi^ne, cock. S)ie Sou'bc, — , pi —en, dove. 

2)ic ^'ne, — , pi — n, hen. - ^vc Xrut'^^a^n (bte — ^enne), turkey. 

"^ — S)a« $u^rt, — «, i>/. W'ttcr,. chicken.- .S)ie SSod^'tet, — , pi — n, quail. 

3)er ^ona'ricnbogel, Canary bird. - -2)er Saun'f iJnig, wren. 
2)ie $tx^'% — , />^. —M, crow. 



14. 



(Siinget^iere. 

2)er 3tf fc, — n,;>/.— n, ape. 
„ ©ar,— en, jo/. —en, bear. 
„ S3i'bcr,—S, ;?/.--, beaver. 

— „ 2)ad^«,— e«, jo/. S)S^'fe, badger. 

— S)a« (gic^'^»me(^n, —«,;»/.—, squirr^fS)er Sud(^«, 
— S)er (g'ber, — «, ;?/. — , wild boar. 
A- „ (g'fel,— «,/>/.— r ass, donkey. 

n gu^8,— 8,W.pc^fe,fox. 
-^ S)te ©em'fe, — ,!>/. — n, chamois. 
^ !5)er 4>a'fe, — n, ;//. — n, hare. 

— n §itf<i, — c§, pi — c, stag. 
„ ^unb, — e9, p/. — e, dog. 



2)cr 3'gel,.— «,!?/. - . 
!J)a« ^anin'c^Ktt/ — «/jo/. — , rabbit. 
2)te ^a'tje, — , jo/. — n, cat. 
2)ie ^^, —,!>/. til^, cow. 

■^,pl — e,lynx. 
3)er S5'tt)e,— n,jo/. — n,lion. 
S)tc 3Wou8, —,;»/. aWSufe, mouse. 
2)et D^8, -en,;?/. — en, ox. 
S)a« $ferb, — e8,ii7. -^, horse. 
SMe @tu'te, — ,i>/: — n, mare. 
. !3DaS guricn, —9, ;i/. — , celt. 
Xic 9?atte, — , ;>/. — n, rat. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIST. OP WOED&. 



431 



— ^a« dtzff, —f^fpL — c, roe, deer. 1 2)cr XV^tx, --9,pl. —, tig€ 

,, @Att)cm, — c8, pi. — e, hog. I,, SEBolf , — c«, pi SBiJIfc, 

• — 2)cr ©tier, —t^fpL — c, bull — f^c ^xt'^t, —fpL —n, kid. 



— , tiger. 

wol£ 



gif«e* 



15* 



Fishes. 



• — S)cr 3lal, —t^,pL — c, eel. 
"'^ic Slu'jlcr,— ,!>/. —n, oyster. 
2)cr S3arW, — c8,iiZ.— c, perch. 
„ ©il(fUng,— «,!>/. —C, red 
-^2)ic gorcl'Ie, —,;?/. — n, trout. 
^-^ M ®atnc'Ic, — ,jp/. — n, shrimp. — (>! 
• — 2>er ©ai, —9,pL — c, shark. 
-^ „ ^'ring,—c«,j>/.--c, herring. 

It ^t(i)i, — c«, ;?/. — c, pike. 

. — „ ^um'mcr, — -S, pL — , lobster. 

n ^abrijiau', —«,/>/.—, codfish. 



— T^er ^ 



^ar^fcn, —9,pL— , carp, 
^ebd, — 19, pU — C, crawfish. 
8a(i^8, — ^,pL — c, salmon. 
herringfS)tc aWu'fd^cC, —,;?/. — n, sheU. 

2)cr @(^tt'fiW,—c0, ;>/.—€, haddock. 
2)ie ©^tlb'friJte, — , pL — n, turtle. 
r» ©^lei'^c, —fPl — n, tench, 

rr @t5r , — «, j»/. — c, sturgeon . 
- ,r 2Batt'fif(3^, — c«,p/. — c, whale. 



e^emlf^e @n6{lattseit« 16« 



Chemical Bodies. 



- SDcr ©au'etfloff,— c«, oxygen. 

- ,, aSaffcrjloff, hydrogen. 
„ @ti(I'Poff , nitrogen. 

S)tc @ti(I'floff|5urc, nitrous acid. 

„ ©al^e'tcrfSure, nitric acid. 

ia8 fal^c'tcrfaurc ©ilbcr, nitrate 

- n ^oyienjioff, carbon, [of silver. 
. S)ic ^o^l'cnfSure, carbonic acid. 

2)cr loyicnfaurc ^alt, carbonate 
of lime. 
n ?P^o«'^^or, —8, phosporus. 
— u @d)»e'fcl, — «, sulphur. [acid.-f®a8 
S)ic fd^toc'fcligc ®5ure,sulphurous 
„ @(3^tt)c'felf Sure, sulphuric acid 
3)cr fd^tee'felfaurc ^df, sulphate^— ^ 

of lime. [iron, 

2)a« @(i^»c'feletfen, sulphuret oi 
» (S^Ior, — 8, chlorine. 
JOie @Su'rc, — , pi. — n, acid. 
2)a8 @alj, — c8, p/. — e, salt. -H^cr 

@arjtg, saline. 
S)tC Suft, — , air. 
Suf tig, aerial. 



8uff fiJrmtg, aeriform. 
2)a« aWctatt', — e«,ii/. — e, metal. 
S)a0 ©olb, gold, 
r, @irbcr, silver. 
V ^u^fcr, copper. 

■ n ©let, lead. 

" — » 3inn, tin. 
n @t'fcn, iron. 
2)cr @ta^r, steel. 
w S^ttf, zinc, 
rr ^O'balt, cobalt. 

2Wcrflng, — 9, brass. 

' ©rj, — cS, />/. — c, ore, bronze. 

2)cr ©iamant',— «,;?/.— en, diamond, 
©maragb',— «, pi — e, emerald, 
rf 2Cgat',—e8,ij/.—e, agate. 
H SWar'mor, —8, marble. 
M ®V^8, — e8, gypsum, 
©te ^eib'c, — chalk, 
^al!, — c«, lime. 
S^on, —8, clay, 
^raun', —8, alum. 
2)ic aWi'nc, — , pi — n, mine. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



432 



U8T OF WORDS. 



-t 



SBifftttMaftem 17. Sciences. 

2)tc ©cometrie', — , geometiy. 

2)er ^Ihcnom', astronomer. 
?P^i'(ofoJi)^ie', — , philosophy. 
2)er ^^Uofolp^^ philosopher. 
^^Uofo'^^tfd^, philosophical 
XiftQU^k', — , theology. 
S)ct £&coIog\ —en, theologian. 
S^colo'gifd^, theological, 
^^tlologie', — , philology. - 
aWcbigtn', — , medicine. [law. 
9lc(^?t8'n>tffcnf(3(^aft, — , science of 

18« Arts. 

2)ie 2)ic ©Sn'gcrin,/*/. —ncn, singer. 
„ 2)i^t'funjl, —, poetry. 

S)cr S)i(^'tcr, — «, poet, 
rf 3le'bcfunjl, —-, rhetoric 
— 2)te 9lc'bc, —,/>/. •— u, oration. 

S)cr 3leb'nct, —8, pi — , orator, 
-rr S5ct8'!unfl, —, prosody. 

tf Sct^'ncnfunfl,— , art of drawing. 

-,, 5hi>fcrpi^!unjl, art of engraving. 

S)cr ^>fcrjle^cr, engraver. 

,r ^u>fcrjH^, engraving. 

It @tcin'bru(fer!unp, lithography. 

„ ©^retb'funjl, — , chirography. 

—if ©ud^'brucfcrtunP, art of printing. 

It ^ricg8'funjl, military art. 
—ii gclb'mcgtunjl, field surveying. 
n 3nQtaxtnx'tim% engineering. 
I, 3(^)ct^c'fcr!unfl, pharmacy. 
2)er ^^ot^e'fer, apothecary. 



SHc Sflatur'toiffcnfci^oft, — , science. 
„ (S^cmtc', — , chemistiy. 

(S^'mif^, chemical. -- 

2)er (S^e'miter, chemist. 
„ Oeologlc', —, geology. [ogist. 

S)er ©colog', — cn,i>/.— en, ged- 
„ SDilmcroIogtc', —, mineralogy. 

2)cr WntxaltQ', —en, mineralo- 
„ ©ofa'nil, —, botany. [gist. 

S)er Sota'ntfer, botanist. 
n SD'tat^ma'tit, —, mathematics. 

2)ie Strit^me't^it, — , arithmetic. 
n SU'gcbra,—, algebra. 

ftiiitfte* 

2)ie f(i^Bnen ^nfle, fine arts. 
n Slcfl^e't^il, — , aesthetics. 
n «unfl, —,!>/. ^njie, art. 
2)er ^njl'ler, —9, artist. 

^i^n^^r' } architecture. 

2)er«au;meiper,>^^^^^ 

„ %x6}\tttt', ) 
Silb'^auerfunjl, j 
^la'fHf, — , i sculpture, 
eiul^tur',— , ) 
2)ct S3ilb'^auer, — «, sculptor. 
aWalcrei', — , painting. 
2)er iWa'Ier, — S, ;>/. — , painter. 

awnfir,-, -I . 

2on'rnnjl,-,;°*"'*^- 
2)er iOhl' jlfc¥, — «, musician. 

r» ©efang', — e8, smging. 

I, @5ng'er, —«, singer. 



2)cr 



Orammatical Terms. 



®rammatff(^e ^(n^briide. 19. 

S)ie ©romma'tif, — , i>^— en,\ gram- 2)ic 
„ @^rad(^'re^rc,— ,j»/.— n,> mar. 



i3u^'JlaBe, — n, ;>iL — n, letter. 

2)er 3in'fong«Bu(3t^flaBe,initial let- 
ter, [ital letter, 
f^roge 3(nfattg8Bud(^flaBe, cap- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIST OP WORDS. 



433 



P ^ S)cr ^onfonatit', — cn,> conso- 

^7 M Wi'XoMi, pi —tS nant. 

2)er 9le'bct(ietl,— c«,j»/.— c,) part of 
2)ic Sa^ort'form,— ,/)/.— en,> speech. 
2)er2lrtncr, -«,/>/.-,) .J 

2)cr bcjHmmtc Slrt. ^definite article 
M UtttcjHmmtc Slrt., indefinite 
2)a8iWo'mcn,— «,;j/.— , '\ [article 
f, ©au^)t'l©ort, — 8, >• noun. 

,, ^enn'ttJort,/>/. *njortcr,) 
2)cr ©emein'namen, — g, ;>/. — , 
common noun. 
u (Si'gennamcn, proper noun. 
'i)ic 2)cRination', i)/. — en,i declen- 
n gatt'btcgung,/>/.— cn, > sion. 
2)ic jiarfe ©cflin., old declension. 
„ fd^wad^e 2)eRin. , new declen. 
u ^cmif d;te 2)c!L ,mixed declen. 
S)a« Wjicftib, —8, ) 
V @i'genf^aft8tt3ort, > adjective. 
« S3ci'tt3ort, ) 

2)ic ©tei'gcruug ber 5lbj[cltti)a, 
comparison of adjectives. 
5Dcr ^iumcral',— 8,j)/.— en,) numer- 
^a8 Sa^l'ttJort, j" al. 

2)a8 ©runb'sa^Im. ^cardinal num. 
,/ Orb'nungSga^tWort, ordinal 
number. 



S)a« ^ono'men, —«,!?/.—, ^ pro- 
„ gilr'toort, > noun. 

2)a8 ^erfi3n'ftd^c gUrtt)., personal 
pronoun. 
„ bcfife'anjctgcttbc gilrttJ., pos- 
sessive pronoun. 
u ^in'tcetfcttbe gllrtt>., demon- 
strative pronoun. 
„ unbcftimmte gilrn?., indefi- 
nite pronoun. 
„ fra'genbc gilrtt)., interroga- 
tive pronoun. [pronoun. 
u Bcjilg'lid^e gilrttJort, relative 
S)a8 SSeri6, — 8,i)/.— a,) 

„ Scit'ttJort, i ^®^**- [tion. 

2)ic ^onjugattoii', — ,j»/.— n,conjuga- 
2)ic parte ^onj., irregular conj. 
„ fd^toac^e ^oitj., regular conj. 
S)a8 ^Ifti'bum, —8, active voice. 
„ ^affi'bum, — 8, passive voice. 
w 2lbi)erV,— 8,/>/. — a, > ad- 
n iWeBen* or Um'flanbswort,) verb. 
SDtc $r5^)ofitiou', •\ 
2)a8 3Sor'tt)ort, >- preposition. 

V SSer^SIt'nigtrort, ) 

^*'l^"!f^^^''^[ conjunction. 

2)te ^nterjcftion', ) inteijec- 

2)a8 ©m^fin'bimgswort,) tion. 



3eitetnt(ei(uttg. 

!2)ie S'njtgfeit, — , eternity. 

" 3«tr — / i*^- — CHf time. 
2)a8 3fa^t^un'bert, —8, century. 

„ «rter, or 3cit' alter, age. 

M 3a^r,— e8,i?/. 3a^rc, year. 
2)er iWo'nat, —8, ;>/. — e, month. 
2)te 2So'^, — , i)/. — n, week. 
S)er Sag, — e8, pi. — e, day. 
3)ie Sila^t,— , pi 5RS(3t^'te, night. 

„ ©tun'be, — , pi. — n, hour. 

rr 2Jiinu'tc, — ,|)/. — n, minute. 

ti ^cfun'be, — , pi. — n, second. 
— ',f 9J?or'genriJt^c, — , dawn, 
^cr Xa'ge8anbrud5f, — c8, daybreak. 



20. Divisions of Time. 

2)er (Sonnenauf gang, -—8, sunrise. 

n iWor'gcn, — 8, pi. — , morning. 
■^n SSor'mittag, forenoon. 

rf 9)'ttt'tag, noon. 

n iWadf^'mittag, afternoon. 

rr Sl'benb, — 8, p/. — e, evening. 
2)ie iWit'tema^t, midnight. 
(Se'ftem, yesterday. 
SSor'geflcrn, day before yesterday. 
— ' "Sor a(^t Sagen, a week ago. [day 
— -$eutc ilbcr ad^t 2^age, a week from to- 
SWor'gen, to-morrow. 
Ue'bermorgen, day after to-morrow. 
2)ic ^okf'xt^^\i, season o^ the year. 

T 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



iU 



L13T OF WORDS. 



S)cr 3Bin'tcr, — 9, winter. 
n gniyji«S.-«.> spring. 

S)cr @om'mcr, —6, summer. 

M ©erbfl, — c«, fall. 

,, 3a'nuar, — ^, Januarj'. 

,, gc'bruav, —8, February. 

„ aKSr3,—c«, March. 

„ «%)ril', -8, April. 

„ 3«at,— 8, May. 

,, Ou'ni, —-8, June. 

,, 3uTl, — 8, July. 

„ 3lUiJUfl', — e8, August. 



2>CT ^tpttm'btx, —5, September. 

„ Otto'bcr, —8, October. 

„ ^Jiotjcm'bcr, — 8, November. 

„ S)e5em'bcr, —8, December. 

„ ©onn'tag, —8, Sunday. 

„ iKon'tag, —?, Monday. 

„ 2)icn8'tag, —8, Tuesday. 

^.' ^^5"^'$' ""'4 Wednesday. 
3)ie 9Ritt'ttJod^e, — , > -^ 

-2)cr 2)on'ncr8tag, —8, Thursday. 

,, grci'tag,— 8, Friday. 



SteUgtotteit. 21. 

2)a8 (S^ri'jlcnt^um, —8, Christendom 
S)ie ^r'^c, — , pL — n, church. 
„ Strmema'tttfd^c ^rt^c, Armenian 
Church. 
2)cr Slnncnia'ncr, Armenian. 
,, 33a^)tt'|iifcbc ^r^e, Baptist Ch. 

2)crS3a^ttft', Baptist. 

„ ^\'\6}'6\l\6ft ^x6)Z, Episcopal 

Church. [lian. 

2)cr @^i8lo^aUa'ncr, Episcopa- 

„ ®ric'(^^ifd^ * ^at^o'Iifd^c ^rd;e, 

Greek-Catholic Church. 
„ Snt^c'rifd(^C ^xdft, Lutheran Ch. 
S)cr Sut^era'ner, Lutheran. 



Beligions. 



2)te iUJct&obi'pifd^e ^rd^c, Methodist 
2)cr aJlet^obtft', Methodist. [Ch. 
„ aicformir'te ^rd^e, Reformed Ch. 
„ m'mi\6)'^^xif)o'i^d}t mx6ft, Ro- 
man-Catholic Church. 
2)cr ^at^olif , Roman Catholic. 
„ grci'c ©cmctn'bc, Free Religious 
Association (of Free-thinkers). 
^a9 3u'bcnt^um, Jewry. [Jewess. 
S)cr 3u'be ; bie 9u'bin, Jew, 
3)cr 38'Iam, Mohammedanism, [dan. 
S)cr 2Wa^omcba'ncr, Mohamme- 
2)a8$ei'bcnt^um, paganism, [heathen 
— 2)cr ^ci'bc, — ri, pi. — n, pagan, 



^roftfftonett uttb $anbtoerIe. 22« 

2)cr 3l^)ot^c'fcr, —8, apothecary. f®cr 
— 'rr ^'fStf — ^*f P^- 3lcrjte, physician. 
2)cr SBunb'arjt, surgeon. 
ff B^W^^^^ dentist. 
„ SBd'der, —8, pL — , baker. 
„ Sanqnicr', — 8,;>/. —8, banker. 
„ SBarbier', —8, ;>/. — c, barber. 
— ff ^au'tx, — 9fpl. — n, peasant. 
2)ic S3Su'erin, — , pi — ncn, peasant^-'/, 

woman. 
!J)cr SSau'meijicr, — 8,;>?.--, architect. 
. „ Silb'^auer , —8, /)/.—, sculptor. 
„ S8i' Wof, —8, pi S3tf(^bfe, bishop. 
- ,, ©Btt'd^er, —8, p/. —, cooper. 



Professions and Trades. 

S3rau'cr, —8, pi. —, brewer. 
5Bud;'btnbcr, — 8, bookbinder. 
33ud^'briirfcr, — e8, />/.—, printer, 
gabrifant', — en,;?/. — en, manu- 
gSrbcr , —8 ,pl —, dyer, [facturer. 
gifcb'^Snbler, —8, fishmonger, 
glci'fd^cr, —8, ji^ — , butcher, 
gu^r'mann — e8,i)/. *Icute, coach- 
©er'bcr,— 8, ;?/.—, tanner, [man. 
©la'fcr, — 8, p/. — , glazier. 
§irt, — t\\,pl — en, shepherd. 
©Snb'Icr, — 8, pi — , tradesman. 
2)cr ©utb'banMcr, book-merchant 
„ Obft'b3nbter, fruit-merchant 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIST OF WORDS. 



435 



2)ie 06[t'^5nb(ertn, frait-woman. 2)er 
2)cr ^fcr'bc^Snbler, horse-dealer. 2)ie 
„ iud^'^cinbIer,dry-goodsmer-4®CT: @i 
chant. 
2)cr Quwclicr', —3, pi, —t, jeweller. 
«. ff Sii'fcr, — 9fpL — , cooper. 
,, ^nft'lcr, —8, pl,—f artist. 
2)ic ^flnji'Icrin, —^pl — ncn, aitist. 
S^cr i?u>ferpcd^cr^ — «/engraver. 
„ Sc^'rer, — S, pL — , teacher. 
ff ©d^ul'Ic^rer, school-teacher. 
2)ie Scyrerin,— ,i)/. ~nen, teacher. 
2)cr 2J2au'rcr,— 8,/i/. —, mason. 

- 2)cr grei'maurcr, free-mason. « 
^„ $Wefe'gcr,— 8, i?/.—, butcher. - 
^ „ '3RvLVkv,—9,pl. — , miller. 

„ Tlvi'flttx, — «, pL — , musician. 
2)ic 9f^a'§crin,/)Z. — ncn, seamstress. 
2)cr 9^atut'forfd^er, — «, naturalist. 

,, ^abfl, — e«, ;>/. ^fib'Pc pope. 

- ,, ^far'rcr,— «,;>/.—, vicar. 
„ ^^ilofo^f/, —en, /?/. —en, philos- 

^ „ ^re'bigcr, — 9, preacher, [opher.. 
„ ^rie'ftcr, —3, ;>/. — , priest. 

- „ 9tcba!teur', —8, pL — c, editor^— 
f, 9?cb'ner, — 9, pi. — , orator. 
„ ^att'Icr, — 9f pi. — , saddler. 



<S^an'f^ieIer, —9,pL —, actor. 

©ci^au'fpielerin, pi. — ncn, actress. 

@(i?lS(!^'ter, —9, pi. —, butcher. 

©ci^lof'fcr, —8, pi. —, locksmith. 

<2d^micb, — e8, pi. — c, smith, 
blacksmith. 

S)cr @olb'f(^mteb goldsmith. 
„ ©uff^mteb, horseshoer. 
„ ^u':()ferfc!^mteb,copper8mith. 
„ 3y?ef Jetfci^micb, cutler. 
„ aSaf fcnfd^mieb, armorer. 

©c^nei'bcr, — «, pL — , tailor. 

@(3t^orn' ftcinfcgcr, chimney-sweep. 

@ci^rift'jieUer, —9, pi. — , author. 

SagTo^ncr, —8,/)/.—, day-labor- 
er, [maker. 

