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iHAKD-SEe.iri^j^. .".:.o:t-"«ir«flE»siTr 





Firtt Edition, May 1900. 
Second Editim, September 1905. 



Stcoai Edttloa 
Reviled and EnUrgcd 








Ml rights rtHrred 


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Plan of the Work .•••••• zii 





Additions during Printing 



A. Signs and Abbreviations 


B. The Pronunciation of Latin and Latinised Words 


(7. The Use of the Terms "Right" and "Left" 

. 867 

D. Bibliography 





Every other anthour may aspire to 
praise, the lexicographer oan only hope 
to etoape reproach." 

Db Samitxl JoHNSoir. 


iIn the preface to llie first edition of thU Glossary I gave the 
reasons which laduced roe to undertake it, and the fact that 
the impression was exhausted some time ago, is a gratifying 
conRrmation of those reasons. The delay in preparing this second 
edition has been entirely due to pressure of occupation. The 
"Additions" of the edition of 1900 are now combined with the 
t^nns recently pubiisiied in one alphabet, for the earlier sheets 
being stereotyped prevented their incorporation. 

One special feature of the recent additions is that of the phyto- 
geographic terms coined by Mr F. E. Clements, and published in 
Engler's " Botanische Jahrbiichcr," xiri. (1902), Beibl, No. 70, and 
since added to in a vohime of the Nrbruskn University, " Studies in 
the Vegetation of the State," ill. (1904). I felt bound to give these 
in their entirety, though in many coses I could only copy the defini- 
tions given by the author, e.g., the use of " creek " in the American 
sense, and in a few cases classical authority and grammar have been 
ignored. The special terms contrived for American conditions have 
not been transferred to these pages, and those who require to know 
the meaning of such compounds as "Carex-Sieversia-Polygonum- 
coryphium," with its vernacular equivalent "The Sedge-am art weed 
Alpine meadow formation," are referred to the work above quoted. 
In the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique," Ser. VIII. Jtiv. 
(1901), 213-390, will be found another elaborate series of terms, 
which have not yet made their appearance in English books, and 
are consequently not embodied in the following pages. 

The task of selecting what terms shoidd be included in any 
branch of science offers many difficulties : in the case of botany, 
it is closely linked on with zoology and general biology, with 
geology as regards fossil plants, with pharmacy, chemistry, and 
the cultivation of plants in the garden or the field. How far it 
' I advisable to include terms from those overlapping sciences 





which He on the borderland is a question on which no two 
people might think alike. I have given every word an indepen- 
dent examination, so as to take in all which seetned needful, 
all, in fact, which might be fairly expected, and yet to exclude 
technical terms which really belong to another science. Words 
in common use frequently have technical meanings, and must be 
included ; other technical words are foreign to botany, and must 
be excluded. Thns "entire" must be defined in its botanic 
sense, and aiich purely geologic terms as Triassic and Pleistocene 
must be passed by. The total number of rare alkaloids and 
similar bodies recorded in pharmacologic and chemical works, if 
included, would have extended this Glossary to an inconvenient 
size; I have therefore only enumerated those best known or of 
more frequent mention in literuture, or interesting for special 
reasons. Many words only to be found in dictionaries have been 
passed by; each dictionary I have consulted contains words ap- 
parently peculiar to it, and some have been suspected of being 
purposely coined to round off a sot of terms. 

The foundations of the list here presented are A. Gray's 
"Botanical Text-Book," Lindley's "Glossary," and Heiislow's 
"Dictionary," as set forth in the Bibliography. To these terms 
have been added others extant in the various modern textrbooks 
and current literature, noted in the course of reailing, or found 
by special search. The abstracts published in the " Journal of the 
Royal Microscopical Society" afforded many English equivalents of 
foreign terms. In drawing up definitions, the terms used to denote 
colour were found to bo so discordant that I was compelled to make 
a special study of that department, and the result will be found in 
the "Journal of Botany," xxxvii. (1899) 97-105. 

The total numbers included in this Glossary amount to about 
16,000, that is, nearly three times as many as in any other previous 
work in the language. The derivations have been carefully checked, 
but as this book has no pretension to be a philological work, the 
history of the word is not attempted; thus in "etiolate" I have 
contented myself with giving the proximate derivation, whilst the 
great Oxford dictionary cites a host of intermediate forms deduced 
from ilipelia. The meaning appended to the roots is naturally a 

rough one, for to render adequately all that may be conveyed by 
many of tbe roots is manifeBtly impoesible when a single word 
muBl eerve. Tbe accent bas been added in accordance with the 
beat discoverable usage ; where pronunciation Tariea, 1 have tried 
to follow tbe best usage ^ in some words such as "medullary" 
I have given tbe accent as it ia always spoken, though all the 
dictionaries, except Henalow's, accent it as "nied'ullary." When 
words have become thoroughly anglicised, it would have been 
mere pedantry to accent them otherwise ; we say or'ator, not as 
in Latin, ora'lor. Tbe accent does not imply syllabic division, but 
when the accent immediately follows a vowel, that vowel is long; 
if one or more consonantfl intervene, then the vowel is short; thus 
ca'nus, eas'fus, as though they were printed d-nus, c&s-sua; in a few 
instances the pronunciation is also given when the word would 
otherwise be doubtful as to sound. 

It has been my duty to condense the definitions, often a difficult 
matt«r when a longer explanation would have been far easier to 
draw up. I trust that I have in each case succeeded in setting out 
the main or central meaning, but many writers have their own 
modified or restricted meaning of even well-known terms. To still 
further economise space, words drawn from the same leading word 
hare been grouped into paragraphs, thus obviating the necessity of 
repeating the leading word with its meaning many times over, and 
oidy requiring the additional root to be given ; occasionally this 
has led to tbe intentional neglect of strict alphabetic sequence. 
The names of groups of plants have given much trouble ; whilst all 
proposed terms manifestly could not be included, many have be- 
come so often quoted as to demand recognition ; as a rule I have 
not admitted groups of even ordinal value, still less of lower rank. 
Compound terms have been left out when intermediate between the 
meaning of the primitives ; those included seem to require mention 
on special grounds. 

Authors' names in parentheses, following definitions, are those 

who have been taken as authority for such deiinition, and when 

the actual language is used, it is indicated by quotation marks; 

the authority sometimes coincides with the inventor of the term. 

. Substantives in the headings have been shown by the use of a 


cftpital letter, odjecttvu and other parte of speech by a small letter ; 
eiceptioDs being adjectives drawn from a proper name as "Dar- 
winian," and those which form part of such terms as "Conjoint 
Bundle." Greek ia quoted in the original characters, Latin in 
italic, or where otherwise it would be doubtful, it is indicated ; this 
is further explained on the page facing page 1 of the Glossary; the 
use of small capitals refers the reader to the word so printed for 
a definition of the term, or to a correlative term. 

The Appendixes hardly need any detailed explanation ; it will 
be seen that the Bibliography is a selected list of works chiefly 
in alphabetic form, arranged chronologically. General dictionaries, 
and large works in which technical terms form only a small pro- 
portion of the whole, have been omitted. 

The pleasant taak now remains of acknowledging moat heartily 
and gratefully the invaluable help I have derived from a host of 
friends during the progress of the work. Dr D. H. Hijott, F.R.S., 
not only encouraged mo to undertake the labour, but has always 
been ready to help with his advice ; Mr A. GkpP, of the British 
Museum, has read the whole of both editions in proof and part in 
revise ; he has spared neither time nor trouble to ascertain the 
correctness of the derivations and accents throughout, as well as 
in the special branch of descriptive botany which is under his 
charge; Professor Hartoq, D.Sc, of Cork, improved many defini- 
tions, and Professor H. H. W. Pkaeson helped in the compilation of 
the work in many ways. To these four genllemen I am especially 
indebted for their kindly undertaking a troublesome task. 

Other friends at Kew and the British Museum have also 
generously aided me when drafting the manuscript Mr G. 
Massek, Mr C. B. Clarke, F,R.S., and Dr Otto Staff have 
constantly been under requisition; Mr I. H. Burkili^ Mr C. H. 
Wright, Mr G. K. M. Murray, F.R.S,, and Mr N. E. Brown, 
have given me help with the greatest readiness and kindness; 
other specialists to whom I have occasionally appealed, and 
never in vain, are Mr J. G. Bakkr, F.R.S., Professor I. R 
Balfouk, F.R.S., Mr L. Boodle, Dr H. T. Brown, F.R.S., 
Mr F. Darwin, F.R.S., Mr F. Escoube, Professor J. B. Farubr, 
F.R.S.. Mr W. B. Hkmsley, F.R.S., Mr E. A. Rolfe, A.L.S., 


Mr R S. Salmon, F.RS., Professor J. W. H. Trail, P.RS., and 
Professor H. M. Ward, F.RS. To each and all my indebtedness 
for their kindness is great^ the value of this Glossary being largely 
due to their ready aid. 

In every volume of similar character to this which I have had 
to consult, I have found errors, sometimes numerous, occasionaUy 
serious. This much larger volume offers a greater chance of error, 
and it would be vain for me to expect to escape entirely, but I 
trust that comparatively few errors will be found. 

I am glad that the volume has proved useful both to the student 
and the expert; to the former as supplying a concise definition, 
without pretending to supplant the fuller information of the text- 
book ; to the latter acting as a reminder of some obscure term, or 
word employed in a special sense. 


Clapham, 18^ Jvly 1906. 



Headings in black type ; substantiveB are shown by the use of an initial capital 
letter; adjectives and adverbs by the use of a small initial letter 
(exceptions are explained in the preface) ; the sign '^ is used to avoid 
repetition of the heading; t ^m used by Lindley to denote a word 
which is obsolete or improperly formed, and is used here for un- 
doubtedly obsolete terms. 

Latin words are shown by being in Italic where practicable, elsewhere by the 
abbreviation Lat. appended ; other languages are indicated by Fr. for 
French, Qer, or Germ, for German, ItaL for Italian. 

Cross-references in small capitals are employed to spare repeated defini- 
tions; they are usually preceded by the sign of equality, =. When 
variants do not differ save by the termination, that only is given, but 
if the accent varies, they are spelled out in full. A few well-known 
abbreviations are also employed, such as dissylL for dissyllable, pr. for 
pronounced, and the like. 



m, priTstive; in Oreek compounds^ 
n-ilhout, M amtaloua, without 

StaU; modified into ui- or un- 
■ euphony, 
ab {Lst.), h-oin ; ta abnormal, a 

deviation (rom rule. 
abax'Ul (af>, axif, an axle): (1) ap- 
plied to an embryo which is out of 
the axis o{ the seed by onesided 
tbioknwa of the albumen ; (2) the 
tide of A lateral organ away from 

I, shortened, 

the a: 
a&bTs'vlated, abbrevia' 

another ; Abbrerla'Uon, a selection 
of thuee moat frequently aaed will 
be found in the Appendix. 

kbar'iBnt, atier'raiui {abtrro, I go 
utroy), differing from aaaal gtruc- 
tnni, departing from the type. 
AtMin'tioli, non -typical itructure. 

■Uairic {Abia, a Sr-tree), usod of 

PMctain ooniferoos prod nets which 
Are not eioluaivel y from A bit* ; - 
-Anhy'dild*, the ream in turpentine ; 
— Ao'ld, a compound of the fast with 
irat^r. forming a Ursa proportion 
of the constituenU of frankinocnM) : 
Airimn, reain from Abitt pteiinata. 
DC., and At/letlUl, a sugar from 
the leavea of the same apecies ; 
aUetl'niu (Lat., made of fir), ap- 
plied U> cryptogams which (1) 
rw on firo, or (2) resemble a 
tree in luiliit, as AUia abittina, 
AUosen'eals (a, not ; ^loi, life ; v6'«rit, 
beginning), spontaneous genera- 
tion ; the assumed origiu of living 
orgSJiisms from aoa-livmg matter. 
AMM'tloa [abjeaio, throwing away), 
easting off spores from a sporo- 

Ln), in- 
?, loosening 

abjolnt' (a{> + joint), to delimit bf 
■epta or joints ; a hybrid word. 

AlDiimc'tioii (abjuiKhu, unyoked), 
cutting off spores on portions of 
growing bypbae by septa. 

AblACta'tion {aUado, 

AblftqnB^tlDn, Ablaqur 
the soil round trees. 

ablaaf le (a, not : ^amit, ■ bad Or 
shoot), applied to parts of a flower 
or other organ which have not been 
developed ; abtaa'toui, without germ 

Abnoda'UoB {ubnodo, to ulearof knots), 
cutting away knots from trees. 

abnurm'sil, otmoraia'iui (abnormis, ir- 
regular), deviating from rule, as 
when stamens are opposite the 
petals instead of being alternate. 

■botlsr'lliU {oil, from ; oriyo, a source), 
iodigcDoua 1 not introduced. 

Abor'aon (ofcord'o, a miscarriaga), 
Don -formation or incompletioa of 
a part ; abort'lve, nljorti'eiis, im- 
perfectly developed, as abortive 
etnmenH when filaments only ; 
nbort'ient, beoomioa abortive. 

rtra'ded, abni'tus, rubbed or scraped 

from abroad eitremity; •■ pln'nate, 
a pinnate leaf ending with a pair 
of leaflets. 

AVaoiBB-Iay'sT, a layer of separati 
especially with reference ~ 
phenomena of defoliation. 

Abaoii'iloa {ahaciimJi, cut off), detach- 
ment of spores from a sporopbore 
by the disBpjiearance of a connect- 
ing lone, 


Ibiliitli'lo, referring to Arifmiaia 
AbtiiUhium, Linn. ; AbatnUi'ln, b 
bitter principle obtained fi'oia ihe 

■,b'Mlnt«(ai«olM'ltu , perfect, complete ) , 
ootoBl, the oppoaile of relative. 
The iibaalute dintction of an embryo 
maj be inverted, but erect rela- 
tively to the carpel. 

AbsorpUan ^ahsorf/iio, a beverage), 
the aut of imbibing liquids or gaaes. 

AbStrlo'tlOD {ab, from, ttrktus, drawn 
together), a term which covere both 
Ab junction and Abaci hbjob. 

kcalyca'Ua (i, not; «itXuf, a cap) ; (1) 
having no caljx ; (2) having no ad- 
heiion to the calyx ; aoal'^olne, 
Aoaljo'litoiu, aealyti'nut, acai'yda, 
deatitDte of calyx. 

tMna'OBOiu {iKotm, a tbiEtle-bead ; -I- 
a^^eoiu), prickly plants, such ae 

Aauth'a, Aean'tbon (aiai^i, a thorn), 
a spine or prickle ; acantha'ceom 
( -I- aoeoos), (1) armed with prickles ; 
(2) belonging to the natural order 
Aoaotha'ceae, the typical genus 
being AcaiitKtu, Tourtii acaatli'lna, 
pertaining to that genus ; MHW- 
tbocarp'ooH (ca^TSi, fruit), having 
spiny fruit ; acanthocla'dous (iXidiH, 
a branch), aamlKodu'divi, with 
spiny branches ; aeanthoph'orom, 
{fifKii, I bear), 'uaiU.hoph'orits, 
■pine- bearing; ao&n thop'oda us (roui, 
roSDi, a foot), having petiole or 
peduncle furoiahed with spines or 
prickles ; Aoanlb'ospberes [cpa-ipa,, 
a sphere), ciliated bodies in the 
celU of N'itella, termed "Stachel- 
kitgeln " by the GerDuma. 

Aeafo-doma'tU [Acaruf, the typical 

I of n 


in plants adapted 
to shelter Acari when of service to 
the host. 

uarp'oue (a, not, nafnrot, fruit), des- 
titute of fruit, 

uauleic'ant, acauUsc'em, becoming 
stemleaa ; aeaiil'ine, ftcaul'osa, 
ftMnl'oni, acaai'in, stemless or 
seemingly so. Aoanlo'sls, abnor- 
mal deficiency of stem, 

MKMS^OlTfaeMMK), something added), 
tin addition or appendage ; ~ Bnda, 
those additional lo the axillary and 
normal buds, and frequently as- 
suming their function ;~Br*nehea, 
those which spring from the fore- 
going ; - Cell, the siater-cell of a 
guard-cell of a< stoma : - Fruit*, 
parts which are conspicuous hut 
form no part of the pistil, as the 
enlarged torus of the strawberry, 
a paeudo-carp ; ~ Qonld'lA, forma- 
tions occurring in Macorioi besides 
the typical EOnidia- 

acddsnl'U ^adventitious. 

aod'sna (Lat.) denotes an end having 
an acute sinus between two rounded 

Aoconunoda'tlini [aixoTivmodatio, an 
adjustment) Adaptation. 

aoereis'e&t, accrtic etu, increasing in 
size with age, as the oalyi of gome 
plants after flowering. 

accrete' (accre'lai, grown together), 
agftlutinate, naturally grafted. 
Aocre'ttOQ, Accri'lio, (1) growing to 
one another ; (2) increase by addi- 
tion of particles to the outaide. 

ftccumb'ent, actiimb'tnn, lying against 
another body ; ~ Ootyle'doni, those 
having their edges against the 
radicle, thus o = . 

acellera'tuB (Lat.), somewhat oceroee. 


aoeph'aloas, in^tph'aixui (a, without ; 
KfipaKii, a head), headless ; used (or 
an ovary which is not terminated 
by the stigma, as in Labiatae. 

Acer'io, pr. a-ier'-ik, pertaining to the 
genus Acer, the Maple or Sycamore. 

sharp), needle- shaped, like the 
leaves of Piaia ; Acero'su, a term 

Sroposed by A. Braun for the 

acar'vate (acen-vj, a heap), heaped 
up ; Aoer'viilui (Lat., a little heap), 
pt. Acer'TUli, amall cluatera, aa of 
Fungi appearing on bark or leaves. 

a«etab'ullform, aeetaiiulij'orm'u {Ace- 
tabulam, a cup or vinegar cruet ; 
fonaa, shape), saoaer-shaped, used 
of the ImctificatioDof some lichens ; 

Met&b'uloiu, attlabu'Uuii, artlabu- 
to'tiu are vtriatioaa in form of tho 
word; AMtab'nlnin (Ltt,) tbe ra- 
ceplBcls of some Fangi. 

MSU'rloQi {aetiaria, Tegelablm with 
vinegar), relating to ulod berb« ; 
Ac'etATy, Grew'g t«rm for MdadJng. 

kca'tlc, pertaining to vinenr, ate- 
iMm; ~ PBrmmtA'tlon, oxidstion of 
alcoholio liquidi, caased by the 
oompoand FaDgus.populKrly known 
M " Mother of Vinegar,' Bacte- 
rium xylin-atK, A. J. Brown ; m'«- 
lOM, aa/o'«iu, tour, acid. 

-a'ctiu, a Latin aufEi of resembluice, 
a< /blia-etus, leaf-like ; in Eagliah 
it becomes -aetoiu. 

AebM'ii&, AcliBe'nlum.^AcHKNi. 

AiCbM'iiaeup (axa*),!, not gaping; 
icaprdt. fruit), or Ache'iiociirp, any 
dry inilehiBL-ent fruit. 

AehMOopIiy'tiun (a, privative, x:'"*"! 
I open, ^urir, a plant), a plant 
witb indehi>c«nt fruit. 

aetwtl'ai? (a, without ; x<'^<i ^ 
lip), wanting a lip, as aome Orobida. 

AellUM, pr. a'kSn', AcIlt'nitim{a,aoi; 
Xttru, I gape), a imatl, hard, dry, 
indahiwnnt fruit, slrictly of one 
floe oarpel aa in the buttercup ; 
oooMlonally consisting of more than 
DOS oarpel as in Compoeites, in the 
latter caae with adnata calyx. Also 
spelt Alceiw, Atte'ntnm, etc. ; Acheno' - 
djntn, a double nchene, as the ure- 
roocarp of Umbelliferae. 

uUainyd'Mna, achlajngd'eua (a, with- 
out ; x^•>^^^. *■ cloak), deatitute of 
perianth, aa in willows. 

AoliyTOpIiy'tiiill {ix"/"'! chafT; ^vror, 
a plant), a plant wif 

(o, without ; xi™*" . 
ealonr) ; (1) without colour, ach- 
n>aua:(2) not readily taking colour ; 
~ tplDdle, the thread-like proto- 

Elaamia figures in karyokuiBaia, 
stween the polss ; Acbro' matin, 
Plemining'e term for the basic eul 

ccptible of staining thau the ch[< 
tnoaomea, the Nuclein of fitras- 

aebn'mm, Mb'rooa (f^potu, to be 
without colour, pale), colourless ; 
hyaline ; Aobr(M>dez'trlB( -I- Dextrin) 
one of the group of dextrins not 
coloured by iodine ; <^. Esvthbo- 


Ado'nlA [aew*, a nenlle). the bristle- 
like continuation of the rhachilta 
of a grass ; Aoic'ulAa, tooth-tike 
prooesaea of the hynienium of 
certain Hymenomycetous Fungi ; 
ado'DlAT, acicvla'rU, slender or 
needle-shaped ; Aelc'ulate, on'cu- 
la'tuK, iKieuti'mi*, auperlicially 
marked as if scratched with a 
pin ; adan'Urorm {/orrna, shape), 
needle- like. 

ACtdo'tna (aiiJuTQi, pointed), when 
branches or organs end in a spine 
or hard point. 

A'clea (Lat. edge), the edge or angle 
of certain stems. 

ao'iform {a^ua, a needle; forma, 
shape) = aoicular. 

MdiuoMUS {ar.inuj; a Seeded berry -t- 
aceous), full of kernels. 


■ {"C 

leaf), a fleshy leaf, curved 
use a BcimitHr ; actnac'lform, atina- 
cijorm'U, scimitar-shaped. 

AClna'ilQa {acinas, a grape-seed), 
when a stem ia covered with 
vesiolea resembling grape-seeds : 
ic'lne, Ac'inuB (Lstl, a ainale 
member of eui^h fruits aa the 
raspberry, a drupel ; formerly 
used for a bunch of fruit, as of 
grapes ; Adnodau'drui iierifnr, a 
tree), a plant whose fruit is in 
bunches ; ac'InoM, oeiWrnM, like 
grapes, or of granular bodies re- 
sembling them. 

Aclpbyl'lm (ilirl), a point, ^iAXdv, 
a leaf), a linear and pointed 

Aclythrophy'nun (a, without, t\flepor, 
a door, ^i-rio, a plant), plants whose 
seeds are supposed to be naked, 
without a pericarp. 

acond'yloie, aooud'ylons (a, without, 
(dfiuXoi, a knuclde or finger-joint), 
said of plants whloh hAve no joinli 


Aoou'lttn, ths alkaloid derived from 
nmnkihood, Afonilunt Napellvt, 

A'aom, Ihe fruit of ths oak. 

AMtylft'don (a, without, mrrvXTiSiiy, 
mod for aeed-lobe], a plaot deati- 
tut« of cotyledons or aeod-lobea ; 
CryptogoDU sod Buob planU as 
OtuevM. ; adj. acolfle'daDOua, 

MsnunpMli'Tyoiu (itpot, apex, i^l, 
on both sidiH, |3ptlu, to bad),pUnlB 
producing lateral as well as apical 
buds ; A(mmplilb't7a, a division 

Eroposed by Eodlicher to em- 
rao« DicotyladoDs aad Gymao- 

AorobUata'alB (inpoi, apei, pXaarii, 
a bud), wben the germ-tube of 
Lidiens prooeedi from an end of 
the ipore ; MiroblM'tIa, Colakov- 
■Icy's term for the branch of an 
innoresoence which arises from a 
terminal bud ; Aorot/rrk {Spv0, to 
bud), plants growing at the point 
onlj, as all Aorogena having a 
diatinet axis ; adj. acrob'iTaiu. 

MSOCarp'ona [itpas, apei, (aprAi, 
fruit), terminal fruited ; a niaio 
division of Mosses ; aeiod'rDniona 
(tfiliot, a course), venation -strand a 
uniting at the apex of the leaf, as 
in Plimlai/o ; acrog'Mnoua {lifiot, 
Korriage), planta producing the 
egg-apparatus at the summit of the 
embryo-aac, as in most Augiosperms 
(Van Tiegbem) : Acrog'amy, may 
be double, OS wben the pollen-tube 
and egg- apparatus are both apical ; 
or partly basigamic, either of male 
(pollen-tube) or female (egg-ap- 
paratus) ((/. bahioahouh) ; ai^^- 
uunu (y™. raw). (1) used of 
plants growiuB at the apei, such 
aa Aa'rocanj, Ferns ; (2) produced 
at the end of a filament, as Home 
fungus spores ; ADTOEOtlld'lnni 
(yirot, offspring, ilSoi, form), a 
gonidium formed at the apex of a 
gonidiophore ; acrog'ynous lyurli, a 
woman], having the stem teroiiu- 
Bted by female organs, as arche> 
gonia ; Aorogyra'tua {yynidus 

turned away), having em els«tia 
ring at the point (Lindley) as in 

Ao'ronns (iierhaps from axpoii, the 
highest point), Necker's term for 
an ovary without a basal disk. 

BcronyoIi'Ina (aipoi.apei, Iruf , a claw), 
curved like the claw of an animal. 

acrop'etal (a(>i«, apex ; pelo, I seek), 
produced in a sucoeasion towards 
the apei, as applied to develop- 
ment of organs ; the antithesis 
of basipetal ; AoToaATQ'am (ouf. 
ffapnt, flesh), Desvaui's term Cor 
a berry from an ovary with adnate 
calyx, as the currant ; Aoroscop'lc 
{rKBTcu, I see), looking towards 
the summit ; the reverse of basi- 
BCDpic ; Acrotpenn'eae (aripna., a 
seed), Ac'rospsrms. those Angio- 
sperms which are presumed to 
have begun with simple poro. 
gamouB mode of impregnation ; cf. 
PLEUKOSPEaH ; Ac'roapire (inr«(M, 
a ooil), Crew's name for the Grst 
sprout of a germinating seed, the 
extruded radicle ; Bcroapl'TSd, ger- 
minated, aa in malting ; Ao'TDspors 
[aropi., a seed), aapore formed at the 
summit of a aporaphore or fila- 
ment ; Aorot'oilDUa {rorot, a cord), 
the tissue of the pollen -sac in 
Orchids prolonged to the upper 
end of the anther. 

Addnenoh'ynai (d«Tlt, a ray ; iyx-^a, 
an infusion], cellular tissue farmed 
in a star.ahaped manner, as seen in 
a cross-secliou of Jujirii/j acUn'lc. 
used of certain rays of the spectrum, 
wbiob have a powerful effect on 
growth ; Act'iDlun, the ohemic«l 
action of sunlight; Aot'tncKjarp, a, 
fruit which is actlnocarp'lc {tapirit, 
fruit), having tlie carpels or pla. 
ceotaa radiating like the spokes of 
a wheel ; actlnomorpb'lc, -OtU, 
(>iopip>i, shape), having fiowers of 
a regular or star pattern, capable 
of biaeotion in two or more planes 
into similar halves ; Actinomyco'sis, 
a disease in Ihe jawbone of man and 
animals attributed to a Fungus, 
Nocardiii .4f(i"iio»nyi'om, Trev, j 

AOtliioat'omoQi (iTTii^ia, a mautb}, 
radiate Blmuture round the oitioles 
of Liubens uid other CryptoganiB. 

AetSnoiib'tji» lAclinophrya, Ehrenb., 
a genus at KhiEopoda), Gobi's t«rni 
for globes with mdiallr-armnged 
pseudopodia in Pttndoapora, a 
parMite on Ytmchtria. 

wtlra, in a growing condition ; not 

MU'lMto, acitlta'lug [aculeug, a ating 
or prickle), armed with prickles as 
the Item of a rose ; aou'leolate, 
aoiUoltt'tue, somewhat prickly ; 
Moleo'tiu, decidedly prickly ; 
awlelfonn, acuhi/ormia {forma, 
abftpc), prick le-abaped : Aon'leoB 
(Lat.]. a sharp epidermal eraerg- 
eoce, a prickle ; pi. Acu'lel % 
AoultoliU, a dimiaDtive of the last. 

Aca'men (Lat, , a point), a tapering 

Eoint ; acn'mlnate, ocumina'fiu, 
aving a gridually diminishiog 
Eint ; acumtnlfo'Ilaa {folium, a 
J), with acuminate leaves ; 
Ken'mlnoM, ocumino'nM, approach- 
ing acuminate; acumln'nlate, having 
a (mall terminal point. 

acutftaff'nlar, acutan^ulus (Lat.), 
when sterna are sharply angular ; 
aent4te' [aoi'tus, sharp), slightly 
ahaa-peoed, ai at the apex ; acu'te, 
cwu'/iM, diwinotly and abarply 
poioted, bot not drawn out ; ftcn- 
tUlor'lu (Lat., Jlos,fioTit, a fiower), 
with acute perianth Begmonts ; 
BcnUto'Uiu (Lat., folivm, a leaf), 
with pointed leaves ; acntUo'bui 
(Lai., lobut, a lobe), compoaed of 
lobea which are acute ; acutlaa'DiiluB 
(Lat.), somewhat acute. 

MTC'llo (a, not : tiiiXof, a circle), used 
of flowen whose parte are arranged 
spirally, not in whorls. 

Idavta'tlcm [adaptatw, fitted), the 
means by which bq organism adapts 
itself 'to changed surroundirgs. 

adftz'l&l {ad, to ; axit, an aile), the 
side or fiuio next the snis, ventral. 

■ddooant'U Va'M {ad, to ; duco, 1 
lead), the spirals in tracheida, 
whioh spirals were (onnerly enp. 
poeed to be vessels. 

Addncto'iM, Hedwig's term for arohe- 

Adelph'ia (iSi\^!, a brother) ; (I) a 
fraternity : ■ collection of stamens 
bv their filamenls into one bundle ; 

El. Adelpb'lae, two or more similar 
undlss : (2) oaed by Gallon for 
fraternities in variation ; adelph'lo, 
mlclph'ictu ; adelpb'oos, adtlph'ui, 
having brotherhoods of stamens ; 
AdelpliDtax'y (rdfn, order), need 
by Uartog to express the matual 
attraction of spores of Afhyla and 
of Pedastreas after extrusion. 

Ads'Ioms (possibly from iBn\ot, con- 
cealed)=:ALBija(n7ii (Llndley). 

Aden {iS-iv, a gUnd), a gland or 
tubercle: Aden'UOnn {forma, shape), 
a hybrid term for gland-shaped ; 
adeuoca'lyx (to^Af , a cup), where the 
calyx is studded witti glandular 
Hpots 1 ad'enotd {dStn, like], gland- 
tike : ~ Or'Kau, Williamson's term 
for the ligulo of Lepidodendroa -, 
Adenopet'oly [w^^Q^eJ•, a flower 
leaf), a term proposed by C. Morren 
for the transformation of nectaries 
into petals, or similar structnres ; 
Adsn'ophore {iiopiu, bear), a stalk 
supporting a gland ; stdenoph'orans, 
l)earing glands ; adsnopIiyllouB 
{itiOWor, a leaf), glandular leaved ; 
adenop'odons, tt((en'opi« {ro^'i,wsiiii, 
a Coot), with the petiole or ped- 
uncle glandular; adenaste'mon 
{uTiiiiav, a stamen), having glands 
on the stamens ; Ad'enote, od'enons, 

Ades'my [a, without ; liaiii^, a bond), 
Morren's term for oongenit«l separ- 
ation of parte normally united. 

Adaux'lon \ad, to; fluo, I flow), the 
attraction by which sap is drawn 
towards the leaves. 

adglu'tin&te, odQliUina'ha {ad, to, 
gluti'io, I glue), grown together, 

ftdlie'rant, adht'rtns {atihacTeo, to stick 
to), the union of parts usually 
separate ; ~ Verna'tlon, when the 
bs«B of Fern - fronds are continn- 
ouB with the caudei ; Adbe'renoe, 
Adiie'atoii, the state ol ooion with 

^■^ AdlpooalliiloiM 
^^f some Dtfhcr org 


other organ or part ; Ooebel 
3tfl it to iiniDD of digjimilar 
p»rtB ; ef. CoHMiou. 

AdtpooellnlOMi (adeps, adipU, fat,+ 
CellnloBe), ■ group of bodies which 
oonatitate the aaticuUr tisauea of 
leavetaad fruits; y". CbLldlosb. 

■dlBealUCo.withont; SiBmt.aquoit), 
deatitute of a diak. 

MUl'gaiiB [ad, to ; liyo, I tie}. holdiBg 
fut ar biDding, u the atrial hold^ 

'nlnm (Lat,, a prop) = FrL. 
■ {ad, t 

Art)),, dripos, a man), Delpino's 
tiCrm for lelf-sterjtitj ; that is, 
when a flower does nob a«t seed 
from its own pollen. 
I leeid'lo(pore(Jc«i(Ji'u7n, infra ;rTMA, 
a seed), a apore formed in the fol- 
lowing : Iwld'iluu (probably from 
oUiSiiir, a little house], a sporocarp 
oonsiating of a oup-Bhapod envelope, 
its iaterior surFaca ooaaisting uf a 
hymeninm, from whose basiilia 
icidioeporea are succeasivety 

, I D 

when in germination the albumen 
remaini attached to the sheath of 
the cotyledon. 

■anaa'oent, ■ulnnn'cm {adna-for. to 
grow to), growing to or upon some- 
thing else; Adnaa'cenBi (l)ayouDg 
bnlb, as a "clove" of garlio ; (2) 
a sucker of some MoDocotyledoos. 

iA'bmX*, adna'tu» ladnaacor, to grow 
hole length, 

- Anth'ei 

ached the . _._„..., 

:■ have the lobes attached 
tneir entire length to the filament ; 
JLdsA'tlon, the state in question ; 
Mtnexed' {ntxo, to tie], used of the 
lamellae of some Agarics, which 
reach the stem, but are not adnate 
to it; Kd'preBied, adprt»i^iu = ip- 
PBB99ED; adacend'ent-AscENDSHT ; 
adaOTK'ent, adnirj/etu — xs>iVHGCyT. 

adnnc'ate ,adime'oai ( adutKui, hooked ) 
bent or crooked as a hook. 

adiut'iu (LaL), soot -coloured, fuli- 

■dT«BUt iDaa, adventifim (ad, to ; 
rento, I come), applied to plants 
lately introdncnd ; ~ Snda, those 
produced abnormally, as from the 
■tern instead of the axils of the 
loaves; ~ Roots, those which do 
not arise from the radicle or its 
lubdivisions, but from other part ; 
advent'ive = * dvbmitiocb. 

ad'varse {iid. to; i-rno, I turn] ; (1) 
opposite : (2) facing the main axis 
or other object; (.dvera'ui (Uit.), 
opposite ; UTeralfo'Ilate. advtrti- 
fo'liut (/i^ium, a leaf), having oppo- 


1 off; the 

pounded by Peraoon as a genus of 
Fungi, but it is now raBiirded aa 
only a form-genua of Uredineae, 

Aecol'ogy^EooLOQT or Okoolooy, 

M'nsni (Lat. bronze), used for brasa- 
uoloured ; sometimes for verdima. 

aequft'lla. aa'qoaiu (Lat.], e^jnal or 
eijualling ; similar in size, uniform ; 
aaqnllat eral, acqaUaUra'lU, equal- 
sided, of equal length ; aequAll- 
flor'UB (Lat.), with flowers alike in 
form and character ; Mqulnui^nu 
X (Lat.), equal sized ; aaqnlsoo'Ual, 
at'/iiimxtia'lie, pertaining to the 
equinox ; used of flowera, which 
open or close at ataMd hours ; 
a«q^valr'is (Lat.), having valvea 
of flowers or fruit of siniifar size ; 
aeqntve'nlna (Lat.), all the veins of 
equal distinctness. 

M'raOiiE (<^': air) Boota, peculiar 
roots rising out of the mud, covered 
with a looae, corky tissue, and 
having large intercellular spaces ; 
ati'rlal, ai'riiu, plants (or parta of 
plants) living above the surface of 
the ground or water : ~ Plants, 
epiphytes, as Tiltanibia and many 
tropical orchids ; ~ Boot!, those 
which vegetate altogether above 
the ground ; Aiieuch'yina {lyxi'/ia, 
that poured oul), Schenk's tann 
for a tiasne of thin walled cells, 
and large intercellular spaces, 
found in the stems of some marsh- 

Slants, serving for aeration or 
oating tissue ; ASro'Mua (^In, 
life), an organism which thrives only 
in the presence of air or ino oiy- 

gen ; applied to cerl^in bkcteria : 
aCtoMd Ue, [leedLiig air for exist- 
ence ; AtroUo'st*, life Id atiao- 

klgae Bj /Wtu i-uicu2onM, Line ; 
Ae'rophyta (ipvTir, a plant), air- 
plant, epipbyte ; Atrotax'la (rojii, 
urangement), Qsed by Hartog to 
express poaiti ve stimnloa by oxjKen 
to the irritabilitj of looapores. adj. 
ktrotMt'la; Urot'ToplEm [Tpnii, a 
taming), the mflnence of gaaet on 
growth and curvature, it ii a 
farm of CuBMontoPisu ; adj. airo- 

aAs'glnoM, aamg'UioTU, oerugin'tHt, 
oerwjino'jin laengo, the mat of 
brau), the blue-green colour of 

AMc'olln, an alkaloid from the horae- 
chestnut ; AtxHlus HippMoMmvm. 

AMth«'Blft (aJtSriBis, perception bj 
tenae], Caapeh'a eipresaion to de< 
iiot« the capacity of an or^ to 
reapond to deGnit« physical stimuli. 

aw'tlTal, aeaIi*Kt7u, belongiog or pecu- 
liar to suinmer; AastlTa'tlon, Aesli- 
ta'lio, the manner in which the 
parts of a flower are folded up before 

l«t«^o = Etakrio. 

Aatlulinm (nWaXot, Boot), a o 

nnd sporiferona body, formed 
% a combination of plasmodia 
in Mfzogastccg ; At. trjiticum. Fr., 
is known as "Flowers of Tan"; 
MthA'llold {tlim, form), like the 

mttbe'aa [ii/B^t, unusual), in com- 
ponnds = □nnsual ; aSthaogam'lc, 
kUtwo^amona (7afi'", marriage}, 
ajnonymous with oryptogamic. 

uUw'rena (I«t.), atrial, 

Utlol'ogy (atriiiy, cause ; \lrtos, dis- 
oonrse), the doctrine of the cause 
of disease, as of Vegetable Galls ; 
also spelled Altlology and EUolog?. 

Afflo'lQ [affin'ilru. near nlliance), the 
oloMiess of relation between plants 
as shown b; limiUrity of import- 
Hit orpna. 

afflx'ed {agljffu, fastened to), fixed 

Agr'unae (a, without, yi^iot, muriage) 
— Crjptogamae : agam'tc, Bx'Mnom, 
Neokct's term for cryptogamoua ; 
Agamogen'etlB (-y^'nm. origin), 
asexoal reproduction by buds, 
gemmae, etc. ; AgamopbJ u [<tiarir, 
a plant), C. Maomillan's term fot 
protophytes; Agam'ospore (irxopd, 
a seed), a spore or gonidium pro- 
duced asexually. 

A'gw, a gelatioons product from 
Agar-agar, or Agal-agal, which 

Igar'lc Add {Agarintt, Toum,, a 
genus of Fungi), found in Potypcrus 
qgieiaati'. Fr.; Igarlcls'ola (coio, 
I inhabit), applied to a ^raaite 
on Eymenomyoetous Fungi ; Hens- 
low prints it as agarlc'olDB. 

ajretl'lllB ; (a, without, yirot, lex. race) 
= neuter ; a'genus, used of cellular 

Aggad'nia (derived by liecker from 
dyytiStat, a little vesael), the spor- 
angium of Mosses, and of Puccinia. 

Ag'getes (Lat.), banks or rockwork 
in botanic gELt-dena. 

agglom'erate, agg:loni'eTBted, agglom- 
era'ru9(Lat. crowded together), col. 
lected into a head, as the flowers 
of Scabiona. 

aBgla'Unkte (agglviino, I glue), glued 
together, as the pollen-mauei of 
Asclepiads or Orchids ; accrete. 

ag'gTegate, as'gragatad, asffrega'Cus 
(Lat. assembled), collocted to- 
gether, as the Bowers of Cii»cula; 
~Plowera, those gathered into a 
head, as Dip'Ofia, but not aa in 
Compoaitiip. which are capitulate ; 
- Frnits, collection of senarate 
carpels produced by one flower, 
the product of a polycarpeltary 
apocarpous gynaecium ; Aggre- 
ga'tlon, condensation of cell-con- 
tents under some stimulus. 

■SnT'lan (agrat'iui, pertaining to 

the field}. H. C. WaWon'a term for 
the cultivable portion of Great 
Britain ;~BeBlon,<iiviiled into three 
— Zonal, tbo Buper-, mid-, and infer- 

ftsrest'ol {agf^ia, beloDginK to the 
tield) ; (l) Wataon's term for plants 
growing in arable ground ; (2) rural 

af^eult'iml Bot'anr {agrkiUlvra, 
fauabandry), that part of ecanoniic 
botAoy which relates to farm plants. 

ifCroMog'n.jibj {iyixiiTn i, grass, ypa^, 
writing), the description of grasses ; 
AgToatol'osT (X^oi, discourse), tbe 
botany of grasses. 

■CTIUl'lllll :: (a, witbont, 7urj], (I 
woman) ; •j^'ii'leni ; (I) said of 
stamens which are free from tho 
ovar; : -2) pistils wanting, deiti- 
' ' rtils : ag'ynous, monstrous 

ly T. MartyniiB E'gret. 

■lOPllTl'lttt (alar, eternity, ^r/XXoi-, 
a leafi, everjireen. 

fttmli, in Greek compounds — blood- 
coloured ; properly htsma (from 
al/ia, blood). 

jUr-BIaA'deri, intercellular spacea in 
■ome Algae, serving as floats ; ~ 
0»T'lty= ~CHAMBKBa(2): - Cells, - 
I, (1) intermllular apa 

prismati , , . 

cellular space beneatb a stoma -, 
PMWaffe, = ~-CiiAHDRit; ~ Plants, 
epiphytes, as Bromeliada nnd some 
Orohids; -Pora.-STOMA ; ~8acs, 
cavities in the pollen -gruns of 
Pinut ; ~ Vessel, term formerly 
applied to empty tracheidii, etc. 
Ak«u', Ak«'i]lmn,=ActiENE, Acuen'- 

AkllM'sl* [a. without, KirTjait. move- 
ment), iocrease without tbe phenom- 
ena of karyokineais ; A'klnetes, in 
green Algae, sinele cells whose 
walls thicken and senarate from 
the tfaalIu^ oorreaponding t 

tme oeU'tomtatioD, or rejnvene- 

AlSL (Lat. wing), (I) formerly aji axil, 

but DOW obsolete in that aense ; (2) 
a Istoral petal oF a papilionaceous 
ftower ; (3) a membranous expansion 
of any kind, as in tho seed of 
Bignoniaceae ; (4) employed by 
Wm. Smith for the marginal pro- 
cesses in Sarirella ; (5) the outer 
segment of the coronal lobes ia some 
Asclepiads ; (0) In UoBses, the a'lar 
cells are those at the haul angle 
of a leaf. 
Al&bas'tnim (Lat. bud), a flower-bud. 
a'lar, aJa'rii {ala, wing), (!) formerly 
used for axiuaris ; (2)~0aUi, </. 
alata', aia'ltia (Lot. winged), fumiabed 
with an expansion, as a stem or 
petiole ; alateplima'tni. when the 
oommon petiole of a pinnate leaf is 
margioally winged. 
alWtoB {Lat.), whitened; Albe'do 
( Lat. ] whiteness; Albeflw'tion tjacio. 
I make), blanching -, albas'oant, 
al'bieaiu, tending to white ; 
albiitiilia, ai'bidua, albin'etit, 
whitish ; Al'blnlam, a disease from 
absence of normal colouring, dia- 
playingitaelfasanAlbi'no; alU'nut, 
al'bulns (Lat.), somewhat white. 
Al'bnineii (Lat., white of an egg), the 
nutritive material stored within the 
seed, and in many caa as surrounding 
the embryo. (Notb. Not to be 
oonfounded with animal Albumen.) 
Al'tnuulD. in plants, the proteids 
which readily coagulate from their 
aqueons solutions by the action of 
heat or acids : Albu minotdi (cISoi, 
resemblance), nitrogenous organic 
subatsncDS, proteids ; albomlno'is, 
altni'mlnolls, a/&iimino'«ii«, contain- 
ing albamen, a term restricted to 
seeds ; Albn'mliuites, nitrogenous 
substances insoluble in water, 
soluble in dilute ooids or alkalis, 
e.g., gluten of wheat; Albnmo'Hi, 
similar to albuminates, but soluble 
in water ; commoo conatituents of 


Albni'nltaa {albmitum, sap-wood), a 
diseue in treos, a tendeacy to 
remain soft like Ihe recent wood ; 
Mbnr'noni, relating to the BBp- 
wood ; Albur'niuo, the outermost 
and youngest portion of the wood, 
Blill penneablo by ftuids. 

allnu (Lat.), dead white, without 

•loohol'lc FcnDanta'aon, sc Fekuen- 

■iMtor'lioM (Alfcloria, Ach.. tlSm, 
rcBcmblanoe), filamentous, aa the 
thallu* of the gonui after which it 
is Dstned. 

ilapldo'tiM, ^ (a, not, XmSvtit, scaly), 
destitute of scurf or flcalea. 

AlMl'roii,orAlea'rcme(lXfl/|Mi', whaaten 
flour), proteid granules of globalios 
vid peptones, present in seeds, 
— Jjiftr, a, special periplieric layer 
in most seeds, espeoially in graases ; 
■di., alemon'le. 

Alwdne {i\4iu. I ward off), a aub- 
■tance hypothetically nasiimed to 
be formed by plants for protection 
against bacteria ; antitoiiBC. 

Al'gae {lUga, seaweed), cbloroph^ll- 
containing Thatlophytes, which 
usually grow immersed in water, 
fresh or marine; known popu- 
larly as " Seaweeds." or " \Vater- 
w<«ds " ; ti'gll. relating to Algae ; ~ 
-Layer, the green band of gonidia in 
the thalluB of heteromeroiis lichsns, 
also styled - -Zone ; algl'nus J re- 
semblinga threadlike Alga -. Al'gist 
= Alg«l'<%llt, a student of Algae ; 
tl'gona^AiAHi,; AIkoI'os?. (X^yoi, 
diseoiirse), the acience o( Algae ; 
Alga, F. von Mueller's word for 

Alien, used by H. C. Watson for 
introduced plants which have be- 

Allferoni {ala, a wing -. /ero, I bear), 
having wings ; al iform {/orma, 
shape), wing-flhaped : alig'eroiu) 
{gtro, I bMr) = AijyBHtiPS (Croiier). 

ftlljgr'Dlar {a from, ligiila, strap), 
Rnaaow's term for that leaf-face in 

r Sdaf/imlla wbioh is turned away 

^.trotn the lignle and stem. 


AUmo'nU t (I-At. nouriBhment) = 
aauendiug sap. 

-alis, Latin tenninatioa indicative of 
belonging to ; thus radic-alis, be- 
longing to the root, radix. 

. Dill.,. 


belonging to the order Alisn 
ofwhich the genus named is the type. 

AUi'ulaa (Fr. AliiaH, madder-root), 
the colouring matter of the root of 
madder, BiAta tinctoria, Linn. 

Alkacblor'opbyll (Alkali -<- Culoro- 
pniriJ.), a presumed constituent of 
nhloropbyll, produced by the 
action of on alkali i allnles'eeiit, of 
the nature of an alkali ; ilk'alolds 
(flios, resemblance), general term 
for the organic bases in many 
plants, markedly medicinal or 
poisonous, as Morpliia. Strychnia, 

AUaSopbyU'eos (iWayii, a chan^, 
^liXXsv. a leaf), alternate-leavi^ ; 
ailBgoste'moii, oUagoitem'ononi, 
when stantens are attached alter- 
nately to the petals and the torus. 

allanto lUofd, applied to ferns which 
resemble tbe genoe AUaTiloilia, 
R. Br. in habit or fructification. 

ftUftnt'oid (dXXdi, a sausage, cli«, 
form), sausage -shaped. 

aUataoton'lC (iWAaau, to vary, rifet, 
turgesconoe), movements of mature 
organs, caused by augmentation of 
turgor with diminution of rotume. 

aUla'ceoui, -ceiis {allmm, garlic, + 
areiu). having the smell of garlic or 
onions ; AlllA'rins (Lat.) is a 

AUi'anoe, a group of Orders, now 
iiflUoliT styled Cohoet. 

AUiera'tor {niligo, I bind} = FuLcnuM. 

allech'ious, (dWoi, another, xp^a, 
coraplerion), changing from one 
colour to another ; AUocar'py 
{rapirii fruit), fruiting From cross- 
ferttlizcd flowers ; AUog'amy {ydiiot, 
marriaee], oross- fertilization : sub- 
divided into Gkiti)."jooamy, (rom 
another flower on the same plant, 
and KsNCKiAUy, from another 
plant of the same species ; adj. 

Alliiol'yslB (.ciUotDi, dilTerent, Xtiirif, 

lomiDg], ftpplied to the mode in 
whicb natural diistoM oatg on the 
endogperm of the dat«, and the 
uhangea thereby caused. 

aDol'ropoiu (dUm, noother, rparii, a 
turn), MacLeod's term for plants 
having Btorea of honey open to all 
iDBect-viaitim ; UJotTOfj, other- 
wifle turned orfonaed. 

UpM'ttiiw, al}iej((ri*, Btriotly ap- 
plicable to plants growitig above 
the limite of forest growth, on the 
Alp, but practically Bynon^monB 
with Alpine: alpM'Ur ( Lat. ) la u>ed 
by aome botanists for the more usual 

tlpUtomor'pliDni (dX^ru, pearl 
barley, it'p'Hl, form), like barley- 
meal ; applied to certain fungi. 

alp'lcuie (alpii/'etia, bred in the Alps) 

klp'lne, aljA'mii, properly denoting 
plants belooging to the Alps (alpff, 
mount&ins), but frequently used in 
a w ider sense, embracing alpeetrine, 
as well aa the higher situated plants. 

alsliia'eeoiu (^'<nii£, Toum. +cF.orB), 
used of a, petal having a, short, but 
distinct claw. 

kltar'nate, aller'auA ; alUma'iua, 
alltr'aatu, (1) placed on opposite 
Bidea of the stem on a different line : 
(3) when between other bodies of 
Ihe ume or different whorls, ai in 
Umbelliferoo, where the BtaineDs are 
alternate with the petals, that is, 
between them : al(eislpln'tut«, or 
ftlt«ni'atal7-plii'nate, when the 
leafleta of a pinnate leaf are not 
exactly opposite each other ; Allei- 
vk'tXaa, AlUrna'tio.the faotof l>Ging 
alternate, ~ of Genera'tlona, the 
repraduction by organisms which 
do not precisely resemble the parent, 
but the grand-parcot, applied espe- 
cially to the regular sQCceasion of 
sexual and &ne>ual phases, as in 
Feros, eto. ; alter'natlTe. ul'crnati'- 
MU, in aestivation when the peri- 
anth segments are in two rows, and 
the inner so covered by the outer, 
that each exterior member overlaps 
the half of two int«rior members. 

maUow, . 

U> Aaporagin. 

Alt'itnde, .4/f>lu'(^(Lat. height), omd 
to specify the height above the sea 
of the vegetation in question. 

alata'cMM, aluCa'rtna (aiula, soft 
leather + CEOUS}, (I) the oolour of 
buff leather, or light tan ; (S) 
leathery in texture, coriaoeom. 

AlTe'ola {aiivdua, a hollow vessel), 

St. AlTSOlo* : cavities on the sur- 
tce, as Ibe pits on the receptacle 
of many Compoaitae, boney-oombed j 
(3) the pores of suoh Funsi at 
Polyponu : (3) the peritbecia of 
certain other Fungi ; A1t«'oU, the 
pit tike marltingB on the valves of 
many Oiatorooceae ; Aln'olax- 
plaima {-rXisjit., modelled), term 
used by Strasburger in plaoe of 
al'Teolate, alveola' t^ui, alvtola'ria, 
marked as though honey combed. 

Amadon' (Fr. ), (I) thesulistanoe of cer- 
tain Fungi used aa tinder, OS Poly- 
ponui/omfindiHiH, Fr. ; (2)a8atyptio 
when from the pubescenoo of the 
Phanerogam Mdatloma hirla, Linn. 

Amslthe'a S (A/w, together, iXBiu, I 
increase), used by Desvaux for an 
aggregation of dry fniita within a 
calyx which does ootbeoome fleshy, 
OS Altheniilla, and Sanjvitm-ba. 

Anuu'ittn (from Amanila, Dill.), (1) 
the red pigment of the pileus of 
the Fly-Agsrie, [2) the poLBonons 
alkaloid from the same, also 
written Aman'ittne. 

(tmtdK'enas (ambo, Irath, gintia, race), 
applied to a perianth whose ex- 

corolline, as Nymphaea. 

UDblgoUor'nB {ambigtius, doubtful, 
Jlos, JlorU, flower), applied by 
Caaaini to flowers of an indetarn- 
inate form ; Mnbl(['uotta, (I) said ot 
an organ when its origin is un- 
certain, tlius the dissepiment* of an 
orange may belong to the axis or 
the paries ; (2) of s plant when its 
position is donbtfuL 

kinblp'aroiu, -rus, t ' ' ' 


I bring forth), produoing two kinds, 
.aa when * bad coutftiD) both Sowers 
■uid lesTea. u Ibe Horae-ohestnat ; 
smUipotuigr'late ( + Sporamgiuu), 
kermaphrodiM Sowers, otherwue 
macro- and micro- sporangiftte, that 
U, beario^ ovulsi and poUeD-uca. 

An'b'ltiu (I^t. a going round), the 
outline of a Saute, aa of a leaf. 

UiLUeocBr'|nu(ri^\^, to be abortive, 
ta/iTii, fmit), when most of the 
OTulea abort, a few onl; becoming 
perfect leeda. 

■abrM'Ucn* (i/ifipirios, divine food), 
poeaening a strong scent of 
Ambrona : fragrant. 

boUwie garden. 

UU'UontUlK (Fr., arH^lioralion, an 
improvement) ~ Planta, thora 
bacteria which cause nodules on 
the roots of Leguminosic, 

Affl'ent, AmtiWum (Lat. a strap), a 
catkin, a spike of Sowers usually 
bracteata, andfrequentljdecidoooB; 
MnaBtk'oeona, -ceiu ( + etas] ament'i- 
fWu {/ortm, shape), unentU'erons 
(Jiro, I bear), catkin-bearing : cat* 
kin-Uke ; Imenf ula [dimioative) 
the eo-called catWins ^ the male 
infioreaccnee io Sphaifnum, 

amult'tlc (a. not, /upl^Tot, divisible) 
~ Paras, are thoee whose prolhalli 
bein^ insoffieiertly provided with 
nutriment are deilitute of meristem, 
and prodnce sntheridin only. 

■inetliTEt'aiu, amstbyst'lniu (Lat.), 
the colour of anii^thyat, violet. 

isutoe'doos (a, not, luri, with, after, 
dIkot, house), a psraaite which does 
not change its host ; the reverse of 

im'ldea (Am[-moDia]-!-ide) certain 
■nbatanc«s occurring in plants, 
•olnble in water, diffusible, ory- 
•talliublc, not coagulating on 
booing ; those of common occur- 
nnce are Asparagin, Leucin, and 
Tjroain ; Amid'olln, soluble starch, 
ftiialing in small qoantilj in ord- 
inar; st«roh-grBins. 

Aml'doplut [rXoirrit, modelled), bji 
wnr loc AMTUoeuiBi. 

Amlh/ali (a, witbont, ^'''d'. « web], 
- defined aa degenerate mitosis, 

when nuclear division takes place 

directly without the phenomena 

of karyokin^is ; adj. amlto'tle. 

Am'modyte* (i/i/icn, sand, tivi, I sink 

Ith'lloas, -lw» (ifii\tu, I tova], saod- 

Ammo'tda (Ammon, the Libjan 
Jupiter, (irst found near his 
temple^ a puugsnt gas ; tbe so- 
called volatile alkali. 

Am'nlon, Am'nlot {dijrioi, foetal mem- 
brane), a viscous Quid which Bur- 
ronnds certain ovules in an early 
stage ; unniot'k Sac, - Embrto- Sac. 

amoeliola li/uu^ioi, interchanging), 
applied to the jelly-like plasmodium 
of Myxogastres when in motion, 
resembline an ^moi'lia, a protean- 
efaaued rhiiopod ; Amoebold'eae, 
used by Gobi for the lowest forms 
of plant -life which are destitate of 

amorpb'oua, amorph'ai {a, without, 
nop-fiht form), shapeless, the form 
not regular or definite ; Amorph'- 
oplijte (^wir, a plant), a plant with 
anomalous flowers. 

IfflDbuitb'iiuu t i^fpl, around, irect, 
flower), the dilated receptacle of 
an inflorescence, oa in Dorfltnia ; 
clinanthiuni ; Am'pIUasteT {i'rri)p, a 
star), the combined nuclear-spindle 
and Gf tasters ; also for the com- 
bined cytosters only (Crorier); 
unpblli'loua (;}/oi, life), growing on 
dry land or in water eijiuilly well ; 
~ AlteroA'tlan, the adaptation of 
;inally of aquatic 




amphlb'ryons, -vtu {^piu, 

I be whole surface ; Amptiib'i7n, 
EndUcher's name for Monocotyle- 
dons ; ftucblcarp'ie. -pooa, put 

(arapriT. fruit), possesaing two kinds 
of frait, itifTering in character or 
time of ripening ; Ampblcarp'iiUD, 
an archeBonium persisting aa a 
(ruit'envelope, after fertilization ; 
unpbioarpoE'enoDB (Ytvfddr, I bring 


forth), producing fruit nbovo 

ErouDd, vhioh is Eubaequeotlf 
uried beDeath : rj. uTPOCtftFo- 
UKNDDB ; AmpMcotrla'don 

(noTuXi7aii», a hollow), Ue Vriee's 
t^rm for BOtjledoiu united so as 
to form a cnp, 
unphlgae'iu, ampblgv'an (sM^f, 
around, yq, the earth) ; (1) plants 
which are nativBs of both Old and 
Mew worlds ; (2) used of flowers 
which arise from the rootatoch ; 
aa Id KTOMtuxamkaovi,, TurcE. : Am- 
pUC'uiUM (7ri>iai, maJriage), plants 
whose fructilicaiioD is unknowTi, 
possibly of both sexes ; amphl- 
EUn'aoiUi unphl^'amous, suppoaed 
to be destitute of hoiiuI organs, or < 
where their presence has not yet I 
bean ascertained ; it has been ap- 
plied to Cryptogams; Amplliguf ar, 
proposed alteration of the follow- 
ing; AmpIUKMt'rta [yairTJip, bell^), 
Btipular ot^ans iu Hepatioie, whioh 
clasp the stem ; ampbls'snons 
<^f¥ti/i, I bring forth), growing 
ail rouod an object, used of Fungi 
when the hymenium is not re- 
stricted to any particular surface ; 
-Outra'tloil, the action of UalUago 
antherarum, DC., when it mingles 
the characters of both sexes by 
dsveloping in each, some of the 
aharttctars of the other ; Amphl- 
vOjOm {fiiia, intercourse), Bciual 
reproductioD (WeinmauD) ; AnpM- 
py'ranlu (n^Jiv, stone of fruit). 
the membrane of the pyrenin, the 
body of the nucleus ; AmpUsarD'A 
(("lp{, anpiht, flesh), an indehiscent 
niultilocular frait, dry without, 
pulpy within, as a molon ; AmpU- 
•perniluin {irr/p/ia, a seed), a fniit 
which is «.mpMap«t'inoiu, when the 
pericarp closely invests the seed and 
assamea its shape ; Ampbltlie'iilDin 
(Si)<ij, a case), poripheral layer of 
cells surrounding ihe endothociun: 
in the early stage of the develop- 
ment of the mosg-rapiulo ; adj. 
MnpUthe'dal : ampbli'ropal, or 
more correatly unpblt'ropooi -pus 
{rporlu, I turn), said of the ovule 


t is curved bo that both 
ends are brought near to each other ; 
Amphit'ropby, Wiesoer's term for 
growth when greatest in the shoots 
and buds on the aides of the mother 

Am'pliora (Lat. a wioe-jar) the lower 
part of ■ pyxis, as in Henbane. 

ftmplect'ant, a mi'lea'ana. amplettfrnu, 
ampla^ati^ (Lat.) embracing; sm- 
plM'us, in Vernation, when two 
aides of one leaf overlap the two 
sides of the one above it ; amplez'- 
tohol, amplfjricau'lU (mu/ia, atem), 
stem -clasping, when the petiole- 
leaf, or stipule, is dilated at the 
base, and embraces the stem. 

am'pUate, amiJin'tun (Lat.) enlarged ; 
AmpllAtlflar'ns X {fio», (lower), Com- 
poaitea having the ray- florets 
enlarged, as iu the Corn-flower 

Ampol'la, (Lat. a bottle), the flasks 
found on aquatics auuh as Utri- 
nduria ; ampullA'ceous, -miu, am- 
pul'llfonn, ampulli/oi^mU, swollen 
out in flaak-shape, as the corolla 
in some Heaths. 

Atnyg'dala {amy/jdalum, a kernel), an 
almond ; amysd'aUfoim {/ortaa, 
shape), almond -shaped ; Amyg'dtl- 
Un, B glucoside found in the fruit 
of many Rosaceao ; Ainyg'daUiie, 
pertaining ta or resombliog an 

unyla'oecnu (rf^uXDi-, tine flour-f-ac- 
eous), starchy ; Am'ylaje, an enzyme, 
the same as Diastase ; om^lfe- 
rous {^ipa, I bear), starch -bearing ; 
Am'yllii, a product of the action 
of diastase ou starch ; Arn'rlltas, 
skeletons of starch -granules com- 
posed of amylodcitrio (Belzung) ; 
Amylotecta'ila [pa-Kriipioii, a little 
rod), microbes producing hutyrto 
fermentation, ascribed to the action 
of BaeUlus Amylobaclfr.Ya^ Tiegh. ; 
Amylocel'lulose ( +Cei.lituisb), a 
supposed constiluent of starch- 
granules ; Amylodex'trln (-i-Dex- 
tktn) an intermediate in converting 
starch into deitrio;i;/'. Aciikoodes. 
Tun; Amyloffea'ftsts {yiniri^, be' 
ginning), the formation of storoh ; 

ua7log«i'lo {yendui, I bring fortli), 
producing BlATch ; ~ Bod!««, Lico- 
OFLASTiiis ; Amjlohj'drollBt (Dilup, 
water, Xiiaii, s looBing), &d eozjine 
which tranelorms starch by hydro. 
lysis : AmylobydroryBla, the act m 
question ; Bin';Iol(i [iliot. reeem- 
blaiiPe). analogouH to Blarch ; 
Amylolgti'clt«t t^cfioi, white], plaa- 
tids pnxiucing starch - granules ; 
Amyloryais (Xuifit, a loosing), trans- 
fornjalioD of starch into other 
bodies, 08 BugBr ; unylolyt'lc 
Ea'iyilia, an nnotgaDised ferment, 
whiah breaks up the starch cetl- 
oontents into dextrin and suuar ; 
Amy'lonie, a term applied to xylem- 
parenchyma, when it containa 
iCaroh ; AtoyloD. Amy'lnin, in coni- 
poeition = Stanch ; Amy'luiil-Bod'y, 
a roatid«d body in a chlorophyll 
band or plate, which is a centre □[ 
starch formation ;~Cui'trei, Stras- 
burger'i term for PrsENoliia; 
"Orains, or — Qran'DlSB, the lamin- 
ated bodies which are formed o£ 
starch as reserve material in pUnt- 
cells ;~Bt*r, a tnber-like organ in 
Chora aielligera, liauer, which is 
closely packedwithatarcb,itcDnBi8tB 
of an i8olal«d Hubl«rranean node ; 
Im'yloplaat (rXairrAt, moulded) - 
Ledcopi iSTJU, a colourless granule 
of protoplasm, which generates a 
starch - granule ; kmjloplut'lc, 
starch -forming ; Ain'ylosaB (Amyl. 
B chemical term + ose), a group of 
substances of which oelluloae and 
starch are the commonest. 

An'fcbU, pi. Anab'icea ( dl»^>au, I 
revive), those vegetative parts of 
Crypta^ms which perish below, 
but vegetate above, as Lycopodi 
Lichens, anil Hepatica, 

ui&bol'lo [Afi, up, j^nXi^, a Ihi 
stroke), adj. of An&b'DUsm, < 
ttmctivB nit'Uiboliam of the proto- 
plaani, the building up of more 
complex from simpler substances; 
" Bauatoffwecbsel of the Germans. 

Ainuamp'yl* t (ifaid^tiru, I bend 
bftck), lacerations of the epideimal 
layer as in some Agarics. 

UucwiUi'oDB (or, without, Stiuida, a 
thorn), witboat thorns or spines. 

MU.OftrdU.'oeimi, resembling ^nocor- 
diam, Linn., as t« arrangement of 
fruit, etc. 

AUMtlOTe'fll (dva^i^pijirii, a going 
back), retrograde metamorphosis (rf 
an organ or whotl. 

uuwToryiionB (u, not, itpot, apex, 
yurii, woman], said of Hepatics in 
which arcbegonia do not arise at 
lbs extremity of the shoot, which 
continues to grow ; i/. ACROdYNOCB. 

uud'tomons (avi, up, ipiiiat, a 
course], in venation, that in which 
the first set of nerves in each 
segment of the frond is f^ 
on Che upper side ' " 
towards the apex, au 
A^pitninm. ate. 

AnaHro be, AnaOro tdmn, pi. AnkSro'bliL 
(ov, without. i)tp, air, ^ipi, life], an 
organism able to lire in the absenoe 
of tree oxygen, aa many bacUtria : 
foo'DltatlTs ~ , organisms which can 
live as Ana^rvbea: ob'llgftte ~ , thoeu 
which can exist or thrive only in 
the absence of free oxygen. 

anafiro'btau, -blous, -blc, uuijrablo'tla, 
adj. : AnatiroMo'stB, Che state of 
living without oxygen ; Anad'ro- 
pbyte {ipvr6r, plnnt), a plant which 
does not need a direct supply of 

Anal'ogy (dtaXiryla, proportion], re- 
semblance ia oettain points, as in 
form not function, or function not 
form, as the tendrils of the Peu, 
SmiJaa', or Yine; "that resem- 
blance of structures which depends 
upon similarity of function" (Dar- 
win) 1 anal'agoua, resembling, but 
Dot homologous ; An'alogues. struc- 
tures corresponding to previous 

Anal'yElB (drdXuTH, releasing], (1) the 
examination of a plant to deter- 
mine its aflinities and position ; (2) 
the details of the Qower, etc, on a 
botanic drawing. 

anunetad'romatu tdvd, up, + Mbta- 
DBOHuus), in the venation of Fema, 
when the weaker pinnules are ana- 


dromoDS, uid the itroiigerarG cata- 
dromoiu; inAmarpb'Iim (Cnxeier), 
=Aiiunar^'oal(ni, Aiumonibo'dt 

(jiBfi^n^n, a ihaping), (U a gradual 
change of form >□ a group of placte 
in geologic time ; (!) a simil&rch&nge 
in B group DOW existing 1 (3)a8trik- 
ing ohange id form, the result of 
changed oonditionB of growth 
(Cnnier); ■uuulrar'loiu, -no, an- 
Ud'ront (bi', not, ii^p, irSpAi, a 
man), having no stamens, bat with 
Soral envelopes and pistils. 

WUWttL'BTOIla, Anuithe nun (ay, with' 
out, iw6i)p5i, flowering}, applied to 
filamenlB destitate of Anthers. 

ananth'ouB, -Ihui {ay, without. iySoi, a 
flower), wanting the flower : An'a- 
pbMe, Anapll'ul* (^omt, appear- 
anoe), the formation of daughter- 
nuclei in karyokineais. following 
the MktAFHaSis ; An'kp&yte {ifivriy, 
plant), the potential independence 
of every branch or eboot ; An'aplaat 
(irXoffrJt, moulded), A. Meyer's 
term for Liucoflahtid ; AnsBar'cs 
(^af>£, aapKbi, flesh), dropsy in 
pluite 1 aaaaiat'la (mdais. a stand- 
ing), reviving, as certain plants 
after desiccation. 

jA>atomo'ili (draoTD^u, I form a 
month), (1) Dnion of one vein with 
another, the connection forming a 
reticulation ; (2) Vuillemin's term 
for conjugation in Sfueor, two 
equal gametsa conjugate and are 
ont ofT from the parent hypha bjr a 

jLBUomj' {ipi, up, To^i, cutting) in 
botany, the study of structure ; 
uutt'ropat, more correctly anat'- 
TOpom, armfropuit (Tpo»*t. a turn), 
the ovule reversed, with tnioropylo 
close to the aide of the hllom, and 
the ohaloxa at the opposite end. 

An'bKry . Am'twry, a disease caused by 
Ptatmcniiophora, Woron. , 
in Crucifers, the root becoming 

an'ceps (L^t. two-headed), ancip'lta], 
audp'ltoua, two-edged, flattened or 
compressed, as the Bl«m of Siaym- 
briunt ajtetps, Cav. 

Asohn'tlii. the colouring nattar of 
Anchtua Hni:tana, Linn., now ». 
ferred to ihe genus Alkanna. 

ancla'lmt [iyielirriinit, a small hook), 

OHdar. -dra, -dio, -drum {irilp, drJIpif, 
a man), in (jreek oompounds = the 
male sei ; AndrocUn'lam(<Xv4. bed), 
the bed of the anther in Orchids, 
an excavation on the top of the 
column, usually written Clihan- 
DBiDu ; aadTWtloe'olou (SIi, twice, 
elm, house), used of a epeciea with 
two foruis, one male only, the other 
hermaphrodite ; anitrody'Dunoiu 
{idraiuy, power), of Dicotyledons in 
whicb the stamens srt^ highly de- 
veloped ; Androe'dum (oliat, hoDse), 
the male system of a flower, the sta- 
mens coUoatively ; Androcanutan'- 
gfiun {yiiiiTJti, a spouse ; i-Yyelot, a 
vessel), =A>THBBioriiM, the organ 
in which the male sexual cells are 
formed ; And'ragEunetes. zoosperms, 
male sexual cells ; AndrOEUn'ala- 
pbore i^icjw. I bear), male eeraal 
form of a plant, as in EqiUaftmn ; 
androg'enonB (-yivrau, I bring 
forth), male-bearing i-Oaitn'tlOIL, 
the action of UiaUago oniieramm, 
DC., when inciting production of 
male organs ; Indrogonld'lum ( + 
{!onidium) = ANi)ROSPOBK; androig'- 
ynal, anOroff'TOon* ■ niM {y«'^, 
woman), (1) hermaphrodite, having 
male and female flowers on the same 
inflorescence, as in many apeoiea 
of Canx ; (2) oocasionally used for 
HuNOSoiQcs; androgyna'rls (Lat. ) of 
double flowers in which both stamens 
and pistils have become petaloid ; 
androgyu'laus t (Lat.), betongiag 
to, or of BQ bermophrodtta Sower ; 
aadrogrnUlor'ns J {fioa, florin, a 
flower), a hybrid term for when 
the head of a composite bears 
hermaphrodite flowem ; ludrog'y- 
Dlsm, a ohange from tnonoeoioiu to 
dioecious ; andromonoe'doni (;^t, 
alone ; olioi, house), having perfect 
and male flowers, but no femals 
flowers ; andropet'aloua, aiulropt- 
(oio'n'us (r/TaXar, a flower leaf). 

ndoabl«, the stamens petaJuid. 

the piBtila itDcbkB^'ed : An'droplion, 
Andntpb'onun (^pu, I bear); (I) 
■ sapportof Kuolumn oF staaieiiB, u 
in Malvaceae; ('J) a stalk Bupporting 
■aandroeciumi Jji'dropbf II iipvWoy, 
*ieaS), a male Bporopbyll, BBtamen-. 
An'dnpliyU (<^UT6r. a plant), h mule 
plant in the sexunl genoration ; 
AndToapoiSn'KiiUil {aropi, a eeed ; 

. a ourvina), 
■ of gourog; 

AnelMtrot'onat (dvi, up : ^Xktikw, 

amber ; rirat, BtreMJ, thediminiBhed 
eicitatioQ prodaoed cm the vital 
movement! of pUnt« b; a. conatant 
ciureo tofelealricityfromtheanode. 

Anen'onin, an acrid aubslaoce 
from aevenl apeoiea of A-nemoiie, 

umnopb'Uoiu (iff/w), wind ; qbiX^ur, I 
love), applied to flawera which ore 
wind-(*rtiUi«i, the pollen being 
conveyed by the nir ; Anemopli'llae, 
wind-fertilized plaota ; Anamo'iij, 
wind-shake, a diBcase of tiniber- 

■ntntCt'DOM, an/roKtiio'sut, Mlfi«c' 
tout, ait/ruf'luji (Lat. 

alao apinily twiaCed. 
AmlWKfli'yiiui {Syt"'"'' • vessel ; 
fyxutw, an infusion), vaaoular 
tuaue of any kind ; aikKloctr'plc, 
UglDCUp'onl. -put [tapwii, froit), 
(1) baring the fruit invested by 
some covering which maeks it, as 
in the Cupuliferae ; (2) with 
Kpores enelosed iu some kind of 
receptaale ; a cluaed apothecium in 
Liobeni; Aiicfoff'anuM, Ardisaone's 
gronp tor Angiosperma and Gymno- 
sperms; Angl'oJnm.thBepore-caacof 
cortain Fungi (Lindley) ; aneiamo- 
noiparrn'ona (pd'or, ooe ; iTTipfia., 
eeed), having only one seed in the 
carpel ; Alt|loBp«ini'a, An'glo- 

— ~', plants having their eseds 

-* — a ovary ; uigloipeim'- 


al, belonging to the planta olaiaed 
aa Angiosperms : ~ type of Stomato, 

characterised bj the development 
of the inner and outer border of 
their cuticle, the outer border 
usually considerably thickened ; 
utjIOB'porona. used of CryptoganiB 
producing spores iu a cioeed recep- 
tacle ; Anglosp'oT»«, plants eo 

An'lM, Aii'g\dvji (Lat., a oomer), in 
botany not limited to the inolina- 
tion of two linae, but often refers to 
the meeting of two planes to form 
an edge, aa in angular stoma ;~af 
Devlatloii, that which a bnnoh or 
similar organ makes with its axis ; 
~of DtTenresce ; that measured in 
the cycle between auccosaive mem* 
bere in the same antral or whorL 

ukcnlUnlaetoTm'li (Lat., ahaped tike 
a aniall eel), applied by Koerber to 
Lichen-spores which ore worm-like 

ang:'iilU', angnlai'U, ang^a'tui, 
anffalo'sui {an^liu, a corner), used 
when an organ shows a determinate 
number of angles, aa the quadraU' 
gular etcma of Labialae i~I>lTer- 
gance, in phvllotaiiB, ia given under 
Angle of divergence; ang'iUate, 
anyiila'tuf. niore or less angular ; 
anpillBerv'ed, angvliiiOT'iiu t {"f- 

angle with the midrib, aa in most 
Dicotyledons ; aiiKalodent'ato {denn, 
dattut, a tooth], having ongnlar 
t«eth (Crozier). 

anputlfo'liate, -lloua, -lim {anguHwi, 
narrow ; /oliKm, a leaf), narrow 
leaved ; angnatlMpfal, anguelUep- 
(•UtM {Keplaia, a diviaion), having 
a narrow-partitioned fruit, as the 
silicle of Th!a«pi; AngiuUaap'tas, 
plants so characterised. 

Anholo'nlne. a poieonoue alkaloid 
from AHhiloiiivni Li.iciuii, Uan- 
ningB ; it reeemhlBE Strychnine. 

An'llophyll, a product from Chloro- 
phyll after treatment with Aniline, 
whence the name. 

An'bne, a transparent reain from 
Hymetmaa Otntrharii, Linn, 

anlM'tm, putnking af the Bvent 
of Aniie, Pitnpinelia Aninuin, 

mnlioVrloiu, anitob'rivt t (ivisoi, un< 
equal, t/i^pvor. emhryo), a naaiG 

SroQ U> Endogens, from ddo side 
Ins* sappoeBa to poaieBB greitUir 
developmg force than the other, 
henoe Qoly one cotyledon is 
formed ; kuisodf'aamoui, -taut. 
{Suraiut, power) = oniBolirioui ; 
AaitOgKtt'tAM (yn/UTris, • apouse], 
■aiual cells, ahowine a diffeFence 
between m&le and female ; onls- 
og'yiumi (7iirii, woman), with fewer 
urpeU than sepala ; •ulaom'tronB, 
anuomer'icai (fiipot, a part), where 
the parts of a, flower nre not all 
regulw, muymniatricil ; AM*0- 
mor'plk; (/lop^, sbaiw], change in 
fonnof an organ, caueed by itspoai- 
lion in relation to the horizon of the 
mother-axis : aniaopet'Bloai, -Ian, 
iriraKor, a flower lenf), having im- 
equal-aiied petsle ; anlfopliyll'onB 
{^iWot, a loaf), when Che two leavea 
of » pair are divene in shape or 
siie ; Anl'MpbTllr, med by Kraaser 
for the dilTerent forms of lEiaf- 
fltmcture duo to differeooe of 
pDsitioQ, as in aquatic plants, the 
Bubmorged or floating - leaves ; 
AaiMptiy'te* lipuTai', a plant), 
formerly uneil for Miisi^insaa ; 
aiiliaB«p'ilous,-^iu> (Sepalcu, calyx- 
leaf), the gepaU unequal ; aWIos'ta- 



■ (onjiiwi', a threa(lj = having 
atemens of different sieb ; uilso- 
•tamopet'aloi - anlsostemonous ; 
anlMtrop'lc. ulwCop'ons, (rpm-)), 
a turn), endowed with diiToreat 
kinds of irritability ; AaJso- 
trop'lam, Anlsofrepr, the quality 
itself, as shown in leaves and roots 
which reapeutivelf seek and shun 

An>*'e«i (Oei.) may be variously 
rendered w rudiment, inception, 
primordiniD ; <^. Supplement. 

aiuui'ed, aniux'tu (Lat, fastened to), 

■uwot'lnous, -niu (Lat. a jear old), 

applied to branches of last year's 

Ln'noBl, aaaua'iit, aa'nuiu (LaU 
lasting a year), within one year ; 
(1) used of plants which perish 
within that period ; [2) of the 
rings in wood which denote the 
year's growth ; f"""^] Bins, the 
marks seen on CCoas-aectionof wood, 
wliicb show the respective in. 
' ring each year ; ~ SlKiot, 

an'nnlai, arrnu'a/i), amtiitar'itu 
{anu-ulua, a ring), used of any 
organs diajrased in a cirole ; — Duct, 
~TeBBel, one in which the seoond- 
ary thickening baa taken plaoe in 
tbe form of rings ; an'nntate, 
nnniiia'Iuj!, annul i/oi-m'u [forma, 
shape), ring-shaped ; ABniUB'tlOn, 
a ring or belt (Crosier) ; mnanlftVl. 
lOrm, riug-like, ■« the apex of the 
tbecae of Scknam. 

In'nulul ( a ring) ; (1) in Fenu, 
the elaatic organ which partially 
invosU the tbeca, and at maturity 
burets it ; (3) in Fungi, a portion 
of the ruptured Risrginal veil, 
forming a frill upon tbe atipe after 
the eipanaion of tbe pilens ; (3) 
in Mosses, the riag of oelU between 
the base of the peristome or orifice 
of the capsule and tbe operculum ; 
(1) in Diatoms, used by W. Smith 
for a aompreased rim of silex 
within tbe fruatules of such genera 
as [Ihnlidontma, Kutz, ; (5)inEqai- 
setttceae, the imperfectly developed 
foliar abeath below the fruit Spike ; 
(6) Iba floahy rim of the corolla in 
AsrlepiadH, as the genus Stapt-lia : 
- Inferos, ~ mobllls, as defined in 
l.,~Bupenii, -Ahhilla, 

uiod'al, Miod'lo (sB^ up, iUi. a way), 
in tbe upward direction following 
the genetic spiral. 

anom'olous, -\w (a 
equal), unlike Its s 
points, contrary to rule ; aoomftlM'- 
dons X (nl'tii, a hoQse), — polygam- 
ous ; Anom'aly, — 1..:~- 3 — 

, without law. 

tfii/ict, a course), vezutinn nhich 
cannot be uti^ed to uiy Bpeoial 
ordsr (PrantI), 
Anoph/Uk, An'opbTtes {litui, upward, 
^vTor, plant), = Bryophylji, 

■Qlkte, coiled at the apex and then 
beat over in a loop, aa the shoolB ID 
aome Cucnrbitaceae (Cro£ier). 
iat-planta, plant! utilized b; ants for 
habiUtioQ ; see mtsmkcofhilous 

anUconlit'le (irrayui'iirriit.advenary) 
Bj>lDblo'tl(, where the BymbiontB 
are not niutaally helpful or neutral, 
but bnrtCul, at least on the part of 

An'teebamlMr, (anM, before), theapace 
immediately below the giiard-cella 
of a itoma ; ■utemarg'lnal (mar-jo, 
edge) used of aori which arc a little 
withio the inargin ; antema'dlm t 
{vKdiia, middle) itanding before the 
middle of another body, opposite. 

AuUn'oa (L^t. sail-yard) Darwin's 
t«nn for thfl slender ptocesa of the 
rostellnm in CalaKtum, borrowed 
from entomology ; anlamuefomi'lt 
X {forma, shape) used of the fruit of 
Ammi majii», Linn., the two styles 
BUggestin^ the anteBDOO of inaetts, 

■ateplacon'tal (ante, before, + Pla- 
orkta) in front of the placentae : 

ff. LiTEBPLAOBNTAL ; Allt«p0BkVl0II 

[pono, pontum, placed) = SJOFBB- 

ante'rtoT (Lat. that before) (1) of time, 
previous ; (2) of place, position in 
front, or tarned away from the 

aa'tani-poste'rlDr(Lat. later), median. 

Asthe'la (±r0>;Aii.v, a little Bower), the 
panicle of i/iithhm, where the lateral 
axes exceed the main axis. 

Antta'emy, Antbe'inla [ii'B4iuiv, flower- 

Eattern), a flowar-uluster of any 
An'tlur, AntlM'i«(iiF0i7pei, flowering). 
(1) that portion of a stamen which 
contains the polteo. usually biloon- 
^K Ur, and sessile, or attached to a 61a- 
^K Bwnt ; (2) an old term in Fungi, for 


the Antheridium ;~OKp,~OMe, ia 
Orchids, the outer deciduoua oose 
or bag, which is virtually the anther 
minus thepolliuia;~ Dust = Pollen; 
-LotMl, tlieoellB which ooDtain the 
pollen ; —Vlngf, the homy, lateruil 
expansions ol the anther-lobes in 
Aeclepiadeae : astharlferous, -ni.s 
(/ero, 1 bear), anther- bearing ; an'- 
UierleM, destitute of BJithers. female 
or neuter flowers -, anthorog'eDOiu, 
-ma (7CF>iliii, I beget), applied to 
double flowers arising from the 
transformation of anthers (De C»n- 
like ; Antheroma'Dla {mania, mad- 
ness) SI I ioordiaate development of 

AD'therld, Antherld'tuin {irSiipit, 
flowering, dlot, resemblance); (l) 
the male sexual organ in Crypto- 
gams, the analogue of the anther in 
Phaner<jgama ; (2) in Hjnienomy- 
cotes, an old term for Cybtioicij ; 
Antlierldas'Kia [AyytZof, a. vessel), 
microspores of Martilta and allied 

Elsnts ; A&therid'lophcrs [<popia, I 
ear), a unisexual gametophore, 
bearing anlheridia OQiy, a special- 
ined branch in Sphagnum and 

Antbeioptiyl'l; [irSijpit, flowering, 
«i\\at, a leaf), the vireacence 
and phyllomorphy of anthers ; 
AntlieroiporMi'glimt (irro^, a seed, 
d77ciDr, a vessel), a synonym for 
MicRosFOtuNQtitH ; AntheroitTB 
Anthtroxo'lda (fucr, an animal, 
iliat, resemblance), male motile 
cells provided with cilia, prodnced 
in antlieridia. 

Anths'iis {StBiint, flowerins), the 
eipanaion of the flower, the time 
when fertiliiation takes place. 

Antbennoryila X {tuBot, a flower, 
\iiau, a loosing), the metamor- 
phosis of inflorescence (Lindley) ; 
Anlhei'mas X an inflorescence ; 
antbaearp'oiu, -pun (jiaprii, fruit), 
fruits with accessories, sometimes 
termed psendoconis, as the Straw- 
berry or Pineapple ; Aathochlor'ln 
(x^wfwsi pal« green), the yellow 


coloariDg of flowers ; xiuithem ; 
Antbocltu'lniii (iXIi-ii, a beii). the 
reoeptscle of a CompoBite ; Antlio- 
n^uilii (.(uopai, dark blue), tbe 
blue, ■omstiniea rod, colouring of 
flowers ; AnthD'alam {itBiiii-^i, 
flower-lite], the cspituliun of the 
Compoaitae, bj some restricted to 
the involucmm ; Aatho«ool'oKl*t 
(oltai, housB, XAyoi, iliBCOume), 
a student of plant-lifB in its en- 
vironment ; Kn'tttoM (clSot, reaem- 
blonoe), flower-like, as Che male 
iDflaresoence of PolytrichKni ; An- 
Uioian'dn (Xtnot, cleiir), the ao- 
oalled colouring matter of white 
flowersi An'tboUte {UOas. a stone), 
B fossil plant which liwt the ap- 
paarance of n flower; AnUlDr;^ 
(Xvirii, a. looBtng), the retrograde 
raetamorphoBis of ft flower j 
ontbopb'Uoai (i^^ii>, 1 love, ap- 
plied to plants with flower- visiting 
insects whieh aid uroes-fertili nation. 
Anttiopb'Uai. a florist, a cultivator 
of garden flowers ; An'thopbore, 
Anthopli'omm. -mh, i^ap^ai, 1 bear), 
a short stalk which somelinies 
oocura between the oatyx and petals, 
supporting the interior organs, as in 
ft'i/fiiB ,■ sjitliopli'otoua, -nui, bearing 
flowers, floriferous ; AtitIk'opti7(a 
(^uTDv, plant), R. Brown's term for 
Phanerogams ; AnUiop'toals {ttuhus, 
a falling], the fall of flowers. 

An'tliot, JTneAiu (Irflet, a flower,) used 
In Greek oomponndB ; An'tboaperm 
{aripiia, B seed). " a little coloured 
concretion scattered in the tissues 
of certain Fueoida," (Lindley). 
Antbolax'U, AnUiotas'y (nilit, 
order), the arrangemeot of the 
flower : AuthDzan'thln {(areif, 
yellow], tlie oolouring matter of 
yellow flowers. 

knthne'lnna (Lat.), coal-black. 

Antbrae'noaa {ir8aa(. cool, tiaat, dis- 
ease} the " Birds-Eye Rot " of the 
Vine, caused by Phoma ain/jtliiiom. 
Berk, et Curt. ; An'Umz, disease 
iamixntaiBdaeM BaciUu»Anlhrari», 

AnUra'rns t (arSM, flower ofpi, tail). 

a c1us(«r of flowera at the eod of • 
long stalk ; Ali'UllU, of old aothoras 

antl-, inoomposition^a^inat. 

Aa'Harlne. the active poiaonoos prin- 
ciple of the upas tree, AjiiiarU 
toj:Karia, Leacb. 

AntlU'oata (irrl, against, plot, lite), 
antipathetic organisms : A&Ubio'BU, 
anttpsthy, a term proposed by 

antl'ca], anU'cons, anfiViu (Lat. fore- 
most), the fore-part ; thai most re- 
mole or turned away from the axia ; 
antical to donot* the 

jpper Idoraal) fao 

antloll'ital {irrt, against, lUviu, I En- 
cline), perpendicular to the but- 
face; -- Oella, " parent" -cells whii^ 
persist in their primitivealote with- 
out producing antipodal cells or 
vesicles ; Vesqne farther subdividM 
tr„m into (.5 to.n, m .Mir. 
albuminigenons, (c) cotyloid ; 
p]»iieB,~Walla,tboae which cut i 
surface or the periclinal walla at 
rigbtaogles; antlcllDajt'lboiu {ireat, 
flower), the inferior scaly porta of 
BomeCompoBtleflowers; antid'roBUtl, 
auUd'roiUDiii (Spiiuit, a course), th« 
direction of a lateral spiral be' 
diflcront to that of tbe main ate 
'- ToTi'lon, a twist against the 
direction of twining ; AnUd'romy, 
diverse twining ; used also when 
diSerent individuals of the sams 
species display right and left-hand 
torsion ; antlmyeot'lc {i^iti!, iiiKtrrm, 
fungus), fungicidal: antlpatbet'te 
{raOoi, Boffering), applied to plant* 
which do not easily unite by graft- 
ing (Crosier) ; auttpednno'iilBr 
{pfdnneiduii, a stalk), placed oppo- 
site a peduncle : autlpn'aloni 
[WToXni-, a flower leaf), opposite OP 
superposed to a petal, not alternate, 
An'tlphyt {<t>irror, plant), in alter- 
nation of KsneratioDS, that gen- 
eration which produces reproductive 
cells aBe;iuaUy ; anUp'odal (roui, 
vojoi, foot) r- Cells, three cells at 
the base of the embryo sac, formed 

1ty divinoD of the primary nncleiu, 
when sDrroonded b; protoplasm 
uid Ga&ll; cell wkUb ; anttMp lloiu 
(iffpaium, aaljx-leaf), oppoeite to, or 
npoa a aep&l, that ia, not altern&M 
witb it ; MitlHv'ti« (o-qimiiAi, pnl- 
refyiBgl, preventing pnlref action. 
Antlipenn'7 {drri, Kgainat, <nr4piia, 
* sted), DelptDo's term for the 
cvaleecenoe of the fertils diviaiana 
of the ph} lloioe into a aingle fertile 
body oppoBcd and aup«rpoeed U) the 
•tenle diWaion, in Fhanero^ma ; in 
PteridophyteB ha totma t hia pheno- 
iD Anttijioraii'KiRin {arapi, seed , 



WUtlial'lC (arriSfirit, oppoaitj 

ulternation of geoerationa op- 
poaed to homologous, implyio^ that 
t^c two geoenttiona orediSerenl in 

antlt'Tapal.antlt'ropona, -pui {tperii, a 
turn), a aynoojin of Orthotropal aa 
applied toovulcB;AnUtox'in{Taftiiov, 
poison], a aiibatanoe aecreted by 
the plant to protect ilaelf againat 
harmful bacteria ; adj. antltox'la ) 
•aUxyn'ts, anOxymot'lo (fii^ti, 
jeaat), proventing fermentaUoQ. 

Mitrotu, aalrvr'inu {anlero-, before, 
reraiu, tnmed towards), directed 
npwardK, opposed to KETROnsE. 

AnVnintiLat. acftve) = Poiinu. 

apig'^BU t l^'of , once, 710^, vromao), 

Apkn'dry (aro, without, or^p, aFlfwi, 
iDUi], M'Tfab'atermforfaaionof the 
ontheiidinm with the oogonium ; 
also applied to the poUen-tnbe. 

■paikph jiAta (a, without, npA, nenr, 
^bofiu, I am bom), dnelitute of 
pM*phvBe« : aperiiperm'io, apn-i- 
■permo (M ( + Periaperm) - exal- 

_!»«'«]«• (a, without, f^TaXor, a 

flower leaf), plant* wanting petala 
1 tt corolla ; ftpat'Klmu, -Jtu, sp«t'- 


■loH, without peUla, or witb a 
■ingle perianth, m in ClenatU, 
where the coloured sepals rimutate 
petals ; Apet'aJoDaneaa, being with' 

I'peztpl- A'iricea [Lat. summit] (I) 
an old name for Anther; (2) the 
oBliole of Fungi (Lindleyl : (3) tho 
growing point of a item or root 
(4) the tip of an organ. 

Apban'lsli {a^inau, diaappearance), 
Buppreasion of parts. 

Apban'eil, pi. (a, not, tpavrpoi, mani- 
fest), organiamB which are not vis- 
ible without the aids of reagents 

Aptuuiocy'elas (a^r))t, unseen, iri!i>«, 
a circle), Sachs's name for certain 
plants where the whorls are not very 
manifest, aa Nymphseaceae. 

ApbBllot'roplam {iwo, from, i^ai, the 
Sun, Tpovii, a turning), turning away 
from the light, negative heliotrop- 
ism, aa in roots ; adj . aphallotrop'to. 

Apbleb'la (a, without. f>\F^, ^\ipit, 
vein], used gBnerioslly by C. Preal, 
bnt by SolmsLaabach for anom- 
alous pinnae on the rhochis of 
certain fossil ferns, and the existing 
HemiuUa cnpen«>, R. Br. 

AphOtll'te* X (o, without, <li:jrvtrtit, 
one who gives light], a plant 
growing in the abssDoe of tigbt, 
as a Trallle. 

apbolomet'Tlo (a, not, ^wt, ^uroi, 
light, iiirpQy, meaaiire), applie<l by 
Strasburger to photo tactic »io- 
fl pores, which conatantly turn the 
aame extremity to the light ; 

opposed to PHOTO MKTKIO. 

Aph'roetaae t [i'PpBt, froth, (ndaii, 
standing), cellular tissue. 

Apli'tbA* (Affai, ulcerations in the 
mouth), the disease known as 
Thrush, ascribed to Sacckaromifr" 
alhifann, Keess ; Apthapby'les 
l^nrtir, plant), tho Fungi mentioned 
above as causing the disease. 

Aphyll'ae (a, without, 4)1'\Xd>-, leaf), 
Lindley'a Uirm for TH*ijj)PHVTKSi 
spbyll'ona. -Iiis, aphyU'ow, wantina 
leaves ; Apb'ylly, Buppraaaion 01 

1, apiea'IU {apex, u/)ici 


tha Deutre of the pervalva 
Iha direction of the raphe, n e^noi 
diitBDoea from homologous poiata 
□f the girdle band aurfacee, uid 
through the >pioes ; ~ OtU, the 
■ingle oell in manj plants which 
is the origin of bII longitudinsil 
growth; ~ C!oiie = PuNurci( Vege- 
TATIONis ; — drowtti, eitenaion in 
lbs length of the aiiB ; ~ Plana, in 
Diotonu, the plane at right anjtles 
to the valvar plane, which pMaen 
through the perralvar and apical 


~ : Aptalelrdniu'tiu J (ctrcinno/iu, 
turned round], ending in a cirein- 
nale manner ; apieil'laiy, ixi^alla'- 
m, iaaert«don, or pertaining to the 
(umrnit, m in the dehiecence of the 
caMule of Cenutium. 

Aple^ll■, Apic'ulum (Lat. a little 
point), a sharp and abort, bnt not 
itiff point, in which a leaf maj 
end ; «pia'nlftte, apieuia'twi, far- 
niahed with an apiouta. 

A'ptlaxy (a, without, riKo%, hat), sup- 

Euiion of the upper lip in 9ach 
wen u Caletoiaria ; Aplan'oga- 
matM (rXdfM, wandering, ta/UTvi, 
a aponBe), a non- ciliated gamete, 
which maj or may not be set free ; 
AlOaa'oaporaa {arofA, a aeed), noo- 
motile oells which are detached for 
propagation, formed aaexoally by 
trae cell -formation and rejuvenes- 
osnoe ; apUa'tla (i-Xairii. moulded), 
not eooTertible into orgnnio tiBBues. 
aplkimodlopb'orna {wXia^a, 
moulded, cISoi, reaemblance, ^piw^ 
I bear), uaad of Myxogaatrea which 
do not produce plasmodia. 

ApIopnUt'oml (irXaoi, aim pie, Trrpl, 
aruuod, ariiin, mouth], Moaaes hav- 
ing a aingle row of teeth in the 
periatome, or none ( adj. aploperl- 

Ap'obUst (ttro, up, ^«Ti[, a germ], a 
barren ahoot, as from pollard wil- 
lowa ; Ap'ocftrp, Aporar/i'iMm, {tap- 
Tit, fruit], a fruit which ie apo- 

apooj'tl*! (i«rai, a hollow), mnlti- 
nucleal«BDil nnicellularj Afioc'Tt;, 
VuiUemin's term for naD-cellnlar 
tissue in Fungi and Algae, the cella 
bein^ rednced to several nuclei 
within the cell-wall. 

Apodos'yniu t (a, without, r 
roSot, toot 7vi'^, woman), applied 
to a dink which ia not adherent to 
the ovary. 

Apo^m'bryony (i*<i, from, ffifipvar, 
an embryo), the embryo-stage nip- 
presae<l, the ooaphere giving rioe 
immediately to the vnacnlor mem- 
bera ; Apog'amy (yifun, marria^], 
abnonnal budding and produottoa 
of a bion by a protballns without 
sexual intervention; adj. kpos'- 
amons ; Apog'any (yroi, olTspring). 
ioes of power for sexual reproduc- 
tion, the function of both male and 
female organs being deelroyed. 

ApDgeot'rot^am (aro, from, yj), the 
earth, Tpowii, a turn), growing away 
trom the earth, aa normal stems ; 
apogeotrop'lo, negatively geotropio; 
ApcCmy ii(i.tT7, woman), Ion of 
reprcductiva power in the female 
organ ; apopet'aloui (i^toXo*, a 
" leaf], having free petals ; 

aIouh ; apophrU'oas(^XXw, 
applied to parts of a single 
perianth whorl when free ; Apopb' 
yiis (^ifu, I grow] (1} the swelling 
below the capsule of Spiachnum and 
other Mosses; (2) also in the cone 
scale of Pimm Finanfa; Soland. ; 
apopb'ysata, possessing such an en- 
Urgemciit ; aposep'alona (ntpattan, 
calyi-leof) having free sepals ; 
Apoip'Dtr {rrtopi, seed), suppression 
of spore- formation, the prothallus 
developing direct from the asexual 
generation; dlreet~, is normal bnt 
prolonged ; l&diiDed~. the prothalli 
produce buds forthwith IXiang) ; 
ad). aposp'orona : Apoit'atU 
itanding) the monstroua 

t secreted fluids 

teal) applii 


by blesdtng. guroming etc. ; Apiwt'- 
tOptLB (oTjw^i), turning) the pontion 
assumed by the ohloroplutida 
during iDteDfletiKbt,aIi)fig the aides 
of the cell-walU, iiutend of the 
outer lurface ; nagfttlTS ~ , ia caused 
b; wealt tight, aa at night, and 
PmIUts -. , by gtrong light ; •pot'ro- 
poiu {tpixoi, directioD) used of au 
anatropoos orule, which when pen- 
dulous has the raphe averse. 

Ap'otheo»-ApcilIte'dam(eij(;7, acoae), 
•n orgaD of fruotiBoalion peculiar 
U> lichens, and usuaUy cup-shaped 

Appen'dage, Appen'illx (Lai. an ad- 
dition,!, (1) apart added to another, 
as Icavei are appendages to the 
st«m, (21 a name given to processes 
of any kind, especially those of the 
perilhecia of fungi ; (3) in the 

Jilurol the term Appsn'dtcM was 
ormerly applied to suekerB, such 
aa the offsets of the Pineapple. 
Kppen'dant, appai'dta* {appmiU>, I 
bang by), wheu the hilum is 
directed towards the upper part 
of the seed, which is sessile or 
nearly so on the placenta, as in 

kppuUUa'nJate, appemiicala'ltiii {ap- 
pendieula, a email appendage), 
furoished with appendages ; ap- 

Appendic'nlimi t, diminutive of ks- 

IlPIMIIm' {apptn'sm, weighed), being 

n Loudon, Encye. PI. lOGa]. 
^planale, apptiaia'lim {ad, to, plan- 

aliu, made Sat), Battened out or 

horixontally expanded. 
Ap'pls, a fleshy, inferior, pluriloaular, 

two to five-se«ded (ntit, technically 

styled a Pome. 
l^pUca'tu (Lat. close to, or at- 

toohed), applirali'piu, applied face 

to faoe, without folding. 
IV'pOalta, appo^ilwa (Lat, aoplied to), 

when similar parts are placed close 

to or aide by side ; appoatfO'llar 
I ,(,/blM(m, leaf), an error for oppositi- 


folious : Appodt'lOD, aide by side 
or close to ; — Theory, of the 

growth of the cell-wall, as duo to 
repeated disposition of Uyere of 
substance on the internal surface 
of the original oell-walL 

appTsas'ed, ajiprtsji'ui.iad, to, prtftus, 
kept under), lying flat for the whole 
length of the organ : Appres'aert, 
organs uf attach meut of germ lua ting 
filaments of parasite to boat. 

approi'lniBte, approxinia'ivn (lui. to, 
Itro-ximo, I approach), drawn close 
together, but not united. 

Apriw'iinin [ajnicut, lying onen). the 
summer hubitation of plants in 
botanic gardens, for exposure to 
sun and air ; aprl'cns (LaL), Uviug 
in open sunny places. 

ap'tarona, -rus (a, without, xrtpif, a 
wine), wingless, used of petioles, 
seeds, and the like ; apyre'iuu 
{vvpiiy, seed), applied to fmit which 
is seedless, aa cultivated varietiee 
of the pineapple, orange, or grape. 

Aquar'iatii (Lat. relating to water), a 
tank for aquatics in botanic 

aquat'le, aquat'icut {aqva, water), 
living in water ; aquaHilit, has been 
defined as living under water ; the 
first category would include Lemna, 
and Typha, the second, C&ato- 
phyilum, Chara, etc. 

aq'nMm, a^'ueus, aqaa'mu (Lat. 
watery); (1) indicates aomscolouT' 
leas fltruotnre, hyaline ; (2) having 
muok water in the tissues ; aq'neon* 
TUloe, consists of one or more 
layers of thin walled parenchy- 
matoos cclU, destitute of chloro- 
plostidi, with much watery sap, 
without interspaces, and acting aa 
water-reservoirs ; aaolf sroat (fti-o, 
I bear) Tlune, is a synonym. 

Ar'abln, a substance derived from 
Oum Arabic, deSectingthe polarised 
beam to the left ; Ar'ablnose, a 
glucose obtained from it, also from 
cherry-gum ; Arablnox'ylan, a hemi- 
cellulose, found in the bran of wheat 
and rye. 

ancti'aold, arafCKnoldait ifipixrj). 

■pidsr, or ■pider'a wab, ctJIot, re- 
tembUnce), like a cobweb, from 
ui BnUuif;l«ineiit at Soe whitish 

■rallfli'oBaiu, resembling tba geoiia 
.^ra^tn, or the ordur o£ which it is 
the type. 

' 1 t, 1 ' - ■-' 

the braoohoB spring ; ftrtK>TM'oa&t, 
arbort^etns ( + escena), attkiaing 
the size or character of » tree ; 
Arttorst, a iniall tre« or shrub ; 
Arbon'tiuii, a place assigned for 
the tniltura of trees, usiullv in 
Bjstematic order ; aUo the title of 
a book devoted to trees ; Arbor'eatu 
arbor'eiu, tree-like ; ktborlc'oUne, 
•rborio'olona {-i-auifii -rota, in- 
habitant), dwolling on trees, as 
the habitat of Fungi or epiphytes ; 
iLT'borold [tlio!, reecmbluice], a 
hvbrid word for dendroid, ttee- 

Arbu'enlft (Lat.), a small shrub with 
the aepeot of a tree, aa some heaths ; 
Ar'btltble is an old term for the 
aame; Arlnu'cului (Lat.). Q small 
tree ; arbiu'cular, arbitscula'ri-i, 
shrubby, and branched like a tree. 

Ubni'tlTe, arbiiaii'iiu (Lat. planted 
with trees), coppiced. 

Arbiu'tDm (Lat.), (1) a shrub, 
a branched woodv perennial plant, 
but wanting a distinot bole ; (2) 
applied to an aooount of the woody 
plants of a country, a Sylva. 

Arou'thida, Arcei'tblda (apici^Ii, -Ifot, 
juniper berry) = U.\LBULD3. 

uotui'le {ipxa-i'iii, antifjuated), used 
with reference to a type of a fonner 
age, aa Cauiaariiia. 

ArolielriD'ala {ipili. beginning ; plot, 
life), origin of life; Arch'egone^ 
AKCBttiOMiTU ; archeKo'iiial (yayl), 
race), applied by Tschiroh to 
stomata. whose outer walls of the 
guard cells ore thickened, inner 
walls only a thin lamella, the 
guard cells sepaciit^d in their 

oentral part but not at the polea, 
as Id GymoDSperms ; aicbeKo'ttUte, 
possessing archcgonia ; ArehB- 
Konia'tae, planis producing arche- 
goniu, applied to Bryophytea and 
I'teridophylflB ; Aiebego nlDiiiora 
i^mpiw, I bear), the supports of 
archegonia in certain ferns, out- 
growths of the prothaili, also 
Bpecialieed branchea on 'Sphagnum 
with the same function ; txiibMgo'- 
uinrn, the female sexual organ 
in Cryptogams, containing the 
ODsphere, whiah after fertilisation 
develops within the venter ; 
Archene'Dia {'^i^, a thread), term 
proposed by C. Mocmillan for 
gametophytio structures in Thallo- 

E bytes ; Aroli'espare, Arcbespor'lnBi 
rropi, a seed), the cell or cells 
from which the spores are ultim- 
ately derived as iu the poUeo mc, 
or Its hoinotogue ; archMpor'Ul, 
belonging to the Bame;~0«lli, the 
first eight cells in epore-formation 
— Pad, Bower's term for a maas of 
cells developing beneath the sporo- 
genouB tissue io certain Pteridophy- 
tes ; Areb'etype (Tiiiriit, a type), aa 
original simple type; restricted to 
a seriee of foriDS from the simploit 
to complicated, with common type 
of structure and phylogenetic con- 
nections ; Arch'lcarp <.i:ap-r6t, fruit) 
in ascomycetoua Fungi, the begin- 
ning of a (ructificatioo, the cejl or 
group of cells fertilized by a, sexual 
act ; Aichloblamyd'eaa (x^a/tit, 
■ vSm, a, mantle), a term to include 
the Polypetatoc and Incompletaa 
of Phanerogams. 

arch'lnf , curved like a bow. 

Arch'lsperm(apx'l. beginning; ffTffjuii 
seed), (1) another name for Gymno- 
spenn, from their presumed an- 
tiquity ; (3) Boulger's term for 
.... . . — formed before fertiluta- 

nt an early stage in 
oBpore ; Archlttrep'lM 
, , I, twisted), the principal 
spirals formed in phyllotaiis. 

Arob'oplasin (iVx°i> >>biefi ir\AjTiia, 
moulded), Boveri's term for KlHO- 

FLuax ; &dj. iLraboiiIu'iale ; -• 
Sphen = sohroniatic Bpindle. 

uet'lo, a lena applied by H. C. W«t- 
80D U) a Btiliab region, compriB- 
iDg Ihreo zoDCB.itjlediaper-, tnld-, 
uid Intar-BictiQ zodgs, relating to 
pUnti growing >bav« tbe limits of 

cic'naM, areva'ltii (Lst.'), bent like a 
bow, curved ; uena'to<aMOl&'tiu, 
divided iota (paces b; uiirveB; — 
oontorl'iu, fornung a depreased 
■pirol, aa in Bume TegomeB. 

Ardsll'a (dfiSu, I sprinkle), mnall 
apotfaecia of cert&in lithetu. aa 
AHh^Tiia, seemiagly diutf . 

A'FM (Lat., a apace), (1) a bed in 
botanio gardena ; (2) in Diatoms, 
tbe anrface of a valve vhen circular 
and deatitnte of » stAnroa ; (3) t tbe 
receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- 

arena'ceona, aiena'Ttona. artna'riut, 
areao'nu (arrna, Band), growing in 
Bandy place*. 

Art'olatLat.idiminutiveof Akea); |1] 
a apace marked out on a Burface ; 
(2) a BioaU oeU or cavitj ; {3] a 
tesfellation ia the thallns of some 
Liobene ; ar'MUr, ai-'Mlate, arrola'- 
Itti, marked with areolae, divided 
int« diitiiict spacM ; AnoU'tion, in 
MooeB, tbe arrangement of tb^ 

ais'antate, argtitt'eiut (Lat., Kilver;), 
silvery as to tint and lustre ; 
acKmWto* (Lat.), silvered. 

argUla'ceotu, -«u« (Lai.), otayev, 
growing in clay, or clay-oolonred ; 
vSUlo'aiu (Lat.), living in clayey 

a^M, in Greek oomponndB = wbitu ; 

in Latin, tandidtit. 
•itnta', ar^'tut (I&t.) ebarp, as 

argutt'-trra'tus sharply serrate, 
arc'ynw, in Greek oompoundB = Bil- 

very: IM., argtHtttu. 
aiUl'nl, arhi'tiii (a, without ; filla, a 

root). rootleBB, wanlina true roota ; 

ArhiMblu'ttu t \fi>vnTi!, a germ), 

an embryo which hu no radicle. 
Ar'IdM, an alkaloid from cinchona 

bark, obtained from Arica, in Chili. 

Mrt'niu (ipfn/r, male), Necker'B auflix 
to words enameraliag Btunena, in> 
Btead of tbe Linnean -androus. 

A'lil, AiUI'di (Ft., arille}, an eipan- 
Eioa of tlio funiclv. arisiDg from tbe 
placenta, and enveloping the seed, 
mace i* tbe aril of the notmi^g ; 
ar'lUata. arilla'lM, poBaeased of an 
aril ; arlllllOTiD'lB ^ (/braui, shape), 
bag-Bhaped ; A'lUIode, AiiUo'dlam, 
a false aril, a coat of tbe seed, and 
not ariBing from the placenta. 

Arla'ta iLat. ), an awn, the beard of 
corn ; arUt'ata, aritta'tm, awned ; 
arlj'tolate, aritluia'liu, bearing a 

■riatolAchla'caoiu. resembling the 
eeODS Arittolachia, Tonm. 

