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Full text of "A German reader: to succeed the German course"

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GEKMAN COUESE; 



ADAPTED TO USB IN 



COLLEGES, HIGH-SCHOOLS, AND ACADEMIES. 



B* GEORGE F. COMFORT, A.M., 

raonssoB ov modzbn laxouages awd jotüriob im allxohaky oollm«, 

MEADYILLS, PA. 






NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FRANKLIN SQUARE. 
187 I. 

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/^HARVARD A 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

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Entered, according to Act of Congresa, in the year 1869, by 

IIjlepeb & Brothers, 

In the Clerkes Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Southern District of New York. 



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CONTENTS OF THE GERMAN COURSE. 



INTRODUCTION üi 

PART FIRST. 
PRACTICAL LESSONS. 

Loion 

I. Pronunciation 11 

IL Pronunciation (continued) 14 

III. Present and Imperfect Tenses of the Verb feilt/ to be 17 

IV. Present and Imperfect Tenses of Regulär Verbs. TheDefinite 

Article. The Accnsative Case '. 19 

V. Present and Imperfect Tenses of (a&Ctt, to have. Accnsative 

Case of Personal Prononns 21 

VI. Perfect and Plnperfect Tenses of Regulär Verbs 24 

VII. Prepositions with the Accnsative Case. Gender of Nouns 26 

VIII. The Genitive Case 28 

IX. The Dative Case 81 

X. Prepositions with the Accusative and Dative Cases 84 

XL Personal Pronouns. Forms of Address. Contractions of Prep- 
ositions with the Definite Article 36 

XII. The Irregulär Verb tottktn, to become. Future Tenses 89 

XIII. German CurrentHand 42 

XIV. Conjngation of Irregulär Verbs 45 

XV. Plural of Nouns and of the Definite Article 48 

XVI. The Indefinite Article 51 

XVII. Cardinal Numbers 54 

XVIII. Adjectives used predicaüvely and attributively. Old Declen- 

sion of Adjectives 57 

XIX. Possessive Pronouns 60 

XX. New Declension of Adjectives 63 

XXI. Mixed Declension of Adjectives 66 

XXII. Comparison of Adjectives 69 

XXIII. Ordinal Numbers. 73 

XXIV. Irregulär Verbs of the First Class , 77 

XXV. Irregulär Verbs of the Second, Third, and Fourth Classes 80 

XXVL Irregulär Verbs of the Fifth and Sixth Classes 83 

' XXVII. Irregulär Verbs of the Seventh Class. Rekapitulation of Irreg- 
ulär Verbs 86 



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IV CONTENTS OF 



XXVIII. Verbs with fei«, to 6e, as Auxiliary 89 

XXIX. The Infinitive Mood. 92 

XXX. Participles 96 

XXXI. The Potential Verbs ttüMtU and tttÜffCK 99 

XXXIL The Potential Verbs toUtU and mügtlt 102 

XXXIIL The Potential Verbs (aßtll and bHrf tu 105 

XXXTV. Separable Compound Verbs 108 

XXXV. Inseparable Compound Verbs 111 

XXXVI. Compound Nouns 115 

XXXVIL Derivative Nouns 120 

XXXVIII. Derivative and Compound Adjectives 128 

XXXIX. Cases governed by Adjectives 185 

XL. Use of the Article 189 

XLI. Personal and Possessive Pronouns 141 

XLII. Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns 147 

XLIII. Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns 147 

XLIV. Reflexive Verbs 150 

XLV. Agreement jof Verbs with Nominative. Verbs governing 

the Accusative Case. Apposition 154 

XLVX Verbs governing the Genitive Case 158 

XL VII. Verbs governing the Dative Case 161 

XLVIII. The Passive Voice 168 

XLIX. ConstructionofPrepositions. 166 

L. Adverbs. Conjunctions. Order ofWords 168 

LL Imperative, Subjunctive, and Conditional Moods 170 



PART SECOND. 
I. Conversations. 



lfo. Pag« 

1. Salatation, a visit 175 

2. At Breakfast in a Hotel 176 

8. Dinner 177 

4. In a Confectionery Shop 178 

6. The Hotel 178 

6. The Railroad 179 

7. TheSteamer 180 

8. The Custom-house 182 



No. Pap 

9. ThePost-office 182 

10. Ata Banker 's 183 

11. Ina Bookstore 183 

12. AtaTailor's 184 

13. In a Dry Goods Store 185 

14. At a Shoemaker's 186 

15. With a physician 187 

16. AtaWatchmaker's 188 



IL German and Engliah Idioms. 

1. Idioms with fylttit and to have 189 

2. Idioms with (ein and to be 190 

3. Idioms with tBttbtlt and to become 191 

4. The Potential Mood and Future Indicative of the Engtish Verb .... 192 



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THE GEBMAN COÜRSE. V 

No. Pag» 

5. Idioms with tho verb laffeu, to leave, to let 193 

6. Idioms with the Verb to get 193 

7. Idioms with Prepositions 194-197 

IIL Examplee of Synonyms. 

1. SWer, gelb, fionb 198 

2. SWerSmonn, 2onbtmrt&, ©oucr 198 

3. Auffielen, erffcfcn, auferffcfcn 198 

4. 2fa«fü$ren, bofl&ringen, boflfü&ren, bofljietyen, bollßrecfen 199 

5. SWeer, @ec 199 

6. Stofettei«, neugierig, toorurifcig 200 

7. SDWgen, »otten 200 

IV. Letten and Forma of Business. 

1. Sin Stoffe melbet feinem Ontel beu £obe«fatt feiner @<$toeffcr 201 

2. @lü<fttmtf<$ jum ©eburtttag eine« 3$oter« 201 

8. (Seremoniettc gorm ber (Sinlabung 202 

4. Sfottoort auf biefelbe 202 

5. Sertraulity gönn ber (Sinlabung 202 

6. Antwort auf biefelbe 202 

7. $3ffo$e 9°nn ber (ginlabung 203 

8. «ntttort auf btefetbe 203 

9. ©e^felbrief 203 

10. SlnJörifung 203 

11. Ctutttung 203 

V. Beading Lessons. 

2Hc beutfö'e ©j>ra$e 204 

2>er @traßen junge 205 

3)e« 2)entföen »aterlanb 205 

2)er iunge SKuftler 206 

2>er »ettfer unb ber Äaifer griebri<$ 207 

Cht Abenteuer 207 

2Hc $mtnen 208 

Eintritt in bie beutf<$e @^»eia 209 

3o$ann Söolfgaug bon ©8t$e 209 

3)e« Äonig« @rab 211 

Aufruf be« Äbnig« ton Preußen 211 

Äurjtteiligc gragen 212 

SReeresfüfle 213 

2>er (Krfmfcer ©ec 213 

S)er toorfldjtige Träumer 214 

öa* ber Hfomb erjä&tt. 214 



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VI CONTENTS OP 

PART THIRD. 
COMPEND OF GERMAN GRAMMAR. 

I. Introduction. 

N«. Pag« 

1. Historyof the German Language. 217 

2. Characteristics of the German Langaage. 228 

3. Extent of Use of the German Langaage 230 

4. German Dialects 231 

6. Comparison of Words in the Indo-Eoropean Languages 234 

6. Comparison of Words in the Teutonic Languages 236 

7. Illustration of the Historical Development of Words in the German 

Langaage 238 

n. German Grammar. 

I. Obthooraphy 240 

1. Vowels and Diphthongs 241 

2. Consonants 243 

3. Division of Syllables 245 

4. Accent 246 

5. Capital Letters 247 

6. Comparison of German and English Words 248 

II. Ettmology and Syntax 252 

1. The ArHcle 253 

Syntax of the Article 254 

2. The Noun 255 

1. Accidents of the Noun 257 

2. Gender of the Noun 258 

3. Declension of the Noun , 261 

4. Syntax of the Noun 266 

8. The Adjective 261) 

1. Declension of the Adjective 270 

2. Comparison of the Adjective 272 

3. Syntax of the Adjective 275 

4. Numerais 276 

1. Cardinal Nombers 277 

2. Ordinal Numbers 278 

3. Numeral Nouns 280 

4. Numeral Adverbs 281 

6. The Pronoun. 281 

1. Personal Pronouns 282 

2. Possessive Pronouns 283 

8. Demonstrative Pronouns 284 

4. Indefinite Pronouns 286 



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THE GERMAN COURSE. Vll 

No. P«P 

5. Interrogative Pronouns 289 

6. Relative Pronouns 290 

7. Syntax of the Prononn 291 

6. The Verb 292 

1. Conjugation 293 

1. Moods 293 

1. The Indicative Mood 293 

2. The Snbjunctive Mood 294 

3. The Conditional Mood 294 

4. The Imperative Mood 295 

5. The Infinitive Mood 295 

2. Participles 29G 

1. The Present Participle 297 

2. The Perfect Participle 297 

3. Tenses 298 

4. The Passive Voice 299 

2. Auxiliary Verbs 800 

1. Conjngation of Ijabett, to have 801 

2. Conjugation of ftfa, tobe . 808 

8. Conjugation of tOtthtU, to become 805 

8. Regulär Verbs.. 807 

Conjugation of the Regulär Verb lieben, to love 307 

4. Irregulär Verbs 810 

1. Classified List of Irregulär Verbs 311 

2. Alphabetical List of Irregulär Verbs 814 

3. Conjugation of the Irregulär Verb ( (fytogtlt, to strike 322 

4. Conjugation of the Irregulär Verb TommCU, to come 824 

5. Compound Verbs 826 

1. Separable Compound Verbs 326 

Conjugation of the Separable Compound Verb annehmen, to 
accept 828 

2. Inseparable Compound Verbs 329 

Conjugation of the Inseparable Compound Verb ÖCffteljCn, 

to underttand. 332 

8. Doubly-compounded Verbs 334 

6. Reflexive Verbs (Conjugation of) 835 

7. Impersonal Verbs 837 

8. The Passive Voice 338 

9. The Potential Verbs 840 

1. The Verb fotteK 340 

2. The Verb toofleit 848 

8. The Verb föltltett. 845 

4. The Verb mögen 847 

5. The Verb bfirftlt 849 

6. The Verb müffetl 352 



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Vlll CONTENTS OP THE GERMAN COÜH8E. 

Wo. p»s« 

10. The Syntax of the Verb 354 

1. Verbs governing the Accusative Case 854 

2. Verbs governing the Genitive Case 850 

3. Verbs governing the Dative Case 858 

7. The Adverb 360 

1. Classification of Adverbs 866 

2. Comparison of Adverbs 868 

8. Syntax of Adverbs... 869 

8. Preporitions. '. , 872 

1. Constrnction of Prepositions 878 

2. Prepositions governing the Genitive Case 875 

8. Prepositions governing the Dative Case. 880 

4. Prepositions governing the Accusative Case 385 

5. Prepositions governing the Dative and Accusative Cases... 888 

6. Bemarks npon Prepositions 892 

9. Conjunctians 894 

1. List of Conjnnctions 395 

2. Co-ordinative Conjnnctions 896 

8. Subordinative Conjnnctions 397 

4. Remarksupon Conjnnctions 898 

10. The Interjectüm , 404 

11. Arrangement of Word» 405 



PART FOURTH. 

VOCABULAREES. 

I. Personal Proper Names 415 

II. Geographica! Proper Names 4i7 

m. Abbreviations. 420 

IV. German Moneys, Weights, and Measures 422 

V. Classified List of Words. 423 

VI. German-English Vocabulary 436 

VTI. English-German Vocabulary 477 

Vm. General Index ...' 495 



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A GERMAN COURSE. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

GERMAN COURSE. 



In preparing this German Course, it has been the aim of 
the author to incorporato the most advanced views and 
principles of linguistic Instruction, as held by the best wri- 
ters upon philology, and the best practical educators in 
Europe and America. Especial preference has been given 
to those f eatures of approved works f or the study of mod- 
ern languages which, in Europe more especially, have stood 
the test of practical use. A few other f eatures have also 
been introduced, which have been adopted with eminent 
success by the most able prof essors of modern language in 
their personal instruetion, but which have not heretofore 
f ound their way into text-books. 

Care has been taken to give due relative prominence to 
each of these tried and approved principles, and to mould 
them into a homogeneous System adapted to the wants of 
classes in the Colleges, Academies, and other high-schools 
of learning in America. Farther than this, but little claim 
is laid to originality, and none is laid to novelty of method. 

The German Course consists oifour jparts : 

Part First; containing practical lessons for learning to 
read, write, and speak the German Language. 

Part Second; containing familiär conversations in Ger- 
man and English, modeis of letters, and f orms of business, 
and selections from German literature. 

Part Third; containing a conjpend of German Grammar, 



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4 INTBODCCTION. 

with an introduction upon the history, characteristics, and 
dialects of the language. 

Part Fourth; containing tables of German moneys, 
weights, and measures, abbreviations, personal and geo- 
graphical proper names, and Gennan-English and English- 
German vocabularies. 

In Pajrt Fiest, the Lessons are arranged with ref erenco 
to the rapid and natural learning of the German Language, 
both f or the purpose of understanding and of using the lan- 
guage. 

A person thrown suddenly into a foreign country, the 
language of which he wishes to learn, firids himself embar- 
rassed at the outset by five chief wants. He needs equaHy 
and immediately a vocdbulary of words, a knowledge of 
grammatical forms, of syntacticaZ laws, and of idiomatic 
con8truction> and of the laws ofpronunciation. 

It is the aim, in the Lessons, to meet these wants, in such 
consecutiveness of order as to make the knowledge of the 
language a natural and symmetrical growth. 

The points of contact and resemblance of the German 
with the English language are presented first, more recon- 
dite, complicated, and divergent principles being reserved 
tili later in the lessons. 

As f ar as possible, every word and grammatical princi- 
ple is presented in a living, natural sentence, bef ore it is 
defined or explained. The concrete thus precedes the ab- 
stract The practice pi-ecedes the theory. The principles 
of the language are presented to the mind of the learner as 
the result of his deductions from the examples, which &re 
given bef ore the rules. Many expert students will indeed 
detect the meaning of the new words and the new gram- 
matical laws without referring to the vocabulary or to the 
grammatical part of the lesson. The habits of scrutiny, 
of investigation, of independent analysis and Classification, 
which are so strongly developed in translating works of the 
classic authors, and which ye justly esteemed to be among 



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INTRODUCTION. 



the most important results of linguistic study, are by this 
means called into exercise at the very outset in the study 
of the language. Experience shows, also, that this method, 
while of great value to the earnest Student, at the same 
time awakens interest and even enthusiasm in the compar- 
atively listless scholar. 

The Lessons are usually composed oißve parte. In the 
first jpart a few sentences are given, with English transla- 
tion, and containing the new grammatical principles of the 
lesson ingrafted upon words already known. The atten- 
tion is thus drawn at first solely to the new principle. 

Secondly, the same principles are applied to sentences, 
without translation, and containing new words. From 
similarity to corresponding English words, or from the 
connection of the sentence, the meaning of these new 
words will often be surmised. 

Thvrdly, the Vocabulary contains the new words used 
in the lesson. These are not arranged alphabetically, but 
they are grouped according to their logical or grammatical 
similarity or contraet in meaning and use. 

Fourthly is given an explanation, with appropriate illus- 
tration, of the new grammatical principles involved in the 
preceding exercises. Advantage is taken, both in the para- 
digms in the lessons and in the formal grammar of Part 
Second, of heavier type and of spaced letters, to attract the 
eye to the variable part of the inflected word. 

Fifthly, the lesson closes with an exercise of English 
sentences containing the new words and principles, to be 
translated into German. 

The exercises in pronunciation contain short and simple 
sentences with many proper names. They contain no words 
the meaning of which is not readily discerned, nor do they 
involve more difficulties of pronunciation than occur in 
ordinary discourse. 

In the exercises of the subsequent lessons two things are 
avoided : on the one hand, platitudeß and unmeaning or 



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6 INTRODUCnON. 

unnatural sentences ; on the other Land, proverbß and sen- 
tences of recondite meaning. As far as possible, tho sen- 
tences are such as would bo used in ordinary conversation. 
Facts in German history, geography, biography, literaturc, 
and daily lif e are f requently introduced, thus assisting the 
Student to f eel that he is learning the German language. 

That the Student may not unconsciously acquire the habit 
of translating every tliing f rom English into German liter- 
ally, a few simple idiomatic cxpressions are introduced 
early into the lessons. But, in order not to bewilder the 
Student, idioms are not given extensively until after tho 
development of the laws of etymology and syntax. 

As it is desirable to introduoe the difficulties to the lan- 
guage gradually, the use of the German Current Hand is re- 
served until the eye of the Student shall have become famil- 
iär with the printed German type. The f ormation of deriv- 
ative and Compound verbs, nouns, and adjectives is illustra- 
ted with much f ullne6S. In the latter part of the Lessons, 
after the Student has gathered gradually and progressively 
a partial knowledge of the grammatical principles of the 
language and has applied these principles to groups of 
words, he is referred to appropriate portions of the Com- 
pend of German Grammar in Part Third for the f urther 
elucidation of grammatical principles, and to the vocabula- 
ries in Part Fourth for new words that may occur in the 
Exercises. In order to femiliarize the eye with different 
kinds of type, various sizes and styles of letters are intro- 
duced in the exercises of the last few lessons. That the 
Student may also be finally thrown entirely upon his own 
resources, the English exercises, to be translated into Ger- 
man, are omitted from several of the last lessons. 

Part Seoond can be used by travelers and others, to 
whom a facility in conversing and in using f orms of busi- 
ness is an immediate necessity. The references to the les- 
sons and the Grammar will assist in understanding the 
construction of the sentences. The conversations will also 



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INtBODUCnON. 7 

serve to initiate the Student, who has passed through the 
lessonß of Part First, more fully into the idiomatic spirit of 
tlie German language. The reading lessons will sufiice to 
preparo the way f or the German Reader. 

Pakt Third contains a Compend of German Grammar, 
which is sufficiently comprehensive to meet all ordinaxy 
wants, even in reading classic authors. The Grammar is 
preceded by an Introduction^ which will serve to show the 
position the German language occupies among its cognate 
languages, the chief epochs of its history, its most promi- 
nent characteristics, and, above all, to show that the Ger- 
man, liko all other living languages, has been, and is yet 
snbject to growth, development, and change. In the body 
of the Grammar itself are also introduced freqnent notes 
upon the history and development of grammatical forms. 
To the earnest stndent, this philo6ophical and historical 
method of studying the German langnage will serve as a 
stepping-stone to higher studies in the broader fields of 
philology. 

Pabt Foubtii contains, in addition to the nsual vocabu- 
laries and index, a list of the most important abbreviations, 
and tables of the moneys, weights, and measures of the lead- 
ing states of Germany. 

In conclusion, tlie author commits the German Course 
to the American public, with tlie hope tliat it may contrib- 
nte something to tlie promotion of tlie study of this noble 
language, with its rieh treasures in every branch of litera- 
ture, science, history, and criticism, and to the introduetion 
of a more practica!, and, at the same time, of a more truly 
Philosophie method of studying tlie living languages into 
our Colleges and other schools of learning. 



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JJart jftrst; 

COKTAININO 

PRACTICAL LESSONS 

FOR LEARNINQ TO READ, WRITE, AND 8 PEAK THE 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. 



A2 

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LESSON L 






PB 


;ONUNCIATION. 






Exercise I. 




Gexiwx% 


Roman 


EngUth 


Euglisk 


Letter». 


Letter*. 


Pronunciation. 


Translation. 


Sari, 


Karl, 


Karl, 


Charles. 


»ater, 


Vater, 


Fah'-ter, 


Father. 


?aar, 


Paar, 


Fahr, 


Pair. 


^etcr. 


Peter, 


Pay'-ter, 


Peter. 


©eljen, 


Gehen, 


Gayf-en, 


Go. 


»elf«, 


Besser, 


Betf-ser, 


Better. 


Gltfa, 


Elisa, 


Ay-lee'-zah, 


Elisa. 


»erBt, 


Berlin, 


Ber-leen', 


Berlin. 


3», 


Ist, 


Ist, 


Is. 


©tob, 


Sind, 


Zint, 


Are. 


SRarte, 


Marie, 


Mahsree', 


Mary. 


©oflja, 


Gotha, 


Go'-tah, 


Gotha. 


tyrfeit, 


Polen, 


Po'-len, 


Poland. 


©oljii, 


Solin, 


Zone, 


-Son. 


borgen, 


Morgen, 


Mor'-gen, 


Morning. 


9toben8, 


Rubens, 


Roo'iens, 


Rubens. 


»rata, 


Bruder, 


Broo'-der, 


.Brother. 


Stottter, 


Mutter, 


Moo1f-ter, 


Mother. 


JBrattit) 


Braun, 


Brown,, 


Brown. 


9tyeto, 


Rhein, 


Rhine, 


Rhine. 


9Rat, 


Mai, 


My, 


May. 


(Suntya, 


Europa, 


Oy-ro'-pah, 


Europe. 


Sien, . 


Wien, 


Veen, 


Vienna. 


Solonn, 


Johann, 


YoJumn', 


John. ' 


3b«, 


Juli, 


Yoo'-lee, 


July. 


Stttiott, 


Lektion, 


Lek-tse&on' , 


Lesson. 


Gato, < 


Cato, 


Cah'-to, 


Cato. 


Gittro, 


Cicero, 


Tsee'-teay-ro 


, Cicero. 


Onotient, 


Quotient, 


Quo-tsee-ent* 


, Quotient. 






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12 




PBOHUNCIATION. 










Grammatical. 






1. The German Alphabet haß twenty-six letters 




German 


Roman 


Names of 


German 


Roman 


Nantes of 


Letters, 


Letters, 


Letters, 


Letters. 


Letters. 


Letters. 


%,a, 


A,a, 


Ah. 


%*, 


N,n, 


Enn. 


M, 


B,b, 


Bat/. 


0,9, 


0,o, 


Oh. 


<M, 


C,c, 


Tsay. 


%9, 


P,P, 


Pay. 


%b, 


D,d, 


Day. 


&,«!, 


Q,q, 


Koo. 


®,t, 


E,e, 


Ay. 


SM, 


R,r, 


Err. 


8f,f, 


F,f, 


Eff. 


©,f,(«) 


, S, 8, 


Es*. 


®,6, 


G,g, 


Gay. 


£,t, 


T,t, 


Tay. 


&$/ 


n,h, 


Rah. 


u,«, 


U,u, 


Oo. 


3,1, 


I,i, 


Ee. 


8,», 


V,v, 


Fow. 


3,i, 


J> j, 


Yote. 


2B,to, 


W,w, 


Vay. 


SM, 


K,k, 


Kah. 


*,?, 


X, x, 


lks. 


M, 


L,l, 


EU. 


?),*, 


Y,y, 


Ip'-see-lon. 


m,m, 


M, m, 


Emm. 


öf if 


Z,z, 


Tset. 



Rem. The ßhort form £ is used at the end of syllables: 9tlt'4ieit£, $0tS'» 

tarn, 8rc$'4an, ©reiben. 

2. The Vowels tt, C, t, 0, tt are pronounced thus : 

1. 8, a, like a in father: »aMerjGaMo^arl^o'^a, 

2, (g, e, " a " #w*te: $eMer, ©e^en, <£^ken. 

3- 3, i, " ^ " «erf: <M'*fa, 3'^bor, Serbin'. 

4, £),o, " o " mofe; ©o'^ö, $o'4en, ?ef*ti*on'- 

5, U f H # " oo" moot: 9hi'4cn«, U'*ti*fa, 33ru'*t>er. 

3. The Diphthongs tttt, Ct, Ctt are pronounced thus: 

1. &tt, tttt, like 0m in mtfwid: Sraun^u^gujt^auS. 

2. (gl, ei, " i «migkt: 9tycm, ©tei'^eivmarf. 
(@MWr" " " " / SWe^er^eim, Speyer, 
(«i, tti), " " " " / SWat, SKaütj, Salvent. 

3. (£u,tu, " oi " moist: @u*ro'*pa, 9?eu*C!jßManb. 

Äem. The form et) is used only in a few proper names ; the form ai is used 
in but a few words. 



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PKONÜNCIATICN. 13 

4. The Vowel is long: 

1. When doubled in the same syllable: tya&X, ©pree, 
2.Withsilentl) " " " " : ©o&n, Sttoty. 

3. When it closes a syllable (especially when it is ac- 
cented): SBa'^ter, @4i'*fa, j>t'*ttx, $o'*len, ta, \o. 

Rem. 1. 3, followed by silent C, is long : SBictt (yeen), ffiamt. 
Hern. 2. Diphthongs are always long: #U '^Uft, 9ai'*ttU f (gttsro'sjia. 
Rem. 3. Great care is necessary not to give a short soand to long vowels. 

5. The Vowel iß Short when followed by : >>_ 

1. Double consonants: 2Wut'4er, Bef^fer, Sodann 7 . 

2. Two consonants (as a rule) : Sektion 7 , SRu'^enS. 

3. A Single consonant (in a few monosyllables) ; as: 
tn, mit, ba$, e$, man, tt>a$, Bin, $at, etc. 

Rem. In most unaccented syllables, the C is almost sup^ressed : Spt'*ter, 
gc('*en, $oMctt, 83a'«ter, 8ra'*ber, 9Riit%tcr. 

6. The Consonants are pronounced thus: 

1. 33, fc, f, If, I, l, m, n, J), q, r, t are pronounced like 
B, d,f y h, k,l y m } n, jp, q, r y t in EnglisK. 

Exe. 1. $, at the end ofa syllable, like/* in rfe^p: 2>ttfo, ^»V/. 
JS'arc. 2. $, " " " " < " boat: %üb f bath. 

Exe. 8. fö, not beginning a syllable, is trilled : ©rtt'4>Ct, 8to'*tCr. 
Exe. 4. 21, in final 4i0tt (not preceded by 3), like iS ; 2c!-tt=0tt\ 

2. (£, bef ore a, 0, or it (or bef ore a conso- 

nant) is pronounced like h in hing : Cta'tOjßor'ftca* 
(£,beforeothervowels " ts" mits: <£i'cero,(£e / re& 

3.®, " g" go: ®o't$a,(jc$'en. 

" at the end of a syllable (see Less. iL, 2). 

4. 3, like y " yoke: Sojanit 7 3u1i. 

5. @, before a vowel " s " sotkz ; ©otyn, SU'fa* 
" bef ore p or £, and at the beginning of 

a radical syllable, like sK " ship : ©pree, ©teut. 
" otherwise " s " less : StutenS, baö. 

6. © (in native words), " / " fine : Sa'ter, $a'wl 

7.8B, " v " wn*: 2Bten,2Sol'8a. 

8.1, " a? " wa#; 2War, ge'Hr. 

9.3, " ts « mits: SOTainj, 3i'on. 



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14 PBONÜNCIATION (CONTJNÜED). 

Bxercise 2. ^C 

ßarl Staun ifl in 33er*lin', Charles Brown is in Berlin. 

@li'*fa 33raun ijt in ©o^ttya, Eliza« Brown is in Gotha. 

2Wa*rie' 9Hf*ter ifl in SBien, Mary Ritter is in Vienna. 

SBtfcfyelm war in 33a'*ben, William was in Baden. 

<£r ijl jefct in granf*furt, He is now in Frankfort. 

2Bir,tt>a'*ren in $Raxin'fyim, We were in Mannheim. 

SMein SBa^ter unb mein $ru'* My father and my brother 

ber jtnb in $al'At, are in Halle. 

SMe^ran^fcer »on ^um^bolbt, Alexander von Humboldt. 

SBif *$elm »on £um'*bolbt, William von Humboldt. 

$e^ter $aul 9tu'*ben$, Peter Paul Rubens. 

3a'*f ob unb 2ß U'^elm ©rintm, Jacob and William Grimm. 

£err 91. 3). Sin^bc^mann, Mr. A. D. Lindemann, 

grau t>on SBof *fen*jlein, Mrs. von Wolfenstein. 

SWainj, Äo^blenj, 33re'*men, Mayence,Coblentz,Bremen. 

Skme'*ri*la, <£u*ro'*pa, America, Europe. 

Wtfctn, 3T*fri4a, 3n'*buen, Asia, Africa, India. 

3*taMi*en, ©pa^nken, Italy, Spain. 

•frol^lanb, Ungarn, $o'4en, Holland, Hungary, Poland. 



LESSON II. 

PRONUNCIJLTION (cONTINTTED). 

1. The Um'-lauts ä, 8, ü, ÖU are pronounced thus : 

1. %t, a, called ah'-umlaut, like C (see Less. I., 2, 2). 

2. De, Ö, called oh'-wmlaut, has .no equivalent in 
English. It is like the French eu. Its pro- 
nunciation may be approximated by producing 
a sound between that of oo in boon, and that of 
ur in bum : 33örfe, Exchange, fd)ön, beautiful. 

3. Ut, fi, called oo'-umlaut) has no equivalent in 
English. It is like the French u. The pronun- 
ciation of @üb (ßouth) may be approximated by 



\ 



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PRONütfCIATION (CONTINUED}. 15 

placing the lips as if to whistle, and then trying 
to pronounce the word seed: Düf*fekborf* 

4. 3tcil, Sit, has the same sound as tlt (Less. L, 3, 3) 
i. e. y that of oi in moist: 3Wäu'*fe, mice. + 

2. There are two Guttural ßoundfl in the German that 
do not exist in the English language : 

1. (£I|, dj (and (J, when ending a syllable) after a, 0, 
Ä, or all, have a rough aspirate sound, formed 
deeper in the throat and much stronger than 
that of h in hope: fyo# (hohh) high; £ud> (toohh), 
doth; Jag (tohh)> day; machen (ma'-hheri), to make. 

2. After other letters (and in the diminutive sylla- 
ble djcil), they have a softer sound, made higher 
in the palate, and inclining to that of sh mshatt: 
i% (ßP) t I; refy (reh^fyright; StWdfpn (Mnd'- 
hPen), a chüd; 3Rün / *$en (mün'-h^eri), Mmich. 

Rem. 1. In words of Greek origin, $ sounds like k: <S$0V, choir. 

Rem. 2. Also before $ in the same radical syllable, like k: SBacty*, wax. 

3. The Consonantal Combinations fdj, tif, HQ : 

1. @d),like 8h in shaU : ©ctyaH, sound; §tf$, fish. 

2. tlj, " t "tone: %tyn,<fay;%1)o'*ma$,Thoma8. 

3. llfl, " ng" sing: [xntf m,to sing ;$intf *tx,finger. 

4. The Compound Consonants, or those joined together 
in printing, are $ (ch), <f (ck), ji (st) 9 $ (ss), $ (tz). 

1. d is pronounced like Je in hake : bet 33äcf *er, baker. 

2. | " " " s " Z0M/ (Steffi?', a f*»eZ. 

3. $ " " " te " mite; RftfrMii, w<?M 



5. Doabled Letten are named separatdy in spellhig : 

HO, aa . . . ahrah. 
et» ee . . . ay-ay. 



00, oo . . . oh-oh. 



ff, ff ... . <#-<^ 
ff, 68 ... . esa-ess. 
ü, tt . . . . fay-tay. 



Äew. The Yowels { and tt ure never doubled. 

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10 PBONUNCIAT10N (oONTINCED). 

6. There are no ßilent letters in German, except : 

1. J, when used to indicate tbe long sound of a vowel ; 
3. tD, aftcr (occoring in a few proper names} 

7. The Accent may be understood to be on the firat 
#yUat>le y vrhen not otherwise marked in the vocabularies. 

8. Capital Letten are used as initials to all nowis, and 
to the pronouns ©ie (you) and 3tyr (your). 

dritte Aufgabe. 

£err 2Be'*ber tft in 33er4in', Mr. Weber ; s in Berlin. 

3Bo iji £ert SWe^er^^cim? Where is Mr. Meyerheim? 

* <£r ift jefct in SJeutfd^lanb, He is now in Germany. 

SBU'^elm unb Äarl9tit'*ter ftnb William and Charles Ritter 

ttictyt in 2Rag'*be*burg, are not in Magdeburg, 

©ie jtnb jefct in 5Drc$'*ben, They are now in Dresden. 

SBer^lin' ift in $reu'*fjen, Berlin is in Prussia. 

SGBien ift in £)e'*fkr*reu$, Vienna is in Austria. 

Dre$'*ben ijl in ©ad)'*fen, Dresden is in Saxony. 

?eip'*jtg ift in ©adj'*fen, Leipsic is in Saxony. 

SBar^fcfyau i|t in $oMen, Warsaw is in Poland. 

$rag ift in SBöl^men, Prague is in Bohemia. 

Sterte Aufgabe, 

' ©r^ftcjwciMe, briete, tHerMe, First, second, third, fourth, 
fünfte, fed)*'*te Sektion;, fifth, sixth lesson. 

35rtf *te, tner^te 3faf'*ga*be7f Third, fourth exercise. 

3Wün's$en, Slug«'*burg unb Munich, Augsburg, and Nu- 
91ürn'*berg finb in 33ai'*ern, remberg are in Bavaria. 

$rag,ffiten,$rkefl'unb3nnS'* Prague, Trieste, and Inns- 

brucf.ftnb in £)c'*fter*reui), pruck are in Austria. 

£ei'*bcUberg ift in 3k'*ben, Heidelberg is in Baden. 

2>üfVfekborf ift in $reu'*i?en, Dusseldorf is in Prussia. 

. Deutfd^lanb, 3*ta'4i*en unb Germany, Italy and Russia 
SRup^lanb ftnb in Stero^pa, are in Europe. 



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PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TEN8E3 OP feilt, TO BE. 17 



LESSON III. 

PRESENT AND IMPEltFECT TEN8ES OF THE VERB ftltt/ TO BE. 



3ft £err 2»en'*jel in 33er4tn'? 
SRein, er iji in $öln, 
SBo wahren <2ie ge'*jtern ? 
SBtr magren in $al'4e, 
Das 93u{§ war nid)t $eu'*cr, 
<&$ ift $eu'*te fefyr »arm, 
Qtu'ftt ift e$ fe^r »arm, 



18 Mr. Menzel in Berlin? 
No, he is in Cologne. 
Where were y ou yesterday ? 
We were in Halle. 
The book was not dear. 
It is very warm to-day. 



pnfte Sfofgak. 

1. 3Bo fint) §txx SRein'^arbt unb £err 2Wen'*jel? 2. £err 
fRtxn'^axtt ijt in Serbin', unb $txx 3Wcn'*jel ifl in $otö'*bam. 
3, 2Ba'*ren ©ic ge^fiern in Äoln? 4. Stein, i^ war ge'^ftern 
in granf'*furt. 5. 3ft grau -Jteu^mann &cu'*te in 33er4m'? 
6. 3a, fte ift in 33cr*lin'. 7. 3f* gräuMcin 91eu'*mann aud) 
in 33cr*lin'? 8. 9iein, fic ifl &eu'*te in Ererben. 9. SBo ifl 
ba$ 33u<$? 10. £ter ift ti. 11. 2>a$ SBetMer ifl jefct fefrr 
wajrm. 12. Sor^geHUrn mar c$ fetyr falt. 13. ©elften 
wahren nrir in $ot$'*bam. 14. $ot$'*bam unb SWag'*be*burg 
jinb in $reu'*j3cn. 15. s Preu'*£en, JBai^crn, ©ad^fen, 33a'* 
ben, Dl'*ben*burg unb SWecf 4en*burg jinb in DeutfdjManb. 

Vooabulary. 



$crrft.,Mr.N. 


3<M. 


SBann? wl.cn? 


grauft.,Mrs.N. 


Gr, he. 


3efet, now. 


8räuMem9t.,MissN. 


@te, she. 


$eu'*tc, to-day. 


5>a« ©udj, the book. 


@«,it. 


@e'*ficrn, yesterday. 


„ Su$, the cloth. 


2Btr, we. 


$5or'*öe*ßern, day before 


„ SBet'4cr, the weather. 


@ic, you. 


yesterday. 


©ÜMtg, cheap. 


@tc, they. 


SRod), still, yet. 


$(jeu'*cr, dear. 


a^yes. 


<§efyr, very. 


SBorm, wann. 


Stein, no. 


Söo? where? 


§t\%, bot 


9K<$t,not. 


$itr, here. 


Äalt,cold. 


Unb, and. 


2)a, there. 


^Ot« # *bam (aeepage 419). 


%l\6) f also. 


3n, in. 

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18 PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSE8 OF feilt, TO BE. 

Grammatical. 
1. The Present and Imperfect Tenses of the Irregulär 
Verb fettt, to be, are conjugated thus: 



Present Tense. 

tdj Mit, I am. 

©ic fwb, you are. 

er ift, he is. 

to\x ffab, we are. 

©ic jtob, you are. 

flc ffo&, they are. 



Imperfect Tense. 

t$ toOT, I was. 

©ie toar'*tlt, you were. 

er toor, he was. 

tmr tt>ar'*ttl, we were. 
©ic tt>ar'*tn, you were. 

fic tt> a r '*cn, they were. 



Rem. A Single consonant between two vowels is pronounced with the last 
vowel. The vowels are divided in the paradigms so as to show the termina- 
tions, not as the words are pronounced. 

2. Adverbs of time usually precede those of place: 

<£x nxir geftent $ier, He was here yesterday. 

ßr ift jc^t in Berlin, He is now in Berlin. 

3. When the adverb, adverbial expressions, or adjective 
jprecedesfhs yerb, the nominative follows the verb: 

$ter i (t c 6 , Here it is. 

$eute ift e$ fefcr falt, ^ It is very cold to-day. 

Aalt ifl cd fyeute, It is cold to-day. 

3n ©erlüi to a r e r nictyt, He was not in Berlin. 
Rem. This inrersion is much more common in German than in English. 

It is especially appropriate where einphasis is placed on the adverb or 
adjective. * ~ ^ 

Exercise 6. 

1. Where is Mr. Hoffmann to-day ? 2. He is in Magde- 
burg to-day. 3. When was he in Berlin? 4. He was in 
Berlin day before yesterday. 5. Mrs. Weber and Miss We- 
ber are now in Frankfort 6. Yesterday they were in 
Cologne. i 7. The weather is cold to-day. 8. Yesterday it 
was very warm. 9. Where is the cloth ? 10. There it is. 
11. Is the cloth cheap? 12. Yes, it is very cheap. 13. Is 
Mr. Meyerheim yet in Cologne? 14. Yes, he is there yet. 
15. Is Breslau in Prussia? 16. Yes, Breslau, and also 
Magdeburg, Berlin, and Göttingen, are now in Prussia. 
17. Mr. Dietz is now in Halle. 18. Mr. Weber is in Frank- 
fort. 19. Yesterday I was ii*-Leipsic and in Halle. 

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I 

N PBE8ENT AMD EMPEBFECT O» BEGÜLAB VERBS. 19 

LESSON rv. 



ä 



%•' 



PRE8ENT AND IMPERFECT TENSES OF REGULÄR VERBS. THE DEFINITE 
ARTICLE. THE ACCU8ATIVE CA8E. 

Bad laufen ©ie? What are you buying? 

3$ laufe Rapier 7 , I am buying paper. 

Der ©cfyneiber fauft $u<$, The tailor is buying cloth.- 

5Bo wohnen ©te jefct? Where do you reside now ? 

SBtr wohnen je|$t in 33etltn', We reside now in Berlin. 

£ören ©ie »ad er fagt ? Do you hear what he is saying ? 

3dj ^ore »ad er fagt, I hear what he is saying. \ 

©ad faufteif©ie? What were you buying? 

3$ faufte yppitf, I was buying paper. 

Cr »ofynfe in SWagbeburg, He resided in Magdeburg. 

„ „ „ „ HewasresidinginMagdebuig. 

„ „ „ „ He did reside in Magdeburg. 

* Siebente Aufgabe* 

1. 2Bo »o$nt £err ©djumann? 2. Sr »olmt jefct in granf* 
fürt. 3. dt »o^nte früher in £eibelberg* 4. Sßo&nen ©ie in 
£allc ? 5, Siein, »ir wohnen ni$t in £alle, »ir »otynen in 
Setpjig. 6. Äauften ©ie bad $u<$? 7. SMtt, id) faufte ed 
tti$t;*ed mar fe&r treuer unb nid>t fe^r gut 8. £ört ber ©cfyü*- 
ler, »ad ber Sefcrer fagt? 9. 3a, ber ©ctyüler fcort »ad ber 
&$rer fa'gt. 10. Der Äaufmann fyixtt toai ber ©djneiber fagte. 
11. Porten ©ie toai £einndj unb 2Btlbelm fe^tn? 12. 3a, 
i<$ fcörte »ad fie fagten. 13. 35er SBater unb bte SDhttter lieben 
bad Äinb. 14. 2)a9 Äinb liebt ben Sater unb bie Sflutter. 15. 
SB* fiuften ©ie bad 33ud)? 16. 3$ faufte ed »orgejlem in 
'?ctpjtg^ 17. Der ©djüler faufte bad JBudjl unb bad Rapier. 18. 
SBann »aren ©ie in Slugdburg? 19. 3$ »ar sorgejlern in 
Äugdburg. 20. £err SWe^erfceun, £err Stofent&al unb #err 
<£&rli<$ »ofonen in Äoln, £err*©d)letemad)er unb £err 2luerbad> 
»otyten in SWagbeburg, grau gSrjter unb graulein Qcggerd »ofc 
nen in ©ot&a, unb ^err Sinbemann »ofytt in SWüncfyen. 

Rem, These sentences can of course be multiplied indefinitely. v 

/ 

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20 



PEESENT AND IMPERFECT OF REGULAS VERBS. 



Vocabulary. 



$et SDfamit, the man. 

» SSatcr, the father. 

„ Kaufmann, the merchant. 

„ Sefjrer, the teaeher. 

„ ©ä)neiber, the tailor. 

n @d)filer, the scholar. 
%\t grau, the woman. 

ff , ÜÖhittcr, the mother. 
$00 Äiltb, the child, 

„ Rapier', the paper. 
©einriß, Henry. 
Sßilfclm, William. 



#8r*en, tohear. 
$auf»en, to buy. 
2ieb*en, to love. 
Sob»en, to preise, 
©ao/en, to say. 
28ifyn>ftt, to reside. 
2Ber?who? 
2öa«? what? 
£ber, bat. 
©ut, good. ' 
grüner, ibrmerly. 
9ieuUd), lately. 



Qrammatical. 
1. The regulär Verb lieben, to love, is conjugated thus: 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. 

\$ He*'*, i lore. 

©tc liebten, you love. 

er li eb'*i, he loves. 
toit lteb'*eH, we love. 
©ie Iieb'*ttt, you love. 

fic lieb '**!!, they love. 



Imperfect Tense. 

td) \\t\)'*tt, I loved. 

^ie lieb '««teil, you loved. 

er^ liebste, he loved. 

totr Heb'*ttlt, we loved. 

®te üeb'*tt!l, you loved. 

fie lieb '*ttn, they loved. 



2. That part of the simple rerb which precedes the ter- 
mination of the infinitive (Ctt) is called the 8tem,as : liebten, 
faulen, fa^en, roofyn^en. .j ' ^ 

Rem, In regulär verbs thestemremains unchanged in conjugation. \ 

i 

3. For the threeforms of conjugating the verb in Eng- 
lish, the German has but one — the simple form : 



3$ foufe, 


Ibuy, 


I am buying, 


or Idobay. 


2Btr tauften, 


We bought, 


We were buying, 


" We did buy. 


Äaufen ©te ? 


Buy you? 


Are you buying ? 


" Do you buy? 


Sauften (Sic? 


Boughtyou? 


Were you buying ? 


" Did you buy? 


3$ laufte nt$t, 


I bought not, 


I was not buying, 


" I did not buy. 



4. The German language has four Cases: the Nomina- 
tive, the Genitive, the Dative, and the Aceiwative. 

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PRE8ENT AND IMPERFECT OF REGULA» VERBS. 21 

1. The Nominative corresponds to oiir Nominative. 

2. The Accxisative is rendered by our Objective. 

5. The form of the Deflnite Article varies according to 
the gender of the noun which it limits. The form of the 
accusative of the masctdine oiüy of the article differs from 
that of the nominativo : 

Nominative: $cr 9Jtonn, feie $xan unb feal Äinb flnb $icr. 
" The man, the woman, and the chiki are hero. 

Accusative : 3$ fc^c fern Sttann, feie grau unb toal Äinb. 
Objective: I see the man, the woman, and the chilfl. 

^ Exercise 8. * 

1. The teacher praises the scholar. 2. Tlie f ather praised 
the child. 3. Did you heafr what Henry was saying? 4. 
No, I did not hear what he said. 5. We heard what he 
said. 6. Did he not hear what the teacher said ? fs7. Yes, 
he heard what the teacher was saying. 8. The merchant 
was buying the cloth. 9. The woman did praise the child. 
10. The child loves the woman. 11. Where did you buy 
the book? 12. 1 bought it in Berlin. \ 13. When did you 
buy it ? 14. 1 boaght it day before yesterday. 15. Do you 
hear what Miss Steffens is saying? 16. 1 hear what she is 
saying. 17. Where does Miss Steffens re^ide ? 18. She is 
now residing here in Berlin. 19. Formerly slie resided in 
Hamburg. \ 

LESSON V. . 

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSE3 OF (ulflt, TO HAVE. ACCU8ATITE 
OF PERSONAL PRONOUN8. 

#aBen <3tc ba$ 33ud) ? nave you the book ? 

3ö, i$ §<&t ti, Yes, I have it. 

£eümcl) $at ba$ SWcficr, Henry has the knife. 

SBityelm |>atte bad ©ud), William had the book. 

33efud)ten ©tc £etm Äraft, afö Did you visitMr. Kraft when 

©ie in Scrlin waren ? ' you were in Berlin ? 
3a, trtr befugten tyn fefyr oft, Yes,we yisited liim very often. 



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22 



FRE8ENT AND EMPKBFECT OF BEGÜLAK VEKBS. 



9ltmtt «Äfpbe. 

1. SBer \)at ba« 33ud)? 2. 3$ fabe e* nid)t ; Sofymn f^atte 
e$, al* er fcier n>ar. 3, 2Ba« fcaben ©ie ba ? 4. 2Bir fcaben 
ba« 93u<$ unb ba« $apter. 5. &err ©djabe befugte un« fefor 
oft, atö wir fn ©o$a »aren. 6, £err £offmann befugt £errn 
SRitter- 7. SBa« fudjen ©ie ? 8. 3$ fudje ba« SfRcffer. 9.£ter 
ifte«. 3^^abec^ 10.2Ba«faufteber£o<$? 11. Cr laufte 
33rob, gteifty unb Obfh 12. Da« 3imnter tfl mel gu Hein. 
13. 2)er Bimmermann »erfaufte baä £au$. 14. 2)er Äauf* 
mann faufte ba« £auö. 15. SBo jtubirte £einri<$ -Jteumann, 
al« er in 2)eutfd)lanb war? 16. Cr ftubirte in Seipjig unb 
93erlin. 17. SBo^nt £err SKiebner in ©ot&a? 18* 9lein, er 
wol;nt in Bresben, aber er wohnte früher in ©o$a. 



hulary. 



a 



$er ©Äcfcr f the baker. 

„ &oä), the cook. - 

n Statmertndnn, the carpenter. 
$0« 93rob, the bread. 

„ gfeifö, the meat 

„ SRetyt, the flow. 

„ SWcffcr, the knife. 

„ Obft, the fruit 

„ 3i mm ^, the room. 
©efu$'*en, to visit. 
®u$'*n, to seek, look for. 
@tubir'»en, to study, 
»erlauf *en, to seil. 



I, large, great. 
Atem, small, little. 
@o)8n, beautiful, fine. 
@o)le<$t, bad. 

gtfißtß, industrious, diligent 
Jaul, indolent, lazy. 
Ätt (ccm/.), when, as. 
JBtel (mfo.), much. 
3u (acto.), too. 
Oft (adv.\ often, frequently. 
SRö$ (acto.), yet, still 
gelten (ado.\ seldom. 
%Utot\'4tn(adv.)> sometimes. 



Grammatical. 
1. The Irregulär Verb f)tibtn, to fuzve, is conjugated thus: 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Prexnt Tenae. 



i$ |tl'*e, 

€He Hb'.m. 
er |tt, 
xo\x $ab'*eii, 
©ie ^ab'-e« r 
fie ^ ab'» eil, 



I have. 
You have. 
He ha«. 
Wehave. 
You have. 
Th«y ha\e. 



Imperfcct Tenst. ( 



id> lftt'*te, 

©ie $&V<Uh, 
er &at'*te, 
wir &at'*te«, 
@fte $at'*ttit, 
fie $at'*ten f 



Ihad. 
You hadl 
Hehad. 
Wehad! 
You hadi 
They had* 



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PRBSENT AND IMPBRFECT OP IjabfJt, TO HAVE. 23 



2. Nominative and Accusative cases of the Personal 
Pronouns : 





8INGULAR. 






PLURAL. 


w 


Nom. 


Nom. Acc. 


#&;. # 


Nom, 


Nom. 


Acc. 


ift, 


I. mid>, 


me. 


toir, 


WC. 


an*, 


US. 


©ie, 


you. ^€ftt> 


you. 


©it, 


you. 


©ie, 


you. 


tt, 


he. tfc«, 


him. 


fic, 


they. 


fic, 


them. 


fle, 


she. flc, 


her. 


tt 


they. 


n 


them. 


C«, 


it. e$, 


iL 


tt 


they. 


n 


them. 



3. The word $crr takes *lt in all cases of the Singular 
except the Nominative : 

#err Äraft Befugte $crr*ii Ätrin, Mr. Kraft visited Mr. Klein. 

4. The conjunetion ttlS, when (called in English Gram- 
mar a conjunetive adverb), refers only to past time. It 
requires the verb following it to be placed at the end 
of the (subordinate) sentence: 

$einri($ taufte ba« 33u$, al£ er. in Henry botight the beok when he was 
#eibelberg todt, in Heidelberg. 

5. The adverb ttidjt (ngt) is generally placed after the 
objecto of the verb : 

St befugte un* ttkfet. He did not visit us. 



Exeraaelt. i 

1. Did the merchant seil the cloth ? 2. Tes, and the 
tailor bought it. 3. The baker buys flour and sells bread. 
4. Where did "William Diez study whsn he was in Ger- 
many ? 5. He studied in Heidelberg and Berlin. 6. Did 
you call upon (Visit) Mrs. Hoffmann when you were in 
^Magdeburg? 7. Yes, wo called upon her. 8. What are 
Henry and William looking for ? 9. They are löoking f or 
tho book. 10. There it is. 11. The scholar is very indus- 
trious to-day. Sometimes he is not very industrious, and 
he does not study very much. 12. Is the weather very hot 
in Germany ? 13. No, the weather is rarely very hot in 
Germany, but in Italy it is often very hot. 14. Berlin is 
very large and beautifnl. 15. Who has the book and the 
paper ? 16% The 6cholar has them* 



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24 PERFECT AND PLUPEBFECT OF KEGULAE VERBS. 

LESSON VI. 

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TEN8E8 OF REGULÄR VERBS. 

SBer l)at ba« 33ud) gefauft'? Who Jjas boiight the book? 

3$ ty&t t$ gefauft', I have boiight iL 

£aben <3te getyörf, wa$ £err Have you heard wbat Mr.We- 

SBeber gefagt' $at ? ber said ? 

<£r fyit gefagt 7 , baß ^)crr 9Wei;er Ile said tliat Mr. Meyer has 

ba$ £m$ gefauff tyat, bought the house. 

<£r fyattt bcn ©d^üler gelobte He had praised the scholar. 
<£i tyatte lange geregnet, It had been raining long. 

gifte »ufnaic. 

"* 1-J>err JBfamenbadf) fcatte ba« #au$ fäon gefauft. 2. Äarl 
fagt, ba§ er ba$ 33ud() in Seipji^ gefauft tyat. 3. <f>cute fyat e$ 
fe&r jtarf gebohnert unb geregnet. 4. <£$ f)at gejtern fc^r fiarf 
geregWt, als nrir in $ot$bam waren. 5. £err SBccfer fcatte ba$ 
©emal'be fdjon »orgejtern »oflen'bet. 6. @r malte e«, als wir 

.tyn befugtem 7. SBa« mad&t ba« ßmb? 8. <£$ fptelt- 9. 
©dfjnet'et e$ jefct ? 1 0. 9leift,' ed^at fceute öiel gefd&nei'et, aber jt$t 
fd&netet e$ nid&t me&r. 11. #aben <5ie ba« SWujefum oft befugt', 
al$ ©ie in Söerlin waren? 12. 3a, wir befugten e$ fefcr oft. 
13- Qi ifl wirfltd& fefcr groß unb fefjr fd)8n, 14. 2)a* SfRufeum 
in Dreien ift au<$ fetyr fd&on. 15. 25er Btamermann tyatte ba* 
£au$ fd&on gebaut 16. Da* $au$ ijt wirflid& fetyr groß, aber 
fefyr fd)ön ifl e$ nid&t. 



SBau'*en, to build. 
20tod}'*en, to make, to do, 
3M'*en, to paint. 
«Spief *en, to play. 
$ottenb'*en, to complete. 
5Bltfe'*en r to lighten. 
2)on'ner*n, to tbunder. 
$a'flet*n, to hail. 
p 9*cg'*nen, to rain. 
©$net'*en, to snow. 



Vocabulary. 

9fo(ty (adu.) t also, too, 
2)afj(ro«/.), that. 
?an'*gc(a</r.), for a long time. 
Wltfyt (adv.), more. 
@$im (a</u.), already. 
©tarf (ado.), hard, severely. 
aBirr*li<^ (a<fi;.), really. 
Xtt SRaMer, the painter. 
$06 <$em$('*be, the pietare. 
» 2Jftife'*mn, the museum. 



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PERFECT AtfD PLÜPEEFECT OF EEGULAB VEBBS. 25 

Qrammatical. 

1. The Perfect Participle of Regulär Verls is formed by 
prefixing gc*, and adding 4 to the stem : 

tieB'*ett, to love,- ge4teB*f , loved. Bau'*en, to build; gc*Bau*t\ built. 

2. Verbs with imeparable preßxes (as be, ent, CT, ge, t>er, 
ytx), and those ending in 4reh, do not take je* : 

B e * f u <$ '* tn f to visit. B e*f ui$* f, visited. 

jiu*btr'*eil,to study, tfu^btr^studied. 

3. The Yerb has three principal parte, as in English : 

Prescht Infinitive. Imper/ect Indicatiue. Perfect Participle. 

IteB'*cn,tolove. I i c B '* tc, loved. ge * V\ c B '* t, loved. 

y*a'geI*ii,tohail. $a'gef*te,hailed. ge *\) a 'g c 1 * t, hailed. 

Be*fu$'*en, to visit. B C * f U d) '* U, visited. B c * f U ä} '* t, visited. 

toer*lauf'*en,tosell. toer*tauf'*te,sold. * er- fauf'*t, sold. 

ftU^ix^tUfto study. flu-btr'*k,Btudied. jl u * b t r '* t, studied. 

4. The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses of Transitive and 
Impersonal Verbs are formed by the nse of the auxiliary 
IjötJCH, to have, and tlie perfect participle. 

1NDICATIVB MOOD. 
Perfect Tense. Pluperfect Tense. 

id) ljftfc gclteftf , I have loved. idj JatMe gelUM', I had loved. 

€>ie f)oib'*cu v you have loved. ©ie ^at'-tttt w you had loved. 

et fftt »f he has' loved. er fat'-fc „ he had loved. 

tötr BaB'*ttt »> we have loved. nrir fyat'*ten ,, we had loved. 

©ie &a&'*eil n you have loved. ©ie tytf'itn » you had loved. 

fie $aB'*en „ they have loved. pe \)tf>ttU n they had loved. 

5. The Participle is placed at the end qfmain sentences: 

3$ tyoBe Bad &U$ gefftttft, I have bought the book. 

.Rem. In subordinate sentences, the auxiliary of Compound tenses is placed 
after the participle: 

Cr fagte, baß er ba« Sud) f$on gelauft (at« 
He said that he has already bought the book. 

6. The Perfect Tense is often employed where in English 
the Imperf ect Tense would be used : 

<Sr |oi baö ©u# geflern gefftttft, He bought the book yesterday. 

7. When the stem ends in *el or *cr, nsually only *U (in- 
ßtead of stn) is added f or the termination of the Infinitive : 
$a'get»ft, to hau. $on'iier*tt, to thunder. BerBeffeMt, to improve. 

r ti 

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26 PEEP08ITION6 WITH TIIE ACCU6ATIVE CASE. 

Exeroise 12. 

1. It rained very hard when we were in Düsseldorf. 
2. Mr. Ruprecht says that it snowed yesterday in Bran- 
denburg. 3. It has not snowed here yet. 4. The cook has 
already bought the bread, the flour, and the meat. 5. The 
merchant has not sold the cloth yet. 6. The painter had not 
finished the painting when we were in Magdeburg. 7. 
Yesterday John had not yet bought the book. 8. It has 
already been raining a very long time. 9. What is William 
doingf 10. He is not here. 11. Where is he ? 12. He is 
visiting Mr. Lindemann. 13. The child has already been 
playing too long. 14. When did you buy the painting? 
15. We bought it when we were in Berlin. 16. It is really 
very beautifuL 17. Have you heard what Mr. Niedner 
said $ 18. No, I have not heard what he saicL 



LESSON VII. 

FREPOSITIOK8 WITH THE ACCUS ATI VE CA8E. GEN DER OP KOUK8. 

3jl ba$ 33u<$ für ben SWaler ? Is the book for the painter? 
fUtin, ti ifl für ben Äaufmann, No, it is for the merchant. 
Der SBalb ifl fe&r groß, The forest is veiy laige. 

Der Säger führte ben SWaler The hunter conducted tho 
bunty ben SGBalb, painter through the forest 

Der 93erg ifl fefyr $o<$, The mountain is very high. 

dt ijl aud) fetyr ftetl, It is also very steep. 

Die ©tabt ifl fc^r groß, The city is very large. 

©ie ifl auä) fefcr fctyßn, It is also veiy beautiful. 

2)ret)e^ttte Aufgabe* 
1. ^>at mbxtfy ben £ut gefauft? 2. Mein, er ifl für tyn ju 
gro§. 3. #aben ©ie ba« SBanb? 4. Mein, e$ ifl um ben $itt 
6. £aben ©ie ben SMeiflift ? 6. 3$ ^aBc tyn gehabt, aber i<$ 
$abe tyn jefrt nid)t 7, $d) (oh), ba ifl er ! 8. Die 51a$t ifl fe&r 
wann unb föön, aber au# fcfrr bunfel. 9. Die Äircfye ifl fefcr 



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TEEPOSmONS WITH THE ACCUS ATI VE CASE. 



27 



groß, bo# fe$r f$ön ifl ftc nidjt. 10, £at bcr &od) bie Sutter 
f$on geljolt? IL 3a, er $at ftc gcftern föon geholt. 12. £at 
bcr ©cpler ba« 33ud) unb ba* Rapier? 13, 3a, er $at fte. 
14, £at SWarie ben £ut gefauft? 15. 3a, fte tyat tyn gefauft. 
16. gür wen ^aben ©ic ba$ 33ud) gefauft ? 17. 3$ &abc e$ 
für ba$ Äinb gefauft. 18. ©eflern war e$ bis gegen Slbenb fc^r 
warm, aber bte 9iad)t war giemli^ falt. 19. £eute SWorgen 
(this morning) tyat $txx Jieumann uns burd) ba$ SWufeum gc* 
fü&rt. 20. 33er JHodf ifl ntd&t für midj. D^ne 3weifel ifl er 
für £erm 33etfer. 



Vqpabulary. 



Xtt Stfcenb, the evening. 

n äRorgen, the morning. 

n $3erg, the mountain. 

„ $ttgel, the hill. 

n SBalb, forest, woods. 

n Säger, the hunter. 

„ SBtrijttft, the lead-pencil. 

„ $ut; the hat, bonnet. 

„ 9h><f , the coat 

n 3*3^1, tne doubt 
$ie ©tabt, the city. 

„ Ältere, the church. 

„ 9lati)t f the night. 

„ ©tttter, the battcr. 
$ftl ©anb, the band, ribbon. 



2lf6re($t, Albert. 

Äatyori'na, Catharine. 

3)untet, dark. 

§o<fy, high. 

©teil, steep. 

3iem(i(fy, quite, somewhat 

gurren, to condnet, to guido. 

$olen, to procura, go and get 

©i«, until, tili. 

2)ur$, through. 

gür, for. 

©egen, towards. 

Ctyne, without. 

Um, around. 

Söiber, against 



GrammaticaL 

1. The seven prepositions big, burd), für, gegen, otyne, um, 
and roiber govern the Accusative Case. 

2. Many nouns, which in English would be in the neuter 
gender, in German are in the masculine or in Üie feminine 
gender. 



$er $ut, the hat. 
n 9to<f , the coat. 
,/ %\\d), the table. 



$if @tobt, the city. 
f Ätrtfye, the church. 
, 9to$t, the night 

Bern. The gender of nouns is one of the most difficult features in the study 
of the German language. At the same time it is one of the most important, 
since the form of the article is determined by the gender of the noun. 



$ft* ©u$, the book. 
n %VL$, the cloth. 
» ©rob, the bread. 



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28 THE GENITIVE CA8E. 

3. Personal Pronouns must have the grammatical gender 
of the nouns f or which thcy stand : 

$abett ©ie bell ©IrifHft ? Have you the lead-pencil ? 

9tein, \ö) ffäbt i|it nid^t f No, I have not it (Atro). 

4. The Accnsative of the Interrogative Pronoun toer is 
toCH. The Accusative of tya$ is like the Nominative : 

gür töflttf* ber 9fcxf? Forwhomis thecoat? 

8Bo0 tyofcen «Sic ba ? What have you there ? 

Exercise 14. 
1. For whom is the coat? 2. It is for me. 3. Is it not 
too large for you ? 4. It is rather large. 5. When did 
Catharine buy the book ? 6. She bought it when she was 
in Dresden. 7. Without doubt Mr. Ehrlich has already 
bought tlie painting. 8. Yes, Albert 6ays, that he bought 
it yesterday. 9. Has the cook been to get (fyolen) the butter 
and the fruit ? -*10. Yes, he got them this morning. 11. 
The hunter condueted us through the forest. 12. Have 
you the lead-pencil ? 13. Yes, I have it. 14. The hill is 
very steep, but it is not very high. 15. Did Mary buy the 
bonnet? 16. Yes, she bought it. It was very beautiful, 
and not very dear. 17. Miss Neuman says that it was very 
warm in Potsdam towards evening, but die says that it did 
not rain. 



LESSON VIIL 

THE GENITIVE CA8E. 

Slnfhtt be6 SuctyeS $at ber Insteadof the book, thoschol- 

©cfyüler ba$ Rapier gefauft, ar has bought the paper. 

SDa$ £au$ be$ ÄaufmanneS ift The house of the merchant is 

fe&r grojj unb impofanf, very laige and imposing. 

£ter ifl be$ ©d)uler$ SBud), Here is the scholar's book. 

dt ifl bc« ©<$roafcen$ mfibe, He is tired of the chattering. 

^ier ifl £einrid)$ 33u<$, Here is Henris book. 

3Bo ifl bat $avß be$ $txxn Where is the house of Prof ess- 

$rofe fior bOlt SBolfenflein ? or von Wolfenstein ? 



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THE GENITIVE CASE. 20 

giittfsclttte Sfufgobc. 

1* SBo wanen ©ie wa&renb be$ Kriege« in Deutftylanb ? 2. 
2Btr waren in Seipjig, 3."2Baforenb bc« ©türme« waren £en 
SÖekr unb £err Äraft in $ofeba^ 4. SBarum fy £err 
©d)ul$ ba$ £au$ nid&t gefauft ? 5. 2Begen be$ $retje$. 6. 
Da« £au$ ifl fe&r fd)5n unb fetyr Bequem, a^er ber $rei$ tji siel 
ju fcodj}. 7. $a$ £au3 be« £erm $rofeffor SWepcrbeim tft 
auger^atb ber ©tabt. 8. Da$ £era ber JKutter ifi »oll Slngjt, 
weil ba* Äinb fo franf ifh 9. 2)aö Dad) be« £aufe3 tfl fcljr 
fteil. 10* Die ®efc$id)te *er ©tabt tji fcjr intereffanf. 11. 
Der $&urm be« Dome« in SWagbeburg ifl febr tyod) unb fe&r im* 
pofant. 12. 3)er £&urm be$ Dome« in SBicn iji au$ fetyr fco# 
unb fefcr föön. 13. SBeficn £u$ bat ©eorg? 14. <£x bat 
£etnrid)« 33u<$. 15. ßatyarina tyat 3Warien« 53u<$. 16. Der 
8efcrer tyat be« ©ctyüler« 33ud) (or ba« JBiid) be« ©cfyülerg). 



Vocabulary. 


$er 2)oftor, — 8, the Doctor. 


Slnffott, instead of. 


„ ^rofef'for, — «, the Professor. 


9lußei#al&, oatside of, withoat. 


„ 2)om, -=- e«, the cathedral. 


3nhttfc dIB r inside of, within. 


„ Ärieg, — e$, the war. 


©fftyrenb, during. 


„ $rciS, — e$, the price. 


©ca,en, on aecount ©f. 


„ ©türm, — e$, the storm. 


©CTDafc', aware. 


„ jEtyurm, — e«, the tower, spire. 


8ott, fulL 


$if 9(nQft, — , the anxiety. 


SBequem', convenient. 


'„ 'greube,— ,thejoy. 


3mpofant', imposing. 


n ©efafp', -— , the danger. 


3ntereffant', interesting. 


„ ©efüjjidj' te, — , the history. 


$ront, sick. 


n @l>i&e , — , the point. 


Söorum'? why? 


9Da* 2)adj, — CS, the roof. 


2Bqt, becanse. 


r» $erj, — («t«), the heart. 


2)oi), still, however. 



Grammatical. 

1. The Genitive Case is used witli the prepositions cmftott, 
aujkr&alb, innerhalb, wa()renb, wegen, etc. 

Snjtatt beS Kaufmannes, Instead of the merchant. 

2. The Genitive Case is nsed without apreposition : 

] . Instead of the English Possessive : 
2>a« ©u$ be« Se^rer«, The book of the teacher. 



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30 THE GENITTVE CASE. 

2. After some adjectives, as : getta^r, toofl, mübe, etc. : 
<£r ifl M @djtt>afcen« mübe, He is tired of the chattering. 

8. In most cases where the relation is expressed in English by the prep- 
osition of, the Genitive is nsed in German witKout a preposition, 
especially where llmitation is indicated : 
ÜDU ©cföictytc beS ÄriegC«, The history of the war. 

3. Aß to the form of the Genitive Case : 

1. With feminine nouns it is the same as that of the nominativc. 

2. With masculine or ncutcr nouns, usually t&, 3, tU, or tt is added to 
the nominativc 

8. The Genitive of the definite artide (ber, bie, ba«) is M, &CT, &C$. 

NEUTER. 

iVbm. On. 

2>a« ©u<$, ®C« ©ua>e$. 
$au«, n #auf*c$. 



1U4CULINE. 

iVbw. Gen. 

$tr 9Rann,Sc3 2Rann*e$. 

„ Ärieß, n Äricß-c«. 

„ SWaler, w <D?a(er*3. 

w $err, rr $err*it* 



FEMININE. 

Nom. Gen. 

Sic grau, Vergrau. 
@tabt, „ ©tabt. 



2)a$, „ 2)adK$* 
Äinb, „ £ütb*c$. 



Sfogft „ «ngft 
Äirä)e, * Äirä)e. 
Rem. The Genitive of nouns is given hereafter in the Vocabularies. 

4. As in English, the nonn pussessed may bc placcd 

without its article after the name of the possessor: 

2)cr ©ruber bc* Se^rer«, or bc« Se&rer« ©ruber. 
The brother of the teacher, or the teacher's brother. 

5. The Genitive of Proper Names of Pcrsous are usual- 
ly formed by adding 8* But masculine names in ft, \ty f j, 
J, and feminine names in C, have the genitive in =Ctt£ : 

Nom. $einriä% SQ&ityelm, $crr SGcumomi, gronj, SDtoric', 
Gen. #eütric$«. Söttyclm«. $errn Sfccumann«. gronjen«. 2Rart*cst& 

6. To titles of office or dignity, the word $m or gfnw 
is usually prefixed (especially in direct address) : 

$err ^rofeff or ©erfer, (Mr.) Professor Becker. 

#crr @raf »on ©i«marcf, (Mr.) Count von Bismarck. 

grau ©räßn Don ©t«mar(f, (Mrs.) Countess von Bismarck. 
Rem. Especially in the oblique cases, the definite article also may be pre- 
fixed (the 9 being in this case omitted in the Genitive) : 
2)a« $ou« be« #emt 3)oltor 9Kcumann,or $ernt 2)ottor SRcumann« #an«. 

7. Most Geographical Proper Names form the Genitive 
by adding i : 

2>ic ©eföityc ©erf inS, The history of Berlin. 

8. The Genitive of tocr (wAo) is toeffcn (whose). 



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THE DATIVE CASE. 31 

Exercise 16. 

1. Doctor Friedrich resides outside of the city (a8 of the 
city walk). 2. Professor Lindenei"s house is outside of the 
city. 3. Whose book have I? 4. You have Henris book. 

5. The history of the war in Germauy is very interesting. 

6. The tower of the Cathedral in Freibuig is very imposing. 

7. The price of tlie book is too high. I did not buy it 

8. Were you in Germany during the war? 9. Yes, we 
were in Prnssia. 10. The roof of thefc church is too steep. 
11. The spire of the church is very beautif ul. 12. Why did 
you not buy die coat? 13. On ac^ount of the price; it 
was much too dear. 14. It rained quite hard during the 
night 15. The father is füll of aiixiety, because the child 
is very sick. 16. Where is Mary^ pencil? 17. Catharine 
haß it. 18. Mary has Catharine's book. 



LESSON IX. 

THE DATIVE CASE. 



£err SBeber tft nicfyt gu £aufe, Mr. Weber is not at home. 
Die SRadjridjtcn &on bem Äriege The news from the war is 

ftnb ^eute fc^r tntereffanf , very interesting to-day. 
Der£unb folgt bem Säger na<$ The dog follows the hunter 

bem SBalbe, to the forest 

Die 9lac^ric^t ifi bem Äaufmann The newB is very disagreeable 

fe&r unangenehm, to the merchant. 

Siebenjc^nlc Aufgabe* 

1. SBegj gehört ber SletfHft ? 2. Cr gebort bem SWaler. 3. 
£err 9hq>re$f|at byj Äo<$ na^ber ©tabt tyjdüdt 4. Der 
Sater $at ba$ 53ud^ bem Ätnbe gtfcfcnft 5. $txx Bergmann 
&at bem SWaler ba$ v ©emalbe gejetgt. 6. $txx 33ernbarb wobnt 
au&erbalb ber ©tabt. 7. Die 33tbltotbef ifl gegenüber bem 2Wu* 
feum (or bem SWufeum gegenüber). 8. Da« £au$ be« £errn $ro* 



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32 



THE DATIVE CASE. 



feffor ©bewarb iji bem £aufe be$ Gerrit Seutner fe&r ctynüd>. 
9. SBem gehört bie 3eitung ? 10. (Sie gebort Gerrit Älein. 
11. SBo ijl £einrid) ? 12. <£r ift ju £aufe. 13. 2öir fcaben 
ba$ 33iU§ na# |)aufc getieft. 14. 2)ag 33u# war tym fe&r 
nüfcttd). 15. £err Sieben ift au« 2)re$ben. 16. 2)a$ Äinb 
fptelt mit bem £unbe. 17. ©eorg führte wtö aon bem SWufcum 
nad) ber ©ibliotyef. 



Vocabulary. 



Ser £imb, — *«, tho dog. 

„ knabt, — n, the boy. 

„ ©otbaf , — eu, the soldier. 
Sit ©i&Uot&er, — r the library. 

„ 9to$ri$t, — , the news. 

n 3^u n Ö/ — t tne newspaper. 
2Cel)ntt($, similar, like. 
UnStynlUty, dissimilar, unlike. 
Sfagene^m, agreeable. 
Unangenehm, disagreeable. 
9*üfetid), usefl ü. 
©djSfclid), injurious. 



golden, tofollow. 
©e&ö'ren, to belong. 
©Renten, to present, to give. 
3ciflen, to show. * 
3fa«, out of, from. 
Sfager, outside of, besidep. 
©eo.enü'&er, opposite. 
2Rit,with. 
Viad), towards, to. 
8>on, from, of. 
3u, to, «t. 
©era'bc (<«/«?.), directly, just. 



Grammatical. 

1. The Dative Case is goveraed : 

1. By&ome Prepositions, as: <tu$, außer, gegenüber, mit, 
na$, &on, ju, etc. 

2. By Borne Adjectives, as: atynlid), angenehm, etc. 

3. By many Verbs, as : folgen, geboren, fd)i(fen, etc. 

i&w. The Dative Case frequently corresponds with the English objeetive, 
preceded by to, either expressed or understood, especially when it is the faß- 
rect objtct of a verb. 

(Sr fcfyttfte bem @$fiter ba« ©u$, He sent (to) the scholar the book. 

2. Examples of the declension of the deßnüe wrticLe and 
of nouns in the Singular number : 



MascuUne. 


Feminine. 


Neuter. 


Nom. ber SRann. 


Mt grau. 


ba$ äinb. 


Gen. M 2Rann*e3. 


ber grau. 


bc£ Äinb*e8. 


Dat. bem 2Rann*e» 


ber grau. 


bem£tnb*e» 


-4cc. ben 9Ranm 


bie grau. 


ba$ Äinb. 

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THE DATIVE CASE. 33 

Bern. 1. Some masculine and neuter noans are declined as follows : 

Nom. ber Sater, $crr, @otbat'. ba« Setter. 

Gen. M $ater*$, $txx*n, <3olbat'*etL M Setter*«* 

Dat. iemBatcr, $err*n, ©oibat'*ciu beraSetter. 

Acc. bat «ater, $err*!t, ©olbat'*etl. baö Setter. 

Bern. 2. Feminine noans are nnchanged in the singnlar. 
Bern. 3. The C is often dropped from die termination of maiiy noans that 
have t$ and t in the genitive and dative. 

3. The English Cases are rendered in German thus : 

1. The Nominative by the Nominative in German. 

2. The Possessive by the Genitive in German. 

* 3. The Objective by the Gen., J)at., and Acc. in Germ. 

4. Among the idiomatic wes of the Dative Case 9 the fol- 
lowing may be noticed : 

1. Adjectives/oZ/ott? the noun they govern in the dativo : 

ÜDaS ©uä) iß bem @ä}filer nn^lii^ r The book is nsefal to the scholar. 

2. OfgtRttlft may precede, thoagh it usaally follows the noun : 

3)er Äirä)e gegenüber, or gegenüber ber $ir$e, Opposite the charch. 
8. With two personal nonns the aecusative precedes the dative case; 

a personal noun precedes one referring to a thing, whatever the 

case of either may be : 
Cr $at bat Stnattn bem Spater getieft, He sent the boy to the painter. 
<5r fä)ufte beut WlaltX ba* ©uä), He sent the book to the painter. 

4. $HI$ §anf( means towards home; jn gtttff means a< Aom«. 

5. w $crr SBeber iß Ott* ©erlitt", means that Berlin is or was Mr.We- 
ber's permanent residence or his native place. 

6. 9tal| indicates motion to a place ; Jtt, motion to a perton. 

(5r führte und nad) bem SKufeum, He condacted ns to the musenm. 
Cr führte und ju bem Sttater, He condacted ns to the painter. 

5. The Dative of totr (who) is toem (to whom, etc.). 

Ezeroise 18. 

1. To whom does the house belong? 2. It belongs to 
Mr. Schumann. 3. Did the boy hear what the soldier said % 
4. What did the merchant send to the tailor ? 5. He sent 
the cloth to the tailor. 6. The prof essor gave the boy the 
pencil. 7. The coat belongs to the soldier. 8. The book ia 

B2 

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34 * pkepositions wrra accüsative and dative. 

very injurious to the child. 9* The child is following his 
father to the city. 10. Mr. Riegel has sent' the book to 
Professor Kraus. 11. The book belongs to Mr. Eiegel. 
12. The news was very agreeable to the soldier. 13. Mr. 
Auerbach is from Magdeburg. 14. The church is just 
opposite to the house of Mr. Dietrich. 15. The painter 
showed Mr. Krumm the painting. 16. The child is very 
unlike the father. 17. To-day the newspaper is very inter- 
esting. 18. The teächer presented the book to the scholar. 
19. The boy was playing with the dog. 



LESSON X. 

PBEPOSITIOXS WITH THE ACCÜSATIVE AND DATIVE CASES. 

Da« ©ud> ift auf bem liföe, The book is on the table. 
$>emrid> legte e$ auf ben Xifd), Henry laid it on tlie table. 
Der ©tufcl ifl »or *em pfen, The chair is before the stove. 
<£t flellte tyn t>or ben Dfen, He put it before the stove. 
33a« ©udj ift neben bem $a*The book is close by tho 

pier', paper. 

<£r legte e$ neben ba$ Rapier', He laid it close by the paper. 
Der ©rief ifl in bem ©u$e, The letter is in the boo£ 
3$ legte tyn in ba* ©ud), I laid it in the book. 

Weunjefate Aufgabe* ^? 

1. (Er langte ba* ©emalbe über ben £ifd>. 2. 3d) fty^fc- 
ben ©rief über Hamburg nad) 9lme'rifa. 3. 2)ag Dorf tfl $ov 
föen bem SBalbe unb bem ©erge. 4. Der ©leiflift ifl gnrifdjen 
bem ©ud)e unb bem Rapier. 5. £einrid> legte ben ©leiflift jnri* 
fd>en ba$ ®u$ unb ba$ Rapier. 6. Der £unb ifl in bem @ar* 
ten. 7. $)ai ©oot ifl unter ber ©rücfe. 8. Der ©leiflift ifl 
unter bem SBudje. 9. SBer fcat tyn unter ba$ ©u$ gelegt? 10. 
£err SWeijer f>at bem SWaler gefagt, baß er ben ©rief über-©re* 
men gefd&uft fcat. 11. SBir fcaben ba$ ©emalbe an bie SBanb 
gelängt. @* mar auf bem ©oben. 12. #err 2Weper fcat un$ sott 



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PEEPOsrnONS wrra aocüsative and dative. 3ä 

s 

ber Äirdje na$ ber »ibttot&ef gefugt 13. Äarl fct ba« 93ud> 
lange gefugt* 14. £eute SWorgen tyabe id) fcen ©rief unb ba$ 
33ud) bem £errn ^rofeffor SSurrf^art gefd)icft. 15. 2Bo wotynt 
er ? 16. Cr wo(mt in Setpjig. 17. Da* 33oot tjl an behf Ufer. 

18. 3$ fcabe ba$ ©emalbe no<$ ni$t an bie SBanb geengt. 

19. Die Sampe tft auf bem Xifc^e. 



Vocabuhury. 



5er ©rief, — e«, the letter. 

* ©oben, — 8, the floor. 

n ©artcu, — 8, the garden. 

„ Ofen, — 8, the stove. 

rr ©tu^I, — e«, the chair. 

r , SEtfd), — e«, the table. 
Sit ©rüde, — , the bridge. 

„ SGBonb, — , the wall. 

„ Sontye, — , the lamp. 
$0$ ©oot, — e«, the boat. 

„ Ufer, — «, the shore. 

m 2ufy, — e», the candle. 



An, on, to, at. 
9(uf, upon, on. 
$mter, behind. 
3n, in, into. 
SNefccn, near, close by. 
Ucbe jfc above, by way o£ 
Unter, under, below. 
©or, before. 
3n>ifc^en, between. 
Rängen, to hang (active). 
Segen, to lay. 
©teilen, to place, to put. ,. 



GrammaticaL 

1. The nine prepodtions an, <u?f, hinter, in, neity, über, 
unter, öor, jttrifd)en, govern the Accusative Case when motion 
towards the objeet they govern is expressed. 

Thejr govern the Dative Cagfc when rest or motion 

within speeified limits is expressed : • 

(Sr legte ba« ©u($ auf fcen £if$, He lald the book on the table. 
2)o« ©u<$ ifl auf beut Xifä)e, The book is on the table. 

2. The correct üse ofprepositions is one of the most difficult things to be 
acquired in learning any foreign language. This is owing largely to the fact 
that there are so many idiomatic expressions connected with their use which 
ean not be literally translated from one language to another. 

(Er geljt nadj $aufe, He is going home. 

<Sr tfl ju $aufe, He is at home. 

<£r gc^t über Äöln, He goes by way of Cologne. 

3)a« ©oot tfl an bem Ufer, The boat is by the shore. 

@r fifet an bem £if<tye, He is sitting at the table. 

Cr ifl au* ©erlin', He is from Berlin. 

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36 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



3. This difficulty is also increased to the English-speaking person in lcarn- 
ing German by the fact that, in German, prepositions govern three cases, the 
Genitive, Dative, and Accusative ; and by the fact that circomstances deter- 
mine whether certain prepositions shall govern the Accusative or the Dativ: 



Genitive. 


Dative. 


Accusative. 


«4cc. or Dat. 


Hnflatt. 


Sud. 


®t3. 


«lt. 


Außerhalb. 


Süßer. 


2)iir<$. 


Stuf, 


3ttner$at&. 


©egenflfccr. 


gür. 


$tnter. 


gfttyrenb. 


m 


(Stegen. 


3n. 


©egen 


9ta<$* 


£tync. 


Weben. 


(andmany 


Eon. 


Um. " 


Ueber. 


otheri). 


3« 


SBibcr. 


Unter. 




(anrf «ome 




SSor. 




others). 




3tmf$en. 



Ezercis^! 
1. Mr. Bauer has not yet sent the book to tho teacher. \ 

2. We hung the painting on (an)^the wall yesterday evening. 

3. The candle is on (auf) the table. 4. William placed tho 
chair between the table and the walLV 5. The Cathedral 
is between the Museum and the Library. 6. The book is 
on (auf) the floor. 7. The painter put the painting on tho 
table. 8. Where is the letter? 9. It is in the book; I laid 
it in the book. 10. The boy took (führte) us from tho Cathe- 
dral to the Museum. 11. The garden is behind the house. 

12. The bridge is between the village and the mountain. 

13. The book, the pencil, and the paper are on the table. 



LESSON XL 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. FORMS OF ADDRESS. CONTRACTIONS OF 
PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DEFINITB ARTICLE. 



2)er 93rtcf ifl md)t »on tym< 
£err Äranjlcr tyatte 3&nen bie 

3ettung föon ßeföüft, 
£efarid> mar ni$t mit tynen, 
^a|lbubie3eituttflfle^abt? 
SBffyelm ift im SWufeum, 
granffurt am aMain, 



The letter is not from him. 
Mr. Kranzler had already 

sent you the newBpaper. 
Henry was not with them. 
Have you had the newspajter ? 
William is in the Museum. 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 



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PERSONAL PR«N#ÜNS. 



37 



<Stttnnb3tDan)igfte Aufgabe* 

1* -feafl bu.ben SBlcijKft? 2. ?lein, i# fcabe t^n ni#t. 3, 
£afl bubie Aufgabe föon wllenbet? 4. 3a, td> fcabe jte »oll* 
cnbet. 5* £einrid), tyaji bu gehört, roaS ber Setyrer gefagt tyat? 
6. 3a, td> fcabe e$ gc&öjt. 7- £abt i&r gebort tt>a* bcr Se&rer 
fajtfe ? 8. 3a, »ir fcaben ti gehört. 9. £afl bu ba$ #ud) auf 
ton ©tufcl ßclegt ?x 10. 9iein, idj $<&t e* auf bcn $ifd) gelegt 
11. Sßofmt £err ffieber totxt (far) »an Gerrit Äraft? 12. Sttein, 
er wo^nt tym gerate gegenüber. 13. Der SWaler geigte^ mir ba$ 
©emälbe. 14. Dä$ ©emalbe, gefror jjferrn flWfpfr; tor 3Ra* 
ler frat e$ tym freute SWorgen »erlauft. 15. Die 33ibliotfrcf ifl 
mcfrt »eit »om SWufeum. 16. @r legte ben 33rief in« S3u<fr. 

17. £err ©(frufrmadjw frat uns freute bunfr« SWufeum geführt. 

18. grau 2lucrba<fr unb gräulein 3luerba<$ waren geftern unb 
wgeftern in granffitrt am SWain. 19. £einrüfr Siiemenfrofer 
roofrntc früher in granlfurt an bcr Ober. / 

GrammaticaL 
1. The Personal Pronouns are declined thus: 



FIR8T PERSON. 


8ECOND PERSON. 


Singular. 
Nom. Uj, I. 
Gen. »einer, ofme,e*c* 
Dat. mft, tome,ete.* 
Acc. mu$, me. 
Plural 
Nom. tofr, we. 
Gen. MUfcr, of us, etc.* 
Dat. nn8, tötete. 
Acc. UM, us. 


Singular. 
tot, thou. (@ie, you.) 
beiner, of thee, etc. (3&rer, of you, etc.) 
bir, to thee, etc. (3fyncit, to you, etc.) 
btdj, thee. (@ie, you.) 

Plural. 
ijr, you. (ß\t, you.) 
ener, ofyou, efc. (3&rer, ofyou,e*c.) 
end), to you, etc. (3tynen, to you, etc.) > 
end), you. (@ie, you.) | 


THIRD PERSON. 


Singular. 
Nom. er, he. fle, ßhe.* t$, it. 

Gen. feiner, ofhim.* tyrer, ofher. feiner, of it. 

Dat. iffm, tohim. tyr, to her. fljm, to it. 
Acc. tyii, him. fie,. her. e$, it. 


Plural. 
fie, they. 

ityrer, ofthem. j 
tynen, to them. j 

fle, them. , 



* For the use of the cases, see Lessons VII., VIII., and IX. 



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38 



PERSONAL PRONOÜNS. 



2. The fonns of address in German differ from those in 
the English : 

1. In ordinary discourse the form of the third per- 
son jjlural is used instead of the regulär forme 
of the second person of both numbers. When 
thus used the pronoun begins with a capital 
letter. 

2. Besides using tut in addressing Deity, the regu- 
lär forms btt and iljr are employed in speaking 
to near relatives or very dear friends, and also 
in speaking to servants and often to childrefi. 

Rem. This nse of the form of the third person plural for the second person 
of both numbers has been constantly increasing since its first introduction at 
the beginning of the eighteenth Century. 

3. In the Pres, and Imperf. Tenses of Regulär Verbs : 

1. The second pers. sing, adds to the stem *ft or *cfL 

2. The " " plur. " " " " 4 or *tt. 

Sing, bu lieb '*% thou lovest ; bu ti e fc '*tcff, thou didst love. 
Plw. ü)r li e b '*t, you love ; U)r l i c b '-tct, you did love. 
Item. 1. When the stem ends in b, t (or flu), stff and stt mnst be added: 
Sing, bu ttart*efl,thou waltest; bu ttart'CtCfl, thou didst wait. 
Plur. tyr tt) a r t * et, you wait ; iljr tt> a r t - tttt, you did wait. 
Rem. 2. The present indicative of feilt has btt Jtft, and iljr. feib* 

The present indicative of (abett has btt $H% and fljr $oW. jy 

4. The following contractions of prepositions with 
the definite article are allowable and are sometimes 
necessary : 

2. With Dat. Sing. 3. With. Acc. Neut. bü9 1 
Feminine bet : ÜU9 for an ba«. 

$ar for gu bcr. anf£ " auf ba«. 
burflS " bur^ba«. 
für« " für ba«. 
ittö " inba«. 
Utttä " uraba«. 



i . iFiM z>at. Ļy. beut : 


am 


for an beut. 


beim 


" bei beut. 


btatcrm 


" hinter beut. 


im 


" in bem. 


uutcrm 


" unter beut. 


bom 


" »ou bem. 


jttiu 


" ju beut. 



Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 
He is in the hoose, 



gronffurt am SOTatn (an bem SÄatn), 

dt iß im $aufe (in bem $aufe), 

<5r tomutt bOUt SWufeum (»on bem STOuf.), He comes from the Museum. 

$a* ©u<$ ift fiirS Äinb (für ba« Äinb), The book is for the child. 

Cr ge$t ittS $KtuS (in ba« $auft), He goes into the hoose. 



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TUE 1EEEOÜLAE VERB WCrbCtt, TO BECtME. 39 

Ezercise 22. 
1. Charles, hast thou not had the lead-pencil? 2. 1 put it 
into the book. 3. What art thou looking f or ? 4. 1 am look- 
ing for the pencil. 5. What are you looking for? 6. We 
are looking for the book. 7. Hast thou been to get (fyolenj 
the bread ? 8.1 got it this morning. 9. Whe^e wast thou ? 
10. 1 was in the garden. 11. Did you (Sie) buy the paint- 
ing? 12. No, I did not buy it. 13. When did you (<Sie) 
send the letter to Professor Hoffmann? 14. 1 sent the let- 
ter to him yesterday. 15. The letter is in the book* 16. 
The church is not far (weit) from the Museum. 



LESSON XII. 

THE IHBBOÜLAIt VEItB ttKlftttt, TO ^IJECOME. PDTCRE TENSE8. 

Daß Sßetter wirb falt, The weather becomes cold. 

©ie werbeft xtify, % They are becoming rieh. 

<£$ wurW fefyr fyeij?, It became very hot. 

@$ wirb balb regnen, It will soon rain. 

^irwftben in ©erlitt wohnen, They will reside in Berlin. 

Der SWaler wirb fcaS ©emäl'be The painter will probably 
wafyrfdjein'lid) übermorgen have finished the paint- 
»oüen'bet fyaben, ing day after to-morrow. 

SJrciunbjtoanjigftc Aufgabe- 

1. #eute wirb e$ gewiß' fe&r tyeiß fein. 2. DaS 33uc$ wirb 
fangweütg.\ 3* ©egen Slbenb würbe ba$ Sßetter fall, naß unb 
fc&r unangenehm. 4. Der Kaufmann würbe fe&r reid). 5. GS 
wirb fd)wül. 6. <£S wirb watyrfäetnlicl) »or Slbeut regnet^. 7. 
SWorgen wtrj> ber SWaler ba$ ©emälbe ganj gewiß »otTclibet tya* 
ben. 8* Der fciftyler wirb bic Äommo'be morgen repari'reu. 
9. Der Sauer wirb ba$ Äont wrfau'fen. 10. Der Safer, wirb 
ba« Äinb (oben, weit ti fleißig ifl unb weil cS bie Slufgabe fo 
föneU twllenbet l;at. 11. £eute Slbenb (this evening) wirb 
Söityelm ©gröber ben Direftor be$ SWufeumö befugen. 12. 
SWorgen Slbenb (to-morrow evening) werben wir ben $errn 

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40 THE IRBEGÜLAR VERB tOttbttt, TO BECOME. 



$rofeffor ©tebert a\ß 2ßien befugen. 13. SBafcrenb ber 9iad)t 
nmrbe e$ jiemlid) falt, aber jefct ifl ba$ SBetter »arm unb ange* 
nefcm. 14* 2>er Änabe wirb bic Seftion' balb gelernt fcaben. 15* 
SSBir werben bag £au« nic^t faufert. 16, ®$ tyat gebohnert; es 
»irb balb regnen* 

Vocabulaiy. 



$tt Ärjt, — eS, the physician. 

„ ®aucr, — 8, the peasant. 

„ ©tbltotyctar', — S, the übrarian. 

„ SttreFtor, — 8, the Director. 

„ j£ifd)ler, — 8, the cabinet-maker. 

n SEtötfn, — «, the wheat. 

rf Joggen, — «, the iye. 
$ie Sommo'be, — , the bureau. 
$00 Äorn, — e«, the grain. 
83eoau'cn,tocultivate, to tili, 
fernen, to learn. 
SDttetljen, to rent, to hire. 
Xobcln, to blaroe. 
föcjMtri'renVtb mend. 



$rm, poor. 

förid), rieh, 

greunbltd), kind, friendly. 

Äojioar, costly. 

Sangtoettig, tedious. 

Sßaß, wet. 

©ä)toüt, sultiy. 

©<$, 800D. 

©oetöen, just now. 
äRorwn, to-morrow. 
Uefcermorgen, day after to-morrow. 
©cfyltett, fast, quick, 
©ettriß', certainly. 
2Ba$rfd)em'ttä}, probably. 



GrammaticaL 
1. The Irregulär Verb toCr&Ctt, to became, is conjugated 
thus: 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Taue. 
3d) tDtrb'*e, I become. 
2)u toirft, thoa becomest. 

Cr tottb, he becomes. 

ffitr to c r b '* eil, we become. 
3fyr tt>erb'*et, you become. 
@ic mcrb'*CB f they become. 



Imper/ect Taue. 
3ä) mtV't, I became. 
3)U m u r b '* eft, thou becamest. 
(Sr t»urb'*e, he became. 
Sßßir to u r b '* tu, we became. 
3&r rourb'*et, you became. 
©ic TOUrb'*etl, they became. 



2. The Present Tense of tocrtcn, to become, is useiin 
forming the Future Tensea of all verbs : 
First Future : di tirfrb regnen, It will rain. 

Second Future : @3 tofrb geregnet tyaben, It will have rained. 

Rem. The Future Tenses in German express simple futurity, and not in- 
clination or desire, as is often the case in English. 



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FUTÜRB TENSES. 



41 



3. The Indicative Hood of 

. Prezent Tense. 
i$ Keb'*e, Ilove. 
bu I i c b '* % thou lovesk 
et lieb*f, heloves. 
toxi ltcb'*cil, welove. 
tyr tieftet, youlove. 
%t Utk'* tU, theylove. 

Per/ect Tense. 
I have loyed, etc. 

uty ^ob'sc geliebf» 
bu ftaft geliebt', 
er W geliebt', 

tobe Ijab'-eil geliebt'. 
ü)r 1>ab'*t geliebt', 
fie ^ab'-eil geliebt'. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall love, etc. 

t$ toerb'*e liebem, 
bu fcfrft lieben, 
er toirt» lieben, 

toir n>erb'«c«lieben. 
tyr toerb'*ei lieben, 
fle tt>erb'*cil lieben. 



Heben, to love. 

Imperfect Tense. 
i$ Heb'* tt, I loved. 
bu lieb'* ttft, thou lovedsi. 
er liebste, he loved. 
ttrir lteb'*ttÄ, we loved. 
iljr lieb'*tet, you loved. 
fie lieb'* ttÄ, they loved. 

Phtperfect Tense. 
I had loved, etc. 

ty ftaf'te geliebf* 

bu $at'*fe& geliebt', 
er $at'*te geliebt', 
toir ^at'tten geliebt'. 
u)r &at'*tet geliebt', 
fie $at'*teit geliebt'. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have loved, etc. 

i$ fterb'«e gcliebf Mafien. 
bu ttirft geliebt' $aben. 

er toirb geliebt' fcaben. 

tuir »erb'*eil geliebt' tyaben. 
ü)r tt>erb'*et geliebt' tyaben. 
fie n>erb'*ctt geliebt' ^aben. 



/ 



Exercise 24. 
1. The physician will visit Mr. Meyer to-djLjr. 2. The 
carpenter is building the ly>use. 3. The peasant is till- 
ing the field. 4. The merchant is becoming very rieh. 
5. The tailor became very poor. 6. The history became 
very tedious. 7. It is becoming sultry. 8. It will soon 
rain. 9. It is thundering now (foeben). 10. The peasant 
will seil the wheat and the rye. 11. The director of 
the Museum was very kind towards (gegen) us. 12. He 
took (fuhren) us through the Museum. 13. The librarian 
toök us through the Library. 14. The Library is very 
large and costly. 15. The teacher blamed the child 
because it did not learn the lesson. 16.We have rent- 
ed the house. 



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42 , GERMAN CÜBBENT JUND. 

LESSON XIII. 
GEBMAN CXJBBEKT HAND. 

1. Capital Letter?. 
Ä B C D E F G H 1 J 

&?£?»W ^ $? & '& ^c? 

K L M N T Q . R S T 
U V W JT Y Z 



8. Small Letten. 
a b r. ■ d e f g h i j k l m n 

y ' s> y ^ 

o p q r $ $ t u v w x y z 



3. Umlaut Vowels and Gombined Consonants. 




~ 


-/f/s 


/ 


ä Ö 


ü 


äu ch seh st 


sz 

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GEEMAN CÜRRENT HAND. 43 



günfunbjtDanjtgfte »ufga&e. 

Berlin, fyunBurg, £regtat, Ä8ln. 

Vtuntyn, SBicn, granffurt. 



* $ot*bam, Äu^burg, ©rtmeru 



©aitföfttab, Ämerifa, ftaugcn. 

i « / 







ecp^ie, 3Rarie, Hnna, »uguftc. 



$trr gtymibt, v* grau 5Dictri<^, 

griuldn 3Rü$lba<*. 

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44 



GERMAN CÜRRENT HAND. 



©cdjSmtbjtoanjigftc Aufgabe- 

(2.) ^^^L^^^JüL^t^^L 
(3.) a£^ ' &..?...-...* yfj~ 6L^£. 
(4.) a£Ls&L- ^£t£^J/ yiS 



(5.) 





*^^ 





JL 




+~*^€ L -m n *. 







+-* -+ --m " t* - *-'^C-'Tm- 




t/ 



(6.) a2L ^&„. -<&* &2L~/> 




m^J^r y^ ' /JZ^LS-zLs 




(7.) ^*-«*-*«-*«- Q ^^ +^+'-e**^*******». ^Ztm^Z <**?>tmsb 





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I 



CONJÜGATION OF IRREGULÄR VERBS. 45 

/ 

LESSON XIV. 

COKJÜOATION OF IKREGULAB VERBS. 

<5pre<$eji v <3te Deutfd) ? Do you speak German ? 

SRetn, ify fprettye nur (Sngliftty, No, I speak only English. 

£err 5Kc9cr fprtd^t Deutfty, Mr. Meyer speaks German, 

£err Älein fprad) mit un$, Mr. Klein spoke to us. 

dt $at mit un$ gefprod)'en, He has spoken to us. 

SWarie fingt fefyr fd)ön, Mary sings very finely. 

©lebennn&atoanjigfte Sfofflafie* 

l.epredjen ©ie Deutfö? 2. ffiir fpred&en nur (Engltfd), 
3» grau Dietrid) fprittyt Deutfd) unb granjö'ftffy 4. gräulein 
4>afencle&er fprid)! granjöjtfty, 3taliä'nifd) unb ©pantfd). 5* 
Der 5Bud)binber tyat ba$ 33ud) ganj gut gebunden* 6, 2Bo tyaben 
<3ie ben S3ricf gefunden ? 7. 3$ fanb tyn im 33ud)e, 8. grau* 
fein £ilbebranb $at bag 8icb fe|>r fd)ön gefung'em 9, 3a, fte 
fang es nnrflid) fe&r ft^Sm 10, Der # Dieb tyat ba3 ©clb geftofc'* 
Icn. 1 1. Da« Äinb &at mit bem ©todfc gefpielt 12* 3a, unb e« 
$at tyn aud) gebrochen, 13» 3$ &abe fceute SWorgcn mit £errn 
53raun geforodj'em 14» 3$ &abe ba« 33ud) lange gefugt, aber id) 
tyabe t$ foq nid)t gdhnben* 15. 3o$ann $at e$* 

Vocabjdary. 



®er ©U^bülber, — •%, thebookbifder/ 

n 3)ieb,— eS, thethiefc 

n @tocf, — &, the cane. 
£a£ <&Vt, — t«, the money. 

„ 2icb, % — c«, the song. 
SRur (od».), only, but. 
SBcmg («<fo.), a little - 
©anj (adv.\ entirely, very. 

Present Infinitive. Imperfect Indicative. Perfect Participk. 

&Ulb'«en r tobind, t(Utb, boand, ge4l1t1lb'*en, bonnd. 

finV*cn, to find, fftttb, foand, ge*funb'*en, found. 

jtng'*cn, tosing, fang, sang, ge*fung'*en, sang, 

ftnttf'en, to speak, forad), spoke, ge«forod|'*ti, spoken. 

brciy'*cn, to break, braiy, broke, ge*bro$'*en, broken. 

ftc$t'*en, tosteal, ft«&l, stolc, ge*ßobr*en, stolen, 



3)eutf$, German. 
$ottfinbtf$, Dutch. 
(SngüW, English. 
granjö'ftfö, French. 
3talWt'*mf<$, Italian. 
©Jxmifö, Spanish. 
Satri'nifö, Latin. 
@rie<$tf<$, Greek. 



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46 



CONJUGATION OP IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



GrammaticaL 

1. Irregulär Verbs have the following peculiarities : 

1 . They have the ending *fll instead of st in the Perfect Participle. 

2. The radical vowel of most Irregulär Verbs is changed in forming 
the Imperfect Indicative and the Perfect Participle. 

3. The Imperfect Indicative is usoally a monosyllable (having iheßrst 
and third persans singular alike, and rarely take the ending stC)» 

4. Most verbs -with t in the radical syllable change it to i or ic in the 
second and third person of the present singular. 

2. The Indicative Mood of tyredjctt, to speak: 



Present Tense. 
td) forest, I »peak, 
bu tyridjsft/ thou speakest. 
er foridMf he speaks. 
um \pxtü)'»tn, we speak. 
u)r fj>re$'*t, you speak. 
flC \pxt6) r *tn, they speak. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have spoken, etc. 

iä) W*t geforotfeu* 
bu f>a(t gef*ro$'en. 
er fy!t gefprodj'cn. 

nur fcab'-en gefj>ro$'eu. 
ihr \>ah'*t gefprodj'en. 
fie $ab%at gef£ro<$'eu. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall speak, etc. 

i* ötrb'*e fered>'eiu 
bu öirft f^redj'en. 

er toirb fpre^'en. 

totr »erbten fprecfy'en. 
tyr »erbtet fj>re$'cn. 
fle »erbten fpre^'cn. 



Imperfect Tense. 
\$ total!), I spoke. 

bu f p r a $ $fl, thou spokest. 
er tyfttd), he spoke. 

ttnr f p x a dj '* tu, we spoke. 
tyr \pxati)'*t, you spoke. 
fle \pxa$'*tn, they spoke. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had spoken, etc. 

\$ %*t*tt geforodj'eit, 
bu ^ a t '* tcjl gefproty'en. 
er iaf'tt gefj>ro<$'ciu 
nrir ^at'-fett gefj>rocty'en. 
tyr &at'*tct gefprodj'en. 
fte $at'*tCK gef£rod)'cn. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have spoken, etc. 

i$ mtV* geforouVcntofatt. 
bu tofrjl geftrocty'en $abcu. 

er toirb gefj>ro<$'en tyaben. 

n?ir »erbten gefj>ro$'eu tyaben. 
t&r »erbtet geft>ro<yen $abcn. 
fte to c r b '- tu geftro^'en i a b exu 



3. The Indicative Mood of ftcljlctt, to steal : 

Imperfect Tense. 
\ä) ftläfi, I stole. 

bu ßa$l*ft, thonstolest. 
er ftttljl, he stole. 

nrir fl a ff V* CK, we stole. 



Present Tense. 
\6f fM>r*e, I steal. 
bu {tie(l*ftr thou stealest. 
et fät%\4, he steals. 
nrir ße$t'*ei,*e steal. 
U)r fle$t'*t, you steal 
fle ftt$l'*tn, they steal. 



Ü)r fl a&r*t, you stole. 
Pe pa^I%cn f they stole. 



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CONJÜGATION OF IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



47 



Per/ect Ten*. 
i$ Dobe geftobl'eit, etc., 
I have stolen, etc. 

First Fuiure Taue. 

U$ toerbe W tu, etc., 

I shall steal, cfc. 

4. The Indicative Mood of Hüben, to bind: 



Pluperfect Tense. 
\$ (alte ltft$WtU,etc, 
I had stolen, etc. 

Second Futwre Tense. 

i$ toerbe getreu $abeu,e*c., 

I shall have stolen, etc. 



Present Tense. 
i* Mltb'*e, I bind, 
bu Httb'*ejl, thou bindest, 
er lixb'*et, he binds. 
ttrir b i n b '* e«, we bind. 
u)r btnb'*et, yon bind, 
fte b t n b '* tu, they bind. 

Per/fect Tense. 

t* bübc ßebunb'eis, «*c., 

I have bonnd, etc. 

First Fvture Tense. 

ty toerbe btab'eit,etc., 

I shall bind, etc. 



Imperfect Tense. 
i$ (trab, I bonnd. 

bu banb'*efl, thou bonndest. 
er bfttlbf he bonnd. 

xoxx banb'*eit, wo bonnd. 
tyr banb'*et, you bonnd. 
f!c b an b '* e«, they bonnd. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

\äf bottc öebtwb'eii,«*., 

I had bonnd, etc. 

Second Futvre Tense. 

iäf toerbe gebimb'eis %ubtu,etc f 

I shall have bonnd, etc. 



5. Adjectives are used as adverbs without change of 
form. 



8r ftm$t gut, 
@ic fingt fdjön, 



He speaks well. 
She slngs beautifully. 



Exeroise 28. 
1. Do you speak French? 2. No, I do not speak 
French. 3. Mr. Kreutzner speaks German, Dutch, Italian, 
and Spanish. 4. Prof. Schmidt speaks Latin and Greek. 
5. You have broken the cane. 6. The thief has stolen 
the hat and the coat. 7. Where did you find the pencil ? 
8. 1 found it under the book. 9. George had tied (bin* 
ben) the band on (um) the hat. 10. Mary sung the song 
very well. 11. Mr. Neidner is speaking; do you hear 
what he is saying? 12. I was looking for the news- 
paper. 13. Henry will sing the song. 14. The child 
had broken the cane. 15. John will find the book. 16. 
Mr. Krause will buy the house. 



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48 



PLURAL OP NOONS. 



LESSON XV. 

PLURAL OF NOUK8 AND OP THE DEFINITE ART1CLE. 



Die 8e$rer loben bie ©d)üler, 

Die ©arten ftnb fe&r grofj, 
Die Serge ftnb fteil, 
Die £unbe folgen ben 3agern # 
Die Mfyt ftnb fatt, 
Sllbre^t $at bie 93üd>er, 
Die Äir^en ftnb fd)6n, 
2öer &atbie3eitungen? 



The teachers praise the 

scholars. 
The gardens are very largc. 
The mountains are steep. 
The dogs follow the hunt- 
The nights are cold. [ers. 
Albert has the books. 
The churches are.beautiful. 
Who has the newspapers ? 



SHettttunbjtocjijiflfte Hufgabe. 

1* Die ©djülcr tyaben bie Aufgaben »ollenbet 2. Die £ü* 
gel jtnb nictyt fe$r &o<$. 3- Die 3immer ftnb ju Hein. 4. Die 
©emälbe ftnb f$5n, aber fe^r treuer. 5. 3o^ann $at bie SMei* 
ftifte auf ben £ifd) gelegt 6- Die SMeifHfte ftnb neben ben 
33üd)em. 7- Die Stifte ftnb in ben 3taunern. 8. Die Diebe 
baben ba$ ©elb geflogen. 9- Die Datier ber Käufer in ben 
Dörfern ftnb fe&r fteil. 10. Die Stürme ber Ätrdjen in ben 
©täbten finb $oc$ unb impofant. 11» Die SWaler fcaben bie ©e* 
malbe an bie SBanbe ber 3tmmer gelangt 12. Der SWalcr fcat 
ba$ ©emalbe an bie 2Banb be« 3immer$ gelangt. 13,. §m 
Dietrid) fcat bie ©riefe über Bremen nad) Slmerifa gefd)idft. 14. 
£err ©lumenbad) unb £err Dundfcr fcaben bie lieber ganj föön 
gefungen. 

GrammaticaL 

1. The Deflnite Artide is declined as follows: 



MatcuUne. 

(The man.) 
Nom. ber SJUnn. 
Gen. be£ 2Rann«e«. 
Dat. beut SWann-c. 
Act. bttt SRann. 



BENGÜLAB. 
Feminine. 
(The woman.) 
bie grau. 
bet grau. 
ber grau. 
bie grau. 



Neuter. 
(The chfld.) 
büS Ätnb. 
be8 £tnb*e«. 
beut£tnb*e. 
bat Ätnb. 



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PLURAL OP NOUNS. 



49 



MascuUne. 
(The men.) 
Nojm. feie 2JUnn*er. 
Gen. btt 2Ra'nn*er. 
Z)af. bell SRfinit'ern. 
^Lcc. bte 2Äfcnn»er. 



PLURAL. 

Feminine. ' Neuter. 

(The women.) (The children.) 

bte grausen, bie £inb*er. 

bet Staunen. ber £inb*er. 

bell grausen. ben £inb*ern. 

bie grau*eiu bie £tnb*er. 

Rem. The Definite Article has the sameform in the plural for all genders. 

2. The Plurals of Nouns are formed in several ways: 

1. With some nouns the nom. plural is like the nom. Singular. 

2. Some nouns take merely an umlaut on the radical vowel, when the 
rowel is capable of it. 

8. Some nouns merely add *e to the singular. 

4. Some nouns add st and also take the umlaut. 

5. Some nouns add *tt (with the umlaut, when the vowel is capable of it). 

6. Some nouns merely add s|| to the singular. 

7. Some nouns merely add »eil to the singular. 

3. Nouns that add -tt or *eit in the plural (and also in 
the gen.> dat., and acc. sing., if the nouns are masculine) 
are said to be of the New Declension. 

Those that take *1l or *eil in the plural, and *8 or *ti 
in the gen. sing., are said to be of the Hixed Declension. 
All other nouns are said to be of the Old Declension. 

Rem. 1. The Old Declension includes by far the greater portion of nouns. 
Rem. 2. No neuter nouns belong to the New Declension. 
Rem. 8. No feminine nouns belong to the Mixed Declension. 

4. Tabular view of the singular and plural of nouns : 



(Singular.) (Plural) 


(Singular 


.) (Plural.) 


(Singular.) (Plurt 




1. 




2. 


»», 


Sifdje. 


2Mer, 


SRolcr. 


Sßattt, 


»Stet. 




4. 


2e$rer, 


ßefyrer. 


©orten, 


©firten. 


Äod), 


Ä5<fc. 


elfter, 


@d)üler. 


Ofen, 


Oefen. 


«rjt, 


Berjte. 


©Wer, 


»ficte. 


3Jhittcr, 


2Rfitter. 


$<?t, 


$üte. 


3*8«, 


Säger. 




3. 


Sfcodf, 


«Bde. 


SRcffcr, 


SWcffer. 


Bbenb, 


Stbenbe. 


@tu$I, 


©tityte. 


3taner, 


3nnmer. 


«ero., 


»erge. 


ftadft, 


SRfiä)te. 


SWorgen, 


SRoroen. 


«tetjKft, 


©tritfiftc. 


@tabt, 


®täbte. 


Wä«1, 


Söge!. 


»rief, 


«riefe. 
C 


öcutb, 


Sttnbe. 










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50 



DECLENSION OF KOÜNS. 



(Singular.) (Plural.) 


(Singular.) (Pharal.) 


(Singulai 


'.) (P&fYl£) 




5. 




6. 




7. 


äRaim, 


2Äfinner. 


©Ott«,* 


©auera.* 


2)oftor,* 


2>ottor'en.* 


SSBotb, 


SBfitber. 


Änabe, 


Änaben. 


*err, 


Ferren. 


»«$, 


©fi$er. 


Aufgabe, 


Sfofgabeu. 


^tofeffor, 


•^rofeffor'en.* 


2)orf, 


2)örfer. 


©rüde, 


©rüden. 


@oIbaf, 


©olbafen. 


©elb, 


©elber. 


greube, 


greuben. 


Störeftor,« 


JDirettor'en. 


©au«, 


$fiufer. 


©eföicyte 


, @ef<$idjf en. 


©tbftotyet' 


©iMiotyeTen. 


2)a<fr, 


2>fi$er. 


Äir$e, 


Atrien. 


grau, 


grauen. 


Jcinb, 


Jtmber. 


Äommob'e 


, Äommo'ben. 


©efcuX, 


©efa^en. 


*i$t, 


Sinter. 


©Mc, 


giften. 


Mtion', 


2eftion'etu 



5. Examples of the Declension of Nonns: 



1. Old Declension. 



1. Painter. 

N.ktt ftaler, 
G.te» 2Äaler*S, 
D. beutSRaler, 
A. ben SWafer. 



. Father. 

ber Sater, 

be« »ater*«, 
bem»ater, 
bat »ater. 



3. Mountain. 

ber 8erg, 

be« ©erg*e«, 
beut ©erg«e/ 
ben ©erg. 



4. City. 

bie @tabt, 

ber@tabt, 
ber ©tobt, 
bie ©tobt. 



5. Man. 

ber 3R<nra, 
btd 2Ronn*e*, 
bem3Rann*e, 
ben SRonn. 



M bie aRofer, 
G.ber SWafer, 
D. ben 2RaIer*it, 
4. bie SWaler. 



bie Ȋter, 

ber »fiter, 
ben ©Sterin, 
bie »fiter. 



bie »erg*e, 

ber ©erg-e, 

ben ©erg*e*, 

bie ©erg*e* 



bie ©töbt*e, 

ber ©tfibt*e, 
ben ©tfibt*e«, 
bie @tfibt-e* 



bie 3Rämutr, 
ber SWfimKt, 
ben 3Rfinn*ern, 
bie 2Rfimt*er. 



2. New Declension. 



3. Mized Declension. 



SINGULAR. 



8IHGULAR. 



6. Boy. 

N. ber Änabe, 
G. btt &ntbe*n, 
D. bem Änabe*«, 
A. ben Änabc-n, 



7. Woman. 

bie grau, 

ber grau, 
ber grau, 
bie grau. 



'8. Peasant. 

ber ©nuer, 
be« ©ouer*0, 
bent ©oner f 
ben ©ouer. 



9. Doctor. 

ber Sottor. 

be« Stottor*«, 
bem ©ottor, 
ben 2)oftor. 



PLURAL. 



N. bie Änabe«n, 
G. ber Änabe*», 
D. ben Änabe*«, 
A. bie Änabe*«. 



bie gratt*en, 

ber grausen, 
ben grau*e«, 
bie grau*ett* 



bie ©<nier«ti f 

ber ©auer*«, 

ben ©auer»«, 

bie ©auer««« 



bie Softor'sen, 
ber 2)o!tor'*ett, 
ben 2)ottor'* cu, 
bie Eoftor^e». 



Htm. 1. The genitive and aecusative of the plnral number have the same 
form as the nominatire plnral 

Bern. 2. An s« is always added in the dative plural if the nominativo 
plnral does not already end in that letter. 



* In the Mixcd Declension. 



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THE INDEFINITE ARTIGLE. 51 

Exercise SO. 
1. The scholars have bought the books. 2. The books 
of the painters are on the tables. 3. The cabinet-makers 
have mended the tables. 4. The stoves, the chairs, and 
the tables are in the rooms. 5. Miss Neumann sang 
the songs very beautifully. 6. The nights are now 
very cold. 7. TJie towers of the churches in the city 
are very high. 8. The news (jpl.) in the newspaper is 
to-day very interesting. 9. The gardens are not very 
large. 10. The soldiers are in the city. 11. Where did 
you find the pencils ? 12. The pencils were under the 
books. 13. The tailors have mended the coats. 14. 
The children are playing with the dogs. 15. We sent 
the letters by way of Hamburg. 



LESSON XVI. 

THE INDEFINITE ABTICLE. 

Cr $at ein $au$ gefauft, He has bought a house. 

3d> fuc^e einen SMeijHft, I am looking for a peneih 

|>aben ©ie eine 3eitong ? Have you a newspaper? 

Cr faufte ein $funb Sljee, He bought a pound of tea. 

<&x faufte ein $aar (Stiefel, He bought a pair of boots. 

Da« £ud) fojht einen Steiler The cloth cost a dollar a 

bie ©De, yard. 

Da« Xuö) i|t eine <&Ut breit, The cloth is a yard wide. 

Ginunbbrei§ig(te Sfafgafce* 

1. £err Sluerfcad) fcat $eute ein ©emälbe gefauft. 2. f>ein^ 
ri# $at fceute einen Stocf, einen £ut, ein $aar ©tiefel unb ein 
$aar ©d>ufce getauft- 3. Der Äo# $at ein $funb 3u<*er, ein 
$funb Äaffee unb ein $funb Xfyt geholt 4. 2Bfinfd)en ©ie 
eine SCaffe Äaffee ober eine Saffe $q>ee? 5. 3$ wünf^e nur 
ein ©la« SBaffer. 6* Da« Äinb n>ünfd)t ein ©la« 9Wüd> unb 
ein ©tüdf 33uttertrob (bread and butter). 7. Die Soffen 



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52 



THE INDEFINITE ABTIGLE. 



fmb fe&r f$5tu 8. ©erben ©ie ein 33ud> Rapier ober ein 9tie* 
Rapier faufen? 9, 3d> »erbe ein SRicS Rapier faufen. 10* 
2>a* £ud) ifl eine (EHe breit IL <E* foftet einen fc&aler bie 
CDe* 12. 2)er £&ee foftet einen £$aier ba* $fimb. 13- Die 
gier fojten je&n (ten) ©reffen bog Dufcenb. 14. £einrid) $at 
einen S^aler unb ge^n ©rofäen für ba$ Sud) begabt 15. 2)a$ 
S3anb tji einen 3oH breit; es fojiet jwei (two) ©roftyen unb 
fed)$ (six) Pfennige bie (EUe* 16, S3or einem Safere (a year 
ago) waren wir in 2)eutfd)lanb, 17. 3$ wünfdje ein Quart 
Sßtild}, ein §>funb fcfeee unb ein Dufcenb (Eier* 

Vocabulary. 



Set £&alcr, — 9, pL — , dollar. 
n @rof (tyen, — «, /> J. — f groschen. 
„ ^ferarig,— «,/>/.— t, pfennig. 

r» guß,— ««,/>£ gÜffofoot. 

„ 3ofl,— ««,i>/.— e,inch. 

fr ©oflen, — %, pL — , sheet. 

n @($u$ f — ««, j> L — c, Aoe. 

„ $onbj $u$, — c«, j>J. — e, giove. 

„ Stiefel, — «, pl — , boot. 

„ yanU>f\ü,—*,pL—n, slipper. 

« , Äaff ce, — « f ;»/. — , coffee. 

„ £&ec,— 9 f pL— ,tea. 

„ 3ucfer,— «,ragar. 

ft Äci«,— c«, rioe. 
Ober, or. 
JBcja&f en, to pay. 
SBünf($en, to wfch, desire. 
|}, largo, tall. 



Sie Sffe,— ,/>/. — n,yard,ell. 

„ %a jf e, — , j>/. — n, cup, cup and 
saucer. 

„ SRü^— ,milk. 
Sa« 3a$r, — €«,/>£ — e, year. 

* 3)ufcenb, — t» f pl. — e, dozen. 

rr (St, — e«, j>£ — cr f egg. 

rf <ßoar, — e«, />/. — e, pair. 

» oCteS, — e$, ream. 

ff ©udj,— *S,quire. 

„ «ßfunb, — es, />J. — c f pound. 

» ©tfief , — *$, pl. — e, piece. 

r, @fo«, — e«,j>J. @Wfer,gIa88. 

rf JBk jf er, — ■*, pl — , water. 

» Ouart, — e$, j> £ — e, quart 
©reit, broad, wide. 
Song, long. 
£tef,deep. 

GrammaticaL 
1. The Indefinite Article tin,a oran>is declined thus : 

FEMININE. KEÜTES. 

(A woman.) (A child.) 

eia'*e grau. ein Äinb. 

cut'*er grau. etn'*e$ JtfnbeS. 

einher grau. ein'<ent Äinbe. 

rin'*e grau, ein fcinb. 
Rem. The Indefinite Article takes tbe gender and case of tbe nonn with 
vhich it is emplojed. 



MA8CULINE. 

(A man.) 
Nom. eil SRoim. 
Gen. em'»e$ 9Ranne9. 
Dat. 6n'*tm SWamie. 
Acc. einten Wlatm. 



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THE INDEFINITE ABTICLE. 53 

2. The following Idioms are usedwith nouns of weight, 
meamre, quantity, and price : 

1. Nouns of weight, measure, and quantity are in apposition with the 
nouns they limit Those in the feminine gender alone take the pl. form, 
the masculine and neater nouns retaining the singular form in the pluraL 
ÖT f aufte ein $funb 3tt<f er wnbjtoet He bonght a ponnd of sogar and 

$fmib £fcc, two pounds of tea. 

©ie taufte nur eine (Sfle Xu$ imb She bonght only one yard of cloth, 
m$t jn>ei (gfle« Xu$, and not two yards of cloth. 

2. Verbs and adjeetives indicating weight, measure, quantity, and price 
reqnire the noun expressing the weight, etc., to be in the aecusative case : 
<ge Wiegt ein $funb, It weäghs a ponnd. 

©« foflet eilten Xfytfar, It costs a dollar. 

2>a« SSaffer ift einen guß tief, The water is a foot deep. 

8. Nonns expressing the quantity, following nouns expressing price, are 
preceded by the definite article : 

<£« loflet einen Xtydtx ba$ $funb f It costs a dollar a pound. 
(5ß foflet einen X^oler Me £He, It costs a dollar a yard. 

3. Praasian Money is the Standard in North and Central 
Germany. 

1 Z^oXtx = 30 ©reffen = 360 ^fenntge= 73 amte u» ^Zrf. 
1 ©rof4en= 12 Pfennige = 2| cöti& m ^ö&£. 
1 Pfennig = \ofacent. 

Rem. Foreign Exchange to all Germany is usually made in Prussian thlrs. 

Ezercise 82. ^ 

1. Have you a pencil? 2. There is a pencil on the 
table. 3. William bought a pair of shoes and a pair of 
slippers. 4. The cook will go and get (f)olen) a dozen 
eggs, a pound of sugar, and a quart of milk, and a pound 
of rice. 5. The book will cost a dollar and twenty 
(jwanjig) groschens. 6. William wishes a glass of wa- 
ter. 7. Do you wish a cup of tea or a cup of coffee ? 
8. 1 wish a cup of coffee. 9. The cloth is a yard wide. 
10. It costs a dollar a yard. 11. 1 paid a dollar and ten 
($e!)n) groschens for the book. 12. The ribbon is a yard 
long #nd an inch wide. 13. It cost ten groschens a yard. 
14. The tea cost a dollar a pound. 15. Have you a 
sheet of paper? 16. He has a ream of paper. 



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54 CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

LESSON XVII. 

CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

Die £ird)e fcat gttei Stürme, The churchhas two towers. 
Der Säger tyat »ier £unbe, The hunter has four dogs. 
Der £od& &at fed)* $funb 9tei« The cook got six pounds of 

unb a$t $fimb 3ucfer &* ri ce an(1 e igh* pounds of 

fcolt, sugar. 

Äarl fjl »iergetyn 3a&re alt, Charles is fourteen years 

old. 
£errDietrid) ijt tyeute »ierunb* Mr. Dietrich is to-day sixty- 

ftdföig 3a&re alt, four years old. 

3m 3atyre afyge&n&unbert bter* In the year eighteen hun- 

unbfedfotg tt>ar £err $rofejfor dred and sixty-four Pro- 

33e$r in Dcutfd)lanb, fessor Behr was in Ger- 

many. 

2)reiunbbreiftigflc Aufgabe. 

1. £err SWe^er fcat brei Käufer in ©ot&a gefauft. 2. S)a$ 
£ud) ijt eine eile breit unb neun ©Ben lang. 3. Der Äod) fcat 
groei Dufcenb CSier, fünf $funb 3u<fer unb fteben $funb SReid ge* 
&olt. 4. Da« 33ud> fojtet ad)t $$aler unb fünfunbgroangig 
©rofttyem 5. 3$ &abe für ba« S3anb fünfimbgtoangig ©roföen 
unb fed)S Pfennige bejaht. 6. £emri<$ ijt rier guß unb elf 
3oU grop, 7. Die S3rücfe ifl bterunbadjtgig guf? lang. 8. Der 
£&urm be« Dome« gu (at) SÄagbeburg ijt brei&unbert unb breiig 
gup fcod). 9* Der £$urm be« Dome« gu ©Jen ijt »ier&unbert 
fed)*unbbreipig guf? &od). 10. Die ©ibliot&ef gu S3erlin f>at 
fe4*&unbert unb fünfgig taufenb 5Büd)er. 11. »erlin fcatüber fte* 
benfmnbert taufenb eimoofyitr (inhabitants). 12. DreSben fat 
Hubert unb mergig taufenb einwo^ner. 13. 3Wagbeburg l>at neun* 
gigtaufenb (Einwo&ner. 14. 3m 3afcre adjtgefcnfcunbert (or im 
3afcre eintaufenb ad)t$unbert) breiunbfe^gig too&nten £err grieb* 
lanb unb £err ffiolf in £eibelberg. 1 5* £crr 93raun war gejtern 
ad)tunbfünfgig 3a&re alt (old). 



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CARDINAL NÜMBERS. 



55 



GrammaticaL 
1. The Cardinal Numbers are formed as follows : 



1. öut«. 

2. 3»ci. 

3. 3)rei. 

4. »icr. 

5. güitf. 

6. @e$«. 

7. ©teoau 

8. Styt. 

9. 9tanu 

10. 3e$n. 

11. Stf. 

12. 3»5tf. 

13. Storetjefa. 

14. Eierjetyn. 

15. günfoefa. 

16. ©et^jetyt. 

17. @ieienje$n or @tcoje$tu 

18. ?l$t)e$n. 

19. SReunjefyt. 

so. 3»««a^« 

21. Ctnunbgtoanjtg. 

22. 3»«uiibjtoanjig, etc. 

30. SMrrißto,. 

31. (Stnunbbreißtg, etc. 



40. Siergtg. 

50. günfgig. 

60. @eä)jig. 

70. ©iebengiß or ^ie&jifl, 

80. Bfyjig. 

90. Sßeunjtg. 

100. $uitbert 

101. #unbert unb ein«. 
110. #unbert unb je&n. 

120. $unbtrt unb gnxmjig. 

121. $unbert eimrabjtoangig. 
125. $unbert ffinfunbjtoanjig. 
136. j^uitbert fe^unbbteißiß. 
150. $unbert unb fünfjig. 
200. 3»etyunbert. 

225. 3»ci^unbertfünfunbs»anjig 

500. günftunbert 
1,000. öintaufenb. 
1,005. (Sintaufenb nnb fünf. 
1,025. (Stntaufenb ffinfunbgnxmgig. 
1,500. ötntaujenb fflnfounbert. 
2,000. 3»cUaufenb» 
20,000. 3tt>«njtgtaufenb. 



1 200,000. 3n>cu)unbcrt taufenb. 
1869. a^tje^unbert unb neununbfetyig, 

(or) (Sintaufenb ad&tyuubert neununbfc^jtg. 

2. When used with a noun, and not preceded by a 
definite article, (gut, one is declined like the indefinite 
artide (see Less. XVI.). 

Rem. 1. The numeral titt takes a stronger emphamg than is given to the in- 
definite article. 

Bern. 2. The indefinite article is in fact only a modification in signification 
and ose of the numeral titt. 
Bern. 8. The form tUl$ is nsed in countmg and in mnltipljing : 
©n«, jtoet, brri, toter, etc., One, two, three, four, etc. 
(Sinmol (Sind tß (Sin«, Once one is one. 

3. The Cardinal Numbers are usually undeelined. 

Rem. This is especially the case when they are joined to nouns and are 
preceded by prepositions. 

(&x tyot gefyt Sogen P^ier, He has ten sheets of paper. 
2RU je$n Sogen fytykx, With ten ßheets of paper. 



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56 CARDINAL NÜMBER8. 

4. Single words are usually formed of units and tens, 
of multiples ofa hundred, and of multiples ofa thousand 
up to a hundred thousand. 

»tenmbjtoanaig, Twenty-four. 

3td)t$unbert, Eight handred. 

$ä)tje$n$unbert, Eighteen handred. 

3tä)tjtßtaiifcnb, Eighty thousand. 

#unbcrttaufcnb, A handred thoasand. 

Sßicrljunbert taufcnb, Foor hundred thoasand. 
Rem. 1. Some writers put no divisions between numbers : 

öintaufcn))a^t^unbertunbfcd)«Mnbg»anjt9 (1826). 
Rem. 2. diu, one(d) is not used before fytnbttt and tattftltb* 

2)a3 Sßnöf \)at $unbert leiten, The book has a handred pages. 

5. 3f!lt ^tifyxt is inserted before the number ofthe year. 
$m 3<4re 1868 toar er in &8tn, In 1868 he was in Cologne. 

6. The ie is short in Werjeljit and toierjifl* 

Exeroise 34. 
1. The cook has bought two pounds of sugar and six 
pounds of rice. 2. Mr. Friedland paid fifteen dollars 
for the books. 3.William is five feet and seven inches 
high. 4. The tower of the Cathedral at Strasburg is 
four hundred and thirty-six feet high. 5. The two tow- 
ers of the Cathedral at Munich are three hundred and 
thirty-six feet high. 6. The bridge on the Elbe, in Dres- 
den, is one thousand six hundred and fifty feet long and 
fifty feet wide. 7. The Castle (<3d)lop) in Berlin is six 
hundred and twenty-six feet long, three hundred and 
seventy-three feet wide, and a hundred and one feet 
high. 8. It has six hundred rooms. 9. Bremen has sev- 
enty-eight thousand inhabitants ((Einwohner). 10. Ham- 
burg has a hundred and ninety-six thousand inhabit- 
ants. 11. The Library at Munich is two hundred and 
fifty feet long and eighty-five feet high. 12. It has eight 
hundred and fifteen thousand books. 13. In 1865 (im 
Satyre, etc.) Mr. Kohner was in Germany. 



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OLD DECLENBION OP ADJECTIVBÖ. 57 



LESSON XVIII. 

ADJECTIYE8 UßED PBEDICATIVELY AND ATTRIBUTIVELT. 
OLD DECLEN8ION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Da* %\xü) ijt febr fein, The cloth is very fine. 

2Bünfd)en ©ie feine« Xuä) ? Do you wish fine cloth ? 

3d) tyabe jwei neue Sudler, I have two new books. 

Der $ifd)ler tyatben $ifd) mit Thecabinet-makerhascov- 
grünem Seber bebeeft, ered the table with green 

leather. 

^aben <Ste beutfd^e SBüd^er? Have you (any) Qerman 

books ? 

3a, wir £aben beutfdje, engfifd^e, Yes, we have Qerman, En- 
franjöftfdjc, italianifäe, lattu glish,French,Italian,Lat- 
nifd)e unb griettytfdje 5Büd)er, in, and Greek books* 

gfinfttttbbreißiflfte Aufgabe. 

1. ®at ffiajfer ift falt. 2. SBünföen ©te falte« ©affer? 
3- 3$ wünföe warme« ffiajfer. 4. Der £od> fcat einen Ärug 
»oH Reifen Söajfer« (gen.)- 5. Der 33ut$binber $at ba« 35ud> mit 
rotyem 8eber gebunben. 6. Der ©d>netber fcat ben SRodf mit 
fdjroarjem Xuty gefuttert- 7- Äatyarina fcat im ©arten jwet 
weife unb brei rot&e SRofen gepflfidft. 8* gräulein £ilbebranbt 
fcat gefiern Slbenb jwei fd)5ne beutfdje lieber gefungen- 9. 33er* 
Im unb ffiien ftnb große unb fd)5ne ©täbte. 10* £err$rofef* 
for (Eber&arb fcat tyntt jwei italieniföe unb »ter fpaniföe 33üd)er 
gefauft- 11, SBunföen ©*e graue« ober grüne« £ud)? 12. 
3d> wünfetye braune«- 13- Sc^rreid^c 33ü<$er ftnb juweilen fe$r 
langweilig. 14. Der Dom ju 3Wünd)en &at jwei fco&e Stürme. 
15. Serlin §at breite ©trafen. 16. SBraunföweig (Brunswick) 
})at enge, frumme ©trafen- 17- Die Käufer in 33raunfd)weig 
faben fleile Datier- • 18. Da« £au« ifi grof unb bequem, aber 
e« ijt ju treuer. 19. Der ©attler f)dt fcfywarje«, gelbe« unb 
braune« ?ebcr gefauft. 

C2 

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58 



OLD DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



Vocabulary. 



$eutfä (**r, *e, *e«), German. | 

Sngftfd) (**r* # C/ *«*)r Engüsh. 
granjö'fifu) (*«r, *e# <*)r kreuch. 
$oESnbtfdj (*er, «*, *c«), Dutch. 
Otalitfiiif $ (»er, *c, *c«), Italian. 
©ponif $ (*er, *e«, *e«), Spanish. 
Se&rreicty (»er, *e, *e«), instruetive. 
gfeißtg (*er, *e, *e«), industrious. 
©equem' (*cr, *e, *c«), convenient. 
Äojibar (»er, #e, »e«), costly. 
Out (*er, *t, *t»), good. 
©tau («er, *e, *e«), gray. 
$o& (*cr, *e, **«), high (§ 89, J2em. 9). 
<5ng (*er, *e, *e$), narrow. 
Jfrumtn (*cr, *c, *tt), crooked. 
getn(*cr,*e,*««),fine. 
> (*er, *t, *c$), coarse. 



©riß («er, *t t e«), white. 

©d)fc>arj («er, «*e, *e«), black. 

töotfc (*cr, «*, *ce), red. 

©lau (*er, «*, *«8), blue. 

©elb (*cr, *e, *c«), yellow. 

©rün («er, «e, *€*), green. 

©raun (»er, *e, *c«), brown. 

$tt Ärug, — & t pL Ärflge, thepitcher 

„ ©attfer, — *, pL — , the saddler. 
Sit Stofc, — ,pl — u f the rose. 

„ @traße,— ,/>£— n,the street. 
Sttö gutter, — «,/>£ — f the lining. 

„ Scber, — «. />£ — , the leather. 

„ SBaffer,— «,/>£— , the water. 
öcbetf en, to cover. 
guttent, to line. 
^ßflücfen, to pluck, pick. 



GrammaticaL 

1. Adjectives, when used to complete the statement 
or predication of feilt, tDtrben, and some other intransi- 
tive verbs, are said to be used predicativdy : 

3)a« SBetter tft (d| , The weather is hot. 

2)aS Setter iötrb |eif , The weather is becoming hot. 

Bern. 1. When thus used, they are frequently termed predicative adjectives. 
Rem. 2. Adjectives used predicatively are indeclinable. 

2. Adjectives, when used before nouns to directly 
modify them, are said to be used attributwdy. 

Rem. When thus used, they are frequently termed attributive adjectives. 

3. Adjectives used attributively, and not preceded by 
other qualifying words, are decUned as follows : 



MascuUne. 
(Good man.) 
Nom. gut - er SKonn. 
Gen. gut*en Spanne«. 
Dat. gut« est SÄanne. 
Acc. gut-eit SWann. 



SINGULAR. 

Feminine. 
(Good woman.) 

gut «er grau. 
gut*e* grau, 
gut-er grau. 
gut*e gr-u. 



Neuter. 
(Good child.) 
gttt*e0 Äinb. 
gut «es Ambe*. 
gut*eutÄmbe* 
gut*e£ Ätnb. 



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OLD DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVE8. 59 

PI/ÜKAL. 



Abm.0iit-e SW&tner. 
Gen. gut* et Scanner. 
Dau gut* eil SKäimern, 
Acc. gut*e SJtönner 



gut*e grauen, gut*c Äinber. 

gut*er grauen. gut*er Araber. 

gut* eil grauen. gut*eu ämbern. 

gut*e grauen. gut*e Äinber. 

Bern. The plural of the adjeetive is the saine for all genders. 

4. Adjective8 declined as above are said to be of the 
Old Declension. 

5. The same termination is given to the adjeetive 

when the noun is understood as when it is expressed : 

@r $at M<nte0 ^ajrier unb He has blue paper and 
t$ $obe toetflcS (Rapier), I have white (paper). 

6. In German, proper adjeetives formed from names 
of countries do not begin with capital letters : 

gaben <&\t beutf a)e ©fietyer ? Have you German books ? 

Rem. 1. Titnlar epithets, however, nsnally begin with capitals : 

2>er SRorbbeutf^e ©unb, The North German Confederation. 

Rem. 2. Proper adjeetives formed from names of cities or of persona begin 
with capital letters : 

2He Ä8tatfo)e 3«tung f The Cologne Gazette. 

2)ie Äontföe ftffofo Wc', Kant's Philosophy. 

Exercise 36. 
1. Professor Lindemann has two Italian and three 
French newspapers. 2. Have you (any) Dutch books ? 

3. No, but we have German, French, and Spanish books. 

4. Mr. Meyerheim has laid two beautiful and expensive 
books on the table. 5. The saddler has been büying 
yellow and black leather. 6. The bookbinder has not 
bound the books with green leather. 7. He has bound 
the books with red leather. 8. The tailor will line 
the coat with brown cloth. 9. The child has picked 
three white roses. 10. Costly books are sometimes not 
very instruetive. 11. The Cathedral at Cologne will 
have two very high towers. 12. They will be four hun- 
dred and seventy-six feet high. 13. Mr. Rieger bought 
two large and beautiful paintings. 14. He paid for the 
paintings eight hundred and ninety dollars. 



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60 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

LESSON XIX. 

POSSESSIVE PBONOÜNS. 

aWctit 33ruber bat mein 33u<$, My brother has my book. 

©er bat tnetnen 33leijHft ? Who has my pencil ? 

3o^ann ^at 3b*en SMeifHft, John has yonr pencil. 

SWciit SBruber bat feine ißüctyer, My brother has his books. 

3öo ftnb beine 33üdjer ? Where are yonr books ? 
Sßo ftnb eure 33üdjer ? „ „ „ „ 

©ofmb3$re»üd)er? „ „ „ 

©ie ^aBett ibre 33ü<$er, They have their books. 

Sie bat i&re SBüdjer, She has her books. 

(Er bat feine Sofiaer, * He has his books. 

SGBir fabelt unfere 33üd)er, We have our books. 

Steknmibbretfjtgfic «fafgabc* 

1. SBa« fu^en ©ie ? 2. 3$ fu$e meine 33ü$er. 3. 2Wein 
ffiater ifl nid)t gu £aufe. 4. SWein ©rojftater bat meinem 33ru* 
ber ein 33u<$ gefetyenft. 5. #err 35tcj, feine grau unb feine 
Softer Äatbarina finb beute in $ot$bam. 6. SWein Setter bat 
»orgeftern feine Altern in 3ena befugt 7. ftarl, baf* bu bei* 
nen SBteifiift gefimben ? 8. Äinber, babt tyr eure Aufgaben »oU* 
enbet? 9. 2)ie ©djüler baben tyre Seftionen fe$r gut gelernt. 
10. SWarie bat gefagt,bajj fie tyre £ante beute tt>abrfd)einU<$ be* 
fuetyen wirb. 11. £aben ©ie meinen SBruber beute gefetyen? 
12. 3a, id) fab 3b«n »ruber beute SWorgen im SWufeum. 13. 
©eben ©ie ntdjt ben £b«nn beS 2)omeS ? 14. %$ ja, id> febe 
tyn! 15. £aben ©ie bie SWactyridjten beute STOorgen gelefen? 
16.3a,td)laSftein3bfer3eitung. 17.2Ba$lefen©ie? 18. 
3$ iefe bie ©efdjidjte 2)eutfölanb«. 19. SWein £>beim bat mei* 
ner ©d)»efter ba« 33u<$ gegeben. 20. £err SRieme^er $at mir 
geftern Slbenb gefagt, baj? er »orgefiern meinen ©rogsater unb 
meine ©rogmutter in SWagbeburg gefefcen fcat. 21. SWeine <£U 
tern finb beute in SKagbeburg. 



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POSSESSIVE PEONOUNS. 



61 



Vocabulary. 
SerSWanii,— rt^^SWSmter^theman, Sie grau, — f pl — en, the woman, 



the husband. 

„ ©ater, — 9,pL ©5tcr, the father. 

„ @o$n,— &,pL®tynt,iho8on. 

„ ©ruber,— Q,pL ©rüber, brother. 

„ Ofcim, — «, pL — e, the unde. 

* Setter, — 8, /»/. — n, the cousin. 

n Sßeffe, — n,pL — n, thenephew. 

n ©roßfcater-, the grandfather. 

„ Urgroßvater, the great-grandfr- 
ther. 

n (Snfcl,— «,/>/. — , the grandson. 
Sit ©Item, the parents (haa no aing.y 
2)tr ©tymegemter, fathor-in-law. 

„ ©ebttriegerfofa, son-in-law. 

n @djtt>ager, — «, pL ©ctyöäger, 
brother-in-law. 

„ ©tteffcoter, step&ther. 

„ ©tieff o^n, ßtepson. 



wife. 

äRutter,— r pl. SDWtter, mother. 

fcoc^ter,— ,pL fcöc^tcr, daughter. 

©ebtoefier, — f pL — n, the rister. 

Xante, — , pl — n, the aunt. 

(Eoufi'ne, — ,pL — n, the cousin. 

9ft$te, — ,pL — n, the niece. 

Großmutter, the grandmother. 

Urgroßmutter, the great -grand- 
mother. 

(SnWin — ,pl — nen, the grand- 
daughter. 

Scbttriegermutter, mother-in-law. 

©cfyttriegertocfyter, daughter-in-law 

Schwägerin, — , pl —neu, sister- 
in-law. 

Stiefmutter, stepmother. 

Stieftochter, stepdaughter. 



Pretent Infinitive. 
gel'* en, to gire, 
(ef'*en,toread, 
feb'*eu, tosee, 



Imperfect Indicative. 
gofi, gare, 
ta$, read, 
fa$,aaw, 



Per/ect Participle. 

ge*jeb'*en, given. 
ge*Ief'*en, read. 
ge*feb'*en,i 



Grammatical. 
1. The following are the Possessive Pronouns : 



Mose. 

mein, 

bebt, 

fein, 

tyr, 

fein, 



Fem. 
meinte, 
betn*e, 
feinde, 
U)r*e, 
fein*e, 



Neut. 
mein, 
bein, 
f«n, 

fein, 



my. 
tby. 
his. 
her. 
its. 



Masc. Fem. Neut. 

unfer, unfer*e, unfer, our. 

euer, eur*e, euer, your. 

tyr, i$r*e, u)r, their. 

(3&r, 3$r*e, 3&r, your.) 



2. The Possessive Pronoun mein, my, is declined as 
follows : 



MascuUne. 
(My brother.) 
Nom. mein ©ruber. 
Gen. meitt*e# ©ruber«. 
&at. meinem ©ruber. 
äcc. meinten ©ruber. 



6TNGULAB. 
Feminine. 

(My sister.) 
aeto*e Sdm>eftcr. 
meiner S<bu>efler. 
meintet Sc^weftcr. 
Stetere Scbtöeffcr. 



Neuter. 
(My book.) 

mein ©u<b. 
mein*e£ ©uefc*. 
meitt*em ©u<be. 
nein ©u$. 



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62 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



Nom. meinte ©rüber. 
Gen. «ein** ©rüber. 
Dat. meinten ©rübern. 
Acc meinte ©rüber. 



PLURAL. 

mei»«e @<$n>eflern. meüuc ©ü$er. 

meintet ©d)»eftern. meiner ©ü$er. 

tttritt^tt @<$»eftern. steinten ©üd)crn. 

meinte ©d)n>efterm meto* ©ü^er. 

Rem. The plaral is the same for aügenders. 

3. Possessive Pronouns are declined like mein* 

Bern. 1. In declining Uttfer, t is sometimes dropped from the terminattons 

*e$,«*ra,*ei. 

Rem. 2. In declining tUtt, the t öfter tU is usnaUy dropped. 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Ab», unfer, irafere, unfer; unfere. 
Gen. unfer«, unferen, unfer« ; unferer. 
Dar. unferm, unferer, unferm ; unfern. 
Acc. unfern, unfere, unfer; unfere. 

Rem. The same laws that govern the nse of btt and ijjr (see Lesson XL) 
govern the nse of their derivatives beitt and tUtX* 

4. The Indicative Kode of gefall, to give : 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

euer, eure, euer; eure, 

eure«, eurer, eure« ; eurer, 

eurem, eurer, eurem; euren, 

euren, eure, euer; eure. 



Present Tense. 
t<$ fltb'*t, I give. 
bu gibft, thongivest. 

er gibt, he gives. 
torir geb'-ett, we give. 
l^r geb'*t, yon give. 
flc fieb'*t» f they give. 

Perfect Tense. 

i$ (afte gegeben,^., 

I have given, etc. 

First Future Tense. 

id) teerte gebende, 

I ahall give, etc. 



Imperfect Tense. 
t<$ gab, I gave. 

bu gabfl/ thongavest. 

er gab, he gave. 

n>tr gab'* CK, we gave. 
U)r gab'*t, you gave. 
fie gab'*C», they gave. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

t$ Jotte gegeben, c<c, 

I had given, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

id) teerte gegeben boben,^., 

I shall have given, etc. 



5. The Present Tenses of lefett^ to read, and of \tfftn, to 

see: 



id) lef*t, I read, 
bu fteftjt, thoureadest. 
er Heft # he reads. 
tmr I et'* eM, we read. 
U)r lef'*f, yon read, 
fie fef'-ttt, they read. 



i* W*t, I «ec 

bu ffttft, thouseest. 

er fiett, he sees. 

ttrir feb'*eu, we see. 

ü)r fefc'*r, yon see. 

fie fe^tü, they see. 



Rem. The Compound tenses of UfCU and fefceU are formed in the same 
manner as those of gebcU. 

3d) fyibe gefefen, etc. 3$ ^abe gefefcn, etc. 



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NEW DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 63 

Exercise 38. 

1. Have you seen my gloves? 2. Yes, your gloves 
are on the table. 3. The child sees its father and its 
mother. 4. Have you read the letter from your uncle 
in Bonn ? 5. 1 have not read it yet. 6. Our teacher 
says that we have learned our lessons very well. 7. 
John, hast thou finished thy exercise? 8. Children, 
have you found your books ? 9. The news (j>l.) from 
America in your newspaper is very interesting. 10. 
William Meyer says that his parents are now in Dres- 
den. 11. Henry Rauh says that his aunt is very sick. 
12. John Meyer says that his uncle has sold his house 
and his garden. 13. My sister has not yet read the 
book. 14. My father gave me (dat.) the book. 15. The 
tailor has mended my coat. 16. William is visiting his 
great-grandfather. 17. Miss Weigand is my cousin. 18. 
Mr. Richter is my brother-in-law. 



LESSON XX. 

NEW DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

2)er große £ifd) ifl in bem gro* The large table is in the 

ßen 3totmer, large room. 

2>ie beutfcfye ©pra$e ijl ttrirllid} The German language is 

fe^r fctytoierig, really very difficult. 

3$ legte ba$ große 93u<$ auf I laid the large book on 

ben großen £if<$, the large table. 

£)ie beutfd>en 33ü<$er ftnb auf The German books are on 

ben großen fciföen, the large tables. 

Weummbbreijjigftc Aufgabe. 

1. Die %uifyxaö)t ber beutföen Sprache tf* fe^r fraffcoH, 
aber fie tfl «icfyt fe&r roetdj. 2. ©cm gehören biefe neuen 33u* 
4er? 3* ©ie gehören jenem reiben Äaufmanne, 4, 9?id>t alle 



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64 



NEW DECLENSION OF ADJECTXVE8. 



lebrretctyen 33üc$er ftnb intereffant. 5. 9tid)t jebe$ $3u<$ tf* lebr* 
retd>. 6* £err (Stauet wobnt in jenem großen #aufe gegen* 
über bem 9ieuen STOufeum. 7* ffior einigen lagen (some days 
ago) fcabe i$ einige beutföe unb franjoftföe 33üd)er in Seipjig 
gefauft. 8* $m $rofeffor Stauer bat »tele ttalienifcfye Süd&er 
in feiner SMbliotbef. 9* 3ener f^warje Ueberrodf tft ju groj? 
für mi$. 10, Diefe amerifaniföen ©ummiföube fojteten brei 
Xfyaltx. 11. 2)ie garben ber preuftffctyen ga&ne finb fd&toarj 
unb weijj. 12» Die garben ber amerifanif^cn ga&ne finb rotb, 
weiß unb blau, 13, 2>ie Armee be* 9iorbbeutf$en SBunbed $at 
jefct ad&t&unbert taufenb ©olbaten. 14, 3n welken ©tabten 
Deutfd&lanb« waren ©ie? 15. 2öir waren in mehreren großen 
©tabten, befonber* in Berlin, Dreien, 2öien, SWünd&en, ©tutt* 
gart unb ftöln. 16* Äöln ift auf ber laufen (Seite unb Düffel* 
borf if* auf ber rechten ©eite be* 9tyem«. 17* $txx ?übemann 
»o&nt auf ber rechten ©eite ber ©tra&e, ber neuen Ätrd>e gegen* 
über* 18. ©adjfen gehört jeftt jum 9lorbbeutf$en ©unb. 19. 
Diefer Ueberrodf gebort #errn 35r. 2Wef[erf$mtbt. 

Vocabulary. 

®et ©mtb, — «$, Confederation. 

n Ueberrocf, — es, pl. Ueberröcfe, 
overcoat 

„ @ummtfä)u$, — e«, pl. — t, India- 
rubber over-ehoe. 
Sie Brmce', — ,pl. Brme'cn, army. 

n gafae,— ,;>/.— n,flag. 

n garbe, — , pl. — n, color. 

„ ©rite, —,pl. — ett, side, page. 

,, ©fcraä)e, — , pl. — n, language. 

n 9fa3ft>ra<$e, pronanciation. 
BCt,old. 
SRcu, new. 

£raftt>ott, fall of power, energetia 
©da), weak, soft. 
9tt(^t r right (right hand, ac?;.). 
2mf, left (left hand, adj.). 
befon'bcr«, especially. 
ttaterita'mfä), American, 
öttgltfd), English. 



[ed. 



Äffer,— e,— e«,alL 
Bnbmr, — e, — e«, other. 
JDiefcr,— c,— «S,this. 
Gütiger, — e, — e$, some, any. 
©Keiner, — e, — eS, some, any. 
GrtüÄ&n'ter, — e, — e«, before mention 
golgenber, — e, — e«, following. 
3eber, — e, — e«, each, every. 
3ener, — e, — c$, that. 
3Äand)cr, — e, — e$, many (a). 
SRefyrere (on/y inpL% severaL 
©oId>er, — c f — e« f such, 
^erf^tc'bcnct, — c, — es, various. 
Vieler, — c f — CS, mach, many. 
SBcld)er,— €,— c«,which? wliat? 
Söcntgct, —c, — c« r little, few. 
9lorbbcutfd), North-German. 
<ßrcußif$, Prossian. 
Satrifä), Bavarian. 
©S<WWr Saxon. 



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M3W DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



65 



Grammatical. 
1. Adjectives are declined in the New Dederwion as 



follows : 

Masculine. 
(The good man.) 
Nom. ber pt * e Warm. 
Gen. bed guthat SRaunee. 
Zfet. beut guthat SRanne. 
4cc ben guthat 2Rann. 



SINGULAR. 

(The good woman.) 
bic Qttt'C grau, 
ber gut^en grau, 
ber gut* eil Stau, 
bic g u t * e grau. 



Neuter. 
(The good chüd.) 
ba« fßtst Äinb. 
bed guthat Ätnbc«. 
beut gut* eil Ambe. 
ba8 gut*c Äinb. 



Ahm. bic gut*at Sftöimer. 
(7«i. ber gut* eil SDtömter. 
2>o/. ben gut* eil äJtönnern. 
uicc bie gut«en Männer. 



bic gut*cit Äinbcr. 
ber gut* eil Äinber. 
ben g n t * Ctt Äinbcro« 
bie gut*eit Äinbcr. 



PLURAL. 

bie gut*eit grauen, 
ber gut*en grauen. 
bengut*ttt grauen, 
bie gut-eu grauen« 

2. Adjectives are declined aecording to the New De- 
derwion when preceded by : 

1. The definite article ber, bie, bag, 

2. Any adjeetive pronoun that is declined aecord- 
ing to the Old Declension, as biefer, jcber, jener, 
mantytx, folget, welker (including all adjeetive 
pronouns except the possessive pronouns). 

Rem. After theplwals alle, onberc, einige, etliche, leine, man<$c, f ol<$e, mlty, 
mehrere, Diele, Wenige, the adjeetive nsually drops *tt in the nom. and aoo. 

PLURAL. 



Nom. alle gut<e ©fletyer. 
Gen. aller gut*e» 93fi$er. 
Dat. allen gut*» 23fi$crn< 
Acc atte gut* 33ü$cr. 



biele gut*c ©fi<$cr. 
vieler gut*ett ©ttctycr. 
bieten gut*ett Büßern. 
»tele* gut*c ©ü^er. 



einige gut*c Sucher, 
einiger gut*e« S3fl$cr. 
einigen gut*tlt ©üd^cm. 
einige gut*e 23ü$er. 

3. If several adjectives sueeeed the words aller, ber, 

biefer, etc. y they a# follow the New Declension : 

(Er tyat biefe neu*ett bcutfc^Cn He has bonght these new German books. 
»fi<$er gelauft, 

4. The preposition Jll is used after gehören when this 
verb signifies to Idong to y in the sense ofto he apart of: 

©adtfen gehört ftttUt SRorbbeut* Saxony belongs to (is a part of ) the 
fdben ©unb, North German Confederation. 

(bat) 3)a« SBncfy gehört bCttt 2e$rer, The book belongs to the teacher. 



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66 MIXBD DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 

Exerciße40. 
1. The pronunciation of the Italian language is soft, 
but still (bo<$) energetic. 2. To whom does this new 
hat belong ? 3. It belongs to Mr. Behr. 4. Frankfort 
belongs now to Prussia. 5. The New Museum in 
Berlin is very large and imposing. 6. It is 340 feet 
long. 7. The Old Museum is not so large. 8. It is 276 
feet long, 170 feet deep, and 83 feet high. 9. The New 
Museum is behind the Old Museum. 10. The colors of 
the Austrian flag are black and yellow. 11. The col- 
ors of the Italian flag are red, white, and green. 12. 
On which side of the street do you live (reside) ? 13. 
We live on the right side of the street, just opposite 
the new house of (the) Mr. Kranzler. 14. What does 
this cloth cost a yard? 15. The blue cloth costs five 
dollars a yard. 16. The black cloth costs four dollars 
and twenty groschens a yard. 17. The Austrian army 
has eight hundred thousand soldiers. 18. The tower of 
the new church is a bundred and forty feet high. 19. 
I bought a few (einige) German books this morning. 20. 
I have not many (öiele) German books. 21.1 have read 
many (manche or öiele) German books. 22. 1 have only 
a few (nur wenige) German books. 



LESSON XXI. 

MIXED DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

SWein neuer Stodf ijl ju groj? , My new coat is too large. 

Raxl $at meinen neuen Stodf, Charles has my new coat. 

2)a« ßint> fcat ein neue« Sud}, The child has a new book. 

©erlin ijl eine große unt> eine Berlin is a large and very 

fe&r f$5ne Statt, beautiful city. 

£aben <5ie unfer neue« £au« Have you seen our new 

gefefcen? house? 

SBo if* 3&r neuer SfcifHft ? Where is your new pencil ? 



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MIXED DECLEN8I0N OP ADJECTIVES. 



67 



(Euttmtoierjigfte Aufgabe. 

1. £aben ©ie meine beutfcfye ©ramma'tif tyutt gefe^en ? 2. 
3b* beutfcfye« Sefebucfy t|i auf meinem Sifd&e, neben meiner fran* 
jöftfd&en ©rammatif, aber 3b** beutf<§e ©rammatif $abe id& 
l&eute nid&t gefefcen. 3. SWarie |>at tyre ttalienifd&e ©rammatif 
»erlegt; fcaben ©ie fte gefeben? 4. 3$ fcabe fie tyutt nid&t 
gefefcen. 5. 2)ie Slermel 3^te« neuen grade« jtnb ju lang, 6. 
Stein, ber ©d&neiber $at tyn ganj (exactly) na$ ber neuen 
ÜWobe gemalt. 7. $tinxiä) Dietrid^ b*t einen föwarjen Ueber* 
rodf bejteHt. 8. 2)er fragen meiner »eigen Söefle tjt ju breit 
9. Slber bte ffiejle paßt 3bnen ganj gut. 10, 2)er ffiater bat 
bem ßinbe ein ftyöneS neue« &ud& &erfprod()en, weil es feine 
beutfd&en Aufgaben fo gut unb fcfyneU gelernt $at. IL £err 
53eperlein behauptet, baß §txx ©eHert für feine neuen ©emälbe 
jroettaufenb ad&tbunbert unb »ierjig £$aler bejaht $at. 12. ein 
Dieb bat mir $eute ba« Xaf<$entu$ au$ ber Xafcfjc geflogen. 
13. Sßilbelm &at ben neuen Ärug jerbrocfyen. 14. £)a$ SWufier 
3&re$ neuen bleibe* ijt febr fd&Bn. 15. Slnna bat freute ein 
fd&warje* Äleib, einen SRegenfd&irm, einen ©onnenfd&irm unb tu 
nen blauen Soleier gefauft. 16. 2)a$ gormaf biefer franjBjt* 
fd&en ©rammatif tfi ju groß. 



Vocabalaiy. 



Xcx Stand, — « f pl. — , aleeve. 

n Äragen, — 9, pl — , collar. 

n 8ftacf,--e«,/>/.grä(fe l dressx»at. 

„ @d>lcier, — «, pl. — , veil. 

n 9fcgenf(!#nn, —t9, pl — e, nm- 
brella. 

n ©otmcnf^tnn, — c$, pl — c para- 
sol. 
SHc 2Bobe, — ,pl — n, feshion. 

„ SWüfee,-—,^ — it,cap. 

„ Za\$t, — , pl — n, pockot 

n SBefte, — , pl — n, vest. 

n ©rmnma'tit, — , pl — en, gram- 
mar. 
fßtt\pu f äfttt (irreg.), *° proxniae. 



25a« gormaf , — CS, />£ — c, the fonn 
and aize (aa of a book). 

n SWujto, — 9,pl — > the pattern. 

„ Äfcib, — e«, />£ —er, dress. 

(pl Ältibcr, dreases, clothes.) 