ZiWltX, —0, pi. — , cabinet- 

2:a<)ejte'rcr, —9, ph — , uphol- 
sterer. 

\XffX'ma6)tx, —8, pi. — , watch- 
maker. 

SScrfaf'fcr, —8, pi. — , author. 

SSe^S'lcr, —8, pi. — , money- 
changer. 

SBtn'jcr, — 9, pi. — , vine-dresser. 

3tm'mcrmonn,— 8,/>/. 3tm'mer* 
lente, carpenter. 



grcmbtoBrtcn 23» Foreign Words. 

- XtX 3ln'fer, anchor (from Latin, ancora ; Greek, dyicvpa). [China). 
2)te 3l>fclflne, orange (from Dutch, appelsina; French, ponflne de Sine= 

tt Slu'fler, oyster (from Latin, dstreum ; Greek, o&rpiov). 

ft S3ut'tcr, butter (from Latin, butyrum ; Greek, j3ovTvpov). 
2)cr grad, dress-coat (from /rencA,frac; ZoM;-ix/<tn,fi'occus- woolen stuff). 
3)ic .3n'{cl, island (from Latin, insula), 
^o'flen, to cost (from Italian, costare ; Latin, constare). 
2)cr ?6'tt)e, lion (from Latin, leo ; Greek, Xstav). 
2)a8 $fcrb, horse (from Late Latin, paraverddus^an extra post-horse). 
2Jtc ^pr'fid;, peach (from Latin, persicuin malum =Per8ian apple). 
2)cr 9lci8, rice (from French, ris; Latin, oryza; Greek, opv^a ; Arabic, aruz). 
-2)08 ^dfad), chess (from Persian, 8hah=king). 
2)ic @tra'§e, street (from Latin, via strata =paved road). 

- tt S^af fe, cup (from French, tasse ; Arabic, tas). 

tt Xox'tt, tart (from Low-Latin, torta ; Latin, tortus = twisted). 
tt X^ul'^c, tulip (from French, tulipe ; Turkish, tulban= turban), 
2)cr p^it'Qci, tile (from Latin, tdgula; t'om te'get'e = to cover). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^0 



i.r'^ 



e^=rc"o 



VI. GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 
Abbreviations. 



adj,j adjective. 
adv.f adverb. 
canj. or c, conjunction. 
indecL, indeclinable. 
intf interjection. 
party participle. 
pi., plural. 
prep,, preposition. 



pron.f pronoun. 
demon., demonstrative. 
V. aux.y auxiliary verb. 
V, imp., impersonal verb. 
V, intr,, intransitive verb. 
V, ir., irregular verb. 
V. reft., reflexive verb. 
V. tr., transitive verb. 



«♦ 



-■^er • 



S)er Sl'benb, —9,pL — c, evening. 
2)a« ^'bcnbcffcn, —8, supper. 
2)a« 21'bentcucr, —9, pi.—, adventure 

W&cr, conj. (§ 26.5), but, however. 

2)cr Whtxgiauht, — n«, superstition. 

W>'bxtmim, v, ir. tr., to bum down. 
— ' 2)ic %i)'\af)xt, — , pi. — en, sailing. 

^Ib'fcucni, V. tr., to fire off. 

Slt'geben, v. ir. tr., to deliver. 
Stb'^^clfcn, V. ir. intr., to remedy. 

Slb'Ieitcn, v, tr., to derive. 

Slb'reifen, r. intr., to leave, depart. 
- — -2)tC %h'xn\t, — fpl. — en, departure. 
"^^W>']t^t\n, V. intr., to sail (away). 
— 2)erm'fa^,— c«,/>/.2lbfa<je,8top,hcel. 

W>'\d}Xtdm, V. tr., to frighten away. 

W>'\d)Xt\i>tn, V. tr. ir., to copy, tran- 
scribe, [purpose, aim, view. 
•**2)ie Slb'fid^t,— , /)/.— en, intention, 

^b'fl(]^tlid^, adj. intentional 
• 96'flammen, v. intr., to be descendedj-fSUl' 

%i>*^atttn,v,tr., to perform, discharge. 

(Sincn ^i\n6f ab'flatten, to pay a 

- — Slb'ttocfnen, v. intr., to dry up. [visit. 
. — Slb'triinnig, adj., faithless (to). 

2((^t, eight "^tx * 

2)ie 2ld?t, — , care, attention ; fl^ 

— ^6)t neVnten, to take care, be on 
one*s guard. 



"Die ^(3^'tung, — , respect. 
Slbteu', int., good-by, farewelL 
2)ie Slbreffe, —, pL — n, address. 

Slbreffi'ren, to address (letter8> 
^e^n'Iid^, adj., similar, like. 

S)ic Sle^n'lid^feit, —, similarity. 
3)er Slffe, —n,pl. — n, ape. 
" "©a^ 2l'gto, — 9, premium (on coin). 
S)ie Sir tie, — ,pL — n, share, [pany. 

5irticn*®efctt'f<^ttftf stock com- 

SlftionSr'; — 9, pi. — c, sharehold- 
Slllcin', conj., but, only. [cr. 

%VltX,pron., all, every. 

Witxkl' findecl. acT^'., of all kinds. 
SlttQemcin', adj., general, common. 
— f^Uma'Iig, adj., gradual. 

!5)a« Sirmofen, —9, pi. —, alms. 

%\9f conj., when, as, than, except, but. 

3ll«bann',a6?t;.,then. 

Sirfo, adv., so, thus; conj., therefore. 

*in,adv., quite too. 
S)er ailtar', —9, pi. mtS'rc, altar. 
2>a« %Vttx, —9, pi. —, age, old age. 
Xa9 SW'tert^um, — «, pi *tt^ilmer, an. 

ait, adj., old. rtiqai^y* 

9[m'bo«, — c«, pi. — fe, anvil. 
ti4®a« Stmt, —t9,pl. Slem'ter, office. 
Sin, prep., on, at, by, to about in* 
adv., on, forward. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^o.: 



VOCABULARY. 



437 



2lu'bictcn, v. tV., to offer, hold out to. 
%n*t>tx, pron,, other. 

Sln'bcrS, adv., otherwise. 

SSln'bcrSWO, adv,, elsewhere. 
«n'bert^alb (§ 103, 2). 



^n'\pxt6)tn, V. tr. tr,, to address. 

(gincn urn cttt>a« an'fprcc^cn, to 

ask or claim a thing of a person. 
— |-2)er 3lu«'ftruc^, — e«, pL *fprttd;c, 
claim. 



2ln'bcMtcn, r. tr., to show. 



2)ic 3lnefto'te, — , />/. — n, anecdote. 
2)er Sln'fang,— 8,/>/.^fvingc,beginning. 
5ln'fangen, w. tV. tr., to begin, 
commence. 
'"^n'fembcn,r. tr., to treat hostilely, 

Sln'gcbcn, v. ir. tr., to give. 
— -^n'QtUidf, adj., pretended. 

Sln'acborcn, adj., hereditary. 
— ^n'ge^en, v. ir. intr., to concern. 



"*-S)ic Sln'Palt,— ,/>i — -n, preparation. 



establishment. 
^Xi^oM' fPrep. (with gen.), instead of; 
conj., instead of. 
r-j-9ln'flo6cn, v. tr., to hit against, strike. 
2)cr 3(n'po6, — e8, />/. Sln'ftogc, hit, 
blow, offense. 
^f^n'Prcngcn, v. tr., to exert, strain, 
^n'ftrengenb^ adj., exhausting. 
2)ic ^n'ftrcngung, ■— , exertion. 



— 3)ie an'gclcgcn^eit, —,;>/.— en, affairr "S)er Stntiquar', — «, pL —c, dealer in 



• — ^n'gene^m, adj., agreeable, pleasant. 
— '3)a« ktCQtfi6)t, --c«, i>/. — cr, face, 

countenance. 
— - %n'Qtfxdift9,prep. , in new of. 
3)ic SIngP,— , />/. ^cng'jlcn, anxiety, 
fear, anguish, terror. 



second-hand books; ^nttquar'* 
(il^tmplax' , second-hand copy, 
-f^n't^ilrmcn, v. intr., to rise like tow- 
ers (overtower). 
3)ic 3lnf TOort, —, pi. —tn, answer. 
5lnt'n)orten, v. intr., to answer. 



5(engft'U(^, adj., anxious. 



Sln'^alten, v. ir., to hold fast, contin- 
-^-31n'^eben, t'Ttntr. , to begin, commence ; 
^v. tr., to lift up, raise. 

S)er Sln'fcr, —8, pi. —, anchor. 
... — 2)ic 3ln'feru{|r, anchor-watch. 
■•*— 8Cn'!Iagcn, ». tr., accuse, charge. 



[uer -^n'tiDadj^fcn, v. intr., to grow on. 



Sln'fommen, r. tV. w^r., to arrive. *"^n'jie^cn, v. ir. tr., to draw on, to at- 



..^.^n'fibiben, an'fiinbtgen, v. tr., to pro- 
claim, announce, publish, 
3)ic 3ln'funft, — , arrival. 
*— ^n'lad^cn, y. intr. , to smjle or laugh at. 
*— 4J)ie 3ln'lci^c, — , ;»/. — n, loan. 

Sln'nc^men, v.'irHr., to accept; r. re^. 
«Ho interest one*s self, take interest. 
•^-SCn'rebcit, v. tr., to accost, address. 
2)ic 3ln'rebe, — , p/. -— , address, 
an'rii^rcn, v. tr., to touch. 
•*^n'f(^af[cn, ». <r., procure, obtain, get. 
%n'\6}antti, v. tr., to view, to look at. 
•^ Sln'fe^cn, v. ir. tr., to view, behold. 
— — S)ic 3ln'fi(^t, — , pL—tn, opinion,: 
point of view. 



2)ic 5ln'tt)eifung, —,/>/. —en, note. 
3)ic 5ln'tt>enbung, — , application. 
•• -Sln'Wefenb, adj., present. 
Sln'jeigen, v. tr., to notify, advertise. 
2)ie Sln'jeige, — , pi. — n, adver- 
tisement. 



tract, interest, to put on. 
,^ 2)cr 3ln'jug, suit of clothes. 
®er 2l>fel, — «, pL 3le>fel, apple. 

3)cr 2l>feln)ein, cider. [shop. 
2)ie 3(^)ot^e'fe, —,/>/. — n, apothecarj? 

S)er 5l|)ot^e'!cr, apothecary. 
2)ic Slr'beit, — , pL — en, labor, work 

^Ifbciten, v. intr., to labor, work. 

2)cr Slr'beiter, laborer. 

^r'bcitfatn, adj., laborious. 
3)er %pxxV, — «, April. 
3)ic %x6)MoQk', — , archaeology. 
%XXn, adj.^ poor. 

2)ie Str'mut^, — , poverty. 
2)cr %xm, — e«, j?/. — e, arau 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1^0 



438 



VOCABULARY. 



■ — -J)cr 9ler'mcl, —^fpl — , sleeve. 
2)ic 3[rmec', — , ;>/. Iftrmc'cn, army. 
„ %xif — , pL —en, species, kind, 
way, natui-e. 
-/- Slt'ttg, ac[/.» ^^ *^ ^"^» agreeable. 

(gin ar'tige^ ^nb, a well-behaved 

child. 
S)er arti'fcl, —3,;?/. — , article. 
2Dic 3lrjnci', — , />/. — sn, medicine. 
,; St'fci^C, — , ashes. 
ff Slflronomic', — , astronomy. 
2)er 3lfltonom', — en, astronomer. 
5lflrono'mifc^^, astronomical 
^cr 21't^em, — ■«, breath, respiration. 

. 3lt^'mcn, V. <r., to breathe. 

f, WU^, — fc8, />/. — fc, satin. 

%\x6^f conj., also, too, even. 

^llf, prep., on, upon, at, to, towards ; 

auf einmat, all at once, at once; 

auf bag, c. , so that, in order that. 

3luf6Iti5>en, V. inti\, to expand, to 

blossom. [in succession. 

Slufeinan'bcr, ado., one after another, 

— 2)cr 2luf'ent^a(t, —8, stay, sojourn, 

abode. [the dead. 

— ' SCuf crfle^cn, v. ir. intr., to rise from 

2)ic ^uf crftc^ung, — , resurrection. 
— — 53[uf f altcnb, (idj.^ striking, strange. 
2)ic ^uf'flabc, — , pi — n, exercise. 



2)er 5lufgang,— e8,;>Z. *gSngc,risingr-glu«'bc&nen, v. *r., to stretch, expand. 



*— ^uf gcbcn, V. tV. fr., to give up, to sur- 



render. 



2luf ^alten, v. ir. refl., to stop, delay, 
— 3tuf ^5ren, v. intr., to cease, discon- 
tinue. 
— 2)ie SCuf lagc, — , /»?. — n, edition. 



— ^uf ma(3^cn, to open. 



Stufmcrfcn, v. tr., to obsen'e, notice. 
Slufmcrffam, aci;., attentive. 
3luf mcrljamlcit, — , attention, 
•"^ic 3luf'o|)ferung, — , sacrifice. 
?luf red(^t, upright, erect. 
*ilufreflen, v, tr., to excite. 
— 4&cr 3lufruf, --3, call, appeal, sum- 
mon. 



3[uf jlc^en, r. tV, i»/r., to rise up, to 

rise. 
3lufPeigcn, v.intr., to mount, ascend, 
^uf tvaflen, v, tr., to carry up, put on. 

2)cr ^uf'trag, — e«, pi. "trSgc, 
commission. [ken. 

3luf Wac^en, v.intr., to wake up, awa- 
Sluf'tcarten, r. in^r., to wait upon. 
— - ©incm {eine Sluf Wartung inac^cn, 
to pay one's respects to a per- 
SCuf'nJCCfen, v. tr., to awaken, [son. 
^^uf'jie^^cn, v. ir. tr., to draw up, raise 

up, rear, educate. 
2)a« 3lugc, —8, pi. —en, eye. 

2)er Slu'genbUcf, moment, [ous. 

Slu'genbUcflid^, adj., instantane- 
— S)ic Slu'genbraue, — , eyebrow. 
•^S)a8 Slu'genleiten,— 8, disease of 

the eyes. 
— ^ ^tu'genfd^einti^, a^'., apparent. 
3)er Sluguft', — 9, August. 
2lu6, prep., out, out of, from, of; adv, 

out, over, at an end, finished. 
?ln3'6effern, v. tr., to mend. 
5luS'bred^en, v. ir. intr., to break out. 
3lu3'breiten, v. intr., to spread out, ex- 
pand, [agation. 

Sic3(u^'6rcitung,extension,prop- 
2)ie ^uS'bauer, — , endurance. 



2)ic 5lu8'be^nung, — , expansion. 



[8tajB,--^u8'bril(fcn, v. tr., to press out, ex- 



press, [expression. 

2)er S5tu«'bru(f, — e3, pi. ^btCcfc, 
SluSbrildt'lid^, adj., explicit. 
SluSeinan'ber, adv., asunder, apart. 



--SluS'erfiefen (antiquated and irregu- 



lar verb, imperfect auS'crtor, 

participle auS'erforen), to choose, 

select. 
3(u3'fil^ren, v. tr., to execute 

2)ie 5tu8'fil^rung, — , executioa 
S)ie SluS'gabe, — , pi. —n, edition. 
2(u8'ge^en, v. ir. intr.,, to go out. 
J 2)cr 3lu3'gang, — c3.. exit. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULART. 



439 



• — %u9'f)Qlttn, V. ir. intr., to hold out. 

2)a« 2lu«'lanb, foreign countries. 
2lu«'Ivinbifc^, adj., foreign. 

%n^'nti)mtn, v. ir, tr., to except. 

2lu«'nel)menb, adv,, remarkably .-j-S)i( 
2)ic %VL9'na\)mt, —, pi — n, ex 
ception. [enough, 

■ g tug'tei^en^ v. intr., suffice, have 

^U«'frrc(^en, v. ir, tr,, to pronouncerfSlu* 
speak out. [tioi 

2)ie 2tu8'f^)raci^e, — , pronuncia- 

StuS'fe^en, r. ir. intr,, to look out. 
2)ic 3lu«'fid^t, — , prospect, view. 

2lu'6cr^alb, prq>., outside of, beyond.. 

^lu'gerorbcntfi^, adj., extraordinary. 



Slcu'gerfl, adv., extremely. 
3lu«'ftcttcn, V, tr,, to exhibit. 
— 2)ie ?lu«'ftcttung, — , exhibition. 
%m'\tttdtn, V, tr,, to stretch out. 
c Slu«'tro(fnung, — , drying up. 
2lu8'l)CT!aufen, v, tr,, to sell out. 
f^uS'Wfi^Icn, V, tr,, to select. 
2)ic 3lu«'tt)a^I, —,pl,—tn, selection. 

'tt>anbcrn, v, intr,, to emigrate. 

'rocnbig, adj,, from memory, by 

heart. 
'Jlu^'ja^jlcn, V, tr., to pay out. 
3[u«'jcid;ncn, v. tr,, to distinguish. 
— , 2lu«'gcjcic^^net, adj., excellent. 
S)ic Sljrt, — , pi. ^cjtc, axe, hatchet. 



»nT--«u«'l 



©aar (or Bar), arf/., bare, pm-e; baarcS 

" ®etb, cash; baarc ^egaf;Iim^ 

cash payment. 

. SSar'fug, adj., barefoot. 

S)cr SQa(i},—t^,pl. m'6^t, brook 
•— !5)ie 35a(fe, — , pi. — n, cheek, 
©a'dcn, r. tr., to bake. 
2)cr S3a'(fcr, baker. 
-^ 2)a« S3ab, — C8, ;>/. S35'bcr, bath, wa 
tering-place. [bathe 

S3a'ben, v, tr., intr., andrefl., to 
3)ic 33a^n, — , pi. — en, the road, way. 
2)er 33a^n'^iof, railroad station. 
SBalb, adv.y soon, early. 

33arbig adj., early, speedy, 
•""■^er SBat'tcn, —8, ;>/. — , beam. 
2)erS3att, — c«, jo/.^Siii'te, (l) ball, 

sphere ; (2) ball, festive dance. 
3)ic S5atta'bc, — , pi. — n, bnllad 
— -2)a3 SBanb, — c8, ;?/. 35an'bcr, ri 
2)cr S5anb, — e«, ;?/. ^an'be, volume. 

Sfin'bigcn, v. tr., to tame, [siv 

— ~ ©an'gc, adj., anxious, appi 
S)ie S3an!,— ,p/. SSn'fc, bench, 

S)ic SBanf'notc, —,pl, —en, bank- 
note. 
*- — 2)cr S3anquier', — «, ;>/. —8 
. — '©an'ncn, v, tr,, to banish. 



^^ 



-"®Ct 



bbon^ -^ar' 



apprehen- -iScban' 
bankr -©cbau 
bank- 53i 
[banker- •S&i 



33ar, «^(/. (see baar). 

ic SBarm^cr'jiglcit, — , mercy, pity. 
2)er Saron', — 8,;?/. — c, baron. 
2)ic 33aro'mn,— ,;?/.— ncn, baro- 
ness. 

'^ar, — en,;>/. —en, bear. 
SBart, — 2«, ;)^. S3ar'tc, beard. 
SBar'tijj, adj., bearded. 
SBart'loS, adj., beardless. 
iBa§,— ffc«,/?/. ^fif'fe,bass, bas^ 
33aucn, v. tr., to build, cultivate. 
S)cr Sau'cr, — 3,/?/. —n, peasant. 
2)tc !8au'erin, peasant woman. 
2)ic SBau'funji, — , architecture. 
2)cr S5au'mctflcr, architect. 
S)er SBaum, — c8, />/. SBciu'me, tree. 
2)a« S3aum'(^en, —8, small trea 
S3aum'Iccr, adj., treeless. 

' 2)ic S5aum'tt}otte, — , cotton. 

'bciten, v. tr., to work over, revisfli 
2)ic 33ear'beitung, — , revision, 
'ben, V. intr., to tremble. 

'fen, V, refl,, to give thanks, 
em, I?, ir,, to regret, to pity, 
^ebecf'en, v, tr,, to cover, 
ben'fen, v. reji., to deliberate. 
' ©cbenMic^, adj., critical. 
SBebenl'Iid^tcit, anxious thought. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



440 



VOCABULARY. 



coin--©d 



©€bie'nen, r. tr. , to serve, use ; v. re/?., 

to help one's self. 
^beu'tCU, V. intr.f to signify, mean. 
3)ic ©cbcu'tung, — , meaning. 
SScbcu'tcnb, adj,, important. 
SBebin'gcn, v. tr., to stipulate, condition 

2)ie ©cbing'ung, — , condition, 
©cbflr'fcn, r. tV. tr., to need. 

S3cbilrf tig, adj., needy, wanting. 
S3cei'(cn, v. refl., to hasten. 
S)ic ©ccn'bigung, — , end, ending. 
— S)ie SBcc're, —,pl. —n, berry. 

^efe^'Ien, v. tr,, to order, command. 
2)cr ^t\ti)l\ — c«, pi. 
mand. [to be. 

— — Scfin'bcn, v. ir. refl., to find one's self, 
• — -JScflci' 6cn, v.tr.r^.,) to apply one's 
— )©epcif'figcn, v. refl., > self. 

— — S3efi5r'bcrn, v. tr., to promote. 