Armx (Lat.), Ir'iuatnM, any kind of 
defence, as pricJclee or thorns ; 
tnned, bearing Ibonu or similar 

amettla' oeons, arnKn'iafiu , ( 1 ) apricot- 
coloured, s dull oraiige. named from 
I'runut Armeni^Ka, Linn. ; (2) a 
native of Armenia. 

ArmlU'a (Lat., bracelet), the frill of 
the stipe of Agarics left attached 
on the expoDBioD of tlie pileus, at 
firBt it forma a covericg of tbe 

Aniat'to, also written, Antotto and 
Anuotto, the red colouring matter 
from the pulp of the fruit of 
Bixa Orfilana, iinn. 

Aro'QUL (Lat,, spice), the perfume of 
a plant ; aivmat'ljo, -cut, possesaing 
a ipicy smell or taate, 

airect', ai-rtcl^ut [Lat. aal upright}, 

AR«8t , (porml, see BroKAL Arbist. 
Ar'row-head'ed,~ihaped, barbed Lke 

ftxtb'anold, of the form o\ 
of tbe upotheeia in 
Arlkonia. Ach. 

Aitb'roipon {ipOpor, a joint, awnpi, a 
seed), ons of aporea like a chain of 
beads, formt'd by Gssion ; ftrthro- 
apor'la, artliroip orona, applied to 
Schiaomyeetea, in thoBo species 
which have no endogenous aporea 

the genua 

formalioD ; Artbrortnts'iiUitK 

{oT^pyita, -aTin, a prop.Ji )omt«d 
Btengmata in eome Liohena, mode 
op of rows of oelU irom whiuh 
a pores ore ubstricteii. 
Article, Artic'uluii (Lat.), a joint; 
•rlle'iilBitml, articala'ttu, jointed, 
lepawting freely by a olean Bear, 
ai in leaf-tall ; ArUenla'tloli, a joint, 
popularly applied to the nodeH of 

Alt'UMt (ar«, art, /ocftu, made), B 
Bubabanoe not naturally eiiiting, 
bnt resulting from laboratory treat' 
menti aitULo'Ul, artifida'lU (Lat., 
aooording to rules of art) applied to 
onv schemu of clawiScation which 
is baaed on one tet of oharaotera, m 
opposed to a nataral sobeme, whiuh 
takes all characlers into account. 

artlptiyU'oas, -Ims {timet, oompletc, 
^ilXXac, leaf), used of nodes wbloh 
bear manifest buds. 

Anmdlna'ceoiia, amivt'nux'ctut, reed- 
like, having a oulm like tall grasses 1 
anmdln'aoiu, reedy, abounding in 

amn'sis (orua, arable land), applied 
to plants of cultivated land, espec- 
ially of ptougbed fields. 

Auioet'lda (aza, FerBian for mastic, 
/oetiduty stinking), a gum -resin, 
fielded by Ferula Narthtx, Boise. , 
and other allied UmbeUiferoc, of a 
persistent alliaoeons odour and 

As'ailne, a crystalliBsd substanoe from 
Asarvm europaeum, Linn., resemb- 
ling camphor. 

AHtll'iu (1) diminutive of Asocs ; (2) 
thesporeBof certain Fungi (Li ndley). 

uoendW, -eiu, aman^dlnj: ; (1) 
directed npwarde, ae the stem ; the 
ascending aiie is oblique at lirst, 
then erect ; (2) opposed to descend- 

-uoans, a suffii, denotes a tendency 
towordt something, as einer-aseejis, 
becoming ash-ooloured, cinereat, 

MeUUa'tna (Lat.), furnished with 
AsoiDiA ; ABdd'lum (iLtkUidi', alittle 
pitcher), pL Aaold'la, (1) the pitcher 
of ^epenlAes etc, the metamor- 

of the leaf \ [2] the ssci of certain 
Fungi ; asdd'UORn {/orma, shape), 

MClfeTOUB (luioi, a irioe-ekin, /era, I 
bear), bearing asci ; ai«lt:'«roiLi 
igrro, I produce) = ASOirEKODa ; 
As'oooaxp (taprat, fruit), the 
sporooarp of AsoomyoeteB prodoo- 
ing asoi and aeoosporM : it« three 
kinds are termed Apothbciuh, 
Aa'aoeyata (nWit, a bag), ereot »mo- 
like searetinR oells on the oraeplng 
filamentsof JacocyciiM;aacot:'enoii« 
(7<rrau, I bring forth], producing 
Baci, BBciferouB ; Aa'oogou, 
AMOKo'nIlun iyor^, mot), a ayno- 
nym of Abciuoari-. 

AaooU'cbsnet, Lichens producing 

Aac'oma {iatiil a wine-akin) Wall, 
roth's term for Receptacle and 
Hymenium of Fungi ; AicamyM'tW 
{livnis, fungus), Sachs's name for 
a largo group of Fungi, forming 
oscospores and styloaporeB. 

AMop'ora (deriv.1) sporangia of certtuo 
Fungi (Lindley). 

A«a'ap£ore (dfficDT, wine-skin ; ^piu, I 
carry), the ascua-bBariog hrphae 
within an ascocarp ; aacoph OTcna 
asous-bearing ; AMOph'ysBB (^vu, I 
make grow), the hyphae whioh con- 
Btitule the ascogonouH cushion in 
Chtietontium ; Aa'cospore ((nopi, a 
seed), a spore produced by an aacus, 
sometimcB termed Bporidiuin or 
sporule ; Ai'dds, pL Aa td (pr. as'si), 
a large cell. usuaUy the swollen end 
of a nyuhsl branch, in the asoooarp 
of wbieh normally eight spores are 
developed ; ^ Appsn, tns, a porlioi 

aecr'pbona (a, withont, vhm^m, a 
beaker) without Sctphi ; BMp'tate 
{fieptvm, an enclosure), without 
partitions or oroia-dirisioiu ; SMf'- 


Uc (aijiTui), patreFjing], not 
liable to become rott«D ; ■MX'Dftl 
{mrualit, pei'tainiDgtoBex)^eBtilute 
of oi&le or female orgaas, Dcut^r ; 
— Oencni'tlciii, in ottemstion, that 
geneiatioD whicb produces spores 
■seio&Ily, but is iUelf the product 
of a Miual set ; thus, in PeniB, the 
foil-grown form is tbe weiual form 
or aporopbyte, the prothslhiB the 
•eiual form or g&metophylo. 
Alb, the mineral reaidu» of pUnts 
after oamp1«t« combastion. 

Aipar'agl (iawdpaym, aiparaguf), for- 
merly used for Tdbioneb or suckers, 
young shoots emargiog {rom tbe 
rootatock under ground, and at 
Grst bearing scales onlj, as in jIk- 
paragui ; Aspar'aglii, a ooinmonl}' 
occurring amide, which was first 
obtained from A aparagvt officinaiis. 
Linn., hence its name; uparag't- 
nona, applied to plaota whose young 
shoots are eat«D as asparagus. 

•■'per (Lab. rough), as'perate, as'- 
psrooi, rough with hairs or poinLa. 

kipwgUl'Uorm, aaptrgHli/onnis {at- 
fergillum, holy-water brushp/ornui, 
■hape), tnft«a, brush-shaped as the 
(tigmas of grasBei ; Aapcrglll'ln, 
pigment of the spores of AaprrgiUiu 
lUger, Van Tiegh., now known as 
BttrypnatixystU Tiigra, Sacc. 

MVOrUOllua, aap«rUl)'llDiu (.asper, 
rough, /olium, leaf), rough leaved, 
■B Boirago ogtcinaJii, Linn. ; 
Aapar'lty (axptriiiu), roughness. 

AapannnjM'teB [a, without, mropi, a 
teed, /iu«i7i. fungus), Marc hand's 
name for Fungi imperfecti. 

■a'plonotd (A^ileHivm, iWti, re- 
Mmblance), like the Fern genus, 

m'ooafa, without, axifia, seed), 

I'tlon, Aiuiimila'iio {tutimuio, 

le process by whith 

ter, orude food, is 
inverted into plant Bnbstance ; 
jnstruvtive metabolism ; used 
ipeaially for the f urination of 
organic substance from cocbon di- 

oiida and water by green plants 
in eunlight. 

asperoiu {atptr, rough), scabrous, 
harsh to the touch. 

Aulm'lnom (Fr. AssitoinJer, a name 
otAnmiiia triIo6a,Dun,],DeeTaui's 
name for Svnoakfidh. 

AasodA'tloiu, Plant; term proposed 
to supersede Plant Formations or 
Plant Societies ; Dan. Pl&ntesam- 
fund, Ger. PSanzenverein. 

AJinmen'ta (pi, of owummfum, a 
patch), the valves of a siliquo. 

aiBUT'gent, owiur'peiM {ad, to, nurjjo, I 
rise), rising upward; ascending. 

Aatatli'e ; (asTadJi!, unstable), "a sub- 
stance supposed by Eartig to lie 
between the out«r and inner lining 
of a cell" (Lindley). 

Aitely {tt, without, imjXii, pillar), 
deetitute of a a tele, or axial 
cytioderof tissue, rf. ScBizosTU-V ; 

A«t'ei {asritp, a star), used in composi- 
tion for star-shaped structure as in 
DiABTEB, et«. ; ast'erold (dfoi, re- 
semblance), (1) star-shaped ; (2) like 
tite genus, AiUr, Toum. 

ut'lohotu, atftichus X (oi without, 
orJjtot, row, line), not arranged la 

asllp'nl&te (a, without, -<-Stipdla) = 

AsUg'iutas (a, without, -I- Snaui), 
Von Tieghem's name for the 
Abchkooniatab ; e^f. Stiomatab. 

aatom'atal (a, without, -i- Stuua), 
wanting itomata ; ut'omaus 
atl'omut (o-rd^ia, mouth), not having 
an orifice. 

Annxwn'ten (d^r^p, a star, centrum, 
centre), C- Macmillan's term for 
tho bodies variously known as 
Attraction - spheres. Directive 
spheres, Tinoleuaitee, eta. ; 
Utroscle'relds (siXtj^mi, hard] thick- 

waOed star-abspeil cells 


1 leaves of Camellia, and fre- 
quently in bark amongst the sur- 
rounding parenchymatous cells 
(Tschirch) ; Ast'roipheres {vipatpa, 
a sphere), Straaburger'a term for 


UT&mul'riD, SBymmefrlC*! (a, not, 
irtffi/i*r/Kri, symmelricjT ( i ) u'regiibu 
in outline or shape ; i'2) used of a 
flower which cannot be divided in 
&Dy rertio&I plane inLo two ritnilar 
halves; (3) diaumilarit;^ "( tlx^ 
dumber of the memberB in colyx, 
oorolla or genitaba. 

yi/iot, marriage), used of [ilanU 
prevented from intercrouing by 
their flowering at diSsrent timea. 

At'aTlnn {atavai, on ancestor), an- 
OMtral reMmblanoe, reverBion to 
an older type. 

fttazliioin'la (a, not, rdfii, order, 
X(i7Bt, diecourse), teralologio, ab- 
normal Btructures not represonled 
among ptante in a normal con- 
dition, OS FaaoiatioD, Cbloranthy, 

ft'lar (Lat.]> pure, luBtrelau block ; 
in coiDpoHiliQQ, atro-. 

fttlULl'anuiu (a, without. ei\a.iuyi, 
bride-chamber), said of Lichens 
without apotheoia on their Ihallua. 

athall'lne (a. without, daXXoi, yaaag 
■hoot), without tballuH. 

Ath'eni (d$iip,-^pDi. beard of com), 
in Qreeb compounds = awn or stiff 

JUlaut'lo type of Distribution, 
Watson's term for British plonte 
wkiob occur most trerjnently to- 
wards the west of Great Britain. 

Afom (a, not, r^fuu, I out), de- 
fined by Niigeli as the ultimate 
Krtiole of a chemical element ; in 
tanic parlance it means the 
Bmallest diviaable portion of any 

Atomogrn'ia (ixofiit, cannot be cut, 
7iii>l), woman), the elder Ridiard's 
name for the ANaiOBPEKUiA of 

u'oIiyiiUL X {irpatTot, a spindle. 

ohyma, tissue of fusiform eel 
stramuita'rlnB (atramenfum, iukj 

fluid), inky ; black. 
atn'toi (Lat.), ^rbed in black ; 

blackened, oa in some speoies of 

Cartx^ the apex of the glumca 

being darkened ; atfla'alar (color, 
colour), inkj-block. 
at'npal, prefeiably at'ropona (a, not, 

Tpo-rii, a turn), a synonym of on- 
ruiiTiioFons ; applied to the ovule. 

At'roplu (a. without, Tpo^ii, nouriah- 
ment), wasting away, abortion or 
degeneration of organs ; Atrophy'- 
tes (i/ivTir, a plant;, those Fungi 
which cause atrophy of important 
organs of the hoet-pfant. 

At'roplsfl, a poisonous alkaloid ob- 
tained from Atropa Belladonna, 

atro-pnrpn'rena [LaL), black -pnrpla, 
the colour of Sweet Scabiooa, 

Sca6io»a oiro/nirjmrea, Linn.; «• 
-vlolacena (Lat.), very dark violet; 
- -virans, ~ -virldlB (Lat.), dark or 
blockish green. 

itten'u&te. aiitnua'iiu (Lot. thinned), 
norrowed, tapered. 

Att'ire, Grew's term for stamens and 

Attrac'UoD-spbarei, the same as At- 
trao'tive-splieret, Cb.s'tbosfhebbs, 
or Tinoleucitefi, 

a'tns, a suflii iodiooting the presence 
of an organ, tbue : foli-atus, having 

anc'toa (Lat. increased] ; (1) enlarged 
after flowering, accrescent; (2) 
augmented by an addition. 

Aag'ment-Cells, a modiflcation of an 
auxoBpore in Diatoms, aft«r diri- 
eiou becoming transformed into 
daughter-cells, and the starting- 
points of new genorationa ; Ang- 
meata'tlon, increase bejoud the 
noL-iuol Dumber of parts. 

Anlae'um J (Lat., a curtain), used 
occasionally for CoBOLi^ by Idn- 


AtU'ophyta ia6\>i, abode, ipvriy, ft 
plant), one plant living in the 
cavity of another for shelter 
only, not parasitic ; the Qermaa 
is " Raumparasit. " 

aoraatla'eeoua, auran'liacui, aura*'* 
(mm (Lot.), orange- coloured. 


Aans'ttaun {L»t. , an orwige), s snccu- 
lent superior fruit with ft rougb 
rinil, such u the Or&nge. 

AUn'tna [IM. gilt], DieLuUic yvllow, 
that with gold ; au'rant (LaL cold- 
en), glowing yelluw, doI m£UUic, 

Ani'lale, AtirK'iUa (Lat. eat-Up), (1) 
a anwU lobe or ear, an appendage 
to the leaf, aa in Sage, or the 
Onnge ; 12) the lobule, or niinot 
lobe of the leaf of Uepatiuae, often 
tttUooQ -shaped ; (3) (ornjorly ood 
erroneously ueed for^MPniOASTBti; 
H) a small lobe or special patuli of 
cells st the basal angle of the leaf 
in Mooes ; awlo'Qlv, auriru^'ru, 
anricled; ~ CeUi, the. cells in the 
leaf described above (4), also termed 

mtltma (avrit, the ear), ear-thsped 

■BTor'MU (Lat.), the colour of dawn, 

rosy or golden. 
mVBtslv' {auat/ritt, harah), Mtringent 

anttrallt ( Lat. aout hern), occasionally 
applied to plants which are natives 
of warmer countrieo, even if not 
from the southern hemisphere. 

AuVobUn (a^di, self, jSAairrii, a 
bud), a free and independent " Bio- 
blaat" (Sohlater) 1 Aalooarp'lan. 
•ntocsrplc, aulorarpea'nvJi (laprai, 
fruit), (I) a superior fruit, not ad* 
herenttolhepericarp; (2) see next j 
Anuteaip'r, the fruiting of » self- 
ferliliu^ flower, the product of 
aatogamy ; adj. attlocup'otts ; 
kBtoe'dons (oIcm, a house), ap- 
plied to a paraaita which runs its 
whole eoDTSe on a single host of a 
particular spsciee ; this state of 
things is Antoe'dam ; Bntel'cons, in 
Bnophytea, the male and female 
inwirascenoea on the same plant ; 
the following modiScationt occur; 
ola'do- ~ (lAiilloi, a branch) the male 
infloresoence on a proper branch : 
go'nlo- ~ (76»i)i, offspring), the male 
inflorescence bud-like and axillary 
on a female branch ; i&ii- ~ ifil(a, a 
not], the male branch very short, 

i ooheringtotbefemalebjathiwid; 

antog'ainoiii {yiiun, marriage), 
self-fertiliuLtioD ; AntOK'amr, when 
a Bower i» iertiliied by ila own 
pollen ; Antogeo'eBla {yfrKru, be- 
ginning), a synonym of Spon- 

ffan«t'lc Fertilization = self-pol- 
lination ; antog'enotui (Vbot, race), 
self'derived, used of diseases, etc, 
whiofa have their origin within 
the organism ; antogr'e&iu, term 
proposed in place of monotypic, 
to show that llie genus contains 
but a single species (Crosier). 

antonuil'lc, {aitifiarot, self- moving), 
spontaneous movement of certain 
parts, as the leaflets of UttmoditiBl 
fftfram, DC. 

■ntoiUHD'lB, avtoo'omotu, {i^irt^ot, 
independent), used of plants which 
are perfect and complete in them- 
selvei, and not simply phases of 
oth«r forms. 

aatonyctttrop'lo (avrot, self, rli, 
vi'iiTDi, night, rporti, a turn), spOH' 
taneously assuming the position 
usual during the night ; Aato- 
pbyllog'eiiy (^liXXw, leaf, yiria,!, 
beginning), the growth of one leaf 
from another, as from a nerve ; 
Anl'ophyte (^itob, plant), apLuitoot 
dependent on humus, ss opposed to 
BaFBupbITK ; Ant'oplaat (rXoirTai, 
moulded), a synonym of chloro- 
phvU granule ; Antop'sla (O^ii, 
sight), actual inspection of the 
plant or phenomenon in question ; 
antottoph'tc (Tpo^t), food), existing 
without aid of commenaatism ; anto- 
tam'nona {tii»u, I cut), capable of 
spontaneous division, as cells in 
growing tissue ; antoi'eaans ((^rsi, 
a host or guest) - actoeciods ; 
ADtox'«ll7, the autoecious condi- 
tion ; Autax'ldaton (^i>(, sharp), 
cell - substances, which at a low 
temperature, and with absoip' 
tion of molet'ular oxy^ee, can be 
oxidised by decomposing water ; 
Autoilda'tiotl, the phenomenon 
in question ; autoxidl'iBbla, the 
property of readily undergoing 
this transformation. 

ftatnm'iMl, aalunma'iu (Lat.]< belovg- 
ing to autumn ; Qowericg at that 
season ; — Voaa, wood farmed at 
the close of the growing asBKui iind 
notable For i ts amaller delta. 

Auxxn'sgnjimiBa (a0£q, iiK^rease, <tvi, 
up. ypd^/La, an ootliDe), bactorian 
fieldaofiocreaBe, marked b; greater 
developmeat withio Cha diffusion 
area of ths nutrient lubatance 
(Bayerinok} ; A.nxanom'atM' {iitrpar, 
mewnre), apparatus for meaaoruig 
increase of growth in plants. 

Anze'ili (ae{>)iiis, growtb), (1) dilata- 
tion or increaae in the valves of 
Diatoms, eto. ; (2) new formation 
of organ* (Czapek). 

AnzU'iur (auxi/iaru, helpful) C«U, a 
cell bome b; a, spscialised branch 
IB certain AigM, which unites with 
the conjugatins tube eoiittod by 
the fertilized trichophore, and then 
giving rise to filaments which bear 
Uie apoteB (Oaterhout). 

Anx'ofpon (afifi;, increase, atopii, 
■eed], in Diatoms, the spore farmed 
by the union of two fnwtulea, 
or the eiceiHiive growth of a siogle 
fnutule. whence ariseB a new bion, 
larger than the parents : anxgton'ta 
(riroi, itrain), applied to Ibe move- 
ineiit* inddeot %o inoreoae of grow- 
ing organa, as heliotropism, nuta- 

avelUn'loiu [aitUana, a 61beri), 
drab, the colour of the freeh shell 
of the ilazel nut, Corylim Aw/tniut, 

AVraa'cBoua, -ceiu (mvna, oats), relat- 
ing to oats : AT'enine, a substance 
derived from oats. 

ara'Dliu (a, without, ttiia, vein}, vetn- 
leas, or seemingW so. 

ftVBTie', aiier'inia (Lat.), turned bock 

ATWTiisca'tton<ai'emiiico, I remove}, 
(t) pruning ; (2} uprooting. 

■.wl-ahaped, narrow and tapering to a 
point ; subulate. 

Awn, a bristle-like appendage, es- 
psoiallj occurring on the glumes 
of grasses ; ~ of CkaeloetTaa, a 
diat«maceoui genus, having pro- 

longations of the frustules, recal- 
ling the awns of grasses ; awned, 
having awns ; bBOrdBd. 
az«-aluiped, dolabriform, oa the laaves 
of some species of Meactnbrj/anthe- 

Bz'lol {azis, an axle), relating to the 
axis ; ~ Wood, the normal central 
cylinder of i^tem ; ajclf erooa (firo, 
1 besr). bearing an aiis, but wicb. 
ODt leaves or other appendages. 

Ax*!!. Axlll'a (Lst. arm-pit), the angle 
formed between the axis and any 
organ whtoh arises from it, espe- 
oiaily of a leaf. 

ox'Ue {axit, an axle), belonging to the 
oxiii as Bxile plooentation. 

ftxUl'utloxtfZa, arm-pit), subtending 
an angle ; OziU'uy, arilla'ru, groW' 
ing in 00 axil ; axUlA'tu, having 

Ax*!! (Lat. on axle), on imaginary 
line, round which the organs ar« 
devetopi^d ; ~ of InSorea'eenM, 
that part of the stem or branch 
upon which the Qowers are bome ; 
Mosas'my " , on axis of secondoi^ 
rank ; A'pical — of Dialonu, la 
that line which poaset thnnieh 
the centre of the pervalvar azia m 
the direction of the raphe and 
at equal distanoea from homo- 
logous points of Ibe girdle-band 
surfaces ; Append'agea of the ~ , 
such organs as leaves, flowers, etc. ; 
ascand'ijig ~. = theatem:descend'- 
lug - , - the root ; psrralT'ar ~ , the 
main longitudinal a^is of Diatoms ; 
trouMi'ploa} ~ . the axis whicb 
posses at right angles to the apical 
axis of Diatoms, and through the 
centre of the pervalvar axis ; truu- 
ren'Al ~, the axis which lies in the 
transversal plane of Diatoms, cut- 
ting the pervalvar axis. 

Axog^m; lii<iiy, axis.7dfiei, marriage), 
plants bearing sexual organs on 
the leafy stem : adj. axoKOin'lo ; 
Aiophy'ta (^urit, a plant) = CowfO- 
tllVTA ; plants having an axis, that 
is, stem and root ; ososperrn'ODS 
{aripfia, seed), with aiile placeutA- 
tion of OTulea. 

tso'sal (a, not, ftiri;, girdle], C. Moo- 
millan's term for I'tsnt-sssoctBtiona 
niiich ihow DO weilm&rked radial 
symmetry ; Aiote' {iu*i. life), La- 
voisier's name for nitrogon, still 
used in French work* ; »io'tlB«4, 
compaaDded with nitrogen. 

Ai'im cuu'retu (l&te Lkl., skf-blae), 
blue as the sky. 

Aij'gorf«rm, (a, not, fuyit, a yoks, 
<rripiia, wed), a lynonym of Aiy*- 
pMpOtB (irvopd, seed), the growth 
of a gamete direct without con- 
jugation, B partheuogenelio ipore ; 
tajgoaa, unpaired, aa a leaBet 
which is not matchml on the oppo- 
■it« aide of the rhaohis. 

Bm'cs (I^tOi a berry, a anccuteot 
tmit with seeds immersed in the 
palp, M the Gooseberry ; — cor- 
ttcft'te, berry with a rind, the term 
has been applied to the ovary : ~ 
Bice'a.t gucoolent while unripe, dry 
when mature ; ~ Bpa'rbt,^ any 
fleshy fruit which is not a true 
berry, aa raspberry and strawberry; 
bae'eaite, bacea'tas, berried; "ae- 
mina Wcata." seeds having a 
pntpy skia, as in Oycaa ; Baocan- 
larla, BAOcaular'laa, t (deriv. T), 
DesvBux's name for Cabcbroli; 
BftoCMi'iuE = Etaehio ; Bacoa'tnin, 
Diunortier's term for Stncahp ; 
bMNdfenma, bai:'e^er, i/ero, 1 
bear), berry-bearing, the fruit a 
berry, nsnally applied when the 
normal fruit of I he genua is 
othcrwiee ; bac'dform, baeci/orm'it 
{forma, shspe), like a berry in 

BmIU'iu, pi. BadU'l ifyxciavm, s 
ataif), (I) t young bulb; (2) the 
fnulolea c^ certain Diatomaoeae, 
u BatiUtma; (3) rod shaped Bac- 
twik i bu'lUmr, bacUla'rU, DmU'U- 
nnm, {forma, ahape), rod- or club- 

Baek, that side which is tamed from 
the part or subBtratum lo which 
an organ is altaohed ; llie dorsal 

t4'ilam, pi. Bacte'iU ipannipior, a 

amall sUfT), Cohn't name for low 
forms of orgonio life, multiplying 
by fission, SchiiomyoeI«a ; bur- 
Mrold {flSat, resemblance), re- 
Hembling bacteria ; ~ Tlmu, ap- 
plied to the root tubercles of 
varioDB plants ; Bac'tendda or taa- 
tar'lolds, organisniB found in nitri- 
fying tubercles on the roots of 
plente, especially Leguminosae, at- 
tributed to the action of bacteria ; 
Bacterlol'ogy (>6v"> discourse), the 
acienoe of tbe life history of bac- 
teria ; Bacte'rlo - por'pailn, the 
purple colouring matter of some 
bacteria ; Bacterio'sla, disease dne 
to the attack of l>act«ria. 

iMiCnllferoni {bacvlum, a staff; fero, 
I bear), bearing canes or reeds ; 
bacQ'llfonn, bacvl^orm'it ijorma, 
ahape], stioh-ahaped, rod-like, as 
the ascDSporee of certain Lichens. 

bad'lons, hadins (Lat.J, dark reddish- 
brown ; chestnut-brown. 

Balus'tra, " sometimea applied to 
fruits like the pomegranate" 



Balaul'tft (j^xXailE'TiDv, pomegranate 
flower), the fruit of Punita Oraiui- 
(uni, Linn,, with firm rind, berried 
within, crowned with the lobes of 

lMJ(l,destitute of pubescence or downy 

Bala t [Fr. B&le], cited by 8. F. Gray 
for the OQter glume of grasses. 

BaU'lnc, in nuclear development, the 
fusion of nuclei into one nucleus. 

Balm \^\ijiiixaw, balsam), pr. Bahm, 
a thick, usually reeinous exudation 
of reputed medical efficacy; Bal'aam, 
pr. Bawls'm ; a similar exudation, 
generally of resin mixed with 
volatile oil ; balsajn'lc. having the 
qualities of balsam ; balsamlferons, 
-riH. {, I bear), producing 

Bainb'oo, the name applied b 
culm of arborescent graaaea, nc 
ably speciea of Samfiiua. 

Baud, [Ij space between two ridgea 


narrow leaves, lineac ; band'ed, 
muked vith itfipeB of colour. 
Baa'nar, the (t«od«rd of a, papilion- 

Bftrb, hooked hairs, f requentlf doubly - 
hooked : 

tiu, bearded, hsTing long weak 
haJra in tufta ; Barball'ae t, the 
short stiff straight hairs of Com* 
poaite pappus ; adj. tMrbell'ate ; 
Birlwll'lllM, t similar sCmctures in 
the pappus of Asttr; adj. bar- 
baU'olkU, barhtlMa'tnt ; Batb'ule, 
Barh'via, (l) the iDnerrowof t«eth 
in tha poriBtome of such Mosses as 
Torlvia; (2) a Bmatlbarb(Crozierl. 

BarlU'a, the crude soda [rom Saleoia 
and allied genera. 

Buk, (1) the outer intepiDieoU of 
the wood and ei tenor to it, 
all tissuea outside the cambium ; 
I frequentlf restrioted to the 
riderni and tissues external to 
... ed, stripped of the bark ; 
•- bocuid. having the bark too 
tense, thus impediog growth ; — 
galled, haviDg the bark injured. 

Barm, the floating jeast as used in 
bread -making, the "Oberhefe" of 
the Germaiu ; btum'y, containiug 

bured, crossed by lines appron- 
imatdlj parallel. 

bu'ren, unproductive, infertile ; ap- 
plied to the male infiorescence of 
oertain Moseee ; -Flower, the mole 
or stamioate flower. 

Bujmorpho'ali {^apit, heavy, ;«'p*ij- 
ffit, shape), Sachs's term for the 
choDgea produced in organisms in 
oonaequence of gravitation. 

ba'sal {batia, foundation), at the hose 
of ■□ organ or part ; ~ Cell, the fimt 
oell of an angiospermons embryo 
which becomes attached to the wall 
of the embryo-sac ; ~ Orowth, in- 
orease near the base, as distia- 
guiahed from apical growth ; ~ 
neiTed, bajriner'eii, with nerveB 
from the base of the leaf ; - Pla- 
oas'tft, the plaoentn at the bane of tho 
ovary ; ~ WaU, the division of the 

oospore iu Archegooiatae into an 
aDl«Fior and a posterior half ; 
Ba«e, the extremity of attach- 
ment, by which nutrition takes 
Bai'ld^Basld'tnm, pi, Buld'la {bati- 
dium, a little pedestal), the mother- 
cells of HymenomycetouB and Gas- 
tcromycetoufl Fnngi, having little 
points from wliich spores are thrown 
olT; basldlOKenet'lc (i^vdi, raoe, de- 
.t), produced upon a basidiom ; 

spring), proposed emendation of 
'' bosidiosporc " ; BuldlomyM'Mi 
iixvnii, fiifirm, fungus). Fungi pro- 
ducing spores on baaidja ; Baald'- 
lophore (fiDp^u, I carry), a sporo- 
phore bearing a basidium ; Bul- 
Oiorhi'iaa (^(fa, root). Vuillemin's 
name for Basidiomycetea ; Baald'to- 
spore {rrap):, « seed), a apore pro- 
duced by a baaidium ; buUlo- 
■p'oroiu, producing such spores. 
MUi&'zed,5rui/!'.c'iM(Aanjt, foundation, 
fast), attached by the baae; 

bMlg'amoua {yiiun, marriage), when 

thenormal position of e^.apparatut 
and ontipodals is reversed ; the OO- 
Epbere and eynergidae being at the 
lower end of the mother-cell of the 
endosperm (embryo - sac) ; Van 
Tieghem contemplates the possible 
occurrence of double Baaig'amy ; 
Baalgryn'lum lyvr-lt, a woman), a the- 
caplioi'e, the stalk of an ovary 
above the stamens and petals ; 
ttai'Uar, bamla'rU, baaal ; baaln- 
er'ved {iierinn, anervc). veined from 
the base ; baalls'tus X arising from 
a broad base as certain hairs : baol- 
p'etal (ptio, 1 seek), growth in the 
direction of the baae. 
Ba'sla (lAt.) the base; badaeop'le 
(jKoWiu,! look), looking lowords the 
biLse, the reverse of acroscopio ; 
baiisoln'tuB t liolulu», nnbooiid), 
used of such leaves as those of 
Seduin which are prolonged dawn- 
wards beyond their true origin ; 
Bult'onitt (t6>oi, a cord), the pro- 

>n of the tissue of Ihe pullon- 
,0 u> the lower end ot the inther 
n Ophrydioeoe : tiu'opliil («>Uw. I 
re), r^MlilytkkiDg stain from basic 
the inner Gbrooa bark of the 
I, nBod bj cultivalora for lem- 
foTAiy ties ; tho liber. 
■t, (1) the ume u in Ibe lut ; (2) 

r phloem 1 (3) Gbroua tissuea eorving 
lor mechanical support; ~ Gelli, 
the componentB of the bark ; ~ CdI- 
laneli'TBM, tiuue with the walta of 
the sides thickened on all sides 
(G. Mueller) ; ~ Tibn*. = liber- 
fibres i ^ meatm layer of thin- 
WKlled oells surrounding tbe fibro- 
vsacular cylinder next within the 
oortex, the pcriphloSm ; ~ Tlsiue. 
phloi-m ; - Vsisel, sieve - tube ; 
Hard--, iiber-fibres; Soft-, the 
sievo-tnlies, with the thin-walled 
part of the phlot:m. 

BiM'orls, a product of Baaaorn Gum, 
Tragocanui, etc., which does not 
diaaolVB like Gum Arab io, but swells 
Dp when placed in water, and forms 
k pasty mass. 

bftU^met'Tlckl ijiaBin, deep or bkh, 
liirpar, measure), used of the dis- 
tribution of plants on tbe sca- 
bottom ; and the depths at which 
they grow. 

Batol'oglat (jftfrn, a brnmble, \byot, 
discoaraei, a student oE brambles, 
the specie and forme of Riihut. 

Beak, a pointed projection ; beaked, 
used of frnilfl which end in a long 

beardletted, having small awns. 
Beard, a^'nonymous with Awn : 
beant'ed. (!) awned, as bearded 
wheat ; |2) having tufts of hairs, se 
on the lip of PtnCalemon harbntv, 
BMT'etB, used by Blair for flower- 

Bebeer'ln. a tonio alkaloid from tlie 
Green heart, Ntrtandra Sodiati, 
Hook., native name, Beheeru. 

It', a fibrous gall produced on 
le-biuh b^ the puncture of a 
> ipeciea of O^tps, 

Beebraail, the pollen of flowers, co|. 

leelKl by bees aa food for tbe young 

bell-shaped, tubular and inflated, a4 

the uoroUa of Campanulaceae. 
baU'ylBg, swelling on one side aa in 

many Labiatae. 
Bemolli', a fragrant resinous exada- 

tion from Slyrax Benzoin, Dryand. ; 

ouUed alao Gum Benjamin. 
Ber'berloe. a yellow bitter prinoiplo 

from the root of BtrltriK iitlgarU, 

ber'rlad, baccate, possessing beTriet. 
Ber'ry, a pulpy fruit, with immersed 
seeds ; cf. Bacca, 

Bes'lmen, i pi Betim'ltia {^iiieiitoi, 

having the power of living) Necker's 

name for a spore. 
Be'tala, an amide- 1 ike substance from 

Ucla, the beet. 
Bet'Dlln, a aubstance derived from 

B^ula, the birch, 
U; t>U-, in compound words meaning 

blaon'minate, biacumina'ivji (bi-facU' 
mi Date), having two diverging 
points, as the haira of Malpig- 
hiaceae, attached by the centre ; 
Uus'nlata {angtiiui, a corner), 
having two corners or angles j bl- 
aitlc'alKte. bianicula'twi {articvliu, 
B joint), two-jointed. 

blfttor'liie, resembling the Lichen 
genua Bialora. 

bUaite'nlate {hi, twice, aiirietda, the 
ear lobe), with two auricle* or ear- 
like appendsoes ; Maori'tiw (Lat.) 
is subetautialTy the some; blbtact'- 
eate, bibrartai'tua {briKtea, a thin 
plate), having two braats ; UbrM- 
t'eoUte, with two bracteoles: Moal- 
c'arate {ealcar, a spur), having two 
spurs ; blcaU'ose hcallo'nut {atUia, 
hardened skin), with two calloailiea; 
Ucap'aalu' (copvu/a, asmallbox] (1) 
with two oapsnles ; (2) having a 
capnile which ia bilocnlar ; blear'- 
ina.le, hkarmaiwa [carma,, a keel), 
with two keels ; bloar'p^larT ( -t- 
carpellum), of two carpels or pistils j 
Mosph'alDoa (kc^K^ hind) ; bi'oepa 
(Lat. ) iwo-hekded ; Uolp'ltBl, with 

two heads or two iupporte ; fald- 

riata, 6tri7ia'Iiu {ciliam, an efeUsh ), 
wicb two oilin, u moDj zooapores ; 
Iiloollst'«ia] (con, -H ialiit, laUris, 
side), ttpplieH to u vaaouUr bundle 

Blcollatwal'lty, IB tbe sMte just 

blc'olor (Lat.) two-ooloured, parti- 

blDoncen'trlo {lii, eon + tentrvm, a 
point). Poulaon's term fur the fibro- 
VBaciilar bundles in Eriocauloneae ; 
round the axial hodrome bundle it 
a layer of leptome, whicli ia again 
encfoeed b; a badrome layer i bl- 
eon'Jnglta, btixniMga'liis. {conjuga- 
laa, joined), twice-conjugate, that 
is, when each of two eecondar; 
petioles bears a pair of leaHete ; 
bleonJnKft'to-plmia tns, similar to 
the lost, but each potiole pinnate ; 
Blcor'iieH(cornu, ahorn). theheatbs, 
from their horned anthers ; blcor'nli 
(Lat.) blcorn'nte. ftiromu'dM, two- 
homed, as the Biliqua of Mallhiola 
bicomvi, DC. ; Mcrs'luitB {ntna, a 

roonded teeth (Crosier) ; (2) dooblj 
crenate ; blcra'rli(Lal,)tHole^[ged, 
as the pollen- masaes of Aiolepiads ; 
blculp'id (ciupif, apear-poinl] ; U- 
GQip'ldate, havingtwo sharp points: 
UdentRM. bidcnia'tiu (dcM. deniit, 
a loath). (I) having two teeth ; (2) 
doubl; dentate, as when the mar- 
(tinal teeth are also toothed ; td- 

dlelta'tlU (I^t.)=BICOSJX!r,ATK. 

bid'uatu, liidiivi (tidiium, two days 
long], listing for two days. 

IHaiui'lal, {bir.nniuM, a period of two 
years), a plant which rdiuires iwo 
years to complete ita life-cyule, 
growing one year, and flowering 
and fruiting the second ; signa Qj or 
Q; Meti'iilAl, bieniiw^monocarpic. 

Uera'mtiB (bi, twice, ereinu«, a hermit), 
a two-celled fruit, the cells »o far 
nfiart as to seem Beparate, as in 
CtriiUfte; blh'clal {factts, an appear- 
', when the leaf has spongy 

tissue on the lower face, and oom- 
paut tissue on the npper sides ; 
opposed to centric. 
blltl'Tlam (Lat, in two parts), arransed 
in two rows ;~lmbilcB'ttu, imbri- 
cated in two rows ; bifa'rlous, hi- 
/a'riwi, disticbooB. 

Bl'fer {In, JtTO, I bear), a plant which 
ripens fruit twice a year (Crosier) ; 
btferons, biferun, double bearing, 
prtxlucing two crops in one seasoa ; 
Wna, bU^us [findo.fidi, to oleafo), 
twice-cleft, divided halfway into 
two ; t)iridat« = biGd (Crozier) ; 
binaVaUr U»iula, a pipe), with 
two tubular openings iCrorier) ; 
bUor'ste (Crozier), bUoi^ons, -nu 
[Jlo», fioriM, a Bower), having two 
flowers ; blfo'llata, b\foi\a'liui (fo- 
Hum, a leaf), two-leaved; bUallo- 
late, bi/oliola'tja, b&ving two leaf- 
leU ; - Lear, binaU : biroUle'nlar, 
possessing a KfalUo'tllni {/liliat- 
Iiu, a small sack), a double follicle. 

Wfo'rate, b\fora'iug [hiforie, haring 
two doors), with two perforations ; 
BlTorlne, an oblong celt, apening at 
each end, containing raphiihs ; 
biro'rona = biforate. 

Utorm'lt (Lat.), two formed ; in two 

bl'frcns (Lat.), (1) having two faces 
or aspects; (2) growing on both 
surfaoes of a leaf, i 

bUUTC'Ate bifnrca'tui , , ... 

pronged or forked), twice forked ; 
Blforoa'tlon, division into two 



.any plan 

gem'iniu, ' 
the placentae of 

„ (Lat. a hybrid), mule plants 

obtained by crossing different 
gonera, usually spoken of aa a 
blgenerlc Oioss. 

biglaad'nlor {bi, two, glandala, a 
gland), with two glands. 

Ugln'mls igliima, a nusk), consisting 
of two glumes, the components in 
the perianth of grasses ; Ubtla'tiu 
X ( + HtLCM), having two soars as 
in certain pollen; bUa'gata btjiij/a'- 


t>u, tdjn'goiia [ju/jvm, a yoke), 
^pUed to B pinnale Itai, with two 
psireof leaflela ; bUft'bUte, bUabia'- 
tut {U^iunt, lip), divided into two 
lipB,Mai«nianygaiDOpelaIous corol- 
las. et«. ; Uljun'ellBr, bilam'elikte. 
btlanulia'ltia {tamdla, a thio plate), 
GonraBling of tivo platea, aa Gomc 
plaoentoe ; bllaf enj, bHiiltra'lis 
{lalu», rid«}, arranged on opposite 
•ides, as the 1<»ves of the jnv ; 
UlotitM, bUcha'hit. liUo'lMd iXaffot, 
the ear* flap), divided into two 
lobea, a« tooit nnthen, or the 
^H Usvea of Baatiinta; bUoMll'ate 
^^ ffoctUia, a (mail coDipartmeot), 
^^B made up of two Incelli ; 1)Uoc'nlaT, 
^H tHocalar'U lloniluB, a compart- 
^H Beat), two-celled ; UnuLO'alate 
^pr imae'ula, a spot), with two spoCa. 
^KBbnM'tila (Lat.), of two months' 
^E. duration. 

r Hmni (Lat.), iMting for two jeara. 
■ W'naTT Wnfl'nu* {biiii, by twoe), con- 
aiiiting of two members ; bl'nate, 
6ina'(u( (Lai. ], (I) where a leaf is 
oompoMd of two leafleta at the 
end of a coiddioq petiole ; (2) a 

^■jmple leaf Dearly divided into 
two; blna'tllD (Lat,), in paira ; 
Una'f) pinna' toa J = bifinnatb, 
ur-oate (ti. two, ,ien;i», a norve), 
with two nerves, espeuially if pro- 
rnla'tiiB t llj,l. ^ 

la'tul J (Ut,), 

having two vaacular atnuidB. 

U'nl rlAt.), two together, twin; ae 

tdnlflOT'iu, beortDs fiowere on pairs, 

Irino'd&I, biiui'dU {n, two, nodaa, a 

_, knot), consisting of two nodea. 

PUBo'inlid (bi. two, tutmen, a name), in 

■ botanic nomenclature, the nse of a 

generic and specific namo to oon. 

note a given orgaitiaai ; ueed tdso 


U'noai, Irfnia (Lat,), in pairs ; i/. 

blnn'dear, Unn'ideBts (bi, two, 
nurleue, a kernel), having two 
nuclei; Unn'cleolate, binudeola'tiit 
(lAt.), with two nucleoli. 

Bl'olllast idl", life, ^Xairrai, I, shoot), 
lenn proposed by Schlater for the 
unit of life, oompriaing autoblasta, 

or free existing bioblaaU, and 
oytoblasts or colonies of such bio- 
blasts aa have lost their independent 
eiirtenoo : f/. BwrHOR. 

Uoo'ellUe {bi, two, ocdlua, a. little 
eye), marked with two eyespots. 

Blogeu'eala (^ici, life, yfyfaii, begin- 
ning), the doctrioe of life from me, 
the production of orguiisms from 
others already in existeuoe -, in 
opposition to Spontaneous Genera- 
tion ; UoK|sii(ras {yiroi, race), grow- 
ing on living orKuii^ms ; Blos'siV, 
the evolnlion of living forms, in- 
cluding Onti>obnv and PnTLOOBiiy; 
BlDl'og7 (XoToi. discourse), the 
science which investigates vital 
phenomeoa, both of plant and 
animal ; blolyt'tc {\v<ni, a loosing), 
destructive of life ; Bl'on, on indi- 
vidual, roorpbologicalty and physi- 
ologically independent ; Blonom'iCS 
(ntfuit, a law), Geddes's t«rm to 
express Phytobiology, the oecotogy 
of plants ; in German, PBanzen- 
biologie ; bloph'agaiu {^701, a 
glntton), feeding on living organ- 
isms, truly parasitic ; 81'oplMm 
{r\iatia, moulded), Beole's name 
forPaoTOFLASM; bUiph'lIous (^iX/w, 
I love), used of Fungi which are 
parasitic on leaves or stems of 
living plants ; n'opbor [ipapiw, I 
carry), G. C. Bonme's name for the 
cell, aa the viul nnit, 

blpftl'eolate, bijxtleola'ius (&i, +paie- 
ola), consisting of two paleae. or 
small scales in grosses; Upal'- 
mate, bipaima'lut (ptUnia, the palm 
of the hand), twice palmate, palm- 
ately compound ; btp'smms {pario, 
I bnng forth), bearing two ;~CyiDS, 
Bravaia's etpression for a normal 
diohotomous inflorescence ; Upar- 
f IWe, biiMrlib'ilis, blpsx'UIa (por- 
t'iiit, divisible), capable of ready 
divieion into two similar parts ; 
blptrt'lte, 6ipor(i'(iM (Ijit, ), divided 
nearly to the base into two portions: 
Bfpaitlfloii, the act of dividing into 
two i Mpeet'lnftta ImcUn, a comb), 
toothed like a oomn on two sides ; 
Upelt'ate [ptlla, a shield), having 


two Bhietd-Bhaperi pyU (Crosier) ; 
Uperen'nlBJ {pmnnia, perpetual), 
Dsed of a part that lifaB two jeus, 
but reproduces it«eU indo6nitely 
(Crozior) ; Upat'alOtU (WraXov, ■ 
flower leaf), Blair's term for two- 
petalled dowerB aa Cirtaea ; Wpeu- 
tapbyll'aa (»*«^, five ; ^i!xX»,loaf), 
baving from two to five teafleta. 
bl'pei (Lat., two-footi!d) = BiimDBJS. 
Upin'lUte, hipinna'tva (jiimuUiu. fes- 
thared), when both primary atii! 
Mcoodary divisions of a leaf are 
piniiate ; blplnniit'llld, hi]iinnat\/' - 
idua, wbeu the dirisioos of a, 
pinnatiSd leaf are themMlvea pin- 
natifid ; tilplntuLtlput'td = birio- 
natifid ; Uptnnat'lsect, bipiniui/i- 
wrf'iM (KffiM. cut)~bipinnatfl ; bl'- 
pUute, biplUa'tiu {plico, I fold), 
doubly folded in a traoH verse 
manDer,asBoniecotyledona; WpolfU 
(jioian, the eoJ of an axis), haviog 
two polaa, the usual number in 
nuolear division ; blpolymor'lonB X 
(roXiit, many ; i^ipier, a small por- 
tion), oonsiatiiig of two or many 
parts 1 blpo'rose, biporo'sui [poms, 
channel), opening by two pores 
as the anthers in Erica ; blprcphjl- 
U'tna ( + PKOPBrLi^) Buchenau'i 
term for poaseasiag two prophylla 
{Vorbiiitter) ; blpnnc'tate, (/>ii)ic> 
turn, a point), having two spots j 
bli&'dla.te, Inraiiia'lue {rruiiag, the 
fpoke of a wheel), of two rays, 
as in certain umbeig ; Url'moM, 
birimo'nia (n'nut,a ehink), opening 
by two slita, as moat anthers ; 
Msae'cala (^xicctu, a hag), having 
two poucliea. 
bUeoBlifarm'ls {bit, twice ; corfim, 
cocied ; Jarma, shape), biseuit- 
shaped, applied by Eoerber to Bome 
Liehen -spores. 
Wiep'tatB,ii<(;;>ia'[Ka (fti,two, leplitm, a 
wall), having two partitions : Mae'- 
TlAl, biMnVju, Usa'rtBte, hi»r.ria'itt» 


, flat surface ; 

blaar'rate, biatrra'lu» {terra, a 
twice aorrato, as when the s 
lures are themst^lvea serrate ; 1 

to«e, biss'tons {stla, a bristle), with 
two bristles ; Usex'iua, bitex- 
tia'liii (etxTU, sex), having both ■ta' 
menB and pistils, posspssing perfect, 
that is, hermaphrodit* flowara ; — 
Hersd'i^, transmission of qualities 
of both parents ; Uspathol'liilaM, 
bi»pathrUida'l<u X ( + Sfathhixa), 
consisting of two glomes (Lindiey). 
bllpl'liOM {»pino'»ua, thorny), having 
two apinea ; Uspl'roaa [inrupa, % 
twist), term used by Spruce for 
elatera having two spirafa, cf. dis- 
Piwus; Bl'tpore (a^opi,, seed),(l) " ft 
two-spored tetraspore " (Croiiar); 
(*2) au ascus with two cells, in placa 
of the normal sight ; biate'lic (ffTTJXii, 
a pillar). hBTing two steles i Uatlt^ 
nlate( + Sri PC la), with two atipuleaj 
Uatra'toas (Mrafum, a layer), oella 
disposed in two strata or liayBra: 
blEtrt'atefsfrtaliu, striped), markad 
with two parallel lines or striaa ; 
blsnlc'ate, fnavlea'ttu (Wciu, > 
groove), two-grooved; btaymmet'ila 
(iru/i/iCT|»f,couimenHurBte). bilaterat 
symmetric, eaob side alike ; Bltag- 
mliiA'lae (iefpntn, a cover). Van 
Tiegheni uses this for Phanerogams 
whose Hoeds have double integu- 
ments ; tdtern'ate, bUtnm'tvt {fem- 
us, by threes), compound tarnato, 

bit'tan, abruptly ended, of tooU 
leaves, proem orse. 

bl'TOlTB bivid' lis {bi. two, valvae, lea vet 
of a door), having two valvea, a 
some capsules: Bt'valTe, "acApnlla 
of two valves " (Croiier) ; MTkrvad, 

(1) Dsod of Diatoms, as poaBeasing, 
two valves; ('2)tbeiDduRiaof corfatin 
ferna, as Dictsonia; bival'TiUAr= 
eivALVS ; blvaao'uUr (vaicTUum, * 
vessel), with two vBaaels ; blTll'ti ■ 
(vitlat, fillets), having two parti- 
tions which appear as banda oi 

Blad'der, (1) Grew's term for a cell] 

(2) a hollow membranous appendage 
on the roots of UO'iod.iria, whioh 
entrap water insects ; (3) sin ~ 
growths in the frond of some Algaa, 
serving as fioata ; (4) an inflr'-' 

a pericarp, m in PHy- 
taiia; - nntna, &d abortion of the 
fmit of plniDB, the Btooe bDuig 
wantiDg, aod a thio bladder repre- 
Biuiting tbo rest of the fruib ; 
blad'dBTy, thin and inflated, 

Blada, the limb or expanded portion 
of a l«af. 

blancIiAd, (1) tlie whitened appearonoe 
of leaf or stem from the want of 
iron ; (2) artifioiallj prodaoed by 
eicluaioo of ligbt, the greeo ebloro- 
phyll pigment not being developed 
w either cate. 

BlMte'ina (^imifui, a sprout). <1) 
original]; the aiie of an embryo, 
the radicla and plumule, eioludiog 
the eotyledons ; {2) % the Liohen- 
tballua ; blojte'mal, rudimentary ; 
UMtuuflcnu, thalloid ; Blaate'di, 
the reproduction of the Ihallua of 
Liahens by gonidia (Minks). 

BUatld'la (^XnoTOT, Bboot), Sohleiden'e 

ItBrm for Mooadary cella generated 
in the interior of another cell. 
danshter cells ; Blaat'ldules, 
H'Nab's erpression for all repro- 
ductive bodiea which are not aporea, 
but produced aaeiually. nfl gemmae, 
propagula, etc. ; blaatocarp'ous 
(Kopiroi, fruit), applied to those 
fruiu whiob germinate within the 
pericarp ; BlMtoeol'U (>oAAa, glue), 
the balsam which is produced on 
buds by glandular hairs (Hao- 
■tein^ 1 BlutoKen'nli (>rfK<r>(, be- 
giDning), M'Nab lUed this for all 
metboda of asexual reproduction 
which are not due lo Sporogeneaii ; 
Blkatoimpti'la iypi. tw, I write), the 
atndy of buds i,l>u Petit Tliouan) ; 
Blaatamyee'tea ifu'*?!, fungus), a 
■fQonym of Baocharomycetea, Ibe 
yeaat fungus, etc. ; Blaat'ophore, 
fifcMfo^'orua:!: (^ofi^u, I carry), the 
vjlellui, the sac ol the amnios in a 
thickened scale, forming a case in 
which the embryo lies ; Blaat'us X 
the plumule. 
BllDd, % aultivatflr'a eipreuion for 
abortioD, a« when a flower-bud is 
■Md lo go blind, that is, doea not 
k develop. 

Blsa, pr. blee ; the liber or Inner 

BlBb. Hill's term for a pitb-ce!l. 

Blesd'lng, applied to an extravaaation 
of eip, Bucb as occurs in vinos if 
injured in spring during leaf ex- 

Blendl'lng. a hybrid between races, 
not a pec tea. 

Bleph'UM, pi, i^i^afxm, an eyelaBb), 
the teeth belonging to the peristome 
of a Moas : Blepb'aroplMt (x-XairTOf, 
moulded), the special iaed proto- 
plasm which gives rise lo the motile 
cilia of the antherozoidi u in Zantia 
and Cycof; BlepboropUit'Dida ((7ioi, 
resemblance), in nuclear division, 
two bodiea appearing between the 
2- and 4-celled sta^e at each pole of 
the two spindlea, disappearing into 
the cytoplasm before the rise of the 
blepharoplasts tbemBelvea (Sbaw). 

Slet. a loft spot on fruit ; BlBt'tlBK, 
the change in consialence without 
putrefaction, of certain fruits, as 
the medlar. 

Blight, popularly applied to an epi- 
demic, either of minute Fungi, or of 

Bloom, (I] synonymous with Bi^osauu; 
(2) the white waxy or pi'uinose 
covering on many fruits and 

blunt, ending in a rounded form, 
neither tapering to a point, nor 
abruptly out olf, 

boat-Bbap«d. having the figure of ■ 
boat, with or without a keel 

bola'rls (Mud, l^t.). dark red, brick- 
coloured ; from the earlb, Ar- 
menian Bole, 

Bole, the main trunk of a tree, with 
a distinct stem. 

bolet'lc, obtained from the genus 
BoielTu, as boletic aoid. 

Boll, pr. boal, the fruit eapeule or 
perica.rp. especially of the cotton 

flanl ; BolUng, pr. boaJ'ing, = 
OLURD ; boiled, pr. boald, oome 

into fruit, at 0ax when the aapBnle 
u formed. 

bombj'cliiiu {L^t.), silky, feeling iw 
smooth KB silk. 

bo'nj, of k uloae nod hard texture, as 
the Bt«neB of plums, etc. 

bord'ered, h&ving a margin diatinot 
in colour or texture from the rest ; 
— Pit, a pit in which the margin 
projecti over the thin closing mBm- 
brsTie, as in ooniferoua wood ; ~ 
Pore, is the same thing. 

borr'asoid, from the genua Borago, 
applied to a form of inflorescence 
which 6nds its fullest development 
in Anchiun, an extreme cose of 
extra-ax illar J Inflorescence (K. 

Sou, B prolubertnce ; twsied, with a 
rounded surface having a projec- 

twn'lTChald {parrpi'i, a ringlet, (IBoi, 
resemblance), having ihe form of a 
BosTBVX ; — Cfma. a sympodial 
branch system in which the tight 
or loft hand branch is always the 
moat vigorous, a heliooid cyme ; 
>- Stchot'oiDy, a dichotoioy or 
repeated forking of an inoores- 
cence, within the previous defini- 
tion ; Bost'ryx, a uniparoua, heli- 

botan'lc IporirT!, a herb), pertaining 
to the knowledge of plants ; ~ 
Ou'den, a garden especially devoted 
to the culture of plants for soientifio 
ends ; Bot'anltt. a student of plant 
life, in any of iU departments ; 
bot'aiilM, tM to seek fur plantain 
their places of growth ; (2) io «tut1y 
aotnal plants ; BotaaoI'oK? (Uysi, 
discourae) = Bota>v : Bot'ony, the 
study of the vegetable kingdom in 
idl its diriaiona, ita olaaaiScation, 
morphology, physiology, and eco- 

Botlireiicti'yiiia [piBpot, a pit, lyxviia, 
that poured in), tissue composed of 
dotted or pitted ducta or cello. 

Bot'nu (Crouer) = Botbvs. 

bot'iy-ey'liiose (p&rpvs, a banch of 
grapes ; tH/iO, a wave], racemea or 
any botryoae otuaters cymosely 

BgKregat^di bot^ryold, boBTOld'al 

[flSot, resemblanoe), like a cluater 
of grapes ! bot'ryoM. boltyo'tua 

Bottom-yeast, or Low-yeast, the yeast 
which forma at the bottom of tho 
vata. in German, "Unt«thefe." 

bofnUferm, boluli/orni'u {botuiua, a 
aauaage /brrnu, shape), lanaagu- 
ahaped, allaiitoid- 

BonlUon {Fr.) mealbroth, used lor 

iMorEeoD (Fr-, in English pr. hur'juD}, 

Bracb'etds (TsGhircb) = B&jioi[TBOUi- 

tuaohla'lls (brocAium, the fore-arm), 
a cubit long, roughly ahoat 18 
ioches ; bra'cUate, briKhia'taa, 
when branches spread and widely 

biaoli7[^/nx^)=short,uBed in Greek 

ttnohyUomginat'lo (^^x^< Bhorl, 
^Im. life, (rri-fiui, a spot), a term pro- 
posed by Detpino to express stigmas 
which are etort lived, withering 
before their proper anthers ripen, 
protogynouB ; bntcbrdod'romOTia 
{Ipiiios, a course), witb looped veina 

Iirachyp'odouB (irsi^, roSii, a foot), 
having a abort stalk or foot j 
Brach3^oIe're!<li (irii\Tipdi, hard], 
stone-cells, the scleroids in barkf 
and trnlU (Tachirch) ; Bnchjrtme'- 
ma (t^Qwi, section), a disc-shaped 
cell, which by its rupture setd free 
a gemma in Bryophytes (Correns). 
Bract, Brael'ta (Lat., a thin plate of 
metal), the modified leaves inter- 
mediate between the calyx and the 
normal leaves; Biaot - soale, in 
Coniferae, a scale of the cone above 
which lies the Beed-bearing scale; 
brsct'eal. of the nature of a bract; 
bnot'eate, braeUa'liix, provided 
with bracts ; biaeteif ertnis (/fro, I 
bear), bearing bracts ; braelia'nui X 
formed of bracts ; Braot'eole, Srac- 
tt'oia, (1) a bracttet, or small 
bract, (2) a prophyll ; bTKCt'eolate, 
bracteola'ttu, having bractlets ; 


Jea profuek 

, the hushs 

rn, separated from the 

r bj bolting ; tmui-llka, (eurty 

n appearance. 

tb, a diviiion of the Btem, or 

[■ of growth ; Bniuih'uy, Grow's 

ID for the ramifiaatioDS in the 

p of fniitu i lirwQli'lBBs, bare of 

J Bnnob'let. a twig or 

nnall branch, the ultimate divi- 

«ioD of a branch. 

Biuid. diaeaae caused bj oiiDute 

Fongi on leaven, as Citiiago, etc. 

Bnit'llUv. the colouring matter of 

Brazil wood, Coftalfiirtia br<uHi- 

tnsii, Linn. 

~ ak. (1) to pal out aew leave* ; (2) 

show a variation, aa in florist's 

flowen ; Brcttk-tMOk, reversioD to 

":rtjpe; BiBaUng, a popular 

I eiprMeioD for a sur ' 

I- of algal life id cer 


mo'nu (i7Vi-ia, short, ramotif, 

Bbnnohed), short-bran ched. 

KjlBk-ODlfrar. usually implies a dull 

[red ; latericious, testaceous. 

~ = Rack ; Crow-breed = Htbriu. 
, (I) itringa of protoplasm 

' 'Which often oonnoct the nucleoa 
with the layer of protoplasm nent 
the oellwall ; (2) strands of oells 
ooonec tins other tisBucs. 

Brtt'tle. « ttiKbair, or an; slender body 
wbicb ma; be likened to a hog's 
bristle: ~iKilsted, endingin a atilT 
ahorl hair; brls'Uy, b^t wilh 

Brll'UIi, used hj H. C. WaUon to 
express the di»tribution of those 
plants whiah are fonnd throughout 
thA ialaod of Great Britain. 

brooUdoa'nnniu {ffpixit, » noose, tUm, 
lik^ Spi/ioi, a coacae], KttingBhau- 
aen'a term lor loop-vetoed. 

Brood-tKMttes, gemmae on leaves of 
Mosses, becoming detached and 
growing into proUmemal filaments ; 
~ Bods. (l)a synonym of Suredium 
in Lichens ; {H) the same as Bulbil 

a gonidium ; ~ OtEOfflA. a p 
oellular propagativebod; prodaced 
aseiually and paisiog gradually 
into a brood-cetf on one side, and 
a bulbil on the other. 

Br<nit«'ll*, (ffpovrii, thunder), injury 
to plants by eleotric sboclt. 

BTDwn'Ian Horement, motion shown 
by minute particleswhen suspendeil 

~ ' ' alkaloid from 

, for- 

merly supposed to be from Bmeta 

_/erruflineo, L'Hirit. 

~'e (Uit.), pertaining to the 
r sobtice ; flourishing in mid- 


sused 1 

BrunlMure (Fr.K iujury i 

vines by Plaamodiophora Viti», 

taruah -shaped, aipergi III f am. 

BiTOl'ogy Ifipi'ot, a moss, Aotet, dis- 
oonne), the science of Mosses, or 
Bryophytes generally. 

Bryonlne, a poisonous principle ex- 
tracted from the roots of Bryonia 

Bry'opbytsB (/jpiiot, a moss, ifiiTit, a 
plant), moss-like plants, the true 
Mosses and the Hepaticae or Liver- 

bucKtar-sIiapail, resembling s 

jckler H 

fiuck'mast, the fruit of the bcpch tree- 
Bud, the nascent slate of a flower or 
branch ; ~ Conac, of the carob, 
Oeraloaia BiUqvi, Linn., arreated 
or aborted inflorescences ; ■^ (Una, 
=Bla3tdcolla 1 ~ Xu'dlm 
Cliara, a cell cut off from 


embryonio tmnoh aa the primor- 
Aiam of the j'onng plant ; ~ Scatoe, 
the ooveringa of a bud ; — Sport 
= BuD'ViRiATios ; ~ VariBtloii, 
changes of colaar or form io pUoIa 
ariBing from a Sower or leaf bud. 
— AdvantlHon* — , buds arieing out 
of the Dormsl course or locaUtv : 
Brood ~, = Brood-bcds ; Plower 
~, the infloreeconoe before expan- 
sion, or B unit thereof; Leaf—, 
KD undeveloped leaf. 

Sui'iing. (I) propagation of a garden 
form by inserting ■ bud or " eye " on 
another stock ; (2) used also for ex- 
paniion of the buds. 

Bndlet, "a little bud attached to a 
larger one " (Crosier). 

Bnlb, SiWbvji (Lat.), a modified bud 
tuualtj underground : (1) D&'ked 
~, buuma BqiiaiHosut, having scaly 
modiflcstioas of the leaves, as 
in the Uly ; (2) tunlca'tea ~, 
whose outer scale* are thin and 
membranous, as the onion or hya- 
cinth ; (3) the M>'ca11ed ■olid-, is 
a CORH : (4) the swollen base of the 
stipe of the nporophore in Hymeno- 
mycetes ; ~ Scale, one of the com- 
poDenta of a bulb. 

Dnlba'ceons, -revs, (I) balboua ; (2) 
having bulbs. 

BnltilcepB {btdbve, a bnlb, rnptil, a 
head), sstctn bulbouBatbaae: bnlU- 
f erous, -riia (/ero, I bear), bulb- bear- 
ing, as whfln biilbile are amongst tlio 
florets of an infloreaoence, or axil» 
of the leaves; Bul'bU, BuJbUI'ag. 
Bnlhlst, Bulb'idut, (1) a small bulb, 
usually axillary, u in Liiiiim bvlbi- 
ferum; (2) Bulbil is also applied, 
(n) in some fungi to small pluricel- 
lular bodies incapable of germina' 
tion; (A) deciduous loaf -buds capable 
of developing into a new hion or 
brood-bud, in Archegoniatoc ; Bnl- 

bnlb'ose, bvlbo'em, bnlb'oua, having 
bolbs or the structure of a bulb ; 
butbo'n pi'li, hairs with an in- 
flated host; Bulbatu'ber. Oawler's 
name tor Corm ; Bnl'bule— Bulbil 

Bmeaatf TiUHi 

ball'ate, buila'tiu {bvUa. a babble), 
blist4U«d or puckered, a« the leaf 
of the primrose ; Bnlletoes'tia 
{ + f»cm»), the state of being blis- 
tered, as the Savoy Cabbage ; bol'- 
liform {forma, shape), nsed of some 
large thin-walled cells, occurring 
on the epidermis of certain grassna 

boQCIied. gibbous. 

Bun' die, a strand of KpecJalised 
tissue, variously modified ; — 
Flange, communications between 
the unbranohed leaf -boodles of 
Gymnosperms and the surronoding 
tissues ; — Shealti, the enveloping 
cylinder of closely united paren- 
chyma :—^Bicollat'eral ~, when a 
Kcond bast-strand exists on the 
inner, medullary, side of the wood 
of the conjaint-bundle ; Caollli* ~, 
confined U> the stem ; Closed ~, 
destitute of cambium, the procam- 
bium hai'ing become permanent 
tissue ; OoUat'eral — , when the 
wood and bout lie side by side ; 
Com'mon~, that is, to stem and 
leaf, becoming a leaf-trace ; Con- 
cec'ttlc ~, when either the wood, 
or the bast system surrounds the 
other; Conjoint'-, congisling of 
both wood and bast ; OoTtl'cal ~, 
peculiar to the cortical region ; 
Hedull'ary ~, the vascular bundles 
occurrina in the pith, when there 
is a well ■ defined exterior ring ; 
Open ~, when the bundle possesses 
a portion of cambium; Ba'dlal~, 
having the strands of wood and bast 
alternately as in roots ; PUoOm r-, 
the bast portion i Ta«c'nlar ~ , the 
entire strand, consisting of liber or 
bast portion (phloemi and tracheal 
or wood-portion (xylem) in various 
degrees; Xylem'", the wood-por- 

Bunt, a common disease of the wheat 
plant, from TUUlia Triliri, Winter. 

But, a prickly headed fruit, applied 
to the chestnut, Antium, and the 
like : tmr'ry, reBembling a bur. 

Bnr'gUQdy Fltob, a resin from speoiei 
of Ahitt. 


m, a iroody ontgrowtii (rum the 
bark of csrUin trees ; fj. Gkadk. 

oi'mi (Lat., a purae) ; the Botbcri- 
dium of Chara ; Ben'lcnle, Bnr- 
■lo'llla {Lnt., a amall pone), tlie 
pouch'libe einuiBion of the Btigma 
\a\a whiub the caudicle of Bome 
Orobida ii uiierl«d ; bunlc'nlat*, 
buraicu/a'ftu, purse like. 

lah, a low abrub, branching from 
the ground. 

bntterflfUke, ~ «liap«d, 

Bntfona,; an old term for Buds. 

Bntfreu, the knec-Iike growths of 
trunk or roots in certain ircea. 

boz'Mnw. bya^eva {Ititxae, the Eoi- 
tree), (1) the colour of box-wood, 
{S) pertaining to that tree ; Boz'iiia, 
an alkaloid from Burut tempiT- 

bjwft'eeooa, -cau (/lyiutM, fine flai), 
compoaed of fine threads ; Bjru'oi, 
the stipe of certain Funsi. 

Bntrr'lc Far'niant, caawd by Badllua 
A mylobacltr. Van Tiegh. ; nee Fbk- 

Cftot'lnaa, chocolate brown ; from the 
name of TkrohrtmUi Carao, Linn. 

Oaali'TTB:^ ( Lat. ) t be cone of a pine-tree. 

caof al, (Cac(uj>, agenuaof BDOculenta], 
cacta'ceona (-fsoeong), cactua-like, 
or pertaining It) tbeordarCactaceoe. 

Cacnm«n; (Lot.), the spei of an 

oad'ens (Lat. falling), when the fumi- 
culua paoaeB over the top of tbe 
seed a< in Plumbagincae; CAdtl'coai, 
cada'ctit, dropping off early, aa the 
BopalB of a poppj on expansion. 

Cu'cnm [Lat. blind), a. prolongt^ion 
of the embryo in Ciuuarina and 
certain Amentiferae. 

Ofteno'Uo ^ Cob N oBTO. 

Omo'ida (kdIw, I bam) CniUona, or ~ 
JHaka, enlarfiements of the tips of 
ttrins, due to the attack of fomiB 
of CrKoma, Link, belieyed to be a 
Btage of Mdamp^ora. 

CMnileac'ent [caeruhvn, aky-blue-l- 
eacenii), verging towards blue ; 
OMnilaiu, sky-blue. 

oaa'ilODi, ctts'ttna (Lat. grey of the 
eyea). light grey id tint ; caadelln* 

caeipilell'iMe [ciK»pu,Qt ceK/xs, a sod), 
aomewhat tufted ; cae'spltoae, eai- 
tpito'iut, gi-owxng in tufla lite 
grau : caeaplt'oloae, somewhat 
crowded in tufl-like patches. 

Caeto'niniiL, Lindley's spelling of 


CalTatae. an alkaloid from ooffee 
berries, Cofea nraiiica, Linn. 

CaJama'tiae {ciUamue, a reed), (I) a 
term of vague application, which 
has been uaed for plants resembling 
grasses, obieB; sedges, but even 
including Iioilta, Juncug, Typha, 
etc. ; (2) at present re«trict*d to 
fossil plants, Kciuisetineoe ; csla- 
ma'rlan. sedge- 1 ike ; cftlamireioiu 
{J'cro. I boar), having a hollow, 
reed - like stem; (2) producing 
reeds : OBl'amlte, a foBsil type, 
resembling recent E'/iiintlii on a 
gig&ntio scale ; G&laml'teBii, re- 
sembling the last : Cal'amua, a lis- 
tular Btem without an artioulatlon. 

Csi'atUde, CaVathiHa, Culalk'tnm, 
Caialhid'ium (jidXa^ot, a wicker 
basket), the head of a Composite ; 
preferably reatrict«d to the invo. 
locre of the sanie; cal'atbifbnn, 
caialh}form'U, cup-shsped, almost 
hemispherical ; calsthldUlor'ni t 
[fios, fioria, a flower), havrne a 
Calnthidium or Capili " 
thldlph'onim {ipopliii, I bear 
atalk of a Capitulum. 

Cale'alUT (coicuiiw, a pebble), Grow's 
term for tbe scleiogenous tissue of 

CaIcW(Lat.)a spur; cala'ants, ixU- 
cara'tTU, furnished with a spur; 
OBlearUOrm'ls [forma, shape), spur- 

cftlcn'reons, -em {(al-c, lime), (1) 
chalk-white, as to colour ; (2) grow- 
ing in chalky or limestone places; (3) 
having the Bubstance of chalk, as 
the chalk-gtands of certain aaxi- 

cal'ceolate, taleaila'tia-, cal'ceironn, 
cofce^orni'M {tcdttUvt, a slipper. 

; Cala- 


forma, ib&p«], alisped like a 

(Lat. from calx), ohilk- 
wuiu ; ealo'lfoim (forma, ah&pti), 
" powdery, like chalk or lime." 
(Croner); eildpli'ilatu (^Uw, I 
love}, cbKlk-loving ; caldTasftl 
(AETOi I &m)i Bhnaning chalk, fts 
heather ; caldT'oniiia (tvro, I 
devour), applied to Lichens whioh 
sal into Ibeic limestone matrix. 

Oald&'rlom (Lat. warm baLhroom) in 
botanic gardene signiSui an intor- 
niodittt* or warm greenhonHB. 

Dalenda'Ttnm (X^t., an acconnt-book) 
— Flor'ae, an arraogement of plant* 
according to their period of flower- 

Oalod'uUii, a mucilaginouB eabgUince 
from the marigold, Gaiendula 
Dffi^incdit, Linn, 


oaUdnii'ili, CAlidiu'ritiB ~ CAixcm- 

callc'ular, co/icuAi'ri* = aAi:TCDi.4B,ete. 
Mllc'nlate - cAtTcoiiaTi. 


Callol'ogy (laXla, a cabin ; XiSyoi, dis- 
oourBe},juvencscenos; thedynaniics 
of the young ocU (J. C. Arthur). 


oalorlt'roplo (color, beat ; raovj), a 
tnm), t«nn propoeed b; Klercker 
for thermotropic ; CalorlfropUm 
= Tbrkhotkof ism. 

mll'oM, cailo'tut {capiat, hard skin), 
(1) bearingoallositiee ; (2) hard and 
Ihiuk in t«iture ; Call'OM, Mangin's 
term for a preaumod eaacntial con* 
ttituent of the cell-wall; CsJloa'lty, 
a leathery or hard thickening of 
part of on organ J c&Uo'ao-ism'ttts, 
when the serraturea are callositiea : 
OaU'na, (I) an abnormally thickoned 
part, ae the base of a cutting ; (2) 
a special deposit on Bievcplates; 
[3) a synonym of VERRnCA ; (i) Ihc 
hymenium of certain Fungi ; (5) 
an extension of the flowering glume 
below its point of insertion, and 
grown to th« axis or rhachilta of 
Uie apikelet. 

Otlopo'itJWIl t (laXoi, fair. roOt, 
T»Bii, foot), Rumpb's term for 

Oal'pa (fciXrii, an nm), Necker's t«mi 
for the capsule of Hmtiiialia. 

ooI'toiu, cai'ein {Lat., bald), naked, 
an an acheoe witbont pappna. 

Oalrb'lo (luUjSLot, a cottage), Uirbel'a 
name for a hard, oos-celled, in- 
ferior, dry fruit, sach ai the acorn, 
or hasel'Dut ; Oalyb'ium I la a 

calycantb'emoui (■(J\i{, a cup ; dv^ot, 
a flower), (1) having the eepals con- 
verted wboll; or partially into 
petals 1 (3) the corolla and stamens 
inserted ia the calyx: Cslycan- 
Ui'emy, s montrosity of the calyx 
iinitatjog an exterior corolla ; 
calyoalls, of or belonging to the 
calyi ; Cal'yde, Calyc'ala, a whotl 
of bracts exterior to the true oalvx ; 
MLlyoa'ttu (Lat.), furnished with a 
calyx ; Colyc'la, a etipitate and 
boat-shaped apotbeoium ; Oalyd- 
flor'ae {jtos, Jloria, a Bower), plants 
having their petals and stamens 
adiiate to the calyx ; adj., calyci- 
flor'al, calydfior'aDs : calyc'lform, 
(/oriiia, shape ),oup-ehaped, applied 
to an indneium ; Ckl'yoin, a bittor, 
yellow, crystallizable substanoe 
and other Lichens ; calydoalla 
(Lat.), cttl'ydnB, adyei'nva, (1) 
belonging to the calyx ; (2) of the 
(3) denoting a 

calyx of um 

J, calyclna'rta X. polyphylly o 
calyx ; caJyclna'rinB, formed from 
the calyx ; Oal'yole, Calyc'uitia, the 
epioalyx, or~invo1acre simulating 
an additional calyi, a whorl ol 
bracts outside the true calyx ; 
cal'ycold, ailycoid' evt (eMvc, Tit- 
semblance), resembling a calyx ; 
OalycoBte'maii {rt^fuar, a lilamenl), 
a stamen eeal^ on the oalyx ; 
calyo'ulate, ecUycida'tva, bearinR 
braota which imitate an external 
calyx ; Calyphy'omy (^io/uu, I 
spring from), adhesion of the sepals 
to the petals. 

a (rtoXuiTptt, B veil) or Calyp'- 

r, (1) the hood or cap of aMoei in 

lit when it crown* tho capiule, 

I fenned froiu the nrchegonial wall ; 

^(2) applied to uiy cap-like cover- 

< tog at a flower or fruit, as the 

extiupiiHber - ibaped calyi of 

EachKheitaa, or the lid vhich 

n thick membrane 

■hutting off the apical ooU of a 

triahome iDOecillaneae; (4) a term 

propoaed by Van Tieghem and 

Douliot for that portion of the root- 

oap in lateral root* which beloQge 

strictly to the root-sy stem ; (6) 

Touroeforfa word for Cabitnclb; 

odyp'tiftte, talyptra'tiis, bearing a 

I Miyptia : calyp'tcUbmi, ealjfptri- 

L^orm'u {/onrui, shape), shaped like 

K; wa extinguisher ; oalyptrlmiiTph'inu 

B.f/up^. Hhape), a Hynonjiin of the 

K.'Uit ; Cklyv'tiosen {yirvi, offapring), 

m (1) the layer of ocUb from which Ine 

H TOOl'Cap takes its origin, (2) the 

H hyer of tissue coverisg the jovng 

■ embryo, aa in Fema. 

n'lTX (iii^Mf, a cup), (1) the oul«r' 
■L most of the Boral eoTetopes ; ~ftd- 

■ ke'rena. when not separable from 
I the ovary ; ~ calycola'tns, when 
K mrrounded by a ring of bmcle ; 

■ r-oommn'nls, the involucre of 
Ki'OompoaitcB ; ~ Infa'rior, •- litMr, 
H irhen free from the ovary ; ~snpe'- 
Kzlsr, when adherent to the oviry ; 
[ '-Tnbe, a tubnlarformof thecalyi, 

doe to the liniOD of the sepala ; (2) 
t the receptacle of certain Fungi ; 
(3) the "perianth'' of Uppaticae, 
that is, the CoLESULA (Hooker and 
Oam'ua {tafiipa, a' vault), occasion- 
ally used for the cells of a fruit ; 
'"'" ' ' ivo of the f oro- 

fruic of Aetata, 
cunVlal (rain'io, I ohange), relating 
to Cahbium ; cunli'lIOnii IJhrrna, 
■bape), rewmhiing cambium ; 
~"""Mum, a layer of naecent 


tissue between the vood and baat, 
adding elements to both ; for- 
merly considered as a mere visoooa 
mass ; ~ n'brei, the immediate de- 
rivatives of the cambium, partly 
formed woody Gbrea (Sanio) ; ~ 
Ijayer, the formative tissue during 
aotive growth ; ~ Blng, the com- 
plete system of the oambium, separ- 
ating the wood from the bast in 
the shoot : — bsdc'ular ~ , that 
which belongs to the vascular 
bundles ; Isterfaaclc'ular ~ , that 
which is formed between the vaa- 
culsj- bundles, and the primary 
medullary rays. 
cajneli'ntu (Lat,), camel - coloured, I 

campana'oBiia {eamjmiia, a bell) ; oaia- 
ptui'lfonn, campani/onn'ii ; cam- 
paa'alate, cam™nula'iu^, bell- 
shaped, applied to a corolla ; 
Crazier adde campanll'lform. 

campet'ter (Lat.)cani/>fs'(m, growing 
in fields, the second form is that 
usually found in botanic works ; 
adj. campes'tra], 

Campb'or a solid essential oil from 
dnnamomum Camphora. T. Nees 
et Kberm., and other trees; cam- 
pbota'ceons ( + aceous) ; campbor'lc, 
pertaining to, or of the nature of 

camptod'romuB (id/xTu, 1 bond ; tpiitai, 
course), venation in which the 
secondary veins curve towards the 
margins, but do not form loops ; 
camptot'ropal (TpoiHi, a turn), an 
orthotropal ovule, but curved like 

campullfropal (icii^iriiXDi, curved ; 
rpotl), a turn) ; campuUt'ropous, ere 
CAUrvLiTBOi'Ai^ etc. ; oampylod'- 

venation whicli has its primary 
veins curved in a more or less 
bowed form towards the leaf apen ; 
campy losper'mons •iniit [<nr}ptia, 
seed), having the albumen curved 
at the margin an as to fnrm a longi- 
tudinal furrow ; campylot'roBMLl, 
caiopylot'ropoua (r/jorij, a turn), 
applied to an ovule, one side of 


wUdi ham grown (aaUr Ihu) the 
othar to ti to bring its true apex 

(mioropfle) near the hi lam. 

Can'Bda Bal'uiii, an oleo-reaia ob- 
tained from AbU» batiamea. Milt.. 
mach used in the pTeparation of 
■nicroeaopjeal Bpeoiinena. 

Oanal', eonaVis (Lat. , pipe orohannel), 
an ioteiiial channel ; •- Cells, &□ 
Axial row of cella in the neck of the 
arubegonium, uIlimnMly forming a 
canal by diuppear&Dce of the septa, 
which becomea the way of acnese foe 
antherozoids ; ~ Ra'plia, modifica. 
tion of the raphe in Diatoma, with 
liingitudinal fiaaure, as in SarireUa ; 
Ciiutlla'iiU.te, canaliaila'tut, chan- 
ncUeil, with a longitudinal groove ; 
Canalic'ulUB (Lat.,a«inall channel), 
a (tiniioutjva of Canai.. 

cu'oellale , ra>u:e//as'(iM ( Lat. , latticed ), 
M in Cbuhrva, and Ouviratidra. 

', raniticana {IsA.), white, 


Cuie, the «teni oF reed«, large grtuiae*, 
and small palms i Cane-nigar, a 
sucrose, the crystallised prodnct of 
Sugar-cane, Beelrooi,.Sorr7AHm, eto. 
— Sucar ■ CMie, Sarcharam offirin- 
arwm, Linn. : its chief fungus^dis- 
eaaeaare Oane Freckle, ~&lllt,uauBe 
uncertain ; ~ Bpiuna, b; Stnimtlta 
Saeehari, Peolt; ~ Soot, by Marro- 
tporiam miJ'MMMim, Cooke. 

oftnAlft'oeont, (1) pertaining to the 
order of which CaHrlla, P. Br. is 
the type j (2) resembling cinnamon, 
ItaL CanelJa, in taste or shape. 

ouiM'Mlit, cnnfycfTM {Lat.), growing 
gray or hoary. 

CBUer, a diBeaae in decidoua leaved 
trMi, aaoribed to Nutria (/ifuaima, 
Tol. shown by malformed rind, with 
•wallen cnshion-likB margin, and 
deprewed centre. 

OantlMropb'tlaa {nirBapot, a beetle, 
^X/u, I love), plants which are 
fertilised by beetles, baring showy 
colours, and abundance of pollen. 

ok'ntu (Lnt.). hoary, grey. 

Ountch'onc, pr, koot'shook, a sub- 

stance ooourring in the milky latex 
of many plante ; it is allied to 
the Hydrocarbons, 
Cap, (1) Grew'e term for the husk of 

ofMoises; -OsUa, thenppersiatet- 
oells of the embryo-sac in the ovule 
Hac develops and for a time flgnre 
OS a cap on its apoi ; ~ Fiutgi, 
pileato Fungi, as the MuBbroom. 
CeUnloae — , formation by proUi- 
plaam of celU of certain tricbomea, 
caplUa'ceona, -ceui, cap'tllary, capU- 
la'ris [aipHhui, a hair), Blender, 
comparable with a hair ; capUla'lut, 
hairy ; capllla'ta« Badl'cei. roots 
with evident root - hairs : Captl'- 
lunent, Capitlau 

It of SI 

.nther ; 

(Lat.),comoae! CapUlit'lum, sterile, 
thread-iike tubes or fibres growing 
amongst the spores in a apotogenous 
body, frequently forming a net, 
espeoiallyinMyiogastreai Oljtllliu, 
the width of a hair, taken aa Atb 
of a line or about 17 mm. 

Cap'ltaUit, a term applied to plants 
having a large reserve of material, 
and inaect fertilised. 

oap'ltata, capila'litt (Lat., having a 
head), (1) pin-headed, as the Itigma 
of a primrose ; (2) growing in heads, 
as the flowers of Compoaitet ; 
oa,pltell'ftta,ca^'ee/Ja'r»s, diminutive 
of OAPZTATB ; CaplteU'nffl. the oap- 
Bule of Mosses \ capltlfonn'la t 
{forma, shape), shaped like a head, 
somewhat globose ; capit'ular = 
CAPITELLATR (Croiier) ; caplfnll- 
fonn, shaped somewhat like a head ; 
Caplt'nlum ^Lat., a little head), (1) 

pileus. etc. of Fungi ; (3) a rounded 
cell borne npon each of the mann- 
bria in the antheridium of Chara ; 
head .cell, 

capno'des, capuol'dw (itamiSin, 
smoky), smoke-coloured. 

cap'reolate, caprrrJafiim {caprtoitit, ft 
tendril), having tendrils. 


1, Cnprifita'lio [L*t.), (1) 
tho fertilii&tiuQ of the fig bj 
imeoU, bnnchea of lbs wild fig 
being pUc«d among the miltivaUd 
kind ; tbe subsequent fertiliution 
is ftttribuled to the puncturea ol an 
hymaDopteroQBinaeot ; (2) fecunda- 
tion by srtifioiB] menoM ; Caprlfl'ciu 
(Lat.], the wild or "male" Gg, tbe 
uncultivated form, 
OUW«U'> ((dfo, a box), Link's term 

(or ACHRNK. 

OEp'ileln, an acrid alkaloid principle 

fonnd in somB specie! of Capeicwm. 

ia'Blai(*d^a, abox.trKinia, 

Oap'sBU, Ca/ftiUa, (I)»di7, dehiBoent 
seed-TCewl ; (3) the theca of Mossea ; 
(3) I the perithecinni or receptacle 
of Fung] ; oBp'mlax, ttxpsula 

, cap'iulftte. enclosed 
a capsule ; espinUte'rooB, -nu, 
l/tro, I bear), boaring (apsnleg. 

Oftp'nt [Lat. Ibe head), ihe peridiom 
of some Fun^ ;~Ploniint =Capit- 
ttLUH; ~Eadl'ciB, the crown of the 
root ; the obaolete Btem or bud of 
herbaoeous plants. 

CUnMbj'dratet (Carbon -f Hydrate), 
□on-volatile aolids, as arable acid, 
celluloae, dextrin, ■Urch.sitg&r; the 
noo-aaocbarine meoibera may be 
tamed into sngars by bailing in 
dilute acids, usually into glncou 

OVbon moz'ldc^COi ; earhoiui'ceoui 
( -(-aceous), consisting chiefly of Rub- 
stancea in which carbon predo- 
minates i carb'onlBBd, turned jnlo 
nearly pare carbon by slow com- 
bustion, as charcoal. 

0«r'o«rule,Q»rccrii7iM(fOfver, prison), 
Desvaux'a name for a dry, indehis- 
cent, many- celled, inperior fruit, 
such M that of the lime tree; (2) 
it has also been employed for the 
■porangia of some Fungi ; carceru'- 
Isr, corcertiin'rM, havlngacarcentle 

Oudnc'dM (tapuruSTit, canceroaa dis- 
OATdno'iiut {itptlruii/L, 
ulcer], have been used 

to denote Cajiekr and kindred 
OAfdtb'lnm t or Outyt&'iiun X i'op- 

Kieovir$ai, to became entangled, 
as roots), Necker's word lor Mv- 
OEIJUM ; Corey'taa.l = Mtceliiih. 

Oarwe (Fr. Cartae) = C*iiiKi, keel; 
has been naed for the keel or midrib 
in the leaves of grasBeB. 

□ailcos'Taphy (Oartx, Caricu, ypatt4, 
writing), a treatise on Cyperaceae, 

Ca'rle* iLat. rottenness), putridity, 

Cui'na (Ut. keel) ; (I) the two an- 
Urior petals ot a papilionaceous 
flower, or similar organ ; (2) tbe 
keel of the eluiue of crasaes ; (3) 
the principal nerve ol a sepal : 
CMl'nol, rclsting to the keet in 
aestivation when the carina includes 
the other parl« of the flower ;~ 
CansJ, in Equis'Jum, a water canal 
on the inner side of the xylem, op- 
posite a ridge on the suriace of the 
stem 1 caiiaa'Ils, that side of the 
fruit of Umbelliferae which repre- 
sents the carina, or principal nerve 
of the adherent calyx; cai'lnata, 
carina'liu, keeled ; cairina'to-pU* 
ca'tns, plaited so that eoob fold re- 
sembles a keel, as the peristome of 
some Mosses. 

Oailop'side, Oariop'sls [tdpuor, a nut, 
i^ii, reaeinblance), B one-celled, one- 
seeded, superior fruit, with peri- 
carp united to the seed : the Fruit of 
cereals ; cariopsia'ans, having a can- 
opaisaefruit, alaospclJed Cabvopbis. 

ca'rioiu, rorio'mK, (Lat,) rotten, de- 

Oar'mlne, the purest red pijjment 
obtainable, without ulmiituro of 
blue or yellow. 

Cftma'tloil (canievf, of flesh), flesh- 
coloured. [Wheat-car Carnation is 
a monstrous slate of that flower 
with muUiplied braole.] 

cam'eouB. carii'me (Lat. of flesh), 
Oamo'iitaa (Lat.) 

no'^iu (Idit, ) Qeskjr, palpy; ear- 
nlv'arotu {itoro, I devour) floBh- 
eating ; kppliml to Ibose plants 
wliioh digest inBecta ; Cam (Lat. 
Oeab), (1) the fieah; parts of fruits -, 
(2) the tiesae of ■ome Fuogi. 

Caro'Uu, the red colouring matter of 
ohromoplaata ; name from Da^ietig 
CaroCa, Lion. 

Ou'imUn, a carbohydrate fint ob- 
aerved in the Carob ; Oaionb'ln- 
aae, a hjdrotjtio enEyme formed 
during germination id seeds of 
CtratoHia SHiqiM, Lino.-, French, 

Oarpade'linm t Oarpade'ltu ; (lopt-ot, 
fruit, sSifXoi, not manifeBt} = C&£- 

Oaip'el, Carpetrvm {naprii, (ruit), a 
simple pistil, or element of a oom- 

iiound pistil, answering to a single 
saf ; a female sporopbyll ; carpel- 
r«jy, carpella'rii, carp iciu, relat- 
ing to a carpel ; Ouii'lil, Carpid'- 
I'um, -diminutive of Carpel; Oar- 
p'lnin. (1) the oogonium modified 
by fertilization, which remaios aa 
ftn envelope ftroand the embryo ; 
(2);=cdRi'Ki. ; Carpoaid (iTwi, a 
wine-skin], the more complex As- 
oomyce tons Fungi, all, except the Ex- 
oaeoooeae (Kemer) ; Oarpoclo'nlum 
(xXwrlor, a young shoot), "& free 
caae or receptacle of spores found 
in certain Algals" (Lindley) ; Car- 
podenn'li {SipiM, skin), Bisahoff'a 
emendatioDoi Piricakp ; Carpo'des, 
Carp</dinm, pi. Carpo'dia, aborliTc 
carpels, as in Typha; Oarp'ogua 
{yd/ioi, marriage), the female organ 
in a procarp : producing a cystc- 
oarp; OuiK^'uny, the prDcesa 
itself ; carpogsD'lo, carpoK'eiunu 
(y/nt, race), producing fruit ; in 
Flcrideae, applied to special cells 
of th« carpogoninm : Carp'ogono, 
OupoEon'luffi (701^, offipriug), (I) 
part of a procarp of carpogenous 
cella resulting in a dporuuarp after 
fertilisation ; (2) in AscuinycHt«s = 
ARffHiOARP ; Oarp'oUte. Carp'oUth 
(XIPst, stone), a foseiliied fruit -. or 
oasts, found in the coal 

probably of GymaoipermoUB origin; 
Oarpol'oKlst, Carpol'ogtit (X^ot. 
discourse), a specialist in fruits ; 
Carpol'Dgy, olaasification of fruits ; 
Carpo'ma I "a ooUeetion of aper- 
mangia " (Lindley), i.e. a compound 
sporocarp ; Carpoma'nla t/wla. 
freniy), a disease of grittineas in 
fruit ; Carpoma'ny. pistittody, or 
substitution of piatila for atamena ; 
Cup<Mnorpli'a % {i^p^ti, shape], apo- 
Ihecia of Lichens, resembling true 

Oar'pon (xaprDi, fruit), in Greek oon- 
pouads^fruit ; Oup'op&or*, Car. 
pophot'iiim {ipopiiii, I carry) ; (1) tha 
stalk of a sporocarp ; (2) that part 
of the receptaola wtueb is prolonged 
betwe«a the oarpela as a central 
axis, as in Csramiunt; (3) used by 
Fayod as inclusive of stipe, ptleus 
and lamellae, of fungi ; Carp''^yU, 
CnrpophyW um (^liXXo". leaf), syno- 
nym of Carpel ; C&rp'opbytM 
{ivToT, a plant), Phanerogams ; 
Oarpopod'lom t (jtcdirrm. an eleva- 
tion), fruit - ataik ; Carp'oapaim 
[awlfiiia, seed), the impregnated 
oosphere of Algae ; Carpoeporait'gia 
Itrrnpi,, a seed, i-ftiiar, a vessel), dif- 
ferentiated sporangia in the cysto- 
c&rp of Rhodophyceae ; C&tp'o- 
■pore (inopd, a eeed); (1) spore i 
(2) a spherical uninuclear spore 
formed in a sporocarp, arising 
from the swollen tips of branohed 
fSIaments resulting from the fer- 
tilization of the carpogonium ; Oar. 
potpo'reM, one ol Cohn's, also 
Sachs's main divisions of ThaUo- 
phytes, of plants which produce 
Hpore-fruit aa tbe result of fertiliza- 
tion ; oarpospor'lo, resembling a 
oarpospore ; Caip'ostome, CiUTiotfo'. 
tniiim {arifui., the mouth), the 
oi»ning in the cyatooorp of Some 
Algue; CaTiK>pto'«ii<*TuiT(i, falling), 
abnormal falling of the fruit ; car. 
pot'roplc (rpoTT), a turn), uied of 
movements for protection of the 
' u!t,oi 

_ . red ooloaring matter 
. rSiywer»o!Carthanni*linelwiiu, 

\ OLTtUas'iiunu, taHilagin'tta (Lat., 
gristly), hard and tongh, as the skin 
of an appic-pip. 

Oanmcla, CaruHt^vla (Lat., a little 
piece of flesh), a wart or protuber- 
ance near the hilum of a loed ; 
cannc'iilate, carvnctda'lia, posaeBa- 
ing a carancle. 

OMTekiii*'al> or CaiTOoliLa'cli (Croxier) 
= KARiruEiNi8isi nuclear diviiion. 

caiTOlyf ic {Kipvor, a nut, \ie\t, a loos- 
ing), relatiof; to nuuleardisaolulioo. 

earyoplijUA'cMui, -ecru; curoptiyi- 
I'eotu, -Ions, used of a corolla lii»- 
ing {letata with a long claw as 
in liiaHthut CaryophyUus, Linu., 
whence the name ; ouyopbyUa'tiiB, 
= the same. 

Ou^jafimam {tdmior, a nut = nucleus, 
r\i«na, moulded), Vuitlemin's term 
tor the pIsaniB of the nucleus ; 
Carfop'ila (j^i, reBemb]ance) = 
Ca&iophis ; Car'rosomei (iru/ia, the 
bodv), the constituents of the 
nuuleuB (VuiUemin). 

Ou'eln, see Pmnt-caseu, 

eaisld'eons, -etu [tatsU, e. helmet], 
helmet-ahaped, as the upt«[ aepal 

ou'nu (Ldt., empty), empty, aa an 
anther deatitale of pollen. 

Bsatft'ueai (Lat.), cheatDnt-colonred. 

eut'tng, prBmstorely shedding leaves, 
or fruit. 

OM'trate, ffwlni'futi (Lat.. gelded), said 
of a defective part, as a filanient 
without an uither ; Coitn'tloii, in 
botany ; (1) removal of anthers for 
artificial crossing ; (2) the action of 
Uatiiago, eto. on Lychnis and allied 
genera; divided into ainpI]lj;'eDOiis 
~,transfonDBlioD in either stamens 
or pistils; uiilroK'Bnoua~, produe- 
tion of anthers : thelyg'TnauB. pro- 
duction of pistiis in male-hast. 

Cu'nal («Miia/u, fortuitous), H. C. 
Watson's term tor an occasional 
weed of cultivation, whiub is nut 

cat■bol'lc(KaT&,down;^j^DI, athrow], 
adj. of OalAb'oUim, deatnietive 
metabolism of tbs protoplasm, or 
the formation of simpler substanoes 

from more complex, a'Xiompanied 
by a conversion of potential into 
kinetio energy; also spelt Kata- 
BousH 1 Catade'iluiD } (iXsait. a 
shutting up) = DicLESicm ; Caia- 
coToD'a IccroUa, a litllo garland), a 
second corolla formed exterior to 
the true one; resembling a hose-in- 
hose Sower; oatad'Tomoos (ipi^i, 
course), Luersapna term uhi-n the 
first set of nerve* in each segment 
of a Fern frond is given ofi' on ibe 
basal side of the mid-rib, as in 
Osmiatda ; Oatagen'osls [flttiia, a 
beginning), retrogreaBiveevolntion, 
by loss of attributes or simplifica- 
tion of structure ; Cat4l'y8ls (Xii^it, 
a loosing), chemical changes effected 
by a su^taoco which does not itMlI 
undergo change ; ferment action ; 
catalyt'le, modifloatioa of ohemieol 
force which causes catalysis ; satk- 
metad'roniouB ( -fmetodronioue) in 
Kerns, when they are wimetimes 
catodromous and sometimes meta- 
droRious, which may occur in the 
same species ; oatapefalous, -us, 
{rhaXor, B flower - lost), whew 
petals are united only by cohesion 
with united stamen, as in Maim; 
Oatapbyll, Cataphyll'a, pi. l^uXXav, 
leaf], the early leaf-forms of a plant 
or shoot, BH cotyledoDs, bud-scales, 
rhizome-soales, etc. ; in Oemion, 
Nicderblstter : oatAphyll'ary, of tlie 
nature of the foregoing; —LeavBs, 

Catapult Fruit ; those fruita dispcra- 
ing seeds or fruit segments by the 
elasticity of their pednnclea. 

Cat'achu, pr. Cat'eshco, cutch, the 
heart - wood of Aeaeia Cauchw, 
Willd., powerfully astringent from 
its rich tannin -con tents. 

cat'enat* {ealma, a chain), the co- 
herency of Diatom frustules in a 
connected chain; oaten'nlate, or- 
latitla'iua, foi'med of parts united 
or linked as in a chain. 

ntllod'al, ckUuxl'ic (xoTi, dawn ; 
Hit, » wiy) = KlTHomc. 

Oat'feln. ■ deciduous apike, coaBisting 
of uniaoiual apeWlous Uowhcs, an 
smentuni ; the male flowers of 
Cycada and Conifera ara etcone- 
oual; styled catkins ; Cat'ulua (Lai. 
puppj), I a flyoonjm of Catkin. 

Oau'da (Lat.), a tail, any tail-like 
apMudage ; caitd'ate, cavda'tus, 

Cu'dex (Lat.). Ibe axis of a plaot, 
oooaisting of atam and root ; ~ (!•- 
acen'doaa, the root : — Radl'da, the 
root-tip i ~ ra'pena; = Kuzoub ; 
eand'lol ■ conUa'ana t continuoua 
with the atem. used of those leaves 
ithich have no articulation with the 
■tern ; naadlc'iTona {/orma, sbape), 
liko a caudex in foria ; Can'iUcle, 
cafidic'ula, the cartilaginous atrap 
which oonnaota certain poUen-maa- 
aea to the stigma, as in Oichida. 

canlaaa'siit, -cue (cau/io, a stalk), be- 
ooming stalked, where the stalk is 
clearly apparent ; Caul'toIe.CKlU'lc- 
mt.Caalic'uius, a diminutive atalk ; 
(1) a aioall stem produced on the 
Deck of a root withoat the previous 
production of a leaf ; (2) the imag- 
inary apace botweea the radicle and 
the cotyledons of an embryo, now 
termed the hypocoty! ; (3) the atipc 
of certain Fungi ; aaaUc'olotu [colo, 
I dwell), applied to Fungi which 
live on stems ; canllf eroQa ( ftro, I 
liear), bearing a stalb ; canl'lform 
i/oTTiia. shape), having the shape of 
a stalk: Oanl'lflower ( + Flower), 
hypertrophy of the flower -stalk, 
auciimpanied by defective flowers ; 
caulig'enotu {yiyo,, rues), arising 
from a stem ; catillK'erous igt-ro, I 
Ixiar], borne on a stein -. CanlU'lma, 
term proposed by Bower to express 
the leaf in the oophore generation ; 
its analogue in the sporopbore 
generation ia Cini.OMi; caul'lnu-, 
canl'laary, coi'/ino'ri«, -riMe; = 
OADUNG; c&ul'tne, nm/i'iiiu, be- 

longing to the atem or arising froin 
it, ~ Biui'dlM, vsauular bundles 
erowing acropetally with the stem. 
having no direct communication 
with tbe bundles which pass into 

Ctin'IU (Lat.), a stem t the ascending 
axis, restricted to the above-ground 
portion in its normal state ; ~ ds- 
UqneBc'eiiit,^ a stem which branches 
irregularly : ~ excun'ena, a atem 
ahooling straight upwards, having 
aide branches as in AhUs. 

caulocarp'oua, raalocarp'ev^, -aictM 
(•auXoi, stem, (aprof, fruit), l>ear- 
ing fruit repeatedly, aa tr«es Uld 
sfarubs; Canl'ode (eMot, reMin- 
bUnce), a portion of a Tfaallophyta 
whichsimulateaastem; Oanlo'iiu£ 
(l)thastemofapalm: (2) the atem- 
like portion of such Algae as Fwi ; 
Oaul'ome the steoi as an abstract 
entity, the leaf -developing axia ; 
Bower suggeata its teatrtotion to 
the sporopbore generation only : 
axis in a sympodium : Caolotax'la 
(Tdfii, arrangement), the order of 
branch ea upon a atem. 

canst'icDB (Lat. burning), biting in 
taste, as Cayenne Pepper. 

cavem&'iltu [cavema, a cave], grow- 
ing in caves : CavBm'uU. the poret 
of such Fungi as Poli/po'iig. 

Carttua J (rai-uH, hollow), and Cavm 
are given by Lindley as nwpec- 
tively, the perithecium and peri- 
diura oi some Fuo^i ; also Oav'ul 
■np'sraa, delined by him aa the 
hymeoium of certain Fungi. 

Ceddl'ma ([t,ic1i. a gall), the galls pro- 
duced by Fungi or insects, the oon- 
aeqaence of infooLioa being an 
abnormal growth. 

Cell, CeU'ii'a(Lat, aamall apartment), 
(1) an independent unit of prota- 

Clsam, atrictly with a single nno- 
!US, contained in a chamber of 
cellulose, etc., which originally 
was recognised and called cell, 
now ~ -Vail ; (2) the cavity of an 
anther, otherwise anther-lobe ; (3) 
the cavity of an ovary or pericarp, 


oonUioing the ornim or teeda ; " 
Bnn'dlM, ■ bkod or bundle of 
■imiliir cells, &b tlie liset fibre in 
dicotyledona ; — Con'tenti, <>f Iwo 
kinde, living or pri>toi>lmBinic, nnd 
noa-iivJDg, such aa starch, [»t«, 
proteEds, cryitali, oell-Bap, aDd 
the nibiMnoe* disBolved in it ; ~ 
SlTli'loii, in free cell - diviBJan, 
■cTer&l daiigbt«r-celli »re forioed 
in the cavity of the mother-cell ; 
in ordinary oell division, us ■ 
role only two daughter-cells are 
formed, lunall; followed by a 
■ubaequcnt further division of 
«aah ; — Fun'Uy, a group of oella of 
comnioii origin, a colony or coeno- 
bium ! ~ n'tires, the achromatic 
filaments which (orm the nuclear 
•picdle in nDclear-diviaion ; ~ 
FOnn&'tlaQ, the conatruction of a 
new cell by reorganiBation of the 
protoplumio energid, with or 
without division of the cvtoplaam ; 
— Pu'ilana, oslii anited by abaorp- 
tioD or perforation of tianHverae 
wolU OB Sieve-veeaelH ; ~ Ortrapa, 
aesociationa of limiUr cells, aa the 
■clerenchyma io ths pulp of the 
pear, or in cork ; ~ Maa'aea. when 
cells are united in all dircctionii 
of «paoe, not having neceeaarily 
any definite form ; '- HnlUpUca - 
tion takes place by the forma- 
tion of two or more protoplasmic 
bodies out of one ; ~ Kn'oleni, 
an organised atructure within the 
oell, tbe active agent in division, 
usually apherical in form, and 
of higher refractive power than 
the re«t of the oell-contenta ; - 
FUte, formed by the thickening of 
threaHa of kinoploam, marking out 
the future aepta ; ~ Kowi, have the 
cells in contact by their ends, thus 
making ft filament ; — Sap, a 
watery aotntiOD of varioat sub- 
atancea. mUs, augara, alkaJoida, 
and the like ; " Tissue, diu- 
Unguisbed from vascular tissae by 
being made op of cells only ; ~ 
Snr'facei, where the cells form a 
■ingle layer, aa in aome Algao ; ~ 


Wall, a cloaod membrane, formed of 
oelluloBe, and a amall proportion of 
mineral eubstAnces, originated by 
the layer of protoplasm nhich lines 
it, frequently thickened by second- 
ary deposiU. Frtmord'lftl ~ , a cell 
previous to the creation of a oell- 

Cel'Ea(LAt., storeroom), (1) BcopoU's 
name for tbe fmit of CounnipUa, 
Aubl. ; (2) ; a form of perithecimn in 
Fungi (Liudley): ceUlTsroua (/em, 
I baar). btuiring or producing cells. 

Ceriul {cf/Ma, a cell), Blair's term 
for anther : cel'lnlar, ctUida'rir, 
consieliogof cbIIb, sponEV: -Bark, 
~ En'velope, the middle layer of 
the bark, nieaonhloeum ; ~ Flaalt, 
plaole which do not pouess vas- 
cular tissue ; non-vascular Crypto- 
gams ;~Bpore=SpoBiD^M ; CeUu- 
la'rea ; (1) plants which are built 
up of cells only, as those last men- 
tioned ; (2) recently the term has 
been applied to all plants built up 
of cells, in opposition to non- 
celhilsr or unicellular ; CeU'ols, 
Ctil'iJa, diminutive of cell ; eellu- 
lif eroua, [/(ro, I bear), bearing or 
producing cellules; Csll'nllii, Pring- 
sheim's term for a modification of 
cellulose; -OnJlu, bodies found 
in vegelutive hyphae ; cellulo'aae, 
Carda's name for ISpukiuedh. 

Cell'uloaa [tdltila, a cell), (1) a 
Durbohydrate, the chief organic 
base of the cell -wall ; (2) Dia- 
tom valves composed of cellules 
are termed cellulose, a synonym 
of CEI.1.FU.R ; OsU'ulosee, a generic 
term for the carbohydrale group 
above mentioned ; divided by 
cbsmists into sub-groups, as, Adl- 
pocell'Dlosea {adepa, adijiU, fat), 
consiating of cuticutar tisanes of 
leaves and fruits and of cork; 
Bamieall'nloaea, all carbohydrate! 
in ths cell- wall which are not 
oolonred blue by chlor-iinc-iodide, 
such as rtFservecellnlose, etc.; Ug- 
UDCell'nloaes, lignin combined with 
cellulose, as in Jule fibre; Het«- 
ceJl'uloaea, found in Kiingi and 


Liohetia, Che langiaa of BracoDDot ; 
ForaceU'iiIosM, the cellulur tisaue 
and epiiiennal cells oF IsBTee ; 
Poctocell'nloBBS, oomposed of pectic 
ikuidBUnd cellulose, auah u the puri- 
fied bftst of Euwmn 9iin. — Other 
modiScatioDS are named but not 
characterised bj Meaera Cross sjid 
Bavui in their wort "Collulose," 
18BS, M Onto, Hfdxa-. H^dro-, 
Koeo-, KltTO-, Ps«ndo - cellnloaes, 

PBDff'lU-Mll'tllaM ~ CUITIS' 1 Re< 

um~,oelluloee which is stored up 
Mkfood'ioppI;; c«IIa]o'8o-plio'Bt«, 
folded M OS to form amsll cells 
(Phillipt) ; C«Utllo'(ldft. a mixture 
of oelTutose and pectose, compos- 
idg the primitive cell-wall (GrMn). 

Onne&t'-IllBk, the retinaculum ia 

Ownenta'tiOB, uDion of the membroDes 
of hfphoe by a slip of cementing 
gubetanoe, oonGraecencojinGermon, 

0UUUiUl'7 {Kttit, empty. ir$ai, a 
flower), suppression of the slAmcna 
and pistils, leaving the perianth 

oWlo'ldU', eenobio'neul, toiobioiiar'ia, 
Cciut'biam, see oobnobiak, etc- 

oenoKeneflc (nni, void, yrvhrip, a 
parent), Becondary (Croxier). 

eentifirilaiu {ceiUum, a hundred ; 
^olivm, a leaf), literally having a 
hundred leaves ; actually, more thao 
can be readily oounted ; Cent'l- 
metre, Cenlimt'tmm, .39:17 of an 
Knglieh inch, roughly, Mhs. 

ctn'tral [cenfrum, the middle), relat- 
ing to the centre of a body ; ~ Cell, 
□f the archegonium, that in the 
venter from which the ooephere, 
and ventral canal-cell arise ; ~ 
Cord, a aerieH of cella ■□ the leaves 
and other parte of Mosses, which 
simulates a vessel ; '~ OyliDder, in 
stems and roots the portiuu within 
the endodormis ; Cent're, in Dia- 
toms, the middle point of the 
pervalvar axis ; oent'rla, in the 
middle ; oentHfngBl [fti(Ki, I flee), 
tending outwards or developing 
from the centre oatwards ; centri- 

p'etal {jxlo, I seek), developing 
towards the centre from without ; 
Centragoii'eali (firtaa, beginning), 
the rotate or peripheral type of 
form assumed by plants (L- H. 
Bailey) ; adj. oontrogen'lo ; ^. 


