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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



THE 

"AGFA"-BOOK 



OF 



Photographic Formulae 



Edited by 

GEORGE L. BARROWS 



Published by 

BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 

213-215 Water St., New York 
1910 



r/e 



S" 



COPYRIGHT 
1910 

BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 



Foreword 

The object of this book is to give a clear and definite 
explanation of the various "Agfa" developing agents, thereby 
showing the most advantageous developer to use in keeping 
with the results you are after. 

The successful working of any formula is its careful 
preparation, and more especially its adaptability to the make 
of plate, film or paper used. 

We have, therefore, endeavored to secure the formula 
first hand from the various makers of plates, films and papers, 
and compiled these for your convenience. 



221036 



Introduction 



We sometimes receive complaints from our customers to 
the effect that a plate is said to be defective ; which, however, 
on close examination generally turns out to be developed im- 
properly. We therefore consider it a necessity to preface the 
articles on developers with a few hints on the real causes and 
on the avoidance of these conditions. 

Pinholes or minute white specks are very common, and 
are caused by small particles of dust settling on the plate or 
film while it is being handled in loading the plate holder, mak- 
ing the exposure, or developing, the developer thereby being 
prevented from properly acting upon the sensitive film. To 
avoid pinholes, carefully dust the plates, both when loading 
and just before developing, using either a camel's hair brush or 
a soft velvet covered pad, both of which must be kept clean and 
dry. The camera should also be frequently and carefully 
dusted inside. 

Small white spots of clear gelatine are due to air bubbles 
that cling to the surface of the film when in the developer, 
and prevent the solution from acting upon that particular 
place. They should be instantly removed with the finger or 
a soft brush by rubbing lightly the plate or film. Bubbles will 
not appear if the following rule is observed: Place the plate 
in an empty tray and tilt the same slightly away from the 
body; take the graduate in the right hand and pour the de- 
veloper upon the plate, moving the graduate from side to side. 
Another frequent cause of air bubbles is soaking the plate in 
water before development or by pouring on the developer un- 
evenly. A stale developer will generally cause trouble in this 
respect. Care should be taken not to use water for diluting 
a solution that has been drawn straight from a tap ; it should 
be allowed to stand a while,: 



6 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

Streaks, unequal density, etc., are caused by not allow- 
ing the developer to act evenly all over the plate, leaving parts 
of the plate uncovered by the solution while developing, and by 
failing to cover the entire plate quickly enough. The remedy 
is to pour the developer as described above, using enough solu- 
tion to immerse the plate, and then to rock the tray, keeping 
the solution in motion until the plate is developed sufficiently. 
This trouble usually occurs with a powerful, energetic devel- 
oper and a fully exposed plate. 

Now and then frilling of the film at the edges will occur. 
This is due to the prolonged use of too warm a solution or to 
a difference in the temperatures of developer, washing water 
and fixing bath, all of which must be used at a temperature of 
65 degrees Fahrenheit. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 




"Agfa "-Metol 



"Agfa"-Metol is a pure white crystalline 
powder and one of the most energetic of mod- 
ern developers, and it produces negatives of 
great softness. It is peculiar in that it first 
brings out all the detail and then gradually 
builds up the density in perfect gradation. 
"Agfa"-Metol is particularly useful in the de- 
velopment of portrait or instantaneous work, 
as it works up the image so rapidly. For this reason one 
should be careful not to under-develop the negative as it will 
lose some of its density in the fixing solution. 

Due to its tendency to render soft negatives, full of detail 
"Agfa"-Metol is often used in combination with "Agfa"-Hy- 
drokinone or "Agfa"-Pyro, which tend to give more density 
to the image. 

While it is advisable to follow the formula recommended 
by the manufacturers of the plates and papers that you are 
using, and which are found in another part of this book, the 
following solutions are recommended for general use: 

CONCENTRATED SINGLE SOLUTION. 
Dissolve First. 

"Agfa"-Metol ^ oz. 

Water 35 ozs. 

And then add in succession 

Sodium Sulphite, crystals 5 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 2% ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 30 grs. 



8 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

For use, this solution, which keeps well, has usually to 
be diluted with three times its volume of water. 

If thin negatives are desired, take less Potassium Car- 
bonate (for example, only 230 grains), and also less or even 
no Potassium Bromide. 

If it be wished to have greater contrasts in the negative, 
the developer is employed in a more concentrated solution, to 
which more Potassium Bromide is added. For example, 77 to 
150 grains of Potassium Bromide are used in preparing the 
solution, which is diluted with only once or twice its volume of 
water. 

SEPARATE SOLUTIONS. 

Recommended to those who prefer to work with this 
method. 

1. Dissolve First 

"Agfa"-Metol % oz. 

Distilled Water 35 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite, crystals 5 ozs. 

And shake until dissolved. 

2. Dissolve 

Sodium Carbonate, crystals 5 ozs. 

Distilled Water 70 ozs. 

For use, mix, for example, No. I 1 part with No. II 2 
parts. 

According to the character of the plates, exposure, etc., 
add to every 3 ozs. of the prepared solution 5 to 10 drops of 
a solution of Potassium Bromide (1 to 10). 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDROKINONE. 
(ONE SOLUTION). 

Has similar powers to "Agfa"-Pyro-Metol ; but as the re- 
sulting negative is of a more actinic quality, development 
needs to be fully carried out. This combination is the best 
developer for bromide and gaslight papers, and, perhaps, the 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 9 

most popular on account of its adaptability to exposures of all 
descriptions. 

Water 44 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 90 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite, crystals '. \ l / 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 1 A oz. 

Potassuim Bromide 15 grs. 

Dissolve "Agfa"-Metol first, then add the Sodium Sul- 
phite, adding "Agfa"-Hydrokinone and carbonate last. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDROKINONE. 

This is a favorite all-round developer for Plates, Lanterns, 
Slides, Bromide and Gaslight Papers : 

A As a single solution. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 12*/ 2 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 4 grs. 

After thorough solution add 

Soda Sulphite, crystals 62 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 25 grs. 

Potassium Bromide \ l /\ grs. 

This solution for normal development should be diluted 
with an equal amount of water. 

B In two solutions. 

A Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 4 grs. 

Soda Sulphite, crystals 80 grs. 

Soda Phosphate 8 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 7 grs. 

Hypo Solution, 10% 4 min. 

B Water 20 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 2 ozs. 

For use take equal parts of A and B, 



10 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

C For Collodion Plates. 

A Water 25 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 60 grs. 

B Water 25 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 4 ozs. 3 drms. 

C 95% Alcohol \2y 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 1J4 ozs. 

D Water 12 ozs. 

Ammon. Bromide 1J4 zs - 

For use in half-tone work, especially in color process, mix 
as follows: 

A 200 minims, drams or parts. 

B 200 minims, drams or parts. 

C 10 minims, drams or parts. 

D 8 minims, drams or parts. 

Water 5 minims, drams or parts. 

For photo gelatine and line work solutions C and D may 
be doubled. The developer temperature must be 15 degrees 
Cel. (65 Fahr.) ; development will then be complete in from 
30 to 50 seconds. 

The development of Bromide and Gaslight Papers may 
be performed with the same solutions as given for plates. 
"Agfa"-Metol alone gives gray-black tones; "Agfa"-Metol- 
Hydrokinone blue-black tones. 

"AGFA"-METOL-PYRO DEVELOPER. 

This developer gives very strong and dense negatives : 

Solution 1. 

Water 25 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol ^ oz. 

Pot. Metabisulphite 288 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro # oz. 

Solution 2. 

Water 25 ozs. 

Soda Carb 5 ozs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 11 

The heaviest density is obtained by taking 1 part of I and 
2 parts of II and adding up to 5 drops of 10 per cent. Potas- 
sium Bromide solution to every 2V* ozs. of solution. 

By using less soda solution softer negatives are obtained. 

PRICE LIST: 

1 ounce bottle $ .75 

4 ounce bottle 2.75 

8 ounce bottle 5.25 

16 ounce bottle 10.00 

32 ounce bottle 19.75 



12 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 




"Agfa "-Amidol 



"Afga"-Amidol comes in the form of fine, 
shiny crystals which sometimes assume a gray- 
ish tint, but this does not have the slightest 
effect on its developing properties. 

It is a quick and powerful developer, gives 
. excellent detail, and is easily soluble in water; 
also differs from all others in that it acts in 
the presence of sodium sulphite without the addition of any 
alkali, which is a decided advantage, as strong solutions may 
be used for prolonged development without ill-effects to the 
emulsion or the fingers. 

"Agfa" -Amidol is also excellent for lantern slides, bro- 
mide and gaslight papers, rendering rich blue-black tones with- 
out fog, and being a single solution developer its simplicity 
and activeness are worthy of consideration when a large num- 
ber of prints are to be made. 

"Agfa"-Amidol in solution deteriorates rapidly and should 
be mixed just before use, but as it is readily soluble it can be 
prepared in a few moments. The following method will ob- 
viate the difficulty of rapid deterioration which is due to the 
sulphite in the solution. 

Make a stock solution as follows: 

Water 25 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite Crystals 1*4 ozs. 

Immediately before development add 3 grains of "Agfa"-Amidol 
to every 1% ounces of above solution. In case of over-exposure, add 
to every ounce of solution 40 to 60 drops of a 10 per cent, solution 
of Potassium Bromide. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 13 

For Bromide enlargements prepare the following stock 
solution : 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 20 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 15 grs. 

Water 40 ozs. 

Just before use add to each ounce of stock solution "Agfa"-Amidol 
(dry) 3 grains. 

Give a full exposure. 

It is necessary to observe the following precautions when 
using "Agfa"- Amidol. 

1. Potassium Bromide solution (10 per cent.) has a 
clearing effect when used in small quantities, and only when 
used freely does it have a restraining effect. 

2. Use only the very freshest Sodium Sulphite, and one 
that is free from the white powdery oxidization. 

3. Develop a little more than appears necessary, as the 
negative looses density slightly in the fixing bath. 

4. Diluted solutions do not keep, although they give no 
visible sign of loss of power and do not discolor. The concen- 
trated solution cannot be considered of good keeping prop- 
erties. 

For Gaslight Papers, use the first formula ; the addition 
of Bromide gives an olive-green black tone; without Bromide 
the tones are blue-black. 

PRICE LIST. 

1 ounce bottle $ 75 

4 ounce bottle. 2.75 

8 ounce bottle 5.25 

16 ounce bottle 10.00 

32 ounce bottle 19.75 




14 THE "AGFA" BOOK 



Agfa"-Eikonogen 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen is supplied in powder 
form. It is suitable to all methods of devel- 
opment, giving negatives of harmonious de- 
tail, and is, therefore, much favored by many 
of the leading workers. 

It has the special quality of producing nega- 
tives full of detail and softness, even when de- 
velopment has been forced. This characteristic indicates that 
"Agfa"-Eikonogen is invaluable for snapshots, flashlights and 
for conditions when there has been great contrast in the light- 
ing of the subject. 

An admirable developer is produced by mixing "Agfa"- 
Eikonogen with "Agfa"-Hydrokinone, uniting as it does, the 
softness and detail of the former with the density-giving power 
of the latter. A good formula is given later on. 

There is no developer on the market more powerful or more 
capable of producing the best results than "Agfa"-Eikonogen. 
It is invaluable as a medium for developing under-exposures, 
bringing out all detail without harsh contrasts. 

Cold solutions give less density than those used at the cor- 
rect temperature, which is 65 degrees Fahr. Should the so- 
lution be warmer the density is very much intensified. This 
characteristic of "Agfa"-Eikonogen is demonstrated when dry 
plates that produce heavy contrasts are used. 

Solutions which have been repeatedly used assume gradu- 
ally a darker tone, but their strength reduces very slowly. 

FORMULA FOR DEVELOPMENT. 
/. Concentrated Single Solution. 

Sodium Sulphite, crystals -3 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate, pure l l / ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen ^A oz. 

Boiling water 25 ozs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK IS 

While still warm the mixture is put into bottles which must 
be tightly corked. 

Provided that boiling water and perfectly fresh Sodium 
Sulphite are used, this solution will keep in good condition for 
an indefinite time. 

If the developer proves to be too strong, it should be di- 
luted with water as found necessary. 

If especially soft negatives be desired, only about one-half 
of the usual quantity of Potassium Carbonate should be used in 
preparing solution. 

If over-exposure be suspected, development should be 
commenced with a fresh, undiluted solution, an abundance of 
a 10 per cent, solution of Potassium Bromide being added, or, 
what is better still, an old developing solution, which has beeri 
repeatedly used, should be employed. 

II. Separate Solutions. 

This formula is recommended to those who prefer to pre- 
pare the developing solution only shortly before using it: 

Solution A. 
Sodium Sulphite Crystals ......... 2 ozs 

" 



, 

Agfa"-Eikonogen .............................. y 2 Qz 

Solution B. 
Sodium Carbonate, crystals ............... 1*4 ozs 

Water ..................................... ...".10 ozs'. 

For use, 3 parts of Solution A are mixed with 1 part of 

Solution B. 

For use in developing Bromide Papers, Formula I or 
Formula II, as employed for dry plates, should be further di- 
luted with 2 or 3 times its volume of water. Under certain 
circumstances, however, for particularly brilliant pictures, these 
developers are used undiluted, a few drops of a 10 per cent, so- 
lution of Potassium Bromide being added. 



16 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

We recommend, also, the following combined developer : 
"AGFA"-EIKO-PYRO. 

A Water, Distilled 16 ozs. 

Soda Sulphite, crystals 1 1 A ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 54 oz- 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid Y* oz. 

Sulphuric Acid 5 drops. 

B Water, Distilled 16 ozs. 