2)cr ©cfor'ocrcr, —0, promoter. [selQ 
— ©egc'ben, v. ir. refl., to betake (one'i 

2)ic S3cgc'&cn^eit, — , pi. —en, 

©cgcg'ncn, r. ir. tr., to meet, [event 
2)ie ^©cgicr'bc, — , desire, wish, 
©cgic'rig, ac?^*., desirous, eager, 
^gin'ncn, v. tV. #r., to begin, 

mence. 
©egtci'ten, r. fr., to accompany, 
©cgrcl'fcn, r. «>. tr., comprehend, un- 
derstand. 

^QXd\'l\6),adj. , comprehensilj 
2)cr 53cgri^', — §, pi. — c, idea, 
conception, 
©cgdln'bcn, v. tr., to found, establishr 

• -©cgril'jjen, r. /r., to greet, salute. ^ 
— -©C^al'ten, v. ir. tr., to retain, keep. 

SBc^an'bcIn, v. tr., to handle, treat. 
f6ti)aup'tm, V. tr., to assert, affirm. 
IpC^erfcn, r. ir. refl., to help one's self. 
S3c6il(f U<^, at(/*., serviceable, con-? 
ferring help. 

* ©C&cn'be, adj., agile, nimble, quick. 
•»-— - 2)ic S3c^6rbc, — , pi. — n, authority. 

©Ct, prep. , near, at, with, by. 
©eibe, adj. (pL), both. 



2)a« 53cin, — c«, ;?/. — e, leg, bone. 
2)ic Scin'HciOcr (;?/.), pantaloons, 
trowsers. 
2)a8 53ci'f|)icl, — B^j)/. — c, example. 
©ci'f^)iel«tt?ei'{c, adv., by way of 
example, 
'"©ei'gen, r. «>. tr., to bite. 

^^'fiiSf «c?/., biting. [sist 

Sci'ftc^cn, V. ir. intr., to stand by, as- 

2)er SBei'ftanb, — C8, assistance. 
SBci'ftimtncn, v. intr., to agree with 
one, to coincide with one's views, 
"^ci'tragcn, v. ir. tr., contribute. 

'tt>o^ncn, V. intr., to be present at, 
attend. 
^tlaxmt\part.from Mcn'ncn), known 
2)cv or bic ©cfann'tc, — n, pi. —n, 
acquaintance (a person). 
S)ic Sclannt'fd^aft, acquaintance 
53c!Ia'gen, v. refl,, to complain. 
'^^Cfom'mcn, v, ir, tr,, to get, obtain, 
procure. [self. 

S5c!ilm'mcrn, v. refl., to trouble one's 
•j^cla'gcrn, v. tr., to besiege, [.^iege. 
2)ic SSck'gerung, — , pi. —en, 
i'fcn, V. refl,, to amount. 
Sclc'gcn, V. /r., to overlay, covw. 
-f^elci'bigen, r. tr., to offend. 

2)ie S3clei'bigung, — , pi, —en, 

offense, wrong, injury. 
I'bcn, ». infr., to wish, have tie 
kindness, please. 
Ten, V. intr., to bark. 
ihrHBcwiSc^'tigen, v. refl. , ) to take posses- 
.53cinei'Pern, v. refl., jT sion of, seize, 

get the mastery over. 
53cmcr'fcn, v. tr., to observe, notice. 
2)ie 53emer'fnnfl, —,pl. — n, re- 
mark, observation. 
53enen'nung, — , naming. 
Scno't^igt, adj., in need of, needing, 
Scob'ac^tcn, v. tr., to observe. [ou& 
53cquem', adj., convenient, ccmmodi' 
©creit', adj., ready, prepared. 
©ereitS', adv., already. 



come--©eIau'l 



ibler-«ctte'l 



--«cn 



--■®icl 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



44] 



2)ic ©era't^ung, — ,;^/. — en, consul'r^ttrcffcn, v, ir, tr., to concern, 

tation, councQ. — 33ctrieb'fam, adj\, diligent. 

SBcrau'ben, v, tr,, to rob. '-•^^ic S5ctrilb'ni6, — , pi. — c, sorrow. 

2)cr ^crg, — c3, pi. — t, mountain. 2)ic S3ctrun'fcnf^cit, — , drunkenness. 



Ber'gig, adj., mountainous. 



— i2)ie ^crg'fcttc, —fpL—n, mouii--5)a8 ^ctt'tud^,— e«,pZ. ^tild^cr, sheet, 
tain range. •-■^ct'tcln, v. intr., to beg, ask alms. 



— 5Da8 Serg'ttJct!, — c8, pL —t, mine. 
— 2)er Sevid^t', — c«, />/. -— c, report, 
notice, advice. 

S5eril^mt', adj,, famous, celebrated. 
— S)ic ^eriiyrung, — , contact. 

©cf(^af tigcn, v. ^r., to occupy, busy, 
employ, 

53cf^ci'ben, adj., modest. [ment. 

— 2)er ©cf^Iag', — 8, seizure, attach- 

^ef^Iic'pcn, v. ir, reft., to conclude. 



2)er ©ctt'Icr, —3, />/.—, beggar. 

©ct'tclarm, arf/., beggarly poor. 

2)er 53ct'teipab, — e«, extremf 
33el>or', co/y., before, ere. [poverty. 
2)ic SBcroe'gung, — , pi. —en, motion, 

exercise. 
— (^Ctt>ci'fcn, r. tr. fr., to prove. [ant. 
2)erS3ett>oyncr, —»,pL —, inhabit- 
^Ctcun'beni, v. tr., admire. 
)8cn?uBt', adj., conscious, known. 



2)cr SBefd^Iug',— c8,p/. *W^^^f&qa\}'k\\, v. tr., to pay. 



conclusion. 
SSeWrSn'fen, v. <r., to limit, 
©cjd^rei'fcen, v. «>. tr., to describe. 
2)ic SBefd^rci'bung, — , pL — cnr 
description. [scription. 

53efc^reib'(id^, adj., capable of de- 
— ^'JBcfci^urbigen, v. tr., to accuse, charge. 
* — 2)er 53efd(^il'|5cr, —8, pi. —, protector. 
— SBcf(3^»c'rcn, r. reft., to complain. 
'— ^ Bcfin'nen, v. reft., to recollect, collect 
one's thoughts, deliberate. 
SScfe^'cn, v. <r., to occupy. [tion. 
3)er ©efife', — c8, possession, occupa 
)53efon'bcr, (zdj., particular. 

Scfon'berS, adv., particularly. 
53crfcr, bcfl (see § 92). 
' — ^efla'tlgcn, v. tr., to confii-m. 
•— ^efle'^cn, v. ir. intr., to consist ; tr., to 
contest. 
SBi^tVkn, V 

SBcfHm'men, v. tr., to appoint, fix. 
Scfu'd^en, r. fr., to visit. 

S)er ^\ndi)'f — e3, ;>/. — c, visit, 
53etra(i^'ten, v. tr., to consider. 

^trSc^t'Ud^, adj., considerable. 
2)ie ©ctrac](^'tung, —, pi 
reflection. 



3)a« S3ett, — c«, />/. —en, bed. 



S)ie ^ejayiung, — , payment. 
56cjie'()en,r. »>. fr., to draw over, enter; 

reft., to refer. 
— S)ic SBejie'^mig, — , relation. 
Q3ejtt>ei'feln, v. tr., to doubt. 
2)ie SBi'bct, — , />/. — u, Bible. 

2)ie S5i'6e(ibcrfe(5ung, translation 
of the Bible. 
2)ie 33ibtiot^er, — , />/. —en, library. 
2)er SBibftot^elar', />Z. — e, libra- 
•"^ieg'fam, acj;., pliable. [rian. 

2)a8 S5ier, — e«, p/. — e, beer. 
t, SBilb, — e«, />/. — cr, form, image. 
SBirben, v. tr., to form, shape, 
cultivate. [zation. 

2)ic SBiCbung, — , culture, civili- 
„ 53U'bung3gcfd;i^tc, history 
of formation. 



-■©ad ©ittef , — «, />•'. — c, ticket, note. 
tr., to order, engage. ,-|^irng, arf;., just, reasonable, cheap. 

©iriigen, v. tr., to approve, grant. 

2)ic Sinigleit, — , cheapness, 
^in'ben, v. ir. tr., to bind, tie, fasten. 
2)ie ©in' be, — ,pl. — ^n, bandage. 
S)a« Sin'bett>ort, — 8,conjunction 
— c»rl5)ie SBir'ne, —,/>/. — n, pear, 
-l^in'nen, /jrep., within (of time). 
T2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



442 



VOCABULARY. 



^i9,prep,f adv,, and conj.y till, until/ 
as far, as to. 

©i^^er', adv.^ hitherto, up to this 
time, as far, up to. 
2)er W\^ti\,—t^,pl ©ifd^o'fc, bishop, 
©it' ten, V. ir. tr.^ to request, ask, beg. 
©it'tcr, adj., bitter, 
da'fcn, V, ir. tr. and intr., to blow. 
— 53(a6, adj., pale. [sheet. 

2)a« «latt, — c8, ;i/. ©ISl'ter, leaf, 
^SBIau, ofl[;., blue. 
S)a« 551ei, — c«, lead. 

^kVtxn, adj,, leaden, of lead. 
2)er SBIci'ftift, — c«, lead-pencil, 
©lei'bcn, r. tV. intr,, to remain, stay. 
3)er SUcf, —t^,pL —e, glance, look. 
iBUnb,arf;., blind. 
2)cr ©lit?, — c«,;>/. — e, lightning. 
©U'tJtn, V. trtfr. , to lighten, flash. 

• ©n^'fd^nell, adj., quick as a flash 

of lightning. 

- ©to6, adj., bare, naked ; adv., only, 
©lil^'en, ». t«/r., to bloom. 
2)te ©lu'mc, —, pi. — -n, flower. 

2)a« ©mm'(^n, —%, floweret. 
— — S)cr ©lu'menftor,.— 8, field cov- 
ered with flowers. 
S)a«©lutj—C3, blood. 

©lu'tig, adj., bloody. [skin. 

— S)a3 ©ocfS'fctt, --e«, />;. —z, goat'i 
2)cr ©o'bcn, —8, ;*/. ©5'bcn, ground, 
soil, floor. 

\t ©o'gcn, —8, bow, leaf, sheet. 

— 2)ic ©o^'ne, •—,;>/. — -n, bean. 
2)a8 ©oot, — c8,/>/. ©6'tc, boat. 

- ©or'gcn, r. tr., to borrow. 
©5'fc, acO'., bad, ill, wicked, angry. 

- 2)cr ©o'fcwic^^t, — c8, jt>/. — e, 

knare. [land. 

^2)a« ©ra^'fctb, --c8, pi. — cr, 
-©ra'ten, w. tr. tr., to roast. 

©rau'^cn, r. tr., to use, need. 

©raun, adj., brown. 

- ©rau'fcn, v. tw^r., to rush, roar, 
©rc'dj^cn, ». ir. tr., to break. 



,Y®er ©ret, — c8, broth, 
©rett, adj., broad, wide, 
©rci'ten, v. refl., to spread. 
^Bren'ncn, v. ir. tr. and intr.y to bum. 
©renn'bar, adj., that can be burned. 
2)a8 ©renn'jfolg, — e8, firewood. 
2)er ©rief,— e«,;>/. — c, letter. 
— -5)ie ©ricfmarfe, — , > postage- 

S)er©riefjlera^el,— ,)" stamp. 

r, ©ricftrSger, —3, ;>/.—, let- 
ter-carrier. 
©Ting'en, v. ir. tr., to bring. 
3)a8 ©rob, — ,pL — e, bread, loaf. 
2)ic ©ril'de, — , pi. — n, bridge, [er. 
5)er ©ru'ber, — 8, ;*/. ©rtt'bcr, broth- 

©rii'berlidf^, adj., fraternal. 
2)ie 43tuP, —,;/.'. ©rii'fte, breast. 
2)a8 ©udi^, — c8, pi. m'6)cr, book, 
squire. 

2)er ©ud(^'6inbcr, book-binder. 
„ ©ud^'^Snblcr, book-seller. 
-*— S)ic ©u^'j^anblung, book-store. 
^ tf ©ud(^bTUcfcrci',printing estab- 
lishment. 
„ ©uci^'brucferlunj!, art of 
printing. [book. 

"^(i^ ©ftc^^'Iein, —8, pi. —, small 
ie ©u'd^e, — , pi. — n, beech. 
2)cr ©u^'jlabc, — n, pl.—xi, letter. 
©ud^'flabcnf(^rift, writing in let- 
ters. 

©U(^'»etjcn, — 8, buckwheat, 
w ©unb, — c8, pi. — e, bundle, 
league, confederacy. 
©un'bc89eno6,— en,;>/.— n, ally. 
©un'be8fefhmg,fortification of the 
(Grerman) Confederation. 

adj., g&y, bright and varie- 
gated. 

©urg, — , pi —en, castle. 
3)cr ©ilr'ger, —8, pi. — , citizen. 

©ilr'oerftti^, adj., civil, as a citi- 
3)ie ©ut'ter, — , butter. [zen, 

S)a8©ut'terbrob, bread and but* 
ter. 



-■5)i( 



s-^ic i 

i, 1 

--®crl 



— 5)ic! 



villaiuf. .©unt, 



£Eilloir -^ic 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



443 



(J. 



Xtx (Saltinijl',— en,jw/.— en, calvinist 

ft (Santcn', — 9, pi. — c, canton. 
2)aS Ca^itar, —9, pL —m\, capital 
(money) ; pL (5a|)ita'Icr, capital 
(of a pillar). 
— 2)ie (Se'ber, — , pl—n, cedar. 

(SercmonicU', adj,^ ceremonial, [acter. 
2)er C^arat'tcr, — 8, jm/. — tc'rc, char-+5)a8 
rr (E^artatan', — 8, />/. — c, charlatan 
rr (£^ef , —8, ;?/. —8, chief,principak-)-€)a« 
2)ic Cbcmic', — , chemistry, [singera. 
2)cr C^or, — c8, ;j/. (£^iJrc, chorus of 



2)a8 (S^or, — c«, ;?/. CE^o'rc, choir {? 
place in church for singers). 

2)cr (Shrift, —en, ;>/. —en, Christian. 

3)a9 (£^ri'Pent(>um, — «, Christianity. 

(Skfftfd^, adj., classical. 

2)a« CEonccTt', — e«, ;>/. — e, concert. 

Cii)il% a<(;., civil. 

CEouK — «; pi' —8, coup^, divi- 
sion of a coach or railroad car. 
C[ourant\ — eS, currency. 

S)ic Coufi'ne, — , pi — n, cousin. 



2)* 



2)a, a(/y., there, here, then, now; 

conj,, as, when. 
2)abci', arfp., thereby, by that, by them. 
2)a« 2)ad^, — e«, /J. 2)fi'd^er, roof. 



S)abuTCi^',flk/r.,thereby,bythatmeane«4)ar'pencn, r. ^r., to produce, repre- 



2)afilr', arfr., fur or instead of this or 

that. 
2)agc'9Cn, adv., against that. 
I^a^er', adv., thence, from thence. 
2)a^er', conj., thence, for that reason, 

therefore. 
2)a'^in, adv., thither, so far; ba^in', 

away, gone. 



S)a'mal«, adv., then^ at that time. 3)au'er&aft, adj., durable. 



3)ie 2)a'mc, — , pl.—n, lady, woman 
3)dmif , adv., therewith, with it, with 

that; conj., that, in order that. 
S)cr 2)am|)f, — e«, steam, vapor. 
^a9 3)am))f boot, steam-boat. 

2)er 2)am'^fcr,— 3,/>/.— ,steamer 

», 2)am^f!effet, boiler, [gine. 
2)ic 2)ami)f mafd^ine, steam-en- 
2)am^f mil^Ie, steam-mill 



S)arauf, arfr., thereupon, on that, 

after that. [from that. 

!3)aran0', adv., thence, therefrom, 

3)ar'bietcn, v. ir. tr., to offer, [sent. 



3)arnad^', adv., according to that. 
— -©arnic'bcrUcgen, v. intr., to lie sick. 
2)aril'6er, ac/y., thereupon, about that. 
3)aTUm' adv., therefore, for that. 
2)a« (see ber). 

2)a6, conj., that, in order that, 
^ic 2)au'er, — , duration of time. 
2)au'em, v. intr., to endure, last. 



2)at)on', orft;., thereof, therefrom, of it. 
3)aju', adv., thereto, in addition to. 
2)cr 3)icb'Pal^I, —9, pi. *jl5^Ic, theft. 
5)c(f en, V. tr., to cover. [let. 

S)er 2)c(f 'cl, —8, pi. — , cover- 
• — 2)ic 2)e(f 'c, — , />/.— n, coverlet, 
blanket. [a ship). 

— 2)aS 3)c(f, — e«, />/.— e, deck (of 
2)ein, /^ron., thy (§ 109). 



2)a« S)am^f'fc^^iff, steam-boat. *■ -©ic 2)c'mutD, — , humility, meekness. 
2)et 3)an!,—C«, thanks, gratitude, re- 3)en'!cn, v. /r. and intr., to think. 

2)anrBar, adj., thankful, [ward. 2)enf'bar, adj. (thinkable). 

S)ann, adv., then, at that time ; bann 'Dcnn, conj., for, because, then, than. 

unb xoann, now and then. 2)cn'nod^, conj., yet, however, still. 

3)aran', adv., thereon, on it, in i^ — TOte 25e|)c'f(^e, — , jd. — n, dispatch. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



444 



VOCABULARY. 



3)cr, bie, ba«, arL^ the; dem, pron, 
(§111, 2), this, that; reL pron. 
(§ 114, 2), who, which, what. 
'^txgid'6)tn,adj, tndecl.y such as that 

or those. 
2)cric'nt0C, dem, pron, that (§111,3). 
2)erjerbc, dem, pron. (§ 111, 4). 
•^^c«'^alb or befi'^alb, co/y. \ there- 
- — 2)c^'TOcgen or befi'rcegcii, i fore. 
S)c'jlo, conj. (so- much the). 
Xtui'i\6), adj,y plain. 
S)td^'ten, V. intr., to make poetr)'. 
2)cr 2)t(i^'tcr, — 8, ;>/. — , poet. 
,f 2)i^' terf ilrp, prince of poets. 
SHd^'terifc^^, adj., poetic. 
2)tc 2)id^t'!unp, — , poetry. 
2)ic 2)id^'tung, — ,pl. —en, poem 

2)i(f, ac&'., thick. 

2)cr 2)ieb, — c8, pi, —t, thief, [theft. 
2)cr 2)ieb'fta^r, —8, i?/. ^jlS^lc, 
!^ic'ncn, v. tr., to sen'e. 

2)cr 2)ic'ncr, —8, ;'^.— , servant. 
— » 2)icnfl, — c3, pi. — c, ser^'ice, 
2)ie'fer, ;?ron., this, that. 

S)ic8'fcit, prep., on this side of. 
2)ie8'fcit§, adv., on this side. 
^^5)ic 2)m'tc, — , pi. — n, Ink. 

S)ireft', ac?/., direct. [director. 

2)cr 2)irc!'tor, —8, pi ^'to'ren, 
T— 2)cr 2)i8fon'to, —8, discount. 
25od^, con/., yet, however. 
Xtv 2)ol'tor, — 8, ;>/. :*to'ren, doctor. 
-^ M 2)oId^,— e8,;i/. — e, dagger. 
*— tf ^om,—t9, pi. — e, cathedral. 
„ 2)on'ncr, — 9, pi. — , thunder. 
2)on'ncrn, v. intr,, to thunder. 
2)o:|>':|)Clt, ad; , doubled, double. 



2)a8 S)orf,— c«,;>Z. 2)6r'fcr, village. 

25a« 3)i3rf (^cn, -—8, hamlet. 
45)er 2)orn, — c8, p/. — en, thorns. 
2)ort,arfi;., yonder, there. 
2)a8 2)ra'ma, — 8,/;/.2)ra'inen, drams 

2)er 2)rama'ti(cr, —8, dramatist. 

2)rama'tif^, adj., dramatic. 
2)cr 2)raitg, --C8, impulse, pressure. 
2)rei, three. 

3)rci'6tg, thuty. 

(gin S)rci'6igcr, —8, a man be- 
tween thirty and forty years 
old. [years. 

— ^rci'gigjaf^rij], adj. , lasting thirty 

2)TCi'jc^n, thirteen. 

2)rit'tc, third. 
• — S)a8 2)rit'tcl, —8, third part. 

I'f^en, ». fr. /r., to thresh. 
2)ic 2)ro'^ung, — , pL —en, menace. 
2)cr 3)vn(f,— £«,;)/. 2)ril'(fc, pressure 

2)ru'cfen, v. tr., to print. 
'S)\X,pron., thou. 
2)cr S)uft— c8,;>/. S)ilftc, fragrance. 

2)il'nc, — , ;>/. — n, down. 
2)un'fc(, adj., dark. 

2)un'felblau, adj., deep blue. 
'^VLX^^fPrep., through, by means of. 

S)nr(^au8', a<if., throughout, by 
all means. [through. 

S)ur(i^'fu^rWr v- tr.y to carry 

S)cr S)urd^'gang,pas8age through. 

3)nr(^'rcifcn, v. tr., to traverse. 

2)ur^'fc^cn, ». »V. /r., to look 
through. 
*-*^55er 2)urd^'f(^nitt, --c8, average, 

2)urjl, —ti, thirst. 

2)u6'cnb, —8, /^/. — c, dozen. 