* $efefcu$, reading-book, reader. 

n j£af<$cntucfy,po<*et-handkerchief 
SRaä), aecording to, after. 
©c^auj)'ten assert 
©cmcr'fcn, observe, notice. 
Sefld'Ien, order, engage. 
35cr(c'gcn f to misplace. 
Raffen (with dat.), to fit, become. 
3etBrc'(^cn (vrreg.\ to break in (or 

into) pieces. 



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68 



MIXED DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



GrammaticaL 
1. Adjectives are declined according to the Mixed 
Declension when preceded by a jpossesswe jpronoun, by 
eilt (one, a y an), or by leitt (no, not any) : 

SINGULAR. 



MascuUne. 
(My new coat.) 
Nom. meto neu*er 9to<I. 
Gen. metneft neu*en otodt». 
2>a<. meinem nen«en 8to(fe. 
«4cc. meinen ncu*e»$Ro<f. 

Nom. meine neu*en fööde. 
Gen. meiner ncu^en töfafe. 
2>a*. meinen nen*ett Hoden. 
Acc meine nennen Äßtfe. 



Feminine. 

(My new Test) 

meine nen*e SBefte. 

meiner neu*« SBejte. 

meiner nennen SBejle. 

meine neu*e fßejle. 

PLURAL. 

meine ncu*e» SBejlen. 
meiner nennen Sofien, 
meinen nennen Sofien, 
meine nen*ttt ©ejien, 



Neuter. 
(The new book.) 
mein nen*c$ 93n$. 
meine« nennen ©u<$e«. 
meinem neu*« ©ucfye. 
mein neu*e£ ©n<$. 

meine nennen ©ü<$er. 
meiner nennen ©fidler, 
meinen nen*ttt 93ü<$ern« 
meine neural ©fityr. 



2. Table of the terminations of the tfAree Dedensions 
of adjectives : 

1. The Old Declension : Adjective alone before the Substantive. 

2. The New Declension : Adjective preceded by bet, biCfCT, etc. 
8. The Mixed Declension: Affective preceded by Citt, «ein, etc. 



i 

.1 


1. Old Declen- 
sion. 


2. New Declen- 
sion. 


3. Mixed Declen- 
sion. 


Mose. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Masc. Fem. Neut. 


MaSC. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


*en, 
*em, 
*en, 

*t 

*tx, 

*en, 


*en, 


*e«. 
*en. 
*em. 
«e*. 

*e. 

*cr. 
*en. 


*e, *e f **. 

*en, *en, *en. 
«en, *gi, *txu 
#en, *e, *e. 

*n(e),*cn(e),*tt(e). 
*en, *en r »en. 
*en, *en, *en. 
*en (e), *en (e), *en (e). 


*r, 
*en, 
»en, 
*en, 

*en, 
*en, 
*en, 
*en, 


*en f 
*en, 

*en, 
*en, 
*en f 
*en, 


*en. 
•en. 
*e*. 

*en. 
*en. 
*en. 
*en. 



Rem. 1. In the seventy-two endings of these three declensions, *tn oecurs 
forty-four times, *t fifteen, *tX seven«, t$ four times, and *tflt twice. 

Rem. 2. The mixed declension is like the old in the nominative and aecusa- 
tive Bingnlar ; in the other cases it is like the new declension. 

Rem. 3. The similarity between the new declension of nouns and the new 
declension of adjectives is very striking. 

Rem. 4. The dative phtral of all articles, nonns, adjectives, and prononns 
Cexcept UU& and ttt^Ö, wda in *»♦ 



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COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 69 

Exercise42. 
1. 1 have mislaid my German Header; I bave been 
looking for it a long time, but I bave not found it yet. 

2. There it is on the table under my German Grammar. 

3. Have you read your German newspaper? 4. No, I 
have not yet read it ; do you wish it ? 5. Have you 
noticed the new cap of the child? 6. Yes, it fits him 
very well. 7. Have you found your umbrella ? 8. Have 
you seen my German Reader? 9. Have you ordered 
a pair of boots ? 10. No, I ordered a pair of shoes. 1 1. 
The collar of his overcoat is too wide. 12. The child 
has broken the cup and the saucer. 13. Charles bought 
this morning a dozen pocket-handkerchiefs, a new vest, 
an umbrella, and a pair of India-rubber over-shoes. 14. 
Breslau has a hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants. 
15. The Cathedral at Freiburg is three hundred and 
twenty feet long and a hundred feet wide. 16. The 
tower is three hundred and ninety-six feet high. 



LESSON XXJI. 

COMPjLBISON OF ADJECTIYE8. 

2)tefe Äir#e fft f$5n, jene if* This church is beautiful, 
ferner, unb jene bort tjt bic that (one) is more beauti- 
fd^5nfle »on allen, ful, and that (one) yon- 

der is the most beauti- 
ful of all. 
groulem 93raun fingt fd)ön, Miss Brown sings beauti- 
gräulein ©trin jtngt ferner, fully, Miss Stein sings 
aber graulein gange fingt am more beautifully, but 
fünften, Miss Lange sings most 

beautifully. 
£eute »erben tt>tr beffere« SBet* We shall have better weath- 

ter fcaben, er to-day. 

Cr wünföt ba$ befle Xuti), He wishes the best cloth. 



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70 COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

2)reiunb»ierjigpe »ufgaüe* 

1. Diefe* ©emälbe ijl biel fööner al$ jene*. 2. £eute ijl 
ba$ ffietter milber als e$ gcflern war, 3- #aben ©ie bie neue* 
flen SWactyridjten gehört ? 4. ^aben ©ie bic legten 9la^ri^ten 
gclcfcn ? 5, Der £&urm be« Dome« gu Sßicn ijl ber $ö<$jle in 
ber SBelt. 6. Die' ©etyneefoppe, ber &öd)fte 33erg in 9iorb* unb 
2Wittel*Deutfölanb, tjl 4960 guß $ö$. 7- Die Donau tjl ber 
iangfle gluß in Deutftylanb. 8. Der fürjcflc 3Beg bon Berlin 
nad) $art« tfl über SWagbeburg unb Äöln. 9. £eute ifi ber 
fürjefle Sag be$ Sftfcre«. 10» ©aron bon Slot&föilb n>ar ber 
reifte SWann in ber Söelt. 11. Sllbredjt Dürer war ber berübm* 
tefle beutftye SRaler be$ SWittcIaltcr«. 12, 3n Nürnberg befon* 
ber* $at er öiele fd^önc ©emalbe gemalt 13. Der Heine grifc 
(Freddy) ijl ein allerliebfleS Äinb. 14. £einri<$ ijl nid)t fo 
alt n>ie 3o$ann, aber er ijl gwei 3a$re alter al« SBityelm. 15. 
£err ©eneral bon granfenjlein war in ber ©ttyladjt me^r tapfer 
al* »orji^tig. 16. Die ©ejtyicfyte be« breißigjetyrigen Kriege* 
ijl &öd)fi interejfant. 17. SWein jfingjler ©ruber ijl fedj* Sa^re 
alt. 18. SRün^en ijl bie größte ©tabt in SBaiern. 19. ©ie ijl 
*icl größer als Nürnberg ober #ug$burg. 20. S3aben ijl ein rot* 
nig größer al£ ©adtfen. 21. 33aiern ijl biel größer als S3aben. 

Vocabulary. 



SDer Storon',— 9,pl — e,baron. 

* ©cncroT, — «, pl ©oterale, gen- 
eraL 

„ Dberft, — ett, pl — cn, colonel. 

rr gfoß,— €*,;>/. 8tfiffe,river. 

n SBeg, — tQ, pl —t, way, road. 
2)te ©$lo<$t,— ,/>£ — cn, bettle. 

„ ©elt,— ,/>£— cn,worlcL 
2>a* Süter, — 9,pl — , age. 

„ 2Rittclattcr, Middle Ages. 
STOtttet*2)Ctttf<$fonb, Central Germany. 
SScitig (adj. and adv.), little. 
9U«, as, than. 
SBie, as, than. 
$ieflei(^t',perbaps. 



©erütynit', faraons, renowned. 

Sieb, dear, cherished. 

Eretßigjäljrig, thirty years' (war). 

©iebcnjä^rtg, seven years' (war). 

3Rüb, mild. 

€>türmtf$, stormy, tempestnous, 

Xopfer, valiant, brave. 

SSortfcfyttg, prudent. 

3img, young. 

Shiq, ahort. 

%Xta, true, fiüthroL 

Oonj (<«#.), entire, whole. 

$efet, last, latest 

Sorig, last, preceding. 

2)ort, there, yonder. 



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COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 



71 



GrammaticaL 

1. Adjectives are compared by adding to the positive 

degree *tt for the comparative degree, and*ft or *eft for 

the Superlative degree. 

Rem. When the positive ends in *&, 4, *9, *f , »}, *f<$, *%, A, or »tf , the 
Superlative is formod by adding *tfL 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


fcin f 


fine, 


fein*ct f finer, 


feouft, finest 


rcty, 


rieh, 


rei$*tr, richer, 


rri$*{!, richest 


wn, 


beantifal, 


\tyn<tt, more beantifal, 


f$ön«{!, most beautifuL 


mttb, 


mild, 


mttb*CT, milder, 


mttb*eft, mildest 


laut, 


loud, 


taut-CT, londer, 


(aut*eft, loudest 


m, 


hot, 


fciß'tr, hotter, 


&Ctß*tfl, hottest. 


Wtt, 


fiüse, 


falf^er, fclser, 


falfty«eii, eisest. 


froj), 


happy, 


fronet, happier, 


fro$*eft, happiest 


frei, 


free, 


frri*CT, freer, 


frei*cfl, freest 


treu, 


trae, 


trcu*er, truer, 


treu-eft, truest 



2. When the positive is a monosyllable, the radical 
vowel, if a, P, or ll, usually takes the umlaut in the com- 
parative and Superlative degrees : 



alt, old, 

tpartn, warm, 

long, long, 

grob, coarse, 

torj, short, 

jung, young, 



älUtt, older, 
tt>5rm*Ct f warmer, 
fltag*tt, longer, 
gröb*er, coarser, 
tüq*et, shorter, 
jüng*tr, younger, 



ätt-Cfc oldest 

tt)&rm«ft, wärmest 

la*ng*fl, longest. 

gröb*ft, coarsest 

für^elt, shortest 

jüng-ft, yonngest 



3. Adjectives ending in *t\ or *tn rejeet the C of this 
syllable in the comparative degree : 

cbcl, noble, ebt«et r nobler, cbekjt, noblest. 

troefen, dry, tro<fn*er, dryer, tro(fen*fl, dryest. 

4. The following adjectives are compared irregularly : 
gut, good, beffer, better, beft, best 

$o$, high, $ö$er, higher, $ö<$fr, highest 

nafc, near, nSfcr, nearer, nS^ft, nearest 

Uicl, mach, . me&r, more, mtift, most 

great, größer, greater, ßtBßt, greatest 



5. Adjectives in the comparative and Superlative de- 
grees are subjeet to the same laws of declension as ad- 
jectives in the positive degree. 



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72 COMPABISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

6. The regulär Superlative form (as itt fitfte) is only 
used attrifatiiveli/y i. e., with a noun expressed or under« 
stood: 

SMcfc« ifl ba* btfle Xu<$, This is the best cloth. 

JDiefe« Xuä) ifl ba« bcflc (£u$), This cloth is the best (cloth). 

7. To express the Superlative jpredicatively, the dative 
preceded by ant (an bem) may be employed : 

2>tcfe* Zuty ifl am btfttU, This cloth is the best. 

2)tefe ©lumc ifl am f $Ü!tfteit, This flower is the most beautifiiL 
} Rem. This predicativeform of the Superlative is also used adverbially : 
SWaric fingt am btfttn, Mary sings the best. 

8. By way of emphasis, the genitive plural of aller is 

frequently prefixed to the Superlative : 

SKefe S5Imnc ifl bie ttflttföönfle, This flower is fax the most beautiful 

SKcfe SWume ifl am atterföönpen, of alL 

„&x tfl cm attcrticbfleS Ämb," " He is a dear little chüd." 

9. The absolute Superlative is expressed by prefixing 
to the positive degree such adverbs as f elf r, Ijödjft, ällfjcrft : 

2)tc 5Rad>ri$t ifl $5<$fl intercff ant, The news is extremely interesting. 

n n „äußcrfl „ 

10. When two qualities are compared together in the 
comparative degree, the adverb VSLtfyt is used instead of 
the ending ttl : 

<Sr ifl mtfr tapfer at£ toorfhtytig, He is more brave than prudent. 

Exercise 44. 

1. My oldest brother is twelve years, and my young- 
est brother is six years old. 2. Do you wish finer cloth? 
3. No, this cloth is fine enough. 4. To-day is the long- 
est day in the year. 5. Charles is five years older than 
his brother. 6. Mr. Krause sings very well (ganj #ut), 
but Mr. English sings much better, and Mr. Eberhard 
sings the best of all (»Ott allen). 7. The weather is very 
disagreeable to-day, but it is more stormy than cold. 
8. The Colonel was not less prudent than courageous 



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ORDINAL NÜMBERS. 73 

in the battle. 9. Mary Kranzler sang the German songs 
extremely beautifully. 10. William Friedländer is just 
(gerade) as (fo) old as (nrie or als) Frederick Schnaase. 
11. This paper is not so good as that. 12. That book 
is larger than this. 13. The Oder is the longest river 
in North Germany. 14. It is longer than the Elbe. 
15. Have you read the last news ? 16. Albert Dürer 
was among (unter) the most distinguished painters of 
Germany. 17. The shortest road from Berlin to Trieste 
is by way of Dresden, Prague, and Vienna. 



LESSON XXIII. 

ORDINAL NÜMBERS. 

Der erfte Sag be* SWonaW, The first day of the month. 

2)er jweite £ag be$ SWona«, The second day of the 

month. 

2)ie britte Seite be« $3ud)e$, The third page of the book. 

Der vierte 3uli 1776, The fourth of July, 1776. 

9fat neunje&nten Slugujt, On the nineteenth of Au- 

gust. 

£)ie breiunbjwanjtgfle ?eftion, The twenty-third lesson. 

2>ie funfunbtuerjigfie Aufgabe, The forty-fifth exercise. 

<£r ftarb am britten SWai, He died on the third of 

(or) Cr ftarb ben britten SWai, May. 

günfimbtnerjtgftc »ufgaüc* 

1. 3$ fcabe fceute »om £errn ^rofejfor ©teiume^er ben er* 
ften 53anb ber ©efdjifye ber beutfd&en Literatur son £einrid) 
Äurj geborgt» 2. $err ©d&önberg wofrnt im gweiten ©totf bcS 
fünften £aufe* auf ber regten ©eite ber griebri<$S*©tra§e. 3. 
3)ie Sfajeigen jtnb auf ber jiebenten unb afycn ©eite ber 3& 
tung, 4. 2)ie tclcgrap&iföe 2)epe'f$e »on SImerifa ifi ungefähr 
In ber 2Witte ber Herten ©palte auf ber britten ©eite ber Diepgen' 

D 



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74 ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

fceuttften 3eitutiö; bie Depeföe tf* »on fe$r großem Sntereffe, 
5. Den Urfprung be* ©orte« ^SWeffer" »erben (Sie im jtoei* 
ten ©anbe ber britten Auflage be* beutjtyen ffiörterbud&e* »on 
„©djmittbenner", auf ber fcunbert a^tunböierjigflen ©eite, in 
ber neununbjmanaiftften 3eile »on unten, fmben* 6* Gbriftopb 
Golumbu* fcat Slmerifa am Uten Dftober 1492 entbetft. 7* 
griebri$ ber 3tt>eite # ßetoöbnli^ ber ©rojje genannt, flarb am 
17ten Slugttf* 1786* 8* dt toar ber brüte Äönig &on Preußen. 
9- griebri<$ ffiilbelm ber 33ierte,ber fe#e ßönig »on Preußen, 
flarb am 2ten 3anuar 1861* 10* ©otfce flarb in SBeimar am 
22flen 3Wfirg 1832* 11* ©Ritter flarb in Sßetmar am 9ten 
3Wai 1805- 12, 9Mbre#t Dürer »ar ber größte beutfd&e SWater 
be* 16ten unb 17ten 3a&r&unbert«. 13- 2Hontag »ar ber erfte 
Sanuar. 14, Dienjtafl »ar ein fe$r Reifer Sag* * 

Vocabulary. 

2)er ©onb, — *9,pL ©änbe, voiume. 

„ Ä3ni0 f — «,/>£ — e,king. 

„ Äaifer,— «,/>£ — , emperor. 

„ Äreuajug,— c«,;>£Är€UJ3Ü0e, Cru- 
sade. 

„ ®tod,-^,8tory(ofahouse). 

„ ^lofo^', — tn,pL — en, phik»- 
opher. 

„ Urftrung,— «,origin. 
2)U Änjrige,— ,/>£— n,adTertii»ment 

n Auflage, — , pl — n, edition. 

„ 2>el>e'f<$e,— ,pl— tt,dispatch. 

„ fiiterotur',— ,pl — en,literature 

„ SRitte,— ,;>/.— n,p£middle. 

„ ©jxtlte, —,;>£ — n,column. 

„ 3ctlc — ,;>£ — n,line. 



2)a« (Bnbe, — «,;>£ — n, end. 

„ 3ntercf'fe, — «, interest. 

* ©ort, — es, pA ©örtcr, word. 

„ gB6rtcrou$, dictionary. 
Sorgen, toborrow. 
Dauern, to last, endarc. 
(Sntbecf en f to discover. 
Sterben (trngr.), *° &*• 
<$enannf , named, called. 
@ett>5$n'tt<$, usual 
Ungefähr (adv.), about, neaiiy. 
$on oben, from above; from the top. 
$on unten, from below, from the bot- 

tom. 
$etttig («<#• )* o f to-day, to-day's. 
$ieftg («#.), ofthis place. 



GrammaticaL 
1. The Ordinal Numbers are formed from the Cardinal 
Nvmbers: 

1. By suffixing M, from Jtott to tttllttje^li; 

2. " " *fte, " jtoanaig upward. 

Rem. In Compound numbers onty the last orte takes the sufflx. 



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ORDINAL NüMBERS. 



75 



ist : 


üttttfr. 


40th 


2>er x\tqfofc. 


2d 


tt 


3*ei*tc« 


60th 


tt fünfeiß*fte* 


3d 


tt 


Mi4t* 


60th 


w fafotö'ftt* 


4th 


tt 


*>to*e* 


70th 


„ "fiebcnstg-ftt, or ficb* 


5th 


tt 


fünWk 




JtÖ'&e* 


6th 


tt 


\täfi*tU 


80th 


» ftWö'Sc» 


7th 


tt 


fie&cii*fe* 


90th 


,, ncrotjig-fle. 


8th 


tt 


ad>t*. 


lOOth 


„ $unbcrt*fie. 


9th 


tt 


neunte« 


lOlst 


rr forabcrt unb erftr. 


lOth 


tt 


jcfrwte* 


125th 


n fymbtrtfftnfunbjroan* 


llth 


tt 


clf'te. 




gtö-fte* 


12th 


tt 


lxof>\\*tu 


200th 


ir j»ct^unbcrt*Hc» 


18th 


tt 


brei^e^iutc« 


600th 


„ fttnföimberfcfle. 


14th 


tt 


tner^n-fe* 


l,OOOth 


„ toMfenb*pe. 


15th 


tt 


fönfoe$n*fe* 


l,001st 


„ toufcnb unb etfte. 


16th 


tt 


fe<foc$n*fe* 


l,026th 


rf taujenb fe<$«nnbjn>an* 


17th 


tt 


ftebenjefruk, or fle&jefyutc. 




iwte* 


18th 


tt 


<HfytjC$!t*tt* 


l,626th 


n taufenb fe^^unbcrt 


19th 


ff 


neimje$iufe. 




tmb fcd^unbgtvan* 


20th 


tt 


Stmm^He» 




Ik'fr. 


2l8t 


tt 


eumnbj»<mjtg^ 


2,000th 


n jtt>eitaiifcnb*fte* 


25th 


n 


fünfunbjtoangtg*^ 


20,000th 


„ jttxmgtgtoufenb*^ 


aoth 


tt 


bretfpg'flt» 


100,OOOth 


n $unberttaufcnb»fle. 


85th 


tt 


fünfunbbrrif$t0*fte. 


500,00001 


„ fünföunberttcrafenbtße» 



Rem. l. The forma bffctt and ft$t«t are euphonic Yariations from the 
rede for forming ordinal nnmbers. 

Rem. 2. Ordinal nnmbers are snbject to all the law$ ofdeclenmon of adjee- 
tiyes (see Leston* XX., XXL, and XXII.). 

2. Names of the seasons, ofmonths, and of the days of 
the weeky are masculine : 

1. The Seasons (btc 3a^rcö jcitcn) : 



5)er SBintcr, — «, />£ — , winter. 
„ grfi$Tui0, — 9, pl 

spring. 
(Are Sa« grfiftafo — €«,;>£ 



Set Sommer, —Q,pl — > sammer. 
$erbft —t&tpl — c, antnmn. 



t, spring.) 



2. The Months (bie SRottate) : 



©er Sa'nuctt, — «, January. 
„ ge'bruar, — «, February. 
„ SWSra,— e«,March. 
„ Styril',— e«, April. 
n Wim,— e«,May. 
pr 3um, — '«, June. 



Der 3uli,— '« f Jnl7. 
* Hugnff, — t», Anglist. 
„ @e£tem'ber, — «, September. 
„ Otto'ber, — *, October. 
„ SRofcem'ber, — «, November, 
r, 2>ejem'ber,— *,December. 



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76 ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

3. The Days of the Week (bic $ttge ber 83oi(je) : 



2)er. @omttag, — «, pl — e, Sun- 

day. 
n SÄontag, — 3, pl — e, Mon- 

day. 
n ^tcnfiag, —«,/>/. —e,Taes- 

day. 



2)cr 9Jtttt»o<$, — , pl — e, Wednesday 
„ 2)omtcrjtog, — *, />/. — e, Thurs- 

day. 
„ grritaß,— «,/>/.— e, Friday. 
* @>«nfta0, —*,pl. — c, ßaturday. 

(„ ©oratabcnb, —9,pl. — e, " .) 



3. Present and imperfect tenses of fttffceit, fo rfie « 

Present Ten$e. 
t<$ fttrt'*C, I die. 
btt fttlft|t, thoadiest. 

er ftfeit, he dies, 

ttrir ftcrb'*C», we die. 
tyr jterb'*t, yoa die. 
fic ffterb'*Ctt, they die. 



Iwqterfect Tense. 
t<$ ftttrt, I died. 

bu ftartß, thoudiedst. 

CT ftort, he died. 

ttrir fl a r b '» CS, we died. 
tyv flarb'*t, yoa died. 
fie jlarb'*«, they died. 



4. In German the verb is often removed to the end 
of very long sentences (see sentence 5 in Exercise 45). 

5. When the adverbial expression of time is very 
long, it mbyfottow that of place (see Less. III., 2). 
<5ä}\Utv flatb in ©cimat am 9ten SWat Schiller died in Weimar on the ninth 

1805. of May, 1805. 

Exercise 46. 
1. 1 am how reading the third volume of the history 
of Germany by K. A. Menzel. 2. On what page are 
you reading? 3. I am reading on the hundred and 
fifty-third page, seventeen lines (in the seventeenth line) 
from the top (»on oben). 4. The advertisement of the 
8ale of the house is in the third column of the fourth 
page of to-day's paper. 5. Francis the Second, em- 
peror of (»on) Austria, and the last emperor of Ger- 
many, died in Vienna on the second of March, 1835. 6. 
Charlemagne (Staxl ber ©roße), the first emperor of Ger- 
many, died in Aix-la-Chapelle January 28th, 814. 7. 
The Crusades lasted from the end of the eleventh tili 
towards the end of the thirteenth Century. 8. Friday 
will be the first of January. 9. Saturday was the cold- 
est day of this month. 10. Wednesday will be the 



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IRREGULÄR VERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 77 

shortest day of the year. 11. Immanuel Kant, the 
greatest philosopher of the eighteenth Century, died in 
Königsberg on the twelfth of February, 1804. 12. He 
was eighty years old when (al$) he died. 



LESSON XXIV. 

IBBEOULAR TERBS OF THS FIB8T CLA88. 

©iefcemintoierjigpt Sfofgafce* 
V Der ©olbat btnbct fein Üafdjentudj um feinen #rm. 2. 
33erlin unb Hamburg ftnb burd(j eine (Eifenbafcn wbunben. 3* 
Der SBunbarjt ^at bie SBunben be$ ©olbaten »erbunben 
(dressed). 4. Der 33ud)bmber fyat ba$ 33ud(j wrbunben. 5. 
3d& &abe bie »orlefcte, aber ntd&t bie lefcte Auflage be« SBörter* 
budje« in ber $u$$anblung »on #errn 5We$er gefunben. 6. 
Ctyrifiopfc ©ottlieb ©d&röter, (an) Drganijt in SRorbfcaufen, fcat 
im Safcre 1717 ba$ Äla&ier erfunbeiu 7. Irinfen ©ie lieber 
(do you prefer) Zfyt ober Äaffee? 8. 3<Jj trinfe lieber Jfcee. 

9. Die ©d&üler &aben tyre teutfifyen Aufgaben fd(jon begonnen» 

10. £err ©trat! fcat ba« $m$ im »origen 3a$re für 8500 £&lr. 
gefauft ; er f>at e« »orgejtern für 9100 £&lr. aerfauft. 11. @r 
\)at babei' 600 Sfclr. gewonnen. 12. Die Bäuerin f>at ba$ 
©arn ganj gut gefponnen. 13. Der 93erbred&er $at bie ©efefce 
be« ?anbe$ gebrochen. 14. 9$, lieber griebri<§! Du fcajl biefe 
fd^öne neue SJafe ganj jerbrod&en. 15. £err Sttiebner fprid&t ju 
3^nen. 16. Die SluSgaben ber Regierung waren »iel ju groß; 
fte entfprad&en gar nt$t ber 3lrmut& be$ ?anbe$. 17. Der 
53auer brifd&t ben SBeijen. 18. Da« Äinb fcat ba$ beutfd&e 
2Börterbud& »on bem $tfdf)e genommen. 19* 2Bir fcaben £errn 
Äird^off fceute SWorgen auf ber ©trage getroffen. 20. 2Bir 
treffen tyn fc^r oft im SWufeum. 21. Der Säger fcat ben £afen 
ni$t getroffen. 22. $)a$ Äinb fcat ben 95aU über ba* #au$ ge* 
worfen. 23. Der SBaumeifier fcat einen fe&r frönen plan für 
ba« neue SRat^auS entworfen. 24. ©o? £aben ©ie tfcn gefe* 
$en ? 25. Stein, aber £err 93ofc fcat gefagt, bap er fe$r fd>ön tf». 



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78 



IRREGULÄR VERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 



Vocabulaxy. 



2>er Arm, — t*,pl —t, arm. 

n »ott,— *«,/>* «äffe, bau. 

„ ©aumeifter, — «, />£ — > architect 

„ Crgontf?, — en, />£ — en, Organ- 
ist 

„ ^ton, — €*, />£ $Wne, plan. 

„ £efegr<»W, — en, j»/. — en, tele- 
graph. 

* gfcbre'ctyer, — 9, pl — , criminaL 

* SBeqen,— *,wheat. 

ir ©ttnborjt, — e€, sargeon. 
2>te Srmuty, — , poverty. 
rr Ausgabe, — , pl — n, expense. 
ir ©fiuerin, — , />/. — nen, peasant 

woman, peasant's wife. 
„ ftcgie'nmg, — , j>*\ — en, govern- 

ment 



2)ie (jRfen&aljn, — „p/. — ett, railroad. 

u ®af c, — , pl. — n r vase. 

n ©unbe, — , pl. — n, wound. 
3)o* (Smtommen, —9, income. 

n <§torn, — <«, j>«\ — c f yarn. 

* ©efefc',— e*,j>/.— e,law. 

* Äont, — e«, i»/. Wrner, grain. 

„ Sattb,— e«,p/. Sauber, land,coun- 
tiy. 

„ ftatyfcut, — e«, />/. töatWäufer, 
cityhaH 
2)abei', thereby. 
©OT (<ufo.)> at alL 
<9(ri$, immediately. 
Steber, rather. 
<SteTtrifö,electric. 
SBortefci, next to the last 



Bern. It will have been noticed that most mascnline and neuter noons be- 
long to the Old Declensum, and that most feminine nonns belong to the New 
Declensüm. 

GrammaticaL 

1. Irregulär verbs are divided into seven classes, ac- 
cording to the changes which the radical vowel under- 
goes in forming the prinovpal jparU : 

2. In the irregulär verbs 
of theßrst das8 each princi- 
pal part has a differenb rad- 
ical vowd. Thus : 

3. Irregulär verbs of theßrst class : 



Pres, Inf. 


Imp. Ind. 


Per/. Part. 


i, 

(or)t, 




0. 
0* 



Present Infinitive. 


Present IncUeative, 


Imperf. 


Per/ect 


2d and Sd Persans. 


Indicat. 


Participle. 


Nib^n, to bind. 


(fonned regnlarlj.) 


fa»b, 


gebnnben. 


»crbmb'*cn r to mute, to tie np, 


CC (I 


toerbanb, 


»erbunben. 


fhtb-tn, to find, [to bind wrong. 


CC CC 


fanb, 


gefunben. 


erftnb'*en, to inrent. 


CC ' CC 


erfanb, 


erfunben. 


ftag*en, to sing. 


CC CC 


f«tÖr 


gefungeh. 


trinken, to drink. 


i« <i 


trän!, 


getrunfen. 


ttgittM'-en, to begin. 


(fonned regnlariy.) 


fcegaira, 


begannen* 


gettrinn'*en, to gain. 


Ci iC 


getoann, 


get&ottnen. 


frtmvcn, to spin. 


CC 


ftamt, 


gewonnen. 






Digitized by v 


^OOQle 



IRREGULÄR VERBS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 



79 



IltCdJKtt, to break. 
3erbredj'*en, to break to pieces. 
]pxtfytn, to «peak. 
lttt\pTtäf*tn t to correspond to, 
er with (govertu the dative). 
*erft>re#*en, to promise. 
bref$*en, to thresh. 
n$tn«en, to take. 
ftab*en, to die. 
treffen, to meet, hit, shoot. 
tpcrf«en, to throw. 
entoerf *m, to projeet. 



bu hxiW,ttftti$t, 


Ixati), 


n itxbxiäjfi, „*bridrt, 


jcrbrac$, 


„ ftmcflU ftmty, 


ft>ra$, 


„ entf|>rli^fl r „ *fi>ri<$t, 


entfpra<$, 


„ bttforuW, ff-ftmc$t, 


berft>ra<$, 


w fenf<W,w brtf$t, 


*>r«W, 


rr IllUlUlfl n Itittttttt 


naftn, 


n purbp, » ftirBt, 


flarb, 


n triffft, w trifft, 


traf, 


n totrfft, ff ttrirft, 


»arf, 


rr entarirffi, ff*tmrft, 


entnxtrf, 



getrogen. 

jerbroefcn. 
Qt\pxotytL 
entf^ro^en. 

berfyrodjeu 

gebrofetyen. 

genommen. 

geworben. 

getroffen. ' 

getoorfen. 

entworfen. 

Rem. 1. The first class contains forty-ßve verbs. 

Itaa. 2. The inseporable prefixes >f, ge, tut, btt, %tX, etc., gire modifica- 
tions to the significations of verbe analogons to those given in Engliah by the 
syllables be and /or ; 

To haue, hold, sptak, come, give, get. 

To behave, behold, betpeak, become, forgivtj forget. 

Exercise 48. 

1. The child is tying the ribbon on (um) his hat. 2. 
The surgeon has been dressing the wounds of the sol- 
diers. 3. The bookbinder has bound this German Dic- 
tionary wrong. 4. Professor Morse invented the Elec- 
tric Telegraph in 1838. 5. Do you prefer tea or coffee ? 
6. 1 prefer (trinfe lieber) coffee. 7. The peasant's wife is 
spinning the yarn. 8. That old criminal has often 
broken the laws of his land. 9. His expenses did not 
at all correspond to his income. 10. The peasant is 
threshing the grain. 11. Have you taken my umbrel- 
la? 12. William says that Henry took it. 13. I met 
your uncle, Mr. Rahn, yesterday in Leipsic. 14. The 
hunter has shot the hare. 15. The child has thrown 
his ball into the water. 16. The architect has designed 
(entwerfen) a very fine plan for the new church. 17. Karl 
Friedrich Schinkel, the most distinguished architect of 
the nineteenth Century, drew (entwerfen) the plan for the 
Old Museum in Berlin. 18. Potsdam and Berlin are 
connected by (sertunben burd)) a railroad. 



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80 IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINÜED). 

LESSON XXV. 

IREGÜLAB TERD8 OF THE 8ECOND, THIBD, AKD FOÜRTH CLA88E8. 

1. £aben ©k bic feurige 3*ituug gelefen? 2. SRcin, idj fyabt 
fte nod) nid^t gefc^en. 3. Der Äaufmomt &at ba$ Zufy gemefc 
fem 4. Der SWeffer miftt ba* gelb. 5. (gjfen ©te gern (do 
you like) Obf* ? 6. £)&, t<$ ejfe e$ fefcr gern» 7. Da« Äinb 
t&t einen Slpfel. 8. (ES $at ba* ©utterbrob gegejfen unb bte 
3»il<$ getrunfen. 9. Do* $ferb frißt ba$ £eu. 10. Äarl fcat 
fein 93u<$ »ergejfen. .11. $töj,grifc,bu trittf* auf bie frönen 
Weifen unb Sulpen. 12. ®raf »on SBernSborf ^at ben Äönig 
»on $reuj?en im (Europätfdjen Äongrejr' ju $ari«' »ertreten. 13. 
Der SBauer grabt einen neuen S3runnen. 14. Der Sager fd&lägt 
feinen |mnb, weil er ben SWann gebiffen (bitten) tyat. 15. 
SWein Diener wirb bie Slepfel unb bie SBirnen na<$ £aufe tra* 
gen. 16. graulein granj fcat gejtern Stöenb ein fd)»arje$ fetbe* 
neS Äleib getragen. 17. (Eine |)anb roafd&t bie anbere (one 
good tum deserves another). 18. £eute JWorgen fyaben 
wir breije^n goreBen gefangen. 19. $txx ©teinbad&er fcat und 
fe&r freunbltd) empfangen. 20. 3$ falte tyn für (I consider 
him) einen efcrlidjen STOann. 21. Der Äommie' fcat fein @e* 
$alf erhalten. 22. Die 33tbliot$e? ju DreSben enthalt 300,000 
35anbe unb 2800 4>anbfd&riften. 23. 2öo if» 4>etnrt<$ ? 24. 
6r fdjlaft no$. 25. (Er $at fdjon ju lange gefölafen. 26. 
2Bo iji SBifyelm ? 27. (Er ift im ©arten; tdj werbe tyn mfen. 



Vocabulary. 



2>er Styfet, — «, pl Helfet, apple. 

„ ©runnen, — 8, pl — , welL 

n SHetier, — Q,pl — , servant. 

„ Stovnxm»', —*,pl — , clerk. 

„ Äongref}', — t», Congrcss. 

„ 2Reff er, —8, pl — , snrvejor. 
Sie ©irnc, — , pl — n f pear. 

„ gorefle, — , pl — n, trout 

„ SRette, — ,pl — n, pink. 

„ Xufyc, — -, pl — n, tulip. 

„ $axfo,—,pl $5nbe,hand. 



2tte @<$rift,— f pl— en,writing. 

n $anbf$rift, manascript. 
SXiQ gelb, — t», pl —er, field. 

„ ©efyrff , — e«, pl. — e, salary. 

„ $eu,— c«, hay. 

n y\txb, — e«, p/l — e r hone. 
(Sern (<üfr.), gladljr, willingly. 
Änber (a^'.), other. 
(S^rli^ («4*0, honest, honorable. 
©eiben, silken, silk. 
(Suro^ä'ifc^, European. 



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IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



81 



GrammaticaL 
1. In irregulär verbs of the second, third, undfourth 
classes, the radical vowel of the imperfect only varies 
from that of the present : 







Pres. Inf. 


Zvi/>. lud* 


Per/.Part. 


iVb. </ Fer6*. 






Second Class-, 


e, 


a, 


t, 


14. 






Third Class, 


Ö, 


«, 


«, 


10. 






Fourth Class, 


Ä (tt,*), 


it(t), 


a(u,0), 


14. 




2 


. Irregulär verbs of the second class : 






Present Indicative, 


Imperfect 


Per/ect 


Present Infinitive, 


2d and Bd Persons. 


Indicat. 


Participle, 


§Cfcen,togiYe. 


bu öibft, er gibt, 


00», 


gegeben* 


»ergebnen, to forgive. 


„ tocrgibfr » -gibt, 


bergab, 


»»ergeben. 


fe$*en, to soc 


* Wfc n fle&t, 


W. 


gefefcn. 


tcf*cn r to read. 


„ liefeft, * lieft. 


(ad. 


gelefen. 


tneff'Cn, to measure. 


„ miffejt, * mißt, 


maß, 


gemefteiu 


eff *en, to eat. [inah). 


n tff*ft » Iß*, 


aß, 


gegeffen. 


freff*en F to eat (scdd ofani- 


rr friffejt, ^ frißt, 


fraß, 


gefreffen. 


fcergeff' *en, to forget. 


, f fcergiffeft, „ -gißt, 


»ergaß, 


frergeffen. 


treten, to tread, step. 


„ trittft, rr tritt, 


trat, 


getreten. 


fcertref *en, to represent 


„ toertrittfi, n »tritt, 


»ertrat, 


vertreten. 


jertr* 


It^en, to tread. 




w 


jertrittft, 


rr 'tritt, 


gertrat, 


gertreten. 



3. Nearly all irregulär verbs with tt, 0, or tttt, as the 
radical vowel, take the umlaut in the second and third 
persons singular of the present indicative. 

Present Tense. 

ity fäfofl'*, I strike. 
tu f<$fög*ft, thou strikest. 
er Wög-t, he strikes. 
tmr ja>lag'*en, we strike. 
itjr jd)fag'*et, you strike. 
fte f d) l a g % en, they strike. 



Imperfect Tense. 
td? Hing, I strack, 

bu fd)fag*ft, thoa streckest, 

er fd)htq, he strack, 

totr f ä) i u ö '• tn, we Struck, 
tyr fd)fug'*et, you strack, 
fle fä)tug'*ett, they strack. 



4. Jrregular verbs of the third class 

Present Indicative, 
2d and Zd Persons. 



Present Infinitive, 

grafcen, to dig. 
fä)tag«eii, to strike. 
trag*en, to carry, wear. 
ttaf$*cn, to wash. 



bu gräblt, er gräbt, 

h WSgft, n W5gt, 

w trägft, „ trägt, 

n ttäföft, tt U)vlfd)t, 

D2 



Imperfect 
Indicat 

flfitb, 

MrfUg, 

trug, 

»Ufa, 



Perfect 
Participle. 

gegraben. 

geflogen. 

getragen. 

ge»af$eit. 



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82 



IBREOÜLAB VEEBS (CONTINOED). 



5. Irregulär verbs of thejburth class 


fattg*en, to catch. 


btt fängft, er fängt, 


empfangen, to receive. 


n emtf&ngft, „emtfäuöt, 


ty&Utn, to hold. 


H WW, ff W, 


enthalten, to contain. 


„ «ttylltfi, n *wt, 


erhalten, to receive. 


„ erfräftfl, » W 


behalten, to retain, keep. 


„ kwitp, „ .*stt, 


f $taf*en, to sleep. 


„ wsffc „ \w\t, 


ruf<en,tocall. 


(formed regalarly.) 


flogen, to hit, bomp. 


H fWßefc „ flößt, 



emtftaö, 

m, 

enthielt, 

eruiert, 

bereit, 

fw, 

rief, 
fließ, 



gefangen« 

empfangen« 

gehalten. 

enthalten« 

erhalten. 

Behalten. 

gefölafem 

gerufen. 

gefloßen. 



6. Many foreign words retain their original pronunci- 
ation. Thu8 the final 8 is silent in Äommtö'* 

ExerciseöO. 
1. Have you read the history of the German litera- 
ture by Heinrich Kurz ? 2. I bought it a few months 
ago (w einigen SWonaten), but I have not yet read it. 3. 
Have you measured the cloth ? 4. Yes, it is thirty 
yards long. 5. What are the boys eating? 6. John is 
eating an apple, and William is eating a pear. 7. The 
horse has eaten the hay. 8. The scholars have forgot- 
ten their lessons. 9. You have stepped on the tulip. 
10. The peasant has dug a deep well. 11. The boy has 
Struck the dog. 12. The servant has carried the apples 
and the pears home. 13. William wore yesterday even- 
ing a black coat and a white vest. 14. 1 caught five 
trout yesterday. 15. Professor Bauer reeeived (empfan* 
gen) them very kindly. 16. The library at Vienna con- 
tains over 300,000 volumes and 16,000 manuscripts. 

17. Have you reeeived (erhalten) your to-day's paper ? 

18. Mr. Kraus reeeived a letter this morning from his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Blumenthal. 19. Mr. Friedländer 
says that he will seil his new house. 20. Why will he 
not keep the new house? 21. The old house is more 
convenient, and warmer than the new house. 22. Is 
the child sick ? 23. Yes, but the doctor says that it 
has slept long enough. 



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IBEEGÜIAB VEEBS (CONTINÜED). 83 

LESSON XXVI. 

IBREGULAK VERBS OF THE FIFTH AND 8IXTH CLA8SK8. 

eittonbffittfjtgfte «Hfgttfce, 

1. De« 3ager« Hunb fcat bie Äu$ be« Sauer« gebiffen. 2. 
(Eine Älapperfölange fcat ben ©o$n be« 33auer« »orgeftern ge* 
btffen, al« er auf bem SBerge Heidelbeeren pflüdfte. 3» 2)a$ 
Äinb greift nadj feinem 33ilbe im Spiegel 4* Der $olijet'bie* 
ner tyit ben fcaföenbteb ergriffen, glet$ nad&bem er ba« ©elb ge* 
flogen fyattt. 5. 3$ begreife nid(jt, »arum griebri$ no$ nid&t 
an un« getrieben fcat? 6. ©er f^at gepfiffen? 7. SBer fcat 
in ba« 33ud& gefd&nitten? 8. Der ©d^neiber fd&netbet ba« Xu$. 
9. Herr Äarfunfel fat bem Äaufmonn 800 Zfyx. geliehen. 10. 
Herr 3toumer $at m feinem S3riefe feine SReife na$ bem 9Kefen* 
gebirge gang lebhaft befd&rieben. 1 1 ♦ Der 93auer treibt ba« ©iefc 
auf (to) bie SBeibe. 12. (Sie gießen Del in* geuer (" you add 
fuel to the flame"). 13- Der Äellner $at ben SBein in bie 
©läfer gegoffen. 14* ©ie fcaben ba« 3tel nid&t getroffen, ©te 
fcaben ju tyo$ gefd&offen. 15. Heute ift ba« STOufeum gefd&lof* 
Jen. 16. Herr SJurdtyarbt fcat geftern fein Portemonnaie »erlo* 
rem 17. SSier $ferbe gießen ben SBagen. 18. Herr SSraun fyat 
Nte einen SBec&fel »on 600 Styr. auf Herrn Dietrid& gegogen. 
19. Die SBolfen gießen (move) nad& ©üben. 20. Die ©olba* 
ten ^aben fe^r tapfer gefönten. 21. Der Äorbmad&er fliegt ei* 
nen Äorb. 22. SWarie f>at einen fefcr frönen Ärang geflößten. 
23. Cr fcob ben Äorb auf feine ©d&ulter. 24. <£r er&ob bie 
©timme unb fd&rie um (for) Hülfe- 25. Der Dieb &at gelogen 
unb ben Kaufmann betrogen. 

Vocabnlary. 



2>cr Äorfc, —t&tpL Äörfce, basket. 
n &orfema$er, — 8, basket-maker. 
n Ärang, — *, pl Äränje, crown, 

gariand, wreath. 
n ^ofijei'bicner, — «, pL — , police- 

man. 
» ©bieget, — «, pL — , mirror. 



S)cr £af<$enbte&, — «3, pickpocket. 
„ ©üben, — «, soath. 
„ Sorben, — «, north. 
n ©agen, — S, pL — , wagon. 
n S03e$fcl, — «, pl. — # bill of ex- 

change, draft. 
„ Söein, — «, pl. — e, wine. 



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84 



IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINUED). 



2)ie ©eere,/>£ — n, berry. 

u #ctbelbeere, — , whortleberry. 

„ (gelange, — f pl. — n, snake. 

„ ÄloWerfölange, rattlesnake. 

n Än&, — , j»/. Stüfyt, cow. 

„ föcife, — , j>/. — en, jonrney, trip. 

„ ©^utter, —,/>/. — n, Shoulder. 

„ Stimme,— ,,p£—n,voice. [ure. 

w SBeibe, — , pl. — n, meadow, past- 

H ©olle, — , pl — n, clond. 



2)0« ©Hb, —t* t pl. —er, image. 

„ geuer,— «,j>£— ,fire. 

M ©el,— t*,pl.— e f oü. 

„ Portemonnaie', — Q,pL — * ( pro- 
nounced pört-mö-nay'), purse, 
pocket-book. 

„ fßxtff, —t*,pl* — , cattle. 

„ 3t<*f— t«,p/.— e,raark. 
Sebfyaft (a<#. and acfc.), lively, spirited. 
<Ra<$bera (con/.)i After. 



GrammatdcaL 

1. Irregulär verbs of the fifth and sixth dasses have 
the same vowel in the iirvperfect tense as in the per- 
fect particvple. 

2. The radical vowel in verbs of the fifth class is al- 
ways ei; in those of the sixth class it is usually \t or C. 

3. The following table shows the vowel changes : 





Present 
Infinitive. 


Imper/ect 
Indicatlvt. 


Per/tct 
Partieiple. 


No.of 
Verbs. 


Fifth 
Gast. 


et, 
ei, 


i, 
it, 


ie, 


40. 


Sixth 
Class. 


ie, 
t, 

B,«te. 


9, 
9, 




52. 



4. Irregulär Verbs in the fifth class 

, Present Indicativc, 

Present Infinitive. 2dandZd Person*. 

ttfj)«en, to bite. (formed regularly.) 

greiften, to grasp, setze (affcer). 

begreifen, to comprehend. 

ergreifen, to seize, lay hold of. 

t>fetf*en, to whistle. 

f#neib*en, to cot. 

fp(etß*en, to split. 

leit*en, to lend, loan. (formed regularly.) 

f<$reib*en, to write. 

bef<$retb'*en, to describe. 

Wrei*en, to cry (out). 

treibten, to drive. 



Imperf. 
Indicat. 

m, 

griff, 
ttgnff, 

«8"ff< 

»ffffr 

f<brieb, 
betrieb, 

Mine, 
trieb, 

Digitized by 



Per/ect 
Partieiple, 

geMffe». 
öegriffen. 

begriffen. 

ergriffen. 

gepfiffen. 

gefetynüten. 

geftliffen. 

getiefen« 

getrieben. 

betrieben. 

gefärieen. 

getrieben. 

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IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINÜED). 



85 



5. Irregulär verbs of the sixth class . 

Present Infinitive. 

fliegen, to pour. 
fd}ie|*en, to shoot. 
jd)lie6*en r to close, shut. 
toerlter'*en, to lose. 
jiety*en, to draw. 
f CdjNn, to flght. 
ftc^t-cn, to braid. 
^cS-cn, to lift, raise. 
Itt0«en, to lie. 
betrflg«en, to deceive. 

6. The definite article is omitted before names of the 

points ofthe compass (see § 55, 2, 2) : 

Xit SBotten jtetjcn gegen Sorben, The clouds are moving towards the 

north. 

7. Some foreign words retain much or all of their 
original declension : 



Present Indicative, 


Imper/ect 


2d and 3d Person*. 


Indicat. 


(formed regnlarly.) 


0»tt 

Wog, 


4« 44 


44 44 


Woß f 


44 CC 


aertor, 


4« 44 


a^d. 


bu fUfctfi, et fUftt, 


f**t, 


„ fUtyft, „ flify, 


ftoty, 


(formed regolarly.) 


$ob, 


44 44 


log, 


4t 44 


betrog, 



Perfect 
Participle. 

QtgoffeiL 

gef^offen. 

gefdjioffen. 

fcerloren. 

gejogett. 

gefönten« 

geflößten. 

gehoben. 

gelogen. 

betrogen. 



Singular* 
3)a« Portemonnaie. 
3)e« $ortetnonnaie«& 
3)em Portemonnaie. 
2)a« Portemonnaie. 



Plural. 
$te Portemonnaie*^« 
2)er Portemonnaie^. 
2>en Portemonnaie^. 
SDie Portemonnaie^. 



Exercise52. 



1. The dog has bitten the child. 2. A rattlesnake 
bit the peasant-woman this morning. 3. The policeman 
seized (ergreifen) the pickpocket immediately after he 
had stolen the pocket-book from Mr. Wieland. 4. There 
goe8 the whistle ! (e$ pfeift !) 5. The cook is cutting the 
bread. 6. Professor Häusser, in his History of Qermany, 
has described the battle of Leipsic in a very spirited 
manner (lebhaft). 7. The peasant has driven the cattle 
to the pasture. 8. " He has only added fuel to the flame." 
9. The hunter has shot four hares this morning. 10. 
The Library and the Museum are closed to-day. 11. 
John lost his German Grammar yesterday. 12. Yes, 
but he found it this morning on his brother's table. 13. 



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86 IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINÜED). 

Only one horse is drawing the wagon. 14. I shall 
make a draft (einen 2Bed)fel jiefcen) on Mr. Niedner to-day 
for five hundred and seventy-five dollars. 15. The bas- 
ket-maker has made (flehten) two baskets this morning. 
16. Mary has made (flehten) a beautiful garland. 17. 
They are crying for help ! 18. The pickpocket has sto- 
len three thousand and five hundred dollars from the 
merchant. 19. The German soHiers have fought very 
bravely in the battle. 



LESSON XXVIL 

ISBEOÜLAS VEBB8 OF 8EVEXTH CLA88. BECAPITDLATION OF IREEO. VERBS. 

5)refonbfitof jigfie «nfgabe* 
1. SBiffen ©ie, »o £err 35rinfen$ofer »ofcnt? 2. »lein, id& 
weiß ni$t, »o er wo&nt. 3. 3$ »upte ni$t, ba£ £err ©djöne* 
berg in SBerlin ifl. 4. Äennen ©ie £errn $rofeffor Srantmann ? 
5. 9W> ja, wir fannten tyn fdjon, atö mir in Deutftylanb waren. 
6* 2öie nennen ©ie biefc SMumen ? 7. Diefe ifl eine £$acint$e,* 
tmb jene ifl ein SBergijmteinnW&t.* 8» 2Ba* brennt? 9* 2)a« 
£an$ gegenüber un* brennt (is on fire). 10* Der Äodj f>at ben 
Äaffee gebrannt (roasted). 11. £err Sßeifmanbel $at 3&nen 
einen S3rief »on £erm Äramer in SBien gebraut* 12. £err 
Reibet braute SRadjri^t von unferm D&etrn in SWagbeburg. 13. 
Äarl, wetgt bu, wo mein SMetfHft ifl ? 14. Stein, id> fcabe tyn 
fceute ni#t gefe&en. 15. #aben ©ie bie Sßadjridjt »on «merifa 
in ber heutigen Diepgen 3eitung gelefen ? 16. Stein, i$ f>abc bie 
heutige 3«itung nod> nify gefe&en. 

OrammaticaL 

1. Irregulär verbs of the seventh dass fbllow, in con- 
jugation, partly the laws of regulär, and partly those 
of irregulär verbs. 

2. Present and imperfect tenses of Wtffett, to hnow : 

* See page 486. 

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IRBEGÜLAB VEBB8 (CONTINUED). 



87 



Present Team, 
\d) loeit/ I know. 

bu fettft, thon knowest 
Cr *ti§, he knowa. 

töirtötff'OI/ we know. 
ü)r »iff*et, you know. 
fle tot ff* eil, theyknow. 



Imperfect Tense. 
U$ timf*te, I knew. 
bu to u ß * ttfl, thoa knewest. 
er touß'fe, he knew. 
totrtottß*te», we knew. 
ü)rtouß*tet, yoa knew. 
fie touß*tei, thejrknew. 



3. Irregulär verbs of the seventh class . 



Present Infinitive. 


Present IncUcative, 


Imperfect 


Per/ect 


2d and Sd Persans. 


Indtcative. 


Participle. 


(tilgten, to bring. 


(formed regulär ty.) 


hta&tt, 


ge*bra4*t 


bent*en, to think. 


it «< 


batytt. 


ge*ba<fy*t. 


brennten, to barn. 


U 11 


braira*te, 


ge*brann*t. 


tettu*en, to know. 


tl C( 


fatnvte, 


ge«lonn*t. 


nenn*en, to name. 


«c «« 


narawte, 


ge*namt*t. 


totff*en, to know. 


bntoeißt, ertoriß. 


touß4e, 


ge*touß*t. 



4. To know, meaning to he acquainted with y is rendered 

by lernten. 

5. Grener%i view of the changes the irregulär verbs in 
all seven classes undergo in forming the prineipal parts : 



Class. 


Present. Imperf. Partie. 


Examples. 


No. 


Ist 


Kart), B, «(or0) # 


binb*en, banb, ge*bunb*cn. 


45. 


2d 
8d 
4th 


e, a, u 
a, x, tu 

a, te(ort),<u 


geb*en, gab, ge*geb*en. 
Wafrtn, falug, ge»fölag*en. 
fyaft»ea, $iett, ge*balt»en. 


14. 
10. 
14. 


öth 
6th 


Ct, t(arfc),iar(te), 

ie(e,«fc.),a, •♦ 


beiß*ett, big r ge*btff*en. 
gteß-en, goß, ge*goff*en. 


40. 
52. 


7th 


anomalous. 


bringen, braute, ge*bracH 


16. 


Total nnmberofi 


Regulär verbs 


191. 









6. Examples of the seven classes of irregulär verbs : 



1. First Class. 



Mib*«T, fort, 

finden, femb, 

fhtgsen, fang, 

be*gt»i*n, be*gamt, 

ae*tohtti«eit, ge*toamt, 

fytnmat, ftxmn, 



ge*mfc<n. 

ge*fttnb*eit. 

ge*fmtg*en« 

bcgoiwen. 

ge*toomt*en. 

gc*ft>omt*n. 



brtd)*en, 

frreä>eti, 

bref$*en, 

ne^tn*en, 

fterb#en, 

treffen, 

toerf«en, 



forau), 

brafä), 

n<u)m, 

ftarb, 

traf, 

toarf, 

Digitized by 



ge'feod>*en. 

gcforoäVen. 

ge*brofd>-eii. 

ge*nomm«en. 

ge*ftorb*en. 

ge*troff*en. 

ge*toorf*eii, 

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88 



IRREGULÄR VERBS (CONTINUEd). 





2. Second Class. 


5. 


Fifih Clou. 


get*en, 


%**, 


ge*gri«en. 


htifrtn, 


M|, ge*biff*eii 


Ief-cn, 


US, 


ge4ef«en. 


grcif-en, 


griff, ge*griff*e«. 


fcN«r 


W, 


ge*fc$*en. 


fdjneib*en, 


fä}mtt, ge*fä)nitt*au 


eff-oir 


«6, 


a,eg*eff*etu 


fä)reib*en, 


förieb, gc*jd)rieb-€ii. 


freff*«, 


fraß, 


ge^freff*au 


treiben, 


trieb, ge*trteb*en. 


racffscn, 


maß, 


ge*tneff*tn. 






*crgeff*en ( 


bttgaß, 


bergejj«cn. 


6. ÄürtÄ C7cms. 


trct*en, 


trat, 


getreuem 


giefcai, 


fä>ß, ge-fa>fj*etu 




3. Third Clou. 


gie(Kn, 


&*8, 0C*jog.cn. 


grat*en, 


V**f 


ge*grafc<n. 


fed>t*en, 


fod?t, ge»fo<fyt»e». 


fo)lag*en, 


Wn, 


ge*fd)lag*en. 


$eb»en, 


$ob, gc*$ob*eu. 


tragen, 
tta[d)-en, 


trug, 
toufä), 


ge*trag«en. 
Qt»toa\$*n. 


7. , 

bringen, 


Sevenih Class. 

hxatytt, ge*toa4*t 




4. Fourth Class. 


bent*cn r 


backte, ge*ba$«t. 


f«ig«en, 


ftag, 


ge*faitg»en. 


brerat*at, 


brann-te, ge*brann»t. 


fytfoen, 


tfctt, 


gc*&alt-en. 


leiuuen, 


Iann*te, gc^taun«*. 


f$laf*cn, 


Wief # 


ge»fä)laf»en. 


nennten, 


naira*te, ge*nann*t. 


ruf*en, 


rief, 


ge*ruf*eiu 


toriff*cn, 


n>uß*te, ge*toußt. 



i?ew. 1. With most irregulär verbs, tho original length ofjhe radical vowel 
ifl preserved in all the principal parts : 



1. Vowel long. 
fcil*en, ftatf, ge<fto|I»en. 
lef*n, la«, ge»tef*en. 
tragen, trug, ge*trag«e». 



2. Fbwe/ dort. 

ftftttKlt, fottUI, ge*fo0WKlt. 

freff*en, fraß, ge*freff*ai. 

brenn*«!, brannte, ge*braira*t 



Rem. 2. With some verbs the length of the radical vowel is changed in one 
or more of the derived principal parte. The change is more frequently firom 
long to short, than it is from skort to long : 

leiten, W|, ge*U|f«at. I lefa-en, ttofttt, öMomnvcn. 
f<$neib*en, fd)nitt, ge»fd)nitt*en. | treff<en, traf, gc*tr0ff*en. 

Rem. 3. In the sixteenth Century the participle of tfftH was formed regu- 
larly grtff eil. This was then contracted into gtffdU In the seventeenth Cen- 
tury another ge* was added, by false analogy, and hence the double prefix 

in gegeffe** 

Eiercise 64. 
1. Are you acquainted with General von Lichten- 
stein ? 2. No, I do not know him. 3. What do you 
call (wie nennen ©ie) this fish? 4. That fish is a trout. 
5. The fire does not burn. 6. The cook has not yet 
roasted (brennen) the coffee. 7. The house of Mr. Kraft 



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VERBS WITH fcitt, TO BB, AS AÜXILIABY. 89 

is on fire (brennen). 8. Do you know where Mr. Ruprecht 
is? 9. He is now in Munich. 10. Charles, dost thou 
know when Alexander von Humboldt died ? 11. Alex- 
ander von Humboldt died in Berlin on the sixth of 
May, 1859. 12. Children, do you know how old Schil- 
ler was when he died ? 13. He was forty-five years and 
six months old. 14. When did you meet Mr. Rosen- 
berg? 15. We met him this morning in (auf) the street. 
16. Where didst thou find the German grammar? 17. 
I found it on my brother's table. 



LESSON XXVIII. 

TERBS WITH fetlt^ TO BE, A8 AÜXILIART. 

dx ifl fe&r reidj ßewefen, He has been very rieh. 

dx ifl arm geworben, He has become poor. 

dx ifl naä) £aufe gegangen, He has gone home. 
dx war ttaä) ^aufe gegangen, He had gone home. 
dx wirb wa$rf$einlid) nadj ber He willprobablyhave gone 
©tabt gegangen fein, to the city. 

Pnfimbfitafjiöfle «ufgafce* 
1* (£r ifl gu #aufe. 2. Cr war gu £aufe. 3- dx ifl gu 
£aufe gewefen. 4. dx war gu |>aufe gewefen. 5. dx wirb gu 
£aufe gewefen fein. 6. Da$ SBetter ifl jefct fe&r fceiß geworben. 
7. £err Äaltfömibt tfl Kaufmann geworben* 8. Da« SBet* 
ter war f$on fefcr tyeiß geworben, al* wir na$ 3talien gingen. 
9. 3Bie finb Sie »on ber ©tabt gefommen? 10. SBir finb ge* 
fahren. 11. griebri^ ifl gu gufc (on foot) na$ ber ©tabt ge^ 
gangen, aber 2Bityelm ifl geritten* 12. 2)a$ $ferb ifl über ben 
©raben (ditch) gefprungen. 13* Der SMeifiift lag auf bem 
Xifä. 14. Die 33üdjer liegen auf ben Stiften. 15. Dai Äinb 
war fd>on getforben, al* ber SSater na<§ £aufe fam. 16. Dem 
Säger ifl fein $unb na<§ bem ©albe gefolgt. 17. 3$ werbe 
na$ bem SWufeum gefcen, aber §txx Ärangler wirb wal)rföein* 
li$ fdjon nad) £aufe gegangen fein. 

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90 



VERBS WITH fttlt, TO BE. 



GrammaticaL 

1. Most intransitive verbs take feilt, to be, instead of 
Ija&CH, to have 9 as their auxiliary. 

Rem. 1. The greater port of intransitive verbs are primitive or derivative 
irregulär verbs. 

Hern. 2. Nearly all regulär verbs and many irregulär verbs are transitive, 
and, as such, take jatOI for their auxiliary. 

Rem. 8. All impersonal verbs take jäte« as their auxiliary. 

Rem, 4. It will be indicated in the vocabularies hereafter when the verbs 
take feil as their auxiliary. 

2. Indicative mood of f eilt, to be : 



Present Tense. 

id) bin, I am. 

btt H|i f thouart. 

er t|t, he is. 

ton fittb, we are. 

Ü)r feto, you are. 

flc filtb, they are. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have been, etc. 

ty bin getoefeiu 
bu liift geroefen. 
er iß geroefen. 
wir fiab geroefen. 
u)r feib geroefen. 
flc finb geroefen. 

/Vrrt /W «r« Tense. 
I shall be, ete. 

ty merke febu 

bu irirfl fein, 

er wirb fein« 

roir roerb*e« fef«* 

tyr »erbtet fehu 

fie roerb*e« feilt* 



Imper/ect Tense. 

id) roor, I was. 

bu t90r*|t, thouwast 

er tott, he was. 

»ir ro a r * es, we were. 

tyr ro a r * t, you were. 

fie roar*e», theywere. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had been, etc. 

id) tont getoefen 
bu warft gerne fem 
er aar geroefen. 
roir roar*e» geroefen. 
U)r roar*t geroefen. 
fie toar-e« geroefen. 

Seeond Futurs Tense. 
I shall have been, etc. 

id) roerbe geftefen fehu 
bu wirft geroefen feil* 

er wirb geroefen fei«» 

roirroerb*e« geroefen fef», 
ü)r roerb*et geroefen feto 
fie roerb*e* geroefen fehu 



3. Indicative mood of ttttbttt, to become: 



Present Tense. 

t$ wert*, I become. 

bu trifft, thou becomest 

er wirb, he becomes. 

roirroerb'e«, we become. 

u)rroerb*et, you become. 

fie roerb'Ot, they become. 



Imper/ect Tense. 
id) t0ftlt*€, I became. 
bu murb'tft, thou becamest. 
er tourb-e, he became. 
roir rourb*eu, we became. 
ü)r rourb*et, you became. 
fie rourb*«, they became. 



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VERBS WITH fefo, TO BE, AS AUXILIARY. 



91 



Per/eet Tense. 
I have become, etc. 

i$ Wu geworben» 
bn Hfl geworben, 
er ift geworben, 
wir finb geworben. 
ü)r feib geworben. 
fie finb geworben. 

First Future Tense. 
I shall become, etc. 

i$ wet^e werben 
bn Wirft werben, 
er Wirk werben, 
wir werb*« werbt** 
ü)r werb*et werben, 
fie werb*« werben. 



Pluperfect Tense. 
I had become, etc. 

w) war geworben, 
bn warft geworben, 
er war geworben, 
wir war*« geworben, 
tyr war*et geworben, 
fie war*« geworben. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have become, etc. 

i$ wert* geworben fein» 
bu wirft geworben fein« 
er wirb geworben fein» 
wir werb*« geworben fein» 
u)r werb*et geworben fein* 
fie werb*« geworben fein» 



4. The indicative mood of Iommctt, to come: 



Present Tense. 

\$ fontm*, i come. 

btt tomttl*ft, thoueomest 
er lotnm't; he comes. 
Wir tomm*«, we come. 
ü)r ! o m m * t, you come. 
fie tomm*«, they come. 

Perfect Tense. 
I have come, etc. 

i$ bin gefönt*«» 
bu tift getommen. 
er ift getommen. 
wir finb getommen. 
«)* feib getommen. 
fie ftnb getommen. 

First Future Tense, 
I shall come, etc. 

i$ werbet fontmeit» 
bu wirft tommen. 
er wirb tommen. 

wir wecb*m tommen. 
tyr werb*ei tommen. 
fie werb*« tommen. 



Imperfect Tense. 
i$ fönt, I came. 

bn fam*ft, thoa camest. 
er fant, he came. 
Wir t a m * en, we came. 
i&r fam*i> 70a came. 
fie tam*«, they came. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had come, etc. 

m) war getoutnteu» 
bn war*ft getommen. 
er War getommen. 
wir war*« getommen. 
ü)r war*t getommen. 
fie war*« getommen. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have come, etc. 

m) wert* gefönt»« fein* 
bu wirft getommen fein« 
er wirb getommen fein» 
wir werb*« getommen fein» 
ipr werb*et getommen fein, 
fie werb*« getommen fein* 



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92 



VERBS WITH fei«, TO BE, AS AÜXILURY. 



Imperf. Indic. 


Per/, Part. 


toar, 


getoefen. 


tourbe, 


gettorben. 


fiel, 


gefallen. 


Mr, 


gefahren. 


ging, 


gegangfit« 


tarn, 


getointneiu 


lag, 


gelegen. 


ftrang, 


gedrungen. 


ftarb, 


geworben. 


folgte, 


gefolgt. 



5. Some intransitive verbs (having f ein as auxiliary) ; 

Clan. Present Infinitive. 

2. fein, to be. 

1. Werben, to become. 

4. fatt-en r to fiUL 

8. f a$r*en, to ride. 

4. ge$«en, to go. 

1. fomm*en, to come. 

2. lieg*en, to lie. 
] . ft>ring«en, to lenp, spring. 
1. fterb*en, to die. 

Reg. folgten, to follow. 

Rem. 1. gratttn and faftttt take the umlaut in the 2d and 3d persona of the 
present singular. 

Rem. 2. ^fo|tt1t means to ride in a carriage or other means of convejance. 
Steifen means to ride on a hone. 

Eiercise56. 
1. Has Mr. Franz been here ? 2. No, he has not been 
here. 3. The weather has become very cold. 4. Where 
is Mr. Stromberg? 5. He has gone to Magdeburg to- 
day. 6. Did Mr. Meyerheim go to Potsdam in his car- 
riage (fahren)? 7. No, he went on horseback (retten). 

8. We went to Charlottenburg on foot this morning. 

9. Mr. Wiedner has not come home yet. 10. Cologne 
lies on the left bank of the Rhine. 11. Your German 
newspaper is lying on the table. 12. The daughter of 
Mr. Friedländer had already died before (e&e) he came 
home. 13. Whom do you wish ? 14. 1 am looking for 
Mr. Wiegand. 15. He has gone to Dresden to-day ; he 
will be here to-morrow. 



LESSON XXIX. 

THE INFINITIVS 1IOOD. 



Der JBrief ijl ferner ju lefen, 

(Er wünf$t ba$ 95u<$ gu fe$en, 

aBadifljut^un? 

2)a* £au* ifi gu »erlaufen, 



The letter is hard to read 
He wishes to see the book. 
What is to be done? 
The house is for sale. 



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THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 93 

3$ fcörte fte fingen, I heard them sing, 

©te machen mxti) la$en, You make me laugh. 

SBBir geben fpagte'ren, We are going to take a walk. 

(Er ifl fpajicrcn gefahren, He has gone to take a ride. 

©ieknnnbfönfjlflpe Hnfgn&e* 
1. Der ©cfcnetber b*t serfprocfyen, mir ben Stodf tyeute STOor* 
gen gu föidfen. 2. <E* ifl meine 2lbft($t, übermorgen na$ (Er* 
langen gu geben* 3* 3$ »unf^e mit §txxn ©cfynorr ju fpre* 
$en. 4. (Er ifl augenbli<flt$ nt$t ju £aufe* 5. <E* »irb fpät ; 
e* ifl bie bö^fk 3"* (high time), na$ £aufe gu geben. 6. 
2)iefe$ $au9 ifl fcgleidfr gu »erlaufen. 7. $ier ftnb tner mö* 
blirte 3«nmer ju sermtetben. 8. (Eine &enf$aftli($e SBobnung 
nebfl @a* unb SBafferleitung ifl in ber Seipgtger ©träfe ju m* 
mieten. 9. Sir tyaben feine 3eit ju verlieren. 10. Sfoflatt 
ba* £au* ju behalten, ^at fytxx ©igel e* »erlauft. 11. grieb* 
ri# Äraft ifl na$ SBten gegangen, um feinen ©ropöater gu be* 
fu$en. 12. ©ufla» Wltytytimtx ifl na$ ©erlin gegangen, um 
auf (at) ber bortigen Unfoerfttät gu flubiren. 13. 2)a$ 9tau* 
c$en ifl eine föletye ©ewobnbeit. 14. 2Ba* ijl gu tbun? 
Steine beutf($e ©rammattf ifl ntc^t gu ftnben. 15. JWarie unb 
Äatbarine lernen jefct ba* Älasier fpielen. 16. ©inb ©ie fceute 
STOorgen fpagieren gegangen ? 17. Stein, i$ bin geritten. 18. 
$eute werben wir fpagieren fabren. 19. ffiarum bleibfl bu 
ftfcen? 20. (Er lobt ba* 93u$, o$ne e* gelefen gu baben. 

Vocabulary. 



2>te Wbfät, —,pl. — cn, intentioo. 
„ ©cwe'öuiig, — ,pl. —tn, motion, 

exercise. 
„ @eto©&n'&cit, — , pL — cn, habit. 
n UntocrfitSt', — , pl — tn, univer- 
rity. [ter-works. 

n ©afferlettrotö, — , pl — en, wa- 
n SÖofynmg,— ,pL— cn,residence, 

saite of rooma, apartments. 
n 3«t f — ,pl— Ol, time. 
S)a« ©a$, — t$,pL— t, gas. 



BugenMuffitty, for the moment. 

3)ortig, of that place. [noblemen). 

$errf<!&aftfi<ty, fine and apacious (flt for 

äJWblhrt', fbrniahed. 

©tilg, blessed. 

@<$le$t,bad. 

@toglei$ (<ufo.), immediately. [with. 

9fcfrft (/>r«5p. with dat.), with, together 

9tou<$at (reg.), to smoke. 

©frajtc'rcn («w 6, 2, p. 95). 

Sermte'tycit (reg.), to rem, let. 



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94 



THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Steifen (fem aux.), to remain. 
©ifcen (fein aux.), to dt. 
SC y un, to do. 



blieb, 

W, 

t y at, 



geblieben« 

Ö«Wf««* 
getym 



GrammaticaL 
1. In German, as in English, the Infinitive Mood has 
two teDses, the Present and the Perfect : 



Present Tense. 
litt**, to love. 
bou*en, tobuild. 
fUib*en, tofind. 
geM«, togp. 
tt>erb*en, to become. 
fein, to be. 



Perfect Tense. 
JtHcM fata, to have loved. 
gebaut ffdbtn, tohavebuilt. 
gefunden fyaben, to have foand. 
gegangen fein, to have gone. 
getoorben fem, to have become. 
geftefen fein, to have been. 



2. The Infinitive is usually preceded by jtt, to : 

3$ tofi nf<$e mit i y m JH fore<$en, I wish to speak with him. 
2>er ©rief ifl fömer )H lefen, The letter is hard to read, 

©tr Ratten genug JU t$un, We had enough to do. 

3. While in English both the present participle and 
the infinitive mood are used as verbal nouns, in German 
only the Infinitive is thus used : 

$a£ Ketten iß eine angenehme Riding is an agreeable exercise. 

©emegung, 
©tbtn ifl feiiger ol« Heimen, It is more blessed to give than to re- 

ceive. 
Rm. The Infinitive, used as a noun, takes the neuter gender : $a$ fRcitclt» 

4. The Infinitive (with jil) may be preceded by the 
prepositions anftatt, djtte, um: 

Änflatt )tt geytn, bleibt er, Instead of going, he remains. 

Ott lobt ba* ©u<$, Oyite t» gelefen He praises the book, without having 
)« faben, read it. 

Rem, The preposition HUI is used beföre the Infinitive : (1), to express 
pwrpose or desire; (2), after affectives which are preceded by $H (*<*>)» or 
which are followed bv gOOtg («noi^A): 
Cr ifl nad) ber &tabt gegangen, 

tttt ein $u$ )tt taufen, 
2>a« Äinb ifl )* fang, um allein in 

ben SBalb $n ge^en, 
<Sr ifl nid)t alt genug, um allein 
in ben Salb JU ge#n, 



He has gone to the city to bny a 

book. 
The child is too young to go into the 

woods alone. 
He is not old enough to go into the 

woods alonc. 



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THE INFINITIVE M00D. 95 

5. The Infinitive is sometimes used in apassive sense: 

ffia« ifl ju tyun? What is to be done? 

2>a$ &üä) ifl nityt gu $ab«n, The book is not to be had. 

6-. 3* i& omitted when the Infinitive is preceded: 

1. By the verbs tttfttyen, Reifen, Pren, füllen, feljen, 
$ti|en, nennen, leljren, lernet! : 

@ic ma^en mwty ladjen, Ton make me langh. 

fiHr fcörtentyn finden, We heard him sing. 

Qtx teerte mi<$ ba« Ätafcter fpktat, He taught me to play the piano. 

@ic lernen ba« Äfotoier finelen, They are learning to play the piano. 

2. By the verbs bleiben, ge$en, fteljen, liegen, retten, 
fahren, Ijabett, fein, in certain idiomatic expres- 
sions : 

(Er bleibt fifcett, He keeps his seat. 

Cr ge^t ftaftiett*, He is taking a walk. 

<5r ffyrt frieren, He is taking a ride (in a carriage). 

(Sr reitet freieren, He is taking a ride (on horseback). 
Rem. 1. ßn is also omitted after other rerbs, as willbehereafter explained. 

Bern. 2. 6jmjf trtl (nsed with gtljtlt, ttittU, fftfrett) means to go (to 
walk or ride) for pleasure. 

Exerciseö8. 
1. The merchant promised to send us the cloth yes- 
terday. 2. It is his intention to go to Augsburg to- 
morrow. 3. I wish to buy a German Dictionary. 4. 
The large house opposite us is for sale. 5. Here is a 
large and elegant suite of rooms (eine $errf$aftlid)e ffiofc 
nung) to let. 6. The large house in Wilhelms Street, 
with gas and water (nebft ®ai unb ffiafferieitung), is for 
sale immediately. 7. Instead of coming by way of Co- 
logne, he came by way of Frankfurt. 8. 1 have no time 
to lose ; I am going to Leipsic this evening. 9. " It is 
more blessed to give than to reeeive." 10. Why does 
Charles keep his seat? (6,2, dbove.) 11. What is to be 
done ? 12. It is high time to go, and the tailor has not 
yet sent me my overcoat. 13. Mr. Dietrich has gone to 
take a walk. 14. 1 am going to take a ride (on horse- 
back). 15. They have gone to ride (in a carriage). 



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96 PARTICIPLES. 

LESSON XXX. 

PABTIC1PLES. 

Der folgende £ag par fetyr fcelfj Thefollowingday was very 
unb fdjttml, hot and sultry. 

2)a* 33ilb ifl reijenb, The picture is charming. 

Der »on allen feinen fytmfotn Professor Behr, who was 
fefor geliebte unb geehrte #err greatly beloved and re- 
$rofef[or ©ebr tfl geflern spectedbyallhisfriends, 
$benb an ber ©(tynnnbfwtyt died suddenly yesterday 
plofcltdj geworben, evening of consumption. 

Die bereinigten Staaten, The United States. 

MeMMttbfönfatgßc Aufgabe. 

1. 9lm folgenben Jage gingen wir nadj SBien. 2. SSon un* 
ferm £aufe &aben wir eine ganj reijenbe 9tu$ft($t. 3- SBten ijl 
bie größte unb bie bebcutenbfte ©tabt in Deftcrretd). 4. Slürn* 
berg fcat im Mittelalter eine glänjenbe ©eföitye gehabt. 5. 3n 
inbuflrieUcn SBejtebungen ifl Nürnberg jefct bie bcbeutenbjle ©tabt 
in ©aiern. 6. Die brennte, serme&rte, unb »öDig neu bear* 
beitete SluSgabe ber ©eftyicfyte ber beutfdjen Literatur ifl jefct in 
allen ©u^bönblungen ju fcaben. 7. SReue unb gebrauste ©ü* 
c$er in alten unb mobernen ©prägen ftnb in ber 33u$^anblung 
»on Äretfdjner unb SRobenberg billigfl gu »erfaufen. 8. Der 
©ertrag grotftyen ben bereinigten ©taaten unb bem SRorbbeut* 
f$en ©unbe ifl jefct abgesoffen (concluded), 9. Die tat 
Sabre 1809 gefliftete UnfoerfttSt in S3erlin ifl jefct bie befu<fc 
tefle unb bie befle in Deutfölanb. 10» Die 3abl ber $rofef* 
foren ifl fcunbert unb bierunbncunjig ; bie Qafy ber ©tubtren* 
ben ifl über 3000. 11. Die im 3a$re 1818 gefliftete Unfoer* 
fttät ju S3onn ifl bie jüngfle in Deutfdjlanb. 12. Die 3a$ ber 
©tubirenben ifl über 1000 ; bie 3atyt bw $rofefforcn ifl frunbert 
unb fe$*. ,13. £err $rofcffbr ©#mtbt ifl $rofeffor ber mober* 
nen ©prägen an ber bteftgen Unfoerfttat. 14. Sllbre^t Dürer 
war ber beritymtefle beutföe SWaler be* SWittelalter*. 



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PARTICIPLES. 



97 



Vocabulary. 



2>er ftreunb, — *&,pl. — e, friend. 

„ ©taat, — e$, pl. —tri, State. 

„ Skrtrag',— e«, pl Verträge, treaty 
S)ic SluSfidjt, — f />/. — ett, prospect. 

n ©cjiey ung, — , ;>£ — en, relation. 

„ 33ud$anblmtg, — , pl. — en, book- 
store. 

r; ©(fytt>uibfu<$t, — , consumption. 

n 3 a Wr — f pL — *n, number. 
2)a« SBilb, — e«,/>/. —er, picture. 
Sear/beiten, to revise, work over. 
fteigen, to charm. 
SBebeu'ten, to signify. 
©längen, to shine. 
©rau(fyen f to use. 



211 1, old, ancient. 
Zobern', modern. 
SnbufrrieU', industrial. 
^plöfcUdj, sudden. 
Sßöüig, fall, complete. 
©eritymt', famous, distinguished. 
(Styren, to honor, respect 
©rfinben, to found. 
©tiften, to endow, found. 
SSerein'igen, to unite. 
SScnne&'ren, to increase, enlarge. 
föeijenb (adj.), charming. 
Sebeu'tcnb (adj.\ important. 
©tänjenb (adj.), brilliant. 
©ebraucfyf (<«#.), secönd-hand. 



GrammaticaJ. 
1. In German, as in English, the verb has two Parti- 
ciples: the Present and the Perfect. 

1. The Present Participle is formed by adding *eitb 
to the stem of the verb. 

2. The Perfect Participle is formed (1), by adding 4 
to the stem of all regulär verbs, and ^Clt to the 
stem of all irregulär verbs ; and (2), by prefixing 
sge to the stem of all verbs, except the insepara- 
ble Compounds Je*, VXU f CUty*, etc., and to verbs 
ending in nretl (Atttn). 

Rem. The radical vowel of many irregulär verbs is changed. 



Present Infinitive. 
Heb*en, to love. 
Banken, to buüd. 
ftnb*en, to find. 
erfinb'*en, to invent. 



Present Participle. 
HeB'tttb, loving. 
Bau* tttb, building. 
finb*enb f finding. 
e r f t n b'* enb, inventing. 



Perfect Participle. 
ge * t i e b * t, loved. 
ßC * b a u * t, built 
flt* funb'flt, found. 
erfunb'*Ctt, invented. 



2. Participles are often used adjeetively. They are 
then subjeet to all the 1/wos of declension and corrvpar- 
Uon that apply to adjeetives: 

Am folgenben £age, On the following day. 

$tc bereinigten ©taaten, The United States. 



E 



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98 PARTICIPLES. 

Rem. The participle often takes a purely adjective signification : 
S)a« reijenbe 23ilb, The charming picture. 

©ebraucfyte S8ü(fyer, Second-hand books. 

2ta beritymtefle SRalcr, The most fiimous painter. 

3. The jpresent participle is used much less in German 
than in English. It is rarely used after feilt, to be, ex- 
cept when it has an adjectiye signification. 

2)a* ©üb ifl retgenb, The picture is charming. 

4. The jperfect participle, on the other hand, is used 
much more than in English. 

5. Participles are frequently translated into English 

by the verb, with a relative pronoun for its subject: 

2>ie im Qaffxt 1809 gegrünbctc The Universitär of Berlin, which was 
Untoerfität ju ©erltn, founded in 1809. 

Exercise 60. 
1 . On the following day they went by way of Frank- 
fort to Cologne. 2. (The in 1520 completed cathedral 
in Magdeburg is among the most beautiful churches 
in Germany.) 3. From the tower of the cathedral we 
have a most (jjöttj) charming prospect. 4. Breslau, the 
largest and the most important city in Silesia (@cl)le* 
fien), has 160,000 inhabitants. 5. The university in 
Prague, founded in 1348, was the first university in Ger- 
many. 6. The university in Leipsic, which was (en- 
dowed) in 1409, was the second university in Germany. 
7. (The twenty-second enlarged and fully revised edi- 
tion of the German Grammar of Mr. Dr. Heyse is now 
to have.) 8. Second-hand books in all languages are 
for sale here cheap. 9. (The on the twenty-fourth * 
March on the consumption suddenly died Mr. Prof. Behr 
was the oldest professor on the here [^icftge] univer- 
sity.) 10. The treaty between the United States and 
Austria is not yet concluded. 11. Peter von Cornelius, 
who died in the year 1867, was the most distinguished • 
painter of the nineteenth Century. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS tÖlUtCtt AND titttffett* 99 

LESSON XXXI. 

THE POTENTIAL VERBS fÖttttett AND mÜffCtt* 

3$ fann e$ nidf)t lefen, I can not read it. 

Äannjl bu e$ lefen ? Canst thou read it ? 

@r fann c$ Icfcn, - He can read it. 

SSBtr fönnen c$ «i^t lefen, We can not read it. 

©te fönnen ti Icfcn, They can read it. 

©ie fonnten ti Icfcn, * They could read it. 

@r fyat ti lefen fönnen, He has been able tc^uid it. 

gr wirb cS Icfcn fönnen, He will be able to^id it. 

©r $at ti ntdjt gefonnt, He has not been able to 

do it. 

#err SSraun fann £)cutfd), Mr. Braun knows German. 

(Bnunbfedjjigfte Stufgaic* 
1. 3^ fann feinen SBricf gar ntd&t Icfcn» 2. Äarl faßt, baß 
er feine beutfdfje ©rammattf nidf)t ftnben fann. 3. Äonncn ©ie 
mit un$ fpajieren ge$en? 4. Sftein, $eute fonncn wir nid&t fpa^ 
gieren gelten. 5. £err ßramer fagt, bap er ben ©rief nid&t Icfcn 
fonnte (or bap er ben 33rief nid^t $at Icfcn fonncn). 6. £err 
Äarl £artmann fann Deutfd) unb ©pamfdfj. 7* SBarum fcat 
5Warie ba« beutfdje Sieb nid&t gefungen? 8. ©ie $at e* ntd&t 
gefonnt (or ftc tyat e$ ntdjt fingen fönnen). 9. @r wirb ben 
SBrief nidfot lefen fönnen. 10. 3dj mup fyeute einen SBrief an 
£crm SWapmann ftijrcibcn. 11. £err SMetridfj fyat mir gefagt, 
bap er fceute nad^ Hamburg gefyen mup, um einige greunbe au$ 
Slmerifa gu treffen. 12. SBir fonnten nidljt langer bleiben; nur 
mupten natij £aufe gcfyen. 13. £eute SWorgcn fyabe idfj fo »tele 
©riefe fdjreiben muffen, bap id& nidjjt nadfj bem Sftufeum $ak ge* 
|>cn fönnen. 14. SWorgen »erben wir nadfj 25reöben unb über* 
morgen nadfj $rag getyen. 15. £err ©df)norr wfinfdljt einen 8e^ 
rer für feine jroei ßinber ; ber Scfrrer mup ©nglifdjj, Dcutfdfj unb 
granjöjifdfj geläu'ftg (fluently) fprcdjjen fönnen. 16. 3d(j fcabe 
bie britte SluSgak ber ®efc$idjte »on 2)eutfc$lanb in ber ganjen 
©labt nidljt finben fönnen. 



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^^esent Infinitive. 
f 9^Bc n , to be able. 
mvW* en , to be obliged. 



100 THE POTENTIAL VERBS fOHttCU AND WÜf|CU. 

GrammaticaL 

1. The German verb has no potential mood. The po- 
tential mood of the English verb is in most cases trans- 
lated into German by the use of the verbs fömicn, can; 
mfiffett, must; etc. 

2. The Potential Verbs (tftoltett, muffe«, etc.) have a com« 
plete conjugation. They take Ija&ett as their auxiliary. 
They belong to the seventh class of irregulär verbs : 

Imperfect Indicaiive. Perfect Participle. 
% fO!m*te, sc'tJKK't* 

nut|'te r gc^nutl't 

Rem. The ose of the Potential Verbs is mach more extensive than that of 
the auxüiaries of the potential mood in English (may, can, must, etc.). They 
are often translated by circumlocutory phrases, as tÖUUen, to be able / Btüfs 
fftt, to be compelled, to be obliged (to have to). 

3. The Potential Verbs (called in German the aux- 
iliaries ofmode) are never used as independent verbs. 
They are only used to limit or qualify the infinitives 
of other verbs (though the limited verb is frequently 
understood) : 

3$ fOttn e* nity, I can not (do) it. 

3$ f)abt & vää)t gCfOMtt, I was not able (to do) it. 

(St Jttt C« gcmnf t, He was compelled (to do) it. 

4. können (to be able, can) indicates : 

1 . Moral or physicial possibility : 

<£x tonn tefen unb fetyreiben, He can read and write. 

2. A possibility or contingency: 

@ie liuutn tmd? erwarten, Tou mar expect me. 

3. ÄÖnnCn is frequently used with the verbs Uftn, faßtll, tyrtijjtlt, 
UtrftC^eit (to widerstand), and tylttt (to do), understood: 

$err töoty famt 2>cutfdj, Mr. Roth knows German. 

5. Indicative mood of lotineit, to be able, can : 



Present Tense. 

io> fantt, I can. 

bu fatttt*|t, thou canst. 

er famt, he can. 

tmrt3un*eit/ we can. 

tyr tönn*t, you can. 

fle f8nn*fll, they can. 



Imperfect Tense. 
tu) !0tttt*tt, I could. 
bu tonn*tt|t, thoucouldst. 
er tonn*te, he could. 
wir fonn*tcit, we could. 
tyr tonn*tet, you could. 
fle tonnten, they could. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS lotttttlt AND inÜ||C!U 101 



Per/ect Tense. 
I have been able, etc. 

\ä) (Qfce gefonnk 
bu W getonnt 
er ljttt getonnt 
toir $ao*eu getonnt 



ü)r 
fic 



iah* 



t getonnt 
en getonnt 



First Future Tense. 
I shall be able, etc. 



to) merke tonnen» 
bu tirirft tonnen, 
er ttirb tonnen, 
nur toerb'tlt tonnen, 
t&r n>erb*ct tonnen, 
fie »erbten tonnen. 
Bern. Können/ to be able, is derived 
can is from the same root 



Pluperfect Tense. 
I had been able, etc. 

t$ WUt getümtt 
bu &at*teft jetonnt 
er &at*tc getonnt 
urir $at*ten getonnt 
i&r &at*tet getonnt 
fte $at*ten getonnt 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have been able, etc. 

i$ toerfce gefonnt tauen« 
bu toirft getonuig^em 
er toirb getonuÄfccn* 
nnr n>erb«en getount wbeu« 
tyr n>erb*et getonnt jioben. 
fle n>erb*en getonnt tiaben. 
from f CUUCU, to know. The English 



6. SMffeu {must) is frequently rendered into English 
by such expressions as to be obliged, to be comjpetted. 

7. Indicative mood of muffen, to be obliged, must : 



Present Tense. 
id) mnß, ' I must. 
bu Ittttßt, thoamust 

er muß, he mast 

tmr müff*e«, wo must 
iljr müff*t, you must 
fie muff* en, they must. 

Per/ect Tense. 

i$fyt*c gemußt, etc., 

I have been obliged, etc. 

First Future Tense. 

utymerbe muffen, etc., 

I shall be obliged, etc. 

8. The partieipial form is only used when thejmneipal 
verb is understood. The infinitive form is used for the 
participle when the prineipal verb is expressed: 

3d) tyafce ni$t työren tonnen, I could not hear. 

3d> fyitte gelten muffen, I had been obliged to go. 

(bat) 3d> fyabe es nidrt getonnt, I conld not (do) it. 

<2r $at e$ gemußt, He has been compelled (to do) it 



Imperfect Tense. 

td) tttttßstt, I was obliged. 

bu muß'teft, thou wast obliged. 

er tnuß'tt, he was obliged. 

nrir muß« tett, we were obliged. 

u)r muß* tttf you were obliged. 

fte muß'tCtt, they were obliged. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

t$fy*tte genutzt, etc., 

I had been obliged, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

i$ merbe gemußt Jabeu,««-., 

I shall have been obliged, etc. 



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102 THE POTENTIAL VERBS UWttCtt AND 11100011« 

9. The Potential Verbs follow the same laws of Posi- 
tion in the present and imperfect tenses as the auxilia- 
ries Mafien, feilt/ and tDtrbeit» In the Compound tenses 
the infinitive form of the potential verb is placed after 
the infinitive of the modified verb : 

Czr toirb eS tefen !ümtett f He will be able to read it. 

<Sr Jttt eS Icfcn XimtVL f He has been able to read it. 

Exercise 62. 
1. I can not find my pencil. 2. Freddy, canst thou 
bring ifte my German Dictionary? 3. The teacher can 
not hear what we are saying. 4. We could not hear 
what he said. 5. They will not be able to read this 
letter. 6. (Charles, thy father says that thou imme- 
diately [gletdj] home go must.) 7.We must send this 
letter to America by way of Liverpool. 8. 1 could not 
go to walk with them ; I had to remain at home and 
write my German exercise. 9. Mr. Kraft will have 
(muffen) to seil his new house. 10. We will not be able 
to go to Augsburg to-morrow ; we will go to Nuremberg 
to-morrow, and day after to-morrow we must (XstFut.) 
go to Augsburg. 11. Mr. Krahn wishes a clerk; he 
must be able to write and speak German with fluency 
(fldäufiö). 12. Why did you not read the letter? 13. 
We could not (it). 



LESSON XXXII. 

THE POTENTIAL VERBS tDOÜCIl AND mÜßCH* 

3dj ttriH gletdj gefcen, I will go immediately. 

34 »ttbc filcic^ getyen, I shall go immediately. 

©ollen ©ie mit uns getyen ? Do you wish to go with us ? 

2Btr sollten ba$ 33u$ faufen, We wishedtobuy the book. 
2Btr tyaben fca$ 33u$ laufen wollen, 

2)u magft mit un$ getyen, Thou mayst go with us. 

3d> mag biefe« Sud) nid)t, I do not like this cloth. 

Sr mag fagen tt>a$ er will, He may say what he will. 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS WOÖCU AND tUÖgCn« 103 

Sreimtbfedjjiajie 9fufgak* 

1. SöoHen ©ic mit un$ nad) bcr ©tabt fahren ? 2. #eute 
STOorgen $abe icfy feine 3*it# nad) ber Stabt ju fahren, icfy mu§ 
einen 33rief an (to) meine gltern fcfyreiben. 3. 3$ will tyter in 
Seipjtg ni$t langer bleiben, ba$ Sßetter iji jefct fo falt, naß unb 
unangenehm ; ity »erbe übermorgen naci) ^eibelberg getyen. 4. 
SBir wollten geftem nad) $ot$bam gefyen, um bie große ^ara'be 
ju fe^en, aber e$ fcat ben gangen Jag geregnet, unb wir pnb ben 
ganjen lag gu £aufe geblieben. 5. SBarum &aben Sie geflern 
Slbenb ba$ Sieb nid^t fingen wollen ? 6. 3$ $abe e$ gewollt, 
aber tdj fyabe e$ m<$t gefonnt ; icfy tyabe ba« ?ieb nod) nicfyt gc* 
lernt 7. £crr Äraft wirb baS £au$ gewiß md)t laufen wollen. 
8. SWutter, td) möchte fe&r gern (would like very much) mit 
4>emrtd) Äurg nad) bem SWufeum geben. 9. D ja, bu magfl mit 
tym getyen, wenn (if ) bu willfl, aber bu mußt nid^t gu lange blci« 
icn ; bu fcaft beine beutftye Aufgabe $eute nod) nu$t getrieben. 

10. Dicfcö £udj tjt triel gu treuer ; wir werben es nu$t laufen. 

11. @r mag fpagicren ge&en, wenn (if) er will, aber wir werben 
gu £aufe bleiben. 12. SBünfd&cn Sie biefeS 5Bu$? 13. Stein, 
idj will jene« nehmen. 14. 3dj werbe ti 3&nen fd&idfen, wenn 
©ie wollen. 15. 2Bo wohnen <5ie? 16. SBir wohnen in ber 
3immer>©traße, gegenüber bem neuen #aufe be$ #errn 9tief* 
fta&l. 17. ©ie fönnen ttyun m$ ©ie wollen (you may do 
what you like). 

GrammaticaL 

1. The Potential Verb Wollen usually indicates willing- 

nesSy mdination, desire, intention, or determination : 

3$ ftitf ßlci^ geben, I will go immediately. 

SBottCW ©te benörief lefen ? Do you wish to read the letter? 

2. The indicative mood of Wollen, to be willing, to wish: 

Imperfect Texte. 
i$ toötUtC, I was willing. 
bu lü o 11 * tt|l, thou wast willing. 
et Woll'tt, he was willing. 
tt)ir tt> 1 1 * teil, we were willing. 
U)r tooll-tet, you were willing. 
fie tOoIl'tCK, they were wilüng. 



Present Tense, 

U$ tDitf, 1 am willing. 

bu toitt'fi, thou art willing. 

er tirfß, he is willing. 

to'xt W o 1 1 * ttt, we are willing. 

M)X Wollet/ you are willing. 

(le ttoU'tlt, they are willing. 



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104 THE POTENTIAL VERBS tDOÜtU AND MO (je lt. 



Perfect Tense. 

i$ tyabe gcmoflt, etc., 

I have been willing, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

t$ toerbc motten, etc., 

I shall bo willing, etc. 



Pluperfect Tense. 

i$ iaüt gemottt, etc., 

I had been willing, etc. 

Second Future Tense. 

i$ Kerbe getooflt tiaüen, etc., 

I shall have been willing, etc. 



3. The Potential verb tttö(jett (ra^y) indicates jpermis- 
8io?i y concession, and sometimes desire or liking : 

. <5r mag flehen, Hemaygo. [soldier. 

6r mag ein tapferer @otbat fein, (I concede that) he may be a brave 
3$ mag btefeö £u(ty ntd)t, I do not like this cloth. 

4. Indicative mood of WÖgCtt, may, to be permitted : 

Present Tense. 
i<$ Utag, I may. 

btt tttQß'ft, tbou mayst. 



CT tttag, he may. 

Urir mög^ett, we may. 
tyr mög*^ you may. 
fie m ö Q * tU, they may. 

Perfect Tense. 

t$I)abegemod>t,€*c., 

I bare been permitted, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

i$tteroemiigett,etc., 

t shall be permitted, etc. 



Imperfect Tense. 

t$ IltOdj'te, I might. 

bu moti)*it% thonmightst. 

er mofy'tt, he might. 

ttnr moc^tCW, we might 

i^r moty'ttt, yoa might. 

fie m o <$ * teil, they might. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

i$ Jatte gemodtf, etc., 

I had been permitted, etc. 
Second Future Tense. 

t$ toerbe gemodjt Jaben, etc., 

I shall hare been permitted, etc. 



5. Time how long is put in the aecusative case : 

(£r blieb bttt gOlljen Sttg/ He remained the whole day. 

Exercise 64. 
1. Shall you go to Potsdam to-day? 2. Do you wish 
to go to Potsdam to-day? 3. Would you like (wollen 
<Sie) to read this letter? 4. From whom is it? 5. It 
is from our friend Mr. Diez; he is now in Rome. 6. 
Why will (wollen) you not go with us to the Museum? 
7. I must stay at home and write a letter to my 
brother. 8. Can you not write it this evening? 9. 
No, this evening I must call upon (befugen) Mr. Behr. 
10. Did you go to the Museum this morning ? 11. Yes, 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS fottCtt AND bfitfCIU 105 

but we could not see the paintings (because [weil] the 
museum closed was). 12. What paintings did you wish 
(wollen) to see? 13. 1 wished to see the famous paint- 
ing by (t>on) Holbein. 14. 1 have often wished to see it, 
but I have never been able to see it yet. 15. Charles, 
thou mayst go with us to walk, if thou wishest. 16. 
I do not like this book ; it is not at all interesting. 17. 
Mr. Beyerlein says that from his house he can see the 
spire of the Cathedral of Freiburg. 



LESSON XXXIII. 

THE POTENTIAL VEBB fOÜClt AND bÜffClU 

2Ber fofl gefcen? Who shall go (is to go)? 

2)u fotlfi ©ott, beinen £errn Thou shalt love the Lord 
lieben öon ganjem £erjen, thy God with all thy 

heart. 
SBir foHten nadf) #aufe gefyen, We ought to go home. 
6r [oll fefyr franf fein, They say he is very sick. 

£err Äufcn fott im 3a$re 1842 Mr. Kuhn is supposed to 
nad) Slmerifa gegangen fein, have gone to America in 

1842. 

Pnfmtbfefi}}igfte Aufgabe. 
1* 2öa3 follen wir t&un? 2. 2Ber foll na# ber ©tabt ge&en, 
um ba$ 33udj gu fcolen, £einrid) ober icfy? 3, £einridj foU ge* 
£en, bu tyafi beine beutfcfye Aufgabe noef) nicfyt gefdjriebem 4» 
3$ follte einen 33rief an £errn $utfammer fcfyon geflern ge* 
trieben fcaben, 5* £err 9ia§n ijt im Seigre 1845 naety Slme* 
rifa gegangen ; er foU bort »or ungefähr trier Sauren geftorben 
fein» 6. £err $ren$ler foU fefcr reid) fein. 7. 3Bie ijt 3&r ge* 
ebrter SRame (name) wenn t<$ fragen (ask) barf? 8. SWein 
ftame ijt ©ufia*> SBenbler. 9. SWeine Ferren (gentlemen), 
bier bürfen ®ie ntc^t rauchen. 10. @r barf nid)t fommen obne 
bie (grlaubnif (permission) feinet SSatcrö* 11. Siebe SWutter, 
barf iä) mit Söityelm Slcfermann unb ^>einric^ Äübner fpajieren 

E2 

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106 THE POTENTIAL VERBS fofiett AND fcfirfCIU 

ge&en? 12. ^>ajt bu alle beine Aufgaben getrieben? 13. 
SWeine beutftfyc Slufgabe tyabe id) geftfyrieben, aber bie franjojtfd)e 
Slufgabe fcabe idj noef) nid)t ganj »oflenbet ; ic& fann fie bodj 
tyeute Slbenb »ollenben. 14. 3a, bu magft gefcen, aber bu mufft 
jeitig (early) nad) ^>aufe fommen. 15. 2)a$ Setter war in 
Slleranbrien fo fyeijj geworben, bap wir bort mcfyt länger bleiben 
burften. 16. SSon Sllexanbrien gingen wir bireft' (directly) 
naefy ©m^rna. 

Grammatical. 

1. The Potential Verb fottett indicates : 

1. Moral Obligation, or duty: 

<Sr (flute flehen, He should (ought to) go. 

2. Obligation or duty dependent upon the will of anotber: 
SGBer \$U gdjen? Who shall go? — is to go? 

2)u (aüft ©ott f bebten $erru, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 
lieben Don ganjent #erjen, with all thy heart. 

8. A report, rumor, or general Impression : 

(Er (oll fc^r fron! fein, They say he is very sick. 

$err Äutyn (oft nad) fcmerifa Mr. Kuhn is supposed to have gone 
gegangen fein. to America. 

2. Indicative mood of foßen, shall, should) ought: 

Imper/ect Tense. 

i$ fOu^tC, I should. 

bu \olU teil, thou shouldest. 

et folI*te, he should. 

nrirfoIMe«, we should. 

tyr folgtet, you should. 

fie fotl'te«, they should. 

Phperfect Tense. 

i^(attegefollt,«/c., 

I had been obüged, etc. 

SecondFuhtre Tense. 

t$ »erbe gefoUt tyaben,ifc. 

I shall have been obliged, etc. 



Present Tense. 

i$ fofl, I ought. 

bu folf-ft, thououghtest 

er fofl, he ought 

toirfoll-eit, we ought 

tyr foIl*t, you ought. 

fie f oll* CD, they ought 

Perfect Tense. 

t$ falle gefoHt, etc., 

I have been obliged, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

id) »erbe fofleit, etc., 

I shall be obliged, etc. 

3. The Potential Verb bfirfett indicates : 

1. Permission (by law, or by the will of another): 
3efct bBrft tyr fielen, You may play now, 



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THE POTENTIAL VERBS foflett AND fcÜrfeiU 107 

2. With a negative, Wirf tu is usually translated by "must not:" 
$ter bürfeu ©te ntdjt raupen, You must not smoke here. 

3. It sometimes has the signification of * ' to dare .-" 

<Sr Öarf ni$t tommen, otyne fcte He dares not come without bis f.» 
(grloubnig feine« SSoter«, ther's permission. 

4. Indicative mood of biirfetl, to be permitted : 

Present Tense. 
t$ batf/ I am permitted 

bu botfsf!, thou art permitted. 



er borf, be is permitted. 

ftnr b ü r f « ttt, we are permitted. 
tyr b ü r f * t, you are permitted. 
fle bürf*«, they are permitted. 
Perfect Tense. 

t$ Dabe gebitrft, etc., 

I have been permitted, etc. 
First Future Tense. 

i$ »erbe Wirft», <*•., 

I shall be permitted, etc. 



Imperfect Tense. 
id) bttrf4t, I was permitted. 
bu b U X f * tt% thou wast permitted. 
er bu rf *tt, he was permitted. 
ttrir b u r f * Uli, we were permitted. 
tyr b U X f * ttt, you were permitted. 
fte b it r f * ien, they were permitted. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

i$ ftattc gebnrft, etc., 

I had been permitted, etc. 
Second Future Tense. 

i* »erbe gebitrft faben, etc., 

I shall have been permitted, etc. 



5. Principal parts of all the Potential Verbs: 



Present • 


Imperfect 


Perfect 


Infinitive. 


Indicative. 


Pcarticiple, 


fölf-en (ought), 


fotf-te, 


9e*fotf*t 


to8lf*en (will), 


tooüMe, 


ge*ttott*t. 


tonnten (can), 


tonnte, 


0c-!ann*t. 


Ht3g*en (may), 


rao^te, 


Be*nto4<t* 


bfirf^en (dare), 


bitrHe, 


ge*bitrf*t. 


Htiiff*en (must), 


mnfMe, 


9e*nmg*t. 



6. The explanation of the many uses of the potential 
verbs in the subjunetive and conditional moods must be 
reserved until these moods are given. 

Ezercise 66. 
1. What shall (foBcn) I say to him ? 2. 1 shall (werte) 
say that I can not go to-day. 3. 1 ought (foBte) to write 
a letter to my brother this evening. 4. Mr. Kelle is 
said (foll) to be the liehest man in the city. 5. Mr. 
Berghaus went to Texas in 1858 ; he is supposed to 
have died during the war. 6. May (bürfett) I ask what 



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108 SEPABABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

this book cost? 7. The price of this book was seven 
thalers and twenty groschens. 8. He may (mögen) say 
what he likes (wollen), I shall not buy the painting ; I 
do not like (mögen) it at all. 9. What is your (honored) 
name, if I may take the liberty to ask? 10. Children, 
you must (bürfen) not play here ; you may (fönnen) go 
into the garden, and there play as much as you like. 
11. He can not have the book to-day; it is not yet 
bound. 12. Will (wollen) you go with us to Potsdam to- 
day? 13. The doctor says that I must stay in the 
house (ju #aufe) to-day. 



LESSON XXXIV. 

SEPABABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

(Er wirb e$ nicfyt annehmen, He will not accept it. 

dt nimmt e$ an, He accepts it. 

(Jr nafym e$ an, He accepted it. 

<£x fyat e$ angenommen, He has accepted it. 

<£r tyatte e$ angenommen, He had accepted it. 

(Er wirb e$ angenommen fyaben, He will have accepted it. 

©iefccnmtbfctyjigfte Aufgabe. 

1. 3$ muß tan SBrief abtreiben. 2. ßarl tyat feine beutföe 
Aufgabe abgetrieben. 3. 2)u mußt beine Slufgabe abtreiben, 
e^e bu auSgefcefh 4. @r fcfyrieb feine Slufgabe ab, e^e er aufr 
ging» 5. (Er fagt, baß er feine Slufgabe nid)t abgetrieben fcat 
6. 3$ tyatte feine 3eit, ben SBrief gejtern abzutreiben. 7. 2)ie* 
feg Sßort tft fetyr fdjwer aufyufpretfyen. 8. £err Älein fyat feine 
SWeinung (opinion) gang beutlid) (plainly) au$gefprod)en. 9. 
2>er SWaler bat feine ©emalbe auSgeftellt ; er will ftc »erlaufen. 
10. SBer fyat meine ©rammatif weggenommen ? 11. 3Bir ge^ 
ben jefct nad) bem SWufeum ; wollen ©ic mitgeben (or wollen 
©ie mit)? 12. SBollen Sie ba$ 93ud) mitnebmen? 13. Der 
berübmte 53aumeijler unb SWaler, ©d)infel, $at bie großen ©e* 



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BEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



109 



malbe in ber 93or$alIe (vestibule) be$ SWufeumS in Berlin ent* 
worfen, aber fein ©cfcüler, eomeliu«, fcat fie ausgeführt. 14. 
<£$ fing an gu regnen, '15. @S $atte angefangen ju regnen, 
e$e wir ausgingen. 16. Sie gingen auö, e&e e$ gu regnen an* 
gefangen $atte. 17. 3$ wußte md)t, bap er ben SBrtcf abförei* 
ben wollte. 18. SBann ift $txx S3raun angefommen? 19. @r 
fam geftern Slbenb an. 20. Sßann fommen (Sie wieber? 21. 
2Bir werben übermorgen wieberfommen. 22. Die Sßabl (elec- 
tion) fcat gefhrn ftattgefunben. 23. (Sie &aben tyn freigefpro* 
ä)t\\. 

Grammatical. 

1. Separable Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing cer- 

tain jprepodtion8y advwls, nouns, or adjeetives to simple 

verbs : 

(Sr wirb ben SBricf abtreiben, He wül copy the letter. 

@te »erben morgen wieberf ommen, They will retarn to-morrow. 

2)ie SSatyt totrb ftattfhtbcn, The election will take place, 

©ie »erben tyn freiforedjen, They will acquit him. 

Rem. By far the greater number of prefixes of Compound verbs are prep- 
ositions. 

2. PHncipaljparte of some separable Compound verbs : 



Present Infinitive. 



(With gu). 

auszuführen, 

auö'jufletten, 

abzutreiben, 
, anzufangen, 

an'june^men, 

mitzunehmen, 
. roegZunc&men, 

au«Z«öe^en, 
r mitzugeben, 

wegZugefcn, 

anZufommen, 

ttrie'berjutommen, 
, auszutreten, 

flatf jupnben, 

freizugeben, 

Rem. It will be noticed that tlie prefix of separable Compound verbs takes 
the primary accent. 



OttS'* führen, 
anS'" Pellen, 
ob'* treiben, 
üU f * fangen, 
an'* nehmen, 
mit'* nehmen, 
toeg'* nehmen, 
mtä'*gel)en, 
ratt'*ge&en, 
toeg'*ge$en, 
ött* tommen, 



to execute. 
to exhibit. 
to copy. 
to commence. 
to aeeept. 
to take with. 
to take away 
to go out. 
to aecompany 
to go away, 
to arrive. 



toie'ber*tommen, to return, 
an$'* f^re^en, to pronounce. 
Btttf * finben, to take place. 
frei'* fpre<$cn, to acquit 



Imp. Ind. 

aufführte, 

aufteilte, 

ab'förieb, 

an'ftng, 

an'nafym, 

mtt'nafym, 

weg'na&m, 

aufging, 

mit'ging, 

weg'gmg, 

an'fam, 

ttrie'berfam 

aus'foratty, 

(latffanb, 

frei'fora$, 



Per/. Participle. 

aus'gefüfat. 

aufgehellt. 

ab'gefdjrieben. 

angefangen. 

angenommen. 

mit' genommen. 

»eg'genommen. 

ausgegangen. 

mif gegangen. 

»eg'gegangen. 

an'gefommcn. 

wiebergefommen 

aufgebrochen. 

ftatt'gefunben. 

frei'geforocfyen. 



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110 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



Rem. 2. When Jtt is used with the infinitlve mood, it adheres to the simple 

verb : anS'anforedien, »eingeben. 

Rem. 3. In the perfect participle the syllable ge« is retained, and is placed 
between theprefix and the verb: aUÖ'gCforodjCÖ, hergegangen. 

ifcm. 4. It will be noticed that many verbs, which are Compound in German, 
are translated into English by simple verbs: ab'fd^TCibCIt/ to copy. 

3. Indicative Mood of annehmen, to aeeept : 



Imperfect Tense. 

iä) na^nt — tttt/ I aeeepted. 

bu natymft— an, thou aeeeptedst. 

er nafym — an, he aeeepted. 

wir nahmen — an, we aeeepted. 

ü)r ncujmt — an, you aeeepted. 

jic nahmen — an, they aeeepted. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
I had aeeepted, etc. 

i$ Joffe angenommen. 

bu tyatteß angenommen, 
er tyatte angenommen, 
mir Ratten an'ß enommen. 
tyr Rottet an'ö enommen. 
fie Ratten angenommen. 

Second Fvture Tense. 
I shall have aeeepted, etc. 

i$ »erbe angenommen Jaben. 

bu »trfl angenommen $aben. 
er »trb att'g enommen $aben. 
tt>ir »erben angenommen $aben. 
tyr »erbet an'g enommen $aben. 
fle »erben angenommen fcaben. 

Rem. The prefix adheres to the verb except in the simple tenses when used 
in direct or leading sentences. In such cases it is separated from the verb 
and placed öfter it (and also after the objeet ofthe verb, if the verb is transi- 
tive) : 

ft<u)m er CS an ? Did he aeeept it ? 

3a, er n<u)m & an, Yes, he aeeepted it. 

(bat) 2öer fagt, baß er e« annahm ? Who says that he aeeepted it ? 

4. The indirect objeet may be omitted after mitgeben, 

mitnehmen : 



Present Tense. 
itt> HC^mC— Ott/ I aeeept. 
bu nimmjl — an, thou aeeeptest. 
er nimmt— an, he aeeepts. 
»ir nehmen— au, we aeeept. 
i&r neonat— an, you aeeept. 
jic nehmen— an, they aeeept 

Perfect Tense. 
I have aeeepted, etc. 

id) (abe angenommen. 
bu tyajl angenommen, 
er i)ai angenommen, 
»tr tyaben an'g enommen. 
tyr fcabt an'ß enommen. 
fte $aben angenommen. 

First Future Tense. 
I shail aeeept, etc. 

ia) »erbe annehmen- 
bu »irft an'nepmen. 
er »trb an'nepmen. 
»ir »erben an'n e & m e n. 
tyr »erbet an'nepmen. 
fte »erben an'nepmen. 



©ollen @te mitgeben? 
SBoflen @ie e« mitnebmeu ? 



Will you go with (us)? 
Will you take it with (you)? 



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INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 111 

Ezercise 68. 
1. Have you copied your exercise ? 2. (No, I have it 
yet not copied, but I shall it this evening copy.) 3. 
These words are hard to pronounce. 4. When will you 
return ? 5. We will return to-morrow or day after to- 
morrow. 6.We can not go out. It is beginning to 
rain. 7. Mr. Kranzler says that the architect will ex- 
hibit the plan of the new city hall. 8. We are going 
to Potsdam to-day ; can you go with us ? 9. 1 can not 
go to-day ; the physician says that I must not go out 
to-day. 10. When will the election (bic Sßafyl) take 
place ? 1 1. It will take place day after to-morrow. 12. 
Who has taken my German Dictionary away ? 13. He 
was not willing to accept the book. 14. If you go to 
walk now, you will have (muffen) to copy your exercise 
this evening. 15. 1 have already copied it. 



LESSON XXXV. 

INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 

3$ öerfiefy'e e$ ntdjt, I do not understand it. 

3d) »erjtanb' e$ triebt, I did not understand it. 

34 & a & c *$ ntä)* »erftonb'en, I have not understood it. 
3$ $ a tte & ni^t »erfianb'en, I had not understood it. 
3$ werbe e$ »erflehen, I shall understand it. 

3$ »erbe e$ »erjtonb'en $aben, I shall have understood it. 
(£3 ijl ferner gu »erflehen, It is hard to understand. 
5Bir ^aben ben 33erg umgangen, Wehave avoidedthe moun- 

tain. 
SEBtr »erben ben 93erg umgeben, We shall avoid the moun- 

tain. 
SBir umgingen ben 93erg, We avoided the mountain. 

©r fyoltt ba$ 33ud) wieber, He got the book again. 

<£r feieber^te i)tntt,Wtö er He repeated to-day what he 
»orgejhrn fagte, said day before yester- 

day. 

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112 



INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



McimimbfcÄijigfte Stufgaie. 

1. Sßir fcaben gar nitfyt »erjtefy'en fönnen, m& er fagte. 2. 
3$ $abt bag 33ud) ni$t gelefen, td) |>abe e$ nur fefcr flüchtig 
burcfy'gefetyen. 3* 3Drei ©olbaten ftnb inm getnbe übergegangen. 
4. Die ©onne wirb balto un'terge&en ; wir muffen gleich nadj 
£aufe (gefyen). 5. ©ie ijl fcfyon untergegangen. 6. Sie fyaben 
bie Siedlungen be3 Kaufmannes ganj genau unterfuhr, aber fte 
fyaben gar feinen geiler gefunben. 7. 2)er SBunbarjt l>at bie 
SBunbe be$ ©olbaten unterfutfyf (probed). 8. £err £rau$ 
tyat feinen ©arten mit einem fe^r fronen 3<wne umgeb'en. 9. 
£err ©eneral »on SBernftein tyat ben 93efe£l wiberru'fen. 10. 
@r |>at alle feine Aufgaben burcfygefetyen. 11. ©ie wollen mor* 
gen wie'berfommen. 12. @r wiebertyolt' ma8 er uns geflern ge* 
fagt tyat. 13. ©inb Sie über #anno'»er unb 33raunfd)weig 
gefom'men? 14. 3a, aber icfy bin nur bireff burcfy'gereij*, weil 
icfy meinen SSater morgen in £eibelberg treffen mup. 15. 2Bir 
tyaben Deutfd^lanb burcf)reijK 16. Der gifd&er fcat uns ü'berge* 
fefct. 17. £err Dietrich tyat bie ©efd)id)te sjon Deutfd&lanb über* 
fefct/ 18. £err ^rofeffor Diefenbacfy fyat un$ ben ganjen Slbenb 
mit einer fcöd# intereffanten Schreibung feiner legten Steife in 
(Spanien unterhalten. 19 * 3$ mu § ba $ ®w*> wiederholen. 
20. SBie gefallt 7 3&nen bie neue Äirdje? 21. Sie fcat mir ganj 
gut gefallen. 22. ©ie ftnb fe£r umgegangen. 23. 2ßir wofl* 
ten ben 53erg umgeben. 24. 3$ tyabe »erfuhr, ben SBrief gu 
lefen, aber td) tyabe e$ nicfyt gefonnt. 25. £err ginfenflein tyat 
un$ »orgeflern Slbenb befudjt. 26. £aben ©ie 3bre beutfcfycn 
Slufgaben überfefct ? 27. Der 23aum war um'gcfallcn. 

Vocabulary. 



S)cr 93cfc^l* r — c$, pl — C, command. 

n getnb, — cö, pl — e, enemy. 

n geiler, — ,pl — , fault, mistake. 

if 5*f^€t, — 9, pl — , fisherman. 

i» 3<ron, —t$,pl 3äime, hedge 

n SWonb, — c«, pl — C, moon. 
glüdjtfg, hasty, fleeting. 
SKrctf , direct. 



2>ie ©efttyreifc'ung,— ,pl.— cn, descrip- 
tion. 

„ SRetfynung, — , pl. — cn, aecount. 

„ Weife, — , pl. — n, journey, trip. 

„ 9ft<fytung, — ,pl. — cn, direction. 

„ ©onne, — , pl — n, sun. 
Weifen, to travel, joarney. 
©cnan', exaet, carefuL 



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INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 113 

Grammatical. 

1. Compound verbs, having as prefixes the Inseparable 
Particles bt*, tnU, er=, ge=, Der*, jer*, are Inseparable in 
all their tenses : 

Present. 3$ Her * fl C $ ' c C« nittyt, I do not widerstand it. 

Imperf. 3$ Her * fl a U b ' e* ma)t, I did not understand it. 

Perfect. 3$ tfdU e$ ni$t Htt * fl a n b ' C lt , I have not anderstood it. 
Pluperf. 3$ fcattc eS niä)t Her * fl a n b ' e n , I had not understood it. 
1*/ Fut. 3$ »erbe eS J>et * fl e $ ' e n , I shall understand it 

2rf /«*. 3ä) »erbe e« HOT * fl a n b ' e n fyiben, I shall have understood it. 
Infinit. $0 ifl f$n>cr JU Her * fl e ^ ' C n , It is hard to understand. 
Rem. The prineipal parts of the irregulär verb flehen, to stand, arc fttfycn, 

ftonb, geftonben* 

2. Of Compound verbs having the prefixes btttüf, Ijintcr, 
Bier, unter, um, toieber^ totber^ some are Separable and 
others are Inseparable: 



Separable. 
StttttT f e & C n , to look through. 
Itt'Iitr 'flehen ,*togo over, desert. 
Ilü'ter • e $ e n ,* to go down, set. 
Um'* f a II e n ,* to fall down. 
Siebet sb r i n en , to bring back. 
SBie'ber * l o m m e n ,* to retum. 
SBie'bet <r uf e n , to call again. 



Inseparable. 
3) u t ö) * reifen, to traverse. 
U C b e r * treffen, to surpass. 
Unter* fltdj'Cn, to examine. 
Um* ge'bCH, to Surround. 
SB t b e X * fore'djen, to contradict. 
SBiebcr*$$'len,torepeat. 
SB i b C r * rufen, to revoke. 



3. Many of these Compound verbs having the prefixes 
bnrd>, über, um, unter, toitber, are used both as Separable 
qr Inseparable, aecording to the signification they re- 
ceive : 



Separable. 
Surft' * r e i f e n , to travel through. 
ttt'ber * f e fe e n , to put over. 
Ilnt'* e ty e n ,* to go out of one's way. 
Ütt'ter * $ a 1 t e n , to hold under. 
SBie'ber * $ 1 C n , to bring back again. 



Inseparable. 
3) n X 6) * reifen, to traverse. 
U e b e x * fe$'en, to translate. 
U nt * gef en, to avoid. 
Unter* tyalf ett, to entertain. 
SB t C b e X * Wen, to repeat. 



4. Inseparable Compound verbs, having the particles 
Je, CUt, et, burd), Ü6er, etc., as prefixes, do not take QC^ in 
the perfect participle. 

* With feitt as auxiliary. 

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114 



INSEPABABLE COMPOUND VERBS. 



Present Infinitive. 

Üt'fudj'en, to visit. 
tttt«be(f'en, todiscover. 
tnty'fang'en, toreceive. 
tr*ftnb'en, toinvent. 
gCfalTen, toplease. 
&er*ftety'en,to widerstand. 
Jtr *breäy en, toshatter. 
bttttty * X ei f ' Clt , to trarerse. 
lifter «treffen, tosurpass. 
nnt * 9 e ty ' ' en , to avoid. 
toibct »fj>redj'en,to contradict 
tticbct * $ o T en , to repeat. 

5. Some verbs, as reiten, reifen, lüitfett, forittgett, etc. 

(§ 135, 2, i?0;ra. 1), take feilt as the auxiliary, when indi-* 

cating a motion towards a particular place ; otherwise 

they have Ijafcett for the auxiliary : 

<5r ift na<$ ©erlin geretfl', 
(bnt) <5r (at t>iel gercifl% 



Imperfect 


Per/ect 


Indicative. 


Partictple. 


befugte, 


befugt'. 


entbccfte, 


entbecff. 


empfing', 


emtfang'en. 


erfanb', 


erfunb'en. 


gefiel', 


gefaE'en. 


toerftanb', 


toerftonb'en. 


jerbraä)', 


jerbrocyen. 


burcfyretfte, 


burcfyreift'. 


übertraf, 


übertroffen* 


umgma/, 


utngang'en. 


toribcrforaay, 


toibcrforo<yem 


toieberfcotte, 


nnbertyoU'. 



He has gone to Berlin. 
He has traveled much. 



6. Verbs that are intransitive when simple often form 

transitive Compounds : 

(Sr ift nad) bcr ©tabt ßepttg'ett, He has gone to the city. 

©te (aBett ben geinb tttttgattg'etl, They have outflanked the enemy. 

7. The inseparable particles Je, eilt, er, (je, Her, jer, 
bittd), fiter, etc., are unaccented. 

Rem. The dissyliables filier, Uttter, ftieber, tofber, however, take a light 
or secondary accent. 

8. The verb gefallen governs the dative case : 
SSie gefällt' c« 3$aett ? How does it please you ? 

Exercise 70. 
1. Ihave only glanced through (burd)fe'tyen) theletter 
very hastily. 2. The soldiers are deserting to the en- 
emy. 3. Has the moon gone down ? 4. The sun had 
already set when they arrived. 5. The merchant has 
examined the aecounte of the tailor. 6. Mr. Kranz and 
Mr. Meyerheim have traveled through (burdjrctfett) many 



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COMPOUND NOÜNS. 115 

lands. 7. The fisherman took us over. 8. Mr. König 
has translated the history of the German literature. 
9. Mrs. Friedländer entertained us with a description 
of her trip from Hamburg to Heidelberg. 10. How do 
you like (i. e. how pleases you) the new cathedral ? 11. 
The garden is surrounded with a beautiM hedge. 12. 
Why did you go so much (fefyr) out of your way (um'ge* 
fyen) ? 13. We wished to avoid the high mountain be- 
tween Schönfeld and Liebeneck. 14. He attempted to 
translate the book, but he was not able to do it (e$ nicfyt 
formen), 

LESSON XXXVI. 

COMPOUND NOUKS. 

4>ier ftnb tyxt £anbfd)u$e, Here are your gloves. 

fabelt <2ie ein gebermeffer ? Have you a penknife ? 

DaS Dampfföiff ifl angefom* The steamer has arrived. 

men, [mityle, 

4>err 9totf> $at eine Dampf* Mr. Roth has a steam-mill. 

Da$ $ferb ifl ein ?afltyier, The horse is a beast of bur- 

3$ fcabe ba$ ga^rgelb btflfyt, I have paid the toll. [den. 

etnttnb|icijtgftc Aufgabe. 

1. £aben ©ie ba$ neue ©djutyau* gefetyen ? 2. SBätyrenb ber 
lefcten jwangig 3a$re tyat ba$ ?anb aufjerorbentlicfye (extraordi- 
nary) gortföritte gemalt- 3- £ter ifl ber SluSgang (way 
out), 4. 3$ ? ann feinen Slugenblicf langer bleiben ; td) mup gleidj 
na$ £aufe. 5. Der merte S3anb ber @efd)i$ie ber 33aufanjl 
»on Dr. granj Äugler ifl jefct in allen 93ud$anblungen gu fca* 
Ben. 6. $abtn <3ie bie berühmte Sßinbmityle in $ot$bam ge* 
fe^en ? 7. SWarie, $ajl bu meinen gingest gefe^en ? 8. £err 
Dr. ©cfymibt ifl $rofef[or ber beutfcfyen ©prad)e an (in) einer 
£öd>terf$ule in $itt$burg. 9. Da« Dampfftyiff „©ermania" 
ifl geflern Slbenb angcfommcn. 10. Da$ Äameel ifl ein ?aft* 
tiner, unb ber £iger ifl ein SRaubt^ier. 11. Da« 2Bort „@ram* 



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116 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

matit" tjl ein grembwort. 12» 3ft ba$ grityfiucf fertig (ready)? 
13. 3a, ba* ftrüWüd ifl fd&on fertig. 14. Die golbene £0$* 
geit wirb fceute SWorgen fiattfmben. 15. Der ©cfyneHjug »on 
?eipjig ijt foeben angefommen. 16. Äonnen ©ie mir eine 
©tetfnabel geben? 17. £eute SWorgen tyaben toix einen feljr 
fronen ©pajter'gang gemacht. 1 8. Der Säulengang be« SWufe* 
um* in SBerlin ijt ein £auptroerf ber mobernen 33aufunft. 19. 
Die ^auptfeber meiner £afd)em$r ifl gebro^en. 20. SBerlin ifl 
bie ^aitptfiafct »on Preußen. 21. 2Wein ©rofwater wohnte früher 
in SWagbeburg ; er rootynt jefct in ßoln. 22. 3$ fabe mein 
gebermeffer gejtern 2Worgen wloren. 23. „Bwanjig" ifl ein 
3<i&ln)ort. 

Grammatical. 

1. While Compound verbs are mostly formed by pre- 
fixing prepositioDs to simple verbs, Compound Nouns are 
möstly formed by prefixing to nouns other nouns. 

Rem. 1. The prefix noun has an adjeetive signification, as it modifies or 
limits the signification of the noun to which it is prefixed. 

Rem. 2. Adjectives, numerals, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and 
eonjanetions (including thus aU parts of speech except the article and inter- 
jeetion) may also serve as prefixes of Compound nouns. 

2)a« ©^nr^au«, school-house (bie 6dmle, school ; ba$$au$,house). 

2>a« gremb^Wort, foreign word (fremb, foreign ; ba« SSort, word). 

2>er 3tnei'*!am^duel (jn>rf,two; ber Äamtf, battle). 

2)cr @ettft'*morb, suieide (fetbfi, seif ; ber 2Rorb,murder). 

2)a« gftt^r'*gclb f toll (fafcen, to ride ; ba« ©etb, money). 

2>e? gfprf »Writt, progress (fort, forward ; ber ©d)ritt, step). 

S)er $fa$'*gang, exit (ou«, out ; ber ©ong, passage). 

3>er Ä'ber*gtauoe, superstition (afcer, but ; ber ©foube, belief). 

2. The priraary accent falls upon the prefix. 

3. With but very few exceptions, Compound Nouns 
take the gender ofthe last noun (§ 67). 

Stt «u'genbtid , moment (ba« Buge, eye ; bet $3fi<f , glance). 

„ ©au'meifier, architect (ber ©au, building ; ber 9fletflcr,master). 

„ ©lu'menfo$t, cauliflower (bie 83lume, flower ; ber $oljl, cabbage). 

n ©fir'gertrieg, civil war (bie 93ürgcr, Citizens ; ber föieg, war). 

„ ©amtf'feffel, boiler (ber 2)atntf, steam ; ber fleffel, kettle). 



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COMPOUND NOÜNS. 



117 



(ba« (gi«, ice ; 
(ber ginger, finger; 
(bie $anb,hand; 
(ber Biegen, rain; 
(btc ©onne, sun; 
(bie Xa\ #e, pocket ; 
(bet Stall, bailding ; 
(ber Staum, tree ; 



Set (Si«'b5r, polar bear 

n Sin' gereut, thimble 

„ §anb'fcfyu$, glove 

„ föe'genföirm, ambrella 

„ @on'nenf$irm, parasol 

„ j£a'f$enbieb, pickpocket 
®it Stau'tunfr, architecture 

n ©aum'wotte, cotton 

n SBerg'fette, mountain ränge (ber ©erg, mountain ; 

„ Stampf tnü&te, steam mill (ber Stomtf , steam ; 

t , (Si'fenbafyi, railroad (ba« (Eifen, iron ; 

„ glü'geltyür, folding door (ber glügel, wing ; 

„ £ö$'terfä)ute, girls' school (bie Xöcfyter, daugh- 

„ SSotf «' ft^ute, common school (bo$ S3oU, people ; [ters 

„ Xa'fä>enu$r, watch (bie £afdje,pocket; 

„ Söanb'ufc, clock (bie SBanb, wall ; 

n SSinb'mityle, windmill (ber SMnb, wind ; 
$0$ ©utter&rob,breadandbuttcr (bie SButter, batter; 



btt 5BSr, bear). 
ber $ut, hat). 
bet ©$u$, shoe). 
bet @$trm, screen). 

tt tt 

bet 2>ieb, thief). 
bie Äunft, art). 
bie SBoUe, wool). 
bie Äette, chain). 

bieami^miu). 

bie Stofa, road). 
bie £&ür, door). 

bie ©$utc, school). 

. ii ti ) 

bie U&r, clock). 

tt <i \ 

bie SDWtyte, mill). 

bd$ ©rob,bread). 
btt$33oot,boat). 
ba$©ä)ijf,ship). 
ba£ Keffer, knife). 
ba* gfeifä),meat). 
ü ü \ 

ü ü \ 

ü u \ 

ba& X$ier, animal). 
ü tt \ 

ü ü \ 

ba8$<m«, house). 

btt$»u$,book). 

btt$2Bort,word). 

4. Examples of Compound Nouns with adjeetivea as 
jprefixes : 

3)er <g'betffetn,jewel (ebet, noble; 

2>er grri'mourer, freemason (frei, free; 

2)a« gremb'toort, fbreign word (fremb, foreign ; 

2)a« grity' frürf , breakfast (frity, early ; 

3)cr ©triity'mutty, equanimity (gfeui, like ; 

©er (äfroß'boter, grandfather (groß,great; 

3Me ©roß'mutter, grandmother ( " " 

2)er #o$'mut$, baughtiness ($ou),high; 

2)ie $o<$'jeU, wedding ( " " 

2)er ©c&neH'jug, express train (föneft, fast; 

2>er Eott'monb, füll moon (bott, fall ; 



2)am£fboot, steam-boat 
©amj)f f^iffr steamer 
gc'bermeffer, penknife 
$am'melfletfä), mutton 
Äalb'fteifcfy, veal 
ftinb'fleifö, beef 
@<fyn>ci'nef(eif<fy, pork 
itojr'tyter, beast of bürden 
föaub'tyier, beast of prey 
3ug'tyier, draught animal 
©<fyur$Ml$, school-house 
SBör'terbuä), dictionary 
3<u)rtt>ort, numeral 



(ber üDompf, steam; 
/ tt tt 

(bie geber, pen; 
(ber Rammet, sheep ; 
(ba«£ato,calf; 
(baSfömb,cattle. 
(ba8©a)tt>ein,hog; 
(bie Saft, bürden; 
(ber föaub, prey ; 
(ber Bug, draught; 
(bie ©$ule, school ; 
(bie 2B3rter,words; 
(bie 3«W, nnmber ; 



ber ©tein, stone). 
ber SDtourer, mason). 
baS Söort, word). 
ba« ©tflef , piece). 
ber 3Jtot&, mood). 
ber SBater, father). 
bie 9Rutter,mother). 
ber 2Jhit&, mood). 
bie 3« x f time). 
ber 3ug, train). 
ber SWonb, moon). 



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118 



COMPOUND NOÜNS. 



5. Examples of Compound Nouns with 
2)a« SBrenn'tyolä, firewood (brennen, to barn ; 

2)a« gatyr'gelb, toll (fahren, to ride ; 

2)a« ge$rja$r,yearwithbadcrops (festen, to mistake; 
2)a« 2e'febud), reader (Icfcn # to read ; 

2)a« 2e'fejitnmer, reading-room ( ** " 

2)te $Räymafd)ine, sewing-ma- (nctyen,tosow; 

chine 
2>ie 9MÜ)' nobel, needle (nfi^en, tosow; 

2>ie ©t«f nabet, pin (fteefen, to stick ; 

2>ie ©trief nabet,knitting-needle (ftriefen, to knit ; 
2)a« @u)rrib'j>ajrier, writing paper (fd)retben, to write ; 
2)er j&a'QtfinQtT, index finger (j«fl cn f to P " 11 » 



verbal prefixes : 
ba« $ot$, wood). 
ba« ®elb, monej). 
ba« 3afcr, year). 
ba«»uu),book). 
ba«3immer,room). 
bie 2Wafd)ine, ma- 
chine), 
bie SRabel,pin). 

U 4t \ 

tt ii \ 

ba« ^ajrier, paper). 
ber ginger, finger). 

6. Examples of Compound Nouns with prepositions as 
prefixes : 

(ah, away; 
(auf,up; 
(au«, out ; 
(bura), throagh ; 
(für,for; 
(gegen, against; 
(in, in; 
(mit, with ; 

(na<$, after; 
(über, over ; 

(fcor, befbre ; 

Ö«rto; 

2>er »Jufam'mentyaug, connection ($ufammen,together; ber ^ang, hanging). 

2)er 3»i'f^n r Äum, interetice (jttriföen, between ; ber föautn, ppace). 

7. Compound Nouns are formed much more exten- 
sively in German than in English, as is shown by the 
following examples : 

1. Compound Nouns formed by adding prefixes to 
ber ©(Mg, a noun derived from gelfCtt (to go), and 
meaning a going y apassage, 

9tö'gOTg, departnre , (ab, away). 

Huf gong, rising (auf, up). 

$u«'gaug, eixit (au«, out), 

©aum'gang, shady avenne (©oum, tree). 



2>tc Äb'reife, departure 
2)er Huf gang, rising, ascent 
3>ie 3lu«'gabe, edition 
2>er 3)urä)'fd)nitt, average 
2)o« güYtoort, pronoun 
3)oS ©e'gcngift, antidote 
S)er 3n'^alt, contents 
2)er 2Rif bürger, fellow-citizen 
2>ie SRit'gift, dowry 
2)ie SRaäyfrage, demand 
2)er Ue'bcrrocf, overcoat 
2)er Ue'berbau, superstrueture 
ÜDie Sor'fiabt, suburb 
2)er 3u'fatt, aeeident 



bie $Rrife,journey). 
ber ©ang, passage). 
bie ©abe,gift). 
ber @u>nitt,cutting). 
ba«2Bort,word). 
ba« ©ift, poison). 
ber #a(t, holding). 
ber ©ürger, dtizen). 
bie ®tft,gift). 
bie grage, question). 
ber 9fto<f,coat). 
ber Sau, building). 
bie @tabt,city). 
ber gatt, falling). 



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COMPOUND NOÜNS. 



119 



©o'gengang, arcade 
2)ur$'gang, thoroughfare 
Eingang, entrance 
<Srj'gang,Yeinofore 
gorf gang, progression 
$er'gang, event 
Eingang, death 
2Jfi&'gang, &ilure 
SRor'gengang, morning walk 
9tü(f gang, retreat 
©ffu'fengang, colonnade 
©£ajier'gang,walkforpleasnre 
©cfyat'tengang, shady walk 
Ue'bcrgong, tran&ition 
Um'gang, interconrso 
Untergang, destrnction 
SSor'gang, precedence 



(©ogcn, arch). 

(bur$, through). 

(ein, in). 

(<grj,ore). 

(fort, fortb). 

C^cr, hither). 

($in, thither). 

(miffen, to miss). 

(morgen, morning). 

(rfi(f,back). 

(@äule, column). 

(ftajie'rcn, to walk for pleasure). 

(@^atten, shadow). . 

(über, over). 

(um, arotmd). 

(unter, under). 

(fcor, before). 



Compound Nouns with baS 

prefix : 

2)cr ^aufct'altar, high alrar • 
2)er $auj>t'anter, sheet anchor 
2)ie §au£f ormee, main army 
2)er $auj>t'artitel, ieading editorlal 
2>er §auj>t'batten, architrave 
2)er $auj>f fraß, thoroogh-base 
2)er $oiH>t'begrtff, Ieading idea 
2)ie $aui>f feber, main-spring 
2)cr ^aupffetylcr, chief fault 
2)te $auj>f frage, main qnestion 
2>tc $au}>t'tir<fye, cathedral 
2>er $au}>f mann, captain 
2>er $auj>t'maft, mainmast 
S)ie $au£t'rolle, prineipal part 
2)tC ^aujpt'fadje, prineipal thing 
2)ie #au£t'fü'ngerin, prima donna 
2)a« $au£t'fegc(, mainsail 
2)te $auj)t'ßabt, capital 
2)ic $auj>t'jfrafje, main street 
2)er #au£t'ton, key note 
2>te $auj)t'tugenb, cardinal virtuo 
2)a« $auj>f wert, masterpiece 
2)a« $auj>t'toert, noon 
2>ie ^aupt'jctfe, head-line (of a page) 
2)cr ^au^t'jeugc, prineipal witness 



$dltyt, t/ie head, as 

(ber Slttar', altar). 
(ber Sinter, anchor). 
(bie Slrmcc', army). 
(ber ftrti'tel, artide). 
(ber ©alten, beam). 
(ber »aß, base). 
(ber EegrifF, idea). 
(bie geber, feather). 
(ber gelter, feult). 
(bie grage, qnestion). 
(bie Äirtye, church). 
(ber 27tonn, man), 
(ber 3Wa(t, mast). 
(bie Stolle, part). 
(bie @adje, thing). 
(bie (Sängerin, singer). 
(ba« ©egel, sail). 
(bie ©tabt, city). 
(bie ©trage, street). 
(ber Xon, tone). . 
(bie £ugenb, virtue). 
(ba« SBert, work). 
(ba« ©ort, word). 
(bie 3eüe, line). 
(ber 3 CU S C / witness). 



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120 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

Exercise 72. 
1. Have you ever (je) seen a polar bear? 2. The 
pickpocket has stolen my gloves. 3. Mr. Grein is 
teacher in the common school in Elberfeld. 4. I can 
not find my penknife. 5. The school-house is opposite 
the church. 6. Mr. Kirchhoff has bought a clock and 
a sewing machine. 7. Can you give me a needle? 8. 
Here is the entrance, and there is the exit (way out). 
9. The contents of the book are (ifl) yery interesting 
and instructive. 10. The word ,,£au«" is a noun, and 
„wir" is a pronoun. 11. Charlottenburg is a suburb of 
Berlin. 12. The main army arrived in Leipzig yester- 
day evening ; it will arrive in Berlin to-morrow. 13. 
The express train from Hamburg has not yet arrived. 
14. Mr. Auerbach is in the reading-room. He is read- 
ing the newspapers. 15. I wish a quire of writing-pa- 
per. 16. Did you read the leading editorial in to-day's 
paper? 17. Vienna is the capital of Austria. 



LESSON XXXVII. 

DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 

1. ©inb ©ie au« ©otya? 2. 9Wn, id) bin ein ^Berliner (or 
i$ bin au« 33erlin). 3. 3fl £err 2)tetrid) au« granffurt (or 
ifl £err Dtetrtd) ein granf furter)? 4. 5Rein, er ifl tin $am* 
burger, aber £err Diefenbad) ifl ein granffurter, £err Äraufe 
ifl ein SWecflenburger* unb £err ©djnorr ifl ein Dfoenburger. 
5. ©eflern Slbenb babe i# einen Snglänber, einen £oflanber unb 
einen ©ctytoeijer bei (at the house of) £errn ©tetn getroffen. 
6* Unfere ?ebrerin in ber beutföen ©prad&e ifl eine SWecflenbur* 
gerin, au« ©cfcwerm'. 7. grau 33ernboff ifl au« SBcrlin (or ifl 
eine Serlinerm), graulein ©$mtbt ifl eine £amburgerin, unb 
grau »an Dorn ifl eine £oflanberin. 8. Da« SKäbc^en $at ein 

* For words not found explained in the lessons hereafter, see the Diction- 
ary in Part Fourth. 



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DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 121 

fc^r fcfyoneS fccutfcfyeS Siebten gefmtgen. 9. 3dj I;ak ein ftyöneö 
3Mümd)en im ©arten gepflucft 10. £>te ©üte eines ©ebtd)te$ 
$ängt nic^t blo$ »on fcer Steinzeit fcer »leime ab (abfangen). 11. 
Die ©onne erreicht tyre größte ^>ö^c unb bie läge erreichen ifcre 
größte ?ange am 22. 3unu 12. Der glup $at tyier eine liefe 
»on 60 guj) unb eine ©reite »on 800 guß. 13. Der ©ute 
liebt ba« ©ute, ber SBeife fudjt ba« SBafcre, ber ÄänfHer fud)t 
t>a$ ©cfyone, unb ber watyre 3tyilofop& fud)t ba« ©ute, ba« SGBaf>rc 
unb ba« <5ci)öne. 14. Sßctyrenb feiner langen ßranf&eit fcat 
SBil^elm gar nid)t au« bem #aufe geljen fonnen. 15. Die 
©d)onf>eit ber ?anbfdjaft in ber Sftalje »on Dre«ben $at un« fo 
feljr entjütf t, baß wir ben ganjen ©ommer in Dre«ben geblieben 
ftnb. 16. Der ©eneral $at bie Sapferfeit ter ©olbaten gelobt. 

Grammatical. 

1. Derivative Nouns are formed by adding prefixes or 
suffixes to verbs, adjeetives, or other nouns. 

Tic?/?. In some cases the umlaut is also added to the radical vowel. 

2. Some Suffixes form corwete nouns, as *tt f *VX (or 

nrni), stytn (or -lein). 

1. The suffix -er usually denotes malepersons, as : 
®Ct93aaer, peasant (fromlamix, to cultivate). 
n 2)tener, servant ( " btenen, to serve). 
n 3fia,er, hunter ( " jaflen, to hunt). 

i, Setyrer, teacher ( " lehren, toteach). 
n SDtofer, paintcr ( " malen, topaint). 
it ©etyneiber, tailor ( " fd)neiben, tocut). 
„ gtrifd&er, butcher ( " ba« gleifö, meat). 
t, ©ärtner, gardener ( " ber ©arten, garden). 
t, «Sattler, saddler ( " ber ©attet, saddle). 
Rem. 1 . Nouns in stt are formed from both nouns and verbs. 
Rem. 2. The suffix stt (or sUtt) is added to the naraes of many countries 
and cities in forming masculine national and civic nouns ; with some nouns 
the umlaut is added, with others it is omitted ; as : 

3)et SBerli'ner, Citizen of Berlin (Jrom 53ertm, Berlin). 
n ^amtnrßer, Citizen of Hamburg ( " Hamburg, Hamburg). 
n Bmertfa'ner, the American ( u ftmerita, America). 
rf Cfttgtfinber, the Englishman ( " (Sngtanb, England). 
n $ofionber, theDutchman ( " $ollanb, Holland). 
n Stytoetjer, theSwiss ( " bie <Sdjtoet3, Switzeriand). 



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122 



DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 



2. The suffix 4tt forma feminine from many mascu- 
line personal nouns, as : 



$ie ©äucrin, 

„ Wienerin, 

„ greunbm, 

„ Äatferiit, 

„ äömgtn, 



.X (from ber ©auer, peasant). 



fieijrerut, 

©d&filerin, 

©erft'nerin, 



ber 2Hencr, 
ber greunb, 
ber Äaifer, 
ber äöirifl, 
ber $te6), 
ber Se&rer, 
ber ©$üfer, 
ber ©erfiner, 



servant). 

friend). 

emperor). 

king). 

cook). 

teacher). 

scholar). 

Berlin). 



peasantess, 

peasant's wifef 

female servant 

female friend 

empres8 

qaeen 

female cook 

female teacher 

female scholar 

the Berlin lady 
$ambura,ertn, the Hamburg lady ( 
„ &frtla'nerin, the Africaness ( 
„ Sfaterito'nerui, the American lady ( 
„ (gnßlanberiit, the English lady ( 
„ $ottänberin, the Dutch lady ( 
n ©(tytoetjerut, the Swiss lady ( 
Rem. 1. Formerly the termination sinn was mach used ; the plaral ending 
of nouns in «ftt is 4ttttCIt, as : 

3Me Königin (Äömgtnn), queen ; pl. bie äönigumeai, queens. 
Rem. 2. With some nouns the umlaut is added : b e r £ $, Me ÄÖdjttU 

3. Diminutive nouns are formed by adding the suf- 
fix *ti)tn or sieht to many nouns ; the umlaut is 
added when the radical vowel is capable of it : 

(from bet Saum, free). 



ber Hamburger, Hamburg), 
ber Bfritaner, African). 
ber Bmeritaner, American), 
ber (gnglfinber, Englishman). 
ber $ottonber, Dutchman). 
ber @$ttetjer, the Swiss). 



$tt$ 23äum$en, the small tree 

„ Änäblein, the small boy ( 

„ ©tflmctyen, the little flower ( 

„ ©täbt^en, the small city ( 

„ 2Jtäb<$en, thegirl ( 

„ gräulem, theyoungmiss ( 

it ©robben, the small loaf of bread ( 

n $#u9$en, the small houso ( 

„ Siebten, the sonnet ( 

„ $ferbd)en the little horse ( 

Rem. 2. These diminutive nouns all take the neuter gender, whatever may 
be the gender of the nouns from which they are derived. 

Rem. 2. These diminutive terminations often express affectionate feeling 
or regard: 

$tt$ $5terä)cn, "father dear" (from ber ©ater, father). 
„ aWätter^eit, "motherdear" ( " bie 2Rutter, mother). 



Änabe, boy). 
bie 93fome, flower). 
„ @tabt, city). 
„ iDtogb, maid). 
„ grau, woman). 
btt8©rob, bread). 
* Qauft, house). 
„ Sieb, song). 
horse). 



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DERIVATIVE NOÜNS. 128 

4. The Suffixes *c, 4>eit (or *Icit), ^ttif, =#aft, *tl>itm, 
«ttllg form mostly dbstract nouns. 

1. The suffix *c (with umlaut to the radical vowel) 

forms nouns from adjectives: 

$fC®üte, goodness (from gut, good). 
„ $ityc, height ( " 1)06), high). 
„ Sänge, length ( " lang, long). 
„ $iefe, depth ( " tief, deep). 
„ ©rette, broadth ( " breit, broad). 

Rem. Nouns thus formed are not to be confoimded with adjectives nsed 
substantively, and referring to persons, as : 

$Cf ©Ute, the good man; bic ©Ute, the good woman. 

„ SÖeife, the wise man ; » Söeife, the wise woman. 

„ 2)eutfä)e, the German (man); „ 2>eutfd)c, the German (woman). 

Nor with the neuter of adjectives when used to indicate the quality of the 
adjeetive regarded as a concreto (hing, as: 

$tt$@ute, the good (from gut, good). 

„ SBcu)re, the true ( " »<u)r, true). 
„ @$9ne, the beautifttl ( " fd)Bn, beaatiful). 
„ (grtya'bcne, the sublime ( " crtya'ben, sublime). 

2. The suffix ^eit or (=Ieit) forms both abstract and 

concrete nouns from adjectives : 

5)ic Ärantljeit, sickness (fromtronf, sick). 

„ ©dfrönfait, beauty ( " fd)ön, beautiful). 

„ gBofrtydt, truth ( " nxujr, true). 

„ Steinbett, purity ( " rein, pure). 

w Sltnfcfyeit, darkness ( " buntet, dark). 

r/ 2le$nft$fcit, similarity ( " äfytlid), similar). 

„ grennblidjfcit, friendliness ( " freunblic^, frieudly). 

» ©Uttgfett, cheapness ( " btUtg, cheap). 

„ Äoflborteit, dearness ( " tojlbar, dear). 

ff'gur^tfamfrit, fearfulness ( " fur^tfam, fearful). 

n Xapferfdt, bravery ( " tapfer, brave). 

„ (SitcWett, vanity ( " eitel, vain). 

Rem. 1. The suffix sfttt is added to adjectives ending in *ffl, 4idf, *fOUt, 
stt, and *eL 

Rem. 2. The suffix sjeit is also added to some personal nouns, as: 
$ic£utb$rit, chüdhood (from ba« Äinb, jehild). 
fr 9Renf$fcttr humanity ( " bei Sfteufö, human being). 
r/ (S^riflen^eit, Christendom ( " ber <£&rifr, Christian). 



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124 



DERIVATIVE NOÜNS. 



3. Derivatives ending in sllift are usually formed 
from verbs, but they are sometimes from nouns 
and adjectives, as : 

$iC Äemttmß, knowledge (from lernten, to know). 

$0$ $mbermfj, impediment ( " tynbera, to hinder). 

3>tt8 S$er|Wnb'mf$, nnderstanding ( " ber Cerftanb', reason). 
$tC ginftaniß, darkness ( " finßer, dark). 

4. Derivatives ending in s ftf}öft are formed from 
nouns and adjectives, as: 

$ft greunbföaft, friendship (from ber greunb, friend). 

„ Sanbfctyaft, landscape ( " ba«Sanb, land). 

„ ©anernf $af t, peasantiy ( " bie ©auent (pL), peasants). 

„ £)rtf$aft, neighborhood ( " ber Ort, place). 

n 93crett'f$aft, readiness ( " bereit, ready). 

5. Derivatives ending in -t^UOt are formed from 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs, as: 

$0$ $eifigt$itm, sanetnary (from fettig, holy). 

r, Äatfertyum, empire ( " berÄatfer, emperor). 

„ $rie|tatyum,priesthood ( " bie ^riefter (/>/.), priests). 

$Ct 9tet$tyum, richness ( " rei$, rieh). * 

6. Nouns formed from verbs, by adding the suffix 
«llllg, usually denote a condition, what produces 
acondition,or athingput into acertain condition: 



Di 


i 9t$tung, 


respect 


<* 


rora altert, 


to respect). 


tt 


Ȇbung, 


formation, eultnre ( 


t« 


bilben, 


to form). 


tt 


»ebing'ung, 


condition 


( 


(t 


bebut'gen, 


to stipulate). 


tt 


(Kntfaftung, 


nnfolding 


( 


C« 


cntfal'ten, 


to nnfold). 


tt 


(Srfalj'rung, 


experience 


c 


U 


erfahren, 


to experience). 


tt 


(Sro'&critng, 


conqaest 


c 


C( 


ero'bern, 


to conqaer). 


n 


gorfdfrung, 


investigation 


( 


<< 


forf*en, 


to investigate). 


tt 


$anblitng, 


trading-honse 


( 


<( 


tyanbefa, 


to handle). 


V 


Sanbung, 


Unding 


( 


M 


Ianben, 


toland). 


tt 


Stteinung, 


opinion 


( 


t« 


meinen, 


to think). 


tt 


Prüfung, 


examination 


( 


t< 


prüfen, 


to examine). 


tt 


Stiftung, 


direction 


( 


cc 


rieten, 


to direct). 


tt 


Sammlung, 


collection . 


( 


«( 


fammefa, 


to collect). 


tt 


©ifcung, 


Session 


( 


<( 


fifeeit, 


to sit). 


tt 


Cerfamm'Iung, assembly 


( 


«t 


fcerfanVmetn 


, to collect). 


tt 


SBertyeVbtgung, defense 


( 


1« 


toert&ei'bigen 


, to defend). 


tt 


©arnimg, 


waming 


( 


(i 


toarnen, 


to warn). 


tt 


SeUtyimng, 


drawing 


c 


ii 


jeidmen, 


todraw). 


tt 


3erflö'rung, 


destruetion 


( 


(« 


jerftö'ren, 


to destroy). 



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DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 



125 



Bern, 1 . Nouns ending in -HnQ may be formed from nearly all verbs, both 
simple and Compound. 
Rem. 2. A few collective nouns in sHUfJ are formed from nouns : 

3)ic$ol3ung, forest (from ba3 §0(3, wood). 
„ tfteibunß, clothing ( " baSÄtetb, garment). 
„ Stauung, stabling ( " bcr <&taU, stable). 
n SQ&albung, woodlond( " bcr 2Bolb, forest). 

5. (1), Personal nouns ending in *tl are masculine. 
(2), Nouns ending in *fa, *Ct (*rrf), tyit (*!cü), *f<l>aft, 

^Ittt0 are feminine. 
(3), Nouns ending in ^tn- (lein), =tl)nra are neuter. 

Exe. The nouns bcr 3rrt$1tm (error) and bcr $Ret<$t&um (richness, 
riches) are masculine. 
Rem. Some of the nouns ending in sttif are feminine and some are neuler. 

C. The most important prefixe* in forming derivative 
nouns are %t*, mifc, IM*, «r* # er}** 

1. The prefix jje=, to nouns formed from verbs or 
from other nouns, denotes collectiveness, union, 
completion, or repetition: 
%tt ©cfä&r'tc, companion (from bic gatyrt, 



„ ©efyüTfe, assistant ( 

n <&t\p\i'U, play-mate ( 

$ie@cbrü'bcr(^/.),brothers,brethren ( " 
©cWttt'ftcr '■' brothersandsisters( " 



bic $ülfc, 
baö^iel, 
bcr ©ruber, 



journey). 
help). 
Play). 
Drother). 



n ©ebulb', 

„ ©efaftr/, 

„ ©eföioyte, 
2>a3®cbfiu'be, 

if ©ebtyf, 

n ©erity', 

„ ©erkbt', 

n ©efefe', 

„ ©efity', 

„ ©ebtr'ge, 

rr ©efte'ber, 

„ ©etr^n!', 

„ ©ewit'ter, 



patience 

danger 

histoiy 

edifice 

poem 

fate 

court of law 

dish, plate 

law 

sight, face 

mountoin ränge 

plumage 

potation 

thunder-storm 



bic ©ttyttcßcr, sister). 



die dult, 
die Jahr, 

bauen, 
bieten, 
tebtefen, 
ridjten, 
«t 

fefeen, 
fe&en, 
bcr SSerg, 
bie geber, 
ber Sranf , 
baSSBetter, 



patience). 

fear). 

to happen). 

to build). 

towritepoetry). 

to send). 

to direct). 

to order). 

to establish). 

to see). 

mountain). 

feather). 

drink). 

weather). 



Rem. Most nouns with the prefix ßC* are of the neuter gender. Nearly all 
nouns with the prefix je* also take the umlaut. 



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126 



DERIVATIVE NüüNS. 



2. The prefix Ättjj* denotes negation, perversion or 
incompleteness, or negation of quality : 



Str äfößbegriff, misconception 

„ 2Jftßbrou$, . misuse, abuse 

„ SWißton, discord 

Sit Mißernte, bad harrest 

n SWißöcflolt, deformity 

v SWißgunfl, disfavor 

„ StttßtyonMung, illtreatment 

Sa$9Wßbcr#ütmß, disproportion 



(fromber ©egriff, 



ber 83rau$, 
ber Eon, 
bie (Srnte, 
bic ©eftolf , 
bte <$unfi, 
bie $anblung, 



coneeption). 

tue). 

sound). 

harvest). 

form). 

favor). 

treatment). 



bad $afyälf niß, proportion). 

3. The prefix li!t* denotes negation or perversion of 
quality : 
St* Unbonf, ingratitude 

* Unfall, misfortune, disaster 

„ Unge^orfam, disobedience 



(fromber ^anf, 
( 



n Unmatfö, inhuman being 
n Uttfran, nonsense 

Sit Une$rlt$teit, dishonesty 
„ Uncnb'tf^teit, infinity 



thankfulness). 
ber gafl, chance, fall), 

ber ©etyorfam, obedience). 
ber SWenfä), human being). 
ber ©hm, sense). 
bic (S&rlutyfetr, honesty). 
bie (gnbU^feit, finiteness). 
bie gS&igteit, capacity). 



bie ©cbulb', 
bie Drbnung, 
bie ttutye, 
bie 2xeue, 
baöOIücf, 
ba« Staut, 



patience). 

order). 

rest). 

feithfulness). 

fortune). 

herb). 



n Unfäjngteit, incapacity 

„ Ungebulb, impatience 

n Unorbnung, disorder 

„ Unruhe, disquietude 

„ Untreue, foithlessness 

SoSUngtttcf, misfortune, calaraity ( 

„ Untrout, noxiousweeds ( 

Rem. The prefix HU* can be used especially to the nouns in $|tit and zftit. 

4. The prefix Itr* denotes source, origin or cause, or 
a thing in its original condition: 

Str Urbcttotyner, aboriginal inhabitant (fromber ©etoo^'ner, inhabitant). 

„ Urquell, primary source 

„ Urforung, origin, source 

n Urtnafb, primeval forest 

Sit Urtunbe, document, record 

„ Urfao)e, origin, cause 

n Urfprao)e, primitive language 

$0$ Urbilb, prototype 

„ Urboft, aboriginal people 

5. The prefix er J* denotes the first or greatest : 

St* (Srj&ifdjof, archbishop (from ber 93ifo)of, bishop). 

„ (Srjbieb, arrant thief ( " ber 3)ieb, thief). 

„ (Srjmarfcfyatt, lord high-marshol ( " ber 3Rarf$au", marshal). 
Sit (Srjtugenb, cardinal virtue ( " bie 5£ugcnb, virtue). 



( " 


ber OueH, 


source). 


( " 


ber Sprung, 


spring). 


( " 


ber ffialb, 


forest). 


( " 


bie äunbe, 


knowledge). 


( " 


bie @aä)e, 


thing). 


( " 


bie €>J>ra$e, 


language). 


( " 


ba« 33ilb, 


form). 