Soda Carbonate, crystals 2 ozs. 

For use, take Solution A, 1 part; Solution B, 1 part; 
water, 6 to 8 parts. 

PRICE LIST. 

1 ounce can $ .37 

4 ounce can 1.20 

8 ounce can 2.10 

16 ounce can 3.95 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 



IT 




"Agfa "-Glycln 



"Agfa"-Glycin comes in flake crystals and 
is soluble in Sulphite Sodium solution, but 
more so in Carbonic Alkali. 

"Agfa"-Glycin has two characteristics 
which make it valuable as a developer: it de- 
velops very clearly, and its action is under 
easy control. It also has the further advan- 
tage of giving particularly "clean" negatives, 
and is for that reason a very popular devel- 
oper for black-and-white work, being used ex- 
tensively by makers of half-tone and other reproduction blocks. 
It gives good density with a beautiful transparency in the 
shadows, without loss of detail and without any possibility of 
stain. The resultant negative is very fine grained, for which 
reason "Agfa"-Glycin is especially recommended for the de- 
velopment of photo-micrographs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin belongs to the slow-working class of devel- 
opers and is, therefore, peculiarly suitable for tank develop- 
ment and for uncertain exposures. 

FORMULA NO. I. 

Solution A. 

Distilled Water 25 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 2y 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin ^ oz. 

Dissolve with gentle heat. 

Solution B. 

Distilled Water 12^ ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 2 1 /* ozs. 



18 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

For correctly exposed plates use 

Solution A 2y 2 ozs. 

Solution B 1J4 ozs. 

Water 2^ ozs. 

To obtain less contrast use 

Solution A 1 oz. 

Solution B 1J4 ozs. 

Water 4 ozs. 

To obtain more contrast use 

Solution A 3^4 ozs. 

Solution B \ l /4, ozs. 

Water \Y 4 oz. 

If over-exposure is feared add to any of these mixtures a 

few drops of 10 per cent, solution of Potassium Bromide. 



FORMULA FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 30 grs. 

Water 18 to 38 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite, crystal 30 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 225 grs. 

For normal or under-exposed plates take the smaller 
quantity of water. For over-exposures take the full quantity. 

Time l / 2 to I hour. 



"AGFA"-GLYCIN TANK FORMULA. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 360 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 360 grs. 

Water 35 ozs. 

For use take 1 part of above solution to 3 parts water. 
Time, 20 minutes. Temperature, 65-70 degrees. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 



"AGFA"-GLYCIN-METOL FORMULA. 

Hot Water 96 ozs.. 

"Agfa"-Metol 40 grs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 20 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) .' 75 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate (Anhyd) 300 grs. 

Time, 45 minutes. Temperature, 65 degrees. 



PRICE LIST. 

1 ounce bottle $ 75 

4 ounce bottle 2.75 

8 ounce bottle 5.25 

16 ounce bottle 10.00 

32 ounce bottle.. 19.75 



20 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 




Afifa"-Ortol 



"Agfa"-Ortol comes as a coarse crystal 
powder, very soluble in water and in its dry 
state, guarded from light, it keeps unchanged 
for an indefinite period. 

"Agfa"-Ortol is a quick and powerful de- 
veloper, giving negatives closely resembling 
those produced by "Agfa"-Pyro; but, as the 
deposit is of a more actinic nature, develop- 
ments need to be carried further than is apparently sufficient 
to obtain a clean printing negative. 

"Agfa"-Ortol produces excellent gradations and ample 
density; it may be used over and over again, and apparently 
does not lose its power as soon as some other developers. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL SODA FORMULA. 
Solution 1. 

Water, Cold 10 ozs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 35 grs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 70 grs. 

Solution 2. 

Water 10 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate, crystals \V\ ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite, crystals 124 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 5-10 grs. 

"Agfa"-0rtol Potash. For those who prefer a solution 
containing Potash, replace the Sodium Carbonate in Solution 
No. 2 with half the quantity of Potassium Carbonate (24 oz.). 

For rapid development take one part of Solution No. 1, 
and one part of Solution No. 2. 

For slow and softer development take one part of Solution 
No. 1, one part of Solution No. 2, and one part of water. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 21 

"Agfa"-Ortol gives clear negatives of great density, hav- 
ing a fine brownish-black color. The picture appears in about 
20 seconds, and is completely developed at the end of four or 
five minutes. 

If still more rapid development, more density and a 
browner color be desired, the Sodium Sulphite may be omitted 
in preparing Solution No. 2. 

By modifying the proportions of Solutions Nos. 1 and 2, 
the developer may be adapted to every make of plate. If more 
of Solution No. 1 and less of Solution No. 2 be taken, harder 
negatives will be obtained ; if less of No. 1 and more of No. 2 
be taken, softer negatives will be obtained. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent, solution, has a very great 
retarding effect on the developer's action, whereas Caustic 
Potash, 10 per cent, solution, acts as an energetic accelerates 

The same developing bath may be used several times. It 
keeps for a long period in well-stopped bottles, if Solution No. 
2 be made up with Sodium Sulphite, according to the formula. 
If the Sodium Sulphite be omitted, the devolper, after having 
been once used, remains good only for the same day. 

Developing solutions of "Agfa"-Ortol which have turned 
brown are exhausted and should not be used. 

FORMULA FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 10 grs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 65 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 65 grs. 

Time, 30 minutes. Temperature, 65 degrees. 

PRICE LIST. 

1 ounce bottle 75 

4 ounce bottle ' $2.75 

8 ounce bottle 5.25 

16 ounce bottle 10.00 

32 ounce bottle.. . 19.75 



22 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 



"Agfa "- 
Pyro^allic Acid 

(Pyo) 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid comes either re- 
sublimed or in the crystal form. Both are 
easily soluble in water, giving a clear 
solution. 

"AGFA"-PYRO-SODA FORMULA. 
Solution A. 

Distilled Water 17% ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 3J4 ozs. 

"Agfa"- Pyro 215 grs. 

Sulphuric Acid 5 to 10 drops 

Solution B. 

Sodium Carbonate 770 grs. 

Distilled Water tf l A ozs. 

For use, take equal parts A, B and water. 
Both solutions keep well in stopped bottles. 

"AGFA"-PYRO POTASH FORMULA. 
Solution A. 

Distilled Water 3 l / 2 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 154 grs. 

Sulphuric Acid 3 to 8 drops 

Solution B. 

Distilled Water 7 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 3 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oft. 

For use take equal parts A, B and water. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 23 

"AGFA"-PYRO METOL FORMULA. 
(This developer gives very strong negatives.) 
Solution 1. 

Water, Distilled , 25 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol K oz. 

Potass. Metabisulphite 288 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro % oz. 

Solution 2 

Water, Distilled 25 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate 5 ozs. 

The greatest density is obtained by using one part No. 1 
and two parts No. 2, adding five drops of 10% solution Potas- 
sium Bromide to every 2y 2 ozs. of solution. 

By using less solution No. 2 softer negatives are obtained. 

FORMULA FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 
Solution 1. 

Water, Distilled 28 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Sulphuric Acid 20 drops 

Solution No. 2. 

Water, Distilled 28 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd.) 3 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd.) 3 ozs. 

For use take 1 oz. solution No. 1, 1 oz. solution No. 2 and 
24 oz. water ; time, 20 minutes ; temperature, 65 degrees. 

PRICE LIST. 

1 ounce can $ .25 

4 ounce can 70 

8 ounce can 1.30 

16 ounce can 2.50 

5 pound can 10.00 

10 pound can 



2+ THE "AGFA" BOOK 

A ^i^ 99 




Asia 
Hydrokinone 



(Quinol) 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone comes in fine crystal- 
line needles, and is capable of giving great den- 
sity and of being easily restrained. 

It is recommended for use in combination 
with Potassium Carbonate. Owing to its giv- 
ing great density "Agfa"-Hydrokinone is gen- 
erally used in combination with a softer working developer 
such as "Agfa"-Metol or "Agfa"-Eikonogen. The following 
formula we recommend for a single Hydrokinone developer 
and it is of good keeping qualities : 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water, Distilled 15 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone l /2 oz. 

Sodium Sulphite 4 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 7 ozs. 

For use dilute with four to six parts of water. 
Potassium Bromide has a great restraining power in con- 
nection with this developer and is a preventive of fog. This 
solution should be used at a temperature of about 65 degrees, 
a colder solution working very slowly. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone is recommended in combination with 
"Agfa"-Metol and "Agfa"-Eikonogen, formulae for which 
will be found under "Agfa"-Metol and "Agfa"-Eikonogen 
headings. 

PRICE LIST. 
1 ounce can 17 

4 ounce can 45 

8 ounce can 80 

16 ounce can 1 50 

5 pound can 6.25 

10 pound can 10.00 



'Agfa" 
Photographic Specialties 



26 THE "AGFA" BOOK 




"A#a"-Rodinal 



(Patented) 

"Agfa"-Rodinal is a highly concentrated 
developing solution which must be diluted with 
anywhere from 10 to 40 parts of tap or spring 
water, according to the exposure given and 
the make of plate. 

As "Agfa"-Rodinal contains only traces of 
carbonic alkalies, the use of distilled water for 
dilution is not necessary. In connection with 
the use of "Agfa"-Rodinal the following re- 
marks should be carefully noted : 
In addition to neutral sulphite and water "Agfa"-Rodinal 
contains only an alkaline salt of Paramidophenol, but no excess 
of caustic alkali. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal has excellent keeping qualities. This 
applies not only to full bottles but also to those that have been 
opened and partly used. Although it has been observed that 
in opened bottles "Agfa"-Rodinal becomes darker in color, 
still this change produces no noticeable effects upon the work- 
ing properties of the solution. As is the case with all other 
dilute alkaline developers "Agfa"-Rodinal when prepared for 
use by the addition of a large proportion of water, naturally 
does not keep quite so well. After standing some days the 
solution assumes a reddish tinge and gradually loses in devel- 
oping power. If it be desired to keep "Agfa"-Rodinal in a 
diluted condition for a long time, add instead of water a solu- 
tion containing 5 to 10 per cent, of pure sodium sulphite (crys- 
tals) or half the quantity of dry or granular salt. 

Owing to the highly concentrated character of "Agfa"- 
Rodinal small quantities of a white salt are deposited, espe- 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 27 



cially in opened bottles, when the preparation is kept for a 
long time. This deposit does not affect the developer in any 
waj. It is formed by the action of the air on the sulphite 
added to preserve the Paramidophenol salt, to which addition 
the keeping quality of "Agfa"-Rodinal is due. In no way is 
the energy of the developer affected thereby. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal is adaptable to every kind of dry plate on 
the market, rapid or slow, and of every make. It is hardly 
necessary to add that, with the same methods of workings, dif- 
ferent makes of plates will not give equally good results. When 
' diluted in the proportion of from 1 in 10 to 1 in 20 "Agfa"- 
Rodinal develops very quickly and produces very strong con- 
trasts. When further diluted in the proportion of from 1 in 
30 to 1 in 40 the development is slower and softer contrasts 
are obtained. From this it follows that plates which have a 
tendency to strong contrasts must be treated with a more dilute 
solution of "Agfa"-Rodinal, while for other kinds a more con- 
centrated solution should be used. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal is therfore more handy to use than any 
other developer ; it produces perfect negatives, clear, clean and 
of perfect gradation in the lights, halftones and shadows. 

TO DEVELOP. 

In case of normal exposure develop with 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 part 

Water 20 parts 

In case of over-exposure, with 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 part 

Water 10 to 20 parts 

adding an ample quantity of a solution of potassium bromide 
(1 in 10) and 

In case of under exposure use 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 part 

Water 20 to 40 parts 

The most advantageous temperature for the developing 
solution is 15 degrees C. (equal to 59 degrees F.). 



28 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

If it be desired to work more slowly with a strong solution 
of "Agfa"-Rodinal (1 in 10 to 1 in 20) an abundance of a 10 
per cent, solution of potassium bromide must be added. This 
addition lengthens the time of development without influencing 
the character of the negative as much as in the case of the other 
alkaline developers. 

Treated with a solution of "Agfa"-Rodinal (1 in 20) an 
over exposed plate gives a negative rich in detail but thin. Over 
exposed plates are advantageously treated with a strong solu- 
tion of "Agfa"-Rodinal (1 in 20, to 1 in 10) to which a con- 
siderable quantity of a 10 per cent, solution of potassium bro- 
mide has been added. In this way it is possible to obtain even 
from over exposed plates negatives showing the finest details 
and rich in contrasts. 

In case of under exposure a strong solution of "Agfa"- 
Rodinal will produce too much contrast. The high lights will 
disappear while the shadow details are coming up. Under 
exposed plates are therefore best developed with a more dilute 
solution of "Agfa"-Rodinal (1 in 30, to 1 in 40). The devel- 
opment takes somewhat longer, but on the other hand, the 
reproduction of the lighting of the subject is perfect and more 
harmonious. Should the negative be somewhat thin it may be 
strengthened by means of an intensifier. "Agfa"-Intensifier is 
especially recommended in this case. 

The fact that a concentrated solution of "Agfa"-Rodinal 
produces more contrast, while a dilute solution works more 
softly, affords a valuable means of correcting any shortcom- 
ings in the lighting of the subject. Negatives taken in a vivid 
light for example, street views by sunlight are usually best 
treated with a weak solution of "Agfa"-Rodinal (1 in 25, to 
1 in 35), while views taken in diffused light for example, 
landscapes in cloudy weather should be treated with a con- 
centrated solution (1 in 20, to 1 in 15), to which a little potas- 
sium bromide should be added. 