Canfron (Ktrrpnr, a sharp point), in 
compounds — Spur. 

Centrum (Lat-), the centre of a solid 
body ; Oent'roaome (a-i^, body), 
minute bodies believed to have 
directive influence in nuclear di- 
vision ; the central particle of 
the osntroephere ; OanVrotplMTU 
{aipaipa, a sphere), two small 
colourless bodies near the nncleus, 
imbedded in the cytoplasm, having 
a ceolrosoroB in each ; oentrosyl'lo 
{i':\or, wood), referring to Oentrox'- 
y\y, oentrifngal primary woody 
structure (Van Tieghera). 

y {centuria, » hondrodl, in seta 
if dried planta, each hundred is 
styled a century. 

cepa'eeotu, -feus (cepa, an onion), 
having the lAste or smell of garUe, 

OapholuLtli'lnm % {nKpaKii, a head, 
dv^Dt, a flower), the capitulum or 
head of compositee, antbodinm ; 
Oepha'Umn, a woody enlargement 
at the apex of the stem in some 
Cacteae, from which the flowats 
appear ; oeph'alodine, forming a 
head (Leightou) ; Oephalo'dlnm, (1) 
a knoblike shield as in the genua 
Sryphophorvs ; (2) the capitulum at 
Composites ; (3) peculiarly shaped, 
branched or convex outgrowth of a 
Lichen-thallus, in which algal cells 
are situated ; (4) a synonym of 
TiTfiiBCDi,UM ; ceph'aloid, oeplial. 
Old'eoiu, -diMS {tlSat. resemblance), 
capitate ; Cepbalo'nian GoU, a sac- 
like gall, joined to the leaf by a 
narrow neck (Kemer), 

Cephfilopli'oniin (^op^..?. I carry), (I) 
the receptacle, or (2), the stipe ol 

cera'ceoni, -eiM (ceretu, Lai.), wa»y, 
(1) in appearance, or (2) colour, 
that of unbleached nox. 

(■(pdMiw, ■ jar), ayn- 
onym ol Cthtocarp. 

Otf'ulii, a gummy Biuiifttion from 
pliun tud cherry trees, tweliiDg in 
wnter bat not dissolving ; the naioe 
ii from Pmittu Cenuttui, LioD. 

OMktaaoh'yiiia {ttpat, a horn ; fTTtuiia, 
poured in), the tissue of effete sieve- 
tubei which beoomei homy in 

Cer'a.Uiii, thebitt«rpriDcipleof "Icc' 
laod Moss," Cttraria Utavdica, 

Oera'ttnin (c/pat, a horn), a long ilender 
one -celled, two - valved, superior 
fruit, ha in Hyptcoom, "cBpBuU 
■iliquifonuia ''; Oeratomai'iiia ((larla, 
frenKv), monstroua prodnctioo of 
born-like or hooded Btructures in 
the flower. 

(Mrddlain [npniSiia, a small aomb), 
the myeelium of some Fungi. 

C«'T«al, rerea'Iis (Ceres, goddess of 
agriculture), any Onmineae whose 
sends serve as food : Cerea'lia, coru- 
plants generally ; Oe'Tsimi, Ce'rinni, 
Cs'iio, =CiKiorais, 

car'etiiUOnu (cerebrum, the brain ; 

» forma, Hhape), having an irregular 
brain-like appearance, as the kcraul 
of a walnut. 
Ma, Ce'rlne (ura, wax), a substance 
■tat«d to be a constituent of cork. 
carireroua (c^ra, wax ; fero, I bear), 
wai producing ; miI'dub (Lat. ), the 
colour of yellow wax. 
cem'uoos, tern'uia (I*t.), nodding, 
applied to such flowers as Sarctt- 
nui, or Coltsfoot when in fruit. 
csmssa'tns (Ijit.), white as though 

pain ted with white lead. 
cerT'lns. cerri'nus, cervic'o/or (terrtis, 

a bMk), dark tawny colour. 
CeiVlifLat., the neck) = RHlzOMe. 


the grey of the eye), 
grey, UBunlly spelled I" 

cespititlOBS, pr. cespitish'us ; M«p' 
iKnt.-loui \i:e»pet, turf], pertainin) 
to turf, or growiog in tofts ; ces 
plt'ulose, somewhat tufl«d ; cj 

Cbas'tB (xa'rr;, a bristle}, the slender 
aporopbore of Moiaos, the seta. 

Ctiaff, (I) small membrauoua scales, 
dfgenerato bracta, in many Com- 
positae ; (2) the outer envelopes 
of oereal grains ; chaiTj, pale. 

dulncetn'mA [gtrruna, a bud), in 
Fungi, having the form of a Eieptate 
confervoid filament, the segmenti 
of which are capable of growth ; 
tenned slso ScKonToBHHA. 

Cb&la'iB [-naXa^a. small luberale), that 
part of the ovule or seed where the 
nucetlus >oina Ihe integuments ; it 
is the base of the nucleus and is 

a chahua, or pertaining thereUi, 
oliala'ilui ; dudft'iogama iyiitiK, 
marriage), plants which are fertil- 
ized through the chBlora, and not 
the foramen, as CoMiarina, and 
many Cupuliferae ; Chaluog'ainf , 
' '' ' '' by the chalaza ; adj. 

nulticeltular glanda 
which deposit calcareous matt«r as 
in some Saxifrages, the secretioD 
escaping through a special channel, 
the water-pore ; ~ Wlitt«, pure 

ehalyb'sm (Lat. of steel), steel.grey, 
or lead -coloured. 

Cluuitwr- fluid, the Kammerlliissig- 
kcit of Crato, comprisiog cell-sap 
and enchylenia between lamellae of 

Otuuntiered-Obre*, Bbres which have 
become septateand seemingly multi- 
cellular, as in the secondary wood of 
Dicotyledons ; ~ Ovary, when the 
margins of the carpels project into 
the interior to form incomplete 
longitudinal diasepiDieQts,the ovary 
remaining unilocular. 

dum'iielled, hollowed out like a 
gutter, as in many leaf-stalks. 

Ohap'let, a series of objects arranged 
like beads on a string, as the spores 
of Cyttopvx (Croiier). 

Obar'aclne, a species of camphor from 
terrestrial Algae, sa PaimxUtt^ 

CMonip h yB 

Oxiitaria, eU. ; ib smelU like Chara, 
hence the name, 
duumd'nna i CAara-Uke, oompoaed 
of a aiiigle, or s few parallel 

OIiar'ut«r(lAt.,ft niark),tholochnical 
differanca wherebj allied forma are 
diatiogaUhed, as ordinal, geoeric, 
apecific, and ao od. 

duutk'OMU, -etut {charla, paper + 

Ixo^/io, a gaping fiaaure ; 
•filMt, marriage), the opening of the 
periaDlh at the time of SoirerinK' 
aa oppoaed to cleiitogamic ; adj. 

Obeck, an eiperiment or obaervation 
for confirmatioD, (reqaentl; the 
word "Control" ia naed for this. 

Oba'mo-AntJlB'aia (chem -t-alaSira, 

Grception by aorwe), tenn omplojed 
' Csapek to expreaa the capacity 
(J a plant-orKan to respond to 
chemical atimuii ;ChaiQOl'j^|XiviT, 
B loosing ), chemical eolation or 
analyaia ; Chamotai'la (raf «, order), 
the altntctioD of bacteria, anthero- 
loidi, etc., by certain aubatanoea ; 
sometimopellcd cbemlotaz'la : adj. 

e«), < 

loiiia'ala(xcAn.lip:>ia>'fB, frenzy), 
Morren'a term for the doubling of 
the lip in Orchida, as in Orrhia 
Mario, Lina 

OtiUa'i1nin(x<'Xii/>'i'>'. alip), ths bound- 
ary of a Buiall pit in the teata of 
Fhattdiit, of two moveable valvea. 
which, by hygrometrio movemcniH 
c&uae the rupture of the teata ; chl'- 
1U7 Lay'eT, the investment of the 
aeed which oontaina the chilarium. 

ehllillnt;, proliferous. 

OU'na (Ital), (1 ) a Byuonym for Qn- 
NiNR J (2)thebark of CincAoJKi, aup- 
plying valuable (ebrifugea and 

Ohlnln' = Qcl[^l^"K. 

oUonoph'Iloiu (itiun'. snow : ^iXiui, I 
love), F. Ludwig'g term for the 
winter.leavea of Hdhhiinu fotli- 

dvi, Linn.; ddonopli'oboiia (^6^, 
fear, dismay), the same author's 
word for the aammsr.leavea of thA 
same plant. 

Cbl'tlll {x^iir. coat of mail), a sab- 
Btanoe allied to hom, which forma 
the protective covering of many 
insects Buch as beetles, identified 
as being of the same compoaitioo 
aa Fungua-cclluloae. 

ChlunydOKonld'iniD (^Xa^^. xKaiiitat, 
a cloak; -,0.^, race, offspring), uni- 
cellular gemmae of certain Fuogi, 
which are relatively larae and thick- 
walled, and adapted for a period 
of quiescence before vegetating ; 
Ohlom'ydospore, a spore having a 
very thick membrane. 

Clilonun'yllte (xXupA;. sraaa green, 
SfiuXoi', fine Quur), B^ung'a term 
for chlorophyll granules derived 
from the tran a formation of elarch ; 
Cblor'aiiUir {ioBm, a flower), the 
change of all or most parts of the 
Bower into leaf-like organa, frond- 
eacence ; ctiloraa'cena, green, in- 
clining to yellow ; Ohlorencft'ypia 
(f-yXti^n, an infusion), assimilating 
tissues: Ohlor'lii, used by Kraus to 
denote the green conatituent of 
ohlorophyll ; ohloTl'niiB, yellowiah 
green; Oblor'la, uaed aa the title of 
a work on the plants of a diatrict, 
analogoua to Flora ; ctalorocIi'nHU 
(xpo'u. complexion], having a green 
Bkin:Gblorofti'clna(4>ucoT,/ucuii, sea- 
weed Lachlorophyllofaclearyellow- 
ish. green colour (Sorby) ; cbloro- 
phae'lis (^lif.duncolou red ) , y ello w- 
green as the colouring matter of 
Algae ; Oblorogonlil'limi (yovli, ofT- 
springj.thegreenBonidiaof Liobeni, 
as distinguished from the chrysogo- 
nidiai chlorogon'Mtu (^irifiDi, fruit- 
ful), applied lo the gonidial layer 
in Liehens ; Chlorolmic'lte (Xruiii, 
pale), Van Tieghem'B term for chlo- 
rophyll granule, by Beliuog re- 
stricted to those which are formed 
from protoplasm, albuminous ; ayo, 
Chloroplaatid (A. Schimper). Auto- 
plast (A. Meyer) ; CUoT'opbyll 
(^liXXov, leaf), the green colour- 

; - Bod'y, 


icg mattflr of pUnb 
r- Oor'piuclB, — OislD, — uran niB, 
a prot«id or pluBtid in the cells of 
piaatB, DBually of a greea colour ; 
ly', Chlobolecctte, ete. ; ~ Ve't- 
IClM, obloTOphyll grannies ; cUoro- 
phylla'cAOtu ( + aceouB), applied 
to cetie which ooDtain chlorophyll, 
in ccntra-diBtinctioD to those which 
do not. and are consequently 
coIoarteBB ; ChlOTOpb'ymna, tbe 
green principle of chlorophyll ; 
DhloTophyll'oae. containing chloro- 
phyll ; Ohlor'oplast, Ghloroptaat'ld 
{rXocrit, moulded), the plaitida or 
granules of proloplosm which are 
of a green colour ; Cblamplut'la, 
Schwars's term for a proteid con- 
itituting the oroond sDbatattoa of 
the chlorophyll grannie ; Oblora- 
rn'fla (rn/iM, reddish), a reduced 
ahlorophyll, the red pigment' of 
Cblornphyoeae, bo □amed by Ros- 
taiingki : Chloro'ili, a diBaaec, 
shown by loea of coloar ; cUorot'lc, 
thlorot'icvA, greenish in colonr ; 
OhloTOTapDTliB'tion [rapmilio, 
a reeking), a function analogous 
t« transpiration, but it proceeds 
only from the chloroleucites under 
oertain light (Van Tieghem). 

Ohord'a (Lat., a oord), pUtUla'tla, the 
line of tissue between the stigma 
and the cavity of the ovary ; choT- 
da'ceana i (-l-aceous), having the 
figure of ■ rope. 

cAonlOiTU'ial ixipSTi, catgut ; ^1^, a 
root), where the rootstock produces 
tromeroos SowHring stems one be- 
fore the other from its sides, 
(Syme) as in Citrex rhordorrhiza. 

Linn. f. 

»ul), (1) 


nt; li2) 
,1 = 

rhioh laiB the young o 
H absorbed during developm 
f J a carpel ; Oioiiona riu 

eliOTipbell'old (x-'p^f, separate; #cXXo). 

cork bark), applied to the separated 

■nberiwd cells and Untipcfa (Kle- 

_ babn); Aoilpet'tiliniB, -hs (v/raXov, 

ft flower leaf), having petala aepar- 

ate. polypetaloui ; . , 

l^uKXor, a leaf), having teparate 
leaves, used of the floral membera ; 
chorissp'aloua, -us (sepal), with 
separate sepals, polysepaloua : cbo- 
nsoleptd'eiu ; (Xctji, Xfrllm, a 
scale), vheo tbe scales of (he in- 
volucre of Composites are distinct 
from each other : CliOT'Iila, the 
separation of a leaf or phjlloid 
member into more than one. d^ 
doublement, danbling ; coUMenl 
-•, when the plane of separation 
it antero- posterior ; par'allsl ~, 
the plane of separation lateral ; 
ehoriitopbjll'oui, •u» l^fWnr, a 
leaf), separate leaved. 
JIiortoiiom'la^(XapT0t, grmn herbage; 
r6iHn, law), " The art of making 

body i 

Tbread, the 6lifon 
nuclear division, which 

nto Chkouosomr ; 

i,t the colon ring 
matter of plants : Ctkn'maUn 
(Flemming), that portion at the 
nucleus which readily takes arti- 
ficial staining, termed Noclein by 
Btrasbarger ; Chromatol'yds (Xdcn, 
a looeing), Cavara'a term for the 
condensation of nuclear chromatin 
in a homogenous mass, which nfler- 
warda subdivides ; Chro'matotnare 
(tiipoj, a part) = Chkomosomb ; 
Gbroinat'ophare {^pia, I carry), 
a collective term for the vnrioua 
plastids, chloro-, chromo*. leuco- 
plaatida ; Chro'matopl&sin (wXdcrfui, 
moulded), the protoplasm of the 
colouring and nltied substances 
(Straaburger) ; Chromlil'lutn, tbe 
gonidium of a Lioben ; Chra'tninn, 
no abnomi si colouring, as of leaves; 
Oliro'moblMt. nn error of soma 
writers foe CnnoHOPLAaT ; ohro- 
moKBn'lc, chromog'eiioiu (yirot 
offspring), colour-producing, as 
soma bacteria ; chromopariras 
{pario, I bring forth), applied to 
bacteria which are uanally colour- 
less, but excrete useless colour- 
ing (Beyartnak); ohromapli'oiaiu 


{^lopiii', I carry), said of those 
barteria, wboie ptgnientatioD ia 
UD inlegrnl part of Iheir organ- 
ism ; Obro'mopbyll {•paWar, ■ leaf), 
aav substance which colours planlr- 
oefli; Chramoleuc'lte {XfLcoi, irhita), 
Van Tiegliem'B name for protopl&B- 
niic colour graDalee ; Cbro'mopUut 
< A . Mey e r |. Obronuipltuf id( A. Scbi di • 
per) ('Xdiroi, moulded), are sjno- 
nj-ms ior grntiuleB contunin); other 
colouring Ihpin chlorophyll : Cliro'- 
moaoDtes (o.:>/ui, n body], libcillar 
bodies of defiuit« number formed 
during nuclear divuion, dividing 
by fissioD into nev groups, and con - 
trihuting to form the daughter 
nuciri ; Daagbt«r ~, secondary or 
derived chroinosomea ; Ohro'niiilB, 
dua'mnla, colouring matter of tbe 
plftol, olber tban oUorophyU, ap- 
plied especially to petals. 

ObnttlM'oipore (uwroi, time ; {"uw!, 
li V i ng I E i-ofd, a s^d ) .a m icroKoogo n i - 
dium produced by flydrodirtyoti, 
which rests for some weeks before 
g«niiin&Iing : also called Cbron'- 
Ultore (Fringsheim). 

chroocofl'colil, resembling Chroococ^vs; 
eluoococca'ceouB, allied to the same 

dirools'pold. like tbe genua Oiro- 
oUpia ; consisting of yellow scales. 

Ohiysaliri'ilana {ckrynalie, a pupa ; elJoi 
resembtance), rolled up and folded 
up at the same time; wrapped up 
as an iueect pupa or cbrysalia. 

cbTyaan'tUne (xpucix, gold ; SrSei, 
K Bower), yellow flowered ; ehiy- 
tell'iu, somewhat golden-hued ; 
chry'seus, yellow as gold ; cbrysl'- 
»os ILat, a precious stone), golrl- 
coloured; cbiyiocb'roua ixpi". skin), 
having a yellow skin ; Chryso 
ITonldlnm [yart], offgnring), a yel- 
low gonidium of Licbena; chryto- 
fruitful), the 

layer of jallow ^ _ 

I.ichena; Otuy'sophan {ipalru, 1 
show) occurs iu Fhytria parielina 
De Not., etc., an gold-eoloured 
crystals ; alao known as duyso. 
plua'lcAc'ld : OIuy'Mpbyll (^i/Uor, 

thorn berr 
Linn. ; Cbrysotftii'nln (+T*, 
a group of colouring niiittera in 
plaals, when oxidized giving rise to 
brown tints in autumn foliage. 

chrmlferuBlxi'^. juice; /o-o, Ibear), 
chymlfara vd'wi, J: Hedwig's term 
for an imaginary "sap-thread" 
rolled round a tube to form a trach- 
eid or spiral vcaael. 

Cliytrldlo'sls, a diaeaae due to 
Ctadochylriiiiti fitUoliim, PninBt. 

Cic'atrice, CTcafric'iifn, Cka'irix{Lat., 
a acar), the mark left by the separa- 
tion of one part from another, aa 
tbe leaf : dcatilaa'tiu, dc'atilooH, 

CUcln'niu {nlmrret, a ringlet), = Cw- 

OU'la. pi. of CU'lnm(Lat., an eyelash), 
(1) Vibratile whip-like proceasas of 
protoplasm by which loosporea 
and aimilar bodies move ; (2) the 
hair- like processes in theendostome 
in Mosses : (3) tbe marginal hairs of 
Litiiila; cllla'rlB (Lat.), like an eye- 
lash, or aliort hair; cll'late, dlia'iua, 
the teeth finely serrate, as if fringed; 
dl'lifonn ( /uraii , ah ape ) , reae m bling 
cilia; dl'lograde [■jradue, a step), 
moving by mcana of cilia (Croiier) ; 
OU'iaU, secoodary or diminutive 

dmld'DQs (rinMx, a bug), amelling of 
biigH. as Coriander. 

Clncbo'na (genua), compounds, we 
China, Ql'imnk, etc.; dnehona'- 
csoui ( + aceoDn), relating to cin- 
chona plants ; Otn'chonlne, one of 
the alkaloids found in the batb of 
the Cinchona ; olnotioii'ia, relating 

dn'olnnaJ, ciiv:\nna'lU <Lat., curled), 
applied to curled inflorescences as 
~ Cyme, a cyme in which the suc- 
cessive fl«wers are on altarnftt* 

^^f Bides of the peeudnxis : ~ Dlcluit'- 
omy, in which alternate branubeH 
develop ; Olncis'noB (I^t., tt curl), 
applied tu a unipnroui Bcorpioid 
cytoB ; the erroneoUB form ClQlN.ina 
ia found in some writers. 

tfno'tiu (Lat., girded), used of alba- 
meD when surrounded b; an 
•aaalar embryo. 

aaMieli'rnia (iiku, I move ; tyx«i^, 
an in(iisioD), laticiferool tinoe ; 
dnenchpn'atouB. powesaing latex 

dnera'ceoua. -eun (Lat.), (omewhat 


otBorlo'lni, oLaerit'tona, ■ 


dng'nliini (Lat., a girdle), (1) the 
neck of a plant, that whloh is be- 
tween atom and root, the ooUum ; 
(3) the connectiog tone, girdle, or 
hoop of Dialomfruatulea. 

Qll'nabar (Kirrd$api, a red pigment), 
(1) Dragon's blood, a, reaioons eum 
from Daemmwropi Draco, 

bail'Qua, scarlet. 
dn'namle, or olnnamo'mio, pnrtaining 
tocionamon; elJiiiamo'meui ( Lat. ), 
oinoamoD colonr, a light yellowish 

Cl'an. nn old form of ScioK. 

OlonoBpei' me&e ( > lur , a column , nipiat , 
a seed), plants whose ovules de- 
velop on a central, more or Iobi 
columnar placenta, aa Olaciueae 
and SantaUceae. 

drea. in Latin compounds = round 

tdr'ctnal, cii-ciaa'lv {cirdno, I make 
round), involute from the tip into 
a coil ; oir'clniULte, ctrcinna'tiM, 
ooilad into a ring or partially so ; 
sometimes spelled □iT'cliiata. 

ClTCVla'tlon (circu/nfio, a revolution], 
the streamins motion of protoplasm 

in cells ; q/*. RoTATTON. 

dnnuiuiz'Ue, circumaxi'tU [circnia, 
round; 0718, an axle), surroundings 

central axis which separatee when 
thefniit splits open; clroumcliio'tua 
(Lat), girded round ; Clrcumdss'lon 
g fruit trees ; (2) cut 

n for ri 

round aa I 
Lichens ; olranmferen'tial (Lat., 
eirt\ar\ftrenl,\a), relating to the 
circumference ; drcDmlafaralimi 
(^(tfui, laterU, a side), the tendency 
in plant phytogeny lo develop a 
circular arrangement of parts (L, 
H. Bailey) ; drconmn'tata {unto, I 
nod), the movements of the growing 
poinlB of plants round the axis ; 
ClTCumDnla'tion, the pbenomenoo 
of the apical portions of stem, 
t«ndril, root, turning to various 
quorterB of the oomposs ; ClroQm- 
poalt'io [poiilia, piaoed), a layer, or 
branch laid into the earth to root, 
whilst still connecMd with the 

■iU. : 

»cUaiu, to split), dehigcing < 
circularly around, as in the capsule 
of A Jiagallit ; Clicumscrip'tioii 
[fcribo, acriptam, to write), (1] the 
outline of any organ ; (2) the defini- 
tion of a form or group of forms, a* 
of epeciea.genera, orders; otrcomH'- 
pleua [atpu, a hed^e), surrounding, 
aa a protection ; cirt-amtejMii'lia 
fo'tia, a used by da Candolle for 
leaves which surround the stem, as 
if to protect the young growth ; 
ctrcummeduU'ary l,aud«Jla, the 
spinal marrow), a proposed emenda- 
tion of " peri medullary." 
llT'rliate, arra'tut, eirrha'liu, cirr- 
Aa%, (ewrAiM, a tendril), tendrilled, 
or assuming the functions of a ten' 
dril 1 alRMTemiu (/rro, I bear), 
producing tendrils; olTTll'lfonii, 
eirrhiform'it (/onna, shape), appar- 
ently a tendril ; CiirhD'attas, the 
stAte of poeaeasing tendrils ; dirb'- 
MB, dzTh'cna, crrrho'aiLs, (1) ten- 
driUod, (2) with a wavy hair- 
point (Braithwaite); Cirrh'tu, since 
Linnaens, used for a tendril, 
a filiform oi^an of attachment, 
modified from a leaf, stipule, or 




ftbortod br>Dch. — Ths forecoing 
MB frequently ipelled clrrlfe rona, 
eSxt'ilonD, diT'oie, Clrr'iu, etc. 
(from cimw, a ourl). 
01et«U'*, Ol8t'a]a<Lat., a little chest), 
u«ed for the apotheoia of LJaheDa, 
whioh, globul&r at Snt, burat at 

Ollt'olltll =Cv8Tol.tTH. 

Olit'ome, O'dfo'DHt (iifirTii, a boi; oTi 
a mouth), a menibcBooua bso wbiuh 
was aiippoted to pasa beneath the 
Btomatio guard-celti ; but the cells 
at ths bottom of the abomalio 
cavity are destitute of outiole. 

OlBtop&'oruni {fvptv, I oairv), "the 
■tipe of certain FungaU " (Lindtey). 

dtrell'm (from Citnu, Udd.), some- 
what yellow ; dt'wui, leinoD-yel- 
low ; dtrlQBll'ua, ^ellowiah ; olt'ric 
Add ia abundant in lemon juice. 

aUdantot'oooB ((Xdiat, a branch; aMi, 
self ; oI(oi, a house}, having the male 
inflorescence of a Moss on a proper 
branch ; Oladencli'rina t {fyx''l^i '■'> 
Infusion), branched parenchyma; 
alAdaearp'oDa [taprii, fruit), having 
a fruit termiuating a lateral shoot 
in Mossea ; Olad'ode, a branch of a 
single intemoda aimuUting a leaf ; 
akdo'dlam, a Bat eipauaion of the 
stem ; dadodyttro'phla (Sit, bad ; 
TfW^JI, nouriahmenl). the perishing 
01 brancbei ; dad'opttyll. Oado- 
phl/ira {4.6W011. ■ leaf), a branch 
aasuminff the form and function 
of » leal, a cladode ; Oladopto'slB 
(rr£m, a fall), abnormal coating 
off of branches ; 01«di»«la'r«iili 
{tnXtlfii, bard ; dSoi, resembLaace), 
•lellata bodiea containing calciaoi 
oxalate in leaves and Soral en> 
velopes of Earyalt ftroT, Satisb. ; 
eUdoatpliiHi'lc {fiipur, a tube) hav- 
ing a tubular atele interrupted at 
the insertion of branches (JeQrey) ; 
OI&doBtro'ma X {aTfiw/La. something 
spread), a receptacle or growing- 
poiat coveted with carpels, each of 
which haa a free placenta. 
OUmp-ealla, email setnicircular hollow 
protuberances, latersUy attached 
to the walla of two ad joioiag bypha- 

oells, and atretebing over the sep- 
tum between them ; ^ Gonuae'tloiii, 
the some. 
OUip'per, the water-sac, or lobuls of 

ClasUeu'clta (iXiiirii, a fracture-HLea' 
cite), that part of the protoplasm 
ditferentiated in nuclear division to 
form the spindle and centrosomea or 
apheres when present (Uangeard). 

Claap'ers, Grew'a term for tendrils. 

OlMB, Cltu'aiii (Lat. a fleet), a primary 
group of Ordera, Diaotyleduns for 
example; ClauUlca'llOIi, arrange- 
ment under rcapoclive groups ; 
taxonomy, from Class to Variety, 

datli'rate, rJathra'lus (Lat. latticed), 
Utticed, or pierced with apertures ■, 
~Oell^Sieve-tube; Cl&th'rus (Lat. 
a lattice), a, membrane pierced witli 
holes and forming a sort of grating. 

Claua'Uiu [c/auaufl, shut), Richard^ 
term for bis macropodnl embryo, 
when its radicle is united by its 
edges, and entirely encloses the 
rest (Liudley). 

ola'vBle, dai-a'lus (r/ctinu, a club), 
club-shaped, thickened towards 
the apex ; dav'eUsta, davella'tua, 
diminutive of tlie foregoing ; da.y'- 
iola, Clai-i&Mla (Lat. vine -tendril), 
tendril, cirrhus ; olAVic'alate. davi- 
cala'tat, furnished with lendrila or 

clav'lfonn, dav\form'U {dava, a club; 
forma, ahape), club-shaped ; olavll- 
lo'ana (Lat.), clubbed, or markedly 
club.ghaped : mar'ula, Cla^vla., the 
club-shaped sporophore in certain 
Fungi, as Clavana ; Cla'raa, the 
disease of Ergot in grasses, the 
young grain being malformed and 
club-shaped, from the attack of 
Ciavicrpi jmrpMTfa, Tul. 

Claw, the narrowed base of the p«taU 
in such plants as Z^iantAu*. 

Cleft, cut half-way down ;~ -grafVlat;, 
■□aertion of a scion in a cleft made 
in the stock. 

Ctels'tocBip (lAcKirit, shnt ; napwit, 
fruit], an aaoooarp, which ia com- 
pletely closed, the spores escaping 

by rupture, a oleisUitheoiuni ; doU- 
tacup'ooB. Applied to tboae Mosaes 
whose capsn!«« do Dot open by a 
lid ; olelatofrMii'tc, olelitD^'uiiotu 
{yifui!, marriage), with cIobh fertil- 
ization, it taking place within Ibe 
iiiiop«Ded flowers ; OlelBlOK'amy, 
the conditioD described ; dala'tog- 
•iw {-ji'in, o&pring), a plant which 
bean oleiitoganioua flowers (Cru- 
aier) ; 01eiatoE'en7, bearing cleisto- 
gamic flowers ; adj. claltt^eooiu ; 
Pmda~j Hacsgirg's term (or an 
intermediate condition, the flowers 
being normal, but not opeaiag, and 
poll^aCion taking place within the 
closed perianth ; OlalBtotbe'ciiim 
(0^111. a case), an aacouarp wbtob 
remains closed till decay or rupture 
Mia free the aacospores, a cleisto- 
oarp : Olett'tnet, large parenchyma- 
tous cells in which raphidea are 
frequently deposil«d. 

OUmACOrhl'iae (xxr^nf , ■ ladder, ^fn, a 
root), Van Tiegbem's term for Gym- 
nospenoB and all Diootyledoni ex- 
cept the Nympbaeaceae, their root- 
hatrs having an epidermat origin. 

OU'mUng, ascending by using other 
objeclB u Bupporla. 

OUaand'rinm (iX/pti, a bed ; iti)p, 
irdpot, a, man), the anther-bed in 
Orchids, that part of the column 

the I 


OUaantb'lum idrect, a flower), the 
receptacle in Compositsu : Olinid'- 
iDm, the stalk supporting a stylo- 
■pore i OUnoapOrajig'lum {arapi,, a 
■eed ; iyyeier, ■ VBBael), a synonym 

bpohk: CU'nIuin, (Ij the reaeptacle 
of a Composite flower ; (2) the 
■porophore of some Fungi ; Oli'Qoe- 

olook'irUe = deitrorse. 

Olonft'lllim { (iXwv, a little branch), 

the ripe, Bpiral-ooated nucule of 

OlOM Fertllli»'aon, fecandatlonby its 

own pollen. 
elSMd, used of (hose flbro-vascular 

bundleH in which all the pro-cam' 

biumoelle become permanent tissue ; 

are cleiatogomic flowers ; •- Itn'- 
oleua, that of the higher planU. 

Clo'aillg Hemlirana, the original un- 
tbickened cell- wall at the oentre 
of a pit. 

Clo'Btar, Clo'itnan ((Xucrr^p, a spindle), 
elongated cells, pointed at each end, 
frequent in wood. 

cloud ed, when colours are unequally 

Clova, a gardener's name for a young 
idilb developed round the mother- 
bulb, aa in garlic. 

Club, a pluricellular hair, one of the 
elements of the pulp of the orange 
or lemon fruit (Crozier) ; olDb- 
sbaped, graduallv thickened up- 
ward from a slender base, clavale ; 
Olab-TOOt, malformation in Cruoi- 
fers oaasnd by Plarmodiopkora 
ISnueitat. Woron.; Clnbb'lnE, is a 

Olna'tsr, (1) old name for raceme, as 
used by John Hill;(2)J = VAactrLAR 
BuHiiLB ; clnat'ersd, compactly 
gathered together, as the flower of 

dj'peate, dypra'lm {clypeta, a round 
shield), buckler or shield-shaped ; 
alypesjitriroTm'ls [fonaa, ah ape), 
c^l>eola'rls, dy'peU'orm, clypti- 
fona'ie, all denote Bbielii'Sbaped. 

coacarr'ata, caar«nia'fii«(Lat., heaped 
□p), clustered. 

coad'naM, coadna'lva [coadvnalia, 
eathered into one); (1) an equiva- 
lent of ADNATK ; |2) cohering ; (3) 

the same 

Ooalea'cence [oialeMO, to grow to- 
gether), tho act of growing to- 
gether ; '~ of Cellt, the absorption 
or disappc.'! ranee of partitioning 
cell-walla, as in the formation of 
veasola ; ooales'cBQt, coaiae'tTti, 
union by growth. 

COBllt'lO {coalilus, fellowship), the 
growth together of parts, as the 



ooalftMenoe of pet&la causes that 
condition ; iwlj. ooal'ltu. 

OMWtat*. coarrlu'/u* (lit,, prCBsed 
togetber), crowded together; Oosro'- 
tnre, Coarrla'ra, Grew'a term for 
the neuk or collum, the junction 
of root and Btam al the lovol of the 

Coftt, the eucoenaive laj'ors of a bu!h ; 
ooafed, occurring in lajertt. usually 
of varying coniiBtaDce, aa the baik 
of a tree, the rind of fmtts, oto. ;~ 
Bnlb, a tuoicated balb. 

OOkz'lAl {co for con, with, and axil, an 
axle), parallel with the axis, or 

Oob, the apika of maiEe. 

MbatU'DDB [Mod. Lat. ), the colour of 
cobalt, a light blue, aznre. 

oob'webbed, oob'webbr, entangled 
with fine GtamentR, arachnoid. 

OOoe'i, pt. of CoccDS. 

Ooeefd'lom t (lomoi, a kernel or berr; ) 
=Cy9T0Cakp j coodf'eroua (/ero, I 
bear], bearing berries, 

oOodfOnn'ia (foecum, kermeai forma., 
ahope), used b; Koerber to denote 
Iiicnen spores shaped like the 
kermea, or insect which afTorda the 
■carlet dye from Qurrciu coecyftra, 
Linn. ; cocdnell'ua, tight gcarfet in 
colonr \ cacdn'euii scarlet, with a 
tendency towards carmine, 

oocoocbromat'lo (ioikdc, a berry ; 
](fbfia. Dolour), colour distributod 
in granular pitohea, aa is aome 

dlatODII, ^. riACOCHBOMATlC ; 

Ooooo'dM, apberical grannlationa 
resenibliog pills : Coo'coKone, Cocro- 
go'ainta (7i»'i). oflapriDg), a. propags- 
tiva OBlI of the nalnre of a sporan- 
gium in Cyanophvceae ; coco'old, 
applied to amorphous colonies of 
propagalive cells in Nonlix (Sauva- 
geau] ; Cac'aallUi(M0at, stone), con- 
stituent plates of CoccoapnBRBs ; 
Ooo'coipbere (ir^itrpa, a sphere), 
Hpherical masses of protoplasmic 
origin, bearing coccoliths on their 
external surface, CoccoipAoerEi 
Uptopora, O. Morr. k Blaokm. ; 
Ooo'avle, Coo'ciilitm, a portion of a 
divided Coccus \ Ooc'cus, Coe'aim, 


(I) part of a schizocarp or lobed 
fruit; (S) Coccus ia oIho applied 
to the rounded bacteria. 
locb'lea {ccMea, a snail or spoon), a 
closely Quiled legume ; ooch'lear, 
cocMfa'rit ; { 1 ) apoon-ahaped ; (2) 
used of n form of imbrioato aosti- 
valion with one piece exterior 
ooclileai'lfomi, cocMcartform'ii, 
Bpooo-shaped ; (]aolilidlDapfliiii'ata,l 
(trircp^, seed], aeeda convex on one 
side, concave on the other, from 
unequal growth or anomalous 
Btmoture ; ooobleatt, cochlta'tia, 
shell-shape, in the manner of a 

lar : Cod'w 

Code'lna (ii>^9(ia, a poppy-head), an 

alkaloid in the opiora popp;y. 
cocb'eombed, fasciated (Cmsier], 
COdlOphyll'Di [t6lior. a Qeece ; ^ijUov, 

a leaf), when a leaf la covered with 

a woolly pubeBcence. 

CoeloBpenn ae (iDTXot, bollowiwEfiiui, 
a seed), plants whose seeds have 
albamen carved at the ends ; coslo- 
spsrm'ons, coeio^pemi'ua, hoUow- 
Beedei ; used for the seedtike 
carpels of Umbelli ferae, with 
ventral face incurved at the top 
and bottom, as in coriander : 
Goenanth'lum (drSot, a Qower)^ 



Ooe&o'blum ^Koirtiffior, a cloister) ; (1] 
the Bame as Cakcisulk ; (2) a 
colony of independent organisms 

such as those of Labiates, cansistine 
of distinct lobes bat not terminated 
with a stigma ; sometimes apelled 
Crnobidh, etc.; adj. cosno'Mar, 
coenoiia'rif, comobio neug ; oosno'- 
Uold (cISoi, resemblance), like a 

t\i,iat. a, branch], natural grafting. 
where branches have grown to- 
gether ; Ooeu'ocyte (Kiiroi, a veasel), 
"""""" of protoplasmic 

a ((oiTuir, R bed-ohunber), 
the outer glmnes of a mulli&oral 
Bpikelet in graraee (TrioiuB). 

oaSM'ttu (Mod. Lot, I, the oolonr of 
roMtflil coSt^- berries, Coffka ara- 
bka, Linn. 

OObt'mtt/^ohe 'reiu, coIia'rlng( i^ohafreo, 
IcleaTeto); (I) tbeactofColis'iloii, 
the iDcorponlioD of oaa part with 
tmother, as the petnla to form a 
tabnUr coroUa ; (2) adherent. 

OolUTt, Co'hort (Lit., a band of 
■oldiera], agronp of orders, forming 
an Alliance. 

ootaop'odiu X ((MPdiravf, with oommoD 
foot), tenuinating downward! in a 
cone, M most embryos ; Liadleji also 
■pelle it ooenop'odu. 

Ooloh'tcine. &□ alkaloid jielded by 
Colchiriim autvmnale, Linn. 

Oolsnoh'jrina = Collbn cut ha. 

Ool'eOKeU ((sXeoi, a sheath ; yttrdtn, 1 
bring forth), a ring-shaped group 
of cells, surrounding the oiestomc 
of Dichoiiia, elt (HaborUndt) ; 
Oolaopbyll'mn (^iWor, a leaf), the 

t leaf ii 

of n 

cotyledons, which shealhea the sue. 
ceeding lea»ea; Coleop'tUum {rrlXar, 
a feather) = Ccileophyllum ; Coleo- 
Ihl'ta {Uta, a root), the sheath of 
a monocotytedoDous embryo, when 
pierced by the ttao radicle; adj, 
MleorhlM'tfts ; Oot'wnJe, Co/ta'ula ; 
(1) a membranous bog-like organ 
enaloaing the aporanainm of Hepa- 
ticae, the pericbaetiol sheath, usu- 
ally termad the Vaginule. 

Oolla.p'aloii, Collap'tio{Lat., follins to- 
gether), the act of clasiug or faUing 

CoU'ar, Coll'um (Lat., neck) ; (1) the 
"neck" of a plant, the imaginary 
bonDdary between the above- and 

underground portion of the axis; 
(2) the onnnlus in Agarics. 

Collsi'n! (Lit., a oollarl-LincrLM. 

COllAt'snl [atl-laiero, to admit on 
both sides), standing side by side ; 
~ Boh'iUm, those bavins a BiaalB 
strand of bast and wood, aide by 
side, and usnally in the same 

B variation on this type, having two 
of one element to one of the other ; 
~ Chor'lilB, Kc CnoRTSia. 
collect'lng {'^oUM'io, a gathering to- 
gether) Cells, are roundish cells, 
destitule of chlorophyll and densely 
filled with protoploam ; in German 
"Sammenxellen ; ~ Batn, boira 
OQ the stylos of some Compositoe 
serving to collect the pollen on ita 
discharge from the anthera ; col- 
lectiTe Pmlti, the aggregation of 
the fruits of several Bowers into 
one mass, auch as the mulberry ; 
Colleot'ora, Ooildilor' fJi, the bairs of 
certain styles, aa in Cam]>antila, 
which collect or brnsb out the 
pollen from the anthers ; C/. Cdl- 

Collanch'jina (<aAXa, glue ; tyxviu., 
an infusion); (1) parenchymatous 
cells with cellulose walta usually 
elongated, forming strands of great 
strength under theepidermia, thick- 
ening in angles, etc. ; (2) the cel- 
lular matter in which the pollen it 
formed, usually absorbed, but re- 
mnisiag and assuming a definite 
form in some plants as in Orchids, 
or delicate threads, as iu Otnothera 
(Lindley) ; Sost '-, thiekening 
chiefly involving the whole wall; 
Oart'ilage ~, walls thickened all 
round with sharply differentiated 
inner lamella ; Meta- ~ caused by 
slow death of cell, and metamor- 

Ehosis of the cell-wall ; Flat* ~, a 
>rm which resembles the true hard 
bast; KiA ~, portion of wall 
bordering on an intercellular space 
alone thickened. 

CoUe'ter (coXXitnii, glued), muoila- 
ginoua hairs on Itae bada 


nuny phuierog&ius which eecrebe 

ccOUe'nlow. coiliculo'aaii {coUkaini, a 
little hill), covered with tittle round 
elevations or hillocks. 

MllU'eroiu {cnilum, u collar), bear- 
iog a collar, ae the stipe of an 
Agaric ; CoUliOim'e (/orma, shape), 
OD OBtiole, the orifice being length- 
ened into a neck, 

colUgli'tiu (Lat., fastened together), 
Eollect«d (B. F, firay). 

caUl'atu[Lat.,apper1ainii]g to a hill), 
growing on low hills, 

Oollnm (Lat, neck) ; (1) the collar or 
neck of ■ plant, see Collab ; (2) 
the lengthened orifioe of the ostiole 
of Lichens, 

Col'loldl (loXXa, glue | eMoi, resem- 
blance], suhstancea of a gelatinous 
oharactar ; opposed lo cr; sUtloid ; 
adj, ooUoldaL 

oolo'olll {colonia, a band of settlers), 
in cell-division, every cell depend- 
ent on the other cells of the organ- 
ietn et large (Hartog) ; Col'onlat. 
H. C. Watson's term for weeds of 
the cultivated land and about 
houses, seldom found elsewhere ; 
Col'ony, Bee Coenobidu. 

colorific (co/or, colour, yiicis, I make), 
applied to those Lichens which 
yield a dve. 

OoI'out, ooI 01 
but green, tcchnicaily 
garded as a colour, green is not; 
ool'oiirlaH, pale, and hyaline ; in 
Lichens, not brown, 

Oolpench'yma ((AXtoi, bosom; fyxuim, 
on infusion], cellular tiseue with 
SEDQOus cell -walla. 

Oolnm t (Lat. astniiner) = pLAClKTA, 

colnmU'nai (Lat,). dove- coloured ; 
■ometimca used for the tint of a, 
blue pigeon. 

Col'tUMl [coivmeHa, a bdisII pillar), 
Jaccard's term for lignified tissue 
formed in place of tlie fertilized 
orohegonium, it bears at its uitrem- 
ity the privileged embryo, the only 
one which develops, us in Ephedra 
Mvelka. C. A- Mey. ; Ootomel'U ; 
(1) a {lenistent centra] axis round 

which the carpels of some fruits 

are arranged as in (7«raniunt; (2) 
the axis of the cspsule in Moasae : 
(3| the receptaole bearing the spor- 
angia of Trichomarut, end other 
Feriu ; (4J the central portion ol 
the anther in Solaiiaceae(HalBt«d) ; 
(S) a sterile axial body within the 
sporangium of Fungi ; oolnmel'll- 
form l/onna, ihape), shaped like a 
sroull pillar or column. 

Gol'umn. Coliim'iui ( a pillar], the 
couibinatiou of stumuna and styles 
into a solid central body, as in 
Orohids ; colum'nor, coivmna'rit, 
having the form of a column, m 
the stamens of ila/iia, 

oom. in Latin aompositios, a modiflea- 
tion of coil, with, 

Co'ma(Lat. the hair] ; (1) the hairs at 
the end of some seeds ; (2) the tuft 
at the summit of the inUorescenoe, 
as in tbe pineapple ; (3) the entire 
head of a tree ; co'mkl ToIX, a tuft 
of leaves nt the tip of a branch ; 
co'mats. coma'ttti, tufted. 

combina'te - veno'sns 1 (Lat,), joined 
veins, when in a, leaf the lateral 
veins unite before reaching the 

comb-shaped, pectinate, 

eomWnea By'brlds, hybrids hav- 
ing tbe strain of more than two 
species, us one arising from a 
simpla hybrid + another hybrid ot 

Oom'biu, used by S. F. Gray for Coa- 
HDS, for which it is probably a mis- 

Oom'ltss (pi- of conies, a companion), 
Hegelmsior's term for certain cells 
occurring in the embryo-sac of 

table), used of two organisms living 
in mutual beneficent relations, as 
in the dual-lichen theory, where the 
Fungus Htimulates the host -Algae 
to greater enargy of function ; 
OomniBa'saUam, the state in quea- 

two otrpela adbue, u in Um- 
Hnn'man. (L&t. cammu'nu), general or 
priooiptil, u oppoaed to parUul ; " 
Bud, containiog both leaves kdiI 
flowen, or more tbao oos flower ; — 
Bui'illM, those whioh &re commba 
both to item and leaf, beiog con' 
liouoDB from one to the others — 
Oa'lTz]' = Involucre ; ~ Involu'ere, 
that betoDging to the main inflor- 
escence, OB of the genera] umbel j 
~Nuiw, one in popular use for a 
plant, eioluiive of^ the acicDtific 
name;~Ped'luicle, the main Btalk, 
when it eupporta sereml aubordiU' 
•to ones, or pedioeU ; ~ Per'luitli, 
oooaaioiuilly oaed bj the iavoluore 
M in Comuoaitae ; ~ Fet'lole, the 
firit and prinoipal leaf-atalk in com- 

Kundleavea, thcaBcondarypetioloH 
ing termed "portinl" ;~Eeoept'- 
xde, that which supports more than 
one organ ; - Dm'bel.^couFuuNi) 
oommn'iiJs(Lat.), flowing in sooietv ; 
not common, whiah ia rendered by 

co'moM, comrfsue (Lat. with much 
hair) tufted, comate. 

oompaet', compaclMa (Lat.), closelj 
joined or preeaed together. 

Compui'lon-Cella, in Phanerogams, 
oetia which ore asaooiated with 
sieve- tubes and are of oommon 
origin, filled with granular proteid 
contents, and posseuing strongly 
marked nuclei ; ~ Bypba« {viphi <t 
web), the tip of the trichogyne ol 
Potj/aliirnia passing through a stoma 
into the air is accompanied by 
slender mycelial hyphse, which 
form a tuft, the so-called companion 
hyphae (De Bary). 

Dompa'ffo, pi. Oompa'ginei (Lat. a 
connection), used by Wallroth in 
speaking oE the Lichen-thallus 
when more or leaa brittle or readily 
parting into layers ; compaglna'tus 
[Lat.) packed closely one over an- 

Oom'iHua-plAntB, thoae which plaoe 
their leaves so that their iuriocea 

faoe east And we«t, the edges north 

and south, aucb ax SUphiamlaeinia- 

conp'ltiJ {compiia'lU, pertaining to 
ci'osB roads) in venation when the 
veinlets angularly intersect ; also 
when the sori are on the point of 

com'planata, com}i/a>ia'nu (Lat. 
levelled), Battened, compressed. 

complete', eomplt'tiui (Lat. filled), hav- 
ing all the part« belonging to it or 
the type. 

Com'plex, (Lat.], interwoven fibres, 
or group of complicated parts 
(Crozier). compls^ua (Lat. em- 
braced), io vernation when a leaf is 
folded over another at the sidsB and 
apei; ~ ceUolo'siu (Lat.), = cellular 
tissue; ~ memtmuia'DeuB, (Lat.), 
oiementacy membrane, ground- 
tiseuo -,~ tntrula'rte. <Lat.), woody 
tissue, xylem;~utrlcnla'iia (Lat.), 
angular cellular tiesue ; " tos- 
cnla'ilB (Lat.), spiral vessels, some- 
times used for small vessels showing 
secondary deposits ; complexl'Tus 


« [compiici 

Oampoiltloe,cD»i;wn{' 10 (Lat., putting 
together), the combination of parts 
to form the whole, as of subordinat« 
parts to form an organ, or elements 
to form a aubatauce. 

ootn'ponnd, similar parts aggregated 

one having more than one flowei to 
each branch; ~ DlDhft'iiam, thatin 
which the primary axis divides into 
secondary dichasia ; ~ Flow'er, nn 
accumulation of fioreta as in the 
Compositae, AnTHoDiiTM ; — Fruit, 
where many distinct carpeU are 
associated, as in the mulberry; — 
FuDKOa-bod;, growth form in which 
the thallus ia constituted by the 
coherence of separate hypbal rami- 
fications ;-~BalTS, branched orrami- 
fied haira ; " loflores'cence, where 
an inSurescence is itself composed 
of secondary ones ; ~ Leai, one 
divided into separate blades ; — 


O'vuy, to ovorjr having more than 
one carpel ; ~ FiatU. two or more 
urpeU coalesoent into one body ; 
~ Bueme', = Panicli ; — Spike, 

oooumng freqiiBDlly on grUBBcB, 
when the infioresoenue is inade up 
of Bpikea ; ~ Spore, —SpoRincsM ; 
» Spor'oplioTe. formed bv ooheaion 
of tlie raiuificationa of Mparate 
hyphal branohea, Ger. Fniobtkcir- 
per ;~8tem, one that ia bruiohod : 
— Om'bel, an association of ainiple 
nmbela, each my being itself an 

cmnpreat'ed, enmint^' m{Lat. preued 

together), (lattened, complanate ; 

oompreBBia'aimua (Lat. ) oxceaaivelj 

con (Lat. with), modiiied by euphony 

frequently into com — both meaning 

"with" in Latin compounda. 
oancat'euata, coiicaieaa'liu (l^at.liiikeil 

together), joined asliaka in a chain, 

ac atrings of aponiB, or fmBtules of 

ConoanleBc'eiLCe (eon, with ; caaiU, 

Btem), the coaleaoencc of axes. 
Boa'care, coikh'iiui (L»t. hollowed out), 

hollow, aa the inaide of a aaucer, 
Con'centr&te (con, with ; cinlmm, 

oentre). to bring to a common 

mon centre ; ~ Bon'iUei, where one 
element ia wholly aurrounded by 
the olb«n, a« the lyUm by the 
phlo&D ; •* VaM'atei-IiDa'dla is the 

Conoap'toole, Co)Ke!/la'cuIu>ii (Lat. a 
raoeptacle), (1) ungiually uaed by 
Linnaeua to eipreaa Follicle ; (21 
afterwards [or the fruit of Aaole- 
piada and Apooyueae ; (3) a hollow 
oaw covering the sexual organs in 
Bome Algae; (4) the periJi"- ' 

,ngi ; (6) the capsule of Mosaea ; 
bv Medicua, following Jung, 
tor pericarp ; (7) now a general 

eipreaaion for a euperficial 
opening outwarda, within which 
reproductive celU are produced. 
eonoh'lfann, cuachi/brm'U {mncha, a 
aholl 1 forma, shape), shaped like 
the aliett of a biTalve. 

condn'nai (Lat.), neat, elegant, 
eotieolor'oiia, con! color (Lat., of one 

colour), uniform in tint. 
coBcom'ttanC ( eoaconi' iCuiu, atte nding ) , 

used of vascular bundles which run 

aide by aide without being aepar- 

■ted by other bundles. 

enoe (amertioi, togrow to- 
gether] ; (ij becoming concrete : 
(2) a Bynonym of Ceuehtation : 
Miioret«', concre'du, growing to- 

OondQct'lng Bnn'dles, strands of elon- 
gated ceila in leai-es and even the 
steniB of MosaoB, simulating a vaa- 
cular bundle ; also used for Vascular 
Bundles ;~ Cells, long narrow cells, 
aaaociated with aieve-tubea, but 
having imperforate walU;~8befttll, 
elongated pareucbymntoua cells 
in the inner cortex of the stem, 
continued into the leaves sb au in- 
vestiture of the vascular bundle ; ~ 
Tluae, a loose tisaue of the style 
through which the pollen- tubes can 
readily make their way ; Cendno- 
t'lTS-Tlssae IB the same. 

condn'pllcaiu (Lat., doubling], doub- 
ling UD aa, eotutnpllcaiit'lB Fo'Ua, 
the leaQeta of a compound leaf which 
apply themaelvea to each other's 
Burfaces ; condu' plicate, condiiplica- 
ti'tnm, foMci together lengthwise : 
CotLdniOlc&'tloii, in lestivatioD when 
the sides of an organ are applied 
to each other by their faces. 

Ooiui;i'lnmt(i^Jii\ot, a knuckle), the 
antheridium of Chara. 

Cone, Co'mia (I>at,), the fruit of the 
pine or fir tree with scales form- 
ing a Strobile ; — of Orowth, the 
apical growing portion of tbe 

Conencb'yma (luroi, a cone ; li_ . 
an infusion), conical cells which 

oonfart'ed, eim/erl'va (Lat. brought to- 
gether), oloaelypacked or crowded. 

conferra'mlnata, coiifrrrvmina'tn} 
(Lat., cemented), adherent by a<l 
Jacent faces, aa the ootyleJon 
Horee Chestnut. 

confer'voiil, composed of threada, 
semhiing the genus Coi^ferea. 


COn'llfiKtt, em'jiueiu (Lat. , Bowing 
into), Uetided into one, pasBing by 
degreei oue into the other ; ~ FnUt, 
a Dompouod fruit, SQch u the mul- 
berr; or pineapple. 

oonfinmed', con/orm'is (Lat,, abaped) ; 
(1) aimilar in foriD ; (2) cloiely fit- 
tiDfi, u a secd-ooat to the UDcellua. 

Oon'BBnar (Lat. of the tame raoe), 
another pbnt of the same genus ; 
magKurie, belougiog to the same 

ixmgmi'italicongeiaiiu. bom together), 
grown to anything ; strictly, of the 

Coagt'tltt (I^t,, a heap), a collection 

□f parts or organs, 
eoocaat'ed, eongeM'iit (Lat.. brought 

together), orowdotl 
iHRVlo'lNits, congloba'tiis (Lai., made 

like a baU), oollected into a ball. 
Mnglom'wala, amglomtra'lua (Lat., 

rolled together), clustered. 
Oongln'tlii (ctmgliitlnaius, cemented 

together), a constitaeot of plant- 

casein, usually with legumin ; con- 

gln'tliLata. (onijlulrna'ivx, is though 

glued together. 
OBo'glvaita {conjTretTO, to aaiemble), 

DCdlected into close proximity. 
Od'hIa ((i^rdor, hemlocli), the active 

Erinciple of Conium matulalutii, 
ian., a poisonous alkaloid, 
oon'teal, con'icuj (Lat., cone.abaped), 
having the Ggurc of a cone, a« the 

oonldUfvToni (xirii, diiat ; ^apiui, I 
oatry), bearing Cumliia ; Oonid'i- 
opbore = Go-siDropHoas ; Oonld'lo- 
■pore {ir-tspiL, a seed) - CoNlDinu ; 
Oan'lda, simplification proposed by 
Bennett and Murray for Con:dia ; 
OonU'lnm (pi. Conldla) = (;oNiDiA. 

Oonlf eiln (romw, a cons ; fcro, I bear), 
a glocoside derived from coniferous 
wood 1 conlTetooB, producing or 
bearing cones, as many Gymno- 
spenna ; oo'nlfonn {/orma, ahape) = 

Co'niLn, Co'nelD, the samo as Co>-ia. 

Oan'locyit', Gonlocygt's {aim, dust ; 
(I'ffTK, a bag), a closed sporangium 
leaembling a tubercule.conlaining a 

mass of spores ; Coniolhe'ca t {^i^Vi 
case), the loculiis of an anlher. 

Conjoint Bun'Ole, a vogouUr bundle 
when it is composed of wood and 
bast elements 

con'Jugate, einijuga'lut{l^t., nnited), 
oooplod ; as a pinoata leaf, of two 
leadets : ~ Spi'TalA, whorled leaves so 
arranged as to give two or more gen- 
etic spirals running parallel with 
each other ; Conjuga ting Tnbei, 
long processes emitted by the fer- 
tilised trichcphore in certain Algae, 
which unite with the auxiliary 
celts (Osterhout) ; OODjnga'tlon, the 
tnaion of aeinal elements, the union 
of two gametes to form a zygote, 
used eapecialty when the two 
gametes are similar, as in some 
Algae and Fungi :~.Gall = OAMKTE; 
coiiJagti'to*pKlra'at«, when a leaf 
divides into two arms, each of 
which is palmate. 

cooJuiLo'tlTa {tonjunclivue, joined), 
serving to nnite ; ~ Thread*, = 
Spindlk Fibres ; — Tls'sue, the 
fundamental timte or ground tissue 
interior to the stele ; OniJluiotOT'iiiiQ 
t the operaulum of a Mosh. 

connaa'cent, (fon, with ; nagcor, to bo 
born), produced at the same time 



'iiftte, conna'fiu (Lat., bom at the 
same time), united, congenitally or 
subsequently ; ccn'nats-parfo'Uiite, 
united at the base in pairs around 
the nupporting axis. 

Oouuot'llLg Call, {ermTieeluii, fastened 
together) = Hetesocyst i ~ Zone, the 
"Boop" or girdle oonoooting the 
valves of a Diatom fniatule ; Con- 
neeflra, Coitntctfeum, the portion 
of a stamen distinct from the fila. 
ment which connects the two lobes 
of an anther ; connectlvalls, having 
to do with the connective, 

ooonl'Tent, cnnni'rf«f(lMl., winking), 
coming into contact ur converging. 

Oonnu'ldum, (Lat., wedlock), the 
stage of protoplasmio coalescenoe 
in the conjugation of filamentous 

Conocarp'tum (luroi, a cone ; tapwot 


frait), an aggregate fmJt conaieting 
ol many fruita on « conical re- 
ceptacle, aa the Btrawberry : co'' 
aold (itSoi, resemblance), cone-like : 
ODDol'ilaJ, ('jiioiila'iis. rosembling a 
ooniosl figure, but not truly one, 
■a tbe caljx of Siltne coaoidta,, 
loan. ; Couopo'dium {-raSs, roSoi, a 
foot), a conical floral reosptacle ; 
Oonoitro'mB X (TrfiCiiia, spniA out], 
Endlioher'H term for a growing 
poinb, constituting a free central 

ConHuVatlTB WganB (nninerBolio, a 
keeping), those whicb ore emptojed 
in DUtrilioT), as root, stem, leaves. 

oouim'llftr {co/igimiliii, entirely alike), 
applied to the valvea of a Diatom, 
when both lidet are alike ; Oon- 
dmU'ltntte, reMmblance of the two 
Talres, xinequal but sicnilar, of the 
Epithkca and Hyfothei-a. 

oOIlM>l'l<lated (f oiuof iiio, I make firm) ; 
(1) when unlike parts at* coherent ; 
(S) GroEier adds, having a aniall 
surface in proportion to bulk aa 
man; Caati. 

Oca'aorUim (coiuors, abaring pro- 
perty), Reinke's term for tiTMBlo^ls. 

con'stuit {eoTiKlatu, at^adfost], in the 
asRie condition, or always preaent. 

oanaCrlct'ed {constriclvs, compreased), 
dravn together, oonlractM. 

Oonitcle'tiOD {coimtriclio, binding txi- 

Sther), tbc nnrrowaat portion of 
atoms and Desmida smu from 
the aide, 
Ooiutnict'iTa Hetab'oUtm, = Assimi- 

oonni'tiu, (Lat., atitched together), 
when part« are united by a mem- 
bran* of threads. 

OontabMc'enoe {crminbaco, to waste 
away), the abortive condition of 
stttmena and pollen. 

oonta'gloiu [cnitagia, touch), used of 
diaeoses when commuotcable by 
touch ; i^., iNraonocs. 

contamato'iDa X (deriv. !) covered bv 
an armature between bristly and 
aculeate (Lindley). 

contor'nduoni (ccnUtrmsnun, neigh- 
bouring) of equal boundaries. 

coDtlg'aoiu, ccn/i/uiM (Lat.. adjoin- 
ing], when neighbouring parts are 
in contact, aa most cotyledons. 

coQtitl'gailt {cotitingtrta, toaohing) 
Srmbio'ala, see Stmbidsis ; in Ger. 

contin'mnu {c<mliniiu», running on), 
Iba reverse of interrupted ; Coa- 
tlnn'lty, uninterrupted coaneclion, 

contort'ed, coWor'! iia ( Lat. ), twisted or 
bent ; in aestivation the same as 
convoldtk; Conlor'tlon. atwiiting; 
contortu'pUcft te,(;)/ica(ii', woven) |T) 
twisted and plaited or folded ; (2) 
twiated back upon itaelf. 

conbB-, in Latin compounda- against. 

contracfed, conlract'^n (Lat.) n»r- 

toplasm, which increase and 
decrease in size rhythmically : Coq- 
tractll'ity, the capacity of altering 
apontaneously in volume. 
contrary, contra'rive (Lat.), in an 
opposite direction, as a silicle com- 
preaaed contrary to the disaepi. 

Control', frequently used in the sense 
of tbe English word Clieck, as~ 
Ezperimenta, lo check the original 

Oo'nus {lat.) — Cone, Stbobile. 

coBTBTjr'ent (con, with ; itrpew, bend- 
ing), applied to veins which run 
from the base to the apex of the 
leaf in a curved manner ; coQTerg'l* 
nsr'vla, -vlui, convergen'tl-nervo'- 
KOi (Lat), simple veins diverging 
from the midrib and converging 
towards the margin. 

con'TBZ, fonuez'ui! (Lat. arched), hav- 
ing a more or lees rounded surface ; 
coDveilaso'ulaa, somewhat oonvei. 

con' volute, eom-olu'lua (Lat. rolled 
round). convoIu'Uve. coTii>o/ii/rTiM .- 
(1) when one part is wholly rolled 
up in another, as the petals of the 
Wallflower ; (2) in a spathe when 

the margins matuall; envelopo 
Bftch other, 
cop'pery. broimiah red, with s mete.t- 

cop'plcInK, io foreBtr;, croppiag the 
pIuitatioD hy cutting the under- 
wood ever J few years. 

Onp'rapbTtfl {tirpai, ordure ; ^lUTor, 

COpnlk'aon (copu/otio, conpling), uied 
far Conjugation, the nnion of 
aexnal cells. 

Oop'nlaa (pi. of eopvla, a thong or 
band), intermediate bandB of cell- 
wall in Diatoms, ai in Ttrpginoi, 
etc.; cop'olatlTe ^, diaaepimentenot 
readily aeparating from the axis or 
walla of toe pericarp. 

Coqne (Fr. Bhell). uaed by 8. P. Gray 
for Coccus. 

OoTH'mlnlt ]:(Lait.) = Knibryo. 

eoiae'fniu (Lat., raven-black), eIosst 

Mr'aoold (t6pai, a raven : ilSor, resem- 
blance)" shaped like acrow's beak " 

oor'lllllia, coraUi'itvH (Lat. coral red], 
renmbling coral in appearanoe. 

tanlUflnm'lB (coraUum. coral, /ormn. 
•b*pe}, ooral-liko in form; cor'al- 
lolA, eoraUoi'dti [itim, resemblance). 
ooral-Uke, as the roots of tfeotiia 
Nidiu-avit, Rich. 

Oar'eU (CroEier) ; Oor'otile, Cor'ailum 
IhaX. a little beart)-(l) embryo; 
(2) plomule, or plumule aod radicle. 

Ooril, ninblll'i»l = FnNici?Li7S, 

eoT'date, corda'l im ( I^t. ). hear t-ahaped , 
applied to leaves having the petiole 
at the broader and notched end ; 
Obr'dUDnn, eordi/orm'U (Lat. ), 
■haped like a heart. 

Ocn, the seeda and integuments of a 
pome, such as an apple; Grew 
■pells it ' ' Coar. " 

oen'mlal (nifnifia. a broom), like the 
aenuj Cortmi-um, Link; core'mlold 
(rtki, resemblance), applied to a 
fasciated form asof /'enii-i/^ium, etc. 

Oot'mm ((OfHt. a bug), "dark red, 
biosd, disooid bodies, found beneath 
the epicarp of grapes" (Lindley). 

DOrla'ceoni. roria'avg ( con um, leather ), 

Cork, protective tissue replacing the 
epidermiB in older superficial parte 
(rf plants ; the outer celli contain 
air, and are elaatio and spongy in 
teitore, but impervioua to liquids ; 
~ CunMam = Phkllooen ; ~ Cortex, 
the corky layers of the bark ; ~ 
Her'lBtein, — Fbbij.o<ikn ; Fore- 
oork, Buberised portion of lenticels, 
with intercellular spaces between 
the cork-ceUs (Klebabn) ; cork'r, 
of the tex ture or quality of oork ; 
~ Env'slope, - tayar, the bast 
layer beneath the epidermii which 
gives rise lo cork. 

Oonn, Carm't«i((0)]/iat, a trunk), a bulb- 
like fleshy stem or baae of stem, a 
'■ solid " bulb : Connog'sjiue (i«l>i4i, 
marriage), Ardiwone's division for 
Charoceae and Muacinene ; oormo- 
K'enons {y^'m, offapring), having a 
ateni or corm ; Corm'ophyta (^nnvi, 
plant), Kndlicher'a term for plants 
pOBsesaiag aiia and foliage, that is, 
rhanerogama and vascular Crypto- 

cor'neotu, cor'ncas [Lat, ), homy, with 
a liomy texture. 

CoT'set {mmti, a horn), a hollow 
horn-like growth ; — abapa. cncuUi- 
form, hooded ; coTnio'nlate, comi- 
c«Ia'lii» (Lat.), furnished with a 
little horn or horns ; oomienllf er- 
OUB, -rus (/"'"• I bear), bearing 
horns or protuberances ; cor'niforra 
{/orma, ahape), shaped like a horn. 

Oor'nine. a bitter principle in the 
bark of Comat tartguinfa, Linn. 

Oor'nn (lAt. a horn). (1) a horn-like 
procesB ; (2) occasionally used (or 
Calcar or Spur ; eor'nule, r-omu'titg, 
homed or spurred ; ^ LearM, a 
sudden projection ol the midrib 
forming a spiae-liko outgrowth, 
often in a different plane ; OOT- 
un'tlli, a poisonous body derived 
from ergot, the " spur " of rye and 

Corel (Croiier) = CoHOLi.A. 
Corol'U (Lat. a little crown) ; (1) tho 
interior perianth, composed at 


petala, free or united ; (2) f the 
BDiiuliiB of FuQ^ ; corolte'ceoiu ( + 
oceoiiB) coroUn-like, petaloid; cor'ol- 
IkMi eorotla'lut, ooroIla'rlB, pos- 
sessing a corolla ; Ooi'ollst. a floret 
of a Comntaite ; dorollU'Bnnia, 
•rus (/(TO, I bear), ooroUa -bearing ; 
ooToUlDor'al ijiot. Jirm», a flower), 
coroUllIor'Diu, -run, baring the 
calyi, petab and ovary inserted 
separately on the disk, the BlAinens 
on the corolla ; cafaiUli.K,coroUinv', 
(1) aeated on n corolla. ('2) corolla 
like, peUloid, (3) belonging to a 
corolla ; Cor'oUnle, Coroliu'la ; (U a 
diminutive corolla ; (2) floret of a 
head, as in Compositae. 
Coio'Ba [Lat. aorown); (I) acoronet, 
any body which intervene* betwean 
the corolla and atameng ; (2) t the 
"eye" of npplea or pears, the re- 
mama of the calyi limb ; (3) I the 
my of the capitub in Compositae i 
(4) a whorl of liguteB or petals, 
united or free ; (5) a synonym of 
CucuLLCS ; (6) used by fiili for the 
pericyole, or " circle of propaga- 
tion' ; (7) the ringof primary wood 
in themedallary theatb ;~Be'inliils 
a coronet formed from the Irane- 
formation of stamens i cor'onal, ap- 
pertaining to a corona, a« — Teraala, 
tboee of the corona ; cora'naiuiLBt.). 
crowning, seated on the apei ; cor'- 
onkta, conma'lfu (Lat,), crowned, 
having a corona : coto'nlfDiin, coi'o- 
m/bnn'M {forma, shape), shaped 
like a crown or coronet : Cor'onet 
=CoitON* : Coro'imle. Coron'tda ; 

(1) a diminutive of corona, a floret ; 

(2) = Pappcs; (3) the small culyi- 
likebody which crowns the nucule 
of Ohara : (4) in Diatoms, a set of 
spines which terminate the fruBtules. 

twpois (pi. of torpK», a body) car- 
no'u (Lat. fleshy), the sporangia of 
certain Funci : Cor'piu, the mass or 
substance of anything ; ~ U^nsoin, 
~ llgna'som, the mass of the woody 
tissue of a plant ; ~ meduUA're. 
the mass of the oelluliir tisaue in 
the pith. 

Oorpus'cle [rorpasculujn, a amaill 
body], a small mass or body ; Oor- 
paic'ula (sing. CorpnscnliUD) ; (!) 
sporangia of lOTDe Fungi ; (2j arche- 
goaium, or the central ocU of the 
same in Goniferae ; (3) the connec- 
tions between the arms of the 
pollen-masBas in Asclepiads ; ~ 
TennlTorm'la, spiral vessels in a 
contracted, strangled condition. 

cor'n;Kata, corniga'tu) ; coRUgatl'Tiis 
(Lat. I, wrinkled. 

Cor'aican Moss, dried Algae. 

Cor'tex (Lat), (I) the bark or nod ; 
the ground tissue between the stole 
* epidermis ; (2) the peridium of 

Fungi ; c( 

ilit, relating 
to tne oories ; ~ Lay'er ; ~ Integr'n- 
ment, the investing layers of the 
bast system ; ~ Bays, — medullary 
rays in the phloem ; — ShBBth, Noeg- 
eli'a term for the whole of the 
primary boat bundles ; - Btra'tum, 
the superficial layer of the Lichen- 
thallua; cor'tlcate, an-tica't-asCLa.t,.), 
covered with bark, or with an acces- 
sory bark-like covering ; cortioir- 
erous [fern, I bear), producing bark ; 
DOrUc'ltorm [forma, shape), like 
bark ; cortLc'oIouE (fu/o, 1 inhabit), 
living on bark, ag sonie Lichens and 
Fungi ; cor'Ucoie, oor'tlcous, barky, 
full of bark. 

Oortl'na (Late Lat. a curtain), the Sla- 
lueutoua annuli of aome Agarics ; 
cot'Uiute, coriina'niM (Lat.), hav- 
ing a web-like texture. 

corrl'nni (Late Lat. pertaining to the 
ravenl, raven-bUck. 

Coryd'ftUn, an alkaloid present in the 
root of Corydaitg tuherosa, DC. ; 
coryd'aline, cori/dalin'tiis, resem- 
bling the genus Corydalia. 

Cor'rmlJ, Corymb'iu (Lat, o olnstor of 
flowers), a Qat-topped or merely 
convex and open fiower-oluater of 
the indetermmate or centripetel 
order; the term, as now understood, 
formerly indulged most cymes ; 
cor'yinlNite, corymb'iated, having 
corymbfl or growing in corymbs ; 
corymWreron*, -™e [ftro, I beor), 
bearing uorymbs ; un^ymboee, 

corynibo'am ; corymlioiw, arrBDged 
in coryiubi ; corjmb'nlOM, -loiu, ia 
■oiall oorymba. 

COTjuia'iik (KopfpTi, ft club), " ProceBauB 
■lUik inio tbe margin o[ Lbe ger- 
minating leaf of Ferns, and con- 
taining spiral threads" {Lindley) 
( = Antliaridi»J]. 

OoiypliTU'y [xDpu^, the orown of the 
head ; ^XXdv, a leaf), a moDstrosity 
in which the axis ends in a leaf, 
sometiiuss coloured. 

Oosmop'olltfl Ik6^iui!, the world ; 
xUtt, a oity), a plant of well- 
nigh nniTersai distribution ; coa- 
mopol'ltan, distributed throughout 
the world. 


lurvBd, nerves springing from the 
midrib; cos'tate, oMa'lut (La*,), 
ribbed, having one or more primary 
longitudinal veini ; cotta'to-veno ■ 
ma, when the parallel side veins 
of a, feather- veined leaf are much 
alQDter liiBD those which inter- 
vene ; cos'taeform {forma, shape), 
applied by J. Suiilb for primary 
vems in fei'nswhen parallel to each 
other and very evident ; Oo(t'nl&«, 
Qied by the same author for the 
primary veins of Fem-segnienta ; 
oottsl'Iatft, ha viae small ribs. 
Oot^ton, the hairs of the Cotton-pod ; 
oot'tony, pabescenoe of long soft 

Cotyla'don {xorii\t)tilir, a hollow), ap- 
plied first by LioDoeuB to the seed- 
fobes, the first leaves of the embryo, 
one in monocotyledons, two or moru 
indicotyledoDS, rarely a whorl borue 
by the radicle or eaudicle ; cotyle- 
dona'rls, union or close approxima- 
tion of the seed-lobes; Oo^le'donold 
(iIJoi, resemblance), a j^ermiuating 
thread of a Moss, a. prutocema ; 
wtTle'donom, cotykdiSiteua, pos- 
sess ing seed-lolies. 

CO^'lfonu, tolyli/in-m'ia {loruXi;, a 
hoLow,/orma, shape), dish-ahapcd 
or wheel-shaped, with an erect 
ir ascending border; Cot'yiold Cell, 
I cell of doubtful function, pos- 

Cou'pls-celliHartog'Btcrm forZrooTE. 
ConrtMiil, a reiin from Hyiatnata 

Covrbarit, Linn. 

Cov'er = pKBcnx-tm. 

Oov'er-csa, of Hepaticae, the apical 
cells of the neck of a young arahe- 
gonium (Campbell) ; coTer-Uka = 

OPKBCUlJlBia ; MXT'ertOg = VKKIl.- 

LAHia— -Fliite, in Ferns, see Stku- 

MATA of Mettraius. 
cowlad = cDciJLLATK(Croziec}. 
ara'dllng' = iKvoLVENTiA (folia). 
Onuu'poa (Kr.), hooks or adventitious 

roots, which act as supports, as in 

oraspedad'TomouB, -mut {tpdirwtSa; 
a, border ; Spi/ioi, a course), when 
the lateral veins of a leaf run from 
midrib to margin without dividing. 

craas'ui (L^t.), thick. 

Crate'ra (uparip, a cup), s onp-shaped 
receptacle ; orate'rironD, (rateri- 
/orm'is {/i/r/iM, shape), goblet or 
Gup-ahaped, hemiapberic or shallow 

Crab, a disease of the larch, due to the 
mycelinm of Peziia Wiilkommii, 

cnttc'nlu' {craticula, ft smaU grid- 
iron), a, resting condition of 
Diatomaoeoe, in which a pair of 
new valves are farmed within the 
original valves. 

creun-oolonr, nhit« with a slight in- 
clination to yellow. 

creep'lng, running along or under the 
ground and rooting at intervals ; 
restricted by Syme to those oases 
where there is only one, or rarely 
two, flowering stems from each 
broach of the rhizome ; ~ Stem, 
often means Ehikomb, 

cre'meus (Mod. Lat., creamy) = 

Crem'ocarp, CreinocaTy/iuni (ipc^du, I 
bang; laprii, fruit), a dry and 
seed like (roit, composed of two 
one- seeded carpels invested by 

%n spigyDoiu calyx, separating 

when ripe into merioarps, 
Biamoilo'aler (cremciu, color, ooIout) 

CM'iu(Mod. Lat.,aDotch), arounded 
tooth or notiih ; Ore'nataM Orena- 
tu'ra, B rouodeii notch on the 
margiuDf aleaf : CM'nato, erena'fitj, 
■catloped, tooCbed with cronstureB ; 
Cren'el = Ckkha ; Cren'«lllnK - 
Cbbna ! omn'ellBd. trrntU<i'nA. rrrnr- 
giasd with crenaturea i cren'allat«, 
crf.n'JIa'lua. CTMi'QlaM, creniila'tiu, 
areonte. but the toothinga them- 
aeivoB email; Cren'nle, a diminuttTe 

BTM'eeat ' ahaped, approachiDE the 
figure of • crescent, as the leaves 
of certain epeoioB of FasaiJIoiii. 

Onst, (1} an elevation or ndga upon 
the Bammit of an organ ; (2) an 
outgrowth of the funioulus in eeeds, 
a Rort of aiil ; entt'et, poteeBsing 
on; elevated tine or ridge on the 
Borface such as may be compared 
with the ureat of a helmet 

ereta'oaoiu, -ceuti {ertla. uhalk), (I) 
chalky, aa the chalk-glanda fonod 
in Saxifrages ; (2) chalk -white, 
dead -white. 

Bnr'lcvd = Bi uosc 

lol'bikte (crifrrum, a lieve}, usually 

pierced with many holea ;~Cells = 
sibve-cklia; ~ Tii'iue. containing 
lieTe-cells and tubes ; cri'broae, 
erifrro'sin, pierced lilie a sieve ; ~ 

Oalll = SlEVK-TlIBE3. 

crlnifaraui {frinin, hair ; /ero, I bear), 
naed bj J. Smith for hirsute ; 
ail'nlt«, crinflax, bearded wi th long 
and weak hairs. 

crltt'old {iplraf, a, lily ; ttSat, resem- 
blance) lily- like (Croiiet). 

Orln'alft (rWnia, hair) = Rlateh; 
OH'nos, a stiff hair oa any part. 

cHsp, cnV''" (I^^')i curled ; crlapa'- 
bllls, capable of uurling op ; crisp'- 
ate, crisped, crispa'luM, crinpali'mm, 

■led; c 

able t 

irregularly divided and twisted ; 
(2) crthe tesi much puokered and 
crumpled, but not so muoh as 
buUate ; criaplflor'al {Jloii, Jlorii, a 
Sower), having curled Dowers ; 
orisplfo'Uaus (yb/iuin, a leaf), with 
curled leaves. 

Oris'ta (Lot. ), B crest or terminal toft ; 
orist'aefonn (forma, shape), used by 
J. Smith for crested appendices in 
Ferns ; as in Aftinottachyi, Wall.! 
crls'tata, crUla'tua, crested. 

Crttencll'ynui [tpnii, chosen ; Fyxi'/m, 
an infusion), the tissue of bundle- 
sheaths, open or closed envelopes 
which accompany fibro-vawular 
bandies; crlt'Ical, used of plants 
which need great diBcrimination in 

crcca'tUB, cro'ceoos, rroc'eu^ (Lat.1, 
saffron-jellow ; a deep yellow tint 
from the stigmas of Crocnt MUiiiix, 
Linn. ; Cro'cili, the colouring matter 
of the foregoing. 

crook'ed, curved. 

Cross, term implying a hybrid of any 
description : ~ armed, braohiale 
(CcOEier);-Breed«, the progeny of 
interbred varieties ; ~ FarttUia'tlan, 
fecundation by pollen from another 
flower of another individual ; ~ 
PolUna'tlon, dusting the stigma of 
one flower witli pollen from an- 
other ; ~ Bepta'tlon, division by 
transverse septa ;~Type, in nuolear 
division, the formation of tetrads. 

Crossed-plts, celts Id sclerenchyma, 
with the slits on opposite walls at 
right angles to each other. 

crowd' ed, closely pruaed together or 
thickly set. 

Crown, see Curomi ; also (1) in 
ChBracoao, the apei of the nucule ; 
(2) in IKatomaceae. a series of 
teeth connecting the fruslules 
into filaments, ae in Sttphano- 
pyxU ; " ot the Rcot, the paint 
where root and stem meet ; 
crowned, corona' 'lu, furnished 
with a coronet ; crown'lng', coro'- 
nam, borne on the summit of an 

Oro'iter, "anylhing with a coiled 

. It the young iMvea of mtmt 
Fern*" (Crotier). 
ttV'eUU, enina'liu (Lat, ), crou- 
■haped, Qsed eapec:iiLlly of the 
floweri of Cruciferse ; — Tetracon- 
Id'lk, those gonidia formed by two 
dWisioiiB at right anglea to each 
other; Om'tafer ( Lit. , oroas-bearing ), 
k pUat with four petola and tetn- 
dynamous itameDs ; cnudte'nnu. 
enwa bearing, used of the corolla of 
Cnicifers, wnioh have four petala ; 

l>(Lat., atained with blood}, 

dyed or blotched with red. 
emenVna (Lat.,gor;), dork purplish 

red, the colour of gore. 
etnm'pled = cuRRUOArB ; ~ A««UnL'- 

Uoa, wheo folded in bud irrega- 

Urly, aa in the poppy. 
Ora'ra (pi. of criia, a leg) diviriona of 

the Iceth of the peristome in 

cm'nl {ervra'lia, pertaining to the 
legs), " aomuwhat leg-ahape<l ; used 
tnainly in oompogition " (Cronior). 

OTMt. C™»('o (Lat., rind or ahdl), 
the hard and l>riu.le part of oertain 
Liehena i cnuta'oeon*, -ctui, of brit- 
tle texture, some Lichens are thus 
termed ; croatnll'tiila, toaat-colour, 
darker and warmer in lint than a 
oraoknel biscuit. 

ClTp'I* {Lat. , a vault), eunken glands, 
receptacles for secretiona of plants 
in dotted leaves, 

ClTPtopun'isi (ipuiTO!, hidden ; Yijiot, 
marriage), plants dratitute o( 
■tamens, pistils, and true seedx, 
but often reproduced aa the result n( 
a sexual act ; arrptogam'laD, ciTpto- 
Cam'lc, eiyptogam'iau, crjjiUiiala- 
ona, belong to the aub-kin^doiu 
iuat defined ; Crrptog'amlat, a 
botanist deroted to the study of 
flowerlees plants ; Crypt^amy, the 
Btat« of concealed fruutitication ; 
OiTptone'niata(r$fui, a thread). snuli 
ecllulor threads produced In Cryp- 
toatomats ; OTTP'tophyle [ipinii', a 
plant), Cri/plojiki/'tum, a crypto, 
plant ; Oryptoitcin *te 

(ariiia, a mouth), barren conoep- 
t&ulM iR soma AlgM, oonttining 
hairs, or paraphyaea. 

Cryat'al [npimfAot, ice), a mineral 
solid, uiually of regular faces or 
angles, fuundin the tissuesof plants, 
of very various oompoiition ; Ciy- 
al'lJlotd {ittot. resemblance), Mrm 
applied to protein crystals oa being 
less truly angular than normal 
orystaU, as well as swelling in 
water ; also in contradistinction to 

Dtsln'ophytes {trilni. I kill ; *unir, a 
plant), Funjji whose infiuence on 
Ibetr hosts is chemical only 

Cu'tMbliie, the active principle of 
Fiptr Cubtba, Linn. 

on'blfani] (cufxu, a die lybrma, shape), 
dice-shaped, cubic; OaliQB (Lat, ), 
a solid flanre of six square sides ; 
ou'blo, ai%c\i», ea'VioH, of a cubic 

Onliit (oAitum, the elbow), ameasure, 
from the elbow to the lingBr-tipi, 
usually reckoned as equivalent to 
IS inches, GO on.; cuUta'llt (Lat.), 
about half -o- yard in length. 

onculla'rls, cu'collBte, cucMta'tua{cw 
ullu), a hood), hooded, or hood- 
shaped ; mtcnll'ifarm (forma, shape), 
hood-like in shape ; OtieuU'os, a 

cn'camUtmn (micmnU, a cucumber), 
shaped like a cucumber (Crosier). 

enCurbita'ceonB {rufurbila, a gourd, 4- 
aceous), like a gourd ; of gourd-like 
growth ; cnourUtl'Bas, has the same 

Cud'tMBT, the Scotch name for Okcbil. 

Oul-da-iao (Pr.), "a tubular or bag- 
shaped cavity, closed at one eud" 

Dnlm. Ciilm'iie (a stalk, especially of 
grain), the peculiar hallow stem 
or "straw" of Brasses : oulm'sua 
(Lat.), straw -like ; onlmlc'olinu 
{eolo. I inhabit), growing on 
the stalk of grasses ; sulm'Uer, 
onlailferons (frro, I bear), produo- 
iDg culms. 

enlVnto, cullra'lus (Lat., knife-like). 

tbe ilupe of & kaife-blade ; cnlt'ri- 
fOnn, eidtriform'i* {culltr, & knil« ; 
forma, abape), in shape like » 
hoife, or coulter. 

Ottlt'nreB, in botanj, applied to expeii- 
mentol growlb coDdactod id the 

en'iiaal (Croiier), cmua'iliu t (Liod- 
\tj), Eu'oaate, canea'tut, cn'aalfanii, 
cunci/brai'u {eanent, a wedge}, 
wedge -shaped, Irisngular. 

aajalc'Dlate, cunicida'lua (cuHievliu, a 
ratibjt), pierced with a long deep 
pBBBSge opan at one end, as the 
peduocle o£ Trapaeoluia. 

Cunlx J {deriv. T) "The separable 
plane which interveneB between 
the wood and bark of exogeni " 
(Lindiey) ; if. Supplement. 

Cap, (Ij an involucre, aao! the acom ; 
(2) the receptacle, or " shield" in 
iome Lichens ; (3) used for Disco- 
carpi- stuipea, fanned like a goblet, 

oa'polA-ahaped, nearly hemispherical, 

like aD aoorncup. 

cv'iH«iu {capnaii, copper), copper- 
ooloured, with its metallic lustre. 

Oa'pDle, Cu'pula (Lat., a little cup), 
the cup of such fruits as the acorn, 
an invoiuore ooraposod of bracts 
adherent by their base, and free 
or not. upwards ; cu'pula - ibaped 
(Lindiey) see cupula - hiiafed ; 
cupula'rls, cu'pulato, cuyiu/a'lus, 
farnisheJ with, or Bnbtended by 
a cupule ; Onpu'UTei (Lat.), onpu- 
llferoDS {/ero, I bear), producing 
oopules ; CD'pUlUorm, eupuiifoT-m'm 
IJonaa. shape), cupola-sbaped. 

Wiuliw, an alkaloid from ■ ' Curare, " 
obtuned from several apeoiee of 

Onr'ciimliie, the colouring matter of 
tbe roots of Turmeric, Curcuma 
ioaga, Linn. 

Qnrl.a disease, shown by deformed and 
ourled leaves, ascribed in some cases 
to SxoiUCUS dtfonnani, Fuokel ; 
onAtd, when a leafy organ is folded 
Of orompled, aa Endive. 

Onr'tain = Cobtin a. 

OuiVattm, oontinned flexure or bend* 


ing from a right line ; •> of Oon- 
eiui'lon, that produced a« the result 
of a luddon blow; Darwtn'laa ~, 
etfectfl produced on growing organs, 
as root-tips in consequence of ir- 
ritation : Sachs's ~,the difTerenoe 
in growth of the two sides of the 

.t (We( 

.oio) ; 



Carve, the same i 
ribbed, - Tsined = 
curved, bent, not rectilinear ; 
curvlcau'ilate {cawia, a tail), hav' 
ing a curved tail ; onrrlcast'ats 
(costa, a rib), with curved ribs or 
veins ; currlden'tate {deitg, a tooth), 
with curved teetb, cur'vUbnii, 
{/anna, shape) = cuRVsn ; cur'yln- 
erved, cnn'i'ner'riiu, curcitJe'Kiu* 
(Lat,), having curved nerves. 
especially applied to mon 
dons i cnrvlp'etal Ipeio, I i 
Voch ting's term for the cauxes 
which tend to curve an organ, 
oarvtae'iial {aeirisn, a row), in ourved 
or oblique ranks. 

Oush'lon, (1) tbe enlargement at or 
beneath the insertion of many 
leaves, the pulvimis ; (2) portion 
of a Fem-prathalluB on which 
archegonia are borne, often per- 
ceptibly thicker than the margins ; 
ouRblon'ed, tufted, aa in some 
Mosses i~run'gl. Fungi growing in 

Ciup, Cvjip'in (Lat. B point), a sharp, 
rigid point ; cosp'ldate, cmpida'tta, 
tipped with a cusp, 

cat, the same as incised, or in a 
general way aa claft. 

Ou't!cle,Cu<i'CH/a(Lat. the outer skin), 
the outermost skin or pellicle, con- 
taining the epidermis ; Oufi'cufn 
a'tU, ~ pm'yna, — Ttgvla'ria, — 
euhnni'la, modiflcations proposed 
byFayod, in Ann. So. Nat., 8£r. 
VII. ii. (1S8S) 24.1-244 ; Datooell'n- 
loses ( 4- CellnloBe) nioditied cellu- 
lose, tbe cuticularized layers of cell- 
wall, impregnated with cutin ; 
Outionlulxa'tlDn = Cctinization. 

Cu'tlu {eutit, tbe skin), the eubatance. 


sUieil M Saberine, which cepeU 
liquid* from pusing the cell-wall ; 
OnUuiia'tloii, thi nioditicatioD of 
the cell-woU so as to become im- 
pervious to liquids; Ou'tla : (1) 
th« akio or epidermiH ; (2) the 
peridiuni of some Fungi ; Cu'tOH, 
the tranapareot Glm covering the 
serial organs of plants. 

oat - tooUied, "deeply ftud aborply 
toothed" (Croiier). 

Ont'taga, multiplication b; cuttioga 
(L. H. Bailej). 

Ont'tLnB, (1) the aeverod portion of a 
plant, used for propagation ; (2) the 
ODtline of a leaf or frond when 

ejvU'iiu X (Mod. Lat.) = cr^utT9. 

Oyva'baa t {tvaiioi, a bean), "a kind 
of follicle resembling a legume " 

DTanae'Di, t, cyaneri" {rixirBt, corn- 
flower), a clear fidt hluu, corn- 
floiTBr-ooloured ; cyaneU'oa, almost 
askyblue: (iyan'lc,blue;~Flow'er8, 
those whose colouring tends to- 
wards blue, in contrast to XAKTttlc 
Flowers; o^nnoch'rous {xp^', 7(pi><>!. 
the akin), having a blue skin; 
cyM10pIi'll0ua(#i\^u, I love), applied 
to nuclei which reodil; take a deep 
blue stain : Cj'aiiopl^^olii (^i^ioi, 
tea- weed), the blue colouring matter 
of Algae; Oy'aiuipbTU (^Uu. u 

^patli'Ubnil, cyatki/orm'is (nia^gi. a 
wine-cnp ; forma, shape), shaped 
like a dnnking-cnp ; OyaUi'limi, the 
infloresoence of Etijihorbium, con- 
sisting of involucrol bracts, with 
glands between single stamens each 
eqnivalent to a male flower, and a 
trilocular ovary : cy'aUiola (rfJot, 
reMmblance), cup-like ; Cjr&th'ollte 
{ WSoi, stone) = Cotooi.ith ; Cy'atliuB, 
the cup-like body which contains 
propaguk in Mar<haM(a, etc. 

qy1i'ele(pi'.,8ib'-e-le],H.C. Watson^B 
name for an estimation of the dis- 
tribution of plants in a given area, 
an analogue to IHorsi ; the name is 
L By'elHQine, a principle found in the 

root of Ci/tiamcn europaivm, 

Cj'clB (jniKXcH, a circle) ; (1) used for 
one turn of a helix or spire, in leaf 
arrangement ; {2) for a whorl in 
floral envelopes ; oy'dao, ry'dicut, 
applied to foliar structures ar. 
ranged in whorls, coiled iolo a 
cycle or relating to s cycle ; cy'ollaal, 
rolled up circularly, as many em- 
bryos ; Oy'dogens {yri'tiiii, to bring 
forth), ejtogenuua plants, from their 
exhibiting concentric circles in the 
section oftheirstemsi cyclog-'enonii, 
having concentric circles in the 
stem, exogenous ; C3r'clDme, a ring- 
shaped cushion of anthers (M 'Nab) ; 
Cfolo'sli, the rotation of proto- 
plasm within the cell, in one or 
more currents : cyclasperm'cnu 
{arip/ia, ■ Seed), with the embryo 
coiled round the central albamen. 

cyg'nBons, fyg'nriie (Lat., pertaining 
to a swan), the seta of Mosses when 

cjUndra'oMQi, -eus (nvXirSpot. a 
cylinder, -I- aceous), somewhat 
cyliudric : Gyllndranth'sras {irSm, 
a, dower) syngenesious, from the 
stamens forming a tnbe i OyUnd- 
rench'yma {t-tx'')"t, an infusion), 
tisane made up of cylindric cells ; 

o^lua'ric, cyUnd'ric&l, elongated, 
with a circular cross - section ; 
Cj^indrobMloste'moii {^iim, a 
pedestal ; rr/ifniit, a slamcn) 

CytiA'tiam Uvfiiriar, a little wave) = 

cymb'aaform. more correctly cymb'i- 
form, eymbi/orm'ii (cymba, a boat ; 
fonna, shape), boat-ahaped, used 
for Diatoms, or the keel of Legu- 

Cymbell'ae (eymhida, a little boat), 
reproductive locomotive bodies of 
an elliptic form, found in some 

Cyme, Cy'ma (iCmo, a wave. Lot., the 
sprout of a cabbage), a Qowor- 
oluster of determinate or centri 
fugal type, especially a broad and 

I ~ (o) I 

Stttened one . 
BoKryx, and (A) ■ Brepani 
lateral branchea of the sacceuive 
ramificulioDa always occuiring on 
the aamo side ; icorp'lold — (n) 
CincinnUH, and (b) Rhipidiuni, the 
lateral hranches always occurriDg 
alternately on opposite lidea : Oy- 
BMlet, pr, fliiQ-lHt, a liltU cyme ; 
cymtreroiu iftro, I bear), produa- 
ing cymea; cy'mo-'bot'iTOMiorbot'- 
iTttid], when cymes are arranged in a 
botryoid manner ; OT'moid [eliot, 
reaemblance), having the form of « 
eyme ; cy'moM, tyvio'aiie, cy'mona, 
bearing cymeaor relating tocymee ; 
~ thnb'id, one with centrifugal in- 
Boretoenoe ; lyninlB, a diminutive 
cyme or portion of one. 

Oyn'kplfie, on alkaloid occurring in 
Aethima CyTvxpiv,m, Linn. 

Ojtlanhod'llm, -diam {Kiar, a dog ; 

HSw, a roae], a fruit like that of 
the dog-rMe, Seihy, bollow, and 
■n doling achenea. 

Cr'on, Qrew'B ipelling of Cion - ScioH , 

CTpen'ceoni (CypenM, + aoeoua), re- 
lating to Bedget, from the typical 
genua Oyjienu. 

C;^plMl'la [Kiiipit, bent), " coIlectionB of 
Bonidia in the form of cups " 
(Lindley) ; Cyptiel'lae, orbicular 
fringed spots like dimples, under 
the thallaa of Lichens ; oyphel'lala, 
marked with Cypbellae. 

CTp'iela (jEu^f'Xi), a box), an oehene 
inveated by an adnate calyx, as 
the fmit of Compositae. 

Cyr'rbtu^CmRHDS, a tendi-il. 

Cyit, CyM'i, (riiffT.,, a cavity). (1) a 
sao or cavity, usually applied to a 
structure whose nature is doubtful; 
(2) all cells of non-sexual origin in 
green Algae which reproduce the 
plant by Bennination after a rest- 
ing period aa resting spores, hyp' 
nosporefl, chronospores. aplano- 
spores, abinetea (F. Gay) ; Oyst'a t 
Necker'a lenn for a berry with dry, 
membranous envelope, ss in Pani- 
ffont ; Cyst'ld, a proposed emenda- 
tion for Cystld'iiUD : (I) large, one- 
oelleil, somotimea inflated bodies. 

projecting beyoud the boaidia and 
para^byses of the bymenium of 
Agarics, of unknown function ; (2) 
-Utricle ; Cyst'oblBat (^Xaaris. a 
shoot), citfid by Uroiier for Cyto- 
BLAST ; Cyst'ocup Cyslocarp'ium 
{tapwbi, fruit), a aporophore in 
Algae, eapecially Florideao, a cyst 
containing seiually produced 
spores : Cyit'ollUl (\ISot, atone), 
mineral concretions, usually of 
calcium carbonate on a cellulose 
stalk, occurring chieRy in spocial 
cells of the UrtioBoeoe, as i» fSciu 
t/aslica, Itoxb. ; Cyaf opbore iinpiu, 
1 carry), the aame as Ahcophore ; 
Cyat'oaore CyXtMo'T-UJ. [o<.ipii, a 
heap), a group of resting-sporaa 
within a cell aa in fVoroiiina ; 
Csm'Mpon ( ffTDpd, a seed ) = 
Cakpospobe (Strasburger) ; Oyit'- 
ola-CtSTCLA, CIs^KtA./^, 
Sy'taae (icirroi, a hollow veeael), an 
eniyme found in germinating seeds 
which hydrolysea cellulose ; Cytaa'- 
ter {ieriip, a star), a series of 
achromatic rays from eaob pole of 
the nucleus into the oytoplasm in 
karyokiueais (Crozier) ; Crten- 
eb'yma ( (■YX''f"^- an infusion ), 
vacuolar atmoture in cells, fluid 
which separates from protoplasm 
aa vacuoles (Crozier) ; Oy'tlodarm 
iSipm, Bkin], the cell-wall in Bialo- 



Cyf iilne, an alkaloid ooouTring Id tfaa 
aenus Cyti^. 

Oy tohlaat (nrroi, a hollow veaael ; 
pXanTot, a shoot), (1) Schleiden'a 
name for the cell-nucleua ; (2) a 
colony of bioblosts which have loat 
their independent existence ; uf. 
Bio BLAST : Cytobloste'ma, the 
formative material in which colls 
are produced, and by which thoy 
are held in union : protoplasm -. 
Cy'todea, <1) cells; (2) nuclear 
elements in which the caryosomet 
are not grouped into nuclei (Vuil- 
lemin) ; Oytodiai'Mls {kalptoM, 
division), cell-diviaion with nuclear 
division, and formation of a nuo- 
lear-spindle and ostcra (Oroiier) ; 

Oytogr'ua; {yitun, marriage), the 
union ol cells ; OrtOK^o'*^ [yivieit, 
beginoing). origin and develop- 
ment of celli ; sometimM written 
Cytiogeiiesie ; dytogvnet'la, per* 
tuniog to cell-fotmation; ejiog"- 

I^dlOlIat [Mop, Wkt«r; XiSi . 
loosing), an eoejniB wbich atlacki 
and breaks up the cell-wall by 

g' 'drolysia ; (^^hy'aloplMin ( + 
jaloplum), the protoplasm of 
the celt, apart from any granules 
or foreign matter ; Cy'tollit {Xiisit, 
a loosing), an eniyme whioh dia- 
•olves the cell-wall ; oytoljt'lc, of 
ft ferment so acting ; Cytol'ogy 
(Xii7n, diioonne), the scienoe of tbe 
cell, its life history, nuclear tlivi* 
sions and development ; adj. 
cylolog'lc, cytolog'lc*] ; Oytoml'- 
OKiMUUM iiuKpis, small ; vw/ki, a 
body), the granules or microsomes 
imbedded in tbe celt>prot«pbBU : 
Oy'toptaRD {r\tiffita, moulded), the 
general protoplasm of the cell 
(Straabnrger); Oy'toplaat, tbecyto- 
plaam aa a unit, in contrast to the 
nuoleas ; OytopUtt'ls, a proteid 
which apparently forma the bulk 
of the Cytoplasm ; Oy'toiameB 

daciTOi'deiii {Sinpv, a tear ; etSot, 
resemblance), need for pear-«hajM.>d 
fniit, oblong and rounded at one 
end, pointed ut the other. 

<taCtyll'mii(Jaji:TuXo!,aGnger), divided 
like fingers; DactylorU'n, {^Itn, 
root), tbe forking of roots ; dac'- 
^lOM, dadsio'mu, fingered, or 

dMd'aleoiu, daed'aleiu (Lat. ^ikilhil 
craft), (I) the apex of a leaf irregu- 
larly jagged, though not arcuate ; 
(2) wavy and irregularly plaited aa 
the hymeninm of some Agarics : 
DaMlaiencli'yTaa ilyx^i^- (^n '"ia- 
■ion), tissue made np of entangled 


Dab'Ilne, a substance resembling 
starch from the tubers of the genua 

Dun'mar, a transparent resia from 
Agalhin loranlhi/blia Salisb., for- 
merly sameil Dammara arienlaiii, 

Dunp'lns, a outtivator's term for 
premature decay in plEuite, especi- 
ally young seedlings, attributed to 

Daph'nln, the bitter principle of 

Daphne Me:erfiim, Linn. 
Darwin, mt Kniuht Darwih Law. 
Darwln'lan Cnrr'ature, the bending 

induced by tho irritation of any 

foreign subataace close to the apex 

of the root, 
date-ahaped, resembling a date in 

duyphyll'ona, -fti« (Sasii, thick ; 
^XXw, • leaf), (I) thick-leaved; (S) 
leaves thickly act ; (3) with woolly 

Datli'dn, a substanw having tbe 
appearance of i^pe - sugar, first 
obtained from Daluca caniutlnna, 
Linn. ; it hog been used as a yellow 

Datu'rine, an alkaloid of Dnlvm 

Daug'h'ler-cells, young cells derived 
from the division of an elder one, 
the mother-cell ; ~ Chro'moaome, 
a secondary ohromosome, derived 
from division of tbe original: — 
Bkeln, stages in nuclear division 
when the cnromstin is more or less 
in a reticulate condition ; further 
distinguished by some observers 
into "loose " or " close ";" Spore, a 
spore produced immediately from 
another or upon a promvoelium ;~ 
Btar, one of the groups of cbromatio 
filuments at the pules of a dividing 
nucleus ; the two together with tbe 
connecting spindle constitute the 
" Dyaster " stage. 

Day-poiltlon, the pose assumed by 
leaves during tbe day, in contra- 
distinction to that taken for the 

dwdlMte, •Ican-i'l'i* (lAt., wbite- 





waahed), whitened ; covered with 
an opaque white powder. 
Decigyn'ta [Uxa, ten;7vv(i, woman), a 
Linnean &rtiGoial order of plaate 
with ten piBtiU ; decBjcra'Un, 
decas'T^oQ'i having ten ntyles or 
oarpeU ; deoam'eroiia, decara'erae 
ilUpvt, B Bhsre), in tens ; Decau'drla 
{inTtp, dripii, a nisn), a Linnean 
utiSoial olasB, of plaota with ten 
■tamena ; daoan'dzljui, Oecan'draTu. 
-nu, having ten alamen!! ; decapet'- 
•lOtu, ■lii» (WTaXin>, a flower-leaf), 
nilh taa pataU : deoapbTll'oiu. 
(^liXXov, a leaf), witb ten leaven or 
Begmenta ; dMUi'niu {ipfujr, mole), 
Nsoker's term for ten Btamena and 
one piHtil; decaBBp'alouB -Im ( + 
BlPALClil] with ten BepaU ; dscai- 
pMtn'ftl {nipua, a seed), having 

deoMDdant'atfl [dtctm, ten ; drta, 
dentil, a tooth), having ten teeth, 
BB the oapaule of Cera^tium; 
iaotm'M (Crozier), decem'fldoa 
(jU, the root of Jido, I split), ten 
oleft : dMenlocnl&'iia (^ocu/iu, a 
oompartment), with ten cella, ae nn 

dftdd'aoni, -iitw {dKido. I fall down), 
falline in eeaeon, as petals fall 
after 3owerLng,or [eaves in autumn, 
evergreeoB exoepted ; Dwdd'aoiu- 
nms, the quality of falling onoe a 

dMllnkta, dedina' 1)111 (Lot. turned 

aside), bflnt OF curved downward or 

forward ; decU'nad, directed ob- 

Dwnlonnt'Ucm, DccolorB,'l'<o (Lat.), 

abienoe of oolour ; docolora'tua 

(Lat.), discoloured, disoharged of 

colour, colourleaa. 
deoom'pound, dtcomjioa'Uat (Lat.). 

Bflvoral times divided or com. 

dBCorU'cated [dftorticatio, barking). 

deprived of bark ; OocorUca'tion, 

stripping off bark. 
deore'aBliigly ptnu'ate, where leafleta 

diminish in eize from the base up- 

decum'bsilt, -eiM (Lat. reclining), re- 

clining, but with the summit as- 

decur'rest, dectir'rtus (Lat.), mnninB 
down, ae whea leaves ore prolonged 
beyond their insertion, and thua 
run down the stem ; dsoiir'ilTB, 
dtevrti'vwi {deairmu, a deHceiit) = 
SEcnRRENT ; decnr'siTely pln'nate, 
the leaf seemingly pinnate, bat the 
leaflets decurrent alons the petiole. 

decua'sate, dtcnata'tia {Lat. divided 
crosswise), in pairs alternately at 
right angles ; DeciUM'tlon, crosH- 
ing by pairs of leaves, 

DMonblement (Fr.). donblinir, = 

Dednpllca'Uon (Fr. dfdupticatiOD), 
a. synonym of the Isat. 

dererant [dtfiro, 1 bring down), con- 
veying anything downward. 

defeirair Bboote, those prodaoed by 
buds whioh have remained long 

definite, dtfini'tus {defnite, pre. 
cisBtv), (I) precise ; (2) of a oertAin 
nnmber, as of stamena not exceed- 
ing twenty; (3) applied to in- 
florescence it means cymoee:~In- 
nores'cenca, where the axis ends 
in a flower ; deBn'lUvs Hu'deng, a 
result of the fusion of one nucleus 
each from the micropylar and 
cbalau! ends of the embryo aac. 

deOx'ed, dfji.^ut (Lat. faet«[ied) = 

delle«t'ad, dtfltx'iis (Lat. bent aside), 
bent or turned abruptly down- 
wards ; deDsxed', bent outwards, 
the opposite of inSexed ; DeDex'lon, 
turnetf downwards. 

dedo'ral*, (fc/ora'du (Lit.), past the 

deHow'er, to deprive of flowers. 

defl'ltent(Lat. Of/fuen^), Bowing down. 

dBfo'Uate, d^olia'tw (Mid. Lat.), 
having cast its leaves ; Dafolia'tlon, 
the act of shedding Icavos. 

Deforma'tlon Id^ormit, niiashapeD), a 
malformation or alleralion from 
the normal sense ; deformed', dis- 
Ggursd, distorted ; DBfonn'lty, Dt- 
farmilai ( Lat . ), an ODBhapely 


1 {drycnero, to beooma 
unlike the race), an alteration for 
the worse, or leaa highly developed, 
aa when scaioa appear icateaa of 

DcgndA'tloii {degredior, I descend), 
leis highly ditferentiated, simpler 
•IruatiirGB taking llio plaae of more 
claborBto ; — lower in funolion, re- 
trograde DletainorphoaiB, or s kat«- 
bohc chaDge, complex aubatances 
resolving into aimpler; '- Prodact, 
the result of kataboliBm, as muci- 

dahlaoe' Idehisco, I yawn], to open 
■pontAneoualy when ripe, aa aeed 
oapsulei, etc ; DeUa'csnce, Dc- 
huceni'ia, the mode of opening of a 
fruit capsule or anther bv valvee, 
alita or porea ; debii'cent, dehii^cene, 
dabls'c^, splitting into deflniU 

Dehydra'tlon {de, privative ; 6iup, 
water), depriving of water aa a 
ooDiponeDl.BH bv tbe use of alcohol, 
or calcic chloride. 

t>eIlinlta'tlDn (Late Lat. delimUarf). 
used for Abjunction ; cutting off 
by a preciw limit, 

deliqiiea'otnt, 'tm (Lat. melting 
away), diaaolving or melting away, 
u (I ) when the atem losea itself by 
repeated branching ; or (2) when 
oartain Agarioa bea«me fluid at 

DtUq'nllini t {driiqvv, wanting) - 
onarginate (Liadley). 

Del'phlsB, an alkaloid preaenl in 
Dt^lunium Stnphisagria, Linn. 

doIta-lMTMI {ti\Ta, the Greek letter 
A), having triangular laaves, 
del'told, ddloi'dn, -dtfu {tJSot, re- 
semblance), ahaped like the Qreek 
i ; an sijnilateral triangle, 

demened', dtmtT'mi (Lat. plunged 
under), under water, especially of 
a part conalnntly aubmersed, 

damU'itu (Lat.), hanging down, 

Sanft'rll :t (Lat.) = ten together 

Can'diUoTm (Si'fapor, a tree; formi, 
ahape) = DEN DBOiD ; dendrlt'ic 


-iciM, -leal, having a branched ap- 
pearance, as the lirellae of Liohena, 
etc. ; Deadrt'tM, cellulose in crya- 
talg^^Dendrlo-tbanmo'dea, with tbal- 
luB branched as a bush, as the Rein, 
deer Lichen, Cladonia rangiftrina, 
HoRm. ; den'drold, dendroi'da, dm- 
droCdeia {diot, reaemblauee), tree- 
like, in form, or branching ; Deii'- 
drolite (\Wot, stone), a foetil tree ; 
Dendrol'oglst (Xiiyoi, diacourae), one 
skilled in the knowledge of treea ; 
Dendrol'ogy, the study of trees. 

denl (Lat.), by tens, ten together. 

dan'lgrate, diniyra'ltu (Lat.), black- 

Den'lion, H. C. Watson's term for 
plants anapected of foreign origin, 
though maintaining their place, aa 
Viola odorata, Linn. 