( " 


ba« $ott, 


people). 



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DERIVATIVE NOÜNS. 127 

6. Many words in the German, as in The English lan- 
guage, have undergone great changes in form during the 
known history of the language. Some derivatives have 
also been formed from words that are no longer used. 

Thus: the word ©eb ulb (from an old word die </t*/l=patience) has un- 
dergone the following changes of form : Indult, gidult, gedult, © C b u ( b. The 
word @ e f a $ r is from an old word die fahr = fear. 

Exercise 74. 
1. The first Session of the Assembly will take place 
to-morrow, at ten o'clock. 2. Have you seen the new 
drawings of the artist? 3. The collection of antiquities 
from Egypt in the Museum of Berlin is very large. 4. 
Mr. Breitkopf has just bought the first five volumes of 
the German dictionary of the brothers Grimm. 5. How 
many brothers and sisters have you? 6. I have two 
brothers (SBrübcr), and one sister. 7. It is very sultry, 
we will probably have a ttiunder-storm before night. 8* 
This book contains the best poems of Goethe, Schiller, 
and Heine. 9. Did you notice the disproportion between 
the height and the breadth of the building? 10. 1 have 
never heard such nonsense. 1 1 . The papers on this table 
are lying in the greatest disorder. 1 2. His dishonesty 
was a much greater misfortune than his incapacity for 
the work. 13. The aborigines of America were the In- 
dians. 14. Have you ever seen a primeval forest? 15. 
Do you know the origin of the word „Uneirt>ltd)fett" ? 16. 
Do you know the cause of his disquietude ? 17. The arch- 
bishop of Mayence has gone to Cologne to-day. 18. The 
beauty of these drawings is very extraordinary . 1 9. Miss 
Kreutzer is fromGermany, but MissRobelli is anltalian. 
20.Mr.Fländer is aSwiss,but his wife is a German. 21. 
The teacher {fem) has in her school twenty-two scholars 
(fem). 22. Maria Theresa, Empress'of Austria, died on 
the thirteenth of April, 1807. 23. Louise Auguste, Queen 
of Prussia, died on the nineteenth of July, 1810. 



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128 FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 

LESSON XXXVIII. 

DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 

pnfunbfubjigfte Stufgabe* 

1. 3n biefer £infi$t ift er gegen feine ffiorganger nicfyt bank 
bar. 2. 2)er ©oben um SBerltn ijt fanbig unb nityt fe£r frud&t* 
bar. 3. 3$ weiß nicfyt ob bie 33rü<fe fd^on gangbar ijl. 4. 2)er 
$lan ijl ganj unausführbar. 5. 2Bir b<*ben ben ganjen lag 
fein trtnfbareS SBaffer gefunben. 6. £err 2)om leibet an einer 
unbeilbaren Äranfbeit. 7. £err Äteferoetter &at feine neue gol* 
bene Ubr I>eutc SKorgen verloren. 8. „Wut in bem geenlanbe 
ber ?ieber lebt nod) beine fabelhafte ©pur." 9. 2)er SWaler bat 
eine aujjerorbentlicfy lebbaftc SinbilbungSfraft. 10. £>iefe felfige 
©egenb ijl »oll »on Älapperfcblangen. 11. #eute b<*ben »ir 
febr fööne«, fonnige« SBetter. 12. ffiarum ftnb Sie fo traurig? 
13. £aben Sie bie maleriföe .?anbfd>aft in ber fäd)jtfd)en 
<Sd>roeij, jnufcfyen 2)reSben unb $rag gefe&en? 14. 2)ie 
jläbtifdjen ©eborben baben befäloffen, eine neue Slnleibe »on 
500,000 £bfr* ju madjen, um eine neue ©trage *om gricbticfys* 
$lafc bis jum <3abötoa*$la& burd&jufübren. 15. 33on bem 
©rimmT^en SBörterbud) finb bis jefct erfl fed&S 33änbe erföie* 
nen. 16. Die „SlugSburger Slllgemeine 3eitung" ifl bie größte 
unb befte polttiföe 3^itung in ©übbeutfcfylanb. 

Orammatical. 

1. Deinvative Adjectives are formed from nouns, adjec- 
tives, numerals, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and preposi- 
tions, by adding the Suffixes 4>ar, s Ct (-em), *f}b\t, *i(J, 
A\ $ (*cr), AUSf, and *f aitt, aecording to the following rules : 

1. The suffix s&ar, added to a noun or to a verbal 
stem, indicates ability or possibility of a quality 
or of an action : 

2)an!bar, thankful (from ber Stollf, thank). 

btenftbar, serviceable ( " ber 2>ienft, servicc). 

frud)tbar, fraitfui ( " bie grudjt, fruit). 

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FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



129 



furchtbar, fearful 

gangbar, passable 

foflbar, costly 

föeinbar, apparent 

ßrettbar, contestabie 

ttunbcrbar, wonderful 

brennbar, combustible 

bcntbar, conceivable 

eßbar, edibie, fit to 
ausführbar, practicablo 

$attbar, tenable 

beilbar, cnrable 

työrbar, aadible 

erflaYbar, expkinable 

Ie«bar, legible 
toermeib'bar, avoidablo 

nennbar, that may be 

geniefj'bar, enjoyabie 

erreichbar, attainable 

trennbar, divisible 

trinlbar, fit to drink 

2. The suffix *tn (s 
noting material 

©olbcn, golden, gold 

filbern, of silver 

fnfcfcrn, of copper 

bleiern, leaden 

lebem, ofleather 

työfjern, wooden 

glSfern, ofglass 
Bern. When the noun (as St U 

3. The suffix ^aft 
tion toward the 
is suffixed: 

2)auertyaft, durablo 

emflbaft, earnest 

fabelhaft, fobaloas 

fe&fatyaft, fiiulty 

lebhaft, lively 

mangelhaft, defective 

riefcntyaft, gigantic 

jn>eifctyaft, dubious 
fctyineicfyetbaft, flattering 



(from bie gurdjt, 

( " ber@ang, 

( " bicflotfen(p/. 

( " ber ©$ein, 

( " ber ©treit, 

( " ba« Sßunber, 

( " brennen, 

( " benfen, 

eat ( " effen, 

( " ausführen, 

( " Wtw, 

( " feilen, 

( " $ören, 

( " crflfi'rcn, 

( " lefen, 

( " toenneifcen, 

named ( " nennen, 

( " genießen, 

( " erreichen, 

( " trennen, 

( u trinten, 



fear). 



.), expenses). 
appearance). 
contesi). 
miracle). 
to burn). 
to tbink). 
toeat). 
to execute). 
to hold), 
toheal). 
to hear). 
to explain). 
toread). 
to avoid). 
to name). 
toenjoy). 
to attain), 
to divido), 
to drink). 



erit) is added only to nouns de- 

(fromba« ©olb, gold). 

( " ba« ©über, silver). 

( " ba« Äupfer, copper) 

( " ba« »tri, lead). 

( " ba« Scber, leather). 

( " ba«^o(3, wood). 

( " ba« ©ta«, glass). 
J) f e r) ends in *r, only «n is added. 

denotes possession of or inclina- 
quality of the noun to which it 



(from 
( " 
( " 
(" 
( " 
(" 
(" 
( u 
( " 

F2 



bie Steuer, 
ber (Srnfr, 
He gabel, 
ber Segler, 
ba« Seben, 
ber SWangel, 
ber föiefc, 
ber 3»eifel, 
bie ©c^meic^elci', 



duration). 

earnestne*e). 

fable). 

fault). 

life). 

lack). 

giant). 

doubt). 

flauen). 



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130 



FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



4. The suffix 4g denotes the possession of the qual- 
ity or relation that is expressed by the noun, 
adjective, numeral pronoun, verb, preposition, or 
adverb, to which it is suffixed : 



«rtig, 


polite, well-behaved 


(firom bie Hrt, 


way). 


bärtig, 


bearded 


( " 


ber ©art, 


beard). 


fem, 


mountainous 


( " 


ber ©erg, 


mountain). 


Mutig, 


Woody 


( " 


ba« ©tut, 


blood). 


eifrig, 


zealous 


( " 


ber (gifer, 


zeal). 


«flg, 


icy 


( " 


ba« (Sie, 


ice). 


felflg, 


rocky 


( " 


ber gel«, 


rock). 


fleißig, 


industrious 


( M 


ber gleiß, 


industry). 


flüdjtig, 


fleeting 


( " 


bie glufy, 


flight). 


grifKg, 


referring to the spirit ( " 


ber ©riß, 


spirit). 


g«Jtg, 


avariciou8 


( " 


ber ©cij, 


avarice). 


giftig, 


poisonoos 


( " 


ba« ©ift, 


poison). 


günfKg, 


favorable 


( " 


bie Ounft, 


favor). 


Mtfg, 


woody 


( " 


ba« $olj, 


wood). 


fräftig, 


powerful 


( " 


bie Äraft, 


power). 


mfi^tig, 


mighty 


( " 


bie Wlaty, 


might). 


mäßig, 


moderate, temperate 


( " 


ba« 2Raß, 


measnre). 


nötyig, 


necessary 


< " 


bie ttotb, 


waiit). 


ni&ig, 


quiet 


( " 


bie ȟbe, 


rest). 


riefig, 


gigantic 


( " 


ber ftiefe, 


giant). 


Wg, 


salty 


( " 


ba« @aij, 


sah). 


fanbtg, 


gandy 


( " 


ber @anb, 


sand). 


farbig, 


gnilty 


( " 


bie ^utb, 


guilt). 


fonrng, 


snnny 


( " 


bie @omte, 


sun). 


traurig, 


sad, sorrowful 


( " 


bie Xrauer, 


sorrow). 


berbädjtig, 


8iispicioufl 


( « 


bet93erba$f 


suspicion). 


ȟrbig, 


worthy 


( " 


bie S&flrbe, 


worth). 


bumtfig, 


damp 


( 4C 


buutyf, 


damp). 


leben'btg, 


lively, active 


( " 


lebenb, 


living). 


gütig, 


good 


( " 


gut, 


good). 


böfltg, 


fully 


( " 


bolt, 


füll). 


einig, cinjig, 


sole, single 


( " 


ein, 


one). 


beißtg, 


biting 


( " 


beißen, 


to bite). 


ergiebig, 


productive 


( " 


ergc'ben, 


to yield). 


bortig, 


of that place 


( " 


bort, 


there). 


fteflg, 


of this place 


( " 


#er, 


here). 


heutig, 


of to-day 


( " 


freute, 


to-day)i 


niebrig, 


low 


( §i 


nieber, 


down). 


borig, 


former 


( " 


bor, 


befbre). 


übrig, 


remaioing 


( " 


über, 


over). 

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FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



131 



5. The suffix *ifd), attached to personal common 
nouns (and to a few verbs), denotes similarity or 
inclination to a quality ; and often conveys also 
the idea of contempt or unworthiness : 
©fiurifö, referring to the peasantry (from ber Sßantt, peasant). 

( " bcr2)iä>ter, poet). 

( " ber2)teb, thief). 

( " ber$tmmcl, heaven). 

( " bic (Srbe, earth). 

( " bcr Äauftnann, merchant). 

( " baöfltnb, child). 

( " berSDtoler, painter). 

( " bte^tabt, city). 

( " netben, toenvy). 



bi<fyterifä% poetical 

btcbtftty, thievish 

$immtif$ f heavenly 

irbifo), earthly 
faufmSnnifä), mercantilo 

finbifty, childish 

tnaterifä), picturesque 

fläbtifä), civil 

neibtfcty, suspidous 



Rem. 1. The umlaut is usually added when the vowel is capable of it. 

Rein. 2. In many adjectives derived from the Latin and Greck languages, 
the ending 4f4 * n German corresponds to the English ending -ic or -ical. 

<ß&tfofo'l>&tfdj, philosophic (al). brama'tifö), dramatic (al). 

tyeoto'gifö, theologicaL tytfö, epic (al). 

J)fo$olo'gif($, psychologicaL tyrifö, lyric (al). 

geolo'gifö, geologic (al). ^oc'ttf<^ f poetic (al). 

tyfytflfö, physicaL fnttf^ eritieal. 

o)emifä), chemicaL &tfto'rtf<fy, historic (al). 

Rem. 3. The suffix sifdj (**(<!>) is added to personal proper names : 

2)ie Sutbe'rifctye £trä)c, The Latheran church. 

2)ie 9ßett>to'nifdje 3$eorie, The Newtonian theory. 

2)a3 (Steumn'fctye SBBrterbuä), Grimm's dictionaiy. 

S)ic &ant'f<$€ $$tlofo)>$te, Kant's philosophy. 

Rem. 4. National and civic adjectives nsnally take the ending «ff 4 • 

Sfaierifa'nifä), American. ©erft'nifdj, of Berlin, 

afrifa'mfd), African. $amburgifä% of Hamburg, 

ttaliä'nifä), Italian. Äölnifo), ofCologne. 

Jwrtugie'fifö, Portuguese. Sföagbebwrgtfä), of Magdeburg, 

ruffifd?, Russian. $aflifü), of Halle, 

fcairifä), Bavarian. ©ä)leftfä), Silesian. 

Obs. Many adjectives are formed from names of cities by adding the suffix 
ctt \ this ending has the remarkable quality of not being capable of inflexion : 



The "Magdeburg Cathedra!. 
Nom., ber SWagbeburgcr 2)om. 
Gen., be* SRagbeburger 2>ome«. 
Dat., beut SWagbeburger 3)om. 
Acc. 9 ben SWagbeburger 2)om. 



The Augsburg Journal. 
Nom., btc Stugeburger S^nß* 
Gen., ber StogSburger 3«tung. 
Dat., ber SfagSburger S^tanö« 
Acc, bie ÄugSburgcr 3«tung. 



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132 



FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



6. Adjectives with the suffix Aid) are formed from 
nouns, other adjectives, and verbs: 



Bfcenbtidj, 


evening 


(from ber Stbenb, 


evening). 


ntora,enUä), 


morning 


( " 


ber äWorgen, 


morning). 


tfigtuk 


daily 


( " 


ber £ag, 


day). 


to>ö<tyeittfi($, 


weekly 


( " 


bie ©o$c, 


week). 


monatttd), 


monthly 


(" 


ber SJtouat, 


month). 


iWfy, 


yearly 


(" 


ba« 3a$r, 


year). 


bitbü$, 


figurativo 


( " 


ba« SBtlb, 


figure). 


briefttä), 


by letter 


( " 


ber ©rief, 


letter). 


Brüberfidj, 


brotherly 


( " 


ber ©ruber, 


brother). 


bürgerlich, 


pertaining to a Citizen ( " 


ber ©ürger, 


Citizen). 


c$rlt<$, 


honest 


( " 


bie (Sljre, 


honor). 


enbttd), 


final 


( " 


ba« (Snbe, 


end). 


freunblt<$, 


friendly 


( " 


ber greunb, 


friend). 


tfüdlty, 


fortunate, happy 


( " 


ba« ©Mcf , 


fortune). 


i^uettä), 


domestic 


( " 


ba« $au«, 


house). 


W«* f 


courteous 


( " 


ber §of, 


court). 


faiferlid), 


imperial 


( " 


ber Äatfer, 


emperor). 


finbltdj, 


childlike 


( " 


ba« Äinb, 


child). 


fomglt$, 


royal 


( " 


ber ^önig, 


king). 


menfaliä), 


haman 


( " 


ber SWenfö, 


man). 


ftynerjtia), 


painftil 


<" 


ber ^etymerj, 


, pain). 


fd)re<ffiä>, 


terriblo 


( " 


ber @(^rc(fen, terror). 


tounbertiä), 


wonderful 


C " 


ba« ©unter, 


wonder). 


toeifjltä), 


whitish 


( " 


toeiß, 


white). 


röt^ti^, 


reddish 


( " 


roty, 


red). 


ältttc*, 


oldish 


( " 


alt, 


old). 


ww, 


happy, cheerful 


( " 


frofc 


happy). 


fränflicfy, 


sickly 


( " 


front, 


sick). 


Bffenttta), 


public 


( u 


offen, 


open). 


reu$tt($, 


rieh 


( " 


ret#, 


rieh). 


treulich, 


trne 


( " 


treu, 


true). 


au«füfyr'(tä), comprehensive 


( " 


ausführen, 


to execute). 


begreifliä), 


comprehensible 


( " 


begrei'fen, 


to comprehend). 


bctteg'Itcty, 


movable 


( " 


beroe'gen, 


to move). 


cntyfinb'Ucty 


, sensitive 


( " 


cmtfm'ben, 


to feel). 


ertlaYU*, 


explicable 


( " 


erflä'rcn, 


to explain). 


flerbiuty, 


mortal 


( " 


{toben, 


to die). 


toermetb'Iuty 


, avoidable 


(" 


fccrmet'ben, 


to avoid). 


äerbrcäyitä), fragile 


( " 


gerbre'<$en, 


to break in pieces). 



Bern. Some adjectives ending in 41$ are closely allied in signification, and 
are almost interchangeable in use with adjectives derived from the same word 
and ending in »bancompare erlfärbar and erUärHc^ fcermetbfcar 
and&ermctbUfy 



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FORMATION OP ADJECTIVES. 



133 



7. Adjectives with the suffix -fattl (formed from 
verbs or verbal nouns) indicate the possession 
of or inclination to the quality: 

Sfofmcrlfom, attentive (from anf mertcn, to pay attention). 



btegfam, 


pliable 


( " 


biegen, 


to bend). 


butbfam, 


patient 


( " 


bulbett, 


to tolerate). 


genfig'fam, 


sufBcient 


( " 


genüg'en, 


eaough). 


ttnrtfam, 


effident 


( " 


ttrirfen, 


to have effect). 


arbettfam, 


laborioos 


( " 


bic Sirbett, 


work). 


bebacbt'fam, 


mindful 


( " 


ber S3eba$t' ( 


, considerateness). 


betriebsam, 


diligent 


( " 


ber ©etrieb', 


driving). 


fnr^tfam, 


fearful 


( " 


bie gur$t, 


fear). 


geroalt'fam, 


violent 


( " 


bte ©eroalf , 


violencc). 


granfam, 


ferocioas 


( " 


ba* ©ranen, 


horror). 


ijeilfam, 


wholesome 


( " 


ba« $etf , 


healing). 


mfl&fam, . 


toilsome 


( " 


bte 27Htye, 


toil, pains). 


forgfam, 


solicitous 


( " 


bte @orge, 


care). 


ttmnberfam, 


wonderfal 


( " 


ba« Sßunbcr, 


, wonder). 



Bern. I. Two adjectives ending in sfow are formed from other adjectives : 
©cmein'fam, mutnal ( " gemein', common), 
tangfam, slow ( " lang, long). 

Rem. 2. The adjeetive f e f t f a m (rare) was formerly spelled settsan. 

Rem. 3. The adjectives ending in sfttBt are few in number compared to those 
ending in «ig, A\ti), and 4i$» A few are similar in signification to those of 
the same derivation ending in *ftar, as: rounberfam, tounberbar. 
The adjectives ending in s&Öt have osually a passive, those in ssfoitt osually 
an active signification: 

Gine heilbare Ärantyeit, A disease that can be cured. 

Sine fcttfame Slrjnci', A healing remedy. 

2. Nearly all derivative adjectives can reeeive the 

negative prefix slttt, as : 

Unbontbar, angratefuL unnetbifö, unenvioos. 

• untetbar, iüegible. unatblty, infinite, 

unfeftler^aft, foulüess. umnent$li($, inhuman, 

unföulbtg, innocent. unanfmerlfara, inattentive. 

3. Compound Adjectives are formed by prefixing to an 

adjeetive a noun, a preposition, or another adjeetive, as : 

Settelarm, beggarlypoor (ber ©ettel, begging; arm, poor). 

ftngerbitf, thick as one's finger (ber gtnger, finger ; buf, thick). 
feuerfejl, fireproof (ba« geuer, Are ; feft, fest), 

jimmetyod), high as heaven (ber $tmmet, heaven ; $o<$, high). 



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134 



FORMATION OP ADJBCTIVES. 



rtefengrojj, gigantic 
fteintyart, hard as rock 
etetalt, cold as ice 
baumleer, destitute of trees 
bartloS, beardless 



(bcr Stiefe, giant ; 
(bcr ©tein, stonc; 
(baö (StS, ice ; 
(ber ©autn, tree ; 
(bcr»art,beard; 



groß, large). 
ffaxt, hard). 
talt, cold). 
Iccr, empty). 
Io«, destitute of). 



ä>rarterto3,withoutcharacter (ber <£&arafter,character; " " [to). 

regelmäßig, regulär (bie ttcgel, rule; ntfißifl, confoiming 

(ber 3 to «!/ purpose; " " 

(bie Setyre, learning; retä), rieh). 

(bie j&a% number; " " 

(ber $31ifc,lightning; 



äroedmfißtg, practical 
lc$rrei$, instructiye 
jatylretd), numerous 
Mifef <$ltctt, quick as lightning 



tounbcrf(fyön,extremely beautiful(ba8 SShmber, wonder ; 



liebevoll, affectionate 
Jttactytbofl, magnificent 
meilentoett, miles distant 
Ite'bendwürbig, amiable 
allgemein, general 
attmä$tig, almighty 
bunfetblau, dark blue 
fyeUbfau, light blue 
fjelbrotty, orange 
taubflumm f deaf and dumb 



(bie Siebe, lere; 
(bie Sßracfyt, splendor ; 
(bie Steile, miie; 
(baö Sieben, loving; 
(att[er],aU; 

(bunfet, dark ; 
(&efl,light; 
(gelb, yellow ; 



fönett, quick). 
jd)bn, beautiful). 
toofl, fuü). 
<< << 

toeit, distant). 
töürbig, worthy). 
gemein', common), 
mö^tig, mighty). 
Mau, blue). 



roty, red), 
flumm, dumb). 
Wulbig, guüty). 



(taub, deaf; 
mitfityutbig, accessory to a crime (mit, with ; 

4. It is becoming customary in Germany to print books and Journals of a 
high scientific and critical character in the Roman instead of in the German 
type. It is greatly to be desired that this custom may become general, and 
that thus an unnecessary barrier to the beginning of the study of the German 
language may be removed. We give below a German exercise in Roman 
type. 

Sechsundsiebzigste Aufgabe. 
l.Das Literarische Central'blatt, die beste kritische 
Zeitung in Deutschland, erscheint wöchentlich. 2. Die 
Leipziger Illustrir / te Zeitung erscheint auch wöchent- 
lich. 3. Herr Hagemeyer ist ein ehrlicher Mann. 4. 
Ich wünsche Ihnen eine glückliche Reise 1 5. Bei dem 
schrecklichen Unfall in den Bergwerken zu Freiberg 
sind vierzig Menschen um's Leben gekommen (have lost 
their Uvea). 6. Das Grimmsche Wörterbuch wird das 
ausfuhrlichste und vollkommenste Wörterbuch der deut- 
schen Sprache sein. 7. Alle öffentlichen Schulen sind 
während der Ferien geschlossen. 8. Die königliche 



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CASES GOVEBNED BY ADJECTIVES. 135 

Bibliothek in Berlin ist in einem Theile des könig- 
lichen Palastes. 9. Die Lehrerin sagt, dass die Schüler 
sehr aufmerksam sind. 10. Dieser Brief von Herrn 
Tiedemann ist fast unlesbar. 11. Das Museum ist ein 
feuerfestes Gebäude. 12. Ich finde diese neue Ma- 
schine sehr zweckmässig. 13. Der prachtvolle Kölner 
Dom ist das Meisterstück der deutschen Baukunst. 

14. Frau Bernsdorf ist eine sehr liebenswürdige Dame. 

15. Ich werde drei Ellen von diesem dunkelblauen 
Bande und sechs Ellen von jenem breiten, gelbrothen 
Band nehmen. 



LESSON XXXIX. 

CASES GOVERNED BT ADJECTIVES. 

©tebemtnbjtebaigjite aufgäbe. 

1. <S« ifl unbeföretbttdj, roeldje ©ebnfudjt t$ empfanb, nur 
eine« SMenjtyen anjtd^tig ju »erben (©<$.)♦ 2. ©raf gulenfel« 
war ret<$ an @ut, bo<$ arm an Seben«freuben. 3, ©ie ftnb aDe 
tbre« $erfpred)en« eingeben! geroefen (X.). 4. @r ift jeber 3luf* 
Opferung fabig (or er ift ju jieber Aufopferung fäbig). 5. <£r ifl 
fd>on be« ©tege« gewiß. 6. (Sie jinb aller ©orgen frei (or fte 
ftnb frei t)on aUen ©orgen). 7. £err 3$ompr<>n ifl nid)t ber 
beutfd)en ©prad)e funbig. 8. Dbne £erj ifl bie SBett ber greu* 
ben leer. 9. Die SSaume ftnb jefct »on grüßten leer. 10. 
Da« ©ebictyt ifl üoU bo^trabenber ^f)xa\tn, aber leer an tiefen 
©ebanfen. 11. SDiefc« 3Birtb«bau« ifl nie leer »on ©aften. 
12. £err SBtfliamd bat ben SSrief gang geläufig gelefen ; er ifl ber 
beutfdjen ©praetye »oHfommen maä) tig. 13* 3d) bin be« 
©<$tt>ajjen« mübe* 14» 3$ bin mübe »on fo üielen »ergebltd)en 
Stnfirengungen. 15. @r ifl fatt ber SBelt unb ibre« »ergangltdjcn 
SRubme«. 16. <£x ifl feine« @ibe« quitt. 17. Slutb bu baltfl 
mieb ber ferneren ©unbe fc^ulbig (©$.)? 18* Dort ftnb fte 
ibre« «eben« md)t ftd&er. 19. Die @rbe ifl »oll ber ©fite be« 
£erm ($fatm 33, 5). 20. Da« 93üd)tein ifl *oU allerliebfler 
©emerfungen (©.). 21. Da ifl ein Äorb üoU reifer 5lepfel. 



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136 



CASBS GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVBS. 



GrammaticaL 

l.Many adjectives govern substantives in the oblique 
cases (i. e., the genitive, dative, and accusative cases) 
without the use of a preposition between the adjective 
and the Substantive. 

2. The following adjectives govern the genitive case: 



3foftä>tig (toerben), to get a view (of ). 
arm (antiquated with gen.), poor. 
Bar, bare, destitnte (of ). 
bebürf tig, destitote, in need (of ). 
Begierig, desiroos, anxions (for). 
benö'tljigt, in need (of). 
bcttmßf , conscioos (of). 
bloß, free (from). 
eut'gcbent, mindful (of). 
ehtig, agreed (concerning). 
ein«, " " 

erübrigt, dispensing (with). 
erfahren, experienced (in). 
fÄtyig, capable (of ). 
frei, free (from). 
frob, happy (abont). 
gebenf, conscioos (of ). 
geßän'Dig, confessing (to). 
gewahr', conscioos (of ). 
gctooYtig, awaiting. 
gewiß', certain (of ). 



getoo&nf , aecostomed (to). 

fyabfyaft, in possession <of). 

funb (or funbig), acqaainted (with). 

lebig, free (from). 

leer, empty (of ). 

lo«, free (from). 

mächtig, in command (of ). 

mübe, tired (of ). 

müßig, free (from). 

quitt, free (from). 

fatt, satiated (with). 

fctyul'big, goilty (of ). 

fidjer, sore (of ). 

tljettyaft' (or 4g), partieipating (in). 

überbrüf'ftg, weary (of ). 

bcrbficfy'tig, sospected (of). 

bertu'fHg, deprived (of). 

t>ott,roll(of). 

toerty, worth. 

toürbig, worthy (of ). 

jufric'ben, contented (with). 



Rem. 1. Some of these adjectives can take the negative prefix sun, ns : 



Unbcgic'rig, ondesiroos (of ). 
ttttbettußt, onconscioos (of ). 
unerfahren, inexperienced (in). 



unföutbig, innocent (of). 
unfi($er, not sore (of ). 
unaürbig, an worthy (of ). 



Bern. 2. Of the above adjectives, the following are freqnently employed, in 
ordinary discourse, with the aecosative case, vis : 9fafi$tig, bewußt, fSfyig, ge* 
ftönbig, gewahr, gewohnt, $ab$aft, to«, mübe, fatt, fd>utbig, überbrüffig, toerty, 
jujiicben : 

3d> bin tym Cintlt Xfjaltt föutbtg, I owe him a thaler. 
<£« ifl leinen Pfennig »erty, It is not worth a penny* 

Rem. 8. Many of these adjectives may be followed by certain prepositions, 
which prepositions govern their own cases (§ 81, § 82, § 83), as : 



(1) begierig, by na$ or <mf, 

(2) bereit, ftytg.byp, 

(8) arm, gewohnt, teer, by an* 



(r>) frei, tebtg, Io«, leer, bott, etc., by 
bou. 

(6) einig, erfahren, fro$, by in* 

(7) aufrieben, by mit,orpon,oriiber. 



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CASES GOVERNED BY ADJECTIVES. 



13* 



0ta.Onlyafew(as benötigt, gen> artig, t$ et I&afr, überbrüf- 
f i g, i> er l u jli g) mtut be used as governing the genitive case. 

3. Many of the adjeetives that govern the genitive 
case frequently can not be transiated into English by 
adjeetives, but must be rendered in the English idiom 
by verbs or nouns, as : 

(gtner @acfyc anftetytig ju »erben, 

(Siucr 8a$e eingebent ju fein, 

Cr i(l ber beutfdjen ©praetye mä<$* 

% 
öiner ©a$c geflänbig jn fein, 
Cr ifl be« SBege« funbig, 
(Sr ifl feine« (Sibe« quitt, 



2Btr waren biefe« Ausgange« ber 

©a$e m$t gewärtig, 
<gr ifl aller Sortbctfe au« biefem 

©eföäfte fcertufltg, 



To get a view of a thing. 
To bear a thing in mind. 
He is master of the German lan- 

guage. 
To confess to a thing. 
He knows the road. 
He is free from the Obligation ira- 

posed by bis oath. 
We did not antieipate this termina- 

tion to the affair. 
He lost all the profits that came from 

this business. 



4. A large number of 
case, as : 
abtrünnig, faithless (to). 
ä(jnti<$, similar (to). 
angeboren, hereditary (to). 
angelegen, adjacent (to). 
angenehm, agreeable (to). 
anflößig, offensive (to). 
Betannt, known (to). 
bange, apprehensive (of). 
bequem, convenient (to). 
bettnißt, known (to). 
banfbar, thankful (to). 
btentitty, serriceable (to). 
bienflbar, " " 

eigen, pecnliar (to). 
rigentyüm'litty, pecnliar (to). 
ergc'ben, addicted (to). 
feinb, hostile (to). 
fem, distant (from). 
gemein', common (to). 
gemeinsam, mutnal (with). 
geneigt', favorable (to). 
getreu', faithfol (to). 
getoo'gen, well disposed (toward). 



adjeetives govern the dative 



glem), like, similar (to). 
gnäbig, gracions, merciful (to). 
gram, averse (to). 
gut, good, kindly (to). 
na$c, near, close (to). 
neu, new (to). 
nöt^ig, necessary (to). 
offen, open (to). 
offenbar, piain, open (to). 
Jmffenb, fitting (for). 
petntidj, painful (to). 
re$t, right (to). 
fdjSbttö), injurious (to). 
f($mcw}etyaft, flattering (to). 
fdfmtcrjlid), painful (to). 
f^nlbig, in debt (to). 
f4»er, difficult (for). 
füß, sweet (for). 
treuer, dear (to). 
treu, trne (to). 
übet, offensive (to). 
überle'gen, superior (to). 
Untertan, snbject (to). 



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138 CASES GOYERNED BY ADJECTIVE8. 



toerberfcTK$,tfestructive (to). 
tocrtoonbf , related (to). 
toortyctfyaft, advantageous (to). 
XQtf), painfol (to). 
toerty, worth (to). 



toutytig, important (to). 
nriberlid}, offensive (to). 
ttUttom'mcn, welcome (to). 
toofyl, fortanate (to). 
jtoeifetyaft, doubtful (to.) 



5. The idiomatic spirit of the English language often 

requires that a verb or a noun shall take the place of 

an adjective which in German governs the dative case : 

(Smer Partei' abtrünnig tocrbett, To desert a party. 
<2r ijl feinem Stoter fc^r äfyitt$, He resembles his father very mach. 
Samt iä) 3^nen be&ütflty fein ? Can I be of any service to you ? 
6« tjt mir rndft erinnerlich, It has escaped my memory. 

Eöie totel bijl 2)u tym fc^ulbig ? How much do you owe him ? 

6. Adjectives expressive of value, weight, measure, or 
age govern the acevsative case : 

<S« »or feinett tßfettltig n> e r t $, It was not worth a penny. 

<£* tft nur eine». 3oH breit, It is only an inch wide. 

<S« tft eitt $\unb fötoer, It weighs a pound. 

(5r ifl je^tt 30^rt alt, He is ten years old. 

Achtundfliebzigste Aufgabe. 
1. Herr Eitelberg ist seiner Partei' abtrünnig gewor- 
den. 2. Diese Kinder sind ihren Eltern sehr ähnlich. 
3. Es ist mir unbegreiflich, wie er solchen Unsinn ver- 
tragen kann. 4. Kann ich Ihnen auf irgend eine Weise 
behülflich sein ? 5. Der Zustand des Kranken ist dem 
Arzte heute sehr bedenklich. 6. Die Umstände des 
Verlustes des Dampfers sind uns bis jetzt noch nicht 
bekannt. 7. An welchem Tage die Schlacht bei Jena 
stattgefunden hat, ist mir augenblicklich nicht erinner- 
lich. 8. Unter solchen Umständen war seine Gegen- 
wart natürlich der Gesellschaft sehr unwillkommen. 

9. Der Kaufmann ist dem Banquier 800 Thlr. schuldig. 

10. Seine Mitwirkung war ihnen mehr hinderlich als 
forderlich. 11. Er ist seinem Eide treu geblieben. 
12. Die deutsche Sprache richtig auszusprechen ist den 
Amerikanern im Anfang sehr schwer. 13. Wir fahren 
sehr langsam, weil der Wind und die Fluth uns widrig 



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• USE OP THE ARTICLE. 139 

sind. 14. Dieser Rock ist mir zu gross. 15. Mir ist es 
sehr kalt hier. 16. Das Tuch ist eine Elle breit und 
dreissig Ellen lang. 17. Diese Kugel ist nur 68 Pfund 
schwer, aber jene Kugeln sind 120 Pfund schwer. 18. 
Er ist fast einen Kopf grösser als ich. 19. Wilhelm ist 
zwölf Jahre, einen Monat und einen Tag alt. 



LESSON XL. 

USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

ftcnnanbficbjtgfte »ufgak* 

1. Der SWenfö ift fterbticty. 2. Da« geben ijl furj. 3. Da« 
©olb ift ba« foflbarfk JWetall. 4. 2)a« geuer unb ba« ©affer 
ftnb gute Diener, aber böfe SWetfler. 5. £err SBraumüUer &at 
ben gweiten 33anb twn Äugler'8 @efd)id)te ber 3Maleret, unb ben 
vierten SBanb üon Dundfer'« @ef$td&te be« Slltertyum« fceute ge* 
fauft. 6. Der ©ebraudfc ift ber ©efefcgeber ber ©prägen. 7* 
griebrtd) Sfta&n ftubirt Biologie, unb SBttyetm SBeibmann flu* 
birt SWebtcin. 8. ^>rofcffor griebri<$« iji $rofeffor ber Hafft^ 
f$en Slrd&aologte an ber Untoerfttät ju 33erlin. '9. £err 33raun 
wirb fymtt Slbenb eine SBorlefung über ben Urfprung ber gotfci* 
fd&en 33aufunfl galten* 10» Der griebe ber (Seele gilt me&r al« 
Stelfy&um. 11. Da« grü&ftütf ift nod) ntd&t fertig. 12. *flad& 
bem Slbenbeffen werben wir in« Cohcert getyen. 13. Da« fefle 
2ttagbeburg $at Xxty am loten 3Wai 1631 mit ©türm genom* 
men ; aufer gwet Äird&en unb 130 Käufern $at er bie ganje 
©tabt niebergebrannt unb 30,000 *>on ben @inwo&nern ermor* 
bet ; biefe ©rauel fyat er bie „SWagbeburger £od&$ett" genannt. 
14. Der »orige Slpril war fetyr fatt unb unangenehm. 15. £err 
©ie«ler unb feine gamüte ftnb jefct in ber ©cfyweij ; wir werben 
au$ in ad&t Sagen na<$ ber ©d&weij ge^en. 16. Äonfiantt* 
nopel ift: bie £auptfiabt ber Surfet. 17. Diefe« Xufy Toftet jwei 
SC^aler bie eile. 18. @r flanb mit bem £ut auf bem Äopf. 
19. <£r war be« ©efüfcl« nid)t mäd&tig. 20. Die 3?eicij«&crfamm* 
lung ju $rag erwarte griebridb ben günften jum Äonige. 21. 



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140 USB OP THE ARTICLE. 

2Btr fegelten gegen ©übe«, unb bann gegen SBeflen. 22. £err 
2Waurer $at einen Slrtifel über bte SRedjte ber grauen gefd&rtefcen. 
23* 2)er SBatcr unb bte Sö&ne ftnb fpajteren gegangen. 

Grainmatical. 

1. One of the most marked differences between the 
English and the German languages is in the uae ofthe 
Article. This difference arises in many cases from the 
fact that the German idiom often requires the noun to 
be coneeived as concrete, where the English idiom re- 
quires it to be coneeived in a general or abstract sense. 
Thus, in the sentence 

3>er Sttettfö if* ftcrBIic^ (Man is mortal), 
if we translate ber STOcirfd^ by "the human being? we will 
have the spirit of the German idiom. 

2. The most important points in which the German 
varies from the English in the use of the Article are 
given on page 254. 

Rem. The variations to the rutes there given (especially those to the first 
rule, § 55, 1, 1), must be learned by practice. Their exposition here wonld 
only cause confosion. 

Bxercise 80. 
1. Platinum is the heaviest metal, and lead is the 
8ofte8t metal. 2. William Pressnitz is studying philos- 
ophy, and John Pressnitz is studying astronomy. 3. 
What are you reading ? 4. 1 am reading Jahn's History 
of Astronomy. 5. Mr. Preu is studying theology at (an) 
the University of Halle. 6. Prof. Hoffmann is professor 
of chemistry in the University of Berlin. 7. The good 
fear not (the) death. 8. (The) virtue leads to (the) hap- 
piness. 9. (The) pride is contemptible. 10. (The) last 
summer was very hot. 11. (In the) next winter we will 
probably go to Italy. 12. After breakfast we will go 
to (auf) the market. 13. Dinner is not yet ready. 14. The 
ruins of oldGreece are among the most interestingin the 
world. lö.Switzerlandlies between Germany and Italy. 



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PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOÜNS. 141 

lß.Smyrna is the largest city in Turkey in Asia (in the 
Asiatic Turkey). 17. Bucharest is the capital of Wal- 
lachia. 18. We take lessons ((jaben ©tunben) in music 
four times a week (§ 105). 19. He Stands there with his 
hat in his hand. 20. They elected him president unan- 
imously. 21. The defendant admits that he was an ac- 
complice in the crime. 22. The ship will sail toward 
the North, and then it will sail toward the East. 



LESSON XLI. 

PERSONAL AND FOSSE88IVE PRONOÜNS. 

Gmmtbadjtjtgftc Aufgabe. 

1. <£t $at eS meinethalben getfcan. 2. <£s waren unfer jwan* 
jig in ber ©efellfdjaft ; öier twn uns ftnb um jefcn U£r nad& 
Haufe gegangen ; bie übrigen Wieben bis SWitternadfot. 3. (SS 
war einmal eine grofie Hungersnöte im ?anbe. 4* 333er tfi ba ? 
5.3d& bin ba, 6. SBer war mit 3(>nen? 7, (SS war mein 
©ruber unb meine ©cfywefier. 8. 3$ lobe mi<$ (or iä) lobe 
mi^felbfl). 9.2Barum lobft bu btdj felbjl? 10. Haben wir 
uns gelobt? 11. 3a,tyr tyabt eud) gelobt 12. <£x lobt ftd& 
felbji. 13. ©ie lobt ftd& nid&t. 14. ©te loben ft$. 15. dx 
felbji fyat eS getrau. 16. 3$ fclber fann eS t&un. 17. ©elbft 
feine geinbe adjten ifm. 18. 2Bir »erflehen einanber (or uns 
einanber) ganj gut. 19. (Er $at baS £auS für 2,000 2(>aler 
»erfauft ; er fcatte bafür 7 1,500 Sfyaler gegeben. 20. ©S waren 
125 ©rimmen bafür' unb 87 ©timmen bage'gen. 21. Diefe 
neue geber tyabe idfo tyeute gefauft ; id& $abt ben ©rief bamif 
getrieben. 22. 3df) fyobt ben SEifdf) ins Stntmer gebraut unb 
bie ©üdfjer barauf gelegt. 23. 3)aS £ud& §at t(>m fe&r gefallen ; 
er tyat bawn' einen Sftodf unb eine SÖejle madjen laffen. 24. 
©e^en ©ie morgen mit uns naefy 2)rcSben? 25. 3d) werbe mit 
3$nen tyutt Slbenb barü'ber fpred&en. 26. 3$r ©ruber tfl mit 
bem SWeinigen fpajieren gegangen. 27. <£r \)dt feine SBüd&er ein* 
gepaett unb na$ Slmertfa getieft, td) werbe bie 2Wctuigen aud& 



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142 PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

naty Sfatertfa ftyidfen ; \oai »erben ©ie mit ben 3&rigen matten? 
28* 3$ »erbe btc 3Meinigen |>ier in SBerlin laffen, W$ i$ »on 
Stalien jurüdffomme. 29. Du fcajt ba$ 2)einfge getyan ; bie 
Slnbern muffen jefct ba$ Sfcrige tyum 

OrammaticaL 

1. The most important rules with reference to the 
use of Personal Pronoum are given on pages 282 and 
283. 

Rem. 1. The reflexive ose of the personal pronoon is illustrated in the fol- 
lowing prononn paradigm : 

3$ tobe mid), I praise myself. 

bu lobjt btd), thou preisest thyself. 

er lobt ftd), he praises himself. 

{ie lobt ft$, ehe praises herseif. 

ed lobt fi$ f it praises itself. 

nrir loben ittt$ f we praise ourselves. 

t^r lobet tnä), you preise yoorselves. 

fle loben ftd), they praise themselves. 

Q&k loben fift, you preise yoorselves.) 
Rem. 2. The reciprocal ose of the personal pronoun is necessarily confined 
to the plaral number : 

2ßir loben itit$, We preise each other. 

i&r lobt end), yoa preise each other. 

fle loben fi$, they praise each other. 

(©ie loben f{(|, yoa preise each other.) 

2. The dative and accusative cases of personal pro- 

nouns, when not ref erring to persons, are rarely used 

with prepositions. In their stead are usually employed 

Compound adverbs, formed by uniting the adverb bd 

{there) with the preposition, as : 

JDabei' (for bei tym, ibr, tym ; tynen), by or throngh it or them. 

baburä)' ( " burä) i!jn, fie, e« ; fte), by or with it or them. 

bafüY ( " für ibn, fie, e« ; fle), • for it or them. 

bage'gen ( " gegen ü)n, fle, ed ; fie), against it or them. 

bamif ( " mit tym, u)r, tym ; tynen), with it or them. 

Rem. 1. When the preposition begins with a vowel, the original f of btt 
(ibrmerly written bar) is retained, as: baran', barauf, bartn', barü'ber, etc. 



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PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PBONOÜNS. 



143 



Ret*. 2. Similar Compound adverbs formed with (ief (here) and a preposi- 
tion are sometimes employed: 

hierbei' (for bei tym, tyr, \x)m ; tynen), with it or them. 
hiermit' ( " mit tym, tyr, \x)m ; tynen), with it or them. 

Bern, 3. These Compound adverbs are frequently nsed instead of the de- 
monstrative pronouns also (see § 188, Hein. 1 and Rem. 2). 

3. When the absolute possessive pronoun is used pred- 
icatively (not being the emphatic word in the sen- 
tence), like other predicate adjectives,it is undedined: 
2)er #ut ifl mein, The hat is mine. 

2>eim Dein ifl bie <g$re, For Thine is the Glory. 

Rem. 1. When the stress of voiee falls npon the absolute possessive pro- 
noun, it takes the termination, as shown in the first column in § 110: 
tiefer ©ut ifl meiner, m$t feiner, This hat is mine, not his. 
Rem. 2. Frequently the definite article precedes the posessive pronoun : 
2)tefer §ut ifl ber SWetne, jener This hat is mine, that one is his. 
ifl ber ©eine. 

Rem. 3. More usually, in modern German, the form ending in «Ig is em- 
ployed : 

Sttefer #ut ifl ber Sföcurige, Jener This hat is mine, that one is his. 
ifl ber ©einige, 
Rem. 4. The form ber SDfciriige (mine) is declined thus: 



SINGULAR. 


PLUBAL. 


MascuUne. 
2)er äReinige, 
bee SWeimgen, 
bem SKeinigen, 
ben Steinigen. 


Feminine. 
2>ie äJfcinige, 
bcr Steinigen, 
ber Steinigen, 
bie SReimge. 


Neuter. 
$a* Steinige, 
be« SKeinigen, 
bem SJfcinigcn, 
bo« SDteimge. 


AliGenders. 
2He Peinigen, 
ber Steinigen, 
ben Steinigen, 
bie Peinigen. 



Rem. 5. The neuter singular of the absolute possessive pronoun is frequently 
employed as meaning the properUj of the duty of, etc. : 

<&x $ot ba$ ©einige »ertoren, He has lost his property. 

<Sr $at ba8 ©einige getyan, He has done his duty. 

Rem. 6. The plural frequently refers to the family, friends, followers, 
dependentSy etc. : 

2He Süchtigen wiffen metyt, tt>onn My relatives do not know when I 

id> jurüdtommen »erbe, will return. 

2>er ©enerat gog mit ben ©einigen The general retreated with his forces. 
gurücf, 



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144 INDEFINITE PRONOÜNS. 

Exercise 82. 
1. 1 did it on bis account. 2. They did it on our 
account. 3. There were ten of them ; four of them came 
with us ; the rest remained at Leipzic. 4. There was 
once a very rieh man — . 5. Who was in the room ? 
6. It was I. 7. There are many large trees in this 
forest. 8. I understand myself. 9. He injures him- 
self. 10. We widerstand ourselves. 11. They under- 
stand themselves. 12. They understand each other. 
13. Even his enemies acknowledge his worth. 14. Mr. 
Dietrich has sold his horse for 360 Thlr. ; he paid 400 
Thlr. for it last year. 15. The Government will im- 
mediately make a new loan of 150,000,000 Thlr. ; there 
were 250 votes in favor of (for) it in Congress, and only 
36 votes against it. 16. Will Mr. Eitelberg go with us 
to Gotha? 17. He will come here and speak with you 
about it this evening. 18. Why did you not teil William 
that he must not go out in (bei) this bad weather ? 19. 
I did teil him so twice. 



LESSON XLII. 

INDEFINITE AND INTERBOGATIVB PRONOCN8. 

$retanbadjtaigfte ftnfgafie* 

1. Gintge »on ben 33ü$ern "tnb wfy gut gebunben, aber bie 
meijlen (most of them) ftnb fe&r fölefy gebunben. 2. Der 
©ine %at feine Slufgabe ganj o$ne geiler getrieben, ber Slnbere 
fcat siele geiler barin gemalt 3* einige wenige ©ebidjte ber 
©ammtung flnb gut, mandje ftnb fölefy, »iele ober bie meijlen 
ftnb mittefotajtfg- 4. »on SRotanb fang er unb mandjem front* 
men £elb (©d).). 5. S« ift »on mandjem ^ol;en Saum bie 
Söurjel fauL 6. £err 2)iefenba$ fcat mehrere 3a$re (§ 83, 4) 
in 2)eutfötanb gt T ebt. 7. dt %at mir fein 93ud) gefdjuft- 8. 
©ein efirgcij fennt feine ©renjen. 9. 2tttr gefallt feine« »on 
allen biefen 33ü$ern. 10. <£$ fann feiner barüber entfdjieben 



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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 145 

urt&etten. 11. e$ war riet 8arm um 9H$tS ; öiel ©efc&ret unb 
wenig SBoHe. 12. er fcat e$ nur burd) »iet (or stele) 3lrbett 
getyan. 13* 3$ fcabe eS mit »iel (or öiclem) Vergnügen get&an. 
14. 3Man fann bei »ielem ©elbe unglütfltdj, unb ojme stet ©elb 
fe$r glüdlid) fein. " 15. 2)u fcajl »iel gelefen, aberjpenig gelernt. 
16. 6r fyat iriel gereift nnb Siele« gefefcen. IT. Siele ßöcfye 
mfaljen ben S3rei. 18. ©tubiren jefct öiel (or viele) Slmerifa* 
ner in SBerlin? 19. Stur wenig 2Wenfc$en finb fo ungemein 
gtü<fli<$. 20. 3$ muß ein wenig 9tu$e fudjen. 21. 3$ fcabe 
baö 33ud) für nur wenige ©roföen gefauft. 22. e$ jtnb weni* 
ger 9fo$na$men al$ bu benfft. 23. SBenige $aben ti »erfucfyt, 
unb no<$ SBemgem iffc e$ gelungen. 24. SWit SBielem fcält man 
§cl\x§, mit SBemgem fommt man au?. 25. @r $at weniger 
(comparative) SBorjt^t als Sapferfeit. 26. Dag ©ebeimnig 
iffc im 33efifce nur weniger (gen.pl) $erfonen. 27. <£r \*\ fcaS 
wenigjle ©elb unb bie wenigjlen ©orgen. 28. 9tor bei ben we* 
nigften liieren ftnbet man foletye ©ewo^ntyeüen. 29. SWit ad)t 
eilen werben fie Xufy genug für einen SRodE unb eine SBefie \)a* 
btn. 30. 3$ fcabe genug »on feiner £apfcrfeit gehört. 31. 
SBomit tyaben <Sie ben SBrief getrieben ? 32. 3$ fyabe tyn 
mit einem 33leijHft gefd&neben, weil id) feine geber bei mir fyattt. 
33. SBorübcr fyat £err <2<$norr gefproetyen ? 34. er fprad) 
über feine 9ieife na<$ Stalien. 

GrammaticaL 
1. For the general rules governing the use of the 
Indefinite jPronouns, see page 286. 

Rem. 1. When manfytt la used before an adjeetive without its termination 
(§112, 2, Rem. 8), the adjeetive follows the old declension: 
SDfomä} topfr-er ©elb, or mannet tapfre ©elb. 

2Jtond) ficb«e$ Ämb, " manttye* fiebe Äinb. 

2Rit mono) tapfrem Reiben, " mit man^em tapfren #ctben. 
Wlanä) t<n>fr*e #ctbcn, " manä)e tapfren gelben. 

Rem. 2. Siel and tOOtig can be nsed with or without inflection, aecording 
as the idea of coUectiveneas or individuality is made more prominent : 
(£3 ffat triel SDWtye detpflet, or t& fyit »tele SRü&e gefoflet. 
Söie niel neue geinbe ! (©$.) u tote niete neue geinbe ! 
<5« finb toenifl 2Wenfä)en, " es finb wenige 2Jfenföett. 
G 

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146 INDEFINITE PRONOÜNS. 

Obs. The comparative of tOCttig (tOtttigCt) is more usually uninflected : 
(Sr fyat tocnigcr ^orfi^tiglcit al« He hos less prudence than valor. 
£<H>ferfcit, 

Rem. 3. The indefinite pronoun man (§ 112, 6) is used in most generol ex- 
pressions; it is translated by <me, people, etc. : 

2Won Jagt, one says, they say, people say, it is said. 
Wlan glaubt, one believes, they believe, people believe, it is believed. 
Ob*. SRtttt is indeclinable. When oblique cases are required, they are fonned 
from Citttr» When a possessive pronoun referring to HtÖll is required, fein 
is employed (see Sentences 5 and 6 in Exercise 84). 

Rem. 4. (SttOttS (§ 112, 8) and 9tf#t« (§ 112, 9) are frequently used in ap- 
position with the neuter of adjeetives used substantively (Sent 19 and 20). 

Obs. The first syUable (et-) of tttOOÖ is frequently dropped in common 
conversation. 

Rem. 2. In asking questions, the indefinite pronoun some or any is in many 
cases not translated : 

#akn ©ie ©utter getauft? Did you buy any butter? 

$afcen 8ic Steffel getauft ? Did you buy any apples ? 

Obs. In some cases some is translated by etfta$ (see § 112, 8, Rem. 1). 

2. For the chief rules with reference to the use of 
Relative Pronouns, see page 289. 

Rem. For the Compound adverbs foomtt, töOPO!t,etc., see § 188, Rem. 3. 

ViernndachtzigBte Aufgabe. 
1. Man reist von Berlin nach Köln mit der Eisenbahn 
in einem Tage. 2. Bei uns spricht man auch von Ge- 
spenstern; aber in der Hegel haben nur "die LeiU<P und 
das selber unsichtbare und spukhafte " man" sie gesehen. 
3. Was sagt man in der Stadt über die neue Anleihe? 4. 
Man ist darüber se/ir unzufrieden. 5. Man lacht ge- 
wöhnlich^ wenn einem etwas Lächerliches begegnet. 6. 
Man ist froh, wenn man eine Arbeit geendet hat. 7. 
Jemand klopft. 8. Es ist Herr Wedel. 9. Kennen Sie 
Jemand {or Jemanden) aus der Gesellschaft? 10. Ich 
kenne Niemand (or Niemanden) ausser Herrn Ruprecht 
und seiner Frau. 11. Hat Jemand es Ihnen gesagt t 12. 
Nein, Niemand hat es mir gesagt, ich habe es selbst heute 
Morgen in der Zeitung gelesen. 13. Seine Hand wird 



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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOÜNS. 147 

wider Jederman, U9id Jedermanns Sand wird wider ihn 
sein (1. Mos. 12, 16). 14. Man soll sein Herz nickt Jeder- 
mamn offenbaren. 15. Haben Sie etwas von dem neuen 
Unfall in den Bergwerken gehört? 16. Nein, ich habe 
Nichts davon ge/iört. 17. Wünschen Sie noch etwas t 18. 
Ich werde noch etwas Butter nehmen. 19. Dieses Tuch 
ist etwas ganz Neues. 20. Er hat etwas ganz Anderes ge- 
meint. (21. Hier ist ganz was Neues). 22. Haben Sie 
noch Gold? 23. Ja, ich habe noch welches. 24. Haben 
Sie heute Morgen Aepfel auf (in) dem Markt gesehen t 
25. Ja, ich habe weiche gesehen, aber sie waren schlecht und 
sehr theuer. 26. Ich weiss nicht, wovon Sie sprechen. 27. 
Können Sie mir sagen, worüber Professor Schmidt Iieute 
Abend sprechen wird? 28. Er wird über die Geschichte 
der Stadt Berlin vor dem vierzehnten Jahrhundert 
sprechen. 



LESSON XLIII. 

DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOÜNS. 

Pnfmtbadjtaigftc Sfafgaüe. 

1. 3$ fabe ^eutc JDWrgen tiefe jtoei 33üd)er gefauft ; biefeS 
war fe^r billig, jenes fear fefyr treuer. 2. Das (jenes) SBud) 
fcabe td) fetyon gelefen. 3. Diefen £errn fenne it$ fefcr gut, aber 
jenen £errn bort fyabe iä) nie »orfyer gefefyen. 4. Die Ruinen 
üon Pompeji fmb großer unb tntereffanter als bie oon £ercula* 
neum. 5. Der ift ein fefyr gelehrter SWann. 6. Sßann »irb £err 
Stotfc nrieberf ommen ? 7* Da« meifj itfc nid)t. 8. DaS ift beS 
ÄaiferS £anb unb ©ieget (©<$.). 9» DaS finb SllleS neue 
Käufer in biefer ©trajje. 10. @r malte feinen Setter unb beffen 
©otyn. 11, Der Slutym beffen, ber lugt, bauert nidjt lange. 
12. @r ift nid)t »on benen, bie mit ©orten tapfer ftnb. 13. 
Die$(*e$) ftnb reife Slepfel. 14. Dasjenige 33ud), welkes bu 
wünfd)eft, fat ber 33udf>binber nod) nidjt jurüdfgebrad)t. 15. 
Derjenige £err, ben (or welken) n?ir geffcrn im SWufeum fafcen, 



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148 



RELATIVE PRONOÜNS. 



if* ber ©ruber be« £errn 8iebre$t. 16. 25a ff* berfetbe £err, 
ben (or welken) wir gejtern Slbenb bei £ernt 33rünow trafen, 
17. ©er ntd&t boren will, mv$ füllen (or ber mn$ füllen). 18. 
3Ba$ bu beute t&un fannft, fottjl bu nid^t auf morgen »erfd&ieben 
(or ba$ folljl ..♦•)♦ 19» Sllfe*, hm* wir beute in $ot$bam 
gefeben baben, fytt un* fe&r gefallen. 20. £ter babe i^ etwa« 
in biefem 33u$e gefunben, was td& gar nid&t wrfte^cn fann. 
21. Die ©efd&id&te ijl im ©anjen rid&tig, bod() fyäbt i$ SWand^c« 
gefunben, wa« i<$ nidbt billigen fann. 22. Steffen SBrob bu 
iffeji, beffen 8ob bu ftngejt (©prid&wort). 23. <£$ war eine 
fotdje £tfce in ber ©tabt, baß wir faft aHe !ran! baaon würben. 
24. Sei fol<$ einer £tye (or einer folgen £ifce) fann man leidet 
franf werben. 25. ©old) einen SWenfd&en (or einen folgen 
SDtenfdfoen) fyattt iä) nie gefeben. 26. „2)a$ wiffen wir, bie 
wir bie ©emfen jagen" (<5d).). 27. 2)a$ weiß id&, ber ify fetbfl 
es gefeben babe, 28. 2)aS fmb bie Käufer, wotum i<$ gefprod&en 
babe. 29. £ier iffc bie geber, womit id& ben SSrief getrieben 

GrammaticaL 

1. The chief rules governing the use of Demonstrative 
and Relative pronouns are given \n § 111, and § 114. 

2. The demonstrative pronoun bet jettige (tkat) is de- 
clined thus : 



1 


SINGULAR 




PLUKAL. 


Matculinr. 

Nom. derjenige, 
Gen. benötigen, 
Dat. bemietrigen, 
Ace. benienigau 


sf f « 1 


Neuter. 
ba«jcnigc, 
bcfjcnigcn, 
bemienigen, 
ba«jcitige. 


AU Genders. 
biciettigen, 
berjenigen, 
benjemgen, 
bi<j[cttigcn. 



Rem. 1. Setieiige is employed only when a relative follows the demon- 
strative pronoun. 

2)erjcmgc #crr, ben torir fafcn, The gentleman, whom we saw. 
Rem. 2. $trie*igt haß usnally a more indefinite signification than Jener, 

tiefer, htx. 



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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



149 



3. The pronoun berfclic (the same) is declined thus : 



8INGULAB. 


PLUBAL. 


MatcuUne. Feminine. Neuier. 
Nom. 2)ctfclbc r bicfelbe, baefclbe, 
Gen. btffclbeit, berfclben, bcsfelben, 
Dat. bemfelben, berfefben, bemfelben, 
Acc betreiben. bicfelbe. bafifelbe. 


AUGenders. 
biefetben, 
berfelben, 
benfelben, 
bicfelben. 



4. The Singular of the neuter gender of the demon- 
strative pronoun %aS, 2)iefe8 (2)te8), Seite«, flfle«, etc., 
is used in an indefinite way, without distinction of gen- 
der or number, like the neuter of the third person of 
the personal pronoun e$; thus used, these pronouns do 
not control number and person of the verb : 

$d$ finb 8tft$ neue $äufer, Those are all new booses. 

Sied ftab reife (grbbeeren, Those are ripe strawberries. 

5. Instead of relative pronouns (not referring to per- 
sons) preceded by prepositions, Compound adverbs are 
usually employed (see also § 188,i?em. 3) : 

#icr ift ba8 ©U# tOODOH (or bon Here is the book of which I spoke. 

toetctyetn) i$ gcforo^en fabe, 
$ier ift bcr ©IcifKft (or bic gebet) Here is the pencü (or the pen) with 

toerait t$ ben ©rief getrieben which I wrote the letter. 

$abe, 

Ezercise 86. 
1. This cloth which you bought to-day was much too 
dear. 2. The cloth, from which the tailor made these 
coats, was very good, but it was very dear. 3. Here is 
the book öf which I spoke. 4. There are the books of 
which I spoke. 5. The Cathedral of Cologne is much 
larger than the one (bic) at Ulm. 6. These books are 
new, but those (jene) books are not new. 7. These are 
all new books. 8. How much did this house cost? 9. 
(That) I do not know. 10. (That) I can not say. 11. 
There is the same carriage that we saw this morning. 
12. Did you find any thing that you do'not understand? 



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150 BEPLEXIVE VERBS. 

13. No, I have so far (6i$ jc^t) found nothing that is not 
ery easy to understand. 14. What he said about the 
b'attle is indeed (wofyl) possible, but it is not probable. 
15. 1 can not write with such a pen as (toie) this. 16. 
There is the man in whose (beffcn) house we reside. 
17. There is the physician with whom I made the trip 
through the Riesengebirge (mit »eifern or mit bem idf) eine 
Steife burdf) baS SRiefengebirge gemalt fcabe). 18. That man is 
the one whom we saw at the (im) concert yesterday 
evening. 



LESSON XLIV. 

REFLEXIVE TEBB8. 

©teieumiba^tjigpe 9Cttfga^e. 

1. SÖie lange fcaben ©ie ftd) in SWün^en aufgehalten? 2. 
3m »origen 3atyre fcaben wir un$ nur brei 3Bod)en in 3Wündf)en 
aufgehalten ; aber »or vier Sauren finb mir aber vier SWonate 
in 2Wünd>en geblieben. 3. SBie beftnben fte ft$ (how do you 
do)? 4. 3d) beftnbe mtd& ganj wo&l, t$ banfe. 5. £err Die* 
fenbadfc unb feine ganje gamilie fcaben ftd) na$ £elgolanb bege* 
ben, um bort ©eebaber ju nehmen. 6. SBarum befümmern ©ie 
ftd& fo fe&r um feine Angelegenheiten ? 7. 3$ $abe midf) enbltd& 
entfdjloffen, nadlj Stalicn ju gc^en* 8. 3lu$ bem ©amen ent* 
wicfelt jidf) bie ^ffanje. 9. SBon ber 3*i* <w enftoidfelte ft$ bie 
Empörung fe&r rafdj. 10- Slm 1. 9losember 1755 ereignete ftd) 
ba$ ©rbbeben in ?iffabon. 11. <&v $at ftdf) über feine <£nt* 
bedfung fe^r gefreut. 12. 9to$ einer langen ^Belagerung $at bie 
geftung ft$ auf ©nabe unb Ungnabe ergeben muffen. 13. Cr 
&at ftd) bur$ ©tunbengeben ernähren muffen. 14. SWan er* 
funbigte ftd& unter ber £anb fe&r föatf, »o fte ftd& wetyrenb ber 
2Horbtfcat befanben. 15. 3$ furzte midj »or feiner Stad&e 
nidjt (or td& furzte feine 9tadf)e nid&t). 16. @$ ijt fe&r fd&wer, 
ftd) an eine ganj neue Lebensart jn gewonnen. 17. 3rren ©ie 
ft4 nic^t, mein #err, tyaben ©ie nicfyt meinen £ut genommen? 



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BEFLEXIVE VERBS. 151 

(JrammaticaL 

1. For the chief rules that govern the use of Reflexive 
Verbs, and for the paradigm of these verbs, see § 158, 
and §159. 

2. Most reflexive verbs are intransitive. Those that 
have the reflexive pronoun in the dative case govern 
an object in the accusative case. Some govern an in- 
direct object in the dative case. Some are followed 
by a Substantive in the genitive case. Some are fol- 
lowed by a preposition. 

3. The following are among the most commonly era- 
ployed of the reflexive verbs. 

Bern. 1 . See also those verbs below which require the reflexive pronoun to be 
In the dative case. 

©i$ ärgern (über), to be offended (at). 

fio) aufliefen (gu), to prepare (for). 

fi$ aufholten, to remain, stay. 

fio) auffä)ttingen, to mount, to soar. 

fi$ äußern, to express one's seif. 

flo) bebanfcn (für), to gi?e thanks (for). 

flu) befinben, to find one v s seif (to be, to do). 

fi$ bebenfen (gen.), to deliberate about, to devise. 

fi(^ befleißen ) 

flu) befleißigen; Ü**-\ to »PPty one's seif (to). 

fid) Begeben, to resort to, to repair to, to betake one's seif to. 

ft$ bereifen (mit), to resort to, to help one's seif by means of. 

fid) Beilagen (über), to complnin (of). 

fiä) Belflmmem (um), to trouble one's seif (about) ; (über), to grieve for. 

f!Ä Bemäcbtiaen) 

fi$ bcmeiflern \ &**-)> t0 take P 088088 * 011 (°0, to seize. 

fio> Befinnen (gen., or auf or über), to recoHect, to try to remember. 

jiä) entäußern (gen.), to dispose of, to part with. 

ftd) enthalten (gen.), to restrain one's seif (from). 

fiety entftt)Ueßen, to resolve, to determine, to deeide. 

ft$ enrftnnen (gen.), to recollect 

fiä) enttoüfeln, to expand, develop. 

fl$ erbarmen (gen., an or über), to ha?e merey (upon). 

flu) ereignen, to happen, to take place. 

fid) erfreuen (gen. or über), to rejoiee, to be glad (at). 

fid) ergeben (dat.), to surrender, to addict one's seif (to). 



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152 EEFLEXIYE VERBS. 

ft$ ernähren, to gain one's livelihood. 

pd) erinnern (gen. or an), to remember. 

fid) ertälten, to take a oold. 

P$ ertunbtgen {gen., nad? or an or über), to make inquiries, to inform 

pd) frenen (über), to rejoiee (at). [one's seit 

pd) fürchten (fcor), to be in dread (of). 

jitt) getröften (gen.), to hopo (for). 

fid) getoö&nen (an), to aecustom one's seif (to). 

p$ grämen (über or um), to grieve (over or at). 

p4 irren, to make a mistake. 

p$ nähern (dat.), to approach. 

fi$ rühmen (gen.), to boast (of). 

Pd) föamen (gen., über or toegen), to be ashamed (of ). 

fid) in bie Umjlänbe f Riefen, to adapt one's seif to circamstaneee. 

fid) freuen (fcor), to stand in fear (of ). 

fi$ fernen (na$), to long for. 

P$ fefeen, to take a seat 

ft$ tröflen (jr«i. or mit), to console one's seif with. 

fi$ unterhalten, to converse, to amuse one's seit 

fi$ fcergefcen, to go astray, to lose one's way. 

ji$ fcerirren, " " " " 

p$ toertaffen (auf), to rely (apon). 

P$ fcerf preisen, to misspeak. 

fl(ty fcerfeben (gen.), to expect ; (an), to be frightened at. 

fieb toerfl$ern (gen. or fror), to make snre (of ). 

P$ tocrfoSten, to come too late. 

fi$ fcerjletten, to disguise one's seif 

fid) Vorbereiten (auf or ju), to prepare one's seif. 

P$ toeigern, to objeet, to rerase. 

P$ toriberfefcen (dat.), to oppose, to withstand. 

fi$ »unbern (über), to wonder (at). 
Rem. 2. Many other transitive verbs besides those that are included in the 
above list are often nsed reflexively, as : 

34 btrfle$e ba$ triebt, I do not tmderstand that. 

3d) berflebe ini<$, I tmderstand myself. 

3)a« «»erficht P$, That is a matter of course. 

Bern. 3. Reflexive verbs take (oben for the anxiliary. 

4. The following reflexive verbs require the reflexive 
pronoun to be in the dative case: 

@i<$ anmaßen, to presnme, to arrogate to one's seit 

Pd) auftbebingen, to reserve to one's seif. 

fid) auebitten, to ask for. 

fi$ beuten, to imagine. 

P<ty einbilben, to imagine, ta fancy. 



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REFLEXIVE VERBS. 153 

fid) getrauen, to dare, to venture, 
jtü) erlauben, to indulge one's seif (in). 
ft$ fä)metc$etn, to flatter one's seif, 
fid) berfd)affen, to provide. 
ftd) bernetymen, to propose to one's seif, 
jiü) toorfteüeit, to imagine, to place before one's seif. 
Rem. 1. These verbs govern an objeet in the acauative case : 

2)a« $aß bu bir eina,ebilbet, Thou hast imagined that. 

Rem. 2. Reflexive verbs that have the reflexive pronoun in the dative case 
are conjugated thus : 

Infinitive: @i$ Cifttübtlt, to imagine. 
Present Indicative. 
\<S) bilbe cd mit ein, I imagine it. 
bu bilbejt e« bir ein, thou imaginest it 
er bilbet e8 fid) ein, he imagines it. 
totr Bitben e€ nn£ ein, we imagine it. 
u)r bilbet e8 endjrin, von imagine it 
fie bttben t» fid) ein, they imagine it. 
(@te bilben e8 fid) ein, you imagine it). 
Imperfect Indic. : \<S) bitbete e* mir ein, e*a, I imagined it, «c. 

Perfect Indic. : td) $abe e€ mir eutgebttbet, e*c, I have imagined it, etc. 
Phperfect Indic : td) $atte CS mir eutgebübet etc. , I had imagined it, e*e. 
.Ftrrt /W. Indic. : td) »erbe e8 mir etnbttben, efc, I shall imagine it, etc. 
See. Fut. Indic. : id) toerbe e€ mir etngebilbet tyaben, I shall have imagined it 

5. For the use of reflexive verbs governing the geni- 
tive and dative cases, see Lessons XL VI., and XLVII. 
Eiercise 88. 

1. How long shall you remain in Berlin ? 2. We will 
probably remain there two months. 3. Good morning ! 
How do you do? 4. 1 am very well, I thank (you). 
5. During the hot weather we usually betake ourselves 
to Stettin or Danzig, for the purpose of taking sea-baths, 
and of escaping the bad air of this large city. 6. We 
have concluded to return to Berlin in October. 7. The 
conspiraey developed itself with astonishing rapidity. 
8. A great freshet (overflowing) of the Bhine took place 
last spring. 9. He rejoieed over the arrival of his broth- 
er. 10. The entire army was forced to surrender at 
discretion. 11. He had to earn his livelihood by work- 

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154 AGREEMENT OF VEBB. 

ing with his hands (#anbarbeit) until he could get a 
better Situation. 12. It is not easy to accustom one's 
seif to the usages and customs of otber lands. 13. We 
are mistaken (or we have made a mistake) ; that is 
Mr. Rahn's house. 14. We can not rely upon his help. 
15. 1 long to see my native land (SBaterlanb) once more. 

16. May I rely uponyour standing by me in this affair? 

17. Of course you can. 18. It is often necessary for us 
to adapt ourselves to circumstances. 



LESSON XLV. 

AGREEMENT OF VEBB WITH NOMINATIVE. VEBBS GOVERNING THE ACCU- 
8ATIVE CA8B. APPOSITION. 

9?eununba^tjt8fte Sfafeaüe. 

1. Sodann ge&t na<$ ber ©tabt. 2. Sodann unb 2Bilf;etm 
flehen na<$ ber ©tabt. 3. <£$ finb »iele f$öne ©ta&l|lictye in 
biefem ©udf). 4» SBir waren e$ nicfyt, bic auf bte ©lumen ge* 
treten fcaben. 5. DteS finb SltteS neue Sudler auf biefem fciftye, 
aber ba$ finb SllleS 33üd)er au« ber jwetten £anb. 6. ©eine 
2Wajeftat SBÜ&efot ber Sterte, Äönig »on $reujjen, $aben afler* 
gnabigf* geruht, ju befehlen, baß, etc. 7. ©ie, 3&r ©ruber, 
mein SBater unb td) f onnen (b. &. wir f önnen) in biefem Goupä 
fahren» 8. 2)u, Dein ©ruber unb Deine ©ctyweiler werbet (b. 
f). if)x werbet) $laft in bem nadtfen SBagen ftnben. 9. Du unb 
Dein ©ruber finb »on £errn Äöbel eingelaben, mit t&m unb fei* 
ner grau na$ SEegel ju fahren, um baS ©rab ber ©ebrü* 
ber £umbolbt unb bie Äunflfcfyafce im $alajt ju fe^en. 10. 
Da« falte SBetter, wel$e« wir jefct fcaben, $at fcfyon länger als 
einen SWonat gebauert. IL SQBic »iel wiegen ©ie (or toa$ ift 
3&r ©ewidf)t)? 12. 3$ wiege fcunbert unb breijjig $funb; 
mein ©ruber 3o&ann wiegt fcunbert »ierunbbierjig $funb. 13. 
DiefeS £ud) fofiet einen unb einen falben Xfyakx (or anbert&alb 
S&aler) bie @Ue. 14. Hamburg liegt ungefähr breipig beutfdje 
(b. &. &unbert unb jwanjig engUföe) JWeilen norbwefilid> »on 



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AGREEMENT OP VERB. 155 

53erlin. 15» $txx 9totl> ttrirb mit feiner gamilie wa&rfd(jeiulidj 
tiefen Slbenb (or fceute Slbcnb) &on Düffelborf anfommen. 16. 
£err SDictrid^ fam früher um 10 U&r 33ormtttag$, um un$ beut* 
fd>en Unterricht ju erteilen ; jefct f ommt er um bret U&r 9laty 
mittag«. 17. 2ßir finb nur gegen Slbenb ben SBefu» fyinauf ge* 
gangen, »eil wir ben tyerrli^en Sonnenuntergang »on ber ©pifce 
be$ SBulfanS fe&en wollten. 18. 33alb nad&bem bie ©ope untere 
ging, f amber SBoflmonb herauf j aber ber Fimmel tyat ft$ gleicfy 
barauf mit SBolfen bebedft, fo baß t$ fetyr bunfel mar, al$ mir ben 
Serg fcerunterfamen. 19. ginben ©ie e$ falt &ier ? 20. 3a, 
mid) friert e$. 21. <£3 freut mi$, ju fcören, ba§ 3&re ©efunb* 
beit »ieber^ergejleflt ijh 22. g$ ge&t tyn gar nichts an, ob wir 
ba$ $a\x$ laufen ober nidfjLt. 23. Sd giebt »tele ungebilbetc 
Seute in Deutfcfylanb, befonberg auf bem ?anbe, bie an ©pufen 
unb ©efpenjter glauben. 24, Ctyne SBeitereS ju fagen, ging er 
feinen 3Beg. 25. $txx SScrnflcin lefcrt mt$ bie 2Wufif unb ba$ 
3ei$nen. 26. SBijfen ©ie wann £err SBe^r »on SBeimar wie* 
berfommen wirb? 27. 9lein, idf) fcabe tyn jwar bama$ gefragt, 
aber er fonnte e$ mir nid&t genau fagen. 28. (Er nennt tyn 
feinen greunb, unb bo<$ tyat er tyn in biefer unfreunblid&en SBeife 
bebanbelt. 29. Die Ginwo&ncrjafcl beg £önigreidf>e$ ^reupen be* 
lauft ftd) auf etwa 24,000,000. 30. 9tod) ber Verbannung be« 
ÄaiferS Napoleon $at Preußen einen me$r als fünfjig 3abre 
bauemben grieben genojfen. 31. Dur<$ ben griebenSsertrag ju 
faxte, im Safcre 181S, fcat Preußen bie 9tyein*$rosrinjen befom* 
men. 32. 3$om Anfang beS SKonat« 9luguft bis jum Cnbe be« 
SWonatS ©eptember (or öon Anfang Slugujl bis (Enbe ©eptem* 
ber) fcaben wir fe&r trodfeneS Söetter gehabt. 33. Der ©$u&* 
mad&ergefell tjt mit jwei $aar ©d)u&cn unb brei $aar ©tiefein 
na$ ber ©tabt gegangen. 34. SWit bem befhn SBiDen fonnten 
bie ©d&filer fo lange ?eftionen nid&t lernen. 35. Der Warnt ber 
©tabt $ot$bam ijl f laaiföen UrfprungS unb bebeutet „unter ben 
@id)cn." 36. Die SÖerra unb gulba erhalten nadf) i&rer Vereint* 
gung ben -Warnen SBefer. 



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156 AGREEMENT OF VERB. 

GrammaticaL 

1. For the chief rules with reference to the agree* 
ment of the subject with the verb in number and per- 
son, see •§ 117. 

Rem. 1. The use of a plaral verb with courtly titles in the Singular number 
is customary in official documents and in direct address ; but in speaking of 
the persons having these titles, it is common to put the verb in the Singular 
number: 

3ft ©eine Cjccttcnj gu ©auf c ? Is bis Excellency at home ? 

2. The third person singular of the verb geben {to gvce) 
is frequently employed impersonally in the signification 
of there is> ihere was, etc. : 

<S9 gtebt fiettte, bic an Oefpatfter Jhere are peoplc that believe in 
glauben, ghosts. 

3. For the use of Dimidiative Nuraerah, see § 103, 2. 

4. For the chief rules* oi Apposition, see § 85. 

Bern. 1 . If one of two nouns in apposition is a proper name, the proper 
name is not inflected : 

2)ie ©renjen be« Äomgretd)* The boundaries of the kingdom of 

$reuf3at, Prussia. 

$ie Verbannung beö Äatfer« Wa* The banishment of the Emperor Na- 
poleon, poleon. 
(buQftad) bem Xobe Äartö be« ©rofjcn, After the death of Charlemagne. 
" ifotd) ©ifyelm bem Sterten, After William the Fourth. 
Rem. 2. The name of the month is not inflected when the word SRflKOi 
(month) precedes the name of the month : 

9tn Anfang be« SRonat« Styril At the beginning of the month of 
(or am Anfang Styritt), April (orat the beginning ofApril). 

Rem. 3. The non-inflection of nouns indicating weight, measure, and num- 
ber (see Lesson XVI., 2), when they are of the masculine or neuter gender 
is explained by some German grammarians by considering them as carcünal 
uumbers ; the case is sometimes indicated by the limited noun : 
9Rtt (jtoet 2)nfcenb) <5iern, With two doaen eggs. 

2Rü (brei $oot) ©d)u$en, With three pairs of shoes. 

Obs. The limited noun is iteelf; bowever, also more usually not inflected : 
SKtt gtoei ©ufcenb (Stet*, With two dozen eggs. 

SDWt j»ei yaax ©tiefel, With two pairs ofboots. 

9hrger einem Ärng ©äff er toßnfd)t He wishes nothing except a pitcher 
ermd)t«, of water. 



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AGBEEMENT OP VERB. 157 

5. The article is usually used before names of moun- 
tains (see § 61, 7) : 

2)cr $ar& ; bcr SScfufc ; bcr $ccfo, The Hartz ; Vesuvius ; Hecla, 

6. The following nouns formerly ended in *ett ; tho 
*n of the nominative is now usually dropped : 

$cr gricbc, peace. bcr $oufc, heap. bcr ©omc, seed. 

n gurrte, spark. „ £arj)fe, carp. „ ©djpbc, damage. 

n ©ebante, thoaghk „ Warnt, name. „ Sitte, will. 

„ ©faitbc, belief, faith. 
SB^ljrcnb beö griebcnS, Döring the peace. 

Exeroise90. 
1. William and his father will soon go to Stuttgart. 
2. There are in this album many beautiful photographs 
of the most important cathedrals and other public 
buildings in Germany. 3. Those are all photographs of 
paintings in the museums (§ 77) of Berlin and Dresden. 
4. My brother and I went to Potsdam yesterday. 5. You 
and your brother are invited by (öon) Mr. Niemeyer to 
go with him to-morrow to (um — ju) see the collection 
of German and Scandinavian antiquities which Count 
von Eitelberg has just brought from Pomerania to Ber- 
lin. 6. The hot weather which we had last year lasted 
almost a month. 7. Weber's History of the World 
(©eltgefd)t$te) costs two thalers and a half a volume, 
unbound ; such binding as this will cost a thaler and 
a half a volume ; that binding is very strong and good ; 
it costs only half a thaler a volume. 8. The express- 
train from Frankfort-on-the-Oder arrives at eight 
o'clock in the morning ; the freight-train leaves at four 
in the afternoon. 9. The concert will take place at 
eight o'clock this evening (§ 284, Bern. 4). 10. We went 
up the mountain very slowly, but we came down the 
mountain very fast. 11. We are very glad (§ 177, 3) to 
hear that his health has almost entirely. been restored 
(that his health itself almost entirely restored has). 
12. It surprises me to hear that he has not yet arrived. 



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158 VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 

13. There are many beautiful houses in the neighbor- 
hood of the Thiergarten. 14. It is none of his business 
(it does not concern him at all) whether we seil the 
house or not. 15. Mr. Kuhn taught my sister music, 
when we were in Berlin. 16. Soon after the death of 
Alexander the Great, the Greek empire feil into pieces 
(ju ©runbe ge^en). 17. We will remain in Munich from 
the beginning of the month of November tili toward 
the end of the month of March {or from the beginning 
of November tili toward the end of March). 18. The 
name of the city of Cologne is of Latin origin ; it sig- 
nified originally " Colony." 19. Do you know the name 
ofthat river (roiffen ©ie fcen 9lamen jene« gluffcS, or miffen 
<3ie ttrie jener glup Reifet) ? 20. That is the Havel. 



LESSON XLVI. 

VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CAS*. 

einnntmemijtgfte Stofgabc. 

1. 2)a« ffieib bebarf in Äriegtfnötyen be« SBeföüfeer« (8$.). 2. (Sr be* 
burfte W me$r al* iemafo be« guten ©tuen« ber Staaten (©$. ). s. (Sin 
C&arlatan bebarf nur töu$m ju fcoben. 4. ©er ber ®efa$r foottet, gebeult 
ü)rcr; ber »(ü)re $elb aber bentt gar ntty an bic ©efa$r. 5. 3&rer 2>ienfte 
tarn \$ entrafyen (©$.)• 6. &u$ ba« gtücfli^pe latent tonn ber (Simmr* 
hing einet guten ©$ute nt$t entrafyen (©.). 7. Sie nrir auf bae ©$tff 
famen, fanben toir, baß bie ©cfjiffeleute arxdf ber nöt&tgften Sebenemittcl ermau* 
gelten. 8. 3$ ftotte feiner 2)ro$ung ; fie f $re<ft mt$ gar ni$t, toeil i$ mi$ 
im Sfcotbfall ju fcertycibigen »ctg. 9. ©ic ftotten metner, yxmi (£$.)• 10. 
(Se flnb ni$t atfe frei, bie i&rer ftetten flotten. 11. (Sin f^toantenbe« ©ebäube 
brauet be« (Srbbebene ni$t, um über ben Raufen gu fallen (©$.). 12. @ie 
tönnen bae 58u<$ tmtnebmen ; i$ brauche ee jefct m$t. 13. 2)er $abfücfytige 
a$tet jebee Bortyrife (b. $., ber $abfü$tige $at «d>t auf jeben SSorfycil). 14. 
Cinen fiügncr tonn man nicfyt a$ten (b. $., nt$t c&ren). 15. $err @$norr ifl 
fo großmütig, baß er biefer gkleibigung bergeffen nrirb (b. $., baß er biefe 53c* 
leibigung mit 9bfi$* and bem Ocbä^tniß entfernen toirb). 16. 3$ frabe bie 
3a$reeja$l ganj bergeffen (b. $., ofyic Sbfictyt au« bem Oebfi^tniß berloren). 
17. «He lachen über feine S^or&eit. 18. 2)ee Outen, toae man $at, fotttc man 
genießen ; unb man foHte beffen entbehren lernen, toeffen man ni$t bebarf 



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VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 159 

(more usually with accusative cases, thus: 2)a« ©ute f röa« man fcat, foHte 
man genießen ; tto$ man folltc ba« entbehren lernen, roa« man nidjt bebarf). 
19. 3$ Bin ber SDfcinung, baß ttrir bor jetyn Ufyr be« 2lbenb« ni$t antommen 
»erben (or metner 2Weinung na# »erben rotr r>or je&n Ityr be« Slbenb« ni$t 
antommen). 20. Sei allen bieten Unfällen ift er ganj gute« 9ftut$eS (or guten 
SKutye«, see § 89, Rem. l). 21. 3$ »ar ©illen« (or i$ fyitte eben bie Bbftdjt) 
einen Srief an ü)n gu föreibcn, als er ganj unerwartet in mein 3immer gereut* 
!am. 22. ©efig, bie reine« #erjen« (§ 78, Rem. 1) ftnb, benn ftc rocrben ©ort 
flauen (Matt. 5, 8). 23. grau SBiebemann ift eine« £l3fcli$en £obe« ßcfter* 
ben. 24. 3ft fte eine« natürlichen £obe« geftorbeu ? 25. SRcin, flc ift am gc* 
brodjeneu $erjen geftorben, roeil u)re jtoei €o$ne eine 9ftorbtyat fcerfibt tyaben 
unb bafür jum Xobe toerurt&cilt ftnb. 26. 2)er arme Settier ift be« junger« 
(or bor junger [§ 252, Rem, 2], or am $unger) geworben. 27. £cr $oty 
altar flanb aa. ber ©teEe, roo Gilbert bon Deflreicty be« Xobe« toerblic^. 28. SBa« 
für 2anb«leute pnb bie Äaufleute ? 29. (Siner ift ein 2)entfcfyer, ber Bnbcrc ift 
ein $oflanbeT. 

GrammaticaL 

1. For the chief rules relating to the government of 
the Genitive Case of substantives by verbs, see § 178. 

Rem. 1. Some of the reflexive verbs given in § 178, 8, may also have the 
reflexive pronotm in the dative case, and be followed by the complementary 
object in the accusative iostead of in the genitive case : 

3$ maße raidj treffen ni$t an, > , , , A . 4 

(or) 14 maße mir U ntyt an, | * do not *™ nmQ t0 that - 
Rem. 2. The preposition that is to follow the verb (see § 178, 3, Ran.) will 
often depend upon the shade of meaning given to the verb : 
34 freue midj auf feinen ©efudp, I am glad of his visit 
Ör freut fid? über ben ^ctyabcn He rejoices over the misfortnne of 
Süiberer, others. 

2. Many Compound nouns, having *tnattn for the last 
component, have two forms in the plural (*männer and 
bleute) : 

2>er Äonfmann, merchant ; pl bie Äaufmfinner, or bie Äaufleute. 
föeictye Äauf* unb $anbel«ma'nner Rieh merchants and traders. 

(see § 50, 2). • 
3»ä Nürnberger Äaufleute, Two Nuremberg merchants. 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the plural ending slttttC refers to a class of persons, 
the prefix having an adjeetive signification (see Lesson XXX VI., 1 , Rem. 1) : 
2)er (Seemann, husband, married man ; pl bie (Seemänner, married men. 
3)ie <5$efrau, wife, married woman ; pl bie C&efrauen, married women. 
3He (E&eleute (pl), married people. 



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160 VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE. 

Rem. 2. With somo nouns the ending cmättttC? is rarely or never used, bat 
tue endiug 4tlttC is the usaal plural tennination, as : 
Stt (Sbetmaiut, nobleman ; pl. btt (Sbclfeute, the nobility. 

„ Hauptmann, captain ; " Hc $KiuJ>tlcute, captains. 

„ Saufmonn, merchant ; " bie &ußente, merchants. 

„ Sanbmonn, coantryman, farmer ; " bic Sanileutc, country people. 

„ 2anb«mannXfellow)<»untiyman; " bie?anbe1eute,(fellow)countrYmen 

„ Sünmcrmann, carpenter ; u bie 3i m mcrlcute, carpenters. 

Zweiundneunzigste Aufgabe. 

1. Man bat den General von Fischcl des Hochverrats angeklagt 2. In 
der letzten Nacht ist ein Dieb durch das Fenster in Herrn Roths Zimmer ge- 
drungen und hat ihn seiner goldenen Uhr und seines Portemonnaies (mit 
460 Thalern und werthvollen Papieren darin) beraubt. 3. Herr Klein hat 
seinen Kutscher des Diebstahls beschuldigt 4. Man hat den Polizeidiener 
wegen oft wiederholter Betrunkenheit seines Amtes entlassen. 5. Nichts 
kann ihn seines Eides entbinden (or nichts kann ihn von seinem Eide ent- 
binden). 6. Ich versichere Sie meiner Hochachtung und Freundschaft (or 
ich versichere Ihnen meine Hochachtung und Freundschaft). 7. Ich bin sei- 
ner Unschuld überzeugt (more usual at present — ich bin von seiner Unschuld 
überzeugt). 8. Man hat den Angeklagten der Theilnahme am Morde frei- 
gesprochen (or von der Theilnahme, etc. ). 9. Welcher Sünde zeiht dich dein 
Gewissen? (Seh.) 10. Die Richter haben den Verbrecher des Landes ver- 
wiesen. 11. Der Bischof hat den Priester seines Amtes entsetzt 12. Der 
Gerechte erbarmt sich seines Viehes. 13. Wir konnten uns kaum des La- 
chens enthalten. 14. Was ist der Mensch, dass Du sein gedenkest und das 
Menschenkind, dass Du Dich sein (§ 107, Rem. 2) so annimmst (Psalm viii, 5). 
15. Ich bediente mich der Gelegenheit, die zwei neuen Gemälde von Kaulbach 
su sehen. 16. Deiner heiligen Zeichen, o Wahrheit, hat der Betrug sich an- 
gemasst (Seh.). 1 7. Wahrend der letzten zwei Jahre hat Wilhelm Zahn sich 
der Rechtswissenschaft beflissen (d. h. das Recht studirt). 18. Ich bin nicht 
der Archäologie beflissen (d. h. ich studire sie nicht). 19. Die Armee hat 
sich nach einem langen blutigen Kampfe der Festung bemächtigt. 20. Ein 
tiefer Schmerz bemächtigte sich meines Herzens. 21. Ich kann mich seines 
Namens nicht entsinnen (or ich kann mich nicht auf seinen Namen besinnen). 
22. Ihre Majestät besinnen sich vielleicht noch des Vorfalls (Seh.). 23. Ich 
hoffe mich lange seiner Bekanntschaft zu erfreuen. 24. Wir erinnern uns 
seiner recht gut (or wir erinnern uns an ihn recht gut). 25. Jetzt erinnere 
ich mich ganz genau der Umstände. 26. Ich erinnere mich, dass ich ihn 
dort gesehen habe (or ihn dort gesehen zu haben). 27. Du darfst dich deiner 
Wahl (or über deine Wahl) nicht schämen. 28. Er tröstet sich des Verlustes 



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VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 161 

seiner Matter (or über den Verlust seiner Matter). 29. Wie kann ein Mensch 
sich einer solchen Schandthat rühmen (or über eine solche Schandthat rüh- 
men) ? 80. Ich rühme mich, ihn meinen Freund nennen za dürfen. 81 . Ich 
freue mich auf seinen Besuch. 82. Man soll sich nicht über den Schaden 
Anderer freuen. 88. Ich schäme mich wegen meiner Nachlässigkeit (or dass 
ich so nachlässig gewesen bin, or so nachlassig gewesen zu sein). 



LESSON XLVII. 

VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 

Dreiundneunzigste Aufgabe. 

1. Ich danke Ihnen herzlichst für das Buch, welches Sie mir Vorgestern 
geschickt haben. 2. Man kann nicht zweien (§101, Rem. 1) Herren dienen. 
8. Ich habe der hispanischen Monarchie gedient, und der Republik Venedig, 
und dem Königreich Napoli (Seh.). 4. Diese Zeitwörter folgen in ihrer An- 
wendung dem Paradigma. 5. Diese Medizin hat ihm in seiner Krankheit 
nicht viel geholfen. 6. Der Knabe hat mir über den Strom geholfen. 7. Es 
mangelte ihm nicht an Ausdauer, sondern es mangelte ihm an Gesundheit 
und Kraft. 8. Als wir der Stadt naheten (or als wir uns der Stadt näherten), 
fing es plötzlich an zu regnen. 9. Dieser Rock passt Ihnen sehr gut. 10. 
Wie schmeckt Ihnen dieser Schweizer Käse ? 11. Die Suppe schmeckt nach 
Rauch. 12. Seine Art und Weise den Gegenstand zu behandeln scheint mir 
ganz meisterhaft. 13. Man kann ihm trauen ; er ist treuherzig. 14. Man 
sacht vergebens diesem Uebelstande abzuhelfen, so lange die Quelle des Uebels 
nicht verstopft ist. 15. Seine Aehnlichkeit mit seinem Bruder fiel mir sehr 
auf. 16. Das ist ein sehr auffallendes Gleichnis«. 1 7. Ich bin Ihrem Bruder 
heute Morgen auf der Strasse begegnet. 18. Wir stimmten ihnen bei. 19. 
Der Dieb ist dem Polizeidiener entflohen, ehe man ihn ins Gef ängniss brin- 
gen konnte. 20. Dem Tode kann man nicht entgehen. 21. Diese Insekten 
sind so klein, dass sie dem blossen Auge entgehen. 22. Die Unsrigen gingen 
dem Feinde muthig entgegen. 23. Oesterreich schien seinem Zerfall entge- 
genzugehen. 24. Er wird Ihnen auf dem halben Wege entgegenkommen. 
25. Falsch ist der Inhalt, wenn er der Wirklichkeit widerspricht ; wahr, 
wenn er ihr entspricht. 26. Das erste Haus hat uns sehr gefallen, aber das 
zweite Haus gefällt uns gar nicht 27. Man soll Gott mehr als dem Men- 
schen gehorchen. 28. Es ist ihm endlich gelungen, seinen vortrefflichen Plan 
durchzuführen. 29. Es gelang ihnen nur einen kleinen Theil der Häuser in 
dieser Strasse vor den Flammen zu retten. 30. Der Affe ahmt dem Men- 
schen nach. 81. Der Landschaftsmaler ahmt die Natur nach. 32. Dieser 
Maler eifert vergebens den grossen Künstlern des Mittelalters nach ; aber er 
steht wirklich auch den Künstlern zweiten Ranges unseres Zeitalters bei 
weitem nach. 33. Dieses Wort kommt schon in der gothischen Sprache vor. 
84. Das ist dir gewiss im Traume vorgekommen. 85. Das kommt mir sehr 
komisch vor (d. h. das scheint mir sehr komisch). 



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162 VERBS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE. 

Grammatical. 

1. For the chief rules with reference to the govern- 
ment of the Dative Case by verbs, see § 179. 

Rem. In some cases, verbs that are transitive in English are rendered into 
German by intransitive verbs ; by reason of this, the direct object of some En- 
güsh verbs is made the indirect object of corresponding German verbs, as : 

3$ bonlc 3^ncn, I thank you (or I am thankfvl to yon). 

Storni t<$ 3$ncn btenen ? Can I serve yon (or be serviceable to yon) ? 

Cr folgt feinem ©ruber, He follows (or is afoüower to) his brother. 

<£r tyalf mir, He helped me (or was ofhelp to me). 

<g* fdjabet tym, It injures him (or is injvrious to him). 

2. Some personal verbs in English are rendered into 

German by impersonal verbs : 

<5« nrirb tym nid^t gelingen, He will not sneeeed in it 

<S3 mangelt tym an 9li$t8, He lacks for nothing. 

<5$mecft e« 3&nen? Do you like (the taste of) it? 

3. Upon a more intimate knowledge of the German 
language, it will be found that some verbs are used in 
several construetions, aecording to the different shades 
of meaning that may be given to the same verb. 

Rem. 1. Varions construetions with the same verb from the different dia- 
lects of Germany (§ 23) have from time to time risen up into the langunge 
of literature (§ 86). Many construetions, that were formerly in common 
use, have now become antiqoated (§11 and § 14). 

Rem. 2. The varions construetions of some verbs may be illustrated by the 
examples of the use of the verb lofyuCR, to reward, that are given in senten- 
ces 7, 8, 9, and 10, in Exerdse 94. 

4. There are several examples in the German lan- 
guage oftwo nouns of analogous significations being 
followed by a verb in the singular number, as : 

2>er $<Wbel Hüb ©CrfC^r &nrif$en The traffic between Berlin and Hnm- 
SBerlm unb Hamburg ijl fe$r bürg is very active. 

febfraft, 
©eine Art IWb SBcifC ben ©egen* His manner of treating the subjeet 

ftonb ju tycfyanbcln, ifl ju loben, is to be praised. 
(3$ babe e$ on'jDrt unb 6tCtle I have seen it in the place itself.) 

flefe&en, 



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VERBS GOVERNING TUE DATIVE CA8E. 163 

Vierundneunzigßte Aufgabe. 

1 . Wilhelm hat mir den Brief gebracht. 2. Frau Reichenbach hat ihrer 
Nichte Schiller 8 Gedichte als Weihnacht*- Geschenk gegeben. 8. Unser lan- 
ger Aufenthalt in der Schweiz hat uns keine Zeit gelassen, um nach Italien 
zu gehen. 4. Die Handwerker liefern selten die Arbeit zur versprochenen 
Zeit. 5. Die russische Armee hat dem Feinde eine Schlacht geliefert. 6. 
Das Werk erscheint in monatlichen Lieferungen von je zehn Bogen. 7. Der 
Acker lohnt dem Landmann seinen Fleiss mit reichem Segen. 8. In Amerika 
lohnt (bezahlt) man die Arbeit besser als in Deutschland 9. Das lohnt sich 
nicht für meine Mühe. 10. Es lohnt sich der Muhe nicht, dass man davon redet. 
11. Mein Freund meldet mir in seinem Brief die Ankunft meines Bruders 
in Wien. 12. Dieser Unfall hat ihm alle Hoffnung genommen. 13. Der Ta- 
schendieb hat mir das Portemonnaie genommen. 14. Der Arzt nahm ihm die 
Binde von den Augen. 15. Der Hausknecht hat Herrn Lippard eine goldene 
Uhr und 300 Thaler gestohlen. 16. Herr Siegel hat sein letztes Werk über 
die Geschichte der Insel Beroland seinem Grossvater gewidmet. 17. Der 
Briefträger hat mir den Brief um 10 Uhr abgegeben. 18. Die Schrift lehrt 
uns, dem, der uns auf die rechte Wange einen Streich giebt, auch die andere 
darzubieten ; während wir gewöhnlich ihm Gegenschläge anbieten, und, wenn 
wir stark genug dazu sind, auch verabreichen. 19. Man hat ihm den Dolch 
entrissen. 20. Ich fühle mich sehr krank; mir schwindelt. 21. Es ahnt 
mir, dass wir uns nie wieder sehen werden. 22. Es ist mir heute nicht wohl; 
ich habe ein heftiges Kopfweh. 23. Wie geht es Ihnen hier in Berlin t 24. 
Wie sitzt mir dieser Rock t 25. Es thut mir sehr leid, dass sie nicht länger in 
Berlin bleiben können. 26. Herr Prell hat seinen Bruder in der Germania 
Lebens- Versicherungs- Gesellschaft (§ 50, Rem. 8) versichert. 27. Ich ver- 
sichere Ihnen meine Hochachtung. 



LESSON XLVIII. 

THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

Pnfnnbncunjtgftc Wuiga&e» 

1. Da« Setter wirb fefcr fcetj?. 2. Das Söctter würbe fe&r 
fcetf . 3. Da$ SBetter tjt fe&r $eip geworben. 4. Da« Sßetter 
wirb tyeijj werben. 5. Da« £au« wirb jefct gebaut. 6. Die 
33üd)er werben gebrucft. 7. Die SBüdjer würben gebrudft, als 
wir in ber 93ud)brudferet waren. 8. 3efct ftnb bie Süctyer alle 
gebrucft. 9. £ter wirb beutfd) gefprodjen. 10. eine pradjt* 
»olle neue Äirdje wirb jefct in <£lmer$borf gebaut. 11. Da« 
Sflcuc 2Wufeum in S3erlin würbe im 3a$re 1853 »ollcnbet. 12. 



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164 THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

Die Unfoerfttat in 33erltn würbe im 3a$re 1809 gegrünbet. 13- 
Die 33ud)brudferfunji würbe im 14ten 3a&r&unbert erfunben. 
14. SlDe faiferüdjen ©olbaten, welche bem pommerföen Sanbaolf 
in bie £anbe fielen, würben otyne 93arm&erjtgfeit ermorbet. 15. 
Unter biefem SBorwanb würbe 9lUe« »er&eert unb geplunbert. 
16. Die geftung tft mit ©türm genommen werben. 17. Der @e* 
neral »on Siegel tfi be« £o$»erra$« angeflagt, aber er ijl »on 
ber Sfaflage freigefpro^en worben. 18. Die 9lad)ri$t bon bem 
lobe be« £errn SBinbemann ijl feiner grau no<f> ni$t mttge* 
t&eilt worben. 19. 2Bann wirb ba« 2Berf »oQenbet werben? 
20. Da« Sßerf wirb erji na$ brei Sauren boHenbet werben. 21. 
3o$aroi SBolfgang »on ©ötye würbe am 28.3lugujt 1749 gebo* 
ten. 22. 3o&. Ctyriftopfc grieb. ». ©df)iUer würbe am 10. SRooem* 
ber 1759 geboren. 23. dt wirb jefct fe$r btel gerebet »on einem 
ntixtn #anbel«wtrage gwiföen bem 9lorbbeutf$en SBunb unbben 
bereinigten Staaten. 24. £ier wirb nt$t geraupt. 25. Da« 
Mausen ifl tyter ni$t gemattet. 26. <E« wirb jeftt im ©aale ge* 
fungen. 27. @« wirb fd)on gegeffen. 28. @« würbe tym &om 
Slrjte nidjt erlaubt, in* 3touner, »o fein ffiater am $9p$u« bar* 
nieberlag, hinein gu getyen. 29. SRan erlaubte tym nidjt, in« 
3immer hinein ju gefcen. 30. Diefe« ÄfitJfel.Wfl fid) fe&r leidjt 
(or ifl fe$r leify ju löfen). 31. Da« wfte$t pdf). 32. 2Ba« 
ijl ju $un? 33. Da« ijl ni$t leidet ju fagen. 34. £err $rej* 
ler fagt, bap biefe« ©pital im vorigen 3<*&r&unbert gegrünbet 
würbe. 35. S)ai $au« war gang unb gar abgebrannt. 

OrammaticaL 

1. For the chief rules concerning the use of the Pas- 
sive Voice, see § 134 ; for the paradigm of the Passive 
Voice, see § 161. 

Rem. As is indicated by the onxiliaiy tDttbtlt (to become), the action is 
considered as becoming accompUshed, that is, as tatyng place at the time nl- 
luded to : 

3>a« «au« Wirb gebaut, i^^ 8 ? " becoming baut, i. «. is being bailt 
((or) The hoase becomes baut (or) is baut. 

<ts - <x *« w * f The house was becoining baut, t\e. was being baut 
S>a« $au« totttbe fl«aut, | (or)The hougo became buiJt (or) was buüt 



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THE PASSIVE VOICE. 165 

2. The passive voice is much less employed in Ger- 
man than it is in English: 

Rem. 1. When the active agent is indefinitely alluded to, the actiye voice 
of the verb (with QtOlt as the nominative) is freqnently employed : 
SWait fagt ; man glaubt, It is seid ; it is believed. 

Rem. 2. When the active agent is not specified, the reflexive form of the 
verb is freqaently employed instead of the passive voice: 

2)a3 crflfirt ft$ fc$r feiert, That is very easily explained. 

2)a* »erlieft fi$, That is a matter of coorse. 

Rem* 8. The infinitive of the passive voice in English is often trartslnted 
into German by the infinitive of the active voice (§ 128, 8, Rem. 2): 
2Bo* iß *U tyun? What is to be done? 

2)a* tjl Ici^t ju fcerße$en, That is easy to be nnderstoocL 

3. The verbs that govern the dative case (§ 179, 1), 
though intransitive in their nature, may still be used 
impersonally in the passive voice : 

<g« tourbe tym ertaubt, He was permitted (it was permitted 

(SS ttrtrb tym nic^t geglaubt, He is not beliered. [to him). 

Ezercise 96. 
1. The book is now being printed. 2. The houses of 
which he spoke are not yet finished ; they are now 
being built. 3. The books which I bought are not 
bound ; they are now being bound. 4. The University 
of Prague was founded in 1348. 5. The corner stonc 
of the Cathedral of Cologne was laid in the year 1248. 
6. These poems have never been translated into (in$) 
English. 7. French and German are spoken here. 8. 
The fortification will probably be taken by storm. 9. 
America was discovered by Columbus in the year 1492. 
10. Mr. Eberhard's design of the new bridge will prob- 
ably be aeeepted by the city authorities. 11. There is 
no smoking here (or smoking is not allowed here). 12. 
They are singing in the church. 13. We will not be 
permitted to see the engravings without permission 
from the Director of the Museum. 14. This question is 
very easy to solve. 15. The key has been found (reflex.). 



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166 CO.N'STRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 

LESSON XLIX. 

CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 

Stcbcnunbueuujtgftc Aufgabe, 

1. Düffelborf liegt bieSfeit unb Äoln jenfeit be« 9tyein«. % 
£err ©tollberg ifl ©efunbfceit« falber nad& ©afkin gegangen. 
3. SRürnberg $at innerhalb unb außerhalb ber SWauern »tele fiatt* 
lid^e ©ebaube. 4. SBorm« Hegt oberhalb unb ^Bingen liegt untere 
$atb ber SBunbeSfejhtng 2Wainj. 5* ?ang$ be« SWittelrbein* 
flehen biele ölte SBurgen. 6. SBir Ratten ben ganjen Sag gejagt 
entlang be« SBalbgebirgeS (©<$.)♦ 7- Saut früherer ©ertrage 
mad&te griebrid& ber ©roße feine Slnfprüdje auf Stielten gcltenb. 
8. Dampffd&tffe werben jefct mittel« (or »ermittelft) einer ©cfyraube 
bewegt. 9. Slnftott ber ©änfefiele bebienen wir un« gegenwärtig 
meiji ber ©tatylfebem. 10. $rofc be$ feinblidjen ©efd&üfce« 
wußten ftd) bie $roiriantfd()iffe 33a&n gu ber ©tabt ju mad&en. 
11. Um be« grteben« SBillen $at er e« iticljt getrau. 12. Da* 
©ternbilb ber ?eier fic&t unfern (or unweit) ber SWil^firape. 
13. 5lHe ÄBfper fireben »crmBge i&rer ©d&were nad& bem SWitteU 
punft ber Grbe. 14. Durdfj ba* ©$erbengerid&t fonnte 3emanb 
au* Sitten »erbannt -werben, unbefd&abet feine« SBermögcn* unb 
feiner (Styre. 15. SBa^renb meiner Äranfyett $at £err Äunfc 
midf) öfter« befugt. 16. Die gepanzerten ©d&iffe ftnb, tyrer 
©d&were wegen, nicf)t red&t feetüd&tig. 17. 3«fofge gewagter 
©pefulationen ijt fdjon Wlantytx an ben SBettelflab gefommen. 
18. Den neueflen ftad&rid&ten gufolge ifl ber Dampfer nod& ntd&t 
angefommen. 19. 9lngeftd&t* ber ©efa^r wollte ber Äapitän 
bei bem heftigen ©türm nid&t abfegein. 20. Da* weif id& felbji 
au« (Erfahrung. 21. dt war auger fic§ »or greube (he was 
besides himself for joy). 22. Sinnen jwei 3abren wirb ba* 
neue Stot^au* »ollenbet werben. 23. SBlr fuhren fefcr langfam, 
weil ber SBtnb un* entgegen war. 24. SBir flanben mit Sage«* 
anbrudfj auf. 25. 6« getyt nid&t immer nadfj unfertn SBünföen. 
26. Der Äronprinj ritt bem Könige juna^ji. 27. Die ©tabt 
fafc ben junger nebji feinem ganjen ©efolge fiel) nähern (®d&.). 



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CONSTRÜCTION OP PREPOS1TIONS. 167 

28. 2)a$ ©djiff fammt feiner ßanjen SWamtfd&aft ttnb ?abung 
würbe ein 9taub t>er SBeUen. 29. 2Bie lange finb (§ 132, 2) 
©ie in 2)eutfd)lanb ? 30. 2Bir fmt> feit bem erjien Styril in 
5Deutfd)lant>. 81. SSityelm 3iot& ijl Hein *on ©eftolt. 32. 
§tutt \)<&t ify ba$ SWufeum jum erflen 2Wal befugt. 33. 2Ba$ 
er fagt ift ber gefunben Vernunft juwiber. 

GrammaticaL 
1. The chief rules governing the use of Prepositions 
are given in § 197-§ 258. 

a^tttttbtteuttjigjle Aufgabe* 

1. Von Ostern bis Pfingsten sind sieben Wochen. 2. 
Wir werden heute bis Prag reisen. 3. Ich halte Herrn 
Roth für einen Mann von Ehre. 4. Es waren gegen 
fünfhundert Personen in der Versammlung. 5. Es wa- 
ren sechszig Personen an Bord, ohne die Kinder. 6. 
Die Sonne geht jetzt um sechs Uhr auf. 7. Hier ist ein 
Gedicht an den Mond. 8. Herr Geliert arbeitet jetzt 
an einer Geschichte seiner Vaterstadt. 9. Es waren an 
fünfhundert Menschen versammelt. 10. Ich erkannte 
ihn an der Stimme. 11. Ist Herr Cohn zu Hause? 12. 
Nein, er ist* heute auf die Jagd gegangen. 13. Marie 
sitzt neben ihrer Schwester. 14. Hedwig hatte sich 
neben ihre Cousine gesetzt. 15. Heute über vierzehn 
Tage werden wir nach Dresden abreisen. 16. Der 
Brief ist über Triest und Wien gekommen. 17. Unter 
solchen Bedingungen kann ich natürlich das Amt nicht 
annehmen. 18. Sie weinte vor Freude. 19. Das Dampf- 
schiff wird wahrscheinlich heute Abend zwischen acht 
und neun Uhr ankommen. (Here may be translated 
the Verses of poetry found under § 197, Rem. 2 ; § 199, 
Hern.; § 200, Rem.; § 235, Obs.; § 243, Obs.; and § 253, 
Obs) 



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168 ADVERBS. — CONJUNCTIONS. 

LESSON L. 

ADVERBS. — CONJUNCTIONS.— ORDER OP WORD«. 

Keuttttubneuiisigpe Sfofgaic* 

l. 2>ie fier$c fingt föön (§ 181, 1). 2. 2)er «erfaffer Jene« ffierfe« $at bat 
©egenftanb fe$r »iffenfc^aftlty be^anbelt 3. 2)er Äanarienbogel ftugt bkl 
fööner (§ 190) al« bie fierefc. 4. Sa biefem SBörterbu^ i|t bic Ctymologic 
tMffenf$aftli$er be^anbelt al« in ienent. 5. Unter (§ 257, Äero. 3) allen ©rag* 
bögeln fingt bie Sfca^rtgall am fünften. 6. „fftit $o$a$tung bin i$ erge* 
benft (or gefarfamfi) ber 3&rige.... ©ifyelm 9^ot^. M 7. 2>iefe« ffiörterbu^ 
ift bom Sfcrfaffer böttig unb auf« ge»iff en$afte|te umgearbeitet 8. 3$ »riß 
m$t, ob »ir tyeute in« SRufcum getyen tonnen, aber »ir »erben »enigfien« ben 
Cerfu$ machen. 9. 2>ie ©tabt $at jefct minbeften« 60,000 <5in»o$ner. 10. 
ffiann ift $err fiinbemann ju fbrwfcn ? 11. ©eine ©bre^ftunbe ift bon neun 
bi« gc$n Ityr be« 2Rorgen«. 12. ©ir »oHtcn $eutc Vormittag (§ 177, Rem. 2) 
abreifen, aber unglficfti$er»etfe giebt e« feinen ©$nettgug uaty Stuttgart »or 
brei Ityr be« Sfoutymittag«. 13. 25or g»«JIf 3«$ren »aren »ir in ©erlin ; ba* 
mal« »ar bie Ringmauer um bie ©tobt no$ ni$t niebergeriffen. 14. ©ie 
»urbe erfl im 3a^re 1867 niebergeriffen. 15. 2)te Halmen faben geringelte, 
bi«»eilen (or gu»eilen) ftafylitye ©$8ftc (§ 188, 5). 16. ffiir »erben bei* 
fbiel«»eife (or gum ©eifbiei) ben Urfbrung bc« 3eit»orte« „fein" na^fe^cn 
(§ 137). 17. C« fängt bereit« (or föon) an ju regnen. 18. 3f* $crr Sicht 
jurücfgefommen? 19. 3a, er ift f$on borgeftern jurüdgetommen (§ 155, 5). 
20. ©o ift SBU&elm ? 21 . Cr ift oben (§ 187, l) in feinem ßimmer. 22. Cr 
flürjte ^ubtlhtg« bic fcrebbe hinunter (§ 188, 8). 23. 3* glaube f$»erli$, 
baß wir bie 3cit baju fcaben »erben. 24. 25er »oben ergebt fty $ier ftufeu* 
»eife (§ 188), bi« baß er eine $ö$e bon 2500 guß über ber 9Hcerc«flä($c er* 
reicht. 25. 2>ie« finb grBßtcntycil« beutföe »fityr. 26. $crr 3. g. ©tynibt, 
tferfclbft »o$n$aft, bon cbangefif<$cr (or tatyolif^er, or jübiftyr) «onfeffion, 
i|t »egen eine« am 20. 3uti berübten 2Hebfta$l« ftecfbriefli^ berfolgt »orben. 
27. Cr ift bur^au« (§ 188, 9) bafür (§ 189, 3, Rem. 1), baß »ir bor £age«an* 
bru$ abreifen fotten. 28. 3n«tünftige (or in« Äünftige, or bon nun an) »erben 
bie SÄufeen bier £agc ber ©o$c unentgcttli<b gcBffnet fein, 29, $on ba an 
ging bie »ebubli! »euebig na$ unb ua$ bem Ecrfafl entgegen. 30. 8or»ärt« 
(§ 189, 2) mußt bu (ge&en), benn rütf»5rt« foratft bu m$t (©$.)♦ 31* SB« 
frat 3faen gefagt, baß e« borgeftern in fieibjig fo pari geregnet frat? (§ 154, 2), 
32. 2>a« ©ambff^iff bon Hamburg ift erft $eute 2Rorgen (S 195,2) augetom* 
men. 33. ©ie »erben ja mit un« in« Concert ge$cn. 34. ©ei er no$ fo gc* 
le^rt, bo<^ »eiß er nic^t HUe«. 85. ©ie $abcn »o^l bie 2)ebef<^en bon «merifa 
in ber heutigen 3«tung gelef en ? 



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ORDEE OP WORDS. 169 

GrammaticaL 
1. For the chief rules with reference to the use of 
Adverbs, see § 181-195. For the rules governing the 
use of Conjunctions, see § 259-274. For the order of 
words in sentences, see § 276-284. 

Hundertste Aufgabe. 

1. Da (§ 260) er gestern nicht zu Hanse war, habe ich es ihm erst hente 
Morgen sagen können. 2. Wahrend Sie den Brief schreiben, werde ich ein- 
packen (or die Sachen in die Reisekoffer einpacken). 

8. Da nooh alles lag in weiter Ferne, 
Da hattest Da Entschlass and Math ; 
Und jetzt, da der Erfolg gesichert ist, 
Da (§ 195, 1, Bern.) fängst Du an zu zagen (Seh.). 

4. Wie kann Herr Flint nach Italien gehen, ohne seine Frau mitzunehmen ? 
(§ 264, Rem.) 5. Der Strauss hat Flügel, er kann aber nicht fliegen (§ 263, 
1, Rem.). 6. Von zwei bis sieben Uhr wurde der Sturm immer heftiger 
(§ 263, Rem.). 7. Wir hofften, dass mit Sonnenuntergang die See ruhiger 
werden würde (§ 263, 2), allein wir mnden uns getäuscht (§ 263, 2). 8. Da- 
gegen um 10 Uhr wurde die Gefahr so gross, dass der Hauptmann die Bet- 
tungsboote mit Nahrungsmitteln versehen Hess. 9. Er ist zu klug, als dass 
er an Gespenster glauben sollte (§ 266). 10. Wer sonst ist Schuld, als Ihr 
in Wien? (Seh.) 11. Sei klug wie die Schlangen und ohne Falsch wie die 

Tauben. 

12. Wir fahren zu Borg, 
Wir kommen wieder, 
Wenn der Kukuk ruft, 
Wenn erwachen die Lieder (Soh.). 

13. Du sollst deinen Vater und deine Mutter ehren, auf dass du lange auf 
Erden lebest 14. Er ist zu edelmüthig, um sich zu rächen. 15. Obgleich 
der Lehrer mit den Aufgaben der Schüler im Ganzen sehr zufrieden war, so 
war doch in einigen Aufgaben Manches zu tadeln. 1 6. Wenn Herr Stolberg 
auch sehr alt ist, so hat sein Geist dennoch die Frische der Jugend. 17. 
Der Schnee auf dem Gebirge fangt an zu schmelzen, daher werden die Flüsse 
im Thale wahrscheinlich bald anschwellen. 18. Es gefiel ihm nicht mehr 
unter den Menschen, daher (or deshalb, or deswegen) hat er sich in die Ein- 
samkeit zurückgezogen. 19. Er hat es selbst gethan, daher kann er Nie- 
mand als sich selbst tadeln. 20. Wilhelm ist wirklich für sein Alter sehr 
klug, übrigens ist er älter als man glauben sollte. 21. Ich besuche ihn jetzt 
mehr als Freund, denn als Arzt. 

H 



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170 IMPERATIVE AND 8ÜBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 

LESSON LI. 

IMPERATIVE, 8ÜBJUNCTIVE, AND CONDITIONAL MOODS. 

^nttbertnitbtrfte Aufgabe. 
1. ÄeHner, bringen ©ie mir, id) bitte, nod) eine Xaffe Äaffee. 
2. 3«nanb flopft. 3. (Äommen ©te) frerein! 4. (3d>) bitte, 
nehmen ©ie $lafc! 5. ©uctyen ©ie ein 33ud) au$,ba* 3frnen 
gefallt. 6, ©Zweige (bu) fHU i 7. (©ieb) «frre, bem (Sfrre ge* 
büfrrt. 8* ©ater Unfer ! ber bu bifl im $>immel ! 9* ©efretltget 
werbe Dein Warne! 10. Dein Skid) fomme! 11. Unfer tag* 
lid&e* 33rob gieb uni $eutel 12. Unb fityre un$ nidjt in 93er* 
fud&ung! 19. ©onbern erlöfe un$ »on bem UebeU 14. Äarl, 
bleibe bu fcter, btö id) wieberfomme. 15. greue Did) nidjt über 
Slnberer ©traben. 16. SWad&e bie X&üre auf. 17. Äinber, 
föweigt (i&r) füll. 18. 3efct ge&e 3eber feine« Söege« (©$.) I 
19. ©leiben wir frier, bi$ ^>einrid> bie SMllet« frolt. 20. Du 
übernimmt bie fpamfd&en Regimenter, mad)(l immer Slnfialt 
unb bifl niemals fertig, unb treiben jte bid), gegen mid) ju jiebn, 
fo fagjt bu 3a, unb bleibft gefeffelt fiefrn (©#.). 21. Die 
Trommel gerityrt! 22. ©iefr in« 33ud) frinein ; nur ntd>t lefen, 
immer fingen (©.). 23. £err ?übemann fagt, baß bie 5lrmee 
fd>on in ©ewegung fei. 24. 3$ fragte £enn @berlein, toann 
er na# SWündjen abreifen »erbe ; er fagte mir, baß er SWorgen 
frity abreifen wirb. 25. 3$ bejwetfelte, baß fte fdjon in 3Bien 
angefommen fei. 26. Du foUfl Deinen SBater unb Deine WluU 
ter efrren, auf baß (§ 267, Rem. 4) bu lange lebefl auf (Erben. 
27. 3d) ratfre bir, baß bu fleißiger werbefh 28. 91$ ! wäre 
mein ©ruber bodj wieber gefunbl 29. 2Röd)te er balb genefen! 
30. 3Ba$ bie freulenbe Xiefe ba unten »erfrefrle, ba$ erjagt feine 
lebenbe, menfd)lic$e (Seele (©#.). 31. Der SWenfd) erfahrt, er 
fei aucfr, wer er mag, ein lefcteS ©lud unb einen Icfcten lag (©.). 

GrammaticaL 
1. For the general rules governing the use of the 
Imperative, the Conditional, and the Subjunctive Moods, 
see pages 294 and 295. 



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CONDfrlONAL MOODß. 171 

2. One of the greatest difficulties which the English- 
speaking student encounters in learning the German 
language is in the use of the Moods of the verb. 

Bern. 1. The chief difficulty is in the use of the Subjunctive Mood. To the 
general principles laid down in § 124 there are many modifications and e*- 
ceptions that can not be introdaced into an elementary grammar, as they 
woold reqoire too much space, and they would also only cause confusion in 
the mind of the Student. 

Hern. 2. It will be noticed that the SubjunctiveMood is often used when 
the Indicative Mood woold be employed in English. 

Rem. 8. It will be seen that the Potential Mood of the English verb is ren- 
dered into German partly by the Potential Verbs (§ 162), partly by the Con- 
ditional Mood (§ 125), and in some cases by the Subjunctive Mood (§ 124, 
8, and Rem.). 

3. The chief rules governing the position of words 
in sentences are given in § 276-284, § 194, and § 255. 

Rem. 1. In poetry and other dignified styles of composition, some varia- 
tions ftom these rules are allowable. 

Rem. 2. As the syntax of the High-German Language (§ 6) has only been 
established during the last one or two centuries, many variations from the laws 
at present prevailing in the arrangement of words are to be met with in Lu- 
ther's translation of the Bible and other works that date from the earlier pe- 
riods of the language. 

Hundertzweite Aufgabe. 

1. Melde ihm die Nachricht, ehe er sie durch Andere erfahre. 2. That, 
als wenn. Ihr zu Hause wäret. 8. Darum eben leiht er keinem, damit (§ 267) 
er stets zu geben habe (Less. ). 4. Ziele gut, dass du den Apfel treffest (Seh. ). 
5. Bleibt nicht in England, dass der Britte nicht sein stolzes Herz an Eurem 
Unglück weide (Seh.). 6. Nimm dich in Acht, dass dich die Bache nicht 
Terderbe (Seh. ). 7. Willst du, dass alle Chefs zugegen seien ? (Seh.) 8. So 
willst du, dass es gleich vollzogen werde ? (Seh.) 9. Ich gebe nicht mein Ja 
dass es geschehe (G.). 10. Befiehl, dass man Ton Neuem untersuche. 11. 
Es war nicht zu erwarten, dass er so bald nach Hause kommen werde. 12, 
Darauf schrie er in die Gassen hinab, er sei der Bösewicht, der Maria fälsch- 
lich angeklagt habe, er sei ein falscher Zeuge (Seh.). 13. Auf die Versiehe« 
rung der Begentin, dass die Provinzen einer vollkommenen Buhe genössen, 
und von keiner Seite Widersetzung zu fürchten sei, liess der Herzog einige 
dautsche Regimenter auseinander gehen 'jäch.). 14. Der Prinz von Oranien 
hatte die Vorsicht gebraucht, die Bruc&e abbrechen zu lassen, damit, wie er 



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172 CONDITIONAL MOODS. 

vorgab, die Calvinisten der Stadt nicht versucht werden mochten, sich zu dem 
Heere des Toulouse zu schlagen ; wahrscheinlich aber, damit die Katholiken 
den Niederländern nicht in den Bücken fielen, oder auch Lannoy, wenn er 
siegen würde, nicht in die Stadt eindränge (Seh.)* 15. Herr Weber sieht 
aus, als ob er gar nicht wohl sei (§ 274, Rem. 5). 16. Ich kann dir den Apfel 
nicht geben, indem ich ihn deinem Bruder versprochen habe (§ 274, Rem. 8). 
17. Alle Nachrichten von der Sprache der Chinesen sagen, dass sie zur Ge- 
staltung dieses Volkes viel beigetragen habe. 18. Der Habsüchtige wird nie 
sagen, er habe genug. 19. Zu spät wird er einsehen, er habe Unrecht gethan. 
20. Manche Menschen handefo- so, als ob sie nie sterben müssten. 21. Bei 
solchen Umständen würde ich es nicht thun (or thäte ich es nicht). 22. Das 
würde ich nicht gethan haben (or das hätte ich nicht gethan). 23. Wenn du 
fleissig wärest, würdest du Etwas lernen (or lerntest du Etwas). 24. Wenn 
du fleissiger gewesen wärest, würdest du mehr gelernt haben (or hättest du 
mehr gelernt). 25. Wenn mancher Mann wüsste, wer mancher Mann war', 
thät' mancher Mann manchem Mann manchmal mehr Ehr' ! 26. Hättest du 
von Menschen stets besser gedacht, du hättest auch besser gehandelt (pr wenn 
du stets besser von Menschen gedacht hättest, so würdest du auch besser ge- 
handelt haben). 27. In seiner Lage hätte ich das Haus nicht gekauft. 28. 
Wenn mein Grossvater noch am Leben wäre, so würde er jetzt 90 Jahre alt 
sein. 29. Ich habe Herrn Gerold um Rath gefragt (§279, Rem. 1). 30. Ich 
frug*Herrn Gerold um Rath. 31. Man hat den Kaufmann des Diebstahls 
angeklagt (§ 279, Rem. 2). 82. Um zehn Uhr des Abends kommt der 
Schnellzug von München (§ 280, 8). 33. Ich war zu sehr gewohnt, mich mit 
mir selbst zu beschäftigen, als dass ich mit Aufmerksamkeit hätte ein Kunst« 
Werk betrachten können (282, Rem. 1). 

* Antiquated and provincial for fragte. 



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CONTAININO 

FAMILIÄR CONVERSATTONS IN GERMAN AND ENGUSH; 

IDIOMS AND SYNONYMS; 

LETTERS AND FORMS OF BUSINESS; 

AND 

SELECTIONS FROM GERMAN UTERATURE. 



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I. CONVERSATIONS. 

«BefewtfeO 

Rem, These Conversations are arranged for the pnrpose of presenting 
the most familiär expressions and idioms of ordinary discourse. This neces- 
sitates, of course, frequent and abrupt interruptions in the connection of tho 
sentences with each other. 

1. Salutation, s visit 

($a$ ©rügen, ein 8efu*.) 



©uten SRorgen, $crr 9t. I 
a^tDünf^e^ncn 1 einen* guten 3 2Ror* 

gen, £ag, Slbenb, eine gute 9ta$t, 
»iefceffaben^ieflä}? 4 
3# befmbe und) fe$r n>o$I, i($ ban!e* 

3$nen, 
©te fie$t« e« mit 7 3&reT ©efuntyeit? 
©e$r gut ; fo atemtto) ; m$t fe$r gut, 
@ie feben n>o$l au«, 8 
©ie ge&t e« 3&rer grau Gemacht? 
©eit 7 einigen Sagen ift fte niä>t red)t 

wobt, 
2)a« tyut mir* fetyr teib, 
SBa«fe$ttü)r? 
©ie i>at fi$ 4 fiart ertöttet, 
$df $offe, baß fie batb »ieber tyerge* 

fiettt fein tthrb, 9 
3$ bante 3$ncn reä)t fe$r, 
SBie fcefinbet fiä) 3$re grau SWutter? 
©ie geto><tynliä) ; fie muß 10 immer bae 

3immer tyüten, 
<g« (or man 11 ) flingett, flotft, 
@e$e unb fte&, »er e* ijl, 
Ocffnen @ie bie £bür, 
@uten SWorgen, $err, grau, grffuleht 

©tantenfroff, 
£011™^ ©ie &erem (treten @ie näfcr), 
Bitte, nehmen @ie $tafc, 
@efeen €>ie fla}* gefSUigfl auf ba« 

©optya, 
@ie taffen fiä) fetten fe$en," 
34 bin lange fcerreift getoefen, 



Good morning, Mr. N. ! 

I wish you a good morning, day, 

evening, a good night 
Howdoyoudo? 
I am very well, I thank you. 

How is yoor health ? 

Very well ; pretty well ; not very well. 

You are l ooking w elL 

Howisyourwife? 

For some days she has not been very 

well. 
I am very sorry to hear that. 
What is the matter with her? 
She has taken a heavy cold. 
I hope that she will soon reeover. 

I thank you very mach. 

How is your mother? 

As usual; she is still confined to her 

room. 
Somebody is ringing, knocking. 
Go and see who it is. 
Open thedoor. 
Good morning, Mr., Mrs., Miss 

Blankenhoff. 
Comein. 
Take a seat 
Please take a seat on the sofa. 

You are quite a stranger. 

I have been away a long time. 



»LeßsonXI., «10T. 
»L. XVI., «53. 
3L.XXIL, 588,8. 



«L.IX.,482,8,8. 
««144,6. 



?L.IX.,«82. 
8 1* XXXIV. 
•L.XII. 



«OL. XXXI. 

"{112,6. 

»L.XXIX. 



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176 



CONVERSATIONS. 



3d) bin geftern fcier gemefen, 1 um 3&* 
ncn einen ©efud) abzuflauen,* or 
(um meine Aufwartung ju mad)en), 

3a t e«t$utmir leib, baß iä) eben au«* 
gegangen mar,* 

Können ©ic* nic^t fceute bei und 31t 
äWittag ftKifen?. 

3$ bante 3tynen tyergfid), 

(£8 iß mir* tycute umnöglid), 

Steine Xante and ©rcslau ifi jefet bei 
un«gum93efud), 

kommen ©ie balb lieber, 

Hbteu ! Seben ©ie tt>o$l ! 

kommen ©ie gtücflid) nad) $aufe, € 

Auf Sßicberfe&en ! 



I was here yesterday to call upon 
you. 

Yes, I am sorry that I had just gone 

out. 
Can you not stay and dine with üb 

to-day? 
I thank you very mach. 
It is impossible for me to do so to-day. 
My annt from Breslau is visiting us 

now. 
Come again soon. 
Good-by ! (May you live wtü I 
May you get hottie safely. 
Aurevoirf) 



2. At Breakftst in a Hotel. 

(Seim ftrütflüd in einem ®aft$of.) 



©uten 2Worgcn, $err Kranjler ! 
§aben ©ie Won gefrityfHUft? 7 
s Jioä) nid)t ;• id) fomme, um mit 3&nen 

jtn früljfrüden, 
§aben ©ie gut gefdjlafen? 
®anj gut, id) banfe, 
2>er Lettner fommt glcid), 
Cr $olt mir eine Xaffe Kaffee, 

J©ollen©ieKaffee,2:$ee oberfc&ocolabe, 
S3itte, bringen ©ie mir Kaffee, 
2Ba« toünf^en ©ie nod) !• 
©ringen ©ie mir j»ei meid) 10 getonte 

<3ter unb ein Kalbskotelette, 
©ie fd)medt 3&nen ber Kaffee? 
Cr 11 iß »ortreff (id), 
Kellner, bringen ©ie mir einen Cier* 

!ud)en, 
#ier iß bie SWild) (ber 3ud er, bie ©cm* 

mel, ber ättriebad , ba« ffieißbrob, 

bie ©utter unb ber Käfe), 
©ttnfd)cn ©ie nod) etwa« ? [Kaffee, 
©ringen ©ie mir nod) eine £affe ,f 



Good morning, Mr. Kranzler! 

Have you had breakfast? 

Not yet ; I am coming to breakfast 

with you. 
Did you sleep well last night ? 
Veiy well, I thank you. 
The waiter will come soon. 
He Las gone to bring mc a cup of 

coffee. 
Do you wish coffee, tea, or chocolate. 
Bring me some coffee, if you please. 
What do you wish besides? 
You may bring me two soft-boiled eggs 

and a veal cutlet. 
How do you find the coffee? 
It is excellent 
Waiter, bring me an omelet. 

Here is the milk, sogar, rolls, biseuit, 
wheat bread, butter, and cheese. 

Do you wish any thing eise ? 
Bring me another cup of coffee. 



»L. HL, 8137. 

»«100,8. 

»L.VL,ö,7tero. 



♦L.XXXL 
•L.IX,1. 
•L.IX.,4,4. 



? «167, 2, item. 3. 
• «lW,2,Jkm. 
M19Ö.4. 



»»«1S4.L 
»L. VIII., 8. 
««80,1. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



177 



3. Dinner. 

(Dad SWittagcfffu.) 



©ie »erben 1 tyoffentliä) mit uns ju 

äRittag foeifen? 
Um nrie »iel Ityr Reifen ©ie? 
3n einer Keinen galten @tunbe, 
2)a« SüKttageffen ift fertig, 
2)er £ifä) ift gebedt, 
2)a3 (Sften ift aufgetragen, 
®e$en nrir in 1 ben ©J>eife*@aat, 
©efeen ©ie ftä) gefättigjt ba&in, 
3ft 3&ncn* etwa« 8tei«fuW>e gefällig, 

ober jie^en ©ie SRubelfuppe »or? 

(Sin menig SRubclf uj>£e, n>enn iä) bitten 

barf,* 
2)arf iä) 3$nen ein ©tuet toon biefem 

töinbflcifä) anbieten? 
3ä) fürdjte, baß e« 3$nen niä)t gar 

genug ijl, 
3ä) mag» e« niä)t ju fiart getobt, 
»ringen ©ie mir ein 2Reff er, ba* gut 

fä)nctbet, 
@ieb« bem $errn etwa« 33rob, 
2Bea)fele bie Setter, 
ftinun 7 btä) in Slä)t, bu $afl ©auce 

auf baö £ifä)tuä) gegoffen, 9 
©ringe mir eine ©erfctette, 
2öa3 für ©emüfc ift 3tynen gefällig? 
©efefclen ©ieÄartoffeln (Crbfen, ©ofc 

nen, 3nriebefa, Kttben, Jtoftt, fettig, 

©#nat)? 
2)arf iä) um ben @enf (Pfeffer, 2Reer* 

rettig, Cfftg, ba* ©alj, Oel) bitten? 

Bit tyabcn noä) feinen gifä) getoftet, 
SBa« gießen <3ie»or, 10 2aä)3 ober$eä)t ? 

SRe&men 11 ©ie etwa« 8*e&braten($auv 
melfleifä), 11 <3ä)infen, £alb«braten, 
ttutberbraten, 9feb$iü)ner«.9$afiete, 
$ü$ner*$aftete)? 



Will you not stay and dine with us? 

At what hour do you dine? 

In a little less than half an hour. 

Dinner is ready. 

The table is set. 

The dinner is on the table. 

We will go into the dining-room. 

Take a seat there if you please. 

Will yoa take some rice soup, or 

would yon prefer some vermicelli 

sonp? ' 

A little vermicelli soup, if you please. 

May I offer you a piece of this roast 

beef? 
I fear that it is not done enough to 

suit yon. 
I do not like it overdone. 
Bring me a knife that will cut. 

Give (Mr. N.) some bread. 

Change the plates. 

Take care ; you have spilt some gravy 

on the table-cloth. 
Bring me a napkin. [you ? 

What kind of vegetables shall I give 
Shall I give you some potatoes (peas, 

beans, onions, turnips, beets, rad- 

ishes, spinage)? 
I would thank you for the mustard 

(pepper, horseradish, vinegar, salt, 

oü). 
Ton have not tried any fish yet 
Which do you prefer, some salmon 

or some trout? 
Will you have some venison (mutton, 

ham, roast veal, roast beefj par- 

tridge pie, chicken pie) ? 



»L.XII. 

»L.VII.,563. 

»«»«,1. 



« L. XXXIIL 
'L.XXXIL 
««145. 



t«145. 
• 4144. 
»L.VL 



«•L. XXXIV. 
ii LL 
»L.XXXVL 



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178 



CONVERSATIONS. 



2)arf id) 3&nen ettoa« ffiet«*$ubbtng 
(<£$arlotte*8fcuffe, #u$en) anbieten? 

Söotten ©ie biefe Steffel (©irnen) 
toerfuetyen? 

S3itte, bebienen ©ie fid), 

Statten ©ie nod) ettoa« ©rob? 

3$ baute, 1 



May I offer you some rice pudding, 

Charlotte rosse, cake ? 
Will you try some of these applea, 

pears? 
Help yourself, if you please. 
Will you take some more bread ? 
No, I thank you. 



4. In a Confectionery Shop. 

(3« einer Äonbttorri.) 
©aSift3fynen gefällig, meute^erren?* What will you have, gentlemen? 
$oben Bit friföe (Srbbeeren ? 
Sa, fte finb tyente 2Äorgcn erft gtyflücft 

n>orben,* 
©ringen ©ie uns brei Portionen 3 <5rb* 

beeren mit ©<u)ne unb bret Portio* 

nen ®efrornce, 
Seltner, bringen ©ie uns ouftatt brei 

Portionen ©efrornes, ein ©efrornes, 

ein <§>laS 4 2üuonabe unb eine £affe 4 

Äettner, $aben <&\t beutf c$e 3«tungen ? 
3a, n>ir $aben bie 9tational*3dtang, 

bie Äötnifdfc 3^tung unb bie SfagS* 

burger allgemeine Bettung, 
$aben <Stc bie ©fite, mein $err, mir 

bie $ 3«tMng ju geben, nad)bem ©ie 

fle gelefen $aben (»erben), 



Have you fresh strawbemes? 

Yes, they were only picked this morn- 

iug. 
Bring us strawberries and cream for 

three, and ice-cream for three. 

Waiter, instead of three dishes of ice- 
cream, bring us one ice-cream, one 
glass of 4emonade, and one cup of 
tea, 

Waiter, hare you any German papers ? 

Tes, we have the National Zeitung, 
the Cologne Gazette, and the All- 
gemeine Zeitung of Augsburg. 

Please be so kind, sir, as to give me 
the paper, when you have finished 
reading it. 



5. The 

(Der <S 
Äönnen ©ie uns* einen guten ©aftyof 

inSBienentyfefytat? 
2>aS „§otel jum ©<fyr>arjen Äbtcr" 
unb ber f ,53airifd)e §of" fmb beibe 
fc$r gut unb nidjt febr treuer, 
©ie finb nur fünf 7 äWmuten bom* 

©a$n&of, 
S)ie „©olbene Ärone" ift ettoaS 9 n>eiter 

entfernt, 
SBiefctel foftet es taglid) in ber ©olbe* 

nenÄrone? 



HoteL 

fafliof.) 
Can you recommend to us a good ho- 

tel in Vienna? <*• 

The hotel of the Black Eagle and 

the Bairischer Hof are both very 

good, and are not very dear. 
They are only five minutes from the 

railroad Station. 
The Golden Crown is somewhat far- 

theroff. i 
How much does it cost a day in the 

Golden Crown ? 



»L.XLVn.,1. 
MTB, 4, /ton. 1. 



»L.XLVIIL,«1«1. »L. EL, 1,8, i 82, 8. 
♦L.XVL,S,l,$8fc «L. IX., 1,2, item. 



'L.XVIL 
•5112,8, Bern. 8. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



179 



tlngef äbr brti fcfroter, 

2Ba« für 1 3immer ttünfd^en ©ie? 

2Btr münfc^en einen Baal mit jtoei 
onftoßenben @^lofjimmern unb 
jrori @ä)fofjünmer ofrne* @oat, 

SBir fraben icfet nur gtoei @älc frei, je* 
ben mit jroci Äabinetten, 

3fn meinem €>tocf? 

(Einer ift eine unb ber anbere* tfl jroei 

5£rej>j>en fron), 
Äeflner, bringen ©ic unfere Äeä)mmg, 
$ier i|t fte ; 4 



About three dollars. 

What kind of rooms do you wish ? 

Wo wish a parlor with two bedrooms 

opening into it, and two bedrooms 

withont any parlor. 
We have now nnoccnpied only two 

parlors, each with two small sleep- 

ing-rooms. 
In which story? 
One is in the second, the other is in 

the third story. 
Waiter, bring onr acconnt. 
Here it is : 



fte$nung für $erm örlanger. 

Thlr.Gr. 

3»ei3HnmernebflÄobinetten f 4Xoge 8 — 

grüfrjrütf für 5 ^erfonen „ „ 7 20 

TabledTiötefürö^erfonen.. 3 „ 22 15 

«benbeffen für 5 ^erfonen 4 „ 6 — 

2U$t „ n 3 10 

©ebienung n n 4 — 

(Equipage (9 ©tunben, 1 Später pro ©tuube) 9 — 

giatcr (toom SBafrnfrof unb na<$ bem ©afrnfrof) 3 — 



$otet jur „Oolbenen Ärone", 
SBien, ben 14. September 1869. 



Summa Thlr. 63 15 



©cjofrlung bonlenb empfangen« 
$. ©$neiber. 



6. The Railroad 

(fcle ©feitt**n.) 
#aben @ie einen (Eifenbafrnfafrrtfan ?• Have yon a raüroad time-table ? 



9Mn, ober frier ift §enbftt)ett's Cour«* 

buä), »orou« @ie* 9HIe« erfefren 

Wnnen, 
Söiffen 7 @ie, um wie »iel Ufrr ber crflc 

3ug abgebt? 
2)er erfie 3ug gefrt um fratb fieben 

be« 2Rorgcn«, 8 
2>er na^fle 3ug tft ein ©äjnettjug, 
©tcigen mir ein, 
(£« ifl feine 3eit gu vertieren, 



No, bat here is HendschelTs Railroad 

Guide, which teils all about the , 

trains. 
Do yon know at what hour the first 

trainleaves? 
The first train leaves at half past seven 

in the morning. 
The next train is an express train. 
Let os^get into the carriage. 
There is no time to lose. 



M88,9. 
»J83.8. 



»ma,i. 
♦ L.vn.,a. 



•L. XXX VI. 

«$107, Jtem.fi. 



'L> XXVII. 
•«81,8,4. 



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180 



CONVERSATIONS. 



$ter fmb nrir fdjon am ©a^n^ofe, 
©ölen ©tc bic »tuet«, tdj »erbe für 

ba« ©tyäd forgen, 
Sa« foftet ein ©tuet bon Sien na$ 

$rag? 
(grfie 1 «raffe. . . Xtyx. 10 10 @gr. 
3»ette Ätaffe. . . „ 7 25 „ 
2>ritte Älaffe. . . w 520 N 
Soffen toir gefdjtmnb untere Äoffer 

eintreiben, 
$ier finb bic ©ejröcffctyettte, 
ß« wirb* jura jtoeiten 3M geläutet, 
Sitte« eingefriegen? 3 
tiefer Saggon fat fünf <Soup&, 
3n biefetn (Soufce' tütrb* ni$t geraupt, 
<5« wirb* jur 8bf<ü)rt gepfiffen 1 
Sir fahren 4 fe$r fönelt, 
Sir $aben fdjon brei SÄetlcn juriW* 

Um »k t>td Ityr $5lt man an f um 5 ju 

frü Würfen? 
$ier ift bie ^&frü<fftation, 
Sie lange &ältber3ug? 
3toangig aWtnuten ; benn wir »arten 

tyier auf einen 3ug bon ber 3^8* 

batyn, 
3ä) &Sre bie Sotomottoe pfeifen,* 
3>ie Cotomottoe fte&t auf einer Set$e, 
<S« finb fe$« ©eleife, 
2)te ©ebenen finb mit ©ta$l belegt, 
©e&ört biefe (gifenba&n bem ©taate? 
Wein, fie gehört einer 8fticn*©cfetU 

W«fc 
$err »raun ifi Bftionär 7 biefer ©c* 
fettf^aft, 



Ilere we arc at the Station. 

Get the tickets, I will look out for 

the baggage. 
What is the price of a ticket from 

Yienna to Pragoe? 
First Class. . . . Thlr. 10 lOSgr. 
Second Class. ..." 7 25 «« 
Third Class. . . . " 5 20 " 
Let us huny and get our trunks reg- 

istered. 
Here are tickets for your baggage. 
The second bell is ringing. 
All aboard? 

This car has five coupes. 
This is not a smoking coupe*. 
There is the whistle for starting ! 
We are going veiy fast 
We have already gone twelve (En- 

glish) miles. 
At what hour do we stop for break- 

fast? 
Here we stop for breakfast. 
llow long does the train stop ? 
Twenty minutes ; for we wait here 

for a train on the brauch road. 

[coming. 
I hear the whistle of the train that is 
The locomotire is Standing on a side 
There are six tracks. [track. 

The rails are covered with steeL 
Does this railroad belong to the State ? 
No, it belongs to*a stock Company. 

Mr. Brown b a shareholder in this 
Company. 



7. The Steainer. 

(Da« DantDffdfriff.) 
Sann getyt ba« 3)am^ffa)iff ton SRen> When does the steamer leave New 

gor! na$ Hamburg ah ?• York for Hamburg ? 

3eben ©onnobenb um 12 Ityr getyt ein A steamer leaves every Saturday at 

©ontyfföiff ob, 8 noon. 



>L.XXin. 
*UXLY1IL 



»61 00,8. 
«L.XXV1IL 



a L. XXIX . 
«L.XXIX. 



7 SB6,8 

• L. XXXIV. 



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181 



SSBie lange bauert bie Ucberfatyrt? 
3n ber föegel fcä)je$n Sage, 
2He greife ftnb : 

gfir bie erjle Äajüte. . . Xtyx. 150 

gttr bie jtt>eite Äajüte. . Xtyx. 90 

3tt>tf(^enbed X&lr. 40 

Sie loiel Oe^äcf tarnt man frei mit* 

nehmen? 1 
SDreiÄoffcr, 

2>ie ©etöfligung tjl inbegriffen, 1 
£aben @ie viele 9 $aff agiere? 
<5in Xfftil ber gradjt ifl no^ ni($t 

geloben, 
SSann fahren ©teab? 
9Hit ber nS^jlen» gluty, 
Um wie toiet Ityr tritt bie gluty ein? 1 
SDttt Xage«anbrua% 
2)te<Sbbeijljlart, 
2Sir fahren fä)ncfl, 
SBir »erben 4 niä)t fo flucti fahren, 

wenn toir auf tyo&er @ce fmb, 
2)a$ SWcer ijl fetyr rufyig, 
S)a« SWeer ijt Prmifd), 
©etycn toir auf ba« 3$erbecf, 
3$ toerbe bie Oeetrantyrit betommen, 

tuenn \6) langer* in ber Äajüte bleibe, 
2Ba« tnuty betrifft, i$ bin nie feetrant, 
©ie ftnb fetyr glütfliä), 
2Ste fcaben ©ie bie 9ta$t jugebraetyt? 
@$leä)t genug, 
2)te 2RafäSine fyat miä) gar ntdjt f$ta* 

fen laffen,* 
Sie tricle Änoten fegein tt>ir in einer 

©tunbe? 
gragen ttrir ben SWann am töubcr, 
SMan barf * mit tym niä)t tyretyn, 
3$ glaube bie Äfifleju fetyen, 
©ie faben 9te$t, 
(Ss finb bie <Sciu>3nfeTn, 
ffiir merben tyeute «benb 8 ben 2euä)t* 

tyurm »on 2anb«enb fc&en, 
SWorgen Bbenb tommen wir in @out(j* 

ampton an, 



How long does the passage last? 

Usually sixteen days. 

The prices are : 

In the first cabin .... Thlr. 150 
In the second cabin . . Thlr. 90 
For deck-passage. . . . Thlr. 40 

How mach baggage can one take free 
of Charge? 

Three trunks. 

You do not pay extra for your meals. 

Have you many passengers ? 

The freight is not yet all on board. 

When do you start ? 

At the next high tide. 

At what time is high tide ? 

At daybreak. 

The tide is going out very strong. 

We are going very fast. 

We will not go so fast when we are 

on the open ocean. 
The ocean is very quiet. 
The ocean is stormy. 
Let us go upon deck. 
I shall be seasick if I stay any longer 

in the cabin. 
As for me, I am never seasick. 
You are very fortunate. 
How did you pass the night ? 
Badly enough. 
I could not sleep at all on aecount of 

the engine. 
How many knots do we make. an 

hour? 
Let us ask the man at the heim. 
It is not permitted tp speak with him. 
I think I see the coast. 
Tou are right 
It is the Scilly Islands. 
We shall see Land's End light-house 

this evening. 
To-morrow evening we shall arrive at 

Southampton. 



» L. XXIV., 4. 

»Hl«, 4. 



»599. 
«L.VIL 



»591. 
«Page 19a 



'LwXXXIH. 

• L.vn. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



8. The Custom-house. 

(Das SoHamt) 



#aben @ie etoa* 1 @teuerj>fft<$tige«? a 

3$ »erbe bie Äoffer aufmalen, 
8ä), bitte, tt>crfcn ©te mir ni$t Sitte«* 

unter einanber, 
2>iefe ©üdjer fUtb ganj neu, 4 m$t 

toa$r? 6 
3$ &abe flc für meinen ©o$n getauft, 
S)a« ifi einerlei,« ba« ©efefc tfl be* 

fKmmt, 
liefen £abat »erbe t$ in ©efötag 

nehmen muffen, 
©itte, 3$re Pffe, meine Ferren, 

$tcr fhtb <gmj>fang«f$einebafür, 7 
2>er ^oüjeibicner »irb fie 3&nen bat* 
btgjl na<$ 3&rem ®ajl$of bringen, 



Have you any thing that iß liable to 

duty? 
I will open the trunks. 
Pray, do not tarn every thing upside 

down. 
These books are new, are they not? 

I bought them for my son. 

That makes no difference ; the law is 

explicit. 
I shall have to seize (attach) this to- 

bacoo. 
Your passports, if you please, gentle- 

men. 
Here are reeeipts for them. 
The policeman will deliver them to 

you very soon at your hoteL 



9. The Post-office. 

(Dad 9>oflamt.) 



3jl ba« ^oflamt toeit öon $ier ? 

C« ijl gauj in ber e *R%, 

@mb ©riefe für tm$ angetommen ? 

2öie ijl 3&r toertyer Sfcame? 9 

3$ ertoarte 10 einige ©riefe 11 poste 

restante,* 
3$ tt>ünfd)e einige ©riefmorfen, 
äßann ge$t bie $ofl nad) ©re«lau ab? 

2>cr ©rief ijl noä) ni$t gejtegett, 
3©oijlber@iegettad? 
$ier ijl ba« $etfä)aft, 
3$ fabe bie Äbreffe gefdjrieben, 1 * 
3>er ©rief muß franfirt »erben, 
2)te $ojl ijl angetommen, aber bie 
©riefe fmb nod) ntdjt fcertyeitt, 



Is the Post-office far from here? 

It is right near by. 

Have any letters come for me ? 

What name, if you please. 

I am expecting some letters "poste 
restante." 

I wish some postage-stamps. 

When does the mail leave for Bres- 
lau? 

The letter is not sealed yet. 

Where is the sealing-wax? 

Here is the seal. 

I have addressed the letter. 

The letter must be prepaid. 

The mail has arrived, but the letters 
are not yet distributed. 



* Letters addressed 
called for. 



i poste restante" are to remain in the post-office tili 



i §112, item. 1. 
» 8 8», Bern. 10. 
>8111. 



* L. XVJ1L, 1. 
*Ltt, not trnef 
«5103,8. 



t 8 188, 10, Rem. 1. "8165,8. 
•L.X.,1. "814,8,4 

•849,8. »L.XX. 



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CONYERSATIONS. 



183 



10. At a 

(Sei einem 
SEßo&nt tyier $err SReumonn, ber ©an* 

quter? 
@ie »erben tyn im 1 <£otro>toir ftaben, 
2)arf tä) fragen, mit wem* iä) bie (S&re 

$abe juft>rea)en?* 
SWem Atome ifl $tfbebranbt, 
3<$ bin 4 au« 8&ien, 
3$ fabe einen (Smj>fe$tung«brief an 

©ie bon #errn s £ranjler, 
3$ freue mtä) fetyr, 3$re öefanntfä)aft 

ju maä)en, 
$crr Äranjler tyrt mir einen 8&eä)fcl 

auf 3&r $au$ gegeben. 6 
2>cr SBe^fel ift ladbar nad) ©ity, 7 
3$ »erbe ü)n 3&ncn f ofort in ©ank 

noten au«ja$len, »enn t» 3&nen 8 

rcd)t ift, 
könnten <&\t mir einen jEtyetl babon* 

in ©olb geben ? 
©te fönnten ba« Bgto bfcfontiren, 

2)a« if* mir einerlei, 10 
3ft ba« 3nboff erneut barauf ? 
3a, er ift auf meine Orbre inboffirt, 
@ä)ön, &ter fmb j»ei ©anfnoten, jebc 11 
bon ffinftyunbert 1 * Xtyalern, preußi* 
fdje« Mourant, eine fcon taufenb, 1 ' 
euu)unbert 19 griebricfysb'or, unb ber 
9teft in ©über unb Äutfer, 



Bankert. 
Jöanquier.) 
Does Mr. Neumann, the banker, re- 

sidehere? [room. 

You will find him in the counting- 
May I ask with whom I have the hon- 

or tospeak? 
My name is Hildebrandt. 
I am from Vienna. 
I have a letter of introduetion to yon 

from Mr. Kranzler. 
I am very glad to make yonr ac- 

quaintance. 
Mr. Kranzler gare me a letter of credit 

on yonr house. 
The bill is payable at sight. 
I will pay it to yoa immediately in 

paper money, if you desire it. 

Conld you give me a part of it in 
gold? 

You conld discount the premium (on 
the gold). 

It is all the same to me. 

Is it indorsed ? 

Yes, it is indorsed to my order. 

Very well ; here are two bank-notes, 
each of five hundred Prossian tha- 
lers, one of a thousand, a hundred 
Friedrichs d'ors, and the odd mon- 
ey in silver and copper. 



11. In a Bookstore. 

(3n einer 8ua)$anblun0.) 
$aben ©ie ein S3erjetd)niß bon 3$ren Have you a catalogue of your books ? 



ȟa)ern? 
$ter tjt ein«, »efd)e« erjl fcor einigen 

Sagen erfdjienen ifi, 
©ie »erben barin meine $ertag$»erte 

unb eine 9u£»afyl in* unb auslän» 

bifa)cr SBerte finben, 



Here is one that was published only 

a few days ago. 
You will find in it the books I pub- 

lish, and a selection of German and 

foreign books. 



»L.XI.,4. 


♦5187. 


»5118,1. 


» § 75, Rem. 1. 


'«186. 


«L.XXV.,2. 



7 5 65,«. 10 5108,8. 

•5107. »5111. 

» 5 188, 10, Rem. t »■ 5 99l 



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184 



CONVERSATIONS. 



Statten ©ie mir gefStttgfi bie neueren 
beutf d>en SScrte jcigen ? 

©icr ifl SWommfen 1 « 9*8mif$c ©c* 
f$i$te, bte gtocitc 1 Auflage ber 
£unflgefd)i<$te a bon ©itynaafe, bie 
lefcte Sfosgabe 3 ber ©tytter'fdjen* 
©ebnete, 

$abcn©ie teilte J>$ifofol>W<$en 28er!e? 

©te flehen am (Snbe bes Äatatog«,* 

3$ fcabe fcter auf biefem %\\ty ehrige 
fetyr feftene ©fidler aus jtt>eiter 
#anb (or gebrauste 33ü$er), 

2Ba«foftetbiefe«©ud?? 

2)aS iß fe$r treuer, 

2)te Auflage ifl längfl ©ergriffen, 

$aben ©ie ein Antiquar *(gjem#ar 
be« ©rimm'fctyen* SBörterbudje« ?» 

Sßein, aber t$ fcabe ©anber'« bentfd)e« 
2B3rterbu^ f 2uca« u beutf<fcengtt* 
föe* unb engttfifcbeutfdjes 2B3rter* 
budj in bter öänben, 8vo, unb 9Ro* 
juV« beutfcfcfranjöfiföes ©Srtcr* 
bu<$, au$ in bier ©änben,* 

$abcn ©te eine (gifenba$n*£arte bon 
(Europa? 

©ter ijt $enbf$elTs <£ourS*©u$ ; e« 
cntyäft eine SRcifcfartc toon (Europa, 
unb *Roti$en über 7 atte (Sifenbatyu.* 
unb $auti>ff$iff*Sinien, 

$aben ©ie 9fctfc$anbbü$er ? 

Söir fraben öä'beter 1 « gütyrer bur<$ 
2)eutf $lanb, granrreid?, Statten unb 
ßnglanb ; fte ftnb wo$i bie beften, 8 



Will you please show me the latest 

German books ? 
Here is Mommsen's Roman History, 

the second edition of Schnaase's 

Histoiy of Art, the last edition of 

Schillert poems. 

Have you no philosophical works ? 
They are at the end of the catalogue. 
I have here on this table some very 
rare second-hand books. 

What is the price of this book ? 

That is very dear. 

It has been put of print a long time. 

Have you a second-hand copy of 
Grimm's Dictionary ? 

No, but I have Sanders 's German Dic- 
. tionary, Lucas's German -English 
and English -German Dictionary, 
in four volumes 8vo, and Mozin's 
German-French Dictionary, also in 
four volumes. 

Have you a railroad map of Europe ? 

Here is HendschelTs Railroad Guide •, 
it contains a traveling Map of Eu- 
rope, and Information about all the 
lines of railroads and steam-boats. 

Have you guide-books ? 

We have Bädeker's Guide for Ger- 
many, France, Italy, and England ; 
they are the best 



12. At a Tailort. 

(Sei einem ©djneiber.) 

SBaöMfl 3^ncn gefällig, mein §err? What can I serve you with, sir? 

3$ tofinföe einen 10 föoef, einen graef, I wish a coat, a dress-coat, one silk 
eine 11 feibene Sßcfle, jtoct 1 * ^aar vest, two pair of pantaloons, and a 
SBrintleiber, unb einen ©ommer* summer overcoat. 
Ucbcrrocf, 



» l. xvnL 
»L. xxxvi. 
* L. xxxvi. 



« L. XXXVIL, öw 
»514,8,8. 
«5 60, 5 80,8. 



'8 68,1. 
6592. 
» 5 113. 



"5 98. 
» 5 101. 