--©rc'l 



— -5)16 



-■^cr : 
--S)a8; 



S- 



S)ie (Sb'bc, — . pi. —n, ebb, ebb tide. 
(S'ben, ac[/., even, level; adv., just, ex- 
*— €c^^t, acO* . , genuine, pure, fast, [actly. 
(5'bcl,ac(/., noble, honorable. 

2)cr @'bclmann, —t^fpl. — Ic»t«, 
nobleman. 



S'bclmiit^ig, adj., noble hearted. 
S)er S'beiftein, — c8, />/. — c, preclont 
(S'^C, ac?y., ere, before. [store. 

2)ie S^'re, — , pi. — n, honor, goo'i 
-^ — ^(S^rcn, V. tr., to honor, [name. 
(S^'reniJott, adj. , honorable. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



445 



-■^i 



-4S' 



^i)x'ix(if, adj., honorable. 
2)ie (S^r'Iid^feit, honesty. 
@6r'(o8, adj., without honor. 
" — S)cr e^r'geij, —t9, ambition. 
S)a« (Si, — c8, /*/. — cr, egg. 
' — S)cr (Si'crfudj^cn, omelet. 
2)ic (gi'd;c, — , />/. — n, oak. 
— ^cr SiD, — c«, />/. — c, oath. 
— n (Si'fer, — 8, zeal, ardor. 

6tf'ri9, adj., zealous. 

(gi'gen, arf/., own. 

(Si'gcntti(3(>, arf;., proper, real; 
adv., strictly speaking. 
2)ic @i'Ic, — , haste, 
(gin, art (§54), a, an; num. (§ 89), 
one; adv., in. [each other. 

(Stnon'bcr, pron., one another;- 
3)ic (gin'bitbung, — , imagination. 
(Sin'brfingcn, v. intr., to press in. 

(Sinerlei', indecl. adj., of one kind, in- 

Stn'fa(i(^, adj., simple, plain, [different. 
2)cr Sin'ftufi, — c«, />/. — ftiiffc, influ- 

r (Sin'gang, — c«, entrance, [ence. 

— Cin'gcbcn!, adj., mindfall, rememi 

(Si' ntgcr, pron., some, any. [ing. 

. — -2)a« gin'fommcn, —8, income. 
— — Sin'Iabcn, v. tV. <r., to invite, [tion. 
S)ic (Sin'Iabung, --,i>/. —en, invita- 
^Sin'maf, adv., once. 
5in>a(fen, v. tr., to pack up. 
<Sin'fam, adj., solitary, secluded. — 
2Dic ©in'famfcit, — , solitude, se- 
clusion. 
(5in'f(]^ne6cn, v. ir. tr., to inclose, 
(gin'fd^rfinfcn, v. tr., to limit, restrict. 
(Sin'fdf^reibcn, v. ir. tr.^ to write down, 
Sin'fe^, V. ir. tr., to perceive. [enter. 
*-— ^(5in flcttcn, v. reji., to appear (at the 
appointed time). 
Sin'ftimmig, adj., unanimous. 
— — S5cr (Sin'ttitt,— c«, pi. — c, entrance. 
Sin'tDirfcn, v. tr., to influence. 

2)te @in'»ir!ung, —fpl —en, in- 
fluence, [ant. 
5cr Sin'tDo^ncr, — «, pi — , inhabit«4€ntge' 



Sin'jcin, adj., single, individuaL 

@in'jig, adj., sole, simple. 
SaS Si3, — e8, ice. 

2)er (Si^'bar, polar bear. 

2)a« (Si')en, —8, iron. 
. — ©i'fern, ad;., of iron. [road. 

S)ic (Si'fenbat>n,— ,;?/.— en, rail- 

27-2)er (5i'fenba()nfa^r^ran, railroad 

i'tel,arf;., vain, idle. [time-table. 

2)ie (Si'telfeit, — , vanity. 

(enb, adj., miserable. 
2)ic eiegic', — , pi. eicgi'en, elegy. 
(5If , eleven. 

2)ie@rie,— ;>/.— n,ell. 
S)ie ertern (^pl), parents, 
^m^fang'en, v. >. tr., to receive. 

S)er (Sm^jfang'fd^ein, receipt. 

(Sml|>feVIcn, r. ir. tr., to recommend. 

2)ie (Sm^fe^'Inng, — , /?/. —en, 
recommendation. 
(Sm:|>fin'ben, v. ir. tr., to perceive, fed. 

CSnt)}ttnbltd^, adj.. sensitive. 
(Sm:|>or', adv., on Ingh, above. 

(Sm)>5'rung, — , pi. — en, conFjiir- 

acy, revolt. 
2)a8 ©n'fce,— «, Tj/. — n, end. 
(Sn'ben, v. intr., to end. 

(Snb'Iids. :</;., final. 

or eng'e, a<(/., narrow, close. 
3)er Sng'el, — «, ;>/. — , angel. 

(gn'fel, — 8,/>/. — , grandson. 
2)ic ©n'felin, — , pi — nen, grand- 

daughter. [along Mrithout. 

'ten, v.tr., to dispense with, get 
(Sntbin'ben, v. ir. tr., to unbind, re- 
lease. 
(Sntbecf'en, v. tr., to uncover, discover. 

2)tc (Sntbeci'ung, — , pi —en, 

discovery. [tance). 

@ntfer'nen, v. tr., to remove (to a dis- 

@ntfcrnt', adj., distant, removed. 
@ntftieVcn, v. ir. intr., to escape. 
(Sntge'gcn, prep., and adv., against, 

contrary to, opposed to, toward. 

:'genge^en, to go to meet. 



ber-r-S)ic 



—dntUVy 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



446 



VOCABULARY. 



•^Sntgc'gcnfommen, to come to meet, 
©ntge'gcnfc^cn, to oppose. 
@ntge'^cn, v, ir. intr,, to escape, 
(gnt^al'tcn, v, ir. tr,y to contain. 
(Snt(>e'6cn, v. ir. tr., to take away, dis- 
charge from. [cliarge. 



2)lc ©rpn'bung, — , pl.—tn, in- 
vention. 
'-f^cx Srfolg', —t^fpl. — c, success. : . 
@rfrcu'cn, v. refi, , to rejoice over, pos-' 
sess. [ment. 

S)ic (Srfttriung, — , pi —en, folfiU- 



^(gntle^'nen, r. fr., to bon-ow. 



'(gntra't^cn, r. <r., to dispense with. "^-^^ge' ben, adj.^ obedient, 



^ — entfd(^ci'ben, v. ir. tr., to dex:ide. 
(Sntf(!^ie'bcn, adj., decided. 



@ntf (bite' gen, v. ir. refl., to decide. — "iSr^arten, v. ir. tr., to receive. 



©nttaffcn, v. ir. tr., to dismiss, di^-^rgc'bcn, v. ir. intr., to overtake, hap- 



pen ; rejl., to surrender. 



@;:grei'fen, v. ir. tr., to lay hold on, 
•— -Sr^a'bcn, adj., sublime. [seize. 



@r(;c'bcn, V. ir. rejl.f to rise, spread 
^xy^fy'tn, V. tr., to raise, exalt. 
(Srin'ncrn, v. re^., to remember. 

2)ie grin'nerung, — , ;>/. —en, 
remembrance. [memory. 

(Srtn'ncrlic^i, adj., present to the 
(grfal'tcn, v. reJl., to take cold. [ing). 
©rtam'^fen, v. tr., to gain (by fight- 
(Srfen'nen, v. ir. tr., recognize. 
(SrHa'ten, v. tr., to explain. 

©rflar'ncijl, adj., explicable. 

2)ic SrflS'rung, — , pl.—tM, ex- 
planation. 



3)cr entfc^Iug', — c«, pi. — ilffe, 
decision. 
@ntfd(furbigcn, v. tr., to excuse. 
—^ @ntfin'nen, r. r<^., to recollect. 
@ntfet'jen, v. tr., to remove. 

@ntf^)rc'd(^en, r. ir. tr., to correspond. 

(Sntfie'^en, v. ir. intr., to arise, spring, 

originate, descend from. 
2)ic @ntflc^'ung, — , source, formation 
@nttt)e'ber, conj., either. 
•— — Enttoer'fen, w.tV.^r., to project, design. 
2)cr (Snttourf, —z^, pi. *tt?ilrfe, plan, 
Snttoicf'ein, v. refl. , to develop, [design. 
Gntjtoci'en, v. refi., to fall out witbl^rtan'bcn, v. tr., to allow, pei-mit. 

each other. --Srlc'gen, v. tr., to kill 

2)ic (Spo'd^c, — , pl.—n, epoch. - ■3)ie ©rleid^'terung, —, pl.—tn, relief. 

Xa^ {§:po9,—,pl. (S':|)en, epic poeror-(SrIte'gcn, v. ir. intr., to sink. 

SDic (Squi^a'gc, — ,pl, — n, equipage,'* "^IS'f en, v. tr., to deliver, redeem. 
(5r, 2?ron., he. [carriager "^rman'geln, v. intr., to be in want. 

- — 'Srbar'men, v.rfi/?.,topity,havemerc}V"€rmor'ben, V. tr., to murder. 
'SrbndT en, r. fr., to see. JUSnta^ren, v. fr., to support. 

— S)ie (Srb'fc, — , pi. —en, pea. — -@rnen'nen, v. ir. tr.^ to appoint. 

t, (Sr'be, — , />/. — n, earth. Smfl, arf/., earnest. 

— ^ r/ erb'beere, — , pi. — n, strawberry 2)ie ©rn'te, — , pi. — n, harvest 
' — S)a« @rb'bebcn,— 8,;>/.— , earthquake (grn'tcit, or ernbtcn, v. tr., to reap. 

— -^rbut'ben, v. tr., to suffer. --^^ie Sro'betung, — , conquest 

©reig'ncn, v. refi. , to take phice. -^ -S^ic (grrid)'lung, — , erection, founding 

2)a« ©reig'nig, — c«,jo/.— e, even^ -^rrin'gen, o. tr., to gain (by force). 

Srfayren, v. tV. ^•., to experience. (Srfd^ci'nen, v. »>. tn«r., to appear. 
2)tcSrfa^' rung, —,;>/.— en, ex- 2)ie (Srfdfici'nung, — , ;>/. —en 
perience. appearance, 

grfln' ben, v. ir. tr., to invent, for. Srf(3^ie'gen, v. tV. ^r., to shoot. 
2)er C^rfinber,— s. o/. — , invent- 1 Crfe'^cn, v. ir. tr., to see, find out 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



447 



C^t 



|t, first (adv., only) ; crfitnS, firstly. 



G^tjlau'ncn, v. tr., toastonisli. — S)er (Srj'marfc^aU, — c«, pL »fd;allc, 



@rfiaun'(icl;, adj., astonishing, 
(Slftc^'cn, V. ir. intr., to arise. 
— ®rta^'^>cn, v. tr., to catch, sni-prise.^ .5)er 'Sj'fi3# — ^^ vinegar. 

Srt^ei'Ien, v. tr., to communicate. '^'^t'i\6),pron., some, any. 

@rtra'gcn, v. ir. tr,, to bear, suffer, 
(Sr»aci?'jcn, v. ir. intr., to grow up. 

@rn)ad;'fcn, adj., adult. 
(ixXOciVkn, v. tr., to choose. 
^*€rn)a^'nen, r. tr., to mention. 
Srtoar'ten, v. tr., to await. 
— 2)er (Srtocrb', — e8, business, gain. 
SrWic'bcrn, v. intr., to reply. 



Qxidfy'Un, V. tr., to relate. 



(S§, pron., it. [lord high marshal. 
(Sj'jcn, v. iV. tr., to eat. 

[tiling. 
^t'lOaS, indecl. pron. , something, any 
2)ic etymologic', — , etymology-. 
(Su'cr,7>ron.,your. 
Stjangc'lifd;, adj., evangelicaL 
e'aig, adj., eternal. 

3)ie @'wig!cit, — , eternity. 
2)a« ©jccm^Ur', — «, pi. — c, copy. 
5)ic (Sjriflenj', — -, existence. 



IT* 



2)ic 5/6cr,— ,7i/. —.1, fable. 
ga'6c(^aft,ofl[;., fabulous. 
3)ic gabrir, — , pi. — en, manufactory. 
••^ ga90umrt', ;?ar^, figured (of cloths), 
ga'^ig, adj., capable, fit, apt. [ent. 



2)ic gvi'^igteit, — , capability, taK ^ei'erlici^, adj., solemn. 



— 2)ic ga^'nc, — , pi. — :t, flag, banner.- 
ga^ren, v. ir. tr., to travel, ride, 
2)ie ga^rt, ~, pi. —tn, jouraey. 
— 2)a8 gi^rgclb, fare, toll 



jDa« gctt, — c«, pi. — e, skin, hide. 
-(-S)er gcrfen, — c8, pi. —en, rock, cliff. 
S)a« gen'jler, —9, pi. — n, >\-indow. 
2)er gclb'gug, campaign. 



gal'len, r. »-. intr., to fall. [caser*2)ic gc'ricn (/>/.), vacation, 



3)er gaU, — e«, pi. gal'Ic, fall, 
— - 2)ic gatt'fuAt, — , epilepsy. 
galf(i^,afl&'., false. 
2)ic gami'lie, -— , i>/. — n, family, 
i^an'gcn, ». tV. tr., to catch. 
2)ic gar'6e, — , pi. — n, color. 
^^S)a« gag,— :«,;>/. gSf'fcr, cask, 
gap, aiw., almost, nearly, 
gcdt^'ten, V. ir. intr., to fight, fence. 
2)ic gc'Der, — , pi. — n, feather, pen. 
35a8 ge'Dcrmeffcr, penknife. 
— ^2)ic gee, — , p/. — n, fairy. 

3)a« ge'cnlanb, fairyland. 
^e^'Ien, v. intr., to fail, miss. 
—^er geyier,— 8,p/.— ,fdult, mistake, 
^-gcil, adj., for sale, 
gein, adj., fine. 



geinb'Iid^, adj., hostile. 
5)a« gelb, —z9,pl. — er, field, ground. 
2)er gelb'^err, commander-in- 
chief. 
„ gdb'maTfdt^aH, field-marshal. 



gern, adj., far, distant. 

3)ie ger'ue, — , distance, 
ger'ttgen, r.^r., to prepare, make ready 
-Iger'tig, adj., ready, prepared, done, 
gcf fcin, V. tr., to chain, 
gcjl, adj., fast, fixed, permanent. 

2)cr gcfl'ta^, festival day. 
— 2)iegcfl'fHmmung', festive feeling 
->^ 2)ie gc'flunfl, — , pi. —en, castle, 
fortress, stronghold. 
2>aS gc'Pung«tt)er!, fortification. 
®a3 gcu'ct, —8, /i/. — , fire. 
— 3)ic geu'cr«brunji,— , p/. brilnj!e, 

conflagration. 
« — gcu'crfcfl, adj., fire-proof. 
— 2)a« gcu'erroftr, gun, rifle. 
— S)ie gcu'crWc^r, — , fire-company 



3)ct geinb, — e?, ;>/. — :, enemy. -+^r gia'fer, — 9, pi —, hackney-coach 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



448 



VOCABULARY. 



— S)a« gic'bcr, —-8, pL — , fever. 
gtgilr'(id(^, adj.^ figurative, 
gin'ben, v. ir, tr., to find. 
2)cr ging'cr, — ,% />/. — , finger. 

. 2)er ging'cr^ut, thimble. 

gin'ftcr, adj., dark, obscare. 
2)cr giftf^, — c9, i>/. — c, fish, 
gi'fd^en, v. tn^r., to fish. 
2)cr gi'fc^^cr, —8, fisherman. 
gla(^, o^;., flat, plain. 

2)ie glfi'd^e, — , pi. — -n, surface. 
' — 2)ic glam'mc, — , />/. — n, flame. 

„ gla'f ci^c, — c, 1?/. — n, flask, bottle. 
^-4J^^*^'t^W, r. »>. int., to twist, braid. 
2)a« glcifc^^, — c«, flesh, meat. 

2)cr gJci'fd^cr, —8, ;>/. — , butcher 
2)cr glctg, — c8, diligence, industry. 

gtei'gig, adj., industrious, 
glie'gen, v. ir, intr., to fly. 
glle'gcn, r. tV. intr., to flow. 
— ^Ott, ac?/., afloat. 
2)ic gtud^t, — , flight, 
-^^glild^'tig, adj., fleeting, rapid. 

2)cr glildt^t'ling, — c8, /»/.— c, fu- 
25cr gifl'gct, —^,pl.—^ wing, [gitive. 

rf ' gtug, — C8, /»/. grilf'fc, river. 
S)a« glflg'dt^cn, —«,;>/.—, rivulet. 
^ 2)tc gtut^, — ,p/. — en, tide, high tide, 
gorgcn, V. intr., to follow, [quence. 
2)ie gol'ge, — , ;>/. — n, conse- 
V— golgc (eiftcn, to comply with. 
gotg'Iici^, arfr., consequently, 
gorbcm, v. tr., to demand. 
— '2)ie gorel'Ic, — , pi. — n, trout. 
SDie gorm, — , />/. -—en, form. 
— S)ad gonnat', — e8, p/. — c, size and 
shape (of a book). ■ 
gor'f(^cn, V. tr., to investigate. 
25ic gor'f(!^ung, —,;>/. — :n, 
vestigation. 
gort, adj., forth, away, gone, off. 
gort'fa^rcn, v. ir. intr., to continue."^ 
2)cr gort'fd?rilt,—c8,;>/.—c, progress 
gort'lDfi^rcnb, adv., continually. 
— ^ic gtadjt ;?/. —en, freight, cargo. 



-HJ>er 



— -granfi'i 



grad, — c«, J)/. — c (and grSd c), 

dress coat, 
gra'gen, v. ir. tr., to ask. 

2)ic gta'gc, —,/>/. — n, question, 
'ren, v. tr., to prepay, 
ran'fo, adv., post-paid. 
2)ie grau, •— , pL —en, woman, wife, 

lady (Madame, Mrs.). [(Miss). 
2)a« grfiu'Icin, —^tpL—, young lady 
grci, ««{;., free. 

2)ic grci'^ett, — , freedom. 

grci'f|)re^en, to acquit, 
gtcmb, adj., foreign, strange. 

2)a8 grcmb'wort, foreign word. 
3)ie greu'bc,— ,/>/.— n, joy, pleasure, 
grcu'cn, V. reji., to rejoice, be glad. 
2)cr grcunb, — c«, i?/. — c, friend. 

2)ie grcunb'in, — , i?/. — nen, 
friend. 

grcunb'lici^, adj., friendly, kind. 

S)ic grcunb'fd(^a{t, — -, friendship. 

greunb'f(](>aftli(i^, adj., friendly. 
2)cr gric'be, orgrie'ben, — cn8, peace. 
2)cr grieb'ric^Sb'or, — S, pi—, Fred- 
eric d'or. 
ric'rcn, v. ir. tr., andtw^r., to freeze, 
grif^, adj., fresh. [ness. 

2)ic gri'f(ic, — , freshness, liveli- 
groB, adj., happy, joyous, glad, 
gromm, adj., pious. 
3)ic grud^t, —,/>/. grild^'tc, fruit. 

grud(;t'bar, adj., fruitful, 
gril^, adj., early, in the morning. 

2)cr gril^'Iing,— c6,/>/.— c,spring 

2)a8 gril^'ja^r, spring, 
grfl'^er, adv., formerly. 
2)a« griiyflfld, — C8, breakfast 

gril^fiilcfcn, v. intr., tobreak£ist 

gril^'jng, early train. 
2)er gud^S, — c8,;t>/. gtid^'fc, fox. 
gii^'(cn, V. tr., to feel, 
giiyrcn, V. tr., to guide, lead, conduct. 
3)ic giiric, — , fulness. 
gUricn, V. tr., to fill 
gttnf, five. 



-* 



in9.43)er 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULAET. 



449 



gilr, prep. , for, in fevor of, instead of. 
— ®a8 giiv'lDort, pronoun. 
2)ic gurd^t, — , feai. 

gilrd^'ten, v. tr,, to fear. 

gilrd^'tcrlic^, adj.^ fearful. 

gurd^t'fam, ac?;., fearful. 



2)cr gilrfl, —en, ;>/. —en, prince. 
2)ie gilrft'in, p/. — nen, princess. 

2)cr gu6, — e«, ;?/. gilgc, foot. 
I^ag gutter, --«,i?/. — , Uning. 
- -gilt'tern, to line. 



S)ie ®a'6c, — , ;?/. — n, gift. 
„ ©a'Oel, — , />/. — n, fork. 
— 5)er ©al'gen, — «,i)/.— , gallows, gib- 
n ©ang, — e8, pi. ©an'cje, going, 
walking. 

©ang'bar, adj.^ passable. 

^ic ©anS, — , pi. ©an'fc, goose. 

— . 2)cr ©Snfc'ficI, goose-quill. 
@anj, arf/., whole, entire, complete ; 
adv., quite, entirely, wholly. 
3m ©an'jen, on the whole. 
@Snj'U(3^, ac?/., entire. 
®ar, adj., finished, ready, done; adv.f 
quite, very, at all. 
^ — 2)a8 ®arn, — e«, i)L — e, yam. 
— -2)ic ©arni'rung, — , trimming. 
S)er ©ar'ten, —%,pl. ©Srten, garden. 
2)cr ©art'ncr,— §,/>/.— ,garden- 
5)a« ®a8, — c8, ;>/. — c, gas. [er. 
— ^2)te ©af fe, — , pi. — n, street, lane. 