It follows from the foregoing that it is well to begin de- 
velopment with "Agfa"-Rodinal diluted in the proportion of 1 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 29 

in 30 and then if necessary to correct by adding drop by drop 
a solution composed as follows : 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Potassium Bromide, Crystals 1/3 oz. 

Water .'< 1 oz. 

Negatives developed with Rodinal seem to lose density in 
the fixing bath. It is therefore necessary to carry development 
a little further than is required. 



"AGFA'VRODINAL 
FOR BROMIDE AND GASLIGHT PAPERS. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal is eminently suitable for the development 
of bromide papers on account of its economy in use, efficiency 
and cleanliness. It produces an image with clear high lights 
and full detail, with soft and pleasing blacks, and stain is an 
impossibility. 

For ordinary bromide papers take 

"Agfa'VRodinal 1 part 

Water Up to 100 parts 

The resultant tone varies from a pleasing blue-black to a 
rich grey-black and is dependent upon the proportions of the 
solution, strong solutions giving a blue-black color, while dilute 
solutions produce more of a grey tone. On the other hand, 
the strength of the solution must depend very much on the 
exposure, so that it is impossible to give a correct formula, but 
every worker can easily learn from experience what exposures 
require certain strengths of developer to produce a certain 
color. There is some advantage in developing with a weak 
solution in that a strong solution may be applied locally to 
bring out certain parts of a picture which otherwise would not 
be fully developed or prominent enough by the time the remain- 
der of the picture is finished. 



& THE "AGFA" BOOK: 

For developing papers take 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 part 

Water 15-20 parts. 

Add 10 per cent, potassium bromide solution, 3 drops per ounce 
of solution. 



"AGFA"-RODINAL 
FOR LANTERN SLIDES AND TRANSPARENCIES. 

The use of "Agfa"-Rodinal for the production of lantern 
slides is highly recommended because of the vivid detail, the 
clearness of the shadows and cleanliness of the high lights. The 
formula recommended is 1 part of "Agfa"-Rodinal to 30 parts 
of water, without the addition of bromide. Bear in mind when 
developing the characteristic loss of strength in an "Agfa"- 
Rodinal-developed image which occurs in the fixing bath, the 
final color is a rich blue-black and is very transparent, produc- 
ing ideal slides for projection. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL HYDROKINONE. 

The use of "Agfa"-Rodinal Hydrokinone is advocated by 
many leading and experienced workers, as it combines the 
power and detail obtainable with "Agfa"-Rodinal together 
with the density given by "Agfa"-Hydrokinone. It is admir- 
ably calculated for snapshots, and highly recommended for 
portrait work when used in the quantities indicated below : 

A Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Citric Acid 5 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 1 drm. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 drms. 

B Potassium Carbonate 2 ozs. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 



TH "AGFA" BOOK & 

For soft negatives (portraits, etc.) take equal parts of A, 
B and water. For brilliant negatives take equal parts of A 
and B. 

For detail, increase the quantity of B. For density, in- 
crease the qnantity of A. 



PRICE LIST. 

3 ounce bottle $ .60 

8 ounce bottle 1.10 

16 ounce bottle.. . 2.00 




THE "AGFA" BOOK 



Agfa"-Intensifier 

"Agfa"-Intensifier is introduced to replace 
the ordinary mode of intensification with Mer- 
cury or Uranium, and presents the following 
advantages : 

Intensification is absolutely complete in one 
manipulation, without the troublesome second- 
ary blackening with Ammonia, Cyanide of Sil- 
ver or Soda Sulphite, which is necessary when 
the mercury process is employed, the image, when intensified 
with "Agfa"-Intensifier, assuming the desired depth at once. 

"Agfa"-Intensifier gives no unstable reddish-brown stain, 
which occurs with Uranium, making it difficult to decide when 
the necessary degree of intensification has arrived. 

"Agfa"-Intensifier is a clear liquid of unlimited durability, 
which is simply diluted with water to be ready for immediate 
use. 

"Agfa"-Intensifier is, therefore, an ideal substitute for 
former intensifiers. 

DIRECTIONS FOR USE. 

Dilute 1 part of "Agfa"-Intensifier with 10 parts of water 
and immerse the negative to be intensified in the dilute solution, 
leaving it in this bath until the necessary intensification is 
arrived at, which can be judged with facility. 

Intensification commences immediately, and at the expi- 
ration of two minutes is well advanced, and in many cases 
is quite sufficient. 

The maximum intensification is complete in the first ten 
minutes. If the plate be left in the solution for a longer period 






THE "AGFA" BOOK 33 



the image assumes a whitish-grey tone and is rendered more 
opaque. 

In this case the plate should be well washed and then 
developed with any weak developer, when a very strongly 
intensified image will result. 

The intensified negative is then well washed and dried. 
All traces of the intensifier may be removed, if necessary, by 
immersing the plate in a 1 per cent, solution of Soda Hypo- 
sulphite. 

"Agfa"-Intensifier can be used with great advantage in 
photo-mechanical reproduction for the intensification of half- 
tone negatives. 

With the "Agfa"-Intensifier there is no separate blacken- 
ing such as is required by the ordinary mercury intensifier. 
The manipulation is therefore not only simpler, but the effect 
. of intensification can be controlled more easily than in the 
separate blackening operations. 

The "Agfa"-Intensifier is to be preferred, because only 
one solution is required. Further, because the danger of a for- 
mation of fog does not exist. 

The blackening can be extended so far with the "Agfa"- 
Intensifier that mercuric bromide intensification is surpassed in 
this respect. 

PRICE LIST. 

2 ounce bottle $ .30 

4 ounce bottle 50 

8 ounce bottle 90 

16 ounce bottle . . 1.60 



34 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 




Agfa "-Rapid 
Fixing Salt 



This product, being dissolved 
in water, gives an acid fixing 
bath that surpasses all previous 
methods of fixing. 

1. It fixes much more quickly 
than any other bath containing 
an equal quantity of hypo. 

2. The period of fixation is not 
appreciably extended by repeated use of the bath. 

We have found by the most careful testing that a plate only 
requires about half the time in this new bath that is necessary 
in the baths generally in use (for instance, in the usual hypo 
bath of "1 in 4" strength). The absorption power of the prod- 
uct is much greater, thus, in 3^ ozs. 10 negatives only require 
one-fourth the time and 20 negatives only one-fifth the time 
taken by the ordinary fixing bath. 

On these grounds it is claimed that the "Agfa" Rapid 
Fixing Salt is a most welcome and useful addition to the pho- 
tographer's means of certain and rapid work, especially where, 
as in the case of travelling and in hot climates, it is desirable 
to get the negative through the various manipulations as 
quickly as possible. 

To Professional, Press and Process Workers it is a great 
boon, permitting much more rapid work and removing the old 
annoyance and danger of congestion of work at the fixing bath. 

Further, it is a wonderful help in the development of 
strips of roll film, and to amateurs, who can go on developing 
without the tiresome waiting for the last negative to fix. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 35 

Trials with this preparation show that a solution of 1 in 
5 gives an acid fixing bath that is much more rapid in action 
than a solution of hypo 1-4. Also remains much longer in use, 
and its superiority is more marked the more plates are fixed 
in it. 

The "Agfa"-Rapid Fixing Salt is an ammonia preparation 
and its solution 1-5 does not contain more thiosulphite than the 
usual hypo bath of 1-4, although the reduction of silver bromide 
is so much more rapid. 

PRICE LIST. 

No. 1 size $.15 

No. 2 size 25 



36 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 



66 




a "-Copper- 
Intensifier 



This is a new preparation which we have 
brought out after a most strenuous search for 
a preparation that would not contain the Mer- 
cury Salt. 

It has the following great advantages: Requires one 
manipulation, no secondary treatment, such as blackening, 
needed. It is put up in dry form in a container, the stopper of 
which serves as a measuring glass. The contents of this stop- 
per dissolved in 3^ ozs. of water gives an intensifier of beau- 
tiful working ability. 

PRICE LIST. 

50 grm. bottle $ .65 

Box of 10 tubes.. . .85 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 



37 




*'A^fa "-Reducer 

In order to simplify the manipulations of the 
photographic worker we have brought out a 
reducer in a permanent form under this title. 
The "Agfa"-Reducer claims notice on account 
of its convenience in enabling a "ready-for- 
use" solution, to be instantly prepared by sim- 
ply dissolving it in water : 1 part to 10 parts of water. 

The "Agfa"-Reducer is very permanent in its dry form 
and is packed in a most convenient manner, so that a solution 
can at once be prepared without scales and weights. 

The "Agfa"-Reducer, which is a novel and specially pre- 
pared combination of a ferric salt and an alkali thiosulphite, 
comes into the market as a granular yellowish-white powder 
contained in an orange-glass bottle fitted with a metal screw 
cap. Underneath the cap is a glass stopper, provided with an 
India-rubber washer, so that when the cap is properly screwed 
down an air-tight joint is made. The underside of the stopper 
is hollow and serves as a very convenient measure for the sub- 
stance. When filled level to the top it holds about 5 grms., 

the proper quantity of the sub- 
stance for making 50 centimetres 
of solution. 

In order to prepare the Reducer, 
the measure full of the solid is dis- 
solved in 50 cubic centimetres (1^4 
fluid ozs.) of soft or distilled water, 
the solution being easily and quickly 
made without heating, if the water 
is vigorously shaken for a short 
time. The quantity is ample for a 
quarter-plate or 5x4 negative, and in a really flat dish can be 
made to answer for a half-plate. But, if necessary, a larger 




38 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

quantity of the solution can, of course, be made up, the solid 
substance and the water being always kept in the same pro- 
portion, i. e., two measures of the solid for 100 cubic centi- 
metres (3^2 fluid ozs.) of water, and so on. 

The best plan is to turn the measured solid substance on 
to a piece of paper, and then gradually drop it into the water, 
which should be kept in motion. If the solid is thrown in a 
mass into still water it is liable to form a kind of cake, with the 
result that the process of dissolving takes considerably more 
time. 

The solution is poured over the negative, previously well 
soaked in water, and the dish is rocked gently. The reducing 
action begins almost immediately, proceeds regularly, and takes 
place in a remarkably even manner. The change is readily 
watched, and when reduction has gone far enough the negative 
is well rinsed with water, and afterwards well washed in the 
ordinary way, and the process is complete. Nothing could be 
more simple. The time required varies with the degree of 
reduction desired and also, to some extent, with the nature of 
the plate (harness of the gelatine, etc.), but, in ordinary 
cases of over-developed negatives five minutes is ususally suf- 
ficient. Lantern slides and diapositives can also be satisfactorily 
reduced in the same way. The color, if originally warm, be- 
comes somewhat colder after reduction. 

Bromide prints can likewise be successfully reduced by 
the "Agfa"-Reducer, though, if the desired reduction is slight, 
it is advisable to dilute the Reducer. Contrary to what happens 
in the case of diapositives, the color seems to be, as a rule, a 
little warmer after reduction. The process is very convenient 
in the case of slightly over-printed Bromide prints. 

Direct experiments made by printing on Print-Out Papers 
from the same negatives before and after reductions show that 
the action of the "Agfa"-Reducer is practically proportional 
to the capacity of the image, and consequently the gradations 
and contrasts of the negatives are substantially the same before 
and after the reduction. For this reason the "Agfa"-Reducer 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 39 

is especially valuable in the case of negatives and positives that 
have been over-developed without being fogged. There is a 
slight tendency toward increased contrasts in the reduced nega- 
tive, but in most cases only very slight. 

It is important to mention that soft or distilled water must 
be used for making up the reducing solution, as when hard 
water is used a certain quantity of a brown precipitate is 
formed. If, through the use of hard water, the negative or the 
positive should acquire a slightly brownish-yellow stain, this 
can readily be removed by immersion for a short time in a 
weak alum solution to which a small quantity of oxalic acid 
has been added. 

The same quantity of reducing solution can be used for 
two or three negatives in succession, though its action naturally 
becomes weaker, and it is important that it should not be ex- 
posed for any length of time to bright daylight. The solid 
substance itself should also be kept in the shade. 

The "Agfa"-Reducer is not only efficient and easily 
worked, but it is also particularly convenient, a point of im- 
portance in view of the fact that reduction is only an occasional 
operation. It is very compact in form, and is always ready for 
use. The making up of the solution is simple and rapid, and 
involves no weighing. 

It has been decided to put the "Agfa"-Reducer in cartridge 
form as well as in bottles. 

Each cartridge contains 10 grms., and is to be dissolved in 
3 l / 2 ozs. of water (100 c. c.), the other operations being the 
same. 

PRICE LIST. 

4 ounce bottle $ .65 

Box of 10 tubes . .75 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 




Flashlight 
Powder. 



(Called "Adfa"-Blitzlicht) 

"Agfa"-Blitzlicht is a scientific 
combination of chemicals of a dif- 
ferent composition than the usual 
Magnesium and Potassium Chlo- 
rate mixture and possess the follow- 
ing undisputed advantages: 

1. Minimum smoke development. 

2. Maximum amount of light. 

3. The most rapid flash. 

4. Silent discharge. 

5. No danger of explosion. 

6. Convenient packing. 

7. Economy in use. 

The claims we make on behalf of the small smoke devel- 
opment are that the "Agfa"-Flashlight Powder gives only one- 
tenth of the smoke produced by the usual magnesium and po- 
tassium chlorate mixture. Besides which, owing to the greater 
light development, "Agfa"-Flashlight only needs to be used in 
small quantities which, apart from economy, is a potential 
factor in the reduction of the smoke nuisance. What little 
smoke there is is a bluish transparent film which quickly rolls 
off and disappears. The great lighting power makes the 
"Agfa"-Flashlight very economical; the intensity and actinic 
power is three times as great as any other preparation used in 
the same proportions. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 41 

For instance : 

For portraits use 54 grni. (4 grs.) 