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185 



Sotten 1 ©ie einen bottftönbtgcnSlnjug 

toon* tiefem 3 eu 9 ? 
2)iefe« fdnsarje Xuti) föetnt furj ge* 

froren unb fein ju fein, 
<g« ijl au<$ fe$r bauerfraft,' 
«Rcbmcn ©ie mir ba« 2Raß ju föod, 

#ofe, SBefle unb Ueberrotf, 
SBünföen @ie* fie naety ber neueftat 

2Robe? 
3Han 8 ma$t bie fcaitte jtemli<$ lang, 

bie ©djöße reiben fafl bis an bie 

Äniee, bie Hermel fxnb 3icmlt<$ toeit, 
©ammet*£ragen fmb jefct ganj aus* 

ber SDlobe, 
*ßrobiren ©ie ben SRocf an, 
Cr ift ju eng unter' ben Sinnen, 
2>a« lagt 8 fiety lri$t finbern, 
3$ »erbe ben Ueberrod ou$ anjietyen, 
Äamt er jugeIno>ft »erben? 
3ie^en @ie facomrte ober glatte 3Rufter 

fürbieSöeflebor? 
2)ie feibene SBefle fott facomrt, bie 

@ammet*2Befte fott* einfach fein, 
Eerbletyt biefe garbe ni$t fe$r föuett? 
3$ faun fie als ädjt garantiren, 
Sann wünföcn ©ie bie Äleiber? 
SKitttöo^ 1 * SWorgen um jcfyt Ityr, benn 

i$ reife um jtoölf U$r 11 nadjf SBien 

ab, 
©ie tömten fiä) barauf berlaffen, baß 

Sitte« fertig fein 12 torirb, 



Do you wish a complete snit fromthis 

piece of cloth? 
Thi8 black cloth seems to be fine and 

of a short nap. 
It is very durable also. 
Take my measnre for a coat, panta- 

loons, Test, and overcoat 
Do you wish them in the latest fash- 
.ion? 
The waist is made rather long, the 

ekirts reach almost to the knees, 

the sleeves are made rather wide. 
Velvet collars are now all out of 

fashion. 
Try the coat on. 
It is too tight tinder the arms. 
That can be easily changed. 
I will try on the overcoat also. 
Can it be buttoned? 
Do you prefer fignred or piain pat- 

tern8 for the vest? 
The silk Test may be fignred, the 

Tehret Test may be piain. 
Does not this color fade very easily? 
I can Warrant it not to fade. 
When do you wish the clothes? 
Wednesday forenoon at ten o'clock, 

for I leaTe for Vienna at noon. 

You may rely upon their all being 
ready. 



13. In a Dry Ooods Store. 

(3n einem £ud)laben.) 



ffia« für ©eibenjeuge $aben ©ie? 
SShr tyaben ©eibe in allen @$attirun* 

flen, 
©raupen @ie ©eibe gu einem Äleibe 

ober ju einem SWantel ? 
Sttefe garben finb jefet SWobe, 
2)aö Sühifhr gefallt mir nidjt, e« ift gu 

bunt, 



What kind of silks have you ? 
We have silks of all colors. 

Do you wish silk for a dress or for a 

cloak? 
These colors are now in fashion. 
I do not like that pattern ; it is too 

gaudy. 



»Lxxxn. 

•L.IX.,1. 
»88«, S, 8. 



* 1 107, Rem. 6. 

»511«,«. 

•882,2. 



M82.1. 
•144,4. 
» L. XXXIII. 



»• L. XXIII., 8. 
• ' Twelve o'clock. 
»L.XXYI1I. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



Sic ftaben 1 ©te btefe Jmnfrtrte ©eibe? 

3o) gic^c* biefc gejrreiftc bor, 

39&te Breit tjl biefer Sltla« ? 

er ifl eine (gttc breit, 

©ie »erben mit aajtjeyii (5Uen au«* 
reiben, 

$aben ©te auä) gutterfetbe? 

SBotten ©te einen fctbencn 3 $ut ober 
einen ©tro^ut? 

2>tefe« Ifl bie nenefte 2Robe, 

2>er ©oben btefe« $ute8 ifl gu Hein, 

2)ie ©armrnng gef a'ttt mir nid)t, 

©ott iä) bietteiä)t anbere« ©anb 
barauf*fefcen?* 

©aben ©te ©fcüjenf girier? 

36) $abe n>elä)e bon ©rüffeler ©^i^en, 
bie ausgezeichnet ftnb, 

©ter flnb auä) ©girier ton getieftem 
ORuffeltn, 

3a) n>finfä)e ein $aar ©lace^anb* 
fd)u$e bon ber befien Dualität, ein 
«rief 4 ^nabeln, ein »rief ©tetf* 
nabeln, ein 2)ufeenb e 5Eafd)entflä)er, 
eineÄrafcatte, fed)« $aar* ©trumpfe, 
©eife, eine3cu)nofirfte, einen Stegen* 
Winn, 3cug gu »etttfidjern, Äat* 
tun, einen ©&awl, 



How do you like this spotted sük? 

I prefer this striped piece. 

How wide is this saun ? 

It is an eil wide. 

Eighteen ells will be au 70a will need. 

Have you also sük for lining? 

Do you wish a silk hat, or a straw 
hat? 
*This is the latest fashion. 

The crown of this bonnet is too small. 

I do not like this trimming. 

Shall I put another kind of ribbon on 
it? 

Have you lace veils ? 

I have some of Brüssels Lace that are 
extremely fine. 

Here are also veils of embroidered 
muslin. 

I wish also a pair of kid gloves of the 
best quality, a paper of needles, 
a paper of pins, a dozen pocket- 
handkerchiefs, a cravat, six pairs 
of stockings, soap, a tooth-brush, 
an umbrella, clothfor sheets, calico, 
a shawl. 



14. At a ßhoemakefs. 
(8 ei einem ©(fcu$ma<$er.) 



$aben Sie fertige ©tiefein? 

$ter ifl ein $aar ba« -Syrien tt>o v t 

Raffen nrirb, 7 
$ier ifl ber ©tiefeltnedjt, 
SRe&tnen ©ie lieber ba« 9Kaß für ein 

neue« $aar, 
©ie bürfen niä)t ju eng fein unb bie 

Bbfäfee nid)t ju $od), 8 
2Bttnfd)en ©ie btefe ©otylen? 
3a, unb ba« Oberleber gtcmlic^ flart, 



Have you ready-made boote ? 

Here is a pair that I think will fit 

you. 
Here is the boot-jack. 
I would rather have you take my 

measure for a new pair. 
Do not make them too tight, nor the 

heels too high. 
Do you wish the soles thick? 
Yes, and the upper-leather rather 

heavy. 



» L. XXIV. 
» L. XXVU. 



*US8,10,2km.l. 



»J163. 
«L.XVL.2. 



'L.XH. 
»602. 



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CONVERSATIONS. 



187 



©i$ l mann tonnen ©ic mir cht ^accc 

<Bä)u1)t matya? 
©ie tonnen bic ©ctyutye Bi« 97torgen 

BBenbBaBen, 
3>ie @a)uBe brücfen mir 9 bte 3<fytn, 
27to$en ©ie mir ein ^aar Pantoffeln 

*on ©afffon, 



When can you make me a pair of 
shoes? 

You can have the shoes by to-morrow 
evening. 

These shoes pinch my toes. 

Make me also a pair of morocco Slip- 
pers. 



15. With a Physician. 
(»ei einem *rjte.) 



©aBen ©ie ben 9lrjt rufen raffen? 

Cr wirb fogfeia) touraicn, 

SBoranMeibcn ©ie? 

3$ $aBe heftige« ÄoJ>ftt>e$, 

2Jttr ift gauj föttrinbluty, 

3$ tonn m\6f taum auf 4 ben güßen 

galten, 
PBten ©ie ©<$merjcn im* ttflcfen? 
Waffen ©te mi^ bie 3uuge fe^en— flc ifl 

ettoad Belegt, 
Saffen ©te mi<$ ben $ul« füllen, 
Cr ift jiemli«^ fiart unb geftymnb— 

getyt feljr unruhig— ©te tyoBen gte* 

Ber, 
galten ©ie meine Ärantyett für ge* 

ffi$rti$? 
SRctn, aber nehmen ©te fi$ in 2ldjt, 

baß flc & nt($t »erbe,* 
3$ »erbe 3&nen «rjnei *erfa)reiBen, 
ötctBcn ©te ru^ig im 83ett Bis t<$ 

ttrieberfomme, 7 
SSBic fraBcn ©ie bie 3ftoa)t jugeBraty? 
3* fcaBc ctoa« gefätafen— (i$ $aBe 

lein Bngc gefötotfen), 8 
$aBen ©ie einen Bitteren ©efömacf im 

SRunbe? 
3$ &aBe ffct« einen Bitteren ©cfömacf 

im Sflunbe, wenn \d} aufwache, 
2>aS gieBer Bat ftart nadjgetaffen— tyat 

faft aufgebort, 
3$ $aBe mi^flarf erfältet, 



Have you sent for the doctor? 
He will come immediately. 
What is the matter with you ? 
I have a great headache. 
I am very dizzy. 
I can hardly stand up. 

Do you feel pain in your back ? 
Let me see your tongue — it is somo- 

what coated. 
Let me feel your pulse — it is quite 

strong and rapid — is very flurried 

— you have a fever. 

Do you consider my sickness danger- 

ous? 
No; butbe very careful, lest itbecome 

so. 
I will write out a prescription for you. 
Keep quietly in bed tili I come again. 

How have you passed the night? 
I have slept some — (I did not close my 

eyes). 
Haveyou a bitter taste in your mouth ? 

My mouth is always bitter when I 

wakeup. 
The fever has subsided a good deal — 

has almost ceased. 
I have taken a bad cold. 



>5«T. 
*ft55,l,/bm.l. 



'ftl88,10,Jfem.8. 
♦S84«. 



• I* XI., 4. 
•M88. 



' L. XXXI V., 8. 
•KXXVL 



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188 



CONVEBSATIONS. 



■3$ tyaBe @$ntty>fen — tcfy $abe $al«* I have a cold — I have a sore throat 

fcfymerjcn — i<fy ^abc Shigenleiben, — my eyes pain me. 

ö« tofire gut ein gußbab ju nehmen, 1 It woald do you good to takc a foot- 

bath. 
(Er leibet* an 9tyeumati«mu« — an ber He has the rheumatism— the gout. 



$err 9*. ifl au ber ©d)tt>inbfu($t ge« Mr. N. died of consumption— of ty- 

ftorben, 3 — am 5EW&U« geftorben, phus-fever. 

$err 2R. ifl bora @$tag gerührt toor* Mr. M. has had a stroke of apo- 

ben, plexy. 



16. At a Watchmakert. 

(Sei einem tt$rmad)er.) 
$iet ifl be« Ufyrma<$er« gaben— ge^en Here is the watchmaker's shop— let 



nrir hinein,* 
3$ möchte* eine gute Ityr taufen, 
Sßoßen ©ie eine 8j>inbelufyr— eine 

3fateru$r— eine (Stylinberutyr, mit 

contyenfirter 93en>egung? 
3$ »ünf$e eine töej>etinu)r, 
$ier ifl eine au« einer ber beflen ©enfer 

gabrilen, 
§ie tfl ju* Hein, 
(gntföulbtgen £ie, es ifl jefet 3Hobe, 

fetyr Heine Utyren ju tragen, 
2)a« tfl mir gleichgültig, i$ toünföc 

eine größere, 7 
3$ toerbe tiefe nehmen, unter ber 

»ebingung, baß £ie für gtt>ei 3a$rc 

garantiren, 8 
SDkine Ityr ge$t ntdjt richtig— gc$t 

leben £ag eine falbe <Stunbe bor*— 

eine 8>iertelftunbe na<$, 
3$ »erbe nadjfeben,— e« ifl etn>a« jer* 

brodjen— i$ glaube bie Äette ifl jer* 

ftrengt— bie geber ifl gebrochen, 
Sie muß re^arirt (or au«gebeffert) 

»erben— gereinigt nxrbcn, 
53t« toann lönnen ©ie bie Ityr fertig 

fabm? 
©i« morgen um neun U§r 33ormit* 



usgora. 

I wish to buy a good watch. 

Do you wish a lever watch, an an- 
chor watch, a cylinder watch, with 
a compensation balance? 

I wish a repeating watch. 

Here is one from one of the best Ge- 
neva manufactories. 

It is too smalL 

Excuse me, it is now the fashion to 
wear Tery small watches. 

I do not care for that ; I wish a larger 
one. 

I will take this one ander the con- 
dition that you will Warrant it for 
two years. 

My watch does not go right— gains 
half an hour every day — loses half 
an hour. 

I will look at it — something is broken 
— the chain is broken — the main- 
spring is broken. 

It must be repaired— be cleaned. 

When can you have the watch 

ready? 
By nine o'clock to-morrow forenoon. 



»L. XXIV. 
«144, fr. .. 



3L.XXVL 

♦51öT,l. 



»L. XXXII. 
« Adverb. 



'§92. 

»«13», 8. 



Digitized by 



Google 



II. GERMAN AND ENGLISH IDIOMS. 

Rem. For the purpose of showing the difference between the idiomaüc 
structure of the German and English languages more at length than was pos- 
sible in thelessons of Part First, there are given below a few classified lists of 
such idioms as are in most common ose in both languages. 

To correctly apprehend the idiomatic spirit of a langnage, it is necessary, 
in the first place, to have an accnrate idea of the primaiy and fundamental 
signification of the words of the langnage ; secondly, to know the modifications 
of meaning to which the words have been subjected, and the figurative signi- 
fications in which they are employed ; and, thirdly, to know how far expres- 
sions, phrases, and sentences (especially set phrases and proverbs) are ellip- 
ticaL 

1. Idioms with \)ait\\ and to have. 



3$ $obe bie ?t6fia)t, morgen na$ 

2Äfind)en abjureifen, 1 
$aben ©te 2l$t ! or &abe (bu) Bd)t ! 
2)a« $at unfern Seifatt, 
SBtr fcaben 9tf$t8* bagegen, 3 
<g« fat grojje (Site, 
<S« &at feine 4 Site, 
5öir tyaben u)n fetyr gern, 
@ie fraben gut ta^en, 
3ä) ty&t 2)urft ; iä) fyabt junger, 
#aben @ie 2anget»etfe? 
ßr $at feine 2ufl e« ju 8 t$mt, 
3d) $5tte 6 2ufl e« u)m ju fagen, 
2Rorgenfhmbe §at ®olb im SJhmbe 

(@£rii$tt>ort), 
ör fyit ©efb fefrr nßtyig, 
3$ »erbe e* tyun, obwohl 7 iä) e« niä)t 

nöt&tg (jabc, 
ßr &at feinen 9htfeen babon, 
@tc $aben $ttö)t, er f?at Unrcdjt, 
2)aS $at 9tf$t« ju fagen, 
SBer ben @<tyaben (>at, brauet für ben 

@pott mä)t ju forgen (^r.)# 
38er $at <3ä)ulb baran, baß ber ©rief 

niä)t naefy ber $ofl gefä^ieft nmrbe? 8 
(Sr $at feine @<$ulb baran, 



I intend to Start for Munich to-mor- 

row. 
Take care ! look out ! 
That meets our approval. 
We have no objeetion to that. 
It admits of no delay. 
There is no haste abont it. 
We like him very much. 
You may well laugh. 
I am thirsty ; I am hungry. 
Have you ennuie ? 
He has no desire to do that. 
I should like to teil it to him. 
Early to bed and early to rise, makes 

a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 
He is hard pushed for money. 
I will do it, although I am in no way 

obliged to. 
He derives no advantagc from it. 
You are right ; he is wrong. 
That is of no consequence. 
He who loses mny be sure of being 

laughed at in the bargain. 
Wliose fault is it that the letter was 

not sent to the post-office? 
It is not his fault. 



i § 150, 3. 
»6112,9. 



»5188, /tem.l. 
«5112,8. 



» 5 127, Exe. 4. 
•5126. 



7 5 268. 
»6184. 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 



IDIOMS. 



2ötr $aben feinen Umgang 1 mit tynen, 
@ie fraben bie SBaljl, 
ÄBtr &aben ni^t toeit na4 $aufe, 
34 muß $eute »tele Öefu4e maä>en, 
34 »erbeSWorgen na42)rc«ben gc&en 

muffen, 8 
34 fabe fünf ©riefe treiben muffen, 

betoor i4 g^tn tonnte, 
34 erhielt bon meinem ©ruber einen 

©rief fceute Sorgen, 
2ötr werben bor Bbenb ein ©ettittcr 

befommen, 
34 fcabe t» bon tym felbft* gebort, 
34 benfe 4 baran, mir einen töotf 

ma4en gu laffen, 
©Iaube mir, baß bein Söofyf beinern 

©ater am bergen liegt, 
<5r t»eiß feine Aufgabe aufttoenbig, 
8n greunben fe$lt e* ü)m ni4t, 



We do not associate with them. 
You may take your choiee. 
We have not far to go home. 
I have many visits to make to day. 
I have to go to Dresden to morrow. 

I had to write five letters before I 

couldgo. 
I had a letter frora my brother this 

morning. 
We shall have a thunder-storm before 

eveoing. 
I have this from his own mouth. 
I am thinking of having a coat made. 

Believe me, your father has your wel- 

fare at heart. 
He has his lesson by heart. 
He has friends enough. 



2. Idioms with feilt and to he. 



@o biet an mir ijt, 

2)er SWonb war no4 ni4t auf, 5 

2)a« genjter ifl auf, 

SWtr ift lalt ; mir tft »arm, 

2Rtr # ift niu)t »o$t, 

2)a* $au« ijt mir ni4t feil (or 2Rein 

$au« ijt ni4t gu öertaufen), 
34 W« ty m $er$H4 gut, 
34 &to ber SWeinung, 7 
©eien <§ie (or ©ei) gute« 2Ru4e« I 9 
(Sin ©ebulbiger ijt beffer benn ein 

©tarier; unb ber feine« 2Rutye« 

$err ijt, beim ber ©tSbte gewinnet 

(Styrü4e 16, 32), 
2för xoav babei ni4t too&l ju 3Hut$e, 
23er ijt @4ulb baran? 
Cr ijt ni4t ©4utb baran, 
83ie lotel jinb Bit ibm f4utbig? 
34 *>to «) m 500 Spater f4utbig, 
©inb (Sie im ©taube es tym ju bebten? 
Vorläufig bin 14 c« ni4t im ©tanbe, 
<2r ift SBiflen« etwa« ju geben, 



As far as is in my power. 

The moon had not yet risen. 

The window is open. 

I am cold ; I am warm. 

I do not feel well. 

My house is not for sale. 

I love (or like) him very mueb. 

I am of the opinion (or I think). 

Be of good coorage (or cheer) ! 

He that is slow to anger is better than 
the mighty ; and he that ruleth his 
spirit, than he that taketh a city 
(Proverbs XVL, 32). 

My feelings npon that occasion were 

Whose fimlt is it ? [not agreeable. 

It is not his fault. 

How much do you owe him ? 

I owe him five hundred thalers. 

Are you able to pay him? 

At present I am not able to do it 

He intends giving something. 



»«68,1. 

»U62, ifem.2. 



»5108, Am. 3. 
«U39. 



»ft 181,1. 
«{179,2, /fcm.4. 



'5 178,1, Rem. 8. 
«$89, item. 1. 



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Google 



IDIOMS. 



191 



Cr ifl 1 fä)on angetommeu, 
Cr mar föon angelommen, 
SBara er nur länger geblieben* Wäre, 
I was at the meeting, bat I did not 

seeyoa, 
He is beside himself, 
He is in love with her, 
He is engaged to (be married to) her, 
He is of a robust Constitution, 
I am ont of that book at present, ) 
I have not that book at present, > 
He is not yet of agc, 
To be snre, 
Let that be ! 



He has already arrived. 

He had already arrived. 

If he only had remained longer. 

34 wo&nte ber Skrfammlung bei,' 

\af) Sie aber nid;t 
Cr ifl berrücft. 4 
Cr ifl mit u)r verliebt. 8 
Cr ifl mit tyr fcerlobt 
Cr ifl von flartem Äötyerbau. 
34 fabe ba« 33u4 augenbluflt4 nidrt 

borrätyig. 
Cr ifl no4 ntc^t münbig. 
2>a« Derfle&t fl4. 
8tttyre ba« nio)t an !• 



3. Idioms with tocrbca and to become. 



©ifyelnt Äu$n ifl Ärjt geworben, 
@ie würbe J>löfclt4 fe$r Mag, 
C« wirb balb grub« »erben, 
2)a« ©ebrfinge 7 würbe ju groß, 
2)ur4 ©droben wirb man Hug, 
2)ie Sage werben länger, 
2)ie 3«t »trb mir lang, . 
©ott fyra$ : e« »erbe Si<^t ! unb e« 

warb &4t 1 
@ie würbe roty (or errßtyete), 
2>er »abe wirb fe$r alt, 
SHfo warb ber 2Renf4 eine lebenbige 

©eele (ba« Crfle ©ud) 2Rofe,2, 7), 
34 »erbe f4wtnblt4 04 f4winble, 

e« f4winbelt mir, mir f4winbelt), 
34 bin feine« @4wafcen« überbrüfftg, 
2)a« ifl bei un« jum @j>ri4toort ge* 

Worben, 
$er ©aum ifl ju @tcin geworben, 
S)a« foK 2>ir gur ©träfe werben, 
S)er Ärante wirb wieber gef unb, 
83a« fott bamit werben? 
Äßir werben morgen abreifen, 
2)er ©runbfletn ber £irä)e wirb über* 

morgen gelegt werben, 8 
Cine neue ©rüde wirb jefct gebaut, 



'William Kuhn has become a physi- 
She suddenly tnrned very pale. [cian. 
We shall soon have peace. 
The crowd (press) became too great. 
By experiencing evil one becomes wise. 
The days are becoming longer. 
Time hangs heavy on my hands. 
God said, Let there be light, and there 

was light. 
She bloshed. 

The raven lives to a great age. 
And man became a living soul (Gen. 

n.,7). 

I am getting dizzy (I am dizzy). 

I am tired of his chattering. 

That has become a proverb with us. 

The tree has become petrified. 

That shall be yonr pnnishment 

The patient is recovering. 

What shall be done with it ? 

We shall leave to-morrow. 

The corner-stone of the church will 

be laid day after to-morrow. 
A new bridge is now being bailt. 



»4125,8, item. 2. 



»8150,2. 
«4134,ifem.l. 



»Möö. 
«U50,«. 



'«66,8. 
•«134. 



Digitized by 



Google 



192 



IDIOMS. 



4. The Potential Mood and Future Indieative of the 
English verb. 



We can go to-day, 

We can not go to-day, 

We can go to-morrow, 

We could not go yesterday, 

We could haye gone yesterday, 

He may say what he will, 

He may go, if he likes, 

He says that he can go to-day, 

He might go, if he would, 

(It) may be it will rain, 

We must go early, that we may get 
a good place (or so as to get agood 

As fast as may be, [place), 

lf I may ask, 

We must go to-day, 

We would have been obliged to go 
yesterday, 

We shall leave to-morrow, 

Shall you leare to-morrow? Yes. 

Shall you be able to visit us to- 
morrow? 

I hope I shall, 

Shall I bring the book? 

Shall he be rewarded ? 

He should go immediately, 

Should he go immediately (or if he 
should go immediately), 

I should like to know, 

I should not haye done that, 

I will bring the book, 

Iwill try it, 

I would go with you, if I had time, 



I would not have giyen it to him, 

I would rather not go, 
Would that I had not done it! 



©ir tonnen beute geben. 
$eute tonnen toir nic^t geben, 
äßir »erben morgen geben tonnen. 1 
©ejtern tonnten toir nic^t geben. 
Sir Ratten' geftern geben tonnen. 
<5r mag fagen, toa« er toitt.» 
<Sr tonn geben, trenn er tritt. 
<5r Jagt, baß er beute geben tonn. 
Cr tonnte geben, toenn er geben toottte. 
<2« tonnte regnen (oietteiebt wirb es 

regnen). 
2öir muffen früb $mge$en, bamit toir 

einen guten $tafe betommen.* 
@o ge(d)toinb (or fönett) als mögtiä), 
Söenn i$ fragen barf. 
SBir muffen beute geben. 
2ötr Ratten geftern geben muffen. 

2Btr toerben morgen abreifen. . 
Sterben @ie morgen abreifen? 3a. 
SBirb e* 3bnen mögtiä) fein, un« mor* 

gen ju befugen? 
3$ boffe c«, ja. 
eott* td) bas $u$ boten? 
@ott er belohnt toerben? 
(Sr fottte gtetä} öeben. 
©ottte er gtet$ geben (or toenn er gteieb 

ge^en fottte). 
3<b möchte« gern toiffen. 
3$ toürbe ba« nubt getban fahtn (or 

i$ bStte ba« nt<bt getban). 
3<b toerbe ba« öueb boten. 
3$ toitt c« berfueben. 
3<b toürbe mitgeben 7 (or i<b ginge 8 mit, 

toenn i<b bie j&tit baju b^tte (or bätte 

tib bie 3«t baju). 
3cb toürbe e« ibm ntd)t gegeben fyobtn, 

(or tdj bätte es ibm ni<bt gegeben), 
3<bmb*«bte lieber niebt geben. 
SBenn t$ es nur nid)t getban bätte! 



» 5 102, Rem. 8. 
»5124,8. 



»51«5. 
«5124. 



»UÖ3. 
•5124,8. 



U126. 
«612S. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IDIOMS. 



193 



5. Idioms with the verb laffcn, to leave, to let. 



©er fort bie Styfire offen gclaffen? 

Sag mi$ in Ku? l 

SBo $at er ba« ©u$ gelaff en ? 

Cr $at bie Gelegenheit au« ben $än* 

ben gelaffen, 
Cr ließ 1 feinen ©efitylen freien Sauf, 
Cr $at fie ge&en laffen, 
3ä) »erbe e« ü)ra toiffen (äffen, 
Cr wirb fu$ nic^t babon abfetyreefeu 

taffeit, 
3$ »erbe mir bei beut @$neiber ei* 

nen 9toct ma$en laffcn, 
3$ $abe meinen UeberrmT au«beffern 

laffen, 
Cr ttrirb ein $au* bauen laffen, 
2)er $au)>tsnann lieg bie ga&ne auf* 

Cr lieg bie «nfflfrer crföießeu, 3 
SWem ©ruber lägt 2)ic$ grüßen, 

Cr ließ bie alten ©efefce* nrieber in 

Äraft treten, 
3$ laffe mm} ut$t bamit* täufc^en. 
©tr muffen tyn nufy warten laffen, 
2>a« läßt ffä> e leidet begreifen, 
2)a« läßt fty benfen, 
$terau« läßt fU$ folgern, 
Cr mußte fu} bie ©eleibigung gefallen 

laffen, Kören, 

C« la*ßt fl$ $ter SRiemanb fefcn unb 
C« läßt fid? $ier angenehm' leben, 



Who has left the door open ? 
Leavo me alone! (leave me inpeaco !) 
Where did he put the book? 
He has let the opportunity slip. 

He gave free vent to his feelings. 

He let them go. 

I shall let him know it 

He will not let himself be frightened 

from it. 
I shall have the tailor make me a 

coat, 
I have had my overcoat mended. 

He will have a honse baut 

The captain ordered the flag to be 

raised. 
He ordered the leaders to be shot, 
My brother wishes to be remembered 

to you. 
He had the old laws put in fbree 

again. [that 

I do not let myself be deeeived by 
We muflt not keep him waiting. 
That can be easily imagined. 
That can be imagined. 
From this may be dedneed. 
He had to put up with the offense. 

Nobody is to be seen or heard her«. 
It is agreeable living here. 



6. Idioms with the verb to get. 



I must get (procura) the book, 

He could get (find) no employment 

in the city, 
The cook has gone to the bakery to 

get some bread, 
I shall get a new stdt of clothes made, 

I must get my photograph taken, 



3d) muß ba« 33u$ anföaffen. 

Cr tarnte leine ©ef <$äftigung s in ber 
©tobt finben. 

3)er &o$ ifi na$ ber ©fieferei gegan* 
gen, um ©rob ju ^olen. 

3$ werbe mir einen neuen Stnaug ma- 
chen laffen. 

3$ muß mid) J>$otograj>ftren laffen. 



1 «144,4. 
M08. 



>U6IS 8. 
«»«7,8,1; ««6,8. 



• U88, 10, item. 1. 
«U80; U84, 8. 



'8174,1. 
•«67,8,8; 665,8. 



Digitized by 



Google 



194 



IDIOMS. 



I must get my hair cut, 

I must get my boots mended, 

He must get bis lesson by heart, 

Tbe cook is getting dinner (ready), 

I must get ready for my joarney, 

Ue ha« not got back yet, 

We aball get home bcfore evening, 

Why don't you get married ? 

Tbey have not got (moved) into tbeir 

new hoose yet, 
He has got possession of the house, 
Tbey could not get the ship off, 

He got all tbe money out of bim he 
could, and then be left him, 

William is getting along well in bis 
studies, 

Mr. Schmidt is getting along well in 



I could not get free from him, 

He bas got out of debt, 

We can not get through here, 

We did not get to tbe top of the 

Mountain, 
We did not get qtüte to tbe top of 

the moantain, 
Tbey got together at seren o'clock, 
It is high time to get up, 
I can not get up there, 
Get down from there immediately, 
It is getting lata, 
The days aro getting longer, 



34 muß mir ba« $aar f4netben (äffen. 
34 muß meine ©tiefe! rennten laff en. 
<Sr muß feine Aufgabe au«tt)enbig 

lernen. 
&er &>4 bereitet ba« SRittageff e». 
34 muß und) für We SRetfe&orbereüen, 1 
<5r ifi no4 ni4t aurüdßetotmnat, 
SBtr »erben fcor Bbenb na4$aufe tonv 
Sßarum ^etratyen @ie nid)t ? [inen, 
©te finb noa> m$t in ü)r neue« fyM 

gejogen.» 
<gr ift in ben Scpfc be« $aufe« gelangt 
äflan tonnte ba« 8d?iff ni^t nrieber 

flottmachen. 
<5r erpreßte tyutfo tief (Selb al« er nur 

tonnte, unb bann fcerfieß* er ü)m 
tBifyelm raa^t gute gortf 4ritte in ber 

@4ufc. 
$err ©4nribt ma^t gute ©eföfifte. 

34 tonnte nti4 bon U)m ni4t lo«nta* 
<5r fyrt feine ©drnlben bejaht [4en. 
#ier tft fein 2)ur4gang (or (jier tonnest 

mir m4t bur4tommen). 
Sßtr $aben bie @pifte be« Serge« nt4t 

errei4t. 
Sir finb ni^t gang bid an bie <Bp\^t 

be« Serge« ^inaufgetommen. 4 
ete terfammclten fid) um flehen U&r. 
<5« tft bie $54ffc* 3eit anfaulen. 
3* tonn ba ni4t $ütauftouunen. 
Wlatif, baß bu gtet4 herunter 4 tommft 
<S«nrirbf4onfoät. 
2)ie $age »erben länger. 



7. Idioms with prepositions. 

1. tto (g 220), anicr ($ 221). 



34 berlor* ti)n au« ben Bugen, 
Hu« feinem ©riefe erfefc id>— 
$err ©raun iß au« Salin, 
<Sr ftasmtt au« einer alten gantifie,* 
©inb biefe Sü4er m9 ber jtoriten 
$aub? 



Host sigbt of him. 
I percefre from his Vetter — 
Mr. Braun is from Berlin. 
He comes from an old family. 
Are these second-hand books ? 



*$lOT,S,ifem.ft. 
M144,«. 



M 155,5. 
Ǥ1W; 5100,8. 



MM. 
•1188» 



'»144,6. 
•J87. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IDIOMS. 



195 



3u3 meinem Orunbe betoeifcn @ic 

ba«? 
Qx lebt and ber $anb in ben SWuub, 
2)a« totm man natürlich m$t au« bem 

Äopfe fagen, 
SWan $at tyn an« bloßem »erbaut ber* 

haftet, 
Qr $at e« au« Eorfafc getont, 
2)a« weiß i$ au« (Erfahrung, 
SBa« nrirb au^ tym »erben? 
3^ bin begierig gn ttiffen, tta« au« 

ber @a$e nrirb, 
2)a warb au« 2Rorgen unb Slbenb ber 

erße 1 Sag (1. 2Rof. l, 5), 
$ie 3eit iß au« (§ 181, l), 
Xrintc bn e« ganj au«, 
C« iß au« mit tym, 
»on $aufe au« iß er* conferbatib, 
Cr iß außer ft$ bor greube, 
2)icfc« S&ort iß jefct außer ©ebrauä), 
Cr wirb e« nityt tyun, außer (§ 260) 

»erat ©ie mit tym barüber fprefyn, 



How do you prore that ? 

He lives from hand to moath. 

Of course one can not hold all the 

paiticulars of that in one's head. 
They arrested him upon mere sus~ 

picion. 
He did it intentionally. 
That I know by experience. 
What will become of him? 
I am curious to know how the matter 

will tarn out. 
And the evening and the morning 

were the first day (Gen. I., 5). 
The time is up. 
l^rink it all up (down). 
It is all over with him. [servative. 
He is originally (and natorally) con- 
He is beeide himself from joy. 
This word is now obsolete. 
He will not do it nnless yon speak to 

him abont it. 



2. Od ($ 222). 



»ei Sitte bem, iß er ein Wlann *on 

(S&rc, 
»ehn* erßcn Bnblitf tyatte 4 id) niä)t ge* 

glaubt- 
en« iß ni$t me&r ©ittc bei un«, 
©ei ben Römern tourbe e« ©itte, 
©err 9to$n iß beim offen (bei %\\ ä», 
©ic ßfct beim offenen genßer,» 
»ei biefer Gelegenheit, 
»ei 2eben«jeit meine« Sater«, 



For all that, he is a man of honor. 

At firet sight, I would not have be- 

lieved — 
It is not the custom with os. [mans. 
It was custom with (among) the Ro- 
Mr. Bahn is at the table. 
She is sitting at an open window. 
Upon this occasion. 
During my father's life-time. 



8. Kit (§227). 



3$ &obe e« mit eigenen Äugen gefefcen,* 
(Sr fyrt ba« $au« mit baarem ®elbe 

bejahrt, 
Cr ^at e« mit Oetoalt genommen, 
SDfit einem SWale ging e« lo«, 7 
Qm #err, mit Kamen 3o$. @$mibt, 
3ty fabe mit ÜWUflc&r ber $oß einen 

»rief bon tym betommen, 6 



I saw it with my own eyes. 
He paid fbr the honse in cash. 

He took it by force. 
All of a sndden it exploded. 
A man by the name of John Smith. 
I reeeived a letter from him by retarn 
mall. 



»592. 

»«40,2; «40, 8, ifrm. 



*$64,l,Jtan.8,8. 
M125. 



»6sa 

•«144,9. 



'162,8. 
•«165,1. 



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Google 



196 



IDIOMS. 



(Sr $at e« mit Eorfafc getyan, 
<gr fyrt es mit leifer ©timmc gcfefen, 
SWit ber 3cit JjfttWt man ftofcn, 
2)te SRota umrbe mit ^roteft jurflck 

gefW 
2)te 3nf<!(frift ift mit golbencn Su($* 

{laben getrieben, 
Sir gc$cn na$ bem SWufeum ; »ollen 

©ie mit? 
Sßolten* ©ie ba« $u$ mit (fi$) nefc* 

mcn? 

4.tta* 

9toa> getaner Arbeit ift gut ru$en, 

[f^en, 
<g« fott gcmj na$ üjrem belieben ge* 
(S« (Kit jcfct fc<$« Sage naä) einanber 

geregnet, 
3m 3a$re 1820* nau} CtyrifK ©eburt, 
2>a* Äleib ift ni^t na<$ meinem ©e* 

fömacf, 
2>a« Dbft ttrirb in 2>eutf$fanb naö) 

bem ©eurity fcertauft, 
5Ra$ meiner Ityr ift es jefct brei Viertel 4 

auf Qteäfi, 
2)a« 2)amj>ffä)iff ift naä) Hamburg 

befiimmt, 
S)er SRater $at tiefe 6 2anbfä)aft na$ 

ber Statur gqet$net, 



Ile did it designedly. 
He read it in a low, soft voiee. [abont 
Time and patience bring eveiy thing 
The note was retorned ander protest. 

The inscription is written in golden 

letters. 
We are going to the Mosenm ; will 

yon goalong? 
Will yon take the book with yon ? 

(§228). 

Sleep is round when the work is 

done. 
It shall be done exactly as yon desire. 
It has now been raining six days in 

succession. 
In the year of our Lord 1820. 
The dress is not to my taste. 

In Germany the fruit is sold by weight. 

By my watch it is now a quarter to 

six. 
The steamer is bound for Hamburg. 

The painter drew this landscape firom 
natura. 



$err Älein ift ein $entfä)er ton ®e* 

burt, 

2Ba« »erlangen @ie bon un«? 
$err ftoty ift ein fcqt bon ^rofeffton, 
(Sr ift ein SWann bon etoa fttnfoig 

3a^ren f 
Son $crjcn« ©runbe, 
(Sr würbe bon e$rliä)en (Sttern ge* 

boren, 
(Sr tourbe bon Stilen geliebt, 
(Sr lebt bon feinen (Smtftnften, 
2)a« n>ar fc$r freunbliu) 7 bon ü)m, 
<S9 n>ar fc$rUnrea)t bon u)m baf^etc, 
ffiir n>o$ncn je$n 9Rcilcu bon $ter, 8 



5. Bim ($284). 

Mr. Klein is a German by birth. 



What do you ask (wish) of us ? 
Mr. Roth is a physidan by profession. 
He is a man about fifty years old. 

From the bottom of my heart. 
He was born of honest parents. 

He was beloved by all. 

He lives upon his income. 

That was very kind in him. 

It was very wrong in him that, etc. 

We reside ten miles from here. 



»1184; 51«. 
M 118,8; 51W. 



3 «99. 

«HM, 2. 



••111,1. 

« 589,Jtoro. 10. 



'«86,«,«. 
•525«. 



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IDIOMS. 



197 



6. 3« (§235). 



2Bir »erben, jum ©riftrieF— 
#cutc tDtrb in bcr Äir^c eine @omnv 
tung'gum ©cflcn bcr Ernten in ber 
©tobt gehalten, 3 
(5$ wirb tyin nidjt jur (Styrc geraden, 
2)er Ärieg nrirb balb ju (Snbc fein, 
3um crflen, jum anbern,* jum brü- 
ten (2Ral) ! 
(Sr fa& gutn genfler fcinauS, 
3$ fcabc ba« Xu* ju brci X^ater bie 

(gffe getauft, 
2)a« föei$ tft ju ©runbe gegangen, 
$ier ifl cht a^ufttftüct ju bicr Rauben 

(or für bicr $änbc), 
2)cr ©aumctflcr $at biefe« $au« jum 

SRobcfl genommen, 
3ur* fclben 3eit, 

(Srifl3um$au))tmannemanntn)orben,* 
3u meinem Smtä c &at er ba6 getyan ? 



We will, for example — 

A collection will be taken in the 

church to-day for the benefi t of the 

poor in the city. 
It will not redoand to bis honor. 
The war will soon be at an end. 
Going, going, gone 1 (at an anction). 

He was loking out of the window. 
I paid three thalers a yard for the 

cloth. [to rnins). 

The empire has fallen to pieces (gone 
Here is a piece of mnsic arranged for 

fonr hands. 
The architect has taken this honse 

for his model. 
At the same time. 
He has been appointed captain. 
For what porpose has he done that ? 



f. «««245). 



©enn t$ an 3&rcr ©teile mffre, 

An mein ifl e* ju Iefen ? 

2>ie Hetyc ifl an mir, ju Iefen, 

(Es ifl an griebri*, 

2)cr 3Jtonn ge&t an Ärücfen, 

(Sr fifct am gcnfler, 7 

<S« ifl ni$t9 an ber @a$e, 

(Sine ftebe an ben Äbnig, 

3fa unb für fi<$, [mefenb. 

(SS maren an fünf ^unbert $erf onen an* 

3$ fyabe mt$ an tyn gemenbet, 



If I were in your place. 

Whose turn is it to read ? 

It is my turn to read. 

It is Frederick's turn. 

The man goes on crutches. 

He is sitting at the window. 

There is nothing true in it. 

An address to the king. 

In and of itself (per m). [sons present. 

There were toward five hundred per- 

I applied to him. 



8.«ttf($246). 



SKcin ©ruber ifl auf ber 3agb, 

(Sine Sfotmort auf einen ©rief, 

@ie mar &3fe e auf ü)n, 

(Sr fyrt Diel (Selb auf ©ü$er gemanbt, 

©ityelm ge&t auf ben SRarlt, 

©is auf »eiteren ©efc^t, [fen, 

Auf bie ©cfunb&cit einer «ßerf on trin* 

©ir faben lange auf tyn gekartet, 



My brother has gone hnnting. 

An answer to a letter. 

She was angry at him. 

He has spent much money in books. 

William is going to market. 

Until further Orders. 

To drink to a person's health. 

We have waited for him a long time. 



'953. 
»IC7.2.& 



»4104 
«M93,/tem.& 



MM, Am. 2. 
• i 181, Rem. 8. 



i tOS, Exe 

•9858. 



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III. EXAMPLES OF SYNONYMS. 
L «tfer, gelb, 2anb- 

2 a n b bcjei<$nct chten 2$etf bcr <2rbe im allgemeinen, im 1 ©egenfafc gegen 
fotä)e,bic mit ©affer bebedt flnb, ixnb ot)ne ttüdfidjt auf feinen nrirtyftyaft* 
liefen fltofccn (&eftlanb, ©renjlanb, ©untyflanb, Xieflanb). gelb ift 2anb, 
e« mag gebaut fein, grüßte* tragen ober m$t(93ra$fctb, SBütterfelb, ©eijen* 
feto). 9 der frißt nur nrirtft$ gebaute« gelb ($afera<fcr, äteeaäer, $toffi* 
aefer, Äartoffetader). ((Sberfrrb.) 

2, SWerSmami, Sanbtoirt^ Sauer« 

<5mfccfer«inanntft bcr jenige, beffen $auptgcföäft ber SWerbau ijt, er 
mag übrigen« in ber ©tobt ober auf betn Sanbe wo&ncn. 2anbtt>trt$unb 
© au er fliegen 9 uo$ ba« SWerlmal ein,' baß ein foftfrr ni(fr in ber ©tabt, 
fonbem auf bem 2anbe toofrte. 4 Unter fi$ flnb Sanbtoirtfr unb ©auer barin 
berf^ieben, baß, na$ bem iefcigen» ©ebrauty, ba« lefctere ©ort niefr Moß ba« 
©efdjäft, fonbern au$ ben ©taub (in ber bürgerlichen ©efeflftyjft), ba« erftere 
hingegen bloß ba« ©eföäft anjägt unb ben @tanb gar nkfr anbeutet (Sin 
(Sbclmann, ber ein freie« Rittergut bcftfct, auf bemfetben* lebt unb e« felbjt bc* 
toirtyfcfraftet, ift ein Sanbttirty ; aber er ift lein SBaucr, benn er gehört niefr 
)um ©auernftaubc. (9Raa«.) 

3, 9fof jtdjctt, er{te(en f anfcrpeljctu 

2)icfc 2B3rter Reißen eigcntli$ : au« ber liegenben ober fifcenben in bie flefrnbt 
Stellung übergeben, gigürlity übertäubt : fu$ ergeben (bon einem ©üuben- 
falte aufliefen, erpefrn, auferjtcfrn). 2>ie ©ewegung in bie $öfr wirb in 
auffielen bur$ ba« «uf bcjtimmt unb unjtoeibcutig bcjeUfriet. Cr in 
e r ft e t) e n brütft bief etbe jtoar au$ au«, aber na$ einer unbcfHmmtcu SEBeifc, 
fcennör tannau($£u« bebeuten (er» fielen frißt au«tofil)Ien). $ier* 
in liegt bcr ©runb, warum man ju e r ft et) e n, toclcfr« bie frühere gorm war, 
no$ auf $injufefcte, um bie 3rocibcunöleit 7 gn »ermeiben, unb auf biefe SBeifc 
auferfte^en bilbetc. 2)er na^folgenbe ^rad^gebrau^ beftimmte bann bie* 
1en 9ta«brucf , bermutyfity weil er bur$ bie größere güfle mcfr gcierlicfr« jn 
frben fdnen, tnfonberfrit für ba« 3luferfte^en au« bem Orabc, unb no$ 
mcfr ba« $auj>t»ort fcuferfte$ung,bcrglei<frn in biefer gorm Don er* 
ft e t) e n wenig, unb bon Ä u f ft c $ u n g gar niefr gebrannt wirb. (<5r iß bon 
feinem Ärantenlager gar nkfr aufgeftanben [or erftanben]. ©eine 
gf( fr rufrt fefron in ber grb e unb frrret ber Auf erftefrung.») (9Raa«.) 

M54, item. 8. >I151,L «586,2. '557,8,3. 

»574,8,4. «MM. «L.XUn.8. »558,8,8. 



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EXAMPLES OP SYNONYMS. 199 

4. Ausführen, vollbringen, vollführen, vollziehen, vollstrecken. 

Vollbringen bezieht sich 1 bloss auf die Handlung selbst, und heisst eigent- 
lich : Etwas so weit bringen, bis es voll, vollständig, vollendet ist (Die Erde 
roUbringt ihren Lauf um die Sonne in 365 Tagen und einigen Stunden.) 
Vollziehen ist von ausfuhren bloss dadurch 1 verschieden, dass es sich mehr auf 
das Ende der Handlung, ausfahren mehr auf die ganze Handlung, nach ihrem 
Anfange und Ende bezieht. Die Ausführung giebt dem Vorsätze seine Voll- 
endung auch schon durch den Anfang der Handlung, die Vollführung erst 
durch die vollige 3 Beendigung derselben. (Man ist schon seit langer Zeit mit 
der Ausführung des Entwürfe der Anstrocknung der pontinischen Sümpfe 
beschäftigt, aber noch immer von der Vollführung desselben weit entfernt.) 
Durch eine Handlung, welche einem Beschlüsse, der auf einer Verabredung 
beruhet, seine VoUendung giebt, wird der Beschluss vollzogen. Dieser Be- 
schluss mag übrigens 4 ein Gesetz, oder eine Verordnung, oder ein Befehl, oder 
ein Urteilsspruch sein. (Man vollzieht das Unheil an einem Missethätcr. 
Man klagt, dass die vielen Gesetze, Verordnungen und Befehle, die man in 
manchen Landern giebt, nicht gehörig vollzogen werden.) Der Gebrauch 
von vollstrecken ist so eingeschränkt, dass er eine unmittelbare Vollziehung 
bedeutet ; so sagt man : einen Befehl, ein Urtheil* vollstrecken ; nicht aber: 
ein Gesetz, einen Vertrag, eine Eheverbindung vollstrecken. (Entwürfe 
werden ausgeführt. Gesetze, Beschlüsse und Urteilssprüche werden voll- 
zogen, und diese letzteren nun, sofern es sogleich und unmittelbar geschieht, 
vollstreckt. Die vollziehende Gewalt thut also das,* was die gesetzgebende 
und richterliche beschlossen 7 hat.) (Eberhard.) 



5* SWeer, See* 

jSDie ©örter @ c c unb Wlttx »erben juf örberjl beibe bem gongen Dceon, 
$iern&ä)jt aber auä> balb ba* (Sine ober ba« Snbere, balb beibe augleid) ge* 
nriffen befonberen feilen beffetben beigelegt. 2)cr @runb non biefer 8er* 
fä)icbenl>rit in ber ©enenunng ber Steile be« Dccan« fä^etat offenbar teinc an* 
bere ju fein, ale baß bie SötterfWtmne, n>elä>c beibe Wörter, @ e c unb 3R c e r, 
Ratten, bie ®en>3ff er, bte fle burd) bte Iatehtifu)e* ober barau« entftonbenc ®pxa> 
d)en lernten lernten, SR e e r e , bte anberen ©öltaftöntme aber, u>cld)c ba« ©ort 
©ee Ratten, fotoo^l ben Oceanal« feine Xbeile ©ee nannten. Ungeachtet 
jene alfo ba* ©ort @ e e Ratten, fo gebrannten fie bod) bad SBort SWeer bei 
ben feilen be« DceanS, bereu Benennung fie bon ben Römern entlehnten. 
2>a« wirb baburd) ganj augenfä)eintt<$, baß einige ©etofiffer eine bo^elte 8e# 
nennnng fraben, eine r8mifd)e nnb eine urffrrflngUd) beutfd)e. S)ie fliorbfee 

»M58. M86,2,4> »557,8,4. '«144,«. 

*«18a,l,il«B.l. «SS78. • i Ul,2,/tom.3. »5 48, item. 



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200 EXAMPLES OP SYNONYMS. 

fctgt aud) ta3 £cutf<$e l 2Recr (maro Germanicum), unb bic Ojrfec ba« ©alti{ä)e l 
SKccr (mare Balticum). &uä) bic Steile be« DcconS, mit benen mir tu ber 
neueren 3*ü b u *$ ^ c Snglänber betannt geworben ftnb, »Derben © c c nnb 
ni$t SKccr genannt (n>ie bie @ ü b f e c, bie nrir am fceßcn burä) (Soofs* unb 
gorßcr« ©eereifen fennen). Söenn ber ganje Ocean BeibeS, © cc unb SKeer 
genannt wirb, f o gef djietyt baß natty nerfä)icbaicn 9fojtä)tcn. @ e c nrirb es 
naä) fetner SDiaterie, SRecr m$ feiner gorm genannt. 2>te @ee ift ber 
Dccan, ober ber X^cil ber Oberfläche ber (Erbe, ber 9 mä)t feftc« Sanb tfl ; ba« 
2R c e r, f o fern es bon bief cm f cflcu Sanbc eingef c^Icff en ift. (2Ran fagt : f c e * 
wärt«, entgegengefefct toon lanbtöfirt« ; ©cenrinb, entgegengefefttbem Sanbnjinb ; 
©ccmaä)t, @ccfolbatcn, ©cereifen, ©eerSubcr, :c, entgegengefefct ber 
2anbmaä)t, Sanbfotbaten, Sanbretfen, föSuber auf bem feflcn Sanbe, *c (Sben 
fo fagt man ©cetoaffer, @eebäbcr, :c.; hingegen fagt man 9Rccroufei., 
2R c c r enge). (<5ber$arb.) 

6. Naseweis, neugierig, vorwitzig. 

Der Naseweise verlangtEtwas zu wissen, und fragt, um zu zeigen, dass er 
Verstand und Erfahrung genug 4 besitzt, von einer Sache, die noch über seiner 
Sphäre ist, mitzusprechen. Man nennt Personen naseweis, und besonders 
kleine Knaben und Mädchen, wenn sie über viele Dinge anheilen, die sie 
nicht verstehen, um ihren Witz und Verstand zu zeigen, insonderheit* wenn 
sie durch ihre voreiligen Urtheile Personen, denen sie Achtung schuldig* sind, 
beleidigen, oder sie durch ihre unbescheidenen Fragen in Verlegenheit setzen. 
Die Neugierde ist die leidenschaftliche Begierde eines Menschen, das Neue 
zu wissen, bloss weil es ihm neu ist ; der Vorwitz ist die Begierde, das zu 
wissen und zu erfahren, was 7 er nicht wissen kann, und nicht zu erfahren 
suchen soll. Zu dem, was uns zu wissen vorenthalten ist, gehört besonders 
die entfernte und ungewisse Zukunft. Diese ist es gerade am meisten, welche 
den Vorwitz unwissender und schwacher Menschen reizt. (Eberhard.) 



7. Mögen, wollen. 

Was wir thun, das müssen wir wollen, selbst alsdann, wenn wir es ungern 

thun. Sollen wir es so wollen, dass wir es gern thun, so muss es entweder 

gar nicht missfallen, oder doch in beträchtlichem Grade mehr Wohlgefallen, 

als missfallen. So fern nun das, was wir wollen gefällt, so fern es uns Lust 

und Vergnügen macht, mögen wir es. So wie wir Manches wollen, was wir 

nicht möchten, wenn wir müssten, 6 so mögen wir auch Manches, was wir nicht 

wollen. (Eberhard.) 

»L.XVlII,3,ikm. '«114,2. »7lii~ll ~"~ '5114, 4, Rem. 

»577. * »112,5, item. 1. ««90,1. «5124. 



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IV. LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 
1. Ein Neffe meldet seinem Onkel den Todesfall seiner Schwester. 

Berlin, den 9. April 1869. 
Lieber Onkel. 

Eine ausserordentlich schmerzliche Begebenheit zwingt mich heute Dir 
zu schreiben. 1 Nach neuntägigem schweren Leiden ist gestern meine liebe 
Schwester Adelheid am Typhus gestorben.* Wie gross der Schmerz im 
Hause und die Theilnahme aller Bekannten ist, kannst Du Dir denken, da 
Du ja wohl weisst,' wie sehr sie der Liebling aller derer war, mit denen sie 
in Berührung kam. 

Wenn ich mich auf diese kurze traurige Mittheilung beschranke, ohne 
irgend welche Nebenumstände zu erwähnen, so schreibe 4 das dem tiefen 
Schmerze zu, der mich bewegt Alles Andere, so mittheilenswerth es auch 
sonst sein mag, erscheint mir diesem Ereignisse gegenüber bedeutungslos und 
unwesentlich. Mit herzlichem Grass 

Dein treuer Neffe 

Gottfried Förster. 



2, ®lMtoun\$ jura <3efwrt8tage eine« 8aicr8, 

Hamburg, ben 7. 3um 1869. 
SWetn lieber Sater. 

SBic gerne u>5rc id> tjeutc in ber SJlttte unfern gamifie, um Stör t>erfBnIiu> 
meinen ©lücfwnnfä) barbringen ju Wnnen. 3um erften 2Rafe ift c« mir i&er* 
fagt, ben gefttag mit <5uu) Ä ju feiern, trab e$ wirb mir ganj mcty gu 3föun)e, 
wenn iä) baran benfe. 2JWa)tc ber fa)onc Sag noä) rcä)t oft »iebertc^ren unb 
un« 8fle um 2)id) bereinigt f e$cn. 2)amit id) aber mä)t ganj in bem $chmfä)en 
Äreife um ben gefä)mü<ften grü^f!ücf«tifd) mit ber großen ©cbnrt«tag*torte 
fe$Ie, e fo fä)icf c id) 2Hr mein ©tfb, bcnn td) loetg ja bod), ba| 2)u mtd) fetbjt 
— toenn e« aud) nur mein ©Üb tft— lieber nimmft, als Alle«, u>a« td) 2>ir 
fonft (Riefen fömtte. $telleid)t fottte id) ba« nid)t fo grabe $erau«fagen, 7 aber 
warum beim am *^e njflft ebrlid) au*ft>rcd)en, loa* man benft unb ffl&lt. 

5>er Xag ift mA taum angebrochen. Ottern id) wollte nid)t fd)on geflern 
fd)retben, »eil id) Tarnt gar nid)t fo red)t in gefrfttntmung getoefen wäre. - 3efct 
trage id) ben ©rief glrid) felbft auf bie $ojt, bann ge$t er tntt bem grflfaug ab 

»«127. ~~ »5144,7. »5 107, Arm. 4. '«157,1. 

»«185,2. ««151,1. ««124. ««»2. 



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202 LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 

unb lommt gerobe an, 1 »enn 3&t CSuä) an bot 8rfi$ßü<f«ttfd) fefet unb 9toä)bar 
©einübt nadj gewohnter Seife gum ©rarufircn $erüberfommt. Senn iä) toon 
ber $ofl gurücf bin, bann werbe t^ mir felbjt in meinem ©tübä)at baö alte Sieb 
»orftagen, mit bem a mir ©cfdmrijta 2)iä) jebe« 3a$r an deinem ö&renta'ge 
aufgeftaft tyaben. 2)er Ocbanlc mag etwa« gu ttnbifä) 8 für einen f o großen 
jungen fein; aber t» ifl gar fc fä)on fic^ in bic Sinberid&re jurücTjubenten, 
namentlich an f oläfta ^eiteren gamiliengebenftagen. 

©ruße aWutter unb bie ©cföttrifter retft fe^r 
unb fei 4 felbjt $ergti$ umarmt unb gefügt fcon £>einem ©o^ne 

Ojto. 

3. Oeremonielle Form der Einladung. 
Herr und Madame Eberhard versichern Herrn und Madame Prenzler ihrer 
gänzlichen Hochachtung und bitten Sie, ihnen die Ehre zu erweisen, Mitt- 
woch um ß Uhr bei ihnen speisen zu wollen.* 



4. Antwort auf dieselbe. 

Herr und Madame Fretzler beeilen sich, der ihnen so freundlich geworde- 
nen Einladung Folge zu leisten, und empfehlen sich Herrn* und Madame 
Eberhard auf das Ergebenste. 



6. Vertrauliche Form der Einladung. 

Lieber Herr Reichert. 
Wenn Sie nicht für Morgen Mittag bereits versagt sind, so sind Sie freund- 
lichst eingeladen, mit uns am 4 Uhr zu speisen. Herr Professor Bernhard 
und Dr. Runge haben uns versprochen zu kommen. Dr. Runge freut sich 
besonders darauf, Ihre Bekanntschaft zu machen. Sie sollten die Gelegen- 
heit nicht vorübergehen lassen, da er schon in drei Tagen nach Berlin zu- 
rückzukehren gedenkt Mit freundschaftlichem Grass 
Michaels Strasse No. 1 26. Ihr 
Mittwoch, den 6. October 1869. Joh. Wilh. Engelmann. 



6. Antwort auf dieselbe. 

Lieber Herr Engelmann. 



Leider bin ich schon seit mehreren Tagen für mogenJ^ttag versagt, und 
kann daher Ihrer freundlichen Einladung 7 nicht naeukomran, so sehr ich be- 
dauere, Dr. Runge nicht sehen zu können.' ▼ 
Brandenburger Strasse No. 89. Ihr 

Mittwoch; den 6. October 1869. Fried . Wilh. Reichert. 

MlBOi«. »586,2,81 »fl66. »111*1. 

»$114,* «M61. •}7B>Ä#m.l. •flCT. 



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LETTERS AND BUSINESS FORMS. 203 

7* $öftt$e gorm bcr @inlabuttg. 

©err unb SWabomc 2)ietriä) Bitten $crrn unb SWabame Äicfetocttcr, gcfSUigft 
nä*<$ßen l 2)ienßag um 6 U&r bei tynen foetfen gu wollen, unb entyfetylen fid) 
3$nen bei biefer ©elegen&ett auf« grcunbUä)jle.* 



8. «nitoori auf bicfclbe. 

$err unb SRabaine Äief emetter »erben ba« Sergnügen $afcen, ber (Jintabunö 
*on #errn unb 9Habame 2)ietri$ gotge ju leiten,' unb entyfeVen fid) 3&nen* 
frcuttöfd)aftad)fU 



9. Wechselbrief: 

Gut für 1500 Thlr. Pr. Cour. 
An die Disconto-Gesellschaft zu Berlin. 

Nach Sicht, belieben Sie, auf diesen Prima- Wechsel, an Herrn Fr. Wilh. 
Lindemann die Summe von fünfzehnhundert Thaler, Preusisch Courant, 
auszuzahlen. Werth empfangen, den Sie in Rechnung stellen wollen laut 
Bericht. Joh. W. Eitelbero, 

Wien, den 9 12. August 1869. Banquier in Wien. 



10. fttttoeifmtg* 

©utfür800 2#r. 
3n bier äRonaten (ober auf Verlangen) toetyflid)te id) nüd),an $erni Äarl 
ÄfeUt ober beffen t Drbre, bie ©ummc von ad)$unbert £$alet, ^reußifd) 
Mourant, aufyujatyten. SBerty in S&aaren (ober baar) empfangen. 

grtebrid) Äugnft Äranid). 
Stuttgart, ben 7. ©ejemoet 1869. 



lLDuittung. 

500 £#r. 
(?ntyfangen 7 bon #errn ?. Ärau«, fünfounbert Später, $reußifd) Mourant, 
atfc «eja#ilng in bott.« «W$elnt Ärau«. 
>^ff oltya, ben 4. Dftober 1869. 

l *W. ' »5170,2. »583,4. '1144,4. 

»§190,2,8. *51T»,1. «5111,2. » 518», IS, Um. 



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V. READING LESSONS. 
Sie betttfdje ©pradjc* 

5Dtc beutfcfc &pxaty ffl eine 1 ber filteften,* reinflen inib gebübetflen unter 
ben lebenben @)>rac^eiu 3$re ©Übungsgeräte umfaßt ungefähr gtoeitaufcnb 
3a$rc* @ie ift bte urforünglicfc eine« alten, in i>erf<$iebene @ta*mme* getfcil* 
tat, großen fßoltt», toüty» fefan fc$r frfo) au«» fernen alten SBofafifcen in $o$* 
aflen naäf Europa toanberte, unb befonber« beffen ndrblk&en unb mittleren 
X^elt befcöltcrte. 

2>er Käme „beutfty" flammt nity Den bem angeblichen Ootte unb 
©tantmbater triefe« Sollt», £&ui«fo, ab,* fonbern Don bem gotyif<fcu 
SSBortc tkiud»— altbeutfö <ßb*, dt«/— ba« frißt Sott, unb bebeutet eigentfi* : 
„sum Solle gc^3renb w f »bem »ölte eigen". Unter bem Kamen 
©ermanen würben 7 bie 2>eutf<$en juerft ben Körnern betatrat 

©roßen ©nffoß auf bie 2>eutf$en unb ü)re Bpxadft fratte bie «ßltertoan* 
berung (375—500) unb bie Ausbreitung ber <$rifili($en Kcligion. 3>er 
©iföof Ulfila« (360—380) war ber Grfinber ober bo$ ber Serfcoütommner 
einer beutfetyen »uttytabcnförift, unb Ueberfcfcer 7 ber 33ibel in* ©otyiföe. 

Äarl ber @roße (768—814) tt>ar ein tätiger ©eförberer ber beutfetyen ®pxaty 
bübung. Unter ben $o$enftaufen er&ob fu$ bie fcllemaniföe ober §$feäbif$e 
SDhmbart (3Rtttefyo<$beutf($e ®pxafy), bereu 8 fl$ bie SRinneffinger bebienten. 

2)ie profaiffy Bpxaty gewann an &u*be$nung, Keutytyum unb Kegel' 
mäßigfetf bur$ ben bergrößerten 2Bo$lflanb ber ©tfibte 4tnb bie erfytyte aflge* 
meine ©Übung, auf rottete Doqügli^ folgenbe Umfifinbe bortyeil&aft rintmrttcn: 
bic <5rri$tung ber Unwerfttfit ju $rag (1348), ffiien, $eibelberg,SSln,K.; 
bie (grpnbung be« Suntyeityajrier« unb ber ©u^broefertunft (1446) ; bie Cr* 
oberung £onftonttnol>cl«(l453); bie Sntfte^ung ber 3«tungen ; bie (Sntbetfung 
Don Smerita (1492); »orjügli^f aber bie Deformation (1500). 

Sutyer (1483—1546) begrünbete bur$ feine ©ibelüberfefcung unb bur^ feine 
übrigen @($riften, befonber« <ßrebigten unb Sieber, bie feurige allgemeine 
(Scfriftforacfr unter bem Kamen be« ©o^beutf^cn (genauer Keu&oty 
bcutf$ genannt). 

<5« finb in bem langen 2eben«laufc unferer ®pxaty »ier $ a u 1> t » <£ 1> o <$ en 
gu unterf^eiben, in benen ber ©trom tyrer forttoÄ&renben Eeränberung für 
eine 3eitlang gehemmt unb fie al« ©«^riftf^rac^e gu tne$r ober weniger fetfer 
©eftalt gebieten ju fein f<$etnt 2>iefe »ier Ctyocfcn finb : 

lflOO. 3574,8,4,1. M8M. ~ ~ 'L.XXXVL,* 

»«91, **T4»8,4,1. ••151,1. «114,«. 



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READING LESSONS. 205 

1. ba« © o t ff i f d) e , bi« jum 4. 3a$r&unbert unfcrer 3*itrc$nung ; , 

2. ba« 3üt$o<!(fbeutfcjje, Dom 7.bi«gum li. 3<u)r&unbert; 

3. bat 3Rittel(otybeutf$e, fcom 12. bi« jum 14. 3a$r$unbcrt ; 

4. ba« 9teu^o$beutf$e, feit bem Anfang be* 16. 3a$r$unbert« ; bc- 
fonber« bur$ Sutyer begrfinbet, aber erfl mit bem Aufblühen unferer neueren 
claffifefcu Literatur, feit ber SWitte be« 18. 3<n)r$unbert f aumätig gu feiner 
heutigen ©eftalt gebieten. 

(Ä. SB. 2. $etfc, 1797—1855.) 



5)cr ©traflcnjmige* 

<5ht Straßenjunge, ber Don einem anbern eine SWaulfctyeu'e erhalten $atte, 
würbe gefragt, 1 warum* er bicfdbe ni$t jurütfgegeben &ätte. „Starum", ant- 
wortete er, „weil i$ badete, wir wären unfer nur jwei, unb bann würbe* bie 
Äeifc bo$ glei$ wieber an mi<$* fommen." 

(3ul. SBify. 3üttgref f 1591—1635.) 



25c« Scutfdjcu 8aieri<m&* 

2Ba« ift be« 2>cutfc$en 4 Saterlanb ? 
3jV« Sßreußentanb, ift'* ©<$wabenianb? 
3jt'« wo am* 9tyrin bie föebe blityt? 
3{T« wo am »elt bie SWöfce jte$t? T 

O nein ! nein ! nein ! 

©ein SSaterlanb muß größer fein. 

2Ba« ift be« 2)eutföen $ater(anb? 
3P« »aierlanb, ifT« ©teierlanb? 
3ft'S wo ber Warfen ftinb fu$ ftreeft? 
3fT« wo ber 3Jtör!er öifen redt? 

O nein ! nein ! nein ! 

©ein $atertanb muß größer 9 fein. 

SBa* iflbe« 2)eutf<$en S3aterlanb? 
3fT« ¥ommern(anb r ©cftfaIcnlanb? 
31*'* wo ber @anb ber 2>ünen we$t? 
3jt'« wo bie 2)onau braufenb getyt? 

£> nein ! nein ! nein ! 

@ein Saterfonb muß größer fem. 



*f 184; 161. M1Ä * fi 89, Äem. 10. M 144,0. 

> «118,1, Am. 2, 9. «1107. «t54,l,ifem.8,l. »991. 



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206 READING LESSONS. 



©o« iß be« 3>eutf<$en Botertonb? 
So nenne mir ba« große 2anb, 
3fT« 2anb bcr S^weijer, tjT« Styrol? 
2)o9 Sanb nnb Solt gefiel 1 mir too&l ; 

O nein t nein t nebt 1 

©ein SBaterfonb muß greger fein. 

©a« ijt be« 3>eutf $en «aterlanb ? 
So nenne 1 mir ba« große $anb 1 
©emiß ift e« ba« Defterreto), 
3to' (E&rtn nnb an Siegen rem)? 

D nein ! nein ! nein 1 

Sein Saterfonb muß größer fein. 

©a« iß be« 3)eutf$en Saterlanb? 
So nenne enbtto) mir ba« 2anb ! 
So weit bie bentf$e Sungc Hingt, 
Unb ©ott 4 im $immel Sieber fingt, 

3)a« fott 1 e« fein! 

3)a« f »atfrer 3>eutf$cr, nenne bein! 

2)a« ift be« 3>eutf<$en Eaterlanb : 
ffio (Sibe fötoört ber 5)ru<f bcr $anb, 
©o Staue ^eH bom Äuge Mifet, 
Unb Siebe toorm im $erjen ftfct, 

3)o« f ott e« fem ! 

3)a«, toatfrer 3)eutfc$er, nemte beinl 

3)o« gamje 3)eutf$Ianb fott e« fein ! 
£) Oott ! bom Fimmel fie^ borein 1 
Unb gieb nn« regten beutf<$en SRuty, 
3)aß »ir e« lieben treu unb gut 1 

3)o« fott e« fein ! 

3)o« ganje 3)entf($lanb fott e« fem. 

(örnft SWorüj Brnbt, 1769—1860.) 



2)cr junge SJtofUcr* 

(Sine ©cfcttftyaft bon Spöttern wollte fl$ über einen jungen SKuftter, ber 
Ujnen 7 »orftrielte, luftig mo$en unb rief : „<jr fpielt fo liebficty wie Drptyeu« !« 

»3a", antwortete ber Äftnßler, »borum 8 fpU ro) au$ einen Raufen S35rcn 
nnb tymtyer um nrid> $er.* (3. ©. 3mfgref.) 

»«144,4. »«S4& ™* »H68. ™ »HOT. 

*|144»7. ««74,8,4. »5144, 2. • M88, 10, Jfcm. 1. 



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READING LE8S0N8. 207 

5)er ©eitler unb Saifer $rtebri<I>, 

81« eine« £age$ l gu Nürnberg ein ©etiler gu Äaifer griebrt($ lam unb i&n 
um ein Klmofen anft>ra<$, mit bem 3 u f a fer « tt^te* taiferlictyer SWajefWt' ©ru* 
ber, tocit alle 2Renf$en bon einem SSatet — bem Slbam — abdämmten, alfo un* 
ter cinanber ©rüber toären, lieg u)m ber Äaifcr ni$t metyr al$ einen Äreujcr 
geben. 2)er Settier toottte* fi^ befötteren, bag c* für einen Äaifer ju toenig 
toärc. Slllein» griebri<$ toie« ü)n mit ben ©orten ab :• „SBenn btr ein ieber 
©ruber fo biet gibt, nrirjt bu reifer fein al$ t$ felbft« 

(3. ». 3&%ef0 



„©effcrl&toaS" 

@£ra$ b« ffiolf, »benn ftity«,'' ^ 

919 er Jta$ einem <S^afc fönaWrte, 
. Unb bafür eine 2Rü(f ertöte. . 

9 SDtattyer tonnt 1 bic Stoppt foaren : 
. 2Ran erfennt u)n fo fdjon für einen Darren. 

©in SHictiieiicr* 

ffl&ir belagerten, i$ wetg ni^t mcfr, toeltfe ©tobt Stern gdbmarf<$all toar 
ganj erftounlt<$ biel an genauer £unbf<$aft gelegen, tote He €>a$en in ber 
gefrang ftünben. <&9jtym Sugerft fetter; }a fajt umn$glu$, bur# alle Cor* 
Sofien, ©a^en unb geflnng«n>erfe hinein- gn 7 gelangen. ©or SWufy unb 
2>ienfWfer fafl ein toenig dugn raf^flellc ftyHnty' tiefen tine ber grögten 
Äanonen, bic foeben na$ ber gefhtng ab&efeuart »arb, 8 unb forang tat $ui auf 
bie Äugcl, in ber SlbfUfyt, mu$ in bic gefhmg hineintragen gtt laffen.» «1« t$ 
aber fcatbtteg« bur$ bie Suft geritten toar, fliegen mir allerlei ntyt unerfab* 
lubc ©cbentlia)teitcn gn Hoffe. $m ! batyc i$, ^ineinlommcn lannft bu nun 
too$t, dticin uric $erna$ fogleuty toieber $erau«? Unb toie !ami btr'« in ber 
geflung ergeben? Wlan toirb bi$ fogfci<$ als €tyton erlernten unb an ben 
nfi^pen Öalgen bangen 1 

(Bin fol<$c« ©ctte ber <J$re tooltte \ä) mir berat bo$ too$l berbitten. 9ta$ 
biefen unb fi^nli^en ©etratyungen eutfölog u$ ml($ ffflrj, n<rt)m bie gtfidfi^e 
Gelegenheit n>a$r, al« eine Äanonenlugel au« ber gefhing einige @$ritt bon 
mir »orüber na$ unferem ßager flog, 10 ftrang" »on ber SWcinigen auf biefe 
hinüber, unb lam 1 * jtoar unberrttycter <Sa<$e, jebo^ too$tfe$altcn bei ben lic* 
ben Unfrigen »ieber an. (©aron bon 2Rün<$$aufcn, 1720—97.) 

iL.nL,«18T~ «L.XXXI. MlS7,ü)flM.4 WL.XXX. 

»8184. »L.IX.,1. «}18a »flW.l. 

9L.yi. t Q,AMk «1^1X^4,4. »«144,4. »580,1. 



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208 READING LESSONS. 

Die Hunnen. 

Der Geschichtschreiber Ammianus Marcellinas (A.D. 410) macht von 
den Hannen folgende Beschreibung: "Sie sind bartlos und hässlich von An- 
gesicht, Bcheosslich von Gestalt und krummbeinig. 1 Sie bedürfen keines 
Feuers noch schmackhafter Speisen ; ihre Nahrung besteht aus Wurzeln von 
Krautern des Feldes und halbrohem Fleische von jedwedem Vieh. Häuser 
haben sie nicht und meiden sie .wie die Graber, selbst Hütten von Bohr 
findet man bei ihnen nicht Unstat durch Gebirg und Wald umherstreifend, 
lernen sie von Kindheit an, Hunger und Durst und den Wechsel der Wit- 
terung ertragen. Ihre Kleider sind von Leinwand, oder aus Fellen von 
kleinem Wild zusammengenähet* Mit gebogenen Mützen decken sie den 
Kopf, mit Bocksfellen den Körper, ihre unförmlichen Schuhe hindern sie an 
freiem Gang, desshalb sind sie zu Fussmärschen untüchtig. Aber auf ihren 
Pferden, die zwar hässlich, jedoch dauerhaft sind, hangen 3 sie wie angewach- 
sen und verrichten auf denselben ihre gewöhnlichen Geschäfte. Bei Tag 
und Nacht ist jeder zu Pferde, kauft und verkauft, isst und trinkt und schläft 
auf den Nacken des Thieres gelehnt Zu Pferde halten 4 sie die Versamm- 
lungen und Berathangen. Kein strenges Herrscherthum fesselt sie; sie 
folgen ihren Häuptlingen ohne festes Band. In den Kampf gehen sie keil- 
förmig geordnet und mit grässlich lautem Geschrei. Gewandt und behende 
wie sie sind, sprengen sie dann absichtlich mit einem Male auseinander und 
zerstreuen sich zu wüstem Morden. 

Aus der Ferne kämpfen sie mit Wurfspeeren, deren Spitzen künstlich aus 
scharfen Knochen gefertigt sind, in der Nähe mit dem Schwert Pflüge 
haben sie nicht Ohne Hof und Herd, ohne festen Sitz und Gesetz schwei- 
fen* sie unstat gleich Flüchtlingen mit ihren Wagen umher; dies sind ihre 
Wohnungen, wo sich ihre Weiber und Kinder befinden, bis sie erwachsen 
sind. Anderswo geboren,' in fernen Landen aufgezogen, weiss keiner anzu- 
geben, woher er stammt Treulos, wankelmüthig, jeder neuen Hoffnung 7 
hingegeben, folgen sie ganz dem Drang des Triebes. Wie das unvernünftige 
Vieh kennen sie keinen Unterschied zwischen Tugend und Laster. Von 
Glauben und Religion haben sie keinen Begriff. Nach Geld sind sie so aus- 
nehmend lüstern und so leicht gereizt, dass sie wohl mehrmals an demselben 
Tage sich 8 entzweien und wieder versöhnen. 

(Weber's Weltgeschichte.) 



SBcmV« md)t gefyt, tote man tritt, 
üJhiß man fytm wie man tarnt. 



>Lxn. »Lxxxm. »jiwr.i. *l.xxxiv. 

•l.to,«8s. «l.xxxil •im.a. »«loa. 



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READING LESSONS. 209 

eintritt in bie beutle Sdjtoeij. 

greier 1 attymet fä>n bie ©ruf!, 
©b^er* fä)Iägt etnfame 2uß, 
griebe ifl e«, toa« &icr n>e$t, 
©anft 3U tnnerm $crjen gc$t, 
2)aj$ teilt ©c^mcq ba nimmer fHirmt 
2Bie ftä) ©erg auf S3crg antyürmt, 
$of)e« @ä)tt>eigen un« ergreift, 3 
SBilbe« Streben ni$t me$r fd^toeift, 
$icr auf fritter BfycnW,« 
©o ber fernen ©tyfel ^ä)nee, 
©o bie SBotfcn gotben malt, 
(grnft ju un« (ernieber ftratylt 
©elig, 6 n>cr ba fürten baut, 
Cinfam ber Statur »ertraut, 
2)er Erinnerung nur lebt, 
©ang fid; felbfl in fic »ergrabt, 
(Sinjig auf ba$ Sieb nur benft, 
3)as tym Oott iu« $erj gefentt; 
S)cr ben 2)iä)tcr auSertor, 
Stoß er briä)t an'« 8iä)t $erbor* 
Stttcn ©clbengeifle« 7 @jmr l 
©tiller ©ä)cn$eit Blumenflor, 
gern bon jener müßen SBelt, 
2)ie und OT* in geffcln (Alt 
SWBä)t e iä) einfl fo glficfliä) fein, 
©olcfyen grieben« miä) ju frcu'n ; 
2>iefer frönen ©erge ^ö^n 
Sfo>ä) al« $eimat$ nrieberfe&n. 

(griebriä) bon @ä)tegcl, 1772—1829.) 



Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. 

Joh. Wolf, von Göthe wurde geboren den 28. Anglist 1749 zu Frankfurt 
am Main, woselbst sein Vater kaiserlicher Rath war. Im Jahre 1765 ging 
er nach Leipzig, wo er die Rechte studiren sollte, sich aber am meisten 
mit Dichtkunst beschäftigte, und auch Versuche im Kupferstechen machte. 
Von 1768 lebte er wieder in Frankfurt und studirto chemische Werke. Im 

i$184,l. ~~"~ MISS, 8. »L. XVIII. »B8.1. 

>fi92. *«57,8,1. «167,1. «1S4.8. 



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210 READING LES80N8. 

Jahre 1770 bezog er die Unirersität Strasburg, dort lernte er Herder ken- 
nen 1 und ward Doktor der Rechte. In da« Täterliche Haus zurückgekehrt, 
waren Shakspeare's — des grossen englischen Dramatikers — Werke Gegen- 
stand seiner eifrigsten Studien. Im Jahre 1773 schrieb er das Schauspiel 
"Götz von Berlichingen," und 1774 den Roman: "Leiden des jungen 
Weither." Beide Werke begründeten des Dichters* Rut Im Jahre 1776 
ernannte ihn der Herzog Karl August von Weimar, mit dem er personlich 
bekannt geworden, zum Legations-Bath. Der Aufenthalt in Weimar, dem 
Mittelpunkt der deutschen Dichtkunst, hatte auf sein Leben und dichterisches 
Wirken den entschiedensten Einflnss. Im Jahre 178G reiste er nach Italien, 
wo er zwei Jahre verweilte und sich meistens in Rom aufhielt. Während 
dieser Zeit 1 schrieb er seine vollendetsten dramatischen Werke: "Iphigenie 
in Tauris"— "Egmont"— " Torquato Tasso." Im Jahre 1792 machte er 
mit dem Herzoge ron Weimar im preussischen Heere den Feldzug gegen die 
Franzosen mit. Um 4 sich ganz der Poesie und Wissenschaft widmen zu 
können, Hess er sich seines Staatsdienstes entheben,* doch wurde er später 
zum ersten Minister (Minister-Präsident) in Weimar ernannt. Nach dem 
Tode des Herzogs im Jahre 1826 zog er sich zurück. 

GÖthe gilt als Haupt-Representant unserer zweiten classischen Periode. 
Er ist einer der grössten deutschen Dichter, wenn nicht der grosste. In fast 
allen Zweigen der Dichtkunst hat er das ausgezeichnetste geleistet. Er ist 
gross in jeder Gattung, am grössten* aber in Drama und Roman. Seine 
Tragödien: "Götz von Berlichingen," "Egmont," "Iphigenie in Tauris," 
" Tasso," etc., werden allgemein bewundert. Seine Tragödie "Faust" aber 
ist als sein höchstes Werk in der Poesie, als die Krone seiner Dichtungen 
betrachtet. Seine Lieder, Elegien, Balladen, gelten als Muster. Grosses 7 
leistete er im Epos durch eine Bearbeitung des "Reineke Fuchs" und durch 
"Hermann und Dorothea, " im Roman durch " Werthers Leiden," "Wilhelm 
Meisters Lehrjahre," und " Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre." • 

Bis zu seinem Tode hatte er sich einer* ungewöhnlichen geistigen Frische, 
der vollkommensten Gesundheit und der heitersten Gemüthsstimmung zu 
erfreuen. Er starb nach kurzem und schmerzlosem Krankenlager am 22. 
März 1888, fast vom ganzen Volke als der "deutsche Dichterfürst" verehrt, 
von etlichen angefeindet, von mehreren zum Gott gemacht. 

(Darin.) 



(Sin SBolf im ®$laf t $<md o$ne gleiß 

g&tgt nie ein ©6>if. | ©trb nimmer tneif. 

if 144,7. M7M,1. M 144,0. '5 89, Bern. 10. 

M 74,1,1,1. ««28T,Jfem.e. • * »8, Bern. *. '«88,8. 



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RE1DIN0 LESSONS. 211 

$e* StMtf ®raü* 

2)ie SBeflgotfcen wollten buro) Statten naä) Slfrifa toanbent, unterwegs 1 flarb 
^tö^Uc^ SHariä), i^r Ä5nig f bat flc über bie SHage liebten. 2)a fcuben fle an f * 
unb leiteten bat gfaß 93arent, bar neben ber ©tobt Cofentia fcora guße be$ 
SBerge« fliegt, auö feinem ©ette ab. 9 Sitten in bem SBett liegen fte nun burd) 
einen #aufen ©efangener ein ©rab graben, unb in ben @a)oß ber ©rubc be* 
flattctcn fle f nebfl 4 bieten äoftbarteüen, tyren Äönig SUaria). Sie ba« gef ä)e(>cn 
mar, leiteten fle baö ©äff er »ieber in« alte ©ette gurfid , unb töbteten, bamit bie 
Stätte toon niemanb toerratyen würbe, alle bie, wela)e ba« ©rab gegraben Ratten. 

(©age, bon ben ©rübem ©rintm.) 



Aufruf des Königs von Preussen. 

An mein Volk. 
So wenig für mein treaes Volk als für Deutsche bedarf es einer Rechen- 
schaft über die Ursachen des Kriegs, welcher jetzt beginnt : klar liegen sie 
dem unverblendeten Europa vor Augen. Wir erlagen 6 unter der Uebermacht 
Frankreichs. Der Friede, der die Hälfte meiner Unterthanen mir entriss, * 
gab uns seine Segnungen nicht, denn er schlug uns tiefere Wunden, als selbst 
der Krieg. Das Mark des Landes ward ausgesogen. Die Hauptfestungen 
blieben vom Feinde besetzt, der Ackerbau ward gelahmt, sowie der sonst so 
hochgebrachte Kunstfleiss unserer Städte. Die Freiheit des Handels ward 
gehemmt und dadurch die Quelle des Erwerbes und des Wohlstandes ver- 
stopft. Das Land ward ein Raub der Verarmung. Durch die strengste Er- 
füllung eingegangener Verbindlichkeiten hoffte ich meinem Volke Erleichte- 
rung zu verschaffen, und den französischen Kaiser endlich zu überzeugen, 
dass es sein eigener Vortheil sei, Preassen seine Unabhängigkeit zu lassen. 
Aber meine reinsten Absichten wurden durch Uebermuth und Treulosigkeit 
vereitelt, und nur zu deutlich sahen wir, dass des Kaisers Verträge mehr 
noch wie seine Kriege uns langsam verderben mussten. Jetzt* ist der Augen- 
blick gekommen, wo alle Täuschung über unsern Zustand schwindet. Bran- 
denburger, Preussen, Schlesier, Pommern, 7 Litthauer ! Ihr wisst, was ihr seit 
sieben Jahren erduldet habt ; ihr wisst, was euer trauriges Loos ist, wenn 
wir den beginnenden Kampf nicht ehrenvoll enden. Erinnert euch an die 
Vorzeit, an den grossen Kurfürsten, an den grossen Friedrich. Bleibet 8 ein- 
gedenk* der Güter, die unter ihnen unsere Vorfahren blutig erkämpften : Ge- 
wissensfreiheit, Ehre, Unabhängigkeit, Handel, Kunstfleiss und Wissenschaft. 
Gedenkt des grossen Beispiels unserer mächtigen Verbündeten, gedenkt der 
Spanier und Portugiesen ; selbst kleine Völker sind für gleiche Güter gegen 



«§188,5. »9101,1. »9144,8. »975,4. 

■antytai. 4 * 880 ' ** 148 - ••»b.i. 



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212 RE ADING LESSONS. 

mächtigere Feinde in den Kampf gezogen und haben den Sieg errangen ;' 
erinnert euch an die heldenmüthigen Schweizer und Niederländer. Grosse 
Opfer werden von allen Ständen gefordert werden,* denn unser Beginnen ist 
gross, und nicht gering die Zahl und die Mittel unserer Feinde. Ihr werdet 
jene lieber bringen für das Vaterland, für euren angeborenen Eonig, als für 
einen fremden Herrscher, der, wie so viele Beispiele lehren, eure Sonne und 
eure letzten Kräfte Zwecken widmen würde, die euch ganz fremd sind. Ver- 
trauen' auf Gott, Ausdauer, Muth und der mächtige Beistand unserer Bun- 
desgenossen werden unserm redlichen Anstrengen siegreichen Lohn gewähren. 
Aber welche Opfer auch von einzelnen gefordert werden mögen, sie wiegen 
die heiligen Güter nicht auf, für die wir sie hingeben, für die wir streiten und 
siegen müssen, wenn wir nicht aufhören wollen, Preussen und Deutsche zu 
sein. Es ist der letzte entscheidende Kampf; den wir bestehen für unsere 
Existenz, unsere Unabhängigkeit, unsern Wohlstand. Keinen andern Aus- 
weg gibt 4 es, als einen ehrenvollen Frieden oder einen ruhmvollen Untergang. 
Auch diesem würdet ihr getrost entgegengehen, weil ehrlos der Deutsche nicht 
zu leben vermag. Allein wir dürfen mit Zuversicht vertrauen, Gott und un- 
ser fester Wille werden unserer gerechten Sache den Sieg verleihen, mit ihm 
einen sichern glorreichen Frieden und die Wiederkehr einer glücklichen Zeit. 
Breslau, den 17. März 1813. Friedrich Wilhelm. 



(&m SDtttytftein unb ein 2Renfd)etu)€rj 
SBirb ftet« herumgetrieben ;• 

SBo ©eibe« ftiä)t« *u reiben (mt, 
SBirb 33eibc« fetbft jerricben.« 



SnrjtoctUjje fragen« 

1. ©a« tft ni$t rea)t unb bo$ feine ©ünbe ? 

2. 2Benn fünf Oäfle flnb unb fünf (gier aufgetragen »erben, tote Iann jebet 
ein (St nehmen unb boä) julefct no$ eine« in ber ©Rüffel Bleiben? 

3. mity finb bie ^rieften' pfiffe? 

4. ©te farat man au« einem ©acf soll Äont gtoci folä)cr ©fidfe jugteiä) »ott 
machen? 

5. SBarum ift in Ulm ein ©rofäfaibrob gr&ßer beim in @ä)affoaufen ? 

6. SBa« ftebt )n>tfä>en 8erg unb 2$al? 

7. «Bonn tbun bem $afen bie 3fibne toefc? 9 

8. SBefcfc 2Renfä)en geilen auf Äö^fcn? 

9. (Sin ©Iinber fa& einen $afen laufen, ein Säumer fyrang tyra naä), unb ein 
SRatfter ftetft tyn in bie £afä)e ; »a« ijl ba« ? 

10. ggetcfter ifl ber ffoserfte ©tab? 

»«144,1. *«*». M187,1. '«91. 

M1«L ♦L.XLV.8. ««144,5. •5149. 



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RE ADING LESSONS. 213 

Bnimorien. 

1. Den finfen $onbf<fyu) auf bie Tt$te $anb jtetyn. 

2. Der fiefcte nimmt eine« fammt ber ©Rüffel. 
8. «eirübniffe nnb Gkfattöntffe. 

4. SWan mufj jmei <5äaY über elnanberuYJen unb bot innerflen fallen« 

6. SBeU man e6 größer bätft. 

6. Da« ffibrtlein „unb." 

7* ffieim bie $unbe ü)n beißen. 

8. Die Wagel* in ben Stiefeln $abe». 

9. (Eine finge. 
10. Der JBettelflab. 



2Reerc«fHöe, 

Xiefe ©ritte $crrf $t im SBaffer, 

€>&ne Hegung ruft ba« SWeer, 
Unb betümmert fie^t ber ©ä)tffer 

Olatte glfiä>e ring« untrer. 
Seine Suft, *on feiner ©ehe ! 

fcobeSfrttte, ffirä)tertta) ! 
3n ber ungeheuren SBeite 

»leget feine SBette fiä).» (©ötye.) 

Der Cirknitzer See. 

An den julischen Alpen liegt in Krain der berühmte Cirknitzer 4 See, von 
jeher das Wunder und Räthsel der Gegend. Oestlich von Adelsberg, da wo 
die Geheimnisse der Unterwelt 5 in hundert Gewölben und Kalkfelsen ver- 
schlossen sind, breitet sich der wunderschöne See von Cirknitz aus, wie ein 
Spiegel von drei Quadratmeilen. Aus ihm ragen hervor* fünf Inseln und 
eine derselben trägt selbst das Dörfchen Ottok. Mehrere Flüsschen 7 fallen 
hinein. Er ist sehr reich an Fischen und Wasservögeln, und die ganze 
Thalgegend umher ist romantisch schön. Nördlich erhebt sich das Silvi- 
nitza-Gebirge, westlich und südlich der grosse Javornik. Neun Dörfer, 
zwanzig Kirchen und zwei Schlösser reihen sich um den See. Bei vielem 
Regen gewinnt er an Umfang, aber bei seht trockenem Wetter verschwindet 
sein Gewässer und zieht in den geheimen Schooss der Unterwelt, begleitet 
vom Wassergeflügel und allen Fischen. Tritt diese wunderbare Erscheinung 
ein, dann lauten die Dorfglocken umher, um noch zu fischen so viel als mög- 
lich. Von Stunde zu Stunde sinkt tiefer der Spiegel, denn eine Menge von 
Löchern im Grunde des Sees verschluckt sein Gewässer. Unterirdische 
Höhlen von nnermesslichemUmmng, die nie ein menschliches 8 Ange geschaut, 
nehmen es auf. Jetzt schaut der Grund des Sees zum heiteren Himmel 

'674, 8, Item. '«153. »«58,1. '187,1,1. 

»574,1,1,1. «5 86, 2, 5, item, 2. ««187,1. ««88,8,6. 



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214 RE ADING LfiSSONS. 

hinauf, er trocknet ab; und der rührige Mensch erntet Gras, wo er sonst 
fischte, er wagt zu säen und erndtet Hirse und Buchweizen, er nimmt statt 
des Netzes das Feuerrohr und erlegt Wildpret. So ist der wunderbare See 
mit Recht in dem Rufe, dass man in ihm fischen, jagen und erndten kann ; 
bis die Zeit sich wendet, häufige Regengüsse und starke Gewitter sich ein- 
stellen. Dann tritt das Gewässer aus den Grundlöchern gewaltsam herauf. 
Es speiet die Unterwelt Gewässer und Fische und Seevogel herauf so dass 
binnen vierundzwanzig Stunden der See gleichsam wieder neu geschaffen ist. 
Der Zusammenhang dieses Sees mit unterirdischen Wasserhöhlen, die theils 
unter ihm, theils höher als er liegen, giebt die Erklärung des Wunders. Man 
hat selbst Modelle erfunden, welche den Vorgang versinnlichen. 

(J.C.F.GutsMuths.) 



2)cr borfidjttge Xx&rmtx. 

3n bem @tSbtd)en 2SitU«bad) im (Kanton Sern War einmal ein grember über 
Sßad)t, unb at« er in« ©ett ge^en wollte, gog er noä) ein $aar Pantoffeln aus 
bcm ©ünbct; legte fie an, banb ftc mit ben ©truntyfba'nbern an ben gfißen feft, 
unb legte fid) alfo in« ©ett. 2)a fagte gu tym ein anberer 2Banber«mamt, ber 
in ber nfim(id)en Äaramcr übernad)tet war : „®uter greunb, warum t&ut ü)r 
ba«?" darauf erwiberte ber (Srfte : „Sö&egen ber S3orfiä)t. $ennid)btirera> 
mal im £raum in eine @ta«fd)erbe getreten. @o $abe tä) im @ä)laf fold)e 
@d)mergen babou empfunben, baß iä) um leinen $rri« mc$r barfug fä)lafen 
möd)te." (3. %. #ebe(, 1760-1826.) 



SBa« ber 3Ronb crj81>lt 

#5re, Wa« ber SRonb mir erjagt ! 3ä) $abe ben Äabettenoffigier werben unb 
fiä) gum erften SWale in feine J>rää)tige Uniform fteiben fe^en; id) tyfot ba« 
Junge 2Jtöbd)en in ü)rent ©rautftoat gefefan unb be« gürften Junge »raut 
glücKid) in ü)rem ^Praa)tanguge ; aber nie $abe iä) eine @eltg!eit erbtieft, tyn. 
(id) ber eine« Keinen bterjä&rigen 2Wäbd)en«, wetd)e« id) $eute Slbenb beob* 
ad)tete. @ie ^atte an neue« blaue« äleib erhalten unb einen neuen fflofa*$ut; 
ber @taat mar eben angelegt unb %Ut riefen nad) Stä)t, benn be« SRonbe« 
©trollen, bie burd) ba« genfter brangen, waren ma)t fftU genug, gang anbere 
2tä)ter mußten angebrannt werben. 2>a flanb ba« tleine SRfiba)en, fteif wie 
eine $uj>j>e, We $rme Sngfttlä) toon bem Äfeibe ab au«frredenb, bie ginger weit 
au«einanber gefprrigt. O welä)e ©eligteit ftaa$tte au« tyren Hugen, au« t&rcm 
gangen ©efid)t ! „SRorgen fottft S)n tu bem Äeibe ausgeben !« tagte bie SWut» 
ter, unb bie Steine blutte auf gu i&rem $ut unb wieber nieber jn ü)rem Äletbe 
unb tSä)clte feiig. „9Jhttter l" rief fle, *wa« werben wo$( bie flcinen $ünb* 
d)en benten, wenn fie mia) in biefem Staate erblufen?" 

($an« <£$r. Hnberfen.) 



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part ®t)irb: 

▲ COXPEND OF 

GERMAN 6RAMMAR; 

WITH AN 

INTRODUCTION UPON TEE HISTORY, CHARACTERISTICS, 

EXTENT OF USE, AND DIALECTS OF THE 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



1. History ofthe German Lcmguage. 

§ 1. Indo-European Historians are united in the opin- 
Languages. ion that the greater portion of the 

present inhabitants of Europe and^Hindostan are descend- 
ed from one common stock, which had its early home in 
the western part of the Himalaya Mountains. From this 
mountain region, one portion of this original stock moved 
down to the rieh plains of India, and developed the San- 
scrit language and literature, and the Buddhist religion. 
Another part went to Persia, and there developed the Bac- 
trian language and the Parsee religion. Successive migra- 
tions passed also to the west or northwest, and settled in the 
different parts of Europe. From these western migrations 
have sprung the chief groups of European nationalities 
and languages. The most important of these are the Gre- 
cian^ Italic jKdtiCjTeutonicy and Slavic. 

When classed together, the inhabitants of Europe and 
India are called the Indo-European branch of the human 
f amily. Their languages, termed the Indo-European lan- 
guages, are more perf ectly developed, and are richer in lit- 
erary treasures, than any other languages in the world. 
Upon the study of them has been based essentially the very 
important modern science of Philology. 

§ 2. Teutonio The Teutonic was one of the largest of 
Languages. these migrations. Moving through cen- 
tral Europe, it divided into three branches. One portion 

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218 INTEODUCTION. [§ 2. 

passed over to the Scandinavian peninsulas of Norway and 
Sweden, and of Denmark. Another part moved westerly 
and setüed in Germany. The third division, composed of 
the Gothic tribes, passed through Poland and Russia down 
to the Black Sea, and then moved up the Danube. Urged 
by their restless spirit of conquest, the Gotha pushed for- 
ward into Western and Southern Europe, and established 
two brilliant, but short-lived kingdoms lipon the ruins of 
the Eoman empire. That of the East Goths covered Italy, 
Switzerland, and parts of Bavaria, Austria, and European 
Turkey. That of the West Goths covered most of France 
and Spain. In the eighth Century the Goths disappeared 
completely and finally from history. Of their language 
and literature, the only monuments extant are parts of the 
translation of the Bible, made by Bishop Ulfilas in the 
fourth Century, a fragment of an almanac, and two short 
bills of sale. These meagre remains of the Gothic lan- 
guage furnished the starting-point for the comparative 
study of the Teutonic languages. 

The 6ame principles of linguistic science that were ap- 
plied by the brothers Grimm and others to the Teutonic 
languages, were applied by Bopp and his colaborers to the 
wider field of the Indo-European languages. And thus has 
arisen, within the last fifty years, the new and interesting 
science of Comparative Language. 

By the ninth Century after Christ, the great majority of 
the Scandinavian and German tribes had settled down 
within their present dominions, and they have there devel- 
oped their separate nationalities, languages, and literatures. 
The Germans pressed back to the west of the River Ehine 
the Kelts, whom they f ound extending their dominion as 
f ar east as the present cities of Berlin and Vienna. The 
Germans were in turn pushed f orward to the west by the 
Slavic tribes as far as to the River Elbe and the city of 
Coburg. A reflex movement afterward set in. The Ger- 
man language, which has already ßpread to the eastward 

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§ 3.] HISTORY OF THE GEEMAN LANGÜAGE. 219 

as far as the Baltic provinces of Russia, to the city of Bres- 
lau in the Prussian province of Silesia, and to Vienna in 
Austria, iß still gaining ground over the Slavic dialects in 
the Prussian provinces of East and West Prussia, Posen, 
and Silesia, and in the Austrian provinces of Bohemia, Mo- 
ravia, and Galicia. On the other hand, the French lan- 
guage is gaining on the German in the regions bordering 
on Sie Bhine, and especially in the French. provinces of 
Alsace and Flanders, and in Belgium. 

The Teutonic languages have thus three chief divisions: 

1. The GOTHIC, which in the ninth Century entirely 

disappeared from history. 

2. The SCANDINAVIAN, covering Sweden, Norway, 

Benmark, Iceland, and Cfreenland. 

3. The GERMANIC, covering Germany, Holland, parts 

of Switzerland and Belgvum, England, the United 
States, British America, and Australia. 

§ 3. Germanio Differences in the dialects of the Ger- 
Language8. man tribes are noticeable as early as 
when the Eomans first came in contact with them. As 
these tribes, still in the rudeness and ignorance of barbar- 
ism, became permanenüy setüed in their present localities, 
and thus ceaaed to have much intercommunication, the dia- 
lectic differences in language were rapidly increased. And 
now almost every province, city, village, Valley, and moun- 
tain district haß its distinctive dialect The difference be- 
tween the dialects has becomo so great, that a peasant from 
Bavaria or Wirtemberg, in passing through Hamburg or 
Bremen on his way to America, can only mth the greatest 
difiiculty converse with his f ellow-emigrant from Bremen, 
Hamburg, Holstein, Mecklenburg, or Pomerania. 

From this multitude of dialects have arisen several of 
the most cultivated languages of modern times, as the Ger- 
man, Dutch, and English languages. The German dialects 



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220 DTTEODUCnON. [§ 4-6. 

are divided, by a line running from Aix-la-Chapelle to 
Berlin, into Ujpper-German BtodZower-German dialects. 

§ 4. Lower-German The Lower-German dialects (and 
Dialects. the languages that have sprang from 

them) occupy, or originally occupied, the low ßandy piain 
which lies between the German Ocean, Denmark, and the 
Baltic Sea on the north, and the line above indicated on 
the ßouth. They extend also from the French province 
of Flanders on the west, to the Russian confines on the 
Baltic on the east. From Lower-German dialects have 
ßprung the Dutch and the English languages. 

During the early Middle Ages the Friesan language, spo- 
ken on the coasts and in the islands off the shores of Hol- 
land and Hanover, rose to a perf ection nearly equal to that 
of any contemporaneous Teutonic language. But it has 
long since sunk back into mere local dialects. 

§ 5. Upper-German The Upper-German dialects occupy 

Dialects. the high mountainous region ex- 

tending from the line above indicated on the north, to the 

Alps on the south, and from the French province of Al- 

sace on the west, to Hungary and Poland on the east 

§ 6. The High-ßerman In the fifteenth Century com- 
Language. menced a chain of circumstances 

beginning with the translation of the Bible by Luther, which 
has resulted in the f ormation of a national German Lan- 
guage. ThislIigh-Ger7n<mfja7iffiuige,Tnore commoniy 
called in English simpiy the German Language^ was based 
primärily on one of the dialects of Saxony, in Central 
Germany, which was intermediate both in character and 
in geographica! position between the Upper and the Lower 
German dialects. Both the Upper and the Lower German 
dialects have contributed to the grammatical features as 
well as to the vocabulary of the national language. 



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§ 7-9.] HISTOBY OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 221 

§ 7. Hißtoryof the German The history of the German 
Language. language is divided into four 

chief periods ; the Pre-Historic, the Old-German, the Mid- 
dle-German, and the New-German. 

§ 8. Pre-Historic Period, The Pre-Historic period is so 
tili 7th Century. named because no remains of 
the German literature, and bnt a few proper names in the 
language of that time, have been preserved. From this 
period, which ends with the seventh Century after Christ, 
there are extant literary works in fceveral of the other Teu- 
tonic languages, as, the translation of the Bible into the 
Gothic language, made by Bishop ülfilas (A.D. 360-388) ; 
the Anglo-Saxon -poem, Beovulf, the earliest Teutonic epic, 
evidently of heathen origin and composed at a very early 
date, though the earliest manuscript of it extant is from 
the eighth Century ; and the Scandinavian Eddas, also of 
very early and unknown date, and of heathen origin. 

§ 9. Old-Görman Period, The earliest literary remains in 
7th to llth Centuries. the German language that are 
extant consist almost entirely of translations of ecclesiasti- 
cal documents from the Latin and the Greek. The oldest 
of these date from the seventh Century. They are of but 
little literary merit, but they are of great importance in 
ßtudying the literary development of the German lan- 
guage. The oldest preserved German poem is the Song 
of Bildebrandt (£ilbebranbtö*Sieb), dating from about the 
eighth Century. It is written in a Lower-German dialect, 
but it contains many Upper-German words. The next im- 
portant poem is the ^elianb, a religious poem of about the 
ninth Century, written in the Old-Saxon dialect The SBclt* 
SBcfd^rcibung, composed in the eleventh Century, is the old- 
est preserved German poem that does not treat of a relig- 
ious subjeet 

Like all new languages, the German dialects were orig- 



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222 INTEODUCTION. [§ 10. 

inally very poor in words. They were, however, much 
richer than the modern German in grammatical forms. 
During the Old-German period, the diaiecte were enriched 
from the Latin and Greek by many words, whose use was 
made necessary by the introduction of Christianity and of 
a higher civilization. From this period date many such 
words, as ßngcl (Gr. ayycXoc), Ätrd^e (Gr. avpiaien), ©^reiben 
(Lat. scribere), bieten (Low-Lat. dietwre), Äloftcr (Lat. clau* 
trum\ ^riefter (irpiaßvrtpog). 

§ 10. Kiddle-Oerman Period, Before the Middle-Ger- 
12th to 16th Centuries. man period, no dialect had 
acquired any great predominance over the others. In the 
twelfth Century, German commerce, manufactures, chival- 
ry, and poetry flourished most luxuriantiy on the Lower 
Khine, and especially in and around Flanders. At this 
time the Lower-German dialect of Flanders became the 
most eultivated in Germany. Soon, however, the Flemish 
poetry was eclipsed by the songs of the Minnesingers 
(SWinncfanger) of AUemania and Suabia, on the Upper Khine 
(A.D. 1150-1250). These were sung so widely through 
the courts of Germany that they almost made a national 
language from the dialects of AUemania and Suabia. With 
the last of the Crusades (A.D. 1250) the spirit of chivalry 
died out of Europe, and with it perished Üie poetry it had 
nourished. During this period of the Minnesingers arose 
the 9lolant>$*Sieb : the great German epic— the SWeklungen* 
Sieb : and many other populär legends and romances. 

In the latter part of the thirteenth Century, clubs of lyr- 
ic poets, called Master -singers (SWeiflcrfangcr), were organ- 
ized in many parts of Germany. These had their terms 
and ruies of membership, like tlie many trades-unions of 
the Middle Ages. The 6pirit of their poetry spread to the 
people. From this period date the great mass of the beau- 
tiful populär songs (9SoIfg>?icber) of Germany. Under the 
influence of these Master-singers, the vocabularies of many 



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§ 11, 12.] HIßTORY OF THE GEEMAN LANGUAGE. 223 

dialects were greatly enriched, but still no one dialect gain- 
ed any great ßupremacy over the others. 

The universities that were established in Germany, on 
the model of those in Italy (the first in Prague, A.D. 1348) ; 
the commercial prosperity of the free cities, and the conse- 
quent flourishing condition öf the fine and Ußef ul arts ; the 
conqueßt of Constantinople by the Turkß (A.D. 1453), and 
the consequent dispersion of Greek scholars over all Eu- 
rope ; the invention of printing (A.D. 1450) ; the estab- 
liRhing of newßpapers (A.D. 1488) ; and, finaÜy, the Eef For- 
mation in the ßixteenth Century, were all additional influ- 
ences that greatly enriched the more cultivated dialects 
during the latter part of the Middle-German period, and 
prepared the way for the laßt, the New-German period. 

§ 11. Ghanges in the Language During the fifteenth cen* 
during the löth Century. tury the poetic side of the 
language loßt much in purity, beauty, pathoß, and power. 
On the other hand, the dialects were greatly enriched by 
the addition of technical, ßcientific, metaphyßical, and theo- 
logical termß, as waß required by the advance of ßcience, 
invention, commerce, and pulpit eloquence, of prose in pre- 
dominance over poetic literature, and by the increaße in 
the general intelligence of the people. 

§ 12. New-German Period, The extenßive circulation 
16th Century tili present time. throughout Germany of 
the tranßlation of the Bible made by Luther (1522), and of 
the ßennonß and hymnß published by Luther, Jonaß, Speng- 
ler, and others, ßoon made the new JERghrGermcm Lan- 
guage (§ 6) in which they were written very widely known 
in all the German ßtateß. Additional impetuß waß given 
to the High-German language by the publication in it of 
humorouß and ßatiricai poemß and fableß, collectionß of 
proverbß, workß of hißtory and of natural hißtory, tranßla- 
tionß of workß of claßßical writera, and other bookß that 



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224 iNTRODUcnoN. [§ 13. 

were read largely by the people. Above all, a f oundation 
was laid, by the publication of grammars and dictionaries, 
for a critical and scientific knowledge of the langoage. 
The High-German has added to its vocabulary from the 
local dialect8 (§ 6) and from ancient and modern f oreign 
languages, and has become the sole language of literature, 
of official intercourse, and of polite society throughout all 
Germany. It has not, however, displaced any of the local 
dialects. These retain their vitality with great teuacity, 
especially among the peasantry. 

§ 13. Foreign The nse of Latin in scientific writings, in 
Influences. lectnres at the universities, and as the lan- 
guage of intercourse amoug literary men of different na- 
tions during the Middle Ages, greatly retarded the develop- 
ment of the German as a cultivated language. The polit- 
ical predominance of France during the reign of Louis 
XIV., the spread of the French as the language of the court 
throughout all Europe, and the immigration from France 
of the banished Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, 1685, caused the introduction of many French 
words and idioms into the German language. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth Century, some bold 
German scholare, as Gessner and Leibnitz, ventured upon 
the great innovation of lecturing in the universities, and 
Publishing their scientific writings in the German language. 
A general movement soon set in to rescue the language 
from the corruptions that had crept in during the preceding 
Century. This movement, so ably begun by Gessner, Leib- 
nitz, Opitz, and others, and afterwards so greatly strength- 
ened by the pure style in German prose and poetry of such 
writers as Klopstock, Wieland, and Lessing, recei ved a great 
check by the second invasion into Germany of French man- 
ners, morals, literature, and philosophy, which was led on 
by Frederick the Great during the latter part of the eight- 
eenth Century. 



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§ 14.] HISTORY OF THE GEEMAN LANGUAGE. 225 

The brilliant and nuinerous constellation of writers in 
every branch of literature, science, philosophy, and criti- 
cism, which arose in Gerinany during the first half of the 
present Century, including such names as Goethe, Schiller, 
Schlegel, Humboldt, Fichte, Hegel, Eanke, Heyne, Grimm, 
etc., have made this the second classic jperiod of the Ger- 
man language and literature. The present purity, richness, 
and elegance of the language are also owing in no small de- 
gree to the fact that the German has displaced the French 
as the language of court, and the Latin as the language of 
scientific and philosophical literature. 

§ 14:. Grammatical Changes in the During its develop- 
Language during its History. ment f rom the sev- 
enth Century after Christ tili the present time, tlie German 
language has undergone many and very radical changes. 
In the Old-German there was a much more complete and 
complex System of grammatical forms in the inflection of 
the verb, noun, pronoun, and adjective than there is in the 
New-German. 

The Old-German had twenty-five, and the Gothic forty 
endings in the inflection of the noun, while the New-Ger- 
man has but seven (e, ti, 9, en, tt, er, ern). There was an in- 
strumental case ; three forms f or the three genders of tlie 
plural of the pronoun jte, they (m. sie )c /! sio, n. siu); and 
three forms for the plural of the adjective (as, for blinbe, 
blind; m. plint6,y! plintö, n. plintu). 

The very extended conjugation of the verb gave the 
Old-German more musical beauty and more adaptation to 
poetry, while on the other band the Old-German is infe- 
rior to the New-German in its capacity to express thought 
and scientific truth. While some radical words disap- 
peared during the Old and Middle- German periods, the 
vocabulary of the New-German has been enriched by many 
new derivatives and Compounds of native words, and by 
the addition of many f oreign words. 

K2 

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226 iNTRODucnoN. [§ 15. 

§ 15. History of the No critical work on the German 

Critical Study ofthe language appeared until several 
German Language. centuries after grammars Lad been 
written upon some of the other languages of Europe, as the 
Italian, Spanißh, French, and Anglo-Saxon. The firet Ger- 
man grammar was written (1540) by IckeUamer, a contem- 
porary of Luther. The firet treatise on German prosody was 
by Opitz (1624) ; the firet German dictionary was by Ge- 
nisch (1616) ; and the firet work on German synonyms was 
by Gottschedd (1758). 

The wrong principles of grammatical analysis, which 
had crept into the German grammars during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, were checked and correct- 
ed by Adelung, whose great German grammar and diction- 
ary (1793-1801) marked an epoch in the critical study of 
the German language. It was reserved to the present Cen- 
tury, however, to develop the true principles of compara- 
tive and historic study of language. And within the last 
fifty yeare have appeared the great comparative and hißtor- 
ical grammars of Grimm, Heyse, Becker, Kehrein, Kelle, 
and others ; and the dictionaries oi Heyse, Weiffand, Met/er, 
Sanders, Schmitthenner, and Grimm,. That of the broth- 
ere Grimm, when complete, will fill about twenty octavo 
volumes, and will be the most complete dictionary ever yet 
produced of any language. Many noted philologists in Ger- 
many and many learned societies are constantly adding, by 
their researches, to the knowledge of the German language 
and its dialects. 

During the history of the language, lettere have been ex- 
changed, added, and dropped ; nouns have passed from one 
gender to another, and from one declension to another. 
Within the last fifty yeare unif ormity has been introduced 
into the spelling, and the complicated construction of sen- 
tences, which f ormerly prevailed, has to a degree been re- 
placed by the original simplicity of German syntax. 



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§ 16.] HISTOBT OF THE GERMAN LANOÜAOE. 227 

§ 16. Besumö. We thus find the history of the German 
language to be divided into four chief periods, with subdi- 
visions as f ollows : 

1. The PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD .endingwith the Sev- 

enth Century; with no remains of the language 
extant except a f ew proper names. 

2. The OLD-GERMAN PERIOD, /;w& the Seventh to 

theEleventh Century; translations from Latin of 
legal and ecclesiastical documents, £ilbebranW$* 
gtcb, £eUanb,SeU^ef$retbung* 

3. The MIDDLE- GERMAN PERIOD, from t/te 

Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century : 

1. Fleinish poetry, in the Twelfth Century. 

2. Minnesingers, 9iotanb$*Sirt>, SRiebetwtgen^teb, 
legends and romances; theJFtrat ClassicalPe- 
riodoi the German language (1150-1250). 

3. Master -singers, populär songs; decadence of 
poetry and prose (1250-1500). 

4. The NEW-GERMAN PERIOD, from Luther's 

tra/nslation oftheBible (1522) to thepresent time : 

1. Sixteenth Century ; religious hymns, sermons, 
universities, public schools, printing ; introduc- 
tion of many technical terms in science, art, 
and philosophy. 

2. Seventeenth Century; decadence of the lan- 
guage through French influence. 

3. Mghteenth Century; purifying of the lan- 
guage from f oreign elements, and f oundation 
of the language as it now exists ; German dis- 
places Latin in the universities. 

4. Middle oftheEighteenth Century; 6econd de- 
cadence of the language under French influ- 
ence. 

5. Nineteenth Century: Adelung, Lessing, Goethe, 
Schiller, Grimm, Bopp, Humboldt, etc. ; Second 
Classical Period of the German language. 



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228 iOTBODucnoN. [§17-19. 

2. Characteristics ofthe German Language. 

§ 17. Pirat Impression. To most foreigners who go to 
Germany without an acquaintance with the language, and 
especially to those speaking English, French, Italian, or 
Spanish, the German language bas ap energetic but barsb 
ßound. This is owing mo6tly to tbe great predominance of 
consonants over vowels, and to the frequent recurrence of 
the sharp diphthong ci, of the fdj, of gutturak, and of 
double consonants. The energy of the language is greaüy 
increased by the accent f alling so frequenüy upon tbe first 
syllable, as is the case even in very long words. The ca- 
dence and Intonation of the sentences in the German are 
very different from the same in the English language. 

§ 13. Fullness of A nearer acquaintance shows that the 
the Vocabulary. German language is extremely rieh in 
words; that, though füll of energy and force, the language 
has also an abundance of words expressive of the most del- 
icate sentiments and emotions ; that it successfully express- 
es the deep f eeling, the warm friendship and hospitality, the 
humor, wit, and pathos, and the brilliant and highly poetic 
imagination of the German people ; and that its vocabula- 
ry is snflSciently extensive to meet all the requirements of 
modern civilization. 

There is in the language an unlimited power of multi- 
plying words, by forming Compounds from simple words. 
Indeed, the very great majority of German words can be 
traced back to a very small number of primitive roots, na- 
tive to the language itself. 

§ 19. Purity from In the German language there are 

Foreign Elements, about forty thousand words of f oreign 

origin, which are not so f ully naturalized but that their f or- 

eignness is still feit. Many of these are but rarely used, and 

most of them may be replaced by words of German origin. 



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§ 20.] CHARACTEEI3TIC8 OF THE GEEMAN LANGUAGE. 

Some thoiisands of words, however, which liave been intro- 
duced ßince tlie seventh centiuy (as fcfyreiben, $fert>, @ngel, 
Äircfye), are so completely incorporated into tue language 
that their f oreign origin is now " no longer feit." Still there 
are but few languages in which foreign words are so little 
used as in the German. The rigidness with reference to 
the exclusion of foreign words, which the so-called "pur- 
ists" introduced into the language in the early part of the 
present Century, has of late very greatly relaxed. 

§ 20. Comparison of The German grammar is f ar more 
German and English complicated than the English. The 
Grammar. definite article, and every adjective, 

or adjective pronoun, have six forma, while in English each 
has but one form. In the declension of the noun, seven 
terminations may be used (besides the umlaut on the radi- 
cal vowel), while in English there are but two terminations, 
and no modification of the radical vowel. Adjectives and 
adjective pronouns may be declined in three ways, or may 
be used without declension, while in English tliey are al- 
ways without declension. The gender of nouns is arbi- 
trary and not natural, many nouns that are neuter in En- 
glish being masculine, and others being feminine in Ger- 
man. In the conjugation of the verb, the radical vowel oft- 
en takes the umlaut. The past participle generally adds 
a prefix syllable, and always has a participial termination. 
In Compound verbs, the prefix to the verb, wlüch in En- 
glisli can not be removed f arther than to immediately after 
tlie object of the verb, in German may be placed at the 
close of even a long sentence. One or more long quali- 
fying clauses may intervene between the article and its 
noun. The order of sequence of auxiliary verbs is entire-. 
ly reversed in conjunctive sentences. Prepositions and 
verbs govern three cases of the Substantive instead of a 
Single one, as in English. The object precedes the verl 
more frequently than in Englisli. 

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230 INTRODÜCTION. [§ 21. 

The German has tlie advantage over tlie English lan- 
guage in several respects. The infinitive of verbs is always 
indicated by a termination (-en). The past participle is 
marked by a termination (-t or -en), and generally also by 
a prefix syllable (ge-). The termination of the article, ad- 
jective, or adjective pronoun often indicates the gender, 
case, or nnmber of the qualified noun. The additional 
cases (the Genitive m& Dative) diminish the use of prepo- 
sitions. Somewhat more inversion in the poßition of words 
is allowed, giving rather more freedom of style in express- 
ing emphasis or shades of meaning. The freedom with 
wlüch Compound words are f ormed gives great terscness of 
expression. Owing to the method of forming Compound 
words and the comparatively rare use of foreign words, 
thero are but f ew, even of the longest words, that can not 
be immediately understood by persons of comparatively 
limited education. 



3. Extent of Use ofthe Germern Language. 

§ 21. Extent of Use. The German language is the ver- 
nacular of the entire population of the smaller German 
states ; of all tlie inhabitants of Prussia, except the small 
Slavic-speaking population of Prussian Poland ; of about 
one fourth the inhabitants of Austria (being spoken mostiy 
in tlie western part of that empire) ; of two thirds the inhab- 
itants of Switzerland ; of the provinco of Alsace in France ; 
of the German colonists of Courland, and other provinces 
and cities in Eussia ; and of the German immigrants in the 
United States, Brazil, and some other countries of the Old 
and New World. It is thus spoken by about seventy mil- 
.lions of people. This is nearly equal to the English-epeak- 
ing population of the entire world, and is greater than tlie 
number that speak any other language of European origin. 
These two, the German-speaking and tlie English-speaking 
branches of the Tentonic division of tlie Indo-European 



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§ 22, 23.] OEBMAK DIALECTS. 231 

portion of the human race, represent to-day inore of tho 
active, intellectual, political, rehgious, artistic, commercial, 
and industrial forces of the world than any otlier f amily 
of the nations of Europe or of the world. 

§ 22. Literaiy Treasures. The number and value of the 
works in every branch of human learning in the German 
exceed by f ar those in any other language. The German 
belles-lettres literature rivals that of any other nation. Ger- 
many is the home of modern music and art-criticism. The 
German language is theref ore studied, both as a means of 
education, of culture, and of enjoyment by the scholare, art- 
ists, educators, and travelers from all civilized lands. A 
knowledge of the language is also essential to success in 
many branches of domestic and foreign industry and com- 
merce. 

4. German Dialects. 

§ 23. Formation of Dialects. When the tribes of the Ger- 
man branch of the Teutonic f amily first settled in Ger- 
many, there were probably but f ew differences in their lan- 
guage. As these ignorant and almost barbarous tribes 
became permanently settled, intercommunication between 
them soon almost entirely ceased. In every province, city, 
secluded valley, or mountainous region, dialectic changes 
immediately began to be developed. Words rapidly be- 
came modified in pronunciation and in meaning. New 
words grew out of old roots. With sorae tribes words 
passed out of use. Different vowel and consonant sounds 
gained a predominance in certain regions. Grammatical 
f orms were dropped, modified, or added. New words from 
foreign sources were added to one dialect without being 
adopted by its neighbors. Thus within a short time were 
f ormed a great number of dialects in all parts of Germany. 

Other influences, on the other hand, soon set in to retard 
the growth of dialects and to permanently fix their forms. 



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232 iNTEODuenoN. [§ 24. 

There has, indeed, been less change in the character of the 
local dialects of Germany 8ince the seventh Century, than 
there has been in that of the cnltivated High-German lan- 
guage since the sixteenth Century. 

As we have seen above (§ 12), one of the Uppcr-German 
dialects in Saxony became the grammatical basis of the 
present German language (§ 6)*, which is spoken by the edu- 
cated classes in all parts of Germany. But the great mass 
of the people, and more especially of the peasantry, still 
speak their own local and provincial dialects. Even the 
educated classes are but rarely entirely free from provincial- 
isms, both in pronunciation, in the intonation of sentences, 
and in the use of words. 

The dialectic differences between the languages of the 
tribes of North and those of South Germany (which were 
indistinctly marked in the proper names handed down to 
us by Koman writers) have, in the course of time, been suf- 
ficiently developed to give a basis f or a Classification of the 
dialects of Germany. 

They are divided by a line running nearly from Aix-la- 
Chapelle to Berlin (§ 3) into two chief groups, the Upper- 
German and the Lower-German dialects. 

§ 24. Upper-Oerman The dialects of Upper or South 
Dialects. Germany, extending south as far 

as the Alps, are, like all languages of mountainous districts, 
füll of terse and short words and expressions. The words 
are apparently clipped off or contracted, and are strength- 
ened by doubling the consonants. The TJpper-German dia- 
lects are fuller of consonants and of hareh guttural sounds 
than is the cultivated national language, and much more so 
than are the dialects of North Germany, or than are any 
other of the Teutonic languages. They are thus both 
hareh to the ear and difficult of pronunciation. 

They are subdivided into four groups: the JBawaro- 
Aiwtrian, the Sudbian^ the Attemanian, and the Frankish. 



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§ 25-27.] OERMAN DIALECTS. 233 

§ 25. Lower-German The Lower- German or North- Ger- 
Dialects. man (called also the Platt-Deutsch) 

dialects, like all languages in low and piain countries, are 
softer to the ear, freer f rom consonants and gutturals, and 
fuller of vowels and liquids, than those of South Germany. 
The Lower-German dialects are in many respects inter- 
mediate in character, as they are in geographical position, 
between those of South Germany and those of Scandihavia. 

They are also subdivided into four chief groups: the 
Lower-Saxon, the Westphalian, those of the Lower-Rhine, 
and the Friesan (§ 4). 

§ 26. Characteristic In a large number of words where 
Differences. the Upper-German dialects have 

f, f, d) or (j, f$, 6, et or t f the same words in the Lower- 
German dialects have t, ty, f , f , Ö, and 0. From the fre- 
quent recurrence of the t f or the f , some writers call the 
Lower-German the , f bat" dialects, and the Upper-German 
the „bdS" dialects. 



§ 27. Tables in For the purpose of presenting to 

ComparativeLanguage. the eye at a glance a few of the 
verbal analogie6 upon which the theory of the relation- 
ship, and of the history of the development of languages is 
to a large degree based, we give the three f ollowing tables, 
presenting : 

1. Comparison of words in the Indo-European languages. 

2. " « " Teutonic " 

3. Hlustrations of the historic development of words in 

the German language. 
The intricate and subtle laws of vocal changes, a knowl- 
edge of • which is necessary for the complete understand- 
ing of these tables, must be reserved for explanation in 
more advanced works. In these tables the vowels are pro- 
nounced as in German. 



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234 



INTRODUCTION. 



Englith. 

Father, 

Mbther, 

Son, 

Daughter, 

Brother, 

Sister, 

Sun, 

Star, 

Day, 

Yesterday, 

Night, 

Month, 

Eye, 

Knee, 

Salt, 

Name, 

Red, 

To lear, 

Am, 

Art, 

Me, 

Thou, 

Thee, 

One, 

Two, 

Three, 

Six, 

Ten, 

Over, 



Sanscrit. 

pitar, 

mätar, 

sünis, 

duhitar, 

bhratar, 

Bwasar, 

syona, 

ßtri, 

dyn, 

hyas, 

nakta, 

mas, 

akßhi, 

jäno, 

näman, 

rohita, 

bhri, 

äsmi, 

&si, 

asti, 

aham, 

mäm, 

tvam, 

tväm, 

dwi, 

tri, 

shash, 

da^an, 

upari, 



§ 28. Comparison of Words in 

Bactrian. (Neic-Persian.) Greek. 

padar, rrarfip, 

mäder, uhrnp, 



mata, 

dätar, 
bratar, 



ahmi, 

as-si, 

a§ta, 

azem, 

mam, 

tum, 

thwam, 



doktarah, Ovyarrip, 
brader, tpparnp, 
hhaher, 



ßitarah, 
di-ruz, 



am, 



nam, 
surkh, 

ein, 

h 
est, 

man, 

mara, 

tu, 

tara, 

yak, 

du, 

ßili, 

ßheßh, 

dah, 

bala, 



?}Aioc, 



oicoc, 

y6vv, 

uXc, 

ovopa, 

tpvOpog, 

<p(puv, 

tlfJU, 

**» 

ttJTl (v), 

ryw, 

frf» 
ri, 
ri, 

Bio, 
rptic, 

15, 

virip, 



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COMPABATTVE TABLE. 



235 



the Indo-European Languages. 



Latin. 


Keltic. 


SJavic, 


(Lithuanian.) 


Gothic. 


pater, 


aithar, 


patr, 




fadar. 




mater, 


mathair, 


matka, 
sin, 

ApPTfL 


mota, 

RHU Hfl 


mödar. 

RITFITIS 




dear, 
brathair, 


DIAXXIAD, 

dukt£ 


DIXXXIAO. 

fiftnhtar 


frater, 


UCl/1 et, 

bratr, 


KU* IV t>v/, 

brolis, 


UCvlAXXKU. 

brothar. 




piuthar, 


sestra, 




svistar. 


oOTOTy 




SOl, 

Stella, 




slun, 
hwezda, 




sauil. 










Pl/XcU IX VI. 


dies, 


dia, 


den, 




dags. 




hesternus, 




wcera, 




(gestren). 






nox (noctis),nochd, 


noc, 




nahts. 




mensis, 


mios, 


m&je, 


akis, 


menoths. 


OClÜUS, 




oko, 




augo. 






<yann 




koleno, 




kniu. 


genu, 






sal, 
nomen, 


salann, 
ainm, 


soly, 
gineno, 




salt 
nomö. 






(rutilus), 


ruadh, 


cerwenij, 




rauds. 




"fpTTA 


beir, 


(brati), 




bairan. 


ACX X ü, 




sum, 


is, 


gsem, 


esmi, 


im. 


es, 


is, 


gsi> 


esi, 


is. 


est, 


is, 


gest, 


esti, 


it. 


ego, 


mi, 


azu, 


az>, 


ik. 


me, 


mi, 


me, 


mane, 


mik. 


tu, 


thu, 


ty, 


tu, 


thu. 


te, 


thu, 


ti, 


tave, 


thuk. 


unus, 


un, 


gedno, 


venas, 


ains. 


duo, 


do, 


dwa, 


dwi, 


tvai. 


tres, 


tri, 


tri, 


trys, 


threis. 


sex 




shestj, 


szessi, 


saihs. 






decem, 


deich, 


deset, 


deszimt, 


taihun. 


super, 


OS, 


pres, 




ufar. 










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236 




INTRODÜCTION. 










§ 29. CompariflonofWordß 


(1.) Gothic. 


(2.) Scandinavian. 


English. 


Gothic 


Icelandic 


Swedish. 


Danisk. 


Father, 


fadar. 


fadir, 


fader, 


fader. 


Mother, 


modar. 


modhir, 


moder, 


moder. 


Son, 


ßunus. 


ßonr, 


ßon, 


ßön. 


Daughter, 


daulitar. 


dattir, 


datter, 


dofeter. 


Brother, 


brothar. 


brodhir, 


broder, 


broder. 


Sister, 


svistar. 


ßyßtir, 


ßyßter, 


ßößter. 


Man, 


man. 


madhr, 


man, 


mana. 


Sun, 


sauil. 


ßol, 


ßol, 


ßoel. 


Mbon, 


m6na. 


mani, 


mäne, 


moane. 


Star, 


stairno. 


ßtirna, 


ßtjerna, 


ßtienie. 


Dag, 


dags. 


dag, 


dag, 


dag. 


Night, 


nahts. 


nött, 


natt, 


nat 


Good, 


gods. 


godr, 


god, 


god. 


Better, 


batiza. 


betra, 


bättra, 


bedre. 


High, 


liauhs. 


ha, 


hög, 


höi. 


Bitter, 


baitrs. 


bitr, 


bitter, 


bitter. 


Sweet, 


sutis. 


ßötr, 


ßöt, 


ßöd. 


One, 


ains. 


einn, 


en, 


cen. 


Two, 


tvai. 


tvein, 


tvä, 


tö. 


Three, 


threis. 


thrir, 


tre, 


tre. 


Ten, 


taihun. 


tin, 


tio, 


ti. 


To have, 


haban. 


hafa, 


hafva, 


have. 


To come, 


quiman. 


koma, 


komma, 


komme. 


Togo, 


gahan. 


ßia, 


g*> 


goa. 


In, 


in. 


h 


h 


i. 


Owt, 


Tit. 


üt, 


nt, 


ud. 


Over, 


ufar. 


yfr. 


öfver, 


over. 


JVo, 


n& 


nei, 


nej, 


nei. 


Tes, 


ja. 


j*> 


]*> 


3* 








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OOMPARATTVE 


TABLE, 


2 


in the Teutonic LangnageB. 










(3.) Oermanic. 




German. 


Lower- German 


. Frieaan. 


Dutch. 


Anglo-Saxon. 


fßattx, 


fadder, 


fader, 


vader, 


fäder. 


SWutter, 


mudder, 


moder, 


möder, 


moder. 


©o&n, 


sän, 


ßon, 


zoon, 


ßunu. 


Softer, 


dochter, 


dochter, 


dochter, 


dohter. 


©ruber, 


broder, 


broder, 


broeder, 


brodher. 


<5<$»ejier, 


swester, 


swester, 


zuster, 


.swyster. 


SWann, 


man, 


man, 


man, 


man. 


©onne, 


sunne, 


snnne, 


zoen, 


sunna. 


SWonb, 


moand, 


mond, 


maan, 


mona. 


Stern, 


steern, 


stera, 


ster, 


steorra. 


Sag, 


dag, 


dei, 


dag, 


daeg. 


5Ra<$t, 


nacht, 


nacht, 


nacht, 


•niht. 


gut, 


god, 


god, 


goed, 


god. 


beffer, 


bäter, 


beter, 


beteren, 


beterian. 


M# 


hoch, 


hag, 


hoog, 


heah. 


bitter, 


bitter, 


bitter, 


bitter, 


biter. 


m, 


ßöt, 


swet, 


zoet, 


swetc. 


ein, 


een, 


an, 


een, 


ain. 


jn>ei, 


twee, 


tw&ie, 


twee, 


twa. 


brei, 


dree, 


thre, 


drie, 


thri. 


je&n, 


tein, 


tian, 


tien, 


ten. 


Ijaben, 


hebben, 


hebba, 


hebben, 


habban. 


fommen, 


koamen, 


kuma, 


komen, 


cnman. 


flehen, 


goaen, 


gan, 


gaan, 


gangan. 


in, 


in, 


in, 


in, 


in. 


au«, 


nut, 


fit, 


Tltt, 


üt 


über, 


over, 


over, 


over, 


over. * 


nein, 


ne, 


nä, 


ne, 


nä. 


ja, 


joa, 


ie, 


ja, 


gese. 








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238 




ioteoductton. 










§ 30. Illustration of the 










Words in the 


English. 


(Gothic.) 


Old-German. 


Middle-German 


. New-German. 


Father, 


fadar, 


fatar, 


vater, 


Sater. 


Mbther, 


modar, 


muotar, 


muoter, 


SWutter. 


Sern, 


sunus, 


ßunu, 


ßun, 


<5o$n. 


Daughter, 


dauhtar, 


tohter, 


tohter, 


Softer. 


Brother, 


brothar, 


bruodar, 


bruoder, 


©ruber. 


Sister, 


ßvistar, 


ßiiestar, 


ßwester, 


©d)»ejier. 


Man, 


man, 


man, 


man, 


SWann. 


Friend, 


frijönds, 


friunt, 


vriunt, 


greunh 


H0U86j 


hüs, 


hüs, 


hüs, 


£au$. 


Sun, 


ßtinno, 


ßunna, 


ßunne, 


©onnc. 


Moon, 


menoths, 


manoth, 


mänot, 


2»onb. 


Star, 


ßtairno, 


ßterno, 


ßtern, 


©tern. 


Day, 


dagß, 


tac, 


tach, 


Sag. 


Night, 


nahte, 


naht, 


naht, 


5Kad)t. 


Good, 


gods, 


guot, 


guot, 


gut. 


Better, 


batiza, 


beziro, 


bezzer, 


bejfer. 


Best, 


batistß, 


bezist, 


bezzißt, 


bejh 


High, 


hauhs, 


höh, 


hoch, 


tyä). 


Bitter, 


baitre, 


bittar, 


bitter, 


bitter. 


Sweet, 


ßlltlS, 


ßuazi, 


ßüze, 


lüf. 


To hear, 


haußjan, 


h6ran, 


hören, 


ftfrem 


To come, 


quiman, 


chuman, 


komen, 


fommem 


Togo, 


(gahan), 


g£n, 


g6n, 


gefcen. 


To see, 


ßaihvan, 


sehan, 


sehen, 


fe&en. 


Toeat, 


i'tan, 


ezzan, 


ezzen, 


effen. 


/, 


ik, 


m, 


ich, 


t$. 


Me, 


mik, 


mih, 


mich, 


mid). 


Thou, 


thu, 


du, 


du, 


bu. 


Thee, 


thuk, 


dih, 


dich, 


bt#. 








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HISTORICAL TABLE. 



239 



Hißtorical Development of 
Oerman Language. 



EnglUh. 


(Gothic.) Old-German. 


Middle-Germaru New-German. 


He, 


iß, 


v, 


er, 


er* 


She, 


Bl, 


ßiu, 


ßiu (sie), 


fle. 


It, 


it, 


iz, 


si, 


e*. 


We, 


reiß, 


wir, 


wir, 


»tr» 


You, 


jus, 


fri 


ir, 


i&r» 


They, 


eis, 


eis, 


ßie, 


fr 


Who, 


hvaß, hvo, 


hwer, 


wer, 


wer» 


Which, 


hveleiks, 


hwiolilih 


er, wölher, 


»el$er. 


One, 


ains, 


eines, 


eines, 


ein?» 


Two, 


tvai, 


zwßne, 


zwßne, 


j»ei. 


Three, 


threiß, 


driö, 


driö, 


brei. 


Four, 


fidvoreis, 


fiori, 


viere, 


trier. 


Five, 


fimf, 


fimfi, 


vünve, 


fünf» 


Seven, 


ßibun, 


sibun, 


siben, 


fteben» 


Eight, 


alitau, 


ahto, 


aht, 


afy. 


Nine, 


niun, 


niun, 


niun, 


neun» 


Ten, 


taihun, 


zekan, 


zehen, 


je$n» 


No, 


ne, 


ne-ein, 


nein, 


nein» 


Fes, 


j a > 


& 


ja, 


ja» 


To write, 


(L. aernbere), 


scripan, 


schriben, 


fcfyreiben. 


ßounda/ri 


f, (P6l.granicx 


O^renitz, 


grenitz, 


®renje. 



Cahbage, (Italcawfo), cholo, kol, 

Nation, (L wo^iV?, Fr. wo^iVw), nation, Nation. 

Excepted, üzgenommen, aufgenommen» 

Muscle, (L.mu9culu8)> SWuSfel» 

Museum, (Lmuita), SWufeum. 

CWfee, (English), ffoaW. 

<7^, (Arab.x»AwiÄ,Fr.« ? /e), Kaffee. 



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GERMAN GRAMMAR. 
($cittfd)e (SramraatflO 

§ 31. GERMAN GRAMMAR, like that of all cultiva- 
ted languages, is divided into four parte: 

Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 

Rem. In this work prosody is omitted entirely. Syntax is not treated sep- 
arately, but the etymology and syntax of each part of speech are given in 
the same chapter. Many portions of the German grammar are omitted 
where the same laws prevail as in the English language. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 
§ 32. The German Alphabet has twenty-six letters : 



Sl,o. 

C,c. 

D,b. 

e,e. 
©,fl. 

3,i.. 



.Ah. 
.Bay. 
. Tsay. 
.Day. 
.Ay. 

-W- 
.Gay. 

.Höh. 

.Ee. 



£,f... 
8,1... 
2R,m. 
91, n.. 

O,o.. 

0,q.. 
%x.. 



. . Tote. 
..Kah. 
..Ell. 
. . Emm. 
. . Enn. 
. . Oh. 
. .Pay. 
..Koo. 
...Err. 



£,t.... 
U,u.... 
©,».... 
SB,»»... 
S,x 



.E88. 

.Tay. 
.Oo. 
.Fmo. 
. Vay. 
.lks. 



2), 9 Ipseelon. 

3,J Tset. 

(See Lesson I., 1.) 

Rem. The German Alphabet, like those of all other European nations, was 
devcloped fron» the Latin. Under the infloence of the artistic spirit of the 
times, dnring the thirteenth and fonrteenth centuries, when in architecture the 
pointed arch took the place of the round arch, pointod letters took the place in 
mannscripts of the round Latin letters. The pointed letters were adopted 
also in the first books that were printed both in English, French, and Lat- 
in, as well as in the German langnage. With the revival of classical taste 
Ihere was a return to the nse of the Latin aiphabet, first in Italy, then in 
France, England, Holland, Foland, and other Europenn conntries. The 
Latin letters are now also used in many German books and periodicals. 



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§33-37.] V0WEL8 ÄND DIPHTHONGS. 241 

1.VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 
(Solale ttttfc SitfttsxgeO 
§ 33. 1. There are seven simple Vowel Sounds: 

a,e(8),t,a,M>tt* 
2. And three Diphthongal Sounds: ei, <ra, ett/ 

Rem. 1. All the seven yowcls have both long and »hört sounds. 

Rem. 2. The three uinlavt vowels ä, 8, Ü (also written at, Üt, Ut) represent 
distinct vowel sounds, not modifications of the vowels a, 0, 0» 

Rem. 3. The ä and 8 first appeared in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; 
the 9 and öt (also ett) first appeared doring the Middle-German period. 

§ 34. The Vowel is long: 

1. When doubled in the same syllable: $aar, ©pree. 

2. With silent 1) in the same syllable : ©o&tt, 9tot$. 

3. When it closes a syllable (especially if it is accented) : 
83a'*ter, <E4t'*fa, 3uMi, 33ru'*ber, le'*fen, ba, fo, bu, ju. 

4. In radical syllables and raonosyllables which end with 
a single consonant : $ab'*\uty, lesbar, tragbar ; er, 
wen, ber, beut, ben, bar, »or, für» 

Exe. The vowel is short in ab, an, bt«, in, mit, um, Don : ob, $m, ttKg ; e$, 
man, toa« ; ba«, be«, im, bom, gum ; Bin, (at. 

§ 35. The Vowel is short : 

1. When f ollowed by a double consonant : faVAtn, btfrftx, 
Wit'ttt, ÜWann, 33ett, foll, SRuU. 

2. Or by two or more consonants : 33anb, bil'^benb, ijh 

Exe. 1. The vowel is long: in the contracted words, ftyfogb, ÜDRonb, SDfon* 
tag, Dbjl, Opern, tytyft, föofl, fcroft, gröfct, $8ä}ft nä^fr, trötfen,and »fift 
(^om Mid.-Ger. m&get, m&nöt, obez, ostarun, b&best, groezest, hoehest, etc.). 

Exe. 2. Also in some contractions of verbs, as : fabt (fyibet), lebfr (lebet). 

Exe. 8. And before t in SCrt, «rjt, »ar«, »ort, Duarfc, jart ; (Srbe, $erbe, 
$erb, $ferb, @$toert ; »orb ; ©ebirrt. 

§ 36. Diphthongs are always long: gaujt, letjlen, feufy. 

§ 37. Yowels belonging to different syllables mnst be pro- 
nounced separately : geenbet (ge*en'*bet), Armeen (2lr*me'*en), 
8imc (Si'*ni*e), Kanaan (Äa'*na*an), 3oolegie (3o*o*lo*gie'). 

L 

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242 OKTHOGRAPHY. [§ 38. 

§ 38. Vowels and Diphthongs arc sounäed tims ; 

1. &, a* 1. The long soiuid, like a in father / Skter, fa$. 
2. The short sound is shorter and sharper, but not as 

flat as in hat : &at, ba$, laffen, SWann. 

2. @, t f has three soiinds : 

1. Long, like a in mate : ©<$nee, me$r, ben, bem. 

2. Äfort, like e in bdt r let : beut, 33ett, beffer, bejl, SBen* 
bung, Trennung. 

3. It is almost suppt-tssed in terminations and pre- 
fixes : $aben, meine, ©d&neiber, gelobt, ©ebaube. 

3. 3, i 1. The long sound, like ee in meet : SWtne, tym. 
2. The *Ao7»tf «wnd, like iinbit: bitter, mübe, in, ijh 

Rem. JJ is never doubled ; when followed by silent t, it has a long sound : 
feie, 2)tcner, toter. But ie is short in bitten, trtersig, ttfertel. 

4. D, 0. 1. The fon^ sound, like o in 7w>te : fRofy, 33oot. 
2. The «A0rtf sound is intermediate between that of o 

in zone and that of u in *ttn : ©omte, SBolf, beppelt. 

5. U, H* 1. The fony sound, like oo in 0100t ; 2Wu$, $nn. 
2. The short sound is intermediate between that of 00 

in jpodl, and that of u in pull : $ult, 33unb, furj. 

6. $, t>, sounds likeü(§ 38, 9) : »eggten, ©jjntar, ©pftem. 

jßem. In all words of German origin, where ty was formerly used, as well 
as in foreign words that are fully naturalized, it is now replaced by i (§ 88, 10). 

7. »e, fi, sounds like e (§ 38, 2). 

Rem. Strictly speakmg, a somewhat more open sound than that of a in 
mate, one intermediate between that of a in vary and that of e in very, is given 

to S, and also to e in some words (as »er, 5er, 6r&e ; leben, gebe», beten, 
geoeii,@*iiee,etc.). 

8. De, 8 (ohrumlaut), has no equivalent in English. 

Rem. It is like the French eu. Its sound may be approximated by pro- 
ducing a sound intermediate between that of a in baue and that of «r in bwm: 
»örfe, »tymen, @$ön, Söffel, gelöfty. 

9. tte, tt (oo-umlaut), has no equivalent in English. 

Rem. It is like the French «. Thus ©üb may be approximately pro- 
nounced by placing the Ups as if about to whisüe, and then trying to say 
seed: ©üb, ntübe, SWfitter, ©Rüffel. 



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§38-40.] CONSONANTS. 343 

10. Stt, ai (or <gt, ci), like i in migU : mein, Styein, 3eit. 

Bern. Of the foar forms at, at), tt, C$, which have contested for supremaey 
in the German langaage since the fourteenth Century, the form et has come 
off the victor. At present Ut) is dropped entirely ; et) is used only in somo 
proper names ($tyne, äHetyer, etc.); and ai is used in bat few words (ns 
SWainj, 2Raüanb, Äatfer, ERat). 

11. 2to, an, like ou in mound : SWauer, laut, $au& 

12. (gto, en (or 3teit, SU), like e>i in moist : ?eute, SWäufe. 

Rem, 0i, used only in a few proper names, has the same sound : ©roifynt. 

§ 39. In the development of all languages, Towels (and also the liquids, 
1, tu, n, t ) are more snbject to change than are consonants. 



2. CONSONANTS. 
(ftonfonantett.) 
§ 40. The Consonants are sounded as f ollows : 

1. », k 1. Beginning a syllable, like b : 33ilb, 33rett. 

2. Ending a syllable, nearly like p : SDieb, tyalb, ab, ob. 
Exe. It has the sound of b before b or b ; öbbe, ©elübbc. 

2. (£, €♦ 1. Before a, 0, or U (or before a consonant) is 
pronounced like k in Hw^ : dato, actit>* 

2. Before other vowels, like ts in mite : Cicero, SereS. 

3. 5), b* 1. Beginning a syllable, like d : SDom, bret, ba. 
2. Ending a syllable, nearly like t : £<mb, 33ab, Stab. 

-Erc. The sound of b is given in bb X Hbber, SSHbber. 

*• & f (»f *, or 9|, ff), like/in>^ : fein, greunbföaft ; 
»ier, ba»on ; $&ilofop#e* 

Rem, 1. In foreign words b sounds like r in ever.* @tfabe, gretri, Brato. 

/fem. 2. For a long time f and b were used interchangeably. Their use 
has finally become settled, but in a purely arbitrary way ; the f largely pre- 
dominates. 

Rem, 8. The fö only oecurs in words of Greek origin, as in 3tyttofo))$ie, and 
in a few German proper names, as : %Mp\) (or ftbo(f), 9tobofy$ (f), ©efty&a- 



tot. 



5. ®, g* 1. Before a vowel, like g in gay : geben, ©ntnb. 
2. After a vowel (and not before n), seo § 40,17. 

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244 OBTHOGRAPHY. [§ 40. 

6. $, $♦ Like A in Aow** : 4>m$, $o<$, ergeben, Sodann. 

Exe. The letter $ is eilen t : (1) in the combination ty, as in 2$on, ftoty ; 
(2) after a vowel, as in @o$n, 2o$n ; (3) after r in 9tyebe, 9tyein, 9tyobarber ; 
(4) after f in some proper names, as $3<ty. 

7. 3, !♦ Like y in yo/*?: 3o&atm, 3ult, 3*fo Sanitär. 

8. ß, f ♦ like £ in hing : Äontg, fommen, $tmlt, Äöln. 

22efn. In those foreign words that have become fully natoralized, f has al- 
most entirely displaced c: $unlt, Äonflteß, Äöln. 

9. 2, l, 8R, Dt, SW, tt, $, V, D, <f, have the sarae sound as 

1, m, n,p> q in English : ?amm, Scimpinfel, ßual. 

ikm. Before f, I takes the sound of ttg (§ 40, 16) ; 2)<m?, beulen, finf*. 

10. 9t f *♦ 1. At the beginning of a syllable, X has a sound 
somewhat rougher and deeper in the throat than in 
English: SRotfc, runb, Styein. 

2. In other positions it is trilled : SBrob, SBart, ber, »er. 

11. e, 9 (ff or g )♦ 1. Like * in Je** : t>a* SMeffcr, ift, ba$. 

2. Bat a Single f before a vowel sounds like z in zone : 
©o$n, fie, ßlifa, flclcfcn. 

3. When before $ ort and at the beginning of a radi- 
cal syllable, f sounds like sh in shall : ©pree, <Stcin # 
»erflehen, au$gefpro<$cn. 

Bern. 1. In former periods of the langnage, f, ff, and $ were very largely 
interchanged. Eren yet aathorities vary in the ose of ff and f. 

Rem. 2. The short £ is nsed at the end of syüables : 2)re«bcn, $ot«bam, 
la«, aueemanber, 2>onner«tag. 

12. %, t (or %ff, tlj), 1. Like t in tone : Sott, $$on, SWutfc. 
2. Like U in mite, in final *tion, *tial, *ttent, not pre- 

ceded by f ; ?ef tion, Quotient. 

Rem, 1. The sound of t is preserred when the accent is on the tf, as in 
Stanotrotie, Partie, äRUtiobee. 

Rem. 2. Also when ü is preceded by f : DuejKon', ©ofHon'. 

Rem. 3. In the history of the langoage there have been many interchanges 
between t, fc, and t|. Some modern writers, called " purists," rejeet the ty 
entirely, and write ftü Ctynl), tttO (2#nn). 

13. SB, to. Like in wn* : ©ein, SEBicn, jwet, »arum. 

«Rew. SB, after 0, oecurring in a few proper names, is ßilent: $<mfot&. 



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§ 40-43.] OONSONANTS. 245 

14. JE, $♦ Like x in box: fßoxax, ©rempcl, Xtxxti, $m, ffr. 

Hern. The letter ( is used mostly in words of foreign origin. 

15 - 3f J ($ ^ 8})* I^ e ** wfits: 3rit, Ruften, ©ftjje. 

Rein. The ose of ), $, J J has varied greatly in the different periods of the 
language. 

16. 92g, ug. Like ng in sing: fingen, Singer, brängen. 

Rem. A slight k sotmd is given after ng when it follows a vowel : 9tQQ§ 
(ran^*), ftögft (anfst). 

17. (£lj, d), and Q have tfww guttural sounds : 

1. (£1), $ (and g, when ending a syllable), after a, 0, 
1t, or (Ut, have a rough aspirate sound, formed 
deeper in the throat and much stronger than 
that of h in hope: £o<§ (ho/ih) high; Xuty (toohh), 
doth; lag (tahh) y day ; matyn (rna'-hJieri), to make. 

2. After other letters (and in the diminutive sylla- 
ble djjeit), they have a softer sound, made higher 
in the palate, and inclining to that of sh in shall: 
\$ (iti*),f; xtty (reh*t),right; Äinb'4cn (Mnd'- 
h*en\a child; SRttn'^en (mün'-h*en) y Munich ; 
billig tyü'lih*), 3eug (tsoyh*), 33crg (berh*). 

Rem. 1. In words of Greek origin, dj soonds like k: (£$or, choir. 

Rem. 2. Also before $ in the same radical syllable, like 1e: SöacfyS, wax. 

§ 41. Many foreign words retain their original pro- 
nunciation, as : SBureau, $alat$, gason, 2Wajor, ©ouwneur, 
abieu, 2ftwrb, from the French ; SRoaftbcef, Club, from the 
English ; ©olo, £rio, from the Italian. 

Rem. In a few words the foreign pronnnciation is retained in only a part 
of the word: «ßenfion (pon*9-ä-dne). 

§ 42. The pronnnciation of the edneated classes and in polite circles in the 
city of Berlin is at present the Standard of good pronnnciation throughout 
Germany. The above rules are given in aecordance with the nsages now 
prevailing in Berlin. 



3. DIVISION OF STLLABLES. 
(&t}tbt%txtmm*Q.) 
§ 43. In Pronouncing, the f ollowing laws prevail : 



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246 OETHOGRAPHY. [§ 43-45. 

1. In simple words : (1.) A single consonant, between 

two vowels, is pronounced with the last vowel, as in : 
Satter, 5Bru'*t>er, leiben, $a'*bett, meißner, gurten, 
(2.) Of two or more consonants, the first is pronounced 
with the preceding, and the remainder with the 
following vowel: SKtt^te, fd}im'*pfen, IDeut'^föe. 

2. In derivative words, prefixes, and Suffixes not begin- 
ning with a vowel, are pronounced in separate sylla- 
bles: ©c^air.finßjiMi^buIb^fam; ©tant>'4aft%frit, 
but gürf *tin, ßtei^bung, garb^rei', ©ü'*tc. 

3. The parts of Compound words are pronounced sepa- 
rately : au^eituan'ber, IDon'ner^tag, fortgeben, fcemtm'. 

Hern. Some writers mark the division of syllables aecording to the pro- 
nunciation, others aecording to the roots of words. The latter method is 
more convenient in paradigms: lieb'*en, meintet, glittet, gut'*C f breif *e|t 



4. ACCENT. 
(«cceitfO 
§ 44. The Primary Accent is on the radical syllable of 
simple words, whether primitive or derivative; inflectional 
endings, and most prefixes and suffixes (§ 45, 3, Bern.), are 
unaccented: Hebten, meinten, tteb'slid&eren, Satter, ©e^jtolf, 
fle4iebt'*ejkn, gc*fafyr'4i<$jktu 

Exe. The accent is not on the radical syllable in Icben'*bifl. 

§ 45. In Compound Words, the radical syllable of the most 
emphatic component takes the primary accent: 

1. The^«^ or modifyvag word of Compound nouns and 
adjeetives, and of separable Compound verbs, takes the 
primary accent : Äauf mann, 93or'*fd)rift, flclb^rct^ au$'* 
getyen, ein^füljren, umfyer^gcfyen, mißtrauen. 

Exe. 1. The nouns 3a$r$un / *bcrt, 3a&rtau'*fenb, 9torbtt>eft', ©fiboft', etc. 

Exe. 2. The adjeetives toott!om'*mcn, not^tt>cn'*big, toa^rbaf *ttg, Icib^af *tig, 
Barm^er'*jig r glüdfcMiß, tribet'*gen ; aUn>ci'*fe, allmfi^tig, gro6mä$'*tig, 
boc^ob'^elig (and some other titular epithets). 



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§ 45-48.] accents. 247 

2. The accent is on thB last syUable of adverbs com- 
pounded with prepositions, and of those compounded 
with Ijiit, Ijer, aH, and toiel : »oaon', womit', bwon'; \tx* 
ein', fcerau*', vollauf , wo&latt', aUein', »ießeiclf, metmefcr'. 

3. Irreparable prefixes are not accented: bewerfen, »er* 
fielen, mißfallen, Untcr&al'Vhmg. 

Exe. 1. &nt'4tt3,and &nt' «frort (and its Compounds). 
£xc. 2. All words cwnpounded with tfj- and ttfs, and many of those com- 
pounded with mifc and mtst <5rj'*btf$of, Ur'*fa$e, imß'*$anbetn, im'*atei$ 
(but mißfallen, iinenb'*l«$, e*c). 
Rem. 1. Some long words, however, have several subordinate accents: 
Sfreöttb'Waftlicbfeit'en, gttt'er^crft^'erun^^efell'f^aft, 
©tattt^*f^ul'ben-ttrgung«*!aricn«bu^öaüer (§ 51, Rem. l). 
Rem. 2. Such rery long words as the last are only tolerated in official lan- 
guage, and even there they had better be avoided. 

§ 46. Most Foreign Words retain tlieir original accent. 
This is generally on the last syllable in words f roin 

1. The French: Öfftjier', Goinjerf, SOTujtf, ÜWajcflär. 

2. The Latin and Greek: Statur', ©tubent', Geologie'. 

22m. 1. The foreign terminations *ti, Att, *ift, AxtVL iStXVX), *UT, *0ft, 
etc., take the primary accent, whether in words of German or in those of for- 
eign origin ; gärberet', ©arbter', SBfamifF, J>oU'rctt, ©lafur\ SWoraft'. 

Rem. 2. The accent is changed in the inflection, and in the derivatives of 
some foreign words : 2)oF*tor (2)ofto'*ren), fyaxaVAtx ((£$aratte'*re), SWuftf 
muftfaMifö), ©rommaMtt (grammotüa'4tf^). 

Obs. Differences in the position of the accent npon words, 
and in the position of emphatic words in sentences, are 
among the chief causes of the great difference existing be- 
tween the intonation and the cadence of the English and 
of the German languages. 



5. CAPITAL LETTEES. 
«Sra&e Sfofaitg«fad)lta!PCitO 
§ 47. Capital Letters are nsed as initiale to : 
1. AU JVbum, other parts of speech used as nöuns, and 
nouns nsed adverbially : ber SWmtn, bte ©tabt, ba$ $aut ; 
ber ©utc, ba$ ?efen ; SKorgen«, Slbenb*, SJormittag«. 



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248 



ORTHOGBAPHY. 



[§48-49. 



2. The Indefinite Pronouns : 3cntanb, SRiemanb, 3eber* 
mann ; also dtxoai and 9M<$t$, when not before nouns 
or adjectives; and SlUe, 9lUe$, (Einige, 2Wan$er, SBiele, 
when used substantively. 

3. The Numeral (Ein, when used in contrast to Änber. 

4. The Absolute Possessives : fcer 2Weinige, t>a$ S&rifle, t>ie 
3Memigen,bie ©einigen, etc. 

5. AdjectiveS) derived from proper naiAes of persona or 
cities : bie Äanriföe $&ilefop&ie, ber Äötner 2)om* 

Rem. Other proper aäjectires do not begin with capital lottere : bie beutfcfyt 
@t>ra<tye, ber beut(<$e ©unb, eine omerilaniffy 3eitung. 



6. COMPARISON OF GEEMAN AND ENGLISH 
WOEDS. 

§ 48. Great changes have taken place in the words of 
the German and English languages during the fourteen 
centnries especially that have passed since their Separa- 
tion. 

1. A few words only have the same radical form, or, with 
different spelling, are pronounced alike, äs : 



iDtann, man. 


©ou$, house. 


toilb, wild. 


faulen, tofiül. 


©onb, band. 


2Rau«, moose. 


fein, fine. 


&ang*en, to hang. 


©ra«, grass. 


braun, brown. 


mein, mine. 


binb*en, to bind. 


©fa«,glass. 


fauer, sonr. 


in, in. 


pnb*en, to find. 


»mg, ring. 


toarm, wann. 


bei, by. 


bringen, to bring. 


ginget, fingen 


bitter, bitter. 


alf o, also. 


fingen, to sing. 


junger, hunger. 


bttnb, blind. 


fyier, bere. 


finden, to sink. 


©uf,hoof. 


mtlb, mild. 


fixier, sheer. 


flrimven, to spin. 


2. The follo 


wing examplee 


illustrate the 


moßt ßtriMng 


variations in tl 


le development 


of letters and < 


of sounds : 


<!.)•. 


©aar, hair. 


S^aaf , sheep. 


alt, old. 


©rab, grave. 


$aar, pair. 


@$laf, sleep. 


gälte, fold. 


Btobe, raren. 


aetyt, eight. 


SRabel, neeöüe. 


©alt, hold. 


€5ttatoe, slave. 


gra$t, freight 


Kar, clear. 


tatt,cold. 


Snobe (knave). 


«al,eei 


©anf , hemp. 


©a(fe, hoe. 


$lafc, place. 


2Rafy[, meal. 


©aß, guest. 


9tafe, nose. 


Ärafyn, crane. 


@ta$l, steel. 


Waren, were. 


©aten, hook. 


toor, was. 


@oat,seed. 


£amm, comb. 


©aa6,goose. 