Dana (Lat.), a tooth; den'tate, iffR- 
ta'lus (Lat.}, toothed, especiaLly 
with salient teeth directed for- 
ward; danta'to-crena'to = crknato- 
nisNXATUti ; '- ladnU'tus. with 
toothings irregularly extended into 
long point i — Berratua, the tooth- 
ingB tapered and pointed forward ; 
Denflds, a small tooth (Crozier), 

denttc'ulAte, drnlietila'lus, minutely 
toothed ; Denticola'tiana, email pro. 
eesBos or teeth : deot'lform ( forma, 
shape), J. Smith's equivalent for 
toothed ; den'told {tldot, form), 

denti'dAte, denada'i«s (Lat. ), stripped, 
made bare, or naked- 

deoinre'nlAte, dtopercvia'tui [de, opcr- 
eulum, a lid): (1) when the oper- 
culum of a Moss does not separate 
spontaneoosly from the aporopbore ; 
(2) having lost the operculum. 

deor'anm (Lat. from de, down, vernu 
I limed towards), downward. 

depaap'emte, dfpaiipcra'lus (Lat.), 
impoverished aa if starved, re- 
duced in function. 

dep'laaate, dfplana'lua (Lit.), flat- 
tened or expanded. 

depettd', depen'dest, depta'dtm (Lat.) 
hanging down. 


w&U, more or len covering it, in 

depree'sed. il'/rrtr'nig (I*t.), lunk 
down, as if flattened from above i 
depreu'D-tmnca'tiu = heti'sb ; De- 
pTM'iiO iLat.), a pressing or gink- 
inR down, a littlo hollow i~dw- 
mill, B depreuion in the sporeB of 
some Aearica extending along the 
back ul the spore ; — Ula'rla. a 
siuiilu' depressioo, but of less ex- 
tent, abovo the hilam (Fayod). 

dartKVlK'ila $ [dt, opposed ; rigtdarU 
in order), between regular and ir- 
regular (Lindlej), 

Derlv'atlTB Hjr'tirldi, Cbose sprung 
from a union of a, hybrid, and one 
oF ite parent forms or another 

DirillS (iipiHi, Stpuarat, skio), SDrfoce 
of aD organ, bark, or rind ; IMnoa- 
ealTpt'rocen (xbXviit^, a veil ; 
■)<fn>(iui,Ibringforth), Scbwendener'a 
t«rm for a common higtogen which 
prodaoes root-oap aod root-epider- 
mis in Phanerogams ; dum'al, relat- 
ing to the outer covering i~Tis'sDe, 
the lubatance of the epidormiB and 
periderm; dermati'Dos, applied to 
those plants such as Lichens, which 
live on bark or epidei-raia ; der- 
lUt'lDld ((»», form), skin-like in 
function or appearance ; Derm'kto- 
OTit, Dermaloq/i^tii (ti'imt, a bag 
or poach), inflated hairs on the enr- 
tace of the sporophore of ;ounK 
Agarics ; Dermat'ogeii lyitram, I 
bring forth), the mcriatem forming 
the layer of nascent epidermis ; 
primordial epidermis ; Daimat'- 
ophyts (^in-ic, a plant), any Fangiis 
parasitic on the skin of man or 
other animals (Crozier) ; Dennaf- 
OBOmM (ffii^m, a body), Wiesner's 
t«rm for granuUr bodies in rows. 
united and surrounded by proto- 
plasm, which form the oell'Wall ; 
Dtrmoblas'tlU [pXaari!, a shoot), 
" the cotyledon formed by a mem* 
br«oe that burets irrcRularly " 
(B. F. Gray) ; Dermocalypt'rogsn 



Dnalopmnit | 
; (1) u the I 

graduBlly downwards 

branches of some Ireei 

root* ; ~ Az'la, the root system ; 

~HstAmorpli'osi«, substitution of 

organs of a lower grade, aa stamens 

for pistils, petals for atanions, etc. ; 

~ Bap, formerly applied to the 

Cambinm ; Seaoen'siu ; = Root. 
Deser'tion of Host = Lifoxent. 
dSB'laeiis, Deaiaen'i\a (Lat., ceasing), 

ending in, the manner in which a 


DasswbiT's {tte 

a bond ; ^piaw^ a 
mossj, a aivision of Ferns, where 
the fronds are adherent to tbe 
caudex ; '^/ Erkuobrva ; Dm'- 
mogan {yirra.a, 1 bring forth), dis- 
tinguiabed as prl'QUU7~, the pro- 
cambium, or embryonic tissue uom 
which the vascular tissue is after- 
wards formed ; or Mo'onduy ~ , 
formed from the cambium, after- 
wards transformed into permaasnt 
vascular strands. 
destmct'lva Itatatt'ollsm, those changes 
which take place during the waste 
of tissues i ~ Par'Mite, one which 
seriously injures or destroys the 

detecfna (Lat., Uid baro) = nakod. 

detar'sUnate, dfierniina'tu* (Lat., 
bounded), definite ; — Orowtll, 
when the season's growth ends with 

the n 

of plants, identification. 

Senterog'aiiiy (Jcunpot, the second ; 
yinot, marriage), peculiar nuclear 
fusions in certainCryptogams, super- 
posed upon and subaequent to the 
sexual act (P. Groom); Deutero- 
pUs'mA [rXisiia, moulded) = Para- 
I'LASU ; sometimes conCraotGd into 
Dsnt'oplaam ; DeaterostiopIi'lH 
[irrpB^, a twist or turn), spirals 
of a third degree in the develop- 
ment of leaves. 

Development, the gradnat ettension 
of the parts by which any organ or 
plant paasea mim its beginning to 
Its malurilf . 

OAvU'tiOK, ^vbabl*, Gftlton's term 
far probable vKialioQ. 

Oew-toftTM, leeve* which atape up- 
wardii, >o that dew is coltecW. 

dex'trad, an unusual luodificatioD of 
DKM'B.U.^SEXTBOSSE (dtxtra, the 
right h&od) ; Dextrin, a. aabfttaDce 
prodaoed dariug the trsnsFormation 
of ataroh into sagat. said to be of 
two forma; — Achroouextrih and 
Amtlopexthim ; Saz'trinaae, an 
entfme alated to be present in 
diastase (Wyanian)! dar'tnrM, (/<j:- 
Iror'iat (from iv-r*iu, turned to- 
wards), towards the right banil ; 
dex'tror'snin toIu'UIIb (Lat.), twin- 
ing towards the right ; Dfo'trMe, 
glacose, or fruit sugar, it turns tlie 
plane of polarization to the right ; 
t/, LivuLosK ; dez'tro-ro'tatoTT, 
turning towards the right. 

01-, dlf-, in Greek compaunds — two, 
or double. 

Dianhe'nlnm (ii, two, + Achenium), or 
Dlake'Dlom = Creuocari-. 

DSwib'jTaA {Iki, throngh ; X"i^ ^ 'ihs- 
tion), Link's term for Mehopuvli. 

Dlad*l'phla(4i,lwo; dStX^i, a brother), 
a Linnoan class having the stsDieng 
in two bundles or brotherhoods ; 
dUdelph't&n, dladeIpb'oaa,-iM, -kits, 
with two gruiipa of stamens. 

dlad'romani {Sii, throogh ; Sp6fiet, 
ooune), applied to a fan-shaped 
venation, as in Oitigko I/itoh'i, Linn. 
dl«j:Mtrop'la(-y@, the earth ; Tpdi-oi, 
a turn), a modifiod form of geotrop- 
ism, the organs placing themselves 
it) a bariMota] position, as thongh 
oppoaios foroes were neutralised ; 
DUgwt^«plam, the state jaat de. 
scribed; Dlagno'lla [TrtiiriiiWiadDni), 
a brief distinguishing character : 
dUK'onal (yurja. an^e), a moan 
between two forces, a compromise 
of poaiUon : ~ Plana, in a flower, 
any vertical plane which is not 
■ntero- posterior (front to back) or 
latsral (side to side) ; ~ Foatt'ion, 
one int«rmediats between median 
and lateral ; -' BTm'metry, applied 
to the valves of Diatoms when the 
u \m)' ; Dl'agnm 

(ifiB^ifai, an outline), sea Florai. 
DidOHAU ; Dlaheliot'roplam (J)Xui, 
the aan ; rpsirot, a turn), growth 
more or less horizontal, ondar the 
inSuence of light, aa wtien leaves 
place thenuelvea at right atiglea 
!□ incident light; adj., dlabellol- 

dlal7eMp'lo(3ta>uu,Idisband; lopv^, 
fniil), having a fruit composed of 
di stinot carpels; t>Ul7des'mr(Jc9'>iii, 
a band), the breaking tip of a atele, 
into separate bundles, each with 
its own endodermis ; IHalypat'alaa 
(vi'TBXai>, a Qower-leaf), Endlicher's 
equivalent for the Polvpktalai of 
JussiBu ; dialjpet'alous. poly- 

Etatous ; dlalypbfU'oos (^liXXoi', a 
>f), bearing separate leaves ; dla- 
lysep'aloDB (-fbEPALuu), bearing 
separate sepaU ; Dlal'ysla, l^e 
separation of parte normally in 
□ne, especially parts of the aame 
whorl ; Dlalyitely (imjXv, a poat), 
a variation of Polvstklv, in which 
the separate steles remain for the 
most part separate during their 
longitudinal course. 

dlamaaoB'vnona (3id, through, iiitn, 
middle, li-iu/t, marriage), fertiliza- 
tion by the means of some external 
agent, as wind or inaecti ; Dla- 
meeag'amy, the condition just de- 

Dlan'dfta (ili, two, i.r%^, ArSpAt, a 
man), a Linnean class with planta 
of two atamens ; dlan'drlan, dlaji'- 
drona, -nui, t^diander), pogsoBsing 
two atamena. 

dlaph'auona, -tu (Sid, through, ^alrw, 
1 show), permitting the light to 
Hhina through ; also written dlo- 
ph'aniu t ; Dtapb'ery {^pta, I bear), 
ths calycine synthesis of two 
flowers (Morren) ; M'apbragm 
{ppdfffoi, I encloae), a dividing mem- 
brane or partition, as (1) the con- 
striction in the neck of the cocule 
in Cliara, from the inward projec- 
tions of the segments ; (2) the 
transverse septa in the stem of 
Eqtiiarlum or of grasses ; (3) the 
layer separating the prothallium 




from Ihe oavitj of the mscrOBpora 
in Vaocnl&r CryptonniB ; dlk- 
phyl'lcnu {^uXXov, » loaf) = dia- 
I.VFHVLLOUS ; DUpIi'ytla (^i>u, to 
mako grow), proliferalion of the 
dl'iTclL {ill, two, Apxh, be^nniae], 
two protoiylBm gioupe, uaed of the 
steles of roots ; lUfLrl'nai {appv, 
male), Neuker's term for dian- 

Dl'MtaM (Jidr7Taffi!, Bt&ndiag apart), 
an amj'lolf tio enzyme vbich oon- 
verta starch into malt-augar : ~ 
of Tr&Dilciati'tloQ, ntlacks starch 
graioB griulnally over ihetr whole 
surface, it U slmoat nmverBaiUv dia- 
tribnted in plants ; ~ of Been Uon. 
acts bj corrosion, attacking parts 
of the Btaroh-Rriiin firat ; it is 
lormed by the glandular epithelinni 
of the Bcatetlum of grasses; adj. 

Dt'aiter [ilt, two, irrftp, a star) aea 


Dlut'ole (5iaffTD\((, separation}, the 
alowdilation of a contractile veside; 


IHaUiemi'ancy (i>&, through, Bipjiairu, 
I worm), the relative condactivity 
of a medinm with regard to the 
Iranamiision of heat (t! VV. i^ngel- 

dlaloma'ceoni, resembling or consist- 
ing of diatoms whose tjpe is Dia- 
Uima ; Dlat'omliie, the colouring 
matter of Diatoms, phyoojianthinB ; 
DiaVomlat, one devoted to the 
study of Diatoms : Mat'ompbila 
(^\<w, 1 love), an enthusjustia 
student of Diatoms, 

diatiopio (iii, through, rpiirai. twin- 
ing), used of organs which place 
themselves transversely to the 
operating force. 

dlbot'ryold {Sit, double, + botrjoid], 
a compound infloresceuce, the 
branches of the first and succeed- 
ing orders being botryoid, such aa 
the compound umbel, panicle, or 

Dlotr'otin (Sit, twice, -i- Cakotin), a 
lipochrome pigment ; dicaip'sllary 

IMolwliiiil 1 
1 of two I 
nlte), re- I 

{fa/irii, fruit), composed of 
carpels or pistil -leaves. 

Ucha'ala] ISixi^a, I disunite), 
lating to a Diohahiosi -, ~ Oyi 
ojroes wbnBO secondary merobers 
are dichosis, such as occur in 
Euphorbiaceee ; Slcba'alimi, a false 
dichotomy in which two lateral 
shoots of nearly equal atreneth 
arise from the primary axis below 
the flower which terminates the 
apex, the process being repeated 
by each set of branches ; a two- 
parted or two-ranged cyme; dich- 
ait'lc. spontaneously dividing ; 
dlohkmyd'eoDB (7(Xa^t)i, x^°^'^'"> 
a cloak), having a donble perianth, 
cat)-i and corolla; dlcboblu'tlc 
{BTtairtit, a shoot), suggested by 
Celakovsky to rephioe "dicboto- 
mouB " when the repeated dicho- 
tomy develop! into a aympodium ; 
(UcIuv'amoaH (fl'X", in two, yiiMt, 
marriage], hermaphrodite with one 
sex earlier mature than the other, 
the Btamena and piatiU not syn- 
chroniiing : Dlcbog^amy, insuring 
cross-fertilization, by theseies not 
being developed simultaneously, 

Dlchocarp'tsm (Ji^Dre^^u, I cat in 
two, tapirii, fruit), Cooke's term 
for Fungi producing two diatinal 
forms of fructification, dimorphic 
as to fruit ; dlctiot'omBl, pertaining 
to a bifurcation, as a — Flow'er, one 
seated in the fork of a dichasium ; 
dichot'omlie, to fork or divide in 
pairs ; dlchot'omoos, -iw. forked, 
parted by pairs jr-Oyma, of English 
Buthors = D[CHA!iiDM ; IMcbot'omy, 
the state of being repeatedly forked; 
- hel'loold —, in each successive 
forking, the branch which continues 
to develop il on the same aide aa 
the previous one, the other branch 
aborts; Falsa ~, — DicHahitth ; 
Bcorp'lold '-, the branchoa de- 
velaj) on each side altemat«ly ; 
Dtchot'fpy (Tiiir«, a type), the oc- 
currence of two difTarent forms of 
tbe same organ on the same atock. 

IHcle'itaai (Jtt, twice, iXw'i. closing), 
an Bchone within n separate and free 

covering of periaDth, as Mirabilii; 
di'cllnaiia (iit, two, xXCni, & bed), 
uniaeiual, havins the Ht&menB in 
one flower, and the pUlllB in 
another ; Dl'clinlsm, the Repara- 
tion of pollen and atigma in spsoe, 
M dichogun; is in time. 
dlcoo'coiit,-)U (JlT,two,(d«ai,Bkemel], 
hkviDgfruit of two Cocci; dlooaloni 
((i>rx«, a hollow), with two cavi- 
ilM ; DlCDt'yla, an abbreviation 
for DtootriBdo'usBa, Dicotrle'dons 

(it>TrXii8««, cup-Bhap«d hollow, used 
for aeed-lobe), plants of the class 
denoted by their poRBenHion of two 
I uotyleilona ; dlcotyle'donoiu, - him, 
■ having a pair of saed-lobeB. 
I dictrod'romaiu {Sun-ior, a net, 
r ipi/uu, a course), with reticulate 
veoation ; Dlc'tfoceni {yStnaoi, I 
bring (orth), plaatB hsving nettfid 
vcioi, propoaed byLindlejas inter- 
mediate betweenbiB ENDOuENSand 
ExouENs ; dlctjrOE'enous, applied to 
nionocoIyledoDS with oetted veins ; 
~ Lay' «T, a layer of meriatem general 
io iDonocotyiedonB. which gives 
rise t<) the central "body" and 
— '""c of the young roots (Man- 




(Ucy'clio («!, two, .<1<\M 
when a aeries of oruaoa is id two 
whorls aa a perianlh ; (2) applied 
to bieDQials ; dloy'moae [tSita, a 
wave), doubly cymose ; lUa'roiali! 
[ipAliBt, ooarae), doubly twisted, aa 
the awns in Danthonia, Stipa, etc. i 
DU'romy, double torsion, 

dld'ymoiu, -ut {lliv/iot, twin), (1) found 
in pairs, aa the fruits of Umhelli- 
fenM ; (2] divided into two iobee; 
-• An'tlisrs, when the two lobea are 
almost destitute of conaective. 

SldyiUi'iiila ( til, twice, iuraius, 

rower), a Linneon ciaea walked by 
idynamouB flowera ; dldyna'mlan 
dldju'unoas, four-atamened Hower, 
with atamena in pairs, two long, 
two abort, as in most Labiatae. 
Dldy'DuiLy, the condition above 

DieresU'la (Siaipfu, I 


divide), Mirbel'a name for Cak- 
CEBITI.K : adj. disreaU'lan. 
DlSaranUa'aon, of Cell-wall, the 
arising of apparent layers; ~ ot 
Tiaaues, their development into 
permanent tiHsne and consequent 


doi .. 
diffomied', difona'in {!.i,apart^/on 

ahape), of unuaual formation or 

shape ; Difform'ltas ( Lat. ), an 

dUftlct', rfyfi-ac'du (T-al., broken), 

broken into areolae aeparated by 

widely or loosely spreading j '- 
Col'onr, a colour which has "run" 
into the surrounding tiasues ; 
DUm'alon, ( 1 ) t*nn uaed ty Weisoer 
for the intermingliiig of different 
gases under equal pressure, with or 
without intervening partitions : 12) 
mixture of Quids, or diapersioa of a 
fluid Ihraugh a aolid or tisane. 

dlK'Mnoni, 'HI {iU, twice, -liiim, 
marriage), having the two aexea in 
the same cluster ; aa in Cooi- 

lUffenans (Sit, two, yi*iit, offspring), 
containing both sexes, or produced 
sL'iually ; dlKeast'le. aein&l. 

mgest'lTB Pock'st (or Sao), ao invest- 
ment of the secondary rootlets, 
which penetrate the tissues of the 
primary root till they reach the 

Dl^ltsllna, an alkaloid contained in 
Digitalit imrpuTta, Linn. 

dlg'llate, diyiia'ttu (digxitu. a Gnser), 
fingered ; a compound leaf in which 
all the leaflets are home on the apex 
of the petiole, aa in the Horse- 
Chestnut ; ~ pln'nate, when the 
lea Sets of a digitate leaf are 
pinnate ; dlgita't«ly, in a digitate 
manner ; digltallfonn'li {forma, 
shape), ehapod like a linger, as the 
corolla of the Foxglove ; dlgltllier> 
t'Iob (neriSK, a nerve), when the 
Eetoodary nervea of a leaf diverge 


from tlia aumroil □! the i 
;ht ribbed; Dig' 
ftbont 3 iDubaa 
length, or8cin.;digit«'U«, a Bnger- 

dlg'onoiu {Sit, two, it^rta, ui uiiftle), 
Iwo-ftngled, ss the BUma of sotiie 
CMti (Crozier); Dlgyii'U {yurii, a 
Wonun), a Linneui cloaa, with a 
gjnaeoiumof two pialils : aigyn'Ua, 
Sc';nout, with two eeparnted atjlua 

dU&o«ra'tiu t (Lat.), torn Munder, 

nnamtnm'tinii {dig, apart. Ifimiiia, a. 
thin plate), the leparatioD of a 
layer trom a petkl, lilcB or unlike it 
in form : choriaiB. 

Otla'Ud, dilatvg (Lat., widened), ex- 
panding into a hUde, ■< though 
flattened, like the GlamentE of 

aUep'Wns: (Sit, two, Xfri,, X«Um, 
scale), coDBisting of two soalee. 

dllu'tiu (Let. thinned) of a, pale tint. 

a aharo), with two men here in each 

dUnld'late. dimidia'liu (Ut., halved), 
(I) halved, n» when half an organ 
is so muuh smaller than the other, 
OS to seem wanting ; (2) uiied of the 
oalyptra of Mosaoa when split on 
one eiriu bj' the growth of the 
theca ; dlmlilla'to ■ corda'ttn, when 
the larger half of a dimidiate leaf 

dinoipli'lo, dlmorph'Dus {fa, twice, 
liop^ij, shape), occurring under two 
forms ; Slmoipli'lun, the statfl of 
presenting two forms, as long or 
thort-styled Bowers in the same 

dlmo'tv* (Lst., separated), somewhat 
remote from. 

DlodaJiK'iiUIl (SloJof, a passage, ilvriior, 
a vessel). Van Tiegheni'a term for 
Iporangi um i n V asoular Cry ptogams 
and Bryophytei. 

Di'od* {Slodo!, a passage). Van Tieg- 
hem's term for a reproductive body 
peculiar to vascular plants which 
develops into a rudimentary body 

or prothaUiuni, the t 
tween the rudimentary and adult 
stages ; ^. IsoDioDT, Hktsbo- 
DioDT ; Dl'odOKOue (70kij, oapting). 
Van Tieffhem's term for a aporan- 
siurD which produces diodes in 
Pbanetogams, the embryo sac and 
pollen sac ; Dl'DdophytH (ijiitii; a 
ulant), vascular plants (Van Tieg- 
Dloe'ola(!lt, two, oFidi, a house), a Lin- 
neon oloBB of plants with unisemal 
flow e re : dioec'lon, dloec'ioui. uni- 
sexual, the male and female elo- 
meate in different individuals ; 
dtMc'io-iUiiiorph'oiu, heterogonoua; 
dloec'lD - poIj'K'ainoaB, when some 
individuals bear uniseiual Sowers, 
and others hermaphrodite ones ; 
DiMo'isni, the condition of beino 
dioecious; lUol'MUl,aspelliaguHed 
by bryologiste for dioecious, the 
male and female organs oo separate 


Dl'osmoM, Diusmo'iU [Sili, throneh, 
iiatiit, a pushing), the transfusioti 
of liquid through membrane. 

dlpet'alDus, -as {lit, two, v^aXer, a 
flower-leaf), having two petals ; 
dlphyU'oui, -<M {^War. a leaf). 
having two leaves ; dipIsJlM'lc 
(rXdroi, roaming), relating to Di- 
PLANETisM ; Dlplan'etlsiti, double- 
swarniing ; in certain genera allied 
to Sajrrole'jnia Uie zoospores escape 
from their sporangium destitute of 
cilia, come to rest in a cluster each 
forming a cell-wall, and after 
hours Uie protoplasmic oontei 
each spore escapes, acquires cilia 

Diplecolo'beae {Sit, twice, tXi^iu, 
fold, Xs^oi, a lobe), a sub-order 
Cruciferae, the incurved cotyledo 
being twice folded transversel 

DlpIetuvgren'esU (vAn'pd, the aii 
■Yiriaii, beginning), term used 1 
h. H. Bailey for Bilaterality, 
the type of animals ; ij. Cshtro' 


DlplobMm'iii (tir\im, tvofoid, -f 
Bacillus), booiUi whiob sre com- 
poBsd of two cellg. or adhere in 
pain : Dlplobaete'rlft ( - Diplo- 
BAonxD!*) ; dlploDKuleBo'siu Iraules- 
eau, ateiD-priMJacng), having axes 
of Uie Moood order ; Dlploooc'cni 
(-fCoocDs), & coupled dpherule or 
ruult of the conjugation of two 
oelli ; dlploaUvard eoQi (v\s/it)i, 
a cloak] = dichtamjdeonB ; having 
a doable perianth. 

Dlpllril (diirXai), doubling), Link's term 
for Mesofuyll, 

UplOBan'MU tiii-X^i, tnofold, yhtsu, 
a beginnina), doubling cf parts 
normally single ; DtpIoperUto'ml 
(-(- Peristoma), with double peris- 
tome, applied to MoHsea ; d]ploate'> 
moaoni (ar/jiuiir, a atameo), with 
■tamana in two whorU, thoae of the 
oaUr whorl alternating with the 
petals, the inner whorl aiteniating 
with the last ; DlpIoate'moD;, 
■Mmena as juat described ; dlplOl'- 
ao, Van Tieghem'a torro for root- 
lets when the mother -root haa 
only two xylem bundles ; Slplo- 
i^Klt-r'J", -gin"! ('^■yoi. a covering), 
a oapiule or other dry fruit, in. 
veated with an adnate oalyx ; an 
interior capsule ; dlplosyl'io ((laXar, 
wood), oaed of vascular bandies in 
which the oentrifugal part of the 
wood ia MOondary. 

Dlp'tero-OtOld'U (Sit, two, rrc^v, a 
wing, (i)(Jt, a gall), galls produced 
by dipleroDB Sies : illp'tannu,-iu, 
two-wiDged, having two wicE-like 
proceaeea ; dlpyre'nua (lupijir, fruit- 
Stone), containing two stones. 

Dlrec'tlon Cella, ~ Oorpiu'cleB, syn- 
onyms of PouAU Cells ; 

DiTMl'-Hetunorph'oali, the same aa 


Superpoilt'ion, the situation of 
aocewory buda in an axil above the 
leading bud or that tirat formed 
((TroEisr) ; direo'ta - Tsno'nu, a 
feather. veined leaf, where second- 
ary riba (primary veina) pass direct 
from mid'rib to margin, digitioer- 
vins; dlrect'lng Lan'dte, - Ti.vo- 

LBCCiTR ; dlrect'l*e Sphsrea, -at- 
TIUCTIVB Spheres. 

Birem'ptioii, Diremplio (Lat., a 
separation), the occasional separa- 
tion or displacement of leavea. 

dlrl'oold, resembling the apotheoium 
of the ganuB Diriiia. 

disappear' luK, branching in eitreme. 

dlaartla'nlata (dit, apart, arlimlua, a 
joint], to separate at a joint, m the 

Dise, or Disk {dMua.ti quoit), (1) 
development of the torua with- 
in the calyx or within the cor- 
olla and alamena ; (2) the central 
part of a capjtolum in Compoiitae 
oa opposed to the Ray ; (3) the 
faoe of any organ, in oantradis- 
tinction to the margin ; (4) certain 
laarkiaga La cell-walla, of circular 
outline 1 bordered pita ; (5) the 
valves of diatoms when circular ; (6) 
the base of a pollinium; — adbe'ilTf 
~, moditied tendrils, aa in Pitts 
helerophylta, Thnnb., h'reiHa, etc.; 
tUa'dfer (Lat.], dlMife'iODs [firo, I 
bear), disc-bearing, aa the wood of 
conifers ; dll'oUorm, liitcifona'i) 
(Jarma, shape), flat and circular, or- 
bioular ; dlaclg'erotui {y-TO, I bear], 
dUc-bearing ; ~ Fnu'tolea, in Dia- 
toms those having valvea more or 
teas circular in outline ; DU'oocarp 
(«a/iFi(, fruit), anaacocarp in which 
the bymenium lies expoaed whilst 
the oaci are maturing ; an apothe- 
cium ; IHieocaip'iiun. a collection 
of fruits within a hoUow receptacle, 
aa in many IlosaceBe- 

dtac'old diieoi'rUvA (RIukbi, a quoit, 
Mat. like), with a round thickened 
lamina, and rounded margins ; — 
Flow'ers, those belonging to the 
disk, QBtially tubular florets ; — 
Harking, seo Disc, 5 ; dlsco'idiJ, 
tl'iKoida'tu, orbiuulikr ; DliOOll'* 
chenei(-l- Lichenea), Wainio'sterm 


dii'color (Lat. of different coloura), 
uaed when the two surfaces of a 
leaf are unlike in colour. 

DlBOOpod'liun (JffriDT, B quoit, vaGr, 
Tolai, a foot), a dilc-ahapoij Qoral 

^^r diMou 

^^r recepUole ; dli 

^^ diaooid (Crwior). 

dlienU', diKre'lut (Lat., parted), 

separate, Dot coaleecent. 
Dtn/iu (lAt. from Al»Df). «ee DlBO : 
IHic'iilDa (dim. af Zh'^iciu], the 

IadvsDtitiouB lobule of I^Iepaticae 
(Spruce) ; dlic'41, word uaud by 
J. Smith to express " on the 
■urfooe of the frond, euperlioial." 
dlMp'alOnS. -1U (iil, tWO + SKPALDU), 
of two sepals. 
Dl^lono'lliui {diyaitclio, separation) 
see DiALvais, Fission, Sdlction, 
TaryiDg degrees of aeparatioD in 
organs ; Difjnnc'tot, Woronin's 
Urm for a sptDdle-shaped cellulose 
oonneotion between the gonidia in 
certain Fungi ; the developed Bep- 
tum, as in Sdrrotinia Vactmii, 

Dlak, see Disc, Disk is the more 
luoal spelling to the coae of Com- 
positae, as ~ Flor'etd, ~ Flow'srs. 

I those DUcorring on the central 

portion of the oapitulam of com- 
positae, not of the ray (or margin) ; 
DlBIoot'llDn {dit, apart, ^(KUf, a place) 
= DiaPiACEUBNT ; dUoperc utate 
{optrculum, a Ld), deprived of the 


Spnioe's term for the elatersof Hepa< 
ticaa which have double spirals. 

Dlapl&'MmeDt, the abnormal aitua- 
lioD of an organ ; diremption. 

Slspoait'lo (Lat., arrangement), the 
maimer in which parts are ar- 
ranged, OS " disp. J " indicatee 
that phyllotoatio system. 

dtiHCl'ed, dUitcl'ue (Lat., cut up), 

deeply divided, or cut into many 

DlnanUna'tlcii {ditatminalio, sowing), 
the contrivances by which ripe 
seeds are shed by the parent plant i 
in Germ., Aossaet. 

nssap'imant, Dimepimtitfum (Lat., 
a partition), a partition in an ovary 
or pericarp, caused by the ad- 
heuion of the sides of carpellary 
leaves ; ipn'tloa* ~ , a partitioD not 
having that origin. 

diMU'lent, disnU'tena (Lat., Bying 
apart), bu rating asunder. 

dlssUn'llar {dU»imiliii, unlike), when 
similar organs assume different 
forms in the same individual, as 
the antheri of Cauia. 

Dliwwta'Uon (diewciatio, scporalioD), 

dlifad = dls'tal (diato, 1 stand apart), 
remote from the place of attach* 
menb ; the converse of proiioiol ; 
dlst'uil, dialaTis, when similar parts 
are not closely aggregated, in 
opposition to approximate. 

DUtes'ston [difttaiof, stretched out), 
Bwotlcn or biilfiing. 

Dlsteleol'ogy, deliDed by Haeckel as 
purpoBelOBsnesB ; for Ewtanic Usage 


diapvm'ona {lli, double, atipfio., a. 
seed), two- seeded, 

Dltper'tal, Siapers'lou {diiperitas, 
scattered), the various ways by 
which seeds are scattered, by 
wind, birds, adhesion to anintals, 
etc.; in Germ., VerbreilungamitteL 

IMtpl'rem (ili, two, -i* Spirkm] a 
stage in nuclear division, as in 
Psilaliati trifjiitlTum, 8w. which 


separate from, n< 

distrac'tUe, dislracti'lii (.dialractun, 
pulled two ways), borne widely 
apart, as the anther- lobes in 

dithe'col (3ti, two, e^K^, a cose), 
dltlia'cons, dilhe'cui, of two oells. 
as most anthers ; ditrlcbot'omons 
{rpixVi threefold, Tifiif, a cutting), 
doubly or trebly divided. 

dlur'nal, diixr'niu (Lat,, daily), oc- 
curring in the day-time, sometimes 
used for ephemeral ; r~ Uaep, = 


div&r'lData, divartea'ttu (Lat., apresd 
Muniler), extremely divergent. 

SIver^'eiiM {divergium, turning in 
different directions), used when 

engthen, u the folliclM in Aictep- 
KU ; Antfe o[~ , the &nglo between 
succeeding organs in the game 
spiral or whorl : dlTM'sent, -tat, 
dlTerg'ing, Beparating by ilegreua ; 
divergliLer^TlaB [aerita, a nerve), 
with radiating miiia nerves. 

dl VBtsUlor' ous, - nu (liitwoui. contrarj , 
jto', Jtorin, a flower), with flowers 
uf more than one kind ; dlTsr'sna, 
1 1 ) variable (do Candolle) ; (2) differ- 
ent or separate. 

I>l*«nic'Dlnln (Lat., a byewaj], in 
Algee, a proCoplaJimic protrusion, 
iiomniunicatiag with the fiieeii 
prooarp cells and the place nia, 
w in OriKilaria conftnioidf', (irev. 

diTl'ded, (/ii'i'nw (parted asunder), 
used where lobing or segmentation 
ext«nda to the baas ; dlTlm'ral 
(Hoe), the line down the teeth of 
the peristflme of a SIoss, by which 
the teeth split. 

Dls'sny {Sis, two, ftvoi, a host), where 
an antoecious parasite ma; infest 
two Hpeciee, bat does not need a 
change of host to ensure its de- 
velopment (Do Bary). 

IMdecaeyn'la {diiStm, twelve, yf*!, 
woman], a Linnean order of plants 
with twelve pistils ; dodaoR^'jiUKM, 
-niiif. possessinff twelve pistils or 
distinct carpels ; dodecam'srons, 
-rut (ri()»i. a share), in twelve parts, 
as in a cycle ; Dodecan'drU [iriip, 
ittixt, a tnaa), a Linnean class of 
plants with twelve stamena ; 
dadecKu'dxlaii, dodecaa'drooi, -dnif , 
of twelve stamens, normally (ooca- 
BJonally eiCanded to nineteen) ; 
dodecapet'alona (T^-aXor, a Sower- 
leaf), with twelve petals, or less 
than twenty ; dodecarl'noB {ip/rrjt, 
mate), Necker's equivalent For 

blip I, 

little finger, about nine inches, 
23 cm. ; dodranta'lis, a span lon^ 
doUIm'tus (I<at. ), axed , or ai 
•baped ; dolab'rlfonn, dofobr^ffm 
(lomia, shaped], hatohet -shaped, 


dolelforiD'li [dotcJi, casks, formoi 

shape), iMirrel-shaped. 
doUa'Tlci, dolia'tun (Lat.), ciroitiB' 
Dollehotic'ma [lla\lxoh tons, rq/ia, k 
thread], the stage in nuclear divi- 
eion which immediately precedsa 
gynapsia in the formation of tbs 
reproductive cells ; Dollcbo'a)*, 
retardation of growth in length 
(Cxapek); DoUcbO'tmema, (r^^^m, 
free), a filiform oell which rapturei 
' ' free the gemma of a Mom 


domestlca'ted, thriving under cnlti- 



dor'mant [dormieiu, sleeping), applied 
to parts which are not in active 
life, oa — Bnda, ^ Eyes, potential 
buds which normally do not shoot 
bat are eioited to growth by 

rial circumstances ; ~ 8lal«, 
condition of a plant during 
the winter, or when inactive from 
any reason, 
dor'sal, dona'tvi [dorsum, the back), 
relating to the back, or attached 
thereto ; the surface turned away 
from the axis, which in the caaa of 
a leaf is the lower aurfaco (Note. — 
This is reversed by some author*) ; 
~ Ba'tnre, the suture of « foltiole 
or legume which is exterior to 
the axis ; the midrib of a carpelj 
doralcnm'beiit [mmhaa, lyinA 
down) = SUPINE (Croiier) ; donir- 
erous {ftro, I bear), borne on the 
back, as the sori on most Perns j' 
doT'slBxsd, daralSz'na \fxaa). fa«t), 
fixed on the back or by the 
back ; dorslven'tntl [vtnler. the 
belly), used of an organ which hat 
doraal and ventral surfaces, as a 
leaf : DoTslvsntral'lty, the condition 
of poBsessiog upper and lower face* 
of an organ ; Dtir'iiun ( Lat. ), (I) tbe 
back, or parts of the Bower which 
look to the outside ; (2) in Diatoms, 
in forms which are more or lesa 
Innately curved, the convex aide of 
the girdle. 




DoU (I) recBptoclM of oil in the 
leaves ; (2) pit« In the oell-w»tl ; 
dotMd, punctured wjtb dots ; ~ 
Dnota, TesBsla with pit-like roark- 
inga oa the walla ; — TlB'nw = 


drab'lB, du'plex (l) t'rice ; (2) o<ed of 
flowara when the petals >re mon- 
Btrooaly increased at the eipense 
of other organa, especiitllj the 
■tamena ; - bMT'ljiK. produaJiig a 
crop twice !□ the aame seaaon ; 
DonbllOK, the aame aa choriaia ; 
dTOblj, something repeated, aa ~ 
tootlied, thetoetb themselves being 

Down (1) soft pnbeacence; (2) the 
pappuB of auoD plants as thiatlea ; 
dawn'7, pubeaoent, with fine aoft 

Srt'canth {draganthum. Mid, Lat.), 
a aynunyro of Gum Tragooanth. 

Draco'Dlne, n red reainoua sub- 
atance from " Dragon'a Blood," 
prod need hy Datmonompl Draco, 
Blame, and Dracatrta Draco, 

dmwn, applied lo utteoaated ahoots, 
diminished and etiolated, often 
increased in length. 

dlap'aniform (Sptwaov. a sickle, 
forma, shape), fitlcst* (Croiier) ; 
Drepft'nlom. a sickle-shaped c^me. 

Dtlp-polnt, Drlp-Up, the aouminate 
apei of a leaf, from whose point 
water soon drips ; Germ. Traufsl- 

droop'lUK, inclining downwards, cer- 
nuoos, but not qaite pendent. 

Drop'pw, the 70009 biub of a tulip, 
not of floM'eriiig sii«. 

Drop'plng-poinl = Dbip-point. 

dru]M'e«oa«(diwi, an olive, -l-aceous), 
resembling a Urcpe, posaeasing its 
character, or prodaciog oimilar 
fruit ; Drupe, Drii'pa, a. Btone-fruit 
auch aa a plum ; — Spa'rloai ~ , any 
fleshy body enolosing a stone ; 
Dra'pel, Dni'pelet, Dr^tpe-'ola, a 
diminutive drupe, the fruit of the 
Blookberry is an aggregation of 
theae ; Drnpe'tun, a oluater of 
drupe*; Drti'poM, a oonatituent of 

the aUme-cells of the Besh of pears 
(Cross and Bovan). 

Diy-rot, destruction of timber in 
houses by MtrvSius /iTynian*, Fr. 

dn'Moua, du'biua (Lat,), doubtful, 
used for plants whose structure or 
af&oiliea are uncertaio. 

Duct, DiiOfug {Lat., led, conducted), 
an elongated cell or tabular vessel, 
eapeaially occurring in the fibro- 
vascular portions of plants ; ttn'- 
nular-, the secondary thickenioga 
occurring more or leas in the form 
of rings; etoted~,long cella, not 
septa remaiDiog ; dot'ted — , = Boni- 
BENCHYHA ; intcTcel'lular ~, pos- 
sagBs between the cells : retlo'u- 
lat«d~, where the markings seem 
to form a network ; actllar'lfUrm ~ 
with ladder-like markings as in 

dnl'eli (1-ot.), aweet, aitended to any 
kind of taste which is not acrid ( 
Dnl'dla, a cryatalline substance 
from Stttavtpyram, also found ia 
Madagascar Manna. 

da'metoae, dvntelo'sivi [dumeiiim, a 
thicket), bushy, relating to bushes ; 
Dume'tum, a thicket. 

dumose' (dumo'svt, bushy), full of 
buslicB, of shrubby aspect ; Dn'mns 
(liBt.), a bush. 

doode'ol (Lat.), by twelves, growing 

dn'plei (Lat,), double; du'pllcata, 
dfipHra'lu:!. doubted or folded, 
siB : duidlca'to - cretui'tna, doubly 
crenate ; '~ denta'tos, doubly- 
toothed ; ~ plima'tos, bipLnnat« ; ~ 
sarra'tus, doubly-sHrrato ;~ tem*'- 
toi, biternite; duplo = twice aa 
many, in Greek compounds it is 

Dura'men (Lat., a hardened vine 
branch), the heartwood of an exo- 
genous stem, which hae become 
hardened by deposits. 

Duat, Blair's word for Pollen ; dqafy. 
covered with granulations re- 
sembling dusL ; or powdered, fari- 

lite or height com- 
pared with it< ftlliee ; ~ llll*, • 
■faort lived filamoDt of a, few oella, 
in Oedogooiweae, the opper oella 
beiflg antheridin. 

Difaa'lO' (Siis, double, itrriip, a star), 
the stage of t]u<:lear division vheti 
the mya of Unin split longitntlinal- 
ly and two sUri are formed whioh 
move apart, ending with Che (orma- 
tioD of daughter -abeina ; dTblai'tna 
{flXaoTot, a bad), two- celled, ap- 
plied to Licbensporea ; Dycla'iliuD, 
or Drclo'tium, see Diclesicm, 

djoam'lo {Siraiu!, power), applied to 
tisBue which is capable of atrongly 
swelling on one aide ; Dy'iiuiili, 
uwd by LinnaeuB to expreu the 
degree of development of atamens, 
aa Didynamia, and Tetradfnamia, 
applied to flowers where reapec' 
tively two and four atameiu have 
longer Glameota than the ramalo- 



djtCMg'eiiODa {Si'ir, i.e. bad, y^, the 
earth, yfrrAu. I bring forth), em- 
ployed by Thurmann for those 
plants growing on soils which do 
not readily yield detritiu, hard 
rocks generally, such aa granite ; 
Dyatelaol'ogy {H\o!, completion, 
\iym. discourse), frustration of 
funotion ; ae where an innect oh- 
taioB honey by punctnring ■ nectary 
Inatcad of by the Boral opening ; 
ad)., OyMeleolog'lc, ~oal; D;it«le- 
ol'oglit, an agent which evades the 
teleologic end, as a bee which ob- 
laina honey by means whioh do 
not conduce to fertilization. 

•, ex, in Latin compounds, privative, 

aa ecoatate, without nba. 
Elf, the spike of corn ; ear-tormed, 

(Loodon), Mrwl, auriculate. 
•ba'lMOtu, black aa ebony, the heart 

wood of Diaipyrot Hbenum, Koen. 

•baU'tn* = HEBKTATD9. 

•borl'nnB {tbortna, made of ivory), 
ivory-like, or ivory-white. 

_. ....._ tbraetat'liu, {t, priv. 

braelea, a braot), without bracts ; 

«bne't«ol«(e, thracltola'lun, deeti- 

tute of braoteotes. 
•bura'soiu, -««* (Lat. of ivory), ivory 

whit«, white more or less tinged 

with yeUow. 
•cale'arats, t<ratfarn'rHt (e, priv., fal- 

tar, a spnr), apiirlesa ; ecand'al 

(ca«da, a tail), without a tail or 

Himilar appendage. 
ZoblAtle'sl* {it, out of, ff\iiin), 

growth), the appearance of buds 

within a flower, proliH cation of 

the inflorescence. 

•ccen'trte = bxiikntbic. 

echlor'ophrlloBs (e, priv., -i- Chloho 
pHYu.), without chlorophyll ; scari- 
ons; ecll'lnat«, Khina'tua (Lat., 
prickly), beset with pricklea ; 
Mhls'ulat*, echiHula'tus, having 
diminutive prickles. 

Bcid'tuin (Crozierj^AEciDivH. 

Ecb'mA, pi. Eelt'mAta flxi^i a sop- 
port), the hardened hook-ahaped 
runicle in most Aoanthaceae whioh 
supports the seed ; r/. Retinacd- 

LTJM (3). 

Eaol'ogy, etc., see Obcolooy. 

EcODon'lo Botany (gl<Di, a house, 
'Ofuiii, resting on laws), applied 
botany, that branch which takes 
note of technical applioatioa of 
plants and plant- products. 

eoort'lMle, ecorlica'tm (<, priv,, tor- 
let, bark), dsstilule of bark, or 
bark-like oovering ; woa'tate, ecM- 
la'twi (costa, a rib), without ribt, 
nerveless j eonutk'oeoni (cruiCa, 
rind, -I- aceous), destitute of Ihallus, 
applied to Lichens. 

eetogwi'lo (^iTo(, outside, yi'ot, off- 
spring), oapable of living outside 
of a given body, as certain bacilli; 
Ecto^r'asite ( + Paiusite), a para- 
site which remains on the eilerior o( 
ita host, only sending its haustoria 
within ; opponed to Esdupa&asitk ; 
•otOpUoeo'dsa {^Xou! bark), living 
on the surface or bark of other 
plants as some Lichens ; Bot'opl»«m 
(i-Xdaiu, moulded), a delioate, firm, 
superficial layer of the oyU^Uain 
or general protoplaam of the oell, 



hTftlopUsm ; Bot'oipore {tTrapi, 
•aed), B sf Donjm of BAaiuiosPOBi ; 
•Ctoa'parona, poasesBing ezogHn- 
onsly formed spores ; ectolbe'cal 
(04(Ti, a cue), in AecomyceteB 
lued for naked-Bporad ; eototro- 
pli'la Irpv^, nouriihmeDt}, when 
s fuDRUH clothes a root only e>:- 
temallj ; Mtotrop'ie {rpirot, direc- 
tion), outward curratare. 

My'phaUata (e, priv. + Ctfhblla), 
used of Lichens deatituCe ot cyph- 
elloe ; edent'Bte. edr^Ua'tnf (dcru, 
tUnlin, a toolh), without teeth ; 
adent'olna (Lst.j. toothleaa. 

Ed'MUn. {Itfarii, eatable), a elobulin 
conjtituent of wheat ilour, lorraing 
about six to seven per cent. 

Edga, the margin or outline, as of a 
leaf ; edged, when a patch of colour 
is rimmed round by another tiot. 

elTeta', ^e'du, f/oe'/T« (Lnt., ei- 
hausted), past bearing, function- 
leas from age. 

•lOg'nntB, ^gtira'tiis ijlgura, a fig- 
ure), (1) when an organ is com- 
pleted by the full development of 
iti anboininate parts; (2) of definite 
outline, oppoaed lo KTrvsa; SOga- 
t&'tioiis, outgrowths of the re- 
ceptaole or tonia as in Pamjiora, 



forth), tht 
nowotmg, antheais. 

BffoUa'aon (Lindley) = Exfoliation, 

•ItDM', tfftt'evn (Liat,, poured out], 
patulous, expanded ; Efta'sio, an 
Mpansion ; EITa'ilan, used by 
Wieaner for an iotermingling of 
gaaea under different pressures, the 
onrrent acting through openings in 

etb'Uolate, ^aliolu' (lu (e , pri v . /oii'o/um , 
a tmall leaf), without leaf -like 
aoalea or aquamie ; efo'Ilolose has 
the same meaning : eful'crats, 
•rolnra'tiu !/iiicrum, a bedpost), 
used of buds from which the 
oustomary leaf has fallen. 

Egg: (1) Ovum, ovule ; (2) restricted 
in meaning as below :~Apiiara'tiu, 
tbu three uella with nuclei at the 


id of the embryo sac, 
the sjnergidic, and the 
other forms the od8phere;~ Cell, the 
obephece or gynogamete ;~slupeil, 

= 0V-ATB; ~ BpDrB = 0iJSP01lK. 

eglan'dolose, fglandtdo'tvn {t, priv. 
'jlaiiditla, a gland), destitute of 
glands ; egnu'oIOM {gmwda, a 
small grain), without granules. 

B'KTBt, Martyn'a term fur pappus; 
Kr. Aigrette. 

ehlla'Ww X {e, priv., + HrLuu), imper- 
forate, applied io pollen graias 
having no perforations, 

ela'odal, eiao'dlal {tiaaiat, an entry), 
anterior, oa the outer pore of 
Htomatea (Tschirch). 

BjMnla,'tlon (tjaculor, I aboot forth] 


EJec'tlon {ejtcCio, casting forth), 
forcibly throwing out eodogenonsty 
formed spores from a sporangium. 

Elabora'tlou {daborutio, persevering 
labour), Qsed of the changes which 
take plac« Bft«r the absorption of 
food material to fit it for the use of 
the plant. 

elaeo'dei {i\ala, olive), olive oolour, 
brownish green ; BlaiDlau'attoB 
(\i 11*01, white), Van Tieghem's 
term for Klaioplasts ; Elal'oplaita 
(irXaffToi, moulded), plastids which 
are believed to form oil, as leuoo- 
plaats form starch ; Elal'ospherea 
{ai/iaipa, a sphere), bodies in sponi^y 
and paliBBde parenchyma, similar 
to elaioplasta, probably oil-t>odios 
(Lidforss). The foregoing are also 
spelled alaeo-, 

elaphl'nea, ({\B<^ri)i, a fawn) ; ela- 
phi'nvJi {(XaOiof, a deer], tawny or 

Ela'ter (Aoriip, a driver); (11 an 
olastio spirally twisted filament, 
occurring amongst the spores in 
the theon! of Hepiiliciu ; (2) a [roe 
oapillitium tliread in Myxogastres ; 
(3) in EguUtlvm, four clubbed 
by^[roacopic bands attached to 
3S, which serve for dis- 


BAts'rlttm [iXar^piai, drivict; bw&j') 

da'tu (Lat., ei»lted), tall, lofty. 

•iMtrl'niM (4XrtTpat,s[nber),jellowish 
Nnbercolouied; Dectrol'yaU (X 1)011, 
atooaing],anaIjsiflb; eleclno forco, 
adj. elecbolTt'ic ; eleotrotrop'lo 
{rpirat, direction), actuated by 
etnclria force ; Etoo'tToplcm, the 
cleotric impulse which governs 
certain plaut-f unctions. 

ElsmMif uy Or'g&ni, the conetituents 
of cellular and vofloular tissue. 

alanttieraiL'tbenius (IMueipat, free, 
+ AjiTliEB), having the anthers 
distinct, not united ; «lsaUierD- 
pM'alona (»^a\o*, a flower-leaf|, 
poljpetaloua, having free petals, 
choripetalous ; elaatberopbjll'ous 
(^i^XXov, a leaf), separate leaved ; 
eleutharoaep'aloni t, + Sepalum] 
with distinct sepals. 

elara'ted, applied to a Lichen when 
raised above the surface of ita 

Ztl, a measnre varionily understood, 
the English ell being 4S inches, the 
French ell 54 inches, 

EQeb'oilii, an acrid resin from EmiUhi^ 
htfKtnalU, Salisb. formerly con- 
sidered a apeeiea of fftJlfbonu. 

•Ilip'Mdd, tlllpMt'dtl, tllipaoida'lM 
(IXXti^iT, a falling short, ttias, 
like), an elliptio solid, sometimes 
employed tor elliptic ; elllp'tla, 

•Ulp'ttcaJ, rUip-liaii, thaped like 
an ellipse, oUon{ 
rounded ends. 

blong with regularly 

•loo'dlar, dociila'ni {e, priv. locvlui, 
a cell), noilocuUr. 

in ooTDparison with its breadth 
•loagK'ted, eionga'lw (drawn out in 

Elrtno'nliia {fXvTpor, a oovering), 
Ncoker'H term for a floret in Coni- 
positas ; eiytiUann ^/orma, shape), 
resembling the wing-case of a beetle 

(anar'cld, emuT'cidut (emarettco, I 
^^ wither), flaccid, withered. 

•mar'Kliuite tmargina'lu* (envirpina, 
to deprive of its edge), having a 
notch eut out, iinuiiiry at the ei- 
Iremity ; EmaTginaiii'r* (Lat.), 
the notch at the apex of an 
emarginsbe leaf. 

Sm'boliu {(nfioKot, a pump piston), a 
plug, a process which projects 
downu'arde from the upper part of 
tbe oovity of the ovary of Artnrria, 
and uloses the foramen of the 

emlMMs'ed, amlionatp, having a slight 
central nodule. 

ambra'elnff, clasping by the hue, 

Em'bryo, Em'bryon (ffifipuar, afoetus), 
the mdiniBiitBry plant formed in a 
seed or within the archegonium of 
Cirptogamsi ~ Bads, "spheroidal 
solid bodies, of unknown origin, re- 
sembling woody nodules formed in 
the bark of trees, and capable of 
■' ;l.inrt. 


the cell in the ovule in which the 
embryo is formed, also by iome 
termed the msurospore 1 Sxed ~, 
a leaf-bud ; embryogreu'lc (ytrriiii, 
I bring forth), belonging to the 
development of tbe embryo ; — 
Bod'lM. in Mucorini, naked masses 
of protoplasm apparently derived 
from the nuclei, at each end of the 
lygospore, nltimatelf fusing to< 
Rether, becomina — BphereR, then 
surround themselves with a double 
cell-wall, and finally become Eu- 
BBTONicSruEREB (L^gor) j EmbiyD- 
ff'enr, formation of the embryo ; 
direct '~, when a spore givea rise 
to an embryo resembling the adnlt 
form ; heterobl&st'lc -', when the 
embryo diflera widely from the 
adult form it is not borne direct, 
but as a lateral outgrowth ; holo- 
blastic ~ . in which the whole of the 
Dvam takes part ; ho'moblast'ia~ , = 
uiEECT — ; In' direct ~ = hktkro- 
BLAStio ~ ; merobUst'lo, when 
only a portion of the ovum takes 
part in the development ; embry'o- 

« ■ 



Mkl, anliry^tia'lit, relating to the 
•mbryo ; • Tatai, tubul&r slnic- 
taraa which develop in Abietineoe, 
forming the tuapensor : ~ Va'dcle. 
the wsphare ; Embryol'OBy (».Ayoi> 
diBoouree), Btudy of the embryo ; 
•mbry'onaty Bae = embryo sac ; 
•m'bryonace, liaving an embryo 
(Croiier) lamliryon'lc, rudimentory, 
in &II early stage, ~ BTftUCllBa, in 
CAara, peculiar brancheflreaenibling 
an emhrj'o, which become separate 
and grow into new pt&nl9;~SpIiaTBa, 
tee under EuaavouBNiii Spukees ; 
Bm'lirjoplton {<tKpiw, I carry), in 
E(pa»tiuin the homologue of the 
BDipeDBor of Phanerogams and 
Hdagnulla, the lower of the two 
celU firal cut off \>j a Mptiim in 
the oiisphere, then again sepa- 
rated, and this time [ormins 
the lower two of the quatT 
rants, one beooming the "foot," 
the other the Grsl root; BmbryO' 
phr'tA {(pvrit, a plant), planta poa- 
■esBtng embryos, divided into ~ 
Sipbonogam'U, having pollen-tubes, 
practically all Sowerina plants, 
and " ZoldlogaM'la, witl ciliated 
spermatoxoidB, practically Crypto- 
gams ; Emtwyota'ta, - tagnm, 
-tetflUJn, -^(Btfa {rt-fy, » covering], 
a callosity in the seed coat ol Home 
aeeda near the hilum.and dctoulied 
by the protuaion of the radicle on 
germination ;Eiiit>ryolropli'a (t)***). 
nourishment) (1) perispermium i 
(2) amnios (Henilow). 
Bmu^genca [emtrgo, 1 come forth), 
an outgrowth from the surface, 
differing from hairs in aristng from 
more than the superGoial celk, and 
from spines, in arising from a few 
layers only ; prictlefl, warts, etc. ; 
•mer'gent, emer^tnn, used of 
capsules which rise slightly above 
the perichaetium ; unar'ied, tm- 
tr'siia, niaed above and out of the 

Em'odln, a glucosido obtained from 

Lnd a spec 

Rhfam Emodi. Wall. 
impft'lMl, Grew's term for hemmed 
in, as the flower by the calyi ; 
Empa'lement, ~ Calvx ; Empa'lm 


Emph'ytlim (tfi^i. inherin; 
Cope's term for inheritet 
type of growth force ; . , 
gan'Mli (yiteattt beginning), the 
origin of inherited growth force 
(\\^ D. Cope), 

Smpii'le Dl'aiTain, a scheme showing 
the relative number and poaition M 
parts of a flower as seen D7 Jnipeo- 

•m'pty. void ; ~ Qlumes, one or more 
glumes flubt«nding a apikelet in 
grasses enelaaiog one or more 

Emnl'slii(e>nti/4tM, milked), an enzyme 
acting upon gtucoBides, found 
plentifully in almonds. 

anantiotllast'lo, -tons {irarra, opposite, 
p^airrbi, a shoot), having the em- 
bryo at the end of the seed dia- 
metrically opposite the hilum. 

Ena'tlon (enatvn, sprung up), having 
outgrowths from the surface. 

Enoorp'ltun {it, in, xapirbt, fruit). 
Trattinick's term for sporophore. 

Enca'slDg, of protoplasm, the forma- 
tion of cellulose -caps by the proto- 
plasm in the cells of certain tri- 
chomas (Hsberlandt) ; Oerm., Ein- 

BncIiyle'DU (^tx'u, I pour in, Xi^ir, 
rheum), the more Suid portion of 
the cytoplasm (Hanstein). 

ancyst'ed {it, in, iiWii, a bladder), 
enclosed in a lug, or invested with 
a coating when in a non- motile 
state, as some unicellular ptonta. 
t, the condition of being 


I ted. 

end'afcli ((rtet, within, i.px\, be^n- 
ning), applied to a bundle in which 
the primary xylem, in most Phaner- 
ogams is wholly centrifugal, ceo- 


eiiilMac'yiunu.uuIecBSTn'Un d^rifnAi, 
eleven, yni-ii, a woman), having 
Eleven pistila ; eadecan'droni {i'^p, 
aripit, a, man), having eleven 
■Umeni ; andacapliyU'oiiH (fniXXoi', 
a le>f), bsving eleven loaves or 

■nb'mlc, ettdt'miau {Jv, in, d^titn, a 
oountrj diatriat]. con fined to a 
given region, as an island or 

■n'dliUiD {trior, within, tmitu, I 
Btand), young iiith ; Bndobuld'lnm 
{bfuidium, a little pedestal), nn 
enclosed buidium, as in Oaetero- 
myoelas ; MidoUcit'lo [jiiorii, life), 
living within as a parasite, as 
CKTynophlj/eiis tndohiotita. Rose, in 
potato tulJers ; Eb'doblem {^\^m>> a 
coverlet), tissue beneath the denna- 
togeu, of small-celled parenchyma ; 
Bn'docaTp [Knpris, fruit), the inner 
layer of a pericarp ; andocBrp'old, 
resembling the Lichen genus Endo- 
tarpon ; eudMatad'ro&iotta | + Cata- 
UBouocs). when Fernsin their ner- 
vation have their stronger pinnules 
oatadromous, the weaker one. ana- 
dromons; En'doiililte (x'Tu>',a tunic), 
the innermost membrane of Che egg 
in Foooceae (Farmer); Bn'doatmw^ 
(xptiti skin), a Bupposed interior 
layer of the cuticle (Liadley) ; En'- 
dMhraaM, ETtdockro'raa (xjiu^, 
colour), the peculiar colouring 
matter in cells, eapeoialt; in Algae ; 
Eaaocaft«x(coiiex, bark), theinner- 
most layer of the cortical region : 
•ndoooo'cDid, like the Lichen En- 
docorau ; En'dooyat (irwmt, a 
bladder), Cleve's term for a pro- 
bably sexual organ in the fmstulea 
of certain Diatoma ; Bn'dodBnnli 
[Stpiui, akin), the layer of gronnd- 
tiatue which abate on the stele, 
being differentia t«d as a sheath 
round it; Bndog'uay tvd/ioi, mar- 
riage) : an eipresaion for fusion 
or ooalescence of two or more 
female ganeUa, adj. endDg'amoni : 
Sn'dOKen (7'>'>i, race, off-spring), 
a monoootyledonoDB plant, sup- 
posed to grow by internal acces- 

sions i •ndoff'siioni, (1) pertaining 
toanEndogeu; (2) produced within 
another body, arising from deep- 
floated tissues ; ~ CaU-fbrniB'tdoii, ~ 
free cell- form ation ; EndOKonld'tum 
f -t-GotrnjlDit), a gonidium formed 

nucule ol CKara ; 

(rBTTot. close pressed), applied by 
Van Tieghem to an anatropoos or 
campylotropouB ovule, when the 
curvature is horirontal towards the 
edge of the carpel; Zadokaiyog'amy 
(id^ifor, a nut or kernel) - EiiDo- 
GAMT ; Endouu'clSDs (nw^Ieti), n 
small nut) " the nuuleolo-DUcleus" 
(Macfarhtne) ; EJtdopar'aalte ( + 
Pakasitb), a plant uhich lives and 
develops within the tissues of the 
host; adj. endoparaalt'lo : Sndo- 
petld'lom (Ttpijio*, ft little pouch), 
the inner layer of the periciium in 
Fungi ; En'dcphlosiun i,^Xoidi, bark) 
the inner bark; Bndophrag'ma ^ 
{ippiitia, a fence), a partition in 
[lie frond of Some seaweeds ; en- 
doptLyl'loiu. endophytliu (^£XXav, a 
leaf), (I) formed from within a 
sheathing leaf; (2) living within 
the substaDoe of a leaf; endophy'- 
til. endopbyt'lo, -inu {^irnr, a 
plant), one plant growing inside 
another plant, whether parasitic 
or not ; Bn'doplirte, (1) the woody 
body or timber of an eiogen, in- 
cluding the pith (Lindley) ; (2) a 
plant which arows in the interior 
of another living plant ; Bn'doplMm 
(■Xiw-^a, moulded), the internal 
granular portion of the protoplasm 
as distinguished from the outer 
portion, the ectoplasm, which is 
tree from granules : Bndopleo'ra 
{irXiufii, a rib), the inner seed-coat, 
legmen ; endop'tUe, atdop'iilm 
{triXor, a feather), used of an 
embryo whose plumule ts rolled up 
in the cotyledon ; endortal'ml, en- 
dorbl'Mlw, -m (^Ifo, a root), mono- 
ootyledaDOUB, for in sermination 
the radicle instead of lengthening 
gives rise to secondary rootlets; 

Sndorbl'iM = Monocotyledc 
doaalaro'Uimi (■hSci.erot 
perButeat tub«r-like mycelium of 
eDdogenou* origin (Kayod) ; EndOI- 
momoMr {lUrp-v, a, measure), an 
iDBtruinent to show endosmosia ; 
Bu'doEmoae, Endrnmo'iia {uKr/iii, 
impulaiOD), Bow of liqaid throngli a 
membrane ioLa a more vigoid fluid ; 
Bn'dnpann, Eadosptrm'nm {vripiia, 
•eed], (1) the Blbumen of a leed in 
AD^OBpemu, by recent observers 
limited tiO the endoaporm deposited 
within the ombryo aae ; (2) in Oym- 
noaperms the prothallium with- 
in the emhrvo «ae ; f3) in S'.lai/in- 
tlla, tiwue formed in the cavity of 
the maorospore below the prothal- 
lium ; endoqwTm'lo, -icu>, having 
albumen, or aaaociatcd with it ; 
Bn'dMpon, Endonpor'ium [mrapi, 
Hwd], (1) the innermost coat of a 
■pore 1 (2) the Intinx of a, pollen- 
grain i andoap'oroiu, -u*. having 
■pores formed within ; En'doitere t 
(^TtpEoi, EttlT), the timber of an 
eiogen, without the pith(LindJey); 
Bn'dOitOne, Shuiait'oma {moita, the 
mouth), the foramen of the inner 
Doat of an ovulo ; Bndotlis'ea (H'V, 
a case), Tulasne'a term for endo- 
Iheoium ; Endothe'cliun, (1) Pur- 
kinje'e name for the inner layer of 
a pollen grain ; (2) the inner lining 
of the loculuB of an anther ; (3) the 
inner tiaaue of the thcca in Mub- 
cineao ; endotropb'la (rpo^l), nour- 
iahmenl), applied to mycothiia 
when the fungUB atlaclu the oells 
of the root itself ; Endafrophy, 
Wiesner'a expreaeion for the con- 
dition of thiclcenod growth of a 
■hoot in the direction of the 
parent -ihoot; q/^ Kxutiwpht' ; 
andotrop'lo (Tpoiri;, a turning), in- 
ward Qurvatnre ; endoio'lo ([Ciw, 
an animal), living inside an animal ; 
entosoio (Grower). 

Bitelle'nift (ini\iifia, a wrapper), 
the inner akin of the seed. 

BnargM'iOl {rrepyriTinot, active), the 
science which treats of the Irans- 
forination of energy. 

x = paternity), Sachs s term for 
nucleus and protoplasm as a 
Vila] unit ; Bn'ergy, the capacity 
tor doing work. as~of actuol mo- 
tion or kiilet'lc~; or ~of Position 
or potan'Cial— . 
ener'Tla, ener'iluB (Lat.), destitute of 

Ensllsh Type of Distribution, H. C. 
Watson's term for those plants 
whose ranse in (ireat Britain ia 
centred in England proper. 

Enlarg'einent, a swollen or thickened 
condition due to increase of cellalar 
tissue disproportionate to the 
woody frame wail. 

EnueaKrn'ia idi'v/n, nine, -yvirii, a 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 
with nine pistils ; enneagyn'lan, 
eaneaff'yiions, having nine pistils ; 
Enneau'drla (<ii^p, arSpot, a man), 
a Linnean class characterised by 
hav ing nines tame ns; ennsan'drlciu, 
ennean'droas, with nine stamens ; 
ennearl'nuB (ippJi', male), Necker's 
synonym for euneandrous ; annsa- 
pet'aloUB (rt'ToXoi', a flower-leaf), 
having nine petals : nineasep'alon* 
(-1- SRPiLDM), with nine sepals 
(Crosier); enseasper'moiii (inr(p»xa, 
seed], nine-seeded (Crosier). 

Bnno'bllng, an old term for inarohing. 

SQO'dal, ato'dia (Lat,), without knots 

I (Croi 


r (en 

sword), sword-shaped ; 
BBsi/onn'M (/or»no, shape), sword- 
shaped, as the leaves of Iria. 
entang'led, irregularly interlaoed, a* 
the pubescence, or fibres of soma 

entSTophleo'das [irrtpot, intestine, 
^Xoioi, bark), by Wallroth applied 
to Lichens which need some amount 
of preparation in the bark, wooil. 
etc. , by weathering, before they oaii 

entire', without toothing or division, 
with even margin. 

MttOmog'BllOUi iirToiuH^loKCt, yty 
fdui, I bring forth), uaeit of Fungi 
wliich are pitruitia oo insects ; 
Mttomopb'UouB {^Xiiii, I love), ap- 
plied lo dowers which are fertiliiied 
by ingecta ; Entomopli'llae, plants 
whoM dowers are fecuntlated by 
inieota. eepeoially lepidoptera ; Bn- 
tomopli'Uy, the oondition just de- 
•oribed ; Entomopbr'Ul {i>urir, a 
plant), entomo^euona. 

Bntopu'aalta (frroi, within, i-apaiririit, 
a parasite), k p«cuit« living en- 
tirely within its boat (Crozier) ; 
•Dtopby'tol ('fiurir, a plaDt) = eiido- 
phylal ; En'tophyte. iAitopAy'ta, a 
plant which yiows within other 
pknti, M Bome Fungi; adj, eilt«< 
phft'lc ; •n'tOMlc (fuov, an animal), 
growing within anlmala, Gndosoic. 

Bn valopa, surrouiLding parts, the 
Flo'ial En'TBlopei &ra the perianth 
or its analoguee ; ~ Appua, tni, the 
aporocarp in Aecomyoetes exclusive 
of the aaoi. and aacigerous cells ; 
■DTsI' oping — involucrate. 

Envl'rDnmBiit {Fr.onvironneinent),lhe 
aggregate of surrounding condi- 

Bn'ijiiie iiw, in, fil^ij, yea«t,) an 
nnorgajiiaed or soluble ferment, 
as DiastMe ; Ainylolyt'ic - < as 
Diastase, converting starch into 
Bugar; fat ~, converting olein into 
oleia acid and gtycerine ; glu'coalde 
'-,atHynaptaaeorEmul8ini Itydro- 
lyt'lo ~, splitting up by hydro- 
lysis : InTsrt ~ , turning cane-augar 
into grape-sugar ; oildl'sing ~ , aa- 

snbstancea ; proteolrt'lc '-, decom- 
posing prot«idH ; Eairmorysii 
(Xiiffit, B, loosing), the action of 
breaking up a, subatanco by the 
solvent power of an aniyrae. 
Botla'cplill (aoain, a rose-red dye from 
coal-tar producla, <fii\iiii, I lave}, 
denotes any substance which be- 
oome coloured by the application of 

Xpta'odj {iwattiht, return to normal), 
a return to a regtUar 8tat« from on 

regular, as a peloria flower. 

Ep'en (Urozier) = Efenchima. 

Epench'yma (^ct, apon, f>;i(L>^, on 
infusion), Nageli's term for fibro- 
vascular tissue; Epbarmo'sit 
(aji^fu, I join lotfether), the 
minute anatomy of pbnts applied 
to taxonomy; adj. apbarmot'le ; 
epbem'aral, •ptaam'erous, -tu, 
(Wps, day). (1) lasting for a day or 
losa, as the ooroUa of Oinlua; (2) 
osed by Mobius aa ~ polyoarpio 
plants, whioh Bower several genera- 
iiona in tbe some year, as SuUaria 
vKilia, Cyr- 

eptte'aaJ {lirl, upon, ^dvii, the base), 
in front of the basal wall, as in the 
anterior half of a pro«mbryo ; 
— Cell, the upper cell of an oiispore 
in Bryophytes and Pteridophytos ; 
■- Oo'tanti, the aubae<|uBnt divi- 
Bions of the " Ckll i Ep'lUaat, 
Epiblasl'it) (jSXafTToi, a shoot], the 
first and undcveloping leaf of the 
plumule of grssaea, a rudimentary 
second cotyledon ; Bpilflaa'tuiDB is 
a synonym ; Spiblftsta'ma, a super- 
Scial outgrowth from leaves ; Bpl- 
blule'ilB, growth of Licbena from 
gonidia which develop on the 
parent Lichen. 

Epible'ma {fwipXTi^, a cloak), (1) the 
extremity of the roots with its 
root-haira (Sobleiden), bow re- 
stricted to the primary integu- 
mentary tiasue of the root, apart 
from the root-cap ; (2) an epider- 
mis of the thickened and flattened 
cells (Lindley). 

eplcalyo'loi (^irl, upon, rnlXiif, a cup) 
= EPiSTAMiHEoua ; Eplcft'lyx, an in- 
volucre reaembling an oouesaory 
oalyx as in MiiJi'a ; Ep'learp 
(mpirai, fruit), tbe external layer 
of a pericarp ; spicarpan'thoos ; 
■ut {ifSoi, a flower), epioarp'. 
ons, spIcarp'lDs, -icat, superior, 
applied to a flower or its parts ) 
Ep'iami. Bp'lohlle, Ei,ir!iil'iuin 
(XciXoi, a lip), the terminal parC of 
tho labcUum of on orchid when it 


it distinct from the b«Ml portioa : 
Bploliro'ai t (xi"-"! ■1[i'i)> > suppoted 
exteru&l Uver of cuticle ; Sp'lellne 
(KUrih a. bed), ■ necUty when 
OD the recepl«cle of s Sower ; 
•plcll'lul. tpicifnim, seated apoa 
the torua or raceptucle ; eplcor'- 
mle (jtopjiof, a trw-tnink), {1} ap- 
plied to preventitioUH buda which 
deTGlap on Che trunks of trees ; (2) 
UMd of "branches which develop tul 
the body of a forest tree from which 
■urrouxiaiDg tree* have been re- 
moved " {CroEier) ; gploor'oUina, 
tyKoroUa'lwi ( -f CoROLl^), ioserted 
upon the corolla ; Bplcot'ji ^loniXii, 
hollow veBBel), the young Blera 
nbave the cotyledons ; eplcotyla'- 
donmiy, plitced above the sced- 
leavei ; Bplon'tll {aiiif, the skin), 
Fajod's term for the saperficial 
Uyer of the cuticle in Agarics ; 
Sp'Uwm, Spidtr'mia [S^p/ut, skin), 
the tme oellalar skin or oovering 
of a plant below the cuticle ; 
epUer'ntol, relating to the outer 
oovering ; ~ Tli'nie, the tiwue 
which makes up the epidermis : 
•pldat'iiiold (flSm, like), belonging 
to or resembling the epiderm ; 
epldermoi'dal Layer, the eioderm 
□f roots ; EpIdJpbyU'uiQ {Sit. doubio, 
0u\Xoi>, B leaf), Kronf eld's term 
for a double lesi, when the (p«wth 
of the lamina has been interrupted 
ftl a partioular ipot ; eptgae'an, 
apiB«e'o)u, tpige'ui (t^, the earth), 
(1] growing upon the ground; 

(2) on land as opposed to water ; 

(3) the above-ground flowere of 
such genera aa have hypogaean 
flowers also, as Kragchenniikoma ; 
also Dcoars as eplgeal. eplge'ui, 
•pl^MOl, especially when used 
c^ ootyledoDB which spread above 
the lorfaoe ; Bplg«iL'e*ll {yireait, 
a beginning), the theory that the 
enbryo develops by the differen- 
tiation of new organs; opposed to 
the old theory of " Evolution " or 
Preformation ; eplg'enaiu, epiffeniut 
(tA'oi, race), growing on the surface, 
as Fungi on leaves ; Bp'lgone, A'jn*- 

go'nium (tovj;, offii^ring), (1) the 
cellular layer oovering the young 
sporophors in Hepaticae ; (3) simi- 
lar tissue in Mosses after forniHtion 
of the capsule, frequently ruptured, 
the upper portion carried up as the 
colfptra, the lower remaitiing as 
the vaginule ; (3) the nualeus in 
Chara ; •pigynopbor'lni (yuri, a ■ 
woman, ^apia. I carry), placed 
upon a cynophore or stipe of on 
ovary (Lindley) ; eplg'ynoui, -lu, 
on the piacit, apparently above the 
ovary ; eplgyn'icna, with t^e calyx 
or corolla superior. 
epUlth'lo (iti, upon ; \i9ot. rock), 
growing on rocks as many lichens ; 
eplm'enuaj^^nii, I remain), Necker'i 
term for the perianth being 
superior ; eplnoot'le {raarit, preseed 
oJose), (1) in leaves when pressed 
close to the ground, or away from 
the axis ; (2) in organs when the 
ventral surface grows the fastest 
as in revolute vernation ; (3) when 
nvules arc curved in a downward 
direction (Van Tieghem); Eplnaa'ty, 
t)e Vries's term for curvature pro- 
duced by greater growth of the 
ventral surface ; Bplue'mae (njiia, 
a thread), the upper part of the 
filament in Compoaitae bearing the 
anther ; eplpertspeno'leiu ["pi, 
about, irrJpjui.eeed), without peris- 
perm or albumen (S. F. Gray) ; 
Bplperid'lum ( -)- Peridiitu) = Exo- 
PBKiPitrH ; eplpet'alouB, -ua, epi- 
ptla'Uiis (irhafioy, a flower-leof), 

(1) home upon the petals; (2) 
placed before the petals ; epl- 
petn'ons (r^pn, a rock), grow- 
ing on rocks, saxicole ; Eplphlo'em 
(^Xoio'i, bark), the outermoet 
or oorh^ bark ; epiphloe'odal, 
existing in the outer bark ; Bp'l- 
pbloia — Efidekm (Lindley) ; ^1- 
pbragm, Epipkrag'ma (fpiy/i.a, a 
fence), (1)b membrane which closes 
the opening of the theca in Mosses; 

(2) a delicate membrane cloeing the 
cup -like tporopbore in Xidularia; 
Ep'lpliyll I^iiUw, s leaf), the upper 
portion of a leaf, from which the 


petiole and blade are developed ; 
•plp&yU'om, •u", gTowJDson leavee; 
•plpIiyllOBiwrm'oiu iawtpua, sesd), 
bearing seed or tbe like on le&f>lilce 
orgoDB. as tbe doraiferoui Ferns. 

ipllA'yili (iniiiiii, to grow up), pro- 
tabennoei round the bilum or for- 
■men of some Meds : Btrophioles. 

^^pbTtB (Art, upOD, fvrir, ■ pUnt), a 

EUnt which growl on other pISDte, 
at Qot parasiticallf ; anair-plnnt ; 
•plpliy'lal, eplphyt'ic, reUtiag to 
epiphytes ; eplpby'lotil {tlSas, like), 
used in - Por'tulte*, as Loran- 
thaceue and Santalavcae ; Ep'lpby- 
Uun. the condition o( epiphytes ; 
•plphyto'Uc, used of wide-ipreading 
diseaee in plants, as an epidemic 
(Croiiet}; Bp'iplftim (vXls-tia, 
moalded), protoplasm rich in gly- 
cogen . which remains in the ascun 
after the formation of aacoapores ; 
glycogen-masB ; Bplplen'n (r^Enpd, 
a rib), the outer half of the distom- 
girdte, belonging to the epitheoa ; 
Bplpod'lQIII (tdCi, roSo!, a foot). (1) 
the apical portion of a developing 
phyllopodiuni or longitudinal r 
of • ie&f i (*2) t A form of disk t 
listing of gl&nds upon the elip< 
on ovary ; (3) t the stalk of 
disk itself (Lindley) ; aptpol'jKrati 
(i-oXff, many, ipx%' begin ning), the 
division of the m«lian protoxylem 
in a triarch stele (Prantl) ; eplp'- 
Uroui, rpip'leruf [■mpAi', a wing), 
winged, eepecialty at the summit. 

IplritlMl'OKT (irippew, I overflow, 
XoToi, discourse), the effects of 
external agents on living plaete. 

•plilil'wlia, -nu {M, upon, fil{a, . 
root), growing on roots ; as cerlaii 
parositet ; epuep'slom ( -I- Sepaldu) 
(1) on the sepsla ; (2) standing be- 
fore the sepals ; Bp'ispenn {(rtiptot, 
aeed), the coat or outer covering 
of theteed,Bpermoilerm, perisperm; 
•pUpenn'icu, eialbuminous i Bpl- 
■porang'lnm (mopA., seed, iyi'""'! 
a vessel), the indusium of Ferns ; 
Bp'Upon, Epiitpo/ium, an eitem4l 
coat or periniuQi formed from the 
periplasm round the odapore in 


some Fungi and the spores of cer- 
tain of the higher Cirptogama ; 
eplspor'le, connected wiui the oater 
coat of a spore ; epmunlnalli 

{ + Utamkk), on the slamens, as 

Epist'roplis (^HTTpo^, turning about), 
the arrangement of chlorophyll 
graauleH on the upper and lower 
faces of the cells in diffused light i 
rf, Apostrophr; adj. apisbot£'lc: 
- Iiit'gr?al, S, Moore's term for 
that rau^ of intensity of sunlight 
needed to prodnoe EpistropEe ; 
Eplstropliiia tion, the condition de- 
scribed iBplst'ropliy, Morren'sterm 
for the reversion of a nionstmus 
form to the normal condition. 

•pltat'rarch(^irl,Qpon, -I- tktrarch), 
when in a triarch stete, the third 
(median) protflxylem group is 
divided (Prantl) ; epIthaU'liie 
(#a\Xai, a young shoot), growing 
on the thallus; Eplthall'iu, the 
cortical layer of Lichens, by Zakal 
employed for all modiScations 
of the cortical hyphae at the 
margin or apex of the thatlns, 
which serve as protection to the 
gunidia ; Epltbe'ca (0.,'<>,. a cose), 
the outer and larger hnlffmatule 
of Diatoms; adj. eplthe'c&l ; Ept- 
the'dum, the surface of the fructi- 
fying disc in Lichens ; EpiUift'llDin 
(flTiXTj. a nipple). (1) any distinct 
layer of one or more cells in thick- 
ness which bounds an internal 
cavity ; (2)t - Epidekuis. 

EplUie'ma, Bp'ltlieme ( iTiSTnut, a 

er), 1 

9 of t 

phyll of leaves, serving as internal 
hydathodes, the oells being usually 
devoid of chlorophyll, as m Oraa- 

ejrittl'uDli (f-rl, upon, -f- trurob), 
when in a triarch stele, the third 
(medial) protoxylem gronp is upper- 
most i.e. ventral(PraDtl); Eplt'ropby 
(Tpo^, food), the condition when 
the growth of the cortex on wood 
is greater on the npper side of 
the organ ; or having buds or 
shoots on the upper side (Wiesner); 


eplt'ropMU (Tporii, a turn), dsDotei 
sn tuiBtiDpous ovals with ita raphe 
averea when aaceading, oilverHa 
whoa suspended ; Eplval'ra, Ep'l- 
TsJvs {ittiixi, a valve^, the vulva 
IxiloDgiDg to the epiLheca of u 
Diatom; epixylo'neva (fAov, woijil]; 
eplx']rloiu ( Crmier ), growing on 
wood, as Hypoj-.yton ; eplisa'rinB 
(fu»;i>, an animal}, growing on dead 
tuiniaU; eplio'lc, eplio'ua, growing 
on living tiniinata, parasitiD or not. 

epllDft'tiu (<, priv., piicalaa, folded), 
not plait^ or folded ; apro- 
pb^latai ( ■1-Pbofhyi.u), without 
prophylla, braateoles ; — in Germ. 
Vorbliitter ; eprn'tnoH (prui*BO»u", 
frosty), without surface farinn. 

•'qual (ainuitia), (1) alike aa to length 
or number, (2) in Mosses when the 
oapaule is Bjmoietrlcal ; ~ ai'ded, 

5ual,when applied to the two aiiloa 
an organ ; e'qnallf -plu'uate = 
abraptly pinnate, having no ter- 
niaal loaffot ; a'qaanB(, equal- 

Bqtutor'lal Plane, the line which 
paiaes through the mot her- star of 
the oucleua, the plane of cell- 
division ; ~ Plate, the nuclear disc 
of Stcaabuiger, the grouping of 
chromosomes at the middle of the 
spindle in uuulear division. 

eqnllat'enl, «/iuilalei-a'lii [atquilaler- 
alit). equal -aided. 

aqulnoef Ul, tijuinoclia'lU iat^-ainocCi- 
aiit, pertaining to the equinox), 
naed of plants whose flowers ex- 
pand and close at partioutar hours 
of the da;. 

•qnlM'tla, pertaining to the genus 
E-iuiaflum; BqoiBe'lifonii, resem- 
bling Che same genus as to form. 

e'ltnltant, t'qniiaiu ( Lat. riding ), 
folded over, as if astride ; eqnl- 
tatl'Tiu (Lat.) t = equitant. 

eqnlvalViilar {aeque, equally ; natra, 
leaf of a door], havmg the valves 
of a fruit equal in size. 

Zqulv'ocal ( aeqniin>cu», ambiguous) 
Oenera'tlan, spontaneous genera - 

etallc'ulose ( e, priv. radictda, a 

small root), without rootlets c 
rhiioids ; amno'suB 
branch), unbranobed. 
erect, frerf-ut (Lat.), upright, per- 
pendicular to the ground or ita 
attaohmeiit ; ersc'to-paf ent {paltna, 
lying open), between ipreadingand 

Sremftcau'sls {■f|pi^M, gently, (aufrit, 
burning), slow combustion or oxi- 
dation, auoh as long ^ireserved seeds 
show, as if charted. 

Ere'moblMt [ipiiiHn, solitary, ^Xwrrfi, 
a shoot), cells which unil«d at 
first, afterwards separate them- 
selves : Ere'inns t a carpel apart 
from its sister carpels ; ErBmotny'a 
(jSpuu, I grow), a division of Foms 
having articulated fronds, and nob 
adherent to the stem or rliizome. 

Ergrogen'esla llpyer, work, -yiriffn, be- 
ginning), the exhibition of growth- 
energy (J. A. Ryder). 

Ei'KOt (Fr.), also pr. Er'got : Clavireps 
purpurea, Tul,, causing "Spur" in 
grasses; ErgmVerlii, Er|:ol'la Aold, 
Br'KOtlll, substances occurring io 
the sporophore of the Ergot fungus ; 
Sr'gotlmn, the effect produced by 
eating bread whioh is ergutised ; 
er'gotlMd, infected with Ergot. 

erl&ntta'oui, -u* (ifHor, wool, lit^K, 
a flower), woolly- flowered. 

erloe'tal (nrirefuiii, Mod, Lat., a 
heath), H- C. Watson's term for 
plants wliioh grow upon moors, 
such as heather, Erica ; erlcltl'nua 
(Mod. Lat.), beatb-tike, in shape 
or habit ; erloo'ld (rfSoi, like), used 
of leaves which are like those of 

a'rlgsna {eriyo, I raise), used ot a 
branch, horiEontalat first, rising at 

erlopborout {fptor wool, ^oh'u, I 
carry), wool -bearing, densely 
cottony ; erlaphyll'ous, -lu [fiirXXiw, 
a leaf), woolly leaved. 

Erla'ma [Ipcuiiui. a buttress), Necker'a 
term for the rhachis in grasses. 

emdn'eua (Mod. LaC), the colour o( 
the fur of ermine, white, broken 
with yellow. 

Bwo'dad, aro'M, ero'gat (Lat. ^awed), 
M though bitbcD or gnawed. 

Error, probable, teo Deviation. 

BnftUfu'am, Suiio = Subktitcte 
FiBKKS, intermediate in form 
between wuody fibres and 

•rabCM'eiui (Lat. bluihlog), fatuab 


nostio ehoracter ; -' Ot'emi'i tboee 
which &re absolutely neoeasary, 
■tametu and piatila. 

Mtl'TKl = AEBTIVAI. i s'tUTftU = 

Eitlvft'Uon = Abbt:- 

1 (<r 

forma, shape), used for sucb Liahen 
■porea u those of Qraphi), which 
are long, septate, blunted at the 
eitremitioB, and in ihape suggeit a 
short oaterpillar. 

•nuop'uit, erKmp'en> (Lat. breakins 
Ihroagh), prominent as Chough 
bunlmg tbrough the epidermis. 

Bi'jrthtlaiii (ipuepet, red], a red colour 
in flowers osuallj white, the re- 
verie of albinism ; Er'jrtliroph;!! 
(^iiXXw, a leaf), Berzelius'a term 
tor the ted colouring of leaves ; 
•iTthiopli'lloni (^Xiui, I love), 
need of nuclei which take np 
red stains in preference to blue ; 
Brytttrort'omum ^ (mofta, the 
mouth), Desvaui'a word for 
Etazrio; Er'ythrosym (fu*iii, yeaat), 
an enzyme from the root of the 
madder which acls ou glucoaides. 

-aieeiiB, a lAtin aulfix = ish, thus 
rub-ewwns = redd - is h, 

H^enlfnt {eac«le«t«ji, 6t for eating), 
BDitable for humao lood. 

Bf'enUn. = AttcuuN. 

Sspal'ler, a frait tree trained lattice- 
faahioD, in one plane, bat not at- 
taohed to a waU. 

•Mp'tkte (e, priv. ,iieptum, a partition], 
deatitute of septa. 

tHter'la {/niTipci, inner), arising 
from inside the organ iem. 

Mpatha'eant [t, pnv., + Sfatha, 
■aceus), wanting a spathe ; Lindley 
gives the form eipal/ui'luf i 

MMD'tial (twieurta, the being of any. 
thing), the neoeaaary constituent of 
KD existing object ; ~ Char'acter, 
the diatinguiahjng note by which a 
* a dilTeca from its allies, diag- 

EtM'rio, Elttiriam {inuptla, com. 
pauionahipl, an aggregate truil 
composed of achenes or drupes, aa 
in Kaminfii/fiji, the Strawberry, 
and Blackberry ; adj. etalrlona'rl*, 

e'tlolated, etiMtiu (Fr. etiole, drawn 
out), lenethened or deprived of 
colour by absence of light ; Btlolai'- 
tlou, the condition of being 
blanched ; E'tloUn, the yellow- 
colauring matter of blanched plants, 
chlorophyll which haa not acquired 
iU green colour (I'ringsheim). 

E'tiology = AanouioY. 

etrabeoula'tuB (e. priv., trabtcnln, a 
little beam), notoroaa-barred; when 
the peristome t«et h of Moasea want 

BU- (iS, well), in Ureek oomponods 
= Ime ; often uaed in sectional 
namea. with a restricted meaning; 
anaonnth'ic (aipic, apex, itBm, 
flower), truly terminal ; ~ Flow'er, 
a terminal flower which springs 
immediately from the apex of a 
shoot which haa pcoiluced leaves 
or other lateral struelurea ; <^ 
PSEUDACRANTUic ; eiuntb'la, aaed 
by Delpino to denoto a mono- 
thatomio Bower, the reverse being 

FSEDDANTUIC *, EnCHT'otla ( + CaBO- 

Tl.N), Zopf employs this to mark the 
yellow carotm as distinct from 
the red ; eucorp'lo (^naprit, fruit), 
applied to certain Algae where 
part only of the body of the plant 
goes to form the sporangium, in 
contraat to noLuuABMCj ency'dle 
(idjiXai, a oirule), when flowers are 
composed of alternate isomerous 
whorls 1 Eugam'opbyta {fAiuu, 
marriage, ^in-iip, a plant), term 
proposed by U. Macmillan for auch 
Cryptogams as OviogoniTira, Mar- 
C*an(io, Spkaj/Hiim, "which sup- 
port rlependent sporophytien." 

Ea'gtauA, the chiet conatitneaC of oil 
of olnvea, obtained from Pijnenta 
ofWi, KoHtel., and other myctace- 
ouB plants, formerly referred to 

tustogfanoita (cJ, well, yli, the earth, 
ytrriu, I brin^ forth), Thurmann'a 
word to indicate rocks readily 
yielding detritoB and Ihe plnnta 
which grow on it ; Bana oleola 
( -t-NcuLEOl.B), used by Roeen for 
an erylhrophiloua nucleus ; Bulaog'- 
•my [tqmdi, msirridge], the union 
of a gamete with any other Bimilaj' 
gamete {Hartog). 

Eapato'ilne, an sTkaloid occurring in 
Svpaforiam cannabinmn , Linn. 

Enp&OT'bluin, an acrid inipiuated 
juice or resin from various species 
of Euphorbia. 

•opluitomst'rlc {ti, we!], ^t, ^arii, 
light, tihpBr, a measure), used of 
leaves which place themselves bo 
M to obtain the ■naximum of dif- 
fused light, as the foliage of forests 



Bn'phylla [it; well, -piWar, a leaf), 
true leaves, foliage leaves ; eu- 
pbr'toM (4>iTii>, a plant; tlSoi, 
like) Par'asltes, are erect land 
plants, parasitic in habit (Johow) ; 
en'scMst li!x"rrit, Bplit), when a 
gamete is formed by moceasive com- 
plete divisions from the parent- 
eell, the Gametogonium (Hartog) ; 
«lipoiailc'i»t« {a-xopi, seed, iYT''"'. 
a vesnl), in Pteridophytes, possess- 
ing a aporangium, a Eusporan'Kluiii, 
derived from a group of superficial 
Cryptogams defined by C. Mac- 
millan as "self-supporting, and do 
le thegametophyteSiC.g. the 
moases, the lower torn- 
nd club-mosses" ; £n'itatlie 
I (BTafl^ot, abode), "the eitemal 
layer of a cell " (Lindley). 

BaVifbu'li {fi9vi, direct), Van 
Tieghem'a word for thoee basidta 
which spring directly from the 
tporophore ; c/". Pbobasid i Euthy- 
fflOipIl'tMls (fiop^uwii, a shapingl, 
the rapid Baccession of members of 


different form on the same stem, 
buds, etc.. polymorphism (Coruel). 

en'Uiyi«li)st ItM!, immediately, 
ffXiffToi, split), brood -division, when 
each nuclear division is aooom- 
panied by cell division (Hartog). 

entrop'lc {ti, well, t/hStoi, direction), 
A. Gray's word for twining with 
the sun, that is, left to right, 
dextrorse ; Ba'tropy, applied by 
M'Leod to those Qowers to which 
only a restricted class of speoialiaed 
insects can gain aooeas. 

a*aiv'lB, avaJrular (e, prlv., valin, 
leaf of a door), destitute of valves, 
not opening by them. 

evanei'Mnt {fane»reiif, vanishing), 
soon disappearing, lasting only a 
short time : evmnlicen'tl'Teno'BUi, 
when the lateral veins of a leaf do 
not reach the margin. 

BTapont'Uon {tcaporalio, vapouris. 
ing), bo pass off in vapour. 

e'vBiL, without incc|ualitieg of inr- 
faoo ; S'veniwsB. absence of eleva- 

ayBrsreea, bearing green foliage 
all the year ; svarlast'lng, used of 
some flowers which preserve their 
shape and colour in drying, ai 
species of OiuipluUi'tm, HdicHrj/- 

ever'nlaeform ( /brrna, tihape). like 
the thatluB of' Kirmia. a genus of 
Liubens ; Erer'nliie. a principle 
found in the same genus ; evem- 
lo'id (cfioi, like), resembling 

(snemo, an overthrowing), 
protrusion of organs from a cavity, 
turned backward or outward i 
everf ad, turned inside out, 
ev'idaDt (endrns, manifeat), clearly 


-«, t 

having Vittab, oil- 
I the fruit of Umbelli' 

t'TOlnte {tt'olco. I roll forth), unfold- 
ed, tamed back; Eroln'Uon, (I] 
the act of development ; (2) the 
theory according to which complex 

H «re oocBiderad to have been 
evolved from simpler onoa. 
«z, privative prefix in place of e, 
when a vowel follows ; ezo = oat- 

•xklbft'mlnoiu, tialbiaiiino'giu {ej:, 
priv.,+ Albumen), ilestilat«of al- 
bnmen, used only of aeeda when 
the embryo oocnpiea the whole 
cavity witbia the Msta ; ex'alAta, 
KToia'lut {aiataa, winged), winglesa. 

■mik'ttu {IM., raised high), lofty, 

KtanULeta'ata, (t(, out of, SyBot. a 
dowsr), blotches on leaves, etc., as 
tbougb eruptive ; Euutb'lum i 
bractleta of the Iset degree, ia- 
oapable of forming axillary buds, 
and immediately external to the 

•lui'imlAU (ur, priv., atmuiiu, a 
ring), used of Ferns which do not 
poBseas an elastic ring round their 
aporanf[ia ; azapophyu'tni ( + Apo- 
physis), destitute of an apophysis, 
or swelling below the capsule oE a 

•z'arali (c{, oat of, ipx^- origin), nsed 
of vascular bundles in whicb the 
whole primary wood is centripetal, 
almost the aatae as peri xy lie. 

■Ikl'eoUte. txareola'lui [tx, pri' 

marked into small areas ; exar'U- 
Ute (•)■ Akilla), without an aril ; 
aiar'i«t»te.ejranj(a'(us[+ Abist*), 
deatitnta of awns. 

■zu'ponM, (-nM/Km'fui(Lat., rough- 
ened), rough with hard projectiog 

•rcaTKW {tXtaaUas, hollowed out), 

u though dug out. 
•xeen'tiia, excentric'ua (tr, out of, 

caUrvm, the centre), one.sided, 

out of the centre, aboiial. 
Ez'alpla, Sx'Dlpiile (Cnaier), Bxdp- 

nliun, Exeip'vliu (rxeipula, a basin), 



tholluB of certain Lichens, which 
have a narrow opening ; the por- 
tion of thailuB which forms the 
rim round tbe base of apothecia. 
raltkbll'lty, ExcitabWilas {txcitatui. 

roused), the faculty of responding 
to ex1«mal stimuli. 

•xoras'oeiit {t,crre»ceni, growing out), 
growing in on unnatural way, a* a 
wart or other outgrowth ; Surei'- 
oenoe, a gnaur or wart on the at«m 
of a tree ; enation. 

£zare'tlon (e£, out of, erttvjl, sifted), 
(1) the action by which any mb- 
stance is rejected from the organ- 
ism ; (2) the thing itself excreted, 
OB gum, resin, honey, etc.; •xcar'- 
rsnt. McurVens (Lat., running), (1) 
running through to the apex and 
beyond as a muoro ; (2) where the 
stem remains central, the other 
parts being regularly diapoBed 
round it ; ~ Vena'tlon, in Ferns, 
when the veinlet is directed out- 

Mtendotpenn'oni (c{, out, IrSiw. with- 
in, v-ripfia, seed), nsed of seeds 
which have reserve material stored 
in the embryo. 

axe'mat (Lat., eaten away), applied 
to a surface irregularly sculptured 
as though by corrosion. 

BSfO'Uate (m, from, /otiam, a leaf), to 
come away in scales or flattea, as 
the bark of the Plane; BxfDlla'- 
tton, peeling off. 

exbk'Unt (exAn/o, I exhale), breathing 
out.asezhalan'tUTa'iat imaginary 
vessels in the epidermis, actually 
tbe sides of confluent cells ; Sx- 
bala'tlOD, the function discharged 
by Blomata in passing offvapour- 

ezi^'nons, txi'/iim (Lat., scanty), 
smaU and narrow, mean. 

exl'lls (Lat.), thin, meagre ; lank and 

axlm'las (Lat., distinguished), ex- 
cellent for size for beauty. 

exlndn'siate, a.indima'tus (ex, priv., 
-f IHDDSIATE), without an mdn- 
sium, the membrane whicb covers 
the torus in Ferns. 

Ex'lne ~ ExTitTB. 

Bx'lntlne {tx. out, + Intihi), the 
middle coat of a pollen- grain, that 
which is next tbe inline. 

Ex'lstem ((£, out, larit, a web), the 
" Aussenscbicbt" of Ejaoio, consist- 



iogof Mebihthu ''tbickeniiigriijg" 
ftnd FEKieiTEM, joudk cortex ; it is 
the tiwua of protomeriBtem which 
is not young pitb. 
Ex'ocbtt* ( jfu, outside, x""!^. • tnnio), 
the oulennost membrane of the egg 
in Fucaoete (Farmer) ; Exooor'teK. 
(cortex, bark), > apecial triple layer 
in the roots of sapraphytic Oruhids; 
Bsoaonn'l* (Mp^u, skin), tba outer- 
most cortioal layer of the adult 
root, anawering to the hypodenna 

Excoe'mum (c'l, oat, ot/idiii, I isaue), 
a fringe or tuft of bair at lh« b&aa 
ol the glumes in some grasses 
(Riobard) ; eiooatad'romoos ( + 
CATADROHODs), whoD FsmB In their 
nervation have their stronger 
pinnules tmadromous, and their 
weaker oatadromous ( Prantl ) i 
Ext^amy {fitioi, marriage), the 
t«ndena;ofoloaely allied gametes lo 
avoid pairing 1 tvi^anoum eiog'tnu* 
Iftrrdu, I bring forth), (1) growing 
as the wood of Dicotyledoiu ; <2) 
ariung from superficial tissue ; 
Ez'osens, Exog'aiae, plant« which 
ioorease in growth by the addition of 
wood on tbs outside beneath the 
constantly widening bark ; Ezog'y- 
nona, exog'i/nuB{yivl},voTatm),whaio 
the style is exaerted beyond the 
flower; GzolKff'amy ( + isoaAMt), 
when a gamete will pair only 
with a similar gamete of another 
brood (Hsrtog) : exonas'tlc (rairroc, 
pressed close), in anatropous or 
oampjlotropoua ovules when the 
curvature is horimntal tott'arda 
the median nerve of the side of 
ipper face of the oupel 



inro'sl* irtupov, a nervej. lao 
■oparation of veins in appendiculur 
organs, and their reappearance as 
teeth, spines, or bristles, an in the 
Barberry (Cloa) ; Eioperld'ium ( + 
Peridiuu), the outer laytr of the 
peridium of such Fungi as Lycwer- 
don, which peels or Uakes ofT on 
maturity ; •xophyll'oiia -ii.!(#t\Xw, 
a leaf), not having a folioceous 

sheath, with naked cotyledons : 
eiop'Ule, exop'tiUt (vT/Xor, a 
wing) = BXOPHiiJ^uB, said of 
an embryo whose plumule is naked 
upon, or between cotyledons and 
not rolled up in one (Lindley); 
Ezoibl'Me (^if o, a root), = Esoobna ; 
exorhl'Md, txorhiia'tU, the radicle 
not sheathed, BO the primary root 
in germination has no covering t« 
pi ecce : ExtM'mose. Exosmo' sisiJiaitot, 
a thrusting), the passage through a 
membrane outwards from a thin to 
a dense Quid ; Ezosclero'tes (imXqpat, 
hard), sclerotia which are eitemal 
to the surface of Agarics ; Ez'- 
Mpore, Exotpor'inm {rropd, seed), 
(l( the outer covering of the spore; 
(■2) a thick coat devaToped from the 
periplasm round the oospore in 

ing scattered spares, as Fungi ; Ez'- 
OBtome, Exoet'oma{tToiui, amoabh), 
the foramen of the outer ooat of the 
ovule : Siosto'sls (£rWor, bono), 
(1) the nodules on roots of Legnmi- 
nosae ; (2) the hard turgesoeuce of 
sound wood, showing as prominent 
knots; Bxoaty'liu X i+ Sttlos), 
Mirbel'a word for fruit as in 
Labiatoe, four seemingly naked nut- 
lets ; Szotbe'olimi(0^inj, acase), (1) 
the outer cose of the anther 
[Heualow, Lindley) ; (2) Purkinje's 
term for the eitine or outer 
layer of pollen-Brains. 

exoter'lc (cfurc|ii<oi, external), aris- 
ing from outside the organism, the 
opposite of BSOTKKia 

exotic (^tdjTKoi, foreign), not native, 
introduced from abroad ; Bzot'loa 
are those plants which are not ia- 

ezotropb'lo (cfu, out of, rpo^i), nourish- 
ment), employed by Wiaaner where 
an organ or lateral shoot, as op- 
posed to the mother-shoot, is moat 
strongly developed ; Sxot'roplty, 
development of lateral shoots 
instead of the main axis. 

expand'ad, ex:pan'eii4 (Lat. spread 
out), difluse ; Bzptui'sloii, the oon- 
dilion ol a flower in full perfection ; 

-• of protoplAsm, the norms.! con- 
dition when it is impermeable 
to cell-up, ifae opposit« of con- 
triiction. when it is flaccid anil 

•rpIaiMts, Mp/ana'fiu (Lnt., flattened 

out), iprend out flat. 
ajmlilft I expvi/nit, driven out) 

FmlU, fruits which forcibly ei- 

pel their aeeda. 
azitnUi'tiu t (Lat,, choice), osad of 

parts larger or more highly coloared 

than usual, as Dmcttiu exqvUiiae; 

tf. Co Mi. 

•ZKol'ptui (Lat., carved out), flho wing 
small depreasicas a* though dug 
out, as the seeds of Anchasa. 

u <Lat., pro- 

truded), protruding beyond, 
■tameos beyond the tube of 

BZBlcoa'ta (txncmtui, dry), dried 
pIsotB, uaually in sets for sale or 
aabsoribere, frequently with printed 

•uUp'iila,te, txslipula'tut {eh, priv., 
4- Stifdi^), wanting stipules. 

czme'coui, u^uc'riu (Lat.), juicelesa. 

Brt«iiilb'Ult7 (ea;f(7i»tu, spread oat), 
hairing the property of stretcbing. 

•ZtttkOAtni (Lat., tbinaed), a sy- 
nonym of yiROATBB (Henslow). 

•xtan'nu (Lat,), ipread out. 

•sM'ilor (Lat., outer), outer : in the 
flower aometimes — AS'TERJon. 

•Xten'al, txUm'iu (Lat.), outward ; 
- KMXH, ft modiScation of the 
bundle -sheath, stated to occur in 
Ferns (Russow). 

Ez'ttno (m(i]him. oDtaide + ine), the 
outer Qoat of a pollen-grain. 

ex'tra (lAt.), without, beyond, as 
•x'tra fttill'aiy, ~ ■axiUa'rii, be- 
yond, or out of the aiil ; i- 
oeU'uUr, outside a cell ; ^ (U- 
ele'alAr, ont«ide the vascular 
bundles ; ~ flot'ftl, beyond the 
flower, as some nectaries ; ~ 
foUa'eeoua. away (mm the leaves, 
or inserted in a different position 
from them ; — mat'iloa], outside 
of B DiduB or matrix ; - De'dlan, 
beyond the middle : ~ lem'liuil, 

outside the seed, as ~ ~ DaTal'oP' 

ment, following the aowing ol the 
seed, as the escape of the embryo, 
etc. ; ~ ate'ltu, the ground-tissue 
outside the central cylinder. 
BxtrsffleabU'lty (txtra, beyond, mta- 
bilis, penetrable), the capacity of 
protoplssm to permit substances to 
pass outwards from its vacuoles 


lU (Lat., outward), placed o 

the 01 

•xlratrop'ical (^xlra, without, -h 
ToOFic), beyond the tropica, to the 
north or south of them ; extntTa- 
gl'nal (vagina, a sheath), beyond 
or outside the sheath, upplieid to 
branches springing from buds, 
which break through the sheath of 
the subtending leaf, chiefly in 
grasses ; ExtraTata'tlon {i>at, a 
vessel), unnatural flow of a liquid 
from a tissue or organ, u the 
"bleeding" of vine). 

es'trorse, exlror'tia (rxterot, on the 
outside, twrvu«, towards), directed 
outward, as the debiacence of ad 

ez'tui, a modern term = extra ; 

siniilar iu form to irUwi, but not 

classic Latin. 
Kznda'Uon {exudo or ecsvdo, I sweat), 

the transpiration of liquids from 

hydatbodes. etc., as seen on the 

leaf -tips of Monocotyledons. 
aznngnlc'nlate {rx, priv. imyvia, a 

claw), without a claw (Crozier). 
exa'tlTB (cctUus, drawn off), applied 

to seeds wanting the usual integu- 

Exn'vlae (Lat., stripped off clothing), 
cast off parts, as shed scales ; Bnt- 
vlli'tiDn, the operation of shedding 
efieto material. 

^e, (1) a gardener's oaioe for an un- 
developed bud ; (2) the persietent 
calyx of a pome, rj. Cnown ; (3) a 
ooospicuoua spot in a Sower, as a 
blotoh of colour; — Spot (I) a 
coloured spot in a motile gamete 
or spore, which is sensitive to 
light ; (2) markinga on the ailioioi 
valvo of QMci'noaMCiM, '•-'" 

tftlMi'Cecni*, •FU'i (/aha. a bean, 4- 
aoeous), like a liciin, or having its 
qualities ; fablfonn'l* {/orma), ap- 

Elied to Liuhen sporea which are 

TftOe, that Burrace of an organ nhiah 
is opposed to the baok, usoslly the 
upper or inner Bide, 

Fb'cLn (Lat., ihape), the geoera) 
B«pecb of a plani. 

fteUt'loni, /aeiil'iiw (Lat.), artificial. 

Ao'nUfttfve [facMltan, capability), oc- 
oaaionil, incidental, aa opposed to 
OHUOaTE; ~- An'aSrobea, orcaniBiiu 
which oan eiist without the pre- 
ESDce of free oxygen or air ; ~ 
Par'ailMt, Darmally saprophyMs, 
but able to develop as parasites ; ~ 
Sap'rophytea, the converse of the 
lut, pantsitea which can run their 
course as aaprophytes ; ~ Sym'- 
UOnt, an organiam which can cither 
eiiat and reach maturity independ- 
ently or in aymbiosia with another. 

fa'dlng', witheriog, without imme- 
diately falling away, 

Faa'anla, see Fecuu. 

Fklij-Ttag, a circular patch of 
Agarics which have Brown centri- 
fngally, and whose influence on the 
soil ia ahawn by greener grass aftur 
they have disappeared. 
I'oate, /atca'tiiK { Lat. ), sickle- 
shaped; f&lca'rlus. hiloator'lnB. arc 
Latin synonyms ; fBl'cltorm, /alci- 
/orm'M (/a/jr. a sickle, forma, 
shape j, sickle-like. 

Fkll of the Leaf, defoliation, canting 
off the leaves, as done in temporalc 
olimates by deciduous trees in 

T*ilm,fai'aM (Lat., nntrne), Bpnrious, 
having a specious reEeniblan'ie ; 
i~ tiia, a pseudaiis, see Hva- 
FODIDH ; ~ Baxk, a layer on the 
ontaide of endogens of oellular 
tissue, into which Sbrous tiasue 
passes obliquely ; ~ Dlobot'omy. 
a dichaainm, in which the lateral 
axes are two ; - DUiBp'Unmt. a 


partition which does not arise from 
the edges of carpels, but some form 
of oellular tissue ; ~ Foot, the base 
of the sola in some Bryophytes, 
which becomos dilated ; ~ Fruit, a 
psendocarp, as a Strawberry ; 
~ ludu'iiDiD, the recurved margin 
of some Fem-pinnulea, which 
serves to protect the aori ; ~ PaX' 
eoab'yma - PsBUDoPiRENCHrMA: 
~ Raceme' = Heucdid CrxR : 
~ Tls'ane, hjphal or mycelial 
felted tiasue ; fOlalner'vls [nermtt, 
a nerve), when nervea are formisd 
of cellular tissue, without fibre- 
vascular bundles, as in Mosses. 

Fam'lly, Faiail'ia, = Ordeb. 

fan-neired, having the nerves dis- 
posed in the fashion of a fan, 
radiating from the base; ~aliap«d, 
flabelliform; ~Teliie<], = -'Nerved. 

ftIc't«te,/ar^-'(rH (Lat., stuffed), filled 
up, not hollow or tubular. 

^'rlam, =in rows, as bi-fariam, in 

Farl'na (Ut., meal), (1) Blair's term 
for pollen ; (2) atarob, or starchy 
matter; tailna'ceons [+ ooeoua), 
of the nature of starch, or oontain. 
ing starch ; far'liioaB, j'araio's\u, 
(I) covered with a tncalineaa; (2) 
Mohl's term for the cellulose of 

Fas'cia (Lat,, a band), pi. Fu'ola«, a 
cross -band, as of colour, 

fftwla'lla, Caac'late, /iwriu'dM [/a«ft», 
a bandte), used of the oandition of 
a stem when several have ooalesced ; 
Fasda'tlon, a band or bundle oauaed 
bj a monacroufl growth of stems int« 

ida'rlni (Lat., band-like), banded, 
or band-shaped, narrow and long, 
with parallel margins, as in sea- 

■ic'ulua (Lat., a little 
bundle), a close cluater or bundle 
of Bowera, leaves, stems or roota; 
Ibsdc'nl&r, faseicida'ris, ha'dolsd, 
fanacula' tvn, connected or drawn 
IB that portion which belongs to 
the vascular bundles ; '- Tlrnw, 


~B;>t'ain - Sbra-vMeuUrajatem; 
- Zf'lMl = badroine, the wood- 
ilementB of > bundle ; CMCtoU'rU, 
(ksdola'tiM, ftaciated, 
fUUc'Ute, /ufioui'iiu {/aatiyium, & 
slope, a gablo ), ( 1 ) poraUei, 
oluitered uid erect, u the biimchea 
of PopuluM fa^tigxata (Linn.): (2) 
([•quenlij used &b if it meant the 
Mine u fascinte ; FastlgU'tion, 
vben branohea become more or 
leu parallel with the main 

FU-en'(yniB. an nnorganizad ferment 
which breaks up oils and fats. 