Small groups use 1 grm. ( IS grs.) 

Large groups use 2-3 grms. (30-45 grs.) 

Very large groups use 4-6 grms. (60-90 grs.) 

The further advantage of rapid' combustion is also impor- 
tant, the "flash" lasting in all only l-30th of a second. This 
extraordinary short duration (maximum intensity is reached at 
l-20th of a second) quite removes any possibility of movement 
in the subject. The firing takes place without the slightest 
noise. "Agfa"-Flashlight contains nothing explosive, and the 
separated components render it, before fixing, not even in- 
flammable. 

It keeps indefinitely in the original package. 

DIRECTIONS FOR USE. 

Empty the contents of the small bottle into the larger one 
(glass bottle). 

Shake thoroughly so as to intimately mix the components ; 
make a little heap on a piece of tin or wood, and stick a piece 
of the touch paper upright in the heap. Light this paper with 
a match and the sparks will quickly run down to and ignite the 
powder. 

Other sparking methods may be employed, but the powder 
must not be used in a closed or blow-through lamp. 

The "Agfa" Improved Lamp is recommended for cer- 
tainty and noiselessness. 

As a guide to the quantity of "Agfa"-Flash Powder it 
must be remembered that the quantity of light required at a 
given distance to illuminate a given object does not imply that 
twice the quantity of powder will give the same illumination 
at double the distance. It is an accepted fact that the intensity 
of light decreases in proportion to the square of the distance. 
Therefore, although we know that y 2 a gramme of the powder 
will give correct exposure on a C. D. V. portrait at a distance 



42 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

of two yards, we must make a little calculation to find what 
quantity we want if we have to take larger surfaces. 

Now, remembering always that the flash must not occur 
in front of the lens, we will suppose that to take a group we 
have to move back the camera, and therefore the flash, to five 
yards. By the above rule we have to square the difference in 
the distance and multiply the result by the quantity of powder ; 
thus the difference between 2 yards and 5 yards is 3, and squar- 
ing this, i. e., 3X3=9, so that we shall have 9 times less light 
on the object than before; we must, therefore, multiply the J^ 
gramme by 9, and this gives us 4^ grammes as the correct 
quantity. 

This rule is constant as long as the lens aperture, etc., 
remain constant, so in taking a dinner party, should the chair- 
man (presumably the principal object) be in the middle dis- 
tance of the group, all will be well if the rule is followed, but 
supposing he is in the extreme distance and the rule is fol- 
lowed, the diners in the near foreground would be over- 
exposed, so a certain amount of discretion must be used, and 
the light must be elevated as high as possible; this will have 
the result of putting the foreground into more or less shadow. 

The intelligent reader can apply this to all interior sub- 
jects. No diffuser is required with the "Agfa"-Flashlight 
Powder, the light being naturally soft, but a plate giving soft 
results is to be desired, as also a developer that does not work 
for contrast; and in this respect Rodinal well diluted can be 
highly recommended. Development should not be forced; it 
is only a question of time, and a few minutes difference in the 
developing period is of little consequence. 

PRICE LIST. 

No. 1 size ( 10 grms.) $ .35 

No. 2 size ( 25 grms.) .65 

No. 3 size ( 50 grms.) 1.05 

No. 4 size (100 grms.) 1.70 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 43 

"Agfa" -Flash Lamp 

(PATENTED.) 

Improved Model 





This is marketed in place of the uncertain striking safety 
match device. A spark-giving metal has been substituted, and 
a winding spring revolves a toothed wheel against this metallic 
substance, giving a stream of sparks at each revolution. 

It is absolutely unfailing, is always ready for use at a 
moment's notice, and not affected by damp or climatic in- 
fluences. 

The instrument is small in size, is elegantly finished in 
nickeled metal and strongly built. 

It is a handy pocket size and as simple as can be in 
working. 

Many hundreds of sparks can be given without renewing 
the metal, which, however, can be replaced when the original 
is worn out. 

A simple attachment permits the lamp being used as a 
stand lamp, and a pneumatic release can also be supplied if 
firing it at a distance. 

PRICE LIST 

"Agfa" Improved Flashlamp $2.00 

Stand and Wire Release . . 1.50 



44 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



Stand Development 

We doubt if any one desiring to develop by stand method 
has the intention of making it a scientific pursuit, it is far 
rather a method of convenience in which it is also distinguished 
from Time, or Factorial Development. 

Stand Development, as we hereafter describe, is purely 
and simply the placing of places in a more or less dilute devel- 
oper, and examining them from time to time to see if they are 
done; by this means a batch of various exposures may all be 
developed in the same tank, and as the more fully exposed plates 
become sufficiently developed they are removed and the others 
left until completed or transferred to a stronger solution. 

There is no doubt that this method produces a series of 
very level negatives and may suit many workers when once 
they have found the developer which produces the result they 
require. But it is reducing development to a mechanical pro- 
cess and gives very little scope for individuality. 

Formulae for this method are given under "Agfa"-Glycin 
and "Agfa"-Rodinal, and a very useful table is given under 
this last heading showing the approximate time required at 
various temperatures. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 4$ 

Time, or 
Factorial Development 

Time Development is perhaps more scientific and is per- 
formed by ascertaining a "factor" or number which is multi- 
plied by the minutes or seconds of the time taken for the first 
indication of an image to appear ; thus, the factorial numbers 
for the various developers are as follows : 

! "Agfa"- Amidol 18 
"Agfa"-Eikonogen 9 

"Agfa"-Glycin 10 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 5 

"Agfa"-Pyro-Soda 5 

"Agfa"-Imogen-Sulphite 5 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 

"Agfa"-Metol-Hydrokinone 14 

"Agfa"-Ortol 10 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 30 

so that supposing the image appears on the plate in a solution 
of "Agfa"-Eikonogen in 30 seconds, the dish may be covered 
up and rocked for 4^2 minutes and the plate then transferred 
to the fixing bath without examination, as it would be fully 
developed. At least that is the theory, and is no doubt correct 
with an even exposure all over the plate. But with a plate that 
has been exposed on a contrasty subject it is well to examine 
it and decide if the result is what is desired. 

These factorial numbers do not indicate the speed of the 
developer. For instance, to the novice "Agfa"-Metol and 
"Agfa"-Rodinal would appear rather slow, whereas they are 
two most rapid developers, and it is owing to the extraordinary 
rapidity of the first appearance of the image that they require 
such high factorial numbers. 



Formulae 

for 
Film Development 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 47 



Atfa" Flat Film. 

We recommend 

"Agfa"-Rodinal Formula Page 26 

"Agfa"Metol-Hydro Formula Page 7 

"Agfa"-Pyro Formula Page 22 



48 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

Ansco Film. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE. 

Water 64 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 25 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Granular) Y oz. 

Sodium Carbonate V* oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 45 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 6 grs. 

The chemicals must be added and thoroughly dissolved 
in the order given. From this stock solution enough is taken 
to fill the tray. The stock solution will keep indefinitely if in 
full bottles tightly stoppered. 

FOR TWENTY MINUTE TANK DEVELOPMENT, 
TEMPERATURE 65. 

Dissolve the chemicals in order named in about 6 ozs. of 
lukewarm water, then add the balance of the water cold. 

SMALL SIZE TANK. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 10 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd.) 30 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 20 grs. 

Water 16 ozs. 

THREE AND ONE-HALF INCH TANK 

"Agfa"-Pyro 22 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd.) 66 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 44 grs. 

Water 34 ozs. 

FIVE INCH TANK. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 30 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd.) 90 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 60 grs. 

Water . . .46 ozs 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 49 

FOR TEN MINUTE TANK DEVELOPMENT, 

TEMPERATURE 65. 

SMALL SIZE TANK. 

"Agfa"-Pyro '. 20 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Anhyd.) 60 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 40 grs. 

Water 16 ozs. 

THREE AND ONE-HA.LF INCH TANK. 

'Agfa"-Pyro 44 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Anhyd.) 132 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 88 grs. 

Water 34 grs. 

FIVE INCH TANK. 

"Agfa" Pyro 60 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Anhyd.) 180 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anhyd.) 120 grs. 



Water 46 



ozs. 



50 THE "AGFA" BOOK 

Barnet Film. 

"AGFA"-PYRO-SODA FORMULA 

Solution No. 1. 

Water (Distilled) 80 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Potassium Bromide 60 grs. 

Nitric Acid 20 drops 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water, Distilled) 80 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 9 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate 8 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

For use take equal parts of 1 and 2. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"- Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 40 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 10 grs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 65 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 65 grs. 

Time 30 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 51 

Eastman Film. 

Solution No. 1. 

Water 28 ozs. 

Sulphuric Acid 20 drops. 

"Agfa"-Pyro ' 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 28 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Desiccated) 3 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Desiccated) 2 ozs. 

For dark room development take: 

Solution No. 1 ^2 oz. 

Solution No. 2 y* oz. 

Water 4 ozs. 

For Kodak Developing Machine, Brownie Developing Box 
(6 minute development) or Kodak Film Tank (10 minute de- 
velopment) take the following proportions: 

Solution No. 1 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2 1 oz. 

Water 10 ozs. 

For Kodak Film Tank (20 minute development) take the 
following proportions : 

Solution No. 1 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2 1 oz. 

Water 22 ozs. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

"AGFA"-GLYCIN FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Stock Solution. 

Water 35 ozs. 

"Aga"-Glycin 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 360 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 360 grs. 



52 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

To develop take : 

Stock Solution 10 ozs. 

Water 30 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



"AGFA"-ORTOL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 10 grs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 65 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 65 grs. 

Time 30 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



"AGFA"-RODINAL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 100 ozs. 

Time (Landscape) 30 min. 

Time (Architectural) 23 min. 

Time (Portrait) 18 min. 

Temperature .',..65 deg. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 53 

. 

Ensign Film. 

"AGFA"-PYRO SODA FORMULA. 

Stock Solution. 

Water 8 ozs. 

Nitric Acid ' 20 drops. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Solution No. 1. 

Stock Solution 2 ozs. 

Water . ..20 ozs. 



Solution No. 2. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 l / 2 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 2 1 /^ ozs. 

For use take equal parts of No. 1 and No. 2. For known over- 
exposure take two parts No. 1 to one part No. 2. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Water 35 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 100 grs. 

"Agfa"- Hydrokinone 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 2 1 /^ ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate 2 l / 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 7 grs. 

For use take one part of the above solution to four parts of water. 

"AGFA"-METOL GLYCIN FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Hot water 96 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 40 grs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 20 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 75 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 300 grs. 

Time 45 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

AGFA"-RODINAL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 40 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



54 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Lumiere Film. 

"AGFA"-METOL FORMULA. 

Solution A. 

Temperature 65 to 70 degrees Factor 25. 

Water (Distilled) 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dry) 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Metol 120 grs. 

Solution B. 

Water (Distilled) 16 ozs. 

Carbonate Potassium 2 ozs. 

For use take 4 ozs. Solution A, 1 oz. Solution B and 5 ozs. Dis- 
tilled Water. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 
Factor 30. 

Agfa"-Rodinal *A oz. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"AGFA"-GLYCIN FORMULA. 
Solution A. 

Temperature 65 to 70 Degrees Factor 8. 

Water (Distilled) 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dry) *A oe. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 160 grs. 

Dissolve Glycin in hot water. 

Solution B. 

Water (Distilled) 24 ozs. 

Carbonate Potassium 3 ozs. 

For use take 2 ozs. Solution A, 3 ozs. Solution B. 



Formulae 

for 
Dry Plate Development 



56 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



"Agfa" Plates. 

Ordinary "Agfa" Plates. 

We recommend 

"Agf a"-Rodinal Formula ............. Page 26 

"Agfa"-Metol Formula ............... Page 7 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen Formula .......... Page 14 

"Agfa"-Metol-Hydro Formula ........ Page 7 

" Chromo Plates. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

"Agfa"-Metol .................................. 48 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone ......................... 72 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (cryst.) ..................... 2 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate ....................... 192 grs. 

Potassium Bromide .......................... 10 grs. 

Water ..................................... 20 ozs. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal ............................... 20 grs. 

Water ...................................... 1 oz. 



Isolar Plates. 

We recommend 

"Agfa"-Rodinal Formula ............. Page 26 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen Formula .......... Page 14 

"Agfa"-Glycin Formula .............. Page 17 

"Agfa"-Pyro Formula ............... Page 22 

"Agfa" Ghromo Isolar Plates. 

We recommend 

"Agfa"-Rodinal Formula ............. Page 26 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen Formula ......... Page 14 

"Agfa"-Pyro Formula ............... Page 22 

"Agfa"-Metol-Hydro Formula ........ Page 7 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 57 

Barnet Plates. 

If the exposure of the plate has been correct, then the 
development is simple enough. Development of a Barnet 
Ortho Plate should be carried a little further than might be 
considered necessary for a non-ortho plate, and if fully ex- 
posed the result will be soft and well graded. 

"AGFA"-PYRO SODA FORMULA. 
(Strongly Recommended.) 

Stock Solution A. Dissolve 100 grains of Potassium 
Meta-Bisulphite in water and then add 1 oz. of "Agfa"-Pyro 
and 60 grains of Potassium Bromide and make up with water 
to measure 8 oz. 

DEVELOPER. 

No. 1 Solution. 

Stock Solution A 2 ozs. 

Water 18 ozs. 

No. 2 Solution. 

Soda Carbonate, Crystal 2 ozs. 

Soda Sulphite 2% ozs. 

Water, to make 20 ozs. 

For use, take equal parts of Nos. 1 and 2. 