Di 


gitizedbyCjOOQK: 



C0MPAKI80N OF OERMAN AND ENGU8II M03DS. 249 



9te$en, rake. 
brechen, break, 
©eg, way. 
Senj, lance. 
3Rerf,mark. 
#er$, heart. 
©d>mcrj (smart), 
flerben (starve). 
fd>nte<fen (smack). 
fejl, fcst. 
fett, fat. 
fe&en, see. 
flehen, steaL 
effen, eat. 
nteffen, mete. 
gelb, field. 
fön, ten. 
<5p$eu, ivy. 
geben, give. 
leben, live, 
benlen, think. 
fenfen, sink. 
$eä), piteb. 
fed>«, six. 
melfcn, milk. 
le<fen, lick. 
gefcn,go. 
(ne),no. 
©ebnet, snow. 
©eele, sool. 
@d)n>ert, sword. 
freiten, scold. 
Stltt, clover. 
SBerty, worth. 
$&er,who. 
Siegel, rule. 
Ärä&e, crow. 
tnäfyen, mow. 
ffifcn, sow. 
fpfi$en,spy. 
nräre, were. 
Wßt,lets. 
©5ter, fathers. 
fägen, saw. 
SBäffer, waters. 



(3.)Ue- 

©iene, bee. 
ttrir, we. 
Silj, feit. 
«Sinne, sense. 
Äirfdje, cherry. 
$tnfel, pencil 
fieben, seven. 
irren, err. 
i*,I. 
liegen, lie. 
lieben, love. 
Wieben, shove. 
fieben, sift. 
fliegen, to shoot 
fprießen, sproot. 
fpielen, play. 
fttrd)e, charch. 
&tff en, cashion. 

(4.)i,o. 
glocfe, flake. 
groß, great. 
roty, raw. 
©trofc, straw. 
Softer, daughter. 
£)$r, ear. 
©o$ne, bean. 
ttot&,need. 
rotty, red. 
©rob, bread. 
$oö), high. 

>ggen, rye. 
Sommer, sammer. 
2)orater, thander. 
©onne, sun. 
©otyn, son. 
*ott,full. 
©porn, spur, 
työren, hear. 
fönrören, swear. 
jroölf, twelve. 
Äönig, king. 
3R8rtel, mortar. 
Oel, oil. 
SDWrber, marderer. 



(&)M* 

unb, and. 
$ut,hak 
©ud>e, beech. 
fud>en,seek. 
Äug, kiss. 
©ruft, breast 
©d>ulter; Shoulder 
gmfofox. 
Äupfer, copper. 
©turnt, storm. 
SBurm, worm. 
©lunte,bloom. 
t&un,do. 
©uö>, book. 
©ruber, brother. 
SDhttter, mother. 
&u$, cow. 
U&r, hour. 
©runb, ground. 
2Runb, moath. 
^funb, pound. 
runb, round, 
©unb, sound. 
SBunbe, wound. 
genug, enoagh. 
füllen, to feeL 
grün,green. 
füg, sweet 

ige, feet 
übel, eril. 
$ülfe,help. 
fünf, five. 
lügen, lie. 
$figel, hill. 
9Wfi$le, milL 
©ünbe,sin. 
glühen, glow. 
Äüfle, coast. 
gftrjl (first). 
brüten, brood. 
Rupfen, hop. 
©ü$fe, box. 

1b, south. 
Äüfa cows. 
©rüfobroth. 
2 



Digitized by 



(6.)«ä. 

grau, gray. 
Saub, leaf. 
taub, deaf. 
$aufe, heap. 
©aum, seam. 
Saud), leek. 
#aupt, head. 
«uge, eye. 
©raut, bride. 
fä)lau, sly. 
gaufr, fist. 
Sau, tow. 
Xaubt, dove. 
Staunt, room. 
blau, blue. 
Xffaa, dew. 
(lauen, hew. 

SWetfler, master. 
^eillhaU! 
pretfen, preise, 
brei, three. 
frei, free, 
bleiben, bleach. 
ttetd), weak. 
feilen, heal 
SBetjen, wheat. 
3»eig,twig. 
ein, one. 
allein, alone. 
beibe, both. 
eigen, own. 
<5td>e, oak. 
©peittye, »poke. 
Äleiber, clothes. 
©etfl, ghost. 

(ghastly). 

(gas), 
leiben, loan. 
ttteifl, most. 
Weiber k>w. 
©eife, soap. 
reiben, rub. 
jtoet, two. 

oogle 



250 OOMPABISON OF GEBMAN AND ENGLI8H WOEDS. 



(8.) tu, hu 

$eu,hay. 
geuer, fire. 
nenn, nine. 
grcunb, friend. 
nen,new. 
fhrenen, strew. 
trcn,trae. 
Preußen, Prassia. 

StttUl, CTOS8. 

<Su(e,owL 
beulen, howL 
2Ronfe, mice. 

(9.)». 

haben, to have. 
$eben, to heave. 
leben, to live, 
eben, eveo. 
Stabe, raven. 
Xaube, dove. 
©iber, beaver. 
tTicbcn, cleave. 
fieben, seven. 
©ieb, sieve. 
oben, over. 
©rab, grave. 
£>ieb, thiel 
geben, life. 
fteben,sift 
S93etb(wife). 
©<$tt>albe, swallow 
©trne, pear. 
flippt, diff. 
9tf M>e, rib. 
(Stoppt, stubble. 
$auj>t, head. 

(10.)*. 

ber, bie, ba«, the. 
biefe, these. 
bu, thou. 
beul, thine. 
bann,then. 
benn, than. 
©ruber, brother. 



geber, feather. 
tfeber, leather. 
fieben, seethe. 
Staunten, thamb. 
beulen, think. 
2)htg, thing. 
2)oru, tboriL 
bref cfcn, thresh. 
bret, three. 
burd), throogh. 
beibe,both. 
lb, sonth. 
(Srbe, earth. 
3Bürbe,worth. 

(u.)f,>,rt. 

@($aaf , sheep. 
©<$laf,sleep. 
Schiff, ship. 
$onf , bemp. 
reif, ripe 
Reifen, help. 
©oft, sap. 
fd)orf, sharp. 
auf,up. 
offen, open. 
fünf, five. 
Ofen, oven. 
toier, four. 
betoor, before. 
fcergeffen, forget 
(fyfyeu, ivy. 

(12.) S. 

Xag,day. 
mag, may. 
lag, lay. 
fegen, say. 
9foge,eye. 
ttoggen, rye. 
gliege,fly. 
$onig, honey. 
Pfennig (penny). 
@oni,yanu 
gefb, yeilow. 
geftern, yesterday. 



fotogen (slay). 
$agel,haiL 
Sfaget, naU. 
©egcl, saiL 
g(egel,flail. 
Siegen, rain. 
bieget, seaL 
Siegel, role. 
$figel,hilL 
f ogen, to saw. 
gleich, like. 
genug, enongh. 
gen»u)r, aware. 
Xeig, dough. 
$flug,ploogh. 
©ogen, bow. 
borgen, borrow. 
morgen, morrow. 
f orgen, sorrow. 
folgen, follow. 
©olg, bellows. 

ilgen, gallows. 
@lo<fe,ck)ck. 
nagen, gnaw. 

(13.) I. 

toonn, when. 
toer,who. 
toddft, which. 
ttne, how. 
n>o, where. 
toeil (while). 
toeifj, white, 
©eigen, wheat. 
toeber (whether). 

(14.) i. 

ja,yes. 
3a^r,year. 
3o<ty, yoke. 
3atob, Jacob, 
jung, young. 
3acfe r jacket. 
3ofymn, John. 
3ube, Jew. 
3ttiri, June. 



3uno, Juno. 
3uli,July. 
3utt>eI,jeweL 
äRajor, major. 

(15.) I,M. 
lauen, chew. 
Ääfe, cheese. 
Ännt, chin. 
Änb,chfld. 
fttffc, ehest. 
fträ)e, ehnreh. 
Äirf d)e, cheny. 
©tärte, starch. 
@öa»e, slave. 
äRart, marrow. 
ddt (edge). 
$e<fe,hedge. 
©rü(f e, bridge. 
3u<f er, sagar. 
Duette (well). 

(16.)L 

al3,as. 
fold), such. 
n>et$, which. 
Mörtel, mortar. 
geffel, fetter, 
©fibel, sabre. 
3tt>itting, twin. 
(5td)ef, acorn. 
fd)lei$en, sneak. 

(17.)«. 
Soutm, lamb. 
fTttmnen, dimb. 
Äontni, comb. 
Raunten, thamb. 
@a)irm, screen. 

(18.) n. 

©efen, broom. 
3Haun, alum. 
feiten, seldom. 
Orben, order. 
Stegen, dagger. 



Digitizedby VJWtJ 



gle 



C0MPAEI80N OF GEEMAN AND ENGLI8H W0RDS. 251 



©tern, star. 
fern, far. 
©fcorn, spur. 
SBirne, pear. 
©tote, bee. 
©an«, goose. 
3a^n, tooth. 
fünf, five. 
anber, other. 
Äinb, child. 

,. (19.)». 
füren (choose). 
frieren, freeze. 
Vertieren, lose, 
tarir, we. 
n>er, who. 
ftarten, wait. 
toar, was. 
ft>red;en, speak. 
Reifer, hoarse. 

(20.)f,ff,§. 

au«, Oüt 
effen, eat. 
meffen, meto. 
Raffen, hate. 
laffen, let. 
groß, great. 
2oo«, lot. 
gufj, foot 
9tofj, nut. 
füg, sweet 



(Sifen, iron. 
§afe, hare. 
niefen, sneeze. 
fragen, Scratch. 

(21.) Mfc 

£ag, day. 
bräunt, dream. 
Softer, daugbter. 
tobt, dead. 
Xfyatex, dollar. 
Ü^au, dew. 
t&un, do. 
X&ttre, door. 
treuer, dear. 
©ett,bed. 
©tut, blood. 
©art, beard. 
SRuty, mood. 
gfuty, flood. 
©djulter, Shoulder 
leiten, lead. 
reiten, ride. 
gleiten, glide. 
Steter, father. 
Sföutter, mother. 
tauen, thaw. 
taufenb, thousand. 
Slnttoort, answer. 

(22.)*. 
©ettrinn, gain. 
'Sd?tt>eper, sister. 



t (23.) *,* 
jafyn, tarne. 
3a^n, tooth. 
ge$n, ten. 
3mn, tin. 
3oE, tolL 
ju, to, too. 
jtoei, two. 
jttmnjig, twenty. 
gil$,felt. 
$erj,heart. 
@atj, salt 
flafee, cat 
Äife, kid. 
2)ufcenb, dozen. 
$reu$, cross. 
«JJlafc, place, 
jjuefer, sugar. 

(24.)*. 

«Jtocfyt, night. 
2tta$t, might. 
tei$t,light. 
gi$t, light. 

festen, fight. 
£ne$t(knight). 
$ratyt, freight. 
machen, make. 
brechen, brake. 
fu$en, seek. 
©u$, book. 
gteiety, like. 
£u$en, cake. 



2er$e,lark. 
fed^six. 
gu$S, fox. 
D$«, ox. 
gla(fy8,flax. 
2Ba<$«, wax. 
£ei$, ditch. 
bur$, through. 
Ia^en, laugh. 
memefy, many. 

(26.) f «. 

©cfymteb, smith. 
fömal, small. 
©tein, stone. 
©cfyttert, sword. 
grofö, frog. 
Katzen, clap. 

(26.)«. 

Sfyfel, apple. 
$ü>fen, hop. 
£u£fer, copper. 
O^fer, offering. 
Pfeffer, pepper. 
pfeife, pipe. 
«Pftrftcty, peach. 
«JJflanje, plant. 
«Pflaume, plum. 
«ßflafler, plaster. 
^f(Ü(fett f pluck. 
«Pflug, plow. 



3. In a few cases, foreign wordß retain their original 
forms, orhave developed, in both languages, into the same 
modification of form : 

s&raph, 



Heb, 

Gr. 

Lat. 



@e'rapb, seraph. Lat. natio, 
«Meteor*, meteor. LowL. parcus, 
©tubent', *tvdent. Ital. solo, 

4. More nsually the forms vary : 



studens, 



Nation', 
$arf, 



Gr. ayyiXXoCi 
Lat. Johannes, 

14 Colonia, 
Lo w L. missa, 



enget, 
Sofymn, 
«öln, 
«Weffe, 



angel. 
John, 
Cologne. 



Arab. masjid, 
u laimun, 
Pen. mümija, 
Ind. tabaco, 



3Rofd>ce', 
Süno'ne, 
ÜRu'mie, 
Sa'bat, 



natum. 

park. 

90I0. 



mosque. 
lemon. 
mttmmy. 
tobaeco. 



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ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX. 
«£t)ttil»gie »k» $)»tir.) 

§ 49. Etymology treats, (1.) Of the origin, dcvelopment, 
ckanges, decay, and death of words and grammatical forma. 
(2.) Of the Classification of words into jparts of speech, 
and of the changes words undergo by inßection. 

(3.) As totheir origin, words are primitive or derivative. 
As to compo6ition, words are simple or Compound. 

1. Primitive or radical words are either: 

1. Original root-words, as: tdj, bu, ein, in, gut, grog, $ol), ©ud)c 

2. Or they have added the verbal ending e» : fcoV^n, binb'*tn, W#CIU 
Rem. By far the greater number of primitive words are verbs. 

2. Derivatice words are formed from primitive words : 

1. By modifying the original root : (ifoferfn), ©onb, Sltltb. 

2. By addingprefixes and suffixes: ( „ * ), Araber, ©tnbe, $ftnbcf, 
©cbinbe, ©anbe, ©anbeten, Bfinbig, tänbtgen, »änbiger, »finbigung, 
bünbetn, bflnbtg, $finbiglrit, ©ünbnig. 

Rem. Many derivative words, the derivation of which is " no longer feit,** 
are nsnally called primitive words, as : üDRotm, from Old-German menan (or 
Gothic minan), to tkink; rotf), from Sanacrit rudhira, blood; Del, from Latin 
oleum, oil; Äotyl, from Italian cavolo, cabbage. 

§ 50. Compound words are formed by joining two or more 
simple (or single) words into one word. 



gebermeffer, Penknifo. 



$tmme!Mau, Bloe as the sky. 



©ornnmoüc, 


Cotton. 


©efbrotfr, 


Orange-colorecL 


Sutge^en, 


Togooat 


©omtt? 


Wherewith? 


@iattfmben, 


To take place. 


«teücity, 


Perhaps. 



Rem. 1 . Sometimes very long Compound words are formed : 
@>taattf$ulbentUgung6laffenBu$fyalter, The keeper of aecount of the fünf 
devoted to the payment of the national debt (§ 45, 8, Rem. 2). 

Rem. 2. Two or more Compound worda bf the sarae kind may be united 
by a hyphen : 
Selb*, ©arten* unb fteferbau, Drainage, horticulture, and agriculture. 

Rem. 8. Parts of long words are often united by hyphens : 
gencr-»crfld^rung«*®cfcttf^oft r Fire Insurance Company. 

Rem. 4. Compound words are mach more largely used in German than in 
English. New combinations may be formed indefinitely. 

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§ 51-54.] THE ARTICLE. 253 

§ 51. There are ten parte of speech in German : 

1. Fleorible : the Article, Noun, Adjective, Nnmeral, 
Pronoun, Verb. 

2. Inflexible: the Abverb, Preposition, Conjunction, 
Interjection. 

§ 52. Syntax treate of the power certain words or parts 
of speech have in determining the forras and position of 
other words, or parts of speech. 



THE ARTICLE. 
(2>er «rttfel) 

§ 53. In all languages where the Article exiete, the Def- 
inite Article is derived from a Demonstrative Pronoun ; 
the Indefinite Article is derived from the Nnmeral One. 

In German there is no difference between the forms: 

1. Of the De/. Article ber, and the Dem. Pron. ber. 

2. Or of the Indef. Article eilt, and the Nnmeral ritt* 

Item. The Article is distinguished from the Pronoun or Nnmeral : (l.)By 
nerer receiving a streng emphasis. (2.) By never being used without a nonn. 

§ 54. Declension of the Article: 



1. Definite, ber, the. 


2. Indefinite, eitt, 


a,an. 


8INGULAR. PLURAL. 




SINGULAR. 




Ma$c. Fem. Nent. AU Gen. 


MCLK. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Nom.btt, bit, b<t$. Me. 


ei», 


t\Vi*t, 


tin. 


Gen. bt$, btt, be$. ber* 


eto*e«, 


einher, 


ei*e«. 


Dat. bem, btt, freut* bttu 


cin*em, 


eiiuer, 


ei»«euu 


Acc. btn, b\t, bat. bit. 


ein*», 


ein*, 


efu* 



Rem. 1 . The vowel is short in baS, be«, and long in ber, bem, ben. 

Rem. 2. When no obscurity of meaning or harshness of sounds is thereby 
produced, the following contractions of prepositions with the definite article 
are allowable (Lesson X.,2): 

1 . With Dat. sing.(m. and n.) beut : am, beim, tyinterm, im, bom, jum, unterm 

(an bem, bei bem, hinter bem, in bem, bon bem, gu bem, unter bem). 

2. With Dat sing, (fem.) btT : gur (ju ber). 

8. With Acc " (neut.) btö : an«, auf«, bur$«, für«, in«, um« (an baß 
auf bae, bura) ba«, für ba«, in ba«, um ba«). 



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254 6XNTAX OF THE ABTTCLE. [§ 55. 

§ 55. Syntax of the Article. The following are some of 
the most important points in which the German varies f rom 
the English in the uße of the Article. 

1. The Definite Article is employed: 

1. Before nouns used in a general or abstract sense: 
%tt 9Renfo) iß ftabltö), Man is mortaL 
2>te ©ef d)iö}te btt Äunft, The histoiy of art 
$a$ ©olb iß loftbar, Gold is costly. 

2. Before some individual concreto nouns: 

Sa* grtttytficf ift fertig, Breakfiist is ready. 

9toö) itm &&enbeffen, After supper. 

3. When a proper name, or the name of a division of tirae, is preceded 
by an adjective : 

Sa$ fcflc 2RagbeBurg, Streng Magdeburg. 

Stt borige 3M toor Taft, Last May was cold. 

4. Before feminine geographica! names t 

Sit @d)tt>eij ifl fe^r fä)8n, Switzerland is rery beautiful 

SCßarcn Bit in btt XüxM ? Have you been in Turkey ? 

5. Before nouns of number, weight, and measure (while in English the 
Indefinite Article would be used) : 

3»ei 2$afo büS ¥funb, Two dollars a pound. 

SSiermal jbie 2Boä)e, Four times a week. 

Rem. 1 . The Definite Article is often used where in English the Personal 
Pronoun would be employed : 

2Rit btVX $ut in btt $onb, With his hat in his hand. 

Rem. 2. The dative of the definite article, contracted with the preposition 
gtt, is used to express promotion or election to ofßce or rank : 
<Sr toar Jörn ^rSftbcttten gewallt, He was elected President. 
2. The Deßnite Article is omitted : 

1. Before many legal terms and some words in ordinary lifej 
aWcttant, ©etlagter fagt — The plaintiff, the defendant says— 
Ueberbrtnger btefe«, The bearer of this. 

2. Before names of the points of the compass : 

@ie fegeften gegen Sorben, They sailed towards the north. 

8. The Article must be added if the case of the noun cannot be detexs 

mined without it : 
SDic Siebte btt grauen, The rights of women. 

4. With two or more nouns of different genders or numbers, the Article 

must be repeated: 
Set ©ruber unb btt @ä)tt>efter, The brother and sister. 



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§56,57.] the noun. 255 



THE NO UN. 

(2)a3 §au$tmoxt) 

§ 56. Nearly all Nouns may be traced back to verbal 
roots (§ 49,1, Rem.). With the exception of the very 
small number that aretadical words, German nouns are 
formed : 

1 . By the modification of a verbal root (§ 48, 2, 1). 

2. By adding prefixes or snffixes to other words (§ 57-58). 

3. By compounding nouns with other words (§ 58). 

Ret/u The formation, inflection, and syntax of the German are far more 
complicata! than those of the English noun. On the other band, as the 
German nouns are mostly formed from native roots, they are more easily 
understood than English nouns, which are so largely imported from foreign 
languages. 

§ 57. In forming Derivative Nouns, the chief sußxes are : 
1. Those that form concreto nouns, fytW, d, er, in, Httß : 

1. z$VX and »fein — with umlaut to the radical vowel, where possible 
— form diminutive nouns : 

$äil£$en, a little house. ©allein, a small brook. 

9Rütter$en, dear mother. ©djttjcjlcr^ett, dear sißter. 

2. «tl usually denotes material Instruments : 

#ebel, a lever (from tycfcen, to heave, lift). 
5)«! et, a cover (from be<f en, to cover). 

8. str denotes (1) male persons: 2e$rer, a teacher, ©Sitfjer, a singer, 
Söitttocr, a widower, @$h>rijer, a Swiss. 
(2) animals: @£er&er, a sparrow-hawk, ©(fyröter, a beetle. 
(8) Instruments : 93o$rcr, an auger, SSBeder, an alarm clock. 

4. *ijt (or *iwt) forma feminine from masculine nouns : 

Äönig, a king. Äönigin, a queen. 

Sc&rcr, a male teacher. Syrerin, a female teacher. 

©cfytorijer, a Swiss. ©^tücijcrin, a Swiss lady. 

5. 4f Hfl modifies the meaning of nouns, often indicating dependence, 
contempt, or low valuation : 

Sünöting, a youngster. SDWctOling, a hireling. 
?e$rling, an apprentice. 2)i$tcrting, a poetaster. 



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256 the ffoux. [§57. 

2. Suffixes forming mostly abstract noons, t, ri (rti), 

|eU (Iety, itf , f •!, f<Mf t, t*t«, ng : 

1. «C (with umkmt to radieal vowel) fornts noons from adjectrres: 
©fite, goodness, $3fc, height, Sänge, length, Xkfc, deptk. 

2. «ei (or 4fci), in noons formed from verbs, denotes a repeated or con- 
tinned actum, oßen with tbeideaof contempt: ^mietydä,BatterT, 
€pidaet, fooüsh sport. 

8, 4cit(or 4dl) fonns (l)ofetrucl noons, fromadjectires orpaxtidples: 
e^dn^rit, beaoty, ©cttxmfcfcit, dexterity, S^anÄarlrit, tfaaiikfiüness-, 
(2)amcrtte noons, foomadjectnres : Ätrinigtrit, trifle ; (3) noons, from 
personal noons: Qettfctt, Godbead, ftotyrit, cbOdhood. 

4. «lif denotes (1) condition or completkmofa qaality oractkm: gin* 
ftenit§, darkness, Äaratnifi, knowledge, $tr$tttm6, relation ; (2) in 
eoncrete noons, tbe accomplishing agent or the accomplished object : 
Qefängntß, prison, gctyutymfj, catalogoe. 

ß. sfol deootes (I ) a condition : Xrübfal, sadness, e<tyidfal, faie ; (2) tbe 
cause of a conditkm: &tyca\ai, a monster (cansing borror). 

6. *f<Nft denotes (1) relatkmsbip or condition of persons : grtirabfdjaft, 
friendship, $erritfä)aft, readiness ; (2) a collection of persons of a 
certain grade or calling: 9tttterf<tyaft, knighthood, Sauernf<$aft, 

* peasantry ; (3) a coDecticn of things. of tbe same kind : @crfit$j$aft, 
toob ; (4) collective appeUations of places : Crtfffyoft, neighborhood. 

7. «tfttll, (1) to adjective or Terbal roots, denotes qaality or condition, 
or that to which this qaality adberes : Stadium, ricbness or richea, 
3Ba$tt$ltm, growtb, §cifigtf?um, sanctuary ; (2) to personal noons, 
it denotes condition, office, or dominion : Äatfertfylttti, empire. 

8. *Mg, (1) denotes condition, what prodnces a condition, or a tbing 
pnt into a certain condition: Xramun$,dhrision, 9Rif$ung, mixt- 
ure ; (2) forms collective noons : öotbnn&forest, Äctbmtß, dotbing. 

3. The most imyorttmt preflxes are gt, mtf , M, UT, trj: 

1. gC* denotes collectireness, nnion, completion, or repetition: ©cMrgc, 

monntain ränge, ©efS^rtc, companion, ©fbfiubc, edifice, ©crfiufö, 
a continned noise (as of rivers, arma, macbinery, etc.). 

2. mif* denotes negation, incompletness, or negation of qaality: 2Wiß* 
ton, discord, STOgbcgriff, misconception, SRißgtinß, disfevor. 

8. MB* denotes negation or perversion of qaality: Ungtücf, misfortnne, 
Uiratenfö, inhaman person, Unföutb, innocency. 

4. WC* denotes source, origin, or canse, or a tbing in its original con- 
dition: Urfprung, origin, Urfactye, cause, Urtoalb, primeval forest. 

ß. tt%* (arcb) denotes the first or greatest : (gr}oif$of , archbishop, 
(grjWcb, arrant thief. (Sqmarfftyau*, lord high mnrshül. 



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§ 58, 59.] ATTRIBUTES OF THE NOUN. 257 

§ 58. Compound Nouus (L. XXXVI.) are formed: 

1. By prefixing to nouns modifymg words, which may 
be of any part of speech, except an article or interjec- 
tion: 

2)aS ©ctyufyauS, schoolbouse. 2)er Kaufmann, merchant. 

„ gretnbroort, foreign word. 2)ie $ertunft, origin. 

2)er 3n>eifamJ>f, duel. 2)er (Singaita,, entrance. 

n ©eflbfhnorb, suicide. 2)cr Aberglaube, superstition. 

2. By unümg the words of some familiär expressions : 

3)a8 $eTgißmehrai<$t, the forget-me-not. 

2)er £aua,emc$t«, the good for nothing fdlow. 

2)a« 3eläna.crjeficber, the honeysuckle. 

2)cr @jprina,in«felb, the romp. 

7fcm. 1. In a few cases the first word is in the gen. sing, or the gen. pL : 

2)a« £a0e«li<fyt, the daylight 2)a« Söörterbucty, the dictionaiy. 
J?em. 2. By a false analogy, some nouns take on the gen. ending, (t$) ; 
3)er 9ftefigtonSfrieg, war having its origin in religions fends. 
2>ie geuets35erflQ>erung«*®efeIlf^aft f Fire Insurance Company. 
Rem. 3. In a few Compound nouns the adjeetive also is declined: , 
Nom.sing.jbtx ^oljejmejta. Nom.pL, bie #o$eiHmefler. 
Gen. " be« $o$enlmeflere. G«i. " bet $o$etii>rteffcr. 
Dat. " bem $o$en}mefteT. Bat. " ben $o$enjmejfcrn. 
4cc. " ben $o$enj>ricfler. u4cc " bic $o$enj>riejta. 



1. ACCIDENTS OF THE NOUN. 
(»ttrttute be« $attyttoorte$0 

§ 59. The Attributes of the Noun, as well as of all other 
flexible parts of speech (§ 50), except the verb, are: 

1. Two JVumbers: Singular and Plural. 

2. Three Genders : Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. 

3. Four Cases : Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and 
Accusative. 

Rem. Substantires, whether nouns or pronouns, control the gender, number, 
person, and case of all other flexible parts of speech. Hence a knowledge 
of the attributes of the noun, while one of the most difficult, is at the same 
time one of the most important things in the study of the German language. 



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258 GENDER OF NOUNS. [§60,61. 

2. GENDER OF NOUNS. 
(3)a3 «efötaty btt ^oMittoürterO 
§ 60. 1. Only in nouns ref erring tojpersons, and in the 
names of some animals, is the natural gender observed : 
$tt aJtonn, the man. Sie grau, the woman. $et 2öto>e, the lion. 

2. Of names of animals, some are masculine, others 
are feminine, and a few are neuter: 

$e* «Wer, the eagte. $tt gttege, the fly. Sa« ?ferb, the horse. 

3. Of names of inanimate objecto and abstract nouns, 
all of which are neuter in English, some are masculine, 
some feminine, and some neuter: 

Stt £if$, the table. $it £$&**, the door. $a$ $<m«, the house. 
„ SWuty, courage. „ ©üte, goodness. „ (Snbe, the end. 
Rem. The Gender of German nouns can only be learned by long practica. 
Döring the history of the language, many nouns have passed from one gender 
to another. Of a few nouns the gender is not yet settled. 

4. The following will serve as general rules in fixing 
the gender of nouns : 

§ 61. Nouns Masculine by meaning are the names of: 

1. Male Betng s: btt Sfflomt, Äöntg, 2ött>e; the man, king, lion. 

2. Deity and Angeh: btt ©Ott, (Enget, (Sfcrub, @craj>$, fceufel ; 

God, angel, cherub, seraph, deviL 

3. Stamms: btt ©inter, grityttng (but ba9 grfl$ja$r), ©otnntcr, $erbtf ; 

Winter, Spring (Spring), Summer, Fall. 

4. Month$: btt 3<muar, gebruar, SWärj, Styrit, 9Rat, 3uni, 3ufi, etc. 

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, etc. 

6. Day$ ofthe Week: btt SWontag, Stfenfiag, SDtötttoo^, 2)oimer|tog,efc 

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, etc. 
C. Points of the Compass: btt Wort, @fib, Oft fficfl ; North, South, e*c. 

7. Mountains: btt $arj, Skfut), Bctna, the Harz,Vesuvius,Etna. 

8. Zar^e 2?trcb; btt 8Mer, #abt$t, ©der ; the eagle, hawk, vulture. 

9. Fishes: btt 9CaI r $eo)t, ?a$S; the eel, pike, salmon. 

10. Bugs and Worms: btt SRotffifer, ©Iutegcl; the May-bug, leech. 

11. FruiMrees, Grains, Shrubs,and wildPlants: btt Apfelbaum, SSktJOt, 
$ottunber, 2au$; the apple-tree, wheat, eider, leek. 

12. Winds: btt ©otnutn, ©irotlo, Ortan; simoom, siroeco, hurricane. 

13. Mineral Substances (except metals, §63): btt SHomatlt, @$tt>cfct, 
©tetn, SRarmor ; diamond, sulphur, stone, marble. 



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§ 62-66.] GENDEB OP NOUNS. 259 

§ 62. Nouns feminine by meaning are the names of : 

1. Female Beings: MC grau, $bmgin, Sötoin, woman, queen, lioness. 

2. Smaller Birds and Insects: MC *Ra$tigatt, 2)roffet, glicge, Stange, 

the nightingale, thrush, fly, bug. 

8. Forest-trees^Fruits and Flowers, especially if ending in e: Mt GEUtye, 

S3irne, diofe, the oak, pear, rose. 
4. Most Eiters: Mt 2)onau, ßlfc, ©J>rce, the Danube, Elbe, Spree. 

.Exe. bei dtycin, SDfatn, e*c, the Rhino, Maine, etc. 

' § 63. Nouns neuter by meaning are the names of : 

1. Most Countries and Places: b0$ t^eißc Statten, hot Italy, bd£ fößltt 
©erün, beautiful Berlin, ba£ fcflc 9ttagbeburg, strong Magdeburg. 

2. Collective Nouns: bü8 $>otf, $eer, the people, army, ba3 ©W«, @<fyilf, 
Äofyr, grass, sedge, reeds. 

8. Metals: bü$ ©itfrer, (Mb, 93fet, (Sifcn, silver, gold, lead, iron. 
Exe. btt ©ta&t, 3inf, Äofcalt, steel, zinc, cobalt 

§ 64. Nouns mascnline by form are : 

1. Most monosyllabic nouns not ending in t (§ C5): btt örud), 2>anf, 
gatl, #afi, Ouett, the breacb, thanks, fall, hatred, source. 

2. AU nouns ending in ty, Iß, lag, Ifog, ttt : bei @ti$, $0llig, $5ring, 
2c$rftng, $elm, the sting, honey, herring, apprentice, helmet. 

Exe. hak SWefftng, brass, bd£ 2>ütg, the thing. 

§ 65. Nouns feminine by form are : 

1. All dissyllabic nouns ending in C, and not denoting male beings: 
bie £ird)e, Äirfd)e, @onnc, (Erbe, the church, cherry, sun, earth. 
Exe. 1. bü$ Huge, (Snbe, (Srfce, the eye, end, inheritance. 

£rc. 2. bei SRame, Stile, the name, will. 

2. Most nouns ouftty tu adjt, UÜ)t, ulb, nttft: bie 9fa$t, gfactyt, ©e* 
bulb, SSermmft, night, flight, patience, reason. 

8. AU derivatives ending in fcdt, feit, f (faft, ei, itt (itt»), Itltg, aflj, llty : 
bie gretyrit, Stonfbartrit, grcunbfd>aft, ©ätferet, äitoigum, Hoffnung, 
$Ctmatfy, Slrmuty, freedom, thankfulness, friendship, bakery, queen, 
hope, home, poverty. 

Exe. bei (or ba$) 3icrratl), the Ornament, bdS $etf$aft, ©cförei, 
the seal, the cry. 

§ 66. Nouns neuter by form are : 

1. Diminutives (in fytU, lt\U, see § 67, 1, 1), whaterer may be the 
natural gender : büQ $ferbd)cn, ©üctylrin, the little horse, little book ; 
bd$ gtäuletn, 2Wäb$cn, Äinbtcin, the young lady, girl, child. 



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260 the noüns. [§ 67-69. 

2. Derivatives ending in f dl, fei, t^Wtt: bttS @$itffal, 9*5tyfet, Äatfer- 
ttyum, <£()rijtentljmn, fote, riddle, empire, Christendom. 
Exe. 1. ber SBeä)fet, 3rrtyum, föeidMum, the change, error, riches. 
Exe. 2. bit H$fet, Bmfel, 2)eu$fel, the Shoulder, blackbird, adze. 
Exe, 3. bie (or bOÖ) SRfi^fat, Xrilbfat, the distress, sorrow. 

8. Nouns with the;>r^x gC: ba$ ©ebäube, ©efefe, the building, law. 
jErc 1. btt ©ebraud^,©cbanfc,©c^oTfain,@enu6,@cfan0,©cf^ina(!, 
©ctmnti ; the use, thought, obedience, enjoyment, song, taste, gain. 
Exe. 2. bit ©ebityr, ©eburt, ©ebulb, ©efatyr, ©emetnbe, ©enüge, 
<$efdp$te, <$eßalt, the duty, birth, patience, danger, Community, 
satißfaction, history, form. 

§ 67. Compound Nouns take the gender of the last noun : 
ber @$utte$rer, theschool-teacher(bte @d)u!e, ber 2e$rer). 
bie $offtr<tye, the court church (ber#of, bit $ir(tye). 
bd$ @($utfy&u$, the school-house (bie k>ä)uU, bdS #au«). 
Exe. 1. Ser «bföeu (bie @$eu), ber 2Ritttt>o$ (bie SEßoty). 
Exe. 2. Sie Sfomuty, S)emutb, ©roßmutb, Songmuty, @anftmutb, 
©$mcrmuty, ©ebmutb (ber SWuty, #od)tmtty, €/c); bie Ant- 
wort (baS Söort). 
Exe. 8. Sa« ©egentyeü, ba$ (or ber) Borbertyrif, e/c. (ber £$eit). 
iSarc. 4. Names of cities are nenter, wbatever the Compound may be : 
Sttö feße aWagbcburg (bie ©urg), strong Magdeburg. 

§ 68. Foreign Nouns usually retain their original gender : 

Sie £$eotogie, theology (from Gr. y $«oAoyia, theology). 
Exe. But some foreign words have been drawn out of their original 
gender: ber Sörper, bie Kummer, bttägenfter; 
front Lat. (neut.) corpus, (masc.) numerus, (fem.) fenestra. 

§ 69. A number of nouns have two genders, with & dif- 
ferent signification for each gender, as : 

2)er ©anb, the volume. 2)o8 ©aub, the ribbon. 

„ ©auer, the peasant * ©auer, the cage. 

„ ©unb, the alliance. ,, ©unb, the bündle. 

„ (jtyor, the chorus. n tyox, the choir. 

n (Sxbt, the heir. „ (Srbe, the inheritance. 

2>ie Crfewitniß, knowledge. H <5rknntm&, the sentence. 

2>er $arg, the Harz Mountains. n $arj, the resin. 

* $eibe, the heathen. 2>ie $cibe, the heath. 

n Äiefer, thejaw. „ Äiefer, the pine. 

n Shmbe, the costumer. „ $unbe, the knowledge. 

„ Seiter, the leader. „ Seiter, the ladder. 

„ SWangel, the want. „ SRangel, the mangles. 

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§ 70-72.] DECLBN8ION OP NOÜNS. 261 

ÜDtc Wlaxt, the markgraviate. 3)afi SWart, the marrow. 
2)er SReffer, the measurer. „ SWeffer, the knife. 

„ @d)ttb, the shield. ,, @d)tlb, the sign. 

„ ©<$ttutft the bombast. 2)tc ©d)ttmlji, the swelling. 

rr @ee, the lake. n @W f the ocean. 

rr ©proffe, the sprout * ©fcroffe, round of a ladder. 

2)ic ©teuer, the tax. 2>a* ©teuer, the radder. 
©er ©tift, the handle. * ©tift, the endowment 

„ 2fy>r, the fbol. » 2fy>r, the gate. 

„ SSetbienjl, the reward. „ SSerbteufl, the merit. 

2>ie SBetyr, the bulwark. „ 2öe$r, the wier. 

§ 70. During the history of the language some nouns 
have passedfrom one gender to another: 

Gothic, der luftus, der sidus, das leik, ■ , , 

Old Ger., der luft, der sita, die loch, das saf, die ribba, 

Mid. Ger.j der luft, der site, die lieh, das saf, das rippe, 

New (7er., bte 2uft, btc @itte, bte 2eid)e, ber @aft, He tttypt, 

the air. the custom. the corpse. the sap. the Hb, 



3. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 
CDtüination ber §an$tmitttx.) 

§ 71. The influences which have produced the great 
variety now existing in the declension of German nouns 
are still at work. The most important of these are: 

1. The increasing ose of the umlaut. 

2. The tendency of terminations to lengthen root vowels. 

3. The passing of nouns from one gender to another. 

4. The increasing nnmber of masculine nouns with stt in the plural. 

§ 72. The many different ways in which common 
nouns are declined may be most conveniently grouped 
into three classes or Declensions: 

1. The (Hd Declension, containing masculine, feminine, and neuter 
nouns, and having three form* in the plural. 

2. The Hew Declension, containing masculine and feminine nouns, and 
having one form «Q («tu) in the plural. 

8. The Mixed Declension, containing masculine and neuter nouns, and 
having one form s|t (*tU) in the plural. 
Rem. The föllowing table illustrates these three declensions: 



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§ 73, 74.] DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 263 

Rem. 1. All feminine nouns remain tmchangcd in the singular. 
JRem. 2. All nouns have «u in tbe dative plnral — as do also all articks, ad- 
jecHves, andpronouns (except nn$, tttd), fl(|). 

Bern. 8. The umlaut is used only in the Old Declension. 

§ 73. The Old Declension includes by far the greater 
part of all German nouns, especially of those of the 
masculine and neuter gender. 

Rem. 1. It includes the greater part of : (1) masculine and neuter primi- 
tive nouns ; (2) derivatives in er, djtlt, Hin, i$, ity, |fl, tofl, IÜtß. «iß, 

I o(, tiinm. 

Rem. 2. Where no barshness of sound is thereby produced, the t may be 
dropped from the ending of the genitive and dative (especially of the 
dative): (l)of nouns not ending in $, fl, f$ or Dg; (2)of nouns preceded 
by prepositions: bon Ort gu Ort (but gu ^aufe); (3)of the word ©ort (in 
dat., but not in gen.); mit @ott (but um ©otte« SBiUcn). 

§ 74. Nouns of the Old Declension are divided into 
three classes, according to the way in which their plurals 
are formed: 

First class • plural like Singular (but sometimes takes the umlaut). 
Secondclass: plural adds sft (and always u " " ). 

Third class: plural adds $t (and generally " " " ). 

1. To the first class belong: 

1 . Masculine and neuter nouns in ei, tll, tf : 

1. The masc., mostly with umlaut in plural: ber Cafcr, pl SfötCT. 

2. The neut., " without " " " .- ba« SBaffer," SBaffer. 

2. Neuter diminutives in djCB, leta : ba$ 3Wfibd)en f grSulem, ©lümd)öL 
8. Neuter derivatives with the prefix ßC, and the suffix e: baS ©ebäube. 
4. The two feminine nouns, bte SQfattter, Softer (/>£ 9ttütter, X8d)ter). 

2. To the second class belong mostly neuter nouns$ as : 

1. $tt« Smt, ©ob, ©latt, ©ud), $ac^ 2)oTf, ©, gad), gag, gelb, ©elb, 
©fo«, ©lieb, ©rab, ©ra«, ©ut, ©attyt, $au«, #u$n, Äalb, Äinb, 
Äleib, Äorn, Äraut, Satmn, 2oä), SRaut, SRefl, $fanb, ftab, Weint, 
9ttnb, @ä)loß, @ä)»ert, »ott, ©ctb; baS ©emfity, ©efä)tc$t. 

2. All words in ti)nmx ba£ <5$rijlent$um,£atfert$um, ber SRetd)tyum, etc. 

3. A few foreign words : bü$ $ofi)ttaI, Regiment, etc. 

4. Also a few masculine nouns, as : htt ©riß, ©ort, 2dh, Wlcam, Salb. 

3. To the third class, which includes nouns of all gen- 
ders, belong : 

1. All derivatives in ftif, fol: MC Äenntniß, bat ©Ubniß, <5d)id\<d; 



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264 THE NOUN. L§ 75. 

2. Masc. and nent. derivatives in Ottb, üt, ity, ig, iltg, ttltg, rf$ : btT 

$eilanb, 3Ronat, Äönig, 3üng!tng, gtynricfo btt£ @enrid)t, 2>ütg. 

3. Some foreign nouns: ber 3Cbt f Stttar, ©encral; bttS Soncert, (Sonett. 

4. Manj others of all genders, as: (1), btt Hol, «rgt, ©autn, ©fifc, 
©*>, gifä, ^ m r $"f$/ $imb, Äneityt, 9toum, @totj, Xfcif, Xtfd). 
(2), bit Brt, ©raut, ©ruft gru$t, $anb, Äraft 3Rad>t, 5Ra$t. 

(8), btt« ©eil, ©ein, Soo«, 2RooS, ?«ft f @d?tff, 2$or, SBcrf, ©etent 
Arm. The umlaut is added to the plural of all feminine nönns that are 
eapable of it, to most masculine nonns, bat only to three neater nonns (ba$ 
$far, Stoß, 9to$r). 

§ 75. No neuter nouns belong to the New Declension. 
This declension includes : 

1. Most feminine nonns: (1), monosyllables ; bit 8rt, ©a&n, glur, 
gtuty, 3agb, Äofl, Jap, VfU^t, Dual, '@aat, @($aar, $$ta$t, 
@d)rift, @a)ulb, ©t>cer, fcfrat, tyüx, U$r, SBctt, 3<u?I, 6*c. 

(2), derivatives in t, t\, et (except SDtutter, fcodjtcr, § 74, 1, 4), at$, 
ei, ort, |peit^ feit, in («), töfaft, mig: Me »ebe, ©puffet, @#n*fler, 
$rimat$, gärberri, 3ugenb, 2öa$r$rit, 3)anl&arfett, Königin, greunb« 
f(^aft, Drbnung. 

2. Many masonline nonns: (1), monosyllables : bec ©5r, Ctyriß, gtnT, 
gürfl, ©raf, $elb, $err, $irt, 3Renfö, 2Ro$r, Harr, Od)«, 2$er. 
(2), polysyllables ending in *f: bcr Bffe, ©ote, ©übe, Crbe, ©arte, 
$afe, Smige, £nabe, SReffc, ftabe, 9ttefc, granfc, ©ric<$e, 9htffe. 
(3), personal nonns, with preflx ge«; ber ©efS&rte, ©C&filfe, ©cfcttc. 

3. Many masc and fem. foreign nonns : btt SCbnofat, Äanbibat, 3Ronan$, 
«Präftbtnt; bie gacultSt, 2Rdobtc, ©fcer, ^erfon, ftcget. 

4. Harnes of nationality, as: bet ©atcr, Äaffer, Ungar, Xatax, Äofat. 

Rem. 1. The termination ?fl is added to nonns ending in e, or in nnacoented 
*tl, «tr, *Ot; to other nonns *eu is added: 

AI Sing., ber Sötne, Ungar, 2Rcnfc& (exe. $err); bie Hebe, grau. 

G. Sing., be« Sötten, Ungarn, 2flenf($en( ". $errn); ber föebc, grau. 

iV. P/ir., bie Söroen. Ungarn. 2Rcnj($en ( " Ferren); bic «eben, grauen. 

Rem. 2. Relics of the former declension of feminine nonns in the singalar 
are retained in some familiär expressions, and in some Compound words : 
auf (Erben, %vl ©unjlen, non ©orte« ©naben, ba« @onnfnliä)t 

Rem. 8. The monosyllabic masculine nonns of this declension (§ 75, 2). 
are contracted from longer original fbrms, as : 

Old German: der bero, cristani, fifristo, gr&vee, (helid), hdrro, hirti, 
Mid. German : der ber, kristen, vürste, gräve, helt, herre, birte, 
New German: bcr©5r. Ctyrijt gflrjr. ©raf. ^elb. $err. £trt. 



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§ 76-78.] DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 265 

§ 76. The Mixed Declension contains a few masculine 
and neuter nouns which follow the old declension in the 
Singular, and the new declension in ihejplural, as : 

1. Masculine: $cr ttyu, 33<mer, 2)orn, gorjl, ©aul, ©et>attcr, #afai, 
Sorbecr, Wla% SRadjbar, y\dm, ©$merg, ©ee, ©porn, ©taat, ©ta* 
$e(, ©tra&l, Styron, «etter, Untertan, 3ierat&. 

2. Many foreigu nouns in or : $ct SDoftor, föeftor, ^rofeffor, ^ajior. 

3. Iftufer.» Sa« Buge, Seit, önbe, $cmb, $erj, 2rib, D&r, 3nfeft. 
Rem. 1. 2)a8 $erj is) & ba8 #erj, be8 $erjcit$, bem 9eqei, ba$ #erj ; 

irregulär. ) P. bte $er$en, ber $erjen, ben §erjen, bie ©crjciu 

Ä«w. 2. 2)er Watijbax, ber Untert&cm, usually follow the new declension in 
the singnlar, as sometimes does ber ©efcatter. 

§ 77. Some Foreign Nouns which have not yet been 
fully naturalized are irregulär. Some of them retain 
very much of their original modes of declension, as : 

Nom. Sing., SKufeirat, ©^mnafium, 9tyMmu8, @J>onbeu$, goffif, 
Gen. Sing., 2ttujeum8, ©^nutaftumS, fö^tymu«, ©fconbeu«, goffit«, 
Nom. Plur., 2Kufeen, ©tytnnaflen, atytytymett, ©ponbecn, Soffitten, 
Dat. Plur., 2Jtofeem ©tymnafien. ftfttymeiL ©fconbeett. goffüten. 
Nom. Sing., 2orb, Sabij, ©eme, Stttenr, $af$a, ©olo, äaftoo, 
Gen. Sing., 2orb«, 2abi>, ©ente«, SlfteurS, «PaföaS, ©oto«, SafinoS, 
Nom. Plwr., 8orb8, Sabie«, ©entcS, BfteurS, ?af$a8, ©olo«, Äafino*, 
Zta. Plur., Sorb«. Sabie«. ©eme«. 3ltteur$. ?af$a8. ©olo«. ÄafmoS. 
iVbw. iSw<7., Äbjectto, flajritat, Ste&um, 3ftnfifu8, 2$ema, 
Gen. Sing., Bbjcctto«, Äajrital«, »erbum«, 2RufiraS, $$ema«, 
Nom. Plur.,} Stbjecttoa, Äajntäte, 8erba, SDtoflct, 2$entata, 
" " i" SlbiectU>en. Sajritalien. »erben. SDtaftfer. Renten. 

§ 78. The Declension of Proper Nouns differs greatly from 
that of common nouns (§ 72). 

1. With names of persona : 

1. The genitive is usually formed by adding *$♦ 

2. But masc. names in % #, fi|, f # J, and fem. names in t f take $01$. 

3. The plural of all names is formed aecording to the old declension 
except feminine names in t f which follow the new declension : 

Nom. Sing., $eutrid), Subtoig, ©efttter, ©ötye, gremj, 
Gen. Sing., #eiirri$«, Subttrig«, ©Rittet«, ©ötye«, gronaen«, 
Nom. Plur., $emrit$e, Subtoige, ©Ritter, ©ötye, graitje, 
Dat. Plur., $einrtd)en. Subangen. ©djülent. ©ötyen. granjen. 
M 



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266 



lOTirtJftr [§79,80, 



Nom. Sing., ©ertya, Qxama, Stoefyeib, $ebtt% 2Rarie', 
Gen. Sing., ©ertyaö, <5mma«, Slbetyeib«, #ebtma«, 9Jcari*en«, 
iVom. P/w%, ©ertyaö. (Srnma*. Slbefyeib*. ©ebtoig«. SRarwen. 
Rem. Proper nouns are not infiected when preceded by tbe artide or an 

adjective pronoun: bte ©tfbfoute be*6 ?)orf ; bte Söerle be« 3o$amt @cba|H<m 

©a$ (or 3<fyutn ©e&ajttan ©a$$ 2öer^_ 

2. Names of eitles or%»»rtWlfe, not ending in 8, g, or 
| , take 3 in the genitive : 33erlin$ Umgebungen ; btc ©täWe 
2)eutfd&lant>$, 

Rem. Those in $, J, and ( must be (and others may bo) preceded by &0H, 
bei/ or a qualifying noun : bte Ctntoo&ner fcon SWatnj (or bet @tabt SWaüij). 

§ 79. The chief irregularities in the plural are these : 

1. Nouns indicating weight,rneo8ure y and number retain 
their singular form, even when used in the plural. 

3)ret $funb 3ucfer ; fetty« gu ß $o$ ; fcierjta, SWotra Heueret. 
Exe. Bat feminine nonns in t, and nouns indicating divisions of time, take 
the plnral form ; vier ÜZfteüeu entfernt ; jtoct £ao,e lang. 

2. Some nouns have two forms in the plural, as : 

3>cr SDorn ; pl dornen, or 2)ömer. 2)a« 2\ty ; pl gietyte, or Steter. 

3>a« 2onb ; />/. Stonbe, or Sänber. 2)a* Sfyrf; ;>/. £$ale, or Styiler, 
Äc»t. 1. With some nonns one form (as Sanbe, Xtyole) is poetical. 
Rem. 2. Sometimes the different forms have different meanings, as : 

3)et ©anb, volume, pl. S35nbe. 2)a« ©eftetyt, eyesight, pl (wanting). 

2)aS ©anb, ribbon, /»iL $änber. „ „ face, ,. pl. ®efi<$tcr. 

(no sing.) letters, pl öonbe. „ „ vision, /;£ (Sfreficfte. 

3. Some nouns have no singular number, as : 
Sie Stynen, (Sftern, ©efcrflber, ©efönnjto, Seute, SWafent, atyctu 

4. Some nouns have no plural number, as : 
$er ©egiim, Staitf , 3otmner, ©anb, ©treit, Unterricht. 

Sie Bfcfc, <5$re, gluckt, gureft, @nabe, StcBe, ^raety, ©mtftaraty. 
$tt$ 9fofe$n, (gtntommen, (Entwürfen, (Slenb, ®tü<f, geben, &>*. 



4. SYNTAX OF THE NOUN. 
(©¥*fe* be« $futytoi>rte$0 
§ 80. The Nominative Case in English corresponds 
in use to the same case in German. The Possessive is 



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§ 81, 82.] SYNTAX OF THE NOÜN. 267 

usually translated by the Genitive in German, and the 
Objective by the Genitive, Dative, or Accusative. 

Rem. 1. The original idea of the three oblique cases, which exist in all the 
Tentonic languages (§ 2), inclnding the Anglo-Saxon, appears to have been : 

1. Of tbe\Jeaitiye4 whence, from what place — optgttT; 

2. Of the *tetw: where, in or at what place— -jumfauL; 

3. Of the Aocusative: whither, to what place — direction. 

Rem. 2. In the development of the different Tentonic languages, the uses . 
of the cases have undergone so many modifications that tbeir correct appli- 
cation in passing from one langnage to another has become very difficalt. 

§ 81. The Genitive Case is used : 

1. After the derivative prepositions attffatt, aitfer^alb, 
toalpcttb, tocflcti, jctifcit, läng«, tity, jofolge, etc. (§ 202) : 

Änjlatt be« ©ruber«, Instead of the brother. 

S3&fi$renb be« Kriege«, During the war. 

2. Without a preposition : * 

1. After nouns of limitation, possession, etc. (for the English possessive) : 
2)te ©efctytdjte 3)etttf($fanb«, The history of Germany. 

2)e« @($üta3 S&u6), The scholars book. 

2. After the adjectives Oltftd^ti^ ftcfticrig, mitöt, Doli, etc. (§ 91) : 
fßoU ber greube, Füll of joy. 2flübe be« Sehen«, Weary of life. 

8. After the verbs adjtt», tütbtfytn, lad}*», flcr&Ctt, etc. (§ 178) : 

Bttc fa$en feiner (Süeltett, All laugh at his vanity. 
4. In many adverbial expressions : 

£>e« SDtorgen«, be« Bbenb«, In the morning, in the evening. 
©lücflid)erTOetfe, Happily. 

Bern. 1. By false analogy, the form bc« 9ia$t$ {fem.) is used. 
Rem. 2. The genitive case was formerly used mnch more than it is at pres- 
ent. 

§ 82. The Dative Case is used : 

1. After the prepositions tttt, ttttf, hinter, in, etc. (§ 244), 
when signifying rest, or motion within certain limits : 

2)a« ätnb tjl im ©arten, The child is in the garden. [den. 

2)a« Ätnb läuft im ©arten, The child is rnnning about in the gar- 

2. Always after the prepositions WXi, au$tT,etc. (§ 220) : 

C£r tommt au« bem ©arten, He is coming out of the garden. 

3. Without a preposition : 

1. After the adjectives itynttg, aitgcneljra, tpftHg, etc. (§ 95) : 
<Sr ift feinem ©ruber 8$nlw), He is like (or resembles) his brother. 



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<c 



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268 thb noun. [§ 83-85. 

2. After the verbs ofren, OttÖOStttl, bonten, feigen, etc. (§ 179): 
<Sr folgt {einem ©ruber, He follows his brother. 

8. As the indirect object of many verbs (§ 179, 2) : 
(St gab mit ba* ©uä), He gave me the book. 

§ 83. The Accusative Case is used: 

1. After the prepositions tttl, Oltf, M8, ilt, kW, £ta 
(§ 82, 1), when signifying motion towards an object: 

<gr ging in bcn ©arten, He went into the garden. 

2. Always affcer the prepositions Jmrdj, f8r, etc. ( 237) : 

Cr ging bur$ ben ©arten, He went throagh the garden. 

3. To express the direct object of transitive verbs: 

(gr taufte ben Eleiftift, He bought the penciL 

<5r gab mir ba$ ©tt<$, He ß* ve me that book * 

4. After verbs and adjectives,expressingprice, weight, 

measure, definite time, age, etc. (§ 177, 2 ; § 96) : 

<S« tojtet einen Stynler, It cost one doUar. 

(£« Wiegt tttt $fnnb, It weighs a pound. 

(5r blieb einen gangen 2to(J> He remained an entire day. 

(£« iji nur einen 3<>fl breit, It is only an inch wide. 

§ 84. Some verbs are followed by two nouns in the same case ; others by 
two nouns in different cases; and some by a Substantive whose case is deter- 
mined by the signification of the verb, while the practice of good writers varies 
as to the case that should follow some verbs (see syntax of the verb, § 175). 

§ 85. In addition to the rules of Apposition which pre- 
vail in the English language, the German has the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Nouns expressing weight, measure, and number (when not used parti- 
tively) are in apposition with the nouns they limit : 

Cin $funb 3 u( to, A pound ofsagax. 

(but) (Bin $funb biefe$ 3 U( * **** A pound of this sugar. 

(Sin ©la« Steffer, A glase of water. 

2. Proper names of countries, cities, etc., and of months are in apposi- 
tion with the specifying common noun : 

3)a« Äönigreiä) ^reußen, The kingdom o/Prussia. 

3)ie ©tabt ©erlin, The city of Berlin. 

3m SWonat Sfaguß, In the month of August 



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§ 86 J THE ADJECTIVE. 268 



THE ADJECTIVE. 
($a£ 6igatf4aft^toort.) 
§ 86. Adjectives are primitive, derivative, or Compound. 

1. With primitive adjectives are also reckoned many, 
of which the verbal origin is "no longer feit" : gut, alt 

2. Derivative adjectives are formed by adding the Suf- 
fixes 4iar, *cr (*eni), *M% '% 5 W (***) >/ S IW>> sor 5 fam, to 
words of any part of speech, except the article, con- 
junction, or interjection: 

1. 'hat (Old German: heran, to bear), added to the noun or a verbal 
root, indicatcs ability or possibility of a quality or action : 
fruchtbar, fruit-bearing, Wenflbar, serviceable, eßbar, eatable. 

2. «ttt (strn) is added only to nouns denoting material : 
golben, fUbcrn, lebern, bötjern, gläfern. 

8. sjjttft (Old Ger. : haft, holding) denotes possession of the quality of 
the noun, or inclination towards it : tugenbtyaft, virtuous^cfymeicfyetyaft, 
flattering. 

Rem. *tyaft is added to bat three adjectives : bo«l)aft, frantyaft, lecferljaft. 

4. sifl denotes possession of the quality or relation, expressed by the 
. noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb, preposition, or adverb, to 

which it is suffixed : mä'djtig, roighty, febenbtg, lively, ber tneimge, 
mine, einig, sole, einjig, Single, biffig, biting, jefetg, present, &orig,pre- 
ceding, ntebrig, lowly. 

5. A\$ (sft) denotes origin, similarity, or inclination: *ßreußtfä), Prus- 
aian, irbifd), earthly, neibtfdj, envious. 

Rem. 1. The *if$ takes the place of ic or ical in many English adjectives: 
bramatifö>, fcoetifä), logifä), tytftorifä). 

Rem. 2. In proper adjectives frequently the termination *tt is preferred to 
4fdj; the *et takes no inflection : ber 3Äagbeburger 2)om, bte Seidiger 3«* 
tung, ba« ©ranbettburger 2$or (gen. be* 2Jtogbcburger 2)omö). 

6. 4i$ (compare English like, ly) forms adjectives from nouns, and di- 
minutive adjectives from adjectives : finbltdj, childlike, tffgfufy, daily, 
rötblidj, reddish. 

7. sfant (related to jufammen, Lat . semper, Greek apa, Eng. some), add- 
ed to verbs and verbal nouns, indicates possession of or inclination to 
the quality: axbeitfam, laborious, mü&fam, wearisome. 



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270 the adjbctive. [§87,88. 

3. Compound adjectives are formed by prefixing to ad- 
jectives a noun, preposition, or other adjective : 
Ttexddblan, dark blue. 2ieBen*mftrbig, amiable. 

XcuBfhttmn, deaf and dnmb. äfötföulbig, accessorr to a crime. 

§ 87. Adjectives are called predicative when they are 
used to complete tbe predications of the verbs feto, 

mxbtu, Metten, f djeiiteit (ausfegen), bünfen, Reifen : 

2>a* 2eBctt tft fwtl, Iafe is short. 

2>a* Setter »heb Jeff, The weather is becoming hot. 

Bern. 1. Adjectives used predicatively are not declined. 
Bern. 2. Some adjectives are used only predicatively, as : ongft, Bereit, fcinb r 
gram, tyetf, irre, f unb, quer, qtrit, föuib, aBttenbig, anftä)tig, eingeben!, getrojt, 
geroa&r, fcoBBaft, t&eil&aftig, betfuflig. 

Bern. 8. The following are rarely or never nsed predicatively : (1), the 
simple form of snperlatives (§ 98, Rem. 2) ; (2), adjectives in *€*, golben, fH* 
btxn,etc. / (3), some other adjectives, as : bortig, ^teflg, fpotrifd^ ttrgeBen. 



1. DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES: 
OeHiiuttüm bet ©ge*f«aftf»8ttet.) 
§ 88. Adjectives used attributively,that is,whenplaced 
before the noun to express some of its well-known at- 
tributes, are subjeet to three modes of declension, 
termed the Old, New, and Mixed Dedensions. 

1. The Old Declension is employed when no article 
or adjective pronoun precedes the adjective (§ 89, Rem. 2): 

©ut*et SWonn, gut*e grau, gut*eS Äinb, 

Good man. good woman. good child. 

2. The New Declension is employed when the adjec- 
tive is preceded by : 

1. The definite article btt. 

2. All adjective pronouns that are declined aecording to the Old De- 
clension, as liefet, jebet, jexet, f olftet, neiget, thns induding au 

adjective pronouns except the possessives (§ 88, 8) : 
2>er gut*e SDfcatm, bie gut*e grau, ba« gut*e fönb, 

The good man. the good woman, the good child. 

Rem. 1 . The Compound adjective pronouns btrjtltigC, bttf CttC, cause an 
adjective following thera to be in the New Declension, by the force of the bCC. 
Rem. 2. Many writers give the New Declension to adjectives following 
eertain participles that have a determinative signification, as : f Ofgettbet, et» 

»itytttet, betriebener* 



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§89.] 



DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. 



271 



3. The Mixed Declension is used when the adjective 

is preceded by a possessive pronoun, by Ctt!, or by Itttt : 

(Sin gut*ct SRonn, eine gnt*e grau, ein gut*cS Äinb, 
A good man, a good woman, a good child. 

§ 89. Table of the three Declensions of Ad jectives. 



4 


SINGULAR. 
MascuUne. Feminine, Neuter. 

N. gut*cr, gut*e, gut*e«, 
g. gut* cn (cS), gut*er, gut*c*(t8), 
D. gut'tra, gut*er, gut-cm* 
a. gut-eu, gut*e, gut*c& 


PLURAL. 
All G enders. 

gut*c* 
gut-er* 
gut*ai* 
gut*c. 


.8 

1 


N. ber gut*c, bie gut*e, ba« gut*e* 
G. be« gut*cu, bergut*eu, be« gut*ctt* 
Z). bemgut*tn, bergut*cu f bemgut*au 
A. ben gut*cu, bie gut*e, ba« gut*e* 


bte gut*cn(t). 
ber gut*etu 
ben gut« tu* 
bie gut*cn(f).| 


II 


N. mein gut*cr, meine gut*e, mein gut*t$* 
G. meme« gut*cu, meiner gut*cn> meine« gut*cn* 
D. meinem gut*cn, meiner gut*en, meinem gut*tn* 
A. meinen gut*cn, meine gut*t, mein gut*tä* 


meine gut*ttt. ; 
meiner gut*cn. i 
meinen gm>eu» j 
meine gut*cn. 1 



Rem. 1. The former termination *t% of the genitive singular in the mascu- 
line and nenter gendere of the Old Declension is now generally rejected by 
most writers, bat it is yet retained in mscayfixed expressions: 
«Seien Sie gute« 9ftut$e«, Be of good coarage. 

£eine«tt)eg«, By no means. 

Rem. 2. Adjectives take the Old Declension when preceded by the foDowing 
nndeclined words: etatt£, ttid)tö, tötl, »ttlig; foty, tOtty, man* ; Car- 
dinal nnmbers; brittyaUi, einerlei, bergleitfei, e*c .• 

$rei eble ©rafen folgen (Ity.), Three noble connts follow. 
@olä) große ©djäfee, Such great treasures. 

2ftit etwa« weißem fydpitx, With some white paper. 
Gittertet gute« £udj, All kinds of good cloth. 

Rem. 8. After the phtrals alle, anberc, einige, etli^e, feine, mana)e, fotd>e r 
n>ela)e, mehrere, Diele, tt>enige, the adjective nsually drops $u in the nom. and acc. 

PLURAL. 

Nom. alle gut«c, einige gut*c, biele gut*e, 

Gen. aller gut*c», einiger guthat, vieler gut*etl, 

Dat. allen gut*c», einigen gut*et, biefen gut*ai, 

Acc. alle gut*e. einige gut*t* biele gut*t # 

Rem. 4. The similarity between the new declension of nauns and the new 
declension of adjectives is very striking. 



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272 THE ADJECTIVE. [§ 89,90. 

Rem. 5. The Mixed Declension is like the Old in the nominative and ac- 
cusative singular ; in the other cases it is like the New Declension. 

Rem. 6. After the personal pronouns idj, bu, toir, \%t, the adjective takes 
the Old Declension in the Nom. Sing. ; in the other cases it takes the New 
Declension : 

2)u, gute« Äinb ! Thou, good chüd ! 

3fa anneti Seute ! You, poor people ! 

Bern. 7. In poetic langaage the termination may be dropped from the nom. 
and acc. sing, neuter of adjeetives of the Old and Mixed Declensions : 
Aalt Sßaffcr ; alt (gtfen, Cold water ; old iron. 

Cin gut SBort, A good word. 

Rem. 8. When, in poetic composition, two or more adjeetives are joined 
to the same noun, only the last one is declined : 

®er faffö,berrätyerifä)etöaty, The false, treasonable counseL 
Rem. 9. An attributive adjective, following the noun, is not declined : 

@in ffltefe, groß unb toilb, A giant, largo and fierce. 
Rem. 10. Adjeetives used substantively retain their adjective terminations: 

(5m $eutf$er, bie 2)eutWen, A German, the Germans. 
Rem. 11. Participles used adjectively are declined like adjeetives : 

9lm folgenben Sage, On the following day. 

Rem. 12. Adjeetives ending in sti, *tn f or ctt, when declined, usually drop 
an e either before or after \,fl,XX 

er ifl ein ellltr SDtotfd^, He is a noble man. 

Sßir tyaben troAteä SS&etter, We are having dry weather. 
Rem. 13. The adjective 1)0$ drops C when it is declined: 

ein fe$r (öfter ©erg, A very high mountain. 

Rem. 14. If two adjeetives stand in equal logical relation to the noun, they 
both follow the Old Declension ; if the second adjective Stands in more inü- 
mate relation to the noun than the first, it follows the Mixed Declension : 
9to<$ guter (unb) alter ©ttte, According to good old custom. 
JBon altem [blauen $a£ter], From old [blue paper]. 



2. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

(Steigerung ber eigeufd>aft$to8eter.) 

§ 90. In the German, as in all Teutonic languages, 

the cowvparative degree is formed by adding *cr, and the 

Superlative by adding sji (or -cfl) to the positive degree. 

Rem. 1. When the positive degree ends in sfc, A f c§ f cjj, sj, sfd), sft, 4, or 
«8, the Superlative usually takes *e jt } otherwise it takes sft 



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§91.] 



COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 



273 



Rem. 2. The few adjectives ending in *t f take only st in the comparative. 



Positive. Compar. Super l. 


Positive. Compar. Super l. 


fein, fine, fein*er, fehuft 
faul, lazy, fauUer, faul*ft. 
reitfy, rieh, reifer, retctysft, 
föön, fine, föönstr, WMt 
milb, mild, mübstr, milb*eft 
laut, loud, lautier, laut*efk 


fjeiß, hot, Ijeifcer, ^etfrefL 
fatfä), false, fallet, faiftyeft 
fro$, happy, fronet, frofceft 
frei, free, freuet, frei-cjt. 
treu, true, treiuer, treu*e(t 
mübe, weary, mfibe*r, mübe*ft. 



Bern. 3. Adjectives ending in stf, sCH, or *tt, rejeet the C of this syllable in 
the comparative degree : 

(gbet, noble, tM*er, nobler, cbel*tf, noblest 

§ 91. When the positive is a monom/Uable, the radical 
vowel, if a, 0, or tt, usually takes.the umlernt in the com- 
parative and Superlative degrees : 



Positive. Compar. Superl. 



Positive. Compar. Superl. 



alt, old, alter, iütseft. 

»arm, warm, toiirm*er, toärmsefr. 
lang, long, länger, läug-fl. 



grob, coarse, grüner, gr8fc*ß- 
furj, short, fttr$*er, färs*e(l. 
jung,young, jitog*er, jitog*fl. 



Rem. 1. The umlaut is not vsed in the comparison of : 

1. Adjectives with the diphthong alt in the radical syllable: 

laut, loud, laut*cr, taufcejt. 

2. Derivative adjectives (ending in «bot, «Cf, s l)ttft, -föUt, e*c.) : 

banlbar, thankful, bontbar'tr, ban!bor*|t 

3. Adjectives having the participial prefix gt»t 

getuanbt, dexterous, getoanbt*er, gett>anbtsC|k 

4. Some adjectives oiforeign origin : 

brato, falfä), matt, platt, jart, nobel, flolj, etc. 

5. The following monosyllabic adjectives of German origin : 

1. With a: borfä), btanf, fafyt, fatb, ffo$, farg, tnaty), laftn, tag, 
natft, rafö, fa$t, fanft, ftott, fä)laff, fölanf, flarr, ftorf, tt>a$r. 

2. With o: fro$, $o$l, $olb, lo«, morfä, ro$, Wroff, toll, sott. 

3. With h: bunt, bumpf, plump runb, fhimm, fruntyf, lounb. 

Rem. 2. The use of the umlaut continues to extend more and more, both 
in the language of the common people and in the works of good writere. 
Thus, Goethe uses ffödjet, liütttj Klopstock uses gältet; Kinkel uses gHÜ* 
ttfcn. The use also varies with fang, blaß, fromm, naß, gCfttttb, etc. 

M2 

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274 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



[92, 93. 



§ 92. A few adjectives are imegvlar and a few are 
defective in comparison : 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


gut, good, 


beffer, better, 


beft, best. 


ttel, mnch, 


metyr, more, 


metji, most. 


ljo$, high, 


työ&er, higher, 


tfMfik, highest. 


nafye, near, 


näfyer, nearer, 


nfid^p, nearest. 


(außen [adü.], without), 


Süßer, exterior, 


ftußerft, extreme. 


(innen [a<to.], within), 


inner, intcrior, 


ümerft, innermost. 


(pot [prep.], before), 


fcorber, anterior, 


toorberß, föremost. 


(hinten [<ufo.]> behind), 


hinter, hinder, 


fytnterfl, hindmost. 


(oben [arfr.]» above), 


ober, npper, 


oberft, nppermost 


(unten [acfc\]> below, 


unter, lower, 


untcrfi, lowermost. 


(min [adj.,adv.\ little), 


ntinber, less, 


minbeß, käst. 


(er [QU German for the 


(erer [OW Ger. for 




adverb efye], early), 


the adv. etyer], earlier). 


erftc, first 


(laz [Old Ger.], lazy), 




lefcte, last 


(erfr, ßrst), 
(tefet, last), 


elfter, former, 
lefcter, latter, 







§ 93. Adjectives, especially if they are polysyllables, 
are sometimes compared by placing before the positive 
the adverbs mdjjr, irwre, and am meißelt, most : 

Oetoanbt, dexterous, metr gemanbt, an meiftea gemanbt. 
Rem. 1. In comparing two adjectives with each other, mtfft most be used : 
Cr ifl mtfft tapfer al$ »orftctytig, He is more brave than prudent. 

Rem. 2. To express the Superlative predicatively, the dative, preceded bj 
OH! (OB bem) # may be employed: 

2>iefe ©fotne ift ftnt Winfott, This flower is most beantifuL 

Rem. 3. By way of emphasis, the genitive ploral of üSUt is freqnently pre- 
fixed to the Superlative : 

2>iefe 8Imne ift bte atte*f$Bnjte, This flower is mr the most beantifuL 

Rem. 4. The absolute Superlative is expressed by prefixing to the positive 
such adverbs as ftfo, W$|t, ttttfctft, etc. : 

2He 9to<$ri#t ifl $ö<$ftintereffant, The news is extremely interesting. 

Rem. 5. Adjectives in the comparative and «nperlative degrees are 6ubject 
to the same laws of declension (§ 90) as thongh in the positive degree: 
S)eT befle gteunb, The best friend. 

SWein befta gteunb, My best (in Engl, my good) friend. 



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§ 94-96.J SYNTAX OP THE ADJECTIVE. 275 

3. SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVE. 
(©Utttq: m (EigciifdjaftStnortcSO 
§ 94. Adjectives, adjective pronouns,and participles, 
when used attributively, take the gender, number, and 
case of the Substantive which they qualify (L. XVIII). 
§ 95. The following adjectives govern thegenüive case 
without the use of a preposition (§ 81, 2, 2) : 

1. 3fofi<$ttg, arm, bar, bebürftig, Begierig, Benötigt, bewußt, Bloß, ein* 
geben!, einig, ein«, erübrigt, erfahren, fa*l)ig, frei, frob, gebent, geflä'n* 
big, gewahr, gewärtig, gewift, gewohnt, ^ab^aft, inne, funb, fünbig, 
lebig, leer, lo«, mft^tig, mübe, muffig, quitt, fatt, föulbig, ftec^tn, 
tyeityaft (-ig), überbrüfflg, fcerbfityig, fcerluftfg, t>oU, wertb, würbig. 

2. Such of these adjectives as take the negative prefix mt*, as : 
UnBegierig, unerfahren, unmutig, unfdjutbig, unfietycr, unwürbig. 

Cr iß aller borgen frei, He is free from all cares. 
Cr i(i M SBege« funbig, He is acquainted with the road. 
C8 ift ni$t ber SDWtye werty, It is not worth the trouhle. 
Cr ift ber &<$tuug unwürbig, He is onworthy of respect. 
Bern. 1 . Some of these adjectives may he followed by certain prepositions 
(which govern their own cases), as : 

(l) Begierig, by nad} or auf • (5) frei, lebig, leer, Io$, toott, etc., 



(2) Bereit, fä&ia, by j«. by bon, 

(3) arm, gewohnt, leer, by an« 

(4) frob, gewiß, einig, by über, 

<2r ift frei toon allen borgen, He is free from all cares. 



(3) arm, gewohnt, leer, by an» (6) einig, erfahren, froty, by in» 



Cr ift arm an ©elb, He is poor in money. 

Rem. 2. Some of these adjectives are used, though rarely, as governing the 
aecusative case, as: anfi^tig, bewußt, fäbig, gcflfinbig, gewahr, gewohnt, $ab* 
baft, los, mübe, fatt, fdjulbig, üBerbrüffig, werty, jufrieben. 

C« ijl nidjt bie SJHtye Werft), It is not worth the trouble. 

§ 96. Many adjectives govern the dative case without 

the use of a preposition (§ 82,3,1), as: 

1. SBtrümtig, ä$nti<ty, ongeBoren, angelegen, angenehm, anfioßtg, Be* 
tannt, Bange, Bequem, Bewußt, Bofe, banfbar, bienlidj, bienftBar, eigen, 
eigent&ümtt$, ergeben, feil, feinb, fern, folgfam, fremb, getyorfam, ge* 
mein, gemeinfam, geneigt, gewiß, gewogen, gtei^, gnäbig, gram, gut, 
natye, neu, nöt^tg, offen, offenbar, paffenb, fceinlicb, re<$t, febäbttdj, 
f$mei$etyaft, fdjmergttcb, Wulbig, föwer, füß, treuer, treu, HUi t 
überlegen, untertban, fcerbädjtig, t>erberblu$, fcerwanbt, fcortyeityaft, 
we$, werty, wichtig, wibcrli<$, wiUfommen, wo&l, aweifetyaft. 



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276 



NÜMEBAL8. 



[§ 97, 98. 



2. The negatives of these, formed by adding the prefix Mls or afc: 

1. With un: unä&nttdj, unangenehm, unbefaratt, unnötig, unföul* 

2. With ab : abgenagt. [big, unjtoeifelfraf t, etc. 
3äf bin 3$nen febr banlbar. I am very grateful to you. 

(S$ ijt itym fcfyöblid?, It is injurious to him. 

(Sr ip mir unbetonnt, Ue is a stranger to mc 

Rem. 1. It is ustially a personal notin that takes the dative after these ad- 
jeetives, and which may be treated as the " ituürect objeet" of the adjeetive: 
(£* toar tym nidjt ber 2Jtttye merty, It was not worth to him the trouble. 
(2r ifl mir getyn Ztydtt föulbig, He is ten dollars in debt to me. 
Rem. 2. Many of these adjeetives may be followed by prepositions : 
3$ bin mit ÜJttt bertoanbt, I am related to hinu 

3)er£ömgtt>arü)m(or gegen ü)n) The king was not mercifol to him 
ntttyt gnäbig, (or towards him). 

§ 97. The Accusative is governedby adjeetives express- 
ing value, weight, measure, or age (see § 94, Hern. 2) : 
G* toar feinen Pfennig tterty, It was not worth a penny. 
<5« ijl nur einen 3ott breit, It is only an inch wide. 

Cr iß JCljtt 3o^re alt, He is ten years old. 



NUMERALS. 
C3aW*örterO 
§ 98. The primitive Numerale are eil!, JttCt, brei, tuet, 

fünf, fedj«, fieben, adjt, neun, aeljiu All other numerals 

are derivatives or Compounds of these primitive words. 

Rem. 1. The apparently primitive nombers elf, Vß'H\, fytllbert, and tOtt* 
fenb hayo been thus developed: 





Gothic. 


Old-German. 


Mid.-Ger. 


N.-Ger. 


11, 


ainlif, one over (ten), 


einlif, 


eüf, elf, 


df. 


12, 


tvalif, two over (ten), 


zwelif, 


ewelef, zwelf, 


Jttrflf. 


100, 


taihantaihund) ten times 
or hunt ) ten, 


huntarot) 
orhunt,) 


hundert, 


fyunbert. 








1000, 


thusundi, ten htmdred, 


düsunt, 


tüsent, 


taufenb. 



Rem. 2. The high nombers SDtttUon, Million, etc., are from the French. 

Rem. 3. Numerals are either adjeetives, nouns, or adverbs. It is more con- 
venient, howerer, to treat them as forming a separate part ofspeech. 

Rem. 4. There are three classes of Numeral Adjeetives: (1), Cardinal Nun* 
bars; (2), Ordinal Humbers; (3), Compound Numeral Adjectivta. 



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§99.] 



CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



277 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
30. 
31. 
40. 
50. 
55. 



§ 99. The Cardinal Numbers are formed as follows 
(Sind. 

2>rei. 



SSicr. 

«auf. 

@iebetu 
*ä)t. 
Sßcun. 
3eJ>n. 
(Stf. 
3»Mf. 
2>rcije$n. 
SSierjefa. 
Pnfjc^n. 
@eä)je&n. 

©icbcnjc^n or ©iefcjetyn, 
Bfyjeljn. 
SReunje^n. 
3»ongtg. 
(Stnunbjwonjtg. 
ätDdunbjtoangig, e*c. 
dreißig. 

Cinunbbröjjtg, e*c 
SSiergtg. 
Pnfjtg. 
günfunbfünfjig. 
1869, 



60. ©ecfotg. 

70. ©tefcenjig or ©tebjig. 

80. ^tjig. 

90. SReunjig. 

100. ©unbert. 

101. $unbert unb ein«. 
110. ©unbert unb jetyn. 

120. $unbert unb jtüanjtg. 

121. $unbcrt cimmbjtöanjig. 
125. §unbert ffinfunbjtoanjig. 
136. $unbert fcä)«unbbreißig* 

150. $unbett unb fünfjig. 

151. $unbert etnunbfünfoig. 
200. 3tt>ci&unbert. 
225. äfeetyunbertfünfwtb&toangig. 
500. günfounbert. 

1,000. (gintauf cnb or Eaufenb. 
1,005. (Sintaufenb unb fünf» 
1,025. (ghrtaufcnb fünfunbjwanjig. 
1,500. (gtntaufcnb fünftunbert, 
2,000. 3tt>citoufenb. 
10,000. 3e$ntaufenb. 
20,000. 3ü>anjigtaufenb. 
100,000. $unbert taufenb. 
200,000. 3u>eU)unbert taufenb. 
1,000,000. (Sine SKtttion. 
2,000,000. 3tt>ci Millionen, 
^c^tge^n^unbert unb ncununbfedfötg, or 
(Stntaufenb acfyt&unbert neununbfea)jig. 

Bern, 1 . Single words are usually formed of units and tens, of multiples of 
a hundred, and of multiples of a thousand ap to a hundred thousand. But 
writers vary greatly as to the method of dividing Compound numbers. 

Rem. 2. All the other nnmerals, whether numeral nonns, adjeetives, or ad- 
verbs, are formed from cardinal numbers. 

Rem. 3. From their constant and universal use, cardinal numbers retain 
a fixedness of form not surpassed by that of any other words in a language. 
They are therefore of great value in tracing the relationship of allied lan- 
guages (see § 28-30, and § 106, Bern. 8). 

Hern. 4. When used as abstract riouns, cardinal numbers take the feminine 
gender, being in apposition with hlt &Q$l understood : 

2He ©ieben ift bei ben Guben eine Seven is a sacred number with the 
fettige 3afy, Jews. 



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278 



NülfEBALS. 



[§ 100-102. 



§ 100. The numeral ein usually receives a strong 
emphasis in pronunciation {see § 53, Rem.). 

1. Used with a noun, eitt is declined like the indefinite article (§ 54). 

2. In the expression ritt Müh bttftßte, ein may be undeclined. 

8. When nsed without a notm, it begins with a capital letter ((Einer, etc.). 

1. Not preceded by btt, it fbllows the old declension of the adjective. 

2. Preceded by bcr, it follows the new declension of the adjective, 
and is nsed both in the Singular and plural numbers (ber (Sine, 

bie (gtne, bo* (gine; bic (Einen). 

Bern. It is thus nsed (as the one, the ones) in Opposition to btt Wtbttt, 
bit Knbttn (the other, the others). 

4. The form (gitt$ is used: (1), in counting, ein«, jtoci, brei, toier, etc. $ 
(2), in mukiphjing, etc., einmal ein« iß ein«; 
(3), in giving the time ofday, when the word ttyr is omitted : 
<5« $at (gin$ ßefölagen, It has Struck one. 

§ 101. The other Cardinal Numbers are declined like 
the plural of adjectives of the Old declermon. But 
jtoti and brct take no termination in the nominative 
and accusative : 

jtt>8tf*e, 
an>öif<er, 

gn>8lf*c. 

^Rem. 1. 3loei an ^ Stei are only declined when not preceded by an ar- 
ticle, adjective, or adjective prononn : 

9u* jtoeier ober breier 3cugen Out of the month of two or three 
SWunb, *" witnesses. 

Rem. 2. The other numbers are rarely declined, except when, in the dative 
case, they are used without a noun : 

9luf allen Sierttt trieu>en, To creep on all fours. 

SWit ©tdjfett fahren, To ride in a "coach and six." 

Bern. 3. $Mtbert and Sonfeilb are sometimes used as coüective nouns, and 
as such are declined after the thirdform of the old declension. 

Bern. 4. The foreign words bie SRittiOtt', ©tttiott', etc., are declined like 
feminine nouns of the new declension. 

§ 102. The Ordinal Numbers are formed from the Car- 
dinais: 

1. By 8uffixing M t from jtoei to ncuitjdjtt, 

2. By suffixing sfite, from JÜMHjig upwards. 



Nom. Jtt>et, 


brei, 


fcier*e, 


ted)«*e, 


l$n>t, 


Gen. jn>ei*cr, 


breuer, 


*ier*er, 


fe$«*er, 


je$n*er, 


Dat. jn*t*en, 


breiten/ 


fcier*en, 


fcä>«*en, 


je$n*en, 


Acc. Jtöri. 


brei. 


trierse* 


\tä)**t. 


gefaue* 



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§ 102.] 



ORDINAL NÜMBEES. 



279 



ist S)cr erfle» 


50th! 


2>er fünfotg^tc. 


2d „ imutt. 


55th 


n fünftmbfünfoig*|te* 


8d „ MUH. 


GOth 


» W8*fte* 


4th „ toicr-tt* 


70th 


„ jlcbensigsfte or jieb* 


5th „ fünHc* 




m*9u 


6th n \*äfi*tU 


80th 


» ao)tjig 5 fle» 


7th „ fiefcoufe. 


90th 


„ itcunjtg*|le. 


8th „ aä)Ut* 


lOOth 


„ $unbert«fte* 


9th „ neun*fe* 


lOlst 


„ &unbert unb crflc* 


lOth „ gc^n*tt # 


125th 


„ l)unbertjünfunbjn>an* 


llth „ elf-ff. 




M'fa 


12th „ att>8!f*fe* 


200th 


t , a»ci^unbcrt*|le» 


ldth „ breije$n*fe* 


500th 


„ fünföunbert*fte* 


I4th „ bierjc$it«te* 


l,000th 


„ taufcnb*flc* 


15th „ fünfoe$n*fc* 


l,001st 


„ taufenb unb erfte* 


16th „ fc^gc^n-te* 


l,025th 


„ taufenbfünfunbjtoan* 


17th „ flebcnge$n»tC,orftcfcjc$n*fc* 




jig-ftC* 


I8th „ aäfoeijiwk. 


l,626th 


n taufenb fe$6$unbert 


I9th „ neunje$n*tt# 




unb fe<$«unb* 


20th „ a»anjig-ftc* 




jttxmjig'jtt. 


2lst „ ciminbj»anjtg-fte» 


2,000th 


„ 3tt>eitaufenb*f!c* 


25th „ ffinfunb3n>anäig*fte* 


20,000th 


„ än>angigtaufcnb*He» 


30th „ breißig-jlc. 


100,000th 


„ $unbcrttaufenb»ftc* 


35th „ fünfimbbrrißig'Jtc* 
40th „ t>icrgig^fle« 


500,000th 
l,000,000th 


„ fünjföunberttaufcnbfle. 
„ milUon-jte* 


45th „ fünfunbtoierjiß'ftt» 


2,000,000th 


„ jn>eimiIIton*flc* 


i2ew. 1. The forras brtt'tt and adjt 


>t are euphonic variations from the rule 


for forming ordinal numbers. 






Bern. 2. Ordinal numbers are subj 


ect to all the laws of declension of ad- 


jectives. 






Retn. 3. Srftt is the Superlative of 


the obsolete adverb et (§ 02). 


Rem. 4. All the ordinals were proba 


bly originally siqperlatives, formed after 


the analogy of ttftt* 






Vfcwi. 5. 3ötitC was first used in the sixteenth Century. Before that tiroe 


btt ttlbctt meant the second of any 


number, as it now means the second of 


fort /tro. 







Rem. G. Since the Old-German period,the termination At or sjlt is added 
only to the*last one of Compound numbers. 
Rem. 7. Examples of the Historie development of ordinal numbers : 



Gothic: , 

Old- German : eristo, 
Mid.-Gennan: €rste, 
New-German: crjlc. 



anthar, 


thridja, 


saihsta, 


taihunda, 


andar, 


dritto, 


sehsto, 


zehanto, 


ander, 


dritte, 


sehste, 


sehende, 


anber. 


bvitte. 


fechte. 


je&nte. 



tvalfta, 
zwelifto, 
zweifle, 
jtoölftc. 



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280 



NUMERALS. 



[§ 103, 104. 



Gothic: 
Old- Ger man: 
Middle-Germax. 
New-German: 



tvaigjösta, 
zweinzicosto, 
zweinzegöste, 
ätoan$igjfc. 



drizegeste, 
drizagösto, 
bretßtgfle. 



feorzugosto, 
vierzegeste, 
toicrgigpc 



thusundgosta, 
dusuntosto, 
tüsentste, 
taujenbjie. 



§ 103. There are three classes of Compound Nnmeral 
Adjective8: 

1. Distributives, indicating how many at a time: 
3»ci unb jtoet, je jtt>ei, ju jtoeien, Two at a time, by twos. 
3c$n unb je&n, je jc$n, gu jefaen, Ten at a time, by tens. 

2. Dimidiatives, indicating the whole of all up to the 
number mentioned, with a half of that number : 

Sfabertyalb, One and a half (one and a half of the second). 

S)rittC^aIb f Two and a half (two and a half of the third). 

SBiertefralb, Three and a half (three and a half of the fourth). 

gfinfte&otb, Four and a half (four and a half of thefiftii). 

Rem. 1. The C is often dropped: brüftott, D'lttfyalb. 
Rem, 2. Dimidiatives higher than brUtfcatb are rarely nsed. 
Rem. 8. The faller forma ein unb tili falb, etc., are also nsed. 
Xa$ Zn6) fojfct eist« unb eine« The cloth costs a dollar and a half 
falben Xty&et bic <&.Ut, a yard. 

3. Variatives, indicating of how many kinds : 
<2üier4d , gtt>ricr4ef , Of one kind, of two kinds. 

Rem. 1. Since the Mid.-Germ. period the syllable (ei has been attached to 
the nnmeraL It is from Lat. lex, Provcncal ley, Middle-German leige, leie. 
Thus, Sinetlei was in the Middle-German einer leige, einer leie. 

Rem. 2. Distributives, Dimidiatives, vadVariatives are indeclinable. 

Rem. 8. Many Compound adjeetives have cardinal or ordinal numbers for 
theßrst or moaHfying component, as : 

<Sinfa$ or einfältig, simple. 3^^110, of double meaning. 

3u>eifa$ or jtt>eif5ltig, twofold. 2)retyfttnbtg, weighing three pounds. 
(SinfHinmig, unanimous. (Eingeboren, only begotten. 

Cinja^rig, one year old. (SrflgcBoren, first born. 

§ 104. Nnmeral Nouns are of two kinds : 

1. Those with the suffix *tl or ^Iiltg (masculine nouns): 

Cht ©teigiger, Aman from thirty to forty years old. 

(Sin 2)reier, A three-pfennig coin (worth about a 

günfunbfe^jiger, Wine made in 1865. [cent). 

Cht SttMing, « n 2)ntttng, A twin, a triplet. 



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§ 105, 106.] THE PR0N0UN. 281 

2. Those with the suffix 4cl (neuter nouns), as : 
(gin ^Drittel ^ßfunb, A third of a pound. 

(Ein &ä)tel Spater, An eighth of a dollar. 

2>rci &ä)tel 3<>tf , Three eighths of an inch. 

Rem. 1. The syllable »tcl is an abbreriation of Stycil, a^arr. Tbns drit- 
tel is abbreviated firom 2)rittyett (for 2>rittfyeü), Middle-German dritteil. 

Rem. 2. " A half' is rendered by the noun hit $ftlfte, usually followed by 

Don; or by the adjective (all) (eto {jafter, eine Jatöe, ein ftatteä): 

2)ie Hälfte bon ber @tabt, A half of the city. 

<g$ foftet einen falben 2$alcr, It costs half a dollar. 

Obs. When befbre neuter names of cities and coontries, and not preceded 
by an article or a pronoun, (oll) (and (jaitj) are undeclined: 
$atb Berlin, falb (gang) 2>eutf$tanb, Half Berlin, half (all) Germany. 
(but) ba« falbe 2)eutf<$Ianb, Half Germany. 

§ 105. Numeral Adverbs are of two kinds : 

1. Beiteratives, formed by compounding Cardinal Num- 
bers with 9KaI, a time : 

Cinmol, once. ä^^ ^ tw5ce « %t1)nmal t ten times. 

2. Ordinal Adverbs, indicating in wkat place or arder: 
(Erften«, erftfid), or suerfl, In the first place, firstly. 
3n>eiten8, britten«, etc. In the second, third place, etc. 

Rem. The form etft*ett$ {Middle-German ersten), etc., has been devel- 
oped in the New-German period by adding *g to the genitive Singular, after 
the analogy of such nouns as Jftantettä, by name of. 



THE PRONOUN. 
($a3 Prtoort) 
§ 106. Pronouns are divided into sizclasses: Personal, 
Possessive, Demonstrative, Indefinite, Interrogative, and 
JSelatwe. 

Rem. 1. All the Personal Pronouns, the Demonstratives bei, Mefef , JCttCT, 
the Indefinite Pronouns alle?, Mef, and the Interrogatives ftet, tDüS, are 
primitive words. All other pronouns are derivatives or Compounds. 

Rem. 2. The pronouns are much simpler in declension as well as fewer in 
number in the New-German than they were in the Old and Middle-German. 

Rem. 3. Pronouns, from their constant and universal use, have great fixed- 
ness of form, and therefore they are of great value in tracing the relationship 
of allied languages (§ 28-30, and § 99, Rem. 3). 



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282 



THE PBONOCN. 



[§ 107. 



1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
(fttfhüM §it»«rter.) 
§ 107. The Personal Prononns are declined as follows : 



FIRST PEKSOX. 


8ECOHD PEK80K. 


i Singular. 

! Gem. ÄtttCT, of me, etc.* 
Dat. «fr, to me, etcS 

| Äcc tUf|, mc- 
PAcro* 

i AW »fr, we. 
Gen. ttfer, eins, etc.* 

| Do/. tt$, to us, elf. 

|-4cc. ttl, us. 


Singular. 
lt, tbou. (Sic, you.) 
leitet, of thee, «*e. (3faen, of you, ete.) 
fefr, to thee, etc. (3tfucn, to you, etc.) 
bin), thee. (Sie, you.) 

Piural. 
tiß, you. (Sie, you.) 
eier, ofyou,efc. (3$rer, ofyou,e*c) 
etu), to you, efc. (3frKn, toyou, etc.) 
etd), you. (8ie, you.) 


TUIED PERÄOK. 


1 Sing* 
.Xom.tt, he. fit, 

,Coi. feiter, ofhim.* ürc 

j/>a*. $«, tohim. Üft, 
\äcc. Qt, him. ffc, 


kr. 

she. e$, it. 

t, ofher. feiter, ofit 
to her. ifyt, to iL 
her. e$, it. 


P/«ro/. ' 
fit, they. 
tyttX, of them. 
i|tet, to them. 
fiC, them. 



i2«Ä. ] . The old genitive forms «eilt, leit, feilt, are now obsolete, except 
in poetry and in some expressions : 

Sergig weit niä)t, Forget me not. 

Bern. 2. Theyatttfre of the personal pronoun and the prepositions |aftet, 
Heget, ttitttl, are often united into one word, t or et berng added as letters 
of union: 

SKeracttocgot or meraetyaltai, On my aecount. 

Bern. 3. The genitive piural of the personal pronoun is only used when all 
of the persona allnded to are included ; the partitive genitive is expressed by 
90H wüh the dative: 

£« froren inif er ju>3lf , There were tweWe of us. 

(3»3lf ton un« gingen), (Twelve of us went). 

Bern. 4. Besides using lt in addressing Deity, the Germans employ lt and 
i|r in spealring to near relatires or very dear friends, and also to servants or 
children. 

Bern. 5. The use of the form of the tkird perton piural, Sie (begtnning with 
a capital letter), for the second person of both numbers, was introduced into 
the German language in the eighteenth Century. The use ofthis, as the form 
of address, has been constantly increasing since that time. 



* For the use of the cases, see § 8 1 -83. 



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§ 108, 109.] POSSESSIVE PRONOÜNS. ^83 

Rem. 6. The nominatire neuter t% is used for the expletives it, there, and 
for so. Thus used, C$ does not control the number or perton of the verb : 
(§6 mar ein Sftann, There was a man. 

GS flttb »tele Seute, bte— There are many people who— 

38er tfl t» ? 9$ bin 1 «, Who is it? It is I. 

©eib aufrichtig ! SEßir flnb es, Be honest ! We are (so). 

Rem. 7. To prevent nnpleasantness of sonnd or ambiguity of meaning, CT, 
fit, C$ are often replaced by bttfeOe, MtfeOe, baff elfte: 

@obaIb bte 9Jhttter tyre Xwtyter As soon as the mother saw her 
fo$, fragte fie bitftlfte, daughter, she asked her. 

§ 108. When the personal pronouns are used reflex- 
ively or recijprocatty, the regulär forms are employed in 
the ßrst and second persona. But in the third person 
ftd) is employed in the dative and aecusative of all gen- 
ders and in both numbers : 

3$ erinnere midj baran, I remember it. 

2)a« »erfleht ftdj, That is a matter of course. 

(Erinnern ©ic flu) ? Do you remember ? 

Rem. 1. To avoid ambiguity, tÜtOltbtt may be used in reeiprocal expres- 
sions, either with or without the reflexive pronoun : 

SBir »erflehen einonber,or > Wo nnderstand ourselve« 

3Bir »erflehen im« eincmber,f We under8tftnd ourselves. 

Rem. 2. When myseif, himself, etc., are only emphatic repetitions of the 
nominative, they are translated by ftlftft or ftlfttt : 

(Sr t&at ed felbß, He did it himself. 

(5r felber tonn e8 tfyun, He can do it himselt 

itow. 8. ©tfftft (or fettet) is often translated by the adverb even : 

©clbft feine geinbe au)ten ü)n, Even his enemies respect him. 



2. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 
(Seftyonsetgeitbe SitaoürterO 
§ 109. The following are the Possessive Pronouns: 



Masc. 


Fem. 


Aatf. 




Max. 


.Fem. 


Neut. 




mein, 


mein*e, 


mein, 


my. 


unfer, 


nnfer*e, 


unfer, 


our. 


bein, 


bein*e, 


bein, 


thy. 


euer, 


eur*e, 


euer, 


your. 


fein, 


feinde, 


fein. 


his. 


t*r. 


*fr*e, 


tyr, 


their. 


«r r 


tyw, 


*r, 


her. 


(3fo 


3&*e, 


3*r, 


your). 


f«n f 


feinde, 


fein, 


its. 




















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I 

28± >; 



THE PRONOUN. 



[§110,111. 



The Possessive Pronouns are declined in the singiilar 
like the indefinite article eilt (§ 54), and in the plural 
like adjectives of the Old Declension (§ 88. See also 
Lesson XIX. , 2). 

Rem. 1. In declining Hilf CT, t is ßometimes dropped from the terminations 

«e$, stm, *tu» 

In declining ttttt, the t after ttt is usually dropped (see Less.XIX., 8). 

Rem. 2. As they are nsed onhf adjectively, possessive pronouns agree, like 
all other adjectives, with the noun to which they belong (i. c, the nonn pos- 
sessed), in gender, case, and number. 

Rem. 3. In the German, as well as in all other Tentonic (and also in the 
Latin and Greek) languages, the Possessive Pronouns are formed from the 
genitive case of Personal Pronouns. 

§ 110. There are three ways of rendering into Ger- 
man the Absolute Possessive Pronouns (as mine 9 thine, ours, 
yours, etc.) : 



meiner, meine, meines, 


ber, bie, ba« SHciniöe, 


ber SWetne, 


mine. 


beiner, beine, betne«, 


n „ „ 2>€UU8C, 


n 2)cmc, 


thine. 


feiner, feine, feine«, 


n tt tt ©einige, 


» ©eine, 


his. 


tyrer, tyre, ü)re«, 


n tt n 3^t\Qt, 


n 3&rc, 


hers. 


feiner, feine, feine«, 


„ „ „ ©einige, 


n ©eine, 


its. 


unferer, unfere, unfere«, 


n » n Unfrige, 


„ Unfere, 


ours. 


eurer eure, eure«, 


„ „ „ (Surige, 


n ßurc, 


yours. 


3$rer, 3$re, 3$re«, 


n n tt 3^rigc, 


n 3&re, 


yours. 


tyrer, tyre, u)rc«, 


n n tt -3$rige, 


n 3&re, 


theirs. 



Rem. 1 . SKtiner, Srfntt,eic (in the first form), are declined like adjectives 
of the Old Declension. 

Rem. 2. Set 3Rtf«1ge,btt Tltint, etc. (of the second and third forms), are 
declined like adjectives of the New Declension. 

Rem. 3. Set ÜDteittige, ^tiltige, etc. (of the second form), are frequently 
used, not as referring to nouns already spoken of, but having certain conven- 
tional meanings : 

2)ie3ReimgenIaffenfiä)3^nenunb My family send their compliments 

ben 3^rigen entyfe^len, to yourself and your family. 

<5r $at ba« ©einige get^an, He has done his part. 



3. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
($umeifctibc pnoürter«) 
§ 111. There are nine Demonstrative Pronouns. They 
may all be used either substantively or adjectively. 



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§ 111] 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOÜNS. 



I 

5- 485 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Mascutine. Feminine. Neuter. 
biefer, biefe, biete«, 
jener, Jene, jene«, 
ber, bie, ba«, 
berjenige, biejenifle, basjentge, 
berfelbe, btefelbe, baffelbe, 
f5mmtli<$er, fä'mmtltctye, fätmntli^c«, 
jeber, jebe, jebe«, 
foldjer, folcfye, folä)e$, 
aller, alle, alle«, 


this. 

that. 

that 

that 

thesame. 

entire. 

cveiy. 

such. 

all. 


AU G enders. 
biefe, these. 
jene, those. 
bie, those. 
biejenigen, those. 
biefelben, thesame. 
fämmtlictye, all. 


feiere, such, 
alle, all. 



1. $tefer, jener, fämmtltdjer, jeber, foldjer, and aOer fol- 

low the old declension of adjeetives (see page 149). 

2. $er is usually translated by that y though it some« 
times is rendered by thisj 

Rem. 1. The relative btt and the definite article btt are but the demon- 
strative pronoun btt, with modified meanings : 

®er nT« btm itty 1 « fcerfoodjen lja&e, It is this one to whom I have prom- 
Ultb btt tt)iU e« tyabcn, ised it, and tliat one wishes to 

have it. 
Rem. 2. Used as a demonstrative pronoun, ber reeeives a /«//, strong em- 
phasis ; as a relative, a medium emphasis; as a definite article, no emphasis. 
Rem. 3. $er, used adjectively, is declined like the definite article (§ 54); 
used substantively, it is declined as follows; 





SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Neuter. 


AU Genders. 


Nom. btt, 


bie, 


ba8, 


Mc, 


Gen. beflcn, 


bereu, 


fceffen, 


bero, 


Dat. beut, 


btt, 


beut, 


betttn, 


Acc ben» 


bie« 


bat. 


Mt. 



3. Boih parU of btrjemje (compounded from ber and 
jener) are declined, the latter part following the new 
dedension of adjeetives. 

4. Both parts also of berfelbe (ber and felbe) are de- 
clined. 

Rem. $Cr Wämlidjt (the same) is more emphatic than bttfcl&e, and 
ebcnbtrfcttc (just the same) is still more emphatic than either. 



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28fr 



THB PBONOÜK. 



t§ 112. 



5. For 3tfctr,the forma jtgltytt and jefcfttfctt are 
sometimes used. All three are employed in the Sin- 
gular only. 

6. &$l6ftt usually follows the article. When it pre- 
cedes the article, it drops its termination : 

eilftemftenft, } Sochaman. 

7. Before the definite article or a pronoun, all drops 

its termination, especially if it does not receive an 

emphasis : 

So* füll tl bct @$tnerg? Whatmeansallthissorrow? 

Qx toetg non tl bcm fttty*. He knows nothing of it alL 

Ä«*. 1. The demonstrative pronoans hare been dereloped thns: 



Gothic: sa, sd, 
OW- 6V. .• der, diu, das. 
MüL-Ger. : der, die, das. 
New- Ger. : ber, bie, ba*. 

Gothic: 

Old-Ger.: 



(Gem.) thiznh, , thiznh. 



Mid.-Ger. : (der jener). 
New-Ger. : berjenige. 



deser, 
diser, 
biefer, 

der selpo, 
derselbe, 
berfetbe. 



deisn, ditzL 
disia, ditze. 
Hefe, Hefe«, 



jains, jaina, jainata, 
jener, genn, genaz. 
jener, jenio, jenex. 
jener, jene, jene?. 



iowedar, 

ieder, 

jebcr. 



sraleiks, 
solihher, 
solkber, 
fotcfcr. 



aus, 
aller, 
aller, 
outr. 



4. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 
(tlakffonmtt ginrirtcr.) 

§ 112. Some Indefinite Prononns can be used both *t*J- 
stantivdy and adjectivdy ; others can be used only ad- 
jectively. 



As Substantive* or adjectives. 
3tober*er, other. 
<Enrig*er, some, any, a few. 
ötTn^er, " " " 
2)fcm<$*er, many a (p/. many). 
9Re$rer*e,/>/. sereraL 
Ätra*er, no, not any, not any one. 
8tel*er, mach (p/. many). 
gBenig*er, little (j>L few). 
Qenng, enough. 



Onhj as smbstantires. 
SDfcra (they, people, ete.). 
3emanb, somebody, any body. 
9ttemanb, nobody, not any body. 
3ebei:uuuui, every body. 
(gtttxtö, something, any tbing. 
&a», " " 

92i$t9, nothing, not any thing. 
8&el<$e(p/.), i 



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§ 112.] INDEFINITE PR0N0ÜN8. 287 

1. Httbere, *t, -e# (contracted attbw, *t, -ti) f may be 
used in all the three declensions of adjectives. 

Rem. 1. Knbtt and eilt may be joined into one indedinable word, CÜtatt* 
btt, each other (see § 108, Rem. 1). 

72em. 2. The German attbtt (Gothic anthar, Old-Ger. andar, Mid.-Ger. 
ander), the English olAer, and the Latin a/<«-, are all comparatives, from a 
positive which is now found only in Sanscrit (anya, not the tarne). 

2. (giniger, etlidjer, mehrere, and toeltye, follow the old 

declension of adjectives. * — 

Rem. 1. (giftigst? (Old-Ger., einie; compare English any; formed from 
Cilt/ one) disappeared dnring the Mid.-Ger., bat reappeared in the New-Ger. 

Rem. 2. (gtfidMtt (ö/</-Ger.8talih; Mid.-Ger. Stelih) is compounded from 
the obsenre root 2ta, and /«A, like. 

Rem. 8. 9Raitl|^r(^7oM.,manags ; O.-G., manag; 3f.-G.,maneg; £ft£., 
many ; allied to Old Slavic mnog, mkcä, but of obscure origin, and probably 
derived from SRtUttt)» when not emphasized, or when used before eltt> does not 
take the termination : 

2Jton$ tapfrer #elb! Many a brave hero! 

Rem. 4. 9Re$tttt (/>Ä«r.)i a double comparative (from Htt(t) y is used by 
some writers also in the singular. 

3. Seilt, used as an adjeetive, is declined like mein 
{Less. XIX n 2) ; used substantively, it is declined like 
an adjeetive of the Old Declension (!ettt*cr, -t^ti). 

Rem. fteitt (O.-G., nih-ein ; M.-G., nechein, nekein, enkein, chein, kein) 
meant originally tttdjt eilt« 

4. Siel and toeitig are not declined when they refer to 
individuals collectively ; referring to individuals taken 
separatdy y and especially if, used substantively, they 
refer to jpersons, they are declined like adjectives of 
the Old Declension. 

Rem. 1. Siel and toettig are also used adverbially. 
Rem. 2. Jßiel (Goth., fila; O.-G., filu, vil; M.-G., vil, viel) is allied to 
the Greek noXvg and the Latin plus. 

Rem.ü. CBettig (O.-G., wänag ; M.-G., wönec) is from toeittett, to weep, 
and meant originally irAa* causet sorrow, un/ortunate, emall. 



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288 THE PR0N0ÜN. [§112, 

5. ©cnng is used as a Substantive, an adjective, or an 
adverb. 

3o> fcfee genug gefefcn, I hare seen enough. 

<Sr bot ni$t %üä) genug, He has not enough cloth. 

2>o* Xud> ift breit genug, The cloth is wide enough. 

i2em. 1. As an adjective or adverb, it follows the modified word. 

Bern. 2. ®tXU§ (Goth., ganöhs; O.-G., kinaoc; M.-G., gennoc) is, like 
the Engtish enough, from ga-nalian, to suffice. 

6. SWfllt is used only in the nominative singvlar (see 
Lesson XLII). 

Bern. 9lai is from 9frUttt f man (compare with French on, from Lat. komo). 

7. 3cmailb, jRientailb, and 3*bcraatt!t are used only in 
the singular. They are declined thus : 

9Hemanb, 3eberotamt, 

9ttemanb*$,or *t&, 3ebermaims$, 

flttemanb, or *eut, 3ebermamt, 

Sttemanb, or *vbu 3ebermarau 

Rem. 1. 3tUtanb (0.-G\, eoman, iaman, ieman ; M.-G. ieman, hnande) is 
compounded of je, ever, and 3R08U« 

Rem. 2. 9litntmib (0.-G. y neoman, niamen, niemand ; Jf.-G., nieman) is 
compounded of ni4oman (not any man). 

Rem. 8. StbenttOttU first appeared in the M.-G. (ieder man, jeber 9Ranu). 

8. (Sttoö* is indeclinable. 

Rem. 1. (£ttoa$ is often used in apposition with a noun: 
SBotten ©ie etoa$ ©rob ? Do you wish some bread ? 

Rem. 2. (EtM$ is often used adverbially, meaning somewhat: 
Cr tnor tt&aS aufgeregt, He was somewhat excited. 

Rem. 8. (Etfcftö is formed from toa£ and the root Ha (§ 112, 2, Rem. 2). 

9. ÜWidjtS is indeclinable. 

Rem, 9H$t$, originally a aenitive of nidjt, first appeared in the 15th cent. 

10. The nominative and accusative cases of totldjtt 
are sometimes used in familiär language, meaning same : 

3$ fcabe nod) fc>elä>e«, I hare some yet. 

3$ fytbe n>etd)e gefefcn, I have seen some. 

Rem. ffieHtr, when thus used in a contraction of the antiquated pronoun 

etoelfto?» 



Nom. 3emanb, 

Gen. 3eraanb*S,or3enianb*e$, 
Dat. 3«nanb, or 3emanb*«« f 
Acc. 3eraoitb, or 3emanb*ai* 



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§ 113.] INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 289 

5. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 
(Sjfrogeube pwärterO 
§ 113. There are three Interrogative Pronouns: 
»er? who? loa* ? what ? tDtl^er? which? what? 

1. Sßtr and toai are used only substantively: teer re- 
fers only to persons; toüi only to things. They are 
tbus declined : 



toa$ ? what? 
toeffeit?*ODef?ofo.) 

lM$?what? 



Nom. toet? who? 
Gen. toeffeif ? whose? of whom? etc.* 
Dat. lOCnt? to whom? etc.* 
Acc. Hielt? whom?* 
Bern. 1. The antiquated genitive tOCf is still used in some Compound words : 

©eßttegcn? toefftoto ? On what accoont ? 

Rem. 2. ©0$ can not he nsed after prepositions (except flljtte, ttttet, and 
sometimes HIß)* In its stead is used. the adverh tP0, where, componnded 
with the preposition into one word, as; tOOmit, toOÖOH, tDOP, fcobitrdj* 

1. The original V of tP0 {Gothic, huar; Old-Ger., haar; Mid.-Ger., 

war; New-Ger., tto) is yet retained when the preposition hegins 
with a vowel, as: tOflrilt, toOrOttS, tOfMtt* 

2. The original a also is retained in toantw (Mid.-Ger., war umbe). 
Bern. 8. 2Bo# is sometimes nsed for tOOTttttt : 

ffia« aittcrn ©ic berat? Why do you tremble? 

Rem. 4. SBtf and tya$ haye been developed thns : 

&oMic, hvas, hv6, hva; Old-Ger., hwer, hwiu, hwaz ; Mid.-Ger., wer, 
was; New-Ger., tDtt, tDG$* 

2. SScldjtr, *e, *e8, used both adjectively and substan- 
tively, is declined like an adjective of the OldDeden- 
8ion. It may refer to persons or things. 

Rem. 1. When tocMjCt is followed by eilt/ the ending et is dropped. 

2Set<$ ein 9tfefe l What a giant 1 

Rem. 2. SBeltye? was originally a Compound word : Gothic, hveleiks, ' ' what 
like;" 0/d-(?er.,hwiolihher; Aßd.-Ger., welher ; New-Ger., tOeMjet« 

3. 88a8 för? (what kind off) may be treated as an un- 
combined indeclinable pronoun, referring to both per- 
sons and things : 

28(10 fttr SMnte fafcen ©te ? What kind of ink hare yon ? 

SJftt fea£ ftt( Statte ? With what kind of ink ? 



* For the use of the cases, see § 81-83. 
N 



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290 PRONOUNS. [§ 114. 

Bern. 1. When the particiliar individoal is referred to, tili i» added : 
85o$ ftt( ein SKoim rft er? What kindof a man is he? 

Bern. 2. <gtM, if used substantively, fbllows the Old DecUnsion (tttttt) : 
SBaSfürefott? What kindof aone? 

Bern. 8. The words toa$ — ftif are sometimes separated: 
2Ba£ ifl baö für eine £$or$rit ! What a folly that is! 



6. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 
(8ea8oK4e Srto&tSrtttO 
§ 114. There are no primitive Relative Pronouns; 
but with the power of Relative Pronouns {i.e. as relat- 
ing to antecedent substantives) are employed: 

1. The Interrogative Promnau, tOtt, tOftö, and tOtUfftt ; 

2. The Demonstrative Pronovn, fett« 

1. The same laws that govern the use of toet and toai 
as Interrogatives, apply to them when they are employ- 
ed as Relative Pronouns. 

Bern. 1. ©ff and t9ft$, as relatives, can he nsed only in general or indefi- 
nite expressions, never when a particiliar person or thing is referred to : 
gßtt ntyt $ören »iE, muß füllen " Who will not hear, mnst feeL" 

(or ber muß füllen), 
gßoS feu fatttc tyun fannjl, Der* What you can do to-day, pnt not off 
f<$icfce m<$t auf äftorgen (or fea£ tili to-morrow. 
tocrf<$iefcc ni$t auf SRorgen), 
Bern. 2. The antecedent of tOtt or 1011$, when in the same case as the rel- 
ative, is thus often omitted. 

2. Euphony alone determines whether toeldjer or ber 
should be used, except in the three following cases : 

1. When the relative is nsed adjectively, toef$tt mnst he employed: 
(Stötye, toeftfctf groflen 2>t$ter6 Gothe, with the works of which 

State i<$ lernte, great poet I am acquainted. 

2. When the genitive of the relative is used snbstantively, the genitive 
of fett (nng. feefft«, fetttX/ feefft*, plvr. fetttlt) nrast he employed : 

$er 3Wmra,beffe*@o$nfo franttß, The man, whose son is so sick. 
8. After personal pronouns of the first and second person, fett mnst he em- 
ployed (§ 116, 8, Bern, 8) : 

3<$, fett (or/«*. feit) ü)n fa$, I who saw him. 

3. The antiquated relative fo is now used only in 
poetry or other dignified styles of compositum. 



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§ 115.] SYNTAX OP THE PBONOUN. 291 

4. Antecedent and relative pronouns are used cor- 
relatively as follows: 

Antecedent. Relative. 

bcr tocftfcr. 

bcr bcr. 

bttjenige tt>cl<$cr. 

berjenige bcr. 

icbcr. ........ bcr. 

Relative. Antecedent. 

»er (bcr). 

»a« (ba«). 



> he-who, the one-who, that-which. 



every (one) who (or which). 



whoever (or who). 
whatever (or what). 



Rem. The following neuter indefinite pronouns and demonstratives used 

indefiniteij, ettoaS, nidjtS, toieleS, ütnifttö, mandjcS, baS, baSjemflC, are 

followed by the relative 190$ : 

9Wc« tttt$ tu) $abe, All that I have. 

2)a« tft ct»a«, toa$ i$ mä)t bcr* That is something that I do not un- 
ßcfo derstand. 



7. SYNTAX OF THE PRONOUN. 
(©»«toi bc$ Sfetoarte*.) 
§ 115. 1. Personal pronouns take the person, the 
number, and the grammatical gender of the nouns for 
which they stand. 

2. Adjective pronouns follow the laws of syntax that 
govern adjeetives (§ 94). 

3. Relative pronouns take the gender and number of 
the antecedent. 

Rem. 1. The relative prononn can never he omitted: 

2>er SRatm, bat «$ geftatt fa$, The man I saw yesterday. 
Rem. 2. (£$ nsed expletively, and b&Q and hM nsed in a collective sense 
(see Less. XLIII., 4), do not control the number or person of the verb : 
C« ftnb 2cutc, bic— - There are people that— 

2)a6 fuib JDtnge, btc— Those are things that— 

Rem. 8. The personal pronoun, if in the first or second person, is usually 
repeated after the relative: 

$a* troffen nnr, bietoir bie©cm* That know we, who the chamois 

fen jagen (ßÄ).), hunt. 

3fc, Me i|t Ärieg führet gegen Tou, who make war against my 
nieinen •Sofyi (&$•)* »on. 



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292 THE VERB. [§ 116-118. 



THE VERB. 
(3)o« Briftwt) 
§ 116. Verbs may be classified in seyeral ways: 

1. By deriT»tion into primitive, derivative, and Compound 

2. By naa " independent, auxiliary, snäpotentiaL 
8. By meaning " transitive and intransitive. 

4. By infleotlon " regulär, irregulär, and defective. 

§ 117. Classification of Verbs by theirderivation: 

1. Primitive or radical Verbs are such as can be 
traced for their origin to no other radical words : 

$flfcn, to have. %xM*n, to drink. £ad)*n, to laugh- 

Renu The constancy of their ose gives many primitive verbs a fixedness of 
form that is of great value in tracing the relationship of languages (§ 28-30). 

2. Derivative Verbs are formed from verbs, nouns, or 
adjectives, the radical vowel usually taking the «w- 
laut, when capable of it : 

i&QiUn, to smfle (from Ifltysen, to langh). 
Warnen, to warm (from Mm, warm). 
^flfiflsCil, to plow (from$fülg,plow). 

3. Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing to a verb 

a preposition (separable or inseparable), a noun, an ad- 

jcctive, or an ad verb: 

ftltfsgefyen, to go out I ftoitfefcfa!, to handle. I gortsgefcn, to 
(gr*flnbcn, toinvent | yjtti»\pxtti)in, to acquit. I goforth. 

§ 1 18. Classification of Verbs as to their use: 

1. Independent Verbs can be used without other verbs : 
Cr fo« ba« ©u<$, He read the book. 

2. Auxüiary Verbs include the three (f ein, Ijabttt, »er- 
btlt) that are employed in forming the Compound tenses 
of all verbs: 

Cr W ba* ©u$ Qelefen, He has read the book. 

Sir »ttbe« ba* ©u$ lefen, We wfll read the book. 
Bern. They may also be used as independent rerbs. 
Cr tot ba« $u$, He has the book. 



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§ 119-123.] CLASSIFICATION OP VERBS. 293 

3. Potential Verls (foflctt, »oflen, Iöttttcit, mögen, bürfcn, 

muffen) are employed to limit or qualify the meaning 
of the infinitive of independent verbs : 

(St nut| ba« S3u$ lefen, He mast read the book. 
Rem. SoffCll is also often used as apotential verb. 

§ 119. Classification of Verbs by their meaning: 

1. Verbs which govern an objeet in the aecusative 
case are called Transitive by German grammarians : 

<5t lieft ba$ ©u$, He is reading the book. 

2. Other verbs are called Intransitive : 

1. Some intransitive verbs govern no- objeet : 

<5r fölfift, läuft, geljt, He sleeps, runs, goes. 

2. Others govern an objeet in the genitive or dative case : 
©ie Rotten meinet, ^tmj ! You deride me; prince! 
St folgt (einem »ntber, He follows his brother. 

§ 120. When the subjeet and objeet of the verb denote the same person of 
thing, the verb is termed reflexive : 

3$ Befleißige millj— I »PPty myself— 

Bern. When the action is mutual between the individuals that form the 
subjeet of the verb, the verb is termed rcciprocal: 

@te fd?meid?cln einatlbet f They flatter each other. 



1. CONJUGATION. 
(Äoningation.) 
§121. The Accidents of the Verb are (as in English) 
Moods, Tenses, Person*, Numbers, Participles, and Voices. 
l.Moods(SRoM). 
§122. The German Verb has flveMoods: the Indica- 
tive, Subjunetive, Conditional, Imperative, and Infinitive. 

Rem. The Potential Mood in English is translated into German partly by 
the potential verbs, and partly by the subjunetive and conditional moods. 

§ 123. The Indicative Mood is used in expressing or de- 
nying that which is coneeivedby the Speaker to le oertain : 
<gr \}üt ba« $au8 toetfauft, He has sold the house. 
Rem. The indicative may be used in some conditional sentences where in 
English the subjunetive would be employed : 

3Ü et tci$, f o tann et *ict ßefcen, If he be rieh, he can give much. 



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294 conjügation. [§124,125. 

Rem. 2. The present indicative may be nsed/or the imperative in express- 
ing a command which is conceived as already carried into execution : 

2)u fiberninunfl bie foontfäen 9te* Take Charge of the Spanish regi- 
gunenter (©$.), ments. 

§ 124. The Subjunctive Mood is employed: 

1. In repeating Statements of other jpersons, without 

vouching for their accuracy, or about which there may 

be some doubt in the mihd of the Speaker : 

<£r fagte, baß bie Srmee föon in He said that the armj is already 

©etocgnng fei, in motion. 

2tton tagt, er fei geftorbcu, - It is said that he is dead. 

2. In mdirect questions, treated as quotations: 

3$ fragte ü)n tocam er na$ ©er* I asked him when he will go to 
(in gefcen »erbe, Berlin. 

3. In expresshrg what is problematical, hypothetical, 
desired, or what is conceived of as possible, without 
having really transpired : 

CBüre er bo$ gefunb ! Oh ! that he were well! 

fOVUftt er genefen l Oh! that he might recover! 

3$ toünföte, baß er tame, I wished that he might come. 

Rem. The subjunctive mood is thus often nsed in snbordinate sentences, 
especially after verbs expressing doubt, vncertainty, fear, hope, pvrpoae, tup- 
potitum, exhortation, advice, etc. : 

3$&ejn)rifefte,baßerf$ouin©er* I doubted that he had already ar- 

lin angetonunen fei, rived in Berlin. 

2)u foüjl deinen JBater unb 2)eine Thoa ehalt honor tby fether and thy 
äJhffler etyren, auf baß bu lange mother, that thou mayest live 
auf (Erben leüe|l, fretbefi, long in the land. 
3$ rotye 3)ir baß 3)u fleißiger I advise you to be more diligent 
Obs. The imperf. and plnperf. tenses of the snbj. mood are often osed in- 
stead of the present and perfect tenses of the conditional mood («es § 125). 

§ 125. The Conditional Mood is used to express a result 
dependent upon certain conditions. It corresponds in 
general to the Potential Mood in English, when used 
with the auxiliary wovld or should: 

®S? ?*?J*Tu fd t ÖnC !; w X \l » *• ^eather were finer, I wonld 
mUtbe \$ ausgeben («mrf.),(or) S oat 

ginge t$ au« («#.), ) 

2>a« tontbe i<$ ui*t tfcm (co«rf.D j would not do tf^ 

(or) ba« mtt i$ mty («#.), f woma n01 ao """* 



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§ 126-128.] IMPERATIVE MOOD. 295 

§ 126. The Imperative Mood is used as in English. But 
with an imperative signification may also be used : 

1. The jpresmt indicative (12S y Hem.2). 

2. The pe?fectparticiple, the action being regarded as 
already completed : 

2>ie Trommel gerityrt ! Beat the drnms ! 

3. The vnfinitwe jpresent, in expressions of childish or 
of highly excited passion : 

@ie$ m$ ©u$ hinein : nur ni$t Keep looking into the book : only 

ItfCtt/ tmtner fingen (®.)r 4o not read, keep singing. 

9tt$t janf Cn, SRuttcr 1 Do not scold, mother ! 

§ 127. The Infinitive Mood is always dependent upon 
another verb (except in the cases given below) : 

©U$e JU ftin, tta* bu jn f^eintlt Seek to be what thou wishest to ap- 
toünf(^efl f pear. 

Exe. 1. When there is a manifest ellipsis, as : 
(©oll) 3$ meine« ©ruber* fön* (Should) I not recognize my broth- 
ber m$t erlennen ! er's children l 

Exe. 2. When nsed for the imperative (126, 3). 
Exe. 8. When nsed as a verbal noun : 

2>a« ©Olafen erquüft, Sleep is refreshing. 

Rem. The Infinitive of any verb may be nsed as a (nenter) verbal nonn 
when there is no corresponding Substantive already existing. The infinitive 
is often nsed substantively even when it does not take the article : 

©einen getnben lierjeijett ijt cbel, To forgive one's enemies is noble. 
Exe. 4. The infinitive is nsed after certain nonns and adjeetives : 
<StS tf! j&tit jn geftn, It is time to go. 

Cr f)üt 9Jhti& ju fäntpfen, He has courage to fight 

2>er ©rief f fl fdjfoer gu tefen, The letter is hard to read. 

3$ (in begierig gu nnffen, I am curions to know. 

§ 128. The use of jn as a sign of the Infinitive Mood 
has been constantly increasing since the sixteenth 
Century. It is now omitted only in the following cases : 

1. After the potential verbs foflett, toofltn, fönncn, mfc 
gett, börfctt, tttfiffen (and laffett): 

3$ f ann e$ m$t fcf tn, 1 can not read it. 



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296 THE VEBB. [§ 129. 

2. After the verbs f!|let, |eifen, Reifet, Jiren, l$Tt*, 
lernen, otogen, feljen: 

2>o* Ml|t mia) gittern, That makes me tremble. 

tBtr |ittttt tfe fingen, We heard tbem sing. 

3. After the verbs Heften, fairen, ge^en r Hegen, reite*, 
flehen, and böben and feilt, in certain expressions: 

(St bleibt ft£et, He keeps bis seat. 

©tt §e|ei foojteten, We are going to take a walk. 

Rem.l. The Infinitive with JE is nsed alter the preporitkms fgfftt, 

»t*e,n»: 

Slftett Jl gefcn, bfteb et, Instead of going, he remained. 

DI« bo* )* tmff en— Withoot knowing that— 

Rem. 2. The Infinitive of the active toiee is often tranalated into English 
by the infiniti ve of the passive voiee : 

2Ba* tft'gttftltl? What is to be done? 

i2em. 8. In ine German only the infinitive can be nsed as a verbal nomt 
(and not, as in English, the present participle also): 

(St ift M €>4)lft$ett$ mfibe, He is tired of the chattering. 

2. Partidples (¥«ttji»taö. 
§ 129. There are two Participles, the Present and the 
Perfect. 

Rem. 1. Participles are nsed attribvtively in German to a far greater ex- 
tent than in English. When thns nsed they are sobjeet to all the laws of 
declauion of attributive adjeetives : 

2)etam 5. ©ejrterabet fctrfritfeiie The major of Kroofeld, who died 
Stttgenneiflet ton Ätonfclb, on the fifth of September. 

Rem. 2. Participles are frequenüy preceded by the case they govern, by 
a modifying adverb, or a limiting clause : 

2>ie $omg (ommelnbe ©iene, The honey-gathering bee. 

2)a* und berfolgettbe <&t]öjvit, The täte that is pursuing us. 

2)et f oeben ton 2etyjig angtlnm^ The express train that has just ar- 

mene @ä>nefljug, rived firom Leipsic. 

2>et ^netyug toon Seidig tjt fo* The express train has just arrived 
eben Olgef Omme«, from Leipsic. 

Rem, 8. The adverb and the direct objeet (if a noun) is often joined to the 
participle into a Compound word: 

2He gefe^gebenbe $erfasmn(iutg, The legislative assembly. 
2>te nengebunbencn 33üd)et, The newly-bound books. 

Rem. 4. Participles, like adjeetives, may be used as nouns or as adverbs : 
(58 gtebt biete Q&Ütitttn, bie — There are many learned men, who— 
SWtt fttbemb fctßem ©äffet, With boiling-hot water. 



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§ 130, 131.] PARTICIPLES. 297 

§ 130. The PresentParticiple is formed by adding *b to 
the present infinitive : 

$0^01/ to have ; Ijafetttb, having. ©t^'ttt^ to go ; ge^Olb, going. 

Rem. 1. If preceded by p, the present participle takes & passive significa- 
tion (compare the Latin passive participle in andus, or endus). 

(Sin JU toentttibtttfctt Segler, A fault that shoold be avoided. 

Rem. 2. The participle thus used was not declined before the last Century. 

Rem. 8. The present participles of many verbs are used mostly, and in some 
cases only, with adjective significations: 



«bfHmmcnb, discordant. 
Bfoocfenb, absent 
9fatt>efenb, present 



©ebeutenb, important. 
2>rkigenb, urgent, 
töeijenb, charming. 



§ 131. The Perfect Participle is formed (1) by adding *t 
to the root of all regulär verbs, and *Ctt to the root of 
all irregulär verbs ; and (2) by prefixing *gC to the root 
of all verbs, except the inseparable Compounds (§ 154), 
and those with sireil (sfcrctt) in the infinitive : 



Perfect Participle. 
(Jt*tteb*t, Ioved. 
fLt*%tt*tn, given. 
tocrgebstll, forgiven. 
Bcbctf't, covered. 
flubirst, studied. 



Infinitive. 
Hebten, to love, 
(JC**en, tö give, 
MQtfctn, to forgive, 
heberen, tocover, 
ftobfoen, to study, 
Rem. 1. In separable Compounds ge* adheres to the root of the verb: 
mfc\ P x t ä) » Ol, to pronounce, ou«sge>firco<$*en, pronounced. 

Rem. 2. When the verbs foflett, fcOÜCtt, ttvntU, mögen, biirfClt, mHffCIl, 
foffClt, Driften, \$tU, ViltU, Reifen are preceded by the infinitive of another 
verb, they take the form of the present infinitive for that of the past participle, 
The participial form of the potential verbs is only used when they are em- 
ployed as though independent verbs (the independent verb which they modify 
being understood): 

3$ ffaU tS nidjt Icfcn IiJnae«, I could not read it. 
3m tyabe tyn fingen fßttU, I have heard him sing. 

3<$ iaht e$ nie gel Ottttt, I have never been able (to do) it. 

Rem. 3. In forming the passive voiee, tOttbtlt drops JJC*: 

<&x ift Betraft t00rbtlt f He was fined. 

(but) Cr ifl retdj flCtoOrbCtt, He has become rieh. 

Rein. 4. Many perfect participles have almost lost their verbal signification, 
and are used as adjeetives : 

N2 



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298 THE VERB. [§132,133. 

1. From active verbs: betoimt, well-known ; gete&rt, learned. 

2. From reflexive verbs: bef($eiben, modest; betrtmfen, drunken; fcc* 
trübt, sad; getieft, skillml} gebraust, second-hand. 

8. From obsolete rerbs: angefeffen, resident; betrieben, different. 
4. Participles from nonns, with no corresponding verbs: gejttefdt, "in 
boote;" gefHrnt, starry; bejahrt, fall of years. 

Äjwi. 5. Theperfectparticipleof someverbs,as laufen, fa$tttt,rttttU, etc., 
18 used after fontltttSt (the present participle being used in English) : 
Cr tarn gelaufen, He came running. 

3. Tenses (äeitforraen). 

§ 132. The Present Tense is used in German more fre- 
quently than in English instead of other tenses. 

1. Instead of the future tense: 

3$ fommt bolb torieber, I shall come back soon. 

Rem. Until as late as the fowrteenth Century futore time was always ex- 
pressed by the present tense. 

2. Instead of the perfect tense in speaking of the 
length of a period of time not yet completed : 

Sie lange ff üb ©ie in SSerlin ? How long have you been in Berlin ? 
3% fcfo Won aty 3<u)re $ter, I have been here eight years. 

3. For the imperfect tense, in lively narration : 

3$ Ötje gefiernmit meinem Ätnbc I went yesterday with my chfld to 
um bie^arobejufe^en, öetliere see the parade; I lost sight of 
e$ au« meinen Sfogen— it— 

§ 133. The Imperfect and Perfect Tenses are employed 
as in English, under the following limitations : 

1. The perfect is offcen employed, when in English the 
imperfect would be used : 

3$ labt ifrt geftan gefetttt, I saw bim yesterday. 

2. The progressive form of the imperfect in English 
must be rendered by the imperfect in German. 

36) (ad bie Bettung als er herein* I was reading the newspaper when 
tont, he came in. 

Rem, The imperfect is always employed after the adverb al$. 



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§ 134.] passive voicb. 299 

3. The imperfect is frequently used in general ex- 
pressions, in which the perfect would be employed in 
English : 

2B<K tft ©ic fctyon in SSicn ? Have yoa been in Vienna? 

4. When the Speaker wishes to convey the idea that 
he was personally cognizant of an event, the imperfect 
is usually employed : 

SSorgeßent (fort Bei mir unf er ge* Day before yesterday our dear friend 

liebter greuttb, $err SR.— Mr. N. died at my house. 
Rem. With the perfect (and also with the plvperfeci) the anxiliary may be 
omitted in subordinate sentences : 

2>a$ $au3, roelctye* i<$ (eute ge* The house which I saw to-day is 

fe^tn, ift fe$r Bequem, aBer ed very convenient, bat it is too 

tftftutyeuer, dear. 

4. The Passive Voioe ($te ^afffofarm). 

§ 134. The Passive Voioe is fonned by joining the auxil- 
iary toerbttt, to becom<e, to the perfectpcuHidjple (seejwrar 
dymȤ161): 

$ier tottb 2)eutf$ geftftütifett, German is spoken here. 
Star geittb tOltYbe gtWageit, The enemy was defeated. 

Rem, 1. The action is considered as btcoming accomplühed, that is, as taking 
place at the time alloded to. When the action is considered as completed the 
verb fein is used, and the participle is usually treated as a predicative ad- 
jective. 

2)a« $au$ war fä)on aBgeBrotrat, The house was already burnt down 
old bie geuertoe^r antam, when the fire-company arrived. 

Rem, 2. In the Gothic feilt was always employed. In the Old-Ger., tOtt* 
btt was frequently used for the future tenses. In the Mid.-Ger., tMXbtU 
was frequently used in the past tenses. In the New-Ger., feilt was some- 
times used as anxiliary ; in the imperative mood it is always employed. 
2He &d)laäft toax berloren, The battle is lost. 

©Ott fei getoBt 1 God be praised ! 

1. When the active agent is indefinitely alluded to, 
the active voice, with matt as nominative, is employed: 

r^cut' nimmt matt nt<$t gefangen/' ' ' No prisoners will be taken to-day. " 

2. When an intransitive idea is expressed by a transi« 
tive verb, the reflexive form is employed : 

2)a* iJetfk|t ftd), That is a matter ofcourse. 



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300 THE VERB. [§ 135. 

3. When the object of the action is made the subject 
of the verb, and the agent is not alluded to, the reflex- 
ive form is usually employed : 

(Sine neue Drbnnng bcr 2)inge A new order of thiogs is established. 
fnWfu»ein, 



2. AUXILIARY VERBS. 
($ttlf**er*a0 
§ 135. There are three Auxiliary Verbs, Ijabcit, feilt, and 
tDttbttf«. They are employed as follows: 

1. Transitive, Reflexive, Impersonal, and Potential 

Verbs take Ijaicit as the auxiliary: 

3ty (oie tyn gefe&en, I hare seen him. 

Cr |at ft<$ gefreut, He has rejoiced. 

C« tat fcute geregnet, It has rained to-day. 

Cr |at eS gemußt, He has been compelled (to do) it. 

2. Intransitive Verbs denoting a change of condition^ 

or a motion from one particular place to another, take 

fettl as the auxiliary : 

Cr tft ongclommen, He has arrired. 

Cr ift naäf ©erlitt gereift, He has gone to Berlin. 

(bat) Cr iat triet gereift, He has traveled mach. 

Rem. i. The rerbs eilen, fairen, (liefen, Jinfen, Jagen, nettern,trteften, 
langen, laufen, qnetten, reifen, reiten, rinnen, fegein, f Riffen, f ifttointnen, 

ftiringen, ßöfen, treinen, tOOnbern, when not indicating a motion to or from 
a particular place, have toten as the auxiliary : 

Cr |ot triel gereift, He has trareled mach. 

Rem. 2. ©ein, lOttten, and bleiben take fein as the auxiliary: 

Cr tÜ in ©erlin getDcfcn, He has been in Berlin. 

Cr ift Äoufmotm getDQraen, He has become a merchant. 

3. Other Intransitive Verbs take fabelt as auxiliary: 

1. Those governing an indirect object in the geni- 

tive or dative case : 

SBir totten tym geholfen, We had helped him. 

Sitte Rotten feiner Citelteit gelobt, All had laoghed at his yanity. 

2. Those expressing absolute rest: 

Cr |at fe$r lange geftanben, He has been standing \ery long. 



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§ 136.] 



AÜXILIABY VERBS. 



301 



Rem, 3. Some verbs, with two or more ßignifications, take |alett or feig, 
according to the siguification with which they may be used : 
Qx toat »on ber ©tobt fortgefahren, He had driven out of the city. 
<Sr |atte fortgefahren im £efen, He had continued to read. 

3. SBcrbcit is used in forming the future tenses of the 

active voiee, and in forming the passive voiee. 

§ 136. The verb IjaklJ, to have, is conjugated thus: 
Principal Parts: W*tn, f)dt'*tt, gehabt'* 



INDICATTVE MOOD. 

ld> Müht, I have. 
bu iaft, thouhast. 

er f)at, he has. 

ttrir |ab*ett, we have. 
i|r |ab*(e)t,you have. 
pe |ab*Cg, they have. 



ßüBJUNCnVK MOOD.' 



Present Tense. 



to) ioftse, 
bu |ab*ejt, 
er fyab't, 
tt>ir | a b * ctt, 
tyr |ab*et, 
pe |ab*cg, 



I have. 
thouhast 
he has. 
we have. 
you have. 
they have. 



t$ |0*4e, I had. 
bu | a t » ttft, thou hadst 
er |at*te, he had. 
n)tr |at*ttg, we had. 
i|r |at *M, you had. 
fle |at*tt«, they had. 

I have had, etc. 

id> %4b*t gehabt, 
bu |aft gehabt 
er |at gehabt, 
toir |ab*eg gehabt 
i|r |ab*i gehabt 
fle |ab*eg gehabt 



I had had, etc. 
iö) HUtt ge|abt. 
bu |at*iejt gehabt 
er |at*ie gehabt, 
tote |at*teg gehabt 
i|r |at*tei gehabt 
fte |at*teg gehabt 



Imperfect Tense. 

tä> |IMC, I had. 

bu |ät*tejt, thou hadst. 

er i)&t*tt, he had. 

ttrir |ät»ttft, we had. 

i|r |ät*tet, you had. 

fte |ät*ttg, they had. 

Perfect Tense. 

I have had, etc. 

id> lab* gelabt, 
bu |ab*efi gehabt, 
er |ab*e gehabt, 
toir |ab*e« gehabt, 
tyr |ab*ei gehabt, 
fle |ab*eggc|abt 

Plvperfect Tense. 

I had had, etc. 

td> litte gelabt. 

bu |ät*teft gelabt, 
er |ät*te gelabt, 
tote |ät*tei( gelabt. 
i|r |5t^tet gelabt, 
fle lät-iCtt ge|abt. 



"See.Subjunctive Mood, § 12t. 



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302 



THE VERB. 



[§136. 



I dnll tarn, efe. 

«* iwk ttfca* 
bn nrfrf laben. 
er totr* laben, 
totr toerb'OI labe«. 
t|r toerb*ct laben, 
fie toerb'OI laben. 



First Fmtwe Tarnt. 

I dnU hsre, eCc 

bn toerb'tft labern, 
er toerb*e laben. 
tDir toerb'OI labern. 
ä)r toerb'Ct labe«, 
fie toerb'OI labern. 
Secomd Fmtmre Tarne. 



I rinll hare had, efc. 

n| tottb^t gehabt laben« 
bn »irf gehabt laben, 
er totr b ge|abt laben. 
tDir »erb'Cl ge|abt itftes* 
i|r toerb*ct gelabt laben. 
fie toerb*ai gelabt laben. 



I bare had, etc. 

«I toerb* getobt laben* 
bn totr« gelabt ItftOL 
er toir* gelabt laben, 
toir toerb'OI ge|abt ' 
ä)r toerb'Ct gelabt ! 
fie toerb'OI ge|abt 



bn toflrb'CR laben, 
er toflrb't laben, 
totr toftrb'OI laben, 
i|r toftrb'ct laben, 
fie toftrb'OI |aben, 



OONDITIOXAL MOOD. 

Presemt Tarn. 

I woald, or I ritoald hare, etc. 

laben, ork||it4e (frpaf. SJjwmc) 

bn Ifit'tef «* " 

er Ifit'te 

totr|5t'tai " " 

i|r |5t'ttt " 
fie |5t'ftS " 
Pafect Taue. 
I woald, or I shoald her« had, etc. 



«* trifafce idttt Wien, 

bn toftrb'tfl gelabt laben, 
er toftrb't ge|abt laben, 
totr toftrb'tn ge|abt laben, 
ttr toftrb'rt gelabt laben, 
fie toftrb'OI ge|abt laben, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



or i<| |ät4e getobt CFh*.£aV.) 

bn Ifit'ttf gelabt " 
er lät'te gelabt " 
totr |fit»tai gelabt " 
i|r Ifit'trt gelabt " 
fie lät'ttn gelabt " 



tafee (bn), hare thoo. 
tofee (er), let bim hare. 



lobten totr, let m go. 

tofcct tbr, haTe(yoo). 
lobten fie, let them haTe. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

JVe#. lobten, to have | P<r/ ge|obt likftVtoharehad. 

Participlc*. 
Pres, lab^tnb, having. | Per/, getobt, had. 

Äo». $0fen, Gothic iotaa, is altied to the Latin habere (to hmve\ frotn 
wfaiefa are derhred the Spaniih kaber, Port. Aaver, Iul. avere, Freoeh ower. 



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§ 137.] 



AUXILURY VERBS. 



303 



§137. The verb fcitt, to fo?,is conjugated thus: 
Principal Parts: feto, toar, gestoef'eit* 

INDICATTVE MOOD. ßUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



td) Mg, I am. 
btt hi% thouart. 
et 1% he i8. 
totr (tob, we are. 
ü)r feib, you «w- 
fle fteb, theyare. 

id) mt, I was. 

bu toattf, thouwast 
er tPar, be was. 

totr to a r * tn, we were. 
tyr toar*(e)t,you were. 
flc toar*eil, theywere. 

I have been, etc. 

id) Mn geacfti- 

bu Mft getoefen. 
er ift getoefen. 
toir fiub getoefen. 
ti)r fefb getoefen. 
fle (tob getoefen. 

I had been, etc. 
id) toar ÖtttiefClt. 

bu toar*ft getoefen. 
er toar getoefen. 
toir toar*ea getoefen. 
i&r toar*t getoefen. 
fle toar*cu getoefen. 

I shall be, €*c. 

id) toerfce feto» 
bu toirft fein, 

er toirb fein, 

toir to erb* eu fein. 
ü)r toerb*et fein, 
fle toerb*e» fein. 



id) fet, I am. 
bu f ei* eft, thouart. 
er fei, he is. 
toir fei" CK/ we are. 
U)r fei* et/ you are. 
fle fei*eu, theyare. 

Imper/ect Tense. 

id) toät't, I was. 
bu tt> ä r * Cfl f thouwast 
er tüät't, he was. 
toir to&r*ett; we were. 
u)r to5r*et, you were. 
fle toär*eu, they were. 

Per/ect Tense. 

I have been, etc. 

id) fei getoefe*. 
bu fei*eft getoefen. 
er fei getoefen. 
totr feigen getoefen. 
iljr fei-et getoefen. 
fle fei-eu getoefen. 

Plvperfect Tense. 

I had been, etc. 

td) toär*e getoefen. 

bu to5r*eft getoefen. 
er tofir*e getoefen. 
totr tofir*eu getoefen. 
ü)r tofir*et getoefen. 
fle toär-eu getoefen. 

First Futvre Tense. 

I shall be, etc. 

id) toerb*e fein. 

bu toerb*ejtfetn. 
er tocrb*e fein, 
totr toerb*eu fein, 
tyr tocrb*et fein, 
flc toerb*cu fein. 



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304 



THE VERB. 



[§ 137. 



SecondFuture Taue. 



I shall hare been, etc. 

\ä) toerb*e geftefet fein, 

bn toirft getoefen feil« 

er toirb flctocfen feit* 

totr »erb*« getoefen feit* 

tyr »erbtet getoefen fets« 

pe toerb*ct getoefen feil« 



I shall have been, e/c. 

i$ »erb* gefcefet feto. 
tu toerb«efl getoefen feit. 
er toerb*e getoefen feit* 
totr toerb*et getoejen feit* 
tyr toerb*et getoefen feit* 
pe toexb*et getoefen feil* 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Pre$ent Tense. 

I woald, or I shoold be, etc. 



%äf toirb* feit, 
bu toiirb*efHeit, 
er roürb*e fei«, 
totr tofixb*etfeit, 
tyr toürb*ct feit, 
ftc tofirb*etfeitt, 



or \ä) tritt* (Imperfect Smbjmnctice). 
" bu toär*efl " " 



i$ toirb* 

bu«tofirb*efl getoefen feit, 
er u>firb«e getoefen feit, 
totr toflrb*et getoefen fein, 
tyr toürb*ct getoefen feit, 
fic »ftrb*et getoefen feit, 



44 er tofir*e " 

"totrtofir^et " " 

" tyr toär*et u 
44 pe tofir.et 

Perfect Tense. 
I would, or I shoald bare been, etc. 

getoefet fett, or t<$ üir* getoefet (Pi«p.s*b.) 
44 bu »5r*efl getoefen " " 
44 er tofir»e getoefen " " 
" totr toSr-ct getoejen " " 
44 tyr »Sr*et getoefen " " 
44 pe Ȋr*et getoefen " " 



fei (bu), be thou. 
fei er, lethimbe. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

feilet toir, let us be. 
fei *t ü)r, be you. 
fei*t pe, letthembe. 



Pres, feit, to be. 
Pres, f ei*tb, being. 



DiFlDiiTiVJS MOOD. 

| Per/, getoefet feit, to have been. 
PAETICIPLES. 

I P«/.ge»efet,been. 

Bern. The different parts of feit are to be traced to tAree rooU: 

1 . ©it, M|t (and Engl be, been), are probably related to tfttet, to buüd. 

2. @eit, fei, feil, fUtb, and tft (with Engl, are, ort, is) are from a verb- 
al root that is now only fbnnd in Sanscrit as and Latin esse (to be). 

3. (Betoefet, lOtr, tofre (and Engl »«, wert), are from an obsolete 
verb, in Sanscrit was (to reside), in Gothic vivian (to remain, to be), 
Old-Ger. wesan, Mid.-Ger. tcesen. The former present participle 
wSsend is now only used in the adjectives attoefetb, a&toef etb* 



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§138.] 



AUXTUARY VERBS. 



305 



§ 138. Conjugation of tottbtn,to lecome: 

Principal Parts: toeirb^ett f hmrb'*e (toarb), ße-toorb^err* 



INDICATIVB MOOD. 



Present Tense. 



ßUBJUNCnVE MOOD. 



tdj tOCrbsf, I become. 
bu tottfl, thou becomest. 

er toitb/ he becomes. 

loir toerb*Ctt, we become. 
u)r to erb* et, you become. 
fic toerb*tn, they become. 



td) toerfce, I become. 
bu to c r b « tftf thou becomest. 
et toerb*t, he becomes. 
toir tt> c r b * eit, we become. 
xbx toerb*et, you become. 
fic to c r b * en, they become. 



Imperfect Tense. 



idj tOttTfce,* I became. 
bu tourb*ejt, Jhoubecamest. 
er tourb*e, he became. 
totr tourb-Ctt, we became. 
t(jr tourb*et, you became. 
fle to U X b * eil/ they became. 

P#/ec/ r«we, 
I have become, e*c. 

id) bin getoorben or toorben* 
bu bifl getoorben " toorben. 
er ff! getoorben " toorben. 
toirfinb getoorben " toorben. 
tyr feib getoorben " toorben. 
fle fittb getoorben " toorben. 



id) toiirfce, I became. 
bu toürb*ejl> thoubecamest. 
er toürb*e, he became. 
totr toürb*eit> we became. 
tyr teil rb» et, you became. 
fte teürb*en, they became. 



I had become, etc. 

id) toar getoerbenortoorben» 
bu toarfi getoorben " toorben. 
er toat getoorben " toorben. 
totr toar-en getoorben " toorben. 
i&r tear*t getoorben " toorben. 
fle toar* eil getoorben " toorben. 



I shall become, etc. 

i$ toerb*e toerben. 
bn toirft toerben. 
er tolrb toerben. 
totr toerb*cn toerben. 
tyr tocrb*et toerben* 
fte tocrb*en toerben. 



I have become, etc. 

td) fei getoorben or toorben» 
bu fei*efl getoorben " toorben. 
er fei getoorben " toorben. 
totr fetstn getoorben " toorben. 
tyr fet*ct g e to oj b e n " toorben. 
fte feigen getoorben " toorben. 
Pluperfect Tense. 

I had become, etc. 

td) toür-e getoorben or toorben» 

bu Ȋr*eft getoorben " toorben. 

er Ȋr*e getoorben " toorben. 

totr to fi r * en getoorben " toorben. 

ü)r to 5 r * et getoorben " toorben. 

f!c tenr*cn getoorben " toorben. 
First Future Tense. 

I shall become, etc. 

i$ totrb* toerben. 
bu toerb*eft toerben. 
er toerb*e toerben. 
toir toerb«cn toerben. 
tyr toerb*ct toerben. 
fle tocrb*cn toerben. 



* In the Singular of the Imperfect Indicative the formsid) tOOTb, bn tOutbft, 
CT tOutb are sometimes employed. 



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306 



THE VERB. 



[§ 138. 



Second Future Taue, 



I shall hare become, etc. 
td) wate getötete« (tut. 
bn üirfl geworben feix, 

er tritt -getoorben fei«, 
toir toerb-e» geworben feil« 
ü)r toerb*et geworben fei«, 
fit toerb*e» geworben fei«. 



I shall haye become, etc. 

i$ wtxkt gefttrle« fei«. 
bu toerb*efl getoorben fei«« 
er toerb*e getoorben fei«» 
toir toerb^e» getoorben feto* 
ü)rtoerb*et getoorben fei«« 
fle toerb*e» getoorben fei«. 



\$ toirb*e toerte« 

bu toflrb*efl toerben 
er toürb*e toerben 
toir tofirb*e« toerben 
tyr toflrb*et toerben 
fle toflrb*en toerben 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Taue. 

I woald, or I shoald become, etc. 



or id) toirfce (Jmperf. Svbpmctivey. 
" btt tofirb*eft 
" er toftrb*e 

en 

et 

e« 



totr tofirb 
ü)r toürb 
ftc toürb 

Perfect Taue. 
I woald, or I shoald have had, etc. 



id) itfrt* getoorben fei« 
bu toürb*efl getoorben fei« 
er toürb*e getoorben fei« 
toir toürb*e« getoorben fei« 
ü)r tofirb«et getoorben fei« 
fle tottrb«e« getoorben fei« 



id) *8w getoorben (Pt.s*b.) 
bu toffr-efl getoorben " 
er to5r*e getoorben " 
toir tȊr*en getoorben " 
ü)r tofir*et getoorben " 
fle tofir*e« getoorben " 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



t*etb«e (bu), become thou. 
toerb<e(er), let him become. 



toerben toir, let os become. 
toerb*et u)r, become you. 
toerb«e« fle, let them become. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, toerfoe«, to become. | Per/. gefettet« fei«, to haye become, 

PABTICIPLEe. 
Pres. toetteexb, becoming. | Per/. gC*tO0tb'ei, become. 
Hern, ©erbe» (Middle-German weiden, to take a directum) iß allied to the 
Latin vertere (to turn). 



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§ 139, 140.] 



REGULAS VERBS. 



307 



3. REGULÄR VERBS, 
(äcütoörter bcr föttadjen ÄouittgattonO 

§ 139. Under Regulär Verbs (termed by German gram- 
marians verbs of theWeak Conjugation) are included: 

1. All derivative verba, as: »armen, jammern, pflügen, 
legen, fefcen, fiellen, tranfen. 

2. A few primitive verbs, as : fajjen, retten, fudjem 

3. Foreign verbs (except pfeifen, greifen, fd^teibett)* 

Rem. 1. Most regulär verbs are transitive. 

Rem. 2. Regulär verbs never take the umlaut, nor do they cbange the radi- 
calvowel in inflection. 



to&tm*tn, towarm ( from toorm). 
$fimmer*n, to hammer ( " Jammer). 
bab*en, tobathe ( " ©ab). 
J>flüa,<en, toplough ( " $ffaß). 
leg*en, tolay ( " liegen). 
iefe*cn, to set ( " flfeen). 



ftefren, to place 

tränken, to water 

faßten, to say 

rett*cn, to save 

Pubir%en, to study 



(firom jle&en). 
( " trinfen). 
(primitive). 

( " > 
(from Latin). 



foftei'*cn, to chastise ( " " ). 

§ 140. Conjugation of the Regulär Verb \\thtXi,tohve: 
Principal Parts: litten, liei'*te, %t4\tii\ 

INDICAT1VE MOOD. 8UBJTJNÜT1VE MOOD. 

Pretent Tense. 



td> liefet, I love. 
bu lieb* ff, thoulovest 
er lieft* t, he loves. 
toir liebten, we love. 
ü)t lieb*t, you love. 
fle liebten, they love. 



i$ litte, I love. 
bu 1 1 e b * tft, thou lovest 
er lieble, he loves. 
torir Heb* tu, we love. 
ü)r lieb* tt, you love. 
fte Ueb-Ctt, they love. 



Imper/ect Tense. 



i<$ liebst, I loved. 
bu tieb*ttfi, thoulovedst. 
er fieb*tt, he loved. 
ttrir 1 1 e b * ttn, we loved. 
tyr Ueb'tCt, you loved. 
fle fieb*tt«, they loved. 



«$ tttfctt, I loved. 
bu lieb« teft, thou lovedst. 
er lieb*tt, he loved. 
»hc lieb*tt$, we loved. 
tyr lieb-tet/ you loved. 
ftc Heb* ttlt, they loved. 



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308 



THE VERB. 



[§140. 



I have lored, etc. 

i$ fcfee gefielt 

bt |*£ geliebt 
er |*t geliebt 
ttrir |<tb«et geliebt 
ibr |ab*t geliebt 
fie |ab*et geliebt 



I had lored, etc. 

«* |tt4e geliebt 

bt (atztet geliebt 
er tyot-te geliebt 
ttir &at*tet geliebt 
tyr 1>at*ttt geliebt 
fie &at*tet geliebt 



I shall lore, etc. 
i* »trb^e fielet. 
bu trieft lieben* 
er toirb liebett 
totr n>erb*et liebett 
i&r t>erb«et liebett 
fie tt>erb«et liebett 



Perfect Taue. 

I hare lored, etc. 

i* fcfee gefielt 

btt frab-efi geliebt 
er |ab*e geliebt 
toir $ab«et geliebt 
ibr iabset geliebt 
fie &ab*et geliebt 

Plvperfeet Taue. 

Ihad lored, rfc. 

i$ litte gefielt 

bu &fit*tef geliebt 
er $St*!e geliebt 
tmr t)ät«tet geliebt 
$r (at'tet geliebt, 
fie &at*iet geliebt 
First Fmtmre Taue. 

I shall lore, etc. 

ity toerfce fielet. 

bu toerb*ejl liebet, 
er toerb«e liebet, 
toir toerb<et liebett 
ü)r toerb*et liebett 
fie toerb«et liebett 

Second Future Tensc. 



I shall hare lored, etc. 

\äf toerb* gefielt labet. 
bu totrfl geliebt tyalet. 
er toirb geliebt |alet. 

totr toerb*et geliebt lotet, 
tyr toerb*et geliebt tatet, 
fie toerb*et geliebt tatet. 



I shall hare lored, etc. 

\$ meto* gefielt 
bn »erbtet geliebt tatet. 
er toerb*e geliebt lotet. 
toir »erbtet geliebt tatet. 
tyr toerb^et geliebt tatet. 
fte u>erb*et geliebt lotet. 



ity &ärb*e 

bu »flrb*eft lieben, 
er toürb*e Heben, 
toir toürb*et Heben, 
i^r toürb*et Heben, 
fie tottrb*et lieben, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Taue. 

I wotüd, or I should lore, etc. 

fielet/ or i$ ftel^e 

" bu lieb'feft 
" er Heb-te 
" toir Hcb'tet 
" U)r lieb-tet 
" fie licb*tet 



(Imperf.Süjwc) 



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§ 141.] 



REGULÄR VERBS. 



309 



t$ toHrbst 

bu feürb'tft geliebt babctt, 
er t»firb-e geliebt $abtn, 
nrir mfirb^en geliebt babett, 
tyr toürb'tt geliebt babett, 
fte n>ürb*eit geliebt ftaben, 



Perfect Tense. 
I wonld, or I shoald have loved, etc. 

geliebt babett, or i$ y&Uit geliebt 
- - - - - " bu $fit*tefl geliebt 

" er bät*te geliebt 
" nrir $St*tett geliebt 
" tyr Ht'tet geliebt 
" fte Ht'ten geliebt 



(PLSubj.) 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



licb*e (bu), love thou. 

liebst er, lethimlove. 



liebelt toir, let ns love. 
Hebtet i&r, love you. 
liebten fte, let them love 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, tteb*en, to love. | Per/, geliebt babeil, to have loved. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. lieb*eilb f loving. | Per/, geliebt, loved. 

§ 141. Table of endings of Regulär Verbs: 



Present Tense. 


Imperfect Tense. 


1 Indic. 


Subj. 


Imperat. 


Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


1 Pere. Sing. 

2 Pere. Sing. 
8 Pen. Sing. 

1 Pere. Plur. 

2 Pere. Plor. 
8 Pere. Plor. 


*eft *fc 
*et, *t, 

*en, *en, 
*et, *t, 
*ett. *ett. 


*en, 

.tt, 

*en. 




*tt, *cte, 
•teft, *etefr 
*te, *ete, 

«ten, *etett, 
*tet, *etet, 
*tett. »etett. 


*te, *ete, 
♦teft *etejt, 
»te, *ete, 

*ten, *etcn, 
*tet, *etet, 
*ten. *etcn. 


*en, *en, 
*et, *t, 
*en.#cn. 


Infinit, *en, «n. | 


Pres. Part. *Cttb, *ttb. [| Per/. Part, ge— et, ge— t. 



For the sake of euphony, or of the metre in poetry, 
the first t of terminations is frequently dropped. 

Rem. 1. It can never be dropped, however, when the stein of tho verb ends 
in «b, Ap or sgtt (contracted from sgett)* 

Rem. 2. The contraction always takes place in *tl, *tttb, when the stem 
ends in *e! or «et» (In the rat Pere. Sing, of the Pres. Ind., and in the 2d 
Pen. Sing, of the Imperative, the t of the stem is dropped.) 