Father-pluiC, in hybrids, the palleo- 
parent or male element. 

Patlsne-iubsUscsa. RvcoilEer's name 
for bodies thfown off the plant, 
which act in a restraining or poisao- 
ons way on its own life; Germ., 
Enu ud un i^tolfe. 

Fau'cM (Lat., the throat), pi., the 
UiniHt of a gamopetalouB corolla ; 
Faux, singular, is an assumed word. 

ParelU {! a diminutive of favia. 
honeycomb), the conceptacle of 
Ceraminm, a dense terminal agglo- 
meration of spores within a thin 
oolourleas membrane ; IkTa'olata, 
favrola'tue (perhaps from fatiut, 
honey-oomb), honey -combed, alveo- 
late ; FaTellid'lnm (t/Aof, diminu- 
tive), = Cystocarp. 

FaTilla, FavUlldlum, Lindley'i erron- 
eoufl spelling of Favklu, and 


l&'V0H,/at'o''nui,I^t.),honey .combed, 
aa the receptacles of many Com- 
ponta«; tavo'Maieola'ta*, mapped- 
out into spaoes, suggestive of the 
cavities of honey-cotnb ; -• dehli'- 
eens. seeming honpy-combod after- 
dehisoence, as the anther of Km- 
CUM ; &TO'»llUI, somewhat honey- 
combed : Fa'vai, a skin dieeaae 
cansod by Aehonon Schotideinii, 

fHtb'w-TclDed, with secondary veins 
proceeding from the midrib, penni- 

IMtb'RT. plumose, with long hairs 
which are hair; tbemielvea. 

Fa'eola (/iucu/a, wine-lees), atarch or 
similar aubatances ; fa'cnlant, thick 
wilb sediment (Crosier). 

Facunda'tlon ificvtuio, to make fruit- 
ful!, = FKBTlUiATlO.N. 

Faad'er, (l)aboat-plant; (2) in Wtl- 
wU-whux and other Gnetoeeae, an 
outgrowth of the hypocotyl, serv- 
ing sd a temporary organ of abaorp- 
tion ; (3) used by Vines tor the 
" foot " of StlagxnfUa. 

faU'ena [Lat., fuU of gall), bitter as 

lelt'ad, matted with intertwined hairs; 
~ Tls'ane, hyphal tissue uot regu- 
larly united, but more or less grown 
together ; syn. Tal^ CoNTIXtA. 

fe^nvale, the fruiting element in planU, 
the piatil and its analojjues, arohe- 
gonia, ouspheres, etc.. shown by ;. 

femln'ena (Lat,, womanly), female, 
as FloB — , a llower whiuh contains 
pistils but no atamena. 

FenoB, Withering'i word for Invol- 

Fenea'tra (Lat., a window), an open, 
ing through a membrane ; faOM'- 
trata, Jeuetlra'liiit, /entxtnt'liM, 
pierced with bales, as the septum 
iu some Cruciferae. 

far, Latin autbi from /ero, I bear; 
occurs in such words aa fiorifer, 
bearing flowers ; sumetimea found 
OS -fcnia, which ia very rarely cor- 

fa'raJ (/era, a wild animal), wild, or 
indigenous ; not cultivated. 

Fer'ment (/ermeiUum, leaven), a aub- 
slance which prodacee or excites 
chemical ohanges, but not itself 
appreciably contributing to the Dew 
products. Formentsmay be divided 
into {a) organised ~, such as yeast 
and other Schiiomycetes, and [b] 
unorganieed — , or enzymes; the 
latter are related to and apparently 
derived from the proleids ; their 
composition is not nbeolutety 
known, and their names are us- 
ually derived from the aourcca 
whence they are derived ; diastase, 

fermente, parti cnlBriied as ace'Uc 
— , produced by Bacterium Aceli, 
Lanzi ; aloohol'lc ~, by yeael, 
and eimilBr orgajiisma : butyi'ic — , 
by a Vibrio ; lac'Uo ~ , by wliich 
sugars are tamed into acids ; ai>- 
otEer olseBiScatioti in (1) dlutat'lc 
~,i:oiivBrtiDSgl&rch LDloBngar^ <2) 
fermenU which decompoae gluoo- 
aidcB with production of sugar, 
such as emuUin ; (3) fermenta 
which convert t»ne-augar into glu- 

which convert proteidn inl« 
peptones, or peptic ~, such as 

FsiTobacte'rlB (/errutn, iron, -i- Mac- 
tebii'm), bacteria which oxidize 
ferrous to ferric salts. 

fatrngln'SDiu, -etut, ISrTa'giiiDus, Jir- 
niyino'atu t/errvgo, runt), rust- 
coloursd ; fem^lnaa'cBna (Lat.). 
beooniinz rusty ; Ferm'KO (Lat. ), a 
disease in plants known also as 
" Ruat," due to the Undo stage of 
various species of PucdKia. 

fetm»./ereuu (Lat.), capable of pro- 
ducing fruit : ~ Flow'en, female 
flowers, those which posaesBpistila ; 
~ Bta'mens, those bearing pollen 
which fcoundatoa the ovalea ; Fer- 
tUlM'tlOB. FcrtUiaa'tio, see Supplu- 
raent ; cf. Polunatioh ; ~ Tube, 
the chonnGl by which gonophisin 
passes from the antheridium to 
the oogonium in Peronosporeae ; 
Clote ~, breeding in-and-iu, or 
BucceBBivB progeny of closely re- 
luted parents ; OroH ~ , progeny by 
other forms not of close affinity. 

remla'ceoDi./cni/a'frud (IjLt.) (1) ro- 
seuibling the genus /o-uia ; (2) par. 

formed like them, hollow, 
FarTlda'Tltim {fervidiut, boiling hot}, 
applied in botanic ganlens to the 


ntn, Fi'bra (Lat.). (I) a fine thread 
or fllameut, chambered or woody ; 

(2) the fuBifono cells of the inner 
bark ; (3) lbs nltimste rootlets ; 
elemauf aty ~ , the thread in a Bpiral 
vcBBel, secondury deposit in a spiral; 
a'telTonn ( forvia, shape), fibre- 
shaped; Fl'brtl, Fihrill'a, diminu- 
tive of FiBRK ; ~ Of Mn'oleiu = 
CunoMiisoME : a'brillata, /hril- 
la'tUK, fl'brUlDse, fl'brUlon(,.;EbriUo'- 
alia, farniBbed with fibres, as roots, 
or having a finely lined appearance ; 

— Lay'er, two outer layers of closely 
woven hyphae in Gtojler ; ~Ky<ie'- 
liomz^FiBitoDR MYnujDu ; Fl'brln 
(vegetable), oci^urs in gluten, baa 
no fibrous structure as animal BbriDi 
but forms when dry a tough, homy 
mass 1 fl'bio-cal'luiaT, "composed 
of spiral cells"! ~ Tft'ial (Croiier) 

= ~ TftH'nlar, tissue of mixed 
vessels and fibres ; ~ Bon'ille, 
or Vascular Buodlo, an association 
of vessels charact sciatic of tha 
higher plants, usually consisting 
of phloem and xytem eletuents, 
often surrounded by a special layer 
of cells known as the bundle -sheath; 

- Oord, proposed by Strosburger 
[or the similar structure in mouo- 
cutyledons ; ~ Cyl'Inder, the central 
cylinder ; ~ Bya'lem, tha whole of 
the fibrous portion of a plant, ei- 
elusive of the purely cellular struc- 
tures ; Fibrote'ln, Faynd's term for 
a very delicate membrane of the 
spirals of protoplasm (hyaloplasm) ; 
n'brouB, fl'brose, fbro'siw, having 
much woody llhre, as the rind (3 
a Coco-nat ; Fl'brona - myeellnill, 
when the hyphae form long branch- 
ing itrands ; Fl'brose, Frfimy's term 
for the substance of woody fibre, a 
variety of cellulose. 

Pi'brosin, a reserve substanoe re- 
sembling FiDRQSE, found by Zopf 
in the conidia of certain Fungi, 
in the form of rounded flattened ' 
discs, embedded in the protoplasm ; 
~ Bodies, the discs described ; , 
fl'bry, used by Loudon for riBRODa. 

n'bula (Lot., a buckle), a cylindrical i 
podetium, tomiinated by apotheoia. 

Dd'dle shaped, panUui iform. 

•BAu, IaUd Buffix for olefc, as (n- 

Jidin, 3-cleft. 
Tig-iattat, the fertilizing agsot in 

cspriflcatioD, BUulophaga. 
nla (pL of //ttm, a threwl). adduct- 

or'U, the ftbortivo " piaiiUidisi " 

of Mosaeg; ~ anccnlenl'a, paro- 

thread) ; (1) the stalk of an nather, 
the thread- like item; (2) any 
thread-like body ; FlUment'a iw- 
tlolJi'tia, delicate colourleBS threads 
lining the perithecium rnimd tho 
epithocium of Vtmtcaria ; nia- 
ment'om, Blameot'oM, flammto'- 
nu, formed oF filamenta or fibres ; 
~ Fang'iis, grovth form from a 
hjfpha without union with the 
hvphae ; ~ Kyce'lliini = fibrous 
Htgeudm; ~ Spor'ophort, = 
aimple sporophore; ~ Thal^us = 
FftOTtaosB THA.Li.Da ; Filar-plasma 
{rXie/ia, moalded), tjtraB);urger's 
term for Kinoflash ; flla'dons 
tCroEier) = filauentods; flla'toa 
(Ut.) = viaoiro8. 

DIM. » series of A^owcHJa-liko frual- 
nlei a« in Micromega. 

fll'lcoid (/fix, a fern, tltot, like), tern- 
like; FUiool'ottT (X<n'<", discourse), 

= PTKftnMJLOaT. 

U'lfDim, Jli/orm'U [filum, a thread, 
forma, ahspe), thread -shaped ; ^ 
Appark'tnt, the upper ends of the 
■ynergidae, which pierce tlirouuh 
and are prolonged beyond the 
saininil of the embryo sao ; BUpen- 
d'ttloiu, -Ittt (jienduiuJi, hanging 
down), having tuberous swellings 
in the middle or end of filiform 
thread-like bacteria : fl'lote, ending 
in a thread-like process (Croder). 

nm'brik (Lat., fringe), (1) a fringe ; 
(2) an elastic- toothed membruie 
beneath the operculum of mosses ; 
ftm'biUita, _fimbrifi'tui, with the 
margin bordered by long slender 
ptocesses ; &ni'l>rloaI« = fihbbiate 
(CroziBC) ; FlmbrU'U, a diminutive 

r fringe ; flmtnll'Iate, JSmbriUa'liit, 

Ljuving flmbrillBe; BmbrllUfsroni, 

Rith many little fringes o 

growing on or amongst dung. 

Finger- an<t-toe, a disease in Cruoi- 
fera caused by Pianaodiophora 
Braviii-iu, Woron.; — Clubbing or 

Bngr'area, digitate. 

FtratUng-OeU, from the Germ. Erst- 
lingulle, the first of a new genera- 
tion from an auxospore in Diatoms. 

fls'sUe, /ifailis (Lot.), tending to 
split, or eBsily split; Fls^on, 
splitting; ~ Fau'gl ^ Bchizomy- 
cetes ; Plsslp'arlam (pario, I bring 
forth), the act of multiplication 
among the lower forms by breaking 
up into living portions : Ssslp'aroiu. 
dividing into two or more diviaions 
by aplittmg ; Hs'ios (Lat., split), 
split or divided half-way. 

Fis'ttUa (I>at.), a pipe; '"Splra'Us^ 
Tiucbi:a; lls'tDlar, ns'tulose, ^.tlu. 
lo'ma, fls'tolons. hollow tbroughoat 
its length OS the leaf and stem of 

aatMl'lAte, JlabdiaUia {fiabtUum, a 
fan), fan -shaped, dilated in a wedge- 
BhBpucl,sometimespIait«d; flabaru. 
tana, fia,bti^fo^m'i» {forma, ghape), 
shaped as a fan ; lUbelliJierTMl 
{ntrvtis, a nerve), nkdiate-vvinml. 

aae'cld, jtac'adut (Lat.), withered 
and limp, flabby. 

FlaehtrM (Fr.), a disease in silk- 
worm caused by MicrococciiA Bom- 
bycU, Cohn. 

llag'sIUte, fiagtiln-tm (fing'Jium, 
a whip), provided with whip-like 
runneri ; flagvUa'rls. having creep- 
ing sarmenta ; fla^'ellaiy, caused 
by flagella, aa the motion of 
zoospores (Crozior) ; FlBKCl'liuil, pL 
FUfel'la (1) a runner or aarmen. 
tum, branohlets in Moasea ; (2) the 
whip-like proceea of the protoplasm 
of a Bwarmspore ; (3) similar organs 
in the cells of some SchiEomyoetea ; 
Hagal'lifdnn, ./tage^i/onn'u (foma. 

shape), (1) resembling s mnner, or 
(2] lash-like, m the cilta of mo- 

Ftes'on-ituiiwd (Loudon), uaeA for 

Pl&kt, a necUriferoua glaad ; Oa'kr, 

Dane ■ coloursd, flam'meits (Lat.), 

Bery red. 
Flank duyatare. uneminl growth of 

otimbers. Germ. " Flan ken- K rum - 

mnog " : Flank*, the lateral but- 

faOM ol a bilateral body. 
Fluk, the utricle of Carrx ; flisk- 

ahApsd, having the form of a 

Florence Huk, somewhat globular, 

with a drawn out neck. 
FlKta, proposed equivalent for the 

German " Etageobildung." 
Flaftenlng (1) the faaciation of a 

Item i (2 J the production of a 

navv'do (Lat.), yellowneas. a diseaae 
JD wbiob the green parte have be- 

flkTu'aKit, Jtaveifcm (Lat.), yellow- 
iah, beeoming yellow ; Aa'Tlcaiia, 
fla'Tldiu (Lat.), Bomowhat yellow ; 
lU'TO-vl'rau (Lat.), yellowish 
green ; Itk'vom, Jta'ttiM, nearly pure 
yellow, a bright clear hue. 

Flse'dnew, Tillosity. 

Fleah, the soft parts, as the flesh of 
apples or pears ; Deib'yi succu- 

llexed (Jtnm*. bent), used of DiHtoms 
which appear as though bent ; 
Oex'lhle, _S(j:'Uk, jUj^il/Uin, capable 
of heinu bent, but elastic enouj{h 
lo be able to maume its original 
figure : flex'uoBe, finrao'tti-i, Bei'- 
nons, Iwot Bltentateiy in opposite 
directions, zigzag ; Plex'nre, the 
" bond " of Diatoms. 

lloaVln«, boroe on the Mrface of 

Ploo'd, pi. of Floa'oas (Lat., a lock of 
wool), locks of soft hair or woo] ; 
itoo'owe. ^otco'mu, bearing flocoi, 
~-IS70«'lliun, = nBKOi/i9 TAicklwh; 
iaa'oalKa,Jloccidint'tu, diminutive 

Plo'n (lAk, goddesa of flowers], (1) 


the aggregate plants of a country 
or district, (2) a work whiuh con< 
tains an eonmeration of them ; 
Flo'rae borolo'glutn, a, floral cloak, 
certain plants arranged in the 
order oE the hours of opening or 
closing ; llo'ral. fioTa'li», belong to 
flowers ; ~ Dl'agTam, a drawing to 
ebow the rclntive position and 
number of the constituent parts ; 
~, En'Tslopes, the perianth leaves, 
calpt and corolla ; ~ Olnine, the 
lower gliuue of the flower in 
grasses ; flowering glume (Beal) ; 
— Leaf — Bract ; Flores'eenca, 
Florsecm'tia, anthesis, the perio<i 
of flowering; no'l«t, a small flower, 
one of a cluster, sa in Compositae ; 
florlbnii'dQa [alnindya, ~ prodac' 
tion of prasent activity), aljound- 
ing id flowers ; noricnl'tnre («ui- 
(nra, cultivation), cultivation of 
flowers, flower gardening ; Flor'le, 
Crew's word for perianth. 

Po'rifer (Lat.). nortTerotu, flower. 
bearing; florir«r»«Oem'ma«, fiower 
bads : Floilflca'Iioii, the act or 
time of flowering. 

Itor'Uorm [/o», jJori*, a flower ; 
forma, shape), shaped like a 
flower ; Flo'rllege [lego, I gather), 
a treatise on flowers ; florlp'aront 
•ua {pario, I bring forth), (I) pro- 
ducing flowers, (2) a inonstrDsity 
producing other flowera instead 
of fruit; no'rlst, (I) a cultivator 
of flowers, eapeoially those vari- 
able forms known as florist's 
flowers, (2) a writer of a Flora, 
(3) in foreign usage "Florist" 
means a local botanist : Plo'rnla, 
(I) B. small flora, (2) the botanio 
account of a small distriob ; flo'ru- 
lent, flowery; flo'ns. in composition 
means flowered, as ttni-fiom», one' 
flowered; Flos (Lat.), an aosem- 
blage of the organs essential for 
fertilization, as stamens and pistils, 
with some protecting envelope i~ 
A'quae, floating Algae, as Rivviaria 
fiuitant, Cohu ; ~ conpoa'itni X= 
CAPiTiTLTm ; — pls'nas, a double 
flower, where the aUnuene or pia- 

tils, or both, are converted ioto 
peUla ; lliu'cular, Ooi'oalotu, jlos- 
Ciilo'ttU (1) rolating to florets oc 
ftowers, or preaentine raanj' 
florets : (2) with tuliular floreU. 
Floa'oula, Ploa'cnlam iBlnir), Flos- 
adm, B. litlle flower, u Ooret ; 
Bem'i - fios'cule a, LMuipoeite floiret ; 
Floaa, Ibe liovo in oertain Com- 
positoe, tu Thistle-down ; FloHlfl- 
ek'tlim. flowermg, expansion of 

Flon'llib, Blair'a word for a disk- 
floret of Compocitae ; luUf ~ the 
same for liguUte florets, 

FIoT'er, defined under Flos ; ~ Bnd, 
an uneipnadcd flower, aa distinct 
from a leaf-bud ; ~ Head, a cluster 
of flowers, aa the Cspitulum or 
Head in Compoeitae ; Flow'siaga. 
the state of being in Sower ; 
Tlow'eret, a atnall tluwer, n floret : 
Flo w'erinesi, abounding with 
flowers ; Flow'ertng, tbe maturily 
of tbe floral or)(ans, and expan- 
sion of their envelopes ; ~ Qlums, 
the lower of tbe two organs which 
gnbtend the flower of tirasBes (the 
upper being the palea) ; ~ Flanta^ 
PBAHKKCHiAMa ; flow'trlBss, defllt- 
tut« of flowers ;~Planla = CBVETO- 
QAK9 ; Flor'arlessness, abseuue of 
flowers ; SoVeiy, abounding in 

nowen Of tan = Ailhaliam >e) 
Fr. ; ~ of Wine, growth of Sac- 
charomyrta Mycoderma, Keeas. 

in'ituit. Jti'itav (Lat.), floating. 

Dnmliia'lls, Sumin'eiu (fivmtn, a, 
river), applied to plants which 
grow in running water. 

Flon^i'eeiice (from Fluor-spar), the 

Sroporty of diminishing the re- 
'sngibility of light ; ~ of Cblor'o- 
pbyll, the shifting of the spectrum 
by the ooloaring matter contnineii 
in chlorophyll. 

Oh'tUI, flm-ia'lU, BaTlAt'lo (Crozier). 
0.-a'TiMXiiB,fiuoiai'ilie{Lat.), applied 
t« pUntH growing in streams. 

fts-wocA, oabwood destroyed by 
i^reutn (Tubeuf ) ; Fl^-tnpi, con- 
trivkoCM by which inseols are 


caught, as pit«her«, t«QtAolee of 

Droeera, etc. 
)>emln'eils = PEMINRUS, female. 
oe'tlduB (Lat., stinking), fetid, smel- 

'ina strongly and disaereeably ; 

lowers w 
n flies. 

to'lded, in vernation when the two 
halves of ■ leaf are applied to one 
another; ~ TU'sne, endoderm with 
suberifled or liquified membrane, 
oonfined to a band on the lateral 
and tranaverae faces of the cells, 
without thickening (Vod Tieghem). 

rolla'Dmns, -tua (foimm, a l^f, -i- 
aceous), having the texture or 
shape of a leaf, aa the branches of 
Xylophyila; - TttBllua, a frondose 
tbnllus, flat and leaf-like, naually 
crisped and lobed, which spreads 
over the surface on which it grows, 
and can be detached without mnch 
injury ; roll*'cea«, frondose vascu- 
lar Cryptogams ; Foliage, tbe leafy 
covering, especially of trees ; — 
Learas, ordinary leaves, as distin- 
guished from those which have 
undergone metamorphDaes as 
bracts, petals, etc, ; fo liar ,/o/in'rw 
(1) leafy or leaf-like; (2) inaorted 
on, or forming; sn appendii: to a 
leaf, epiphyllouB ; ciVr-Atu /olia'rvi 
= tendril ; '• Gap, a meeh in the 
vaacalar bundle cylinder from the 
margin of which vascular bundles 
pass into the frond in Ferns ; — 
Spar, a dwarf shoot in a pine-tree, 
which bears a pair of leaves (Ear- 
tig) ; ~ Traoi, - Lb*f-tr*o« ; tbe 
remains of the voaoular bundle or 
bundles which supplied the leaf. 

folia t«,/ofia'fu<(Lat., leaved), clothed 
with leaves, as bl-tollate, two- 
leaved, etc. 

Folia'Uon, Folia'do (Lat.), vernation ; 
used by Grew for the act of leafing. 

Fo'UaWre IJblialura, toUagc), Bkir^s 
term for petals. 

foUferons, rolllf eroni, ■rut [folium, 
a leaf, fero, I bear), leaf-bearing ; 
folUTsra* Osm'maa = leaf ■ bads ; 
folUo'oloiu {edo, I inhabit}, grow- 


ing OD leaves, sa some Funsi and 
LinheoB ; fo'lUform, /oIii/orm'i» 
i/orma, shape) = folittceouB ; folU- 
p'tfom, nu (pario, I bring fortb), 
be&riDg ieareB. 

PolloU (dim. of/olivin.), a. laaflet, the 
secondary divition of & compound 
leaf ; fo'llOllM, /oliUa'tiu. clothed 
with leafletB ; bi-, tiifa'UolaM, two- 
tbree-leofletted ; fallo'lefta, ioleo- 
la'mu, growiDf; (row the end of a 
IbmS-, fo'UolOM, cloael; covered 
with loaQebs ; Fo'Iiolum, a sniOiU 
le»t or leaflet,! fo'llose. /olio'sut, 
aloeely clothed with leavea; fo'llem, 
having leaves inlermiled with 
flowers : Fo'Unm (Lat,), a leal, pi. 

FoUice'tnm (/alliculum, a email bag), 
* whorl of follicles ; Pol'liola, 
FoUic'viaf, (1) a fruit of one carpel, 
opening by a ventral suture to 
which the seede are attached, 
(ormetly applied tc any cnpaular 
fruit ; [2] by Linnaeus uied lor the 
bladder of UlrU^iIaria ; roUlc'ular, 
foUieula'rii, fidllcnllConn'la {forma, 
shape), shaped like a follicle. 

fonta'niu, tontliiB'Us (Lat., relating 
to a spring), growing in or neat a 
aprtng of water. 

Food-tx^B, small pear-shaped bodies 
formed on or near the leaves of 
certain plants, as Acacia ipadtci- 
/tra, Cham. Jk Schlecht, and Leea 
atqKota, Linn., which are nttlised 
by ante at food ; Germ. " Ameiaen- 

Foot, (I) as a measure, 12 inches, or 
30.5 cm,, sign ' ; (2) = PonniM ; 
(3) a development from the hypo- 
iMsal pnrt of the embryo, m an 
organ of attachment and touiporary 
nntritioD ; (4) in Myxogastres, 
the first development, from the 

Elaamodioni which leads to the 
)rmation of spores, a cell-wall of 
cellulose, forming an axis {Van 
Tieghem); ~ Cdl, the spore of 
OaUulina rosea, CJenk., arising 
from a naked cell of protoplasm, 
from the aggregated pioBmodium ; 
n. Em'bryo, on anestod terminal 

growth of the embryo of C'ltleria, 
thoB differing from the protO' 
nematoid eoHiryo of the same 
species ; — Rot, a disease on 
species of Citrvn caused by Ftu- 
ariuia Jjirnojiis, Brioai; — Stalk, 
a stem specialised as peduncle, 

Fora'meiL (Lat., a hole), an aperture, 
especially that in the outer inte- 
guments of the ovule,c/^MTC!iopvLB; 
tonm'lnoM, /orantinoVu, per- 
forated by holes ; Foramln'ula, 
"theostiolnmof certain Fungala" 
(Lindley) ; roramin'nlote, marked 
with little holes. 

Force, any cauee which changes the 
state of a body aa to real Or motion ) 
vital force is kinetic energy. 

For'clnK, the operation by whioh 
cultivators produce fruit and 
vegetables out of aeaBon, early OT 

for'cipate, forkipa'lm l/orceps, nip- 
pers), forked like pincers. 

forDca'tuB {forfix, sciseorB), soiBsor. 
like, resembling shears, 

forked, separating into two divisions, 
more or less npart. 

Form {for' ma, shape), a alight 
variety, or variation, as long and 
short-styled Fornia ; - Gon'ns. a 
genus made up of an assemblage 
of — Spe'ctea, an apparent species 
which is really a Hingle stage of 
the life-cycle of a ptcomorphoua 
species ; ~ Spore, ■ body aimulat- 
ing a spore, but without genuino' 
ting power, or remaining attached 
to its Bporophore ; Formae 0x7- 
da'tae, cruBtaceoua LichenH which 
have become mat-coloured from 
an infiltration of some salt of 

Forma'Qon {formaiio, a ahaping), in 
botany, applied to an oaaemblago 
of plants of similar habits and en- 
vironment, as a forest is a ~ of 
IresB, turf a ~ of grasasB ; an asBO- 
oiation, in Germ. "Pdanienvorein"; 
fonn'fttlya, giving form, plastic ; 
- Hate'iiAla, applied to Btich as 
starch, Bogar, fate, and albumi- 

Doidfl ; — Be'clon, the gruwiog 
point proper, 

IWnlcate, jbmica'lvji (Lat., orohed 
over), provided with sole-like 
appendages in the oorolla-tube, at 
in Myoiotit; Por'nicsi, pi. of For'- 
ntx (Lat.), a tittle scale. 

FM'lil i/oimt, dug), the reniui 
a pluit chuigmi to a stony 
■iatence, from varioaa itrata ; ~ 
Bot'uiy, the department vbich 
takes note of foeail plants, pnlaeo- 

Foc'nila (Lat., a little ditch], a email 
groove in boiqb Diatom -valve*. 

FOBf er-pUnt = Host. 

fonr.fold, quadruple ; — Pollen 
OnUsa, as in Oenothera, which 
form coherent tetrads. 

FOT'aft (Lat., n small pit), a depres- 
sion or pit, lis in the upper surface 
of the leaf-base in ItoHtt, which 
contains the sporangium. 

FoVeolA, (1} a small pit; (2) "the 
perithecium of certain Fungals " 
(Lindley); (3) in Imites. a amall 
depreaaion above the fovea, from 
which the ligule springs ; for'eate, 
foiva'lvt, pitted : foVeolate, fovfO- 
la'li'x, diminutive of the last. 

Forll'la {/mvo, I nonrish), the con- 
tents of the poUen-grain. 

Foz'Blon-alutped, like the corolla of 
DiffilaiU, digital iform, 

tnefMoA (Lat., mellow}, of a past; 
texture, between 6eihy and pulpy. 

Fngmanta'tionC./Hijrnieneuin, apiece], 
Van Benedcn'a term for direct divi' 
■ion of tbe nucleus. 

Fraa'pUlu, a yellow crystalline body 
from the parenchyma of /fAamnui 
Franjpdn, Linn. 

ritXura'ltj i/ratcmila; a brother- 
hood), see Adeij*hu, 

Fimx'liiiii. a principle existing 

bark of the ash, ^™. 
'. adhor 

, the r 

- , „, 3 of 

adnata ; Pree-eall, a cell formed bj 
~ OaUromu'tloii, the production 
of new oetia from several nuclei 
within the toother ■ cell, as in 

ppollan, eodogenoua cell-formation, 

Frea'cMng, a disease caused by 
/'iHdWum i'ann/«f(um. Atkins., in 
the leaf of the cotton . plant 

fre'quent, used of a species often 

Ftlglda'iiam (Lat., tbe cool room), 
in botanic gardens applied l« the 
Orangery, or Temperate House, 
with simple eicluflion of frost. 


Flingt, used by Sir W. J. Hooker 
for the peristome of mosses ; 
MnKed, margined with hair-like 
appendages, nmbriate. 

Frond, From (Lat., a leaf), (I) the 
foliage of Ferns and other Crypto- 
gams ; (2) the leaves of Palms, ac 
cording to Linnaeus ; Itondeac*', 
to unfold leaves ; Frondei'oenoa, 
Frondacen'tia, (1) vematiOD ; (3) 
phyllody ; (3) by Morren r»- 
slncted to the formation of leaf- 
like organs in the place of petals ; 
see also Vibrschnoe; &vnillfeT0li8 
{/ere, I bear), producing fronds ; 
tron'ditoim (/orma, shape), like 
the fronds of Ferns ; [Tcndlp'aroai 
{pario, I bring forth), (1) bearing 
fronds ; (2) the monstrous prodnc 
tion of leaves instead of^ fmit ; 
Fron'dlet, a small frond ; tTon'dOM, 
fron'douB, /rmulo'img (Lat., full of 
leaves], (1) leafy ; (3) or 
bearing fronds ; ~ Tlwalni, folia, 
ceoua thaltus ; Fron'dBla, FTon'- 
dtilet, used bv J. Smith for the 

Front, of a Diatom, is that view 
which has the oiogulum facing 
and the valves fore-shortened in 
side view. 

Ihjat'ed. with a surface having the 
appearonce of hoar frost. 

PTuctet'cmioe, Fnuleactn'lia {/rueliu, 
fruit), tbe time of maturity of 

fruBtlferous l/mrli/er, froit.boaring), 
producing or bearing fruit ; OalfX 
truc'tUer, the fruiliiia calyx. 

Prmrtidoa'tion, /Vued^OT'do (Lat)., 
(I) frniting; (2) in Cryptogams, 
the result of the leiual act ; (3) 



aggregaU of them. 

&iictlp'kioiis (/t-Nc/im, fruit, parlo, 
I bring forth) ; Fruc'tOH, fruit- 
■Dgar, or levulase ; it exists with 
other BugarB in fruils. honev, and 
tresde ; Fme'tn* (Lot.), fnut, the 
product resulting Irooi fertilisation. 

fi^lgirarDQl i/ruge>, pi. oifnix, fruits 
of the earth, ftro, I hear), pro- 
duoina fniita or arops. 

Pmlt, ( 1) Btriatly, the jwrioarp and iu 
seeds, the fertilized and developed 
oTary ; (2) widely, the matured 
pericarp and its contents, with anj 
axt*roal part which is an integral 

Krtion of it ; ~ Dots, Ibo sori of 
ma ; ~ Oalls, dtaeased growth 
caused by Uslilitgo Trevhii, Solms ; 
~ Stalk, (1) peduncle ; (2) the seta 
of Mosses ; - Bn'gar, = lovaloaa ; 
- W»1U, (or - Coats] = pericarp ; 
Spn'rlons ~ = PsKnow.^RP. 

(rumenta'ceoas, /mmenla'ctus (L^t. , 
of com); bruneata'rions, /runten- 
te'Wn* (Ut.), (1) pertaioing 

grain ; (2) prodi — *■" 

■tarch to warrant cuiiuru ; nu- 
men'tum (Lat., grain), produce of 
oorn-lfltidB ; grain or cereals. 

frnstm'iieoni {/rwitra. useless), relat- 
ing to the Ijinnean order Fraelra- 
iMa, Compos ilae with the disk 
flowers hermaphrodite, and those 
of the ray noutar or imperfect. 

Ftni'tnl*, Fms'titla {fru^Cvlum, a 
small piece), a Diatom cell, consist- 
ing of valves, girdle and oon- 
tents ; nm'mia, an obiolete 
synonym ; frni'tuloae. consisting of 
small fragments. 

Fnt'taz (I^t.), a shrub, a woody 
plant deatitnte of a trunk ; OTlt- 
•a'cvnt, /ruies'ceiui, becoming 
shnibby ; irn'tjcuit, /ru'ticoTU, 
growing into a shrub-like plant ; 
fhl'tiooBB, /rutiai'niA, frn'tlcoiia, 
shrubby ; ~ Thallus, a Lichen 
having a shruh-like thallun ; (rutl- 
o'alose, somewhat shrubby ; Fmtl- 
fl'nlus ( Lat). , a small shrub. 

Ru'toM = I^uoTOSB, Fruit-sugar. 

IB'ooU (A'cHs, from ^et, iMweed, 


iXlot, like),[Ucol'ilaI, resembling sea- 
weed ; Fu'cosan, Hanstein'e name 
for a granular subBtance found in 
the asflimiiating tissue of Fucoi- 
deae, the Pboeophyoeae- starch of 
Suhmitz ; Fn'ooie, is probably a 
partial inversion of it ; Foco- 
xan'tblne (fafPo!, yellow), Sorhy's 
name for the colouring matter of 
the olive.grcen aea weeds. 

foga'cious {fti'jax, fleeting), soon 

nu'dens {fvkio, I support), support- 
ing, used of an organ above another. 

Fnl'cta (pL of fulrram,, a prop), the 
appendages of the leaves, as 
prickles, tendrils, Btipules, etc; 
fnlcn'ceuB, % of or belonging to the 
fulcra; tBl'isnXt,f'dcra'liis, having 

fnllEln'aas (Lat., sooty), mils'liuiilB, 

, iooty, 1 

f^lg'llioss, /u/iijinaii 

rnlmln'eiu [/ulmtTi, lightnins), ful- 
vous, almost brown ; used of a 
species of Cortinariun by Fries. 

full, used of a double- flower, the 
stamens and pistils being trans- 
formed into petals. 

folvel'lDS, fulves'cena, fiil'TldQs(Lat)., 
mi'via (Crozier), the diminutive of 
tlie next ; fUl'vona, /uf i-us (Lat)., 
yellow, tawny. 

fBmeus(Lat., full of smoke), smoky, 
or smoke- coloured ; fa'mldus (Lat. ), 
iabtlj smoke-coloured ; ftunl- 
iln* (IjiI. 1 ug though smoked, 

fnma'rloid, like the genus Fumana. 

Fnnc'tion Ifunciio, performance), the 
peculiar action caused by certain 
stimuli : fOnc'tlonal Hetah'oUsm, 
the kinetic effects of certain chemi- 
cal changes in the plant. 

mndamen'tkl {/andamenlHm, ground- 
work), basic; ~ OsUa, parancbyma; 
~ Or'gwu, the nutritive organs es- 
Bontial to plant existence ; ~ Spi'nl 
= genetic spiral ; ~ ays'tejn - cell- 
ular system ; — Tla'ane, tissue not 



belonging to the normal or fssuicit- 
Ur syBtem. graund-tiBaue i fanOa- 
manU'Uiu, an eewntkl part, oi the 
aiii and appendages of a plant ; 
Fnadamea'tmn = HyrocorvL. 
au'diu (Lat., fouDdsLion] ^Collcm. 
iBKa'ceoni {fungxt*. a mushroom), F, 
von Mueller's word for fungoid or 
funguB-liki: ; flm'gaJ, relating to 
fungi ; fDn'gic, belonging to muah- 
rooma; -Ac'ld, amiiture of citric, 
malic, and phospiioric aoids{Cooke) ; 
Rut'Eleldal (-ci'i/a, a killer), destruc- 
tive of fungi ; Funglci'ds, an agent 
or mixture for killing Fungi, auti- 
mTootic ; fo&'Eirona, fua-ii/onn'U 
(formn, shape), fanKU'Ilfonn. f\m- 
gUl^/orm'U, mushroom - abspDil ; 
Fungil'liu, a small parOBitic fungus ; 
Pung'ln, the "fleah" of muiili- 
rooms, fungus cellulose ; lUngl'- 
n<u, belonging to a fungun ; fuag'- 
old {tlSos, like), pertaining to a 
fungus ; - Par'a^tca, paraaites 
which are Fungi ; fong'OM, fv/ng- 
a'fu>,tluiK'ous,(l)apongy iu texture; 
jZ) relating to a Fungus ; |3) pro- 
dnced by a Fungos ; Fungs, P. von 
Moellor's word for the plural of 
FmiK'aa (Lat., a mushroom), pi. 
Pnnsi. tliallophftes destitute of 
clilorophyll, parasitic or saprophy- 
tic, comprehending forms from the 
simplest unioellular structure to 
some of complex charaiiter, many 
are symbiotic ; ~ Cel'lnow, the sub- 
■tonoe of the cell-wall in Fungi ; 
— Oun'tMge, a jellov, reeioous 
colouring matter found in Fungi ; 
~Trapa,or "o»tohcrop9,"quioklj 
growing crops to secure attack bj 
Platmo/iiophora Brofiicw., and re- 
moval with the fungus, leaving the 
land free for that season for a later 
orop of Crucifers; fnng'iued, at- 
Ueked bv fungus (C rosier). 
Fn'nlcla, Funiifutiu (^imu, a rope), 
(I) the cord or thread which som«- 
timea oonnecta the ovule or seed to 
the placenta; (2) in Nithilaria, a 
cord of hyphae attaching the peri- 
diolnm to the iuoer lurlace of the 
wall of the peridium ; tU'nlfonn 

(forma, shape), rope-like ; ftiaU'l- 
lorm, applied to organs, tough, 
cylindrical, and flexible, as theroots 
of arborescent Monocotyledona, 
Fnn'nsl, in Mareiiiuceae, a apace below 
the thick outer coats of the ma- 
orospore into which the apical 
papilla projects (Goebel) ; nin'nal- 
fDrm, fun'nel-sbapeit, hypocra- 

tai-caM,/arca-lua (Ut.) forked, with 
lerntmal lobes which are like 
pronga; fDT'cellate,/urr(i2Iu'Cui^ dim- 
inutively forked. 

fnrfunt'oeoaa, -eiM (fur/ur, bno), 
scurfy, having aott scales. 

ftu'rawml, aulcste, striate on a Urge 

(nr'ry, pubescent (Lowe). 

mr'TOt (Lat. swarthy), black and 

fUsw'ttts [ Lat. ), /utctl'lv'. (Uicet'Mnt, 

-CTM, /tucicT ufu*, somewiiat duaky ; 

tas'cans, /ua'cus [Lat, dark), 

dusky, too brown for a grejr ; 

the word is akin to^riiu. 
ta'wiIoim,j'ii»i/brm'if{/iitJu, a spindle, 

/orma, shape), thick, but tapering 

towards each end ; fiui'nns, { a 

synonym of the last. 
Fn'sion (/luris.a metling), the complete 

union of voeaeU, aa in the latici- 

feroiiB vessels. 
fu'aold (/u#tu, a spindle, tlSos, like), 

somewhat fnaiform. 

- 1(2) 

a substance in leguminous seeds 
likcGum Arabic ; gftlacU'tox, while 
as milk ; Oalac'tOM, a augar pro- 
duced from Galactin, 
Oal'banum (Lat. ), a gum of uncertain 
origin; gal'banuB (Lat.), a colour 
resembling the same, greenish- 

Qal'bulua (Lat.). the fruit of tha 
cypress, a modified cone, the apex 
of each carpellary scale being en- 
larged and somewhat fleshy, 

QiJ'aa (I^t, , a helmet), a petal shaped 
like a helmet, plaoed next to Iha 
axis, as In ^contUm; Bal'wtt, 


gnUa'tug, hollow and vaolted, >b in 
many labiate ooroUas ; S4laifDnii'lJ 
(/orma, shape) = galeaM. 

pOerlc'tilBta [galrrieuluni, m c«p), 
coTored, aa with a hat. 

OaJl, Cafla (Lat., aD oak-appio), a 
monatrouB growth canaed bj an 
inaeut punature : ~ Flow'erB, alro- 
phi«d female Uonera of thu fig. 
within whose ovaries the egg» of an 
imact undergo evolution ; (Wile 
Ao'ld, an aetringent occurring 
abundantlf in oalt-galla ; Oallo- 
tan'nln, a glucoside occurring in 
oak- bark. 

galoch'roua (yilXa, milk, xi"^'i skin), 
milk white. 

Oallo'olan Ourre, sm NiwroNttit 

gal vxnotrop'lc (after Oalvani, thedia- 
covorer of galvauia electrioitj'. 
rpotnj, a torn), ourvuture shown 
when Hubjeoted to a galvanic cur- 
rent, UBuaHy towardo the positive 
pole : OalTUiat'roplanL, the condi- 
tion juet dEBcribed 1 neg'aUve ~, 
when the curvature ia towards the 
negativQ pole of the current. 

OSim'tKi^. a yellow resinous gum 
from several species of Guttiferae ; 
Fnngua r-, a Homewhat Himilar 
proiiuet found io some Fungi. 

Oam'etangs, Qametang'luin (to^^ti)!, a 
■potue, iTTEuiv, a vessel), diBerenti- 
sted oavities in the fiUmente of cer- 
tain Algae which produce OiMirrR!!; 
Bun'ets, a unisexual protoplaamia 
body, ineutable of giving rise to 
another individual until after con- 
jugation with another gamete, and 
the JQiDt production ol a ZxnOTB ; 
SametOgfan'lC [yiyvau, I prodnce), 

leua, the 

nucleus of a famet« ; Qameto- 
Ctn'sttl {yerriu, I bring forth), 
the production of gametes ; Qam'- 
etold {tlSiH, reaemblanea}, an apO' 
aytial alnicture which aniMe like 
a gamete, producing a zygotoid 

as the result ; Qam'itophon [ipopfu, 
I bear), the portion of an algal 
51ament which prodnoea gametes, 
according to function further 
discriminaled as Ahdkogahcto- 


Oam'atophyll (ipiWoy, a leaf), a 
more or lesa speoialiBed leaf which 
bears the sexual organs; Oam'eta- 
phyte (^in-av, a plant), tho genera- 
tion which boars the iBiual organs, 
producing gametes, in turn giving 
rise to the Sfdhoi^vts ; Gun'sto- 
plasm {ir\ij/iii, moulilsd), the pro- 
toplasm of game tea. 
ffamodaa'mtc (ya>iai, marriage, onion, 
iiaiiii, a bond), used of a stela 
which has its component vascular 
elements fusod together ; Oamxi- 
des'my, the stelar condition in 
question ; Gunoe'da (slirot, a house), 
used by Li nd berg for the inflor- 
escence of Bry uphytea ; gama- 
gM'trona (yaffnjp, the belly), ap- 
plied to a pistil formed by the more 
or lesa complete union of ovaries, 
the styles and stigmas remaining 
free : Oamogen'osla {ytnais, bo- 
ginningl, seiual reproduction; 
eamoKen'lo (t/foi, offspring), de- 
veloped OS the result of a sexunl 
process ; aamome'rini t i^'po', 
a part), a flower whose parts are 
united by their edges (Lindlej); 
0<uuo]9et'alM (WTnXor, a flower- 
leaf), plants having the petals 
united, adj.: gamopeValooB, -tve ; 
EanojAyll OUE, -Ins («u\\or, a leaf), 
with leaves united by their edges ; 
Omn'ophyta {•puTon, a plant), pro- 
posed hy C. Macmillan for " sexual 
plants ; Banwasp'alons, -Im ( + 
Sefaluh}, the sepaU united into a 
whole { OunoBpor'ae {a-rofA. seed), 
Cohn's term for those Algae which 
produce zoogonidia or Eygosporea, 
as the Conjugatae, Voh-ocineae, 
and Fuooideae, i^. C.\rpi>51'orba»; 
Oam'osl«Ie (0-717X1;, a post), a poly- 
Blele, in which the vascular bundles 
are oot distinct thronghoat th^ 
entire length, but fosed together at 
some portion; adj. ~ ■-■■■- 

U'17. ^B state detcribed ; 
Bunotrop'la [rjwiHi, a turn], the 
poailiOD of flon-erH when expanded 
(Hans^irg). r/. 

, . .. mil.;;). 

UacmillanB term [or the movement 
of mutual attraction in similar con- 
jugating aametea. 

OulghiA, pL of OaUfrHoil {yayyXlor, 
a little tumour), used for various 
enlargemcDti of tnjceliuni, same 
being rudimentBr]' fructificationB 

Oaiig'Tene, Oaugrt'na {yaYrp<i'"^t au 
eating ulcer), a dieease ending in 
putrid decay. 

Ou, pi. OoMi, in plants, a uontiou- 
OUB sjBt«ni from tbe storasta and 
leotioala by the interuellar (paoes, 

Outeronyce'teE {yaar-np, the belly ; 
fiinTji, [uQgue), a division of Funjn 
which includes Lycoptrdon, Puff, 
balls ; Oaiterotlialaiii'eu (0i\ii»iot, 
a bed-ohamber), referring lo those 
LicheoB whose sporangia are al- 
ways closed or which burst through 
the cortical layer of the ThBllus: 
gu'tric Bacte'rl&, those whioh are 
found in the digestive tract of 

OktUne' (Fr.), a disease in silkworms 
caused by parasitic Fungi. 

QMlI'UiaraBe, an enzyme producing 
oil of Wintergreen and glucose 
from QftDl'tlierlii. a prinoipb occur. 
ring io QavUktria. 

(Mittmaeup'y [yfituir, a neighbour ; 
jiafirai, hiniit), fruit produced by 
ferlUlKation of difibrent Qou-crs in 
the same individual ; Qeitonog'uiiy 
(To^ot, marriage), fertilization by 
another flower on the same plant. 

Oal'Ktin (ytii'Iu*, congealed), in plaots 
confined to albums o- like bodies, 
which are lough , viscid, aod scarcely 
soluble in water ; Oel&t'lua hy- 
mene'a, a gelatinous substaocu 
surrounding the asoi and para, 
physei in some Lichens ( Lei gbton) ; 
ajtaHiiiM'HiHi uB«d when a mem. 
brane breaks down into a jelly-like 
; gelatinous, joUy-like : ~ 
-""'""«, tissue which is slimy 

from the cell membrane being 
soft and mucilaginous ; Ketat'lnow. 

grlaCiiio'aus (gelalio, freezing), bay. 
ing the consistence or appearance 
of jelly : Gel'atoid (dJot, like), sur- 
gested for protein. like substances 
resembling gelatin (Bscombe) ; 
Qeliflca'tion, becoming gelatinous ; 
Oelln'eae, cells in Algae which 
8ecret« vegetable jelly ; Oel'oss. 
vegetable jelly from AKSr-Agar. 

Oem, a leaf-bud, (/l Gbhua. 

Qem'inate, gemina'tiu (LaC. doubled), 
in pairs, binate. 

Otm'lnl (Lat.), twins, paired ; gviat- 
nlflor'us ijloa, Jlorii, a flower), bear- 
ing two flowers, or two flowers 

Oem^tut (Lat.), (1) a voung bud, 
either of flower or leaf as used by 
Ray ; (2) an asexual product of 
some Cryptogams, as in the Hepat- 
icae, analogous to leaf-buds ; — 
Brood = BOOOD-UEMMA ; ■- Oup = 
Cyavbus; gemma'ceaus( -t- aoeous], 
relating to iBaf-buds ; QemitiA'tloa, 
Otmma'tio, (1) budding, vernation ; 
{'2) disposition or phyllotuxjB of 
buds ; gemmiferous (/ero, I bear), 
bearing buds ; pem'mifonn (forma. 
^bape), bud-sbaped ; gemmlp'troui 
[}jario, I bear), producing buds ; 
Oem'MUle, Qem'mvla, (1) buds of 
Mosses, and rsproductivs bodies 
of Algae : (2) = Plumulb ; {3) = 
Ovule (Bndlicher); |4) oerlain 
primary formative granules io the 
protoplastn (Naegeli). 

OeDBagen'sBla [ytrta, stock, race ; 
7^viiri I, beginning) = FaRTHEiloaBij- 

Oen'era, pi. of Gkm;s. 

een'aral. gaiera'iia (Idt., pertaining 

to all), opposed to partial, as — 

Oen'eratfng' {geiienUio, a begetting), 

produeing ; ~ Spl'ral = qsnetic 

Spibal; Tis'me - Uekisteu ; gen'- 
Call, (IJ a gamete or sexual 


actively cxiQcemed 
Ocnerk'Iloiu, altemaMon oi, eee 
Alternatioh; Oeo'entlTaHn'clem, 
see NucLECB. 

gmw'U.geiifT'iewi (jenua, birth, r«oe), 
the differeoces which tnaba tha 
genus ai opposed to those which 
make the order, or spr cies. 

DcBMlerog? iyivtms, origin, \6yoi, dis- 
oonm), the doctrine of the traoa- 
miuion of qualities from the parent, 
both in FGgelstive and sexual re] 
dncCion (Archer) ; gsnet'lo, 
logioal, that which cornea by in- 
heritance; ~ Bpl'rol, a spiral line 
which passes through the point of 
insertion of all equivalent lateral 
meiubera on an axis, in order of 

1 fertilization; 

twHtfnlale. trmicii/a'dm 

(Ut., . 


bent Itneea), abruptly bent 

a> to resemble the 


Qenlc'aliuii, a node 

of a\ 


0«alt«'lla, Qm-iUiM {gt 



taining U> birth), in 



stamens and pistils, 

or their 


Oens (Lat., a oalion), 

a tribe 


Om'tluiliie, the bitter 



a«nnfl«c'tlcui iyenti, the koee, Jltc(o, 
1 bend), a bend in a conjugating 
fitameot of an Alga ; gen'tulexed 
(j(exim, bent), bent, as the valves 
of certain Diatoms. 

Oaa'tu (Lat., a raoe), the amallsst 
natural eroap oontaioiog distinct 
■p«ei«i ; large genera are frequently 
for this saks of convenience divided 
into aeotioas, bul the generic name 
is applied to all speoicH -. ~ Hy'brlil, 
a hybrid betveeo two genora, a 
bigener or bi gen eric cross. 

Oa'oblait, Otoma^tMg (7^, the earth, 
pXaarn, a bud), an embryo whose 
cotyledons remain under ground in 
germination as the pea. 

geocal'ycali resembling the Hepatic 
IB Oeacalyj; Neea ; marsupial. 
]M'ala (Yn. the earth, aliOtiins, 
peroeption by sense), the capacity 

of a plant to respond to the stimu' 
tus of gravity. 
gWJgrapb'lc (ypa^l}. writing), descrip- 
tive of the esTtb or a portion there. 
of ; ~ Bot'uiy, Chat department 
which takes account of the -• 
Disbrltni'tlon of plants over the 
earth's surface ; geolog'lc (Xftyin, 
discourse) Bot'any = Palaeobotaoy 
or Fossil Botany ; gsoph'Uoiu 
(^iWu, I love), earth loving, 
used of Buoh plants as fruit 
undarground : ~ Pon'gl, those 
which grow saprophytically on 
decaying vegetable matter on the 
ground ; Oe'ophyte* [^vrir, a plant), 
applied by Areschoug to Chose 
plants which produce underground 
buds, with perennial development 
there; goonyotltrop'lD (nij, ni«iii. 
night, Tpori), a turuing), ale«t)> 
movements requiring also the 
stimulus of gravity ; a«at«x'ls 
(Tdfii, ardor), movement in plants 
caused by gravity (CJiapek) j Oso- 
tbenaom et«r {drpiwi, warm, ^rpo>, 
a incaaure). a thermometer for 
earth Ceniperatures ; Oeotort'lam 
{tortue, twisted), torsion caused by 
the influence of gravitation (Sahwen- 
dener and Kralibe) ; Osot'ropliy 
[Tfnufiii, food), unilateral inequality 
owlh due to poHiti 

regard t 

er) ; geo- 

e of gravity 01 

ing organs) OMt'ropism. the force 
of gravity as shown by curvature in 
nascent organs of plants ; ueg'BtlTG 
~ growing away from the earth, 
as Bt«ms do normally ; pos'ltlTe, 
growing towards the earth's centre, 
as roots ; tnuu'veTM ~ , = DlAOKo- 

Genu Ojermeji. a bud], (1) a bud or 
growing point ; (2) the ovary or 
young fruit ; [H} a reproductive 
cell, especially iu baot«ria ; — 
Cell, ( 1 ) a female reproductive cell ; 
(2) a spore of the simplest character, 
a spondium (Brefela); ~ Kn'eleni, 
the nucleus resulting from the 
□f the pronuclei of two 


gametes in coDjugation ; ~-Plami, 
tbe OHeumed onginsl gene rati re 
■ubBtanoe conlaioed in the bodj 
of the parent from which new in- 
dividualB arise ; e/ SouA - plabm 
(WeiiTDiuiD) ; ~ Fore, h pit oa tbe 
surface of a spare-envelope through 
which a genu-tube makea its ap- 
peaiancB ; ~ Tnba, a tubular pro- 
cesa from a apore developing into 
a hypha, and then iataamfcelium 
or promyceliam. 
Oeniuui'le. Wataoo'i Mrm for a type 
of distribution in Great Britain of 
thoae plants who«e headquarters 
are in the eaat«rn portioiu of the 

Osr'men (Lat,. a bud), (1) LinnaeuB's 
term for the ovary ; (2) formerly 
used for the oapsule of Mosses ; (3) 
by Pliny and later writers it Bigni- 
fied a bud Kenerally ; Qer'niloide 
{■dda, a killGr), an agent which 
causes tbe death of bacteria 
or spores ; qf. SruHOCiDK ; Oemil- 
enl'tnn (+ Ci;LTtniE), the practice 
of bauleriolooy i gwr'miiiabls ( + 
able), capable of germinating ; 
viable ; gtt'mla*!, relating to a 
bud ; ~ Appam'tDB, = Eaa- 
iiFPiaATOs ; ~ Car'puscle - 
OfiSPHBttB; — Dot, of DiatomB, 
the centrosome (!) ; ~ Ud, a 
separable area of a pollen-grain, 
breaking away to permit a potlen- 
tobe to issue ; ~ Pro'cesi X ■ 
part belonging to or proceed- 

»uig from on ovary (Lindley) : 
~ Bllt, a small break in the eeed- 
ooat of Boitaminoae ; ~ ye'slcle, 
= OoeFHKftB ; OsTmlna tton, Oer- 
mina'fio, the first aat of growth in 
a seed : sprootitig ; g«nn'liuitlrB 

Hu'ClSni = N 170 LID 3, UESEHA- 

garontosae'ous, •acun lyipui', fipoiTiK, 
an old man, 7^, the earth), used of 

Slants which are confined to tbe 
Id World. 
SibHwr (Lai., hamp-backed), gtblrnw, 
glb'bona, (TiUero'siu, mote «onvex in 

I one place that) another, a pouch- 
Uke enlorgameDt of the base of an 


laXjj. ; Qlbbos'lty, 

iwelling at the base of 

an organ, 
glgan'tic, gigan'trua (Lat.. pertaining 

to giants), of unusual height. 
GlUa. the plates or lamellae of an 

Agaric which bear the spores. 
gU'in* (Lat)., pale yollow, a term 

of confused application, gometimes 

reddish or even greyish. 
aingertwer "plant," an association 

of organisms which ferment a 

sweetened liquid into Ginger-Beer. 
OJT'dle, (l)thc hoop or cingulum uf 

DiatoniB. that portion of the frus- 

tule which unite 

(3) also applied 

the valves 

race of Cj/ea»: 
1, ringing. 

a groeaiah red. 

branch of the leaf- 

Olrd'Une, in cultivB 

glUugUi'eoa (Lindley) 
(Hayne), defined as „ 
meaning red or purple stteaki 
green ground, as the calyx of 

gtA'^awa. glii'ber [Lat. , without bait), 
gla'brate, glahra'lun. desiitule of 
pnbeacence, by Benthani extended 
to mean also destitul* of any 
raaghDesB : glabres'oeiit, ylahra'ant, 
becoming gtubruus, or slightly so ; 
Dla'brlsm, the smuothneBB of nor- 
mally bairy parts ; Klatotns'otUni 
(Lat.), soniBwhat glabrous. 

gla'dlats, gladia-lua [gladiiiii, a sword) 
(I) flat, straight, or slightly curved, 
with acute apex and approximately 
parallel edges, ensiform ; (S) 
anc piUl. 

Olaud i'jlam, ijla/idU, an acorn) ; (1) 
an acorn, or acorn-like fruit; (2) a 
definite secreting struDtare on tbe 
surface, embedded, or ending a 
hair ; any protuberance of the like 
nature which may not secrete, as 
the warty swellings at tbe baae of 
the leaf in the cherry and peach ; 
(3) in Orchids, sec Clamjula ; ~ of 
the Toma, see Lkpal (Crosier) ; 
Klaadola'ceans, -etv* {+ aoeous), 
the colour of a ripe aoom ; raw 
flienna yellow ; glandirerona {ffro, 
I bear), bearing or producing 

■ • (/. ■ ■ 



•ad Aiclepioda, wbicb holds tbe 
polien-DikBBeB ia their place ; tbe 
rctinBculum ; glftn'dnlar. pouewing 
glanda ; ~ Dllk, = G1.ANUUL& ; ~ 
Balr, an epidermal appecdage, the 
eod of which U ueu&lly eolarged, 
and aoalaJDsaipecLalBccratfioi] ; ~ 
Waod'7 ni'me, coniferouB pilted 
tissue ; Olandnla'tloii, -lio, the 
Wrangement of tbe glandfl on a 

Ct ; glandullf aroQB, -j-us, clao'l- 
ing ; glan'duloae, ■jlaiittalo'xwi, 
gland'oloiiB, glandular ; glan'dnlo- 
M-MTTa'tni, having eerrotious tip- 

eor bordered with glands ; QlsJa 
t.), a fruit ODe-ae^ed by abor- 
tion, or a (ew-aeaded dry inforior 
indehiacent periooip sesitod within 
a cupular involucre, as the fruit of 
the oah, nut, etc. 
glft'real (glarea, gravel), term em- 
ployed by H. C. Wateon for tboae 
planta which crow on dry eipoeed 
ground, chiefly gravel oi Band ; 
ffla'reoae, glareo'ewi, frequenting 

glaticu'aeiit, glawxitcmt {iKavtht, 
bluish grey), becomiDg sea-green ; 
glaucl'nus (Lat. ), bluisli sea-green ; 
KlAn'cons, -cua (1), aea-greeo ; (2) 
covered with a bloom as a plum or 
cabbage -leaf. 

OU'ba (Lat., a clod), the abambered 
apoTogcnouB tissue within a sporo- 
phore of FhaUoidene ; Glt'bnl* (I) 
a synonym of Gi-KBa ; (2) tlie 
spaiangia of certain Fungi, as 
Sidalaria; (3)o rounded elevation 
on the thai) us of Liu hens. 

OU'adln {y\ia, glue), vegetable due or 
gelatin forming part of gluten ; 
Oli'au, the alcohol -soluble part of 

QU dlag-gTOWth = SUDINO Gbowth. 

gUt'terlikt;, lustre from a pulitbed sur- 
face which is not uniform. 

glo'bate {iilobia, a sphere), globular ; 
Olobes, (i row's term lor poUen- 
gr»ioB J oio'irt spennat'M, - - - 

miDeral matter in proleid eiMoa ; 
gao'boM, ^obo'iut, nowty iphencol; 
globular, globula'rit, spheroidal 
in abape -, Olob'ole, the spheri- 
cal aotheridium in Characeae; 
Olob'Dlat, used by Grew for (I) a 
glandular bair, (2) a pollen-grain ; 
Olob'ullii, (1) "round tranai>arent 
granules in cellular tissue, consti- 
tuting fccula" (Henalow) ; (2) the 
chief ingredient in aleuroue or 
protein gr»DuIea, occurring amor- 
phous or as cryatalloida ; (3} in 
Liohena - Chlorophyll (Olivier) ; 
aiob'ulDB (Lat. a little globe), (I) 
used by Necker for the fruit of 
Hepaticae ; (2) the deoiduoua abield 
in some Licbens ; soredia. 

Olo'chld, Olochla'ioia (yXuix^i, an an- 
gular end or barb), (I) a barbed 
Hair or bristle ; (3) a similar struc- 
ture on the maasulae of certain 
Cryptogams which act as organs 
of attachment to a macrospore ; 
g:locbid'eoiu, -fui, gloctdd'late, gla- 
chidia'taa, (lubesceut with barbed 
bristles ; Olo'cbls, a barb. 

OloeoU'cbeiieB (7X0101, sticky), For- 
seU'a name for horaoeomeraus 
Lichens, aaCoUemscei, Ascolicbenea 
with gonidia belonging to the Chro- 
oooooaceaB ; Oloe'ophyte {^orir, 
a plant), Gobi's name for Thallo- 
pnvTE ; Qlolocar'pus (ecvitoi, fruit), 
a tetraspore (Liudlcy), 

Qloma {glomas, a ball), a rounded 
bead of flowers; glom'wBto, o/om- 
era'tua, agglomerate, collected into 
heads ; Olom'enile. Qlonuru'lia, (1) 
a cluster of CJtpitula in a, common 
involucre, as Eihinops ; (2) a 801^- 
DiDU ; glomernllferous (/cm. 1 
bear), bearing clusters of coral-Illce 
etcresoences; glomer'nloae, having 
glomoniloB ; aiom'us t - Glome- 

Oloaaol'ogy {yXMitra. a tongue, \D70t, 
diSDoDrse), tbe explanation of tecli- 
nical terms ; Olcs'aopode, Oloeso- 
pod'lam (loC'i, KBias, a. foot), tbe 
sheathing base of the leaves in 
Isottee ; odj. glosiapod'laL 

Olo'caw (iXtKPj, sweet), an enzyme 

wbioh hydrolases maltose ; Blu'coH, 
{\it groDp of carbohydrates, crjstal- 
liBable and Bolubia in water, oocur- 
ringin fruits, aa grape-Bugar, el«, , 
see Dextrosb, Lkvclose ; (2) also a 
oomroercial term for sjrnpa mode 
from 8t«rch or ((rain ; Olu'ciMlde, 
[tlSot, like), for complex «ubstuicea 
which give rise on decompoBitioa 
to Olucoae, snob bs Amygclalin, 
CoDiferiD, Salicio ; ~ En'tTin*, a 
ferment such aa Synaptose or 

Olna, viaoid secretion on surface of 
some plaute; Bad ~ = 

Clanu'cMiu [yluma, husk of corD, + 
aceous), resembling tbe glumes of 
grsBnei, as tlie perianth -B(<gmeDt£ 
of Juneas; Olnme, Olu'ma, tbe 
chaSy two-ranked members of tbe 
inSorescence of grasses and similar 
plants; burMi '•,elii'pt7 ~, glumes 
which subtend a spikelet, and do 
not include a flower ; ftr'tUe - .flor'al 
~ , Dowsr'illK— , tbe glume in grEisses 
whiob includes a dower, tbe palea ; 
tmt'lliK-, the fertile glume at the 
time of maturity; ater'ile — , a 
glume which auhtends other glumes 
or has no dower ; kIu'hUlI, charac- 
teriied by having a glume ; Qlum- 
al'la, Qlu'meUe, (1) the paloa oF 
graOMa -. (2) the lodicule of tbe same 
(Riohard) iglnmellea'aiu^of orbe- 
longiug to a gtumella ; Olumal'lnle, 
Olvm^K'ia, (1) = palea; (2) = lodi- 
cule 1 glii'minia, having glumes, aa 
a fiower which baa a lubleodiog 

mn'lamln (gluten, glue), an amide 
allied to oaparagin found with 
it in the juieo of beets, etc. ; 
QUn'Mn, a tough protein enbstance 
occurring in grain after the removal 
of the starch ; ~ Cells, of the endo- 
derm contain oil, but no atarch ; 
Olntin'liun, ' ' tbe flesh of certain 
Fun^als" (Lindtey) ; g-Iu'tinoiu, 
glultno'mu, covered with a sticky 

OIt'cbw (^XuiAt, eweet], an enzyme, 
tbe same as Qluoask. 

IBjoartal>'la,or eiy'don, a saccharine 

matter from the roola of Olj/cyrr- 
Ai'ai glabra, Linn., liquorice. 

aiycodm'poH (-rXvKdi. sweet, + 
DaupOSB), a lignocellulose, form. 
jng the hard concretions in the 
flesh of peara ; Glj'cogan [yttriu, 
I bring Forth), a carbohydrate 
present in quantity in epiplasm, 
capable of being converted into 
glucose ; — Uaia, protoplum per- 
meated with glycogen, epiplasm ; 
Olfcoltff'noM (lisniim, wood), a pre- 
sumed gluooaide, from pincwood. 

Qnaoit, burrs or knotty eicrescenoes 
on tree-trunks or roots, probably 
from clusters of adventitious buds. 

piomoa'loal, gnomon'icaii iynii/iuv, the 
pin of a dial}, an appendage when 
abruptly bent at an angle to its 

grob'Iet-shaped = gcf-siufed. 

aouans'inm [ytrin, offspring, dy7(r(», 
a vessel), a spherical Colony of 
/blme^a, etc., overgrown with 
thick ■ walled brown Lichen-by- 
pbae ; Koneoolin'lo ((Xlvi), a bed), 
applied to a hybrid which approii- 
ma(«B to one parent, and not inter- 

gontrroii'rcild, resembling the genus 
Oongrasirii, Kuotz. ; applied to tbe 
restinK-ataeB of VaiKhtria. 

gongylo^es {yoYr"^'". round), knob- 
like ; Qong'Tlai (1) for round corpus- 
cles on oertain Algae, which became 
detached, and germinate as ieparat« 
individuals ; (2) globular bodies 
in the thallus of Lichens; (3) = 
Spore, SponinttrM, Speisika. 

gonlnntol'coDs (fd^ui, offspriag, aini, 
self, cltot, a house), the male in- 
florescence of a Moss, bud-like and 
axillary on a female branch ; 
Oon'M, proposed abbreviation of 
doMiDWU ; Oonldan'glaill (tllnt, 
like, iyyiTor, a Vessel), in a gameto- 
phyte, tbe organ which produces 
a sexual spore or gonidium ; 
Danld'loptiore (^o^u, 1 carry), a 
sporophore which bearsa gonidium ; 
Qonidlnm (1) in Lichens, an algal 
cell of the thoUus ; (2) the tune m 

Brood'OeU, & propagalive oeU, 
ftoexually prodaoed and saparatiog 
from the parent ; KOUld'lAl, per- 
taining to gonidin, oa ~ Laj'sr, (1) 
tn aggregation of aimpla Bonidio- 
phores to form ■ omh ion- lite i»yer 
or cruet ; (2) the algal layer id the 
Lichen -thalluB ; acntde'itiA, Minka'a 
tenn for the eonidial lay Ht. 

OcnUin'la, pL of Oonlm'liui iyin^ot, 
producliTB), the gonidiain Lichens ; 
(onlm'le, relating to ^nidia, as ~ 
Lkr'vr, Iho algal layer in the Lichen- 
tballiu ; QoirlmoblaA {pkamt, a 
(boot), Glamenlfl which ore ofl«il 
clustered, arieing from the ferti- 
lized carpogoninm oE certain Algae ; 
aon'lmalobei [^a^l, a lobe), ths 
termtoal lofte of goaimoblsBti ; 
Oon'lmon, Wallroth'a term for the 
gonidial layer ; gon'lmooi, rel&ting 
t« gonidia. 

Qon'ocyata {^6*01, ofispring, 
bag), used by Minks for 
phoaed goQidia extruded on the 
•aperBoial cruat, having a peculiar 
appearance; Oono^byphemla {iJipa, 
voven), applied by Minks to tlie 
hyphal layer of Licheni ; Oon'o- 
pbore, Oonpph'orvm (<popiu/, 1 
carrj'), an elongation of the alia, 
a rooeptacla bearing stameDB and 
carpels, as in Caiiparis ; Oon'opluu 
(■XfUrfia, moulded], io Peronos- 
pvreaet that portion of the protO' 
plwm of Uie antheridiuDi which 
pMSM throngb tbe fertilization 
tnbft and ooaleaces with the ons- 
pbere; Oonotax'la {riftt, order), Che 
movement of antheroEoida towards 
th« female organ (Mocmillan) ; 
adj. gODclM'tlo ; Oonot'ropiBtn 
(rporq, a turning), Macmillan'a 
term for tbe motion of antherozoids 
and pollen<tabea towards the fe- 
male organ ; tbe author atao sag- 
gasla the restriction of this term 
to pollen-tube growth ; adj. gcno- 
trep'le ; Oon'ospliere, Oonaa- 
phae'rtnm {aipaipa, a sphere), = 
DospHEBK ; ODDoipbaeiid'lam, = 

fiOSlDIOH {!) 

Gorge, the throat of a flower. 

gos'iyplne, gaaaypi'niu, cottony, floc- 
culent, like the haira on tbe iweda 
of OoMSfpiitm^ 

Oonrd, a fleiby, one-celled, many- 
seeded fruit. with parietal 
pUcentaa, as a melon. 

grao'llli (Lat, ), slender; Crosier has 
the needless word " gracile." 

Oraft, a union of dlBecent indiridaals 
by apposition, the rooted plant 
being termed the stoek, the portion 
inserted the scion ; ~ H/brlO, ef- 
fect produced by one or the other of 
the united individuals on its grafted 
fellow ; Qmft'aff*, L. H. Bailey'i 
term for multiplication by crafting 
or the state of being thus in- 

Oraln. a general term for oereols, 
those grasses oultival«d for food ; 
tbe caryopsts or the fruit of tbe 
same ; grained, having grain-like 
tubercIoH or processes, as in the 
flowers of Eumr (Crozier). 

grunina'ceooa, Kramln'eal [grameH, 
grass), synonyms of gramln'eotu, 
-eiw, gra'miiioui,( I ) retaUnK to grass 
or grain-bearing plants; (12) grass- 
coloured ; Knitaliilc'alonB (colo. I 
inhabit), gruwing on grasses, as 
some Fungi : grai^niro'Ilotu. 
(Joiium, a leaf), having graaslike 
leaves ; Qnjufnol'ogy (M701, dia- 
course) = Aorostuloov (Croiier). 

gTaffi'mloiis (Lat.), {ypaiiiuKii, liood), 
lettered, marked aa though in- 
scribed ; grainmoiml'liu t ('ovt, 
rofdf, a foot or stem), having a 
ttriped stalk. 

Qra'na, pi. of Qra'nnni (Lat.), a seed, 
(1) any small bodies; {3) tbe 
coloured drops in chloropUits 
(Stroeburger) ; ~ tttrai'Uclia, 
" the aporea of certain Fungab " 

iraiiAtil'nna (Lat.), pale scarlet, the 
colour of the Rower of Paniea 
OmmUitm, Linn,, the pome- 

Orauireraa (yrom/rr, grain -bearing), 
a synonym of Monocotyledon 
(Hen alow). 

gTa'nlfornt (granHtn, a grain, foninL, 

shape), having the shape of graias 

a Liub 

Onn'nle, Oran'tUa (j/ranuni, a grain). 
(1) uiy small partiolea, u pollen, 
ohioroplaata, etc, ; ('2) the Naviculae 
of Sehizenema (lids LJndley) ; (3) 
■porangia in Fungi (Liodley) ; (4) 
by Prommann lUed for the 
nucleolus-like Btructure in the 
nucleuB of the terniiaal cells of the 
glands lar haira ef Ptlargonium 
tonale. Ait.; Oran'iila Eon'lma, the 
gonidia in Licheoi ; gnui'nlu', 
gramUa'ri*, (l)coiDpoaed nf graioa ; 
{2) divided into little knuta or 
Inberclea, as the roote of Saii/raga 
l/ranula/a, Linn. ; Knm'nlate, grrmii- 
ia'liu, means the same thing ; 
grannilfaraiu t/Tv, I bear], gran- 
compowd of graiOB ; — used ae a 
aubstantive by Nsegeli for true 

Onpe-mgaT, a engar found abund- 
antly io the grape, dflxtroee. 

OiMeUa'tto (Mod. Lat.), osed by 
DesvBui for Etcolation. 

Onaa-sTMn, clear Lvely green, in 
lAtiD, prasinus, gramineus, 

OraT'eoleaH {ffravfoUntia, a, rank 
amell), > smell lo strong as to be 
onpleuant ; giKV'aolent, grttv'cO' 
Inia, itrongly scented, of intense 
and heavy odonr. 

OnTltt'tlon {gravilia, weight), the 
act of tending towards a centre, as 
of the earth ; in botany sometimes 
oonfused with Ueotropiam and 

p«Mr. oily to the touch. 

OTMn-rot, a diseoae in wood, the 
tiasuea becoming verdigris green, 
ascribed to Pexiia aetiii/inowi, Pers. 

an(r«(Fr.) graft ; ~ dea Charlatana, s 
fraudulent apparent graft, the 
scion being passed through a hole 
bored in the stock. 

SngBr'loai {'jTvyarias, belonging to a 
flockl, growing in company, asBO- 

eiatM bat not matted. 

grey, gr%a'tt 

u (Lat. ), oold neutral tint, 
variea in tone. 

KrUel'liu,irru'eo{tu(Lat.), diminutiTe 
of foregoing, somewhat greyish. 

Orlt-oall, a solerotia coll, as in the 
flesh of pears. 

BTomon'leal, an error of Lindley's for 
gnomon ical. 

OrMsiflca'tlon (sfroMfn, thick. yiiWo, I 
make), the swelling of the ovary 
after impregnation ; grot'nu ( Lat. ), 
coarse, larger than usnal, used 
adverbially as gToa'se-Drana'tna, ~ 
BBrra'tns, coarsely area ate ot 

KTOMnlA'ceons, sros'siilai. relating to 
the gooseberry, Itibea Oronaalaria, 
Linn,; OroB'soline, a principle 
found in certain acid fruits. 

Qroand-tUiue, applied to the pith, 
cortex, and medullary rays. 

Qrow'lng- point, the eitremity of the 
stem, or cone of growth, the seat 
of the activity of the apical cell, 

OrowUi. increase by new coU-forma- 
tion or extension of old cells ; 
- Ponn, a vegetative slruotnre 
marked by some characteristic 
featare which does not indicate 
genetic aflinity; a tree, shrnb, 
Bprout-fungus, are growth-forms ; 
~ BlDg. the annual nngs of growth 

Omb'Idns, in forestry, the uprooting 

of trees, 
gminal'li (grut, a crane), shaped tike 

the hilt of a crane, as the fruit of 

gn'moM, ff>vmo'»ui, grn'moui 

Ifframas. a hillock), divided into 

little clusters of grains. 
Qmnd-Form (Germ.), the original 

form, sometimes hypothetic, from 

which other forms have been derived 

by morphologio variation. 
QuiVuilne, a bitter principle from 

Guarana bread, or Braiiliao coooa, 

isomeric with caSeine. 
aaard-cells, auard'laa-oelli, in stom- 

atn, two cells whiuii open or close 

the stoma by their greater or lei« 



KUlu- {gula, the throat), per1«itifiig 
to tlio throat (Croiior). 

Oun, (gvmmi, gum), a. viflcid aecre- 
liOQ frequentlj extruded from 
stenu, i,nd hardeciDg in the air ; 
~ Ar'aUe, derived from species of 
Araeia m tropical countries, die- 
Bolving etwilj in water ; ~ Oells, 
Oerm. Eleberzellen, smOil-ceu^ ; 

Uria Laem, from virions iroea ; 
~ Fm'm^, bh intoroelluler paewgs 
coDtainins gum i >- BH'tn, exuda- 
tion partaking of the nature of gum 
and reein ; gummlf btoiib (^ero, I 
bear), producing Kum ; Oum'mlnK, 
a disoaae, known also m Oommo'ilK, 
producing gum in excess, 

Oiu'set, an ititereellulat epace, at an 
angle where more than two cells 
meet (Croiier). 

Ont'ta-per'clia IguHa, a, drop), a kind 
of ohaoutchouc, said to tie derived 
from Diehoptii Oulla, Gcnth. and 
as to colour ; Gutta'Uon the eiuiia- 
tioD of drops of fluid ; Qat'tlfer 
{/tro, 1 bear), a plant which pro- 
duces gum or reein (Crozier). adj. 
gatUferoiu: gut'tulate, reaembting 
drops of oil or rosin ; OuC'tnle, uied 
for drops of oil (!) contained in the 
capitate paraph jses of Fungi. 

gjralM'tlfDTnt {forma, ehape), urceo- 
late, like the genUR Oyalerla, now 
merged in LtKiden; gyalec'tlne, and 
gyalec'lold ((line, like), are syn- 

gynman'tlioua, -im (yu^o'i, naked, 
a»floi. a flower), naked -flowered : 
Qr^uuLX'as? (afuiv, an axle), Mor- 
ron's term for the placenta 
protnidine through the ovary i 
gjmnoblaa tns [p^aarat, a bud), 
having the ovary superior ; gyra- 
aocar'plciu, gjminocar'poas, -vt 
(napwn, fruit), (1) naked fruited; 
where the perianth does not ad- 
here to the outer integument : (2) 
where the fruit is without pubes- 
oeuce (Henslow) ; (3) when the 
hjmBninm is exposed doriog the 
nuturstioD of the spores ; Qpn- 

uodd'lam r (*>«iiioii, tuberole), 
Neokor's term for the swelling 
■ometimes formed at the base m 
the capsule in MoBees, the apo- 
physis ; t^nmog'ainae (>ii/»oj, mar- 
riage). ArdiBBone'fl term for HeCero- 
aporoua and leosporuus Cryptogam!; 
Gym'nogen {ytyvAa, I brine forth), 

= GiMNosHERM ; gynmog^oiu J 

{7u>^, a woman), having a naked 
ovary ; OymnMper'mae {sTt^iut, 
seed), Cymnoaper tola, (I) the Lion- 
can order Didynamia, plants having 
four nutlets, taken for naked fruits, 
as Labiates; (2) the modern order 
of naked -ovu led plants, as coni- 
fere ; gymnosper'matouB. relating 
Id conifers and their slliea, recent 
and foHsil ; gymnofper'moai, the 
ovulee developed without the usual 
tegunientary pericarp, as in Coni- 
ferao ; oppoaed to Angioapermous ; 
Qymnoiper'iny. the elate of bearing 
reativ or apparently naked fruit : 
aytn'naipora, a naked spore, one 
not produced in s flporangiom; 
gymnos'tomoua {aniut, a mouth), 
applied to the peristome of Mosaea 
when destitute of teeth ; Kymiuita- 
traspBr'mu* % (Ttrpdi, (our, uTipiia, 
seed), having a foiir-lobed ovary, as 
in labiates, once considered to be 
naked ; gytnaotre'mold {-rpJiiia,, a 
hole, din, like), a bore open spot 
or space (Leighton). 
(^naeoeum {yaraittiar, the Women's 
house), the pieCil or pistils of a 
flower ; the female portion ai k 

gynau'der [ywri, a woman. Jr^p, iripii, 
a man), gynan'drons. when the 
atamens are adnata f> tlie pistil, as 
in Orchids, etc. ; Gycan'dila, a L>n- 
nean class, with gjnandrous Quwera; 
adj. gynan'drian ; Gynan'dinpbore 
{^piai, I carry], a column bearing 
stamens and pistils ; gynandros- 
p'orouB [rwopi., seed), dioecious 
forme of Oeiiogoniae in which the 
female plant produces androeporea; 
gynui'Uisroas, -va (+ Anthkb), 
used of stamens oonverted inba 
pistils ; Gyne'dnm 

Oynli'ai, Orni'Eiu (iidi, birdlime), 
the atiginB in Orchids ; Oy'nabua, 
Oynoi'OM (^afit, » pedeatal). bd 
eDlargement of the tomB od which 
'.s; gfiLDbu" 

« a prolongation npw, 
of the torus betweea carpels ; Ojno- 
tdd'iam, anen-orfor GluiiocililUM; 
gynodloe'Dloni, dioecious, with soma 
Bow«ra hern] aphrodite, others pialil- 
late only, on separate plaoto: syno- 
djr'namiu (Suvafiit, power), applied 
to an organiHin where the female 
element is preponder&nt ; Oynoe'- 
dnin = GvNAEcsuM ; Oynogamet- 

Uk'KllUlI {yatiir^t, a spouse. d7-yiri», 
a vessel), an organ iu which female 
■exual celts are formed ; an arche- 
conium ; Oynogun'etsB, ogK-cella 
I carry), the female gametophore ; 
KjnomoiUM'ciODa. monoecious, with 
female and hermaphrodite flowers 
on the same pUnt ; Gynomonoe'dsm 
is the oondiLion ; Qy'nopliore. Oyiio- 
phor'ium (^jxu, I carry), the Btipe 
of a pistil 1 adj. gynophoia'tus t 
pynoidioriB'nui I ; Oyaepbyl'ly 
['tti.^Xat. a leaf), viresconoe or phyl- 
jomorpby of the ovary ; Oy'aopliyte 
{^in-or, a plant), the female plant 
in the sexual generation ; Oynos- 
teg-ium (oTt'^oi, a roof), theHtaminal 
crown in Atdefitaa ; Qynoteg'ltim 
(r^YB<i ^ roof), the sheath or cover- 
ing of a gynaeceum of any kind ; 
Ol^oetA'mium (nnjVuf, a stamen), 
the oolumn of an Orchid, the androe- 
dam and gyaaeceum combined. 

gTp'Hlia (Lat., plastered with lime), 
chalk -white, cretaceous. 

gy'irat*, gyra'liu (Lat.). curved into a 

(^roUtb iyipot, round, XiSot, stone), 
the presumed fossil fruitaof C/uira; 
Oy'nuna (1) the annulus of Ferns ; 
(S| the ihield of ffyro- 
pkom ; By'roM, gyro'tTu, curved 
backward nnd forward in turn ; 
Dy'nu (Lat., a circle) = Gtaowi. 

L Bftb'lt, Haln'liu [Lat., appearance), 

Habitat, liaiiia-lio (Lat., dwelling), 

(1) the kiud of locality in which a 
plant grows, as woods, moorB, etc. ; 

(2) the geographic diatributiOD or 
limits, DOW termed Locality, or 
more precisely (Station ; ~ Qt«up, 
applied to those plants which have 
common habitats, though not re- 
lated, a« Balopiiytes, Htoko- 
PHYTBS, and the like ; '~ Ka'oM, 
used by Magnus for those heter- 
oi^oious U red inea, which ace adapted 
to reape olive species of host 

Had'rome, a shortened form of Hadro- 
mea'toma (djpdi, thick, ripe, slroiiH, 
luaTbt, filled), the lyieni or woody 
portion of a vascular bundle ; con- 
sisting of the HviiBUllie and part of 
the Amvldhi; together with tlio 
Lkptomb it forma Uie Mestohi. 

Has'matein |ar^, ar^iarm, blood), tho 
colouring mutter ol Logwood ; llM- 
matl'nua, baem'atitea, h&ematlt'ic, 
/luemdd'C'iV'iu, haamatocliTo'ciB(;tpiii, 
atinge), blood-rod; BaematOotiTo'ms 
{Xp^lia, oQlour),Cohu's t«rm (orthe 
pigment of Ha^malococcatpluviaiif, 
etc.; Baematoz'ylin (fuXnv, wood), 
tho colouriog matter of Locwood, 
Hatmaioxyloit campechiaaiim, 

Linn,; Haemorrlia'Kl* (^v^, from 
l>^6iuii, to break forth), a disease in 
plants when the sap is oouatantlv 
exuding throBghaneiternal wound. 

Bklr, an outsrowth of the epidermis, 
s eingle elongated cell, or row of 
cells 1 ~ -polnt'ed, ending in a Gne, 
weak point ; ~ -abaped, filiform, 
vary slander, oa the nltimate liivi- 
siiina of the inflorescence of many 
grasses; Hair-breadth = Cafillitb ; 
Qalr'liiBBB, hirsute, more rigidly 
hairy than pubescent ; talr'y, 
pubeacenco when the hairs ai-e 
separately distinguishable. 

hal'berd-. orbol'bert-Bhaped. haatate; 
^-headBd, means the same. 

BaLU(l) a moiety ; one part of that 
which is divided into two equal 

^r But 

■ portion; (2) I 

portion! ; (2) ioiaetimM it luoaDB 
one-sided, dimidiate; ~ anftt'ropoiu, 
unphitropouB ; " BrMd, the pro- 
duct of a crou-fertilizalton ; ~ 
eor'data, heart->hapsd an one aide, 
~ CTlln'drlo, applied to & atem 
flattened on one side ; ~ eqn'ltant, 
putially eqaitant : —Ints'Tlor. used 
of %a ov»r; when the atamena are 
perieyiiniia ; ~ monopet'aloiu. Uie 
petus united, l>ut so slightly aa to 
separate easily ; ~ moon-sbaptd, 
•emilunaite, Fresi«nt-Ube ; - ast'ted, 
when of aavaral Injera, only the 
enter is netted, aa the corm of 
Oladioliu communis, Linn. ; ~ stem- 
olMp'ing, partly amplexicaul ; — 
npe'rior,theaaiiie as half- inferior ; 
~ t«»t«', flat on one aide, tereteon 
the other :—HftU-OaIlonlui- curve, 
see Newtoman Cl'&vb. 

Babn, aee Haduh, 

halODft'tUB (A\i>>T, the disk of the 
Bun, halo), when a coloured circle 
surrounds a spot, 

haloph'Uom (IX(, dXit, salt, the sea, 
^X^u, I love), aslt-Ioving ; Bal'o- 
pbyU <^vtAf, b plant), a plnnt 
which grows within the influence 
of suit water ; adj. halophyt'lo. 

Bal'oipcire. an error for Hjiflosfore. 

lialied. dimidiate. 

bA'mAM, hamix'tm (Lat., hooked), 
hooked at the tip ; hk'moae, 
ha'moiu, 'lumo'suo, hooked ; liun'a- 
late, hamuIa'tMt ; bBJn'ulOse. 
hamiilo'gai, I>egetwithama11 hooka 
Ba'muliu, a hooked bristle 
flowera of (/ncinia ; Ha'mns, 

Han'dle, the luonabriuni of the anthe- 
ridium ofCharaceae. 

hapazan'Uiio, hApazan'thoiu (arof, 

having a single dowering period. 
hiplochjamyd'eont (drXsai, aingle. 
xXafuii, a mantle), monochlamy- 
deona, having a single perianth ; 
li«IiIOKen'ami(Y»'r<iu',I bring forth), 
= heteronemeuB ; HaplOKontd'tom 
(■h GoNtDlDM), a Lichen gonidiiini 
reaembling Proloeocatt ; baploper. 
'"'' ' ■ PiBISTOMi), used ot 



■ Wf). ■ 


of petals ; Hftploipore (ffxafii. 
seed), a simple apore in Lichens i 
haploBle'monaUB(imt/uiir, a stameo), 
with a single series of stamens 

Hap'teron, pi. Hap'teTa<dirTui, I fasten 
upon), Wariuing'a term for organs 
oiattacbmont which do not oonlain 
vascular tissue, as in Fodosto- 

HaptDt'ropiEm (drro^ioi, to attach 
oneself to), curvature induced in 
climbing plants by the stimulus of 
a rough surface (Cmpek). 

bard'y, enduring without protection ; 
not injured by the climate. 

bas'Mte, koala tvt [hatla, a ipear), 
halbert-shaped, sagittate, with 
the basal lobea turned outward ; 
haa'tUorm {/orma, shape), apear- 
shnped, hoaUte ; bAa'ttla, haa- 
li'lU (Lat., like the shaft of a 
spear), used for hastate. 

hatch 'et-Bbaped, dolabriform. 

Hftulm, Balm, Haum, (I) the culm of 
groases -, (2) the stem of herbaceoua 

Buator'imn (haiutor, a drawer), a 
Buoker of jjaraaitic plants ; used by 
Komarow for an appendage of peri- 

Hant'schicbt (Gcr.), the layer of cell 
protoplasm known as Ectoplasm. 

Head (1) an inflorescence ; the 
capitulum of Composites ; (2) for- 
merly used for the theca of Mosses ; 
- Cell, the capituloiD of Chara ; 
head'ed, capitate. 

Heart, used by Grow for the centre, 
OB heart of oak, the duramen ; — 
shaped, cordate ; ~ Wood, the 

bebecar'ptu [fj^ij, puberty, «a/™-it, 
fruit), having the fruit covered 
with dowuy pubescence. 

heb'etate, hibUa'tm (Lat., blunted), 
having a dull or blunt or soft 

ivy ; (2) reBembling Wy in habit ; 
liwl'Bral, compoaefT of ivy ; hsda- 
itTiTOiu (/iro, I beat), prodacioK 

A'esmon X i^fl'^'', > leader], 61>ro- 
VBBcuUr tiBBue. 

iMlUealla {iiXtuKot, belmging to Iha 
■un), heliacal ; apiraL 

EallohiT'ilii. the yellow colonrinc 
matter of several spcciea of 

belte'lforiD [heiix, a unail, forma, 
■hape), ooiled like a snail shell ; 
Hel leooaip (nopirAf, fniil], Nicotra'a 
term Eor a fruit whose conatitueDt 
oarpeU are arranged in a spiral ; 
ieUccKy'nite, Mkogy'ratte (j/y- 
raiut, turned in a circle), having a 
rin){ carried obliquely ruuiid, aa Che 
BDDiilaH ID some Fema ; bal'lcolil, 
Micoid'au [fCtcit, like), coiled into 
a helix, or like a Busil-ahell ; ~ 
C711M, a sympodial iafloreioence 
whom lateral branches are all de* 
veloped on one side, a bostrji, 
or drepsLDium ; in some text- 
books this is erroneously called 
' soorpioid ' ; ~ Dtohot'omy, when 
in two nnequal branches, the 
more vif^rous one is uniformly 
on the same side ; ~ Inflorw - 
cuiea, when the flowers are in a 
■inale row ; •>' nnlp'aroni Oyne, 
a baatr;^x ; bellcol'dal, spirally 
twisted, in the manner of a snail- 

b«lloph'oUe (4|\iDT, the lun, 410^/w, 
I dread), shunniDg the light, nega- 
tively heliotropio ; Helio'sto. injury 
done by sun-burn ; Hellotor'tiim 
{lortua, twisted), torsion caused by 
incidence of light (Sohwendener and 
Krabbe) ; beVotrop'lc irpirm, 
direction), turning towards the 
light ; " Au'gle, the angle of inci- 
dence at wliich light has the moat 
■timolating efTeet ; HeUaVropUm, 
the act of turning towards the sun 
or source of light; ne^'ativa ~, 
shunning light ; positive ~ , 

G owing in ihe direction o( the 
jbt itmu'vene ~, = Diabki^- 

belloio'ctd {ijXioi, the Sim, loot, an 
nnimal, tlSat, Itks), amoeboid, but 
having distinct ray-like pseudo- 



. s marsh, ^hi, lite], 
living in marahca, paludal. 

Bal'atlBni (<nvi, a slave). Warming's 
tenn for the relation of the syoi' 
bionta in the Lichen th alius. 

lial'TOliu(Lat,], pateochreoua yellow ; 
hal'vns (Lat.), light bay, dun- 

Be'matliie = Eiuiitin. 

Hemeran'thy {^lupa, day, irS^u, 1 
flower), day- flowering. 

hnnl- {liiu), in composition means 
half : Heiiil-aItnimoaa'( -1- Albnmoee), 
a. mixture chiefly of proto- and 
hetero-albBmose ; bemlanglocar'- 
pous {iyyitor, a vessel, laprii, 
fruit), when the hymenium ot some 
Fungi is for some time covered 
with a membrane, the gonidiaphore 
isso termed ; bemlannt'ropoiu (dri, 
up, Tfiorti, a turn), half-anatropous, 
the ovule being partially bent 
back, half the raphe free; hemi- 
tropous, amphitropous ; Hsml- 
autophyte {+ AtrroFHyrE), chior- 
phy 11 -hearing parasites (Boulger) ; 
Hem'lcarp, HemicaTp'mm (jtapret, 
a fruit), a half-carpel, B meri- 
carp ; BemiceU'nlote (-f Cklld- 
lose), all carbohydrates present 
in tbe cell - wall which are 
not ooloured bine by ohlor-zino- 
iodide, such as pectinsceous sub* 
stances, reserve cellulose, eto. 
(Qilson) ; formerly termed Pseudo- 
cellolose ; Hemlcy'cle (iiliXac, a 
circle), a hatf-circle, or half coil ; 
hamlcy'clls, partly in whorls, aa 
the perianth Uavea in whorls, and 
the sporophylls in spirals ; ^eml. 
oyllu'drtc (jitVu-apoi, a cylinder), (1) 
half.tereU ; (2) a leafy expansion, 
plaoe on one aide, convex on the 
other ; Hemidystrcph'ljt {ivt-, 
bad, rotitrri, oouriahment), partiu 
nourishment, semi -starvation in 
plants ; Hsmlap'lphjrte (j-rt, upon, 





#uTOf, & pUnt), employed by Went 
for a pluit, which at first roots in 
the soil, after «r&rdi devuloping 
Mriil toots ; Hsm'lfOim ( + Form), 
tMed of beteroetioua Fungi, having 
nredosporea and teleutoeporea, the 
Utter only germinating after ■ 
reating period ; tumigDiiA'rls % 
{yimt, oFbpring), employed when a 
part of both Btameas aod piatiU 
are uhanged into petale ; Hcmlffy'* 
naXiy'-P", round). = Foi^icle; 
Iieiid>y]]£7ii'lDni Wi*. with, yvin], 
yvmifit, a. womtn), hslf-adlierent 
(Lindley): HemlpBr'ulI« ( + Paka- 
filTE), a fuiuJtative eaprophyte, a 
paruite which oan eiiat aa a eapro- 
phyte ; Bem'liidiTU (^iJAXrw, ■ leaf), 
the hypothetiu segment of a 
oarpel; ot'oIae >-, placen'tal ~, 
thou which become modified into 
special parts of the ovary reapec- 
lively, q/: TaivHYiiMMR ; Bemi- 
up'ropb]^ (caipdi, rotten, ^vrar, 
B plant], a fauultative paruite ; 
Iient'Uolllit (iT;i;tg-rAi, split), in 
brood - cell formatioa when the 
nucleus oaly divides, the cyto- 
plasm remaining whole (Hartog); 
Hsmltstraootyls^u (rerpdi, four, 
+ Cotyledon), De Vries'a ex- 
pression when both cotyledona 
are divided, or one normal and 
the other divided ; Hemlte'rU t 
(ti)/i^u, I keep), "a monstrosity 
of elementary organs, or of ap- 
pendages of the aiis " (Lindley) ; 
haml'molioiu ; <$/>i{, rpnoi, hair), 
half oovered with hairs ; Hsmltrl- 
co^le'don (TptTs, three, -i- Gon- 
utBOd), aaed by Do Vriss, when 
one cotyledon is apparenlly divided 
into three i bemlt'ropRl. beml- 
t'ropous {rpiroi, direction) (1) am- 
phitcopoua, the axis of the ovulo 
being more curved than the ana- 
tropooB condition ; (2) employed 
^)j M'Leod for flowers which are 
reetrioted to certain insects for 
honey- Betting. 

Bsmp, the Dbro-vaseular tissue of 
Canw-biit uUti-a, Linn. 

Bea-aiuldilckeiu, proliferous flowers, 

the centre flower or bead being 
surrounded by subsidiary flowers. 

Hsnslo'vl&ti Kem'brans. the cutiolo ; 
so uaineJ from Prof. Hensloar's 
researches on the same. 

bspat'io, bepM'leooi, -ciu (Lat., dis- 
eased in the liver), liver-coloured, 
dark, purplish-red ; Hepaticol'dgiit, 
an expert in Hepatioae ; BepaU- 
col'ogT (^oTo!, discourse, the study 
of the Hepaticae or Liverworts. 

Beptagyn'la (in-i, seven, yvri), a 
woman), a Linnean aloas of plants 
having Beven pistils ; beptasyn'lsii, 
possessing seven pistils ; hapta- 
m'srona [lupat, a part), having the 
parts in sevens ; bepUn'iIer iirfjp, 
drJpdi, a man), tieptan'droiu, having 
seven stamens ; HepUlo'drU, a 
Linnean order of plants with at 


IB 1 beptui drlan, relating to 
oe, or possessing seven 
; haptarl'DEM ('p^r, male). 

hep'tarch, a fibro- vascular cylinder 
or stele with seven raya or bundles ; 
beptapefaloua (WraXor, a flower 
leaf), having seven petals ; hepta- 
phyl'loos (^uXXov, a leaf), with 

Serh, Herba (Lat., graas, herbage, 
plant), a plant with no persistent 
stem above ground ; berba'oeous, 
-ceiu, {+ aceouB),(l) with the teit- 
ure, ooloar and properties of a 
herb ; (2) with annual stems from 
a perennial root, as an ~ Peren'ilial ; 
Herb'ajfS, herbs oollectively, grass, 
pasture; Berb'al, (1) a volume con- 
taining deauriptinns of plants, such 
as John Gerard'B "Herball"; (2) 
sometimes = Hrkhabiuh ; Berb'al- 
Isl, (1) a writer of herbals, one of 
the old botanietH ; (S) a person 
skilled in the knowledge of herbs ; 
Berb'arist, an old word for bot*n. 
ist ; Herlw'rlum, a collection of 
dried plants, formerly styled a 
"AorCiM lUciu" ; Herbelet, Herb'- 
let, a small herb ; hsrbet'cent, 
growing into herba ; Herb'orlit, a 
collector of plants for medical use ; 
Barboriia'tloii, a botanic ei 


for the oolleotioQ ol plsnU; belt)'' 
OiIm, to botanize. 
Enoos'Km7 Cp'h. & fence, yaiiot, 
iDBtTiBge), applied to bermaphRi- 
dito Sowen, when some BtraolurnI 
pecaliaritj preventa self-fertiliza- 
tion, requiring insect -visitation ; 
adj. bercoKun'ic. barkOKun'le, bar- 

bermaph'raillte, litrmayliTodi'lii^itM,. 
having the characters of both sexes), 
the atamens and pisliU in the same 

qoalitiea or structures; blsas'iul'', 
nnliex'Qal >-, having the qiulitiea 
of huth, or of one parent only trana- 
Her'pei (Hpnit, m outaneoug eruption) 
louiu'raiu (Lat., ibaving), ring- 
worm, a disease of the akin aa- 
DCibed to Trithojihyloit toiieitTiiM, 

Hw'pObUxt (ipru, I creep, ^Xirrst, a 
Hfaoot), Cramer's term for a cod- 
fervoid prothnltium lying Sat on 
its subatratuni. 

BMjMiU'lam (from the golden frnit 
of the garden of the Htsiie.ridea), 
Desvaui's term for a fruit, sncb 
as the orange, a superior, poly- 
oarpellary, syncarpoas berry, pulpy 
within, and eiternally covered with 
a toagh rind ; AoBAiiTiaM of De 

Bat4e'ilo {iTuptla, a btothsrhood), 
a coUeotion of distinct indehiscent 

Buttercup, Ravpberry ; usually 
spelled ^AKBio. 
Heterac'my {trtpat, othar, ii«n^, apei), 

= DicoQAMT : bet«ran'dnrai (irrip, 
irlpii, A man}, applied to flowers 
wboae stamens vary in size ; Heter- 
aa'diT, the condition described ; 
Betenuxe'itt (adEitsii, growth), 
variation in the relative growth 
of opposite sides of an organ ; 
beterax'oii [iiw, a axle), applied 
by 0. Mueller to a diatom if the 
tnuuvsrae axes ore iineqaaliBetetO- 

albonuMs' { -H Albiiuosi), Kuhne'a 
teem for protaid, pbytilbumose; 
beteroblM'Uc (fJAacrroi, a shoot), 
applied Ui embryogeny which is 
indirect, the offspring not similar to 
the parent, but produoiog the adult 
forra an an outgrowth, as in Cham; 
beterocar'poiLs, -pu* (co/itot, frait), 
producing more than one kind of 
fruit; heterocarplcna (fruetue), "an 
inferior fruit" [Lindley ; Hetero- 
oat'pj', having two kinds of frcit; 
bet«roGepb'»l(nu, (tifaX^, the 
head), bearing two kinds of head 
or capitulum ; heterooblunyd'eouo, 
•deia (xXo^i^, a mantle), when the 
calyx and corolla clearly differ ; 
HeUTOCbro'maUsm ixi>">i^, colour), 
a uhange in the colouring or mark- 
ing ot petals i bet«rocIiTo'mDus, 
when the florets of the disk in 
Compoeitoe differ in colour from 
those of the ray ; beterocia'mftl, an 

oUB ; het'eraclluB, heterocU'nonB, 
■ntu (lAivTi, a bod), with the male 
and female members on separate 
bst'eroclit*. hfltroc'litat (^tpiiiXiras, 
varying in declension), anomalous 

hstero^cUe (tVipqi, other, fit\ot, a 
a circle), used when the Qoral 
whorls are heterumerous, not uni- 
form or isomerous ; Bet'eroeyit 
(ni^imt, a l>ag). Urge inert oells in 
the filaments of certain Algae, separ- 
atiog contiguous hormogoiiia : adj. 

betaiocyn'ous; Heterodlod7(SlD3oT, 
a passage). Van Tieghem's term 
for the condition of uiose Diodes 
which are differentiated into Mac- 
RomoDES, and MiCKODiooEa ; of. 
IsoniODi ; balerod'romous, -mus 
( jpjfut, a course), having spirals of 
changing directions, as in some 
tendrils, or phyllotaxrs ; Hetarod'- 
roiii;,with varied spirals; heteroa'- 
* Ls, forms which pass through 

termed ; 

synonym ; Batar- 

the condition of a heter- 


OMioas parasite ; HeterM'dmn 
(atmx, a home), a Fungus whioh 
pM«M its atagea on more than one 
hoat plant : a metoecioas paraaito ; 
lutwoMli'mal, ihould b« hrtir- 
aactODB ; Hat'tMMOjrtt (Croiier), = 
HarasocT^; batarog'smana, •mta 
lyiiun, mu-rilj^), (1) bs&ring two 
kinils of Bowers, as io Compositae. 
the florets of the ra; may be neater 
or DDiaexual, and those of the disk 
hermaphrodite ; (2) an aboormal 
arrangement of the Beinal organs 
(Masters) ; Hetarog'aiay, change of 
the function of male anJ female 
flowers, or in their arrangbmcnt ; 
iMtWOKe'nMIU (Y^rrH, nee), not 
uniform in kind ; Heterogrene'ity, 
dissimilarity of nature; hetero^'eit- 
ouB luduc'UoiL, used by Noll to de- 
note sensitive moramenta in which 
two different causes oo-operate ; 
EaMroK«Q'Mla {yimri!, beginning), 
alternation of geoerations ; ttatero- 
genal'lc, when applied to fartiliia- 
tion means cross - pollination ; 
Bst'STOgone (7o>^, offspring), a plant 
whoaa flowers are dimorphic or tri- 
morphic in the length of the stamens 
or styles ; adj. batiuroK'onoa*, hrJtro- 
go'neut ; HeteroK'ony, the same aa 


heteroi'coui, a form preferred 
by some bryotogists to the 
nsnal spelling HSTEROEOiotrs ; 
hatarol'deiu t (<Iiai. tike), di- 
versified in form (Lindlej) ; het- 
•romal'lDna, -Itu (iiaWit, a fleeceor 
tuft of wool) spreading in alt direc- 
l»rom'alouB(CroEier), =the 
^ ; Heteromer'icaTpy (>«poi, 
a part, nainrot, fruit), Huth's term 
for a binary fruit, the halves of 
which differ from each other, as 
Turgenia helerocarpa, DC. ; betero- 
mar'lana, atratified, as in aotne 
Lioheni ; twteran'eraua (1} when 
the namber of the members is not 
uniform ; (2) in Lichens, the oppo- 
site of iaomerous ; haterom^r'phlc. 
hateromor'phoiu (liop^n. form), (I) 
Tariation from normal structure, as 
deformities, etc.; (2) having organs 

differing in length, dimorpbio, with 
long and short styles ; trimorphic, 

with long, abort, and medium 
length, the male organs (itamani) 
being of corresponding length ; 
heterone'meiii (v^^, a thread), ap- 
plied to plants which on germina- 
tion produce thread-tike bodies, 
which afterwards unite, aucb as 
Bryophytes and Ptcridophytee ; 
hetaroi^iTBd'lc, heltrophyad'icui 
I4nnj, growth), used of thoie species 
which have fertile ate mi of different 
form from the barren stems, as in 
Bome Eqitistia ; hetcropbyl'lona 
(^i^XXrv, a leaf), having leavee of 
different forms ; Betorophyl'lj', 
used by Krssser, foi two different 
forma of leavea, when caused by 
difference in orgaoiiatioD ; Bst'ero- 
pliyte. Heterophil tiu (^imji', a 
pUnt).(l)TrattiDik'sname for those 
plants which bear leaves and flowers 
on separate stems, as Curcuma 
Zcdoaria. Roac; (3) Boulger's term 
for parasites deetitute of chloro- 
phyll ; adj. heterophy'tous \ twtero- 
po'lsr (roXoi, apivot). for the axis of 

Hateropro'ttiall7 (-«■ Puo- 
crs). Van Tieghem's term for 
the production ol unisBxnal pro- 
thallia ; baterorhl'ial (^fa, a root), 
having roots or similar organs pro- 
ceeding from any indeterminate 
portion of a apore in germination, 
or rootiog from no fixed point ; 
Heteroaper'my {aiipiia, seed), bear- 
ing two kinds of seeds, as mSvaeda, 
some apeciea producing both seeds 
Viith endosperm, and other seeds 
destitute of it ; hatoroa'porous 
(oKijja, ieed), with spores of two 
kinds, aa in S-tagiwlla ; Heteroa'- 
pory, the ooadition of producing 
microspores and macroapores, etc; 
bet'enetjled, heterosty'loua (-f 
Stylus) = hkterooamodb ; Batero- 
Btyria., hetcrogamouH plants; Belero- 
aty'Uam, having flowers differing 
in the atyloe, aa Compoeitae when 
certain floretB are nnisexual and 
others hermaphrodite in the same 

head I Baterostf 'If =Hktiiumiuiy ; 
BeUToUx'7 (latu, arrange meut], 
devUtioo, u the production of 
org&DS in BitnationB where under 
normal conditions they wuuld not 
be found ; Iwtarotop'lc {jiTtt, a 
place), nK<] of plants found on loiU 
spp&centlj very diverae from their 
normal etaCions ; hstarot'ropal, 
ttetorot'rapooB [rpdiio!, direction}, 

(1) in ovQiee, the aame oa amphi- 
tropoQS ; (2) employed by Agardb 
for collateral ovulea, baok to back ; 
(3) lying parallel with tlic hilum ; 
hetontrapli'lii -ua (rps^, food) ; 
Hfterot'Topli7,(l) used by Idinks for 
UuMs Lichena living ay mbiotically : 

(2) by Wiegner for tha compound 
position of a ahoot with regard to 
the horizon and of the mother- 
shoot ; Heferotype (niroi, form, 
typ«), Flemtntnc'B term for a 
peculiar nuclear division connected 
with thii reduction ot the chroma- 
■omea, marked by the early fission 
of the chromatic thread, a special 
form of the chromosomes them- 
aelvea (Farmer) ; adj. heterotyp'le ; 
haMroz'enona (f^vot, a host) = 


aix, kJcjioi, a kernel), 
a fruit of Bii oelU, aa Triglochin : 
EtateoBlta^'yoM (yijvla, angle, 
lyx<'l''i, an in fun ion), cellular 
tisBue which exbibita hexagonal 
oelU in section ; hezag'onlu, aix- 
angled ; liexfttr'oBOld (<tiot, like), J, 
Smith's term for hexagonal areolae 
on Fema. which are bordered by 
veins ; Bexagrn'lA (yvirii. a woman), 
a Lionean order of plants possessing 
six pistile ; hexaKya'lu), plants be- 
longing to that order, or having its 
character ; hsiag'ynouB, with sii 
pistils ; iexalsp'ldna {\ixii, XoriSoi, 
a scale), sii-sealed : bexam'erotu. 
{iiJpot, a part), in sixes : 

■ {i'i 

with I 

HazMl'llTlA, a Lionean class charac- 
terised by the possession of six 
atamens : haxvi'drlui, relating to 
that olaaa ; Iuz*ip«t'alant (T^TaXiw, 

a (lower leaf), with six petals ; 
bexapet'alold (ctiot, like), having a 
perianth of six pieces, which re- 
semble petals ; hexsphyl'lom. lia 
l^uWof, a leaf), six leaved ; Hex'a- 
pod (TsCt, irajai, a foot), a fathom of 
six feet, used sometimes as a 
measure of altitude ; bMSip'teTaai, 
-rut (rrepdi', a wing), six winged ; 
hezapyre'niu (iru/jiji', a kernel), 
having six karnelB ; bex'arch (dpxi, 
beginning), applied to a stele with 
six strands or origins ; haxarl'nua 
(ippt)r, male), Necker's synonym 
for hoxaiidrous ; beiaup'aJoQt, -fus 
(+ Sm'Ai.itm), with six aepals ; 
tMXMte'monoiu. -niu {arqfiur, sta- 
men) hexandrous, six-stamened. 
M'ans (Lat.), gaping, as a ringent 

Blbem'oCle. Bltiema'ciilimi (Lat., a 
winter room), (I) a winter bud ; (2) 
in botanic gardens, the winter 
quaiterifor plants, especially plant 
houiieB and frames ; bIber'nAl, 
hiliema'ti* (Lat.), pertaining to 
winter ; EQbenui'tloii, passing the 
winter in a dormant state. 