2)cr ©afl, — c6, ;^/. ©a'fic, guest. 
2)a§ ©aft'^au«,> hotel, inn, pub- 

— 2)cr ©afi'^of, j lie house. 
S)tc ©at'tung, — , pi 

cies, kind. 
"■■ ©cba'rcn, v. ir. intr., to bear, give 
birth to. [edifice. 

,--55a« ©cbSu'be,— e3, pi. — , building, 
©c'Bcn, V. ir. tr.f to give. 

2)cr ©c'bcr, —8, pi. — , giver, 
©e^irbct, arf;., cultivated, refined. 
2)a0 ©cBirg' or ©cBir'ge, — 6, ;>?. — c, 
mountain range, mountainous 
country. 
@cI)o'rcn (part, of gcBvi'ren), bom. 
S)cr ©cBraud;', — c^,/)/. ©ebrau'd^c, 
nse, custom. 



•H-2)tc ©ebril'bcr, (pi), brothers, breth- 
[bek|®ebiiyren, r. intr., to be due. [ren. 
2)ic ©cburt', — , birth. 
■— S)cr ©cburts'tag, birthday, 
©ebet'^cn, v. ir. intr., to thrive, grow. 
H-@cben'fcn, v. ir. intr., to be mindful, 
remember. 

2)cr ©ebenf'tacj^ memorable day, 

„ ©eban'fc, — n«, pi — n, 

thought. 

. -., 2)a« ©cbSd^f nig, — eS, memory. 

2)a8 ©cbi^t', — C8, ;?/. — c, poem. 

- „ ©ebrfin'ge, — cS, pi —c, throng, 

S)ic ©cbulb', — , patience. [crowd. 

t, ©cfa^r', — , pi. —en, danger. 
©cfal'Icn, V. ir. intr., to please. 

©cfSftig, adj., pleasing, agreea- 
ble, courteous. 
©cfaCIigfl, adv. (if you please). 
S)cr ©cfan'gene, —n,/i/.—n, prisoner, 

captive. 
2)a§ ©efang'nig, — c€, pi — e, prison. 
If ©eforgc, — 8, retinue, consequen- 
cn, sort, spe-}— n ©cfror'nc, — n, ice-cream, [ces. 
,f ©cfil^I', — e«, pi — c, feeling, 
sense, 
©e' gen, prep., against, toward. 

©egenii'ber,jprep., opposite to. 
2)ic ©e'genb, — , pi -en, region. 
— 5)a0 ©e'gengift, antidote. 
2)er ©e'genfa^, contrariety, contrast. 
2)er ®c'gcnfd;Iag, blow in return. 
3)cr ©c'genjlanb, — c9,pl. *ftanbe, ob- 
®a6 ©egent^Ctt, contrary part, [ject, 
2)tc ©c'gcntoart, — , presence. 

©e'gcnttJSttig, adv., at present. 
2)a0 ©c^alt', — c8, contents, salary. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



450 



VOCABULARY. 



©e^Ctm', adj,, secret. [secret. 

2)a8 (Se(?cim'm6, — :«, pi. — e, 
©c'^en, V. ir, intr., to go. 
®c(|Or'ci^en, r. tn^r., to obey. 

Oe^or'fam, ac{;., obedient. 
®c^8'rcn, r. m^r., to belong. 
2)cr @eiji, — e«, />/.— cr, spirit, ghost. 
w ®cij, — C8, avarice. 
• — ©elang'en, v. in^r., to attain to. 
@e(au'fig, adj., current, fluent. 
@clb, adj., yellow. 

©clbrotl^, adj., orange-colored. 
3)a3 @elb, — -cd, ^/. — cr, money, 
©clc^rt'^ad;., learned, 
©ele'gen, ao[/., convenient, important. 
2)ic ©cJc'gen^cit, — , ;>/. —en, op- 
portunity. 
•^2)a8 ©cici'jc, —8, pL — n, track, 
©eling'cn, v. tV. intr. (impers.)f to suc- 
ceed, [value. 
©Cl'tcn, t*. tV. intr. (wipers.) , to be of 

(S^ettenb mad^zUf to carry out. 
S)aS OemSrbc, — «, ;?/. — , painting. 
®imdn'fadj., common. [tual. 

©cmcin'fatn, adj., common, mu- 
* — S)tc ©cm'fe, — , pi. —n, chamois. 
— ®a8 ©cmtt'fe, —3, pi. — , vegetables, 
greens, 
rf ®emiit(>', — c«, ;>/. — :r, mind, 
soul, heart, nature, mood. 
- — S)ic ©cmttt^^'flimmung, 

disposition of mind, [mentioned. 
^tnanniXpart.ofntn'ntn), ac?/. , above 
®tnciu'fadj., exact, close. , 
2)er ®cncrat', — «,;>/. — c, general. 
• — ©cne'fen, v, ir. intr., to recover, 
©enie'gcn, v. ir. ir., to enjoy. 
®cnu(j', ;>ron. indecLfind adv., enough, 
©cra'be, adj., straight, direct ; adv., 
exactly, just. 
"'^^txtdft', adj., just, righteous, [tence. 
— S)a« (3tx\6)i'f —t^fpl. — c, court, sen- 
@ern, adv., willingly, gladly, cheer- 
fully ; flcru ^aben, to like. 
S)cr ©efang', —z^^pl ©cf^ng'c, song. 



r-®te( 



2)a8 ©cf^Sft', — C«, pi. — 2 .businesn, 

occupation, trade. 
©cfd^c'^cn, V. ir. tr. (impers.), to hap- 
pen, take place, occur. 
2)ic (Scfc^id^'tc, — , pi. — n, history, 

story. [liistorian. 

2)cr @c{(^id^t§' jd^rciber,— 8,;?/. — , 
2)a8 Oefci^cn!', —z^,pl. — -c, present. 
w ©cfd^Icci^t', — e«, pi. — cr sex, 

gender, race. 
2)cr @efd(^ma(f', —3, taste. 
2)a8 ©cfci^rei', —t9, clamor, cry Herr 

@cf(i^il(5',— e3, pi. —Z, gun, artil 

©cfci^Wi'fler (/>/.), brothers and 

sisters. 
„ @cfett'fd(^att, — , pi. — e«, society. 
2)a« ®cfcfe\ — c«, />/. — e, law. 

©cfctj'gcbcnb, arf;., legislative. 

2)cr @cfc(5'geber, — «, lawgiver. 
■^r ®t\\6)t, — C8, ;>/. — CT, sight, face. 
^, @cf^)cnjl', ■— C8, pL—tXf spectre. 
2)ie ©eflalt' , — , pi. —en, form, shape, 

figure, stature. [formation. 

2)ic ©eftal'tung, — , moulding, 
i-«j^cflat'tcn, V. tr., to allow, 
©c'jicrn, adv., yesterday. 

©c'flrig, ac?;., of yesterday, 
©cjunb', adj., healthy. 

2)ic ®cfunb't>eit, — , health. 
©CWa^r', arf;., aware of, preceiving. 
ten, V. tr., to procure, give. 
2)ie ©eWatf, — , power, violence. 

©ettJalt' jam, adj. , violent, forcible. 
-j^cwanbf {pan. from wcnbcn), adj,^ 

quick, active, dexterous. 
©ctoSr'ttg, adj., waiting, expecting. 
fer, —3, pi. — , waters, 

flood. 
25a8 ®tXO\&ii'f — C3, pi — C, weight. 
©ctoin'nen, r.tV. <r., to win, gain. 
©Ctoig', acj/., sure, certain. 

2)a3 ©ewif'fen, — 3, conscience. 

@cn)if fcn^aft, adj., conscientious. 
2)a3 @ctt)it'ter, — S, /?/. — , tempest, 

storm, thunder-storm. 



temper,- UScwS^' 



~^a0 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TOCAEULABY. 



451 



OetDoVnen, v. tr,, to accustom ; v,refl.M^tt ©rfiu'cl, — 9, pi.—, abominatioii, 



to accustom one's self. 
2)ic ©cwo^n'^dt, — , custom. 
(3tto'6hn'l\6), adj,, customary. 
— 2)a8 ©ctoSlbe, — 8, ;>/.—n, arch, vault 
— 2)ic ®'\(i)t, —, gout. 

®ie'6en,r. «>. fr., to pour, 
r-^ic ®ift, — , ;>/. — en, gift, dowry. 
i — '£>cl9 ®\\tf — ,pl. — c, poison. 

S)Ct ©i^p'fcl^— «,/>/.—, summit, peak. 



horror, horrible crime. 
S)cr ®raf, —en, pL —en, count. 
£ie ©ramma'ti!, — , grammar, [ical. 
©ramntatifa'Ufc^i, arf;., grammat^ 
S)a8 ®ra«, — e«, ;>/. ©ra'fcr, grass. 
-|-®rSg'Ud(^, adj., hideous, terrible. 
©ratuU'rcn, v. tr,, to congratulate, 
©ran, culj., gray, 
©rci'fcn, v. tV. <r., to grasp, seize. 



©lan'jcn, v. ir. intr., to glitter, shine.- •4J)ie ®ren'ge, — , pL — n, boundary, 



2)a8 ®Ia8, — e8, ;?/. ©la'jer, glass. 
S)ic @Ia«'f(^eibe,— ,pane of glass. 



I 



limit. 

S)a« ©rcnj'Ianb, boundary-land, 
rr ©laS'fd^erbe, — e, broken glass- -®rob,aJ/., coarse, rough. 

2)er_®ro'fd^cn, —8, pi. —n, groshen 
"/ o^-, great, large, tall. 



?''^!'"^ "■"!'[ f-ith, belief. 
2)er ©lau'ben, — «,) ' 

©lau'bcn, r. tr., to believe. 
(Sleid^, arf;., like, equal, levels even; 

adv., immediately. 

2)er ©Icic^^'mut^, equanimit.v. 

S)a« ®lei(ii>'ni6,— c«,i?/.— c,*like- 
ness, comparison, allegory. 

®Ieici^'fam, conj., as it were, as if. 
!5)ie @\od't, —, pi. —n, bell. 
— '®Ior'rci(i^, a<(/., glorious. 

2)a6 ®lil(f, — C8, fortune, good luck. 

®lil(f'ii(3^, adj., fortunate, happy. 
— - 2)er®(ilcf'n)unfd^, congratulation 
2)ie ®na'bc, —,pL —n, grace, favor. 

®na'big, ac[^'., gracious, merciful 
2)a8 ®oIb, — e8, gold. 

®orben, adj., golden, of gold. 
®o't^if(^, adj., Gothic. 
2)ev ®ott,— e«, ;?/. ®i5tter, God. 

3)cr ® ot'te^bicnjl, divine worship. 
®ra'6en, v. tV. <r., to dig. [grave. 

2)a« ®rab, — c«, /)/. ®r5'6cr, 

3)er ®ra'6cn, —9, pL ®ra'bcn, 

^ie®ru'bc,— ,;?/.— n,hole.[ditch 

2)cr ®rab, — c«, />/. — c, degree. 



2)ic (^r5'6c, — , size, height. 

S)cr ®ro6't)ater, grandfather. 

2)ic ®ro6'mutter, grandmother. 
tf ®ro6'ntUt^, magnanimity. 

®ro6'niiit^tg, adj. , magnanimous 
— -- ®r56'tent^eil«, adv., chieflj-. 
®riln, adj., green. 
S)er ®nirtb,— c8,»p/.@riln'be,ground, 

land, foundation, reason, [lish. 

©rilu'bcn, v. tr., to found, estab- 

Xa9 ®runb'Io(^, hole in the 
ground. 

2)cr ®runb'ftcin, corner-stone. 
S)er ®ru6,— c8,7^/. ®ril'6e, salutation 

®ril'gcn, V. fr., to greet, salute. 
®iirtt.q, adj., valid, binding. 
@iin'\tXQ,adj., favorable. 
«(^ie @um'mif(^ut>c (;)/.), India-rub- 
®ut, adj., good. [ber over-shoe. 

S5ie ©ii'tc, — , goodness. 

S)a« @ut, — c«,/>/. ©il'tcr, posses- 
sions, property, landed estate. 
2)ad ®vmna'rium, — «, ;>/. ®vmna'- 

fien, g}'mnasium. 



2)a« ©aar, — e8, ;>/. — e, hair, 

^a'bcn, v.tr. tr., to have. 

$ab'^aft, adj., in possesion 



I 2^te ^ab'fud^t, — , avarii 

$ab'fil(^^tig, o^*., avarici 

I. — l-S)cr ^a' fen,— «,/>/. $5'fen, 1 



avarice, 
aricions. 
harbor. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



452 



VOCABULABr. 



' — S)ct $a'fct, — 8, oats. 
, — ry 6a' gel, — 8, hail. 

$a'ge(n, v. intr. (impers.), to hail. 
' — „ ^ad'iii, —8, ;>/. — , hook. 
$al&, «((/., half. 

^alb'ro^, aJ^*., half raw. 
^cdh'X0iQ9, adv., halfway. 
2)ic $alf te, — , half. [stop, 

©al'ten, v. %r, tr. and tn^r., to hold, 
2)er $alt, — e8, pi. 

stop. [mer. 

Der ©am'mer,— «,;>/. §Sm'mcr,ham- 
S)ie $attb, — , ;>/. ©Sn'bc, hand. 
2)er6att'be(, —8, trade, com- 
merce, 
^an'beln, v. tr. and intr.^ to han- 
dle, trade, treat, act. 
S)cr §Snb'Icr, —^,pl.—f trader. 
®ie $anb'(ung, — , ;>/. —en, ac- 
tion, deed, trade, trading- 
house. 
S)ic $anb'f (Shrift, manuscript. 
2)cr ^anb'fd^u^, glove. 



2)er $au))t'mattn,— e8,;>/.$au^)f • 
leute, captain. 

S)ie ©au^t'ftabt, capital city. 

2)a« ^u^t'n?ort, noun. 
2)a8 $au8, — e«, ;>/. ^ciu'fcr, house. 

2)er $au8'fned?t, house servant. 
S)ie $aut, — ,/>/. ^Su'te, skin, 
^c'&en, r. t>. *r., to raise, lift. 
2)er 4>c'kl, — «, /*/. — , lever. 

e, holding4-2^ 4>«*tf — «^/ /*'• — ^r P^^®' 
2)a8 §ecr, — e«, !>/. — e, army. 
§cf'tig, adj., vehement, violent. 
2)cr $ei'be,— n, pi. — n ; bie ©ci'bin, 

— , pi. *nen, heathen, pagan. 

2)a« $ci'Ueutt?iim,— «, paganism 
2)ie §ei'be, — , pi. — n, heath. 
§ci'Ug, ac[/., holy. 

^CJ'Ugen, v. ir. , to sanctify, hallow 
§Ctm, afl?i;., home, at home. 

2)a8 §ctin, — e8, home, residence. 

2)ie ^ei'mat^, —,/>/. —en, native 
place. 

$ei'mif(i^, adj., at home. 
$ei' ratten, v. tr. and intr., to marry. 



<■ — ®a« $anb'»erl, trade. 

S)er ^anb'werfev, tradesman. ^-$ei'fer,a((;., hoarse. 
. — .2)er $anf , — c«, hemp. *- -©eig, acj^'. , hot. 

©ang'en, v. ir. intr., to hang. ^ci'gen, v. ir. intr., to be called, be 

©ang'en, v. tr., to hang. named, mean, 

©ar'ren, v. intr., to await. ^©ei'ter, adj., cheerful, glad, joyous. 

§art, adj., hard. 
— 2)er $a'fe, — n, ;>/. — n, hare. [nut. 
S)ic ^a'felnug, — , pi. *uilffe, hazle- 
$af fen, V. tr., to hate. 



^agTld^, adj., hateful, ugly, 
^au'ctt, V. ir. tr., to hew, cut. 
2)cr §au'fc, — n«,/?/.— n,> heap, 
„ ©au'fcn, — 8, />/. — , I mass. 
«<^au'ftg, a^;., abundant, frequent. 
2)a« §am>t, — c«, pi. ©Suiter, head. 
2)ic ^au^t'fcber, mamspring. 
„ 6aui)t'fefiung, chief fortica- 
tion. 
2)cr $5u^t'Un0, — e«, pi. — c, 
chieftain, leader, [foremost. 
^>Su^t'Iing§,arfi'., headlong, head 



2)er §elb, —en, />/. —en, hero. 
2)cr §erbengcifl, heroic spirit. 
§erbenmilt(;tg, adj., heroic 
§crfen, y. »V. intr., to help. 
♦+$ett, adj., clear, bright. 
Hl5)er §cr(er , —8, |)/. — , a copper coin, 
worth about a quarter of a cent. 
3)cr §e(m, — c8, pi. — e, helmet. 
^fS)a8 ^cmb, — e8, p/. —en, shirt. 
§em'men, v. tr., to check, arrest. 
§cr, arfy., hither (§ 187, 10). 
§cral>', acfi?., do\vn (hither). 
$eran', adv., on, near, upward. 
$erauf'Iommcn, to come up, rise. 
_»^rauff^)cien, v. ir, tr,, to throw 
up. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY, 



453 



^crauf tretcn, v, ir. intr,, to step 

$erauS',ac?e;., out hither, [up. 

^txavL9\aQtn, to speak out. 

^crbei', adv., on, hither, near. 

herein', adv., in hither. [ter. 

herein' fommen, to come in, en- 

^emic'bcr, <uiv,, down hither, 
^erfl'berfommcn, to come over. 

^erun'ter, adv., down hither. 

©erun'tcrfommcn, to descend. 

$crum', adv., around. 
2)cr §erbp, — e8, pi. — c, autumn. 
-^ n §2rb, — c«, pi. — t, hearth. 
2)ic $eer'bc, — , pi. —n, herd. 



^inctu', «(/»., in thither. 

C>incin'gc6en, v. intr., to enter. 
-|-C)incin'flclangcn, to penetrate. 

$incin'fommcn, to come in. 

©ineln'ttagcn, v. tr., to carry in. 

^in'gebcn, v. tr., to give up, sacrifice. 

^ingc'gcn, adv., on the contrary. 

©inft'berf^ringcit, to leap over. 

^inun'terpilrjcn, r. intr., to faU down. 
-|-^inju'fc(5cn, v. ir., to add. 

^tn'bern, v. tr., to hinder, [bersome. 
$tn'bcr(t^, adj., hindering, cum- 
•" -§in'tcn, prep., behind, after. 
• -5)cr $irfd?, — e«, pi. -r-, stag, deer. 



2)cr ©err, — n, pi. —en, master, lordH'S)ic ©ir'fe, — , millet. 

gentleman; Mr. ; ®t>tt bcr §erV^cr ^irt, — CU, pi. —t\\, shepherd. 



the Lord God. 



^zxt'ix^ffadj., glorious, splendid 

2)ie ^txx'\6fa\t, — , pi. —en, do- 
minion, authority. 

$err'f(^aftftd^, adj., belonging to 
a lord or to a manor, noble. 

$err'f(?^en, v. intr., to reign, rule. 

3)a« $err'fd^ert^utn,— 8, govern- 
ment, authority. 
2)a« ©erj, — en«,p/.— en, heart, [dial 

©erj'U^, a((/., affectionate, cor- 
2)er ©er'jog, —t9,pl. $er'a5ge,duke. 
©crnad^', arfy., afterward, 
©crbor'bred^cn, to break out. 
— ^a« $eu, — e«, hay. 

^U'len, V. intr., to howl, 
©en'tc, adv., to-day. 

©cu'tig, acj^*., of to-day, to-day's, 
©icr, arf»., here, 
©ifrin', arfw., herein. [close by. 

©icrnfi^fl', arfr., next this time, 

^ietfelbfi', adv., here. 

— ©ic'fig, ac^'., of this place. 

S)er $im'me(, — «, i>/. — , heaven, 

©imm'UW, ^j'9 heavenly, 
©in, adv., thither, there, 
©inab', adv., down thither, 
©tnauf , adv,, up thither. 
©Inaufft^uen, to look up. 



^ -S)ie ©t(j'e, — , heat. 



^o6f,adj., high. 

©5d^fi, orft'., very, extremely. 
S)ic ©o^'a^tung, — , esteem, re- 
spect, [oped. 
— '©0^'gebrad^t, adj., higly devel- 
^— ©o(^'trabenb,ac(;., high-sounding 
.^^er ©o^'berrat^, high treason. 
---SDie ^o6)'\<dt, pi — en, wedding. 
» ©B'(?e, — , pi. —en, height. 
2)cr ©of, — e«, />/. ©6'fe, court, per- 
manent residence, home. 
©6f U(i^, adj., courteous, polite, 
©of fen, v.intr., to hope. 

©of fenttic^, ac?i?.(itis to be hoped). 
2)tc ©off nung, — , pi —en, hope. 
.jJ^o^t, adj., hollow. 

2)ie ©eyie,— , />/. —n, cave, pit. 
-f^o'Icn, r. tr., to get, procure. 
2)a« ©oQ, — c«, /)/. ©brjer, wood. 
©Srjern, ac(/., woody, of wood. 
-j-^er ©o'nig, — 8, honey. 
©or'(i|^en, v, intr,, to listen, obey. 
©iJ'rcn, v, tr., to hear. 
4S)ie ©o'fen (/>/.), pantaloons, trowscrs 
- -©flbf^, ac(^*., pretty, fair. 
'f5)cr ©ft'gel, — «, ;>/. — , hilL 

^Vii' \ interj., ho! quick I in CtnClt 
J— — '©ui'^ in the twinkling of an eye^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



454 



VOCABULARY. 



3)te ^iM'\c, —, aid. 