Rem. 8. When the stem ends with a vowel, st from *tl is frequently dropped. 

Rem. 4. In stfl, the t is not dropped when the stem ends b, t, 8, (, 8f f 4* 

-Rem. 5. The contraction rarely takes place in the subjunctive mood. 



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302 



THE VERB. 



[§ 136. 



I shall have, etc. 

ttb tDtrb*e babeu* 
bu toirfl baben. 
et toirb baben. 
tote toerb*t» baben. 
U)r n>erb*et baben. 
fie toerb*« baben. 



First Futwe Tense. 

I shall have, etc. 

i<b toerb^t baben* 

bu toerb*cff ^abett. 
er toerb*e baben. 
tote toerb*en ^aben. 
ibr toerb*et b<*ben. 
fle toerb*en ^abetu 
Second Future Taue. 



I shall have had, etc. 

i<b &crb*e gebabt baben» 
bu tofrft gehabt (oben, 
erwirb gehabt baben« 
tote toerb*en gehabt baben» 
ü)r »erbtet gehabt baben* 
fle »erb*« gehabt laben. 



I have had, etc. 

t$ tottb* gebabt baben» 
bu nnrft gehabt baben» 
er totrb gehabt baben» 
tote toerb*cn gehabt baben« 
u)r toerb^et gehabt beben. 
fle »erbten gehabt laben» 



i$ tottrb*e 

bu toürb*eft baben, 
er tofirb*e baben, 
tote tottrb*en baben, 
ibr toflrb*et baben, 
fle tofirb*eu baben, 



i<b toifcb* 

bu »Arbeit getyabt baben, 
er tofirb*e gehabt baben, 
tote loürb-e» gehabt baben, 
ibr toürb*et gebabt baben, 
fie toürb»eu gehabt baben, 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would, or I should have, etc. 
bttbeu f or i(b b8Me (Imper/.Subjunc.) 

"bu bfit'icft " " 

" er bfit*te " " 

"toteb St *ten " 

"u)r b*t*!et " " 

" fle bftt»ftg " 
P«/«?e Teiwc. 

I wonld, or I should have had, etc. 

gebabt baben, or i$ y&utt gebobt (Piup.Suij.) 
bu bfit*teft gebabt 
er bÄt*te gehabt 
tote b&t'teu gebabt 
ibr b^t'tet gebabt 
fle bauten gehabt 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



bab^e (bu), have thou. 
böb^C (er), let him have. 



bttb-cn tote, let 118 go. 
bttb«Ct ibr, have (von). 
bafcen fle, let them have. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, bdbstn, to have. | Per/, gebabt babett,to havehad. 

Participles. 
Pres. bab*tttb,having. | Per/. gebabt, had. 

Rem. §aben, Gothic haban, is allied to the Latin habere (to have), frorn 
which are derived the Spanish haber, Port, haver, Ital. avere, French avoir. 



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§ 137.] 



ATJXILURY VERBS. 



303 



§137. The verb fcüt, to be, is conjugated thus: 
Principal Parts: feto, fear, gMDef'Ctt* 

INDICAUVE MOOD. 8UBJUNOTIVE MOOD. 

Pretent Tense. 



id) tritt, I am. 
bu ti% thouart. 
er ifl, he is. 
toir filtb, we are. 
Oft feil), you are. 
fie fbti», they are. 

id) tottt, I wag. 

bu toattf, thouwast. 

er ttmr, be was. 
toir to a r * e«, we were. 
tyr toar*(e)t,you were. 
flc toar*eil, theywere. 

I have been, etc. 

id) m gemefen. 

bu U{t getoefen. 
er ift getoefen. 
toir ftttb getoefen. 
tyr feto getoefen. 
flc Pub getoefen. 

I had been, etc. 

id) aar gctocfcn. 
bu toar*ft getoefen. 
er fear getoefen. 
toir tt>ar*at getoefen. 
i&r toar*t getoefen. 
fie toar*cit getoefen. 

I shall be, etc. 

td) totrb*e fein* 
bu toirft fein, 

er loirb fein, 

toir tocrb*en fein. 
Ü)r »erb- et fein, 
fie toerb»eu fein. 



id) fei, I am. 
bu fei* eft/ thouart. 
er fei, he is. 
nur feiges, we are. 
U)r fei- et, you are. 
f!e fei*en, they are. 

Imperfect Tense. 

id) tPttT*e, I was. 
bu to&r*Cfl, thouwast. 
er toär*e, he was. 
toir toär-cil, we were. 
i&r to&r*et, you were. 
fie to&r*C1t, theywere. 

Per/ect Tense. 

I have been, etc. 

i$ fei getoefc«* 
bu fei* eft getoefen. 
er fei getoefen. 
toir feigen getoefen. 
tyr fci*et getoefen. 
fie fei*eu getoefen. 

Plvperfect Tense. 

I had been, etc. 

id) tofce oeioefen. 
bu toär*eft getoefen. 
er to&t't getoefen. 
toir tofir*en getoefen* 
i&r toär*et getoefen. 
fie toär-eu getoefen. 

First Future Tense. 

I shall be, etc. 

id) »erb*e fettt« 

bu toerb*eft fein, 
er toerb-e fein, 
toir »erb*eu fein, 
tyr toerb*et fein, 
fte toerb*en fein. 



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304 



THE VEBB. 



[§ 137. 



Second Futvre Tense. 



I shall hare been, etc. 

id; toerfc* getoefen fein» 
bu toirft getoefen fein. 

er Ulirb getoefen feil* 

toirtoerb^en getoefen fein, 
tyr toerb*et getoefen fein. 
fle »erb*« getoefen feil« 



I shall hare been, etc. 

id? uteri* getoefen fein. 
bu toerb*efl getoefen feto» 
er »erb*e getoejen fein* 
toir toerb*en getoefen fei«. 
tyr toerb*et getoefen fein, 
pe toerb-en getoefen fein. 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Pre$eni Tense. 

I would, or I ahould be, etc. 



td) tnlrl* fein, 

bn toürb-eflfein, 
er toürb*e fein, 
toir toflrb*enfein, 
u)r ȟrb*et fein, 
fte toürb*enfein f 



or \Ö) tüätst (Imper/ect Subjwtctive). 
44 bu tofir*eft " " 



44 er tofir*e " 

"toirtoär^en " 

44 tyr »5r*et " 

44 pe tofir-en " 

Perfect Tense. 
I would, or I should hare been, etc. 



iäf tolrfce getoefen fein, 
bu<toflrb«efi getoefen fein, 
er tofirb*e getoefen fein, 
toir toürb^en getoefen fein, 
tyr toürb«et getoefen fein, 
pe tottrb*en getoefen fein, 



or id> twr< getoefen (Pinp.Snb.) 
44 bu to5r*efl getoefen " " 
44 er tofir»e getoefen " " 
44 toir tofir^en getoefen 44 44 
44 ü)r tväi'tt getoefen 4i 4< 
44 pe to5r*en getoefen 44 " 



fei (bu), be thou. 
fei tr, lethimbe. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

feigen toir, let us be. 
feilet tyr, be jou. 
feigen pe, letthembe. 



Pres, fein, to be. 
Pres, f ei<nb, being. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

| Per/, getoefen fein, tohave been. 
PAKTICIPLES. 

| Per/, geliefen, been. 
Bern. The difterent parts of fein are to be traced to tkret roots: 

1. 8in,tift(andEn^.fte,fteea), are probably related toUmtM, tobmild. 

2. ©ein, fei, feil, ftnl, and ift (with Eng), «re, ort, it) are from aTerb- 
al root that is now only fonnd in Sanscrit as and Latin esse (to fte). 

8. ®e*efen, tm, WÜt (and Engl was, were\ are from an obsolete 
verb, in Sanscrit was (to rtside), in Gothic vivian (to rewurin, to he\ 
Old-Ger. wisan, Mid.-Ger. wtsen. The ibrmer present participle 
wSsemd is now onljr nsed in the adjeethres ontoefeut, Oteefenl. 



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§138.] 



AUXTLIARY VERBS. 



305 



§ 138. Conjugation of tottbtn,to hecorne: 
Principal Parts: toerb x ^ett f tamrb'*e (toarb), ße-toorb^err* 



INDICATTVE MOOD. 



8ÜBJÜNCTIVB MOOD. 



Present Tense. 



i<$ W&stf I become. 
bu toirfl, thou becomest. 

er wirb, he becomes. 

tt>ir werb*en, we become. 
tt)r W erb* et, you become. 
fie werb*en, they become. 



Impcrfect Tense. 



td? t0ttb*t, I become. 
bu werb*eff, thou becomest. 
er Werb*C, he becomes. 
Wir W erb* en# we become. 
ihr w erb* et, you become. 
pe Werb*en, they become. 



i$ tODtb^e,* I became. 
bu W u r b * eft, thou becamest 
er Wurb*e, he became. 
Wir wurb*eu, wo became. 
i^r wurb*et, you became. 
pe wurb*en, they became. 

Perfect Tense, 
I have become, etc. 

\fy hin geworben or Worten* 

bu Mfl geworben " worben. 
er ip geworben " worben. 
wir Pub geworben "worben. 
ü)r feib fleroorben "roorben. 
fie Pub fleroorben " roorben. 



\ä) tottlfce, I became. 
bu Würb*eft, thou becamest. 
er Wttrb*e, he became. 
roir Würb*en, we became. 
tyr Würb*et, you became. 
Pe Würb*eit, they became. 



I had become, etc. 

i$ tomr geroerbenorworbcn. 
bu warft geworben " roorben. 
er war geroorben " roorben. 
wir war* eil fleroorben " roorben. 
tyr ro a r * t fleroorben " roorben. 



I have become, etc. 

i$ fei octoorbcn ortoarben. 
bu fetstP fleroorben" roorben. 
er fei geroorben " roorben. 
roir feUea geroorben " roorben. 
ü)r fet*et gewojben " roorben. 
fie fet*eit fleroorben" roorben. 
Pluperfect Tense. 

I had become, etc. 

i$ toär-c getoorbeuor roorben. 
bu wär*eft geworben " roorben. 



Pe war*« fleroorben " roorben. 



I shall become, etc. 

i$ toerb*e toerbe»* 
bu wirft werben, 
er Wirb ro erben, 
roir »erb*eu werben, 
tyr werb*et werben* 
Pe werb*eu werben. 



er w&r*e geworben 
wir w fi r * en geworben " 
t&r War* et geworben " 
f!c war* es geworben " 
First Futurs Tense. 

I shall become, etc. 

id) toerbst werben. 
bu werb-eP werben, 
er werb*e werben, 
wir werb-e» werben, 
tyr wcrb*et »erben, 
pe roerb-en werben. 



worben. 
Worben. 
worben. 
worben. 



* In the singular of the Imperfect Indicative the forms idj Warb, bn Warbft, 
et ÖMirb are sometimes employed. 



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306 



THE VERB. 



[§ 138. 



Second Future Taue. 



I ßhall have become, etc. 

i$ werb*e geworben feit. 
bu Wirft geworben feix* 

et wirb -geworben feix* 
wir wer b* ex geworben feil« 
ü)r »erbtet geworben feix* 
pc werb*ex geworben feil* 



I shall bare become, etc. 

t<$ werb*e gewitbex feig« 
bu werb*efi geworben feix« 
er werb*e getoorbett feix* 
Wir werb*ex geworben feix« 
ü)rwerb*et getoorbett feix« 
fle werb*ex getoorbett feix. 

OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Taue. 

I would, or I shoold become, etc. 



io) tottrat werten 

bu wflrb*efi toerben 
er würb*e toerben 
totr würb*ex toerben 
Ü)r toflrb*et toerben 
fle wflrb*ex toerben 



or i<$ tOÜrb^e (Jmperf. Subjunctive^ 
44 bu Würb*efi 



" er toürb*e 
44 toir toürb-ex 
"ü)r würbet 
44 fie wttrb*en 

Per/ect Taue. 
I would, or I shoold have had, etc. 



\äf wirble geworben feix 
bu wflrb*eft geworben feix 
er toürb*e geworben feix 
toir tofirb*ei geworben feix 
ü)r tofirb*et geworben feix 
fie wflrb*ex geworben feix 



i$ wär*e gewxrbex (Pi.Sub.) 
bn wftr-efl geworben " 
er wSr*e geworben " 
Wir Wftr*ex geworben " 
ü)r wSr*et geworben " 
fte w&r*ex geworben 4< 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



*erb*e (bn), become thon. 
W er b * e (er), let bim become. 



Wcrb-en Wir, let ns become. 
Werb*et ü)r, become you. 
Werb-en fle, let them become. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. Wer b*CX, to become. | Per/. geWQrbeX f eiX, to bare become. 

PABTIOIPLEe. 
Pres. Werteexb, becoming. | Per/. ge*Wlftb'ex, become. 
Rem. ©erben (Middle-German wSrdeo, to take a directum) iß allied to the 
Latin vertere {to turn). 



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§ 139, 140.] 



REGULÄR VERBS. 



807 



3. REGULÄR VERBS. 
(BeUtoürttt ber ftfumflcu ftouingatioitO 
§ 139. Under Regulär Verbs (termed by German gram- 
marians verbs of theWeak Coryugation) are included: 

1. All derivative verbs, as: warmen, jammern, pflügen, 
legen, fefcen, fleUen, iränfen. 

2. A fem primitive verbs, as : feigen, retten, fuc$en* 

3. Foreign verbs (except pfeifen, preifen, fd&reifeen)* 

Rem. 1. Most regulär verbs are transitive. 

Rem. 2. Regulär verbs never take the umlaut, nor do they change the radi- 
calvowel in inflection. 



toäroven, towarm ( from »arm). 
$&nmer*n, to hammer ( " Jammer). 
bab*n, tobathe ( " ©ab). 
*Pg*en, toplough ( " ?ffaa_). 
Icg*en, tolay ( " Hegen), 
tefren, to set ( " flfeen). 



ftelkett, to place 

trfint'tn, to water 

fag*en, to say 

retten, to save 

{hibir # *en, to study 



toßri'*en, to chastise ( " 



(frommen). 
( " trinten). 
(primitive). 

( " )• 
(from Latin). 



). 



§ 140. Conjugation of the Regulär Verb litttn,tolove: 
Principal Parts: Hefte«, lith'4t, %tA\tli\ 

INDICAT1VE MOOD. 8UBJUNCTIVK MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



td) Be6*e, I love. 
bu Ueb'ft, thoulovest. 
et liebst, he loves. 
nrir liebten, we love. 
tyt lieb-t, you love. 
fle liebten, they love. 



i$ flefce, I love. 

bu H C b * eft, thou lovest. 
er fieb*e, he loves. 
totr Heb*«, we love. 
tyr Iieb*et f you love. 
fle Heb'tlt, they love. 



Imper/ect Tense. 



id) Utb4t f I loved. 
bu licb-ieft, thoulovedst. 
er tieb'tt, he loved. 
totr liebsten, we loved. 
u)r Ixtb'ttt, you loved. 
fle liebste», they loved. 



td) HelMe, I loved. 
bu Itcb-teft, thoulovedst. 
er V\tb*tt, he loved. 
ttrir Ucb'tei, we loved - 
ft)r It ebbtet, you loved. 
fle lieb* ttn, they loved. 



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THE VERB. 



[§ 140. 



I have loved, etc. 
i$ tatst geliebt 
bu |aft geliebt 
er |itt geliebt 
toir bab*ttt geliebt 
tbr t)ab*t geliebt 
fie ^ab*en geliebt 



I had loved, etc. 

idf totste geliebt 
bu (at'teft ßttiebt 
er &at*it geliebt 
toir ^at<tttt geliebt 
tyr 1)at*ttt geliebt 
fie $at'itn geliebt 



I shall love, etc. 
iäf »erbst lieben- 
bu »irft lieben, 
et toirb lieben, 
toir toerb'ttt lieben, 
tbr toerb'ti lieben, 
fie toerb'ttt lieben. 



Perfect Taue. 

I have loved, etc. 

iöf totst geliebt 
bu $ab*efi geliebt 
er tjab't geliebt 
toir $ab'ttt geliebt 
tbr fcabsei geliebt 
fie $ab*ttt geliebt 

Plvperfect Tense. 

I had loved, etc. 

i$ hdUtt geliebt 

bu frät-teft geliebt 
et ff&t'H geliebt 
toir $St'tttt geliebt 
tyr ^ 5 1 « tet geliebt« 
fie ^fit-tttt geliebt 

First Futwre Tense. 

I shall love, etc. 

«t »erb*e lieben, 
bu toerb*tft lieben« 
er toerb't lieben, 
toir toerb'ttt lieben, 
tyr toerb'tt lieben, 
fie toerb<en lieben. 



Second Futwre Tense. 



I shall have loved, etc. 

i$ »erbst geliebt (oben, 
bu toirfl geliebt toten, 
er toirb geliebt toten. 

toir toerb'ttt geliebt toben. 
tyr toerb'tt geliebt taten, 
fie toerb'ttt geliebt toten. 



I shall have loved, etc. 

«t »trb*t geliebt totes* 
bu toerb'tft geliebt toten* 
er toerb-e geliebt toten. 
toir toerb'ttt geliebt toten. 
tyr toerb*et geliebt toten. 
fie toerb'ttt geliebt toben. 



i$ to8rb*t 

bu würb'tfl lieben, 
er toürb't lieben, 
toir ȟrb'ttt lieben, 
tyr toürb*tt lieben, 
fle toürb'tn lieben, 



CONDITTONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would, or I should love, etc. 

liCbtn, or idj Httstt (Imperf. Subjunc.) 

" bu lieb'teft " 

" er lieb-tt " 

" toir liebsten • " 

" ibr lieb'tet " 

" fie licb-ten " 



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§ 141.] 



REGULÄR VERBS. 



309 



Per/ect Tense. 
I would, or I shoold have loved, etc. 

geliebt Soften, or i$ betete geliebt 
- - ■ - - tu $ät*teft geliebt 

er $ät'te geliebt 
ttir $St*ten geliebt 
tyr ^ät-tet geliebt 
fte $ät*ten geliebt 



i* &Urb*e 

bu toürb'Cft geliebt baben, 
er roürb*e geliebt beben, 
xoix n>firb«eit geliebt böben, 
tyr tt>ttrb«et geliebt babeit, 
flc n>ürb*e« geliebt babeit, 



(PLSubj.) 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Utfet (bu), love thou. 
littet er, let him love. 



liebten tmr, let ns love. 
lieferet tyr, love you. 
licb^Cll fte, let them love. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, littet*, to love. | Per/, geliebt bttbeil, to have loved. 

PARTICIPLE8. 
Pres. ÜttetUk, loving. | Per/. geliebt, loved. 

§ 141. Table of endings of Regulär Verbs: 



Present Tense. 


Imperfect Tense. 


1 Indic. 


Subj. 


Imperat. 


Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


1 Pers. Sing. 

2 Pers. Sing. 
8 Pers. Sing. 

1 Pers. Plur. 

2 Pers. Plor. 
8 Pers. Plor. 


*e, 

<e(t, >% 
♦et, *t, 

*tn, *en, 
*et, *t, 
*ett. *en. 


*e, 

*eft, 

*e, 

*en, 
.et, 
*en. 




«te, *etc, 
*te(t, *eteft, 
*te, *ete, 

*ten, *etcn, 
*tet, *etet, 
*ten. »eten. 


*Xt, *ete, 
*tcjl, *eteft, 
*te, *ete, 

*tcn, *eten, 
»tet, *etct, 
*teit. *eten. 


*e, 
*e, 

•ett, *cn, 
•et, 4, 
*en.*en. 


Infinit. *en, *n. | 


Pres. Part, #enb, *nb. 


Per/. Part. gC— et, gC— t. 



For the sake of euphony, or of the metre in poetry, 
the first e of terminations is frequently dropped. 

Rem. 1. It can never be dropped, however, when the stem of the verb ends 
in *b, A 9 or sgn (contracted from «gen)» 

Rem. 2. The contraction always takes place in *tU, «tltb, when the stem 
ends in «et or *tt. (In the Ißt Pers. Sing, of the Pres. Ind., and in the 2d 
Pers. Sing, of the Imperative, the e of the stem is dropped.) 

Rem. 8. When the stem ends with a vowel, *e from «en is frequently dropped. 

Rem. 4. In «eft, the t is not dropped when the stem ends b, t, $, $, J, ( ($♦ 

Rem. 5. The contraction rarely takes place in the subjunctive moocL 



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10 


THE 


VERB. 




[§ 142, 14 


liefen, to lore, 


ttc&*C, 


*fr *t f 


*tc, 


getieft 


\utytn, to seek, 


fu$*c, 


*fr *, 


<tc, 


gefugt 


retf*cn, to travel, 


reiR 


**$t *t 


*te, 


flcrcUfl. 


ftf$*en, to fish, 


m*. 


*ft *t, 


*te, 


geflf^t. 


bob*tn, tobathe, 


bob*c, 


*fr **t 


*etc, 


gcbab*et 


leiten, to lead, 


trit*c, 


«%<*, 


*ctc, 


gelctt*ct. 


fegu*at, to bless, 


fan*, 


*eft, *ct, 


*te, 


gefegn*et. 


tctotUn, to blame, 


ta(MK 


♦fr *t, 


*te, 


getabel't. 


toontaMt, to wander, 


toan(br)*f, *% *t, 


*tc, 


gettxntbcT*t. 



4. IRREGULÄR VERBS. 
Cgcittöürter btr Sorten ÄonjHpttoii.) 

§ 142. The Irregulär Verbs (called by German gram- 
marians verbs of the Strong or Old Coryugatiori) are all 
native German verbs (except the verbs pfeifen, greifen, and 
fdjrciticn, which are derived from the Latin; see § 145). 

Rem. There are one hundred and ninety-one Irregulär Verbs. 

§ 143. Irregulär Verbs are divided into seven classes. 
The Classification is based upon the changes which the 
radical vowd undergoes in forming the prineipal jparts : 

1. Verbs of the first class have a different radical 
vowel in eachprincijpaljpart 

2. With verbs of the second, third, and fourth classes, 
the radical vowel of the im/perfect only varies fromthat 
of the present. 

3. Verbs of the fifth and sixth classes have the same 
vowel in the im/perfect tense as in the jperfect jparticijple. 

4. Verbs of the seventh class are aiwmalovs. They 
follow in conjugation partly the laws of regulär, and 
partly those of irregulär verbs. 

Rem. The following table represents the changes the radical vowels under- 
go in forming the prineipal parts of the 6even classes of irregulär verbs. 



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§ 144.] 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



311 



§ 144. Classified Hat of the Irregulär Verbs: 



Class. 


Present. Imperf. Partie. 


Exarttples. 


No. 


Ist 


i (pr e), a, n («• o)* 


fcmb'Cit, bartb, ge*bunb*eiu 


45. 


2d 
3d 
4th 


e, a, e* 
a, u, a» 


geb*en, gab, gc*geb*en. 
fotogen, f$lug, ge-f$lag*cn. 
falt-en, ftelt, gc*$alt-cn. 


14. 
10. 
14. 


5th 
6th 


t\, i(orie),tor(ie), 
it(!,etc.),Q, 0* 


beißsen, biß, ge*biff*en. 
gießen, goß, gc-gofT-cn. 


40. 
52. 


7th 


anomalous. 


brrag»cn, brachte, gc*bra<^t. 


16. 


Tatst} nnmhflr of irrwrnlar verbs 


191. 









1. Irregulär verbs of the first class; 



finben, 
febtotnben, 
»inben, 
bringen, 



fltngen, 
ringen, 
Wlingen, 
fähigen, 



fpringen, 

fingen, 

finfen, 

fHnTen, 

trhtfen, 



gewinnen, 

rinnen, 

{innen, 

fpinnen, 

febtoünmen, 

(fonunen, 



atlxn, 

Iefen, 

genefen, 

effen, 

treffen, 

nteffen, 

bergeffen, 



taub, 

fanb, 

föttxtnb, 

toanb, 

brang, 

gelang, 

flang, 

rang, 

Wtang, 

fdjtoang, 

fang, 

frrang, 

ittang, 

fanT, 

ftanT, 

tranf, 

beaami, 

getoann, 

rann, 

fann, 

fpann, 

febtoanun, 

Tarn, 



gedtttbett. 

gefunben* 

gefebtounben* 

geuntnben* 

gebrungen* 

gelungen. 

geflungen* 

gerungen* 

geftblungen. 

gef$i9ungen* 

gelungen. 

gedrungen. 

gelungen. 

gefunfen. 

gefiunfen. 

getrunlen* 

begonnen. 

gewonnen. 

geronnen* 

gtfonnen* 

gefponnen* 

gefcfytoonunen. 

gefomtnen). 



fpre<ben, 

fletben, 

bref<$en, 

flcrbcn, 

»erberben, 

werben, 

toerben, 

werben, 

bergen, 

berfkn, 

gebären, 

belfen, 

werfen, 

treffen, 

ftafen, 

färetfen, 

fielen, 

befeblen, 

empfehlen, 

nebnten, 

gelten, 

faulten, 



*ra<*, 

fpratb, 

fla<b, 

brafa), 

ftorb, 

berbarb, 

warb, 

warb, 

würbe, 

barg, 

barfr, 

gebar, 

balfr 

warf, 

traf, 

fiatf, 

föratf, 

Ml 

befabl, 

empfabl* 

nabnt, 

aalt, 

Walt 



lad, 

gena$, 

a§, 

fraf, 

mag, 

bergaf, 



gCQCbftt* 

gelefen. 

genefen* 

gegeffen. 

gefreffen* 

gemeffen. 

bergeffen* 



treten, 

feben, 

gef(beben, 

(bitten, 

(liegen, 

(ff&en, 

(fein, 



trat, 

geföab, 
bat 



mar, 



gefpnxben* 

geflogen. 

getroffen* 

gefiorbeu. 

berborben. 

geworben* 

geworben (or 

geworben). 

geborgen. 

geborften. 

geboren. 

gebolfen* 

geworfen« 

getroffen* 

geflogen. 

gef<bro(fen* 

gefloblen* 

befoblen. 

entpfoblen* 

genommen» 

gegolten. 

gef$olteit* 



2. Irregulär verbs of the second class . 



getreten* 
gefeben. 

gefaVb^n* 
gebeten.) 
gelegen.) 
gefeffen.) 
gewefen.) 



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312 



THE VEBB. 



l§ H4. 



3. Irregulär verbs of the third dass: 



boefen. 


baff, 


0CMM*CU* 


fftlaften, 


(Sinn, 


flefelagen* 


fahren, 


tor, 


gefahren. 


tragen, 


trag, 


getragen. 


groben, 


grub, 


gegraben« 


Waffen, 


Wnf, 


geWaffen. 


loben. 


lnb, 


gelaben. 


toadbfen. 


nmdjd, 


genxubfen. 


matjlen, 


(mutf), 


gemahlen» 


toaWen, 


tt)nf<b, 


getoaWen* 




4. Irregulär verbs of the fovrth class : 


fallen, 


fiel, 


gefaflen. 


fassen, 


fing, 


gefangen« 


balten, 


tfett, 


gehalten. 


fangen, 


fing, 


gefangen. 


braten, 


briet, 


gebraten* 


(gc*cn, 


ging, • 


gegangen.) 


rotten, 


rietb, 


geratyen. 


laufen. 


litf, 


gelaufen. 


Wlafcn, 


W«ef, 


geWfofen. 


bauen, 


#cb, . 


gebannt. 


blafen. 


Wie«, 


geblafen. 


flogen, 


(Heg, 


geflogen. 


laffrn, 


iie*, 


gelaffen. 


rufen, 


rief, 


gerufen. 




5. Irregulär verbs of the fifth class . 




belfen, 


m, 




leiben, 


litt. 


gefitten. 


bezeigen, 


um 


befliffen. 


Wneiben, 


Wnitt, 


geWnitten* 


reigen, 


rig, 


geriffen. 


fnetpen, 


rnipp, 


gernippen. 


Wlrifim, 


WUg, 


gef^ltffen. 


bleiben. 


blieb, 


geblieben« 


Wmeigen, 


Mb* 


gefebmiffen. 


reiben, 


rieb, 


gerieben. 


fplet#nt r 


fpUg, 


gefpliffra. 


ftbreiben, 


f(brieb, 


grfdjrieben. 


bleWen, 


Mi*, 


geblidjen 


treiben, 


trieb, 


getrieben. 


gleid)en, 


SM 


geglttben. 


leiten, 


lief, 


gelteren. 


WleW«, 


Wfob, 


gef «blieben. 


föreien, 


Wrie, 


geWrieen* 


ftreid)en, 


fWcfc 


gefrruben* 


fpeien, 


fpie, 


gefpieetu 


torWen, 


toi*, 


getrieften. 


jeiben, 


Stejr 


gejieben. 


greifen, 


(Piff» 


gegriffen. 


gebetyen, 


gebtej, 


gebieben. 


Mfen, 


«ff. 


geHffen. 


meiben. 


tnieb, 


gentieben. 


fnrifett, 


Iniff, 


gefniffen. 


{(beiben, 


Wieb, 


geWleben. 


pfeifen. 


Dfflf, 


gepfiffen. 


preifen, 


pried, 


gepritfen. 


Wleifett, 


WKff, 


geWUffen. 


ttrifen, 


tnied, 


getoiefen. 


gleiten, 


glitt, 


geglitten. 


Wtocigen, 


Wtoteg* 


geWttiegen. 


reiten, 


ritt, 


geritten. 


feigen, 


flieg. 


gefüegen. 


Wreiien, 


Writt, 


gef (brüten* 


Weinen, 


Wien« 


geWtenen 


(breiten, 


frritt, 


gefrritten. 


(beigen, 


*i* 


gebeigen.) 




6. Irregulär verbs < 


>f the sixth dass : 




ajefen, 


flof, 


geapffen. 


lögen, 


log, 


gelogen. 


genlegcn, 


genog, 


genoffen. 


trügen, 


trog, 


getrogen. 


fliegen, 


flog, 


geffoffen. 


Pffegen, 


Pflog, 


gepflogen. 


Wiegen, 


Wog, 


geWoffen. 


beben, 


$ob, 


gehoben. 


WUegeu, 


WU>§, 


geWloffen. 


tteben, 


»ob, 


gewoben. 


fpriegen. 


forog, 


gefproffen. 


f (baren, 


Wor, 


gefroren« 


t&erbriegen, 


»erbrog, 


»erbrofTen. 


gtyrrn, 


gofyr, 


gegoren. 


Hieben, 


Hob, 


gefloben. 


Wtoären, 


Wtoor, 


gef (boren. 


Weben, 


Wob, 


gef<boben. 


loggen, 


toog, 

Digitized b 


getoogen. 

/GooqIc 



§ 144.] 



IRREGULÄR TERBS. 



313 



Wniebcn, 


Wnob, 


gefänoben. 


bemegen, 


bemog, 


betoogen. 


(Heben, 


(lob, 


gefloben. 


festen, 


fO$t, 


gefönten. 


Metra, 


bot, 


geboten. 


flehten, 


flo^t, 


geflößten. 


fleben, 


fott, 


gefotten. 


metfen, 


molf, 


gemotfen. 


biegen, 


bog, 


gebogen. 


fü)melaen, 


fömotg, 


gefömotjen. 


fliegen, 


flog, 


geflogen. 


fömellen 


fämott, 


gefömoHen. 


»legen, 


»Ofl, 


gewogen. 


oueDen, 


quoll, 


gequollen. 


frieden, 


fron), 


getrogen. 


fd&allen. 


fa)ofl, 


geföotten. 


rieben, 


ro<b, 


gero$en. 


foufen, 


foff, 


gefoffen. 


fliegen, 


M, 


geflogen. 


fangen, 


fog, 


gefogen. 


Stefan, 


m> 


gebogen. 


fa)ranben, 


fd)rob, 


gefa)roben. 


frieren, 


fror, 


gefroren. 


f^mören, 


fämor, 


gefämoren. 


»errieten, 


»erlor, 


verloren. 


ertbfa>n, 


erlofd), 


erlof^en. 


triefen, 


troff, 


getroffen. 


(bingen, 


bnng, 


gebungen.) 


flimmen, 


flomm, 


geflommen. 


(fa)inben, 


febunb, 


gefebunben.) 


glimmen, 


glomm, 


geglommen. 


(Wen, 


ftanb, 


geftanben.) 


beflemmen, 


beflomra, 


benommen. 


(n)nn, 


t$at, 


gefyan.) 




7. Irregulär verbs of the seventh das* 


r; 


Qdbctt, 


fjattt, 


gehabt. 


bfittgat, 


brachte, 


gebrädjt. 


foDen, 


follte, 


gefoflt. 


beulen, 


baä)te. 


gebaut. 


tooüra, 


»oute, 


gewollt. 


brennen, 


brannte, 


gebrannt. 


tonnen, 


tonnte, 


getonnt. 


lennen, 


tonnte, 


gefannt. 


mdgen, 


mwfye, 


gemocht. 


nennen, 


nannte, 


genannt. 


bürfen. 


bnrfte, 


geburfi 


rennen, 


rannte, 


gerannt. 


muffen, 


mujte, 


gemn§t* 


fenben, 


fanbte, 


gefanbt 


toiffen, 


»ugte, 


* gemufft. 


menbtn, 


maubte, 


gemaubt. 



Bern, 1. To avoid the necessity of multiplying the classes, the verbs tom* 
men, bitten, liegen, fifeen, fein, gefan, (eigen, bingen, föinben, gefcen, tyun, are 
placed ander those of the above seven classes, where, by the analogy of vo- 
cal changes in forming the prineipal parte, they seem most appropriately to 
belong. 

Rem. 2. The simple verbs from which the Compound verbs given in the 
above list (Beitraten, Be*ffcif?en, beklemmen, belegen, em)>»fe(len, er4öfä)en, 
gelingen, geahnten, gebären, ge-nefen, ge*f$e$en, ge*bei&en, genießen, toer* 
berben, &er*gcffcn,t>et*bricf3en, t>et4ieren) are derived, are now either antiqua- 
ted, or provincial (as toimittt), or are entirely obsolete (a* O.-G. nesan). 

Rem. 8. Some of the irregulär verbs are also nsed as regulär in the wholo 
conjugation (as tofcttt, brottn) or in part of the conjugation (as fa ttiCtt, gäfc 

reu). 

Rem. 4. Many of the German verbs are allied to words in othor branches 
of the Indo-European languages, as the Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit. 

Rem. 5. For these and other features of the individual verbs, see the notes 
to the following alphabetical list of irregulär verbs: 

o 



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314 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



§ 145. Alphabetical List 



No.qf\ 
Clas*. I 



Present Infinitive. 



2d and 3rf Pera. Sing. 
c/Prueni IndicaL 



Tmper/ect 



8. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
5. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
2. 
4. 
5. 
5. 
4. 
1. 
7. 
7. 
7. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
7. 
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
4. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
2. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
2. 
6. 
4. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
6. 
2. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
6. 



ttacfett, 1 to bake. 
©efeblen,* to command. 
33eflei§en, to apply. 
©eainnen, 3 to begin. 
©eigen, to bite. 

* ©eflemmen, to press. 

* ©eraen, 4 to oonoeal. 

* ©erfien, to barst 

* ©eweaett, 4 to indacc. 
©iegen,* to bend. 
Steten, to bid. 
©tnben, to bind, 
©ttten, to bog. 
©lafen, 7 to blow. 
©leiben, 8 to remain. 
g3Ieid>m, # to fade. 
©raten, to roast. 
©redjen, 10 to break, 
©rennen, to burn. 
©ringen, to bring. 

* Ttnftn, to think. 
Dinaen, to hlre. 
Drefoen, 11 to thrash. 
Dringen, to press. 
Dürfen, to be permitted, 
&mpftt)ltn, to recommend 
effen, ia toeat. 
Wahren, to ride. 

lauen, to fall. 

angen, l4 to catch. 

t$ten, to fight. 

inben, to find. 

legten, 1 * to braid. 

liegen, to fly. 

liegen, to flee. 

liegen, I$ to flow. 
effen, l7 to devour. 
leren, 18 to freeie. 
©Äfjwtt, to ferment. 
©ebdren, to bear. 
©eben, to give. 
®ebeiben, to thrive. 
©eben, to go. 
©einigen, 1 *to sncceeu 
(Gelten, to be worth. 
©enefen, to recover. 
©ente&en, to ergoy. 
©efebeben, 1 * to happen. 
©enrtiraen, 80 to win. 
©teßen," to pour. 
©letzen, " to resemble. 
©leiten," to glide. 



bäcTf», bäcTt, 

*ftebljl *fte$U, 
[not given wken 
formed 
tvgtUarly.] 

bir|teft, Wrj 



btrat. 



bldfefl bldf(e)t, 



»brdtfl brdt, 
br«b(t, bricht, 



brif<be(t, briföt, 



(i(b borf ), barfft barf, 

Welt i§t, 
fa&rfr, m*t, 

fdUfl, fdttt, 
fdngft, fangt, 
ft$t(e)ft ftcfrt, 

ftt$t(e)ft,fa(bt(et), 



friffejt frt&t, 



*biere(l, »biert, 
giebfl giebt, 



giltfl gilt, 



gefdnebt, 



btitc, 

beföhle, 

befltffe, 

bead(orB)nnc 

bifie, 

beKemmete, 

bärge, 

bd(5)rfte, 

befoöge, 

böge, 

böte, 

bdnbe, 

bdte, 

Miefe, 

bliebe, 

bliebe, 

briete, 

brd$e, 

brennete, 

braute, 

b&cfcte, 

bünge, 

brd(b)f(be, 

brd(ü)nge, 

bfirfte, 

tmpfätyU, 

die, 

"ele, 
tage, 
. )te, 
dnbe, 

öd>te, 

öge, 

öbe, 

I: 

öre, 

gebdre, 

gdbe, 

gebiete, 

fiteae, 

gelange, 

gdlte, 

gendfe, 

genöffe, 

flefcbdbe, 

gen>dnne, 

Söffe, 

gli*e, 

glitte, 



• The asterisk indteates that the whole verb (or tbo 



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§ 145.] 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



315 



of the Irregulär Verbs. 



Imperative 
MoodL 



barfe, 

beftebt, 

beflei§e, 

beginne, 

bet§, 

betlemme, 

birg, 

birjt, 

bewege, 

birg(e), 

birt(e), 

blnbe, 

Mite, 

btaf(e), 

bteib(e), I 

bleibt, 

brat(e), 

brty, 

brenne, 

bring(e), 

feenfe, 

bina, 

brif$, 

bring(e), 

empfehle, 

fa*r(e), 

Wl(e), 

fa»8(e), 

fe), 

nubt, 

flieg, 

flicE(e), 

flte§(e), 

frUe), 

gä&r(0* 

gebier, 

gieb, 

gebetKe), 

ge$e, 

(toanting), 

gilt 

genefe, 

genieg(e), 

{toanting), 

gewinne, 
gie§(r), 
gleit*, 
gleite, 



I\rfrrt 



Rtmarks. 



geborten. 

befehlen. 

&tfliffeB« 

bca^micn, 

flrbiffcn. 

bcllnimun. 

flfbMrtcn. 

flt&OfJKlI- 

QrHgrn. 
gebeten. 
gcbttabtU, 

B«b!atati, 
jebticMit, 
gebifofreii, 

Qf braten. 

LKbTCitlCtl. 

gebrannt, 
jje&ra*t. 

gebändelt. 

grtaafötn, 

gebrn-nficn. 

gcturfL 

trapfohlt-n. 

gra^ltn. 1 * 

geiahren, 

gefallen, 

grfait.u-n. 

gefofrirn- 

geFutiNn. 

flcfleijtn. 
ffjojflU 

ßrfl^Ktl- 
gffrcifrn, 
gefaßten* 

qi'iiiijirtu. 

gigebriL 
getuto. 
gegangen. 

o.d-m-.^;i. 
flesoltm* 

gCnCKil. 

grnpfU'it. 

gefa^cn. 

gewonnen. 

gegoffen. 

gealld&en. 

gelitten. 



Jtem. 1. The following verbs in tho sixth class, biegen, 
Meten, fliegen, fliegen, fliegen, aeniefen, aiejjen, frieeben, lüaen, 
ftNiegtR» ftriegen, triefen, »erbrie&en, jte^en, formerly had 
luirttllel forma in tu in the 2d and 8d per», sing, of the 
['i<ir. jad.» and in the imperative (as bu betttft, er beut; 
bent) ; i ' :• » forma are now only used in poetry. 

Jfem. 2. Final e of the imperative of some verbs, as bic* 

», bitten, blaff», is dropped by some writero. 

JfejH, 3. Borne verbs (as berften, ferefdjten» etc.) have two * 
or mora farms in the imperfect indicative or subjunetive. 



Memoria on the Individual Verb*. 
1 Warfen is also regulär except in participle; it is allied 

to Gr. . wy uv, to roasty and Latin fociu(aflreplace). 
1 Fi rat appeared in the 15th Century; from Gothic filhan, 
3 From O.-G. kinan, to yawn, open, [O.-G. felahan. 

* From bergen are derived ber 8crg,bie ©urg. 

* Regulär when meaning "to move from a place." 

* Allied to Sans, bhug, Gr. gstfytur, Lat. fugere ; from it 
are den red Sogen, bow; 33ud)t, bight (and the French 
banger ^ English budge). 

7 ■ 'üMi j':ir-i English blast, bleue. 

9 Related to Gr. Xiittuv, Lat. Unquere; comp. Eng. leave. 

9 Tho derivative bleiben, to Ueach, is regulär. 

Q Allted to Lat. frangere, Gr. pnypvfu. 

1 .-: ■ j--j©8 used as regulär, except in the participle. 

3 jVi ,-G, i %n,0.-G.ifcm, Ang.-Sax. *ton,Eng. eai (allied to 
Lat. *,Gr. ttttv, Sans.ad,Kelt. Uh) ; comp. Eng. eich. 

II In the 16th cent., the participle was formed regularly, 
oeefren i.yet existing in some dialects); this was con- 
tmeted aeffen; in the I7th cent. another ge* was added 
by faiso analogy, hence the doublo preflx in gegeffen. 

* Comp. Eng. fang (and the obsolete verb tofang). 

15 Allied to Lat. plectere (plicare), Gr. ttXUilv; from the 

root of : eckten comes also %lad^,ßax. 
[ * From the same ultimate root (beginning irithfl) as flie» 

ßen- flicken, etc. ; allied to Lat. flnere (pluere\ ßuvium 

(ptitviiun\ Gr. irXvviiv (to wasJi), Sans, plu (toflow). 

From flicken comes 9M (compare English /ow). 
17 Contraoted from oerstffen. 

III Tho original • (friefen) is yet preserved in some dia- 
lects | it appears in 9tofl. 

19 Only M-)d in the third person (ed gelingt etc.). 
80 The simple form (M.-G. winnen, O.-G. winnan) is obso- 
91 Allied to Gr. \vu» t topour. [lote. 

" From gleid», a oontraction of g'lefat (from lih, Uke). 
** From the same root comes glatt (tmooth) ; and En- 



part to which it ls attached) is also conjagated regiilarly. 



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316 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



Alphabetical List of the 



No.4f 
Class. 



Pretent Infinitive, 



2d and 3d Fers. Hing, i Imper/eet 
c/Preeenl IndieaL 1 Jndicative. 



Imper/eet 
Subfunctive. 



6. 
8. 
5. 
7. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
6. 
5. 
1. 
6. 
7. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
5. 
5. 
1. 
7. 
6. 
8. 
4. 
4. 
5. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
6. 
6. 
8. 
5. 
6. 
2. 
7. 
7. 
1. 
-7. 
5. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
6. 
7. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
4. 
6. 
6. 
8. 
6. 



* ©limmen, 1 to glimmer, 
©roben,* to dig. 
©reifen, to grasp. 
Qabtn, 3 to have. 
galten, 4 to hold, 
fangen, to hang. 

* $ouen, f to hew. 
$eben,' to heave, lift. 
$>fif tn, to oommand. 
helfen, 7 to holp. 

* Ärifen, to ohide. 
flennen,* to know. 

* JtUeben, 9 to cleave. 
Ätimmen, to climb. 
Jflinaen, 10 to soand. 

Ä»! topSnch - 

kommen, to oome. 
Äonncn, 1 * to be ablo (can). 
Äriefen, to oreep. 
«oben, 13 to load. 
gaffen, to lot. 
Saufen, 14 to run. 
ßeiben, to suffer. 
Seiten, to loan. 
Öefen, to read. 
Siegen, 1 * tolie. 
♦Söffen, 18 to extinguiah. 
Süden, to lie. 

* Wta^ltUf 17 to grind. 
3Weiben, to avoid. 
*3Welfen, l8 tomilk. 
SWcffen/^tomeasure. 
SW&oen, "• to bo permitted. 
aRüffen, to be obliged. 
Rcftmcn,* 1 to take. 
kennen, 81 to name. 
Weifen," to whisüe. 
*9>ffegen, tocherisb. 
ffreifen," to praise. 
Queüen,* 4, to spring forth 
natfytn, to advise. 
Reiben, to rub. 
0tei§en," to tear. 
leiten, 81 to ride. 
kennen, to run. 
9tfefen,* 7 to smell. 
Strogen, 88 to wrestle. 
Sfrranen, 8 * to run. 
ötofen, to call. 
kaufen, 3 * to soak. 

* Sangen, 31 to sack. 

* ®^°5 ctt ' 38 *° oreat0 * 
lett, 83 to resound. 



grdbfl gräbt, 



bältft, baU 
fängft, fangt, 



Wft Wt 



(i^ tonn), fannjl, tarnt, 
läbf», labt,* 

im w&t, 

laufft, läuft 



ßefefl, lieft. 



Offen, liffe, 



milteft, miVtft, 

miffeft, mi§t, 
(t<& maa), magjt, ntaa, 
(t(9 mul), mu|t, muf, 

nirarafl, nimmt, 



qniCIft, «wißt, 
tätlffk, t&tlf. 



fSnfft, fauft, 



grub, 
griff, 
fcatte, 

lielt 

9: 

>ob, 

>alf, 
«ff, 

tannte, 

tlob, 

Homm, 

» 

tntpp, 

!am, 

tonnte, 

tnxfc 

Infc,* 

lief, 

lief, 

litt 

m, 

lad, 

laa, 

lof*, 

log, 

ma&ltt, 

ntfeb, 

motf, 

mafj, 

ntodjte, 

ntufjte, 



nannte, 
Pfiff» 

PflOJr 

quotL, 
tittfy, 

rieb, 
rifc 
ritt, 
rannte, 

T0<&, 

rang, 

rann, 

rief, 

foff, 

fog, 

ffeif, 

ffell, 



glömme, 

grübe, 

gegriffen, 

hielte,' 

hinge, 

webe, 

$öbe, 

tiefe, 

fafe, 

*ffe, 

tennete, 

Höbe, 

tlömme, 

TWnge, 

tntfie, 

ttn>pe, 

Tarne, 

tonnte, 

tröfe, 

lübt, 

liefe, 

liefe, 

litte, 

ttefr. 

Uff, 

Ifoe, 

löffe, 

löge, 

mattete, 

miebe, 

mölte, 

mäfje, 

möfee, 

müßte, 



nennete, 
Pffffo 

22? 

prteK, 

quölle* 

rietfte, 

riebe, 
riffe, 
ntte, 
r erntete, 

röfe, 

Tange, 
r$(o)nne, 
riefe, 
f©ff«# 

Ä, 
faölle, 



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§ 145.] 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



317 



Irregulär Verbs (continued). 



Imperative 
Mood. 



Per/ect 
Participle, 



JRemarke. 



glimme, 
grober 
greife, 
Höbe, 

Jolt(e), 
tona(e), 
bau(e), 
Jette), 

Um 
m 

M««), 

fenne, 

ffleb(e), 

flimme, 

flinke, 

fneite, 

fneipe, 

fomm(e), 

(wanting), 

friede), 

Iob(e), 

w. 

Iauf(e), 

leib(e), 

mit), 

lie$, 

liege, 

Ufa, 

löge, 

«oftle, 

meib(e), 

milf, 

mi§, 

(leanting), 
it 

nimm, 

nenne, 

*frtf(0* 
Pflcße, 
preif(e), 
quid, 
rotfye, 
reib(e), 
retjj(e), 
reit(e), 
renne, 
rte#(e), 
ring(e), 
rinn(e), 
ruf(e), 
fouf(e), 
aua/e), 

mit), 

<fcaUe, 



geglommen. 
geßTatcn. 

gegriffen. 

gehabt* 

gektttm* 

gehiiuu'ii. 

getemäk* 

geigfcg- 

geKtem. 

geboten, 

geiffint, 

gefonnt. 

gefloben. 

gellommen. 

gellungen. 

gefniffen. 

gefmppen. 

gefommen. 

gefonnt. 

gefroren. 

geloben. 

gelaffen. 

gelaufen. 

gelitten. 

geliehen. 

gelefen. 

geleaen. 

geloföen. 

gelogen. 

gentaftlen. 

gemieden. 

gemolfen. 

gemeffen. 

gemocht. 

gemufjt. 

genommen« 

genannt. 

gepfiffen, 

gepflogen. 

gepriefen. 

gequollen. 

gerafften. 

gerieben. 

geriffen. 

geritten. 

* gerannt 

gero^en. 

gerungen* 

geronnen. 

gerufen. 

gtfoffen. 

gefogen. 

geföaffen. 

gegolten. 



glish glad (tsmooih, bright) and glade, opening in Vu 

tooods. 
1 The provincial glum, glumig, Eng. gloom, gloomy, glum 

(and Anglo-Saxon gtöm, twüight), are from the same 

root as glimmen, to glimmer. 
9 Allied to Gr. ypd<ptu>, to vnrüe; from groben are de- 

rived bai<3vdb,grave; ber Groben, ditch; bit (Stube, pit. 

3 Hence bie$obe, potteuion; ber $ofen, Aaren; fmnbfrobcn 

4 From (alten is the interjeetion Mt! halt/ stopf [is reg. 

5 Hence bie $aefe, hoe; bat $eu, hay ; ber $Icb, blow. 
• Henoe ber $ebel, teuer; ber Qobel, plane. 

7 Hence $elfer*$elfer ; bie$ilfe, ftilflo*, beftolftn, etc. 

8 Allied to Lat. genui ; Gr. yiwäv. 

8 Mostly provincial. From Hieben are dorivod ber Jtfof 
bm,puUey; bit ftluft, ätfl; bie Stlu^t, pincers. 

10 Allied to, if not der. from Lat. dangere (Gr. KXäyytiv). 

11 Jhteffen has c6me into the High-German from the Up- 
per-German, fneipen from the Lower-German dialccts. 

13 Allied to fennen. From the same root are runb, bie 
Jhinft, ba* ftinb, ber ädrig. 

13 £oben, to invite, is regulär, is from a different root, and 

14 Compare English foqp, lope. [is allied to Gr. KaXiiv. 

15 Henoe legen, to lag ; bie £oge, site ; bo* £oger, the camp. 
1 • Now used mostly in Compounds. 

17 SRoftlen is regulär exoept in the participle. The im. 
perf. is reg. in the N.-G. The irreg. form raufjl (from 
M.-G. muoC) is now only provincial. 

18 Now generally regulär. From the same root are bie 
flffild), mük, and bie WtoVtt, tehey. 

Hence bo» Stoff, measure. Steffen is allied to Sans. 
md; Gr. \xL<rpov; Lat. nietritm (meter), from metire (to 
meeuure) ; also to Lat. modus. Compare English mete. 

80 From mögen are möglich, possible; bie flRadjt, mfyAl. 

81 Reimen and nennen are from the same ultimate root 
as ber Raine, name (allied to Lat. nomen; Gr. ovofia; 
Slav. irnja; Sans. n<fman). 

88 Not found before Mid.-Ger. ; den red from Latin pi~ 

pare (topeep [said of birds], in Low Latin to whistle). 
81 From Low Latin preeiare (from Latin pretium, price). 
34 (Sinoueflen is regulär. 

83 Henoe ber Reij, charm; ber Riff, rent; bie Rf $e, r£/l. 

84 Oereften, to ride over, is regulär (not to be confounded 
with bereiten, to prepare — from bereit, ready). 

87 From rieben come ber ©mtd>, odor; ber Raud», «wok 

88 From ber Ring; it signifies also to wring (doihes). 

89 As of fluids. Hence rennen, to ran; bie Rinne, gutler. 

30 Hence bie ®uppe, soup; compare English sop. 

31 Allied to Latin vagere (to such) and saeeus Quice). 

33 With other significations, fdjaffen is regulär. From it 
is derived fdtfpftn, to creato ; compare English shape. 

33 Hence bie &d>e(le, a «ma# oe#, and ber ®4>ttUng, «M- 
Jm^ (tounding mctal). 



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318 



THE VERB. 



[§ 145. 



Alphabetical List oft he 



No.of\ 
Class.l 



Pretent Infinitive. 



6. 
5. 
1. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
6. 
4. 
8. 
5. 
5. 
5. 
1. 
5. 
6. 
5. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
5. 
6. 
5. 
6. 
5. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
6. 
2. 
2. 
7. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
7. 
5. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
4. 
5. 



Sd^tt^n, 1 to separate. 
Sitancti, to appear. 
Sdu'Uu: ' > >cold. 
©.tt-rcit, 3 to shear. 
Sdütbeiii 3 toshove. 
Sdni <\ :i. to shoot. 
Sofofttt,* to flay. 
S n. io eleep. 
S&Mftt» 1 to strike. 
(Sdjlttitnir to sneak. 

* ^itlciff it,' to whet. 
*©<filfi$rB#' to slit. 
S-tluntiu to swallow. 
Sdjmriji™, to smite. 
♦todwndjien^to melt. 
S-Antiben. to cut. 
Sd)ii u b . -.i ■ to snort. 

* Trauben, to screw. 
*<£Ati:ifi-Ti. , *to frighten 
<5ifcrcibi:nH 11 to write. 
Skelett« to cry. 
SdjreilFtt, to itride. 
S&i&ftrfjj, to fester. 
©d'ivii.vn, to bo silent. 
©. Im LuUnt r 31 toswell, 
©itunnnju-ii* ** to swim. 
Sܻittbf (U** to disappear 
Sd>ivm r iciT> l> to swing. 
©ifcnurcrt,' 1 to swoar. 
SÄf»* M to see. 

Sau, ' ' Up bo. 

* Senben, to send. 
Sieben, to seethe, boil. 
Singen, to sing. 
Stnfen, to sink. 
(Binnen, to muse. 
Stfcen, l, to sit. 
«Sollen, to be obligod. 
Speien, to spit. 
Spinnen," to spin. 
Splet&en," to split. 
Spreeben," to speak. 
Sprie&en," to sprout 
Springen," to spring. 
Stehen," to stick. 

* (Steifen," to stick. 
Stehen,* 7 to stand. 
Stilen, to steal. 
Steigen* to mount. 
Sterben,** to die. 
Stieben," to fly (as dost) 
Stinfen, to stink. 
Sto§en, to hit. 
Streiken, to stroko. 



%i niul \.ui fvr*. Sing* 






\mm t mit, 

frfcifrfl föfcrt 



[djtäüi, mm 

fAiägjl djtaat* 



fdjmtlstlMAnüWOI* 



Fdjritf(l förieftv 



frfwiQjl, f^TOiUt, 



{[$ bin), bi}\ tjl, 



(i<$ fod), W< ML 



frridjft, fori(H 



fltofl, fftfct 



fik&ift, ftic^Ur 



ftirbfl ffcrtt, 



fioBtft ft«Pc!r 



fattb, 

•J'i. .i, 

tdjlicf, 

w 

EME 

fdimolj, 
failttt 

\V,\>:b. 
\ hv h 

Arfcb, 

^rtCp 

cbritL 



ImtJtr/ret 
SnirJUii£tiCC. 



Anumm. 
AttwÄtfc 
dJttJrtfliV 

ab, 

laufctc, 

OÄ 

fang, 

jflnf, 
itflttl* 

|f& 
tcllie, 

fpaun, 

frrefi, 

fadj, 

flaf, 

ftanb 

fhbL 

fc. 

tfatb, 

tob, 

ffanf* 

«, 



Digitized by 



nirfo 

mite* 

[dränta, 

'd»lti^f, 
raäjftff 
; Alt£be, 
Jdrtitff, 

i*Ei(Tf, 
d'-i/. :".'.►'. 
tfrrmftt, 

cfriinr, 
dmcfcf, 
ftbribe. 

töfttH 

i\t : .'. 

fdünc, 
fön>o;r, 

fttTT^iCp 

tetwSnfcr, 
(dn^n^ 
fdwttuirc 
idbr, 

knbätt 

fpnr, 

fange, 

ianne, 

die, 

föütcp 

fpifC 

fpanne, 

jplifi*, 

fpra*e, 

jpröfir, 

fprtinae, 

fi^dn-, 

fldff, 

fldbte, 
hfcaft 

ftilfff T 

tote, 

fWnrc, 

ftrtdjCi 

Google 



§ 145.] 



IRREGULAB VERBS. 



319 



Irregulär Verbs (continued). 



Imperatit 
Mood. 



Per/ect 
ParUeipU. 



Remark$. 



$eibe, 

$rinr , 

djilt, 

cbter, 

cbieKe), 

cbleg(e), 

<pnb(e), 

*laf(e), 

<bleä(e), 
«e«e)r 
Weifte), 
<büna(e), 
*mrt|(e) r 
(brailj, 
(bneiKOr 
d>nieb(e) 
$raub(e), 
«ritt 
(breib(e), 
<brei 
(breite), 
* ftbtoore, 
d>»eige, 
<b»lU, 
(bointmt/ 
<b»tnb(e) 
cbtotnge, 
<b»ör(e), 
le$, 
et, 

enbe, 
ieb(e), 
<fog(e), 

inn(e), 
?*e, 

(iMflänff), 

pdf, 
(»inner 

pleite), 

pn4 

pricg(c), 

prfng(e), 

tt<b, 

tctfe, 

te»e, 

Hebt, 

Ma(e), 

!erbe(e), 

"HfKOr 

ifof(e), 
*o§(e), 
freite), 



gefötcben. 

gefcbtenen. 

gefcbolten. 

gefroren. 

gehoben. 

gecboffeiu 

gecbunben. 

ge^lafen. 

geftblagen. 

gefebfoben. 

gepUffen. 

gefaliffen. 

gejAlnngett. 

gefpmifjen. 

gejcbmoljen. 

ge dritten. 

gefcbnoben. 

ge cbroben. 

ge (brotfeiu 

getbrieben. 

getyrteen. 

ge (brüten. 

gt cbtooren* 

gediegen. 

gef<b»oUen. 

gefcbtooramcn 

gr tytounben. 

gedrungen 

gt (btooren* 

gefeben. 

getoefen. 

gefanbt. 

gr btten. 

gelingen. 

gef unten. 

gefonnen. 

gefeffen. 

gefüllt. 

gefpleen. 

ge ponnen* 

gefpliffen. 

gefprodben. 

ge proffen. 

geforungen. 

gejuxben. 

geflotfen. 

geftonben. 

geflogen. 

gelegen. 

geworben. 

gefloben. 

gefhmfen. 

geftofjm. 

gejWcben. 



1 Regulär as an active yorb; allied to Latin sci{n)do y 
Gr. cryKu», From fcbeiben is derived ber £<feeitcl, top 
ofthenead (where the hair is parted). 

3 From f<btren are We £<fcoar, diviston, troop; bic £<4or, 
{plovgh) share; allied to föorf, «Aarp. 

3 Uenoe We fedrfm (and We £<fcaufct), shoveL 

4 Compare English «Wn. 

* Henoe ber Gglog, Wow; bic fedtfacfct, fattfe; compare 
English «toy. 

* Reg. when meaning totfaa^ äUmg, demolish ; oomp. Eng. 
<Hp; Weifen is allied (in li) to f$let#en, gletd>en, gleiten. 

7 Regulär when intransitive. 

* Henoe bic fedrfangt, snake, 
9 Regulär when active. 
Reg. when trans. ; irreg. when intransitive (to be alann- 

ed) ; more usually employed in Compounds, as erf dpetfen. 
11 From Lat. scribere (to write); henoe WeGcftrift, writing. 
19 Henoe ber etömaO, sweüing (of the sea) ; We ®4ioctlc, 

(door) «ift; ber £d>t»ulft, bombasL 

13 Honoe ber fecfreataai, sponge; ber Gtsmpf, swamp. 

14 Hence We £<bu»inbfu4>t, consumptton. 
" Henoe We fedMBinge, tdnnow. 
11 Henoe ber &<bu>ur, oath. 

Henoe bic eicftt, «tyA*; bot ©efl<*t,/a<*. 
19 See §188 M 
19 Henoe fejeii, to srf; ber Gefiel, chair; ber fei*, mal; 

ber Ca$, seni^nc«. Allied to Latin scdere ; Greek T£uv ; 

Russian efc#et\* Sansorit Md. 

90 Henoe bic epinbel, spindle, distaff; b«# ©efptenfl, yam 
(whatever is spun) j bic ®pinnc, spider; fponncn, tospan. 

91 Henoe ber Flitter, splinter; We spalte, eoiumn, 
99 Henoe bic epracfce» language; ber ^prn<^, ad^fe. 
93 Henoe ber <25proffe, sprout; bic feproffc, round o/ a 

Utdder. 
34 Henoe bic eprinaquefle, spring; ber eprund, /cap, ber 

Utfptung, origin. 
99 Hence ber «tid>, «fa6; ber «tWKl, otcrin; ber fetodKl, 

s«n^ (bic 9to4Ktbeere, gooseberry) ; ba* (Stfi<r # piece; 

ber Ztod, carte; We «tonge, stake; ftaften is allied to 

ftfcfoi, to embroider. 
98 Regulär when transitive; regulär or irregulär when 

intransitive. 

97 Hence ber Staub, eondüion; bic Staube, Aotir; We 
©tott, «fcad; We Stobt, city ; ber Stabe! (Stau), 
«toWe; bec Stoflen, support; ber Stabl# chait; flftaen, 
to euwjort ; fteUen, to place; ftät, «fcady; flet#, cotdinu- 
atty. Stehen is allied to Latin Uare; Greek l<rrajfai; 
Slavio statt ; Sansorit sthd. 

98 Compare English to «tan*. 
|" Henoe ber Staub, dusL 



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320 



THE VERB. 



[§ H5. 



Alphabetical List of the 



No.qf 
CKom. 



Prtmnt InJmiÜm. 



fcf and 3d Ptn. Sing. 
<tf Prtmnt IndicaL 



Imperfect 
IndicatitM. 



Subymtive. 



6. 
«. 
8. 
1. 
6. 
2. 
«. 
1. 
6. 
1. 
6. 
2. 
6. 
8. 
6. 
8. 
«. 
5. 
5. 
7. 
1. 
1. 

1. 
6. 
1- 
7. 
7. 
6. 
«. 
1. 



©träten, to eontest. 
Zfrtsa, 1 to do. 
Zxom,* to carry, 
treffen, to hit. 
frtltat, to drive. 
Irrtrn, to tread. 
Briefen,* to drop. 
arteten, 4 todrink. 
trügen, to deeeire. 

* Starters««,* to spoil. 
Serbriefkn, to vex. 
öeraeffen,* to forget. 
Eueren, 7 to lose. 
Bactfm,' to grow. 
©dam, to weigh. 
fikf^en,* to wash. 

* ©eben, to weare. 
©ehben, 1 * to yield. 
©eifttt, 11 to show. 
♦ffienben^totur». 
©erben, to sae for. 
Serben, 13 to become. 

SBerfen, to throw. 
©tränt, to weigh. 
©inben, to wind. 
©iffttt, 14 to know. 
©ollen, to be willing. 
Sdften, to aecase. 
Sieben, 1 * to draw. 
Strengen, 1 * to force. 



t%«9, tlnrt, 

trdaft träaj 
triffil 



trtttft, tritt 



«bifs*£, *birbt, 

»fltffefi .fliit. 



fhitt, 
t*«t, 

tnta, 

traf; 

trieb, 

trat 

troff, 

tränt 

trog, 



fix Ute* 
t*6tt, 

trage, 

traft, 

niese, 

träte, 

tröffe, 

tränk, 

trüge, 



et»erbro$ 

wraafc 

fterlor, 



efserbroffe, 

oeTaä&e, 

verlöre, 



# w»«^i»# 



»äfebeft itffäfc 



boo, 

»00, 



tötrbjl wirbt, 
»irft toirc, 

totrfft nrirft, 



(f<$ntf&),nKi§t»etfc 
(ia)totü),»UlflttUl, 



ttttj 

»Ol 

toieb« 
uried, 
toanbte, 
»arb, 
ttnrbe(or 
»arb), 
»arf, 
1003, 
toanb, 
tonnte, 
»oute, 
ü*, 

itoang. 



»ebe, 



tniefe, 
tDenbete, 
toürbe, 
toürbe, 

loürfe, 
toöge, 
toanbe, 



tooOtt, 
Itoanae, 



§ 146. Table of endings of Irregulär Verbs. 



Present Tense. 


Imperfect Tense. \ 




Indtc. 


S«#. 


Itnperat. 


Indicative. 


Svbjn*etive. 


1 Pers. Sing. 

2 Pers. Sing. 
8 Pers. Sing. 

1 Pers. Plnr. 

2 Pers. Plnr. 
8 Pers. Plor. 


*e, »t, 
•efi, *% 
•et, 4, 

•en, *en, 
-tt, 4, 
•en, ^tt, 


•Ctt, 
*ftt, 


9 t 
9 

«, 

•en,«en, 
•et, *t, 
•en, *en. 


— , *te, 
-Pf *teft, 
— , -tc, 

•en, *ten, 
•t, •tet, 
•en, *ten, 


*, 'te, 
•ft, *tcfi, 
•et, «te, 

•en, *ten, 
•et, *tet, 
•cn, *ten. 


Infinit. *en, *n. || Pres. Part. *cnb r *nb. |i Per/. Part, ge— en, ge— t. | 



Bern. 1. The t is dropped from the terminations s$f|, and «et of the second 
and third person Singular of the present indicative, when the radical vowel is 
changed (e to i or ic; or Ü to ff): t* fyttge, tat fotidtf, CT foriflt 



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§ 146.] 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



321 



Irregnlar Verbs (continned). 



mperi 
Mo* 



lood. 



frreit(e), 
tkut, 

T* 

freib(e), 

tritt 

triefte), 

ninf(e), 

trage, 

»erbtet, 

(otoobfe), 

»ergifj, 

»erüere, 

«MK*fr, 

wfiae, 

wafae, 

webe, 

wei$(e), 

weife, 

wenbe, 

töirb, 

»erbe, 

wirf, 

wiege, 

wfaoe, 

»iffe, 

wolle, 

S*U>e, 

jwtnge, 



Per/ect 
Purticiple. 



gejhitten. 

getrau. 

getragen. 

getroffen. 

Öftrieben. 

getreten. 

getroffen. 

getrunfen. 

getrogen. 

oerborben. 

»wrbroffen 

»ergeffen. 

verloren. 



gewoaen. 

gewafaen. 

♦gewoben. 

gewid)en. 

gewiefen. 

gewanbt. 

geworben. 

geworben« 

geworfen. 

gewogen. 

gewunben. 

gewuft. 

gewollt. 

getieften. 

gesogen. 

gezwungen. 



Remarka. 



1 ^S^t *%$' ?"*>' ** Wter ' doer >' **«* ****; 

tt)nnUd),fe<mble. In many dioleeU t&mt is used as auxilia- 

ry, as in English : <gr tftotttfcftt tommtn, hedidnot come. 
8 Henoo feie Xrad>t, costume, and bot (Betreibe, mtrtn. Tho 

derivative verbs beantragen, and beauftragen (from ber 

Slntrag and ber SCuftrag) are regulär. 
3 Henoe bic Ironfc, erot^A ; ber Zropfen, efcip. [efrunfc?«. 

♦ Henoe ber fernst , drink ; «ttinltn, to drown ; betrtmren, 

* Tho simple verb berben is yet used in tho Bavar. dialeot. 

• Compare the English verb get. 

7 The original • of »ertteren (Goth. froliusan ; O.-G./ar- 
liotan ; M.-G. verliefen ; N.-G. vertieren) appears in tho 
adjeetive Io#, loose; and tho noun ber Skrlnft, lost. 

6 Compare the English verb to teax (and wme). 

• Hence bie flB£f4x, washing. 

10 Henoe «*id>, wo* (whenco weiften [reg.], to soften). 

11 From the adjeetive weife, wto. 

1 » Henoe bic flBanb, vwß ; tat Oewattb, raiment; groatiM, 
dexterovs; bie £eim»anb, toten; bie »tobe, windlet**; 
venben, to <«m / ttxmbern, to wander; bie flBttnbe, iMmnd. 

13 Allied to Latin vertere, and to *Ȋrtt (English -toartf). 

14 Allied to Lat. vfefer«; Gr. Wtlir; Sans. wW. From wiffen 
are derived flenrfft, eertain; bo* Geififfett, conseience; 
bie SBiffettfftafr, aeienee; ber IBi*, tott. 

* Henoe ber Sttfl, drq/t, train; ber SOgel, rein«, &rtcfl*; 
bic 3ud>t, rearing ; stufen, to jer& ; i&f en, to draw (a# a 
tword); entifUfett, to charm; ber $er*og (ber mit bem 
$eere airtjfcfct = $eerfüyrer), duke. [mal*). 

• Henee>er gwowg, violenee; ber Swingtr, ea^e (fbr ani- 



(Endinqs of Ibreoulab Verbs — continued). 
Exe. The t is usually retained in stft, when the radical syllable ends in »$, 

*h *ff, *Wf *S : as ifl ief e, Im liefet er liefU 

Rem. 2. The fall forms «fft and *tt must be used in the indicative when the 
stem ends in b ort. With other verbs also the füll forms are Otiten used. 

Rem. 3. The t is dropped from the imperative of all yerbs that in that 
mood change the radical vowel t to i or ei: in/, ttt^tttttt ; imp. uiVML 

Rem. 4. Some of the best German grammarians prefer that the final st 
should always be dropped from the imperative of many verbs that do not 
change the radical vowel. But the general usage is in favor of its retention, 
though it is often dropped in poetry. 

Rem. 5. The t of sttt and *OÜ> can only be dropped when these endings 
foUow a vowel or a silent ( : t>tx9fi*f gtMit. 

02 



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322 



THE VERB. 



[§ 147. 



§ 147. Conjugation of the Irregulär Verb fdjlagen, to 
strike (having \fObtli for its auxiliary) : 
Principal Parts: fdjlagen, föfafl, ge=fdjlag=en- 

INDICATTVE MOOD. ßUBJUNCITVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



tdj Wü^st, I strike. 
bu fdjtöö-ft, thou strikest. 
er f4täg«t, he strikes. 
fair f d) l a g * tVL, we strike. 
ifcr f$tag*t, you strike. 
fie f d} l a g * eil, they strike. 



i* Mlag*t, I strike.« 
bu j$tag*eß, thou strikest. 
er f$Iag*e, he strikes. 
fair fdjtag*cu, we strike. 
tyr \6)\aQ*tt, yoa strike. 
fie f<$lag*tll, they strike. 



Imperfect Tense, 



*$ MJfofo I strack, 

bu (djlng^jl, thoa struckest 
er fdjfag, he strack, 

fair fd>lug*eu, we Struck, 
tyr f c^ 1 u fl * t f you Struck, 
fie fc^tu 0* e», they strack. 



tc^ fdjliigse, I strack, 
bu f d) l ü g * tfl/ thoa struckest. 
er j(^IÜg*C, he Struck, 
fair f$Iüg*fit, we strack, 
t&r f$tüg*et, yoa strack. 
fie f(tylflg*eu, they strack. 



Per/ect Tense. 



I have strack, etc. 

xäf f)Qb* geWageu« 

bu fcaft gefdjUgen. 

er )at gef$tagen. 

fair ^ab*en gefctytageu. 

ibr i)ab<t gefctytagen. 

fie i)ab*tu gef^tagen. 



I have strack, etc. 

t$ f)ab*t geWagen« 

bu $ab*eftgef(tylageiu 
er fyab*e gef^Ugen. 
fair tyab*eil gej^IogeiL 
tyr $ab*et gefcbtagen. 
fte *$ab*at geflogen. 



Pltq>erfect Tense. 



I had strack, etc. 

ity JjaMe gefdjfageit» 
bu $at*tefl gefd>lagen. 
er $at*te geflogen, 
fair tyat'tett gefd&tageiu 
tyr &at*tct geflogen, 
fie ^at*ten gefdjtagen. 



I shall strike, etc. 

i$ toerb^e Wagen, 
bu toirft (plagen, 
er toirb fotogen, 

fair faerb*eu fdjlagen. 
ibr faerb*et fctytagen. 
fte faerb*en fragen. 



I had strack, etc. 

i$ tftte gefdjfagen* 
bu Ht^tCft gefc^UgeiL 
er $fit*te genügen, 
fair $fit*teu gefdjlagen. 
tbr i)ät*ttt geflogen, 
fte $fit*tett gef^lagem 
First Futore Tense. 

I shall strike, etc. 

i$ »erb*c Wagen* 
bu faerb*eji fragen. 
er faerb*e fc^lagen. 
fair faerb*en fragen, 
ibr faerb*et {plagen, 
fte faerb*ett Wage«. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 147.1 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



323 



Second Futur e Tense, 



I shall have strack, etc. 

iäf totrb>e gewogen laben* 
bu toirft gefä>fogeu laben* 
er toirb gefä)tagcu laben» 
nrir n>erb*en gefä>tagen laben» 
tyr u>erb*et getragen laben» 
fie to erb* eil gefälagen laben. 



I shall have Struck, etc. 

\$ toerb-e geWagen laben» 
bu tocrb*e|lgcf^lagcn laben» 
er n>crb*e geflogen laben« 
urir n> c r b * en getragen laben* 
tyr n>erb*et geflogen laben» 
fie »erbten gef plagen laben« 



OONDmONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I would or should strike, etc. 

\äi toBrb^e Wagen, or \$ f4ltig«e (imperf. s*bj.). 

bu n>ürb*eft fragen, " bu td>tttg*ef* 

er n>ürb*e fragen, " er fä)Iüg*e 

unr n>ürb*en Wagen, " n>ir |^Iüg*en 

ü)r n>ürb*et fragen, " tyr fä)lflg*et 

fie tt>firb*en fragen, " fie f(|tfig*en 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or 8hould have strack, etc. 

io> toBrb*e gefangen beben, or iä) tyfrte gefdlagen(P/. &*#.;. 

bu n>firb*efl gefälageu laben, " bu $ät*teftgefä)fagen 

er n>ürb*e gefölageu laben, " er &ät*te getragen 

»tr n>ürb»en gefäiageu laben, " nrir &fit-tengefä)lagcn 

tljr n>ttrb*et gef plagen laben, " U)r $ät*tet gefä)lagen 

fie toürb*en gefölagen laben, " fie Ht*fcttgefä)fogen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



\6fia$*t (bu), strike thou. 
fu)(ag*e er, let him strike. 



f(|lag*en totr, let us strike. 
f <|lag*et (t&r), strike you. 
Wag«en fie, let them strike. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Pres. f(fyfog*en, to strike. 



Pvf. geWagen laben, to have 

strack. 



PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. f(|tag*ei!b, striking. | Per/. geflogen, Struck. 



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324 



THE VERB. 



[§ H8. 



§ 148. Conjugation of the Irregulär Verb tommen, to 
come (having feilt for its auxiliary) : 

Principal Parts: lommcit, Um, fletommeit* 

INDICATIVE MOOD. ßüBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



t$ tomm^e, I come. 
bu tomnwft, thou comest 
er tomnwi, he comes. 
toir tomm-ttt, we come. 
ü)r tomm*i, you come. 
fie 10111111*0»/ they come. 



i$ tomm«e, I come.* 
bu tomm-elt, thoa comest 
er tomm*tt, he comes. 
toir t o m m * eil, we come. 
tyr l omni* et, you come. 
flc lomm*en, they come. 



tä) laut, I came. 
bu tant'fl, thoa camest. 
er fam f he came. 
toir tarn* Ctt, we came. 
«)r tam*t, you came. 
fte tarn* Ctt, they came. 

I have come, etc. 

tc^ (in getommen. 

bu (ifi gclommcn. 

er ift getommen. 

toir finb getommen. 

ü)r feib getommen. 

fie finb getommen. 



Imperfect Tense. 



I had come, etc. 

t$ mar getommen. 
bu toor-ft getommen. 
er toar getommen. 
toir marken getommen. 
tyr toar*i getommen. 
fie mar-e« getommen. 



i$ tönt*, I came. 
bu t & m * tit, thoa camest 
er tftm*e, he came. 
toir t S m * Ctt, we came. 
t&r tarn* Ct f you came. 
fie tfinWtt, they came. 
Perfect Tense. 

I havo come, etc. 

id) fei getommen. 
bu jei*eftgetommen. 
er fei getommen. 
mir fei* ett getommen. 
tyr f c i * et getommen. 
fie fei*en getommen. 
Plvperfect Tense. 

I had come, etc. 

iäf io8r*e getommen. 

bu toär*eft getommen. 
er to8r*e getommen. 
toir tofir*eit getommen. 
ü)r toär*et getommen. 
fie to&r*en getommen. 



First Futwre Tense. 



I shall come, etc. 

ü$ tottbst tommen. 
bu tottft tommen. 
er tetrb tommen. 

toir toerb*at tommen. 
ü)r toerb*et tommen. 
fie toerb*en tommen. 



I shall come, etc. 

i$ &erb*e tommen. 

bu toerb*efl tommen. 
er toerb*e tommen. 
toir toerb«en tommen. 
i&r toerb*et tommen. 
fie toerb*cn tommen. 



* See Sabjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 148.] 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



325 



Second Fuiure Tense, 



I shall have come, etc. 

\ü) tt>erb*e gef ontnten fein* 
tot tDirft gefommen feitt* 
er toirb gefommen fein* 
rotr u>erb*en gefommen fein* 
tyr »erbtet gefommen fein* 
fie »erb »eil gefommen fei«« 



I shall have come, etc. 

i$ toerfce gefommen fein, 
bu n>erb*eft gefommen fein« 
er roerb*e flelommen fein* 
nrir xo erbten flelommen fein« 
u)r »erbtet gefommen feim 
fte to erb* eil gefommen fein« 



iäf toiirfce 

bu ȟrb*eft toramen, 
er roürb-e fommen, 
rotr ȟrb-eu fommen, 
tyr toürb-et fommen, 
fte ftürb*en fommen, 



CONDITTONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I would or shoald come, etc. 

fommen, or ty iöm«e (imper/. Suij.). 



bu tsm*eit 
er t&m*e 
totr ffim*en 
tyr tarntet 
fte länwen 

Perfect Tense. 
I would or should have come, etc. 

i$ tottrb*e gefomuten fei«, or i$ umr^e gefommen (P/. £«&.). 

bu n>ttrb*efl gefommen fein, " bu roär*efl gefommen 

er roürb*e gefommen fein, " er mär* e gefommen 

tt>irroflrb*en gefommen fein, " wir n> 5 r*en gefommen 

u)r roürb-et gefommen fein, " ü)r roär*et gefommen 

fle roürb*en gefommen fein, " fle n>5r»en gefommen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
f Omm-e (bu), come thoa. I f omm-eu roir, let as come. 

lomm-e er, let him come. !ontm4 (tyr), come you. 

I tomnuen fte, let them come. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. Jomnt-en, to come. | Per/. gefOHtHtai fein, to have come. 

TAETICIFLES. 
Pres. lomttUenb, Coming. | Per/, ge!0!tt!tte«, come. 



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326 tue vebb. L§ 149-151. 



5. COMPOUND VERBS. 
C3*fammeigtfc$te ätitttfeter.) 

§ 149. Compound Verbs are formed by prefixing prep- 
ositions, adverbs, nouns, or adjectives to simple verbs. 
They are either Separable or InseparaUe. 

§ 150. With SeparaMe Compound Verbs: 

1. The prefix takes the jprimary accent: 
Sfa^gefcn, to go out Auf «geben, to give np. 

2. The prefix is separate*} from the verb, and is placed 

after the verb, and often at the end of the sentence, 

when the verb occurs in main sentences, and is in the 

present or imperfect tense of the indicative or subjunc- 

tive mood, or in the imperative mood: 

(St trimmt ba« 9tt(^ au, He accepts the book. 

(St Hatm ba* Eüä) 08, He accepted the book. 

9Hmm ba« 8u$ an ! Accept the book ! 

Waffm er ba* 33uc^ an? Did he accept the book? 

i2em. In the Compound tenses, and in the simple tenses when occnning in 
subordinate sentences, the prefix is not geparated from the Terb: 
(St toitb ba« ©n^ Olt'lteimen, He will accept the book. 
(S&e er ba* 8u$ ait'ftatm, Before he accepted the book. 

3. The }tt of the infinitive, and the prefix je- of the 

perfect participle, adhere to the verb : 

Sfaftatt ba* $3u$ an' JttOCfimeit— Instead of accepting the book— 
(St fyit ba* 8u$ an'geKOmmtlt, He has accepted the book. 

§ 151. The Separable Prefixes are: 

1. The particle* ab, an, traf, bei, ba (bar) f ein, entyor, 
fort, gegen (entgegen), (eint, (er, (in, mit, na<(, toieber, ob, 
Hon, iocg, ja, jnriW, jnfararaen (together with the Com- 
pound separable prefixes (erein, (eran8, etc., § 157), which 
are always separable. 

2. The particles bnri(, (toter, über, um, unter, and lie- 
ber, when they receive the primary accent (§ 154). 



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§ 152.] 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



327 



3. Some nouns and adjectives used as prefixes are 
separable (§ 154, 5, 3). 

§ 152. Sometimes Compound verbs take, in addition 
to their literal meaning, also a modified or figurative 
ineaning : 

9faf geben, to give up, delivcr, surrender, abandon. 
Sud'füfyren, tö carry out, achieve, accomplish. 
1. Examples of Compound verbs with prefix particles always separable : 



Prefix. 
ob, off, down ; 
an, on, to, at ; 
auf,up; 

au«, out, out of ; 
bei, by, with ; 
ba, there ; 
(bar, there) ; 
emjpor,' up ; 
gegen, against; 
entgegen, against ; 
fort, foith ; 
tyeim,home; 
ber, hither; 
fyin, thither ; 
mit, with ; 
na$,after; 
nieber, down ; 
ob, over ; 
tot, before; 
n>eg, away ; 
*tt,to; 

jurflef , back ; 
jufammen, together; 



Simple terb. 

fü)retben,to write; 
lommen,tocome; 
flehen, togo; 
fuä)en, to seek ; 
tragen, to carry ; 
bleiben, to remain ; 
ftetten, to place ; 
lieben, to heave ; 
reben, to speak ; 
ttrirfen, to work ; 
fegen, to set ; 
fd)t(fcn, to send ; 
lommen, to come ; 
ge$en, to go ; 
nehmen, to take; 
folgen, to follow ; 
legen, tolay; 
flegen, to conquer ; 
f$(agen, to strike ; 
nehmen, to take ; 
maä)en, to make ; 
mfen, tocall; 



Compound verb. 

ab'föreiben, to copy. 
an'fommen, to arrive. 
aufgeben, to go up, rise. 
au«'fu^en, to select. 
beitragen, to contribate. 
ba' bleiben, to remain. 
bar'ftetten, to exhibit. 
entyor'&eben, to elerate. 
ge'genreben, torejoin. 
entge' gennrirf en, to counteract 
fort'fefcen, to continue. 
&eim'fd)i<fen, to send home. 
tyer'tommen, to come hither. 
f)in'ge$en, to go thither. 
mif nehmen, to take with (one) 
nachfolgen, to follow after. 
nie'berlegen, to deposit. 
ob'ftegen, to vanquieh. 
toor'föfagen, to propose. 
toeg'netymen, to take away. 
ju'ma<ben, to close. 
gurücTrufen, to recalL 
jufam'menjie^en, to contract. 



jtetycn, to draw ; 

2. Compound verbs with prefixes which are separable when accented : 
bnrd), through ; reifen, to travel ; burcfy'rrifen,totravelthrough ( 
über, over; fegen, to place; 
um, around ; ge&en, to go ; 
unter, under ; galten, to hold ; 
toieber, again ; fcolen, to get. ; 

3. Compound verbs with nouns or adjectives as separable prefixes : 
@tatt, place • ftnben, to find ; ftott'finben, to take place, 
frei, free ; fpreä>en, to speak ; frei'f j>red)en, to acquit. 
fcofl, füll ; gießen, to pour ; fcolTgießen, to pour füll. 



ü'berfefcen, to place over. 
um'gefyen, to go around. 
Unterhalten, to keep under. 
tote'ber^olen, to get again. 



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328 



THE VERB. 



[§ 153. 



§ 153. The Separable Comp. Verb annehmen, to accept. 
Principal Parts: an'itcljmctt, ait'ita!j!!!, an^geitoittittett. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Ten». Imper/ect Tense. 
I accept (it), etc. — accepted (it), etc. 

tyueljme(e«)am— uajm (e*)om 



bis nimmfi 
fr nimmt 
totr nehmen 
ü)r netymt 
fle neunten 



Ott* — na$mft 
Ott*— n<u)m 
am— nahmen 
am— na$mt 
an,— nahmen 



an* 



am 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. Imper/ect Tense. 
I accept (it), etc. — accepted (it),e*c. 

i* nefyne (e«)am— nä'tme (c«) am 



bu ne^meft 
er neunte* 
mir nehmen 
tyr nehmet 
fte nehmen 



am— näbmeft 
am — ufityme 
am— nahmen 
am— nähmet 
am— nahmen 



am 
am 
an* 
an. 



I have accepted (it), etc. 

tty labt (es) angenommen* 



Per/ect Tense. 



bu ^afl 

er \)<d 
toir faben 
ü)r babt 

fle fcaben 



I have accepted (it), etc. 

\äf labe (c«) angenommen. 



angenommen. bu fcabejl „ angenommen, 

angenommen. er \)dbt n angenommen, 

angenommen toir&aben „ angenommen, 

angenommen. tyr fyabet n angenommen, 

angenommen. fie fcoben n angenommen. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

I had accepted (it), etc. 

ty Jötte (es) angenommen« 



I liad accepted (it), etc. 

iäf fcotte (es) angenommen* 



bu Ijattcjl „ angenommen. bu bätteß „ angenommen, 

er tyattc „ angenommen. er tyättc „ angenommen, 

toir Rotten n angenommen. toir Ratten „ angenommen. 

ü)r Rottet „ angenommen. ü)r hättet „ angenommen, 

fle Ratten „ angenommen. fle hätten „ angenommen. 

First Future Tense. 

I shall accept (it), etc. 

i* »erbe (es) aunelimem 

bu toerbeß „ annehmen, 

er »erbe „ amtebmem 

toir toerben „ annehmen, 

tyr toerbet „ annehmen, 

fte toerben „ annehmen. 



I shall accept (it), etc, 

to) toerbe (es) annehmen* 



bu toirft 
er toirb 
toir toerben 
ü)r toerbet 
fle toerben 



annehmen, 
annehmen, 
annehmen, 
annehmen 
annehmen. 

Second Future Tense. 
I shall have accepted (it), etc. 

t$ toerbe (es) angenommen babtxt. 
bu totrfl „ angenommen baben. 
er toirb „ angenommen baben. 
toir toerben „ angenommen baben. 
tyr toerbet „ angenommen ^aben. 
fle toerben „ angenommen $aben. 



I shall have accepted (it), etc. 

i$ toerbe (es) angenommen Jjabem 
bu toerbefl „ angenommen $abem 
er toerbe „ angenommen fyibem 
toir toerben „ angenommen $abem 
i^r toerbet „ angenommen fraben. 
fle toerben „ angenommen \)dbm. 



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(i tt 

M tt 

tt tt 

tt tt 

tt tt 



§ 153, 154.] COMPOUND VERBS. 329 

CONDITTONAL MOOD.- 

Present Taue. 

I would or shoald accept (it), etc. 

i$ »Brie» (e«) annehmen, or i$ uötnte (e«) an (imperfe* Svbj.). 

bu roürbeft „ annehmen, " bu nä&mejt „ an 

er roürbe „ annehmen, " er nannte „ an 

torir mürben „ annehmen, " roir nähmen „ an 

ü)r toürbct „ annehmen, " tyr nähmet „ an 

fle toürbeu „ annehmen, " fle nähmen „ an 

Per/ect Tense. 
I woald or shoald have aeeepted (it), etc. 

\$ toürbe (e«) angenommen Valien, or t$ Jötte (es) angenontumKP/.S.) 

bu roürbeft „ angenommen fcoben, " bu frättefi „ angenommen 
er roürbe „ angenommen tyaben, " er $5tte „ angenommen 
roir toürben „ angenommen $aBen, " roir fyftten „ angenommen 
tyr toürbet „ angenommen fcaben, " üjrtyättet „ angenommen 
fle roürbcn ,, angenommen tyaoen, " fte gärten „ angenommen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

»iir m (bu) (e«) an, accept (it)- | neimen »tr (e«) an, let us accept (it). 
ttefrne er „ «I, let him accept nehmet U)r „ an,aceept(it). [(it). 

(it). I neunten fle „ an, let them accept 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, (ce) an}nne{jmen, to accept i Per/, (c«) angenommen gu $afat, to 

(it). | have aeeepted (it). 

PAETICIPLE8. 

Pres, (e«) annefynenb, aeeepting i Per/, (e«) angenommen, aeeepted 
00. I (it). 

§ 154. With Inseparable Compound Verbs: 

1. The prima?y accent falls upon the verb : 
3ta>fle$'*cn, to widerstand. Ueoa>fefc'*en, to translate. 

Exe. With some Terbs the prefix miß (§ 155, 7) is accented, as are all 
prefix nouns and adjeetives except ttoU* 

2. The prefix is never separated from the verb. 

3. The partieipial prefix (je* (§131) is not added. 
Exe. Compounds of nouns and adjeetives (except toolf) take fle*. 

4. With the infinitive, }tt precedes the verb, and is 
written separately. 



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330 THE VERB. [§ 154, 155. 

5. The Inseparable Prefixes are : 

1. The particles hu, Ott* («11*0/ tt*, gt*, *«*, JCT« (and «tifc), 
which are ahvays inseparable. 

2. The particles btr$, fl&CT, Hut, Uüttt, and iDteto, whan the primary 
accent falls upon the verb (§ 151, 3). 

3. Some noons and adjeetives nsed as prefixes are inseparable (§ 151 , 3). 

§ 155. The Inseparable Particles bc, cnt (emp), er, ge, »er, 
jcr, are obsolete jprepositions. They are used as follows : 

1. 9t- expresses a more intimate relation to the ob- 
ject than the preposition fret, from which it is derived: 

33ei'*fit}*ai f to sit near. 23e*ftfc'*en, to possess. 

1. ÖC* fonns transitiTe from many intransitive verbs: 

$$e*ftfc'*en, to possess (from ftfcen, to sit). 

2. Frefixed to transitive verbs, it changes the relation of the verb to its 
object: 

Säame tflangen : eine Stelle To plant trees: to plant a place with 
mit 95umen btpfianitn, trees. 

3. It is prefixed to some noons and adjeetives in forming verbs: 

&t*%ab'*tn, to endow. S3e*frci'*en, to set free. 

2. (SnU (originally signifying against) usually denotes 
negation, cotäradiction, deprivation, or Separation : 

(gükbttf ei!, to discover. (&tf*0e$'en, to escape. 

(Stttslab'en, to unload. ©ttkretß'en, to snatch away. 

Rem. 1. It forms verbs by being attached to some nouns and adjeetives: 
<Snt«)aiW'en, to behead. (§nt*fdjai'M(;*en, to excuse. 

Bein. 2. (gut* sometimes denotes origin : 

©ltt*pe^'et! r to arise from. (gttt*ft>ruifl'*en, to spring from. 

Rem. 8. It sometimes has the meaning of in (ein) : 
(£ttt^olt%en (Inhalten, einhalten), to contain. 

Rem. 4. Before f, Ott is changed, for euphony, to tnty in the three verbs 
empfangen, empfehlen, emfcfmben. 

3. (£** usually denotes a motion outward or vpward; 

Gtsgieß'cn, to ponr out. (£r*$eb'en, to lift np. 

1. It sometimes denotes the passing to, or retorning to a condition, 
in Compounds formed from adjeetives and verbs: 
(Ewötlj'en, to Llush. Gr*fe$'en, to replace. 



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§ 155.] COMPOUND VEBBS. 331 

2. It frequently denotes acquisition by the subject : 

<£r*&ett'eln, to gain by begging. ©r*rei#en, to attain to. 

4. @e= gives a modification of the meaning of most 

verbs to which it is prefixed ; it frequently indicates 

the duration or consequence of an action : 

@e*fcau$'en, to apply (Braud)en, to need, use). 
@C*fle$'en, to admit (fhfyen, to stand). 

5. SBer* indicates primarily motion away: 

8er*treib'en, to drive away, J8tr*fßeß'en, to flow away. 
. 1. It frequently denotes loss, error, Spotting, destruction, end: 
ßer*f$ftenb'en, to waste, Sct'Mity'en, to lose blossoms. 
SBotett'en, to mislead. S$er*3e$r'en, to consume. 

2. It sometimes denotes passing to, or beingplaced in a condition, espe- 
cially when prefixed to verbs from noans and adjectives : 
8et*gött'ern, to idolize, deify. 8cr*5nb'er*n, to change. 
JBCJ*tt>atf'en, to make orphan. 8tt*bcf'fcr*n, to improve. 

6. 3er* denotes Separation, disBolution, or destruction : 

3cr*PtC»'cn, to disperse. «Stt'fafl'en, to fall into ruins. 

j&tX<xa%'m, to tear in pieces. J&tt*\ü)Utftn, to break in pieces. 
Bern. The Inseparable Particles have been developed as fbllows : 
Gothic; bi-, and-, us-, ga-, fair-, dis-, 
Old-Ger.; bi-, int-, nr-, gi-, fer-, zir-, 
Mid.-Ger. ; be-, ent-, er-, ge-, ver-, zer-, 
New-Ger. ; be*. ent*. er*, ge*. toer*. jer*. 

Obs. 1. For examples of Compound verbs with btttfty, l^illtCT, il&CT, MltCr, 
HUt, and triebt? as separable and as inseparable prefixes, see Less. XXXV., 
2. The two forms tDitbtt (again) and tyibtt (against) are employed to dis- 
tinguish the adverb from the preposition. 

Obs. 2. Inseparable Compound verbs with nouns or adjectives as prefixes 
have the accent on the prefix and take gts in the perfect participle: 

We^t'sfertigen, to justify ; i«ip., rety'fertigte ; per/.part., gered)t'fertigt. 

2Jtot$'smaßat,toconjecture; " mut&'raaßte ; " " gemutymaßt. 
Exe. Some Compounds with Mfls as prefix: fcofljtety'ett, to execute; 
pari., toofljogen. 

Obs. 3. The prefix mifs (related to mtffen=*o miss) is always inseparable; 
it has the same meaning as the English prefixes mis-, i/£, dis-, des-. In some 
cases the accent is on the prefix miß*, in others it is on the verb. In some 
cases QC* is omitted altogether from the participle; in others it is inserted 
before the prefix miß* ; in others it is inserted between the prefix miß* and 
the verb; in some cases QC« may be employed or omitted with the same verb. 



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332 



THE VERB* 



[§ 156. 



§ 156. Conjugation of the Inseparable Compound 
Verb berfteljetl, to widerstand: 

Principal Parts: toerftclj'cit, öcrftaitb', tJcrftanbcn. 

INDIOATTVE MOOD. ßUBJUNCnVE MOOD. 

JPresent Tense. 

t$ berftefc, I understand.* 



i$ berpelje, I nnderstand. 
bu &erpe$P, thou understandest 
er berpefct, he understands. 
»tr nerp^en, we understand. 
tyr fcerpe^t, you understand. 
fle fcerpefcen, they nnderstand. 



i<$ tierftoltb, I understood. 
bu toerpoitbp, thou nnderstoodest 
er t>erf!onb f he nnderstood. 
»ir toerponben, we nnderstood. 
tyr toerponbet, you understood. 
fle »crftoitben, they understood. 



Imperfect Tense. 



bn berieft, thou understandest 
er berget, he nnderstands. 
»ir fcerpetyen, we understand. 
ü)r toerjie^et, you nnderstand. 
fle berpetyen, they understand. 



I have understood, etc. 

\§ (jabe bcrftaubcn. 
bu $ap terflanben. 
er fyrt Derflanben. 
»ir &aben berflanbeiu 
tyr tyabt terßanben. 
fle fcaben toerpanben. 

I had nnderstood, etc. 

\äf |atte bcrflanbcu. 

bu fyrttep berpanben. 
er ^atte berpanben. 
»tr Ratten berpanben. 
tyr hattet »erjlanben. 
pe tyattm »crpanben. 



i$ bCTpättbe, I nnderstood. 
bu tocrftönbejt, thou nnderstoodest. 
er toerftäube, he nnderstood. 
»ir berpanben, we understood. 
u)r toerftönbet, you nnderstood. 
ftc berpanben, they understood. 
Per/ect Tense. 

I have understood, etc. 

i$ laue tocrftanbeiu 

bu tyabep berpanben. 
er babe i&erpanben. 
»tr tyaben toerftanben. 
tyr &abet fcerjtonben. 
pe tyabcn toerpanbcn. 
Phperfect Tense. 

I had understood, etc. 

i$ Jfftte berpanben* 
bu ^ättep berponbeu. 
er Wtte toerpanbeiu 
»tr Ratten toerpanben. 
tyr bfittet berpanben. 
pe ^fitten berponbeu. 
First Future Tense. 



I shall understand, etc. 


I shall understand, efc. 


t$ »erbe berpcljtn. 


t$ »erbe berftetem 


bu nrirp fcerpetycn. 


bu »erbep fcerpeben. 


er »trb fcerpetyen. 


er »erbe fcerpe^cit. 


nrir »erben berjte&en. 


»ir »erben berpefren. 


tyr »erbet toerj*e$en. 


ü)r »erbet frerpctyen. 


pe »erben berpefcen. 


Pe »erben toerflebcn. 



♦ See SubjunctiTe Mood, § 124. 



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§ 156.] 



COMPOUND VERBS. 



333 



SecondFuture Tense. 



I shall have understood, etc. 

i% toerbe nerftanben laben* 
bu tütrjt »erftanben |aben. 
er toirb serftanben |aben. 
»ir »erben berftanben laben. 
i|r »erbet berftanben |aben. 
fic »erben berftanben laben. 



I shall have understood, etc. 

i$ toerbe berftanben lauen. 
bu »crbeft berftanben laben, 
er »erbe berftanben laben, 
»ir »erben berftanben laben. 
i|r »erbet berftanben |aben. 
fie »erben berftanben |aben. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Preseut Tense. 

I wonld or should understand, etc. 

«I »Hebe toerjtelen, or t<| berftänbe (Lnper/. Subj.). 

bu ȟrbeft berfte|en, " bu berftonbeft 

er »ürbe berfte|en, " er berftänbe 

»ir »ürben berfte|en, " »ir berftanben 

i|r ȟrbet berfte|en, " t|r berftfotbet 

fte ȟrben berfte|en, " fie berftanben 

Per/ect Tense. 

I would or should hare understood, etc. 

\ü) »ttrbe berftanben laben, or t$ |atte *tt$anbtn(Piup.Sub.). 

bu ȟrbefl berftanben |aben, " bu |5tteft berftanben 

er »ürbe berftanben |aben, " er |ätte berftanben 

»ir »ürben berftanben |aben, " »ir Ratten berftanben 

i|r »ürbet berftanben |aben, " i|r hättet berftanben 

fte ȟrben berftanben |abcn, " fte Ratten berftanben 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Herfiele (bu), understand. berfte|ett »ir, let us understand. 



berfle|e er, let him understand. 



bcrftc|t i|r, understand you. 
betftelen fte, let them understand. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. berfle|e», to understand. I Per/, fcerftonben |abcn r to haye un- 

I derstood. 

TARTICIPLES. 
Pres, berflelenb, understanding. | Per/. tPCrftaabtö, understood. 



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334 THE VERB. [§ 157. 

§ 157.There aretwo classesof DouUy-compoundedVerhs: 
1. Those having as prefixes Separable Compound Par- 
ticles (mostly compounded with ba, \)tt f (hl, and öor) l 

bald' (there-by); tiefen, toremain ; fctftet'Meifen, to persist in (it> 

ba$er* (there-hither) ; fahren, to drive ; ba^er*! afrren, to drive along. 
batyeim' (there-thither) ; bringen, to bring ; bo$in'briugen, to bring there. 
banie'ber (there-down) ; tnerfen, to throw; banU'bemerfrn, to pros träte, 
baran' (there-on) ; fefcen, to place ; boran'fefcen, to bazard. 

barrin' (tbere-in) ; je&en, to see ; baretn'fefcn, to look into. 

iCTOb' (hither-down) ; lofft«, to let ; ttrat'faffen, to let down. 

fftv an* (hither-to) ; tommen, to come; (eran'tontmen f to adrance. 

berauf (hither-np) ; bilden, to look ; fcranf bitten, to look upwards. 
fcrau«' (hither-out) ; gießen, to draw; tyerand'aiefcn, to draw ont. 
gerbet' (bither-near) ; rufen, to call ; berbei'rufen, to call near. 
herein' (hither-in) ; taffen, to let ; bemn'laffen, to admit. 

&erfl'ber (bither-over) ; temmen, to come ; &erfl'berfommen f to come over. 
&erum' (hither-around) ; flehen, to go ; $erum'ge$en, to go aronnd. 

^erun'ter (bither-under) ; nehmen, to take ; $erun'ternc&men, to take down, 
farfcor' (hitber-forward) ; $cben, to lift ; &ert>or'&eben, to make prominent 

umber' (around-nither) ; treiben, to thrive ; untrer' treiben, to roam idly abont 
lilQb' (thither-down) ; fa|ttn, to drive ; ÜMa&'faJrCn, to travel down. 
$tnan' (thither-np) ; tommen, to corae ; fytnan'toimnen, to get near to. 
binauf (thither-np) ; gefyen, to go ; hinaufgehen, to go np. 

tytnan«' (thither-out) ; feben, to see; ljutaufl'fefcn, to look ont. 

hinein' (thitber-in) ; getyen, to go ; $ineut'ge$en, to enter. 

fcüttt'ber (tbitber-over) ; fahren, to drive; #nfi'berfa&ren, to cross over. 
ftntoea/ (thither-away) ; jdjreiten, to stride ; ^in»eg'fd)reiten, to stride away. 
$tnju (thither-to) ; fügen, to join ; ^inju'fügen, to add to. 

bOtOH' (before-to) ; f^tlfen^ to send ; boratt'fdjideu, to send ahead. 

toorau*' (before-out) ; jagen, to say ; t>orau«'fagen, to predict 
fcorbei' (before-by) j fahren, to drive ; borbei'fatyren, to drive past. 
fcortyer/ (befbre-hither) ; feljen, to see ; fcortyer'fetyen, to foresee. 

fcorü'ber (before-over); eilen, to basten ; toorfi'bcreilen, to basten past. 

Rem. The Compound separable particles are placed after the verb in the 
same way as simple separable particles (§ 150, 2) : 

<2r ging um bie dauern (ernitt, He went aronnd the waüs. 

2. Verbs having prefixes compounded of (simple or 
Compound) separable with inseparable prefixes, as : 

on'*er; crlen'nen, to recognize; on'ertennen, to acknowledge. 

»or$cr'»er ; erlen'nen, to recognize; toor&er'ertennen, to recognize beforeband. 
Rem, 1. The first of these particles is separable: 
Cr ertannte es an, He acknowledged it 

(St ertannte tyn bOrttr, He recognized bim beforehand. 



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§158,159.] REFLEXIVE VERBS. 335 

Rem. 2. Some verbs thus eompounded drop the first prefix, however, when 
the position of the verb in a sentenco would rcquire the Separation of the par- 
tido from tho verb : 

2Ba« mi<$ aniefrifft, As fiur as it concerns me. 

(bat) S« betrifft ttiiä) niä)t, It does not concera me. 

Rem. 8. Some verbs which are formed from nouns and adjeetives with a 
simple prefix have the appearance of being doubly eompounded: 
33erab'fä)enen, to detest, abhor (from ber 9tö'fu)eu, the horror). 
©eur't&eilcn, to judge, form an opinion of (from ba$ Ur't&eil, judgment). 



6. REFLEXIVE VERBS. 
(3iiriid$iclctt&c BetttoBrterO 

§ 158. The number of verbs that are used only reflex- 
ively is much larger in German than in English, as : 
3* feCfbne mf dj, I remember. 3# fehlte «tf <$, I long. 

Rem. 1 . The reflexive use of transitive verbs also is mach moro extensive 
than in English ; many verbs take a modification of their meaning when 
thus used reflexively, as : 

3$ UCrlüffC mid) «*f ifa, I rely upon him (berfaffeit, to leave, abandon). 

3$ trimiete mtd> barauf , I remember it (erüweril, to remind). 

3$ freut midj darauf, I rejoiee at it (frCHClt, to make glad). 

Rem. 2. Some transitive verbs used reflexively require the reflexive pronoun 
to be in the dative instead of the aecusative case, as : 

fid> anmaßen, to assume. I fi(Jj fd)mctdjeln, to flatter one's seif. 

n einMl&ttt, to imagine. | „ borfteflett, to imagine. 

Rem. 3. Some intransitive verbs also are used reflexively, without change 
of meaning : 
3$ eile (or eilt Ittid)), I hasten. 3$ na&c (or näf)t üti^), I approach. 
Rem. 4. Transitive verbs often take a reflexive instead of a passive form: 
2>cr $tmmct üebetf t flu) mit Soften, The sky is covered with clouds. 

§ 159. The Reflexive Verb fttfj freuen, to rejoiee; 

INDICATTVE MÖOD. ßüBJUNCnVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



t<$ freue Ittid), I rejoiee. 
bu freuft Mdj, thou rejoieest 
er freut fu|j, he rejoiees. 
ttrir freuen nn$, we rejoiee. 
ihr freut endj, you rejoiee. 
fte freuen ft<jj, they rejoiee. 



id) freut Uttu), I rejoiee.* 
bu freuefl bid), thou rejoicesL 
er freuet flu), he rejoiees. 
ttrir freuen nn$, we rejoiee. 
ibr freuet endj, you rejoiee. 
fie freuen fltlj, they rejoiee. 



Fee Subjunctive Mood. 

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336 



THE VERB. 



[§ 159. 



Imper/ect Tense. 



iäf freute 
bu frcuteft 
er freute 
toir freuten 
ü)r freutet 
fie freuten 



tttid), I rejoiced. 
bid), thou rejoicedst 
ftd), he rejoiced. 
tttt$, we rejoiced. 
tnd), you rejoiced. 
ftd), they rejoiced. 



t$ frenete 
tot freueteft 
er freuete 
totr freueten 
ü)r freuetet 
fie freueten 



Utid), I rejoiced. 
feftfy, thou rejoicedst. 
fity, he rejoiced. 
101$, we rejoiced. 
end), you rejoiced. 
fid), they rejoiced. 



Per/ect Tense. 



I have rejoiced, etc. 

id? tiabe mtd) gefreut, 

bu ^aft bid) gefreut 

er bat ftd) gefreut, 

totr faben ub£ gefreut 

ibr $abt eud) gefreut 

fie faben fid) gefreut 



I have rejoiced, etc. 

ty (alle mid) gefreut 
bu fyabefi bid) gefreut , 
er ifdbt fid) gefreut 
totr baben und gefreut 
ibr fcabet eud> gefreut 
fie fcaben ftd) gefreut 



Pluperfect Tense. 



I had rejoiced, etc. 

i$ datte mi(b gefreut 
bu fyatteft bid) gefreut 
er Ijatte ftc^ gefreut 
totr Ratten nn£ gefreut 
u)r Rottet eitd) gefreut, 
fte Ratten ftd) gefreut. 



I had rejoiced, etc. 

ity lätte midj gefreut 
bu ^ätteft btd) gefreut 
er $fitte fid) gefreut 
totr Ratten und gefreut, 
tyr hättet eud) gefreut, 
fie bitten fid) gefreut 



-Fir** Fttftire Taue. 



I shall rejoiee, efc. 

i$ »erbe mid) freuen» 
bu toirfi bid) freuen, 
er totrb ftdj freuen, 
totr »erben un9 freuen. 
ü)r toerbet ettd) freuen, 
fte toerben fio) freuen. 



I shall rejoiee, etc. 

t$ toerbe ntubfrenett 

bu toerbeß bid) freuen, 

er toerbe fio) freuen, 

totr toerben nn$ freuen, 

tyr toerbet eud) freuen, 

fie toerben fio) freuen. 



Second Futwre Tense. 



I shall have rejoiced, etc. 

ty toerbe mid) gefreut toten* 
bu totrft bid) gefreut ^oben. 
er toirb fio) gefreut fytben. 
totr toerben und gefreut '^aben. 
ü)r toerbet end) gefreut ifdbtn. 
fie toerben fidj gefreut baben. 



I shall have rejoiced, etc. 

i$ toerbe mid) gefreut taten« 
bu toerbeft bid) gefreut fcoben. 
er toerbe fid) gefreut tyoben. 
totr toerben und gefreut ifdbm. 
tyr toerbet end) gefreut fyaben. 
fie toerben fid) gefreut fcoben. 



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§ 159, 160.] 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



337 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I wonld or shonld rejoice, etc. 

mitf freuen, or i$ frenete mitf (imper/ect Svbj.). 

bu frcueteft bity " 

et freuete fld) " 

wir freueten nn£ <( 

tyr freueten en# " 

fte freneten fld> " 
P«/ect Tciwe. 
I wonld or shonld have rejoiced, efc. 

<$ trtr&e mit* §efrent taten, or ttytfitte mit* gefreit (PLSub.). 



i$ würbe 
bu wttrbeft Mo) freuen, 
er würbe" fi# freuen, 
wir würben nn# freuen, 
tyr würbet end) freuen, 
fie würben 04 freuen, 



bu würbeßfcift) gefreut fyiben, 
er würbe fia) gefreut baben, 
Wir würben nn£ gefreut fcaben, 
i&r würbet en(fc gefreut $aben, 
fie würben 04 gefreut $aben, 



bn ^ttep bi# gefreut 
erlitte 04 gefreut 
wir gärten und gefreut 
tyrbättet en# gefreut 
fie gärten fi<$ gefreut 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
freue (bn) Mty, rejoice thou. I freuen Wir nn$, let us rejoice. 

freite er fid), lethim rejoice. freuet (u)r) entf, rejoice ye. 

I freuen fte fifty, let them rejoice. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, frenen fiti, to rejoice. I Per/, fid) gefrettt taten, to ha?e 

I rejoiced. 
PABTTCIPLE8. 
Pres. ft<t freue«*, rejoicing. | Per/, fid) gefreut, rejoiced. 



7. IMPERSONAL VERBS. 
OtnterfihtlUte 3ett*Wet.) 
§ 160. Verbs which express natural phenomena are 
impersonal, having the pronoun ti (it) for their nomi- 

native : 

(5* borniert, it thunders. (2« f $neiet, it snows. 

Rem. 1. Some intransitive verbe are nsed impersonaHy, the logical sabject 
of the verb being put in the acctwative or dative case; in such cases t9 i* 
often dropped if another word opens the sentence : 

(ES friert mi<$ or mi$ friert, Ifeelcold, (bat i$ friere, I am freea- 
C$ mangelt ü)nt an Äic$», or tym He lackrf nothing. [tag), 

mangelt ni$t«, 

(bat) (Et mangelt baaren <9elbe9, He u in need of ready .money. 

P 



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338 



THE VEBB. 



t§ 161. 



Rem. 2. The passive and reflexive form of many active verbs are freqnently 
used impersonally: 

<$* totrb tnel bafcon gerebet, Mach is said abont it 

$ier roirb nictyt geraupt, "Smoking is not allowed here." 

($6 frfigt fl$, ob— It is qaestionable whetber— 

Rem. 3. €$ is often used expletively (like the English expletive there): 
<2« brennt ein $au«, there burns a house (for ein $au« brennt, a honse 
is burning). 

Rem. 4. (B gleit, e*c, is frequently ased for t* ift, filb, etc. (§ 107, 5). 
<S* giebt fciele Seute, bie— There are many people, who— 



8. THE PASSIVE VOICE. 
($tt tfafftofwm ber 3eit»totei\) 
§ 161. Conjugation of the Passive Voice of the tran- 
sitive verb Heien, to love (§ 134) : 

INDICATTVE MOOD. ßUBJUNCnVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



I am loved, etc. 


I am loved, etc.* 


\6) »etb*e geliebt 


ity »erfee geliebt 


bu tbirü geliebt 


bu werb'eft geliebt. 


er ttirt geliebt. 


er roerb*e geliebt 


toir foerb'ttt geliebt. 


toir »erb*cu geliebt 


ü)r werb*tt geliebt 


tyr roerb#ct geliebt 


fie tterb*e* geliebt 


fie »erb* eu geliebt 


Imperfet 


:t Tense; 


I was loved, etc. 


I was loved, etc. 


ty mxhst geliebt 


iäf »Krb*e geliebt 


bu murb'tft geliebt 


bu n>ürb» et geliebt 


er tourb^e geliebt. 


er roürb-e geliebt 


toir tt>urb*eu geliebt 


toir foflrb'tu geliebt 


tyr tourb*tt geliebt. 


tyr »firb'tt geliebt 


fie murb*ttt geliebt 


fie toflrb *e* geliebt 


Perfect 


Tense. 


I have been loved, etc. 


I have been loved, etc. 


id? ti* geliebt üotbem 


i* fei geliebt »orte«. 


bn lifl geliebt »orben. 


bu fei^eft geliebt Mrbett, 


er ift geliebt turben» 


er fei geliebt »orben. 


n?ir fteb geliebt üorben- 


toir fci*e* geliebt toorbei. 


tyr feil geTtebt toorben. 


tyr feilet geliebt aorbau 


fte fteb geliebt ttorbe*. 


fie fei*« geliebt toorben* 



* Fee Snbjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 161.] 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



339 



Pluperfect Tense. 



I had been loved, etc. 

\ä) »ar gtliebt »orben. 
bu »arji geliebt »orben* 
er »ar geli^t »orben. 
toir tt> a r ^ Ol geliebt »orbtn. 
U)r »ar*t geliebt »orbtn. 
flc »ar*tn geliebt »orbtn. 



I had been loved, etc. 

id? »är*e geliebt »orbtn. 
bu »är*tft geliebt »orbtn. 
er »är*t geliebt »orbtn. 
»tr »är*tn geliebt »orbtn. 
ü)r »är*tt geliebt »orbtn. 
fie »ftr-tn geliebt »orbtn. 



First Future Tense. 



I shall be loved, etc. 

id) »trb*t geliebt tDtrbtn. 
bu »irji geliebt »erben* 
er toirb getiebt »trbtn. 
»tr »erb*ttt geliebt »erben, 
U)r »erb* et geliebt tonten. 
fie »erb* tu geliebt »erben» 



I sball be loved, etc. 

\ä) »trb*t gtliebt »erben, 
bu »erb* eft geliebt »erben. 
er »erb*e geliebt trabt*, 
»ir »erb*en geliebt »erben* 
ü)r »erb -et geliebt »erben» 
fie »erb*ett geliebt »erben. 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall have been loved, etc. 

i$ »erbt geliebt »orben fein. 

bu »irft geliebt »orben fein, 

er »irb geliebt »orben fein, 

»ir »erben geliebt »orben fei». 

u)r »erbet geliebt »orben fein. 

fie »erben geliebt »orben fein. 



I shall have been loved, etc. 

id? »erbe geliebt »orben fein. 

bu »erbeft geliebt »orben fein. 

er »erbe geliebt »orben fein«. 

»ir »erben geliebt »orben fein, 

tyr »erbet geliebt »orben fein. 

pe »erben geliebt »orben fein. 

CONDFTIONAL MOOD. 



Per/ect Tense. 
I would er should be loved, etc. 

t$ mürbe geliebt »erben, 

bn »ürbeft geliebt »erben, 

er »ürbe geliebt »erben, 

»ir »ürben geliebt »erben. 

$r »ürbet geliebt »erben, 

fte »ürben geliebt »erben. 



Present Tense. 
I would or should have been loved, etc. 

i$ »ürbe geliebt »orben fein. 

bu »firbejt geliebt »orben fein, 

er »ürbe geliebt »orben fein. 

»ir »ürben geliebt »orben ftin. 

ü)r »ürbet geliebt »orben ftin. 

fie »ürben geliebt »orben ftin. 



fei (bu) geliebt, be (thon loved). 
fei er geliebt/ let him be loved. 



IMPEBATTVE MOOD. 

feien »ir gtliebt/ let ns be loved. 
ftib (U)r) geliebt, be (you) loved. 
feien fie geliebt, let thembe loved. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres, gtlittt »trbtH/ to be loved. | Per/, gtlitbt »Orbtn feilt, to have 

been loved. 



Pres. 



PAEUCEPLES. 

I P«/. gtlitbt, loved. 



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340 TDE VERB. [§ 162, 163. 

9. POTENTIAL VERBS. 

§ 162. The Potential Verbs (called by German gram- 
marians the Auxüiaries o/Mode) are fottett, footlett, !ön= 
not, mögen, bürfett, muffen. They are used only to limit 
or qualify the meaning of the infinitive of independent 
verbs(§120,3): 

<8r nm| ba« ©ua) lefen, He must read the book. 

Rem. 1. The limited or qualified independent verb is often anderstood: 
Ott fyatt* gemußt, He was compelled to do it. 

Rem. 2. The Potential Verbs are inflected in all the moods and tenses like 
independent verbs, with the exception tbat tPOflett alone is used in the im- 
perative mood. 

Rem. 3. In the Compound tenses the partieipial form is employed only 
when the independent verb is omitted; when it is not omitted, the infinitive 
form of the potential verb is used instead of the partieipial form : 

Cr $at ba* ©u$ tefen muffe«, He was compelled to read the book. 
(bat) <&x f)Qt t» %tmM$t, He was compelled (to do) it 

Rem. 4. They all belong to the seventh das* of irregulär verbs (§ 143-145). 

Rem. 5. All Potential Verbs but foOtn and MUttt tafce the umlaut in the 
imperfect subjunetive. 

Rem. 6. The Potential Verbs have been developed thus : 

Gothic; skulan, viljan, kunnan, magan, thüarban, motan, 
Old-Ger.; scolan, wellan, chunnan, mngan, durfan, muozan y 
MuL-Ger. ; suln, wellen, künnen, mfigen, dürfen, müeaen, 
New-Ger.; fetten, motten, fBnnen, mögen, bürfen, muffen, 
(English); (shall). wilL can. may. (dare). must 

§ 163. The verb fofltlt indicates: 

1. Moral Obligation or dv&y : 

Cr \ oftte e« t&un, He ougfat to do it 

2öir }StttX t& tfow fftlCR, We ought to have done it 

2. Obligation, duty, or necessity (u8ually dependent 
upon the will of another) : 

2>n f oll R @ott bebten $errn lieben Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 

»on gangem $ergen, with all thy heart 

2Hefegnr^tfoHenbt0en(@d).)! This fear shall end! 

«n meiner Sürfmerffamfett fofl eS There shaü be no lack of attention 

ttid)t fehlen, on my part 



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§ 164.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 341 

3. A report, rumor, or general impression : 
<5r fott fe&r frant fein, They say he is rery sick. 

<Sr foö im Vorigen Safyre nad) He is supposed to have gone to 
Slmerifa gegangen fein f America lost year. 

Rem. 1. €>0flttt is nsed in many hypothetical and conditional sentences : 
€>te f ottCK aud) nod) f o reid) fein — Should they be ever so rieh— 
©erat er morgen fterben foKtt — If be shoold die to-morrow — 

Rem. 2. €>0lfat is sometünee employed to express in past time an action 
that was beginning when anöther action took place : 

2)a« <ßferb foHtt eben bertouft The hone was just to be sold when 
trerben, ba flarb e«, it died. 

Rem. The independent verb (as tyun, getyen, bebeuten) is often understood i 
2öa« f 00 td) tyier ? What shall I (do) here ? 

€>0tt bie Xifüx auf ober JU? Shell the door stay open or shut ? 

SBogu j oK ba« ? What is the ose of that ? 

2)a« Ijat er gtf Ottt, He oaght to have done it 

§ 164. Conjugation of the verb fotletu 

Rem, The Translation to be giren to the Potential Verbs varies greatly 
aecording to circumstances, as is seen in the remarks on foften » The defini- 
tions giren in the paradigms are therefore to be understood simply as being 
among the more usnal ones. 

Principal Parts : f OÖClt, f ofltc, (jef oflh 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 8TJBJUNOTIVB MOOD. 

Prcsent Tenet, 



iu> foff, I oaght 

bu fott'ft, thoaoughtest 

er fott, he oaght. 

nrir fott*tlt, we ought 

i$r folt*(c)t, you ought 

fie fott*tn, they oaght 



tu) fottstf, I shoold. 
bu fott*fcfy thou shouldest 
er fott'tt, he shoold. 
tinr fott*tat, we shoold. 
tyr folgtet, you should. 
flc folgten, they should. 



tä> fofct, I ought* 
bu fott*Cft, thoaoughtest 
er folt*e* he oaght 
nrir foU«en, we oaght 
u)r fott* et, yoa oaght. 
fie foll*Ctt, they oaght 

Imperfect Tense. 

in) fou^tt, I shoold. 
bu fott* tefl, thoa shouldest 
er fotl*t€, he should. 
nrir fott* tttt, we should. 
ifcr fotl*ttt, you should. 
fie fott* tOt f they should. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 

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342 



THE VERB. 



[§ 164. 



Perfect 


Zfew. 


I hare beea obliged, etc. 


I havo been obliged, etc. 


«$ trie gefottt (or fottea). 


i* trie gefottt (or fotten). 


bu $aft gefottt ( " fotten). 


bu $abeft gefottt ("fotten). 


er fat gefottt ("fotten). 


er $abe gefottt ("fotten). 


»ir Ipten gefottt ( " fotten). 


»ir fyibcn gefottt ( " fotten). 


i&r $obt gefottt ("fotten). 


ü)r $abet gefottt ("fotten). 


fie $aben gefeilt ( " fotten). 


fie $aben gefottt ("fotten). 


Pluperfect Tense. 


I had been obliged, e<c. 


I had been obliged, etc. 


i$ ttffe gefottt (orfottei). 


ty Wttt gefottt (orfaHtt). 


bu frotteft gefottt ( " fotten). 


bu frättefl gefottt (" fotten). 


er fatte gefollt (" fotten). 


er &5tte gefottt (" fotten). 


»ir Ratten gefottt (" fotten). 


»ir hätten gefottt (" fotten). 


tyr hattet gefottt ( " fotten) 


U)r $5ttet gefottt (" foflen). 


fie Ratten gefottt ( " fotten). 


fie Wtten gefottt (" fotten). 



Fint Future Tense. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

i$ »erbe fotten. 

bu nrirfi fotten. 
er »irb fotten. 
»ir »erben Rotten, 
tyr »erbet foflen. 
fie »erbeu fotten. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

i$ »erbt fotten. 

bu »erbeft fotten. 
er »erbe fotten. 
»ir »erben fotten. 
u)r »erbet fotten. 
fie »erben fotten. 



Second Futttre Tense. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

i$ »erbt gefallt tritt, 
bu »irft gefottt ^oben. 
er ttrirb gefottt ^aben. 
»ir »erben gefottt faben. 
tyr »erbet gefottt ^aben. 
fie »erben gefottt faben. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

t$ »erbe gefottt toben. 

bu »erbefl gefottt faben. 
er »erbe gefottt ^aben. 
»ir »erben gefottt fytben. 
tyr »erbet gefottt $abeiu 
fie »erben gefottt taben. 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I would or should be obliged, etc. 

iäf »Ürbe fotten^or i$ faflfc (Imperfect Subjunctivel 
- - - - - -t bu f oDte p «t 

' er fottte " 

' »ir fottten " 

tfyr fottten " 

fie fottten " 



bu ȟrbefl fotten, 4 
er ȟrbe fotten, * 
»ir »ttrben fotten, * 
tyr ȟrbet fotten, 
fie ȟrben fotten, 



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§ 164-166.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 343 

Perfect Tenae. 
I woald or should hare beeil obliged, etc. 
t$ »tirbC ÖCfOÜt *0bcn, or iä) tyltte gefOttt (Pluperfect Svbj.y 
bu »ürbeft gefaßt faben, " bu frätteft gefüllt 
et würbe gefüllt tyaben, " er $ätte gefeilt 
ttnr würben gefüllt fyaben, " wir gärten gefüllt 
tyr würbet gefüllt $abcn, " ü)r Rittet gefüllt 
fie würben gefeilt tyaben, " fie Ratten gefüllt 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. \*UtU, to be obliged. I Per/. gefüllt JttJeit, to bare been 

I obliged. 

PÄBTICIPLES. 
Pre$. \ Btttttb, being obliged. | P«/. gefollt, been obliged. 

§ 165. The Potential Verb toottcn usually signifies wzT- 
UngnesSy indination, de&ire, intention, or determmation: 
(Er toitt nic^t mit und getyen, He is not willing (or does not wish) 

to go with os. 
3$ tritt gtei^ flehen, I will go immediately. 

©ie tonnen tyun toa« ©ie wollen, You may do what you like. 
Rem, 1 . SBoOttt frequently denotes that an action is about to take place : 

2)ie Wjr wollte eben fölagen, The dock was about to strike. 

Rem. 2. It may be nsed to indicate that an assertion has been made by 
anotber person : 

Cr will ben Kometen, »deiner er* He asserts that he has already seen 
»artet wirb, f^on gefefyen fyaben, the comet that is expected. 
Ran. 3. The independent verb is often omitted : 
Sto« iDOtttn @ie (faben)? What do you wish? 

SBa« &at er gewollt (or tyaben Wül* What did he wish ? 
len)? 

§ 166. Conjugation of the verb tooSett (see § 16i,Hem.). 
Principal Parts: tooflen, tooflte, getooöt. 

INDICATTVE MOOD. SUBJUNCnVE MOOD. 

Present Tenm. 
i<$ ttitt/ I am willing. 

bu wittft, thouart willing. 

er will, he is willing. 

toxi toolUtn, we are willing. 
ü)r »üll*(C)t, you are willing. 
fie tt> H - ett, they are willing. 



tty W0ll*e, I am willing.* 
bu Wülüeft, thou art willing. 
er rooÜ*e, he is willing. 
wir toofl-en, we are willing, 
iljr woH*tt you are willing. 
fie wölken, they are willing. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 

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344 



THE VERB. 



[§ 166. 



hmperfect Tarne. 



tä) MlUte, I was wffling. 
btt tOCtt*tef, thou wast wilhng. 
Ct toott*te, he was wüling. 
tott toolUtrt, we were wüling. 
Ü)t toctt*tet, you were wffling. 
pC tOolUtct, they were wüling. 



id? »0tt4e, I was wüling. 
bu toolUteft, thoa wast wüling. 
er tOott*te, he was wüling. 
toit toott*tet, we were wüling. 
ü)t toott*tet, yoo were wüling. 
fle toott*ttt, they were wüling. 



Per/«* Tarn. 



I have heen wüling, etc. 

i$ |ole gewttt (or MffeiO» 
bu (oft getoottt (" tootten). 
et fror gesollt (" tootten). 
toit (oben gewollt (" tootten). 
ü)t fytbt getoottt (" trotten), 
fle (oben getoottt (" tootten). 



I bare been wüling, etc. 

t$ |0le gtlMlt (or Holet)» 

bn $obefl getoottt ( u trotten), 

et fcobe getoottt (" trotten), 

toit (oben getoottt ( 4C tootten). 

ü)t bobet getoottt (" tootten). 

fle (oben getoottt (" tootten). 



Pbtperfect Tense. 



I had been wüling, etc. 

ty fcotte getoottt (or tootteuX 

btt fcottefl getoottt (" tootten). 



et $otte getoottt 
toit Rotten getoottt 



(" tootten). 
(" tootten). 



ü)t Rottet getoottt (" tootten). 
fie Ratten getoottt (" tootten). 



Ihad 
iä) \>ättt 
bu (Ättefl 
et ffittt 
toit (Stten 
tytftfttet 
fie Ritten 



been wüling, etc. 

geüottt (or Hottet), 
getoottt (" tootten). 
getoottt (" tootten). 
getoottt (" tootten). 
getoottt (" tootten). 
getoottt (" tootten). 



First Future Tense. 



I shaU be wüling, etc. 

td? »erbe »äffet« 
bu totrft tootten. 
et toitb tootten. 
toit toetben tootten. 
ü)t toetbet tootten. 
fie toetben tootten. 



I shaü be wüling, etc. 

ty »erbe »offen» 
bu toerbeß tootten. 
et toetbe tootten. 
toit toetben tootten. 
U)t toerbet tootten. 
fie toetben tootten. 



Second Futtere Tense. 



I shaU have been wüling, etc. 

ity mäht ge»iffti*iet. 
bu totrfl getoottt (oben, 
et toitb getoottt (oben, 
toit toetben getoottt (oben. 
u)t toetbet getoottt (oben, 
fie toetben getoottt faben. 



I shaü have been wüling, etc. 

id) »erbe getulttttet* 

bu toerbefl getoottt (oben, 
et toetbe getoottt (oben, 
toir toerben getoottt boben. 
ü)r toerbet getoottt baten, 
fle toerben getoottt faben. 



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§ 166, 167.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 345 

(X>NDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would or shoold be willing, etc. 
t<$ Würbe Wollen, or i$ Wollte (Imperfect Subjtmctive). 

bu würbeft wollen, " bu woUtef* " " 

et würbe wollen, " et wollte " " 

wir würben wollen, " wir wollten " " 

ü)r würbet Wollen, " tyr wolltet " " 

Jlc würben Wollen, " fle Wollten " 4< 

Per/ec* r«i*e. 
I would or shoold have been wflling, ete. . 

i# würbe gewollt toten, or i$ tStte gewollt (P/«p. Subj.) 

bu tDüTbcß gewollt faben, " bu tyitteji gewollt 

er Würbe gewollt $aben, " er $ätte gewollt 

wir würben gewollt fraben, " wir Ritten gcwoflt 

ü)r würbet gewollt ffdbm, " ü)r Rittet gewollt 

fle würben gewollt fyiben, " fle Ritten gewollt 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



ÜOfft (bn), be wflling. 
Mtte er, let him be willing. 



WOttenWtr, let ns be willing. 

ttOttCt (tyr), *» willing. 

Wollen fle, let them be willing. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Wollen, to be willing. I Per/. gewollt tote*, to have been 

I willing. 

PABTICIPLES. 
Pres. Wollenb, being willing. | Per/. gewollt, been willing. 

§ 167. The Potential Verb XiwXtVi indicates: 

1. Moral orjDhysicaljMssibitity : 

<8r tam lefen unb föreitat, He can read and write. 

2. A concession or contingency: 

% @ie lümteit mu$ erwarten, Ton may expect me. 

3äf lam m\6) geirrt $a&en, I may have been migtoken. 

3. The independent verb (as t$un, fagen, lefen, fpre^en, 
Berten, etc.) is frequently omitted : 

©a« faxt i$ bafür (tfrun)? How can I help it? 

3<t f Ott! ni$t Wetter, I can do nothing more. 

<5r $ot e« gewollt, aber er tyrt e« He wished (to do) it, bat he was not 
»tyt gefönt, able (to do) it 

P2 

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346 



TBE TERB. 



[§168, 



1 168. CoDJugation of BtBCB (*«? § 164, J?<ot.): 
Principal Parts: Bntl, bitte, gtffUL 

6LBJLÄCT1VE M00OL 
Prtatmt Tau*. 

«$ Gm**, I «■.• 



DTDfCATIYS MOOD. 



b* Iaaa«9, 
er im, he 

»ir trautes, we 
top ö«Ke)t, yoo 
fic te«s<C8, they 



hl 

er Bot*, he ca. 
»ir fran^ca, we ca. 
tbr trautet, tos caa. 
fie tra*>ca, they ca. 

Impafeet Taue. 



fcfr kannte, I corfd. 

bn teuu«tef, thoocooldst. 

er tonn*tr, he 
toir teuU'tia, we 
tyr tonU'tet, yoo eoold. 

fie teaft'tca, they eoold. 

Per/ect Tt 
I bare been able, etc. 

ty labe %dmt (orttmun). 

bn |ajt getraut (" trauen). 
er ty& getraut (" trauen), 
»ir fpbm getraut (" trauen). 
i|r |obt getrant (" tranen). 
fie |obeu getrant (" fönnen). 



k| Saa4r, I eoold. 
bn tcnn'trV, thoBcowte. 
er tiun<tt, he eoold. 
»tr t*un*tta, we eoold. 
ü>r t?nu*tet, yoo eoold. 
fie teun*teu, they eoold. 



I have been able, efc 

idf |tlc |etmt(orfincaX 

bu frobeß getrant (" Bauen), 
er ffdbt getonnt (" Bnen). 
unr |oben getrant (" trancn> 
ü)r frobet getrant (" trauen), 
fie $aben getonnt (" Bunen). 



Plmperfeet Taue. 



I had been able, etc. 

td) litte getiatt (or Saaea} 

b* |otteß getraut (" Stauen), 
er |atte getrant («* Stauen), 
loa Ratten getonnt (" trauen). 
i|r Rottet getrant (*• trauen), 
fie Ratten getonnt (" tbnnen). 



I •hell be able, etc. 

io) »erbe fihomu 
bn »trft Butten, 
er »trb Buuen. 
tot »erben trauen« 
fie »erbet Bunen. 
»tr »erben tonnen. 



I had been able, etc. 

in) litte gefiaat (or Hanta), 
bu ^utiep getonnt (** tranen). 
er |3tte getrant (" tranen). 
mir |ätten getrant (" tarnten). 
\i>x ffitut getrant (" Birnen), 
fie |5tteu getarnt (" tbnnen). 
Firtt Futwre Taue, 

I shell be able, etc. 

i$ »erbe Baaea. 
bu »erbeß Runen, 
er »erbe Bunen« 
»ir »erben trauen. 
vyt »erbet Butten* 
fie »erben Butten. 



* See Sobjanetive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 168, 169.] POTENTIAL VEBBS. 347 



Secand Futvre Tenae. 



I shall havo been able, etc. 

i$ »erbe getonnt laben, 
bu »ir|t getonnt fyiben. 
er »irb getonnt ^abat. 
»ir »erben getonnt fcabeu. 
tyr »erbet getonnt faben. 
fie »erben getonnt $aben. 



I shall hare been able, e/c. 

in) »erbe getonnt i*hau 
bu »erbefi getonnt tyaben* 
er »erbe getonnt $abeiL 
»ir toerben getonnt fyaben. 
ü)r »erbet getonnt faben* 
fie »erben getonnt tyabetu 



OONDHIONAL MOOD. 
Fresent Tenae. 
I woald or shonld be able, etc. 
i$ ÜÜrbe föRRttt, or id) tonnte (Lnper/ect Svbjvnctive). 

bu »ürbejUönnen, " bu tönnteft " " 

er ȟrbe Wnnen, " er Wimte " " 

»ir »ürben Wimen, " »ir tonnten " " 

tyr ȟrbet tonnen, " u)r tonntet " " 

fie »ürben tonnen, " fie «tonten " M 

Perfect Tenae. 
I woald or should have been able, etc. 

fo) toiirbt getemtt baben, or ity bätte gelaunt (PI S*bj.). 

bu ȟrbeft getonnt fyaUA, " bu ^fitteft getonnt 

er ȟrbe getonnt $aben, " er ^Stte getonnt 

»ir »ürben getonnt baben, " »ir Ratten getonnt 

ü)r »ürbet getonnt baben, " u)r hättet getonnt 

fie »ürben getonnt $aben, " fie gärten getonnt 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. tfallCM, to be able. j Per/, gefilmt faltl, to bare been 

I able. 

FABTICIPLE8. 
Pres. Hnnenb, being able. | Per/, getOttUt, been able. 

§ 169. The Potential Verb mögen indicates: 

1. Permission or concession (like may in English): 
2)u mogft gefcn, Thou mayst go. 

<5r mag ein tapferer 8o!bat fein, (I concede that) he may be a brave 

soldier. 

2. Dewre or liking (especially in the imperf. subj.) : 
3<$ muffte »iffen, I shonld like to know. 
9R84tit & bo<$ gef 0>e$en, Oh, that it might happen ! 

3tt) fflbt e« nio)t t^un mlgtU, I did not like to do it 

3d) Wag e9 tym ttt<$t fagen, I shonld not like to say it to him. 



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348 



THE VERB. 



[§ 170. 



§ 170. Conjugation of mögen (see § 164, Hern.): 
Principal Parts: mögen, motyte, gemotyt 

INDICAUVB MOOD. SUBJUNCnVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



t$ wm, 


I may. 


td) m&frt. I may.* 
bu mög*e{t, thou mayst 


toi «agfi, 


thou mayst 


er ma%, 


he may. 


et mög*e, he may. 


»tr mög*cg, 


we may. 


mir mög*e*, we may. 


tyr mög<e)t, 


you may. 


ü)r mög*tt, you may. 


fle raög*e», 


they may. 


fle mög-e«, they may. 




Imperfect Tense. 



id) mndjMt, I might. 
bu mod>tefi, thou mightest. 
er mochte, he might 
wir modVte«, we might 
ifcr motytttf you might. 
fle motten, they might 



td) XXÜfytt, I might 

bu möd)*tefl, thou mightest 

er raöd>te, he might 

mir möd)«tei, we might 

ü)r mö$*tet, you might 

fle motten, they might 



Perfect Tense. 



I have been permitted, etc. 

id) Jofc gou4t (or mügett). 
bu $oft gemod}t (" mögen). 
er tyd gemod)t (" mögen), 
mir (oben gemocht (" mögen). 
ü)r jobt gemod)t (" mögen). 
fle toben gemocht (" mögen). 



I have been permitted, ete. 

td) loie genügt (ormägen). 
bu $abefl gemodjt (" mögen), 
er tobe gemoa)t (" mögen), 
mir ^aben gemod)t (" mögen), 
tyr fyibet gemoty (" mögen), 
fle ffctom gemod)t (" mögen). 



Phperfect Tense. 



I had been permitted, etc. 

td) fotte genügt (orndgeu). 
bu fyrtteft gemodjt ("mögen), 
er fatte gemoty ("mögen), 
mir Rotten gemod)t (" mögen). 
ü)r Rottet genwd)t (" mögen), 
fle fyitteu gemod)t ("mögen). 



I had been permitted, etc. 

td) tyitte genügt (or mögen), 
bu tyitteft gemod)t ("mögen), 
er ^dtte gemo^t ("mögen), 
nrir ^tten gemod)t (" mögen), 
tyr Rottet gentod)t (" mögen), 
fle Ritten gemod)t ("mögen). 



First Fmtwre Tense. 



I ahall be permitted, etc. 

id) »erbe mögen. 
bn mirß mögen, 
er wirb mögen, 
mir roerben mögen. 
ü)r »erbet mögen, 
fle roerben mögen. 



I ahall be permitted, etc. 

f$ »erbt möge*. 

bu roerbefl mögen, 
er »erbe mögen, 
mir roerben mögen. 
ü)r roerbet mögen, 
fle »erben mögen. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 170, 171.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 349 



Second Futurs Ten*«. 



I shall ha vo beeil permitted, etc. 

id? »erbe gcmo^t Jjoben. 

bu wirft gemo^t fyaben. 
er ttrirb gemocht tyaben. 
mir werben gemocht $abem 
ü)r Kerbet gemo^t (oben, 
fie »erben gento^t ty&tü. 



I shall have been permitted, etc. 

\% »erbe genügt faben. 

bu tocrbefl gemocht tyabcn. 
er toerbe gemotzt tyaben. 
wir werben gemotzt tyaben. 
tyr werbet gemotzt ty&m. 
fie werben gemoty $abem 



OONDITTONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I woald or shoald be permitted, etc. 
W> Würbe miigtn, or \ä) ntü^tt (Imperfect Subjunctive). 

bu würbefl mögen, " bu mdtyefl " " 

er würbe mögen, " er möchte " " 

wir würben mögen, " wir motten " 4i 

i&r würbet mögen, " i$r mottet " " 

fit würben mögen, " fie motten " " 

Pec/%e< Tense. 
I woald or shoald have been permitted, etc. 

ty würbe geuwdjt baben, or w) lütte geuwdjt (PUp.Sub.). 

bu würbep gemo^t $aben, " bu ^ätteft gemußt " " 

er würbe gemocht faben, " er Ifittt gemoä)t " " 

wir würben gemußt (oben, " wir Ratten gtmo^t •' " 

tyr würbet gemocht $aben, " tyr hättet gemocht " " 

fie würben gemocht fabe», " fit Ratten genügt u " 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. mÜgC«, to be permitted. I Per/. gentodjt fabeil, to have been 

I permitted. 

PABTICIPLE8. 
/>«. laügenb, being permitted. | Per/. gettO^I, permitted. 

§ 171. The Potential Verb bfirfcil indicates: 

1. Fermission (by law, or by the will of another) : 
3eberm<mn borf ©äffen tragen, Every body can (legally) hear arms, 

aber niä)t jeber barf ba« ©üb bat not every body is permitted to 
föiegen, shoot wild game. 

3«fct bürft U)r fielen, Ton may play now. 

Rem. With a negative bürfen is OBoaDy translated by "must (not):" 

$ier bürfen ©ie nu$t rauchen, Toa mast not smoke here. 

2. Dürfen sometimes has the signification of " to take 

theliberty y "«todare:» 

<5tx borf ni$t lontmen o$ne bie <5r* He dares not come without the per- 
toubniß feine« $oter9, mission of hb fiither. 



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350 



THE TEBB. 



[§ 171, 172. 



3. It sometime8 ha« the signification of tnay or ean: 

Sir MtfOl «of infota 9rat«r WemaybeproodofoorbroAer. 
^of v$ tsiäf boranf toertoff en ? Cm I rehr npon tbat ? 

4. The imperfect subjunctive often signifies : 

L A logieal poeribffity : 
« Mbffc jefct jm fett fem, Itmaynowbetoolate. 

2. It may be nsed as a polite i 
form of a hjpocbeas : 
« ttrftc u*t W»er fein, ba* 

Bftt^lUDClful, 



t ander the 



Itmigbt aot be bard to prore tbat. 



5. The independent verb is often omitted : 
dr fy& wärt auegefcu bfrfci, He did aot daie go out. 

(bat)Chr^c*nu$getorf!, Hedidnotdare(do;ü. 

§ 172. Conjugation of fclrftl (see § 164, Rem.): 

IKDICATIVE MOOD. BLBJ LACTIV J£ MOOD. 

JrtstMt TtMMt* 



\6f feiff, I am permitted. 

b» bttf*ff, thoa art permitted. 

er tftff, be u permitted. 

tttr bftrf*tl, we arepermitted. 

tyr bftrf<e)t, yoa arepermitted. 

fie bfirf«CS, tbej arepermitted. 



ty Hrf*, I am permitted.* 
bn bfirf-tfr, thoa art permitted. 
er bfirf-e, be it permitted. 
ttrir bfirf«Ct, we arepermitted. 
tyr bfirf*ct, 70a arepermitted. 
fie bfirf'Ct, tbey arepermitted. 



Imperfect Taue, 



i$ tatf 4t, I was permitted. 
bn burf'itf, thoawast permitted. 
er burf-tt, be was permitted. 
»trburf»tt», we were permitted. 
if>r burf'ttt, yoa we re p er m itted. 
fie burf*ttS, tbey were permitted. 

Per/eet 

I bare been permitted, etc. 

id> |ale getarff (or blrfei). 

btt tytft geburft (" bflrfen). 
er H gebnrft (" bflrfen). 
totr fcben gebnrft (*' bfirfen). 
ü)r frabt gebnrft (" bflrfen). 
fie faben gebnrft (" bflrfen). 



t^ firf 4e r I was permitted. 
bn bflrf*trf,tboawast permitted. 
er bflrf'tt, be was permitted. 
twr bfirf *ttM, we were permitted. 
ü)r bflrf«ttt, yoa werepermitted. 
fie bfirf "tC*, tbey werep er mitted. 

Taue. 

I bare been permitted, etc. 

i« |tlc itbnrft (or bflrfea). 



bn $abeft geburft 
er fabe gebnrft 
twr ^aben geburft 
tbr $abet gebnrft 
fie faben geburft 



(" bflrfen). 
(" bflrfen). 
(" bflrfen). 
(" bflrfen). 
(" bflrfen). 



41 See SabjanctiTe Mood, § 124. 



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§ 172.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



351 



Phperfect Tense. 



I had been permitted, etc. 

id? tatte geburft (or bürfen)* 

bu fattep geburft (" bürfen). 
er $atte geburft (" bürfen). 
»tr Ratten geburft (** bürfen). 
tyr hattet geburft (" bürfen). 
fle Ratten geburft (" bürfen). 



I had been permitted, etc. 

i$ tötte gebnrft (or bürfen)* 
bu frättep geburft (" bürfen). 
er frätte geburft (" bürfen). 
»tr Ratten geburft (" bürfen). 
tyr fyttet geburft (" bürfen). 
fle Ritten geburft ( " bürfen). 



First Future Tense. 



I shall be permitted, etc. 

i$ »erbe bürfen« 

bu »irp bürfen. 
er »trb bürfen. 
»ir »erben bürfen. 
tyr »erbet bürfen. 
fle »erben bürfen. 



I shall be permitted, etc. 

i$ »erbe bürfen» 

bu »erbep bürfen. 
er »erbe bürfen. 
»tr »erben bürfen. 
tyr »erbet bürfen. 
pe »erben bürfen. 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall bare been permitted, etc. 

t$ »erbe gebnrft taben. 

bu »irft geburft tyaben. 
er »irb geburft fybtn. 
»ir »erben geburft faben. 
ü)r »erbet geburft tyaben. 
fle »erben geburft tyaben. 



I shall bare been permitted, etc. 

in) »erbe gebnrft toben. 

bu »erbep geburft fyoben. 
er »erbe geburft tyaben. 
»tr »erben geburft taben. 
i&r »erbet geburft &aben. 
fle »erben geburft tyabcn. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I would or should be permitted, etc. 

ty »Ürbe bürfen, or tä) bBrfte (Imperfect Subjunctive). 
bu bürfteft 
er bürfte 
»ir bürften 
ü)r bürftet 
pe bürften 

Perfect Tense. 

I would or should have been permitted, etc. 

io) »ürbe gebnrft taten, or i$ tätte gebnrft (Pluperfect Subj.). 

bu tfittep geburft 
er &Stte geburft 
»tr fetten geburft 
u)r hattet geburft 
pe Ratten geburft 



bu ' »ürbep bürfen, 
er »ürbe bürfen, " 
»tr »ürben bürfen, *' 
ü)r »ürbet bürfen, " 
Pe »ürben bürfen, " 



bu ȟrbep geburft fraben, 
er ȟrbe geburft faben, 
»ir »ürben geburft faben, 
tyr ȟrbet geburft faben, 
pe ȟrben geburft tyaben, 



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342 



THE VERB. 



[§ 164. 



Perfect 
I hare been obliged, etc. 

t$ {jabe gefottt (or fotten). 

bu faft gefottt ( " fotten). 
er fat gefottt ("fotten). 
»tr fcaben gefottt ( " foEen). 
t&r fabt gefottt ("fotten). 
fic ^abcn gefottt ( " fotten). 



Tense. 



I havo been obliged, etc. 

td> {jabe gefottt (or fotten)* 
bu &abeft gefottt ("fotten). 

gefottt ( " fotten). 

gefoUt ( " fotten). 

gefoUt ("fotten). 

gefeilt (" fotten). 



er 



»ir tyabcn 
tyr tyabet 
fte $aben 



Pluper/ect Tense. 



I had been obliged, etc. 

i$ Jatte gefaßt (or fotten). 

btt ^atteft gefottt ( " fotten). 

er $atte gefottt (" fotten). 

»tr Ratten gefottt ( " fotten). 

tyr Rottet gefottt ( " fotten). 

fle Ratten gefottt ( " fotten). 



I had been obliged, etc. 

t$ {jtitte gefottt (or fetten)* 

bu fytttefi gefottt (" fotten), 
er fcStte gefottt (" fotten). 
»tr fcätten gefottt (" fotten). 
ü)r hättet gefottt (" fotten). 
fle Wtten gefottt (" fotten). 



First Future Tense. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

td; »erbe fotten. 
bu »trft fotten. 
er totrb fotten. 
»tr »erben "fotten. 
i&r »erbet fotten. 
fte »erben fotten. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

id? »erbe fotten» 

bu »erbeft fotten. 
er »erbe fotten. 
»ir »erben fotten. 
tyr »erbet fotten. 
fte »erben fotten. 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

i$ »erbe gefottt Haben* 
bu »trft gefottt fytbcn. 
er »trb gefottt ^aben. 
»tr »erben gefottt tyabcn. 
Ü)r »erbet gefottt ^aben. 
fle »erben gefottt $aben. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

\$ »erbe gefottt laben» 

bu »erbejt gefottt faben. 
er »erbe gefottt fttben. 
»ir »erben gefottt tyaben. 
u)r »erbet gefottt faben. 
fle »erben gefottt tyaben. 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would or should be obliged, fte. 
\$ »firbe fotten, or t$ f Ottte (Jmperfect Subjunctive). 

- ■ ~ -~ bu fottteft " " 

er fottte " " 

»ir fottten " " 

tyr fottten " " 

fle fottten " " 



bu ȟrbeft fotten, 

er ȟrbe fotten, " 

»ir »ürben fotten, " 

tyr ȟrbet fotten, " 

fie ȟrben fotten, " 



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§ 164-166.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 343 

Perfect Ten*. 
I woold or should have been obliged, etc. 
to) Mtbt %t\m\}übtn,or iä) tyüttt $t\m (Pluperfect Subj.). 

bu mürbefl gefottt $aben, " bu ^attefl gefottt " 

et mfitbe gefoEt faben, " et $a*tte gefollt " 

mit »Arbeit flcjoüt $aben, " mit Ratten gefüllt " 

tyt mfltbet gefottt faben, u tyt fytttet gefollt " 

fie mfltben gefoUt $aben, " fie Ratten gefollt " 

INFINITIVE HOOD. 
iVe#. ff fl«, to be obliged. I Per/: gefO ttt Jäten, to have been 

I obliged. 

PABTICIFLES. 
Pres, f f UtUb, being obliged. | Per/, gCföHt, been obliged. 

§ 165. The Potential Verb iDoOctt usually eignifies wil- 
Ungnes8y inclination, destre y Intention^ or determvnation : 
<$r tritt mä)t mit un« ge&en, He is not willing (or does not wish) 

to go with ns. 
3$ toiV gleich ge&en, I will go immediately. 

@ie tonnen tyun ma3 ©te motten, You may do what von like. 
«Sem. 1. Statten frequently denotes that an acüon is about to take place : 

2He U$r tOf ttte eben Wogen, The dock was about to strike. 

Rem. 2. It may be nsed to indicate that an a&sertion has been made by 
another person : 

(St toltt ben floateten, meldet et* He asserts that he has already seen 
mattet mirb, föon gefe^en fyiben, the comet that is expected. 
Rem. 3. The independent verb is often omitted : 
ffia« tOOtte» ©te ftaben)? What do you wish? 

Söa« $at et getOOttt (or Reiben mol* What did he wish ? 
len)? 

§ 166. Conjugation of the verb tOoKett {see% 164, Bern). 
Principal Parts: tofttctt, tooOtC, getooflt 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 8UBJUNCTTVE MOOD. 

Preweni Temt. 

t<$ U$fl*t, I am willing.* 
bn ftotüeft, thou art willing. 
et mottle, he is willing. 



t<$ ttitt/ I ftm willing. 

bu tDiflfl, thou art willing. 



et tüttt, he is willing. 

mit XOOlUtU, we are willing. 
Ü)t tooU*(t)t, you are willing. 



mit moH-Ctt/ we are willing. 
tbt mott*et you are willing. 
fie m 1 1 - ttt, they are willing. i fie motten, they are willing. 
* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. " 



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344 



THE VERB. 



[§ 166. 



Imperfect Tense. 



i$ Mft'te, 
bu tooiMejI, 
er toolWe, 
toir toolWe», 
$r toolMet, 
fie tooll'tetl, 



I was willing. 
thou wast willing. 
he was willing. 
we were willing. 
you were willing. 
they were willing. 



io) tOtfcte, I was willing. 
bu toofl*teft, thou wast willing. 
er toolUte, he was willing. 
toir toofl*tett, we were willing. 
u)t tooll*tet, you were willing. 
fie toott'tttt, they were willing. 



iVr/ecf Tense. 



bu 



I have been willing, etc. 

fyibe gefront (or Mttei)» 



er 



^afl getoollt 
bat getoollt 
toit fyiben getoollt 
u)t $abt getoollt 
fie tyaben getoollt 



(" toollen). 
(" toofleu). 
(" toollen). 
(" toollen). 
(" tooflen). 



I have been willing, etc. 

t$ tiabe getoollt (or Mtfen)« 



bu fyibeft getoollt 

er $abe getoollt 

tott tyaben getoollt 

tyr babet getoollt 

fie fyiben getoollt 



(" toollen). 
(" tooflen). 
(" tooflen). 
(" tooflen). 
(" toofleu). 



Pluperfect Tense. 



I had been willing, etc. 

i$ {jatte getoollt (or toollen)« 

bu jftttefi getoollt (" toollen). 
er $atte getoollt (" toollen). 
toit Ratten getoollt (" toollen). 
tyt Rottet getoollt (" toollen). 
fle Ratten getoollt (" toollen). 



Ihad 
ty bättt 
bu ^ttcfi 
er tytae 
toit fy&tten 
itrtytttet- 
fie Ratten 



been willing, et c 
getoollt (or fcOtfCU). 
getoollt (" toollen). 
getoollt (" toollen). 
getoollt (" toollen). 
getboflt (" toollen). 
getoollt (" toollen). 



First Futwre Taue. 



I shall be willing, etc. 

td? nerbe toolleu. 
bu toirft toofleu. 
er toirb toollen. 
toir toerbeu toofleu. 
u)r toerbet toollen. 
fie toerbeu toollen. 



I shall be willing, etc. 

i$ toerbe toollen. 
bu toerbefl toollen. 
er toerbe toollen. 
toir toerbeu toollen. 
tyr toerbet toollen. 
fie toerbeu toollen. 



Second Futwre Tense. 



I shall have been willing, etc. 

i$ »erbe getutt* laben, 
bu toirft getoollt fytben. 
er toirb getoollt faben. 
toir toerbeu getoollt faben. 
tyr toerbet getoollt $abcn. 
fie toerbeu getoollt fyiben. 



I shall have been willing, etc. 

ty nerbe getoollt fcobeu. 
bu toerbefl getoollt faben. 
et toerbe getoollt b«&en. 
toir toerbeu getoollt baben. 
ibt toerbet getoollt babat. 
fie toerben getoollt baben. 



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§ 166, 167.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 345 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
I would or should be willing, etc. 
i$ tPÜtbe »OflCU, or iäf lOOtttt (Jmperfect Subjuactive). 
bu toürbefl »otten, " bu »oUtcfl " 
er »firbe toollra, " er tooflte " 

tote toftrben tooflra, " tote tooUten " 
tyr tofirbet Motten, " tyr tooHtet " 
Jk toftrben tooüen, u fte tooUten " 

Per/ect Tense. 
I would or should have been wHling, «fc. . 

i<$ »tobe gtmottt ^en, or i$ ^ättc gemottt (P/19. Subj.) 

bu toürbeßgetoottt $aben, " bu tyittcfi gewollt 
er toürbe getootft fyioen, " er $ätte getooUt 

tote toürben gewollt fyiben, " tote fcätten gewollt 

tyr toflrbet gewollt fraben, " tyr Rittet gewollt 

fle toftrben gewollt faBen, " fie Ratten gewollt 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



UOtte (bu), be willing. 
feOtte er, let him be willing. 



tOOtttntote, let us be willing. 

Wttet (tyr),be willing. 

tOOffeu fle, let them be willing. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Mflen, to be willing. I J?<# getPOttt tttfett, to have been 

I willing. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. tDOtteub, being willing. | Per/. getOOttt, been willing. 

§ 167. The Potential Verb fÖttttCtt indicates: 

1. Moral orjphysicaZjpossibüity: 

Cr faxt Iefen uub (Reiben, He can read and write. 

2. A conoession or contingency : 

„ €5ie Üwnei nti$ ertoarten, Ton may expect me. 

3$ !0UU ttnä) geirrt fyaben, I may have been mistaken. 

3. The independent verb (as t&un, fa^cn, lefen, fprcd)«t, 
Berjlctycn, *fc.) is frequently omitted : 

©a« !a*n t$ bafftr (t^uu)? How can I help it? 

3$ tom nic$t toeiter, I can do nothing more. 

ör |jfat e* getoollt, aber er fyd e* He wished(to do)it, bat he was not 
mty gefoult, able (to do) it. 

P2 

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34G 



THE VERB. 



[§ 168. 



§ 168. Conjugation of töttttCtt (see § 164, Hern.) : 
Principal Parts: fömtCIt, foittttC, gelottltt. 



INDIOATTVE MOOD. 

i$ faUU, I can. 

bU fOlUt'ft, thou canst. 
er famt, he can. 
totr Wnn*en, we can. 
tyr Wnn<e)t, you can. 
fie Wnn*ett, they can. 



SüBJUNCnVE MOOD. 
Pretent Tense. 

t<$ I6nn*, I can.* 
bu töiui'Cft, thou canst. 
er Wmt't, he can. 
toir Wnn*eu, we can. 
tyr Wnn*et, you can. 
fic törat'CM, they can. 



Imper/ect Tense. 



i<$ tonnte, i could. 

bu t o n n * teft, thou conldst. 
er tonn*te, he could. 
toir tonn-ten, we coold. 
tyr tonn*tet, you could. 
fie tonn*ttU, they could. 



t$ XiV0L*ttf I could. 
bu tönn*teft, thoucouldst 
et Unri'tt, he could. 
toir t8nn*ten, we could. 
ü)r fo*nu*tet, you could. 
fte f önu*ten, they could. 