BIImt'dIu, H. C. Watson's term for 
those plants of the United Kingdom 
whose head-quarters appear to be 
in Ireland (Hibemia). 

bld'aan, concealed from view ; -• 
velsad, with veins which are not 
obvious, as in Pinks and House 
leeks, by excess of parenchyma. 

hidebound, a cultivator's expression 
when the bark does not yield to the 
growth of the stem. 

Hieb-yBBst, barm, the yeast which 
forma at the surface ; ij/. low or 
bottom yeast. 

bi'tmMl, kienia'lis (I^t.), relating to 

Bighlaad, used by Wat«on for a type 
of distribution in Great Britain, of 
those plants chieQy found in the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

Ulv, hila'rie ihiium, a trifle], re- 
lating to the hilum ; HOe (8. P. 
Gray) = Hn-nu ; * bew'tog, 
marked with a hilum : bUtferoni, 
hU'i/tr, (ftro, I beor), having a 


hilum on the lurf aoe ; ffllof an, the 
■eoond or internal JDtegumeat of a 
«md; Hlliunfl] the soar left on a 
seed where formerljBtMched to the 
loaiule or plaoeotu ; (2) the central 
poiQt in & Btarch griiiinla which 
the ring-like markings seem to sur- 
round ; (3) t any point of attach- 
toent ; (4) ^ an aperture in pollen 

Hinge, (1) the iathmua of Uiatoma; 
(2) in Bt^mata, delicate lanielUe of 
cellutoBH, upon which the niobUity 
□f the guaru-oelU asuallj depends ; 
they may (orin on ionec or outer 
hinge ; in German, " HautgeUnk." 

bln'naleuB (Lat., a young stag), a 

hlno'ldeoB (h preSied, luKilijt, Sbraua], 
used when vbiiib prooeed from the 
midrib and are parallel aod on- 
divided; VBunlo'H- ~, the Banie, 
if conaecCed by oroaa- veins. 

Hip, the fruit of the row ; toahnioally 
a cynarrhodium. 

blppoara'pUaim, hippocrtp^form'U 
([«xo(, a horse, tp^tlt, shoe, forma, 
■hape), horae-shoe shaped. 

tllrcl'naB(Liit., pertainiu){ toagoat), 
BmBlling like a goat ; hirco eiu X 

bli'mte. AiViu'fu4(Lat., rouch, hairy), 
hairy, with long, tolerably distinot 
hairs ; HiTsa'Uea, the hairinesa juat 
deecribed ; hlrteli'ouB, -liit, minutely 
hirsute: Ur'tose, used by R. T. 
Lowe for hlr'tns (Lat.), hairy, 
practically the bbiub as hirsute. 

Ua'pid, Mipidua (Lat., bristly), beset 
with rough hairs or brislles; his- 
pld'nloiu, -lu>, minutely hispid. 

Hlitiol'ogy (Croiier) = His'toi*<iy. 

BUtodlal'TfU (liTTdi, a web, i^a, 
through, Xi-irii, a loosing), the 
separation of the cells of a tissue 
from each other (Croder) ; Hlst'o- 
gWl (vcftau, I bring forth), Lhe 
origin of tissue ; blstogenet'lc, 
hlstogeu'lc. tissue fortniug ; ~ 
Plas'ma, Weismann's term for 
tisaue-formiog protoplasm ; HUto- 
K*B'Mis <7EVErri[, beginning), Hlito- 
K'aay, formulioa or origin of tissue ; 

HiBlol'ogr <^^<, diaoourse), the 

HochbliitteT (Oer.) bracts. 

Hold'fSita, the diso-like altaohtneota 
of Aigae. 

Itolent'ceona (Crozier) = OLi&AaaoDS. 

Holobu'id (SKoi, whole, batidiam, a 
little pedeetall, an undivided bui- 
dium m BMidiomycetes (Van Tieg- 
bem) ; holoblaa'tlc (^Xaorot, a bud 
or shoot), employed when the whole 
spuro is concerned in the embryo- 
geny, ef. mbeoblabtic ; Hol'ocup 
(tajiriji, fruit), Nicotra's term for 
an entire fruit resulting from a 
Dumberof carpels, it may bean apo- 
carp or a ayocarp, or aji insensible 
blending of the two forms ; other 
divisions are actinocarp, and heli- 
oocarp, aooording aa it is founded 
on a whorl or spiral; and nnti- 
spermic or pleurospemiic aooording 
to the position of the placenta; 
holocuplc,holocBrp'ous, (I) having 
the pendrp entire ; (3) in simple 
Algae, the whole spore (individual) 
becomes a sporangium, and in' 
vested with a cell- wall; HoIoKDold'- 
lum (Totot, offflpring), employed by 
WiiUroth for the algal gonidia 
pure and simple, or soredia ; halo* 
phyt'lo, pertaining to Holophy'tliin 
(^iTor, a plant), the condition of 
a plant with its growth main- 
tained entirety b^ its own organs, 
without any suspicion of saprophy' 
tiam or parasitism ; Holosap'rophTte 
(ffairpo'i, rotten, ipuTcy, a plaot), 
employed by johow for a true 
saprophyte, a plant whioh ia 
dependent upon humus for its 
existence ; holosarlc'eoni, -cau, 
{gericeiu, silken), covered with a 
fine and silky pubesoenoo- 

bom&lot'ropoat (njuaXoi, even, -rpowi), 
a turning), applied to organs whic^ 

bomoblM'tlo (i^iDt. one and the same, 
pKaiiTBt, a ehool), denotes embryo- 
geny whiuh is direct; bomocarp'oua. 


, fruit), baviDg fruit 
' kind QuI; : hoiiu>c«ii'tric 
)l h circle), con- 
(Crozier) ; bomOMtdl'aUc 
{trijxikri, a head), Delpino's term 
for hoiDOgatny when the anthBrs 
fertiline the stigma of another 
flower of the same inilorest'eiice ; 
homocUamyd'eoiu (j^Xayji'i, a 
mantlol. the perianth loav^B all 
Kllke ; Homocbro'inaCiim (xf^fOi 
colour), CDnntant oa to tlie colour- 
ing of the floirer ; homochro'moua. 
uniform in colour; homoolln'lc, 
bomacli'naas (nXfiq, abed), used by 
DelpiDO for that kind of honio- 
gomj when the aiitherB fertiliite 
the stigma of the same complete 
Sower ; homodrom'to, homod'TO- 
mftl, bomodromooB. rnut {Spoiiot, 
a coime). having the ■jiimU all of 
the same direction ; Bomod'rom;, 
uniformily in diiection of spirals ; 
Bomody'iusiDUi iSiraiui, strength), 
equal ia strength or Tiaour. 

BomoMg'uii; (S^ioi, like, 70^01, 
marriaue), the impregnation □( an 
antipodal oell, instead of the 
ooapbero as in Balanophom ; (Van 
Tieghem). Bomoeo'sla {-fiwt, daivn). 
Batason's term for Metamorphy. n 
variation b; assumption by one 
member of a merietic aeriea, of the 
iorni or character proper to otherg. 

Ii<nnoK'*mon*. -""u ( J>wt, one and the 
same, >afMi, marriage), bearing one 
kind of flower: Homiw'amy, aimulta- 
neoUB ripcnesa of pollen and alipnsB 
in a perfect flower; b; Uelpino 
divided ii ' ~ 

bomoge'neoiu, homoge'neal (yciw, 
lace, kind), of the same kind or 
nature, uniform, opposed to helero- 
geneouB ; Bom'ogons (70101. off- 
apring), a plant bearing only one 
kind of flon-ers ; adj. bonog'onoiu, 
Homoff'ony, the stAte of uniform 
respective length of anthers and 
itigmas in perfect flowers; homo 
ttylone ; the oppoeite of Heter- 
k hnnolocblainyd'i 

XXafiili, a mantle}, naed by Engler 
and Prantl when the perianth a 
uniform ; bomolom'eroai [itipof, *> 
part), useil ofaLicbeo tbatluawbeD 
the gonidia and hyphae are dia- 
tcibated in ahoot equal propor- 
tions ; Wallroth employed the word 
homotoin'f'fit from biLaioiupkt. 
homol'egoas (6;iat, one and the aame, 
Xd-yot, discourae), of one type, 
con 'true teti on the same 

9 and par 

alogically t 
- Alternation of Genera tiona,differ- 
entiation of generations which are 
fuutlamentally alike aa regards 
descent, either in form or the 
character of their reproductive 
organs, of. antitottio ; Hom'o- 
logne, the equivalent of certain 
organs ; Bom01'og7, the identity of 
parts apparently differeit ; homo- 
m'alone (Crozier), bomoDial'Iona, 
■lv» {iiaWit, a lock of wool), re- 
curvaid, arising from all sides but 
turned to one direction ; bomo- 
mer'tcoB (^i/poi, a part) = Hoaoi- 
iiMRROi's : bomomorphoDB, -phvt, 
homomoi'plilc, [f^i^v. form), uni- 
form in shape ; Homomor'pby, 
uniformity, as when the disk and 
ray florels of Compositae are alike ; 
either normally or by conversion 
nf the disk florets from tubular 
into ligulate florets ; Harn'onym, 
Homon'ymonfii'a^, aname).botani- 
cally. the aame speciflo name in 
another genus of the same plant, 
aa Myrlvs bvxifolia, Sw. is a 
Homonym as well as a Synonym 
of fuiTCRia &vz{/b/ia,Willd. ; bomo- 

pet'olooa (WraXo. a flower leaf), 
11) all petals being alike; (2) the 
receptacle of Compositae when the 
florets are alike, as the Ligulatae ; 
homopby'adlo, hotnnphya'dtMa (^, 
growth), applied to those specie* 
of B([uisttum, whose fertile and 
barren stems are similar in form ; 
Homoplki'my {ii\iatia, moulded), 
similar in form but not of similar 



origin, H Cacti and luoDnleat 
EuphorbiM ; Born'oplaat, corres- 
pondenoe in estorndl form, but dia- 
llnct in nstan ; sdj. bomoplu'tlc, 
Bom'i)plM7, moulded alike but of 
difierant origin, analogous, not 
homologous, ci. Hohopi^sut ; 
bomot'poroiu [iropi, seed), similkr- 
Beeded, in opposition to hktiko- 
BPUBODSi ; bam'oitfled ( + Sttli) 
= Bf>iiO<]ONOiis;Hom[nt7riai,homo- 

gonous pUnts ; bomoUial'una* 
{ti^ofiat, a room, bride chamber), 
reumbling the thalluB, need tor 
Liohena only : homot'ropol (rpoini, 
A turning), applied to orfcans having 
the eome direction as the body to 
whiab they belong ; homot'ropouB, 
-ntH (1) curved or tnrned in one 
air«ation ; (2) used of an analropous 
ovule having the radicle next the 
bilum ; Hom'otyp* (nhrm, form, 
type) |1) correspondence of psrlti ; 
(S) in nuclear division this tenn is 
applied to Ihtrae cases resembling 
ordinary karyokinesia,Bave in minor 
respects, immediately following the 
HBTERtnrri; inaomscosea itocEura 
in all the stages after the Hetero' 
type, in which the reduced nuDibar 
of olu'omosomes are retained up to 
the (ormstion of gamet«s (Farmer) ; 
homotyp'lc, homologous ; Homo- 
t'ypy, the oonditioD of corres- 
pondaooe of ports vhich are in 

Hon'ey, (be iweet 

— Onp, used by Withering for 
nectary ; — Dair, s sweet secretion 
voided by aphides from the juices 
of their host-plaots ; ~ Ouldei, 
lines or streaks of honey or colour 
leading to the naotary ; ~ Pore, 
a supposed pore or gland which 
secretes honey ; ~8pot= ~Gcu>Esi 
Han'eycomb-cBUs. in Diatoms, haxa> 
Konal hollows, as in TWcem/ium 
/ViiftM, Ehrenb. ; lioa'eycombed, 
Bood, = CcoiTLLca ; hood'ed, Hood- 



Hook, a slender process, onrved or 
bent back at the tip ; ~ Cll'mbors, 

Elante which support themselves 
y booksor prickles, SB the bramble i 
booked- bsick. curved in a direction 
from the apei to the base as the 
side lobes in a dandelion leaf. 

Hoop, tbe Kone or girdle of Diatoms, 
the connection l^tween the valves 
of the frustnle. 

hoTa'rlos, Iior'ajy {hora, an hour), 
lasting an hour or two. as the ei- 
panded petals of Ciatut, 

ttordea'eani (Lst, pertaining to 
barley), shaped like an ear of 
barley ; Hor'ilelll. a starch-like sub- 
stance in barley. 

borlioa'tal, liorizojtla'lU {ipttur, the 
circular boundary of vision), level ; 
Horlion'tal Bys't«lll, thecettalar.aB 
distinguiahed from the fibro-vascQ. 
lar Bystem (Croiier). 

Hor'magDD (Crozier) = Boi'mogtma, 
Harmogon'iiiin (fpiun, necklace, 
yiro^, offspring), in filamentous 
Algae, those portionn composed 
of pseudocystB marked on by 
heterocjsts which become de- 
taabed, and after a short period of 
spontaneous motion, come to rest 
and develop into new filaments ; 
Hor'mospores i/rropi, seed), a term 
used by Minks (or spores which 
are similar in Origin to stylo- or 
teleuUjspores of Fungi, eolourless, 
dividing into cells, microgonidia, 
et«-, with diUqucsoence of tbe 
mother-ccli, the microgonidia Ae- 
veloping into heterocyste. 

Horn (1) any appendage shaped like 
an animal's horn, as the Hpur in 
Linaria ; (2) tbe antheridium of 
Va\ifheriai Homlet, a little horn 
(Croiier): hor'ny. 

HoralMitlUer.),* tisBue of obliterated 
groups of sieve -tubes, specially 
thickened and of homy texture 

homotinus, bor'nni (Lat.), of this 

tUToIos'loil {harologicae, pertttininK 
to a dock), uid oi floweta whiub 
opeo uid olose al BUtod hours ; 
BoMla'glain Flo'nw. a lime-tabloot 
the opening aDd'cloaiDg of oertiim 
Bowers :— ace LinoMua, Pbil. Bot. 
274 ; Kerner. Nat. Hist. PUnu, ii, 

borlaiL'Bli (Lat.), pertaining lo 
gardens, or ooly found there ; 
Hortula'aoB (L&t.] (1] a gardener; 
(2) belonging to a garden ; Hor'tos 
(Lat.), a garden; ~ lie'otu, an 
herbarium ; formerlj it consiatad 
of voluiuea with dried Epeciment 
glued down. 

HoM-in-hOM, a dnplication of the 
corolla, aa tbough a socood one 
were iaaerted in the throat of the 

HHt, a plant which nouri^hoa a, para, 
■ite ; Bnt-plant, the same. 

HcMto'rliiin {hotlin, I reqaite, ex Hem- 
alow) = Haitstobioh. 

lia'ml (Lat.), in or on the ground. 

trn'mlAue, AumiTu'nu (Auniiu, the 
ground, Jumu, Bpread], apreod on 
the surface of the groand { baml- 
■tn'Iiu ialratua, atcetchcd out), Uid 
Sat on the loil, 

bu'inUla (Lat.), lowiy. 

Bu'mor (Lat., moisture) = Sap. 

Bu'molln, the oleoreain ot the hop, 
Huimiliis Xjiipidui, Linn. 

Ba'nua (Lat., the ground), deaom- 
poaing organio matter in the soil ; 
~ niuita, = Safrofbvti£b ; ~ 
EoUa, garden aoila enriched with 
organio manure. 

Hwk, the outer covering of certain 
fruits or Beads ; hua'ky, abounding 
with or consisting of buaka. 

bfadn'ttdne. hyatinih wi.kyacinth'imia 
{iax]ySiH>t, hyaointh-coluured) (1) 
dark (lurpliih blue ; (2) hjacinth- 
like in habit, a loape bearing 
spicate Ho were. 

RraWoent, "somewhat hyaline " 
(Urozier) ; hj^aUne, huaJi'nm 
(MXirsi, of glusB). col ou [less or 
tranaliicent ; Byallo'olor {color, 
colour), wanting in colonr. 

EyaloplMm, Hyaloplai'ma (CoXo;. 

crystal or glaas, sXdftuu, moulded), 
the hyaline matrix or clear and non- 
sranular portion of prolopUsm ; 
by some reatrieted to the EoTU- 

Hyber'nacIe,B]'tMna'onliua = Hism- 

hyberoa'iii - 

Hy'brld, Hyb'ri'la {Lb.1., a mongrel), 
a plant obtained by the pollen of 
one apeciea on the etigma of 
another; Hybrld'lty, Nybrid'Uat, 
crossed in parentage ; Hyblldln'- 
tton, (1) thecirt of obtaining hybrids 
by artificial crossing ; (2) aleo used 
for the same operation oocarriog 

Ely'dathoda (OJup, water. iSii, a way), 
Haberlandt's term tor water-poro 
or water-gland, an organ whiob 
extmdcs water or other liquid ; it 
resemblea a stoma with function less 
guard-cella ; Hydral'gae ( -)■ Algae) 
= UrDKOPn¥TES ; BydracslloloBe 
(+ Cellulose), see Celluhwi! ; 
Hy'dntte, a compound containing a 
definile proportion of water in 
chemical combination ; Hydza'tlon, 
the act of becoming chemically 
combined with water stiydrooar'ple 
((oproi, fruit), Dsed of aquatic 
plants which are fertilized aboTB 
the water, but withdraw the tarti- 
lizcd flowen below the surface for 
development, as in Vaiiigneria ; 
Hydrocel'Ialoae, aee CsLLCLoaa ; 
By<lTtil'<l ((iJoi, tike) = Tracheip 
(LYoiier) ; liy'droger [gtro, 1 bear), 
water-bearing, aa hydrog'tTai va'ia, 
threads in a spiral veaiel which 
were formerly supposed to convey 
fluid ; by'drolatad. combined vith 
the elements of w&l«r, by Hydiola'- 
tlon ; hy'drolysed (Xiiirit, a looaing), 
chemically decomposed by taking 
np the elements of water ; Hydro* 
I'ytla, the act of being bydrolysed ; 
Hydrolen'dte (+ Lrucitk), Vam 
Tiegbem's term for vacuoles in oell- 
sap, which be further subdividw 
into tanniferoas — , oxaliferoui --, 
coloured ~, album iniferous '-, in 
accordance with their prod action 

of tuiDin, oialatea, colonring 
matter, or nleurone ; Hjr'dTOlltt, 
cf. CvToaYDRouar, PnoraoHr- 
DROLisT ; Hy'droms, tbe hydral or 
W«(er-«JKteni of a vamolar bundle, 
i/. Haduome ; Hydropb'IlM (^Xfu, 
I love), water- pullmated plsnte ; 
bydropti'Uons, Homo nquaitic Phan- 
erogama, and many Cryptogams 
which Dood water in order to be 
fertilized ; ~ Fan'gl, refers to those 
Fungi which are allied to Sajrro- 
Ugnwt ; Bf drophftw, Hydroptiy'ta 
(fIVTvr, a plant), water -plants. 
partially or wboll; immersed 
Hydxophftarocy (A^«, diacoiiraeK 
a treatise on water-plant* i Hs^dro- 
plut (»Xaa-roi, moulded), an ap- 
parent vacuole in which ateurone- 
grains ari«e ; Hrdropl«'an (rA^w, 
fnll, = an ag^<!gale of molecules, 
bat smaller than a micella), water 
of oryatalliiation ; Hrilrot'ropliy 

food), unequal growth 

lupply of 


caused by unequal flup[ 
moiatnre on one side of i 
(Wiesner) ; Hyflrot'roplBin (rpori, a 
tnrning},the phenomena induced by 
the inSuence of moisture on growing 
organa; pos'ltlTe ~ , turning towards 
the source of moisture; nsg'atlTa--, 
turning away from moisture. 
bjr'eiDal, hy etna' lit {hiant, winter) = 

liygncbaa'tlc (^ypoi, moist, x'^"!^"-, 
I yawn), applied by Aaclierson to 
those plants in which the bursting 
of the fruit and dispersion of tlie 
•porei or seeds is caused by ab- 
sorption of water, as in Anaauuka 
MeroduiiUica, Linn. ; Hygrocti'My. 
the act in question ; By'diocbrome 
(XpS/ia, ooloar), used by Nadson 
for the pigmanlB of Rugada and 
Amanita Muecaria, Fr. ; bygro- 
met'rlo l/Urpor, a measure), moving 
under the influence of more or less 
moUbure, hygroscopic ; bygro- 
pA'Munu (^Ivu, 1 appear), looking 
watai7 when moist, and opaque 
when dry {Cooke}! Hy'groiJhytes 
" ' a plant), marsh-plants, or 

pUnta whiob need a 


for their growth ; 
Hy'BTDplailll (rXda/ia, moalded), 
Nageli's term for the fluid 
portion of protoplasm, (/. Stimo- 
FLAsu 1 taygrosoop'la (irKoriv, I 
see), suacaptible of extending or 
shrinking on the application or 
removal of water or vapour ; -' 
Cells, certain cells in the leaves 
of grasses which cause them to 
alter in siiape in drv weather, 
known also as bulliform cells ; 
HygToacopio'lty, Bygroncopi&itat, 
the hygroscopic property. 
Hy'lopbyU (IJXi;, a wood, ipvror, a 
plant), a plant which grows in 
woods, ufluallj moist ; adj- tiylo- 

8/108, Hr'mm=HiLrii. 

By'mea {viilr, a membrane), a skin 
or membrane : byms'nlal ( I ) per- 
taining to the HvuENit^H ; (2) 
relating to the reproductive organs 
in certain Cryptogams j ~ Al'ga, 
the algal cell m a eporocarp In 
Lichens, atao termed ~ aontd'liun ; 
i-Lay'sT^HruENiuH ; Hyme'nlnin, 
an aggregation of spore mother- 
cetla in a continuous layer on a 
sporophore, the aporiferous part 
of the fructification in Fungi ; 
hymeno'tles {rttm, like), having a 
membranous texture; Hymtno- 
U'aluni (-i- Lichen], a term devised 
by Mattirolo for a Lichen whiefa is 
Eyrubiotically associated with a 
hymenomycetouB Fungus ; hymOLa- 
myoe'tous (^vKi^t, a muahroom), 
having the hymenlum exposed ftt 
maturity, the spores borne on 
basidia ; Hy'meiLDplKiTa, Hymmo- 
pAo/ium (^piu, 1 carry), in Fungi 
that part which bears the hymen- 
ium, the sporophore ; Hy'tnano- 
pode, liymrnoiind'inm (ToiJi, irnhli, 
a foot), Kayod B name for the hypo- 
thecium : Hyme'aolnm, a disk or 
shield containing asci, but without 

Hyoscy'ajntn. an alkaloid contained in 
Henbane, Ht/OKyamut nigir, Linn. 

Hypan'tlilDiu, B;^p«iitho'diuin [lira, 
under, Mm, a flower), ■ 


ment or development of the torus 
oader ths c»lyx, a syconiiuD, 

Hrpenalioff'Hiir [irip, above, Sntot, 
DDeqoal, yiitm, marriage), the 
female gamete, at first active, and 
much larger than the mate gataeto 
IHartog} ; i/. Oogaiuv. 

bTperborean, hyprrbor' tut [^o^i/ai.the 
north wind), northern. 

tiTPcrebroinat'lc (ut^^i, above, xP'^i^'^- 
ruiit, suited for colour), leadil; 
aaaceptiblo of taking colour, or in- 
tensihed colours tion ; Hyptrd'rom; 
[Spiliof, a course), wlieo anadromoug 
and csladromoQB venation occurs 
on one aide of a Fern-frond (riautl); 
bypentomat'lo (-t-STOUA), having 
the atomata on the upper autfacc ; 
hTpertrepIi'ic (Tpo^i), food), mor- 
bidlj' enlargod ; Eyt^tixophj, an 
abnormal eolirgeinent of an organ, 
preaunisbly by excess of nourish- 
ment ; Hj^wr'trophrtee [ifiuraii, a 
Slant), a term employed byWakker 
>r Ihoae parasitic Fungi which 
cause hypertcophy in the liBsuos. 

Hy'pha (liiptj, a web), pi. Br'pbM, 
element of the thatlus in Fungi, a 
cylindrio thread-like branched body 
developing by apical growth and 
usually septate ; Sieva ~ , or 
num'pat ~,aapecialfonu found iu 
Algae, bulging at each aeptum 
(F. W. Oliver); hy'phsl, relating 
to byphae ; - TU'sue, intenvovon 
hyphae, conatituting the tissues of 
the larger Fungi. 

Snili*>'DU (O^oir^, a web], the 
tballua of Agarics. 

Bfpbs'nui [infij.a neb), used by Minks 
for the hypbal layer in Lichens ; 
^pMd'lnm, a teem proposed by 
l^ks for SPBitHATiuH 1 bypho- 
d'nmian*, -ntu* (Aplfiot, d course), 
used wbea the veins are sunit in 
the tubstance of a leaf, and thus 
not teadily visible ; ^pbopode, 

Meiiola vhiuh bear the perithecia 

(Oaillard) ; bypbomjoe'teiiB (uiiiij!, 

» ■ mushroom], applied to Fungi 

klwaring their ipoiee on simple or 

branched hyphae; Hfpbomjros'tH 

are FimgOmptr/tcti ; Hyphoatro'DUL 
t(<TTpCtiia., spread out), the my- 
celium of Fungi. 

Hyp'nocjBt (Oi-roT, aleep, mlvnt, a bag 
or pouch), in Pediaatreae.etc. , a dor- 
mant atage aasumed when the con- 
ditions for growth are unfavourable ; 
Hyp'note, an orgaoism in adormant 
Etate; bypnot'lo, dormant, not dead, 
as in seeds ; Byp'ooplaam (vUo^o, 
moulded), the protoplasm of a dor- 
mant individual, as of a scad, cf. 
KecBOPLASH ; Hypno'sli, the state 
of dormant vitality shown by seeds 
whilst still retaining their power 
of germination (Eacombe) ; Hyp'no- 
apemi [sri/ina, a seed), the winter 
atato of the zygospBrm of Hydro- 
dkiyon; Hypnoaporan'glniD {sropl, 
a seed, i-^yclar, a, veBHel), a sporan- 
gium containing reating spores; 
Syp'noipore, a resting apore ; 
HypnaULal'llu (fiXXsi, a young 
branch), Cbodafa term for growth 
by cell-division from hypnooysts, 
as in Monoelrotna, 

bypoba'sal {iri, under, ^ii, a ped- 
estal), behind the basal wall, em- 
ployed aa regards the posterior half 
of a proembryo ; cf. efibasal : Bypa- 
blas'toc |^Va<rr'r>i, • shoot), the 
deshy cotyledon of grasses; ^po- 
carp lam [napirat, fruit), an enlarged 
growth of the peduncle beneath the 
fruit, as in Anacardiunt ; bypo- 
carpt^e'an, -pens [tuprot, fmit, 
7^, the earth), =htpchiakaH; bnio- 
carpogr'enonB(v(r*'clii>, I bring forth), 
the Sowers and fmit produced 
underground (Pampaloni), cf. AM- 


diU'iuia, Hypochi'luB (yrtXoi, a lip), 
the basal portion ot the Ubellum 
of Orchids ; Hypooltlor'la (x^wpsi. 
light green), Pringeheim's name for 
a oonatituent of chlorophyll cor- 
puscles, aupposed to be the first 
visible product of constructive met- 
abolism 1 Hrpoclira'myl (xpu/ia, 
colour) ^Hypoculobin; Hypooot'yl 
(lariXti, a boUow), the axia of an 
embryo below the ootyledont, bnl 

not pssaiog beyond tbem ; IiTPO- 

coQrl*'*'*'"^. below the colyledona 
uid above the root ; linMomM'- 
Tllonn. hy}Xicralerifonii' i* (upor^p, 
& bowl, forma, shspe), salver* 
shiped, aa the corolla of the 
Primroee. PrimrUa riilgarin. Huds. ; 
bypocntarl&ior'pbanj.-j'ATui [i^pipn, 
Bhape), Balver-Bhitped ; the samB 
meaning as in the last, but derived 
wholly from the Graek ; Hrp'oderm 
= Bypador'nia, Hypodn'mitiilpii.a, 
nkiD, hide), the inner layer of the 
oapaules of Mosses ; hypodsr'tlial, 
beneath the epidermis ; hypogae'- 
ooa, -et«, hypoKB'al, bypom'an {yri, 
the earth), growing or remaining 
below groand, u certain cotyledons, 
as Id the Pea ; bypOE'enmu (v/voi, 
offspring), produced beneath ;hypo- 
B'ynona, -niu {yvii, a woman), free 
[rom bnt itiaerted beneath the 
pistil or gynaeaium ; bypoUlh'ic 
(X(0Di, a atone), growing beneath 

bypom'anOQs, ■nt (liTofJru, I stay 
behind), free, not adherent, ariainK 
from Ixlow bd organ withoot ad- 
hesion to it. 

Bypomlclla [tic, pomihly a misprint 
for " Hyporayoelia " from uw-i, 
under, + Mygeliitm|. " the niyoet> 
ium of usrlAin FiinguU " (Lindiey) ; 
hyponM'tlC {rturr6i, cloae preased), 
(1) used of a dorsiventrnl organ in 
which the ventral eurface grows 
more actively than the dorsal, us 
shown in dowct eipanaion ; (2) by 
Van Tieghem employed for snatro- 
pous or csmpylotropoui ovales 
when the curvature is in an np- 
word direction ; Byponaa'ty, the 
state in question ;^paDg'amy(uii', 
an egg. ydu^ii, marriage), a ehnrt- 
ened form of Hvfkrakisim.^ut ; 
tiypaphloo'odal, hypoplilDe'odlc 
(^siDi, bark), applied to Lichens 
wben growing ander the epidennia 
of the bark ; hypophyl'lcna, -fiia 
(ipiiWiir. a leaf), situated under a 
leaf, or growing in that position ; 
H/popby^, Hjipophytlum (1) an 
abortive leaf or scale nnder another 


leaf or leaf -lihe organ, lu in Ausclu; 

(2) also U8cd for the lower portion 
of the leaf from which stipules de- 
velop, adherent to the aiis aad 
ultimately forming the leaf-scar ; 
BYtoWjjOa {ipvia, I grow), the call 
from which the primary root and 
root-cap of the embryo in Angio- 
sperms is derived ; adj. hypo- 
phys'la] ; Hypoplen'ra [tXii'iA, 
0. rib), the inner half-girdiD 
of the frUBtule of a Diatom (O. 
Mueller) ;Hypopod'liun (roil, iroJAT.a 
foot), the st^alk of a carpel ; Hypop'- 
ttriM ; {rrtfat, a feather or wing), 
a wina growing from below, ea tho 
seed of a Fir-tree ; bjpoptara'tni, f 
having wings produced from 
below ; HypoiBUi'ilB (<Tad|»(. rotten), 
the stAte of secondary ripening 
styled blelting, as in medlars [ 
Hypoaporan'glaiil {eiiapi, a teed, 
dyyciof. a vessel), the indiisium of 
Ferns, when proceeding from below 
the sporangia ; Hypost'ails X 
(crTdirii. a standing), the iimpeOBor 
of an embryo ; hypostonmt'lc ( + 
Stoma), with the stomata on th« 
under Barface;Hypo«tro'mA(<TTpC^, 
spread-out) — Mtoelich ; hyjw- 
tefi«rch(-t- tetrarch), in a trinrch 
stele, the division of the median 
protoiylcm ; HypoUuU'IIU (flaXUt, 
a yonng branch), the marginal oat- 
growth of hyphae in cruataceona 
Lichens ; bypotbal'Iina, relating to 
the hypothallus or resembling it ; 
HypoUie'ca [Biisri, acase], the inner 
balf-frustule of a Diatom |0. 
Uoeiier) ; bypotbe'cal, belonging 
to the hypotheca of a Diatom ; 
Hypotlie'olimi, s layer of hvpbal- 
tissue immediately beneath ths 
hymenium in certain Cryptogam ; 
bypotrl'arcli ( + triarcb), when 
in a triarch stele, the median' 
protoiylein group is lowermost, 
(Prantt) ; Hypot'rophy (t/w^^i 
food), Wieener'H term when Iba 
growth of oortex or wood is greater 
on the lower side of the branch ; 
also when buds or stipules form 
on the lower side ; BypOTBl'TK 

{Boiva, a door), the valve of the 
inner " ifaell " or Hf potheca of a 
Diatom (0. Mueller] ; ajrpoxui'tbili 
((u0iii, yellow), a mbeWnca akia to 
x»Dthin, nhioh hu been foand in 
genninatiog leedB. 

S^'Mphrll (Dfi, high, aloft, •piWor, 
a leaf), a hriiet of the inflot'eeconce, 
a rednoed or modified leaf towards 
the upper end of ft shcwt. r/. 
CiTAPnVLL ! Germ. HoohblntV ; 
tupaophjl'laiy, relating to bracts ; 
oLeftT, a bract. 

tun'Bliina [S(r7ini>), a red oolour, or 
dark reddiah pink. 

IiyiUnu'than*, -tAw, -iJiig {Cgrtpot, 
following, i'Bos, a flower), need of 
leave* tniich are produced after the 
flower*, aa in the Almond ; 
hyiter^^'lB(y»o(,™oo, offspring), 
nud of inlcrtpllulnr nnaces which 
ar« formed in the older tiuuei ; 
Byi'taropbyfila (*i"(«i, a tumour or 
eicreacence), olementary organs 
which have been miatahen for in- 
dependent animal or vegetable 
organisms (H. Karstoo) ; hyitero- 
pl^Ul {^vTof, a plant), fungoid ; 
^■'terajdiTte, a plant which lives 
npon dead matter ; a saprophyte. 

a figure) 

ery$lalliHum, Linn, 
fconai, pi. (I'fon, tUi 

pictorial repreaentati 

botanic figures. 
Icgaalted'n] liUoei, twenty, iipa, a 

•eat or baae), having twenty sides, 

H thepollengraiDS of Trai;opog<m 

itSfiii, & 

. with twenty or 
Icoaan'dria, a Lin- 
class o( plonte with twenty 
inserted i 

icter'iciu, Icterl'nns ilKTipmit, jaun- 
diced), the colour of a person 
■uSering from jaundice, impure 

U (19^, suffix implying paternity). 


an hereditary unit recognised in 
granules and chromosomes; I'daut, 
■ serial complex of ids, WeismaDo'i 
term for Cuaomosdme. 

Uentlfli!a'tlan,used for Detenoination 

-I'daa, -ideua (itJoi, like), a suffix in 
Greek compounds denoting similar, 

Id'loblaat itSim, personal, peculiar, 

0\airroi, a bud OT shoot), (l) a 
spoci&l cell in a tissue which 
markedly differs from the rest in 
form, size, or contents, as the 
" stellate -cells " in Nymphaea ; 
(2) Qsed by Hertwig for Fahobn, 
a unit of hereditary substance ; 
idlOK'yiini t (Y'"'^ a woman), not 
havingapistil ; Id'loplaim (vXiiir/ui, 
moulded), Nacgeli's term for the 
active organic part of the proto- 
plasm -, Idlothal uootw, idiolhal'a- 
mat, {Oi\ii/n,\. a bedroom), having 
different colouration from the 
thalluBi a term in lichenology ; 
Idtomorpb'oBii (fiopipuffii, a shap- 
ing), a special kind of metamor- 
phosis, SB the petals of Camellia, 
from bundles of stamens, or pct«- 
loid sepals of Fotyyala (Detpino). 

Ig'nens (Lat., fiery), flame-aolonrod, 
Dsed for combinations of red and 
yellow, or brilliant in tone. 

tgnla'rtuB {Lat,, pertaining to tire), 
of the consistence of German tin* 
der, derived from puff-ball*. 

Uleglt'lmate, fertilieatian in dimor- 
phic or brlmorpbic flowers so tenned. 
when occurring between parts of 
diverse length, as long with short, 

Imberb'U (Lat.), beardless, devoid of 

Imblblt'ion iimhtbo, I drink in), the 
act of imbibing [ ~ The'orr, Sachs's 
suggestion that water ascends in 

sage upwards by vessels. 
Imliricats, Imbiica'ted, i'ni!>rtra'ri(i 
(I^t., covered with gutter tiles), 
(1) overlapping aa the tile* on a 
root; (2) in aestivation, used of « 

calyx or corotU where one piece 
maA \») wholly internal iincl odb 
wholly eiterual, or overlapping at 
the edge only ; bnbrlc'a^ve is a 




'ElDftte, innHarj;ino'(ua (im = 
not, margo, fnarginin, m border), 
not margined or bordered. 

Inimedla'tiu, (Mid.L&t., not mediate), 
proceeding; directly from ■ part, as 
pedicels of a raceme. 

Inunsr'aed, imnur'giwfLat., plunged), 
below the BurEace ; (1) entirely 
under water; (2) embedded in the 
HubetanoB of the leaf or thalluB. 

tmmo'Ulla (IaI.), immovable, as 
maDyanthera ; opposed to verBattli 

lmpa'Tl-plii'iiat«, ~ -piHiia'taa {im/a. 
noeijual, -}■ riNNATE), pinnate with 
an odd terminal leaflet. 

Impar'rect, imper/ec'lun (Lat., li 
plele), where certain parta aeually 

S resent are not developed ; aa a. 
ower may be imperfect, that is, 
linp«rrorat« (iii, into, prr, through, 
/ora'Ciu, bored), without an open 
ing, cloned (Crozier). 
ImpLuQi, (IaC, an entwining), en- 

tangled, interlaced. 
tmpllca'tiu (I^t.j, entangled, woven 

I (im = in, prafynatim, 
pregnancy), fertilization, the union 
of male and female elements. 

Inpres'siu ( Lat. .preesed into), marked 
vitb aligiit depresBtons. 

iinpn'bH, not mature, as impuhera 
Atia>, the period before impregns- 

Inadhe'iing {iiiadhofrenf, not cling- 
ing), free from adjacent partB. 

1iim<iim'U« (Lat.), unequal in tixe; 
lnMqnlinav'nna,t {magnus. Urge), 
not the Bame in size; Inaeqnllat'erftl. 
inaetpiiUUtra'lig, inatqui/al'trig 

(lafiu. /iiferu,aside),unequal sided, 
M Uie leaf of Begonia; Inaaqalner'- 
Tlui, (mh-iu, a nerve), when the 
'0 of dissiroilar size, 
a'nis (Lat.), empty, void; 
as an anther containing no pollen. 

lau'tlunte (Crazier) = InanttiBra'tna, 


Inappendlc'iUate, iuapptndicMia'tiu 
(in = not, v/i/i'.iuliciilu, a amall ap- 
pendage}, wittiout appendages ; In- 
aper'tna, laperiiu, opened), not 
opened, contrary to its habit. 

Inaroh'iag, grafting by approach, the 
flcion remaining partly attached to 
its parent, until union has t«keo 

InarUc'nlate, ijuirliciila'tiu (Lst,, 
indistinct), not jointed, continuooa, 

lucaiuw'cent, incanta'cmt (LaL, turn- 
ing hoary), becoming grey, OMtM- 

IncB'nouB (Croiier) = iiiM'nn* (Lat.), 
quite grey, hoary. 

liLw'n«te, incama'Cttt (Lat., clothed 
in fleah ), flesh -coloured, ' * cameoua. " 

In'cept, Incep'tlon (iwe/tCMrn, a begin- 
ning), BDggaat«d rendering of the 
German "Anlage." 

iDCb, an EnRtiah meoBure. equalling 
2.54 cm. ; in Latin, wneia, uneiati: 

inci'ssd, inci'siu (Lat,, out into), cat 
sharply into the marsin ; Inol'lO- 
denta'tng, slashed toothed ; — -mt- 
TB'tos, deep-eloehed serrations ; Itt- 
cis'lon, Inciaio, an indentation on 
the margin of a foliar organ. 

Incli'nlng, Indl'ited (indinaJus, bent 
down), falling away from the hori- 

. Inidnden'tdA fbllA, 
applied to alternate leaves which 
in the sleep-position approach bnda 
in their axils, seeming to proteot 
them as in Sida (De Candolle). 

Incog'iilt (ijKogiiilun, not eiamined), 
used by H. C. Watson for those 
British plants whose nativity or 
distribution are matters of doubt. 

Incomple'te, incompit'lae (Lat., not 
dniahed), wanting Bome essential 
part ; Incomple'tae, usually synony- 
mous with Monocblamfdeae, but 
variously circumscribed by diSer- 

iuconEplc'nons, -cuu* (Lat., not re- 

narksblc), not rsodilv teen from 
■mall 8iM or lack of colour. 

Inoru'ttto, inerami'lM (Lat., thiok- 
eneij), made stout, M the leaves of 
house- [eek. 

Incrs'saliig = ACcatSTENT ; Increi'oBiit 
(iiicrcaco, iRrow), growing (C rosier). 

iDCnu'tlng, incrialatut ( L«t. , cofttfld ), 
0) used of seeds so firm in their 
ptirioarp, as to seein one with it ; 
(2) enoruated with earthy matter. 

Inaaba'Uon (iiicutu/io, a brooding), the 
time from the moment of iofectioti 
or Boving of spores, ontil growth 
ia manifest. 

In'cnbcmi, -bus (incuho, I lie upon), 
tb« oblique insertion of distiohoua 
leaves, eo that the lower overlap 
the upper on the saina side of the 
stem on the dorsal aurtacts, aa in 

Inoim'bant, incttm'berui (Lat.. leaning 
on], resting or leaning upon, prO' 
cumtnnt; -- An'lber, onn which 
liea against the inner face of its 
flUmeDt ; - Ootyte'dons, when the 
back of one lies against the radicle, 
shown u II a 

lamu'vtA, iitcur'tia, Inour'Tate, iti- 
euno'liu (incurmM, bent), bending 
from without inwards. 

Indefinite, indefini'lwi (Lat,, not pre- 
cise), (1) uncertain or not positive 
in oharaoter ; (2) too many 'or easy 
enameration, oa an abundance of 
stamens, denoted by the sign co ; 
(3) in an inflorofloenoe, when nice- 
(DOee, Ibe main axis being capable 
of constant entension : ~ Qrowlh, 
continuous growth and not the 
mere extension of a limited orgaii- 
ism QT bud ; ~ Inflaret'cence, in- 
determinate or centrifugal, acro- 
pelat of Bome authors. 

Indwdd'uouB (i'ii = not, daiduui, cut 
or lopped off), avargreen or per- 
sistent foliage {Crostier) ; Indebli'. 
cent, -cena (athiKeni, gapiogl, not 
opening b; valves or along regular 

tndapen'dBQca, the separation of 
orKiuu usually entire. 

laU, iiuleltrmina'tui, not 

terminated absolotely, aa an in- 

floresoence in which no Bower anda 
the axis of the flower- cluster. 

tn'dloui, a nitrogenous glucoside, hy 
its decomposition forming Ihdioo. 

Indlf reTent(iiuf(^rreiM, without differ- 
ence), not specialized or diflferenti- 

In'dlgene {indigu, native), a native 
plant : livdlg'enoiis, -iiHt, original to 
the coantry. not introduced. 

la'dlgo, a deep blackish blue oblained 
from Iiuliyo/era linctoria, Linn. ; 
In'dlgogena, white indigo, ot colour- 
less indigotine ; tDdlgot'lcni. in- 
digo blue, atro-cyaneus. 

In'dlgotiita, pure blue indigo, forming 
about four-tenths of the commerciM 

Indlrec'te reno'sus, Link's term for 
lateral veins cocnbined within the 
margins, and emitting other little 

IndlTid'nal. Indii-id'uum {indifid'uut, 
inseparable), a unit o( the series 
which constitute species ; IlilllTld'- 
uaJlim.(l)capableof separate exist- 
encc ; (S) symbiosis in wbicb the 
total aggregate result is wholly 
different from any of the sym. 
bionta ; IniUTldn&'tlon, a synonym 
of the lost (2). 

indivl'sus (Lat.), undivided, entire. 

tndu'ced, applied to those movements 
which are the result of some irrita- 
tion or stimulus, as pressure, light, 
heat, etc, : Indnc'tlon, the prodno- 



cnverint;, as liairineas. 
Indn'pUcate, iii<liiiilka'<iif: Indu'pli- 

oatlve, with the margins bent in. 

wards, and the external face of 

these edges applied to each other, 

without twisting, 
Indurai'ceiLi {iadurtaco, I harden), 

hardening by degrees ; Indura'ted, 

Indn'saerorm, iDdu'dfom (Indc- 

eiDU, forma, ahape) ; Indn'slald 

(riJ«, like), John Smith's expression 

for an; indiuium-like covering in 

Indn'ttnin {Lai., s waman's under- 
gBrment), (1) an epiderm&l out- 
growth ooverina the son io FeniB ; 
(S) • ring of cotlecliDg h&in below 
the stigTDA; (3) the aanulns of eome 
Pongi [Lindle^l ; Isdn'sUte, indu- 
na'liu, posBeasing tui indusiam. 

Didn'vla« (I^t., alothea), (1) perriat- 
eot portioni of tbe perianth, or 
lesve* trbicb wither, but do Dot 
bll off; (2) BOkle-leavei ; ladn'- 
TlKte, induHa'lis, tTultifia'itia, 
clothed with withered remnaDta. 

InemlnTDiu'tiia {in, not, ttnbri/o, an 
embryo), having no embryo. 

luMqnllat'BnU, inaequilatera'lU (m, 
not, aequalU, equ&t, Inltif. lalerii, a 
Bills), unuuual-eiiled; Inae'qoiTalre, 
luuqnlTal Tular {i>aJw, a doar> 
leaf), UBed of the gtiUDsa of plants 
which show iiiao[iiality in their 


Inenoli'Tiii* (in, in, Itxc/is, an infu- 
(ion), fibrO'Cellular ti«nie, the cells 
having the appearanoe of spiral 
veueb, m ia Sphajfiium. 

Inemi', Iner'moai, imr'min (Lat., lui- 
armed], without Bpines or prickles. 

Iney*', to inoculate, or bud. 

In&ro'tate {in/areiiu, stuffed into], 
turgid or solid. 

InlM'ttou, communicable by infec- 
tion, M dileasea in plants, ete. ; 
caused by loine organism from 

ia'fer-acar'laii Sane, H, C. WaCson'a 
term for the lowest portion of the 
cultivated lands in Great Britsio ; 
— aro'tle Son*, a similar term for 
the lowest dirision of his arctic 
region in Britain. 

lah'ilor (I-»t., lower), (1) below some 
other organ, u an ~ Oa'lyz is below 
the ovary, or an — O'vwy seeiiin to 
STOW below the adoal^ calyx ; (2) 
has been nsed for anterior, or turned 
away from the aiia. 

litllA'led, iiijla-tm (Lat., puffed up), 
bladdery, swollen. 

toOto'tad {i^fitc^lo, I bend), bent or 

In'nvaU, a diviiion of gamopetaloua 
Dicotyledoiit, proposed for Rubi- 
aceae, Compositaa, Companulaoeae, 

inflez'fril, iiifi^at (Lat. , bent), tamed 
abruptly or bent inward, in- 

Inflorei'cence, InHorttcen'tin {mjtor- 
iKO, I begin to blossom). (1) the dis- 
position of the flowers on the floral 
axis ; (S) less correctly used for the 
Flower Cluster ; derinlte ~, when 
each axil in turn is terminated with 
a flower, bs in a Cyme; Indefinite ~ , 
when tho floral axis il cap&ble of 
oontinuous extension, as in a 

Info'Ilate (in, in, /oiium. a leaf), to 
oovcr with leaves. 

inftM'mu, (Lat., buried), sunk in any- 
thing, as the veins in some leave*, 
but leaving a visible channel. 

In'Ds-azll'lary, ii^iii-axUla'ri& {infra, 
below -H AxiLLABis), bolow the axil i 
intruw'dal [nodun. a knot) CaiuJi', 
gape in tbe medullary rays of Cai- 
amilts, below the node, leaving 
prints on the casta (Willianuon). 

infrac'ted, in/rac'C«t (Lat., broken, 
bent), incurved. 

tnft-nctet'oMiee ffi-yclv, fruit, by an- 
alogy to inflorescence), (1) the in- 
florescence in a fruiting stige ; (2) 
collective fruits, 

Infrne'tnoBe {tn/ruetuo'mt, unfruitful), 
barren, not bearing fruit. 

Infnndlb'uliT, in/unJibu/a'rii (iit/im- 
diliti'lam, s. funnel), funnel-abaped ; 
Inftmdibu'lUDrm, i^/uKditndiforvti* 
(forma, ehape), shaped like a 

Infiu'oato (i/i/iijciur, dusky], of a 
brownish tint. 

Inhlb'lUon {inhibilio, a restraining], 
modification or restraint in fnno- 

Init'Ui {iniiialif, original) ~ (Wla, 
cells from which primoidial layers 
or nascent tissues arise ; ~ Lay'er, 
the middle cambium layer. 

Itileo'tloii {injtdut, cast into), th« 
filling of intercellular spaoca with 
water (Ctoaier). 

^ iB'BMe, iniKi'eiu (Lat., nstunl], (1) 
borne en the apex of the support, 
in an anther the untitheBiB o[ 
»(]iut« ; (2) imbedded < Loigbton). 
In'neT, internal, nesiror the ceotre 
than Bometbing clue; — Lam'lna, 
the lajer of a lignitied cell-wall 
which in next tbe inside of the 
oell ; ~ Psrld'lom, ~ Tn'nlc, a 
more or laaa coloured membrane 
whioh sarrounda the hynienium in 
Vrrruearia beneath the pecithe- 

Ib'sotuu (Lat.), renewiiiK ; Inno- 
TUi'tM Ottm'msie, the Gxed or per- 
sistent buds of Mosaea. 

mnon'Uon Innosa'iio, (Lat., an al- 
teration), a Dew fonn«l shoot in 
Mosses, which becomes indepen- 
dent from the parent atem by dying 
off behind ; ~ Shoot, a vigorous 
ahoot which oarriea on the further 
growth of the plant. 

IniuiMlI&'ta« (in = not, -I- Nccbllus), 
Ttkn Tieghem's name for phanero- 
gUDJc pULnta whose ovules want 
Ducellas and integuments, such aa 
the SantaUceac. 

ISAoalA'Uos {inocutatio, ingrafting), 
grafting, more properlj budding, 
K single bud only being inserted, 

tBarptnle (>•>, not, -i- ubginic), de- 
void of organs ; — Aah, the final 
residuum a(t«r complete cnnilius- 
tion, the mineral portion of a 
vegetable tiuue ; <- Oom'pcnnds, 
lho«e which form port of animal 
or plant atructure derived from 
mineral subetanceB ; ~ Fer'ffleiiti, 
enEjmes, aa oppoeed to organic 
termenta, as bacteria, 

Ino^cnlaUnK (iii i»to, ofctUaUui, 
kissed], aoaatomosing \ Inoscnla'. 
tlon, budding or grafting. 

I'noaite (ft, (-4.. strength, sinew), a 
aoocharine aromatic principle which 
occurs io lunny seeds and other parlB 
ol plants, especially in climberB. 

bii)viiU'ta«,(in, not, -i Ovuldm], phan- 
erogamic plants which have no 
ovidei diacernible at the time of 
lertiliiation, aa the Loranthaceae 
(Vm TisRhem). 

Inaoulpt' {inaaiivtva, engraved), im- 
bedded in rocks, as some Lichens. 

itiaecldT'oroas \iniieclum, an iuseet, 
voro, I devour], used of those 
plants which capture insects and 
abaorb nutriment from them. 

Insainliw'tu (in^not, nmen, teed). 
Van Tieghem's name for those 
plants which do not contain seed 
separable or distinct at matnritj ; 
in order to germinate, the fruit 
maat be aown entire. 

Insepant'tton (in>tparalti», not sepa- 
rated), Maatera's term for coal- 
escence ; adj. insflp'arate. 

inser'ted, ingfr'lua (Lat,, put into), 
joined t» or placed on ; Insei'Uon, 
IiuTT'iio, (1) mode or place where 
one body is attached to its support ; 
(3)Grew's term for a medullary ray. 

Inalt'loQ {Ui,-ntiD, a grafting), the in- 
sertion of a scion into a stock, 

Iiuola'tloil {ineolo, I expose to the 
aud), exposure to the direct raya 
of theaun. 

Inspls'sated (i*», into, apitaalaa, thick- 
ened ), thickened, aajiiice by evspora- 

Inatlp'ulats {in - not, -I- stipoiaTk). 
Bistipiilate (Cronier). 

In'teser (Lat., whole), entire, not 
lobed or divided ; In't^T* Ka'dlx, 
an unbranched root ; ~ Vasl'na, 
the sheathing petiole wliiah forma 
a oontinuouB tube, as in acdgoH ; 
Int^ar'rlmni, an emphatic ansei. 
tion of the entirety of an organ ; 
integrlfo'Uont {/oiium, a leaf), with 
undivided, or simple leavea, 

Integmlna'taa (in- not, Uf/men, a 
covering), Van Tieghem's name for 
plants whose nnceUua is devoid of 

bit«g:'umeDC i,jnt'gii7nen'liim, a cover- 
ing), the oorerina of an organ or 
body; in/tginnti^la Jtora'lia, the 
floral envelopoB. 

iu'ter axlll'aiy (iitfrr. between -i- axil- 
laris), between the axita. 

Islo'calUT (inftrco^arM, that to be 
inserted), used of growth, which 
is not apical but betwmn the apex 



uid tlie baie ; ~ vag'etBUTB Zone. 
* portion lyuig between mature 
tiBBoe whitib tnkea od growth as 
thoagh s growing point ; luter'eft- 
Istad, interposed, plaoed belweea. 
Intercarp'sllsiy (Itilcr. between, + 
Cikpel), between the o&rpeU ; In- 
tercell'iUAT, (+ cuo-uliIh) between 
the cella or tUiuea ; >- Fu'Mga. a 
continuous opening between tlie 
oella ; — BpMtt, a c&Titf bounded 
b; the cells of a tissue; ~ Sub'- 
•tknce, material eiErHvasated from 
tiha iat«rcetluliir apices and adja- 
cent tisanea (Crozier) ; tuteroos'tal 
(eoUa, a rib), between the ribs or 
nerves of a leaf ; IntercroB'siiig, 
orots-fertitization ; loterDudo'nlaT 
(Jiudcaliia, a bundle), between the 
Taicnlar bundlei ; ~ Camlritun, 
that formed between the bandies 
in the primary meduUarj rays ; 
<- OonJune'tlTe Tl»'Bn» = precedino j 
— Fblo'em, — Zylem, reapectivoly 
formed from the-CitUBiiTU ; inter- 
BlU ifiltim, a thread), between 
GlamentB, as the resting spore in 
Mttoearpus (Crozier) ; tntertalla'- 
ceona l/olium, a leaf + acooua) be- 
tween the leaves of a pair, aa the 
atiputee of many Rubiauene : tuler- 
to'Uar, situated betweeu two oppo- 
site leaves ; tnl'erfoyUt, Crew's 
name for (1) bracts ; (2) soales ; (3) 

Intergeri'nnm (Lat., placed between), 
UjT'iiiiiiiitthediaaepiiaentof afruit. 

mterlol) nlfl (inter, between -f lobule), 
name given bj Spruce to a small 
plane process of a subulate or tri- 
uigular form, betweea the lobule 
and the atom in cerlftin Bepaticae. 

Interme'dlate, iaCrmie'diiuiLat.,ib»b 
whioh ia between), half-way, or 
between ; ~ na'ine, the sround 
tissne in eiogens, except that of 
the epidermis and vascular bitijd Ids; 
~Tn*. employed by H. C. Watson 
for those plants wboee distribu- 
tion in Great Britain is of a local 
or doubtful range ; ~ Zona {1) the 
kotivo tone between the pith and 

epidermis, cDntsinina the vascular 
bundles in Monocotyledons ; (2) by 
Watson used as indicating a certain 
elevation, betweeu theaurarian and 
arctic Eonea ; tntennlael lar {+ Ml' 
Cklla), between the roioellse; liie<r- 
molac'iilaT ( + Molicule), between 
the moleculea. 

Inler'DSl (I'nrerne, inwardly) — Perl- 
cy'iile, Plot's expression for the 
prucambinm retained on the inner 
side of the voacutar bundle. 

la'tsnuHje, Inlerno'dium (Lat.), the 
space or portion of stem between 
two nodes ; adj. Interao'dal 

luterpeflolar, iiUerptliola'rii {inltr. 
between, peiiolua, a little stalk), 
{!) between the petioles; (2) on- 
cloaed by the expanded base of a 
petiole ; (3) also applied to connate 
atipules which have coalesced from 
two oppoaite leaves, 

Intsrpe'sed {iiiterpot'iCua, placed be- 
tween) Hem'bers, those puta 
which have arisen in a whorl sab- 
sequent to its earlier members ; 
InteiTOEit'ian, litierpoiii'io, forma- 
tion of new pnrts between those 
already existing in a whorl; inWr- 
positi'vuB (Lat.). ioterpoeed. 

interrap'ted (internipCm, broken or 
separated), when any symmetrical 
arrangement is destroyed by local 
causes : a solution of continuity ; 
— Qrowtb, an alternation of abun- 
dant and scanty development, 
appearing as constrictions in an 
organ, as a fruit or tap - root ; 
in teimp'tedly pin'nate (1 ) a pinnate 
leaf without a terminal leaQet ; 
(2) having small leaQets interposed 
with those of larger size. 

Interatam'lnal (inter, between, -H sta- 
MiNAi,), placed between tffo sta- 
mens; Interatam'lnate isa synonym. 

luter'sttee {inUrelit'ium, a space be- 
tween), small air-spaocs; larger are 
termed laeunie. still larger, air- 
passages ; Intersldt lal Growth, the 
theory which requirea the interpo- 
sition of new paiticles between the 
older portions, instead of snperGcial 

; Inttr- 

tnter'Tanliim (inCfr, between, t 
veia), a porlioo of paranchji 
tween the veins of a leaf; 
tn».'vlng I + weaving), the union of 
hfpltiie b; growJDg amongst each 
other, without ooheaion ; Germ. 

Vorilachtung : interxy'iary ( + Xv- 
l-tu), amoDget the xylem elementti. 

Intax'ine, Intex'tliLe {iiUut, within, + 
EXTiNi), the inner membrane when 
two exist in the e»tino. or out«r 
covering of a pollen grain ; In'tloa, 
tbe innermoBt coat of a p*'"^"' 

&ilor'alo (Lat., ourling or crisping); 
Intor'tioii = ToBSioH ; lutor'tuB 
(Lat., twisted), praoticallj a ayn. 
ODfm of contorted, twisted npon 

liitodiaca'll<t(in'u'. within, diaevg, a 
diso), inserted within the disk of a 

liilracarp'BU«rT(in(ra, within, + Car- 
fai.). within the carpels ; Intra- 
MU'ulU' (-f CKLLDLAK), Within a 
cell ; intnfaide'nlai {jiucic'vlm, a 
bundle), within a bundle ; intra- 
Dlar {jSian, a thread), within n 
filament ; IntrftTDllft'ceoiit, -crue 
{folium, a leaf, + aceous), within 
or before a leaf, as within the axil; 
Intralun'etlar (lamella, a a mall 
plate], within plate- like struotarcs, 
as the trama of Agarics; IntTMnoiK'- 
liud itnargo, a margin), placed 
within the margin near the edge ; 
intramat'iical (malrix, a man Id), 
inside a matrix or nidua i Intra- 
meabU'itj {mfuliilis, penelrable), 
the capacity of protoplasm to per- 
mit substancea to pass into its 
vacaoles (Janee) : liitTamclec'ular 
( + MoLBCHLB), within the mole- 
cules; IntTMim'ral (mvmiiii, per- 
taining to a wall), between the 
walls of cells, as ~ QIands, used 
by De Biaj for mulliccllar organs 
Dl secretion, whose product ap- 
pears in tbe limiting walls ; 
Intnna'olear (nuc/eiis, a kernel), 
within the nucleus ; Intrapat'lolax 
(pefiolHt, a small stalk), within the 
petiole, OT between it and the 

stem, aa ~ Bnila, those which are 
completely enclosed by the petiole, 
as in PlatamiS. 

Intrar'loui, tn/rar'iiM [L. Lat,) turned 
inward toward the axis. 

iBtruam'liLal {intra, within, tcmen, a 
seed), within the seed ; -DeVBl'op- 
ineni,th« whole development under- 
gone b; tbe enibTya daring the 
conversion of the ovule into the 
ripe seed; Intrastalar {-i-Stklb), 
within the stele,aa~Tls'sile = Con- 
JUHcnvB TiBsuE ; latraTBgi'nal 
(i>(i0na,a sheath), within the sheath, 
applied to branches which spriDg 
from bads which do not break 
through the sheath of the sub- 
tending leaf (Scribner); IntraTalTil- 
la'risf -I- VALVULA BIS), within valvea, 
aa the dissepiment in man; Cruci- 
ferae ; liitnix)''Iai7( -i- Xvlbu] with- 
in the lylem. 

In'tilaate, trUrica'tiu (Lat. ), entangled. 

iatrocnr'Tea, intrtxMr'iiut (Lat.), in- 

Introdn'ced {iiUroduct'ut, brought 
within), used of plants which have 
been brought from another country. 

l]itroIlex'eil(in<rD, inBide,/MtM,bent), 
in Hexed. 

lii'trarM,infror'jtis(Mod. Lat.) tamed 
inward, towards the axis. 

Intiore'nlus {iatro, inside, vtna, a 
vein), hidden Telned ; from the 
abundance of parenchyma, the veins 
not readily seen ; <■/ avrmus. 

Intni'ded, ik'tnise, intru'eus (Lat., 
thrust in), poshed or projecting 

IntusEOtcep'tloii (inlut. wilbin, >im- 
etpluj. taken up), the theory of 
growth, which assumes the inter- 
calation of new particles (micellae), 
between the already existing par- 
ticles of the cell-woU. 

In'nlase (from the genua Inija), aa 
enzyme in Compositae which con- 
verts Inutin iota Levulose ; luu'- 
lenln, a subordinate oonstituent 
of Inulin (Tanret) ; lo'nUll, a 
body like starch, first found in 
Compositae, in the form of sphaero- 

lBaii'aaiut(lAt., hooking), the Burfooe 
covered with gJochidut or hooked 

tnaBta'tal iinnwiaiiit, orerflowed), 
WbLboh'b Bipreasion for those 
pUntB (vhiah grow in pUoca liable 
to be iaundatod in wet weather, 
but irj in summer ; IntudB'tOB, 
fiooded, sometinieii under water, 

■Inoa, B I^tin Buffix, meaning, (1) 
regemblanoe ; (2) aagmentation. 

Innv'injiteil (lu, into ; mgina, a 
■heBth), enulosed in a sheath. 

iartnt' {inversHj; turned about), in- 
rert«d : InTer'sian, (1) a chanse of 
order or place; the action of In- 
TcrtoM : (2) iB'Tort- m'tymt, tn'- 
TBrtu*, an unorganieed fermcnl, 
which tranimiitea cane-sugar into 
invBrtad- sugar ; liiTar'ted, having 
the apGx in an opposite direction 
to Ibe normal ; InTer'ted-ni'gU'. a 
mixture of fructose and gtucoae by 
the action of invertaac on cane- 
Bugar ; ~ Biip«rpoiit'ioD, theposition 
of aoceeaory buda below the princi- 
pal bud, or one firBt formed (Crozier); 
liiTer'teu (Lat,), invertinf;, becom- 
ing reversed, as iKiKrten'Cta Fo'liit, 
leaves whioli in sleep hang down- 
ward, bat touch b^ the upper sur- 

this form ia chiefly 
employed by Koologisti, 
tiiTli'iUe (ininiih-ilia, not to be Been), 
nsed of any organ which ia not 
BuSiciently devetoped to bs seen, 
vol'iioel, iHi-dncfl'lum {Fr,, iDvolu- 
celle, from invU'Mrvm, a wrapper), 
a seoondar-y partial involDcre ; 
Inrolueel'late, miYiliKiiUa'liu, pro- 
vided with a aecondary involnore : 
llLT<aa'ca«l, im'o/iicra'ltg, belonging 
to an involucre ; Invol'ucrate, In - 
volurra'liis ; Involu'ered. having an 
involucre of aome kind : Invaln ere. 
Involu'cmm, {1] a ring of bracla 
Borraunding several Qowcrsor tbeii' 
aupporta, as in the heads of Gompo- 
Bitee, or the umbels of Umbelli- 
ferae ; (2) the tiaaue of the thalluB 
in AnllKMeroteae, grown up and 


overarching the embryo, afterwards 
pierced by the lengthening aporo* 
gonium ; (3) the peridium, volva 
or annuini in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) 
the induaium of Ferns ; gaa'enl - , 
that which ia at the base of a oom- 
pound umbel ; pnr'ttaJ ~ , aec'oiidary 
~, that which surrounds a partial 
umbel ; ini'olu'cra Lii/nta, Mal- 
pighi's name for the concentric 
wnes of growth in exogens; Jn- 
voln'cret, an involaoel. 
In' volute, iuvola'tag, IbtoIhU'tiu 
(Lat., enwrapped), having the 
edges of the leaves rolled inwards ; 
Involu'tion, (I) the act of rolling 
inward ; (2) the retnm of an organ 
or tissue to its original state; — 
Form, a swollen bladder-like form 
of Schixom3-cete8, aupposed to be 
a diseased condition of the form 
aa80ciat«d with it ; ~ Pe'riod, the 
resting period : ~ Bpore, a rest- 
ing-spore ; ~ Btace. the resting 


iDTOl'veiu (Lat.). rolling together, aa 
involiv-n'tia Fo'lia Died by De Can- 
dolle, for trifoliate leaves whose 
leuButs rise up, unite at the summit 
... so as tn form an arch which 
shellers the flowers, aa in TVi/irfiuni 
tworjui'iim, Linn. (Lindley). 

lo'deafUdiii, V iciet- coloured },KH^i'niM, 
violet ; I'odlne, an elementary body 
obtained from marine Algae, etc.; 
lo'nldss, violet- coloured. 

Irreg'olar, imyuia'jT* (Late Lat., not 
according to rule), (1) wanting in 
regularity of form; (2) asymmetric, 
as a flower which cannot be halved 
in any plane, or one which is 
capable of bisection in one plane 
only, lygomorphio ; ~ Pelot'ia, 
a monstroBJly by which irregnlar 
form has beoome regular by sym' 
metric development ; Irretnlarlty, 
Irrirjidar'itful, the BtBt« of being 
unequal in form. 

IrrltabU'l^ [ierilnhiiit, easily ei. 
cited), phenomena indnoed by 
Btimuii, such as shuck, abacnoe 
or presence of light, warmth, 
gravity, et«. 

iMbtUl'niu (Mod. lAt.), iMbolla 
colour, ft dirtj taway tint. 

iSKdalptL'Dlu, -u« (IiDi, eqnal to ; 
dJtX^i, > brotber), oquaJ brother- 
hood, the number at Ibe BUmena 
in ths two phaUu^ being eqa>l. 

Tiatla, Iha coloanng principle of 
wood, Itatii tiiictoria, Linn. 

lild'lold, reaembling the Lichen 
nmu, Imdiian; lalimrenrai {/fro, 
I bear), beuing » tb«Uua like tbe 
l^niu whenoe it detivM ita name ; 
lidd'lOM. having powdery, corat- 
like excreBoenoM. 

Iild'tiUB (l«i = >eeniu of corals j dJot, 
like), the oor*l-like elevalion of & 
Lichen tbsllui with a globule oo it. 

Tabnds, a term applied to isolated 
■trandi of phloilm in the xyleni. 

lio1iUAt'«nU (lo-of, equal to, bw, twice; 
lo/iu, la<tri8, a Bide), capable of 
being divided into two eimilar 
hahea ; Ifob'rlooi (^iudu, 1 
■trengthen), of equal strength, refer- 
ring to tbe embryo of Dicotyledons ; 
laobrla'tna, dicotyledonary ; Uo- 
eho'nunia [x'^iii, a mound), applied 
to branches springing from tbe aame 
■tern at the sanie angle ; UooIi'to- 
moQa {jifiCiiM, colour), all of one 
colour or hue, uniform in tint ; 
laooy'dic (%6k\iis, acircle), eucyclio, 
B flower having iaaoieroua wborla ; 
ItoJlMnet'rta (JiA, thnrogh ; ii^por, 
a measure), of e(|iia] dimenaionii ;~ 
Oelli, those having an e^ual din- 
meter in each direction ; laodl'ody 
{tioiai, a paaaage), tbe condition of 
producing DiouEs which give rise 
to uniseiual prothallia (Van 
Tieghem): Itody'iuuDOiu lidratui, 
power), equally developed ; iBo- 
gam'eta l-fo/Urv^, a Bpouae), gumet«B 
or BCtual cells of similar size and 
appearance, which conjugate and 
reiult in a aygole ; tiOK'«moua 
iyi/its, marriage), used for those 
planla which produce iaogametea ; 
IflOg'aniy, the faeion of similar 
aexual cells ; lao^'enoiu (7<f«t, race) 
Indne'tton, used by Noll to eipreu 
Miuitive movements ariiing mnn a 
"■ "'" iao^yaaiu iyvt^, a 

womaii), havingtbe pistils similar ; 
Uog7'rtia}:(']'iipii, round), forminga 
complete spire i iBOm&lt'ose ( + 
Maltosk), a product of amylodex- 
trin, pawing by fermentation into 
maltose ; liomra'lc, laom'aronf, -hi 
(»ijpai, a part), (1) having tbe aama 
elementB in the same proportion!, 
but with different properties ; (2) 
having members of succossivecyclea 
C(|Ual m number, aa the petals and 
sepals ; Iwpli'agotu {•piyv, I eat), 
applied to Fungi which attack 
one, or several allied speoiei (Erika- 
son); iBOph'orouB {^p^i^, Icarry) 
tranaformabte into sonieLhing elM 
(Croziet); iBopUn'ogumetes (rXd^at, 
wandering, + (iAMKTB), motile 
sexual cells of equal sixe, occurring 
in Algae ; liopo lar hxiliu, a pole), 
an axis of Diatom fmstules ia ao 
termed when its extremities ara 
similar (O. Mueller) ; laopro'thallr 
( -f Pbotballcs), producing pro- 
thallia which are aimilar in sexual 

brood, all of which are equal in 
size and function (Hartog) ; laoa- 
mol'lo {CxTiiix, impulse, pushing], 
passing by osmosis in or out with 
equal facility ; I'soapore (ori^, 
■md), a apore produced by one of 
the Iiospo'raae, plants having one 
kiod of spore, as in Ferns, opposed 
to het«rosporouB ; isos'poroua, 
homosporouB, or having one kind 
of spore only ; Isosp'ory, tbe state 
of producing one sort of spore ; 
iaoaW'monotu, trns, having as many 
stamens as petals, or sepals ; taoi- 
M'mony, equality in number of 
stamens with the segments of ths 

ririanth whorls ; laoBt]r'lona ( -f- 
IVLUS), the styles being similar, 
oppossil to heterostyloua : laos'tia. 
Van Tieghem 's term when the 
mother root has more than two 
xylem bandies ; Uolon'ia (rirm, a 
strand, a brace) Conoaatnlloii, 
that degree of diCTerent soluCiODS in 
which they attract water with equal 
fonM(DeYriet}i liM'tOBL0U(*T4fu, 


a mouth), the c&l;i and corolla the 

■amesiie :bat'rapli]'ts(Tjii)0j|, food; 
^itrsp. a plant], ■ panwitio Funjjua 
wboM ioflueace is onlj ohemical, 
with bat Blight chaugsa in the 
host (Waklcfr); iBat'ropooi (rpijirai, 
direction), equal torsion in develop- 
ment, as in valvate and contorted 
aaslivKiOD (K. SehamanQ). 

UUt'mna {iaOiiit, a neck of Uod], (1) 
the narrowed connection between 
half-cellBof DeamiiJB 1 (2) the girdle 
of rich Difltomg u laihnii'i. 

Iteik'to-pToUTeroQa (i/frMua, repeated 
4- proliferous) repeatedly bearing 

Ithrphyl'lus (Wi's, straight; #ilXXo», a 
leaf), atraight and itiif-leaved. 

Jag'geiy, a coarse dark sugar from the 
coco-out and other patms, which 
produeca arrack by fermentation. 

Jal'apln. a conBiituent of the otScinal 
Jatap, a purgative root, derived 
from Ipomoai Parga, Hayne. 

Jwna'lctn, an alkaloid occurring in 
the cabhagB bark-tree, Andira \ner- 
tnu, Kunth, a native of the West 

Jupld'stu, or ianpid'iiit (Lat., from 
HupET, jasper], a njiiture of many 
colourt arraoged in small spotA, 

Je'terus. a mistake of Biachoff, copied 
by Lindley, for Ictb&dh, vegetable 

JtHnt, an articulation, as a node in 
graaiea or other plants ; Jointed, 
actiouUted, falling apart at Ibe 

Jonqnil'Ieni (Mod. Lat.), the bright 

yellow of the Jonquil, Nartittua 

odorv», Linn. 
Jn'lM (L^t., a mane), a loose paniole, 

with diliqnesceut axis; JnbA'tus, 

Jn'gkt* [jvga'tua, connected or yoked 

together), used in composition as 

conjugate, bijugale, etc. 
Jn'pun (Lot., a joke), pi,, Jn'ga : (1) 

a pair of leaflets ; (2) the ridges on 

the fruits of Umbelltferae. 
Jnioa, the liquid contents of any 

plant -tissue; ~ Tea'seli, Hills 

t«nu tor vaacolar ti 


le ; Jnloelvu, 

\» [jtdut. Mod. lAt.,BD 
amentum or spike, ■*■ oceous). bear- 
ing catkins, amentaoeous; Jnlifonn 
{/orToa. shsps], Ukea catkin; Ju'lus, 
an old term for catkin, or spike, 
such as in Acoraa Coiamug. Linn. 
lana'old {jimcut, a rush, diM, 
semblance). janc'anB, Jun'ci 
uLctn'ra (Lat., a joint], an artioola- 


n wliich ( 

rgana a: 

E, for many words see also under 

the letter C. 
Kftlldlon, Kniid'him; pi., KSLlldIa 

{KoKittor, from KaXitt, granary) = 


kamptod'romona — cAHrroDBOHooa. 

VtXJfAA {rii-pvat. a nut, irlSoi, like) ; 
minute spherical bodies attached 
to the chlorophyll plate of Con- 
jugatae and Desmida ; Karyo^amr 
(■yd^ui, marriage), the union of 
gametonuclei, to form a zygote- 
nacleus (Maupos) ; Kuyoklne'ili 
{Klriiaa, motion, I change) ; 
Schleicher's term for the series of 
changes undergone by the nucleus 
in ooU-division ; " also silled 
0*17001 nesii " (Crozier); it lathe 
indirect divlsioa of Flonming; 
adj., kuyokliiBt'lo ; KMTDl'ogy 
(Xfryn, discourse), the scienoeof the 
nucleus and its development and 
vital history (Trow) ; XiuTOl'ytll 
(\u'iriT, a loosing], the dissolution 
of the nucleus, in whole or part : 
adj., karyolyt'lc ; Karyomito'sls 
((ilroi. a thread or web) = M iTosis ; 
K&r'yoplasm (xAiiKiia. moulded), 
the more fiuid protoplasm of the 
nucleus, between the nuclear 
threads ; Karyaao'nw (n-u^s, a 
body), a oloae maa 


ia k DUoleuB ; pi. KaiyoBO'ntata ; 
■aiTMTiiipb'yil* (ff<^;i^i«it,gniwiiig 
togeCber), nuclenc fuaion (HArtog). 
k&tabol'le (tDTo/SoUv, I cut dowr), 
descending inutabolism, the break- 
[□R up of cumpoQiidB int« aimpltr 
bodies ; EaUb'oUam, destructive 

fcat&lrt'lo = CATiLVTIC. 

Katelectrot'oBua ((ard, douii ; 
IfkinrpBt, amber; r6ras, BtrnLi), 
heightened excitation in plnnti 
due to uj electric curient (Hor- 

iMUlod'ia ((ifioSDi, a desroot), that 
hmlf of ■ leaf which ia turned >way 
from the direction in which I he 
genetic Epirot tarns ; the opposite 


Keel, or Cari'na, (1) a. ridge like the 
keel of B boat ; (2) the two interior 
and anited petals of k papilionace- 
ous corolla ; keeled, carinate. 

■Etnuauh'jtnA {scrit, empty, tjxi-)m, 
BD infusion), permanent tiuue 
which has lost ita liriog cootenta, 
OS oort - tissue ! in Ger. " Leer- 

Sertunld^inin - CeRAumicu, or 

kenneat'niu (Mod. Lat.), carmine, a 
colour from Kermee. 

Kar'nel, (1} the nucleus of an OTale.or 
of a leed, that ie, Che whole bodj 
within the coate ; (2) the softer 
part of the pyrenocarp within the 
outer wall in certain Fungi. 

Ke'Ione* (a variation of "Acetone"), a 
close of etheriat oils ; camphor U 
probably one of this olssi. 

Ket'tle-tr&pe, applied la euch flowers 
■a thme of Arislolochia, which im- 
prison insects until fertiliuition is 

K«;, or Ksy-fTuit, the 8amiba of 
sycamore or ash. 

Hia'ney- form, Kld'ney - shaped, oh- 
Utely cordate; crescent's baped, 
with the ends rounded. 

Kind, genue or species, a sort. 

klnet'la itlman, notion) En'erE?, 
iba energy of actual motion, aa 
oppoMd to potential energy. 

kls'lc {Kina-Kina, % same for Cin- 
ohona), pertaining to cinchona ; ~ 
Ao'ld, on organic acid in Cinrhona 

KlnK'doni, one of Uie highest groupe 
of organio nature ; the Vegetable 
~ includes all plants. 

Sado'dlum - Ci-adodb. 

klalstogam'tc, UelEtog'ainoiuz cutis- 

KUnomorpb'y {Mra, I bend, imp"^*)- ■ 
shape], Wieuner's term for the 
condition of an organ determined 
by the simultaneous oblique posi- 
tion of the principal and median 
E lanes, so that the right and left 
lives may be distingaiehed oa 
□pper and lower, resulting in a 
different shape of the two haUea ; 
UeiDorbom'Uc {pii^ot, a rhomb), a 
mineralogic term used by De Bory 
for oblii)ue rhombic orystaU in 

Kli'nostai - CrjNOBTAT. 

Knse, (1) an abrupt bend in a stem or 
tree-trunk ; (2) an outgrowth of 
some tree roota ; ~ Jolnt'ed, genicu- 
late ; - -panshipsd. concavo-con- 
vex, patelliform ; kn«ed, geniculate. 

Cdgbt-Darwin Law, generally under- 
stood as ' ' that no organio beind 
fertilises itself for an eternity of 
generotiona"; preferably "Nature 
abhors perpetual self- fertilisation," 
f^. F. Darwin in "Nature," Iviii., 

tnobllke = aoNOTLODEs ; kiuibbsd = 
T0KUUI3B; knob't^^NODoai. 

Knot, (1) a node in the stem of 
groases ; (3) a swellins in stems at 
the attachment of the leaf ; (3) 
varioua diseases caused by Fungi, 
as Black - . effected by Ilotmyluia 
rnorbo/ia. 8aoc. ( Tubeu f ) : Knot phase, 
in nuclear-division, is also known 
as skein-stage; knot'ted, knofty, 

Knar, KnuiI,akaoborhai'd substance 

Kiyp'tOblas*(<rfii.WTOt, bidden, i9XaaTM, 
a bud), a proven titioua bud 



jib'Uoai (tiant, blue ; ^lUoi, I 
love). UNd of any tiuue which 
rattdily abiorba blue staining : 
iT'aiiopIiTll (^XXdv, b leaf), nearly 
pnra chlorophfU freed (ram its 
•Mociatad yellow pigmeDt. xantho 
yhyll (Wiesnar) ; it la bluiah-green 

U'bal (^abeUtim, a li tUo lip), ( 1 ) Grew'a 
term far Ihe pinnule or uttimale 
•egment of a Fem-frond; ('2) Labs L' 
LDH 1 label'lmn : (1) the third petal 
of Orchida, uiaally etil&rged, and(by 
toraioQ of the ovary boiwme anterior, 
from ita normal posterior position ; 
(2) a aimilar petal in other flowera. 

lA'tdAte, faiia'ciu ( Lat. , lipped ) lipped, 
oiually biUbiat« ; Utdatillot'oiu, 
-rtti, used of oertain Compoeitao 
vith bilabiate oorollaa to their 
florets; la'tilOM, labio'gvg, applied 
to a polypetaloDB corolla seemingly 
two-lipped ; La'tdnin, the lower 
lip of a Labiat« Sower. 

lab^lntUIOr'iiili {labgriMfhiui,^iilr\ia- 
tnre with winding pooaagea ; /orma, 
ahape), marked by ainuous Unea, 

LMfltal., latca, a vamiih), a resinous 
eiudutiOD from various tropical 

Slants, occurring in commerce in 
ifierent forma ; Lac'case, the en. 
cyme which produces Lacqueb, 
from Suid lao ; Uc'cate, as thougli 
vamiahed ; Lao'dne, a substance 
found in lac, insoluble in water, 
aloohol, or ether. 

lao'ent«, lat'ciiu ilaeer, maoglod)! 
laona'ted, I'lcera'/ua ; torn, or ir- 
regularly cleft. 

bolrriDia ll^t. . a tear), a drop of glim 
or ream exuded from a tree ; nlao 
spelled Laoh'Tyma and Laciima ; 
laoh'tyilniltarm, lachrimiform'i* 
[forma, shape), tear-ahaped ; some- 
times but tesa corracily spelled 
lach'Tymaeform, etc. 

Ladn'la (Lat., the Hap of a garment), 
aslashorglendcrlobe; Laolnia'tlon, 
Sasion ; lada'late, latinia'tHa, 

like (Crosier) i Ladn'ma, (Ijadim- 
inutive laoinja or lobe ; (2) the 
incurved point of the petal inmany 
Umbolliferaa ; lacin'olate, laeln'ti- 

loae, finely lociuiate. 

Lac'qner, a Japanei 
Lac and Laocase. 

lilk), Beijerink' 

varntah ; <^,, 


distinct from Invertaae ; 
Lac'teaU, Lac'tlfer {/'.to, I bear), 
Lao'tanlB, Urew'a nsmea (or latici- 
forouaducts: lao'tena(Lat.) milhy, 
white M milk ; Uctes'oant, latiejf- 
CCTU, yield ingmilk^ juice j lactla'olor 
{color, colour) milk-white ; laotl- 
feroUgOrew'a word for laticiferoua; 
Lac'tose, milk-sucar; the sweet prin- 
ciple of milk, and sUMd to occur in 
the fruit of ^cArofi.Vapofa, Lino, 
Lactaca'rinm, the dried juice of the 
lettuce, Lari'ica eaiiivt, Linn., oon- 
tatning an active prinoiple, Lao'ln- 

Lacu'na (Lat,, a hole or cavity), (l)aa 
air-space in the midst of tisane; 
<2) B depression on the thallns of 
a Lichen ; lacQ'nar, pertaining to 
or arising from lacunae ; ~ Tli^tia, 
thin-walled cells, forming irregular 
trabecolae radially traversing the 
intercellular cavity of the stem of 
Stla^nffla ; it tnay be regarded aa 
the equivalent of the Bundle-Sheath 
of most other vascuIarCryptogama; 
lacQ'noM, 'uriiKo'^u, (1) when the 
Burfaceis covered with depreaaiona ; 
(■2) perforated with holes ; laon'iio- 
rlmo'nu, marked with irregular 
ci'aeks and excavations ; laan'no- 
m'KOie, ~ -nigoaus, having irregular 
wrinkles, oe the stone of the peach. 

lacui'tral (/of its, a pond or take), H,C. 
Watson's term for plant* which are 
OBually floating in water or im- 
mersed ; Uuna'trlne, iMws'tria, be- 
longing to, or inhabiting lakes or 
ponds ; the form lacue'ter has been 
itroduoed reoeotly. 

iMv'lgata, latpigjlui ilceigaiut, 

, . .. — smooth, slippery), rawotfa, u U 

laoin'iTorm [/orma, shape), fringe- 1 poliahed. 


imt'yiM {Ui'ii, nnooth), gmooth, in the 

UDU of not being rout(h. 
llCa'niron], lagmiJonn'U {lagtna, A 

fluk ; /("-ma, shape), Bhuped like a 

Florence fliek. 
Iftgo'pns (Xa-ri^ain, hare's foot ), hare- 

foot«d, densely covered with loog 

Lam'al, £anw^'to(Lati.,a thinpUteor 
■cale), A thin plate ; pi., LunellM, 
the Kills of Agarica; lamellar, 
idniF^ia'm. oomposed of Ihio pliitea; 
lam'sUate, lamdia'iiu, made up of 
t^in plat«s, as the hymeniuiD of the 
DiaihrMiiu ; lamel'lltORn tfnrma, 
shspe), in the shape of a piste or 
scale; lom'eUose, /umei/o'™ji = UM. 
ELI.ATB; Lunel'lnlae, the giiia of 

' lam'lna (Lat, a thin leaf), the limb, 
blade, or expanded part of a leaf ; 
— pNltK'en ; ~ sporlg'srs, the 
disk or centre of the apothecium 
of a Lichen ; ~ lunlna'tad, con- 
sisting of plates or layers ; -' 
Bolb, H tunicAted bulb, as a 
hyacinth ; lamlna'ting-, separuting 

lA'na (Lat.) wool, or woolly covering; 
la'nate, Imui'ivg, clothed with 
woolly and intergrown hairs, 

Isn'ceolato, lantcobi'tna (Lat.. arnied 
with a little lance), (I) narrow. 
tapering to each end ; Linnaeus 
used it for a leaf having nearly 
similar extrentities, but in modern 
nee, the base is usually somewhat 
broadened, and the greatest breadth 
at aboat one>third from the base ; 
(2) the primitive meaning ia pre- 
served in Cixrdntia lavciolilve, 
Unn, ; - haa'tata, a hastate leaf, 
with the principal lobe lanceolate; 
~Mg'ltt«te, a iasittate leaf, the 
middle lobe lanceolate; Unoe-o'vate 
(Ci'oiier), lanceolate ovate, indica- 
tive of a form intermediate between 
the two named terms ; lance shaped, 

la'noH, taiio'mis (Lat.) woolly, <^., 

with Lauv'go (Lat.), wooUiness; 
long and interwoven hairs. 


s, (Bp/m'cdU (Lat, ) bur-like, 

iM'm (^in.xt, a mask). (1) applied to 
the renting stage, aa the aolero- 
tium of ergot ; (2) the early form of 
certain Conifers, whose perfect and 
adult form is very different ; lar- 
ra'tns (Lat.) personate, 

laslaii'UMU (XdiTiiK, shag^ : iv0i><, a. 
(lower), woolly. llowereoT; laalocar'- 
pouB (innirdt, fruit), pubescent- 

latebro'sua (Lat,, full of lurking 
plaices), hidden. 

la'tent {lainif, hidden), dormant : -> 
Bud, nnadventitionB bud ; -Pe'rtofl, 
resting, stage. 

LBt'er«, pL of Lat'ui (Lat., a side), the 
aides : lat'eral, hit'-ra'/it, i^xedon or 
near the side of an organ ; ~ Bad, 
adventitious bud ; ~ Dabis'cetioe, 
bursting or opening at the side ; 
~-tiiic1ealna,~Mn'oletu, r/., Paba- 
MUOLEt's; ~Plane, the vertical 
plane at right angles to the antero- 
jHHterior plane, as of a llower ; ~ 
View of a Diatom frustule. when 
the valves are seen in front view, 
the girdle being then in side view ; 
Lateral' Ity, used by Sachs for 
SvMHETitr, both radial and dorsi- 
ventral; UtMlfollOOS yo/'um, a 
leaf), growing on the side of a leaf 
nt the base ; laterlnsr'vis, latsrlner'- 
vlua {nen-iie, a nerve), straight- 
veined, as in grasses; laterUtlp'- 
nlQs; ( + BTirrLA) having stipules 
growing on its sides, 

laterlc'lou* or laterlt'lous, IrUtric'iuA, 
lateril'iiii (I^t,, made of bricks), 

La'tex (Lat,, juice), (1) the milky 
juice of such plants ae spurge 
or lettuoe; (2) the moisture 
of the Btigma ; {3) the gelatinous 
ounding the aporei 

B Fiingi 

- Cells, laticiferoua 

DOjtM ; ~ CrMi'alM, itarch 

lAUotferoiiB llalcx, laCicU, joioe, fero, 
I bear), Ulox-besring ; ~ Cetla, 
Btmcturoa wliich are not cell- 
fiuioDB ; — CM'iiooyMs, brancbed 
cells or vcasela libs oella contaiQ- 
ing IkUx ; — Tts'ine, the system of 
oelb or vesseli ; ~ Vea'aela, the 
tubes or aimilnr structure* irhich 
have milky juioe, aanally brtuiohed 
syncytes, thu walls between ad- 
JMsnt celts being sbsorb«d. 

UUfo'Uate, UtUb'llous, lati/o'liug 
(Lat.), broad -leaved. 

l&Uiep'Ul (/aflu, broad, teplum, a 
hed){e), applied to those Craoifers 
which have broad septa in their 
riliolee SB Honesty, Lunariaannna, 
li\an.;UXiMep'ta,X», tatisep'tua, with 
brosd partitions. 

laf tiCBd, oroBs - barred ; ^ C«U = 


Lan'riii, an acrid principle from the 
berries o{ Lauma nobvtit, Linn. 

UVuider, pale bluish grey ; the 
colour of the flowers of Lavandula 
vtra, DC. 

l«z, iaz'us (Lat.). loose, distant. 

iKfrn, (1) ths Stroma or rcceplaele 
of Fungi; (2) in propsgation, a 
branoh oaosed to root wliilst still 
conneoted with the parent : lAy'er- 
•fB, term proposed by L. H. Bailey 
. ..._i_, .__ -,j^^g 


t of making layers; 

Laying, a gardener's term for the 

lunll'nus (Mod. Lat.), ultramarine 

bine, a pigment obtained from 

"Lapis Lazuli." 
lAad-ool'mmd, dull grey ; e/. pldk- 

Laa'der, the primary or terminal shoot 

ral organ borne by t 
It is a ilinpls ~ when undivided, 
oomponnd ~ when divided into 
distinct parts ; •• Airang'emeiit, see 

Fbtllotaxis ; - BlMle, = Lamiha ; 
~ Bad, a bud which develops into 
a leafy branch ; opposed to ■ 
■■Flower Bud"; -cycle, in phyl- 
lotnxis, a spiral which poraes 
through the insertions of inter- 
mediate leaves till it attains the 
neit leaf exactly above its starting 
point; ~ Fall, defoliation; — Ortan 
= CELosoFi<rLL ; ~Pi)tss = 8toha- 
I* ; ~ Scar, Iba marL or cicatrix 
left by the articulation and fall o( a 
leaf ; ~ Sbealb, the lower part of the 
petiole which more or lesa invests 
the stem ; ~ Stalk. = Petiolb ; ~ 
Ten'dill, one which ta a transformed 
leaf ; — Trace, all the common ban. 
dies in a. stem belonging to one leaf. 

Leafing, the unfolding of leaves ; 
leariess, wanting leaves ; Leaflet, 
the blade or separate division of a 
compound leaf; leaflUn = roLi- 
ACB0D8 i laafy, full of leaves. 

Italli'er-yel'lov, a vague term for the 
tint of tan or buB' leather; alU' 

loath'ery, toi _ 

lecanci'liis, reacmhling the apathe- 
cium of the ganuB Luanora. which 
has a paler margin arising from the 

lecid'eUorm {forma, Bhape),lee!d'sliM, 
like the apotheoium of Ltddta, 
whioh has a margin of the same 
colour ss the disk. 

Le'olthln {'K-fimBo'i, an oil-flask), a type 
of white, waiy, phosphoroos-coo- 
taining substances, some of whioh 
have been separated from the seeds 
of maize, peas and wheat. 

lecot'ropal \\tKM, a dish, T/tor^, a 
turning), shaped like a horse-shoe, 
as some ovules, q/'. ltcoxeofous, 

Le'cns (X^xoii a bed) = CoBK. 

leek-gTwn, virid grcan, prasinni. 

left, sinistrorse ; see Appendix C. 

leglt'lmat« (leijilimm. allowed by law) 
FDrtlliia'tlo&, Lu dimorphic or tri< 
motphic plants, fertiliiatiOQ by its 
own-form pollen, as short-styled 
flowers by pollen from Other shorl- 
Htaniened flowers, eto. (Darwin). 

Leg'ome, tpffu'mci (Lat., pulse), the 

•eed-veuel of Ltgummoaite. one- 
Mllsd and two-volved, but various 
in foriD ; LagD'mlii, an slbumiDoid 
from pulse, vegoUble cassia ; 
laga'aliunu, leyMmina'rit, (I) 

r (2) t, 


u-Blup«d, lentil -lik«, donblf-oon- 
rei, lentiouUr. 

a'ttnl, Lenlicrl'la (lent, lentil, a 
lentil), lenticular corky spots on 

Soang bark, corresponaing to epi- 
ermal stomats ; Bjn. Lsnt'lcalls 
(Crozier); Isnllcalla'tua (Mod. Lat.), 
having lenticels ; Lentic'nlae, " Che 
■pore-ciuea of certain Fungato " 
(Liodley); lenUc'ular, /snfiVii&'n'c, 
lenUfoim'ts {/omia, shape), like a 
doably convex lens. 

lentls'lii(Me, lentl^'liuiiii, Untigiiw'tut 
{Lat., full of freckles), minutely 
dotted as thoDgh freckled. 

iMOb'romn* {\iwr, a lion, xp'-'l"'t 
oolout), tawny, tbe colour of a lion's 
bide; leonl'tiiu (Lat.,peitainin^ lo 
a lion), something of the same tint. 

tep'al, Lep'ai-um (Mod. Latin, from 
XctIt, a scale), a nectary originat- 
ing in a barren trausformed stamen 

Llpan'tblvm (Xivlt, a scale, ire<a, a 
Sower), "a petal wbiah contains a 
□eatary"(Crozicr); Leplc'en«(«r(Ka(, 
empty), the glume in gnugos, by 
Richard uMil for the lower pair 
of glumes :L«p'i<I«, hcsIcb, usually 
attached by their centre ; lepido- 
dsn'droU ILtpidodendron, tUov, re- 
semblance), like the fosail aonus 
Lepidodendron, a carboniferous 

Lapidopteroph'IlM (Lepidopteron, 
0iX/u, I love), applied to plants 
which are fertilized by lepidop- 

Lep'ldop&yte, Lepidophy'Uu {\erU, a 
scale; ifivrin. a. plant), L. Ward's 
term for Lepidodendroid fossil 

■ lap'tdole, lupido'lus (Xcxiji^rn, seal;), 
^ beset with imall scurfy scales. 

Leplo'ta (Xtirii, a scale, oiti, vrdt, an 
aar), " lbs annulus of iwrtain Fan- 
gals*' (Liodley); but Lepio(a is a 
genuB of Agarics, having been pro- 
posed by Feriiaon for a section of 
Agnricjin ; Le'pts, a scsle. 

Lepla'nia {Xiria/ia, peeled bark), a 
membranons scale in some Ranon- 
calaceae, an apparently aborted 
stamen in Patonia papavtracta 
Andrz. ; several of tbem eaclose 
the ovary, 

Lep'ra {Mrtia, leprosy), a white mealy 
matter extruded from the surfaoe 
of some plants ; lep'rose, lep'ron*. 
lepra' tus, scurfy. 

leptoder'mouB (Xcxtot, thin, delicate, 
Hp^, skin), thin-coated, used of 
raoM-capanles when pliable ; Lep'to- 
forma ( forma, shape), faeteroeciou* 
FuDDi having teleutosporee only, 
which aa soon as they arrive at 
maturilygenninataonliving plants; 
Lep'tome, an abbreviation of Lep- 
tomes'tome {tufit, filled) ; Maber- 
landt'a expression for the phlovm- 
like portion of tbe vascular bundles 
in vascular plants; Lep'tomln, a 
substance found in the leptome of 
some plants, especially in the 
sieve-tubee and latictferous vessels, 
tbe presumed function being to 
convoy oxygen (Raciborski) ; Lep'- 
tophlo'Cm (-i-PaLDeit), rudimen- 
tary phloiim, for starage or con- 
duction of food mnterid (Vaisey) ; 
Ispt«pb;l'Iatu,-Itu («uX\aii, a leaf), 
Blonder - leaved ; leptosporan'gUle 
{aTop&, 8oed,d77eioi', a small vpsael), 
having leptosporangia ; Leptotpor- 
an'glum, a sporangium derived 
from Ooe BnperScial coll, as in the 
true Ferns, and not from a group 
of celts ss in Opbioglossaoeae ; 
leptott'chOB {-nix"^. > wall), thin- 
walled, applied only to tissue. 

Lspyropbyl'ly ( \irvpov, a scale. ^ilXXdf , 
a leaf), Morren-B term for arrCBt of 
the testa in the .eaf-sUge. 

with spots resembling 



" Amidooaproic Acid " is a white 
mbBtance, first found in uiiinala, 
»fl«rwBrds {onnd in plants ; Lsn'- 
dte, Vbd TiBghem's name for 
LiuooPLAST ; he further modifieH 
the term by preQjing unylo-, 
diloro-, ohromo-, ebiio-. oxaU-, 
fur v&riou> DiodiGcatione : farther- 
mare, act'lva ~, or pu'iiTe or 
mtarvt' ~ , acoording to function ; 

lAn'coplMt, LencoplM'tld {wMirrot 
moulded), A. F. W. Sahimper's 
tertu for the apeoi&liied colourteBS 
protoplasmic granule ; sjn. AnjI- 
Tieghem) ; leacopbjl'lui (^>\Xiu>, a 
leaf), wbit« - leaved 1 Lau'oopbyll- 
gnln - Lkuooplast ; Ltu'coaomei 
{a&ita, a body), amall Hpherical 
bodiea, apparently caDipDae<l of al- 
bumiDOidi Incioacd in the leuco- 
pluta of Comoielynaceae (Zimmer- 

lerlgak'tiu (Lat.) amootb, alipperr ; 
in botanical Latin it is usually 
Bpelled "laflVigatuB." 

Will <Lat.| smoDlli, in the aenae of 
□ol rough ; from the time of 
Linna«ua downward Lbia has been 
gpelled botanically ag " laeviB." 

Le'nlou l/oeitu, on the left aide)^ 
FruotoBe or fruit-sugar ; it deSeota 
polarised light to the left. 

UA'na, Uft'aa (Span, liar, to tie), pr. 
leah-ni, le-ahn ; luxuriant woody 
clirabera in the tropics with Bt«ma 
ot tvnomatouB structure ; U^'nold 
((tjot, like), having a liaoa tike 

U'lMT (Lat. inner bark), the inner 
bark, which is often Gbroua, the 
pbloStn of the vaaoalar system con- 
taining the boat-tissue ; ~ Fl'braa. 

ll'bw (Lat. free), having no cohesion 
with the odjoiniiig parts ; Uben'tns 
(Lat.), freed. 

Uberollc'tLeoai {liber, inner bark, 
liynnm, wood), applied to a con- 
joint bundle composed of baet and 
wood elements ; Ub'nforn [/arma, 
shape) Cell, a natrow, thi<;k- 
walled cell of woody tissae re- 

eerabtingbast, wood-flbr«(CrD£ier): 
~Fl1n«l, substitute fibres redaoed 
in form (Germ., EraalEfasern). 

either shrubby, leafy, crustaoeoos 

or powdery, generally regarded sea 
symbioeie of hyphal filaments with 
algal gon id ia ; ~ Al'gae, the gonidia 
or green bodies in the thafius ; ~ 
Fun'gt, the filamente of hjpbae, 
which are usnally interwovan with 
thegonidia; ~8t*lcll = L]CHKHl): ; 
U'chenlu, the peculiar ataroh-like 
body in GflTarta iKlandiea, Linn., 
and other Lichens ; U'dienliiH, 
the special symbioais between alga 
and fungus occurring in Lichens ; 
U'cbtDOld [clioi, like), irregularly 
lobed, as Lichena ; Llchenog'niphar, 
Uchenog'raphlit [rpiilHj, 1 writ«) = 
Licbenologist ; Llchenog'raphr, the 
study of Lichenn; adj, Uobeno- 
gisph'lc ; Llcbenoraglit (X^ot, dis- 
course), a student or writer on 
Lichens ; LicImoir'ytliTliis [4pu9iio^, 
red), Sorby's Qsme for the red 
colouring matter of Liohene ; Udl- 
nozui'tblue (iavSit. yellow), the 
same observer's term for the yellow 
colouring in Lichens. 
Ltd (,l)thBopcrculumoI moss-capsules 
(Hooker); (2) the distal extremitv 
of the ascidium of Nepenthen which 
forms a lid-like appeodaoe to the 
pittiher ; (3) the areas tn poUsn- 
graina which are detached to per- 
mit the pollen-tubes to past ; — 
CeUa. the terminal cells of the neck 
of the archegonium which tem- 
porarily close the canal ; the stig- 

UTe. the state in which plants can 
grow or perform their functions of 
absorption, ssBlmiUtion, reproduc- 
tion, etc. ; - C3r'ale, the coarse of 
doTelopment from any given stage 
to the same again, as from the ased 
to the seed onoe more. 

UewDea'tnmt (I^at., a band or band- 
age) = RArnB. 

Ugttt-abaor'ptton, the ratio of the 
vfhdie of daylight to that of th« 


I which llie plant grows 

Ug'iieoiia, llg'nona, 

Uinlg'olor {lignna 

colonr), lawny, ma oolour ol 
freshly cut wood ; Ugnlc'olonji 
{cola, to inhabit), applied to plant* 
which live on timber ; Ugnireroiu 
[firo, 1 b«ar), u«od of branchea 
whidi form wood only, but no 
flowera ; UgnUlom'tlDn {/acio, I 
make], the bardeninK or thicken- 
ing of the cell-wall by Beoondary 
depOBiU ; Us'nllled, converted into 
wood ; US' nifonn (jurnia , shdpe) . lik h 
wood ; UK'nlfy, to turn into wood ; 
Ug'nlu or Ugr'aine, an incrustinfc or 
impregnating substance on the celt- 
wall, producing woody tisBue ; it is 
insoltiblH m water or ether. Bolubie 
in alcohol and itlkaliB, and is the 
remainder after the cellulose hng 
been removed by chemical means ; 
Ugnl'reoae (dcnv. T), Fayeo'a term 
for a coHBtituent of Lignin, only 
■lish 11 V soluble in water; Us'nlta, 
a foanl or somi-foHail woody sub- 
■lanoa ; jet is an example ; Ug- 
nooal'lnloi* ( + Olluloee), see 
Cbu.di/)Se ; U^none, a substance 
which differs from Lignin by being 
insoluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, but soluble in ammonia, 
potash. Boda (Payen) ; Uf'llOH. a 
constituent of J.ignin. but soluble 
ool; in potash nnd soda solutions 
(Payeo) ; lls'nose, ligno'sut, woody, 
ligoeoas; Lig'nnm, wood, that 
within the cortei, including both 
alburnum and duramen. 

U^bIb, Ziiir'uJa(Lat., a little tongue); 
(1) a Btrap-Bhaped body, Bach as 
Ibe limb of the rav Borets in Com- 
poiitae; (2) a lobe of the outer 
corona in Stapelia {S. E. Brown) ; 
(3) the thin, scarioua projection 
from the top of the leaf shaath in 
giuMea 1 (4) a narrow membraDoos, 
acamioate structure, internal to 
the leaf-base in Iaoile» and Sei'tgiii- 
tUa ; (5) an appendage to certain 
petala, M those of Siffne and CMCUta 

(A. Gray) ; Uff'iilar, Rnatow'a 
for thai Uaf-face of Stlaijinrlla 
which is turned towards the ligule ; 
tj. ALi<mi.AS ; llg-nlate, ligvJa'tiu, 
fumiBhedwitha Ligolc;lipi'lif(irm, 
Hoidi/bnn'ia {forma, shape), Btrap- 
sbaped ; llffullflor'ata. llgiillBor'oua, 
■rvs [fot, fiorit, a Bower), having 
ligulste floreta, as Hieracittm. 
ll'Uo, pale warm purple, the colonr 
of the flower of Syringa riilgarU, 
Iiinn. ; Uladne, > bitter priociple 
. ..._t,..,. _, ,,. i^^. 

from the bark of the ai 

aueoos), lily-like. 

limadform'ls {limax, 
fornvi, shape), applied by Koerber 
to those Lichen epores which are 
slug -shaped. 

Umb, lirnVm. (Lat., a border or hem) : 
(I) the border or expanded part of 
a gamopetalous corolla, as distinct 
from the tube or throat ; (2) the 
lamina of a leaf or of a petal ; 
llm'bate, limbn'lvt, bordered, aa 
with another colour- 
Lime, used for calcium carbonate in 
plants ; -Qran'ulH, liiue-knotA in 
Slyxogastres, concretions occur- 
ring in the capillitium ; ~ BealN, 
the chalk - glands which excrete 
lime, as with certain Sniifrages. 

Ll'ineB(I>Bt.,across-path or boundary) 
conuDK'nU t the coUum or neck of 
a plant ; llm'itajy, placed at the 
limit, as a guard ; llm'ltlng Cell = 

llmnet'lc (U/inr. a pool), applied to 
plants which grow in pools or their 

limo'nlaa [Mod. Lat.), lemon-like, as 
to colour; citrinuB. 

Una, Li'nea. (Ut., a line or thread), 
as a measure of length, the twelfth 
part of an Inch, in millumetres, 
2'116Ti the Paris line is mm. 
2'325! L!nea iTHJUivrsn'lU. the 
ostiolom of some Fungi -. Udm of 
Orowth, the limits of each year'a 
growth in woody BtemB ; ~ at 
T«K«t)i'Uoii, for an; given ipeoici, 


the apecies ■((•» ; the reeuItaDt 
Uhm map out the diHtribntioD of 
ihe uid apeciea (KerDei) ; Une&'Us 
(Lst., Doniiating of liuei), meuur- 
ing about • Uae ; lln'ear, tinea'rig, 
n&rrow, Bsverkl timeB longer than 
wide ; Iln'eate, linea'iiu, marked 
with linea, tiTKa'ta VoVi (, vaaaela 
traniverMi; marked, aa aanuUtA 
ducts or trncheidi i llneat'lpw t 
{pit, a foot), having a lined or 
ttriated foot'Stalk ; Uoed - linea- 
tua, etriatua ; lin'solate. tineoia'- 
Ira, marked «ith line or obaisure 

llngultOrm'U (lingtia, a. tongue, 

forma, shape), tocgue - aliaped ; 

IlDK'Dl&te, UTigvla'lv.s, alio means 

tODgue- shaped. 
U'nln or U'ntne (Xlvor, a thread], the 

hjaloplaamic filameuta of the uu- 

oIbdi iu repose (Sohware). 
Uium'mi Brvt'am, the artificial clauifi- 

catiou devised b; LianaeuB, baaed 

upon the Dumber and poaitiou of 

the atameDB. 
Ll'nolalii (Zrinitm, &ai, o/funt, oil), 

"the glyooride of lineolotc acid 

found m linaeod oH." 
LloTbl'Ma (Xitot, Bmooth, ^(Jvi, root). 

Van Tiegbem'a name for Mono- 

ootyledona and Nymphaeaceoe, the 

root ■ hairs being of exodermis 

Up, (I) one of the two diviaiona of a 
bilabiate corolla or oalyx, that ia, 
a gamopetalouB or gamoaepaloua 
organ oleft into an upper (auperior 
or posterior) and a lower (inferior 
or sDteTior) portion ; (2) the labei- 
lumofOrchida; ~ Calb, two narrow, 
ligoiSed cella on the sporangia of 
■ome annulate Fema, distinct (ram 
the anunlui, whioti are the first 
to separate ou dehiscence ; (/. 

Up'asa (Mto!. greiae), & fat-splitting 
cnEvme occnrring la oily aeeda ; 
Upocbrome (xpu^ai oolour), the 
yollaw piamsDt ol flowen, 
named hy Hoaseu \ 

s from its resem- 

blaDoe to an animal plsm«nt ; 
Upooy'uilii ((doFoi, blue), the blue 
pigment of some plants. 

Ilpoz'euoua (\rlrui, I leave, \iiiat, 
a. host), deserting its host ; U- 
pox'eny, the desertion of a hoat- 
plant by a paraaite to oon- 
plete its davolopinant on reserve 
materials previously obtained from 
the boat, aa in the falling away of 
Ergot, the aclerotium of 6'onijrcep« 
purpiireo, Tul. 

lipped, = iJBiiTi;. 

U'quor (Lst. a liquid) Am'nlM (i^. 
Amnios), a term borrowed from 
loology (or the fluid "contained In 
the sao within which the embryo 
ia engendered" (Lindley). 

Urel'la (dim. of lira, a ridge), in 
Liohens an oblong apothecium 
with a furrow along its middle, 
as in Opcqmplui ; Ursl'IatA, llial'- 
line, lirella-like; liTBl'lUOrm, liniii- 
form'U (forma, shape), sbaped like 
a lirelU 

Uthoblb'llon (XI0OT, a stone, fiipKliir, 
a paper or aoroU) = LrrHorarb; 
UUi'ooaip {taprot, fruit), fomil 
fruit ; LlUi'oa^ (tt'iiTif, ■ bag or 
pouob), a cryataloell; lltliopll'll- 
oui, aaiicolouB, dwelling on rocks ; 
Llth'ophyl {it.6\kor. a leaf), a fosail 
leaf or leavoB ; Uth'opbytea ( #ifraV, 
a plant), plants which grow on 
atones, but derive their nourish- 
ment from the atmoaphero as 
saiicatans Lichens ; Utbospenu'oiu 
(o-T^pjio, seed), having hard, atony 
seeds ; LtCliox'ylB (f liXgr, wood), 
fosail wood. 