ONE SOLUTION "AGFA"-METOL-HYDRO FORMULA. 

"Agfa"-Metol 25 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 20 grs. 

Soda Sulphite l / 2 oz. 

Soda Carbonate y 2 oz. 

Potass. Bromide 10 grs. 

Water, to make up to 10 ozs. 

Be careful that the developer is neither too warm nor too 
cold ; a good temperature is from 60 to 65 degrees. 

Rinse the plate thoroughly after development to prevent 
stains and fix. 



58 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Cramer Plates. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA. 

A. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 12 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

(Which will test 60 deg. by hydrometer.) 
If negatives are too yellow use more Sulphite. 

C. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 1 oz. 

(Which will test 30 deg. by hydrometer.) 

Mix for immediate use, A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; Water (65 
to 70 de. F. ), 10 ozs. 

In summer the developer should be used cooler (about 
60 Fahr.) or with more water. In winter it should be used 
warmer (about 75 Fahr.) or with less water. Less water 
hastens development and increases contrast. More water 
slows development, gives less contrast and is better for short 
exposures. 

If Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda is used, Solution C 
as given above is of the proper strength. When other brands 
are used it may be necessary to vary the strength of this solu- 
tion, bearing in mind that an excess of Carbonate blocks the 
lights and increases contrasts. 

"AGFA"-PYRO TANK FORMULA. 
A. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Citric Acid 20 grs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda ^ oz. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. t 59 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

(Which will test 60 deg. by hydrometer.) 
C. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 2 ozs. 

(Which will test 60 deg. by hydrometer.) 

Mix for immediate use, A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz.; C, 1 oz.; Water (at 
50 deg. Fahr), 50 ozs. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL TANK FORMULA. 

Water (at 50 deg. Fahr.) 100 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

In addition to the normal formulas described in the pre- 
ceding chapter the following formulas are selected from the 
great many now in use. Any other good developer can be em- 
ployed, provided its strength is regulated to suit the plate. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL FORMULA. 
In One Solution. 

Pure Water 60 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 300 grs. 

Bromide of Potassium 20 grs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 3 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda \ l /2 ozs. 

For use, mix 1 part of this Stock Solution and Water, 1 to 2 
parts for winter use, or 2 to 4 parts for summer use, according to 
density desired. 

The "Agfa"-Ortol Developer can be used repeatedly and 
keeps well, particularly if the stock solution is put up in small 
bottles quite full and tightly corked to exclude air. Dilute with 
water when wanted for use. Always carry the development 
far enough to insure good printing quality. 



60 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE-METOL FORMULA. 

A. 

Pure Water 25 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinon 90 grs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 1 oz. 

B. 

Pure Water 25 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda y 2 oz. 

(Which will test 10 deg. by hydrometer.) 
For use mix A and B in equal parts. Can be used repeatedly. 

SAME FORMULA IN ONE SOLUTION. 

A and B mixed in equal parts keeps well. The above in- 
gredients can all be put together in one solution. With fresh 
developer it may be necessary to add to each ounce 1 drop of 
Bromide of Potassium solution (containing 1 part of Bromide 
Potassium to 10 parts of water). 

NOTE. This is a very fine and desirable developer. It 
should not be used too old or too much diluted, as it is then 
liable to produce peculiar streaks and blotches. 

Solution B can be replaced by an equal quantity of diluted 
Acetone (Cramer's Liquid Acetone) to 20 parts of water. 

"AGFA"-EIKONOGEN FORMULA. 

A. 

Pure Hot Water 60 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 1 oz. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

B. 

Pure Water 60 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 2 ozs. 

(Which will test 16 deg. by hydrometer.) 
For use take A, 3 ozs.; B, 1 oz. 

This developer works best after being used a few times. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 61 

When starting with fresh solution, add some old, or if no 
old is on hand, add to each ounce 1 drop of a 10% Bromide of 
Potassium solution to make it work clear. For short exposures 
use 3 ozs. A, ^2 oz. B. 



"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE-EIKONOGEN FORMULA. 
A. 

Pure Hot Water 48 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda l l / 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone % oz. 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 1 oz. 

(Which will test 30 deg. by hydrometer.) 

For use take A, 3 ozs.; B, 1 oz.; Water (at 65 deg. to 70 deg. 
Fahr.), 10 ozs. 

A few drops of Bromide of Potassium solution should be 
added if the developer is quite fresh. 



"AGFA"-PYRO-METOL FORMULA. 
A. 

Pure Water 30 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro ^ oz. 

Bromide of Potassium 20 grs ; 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 54 oz. 

B. 

Pure Water 30 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 4 ozs. 

(Which will test 64 deg. by hydrometer.) 



62 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

C. 

Pure Water 30 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 4 ozs. 

(Which will test 64 deg. by hydrometer.) 

For use take A, ^ oz.; B, y* oz. ; C, ^ oz.; Water (at 65 deg. 
to 70 deg. Fahr.), 10 to 20 ozs. 

A, B and C may be added together and keep well in one 
solution, which should be diluted for use with from 6 to 12 
parts of water. 

TROPICAL DEVELOPER. 
FOR HOT CLIMATES WHERE NO ICE IS AVAILABLE. 

Pure Water 50 ounces. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 1 oz. 

Bromide of Potassium 20 grs. 

Citric Acid 20 grs. 

For use : To 4 oz. of of the above solution add 10 grs. dry 
"Agfa"-Amidol. Before developing place the plate in Water, 60 parts, 
Formalin, 1 part, for about three minutes, then rinse well and place 
in the developer. Fix in the Acid Fixing and Hardening Bath. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

For use : Dilute 1 part with 20 to 40 parts water for tray 
development or 1 part with 100 parts water for tank develop- 
ment. 

FORMULAE FOR TRANSPARENCIES 

(LANTERN SLIDES). 
"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE. 

Pure Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 60 grs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 120 grs. 

Bromide of Potassium 6 grs. 

Citric Acid 6 grs. 

Cramer's Dry Carbonate of Soda 1 oz. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 63 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE AND PARAMIDOPHENOL. 

A. 

Pure Water 32 ozs. 

Cramer's Dry Sulphite of Soda 6 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Paramidophenol v 240 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 240 grs. 

Bromide of Potassium 120 grs. 

B. 

Water 32 ozs. 

Caustic Potash 240 grs. 

For use mix equal parts A and B. 

Both formulas are excellent for producing clear, brilliant 
transparencies and slides. 



64 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Eastman Dry Plates. 

"AGFA"- PYRO FORMULA FOR TRAY DEVELOPMENT. 

Stock Solution A. 

Water 8 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Stock Solution B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Eastman Sulphite Soda (hydrometer test 60) 2 ozs. 

Stock Solution C. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Eastman Carbonate Soda (hydrometer test 40) . . \ l /2 ozs. 

To develop use A, l / 2 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; water, 7 ozs. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDRO FORMULA FOR TRAY DEVELOP- 
MENT. 

Stock Solution. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 grs. 

Eastman Sulphite Soda */ 2 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Eastman Carbonate of Soda % oz. 

Dissolve chemicals in order given. 
To develop use Stock Solution, 1 oz.; water, 7 ozs. 

The temperature of Developer should be from 65 to 70 
degrees. 

NOTE. If other brands of desiccated Carbonate of Soda 
are used, a greater quantity will be required. If crystal sodas 
are used, take about three times the quantity of carbonate and 
double the quantity of sulphite. 

Carbonate of Soda has a decided action as regards the 
density of the negative. An increased amount will increase 
the density of the negative. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 65 

If the Carbonate of Soda be added to the developer in 
excessive quantities, it will neutralize the action of the pre- 
servative (Sulphite Soda) and have a tendency to produce 
yellow negatives. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 
For 4 by 5 Eastman Plate Tank. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 22 grs. 

Eastman's Sulphite of Soda (desiccated) 66 grs. 

Eastman's Carbonate of Soda (desiccated) 44 grs. 

Dissolve the chemicals in order named in 5 or 6 ozs. of 
lukewarm water, then add cold water to fill tank to lower 
embossed line, making 26 ozs. of solution. 

Temperature of Developer, 65 degrees Fahr. Develop 
15 minutes. 



66 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Hammer Plates. 

"AGFA"-METOL PYRO FORMULA. 

No. 1. 

Pure Water 28 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 70 grs. 

Sulphite Soda, Anhydrous 5 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Dissolve the above; then add 15 grains Oxalic Acid, dis- 
solved in Y$ ounce water. 

No. 2. 

Pure Water 28 ozs. 

Carbonate Soda (Pure Dry) 3 ozs. 

Tray Development. 

To develop take 1 oz. of No. 1, 1 oz. of No. 2, 12 to 14 ozs. water. 
In winter use less water to develop and in summer use 
more water; temperature 50 degrees, and add a few drops of 
a 10% solution of bromide potassium. 

To regulate the color of the negatives, use more or less 
sulphite in No. 1. 

This developer will not stain or poison the hands and acts 
raipdly. 

Tank Development. 
To develop take 2 ozs. of No. 1, 2 ozs. of No. 2, 120 ozs. of water. 

Temperature 50 degrees, and add l /2 ounce of a 10% solu- 
tion of bromide potassium. Development 30 to 40 minutes. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sulphite Soda (Crystals) 4 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 20 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate Soda (Crystals) 3 ozs. 

To develop take 4 drams of A, 4 drams of B, 8 to 10 ozs. of water. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 67 

"AGFA"-PYRO ACETONE FORMULA. 

Clear, clean and quick; for hot climates. The film does 
not soften during development. Washed negatives dry quickly. 

No. 1. 

Water ' 23 1 A ozs. 

Sulphite Soda (Anhydrous) 8 ozs. 

Hydrometer test, 75 degrees. 

No. 2. 

Water 24 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 15 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

For use take 5 ozs. water. 1 oz. No. 1, l / 2 oz. No. 2, 2 drams Ace- 
tone (Liquid). 

Do not keep the plate out of the developer long while 
developing or streaks will result. Acid Chrome-Alum Fixing 
Bath is best. 

"AGFA"-EIKONOGEN HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
As used on Hammer Plates by prominent photographers. Very fine. 

No. 1. 

Pure Water 64 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone % oz. 

Sulphite of Soda (Crystals) 2J4 ozs. 

No. 2. 

Pure Water 64 ozs. 

Carbonate of Potash (Dry) 2*6 ozs. 

To develop take 2 ozs. of No. 1 and 1 oz. of No. 2. 

Add old developer (solution previously used) in sufficient 
quantity to produce best results. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL FORMULA. 

No. 1. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 160 grs. 

Water to make . 16 ozs. 



68 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

No. 2. 

Carbonate Soda (C. P.) 240 grs. 

Sulphite Soda (Anhydrous) 120 grs. 

Water 16 ozs. 

For use take 1 oz. No. 1, 1 oz. of No. 2, and 6 ozs. of water. 

If less water is used, it will give denser negatives; more 
water will give softer negatives. 



"AGFA"-METOL-PYRO FORMULA. 

No. 1. 

Water 27 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Metol 60 grs. 

No. 2. 
Carbonate Soda testing 40 deg. 

No. 3. 
Sulphite Soda testing 70 to 80 deg. 

For use take 1 oz. of No. 1, 1 oz. of No. 2, 1 oz. of No. 3 and 
8 to 12 ozs. water. 

"AGFA"-METOL-PYRO FORMULA. 

No. 1. 
Sulphite of Soda Hydrometer testing 80 deg. 

No. 2. 
Carbonate of Soda Hydrometer testing 40 deg. 

No. 3. 

Water .12 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro & oz. 

"Agfa"-Metol Y 4 oz. 

Sulphite of Soda 60 grs. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

To develop take No. 1, l / 2 oz.; No. 2, l / 3 oz.; No. 3, 2 drams.; 
water, 6 to 8 ozs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 69 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA WITH CARBONATE OF POTASH. 

No. 1. 

Pure Water 32 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhydrous).., 4 ozs. 

Carbonate of Potash (C. P.) 1 oz. 

No. 2. 

Pure Water 24 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid (dissolved first) 15 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

To develop take 1 oz. of No. 1, y*. oz. of No. 2 and 6 to 8 ozs. 
of Pure Water. 

When the plate is fully developed and you find the high 
lights too thin, use less water in the developer; if too dense 
use more water. 



"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

For Tray Development use 1 ounce in 20 to 30 ounces 
water ; for Tank Development use 1 ounce in 80 to 100 water. 



"AGFA"-GLYCIN FORMULA. 
No. 1. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 123 grs. 

Sulphite Soda 370 grs. 

Water (hot, 200 deg.) 7 ozs. 

Let cool, then add 
Carbonate Potassium 46 grs. 

No. 2. 

Carbonate Potassium 616 grs. 

Water 14 ozs. 

To develop take 1 oz. of No. 1, 1 oz. of No. 2 and 3 ozs of water. 



70 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

FORMULAE FOR LANTERN SLIDE PLATES. 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE. 

No. 1. 

Water (boiled or distilled) 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 150 grs. 

Metabisulphite of Potash 10 grs. 

Bromide of Potassium 50 grs. 

No. 2. 

Water (boiled or distilled) 20 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda (dry) 2 ozs. 

Caustic Soda 100 grs. 

For use take equal parts of No. 1 and No. 2. 

"AGFA"-EIKONOGEN-HYDROKINONE. 

No. 1. 

Water (pure and hot) 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 110 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 70 grs. 

Sulphite Soda (dry) 1% ozs. 

No. 2. 

Water (pure) 16 ozs. 

Carbonate Potassium I 1 /* ozs. 

Allow solutions to cool before using. 

For use take 3 ozs. of No. 1 and 1 oz. of No. 2, adding a 
few drops of 10% Bromide of Potassium solution. This will 
develop about five plates ; then add some fresh developer in 
same proportion as before. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 71 

Ilford Plates. 