Per/ect Tense. 



I have been able, etc. 

i<$ Habe gefonnt (or Hünen). 

bu ^ofl gefonnt (" tonnen), 
et &ot gelonnt (" tonnen), 
totr $oben getonnt (" tonnen), 
tyr tyobt getonnt (" tonnen). 
fie ^oben getonnt (" tonnen). 



I have been able, etc. 

id> {jabe gef onttt (or tonnen). 

bu (abefk getonnt (" tonnen), 
er fabe gefonnt (" Wunen), 
toir fcaben gefonnt (" Wnnen> 
i&r fabet gefonnt (" tonnen), 
fie $aben gefonnt (" tonnen). 

Plmperfect Tense. 



I had been able, etc. 

i$ (atte gefonnt (or Hmten)« 

bu fatteft gefonnt (" tonnen), 

er $atte getonnt (" tonnen), 

toir Ratten getonnt (" tonnen), 

tyr Rottet gefonnt ('• tonnen), 

fie Ratten gefonnt ('* tonnen). 



I had been able, etc. 

t$ {jätte gefonnt (or tonnen). 

bu $fittefi getonnt (" Wimen), 
er $ätte getonnt (" tonnen), 
toir Ratten getonnt (" tonnen), 
tyr Rittet gefonnt ( u Wimen), 
fie Ratten getonnt (" Wunen). 



First Future Tense. 



I shall be able, etc. 

\6f toerbe fönneu. 

bu toirft tonnen, 

er totrb tonnen, 

ipr toerben tonnen, 

fie toerbet tonnen, 

toir toerben tonnen. 



I shall be able, etc. 

i$ toerbe tonnen. 
bu toerbeft tonnen, 
er toerbe Wimen, 
toir toerben Wimen. 
Ü)r toerbet Wimen, 
fie toerben Wimen. 



* See Subjunctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 168, 169.] POTENTIAL VERBS. 347 



Second Future Tense. 



I shall havo been able, etc. 

i$ »erbe gefonnt Gaben. 

bu »irft getonnt faben. 
er »irb getonnt tyaben. 
»ir »erben getonnt tyaben. 
t&r »erbet getonnt fcaben. 
fie »erben getonnt $aben. 



I shall have been able, etc. 

\d) »erbe getoirat Ionen 

bu »erbeft getonnt tyaben. 
er »erbe getonnt $aben. 
»tr »erben getonnt $abem 
tyr »erbet getonnt $aben. 
fle »erben getonnt $aben. 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Fresent Tense. 

I would or shoald be able, etc. 

\$ »tirbe tünne«, or i$ tonnte (Itnper/ect Subjvnctive). 



bu ȟrbef* tonnen, 
er »firbe tarnten, 
»ir »firben tonnen, 
tyr »firbet tonnen, 
fle »firben tonnen, 



bu tönnteft 

er töratte " <4 

»ir tonnten " ** 

tyr tonntet u " 

fle tonnten " " 

Perfect Tense. 

I would or ßhould have been able, etc. 

to} Ȋrbe getonnt Janen, or to} latte gebaut (PL S*bj.). 

bu »firbeji getonnt $abcrf, ** bu $ätteft getonnt " " 

er »ürbe gefonnt fcaben, " er tyätte getonnt " " 

»ir »ürben getonnt fyiben, " »ir Ratten getonnt " " 

tyr »ürbet getonnt $aben, " tyr gärtet getonnt u " 

fie ȟrben getonnt faben, " fie Ratten getonut " " 

INFINrnVE MOOD. 
Pres, tonne», to be able j Per/, getOttttt Jatei, to hare been 

I able. 

rARTTCIPLE8. 
Pres, töaaenb, being able. | Per/. gefonttt, been able. 

§ 169. The Potential Verb mögen indicates: 

1. Permission or concession (like rnay in English): 
2>u ttOgfl gefcn, Thon mayst go. 

Cr UtOg ein tapferer Solbat fein, (I concede that) he may be a brave 

soldier. 

2. Desire or liking (especially in the imperf. subj.) : 

34 fltüffye »iffen, I shonld like to know. 

Störte eö bo$ gef<$e$en, Oh, that it might happen ! 

So} $abe e« nio}t tyun ntige*, I did not like to do it. 

3o} Wag e$ tym irio}t fagen, I shonld not like to say it to him. 



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348 



THE VERB. 



[§ 170. 



§ 170. Conjugation of mögen (aee § 164, Sem.): 

Principal Parts: mögen, modjte, gemodjt. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

td) fltllg» I may. 

btt Qtagß, thoumayst 

CC fltag, he may. 

tont «150*01, we may. 

tyt mög«(e)t, you may. 

fie mög-t», they may. 



ßUBJUNCmVE MOOD. 
Prewn* Tfcwe. 

td) tttÖgsC, I may.* 
btt mög*ejit, thoa mayBt 
et mög*e, he may. 
tote mög-t», we may. 
tyt mög*et, you may. 
fie mög*en, they may. 



td) m*4*te, i might. 

bu m©d)*tcjt, thoa mightest 
et mochte, he might 
tont mocMeu, we might 
ü)t mod)*tet, you might 
fie motytt*, they might 



Imperfect Tense. 



id) ÜÜidMC/ I might 

bu möd)*tejt, thoa mightest 

et tnöd)*te, he might 

mit möd)*tek, we might 

ü)t möd)#tet f yoa might 

fie mty'ttn, they might 



Per/ect 


Tense. 


I have heen permitted, etc. 


I have been permitted, efe. 


fo) tobe genügt (or mügen). 


id) (nie gemodjt (orntfgtn). 


bu tytft gemod)t (" mögen). 


bu fabefi gemodjt (" mögen)« 


et ^at gemocht (" mögen). 


et $abe gentod)t (" mögen). 


to>tr $aben gemotzt (" mögen). 


mit fabeu gemod)t (" mögen). 


Ü)t fcbt gemodjt (" mögen). 


Ujr $abet gentod)t (" mögen). 


fie fyweu gemod)t (" mögen). 


fie $aben gemodjt (" mögen). 


Phperfö 


c* Toim. 


I had been permitted, ete. 


I had been permitted, etc. 


i*> Itttte genügt (omtfgei). 


id) tftte gemocht (or mögen). 


bu fattefi gemodjt ("mögen). 


bu fcfitteft gemod)t ("mögen). 


et fatte gentod)t (" mögen). 


et Wtte gemod)t ("mögen). 


mit Rotten gemod)t (" mögen). 


mit hätten gemod)t (" mögen). 


Ü)r Rottet geutod)t (" mögen). 


ü)t Wttet gemod)t (" mögen). 


fie Rottest gemodjt ("mögen). 


fie hätten geraod)t ("mögen). 


JftVtf F«A 


we Tense. 


I ahall be permitted, etc. 


I shall be permitted, efc. 


id) nerbe mögen. 


id) Herbe «tfgeiu 


bu toritft mögen. 


bu metbefi mögen. 


et toitb mögen. 


et toetbe mögen. 


tont toetben mögen. 


mit metben mögen. 


ü)t werbet mögen. 


U)t metbet mögen. 


fie werben mögen. 


fie metben mögen. 



* See Subjancüve Mood, § 124. 



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§ 170, 171.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



349 



Second FtUvre Tenu. 



I stall have been permitted, etc. 

id> »erbe gemocht baben. 
bu »irfl gemocht baben. 
er »irb gemocht tyaben. 
»ir »erben gemocht fyxbetu 
ü)r »erbet gemoä)t ^abeiu 
fie »erben genügt $aben. 



I shall have been permitted, etc. 

ta) »erbe gemodjt toben, 
bu »erbefi gemocht fyaben. 
er »erbe gemocht ^aben. 
»ir »erben gemocht faben. 
tyr »erbet gemocht $aben. 
fie »erben gemocht tyaben. 



bu »ürbefi mögen, 
er »ürbe mögen, 
»ir »ürben mögen, 
tyr »ürbet mögen, 
fie »ürben mögen, 



bu ȟrbefi gemocht &aben, 
er ȟrbe gemotzt &aben, 
»ir »ürben gemotzt fytbm, 
tt)r »ürbet gemocht ifäbtn, 
fie »ürben gemoä)t $aben, 



OONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present Taue. 
I would or shoald be permitted, etc. 
i* »Ürbe mügen, or tä) mö^te (Imper/ect Subjunctive). 
bu m3ä)teft " 
er mödjte " 

»ir möd)ten ** 
tbr mottet " 
fie möa)tcn " 
Per/ect Tetue. 
I would or shoald have been permitted, etc. 

i$ »Hrbe gemo^t laben, or iä) JStte gemoift (Püp.Svb.). 

bu ^ättcfi gemocht 
er b^tte gemotzt 
»ir fy&tten gemoä)t 
tyr hättet gemocht 
fie Ritten gemod/t 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, ttülgen, to be permitted. I Per/, genügt (oben, to ha?o been 

I permitted. 

PABTICIPLES. 
Pres, magert, being permitted. | Per/, gem$<frl, permitted. 

§ 171. The Potential Verb bfitfett indicates: 

1. Fermission (by law, or by the will of another) : 
3ebermann btttf ©äffen tragen, Every body can (legally) bear arms, 

aber ni<$t jeber batf ba« ffitfb bat not every body is permitted to 
Wiegen, shoot wild game. 

3tt}t bürft tyr fielen, Ton may play now. 

Rem. With a negative büffelt is nsoally translated by "must (not)" 

$ier bttrf tl ®ie nid)t raupen, Ton mast not smoke here. 

2. Dürfen sometimes has the signification of " to take 

thaliberty?«todare? 

<&x b«f nid)t fommen o$ne bie <8x* He dares not come withoat the per« 
taubniß feine« Bater«, mission of his father. 



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350 



THE VERB. 



[§ 171, 172. 



3. It 8ometime8 has the ßigüification of may or can: 
Söir bürfen auf unferen ©ruber We may be proud of oor brother. 

ftolj fein, 
$0Tf id) tm$ barauf berlaffcn ? Can I rely upon that ? 

4. The imperfect Bubjunetive often signifies: 

1. A logical possibility : 

& bttrftt jefct jn fcfit fein, It may now be too lata 

2. It may be used as a polite manner of making a Statement ander the 
form of a hypothesis : 

<5« bürfte nidjt fötoer (ein, ba« It might not be hard to prove that. 
nad)jutoetfen, 

5. The independent verb is often omitted : 
Cr ffat ni$t ausgeben bürfen, He did not dare go out 

(bat) Ott &at e* ni$t gebtttf t, He did not dare (doj it. 

§ 172. Conjugation of btttfen (M0 § 164, i?*m.): 

INDIOATIVB MOOD. ßUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Pretent Tense. 



in) borf, I ampermitted. 
bn barf*ft, thoa art permitted. 
er bttf, he is permitted. 
toir bürf*e», we are permitted. 
ü)r bürf*(e)t, yoa are permitted. 
fie bürf-CH f they are permitted. 



id) bürfee f I ampermitted.* 
bu bürf«eft, thou art permitted. 
er bürf*e, he is permitted. 
toir bürf*ett, we are permitted. 
tyr bürf*et, yoa are permitted. 
fie bürf*en> they arepermitted. 



Imperfect Ten$e. 



\ä) bWt\*tt, I was permitted. 
bu burf'ttft, thou wast permitted. 
er burf'te, he was permitted. 
toir burf'iteit, we were permitted. 
tyr b U r f * tttf yoa were permitted. 
fie burf'tCH, they were permitted. 



i$ bttrf4e f I was permitted. 
bu burf'ieß, thoa wast permitted. 
er bürf"te, he was permitted. 
toir b ü r f * ten, we were permitted. 
Ü)r bürf*ttt/ yoa were permitted. 
fie bürf'feft, they were permitted. 



Per/ect Tenee. 



I have been permitted, etc. 

io> labe geburft (or bürfen). 
bu faft geburft (" bürfen). 
ex &at geburft (" bürfen). 
nrir faben geburft (*' bürfen). 
tyr ^abt geburft (" bürfen). 
fie $aben geburft (" bürfen). 



I have been permitted, etc. 

id) (abe oebnrft (or bürfen). 
bu $abc{t geburft (" bürfen). 
er $abe geburft (" bürfen). 
toir $aben geburft (" bürfen). 
u)r fabet geburft (" bürfen). 
fie $aben geburft (" bürfen). 



♦See Subjanctive Mood, § 124. 



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§ 172.] 



POTENTIAL VERBS. 



351 



Pluper/ect 
I had been permitted, etc. 

i$ |atte geburft (or bürfen), 
bu fcatteft geburft (" bürfen). 
et fatte geburft (" bürfcn). 
»ir Rotten geburft (" bürfcn). 
ü)r hattet geburft (" bürfen). 
fle Ratten geburft (" bürfen). 



Tense. 

I had been permitted, etc. 

i* |otte geburft (or bürfen)* 
bu &ättejt geburft (" bürfen). 
er $ätte geburft (" bürfen). 
»tr Ratten geburft ( " bürfen). 
tyr mattet geburft (" bürfen). 
fle Ritten geburft (" bürfen). 



First Futwre Tenae. 



I shall be permitted, etc. 

i$ »erbt bürfen» 

bu nnrft bürfen. 
er »irb bürfen. 
wir »erben bürfen. 
ü)r »erbet bürfen. 
fle »erben bürfen. 



I shall be permitted, etc. 

i$ »erbe bürfen» 

bu »erbeft bürfen. 
er »erbe bürfen. 
»ir »erben bürfen. 
tyr »erbet bürfen. 
fle »erben bürfen. 



Second Futwre Tense. 



I ßhall have been permitted, etc. 

\6) »erbe gebnrft laben, 
bu »irft geburft tyaben. 
er »irb geburft &abcn. 
»ir »erben geburft faben. 
u)r »erbet geburft $aben. 
fle »erben geburft $abcn. 



I shall hare been permitted, etc. 

t$ »erbe aebnrft loten, 
bu »erbefi geburft Ijaben. 
er »erbe geburft baben. 
»ir »erben geburft tyabcn. 
t&r »erbet geburft faben. 
fle »erben geburft fytben. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

I woald or shonld be permitted, etc. 

i$ »Hebe bürfen, or i<$ bHrfte {Imperfect Subjunctive). 
--------- bu bürftefi 

er bürfte 
»ir bürften 

ü)r bürftet 

fle bürften 

Per/ect Tense. 
I would or should have been permitted, etc. 

\$ mürbe gebnrft laben, or i<$ |Stte gebnrft (Pluper/ect Subj.). 

bu ^fitteft geburft 
er $ätte geburft 
»ir Ratten geburft 
ibr hättet geburft 
fle Ratten geburft 



bu ' »ürbeft bürfen, 
er »ürbe bürfen, 
»ir »ürben bürfen, 
u)r »ürbet bürfen, 
fle »ürben bürfen, 



bu ȟrbeft geburft baben, 
er ȟrbe geburft fyiben, 
»ir »ürben geburft tyaben, 
i$r ȟrbet geburft faben, 
fle ȟrben geburft fjaben, 



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352 



THE VERB. 



[§ 173, 174. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pro. WrfOl, to bc permitted. 1 Perf. getorft Jota, to have been 

I obliged. 

PAETICIPLE8. 

Preu bfof dl, beilig pennttted. | Per/, gefettrft, prfmitted. 

§ 173. The Potential Verb ttljftlt corresponds in signi. 
fication with the English verb must. 

Bern. It indicates phydcal, moraJ, or logiccd necemty, and in other te&ses 
than the present indicative it most be rendered by such rircumlocntioos as 
to be obliged to, to beforced to, to haoe to, 

§ 174. Conjugation of the verb müffcit {see § 164, ßem.): 
Principal Parts: muffen, mnfyt, ßCKItjjt* 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJÜNCITVE MOOD. 

Prewad Tenae. 

td) muff*, I most* 
bll müff-tf, thonmost. 
er müff»e, be most. 
Wir müff*ei, we must 
ü)r müff«et, you most. 
fle müff*eit, they most. 

Taue. 

i$ fltiifte, I was obliged. 
btt müßtefi, thou wast obliged. 
er müßte, he was obliged. 
nrir müßten, we were obliged. 
ü)r müßtet, you were obliged. 
fie müßten, they were obliged. 



** m*t, 


i 


most. 


bn 


mu߻t, 


thoomost. 


er 


muß, 


he 


most. 


tntr 


müff*e», 


we 


most. 


i*r 


müfKe)t 


,you 


most. 


fle 


müff*e», 


they 


most. 



Imperfect 

i$ WO/jftt, I was obliged. 
bu mußteft, thoo wast obliged. 
er mußte, he was obliged. 
tote mußten, we were obliged. 
ft)r mußtet, yoo were obliged. 
fle mußten, they were obliged. 



Perfect Te*$e. 



I have been obliged, etc. 

io) |o(e oemugt (or muffen), 
bu $aft gemußt (" muffen), 
er fat gemußt (" muffen), 
toir $aben gemußt (" muffen), 
tyr $abt gemußt (" muffen), 
fie jaben gemußt (" muffen). 



I bare been obliged, etc. 

to) lobe gerankt (ormiffen). 

bu fyibejt gemußt (" muffen), 
er $abe gemußt (" muffen), 
nrir $aben gemußt (" muffen). 
ü)r fcabet gemußt (" muffen), 
fie Soften gemußt (" muffen). 



* See Subjanctive Mood, § 124. 



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§174.] 



POTENTIAL YBRBS. 



353 



Plvperfect Taue. 
I had been obliged, etc. I had 

ty frtte gemu#t(or mflffen)* id> tyitte 

bu fattefi gemußt (" muffen). bu fcätteft 

er tyxttt gemußt (" mflffen). er frätte 

»tr Ratten gemußt (" muffen). »tr Ritten 

u)r hattet gemußt (" muffen). ü)r Rittet 

fte Ratten gemußt (" muffen). fie Ritten 



been obliged, etc. 

gemußt (or muffen)* 
gemußt (" muffen), 
gemußt (" muffen), 
gemußt (" muffen), 
gemußt (" mflffen). 
gemußt (" muffen). 



First Futwre Teme. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

id? nrrbe muffen* 

bu »irft mflffen. 
et »trb muffen, 
»tr »erben mflffen. 
u)r »erbet mflffen. 
fie »erbeu mflffen. 



I shall be obliged, etc. 

t$ Herbe muffen« 

bu toerbeft mflffen. 
er »erbe mflffen. 
»tr »erben mflffen. 
tyr »erbet mflffen. 
fie »erben mflffen. 



Seccmd Futwre Terue. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

\d> Herbe gemußt »oben, 
tu »irfl gemußt fyiben. 
er »irb gemnßt faben. 
»tr »erben gemnßt $aben. 
tyr »erbet gemußt faben. 
fie »erben gemußt fytben. 



I shall have been obliged, etc. 

i$ »erbe gemußt frben« 

bu »erbeft gemnßt fytben. 
er »erbe gemußt faben. 
»tr »erben gemußt tyaben. 
ü)r »erbet gemnßt fcaben. 
fie »erben gemußt f)ahtn. 



CONDITTONAL MOOD. 

Present Taue. 

I woald or shoald be obliged, etc. 

td) »Brbe muffen, or t$ mißte (Imper/ect Svhjunctive). 

" " " "~ u bu mflßtefl 

' er mflßte " 

' »ir mflßten " 
4 ü)r müßtet 
li fie mflßten " 



bu »flrbejt mflffen, 
er »flrbe mflffen, 
»tr »flrben mflffen, 
ü)r »flrbet mflffen, 
fie »flrben mflffen, 



Perfect Tense. 
I wonld or shoald have been obliged, etc. 

id) »iirbe gemußt taten, or id? flirte gemußt (PI Sub.)- 



bu »Arbeit gemußt (oben, 
er »flrbe gemußt fcben, 
»tr »flrben gemnßt $aben, 
ü)r »flrbet gemußt fcaben, 
fie »flrben gemußt $aben, 



bu $ätteft gemußt 
er ffittt gemußt 
»tr Ritten gemußt 
Ü)r Rottet gemußt 
fie Ratten gemußt 



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354 THE VEBB. [§ 175-177. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres, ttiffttt, to be obliged, etc. I Ptrf. gtttlft ttfcl, to have bem 

I oUiged. 

PABTICIPLE8. 
/V^miffe**,beiiig obliged. | Per/. gt*l|t, obliged. 



10. SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 
(Suite* be? Briteortt*.) 

§ 175. The verb agrees with its subject in person and 
number : 

(5r fjejt naä) ber ©tobt, He is going to the city. 

Exe. 1 . The pronouns e$, ba£, Mtf (Mtf e$), totö, alle«, wben nsed indef- 
initely as the subject of the verb, do not control the number or person of 
the verb: 

34 M* ^, ©iC ftlb tS, It is I, it is they. 

Xo» (inb meine Richtet (©<$.), Those are my judges. 

©efentlwfc geiler bieftl (SeffO* Important mistakes these. 

JErc. 2. Courtly and official titles, thoogh in the singnlar (as 2ftajefi5t, 
$o$eit, Cf cettenj), have a plural verb : 

(frier SKaieflSt gerufen, Tour Majesty is gracionsly pleased. 

Bern. 1 . When, of two or more subjeets in diflerent persons, one of them is 
in the first person, the verb shonld be in the first person plural: 

2)u, beut ©ruber unb id> trotten Thoa, thy brother and I, will (7. e , 
(toir tootten) foajieren gefan, we will) take a walk. 

Bern. 2. When one subject is in the second and the others are in the third 
person, the verb should be in the second person plural: 

2)u, betn ©ruber unb beine ®dftot> Thou, thy brother and thy sister. 
per fetb (tt)r fetb) ringclaben, are (t. «., you are) invited. 

§ 176. Some verbs,that are transitive in English, and, 
as such, govern the objeetive case, are rendered by in- 
transitive or reflexive verbs in German, and govern the 
genitive or dative case (§ 178, 179). 

§ 177. The following verbs govern the Accusative Case: 
1. All transitive verbs (§ 118, 1 ; § 83, 1) : 

Cr Heft ba9 $U$, He reads the book. 



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§ 177.] SYNTAX OP THE VERB. 355 

2. Verbs used in expressing weight, measure, cost, 
time when, and time how long : 

<3« bauerte einen Sag, It lasted a day. 

<K« toiegt ein $fnttb, It weighs a pound. 

$0t9bam liegt Hier SRetfen tooit Potsdam lies four (German) miles 
SBerlin, from Berlin. 

<Sö fofiet einen 5#aler, it costs a thaier. 

Cr fommt Mefen Sttenb, He comes this evening. 

Rem. 1. When the time of the occurrence of an event is particularly speci- 
fied, it is put in the accusative case $ when it is indicated in a general way, it 
is put in the genitive case: 

Cr Tommt tiefen SÜenb, He comes this evening. 

<gr fommt oft be$ SRorgenä, He often comes in the morning. 

Rem. 2. The accusative case is used (mostly in connection with such ad- 
verbs as entlang, Itfnattf, JjerafO to express the direction giren to the action 
indicated by the verb : 

<Sr gc$t ben Berg (ittanf, He gocs up the mountain. 

3. Many im/personal verbs, as : 

2)ürßen, to make thirsty. angeben, to concern. 

$imgera, to make hungry. jammern, to grieve. 

frieren, to make cold. »erbrießen, to vex. 

fölfifern, to put to sleep. ftymerjen, to pain. 

freuen, to make bappy. ttmnbem, to surprise. 

(£3 friert mi$, I am cold. (£$ lonnbert mi$, it surprises me. 

4. The reflexive pronouns of most reflexive verbs is 
put in the accusative case : 

3$ freue micty, I rejoice. @ie freuen fi$, you rejoiee. 

Rem. 1. Some intransitive and impcrsonal verbs are somethnes used with 
a transitive signification, taking an objeet in the accusative case: 

Cr ging feinen «Beg, He wem his way. 

<5« regnet Steine, It rains stones. 

ör »einte Bittere Sfrönen, He wept bitter tears. 

Rem. 2. The verbs XtffttU and fragen mny govern two accusative*, one of 
the person, the other of the thing: 

Cr lehrte mic$ bie 3Jtofit, He taught me music. 

2)o« frage id> bi<$, I ask you that. 

Rem. 8. The verbs nennen, teilen, Welten, fdjintfjfen, taufen, govem 

two aecusatives, both referring to the same person or thing: 
dt nannte mi$ feinen grennb, He called me his friend. 
2)a« nennft bn arbeiten ? Do you call that working ? 



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356 THB VERB. [§ 178. 

Rem. 4. For verbs gorerning the accusative and genitive cases see § 178, 2 : 
for thofe governing the accusative and datite see § 179, 2. 

§ 178. The following verbs govern the Genitive Caae: 

1. The following intransitive verbs : 

9d)ten, to regard. enrratben, to do withoot. Pflegen, to fester. 

bebfirfen, to need. genießen, to enjoy. fronen, to spare. 

begehren, to desire. gef$»eigen, to pass by frotten, to mock. 

branden, to want. in sflence. berfetylen, to fiuL 

gebratutyat, to ose. ge»a$ren, to observe. bergeffen, to folget. 

gcbenlen, to think. faxten, to weit npon. »ofyren, to guard. 

ballen, to think. taöfta, to langh. tixu)rne$men,to observe. 

entbehren, todowithoak lohnen, to reward. »alten, tOTuk. 

ermangeln, to ML mangeln, to fiiiL »arten, to attend. 

$00 ©eib bebarf in &riege*n3tyen Inthehorrors of war woman needs 

M 8ef4ü$erf (@<$.), a protector. 

2k Rotten meiner, ?rinj ! Ton deride me, prince! 

Ä»a. 1. Of these verbs only emoagel« and gefttyKtget are nsed excln- 
sively with the genitive case. The others were also formerly nsed only with 
the genitive case, and are yet nsed with it in poetry and other dignified styles 
of composition. They are at present, however, generally nsed as follows : 

1. Traimtively, and followed by the accusative case (the verb generally 
reeeiving a different signification when nsed transirively finom that which 
it has when nsed intransüively): 

©MCr ©eltiblgnng betgeffen, To forget (intcntionally) an injnry. 

«EilC 3ftttt£}flW »Crgeffen, To forget the number of a year. 

2. Or they are nsed intransitively and are followed by certain prepositions, 
which govern their appropriate cases, as : benlcn (gcbenlen), by an; aäjtcn, 
$arrcn, »alten, by tsf ; tad)en, footten, »alten, by über : 

©CT btt @tfo|r Rottet, gebeult Who seoffs at danger is mindful of 
ifcer;ber»a$re$erbaberbenft it; bat the trae hero does not 
gar niä)t 0t blC ©Cf 0$r, think at all of danger. 

alle lachen flirr feine ZhOTWt, Au langh at his foHy. 
Rem. 2. The verbs feil, »erben, leben, fltrben, UCrbleic^en, are followed 
by the genitive in some expressions, as: 

3d) bin btt Sieiltttag, bag— I am of the opinion that- 

(Sr fterb eine« t>löfclid)en 2obe$, He died a sudden death. 

2. The following transitive verbs require> in addition 
to the accusative of the person, the genitive ofthe thing : 
Staffagen, to aecnse. betreiben, to inform. erlaffcn, to discharge. 
belehren, to inform. befd)ulbigcn, to aecuse. crlebigcn, to release. 
berauben, to rob. begeben, to aecuse. cntlaffen, to free from 
beriä)ten, to inform. entbinben, to free from. entlebigcn, to free from. 



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§178.] SYNTAX OP THE VERB. 357 

entblößen, to strip. f oSfi>reä)en, to acquit. fcerfiä)ern, to assure. 

entheben, to exonerate. mahnen, to remind. toertrtfien, to delade, 

enttleiben, to disrobe. überführen, to convict. toertoeifen, to banish. 

entlaben, to disborden. überleben, to exempt. feürbigen, to deem worthy. 

cntfefcen, to displace. überorifen, to convict. getyen, to aecuse. 

enttoitynen, to wean. überzeugen, to convince. {and otkers.) 

freift>rea)en, to acquit »erjagen, to drive out. 

gemahnen, to remind. »ernagen, to aecuse. 

SWd>t« tonn ü)n feilte« Sdjtotirä Nothing can free bim from bis oath. 
entbinben, 

SDfcm fat ü)n t)C$ #Od)ÖCrraiIj$ They havo charged bim with high 
angeflagt, treason. 

Rem. 1. Some of tbese verbs may be followed by the dative of the person 
and the aecusative of the thing (§ 179, 2) : 

$ o$ fcerfiä)ere io) Qtyltett, I assure you of that 

Rem. 2. The genitive is often replaced by a preposition (as O0U, über, 
•llff MO* which is followed by its appropriate case : 

9ttä)t« fonrn ü)n feine« @ä)tt>ttr« Nothing can release bim from his 
(or »on feinem @d>rour) entbinben, oath. 
Rem. 3. If the rorb is placed in the passive voiee, tho genitive construc- 
tion still remains unchanged: 

dt ttmrbe M $0<tytoettaty£ onge* He was charged with high treason. 
flögt, 

3. The following reflexive verbs take, in addition to 

the reflexive pronoun in the aecusative, a complement- 

ary objeet in the genitive : 

@td> anmaßen, to assume. @id) erfreuen, to rejoiee (at). 

„ annehmen, to take interest (in). „ erinnern, to remember. 

„ bebenfen, to deliberate (upon). * crWtynen, to venture. 

„ bebienen, to use. n ertoe^ren, to ward off. 

„ befleißen, to apply (to). n freuen, to rejoiee (at). 

„ befleißigen, to apply (to). t , getroffen, to hope (for). 

„ begeben, to forego. » rühmen, to boast (of). 

„ bemfid)tigen, to master. n f^ämen, to be ashamed (of). 

„ betnetflem, to master. n troflen, to console one's seif (for). 

ff betreiben, to acquiesco (in). „ überleben, to take pride (in). 

„ beftnnen, to recollect. f , unterfangen, to attempt 

» entäußern, to renounce. „ unterließen, " " 

ff entbred)en, to forbear (from). n nntermtnben, " " 

rr entgolten, to refrain (from). - toergetttffern, to ascertain. 

„ entfd)lagen, to get rid (of). „ »ermeffen, to boast (of). 

ff entfimten, to recollect. * »erfeßen, to expect. 

„ erbarmen, to pity, be mcrcifnL „ t>erjiä)ern, to assure (of). 



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358 



THE VERB. 



[8179. 



0idf bermnnbent, to wonder (at> @i$ umnbern, to wonder (at). 
tr mttgent, to refose. (andothtrs.) 

2)er Qeretye erbannt ft<$ ftttt^ The just man is mercifal to bis 

8i*e*, beast 

(St laira ftd> tonnt fcrf 2t#t«$ He can scarcdykcepfit>m laughing, 
enthalten, 
Äem. After many of these verbs the genitive case mey be replaced by a 
prepoaitioti (as ti, tif , Wer) : 

2ht borffl H<$ teilt* £Bt|l (or Thoo needest not be asbamed of thj 
über beine öo$l) «tty f dornen, choiee. 

§ 179. The following verbs govern the Dative Case: 
1. Many (simple and Compound) intransitive verbs: 



Setyneln, to resemble. 
bauten, to tbank. 
btenen, to senre. 
brofcn, to threaten. 
fiütyn, to enne. 
folgen, to follow. 
gleidjcu, to resemble. 
Reifen, to help. 



mangeln, to fiuL 
na$en, to approach. 
stuften, to serre. 
Raffen, to fit. 
fctyaben, to injure. 
freuten, to seem. 
fömeefen, to taste, 
fleuern, to tax. 



3$ bonte 3faet fcr jfi<Wif 
©ir folgen Um bur<$ ben ©alb, 



tränen, to trust. 
trotjeu, to defy. 
toe^ren, to ward off. 
totttyn, to yiekL 
ttrinfen, to hint 
fernen, to become. 
Junten, to be angiy. 
{and others.) 

I thank you with all my heart. 
We follow him through the forest. 



So^elfatr to remedy. 
anbangen, to adhere. 
auffallen, to strike. 
aufhelfen, to sapply. 
Begegnen, to meet. 
betommen, to agree. 
betfallen, to occar. 
betjie$en, to assist 
einfallen, to occar. 
entfliegen, to escape. 



entgegengehen, to go to- mißtrauen, to distrust. 
ward (to meet). nahmen, to imitate. 

entgegentommen, to come nacheifern, to rival. 

tomeet. na4fte^en,tobe inferior to. 

entfi>rc<fcn,tocorrespond. na^jtetten, to waylay. 
erliegen, to sucenmb. unterliegen, to saecumb. 
borgten, to outstrip. 
bortommen, to oecur. 
nriberft>re$en, to contra- 
jutyören, to listen to. [dict, 
(and others.) 
It pleased me very much. 
It has just oecurred to me. 



gefallen, to please. 
gehören, to belong. 
ge^ord^en, to obey. 
gelingen, to sueeeed. 
mißfallen, to displease. 



entgegen, toaroid. 

2>a« bot mir fe$r gefallen, 
G* ift mir eben borgetommen, 

2. Many (simple and Compound) transitive verbs gov- 
ern, in addition to a direct objeet in the aecusative 
case, an indirect objeet in, the dative case : 
Vorgen, to borrow. (äffen, to leere, melben, to announce. 

bringen, to bring. leiten, to loan. nehmen, to take. 

geben, to give. liefern, to deliver. rauben, to rob. 

flagen, to complain. lohnen, to reward. fagen, to say. 



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§179,180.] SYNTAX OP THE VERB. 359 

f<$enten, to present. flehen, to steaL galten, to pay. 

föufett, to send. toeigera, to refose. geigen, to show. 

företben, to write. totbmcn, to dedicate. (and many others.) 

(St braute mir ben ©rief , He brought me the letter. 

Qäf föicfte iffm ba« ©u<$, I sent him the book. 

SWan raubte tym baö (Mb, They robbed him of bis money. 

abgeben, to deliver. erflfiren, to explain. nnterfagen, to forbid. 

anbieten, to offer. ergäben, to relate. fcortoerfen, to reprooeh. 

angeigen, to announce. gefielen, to confess. fcorgeigen, to show. 
barbieten, to proffer. mitteilen, to impart. gufagen, to promise. 

entreißen, to wrest nachjagen, to repeat. gufebreiben, to ascribe. 

empfehlen, to recommend. na$fe$en, to indulge. (and many others.) 

3$ erga^lte tym bte ©efdbitye, I related the story to him. 

(St batte UU§ bte 9ia$ri$ten mit« He had communicated the news 
geseilt, to us. 

Bern. 1. If the verb is placed in the passive voiee, the indirect objeet still 
rcmain8 in the dative case : 

£ie 9to(fyri<$ten Würben un8 mit« The news was communicated to us. 
geseilt, 

Hern. 2. Some reflexive verbs (§ 158, Rein. 2) have the reflexive pronoon 
(as the indirect objeet) in the datire case(§ 174, 4): 

3$ bitbete e* mir ein, I imagined it (to myself ). 

Rem. 3. Some impersonal verbs are followed by the dative case : 

<5d o^net mir» I have misgivings. Wir föttrinbett, I am dtezy. 
Rem. 4. The dative of the person is nsed aftcr many verbs (as fein, fterben, 
geben, ergeben, fteben, fifeeu) and af ter many verbal expressions (as leib tynn, 
»e$ tbun, ©ort polten, gu $ü(fe fommen), thns: 

<5* ijl mir ntyt tto&t, I am not well. 

<5« gety ibm gong gut, It goes very well with him. 

SBie flfet mir ba* Äleib ? How does the dress fit me ? 

2)a« tyut mir fe$r leib, I am very sorry for that. 

§ 180. Some verbs are followed by the dative or the 
aecusative case, aecording to the signification with 
which they are used : 

<3$ fccrfidjerte i(n, I insnred him. 

(3$ »erfWbertc tyra, I assnred him. 

(Xroue nic^t bem äußeren @($etn, Do not trust ontward appearances. 
t2>er^rebtger traut baöörant^aar, The preacher marries the coople. 
Rem. A few verbs may be nsed with the dative or aecusative withont differ- 
ence of signification : 

<5r lehrte midp bte SRnftt, He tanght me mnsle. 

<Sr teerte mir bteSWuftt, " " " " 



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360 THE ADVERB. [§ 181-183*. 



THE ADVERB. 

(2>t« Öfter«»«.) 

§ 181. There are but few primitive adverbs. The chief 
of these are : 

1. The followiog particles (all of which, however, 
except flu and ti», are used also as prepositions): 

M, down, downward. lei, about, nearly. »»l,about,past, at an end. 

t», od, up, forward. fr»ri$,throogh, thoroughly. DM, forward, formerlj. 
tttf, up, npward. ig (tül) in. $1, too, aUo in die direc- 

ttt£,out,atanend. Mo), after, afterward, tionot 

©fr traben i* unb J» gefcn, We will goto and fro(up and down). 

Bon min ft», From this tüne forward. 

3a$r t»6, 3a$r ei», From one year to another. 

3<$ &»»* ty« t>»Ta) unb fettT^/ * lmow himmost thorougbly. [merlr. 

9U4 tme Ulf/ (Afterward as before) now as for« 

2. The adverbs ja, tlje, Oft, mm, etc.: 

3», Je e|er, Je lieber, Yes, the sooner the better. 

2)a« iß »ft gefo)e$en, Thai has often happened. 

Con »»» an, From this äme forward. 

§ 182. Most Adverbs are formed (by inflection, deriva- 
tion, and composition) from nov/ns, adjectwes, numerals, 
pronoum, verbs>jpreposition8, and adverbs. 

Rem. Ofsome adverbs the derirationU "no longer feit" ({ 49, 2, JReai.1), as : 

taft,«xm (from the Gotf. and 0.-& adj. bald=bo!d; M.-G. bald=rap%d). 

ftltt, 9carcefy : M.-G., käme ; O.-Cr. , chnmo (from the adj.*«m=»dfc, »wi). 

fefa, t>«ry : M.-G., s£r; O.-G., sero (from the adj. ser=painful, which is 

from the Old-German noun da» »er=zthe sore, tkepain). 

§ 183. Adverbs are formed from Nouns: 

1. The genitive case of some nouns is used adverbi- 

ally(§81,2,4),as: 

9Rirge»0 (be* SRorgenf), in the morning (gen. of ber SRorgen, morning). 
Kte»M (bef tttotb*), in the erening (gen. of ber 9benb, evemng. 
t»fo»g$, in the beginning, at first (gen. of ber Anfang, beginning).* 

-tfjetlS, partlj, in part (gen. of ber 2$ei(, part). 



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§183.] FORMATION OF ADVERBS. 361 

Rem. 1. Sometimee the genitive of an adjective or an adjective pronoun 
and the genitive of a nonn are joined together into one word (§ 89, Hern. 1): 

!etlt8toe0$, by no means (nom. fein ©eg, gen. feine« ©ege«). 

glttlttUtycrtttife, fortunately (nom. glttcffi^e ©eife, gen. glücflicfyer ©eife). 

bergeftttlt, in such a way (nom. btc ©eftatt, gen. ber ©eftalt). 

JebtT jtit, at any time, always (nom. jebe 3«*, gen« i*ta 3«0' 

i2em. 2. In some Compound adverbs the new declension has replaced the 
old in the genitive of the adjective or adjectire pronoun, as : 

atftttfaltö, in any case. tpibrf gfllfaflS, in the contrary case. 

jC&eufaflS, at all events flriigteittyeifö, for the most part. 

Rem. 8. In forming some Compound adverbs, feminine nouns take the 
genitive termination (*0), as: 

oMtitS, aside, apart ; meittttf tf t$, for my part (from Me @eite, side). 
JttfeU«, atoneside; feiltttfettö, onhispart " " " " 

Rem. 4. The termination of the genitive Singular (s$) is given to some ad- 
verbs that have been formed from the genitive plural, as : 

aflerbtngS (from aller binge), by all means ; Uttttxbin%$, lately, recently. 

Rem, 5. After the analogy of t$tTRaW,formcrly (in Mid.-Ger., i mdles= 
aforetime), are formed in the New- Germern the following adverbs : 

bOlftatö, at that time. Birmatf, never. 

itmalS, ever, at any time. t^OUUM, formerly, once on a time. 

Itagmafö, afterward. efcmafö, formerly, heretoforc 

Rem, 6. Yery many adverbs take the genitive ending (s$), after the analogy 
of the adverbs that are formed from the genitive singular of masculine nouns, 
as will be noticed below (§ 184, 2 ; § 187, 2 ; § 188, 2, 4, and 5). 

2. Adverbs are formed from the dative of nouns, 
either alone or in compositum, as: 

IttPrgett, to-morrow (M.-G., morgen, morne; O.-G., morgane, whichis 

the dative singular of the noun morgen, morning). 
tfötttilot, at times (©eilen, dat. plur. of btc ©eile, a while). 

3. Adverbs are formed from the aecumtwe of nouns, 
either alone or in compositum, as: 

tnCfl, away (acc. sing, of ber ©eg, the way). 

tUetPege, every where (acc. pL, alle ©ege, all ways). 

tiftintl, once (acc. sing., eht SRoI, one time). 

&titfe(e»0, as long as one lives (acc sing., Me Atit be« fie&en«). 

JctftWäWtfC,bywayofexamplo (acc. sing., btc ©eife). 

Q 



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362 THE ADVERB. [§ 184-186. 

§ 184. Adverbs are formed largely from Adjectives; 

1. All adjectiv^r, whose nature permits them to be 
used adverbially, are so used without change of form : 

£)a« ©m$ tfl pt getoiriben, The book is well bound. 

ffiir fahren fe&r fflttCfl, We are traveling very fast. 

©ie Rotten tapfer getäntyft, They had fought valiantly. 

/fem. 1. Some words, that are now used only as adverbs, were originally 
adjectives (§ 182, Rem.). 
Rem. 2. Participles, like adjectives, may be used adverbially (§ 129, Rem. 4; : 

9Rit fttbenb Reißern SBaffer, With boiling-hot water. 

2. A large number of adverbs are forined from ad- 
jectives by taking a genitive ending, =8 (after the anal- 
ogy of the adverbs formed from the genitive of nouns) : 

. <8ft fängt htTtltS an gU regnen, It is beginning to rain already. 

©eljen ©ie ttdjtS, unb bann ItttW, Go to the right and then to the left. 

<gr tyat & (UlbtX& genteint, He meant it differently. 

Rem. 1 . Adverbs thas formed belong mostly to the New-German period. 
Rem. 2. Some adverbs, andespecially superlatives (§190, 8), take the genitive 
termination sfll$, after the analogy of such nouns as WaUtU, gen. Saftend, ns : 

Unb übrigen^ toottte er— And moreover he wished to— 

Rem. 8. By this last analogy are formed the ordinal adverbs, tfft(B$, Jttti* 

tm, MtttnS, etc. (§ 105, 2). 

Rem. 4. A few adverbs have added an unorganic «t to the genitive form, 
and thus they have the appearanco of being superlatives, as : 

<S* toar eiltft ein Äönig— There was once a king— 

UHlälgft, al« tetr in ©erlin fta* Kot long since, when we were in 
ren— Berlin— 

§ 185. For the formation of adverbs from Numerais, 
see § 105. 

§ 186. The chief simple adverbs that are formed from 
Pronouns are the following: 

tytt,here. fco, there. Mmt, when. 

jtt, hitber. botUI, then. tnfl, where. 

\)iU, thither. fcwt, yonder. fa, thus. 

Rem. 1. These pronominal adverbs have been developed thus : 

Goth.: thar, thana, hvan, hvar, sua, 

O.-G.: hiar, hera, hina, dar, danna, doret, huanne, haar, so, 

M.-G. : hier, her, hin, da, danne, dort, wanne, wa, s6, 

N.-G.-' fyier. tycr. ljtn. t>a. bann. bert. tramt. reo. \c. 



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§ 186-188.] FORMATION OP ADVERBS. 363 

Rem. 2. $ier, f)tt, and ljitt are formed from a demonstrative pronoun that 
is now found only in the Gothic (his, hija, hita=ber, bte, ba$=this, that). 

Rem. 3. $0, bann, and bOXt are formed from the demonstrative pro- 
noun bttf feit, bü& {Gothic sa, so, thata; accusaiive thana, tho, thata). 

Rem. 4. gBamt and tyQ are formed from ©er, wAo. 

/fewi. 5. The indefinite pronouns Ölet, tDtniß, genug, and tttßüö are often 
nsed adverbially (§ 112) : 

<5r ifl Uttl größer als t$, He is mach taller than I am. 

2)ie <$ef$i$te ber «Btabt iß nur The history of the city is only a little 

toettiO befannt, known. 

2)a3 Xnd) iji ni<$t Brett gemtg, The cloth is not wide enough. 

Cr mar ettnaö aufgeregt, Ire was somewhat excited. 

§187. Derivative Adverbs are found by means of the 
terminations ?en, *Ultg8, sltdju 

1. The termination sCH is employed in forming adverbs 

from a few other adverbs: 

Stoßen, without, outward (from au«), oben, above, aloft (from ob), 
innen, within, inward (from in). hinten, behind (from $tn). 

unten, under, below (from unter). fcorn, before (from bor). 

2. A few adverbs are formed by adding =Uttg8 to ad- 
jectives, nouns, or verbs: 

93(mbftng£, blindly, rashly, at random (from fctinb, blind). 
tyäufctltngG, head foremost, head over heels (ba« $au£t, head). 
rittlings (reitling«), astride, astraddle (reiten, to ride). [back), 
rücfttng«, backward, from behind (ber 9tü<f , ob*, from 9tü(fen, 

tncu^lingä, insidiously, like an assassin (meiutyeln, to assassinate). 

3. Many words with the termination 4i<t) are used 

only adverbially (§ 86, 2, 6), as : 

greift^, certainly, indeed. f<$tt>erli<fy, scarcely, hardly. 

enbli$, finally, at last ft(tyerli(ty, certainly, surely. 

fürjüd), shortly, recently. toa$rlt(ty, trnly, really. 

§ 188. Of the many ways in which Compound Adverbs 
may be formed, the following are most important : 

1. By uniting two nouns (especially with SBctfe, a 

way or manner, for the last noun) : 

@<$er$tt>eife, jocosely, in fun, in jest (ber ©djerg, joke, bte SQßeife, way). 
ft>otttt>eife, mockingly, derisively (ber ©fcott, derision, bte ©eife, way). 
trojjfentoctfe, in drops, by drops (ber Xropfen, drop, bie SBeife, way). 



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364 THE ADVERB. [§ 188. 

* 

2. By uniting an adjective and a noun : 
©leictyfalU, likewise, also (§ 183, 1 ) (glei<$, lfce ; ber gatt, case). 
größtenteils, for the most part (größten, greatest ; ber £beü, part). 
gcrobeStoeg«, straightway (gerabe, straight; ber 2Beg, way). 

3. A numeral and a noun (especially 2RaI, m § 105) : 
Ginmal, once, once on a time. breimat, three times. 

4. By uniting an adjective pronoun and a noun : 
allenfalls (§183, 1, Rem. 6),at all meinerfett« (§ 188, 1), for my part 
jebenfoE*, in any case. [events. jeberjett (§ 183, 1 ,Rcm.) r at all times. 

5. By uniting a preposition and a noun : 
SlbfeitS (§ 183, 1), apart, toone side. 

bereiten (§ 183, 1, 2), betimes, in good timc f early, soon. 
btetDeUett, at times, at internus, occasionally, flow and then. 
fyinterrücfo, from behind, behind one's back, underhandedly. 
überhaupt, in general, on all occasions, in the main, at all. 
übermorgen, day after to-morrow. 
jutoeüen, at times, sometimes, occasionally. 

6. By uniting a preposition and a pronoun: 
3nbef[en, in the mean time. fiberbte«, besides, moreover. 

7. By uniting a noun and an adverb (or preposition) : 

$3ergauf , up the mountain. jahrein, \ year in, year out. 

bergab, down the mountain. jafjrau«, > from one year to another. 

ftrontauf, up stream. fofcffiber, head foremost. 

ftromob, down stream. toj>funter, headlong. 

8. By uniting two adverbs: 

9t6balb, immediately. ebenfo, just so. 

tyierfelbft, exactly here. fogtctd^, immediately. 

bafefbß, exactly there. f obolb, as soon (as). 

bemto$, howerer. meflettfyt, perhaps. 

tyertyer, hither. borten, thither. 

herein, in (hither). $tnetn, in (thither). 

tyerau«, out (hither). ^tnanf , out (thither). 

9. By uniting two prepositions : 

JDuntyau«, entirely. vorbei, past, over (finished). 

tajtwf<$en, in the mean time. vorüber, " *' " 

10. By uniting an adverb and a preposition : 

$terbUT$, by this means. babur$, thereby. 

fytxnaä), aecording to this. feobur$, whereby. 



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§188.] 



FORMATION OP ADVERBS. 



365 



(for Bei bem, Bei ben). 
" bura)ba«,burä)bie). 
" für ba«, für bie). 
" gegen ba«, gegen bie). 
" mit bem, mit ben). 
" an bem, an bie). 
" auf bem, auf ben). 
" au* bem, au« ben). 
" in bem, in ben). 
" über ba«, über bic). 
" um ba«, um bie). 
" unter bem,unter ben). 
" non bem, toon ben). 
" toibetba*,tt)iberbie). 
" ju bem/ ju ben). 
" jtoifd)cn ben). 



Rem. 1. Compound adverbs, formed by uniting the adverb bü and a prepo- 
sition, are usually employed instead of the dative and aecusative of the de- 
monstrative pronoun fcer, b\t, ba8 (§ 112, 2, Rem. 3), when used absolotely, 
and not referring to a person ; if the preposition begins with a vowel, the 
original t (bat, see § 186, Rem. 1) is retained: 
2)aBei, thereby, by that, by it, by them 
baburd), thereby, by this or those means 
bafür, for that, for this, instead of that 
bagegen, against this, against that 
bemit, therewith, with that, with them 
baran, thereon, thereby, by it, by them 
barauf, thereupon, thence, from that 
barauG, therefrom, thence, out of this 
barin, therein, within, in it, in that 
barüber, thereover, thereupon, over that 
barum, for that reason, therefore, for that 
barunter, thercander, among it, among them 
banon, therefrom, thence, from it, from them ( 
batmber, against this, that, or them 
baju, thereto, from that purpose, to that 

bafttmföen, there between, between them 
Rein. 2. Compound adverbs are formed in the same manner with the ad- 
verb {ff tX and prepositions, instead of the dat. and acc of the demonstrative 
pronoun Meftr (§ 111), when used absolutely and not referring to persons: 
hierbei, hereby, by this, by these (for Bei btefem, Bei biefen). 

bierburdfr, " " " " " ( " burd) biefe«, bur$ biefe). 

Biermit, herewith, with this, with these ( " mit biefem, mit biefen). 
etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 

Rem. 3. Compound adverbs are formed in the same manner with the ad- 
verb tPO and prepositions, to take the place of the dative and the aecusative 
of the absolute interrogative and relative pronoun ©0$ (§ 1 13, 1, Rem. 2) : 
SBarum, why, on what aecount, for which, for what (for um tt>a«). 
tooBei, whereby, at which, at what, during what ( " Bei «?&«). 
töoburd), whereby, by what means, through what ( " burd) toa8). 
toofür, wherefore, for which, for what ( " für toa«). 

Wogegen, against which, against what ( " gegen röa$). 

roomtt, wherewitb, with or by which or what ( " mit wim\ 
föonad), whereupon, after or for which or what ( " nad) wSm). 
rooran, whereon, by which or what, on what ( " an n>a$). 
Worauf, whereupon, upon which, upon what ( "auf tt>a«). 

n>orau$, wherefrom, whence, out of which or what ( " au« v&m). 
toorin, wherein, in which, in what ( " in toa«). 

röorübcr, whereupon, upon or at which or what ( " üBer toa8). 
fronen, whereof, from or of which or what ( " fcon wem). 

fcogu, whereto, why, to or for which or what ( " ju wSm). 



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366 THE ADVERB. [§ 188, 189. 

Obs. Thedative of tPO# (O.-G., hwerau; M.-G., wem) is obsolete in the 
N.-G. (§ 118, 1). For the dative with a preposition, the Compound adverbs 
»o m it, tt) o n a $, n> o 3 u, etc., must be used. 

11. Some Compound adverbs have been so modified 
and contracted that their origin is "no longer feit? as : 

$eute, to-day (M.-G., hiute; O.-G., hiuto; contr./rom hiütagü, on this day). 
immer, ever (M.-G. , iemer ; O.-G. , iomer= je tne^r = ever more). 
jWar (truly) (M.-G., ze wäre; O.-G., zi wftre=tn 2Ba$rljeit=in truth). 
nie, never (M.-G., nie ; O.-G., nio ; Goth., ni &iv=not ever). 
nur, only (M.-G., neur, neuver ; O.-G. , ni wäre=ni($t ttäre, or wenn e« 

nictyt tofire). 
nein ! no ! (M.-G., nein ; O.-G., nein[from niein=ni(tytem$=notonce]). 
nimmer, never (M.-G., niemer ; O.-G., niome>=nie je me$r=not ever. more). 
trgenb, any wherejCif.-G. , iergent ; O.-G., io wergin=at any place), 
nirgenb, nowhere (M .- G. , niergent ; O.-G., ni io wergin = not ever at-a-place). 

12. Some Compound adverbs are formed by joining 
several words into one word : 

3n«fcefonbere, especiaüy, in particnlar (in ba$ Sefonbere). 

inSgefammt, altogether, collectively, in a body (in ba« ©ef ammte). 

inStünftiße, for the future, henceforth (in ba« Äünftige). 

infofern, as far as, in as mach as (in fo fern). 

Rem. In German, as in English, there are many adverbial cxpressions 
that have received conventional adverbial meanings, while the words have 
remained separate : 

2)ur$ unb bur$, entirely. in ber £$at, in fact. 

na$ unb nadj, gradaally. in (Sile, in haste. 

jur #onb, at hand. mit gleiß, indostrionsly. 

»or ber $anb, for the present. ju $aufe, at home. 

o&ne 3^«f c ^ without doubt. gur 9^ot^ r if needs be. 



1. CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS. 
«£totyeUms0 ber »btiertien.) 

§ 189. The following are the leading classes into 
which adverbs are divided with reference to their sig- 
nification : 

1. Adverbs of time, as : 
ffiann ? when ? SBie lange ? how long ? ©ie oft, how often ? 

jefet, now. je, ever. oft, often. 

&eute, to-day. nie, never. feiten, seldom. 

bann, then. immer, always. jutoeilen, at times. 



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§ 189.J 



CLASSIFICATION OP ADVERBS. 



367 



nunmer, never. 
np$, yet 
lange, a long time. 
ßetG, continually. 
beftönbig, continually. 



geßern, yesterday. 
neuliä), lately. 
naäfttx, afterward, 
morgen, to-morrow. 
batb, soon. 
enbfu$, finally. 
frity, early. 

foät, late. [ing. 

SERorgen*, in the mora- 
StbenbS, in the evening. 
ytafyZ, in the night. 

$entc bin xäf Stodinal naä) ber 
©tobt gegangen, 

2. Adverbs of place, as: 
Söo ? where ? SBo&er ! whence ! 



toieber, again. 
normal, again. 
einmal, once. 
jtoetmal, twice. 
me&rmal«, seyeral times. 



gettlebenfc, as long as one manchmal, often. 



lives, 
enrig, eternally. 
ett)tglt$, eternally. 
toon nun an, from now 

forward. 



ftünbli$, hourly. 
tägfi<$, daily. 
tööcfyentlicty, weekly. 
monatlich, monthly. 
jä^rli^,yearly. 

I have gone to the city twice to 
day. • 



\)m, here. 
ba, there. 
bort, yonder. 
bafyeim, at home. 
oben, above. 
unten, below. 
hinten, behind. 
Dorn, in front, 
braußen, without 
brimten, within. 
ju #auf e, at home. 
SRirgenb, nowhere. 



ffVC, hither. 
herein, (hither) in. 
$erau«, (hither; out. 
$erab, (hither) down, 
herunter, (hither) down, 
bon oben, from above. 
bon unten, from below. 
bon hinten, from behind. 
bon bom, from in front, 
bon fem, from afiur. 
bon oben $erab, from 



2öo$tn?whither? 
(in, thither. 
tytnein, (thither) in. 
^inau$, (thither) out. 
tyütab, (thither) down, 
toortoärt«, forward. 
rücfmärt«, backward, 
(eimftärtt, homeward. 
(ort, forward. 
toete, further. 
nadj oben, (toward) above. 
naäf unten, (toward) below. 
nacty $aufe, home (-ward). 



above, from on high, 
$9rt ifl ber 3figer, Yonder is the hunter. 

SBarum teriflfi bu brausen flehen? Why will you stand out there? 

3. Adverbs of manner and degree, as : 
2öte?how? Kyes. fetyr, very. 

fo, thus, so. getttß, certainly. ganj, quite. 

ebcnfo,justso. fufyerli<$, certainly. jtemtuty, qoite. 

anberS, otherwise. frcilt^, of course. biel, much. 

let$t, easily. bodj, certainly. n>enig, little. 

f($toer, with difficulty. totrfti<$, really. genug, enough. 

fctynett, rapidly. toafyr^aftig, really. ettoa, somewhat. 

faugfatn, slowly. nein, no. re<$t, right. 

f<fyriftli($, in writing. ni$t, not. työdjjl, extremely. 

briefli^, by lettcr. teineSrceg«, by no means. toemgjten«, at last 

Sie 2Uj>en ftnb f efr $0$, The Alps are very high. 

%H, eS ifl toi rflf d) fO, Yes, it is really so. 

Rem. Most adjectives, when used adverbially, become adverbs of manner. 



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368 THE ADVERB. [§ 189, 190. 

4. Adverbs expressive of cause, means, or Instrument 
(being mostly Compounds of wo; b(t, and tyier with prep- 
ositions), as: 

2Bor<ra? whereupon? baron, thereupon. hieran, hereupon. 

toobet ? wbereby ? babct, thereby. hierbei, hereby. 

tooburä) ? whereby ? baburä), thereby. tyterburä), hereby. 

ttofttr ? why ? bafttr, therefore. hierfür, for this. 

ttomit ? with what ? boimt, therewith. hiermit, with this. 

toonaä)?accordingto what? banad}, aecordingly. $icrnaä} r by this. 
toorttber ? about what ? barüber, about that. hierüber, about this. 

feofeon ? from what ? botoon, from that. tyterbon, from this. 

toarrnn ? why ? barum, therefore. tycrum, about this. 

loojtt ? for what purpose ? baju, for that. $ter}U, from this. 

tt>e$ttegen? on what aecount ? bettDegen,on this or that aecount. 

Herten toirb tabttrdp (burä) bat Egypt is thereby (by the mud of the 
@ä)!amm be* ilüQ) befragtet— - Nile) made fertile— 

«Die Umbrd)ung ber Grbe^trb am The revolution of the earth is best 
beftat fco* 01t£ betotefen— proved by that— 



2. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 
(Steißtntttö to fttoerbiesu) 
§ 190. Adjectives, wben used adverbially , are compared 
in the same way as when they are used adjectively: 

$0dj,highly; ljifyCT, morehighly; |Öd)ft, most highty. 

Win, beautifully ; \0Mtt, more beautifully ; f#ifa{l, most beautifully. 

1. The relative adverbial Superlative is formed by 
uniting am (an fcem) with the dative of the Superlative : 

$te 2txty fingt fdjiitt, The lark sings beautifolly. [folly. 

3)er Äanaricnfcogel fingt \4ßntt, The Canary-bird sings more beauti- 
3>ie $Raä)tigou' fingt am «fyitofteit, The nightingale sings most beautifully. 

2. The absolute adverbial Superlative is indicated in 
four ways : 

1. By the simple Superlative form 3 

Od» baute gt$flrf<Uttft, "I thank you most obediently." 

Rem. In mtiitbietenb, teftmBgliä), and nSftyitfotgenb, however, the Superla- 
tive ha8 a relative signification. 

2. By uniting atlf£, gltm, int (auf ba«, ju bem, in htm), with the Super- 
lative: 

(St fort und <mf3 frettHMia)fk ge* He greeted us in the most friendly 

grügt, way. 

9K<$t im geringflcn, Not in the slightest degree. 



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§ 191-194.] SYNTAX OP ADVERBS. 369 

8. By the Superlative with the ending *cU$ (§ 184, Rem. 2): 

Wlaäft bo$ tDtlltöiiCnS bcn ©erfüll Make at least the attempt! 

Rem. The use of this form is mostly confined to the adverbs fceflenS, 

$ö$ften«, längtfen«, tnciftcn«, nää}flen«, f^äteflen«, n>e* 

nigften*. 

4. By the use of the positive degree preceded by such adverbs as ftljr, 

ungemein, äußert, |M>ft, etc. 
<5r toar ättßerft aufgeregt, He was greatly excited. 

§ 191. Of words that are not used otherwise than as 
adverbs, the only one that is compared is oft, öfter, flftcjh 

Bein. The comparative degree with a genitive ending (ÖftcrS) is frequently 
used in the signification of oft (in the positive degree). For the Superlative 
(ÖftCft) the word jönpgft is generally used. 



3. SYNTAX OF ADVERBS, 
(©^nto* ber ftbtteriien.) 
§ 192. Adverbs modify the signification of verbs, ad- 
jeetives, and other adverbs : 

(St förrifet feiten, He writes seldom. 

(St f^retfo fe|r feiten, He writes very seldom. 

(St föreifct f efr lange ©riefe, He writes very long letters. 

§ 193. Many adverbs frequently partake of the nature 
and perform the office of conjunetions (as ia, batyr, benn, 
boefy, nun, wenn, fe&r, wie, barauf, bafcer, bamit, inbeffen, wo, »o* 
tyer, »O^itt, etfc 1 .). Such words are called by some writers 
conjunetive adverbs, by others adverbial conjunetions 

§ 194. The following general rules apply to the Posi- 
tion of adverbs : 

1. The adverb is placed before an adverb or adjeetive 
which it modifies : 

3)er ©erg tfl f ejt $o$, The mountain is very high, 

©tr fahren fei? f$neÜ*, We are going very rapidly. 

Rem. @emtg (enough), however, when used as an adverb, and modifyingan 
adjeetive or other adverb, is placed after the modified adjeetive or adverb: 
(Sr tfl rtfd) genug, He is rieh enough. 

(St tounnt oft genug, He comes often enough. 

Q2 



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370 THE ADVERB. [§ 195. 

2. The adverb is placed öfter the verb when the 
verb occurs in simple tenses and in main sentences ; it 
is placed before the verb when occurring in Compound 
tenses or in subordinate sentences: 

€>te fingen \tfft fö>3n, They sing very beautifully. 

©ie &aben fefr fdjön gefungen, They have sang very beautifully. 
SJton fyrt und gefaßt, baß fie fe^r We have been told that they sing 
f$0tt fingen, veiy beautifally. 

Rem. The negative particle ttiffyt {not) follows this law when it refers to the 
predicate of the sentence or to the entire expression, taking the last position 
when there are several adverbs ; if it refers to a Single word of the sentence, 
it is placed immediately before that word : 

(Sr fommt tyeute li$t, He does not come to-day. 

(St tfi fceute ttidft gefotmnen, He has not come to-day. 

&tte benten ttid^t tote @it, All think not as yon (t. c, all think 

differently from you). 
Vtiä)t ottc benten nrie <Sie, Not all think as you do. 

§ 195. Many adverbs have no exactly corresponding 
word in English, or they are frequently used in signifi- 
cations that vary greatly from those of the correspond- 
ing English words. Thus : 

1. $Ur, here; ba, here, there, now, then; bort, there, 
yonder : 

1 . $itt, refers only to the place of the Speaker. 

2. Sott, refers only to a place at a distance from the Speaker. 
8. But ba may refer to a time or place, near or distant. 

Cr ttottte nm brei U$r tyer fein, He was to be here at three o'clock, 

unb ifl no<$ nid)t ba, and he is not here yet. 

$err SQ&eiß tfl na<$ $rag gegangen; Mr. Weiss has gone to Pragne ; he 

er muß f$on bo fein, xnnst be there by this time. 

$on ba an, From that time forward. 

Bern. $a is often used as a conjunctive adverb (or a conjunction) : 

$U (conj.) no$ %U& lag in »ei* While all lay in nur distance, then 

ter gerne, you had decision and courage; 

Sa (adu.) tyattefi bu (£ntfä)luf$ unb and now, when success is insnred, 

9Rut$ ; now you begin to faint and 

Unb jefct, ba (conj.) ber (grfofg ge* tremble. 

fi*erttfl, 
Sa (a</ü.)f5ngfl bu an ju gagen (@$.), 



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§ 195.] SYNTAX OP ADVERBS. 371 

2. (ätfft, when signifying first orfirstly, and indicating 
the priority of one action to another, receives a füll 
tone of voice : 

Crft Starte, unb bOtttt ©treibe (!5ti).\ First words and thenblows("deeds"). 

Rem. Signifying only f not earlier, not further, not more, ttft does not re- 
ceive a füll tone of voice: 

@r ift e r jl gcfftnt angef ommeri, He only arrived yesterday. 
<£r tft c r fl JC^U %af)tt alt, He is only ten years old. 

3. The affirmative adverb ja (yes) is often used in the 

signification of certainly (Ihope that), indeed: 

$at er eS getrau? $a! Has he done it? Tes! 

©ie »erben \a f ommen, You will certainly (I hope) come. 

(Sr ifi ja mein Stoter l Why, he is my father ! 

4. yioty (stiU, yet), used before numerals or indefinite 
pronouns,is translated by more or another in English: 

3$ tyafce ltod| eine Sitte, I have another request. 

(5r $at ttod) jtoci Sucher getauft, He has bought two books more. 
22em. 910$ f is translated by however, ever so : 
©ei er aud) m><ty fo rei($, Be he ever so rieh. 

5. ®d)0tt (already) is frequently omitted in translat- 

ing into English : 

<5r ifl f^on ongefommen, He has already arrived. 

(Sr ift föott gefiern Slbenb jnrütf* He returned (already) yesterday 
getommen, evening. 

Rem, ©$011 often expresses emphasis (as of conßdence or certainty) : 
©ie »erben im$ fd)0H toerfteljen, You will (I hope) have understood 
©flült ben folgenben SWorgen— The very next morning— [me. 

6. Sßoljl (weU) frequently expresses logical jpossibility 

or probabüity ; 

©Olafen ©te tDflljl J (May you sleep well !)=good-night! 

(g* tann tDa^I fein, It may (indeed) be. 

©ie fafcen eS tooJ>( getefen, You have read it (I suppose). 

Rem. jffiflljl sometimes is used to express intensity or emphasis : 
3$ möd)te iP0f|l toiffen, I should really like to know. 

3a Mffl ! Yes ! (Yes, indeed !) 



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372 THE PREPOSITION. [196. 

PREPOSITIONS. 
(Sic Sortoörter») 
§ 196. Prepositions are eitherj?rimitive> derivative, or 
Compound: 

1. The primitive prepositions are: an, auf, au$, bei, 
bur<$, für, in, mit, ob, um, »or, »ort, gu. 

ikw, 1 . The primitive prepositions were originally adverbs ; all except »OK 
are yet used also as adverbs ; at least tbey may be considered as such when 
used as prefixes to Compound verbs. 

Rem. 2. The primitive prepositions have been developed thns: 



Goth.: 


ana, inp, ut, 


bi, 


(bi-aa 


s), thafrh, 


faiir, 


in, 


O.-G: 


ana, üf, uz, 


bi, 


biz, 


durah, 


furi, 


in, 


M.-G.: 


ane, uf, üz, 


bi, 


bis, 


durch, 


vür, 


in, 


N.-G.: 


an, auf, au« 


, bei, 


bi«, 


buro), 


für, 


in. 


Goth. : 


(mith-), nenv, 


(aO, 





(af-ana), 


mifra, 


da, 


O.-G.: 


miti, nah, 


oba, 


nmbi, 


vona, 


fora, 


zuo, 


M.-G.: 


mite, nach, 


obe, 


umbe, 


Yone, 


vor, 


ZOO, 


N.-G.: 


mit, nao), 


oben, 


um, 


»ou, 


»or, 


Jtt. 



2. The derivative prepositions are derived as follows: 

1. From nouns, as: frotb (falber, falben), traft, laut, ftatt, trofc, »ermöge, 
toegen. 

2. From adjeetives, as : gemÄß, läng«, mittel« (mtttelfi, »ermittel«, berrnit* 
telfl), n&$% fammt, feit, unfern, umoat. 

8. From participles, as : tootyrenb, unbefajobet, uugead)tet. 
4. From adverbs, as: außen, binnen, bi«, gemäß, hinter, neben, nebft ofae, 
unter, über. 

3. Compound prepositions are mostly formed by pre- 
fixing a preposition or adverb to a noun or to another 
preposition, as : 

Buftott, binnen, um— toitten, 

außerhalb, entgegen, jufotge, 

innerhalb, bie«feit, juunber. 

oberhalb, jeufrit, 

unterhalb, gegenüber, 

Rem. 1 . The derivation and the composition of some prepositions is now 

"no longer feit" (§ 49, Rem. 8 ; § 228 ; § 283). 
Rem. 2. Most prepositions that are derived from nouns and adjeetives, and 

most Compound prepositions, have had their origin or have first been used as 

prepositions during the New-German period. 



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§ 197, 198.] CONBTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 373 

1. CONSTRUCTION OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 

(»cction htt »oroifettr.) 
§ 197. Prepositions do not govern a single case only 
(as the objective in English), but they govern the three 
oblique cases, the genitwe, dative, and accusative (§ 80, 
Bein. 1) of substantives, whether nouns or pronouns : 
Stnflott feinet ©ruber« (gen.), Instead of his brother. ' 

SÄit feinem ©ruber (dat.), With his brother. 

D&nc feinen ©ruber (ace.), Without his brother. 

Rem. The primitive prepositions especially are not always independent gov- 
erning words, in the same sense that verbs and adjecüves are. But often the 
preposition that is to be employed, as well as the case it is to govern (as, if 
aecusattve or dative), is detennined by the preceding verb, adjeetive, or noon : 

(Sr fleigt auf ben ©erg, He is climbing ap the moantain. 

<5r leibet Ott SRbeumattemu«, He is saffering from rheamatism. 

(Sr gebt in bett ©orten, • He is going into the garden. 

Sr if! in beut (im) ©orten, He is in the garden. 

§ 198. The following prepositions govern the geriitive 
case: 

3>ie«fett, mittel« (mitteilt, toermtt* bcrmööe, 

ienfeit, tü9 or Remittent), »äjrenfc, 

$otb Aalte* orjjat&en), ftott (or anftatt), fliegen, 

anfer^an», nnteftiabet, um— tottfen, 

innerhalb, nngeaftet, läng« (or entlang), 

oberhalb, nnaett, tn>$, 

unterhalb, nnfew, anfalge* 

Rem. 1. The last three, föug8, tW$, and ftttfotge, may also govern the da- 
tive case. 

Rem. 2. The following lines, containing most of these prepositions, are com- 
mitted to memory in schools in Germany : 

ttn&eit mittelflfraftunbn>ä$renb, 
laut »erm&g e, nn geartet, 
oberhalb mtb unterhalb« 
innerhalb unb anfjer$al&, 
bte$feü, ienfeit balbe n, »egen, 
flattwiblSngd, infolge, trofc, 
flehen mit bem OmM», 
ober auf bie ftrage w «*ffm?"— 
Dwb tfl bier ni$t ju »ergeffen, 
bo§ bei biefen Untern brei 
au$ ber fcatto rUbtig fei. 
Rem. 3. None bat derivative or Compound prepositions govern the gen. case. 



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374 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 199-201. 

§ 199. The following prepositions govern the dative 
case: 

8n$, gemäß, fontmt, 

an&er, mit, feit, 

(ei, na$, uon, 

(innen, n&gft, an, 

entgegen, ne((t, gttttädjß, 

gegenii(er, (oft), antoiber* 

Rem, The most important of these are included in the following lines : 

©t&rribmtt, na#, näcfcft, nebft fammt, 
(et feit, «ort, §u, aumtber, 
entgegen, außer, attö 
fleta mü kern fcatfo nieber. 

§ 200. The following prepositions govern the accusa- 
tive case : 

8fö, (nrdj, für, gegen, ofjnc, nm, ttubtr. 
(gen), (fonbeö, 

ife?w. They are included in the following lines : 
8ei bur#, für, o$ne, um, 
(U, fonber, gegen, toiber, 
föreib flett ben ««ufatfo, 
unb nie ben toati» trieber. 

§ 201. The following prepositions govern either the 

aecusative or the dative case, aecording to certain rules 

(§ 244—253) : 

Hn, in, unter, 

auf, ne(en, &m, 

(intet. über. stoiMen» 

-Rem. 1. The following lines, containing these prepositions, contain also the 
rules for their nse : 

2tn, auf, hinter, neben, in, 

über, unter, «or unb jmtfc&ett 

flehen mit bem Sfcenfotto, 

ttenn man fragen fann ; „wo&ta t" 

SWit bem &ath> ftefyt fle fo, 

Da§ man nur fann fragen „not" 



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§ 202, 203.] CONSTRUCTION OP PBEPOSITIONS. 375 

2. PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE. 
OBortoSrtcr mit hm (Senitto.) 
§ 202. $ie8ftit (this side of) and iCttfctt (the other side 
qf y beyond), refer only to place : 

$k£fctt be* gluffc«, On this side of the river. 

Stnftit be« ©efctrge«, The other side of the mountain. 

Hern, 1 . They are both nsed, though rarely, with the dative case : 

3 c n f c i t icncm $ü(jet (&ty), The other side of that hilL 
Item. 2. The addition of *$ gives an adverbial force to both of them : 

(Sr too^ttt btcSfeit«, u$ ienfeitt, He lives on this side, I on the other. 
Rem. 8. They are both nsed as nonns, especially in reference to this world 
and the world to come : 

(Sin 3enfeit, ba« herein in« 2)ie6* Another life that extends into this 
feit reicht, life. 

§ 203. #alt), falber, falben (on account of,for the sake, 
as regards) always follow the noun they govern : 

Cr reifte nur Vergnügen« falber He went to the Springs only for the 

in£ ©ab, sake of pleasure. 

2)e$ ©elbe« falber, For the sake of money. 

Rem. 1 . §016 is rarely used with the force of a preposition except in com- 
position with a prononn : 

®C$$alb ? On what account ? $C$$aft, on this account. 
Rem. 2. fyülbtt is preferred to falbtt wben the noun itgoverns ends in sttt ' 
(Sr fat, feiner bieten @d)ulben fafs He had to run away on account of 
(et, fliegen muffen, his many debts. 

Rem. 3. $afttlt is united with the pronoun it governs into a Compound 
word, taking an unorganic t or et as letters of union (§ 107, Rem. 2) : 
SReinetyafben, on my account Unfertigen, on our account 

Rem. 4. Feminine nouns in 4)Üt, *leit, *ttltg, when followed by falber 
and not preceded by an article or adjeetive, often take an unorganic ending 
*$ (after the analogy of some Compound nouns, see § 58, 2, Rem. 2) : 

(Sr reifle ©efunb^eit« {falber in« He went to the Springs for the sake 
©ab, of his health. 

Rem. 4. falber is sometimes preceded by am, placed befbre the noun : 

Um be« grieben« falber, For the sake of peace. 

Rem. 5. $aftCU is formed from the dative plural biC $ti$bt {the haif, 
side); falber is an irregulär form of falben ; ff a 1 b is a contraction of 
the aecusative Singular (M.-G., halbem half). 



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376 thb preposition. [§ 204-206. 

§ 204. From the accusative of the same noun (bie 
£albe) have been formed the four following prepositions : 

Httiertyalb/ outside of; without, beyond. 

innerhalb, inside of, within. 

Oberhalb, on the upper aide of, above. 

nnterffOlb, on the lower side of, below. 
Nürnberg ffat Ottfer(all unb in* Nui^bergbasinanystatelyedifices 
Ktr^aUi ber äRauern «tele jtatt* outside of and inside of its walls. 
lid)e ©ebäube, 
SBorm« Hegt oberhalb, $mgen Worms lies above, and Bingen be- 
tttttertalb ber S3unbe«fejhing low Main», a fortificaüon of the 
SRotnj, - (German) Confederation. 

Rem. 1. 3ttnertyofl> may refer also to a speeified space of time : 
3nneri>alb einer ©tunbe, eine« Sage«, Within an honr, a day. 

§ 205. firoft (by the power of y in virtue of\ denotes 
rather a moral than a physical cause (compare fcnnogt, 
§215): 

Straft feine« Amte«, By virtue of his office. 

Hern. 1. Straft has become a preposition by the dropping of the preposition 
fit, which formerly preceded it : 

„3)a er nid)t in Straft eine« fcerlie* As he does not rule by virtue of a 
fanen Statte« regiert, u borrowed office. 

Rem. 2. Straft G ike lant, fc ermöge, and be$uf«) has come from 
legal language (ftan^lriftyl) into the language of literature. It was first used 
by good writers in the seventeenth Century. 

§ 206. 28ttfl8 or entlang (along, lengthwise of) : 
i<&%%9 be« X&alc«, Along the Valley. 

(Entlang be« SBalbgebtrge«, Along the forest-covered mountain. 

Rem. 1. Both forma are frequently used with the dative case: 
2 5 n g « bent Ufer, Along the shore. 

(5 n 1 l a n g bent Strome, Along the stream. 

Rem. 2. 2än$8 is occasionally (entlang more frequently than läng«), 
found with the accusative case : 

2 ff n g « bett <&aa\ bbtab, Down along the Saal. 

<S n 1 1 a n g bat gelfenfcfab, Along the rocky path. 

Rem. 3. (Entlang frequently followt the noun which it governs : 

(Gen.) $e« SBegc« entlang, Along the way. 

(Dat. ) S)em ©cet entlang/ Along the parterre. 

(Act.) 2)en ganjen ©erg entlang/ Along the whole mountatn. 



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207-209.] CONSTBUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 377 

Rem. 4. föttlottg is sometimes used (with the accusative of nouns) indicat- 
ing time (meaning through) : 

9Jtond)en iugcnbttd^cn Xag tut* Through many aday ofmy youth. 

lang (©.), 

§ 207. 2ai!t (according to, ly the wording of) refers to 
something spoken or written : 

taut be« ©efCyte«, According to the order. 

Sant be« Verträge*, By the wording of the treaty. 

12efli. 1. Sollt is used by some writers also with the dative case : it ifl es- 
pecially used with the dative plwral of nouns when they are not preceded by 
an article or by an adjective : 

( Gen.) Saitt frityttt* ©riefe, According to former letters. 

( Dat.) Saut ©riefen au« metner $ei* According to letters from my home. 
matb, 
Rem. 2. Sollt has passed to be a preposition by dropping the preposition 
Bad) (formerly written n a ä) Saut e= according to the wording). 

§ 208. The four words mittels, mittcljt, tocruttttclS, tocr* 

mittelft have the same meaning (through, ly means of, 
throngh the instrumentality ö/}— -not referring to per- 
sona ; see bltrdj (§ 238) : 

Sir tarnen mittelft (or oermittetfl) We reached the shore by means of 

eine« &cü)ne* an« Ufer, a skiff. 

2)ompffd?iffe »erben $o*ttfta, Her* Steam-boatsarefrequentlydrivenby 
tnitttlft einer @d)rau&e öeroeflt, means of a screw. 
Rem. 1. The form toenttittelft is most frequenüy employed; and mittelft 
is more usual than either t)trmitttl$, or mittel«. 

Rem. 2. The four forma are derived from the Genitive of the adjective mit« 
t e t, which was first used adverbially (§ 107, 2) and then as a preposition. The 
form bermittetji was current inthel7th Century; mittelfi first appears 
in the writings of Steinbach (1784). 
Rem. 8. The 4 is added unorganically to the genitive ending (§ 107, 2). 
Rem. 4. The provincial use of these prepositions with the dative case, which 
has occasionally crept into the works of even such writers as Goethe, is not 
approved by German grammarians. 

§ 209. ®tatt or anftatt (instead of, m place of) : 

ttttffott (or ftett) feine« ©ruber«, Instead of his brother. 
Rem, 1. The placing of Statt öfter the noun it governs, which was very 
general in the Middle-German, is now considered antiquated : 

Sin feine« ©ruber« @tatt (compare in English, in his brother's etead). 
Rem. 2. The noun Statt (stead) has become a preposition by the dropping 
of an, which formerly was generally employed betöre it 



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378 THB PREPOSITION. [§ 210-215. 

§ 210. £ro$ (in spite of in defiance of, nothwithstand- 
ing): 

2*0$ be« Stegen« gingen ttrir na$ In spite of the rain we went to the 
bem äJfoifeum, museum. 

Rem, 1. SlOty indicates more actire Opposition than ungeachtet, and b 
therefore perhaps more properly to be construed with the dative case : 
2rö$ betn Serbote, In spite of the prohibition. 

Rem, 2. XtQty has become a preposition by dropping the preposition )| (m) 
in Jttttt SrO^ (in defiance of). 

§ 211. ttntefdjabet (without injury to or detraction 
fr<ym): 

Seiner ßtyre JUdkfättbtf, Without detracting from his honor. 

Ifaii. 1. Unfcef$abet may precede or follow the noun itgoverns. 
Rem, 2. It is sometimes nsed with the dative case. 

§ 212. Ura-toiflett (for —'s sake, for tJie sake ofonac- 
courvt of) : 

3d) ttttc bi$t um ©otte« toitttff, I entreat you, for God's sake, notto 

e« m$t ju t&un, do it 

Um bcö grieben« bittet, For the sake of peace. 

/fem. Occasionally, thongh rarely, examples are met with where one par- 
ticle (um or toitttü) is omitted. 

§ 213. Ungeadjttt (notwithstanding, in spite of, without 
regarding) : 

Ungtadjtet be9 Siegen«, gingen toir In spite of the rain we went to the 
na$ bem SRufeum, museom. 

Rem, Ungeachtet may precede or follow the noun. 

§ 214. UtttoCÜ or ttttient (not far from, near) : 
<&x roo^nt nxfcm be« Zfyoxt», He lives not far from the gate. 
llWOCitbe«©erge« liegt ba«2)orj, The village is not far from the 

mountain. 
Rem. 1. The parallel forma o$Ufcett, otynfern, are now rarely nsed. 
Rem, 2. Unfceit and un fem are occasionally round nsed with the dative. 
Rem. 3. Both words have had their origin during the New-German period. 

§ 215. Setmöge Q>y virtue ofin conformity with, by the 
power of): 

%Ut £örj>er ftrefcen ÖtrUtÜgC tyrer All bodies tend towards the center 
<Sdm>erc na$ bem 9JfttteH>mtft of the enrth, through their at- 
ber (Srbe, traction of gravitation. 

SemtigC be« ©ertrage«, By virtue of the treaty. 



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§ 216-219.] CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 379 

Rem. 1. ÜBtHntfge may be used in most cases where ftttft and laut are 
employed. 

Bern. 2. S> e r m 3 g c was original!/ a noun preceded by n a $. 

§ 216. Si^reilb (during the time of ) : 

SBäfaCnb be* Äriege«, Döring the war. 

Rem. 1. SBätHtltf) (from toäfyxtn, to endure) was first used as a parti- 
ciple or adjective (as in wä^rcnbcm Äriege) ; it was next osed with the quali- 
fied noun in the genittre (wä&renbe« Äriege«, compare be« 2Jtorgen, § 81, 3) ; 
it was first osed as a preposition in the last half of the eighteenth Century. 

§ 217. SBtßttt (on account of for the sake,or purpose of) : 

SBcgOt be« föegen« (or be* föegen« On account of the rain I remained 

wegen) blieb i$ ju $aufe, at home. [strife. 

yi\ü)t ©treiten« Wege* tarn t$ $er, I came not here for the purpose of 

Bern. 1. SB e g e n can thus either precede or follow the noun. 

Rem, 2. SB e gen has become a preposition by dropping the preposition 

b o n from bOtt SBcgCQ, a form that is now antiquated except in some fixed 

expressions, as : 

SOU 9fcd)t« fcfgttt, For the sake of justice. 

Rem. 3. SB e gen is snffixed to the personal pronoun, taking an unorganic 
*t or stt as letters of union (§ 107, Rem. 2): 

deinetwegen, on my account deinetwegen, on his account 

§ 218. 3uf°l0C (i n consegteence of inpurmance of in 
aecordance with) : 

<&X t&ot biefe* JttföIgC meine« Sfaf* He did this in aecordance with my 

trag«, commission. [tions. 

Bttfofgt gewagter <S£ehilattonen, In consequence of rash specula- 

JRem. 1 . When the noun followt JltfolgC, the noun is put in the dative case : 

3nf0lgebernmejienfta$ri$ten,\ According to the latest intelli- 

(or) 2)en neueren *Ra$ru$ten ju folge,) gence. 

Rem. 2. Formerly the two words were separated (JH ^fflfgC)* 

§ 219. Many other words are used as prepositions, 
governing the genitive case (especially in the language 
of trade and commerce), as: 

%Hgefid)t$, in view of (Jrom ba« 3fagefl$t, fiice). 
ftefytfä, in behalf of ( " ber ©e&uf, behalf, behoof). 

nanten^ in the name of ( " bet tarnen, namc). 
feit«!«, on the part of ( " bte ©cite, side). 
l)tofid)tUdj, ^»th respect to ( " bie $infid>t, respect). 
rttfßittf^ with regard to C ** bte 9tü(fft$t, regard). 



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380 thb peeposition. [§ 220, 222. 

9*gtfid)t$ ber @efo$r, In view of tfae danger. 

9tftmex0 bc$ Stottmomtö, In the name of thc officer. 

6eüC*0 bcr Sltent, Onthepartoftheparents. 

giftJMHf i$ bcr folgen, In view of the consequences. 

&ltfft4>tÜ$ bc« $ort$cü«, With regard to the interest. 

Rem. When nsed with personal prononns, the form feitö (instead of friteo$), 
is empbved (§ 109) : 

äRdKrfeite,fbrmypart. @etnerf eit8,onhisside. 



3. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE CASE. 
(©orttJrtcr mit beut 2tttin.) 
§220. &tt$ (tratf offroni) primarily refers to place, 
indicating origin, source, or the place whence : 

8*0 btr @tobt tominen, To come out of the city. 

<5x flammt Oflä einer eblen gamitie, He comes from a noble femily. 
Rem. 1. % n 8 sometimes is nsed as referring to a period of time: 

<5m 2)i(fytcr OttS bem brennten A poet of the thirteenth Century. 
3a$r$nnbert, 
Rem. 2. It often refers to thematerial or to the parte of a thing: 

(Sin ©efäß au$ 2$on, A vessel of clay. 

2>cr 9Wcnf$ befielt OttS Selb unb Man cosnists of body and souL 
@eele, 
Rem. 3. It may refer to the inner motive cause of an action : 

<Sr (onbett (o mt$ ©ctg, He does so from avarice. 

Rem. 4. It may refer to the material or parts of a thing: 

3$ erfefc an9 feinem ©riefe, baß I see from his letter, that he is sick. 
er front iß, 

2>a« toeiß id? an§ (Erfahrung, That I know from experience. 

§ 221. Stiller (out of outside of, beyond, excepf) refers 
only to position — not to motion : 

&tt$e* bem $attfe ju feiit f To be out of the house. 

<5r tfi Ottfcer @efa$r, He is out of danger. 

Ättfet i^m, ^oben Sitte i^rc ?f[iä)t All except him have done their 
getaut, duty. 

Rem. «ußer (Mid.-Ger., üzer; 02tf-Ger.,üzar) is from the Old-Ger., 
uz (au$), the ar being a derivative syllable. 

§ 222. 85ei (near, at, with) refer3 only to position — not 

to motion : 

Sei bem £aufc fte$t ein ©anrn, Near the house Stands a tree. 
3n bcr &äjiaä)t bei Sctyjtg, In the battle of (near) Leipsic. 



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§ 223-225.] PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE CASE. 381 

Rem. 1. Sei may indicate approximation, connection, possession, etc. : 

(Sr toofyrt tief mir, He resides with me. 

3$ fyabt tetn @clb Jei mir, I have no money with me. 

Sei btefer 9ftoä)riä)t, At this news. 

Rem. 2. Sei is used in making oatns or protestations : 

Sei meiner 8&re, Upon (by) my honor. 

§ 223. Sinnen (within,imideof) refers only to definite 
periods of time : 

Sinnen einer @tunbe »erbe in) Within an hour I will take my de- 

abreifen, parture. 

Sinnen einem 3a$re, Within ayear. 

Rem. 1. ©innen (M.-G., binnen), has come from theLower-German($4) 
into the High-German (§ 6), and is a Compound of be innen (bei innen). 

Rem. 2. The reference to space originally indicated by binnen is now re- 
tained only in such Compounds as : 

2>er Simtettfee, inland sea. 2>a« SittttenTanb, the interior part 

of a country. 

§ 224. (Entgegen (towards, against) expresses a direc- 
tion of or tendency to a motion toward an object, either 
in a friendly or hostile sense : 

2>er SRenföenfreunb tommt bem The benevolent man meets in a 

Sittenben frcunbtiä) entgegen, kindly way one who asks a »vor. 

2>er Safere ge^t bem geinbe mu* The brave man goes courageously 

t&tg entgegen, to meet the enemy. 

2>er SBinb toar und entgegen, The wind was against ns. 
Rem. 1. (Entgegen always comes after the noun it govems. 
Rem. 2. When motion is indicated, entgegen may perhaps be considered 
an adrerb (i. e., a prefix of the Compound verb, asentgegengefyen). 
Rem. 8. Entgegen is sometimes used as synonymous with gttfeibet ♦ 
dt ffat bem Sefe&Te entgegen (or He has acted contnury to the com- 
3ttl9fter)0efymbelt, mand. 

Rem. 4. The word entgegen (M.-G., engegen; O.-G., ingegin, inkakan) 
was formed by the union of in kakan=vx gegen = entgegen. The t is add- 
ed by false analogy, after imitation of ettt in inseparable Compound yerbs. 

§ 225. ©egettifter (over against, opposite to) refers to 
the relative position of two objects (which often have 
a hostile relation to each other) : 

Sei 3<>rnborf flonben bie Muffen At Zorndorf the Russians stood ar- 
ben Preußen gegenüber, rayed against the Prussians. 



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382 THE PREPOSITION. [§ 226-228. 

Rem. 1. This preposition sometimes precedes the noun it gorerns: 
@C0CHÜ&Cr bem 9flufeum ifl bic Opposite the Museum is the new 
neue ©tbltottyct, Library-building. 

Rem. 2. (Gegenüber is Compound of gegen Über = toward over (or over 
toward). 

§ 226. ©emäjj (in conformity with, agreeahly to) may 
precede or follow the noun it governs : 

@ttnä| meinem $orfafee (or mei* I do as I had intended (or aecording 
nem Eorfafce gemäft), tyanble to my intention), so do I act. 
i$fo, 
Rem. (3 e m S ß was formerly an adjeetive (in Jf.-C?., gemaeze ; in 0.-<7., 
gimazi, kimazi=nad? bem Wlafyt). 

§ 227. 9)Ut (with, in connection with) : 

2>er Später gefyt mit ben fönbern The fether goes out with his chil- 
au«, dren. 

(Ertrage beute Reiben mit ©ebulb ! Bear thy sorrows with patience ! 
Rem. 1 . SWit is often used to denote the identity of time of one event with 
another: 

©tr jtanben mit XagcScnbrud) auf, Wc arose at daybreak. 
Rem. 2. SRit is frequently used in denoting the means of conveyanco: 

öinen ©rief mit ber $oß Riefen, To send a letter by mail. 

SWit ber (Stfcnbojm fahren, To travel by railroad. 

§ 228. 9?adj denotes primarily motion or direction to 
or toward a place (see ju, § 235) : 

Cr ifi nad) ©ertüt gegangen, He has gone to Berlin. 

@ie fegetten nad) Sorben, They sailed toward the North. 

Rem. 1. The particle 31t or (ig is frequently added, being placed after the 
noun that is governed by UüäÖl 

2>er $afe lief nad) ber @tabt jn, The hare ran toward the city. 
S« bonnert nad) bem ©ebirge fyin, It thunders in the direction of the 

mountains. 
Rem. 2. 91 ad) is used inexpressing a motion toward a person or thing, 
fbr the purpose of reaching, touching, or procuring it : 

92a4 3«nonb föfogen, To strike at a person. 

9tad) bem 8rjt fluten, To send /or a physidan. 

9ta$ Semanb fragen, To ask afom/ a person. 

-ßem. 8. 9lai$ frequently signifies " q/^<r," whether referring to time or to 
place : 



9tad) bem fünften SDfau, After the fifth of May. 

(Stner ging nad) bem Snbero, One went after another. 



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§ 229-233.] CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 383 

Rem. 4. 91 0$ frequently signifies according to, or tu accordance with ; used 
in tbis 6ignification, itad) may be placed q/ler the noun it governs : 

<g« ge&t m$t immer itadj unfern Everything does not always go ac- 

2Bünf$en, cording to our wishes. 

2)a« fdnnetft nad| ©ein, That tastes of wine. 

(Sr malt nad| bei iRatur, He paints from nature. 

SRciner Meinung nad), In my opinion. 

§ 229. Wttdjjt or JMtädtft next to or next afler) : 
<5r faß ttädjft mir, He sat next to me. 

2)er tfroityrinj ritt jnnädlft bem The Crown Prince rode next to 
Äönige (or bem Äönige jMUäflft). the king. 
Rein, 1. £ u n ä $ ft may precede or follow the noans it governs. 
Rem. 2. W S <$fl , the Superlative of n a $ e (§ 92), was not used as a pre- 
position before the New-German period. 

§ 230. 92eBft (together with) refers to a connection 
existing in thought rather than in reality : 

2>ie @tabt fa$ ben junger ttC&ft The city saw famine, together with 
feinem gangen ©efolgenüt fdjretf* (or and) all its consequences, ap- 
lic^en dritten ftcfy nä&crn (Sd}.), proach with fearful steps. 
Rem. 1. 9lttf} is an irregulär derivative from neben. 

§ 231. jDb, denoting position over or above, is obsolete, 
except in poetry or in legal language : 

£>b bem tÄltar $ing eine SKuttcr Over the altar hung a picture of the 
©otte« (@d).), Virgin Mary. 

Rem. For ob (3f.-(#., ob; O.-G., obe, oba) in New-Ger., fi fc e r is used. 

§ 232. «Samrat (together with) indicates a more intimate 

or natural connection than is expressed by nebjt and mit: 

2>a« @$tff fammt ber gangen The ship, together with the entire 

SRannföaft nnb Sabung warb crew and cargo, became a prey to 

ein föaub ber SBeflen, the waves. 

Rem. ©amntt (2f.-Cr.,samet; O.-G., samant) is derived from the Old- 

German adjeetive satn (compare the English "same"), which is allied to the 

Latin semper (always) and the Greek ovv (with). 

§ 233. Seit (since, during) refers to a period of time 
that is speeified with reference to the moment of its 
commencement, or to its duration : 

€>tit borgeftern fy&t \6f ü)n nic^t I have not seen him since day before 

gefe^en (§ 256), yesterday. 

Cr ift feit einem 3a(re frant, He has been sick a year. 

Rem. ©CÜ (M.-G.y sit; O.-G., sid) is allied to the Goth. adj. seithu=zhte. 



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384 the PREPosmoN. [§ 234, 235. 

§ 234. Sm (from) indicates source or origin in the 
mo8t general way : 

Sit 9er(tn gingen toir na$ 9omt, From Berlin we went to Bonn. 
$it biefem Xage an, From this day forward. 

Äa*. 1. 8it is also nsed to express the material of which a thing ü made, 
or the content« or property of a thing : 

2>cr Xif äf xft Hit $ofj, The table is of wood. 

(Er tft ein 2Ronn Hit Öfcre, Heisa man ofhonor. 

iZem. 2. It often denotes Separation, and is also freqoentry nsed for the 
partitire genittre : 

3e$n Hit $unbert abjicfcn, To take ten from a hundred. 

3»ei Hit meinen gramben, Twoofmyfriends. 

Bern. 3. Sit may denote possession : 
2)er Jttnig Hit Vrenfjen, ThekingofPnissia. 

2>ie Umgebungen Hit ©erfin, The enrironsof Berlin. 

ifest. 4. Itisiisedmlimitmgthesiginn'cationofso 
(St tft Hein Hit ©efialt, He is small in statnre. 

3$ tarnt ü)u Hit Bnfefcn, I know him by sight. 

item. 5. Sit may be nsed to express the originator, the instrament, or 
the cause of an actionor aresnlt: 

(Sin (Semalbe Hit ftnBeni, A painting by Kobens. 

2>er $uub mürbe Hit bent fyxxn The dog was beaten by the man. 
gefölagen, 

§ 235. 3& indicates, primarily, motion to aperson : 
Sr ge$t gt feinem ©ruber, He goes to bis brother. 

©« fang )t ü)m, fie ft>ra<$ |t She sang to him, she spoke to him. 
Ü)m(©.), 
Rem. 1. 3* indicates also position or rest in a place (being nsed in thu 
sense betöre names of dties and vwages especially) : 

<Sr n>o$nt gt ©erlin, He resides in Berlin. 

2Hc Uittoerftto't St (Söttingett, The nniTersity in Gottingen. 

Rem. 2. £t indicates motion to an objeet or place, in many fixed expres- 
sions, that were established dnring the Middle-German period: 

<Sx ge$t bon Ort )t Ort, He goes from place to place, 

2)0« Jtinb ge$t )t öett, The child goes to bed. 

Rem. 3. 3* ** U8ed m indicating fims wAen, especially in many general 
expressions (compare also an, § 245 ; and um , § 242) : 

3t <5ttbe be« 3<u)re«, At the end of the year. 

3t» trften SWole, For the first üme. 



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§ 236-238.] CONSTRUCTION OP PHEPOSITIONS. 385 

Rem. 4. 3tt is employed in expressing many relations that grow out of the 
primary meaning of motion towards (and that of rest in) a place, as : 
<5r fle^t p guß, p ^ferbe, He goes on foot, on horseback. 

«Pommern gehört JU $reußen, iWerania belongs to Prussia. 

(ix taufte £u($ 31t einem 9to(f, He bought cloth for a coat. 
Rem. 5. 3tt waa originally an adverb ; it was first used as a preposition in 
the O.-Ger. period. Being first used with pronouns, and then with reference 
to persons in the Mid.-Ger. period. Its use was then extended to names of 
things, indicating motion or position with reference to them. 

§ 236. 3utoibtf (againstj contrary to) indicates a mo- 
tion or tendency in a stronger or more hostile sense 
than that which is expressed by e tt t g e g e n (§ 224) : 
2>a« ©Ificf »or und SUtOibtr (©*.), Fate was against us. 
2)er gefunben Semunft JtttoibCT, Contrary to sound reason. 
Rem. 3 U tt) i b c r always follows the nonn which it governs. 
Obs. The following verses contain several of the prepositions that govern 
the dati?e case. 

$apftttit an bic Ottelle. 

ftad» bir fömad&P t<$, sn bir eil' iä), bu ßclieBtc QueÜe, bu! 
ttnft bir föäpf i<$, Ui bir nu)' tu), ffV bem ©piel ber ©eilen gu; 
mit bir föer*' ia), »im bir lern* i$ Reiter bura) bad geben twulen, 
9fogela*t »im grü^Unö«blunien unb begrüß »on Stoctytgallen. 



4. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 

(»oroBrtcr mit beut Hcaifati**) 
§ 237. 83t8 (tfiß, tmtf$, äwyjw <w, to) refers to both time 
and space : 

95on ©erlin ti$ ^oWbom finb toter From Berlin to Potsdam it is four 

beutföe SRetfcn, German miles. 

23on Ofiern M$ «ßfuigflen ftnb fcier From Easter nntil Whitsnntide it 
3Bo<fyen, is seven weeks. 

Rem. 1. The article can not be used before a noun governed by b\$. 
Rem. 2. Some other preposition frequently follows M$ l 
919 no4 3Kitterna$t, Until after midnight. 

8i$ Ottf ben legten Setter, Down to the last ferthing. 

§ 238. 2)nr^ (through, by means of, by) : 
2Bhr fuhren burdj bte ©tabt, We rode through the city. 

$ttrdj ba« ganje 3rf}X, Through the entire year. 

$11*4 gleiß fytt er e$ erreicht, He has acquired it by diligence. 

R 



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386 thb preposition. [§239-240. 

§ 239. gut (for, instead of, infavor of) : 
(Sr ftorb für ba« Saterlanb, He died for his country. 

<5* ging für feinen ©ruber ut.ben He went to the war instead of his 

Ärieg, brother. 

©in ©cfd)enf für ehicn greunb, A present for a friend. 
Rem. 1. g ü r is used in many expressions where a nonn is repeatcd : 

Schritt fttr @$ritt ; Xag fttr £ag, Step by step ; day by day. 
Rem. 2. g ü r is used before a nonn taken as the equivalent of another sab« 
stantive nonn, in such expressions as : 

3$ falte tyn fttr einen e$rtt$en I consider him to be an honest man. 
äfornn, 
Rem. 3. g ü r loses its prcpositional power in tDa$ für (see § 1 13, Z\ . 

§ 240. ©egetl (toward, against) indicates motion, direc- 
tum, or tendency in either a friendly, hostile, or indif- 
ferent sense (see ttriber, § 243) : 

Sßir fegetten gegen fliorbcn, We sailed toward the North. 

(Sr toax fe$r freunbttd) gCgtn und, He was very kind toward us. 
2tte S3crbünbctcn sogen gegen bie The Allied forces moved against the 
granjofen, French. 

Rem. 1. © e gen may also indicate direct contact (against): 

(Sr lehnte flu) gegen bie Söanb, He leaned against the wall. 
Rem. 2. It may indicate approximation of time or number: 
(Segen fieben Ityr be$ borgend, Toward seven o'clock in the morning. 
(Segen ad)tyunbert ^erfonen, Toward eight hundred persona. 

Rem. 3. © c g C n may be used in expressing a comparison of two objeets: 

<£* if* gegett 2>i$ ein fttefe I He is a giant compared to thee! 

Rem. 4. © egen may be used in expressing exchange: 

9to* gege» baare 3<u)lung, Only on cash payment 

Rem. 5. (3 en, an abbreviation of g e g en, is only used now in some fixed 
expressions; it is nerer followed by the article: 

®ett ©Uttnicl ; gen Oflen, Toward heaven ; toward the East. 

§ 241. DljttC (vrithouf) is in general the opposite to 
mit in signification : 

DJtte @elb ; o^ne 3 to eifel, Without money ; without doubt. 

Rem. 1. The former construetion of o $ne with the dative (in the Middle- 
German) is yet preserved in the adrerb o \) n e b e m (besides tkat). 
Rem. 2. The use of ^ n e in the sense of besides (a n ß e r) is antiquated : 
(S* toaren fünfjig ^erfonen o(ne There were fifty persons without 
bie äinber, (counting) the chüdren. 



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§ 242, 243.] constrüction op PREPosrriONS. 387 

Rem. 3. The use of fOttbtt, instcad of Dfytt, is now antiquated, or poetic ; 
f o n b c X can never be followed by the article : 

3M$ ein 2ötrt$«$au* f onber @Ict* What an unequaled inn ! 
$en(@<$.)! 

§ 242. Um (aroundy about), implying either motion or 
rest : 

SBif dingen nm bie ©tobt tytvm, We went aroond the city. 

2)ic ©äße faßcn trat bcn StiW, The gaests sat aroond the table. 

Bern. 1. Before the hours of the day nnt denotes a specific time : 
2)tc ®onnc ge^t Jefet mn falb fcc^S The sun rises now at half past five 
ityrauf, o'dock. 

Hern. 2. Unt is used before some other divisions of time to express approxi- 
mation of time {about) : 

<3r roirb nnt SDtöttao, tommen, He will come about noon. 

Rem. 3. Unt may be used to express price, reward, etc.: 

2>a* »erbe to) nnt f ernenntet« tynn, That will I not do for any price. 
Rem. 4. Unt is used in comparing number, size, or degree : 

(2r tarn tttn jroet £ag c ju fofit, He came too late by two days. 

Rem, 5. tttn frequently signifies for, conceming: 

Um $filfc rufen, To call for help. 

<&\ä) nnt etwa« beffintmern, To concern one' seif about a thing. 

Rem. 6. Unt in some. figurative expressions signifies loss, overthrow, de- 
•truction, etc. : 

Sriflnm^cin Vermögen gctommen, He has lost his property. 

§ 243. SBibCf {against) implies hostile Opposition : 
<g£ roar ttlbet feinen ffiitten, It was against his will, 

äßer mäft für mi($ ift, ber ift Who is not for me, is against me. 

tttter mi$, 

Rem. The adverb rot e b er (again) was written in the same way as the 
preposition ro i b e r {against) until the beginning of the last Century. 

Obs. The following yerses contain most of the prepositions that govern the 
necusative case : 

«PMIcmoti au feinen Kretin*. 

2>nxd> $t<$ tf* bie 2Belt mir f^n, ofrite £i$ »tob» i$ f!e Raffen; 
«fit 2) i * leb t# flanj allem, tim £> i $ totfl t# gern crMaff en ; 
©egen XH# fofl fein »frldumber ungejtraft fi(& je »eraefa, 
»Iber D t # lein fteinb fty »affnen ? i$ noitt £ir jur Seite flcfru 



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388 thb pbeposition. [§ 244, 246; 

5. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE AND 

ACCUSATIVE CASES. 

(»ortwirter mit fcem 3>atfo nn* «ccnfottfc) 

§ 244. The nine jprepositions an, auf, hinter, in, neben, 

über, unter, »or, jnufc|en, govern the Accusative Case when 

motion toward the objeet they govern is expressed. 

They govern the Dative Case when rest or motion 
within speeified limits is expressed : 

(Sr legte ba« ©ud) auf btU %\fö, He laid the book on the table. 
2)a* öuä> Hegt auf btm £ifä), The book is lying on the table. 
Rem. 1. In general when these prepositions have reference to place or to 
Space, they govern the dative if they answer to the question where t — and 
the accusative if they answer to the question whithert («ee § 80, Rem. 1). 

Rem. 2. Usually even when these prepositions are employed otherwise than 
with reference to space, the above general rule will serve as a key to the cor- 
rect nse of the cases, as : 

6üt ©ebtö)t Ott ben SRonb, A poem to the moon. 

<5r arbeitet an einem SBerte, He is laboring on a work. 

Rem. 8. Where the ose of the prepositions rests upon relations that are too 
abstract to be governed by the above laws, the following general rule» will be 
of assistance : 

1. fttff and fitet are generally used with the accusative case. 

2. An, in, Unter, tlOr and atOtf^Ot are generally used with the dative case. 

§ 245. %U (on) indicates primarily nearness or contact 
upon the upper surface of a body, or lengthwise with 
a body : 

<5r hängte ba* S3itb au bie SBanb, He hang the picture on the wall, 
(guten föing an bem ginger tragen, To wear a ring on the finger. 
Rem. 1. Sn is employed in expressing definite time when (especially be- 
fore days of the week or the month ; see nm § 243 ; and § 83, 4) : 

<Sr jtarfc am 5. 3Rat 1847, He died on the fifth of May, 1847. 

Am borigen SDfitttöOä) um 6 Ityr, Last Wednesday, at six o'clock. 
Rem. 2. 8ttt inay be employed in expressing a number or measure ap- 
proximately : 

(59 waren an feä)*$unbert $erfo* There were about six hundred per- 
neu berfammelt, sons assembled. 

Rem. 8. Jtn may be used in expressing grounds of proof drawn from ex- 
terna! eigns : 

©tr erlotmten ü)n an ber Stimme, We know him by his voiee. 



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§245-247] CONSTRÜCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 389 

Rem. 4. $(tt is nsed in many cases to express the direction of an action of the 
mind or feelings : 

3$ glaube an einen (Statt, I believe in one God. 

$ier ift ein ©rief alt ©ie, Here is a letter, directed to you. 

Rem. 5. 8ttt with the article (am) is nsed in forming the relative Superla- 
tive of adverbs (§ 190, 1). 

Rem. 6. 8n is nsed to express the relation of office : 

<gr ift $rofeffor OK ber UntoerfttSt He is a professor in the nniversity 
ju ©öttingen, of Göttingen. 

Rem. 7. 9ftt is nsed, instead of the genitive case, in completing and limit- 
ing many predications : 

(St tetbet an $beumatt*mu«, He is suffering from rheumatism. 

<£r ijl jung an 3a$ren, He is young in years. 

§ 246. Ällf (on, upon) denotes primarily position upon 
the upper surface on the upper part of a body : 

(Sr legte ba« ©uä) auf b e n £ifä), He laid the book upon the table. 
2)aS 93u<$ liegt OUf b e m %\\ty, The book is lying upon the table. 

Rem.1. Jlnf often indicates position or direction, in a very general manner : 

(5r moljnt auf ber regten @eite ber He resides on the right-hand side of 

©trage, the street. 

(5r fleigt auf ben $$urm, He is going up the tower. 

@r iß anf ber 3agb, He has gone a hnnting. 

(Sr ift böfe anf uns, He is angry at us. 

<5r »artet anf feinen ©ruber, He is waiting for his brother. 

Rem. 2. ftnf is nsed in indicating exaet expressions or limitations of time, 
measure, or nnmber : 

©et anf bte@tuubebal Be there at the honr. 

(&x bot feine ?Reä)nung bis anf ben He has paid his aecount to the last 
legten geller begabt, ferthing. 

Rem. 3. Änf is nsed to express seqnence of time or order : 
Änf Wegen folgt @otmenfä}ein, Snnshine follows rain. 
3o> fabc c« anf feinen 53cf e$l getrau, I did it by his order. 
Rem. 4. Mttf is nsed in some adverbial expressions (especially in expressing 
the absolute Superlative § 190, 2). 

§ 247. glittet (behind, back of) almost always refers to 
place : 

3)er $unb tief hinter b a * $au«, The dog ran behind the house. 
2>er ©arten i|i (inttt beut $aufe, The garden is behind the house. 



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390 THE PREPOSITION. [§248-250. 

Rem. 1. When both of the bodies referred to are in motion, hinter gov- 
erns the dative case, and the adverb (erb added : 

ftotonb ritt (titterat SSotcr &er(U.), Roland rode behind (t. e. following) 

his father. 

§ 248. 3ftt (in, into) refera especially to place, time, 
condition, manner, material, or contents : 

SSir gingen in b i e ©tobt, We went into the city. 

<8r »oftrt ilt b e r @tabt, He resides in the city. 

(Er ftarb im torigen Oftober, He died last October. 

<$r bat e* int @(^erj gefagt, Ue said it in a joke. 

3)afür (ot er gtoetyunbert £faler He paid for that two hundred tha- 
in ©olb bejaht, lere in gold. 

§ 249. hieben (£y, near, dose to, ly the side of) refers al- 
most always to place: 

<Sr faß neben feinem ©ruber, He sat near (next to) his brother. 

(Er fefete fi<$ neben feinen ©ruber, He seated himself near his brother. 

Rem. When both objects are in motion, neben governs the dative and the 
adverb b er is added (seebinter, §247): 

2)er ©ebiente ging neben bem The servant went along at the side 
Söagen ber, of the wagon. 

§ 250. ttclicr (over, above, across) refers primarily to 
place : 

©ir gingen über b i e 93rü<f e, We went over the bridge. 

S)erÄnabc^at feinen ©all über ba« The boy has thrown his ball over 

$ouS in ben ©arten geworfen, the house into the garden. 

2)aS ©entätbe bangt übet ber The painting is hanging over the 

$&üre, door. 

Rem. 1. With the dative case über denotes position above an objeet, 
without Coming in contact with it; with the aecnsative, it denotes motion 
over or across an objeet, either with or without contact with it. 

Rem. 2. U e b e r may also signify beyond, or the other side of: 
lieber bem SWeere, Beyond the sea. 

S)a« gebt über feine Ärfifte, That is beyond his strength. 

$mte über a<tyt Xage, A week (eight doys) from to-day. 

Rem. 3. lieber signifies also by way of(via): 
23ir finb fcon ^ari« über Äötn unb We came from Paris by way of Co- 

$annofcer gefommen, logne and Hanover. 

3$ b«be ben ©rief übet Srcmen I sent the letter by way of Bremen, 
geftytft, 



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§ 251, 252.] CONSTEÜCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 391 

Sem. 4. Utbtt is in many cases used before the object to which a feeling 
or sentiment is directcd : 

Sitte fodjett filier feine ©itelfeit, All laugh at bis vanity. 

(Er ifl &öfc H&CT irgenb (Sttpa«, Ue is angry at something or other. 

Sem. 5. tttfct? (M.-G., über ; O.-C, nban ; Gothic, ufar) is derived from 
the same root as 0(1 (in Gothic, uf=up), see § 231. 

§ 251. Uttttr {under, lelow, leneath) refers primarily to 
place : 

©ir fafjen unter b e m ©aurne, We were sitting ander the tree. 
2öir festen und unter b e n SBaum, We seated ourseives under the tree. 

72671t. 1. Unter is also used in many figurative expressions, as in those 
indicating Submission or subjeetion to superior authority : 

2)a« Sonb toax bamal« nnter The land was at that time ander 

grembtyerrfäaft, foreign sway. 

Unter foWjen ©ebingungen, Under (upon) such condirions. 

Rem. 2. In expressions relating to time, unter usaally signifies during: 
<S« toor nnter ber Regierung It was during the reignof Frederick 
griebridj« be« ©roßen, the Great. 

Rem. 3. Unter frequently signifies among, between : 
3$ faß nnter ben 3uf<$auern, I sat among the speetators. 
3$ rechne tyn nnter meine greunbe, I count him among my friends. 

Rem. 4. Unter (M.-G., under; O.-G., and Gothic, undan) is probably 
alüed to the Latin tnter, And the Sanscrit antar=.among. 

§ 252. SJor (before, in front of in tAejpresence of y ernte- 

cedent to) : 

6r jtanb Hör bent #auf e, He was standing in front of the house. 

(Sr ersten Hör bem 9ft<tyter, He appeared before the jndge. 

(Er tarn Hot Sonnenaufgang, Ile came before sunrise. 

Sem. 1. jßor is rarely used with the accasatire, except with its primary 
signification which refers to Space (i. e., before, in front of) : 

(Jr trat Hör feinen töutytcr, He took his place before the judge. 

Rem. 2. 8or is frequently used (with the dative) in expressing the cause 
of a feeling or acticro : 

©ie torinte Hör greube, She wept from joy. 

(Sr gitterte ttor Bngft, ne trembled from fear. 

Sem. 8. Bor and für formerly had the same signification. In the Lower- 
German dialectt fc o r is yet used to a great extent for für. 



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392 



THE PREPOSITJON. 



[§ 253, 254. 



§ 253. 3önfdjeit (fretweerij betvnxt, in the midst of) : 
^Belgien liegt ^ttif^Ot granfreiä) Belgiam lies between France and 



Gennany. 
He arrived between nine and ten 

o'clock in the morning. 
The enemy sowed tares in (the midst 

of ) the wfaeat. 



unb Stattfölonb, 
<Sx tarn Steiften neun unb je$u 

U$r be* fWorgen* an, 
„Zxt getnb faetc Untraut Jtoif(^tl 
ben äBdien," 

Rem. 3^tf4tS is a contraction from the Middle-German em-zwUchen 
(O.-G., in zwitken, which is from theO.-G. adj. zui-isc=iXxx\\aä)=two{<Ad). 
Ob*. The following yerses contain the propositions that govera the dmtire 
and aecnsative cases : 

Vn ben Wtoub. 
«nf Di* bildet anf Dir »eilet oft mein «ua/ to f üfier £ufl; 
«»Dir }afr ia), «i Dia) fenb* iä) man* ©efityl and froher Sntft! 
3» D i a) fe&et «»Dir finbet meine 8>$antafie viel Seeneu, 
Unter b i e fie gern fla) träumet tmter b e n e n bort bie fd)öncn 
Seelen, fiber b i e f e (Erb' er$ö$et «** ©räbern »anbeut. 
»or m t d) tritt bann, *or m i r flebt bann ber <Entfa)fa§ reä)t gut }u fanbehu 
3»tf*e« bief en Sträuajen fifr' ia> v**id$eu fie frte^U fia) Dein 6tra»l. 
»«bat m i * füift neben m i r nu)t fie, bie ftrennbin meiner ©<u}l ; 
Steter mid) friQ $inaefd)lia)en, ftanb fie laajenb hinter mir, 
Unb »fr reben »on ben Sternen, unfren Sieben unb von Dir. 



6. Remarks npon 

(Semerfnngen über 
§ 254. The following is an 
ositions, with their primary 
they govern : 

9fo (acc and da/.), on, at. 

onftatt ($ee jtatt). 

auf (acc. and dat.), on, npon. 

au* (dat.), out, out of. 

außer (dat.), outside o£ 

außerhalb (^en.), outside of. 

bei (dat.), near, by. 

binnen (dat.), within. 

bi« (acc), nntil. 

bieSfeit (gen.), on this side o£ 

burd^ (acc.), through. 

entgegen (dat.), ngainst. 

entlang (see läng«). 

für (acc.), for. 

gegen (acc), against. 



Prepositionß. 
bie »OTttbrter.) 

alphabetical list of prep- 
meanings and the cases 

gegenüber (dat.), opposite to. 

batb, falben, or falber (gen.), in be- 
half ot 

hinter (acc), behind. 

in (acc. and dat.), in, into. 

innerbalb (gen.), inside of. 

ieufeit (gen.), on the other side of. 

traft (gen.), by the power of. 

läng* (gen. and dat.), along. 

laut (gen.), by the wording of. 

mit (dat.), with. 

mittel«, mitteljt (gen.), by the 
means of. 

uad> (dat.), after. 

neben (acc. and dat.), near. 



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255-257.] REMARKS UPON PREPOSITIONS. 393 

nebft (dat.), together with. unter (acc. and dat.\ ander. 

ob (dat.), orer. unterhalb (gen.), on the ander side of. 

oberhalb (gen.), on the upper side. untoeit (gen.), not far from. 

ofae (acc.), without. fcermtttelö, fcernüttetj* (see mittel«). 

fammt (dat. ), together with. vermöge (gen.), by means ot 

fett (dat.), since. t>on (dat.), from. 

fonber (acc.), without. fcpr (acc. and dat.), before. 

jtatt (gen.), instead of. »tyrenb (gen.), during. 

trofc (yen. and dat.J, in spite of. ftegen (gen.), on aecoant of. 

über (acc. and cfa*.), over. tt)tber (acc.), against. 

um (acc), around. JU (dat.), to. 

um-ttntten (gen.), for the sake of. ^ufolge (gen. and da«.), aecording to. 

unbe(d)abet (gen.), without injar- junS^fl (dat.), next to. 

unfern (gen.), not far from. [ing. juttriber (dat.), against. 

ungeachtet (?en.), notwithstanding. jttnfdjen (acc. and dat.), between. 

§ 255. With the following exceptions all prepositions 
jprecede the nouns they govern: 

Exe. 1 . § a l b (fy a l b e r , fy a l b e n), and j u m i b e r alwayt follow the noun. 

Exe. 2. entgegen, gegenüber, and juno^ftwaofly follow the noun. 

Exe 8. ©emSfj, na<$, ungeachtet, megen, and juf otgemay pre- 
cede or follow the noun. 

Rem. When j u f o I g c follows the noun, the noun is put in the dative case. 

Exe. 4. The noun Stands between the two parts of u m-n> i U e n. 

§ 256. In German, as in English, many adverbs of 
time and place may be used as indeclinable substantives, 
and may be preceded by prepositions : 

(2* tß ni$t mrit ton tytr, It is not far from here. 

33 o n ba an, From that time forward. 

(Jr ifl a u f itntt toerfagt, He is engaged for to-day. [morrow. 

SongCftÜlt bi« ÖbemWrgeU, From yesterday tül day after to- 

§257.Some prepositions may govern an entire subor- 
dinate sentence (instead of a Single word) ; when thus 
used, they have rather the character of conjunetions 
than of prepositions : 

(St ging »eg, oljllC und et»a« ba* He went away, without saying any- 

fcon ju fagen, thing about that. 

(gr gejtonb %U&, attfttt n>er feine He confessed everything, with the ex- 
Eflttfcfyulbigen feien 4 ceptionofwhohisaccompliceswere. 

<5r lobte midj, ftatt mid) JU tabeln, He praised me instead ofblamingme. 

R2 

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394 THE CONJUNCTION. [§258-260. 

§ 258. Many of the idiomatic differences between the 

English and the German languages are owing to the 

fact that many verbs, adjectives, and nouns are con- 

ceived in such different ways as to require different 

prepositions after them in completing predications : 

3$ g I a u b c an einen ©Ott, I believe in one God. 

(grift reic^ ttn@ütcm, aber arm He is rieh in landed estates, bat 

an baarem ©etbe, poor in ready money. 

(Sin 2tt a n g e l an ©e(b, A lack of money. 

3)er ©efongene ifl jlolj anf feine Tho prisoner is proud of his inno- 

Unföulb, cence. 

<5r ift fe&r begierig anf Abenteuer, He is very desirous q/*adventures. 

Söa6 »irb au$ u)m ro e r b e n l What will become of him ? 

3<tybinganj erflaunt übet fein I am quite astonished at bis be- 

©etragen, havior. 

<5r ift g r o ß Hon ©eftott, He is large in size. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

($a£ »inbetoort.) 
§ 259. Only afewConjunctions are primitive words, as: 

ttttb, and (M.-G., unt, unde; O.-G., endi, enti, anti; Anglo-Saxon, and). 
ÄbOf f bat (M.-G., aber, afer ; O.-G., afur, afar; GoM.,afer[fromaf=ab]> 
Bbtt, or (M.-G., oder; O.-G., odar; Goth., afththäu). 

Rem. Of a few conjunetions the origin is "ito longer feit" (§49, 2),as: 
SBebet, neither (from M.-G., en— weder, ne— weder=not of the two ; the 

negative particle ne has been dropped). 
QtUttDtbtt, either (M.- G., eintweder, from ein— de — weder=one of the two). 

§ 260. Almost all conjunetions are, (1) either adverbs 
or prepositions, used as conjunetions: or (2), deriva- 
tives and Compounds of adverbs and prepositions with 
each other or with nouns or pronouns : 

Sa er nid)t fertig tt?ar, mußte er As he was not ready, we had to go 

allein getyen, alone. 

SBä^renb ©ie lefen, »erbe i$ While you are reading, I will write. 

f<bretben, 
(Sr ging na$ ber ©tabt, ttadjbem He went to the city after he had 

er ben ©rief getrieben $atte, written a letter. 

3<$ fonb tyn ni$t, obßletd) itb tyn I did not find him, althongh I look- 
lange fu$te, ed for him a long time. 



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§ 261.] 



THE CONJüNCTION. 



395 



Rem. From the fact that they serve also to connect subordinate with main 
sentences, relative pronouns may also be considered as conjunctions : 

2Bo ift ba« S3ua), tttlfttä <§ie tyeutc Where is the book which you bought 
äRorgen getauft tyabcn, this morning. 

§ 261. The mo8t important Conjunctions are the fol- 
lowing : 



Aber, but. 
allein, bat. 
alß, as, then, when. 
al$ ob, as though. 
olfo, consequently. 
aud), also. 

auf baß, in order that 
außerbem, moreover. 
bebor, before. 
bi«, until. 
ba, since. 
batyer, therefore. 
bagegen, on the contrary. 
bamit, in order that. 
barum, therefore. 
baß, that, in order that. 
beim, for, because. 
bennod), notwithstanding. 
be$$alb, therefore. 
beffenuugeacfytet, nevertheless. 
be*tt>egen, therefore. 
boä), yet, still 
efye, before. 
fall«, in case that. 
ferner, further. 
folglich, consequently. 
gleid)tt>o$l, however, yet. 
hingegen, on the contrary. 
inbem, while, because. 
tnbeffen, however, yet. 
je nattybem, aecording as. 
jebod), however. 



mithin, consequently. 

na$bem, after. 

nitysbeflotoemger, nevertheless. 

nur, but, only. 

nun, therefore. 

ob, whether, if. 

obgleid) (obfä)on, oorcoltf), ßl - 

o&ne, except. [though, though. 

feit, since. 

feitbem, since. 

otyngeaetytet, notwithstanding. 

fo, thus, therefore, if. 

fobalb a(9, as soon as. 

fonft,.otherwisc. 

flbetbie«, besides. 

übrigen«, furthennorc. 

ungeachtet, notwithstanding. 

um, in order (to). 

btetme&r, rather. 

mä&renb, while. 

toann, when. 

»eil, because. 

toenn, when, if. 

Kenn auä), although. 

toenngtetä), although. 

»ennfdjon, although. 

tt)ie, as, when. 

ftneroobl, although. 

too, where, when. 

ttjofern, in case that 

ju bem, besides. 

Jttar, indeed. 



Rem. The most important corresponding conjunctions are the following: 
foolb — balb, sometiraea — sometimes. 

um fo,) 

entmeber— ober, eiiher — or. 

niä)t— fonbern, not— but 



the— the. 



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396 



THE CONJUNCTION. 



[§ 263. 



m$t— bielme^r, 
•nid)tuur— ) 
mty allein— j> fonbcrn au<$, 
nictyt bloß— ) 
obgtet^ — fo boä), 
fotüo^I — al«, 
t^eite — tfail«, 
meber— noä>, 
nrie— fo, 



not — bat rather. 

not only — bat also. 

although— stilL 
as well — as. 
partly— parüy. 
neither— nor. 
as — so. 



§ 263. Conjunctions may be divided, with reference 
to the grammatical office they perform in connecting 
sentences, into two classes : 

1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions, which are used to con- 
nect equally independent sentences : 

1. The following seven co-ordinative conjunctions cause no alteration in 
the position of the verb in the sentence: 

Unb, ober, fonbern, fon>o#-al«. 

ober, allein, benn, 

Söir gingen naä> §aUt t mtb bon We went to Halle, and from there 

ba gingen torir naä)Setyjig, we went to Leipzic 

SBtr gingen ntdjt naä) <ßrag, (Ott* We did not go to Prague, but we 
bern nrir gingen nad) 2Rttna)en, went to Munich. 

Rem. Aber, however, may also be placed after the subjeet, or after the verb : 
S)er Eotcr aber f praä)— Bat the father spoke— 

3)er ©trauß $at glflgel, er fann The ostrich has wings, bat he can 
aber nia)t fliegen, not fly. 

2. The following co-ordinative conjunctions are usually placed at the be~ 
ginning of the sentence or clause ; when so placed they cause the subjeet to fol- 
low the verb in simple tenses, and to follow the auxiliary in Compound tenses 
(see § 



280): 
«Ifo, 


besmegen, 


icboä), 


and), 


(ie)—befio, 


mithin, 


außer bem, 


(befto)— beflo, 


mä}t«beflon>eniger, 


balb— balb, 


boä), 


noä), 


bagegen, 


enüoeber, 


nid)t nur, j 
niä)t allein, l 
mä)tbtoß, ) 


bafcr, 


faß«, 


barnm, 


ferner, 


bentnad), 


folgliä), 


nur, 


benno<$, 


glri$roo$l, 


ofyngeadfytet, 


beffetrangeatytet, 


hingegen, 


t^eU«— t^>cil«, 


be«&al&, 


inbeffen, 


äberbie«, 


be*gleiä>cn, 


infofern, 


übrigen«, 

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§ 263.] THE CONJUNCTION. 397 

btetaie&r, (tme)— fo, jubem, 

toa'&renb, (tt>eber>-noä), gtoar. 

2)tc ©ottne föctnt, b a $ c t ijt e$ The sun shines, therefbre it is so hot 

fo friß, 
& au mfyattt tt ba« gefagt — Scarcely had he said that — 

2. SvbordincUive Conjunctions, which are used to con- 
nect subordinate to principal sentences ; they cause tbe 
verb to be placed at the end of the subordinate sen- 
tence : 

511«, je nadjbem, ungeachtet, 

at« ob, naa)bem, tofityrenb, 

auf baß, nun, ttann, 

betoor, ob, toeü, 

bis, obgleich, toenn, 

ba, obfoon, wenn uiäjt, 

bamit, tbxooifi, toemt au$, 

baß, feit, nrie, 

e$e, feitbem, toiewo&f, 

faü«, fobatb al«, wo, 

im gatt baß, fo oft als, toofern, 

inbem, fo lange als, jtoar. 

(SS toar f$on fe$r ft>St, a13 i$ na<fy It was already very lato when I 
Raufet am, camehome. 

JRem. 1. In subordinate sentences the auxilaries of Compound tenses and 
the simple tenses of the potential verbs are placed aftcr the main verb : 

(£$C »ir na$ #aufe gefommen Before we had come home, it had 
tottrCtt, fcottc e* fd)on angefangen already begun to rain. 
gu regnen, 
Rem. 2. When the Compound tenses of the potential verbs are used in sub- 
ordinate sentences, the auxiliary of these verbs is placed between the nomi- 
native and the Infinitive of the main verb (see § 131, Rem. 2, § 282, Rem. 1): 
<£r fagt, baf CT ** *"$* & a t f in* He said that he had not been able 
ben fönnen, to find it. 

Rem. 3. When baf is omitted, the natural order of the words is preserved : 
3a) glaube er ijt noä) nid)t ange* I think that he has not arrived yet. 
lommen, 
Rem. 4. If ft) Ctttt is omitted, the order of words in the subordinate sentence 
is the same as in interrogative sentences {see § 280, 4): 

©enn id) bie j&tit bagu tyätte (or If I had the time (or had I the time), 
tyätte id) bie 3cit bagu), f o toürbe I would like very mach to go to 
i$ fefa gern mit 3fynen tyeute Potsdam with you to-day. 
nad) ^pot«bam ge&cn, 



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398 thb conjunction. [264-266. 

Remarks upon Conjunctions. 

(öemtrfunflctt über bie S3lnt> ctoörtcr.) 

Obs. The number of words tbat perform the office of conjunctions is veiy 

large, and their correct use must be learned mostly by practice. We give 

below remarks upon the signification and nse of some of those which the 

English-speaking person would be most apt to nse erroneously. 

§ 264. Ulli (and) is employed almost entirely as in 
English : 

2>er Sater unb ber @o$n, The father and the son. 

Rem. In a few cases, however, the German idiom does not permit the direct 
translation of and by 11 n b, as : 

How can you go out and not take SBie tonnen ©ie ausgeben, o&n* 

him with you? tyn mitjunetymen. 

He became better and better, <5r rourbe immer beff er. 

It became hotter and hotter, (5$ tomrbe immer Reißer. 

§ 265. 9lber, aUem, fonbern, »iclmcfjr (but) : 

Rem. 1. SlfCcilt indicates a contradiction, in some degrec, to the Statement 
in the preceding sentence, or of the consequences which might follow from it j 
übtt simply indicates something different from the preceding Statement; 
aber can always be used instead of alleilt, but allein can not always be 
used instead of a b e r : 

3$ (offte e«, allein (or ab e r) iä) I hoped for it, but I found myself 
fanb mid) getaufdjt, mistaken. 

Rem. 2. @0Hbtnt is only used after a negative sentence; it indicates that 
the second sentence corrects an error in the first ; aber is used (after nega- 
tive sentences even) when no contradiction exists between the two sentences : 
6r befielt c$ niebt, fonbern er He does not order it, but he de- 

t»finfd)t t9 t sires it. 

<2r befiehlt e« (jttar) md)t, aber He does not order it (it is true), but 
er n)finf$t e«, he desires it. 

Rem. 3. 8 1 eint ei) r is closely allied in signification and useto fonbern, 
but is often more emphatic or definite in meaning : 

3d) fürchte tyn nutyt, bielntebr fcer* I do not fear him, but rather I 
ad)te id) ü)n, despise him. 

§ 266. 9U8, tote, toetttt, toatttt, are used as follows: 
1. As an adverbial conjunction, tili (when) refers only 
to past time : 

$1 \9 wir in ©erlitt anfamen, toar Mr. Kraft had already left for Dres- 
$err Äraft feijon naä) 2>re$ben den when we arrived in Berlin, 
abßereift, 



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§ 266.] THE CONJUNCTIOX. 391) 

Bern. 1. 21 18 (than) is used after the comparative degree of adjectives or 
adverbs : 

£eute iß ba« Söctter milber To-day the weather is milder than 
0l8 e8 gejlern Xoax, it was yesterday. 

Rem. 2. 211 8 baß (preceded bj gu) gives a negative signification to the 
subordinate sentence which it introduces : 

(Sr tft i u fing al$ bo| er an ©c* He is too intelligent to believe in 
foenfler glauben fottte, ghosts. 

jRewi. 8. After a negation or an expression equivalent to a negation, al£ 
signifies exc*p* .• 

9* i <ty 1 8 nennt er fein, olS feinen He calls nothing his own, except his 

töittermantel (©$.), knightly mantle. 

2öer f o n fl ifl @$ulb baron, al$ Who eise is to blame for it, except 

3^r in SSien? (@$.) you in Vienna? 

Rem. 4. 511 9 is often used interchangeably with tote, a$ (see No. 2, below). 

Äem. 5. 8(18 is often followed by ob or tot nn : 

(Sr ftefyt au« a(£ 06 er tränt (ei, He looks as though he is sick. 

(Sr fietyt au8 a($ totttlt er tränt He looks as though he were sick. 
tt>5re, 

2. SBte (as) y preceded by fo, is used in comparing to- 

gether two adjectives or adverbs in the positive degree : 

$eute tft ba8 SBetter tu^t fo $eiß The weather is not so bot to-day 
ttrie e8 geftern war, as it was yesterday. 

Rem. 1 . In German, as in English, f (as) is often omitted : 
„©ei-flug tote bte ©^langen, itnb " Be wise as serpents and harmless 
otyne fatfd) toft bte Rauben," as doves." 

Rem, 2. 811$ is often used instead of tt) t C : 
68 ifl eben fo fyciß al$ (or tote) e8 It is just as hot as it was yesterday. 
geflern n>ar, 

Rem. 3. Used as an ndverbial conjunetion, tote signifies " how" as : 
3$ ttjetß ttrirfttcfy nid)t, tnit u$ ba$ I really do not know how to do 
madjeu fett, that. 

3. SBattn (when) refers to time past, present, or future ; 
it is only used as a conjunetion in introducing indirect 
questions : 

36) tocij} nodj nt($t, tDOtttt tßvc ab* I do not know yet when we will 
reifen werben, leave. 



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400 THE CONJÜNCTION. [§ 267. 

4. SBctttt (when), when referring to time, applies only 
to indefinite time : 

SBtr fahren ju S3erg, We go to the mountains, we retum 

SBir tommen nrieber, again, when the euckoo calls, 

SöetI ber ÄufuI ruft, when the songs awaken. 

©eil eroa$ca bic Sieber (©<$.), 
i2em. SBetn is more genenülj nsed in hypothetical eentence^signifying if : 

Sßtxn bic @(o<f fott auferjtefccn, If the bell is to come forth, the 
3Jtaß bie gönn in ©tüde getyen (@<$.) moald mnst be broken to pieces. 

§ 267. $amü, um JIl f auf ba| (m orcfer that, in order to): 

Rem. 1. £> a m i t, originally an adverb (signifying therewith), when nsed as 
a conjunetion, usually refers to the means of aecomplishing a purpose : 

3$ beffrafe tyn, bomit er fidj bef* I punish him, that he may become 
fere, better (by it). 

Rem. 2. When especial emphasis is to be laid npon the cansal relation of 
bamit, batltm is often placed at the opening of the main sentence, which 
precedes the snbordinate sentence : 

Damm eben tetyt er Seinem, Just for that reason does he lend to 

2)amit er ßct« ju geben fyabt (2eff .) nobody, that he may always have 

soroething to gire. 

Rem. 3. 2)amtt ni$t freqnently signifies lest or that not: 

3$ fage btr t» normal«, bamit I say it to you once more, lest you 
bn es n i $ t bergtff ejr, should forget it. 

Rem. 4. % u f b a fj is now rather antiquated : 

„<S$re Soter ttttb 37totter, Oltf ba# " Honor thy father and thy mother, 
e$ btr tootyl getyc auf <£rben," that it may be well with thee in 

theland." 

Rem. 5. The Single conjunetion baß is frequently nsed for a uf baß: 
bleibt nt<tyt in (Jnglanb, baß bei Do not remain in England, that the 
©rite nt$t fein fiolje« $erj an Briton may not feast his proud 
(gurem Ung(ü(f toeibe (©<$.)* neart npon thy misfortnne. 

JSeira. 6. When a shorter expression is desired, ttttt — Jtt (with an infinitive) 
is frequently nsed instead of a U f baß: 

3$ beflrafe tyn, um tyn jn beffern. I punish him to make him better. 
Rem. 7. Um Jlt is also nsed after an adjeetive or adverb preceded by 3a : 

Cr if* 31t ebel, not ft$ ju ro*$en, He is too noble minded to avenge 

himself. 



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§ 268, 269 J THE CONJTJNCTION. 401 

§ 268. jDbgleid), obföon, oitooljl, mm^ltiä), toetttt f$on f 

toetlll Öttdjl (though, although) : 

Rem. 1. When the subordinate sentence precedes the main sentence, the 
latter is usually introduced by ( 0, followed by bod) or btttttOC^ (still) : 

OBgltity btt Sekret im ©anjen gu* Although the teacher was upon the 
trieben toax, fo war bod) man* whole satisfied, still thero were 
^C« Smjclnc JU tabetn, many things to be found fault with. 

34 rociß e«, Obglcid) ( or ObttoJO I kn ow **> though no one of you in- 
Äeiner Don 3fynen mid) batton formed me of it. 
benaä)riä)tigt f)at, 
Rem. 2. Ob— gleiä) and roenn glei<$ often take a pronoun or other 
monosyllabic word between their parte: 

Ob i$ gltid) Qefagt ^abc— Although I have said— 

22em. 3. SBenn — au 4 often signifies even if; the two words are often 
separated, or reversed: 

2)er Serfud) toar noa) immer rrid> The attempt was still richly re- 
lid) belohnt, tocnn 011$ nur rin warded, even if only a part of the 
Xiftxl be« 3$erft>red>n$ erfüllt promise was fullfilled. 
ttmrbe (^d).), 
2)a« tonnte gcfd)e&en, ttttdj toemt That might have taken place, even 
©u|kt> Slbolf K. (©$.), if Gustavus Adolphus, etc. 

(but) Sentt CV fttt$ alt iß, fo if) bod) Although he is old, still his spirit is 
fem ©eifi jugenbtu}, youthfuL 

§ 269. Stoljcr, barum, bcSIjalli, be^ioegett, alfo, folgIi$ f 

bcraita^, mithin {con8equently y therefore) : 
J2em. 1. Satytt has reference rather to the physical cause : 
2)cr @ä)nec ifl auf ben ©ebirgen The snow has melted npon the 
geftt)motjen; ba\)tt finb bie mountains; therefore the rivers 
glüffe angefärooUcn, have risen. 

Rem. 2. 2)arum, bcS^alb, beötoegen, refer more to the moral than 
to the physical cause : 

(SS gefiel tym nidjt me&r unter ben He no longer enjoyed human so- 
3Renfd)en, ba^tr (or btSttCgtn) ciety, therefore he retired to sol- 
jog er fi<fy in bie (Sinfamfeit ju* itude. 
rfitf, 
(gr ifl ju lettyfinnig, bt^atb Tarnt He is too trivial, therefore I can 
. icb gar nid?t mit tym aufrieben not be at all pleased with him. 

fein, 
Rem. 3. 2) a r U m is used in a most general way, to indicate a physical, 
moral, or logical cause: 

&9 ifl fd)öne« SBetter ; bantm It is fine weather, therefore I will 
getye id> frieren, go and take a walk. 



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402 THE CONJÜNCTION. [§ 269-271. 

Oba. S)arum is sometimes contracted into b r u m : 
(Sine 3)nrdjlaud)tia,feit lagt er fidj He has himself called " hb Excel- 
nennen ; bmni muß er @olbo* lency," therefore he must be able 
ten falten tonnen (&$.), to have hb soldiere. 

Rem. 4. Älfo, folglitf, bCJÜBd^, tttttiM, indicate rather a logical conse- 
quence : 

Ör fat e$ felbjl getyon, unb fann He did it himself; therefore he can 

Olfo 9Hemanb tobeln, blame nobody. 

SBtr ftnb 2Renf<fyen, fflglid) tf n & We a* 6 men > therefore we are mor- 
toir ftaUidf, taL 

0&«. 1. SentnOll (bem nad» b frequently equivalent to aecordutg to that : 
Gr ifl geftan obgeretft, unb tonn He started yesterday, and may con- 
bentltaÄ fcute anfommen, seqaently arrive to-day. 

Obs. 2. 90tit%ftt indicates that tbe consequent b included in or grows nat- 
urally out of the preceding Statement : 

allein ©ruber fommt tycute Slfcenb My brother does not come thb eren- 
n\ü)t t mithin ftnb nrir allein, ing, so we will be alone. 

§2l0.$mt,ti)t (before): 

Hern. 1. StDOr refers only to time ; Cjf may also express a preference or 
choiee : ^ 

Scbor (or e^e)er bie Stabt toerlteß, Before he left the city. 
(£$t tdj mir bo« anfallen (äff e, tritt Before I put up with that, I will 
i$ lieber auf jeben etftaigen Sor* rather renonnce every possible ad- 
fyctl toerjtdjten, vantage. 

Rem. 2. SctoOt b now mach less ased than t^C» 

Rem. 8. The comparative degree tfytX (sooner) b sometimes placed in the 
sentence preceding the one containing tfyt or bebor : 

2)ir9ßid?t« t%tX JU fagen, bebor Tosay nothing toyou, before twelve 

jtöölf Xage geföwunben (finb), days are past. 
2)0$ cfctr fältnge Xellu« mio) And may Tellns swallow mo down, 
tynoÄ, elje uty meinen Gib Der* rather than that I should break 
lefete (®d).), m 7 oa** 1 ' 

Rem. 4. Sometimes n i d) t b added, pleonastically, aller t%t ; especially b 
thb done when there b a negative in the preceding main sentence : 

2tom fott nt<$t früher aufhören, One should not cease before the 
e(e bie $Snbe uit)t erlahmen, hands become weary. 

§ 271. gafl«, im gafle (ba|), toofern (in case that, if) : 

Rem. These forros are especially appropriate when their use would prevent 
an unpleasant repetition of XO t n n (if) in the same sentence. 

36) ttrilT« 2>tr leiten, \aU9 3>u I will loan it to you, in case that 
mir'« falb ttiebergeben tannfr, you can soon return it to me. 



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§272-274.] THE CONJUNCTION. 403 

§ 272. SBo (where) is also used referring to time (when) : 
Äennfl bu ba« Sanb, too bic 3ttro* Do you know the Und where the 

nen fclü&en (©.), citrons bloom ? 

3ta ber 3«t, *0— At the time, when— 

Rein. S&0 was fbrmerly mach used instead of tt> c n n ; this signification is 
now given mostly in rather short and in fixed expres8ions, N as : 

SO m$t ; 100 td) md)t irre, If not ; if I am not mistaken. 

§ 273. Uc6rigcn8 f itfccr&ie«, p bem (moreover,besid<?8) : 
<5r iß für fein 2Uter ttug, iibrtgtuS He is shrewd for his age ; moreover, 
ifl er älter al« Bit glauben, he is older than you think. 

Rem. UtberMcÖ and jtt bcm are more specific than übrigen«. 

§ 274. $Ctttt, bd, tttbem, meit (becau8e,jb?;a8,8inc€): 
Rem. 1. $Ctttt gives rather the explanation of a Statement : 
3d) gefye md)t au«, bewt t» regnet I do not go out, for (t. «., as you see) 
fortttä'fyrenb, it keeps raining continually. 

Rem. 2. Seil (because) answers to the question toatllttt ? (why t) : 
So a r u nt getyen ©te nidjt auö ? Why do you not go out ? 
SBtll e« f ort»ä$renb regnet, Because it keeps raining continually. 

Rem. 3. 3) en n is frequently used to introduce explanatory sentences that 
are interposed between the words of main sentences : 

3n) bin— btntt warum fott td) eS I have been— for why shall I deny 
täugnen— fe$r fleißig geroefen, it— very industrious. 

Rem. 4. üDenn (meaning than) is not used now as much after compara- 
tives as it was formerly ; its present use in this signifioation is rather con- 
fined to dignified composition : 

w 2Retne @ünbe tfl größer, benn fie "My punishment is greater than I 
mir »ergeben werben möge", can bear" (Gen. 4, 13). 

Rem. 5. 3) e n n is, however, freqncntly used to prevent the repetition of 0l$ : 
3d) befud)e tyn fefet mzfyc at« I visit him now more as a friend 
greunb, btntt at« &rjt, than as aphysician. 

Rem. 6. 3) en n is often used expletively, especially in questions: 

3öer fann e« tym betttt gefagt (jaben ? Who can have told it to him ? 
Obs. Thus used, benn does not reeeive an emphatic tone of voiee. 
Rem. 7. $fl f though primarily an adverbial conjunetion of time (signifying 
when, [see § 266, 4, and alÖ, § 263, 2]), is sometimes used to express the logical 
cause, especially when the main sentence contains a question : 

$tt er nid)t gefommen tfl, muß er As he has not come, he must be 

frant fein, sick. 

2Bte famet t(jr bnrd) ba« SSaffer, How did you come through the wa- 
Ött bod) ber ©trom bie ©rüde ter, since the stream has carried 
fortgeführt [bat]? (@d).) the bridge away ? 



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404 THE INTERJECTION. [§ 275. 

Rem. 8. ^ttbCltt, üke bü, is primarily a conjunction of time ; it also is used 
to express the logical cause : 

3nbcm er aber alfo gebaute, flehet Bat while he was reflecting, behold ! 

ba ersten tym ein (Sngel, an angel appeared to him. 

3d) tarnt es bir ntdjt geben, totem I can not give it to you, for I have 

\äf e« i&m fetyon früher fcerfpro* already promised it before to him. 
d)en fyabe, 



THE INTERJECTION. 
On3 Snqifiitbimg^ioort) 

§ 275. Among the prineipal interjeetions, or words 
used as such, are the following : 

1 . Of joy, as : afy t— $a l— ei !— iu<$ (jud)$e ! $eifa ! or $oä) !)=Ä«rroA/ 

2. Of sorrow, as : aä) !— toety ! or o toe$ \=alas!— tetbet l=unfortmateIy ! 

3. Of astonishment, as: ad) l— a$ l— ty l—fyla !— ^ofctaufenb ! 

4. Of laaghter, as: fyt&al 

5. Of aversion, as : J)fui ! tfui' \=p$haw!— pe \=ße! 

Rem. 1. The word f ! is used in a great variety of connections, as, for ex- 
ample, to indicate astonishment, inquiry, assent, or satisfaction. 

Rem. 2. Many words that belong to other parts of speech are frequenüy 
used with the force of interjeetions, as : 

©ut ! good ! SBotyton ! be of good courage ! 

$eil ! hail ! ©ottfob ! God be praised ! 

aSortoä'rt« ! forward ! ©Ott betoatyre ! God forbid ! 

#att I halt ! stop ! Slbteu l Good-by ! 

Rem. 3. The interjeetions fyeit 1 and u)0$l 1 and others, are followed by tho 
dative case, as : 

ffio&l (fei) $m 1 May it be well with him! 

$eü (fei or »erbe) bir 1 Hail to thee ! 

Rem. 4. Some interjeetions may be followed by the genitive case, as : 
Di), be« Sporen ! Oh, the fool ! *ßfm, ber ©djanbe ! Pshaw ! the shame ! 

Rem. 5. Sometimes the genitive is replaced by the preposition ü b e r f as : 
$fm, über bie @(fymbe ! Pshaw ! for shame ! 

Rem. 6. As most interjeetions are elliptical expressions, some of them. 
may be followed by a noun in either of the cases, as : 

D, Xljor ! o f ber £$or 1 Oh, the fool ! 

D,bcm Sporen (tann e« md>t färben) t " " " 
0,ben2ty>ren(fennetd))! " " " 



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^ 276-278.] ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 



405 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

(Sie SBortfofge.) 

§ 276. In nothing is the genius of a language more 

strongly manifest than in the arrangement of words in 

sentences. The two following are among the most 

prominent characteristi.es of the German sentence : 

1. The order of words in main sentences differs from that in subordinate 
sentences : 

(grt|l franf, Heissick. 

Qx farnt ni$t ausgeben, »eil er He can not go out, because he is 
traitUft, sick. 

2. There is a marked tendency to present the sentence as a unit — that is, 
with the modifying and limiting words and clauses enclosed between the copula 
and predicate in main sentences, and between the subjeet and copula in subor- 
dinate sentences : 

#err ffieiß Dat (feinem ätteften 

@o$n, SBifyelm, bie lefete Sluö* 

gäbe ber beutfä)en Stterarur*©e* 

fa)iä)te ton $eiitriä) Jtors, fjtntt, 

aU ©et$naa)t«gef ä)en!)gegeiC!I, 
2Bir tooflten geflern nad) $ot$bam 

ge&en, toett fca8 Setter (für biefe 

3a&re«jett fo ganj aufjerorbent* 

üä) fä)ön) tomr, 



Mr. Weiss hos to-day given to his 
son William the last edition of the 
History of the German Literature 
by Heinrich Kurz, as a Christmas 
present. 

We wished to go to Potsdam yester- 
day, because the weather was so 
very unusualy beautiful for this 
season of the year. 



§ 277. The essential parts of a sentence are the mhjeet, 
the predicate, and the copula. 

1. The subjeet is the nominative of the verb. 

2. The predicate expresses what is affirmed of the subjeet. 
8. The copula is the inflected part of the verb. 

7?««. The predicate is often included in one word with the copula. 

§ 278. In main indicative sentences the regulär order 
is: (\),the mbjeet; (2), the copula; (3), the predicate. 

Subjeet. Copula. Predicate. 
2)a« Sßetter tfi fctfj, 

The weather is hot. 

3>a« Söetter tourbe &eiß, 

The weather became hot 



Subjeet. Copula. Predicate. 
2)a« SBetter Bleibt ^etg f 

The weather remains hot. 

ifl ein 3)etttfd>er, 
is a German. 



$err Äroft 
Mr. Kraft 



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406 



ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 



[§279. 



Subject. Copula. Predicate. 

3$ fabe gelefen, 

I have read. 



©tr 
We 

<5r 
He 



muffen 
must 

tarn 
arrived. 



matten, 
wait. 

an, 



2)ie $dgel fingen, 
The birds sing. 



Subject. Copula* 
3>a« öetter ift 
Theweather has 



Predicate. 
hotbeen. 



©hr 
We 

He 



$aben matten muffen, 
have wait (must). 



*f* 
has 



angefommen, 
arrived. 



SSKt metben gemefen fein, 
We shall (been, be> 



§ 279. The objeet of the verb is placed between the 
copula and the predicate : 

Subject. Copula. Objeet. Predicate. 

2)et Kaufmann tyd ba«$au« toertoift, 

Themerchant has thehoose sold. 



St 
He 

(St 
He 



förribt 
copies 

treibt 
writes 



ben ©Tief 
the letter. 

ben ©tief, 
the letter. 



«*, 



3äf $obe ba8$uty getefen, 

I bare thebook read. 

Rem. 1. The objeet of a verb, whether direct or indirect, Stands between 
the copula and the predicate (or after the copula when the copula and the 
predicate are combined into one word) : 

Subject. Copula. Objeet. % Predicate. 

Cr ifl feinem ©ruber gefolgt. 

He has hisbrother followed. 



<Sr 
He 


has 


eine« $etbred>en« 
witha crime 


ongeKagt morben, 
chargedbeen. 


3* 

I 


$abe 
have 


meinen greunb 
my firiend 


(um 9tot$ gefragt), 
for adrice asked. 


@ie 
They 


faben 
have 


\i)X $ot$aben 
their scheine 


in« SB&erf gefegt, 
into execution carried. 


©ie 
They 


festen 
carried 


u)r ©or^oben 
their scheine 


in«©ett, 
into execution. 


eie 
They 


gelten 
held 


benS)ieb 
the thief 


fast 



Obs. In some phrases (as um SRotty fragen, in« ©ert fefcen, feftyalten) the 
words preceding the verb follow the same laws of position as the prefixes of 
separable Compound verbs. 



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§ 279, 280.] ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 407 

Rem. 2. When there are two nouns governed by a verb, the personal noon 
• takes the precedence : 

Subject. Copula. Personal noun. Object. Predicate. 

2)er SSoter $at feinem @o&ne ein 93uä) gefäenft, 

The father has to his son a book given. 

2)er Sater fünfte feinem ©oljne ein S3u<$, 

The father presented to his son a book. 

©ie Ijaben ben©enerat bc« $o$berrat&« angcflagt, 

They have the general with high treason charged. 

Obs. Bat when particular emphasis is placed upon the personal noun, it is 
placed after the noun referring to a thing : 

2)er Sater $at ein $u$ feinem ©oftne ßeföenft. 
Hern. 8. A personal noun in the accusative precedes one in the dative case: 
3$ fabe iljren @o$n meinem Qreunbe emfcfo&len, 
I have your son to my friend recommended. 

Rem. 4. The oblique cases of personal pronouns precede other substantives 
(nouns or pronouns) in the oblique cases : 

3* fabe tym 3&ren@o&n emtfoljten, 

I have to him your son recommended. 

3d) $abe e« Syrern ©ruber öefötät, 

I have it to your brother senk 

3$ fyi&e i$m ba« Gefaxt, 

I have tohim that said. 

Rem. 5. Of two personal pronouns in different oblique cases, the one in the 
accusative precedes the one in the dative or genitive case : 
3$ fabe e« tfrm gefaßt, 

I have it to him said. 



3$ faßte e« ü)m, 

I said it to him. 

3$ »erbe tyn 3$nen norßeflen, 
I shall him toyou introduce. 

§ 280. The subject is placed after the copula in the 
following cases : 

J. In interrogative and exclamatory sentences. 

2. With the imperative mood. 

8. When an adverb or adverbial conjunction introduces a main sentence. 

4. When to e n n is omitted (see § 263, 2, Rem. 4). 

5. When the predicate introduces a sentence. 



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408 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



280.] 



6. When the object of the verb (not being a relative pronoun) introduces 



asentence. 

Copula. 

18 

$oben 
Have 

^<$eint 
ßhines 

©Sre 
Were 

. ©eib 
Be 

Sontmen 
Come 

i» 
is 



$ter 
Here 



$eute tfi 
To-day is 

3)atyer fonn 
Therefore can 

SSäre 
Were 
(Predicate.) 
Jtolt mar 
Cold was 



<2rnft 
Earnest 



is 



©terben muffen 
Die must 

abtreiben ttotten 
Drive off will 

©eftegt bat 
Conqaered has 



Subject. 
berSRenfö 



©ie 
you 

bie @onne? 
thesun? 

et 
he 

(yc) 

@te 
(you) 

ba« ©uc$, 
thebook. 

basierter 
the weather 

I 

baeföetter 
the weather 

ber £ag, 
theday. 

ba« Seben, 
life. 

Stte, 
all. 

teir 
we 

ber Sftuty, 
bravery. 



ba« S3u$ 
thebook 



bod? 
(only) 



balb 
soon 



him 

ni$t 
not 



Prtdicale. 
ftablty? 
mortal? 

geiefen? 
read? 



gefunb! 
well! 

aufm er ff am l 
attentive! 

tmeber! 
again! 



fe$rf$5n, 
very fine. 

ni$t trauen, 
not trast. 

fo $etg, 

sohot. 

{Object.) 



toer^agten Sttrog, 
the hated oppressioo* 



{Object). Copula. 
2)en 2Ronn $abe 
That man have 



Subject. Pttdicate. 

\äf nie gefannt, 

I never known. 



3fa 
Hirn 



tarne 
know 



I 



nt*t, 
not. 



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§ 281.] ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. 409 

§ 281. There is more definiteness in the position of 
adverbs and adverbial phrases in the German than 
there is in the English language : 

Rem. 1. Adverbs of manner stand immediately before the predicate (or at 
the end of the sentence, if the predicate is included in the copnla): 



Svbject 


Copula 


. Object. 


Adverb, 


Predicate. 


@ic 
She 


(at 
has 


ba« Sieb 
the song 


Vortrefflich 
admirably 


gefangen, 
sang. 


©ie 


fang 
sang 


badSteb 
the song 


Vortrefflich, 
admirably. 




She 








3$ 
I 


f)dbt 
have 


him 


ernfHi<$ 
earnestly 


gewarnt, 
warned. 


3* 

I 


t»a&e 
have 


it 


auf biefe ©eife 
in this war 


ßefym, 
done. 



Rein. 2. Adverbs of Urne or place precede adverbs of manner : 

@ie fat ba«2ieb gcjlern Sfl&enb Vortrefflich gefungen, 
She has the song yesterday evening admirably snng. 

2öir (oben in ©erlin fe$r angenehm gelebt, 

We have in Berlin very agreeably lived. 

Rem. 3. Adverbs of Urne nsuaUy precede adverbs of place (L. XXIV., 6): 
933ir finb »or toter £agen in Berlin ongefommen, 
We have four days ngo in Berlin arrived. 

Rem. 4. Of two or more adverbs of the same kind, as of time or place, the 
more particular usnally follow the more generali 

©ie »erben morgen Äbenb nmactytltyt antotnmen, 

Theywill to-morrow evening at eight o'clock arrive. 

©iefatten in Statin in 3$iftoria'@trafje 9httnero20 gewohnt, 
They had in Berlin in Victoria-street number twenty resided. 

ffiirlönnen ba«©u<$ ntrgenb« im$aufe finben, 

We can the book nowhere in the house find. 

Exe. The adverbs of time f c^on (ahready), nad) (tfi'tf), «*ft (fir*0 may 
precede or follow a more definite adverbial expression of time, as : tyeute noä), 
or noety $eute; morgen föon, or f$on morgen; erft $eute morgen, or $eute 
3Rorgen erfl. 

Rein. 5. When adverbs have more special reference to a Substantive, they 
usnally precede it: 

@9gor feine ©egner erTemten feinen ffierty <m, 
Even his opposers recognize his worth. 

s 



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410 



ARRANGEMENT OP WORDS. § 281, 282.] 