2)er ^iinhf — 19, pL — c, dog. 



2)er ^ung'er, —8, hunger. 



1^ 



3)ic ^uug' cr«uot^, — , famine. 



!©a« ^ilno'd^cn, —9, pi, — , small dogft®er $ut, — e«, ;//. — §il'tc, hat. 



little puppy. 
^un'Dert, hundred. 

3^,pron,., L 

3i)X, pron, , her ; their ; 3^>r, your. 

S)er, bic, ba8 3t'rigc, hers; theirs; 
3^'rtgc, yours. 

3m'mcv, adv,^ always, ever. 
^-3in^)0fant', adj., imposing. 

S^fprep., in, into, at, within. 

3nbcm', c, while, since, because. 

!5)cr 3n'^alt, —8, />/. — c, contents. 

2)a« 3n'tanb, — 9, interior of a coun- 
try. 



3i\f adv. , yes. 
2)ie 3a(f 'c, — , ;>/, 
Sa'gcn, v. tr., to hunt. 

2)ic 3a9b, — , hunt, hunting. 
S)cr 3a'gcr, — «, i?/. — , hunter. 
^a8 3a^t, — e«, — c, year, [century. 
2)a« Qa^r^un'bert, —8, ;>/. — e, 
2)ie 3a6're8ga^I, — , number of 
the year. 
n 3a(>'rc8jett, — , pi. — cu, sea- 
son of the year, 
^cr 3a'nuar, —8, Januar>'. 
Si, adv., ever ; conj., the (see bcjlo). 
3fc'bcr, 2)ron., every, each. 



T2)ic ^ilf tc, — , pi. — n, hut. 
ff ^^ajin't^c, — , pi. — n, nyacinthf 

3. 

3n'(Snbtfc]^, adj., native, interior. 
3n'nc, adv., within. 
3n'ttCn, adv., within. 
3n'ncr, adj., interior. 
3n'ncr^alb, jtrep., within, inside of. 
2)a8 3njeft', —z9,pl. —en, insect. 
2)ic 3n'ic(, — , pL — n, island. 
3nfon'bcr^cit, adv., especially. 
S)a8 3ntcrcf'je, — c8, interest. 

3utcrcffant', adj., interesting. 
3r'rcn, v. refl., to err, wander. 

3. 

3e'bcrmann, pron., every body. 
It, jacket, vest. -|^ebtt>e'ber, pron. (for jeber). 
3c'mal§, adv., ever. 
3c'manb, —8, pron., somebody, ant 

body. 
St' mx, pron., that, that one. 
Stn'\di, prep., the other side of, beyond 
3cn'fctt8, adv., beyond. 
3e(5t, adv., now, at present. 

3c^'ig, adj., present, existing. 
2)ie 3u'gcnb, youth. 
3ung, adj., young, youthful. 

S)cr 3uu9'c, — n, /)i — n, youth, 
young man. 



*^2)a8 ^a'M, —9, pi. —, cable. 
„ ^aBinctt', — c8, pi 
small room. 
*^tx ^abctt', —en, />/. —en, cadet. 
2)er ^abct'tenofpsicr, —8, pi. ■ 
cadet-officer. 
n ^af'fee, —8, coffee. 
— 'fta^I, a^*., bald. 

*— S)cr ^abn,— e*,;?/. .^Sb'ne, boat, skiff, 
r; ^ai'fcr, — 8, ^»/. — , empei-or. 



^ai'ferltci^, ««&'., imperial. [ship). 

e, cabinet7f®ie ^ajft'te, — c, pi. — n, cabin (of a 

2)a8 «aI6, — C8, pi. St&Vhtx, calf. 

2)er ^alb8'bratcn, — 8,roastveaL 

3)a8^aIb8'coteIctt,— e8, veal cut* 

„ MS'Peif^, — e8, veal, pet, 

l^er kalt, — c8, lime. 

«-- S)er $airfet8, limestone cliffiii 

calcareous rock. 
^lit^ adj. cold. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



455 



balfc-"S)er 



--S^as 



2)ic ^Sl'U, — , cold, coldness. 
3)cr Sam^f, — e«, ;>/. Mm^fc, battle, 
fi5m>fen, v, intr,, to fight, [fight. 
„ ^ana' ricni)ogc(, —3, Canary bird. 
S)ic ^anb'nc, — -, pL —it, cannon. 

2)ic ^ano'nenfugct, cannon 

S^cr ^a^ttSn', —8, ;>/. — c, captain. 

— ^2)tc ^a^'^)C, — , pL —en, cap, hood. 

- — 2)cr ^ar'i)fcn, — «,p/.— , carp. 

2)ic Sar'tc, — , pi. — n, chart, map. 

rr Sartoffd, — , pL — n, potato. 

— 2:cr ^artof fclader, — , potato field. 
. — u M'\t, — C8, pi. — , cheese. 

rr Itatatog', — c8, ;>/. — e, catalogue 
„ Sat^olif , —en, pi —en, Catholic^ 
Sat^o'Uf^,a((;., catholic. 

„ ^attun', — c«, pi. — c, calico. 

^au'fcn, V. tr., to buy. 

2)cr ^auf mann, — e«, pi. ^auf s 

leute, merchant, 
^aufm&n'mfci^, adj., mercantile. 
^aum,afl?y., scarcely. - 

i^e^rcn, v. tr., to sweep; to tnrn. 
^ 2)cr ^ett, — C8, ;>/. — c, wedge. 

^cirfSrmig, adj., wedge-shaped; 
adv. , like a wedge. 
SttiX[,pron,, no, not any, no one. ' 

— 2)er ktVi'mx,—^fpL — , waiter. _ 
Scn'ncn, w. tV. tr., to know, to be ac- 
quainted with. — 

S)cr ^cf'fel, — «, ;>/. — , kettle. 

— S)ic ^Ct'tC,— ,;*/.— n, chain. 
S)er Sid, — 8, ;^/. — e, quill. • — ■ 
2)a« ^nb, — c«, ;>/. --er, child. 

" 2)a8 ^nb'ci^cn, — «, ;>/. — , little 
child, baby, infant. 
®tC ^nb'^dt, — , childhood. 
.^in'bif(% ^4/'> childish. 
S5ic Sir'(i^C, —,;>/.— n, church, [tory. 
3)ic kir'd^engcf(3^iitc, church bis- 
ter ^rd^'t^urm, church tower. 

— S)tC Sir'f(^^, — , pi. —n, cherry. 
' — 3)a8 ^f'fcn, — 8, ;>/. — n, cushion>*^ 

Sta'gcit, r. tfl^r., to complain. 
. — Xvt Stap>cr, — , pL — n, rattle. 



ie;^-SHr 

4— 



— -2)a8 



— S)ic SIa^)'^erf(i^Iangc, rattlesnake. 
Slar, ati;., clear. 
2)ic Staff c, — , ;*/. — n, class. 

Staf ftfd^, adj., classical. 

Stagier', — «, — e, piano-forte. 

Sice, — e«, clover. 

2)er SIce'acter, field of clover. 
3)a8 Sleib,' — e8, pi. — er, garment, 

clothes, dress. 

SIci'ben, v. tr., to clothe, dress. 
S(dn, adj., small, little. 

Sti'ma, —9, pi. Slima'ta, *te or 

«»ten, climate. 
!Hng'en, v. tn^r., to sound, be heard. 

SUng'dn, v.intr., to ring a bell. 
SIo'M^n, V. intr., to knock (at a door). 

Slo'fler, — «, jo/. SlJJ'per, cloister, 

convent, monastery. 
Stug, adj., wise, sensible, learned. 
S)er Sna'be, — n, pi. — n, boy. 

tt Snc(^t, — C9, ;)/. — e, servant. 
-„ Sno'^en, — 8, pi. — , bone. 
„ Sno'tcn, — «, pi. — , knot. 
f, ^o6), —t9, pi. SB'd^c, cook. 

2)te Si}'(i^tn, — , pi. ••ncn, cook. 
So'i^cn, V. tr. and intr., to cook, boil. 
2)er Sof fer, —8, pi. — , trunk, chest. 
^ „ So^I, — e«, ;>/. — C, cabbage. 

2)er So^radcr, field of cabbages. 
Die So^'te, — , pi. —It, coal. 
Som'men, v. tV. intr., to come. 
So'mif^, ac&*., comical 
S)er Sommi«', — , ;>/. — , clerk. 
2)ic Sonfcffion', — , ;>/. — cit, confes- 
sion of faith. 
2)cr Songreg', — e«, i>/.— e, Congress. 
„ S5'mg, —8, i^/. —e, king. 

SiJ'mgU(it>, adj., royal. 

S)a8 SiJ'nigrdd^, —8, ;>/. •— e. 

kingdom. 
Si5n'nen, v. ir., to be able. 
2)er So^)f, — c^,/?/. So'^fc, head. 

2)a8 So^f ice^, —9, headacha. 

Sorb, — c8, /)/. Ser'be, batket. 

2)er Sorb'maii^er, basket-maker. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



456 



TOCABULART. 



[cornr ^er 



3)a8 $tcxn, — c«, pL ^5r'ncr, grain,' 
2)cr ^5r>cr, —«, pi, — , body 
Ho'ften, V, intr.f to cost, 
^oft'bar, ac(;., costly. 
2)ic ^oft'bartcit, — , costliness. 
2)tf «raft, — , pL «rSf tc, might, 
strength. [force, 

^aft'toott, adj,, energetic, full of 
- — 2)cr ^a'gcn, —8, pL — , or ^fi'gcn, 
kxanl, adj,, sick. [collar. 

2)ic JCranl'^it, — , pL —m, sick- 
ness, [sickness. 
V — 2)a« ^an' fcnlogct, —8, sick-bed, 
• — 3)cr ^anj, — c«, />/. ^&n'it, wreath. 
— 2)a8 i^aut, — c«, />/. «rfiu'tcr, plant, 
»; ^CUJ, — C8, i>/. — C, cross, [herb. 
— r^it fircuj'fa^rt, — , pL —en,) cru- 
(2)er ^eua'gug, —8, ;>/: 'g^^r > sade. 
rf ^eu'jcr, — 8, ;>/. — , creuzer. 
„ Ihricfl, — e8, />/. — c, war. 

S)ic ^cgS'not^, calamity of war. 

^'tif(i^, adj., critical. 
2)ic ^ro'nc, — , pL — n, crown. 
2)cr ^ron^rinj, —en, pL —en, 
prince royaL [mug. 

— 2)ct ^ug, — e«, pL ^H^t, pitcher, 
-^-^rumm, adj., crooked. 



^mm'bctmg, adj., bow-legged. 

^M'd^tn, —9f pL — , cake. 
2)ic ^u'gel, — , pi. —n, ball. 
2)er ^u'fut, — «, i>/. — e, cuckoo. 
Die ^unbfd^aft, — , pL —en, knowl- 
edge, information. 
Jlflnf tig, adj., future. 
2)ic tunp, —,!?/. ^an'fle, art. 

2)er Jtunft'fteig, — e«, artistic in- 
dustry. 
,f ^ttnfl'Ier, —9, pi. — , artist. 
^ftnft'Ii(^, adj., artificiaL 
— ' SDer «unfrf(i^at5,— e«,/>/: '\6f&^?, 
artistic treasure. 
2)a8 ^mft'wer!, work of art. 
2)er ^ur'filrfl, —en, pL —en, elector, 
^irrj, acj/., short, 
j,^ ilurj'weilig, arf;., amusing. 
j5a9 ^'^fcr, —8, copper. 
— ^S)a8 ,^u>fcrfte(iten, — 8, engrav- 
ing on copper. 
S)er ^>ferfted(^er, —8, j)/. —4 
engraver on copper. 
S)er ^ug, — e8, />/. ^f fe, kiss, 
^f fen, V. tr., to kiss. 
+S)ie ^'fle, —,/>/. — n, coast. 
-LS)er ^t'fti^r, —8, 71/. — , coachman. 



8. 



?a'(i^en, r. tn<r., to langh. 

Sa'(^etn, r. in^r., to smile, [cal. 

S^'c^erlici^, acj/., ludicrous, comi- 

2)er Sa(i^8, — e8, pi. Sfid^'fe, salmon. 

/ ^a'ten, v. ir. tr., to load, [ing, cargo. 

^ S)ie Sa'bung, — , pi. —en, lad- 

( Sa'ben, v. fr., to summon, invite.[shop' 

•^ 3)er ?a'ben, —8, i?/. Sfiben, shutter, 

2)te ?a'ge, — , pi. — n, position, place. 

• — S)a8 ?a'ger, —9, pi S&'fler, bed, camp 

Ca^m, ad/., lame. 

Sd^'men, v. tr., to make lame. 
S)a8 Samm, —Hfpl. Sfim'mer, lamb.+®er 
2)te Satn>e, — e, />/.— n, lamp. [land. 
5)a8 Sanb, — e8, pi. Sfin'ber, country, 
2)te ^anb'ma(]|^t,land force8,army 



2)er Sanb'mann, countryman, 
rr Sanb8'mann, (felIow)-couii- 
tiyman. 

2)ie Sanb'retfe, journey by land. 

- r; Sonb'f^aft, — ,ij/.— en, land- 
scape, [painter. 

S)er Sanb'Waft8maIer, landscape 
t, Sanb' folbat, land soldier Cmi- 
litia). 

S)a8 Sanb'toolf, country people. 

8anb'»firt8, adv., landward. 

2)er Sanb'Winb, land breeze. 

Sonb'mirt^, farmer, landlord. 
Sang, adj., long. 

Sang'e, adj., a long while. 

S)ie Sfing'e, — , length. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VOCABULARY. 



457 



JJang'fam, adj,, slow. 

Sang'wcilig, adj,, slow. 
• — S)cr 2arm, — c«, noise, bustle, uproar. 
8af fen, V, ir. tr., to let, leave, permit, 
order, to have (done). 
^S)ic ?ajl, — , pi. — en, burden. 



^^ic 2tf6}t, — , pi. —n, lark. 
?cr'ncn, v. tr., to learn. 
2c' fen, V. ir. tr., to read. [«•. 

S)a«2e'febu(i^, reading-book, read- 
?Cfet, adj., last. 

Sets' ter, adj., latter. 



2)a« ?aft't^ter, beast of burden. --2)er Scud^t't^urm, light-house. 



Satei'nif^, adj., Latin, 
gau'fen, r. tV. intr., to run. 

2)cr Sauf,— e«, pi. Sau'fe, course. 
8aut, adj., loud; i>rcp., according to, 

by virtue of. 
fiStt'ten, V. intr., to sound, be rung. 
Sc'bcn, V. intr., to live. 

2)a« Se'bcn, — ^, life. 



Seb'^aft, adj., lively, active. 



2)ie 2e'ben«art, — , style of living.-Hgie'fern, v. tr., to deliver. 



S)er2c'ben«Iauf, course of life. 
S)ie 2e'ben«mittel, means of ex- 
istence, necessaries cf life. 
^-^aS Se'ber, —9, pi. — , leather. 



2)ie Seu'te (pi.), people. 

2)a8 8i(](^t,— c«,7i/. — cr, light, candle. 

Sic'ben, v. tr., to love. 

gieb, adj., dear, agreeable. 

2)ie Sic'bc, — , love. 

Sic'bcr, adv., rather, sooner. 

Sieb'tid^, adj., lovely, charming. 

2)er Sieb'Iing, pi. — e, favorite. 



Seben'btg, adj., lively, active. Sie'benStollrbig, adj., amiable. * 



S)a8 Sieb, — e«, />/. — cr, song. 



— S)ie Sic'f erung, — , pi. —en, num- 
ber (of 8 serial publication). 
Sie'geit, r. iV. intr., to lie, recline. 
SHe Simona'bc, — , lemonade. 



Seer, acf;., empty, vacant. • — t^inl, adj., left, left hand. 

S)tc Segation', — , pi. —en, legation. 8iiif«, arfr., to the left hand. 

8c'geu, v. tr., to lay, put, place. " 2)ie Sitetttur', — , pi. —en, literature. 

(^n'legen, to put on. Sitfti&'rifc^, adj., literary. 

l53et'Iegcn, to give to. 2)a« ?ol6v -^e«, praise. 

Cefi'ren, v. tr., to teach. So'ben, v. tr., to praise. 

2)ie Sc^re, — , pi. — n, doctrincri^aS 2o(3^,— e«,/>/.2b'd^cr, hole, cavity 
2)cr Se^rer, — 9,pl.-^, teacher.-H?Dyncn, v. tr., to reward. 

2)a8 2oo9, — e8, pi. —c, lot. 

2od, a<(;., free from, without. 



2)ie Se^rerin,— , jd/. —en, teacher 

2)a8 Se^r'ja^r, year of study. 

Se^r'reid* adj., instructive. -fSS'fen, v. tr., to loosen, solve. 



Sei^t, adj., light, easy. [ry). 

— ?ctb, adv. (c« t^ut mir (cib, I am sor- 
Sei'ben, v. ir. tr., to suffer. [grief. 

S)a« Sei'ben, — ^fpl.—f suffering, 
Sci'bcnfci^ftlt^, adj., passionate. 

25ie Sei'er, —,pl — n, lyre. 

Seiycn, v. ir. tr., to loan, lend. 

— 2)ie Sctn'»anb, — , linen. 
_^ ?ei'fe, adj., low, soft, gentle, [plish- 
?ei'flen, v. tr. , to do, perform, accom- 

?ei'ten, v. tr. , to lead, conduct. 
2)ie Sehion', — n, pi. —en, lesson. 



2)cr 85'n)e, — n, pi. — n, lion. 
S)icSuft,— ,i>/. ?iirte,air. 
Stt'gen, v. intr., to lie, tell falsehoods. 
2)ie 8il'ge,/>/. — n, lie, falsehood. 
. — 2)er Sftg'ner, —8, pi, — , liar. 
-"I^Ser 8um>cn, — , pi. —en, rag, tatter 
S)a« Sum>cn^)a^icr, paper (made 
of rags). 
2)ic 2ufl,— , />/. Sil'fle, pleasure, joy, 

desire, inclination. 
• — W^txn,adj., longing, repacious. 
Su'pig, adj., jolly, merr}'. 



u 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



«68 



VOCABULAEr. 



m. 



Tla'dftn, v. tr,, to make, do. 

2)ic 2«ad;t,—,;)/.3»ad?'te, might, 
power. 



SWvid^'tig, adj., mighty, powerfulr "S)cr SWccr'rcttig, — «, horseradish. 



having control, 
SRabome', Mrs. 
2)tc SWagb, — , pL SWSg'bc, maid. 

2)a« TOb'i^cn, — «,i>/. — , girl, 
maid. 
--^a8 SWa^I, — c«, p/. — c, repast. 
S)cr SKat, — «, May. 
2)ic SWajcjlSt', — , p/. —en, majesty. 
S)a« SWal, — c«,i)/. — c, time. 
SWa'Icit, r. /r., to paint 

2)er SWa'lcr, —8, />/.—, painter. 

S)ic 2WaIcrei', —, art of painting. 

SWa'Ierif^, adj,, picturesque. 
SRait, pron,, one, a person, we, they. 
Wlan'6}tx,pron.f many (a one). 

SJ^and^'mat, ae/i;., many a time. 
SWang'etn, r. tn^r., to lack, fail. 
2)cr iWann, — e«,i>/. SJian'ncr, man. 



of men, crew, 
2)cr SWan'tcI,— e«, p/. 2W5n'tct, man- 
tle, cloak. 
2)cr aWarlt, — c«,;>Z.3Wfirrtc, market. 
„ aKarfe^,—c«,i>/.9JJfir'fdS>c, march, 
marching ; 5"6'wi^^ Wi going on 
foot 
•~~"rr 9Warj, — e6, March. [engine. 
2)ic Tla]6)Vnt, —, pL —n, machine, 
2)cr SWaft, — c«, —en, mast, [stuff. 
2)ic 3Rate'ric, — , ;>/. —en, matter, 
ti SWatf^ema'til, — , mathematics. 
— 2)er aJiatto'fe, — n, pL — n, sailor. 
— 2)ic SKau'er, — ,!>/. — n, wall. 
-^ S)a« aWaur,— c8,p^ 3Rau'Ier, mouth. 



2)ic aWaurf^elle, — , pi — n;- 4Wie't^cn, r. tr., to hire, rent, 



slap on the mouth or face. 
, — !5)er SWau'rer, —0, pi —, mason. 
2)ie aJiebijtn', — , medicine. 
3)a8 9Weer, — eS, — e, sea. [hay. 

2)er aWeer't^ufcn, —«,;>/. -, gulf, 



— 2)te aWeer'enge, —,/>/.— n,8traita 
ir 3)'iec're«pa(i(^c, —, surface oi 
the sea. 



- €>a8 Tlt% — e«, flour. 
SWe^r (comp. (/btel), more. 

3)'Jeyrere,i>roii., severaL 

9}2e^r'ma(9, adv,, several times. 
»f<Wei'bcn, v, ir, tr,, to avoid. 
2)ie 9J2ei'te, —,pl — n, mile. 

9}2et'(enk9ett, adv., miles distant* 
3Wein, i)ron., my. [mine. 

S)er aWcine, or ber aWetnige, /*nw., 
aWci'nen, r. tnfr., to mean, think. 
— . 2)ie SWei'nung, — , ;^/.— en, opin- 
ion, idea. 
SWeijl (superl o/tiet), most 

9Rei'pen«, adv., mostly. 
2)er ajiiei'flcr, —8, 71/. — , master. 

SWei'jler^aft, adj., masterly. 