"AGFA"-PYRO SODA FORMULA. 
Stock Solution. 

Water Sy 2 ozs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 70 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Solution No. 1. 

Stock Solution 2 ozs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 20 grs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

For use take equal quantities of solution No. 1 and No. 2. 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
Solution No. 1. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 180 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 2 ozs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Potassium Carbonate \ l /2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 30 grs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

For use mix equal parts of 1 and 2. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
Solution No. 1. 

"Agfa"-Metol 60 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 90 grs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 90 grs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 



72 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



Solution No. 2. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 20 grs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

For use mix equal parts 1 and 1. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 175 grs. 

Potassium Bromide SO grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 4 ozs. 

Water to make up to 20 ozs. 

For use mix with 2 to 3 times volume of water. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 73 



Lumiere Plates. 

"AGFA"-METOL FORMULA. 
Temperature 65 to 70 degrees Factor 25 

Solution A.' 

Water (Distilled) 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dry) 1 oz. 

Agfa"-Metol 120 grs. 

Solution B. 

Water (Distilled) 16 ozs. 

Carbonate Potassium 2 ozs. 

For use take 4 ozs. solution A, 1 oz. solution B and 5 ozs. 
distilled water. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 
Factor 30. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal ft oz. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"AGFA"-GLYCIN FORMULA. 
Temperature 65 to 70 degrees Factor 8 

Solution A. 

Water (Distilled) :-. 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dry) % oz. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 160 grs. 

Dissolve Glycin in hot water. 

Solution B. 

Water (Distilled) 24 ozs. 

Carbonate Potassium 3 ozs. 

For use, take 2 ozs. solution A, 3 ozs. solution B. 

"AGFA"-PYRO. 
Solution A. 

Water (Distilled) .16 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 15 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

This solution keeps better if Sodium Bisulphite 80 grs. 
be used instead of Oxalic Acid. 



74 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Solution B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 2 ozs. 

Hydrometer Test 60. 

Solution C. 

Water 12 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate 1 oz. 

Hydrometer Test 40. 

Solution D. 

Water 10 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 1 oz. 

All our "Agfa"-Pyro formulae for tank development are 
adapted to a temperature of 65 degrees and 30 minutes' dura- 
tion of development. 

For each degree above or below 65 add to or substract 
from the time of development one minute. The temperature 
should never exceed, otherwise fog and yellow stain are liable 
to appear. Use a reversible tank and reverse same three to 
five times during development. 

It is essential to assure a complete mixing of the chemicals 
before developing; also to rinse the plates thoroughly before 
fixing. 

Mix for immediate use 
Solution 
Solution 
Solution 
Water 

The more water the less contrast. 

In cold weather use less water (5 to 6). 

In hot weather use more water (8 to 10). 

For negatives to be printed on developing paper use 8 to 
9 ozs. of water. 

When the negatives are found too yellow, use \ l / 2 ozs. of 
solution B. If too brown use less. 



L A 


1 


oz 


i B 


1 


oz. 


i C 


1 


oz 




7 


ozs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 75 

FOR THIRTY MINUTES' TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Solution A 2 ozs. 

Solution B 2 ozs. 

Solution C \ l /2 ozs. 

Solution D ; 2 drams. 

Water 64 ozs. 

For Sigma Plates increase the quantity of each A, B and 
C by l / 2 oz. 

"AGFA"-PYRO ACETONE FORMULA. 

Mix for immediate use 

Solution A 1 oz. 

Solution B 2 ozs. 

Acetone 3 drams. 

Water 8 ozs. 

Factor & 

This developer works without danger of frilling and gives 
brilliant negatives. It does not stain. 

FOR THIRTY MINUTES' TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Solution A 2 ozs. 

Solution B 4 ozs. 

Acetone l / 2 oz. 

Solution D 2 drams. 

Water 64 ozs. 

FOR SIGMA PLATES THIRTY MINUTES' TANK 
DEVELOPMENT. 

Solution A 2 l / 3 ozs. 

Solution B 4 ozs. 

Acetone 5 drams. 

Solution D 2 drams. 

Water . 64 ozs. 



76 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Seed Plates. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA. 



Pure Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 



Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Anhyd) 2 ozs. 



Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Anyhd) 2 ozs. 

Use A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; Pure Water, 7 ozs. 

In very cold dark-rooms use 5 ozs. of water. In warm 
weather use 10 ozs. of water. For double-coated plates use 
10 ozs. of water. 

One-half oz. of B will give a warmer tone to the negative. 
The best printers have a warm brownish-black color. If nega- 
tives are too yellow or the shadows show the slightest stain, 
not due to discolored fixing bath, use \y 2 ozs. of B. 

Sulphite of Soda in solution does not keep well. Solu- 
lutions over one month old should not be expected to be full 
strength if not made with pure water and kept in well-stoppered 
bottles. 



"AGFA"-EIKONOGEN-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

A. 

Pure Water 48 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 240 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 60 grs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 77 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda 2 ozs. 

Use A, 3 ozs.; B, 1 oz. 

For double-coated plates add 4 ozs. of Pure Water. 

Use more Water in hot weather. 

NOTE. If more concentrated developer is desired in order 
to secure more contrast, the water in Solution A may be re- 
duced to 32 ozs. 

Use boiling water in making up this developer. In cold 
weather a little glycerine could also be added to prevent pre- 
cipitation. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
A. 

Pure Water 64 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 120 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 120 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda 2 ozs. 

Use A, 4 ozs.; B, 1 oz.; Pure Water, 4 ozs. 

Dissolve in the order given. "Agfa"-Metol should always 
be dissolved in water before the Sulphite is added, or before it 
is mixed with Sulphite solution, otherwise it may precipitate. 
If crystal sodas are used add 15 grs. of Bromide of Potassium 
to 16 ozs. of B solution. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL FORMULA. 

A. 

Pure Water 24 ozs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 90 grs. 

"Agfa"-0rtol 180 grs. 



78 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

B. 

Pure Water 24 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda 1 O z. 

Carbonate of Soda 1 oz. 

Use equal parts of A and B. 

"AGFA"-PYRO-METOL FORMULA. 

A. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Metol 60 grs. 

Water 22^ oz. 

B. 
Sulphite of Soda Test 60. 

C. 

Carbonate of Soda Test 50. 

To develop take Water, 8 to 10 ozs. ; A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz 

This developer gives softness and detail. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA FOR SEED TROPICAL PLATES. 

A. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 

B. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda 2 ozs. 

C. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda 3 ozs. 

Use A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; Pure Water, 7 ozs. 

Developer made up according to the above formula is 
intended for use at a temperature of about 70 degrees. If 
development is carried on at 85 degrees or 90 degrees the 
developer must be diluted one-half by adding water, using 14 
ozs. instead of 7 ozs. 

Sodas in crystals may be substituted for Seed's Sodas in 
this formula by using twice the weight here given. 

Fix in regular Acid Fixing Bath. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 79 

TANK DEVELOPER FORMULAE. 

The following formulae are splendidly adapted for use 
with the Plate Tank and will afford the printing quality re- 
quired by the majority of the profession. 

The temperature of the developer should not exceed 70 
degrees Fahr. to avoid frilling. In our experience 65 degrees 
Fahr. will afford the most satisfactory results. 

"AGFA"-PYRO TANK FORMULA. 

Stock Solution A. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 

Stock Solution B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda 3 ozs. 

Stock Solution C. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda 1 oz. 

To develop, use A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; Water, 61 ozs. 
NOTE. If crystal sodas are used take about three times 
the quantity of Carbonate and double the quantity of Sulphite. 

Temperature, 60 degrees, develop 35 minutes 
Temperature, 65 degrees, develop 30 minutes. 
Temperature, 70 degrees, develop 25 minutes. 

"AGFA"-GLYCIN TANK FORMULA. 
Stock Solution. 

Hot Water (about 200 deg.) 60 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin ^ oz. 

Sulphite of Soda Y* oz. 

Dissolve in order given. 

To develop, use Stock Solution, 6 ozs.; Water, 58 ozs. 
Temperature, 60 degrees, develop 30 minutes. 
Temperature, 65 degrees, develop 25 minutes. 
Temperature, 70 degrees, develop 20 minutes. 



80 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

FORMULAE FOR LANTERN SLIDE, TRANSPARENCY 
AND PROCESS PLATES YELLOW LABEL. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDRO FORMULA. 

A. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda 130 grs. 

B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 15 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 130 grs. 

If the crystallized Sulphite and Carbonate are used take 
twice as much of each as the formula calls for. To develop, 
take equal parts of A and B. Developer should be about 70 
degrees Fahr. and can be used repeatedly, but should be dis- 
carded as soon as discolored, as it will then stain the film. 

"AGFA"-HYDROKINONE FORMULA FOR WARM TONES. 

A. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Kydrokinone 50 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda 20 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 5 grs. 

Citric Acid 5 grs. 

B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Dry) 54 oz. 

Caustic Soda 30 grs. 

For use take equal parts of each. For still warmer tones 
use more of B. 

To make a lantern slide by contact from a medium dense 
negative, the plate is placed in a printing frame over the nega- 
tive, and if a 16 c. p. electric lamp is used, the exposure should 
be about 5 seconds at a distance of 2 feet from the light. With 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 81 

the "Agfa"-Metol-Hydro developer the image will appear in 
about 10 seconds, and development will be complete in from 
30 to 40 seconds according to the density desired. 

If the "Agfa"-Hydro developer is used, expose somewhat 
longer than for the "Agfa"-Metol-Hydro. Temperature of 
developer should be from 70 to 75 degrees Fahr. 

Always develop to a good density, as plates developed 
with "Agfa"-Hydrokinone fix out somewhat. Rinse and fix. 

RED LABEL. 

BLACK AND BROWN TONES. 
DEVELOPER FOR BLACK TONES. 

No. 1. 

Pure Water 24 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda 3 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 150 grs. 

No. 2. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Potassium 2 ozs. 

Bromide Potassium 15 grs. 

To develop, take 3 ozs. of No. 1 and 2 ozs. of No. 2. 

DEVELOPER FOR WARM TONES. 

No. 1. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 50 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda 50 grs. 

Bromide Potassium 24 grs. 

Citric Acid 6 grs. 

No. 2. 

Pure Water 16 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 480 grs. 

To develop take equal parts. For still warmer tones the 
amount of sulphite may be reduced. 



82 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Standard Dry Plates. 

"AGFA"-PYRO FORMULA. 
Stock Solution A. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Stock Solution B. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Eastman Sulphite Soda 2 ozs. 

(Hydrometer test 60.) 

Stock Solution C. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Eastman Carbonate Soda 1 oz. 

(Hydrometer test 30.) 

To Develop Standard Extra, Imperial Portrait or Polychrome Plates. 
Use A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; water 6 ozs. 
To Develop Orthonon Plates. 
Use A, 1 oz. ; B, 1 oz. ; C, 1 oz. ; Water, 12 ozs. 

NOTES. 

When making stock solution "A" first dissolve the Oxalic 
Acid in water, then add the "Agfa"-Pyro. 

If other brands of desiccated Carbonate of Soda are used 
a greater quantity will be required. If crystal sodas are used 
take three times the quantity of carbonate and double the quan- 
tity of sulphite. 

ORTHONON PLATES. 

These plates should be handled only in a deep ruby light; 
never use a yellow or greenish-yellow light. 

The usual dark-room method of development of the Or- 
thonon is the same as with the ordinary plate, except that more 
water is added, making the process of development much 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 83 

slower. Diluting the developer is necessary so that the action 
will not be too severe on the upper film before the developer 
has had time to penetrate through to the under one. It is nec- 
essary that both films should develop simultaneously. 

Carbonate of Soda has a decided action as regards the 
density of the negative. An increased amount will increase 
the density. If the Carbonate of Soda be added to the devel- 
oper in excessive quantities it will neutralize the action of the 
preservative (Sulphite Soda) and have a tendency to produce 
yellow negatives. 

If developers are compounded according to the hydrom- 
eter, test the instrument after purchasing, as the scale is some- 
times inaccurate. A correct hydrometer should test zero in 
pure water at a temperature of 70. 

"AGFA"-HYDRO-METOL FORMULA. 

Stock Solution. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite * oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate % oz. 

To develop, use 1 part Stock Solution to 7 parts water. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

No. 1 Solution. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 drams. 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

Citric Acid S grs. 

Potassium Bromide 1 dram. 

No. 2 Solution. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Potassium Carbonate 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

For soft negatives (portraits, etc.) take equal parts No. 1, 
No. 2 and water. For brilliant negatives take equal parts No. 



84 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

1 and No. 2, no water. For detail, increase the quantity of B. 
For density, increase the quantity of A. 

"AGFA"--PYRO FORMULA FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 
Solution No. 1. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 10 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 2 ozs. 

Solution No. 3. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 2 ozs. 

For use take 1 oz. each solution Nos. 1, 2 and 3 and 35 ozs. of 
water. Time, 20 minutes. Temperature, 70 degrees. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 40 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 85 

Vulcan Dry Plates. 

"AGFA'TYRO SODA FORMULA. 

Stock Solution. 

Water 7^ ozs. 

Oxalic Acid 8 grs. 

"Agfa"-Pyro 1 oz. 

Soution No. 1. 

Water 18 ozs. 

Stock Solution 2 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite ( Anhyd) J^ oz. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) */2 oz. 

For use take equal parts solution Nos. 1 and 2. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Soution No. 1. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 25 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 50 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) */ oz. 

Potassium Bromide 20 grs. 

For use take equal parts solution Nos. 1 and 2. 

For extremely short exposures the Bromide may be omitted. 