Lit'mua, a violet colour .-lerived from 
several speoiea of Lichtna, such h 
Rocella, eto. 

llt'oral, Uloni'Hii (!-at. pertaining to 
the sea - shore), belonging to or 
growing on the sea-shore (A. Gray 
odds " rii'er banks" which strictly 

rikina is "riparian"); uaed by 
C. Wataon for plants of the 
lea-ahore ; frequently spelled Ut'- 
toral, liltara'lii. 
Utua'toa; {titaiu, a. crooked staff), 



forked, with the pointe turned a 

little outward. 
Illiua'ttut {liiura, a. iroMriog), when 

apoU are formed b; an kbTssion of 

the lurifkoe. 
U'Tfliui, llT'ld, li'fid<a (L«t.). pale 

lead ooloDr. 


Llv'enrorU, Uap&ticae. 

Lobe, Lo'bue {\(iffit, the lower part of 
tha ear), any division of an orgiia 
or apeoiallf rounded division ; 
Hld'iUB'-, aamallconJoal ortoogue- 
ahaped ft<^wtb ahaine fitnu be* 
Iween the two Ride^obes of a 
Feni'prothalliia ; lo'bate, lotia'tus, 
divided into or bearing lobes ; 
LolMlat, a small lobe ; Lob'lolns, 
a tmall lobe into which so me 
Lichen-thalU are divided ; Lob'nle. 
(I) a email lobe, a lobulet; (2) 
Spnice'e word (or the minor lobe 
of the leaf of Hepatloae, the 
auricle of Nees and others ; lob'n- 
late, lobula'lia, having small lobes ; 
Lob'nins, a tmall lobe. 

UtMl'lty {localilat, a place), the 
approximate geograpbio position of 
an individual epeoimen. 

looellate, loceUa'lut, dividing into 
LocKUJ ; Locel'ln* (dim. of Tocal-iu, 
a litlle oompsrtmenl), a secondary 
compartment, as a primitive pollen- 
aao, which, by the destruction of a 
septum, unites with an adjoinirg 
locelluB to form an outher- 
loculus: Loe'DlAinsut, LocuJamtn'. 
Cum (l^t. a case or box): (D 
sLociTLDB of a carpel; (2) "the 
perithecium of oertain Fungals " 
(Lindley) ; loc'nlar, loada'rit, hav. 
ing cavities or Locoti, denoted 
further by the addition of nnl-, bl-, 
trl-, etc., tor one-, two-, three- 
eta., celled ; loenla'tni, divided 
into cavities ; locaUd'dal [catdo, I 
ont), the cavity of a pericarp de- 
hiscent by llie back, the dorsal 
sntura ; loc'ulose, /ucii/o'sua, loc'- 
nlouB. divided intemall; into cells, 
partitioned iLoc'ulus, (1) the cavity 
of an ovary or anther i (2) the peri- 
derm of certain Fungals (Lindley). 

Looiu'Ut (Lat. crayfiah or locust}, the 
spikelot in grosees. 

Lodlcnls, Lodicu'la (Lat. a snmll 
coverlet), a small scale oateide 
the sl«meDS in the Qower of 
grasses ; glumella. 

Lol'lopbyll, Etard's name for chlo- 
rophyll from Lolium and other 

lomeDta'ceotu, -ceit) {laiaeiUum, bean- 
raeal), bearing or resembling Lo- 
loents ; Lo'ment, Lcnneii'tnm, a 
legume which ia contracted be- 
tween the seeds, falling apart at 
the constrictions when mature into 
one-seeded joints. 

LongUtamin'eH (/on^ui. long ■*■ 8sa- 
mxn), Delpino's term for flowers 
with long stamens which are wind- 

th long si 

a old t 

Longltn'dl . ., 

for fibro- vascular aygteoj (Croiier). 

LouKlta'do (Lat. length), in the direc- 
tion of growth. 

longls'ilmna (Lat.), very long. 

lODEltnilliial'itsT, longitnairulls 
(Lat.), in tbe direction of the 

looM, (1) OS applied to inflorescence, 
lax, as a panicle ; (2) hardly co- 
herent, as loose tisene. 

lopUos'tODUte (^0^ a oreit, a-r&iia., 
a mouth), having crested apertures 
or openings. 

lor'ate, lora'tia {lorum, a thong), 
strap shaped, ligulate. 

Lorl'M (Lat. a leather corslet), (I) 
the entire silicious covering of 
the fruBlule in Diatoms ; (2) for- 
merl V nsod for the Testa ; lu^lctts, 
[clothed in mail] "equally narrow 
throughout " (Braithwaite), is pro- 
bably a slip for looatb. 

t,o'niliiin (IJit. dim, of loram, a 
thong), the filamentous and branch- 
ed thallua of some Lichens, 

lov, small as compared to its allies ; 
— T«ut, tliat which is found at 
the bottom of a fermenting liquid : 
Germ- "Uoterhefe"; low'srad, need 
when the lip of a bilabiate corolla 
is inclined at about a right angle to 
the tube. 


Inlirleeiu, lu'brirui (Lat.). smooth, 

la'OMU, lu'dd, lu'cidiie (Lat.), ahin- 

ing, referring to the nirtaoe. 
InmbTlca'lli (Imabrirua, a atoM-vorm), 

worm-ahaped, u in Bome Algae : 

Inni'brlcoiu, shaped tihe an eaith- 

La'msn (Lat., light, opeoinff), the 
■pace which is bounded by the 
walla ol an organ, as the central 
oavitjT of a oell ; Ln'mlnons Lisa, in 
Malpighiaoeae, etc., on the leata of 
Iha aa«di, ia due to a modiScalioD 
of the out«r layer. 

In'wir (/uiMi, the moon], (1) pertain- 
ing to the moon ; (2) lunatb ; ~ 
FlMtl, Grew'a term for those which 
twine " with the moon," against 
the suD, ainistrorse ; lu'nata, luna'- 
fita, half-moon shiped ; Inna'twl, 
having lunar markings (Crozier); 
In'nlfonn i/orma, shape), crescent- 
shaped, (Croiier) ; lu'nnlate, lunv- 
la'fiu, diminutive of lunate. 

In'pliilt*, a bitter substancs occur- 
ring in the leaves of the wbitAlupin, 
Znpinus aibu^, Linn. ; Ln'plfiiua, 
an alkaloid in the flower-bnda of 
Ltipinai I'tleua, Linn. 

In'pnlln. (1) a secretion from tbe 
glandular haira of the hop-strobiles, 
Hunvlitt Lupuiua, Linn., which 
gives a bitter taste ; (2) see LtTPC- 
LtKio Glani>9 ; la'poUns, lupuli'' 
nons, lupu/i'nu». r(<aembling a bap- 
strobile ; lupulln'lo aiands, the 
resinous glandular bodies within 
the acalea of the female flower of 
the hop, "also called Lapulin" 
(Stormonth) ; Lu'pullte, a lupulinio 

In'rid, lu'ridiu {Lit., aallow, wan), in 
botany, dingy brown or yellow ; 
Imld'lc AcU occurs in Boietiu 
luridu; Schaeir. 

Ln'nu (Lat. a game), asporl or varia- 
tion from sued or bud ; ~ Hata'rae, 
a monstrosity, 

iB'teorns'cni [tu/fiu, yellow, /uikii», 
■worthy), blockish -ye I low ; In'te- 
oUb, a yellow colour) Q^ matter 
found in weld, Rut<ia Imleola, 

Linn. ; tn'teotui |Lal.) yeUowiah; 
lutei'cent, ItUfs'tew, becoming yel- 
low ; lu'tttOi ILat. ) a full yellow. 

Lnzu'ria, Lnzu'iles (Lat. rankneas), 
exuberant growth ; Inxu'risn^ 
/iLcu'riaiu (I^t.), usually aigniGe* 
that the organs of nutrition are 
more developed than tboae ol 
fructiS cation. 

lycopBi'illald {Lycoperdon, a genus of 
Gasteromyoetea, <I<!ai, like), resem- 
bling a puff-ball. 

lycopodla'ceou* {Lycopodium, + 
aoeous), resembling the genua 

lycot'ropai^lycot'npaDS, -pvt (Wjcm, 
a door-knocker, rporq, a twining), 
when an otherwise orthotropoua 
ovule ia bent like a horse-ihoe. 

I^mph, Lym'pha (Lat. spring water}, 
tirew's tana for sap; l^mph'a«~ 
I>uet« = DDOTs; lymphatic, clear, 
pellucid: ~ Ducts 'Duere. 

lyslganet'lo, lyaigeo'lo, lyslir'Miana 
(Xi/7(f, a loosing, yirot, ofbpring), 
when a cavity ia formed by dis- 
organisation or disBolving of cell*. 

ly'rite, lyr/i'tiu {\vpa, a lute or lyre), 
lyro-ebaped, pinnatifid with the 
termioal lobe large and rounded, the 
lower lobea Bmalf; lynU-parU'tni, 
— Mc'nu, lyrataly pinnate ; lyre- 

L/bIb, (Xusii, a looaiog), the mats- 
morphosis of a part. 

Hace, the arillus of the nutmeg. 
Kacen'tlon, {taatfratio, a steeping), 

steeping, as ' '' .< ■ .. ■ 

tor malting. 
Uac'ro- {imipoi, long), i 

pounds = long ; fn 

properly used for i 

maeran'droiii (iiaifwt, long ; dr^p, 

long male plants in Algae ; mac- 
ran thus (dvdix, a flower), long 
flowered ; macrobloatlgmat'te (01ei, 
life, mlyiia, a puncture), Delpino'a 
term for those pianla whose stig- 
Diaa remain capable of fertilization 
until the anthers are mature ; 

e of barley 

n Greek com- 
enlty but im- 

normal wood bud (Hartig) ; ma- 
orooepti'Uoiu, -lug (jir^aXj). hwd), 
big beaded, diootyledanous eni- 
bry oswilh consolidated ootyledoi 

1 (+ CONI 




eyst {fuffrit, a bos or pouch), one 
of ihe veaicles which orijjinnte Ibe 
fartile tissue in /"yrowmu, eto. (Tu- 
laane) ; HMrodt'odAng* ( + Diopk, 
irniw', a vessel) Van Tieghem's 
lerm for MAr;RostK>luti(tlt'M ; BUc- 
rodl'ode, the same bot&nist'a word 
for Macbospobi 
lyaiUnii, a spouan) - Ml 
Macroeonld'liuii (yirn, olfspring, 
(IJot, like) a, gonidium of large siie 
io oomparison with others produced 
br UiOMiaespecieB;;/ Meqauhio* 
HiDiDH ; nuTophyl'Iliis (»i''XXov. 
a leaf}, muTopliTl'loni, having 
elongated lea&etA or leaves : 
maorophyt'lo {ipvTiv, a plant), 
Dsed by Schimper for the large 
forms of marine Atgae ; Hac'ro- 
plaM (■XiiiTTdi, moulded), I^uke- 
■ter'fl term for large disc-like 
plaatids in Bacleritim rvbuatu ; 

DUUTop'odai, macrap'otloaa (rovt, 
wMi, a foot), need of an embryo 
with enlarged bypoootyl forming 
thegreaterpartofitamBBSi (C'rozier 
adds another meaning, applied to a 
leaf with a long peliots) ; Macro- 
Mle'i«lda((riX7ipii,liard), Tschircb's 
term for long stone- celta with 
blunt ends ; maOTDsCOp'lD (asairiai, 
I see), viewed by the naked eye, 
opposed to microacopic ^ Haoro- 
■ponn'Kium [ffropa, seed, iYyitor, 
avessel), (I) a sporangium contain- 
ing macrosporeai (2) the nucellua of 
the ovule of PhansrogamH ; nuLcro- 
aporut'flata, poaaeaamg macrocpo- 
rangia ; ~ Flow'srs, carpellary 
Bowers, pietiltale Rowdrs destitute 
of stamens; Hiu'rosporl ; (I) (he 
larger kind of spore in vascular 
Cryptogams ; (2) tho embrjo- 
wo in PbanerogBms ; Uacroipor'- 

opbyU (^XXdv, a leaf ) - C'akpel : 

macrosporophyllary, curpellary ; 
macroBty'lous lorCXot, a. poat), long- 
iiyled : Haorotyn'Mont (a-u^Au, 1 
live ivith), the larger of the aaso- 
ciatcd organisms in aynibiosis; 
Uac'Totherm {6fpii.v. beaI) = MeoA- 
animal, + Gonidium), in Ulolhrir 
the larger kind of Eoospore, which 
germinates independently ; cf. Ml- 
tiBozooaoNiDiuM ; Hacroio'DspoTt, 
a largo Eooepors whan compared 
with others of the eame speoiei. 
ifM'iila(Lat.), aspot; Hae'iUM:(l) 
areolated pits of Coniferne ; (S) also 
orgaua on the aiirial stem of C'yatho- 
pliorum, large round white dota Id 
two rows, probably watar'itoring 
organs ; maoallfor'tiili (/ormii, 
■hspe), used by Koerber for 
apothecia which are shaped like 
irregujar spots : mac'nlar, mac'n- 
late,Diac'ulOM [maculaein, spotted), 
blotched or spotted ; Uacala'tloa, 
the arrangement of spots on a 

Hadn'iu, the fungni-foot disease 
suppoaed to be caused by Ohio- 
nspht Cia-teri, Berk. 

mojf'iiuild {fiAyta., dregs, (Mm, like), in 
Lichens, "likean Alaa. consiatingof 
spherical green oellulea " (Leigbton). 

mai'aoold [iiaXaxh, loft, dSoi, like), 
mucilaginous ; Halaeopli'llB {tpMa, 
I love), plants whioh are fertilised 
by uiaita or elugs. 

male, a plant or nower which bears 
strameni or their analogues ; ~ 
Cell, the smaller of two unequal 
gamet«B ; -~ Flow'ert, staminate 
flowoiB : - Or'guu, those stmc- 
tures which, in fertilitation, are 
concerned, as the stnuiena, anthe- 
ridia, eto. ; ~ Piothal'llum, one 
which boars antheridia only ; ~ 
Sys'tem, all ihat part of tbe Qowor 

which belongs I -' - ■ 

"Ic imaiunt, Bi 
apples, as — 


to be the niott freijusut of organic 

acids in cell -sap. 
MaUoar'ttun (LaI.), the riod of ths 


resembling antliTHi, and like that, 

caused by a bacillus. 
HallMloi (Lat., a Bmalt hammer], a 

layer; a Bhoot bent into the ground 

and half ■ divided at the bend. 

whence it amite root«. 

■ (p:aXX6t, a lock of wool, 
I, a berry), downy fruited. 

-- - _tt!a'oal WU, hairs attached by 
their middle, frequent in the order 
MUpighiooeae ; BUilplir'blMi Cell*, 
those which oampoae the outer 
layer of the aeed in Malpighiaceae, 
with a "luminoQB line composed 
of Lignin. 

Kalt'aEe or Halt'in, a fonuent found 
in all germinating cereals, and of 
greatcc activity than diastaie (Du- 
bninfaut) ; Halt'lns, germinating 
seeds of barley until the radicle 
{acrospire} ib pcoduoed, and then 
oheektng the further germination 
by means of heat ; H&Itodex'trin, a 
body intermediate in properties be- 
tween maltose and dextrin ; Ualt'- 
a*«, a Bugar formed by the aotioti of 
diostoM on starch. 

DiilTft'Moni, reeenibling or belonging 
to the order Malvaceae. 

HftinUlk (Ut. a nipple or teat) = 

Munelon' (Fr.), or'ulai--, the papilla 
which preoedeB the formalioa of 
the nncelluH in CVra» (Treub). 

nuun'mlform [mamTna, a breast, 
forma, shape), breast - shaped, 
conical with rounded apex. 

Munmll'Ia (Lat.). a nipple or pro- 
jection ; UBsd for granular promin- 
mamm^a'ria, BUnn'mlUate, mam- 
miUa'l'ut, having teat-shaped pro- 

«.....'...«.. I — -Mno'siu,fuU.bresated), 

, -like proluberanccB. 

. . .. [Lat. maimed), deiiciBnt or 
""""" '-'■!(» (Lat. long- 


sleeved), applied to pubescsnoe 
BO dense and interwoven that it 
may be stripped off, " lihs a 

ttan'na, the hardened exudation from 
various trees, as from Fraciava 
Omu», Lioo. : Blan'itlte. a sweet 
subtitancu in the sap of the si 

r fro 


pith of ash, oak and elder ; Han'- 
noBs, a sugar resulting from the 
hydrolysis of cellulose. 
Hanom'stsr (tutrii, rare, scanty ; 
fu'Tpor, a meaaace), apparatus to 
m^asuro the pressure of go* or 

HauUe. used by Grew fur ocrea. 
Man'tls - Cells, tapetal cells ; ~ 
lAy'er, a layer of tapetal cells; 
- leaf, Goebel's term for the 

S rostrate, hal£-onvelopiog banen 
end, as in Plalycerium mcicomt, 
Desv., as distinct from the fertile 

Uaita'bTlnm (Lat. a handle), a oell 
which progecta ioward from the 
eentre of the shields in the globale 
of Chnra. 

mau'f-head'ed, with many distdnct 
buds on the crowu of a root. 

mar'hled, stained with irregular 
streaks of ooUmr, 

marcas'cent, marce^teM (Lat. wither- 
ing), withering without falling off; 
nuyddni (Lat.), withered, shrunk. 

Uar'cor (Lat. decay), welting, flac- 
cidity caused by waet of water, 

Margral'ja (dim. of margo, a. border), 
the elliptic ring round a stoma 
formed by the guard celts. 

Sar'gln, Mar'go, the edge or boun- 
dary line of a body ; marginal, ntor- 
gina'lie, placed upon or attached 
to the edge ; ~ Grow 'Ingr- point, 
in a flattened member when the 
margiual cells remain embryonic 
and capable of growth; ~Ornle. 
an ovule borne on the margin of a 
carpel ; — Veil, a membrane en- 
closing the hymenium in the yonng 
atageof Agarics, the VdumpartiaU; 
mar'ginats, margina'tiis, maTyina'- 
n*)M, broad>brimmed,funiishedwith 

n margin of dUtinot chanuit«r ; 
niar'glced, margiaiit^ ; tnarginici'- 
dal {catdo, I uut), dehrecent b; the 
liiajuDClion of tiiG united mnrginB 
q[ the carpeU, it [orm oC aopticidul 
dehisceDce ; Hftrgo tludlo'dM, the 
rim of the shield of a Lichen formed 
by the IhalliiB. 
BMirtne', Tnari'iiiit (Lat. , p«rt«iniiiK to 
the aes), growing within the inBu- 
eoce of the Ben, or immerBed in its 

llark'lligl, used of various farms of 

thiubening on the cell -wall, as 
ftunalar, reticnlaled, niical, eto. 

Buumora'tut (Lat., marbled), having 
reins of colour, as some marbles. 

MU'Tair, used b; lilair for the pith. 

marsn'pUl (^lapcruirior, u pouob), 
geocalyoftl or pouch •Cruit«u, used 
of certain Hepaticae. 

Blu, mu'cnloi, maBcnli'iins (Lat,), 
male ; staminate, or with coire. 
Bpoading structures. 

BuAsd, persoDBM. 

IbM, usually written Mast. 

llu's& (Lat., a lump), the mass or 
■ubslance of a body ; ^ Hinlu&'Ua, 
the &e«h of some Fungi (Lindleyl ; 
~ iporoph'on ; ~ thedfi'sn. <^e 
sporangia oE eome Fungi (Lindley) : 
Hu'lM, oollections of anything in 
nnuBual Quantity, as pollen -maBses. 

Hu'snla (Lat, a little lump), (1) 
the hardened frothy mucilage 
enclosiug a group of microspores 
in Heterosporons Filicineae i (2) in 
FhanerogBms, a group of cohering 
poUen - graina produced by one 
priiDftTy mother-cell, aa in Or- 
obtdMe ; also styled PoUeo-niMS. 

Hut, the fruit of saoh trees as beech, 
and other Cnpuliferae. 

muflgopod (>i^<mf, a whip ; rout, 
vaSii, a foot), a, stage in the 
development of Myxogastces, the 
contents of each spore escape as a 
EOOKonidium enclosing a nucleus 
and contractile vesicle, with a 
■ingle cilium. 

nuu'totd (iioar6i, a breast; tlSm, like), 

Math, an uld term for crop, as after- 
math = second crop. 

Ha'tm (Lat. the womb), the bod; on 
which a Fungus or Lichen grows, 
~ Pol'Iluls, the cell in which 
pollen -grains are developed. 

Uatlnl'la or HAt'tulA {maCta, a mat), 
the fibrous material surrounding 
the petioles of palniH. 

Matun'Uon, Uainra'iio (Lat.), ripen. 



'tU, ouituU'iiiu 
[Lat.|, pertaining to the morning ; 
plantfl flowering early, as Jpumota 
purpiirea. Roth. 

meal'y, farinaceous. 

mean'dilfoTm t (lutiaripat, a winding 
river, /orma, shape), having a 
winding direction, as the anther- 
cells of Cucurbitaceae. 

Hsa'tiu (Lat., a passing) Intaroelln- 
larls, an intercellular passage ; ~ 
pneuniat'lcus, an air-passage. 

Meclumomarph'osls (iivxa^A, contriv- 
ance, nbptfuKiis, shaping), a word 
coined by Sachs to elpress me- 
chanical changes in structure pro- 
duced in the larger groups by 
similar external causes, as leaf-like 
organs ioAlgae and Phanerogams. 

Ha'conlne ((iijiur, a poppy), an alka- 
loid contained in opium jKeoo'iilmn, 
botanically, the juice of Fapamr 
lomnifervm. Linn. 

me'dlal, ms'dlan, media'mis (Lat., in 
the middle), belonging to the 
middle ; He'dlan Line, the central 
lineof a bilateral organ, as the mid- 
rib of a symmetric leaf : — Plana, 
when used of a flower, in the plane 
of bract and aits ; ~ Wall, in 
Archegonlates, the wall in a plane 
at right angles to the basal wall 
dividing the prodmbryo into lateral 

Mwliot'gopliyl] (J/frfiTOffo, Tourn., + 
phyll], the oh&TBcterifltic ahloro- 
~''~11 gf Luctrne, Medieago naliva, 

pb;ll gl 

(iTierfiiu, middle, jfiiu, 
(utaced). fixed by the middle ; 
lledloccr'tex( + Cu&TKX),lbeceQtral 
layer or layers of the b&rb. 

MSdlo'arls (Lat., middliug), imer- 

mtdlleiTa'nent (I^at,, roidlsnd), (1) 
inhabiling epots far from the sea ; 
(2) occurring in ths Modit«muieau 

nwdlral'Tli {medtus, middle, inlm, 
■ valve), ariaing from, or oa the 
middle of the vtjvea. 

Ibdnl'la (Ut.. pith, marrow) ; (1) the 
pith ; (2) the central looser portion 
of the Sesh io certaio Fungi ;(3)Ihe 
" Matlulla "of palms (Stormonth) ; 
~ ge'minia t the albumen of aeedi ; 
madiU'lwy, mcdMlla'™ i Lit. , seated 
row), relating 
~ Bun'dles, t 
Millar bundles of the leaf 
trace in Monocotjledona ; ~ COD- 
Jnuc'tlTe Tlg'sa«= Pith; ~ Crown, 
= ~ Sbeatu ; ~ Fhlo'tim Bun'dles, 
iodepondent phloilm bundles do> 
Teloped just within the ring of 
normal vaBcnlar bundles ; ~ B*7B, 
plates of parenchyma or cellular 
titBUe radiating from the pith to 
the cortex ; the " silver-grain " of 
joinen ; " Bheath, tratheids form- 
ing a airclH round the pith, the 
primary lylem bundles projecting 
into the pith from the cumhium- 
ring ; ~ Spot, an accumulation of 
parenchymatous cells in certain 
woods, a» Alnvs (De Bary) ; — 
Bys'tem, sometimes used for the 
whole ground tissue, but more 
properl; the pith and medallary 
rays only ; Hednl'Iin, the cellulose 
from pith of the san-flower and 
lilac (Braconnot): MednlU'na (Lat.) 
= P[TH ; mednUo'siu (Lat., mar- 
rowy), having the tuiture of 

m«cao«pli'aIiit {lUyat, large, ic^sXii, 
head), used of large capitula of 

Compositae ; Megacon'liU (lifn, 
ashes), Zukal's term far the large 
coaidia borne in pycnidia of certain 
Ascomycetos ; H^ajfttln'etaa [yau.i- 
n)[, a spouse), the larger motile 
sexual celts of Algo^i, presumalily 
HoKala^onldinm [luyAXn, large -h 

msgarlil'ioua {fiiynt, large, (tlfo, a 
root), large-root«d ; Ma^porui'g* 
[four syll.] (irropi, seed, iyyttoii, 
a vessel), a Sporangium which pio- 
Megaapores ; Her'aspon, the 

KOHPURE ; MeK^spoT'ophyll (f u\\ai>, 
a leaf), (l)a carpel :(2)aaporopbyU 
which bears megasporet ; HefA- 
■o'oldB(fuor, an animal, (ISsf, resem- 
blance), large motile daughter-celta 
of certain unicellular Algae (Hozen); 
MsKoioosporan'ge (mro^, a seed, 
iYfiiai, a vessel), in HydntdKCyon, 
the special sporangium which oon- 
tains a swarm of megazooepores, 
the ordinary method of propaga- 
tion, the protoplasm of a cell givmg 
rise Ui a large number, each pro- 
vided with four cilia. 

Hegla'toUienii ( lu'yunoi, greatett, 
eip/il. heat), a plant requiring a 
very high temperature for growth. 

meton^rontj^clui', less, 7L>>)di, round), 
rolled inwards a little. 

orgnn understood ; 
pHyl'iy (^uXXdf, a leaf), dimi 
in number of the leaves in a whorl, 
as compared with the preceding 
whorl ; Meloeporan'ge ( -i- 8pd&- 
ANUiDu), Sauvageau's name for the 
smaller pturilooular sporangia Bn> 
closing Eooepores of Bcloearpta 
viTfaceiia, Thuret ; malaata'iiuinou 
(ani/ju*. a filament), with fewer 
stamens than petals ; KelatBX'7 
{rdfii, order), the suppression of 
entire whorls ; Meiothenn (Bfwitj, 
beat), a plant inhabiting cool tem- 
perate regions ; all are hordj in 

MolampT'iliu, ValAinpjr'ilW, » aub- 
MkDoe ocQUtriDg in ittlampyrum 
tmnorwntm. Lion., the bjmiig ob 


■el'aaUoi [M^^ai, bUck), a diseue 
prodociog blaokneu ; nuluiM- 
ptim'inu itripfui, seed), hftviug 
dark - ooloured aeedB or aponu ; 
suUnoeblor'w (x^u|^. pale green |, 
bUakUb greeo, atrovireoi ; melano- 
^ylltu {^JWtiy, a leaf), having 
leaves of a dark colour. 

mtiutoma'ceonE, resembling or p«r- 
taming to thoie plocta of which 
the gsBuB Mdaiioraa in the type. 

MelN'ttow (Fr., wilite, latch), a 
■agar Irom the larch. 

■•Ub'iaM {mti, honej), a synonym 


SWllimB ( ^i)Xivo>, pertaining to 
qainoM), like quinces, or quince- 

Kal'ltOM {meJl, honey), augar from 
Eucait/pla» " Manna," produoed in 
Taamaoia; aUo spelled Hel'ltoie, 
a tjDonym of RAryivoss ; Mol'i.- 
dtaM. an eniyiue preeenb in 
Slerininatocgilis niV/ra Sacc. ; Mel'l- 
■ItOse, s aogar exieting in Alhinji 
Maurorum, Linn. 

■•llaro'H (Ital), Uie name of a 
vnrietv of the oraoge in which Iho 

D (Mas 


■ (Lat., pertaining to honey), 
(1) with lh« taste or smoll of 
honey ; (2) hooey ooloured. 

IWUgD (Lat., honey. like juioe), used 
for "Honey-dew,'' the exudation 
of Aphides. 

Balllniu {nul, mellU, bone;), llie 
colour of new honey. 

■allttaeigh'lla* (i^Aiyra, a bee, fi\iu<, 
I love), dowers which are adapted 
for fertilisation b; the larger beea ; 
the colour aod scent are attractive 
to man alio |H. Mueller). 

Malon'lda.t Helonld'tuin :: (f^^^or, an 
apple, (IJDi, like), an inferior, 
many-celled fruit, as an apple ; 
melo'niftTin y/orma, shape), ms- 
ton-sbaped ; irreguUrl; spherical 

in Mtto- 1 

with projecting ribs at in Jf(/o- 

Mem'bw, any part of a plant regarded 
with referenoe to it« form and 

metnbrana'OMm, -cewr (Lit.), mem'- 
branoiis, thin and semi-traoa- 
panint, like a Gne membrane, as 
the leaves of Mosses ; Vom'tiraiie, 
MettArti'na{ Lat. ), a delicate pellicle 
of homogeneaDfi tissue; Hembrft'na, 
gviiKTlusra. the hymenium of 
Pungi : mem'bnuiouB Lay'er ; ~ 
■nyoellnm, interwoven hyphae 
forming a layei- ; BtembrajioKeit'lc 
(lirot, race), productive of a mem- 
brane 1 KBiDbra'nnla,t the iodusium 
of Ferns, 

menmonlns (Liat. from Mtiimon), 
brownish block, nearly u dark 

HeneUute'ma (^i)rii, moon- a month, 
^Maniiia, a sprout), Minks's term 
for the soredia of Lichens. 

menUoa'tna (#t.)viir«oi, a crescent), " a 
cylinder bent into half a circle " 
(Lindloy) ; ments'cold, meHitmf- 
dt'it (eMot, like), thin and ooncavo- 
convex, like a watch-glass. 

Henlapeim'lnB, an alkabid from the 
genus Msnispf.rmvm. 

menatrualls. men'atrDUS (Lat.), last- 
ing for a month or so ; cf. bimes- 

Henta'gra (Lat, an eruption on the 
chin) panalt'iea^Svcosis; Htm- 
ta'grapbyte ($LTor, a phuit), the 
Fungus supposed to oauso the 
disease Mentagra or ijycosis, 

Ben'tom (Lat. thechin), an extension 
of the foot of the column in some 
Orohida, in the shape of a projec- 
tion in front of the flower. 

Kereneb'yma (^pui, a part, ffK"!^' 
an infu^Lonl, spherical cellular 
tissue ; ~ Oella, unpilted cells 
in the pith of trees, with inter- 
cellular spaces, and much elon- 
gated radially i^. Pausadk CaLis; 
Her'laaTp, JUericar'pi'ufli {lo/irot, 
fruit), a portion of a fmit whiah 

Slits awa; aa a perfect fruit ; h 
two oarpela in UmbeUiferaa;, 


11 (Lot. belonging to dood), 
at niid-iisy or noon ; towards the 
Houth (in dOTthern latitudes} ; 
. applied by O. MuolUr to 
the plane in DiaUima which ooa- 
t«inB the pervslvar niia. 

Her'ldiak (/Upot, a part, d-inKii. a disc). 
term proposed by Cloa (or any 
proowa upon the receptaulc apart 
Irotn the floral organs, whether 
Bluidular or not (Orraier) 1 Hei'lsni, 
Bateaon'i term (or the repetition of 
parta to form a ijmmelry or 

mwlmiU'la {/lifna/ia, a share), divid- 
ing into parta or similar portioni ; 
r- TU'na, formative tissue, tj", 

■•r'UpoTe {/Upat, a poj-t, aropd, teed\ 
the Begnieni of a sporidesm ; Har'- 
titelS (itt^Xti, a pillar), a portion of 
the atele of a monostelic stem 
received by each leaf ; merli'tlc 
Tula'tton, see Mrbish. 

Mu'laMm iiupinai, divisible), nas- 
uent tissue, capable of being trans- 
formed into special forms, as cani' 
bioro, etc. ; PrI'maiT -, forma the 
wliole tissue of very young organs ; 
Bac'ondary ~, occurs in organs 
aloDg with permanent tissae.uBually 
in tliin layers ; meiliteiDat'lo, 
pertaining lu the Meristem ; Uiail- 
stogenel'lo (-,FF('Ti)t, a begetter), 

Sroduced by Meristem, actively 
ividing cell -tissue ; Her'ltltal, 
Herltlial'lua (SaXXoi, a young 
shoot), an intemode. 

nwroUaa'tle {ii^pu, a part, ^oarit, a 
bud) Emtnrog'eny, when only a part 
of the apore is concerned, c/ HOLo- 
XLABTia } Heroconld'lnm, pi. Kero- 
oonld'lft, (-1- CoNiDiux), oouidia 
which arise from the simultaneous 
septation of a hypha in Zygomy- 
oetes, and mature together, while 
ACKOCONIDIA mature in sucoeaaion 
from the apei (A. Fischer); meroa- 
aa a prefix, and it« forms -mnona, 
-menia, aa auffiies, denote parts or 
numbers, aa dimerous, etc. 

Bta'areli liUirtt, in the middle, ifx*i> 
beginning), applied by Solma-Lau- 

baoh to those bundles in which the 
protoiylem lies in the interior of 
the primary strand of the wood, 
thua partly centripetal and partly 
centrifugal -, Hesanter'lca. (irW/w, 
an intestine), "the mycelium of 
<:erlain Fungols " (Lindley); Has'- 
istein, contracted from Kesomer'li- 
tem, the thickening ring of Sanio, 
a ringof tissue producing the bundle 
evstem; Hes'oblutl^XasToi, abud). 
the nucletu ; HsaoUwts'als, medial 
BIei'0CM1>, Hfetorar'piiim {Kaprii, 
fruit), the middle layer of a 
pericarp ; Meaocanleorhl'M (naifXai, 
stem, j<l(a, root), OBudichaad'a 
term for " the line of demarcation 
between the ascending and de- 
scending systems in bii 'Phyta,' " 
ILindley); HaB'oebll, Sfaochil'ivia 
(X"Xot, lip), the iclermediate part 
of the lip of those Orchids which 
have it separated into three dis- 
tinct parts ; Hss'OChite {x'riir, a 
tunic], the middle layer surround- 
ing the egg in Fucaccse. composed 
of cellulose and attached at the 
base (Farmer) ; Uesoeol'U, t [iitXXa, 
glue), a supposed intermediate layer 
of the cuticle between the upper 
and lower surfacca; Haaoder'inla 
(Uppa, skin), the middle layer of 
tissue in the theca of a Moss ; 
MesoKOiild'lDm (+ Gonidiuh), a 
gonidium which is partially en- 
veloped in new tissue ; meiogon- 
Im'lciu iyin/un, productive], having 
the gonidial layer in the centre 
(Wallroth) ; Hesophlo'em (^Xmii, 
bark}, the middle, or green bark ; 
Hm'dpHjII, iItsophyflitm{1ii.Way, a. 
leaf). (I) the interior parenchyma 
of a leaf, the whole interior ground 
tissue of the blade; (3) the de- 
marcation between leaf and leaf- 
stalk ; Hea'ophyte (^in-ir, a plant), 
Warming's term for those plants 
which are intermediate between 
li ydrophytea end Xerophytes ; 
avoiding both extremes of moist' 
ure and drought: Hesophy'tnm, (1) 
a natnc given by CUcion to the 

Collar or jnnctioD of stem and 
root ; |2) bj Lindtey given aa the 
demarcfttioQ between tna iat«rnode 
tuiil petiole ; mtwpIiTt'tc, relating 
to plants which reqaire kh average 
amount of moiatare only ; Ueaopo- 
d'inm {ttih, roHit, a toot), the inter- 
mediate part of a leaf, the petiole 
or le«[-Btall( ; Met'Mpeim (axipiui, 
Be«d), the xecond membraDe or 
middle coat of a Boed, theearcoderm; 
Hei'oipora {axopi, seed) ; Dietel's 
term for an (freilo-Kpoie which sp- 
pareutlj will oolj germinate after 
a raiting period : meaoity'lona 
(, in trimorphic plants 
thoae which dobkib flower* hav- 
ing atrlsB of intermediate length ; 
MMOtlia'oinm [tMd, aoaBe),(l) the 
intermediate layer of cells in the 
wall of the anther ; in ripe ajithers it 
often occars as the inner layer by 
diuppeiarance of the ondotheciiiai 
proper ; (2) tbeTuBCiDM of Li(^henB ; 
Mm othsnn [SipMv, heat), a plant of 
the sub-tropical or warm temperate 
Eones, in Britein needing protec- 
tion against frost; meaobl'sTCti 
(-t-T&lABCH). when ins triaroh stele 
the two principal ijlem bundles 
are more or leas fused (Prantl) ; 
meiozyl'lc (fiiXw, wood), a synonym 

of llE8*Kca. 

Itei'tom or llaa'toiiie ifitrrit, raplete], 
Schwendener's term for the ducts of 
a handle, those parts which do 
not conduce to its strength ; <if. 

Mrtar'kbin (firi, with, beyond, 
•baring with, + Arabin), a sub- 
stance present in some varieties 
□f gum arabic, poeiibly identical 
with the "Pectose" of angar beet; 
MstBtllo'll* ({9ioi, life), symbioni*, 
with one of the organisms pre- 
paring the way for the other ; not 
BynchronoQS ; Met'ablsit (fiXdaroi, 
a hud), the NroEi.Lcs. 

netabol'lc (^ma^oX^, chan^), applied 
to chemical changes in living organ- 
ism* ; ~ FOTO*, vit«l activity ; Hata- 
Vdlim, the mm of the cbeniical 
obsnge* ia a living cell, lunally 

Ketaphtrr I 

watrioted to constmctivo change. 
c/. Anabolism, Katabomsh : met«- 
b'ollie, to change as deticribed. 

Ustacel'lnlosa {inri, with, + Cklld- 
LOSR), found in Liohons and Fiingi ; 
it is the same as Funoine ; Hata- 
ohlamyd'saa (xXof !>!, a cloak), Mac- 
mitlan's proposed term forComposi 
tao : adj. metachlamyd'eoiu ; KMa- 
coUencli'ym* {+ CoLLENrnrjiA), a 
result of secondary metemorphonia 
which baa taken place at a late 
period (C. Mueller) ; Metacra'ds 
(Kpanit, a mixtnre), kinetic mete- 
bolism, transmutation of energy ; 
melAd'romoiu (lp6M«<, a course), 
n form of venation in which in 
a siogle Fern-frond the Grst set of 
nerves in the segments are given 
off on the upper, or the lower (basal) 
side of the midrib (Prantl) ; m«t«- 
gsm'etal ( + Gamktk) Bejuvea- 
es'csnce, a cell or mass of cells 
acting as a gamete or lygote 
(Hartng) ; HetaKajii'ojili7t« (-rdfisi, 
marriage, ^vror, a plant). Mac- 
mi Itao's proposed name for hie 
highest group of Phanerogams, 
a synonym of " Siphonogamia" ; 
HetacenMU (7t>^r7it, a beginning), 
M'Nab's term for true alterna- 
tion of generations : HataUnt'sli 
{uTrfit, a moving), the separation 
of the threads in the melapbaais 
stage of nuclear division : Het'amar 
{/lipts, a part), used by tjacha to 
denote a Pbvton, or one of a 
number of similar parts of a series. 

HetawoTpli'oiia (^craM^^a-ii, trsns- 
formation), in botany the ehange of 
one organ into another, na stamens 
into petals : ayn. Hetamor'pliy ; 
adj. mstamor'phosed, changed. 

Hetaoa'ma {/ifri, with, r!iiia,n thread), 
Iriacmillan's name for the second 
ttige in the germination of Mosses 
which succeeds the proUinema ; 
adj.metane'mal; Uetaph'aal* (^mi, 
a phane), in nuclear division the 
separation of the daughter chromo- 
somes ; Halaph'eiy (.•^ap''^. I o^'tj), 
the displacement of organs, as WAen 
alternate become opposite, «tc. 

Hetephlo'lim ( + Phloem ). YsnTieg- 
hem's term for a simultaneous 

ETth of but - tissue vith the 
TAKYLKM ; Metaphy't* {•pirrir, 
a plvit), (I) pUntA whiah inaiii- 
feat lexuKlitf or indicate by ac- 
oeiaoiy charoctera that in their 
ancealral lineg Mnullj oompUte 
progeniton h&re occurred ; (2] 
pUntB with tissue difTBrenti&tion ; 
f/. pRonii'HTTE, adj. metap&r'Uc ; 
Het'tiplum (irXii««ui, moulded), 
Hnnstcin's term for the proto- 
plasm which ooDlains the forma- 
tive or granular material ; Blet- 
apUi'Ud, uaed to de8igaal« the 
metaphytio organism (Moorel : 
KetuperiD lirtpiu^. eeed], (1) b 
aperopbyte in whiuh the egg-orfptn 
is aborted, and no puiely vegeta- 
tive celli are to be foimd in either 
male or [enuUe plants ; (2) a sjmo- 
nym lor Angioaperme ; (3) applied 
by Boutger for the large -<:elled 
secondary proth allium m Srla- 
ginella, the secondary endosperm 
in Oymnosperma, and the endo- 
sperm, originally so- catted, formed 
after fertilisation by the division 
of the secondary ducUus of the 
embryo - Sao in Angiosperms ; 

metMper'talc, met* sper mane, 
angiospenoouB ; Uelaspor'opliyte, 
MocmiUan's expression for a Cryp- 
togam of the highest specialisation, 



u'tul« (/uTif<rrairif, a removing), 
(1 ) the sum of the changes undergone 
by the products of assimilation in 
the oetis ; metabolism ; (2) the 
shifting of an organ Id some usual 
position (Moquin-Tandon). 

Hetax'lii [fitriiv, between), a proteid, 
the material of the fibrils -if plagtida. 

Metazy'lem [iieri, beyond, + ATLEK), 
the centrifagally formed vmcuIbt 
bundles superposed to the liber 
bundles (Van Tieahem). 

metMi'tc (Mod. iitrcwfioi, in mid sir), 
applied to 6owera whose expansion 
depends upon the weather. 

mMla'told (^^i-ii, counsel, ttSo%, like), 
oompoaed of diCTereDtiated oells, 


each eell being dependent on the 
other cells of the organiam ( Barlog). 

metoe'dona [ uci, beyond, oIkhi, 
bouse), existing on different boete, 
hetecoecious ; metox'enou ({ivdi, 
a host) is a synonym. 

KotroKonJd'liun ^^'^|T^|p, mother, -h 
GoNiimiii| = HiTKKoc»sr. 

Hette'nlan Obuida, organs peooliar 
to Pluuibagiaeoe which secrete 
mucilage and sometimes cbalk. 

We'tololds (tntliiJa, a. small pyramid, 
clioi, like), modified cystidia, en- 
crusted with lime, which project 
from the hymenium of Pmiophora, 
giving it a velvety appearanoe. 

Hlatm', Mlu'iiu {(ilnfffia, defilement), 
Naegeli's term for those diseaaes 
which are due to microbes. 

■loet'la (L. Lat. from mica, a crumb), 
an aggregation of molecules in the 
manner of a pleon, but in larger 
numbers (Nii^lOl mlcel'lkr Ac'^M- 
gate, a combination of Micellae. 

Hioran'dTe {lunpis, small, iriip, dvlpoi, 
a man) = DwABr-HALR ; mloro-ajiro- 
ph'ilona (iijfl, air. ^iXtiu, I lovs) Eei- 
ierinok'a term (ov anaerobic, needing 
but little free oxygen ; Mlcrob'Mla 
{^ijiiii, a base), a variety of the car- 
cerule, as in Labiates ; Ui'ilroba, pi. 
Mkro'bia (fimt, life), Pasteur's term 
for such organ iamaasSchiiomycctes, 
bacteria ; adj. microblo'tlc ; Hloro- 
cea'trnm (Mii/nitn, tfrrimr, a shiirp 
point), applied to the granular 
mclusions in the itatrospiiere of 
leucocytes, probably the equiva- 
lent of Centrosome (Farmer) ; 
Hlaroooc'ous, pi. Klcrocoo'd (« jihm, 
a kernel), a eenus of bacteria, 
sometimes used to express mi- 
orobiotic organisms ; Hioroeon'ld, 
Microconid'iiim (-|-Cosu>inM), the 
smaller couidia, when two sizes 
are produced ; Hl'erocyBt {ttffut, a 
bag), an amoeboid cell which is sur- 
rounded by a membrane, the n 

B of s 

□ cells of Myi 


Htcrodi'odknge ( + 
iior, a vessel). Van 


HlcmU'lKlB, the ume botanist'B 
expreasioa (or a poUan - gr«in ; 
HI onfbrm ijomta, Hhspe], used of 
a heMroecious FunguB with tel- 
eDto«porea ouly , which germinate 
only after a reBting; period ; 
HlcroeHn'**^* ( -*- CiAUETt), tho 
imatler and niale motile cells 
of Algae ; Hl'crorerm [germtv, 
offshoot) = MiCHdDi; HlcroEon- 
Ut'tom ( -I- UoMDiVH), a small 
gooidium, as compared with others 
prodaood by the sums speoiea j 
Kloroinellttopb'llaa (m/Xitto., a bee, 
^iXiiii, I lovej, applied to thone 
flowers whose fertilisation is 
effected by small bees and Bimilnr 

prebeoaible by human Bonse ; 
Hlcrom'etsr (uFrpor, a measure), a 
device or apparatus to measure 
miDulB dimensions ; Hlcromll'll- 
nuUr, the thoiKuiadth part of a 
milliDioter, and the unit of micra- 
soopic measurement, denot«<l by 
the sign m ; Mloromyloph'Uae iju'la. 
a fly ) «iUu, I love), &owen wliich 
»re fertilised by small flies which 
are oftea impriaoued ; adj. nUeramy- 
lopb'Uont ; mtcrophyl'lliiB {qiiWor, 
■ leaf), composed of small leaSeta 
or scales; Hl'erophyte (^iTot, a 
plant), used of bacteria ; adj. mlcro- 
phyt'lc 1 Ulcropucoln'la. with selen- 
tospores only (Flowri);bt): Hi'cro- 
pyle {vu'Xq, a gate), the aperture 
iQ Ibe akin of the seed formerly 
Ibe foramen of the ovule, it 
marks the position of the ra- 
dicle; adj. mlcTopy'lar; HlDTOicle- 
nita (i7<Xi|(i4t, hard), a, aclerotium 
modified by anfovourable vital 
coQditioQB, after a resting period 
it develops into a perithecium 
(Zukal); Ml'crosome. Microrn'ma, 
pi. MKroao'mata {auiita, a body), 
ID the plural applied to smalt 
granules embedded in the proto- 
plasm; Htcrotporan'KlDm (■>■ 
bFORAKiiiDHI, a sporangium which 
produces microspores; mlorospor- 
aB'BiateFlow'er, male, or staminate 
dower i at'oiMpora (n-spd, seed), 

mdmmmar Onnrth 

(l)thesmalleraizedsporsin hetero- 
Bporoui plants, as SiUtyitielia ; (2) 
of late years applied to the pollen- 
grain ; adj, mtcrospor'lo, nlcnM'- 
poTon* ; HUrospor'cipbyll (^XXor, 
a leaf), a leaf-like organ bearing 
micTosporangia ; mlcroaporoptiyl - 
iaxj now'ar, a male or ataminate 
flower ; Ki'crostomfl (ffii/ia, a 
month), a small oriSce ; WoDtty'' 
lospora (irrvXrn, a column, owvpi,, 
seed), stylospores of a small tiie, as 
in Locviaria -. mlcrosty'Ioas, short- 
styled, as applied to dimorphic 
flowers; lllcrofym'lJlont (-1- Svn- 
BTOtiT), the smaller of the two 
associated organiama ; WciatbBrm 
{Otpfii), heat}, used for plants 
characteristic of the arctic alpine 
zone, in England needing protec- 
tion from drought and direct 
sunlight ; Xi'crotoms [re/Ait. a 
cutting), an instrument for section- 
cutting for microscopical purposes ; 
Hleroioogloe'a ({Va>, an animal, 
y\inin, a sticky sohatance), a stage 
of SohiiomycolcB when they are 
immersed in a gelatinous envelope ; 
MQcrowogonld'inm ( -1- GoMDirM), a 

motile form of microgonidinm ; 
HlciDio'oapore (criroi>d, eeed), a 

.tile e 

mall i 

pared with olherB of the aame 
species ; lUCTOto'old (tlSat, resem- 
blance), small motile reproductive 
cells in some unicellular Algae, as 
Sphaertlia (Hazan); BH'otogywe 
(i^Mli yeaat), B<?chBmp'8 usme for 
microbeB and small ferments. 

mid, intermediate ; used by H. C. 
Watson for ~ ■glHT'lali, and — 
arctic zones of vegetation ; ~ Br'ror, 
see Deviation. 

mld'dla, central ;~LamB]'la, the mem- 
brane primary septum between 
any two cells ; ~ Ldm'ina, in a 
ligniGed cell-wall, the portion be- 
tween the ~ Lamella and inner 
lamina ; - lobe, sea liOBB, Middle. 

Hld'rlb, the priiiLiipal nerve in a leaf. 

BUd'tummer Otowtb, a second st&rt 
i a l« growth after ceasing ; it does 
not occur in all trees. 


mini (IHt., nog of tgo, I), m an 
authority It me&tia the particular 
fonn MMpted u the true one by 
the author luing it. 

■Ql'dew, a disease in plnnta c&iiBed 

a popnUi 
parasitic funiua. 
mUla'Ttni {mdtam, millet), minut« 

SlaDtiular apota on the epidarro } 
lenslow apetU it " miliaria ; Kil'l- 

aij OIaiia« = STOMATA. 

IDlk, an opaque white juice ; the 
latex ; ~ Ban, latjciferoita vesMU 
in some Bpecieg of Aerr; ~ B*p = 
LitKi (CniEiier)i~Te('*eIa, latioi- 
ferona veaeeU. 

min-nil shape, molendinaoeoua. 

mlmat'lc (/ii;i?itu6i. imitative), ufted 
of organs or plants whioh reaemble 
each other in eitomai appearance, 
but not in characteriatic structure ; 
Itlm'laiT, resemblance to some 
other species, usually serving as 

mui'lale, titinia'lui (Lat. coloured 
with cinnabar), the coloar of red 
lead : more orange and duller than 

nliin't*, minu'fus (Lat. amall), very 
smaU, inconspicuouB. 

Mopiyl'ly = MEIOPHYLI.T (Crosier). 

mHbam'any (^Uvxot. a pedicel, itmia, 
madness), increase in the number 
of pedicels, as in Rhiui Gatiniui, 
Linn., liatcaritomomm. Mill., eto. 

mla'toB. mtrtiu (Lat.) crsi>a-brecl. 

lOt'oin (fiiriui, 1 weave), Flemmtng's 
term for the netuork of threads of 

HltO'ais I^TDi, a thread or wob). 
Plemming'a term for nuclear di- 
viiion; Earyokinesis of Schleicher 1 
adj. mlto'ita, mlto'tle. 

Wtra iidrpa, a heail-dreia), (1) the 
galea of a corolla ; <2) the thick 
rounded pileua of some Fuugi ; 
ml'trUOnn, nii'rj/bmi'M (/omui, 
shape), milre-shaped ; ~ Oalyp'tra, 
one whioh is enUre at the base 

mlxad [mixtua) For'eit, one oomposed 
of various kinds, growing inter- 
mingled ; -• InSorea'ceuoe, one in 
which partial LnSorescence develop 
differently from the main aiia, as 
centrifugal and centripetal to- 
gether ; '- Vea'selB, those having 
thickenings of more than one 
description, as annular and spiral 
(Crosier) ; mlzotropb'lc (rpa^. 
food), half-aaprophytic (Pfeffer) ; 
ralxUner'Tliia t (IM.) having veins 

mnl'old, resembling the Mobs genua 

mo'bile, mo'hUit (Lat.). easily moved, 
moveable or versntile ; UoUl'tty, 
power of movement, cf. MoTlLiTV. 

Hock ' plams.abnormal growths k no wn 
also as BAO-PLVHa. 

modloUfonn'ls (modiUui. a sntall 
measure, nave of a wheel, etc., 
forma, shape), like the nave of a 
wheel, depressed, with narrow 
orifice, as the ripe fruit of Oavi- 

Hol'eculs {moltcula, a emUl moss), 
an aggregation of atoms, hence the 
iittimate particle of a chemical 
compound: f/. Pleoh, Micru-a; 
adj. molec'nlar. 

molendina'oGDna, -emu, -a'rin (Lat. 
perlaining to a mill), furnished 
with large, wing-liks enpansjons. 

HDUsa'tam, a plant association com- 
posed of Molirua caenilta, Moench 

mol'Ils (Lat.), soft, usually meaning 

molrti'i]e<u,moI7b'doi (;iUi'd3«,lead), 
lead-coloured ; sad, neutral grey. 

Hon- {(liroi, one), m Greek com' 
pounds = one ; HonadBl'pbla (itltX- 
0dc. brother), a Linnean Class in 
whioh the anthoti are united by 
their filaments intoa single brother- 
hood ; adj. motMdel'pUan, mona- 
del'phons ; monan'det, Neoker's 
term for monan'ilrlan, monan'dian* 
{dfiip, lirSpii, a man), with one 
stamen ; Honan'dria, a Linnean 
class, with one-stamened Sowers; 
monan'elo {ayyilor, a vessel}. 


FrantrB word for a sporangium 
when enclosed by & hood-liLe in- 
duniuni ; monanUioaa (irfiai, a 
flowor), oiie-flowereit ; mon'arcli 
(dfiX*. beginning), applied U> an 
xylem-buadle which consiet< of one 
protoxylem^oup ; — Buit'dls, one 
in whioii there is only one Btraad ; 
monarl'iiiia lippt", m&le), Necker'a 
eipreuion for mononilrouB ; Hou- 
u'tU' [iirr>)p, a star}, in nuclear 
division the mother-star, the 
chramosomeB fortning b ring round 
the ceatral spindlo ; Honax'on 
(Afw, an axle), when the two 
transverse axes of an organ or or- 
ganism are equal ; mone'cioiu = 
MONOHJiODa i Monem'bryanr {(/i- 
ppvtr, BO embryo), Ibe praduolion 
of one embryo onlj ; adj. monem- 

ir hybrid, 


Kon'gT^ a cross 

menll'Utina, monili/inin'u {monile, 
necklnoe, ^riTia, shape), nei?kliice- 
shapcd ; like a string of beads. 

Kon'iim ii'dtQi, oiie], employed by 
I* H. Bailey for " the doctrine of 
oneness ; the supposition that all 
pbeDomeoB Bud bII fonas of life 
are derived from the anfolding or 
evolution of one single principle 
"^ and substance, " 

Mtmob'asls (/ilaiai, one, ^dirii, base), 
when the root is reduced to a small 
unbranebed portion, as thoutjii it 
were only the base of the stem ; 
KoDOtdaa tns {^Xaarii, a shoot or 
bad), uaad of Lichao-sporeB when 
possessing a single cell ; Bloiioearo'- 
Un [ -I- CuiUTiN) a lipochrorue pig- 
ment allied to Carotin, the colour- 
ing of the root of the carrot ; Hon'. 
ocarp (raprvt, fruit), an annual or 
other plant tliat flowers but <.noe 
(CroEier) ; monocarpel'lary, com. 
posed of one carpel only ; monocar'- 
plc, Wen'nlaa- ~, a biennial plant, 
paren'nJal- ~, a plant whieb lives 
many years beforo fruiting aud 
perishing ; monocar'plan, monocar- 
pia'aia, monocar'iiicua, monocar'- 
poni, only fruiting onee ; moDO- 
Mllnl&r {cd/ula, a little cell). 

cited by Crozier for u: 
monoeepb'aioiu, -fus {iiifiaXi!, a 
head), bearing a single head or 
capitulum : monoohas'ial (xiJo-ii, 
separation), a eyme with one main 
either pure, or resulting from the 
reduction of cymes (Urban): Hono- 
chUinyd'sae (xXa>u^, a mantle), a 
large divialon of Pbaneroaams 
which have only one set of Horal 
envelopes ; tnoQaoblamyd'eous, 
•dcuA, having only one kind of 
perianth ; manocbro'mlo (xpw>is, 
colour), of one tint, unicolorous ; 
monot^'noai, -mue, manoDUn'lait 
(jcMrir, a bed), (1) hermaphrodite, 
having both stamens and pistils in 
Che same flower ; (2) applied to the 
oapituta of Composites which have 
only hermaphrodite florets ; Hoilo- 
oOtyla'doD (KdruXqSuir, a hollow), a 
plant having but one cotyledon or 
seed-lobe; Mosocot'ylae, was sug- 
gested by L. Ward as a shortened 
term ; manoeotyle'donoiu, wjtb a 
single seed-loba, as graeae* and 
palms ; monooT'cllo (kIiXdi, a cir- 
cle), (1) when tbe members of a 
floral series are in one whorl, as 
the calyx, corolla, etc.; (2) annual 
plants ; monodlcihlamyd'eous {5i, 
twice, nXa^iiJi, a mantle), having 
either one or both Bets of floral en- 
velopes ; monody'QamDQs {Sv'yaius. 
Kwer), with one stamen mvich 
iger than tbe otbera; Uonos'da 
(oIiBT, a house), a Liunean class 
characterised by having So wen 
with the sexes separate, but on 
the same plant ; moBoe'doiu, -ciim, 
the stamens and pistils in separate 
flowem, but borne on tbe Mme in- 
dividual ; ~ Bomo^aiiiT, fertiliza- 
tion from another infloreBcence 
of tbe same plant (Delpino); 
moDMc'lonalr pplyg'smoiia, hav- 
ing hermaphrodite and nnisciual 
flowers on the same specimen ; 
ttonoe'clam, the state of pos- 
aaaaiug monoecious Sowora ; Mo- 
noSplcyti'la (^i-t, upon, yvr)]. a 
woman), a class in Juseieu's syetem 




lyifia!, marriage), a pUnC with 
Bimplc flowera, Dut DDit«d aotherB ; 
Koaogtaa'iA, n Linnean order in 
the CompoBJtes with united an- 
thors, but flowecfl free on the samo 
reoeptaele; nunoEim'loiu, Necker's 
Urm for moDogamoua ; monog's- 
noiu {yirai, raoe, oSepring), = en- 
Douttnons ; monogvnat'la B«pro- 
dDc'tton, aaexnal reproduotion ; 
monoff'anM, (1) monocotvledonouB ; 
(2) raonotypiolCroiiBr, Diet. p. 18); 
■on'ognpb {ypa^, I write), A 
■jBtemilio ttocount ol a, puticulor 
Keoag, order, or group ; Koa'ogfa 
(yi»^, B, woiiuui), a plant liaving a. 
single piatil in a, Hower ; Hono- 
BJd'U, a Linnean order, having a 
•oUtar;pi«tilor style, thoughit may 
have many carpeu ; tnonogfn'ian, 
manoe'jrtoat, -nus, potweasing but 
ODD pistil ; numogyntM'tiM (vuku- 
Ktiar, women's quarters), Bimple 
fraiti roaoittog from the pistil of 
one Sower ; HouoItTpocyn'ia (lird, 
ander, 71"^, a woman), a olais in 
Juisieu'i ByBt«ni oontaining mono- 
colyiodona with hypogenoos sta- 
mens 1 monot'coui falmi, a house), 
used by bryologista for uonoe- 

monolsp'tdus {flint, one, \iri!,\iTt3et, 
a ecale), one-soaled ; monorobna 

i\o^i, an ear-lobe), used by Spruce 
orone-lobed ; monotoo'ular, motio- 
loeitta'ris (loculag, a little place), 
one-oelled. unilocular, applied to 
oTai'iea, etc.; monom'erou* ii^ipot, 
• part), formed of a single mem- 
bar, M the fruit may tw of one 
oarpel ; monomupli'oiu if^-p^V. 
■hapo), of one form only, not poly- 
morphia (Bailey); monopafaians, 
■ha (TtreAat, a flower leaf), (I) 
literally one-petalled ; [2) gamo- 
peUJoui, wherv the corolla is com- 
posed of seTeral petal* laterally 
united ; mooophylM'le (f uX^i * 
tribe), originally dcmndad from 
one tnba. ai o|ipo*cd to polyphyle- 
tt(i ; mmepbyl'lDu* -lu («J,\\ar, a 

nged ; moBopyrs'iiii 
kernel), coutaining a single stone 
or nutlet ; monocep'aloDi, -lit* { + 
Sepaluu), gamoeepalous, the aes- 
inente of the calyx being unitea; 
monotlphon'ie {ai^r, a tube), 
applied to Algae aoniisting of 
a continuous tube, an algal 
fi!ami>nt of a single row of 
cellB ; HoDo'ilB, the isolation of 
an organ from the rest ; Hon'o- 
Spetm {aTi).)ia, seed), a plant of 
one seed only ; moQOtperm'ont, 
-miu, one*aeeded ; monoipi'n 
{nriipa, a twisted cord), Ijpruce's 
term for that condition ol the 
elater in Hepaticae, which oon< 
sofaBingleepiral; HotuMpfnu, 
an elater of ttis kind ; mono- 
sporan'glate ( -f Spohamiivm), ap- 
plied to a Qower with sporangia 
borne on separate aiis, as the 
beech and oab ; further dia- 
tingulehed ae tnac'ro- or nl'ero- 
■pornuglate, as they bear sporangia 
of the kind indicated ; Kon'oapOM, 
a special spore in Erlorarpui, by 
Sauvageau con tide rod to be a 
Gkuui ; HonoiponLUg'lum, used 
by tJaavBgeau for the organ which 
produces monosporee ; monM'- 
laohoni (Frixii, a spibe), arranged 
in one spike j monoBtelljB ((m)Xih a 

Sillar), baviog a single axial oylfn- 
erof tissue, in which the valoular 
tissue is developed ; HonoaUlv, 
the slat« of having a sin^ 
stele ; adj, Buuuwla'loiii ; Bono- 
I'tloboiu, chut (trixiH. a row), in a 
Binglc vertical row ; nosMtro- 
mat'ic [npiifia, bed -covering), ap- 

plied Vo tha Wvw of MosKfl and 
Uie thalluB of Algiie when codj- 
posed of a, eingle layer of cvUb ; 
manoi^loni, 7iM (-t-SrvLua) hav' 
ing m flingle stylo, 
llono'iy (^idruifTii, deserted), Morren's 
t«nn [or the abnormal isoletion of 
pu-ts doe to (a) Adisut or (b) 

mODMyiiuaet'rloal (iiirat, oae, riy.- 
ftTpot, proportionate), used of a 
flover which c»a be bisected in 
ODC plane only, Eygomorpbic ; 
nionotiiftiun'lo, monoUuol'Bjnoiui 
{(iXafwt, a bod-oh»mber),( I ) applied 
to apothecU cuDsistiDg of a single 
ohamber ; (2) when gulls conaiat of 
entf one interior absiinber ; mono 
tbal'mlc. derived from & «ingle 
flower, as most fruite (Crozier) ; 
monolbe'cal {S/inif, a case), having 
aiingleloculusorceli; monot'ooons, 
■nu (t^di. child-birth), fruitii'g 
ODoe only, m anoualsand hiennialtt, 
uoDOoarpic ; monotrop'ic Irpori), a. 
toraingl, applied to bees which 
Tiait only one speciea of flower ; 
motiatyp'le (iiorov, a type), having 
only one exponeot, as a uenus with 
but one speciei ; Honoi eny (ftvoi, 
k boat), used of a parasite on one 
bolt only, antoeciouB, 

Kon'ater, Momlitim (Lat., an un- 
natural produrtiun), an abnormal' 
it; ; MonstroE'lty, Stonntru'^ilaa, 
some conform ntion deviating from 
the uBoal and natural atmcture; 
adj. moni'traus. 

nutn'taiu, moiUa'ntD (Lat.), pertain- 
ing to mountains, aa a plant which 
grows on them. 

IIM'IB t (fopai, a share), parte of a 
flower in general, as pentamoriut, 
all porta in flvea. 

Hoc'lu {Xorvt, mulberry), a principle 
derived from the yellow heart- 
wood of Fustic, Slacltiraaaranriara, 
Nutt. ; the name is derived from 
Mortu, to which genus the |>1iint 
was formerly referred; Moroiy'masa 
(tunv, leaven), an aasumed enzyme 
^H ui the molber^, now believed to be 
^^ » mixture of diastase and zymase. 

Uorpli'li., Korph'ln* (Morphetu, the 
god of sleep), the best known of 
all the alkaloids contained in the 

opium poppy. 
morphus (;iop^, Bha[>e), in Greek 
compounds = appeaninue, ae rAizo- 
morphvs, having iho appearance of 
a root ; Morpliog«n'esU [yfvieii, be 
ginning), the produntion of morpho- 
logical characters ; morjiholoir'lcal, 
relating to Morphology : —Bpe'dtes, 
Parmentier's t«rm for such ■pooific 
forms as occur in Hosa, which are 
assumed to have departed from 
their ancestral form in conse- 

Hsrplio'tli [i^p^utii, a shaping), the 
manner of development ; the order 
in which organs f<jrm from their 
earliest to their final condition. 

mos'chste, nu/echa'tvt {moiekua, 
musk), musiiy. 

Uoth'er, used in the sense of 


divide to fonn other cells i~ Plant, 

(1) the parent plant, from whioh 
vegetative portions have been de- 
rived ; (2) the female or seed-bearing 
parent of a hybrid : '• Skein, a 
continuous ribbon- like figure of 
chromatin in the early stages of 
nuclear division, further divideil 
into close - , looiwd ~ , and loosa -• ; 
~ Star ^ MoNAHTEK, a stage ut 

HoUl'eT-ot-Tin'^Mr, the active agent 
in acetous fermentation, Saccha- 
roiaycfa Mj/caUrma, Beeas. 

mo'ttle (niofiui, a moving), move- 
able i - Be'eton, (1) in growing 
members the rr^on of elongation ; 

(2) ii 

inch as the pulvinns in 
aiirmna fiHiHea, liinn. 
Hatil'lty (Kr. motility), the power of 
movement ; ~ of PTa'toplajmi, a 
SB ({geate J emendation of "contrac- 
tility" of protoplasm. 
Ho'tor (Lat. , a mover) Sons, another 

■onld, Applied to microicopio upro- 
phjtio luDgi, nich m Stucor and 

Mon'tM; the saoie u mocilit, (I] 
used of d versatile anther whose 
altaohisent is slight, there* 
fore apt to be movea by wind or 
■light shock ; (2) with colours, 
" shot " or chaogenblo (Henslow) ; 
(3) the aonulos of ui Agsric when 
it detaches itself from the stipes 
and ramains free. 

MoTe'ment, motion, continuous or 
transient ; " of Varla'tloii, see 



Moz'a (native name), the wooltf 
leaves of A rlemieia Mora, DO. 

Mn'cedln {mueedus, mouldy), a toagh 
»iaooUB body associated with clutsD 
in vegeUble goUtio (Goodale) ; 
mnoe'dinoof, roust v, mouldy. 

mn'cls [moan, nasal secretion), re- 
lating to gum: Uu'cilags |Fr.)> 
vegetable gelatine belungiog tu the 
amyloBe group of carbohydrates ; 
- CMial'; ~ Cav'l^, space caused 
by the breaking down of the cell- 
wait of nsighbouriog cell* ; ~ SUt. 
an opening on the under aurfaoe of 
the tballuB in Antboceroteae. like 
a atona without guard-celli, lead- 
ing into a oavity filled with gum ; 
mncllaE'tiMiu, slimy, composed of 
mooilAge ; Ma'dne, a eonatituent 
of wheat-glut«n which is soluble 
in water ; Knco-cal'liilosB ( -f Ckllu- 
Losa), sUnded to nnder CELLULosea. 

■n'coTln, an albuminoid substance 
oocdrring in species of Jfucor 
(De Bary); macoriu'soaa, Tesem- 
bUngthe Muoorineac. 

tsn'conB, mvco'gM* (Lot.), slimy, cf. 

Mn'cio (Lat. a sharp point), a sharp 
terminal ^int ; MDcro'na t = 
MtiCRO (Lindley) ; ma'cronals, 
tnucroiia'fiu, possesaiag a abort and 
straight point, as aonio leaves ; 
HudTona'Uon^MucKO ; muoronu- 
la'tni (Lot.), dim. of mucronate. 

■n'ou* (Lat. nasal secretion), gum- 
like matter soluble in watM ; mn'- 

tropit gi^niea, Dryand., and O. 
procero, Dryand. 

HneUer'i Corpns'cles, ovoid or pear- 
shaped bodies iu Ceeropia a'ltno- 
pus. Mart., which form a velvety 
coating on the under aide of the 
base 01 the petiole ; they are util- 
iaed as food by ants. 

Mnle, in botany, means cross bred, a 

multangular, multangular' is , mui- 
ang'uliu (multtu, many, angutut, 
an angle), many -angled ; mnltiMp'- 
■nl&r (mpmfa, a small box), having 
many capsules; multtdl'lata (cifium, 
an eyelash), with many cilia; mnl'tl- 
cspa, moltlelp'tni {caput, a head), 
with many heads ; it refers to the 
cronn of a single root), mnltlcoa'- 
tate (coala, a rib), many-ribbed ; 
the ribs running from the base of 
a loaf towards its apex ; mnlUden'- 
tate (deiiiatus, toothed), with many 
teetb ; mnltliUclUt'to - pinna'tua, 
having many seooudary petioles 
with digitate-pinnate arrangement 

mnltffkr'lons, muff i/ar'itM (Lat. mani- 
fold), mulUFa'rtun (Lat. man^- 
rankcd), many-rankod, as leaves in 
Terticai ranks. 

muIUfarotu, -riu (malli/tr, bearing 
much), often bearing, fruitful. 

mul'tUd, m«lt\fidiu (Lat.), cleft into 
many lobes or segments. 

mnltiOoT'oni, ->-»« (rnufCTu, many, fioi, 
fioiis, a Qower), many-flowered ; 
mtHtUoUa'tuB (foliuui, a leaf), 
many • leaved ; mnltlJn'Kale. miU- 
iijuga'fia, mnltlja'gnt {jugum, a 
yoke], having many pairs or 
jugae ; mtiltilat'sral (lalm, a 
side), many-sided, having several 
flattened surfaces ; mululoo'nlar, 
mviliiocula'rit {loculxa, a little 
place), many-colled, as an ovary ; 
~ 8por» - Sporidesu ; HolUlo. 
cula'res. compound sporei : nuil- 
Unn'cleate ( -t- Noouus), having 
more than one nucleus to a cell ; 
multip'aroua (jiario, I bring forth). 


manj-bntring, applied to • cyme 
whir^ hoa man; axes ; multipar'- 
tlte, maliiparti'liu {pnrtitMt, 
divided), CDBiiy timea divided, 

mnl'tlplax (Lat. with many folda), 
where many of the same psrU 
occur together ; mul'tlpla Corol'la. 
one tb«l bas more than ona whorl 
of petals ; ~ Fniltc, the fruit 
III a flover-cluster when confluent 
into one mass ; ~ Prl'nurr 
Root, a root with several main 
divisioaa from the crown, as in 
Dahlia (Croiier) ; maltlpll'cate 
{plica, a fold), folded often or 
repeatedly ; ^ FloVer, a double 
flower ; KulUplloa'tlciD, mulliplica'- 
Itu { Lat. ,iDcreaaing),augmenLation, 
pleiota»y, pleiophylly ; ftdj. nraltt- 
pUca'tn* : mnltlpo'lu tjmlia, a 
pole), with more than two poles; 
-> Spln'dle, Guignard'a term for 
an achromatic spindle when ei- 
t«adins in a star-ahaps between 
Mveral Diiclei ; MnltlpalkT'ltr, Ibe 
Btate in question ; mnItlra'<UAt«, 
DtH^IiroJia^ftu (radiui, a ray), with 
many rays. 

inuItlnt'iiKiae (muiCui, many, ramiu, 
a bnuioh), much branched ; mnltf- 
■ap'Ut*, mulrint/ila'lua [tcpiMm, a 
hedge), witli many partitions ; 
tnnltlae'rial, mntliaeria'lis, multiae'- 
rlal«, mdliseria'lii {nria, a row), 
in several series ; mnlUdl'Iqnous 
( + SiijqDA), having many pods or 

Hnimnlflea'tlan of fruits, nsed by 
Tubeaf to expreaa the fangal rest- 
ing body or sclerotium. 

mn'tdan* iLat.) fortifying ; mnalen'- 
Um. Fo'lia, protecting leaves which 
overhang or otherwise guard parte 
which need protection. 

mu'ral, mum Vis (Lat., pertaioing to 
a wall), growing on walls ; [[iBr&'- 
rlo* (Lat.) meauB the same. 

inn'ticate, murka'tua (Lut., like 
murw), rough, with short and 
hard tubercular exoresoonoes ; 
'iuricvla'tui, diminu- 
• of the preceding. 


mn'Tlfarm, muri/orm'ii (jiiurus.a wall, 
forma, ahape), (1) flattened oellular 
tissue, with cells resembling brioka 
in a wall ; (3) Koerber applies the 
term to certain Li ohen -spores. 

murl'nns (Lat., of mice), monae- 

Huac&rdlue' (Fr.), a silkworm disease 
caused by BolrgtU Bataana, Bals. 

roascar'lfOmi, mutcariform'it (miu- 
farium, a fly-flap, /orrao, shape), 
(I) fly-bruKb shaped; (2) like the 

Ssnue MMncari as to hal>it or in- 

alkaloid itoia Amavila laUKaria, 
P. Karat. ; Hnsca'rium (Lat,), a 
loose and irregular corymb. 

Hits'cl, sing. Mus'coa (Lat.), Mosses; 
mua'cltSnu, mttad/orm' it {forma, 
shape], moss-like In appearance ; 
muado'olotu [colo, I inliabit), groW' 
on Mosses ; mus'eold [iliai, like), 
resembling or belonging to Moss ; 
Uaacol'ogy [Slrioj, discourse), a 
hybrid term fur Bbtoloqt ; an 
account of Mosses. 

mntb'room-lteaa'ed, a cylindric body 
topped by a convex head of larger 
diameter ; fungiform, 

mnta'bills (Lat.), changeable, either 
in form or colour. 

mn'tiootu, mu'Eictu (Lat. curtailed, 
docked), pointlesB, blunt, awnleas. 

ma'tUoa (Lat. maimed}, 'applied to a 
flower nearly or wholly wanting 
tbe petals. 

Hn'tnallBin (mutual -l- ism), the same 
as Commensalism ; that Is, an 
association of two organisnu whioh 
is beneficial to both ; also termed 
Hn'tnal Par'aaltian. 

Kyceleonid'inm (-(-CoHimcM) (f^rqt, 
a mushroom). A, Fischer's term 
for StTLoapoRK ; Mycals' = Mt' 
ci'licm ; myce'lofd {tllot, like), re- 
sembling a mjcclium ; mycell&l, 
relating to a mycelium ; — Lay'er= 


Gbrous mycelium ; Hycellnm, the 
vegetative portion of the thallua of 
Fungi, composed of hyphae ; Ua- 




the layer formed by the interwetv- 
ing of the hfpbse ; Hyo«'l]th«(Xl?ot, 
« etODe), an old term for Sclzro- 
iroM I myEetog^nst'lo (yttirris, » 
p»ront), producing Fun§i ; ~ 
Ksbunorpli'oili, ijcfovination of 
p«rtB by ^ungi ; mycetOK'Btioa* 
(7;»oi. raee, olftpriQg), prodiicir({ 
Fungi ; ~ Ohlor&n'tliy, the deve- 
lopment o( green in organ* nor- 
mall; of some other oolour, due to 
K fnngoQB paraaite ; -• Cblor'lBlB, 
where the chlorophyll ie blcHched 
by the action of hyphse of wrnie 
Funttoa (Tabenf) ; tny'oetotd, myr*- 
Uti'deiui (cTIoi, like), fungoid ; with 
the appearance of Fungi ; llycie- 
tol'ogy, Myettolo'gia (Xiyoi. dis- 
ooutee) = Mvixn.oov ; Hrce'toioft 
(ftSev, an animal). De Bary'e teem 
for Mtxooastrss : adj. myceto- 
■o'sn; Hy'oiiia. in Lichens, a globu- 
lar Btipitate Bpothecium ; l^cooe- 
oU'lttm (njicit. K^KiSot, a gall-nut), 
a gall produced by a Fungus ; Hy- 
OOdotna'tia ISui^Tiiu'.a little bouse), 
(anguB-QhamberB, formations of 
peculiar character found on the 
roots of plants, regarded by Frank 
aa poasesstd of the power of at- 
Iracting Fungi and diseetingthem ; 
Kycol'iwiBt [\iyi», discourse), one 
skilled in the knowledge of Fungi ; 
Hycorogy. the science of Fungi ; 
Hycomy^cophytsB ($in-ir, a, plant), 
M&rchand'B term to include Fongi 
and certaiin Lichens ; Hycophy'to- 
I>bytaB, the same writer'a iianiu for 
the remaining Lichens ; Hy'coplaain 
(tMitw moulded), Frank's term 
tor bacteroida. as the Rhiiobia on 
legamfniferons roots : BIycopl&*'- 
na. Eriksson's term for a latent 
symbiotic form of Pueri'niu which 
may exist in the seed and develop 
into a myoeliiim when the host has 
grown into a plant ; Hycopro'tein 
( -I- Protein), a gelalinouB albu- 
nitooid resembling protoplasm, of 
which the putrefiictive bacteria 
Br« oomposed ; MyoorU'ioma ( -*- 
Rbuomb], myoorrhiia-Iike stmc- 
Inn in OoraUiThiaa, and Bpipogmn 

roots ; Kycorbl'ia, preferably 1^- 

efin:hi'ia(a(ra,aroot), theaymbiotic 
nnion of Fungi and roots of plants; 
it may be eclotrop'lc, ~ entirely out- 
aide, orecdatrop'lc, ~- entirely with- 
in the cells ; Uy'cooe, My'caalil, the 
■pecial nitrogeiiouB Bubstanoe of 
the cell -wall in Fungi corres- 
ponding to the animal Bubetance 
chitin (UilBon) ; Hyco'als, a disease 

of A'uro(iiim ; Hy'erooyit = Micbo- 
CTST 1 Hycropro'teln ~ Mtcopbo- 
TKiM i Hy'cropyla - Micboptli; 
Hy'cnxyme = Miokoztmb. 

Hyloplt'UM {i-.vTa, a dj, fMu, I love), 
plants which are fertilised by dip- 
tera ; their dowars are dull in 
ooloar and their odours are dis- 
agreeable to man. 

mykoUap'tla (w^xiit, a nnshrooni. 

the hairs on the rhizome ol 

hiia innata, R. Br., "which seiie 

the myoolinm." 

myocb'rona [iiSj, a mouse, xp^'^ <>( 
the akin), mouae-ooIonrDil. 

MyrmecodomA'tla (wip^li. an ant, 
Ju/idriar, a little house), sheltars 
formed by plants in which anta 
live ; mTrmeooph'iloii* (^Uu, I 
love), plants which are in- 
habited by ant« and offer epecial- 
isett Hhelters or food for them ; 
Btpmecoph'iliim, the ainte describ- 
ed; further particularJBed by War- 
burg, as— myrmecod'omoiiB {S6titn, 
a house), aifording shelter only ; 
myrmBOotTOph'ls {rpo^l), food), 
furnishing food ; m^aiMDX'uioiu 

ii/mt, a boat), suppljn'ng both 
food and shelter ; Uynna'capliytM 
{^vfir, a plantl, ant-plants ; Myr- 
mecosymblo'ili ( -i- SyMBiosis), the 
mutual relations betweeo the anta 
and their host-plants; adj. myr- 

Uy'roiin l/iipvi', sweet jnice), agluoo- 
side occurring in the seed of 
Bnuaica iituii>oidtii. Roth, aod 
other Crucifers. 

KyiTb, an aromatio som-reiin yielded 
by Cmnmipham UyrriM, BngL 


Ittyr'tUWm, rn.vrri/orm'u [rnyrlMt. the 
myrtle, /orma, shapa). reeembliiig 
the m;rrtte ; mynol'deiiB {tiSot, 
like) is s a^oDfm. 

loQfC OJul taperiog like a mouae'a 
■TzaiuM'tas or l^oainM'lNM. pi. 

lliiia, mucuB, itunpit, interchaage), 
ths Bwarni-eporea of M)-iigH»lres ; 
Myxogv'tiea {yairnip, beily ], Priea'a 
temi for the group "Slime Fnnei," 
ollieriviK known ks HyxomrM tea 
and MrcBTuzoA ; Hyz'ini, a cod- 
BtitaenI, of wheal-gluten precipi- 
tated by alcohol ; myi'opod (iroui, 
iTD^di, a fool), the itmoe(>oid EUtoe 
in cuntraat to the maatigopod ; 
Hyi'oBpon) (friTDpit, a seed), a spore 
farmed in the sporangia of Myxo- 
gutreg; adj. myxM'poroiu. 

mycologists usnatly restricted 
I a measure. 

n o( horee-d 

half B 

inoh in length, the average length 
of a finger nail ; ungaicularis. 

aa without pubeaoenoe, or flowera 
destitute of perianth, or buds with 
out scales; ~ ■eed'ed.JDgymnoaper' 
moos: (2) formerly used of Lsbiatee, 
from a faUe idea of the fruit. 
Bftjoau'dion* [mmi, a dwarf, driip, 
a^JpoliB man), used of oertain Algae 
whioh produoB Dwarf - males ; 
Rk'nlnn, Cbodat'a term for becom- 
ing dwarf; na'niu (Lat.), dwarf, 

jiapa'Miu {iiapai, a turnip, + acttu) ; 

na'pUorm (forma, shape), tumip- 

ehaped or rooted. 
B»p'PT, lomeatose. 
Rar'celne (rdpur, numtmeaa], an opium 

alkaloid farming silky, inodorous, 

bitter crystals. 
Itu''coUiie(i'af)iun-i(Dt, making □uiub], 

also an opium alkaloid, but of very 

little narcotic power. 
Kir'dliu, pertaining to Nard, Nardo- 

ftaehyt Jatamanti, DC. 

na'tant, oa'iaM (Lat., swtmmiiiit), I 

floating under water, that ia, wholly | 


n&'tlTe, used by H. C. Watson for 
undoubtedly indigenous. 

□at'uTal, produced or effected by 
nature ; — Qraft. when branohea , 

are united by " approach " natur- 
ally ; ~ Eys'tem, an arraagement 
according to the offinity of the 
plsTita, and the aum of their 
oharactera, opposed to any arti- 
ficial system, based on one set of 
characters ; HataraUia'Uan. the ant 
of becoming naturaliced ; naltml- 
I'ted, of foreign origin, hut ea- 
tablished and reproducing itself aa 
though a native. 

Hau'cum, pi. Khu'ca (Lnt., a triSe), 
(I) the fleshy part of a drupe (Lind- 
ley) ; (2) seeds with a very large 

nant'ifonn (nau/inu, pertaining to 
ships or sailors, forma, shape). = 
na\'icular (Croiier}. 

nATs-sbapfld, round and depresstd, 
with a small openine, modiDliform. 

Navlo'Blae (pi. Na cicvin, a boat ), free 
frustules of Diatoma like those of 
the genus Navicvla ; navlo'iilar, 
tian<mla,'ria, boat -shaped, oymbi- 
form ; oavlo'iilola (ttioi, like), like 
the genus Naricula. 

neb'ulosa, netiiio'jnu (Lst. vaporous), 
(I) cloudy, misty, applied to inch 
Unely divided inflorescences as 
Era^roetit ; (2) used by Bischoff aa 
meaning sm ok e- coloured ( ^fintifvt). 

Hecuaa'iia {nttvmari-ia, anavoidable^, 
Linnaons's t«rm for a division of bt« 
SyngBoeBiB[ = Compoeil«e)in which 
the ray florets are female and ihe 
disk florets male. 

Neck (1), the collar or junction of 
stem and root ; (2) the point where 
the limb separates from the aheath 
of certain leavea ; (3) the contracted 
part of the corolla or calyx tube ; 

(i) lh« elongated portion of tlie em> 
hejo ame or arohegoDJum ; ~ CftUl 
in the archegoaium of BryophjMe. 
the drawn-out portion, as dlatinct 
from the veocer, 
neclClaceiiiapad, mooilifortn. 

I beetles ; nc< 
oraff'enoQB, *i« lyfrot, offspring), 
applied to certain funeoid parMites 
miich baaten the decaj of tho 
planta on which thej live ; ntoni- 
pll'BCOiia (^yu, I eat], applied to 
■aprophvtea ; Nec'ropl^am {rXiirtia, 
■noalded), the homologae ot proto- 
plasm in a dead seed ; Kec'ioplait, 
a pnitoplut whose organisation bos 
■uffered irreparable injury and is 
dead 1 Hearo'alB. (1) canker in plants; 
(2) used by EscuDibe as meaDing 
tbe death of an orHanisn- 
Hso'tu {rirmp, the i&ink of th« gods), 
aaweet fluid eitruded from various 
parts of the plant ; in the flower it 
IB oalled honey ; ~ Olanda, tbe ee- 
creling organs vhicb produv« the 
Doolar 1 ~ Ooldet, lines of colour 
leading to tbe nectary ; ~ Harks = 
~ OuiiiES (Ccoiier) ; ~ Spots = ~ 
organ in which neotar is secreted, 
formerly applied to any anomalous 
part of a nower. as its spurred 

C'ltls; ntctarlTerous 'lai, fWo, I 
r), neotar-bcaring : Heotarl'nuB, 
= Nkotaby i NectarUy'mti [tM^j, I 
wrap round), any appendages to a 
neatary, as the long nairs in Meni/- 
arUha ; HedtorOEtlg'ina {m-l-yna, a 

rt), some mark or depression in- 
iting the presenae of a nectari- 
ferous gland ; Nect«zotbe'c& (0i)i^, 
a case), the portion of a Qower 
which immediately BDrrounds a 
neotariforons pore. 

iisc'dle abaped, scerose, acionlar. 

neg'atlTa {negalivut, that denies), im- 
plying denial or absence of suine 
quality or Bubetanoe; >- Oeot'rDpisin, 
apegeotropism, the growing in a 
contrary direction to gravitation ; 
•- HgUat'roplBin, apheliotropiani, 

■hunning the light ; ~ PreB'sore, 
when gasca in plants are at a lower 
tension than air, in coosequenoe of 
the withdrawal of water. 

Me'ma (•'^jua, a thread), a filament; 
He'meae, " Cryptogams whose spot' 
Dies elongate into a thread-like 
form in germination " (Henslow) ; 
c/. Nemoblaetdb 1 Hs'matliMe, 
Hem&ttLs'oiain (S^mi, a case), a 
wart-like daration of the surface in 
some Algae containing antberidia 
and paraphyses or cystocarpa. 

Ne'matodes (r?i^aTu3i7i, thread-like). 

Ka'mato^ne (f^iuii a thread, yvii, 
off-spring) ; Correns's term for an 
osexually produced gemma on tbe 
protonema of Mosses ; aa'meooa, 
thread-like, filamenlouB (Crocier) ; 
Nematomy'ceB (iwinji, a mushroom), 
a synonym of HypbomycetouB 
Fungi ; Nemotilu'tiu (^uittAi, a 
bud), used by Willdcnow to in. 
elude Mosses and Fema. 

nsmora'Us (Lat., sylvan), inhabit- 
ing woods and grovcB ; nem'oroBO, 
ntmoro'siM (Lst.. full of woods), 
used as if a synonym of Me- 

neoKse'an, n^onne'tw {tfot, new, yij, 
earth). New World, that i», Ameri- 
can or West Indian ; qf. ampui- 
CAEAN, oRBOKToaAXAM ; Ne'oplast 
(irXasT6s,moulded). a new individual 
arising from one or more previonsly 
eiisting pratoplasl«, as the fer- 
tilised egg -cell (Hanst^in). 

nspb'rolil, nephroi'dcai {rcippot, the 
kidnejB, clisi, like), reniforui, kid- 
nej-ahaped ; Kspbros'ta, Nceker's 
term for the sporangia of Lyeo- 

Ne'reldi, a mythologic name need by 
Warming to designate watar-lonns 
plants which grow on rocks and 

neil'tlc [rTiplrntfUon of Nerens), applied 
to plankton which is cosBtol. 

nerva'lls (Lat,, pertaining to the 
nerves). (I) synonym of locuUoidal, 
tho dehiscence being along the 
midrib of the carpels; (2) relating 


to Ibe midrib of a te&f, as & 
proloagatinu of it — u a tcndriL 

Mamk'tton, Serra'lw {nemm, a nerve), 
venation, the manneT in which the 
foliar nerT« or veina are arranged ; 
nor'TAtB, neroa'fiu (L^t,), nerved 
or veined ; Nerre, Ner'viu, in 
botany, B simple or onbranched 
vein or alender rib ; nervMl, na'- 
vioff Igfo, I bear), having oervsa, 
in abotanicacnse ; ner'velesB, with 
out apparent nerves ; NervlmotU'- 
ity (+ MoTiLiTV), uaed by Dul- 
rochet to denote the stimulating 
efleot of the eubatratum on a grow- 
ing organ ; ner'vose, ncrvo'eiu 
(Liit,, ainewy), full of nerves, or 
prominently nerved ; ner'vnlDM, 
nercMlo'tia, diminutive of mek- 
YODS ; Bar'TnTea, the prinoipal 
\B\aa of ■ leaf. 

Mett-ep'lpbyte ( + EnrjiVTB), an epi- 
phyte which auDumulat«B humua 
around itself for its growth. 

nsatlliig, nidulant (Croder). 

neVUil, reticulated, net-veined with 
any ayatem of iiregnlarly ana- 
atomosing veins. 

Sauramphlpat'alaa {rtipar, a nerve or 
sinew ; 4)101, around ; itiraKor, a 
flower- leaf), Cossini's name for 
the Compositae ; Ksnr&'Uon ( -f- 
ation) = NEsrATlo^ (Croxier) ; 
lUinT'oss, TMun/giM = mkhvosh. 

Baii'ter(Lat., neither of two), sexless, 
aa a flower which has neither sta- 
mens or pistils ; — How'sn, func- 
tionally asexual tlowers ; nan'tral, 
pertaioing to DeiLliergei ; ~ Zone. 
in Charaooae, tliat line or place 
where rotatinft streams of proto- 
plasm How beside each other in 
opposite directions, the " indifTer- 
ent line " ahown by the ftbsenoe of 
chlorophyll granulea ; naatilflor'ai 
{Jlot, jfitnt, a flower), used of the 
tay-ilorets of Compositae when 

new, the first publication of a genas, 
speuies, lariety or form. 

K«wto'iilui Oar?«, called alao the 
binomial or QalUnian curve, a 
gntphio repreteatetion of vuia- 

tions plotted geometrically in 
two dimensions ; lialf GaltanlaA 
Onrve, a Bimilor acbemo, from the 

nlDked. emarginate or notched. 

nlcotia'niiB, tobacco- coloured, from the 
genua A'lOi/iaiia ; it usually means 
a full brown ; Kle'oUii, an alkaloid 
found in tobacco-leaves, 

nldo'nu^nldoro'snB (Lat., recking), 
having a foal amell, as of burnt 
moat, or rotten eggs. 

nld'nlaitt, ni'(fu/<t)ui(Lat., neBting),{l) 
partially encased or lying free in a 
cavity, as the Ranrniae of Mar- 
(haatia ; (2) embedded in pulp, as 
the seeds in a berry ; ntiilila'tiu 
ILat.), nested, nestling; Nldnlar'' 
ium, " the mycelium of certain 
Fungals" (Lindley). 

Hl'dDa (Lat., a nest), a favourable 
place for a seed or spore to ger- 

inederblat'teT(<Term . ) = Catafbylla. 

nl'rei (Ut.), bhicb ; lllgre'do (Lat,), 

Klght-poslt'ion, the position assumed 
by leaves daring darkness, the 
edges being nen&Uy turned towards 



nlgrti'cent, nigrt^cerw (Lat.), turn- 
ing black ; nl'grlcauti ni'^eatu 
(Lat.), becoming blaok; this and 
tho last are used for tints which 
turn black with iige. 

nl'Srilna (Lat.), blackened, clothed 
in black. 

Hlp'ple, = pApn.LA. 

lUMtU'nm (Lat.. pertaining to a dor- 
moose), dormouse 'Coloured. 

niVld (CroKier) ^ nlt'ldous, nil'idat 
{Lat., ahining), smooth and clear, 

intrUlc*'Uon(iii<r«i>i, nitre, -i-fication), 
the action of a nitric ferment result- 
ing in the production of nitrates and 
nitrites ; Rltrobacte'ria ( -H Baq- 
Ti(u»), bacteria whioh produce 
nitrifiuation by their action ; 
Mltrocel'lnlOM (-i-Cillolose), see 

ntva'Ua (Lat., tnowy); (I) growing 


^^ ID or near the . 

w. (2) snow- 
white, more oorrecti; KlVTOUS. 

Blr'aooi, iiiVciu {Lat., sdow;), idow- 
white ; pure >nd luatroua. 

Qo'Us (dntive pi. uf tjTo, I), uied u 
nn ■□thorily jn dsfining species, 

Hooona'mwn (deriv.!) Naoker's term 
for the Bpornngiam of fitlaiflr\dla (!) 

noetiu'iiAl (noffarrialit, by night), 
ooourriua st night, ot lasliog one 
night only. 

no'dKl {liodiu, a knot), telsting to a 
NoDB : ~ OtU, ■ cell St the base ot 
the oogonium in Chara interposed 
between the egg-cell and the atnlk- 
cell, with the " Wendangszelle," 
- Dt'Aphngm, any septum which 
extends across the hollow of the 
stem at a node. 

iwd'ding. hanging down, nutanl. 

Rode, A'o'dui < Lat., a knot), that part 
of a stem which normally baa a 
leaf or a whorl of leaves ; the 
"knot" in « grass ■ item ; Lindloy 
gives the following modi 6 cations ; 
tlotei-; com'pomid — ; ill'Tldeil~ ; 
entire' — ; o'pen - : sln'gle ~ : see 
his Glossary (1849), p. Uii,; nodlf- 
eroiu [ftro, 1 bear), bearing nodes ; 
no'doie, nado'mi (Lat. knotty), 
knotty or knobby, chiefly used of 
roots; Modo'sl^, Nodo'nlaa (Lat., 
knottinesa), a woody swelling ; 
Hod'ole, No'diiluA (Lat., a little 
knot), a small knot or rounded 
body ; — of Diatoms — Stadkos; 
Bo'diiloie, nodulo'tas, the diminu- 

Ho'meiiclAtDre {Hotafnclaiura, a list of 
names), the names of things in 
any science ; in botany Irequantly 
restrioted to the correct usa^ of 
scientifio names in taxonomy. 

nmnolo'Ela ('ifin, oustom, X^oi. dis- 
oonrse), relating to the laws which 
govern the variations of organs : 

by Radlkofer to denote the seed 
normally occurring in the order, 
tribe, or genHS. 

no'nos (Lat)., ninth. 

BOi'aud, nonna'Iu (Lat. ), according to 

BnolMr ^ 

square, according to rule, asaal aa 
to structure, 

Mosoragy {r6ain, disease, \a'ym, a dii- 
oourse), se« Vkiietabi.b Nosology. 

Nos'toc-Ujr'n', in Lichens when the 
Algal layer consists of No*loc or 
allied forms (De Bary), 

noUte', tiola-tu4 (Lat. marked), 
marked with spots or lines, 

noteropb'lloiu {rortpit, moist, ^X^w, 
I love), applied to plants which 
are intermediate between hydro- 
phytes and lerophytes ; by Wano- 
ing termed mesophytes. 

notched, emarginate, nicked. 

noUi'us (Lat.), false or bastard, 
oBuatly applied to the false root of 
a parasite. 

nototil'tial (rurroi, the bsok, r^f^u, I 
beat), pertaining to those flowers 
desaribed by Uelpino as nn'totrlbe, 
whose stamens and styles turn so 
aa U> strike their visitors on the 
back ; notorrhl'ial {p'l^a, a root), 
used tor incumbent ; the radicle 
being on the back of the coty- 
ledons in certain Cnici ferae. 

no'Tem (Lat.) nine; ~ dlgita'ttu, 
nine -fingered ; ~ lo'Ims, nine- 
lobed; -ner'vlTW, nine-netved. 

KncanMa'tam (Lat., a fir-cone or 
catkin), an amentum or catkin; 
naoMnsnta'csotu, -ctiu, (1) having 
the hardness of a not ; (2) synonym 
for indehisc«nt, monospermal fmit. 

Kncel'U, = RnoellB> (Lat., a small 
kernel), (1) the nucleus of an 
ovule ; (2) the body of the ovule 
or macrosporanginm oontaininglhe 
embryo sao or macrospore ; Kucel'- 
lun, Germain's form of NuoxLLoa. 

nadrerous {nux, a nut,/ero, I bear), 
bearing or producing nuts ; nn'cl- 
tOrm {/oTTTia, shape), nnt-like in 

na'clsar {midnas, a kernel), pertain- 
ing to a nucleus; — B&r'rel, a 
stage immediately preceding the 
nnclearspindlej-Dlse, the mother- 
star stage i ~ Dirls'ion, either 
direct by fragmentation, or indirect 
by karyokinesis, the entire history 
of the division of the cell'QQcleusi ~ 

Pltvill, ohromoeomes, f,f. SPtMOUC- 
riBKEs ; ~ FU'ament, tho ohro- 
nutin or chromstio Sluneot ; — 
Flat*, sea Mothsr-Star ; >- B«- 
dno'timi, vhen a Bmaller number 
of wgaeiiU occur than at tho 
prBviouB divUioBB of the parent- 
cycle (Uartog) ; ~ Riser, the equa* 
tarial arrangement of chromo- 
Bomea i ^. Morym 8tab ; ~ Sap, the 
intermediate matrix (Schwarz) ; ~ 
Spln'dle. ilender 6Uinent8 from the 

KleH, and croBsiDe the equator, 
ginning in the ikein stage, and 
completed in the mother-Btar; ~ 
8tar= AsTEBi ~ TbreaOa — Spikdle- 
nRBK -, Bu'cleated, having a du- 
cUds or nuclei ; Hu'oleln, Stras- 
barger's lerm for Chbumatin. 
' ■ '- B (nut/eiM, a kar- 

deacribing the 
/'irifofutn triqattnan, Sw. ; pro- 
bablj the aame as Straaburser'a 
" i^ecretion bodies "j ~ V^Ha- 
plann, Straabiirger'a word for 
Lisiii; ~ Id'iopiMm, the formn- 
tive part of the nuclear hjalo- 

tlaam ; ~ Woruomei { Stras- 
nrgor) = Chbomatin 7 
on'cleolate (nuc/etw, ■ kernel), pos- 
■eralng a nucleolus ; Ra'aleole, 
Knels^ui, a aharply defined 
point in the cell-nuoteua ; nnde'olo- 
Hvola'olua, — Endoxcolkus; Ku'- 
clMptiTM* (#i>u, I gnm), tubular, 
Mptate projections in certain 
Fungi which correspond to the 
base of the perithecium, and ulti- 
mately bHcome sacophyses ; Hu'c- 
leoplasm ( aXnif/ia, moulded ) nuc- 
lear protoplaam, the nucleo-hyalo- 
plsim of Vines ; Nucleepro'Mld 
(4- Protbid). any prot«in which is 
a charBcl«riBtic const itaent of the 

Nn'oleua (Lat. a kernel), (1] the 
kernel of BO ovule or B(«d, the 
Nlic'ELLCS : (2) an organised priv 
teid body rrf complex Bubslance ; it 
contains one or more nucleoli, and 
dividoB either directly by Fhao- 

KiMcais, otherwise called Mitosis; 
(3) the hilum of a starcb granule ; 
14] in Lichens, the disk of the apo- 
tbeoium. containing asci ; (5) in 
Fungi, the centre of the peri- 
i-i.. »,«.». . ia\ . ^A^-^.. «- "oung bulb; 

thecium ; (6) a 



hich a spcrmnuclens (male 
pronucleus) coalesces to form a 
fferm nucleus; closed ~, that kind 
of nucleus which occurs in the 
higher plants, i/. Opts - ; gwn'ete- 
~, the nucleus of a ganiet«; ^ea'ant- 
tiTB ~ , an active nucleus in karjo- 
kinesis ; Qanil ~, a nucleus result- 
ing from the fusion o( a male and 
female pronucleus; i/. Pronuclrcs; 
O'pen — the central body of Phyco- 
chromaeeae, of much looser stroo- 
ture than in higher plants, and 
destitule of true nuolear mem- 
brane (Hieronymus) ; Kejee'tloii — , 
sist«r-nuclei to the female nualeus 
which play no part in fertilization ; 
(Hartog); ~ Spln'dle = KCCLiAit 

Bncnla'nlnm (iiucu/a, a small nut), 
Richard's term for a drupaceous or 
baccate fruit containing more than 
one atone or seed, adopted by 
Lindley for a superior stony-seeded 
berry, such as a grape ; Uu'onli, 
AW»/«, (1) B diminutive of Npt- 
LBT : (2) the female seiuitl oi^an of 
CAam; QOCUlo'sOfl (Mod. Lat.), con- 
taining hard nut'like seeds. 

xld'os ( Lat. naked], bare. 


nndlcan'lons, n 'ii/if anVia (niufiu. 
naked, raii/is, a stem), naked stem- 
med. Dot leafy) nndltu'cnlaatLat.). 
somewhat bare. 

noUlnar'TU {ituJIai, none, rwi-tia, a 

nn'maront, niimero'iitia (Lat,, very 
many), in botany indeSnite, not 
readily oounted ; the sign is ae, 

im, yvx (Ut.), a hui and indehi- 


acent oae>sBe<l«] (rnic, often 
vagaelf applied to suob fruits 
sa tboae of tbo Labiatae and 
ae ; BpQ'rioaa~, a, fruit 
'SB ite hanlnaaa to some- 
thine other than the pericarp, aa 
ID MiraAUU ; A'Ue bacoi'ia, t- nnt 
enoloied in a pulpy corerina, bb io 
the Yew. 

nn'tuit, nu'lam [Lat.), nodding. 

Knta'tloiL {nulaiio, a ooddiDg), the 
rsvolntion of Ibe growing tips 
of yonng organs ; rerol'riiig ~ = 


Mnfut, the diminutive of Nut, iJ". 
Nuouus i varioualy applied to any 
dijindepeodent fruit, aauaahene, 
or part of a aohizooarp. 

Ku'trlclnn (nut n'n'iu, that DouriBhel), 
a form of aymbioaiB in which the 
FunguB becomes the nurse and 
feeder of the other eymbjont, aa >D 
Monoiropa ; Hatrit'lon. the prooesa 
ol promoting the growth or re- 
pairing the wute oauaed by vital 

Nux (Let., Dul), eee Nut. 

oycUui'thOlU (ri1(, rurrii, night ; 
ivSoj, a flower), uaed of night- 
Bowering plants ; Myctan'thy. the 
condition of nocturnal fiowaring ; 
i^ctltrop'lc (Tpoirfj, a turDioc), 
placing the leaves as during tbo 
night i Ityctit'roplim, assuming 
the aleep position. 

nymphaeFomi'lB {nympha, a pupa, 
forma, ahape) ; Koerbcr appliea 
thil to chryaaUl-abaped aporea of 
aome Lichena. 

Oan'glmn (lUr, an egg, dyvirar, a 
reisel), an apwytial oogooiuni 
which forma oospores by free cell- 
formation, ai in Saprolegnieae 

ob, •• a pre6x, mean* inversely or 
oppoaitety ; as obovate, JDversely 
ovate ; lometimes, but iacorrectly, 
used tor aub-. 

obola'nta (oA, inverac. c/uiafiu, club- 
•haped), attached at the thicker 
end ; DlxomprM'sed, (Acomprn'sus 
(coinpru'nu, pressed together), 


flattened the other way, antero- 
posteriorly instead of latently ; 
obcoD'ie, obeon'lcal, obcon'tctu 
(ronuj, a oone), conical, but attach- 
ed at the narrower end ; oboot'- 
Oate, ohcorda' iwi ( + coedatus), 
inversely heart-shaped, the notch 
being apical ; obcor'dUonn, obtor- 
d\form'x; ore synonyms ; obonuia'- 
tiu (-)■ CRENAT17«), :;;, denticulate; 
Obcur'rens (curi-eiu, runniag),^ run- 
ning together and adhering at the 
poiat of contact ; oMtploite'mo- 
notu, -lu (iiirXiai, double, rr'i>u>n', 
a thread), where the stamens are 
double the number of the petala \m 
which the outer series arc opposite ; 
Obdlplotte'mony, tlie condition it- 
Eolf ; obim'tniCBte, obimbrica'lv* 
( + liiitB.icATUs), when the imbri- 
cation is front above, downward ; 
oblan'ceolate, oblanciola'tMt ( -h 
LtNCBOLATPS), strictly speaking 
this cannot occur, but the word is 
used for tapering towards the base 
more than towards the apex ; ob'lat* 
i.t(Uut, broad), Oattened at the 
poles, as an orange. 
ob'ugate {obUqatvA, obliged), neoei- 
aary, esaential ; the reverse of Ti.- 
cuLTATivi ; — Oam'ete, a gamete 
which is incapable of further de- 
velopment without anion with 
another gamete ; ~ Far'aaila, an 
organism in which parasiciam is 
imperative io order to attain com- 
plete development ; ob'llga,t()I7, 
ob'IlgaUre, aa in oblioate ; ~ 
Bym'biout, an organism which is 
dapendant upon another for it* 

obllg'nlata, Migula'Caa {ob, inverse, 
+ LiouLATB), used of li^UtefloTets 
of Composilae extended on tbe 
inner side of the capitulun instead 
of theontside;oblij^'lUloniiii|j(Di, 
Jtorii, a flower), florets which ars 
obligulate, aa in Zofjra. 

oblique', obli'qnut (Lat., slanting). 
( I ) slaoting ; ('2) oi unequal eidea. 

obliVerated {obliltralw, erased), sup. 
pressed ; Oblltera'tlon, mpprestion. 

oblong, obton'giii (Lat., rather long), 

mncli longer than broad, with 
nearly paiallel aides. 
otio'Ta], obova'lia (ob, inverse, -I- 
ovaLis), reversed ovaM, the distal 
end the brondet ; obo'vnte, ohova'- 
tut, {iracticaUy the game aa the 
last ; otw'vold (cIJdt, like), an obo- 

TBte solid ; Obllll'gSItS (-<- BIK- 

usH8),t a riogent floret of tbe 
Compoaitae, with aa anterior lip 
tth, and tbe poaterior lip |tha of 
the whole, aa though the lower tip 
were uppernioBt ; obrotun'dus ( -t 
botbnucm),! aomenbat round. 

Obwnre', obscu'rut (Lat., dark), (1) 
dark or dingy in tint : (2) nncer- 
tatn in alGnity or diBtinctiveneaa ; 
(3) bidden. 

olt'iolata, obtole'lua (Lat., i 
wanting or rndinientttry ; used of 
an organ which is soarcely apparen' 
or baa vaoisbed ; otuolea'csnt ( -t 
BSCINS), nearly obsolete. 

otMtmc'tna (Lat,, blocked up), where 
hairs or other appendages [Artially 
olosethethroot of ft tubular corolla. 

oUsQbiila'tas {oh, inverae, + buiilla- 
TUtt), very narrow, pointed at the 
base and widening a little towards 
the apex ; obsaturalls (aulura, a 
aeain),t applied to tbe suture of a 
pericarp ; aeptifragal. 

obtec'tna (Lat,), covered over by 
SDmethiog: obteo'ta-Teno'aus, when 
the prineipal and longest veins are 
0Dnnect«d only by simple orose- 
veina ; ob'tegena (Lat.), covering 

Obtnn'tor (o6f uraftu. stopped Dp),(l) 
a small body accompanying the 
pollen- masse* of Orchids and Asule. 
piads, closing the opening of the 
aDther ; (2) = CaKUtiOLB (Hooker 
fit.) ; (3) a process of the wall of 
the ovary desoending on tbe 
micropyle, in Plumbago. 

-._ -T,(o6,ir 

obtOM', oblu'mt (Lat.), blunt or 
rounded at the end ; ~ An'gled, 
im-anj^lea rounded, as in Salvia 

pratenaia, I4on. ; obltutna'cnlni, 
(Lat.), somewhat obtuse, 

obval'Iale, obi-alla'tai [ob, about, 
ml/nfuf, nailed round), apparently 
walled up, guarded on all sides ; 
ebvalla'rla. surrounded as by a 
wall, as in Narcistu* obvallarie, 

oVverse. oiiti-'eiw (I-al. turned to- 
wards); (1) the side facing, as 
oppased to reverBe ; (Z) used when 
the point of a radicle in a seed 
approaches the hilum ; ob'Tarsely, 
in an obvei»e form. 

ob'volute, obtviu'tut (Lat. wrapped 
round), a modification of CONVO- 
LtiTBi when the margins of one 
organ alternately overUp those of 
an opposite organ, such aa half- 
equitant ; obroln'Uve is a syno- 

Ocdu'ston {oalusat, shut up], the 
process by which wounds in trees 
are healed by the growth of callus, 
then said to be ocolu'ded (M. Ward), 

ooculta'toa ILat.), hidden. 

ocean'lduB {oceanua, belonging to the 
ocean), used of a marine plant. 

ocel'Iate, ocella'iun, oeella'ted [ocdlvi, 
a little eye), with a circular patch 
of colour, 

Oeel'lUB (Lat. a little eye), an eye- 
spot as in Halionyx, a genus of 

odira'ceoni, -ecus (ocAra, yellow 
earth), ochre -coloured, yellow with 
a tinge of red. 

O'chrea - OcKKA 1 a'cbrea,t« - ocRBATB. 

ocbrolea'ooDB, -c»« i^xp", yellow 
earth, Xc< cdt, white), yellowieh 
white, buff. 

O'orsa (Lat. a greave), a tubular 
stipule, or pair of opposite stipules 
so combined ; o'oreate, ocrta'tjie, 
provided with octeae. 