S)er aJ'iei'flcrf anger, master-singer 

S)a8 9Ket'Perflil(f, masterpiece. 



2)ic SJiann' f^aft, —,pl—n, bodj^ -SOfierben, v. ^r., to announce, make 



known. 
2)ic SWeng'c, — ,^/.— -n, crowd, quait- 

tity. [man being. 

2)er aJ'ienf^, —en, p/. — c«, man, hu- 

9Rcnf(i^'ft(i^, acj^*., human. 

S)a8 9Ken'fd(^ett!inb, son of man, 
human being. 
9)2er'fcn, v. tr., to mark. 

S)a8 9JJer!'ma(, —«,;>/.— c, char- 
acteristic sign. 

SWcrrwilrbig, adj., remarkable. 
2)ie aWef'fe, — , p/. — n, mass, fifir. 
SWcf fen, r. tr. tr., to measure.* 
2)a8 SWef'fer, —9,pl — , knife. 
S)a« aJietatt', —8, ;»/. — e, metal. 



2)ic mid), —, mUk. 

2)ie aWir^'fhragc, Milky Way. 
iWilb, a£(/., mUd. 
SWin'ber, adj., less ; miubcfl, least 

SWin'bcpen?, adv., nt least. 



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V 



VOCABULART,. 



460 



2)fr SWini'flcr, — 8, />/.—, minister, 

member of the executive cabinet, 

ambassador. [minister. 

SDcr 2D'hm'flcr*$r5fibcnt\ prime- 
-^^cr SWin'ncf finger, — 8, minnesinger. 
2)ie SWinu'tc, — , />/. — n, minute. 
SWtg'brauci^en, ». <r., to misuse, abuse. 
— > 2)er aWif'fet^atcr,— 8,;^/. — , evil-doer 
— -SJJiB'fftttcn, r. ir. tn^r., to displease. 
^it, prep., with, by, at, in. — 

S)er SWit'bilrger, —8, fellow-citizen. ^ 
SDiit'ge^cn, v. «r. tnfr., to accompany. 
SWif nc^mcn, r. tV. fr., to take with. 
SWit'fd^uIbtg^a^;., accessory to a crime. 
SWit'j^rC(3^en, r. iV. intr,, to speak with. 
2)cr SWit'tag, — 8, midday, noon, south 
2)ic TlWttf —, midst, middle. 
2)a« 2Wit'tel — 9, pL—, middle, means 
-•^SWit'ten,afl?y., middle, central 

SWit'tclS (*telft), prep., by means of. 
S)a« aKit'tcIaltcr, — 8, middle ages. 
SD'Kt'telmfigig, adj., moderate. 
S)cr SWif tct^unft, central point, focus. 
S)ic SWtt'tcmadS^t, midnight. 
SWit't^Ctlcn, V. tr., to communicate. 

TlWtf)txUn9tOtxti), adj., worth re- 
peating, [communication. 

2)ic iDfttt't^cilung, — , pi. —en, 
S)er a«itt'»0(^,-e8, > Wednesday, 
S)ic SWitt'»0(^e, -, > vveanesaay, 
3)ic aJitt'trirlung,— , co-operation, aid 
• — ^2)a« W^'M^—fpL —, and bie W>'M, 

— t P^' — ^/ piece of furniture (in 

pi. furniture). 
—— . Tl^Wtm, V. tr., to furnish. 
S)te SWo'be, — , pi. -—n, fashion. 

^Rohttn', adj., modem. 



2)a8 SWobett' , — «, pi. — c, modd. 
3KiJ'gcn, v. tV., to be permitted (may), 

SWBg'Iici^, adj., possible. 
2)te SWonard^ie',— ,;>/. — n, monarchy 
3)er SJio'nat, —8, p/. — c, month. 

Tlo'mtl\(i), adj., monthly. 
2)cr 9Konb, — C8, ;>/. — e, moon. 
2)cr SWon'tag, — «, Monday. 
iWor'ben,r. tr., to murder. 
2)er aWorb, — c«, />/. — e, murder. 
2)er2K3r'ber,—e, murderer. 

2)ie 2Worb't^at, —,/>/. —en, hom- 
icide, murderous act. 
S)er aWor'gcn, — «, p/. — , morning. 

Wlox'^tlXfttdv., to-morrow. 

SDlor'gene, adv., in the morning. 
45^tc 2Ki}'toeor2Kotte,— ,!?/.—- n,mew, 

sea-gull. 
tt SWil'tfe, — , />/. — u, gnat, midge. 
♦Njhl'be, acj^'., weary, tired. 
-+®ic SDWl'^c, —,;>/. — n, pains, care. 
.. „ Tl^'U, — , pL — n, mill 

2)er 2«il^rftcin, — c8, mill-stone. 
2)cr Tlmxh, —t^,pl. SWiln'ber, mouth. 

2)te 9J2unb'art,—,^/.— en, dialect 

Tliin'p\Q,adj., of age. 
3)a8 3Jhifc'um, — e, i>^. SWufe'cn, mu- 
seum. 
Xxt Tln[xV, — , music. [cian. 

Xtx aJhi'fiter, —9, pi. — , musi- 
25er TlnWdxix',~9, muslin. 
aWilffcn, V. ir., to be obliged (must.) 
2)a8 aWu'per, — «,i?/. — , pattern. 
2)cr 9Kut^, — e8, mood, courage, spirit 

Wln'tffXQf adj., courageous. 
2)ie aJiut'ter, —,pl. 2)Wit'ter, mother. 
l^, 2Rflt3'e,— ,/>/.— n, cap. 



iRa^, jwe;?., after, behind, toward, 
according to. [copy. 

^'iad^'a^men, v. tr. and intr. , to imitate, 

2)er 9fiad^>'bar, — « or — n, ;?/. — n, 
neighbor. 

Rai^'bem, adi\, aftenvard; c, after. 



SiZa^'lorntnen, r. ««/r., to come after, 
act in accordance with, accept. 

9^ad(^'ISfftg, adj., negligent, careless. 
%k Sfiad^'Ififfigtctt,—, negligence 

S)er 9iad^'mittag, —8, afternoon. 

9{ad^'ntittag§ adv., in the afternoon. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



460 




ABULART. 



3)ic 9la^'ri^t, — , pi —en, tidin] 
intelligence, report. 

Slat^'fc^en, v. ir, tr,, to examine ; intr.^, 
to look. 

Slla^'f^ringcn, v. intr,, to spring after. 

2)ic gflad^t, — , />/. "^adf'it, night. 

2)ic iRac^'tigatt, — , pL —en, nightin- 
gale. 

SllSd^Jl, adj. , next ; |?re;?. , next to, next. 

S)er ^lad'en, — «, jt^/. —-, neek. 
^ ji tadtf adj., naked. 

S)ic SRa'Det, — , jt>/. — n, needle. 
— S)er iRa'gel, — «, p/. m'^tX, nail 

iRa^ or na'^C, adj., near, nigh. 

3)ic iRS'^c, — , nearness. 

J9l&'^cn, V. wi<r. and reft. ^\ to ap- 
m'^crn, " " " > proach. 
— Sii^'ifVXfV. tr., to sew. 

2)ic 9flaymaf(i^tnc, sewing-ma- 
chine, 
f; 5flayttabc(, sewing needle. 
3)ic iRa(|'rung,— ,/>/.— en, food, nour- 
ishment. 
S)a« 92a^'rungSmittct, food, provision. 
SDer gf^a'mc, — ns,/)/.— n,) ^^^^ 
u iRa'men, —8, /)/.—, > 
Sfia'mentltd^, ao??;., namely. 
-.^- Sf^am'ltc^, i)ro«., the same. 
S)er iRarr, —en, pi. —en, fool, buf- 
foon. 
2)ie 9ia'ic, —,;?/. — n, nose. 

, 9fia'fctt)ci8, adj., pert, fonvard, 

impertinent, saucy. 
#-— 5'iag, ac?;., wet. 

2)te Sf^ation', — , ;>/. —en, nation. 

^lattonaC, adj., national. 
S)ic Statur', — , nature. 

Sf^atilritd^, ac?^*., natural, 
lyie'bcn, />r«p., near, by the side of. 
— S)er siic'tenumftanb, incidental 
circumstance, particulars. 
S^cBjl, ;>rc/)., near, together with. 
-*^ 3)er ^flcf fc, — n, ;?/. — n, nephew, 
il'lc^'mcn, V. ir. tr., to take, 
gfictn, afl?i?., no. 



ie iReCfe,— , p/. —en, pink. 
9'len'nen, v. tV. fr., to name. 
2)a8 iRe^, — e«, />/. — e, net. 
^tVif adj., new. 

2)ie 9leu'0ierbe, — , curiosity. 
iReu'gterig, a((?., curious, inquia- 

tive. 
Sfleu'Ud^, adv., lately, recently, 
gileun, nine. 

9ieuu'tfigi3, adj., lasting nine 
days. 
9fiidS>t, adv., not. 

iRid^t^, />ron., nothing. 
•j^ie S^id^'te, — , pi. —n, niece. 
9lie, adv., never. 

il'ite'malS, at/i?., never. 
Siite'nianb, pron., nobody. 
iRim'mer, a</w., never. 
iWtc'ber, adj., low ; adv., low, down, 
il^itc'berbrenncn, r. tV. tr., to burn 

down. 
Qfiie'bcrretgen, v. ir. tr,, to tear 
down. 
Sflo'M, adj., noble. 
^o6f, adv., still, yet ; conj., nor. 
2)er9lorb-8 )jj^^_ 
w il'lor'ben, —8,) 

il'iiirb'Kc^), adj., northern ; adv.^ 

northerly. 
Sf^orblDeft'Iic^, adj. , northwestern, 
2)tc Sf^o'te, — , />/.— n, bank-note, 
r; il'iotb, — , ;>/. iRiJ't^e, calamity, 
need, trouble. 
— - 2)er Sf^ot^'fatt, case of need. 

il'lo't^ig, adj., necessary, needed. 
SR^*ti}\Q ^aben, to need, 
©er Sf^o^em'ber, — «, November. 
-f5)ie S^u'bel, — , pi. — n, vermicellL 
„ Wmero, -,/>/.. ri,>„^l^^^ 
r, il'lum'mer, — ,p/- — f> 
9^un, adv., now; well, well then. 
9iur, arfy., only. 
S^utj'en, V. tr., to use. 

2)cr SRnf^txif — «, profit, use. 
SlJil^'Iid), a^/., useful 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



461 



£). 



OlorO^If/i/er/., oh! 
Ohf conj,, whether, if. 
D'6en, adv., above, up stairs. 

O'bcr^alb, prep., above, on the 
upper side of. 

2)ic O'bcrflac^e, upper surface. 



S)a« O'htxhhtXf upper leather. - "S)a« O^'fer, — , pi. —, sacrifice. 
S)erO'6crjl,— cn,p/.— cn,colonel--Ora'men,— « (^eog.), Orange, 



Obgleid)', con/., although 
-- 2)a« Obfi, — C8, fruit. 

S)cr O'ccan, —«, ;>/. — e, ocean. 



S)a« Oftai)', — 8, J)/.— c and «»8, octavo „ Ort, — c«, j)/. Ocr'tcr, place. 



O'bcr, con;., or. 
— S)cr 0'fen,--«,p/. Oe'fcn, 8tove,oven 
JDf fen, adj.^ open. 

Of fenbar, adj., open, plain. 



Offenba'rcn, r. tr.,io make public. 

Oef {cntlici^, ac[/., public. 

Oeff'ncn, v. tr., to open. 
Oft, adv., often. 
£)(|'nc,prg)., without. 
2)a« Del, —eS,/*/. — c, oil. 



Orb'ncn, v. tr., to order, arrange. 
3)ic Or'bre, — , or Or'bcr, — , order. 
2)cr Organift',— en,/*/, —en, organist 



-;; Ofl,-e8, ) 
„ O'flen,— 8,) 



east. 



JDeft'U(^, ««(;'., eastern. 
!5)tc O'jlern (j)/.), Easter. 



V^ 



ctn 



2)a8^aar, — e«, />/. — e, pair; 

paax, a few. 
2)er ^alafl',— C8,p/. ^atS'fle, palace. 
2)te ^al'me, —,/)/. — n, palm. 
S)er ^an't^er, —8, pi. — , panther. 

. „ ^antof fel, — «, j)/. — n, slipper. 

, ^an'ltvn, v. ir., to furnish with a coat 

of mail ; ge^)an'jert, iron-dad. 
2)a8 ^a^)ier',— 8,/)/. — e, paper. 

„ ^arabig'ma,— 8,1?/. ^arabig'men, 

paradigm. 
2)ie ^artic', — , p/. ^artic'en, party. 
2)et ^ag, — e8, ;>/. ^aj'fe, passport. 

f, ^affafiier*, — 8,p/. —c, passenger, 
^affen, v. intr., to fit, become. 

^affenb, adj., proper, suitable, 
becoming. 
S)tc ^erio'be, -— , pL — n, period. 
n ^erfon', — , pL — en, person, 
^crfiin'li^, adj., personal. 
— -^a8 ^rt'ftJ^aft, — C8, />/.— c, seal, 
'^-^v 2)er ^fef'fer, —8, pepper. 

„ ^fen'ntg, —8, pi. — c, pfennig. 
2>a8 ?fcrb, — e8, pi. — e, horse. 
^ — S)ic ^fing'flen, —8, Whitsuntide. 
„ ^flanVi—z/'^.—n, plant. 



^flild'en, V. tr., to pluck, pick. 
2)cr «Pflu9,— e8, pi. ^flil'gc, plough. 
2)a8 ^funb, — c8, pi. —e, pound. 
2)tc ^bttofo^)^ie', — , philosophy. 

^biIofo'^^it(i^,a<f/., philosophical. 
2)tC ^^Ifa'fCf — r;>^-» — ttf phrase. 
2)er ^(an, — c8, p/. — e or $(a'ne, 

plan. 
„ ^(ats, — C8, p/. ?I5(j'e, place. 

^latj ne^men, to take a seat. 
PiJ(}'a^, arf;., sudden, 
^liln'bern, v. tr., to plunder. 
2)ie ^ocfic' — , poetry. 
n ^oltgei', —, p/. —cn, police. 

S)er ^ofigei'biener, policeman, 
^onti'nifd^, adj.. Pontine. 
H-®a8 ^ortemonnajc', — 8,p/.— 8,pur8e, 

pocket-book. 
2)ic portion', — , pi. — en, portion. 
n $ojl, — , pi. — en, post, post-ofBce 

3)a8 ^oji'amt, — c8, post-oflSce. 
2)ie $rad^t, — , splendor, magnificence 
•^-^ 2)er ^rad^t'anjug, splendid suit 
of clothes. 

^xd6)'^Qfadj., \ Fplendid, 

^xadft'^oU, adj.,f magnificent 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



462 



VOCABULART. 



3)ct ^rSflbcnt', —en, pi —en, presi- S)cr 
dent. ^ie 

^— iprc'bigcn, v, tr., to preach. 

SDcr ^rc'biflcr, — «, preacher. — ^2)a« 
S)ic ^rc'bigt, — , ;>/. —en, sermon 
2)cr $rei«, — e«, i>/. — e, price. *S)\t 

'--„ ^ri'ma*©e(^fe(, — 8, first bill of 2)er 
exchange. „ 

„ ¥rte'fter,—c«, ;>/.—, priest. „ 

ff ^ifinj, —en, pL —en, prince, 
^robi'ren, v, tr., to try. -+a)le 



^rofef for, — ?, p/. ^rofcjfo'ren, 
^ro'fa, — , prose. [professor, 
^rofa'if^, adj.., prosaic. 
$roi5iant'fd(^iff, ship convejing 
provisions for the army, transport 
^roi^inj', — , pi, — en, province, 
^falm, — c8, pi. —en, psalm. 
^u(«, — e8,p/. — e, pulse, 
^unlt, — c«, ;j/. ^unl'tc, point, 
^untti'rcn, v, tr., to point, dot. 
^u^'^c,— ,1?/. — n,doU. 



^0,9 Ouabraf , — c«, |?Z. — e, square?— jJOuitt, adj., free (from). 
— S)ic Ouabrat'metle, square mile.^ S)ic Cuit'tung, — , receipt. 

„ Ouart, — e8, pi. — c, quart. 
S)ie Ouel'Ie, — , pi. — n, source. 



2)erCluottcnf, —en, pi. ~en, quo- 
tient. 



S)er 9la'6e, — n, ;>/. — n, raven. 
3)ie 3la'(i^e, — , revenge. [self. 

dtd'6)tn, V. refl., to avenge him- 
" 9la'gcn, v. intr., to reach, project. 

^ettoor'ragen, to project 



3le(^t«, adv.y to the right. 
2)a8 9Jed>t, — c«, or bie Ste^ts'^ 
toiffenj^aft,—, jurisprudence 
- -S^lcd'en, r. ft*, and refl., to extend. 
Slc'ben, v. intr., to speak, talk. 



SDer 9Jang, — C8, p/. 9iSng'e, rank, or- -^cb'Iid^, adj., honest, fair, brave 



der, degree, class. 
9{af(!^, adj., quick, swift, rash. 
2)er iStcA\if — e«, counsel, adnce. 

2)er Slat!;, —^,pl. 9?a't^c, coun- 



selor. 



2)a« 9latV^an«, council -house, 
city hall. [guess. 

9la't^en, v. ir. intr., to advise, 

S)a« 9?cit^'fe(, —8, pi. — , riddle. 
'^ i)cr Slaulb, — e«, p/. — , robbery. 

2)er ^eSu'bcr, —«,/)/.—, robber. 
9tau'(i^en, v. intr., t% smoke. 

2)cr "StcLM^f — C8, smoke. 
2)a« 9^cb'^u^n, — e8,i>/. SReb'^fl^ner, 

partridge. 
SHe 9{e'bc, — , pi. — n, grape vine. 
9le(](^'nen, r. *r., to reckon, [count. 

2)ie 9Jed^'nung, — , i>/. —en, ac- 
ff 9Jc'd^cnf(^|aft, — , account. 
^t^X, adj., right. 

2>ie 9Je(^|'te, —, right hand. 



•^*9le'gcn, v. tr., to stir, excite. 



3)ie ^Reformation', — , reformation. 
•^ Site'gel, — , /?/. — n, rule. 

9le'gelma6ig,ac(;., regular, [ty. 
2)ie Slc'gelmSgigleit, — , regwlari- 



S)er Site'gen, — 9, rain, raining. 

9leg'nen, v. intr. impers., to rain. 

2)er 9ie'genbogen, — -«, rainbow. 

^-^ „ Bte'gcngug, — e«, pi. *iiffe, 

sudden and violent rain. 
^ — f, 9Je'genf^irm, — e«, pi. — e, 

umbrella. 
S)er 9legent', — en, pL —en, regent. 
2)ie Sftegen'tin, — , pi. — ncn, re- 
gent 
jie'ren, v. tr,, to rule, govern. 
3)ie 9lcgtc'rung, — ,p/.— en, gov- 
ernment, [regiment. 
3)a« 3legimenf , — e«, ;»/. — er, 
-■©ie 9le'gnng, —',;>/L— en, movement, 
motion. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VOCABULARY. 



463 



— S)a8 ^t^, --C9, pL — <, roe, deer. 
- — ^d'htn, V, ir. tr., to rab, grind. 

^ddff adj.y rich. 

riches, wealth, opulence. 
2)a« ^tx^, —C«,/>/.—C, reign, govern- 
ment, kingdom, empire. 
^ 2)ic 9lcid?«'i)erfammlung, Assem- 
bly of the States of the (Ger- 
man) Empire. 
8letf,a<^*.,ripe. 

— 3)ic 9lci'^^c, — fPU — ^n, row, rank, turn 
S)er SReim,— c«,/)/. — c, rhyme. 

'^ 9{ein, adj,, pure, clean. 

SDic ^ein'^^eit, — , purity. 
9{erne(f e«Su^d, Beynard the fox. 
2)cr 9lci8, — c«, rice, [rice pudding. 
2)cr 9eei«>ubbing, — «, pL — «, 
2)ie 9{eid'fu^^e, rice soup. 
9lei'fcn, w. in^r., to travel. 

S)ic Si^eifc, — , />/. —n Journey, 
S)cr9eci'fc!offcr, —«,;)/. 
eling trunk. 
9Jei'6en, w. tV. tr, , to tear. 
9iei'tcit, w. tV.fnfr., to ride (on horse- 
back). 
Slci'jcn, V. tr,, to irritate, provoke. 
S)ic 9lcfigion', — , religion. 
9lc^ari'rcn, r. tr., to repair. 
SDic 9'tcJ)Cttr'u^r, repeating watch. 
2)cr 9lc^)rfifcntant',— cn,;>/.— en, 

resentative. 
3)ic 9Jc^uMi!', —,;>/. —en, republic. 
3)er8iefi, —t^fpl—tf rest, remaiui 
-■""^et'ten, r. <r., to save. 

^a9 dleftung^lboot, life-boat. 
^ — S)er 9let'ttg, —t9,pL — e, radish. 

rr 9l^eumatt«'mu«, — , rheumatism. 
— — 8li(i(^'tcn, V. tr., to adjust, direct. 
*— — S)er 9li^'tcr, — «, p/. — , judge. 
SHc 9?td^'tun0,— ,;>/• —en, direc- 
tion. 
9{i^^ttg, ac^'.,right, accurate, true 

. S)a« 9Jie8, —i9,pl. — e, ream. 

-.'-^cr aUie'fc, —n, />/. — n, giant. 