For soft negatives, such as portraits or interiors, dilute the 
mixed developer with an equal quantity of water. 

For 15-minute tank development, either of the above de- 
velopers can be used by omitting the Bromide and mixing as 
follows : 

Water 10 ozs. 

Mixed Developer 2 ozs. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

Time 15 min. 



*6 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

OR 

Water 10 ozs. 

Mixed Developer 1 oz. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

Time 30 min. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 40 ozs. 

Time 20 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 

"AGFA"-GLYCIN FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Water 35 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Glycin 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 360 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 360 grs. 

For use take one part of this solution to four parts of 
water. Time, 20 minutes. Temperature, 65 degrees. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 10 grs. 

Potassium Metabisulphite 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 65 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 65 grs. 

Time 30 min. 

Temperature 65 deg. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 87 

Wellington Plates. 

"AGFA"-PYRO AMMONIA FORMULA. 
Solution No. 1. 

Water / 10 ozs. 

"Agfa" Pyrogallic Acid 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 10 ozs. 

Ammonia (880) 1 ozs. 

Solution No. 3. 

Water 10 ozs. 

Ammonium Bromide 1 oz. 

For use 10 minims of No. 1, 10 minims of No. 2 and 5 
minims of No. 3 are taken and diluted with water to make 1 
ounce. 



"AGFA"-PYRO SODA FORMULA. 
Solution No. 1. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 80 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 8 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 8 ozs. 

To use, 1 oz. of No. 2, 1 dram of No. 1 and 1 oz. of water 
are taken. 



88 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 80 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol ^ oz. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 4 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone V* oz. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 4 ozs. 

For use, the strong solution is diluted with its own bulk 
of water. 

FORMULAE FOR PROFESSIONAL USE. 

For the convenience of the Professional Photographer, 
who generally prefers to mix and use his developers in equal 
quantities, we give the following formulae, which are practi- 
cally identical with those previously described, with the ex- 
ception that the bulk has been altered accordingly. 



"AGFA"-PYRO AMMONIA FORMULA. 

Solution No. 1. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 2 ozs. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 10 ozs. 

Ammonia Bromide l /2 oz. 

Ammonia (880) 1 oz. 

For use, 1 dram of No. 1, 1 dram of No.2 and 6 ozs. of 
water are taken. 

"AGFA"-PYRO SODA FORMULA. 

Solution No. 1. 

Water 80 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid 1 oz. 

Citric Acid 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) , 2 ozs. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 89 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 80 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 8 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 8 ozs. 

For studio work the most suitable developer is made by 
taking 2 ozs. of No. 1, 2 ozs. of No. 2 and 2 ozs. of water. 



Formulae 

for 
Developing Papers 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 91 

Aro Developing Papers. 

'AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 20 gr-s. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 120 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 240 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 10 per cent 25 drops. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 120 grs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent 25 drops. 

"AGFA"-METOL-ACETATE FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 15 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 20 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 160 grs. 

Sodium Acetate 260 grs. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO ANTI-FRICTION FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 24 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 80 grs. 

Argo Soda 480 grs. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 15-20 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 10 per cent. 3 drops per ounce of solution 



92 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Artura Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 14 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Dry) y 2 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 60 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Dry) y^ oz. 

When ready to develop add one drop of a saturated solution 
of Bromide of Potash to each two ounces of developer. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 8 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Dry) 80 grs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 20 grs. 

When ready to develop add one drop of a saturated solution 
of Bromide of Potash to each two ounces of developer. 



"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

When ready to develop add one drop of a saturated solution 
of Bromide of Potash to each four ounces of developer. 



"AGFA"-ORTOL-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 20 ozs - 

"Agfa"-Ortol 15 grs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Dry) X oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 45 grs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Dry) */2 oz. 

When ready to develop add one drop of a saturated solution 
of Bromide of Potash to each ounce of developer. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 93 

"AGFA"-EIKONOGEN-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

No. 1. 

Water 48 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Dry) 2 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 240 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 60 grs. 

No. 2. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Dry) 2 ozs. 

For use take three parts of No. 1 and one part of No. 2. 

When ready to develop add one drop of a saturated solution 
of Bromide of Potash to each four ounces of developer. 

Note that these developer formulas call for the use of a 
saturated solution of Bromide of Potash instead of the 10 per 
cent solution. 

The foregoing developers are given with special reference to 
Artura Iris, which is the most widely used brand of Artura 
papers. 

They are, however, suitable for all other brands of Artura 
papers, excepting in the case of the "Agfa"-Metol-Hydrokinone 
developer, where we would recommend the use of 20 ounces of 
water in place of 40 when used for other brands than Iris. 

At least enough Bromide of Potash should be used to in- 
sure clear whites. Increasing the amount of Bromide will in- 
crease the amount of olive tone in the prints. This applies 
to all developing agents. 

With "Agfa"-Eikonogen Hydrokinone developer, increasing 
the amount of Bromide will increase the contrast of the print. 

With the other developers, increasing the amount of Bro- 
mide will not affect the contrast of the print 



94 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Astro Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water (Warm) 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 25 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 1 oz. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 1^4 ozs. 

Allow to stand 24 hours before using; if used too fresh 
it works flat. 

In working use: Developer, 4 ounces; water, 6 ounces; 
Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent, 8 to 10 drops. 

To much Bromide or exhausted developer will cause green- 
ish or brownish blacks. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL FORMULA. 

Rodinal 1 oz. 

Water 15-20 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 10 per cent. 3 drops per oz. of solution. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 95 

Azo Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 7 grs. 

"Agfa'VHydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 110 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 200 grs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent 40 drops. 

"AGFA"-RODINAL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
Solution A. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 drams. 

Citric Acid 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

Potassium Bromide 1 dram. 

Solution B. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 1 oz. 

Potassium Carbonate 2 ozs. 

For soft effects take equal parts A, B and water. 
For strong effects take equal parts A and B. 



96 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Barnet Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 80 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 200 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 6 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 150 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 50 grs. 

For soft prints dilute the above with an equal amount of 
water. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 97 

Cyko Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water (Distilled) 32 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 15 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Powdered) 1 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 60 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Granular) Y* oz. 

Potassium Bromide 4 grs. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FOR PROFESSIONAL USE. 

Water (Warm) 1^ gals. 

"Agfa"-Metol ^ oz. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 12 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide ". 45 grs. 

Dissolve each chemical thoroughly in order named. This 
stock solution will keep indefinitely in full bottles, tightly 
stoppered. For use, take one part Stock Solution to two 
parts water. 

All glossy papers are subject to abrasion or friction marks. 
The developer prepared as per formula above can be rendered 
non-abrasive by adding 6 grains Potassium Iodide to each 
ounce of Stock Solution. The Iodide has a tendency to re- 
duce the contrast of the print. 

NOTE. This formula will give blue-black tones. If warm black 
tones are desired, add Y* oz. of Potassium Bromide to the Stock 
Solution. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 
Those who object to Metol may use the following formula: 

Warm Water (Soft or Distilled) 1^ gals. 

"Agfa"-Ortol 1 oz. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone I 1 /* ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 12 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide 45 grs. 



98 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Eastman's Permanent Bromide Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Stock Solution. 
Dissolve chemicals in order named, stirring constantly: 

Hot Water 100 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol l / 2 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 ozs. 

Sulphite of Soda (Desiccated) 7 l / 2 ozs. 

Carbonate of Soda (Desiccated) \2 l /2 ozs. 

Bromide of Potassium (Cryst) 120 grs. 

In cold weather, immediately after dissolving chemicals, add 
13 ounces of wood alcohol to the above Stock Solution to pre- 
vent precipitation. 

The above formula should be prepared with desiccated soda, 
preferably Eastman's ; if crystals are used, double the quantity 
of both Sulphite and Carbonate of Soda. 

This concentrated developer will keep indefinitely in full bot- 
tles well stoppered. 

TO DEVELOP. 
Take in a suitable tray: 

Concentrated Solution 1 oz. 

Water 6 ozs. 

This amount is sufficient to develop six 8x10 prints, or their 
equivalent. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 
Concentrated Solution. 

The concentrated stock solution is prepared by dissolving 
in succession 

Water 12 ozs. 

Sulphite Soda (Desiccated) l / 2 oz. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 1 A oz. 

Enough of this stock solution should be prepared at one 
time for only one day's use. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 99 

TO DEVELOP. 
Take in a suitable tray: 

Concentrated Stock Solution l l / 2 ozs. 

Bromide Potassium, 10 per cent Solution 8 drops. 

Water i 6 ozs. 

Use developer at a temperature of about 70 degrees Fahr. 
After exposure, soak the paper in water until limp and brush 
lightly over the surface, while wet, with a tuft of cotton and 
flow developer over the print. 

The time of development should not be less than one min- 
ute. Prolonged development will give yellow high-lights and 
stains. 

When the shadows are sufficiently black, pour off the de- 
veloper and rinse the print thoroughly with pure water. In- 
creasing the amount of Bromide Potassium given in our for- 
mulae is sometimes necessary to prevent grayish high-lights. 



100 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Ilford Bromide and Gaslight Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Solution No. 1. 

Water 20 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 50 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 25 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 1 oz. 

Solution No. 2. 

Water 20 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 1 oz. 

Potassium Bromide 30 grs. 

For use mix equal parts No. 1 and No. 2. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 25 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite J^ oz. 

Potassium Bromide as required. For Bromide and Bro- 
mona Papers add 4 drops Potassium Bromide 10% solution to 
each ounce of developer; for Gaslight Papers add 1 drop to 
each 2 ounces. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA FOR GASLIGHT PAPERS. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 5 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite ^2 oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 20 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) */2 oz. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 10 drops. 



THE "AGFA" TOOK.; - tl *\i r J 101 
Karbo Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 40 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 30 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 120 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dried) 1 oz. 

Sodium Carbonate (Dried) 1 oz. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 24 oz. 

Use this developer full strength for contrasty papers and 
post-cards, and reduce it with an equal quantity of water for 
portrait papers, in which softer effect and warmer tone are 
desired. 

It is sometimes desirable, in the above formula, to add a 
larger quantity of Hydrokinone, which gives a stronger print 
showing more contrast. 



FA'' BOOK. 

Kruxo Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 32 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 16 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dried) 300 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 48 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Dried) y^ oz. 

To this add one drop of saturated solution of Bromide of 
Potassium to each ounce of developer. 

SEPIA TONES. 

When Sepia tones are desired we would recommend the 
following formula. A normal exposure with this developer 
will give a warm black tone. To obtain Sepia color all that is 
necessary to do is to increase the exposure to five times normal 
exposure : 

Water 40 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 20 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Dried) 300 grs. 

"Agfa" Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Dried) 300 grs. 

To this add one drop or two of saturated solution of 
Potassium Bromide to each ounce of developer. Fix in the 
regular Acid-Hypo fixing bath and wash in the usual way. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 103 

Metalotype Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol , 20 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 120 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 240 grs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 25 drops. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 40 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 240 grs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 5-10 drops. 



104 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Monox Bromide Papers. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 24 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 60 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) 1 oz. 

To every 8 ounces of above developer add 10 drops of 
a 10% solution of Potassium Bromide. For very strong nega- 
tives Potassium Bromide should be omitted, and the developer 
weakened by increasing the amount of water. For soft, weak 
negatives the quantity of Potassium Bromide may be doubled. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 30 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 20 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 90 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Cryst) l*/ 2 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Cryst) 2 l / 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 1 dram. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 105 

Nepera Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Hot Water 100 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol ^ oz. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone W ozs. . 

Sodium Sulphite (Desiccated) 7 l /2 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Desiccated) \2 l / 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide (Cryst) 120 grs. 

In cold weather, immediately after dissolving chemicals, 
add 13 ounces of wood alcohol to the above stock solution to 
prevent precipitation. 

The above may be rendered non-abrasion by the addition 
of 10 grs. of Commercial Iodide of Potassium to each ounce 
of stock solution. 

"AGFA"-ORTOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Hot Water 100 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Ortol */ 2 oz. 

"Agfa" Hydrokinone '. . . \ l /2 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Desiccated) 7 l / 2 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Desiccated) \2 l / 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide (Cryst) 38 grs. 

The above may be rendered non-abrasion by the addition 
of 5 grs. of Commercial Iodide of Potassium to each ounce of 
stock solution. 



106 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

P. M. C. Bromide Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Water 48 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol y 2 dram. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 10 drams. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 2 drams. 

Potassium Bromide 1 dram. 

Sodium Carbonate 20 drams. 

To Develop Use. 

Stock Solution \ l / 2 ozs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 8 drops. 

Water 6 ozs. 

For very strong negatives the Potassium Bromide should 
be omitted and the developer weakened by increasing the 
amount of water. For soft, weak negatives the quantity of 
Potassium Bromide may be doubled. 

Use developer at a temperature of about 70 degrees Fahr. 
After exposure soak the paper in clear water until limp, brush 
lightly over the surface while wet with a tuft of cotton and then 
flow developer over the print. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 107 

Velox Developing Papers. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDRO FORMULA. 

Water 10 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol , 7 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (Anhyd) 110 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate (Anhyd) 200 grs. 

Potassium Bromide, 10 per cent. Solution 40 drops. 

This solution will keep indefinitely if placed in bottles 
filled to the neck and tightly corked. 

It should be used full strength for "Regular." but can be 
diluted with equal parts of water when "Special" Velox is 
developed. 

It is important that the temperature of the developing solu- 
tion should be 70 degrees Fahr. In summer, if found neces- 
sary to cool the developer, do not place ice in the solution, as 
it will dilute it. Place the tray containing the developer into 
one of larger size, packing ice around it. 