Rein. 1. This inrersion of the subject and copula takes place also when the 
personal prononn t§ is used expletively for the subject : 

((5$)tt)irb ein Oetottter tom* There will a thunder-storm come. 

inen, 
($6) ftnb S5crbrcd)cn begon« There have been crimes committed. 
ß*n, 
Rem. 2. It also takes place when a relative sentence precedes a main sen- 
tence : 

2öcr eS \% to e i jj i d) nity, I do not know who he is. 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the subject precedes the copula in interrogative and 
exclamatory sentences : 

@ o tt f ci btr gnäbto, 1 God be gracious to thee ! 

Cr möge ßtütfUcfy fein ! May he be happy. 

§ 282. In subordinate sentences the general Order is: 
(1), the subject; (2), the jpredicate ; (3), the copula : 

SuJtject. PredUate. Copula. 

3<$tt>ei6,baß bet2Ren{4 fterblid) ifc 

I know that man mortal is. 



fd) Begreife nid)t, tvarum 
I understand not why 


er 
he 


fo unjufrieben 
so discontented 


mar. 
was. 


£)cr Wann, 
The man, 


ber 
who 


fofron! 
so sick 


tt>OT, 

was. 


*S)tT 9LYt\?Y\iatt&Y 


ber 
who 




fcute anfam, 
to-day arrived. 


TTia Ami*ricfln 




AUw AU1C*IUIU| 




ffienn 
When 


bie ©tfyöotben 
the swallows 




tyctmn>art* jiefctt, 
homeward fly. 





Rem. 1. When the Compound tenses of thepotential verbs, or of the verbs 
laffen, Reißen, fe&en, työren, $elfen(*ee§l3l,/feiii.2),are used in 
subordinate sentences with the infinitive of other verbs, the copula (auxiliary) 
is placed before the predicate or before the objeet of the verb : 

©eil er e* mu)t %at t ff u n tonnen, Because he was not able to do it. 
Obgleich id> tym nid)t f)äbt a r b e i* 



ten Reifen bürfen, 

Geringere ©firger, metd)e 9ttd)t« 
fcefagen, tra« tyneti Eatertanb 
unb ©erb fyittt lieb mad)en 
Wimen (@d>.), 

3d) toar gu fe$r gewohnt, mi<$ mit 
mir felbfl gu bef<$fiftigen, als bog 
id> mit «nfmerrfamteit fcätte ein 
Äunfhoert betrauten foUenC©.), 



Altbough I was not permitted to 

help him work. 
Citizens from the lower classes, who 

possessed nothing that could make 

their country and their homes dear 

to them. 
I was too much in the habit of oc- 

cupying myself with my own 

thoughts, to consider a work of art 

with attention. 



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§282-284.] ARRANGEMENT OP WORDB. 411 

Rem. For tbe sake of euphony, the copula is often omitted when the verb in 
the subordinate sentence is in the perfect or pluperfect tense : 

3d)'berlor ntctyt &fle«, ba folget I did not lose all, as such a friend 
greunb im Ungtfltf mir gebtie* has remained to me in my misfor- 
ben[tfi](@($.), tune. 

SBa8 mar mein 2)ant baffir, baß What was the reward to me, that I, 
id), ein treuer gürftentned)t, ben a trne servant of the prince, who 
S3ötterffa<$ auf mtcfy gebfirbet had drawn upon myself the curse 
Chatte], btefen Ärieg, ber nur tyn of the people, had made the princes 
groß gemalt [$at], bte Surften pay for the war which lins made 
[fabe] jaulen laffen ? (@cty.) him alone great ? 

§ 283. Attributive adjectives usually precede the 
noun they qualify : 

2)er gute SWann, The good man. 

Rem. 1. Very long attribativo adjective clanses are frequently employed in 
the German language ; these are usually translated into English by subordi- 
nate relative sentences : 

fön (ber beutfd>en ©£rad)c bott* A foreigner (who is) well acquaintcd 

tommen lunbtger) grember, with the German language. 

2)ie (bem Fronten feljr tyeilfame) The mediane that is very beneficial 
Ärjnci, to the sick man. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes tbe attributive adjective is placed, as for the sake of 
emphasis, after the noun which it qualißes : 

9ttemonb a(9 3)u, fott btefen Ärieg, Nobody but yourself shall end this 
ben fttrd)tcrft(fym, enben (@<$.)r fearful war. 
Rem. 8. For the sake of enphony, tbe attributive adjective clause may be 
placed, as in English, after the noun it qualifies ; in this case the attributive 
adjective is not inflected (§ 84, Lese. X VIII, 1) : 

$(ud) mannen 9Hamt, Also many a man and many a bero, 

Unb mond)en $etb, good in peace, and strong in war, 

3m grieben gut was born in the Swabian land. 

Unb (lar| im gelb, 
@ebar ba« ©djmabenlanb (@<$.)> 

§ 284. For the prepositions th&t fottow the Substantive, 
instead of preceding it, see § 255. 



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COHTAINIKO 



VOCABULAEIES. 



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I. PERSONAL PROPER NAMES. 

Bern. 1. In this list are included only the most usual of Buch names as have 
different fonns or different pronunciation in the Gennan and English lan- 
guages. 

Rem. 2. A few proper names from the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew languages 
are also added. The final syllable is dropped from manj Latin and Greek 
proper names. 



WMbttt, (gen.— $), *. f Ethelbert. 
Sbe'le or Sbett'ne, — 8,/., Adeline. 
STbetyrit, —8,/, Adelaide. 
STbolf or S'bofyk — 8, wt., Adolphus. 
8c8tulol>',— 8,m., Escnlapias. 
Stefofc',— 9,m. t Esop. 
Hßa't&c,— n8,/., Agathe. 
So/ntf,— ,/., Agnes. 
^Tlariä), — 8, w., Alane. 
Bl'bcrt or fflbttty, —8, «., Albert. 
W|i8,— ,/., Alice. 
Stlfon'fo, — 8, M. Alphonso. 
Sfaw'Uc, — n«, /"., Amelia. 
9fabre'o8, — , w., Andrew. 

Sfo'ton, — 9, »t., Anthony. 
Btt'gujr, — 9, in., Angnstus. 
«ugu'jlc, — n8, /, Augusta. 
«albata, — $, in., Baldwin. 
©eftfar',— 3, m., Belisarius. 
©tan' ta, — 9, /. , Blanche. [face, 
©omfaj', — en«, or — iu8, m., Boni- 
©ourbo'nen,j>/., Bonrbons. 
©riefte,— cn8,/., Bridget. 
Gal'tflt, — $, w., Calrin. 
(S&arlorte, — n8, /., Charlotte. 
Clob'nrig, — 9, «., Clovis. 
G$ri'jhi8, — i, «., Christ. 
CKc'mcn«, — , m., Clement. 
$i0Bt)$', — , m., Dionysius, Dennis, 
fcorotfc'a,^, > 7 Doroth 
JDorotyee',— n« f > y J 

6'bCt$art,— $, in., Eberhard. 
C'buarb, — 8, in., Edward. 
Cteono're, — n8, /., Eleonore. 
<SXYa9,-- ,?*., Elisha. 



Öli'fa, — 8, or (gfi'fe, —«•,/., Eüza. 
<2'mi(, —8, in., Emilins, EmiL 
öim'lie, — n8, /., Emily. 
Cjrifur', — 8, m., Epicurns. 
(SßtfurS'cr, — 8, m., Epicnrean. 
eJrifurS'ifd) ,adj., Epicnrean. 
(Srnft,— tn9 f m., Ernest. 
Cugen',— 8, m., Eugene. 
C&uße'me, — n3, /"., Eugenie. 
Ctxt, —8,/., Eve or Eva. 
glO'rtna, — CÄ$, w. , Florence. 
glorcn'tia,— 8,/, Florence. 
granj, — en8, m., Francis, 
gronafe'ta, — 8,/, Frances. 
grieb'rid), — 9, wi., Frederick. 
(JtolttyttCb', — $, w., Ganymede. 
©e'org, — 6, wi., George, 
©cr'fytrb, — 9, wi., Gerhard, [trade, 
©er'troub or ©cr'tmb, — 9, /, Ger- 
®o'liat$, — 9, wi., Goliath, 
©otffrieb, —8, jii., Godfrey. 
@otf farb, — 8, w., Godard. 
©Ott'lieb,— 8, m., Theophüns. 
©re'gor, —8, m., Gregory, 
grcgoria'nifd), adj., Gregorian. 
©ui'bo,— 8,«., Guy. 
@u'jiat>, — 9 f wi., Gustarns. 
$ttll'lie,— 1!$,/., Jane. 
$an8, — cn8, m., John, 
©eb'torig, — 9, f., Edwiga, 
$rin'ria), — 8, m., Henry. [Helena. 
$ele'ne,-n8, or $etcita, -8,/, Helen, 
©citobor' f — 8, fit., Heliodorus. 
©enrief te,— n«,/., Henrietta, Harnet 
©cr'mann, — 9, m., Herman. 
©cro'bee, — , w., Herod. 
©crobof , —8, m., Herodotus. 



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416 



PERSONAL PBOPER NAMES. 



$t'o&, — 8, m., Job. 

$omcr', — 8, m., Homer. 

fyome'rifd? (adj.\ Homeric. 

$orag', — , m., Horace. 

$Utn'frieb, — 8, m., Humpbry. 

3ü'ltOCtI3/ — Clt9 # m., Innocence. 

3'faa! (3'*fa*al), — , m., Isaac. 

3ffti'<i8, — f w., Isaiah. 

38'mact, — 9, in., Ishmael. 

3>ü'fob, — 8, m., Jacob, James. 

3<*'fon, — 9, m., Jason. 

■Setemi' 09, — , m., Jeremiah. 

3c'fu8, — , w., Jesus. 

3o'ab, — 9, in., Joab. 

3©&onn', — 9, m., John. 

3o$on'na, — 8,/., Joan, Jane. 

3o'na8, — , w., Jonah. 

3o'fc}>^— 9, w., Joseph. 

3o'f na, — 9, w., Joshua. 

3u'lm«, — , i»., Julius. 

3u'lfc, —«,/., Julia. 
3nltan', — 9, w., Julian. 
3ufHnian', — 9, m., Justinian. 
JufHma'mfö («#•), Justinian. 
Ätt'ilt (Äa'4n), — $, »t., Cain. 
Äorl, — 8, t»., Charles. 
Jtort ber ©rofie, Charlemagne. 
Äaroü'nc, — n«,/., Caroline. 
Äa'jtor, —8, m., Castor. 
Äat$ari'ne,--n8,/., Catharine. 
$t'0ltl)a?b, — 9, m., Leonard. 
Seono're, — n8,,/C, Leonora. 
2i'bht8,— , ct., Livy. 
Co'renj, — en8, m., Lawrence. 
«ncTe, — n*,/, Lucy. 
Sub'fetg, — 9, m., Lewis, Louis. 
Sm'fe,— «,/., Louisa. 
2n'!a8,—, in., Luke. 
Sntrcg', — cn8, m., Lucretius. 
SDfa'fttltttb, — £, nt., Mohammed. 
Sfom'a, —8,/, Maria, 
afome', — ^u«,/., Mary. 
SRor'tfo— 9, f., Martha. 
SWat$tl'be,--n8,/., Matilda. 
i'u8, — i, «., Matthew. 



2foqr, — cn8, or SRatfmniait, — 9, «., 
Maximilian. 

SWerfur/, —9, m., Mercury. 

2Rct$u'folem, —8, «., Methusaleh. 

ätt'tyici (9Ri'*$a*0,-*, «.»Michael. 

SRo'rij, — cn8, w., Maurice. 

2Ro'fe8 (gen. 2Rof!«), m., Moses. 

9Jtofa'tf<$ (adj.\ Mosaic 

Wtt'tfyni,—«,«.., Nathan. 

9fe$am'a8, — , m., Nehemiah. 

SRcjptun', — 9, m., Neptune. 

9tt'lolait8, — , »., Nicholas. 

D&IW'cer,— $, m., Odoacer. 

OrejF, — 8, wi., Orestes. 

OmV, —8, m., Otdd. 

$atll, — 3, w., Paul. 

$e'ter,~ 8, in., Peter. 

W^W, -«,«., Philip. 

$ila'tu8,— r in., Pilate. 

$fi'niu8,— , m., PHny. 

$om^'ju«, — , m., Pompey. 

^oJ)erj', — en8, «., Propertius. 

ttftttyf,—*,/, Rachel 

dfat'mmtb, — * f «., Raymond. 

ftcberta,— 8,/., Rebecca. 

fttt'boW er ftu'bolf, —9, m., Ralph, 

ftut$, — 8,/, Ruth. [Rudolph. 

©a'lOtttO, — 8, m., Solomon. 

©e'balb, —8, m., Sebaldus. 

©icg'munb, — 8, m., Sigismund. 

€>hn'fon, — 9, m.y Samson. 

@ueton',— 9, iw., Suetonius. 
Xa'titüS, — , in., Tacitus. 
Xerenj', — en8, «., Terence. 
X&e'obotf —9, m., Theodore. 
Xfcre'fe, — n8,/., Theresa. 
S$o'ma8, — , m., Thomas. 
Xi'tian, —8, w., Titian. 
Seit,— «,m.,Vitus. 
«TTöil',— «, m.,Virgn. 
»OTter, — «, m., Walter. 
SSöil^elm, —8, m., WUliam. 
©U^elmt'na, —8,/., Wilhelmina, 
©?if gang, —8, ^., Wolfcang. 
la'bet/ — Ä # m., Xavier. 



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IL GEOGRAPHICAL PROPER NAMES. 

Rem, In this list are given only those names that are most frequently em- 
ployed, and which differ materially in form and pronunciation from the cor- 
responding names in English. In many cases the personal noans and the ad- 
jectives that aro formed from names of places are also given. 



Äa'djCI!,— 3, Aix-la-chapelle. [tains. 
©ic Abraten, pl. , the Abruzzi Moun- 
Styffi'men, — , Abyssinia. [sinian, 

(gut %ty\\i'mtx,—& f pl.—, an Abys- 

3fttyfft'mf$(a<(f.), Abyssinian. 
2>oS Slbria'tiföe 2tteer, — 9, Adriatic 
STfrito,— «, Africa. 

Cin «frita'ner, — 9, pl—, an Afri- 

Sfrita'mfö (ac#.), African. [can. 
S)ic %Yptn f pL 9 the Alps. 
2>tc Su'ltföcn Sltycn, Julian Alps. 
Sme'rita, — 9, America. [American. 

2)er Sfoterifa'ncr, — «, />/.—, the 

51mcrila'ntfc^(a4'.), American. 
2)ie Sfa'bot, j>/., the Andes. 
2)te Sln'geln,/*/., the Angles. [on. 
2>ie 9uigdfa<y fen, j>£, the Anglo-Sax- 

angclf5<yjifö («<#.), Angto-Saxon. 
Slnttter' j>en, — 9, Antwerp. 
2)tc Hpcmn'nen, ^/., the Apennines. 
3(ro'6icn, — 9, Arabia. 

(gin 8'raber, — «, />/. — , an Arab. 

Sra'bifä (adj.\ Arabian. 
B'flen,— «,Asia. 

(gin Bfiaf , — en,/>/.— en, an Asiatic. 

Slfia'tifö («<#.), Asiatic 
BffV'ricn, — «, Assyria. 
Slt^Ctt', — 9, Athens. 
2>a« Ätlon'tif^c SWccr, — 9, the Atlan- 
Sfajhra'ttot, —8, Australia. [tic Ocean. 
SKc Bjo'riföcn 3nf ein, />/. the Azoree. 
3>a« «so'fctf $e üRccr, the sea of Aso£ 
»tt'&tlt,— $, Baden, 
©ai'ern, — «, Bavaria. 

(gm ©a'icr, — n,pl— n, aBavarian. 
2>ie $ebui'ncn,i>£, the Bedouins. 
©el'gicn, — *, Beigram, 
©erberet', — , Barbary. 

(Sin ©et'fccr,— «,;>/., — , a Berber. 



©crlin', — «, Berlin. [ner. 

öta ©crli'ner, — «, />/.—, a Berli- 

©crft'ntfö (adj.), of Berlin, [cay. 
(2)er ©otf fcon) ©t«ta'Va, Bay of Bis- 
2>er ©o' benf ec,— 9, Lake of Constance. 
©(ty'mcn, — 9, Bohemia. [mian. 

(gm ©ö&' mc, — -n, pl. — n, a Bohe- 
©«ty'mifö (adj.) t Bohemian. 
2)er ©oty'mf*e 2Kccr' bu Jen, Golf of 

Bothnia. 
©r<mn'f$t»Ctg, — S, Brunswick, 
©rüffet,— «, Brüssels, 
©urgunb', — 8, Burguudy. 
ßltf'na,— 3,Chiua. 

(gin (£&ine'fc, — n,pl. — n, Chinese; 

fcbmc'ftW («4*0, Chinese. 
Ctyur, — S, Coire. 
(aYpent, —9, Cyprus. 
Sä'nentarf, — 9, Denmark. 

Sin 3)fi'ne, — n,pl. — n, a Dane. 

2)ä'mf$ (adj.% Danish. 
$cutf<y (anb, Germany. 

(gm 2>cuf föer, a German. 

(gine 2)euff$c, a German. 

2>CUtfö (a#.), German. 

föorb'bcntfä (ad;.), North-German. 

©üb'bcutfö (adj.j, South-German. 
3Hc ÜVitan, — , the Danube. 
2)re*'ben, — «, Dresden. 
SDic SDü'ncn (/>/.), the Downs. 
5Dfln'fir$cn, — 9, Dunkirk. 
©üf'fcrborf, — 9, Dusseldorf: 
CBWTfc«,— ^Egypt. [tian. 

(gin (gg^'tcr, —9, p/. — , an Egyp- 

(gg^'tif^ (adj.% Egyptian. 
(gCfaß, Alsace. 
Cn0'(<mb f — 9, England, [glishman. 

(gm (gna/ttmber, — «, pi— r an En- 

(gng'ßW (adj.% English. 



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GEOGRAPHICA!* PROPER NAHES. 



2>ie (Stf d), the Adige. 

(Suro'pa, — 9, Europa. 
(Sra (Suropfi'er, — 9, j>/. — , a Euro- 
<Suto}>5'ifd) (<»$.), European.[pean. 

rJlai'aCTI,— 3, Flanders. [of Flanders 
(Sin glam'lä'nbeT,— «,p/.— ,a citizeo 
glS'mifd} (adj.\ Flemish. 

glorcnj', Floreoce. 

granfrricty, France. [Frenchman. 
(Sin gronjo'fc, — n, j>/«r. — n, a 
(Sine granjö'fin, — , j>/. — nen, a 
granjö'fif$, Frencn. [Frenchlady. 

©üH'$i«,^,Galicia. 

©aHten, — 9, GaaL 

©e'nna, —9, Genoa. 

Qeor'gien, — «, Georgia. 

2Kc ©otyen,/>/., the Gotha. 
Qo'tyifty (a<#.), Gothic 

@ric / <$enlanb, — *, Greece. 
(Sin ©ric'ctyc, — n, />/. — n, a Greek. 
@ric'<#fö (a<#.), Greek. 

Qroßbritan'nien, — 9, Great Britain. 

©roßflric'ctycnlanb,--«, Greda Magna. 

$tt $Mft, — 9, the Hague. 

$ob*'bnrg, — *, Ilapsburg. 

$ant'burg, Hamburg. 

$onno'ber, Hanover. [Hanoverian. 
(Sin ©onno&era'ner, — 9, j>/. — , a 
$oimottera'mf$,) Hanove- 

$«nno'*erifä), >(«*•>» rian. 

(Sin $cbro"cr, — , j>/. — , a Hebrew. 
$ebta"ifd) (a#.), Hebrew. 

^ol'fonb, — *, Holland. [man. 

eüt$ori5nber, — 9,pL— ,aDutch- 
$ot'lanbtfo) («40, Daten. 

3)te $un'nen,/>/., the Hunns. 

3tfMt«,— $,India. pcan) Indian. 

. (5üt3nbia'ner,— 9,pl— ,an(Amer- 
(Sin 3n'btcr, — *, pl. —, an (East) 
Sn'bifä (ad;.), Indian. [Indian. 

3r/(anb, — *, Ireland. 

2>er Sr/Wnbcr, — «, ;>/. — , the Irish- 
3'riW(«^.),Iriah. [, 

3«'tanb, — *, Iceland. 

3ta'ßcn,— 9,Iuäy. 



(Sin 3tottfi'ner, — 9, pl —, an Ital- 

3taU5'nif$ («£.), Italian. pan. 
3«'JWI,—$, Japan, [nese. 

(Sin Sopone'fe, -— n, j>/. — n, a Japa- 

3af>one'fifä} (<«#•)» Japanese. 
3ubä'a, —3, Judea. 

(Sin 3n*be, —n,pl. — n, a Jew. 

(Sine Sü'bht,— ,/>/.— neu, a Jewesa. 

Sft'bifd) (oo)'.), Jewish. 
ÄämttCI, —I, Carinthia. 
2>a« Ättf'ptfcfc 2Reer, — «, the Caspian 
Ätffittgcn, — «, Kissingen. [Sea, 

Äob'feng, Coblenz. 
Äöln, — 8, Cologne. 
3)cr &o'merfec, Lake Como. 
Äou'ftonj, Constance. 
Äotxntya'gen, — 9, Copenhagen. 
Jforinty', — 9, Corinth. 
jtrain, — 9, Carniola. 
jtra'tau, — 9, Cracow. 
ffrun, — , Crimea. 
2tiH'Sig f — $,Leipsic 
St'banon, — 9, Lebanon. 
2tffabon, — 9, Lisbon. 
Si'tyanen, —9, Lithnania. 
3)ic £ombarbei', — , Lombardj. 
3>cr8o'renjöufen,— «,GulfofSt.Law- 
£ofy' ringen, — 9, Lothaire. [renca. 
Süftu},--«, Liege. 
Snjorn',— , Lucern. 
Btity'tt», — $, Moravia. 
SWoi'Ianb,— «, Milan. 
SJtaing, Mayence. 
9Rorof fo, — 9, Morocco. [Moor. 

(Sin SÄorroHa'ner, — 9, pl — , a 

9RaroRa'ntf$ {adj.\ Moorish. 
S)tc 9Rart, — , the Mark (of Branden- 
burg). 

SWäYKfd) (aa>.), of the Mark. 
SHe SRor/fen (^/.), an ancient people 

of North-Germanj, near Ems. 
aWc'c^dn,— «, Malines. 
2>a« 3Jäf teKÄnbiftt>c JDUer, — «, the 

Mediterranean See. 
2Hc 2tot' bau, —, Moldana. 



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GEOGRAPHICA!, PROPER NAMES. 



419 



2>ie SDWbou, — , the (river) Moldavia. 
SWo'fcI, — , Moselle. 
2tto$'tou, — 9, Moscow. 
2Wfin'<$cn, — 9, Munich. 
föttIttltr'--$,Namur. 
9teo't>cI,— «,Naples. 
2>ieSttic'bcrfonbe,p£, the Netherlands. 
9We / berWnbif^(a^.),of the Nether- 
SRor'wca.cn,— 9, Norway. [lands. 
SRfirn'berg, Nuremberg. 

DeiTerreitf, — $, Austria. 

®in De'flcrreicfcr, — 9, an Aostrian. 

Dc'ftoreutyfö (a<#.), Austrian. 
Ofl'ßot&cn, j>/., Ostrogoths. 
Oßin'bien, — 9, East India. 
$ttri$', Paris. 

^eloponncs' — , Peloponnesus. 
^er'ficn, —8, Peraia. 
^ßo'len,— «,.Poland. 

(Sin ^o'le, — n,j»7., — n, a Pole. 

$ol'nif<$ (<«#.), Polish. 
$om'mern, — , Pomerania. 

(Sin ^om'mer, —*,.?/. — n, a Pome- 
^or'tngof, — 9, Portugal. [ranian. 

ein ^ortuo,tc'fe,— n,/>/.— n,aPor- 



^ortugie'fifä (adj.\ Portuguese. 

^OtS'bom, — 9, Potsdam. 

SPrcu' jjen, — 9, Prussia. [sian. 

(Sin ^rcu'ßc, — n, pl -— n, a Prus- 
$reußif$ (adj.), Prussian. 

9te'gen$fatrg, — «, Badsbon. 
2)cr 9tyetn, —9, Rhine. 
2)o$ «ic'fengcbir^c,— «, the Capathian 
töom, — 9, Borne. [Mountains. 

(5üt 9W'mcr, — *, />/.— , a Roman. 

9tö'mif$ (adj.), Roman, Romish. 
9tofi'tonb, — 9, Russia. 

Sin Stoffe, — n,pl. — n, aRusaian. 

8tof'fif$ (adj. ), Russian. 
©ttlfr'fett,— $,Saxony. 

Sin ©octy'fe, — n, pl — n, a Saxon. 

@5$'fif$ (<h#.), Saxon. 
©<We'fien, — 9, Silesia. 
@^otf fonb, — «, Scotland. 



Sin €>c$ot'te,— n,/>/. — n, a Scotch- 

©$ot'tif<$ (a<#.), Scotch. [man. 
<&d)toa'btn r — S, Suabia. [bian. 

ein ©$roo'6e, — n, />/. — n, a Sua- 

©fyöÄ'Mfö (a#.), Suabian. 
^tyrce'ben, — S, Sweden. 

Cin ©työe'oe,— n,/>£— n,aSwede. 

©<$tt>e'bif($ («£.), Swedish. 
2Me @$tt>ri3, — , Switzerland. 

ein @c$tt>ei'jer, — 9, pl — , a Swiss. 

eine @($»ei'aerin, — , j>/. — nen, a 

©c^toei'jcrifö (o^.), Swiss. [Swiss. 
©ibt'rien, — 9, Siberia. 
©iettien, — 9, Siciljr. 
©Knien, — 9, Spain. [iard. 

ein ©ba'nicr, — 9,pl — , a Span- 

@too'nif$ («4;.), Spanish. 
@£et'er, — 9, Spires. 
@tety'ennorf, — 9, Styria. 
Sie Solttrei', — , Tartary. 

ein Xatar', — 9, pl — en, a Tartar. 
£&e'&en, — «, Thebcs. 
2>te S^em'fe, — , the Thames. 
£&ü'ringen, — 9, Thuringia. 
2>te fci'ber, — , the Tiber. 
2)0« fyxoV, —9, the Tyrol. 
StoSfo'no,— 9, Tuscany. 
Stfenf, — 9, Trent. 
£ri'er,— *, Treues, 
fcrieft', — «, Trieste. 
2)ie2ürtci' f —,Turkey. 

ein £üYte, — n,pl — n, a Turk. 

Xür'fif^Ca^O/rurkish. 
Vht$HtU, — 9, Hungary. [rian. 

eht Un'gor, — 9, pl — en, a Hunga- 
Un'gorifö (adj.% Hungarian. 
Sie %auba'ltU,pl, the Vandals. 
«enc'big, — 9, Venice. [netiani 

ein »enejto'ner, — 9, pl — , a Ve- 
»enejio'nif^ (adj.\ Venetian. 
2)tc SScm'nigten ©too'tcn Don Ämc'* 
ri!a, the United States of America, 
»irgi'men, — «, Virginia. 
Sie ®a0a4iei% -> Wallachia. 
©ejffiot^cn (j»/.), Visigoths. 



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420 ABREVIATIONS. 



2>te ©tiefet, — , the Vistula. 
SÖÖejrfa'fen,— 8, Westphalia, 
SSien, — «, Vienna. 
Gin SBic'ncr, — 9, pL — , a Viennese. 



©ie'nerifö WO, Viennese. 
2)ie SM'ga, — , the Volga. 
©orm«, Worms, Bormio. 
S3&ür'temberg,— 9, Wirtemberg. 



III. ABREVIATIONS. 



Rem. Abreviations are employed in German to a fer greater extent than they 
are in English. The list below inclndes orily the most usual abbreviations. 

a. a. O am anbera Orte at the other place. 

a. a. O am angeführten Orte. at the place mentioned. 

$bf<$n Bbfönitt section. 

a.b an bcr (Ober, etc.) on the (Oder, etc.). 

a.2R.,ora/9R am SDfoun on the Maine. 

9fam Sfamertong remark. 

9fofl.,or9lu«g Auflage, or Sütfgobe edition. 

©b. (©be.) ©anb(©änbe) volnme (volumes). 

beb bebeutet signifies. 

bef.,orbefonb befonber* especially. 

©r ©reite latitude (lat). 

<L,<£our Mourant currency. 

baf bafetbft there, at that place. 

b.©r bcr©rofjc theGreat. 

bg(.,or bergt bergtri<$cn the like, such. 

b. ff bo* &cißt that is to aay, that is. 

b.i bafcift thatis. 

2>te!. SH«!onto discount. 

b. 3 biefe*3a$re« thisyear. 

b. 2R., or b«. Wto biefe* SWonotf this month (inst). 

b.© ber©erfaffcr theauthor. 

f- 0-r fövfßS Wg«* ('**, *, *««) following. 

gortf. f Sortfefcung folgt to be continned. 

fr fronco post-paid. 

gr grau Mrs. 

grl gräuletn Miss. 

grb'or grtebrt$*b'or. Frederick d'or. [scheu. 

@., ©r.,or@gr ©rof<$en,or ©Übergroßen Groschen or Silvergro- 

geb geboren „ bora (t. e., the maiden 

ge$. geheftet stitched. [name). 

geft geftorben dead,]ate. 

$bl«fl>r $onbd«ft>ra<$e langnage of commerce. 

#pttt> $oitytn)ort noon. 

$j>tji gouptfiabt capitaL 

$r.($$.) $err ($erren) Mr. (Messrs.) 

3 3a$r year. 



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ABREVIATIONS. 421 

3o$r$ 3fa$r$unbert Century. 

£aif.,or£aiferf faiferfiä) imperial. 

ÄatM ,-.. fatyofiföe Äirä)e Catholic Church. 

£3n., or Äönigl tönigUä) royaL 

St. St. Iaiferttä)*t$nigft<!(f imperial and royaL 

Arg Ärcujer crenzer. 

2 fltoge. longitude Gong). 

tot. loteurifo) Latin. [(inst). 

tauf. 9Ron taufenben SWouatt in the cnrrent month 

2fg Sieferung number. 

2(itl $funb «Sterling pound Sterling. 

Tl. §. (2R. $. £.) üRcm $err (3Rehte$erren) Sir (gentlemen). 

tti. ©r niittfigliä>e ©reite southern latitude. 

XL 9L,or 9t. Sfab nad) 9tobent aecording to others. 

9*gr. 9fcugrofd)eu New Groschen. 

91.93 nörbUc$e ©reite northern latitude. 

9to., 9h., 9frö. (9fro$.) 9hrniero,9himmer(— n)... number (numbers). 

91. @ 9too)förift Postscript (P.S.). 

£>. 2 8jHid>e Sänge east longitude. 

$f.,¥f8 Pfennig Pfennig. 

$fb ?frotb pound. 

SJty. 2) 2)ottor ber ^ilofo^te .... Doctor of Philosophy. 

J>rotefh J>rotejtantif<$ Protestant. 

O. g Ouabratjjuß squarefoot. 

O. SR Öuabrat SJfcUe. squaremfle. 

&. töeaumnr Beaumur. 

9tab Rabatt abatement, discount. 

9tyn 9tyeutifd) Rhenish. 

8tt$tr.,orrty 9letä)«t&aler Rixdoüar. 

@.(©.,orf.) @ette(fle&e) page(see). 

f. b ©iefcbtefe« see this (article). 

f. g fogenanut socalled. 

®px ©J>ra$e language. 

ft>r ftm<$..., pronounce. 

fl ftorB(ftott) died (instead of). 

f. 3 feinet 3«* attime. 

2$lr.,X&t Stytlcr Thaler. 

U.(u.) ltyr(mtb) o'clock (and), [ers. 

u. 31. (u. o.) unter anbern (unb anbere). among others (and oth- 

u. o. a. O unb an anbern Orten and at other places. 

u.a. ©t unb anbern ©teilen and other places. 

u. bergt, m unb bergteid}en uie$r ) and more of the same 

u. nubgl unbme$rbCTgteid)euj ••'* Hnd. 

u. f. f unb fo ferner > , ... 

n.f.» unb fo »euer } andsoforth. 



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422 M0NEY8, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 

b. 3 bongen 3o$r8 lastyear. 

b. SW. borigen SRonott last month (alt.). 

b. o bonoben fromabove. 

b. n. Don unten frombelow. 

© SBeften wert. 

3 3oH,(3«lO inch(Iine). 

j.53 &unt&eiftiel for example. 



IV. MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 

Rem. These vary greatly in tbe different states of Germany. We givo 
only sonie of the leadiog coins, welgbts, and measures of tbe prineipal Ger- 
man states. 

LPrnssian Money (nsed in North Germany). 

(Ooib) eüi bohltet griebri<^bV>r= 10 £&ata= *7.12 

n Qtn $renßif<$er griebti^b*ot=ö 2#lr. 20 ©gr.=... 4.20 

(©über) eutX$aler=30 @iIbcrgrof4tn=86O¥fennt0C= 71 

H Cin ©Überprofiten =12 $feiraige= 2J 

(Äntfer) Ctn ©e$fer=6 $fennifle= 1J 

„ Sin 2>reter=S <Pfennige= § 

n ein $fennig= J 

2. Bavarian Money (nsed in South western Germany). 

(®olb) ein 3)nlot=5 ©ulben 40 Ären&er= $2.26 

(Silber) ein $erein«t&afo=S| @ntben=2 $reu&. 2fyüer= 1.42 

„ ein 3»rigutbenjtfi(f =120 Ärenjer= 82 

„ ein ©ulben=60 Äreujer= 41 

„ ein $a!bflutbenftfi(f =30 Ärenjer= 20J 

(ffupfer) einÄrenjer=4©cfler= f 

„ ein$cüer= % 

3. Außtrian Money. 

(Oolb) eine Ärone=l3 ©utben 75J 9Mfceujer= *6.48 

„ eine falbe £rone=6 ©ulben 87} 9Wftenjer= 3.24 

(©über) ein 3»eiguIbenfHi(f =200 5RÄreujcr= 96 

„ ein ©utben or gtorra=lOO $RÄrenjer= 48 

„ ein «iertelflorinftflcf =25 9Wcreujcr= 12 

(Äntfer) ein JBierfreugetfHlcf = 2 

„ ein Ärenjer= | 

„ ein fcalbfreujerjtücf = j 

Rem. Stet $renßiföe X$aIer=fieoen ©afrif^e @nlben= fe^ £>eflerreufrtf<$e 
gtorin=f2.84. 



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MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASÜBES. 



423 



4. German Weights. 

Stn 3ottcentnet=l00 3ottpfunb=50 £tfoo,rantmeS =English pounds 98.04 

ein3oÜ>funb=* Ätfo8ramuie= " " 98 

ein ^reufjifty« <j$funb=32 2ot$=468 ©ramme«=... " " 97 

ein 8ot$=14.6 ©ramme«= English ounce* 48 

5. German Measnres. 

1. LINEAR MSA8ÜRB. 

eine beutfdrc (a,eoflraj>W<$e) SWeilc (15 2Men=l° geo* 

graWfäe 8reite)= English miles 4.06 

eine ^reußiföe SRetfe = 24,000 tftyeiniföe gufi = 5372 

Metres= " " 4.07 

eine ©tunbe=eine falbe bcutfty 2Reiie= " " 2.03 

eine 9hit$e=12 9tyetnit$e guß=3.766 Metres= English feet 12.36 

ein 9tyeinif$er gufj=l2 3oU=3i3 Millimetres= " " 1.03 

ein 3ott=12 2inien=26.2 Millimetres= English inchesl.03 

2. SURFACB MEA8UBB. 

eine Duabratmeite ($renßifö)= English sqnare miles 21.09 

eine Ouabratrutye=144 Onabratfuß= English square feet 152.67 

einSRorgen in <ßrenßen=l80 Duabratrutyen ; in ©aiern=400 Duabrat* 
rutyen ; in @a$fen=2 2Wer=i50 Ouabratrutyen. 

8. MEA8DRB OP CONTENTS. 

ein $reußif$e« Onart=64 ÄnBifjott=1.145 Litres= English quarts 1.28 

ein «ßreußifttyer eimcr=60 Duart=69.1 Litres= English gallons 19.00 

ein ^rcußij^er @^effel=48 Ouart=55.38 Litres=.. English bnshel 1.92 
eine üRefce=£j ®$effe(=S £tnartS=3.4S5 Iitres=.. English quarts 8.88 



V. CLASSIFIED LIST OF WORDS. 



2>tt« BOML 1. 

Star ©ött, — e*,j>/. ©öttcr, God, gods. 

„ ®dfip'fa, — «, the Creator. 
3e'fuS e^ri'flu«,— JH, Jesus Christ. 
2)er (ei'Kge ©eijt, — e«, Holy Ghost. 
2>ie !J)reiet'nigtett, — , the Trinity. 
2)et en'gef, — «, the angeL 

n fceu'fel,— «,devil. 

rr #im'mel, — 3, heaven. 
SHe^ane,— ,heU. 
3>a$ Se'gefcner,— 9, purgatory. 



The Universe. 

$ic SRatur', — , Natura. 

SRatürfty, natural [ter. 

2>ie SJtote'ric, — , bet ©toff, — e«, mat- 

SWaterieÜ', t3r'perft$, materiaL 
$o*8tom', —&,pL — e, atom. 

* Äör'per,— «,j>/.— ,body. 

ein fe' per Ä8r>cr, a solid body. 
2>ie ge'jtigleit, — , solidity. 
2>o« ©a«, — t»,pl. — e, gas. 

„ ©efööpf,— e«, pl—t, creature. 



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424 



LIST OF WORDS. 



Set SRenW« 



Xtx 9Jtomt, — c«, pl. SJtömter, man, 
hosband. 
„ $o'ter,— Q,pl. ©ä'ter, fether. 
„ €>o$n, — e«, />£ ©ö&'ne, son. 
r, ©ru'ber,— «,/>/. ©rfi'ber, brother. 
„ D'fctm, — «,i>£ — e, unde, 
* ©et* ter, —*,pl — n, cousin. 
r, 9lef fe, — n,i>/. — «, nephew. 
„ @ro6'»oter f grandfether. 
w Ur/großtooter, great-grandfather. 
„ (Sn'fef, — «, i>/. — f grand&on. 
2>ie (S'ftcrn, parents (Aa# no stn^.)- 
2)er ©itytoie'gerboter, fiuher-in-law. 
„ @$t»ie'gerjo$n,8on-in-law. 
„ ©työo'gcr, — «, j>Z. ©^töfi'ger, 

brother-in-law. 
„ ©rief »oter, stepfether. 
, r ©tief fo$n, stepson. 
„ ©rou'tigom, — «, bridegroonu 
n ©itt'tocr, — «, widower. 
2>o« SH'ter, — «, old age. 
2)cr @rei«, — e«, pl — c, old 
n Äno'fce, — tt, jdL — n, boy. 
2)ie@eDiirf,— , birth. 
„ ©crfo'&ung, — , betrothai 

Set ftihtyer» 

2)te Ä'ber, — , j>7. — n, rein. 
2)cr Urin, — e«,i>Z. — c, arm. 
2)o« tfa'ge, — 9,pl. — n, eye. 
2)et tfog'otfet, — «, pl. Stag'tyfcl, 

eyebaü, profile of the eye. 
2)te Äu'genBraue, — ,pl. — n, ) eye- 

n Sfa'genfcroun,— ,j>/.— eil, ) brow. 
$o« Sfa'genftb, —9,pl. —er, eyelid. 
2)er ©o'den, — 9,pl. — , cheek. 

„ ©ort,— e«,i>/. ©arte, beard. 
2)o« «ein, — e«, pl. — e, leg. 

w ©tot,— e«,blood. 
2>te ©ruft, —,/>/. ©rufte, breast. 
2>et ©u'fen, — 9,pl — , bo*om. 

rr jDott'mcn,— «,/>£ — , thumb. 
" Cfl'oogen,— «,j>/.—,elbow. 
2>ic goufc — , j>/. gäufle, fist 



Man. 

2>ie grou A — , />/. — en, woman, wife. 

„ SWut'ter, — , pl. 2Rüf ter, motber. 

„ Xo^'ter,— ,j>££o^'ter,danghter. 

„ ©ctytoe'ßer,— ,pl. — n,»ster. 

„ Xon'te, — ,pL — n, aunt. 

w Qottft'ne, —,pL — n, the coosin. 

„ 9tf$'te, — , />£ — n, niece. 

rr ©roffmutter, grandmother. 

rr Urgroßmutter, great- grand- 
mother. 

„ Gn'leltn, — , joZ. — ttcit, grand- 
danghter. 

rr ©<$wie'gerifflitter, motheMn-law. 

rr @$tirie'gertO$ter, daughter-in, 
law. [in-law. 

rr ©<$too" gerin,— ,pl. — nen, sister. 

rr ©tief rautter, stepmother. 

rr ©tief to^ter, stepdaugbter. 

rr ©rout, —,.p/. ©ränte, bride. 

rr ffittftte, — , pl — eil, widow. 

rr 3u'gcnb,— ,yonth. 
3)er 3^'Iing, — «,/>/. — e, twin, 
2)a« SWÄb'(^Kn, — «, />/. — , girL 
2)er Xob, — <«, death. 
2>ie C Je # — , marriage. 

3» The body. 

3)ie geffe, — ,j>/. — n, heeL 
S)er ging'er, —«,/)/. — , finger. 

rr guß,— «,p/.pge,foot. 

rr ©au'men, —«,/>/. —,palate. 
2)a3 ©e^irn',— e«,j)/. — e, brain. 

rr ©elenf,— e«,i>/. — e, Joint. 

rr ®efl(^f , — «, sight, face. [ber. 

rr ©lieb,— e«,j>/.— er,limb,mem- 
2>er ^ol«, — t9,pl. $>5(fe, neck. 
3)ie ^onb, — ,pl. $5nbe, band. 
2)a« $avtipt, — e«,p/. ^Sn^'ter, head, 
3Me <>aut, — ,j>/. $5ute, skin. 
2>o« ^erg, — en«, j)/. — n, heart 
2>ie ©üf te, — ,pl — n, hip. 

rr Äe^'le,— ,^/.— n,throat. 
2)o« Änie, — 9,pl. — e, knee. 
2)et Äno'c^e«, — «,p/. — , bone. 



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LIST OP WOBDS. 



425 



S)er Änö'ctyet, —9,pl. — ,knuckle, an- 
2>ic Sc'ber, — , pl. — n, liver. [kle. 

„ «ty>c, —,;>/. -n,lip. 

„ 2o'(fc,— ,pl. — n,curl. 

„ Smtö'c,— ,pl.— n,ltrag. 
2)cr SWa'gen, — «,/>£ — , stomach. 
2)a* SWarf , — 3, marrow. 
2)cr SWunb, — e«,/>/. SRünber, mouth. 
2)ie SRirtfct, —,/>/. — n, muscle. 
2>er Wa'gef, — «, j>£ SHägel, nail. 
2)tc SRo'fc, —,/>/. — n, nose. 
$er SRcrfc, — tn,pl. — en, nerve. 
2Hc 9tf e'rc, — , p/. — n, kidney (loins). 
2)a$ D$r, — «, j>£ — en, ear. 
2)te 9tfJ>'£e, — , pl. — n, rib. 
3)ct töü'den,— S,j>/. — ,back. 



SDcr 9tü<f grat,— t9,pl— e,backbone, 

„ @$ä'bcl, — «, p/.— , skull [spine. 

» ©c$en'fel, —3,^ — , thigh. 
2>ic ©<$la*'fe, —,i>/. — n, temple. 

„ €><$laa/abcr, — , .p/. — n, arteiy. 
2>cr @$ooß, — c«, pl. — e, lap. 
2>ie @<$ul' tet, — ,j>£ — n, Shoulder. 

„ ©ei'te, —,/>/. —n, side. [brow. 

„ ©tirn, — , pl. — en, forehead, 

„ ©a'be, — ,;>/. — n, calf. 

„ ÄBanß'e, — ,pL — n, cheek. 
2)cr 3<^«r —««,/»/. 3äfae, tooth. 
2)a$ 3 a fa'fletfck — es, gum. 
2He 3 c 'fo — # W» — n r toe. 

n &mgt t — ,pL — n,tongue. 



«ieitaWWe, 4. 

2)er Äct'incl, — «, />/. — , sloeve. Qet 
2>a$ arm'fomb, -*,p£-banber, brace- 
2>er ©aüff , — &, pl. — e, cambric 
£>te$eut'fleibcrG>£)> pantaloons. 
5)er ©efafc\— e«,/>/.— fä^e,trimming. 
£ie ©rü'fe, — •, />/. — n, spectacles. 

„ ©ruft'nobet, —,pL— n,breastpin. 

„ ©ür'fte,— ,/>£ — n, brush. 
£er Ste'gcn, — «, pl. — , sword. 

„ go"a>er, —Q,pl. — , üxu [ring. 

» ging'crring,— c«,j)/.— c, finger- 

„ glor, — CS, />/. gtöre, crape. 

„ gracf, —S,pl. grfi(fe, dres»-coat. 
SDic Sran'fc, — , pl —\\ t fringe. 
S)a« guf tet f — « f pi — , lining. 

n ©cf^mci'bc, — 9, jewelry, 
2)ct ©ür'tcl, — «, ^/. — r belt, sash. 

, f ©um'mif^u^, India-rabber over- 
shoe. 
2)lc ^aar*bürfle f — r ^/.— n,balrbrash. 

„ ^ar'nabcl, — ; pl. — n, hairpin. 
S)et #ata'fc$tmt(f , — e« r necklace. 
2)a$ ^alö'tuc^,— €«,p/. #tü(^cr ; cravat 

rr ^cmb f —&,pl — en, shirt. 
2)ie $o'fen (/>/.), pantaloons. 

ir $o'fenträger (p/.), snspenden. 
S)er Äamm, — -c«,i>£ Äämmc, comb. 



ArticlesofBre88. 



2)ct Äattun', — &, pl. —t, calico. 
25a« ÄIcib, — c«, p/. —er, dress-coat. 
2>lc Ä(ei'ber (p/.), dothes. 
2)er Äojjf^u^,— ««, head-dress. 

, f Ära' gen, — 8, j*Z. — , collar. 
25ie SWütjc,— ,^/. —n, cap. 

„ ^'nabel,— ,j»il— ii,needle. 
2)er O^ring, — e$, ^/. — e, earring. 
2>ie ^oma'be, — ,p^ — n, pomade. 
$er Äe'flenf^irm, — «, umbrella. 

„ Hin«.,— e«,/>/. — e, ring. 

n föoef, — c«,/?/. Ä5(fc, coat 
2)ic @(^ee're, —,/>/. — n, shears. 
3)er ©^rafroef , — e«, dressing-gown. 

n ©^lei'er, — «,^/. — ,Yeil. 
3)ie ©c^nür'brup, ^/. *6rüpe, stays. 
2)er @*u^f, — e«, ^/. — e, shoe. 
3)ie ®*ür / je, — ,/ii. —n, apron. 
2)et ©on'nenföinn,--«, parasol. 
SWe @j)i<jm (/>/.), lace. 

i ©Kten (/>/.), spur. 
3)er©ttc'fer,— «,i?/.— f boot. Qack. 

, ©tle'felfnc^t, — «, p/. — e, boot- 
3)ic ©tie'feltöi^fe, —, shoe-blacking. 
2)er ©trumpf, -e« r j»Z. estrüm'tfe, 

stocking. 
SHe 2:af^e, — , pl — en, pocket. 



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426 



LIST OP WORDS. 



2to« %a'\äfttttviti), — es, pl. »tfi<$er, 
handkerchief. [coat. 

2)er Ue'bernxf, — e«, ;v£ *rßde, over- 
2)ie Un'ter&ofcn (>f-)> drawcrs. 



2>ie 2öe'ße, — , pl— n, vest 

„ 3ofa'bürflc, -_, p/. _ n , tooth- 

brush. [pick. 

£er 3o&n'fto<$er, — «, />/. — , tooth- 



ftraitQeitett* 



5* 



M ftl ftd iffl , 



2)er Sfo'fott, — «, />/. *fätle, fit 
2)ie ©lattern (p£)> small-pox. 

«y ©finb'^ett, — , blindness. 
2)er ©rn<$, — e«, .p/. ©rfl<$e, rupture. 
2)ie gott'futy, — , apoplexy. 
2)o« gte'ber, — «, />/. — , fever. 

„ bö«'ortt0e^ber,malignant fever 

ff brei'tögige gteber, tertiary fever. 

ff fleTbe gteber, yellow fever. 

„ tyi'fcifle Sieber, bnrning fever. 

ff tof te gteber, fever and ague. 

»» nerbö'fe gfieber, nervous fever. 

» ©djor/lac^fiebcr, scarlet fever. 
2)er 2ty>&u«, — t typhea fever. 
2)ie grofi'beufe, — ,pl — n, chilblain. 

ff ©efötoufff,— ,/>/.*ülfte,swelling 
2>o« ©efötoiir', — e«,^/.— c, ulcer. 
2Hc ©id)t, — , gout. 

r , Rettung, — ,pL — en,heeling,cure 

„ $ei'tcrtcit, — ,hoarseness. 
&et'fer, hoarse. 
2)o« ^üyncrauge, —& t pl — n, com. 

$0$ $at!& ( 

1. KINDS OF HOÜ8E8. 

2)te ©onf, — f pl. — en, bank. 

„ ©ibttotyet' — ,pl.— en f Ubrary. 

ff ©Sr'fe,— ,;>/. — n,exchange. 

» ©rü'cfe, —,/>/. —n, bridge. 

ff dtipd'k, — , jo/. — -n, chapeL 

ff (Eofer/ne, — ,/>/. — n, barrack. 
2*r <5i'fenba$n$of, — e«, railroad Sta- 
tion. 
2)0« ©effino/mß, — c«, pL — e, prison. 

ff ©etofi^'&oii«,— c«, green-house. 
2)ic $üf te, — , p/. — n, hat. 

r» Ätr 7 ^, — t pl— u, church. 
2)er fttr$'$of f ehnreh-yard, cemetery. 

ir Äir^'^tttm, —C«, ehnreh tower. 



2)ie #irab«'toiit$, — , hydrophobia. 
2)er $u'fiett, — «, cough. 

frTfien, to cough, 
©et Äreb«, — «, Cancer. 
$te SWo'fern (/*/.), measles. 

ff Sfcor'be, — , />JL — n, scar. 

ff £tyn'mo$t,— , fainting. 

» $o(fen (/>/.)> small-pox. 

» Ouet'fäung, — , /*£ — en, conto- 
2*r @<$nu' j>fen, — « f a cold. [sk>n. 

fl<$ erflü'ten, to take cold. 
2>ie feö)to&'ö)t, — , faintness. 

„ ©$minb'fu$t, — , consomption. 
2)o« @ri'tenfte$en, — « f pleurisy. 

ff @tom'mefn,— «, stammering. 
2)ie ©tumin'&ett, — , dtunbness. 

„ (fot'lcnbe) @n$t, — , epilepsy. 

ff jfcoub'&eit, — , deafness. 

ff Ue'bettett, — , nausea. 

ff Skrren'fung, — ,pl— en,disloca- 

ff 2Bonerfu<$t, — , dropsy. [tion. 

ff SSun'be, — , pl — n, wonnd. 

i. The Honse. 

2. PABTS OF A BOU3E. 

2)er ©oTfen, — «, pl.— , beam. 
2)o« ©rett, — c«,p/. —er, board. 
2)er ©run'nen, — «,i>/. — , welL 
2)o« 2>o$, — e«,.?/. 2)5(^er, roofc 
2)ie 2)ie'Ie,— ,p/. — en, ceiling. 
2)o« (Srb'geföoß, — e«, groond floor, 
parterre. [shutter. 

©er gen'flerlflben, —«,/>/.—, window- 
r, guj'boben, —«,/>/. *böben, floor. 
2)o« ©etoöl'be, —«,;>/. — , vault. 
2)er Äomin', — e«, p/. — e, chimney. 
2)ie Äom'mtr, — ,i>/. — n, Chamber. 
2)er 5W1er, —«,/>/. — , cellar. 
2He Äü'^e, — , pL — n, kitchen. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OP WORDS. 



427 



2)ic ©afriftei', aacristy, vestiy. 
2)o« Älo'fter, — «, pl. föö'fler, cloister. 

„ Sanb'fym«, country house, villa. 
2)te SDWn'gc, — , j>/. — tt, mint (coin). 
2>a« D'fccrn&ou«, — e«, opera-house. 
2>er ^alafF, — e«, pl ^atä'ftc, palace. 
2)tc <Poft, — , pl — ett, post-office. 
2)a« ©ifrau'ftriefyatt«, theatre. 
2)ic ©<$cu'ne, — , pl— tt, barn. 
2)o« ©#tol', — f p£ Vitaler, hoepi- 

„ Xrcib'$ait«, hot-house. [taL 

// S^Ö'^« 1 ^ arsenal. 

„ 3ott'$ou«, castom-house. 



2)ic $um'l>e, — , j>/. — n f pump. 
2)cr föic'ßel, — «,j>/.-- bolt, door-bar. 

„ ©aal, —€«,;>/. ©äfe, parlor. 
2)a« ©(Wofaunmcr, —«,;>/. — , bed- 
room. [ney. 

2>cr ©<$orit'jteui, — «, p/. — e, chim- 

„ ©tocf,— c«, i 
2>a« ©tocftoerf,— e«,J floor » 8t0I 7- 
2)te ©tu'bc,— ,pl. — n, room. [step*. 

w Xttip'pt, — , pl. — n, stairway, 
2)o« Xttp'ptaytäxfovc, balnster. 

„ 2:rej>'£en&ait«,baliister. [story. 

Sitte Sre^e $o$, in the second 



SRäbcfa. 7. 

2)cr ©e'ctyer, —«,;>/. — , tumbler, cup, 
2)o« «ett, -e«, ;>£ —ett, bed. 
2)ic ©ctf bc(f c, — , ;)/. — tt, coverlet. 
2)0« 8etf gefleH, — «, bedstead. 

„ $3erftuc$, — 9,pL *tü$cr, sheet 
2)er ©troty'fad, — c«, straw bed. 
2)tc äWatro'fce, — , pl. — cn, mattress, 
2)a« &>l>f fiftett, — , pl — , wülow. 

„ ge'berbctt, feather bed. 

„ m'tyxhxtü, book-shelf. 
2)er $3ü'<$crf<fyrotif, bookcase. [goose. 
2)a* ©ü'geteifett, flat iron, tailor's 

fcii'getn, to iron. 
SDic Commobe, —,;*/.— tt, bureau. 
2)et (Ji'tner, — «,/>/. — , bücket, paiL 
2)o« goß, — e«, />/. gäjfer, cask. 
2)ie gcu'crjangc, — , />/. — n, tongs. 
2)o« ©cmäTbc, — «, j»£ — , painting. 
„ $onb'tu$, — e«, j>£ *tü(fyer, toweL 
2>er Äef fei, — «, />£ — , kettle. 
2)ic Äer'je, — , pl. —tt, wax candle. 

„ Äi'jtc, — , ^/. — tt, ehest. 

„ Äoy Ic, — , ;)/. — tt, coal. 

tt ©routt'fo^c, lignite. 

tt $ofj'fo$fc, charcoal. 



Furniture. 



2>ct Äorb, — e«, j>7. ÄBtBc, basket. 
„ foon'fettcjjter, — «, chandelier. 
„ Äntg, — t» f pl. Ärügc, pitcher. 



2)o« Äü'cfcttgcrätb,) , .. , 4 M 

„ ^;*enW«;}^^ enotensÜ8 - 
2)cr Äü'c^cnrojl, kitchen ränge, grate. 
2)ic ?om>f, — ,pl.— n, lamp. 

M Sotcr/nc,^/.— n, lantern. [candle. 
3)a« ?i(^t, — cö, pl — c or —er, light, 

©ejo'ßene Sinter, mould candle». 

©egof'fene fitster, dipped candles. 

2)er Sid^f boc^t, candle-wick. 

2)ie fitt^t>u^e, snuffers. 

2)et 2cu^'ter,— «, candle-stick. 
3)ie ^fon'ne, —,pl. — n, pan. 
3)er Wo'tfctt, —S,pl — , cork. 

2)er ¥fro>fenjie^er,thecork8crew. 
2>te ©(^ou'fel, p/. — n, shovel. [board. 
2)er @(^ron!,-«, j>/. ©fronte, cap- 
2>ie ©(^ttb'Iabe, — ,pL — cn, drawer. 
2)o« ©^»e'fel^ßlj'^ett, match. 
2)er ©^tc'ger, — «,^/. — , mirror. 
©tuW, — e«,fi/. ©tfi^le, chair. 
2)o« ©ieb, — e«,/?/. — e, sieve. 

} ©o'^o, — Q,pl. — «, sofa. 
2)et 2:^>>i(^, — c«,/>/. — c, carpet. 

Stic'ger, — «,i>/.— ,skület. 
2)er 2:iW, — e«,/>/.— e, table. 
2)0« 2;ifö'tu$, tablecloth. 
Xop\ , — e«, />/. 2:5^fe, pot. 
2)ie SBonb'u^r,— t pl. — en, clock. 
2)o« SBoW^eden, — «, washbowl. 
2)te Söie'ge, —,^1 — n, cradle. 



Digitized by 



Google 



428 



LIST OP WORDS. 



»toWsctteit nnb ©ertöte. 

1. MEALS. 

2)o« grü&'fHUI, — e«, p/.— e, breakfest 
gtftyßücfen, to breakfast. 
„ SDfctf tageffen, — «, dinner. 
3u äföttoß fffen, to dine. 

„ «'bcnbbrob,-«,) FF ^ 

3« «benb cffen, to take rapper. 
n ©ofTraofrl,— c«,p/.^S$te,ban- 
$cr ©oft— ^/»/.©fifkfgueskCquet, 

„ SlMKttf,— «,appetite. 
©cfeo/nete SWa^rgcit ! (a blessülg on 
themeal!) 

2. DI8HES. 

2)o* ©tob, — C*,p/. — e, bread. 

ffiriß'brob, wheät bread. 

©(tytoorj'brob, brown bread. 

SHf Bocfene* ©rob, stale bread. 

©nf terbrob, bread and botter. 
S)ic Äni'ine, — ,pl — n, crumb. 
„ Äru'flc,— ,p/.— n, crust. 

„ Äfet'e, — , bran. 
Skr Xrig, — e«, dough. 

„ 2)ic $c'fe, — , yeast. 
SrteCiifter,— ,butter. 
2)o* <5t, —€*,;>/. —er, egg. 
Xtc (gt'crfucfcn, — «, omelet. 

©efc'eicr, poached eggs. 

töü&r'cicr, scrambled eggs. 

betreibe mtb ©cmlifc. 

2>ic ©o&' nc, — , i>/. — n, bean. 

* örb'fe,— ,j>/.— tt,pea. 
2)cr g(aä)«, — e«, flax. 
2Hc ©cr'fte, — , barley. 
S)o« @ro«,— c«, j>/. ©rS'fcr, grass. 
S)tc ©ur'fc, — j>/. —ll, eneumber. 
2)er $o'fer, — *, oats. 
2>a« $eit, — C«, hay. 
SMe $tr'fc, — , millet. 

„ Äartof'fcf , — , pL — n, potato. 
S)ct Ätce, — «, dover. 

„ $to%— 19, cabbage. 



8* Meals and Dishes. 
3)o« (Si'toctß, tbe white of eggs. 
2)er Softer, — «, tbe yolk. 
3)Ct (Bffig, — «, vinegar. 
2)o« gteife^, — c«, meat. 

©om'mcljlcitä), mutton. 

Äolo'flcifty, ?eaL 

Hinb'Pcifa), bee£ 

@d>nm'nefleif<$, pork. 

©cbro'tcne« glctfä), roast meat. 

$om'tnetbraten, roast mutton. 

Äaf bd'&rotcn, roast veaL 

töinbd'oTOteil, roast beef. 
3)te Äalte'cotcfettc, — , pl. -— n, voal 
2)ct Ä5'fe, — «,/>/.— , cheesc 
2)ie2Wtfä>,— ,milk. 

^* a * m '-«Mcream. 

„ SD^olfert (/>/.), whey. 

„ ©uftermttä), buttermilk. 
2)oS Doft — c«, fruit 

<5m'ßema<$te«£)bft,preserved fruit. 
£o$ &>fclmuß, apple-sauce. 

* Äompof , — «, sauce. 
2)cr Pfeffer, — «, pepper. 
2)o«©oI$,— ee,salt. 
2>ic ©orbcITcn (/>/.), sardines. 
2)cr ©enf, — 18, mustard. 
SDic©«^,— ,soup. 

„ fcov'te,— ,j>/. — n,tart. 

n ffiurfi, —,i>£ ffittrffc, sausage. 

9* Orains and Vegetables. 

3)er ©lu'mcnfoW, cauliflower. 
r, ©raun' f o^I, brown cabbage. 

«i £??&•> \ «"»-kraut. 
3)aö @au erhaut, > 

2)a« Äont, — c«, grain. 

rr Äraut, — t», pl Ärfiu'tcr, herb. 

„ Un'frout, weed. 
3)ieÄrcnc, —,pl. — u, cress. 

n Sm'fc,— ,/>/.— n, lentü. 
2)«r SÄoiö, — t», Indian com. 
S)ic ^«'fHnatf , — , pl — n, parsnip. 

rr ^cterfi'üe, — , parsley. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LI8T OP WORDS. 



429 



2>er $ify, — H, pl. — c, musbroom. 

n 9taS, — e$, rice. 

„ SRef tig, — e«, pL — e, radish. 

„ SWecr'rctttg, horeeradish. 

» dtog'gen, — 9 f rye. 
2>te ffitt'fce, — , P L — n, rape. 

f, gelbe töfi'fre, carrot 



Die rot&e 8äT&e, beet 

„ »äße 9ftibe, tarnip. 
DerSerierie, — , celery. 
Der ©txtt'gel, — «, asparagas, 

„ Styhtat', — *, gpinage. 

„ XBrijett,— «, wheat 
Die ätoie'bel, — , j>Z. — n, onion. 

10» Fruits and Pmit-trees. 



Die Sl'nanaS, — , j>£ — , pine-epple. 
Der 3l>fef, — «,;>£ «etfel, apple. 
Die Styfelfi'ne, —,/>/. — n, orange, 

„ Styrifo'fe, — ,pl. — n, apricot. 
Der ©aum, — e«, j>£ Säume, tree. 

S'tfelfaum, apple-tree. 

©trn'baum, pear-tree. 

tpffou'raenbaum, plum-tree, 

get'genbaum, fig-tree. 

2)a« matt, —t»,pl. »lätter, leaf. 

Der @tomm r -t&,pl. Stammt, trank 

Die 9ftn'be, —,/>/. — n, bark. 

Der 3^0* — &i pl- —*, bongh. 

Die SBur'je!, — , j>/. — n, root. 
Die ©ee're, —,/>/. — n, berry. 

©rom'beerc, blackbeny. 

CErb'beere, strawberry. 

$ei'belbeere, bilberry. 

$im'beere, raspberry. 

3o&on'm$becrc, currant. 



SDtouTbeere, mulbeny. 

@ta f <$elbeere, gooseberry. 
Die ©inte,— ,/>/. — n,pear. 
„ ©tro'ne, — , pL — n, lcmon. 
„ Doftel,— ,/>/.— n, data. 
» 8«'öe f — ,/>/.— n,fig. 
„ Äajto'nie, —,/>/. — n, cbestnat. 
„ SWan'bel, —,/>/. — n, almond. 
„ SRelo'ne,— ,;>£ — n,melon. 
„ 9hifj,— ,pl. $Rflffe,nut. 

©uc^'nuß, beecbnnt. • 

fyt'felimg, hadenuk 

SBau"nuß,walnut. 
Die Ofi'se, —,pl. — cn, olive. 
„ ffltr'fidj, —,/>/. -e, peach. 
„ ^ffou'me,— ,/>/.— w,plum. 
„ Ouifte,— ,pl. — n,quince. 
„ 8Bein'tranbe, — , pl — n, grape. 
Der ffiein'jiocf, —#,/>/. *flö(fe, grape- 
vine. 



&mbtn nab SBolbböiimc. 11» 

Der tT&orn, — «, pl. — e, maple. Die 

Die ©ir'fe, —,/>/. — n, birch. 

„ ©u'd^e,— ,j»i— n r beech. 

r, (Sc'bcr,— ,/>/.— n r cedar. 

rr treffe,— ,/>/.— n f cypress. 

n (Si'(^ f — r ^/.— n f oak. 

« (SrTc, —,/>/. — n, alder. 

„ (£'f(^c r — t pL— n,asb. 

rr Ö0>c, — , /*/. — n r aspen. 

mmatxu 12» 

2)a« ©etö'bfatt, > honejsackle. Der 

n 3el&n'getielie'6er,> woodbine. SMc 
Die ©otb'Mume, marigold. 



Shrnbs and Forest-trees. 

gic^'te,— ,/>/.— ll f pine. 
SoY$e, — ,pl. — n f larch. 
fiin'be, — tpl — n f lime-tree. 
ajtyrtfo — ,^/. — n f myrtle. 
^ojj'^l, — , pl. —ll, poplar. 
Don'ne, — , pl. —u, fir. 
Ul'mc, — , pl. —n, elm. 
©ei'bc, — , pl. — n, willow. 



Flowers. 

9a«min', — e«, Jasmine. 
SiTte, —,;>/.—«,%. 
aWai'blumc, lily of tbe vallej. 



Digitized by 



Google 



430 



LI8T OF WOEDS. 



2He aJtörj'Ucfcc, — , pl. — n, daisy. 

„ SWo&n'&lume, poppy. 

„ 9M'te,— ,/>/.— tt r pink. 

„ jRef'fd,— r j»f.— n,nettle. 
2>er 9ttf tcrfoont, larkspur. 
2>ic töo'fe, — , pl — n, rose. 

„ @^Ifi|'fcIMutnc, primrose. 



2>ic ©on'nenbtume, sunflower. 

2>cr ©tordj'fönobcf, crane's bill (gera- 

nium). 
2)o0 Xou'fcnbföön, pansy, heart's ease 
2)ie fcul'jic, — , />£ — n f tolip. 
2)o0 ©crgtß'mcimuityt, forget-me-not 
„ 33Butb'rö0<$en, anemone. 



2>er SSo'gel, — 0, pl Söget, bird. 

„ föaub'öogcl, birdofprey. 

„ ©ing'öogel, birdofsong. 

„ ©untyffcogef, wader. 

„ 3 U />)O 9 C ^ bird of passage. 

„ Äb'fcr,— 9,pl — , eagle. 
2>te Sfat'fcf, — , />/. — n, blackbird. 
2)er ©utyfüit,— en, pl— en, bullfinch. 
2>ie 2>o$' le, — , pl — n, jackdaw. 

„ Stoffel, — , />/. — n, thrnsh. 

„ (H'ftcr,— ,j>/.— n,magpie. 

„ (Su'le,— ,/>£— n,owl. 

„ ön'te, — , pl — n, duck. 
2)er got'fc, — n, />£ — n, felcon. 
2)er gofon', — en f />£ — cn, pheasant. 
2)te @on0, —,/>/. ©finfe, goose. 
2)cr $o'6U$t, — 0, pl — c, hawk. 

„ $o$n,— <*, />£ $5$ne, cock. 
2>ie $cn'nc, — , />/. — n, hen. 
2)o0 $u$<t, — 0, j>£ $üy ncr, chicken. 
2>cr Äono'ricntoogcl, Canary bird. 
2)te ÄrS'fje, — , ;>£ — u, crow. 



, crane. 



13. Birds. 

2)er Äro'ni<$, — «,/>£ — < 
Äu'fnf, — 0, enckoo. 
2)ie Ser/cfo — ,/>£ — n, lark. 

„ 2Rih>c,— ,pl — « f goU. [gale. 

„ 9to$'tigatt, — , pl — cn, nightin- 
©et ^opogri', — cn, pl — cn, parrot. 

„ $fou,— cn,j>/. — en, peacock. 

„ Stf o'be, — cn, pl — cn, raren. 
2)00 töeb'&u&n, partridge. 
2)cr ftet'^cr, — 0, pl — , heron. 
2)00 9tot$'fe$l($en, robin redbreast. 
2)te @$ne>fc, — , pl — n, snipe. 

„ ©^»al'bc, —,/>/.— n,swallow. 
2)er ©rttoon, — 0, joil ©t$tt>5ne, swan, 

„ ©feer'ltng, — 0, />£ — c, sparrow. 

„ ©tor$, — cö,;iiL ©tör$e, stark. 

„ @troufj,— *n fi p/. — en, ostrich. 
2)ie Xou'be, — , />/. —cn, dove. 
2)cr Xrut'^n (Wc — gerate), torkey. 
2)ic ©ac^'tcl, — , pl — n, qaaiL 
3)cr 3<nm'ftmg, y^Y^^ 



@än0Ct(ictc. 

2)ct Hf fc, — n t pl— n, ape. 

„ S3fir,— cn,^/.— cn,bear. 

„ ©i'bcr,— 9,pl — ,beaver. 

„ S)o^«,— €«,/>£ 2)fic$'fc,badger. 
2)o8 (gid^'^rn^cn, — «,/>f.— , squirrel 
2ter (5'bcr, — «, />/. — , wild boar. 

„ C'fcl,— «,/?/.— , ass, donkey. 

„ gud^,— 9,pl güd^fe f fox. 
2)ic ©cm'fe, — ,;>/. — n, chamois. 
2)cr ^>a'fc, — n, ^/. — n, hare. 

„ ©irf*,— c«,jo/— c,stag. 

„ $wib,— t*,pl— c,dog. 



14» Mammalg. 

2)Ct 3'gd, —«,i)/. — , hedgehog. 
2)0« Äomn'tyen, — «,p/. — , rabbit. 
2)ic Äo'ftc, — , pl — n, cat. 
2)ic Än^, — ,pl Äü^c, cow. 
2)ct Su^0, — c«,p/. — c, lynx. 
2)ct 28'wc, — n,/>/. —n, lion. 
2Hc SWou«, — , pl. SWfittf c, rnonae. 
2)ct O^«, — cn,/»/. — cn, ox. 
2)o« ^ßfetb, — c0,j>/. — c, horee. 

2)fe @tu'tc, — ,/>iL — n, mare. 

2)00 güTlcn, —0, ^/. — , colt. 
Die Äottc, — ,pl — tt, rat 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF WOBDS. 



431 



2)a$ 9fe&, —*& t pl. — e, roe, dcer. 
„ ® <fctt€Ut, — t» t pl. — e, hog. 
2>cr ©ticr, —&,pl. — e, bull 



2>cr £i'flcr, — *, j>/. — , tiger. 

„ ffiotf, — e«, />/. SSÖölfe, wolt 
2>te 3ie'flc, —,/>/. — n, kid. 



Siföc. 



15* 



Fishes. 



3)er Bat, — e8,/>/. — e, eel. 
2>ic Äu'ffcr,— ,j>/. — n,oyster. 
SDcr ©arf$', — es, j>/.— e, perch. 

f f ©ü<f fing, — 8, j>/.— e, red herring 
2)ie gotcnc, — ,/>/. — n, trout. 

* ©arnc'le, — ,pL — n, shrimp. 
2>er $ai, — 8, j>/. — e, shark. 

* $o"ring,— t$ f pl. — e,herring. 
„ §cd>t, — e8, j»/. — e, pike. 

n ©um'mer, — 8, />J. — , lobster. 
„ Äofccliou' , —8, /*/. — , codfish. 



©er £ar>fcn, — *,pl.— , carp. 

* Äreb8, — e8,/>£ — e, crawfiah. 

n 2aäfö, — 8, pl.—t, salmon. 
2>ie 2Ru'föel, —,/>/. — n, shell. 
3>tr @(^'fiW f — €«,/>/.— €,haddock. 
2Hc ©<$üb'fr3te, — f />£ — n f turtle. 

n ©4l«'fo — ,j>£ — n, tench. 

, ©tör, — 8, pl — c, stargeon. 
, aBatTflW,— «8,;>/.--c,wbale, 



Sfcmiföe ©ttijlonje». 16» 



Chemical Bodies. 



2)cr ©au'crfloff , — c8, oxygen. 
* ©affcrftoff, hydrogen. 
„ ©tief ftoff, nitrogen. 

2>te ©ticfftoff fäurc, nitrous aeid. 
„ ©afye'terffiure, nitric «cid. 
3)a8 fafye'terfaure ©über, nitrate 
„ Äo^'Icnftoff, carbon. [of silver. 
2)ic Äofyl'enfäure, carbonic aeid. 
2)er to&'fenfourc Salt, carbonate 
of lime. 
„ $&o8>$or, — 8, phosponis. 
„ ©c&toe'fet, —8, sulphur. [aeid. 
2)ic fd^toc'fcTtgc ©äur^sulphurous 
r, ©<$»e'felfaurc,8ulphuricacid 
2)er fötte'felfaure äalf, sulphate 
oflime. / [iron. 

2)a« @<fy»e'fcfetfen, sulphuret of 
„ . Cfttor, —8, chlorine. 
»ie ©äu'rc, — , pl. — n, aeid. 
2>a« @atj, — c8, />/. — c, salt. 

©of jig, saline. 
2tte Suft, — , air. 
Snftig, aerial. 



Suff förmig, aeriform. 
2)a« 2Retafl', — c8, p*. — e, metaL 
2)a« ©oft, gold. 
„ ©tf'&cr, silver. 
, t Äu'pfer, copper. 
„ »tci,lead. 

v 3«l«ftÜL 

i, ßi'fcil, iron. 
2)cr ©ta$l, steeL 
w 3inf f zinc. 
n Äo'balt, cobalt. 
3)a«$Wcrfin0 f — ^brass. 

©rj, — «, ^/. — t, ore, bronze. 
3)cr SHamont',— «,/?/.— cn ; diamond. 
„ ©moragb',— «,/?/.— e,emerald. 
r # Stflat', — c«,^/. — c f agate. 
n iWar'mor, — «, marble. 
„ ©Jj^r — c«f gypsnm. 
3>tc Ärcib'c, — , chalk. 
2>erÄat?,— <8,Ume. 
S^on, —8, clay. 
r «loun', -~« f alnm. 
3>ic ÜDW'ne, — , p/. — n, mine. 



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432 



LI8T OF WOBDS. 



©iffotWafte** 

Stte 9latut'»iffcnf^aft # — , science. 

„ Chemie', — > chemistry. 

<£&c'mifo), chemical. 

2>er (S&e'mifer, chemist. 
„ Geologie', — , geology. [ogist 

2)er ©eotog', — -cn, j>/.— ai, geoi- 
» SKtncratogic', — , mineralogy. 

2)cr 3Wincratog', — cn, mineralo- 
„ ©ota'nit, — > botany. [gbt 

2)cr ©ota'nitcr, botanist. 
w SWatycma'ttt, — , mathematics. 

2)ie fcrityme'tyü, — , arithmetic. 
fr SU'gebra,— , algebra. 

fünfte. 

2)ic frönen Äünflc, fine arts. 
n Slcjl&e'tyü, — , aesthetics. 
n Äunft, — ■, pL äünßc, art. 
3)cr Äünjncr,— «, artist. 

* ©tlb'fjauerfunjl, j 
„ ^la'fHf,— , Vsculpture. 
w ©futytur',— , ) 

2>er ©ilb'^auer, — «, sculptor. 

* SWatcrri',— , paintrag. 
2)ct SJto'ta, — 9, pl. — , paintcr. 

„ amifir,-, * . 

r, £on'tunft,-,/ muaic - 
2>CT HJhi'flfer, —9, mosician. 
„ ©cfang', — c«, singing. 
fr ©äng'cr, — «, singer. 



17. Sciences, 

S)ie ©cometrie', — , geometry. 

: SSSSfe}— — '■ 

2)cr &fhronora', astronomer. 
rr ^ftofortie', — , philosoph j. 

S)ct ^Uofort', philosopher. 

^tyUofo'pfyifö, philosophicaL 
w Xtyeologie', — , theology. 

2)cr 2#c©tog', — ai, theologian. 

2$eoto'gtf(ty, theologicaL 
»r $l)Uologie', — , philology. 
„ SRcbtjm', — , medicine. [law. 
„ Äe$t$'roiffenf<fyaft, — , science of 

18. Arte. 

2)ic 2)ic @än'geriitr/>f. — nen, fiinger. 
n 2)td)f fünft, — , poetry. 

2)cr Sttdj'ter, — «, poet. 
* Äe'bchinfl, — , rhetoric 

2)te Äc'bc, — t pL — n, oration. 

3)er föcb'ncr, — 9, pl. — , orator. 
rr $cr«'funfl, — , prosody. 
rf 3^'nentunfl # — , art of drawing. 
tr Äu>fcrfH^funfl,artofengraving. 

3)cr $hi>fcrfteo)cr, engraver. 
rr £u'j)fcrjtt<$, engnmng. 
rr ©tcm'brutferfuitjl, lithography. 
rr ©^rrib'funfl, — , chirography. 
rr ©U(^'bru(ferfirajl,artofprinting. 
rr ÄricgG'hmft, militaiy art. 
rr gclb'meßtunfl, field Brnreying. 
rr ängemeur'funfl, engineering. 
rr ^otyc'ferfwifl, pharmaey. 

2>cr Styotyc'tcr, apothecaiy. 



(Srammatiföt ««ftrüfte. 19. Grammatical Terms. 



JDic ©ramtna'tit, — , pL— cn,) gram- 
rr @tyra<yic$rc,— ,pl— n,) mar. 



2>ic 
2>cr 



8u$'ftobc, — n, />£ -— n, letter. 
S)cr 8n'fang$bu<tyjlabe,initial let- 
ter. ptal letter. 
rr große Änfang«Bu^flabe,cap- 

w ®ofat',-S,/>A-C,) ^^ 
rr @timm'follt,— €*,> 



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LIST OP WOBDS. 



433 



Star Äonfonont', — en,> conso- 
„ Wit'lattt, pL — e,j" nant. 
3)er Ste'betyetf,— M,pL— e,> part of 
2>tc Sßorf form,— ,j>/.— en,j speech. 
Serarti'fet, -*>/.-,> 
2)a« ©eWety«'teort, > 

3)cr beftimmte Slrt. ,definite artide 
„ unbefhmrate Slrt., indefinite 
3)a«9to'men, —«,/>/.—, ^ [artide 
„ Qattyf teort, — 8, >• noan. 

„ 9lcttn'mQTt,pL *teörter,) 
2)ct ©cmein'namen, — «, />/. — , 
common noan. 
,r öi'gennamen, proper noun. 
2>tc 3)ctIination',i>/.— cn,i deden- 
n gatt'biegung,/>/.— en, > «ton. 
3)ic flarfc 2)etlüt., old dedension. 
„ fötoacfc 2)eßiiu, new declen. 
„ a,emiftyc$ett.,mixeddeden. 
2)a« Bb'ieftto, — «, j 
„ <£i'genfcfaft«»ort, [adjeetive. 
„ 33ci'»ort, ) 

2)ic (Steigerung ber Slbjetttoa, 
comparison of adjeetives. 
2>er SfcumeraT,— «,j>/.— en,) numer- 
2>a«3a$l'teort, f al. 

2>a$ ©runb'ja$t».,cardinal num. 
n Orb'nungSjaljlteort, ordinal 
number. 



3)a0^rono'mctt,— «,/>/.— , > pro- 
„ güYteort, ) noun. 

2)a« jKrfön'lify gürte., personal 
pronoan. 
„ befifc'anjeigenbe gürte., pos- 
sessive prononn. 
„ $uV»eifenbe gürte., demon- 
strative pronoan. 
„ unbefrimmte gürte., indefi- 
nite pronoan. 
„ fra'genbe gürte., interroga- 
tive pronoan. [pronoan. 
n begüg'lidje gürteort, relative 
2)a« ©erb, —«,!>/.— a,} 

„ 3rit'»ort, | verb - [tion. 

2>tc fonjugation',— ,;>/.— n,conjuga- 
2>te parle Äonj., irregalar conj. 
„ fdjteadjc Äonj., regulär conj. 
2)aS SWti'oum, — 0, active voiee. 
„ «ßafP'öum, — 0, passive voiee. 
„ Hbfcerb',— «,/>/. — a, > ad- 
„ Weben* or Um'jtonb«teort,) verb. 
2)te «prtyofirton', y 
2)a6 Softeort, > preposition. 

„ Ser$filt'nißttort, ) 
2)te Äonjunftion',) ^t™»*™ 

2>ie 3nterjeftion', > interjee- 

2>a$ (Entyfin'bungSteort,) tion. 



3eUcint)eUititg. 

2)te (E'ttrigteit, — , eternity. 

« 3«*r —v />'•' — «ii *"»«• 
2)a« 3a$r$un'bert, — «, Century. 

„ 3tt'ter, or 3rit'alter, age. 

„ 3a$r,— &,pL 3<u)re,year. 
2)er 9Ro'itat, — «, />/. — e, month. 
2>te W($e, — , /»/. — n, week. 
Star Xag, — e«, />/. — c, day. 
3He Wa$t, — , pl 9W$'te, night 

„ ©tun'be, — , pl — n, hour. 

„ 9Rinu'te, — f pl. — n, minute. 

n ©efun'be, — , pl. — 11, second. 

n 2Ror'genr&tbe, — , dawn. 
2>er Xa'ßC«anbru<ty, — e«, daybreak. 



20» Divisions of Time. 

2)er Sonnenaufgang, — «, sunrise. 

„ jättor'gen, — *, pl. — , morning. 

n Sor^mittag, forenoon. 

n iWiftag, noon. 

n 9la(^'mtttag, afternoon. 

n Ä'bcnb, — 9, pl — e, evening. 
2>tc 3Rtt'tema^t, midnigbt. 
®e'pern, yesterday. 
Sor'gejlcm, day before yesterday. 
$or aö)t Xagen, a week ago. [day. 
©eute über a^t Xage, a week from to- 
SRor/gen, to-morrow. 
Ue'bermorgen, day after to-morrow. 
3)ie 3ab'rc«jeit, season of the year. 
T 



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434 



LIST OF WOBDS. 



2)tt SBui'tcr, — 9, winter. 

toaZm'Mh-*,) p 

2)ct ©ora'raer, — *, sommer. 

„ $crbjl, -e«, fall. 

„ Öa'nuar, — 9, January. 

„ ge'bruar, — «, February. 

„ SRar§,--t*,March. 

„ «J>rir,-«,ApriL 

„ SRoi,— 3, May. . 

„ 3u'ni, — 9, Jane. 

„ 3u'Ii,-«, July. 

„ fcuguji', — e«, August. 

SteHgUmtiL 

2>a« <£&ri'|i«rt$inn, — 9, Christendom 
3)ic Äir'ctyc, — , />/. ■— n, church. 
„ Brmema'nifcfc Äirityt, Armenian 
Church. 
3)er &nncnia'ncr, Armenian. 
„ ©afctt'fHföc Ätnfo Baptist Ch. 

3)er8aJ>tifr, Baptist. 

„ ©t'f$öffi<fc Äirctye, Episcopal 

Church. Qian. 

2)er <5)ri*tot>aIia'ner, Episcopa- 

„ ©ric'<$ifä - Äatljo'tfföe Äir<$e, 

Greek-Catholic Church. 
„ Sntfc'rifdje Äir$e, Lutheran Ch. 
2)er Sutyera'ncr, Lutheran. 



2>cr ©eptem'bcr, — 9, September. 

„ Dtto'bcr, — 9, October. 

„ SRofctm'ber, — 9, November. 

„ 2>qem'btr, — g, December. 

„ @omi'tag, — 9, Sanday. 

„ SRon'tog, — 3, Monday. 

„ Sttend'tag, — «, Tuesday. 

„ SWitTwo^-«,) Wednesday 
Sie Mtf ttofc -, i weonesday. 
2)er SWncrStag, — «, Thursday. 

„ gret'taa, —9, Friday. 

„ @om«'taa,-«, isaturdav 



21. 



Religions. 



2>ic 3Wct$obi'fKt<$c Äm$e, Methodist 

2>cr SRe^obifr, Methodist. [Ch. 

„ fteforatr'te£h^,BeformedCh. 

„ ffiö'inif<$.Äat$o'fifc$e Strtye, Ko- 

man-Catholic Church. 

2)cr Jtatyotif, Roman Catholic 

„ Srci'e ©cmcin'be, Free Religious 

Association (of Free-thinkers). 

2)a« 3»'battyiim, Jewry. [Jewess. 

3)cr Su'bc ; bie 3ft'bin, Jew, 

3)er 3*'font, Mohammedanism. [dan. 

2)cr 9Wa$omeba'ner, Mohamme- 

©aS©ri'bent$um,paganism. [heathen 

3)cr ©ct'bc, — n, pl — n, pagan, 



$n>feffUmejt nnb #a*btoer!c. 

2)CT Styotye'fer, — «, apothecary. 
„ SUjt, — c«, />/. SUrjte, physician. 
2)cr 2Bunb'ar&t, surgeon. 
„ 3 a ^'ar^t, dentist. 
„ ©ä'tfer,— 9,pL — ,baker. 
„ ©anqnicr', — 9, pL — «, banker. 
„ ©arbtcr\ — *, j>/. — c, barber. 
„ «au'er,— S,j>£ — n, peasant. 
2He «fol'erto, — , pl — ncn f peasant 

woman. 
2)er Sau'mri|lcr, —«,/>/.—, architect 
„ ©tlb'&auer , — s, />/. — , sculptor. 
„ 8i'f tyof , — «, />/. öifä)öfe, bishop. 
„ ©ötfttycr,— 9,pL— , cooper. 



22. Professions and Trades. 

2)cr Srau'cr, — «,/>i — , brewer. 
„ ©n^'binber, — 9, bookbinder. 
„ ©u^'bru(fer,—c« f p/.—, printer. 
„ gabrifant', — cn, pl. — en, mann' 
„ $äTbtT,-—9,pl. —, dyer. [fiicturer. 
tt S*WWnMcr, — 9, fishmonger. 
rr Stct'fd^cr, — 9, pl —, butcher. 
n fju^fmann —*9,pl. Atntot, coach- 
„ ©cr/frer,— 9,pL— r Unner. [man. 
„ ma'\tt f —4 f pl.—, glasler. 
„ ^trt, — za,pl. — cn, shepherd. 
„ $ällb'fer, — 9 f pl. — f tradesman. 
2)cr ^öua>'b5nbier,book-meTchant 
„ Dbft'^nMcr, fruit-merchant 



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LIST OP WORDS. 



435 



2Hc D&fT&änbterin, fruit-woman. 

2>cr ?fer/bc$änbter, horee-dealer. 

„ £u<$' $änbIcr,dry-goods mer- 

chant. 

3)cr 3u»elier', — $, P L — <, jeweller. 

„ Äü'fcr, — 8, pL — , cooper. 

,, «ünfl'Icr,— «,p/.— , artist. 
2Hc Äünffferin, — t pl. — nen, artist. 
2)cr Äu'tferflctycr, — S, engraver. 

„ Sichrer, —8, />/. — , teacher. 

„ ©djuHc&rer, school-teacber. 
2>ic Se&'rcrin,— -,j>/. — nen, teacher. 
2>cr 2Jtou'rer, —«,/>/. — , mason. 
3)er gret'maurer, free-mason. 

„ aRefc'ger,— «,/>/.— ,butcher. 

„ SWüncr,— «,i>/.— , milier. 

,, SJto'flte* — 8,/)/. — , nrosician. 
2Hc 9W$crin,/>/. —nen, seamstress. 
2)cr $Ratur>rföer, — «, naturaiist. 

„ W,-e«,/>/.?«ö'fic,pope. 

„ War'rer,— $,;>/.— /V icar. 

„ WJofoW, — m,pl. — en, philos- 

>/ ^rc'biger, — S, preacher. [opher. 

ff ^ric'fler, — i t pl — , priest. 

„ ftebafteur', —«,/>/. — c, editor. 

„ SReb'ner, —§,pl — , orator. 

„ ©att'ler,— «,p/.— / saddler. 



2>er ©fym'ftricler, — «,/>£ — , actor. 
2Hc ^au'fotdcrin,/*/.— nen,actress. 
2)er ©d^lä^'tcr, — S,pl. — , butcher. 
„ ©tyof'fer, — «, />/. — , locksmith. 
„ @$micb, — e«, p£ — e, smith, 
blacksmith. 
2)er ©olb'fdjmieb, goldsmith. 
„ $uf fcj^iieb, horseshoer. 
„ lhi>ferf<$mteb,coppersmitb. 
„ SWcffcrf^micb, cutler. 
„ ©af fenfdjnnicb, armorer. 
„ ©fytei'ber, — «, ;>/. — , tailor. 
„ @<$ont'ftetnfe0cr,chimney-sweep. 
., @<$riffjUtta,— «,/>£ — ,author. 
„ Xag'lütyner,— $,pl— ,day-labor- 
er. [maker. 

„ Xifä'ttt, — 9, pl. — , cabinet- 
„ £aj>ejte'rer, — S, j>/. — f uphol- 

sterer. 
„ U&r/mactyer, —8, />/. — , watch- 

maker. 
„ SBerfaf fer, —«,/>/. — , author. 
„ äße<$*'(er, —3, />/. — , money- 

changer. 
„ SÖMn'jer, — 9,pL — , vine-dresser. 
„ 3^'mcrmonn, —«,/>/. 3taVmer* 
lente, carpenter. 



SrrembtoBrtcr* 23* Foreign Words. . 

®CT Sfo'fet, anchor (from Latin, äncora ; Greefc, <fyc*pa). [China). 

2)ie 9'pfetfine, orange (from Dutck, appelsina; French, pomme de Sine= 

n Sfo'fler, oyster (from Latin, östreum ; Greek, forpiov). 

n ©Uf ter, bntter (from Latin, bntyrom ; Greek, ßovrvpov). 
$er gratf , dress-coat (from FrencÄ, frac ; Loto-Latin, froccus = woolen gtuff). 
®ic On'fel, island (from Zaftn, i nsula). 
Äo'jien, to cost (from Italian, costäre ; Za^'n, constare). 
2)Ct 2ö'»e, lion (from Latin, leo ; Grecifc, Xlwv). 
2)a$ ^fcrb, horse (from Za<« Latin, paraver£dus=an extra post-horse). 
2)te ^flr'fl^, peach (from Latin, pdrsicnm mälum =Persian apple). 
3)et Act«, rice (from Frtnch, ris; Latin, oryza; GVe«ifc, öpv^a ; Arabic, aruz). 
3)a« @^a(^ f chess (from Persian, shah=king). 
SHe ©tra'ßc, street (from Latin, via strata=paved road). 

„ %a\ \t, cnp (from French, tasse ; Arabic, tas). 

» Sorte, tart (from Low-Latin, torta ; ia^n, tortus=twisted). 

rr %u\'pt, tulip (from French, tulipe ; TvrlcUh, tnlban-turban). 
2)cr ^ic'ßcf, tile (from Latin, tCgula; from te'gere=to cover). 



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VI. GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Abbreviations. 



adj., adjective. 
adv., adverb. 
conj. or c, conjunction. 
indecl., indeclinable. 
int., interjection. 
part., participle. 
pl., plural. 
prep., preposition. 



pron., pronoun. 
demon., demonstrative. 
v. aux., auxiliary verb. 
v. imp., impersonal verb. 
v. intr., intransitive verb. 
v. ir., irregulär verb. 
v. refl., reflexive verb. 
i>. tr., transitive verb. 



«♦ 



2>er STbenb, — Q,pl. —t, evening. 

3)a« a'benbeffctt, — 3, supper. 
2)a$ STbetttetter, — *,pl.— , adventure 
2Tber, conj. (§ 265), but, however. 
2)cr STberglaube, — tt$, superstition. 
ab'bretmett, r. t>. tr., to burn down. 
2)ie ab'fa$rt, — , p/. — ett, sailing. 
ab'fcuent, t>. /r., to fire off. 
ab'gebcn, ü. tr. tr., to deliver. 
Slb'^clfen, v. ir. intr., to remedy. 
ableiten, r. tr., to derive. 
Stb'reifett, v. intr., to leave, depart. 
2>ie ab'rrife, — , />r. — cn, departure. 
Stb'fegcln, i>. intr., to saU (away). 
2)et Bb'fafc,— e«,/>Z. 8bfät3e f stop,heel. 
ab'företfett, v. tr., tofrighten away. 
Slb'fcfyreiben, v. tr. ir., to copy, tran- 

scribe. [pnrpose, aim, view. 

2>te ab'ft^t, — , pl. — en, intention, 

ab'ft$ttt$, adj. intentional. 
ab'jlatnmeit, v. intr., to be descended. 
SHT jlatten, v.tr. , to perform, discharge. 

(Sitten ©efudf ab'jtattett, to pay a 
Ifb'ttotfncn, t?. intr., to dry up. [visit. 
Wtrünmg, adj., faithless (to). 
a<tyt, eight. 
2>ie 9l$t, — , care, attention ; ft$ in 

2t$t nehmen, to take carc, be on 

one's guard. 



2)te ad)'tung, — , respect. 
abiett', tu*., good-by, farewell. 
2tte abreffc, — , pl. — tt, address. 

abrejfi'rcn, to address (lettere). 
aetyn'fttty, adj., similar, like. 

2He ae§n'tt<tyfett, — -, similarity. 
2)er äffe, — tt, p/. — tt, ape. 
2)aS a'gto, — 9, premium (on coin). 
3)ie aftte, — ,p£ —tt, share. [pany. 
„ arttett*®efeü"f$aft, stock com- 
3)ex aftionaY, —«,/>/.— e, sharehold- 
Slttem', co»/., bat, only. [er. 

ai'f er, /won., all, every. 

allerlei', tnefee/. ad;., of all kinds. 
allgemein', adj., general, common, 
attatä'ftg, adj., gradaal. 
2)aS ai'tnofen, — «, p£ — , alms. 
ai$, conj., when, as, than, except, but. 
afebotm', aa*o., then. 
ai'fo, ad»., so, tlma; co»;., therefore. 
aU'jtt, adt>., qnite too. 
2>er «ltar / , — «,/>/. aitä're, altar. 
2>a« aj'ter,— «, ;>J. — , age, old age. 
2)ae aftertyum, — «, ;>/. Runter, an- 

alt, aa)\, old. ftiqnity. 

2)er am'bo«, — e$, p/. — fc, anvil. 
25a* amt, — &,pl. aetn'ter, office. 
?ln, /»■#>., on, at, by, to abont In- 

adv., on, forward. 



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VOCABÜLARY. 



437 



Sfo'&eteit, v. ir., to offer, hold out to. 
Sln'bcr, pron., other. 

Än'ber«, adv., otherwise. 

&n'bcr$»o, adv. y elsewhere. 
«n'bert&alb (§ 103, 2). 
Sln'beutcn, v. tr., to show. 
2>ic Slnetbo'tc, — , pl. — n, anecdote. 
2)er Sln'f ang,— 4,pl. *f finge, beginning. 

Sln'fangen, e. tr. tr., to begin, 
commence. 
Sln'femben, v. tr., totreat hostilely. 
Än'geBen, v. ir. tr., to give. 
9n'gebn<$, a<#., pretended. 
Sin'gc&orcn, a<#., herediteiy. 
3fa'ge$en, r. t>. tn*r., to concern. 
2)ic Sln'gelegcnljett, — ,/>/.— en, affair. 
Shi'geucfym, a<#., agreeable, pleasant. 
2)a« Sto'gcfify, — 1&, pl —er, fece, 

countenance. 

Sfo'gefltfytSj/we/j., in view o£ 
2>ic 3fagjt,— , pl. Slcng'jten, anxiety, 

fear, anguish, terror. 
%t\\0l\6), adj., anxioas. [ue. 

anhatten, v. ir., to hold fast, contin- 
Sln'&cbcn, v. intr. , to begin, commence ; 

v. tr., to lift np, raise. 
2)cr Bn'fer, — «, p/. — , anchor. 

2)ic Bn'terutyr, anchor-watch. 
Sln'ttagcn, v. tr., aecuse, Charge. 
Än'fommen, t>. ir. intr., to arrive. 
Sln'ffinben, an'fünbigen, v. tr., to pro- 

claim, annonnce, publish. 
2Hc Sln'funft, — , arrival. 
%n'laä)tn, v. intr. , to smile or langh at. 
2)ic Slnlei&c, — ,pL — n, loan. 
Sln'nefrncn, v. ir. tr., to aeeept ; v. refl. 

to interest one's seif, take interest 
Sln'rcben, r. fr., to aecost, address. 

3)tc Sln'rebc, -—,/>/. -— , address. 
Sfa'rityren, i?. tr., to touch. 
Bn'fefyaffen, t>. tr., procure, obtain, get 
Sfa'fdjauen, v. tr., to view, to look at 
Stn'febcn, v. ir. tr., to view, behold. 

2)ic 2to'fl$t,— ,pl— cn, opinion, 
point ofview. 



Sfo'foretyen, r. ir. fr., to address. 

(Sinen um etwas an'fprettycn, to 

ask or claim a thing of a person. 
2)er Buö'foructy, — e$, pl. 'formte, 

claim. 
3>ie An' jtolt, — , ;>£ — n, preparation.* 

establishment 
%tl\tatf , prep. (withgen.), instead of; 

conj., instead of. 
Sfa'jtogen, v. tr., to hit against, strike. 
2)er Bn'jtoß, — e«, pl. «n'pößc, Wt, 

blow, offense. 
^'{treugen, v. tr., to exert, strain. 

Sfa'ßrengenb, adj., exhansting. 

2)te Sfa'ffrengung, — , exertion. 
2)er Antiquar', — «, ///. — e, dealer in 

second-hand books; Antiquar"* 

(Sjrcmfclar', second-hand copy. 
Sfo't&ürmcn, r. tn*r., to rise like tow- 

ers (overtower). 
3)ic Slnfwort, -— , pl. — cn, answer. 

2lnt'tt>ortcn, v. intr., to answer. 
Hn'wactyfen, v. intr., to grow on. 
S)ie an'actfung, — , />£ — cn, note. 
2)ie ftn'toenbung, — , application. 
2(n'n>cfenb, adj., present. 
Sln'jcigen, v. tr., to notify, adrertise. 

S)ic Sln'jetgc, — , pL — n, adver- 
tisement. 
%1'jlC^cn, v. ir. tr., to draw on, to at- 

tract, interest, to put on. 

2)cr «n'gug, suit of clothes. 
2)cr «>fcf, — «, pZ. «c>fct, apple. 

2)er a>fctn>etn, eider. [shop. 
S)tc Sl^ot^c'fc, —,/>/. — n, apothecary 

2)cr Ä^ot^c'fCT, apothecary. 
2)ic «r'bcit, — , pl. — cn, labor, work. 

ftr'&riten, t?. tnfr., to labor, work. 

3)er 3tr'bciter, laborer. 

2(r'brit|am, a<^.» laborioos. 
3)cr St^rir, — «, April. 
2)ie ar^äotogte', — , archajology. 
Ann, adj., poor. 

3)ie Är'mnt^«^ poverty. 
3)ct 2(rm r — cö, p/1 — c, arm. 



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438 



VOCABÜLABY. 



3)er Aer'met, — «, pl — , sleeve. 
2)ic Armee 7 , — , />/. Arme'en, army. 
„ 3Crt f — , />/. — eu, species, kind, 

way, nature. 

5lr ttg, ad? ., of a kind, agreeable. 

(Sin ar'tige« Äütb, a well-behaved 
child. 
2)ct Arti'tet, —4,pl. —, article. 
SHc Arjuet', — , pl — en, mediane. 
„ A'föe, — , ashes. 
„ Afironomie', — , astronomy. 

SDer Affronom', — cn, astronomer. 

Aftrono'mifä), astronomical. 
2>cr A't&ent, — 3, breath, respiration. 

Atomen, t>. tr., to breathe. 
„ Atf (a$, — fe«, />/. — fe, satm. 
Aud), am;., also, too, even. 
Stuf, /»«5p., on, upon, at, to, towards ; 

auf einmal, all at once, at once; 

auf baß, c, so that, in order that. 
Auf blühen, v. intr., to expand, to 

blossom. [in succession. 

Aufeinander, adv., one after another, 
3)et Auf enthalt, — 8, stay, sojoum, 

abode. [the dead. 

Auferftctyen, t?. tr. intr., to rise from 
2He Auf erßefyiug, — , resurrection. 
Auffattenb, adj., striking, stränge. 
SDte Aufgabe, — , pL — n, exercise. 
3)er Aufgang,— es, />/. *gänge,rising. 
Aufgeben,*?, tr. tr., to give up, to sur- 
render, [stay. 
Aufhalten, t>. tr. reß., to stop, delay, 
Aufhören, v. tnfr., to cease, discon- 

tinne. 
2)ie Zufüge, — , pl. — n, edition. 
Aufmalen, to open. 
Aufmerten, ». fr., to observe, notice. 

Auf merffam, adj., attentive. 

Auf merffamfeit, — , attention. 
2)ie Aufopferung, — , sacrißce. 
Aufregt, upright, erect 
Aufregen, v. tr., to excite. 
2)er Aufruf, — 3, call, appeal, sum- 

mon. 



Auffielen, v. ir. intr., to rise up, to 
rise. 

Aufzeigen, v. intr., to mount, ascend. 

Auftragen, v. tr., to carry up, put on. 

2>cr Auftrag, — es, j>/. 'trage, 

commission. [ken. 

Auf n>aä)en, v.intr., to wake up, awa- 

Auf inarten, v. intr., to wait upon. 
(Sinem feine Aufwartung inactyen, 
to pay one's respects to a per- 

Anfmerfen, v. tr., to awaken. [son. 

Aufgießen, v. ir, tr., to draw up, raise 
up, rear, educate. 

2)a« Auge, — «,/>/. — en, eye. 

©er Au'genblUf, moment. [ous. 
Au'genbluflid), adj., instantane- 
2)ie Au'genbroue, —, eyebrow. 
3)aS Au'gentctten,— *, disease of 

the eyes. 
Au'genfdjemtid), adj., apparent. 

2>cr Auguß',— 3, August. 

AuG, jwqo., out, out of, from, of; ado. 
out, over, at an end, finished. 

AnS'beffern, v. tr., to mend. 

Au8'breä)en, v. ir. intr., to break out. 

Ausbreiten, v. intr., to spread out, ex- 
pand. [agation. . 
S)ieAu«'breitung,extension,prop- 

2>ic Au«'bauer, — , endurance. 

AuS'betynen, v. tr., to Stretch, expand. 
3)ie Ausbeutung, — , expanskra. 

AuS'brütfcn, v. tr., to press out, ex- 
press. [expression. 

2)er Au«'brutf , —c«, pl. *brü(k, 
AuSbrüdFttu), adj., explicit. 

AuSeman'ber, adv., asunder, apart. 

Ane'crftefcn (antiquated and irregu- 
lär verb, imperfect ouS'erfor, 
participle anterioren), to eboose, 
select. 

AuS'fftyren, v. tr., to execute 

3>ie Ausführung, — , executioo. 

2>tc AuSgabc, — , pl. — n, edition. 

Aitö'gefyen, v. ir. intr., to go out. 
2)er Aufgang, — es, exit. 



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VOCABULARY. 



439 



SluS'&alten, v. tr. intr., to hold out. 
2)a« 2lu$'lanb, foreign countries. 

Sfae'lfinbifdj, adj., foreign. 
3fa$'ne$men, v. tr. <r., to except. 

8u8'ne$tnenb, adv., remarkably. 

3)ic 9lu$'na&me, — , i>/. — n, ex- 

ception. [enough. 

Slufi'retdjen, v. intr., suffice, have 

SluS'foredjen, t;. tr. tr., to pronounce, 

speak out. [tion. 

2)ic SluS'fyradje, — , pronuncia- 
9fa$'fe$en, r. tr. intr., to look out. 

2)ic 9fo«'fl$t, — , prospect, view. 
Slu'J3er$alb,/>rep., outside of, beyond. 
Bu'ßerorbentftd}, a#., extraordinary. 



Sieu'fierfl, arfy., extremely. 
&US'jlellcn, v. tr., to exhibit, 

2)tc 2üi8'fteUung, — , exhibition. 
BuS'jfretfen, r. tr., to Stretch out. 
2)tc 9fo8'tro(!mmg, — , drying up. 
Slu«'t>erfaufen, v. tr., to seil out. 
3lu«'tt>ä#cn f v. tr., to select. 
2)ic SluS'ttatyt, — ,/>/. — eit, selection. 
SluS'toanbern, v. intr., to emigrate. 
2ln8'»enbig, adj., from memory, by 

heart. 
2to8'jafylcH, r. fr., to pay out. 
HuS'jetctynen, v. tr., to distinguish. 

9fa8'gejet<$net, a<#., excellent. 
S)ic &$t, — , />/. &ejrte, axe, hatchet. 



»♦ 



®aax(orbax),adj., bare, pure; baareS 

©elb, cash; boare ©ejatylung, 

cash payment. 

©ar'fllß, a<#., barefbot. 
3)cr ©a$,— e«,/>£ ©a"#c, brook. 
2Hc ©acfe, — , />/. — n, check. 
©a'(fen, r. fr., tobake. 

3)cr ©5'cfer, baker. 
3)a« ©ab, — e«, p/. ©ä'ber, bath, wa- 

tering-place. [bathe. 

©a'ben, v. tr., intr., and refl., to 
S)ic ©atyn, — , />/. — en, the road, way. 
3)cr ©atnt'fyof, railroad Station, 
©alb, adv., soon, early. 

©af big adj., early, speedy. 
2)ct ©often, — 8, />/. — , beam. 
2)cr «all, — e8, i>/. ©aTle, (l) ball, 

sphere ; (2) ball, festive dance. 
S)tc ©atta'bc, — , pl. — n, bailad. 
3)a$ ©anb, — e«, j>/. ©an'ber, ribbon. 
2)cr ©onb, — e8, />£ ©än'be, volume. 

©findigen, v. tr., to tarne, [sive. 

©an'ge, adj., anxious, apprehen- 
S)te ©an!,— , pL ©än'fe, bench, bank. 

X'xt ©anf'notc, —,/>/. — en, bank- 
note. [banker. 

2)cr ©anquier/, — 8, /*/. — 8, 
©an'nen, t>. *r., to banish. 



©ar, adj. (see Baar). 

2)ic ©amtier' jiglcit, — , merey, pity. 

2)cr ©aron', — 8,/»/. — e,baron. 

2)ic ©aro'mn,— ,i>/.— nen, baro- 

ness. 
2)cr ©är, — en,/>/. — en, bear. 
, f ©ort, — e8, />/. ©är'te, beard. 

©äVtig, adj., bearded. 

©arf lo«, adj., beardless. 
„ ©aß,— ffe8,i>/. ©äffe, bass, baao 
©auen, v. tr., to build, eultivatc. 

2>cr ©au'er, — 8, pl.— n, peasant. 

3)ie ©äu'erin, peasant woman. 

3)ie ©aufunfl, — , architecture. 

3)er ©au'meifter, architect. 
2)er ©crom, — e«, pl ©äu'me, tree. 

2)a« ©Summen, —8, small tree. 

©aum'lecr, adj., treeless. 

2)ie ©aum'roolle, — , cotton. 
©car^beiten, v. tr., to work over, revise. 

2)ic ©ear'Bettung, — , revision. 
©e'ben, v. intr., to tremble. 
©eban'fen, v. refl., to gire thanks. 
©ebau'em, v. tr., to regret, to pity. 
©ebeef en, v. tr., to cover. 
©ebcn'fen, v. refl., to deliberate. 

©ebenf'ttd>,«<#., eritieal. 

©cbcnt'it^feit, anxious thought 



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440 



VOCABULARY. 



Sebtc'nctt, v. tr., to serve, ose ; v.rtfl., 

to help one's seif. 
©Cbm'ten, v. intr., to signify, mean. 

2>te ©ebeu'timg, — , meaning. 

©ebeu'tenb, adj., important. 
©cbüt'gen, r. fr.,to stipulate, condition. 

2Hc ©ebing'ung, — , condition. 
©cbflr/fcn, r. fr. tr., to need. 

©cbfllftig, od;., needy, wanting. 
©eci'fcn, t>. re/f\, to hasten. 
2He ©een'bigung, — , end, ending. 
2)tc Ske'rc, — , />/. — -n, berry. 
Stfefy'lett, v. m tr. t to order, command. 

2>cr ©efe#', — ««, />/. — t, com- 
mand. [to be. 
©efin'ben, v. ir. rtfl., to find one's seif; 
©cflri'ßen,r.tr.n»/f\,) to apply one's 
»Cflctf pflen, v. rtfl., > seif, 
©eför/bern, v. tr., to promote. 
2>er ©eför/bercr, — *, promoter. [seif), 
©ege'fat, r. tr. rtfl., to betake (one's 

2>te ©cgc'ben&eft, — , />£ — en, 
SBegeg'nen, v. tr. fr., to meet. [event 
3)ie Qegttr/be, — -, desire, wish. 
©egie'rig, adj., desirous, eager. 
©caht'nen, v. tr. tr., to begin, com- 

mence. 
©«gleiten, v. tr., to aecompany. 
©cgrei'fejt, v. ir. tr., comprebend, un- 

derotand. 

©Cgretf liäf,adj., comprehensible. 

2>er ««griff, — *, />/. — t, idea, 
coneeption. 
Skgrün'beit, v. tr., to found, establish. 
©egrü'ßen, r. fr., to greet, salute. 
93e$aTten, r. tr. /r., to retain, keep. 
©efran'belit, v. tr., to handle, treat. 
$3c$auj)'tcn, v. tr., to assert, affirm. 
S3e$cffen, v. ir. rtfl. , to help one's seit 

©eWff lt<$, <wff. 9 serviceable, con- 
ferring help. 
Skbfll'bc, a<#., agile, nimble, quick. 
2He ©e&örbc, — , pl. — n, authority. 
©et,/w€/>., near, at, with, by. 
©ribc, adj. (;>/.), both. 



3)0« ©ein, —tS,pl. —t, leg, bone. 

2>ic ©ein'fleiber Q>/.),pantaloons, 
trowsers. 
2)a« «ei'foiel, —*,pl. — e, example. 

«ri'fi>iete»ri'fc, odr., by way of 

example. 
©et'ßen, v. ir. tr., to bite. 

©et'ßtg, a<#.> Wting. [sist 

©et'ßefcn, v. ir. intr., to stand by, as- 

2>tt Skt'ftonb, — tS, assistance. 
©ei'fHmmcn, v. intr., to agree with 

one, to eoineide with one's views, 
3ki'tTag€n, v. ir. tr., contribute. 
©efftotynen, v. intr., to be present at, 

attend. 
öeloiuit'(/>ar/./romBetcn'nen),known 
3)er er bic ©etonn'te, — n, />/. — n, 

acquaintance (a person). 

3)ic ©efonnt'fcfaft, acquaintance. 
©etla'gen, v. rtfl., to complain. 
©efom'tncn, r. tr. tr., to get, obtain, 

procure. [seit 

SSefüm'mem, v. rtfl., to trouble one's 
öela'gern r v. tr., to besiege, [siege. 

3)ic «ela'ßcrung, — , pl — «, 
8elau'fat, v. r«/L, to amount. 
©ele'gcn, v. tr., to overlay, cover. 
©etei'bigen, r. tr., tooffend. 

SDie ©dei'bigung, — , pl. — *n, 
ofiense, wrong, injury. 
©efie'ben, v. intr., to wish, bare tbe 

kindness, please. 
©el'rcn, v. intr., to bark. 
8em5ä>'tigen f v. rtfl.,\ totakeposses- 
©cmei'jlern, v. r^fl., > sion of, seize, 

get the mastery over. 
©eraer'fcn, v. tr., to obsene, notice. 

25ie ©emcr/lung, — , pl. — n, re- 

mark, Observation. 
2>te ©cncn'nung, — f naming. 
©enö't^igt, adj., in need of, needing. 
©cob'a^tcn, t?. fr., to observe. [oua. 
©equem', adj., conyenient, commodi- 
©ereif f adj., ready, prepared. 
©errit*', adv., already. 



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VOCABULARY. 



441 



2)te SBera't^ung, — -, pl. — ra, consul- 

tation, counciL 
Söerau'&en, v. tr., to rob. 
2)er 33erg, — cd, pl. — e, mountain. 

©cr'gig, adj., mountainous. 

2)te ©erg'tctte, — ,pl— n, moun- 
tain ränge. 
2)a$ ©erg'wert, — es, />/. — e, mine. 
2)er ©eridjf , — €0, />/. — e, report, 

notice, advice. 
©eritymt', <k(?.> fiunous, celebratcd. 
2>tc ©erfiyrurtg, — , contact. 
©cfd)5f tigen, ». *r., to occupy, bosy, 

employ. 
öcfdjei'ben, ad)\, modest [rnent 
2)er ©efdjfag', — 0, seizure, attach- 
©efdjlie'ßcn, v. tr. refl., to conclude. 

2)er »efötuß', -#,/>/. *fu)lüffe, 
conclusion. 
S3ef<$r5n'fen, r. <r., to limit. 
©cfcfyrei'ben, v. ir. tr.,to describe. 

2)te ©eförei'bung, — , />£ — en, 
description. [scription. 

©cfdjreib'üd), adj., capable of de- 
öeföuTbigen, v. tr., to accuse, cbarge. 
2)cr ©efdjü'fcer, — «, j>/. -— , protector. 
8efd)toc'rcn, v. refl., to complain. 
©efin'nen, v. refl., to recollect, collect 

one v 8 thoughts, deliberate. 
©efefc'en, v. tr., to occupy. [tion. 
2>er öefifc', -— e«, possession, occupa- 
©efon'ber, adj., particular. 

©efon'ber«, adv., particularly. 
»ef'fer, &eft (see § 92). . 
©eflä'tigen, v. tr., to confirm. 
53eflC / ^cn, t>. tr. tn<r., to consist ; tr. , to 

contest 
©cflenen, r. fr., to order, engage. 
SefHm'men, u. tr., to appoint, fix. 

©efll'ctyen, v. tr., to Visit. 

S)cr «cfu<y , — e«, />/. — e, visit. 
©etracty'tcn, v. tr., to consider. 
93etrS(tyf ti$, adj., considerable. 
2Hc ©etracty'tmtg, — , />/, 
reflection. 

T 



SBctrcf fen, v. ir. tr., to concern. 
93errieb'fam, adj., diligent. 
S)ic ©etrfib'mß, — , pl. — e, sonw. 
2)ie S3etrun'fen&rit, — , drunkenness. 
2>a« ©ctt, — e$, />/. — en, bed. 
2)a« ©ctftuty,— e«, j>/. *tfid)er, sheet. 
Skt'teln, v. intr., to bog, ask alms. 

2>er ©ett'ter, —$,/>/.—, beggar. 

S3ef tefonn, ad)*., beggarly poor. 

2)cr ©ef telftab, — e«, extreme 
©ebor/, conj., before, ere. [poverty. 
2Hc ©cwe'gung, — , pl. — en, motion, 

exercise. 
ÖCtöci'fen, t>. tr. fr., to prove. [ant. 
©eröetoo&'ner, —* t pl- — , inhabit- 
Jöcnmn'bent, r. *r., admire. 
Gemußt', OC&'., conscious, known. 
©qa^Icn, r. rr., to pay. 

SHe ©cjo^'lung, — , payment 
©ejic'öfn,p. tr. fr., todrawover, enter; 

reß., to refer. 

2)ic ©egte^ung, — , relation. 
©ejtoci'fcln, r. tr., to donbt. 
2)ic ©i'bel, — , pl — n, Bible. 

2He 33i'belüberfetymg, translation 
of the Bible. 
2)ic ©ibliot^cl', — , pl. — en, library. 

®er ©ibliot^etar/, p/. — e, libra- 
©ieg'fam, ad;., pliable. [rian. 

2)a« 33ier,— e«, />/. — e, beer. 
w S3Ub,— e«,/>/. — er, form, image. 

©il'ben, r. tr., to form, sbape, 
eultirate. [zation. 

3)ie ©il'bung, — , eulture, civili- 
„ ©i('bung«gcWid^tc, history 
of formation. 
2)a« ©tttef , — «, pJ. — e, ticket, note. 
©iflig, oo)'., just, reasonable, cheap. 

©inigen, v. tr., to approve, grant. 

SDie ©iriigfett, — , cheapness. 
^Ül'ben, v. ir. tr., to bind, tie, festen. 

2)ic ©in'be, —,/>/. — n,bandage. 

2)o8 ©m / be»ort,— «,conjunction. 
2He ©ir/ne, — ,/>^ — n, pear. 
&m'ntn,prq>., within (of time). 

2 



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442 



VOCABÜLABY. 



$ß\$,prep. y adv.y and conj., tili, nntil, 

as far, as to. 

©iS^er', adv.y hitherto, up to this 
time, as far, up to. 
2>er©i'fd>of,— t»,pl ©ifd)ö'fe,bishop. 
©if ten, v. ir. tr.y to request, ask, beg. 
©itter, adj.y bitter, 
©la'fen, t?. tr. tr. and intr.y to blow. 
©laß, adj.y pale. [sheet 

2)aS ©latt, — e«, />/. ©ISt'ter, leaf, 
©lau, adj.y blue. 
2)aö ©lei, — e«, lead. 

©tei'em, a<#., leüden, oflead. 

2)er ©lei'fhf t, — e$, lead-pencü. 
©Ict'oen, t;. ir. ui<r., to remain, stay. 
2)er ©lief, —t$,pl. — e, glance, look. 
©finb, «<#., blind. 
2)er ©life, — &,pl. — e, lightning. 

©li'feeil, v. intr.y toligbten, flash. 

©(ife'fdptett, <k(?., quick aa a flash 
of lightning. 
©tog, adj.y bare, naked ; odu., only. 
©tilgen, v. intr. f to bloom. 
3)tc ©fa'me, — , />/. — n, flower. 

2>a« ©lüm'ityen, — «, floweret. 

2>er ©tu'raenffor,— «, field cov- 
ered with flowers. 
3)a«©tut,— c«, blood. 

©hl'tia,, ac&\, Woody. [skin. 
3)08 ©otfd'fett, —cd, />/. — e, goat's 
Star ©o'ben, — «, />/. ©ö'ben, ground, 

soil, floor. 
n ©o'gen, — «, bow, leaf, sheet. 
SJ>ie ©o$'nc, —,/>/. — n, bean. 
S)a$ ©oot, — €«,/>/. ©B'te, boat 
©offlen, i7. <r., to borrow. 
©ö'fc, ac[/\, bad, ill, wicked, angry. 
2>er ©ö'fettri<$t, — e«, />/. — e, Tillain, 

knave. [land. 

Da« ©ra<$'fclb, — c$, pl. —er, fiülow 
©ra'ten, v. ir. tr., to roast. 
©rangen, v. tr., to ose, need. 
©raun, a<#., brown. 
©raupen, v. intr.y to rash, roar. 
©rc'^cn, v. ir.tr.y to break. 



3)et ©ret, — e«, broth. 
©reit, adj.y broad, wide. 
©rei'ten, v. reß. t to spread. 
©ren'nen, v. ir. tr. and intr.y to burn. 
©renn'bar, adj.y that can beburned. 
2)a« ©renn'tyolj, — e3, firewood. 
3)er ©rief, —&,pl — e, letter. 

2)te ©riefmarfe, — , \ postage- 
2>er ©rief ftem^et, — , j stamp. 
„ ©rieftrfiger, — «,p/.— , let- 
ter-carrier. 
©ring'en, v. ir. tr., to bring. 
2)a« ©rob, — ,pl. — e, bread, loa£ 
3Me ©rü'(fe, — , />*. — n, bridge. [er. 
2)er ©ru'ber, — «, />/. ©rü'ber, broth- 

©rfi'berfid;, adj.y fraternal. 
2He ©ruft, — ,pl. ©rii'jte, breast. 
S)a« ©u<$, — e«, pl. ©ü'<$er, book, 
sqoire. 

Der ©u<$'6mber, book-binder. 
„ ©u^anblcr, book-seller. 
3)ie ©u^'^onblunfl, book-store. 
„ ©u$bru(feret',printingcstab- 
lishment. 
f n ©u^'brucfcrfunjt, art of 
printing. [book. 

S)a« ©ü<$'lem, — «, pl. — , small 
2>te ©u'cfye, — , pl — n, beech. 
2>er ©ucty'ftobc, — n, j>J.— n, letter. 
2)ie ©u<yjlaBcnf($rift, writing in let- 
ters. 
2)er ©u^'n>etjen, — «, bnckwheat 
r , ©unb, — e$, pZ. — e, bnndle, 

leagne, confederaey. 
n ©un'beögenoß, — eu, pl— n, ally. 
3)ic ©utfbeSfcfhmg^rtiflcationofthe 

(Geraum) Confederation. 
©Uttt, o^*., gay, bright and varie- 

gated. 
2>ic ©urg, — , pl — en, Castle. 
3)ct ©ür'ger, — «, p/. — , dtwen. 

©flr'gcrfi^, adj.y civil, as a citi- 
2>ie ©uf ter, — , butter. [zen. 

Skeöut'terbtob, bread and bat- 
ter. 



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VOCABÜLARY. 



443 



3)er CalöimP',— eu,/>7.— en, calvinist 
n <£anton', — 8, pl. — e, canton. 

3ta8 Gojntal', — «, />/. — ten, capital 
(monev); pl. (Sopita'Icr, capital 
(ofapillar). 

3)ie (Se'ber, — ,/>/.— n, cedar. 

(Seremontett', adj., ccremonial. [acter. 

S)er <£&araf'ter, —8, />£ — -te're, char- 
n fc&arfatan', — 8, />/.— e, charlatan 
» Gtyef , — 8, pl. — 8, chief, principaL 

S)ie Chemie', — , chemistry. [singers. 

SDct <£&or, — e8, />/. Cty8re, chorus of 



Sta8(5$or, — e8, j>/. Ctyo're, choir (a 
place in church for singers). 

3)er <£f>rij*, — tn,pl. — en, Christian. 

S)o8 <£&ri'fient$um, — 8, Christianity. 

<£taf flfety, adj. t classical. 

3ta8 fconcerf , -e8, pl. — e, concert. 

Gtoil', a<#., civil. 

S)a8 Cott^, —8, />/. — 8, coupe-, divi- 
sion of a coach or railroad car. 

3ta8 (Jouronf , — e8, currency. 

Srte Sonfi'ne, —,/>/. — n, cousin. 



». 



Sta, aefo., there, höre, then, now; 

conj., as, when. 
Stabe? , aa0.,thereby,by that,by them. 
3ta8 S)a$, —€8, pl. 3>a"$er, roof. 
StabUttfy', aäV. ,thereby, by that means 
StefÜY, adv., for or instead of this or 

that. 
Stage'gen, aefo., against that. 
Stauer/, acto., thence, from thence. 
Stauer/, co»;'., thence, for that reason, 

therefore. 
Statut, adv., thither, so far; ba&in', 

away, gone. 
3ta'mal8, adv., then, at that time. 
3)ie Sta'me, —,/>/.— n, lady, woman. 
S^omit', aaV.. therewith, with it, with 

that; conj., that, in order that 
3)cr Stampf, — e8, steam, vapor. 

3ta8 Stantyfboot, steam-boat. 

3)er S)atn'tfer,— 8,/>/.— ,8teamer 
»# 3>atnj>f feffcf, boiler. [gine. 

3)ie Stampf mafdjine, steam-en- 
n Stantyfmityte, steam-mill. 

Sta8 2)om^f Wff, steam-boat. 
3>er Stanf,— e8, thanks, gratitude, re- 

Stanfbar, a£#.,thankfiil. [ward. 
$ann, adv., then, at that time ; bann 

unb ttann, now and then. 
Staran', adv., thereon, on it, in it. 



Starauf, adv., thereupon, on that, 

after that. [from that. 

Starau8 7 , adv., thence, therefrom, 
Star'bieten, v. ir. tr., to offer. [sent. 
Star/fteUen, v. tr., to prodnee, repre- 
S)arna<$', adv., aecording to that. 
Starme'berltegen, v. intr., to lie sick. 
Starfi'ber, adv., thereupon, aboatthat. 
3;arum' adv., therefore, for that. 
Sta8 (see bcr). 

Staß, conj., that, in order that. 
S)tc Stau'er, — , duration of time. 

S)ou'ern, v. intr., to endure, last. 

Stau'er&aft, ad;., durable. 
Stabon', <ufo.,thereo£ therefrom, of it. 
Stajn', oefr., thereto, in addition to. 
2)cr SKeb'fta&t, — 9 tP L -ftö&te, tbeft. 
5>e(fen, v. tr., to cover. [let. 

3)er Steffel, — 8, />£ — , cover- 

3)ie S)ed'e, — , />/.— n, coverlet, 
Wanket. [a ship). 

3ta8 3)ecf, — e8, />/.— c, deck (of 
®Un,pron., thy(§109). 
2)ie Ste'mutfc, — , hnmility, meeknesa. 
3)en'fen, v. tr. and ia<r., to think. 

S)enfbar, a^. (thinkable). 
S)etm, conj., for, becanse, then, than. 
S)en'no<$, oon;., yet, however, still. 
S)ie S)^^, — , ^/. — n, dUpatch. 



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444 



VOCABULABY. 



2)er, bte, bo$, ort., the ; dem. pro*. 

(§ 111, 2), this, that ; rtl. pron. 

(§ 114, 2), who, which, wbat. 
2)ero,lei'<tyen, aa)\ indecl., such as that 

orthose. 
i £xx\€m$t,dem.pr<m. that(§ 111, 3). 
Dcrfd'be, dem. pron. (§ 111, 4). 
Def^olb or be&'fclb, cor/. > there- 
2)e*'ttegen or belegen, > fore. 
De'fto, cor;, (so much the). 
2)enf (i$, a^'., piain. 
2)i$'ten, v. intr., to make poetry. 

2>er 2K<yter, —«,/>/. — , poet. 
* 2H$'terfürft,princeofpoets. 

2H$'terif<$, a<(;., poetic. 

2>ic j&utyrfiraft, — , poetiy. 

2)ie SH^'tung, — , pl — ett, poem 
2>i(f, arf|*., thick. 
2>er Dieb, —t*,pL — e, thief. [theft. 

2)er 2KeD'fl<u)t, — «, j>J. -fWtytc, 
j&ie'nen, v. <r., to serve. 

2)er Die'ner, —3, />/.— , servant. 
n ©ienfl, — es, p/.—e, service. 
SHc'fcr^/woji., thig, that. 

2He*'feit, prep., on this side of. 

2>ie0'fetW, cwfo., on this side. 
2>ie 2>m'te, — , pl. — n, Ink. 
3>trcff , a<(;., direct. [director. 

2>er Dtreftor, — «, />/. *to'ren, 
2)er Stttfon'to, — S, discount. 
SE)o$, cor;., yet, however. 
©er Dot'tor, — $, />£ *to'ren, doctor. 
„ 2)©t<$,— cö,/>/. — e, dagger. 
„ 2)©m, —e*,j>Z. — e, cathedral. 
„ Dorfner, — «, />/. — , thander. 

Donnern, v. intr., to thander. 
$0)>'t>clt, ad;., doabled, double. 



2)a* Dorf, — cö,^/. 2>6r'ftr, village. 

2)a« Dörfdjen, —8, hamlet. 
Der Dorn,— e«,/>/. — en, thorns. 
Dort, aaV, yonder, there. 
Doö Dra'ma, —*,pl Dra'men, drama 

Der Drama' ttfer, — «, dramatist. 

Drama' tifö, ao}'., dramatic. 
Der Drang, — c3, impulse, pressure. 
Drei, three. 

Dret'fjig, thirty. 

(Sin Drei'jjtger, — 9, a man be- 

tween thirty and forty years 

i old. [years. 

3)rci'6tgiä^rtg f adj., lastingthirty 

Drci'jefyi, thirteen. 

Drifte, third. 

Da« Driftet, — «, third part. 
Drc'fctyen, r. *r. fr., to thresh. 
Die Dro'&ung, — ,/>/. — en, menace. 
Der Drucf,— e«,/>/.Drü'(fe, pressure. 

Dru'cfen, v. fr., to print. 
Du,jh*or., thou. 

Der Duft — c«, ;;/. 3)üf te, fragranc*. 
Die Dü'ne, — , pl. — n, down. 
Dwf tel, adj., dark. 

Dun'Wblau, ao}'., deep blue. 
Dur$, prep., through, by means of. 

Durä>an«',aaV., throughout, by 
all means. [through. 

Durchführen, v. tr., to carry 

3)er 2)urd^'gang,pa8sage through. 

3)nr(^'reifcn f v. <r., to traverse. 

3)ur^'fe^en, v. tr.tr., to look 
through. 

2)er 2)urd}'f<$nitt, — eö, arerage. 
3)er 2)urfl, — c«, thirst. 
2>a« Sm^'enb, — 9, pL — c, dosen. 



& 



2>te (gb'be, — # pl — n, ebb, ebb tide. 
Cben, atf}\, even, level; adv. t just, ex- 
(S(^t f oo}'. , genuine, pure, fast [actly. 
6'bel, ad}'., noble, honorable. 

3)er Cbetmaim,— tt r pL — leute, 
nobleman. 



ö'belmüt^ig, adj., noble hearted. 
3)er S'bcljiem, — «3, />/.— e, precious 
(S'fye, a«?»., ere, befbre. [stone. 

Die (S^re, — , /»/. — n, honor, good 

<S('ren f v. fr., to honor. [name. 

(S^rent>o0 r oa)'., honorable. 



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VOCABÜLARY. 



445 



£$r'ttdj, adj., honorable. 
2)ic (5tyr'li$fett, honesty. 
(g&t'loG, adj., without honor. 
2>cr (§tyr'geij, — e«, ambition. 
2>a« <£i, — e$, />/. —er, egg. 

2)er (gi'erfudjen, omelet. 
2>ie ©i'djc, — , pL — n, oak. 
2)ct (gib, — e«, />/. — e, oath. 
„ (gi'fer, — 3, zeal, ardor. 
Eifrig, adj., zealous. 
<gi'gen,<u#., own. 

(gi'gentlidj, aa)\, proper, real; 

adv., strictly speaking. 

SHc (gi'le, — , haste. 

(gin, ort. (§54), a, an; m«ro. (§ 89), 

one; acfo., in. [each other. 

(ginon'ber, pron., one another, 

2He (gin'bilbung, — , Imagination. 

(gtn'brSngcn, v. intr., to press in. 

(gtnerlef, tndee/. ad;., of one kind, in- 

€in'fa<$, adj., simple, piain. [different. 

©er (Sht'ffoe, — e«, />/. — Pffe, influ- 

„ (gm'gcmg,— e«,entrance. [ence. 

6m' geben?, adj., mindrall, remember- 

öi'ntger, pron., some, any. [ing. 

2)a« (gin'fommen, — 9, income. 

(ght'fobcn, v. ir. fr., to invite. [tion. 

S)tc (gin'fobung, — ,pl. — en, invita- 

€m'mat, adv., once. 

€in>a(fen, ». tr., to pack up. 

(gin'fam, adj., solitary, seclnded. 

2)te (güi'famfeit, — , solitude, se- 

clasion. 

(gin'f fliegen, t>. tr. fr., to indose. 

(gin'f d)ränfen, ». tr., to limit, restrict. 

(gm'fdjretBen, t?. tr. fr.,.to write down, 

(gin'fcfan, v. tr. fr., to perceive.[enter. 

(gin jleßen, v. refl., to appear (at the 

appointed time). 
(gm'frratmig, adj., unanimons. 
®er (gm'trttt,— e«, pl — e, entrance. 
ein'wirfen, v. tr., to influence. 

2)te (gtn'ttrirfung, — f pl. — en, in- 
fluence. [ant. 
2)cr (gin'toojmcr, — «, />/. — , inhabit- 



(gin'jeln, 04?., single, individual. 

(gin'jig, adj., sole, simple. 
25a« <Ste, — e«, ice. 

2)er (gtö'ba'r, polar bear. 
25a« (gi'fcn, — «, iron. 

(gi'fern, adj., ofiron. [road. 

25ie (gt'fenbatyn,— ,pl— en, rau- 
her (gi'fenba$nfa$rl>fon, railroad 
(gt'tet, aa)\, vain, idle. [time-table. 

3Me (gt'tettrit, — , vanity. 
(g'lenb, ac#., miserable. 
2>tc (glegie', —,/>/. (glegt'en, elegy. 
(gif, eleven. 

25ie(grte,— ,;>/.— n, eil. 
25ie (grtern (pf.), parents. 
(gmpfang'en, v. Cr. fr., to receive. 

2>er (gmpfang'fäein, receipt, 
(gntyfefy'ten, v. tr. fr., to recommend. 

SDte (gmtfet'fong, —,*;>/. — en, 
recommendation. 
(gmpfm'ben, v. tr. tr., to perceive, fcel. 

(gntyfinb'fid}, adj.. sensitive. 
fämpox'} adv., on ingh, above. 
2)ie (gmjtö'rang,— -,?/. — en,conspir- 

acy, revolt. 
2>a« (gn'be,— «, />»'. — k, end. 
(gn'ben, v. intr., to end. 

<gnb'U$,.-r<$., final 
(gng ©r eng'e, adj., narrow, close. 
2)er öng'el, — «, p/. — f angel. 

fr Gn'tel, —«,/>/.— , grandson. 
2)te en'feltn, — , ^/. — -ncn, grand- 

daughter. [along without. 

(gntbe^ren, ».fr., to dispense with, get 
(gntbin'ben, v. ir. tr., to unbind, re- 



(gntbecf en, v. tr., to uncover, discover. 

2)ie (gntbccfung, — , pl — en, 

discovery. [tance). 

(gntfer'nen, v. fr., to remove (to a dis- 

Öntfernt', adj., distant, removed. 
CntflieVen, v. ir. intr., to escape. 
(gntge'gen, pr<?p., and adv., against, 

contrary to, opposed to, toward. 
(gntge'genge^en, to go to meet. 



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446 



VOCABüLABY. 



öntge'genlommen, to come to meet 
(gntgc'gaife^cn, to oppose. 
(Sntge'fclt, v. ir. intr., to escape. 
(gtttyaTten, v. ir. tr., to contain. 
(Sntfye'ben, v. ir. tr., to take away, dis- 

charge from. [charge. 

Cntfaf'fen, v. ir. tr., to dismiss, dis- 
<gntle$'nen, v. tr., to borrow. 
(gntra'fytn, v. tr., to dispense with. 
(glltfä^a'bat, v. ir. tr., to decide. 
(gntfcfyte'beit, adj. , decided. 
(Sntjcbfie'gcn, v. ir. refl., to decide. 

2>er entfdjtujj', — e$, pl. — üffc, 
deciaon. 
Cntfäuf btgcn, v. tr., to excuse. 
(Entfüt'ncn, v. refl., to recollect. 
(Entfef jeit, t>. fr., to remove. 
Gntfore'djen, r. t>. «r., to correspond. 
ßntfte'ljen, v. ir. tnfr., to arise, spring, 

originale, descend from. 
2>ie (Sntflefy'ung, — , source, formation 
(gnttoe'bcr, c©*/\, either. 
©ntt&cr'fcn, v.ir.tr., toproject, design. 
2)cr Cntnmrf , —es, />/. »toürfe, plan, 
Gttttmcf ein, r.r«/Z., to develop. [design, 
fettjtt>ci'cn f r. r«/?., to fiül out with 

each other. 
2)ie <5j>o'<$e, — , />/.— n, epoch. 
3)a« ©>o$, — , />/. (Stycn, epic poem. 
2>ie (Equtya'gc, — , />/. — n, equipage, 
(St, pro«., he. [carriage. 

(Srbar/men, u. re/?., to pity, have rnercy 
(Erbficfcn, r. tr., to see. 
2)ie (Srb'fe, — , />/. — eit, pea. 
rr ©r*be, — r /'£•— n, earth. 
„ Cfrb'beere, — , />/. — it r strawberry 
3)aS (Srb'beben,— $, />/.—, earthquake 
©rbuf ben, r. fr., to suffer. 
(Ercig'neti, r. re/*., to take place. 

3)a« (gretg'mß, — e«,p/. — e,event 
(Erfahren, ». t>. /r., to experience. 

2)ic erfa^rung, — ,pl. — en, ex- 
perience. 
(Erfln'bcn, v. ir. tr., to invent [br. 

2)er Crftaber,— «.*/. — , invent- 



2He (Srftn'bung, — , pl.—tn, in- 
vention. 
2)et (Srfolg', — -c«, j>/. — c, success. 
Srfreu'en, p. re/l., to rejoiceover, pos- 

sess. [ment. 

2)ic erfüHiing, — , ^/L — cn, falfiü- 
(Srge'bcn, p. tr. intr., toovertake, hap- 

pen ; refl., to surrender. 
Grge'tat, adj., obedient. 
(Srgret'fen, v. ir. tr., to lay hold on, 
(Srfya'bea, ad/., sublime. [seizeu 

(Jrijal'tat, r. ir. /r., to receive. 
(Srfc'ben, v. ir. refl., to rise, spread. 
JSxfjty'zn, v. tr., to raise, exalt. 
(Erin'nera, v. refl., to remember. 

2)ic (Srin'ncrung, — , pl. —tn, 
remembrance. [memory. 

<5rw'nerli$, oaj., present to the 
förtaTtcn, v. refl., to take cold. png). 
(Srtöm'tfctl, r. fr., to gain (by fight- 
(Srfcn'ncn, r. tr. <r., recognize. 
(Srflä'rett, v. tr., to explain. 

(StUäfixä), adj., expbcable. 

25ic (SrHä'rung, — , pl.— tn, ex- 
planation. 
<£xlau'hcn, v. tr., to allow, permit. 
Crlc'gcn, v. tr., to kilL 
Sic Chrlcid^'tming, — , pl.— tn, relief. 
(Srlic'gcn, v. ir. intr., to sink. 
<£rtö'fen, t7. fr., to deliver, redeem. 
(Srman'gctn, r. «n/r., to be in want. 
Crmot'bcn, v. tr., to murder. 
(SrnSyrcn, r. fr., to support. 
<5rnen'n«t, ». tr. tr., to appoint 
(JntP, adf/., earnest. 
S)ic Sm'tc, — , />iL — n f harrest 

(grn'tcw, or erabtat, v. tr. y to reap. 
2)ie Cro'berung, — f conquest. 
3)te (Srrtd)'ti:ug, — r erection,founding 
Srrin'gen, v. tr., to gain (by force). 
lErföri'neil, v. ir. intr., to appear. 

3Hc €rfä)ri'nung f — f /*/. — «t, 
appearance. 
(5rfä>ie'6en, v. ir. tr., to shoot. 
(Srfe'^en, v. ir. tr., to see, find out. 



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VOCABULABY. 



447 



(Srfl, ÜTSt(adv. y only) ; crflen«, firstly. 
(Srjtau'nen, v. tr., to astonish. 

ßrfloutt'licty, adj., astonishing. 
Srflefc'en, v. ir. intr., to arise. 
<£xtap'ptn, v. tr., to catch, surprise. 
(Srtyet'len, v. tr., to communicate. 
(Srtra'gen, *. tr. tr., to bear, suffer. 
(grtoadj'fen, ». «*. t»fr., to grow up. 

<5rtoad)'fen, adj., adalt. 
(5rn>fi$'len, r. fr., to choose. 
Srtoafy'nen, v. fr., to mention. 
Crtoar'ten, v. tr., to await. 
2)er ßroerb', — -e«, business, gain. 
(grttne'bern, v. intr., to reply. 



(Srjä&'len, t>. fr., to relate. 

2)er (Srj'marfdjatt, — es, ;>/. *ft$fitte, 

(g$, pro«., it. Qord high marshai 

(Sf fcn, r. tr. fr., to eat. 

2)er öf'ftg, — *, Yinegar. 

<5f ti$, .proa., some, any. [thing. 

(SftDtö, indecl.pron., something, any 

3)ic (Etymologie', — , etymology. 

(8u'er,jwo».,your. 

(Sfconge'lifcty, a<#., evangelicaL 

(g'torig, <u#., eteraaL 

2)ic (g'ttrigteit, — , eteraity. 
2>a* (Jrentylar', —«,;>/. — e, copy. 
2)ic <5$ißcnj', — , existence. 



5- 



3>te ga'bel, — ,/>/. — n, fehle. 

$a'UU)a\t,adj., febulous. 
Stte gabrif,— ,pl.— en,manufectory. 
gacomtirt', parf., figured (of cloths). 
gvi'&tg, a<#., capable, fit, apt. [ent. 

2)ic gä'&tgteit; — , capability, tal- 
3>ic getane, — , pl — n, flag, banner. 
gaty'ren, 0. tr. fr., to travel, ride. 

2)te gafyrt, — , pl. — en, journey. 

2)a« ga&rgelb, fere, toll, 
gal'len, v. ir. intr., to fall. [case. 

2)er galt, — es, />/. gSl'le, fall, 

2)te gaU'futyt, — , epilepsy. 
galfdj,a<#., false. 
3)ic gamt'lte, — , p/. — n, femily. 
gan'gen, v. tr. tr., to catch. 
2)tc gar'be, — , pl. — n, color. 
2>a« gaß,— e«,p/. gSffer, cask. 
gajl, odfo., almost, nearly. 
gelten, v. ir. intr., to fight, fence. 
2>tc ge'ber, — , p/. — n, feather, pen. 

2)a« ge'bermeffer, penknife. 
2)ic gee, — , pl. — n, fairy. 

2>a« ge'enlanb, feiryland. 
gclj'len, ü. tnfr., to fail, miss. 
über geiler, — 8, pl—, fault, mistake. 
geil, adj., for sale. 
gein, adj., fine. 
3)er geinb, — e«, p/. — e, enemy. 



getnb'fi($, <w#., hostile. 

2)a« gelb, — e« f pl —er, field, ground. 

2)cr gelb'^err, comraander-in- 
chief. 
rr gelb'marfc^att, fleld-marahal. 
gei'etlt^, a<§*., solemn. 
3>a$ gell, — e«, p/. — e, skin, hide. 
2)er gel'few, — e«, />/. — en, rock, diff. 
2)a* gen'jler, — »,;>/. — n, window. 
2)er gclb'jug, campaign. 
3>ic ge'rien (i>/.), vacation. 
gern, adj., far, distant. 

S)te ger'ne,— , distance. 
ger'tigen, v.tr., to prepare, make ready 
ger'tig, arf;., ready, prepared, done. 
geffeln, t?. tr., to chain. 
geft, aJ/., fest, fixed, permanent. 

2)er gefftag, festival day. 

3)te gefffKmmunfl', festive feeling 

3)te ge'ftunß, —,/>/. —en, castle, 
fortress, stronghold. 

3)a6 ge'fhing«tt>er!, fortification. 
2)a« gen'er, — e, ^/. — , fire. 

2)te geu'eröbmnp,— ,j>/.brünße, 
conflagradon. 

gcu'erfep, adj., fire-proof. 

2>a3 geu'errobr, gun, rifle. 

3)ie geu'ertoebr, — , fire-company 
2)er gia'ter, — S, p£ — , hackney-coach 



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VOCABÜLARY. 



2)o« gte'Ser, — 8, pl — , fever, 
gigür'luty, adj., fignrative. 
gttt'bat, v. ir. tr., to find. 
2>cr gtno/er, — 3, *»/. — , finger. 

2)er gino/er&ut, thimble. 
gtn'fter, <u#., dark, obscore. 
2>er gtfö, — H, pL — c, fish. 

gt'MfOl, v. t*/r., to fish. 

2)er gi'fcfcr, — 9, fisherman. 
glo$, adj., flat, piain. 

2>ie gto"$e, — , pl. — n, surfoce. 
2)te glom'me, — , />/. — n, flame. 

„ glo'ftfo— t,pl.— n,flask,bottle. 
gleiten, v. ir. int., to twist, braid. 
2)o« glctfö, — ««, fiesh, meat. 

2)er glei'fdpr, — 9, pl — , butcher 
&€T gfeiß, — 1$, diligence, industry. 

gtci'ßiö, adj., industrioos. 
gfie'ßen, v. ir. intr., to fly. 
gltc'ßcn, t?. tr. intr., to flow, 
glott, adj., afloat. 
2)te gtu^t, — , flighL 

glfity'tto,, <k#., fleeüng, rapid. 

2)cr glü^rting, — c«, />£— c, fu- 
2)er glü'gcf, —«,/>/.—, wing. [gitive. 

* gfaß, — CS^/.gtüf'fc, river. 
2)o« grüßten, — «,/>/.— , rivulet. 
3>tc glut$,— ,/>/.— «t,tide, high tide. 
gol'gen, v. intr., to follow. [qnence. 

2>ic gol'ge, — r />/. — n, conse- 

golgc triften, to comply with. 

gofg'lidj, ado., consequently. 
gorbern, v. tr., to demand. 
2)ie gorel'fe, —,pl. — n, tront 
2)k gorm, — , pl. — cn, form. 
25o« gormof, — c«, />/. — c, size and 

shope (of a book). 
gor/f(^cn r ». fr., to investigate. 

2)ic gor'föung, — , pl. — cn, in- 
yestigation. 
gort, adj., fortb, away, gone, off. 
gort'fa&ren, v. tr. intr., to continue. 
2)er gort'fdjritt, — €«,/>/.— t, progress 
gort'toätyrenb, adv., continually. 
2)te gra$t, pl. — «n, freight, cargo. 



2)er grotf, — c«, pl. — e (and grSdc), 

dress coat. 
gro'gen, v. ir. tr., to ask. 

2)ie gro'ge, — t pL — n, qaestion. 
granft'ren, v. tr., to prepay. 
gron'to, adv., post-paid. 
2>te grau, — , pl. — cn, woman, wüe, 

lady (Madame, Mrs.). [(Miss). 
2)o* gräu'lrin, — 9, pl—, young lady 
grri, adj., free. 

2)u grri'fcit, — , freedom. 

grct'forcd^en, to acquit. 
gremb, adj., foreign, stränge. 

2)o« grcmb'ttort, foreign word. 
2)ic grcu'be,— f />/.— n r joy, pleasure. 
grcu'cu, v. refl., to rejoiee, be glad. 
Xtt greunb, — 19, pl. —t, friend. 

2)ic grcuitb'm, — , pL — nen, 
friend. 

greunb'li^ <wy., friendly, kind. 

2)tc greunb'fc^aft, — f friendship. 

greunb'ftyiftUcfy, adj., friendly. 
2)cr gric'be, or gric'ben, — za9, peace. 
2)er gricb'ri^öb'or, — « f ^/.— , Fred- 
eric d'or. 
gric'ren, v. ir. tr., andtn/r., to freeze. 
grif(^ f adj., fresh. [nesa. 

2)tc gri'fd?C r — r freshncss, liveli- 
gro$, adj., happy, joyoos, glad. 
grotntn, adj., pions. 
2)tc gruc^t, — , pl. grüßte, fruit. 

gnidy bot, adj., fraitfnL 
grü^ adj., early, in the morning. 

2)er grü^ling,— 19, pl. — c, spring 

2)o« grity'jatyr, spring, 
grü'fcr, adv., formerly. 
2)o* grfi^'ftü(f r — €3, break&st 

grfiV(iü(fen r r. tntr., to breakfiist 
2)er grfi^jug, early train. 
2)cr gu(^ f — t»,pl. gü^'fc r fox. 
gürten, r. tr., to feeL 
gü^ren, v. tr., to guide, lead, conduc^t. 
2)ie gül'(c r — , fulness. 
güflcn, r. tr., to filL 
gttnf, five. 



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VOCABULABT. 



449 



$üx f prep., for, in favor of, instead of. 

2)aS güYtoort, pronoun. 

SDic gurtet, — , feai. 

gürcty'ten, r. fr., to fear, 
gttrcty'terli^, adj., fearfuL 
gnntyt'fam, adj., fearfnl. 



2>te ©a'bc, — , ;>/. — n, gift. 

„ ©a'bel, — , pl — n, fork. [bot 

25er ©argen, — S, />/.—, gallows, gib- 

„ ©ang f — eS, />/. .©än'ge, going, 

Walking. 

©ang'bar, ad£, passable. 
2)tc ©ani^-^/^fin'fe, S 0086 - 

25et^©0 J iiKner, goose-quill. 
©OIJJ, «<§"., whofe, eiitire, completo ; 

adv., qtnte, entirely, whojly. 

9m ©an'jen, on the whole. . 

©ältj'fi^, adj ., cntire. " 
©ar, a<#., nnished, ready, done; acta, 

quite, very, at alL 
25aS ©am, — eS, />/. — e, yarn. 
25te ©ami'rnng, — , trimming. 
2)er ©arten, — S,/>Z. ©arten, garden. 

25er ©5rf ncr,— S,/>J.— ,garden- 
25aS @aS, — es, pZ. — e, gas. [ei. 
25ie ©äffe, — , pl— n, street, lane. 
2)er ©ajt, — eS,/>/. ©S'fle, guest. 

25aS ©aft'fcauS,} hotel, inn, pub- 

2>er ©afi'&of, ) lic honse. 
2)ie ©at' tung, — , pl — en, sort, spe- 

cies, kind. 
©cbä'ren, v. ir. t»*r., to bear, give 

birth to. [edifice. 

25aS ©ebäu'be, — eS, ///. — , bnilding, 
©c'ben, v. ir. tr., to give. 

2)er ©e'ber, —8, />/. — , giver. 
©efcif bet, ad;., cnltivated, refined. 
2>aS ©ebirg' or ©ebtr'ge, — S, />/. — e, 

monntain ränge, motmtainons 
country. 
©c&o'ren (part. of geboren), born. 
2>er ©ebraud)', — &,pl ©ebra'u'$e, 

use, custom. 



25er gürfr — en, pl — en, prince. 

25ie gürfi'in, />/. — nen, princess. 
25er guß, —es, jp/. gfiße, foot. 
25aS gufter, — S,,p/. — , lining. 
güt'tcrn, to line. 

i. 

2>ie ©ebrü'ber, (/>/.), brothers, breJjh- 
©ebüyrcn, v. intr., to be dae. [reta. 
25te ©eburf , — , birth. j 

25er ©ebnrtS'tag, birthday. 
©ebct'tyen, v. tr. tnir., to thrive, grow. 
©eben'ten, v. ir. intr., to be mindful, 
remember. 

2)er ©ebenftag, memorable dnjr. 
„ ©eban'Ic, — nS, pl — n, 
thonght. 
25a« ©ebäd^niß, — eS/memory. 
25aS ©eb}djt', — es, pl — e, poem. 

„ ©cbrän'ge, —es, pl. — e, throng, 
2>ie ©ebuIbV— r patience. [crowd. 

„ ©efa$r\ — , pl — en, danger. 
©cfaflen, v. ir. intr., to please. 

©efaTfig, adj., pleasing, agreea- 

ble, coarteous. 
©efaTligf*, adv. (if you please). 
25er ©efan'flene,— n, pl— n,prisoner, 

captive. 

25aS ©effing^utß, — es, pl — e, prison. 

rr ©effl'ge, — S, retinue, conseqnen- 

„ ©efror'ne, — n, ice-cream. [ccs. 

„ ©efü^r, —eS, pl — e, feeling, 



©e'gcn, prep., against, toward. 

©egcnü'ber, prep., opposite to. 
Stte ©e'genb, — ,pl — en, region. 
2)aS ©c'gcngift, antidoter 
2)cr ©e'gen|^, contrariety, contrast. 
SDet ©c'golwW, blow in return. 
2)cr ©e'genflattb, — eS,^/. #fl5nbc f ob- 
2)aS ©egart^fW, contrary part [jeet. 
2)ic ©e'gentöatt, — , presence. 

©e'gentoärtig, adv., at present 
2)aS ©efatt', —eS, Contents, salary. 



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450 



VOCABÜLABY. 



©etyemY, adj., secret [secret. 

2)a$ Qbttyxm'nif}, — &, pL — e, 
©e'fcn, v. tr. intr., to go. 
©e&or'd^en, r. intr., to obey. 

@e$or*fam, <m#., obedient. 
©efyä'ren, v. w/r., to bclong. 
2)er ©rift, — e«, p/.— er, spirit, ghost 

„ ©etj, — e$, avarice. 
©dang'eit, v. intr., to attain to. 
©d&u'fig, <w#., carrent, flaent. 
©elb, «#., yellow. 

©el6roty, a<#., orange-colored. 
2>a« ©elb, — e«, />/. — er, money. 
©efe&rf , <u#., learned. 
©ele'gen, <w#., convenient, important 
. 2>te ©ele'gen&ett, — , />/. — en, op- 

portunity. 
2>a« ©elet'fe, — «, pl. — n, track. 
(Sdina' en, 0. tr. ta/r. (t/wpm.), to snc- 

ceed. [valne. 

©el'ten, v. tr. w/r. (imperi.*), to be of 

©eltenb machen, to cany out. 
2>a$ ©cmäTbe, — 8, p/. — , painting. 
©entern', a<(;., common. [tnaL 

©emeuTfom, «#., common, mu- 
2>te ©em'fe, — , p/. — n, chamois. 
5)a« ©emü'fe, — 8, pl. — , vegetables, 

greens. 
„ ©cmfity', — eS, p/. —er, mind, 

Soul, heart, nature, mood. 
3)ie ©cmüt$$'fHmmirag, — , temper, 

disposition of mind. [mentioned. 
©enemnf (par/.of nra'nett), <u#.,above 
©enau',<u#., exaet, close. 
2>er ©eneral', — 9,pl. — e, general. 
©ene'fen, v. ir. intr., to recover. 
©eme'ßen, v. ir. tr., to enjoy. 
©emtg',pr<ra. indecLanä adv., enongh. 
©era'be, adj., straight, direct ; adv., 

exactly, just. 
@ered)t',a<#., jnst, righteous. [tence. 
3)a« ©ericfyt', — e«,p£ — e, court, sen 
©CTO, adv., willingly, gladiy, cheer- 

fully ; flcro (jetben, to like. 
S5cr ©efemg', — e«,p/. ©efang'c, song. 



2)a« ©ef<$5ff , — &, pl. — e . basineas, 

oecupation, trade, 
©eföe'fcn, v. ir. tr. (witper*.), to hap- 

pen, take place, oeenr. 
2)ie ©efdjicyte, — , pl. —n, history, 

story. [historian. 

2>er ©ef äjidftä' f Treiber,— «.pJ.—, 
3)a« ©ef(i(>eitf\ — **r W- — *r uresent. 

©ef$le$f \ — eS, p/. —er sex, 

gender, race. 
2>er ©efömacf, — 3, taste. 
2)o« ©eftyrei', — e«, clamor, cry Hery. 
„ ©efc^^— eS^/l-^gunjärtil- 
lDie ©eföwi'jter (p/.), brothere and 

sisters. 
„ ©efett'fctyaft,— ,p/.— en,society. 
5)o8 ©efefc', — t», pl. — e, law. 

©efeft'gebenb, adj., legislative. 

•2)er ©efcfe'0Cber f — «, lawg?v«r. 
„ ©eftfy,— t»,pL— er, sight, face. 
w ©ef^enff,— eS,p/.—er r spectre. 
2Hc ©eftatf , — , pl. — en f form, shape, 

figore, ßtatnre. [formation. 

2)tc ©eßaTtuitfl, — , moalding, 
©ejlat'ten, v. tr., to allow. 
©e'Pern, adv., yesterday. 

©«'ftnß/ «&'•» of yesterday. 
©efunb', adj., healthy. 

2)ie ©efunb'^eit, — , health. 
©etoa^r', adj., aware of, preeeiving. 
©etoS^ren, v. tr., to procure, give. 
2>te ©ett>alf f —, power, violence. 

©etöalf {am, adj. ,violent, forcibJc. 
©e»anbf (part. from wenben), adj., 

quick, active, dexterous. 
©etoar'tig, adj., waiting, expecting. 
2)a$ ©ttöaj'fer, — *, pl. — , waters, 

flood. 
2)a« ©en>ic^t', — e«, pl. — e, weigbt. 
©ettJin'nen, ü. t>. /r., to win, gain. 
©etöiß', adj., sure, certain. 

2)a$ ©etoirfen, — S, conscience. 

©etmf'fentyaft, adj., conscientious. 
2)a« ©eiuif ter, — «, />/. — , tempest, 

storm, thunder-storm. 



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VOCABULARY. 



451 



©etoöfy'nen, v. tr. , to accustom ; v.refl. , 

to accustom one's seif. 

3)ic ©eroo^n'^ett, — , custom. 

©eto&bn'lid?, o^"., customary. 
3)aS ©etoßlbe, —«,/>/.— n, arch, vault 
2>ie ©t$t, — f gout 
©tc'jjeit, r. tr. tr., to pour. 
2>ie ©tft, — , />/. — cn, gift, dowry. 
*£)a$ ©ift, — , pl. — c, poison. 
2)er ©ty'fef, —$,/>/. — ,summit, peak, 
©län'jen, v. tr. intr., to glitter, sbine. 
2>a« ©laö, — e«, j>/. ©lä'fer, glass. 

2)te ©fctf'fdjeibe,— ,pane of glass. 
t , ®(a$'fd)erbe, — e, broken glass 
©er ©fou'be, — n«,) - ... , r , 

©laufen, r. fr., to believe. 
©tei$, a<#., like, equal, level, even; 

adv., immediately. 

2)er ©leidj'muty, equanimity. 

2>a« ©[ct^'mß,— t9,pL— e,like- 
ness, comparison, allegory. 

©feicfy'fam, conj., as it were, as if. 
S)ic QfaTe, — , i>/. — n, belL 
©for/reity, «#., glorious. 
2)a$ ©Ificf , — M, fortirae, good luck. 

©lü<fü<$, a<#., fortunate, happy. 

2)er ©lücf' tounfety, congratulation 
2)tc ©na'bc, — , pl. —n, grace, fevor. 

©nä'btg, adj., gracions, mercifaL 
S)a« ©olb, — e«, gold. 

©ol'ben, a<#., golden, of gold. 
©o't$tf(ty,a<#., Gothic. 
3)er ©Ott, — e«, ;>£ ©öfter, God. 

2)er ©of tc$btenfl, divine worship. 
©ra'ben, v . t>. *r. , to dig. [grave. 

2)a$ ©rab, — e«, i>/. ©rä'ber, 

25er ©ra