9iie'fengrog, adj. , large as a giant 
4S)a« QfJinb, — ee,i)Z.— er, homed cattle 

S)er 9?itt'berbratcn, roast beet 

—^ S)ae 9einb'fletf(i^, beef. 
!5)er 9Jing, — e8, i?/. — e, ring. 

3iing'eln, v. tr,^ to provide with 

rings; gering'elt, arranged in 
rings. [city. 

SHe 9ling'mauer, wall around a 
9Jing^, adv., around. 
2)er WiMitXt'—^^pl. — , rider, knight 
— • S)a« 3lit'tergut, manor. 
9lif terU^, adj., chivalry, 
"f^er 910(1, — e«, pi. md't, coat. 

8log'gen, — «, lye. [reed. 

-4S)a« 9lo^r, — e«, pi. — c and 815^'ren, 

2)er 9loman', — e«, />/. — c, romance. 

9{oman'tif(i|^, o^^'., romantic 
2)ic aito'fe, — ,i)/. — n, rose. 
Sto'fa, ofl(^*., rose-colored. 
9lot^>, ad;., red. 
trav4®ie ai^il'be, — ,i>/. — n, rape. 
^ 2)tc gelbe 9?il'be, carrot. 
- w rot]iic9irbe,beet. 
^•^ n toeige 9?u'be, turnip. 
2)er SRild'en,— «, />/.—, back. 

3n ben Mdtn fatten, to attack 

the rear. 
SDer SRilcf'bad, — c«, pi. — e, 
glance backward, retrospect. 
5Dte 9Jll(f'fid(^t, — , />/. —en, re- 
spect, regard, consideration. 
9Jfl(f'n)Srt«, adv., backward. 
ider445)a8 9lu'ber, — «, pi. — , rudder. 
Ditt^'men, v. refl., to be proud, boast. 
9{u^m't>ott, a£(;., glorious, famous 
9lu'fen, V. ir. tr., to call, cry out. 
2)ie 9Ju'^e, — , rest, tranquillity. 

Slu'^^en, V. intr., to rest, repose. 
9lflyren, r. tr., to touch, beat 

Diiiyrig, adj., stirring, active, 
nimble. 
SDte ^Jni'ne, — , pi. — n, ruin. 
'Btnn^f adj., round. [root 

2)ic 9lu't^e, — , pi. — n, root, perch, 



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464 



TOCABULARY. 



2)cr ©aat,— e«,;>/. ^a'k, parlor, haU 
2>ic @a'd?c, — , pL — n, thing, affair, 
cause; pi, goods, furniture, bag- 
gage, 
©er @a(f, — C3, />/. @S(f e, sack, bag. 
5'cn, V. tr., to sow. 



2)cr @affian', — 8, morocco leather. 2)a8 @(^er'6cngcri(^, ostracism. 

2)te ®a'gc, — ,])l, — n, tradition, r- -0(3^ug'Ud^, a<^*., hideous, hon-ible. 



e>agen, r. tr., to say. 
2)te ©a^nc, — , cream. 
S)a« @alj,— e«,/>/. — c, salt. 
2)er @a'mcn, —8, ;>/. — , seed. 
@am'mcln, r. tr., to collect. 

S)ic ©amm'lunjj, — , pl—tn, col 
lection. 
2)cr ®;im'm2t, —8, ;>/. — ?, velvet 
^ammtfprep,, with, together with. 
2)er @anb, —c«, sand. 

@an'bicj, ac{^*. , sandy. 

Sanft, adj., soft, gentle, mild. 

2)ic @arbcr(e, — -e, ;>/. — n, sardine. 

@att^ adj., satisfied, satiated. 

. S)cr ©at'tet, —8, pL — , saddle. 

2)cr @att'(er,"-8, ;;/.—, saddler. 

-2)cr ®a^,— e8,;>/. ®a'(je, leap, jump, 

®aiVex,adj., sour. [sentence. 



2)a« B6}avi'\)pki, —e8, ;//. — c, play, 

drama. 
^(^Ct'ncu, r. iV. intr., to appear. 
@^cn'fen, v. tr., to present. 
2)tc <B<i^cr'^c, —, pi. -— n, potsherd, 

fragment of broken glass. 



@^icf en, r. tr., to send. 

2)tc @d(^ie'nc, — , pi. —n, tire, rail. 

@^c'6cn, r. fr. fr., to shoot. 

2)a0 @(^>iff, — c«, /i/. — c, ship. 
S)cr @(i(>if fer, — 8, mariner. 
2)ic @(^iff8'lcutc (;?/.), crew. 
— -55cr ©dbimi, — C8, pL — C, screen. 
S)ic <S(!^rad(^, —,!)/.— en, battle, fight 
25cr ©dj^Iaf, — e«, sleep. 

@(]^ta'fen, v. «>. intr., to sleep. 
S)a8 @dS>kfjtmmer, bedroom. 
S^Ia'gcn, r. tV. t»^., to strike, beat; 
— fi^ fd^Iagen ju, to unite with. 
S)ct ®^(ag, — C8, /?/. ©(^la'gc, 
blow, stroke, strdce of apo- 
plexy, [snake; 
2)ie @^Iang'e, — , pi. —n, serpent, 
^6fUd}t, adj., bad. 



2)ic ©au'cc,— ,/>/.— n, sauce, gravy.- -3)er ©d^Iei'cr, —^,pl. — , veil. 



©au'flClt, r. ir. intr., to suck, drink. 

— SiuS'f augcn, to drain, impoverish. 

2)ie <B6)aax, — , ;?/. —en, troop, host. 

2)cr ©ciiia'ben, —3, pi. —, and @(j(^a% 

ben, loss, damage, injurj', harm. 

@(^Sb'Ii(^, adj., injurious. 
-a)a8 @(3(^af, — e8, pi. — e, sheep. 
a)er <S^aft, --e«, ;>/. @d^af te, shaft. 
©C^S'men, v. refl., to be ashamed. 
2)ic vgc^an'be, — , disgrace. 

S)ie <S(^anb't^at, deed of infamy, 
©d^arf, rtcj^'., sharp. 



— S)er @(^ar'Iad(^,— C8, pi — e, scarlet.- -®er ©(i^mteb, — c^, ;»/. —c, smith. 



@(^at'ten, — 8, ;?/. — , shadow. 



shade. [behold. 

©4aii'en,r. it. and tVr., to look, see. 



S(^tte'6eil, r. iV. fr., to close. 

2)a8 @^Io6, — , ;>/. e<3^1ef fcr, 
lock, castle. 

S)er ©d^Iug, — e0, pi e^WCfe, 
close, conclusion. 

S)cr e^lflf ter, — «, ;>^. —, key. 

(Sc^med'en, r. ^., to taste. [able 

@(3^ma(f'^aft, o<(^'., savory, palat- 
®(3^mel'gen, r. tV. intr., to melt. 
2)er @d(;merg, — t^^pl — en, pain. 

@^merg'ti^, adj., painful. 

©turner j'loS, ac{f., painless. 



<Sd^mil(i'en, ». fr., to adorn. 



2)ie @*attt'ninfl, — , i)/. — cn,--@d^na^':|3en,r.fr.,tosnapat,catchat 



2)er @(3^nee, ~e, snow. 

@(^nei'en,r. intr.impers., to snow 



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VOCABULARY 



465 



^6fntV\>m, V. ir, intr., to cut. 

2>€r S^nci'bcr,— «,/>/.— , tailor. 
^6)nt\if adj,, fast, rapid. 

2)ei: ^d^ntU'in^f express train. 
^6fM, adj., beaatiful, fine. 

!^c ^d)on'i)dt, pi. — en, beauty. 
@d^on, adv., already. 
"~~@d^o'ncn, v. tr., to spare. 

lap, skirt ; bed of a stream. 



— 2)tc ©(^rau'bc, — , pi. — n, screw. ^ "©cr @^»ic'gcirt)atcr, •^mutter, *fo^n, 



2>iiXtd'txif V. tr.y to frighten. [ble. 



©^red'Iic]^, adj., frightful, terri--[@^tt)ic'rtg, adj., difficult. 
ifXtx'htn, V. ir. tr., to write. 
S)a8 @^rei&'^cH)icr,writing-paper 
2)tc @(i^nft,— , pi. -—«!, writing. 
ft $ciltgc <ScI^rift, holy writ. 
t, ^(ifv\\t'\)pxa6)tf language of 
literature. 
@d^rei'cn, v. ir. intr., to cry, call. 



2)cr @(]^ritt, — c«, ;>/. — e, step. '-[^(i(^»ill, adj., sultry. 
2)fr @^u^, — c«, ;>/. — c, shoe. 

2)cr @d^uV madder, — «, />/. — ,/^cr @cc, — «, />/. —n, lake, 
shoemaker. 
» ©^uyma^crgcfctt,— cn,/>/.' 
— en, journeyman shoemaker. 
S)ie @d(;ulb, — , />/. —en, debt, guilt ; 
— @ic fmb @(i^ulb baran, it is your 
fault, 
©d^ufbig, adj., guilty, in debt. 
S)ic @(^u're,— ', ;)/. —en, school. 
2)cr <S^il'(cr, —«,;>/.—, scholar. 
^a9 @d|^ur^an9, school-house. 
S)ic ^d^ul'tcr, — ,i>/. — n, shoulder. 
- ,r ^d^ilffel, —fpl. — n, dish, bowl. 
^^iDad^, o(i;., weak. [in-law. 

^S)er @(i^tt)a'gcr, — «, ;>/. — , brother 



2)a8 ®(i^»etn, — e«, ;>/. —e, hog. 

2)a« @c^n)ci'ncfletfc^, pork. 
©^Wel'Icn, V. ir. intr., to swell. 

Sln'fii^WeUcn, to rise (in a freshet). 
©d^ttJCr, adj., hea^'y, difficult, severe. 
2)ic @d>tt>c're, — , weight, heaviness. 

@(](^»er'li^, adv., with difficulty, 

hardly. 
!5)a« @^tt)crt, — e8, ;>/. — cr, sword. 
S)ie @^»e' jier, — , ;>/. — n, sister. 



*tO(i(^ter, father-in-law, etc. 



\V^ men, v. ir. tn^r., to swim. 
^(^TOin'bcn, v. ir. intr., to disappear. 
©C^Win'beln, v. intr., to be dizzy. 

^S)er @^»in'be(, —8, dizziness. 

@^tt)inb'U(i^, adj., dizzy. 
— |-5)ie @d^tt)inb'tu^t, — , consumption. 
5'ren, v. ir. intr., to sweai*. 



1 2)ie @ee, — , pi. — n, sea, ocean. 

2)a8©ee'bab, — c8, ;>/. *Mber, 

sea-bath, 
©ee'franf, adj., sea-sick. 
2)ie@ee'h:anf^eit,— , sea-sickness 
, — . tt ©ee'ma(i^t, naval power. 
tt @ee'reife, sea-voyage. 
S)cr ©ee'rSuber, pirate. 
tf €^ee'fo(bat, marine. 
-'— ©ee'tfl^ttg, adj., seaworthy. 
2)er ^e'togcl, sea-fowl. 
2)a8 ©ee'toaffcr, sea-water. 
2)cr ©ec'Winb, sea-breeze. 
2)ie @ee'(e, — , pi. — n, soul. 



2)ic ©(i^ttja'gerin, — , pi. — nci»rrS)a« ©e'flel, —8, />/. — , sail, 



sister-in-law. 
•■ — ^c^toan'fen, v. intr., to vacillate, tot- 
@d;»arj, adj., black. [ter. 

— ©c^wa'^en, v. intr. , to chatter, prattle. 
•^ 8c^»ei'fcn, v. intr., to rove (extrav- 
agantly). 
@(i^»ei'gen, v. ir. intr., to be silent, ^^^k ©et'be, — , pi. — -n, silk. 

U2 



@e'geln, r. intr., to sail. 
3)er @e'gen, —8, p/. — , 1 

@eg'nen, v. tr., to bless. 

2)te ©eg'nung, — ,|?/.— en, ble«s- 
@e'^en, v. ir. tr., to see. [ing. 

'BtifX, adv., very, greatly, sorely. 



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466 



VOCABULARY. 



@ein, pron.f his. [silk cloth. 

@cin, t;. tV. intr.f to be. 

<Srit, /^re^^., since. 

2)ic @ei'tc, — , /*/. — n^ side. 

©el'kr, 7>ro«., self (§ 108, i?em. 2)< 

@clbfl, ;>ro»., self (§ 108, Retu. 2); 

acfi;., even. 

2)er ©elbft'morb, suicide. 
®c'Iig, ac(^'., blessed, happy. 

2)ie ^e'ngfeit, — , happiness, bliss 
©d'tcn, a(/i;., seldom, rardy, 

©clt'fam, ac(;., strange, queer. 
— 2)ic ©cm'mel, — , pi. — n, roll (of 

bread), 
^en'fcn, v, tr., to let down, sink. 
2)cr @cj)t€m'ber, — «, September. 
— S)ic @eirt)ict'te, — , pL — n, napkin, 
©efe'cn, V. tr,, to set, put, place ; v. 

refl.j to take a seat, be seated. 
S)cr @(>an)(, —«,/>/.—« or— c, 
@i^, re^. pron., one*s self, himself, 

herself, itself; pl.y 

yotu-self. 

— ®i'd)crn, r. tr,, to secure, insure. 
■ — 2)ic @id^t, — , sight r-na(i^ ^ic^t, at 

sight, 
©ic, pron. , she, her ; they, them ; you. 

— 2)a« @tcb, — c«, ;>/. — e, sieve. 

©tc'bcn, ». tr,, to sift. 
@ic'bcn, seven. 
2)cr @ieg, — c«, ;>/. — c, victory. 

©ic'gcil, V. tr,, to conquer. 

©ieg'rci^^, adj,, victorious. 
*-^a« ©ic'gcl, —«, ;*/. — , seal. 

©ic'gein, y. <r., to seal. 
S)a« ©il'bcr, — «, silver, 
©ing'cn, v,%r, intr,, to sing. 

2)er ©ing'DOficI, bird of song. 
S)tc ©it'tc, — •, p/. — n, custom. " 
— ^cr @t^, — C^, pi, — C, abode, seat. 

@i^'en, V, ir, intr,, to sit. 

S)tc ©ife'ung, —,!>/.— en, session 
<SIa't)if(i(^, adj,, SUivic. 
^0, mdv, and con;., so, thus, as. 



-■3)ic 



shawl." iDic 



themselves;- -Sie 



©oc'Bcn or fo c'ben, a^^'., just now, just 
then, just at the time. 
©o'fcrn, adv, and con;., so fiir, if, 

in case. 
^0QU\6)'fadv., immediately. 
@o^'(c, — , pi. — n, sole. 

2)cr @o(>n, — c«, />/. @c^nc, son. 

©or^cr, jpron., such. 

S)cr <SoIbat', — cn,;^/.— en, soldier. 

©ol'Icn, V, ir,, to be obliged. 

2)cr 'Som'mcr, — 8, j)/. — , summer. 

©on'bcrn, conj., but. 

2)ie @on'nc, — , />/. — n, sun. 
2)cr ©onnenauf gang, sunrise. 
,r ©onnenun'tergang, sunset. 
If @on'ncnfdS>irm, parasol, 
©on'nig, adj,, sunny. 
2)er <gonn'tag, — 8, Sunday. 

@onjl,arfy. and con/., formerly, other- 
wise. 

^or'ge, — , pi, — n, care. 
©org'fam, ac(/-> careful. 
©^al'te, — , pi, — n, column. 

'Bpa'xtttf V. tr,, to spare, save. 

^p&t, adj, and adv,, late. 

'Si)ajie'ren, r.tn/r. (to go for pleasure). 
@. gcbcn, to talk a walk, [riage. 

. @. fasten, to take a ride in a car- 

@. reiten, to take a ride on horse- 
back, [ment. 

®ie @^ci'fe,— e,;J/.--n,food,nou^i8h- 
@^ei'fen, V, tr,, to eat, dine. 

' S)cr @^)ci'fefaal, dining-room. 

Xit ©^jclulatiott', —fP^.— en, specu- 
lation. 
tt @^)(>S're, — , pi, — n, sphere. 

2)er ©^ie'gel, — «, pi, — , mirror. 

S)a« @^icl, — c«, pi, — c, play. 
@^te'tcn, r. intr,, to play. 

2)er @^)ion', — «, |)/. —e, spy. 

5)a8 <BpiiaVf —t9,pl, *tfilcr, hospital. 

2)ic @^)tt3'e, •— , p/.— n,point; /)^, lace 
S)cr S^ife'enf^letcr, lace veiL 
— -^^)0t'tcn, V, tr,, to deride, ridicule, 
banter, make pport. 



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VOCABULARY. 



467 



2)cr ©^)»t'tcr,--8,i>/.— ,derider, 
foolish jester. [guage. 

2)le ^pxaf6)t,—, pL—n, speech, lan- 
2)ie ©^rad^'bitbung, — , forma- 
tion of a language. 

" SDcr ©^rad^'gebraud^, laws of 

usage in a language. 

^)pn'6ftn, V, ir, intr,, to speak, talk. 

- — 2)ic @^rc(3t^'|luiibc,hourappointed 

to receive calls on business. 

— S)a« @^)rid^'»ort, proverb, [out. 

— @^)rci'gen, V. tr,, to stretch out, spread 

y^Bpim^'tn, V, tr.j to cause to burst; 

[. — au«ctnan'ber ftrcng'cn, to scatter 

t suddenly. 
2)a« @^rid;'ttort, proverb, 
©^jrtng'en, v, tV. intr,, to spring, leap. 
— 35cr @^Juf, — c«, spectre. [house). 
--^^)U'fen, V, intr., to be haunted (as a 
©j)uf'^aft, adj\j ghostlike, imaginaiy. 
SHc ©^)ur, —,p/.— en, trace, footstep. 
2)cr @taftt, — e8, ;>/. —en, state, na- 
tion; pomp, magnificent array, 
fine dress. 
— -S)er ©tab, — e8, pL ©tS'bc, staff. 
^2)cr @ta'4>el,— «,i)/.-n,prickle, thorn 
^ 2)ic ©ta'd^clbcere, gooseberry. 
•— @ta'(^^td^t, a<i&'., thorny. 
2)ic@tabt,— ,i?/.@t5b'tc,city. [city. 
2)a« ©tabtd^en, —3, ;?/.—, smaU 
@tSb'tif(i^, adj,y civic, munici] 
3)er @ta^I, — c«, steel. [pen 

2Hc@ta^rteber, — , ;>/.— n, steel 
" — 2)ereta^lW,— e«,;>/.— e,si 
engraving. 
3)er ©tauim, — c«, pi. ©tfim'i 
trunk, body, stem, tribe, family, 
©tom'men, r.in^., to be descend- 
ed (from). [race. 
-**^ 2)cr @tauim'»ater, father of a 
2)cr @tanb, — c«, ;>/. ©tfin'bc, condi- 
tion, rank. 
Btaxt,adj., strong. 
2)ic @tatt, — , ;>/. @t5t'te, place. 
@tatt, prep., instead of. 



©tatt'jtnbcn, r. intr., to take place 
^ ©tatt'tid^, ac{^'., stately, grand, 
^tecf'en, v. /r., to stick, fasten. 

!S)er 6te(f'brtef, advertisement fop 
the apprehension of a delin- 
quent or criminal. 
@tc(f brieflid; »crforgcn, to de- 
scribe a criminal in a @te(f «< 
brief. 

S)ie @tc(f 'nabel, — , pi — n, pin. 

©te'^en, v. ir, intr., to stand. 
©te^^'len, r.tV. tr., to steal. 
@teif, o^;., stiff. 

®tei'gen> v. ir. intr.,to mount, ascend. 
- -©teit, adj., steep. 
2)cr @tein, — e«, pi. — e, stone. 

@tein'^rt, a£[;., hard as stone, 
©tcl'ten, V. tr., to place, put, set up. 
2)ic ©tel'le, —,pl — n, position. 
n ©teHung,— ,;>/.— en, posi- 
>Ster'ben, v. ir. intr., to die. [tion. 

©terb'li^, adj., mortal. 
3)ct @tem, — e«, ;>/. — e, star. 

2)a« ©tern'bitb, — c«, /)/. — er, 
constellation, 
©tct or flfit, a<(;., steady, firm. 

@tet9 or ftfitd, oJt;., continually 
- -®ie @teu'er, — , pi. — -n, tax, duties. 
@teu'er)>f[id^tig, adj., subject to 
tax or duty, 
ipal^ ^ti(!'en, V. tr., to embroider. 
Der @tte'fe(, — «, pi. — , boot. 
^ 2)er @tte'fel!nec(>t, boot-jack. 
iteel4€)er @tief tootcr, ^mutter, *fo&n, *to^* 
tcr, step-father, step-mother, etc. 
mef|©tif ten, v. tr., to found, establish. 
@tttt, adj., still. 

2)ie ©tille,— , quietness, stillness 
@til]('{c(^»etgen, to keep silent. 
2)ie ©tim'me, — , pi. —en, voice. 
— »f @tir'ne, — , p/. — n, brow. 
--SDer@to(f, — e«, ;>/. et5'(fe, stick, 
cane; story (of a house). 
2)er ©toff, — e«, ;>/. — c, stuff, sub- 
@totg, rt4/'» proud. [stance. 



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468 



VOCABULARY. 



-— €5to'6en, r. tV. /r., to hit, strike. 
2)CT ^ttafflf — c«, pL —en, beam ray. 
&ixaff'lm, V