The above may be rendered non-abrasion by addition of 10 
grs. of Commercial Iodide of Potassium to each ounce of stock 
solution. 



108 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

Wellington Bromide Papers. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 650 grs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 50 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 10 grs. 

Some people keep a stock solution of Sodium Sulphite, 
and take some of this when wanted and add the Amidol to it. 
Long experience shows that this will not do, as Amidol when 
used with stale Sulphite solution develops very slowly, and 
there is a great loss of brilliancy in the prints. The developer 
should, therefore, be mixed up as directed and used within 
three days of mixing. 

"AGFA"-METOL HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

Water 16 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 50 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 500 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 15 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 100 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 10 grs. 

The Metol must be dissolved in water first, and then the 
other ingredients added in the order named. This developer 
keeps very well in properly corked bottles. 

Whatever developer is used, the print becomes flatter and 
more of a brownish or greenish color the more Bromide there 
is present in the developer. A weak or highly strained devel- 
oper with a full exposure wields a softer and grayer result. 
Vigorous images, with good, rich blacks, can only be obtained 
by giving a short but sufficient exposure, and developing with 
a strong but slightly restrained developer, such as those given. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 109 

Wellington Gaslight Papers. 

"AGFA"-AMIDOL FORMULA. 

The ingredients should be dissolved in the order named, 
the Sulphite being dissolved before the "Agfa"-Amidol is added. 

Water 8 ozs. 

Sodium Sulphite 500 grs. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 50 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 2 grs. 

This developer, which gives brilliant blue-black tones, will 
only keep good for three days. After that time it should be 
discarded, and fresh made up. 

"AGFA"-METOL-HYDROKINONE FORMULA. 

The ingredients should be dissolved in the order named, 
the water should be cold, and one should be dissolved before 
adding the next. 

Water 8 ozs. 

"Agfa"-Metol 10 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite 350 grs. 

Sodium Carbonate 350 grs. 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 30 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 3 grs. 

This developer keeps indefinitely in well-stoppered bottles. 



110 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



The Making Up 

of 
Development Solutions 

If distilled water only were used in making solutions of 
developer, half the troubles of development would be avoided. 
If river water is taken it should be boiled, cooled and filtered 
before mixing, as it generally contains much vegetable and 
other organic matter. Well water that is free from iron and 
sulphur, and not too alkaline, may be used without boiling. 
Melted ice is good, but should be filtered. 

The developer should be made up with reliable chemicals 
to an established formula strictly according to instructions. 
When a convenient way of making up the solution has been 
fixed upon, these particular weights and measures should be 
used thereafter. This procedure should be so much a habit, 
and the confidence in the materials used (this includes the 
water) should be so based upon past experience or in the guar- 
antee of reliable people, that the developer should be the last 
place to look for trouble. A great many troubles laid at the 
door of the developer are the results of mistakes in exposure 
and lighting. The worker should be sure that his lighting 
ought to give him the desired contrasts and that his exposures 
are sufficient and not too great, before blaming the developer. 



Miscellaneous Formulae 



112 THE ''AGFA" BOOK. 

NEGATIVE VARNISH. 

Gum Sandarac 1 oz. 

Gum Shellac 2 ozs. 

Alcohol or Methylated Spirits 20 ozs. 

When dissolved, decant and filter. 

The negative should be slightly warmed before the varnish 
is applied. 

RETOUCHING VARNISH. 

Alcohol 60 parts. 

Sandarac 10 parts. 

Camphor 1 part. 

Castor Oil 2 parts. 

Venice Turpentine 1 part. 

DEAD BLACK VARNISH, 
for blackening the inside of camera, tube, dark slides, etc. 

Alcohol 8 ozs. 

Lampblack 2 ozs. 

Shellac 1 oz. 

HOW TO BLACKEN DIAPHRAGMS, ETC. 

Nitric Acid 4 ozs. 

Copper Wire y oz. 

When dissolved add \% ozs. of water. 

The diaphragms, etc., must be cleaned and heated and then 
immersed in the acid bath. Take out and brush all the green 
off, until the article shows black. 

CLEARING BATH FOR PYRO STAINS. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Iron Sulphate 3 ozs. 

Sulphuric Acid 54 oz. 

Alum 1 oz. 

Pyro stains on fingers may be removed by rubbing with a 
large crystal of Citric Acid directly after development, before 
the fingers have been dried. 



THE "AGFA" BOOK 113 

HOW TO REMOVE SILVER STAIN FROM NEGATIVES. 

Water 1 oz. 

Iodine 10 grs. 

Potassium Iodide 40 grs. 

When the Iodine is dissolved ' add while stirring a few 
drops of a strong solution of hypo, until the solution becomes 
colorless. Apply to the spot with a tuft of cotton, rubbing 
gently. Rinse well and dry. 

HARDENING SOLUTION. 

Water 30 ozs. 

Formalin 1 oz. 

Immersing the negative for a few minutes in this solution 
will render the gelatine perfectly insoluble, so that the negative 
can be dried by artificial heat. 



TEST FOR PRESENCE OF HYPO. 

Potassium Permanganate 2 grs. 

Potassium Carbonate 20 grs. 

Distilled Water 40 ozs. 

This forms a rose-colored solution. To test for presence 
of hypo in prints or negatives after final washing, allow nega- 
tives to drip into a small quantity of this solution ; if no change 
occurs no hypo is present ; if the solution turns olive the prints 
or negatives require further washing. 

"PER CENT." SOLUTIONS. 
In each fluid ounce of a 

1 per cent. Solution there is 4.37 grs. 

2 per cent. Solution there is 8.74 grs. 

3 per cent Solution there is 13.11 grs. 

4 per cent. Solution there is 17.48 grs. 

5 per cent Solution there is 21.85 grs. 

6 per cent Solution there is 26.22 grs. 



114 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

7 per cent. Solution there is 30.59 grs. 

8 per cent. Solution there is 34.96 grs. 

9 per cent Solution there is 39.33 grs. 

10 per cent. Solution there is 43.70 grs. 

15 per cent. Solution there is 65.55 grs. 

20 per cent. Solution there is 86.40 grs. 

25 per cent. Solution there is 108.25 grs. 

30 per cent Solution there is 131.10 grs. 

35 per cent. Solution there is 152.95 grs. 

40 per cent. Solution there is 174.80 grs. 

45 per cent. Solution there is 196.65 grs. 

50 per cent, Solution there is 218.50 grs. 



BRILLIANT FINISH FOR BROMIDES. 

Pure White Wax 1 oz. 

Dammar Varnish 200 nuns. 

Spirits of Turpentine 1 oz. 

Rub a little on print and polish with a stiff brush. 



Weights and Measures 

According to Existing Standards 



116 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



UNITED STATES WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

FLUID. 



Gallon. Pints. 



Ounces. 



Drachms. 



128 = 1,024 = 

16 = 128 = 

1 = 8 = 

1 = 



Mimims. 

61,440 

7,680 

480 

60 



Cubic Centimetres. 

= 3,785.435 

= 473.179 

= 29.574 

= 3.697 



Sixteen ounces, or a pint, is sometimes called a fluid pound. 



TROY WEIGHT. 

Pound. Ounces. Pennyweights. Grains. 

1 = 12 = 240 = 5,760 

1 = 20 = 480 

1 = 24 



Grams. 
373.24 
31.10 
1.56 



APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 



Pound. Ounces. Drachms. Scruples. 



1 = 12 = 



96 = 

8 - 



228 

24 

3 

1 



Grains. 

5,760 

480 

60 

20 

1 



Grams. 

373.24 

31.10 

3.89 

1.30 

.06 



The pound, ounce and grain are the same as in Troy 
weight. 



AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 



Pound 
1 



Ounces. 

16 

1 



Drachms. 

256 
16 

1 



Grains (Troy) 
7,000 

437.5 
27.34 



Grams. 

453.60 

28.35 

1.77 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 117 

ENGLISH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 
APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 

20 Grains = 1 Pound = 20 Grains 

3 Scruples = 1 Scruple ' 60 Grains 

8 Drachms = 1 Drachm = 480 Grains 

12 Ounces = 1 Ounce = 5760 Grain* 



FLUID MEASURE. 

60 Minims = 1 Fluid Drachm 

8 Drachms = 1 Fluid Ounce 

20 Ounces = 1 Pint 

8 Pints = 1 Gallon 

The above weights are usually adopted in formulas. 



All Chemicals are usually sold by 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

2711/32 Grains = 1 Drachm = 27 11/32 Grains 

16 Drachms = 1 Ounce = 437J4 Grains 

16 Ounces = 1 Pound = 7000 Grains 



Precious Metals are usually sold by 

TROY WEIGHT. 

24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = 24 Grains 

20 Pennyweights = 1 Ounce = 480 Grains 

12 Ounces = 1 Pound = 5760 Grains 

NOTE. An ounce of metallic silver contains 480 grains, 
but an ounce of Nitrate of Silver contains only 437j/ grains. 



118 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



UNITED STATES FLUID MEASURE. 

G*l. Pints. Ounces. Drachms. Mins. Cub. In. Grains. Cub. C. M. 

1 8 = 128 = 1,024 = 61,440 = 231. = 58,328.886 = 3,785.44 

1 = 16 = 128 = 7,680 = 28.875 = 7.291.1107 = 473.18 

1 = 8 = 480 = 1.8047 = 455.6944 = 29.57 

1 = 60 = 0.2256 = 56.9618 = 3.70 



IMPERIAL BRITISH FLUID MEASURE. 

Gal. Pints. Ounces. Drachms. Mins. Cub. lu. Grains. Cub. C. M. 

1 8 = 160 = 1,280 = 76,800 = 277.27384 e= 70,000 = 4,543.732 

1 = 20 = 160 = 9,600 = 34.65923 = 8,750 = 567,966 

1 = 8 = 480 = 1.73296 = 473.5 = 28.398 

1 = 60 = 0.21662 = 54.69 = 3.550 



HANDY EMERGENCY WEIGHTS. 

In an emergency, coins may be used as weights. The 
weights given in the following table are near enough for all 
ordinary purposes : 

Dime 40 grs. 

Cent 50 grs. 

Nickel 80 grs. 

One-quarter Dollar 100 grs. 

One-half Dollar 200 grs. 

One Dollar 400 grs. 

By simple addition and subtraction a great many different 
weights can be made with these coins. For instance, to obtain 
a weight of 10 grains, place a cent on one side of the scales 
and a dime on the other, and then add enough of the chemical 
to balance it, 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 119 



Table of Cpntents 

A. PAGE. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 12 

"Agfa"-Blitzlicht 40 

"Agfa"-Eikonogen 14 

"Agfa"-Film 47 

"Agfa"-Glycin 17 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 24 

"Agfa"-Intensifier 32 

"Agfa"-Intensiher (copper) 36 

"Agfa"-Metol 7 

"Agfa"-Ortol 20 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid 22 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 26 

"Agfa"-Reducer 37 

"Agfa"-Rapid Fixing Salt 34 

Ansco Film 46 

Artura Paper 92 

Azo Paper 95 

Astro Paper 94 

Argo Paper 91 

Avoirdupois Weight 116 

Apothecaries' Weight 116 

B. 

Barnet Film 50 

Barnet Plate 57 

Barnet Paper 96 

Brilliant Finish for Bromide 114 

C 

Clearing Bath for Pyro Stains 112 

Collodion Plate Formula 10 

Cramer Plate . . , 58 

Cyko Paper *,-*, ,,,,,,,, , , ,,,,,. , ., t MM i ... f 1 1 97 



120 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 

D - PAGE. 

Dead Black Varnish 112 

E. 

Ensign Film 53 

Eastman Film 51 

Eastman Plate 64 

Eastman Bromide Paper 98 

F. 

Foreword 3 

Frilling 6 

Flashlight Proportions 41 

Factorial Development 44 

Fluid Measure 116 

H. 

Handy Emergency Weights 119 

Half-tone Formula 10 

Hammer Plate 66 

How to Blacken Diaphrams 112 

How to Remove Silver Stains 113 

Hardening Solution 113 

I. 

Introduction 5 

Illford Paper 100 

Illford Plate . 71 



K. 

Karbo Paper 101 

Kruxo Paper 102 

L. 

Line-work Formula 10 

Lumiere Films 54 

Lumiere Plates 73 



THE "AGFA" BOOK. 121 

M. 

Making Up of Solutions 110 

Metalotype Paper 103 

Monox Paper 104 

N. 

Negative Varnish Formula 112 

Nepera Paper 105 

P. 

Price List 120 

Pinholes 5 

Photo Gelatine Formula 10 

Photo Micrograph Formula 17 

Per Cent. Solutions 113 

P. M. C. Paper 106 

R. 
Retouching Varnish Formula -. < 112 

S. 

Seed Plates 76 

Specialties 25 

Streaks 6 

Standard Plates 82 

Stand Development 44 

T. 

Test for Hypo 113 

Troy Weight 116 

V. 

Velox Paper 107 

Vulcan Plate 85 

W. 

Wellington Paper 108 

White Spots 5 



122 THE "AGFA" BOOK. 



Index to Price List 

PAGE. 

"Agfa"-Amidol 13 

"Agfa"-Blitzlicht 42 

"Agfa"-Copper Intensifier 36 

"Agfa"-Eikonegen 16 

"Agfa"-Glycin 19 

"Agfa"-Hydrokinone 24 

"Agfa"-IntensiKer 33 

"Agfa"-Improved Flashlamp 43 

"Agfa"-Metol 11 

"Agfa"-Ortol 21 

"Agfa"-Pyrogallic Acid 23 

"Agfa"-Rodinal 31 

"Agfa"-Rapid Fixing Salt 35 

"Agfa"-Reducer 39 



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