Octaeyu'U, (diTu, eight, yui^, a 
womao), a Liunoan crder of plants 
with eigbt-atyled flowers ; oott^y- 
aeus, oetagifn'iciu, having eight 
stales ; octam'arons fiUpot, a part), 
in eights ', ootaji'der (anjp, &j/SpoT, 
s man), with eight stamens ; Oc- 
tau'dtla, a Lianean clasa of plants 


wilh eight stameni; ocMa'drons, 

h&ving eight sUunens. 
Oo'tant Jofiang, a half -quadrant), the 

dJvuioD of >n oospore ; ~ Wall. 

applied to the Boptuni wbich caW 

the oospore into octant*. 
octao'tberona (^(rul, eight, irSripit, 

flowery], having eight fertile bIa* 

mens ; oetui'&ni ^i^>p^|r, a. raale), 

Necker'a term for oiTii^VKOoa. 
ootofA'rtiu (L. LM.), in eight ranks or 


octoloc'nlar (oc/o, eight, iocu/iu.klitttn 

Coo), «pplied to an ciglit-celled 
it or perioarp ; ootopef alone, 
■/lu (riraXar. a flower-leuf), wilh 
eight petals ; OOtora'dlate {ratliiui, 
a rayl, with eight rays, ae some 
CompositM ; ootOMp'olooi ( 4-SspA- 
LDM), with eight eepala ; ooto- 
■par'mou {rrip/ui, seed), eight- 
■eeded : Oc'toipore {irwopa, ieed) 

■M'nuuioni {aHi^w, a thread), with 
eight fertiileatamuna ; octoi'tlcbona, 
■ u» (ffJ-lxDi, a eariea), in eight rows. 

oc'nl&ta {ecaiiu, on eye) = 0CELLuiTB ; 
Oo'ttln*, (I) the fint appearanoe of 
a bud, OBpecially od a tuber ; (2), 
the depression on the Bummtt of 
some fruits, aa the apple. 

-ode* itUm, reaomblflncel, a inffix for 
similar to ; u phylloilrs, like a leaf. 

od'dl; pln'nate, with a terminal leaf- 
let, imparl pinnate. 

odora'tiu (Lat.), fragrant, usually 
resli'ioted to sweet BmetlingO'donn, 
which, in flowers, are eometimea 
due to eBBential oile which can be 
distilled olf; at other times the 
went cannot be collected by chemi- 
cal meant. 

0«da'iiu [alhifa, A tweltin^), t the 
tumid glands on woody tissues of 

Oecol'oey (oltoi, a house, Xoyoi, a 
discourse), the study of plant-life 
in relatioD to envirunment ; adj. 
oecoloe'lo*! ; OecoI'oKlst, a student 
of the life of the plant in relation 
to it* surroundings ; Notk.— these 


words ore frequently spelled, Beol'- 
ogy, ecolog'loal, Ecoraglat. 

Offlal'iial,o^ina7ullAt., of the shops), 
used of medicinal or other phtnta 
procurable at sbopa. 

OtTset, a lateral shoot used for propa- 
gating, as in the honseleek ; OlT- 
Bboot, an oSset. 

oftea-beiar'lnffi producing more than 
onoe in the seaean, mutiferous. 

-old**, -odea, -IdM, -otdena, suffixes 
from tltot, resemblance ; as pttal- 
oidtiui, resembling a petal. 

01d'inin,pl. Old'lA (uMf, on egg, + Uwr, 
a diminutive), a term used to de- 
note concatenate conidia (Cooke) ; 
not to be cunfouoded with the 
form - genus Oidivm, Link, Ihs 
cooidisi stage of Hrysipbeae. 

Oil, used for any fiuid fat-bodies in 
piontA, chiefly stearic, palmitio, or 
oleic acids ; " Oelli, gum-oella ; — 
Ftas'tlda. Ei~tioi-iJisTa : ~ Tntw, • 
synonym of VlTiA in the fruit of 

oleag'tnoui, -lu {oleasiimia, pertaining 
to the olive), oily and succulent. 

o'lelc ioUaia, olive oil) U'id, a glycer- 
ide or fab oocurring in pUata ; 
O'leln or (Vlelne, one of the vege- 
table fate. 

Dl'elu (Lat.), smelling, espeoially 
sweetly odoroas. 

OteoTse'lii lo^eiint, olive oil, + Rksin), 
the natucal admixture of a retin 
and an essential oil, forming a 
vegetable balsam or turpentine. 

olsraceoas, olrra'reiu (Lat., herb- 
like), (1) having the nature of a 
pot-herb, esculent ; (2) X growing 
in GTiUivatcd places (De Candolle). 

Ollb'utum (Arab,, ol or al, the, 
Lub&D, milk), a bitter and aromatic 
gum-resin from several apeeiea of 
BotieeUia, the frankiuoense of ooro- 

oUfCUt'dTons, -rus (jXI-yat, few, iriifi, 
arSpi!, a man), with few stamens ; 
ollgan'thous, •ltiu» (oiHor, a flower), 
faw-flowered ; oUsodyiiam'tc {Sira.- 
lui, power), Naegeli's term for the 
poisoBous oonditioo of water con- 
taining minute traces of copper 

or brus ; it killa delicate cells 
of Spirojiyra ; ollgom'sroui (/lipot, 
a part), parts cooBiating of few 
mombere ; Ollgom'ery, of few 
pBi'La ; OllgOpa'Uo (,r>;Xit, clay), 
applied ti> plants which prefer 
certain rocks 1l'hic^b yieUI a amall 
anionnl of clayey delritua {Thur- 
inaDQ) : ollgopBua'mlc (fii^i^t, 
•and), for plants aEFccting certain 
eranite aod dolomite formations 
(Thnmuuin) ; both of the«o claaaen 
belong to the pysobousnocs series ; 
0Ugopl^1a(^i'rUw,a leaf!,Necker'B 
expression for a bract ; ollgopbyl'- 
lous, having few leaves; oligospemi'- 
<nu, -ntiM {artpiia, a seed), few- 
seeded ; oUgroats'monoas (<rr4;un', a 
thread), with few stamens : 011- 
BQtkx'y (rdfii, order), the deorsaae 
inthermmfarir of «horle in a flower i 
oUgotlop'lc (Tpoirij, a turning), em- 
ployed by Loew for bees which 
visit a restricted range of plants, 
•llT^'oaonc, -CTM (oi!i-a, an olive, + 
•MOtu) ; oll'TBiu (Lai ), the colour 
of « ripe olive ; oUvm'cbiu (LaI.), 
taming olive - coloured ; oUtm- 
. Anm'll i/orma, shape), shaped like 
L an olive, drupaceous : ol'iva-eolonr, 
I oTlTe-ETaen, yellowish green dark' 
I ened with black ; oIItIc olor \,color, 
r colour) = ouviCEors. 

olopetalar'lm (5\Dt, whole, rirdXer, a 
fiowet-teaf), the floral envelopes 
changed partially or wholly, as 
•tamena or pistiU changed into 
petaloid organs. 
Om'brapUle (om^ix)!. a storm, ifrX/u, 
I love), Wiesner's term for a plant 
which likes rain ; ombroph'llatu, 
rain-loFing ; Omtniopb'U;, tli 
dition described -, " '' 
{pi^t, fear), a cimilar tflnn for a 
plantdulikingrain; ombrapb'oMc, 
hating rain ; Ombrop&'obj', dislike 
or impatience of rain. 
omulv'OTOlu {omnivoi-iu, all devour- 
ing), applied to paraeiMs which 
attack many Hpeoiea and are not 
confined to one hast- plant. 
OmopIephT'tum (iiiorXiK^s, inter- 
laced, ^niir, a plant), applied la a 


monadetphouB Sower, the slamenA 
being in one bundle. 

Om'phalod*, Omphalo' diian (d^i^X«, 
navel, ilSot, like), the mark in the 
hiluni through which the vessels 
pass to the ohalaia. 

one- ribbed, having one prominent 
rib, as in the leaves of many 
grasses; — si'ded, (I) turned toone 
side ; (2) the parts turned the same 
waj' i (3) unequal aided. 

onlsotform'ii (oiu'tms, a wood-louse, 
forma, shape), Koerber's word for 
certain Lichen -spores resembling 
a wood-louse in shape ; ODli'Dns 
(Lat.), osed for lead -coloured, from 
the tint of the same creature. 

Oitorastolo'gia (Sro/in, a name, XAyot, 
disoourse), the rules to be observed 
in the const motion of names. 

Ontoir'siiJ' (iWo, things existing, 
Ifvot, race, offspring), Ibe develop- 
ment of an individual in its various 
stages 1 adj. ootogenel'lc. 

OOblM'ttC (uor, an egg. ^a<nm, a 
bud) Fll'amenla, see ne^it; OobUs- 
te'ma (j9\aa7T;(io, a sprout) TO'a 
ments, the Fi]rtilisin« Tt'HKS of 


i (ri 

' i»e)i 

organ, an Ooooniuh ; 
Ootram'ete ( -t- Uimrts), a female 
gamete (Hartog) ; oof'anions (y^^ot, 
marriage), conjugation in which 
the two ooaleecing gametes ar« 
of dissimilar form ; Oog'amy, the 
reverse condition ot laooAKT ; 
the female gamete never active, 
the male a spermatozoon, and the 
product an Oospirm (Ilartog) ; 
Ooffun'nuL [gtmtaa, a bud). Carael's 
term for AnciiRnoMCH i Oogen'esU 
(^^Kirii, beginning), the formation 
oE the Oobl'HF.KX, the early stage of 
the ovule ; O'oKone, Oogo'niian., pi. 
Ooyo'nia (.yorii, race, offspring), 
a female seiual organ, oeually a 
spherioal sac, eon Mining one or 
more oospheres ; ooklnet'tc ('ini- 
riiar, putting in motion), tending 
to produce the female element ; 
OolValB {Mttt, a loosing), viri- 
descenoe, espeoially in carpels and 
ovules (Peniig) ; OomyM'tei (^iiii. 

iMmatm % 

» iDUBhroom), those Fuo^i which 
reproduce aexuall; b; uitberidia 

And oogonia, the result being aa 
oosporB (Tubeof) ; Oonn'olen* ( + 
Ndulets), the DQcleus of an 
oosphere, f^. SriBU - iici:ucus ; 
O'opbors {^prw, I cut}), the 
OopHTTE Id ArchegaolfttACj Oopho- 
ll(Iui'gl& (aryiior, a vemel), J. 
Smith's nanio for the macro - 
sporaneia of MartUea, etc ; Oo- 
phorld Inm, a sporangium contain- 
ing macrosporea in Sdaginella ; 
O'opIiTte {i)VTBi>, a plant), that 

SortiOD of the life-cyola of a plant 
uriugwhiob it bears sexual oritans; 
the lame at Oopuoas ; O'oplaam 
(xXdaioi, moulded), the protoptaani 
of the oosphere ; O'oaphere (ir^^pa, 
a globe), a oaked and nuoleate 
mass of protoplasm, which, after 
coalesce DCS with the Bperm-nu- 
cleos, develops into an ooaperin : 
the egg or ovum ; Oora'ponnd ~ , 
one which oontAins soveral or 
manv funclinaiJ sexual nuclei, na 
in i;fruj70 (Stevens) ; O'oaperm 
{airiptia, seed), the product of the 
fusion of a male and a female 
cell ; Oosporao'ers = Oosponui'- 
glnin, pi. 0<MpQran't:la (oropd, a 
aeed, drytibr, a vessel), the sacs or 
■porangia which produce oospores ; 
(roapon, the immediate product 
of fertilisation in oii oophore ; 
Oothe'oB {BTjKtj, a ciue), the theca 
or sporangium of Ferns. 

opa'ciu (Lat.. shady, giving shade). 
(1) not transparent; (2) dull, not 
shiDing; opake and opaque are 
anglioised forma of the word. 

o'pen, not closed ; as ~ Ban'dls, one 
which retains a portion of oaoi- 
bium capable of further differen- 
tiation ; opposed to closed bundle ; 
-ITa'Cleus, the nucleus of Cyano- 
phyceae (llieronjmuB). 

O'penlng, expanding or becoming 
aicloaed ; ~ Cells, those apeoial 
oella b; which the dehiscence of 
sporangia and pollen-saus takes 
place (a) either by tangential 
contraction on drying, or (b) by 

(Bohinx) ; ^. Lip-oklla ; ~ of 
FloVen, the expansion of the 

memljerB at the period of matntity ; 

opo'eiUtr. oper'eulAM, opereuZo'fus 
{fipirevlum, a lid), furnished with 
a lid, as in many Mosses and 
Myrtaoeae; Opor'cnla, the lamina 
of the leaf of Samxxaia (Ueckel) ; 
opat'oiltlrorni (forma, shape), 
shaped like a lid; Oper'calnm, a 
lid or cover which separates by 
a transverse line of division, as 
in the pyxis, and Moss capsale* ; 
also in some pollen grains. 

opsr'tnt (Lat., bidden], the same as 

Opiithsllal, an error Cor opta'thUl 
(()r;»S.o!, hinder) Pore, Tsohirch's 
name for the posterior border of a 
stoma ; opll'tbodal is a synonym ; 
rj. Eiauiii^L ; opiithnil'Tomons 

termed, when the genetic Spiral 
is assumed to pus as its shortest 
way from the bract to the first 
fioral segment by the back of the 
flower, I)etween it and the axis of 
the stem. 

bv Jonsson tor Abtbo- 
ofTschirohi the name 
is from their resemblance to Eohi- 
O'ptnm (Lat., dried poppy - juice), 
the coQoretie juice trom the cap- 
sules of«r tomni/enun, 
Linn.; ~ Al'kaloldi 

word for tiavi'HOS. 

op'postls, oppo^t^i [Lat,, standing 

in front) ; (1) set against, as leaves 

part before another, as a stamen in 
front of a petal; opposi'te-plnn'atUB, 
with leaflets on the same plane at 
right angles lo the common petiole; 


tlfo'liaot (/o/ium, a leaf); (1) with 

I anwdUiwUIau 

oppoflite leavsB ; (2) opposite a 
leaf, u K teodril ; oppotitlpeV- 
■Imu, -Joi {wtToXar, & fiower-lenf), 
pUced before a petal ; oppoBitlsep'- 
alotu (-t-SsPAl,), situsted before a 
aepal; oppooltl'viia (Lat.), when 
one port stands before another, the 
reverse of " alternate." 

OpMMper'iiiaM (C^'t, Dil'fufi right, 
rripua, a seed), tabercles on the 
mirface of some Algals containing 
spores {Lindloy), 

Opidff'oiiy (S^i-raroj, posthumona), the 
production and dovBlopmeot of 
prorentitioDB badi (Wittrook); e/. 

op'tlmU (ojilimiu, beat), the most 
adTantagoona for an organism or 
function ; Op'tlmnin refera to the 
degree of temperature, light, etc., 
vhiob beat conduces to the vital 
activities of a, given organinm. 

O'rM (ora, ojlreniity) Badl'aam J = 

Or-aagB, (1) the fruit of Cilriu Aar- 
antivm, Linn. ; (2) a aecondary 
colour, red and jellow combined, 
taking its name from the tint of 
the fruit inentiooed. 

(VUc'nlar, orfiicu&i'ns (Lat, cir- 
cular), of a Oat body with a cir- 
□alar ontline ; orblc'ulkte, orMcu- 
la'tia. disk-shaped; Ortdo'nlns, {!) 
the flMby corona in the genus 
8tai>elia ; (2) a round flat b;men- 
iura in Fungi. 

OrUi'la {orbif. an orb), the ehield of 
certain Lichens, as in Umiea, 

Orcbella, a Honeral term for Lichens 
which yield dyes, sa Lecanora, 
Soccdia, etc. 

grcUdft'caooa, -fiu, (1) furnished with 
two tubers at the roots, as species 
of the genuH Orcliii and its allies ; 
(2) pertaining to the order Or- 
chideae ; orcUd'eoos, relating to 
the Orchidcae. 

Or'clill, ahio known as Cddbeas. and 
LiTMua, a valuable dje from 
Lrcanora lariarea, Ach. , and other 

Or'nlii, the colouring principle from 
various tinctorial Lichens. 


oroolaefortn'li [orcata, a small tun, 
forma, shape), used by Koerber for 
cask -shaped Lichen-spores, 

Or'der, Wdo (Lat., methodical ar- 
rangement), in botany, a group 
between genns (tribe, suborder), 
and olass ; or'dlluJ, relating to 
an order, as - Cbu'&ctar, that 
which marks it off from kindred 

Ot'eUI {SpyarBt, an instrument), any 
definite part of a structure, as a 
cell, a fibre, a leaf, etc. ; Or'guu of 
Beproduo'tlon, those which are con- 
cerned in the production of seeds 
or spores ; in Phanerogams the 
stamens and pistils ore so termed ; 
- of Vegeta'tion, those caonec(«d 
with the growth simply, as roots 
and leaves; orgwi'lo, orga-a'tciu, 
relating to living organs :~Oeii'tre, 
the point or oiis around which 
growth takes place, it may not be 
the structural centre ; OTKUU^eny 
lyfyo!, race, o&pring), or Orguio- 
Een'esiB {yirrim, beginning), the 
formation and development of 
organs from their primitive condi- 
tion : ad}. organaBsiMt'ia ; Orsa- 
nog'ispby {ypdSui, I write) ; Orga- 
nol'ory ii&yoi, disooarse), the study 
of organs and their relations ; Or- 
ganoid {elJof, like), an organ of 
apparently an known function 
(Swingle) ; Or'gBnUm, a body poa- 
vesaing organic etructure ; oigtiio- 
plM'Us [r'KaintiiO!. suitable for 
being wrought), with the power of 
producing organs. 

Or'gya {ipy^ii. a fathom), six feet in 
height ; OTgy'alli, a fathom long, 
the height of a man. 

Oilenta'tlon {orkni, the east), (I] the 
correot placing with regard to the 
quarters of the compoae ; (2) gene- 
rally means relative position, aa 
applied to organs, etc. 

Or'lllce, Ortrfc'iiimlLal., an opening), 
an opening by which spores, ebo,, 
escape ; oatiole. 

Orljr'oma = OnraouA. 

Qinltboph'tlae {Spni, ipviOai, a bird, 
•pi\i<j, I love), plants habitually 


fertilued by pollen bronght by 
birds ; ndj. omltbopIi'Uou. 
Or'moKOii, oited by Croiier, = Hob- 

Or'tboblut {ipeSt, upright, p\iijrroi, a 
bud], used by Cramor for coafer- 
void prothsllia growing in an 
Mosnding direction ; OrU 
Ux'y {ipin, #wToi. light, 
order), the direct amneei: 
■adh arganiamB as v3ik 
Bpirogj/ra aBB\imed under the 
■timiiluB of ligbt (Oltmanni); OT' 
thophotobop'lD (rpcri), a turning), 
the direct inflneoce of light ahown in 
VawAeria, Pht/comycu, and ihoots 
of Bowering planta (OllmnDiu), 

OrtliopUw'eM (T^DI4, a twining), thoee 
Cnioiferae which have oondu plicate 

when the incumbent aolTledons 
are folded round the radicle ; Or- 
tbwper'inaao ( arip/ia, a. >eed ), 
pluitB whose geeda have albumen 
iLat on the inner face, neither in- 
TOlate or convolute; Or'tlMBtloby, 
pL Or'ttaaetlohlU {arixat. a row), a 
Torttoal row, as in phjllotaxia ; 
Orthoi'tlahon*, straight ranked ; 
oiUlos'toiiMniB {iTbim, a mouth), 
with s straight oponjag ; nrttto- 
tao'tlo {rifit, order), used by S. 
Moore in the sense of normal, ap- 
plied to an interval iD the Phot- 
Rtm ; orttiof ropal, ortbot'ropooa 
(t;»>H), a turning), used of an ovule 
with a straight axis, the chnliua 
being at the insertion and the ori- 
floe or foramen at the opposite end, 
furthest from the hilum ; ortho- 
trop'lo, assuming B vertical positioti. 

Oryg'omA (IpvyiLt, a ditch or pit), 
Neckec'a term for the cup of a 
MarthaMia containing gemmae. 

0*, Or'U (Lat.). a mouth or orifice. 

oicUIa'tiiig=viRSATii,Ri oBCdlla'mu, 
OKUlalor'ivit (Lat. from osdtlalio, 

Dtmotn'eMr ( wt/mi, a thrusting, 
/i^r/mr, a measure), an inatrament 
to measure OsMOSia ; Os'mose, 

Osmo'iii, tha diffusion of liqnidi 
through mambranes [ adj. onui'tla 

os'seoua, oa'ietu (Lat.), baoy. 

Oulo'nlni, Oak'ulam (Lat, a littls 
bone), the pyrene of a fruit, as s 

os'Blasd (OS, osnt, a bone, /ado, 1 
make), becoming hard as bone, m 
the stones of drupes, aaeh aa tha 
peach and plum. 

Oiunpbytun (6^iptar, a little bone, 
^i^sB, a plant), a plajit which pro- 
duces a drupe or drupe-like fruit. 

OBteaioU'relds [dinior. a bone, 
atXtipoi, hard), the " bona-ahaped " 
sclereids of Haha. 

oa'tlolftts, otiiola'lm (oMioium, • littlo 
door), fumislied with an opening or 
mouth; Os'tlDlB, O^liolum, (I) tho 
opening of the conoeptacle in some 
Algae ; (2) the apertnre through 
which Bporoa escape from the peri* 

oitracodennat'Intis {Sirrpattir, a hard 
shell. Sipiiiriyot, leatheni), resem- 
bling Ibe shells of moUusca, applied 
to certain Lidiena. 

-o'sui, a termination indicating aug- 
mentation, as radio'tue, large- 

out'ar, eiterior, ahaiial ; ~ Olnaui, 
ooB or more glumes at the baae of 
a spihelot in grasses, enclosing ona 
or more flowers ; ~ Perld'lnm = 
Prkidiuu bxte&nuh. 

OuVgrowth, (!) auatlier name for 
EuBRQiNCt ; (2) a tuberous eicre* 

Out'line, the continuous boundaty- 

liae of an organ, u a leaf. 
o'val. aea'lit {ovum, an egg), broadly 

Ovarioph'jlly {"wdpier, ciiiluin," ^i\' 

Is of a 

O'raiy, Ova'riiim {oeam, an egg], that 
part of the pistil whioh oontaiu 
the ovules, the immature fruit, 
formerly termed the GlRlttH. 

a'vate, om'fus (Lat., egg.ehaped), (1) 
shaped bke a longitudinal si " 


Orel'lain, Dtinal'B term for k ronng 
cftrpel bearinf; the same relatiun 
to s matore carpel as im ovutu to a 

Oranch'fmt {oiiiia, an egg : ^t^i'm"! 
an infusion), loose tissue of oval- 
shaped oelti. 

orarhaiigr'liiK. projecting beyond the 

o'Tltonn, ori/ann'it [oiiim, ui egg, 
/orma, shape), ovoid, agg-ahaped; 
O'Told, ovoi'devi (riJut, resem. 
bianco), an egg - shaped solid ; 
OTOl'dal, having the outline of an 
tgH ; ottUs'tIi (Mod. Lat.) — ovoid ; 
ornlAte, emia'iui, {1| possesaing 
ovules I (3] lomevhal ovoid (Hens- 
low) ; Or'uls, Op'v/«m, the young 
•ead in the ovarj, the organ which 
af!«r fertilisation develops into a 
seed 1 ~ Tnbe, a thread-like ex- 
tension of the amnioe, rising bojond 
the foramen ; omlirsrona (/fxa, 1 
bejir), bearing ovules, adj. ov'iUar ; 
O'vum, (1) theovule; (2) = Zi-uotb; 

(3) = OOSPHKRK. 

OMd'tc, pertaining to Omlis, iiooA 
sorrel ; ~ Ac'ld, a vegetable aoid of 
frequent occurrence : oxaUTeroua 
{/(TO, I bear), producing oxalic 
aoid or its aalta ; OxalUaa'dte 
( + Lkpoitb), Van Tieghem'e name 
for a vacuole which oontaine oialic 

oxyacu'lbouB, ihxtt (iki'f, sharp, 
iiarVa, a thoni], fumiahcd with 
many thorns or prlcklee ; oiyoax'- 
pn> (laproT, fruit], when fniit is 
sharp-pointed ; Oxycelloloiei ( + 
the main 

.__^ , . liligninlD 

the walls of wood-oells; Oz'ydaMl, 
a general term for oxydieing 
eniymes (Oreen). 

Pac'ket-form. the association of bao- 
teria in such colonics as Bivreiim. 

paobycBT'pna (iraxte, thick, (apra;, 
fruit), having n thick pericarp ; 
applied to Mo«sm when the oella or 
Mpaoles are &nn and reiistaat; 

pacbypbyl'Ious (^iJUor, a leaf), 
thick - leaved ; pachyMloh'oui 
(arlyot, a row), tliick-eided, applied 
to celU only. 

?ad, (I) a cuehion-Iike growth; <^. 
ScBAKcnssFOBUi, P.U1 : (3) a popu- 
lar name in tba United Stat«i for 
the floating leavee of water-lilies. 

Fa'gliw (LAt., a leaf), the blade or 
surface of a leaf. 

polnt'ed, having coloured «lr«aka of 
unequal density. 

paired, conjugated, used of tbe teeth 
in the peristome of Mosses ; Pair- 
ing-cell, an equivalent of Oambtf. 

pala'DBOUB, -<e?» (po/a. a spade or 
shovel, -I- aceous). when the edges 
of an organ, especially of a leaf, 
adhere to their support. 

Falasoliot'aiiy (iri^aioj, andent, 
parArr), a herb), fossil botany. 
the study of plants in a fossil 
state; Palaeophytol'Dgy [^vrov, a 
pliuit, \iyai, dticourHH), thesciencti 
of palaeobotanv. 

pa'lw, pala'rU (Lat., pertaining l« a 
pale or stake), when the root is 
perfectly continuous with the 
st«m ; pala'ri-ramo'sas, when a 
palar root has many branches. 

Pal'ate, Paia-lum iLat., the palate), 
(1) the prominent lower bp of a 
ringent corolla ; (S) the projection 
in the throat of a peraonate 
gamopetalous corolla. 

Pale, Pa'Iea (LaL, ehaff), (1) the 
chnSy soales on tho receptacle of 
many Compositae ; {'2) the inner 
bract or glume in grasses, called 
"Palet" by North American writer* ; 
(3) the tamenla or chaffy scales 
on tbe etipe of many Ferns ; ~ 
cUuhra'la, the latticed scale of 
Feme (Iiuerssen) ; palaa'oaons {->- 
aceous), ohaffy, fumiahod with 
paleae or chaH-liko in teWure ; 
paleaeform'U (fot-iria, shape), re- 
sembting paleae ; Pal'eola, a dim- 
inutive of palea, or of secondary 
order, applied to the Lodicdlb of 
grasses ; pal'eolate, paitola'hu, 
lumiahed with a lodicule ; palM- 

Ufwon* i/ero, I bear), bMring 
paleoe ; paleoaa, ohafly. 
Ptloophytology - PALABOPHnoLocr. 


Palln^n'eris (rdXip, ag&in, t/n-nt, 
a beginuingt, Ilftcckel'* term for 
the doctriao of simple descent ; 
^o written Palln'geny. 

Fkl'liada C«U8, perpend icul&r elon^' 
«ted purenohymii cells on the sur- 
face of most leaves ; ~ TtMmsb'jloa., 
~ Tll'iue, tiaaue composed of the 
said oelU. 

pal'leni (Lat, wan), pale in twlonr; 
pallei'cent, becoming light in tint ; 
pal'lld. pai'lid'H, somewhat pallid ; 
pallid' ulna, slightly pallid. 

Pallium ( Lat. , a eoveri ng or garmect). 
a presumed gelatipous envelope of 

Pftlm {palma, the palm of the hand), 
tfareo inches, the width of the 
hand ; ~ Tslned — FAi.H*rELV 
tkisbd; paJmar'lB (Lac), the 
breadth of the palm, about three 
inohe« ; pal'mate, palmn'iui, lobed 
or divided, so that the sinuses 
point to the apei of Ibo petiole ; 
pBl'matelf. in a palmate manner, aa 

~ oisft = PALM ATI »-iD ; ~ oom'pound, 

~ dlvl'ded, ~ lobed = 

Ufonn'ii {forma, ahape), the 
venation arranged in a palmate 
manner ; polinal'ifid, palmaiiTidua 
(Jaido, fdi, to cleave), cot in a 
palmBt« fashion nearlj to the 
petiole ; pftliiuitllo'tiat« [Ic^atvt, 
tobed), palmat«lj lobed ; paUnatl- 
ner'Tls {yurima. a nerve), palniately 
nerved ; palmaUpart'ita [parlitia, 
divided), cut nesrl; Ui the baae in 
a palmate manner ; palmat'UacC, 
pciittatim^ct'-ii* (mc(u», cut), pal- 

Eoogloea stage 
etc., when embedded in s jeElj-lilie 
mass : not to be confounded with 
tjie algal genus, PalmeUa, Lyngb. 
Falfflsllls, Phipaon's name for the 

colouring matter of Paimelia eru- 
erua, Agb. ; ptlmellold (<ISei, re- 
semblance), charact^rittic of the 
genus named. 

paJinlferons {palma, a date palm, 
/ero. I bear), producing palms. 

pal'ntlfona (jiaima, palm of the 
hand, Jorma, shape) — pauuati- 
roBM : palmiaer'Ted, jitiimiw,'''^ 

paltnit'lo {jxihna, a palm), relating 
to palms, as ~ Ac'ld, derived from 
Pal'mlttu, a glyocride, a solid fat 
oocorring in palm oil. 

nu'mns (Lat. , the palm of the hand), 
as a measure may denote a SfaR 
or a Palm, nine inches or thiee. 

palu'dal {yal'M, a marsh), Watson's 
term for natives of marshes, wel 
all through the ^ear ; pfd'ndilM, 
paln'dlnons (Crozier) — pal'adote, 
paiudo'toD (Lat., boggy), growing 
in marshy places, 

paliunbl'iiiis (Lat., of wood-pigeons), 
lead coloured. 

politi'ter (Lat., swampy), palns'brlna, 
patus' tria, inbabitating boggy 
ground ; the latter Latin form is 
more usual in botanic usage. 

pun'idnlfonil Ipanipimi^, a tendril, 
Jonna. shape), resemhiios the tflu 

PM-apoa'pory {»Si, »ojtoi, all, + 
Afo5I'ORv), the condition of pro- 
thalli being developed apoaparonaly 
over the entire surface of the frond. 

pan'dnnits, pandura'lag [pandvm, a 
musical instrument), Sddle-shaped, 
as the leaf of Brnnex pulchtr, Linn. ; 
pBnda'rlfanu {forma, >bape), re- 
sembling the Bame. 

Pangen'Mis (rai, ravrh, all, fhtau, 
beginning), a theory that each 
separate unit of a body throws off 
minute gemniulea during all stages 
of development, which ma; develop 
it once, or remain dormant and hi 
transmitted through the repro- 
ductive cells to later generations ; 
Pm'gMia, De Vries's term for the 
aotive particles assumed in Dar- 
win's theory of Pancenesis. 

Pan'icle, Panic' uiix (Lat. , a tuft), 


a 1cM)ie flower - oluaMr, w ■ 
brftDobod rou^me or corjmb : paa'l- 
clAd, furDiBheii witb a puniclc ; 
panlo'QlAM, punicuJa'CiM (LaC), 
liavini an mSoreBcenoe of the l(in<i 
described; panlo'iillfoTiii {/orma, 
■bape), panicle- shaped (Croxier). 
PaaUoa'tion (panU, broad, /ado, I 
maks), the fermentative cbnngea 
b; which dough ii converted into 

Puimlx'iA (irai, irarr^, all, ^u, a. 
niixinK)i Weismann's term to de- 
DOte the ageocf of niodifloation or 
evolution which reaulti from the 
oeBsntion of natural aelection. 

piD'nuy (jiaiUa, bread), pertaining to 
bread, or suitable for making it 
(Croiier) ; more correctly paa'ary. 

PumaxtOT'Da {pannua, a cloth, tx- 
leratu, oataide), = Epicakpidh ; 
pui'iilrcinn, paimiform'ig {/orma, 
shape), having the appearance or 
texture of felt or woollen cloth ; 
FuinlnWr'na [inlrrjiug, within) = 
Endooakpii^h ; panno'atu (Lai. 
ragged), botanioallj, the aome aa 

paapbotomet'Tlc (rdi, rarrii, all, ^ut, 
^OTD<i light, lifTpoy, a meiGure), used 
of leavea which adapt their position 
to both direct ana difliiaed light 



, the universal dilFuaiou of 

gernia throughout tha atmoaphere. 

P4at*oliob'ryt» t [iirrtx^. on every 

aide. ^piJw, I grow), growing in a 

pantog'anoai (irai, roj-Tit, all, y^«i, 
race, olTapring), applied to Fungi 
which grow everywhere, and are 
nob confined to a single host. 

Papa'tn, a peptic enxjme from Carira 
Papaya, Linn. 

papavara'ceoua, belonging to, or re- 
sembling the poppy, Faparvr ; 
pap«,'Ter(ra(, resembling a poppy. 

pa'pery, having the texture of paper. 
e/. onutTicuivs. pxpvb^ckovs. 

paplUona'iwras linpilio, a botterlly + 
oceous), a butter fly -shaped corolla, 
as in the suborder Fapilii 
of LeguminoMe. 

?apU'U (Lat. a nipple), pi. PapU'lma, 
(1) soft superficial glanda or pro- 

tuberanoee ; {2) " AUo the oorculae 
of certain FungaU" (Lindloj); 
papil'Ur, papi/ta'rin, papUlMy, 
n^stmbling papillae ; pap'Ulate, ini- 
pilla'tiu (Lit. bud-shaped), having 
papillao ; papiuireroua, -nu i/ero, 
1 bear), producing papillae ; Pft- 
pil'Ufitrm (/orma, shape), shaped 
like a papilla ; pap'UloaB, papii- 
lo'saa {IJat. ), covered with papillae, 

pappiferoiu (pappui, planl-down, 
/era, 1 bear), bearing pappua ; pap*- 
plf otm, } •appi/orm'ig {/orma , ihape), 
reaembling pappus ; Pap'po, BUir ■ 
word for the down of thistle* 1 
pap'poBB, pappo'tiui, pap'poue, hav- 
ing pappus 1 ?ap'piu, thistledown, 
the vai'iouB tufts of hairs on 
auhenea or fruits, the limb of the 
oaJyx of Composite Soreta. 

FAp'nla (Lat. a pimple), a pimple or 
small pustule ; pftpollTerouB, -rvi 
l/cro, I bear), bearing puatulei ; 
pap'QlDBa, papulo'tm, pap'ulona, 

pap]TR,'CMlu, /lajiyra'ceuii (Lat. mode 
of papyrus), (I) papery; (S) white 
as paper ; ~ Fenu, filmy Ferns. 

parabolic, paxabol'lcal, paraboiicut 
(ra/M^uK)), a parabola), iu botany, 
ovat«-obtong or ovate, obtuse and 
contracted below the apex, used of 
a leaf. 

Panbnz'liie (rapit, from beside, -t- 

Bdxink), andFarabaxln'tfUne, alka- 
loids occurring in Bvxyu lemptr- 
virtjts, Linn. ; Faiaeal'ltM ( -t- 
Callus), a anbstanoe resembling 
the callus of aieve-tubes, but diffisr- 
ing in reaction and chemical oon- 
Btitution ; Paracarp'lnm Uoproi, 
fruit), (1) an abortive pistil or 
carpel : (2) the persistent portion 
of some atyles or stigmas ; Para- 
oel'lnlose ( -i- Celi.uuise) forma 
the epidermal cells of plants ; 
partMbromophor'la (xpu^i colonr, 
^apiiii, 1 carry), applied to bacteria 
whose coloaring la on excretory 
product, bat adheres to the or- 
ganisms 1 Pan«oiorift ( + CoBOU-a), 


any appendage to a aorolla, the 
ooroDa of a flower : F^r'acyat 
{lirern, s bax). Tulasao's Uirin for 
gamelea in P'xi'.a, etc. ; Par&di- 
phf I'lom (JIi, IWJuo, ^uWor, A !«af), 
a double leaf ratuliino from dicho- 
tomy ol the lamina (Kronfeld). 

pkr'atniiold (+ Paralfin, liloi, rcBem- 
blatice). Krraer't term for a gro"P 
ol eceata, such as the Roie, Lime, 
and Elder. 

Tuasalks'tan (rapi, from beside, + 
Galaatan), a reserve aiibetAnoo in 
the leeda o{ lupiiu ; Vtm^tMj 
{yility, marriage), vegetative or 
garaelal nuclei lying in a con- 
tinuooi maaa of oytoptaam whiuh 
fuse to form a zygote nucleue ; 
atXMiyflal ~, the vegetative nuclei 
of an apDcy tium which fuse to form 
an " Oospore " in Ssprolegnieao 
(Hartog); Paragen'sBlB [fiytaa, be- 
ginning), all modea of reproduotion 
resulting in a body which simu- 
latoi a zygot* in the same or allied 
forma (Hartog) ; Parahellot'roplam 
(-^HeLIotbopi»u), diuroal Bleep, 
the moveniBQta of leavBa to avoid 
the eSecta of iotenee winlight ; cf. 
FaRATiiBBHOTttOPic : Panll'iilii ( + 
LiNlli), the aubntance compueing 
the nualeo-byaloplaain (Schwari). 

pu'alM (rapdXi7\oi, paratlel), ex- 
tended in the same direction, but 
squally distant at every part ; ~ 
Chor'iil*, lateral mparation into 
two or more menibera ; — nerved, 
~ uar'vlj, ~ veiaad, paTaUrliit' 
no'«u«, Btraight nerved or veined ; 
(I) the lateral ribi Btraight as in 
Aln\n ; (S) the entire ayatem, as in 
the leavea of grassea ; parallelod' 

■ (S/> 


having parallel 
pmmerid'iau {n/A, from, beaide, -<- 
Mekidian), used of planes in a 
Diatom -frustuls which ai'e parallel 
to the meridian (0. Mueller); Pani- 
nlt'oa {-I- MrroH), Flemniing'a 
term for the more fluid portion of 
the oeU-BubsUtice contained in the 
MiTOM : the paraplaama of KupSer ; 

Parara'yl, Paramylaoi (l^ivXw, 
&ne flour), a muoilaglnouB Bub- 
Btance probably akin to atarob, in 
the cyloplosm of some Algae, aa 
f'hacoph yceoe Bud Rhodophjceae ; 
Paraiie'mata. pi. {f%i^, a thread), 
the paraphyaet of Algae ; adj. 

Pabjixeiuta ; Parana'clealiia (-H 

NucLBOLDS), a secondary DDcleolDS 
when there are more than one 
(Strasburger) ; ParBiia'olaQa( -i-Nd- 
olcdb), an apparonlly additional 
otioleua, generally near the true 
nucleus, and aometimea budded off 
from it; parapec'Ho (-1- Picuo] 
Ac'ld, derived from pectin by the 
auCion ot alkalis ; FaiKpec'Uii, 
hydrolysed pectin ; FaiapeCklnm 
(WraXw, a flower-leaf), any ap- 
pendage to a corolla, consisting 
of several pieces (Moench); para- 
pat'alona, -lui ; panpet'alold (dJot, 
likeness), (1) boating a parapet- 
alum : (2) of stamens which stand 
on each side ot a petal ; Para- 
phyl'liom («i)X\o>, a lesf), (1) = 
Stipclb i (2) a folioceous expan- 
sion in some calyces ; (3) a small 
inter foliar appendage on Uoss- 
Bt«njB ; Parapb'yBes (^ri(, growth), 
|1) sterile filanieata occurring in 
the fructiflcation ot Cryptogams ; 
(2) the rays of the corolla in Pa».'i- 
Jlora, the parastades; (3) formerly 
uaed for ihe cyatidia of Fungi , 
~Bn'Telope. the peridinm of Ure- 
dineae ; adj. par&pb'ysate ; Pan- 
plw'Eoa (irXoff/ia, moulded), the 
more liquid interfilar portions of 
protoplasm; Paraplectenoh'Tma ( -f 
Plkctesohyma), a modification of 
hyphal-tissue (Lindau). 
Par'otlte {rapiiinB!, one who lives at 
another's expense), an organism 
subsisting on Baothar (the lioat); 
~ Sap'Topbyte, a parasiM which 
kills its host and then continues 
to feed on it ; palaslt'lc, deriving 
nouriBhment from come other or- 
ganism ; "- CaBtTs'tlon, sterility in- 
duoed by the etTects of a parasite; 
Parail'tna ipu'rlos = E^fiphitb ; 


pkTuLU'Btd, infeated by » puatite ; 
Ptu'iAltlBm, the state of preying 
upon sDoiber organism ; Fftns- 
P«nua'tlft (+ Spbruatu), biubD 
reproductive bodiei leBeiabling 
sporea, found in some Algau 

Pftraa'tulei iraparrit, & door-post), 
the ooroiial rays of PataiJIora, ^. 

FaruM'mea ( + Stauin) or PaiuM'- 
mon (iirq>uin', a fil&cnent), an abor- 
tive Btamea, a ataminodium. 

Parut'idiy, f arcuficA'i&i (loi^d, from 
bwide, aHxat, a Beries), a. aeoondacy 
■piral in pbjttataxta ; Pftr'utTla ( + 
Btvlr), an abortive style ; Pam- 
■ymUa'ili (+ titufiiosis), wbeo 
the byphoe of a paratita envelape 
the afgal constitucnta of a Liohen 
and infliot injury (Zopf); pantber- 
nolzop'la (9tpiui%, Harm, t/wt^. a 
turning), proposed by Macfarlane 
for paraheliotropic, is such cases as 
the moTemeD ts of leaves in Droaera,, 
OjxUu and Miinoaa ; paraton'lc 
(r4»T, tension), effent of light in 
retarding growth ; poiatnuursr'- 
HiL {tranivermu, lying aoroei), used 
of the plaues paralleT to tbe traus- 
versan plane of a Diatom fruS' 
tule (O. Mueller] ; paraval'Tar 
( 4- Valve), applied to tbose planes 
which are parallel Co tbe valvar 
piano of a Dintom, cither epithecal 
or hypothecal (0. Mueller). 

Pareaeb'roM {tapryxio!, I pour in 
beside), used by Grew, and siDoe 
his time for the tissue composed of 
oells more or leas isodi&metcic, 
espeoially such tissue as the 
pitb and moEOpbyll ; partnotiy'- 
BUltoiu, consisting of parenabyma, 
spongy, porous. 

PulDh'not [tapi, beside, txroi, a foot- 
print), the two lateral prints on 
tbs leaf-scar of Lepidodendreae. 

Ptr'les {Lat., a houne wall), pi., 
Far'letes, the wall of any organ ; 
pul'atal, paritla'lU, borne on or 
belonging to awall;~n'trlale, need 

bv r-" ' 

' NoU tor tbe layer of pre 
eit the cell-wall ; Piri'ttln, 


the oolonring matter found in the 

Lichen. Phyicia paiittina, DeNot. 

panpln'nate, pari/nnna'lut (Lat.), 

e innate, with an equal number of 
rafletd, that is, without a ttr- 

puot'oiOQi {Kapi, from beaide, dZkik, 
a house), in Messes, having the 
mala and female organs in tbe 
same inSorescence, the male naked 
in the oiila of the lower bract* ; 
parol'coQS is a Bynonym ; Fftior- 
tbot'ropUm [ipSas, right, rpowli, a 
turning), Aruiiangeli's term when 
leaves place themselves with tbe 
lamina vertical, but not neoeuaril; 

port'wl, part'tts, parti'lvt (L«t.), 
cleft, but not quite to tbe base. 

Parthenogam'ete {vapdivot, virgin + 
Uahbti), b gamete which develops 
without pairing (Hartog) ; PaMho- 
gan'eali (ynmt, origin), a form of 
apogamy in which the oosphere de- 
velops into the nornial product of 
fertilisation without a preceding 
sexual act ; Partbenog'eiiy (7f'0i, 
race, offspring), bos the same mean- 
ing ; FaTtbenogonld'la (Twit, off- 
iprlng), reproductive cells in a 
colony ot Folcoa: Olobalor, Linn., 
acting aaexually ; Far'tbeiiasperin 
{awipua, a seed), a body resembling 
a xygospore, but not i-asulting from 
the coalescence ot the contents of 
two sexually different cells i Par"- 
tbenoapore {sropi, a seed), is the 
same thing. 

pal'tlal, partia'tu (Lat.), in botany 
uBunlly moanii secondary, as ~ In- 
Tola'crs, - Ped'nncle, - Pst'lole, 
- Uu'bel; it isopposBd to "general," 

par'Uble, parlib'ilii (Lat., diviaiblo), 
ultimately separating, or easily 

par'tlm (LaL), partly; other ex- 
pressions ore tx parlt, pro parte. 

ParUt'lon {parlitio, a division into 
purts), (1) a wall or dixsepimeat ; 

(2) a sepaiated part or segment ; 

(3) the deepest division into which 
m leaf can be out without beooming 
oonpooitd (Lindley). 



PUtl'tlU tiAt.) = PABtU). 

Pu'trldva-waad, oftk-wood destroyed 

by Sureim (Tubeuf). 

puTlflor'iu {^ri>ru, amM,Jloi,Jtori', 
a flower), having smaller flowers 
than in its oongonsn -, parrlto'liUB 
{jbiium, • leaf), with Bniftlltr leavM 
than the allltd epecies; payTna 
(Ut.). Bm&U. 

Pai'saga Cells, oetis in the eiuilsmiis 
or eadodermU of raaU which 
retoin thin unaltered wslls, by 
whioh water ooa pass. 

Pm'uIu [wdaaaXo!, a peg), a gomo- 
Hpalans calyx. 

VM'etUl (pturuurn, a. pasture), H. C. 
Watson's term for plaata whioh 
grow in poatnres oad grass; 
oommoDS, amancst less rank herb- 
age than " prataf" ; paa'cDas(Lat,), 
relating to pastums. 

FMt«nrlia'tloii.tlie preservation of fer- 
menting liquids by heating to about 
HO" fahr., BO as to germin- 
ate and then destroy Fongi and 
their spores coatained in the fluids 
treated (Crozier). 

Patel'la (Lat., a small dish), on orhi- 
oalar sessile apotheclum, with a 
nargiDsl rim diitiact from the thol- 
lua ; pitellkr'old {ttStn, likeness), 
reaemhling a patella ; patel'llCorm, 

Sib!^i/'(inn'u(/ornia, shape], shaped 
ta > small diab, circular and 
rimmed ; Fatallula, a diminutive 
patella ; pat«I'liUaM, posaesaing pa- 
pa'tent, pai'etu (Lat.), spreading; 
PBtentU'atmuB (Lat.), extremely 

pat erif orm (pofim, a dish or saucer, 
Jorma. shape), aaucer-shaped. 

Path fl'nders = Hoskv-uuiijes, lines 
of colocr leading to nectaries. 

pathOKBn'ic, pathDg'enoiu [riSat, 
suffering, disease, ^^i-of, racp, ofT- 
apring). producing disease ; Patbo- 
gane'l^, the quality of diBeose 
giving ; PatllOlOgy (Xi>ot, dia- 
course), the science of diseases : 
Vajf'Mabla ~, that department of 
botany which treats o) plant dia- 

pafnlans, -Ju«(Ut.], alightly iprMd- 

paoatllor'oiis, -nu (paueui, few, jtoj, 
jton'i, a flower), few flowered: paaol- 
fo'Uni [folium, a leaf), having few 
leaves ; paaciJng«'tQ« {jitgnm, a 
yoke), with only a few pair* of 
leaflets in a pinnate leaf. 

pau'aUcos (jiaiuia, a kind of olive), 
olive- green. 

pa,Taiii'Dua<,Lat.,perlaiaing toa pea- 
cook), peacock-bloe. 

pear-fanned, ~ abapad, obovoid or 
obconic with a tapering bam. 

paui-gnj, "pure grey, a little rarg- 

bocterral organism ; 
uamed GatTimb. 

Pao'taaa (Ttitrit, ooagnlated], on 
entyme which forms vegetable jelly 
from pectio substanoaa occorriogin 
the oell-waU. 

Pac'tm (Lat., aoomb) t = Stehioma. 

pac'Uc {fjKTa^, coagulated), relatina 
to pectin, as pec'tlc Ao'ld, aupposed 
to form a large part of fmit-jelly ; 
Peo'tin, or Psc'tliw, a jelly-like snb- 
Btance in fruits ; </. Pbciosb ; p«a- 
ttna'ceona ( -f ooeous) ; reaembliag 
pectin ; gelatinous. 

peo'tlnate, ptclina'tui (Lat., like a 
comb), pinnatifid with narrow seg- 
msnts set cloM like the («eth of a 
oomb ; pec'ttnatory. applied by De 
Bary to two series of vascular 
bundles whose members alternate 
with each other as the teeth of 
two oomba. 

Pao'toee (njirit, coagulated), a sub- 
stance allied to mucilage which 
occurs in anripe fruita (Frdmy); 
pacta'slc Ac'ld, is associated with 
poetic acid in fruit jelly; Pectooel'- 
lolosea, rf. Cbij.ui.osk. 

peda'Unerved, ebo. ^ FEDATiNBR,vm, 
probably a misprint in Henalow'a 

peda'ils (Lat.), a foot long orhiah. 

ped'ata, ptda'tv* (Lat., footed), in 
botany ,'palmately divided or part«d 
with the lateral diviaions two<cleft; 


U> the bus ; pedaCUorm'U l/nniui, 
■hapu) = PBiMTifiD : pedatUo'bui, 
psdfttUoba'ta*, pedatllo'lMd (XajSAi, 
earlap), pilmste, with ■upptenien- 
tary lot)«a at the base ; p«da'tl- 
nwred, prda'ttTitrm (nermn, a 
narve), when the midrib alops 
ihart, and two strong lateral nerves 
prooeed from its base, giving rise 
to others which eit«iid onljr to the 
apex ; pedAtlpar'tite, patatipatii'- 
Ciu {partUut, divided), with pedst<i 
veoation, and the lobes nearl; Erae ; 
peilat'iBect, peilaliKc'liu {lectut, 
out), pedfti*!/ %-eined, the divl. 
■ions nearly reaching the midrib. 
Pod'HtBl {ptt, fidii, a foot, ileia, a 
oolnniD), the persistent base of a 
leal which diMrticulates from it, 

Ptd'loel, PedkeTltif {ptdw<dwi, a small 
foot), (I) lui ultimate Bower-stalk, 
the support of a single Bower ; ('2) 
io HyJropterideRO the sporophoro ; 
p«dicel'lkt«, pedktlla'rtu, ptdiada'- 
lui t, borne on a pedicel ; PAd'lele 
= PKmcEL; PediosriuluB (dim. of 
pedKrllru), a filiform support to 
the ovary in oertaia Compoaitae ; 
Padio'Dlos, (1) ~ PltDlCEL; (2) the 
■talt of the apple and other fruita ; 
(3) the filament of an anther, as ~ 

ptdlfemi (pa, pedis, a foot, ftro, I 
bear), furnished with a stalk or 
Sppport (Hunalow) ; Peilllli. the 
ooDtracted Bpper portiona of the 
o^yx tube ia ancb dorete of 
Compost tac an liave a stipitate 
pappus ; pedUa'Cni. furnished with 
B PsDtua : Fedon'ole, PeduTit'idu*, 
th« general term for the stalk of a 
flower, it/may also boar a cluster of 
single flowers ; pednnculu'li, re- 
lating to a peduncle or a modifies* 
tion, as peduhralayei Cir'rhi, ten- 
drils proceeding from a peduDole ; 

pedime'alata, p^anculu'imi, ptdun- 
eWo'tiM, furnished with a fooUUlk ; 

pednnculM'aiu, with a modified 
sMt« of the peduncle (Herulow). 

Peel, the rind or skin of fruit; Grew 
spells it "PiU." 

Fes, an embryonic orgjan at the lower 
end of the hypocotyl of seedlings 
of Cacaiaii, Qiuium, etc, laaling 
till the ootyledons are withdrawn 
from the testa. 

p«lk'glAii = pdag'la {Tl\ayi», the sea], 
inhabiting the open ooean, as dis- 
tinct from the shores. 

pel'lM {wr\w,], black, livid. 

Pel'Uele, PcUicuia (LaI.. ■ small 
skin), a delical« superficial mem- 
brane, epidermis ; peUlcnlar'lt, 
having the oharaoter of a poUicle : 
palU'tnifLst., covra^ with skin), 
" skinned, deprived of skin of ap- 
parently so" (LIndley). 

palln'c^ ptilu'cidua (Lat., trans- 
parent}, wholly or partisjly trans- 

pelog'enons (r^Xit, clay, vipot, off- 
spring), applieil by Thurmann to 
those rocks which yield a clayey 
detritus, and the plants which 
thrive thereon ; pelopb'Uoaa (^f,tai, 
I love), Warming's variation of the 
same ; pelopstun'mlClfdji^Di, sand), 
yielding clay and sAnd ; peloptam- 
mogenous, giving rise to clayey 
Bttn.1 (TKuimann). 

Palor'ta (iri\i^pioi, monstrous), an ir- 
regular Bower become reguUr by an 
exceptional development of oomple- 
- irregularities; Irnc'ular 


process o'f conversion of a flower 
to a regular form, trom ita normal 
irregular form. 
■el'ta (Lat., a target), (1) the round 
shield-like apotheoium of Pdtidea, 
eto. ; (2) a bract attaahed by its 
middle, as in Penpera i pel'toBd 
{findo, Jidi, to cleave), when a 
peltate leaf is oat into segments ; 
pel'taU, ptlla'lua, target -shaped, as 
a leaf attached by >t» lower surface 
to a stalk, instead of by its margin ; 


psIU'to-dl^U'tos, a digitete leaf 
with the petiole mui^h enlarged 
kl Ihe inaertioD of Ihe lulliiU ; 
peltld'eoa, pel'ttfonn (/brma, sh&pe), 
orbicular or buckler-Khaped, u the 
■potliecia of muif Lichens or the 
csps of Agarici; peltiner'Ted, pel- 
ttner'M, -n'uj (neri'ut, s neive), 
with ribs arranged lut in a pultate 
leaf : peltol'deni [fliot, reaemblancoj 


like . 
ptn'oUlad, marked with Sne diatiact 

psn'dent, pcn'dtni (Let.), hanf(ing 
dawn from ita support ; P«nd'*nt, 
Deed by Grew for Antubb. 

pen'duloos, pfn'clx/iu (Lit.), hanging, 
peodgnt 1 paniliill'naa (l^t.), hav- 
ing the habit of Iwini; pcuduIuUB 

(DeOandollo)i Peaduiinor'M [Jhi, 
JtorU, a flower), Ueluino'B t«riu for 
wind- fertilized penduloua floweri. 

pwile'ellata, an error for tho noxL. 

penfe'UlBt*, jwniciUa'fuj {paikHlnt, 
a little bruah ), pencil-abaped ; 
pmiell'IUonii, paaaUiform'u 

\forma, shape ), shaped like an 
artin'a peneil ; Panloll'lliuii, a tuft 
of hairs. 

pm'nate, pruaa'tm {IM.. winged) = 
piMHATB ; peanatioU'tni ( ciisiu, 
out), wilb inoisiona of a leaf in a 
pianate manner; peimat'lfld, ptn- 
natyf'idta = ri«r(*TinP: psD'nf- 
(bnn (/ormo, shape), with ribs as 
in a pinnate leaf, but the npper 
Mgmenta oonfluetit at the apex, as 

nately vciai>a. 

peatacupsl'Iaiy [riwri, five + cjk- 

PELLABT ), having five carpels ; 

ptntaoam'arna (+ CAUAsrs), with 
five loooli ; Pantacliae'iilnm or 
Pentake'ninm (+ Acksmuu), hav- 
ing the structure of a uicmouarp, 
but with five carpels instead of two ; 
panUooo'ooiu, -riu ( + Cocccb), 
with flre oocci elaaticallj aplittiug 

away from tba main aiii ; pantti- 
cy'CUo (iiJjiXsr, a cirels), a flower 
with five whorla of members, i/. 
PENTAHBitoua ; peatadac'tTlaus 
{SitrrvKat. a flngur), five-fingered, 
or with Ave finger-like divisions ; 
psDtadal'pbDlu. -phvn (Ahi\itit, a 
brothei), with five frat«mitiea or 
bundles of stimeiu ; pantag'aiiftl 
[yutla, an angle), with five anjtlea ; 
Pentagyn'la {yvrit. a woman), a 
Lionean order of pl.inta having five 
pistils ; pantag^jiioaa, with five 
pistils or stylos ; Fentaba'tLlam = 

-riM {fUpm, a purt), with parts in 
fivei, as a corolla of five petals ; 
peutaa'der {irh?, i'^pit, a man), of 
five stamens ; Feotaa'dila, a Lin- 
Dean class of plants posBeaaing five 
stamens, the largest in that system ; 
pontan'drons, five-stamened ; peu- 
Mm'mlar. ( + iW(niuBl five-angled, 
pentagoual ; pentapst'alous, -tut 
[xiraKoit, • dower-Uaf), with five 
petals ; pentaphylet'lo (^vX^, a 
tribe), uited ol a hybrid whiob 
has five strains in its otigin ; 
pantaplijrl'loua, -Jiu l^uXXw, a leaf), 
with fiv0 leaves; pantap'teioiu, 
-rut {TTipar, a wing), five- winged ; 
pen'tarcb {Apx^, beginning), witii 
five points of origiu, apidied to a ' 
stele ; penUuThl nvi, Henslow'a 
emendation of pentarl'niu (ifiptiu, 
male), Necker's term for vmst- 
ANDBDU9 ; psntasep'Uoni, Jut 
{ -i- Sefaluu). having five sepals ; 
pentasper'noui (o-Wp/ui, a seed), 
fivc-soeded ; pentatt'lchoui (o-rlxoii 
a row ). in five vertical rank* ; 
Pn'toaai, a name given to com- 
pounds resembling glucose, but 
bsTing only five atoms of sarbon 
in the molecule. 
Pep'o (Lat,, a pumpkin), Fapou'ldkt; 
Peponld'lnm Xi a goiuil fruit, a ana- 
celled, many-seeded, inferior fruit, 
with parietal placentas aud pulpy 

Pep'sln (r^^ii, cooking, digestion), 
the digestive 'principle or peptic 

pep'tto {rtimns, promattng digea- 
tion) Fer'nunM, those cozymes 
which convert proteida inlo pep> 

Pep'tODM {rnrrii, cooked), albumi. 

Doidg Bdwr boiog ttct«d on by fer- 

nieDtiB, u Proteids, which are the 

fiaal result of their action ; the; 

are preBent in gerniinutiDg eeeda ; 

peptonl'iliig, applied to enzymefi 

*o acting. 
par-, in Latin oomponnds increaeea 

their torce as per-aiiailU, very 

Ptnptt'klnm, t (npl, abont+PrrA- 

LVM), any appendage to a petal, a 

Bjnonjin of Nsctahiltiia and Pa- 

KAPETALCii ; PerapliTlliUD (^Uar, 

a leaf) = P*, 
pereor'niit {/itrciirma, running 

through), extending throughout 

the entire length. 
PCretn'IiTTniD <T(p', about, i/ifipvar, 

an embryo), that part of a mono- 

cotyledonoua embryo inveating the 

Slumule and rodiole, not eiteraolly 

an infusion), cellular tiuue con* 

pana'nale, jitren'nana (Lat.), peren- 
iM'UiiK = paTBn'nlal,;Mren'ni<(Lat,), 
lostiog the whole jeor through ; 
Paren^lal, is a plant whioh laats 
several years, not perishing nor- 
mally after once flowering and 
fruiting ; " Herl). the above ground 
portion diea each year, the root 
persisting ; - Hon'ooup, appHed 
by MiibiaB to suuh plants oa Auave 
ainericana, Lioo., which live long, 
but die aftor once flowering. 

perTect, perfie'lat (Lab., complete), 
(1) applied to a flower which ia 
hermaphrodite ; (2) of an organ 
which naa all its constituent meni- 

peifo'Uate, pfr/olia'lut (per, through, 
fotium, s leaf), used when ■ stem 
apparently passes through a leaf, 
as in Buplturum per/viiatian, Linn. 

per'toiate, ptr/ora'tut [Lat.j pier«wl), 
pierced throngh, or having tranS' 


Inoent dots which look like Utile 
holes, as in Ht/pfrictun ptr/oratam 

perfos'suB (Lat,, dug or pierced 

through), perfoliate. 

pertQ'saa (Lat,, poured over), com- 
pletely covered. 

pergama'Deoui, -txrat (perffamcna. 
parchment), like parchment iti 
texture ; perEanentA'ceont, -ceiu 
( + aceous), resembling parchment. 

Ferian'dra, pL ('(^'l, about, iriip, 
arSpot, » man), the bracts of the 
mile infloreeoenoe in Mosses ; 
p«Tlali'dlims(ii'ipiiiDi. manly), used 
of a neotar; when it ia ranged 
round the stamens ; Per'iantb, 
Periait-lliium [irBo,, a flower), (1) 
the floral envelopes, calyx or cor- 
olla, or both ; (2) in Hepaticae the 
inflated envelope surrounding the 
fertilised arcbegoniom, the CoLE- 
vagtoule ; parlon'thaus, 
'nus, relating to or pos- 
a«asing a perianth ; Feituitlioma'ida 
Ui^rla, modneu), an aboorinal mul- 
tiplication of perianth sogmonta ; 
pertax'lal [i^ay, on nilc) Wood, 
the so-called outer wood, as in the 
atema of Gignoniaceae. 

Per'lhlem (r(pf^i]Lia, clot 
layer of nsacent cortex 
the epidermis. 

pertealyc'ltia iwtpl, about -t- 

{+ Cahbiuh), thin walled Delia of 
the central cylinder in contact with 
the inner faoe of the endoderniia ; 
the pericycle ; Fer'tearp, I'rriem'fi- 
iutn (caprAi, Iruit), (I) the wall Of a 
fructified ovary ; (3) applied aUo 
to the wall of the capsele in 
Mosses ; (3) improperly used of 
the protective husks surrounding 
certain fruits ; odj. peiioar'pla, 
parlotr'plal, pericarjAa'lit ; perl- 
cett'lnJ [tiirrpw, a aharp point] 
Cell = ArxiUABT Ceu.; Parl- 
cv'yoplADn = PutiKAKTortJheM ; 
pOTlcen'trlena, applied to parigfn- 

oiu stamen* amngsd concontrically 
with the calyi; P*r'lalik«tli 
(Crotier) = Periciiajctiuh i Pbh- 
etae'tlam (xb'"I> & manej ; {1) tbe 
iDTolaore around the base of tite 
Mta ia MoBBM ; (2) Hookar'a name 
for the perianth in Hepatioao ; 
PwIoIuw'BaI, perieltaciia'lu. reUl,- 
ing to Ihs aame, aa - BrMta, ~ 
Laam, the organi oompusing the 
perichaetium itaelf in Mcjiwea, and 
the jnvoluore in Hepa.ticae ; far'i- 
C&Tle ()C"Uii juice)] a plant 
whose water - storing tiuue is 
bet wean the epidermis and Cho 
ahloreochyma, ai Rhiaoiihora ; 
Tw'ldMUiun (iXaSoi, a branch), 
(he iheathiug base of a loaf when 
it luiTounds the sapporting branch ; 
perlall'nal («Mru, I bend dawn), 
curved in the same direction ns 
the surface or ciroiimfcrctice ; ~ 
Planes, planes wbloh conforoi lo 
the exterior ; Par'IcUiies, pcriclinal 
walls ; Paiicll'nlam {Mvti, a bed), 
the involuare of the capttulum in 
CompoaiMe ; PsrlcUnoi'ileB,*: a false 
involucre fonnad of the scales of 
the receptacle in Compositae, sur- 
rounding the aides of on elevated 
reoepUciB at its Bummit, as in 
Biax ; Pertooo'oluin, that portion 
of the protoplaara which onvelopea 
the nucleus; in Uerni. Kerntasche 
(Hanatein) ; Pttrlcorinm^ ((oAtot, a 
aheath) = Pbbicuaetiuu ; p«rl- 
iwrolla'tua {+ Corolla), used of 
a dicntfledonouB plant with a 
gamopetalouB pcrigynoua corolla ; 
Par'li^cle (inJiXDi, a circle], the 
outermost zona of cells of the stele 
immediately within the endodennis; 
iBter'i»l~, Flot'stenu for thepro- 
oambiDin retained on (he inner side 
of the vascular bundle ; Per'Iderm, 
Perider'taa, Perider'mis{Sipiia, skin 
or hide), the outer bark or epi- 
phloem, at Srat restricted bj 
Mohl to tough cork in distinction 
to the soft cork, now extended 
lo the oork cambium and iu pro- 
ducts ; phellogen : ?ta'l<Mm{S4siin, 
a bundle), the layer of nails which 

aniTOund each vascular bundle 
beneath the special eDdodarm in 
astelie stems (Van Tieghem) ; adj, 
PerU'lole, Pcrid'ioliim, pi. Pcrid'iola 
(dim. of Terididm from niplSior, u 
Lttle pouch), (1) a chamber of the 
gleba forming a neat of spores, free 
or attached by a fuciiole within the 
peridium of the spotophore ; (2) 
"a membrane by which the spores 
of some Algae are immediately 
covered" (Lindlej) ; Fertil'lnlii, 
one of the colouring matters found 
in the Pcridieae, a group of Funri ; 
Perid'liun, a general expression Tor 
the outer enveloping coat of a 

rropbore apon wbi^ the sporet 
elop within a cavity; ~ ax- 
ter'nom, the outer layer which 
opens in various ways and separate* 
from the - Inter'nom, the inner 
layer directly enclosing the gleba ; 
~ mitrtfor'ma, " the recepttwle of 
certain Fungals" (Lindlev) ; adj, 
perid'ial ; as ~ Cells, the outer 
cells of a peridium which ars 


Pariench'yma (repi, about, (txu^, 
an infusion), irregular oetlal&r 
tissue, chiefly in glands and sphe- 
roidal masses (Henslow), /^f. Pbr- 
ENCHVHA ; Perifor'lum = Peri- 
raoRiuu ! Perlgloe'a {y^oim, glue), 
the entire gelatinous investment of 
a Diatom (Baffham) ; Per'lsone, 
Perigo'niam {7or4> oSapring), (1) 
a synonym of Pbrunth ; (2) the 
same of Pbricuaetiom ; (3) the 
involucre of the male inQoreeoeaoe 
in Bryophytes ; adj. pedffo'nUl, 
as ~ Leaves, the periehoeti^ 
leaves {excluding Bryophytes) ; 
perlgonla'rlus, (!) with the ohar- 
Hctpr of a perigono ; (2) doultle 
flowers, resulting from tranaforms- 
tion or multiplicstion of the floral 
organs taking on the character of 
perianth segmeots ; Parttynan'da, 
Perlgynan'ilTa, -dr-uni iyvr'i, a 


woman, irtip, dti/iot, B m&n), (1) 
th« involaore of ComporiUe ; ~ 
oominn'iili. ~ Mrte'rlor, the in- 
volucre, ~ Inte'tlor, the corolla of 
a, compoiite floret ; Feilgyii'luin, 

(1) the hypogj'noufl Betas of Bedgee ; 

(2) the aask or utricle of Carex ; 

(3) uiy hypogynoui disk ; (4) the 
involacrs of the female iaQor- 
eecence in Bryoph^tee ; perlg^- 
ynou, lit«r&lty means round the 
ovwy, uBed of organ b adnate 
to Uio perianth, or adnate with 
the lower part of the pistil ; 
PsrUux'yopluiii {tipvir, a nut, 
wMem, moulded], a zone of 
granular protoplaeni seen in Cobaea 
trandeuB, Cav.. in the cjtoplaam 
of the resting pollen mother-cell 
on its approaching divioion {A. 
A. LawBon) ; peiimedal'Iaiy ( ■*- 
MEDt'LLABY) Zone, the peripheral 
region of the inner tisane out- 
vardl; bounded hy the pro- 

tOiylem ; qf. OUtCCHUIDDLLART ; 

Perlmel'ltae imd, honey), having 
honey-glanda placed in the lover 
portion of the perianth, aa in 
certain Gentianaceae (Huxtey) ; 
Ferlmar'Utem (-(-Mekistbh), con- 
■ists of leveriil layers of cell* 
tvbich at Snt divide in every di- 
rection, but Bul>sequently divide 
tangentially in the esternal region 
(GuillaudJi Per-iae (»*p!, aboiitl, the 
outermost layer of sculpturing on 
pollen ; perineetu'Ul ( -i- Nkctart), 
surround ins the nectarial area, 
as in certain Gentians (Builey) ; 
flliu'lnm, the outermost of the 
three coats of a Fern spore; the 

perln'teger (Lat), qnite entirp. 

Parlod'lo Hove'ments, used to eipresa 
the opening and closing of flowers, 
the nycti tropic movements of 
leaves, etc., when occarring habit- 
ually and with some regnlaritv. 

peilpet'alous. -tu (repl, anaut, 
WroXoF, a flower-leai), around the 

parlpb'enl {rtpti^ptis, the cironm- 
ferenoe of a circle), snrronnd- 

roots, the 

piliferouB layer, furnished 


i, hairs ; perlphai'le, periphcr'i- 
CUB, pertaining to the circumfer- 
ence, as o( an embryo coiled round 
the outside of the albumen ; 
peripher'lca teimlnOi'llB, belonging 
to the circumference and apei of a 
body, used of sterna which grow 
both in length and breadth ; p«tl- 
pbae'ilODa, peripheric, circumferen- 
Ferlphlo'tJin (rtpl, about + Pauiiii), 
the phloem-aheath orpericambium ; 
peilpUoenuit'lo, applied to concen- 
tric bundles in Forns ; ?«rlpborau'- 
thiluiL i'fiopiu, I carry, irBo!. a 
flower), the involucre of Com- 
poailae ; Peripjjor'lnai, a fleshy and 
elongated support to the ovary, 
with the 00 rot Is snd stamens 
attached to it ; Henslow spelle 
it " Feriforium " ; Fer'lphnkgin 
{ippiy/u., an cnetoeure), liie peri- 
cycle of the stem ( Doogeord) ; 
Fer'lpliylli, FeHpbyl'lta:f (^AXw.a 
leaf), the hypogynous scales or 
lodicules of grasses; PeripllTl- 
log'ony (v^mt, race, offspring), 
bearing numerous leaflete round 
the edge of a leaf-blade (Weis- 
mann); Faiipli'yidB {<p6i^, I grow), 
a sterile cap i Hi form hyphal 
branch, projcr'ting from the wall 
of the pyrenocarp when there 
Is no hymenium in the cavity 
(FaistiDE) ; Fer'lplaim (i-Xdo^, 
mouldei^, protoplasm in the 
oogonium and the antheridiam 
which does not share in the con- 
jugstion ; rf. Gonoplash ; Far*!- 
plait {rXdiTTO!, moulded), s hyaline 
structure enveloping the cell- 
nueleuB ; Firlpod'lnixi (iroi't, toKi, 
• toot), = PiRionArriua ; perlp'- 
terons, -n« [rrtpoi', a wing), jjuWp- 
tera'tiiit, surrounded by a wiof; or 
border ; Far1sc7'phe (oiufoi, a cup), 
Deevaui'a word for Pekichabtidm ; 
Fer'ispaTm, Prrifptr'minm {rr/pfia, 
a seed), (I) tJie ordinary albumen 
of a seed, restricted to that 
which is formed outside the 




embijo aao; (2) the pericup or 
even the tabegumenta of & aaed ; 

p«il»p«r'inlo, ptrirpefmiftu, perl, 
■pnntft'tm. (1) furnished with al- 
bumen : (3) "whsa the perispenn 
U reducod to a linBls lamiDn, or 
when the seed is not lumiBhed with 

• true periBperm" (Heualow) ; 
FMltponn'elnni (rropa, a toed, 
i-nvBr, a vewel), the indaaium 
of Feros, a membranoat covering 
of the «orufl ; Fei'lapore, PtrU- 
jmr'iuni, -mm, (I) the membrane 
or ca«e sairounilmg • spore ; (2) 
the mother-cell ul aporea id Algae ; 
(3)= Pebigtmch : PerlatkOll'jiuiilt 
[trrAxit, a. apiko). Che glume of 
graaecs ; FeiUlamln'U ( + tJTAUEn), 
Peiitte'miinei (irr^^uiiy, a filament), 
applied to petAloua dicotyledons 
with perigyooua atsmeQa j Pbt"!- 
•t«m {trnjiu., I stand), young oortei 
in a nascent condition ; ParlitODie 
PcrUComa, Prrii'om'ium (urijio, 

• mouth), the fringe or ita homo- 
logae rannd the onfice of ■ mow- 
aapaala ; pwrln'onutta. MTUtoma'- 
Itu, periafomiu, provided with a 
penatome ; parUtomat'lo, ptriMo- 
Tnat'kru, when perizyDooa atamens 
are attaobed round the mouth of 
the calyx tube; perUty'liiiiu ( -t- 
Sttlus), when epigjnouB atamens 
are inaarted between the Btyles 
and limb of the oaljx ; Perlaj^phe 
more correctly P«aiaoTpRa ; Per'i- 
tlMoa = PerlUie'diun, pi. Feiltiie'- 
eU (S^Ti, ■ cue), (1). a case with 
a amall opening oontaining asci, 
in Lichens ; (2) in Fungi, a re- 
ceptacle enclasiag aporea which 
are naked or in osoi ; perltbe'dold 
(eISoi, like) Qlaadi, thoae on the 
pitoher of A'tjjeiUlit*, reaemblini; 
the perithedum of a Spharna 
(UaofarUne) ; perlt'ropal, peilt'- 
ropoiu, -pw (r^wir!), a turning], 
need of a seed which ia horizontal 
Id the pericarp, or of a radicle 
which ie directed Ui the side of a 
pericup; perizflemjiftc (-fXv- 
uui), said of concentric bundles in 
tJie coot* of Jcortu, Jnocaceae and 

CypBTBceae (Lani); pertiy'llA Van 
Tieghem'a eipreaiion [ur hesxkch 
+ BXARCB ; Failio'niam (fti>^, a 
belt), the thin non-silicioua msni' 
brane of a young anxoapore. 
parlar'tna. p«Tl4't<u ( LateX«t. , jterla, 
a pearl). (1) shining with a pearly 
lustre ; (2) (umlahed with rounded 
tubercular appendages (Henslow). 
NoTit : not to be ooofounded with 
ptrtat'M. carried Ihrongh, derived 

per'aunent, jx/tnaneru [ptmumeo, I 
peraiat), persistent ; ~TU'«n«, folljr 
formed Ciaaue, u distinct from 
merismatic or generative tiasna. 

FanneabU'ltT {pfrmeahSit, that can 
be passed through), applied to 
protoplasm, elo., and further dis- 
tinguished aa Exn 

of ullowing the passage of certain 
substances out of or iota ite 
vacuoles raipectivcly (Jansc). 

Pennnta'tlon, PmKula'tio (Lat., a 
changing), enlargement of the 
floral envelopes with abortion of 
the sexual organs (Pentdg). 

permata'toi (LAt.), oompleleljr 

Fer'nlo (Lat., a chilblain), a local 
aSection resembling an uloer, 
caused b; cold. 

Parodd'limi t Inpl, abont, iymiioT, a 
tubercle), Neoker's term for PkrI' 

per'anata, perona'tiia (Lat., leather 
boated), thickly oovcrod with a 
woolly covering becoming taealy. 

Perovnla'tae ijier, much or very, 
ovtiiatus, ovuled], otherwise Semi- 
NATAE, Van Tieghcm's terms for 
phanorogams fnmiahed with true 

perps'Uo (per, very, tijXoi, ula^), 
Thurroann's term for rooks which 
yield clay, puraand abundant, alao 
the plants which thrive thereon; 
Lm'mic {'f'ifiiint, sand), yield- 
, abundance of sandy detritiia, 

lued of an oi^n with its diraoUon 


vartioftl, either (a) to Iho boriion, 
or (A) to ila altaohment ; ~ 8;«'- 
tam, = PiBBO ■ ViSccuK Svbtbm 

parpmU'laj (Lat.), verj imsll. 

iwnlclc'olor {perniciim, a. peach, eolor, 
colour), pwilol'un* (Lat.), peaoh- 
ooloursJ, a rosy pink. 

panU'tent, p!rsu'r;ni(Lat., peTserer- 
ing), reiriBimng till the part which 
bears it il wholly matured, oj tlie 
leaves of evergreens ; Fersti'tence, 
constancy, as ~ of Vaila'Uan, the 
variety or teodeoej to vary per- 

fK'imit.te,persoita'liis{li».l .maskeil), 
used far a bilabiate corolla having 
a prominent palats. 

Fanplia'tlon (CrMier), see Tdah- 

p«rtn'aaM = peitiiBe',7>trfu'jua(Lat,, 
perforated), having sliU or holes. 

Pe'rola (LaC, a little wallet), (1) the 
Kols of a leaf-bud ; (2) Lindle; 
aIbo gives it OS a projection in the 
Sower of Orchids, t£a Uentdm ; 
(3) = PKBitKEciDM ; per'alate, 
ptrvla'tua, tnrniahcd with protac- 

pwral'rkT {per, through, lu/m, a 
Tolve] Az'U, the naiD longi* 
tudinol axil of a DiBtom fruBtuIe. 
the line which fortns the centre of 
the dividing plane, penetrates ihe 
cell-cavity in the epi- and hypo- 
thecal directions at enaal distances 
from theencloning waUs, and unites 
the centres of the valves (0. 

per'Tlou, pti'eim (Lat., pasMble), 
having an open pawage-wsy. 

Pes, Psd'ls (Lat.), a foot, (I) used in 
inch oomiKiunda as Irmgi/jfi, long, 
■talked; (2) a foot of twelve inches 

PSt'al, Ptl'alum (ir^TaXoi', a flower- 
leaf), one of the leafy eipaDBioDS 
in itie floral whorl styled the 
Corolla ; the word was takeo by 
Blair from Columns ; — -Ilk*. ~ 
-sb&ped, petaloid ; pstala'tus, 
possesaing petals or a oorolU : 


. iMio, I make) - 

Pktuodk; paUUTerona, bearing 
petal* ; ptt'aUtOnn, pelaii/iirm'ti 
(forma, shape), patal-lhapod; pM'- 
R]ioe, ptlolinut, petal-like, or re- 
lating to petals ; Pet'ilCHlB (ttioi, 
resemblance), an organ simulating 
a petal ; petalo'deos (Lat.), (1) - 
pETAi.oDy ; (2) having petals ; 
Petalo'dy, the metainorphosis of 
stamene or other organs into petals; 
Iiet'&lold, jKtnioi'dtvx, like a petal, 
or having a doral envelope resem- 
bling putala ; ~ An'thar, an anther 
borne on s petal, the filament re- 
sembling a petal ; PatalODu'nlft 
(fiorla, madness), an abnormal 
multiplication of petals ; Fetalosle'- 
mones {ariijuer, a Slameat], plants 
with flowers whose stamens are 
adherent to the corolla ; pet'alom, 
Blair's term for havine petals. 
psUola'cens (pefiehw, a little foot or 
leg-fncciu] (Lat.), having reference 
to the petiole by attachment, 

isfonnation, or appearance ; | 

iola'nsns or peUoloa'nui (Mod. ■ 

.), consisting of the petlde I 

A Bome moditication of it : pef - I 

p, pelio'larii, pst'ielUT, borne I 

pst'ielUT, 1 
pertaining to a petiole ; 
t'iolata, ptliola'iw, having a pe- 
tiole ; Pat'lole, Fei'ioiiu. the foot- 
stalk of a loaf ; Fet'lolnte, Petioi'u- 
lu», (I) a small petiole ; (2) the 
petiole of a leaflet ; petlal'nlAte, 
p'tioivla'tm, having a petiolule ; 
petlol'DlaT, petidiila'ril, belonging 
to a petiolule. 

pstrae'ul (Lat.), growing amongst 
rouks ; petro'su* (Lat., rocky), 
growing amongst atones. 

Fstlcazaii'ttaliie (-)- Xanthin), a 
special orange- colouring matter, 
also termed Peti'atn, Rosoll's name 
for the same pigment in Paivi 
auraniia, Pers., etc. ; ped'sold 
(tli»i, resemblance), peziza-, or oap- 

pbaenie'eni = puoKN-ioEtra. 

phaeooMi'pouB -put i<falru, I appear, 
■ap«£i, fruit), having a distinct 
fniit, with no adhesion to sur- 
rounding parts ; phaeno^'aiiioai 





Fliui'Ml, pi, (ipartiiit, manifest), any 
organiamB which are viaible under 
Ihe tnioroacope without tlie use of 
reogenU (MaKgi) ; pbuienu'tliaB 
(AkSdi, a flower), where the 
flower is luanif est; pbaueranthe'riu 
(dcflilpoi, flowery), when the bh- 
iherB protrodebeyood the perianth; 
phuiarogua'lc, phaueros'&inouB, 
phanennj'amvii (-yd/ioi, niftrriagc), 
having manifbBt fluwerB : pbonero- 
gain'laii, pertaining to Plwji'ero- 
gams, pUnte with ffowerfl in which 
atamena and piatils are diatiDctly 
developed ; phBuerop'oroni t'epct. 


(TSfuii, tD»rmge), having maDifest 
ilJowerB, phanerogamoui ; Phaa'liD- 
gUM = Phahkboquis ; PhMnol'agT 
= Phbncim>gt. 

FtuM'ocTit {•paiit, brown, swarthy, 
tu'imi, a bag), Decaiine's name for 
the cell-nucleus ; pbaeopbT'cean 
(^KOT, a aea weed), rektiug to the 
Phoeoaporeae, a groap of olive or 
brown marine Algae ; Phoe'ophjrll 
(^iiUor, a leaf), the oolouring 
matter in the living active chro- 
matophorea of brown aeawocda 
(Beinke) ; Pbaeoplaat (irXiifn-oi, 
moulded), the apeuial name for 
the chromatophores of Fucoidsoe 
(Schimper) ; Ptua'dipore {mropi, a 
seed), a member of the brown 
Algae ; adj. phaeoa'porooa ; ptiBe'iu 
(Lat. ), fuBooua, swarthy. 

Phal'ophyll (^101, brown, ^vXX»y, a 
leaij, a group of colouring matters 
in the leaves of plants of various 
lints of brown. 

Pbolan'gea, sing. Phal'anz (i^Xa-yf. 
ft band of soldiers), bundles 
of Itamena in diaUelphous and 
polyadelphous flowers -, phalor* 
■iph'ytna {Ippriv, male, ifiuTiy, a 
plant), poly oil elphous. 

PUal'line, a. poisonous aubstonce from 
varioua species of Amanita ; Fbal'- 
Ins. " the peridium of certain Fun- 

Sals " (Lindley) ; the name is immc- 
iat«ly derived from I'halha im- 
mdieiu, Linn., the Slinkhorn 
referred to i'ftj/- 

a waj or psMoge). applied to atom- 
ata which lie in the same (lane a« 

the apidermis. 

Ftwl'Imn [^\\6t, cork) = oork 
(Crozier) i PbaUe'ma, the outer- . 
most layer of the periderm, oon- 
siating of trae cork and phelloid 
(von Hoehnel) ; Plisl'lDderm {itp/ia, 
akin), the innermost Uyer of the 
peridum ; PhelloKen '{ytrtiui, I 
produce), the central layer of the 
three in the periderm, the active 
cork -producing tissue ; adj. pttsl- 
lOKeoet'lc : phelloid ((ISdi, re- 
aemblance], cork -like, aa tissue 
which approaches cork in ita 
quality ; Fhellolil, non-aubericed 
layers in the Phellema (von 

Fhe'nogsjQ - Phaxxkooam ; adj. 
pbenogain'laii, phenogam'le, eto. 

Phsnal'ogy, abbreviated from Flie- 
namenol'ogy {ipaiveiuiiir, on ap- 
pearance, \o'70i, discourse), reoord- 
ing the periodical phEnomona of 
plants, aa leoflng, Bowering, etc ; 
adj. phsnalog'lc^ as ~ luver'alaiu; 
an abnormal inversion of the re- 
lative blosaomirig of plants, cansed 
by meteorologic conditions (Rahn). 

PhUllte'Ela (^6\\<ir, a leaf, iXl^ira, I 
wind), a name propounded by Ra 
and adopted by nerkeley for "leaf- 
curl or blister '' ; r/. puvllilbia. 

FhU'otberm (^X^u, I love, Sip/i'^, 
warmth), used by Baker for planta 
which need warmth to complete 
their life-cycle. 

pUebol'dal {^\i^, #X<j9it, a vein), 
haa been applied to npifal, annular, 
or porous mon ill form v easels 
(Conke) : Pheiwmor'pha (*«p*^, 
form), the mycelium of some 

Fblobaph'enes, pi. (i^Xoi&i, bark, 
paip^, a dyeing), amorphoni brown 
colouring matters of the hark ; 
phlOM'deBkliai.reeemblanoe), bark- 
like in appearance ; Phlo'&n, Nfteg- 
eli's term for the hast elementa of a 
vaeoolar bundle ; it is oeparaled ia 




exDgens from the wood (xylein) 
by tbe cambium : ~ I'llaudi, 

E roups of bast avranda Burroundcd 
y lylHm (Chodut) ; ~ Ray, a ray or 
plate of phloem between two 
medullary raya ; -■ Sbealli, a layer 
ol Ibin-walled cells eurrounding the 
vascular tissue neil within the 
cortex, best seen in roota ; Fhloe- 
oter'na (TEp^ui, a limit), the inner- 
most Ujer of primary cortex ; 
Pbloe'mnt, the cortical tissDea ; 
FUorid'zlli (pffn, a root), a while 
crystalline substance wliicb gives 
tbe bitt«r aatringency to the root- 
bark of the apple, poar, cherry 
and plum -trees; PbloroKlu'cln, a 
body of frequent occurrence in 
the hark of trees, derived frotn 

plioenlc'eatts. phaenk'ata (Late Lat.}, 
scarlet ; red with a tittle of yellow 

pboeoa' porous — FUAEoaPOBOua. 

Pliontn'tldnin (^poi, bearing, arBm, a 
flower], the receptacle of the copi- 
tulum in Compositoe. 

ptiOtMil'to (^i, #uF7ai, light, aUXoi, 
tnaving, motile), used of the sleep 
of plants ; pbo'tic, exposed to light, 
well-illuminated, ha the marina 
of pools, etc. ; PbOtO.MItlls'sU 
(ourtliiiTii, perception), Csapek's 
term to express the power of an 
organ to reepoiid to the stimoluB 
of light ; Pboto'Ua [pint, life), pi.. 
Tulasne's term for eotoparssitio 
Fungi; photodelstogun'io (-fCLBK- 
TlMAUliJ), uaod of flowers which do 
Dot open in oaneequence of the 
rapid growth of tbe outer side 
of the petals, due to Fmoto- 
HTFONASTV (Honsgirg); Fholo- 
eplnaa'ty ( + Ei'iNAsry), epinasty 
induced by tbe action ol light 
(Detmer) ; pbOlOKtn'lc (-ytrHur, I 
produce), used of bacteria which 
are luminous ; Photohypmuu'Cy ( + 
Hyponastt), hyponsaty caused by 
the efTect of liuht (Vines) ; ptiolo- 
UiM'ae (ku'iitiiio?, having the power 
of movement), moving in oonse- 
quenoe of the stimulus of light ; 

t'llo {ithfiiiry a measure), 
(1) applied toorgaiiisms which turn 
either end to the direolion of the 

Itght-raya; (2) leaves which assume 
a definite poaition in light, to obtain 
the most ol it, or to screen them- 
Belvea from too much (Wiesaer) ; 
Pbotoryiis (\i>irit, a loosing), the 
arraogcmentof chlorophyll granules 
under the stimuluij of light, include 
ingboth apostrophe and epistropbe; 
Fbatomorph'oals (jLi/i^wiT», con- 
figuration), that kind of meohano- 
morphoeia which depends upon light 
aethecauae; Fhotoejn'taz (irwrafw, 
I put together), the formation of 
complex carbon compounds from 
simple ones under tbe influence of 
light (Barnes) ; PHQtOByn'tbeBli 
(9i!»S(ff«, a putting toBether), a 
proposed emendation of "pbolo- 
syntai " ; phototao'tlc (Tainiiai, 
qnsJiSed to arrange in order), 
Strasburger's term for taking up a 
deGnite poaition with regard to the 
direction of ligbt-reya ; pliototaii'lo 

Fliotot'oniu, the normal mobile 
condition resulting from the alter- 
nation of day and night ; FtlcAo- 
tai'lB (rafif, order], the definite 
self - arrangement of organisms 
under tbe atimulus of light ; PbotO- 
t'ropby {rfoipi), food), uneijual in- 
crease on one side of ou organ, due 
to the incidence of light in relation 
U> the parent shoot (Oltmanns) ; 
Pbotot'roplsm {rpmiii, a turning), a 
synonym of Hbliotbopism ; Pho'- 
trum, S. L. Moore's term for the 
whole scale of illumination affect- 
ing PnoTOLVsra. 

Phntgr'tna, p], Flirag'mata, {^lAyiia, 
an enclosure), a spurious dissepi- 
ment in fruits ; plmg'inlfar (/ero, 
I bear), pbiag'mlger, ;iAni{rintg'enui 
{gtro, 1 bear), divided by partitioiu; 
Ptoa^raobos'la. PhratptuAandHa. 
pi. ( -I- Basid), septate bosidia in 
Basidiumycetes (\'iui Tieghem). 

Phragmits'tiuu, Warming's term f 
an aBBOcialion of reeds, PAroyniitM. 

mj H o l o T wM 

. pL {^laiiyara. stickB [or 
<waod), Ml old term for prickl;r 
•oil (tiff under- shrubs. 

FbUilTi'Hli <^0tipiarT«, louay diiease), 
direoBo prutluced by apbidee ui 
plant- lioe. 

Phyootoy'ft (ipBtai, wa-weed, ffpiw, 
moBH), a term propoacd for C'har- 
aoene ; FbycocecLa'lB ((711I1, a gnU), 
galU due (o the attack of Algao 
[Liuidatriiinl ; Pby'cooliiome(xi>'^#u'. 
colour), the colourins matter 


brown Algae, 

; a<lj. pbycoctaro- 
m* aeons i -t aceoua] ; Pliycoc;'aiilii 
(nvant, bine), the blue colouring 
matter in Aleae ; Phyeodoma'tla 
(Su/iartor, a little house), plant 
■heltara inhabited by othor plania 
(Lundatrom) ; Phycoar'ythrina 
{ipueait, red), the red pigment of 
Flondean Algae ; PIiycoliM'iMUii 
(al>ui, blood), ■ special red colour- 
ing matlcr in certain Atgne, bdcU 
BhytiphJoea tiiietoria, Agardb ; 
Phyooroglst (Xo7oi, B diauourao), a 
Btudenl or eiperl in the study of 
Algae ; Fbycol oey, the department 
of botany whith inuludes Algae ; 
PIiy'c<nn&, the entire tnoaa of an 
AlcB ; the thalluaand reproductive 
bodies; PhyMDUi'ter iMiriip, Dorio 
for mother), the hymeneal jelly 
in which some spores germinate ; 
pjiyootnyoe'tsB iiiimii, a fungus), 
a group of Fungi which approach 
the Algae in some uharactere ; 
Pliyeopbae'liie {ipatit, brown), the 
browo colouring matter of Algue ; 
nirooporph'Trln {np^pa, purptu), 
a purple pigment from several 
specie* of Zyffacma (Lagerbeim) ; 
niyMpyr'rblne {wi^ppas, dark red), 
a pigment occurring in the I'ert- 
dineae ; Phycosta'tuouM t {er^^iuir, 
a filameot), " liypogynous or othi-r 
scales adhering to the disk " 
(Lindley) ; Pbycoxan'tUns ( -f 
X-AWTHiN) the yellowish brown 
pigmi^nt of Algae, 
PtiyirobI»«te'iiia (#^7^1, a fugitive, 
fi\d<miiia, a Kprout), Minka'a term 
for a modified form of sorsdia in 


(*Dji«, sea - weed, 
fyxiijia, ■□ infusion), "the ele- 
mentary tissue of Algals "( Lindley ) : 
Phy'kocjan = PHYcoctAurN ; Phy- 
koer'yttuln - FaycuEUYTBBiNB. 

Pliy*lii, pi. of Phy'inm (*^o», a tribe), 
a system of organisms arranged in 
the assumed succession of de- 
velopment ; adj. phylsf Id. 

Pbyl'la, pi. (^uXXaf, a l«af), the 
vertioillate leaves which form the 
calyx i used in composition as 
di-phyllous. two - leaved, etc ; 
Pbyl'lade, a catapbyllary leaf ; 
PSyl'lary, Phijl/a'ria, a member of 
the involncce of a Composite Bower; 
Pliyllld'liun, term proposed by Bower 
for the homologue of the leaf in 
the gametophyto ; PbyUUe'sla, the 
correct spelling of PKII.UI.,ESIA; 
Phyl'uie. a fossilized leaf ; Phyllo- 
blaa'tiu [p\d<rrot, a bud), Koerber's 
tc^rm for Lichens which have a flat 
leaf-like expansion of the tbatlos ; 
PbyUobry'on X {fipvot, a moss), the 
contracted pedicel of an ovary, as 
in some peppers (Lindley); Ptiyllo- 
dads, Phi/llotlad^ium (tXtLJct, a 
branch), a flattened branch as- 
suming the fomi and function ol 
foliage: PbyUoool'ly (icAXXo, glue), 
the production of new leaflets from 
the leaf surface (PeDEig) ; PbyUo- 
cyanlB (tirsroi, blue), a blue 
pigment occurring in chloro- 
phyll, which when oombined with 
phylloxanthin produces a green 
tint, <^. KVAKOPHYLL ; pb^eatn'- 
oous, .JIM, relating to phyllodes ; 
PHylTofle, Phgllo'dium, a petiole 
taking on the form and functions 
of a leaf ; Pbyllo'dy, the metamor- 
phosis ol flnrs.1 organs into leaves ; 
phyl'loid [fUm. rBBemblance), leaf- 
like; - oiad'ode - Pbtlloclads ; 
P&yl'lold, a leaf-like appendage to 
the stems of Algae : pbyllol'daiu, 
foliaoeous ; Phyl'logsn {yrrrdu, 
I produce) = PiiTLLOPHoa; 
pbyUogenet'lc, leaf ■ producing- ; 
pliyllofc'enous, growing upon leaves; 
epiphyllous ; Phyllolob sas, pi. 
(Xo^i, a lobe), plants with coty- 



ledoDs, green and losf-like ; Pbyl- 
loma'nla (>iai'ia. nodnGiiB), an ab- 
normal prodiiction of leaves; Phyl'- 
loma. Pkyllo'ma, (1) on aBBembtogc 
of leaves, or of mcipient leaves in 
a bud ; (2) recently used for the 
leaf orean in a, gSDeric aeiise, po- 
tantiiLUy that wtiidi answers to a 
leaf, cf. Caoluuk ; eplpel'tKte ~, 
when the ba*G of the eipanaion 
resultfl from the growth of the 
npper surface of the primordi&l 
leal, aa in Colyhdon Unibiliciia. 
Liiia.. and Troj-aeoliim majui. 
Linn.; byvepel'tSite ~, when the 
growth is from tbe under surface, 
aa in the sepals of Vio/it (C. de 
Oandotle) ; PIijUamDr'phy [i^op-p^ 
form] - pH¥ij»DT ; Phflloph'aglst 
{^-yv. I eat), term proposed 
by Boal)(er, lor plants which 
derive their sustenance by their 
leavea ; Pbyl'IoplLar, Phyl'lopbore, 
Phylloiih'onim {'popitii, I carry), the 
budding summit of a stem on which 
leavEis are develop lug, especially 
applied to palms ; plO'Uopli'oroaB, 
produDiDg leaves ; Phyl'Iophyte 
(ipvrit, a plant] (1) = Cobmophyte ; 
{2} a plant which draws ita nourish- 
ment chiefly from ita leaves (Boul- 
ger)i Pliyllop'odet, pL (iri>i;i. wQiii, 
a foot), dead leaves in InoHit ; 
PhyUopod'luni, a leaf regarded mor- 
phologically as an axis, branched 
or uubruncbed ; Pbrllopto'iU 
(iTTi^ii, fall), an unnatural fall of 
leaves ; FhyllorMie {jtiia, a ro< ,. 
an organ intGrmedialo between tuul 
and root, as the capillary leaves nl 
many water plants (Clos); pliyllo- 
Blpbo'nlc (irl^r, a tube), having a 
tubular etele. interrupted at the 
insertion of leaves (Jeffrey) ; Phfl- 
lOEl'phODy, Ihe stale deaoribeil ; 
Pliyllata'oaln (ts'ut, a peacock), 
Schunk'a word for a prodnct of 
chlorophyll, reaemblingphyilocyan, 
but dull green in tint ; PhyUottty, 
Phyliolax'is (ra|ii, arrangement), 
Che mode in which the leaves are 
arranged with regard to the axis ; 
adj. pliyUoMc'Uo ; PIiyllozan'tMn 

( + XANTmM), tbe yellow ooloaring 
matter of leaves, lanthophjll j 
Fhyl'lnlA (a.^Xa, a scat) t, the ecar 
left on a branch by the fall of a 
PbylOg'eny (fuXnr, a tribe, ylret, 
linoAKe), anceetriil histotr deduced 
from development ; adj. phylo- 

Vd^o!, diseonrse), relating 
to physiology ; PbyHol'ogy (veg^eV 
Able), the soience nf the vital 
actions or funations of planta and 
Iheir parts. 

Fbyso'dei (^Dcrn, a bladder, tlSa, like- 
ness), vesicles in Algae filled with 
liquid containing structures, for- 
merlycalled "miaro8omes"(Crato). 

pbytal'buinnBe(^i!Toii,aplBnt, -|> Albd- 
MosR), a proteid found in seeds, aa 
of Abrue ; Pbytobtol'ogy (^Jsi, life, 
\ayai, discourse), the study of tbe 
vital functions in plants ; F&j'lo- 
blast (^Xao7oi, a bud or Sprout), 
BaiUon'i term for a oell in its first 
stage of development ; Pbjtoce- 
oldla {kvI', or ■Ti.Mior, a Ball), 
galls produced by other plants 
(Lundatriim) ; Pbr'tDcbemy ( -i- 
chem), the chemistry of vegetation 
and its products ; Fby'tocblora 
();Xwpot, green) = Chlobofhyll ; 
Pbr'tocyst (ivBT-u, a bag), Baillona 
expression for a cell with its walla, 
q/', Phytoblast; Pbytodei'ma 
(lip/ia, aakiii), any fungous parasite 
growing on the skin ; Pbyto- 
deim'alB. pi., skin diseaees caased 
by Pnogi ; Phytodoma'Ua, pi. 
(Ju^TiQt, a little house), sbeltera 
in which other plants live (Lund- 
sttciin ) ; Phytoero'sia, a misprint 
of Lindley's lor Phttotkbosia ; 
Pliytodyiuun'ics (SiJrafui, power}, 
relating to the movements of 
plants (Sachs); Fbytogel'ln {gela, 


I coageal], the geUline of Al^ap ; 
PbjPtogvn'eiU {y^nait, beginmnH). 
Lhe origin and development of the 
plant ; Phytog'sny, meanB the «Bme 
u the last; Fbj^togaoK'npby, 
Phj/logtograph'ia (yfi, tho barth, 
-ypdtfu, I write), geographic botMiy, 
the Bcience ol plant distribution ; 
tbjUtgno'aia {yrHais, knowledge). 
botiuijr, phytolojjy ; PbTtog'r&pbM 
i7po^, ft writing), a describing 
botaaiit ; njWen.piry, the de> 
Bcription and illuatration of plaats, 
deacriptive and syeteniatic or laii- 
□omic botany ; ph;' told (djoi, like- 
new), plant-like ; PIir'tOllt« [\i9m, 
• stone) ; Fllj'toUtll. a plant in tha 
foaiil condition -, FbytoUtborogy, 
(Xii7Di. diBcourse). the study of 
tosail-pUnts. pataeobutanj : Fhy- 
tol'oglit, a iKHaGist; Pbrtorogy. 
Phylolo'gia, botany, tho study of 
plonlB ; Fhytol'yrrti (XiVn, a loos- 
mg), an error (?) for Photolvbib ; 
pbytomaitig'opod. sec MA-sriiiOPOD; 
Pliy'tomar. pi. Phytom'MS [fif^t 
a part), the unit of a plant, an 
interaode with it« leaTes, an 
emendation of Pby'lon, applied by 
Gaudichaud to a pUnt-unit, out 
of a HncuesaioD of wliioh plants arc 
built up ; Phyton'omy, Pkytoairm'ia 
(»o«oi. law), botanic physiology ; 
FbylOIiym'la (Sm^, a name), plant 
organogiapby ; Pbytoplanlc'ton 
^■^ PUSKTON), flouting pelagii: 
plant orgunisnis ; Fbytopalhol'ogy 
(raPoXiryiii&t. relating to Jiseaaett), 
vegetable pathology, the science 
of plant-diseasea ; PbytopOl'ltui X 
(iraXInK. a citizen), a plant which 
is or seems to be parositio ; Fliyto- 
ptocscld'U (in^iEit, a gall), gslla 
caused by Fungt (Loew); Phyto- 
■tat'lct (irriTii, a standing), the 
various causes which tend to pro- 
duce equilibrium in the energies 
of a plant ; Phytotero'lla (rc/«ui, 
I pierce), Deavaui's term for 
piftnt pathology ; Fbytotflratol'ogy 
\+ Tebatolooy). the study of 
monstrous growths in plants ; 
Riytol'oiny (ro^'lt ^ autUng), plant 

troph'lA [rpot/iii, nourishmeDl), 

T, likCD€ 

b) = Anths- 

kozuid; Fhytoio*iL, pi. of Phyto- 
lo'on, antheroEoids. mobile fertilis- 
ing bodies formed in anCheridi*. 

pic'aiu (Lat.), pitchy black. 

Flc'io-er'ythTln [ritpo%. bitter. + 
Erythrin). a substaooe found in 
Lichena ; Plcrotox'lii (rofiirli, 

ffii9oa), a crystalline narcotic 
.ter ingredient in the borriea of 

Coccultit indiciu, the medianrol 

and trade name of Anamiria 

paaiadata, Coleb. ; adj. piBra- 

plc'toB {Lat., painted), adorned with 

colour, as though painted. 
Pie'tra fungu'la (Ital.), *• Muabroom- 

stone." the selerotium of /Vy. 

pvvt (iibcrruler. Ft. 
plla'rls X (L>at., from piim, a hui), 

composed of smatl hairs, pilose, 
pl'leat«, piUa'liu (Lat., wearing the 

piieta), having the (ona of a oap 

{forma, shape), pileus shaped, 
Pl'Isola, File'oliu (pilrolum. a little 
cap), (1) ft small cap or cap-Uke 
body ; defined by Hcnslow as a 
primordial leaf like an extin- 
guisher, which encloses the bud ; 

(2) the diminutive of Filids; (3) 
"the receptaole of certain Fun- 
gals" (Ijndley). 

Pltoorhl'xai {irlKiat, pUeut, a cap, Ma, 
a root), the root-cap, a hood at 
the extremity of the root ; Pl'Ioiii, 
(1) a convex expansion terminating 
the stipe of Agarics, and bearing 
the hymenium, now extended to ^U 
sporophores in which the hyme- 
nium faces the ground, the Cap ; 

(3) uaed by R. T. Lowe to express 
the habit of Coni'oli-uiitii Cajiut Mt- 

Pl'U, pt. of Film (Lat. a hair), haii«. 

PUld'ttim {rMSior, a. nigbt-cap), an 
orbicular hemispherical shield in 
Lichens, the outside changing into 
a powdery aubstanoe, oa ia OaU- 




plUfaroni, - 

with them ; (2) bairpointed (Lind- 
ley) ; — Lay'er, the young superfi- 
Diat tiuue ot rootB, producing the 
root'httirs, whea presant ; pl'liiurni 
{/orma, ihftpe), applied to the point 
of a nerve in Moases. when like a 
langflexuose hair; pUlg'erona Igtro, 
I b«iir), bearing hain. 
Fill, (irew'e spelling of Peei_ 
pl'IOCir'pln*, the active prinoipla of 

Piloatiriruf, a genUB of Bulaceae. 
pU'O'glBn duloie {pH-ii', a, hair), ased 
by J. Smith for Feraa bearing 
glandular hairs ; pi'lOBB, piia'itiu, 
pl'loiu, hairy, any kind of pilosity, 
oenally meaning having aoCt and 
diatinot haira ; Piloa'117, Piloa'ilai, 
hairiness ; plloatiu'cnliu {Lat.). 
■lielitly hairy ; PI'loelim, abnormal 
hairioeBB in plants ; defoim'ing ~, 
when in oicwe and completely dia- 
flooring the ipecies ; pbyidolo- 
g:lo«l ~, occasioned by oirnum- 
Btancea, as growth in ■ dry soil 1 
taratolog'loal ~ , when it becomes a 

Pil'nlft]: (UC, a globule), (1) a cona 
like a galbulns; {2} an; spherical 

?l'liu (Lat. ), a hair ; </. Pill, 

plm'plefl, papillose. 

plseyed. a florist's term for thoBo 
flowers of dimorphic species, which 
have long styles, the stigma show- 
ing itself at the mouth of the 
corolla- tube. 

plnakendi'yiiuL (tIboJ, a table, lyxii/ia, 
an infusion), the muriform tissue 
of medullary rays, whose com- 
ponent cells are tabular ; PIsbd- 
oh'yma is a shortened form. 

Flnch'ing Bod'ias, the Corfuscci^ of 
Asclepiads : Iho junction of the 
pollinia which otings to the teg of 
an insect visitor -, ~ Trtipi, another 
name for the same mechaniBm : the 
German equivalents are Klenu- 
korper and Klemoienfallen. 

Ptna'tnm (Lat., a pine-^ve], (I) 

n'nlte, a glucoside, sweet and ory- 
Btalline, derived from Pinru Lam- 
l^irHaiia, Dougl. 

Pin'tia, pi. Pls'sM (Lot. a feather], a 
primary division of a pinnate leaf, 
its leaflets, which sometimes them- 
selves are pinnate, are restricted by 
Bower to the " branches of the first 
order home upon the phyllopo- 
dium." the axis of the leaf ; pia'- 
nate. pinna'liit, with leaQets ar- 
ranged along each Bide of a common 
petiole; —with an oiid one^impari- 
pinnat« ; pUuu'tely. in a pinnal« 
fashion, as ~ cam'poimd. ~ cleft, 
- deoom'paund, ~ dlvi'dsd, ~ 
la'bed. ~ par'ted. ~ ter'nate. ~ 
trifa'liolate, ~ veined ; plnna'tlBd, 
piim(U{ridiu< {/fnrfo, Jiili. to cut), 
pinnately cleft ; plBnaUlo'bate, 
pimiattloba'Uu, pinnati/o'tmi {lobua, 
a lobv), pinnately lobed ; pluuaU- 
par'dta, innnaliparti'l^if, pianately 
parted ; plnnatteds'siia, {acUna, 
cleft), pinnately divided or cut ; 
plniu'ttSMt, pitinatiKc'lai {tfclia, 
cut), pinnately divided down to the 
rhachis ; pin'idform {/tyrma, shape), 
like a feather ; ptonlnei'vad {nennu, 
a nerve), pinnately veined, the 
veins running parallel towards the 
margin ; pin'DUlate, with pinnules ; 
Pln'imle, Pinnula. pi. Pin )iuiM,(l) 
a secondary pinna ; (2) in Diatoma, 
thickened ribs on the valves, a« in 

pl'nold (pinus, a pine. tUas, resem- 
blaoce), like a pine-needle. 

Pip, (1) the popolar name for the 
seeds of an apple or pear ; (2) "small 
seeds or seed-like bodies including 
the bulbs of Lily of the Valley'' 
(Crozier) ; (3) a florist's term (or a 

Plp'erln, the active principle of whit* 
and black pepper. Piper nigrum, 
Linn., a white crysUlline body 
isomeric with morphine ; plp'en- 
tus, piperl'tni (Lat., peppered), 
peppery, having a hot, biting 

Id'aUOnn, pisi/brm'is {mmm, a pes, 
/orma, shape), pea-shaped. 



Pli'til, PutU'lum (Lat., a petUe),,!!) 
the lunitle orgui of a flower, a 
■uttng of ov&rj, style and ati^a, 
when oaroplete; (2) thearchegoniW ' 
of the genuB Amiitata (Hooker 
and Tajlor) ; pUtma'oMmi ( + 
ftceoui), growing on the p[alil ; 
ptCOIluy, reUting to the pUtil ; ~ 
Cord, "a channel which psssee 
from the atigma throuEh the styl» 
into the ovsrj " (Lindle;) ; pli'tll- 
IXit.IHitilla-ltu.H) having » pistil : 
(2) Applied to a flawer having pintila 
only, a female flower ; plitUlU'er- 
ou*! -"" (/«">. I bofir), bearing 
pifltUa ; PUtmid'liim, pi. PiatUlid la, 
arohegonia. organs analogous (o 
pUtiin ; ptnUllfrarom (gfro. I bear), 
ptatUUTeroiu {/rro, I bear), bearing 
oD« or more pistilB ; PiiUIla'dy. the 
change of floral organs into carpels. 

Pit, (1) a miall hollow or depression, 
aa in a cell-wall : (2) the endocarp 
of a drupe containing the kernel <>r 
seed-etfine (Crosier) ; — Oluua'ber, 
the OBvitf of a bordered pit un 
each aide of a oloaiog membrane. 

Plteh, a resinooB exudation front the 
spruce, Pitta aiba, Link, etc. 

ntdi'er, a tubular of cup-shtped 
vessel, the terminal portion of a 
leaf-blade, UBuallj conlainiog a 
secreted digestive Said ; an as- 
ciclium ; "Shaped, campanulate, but 

.t tho 1 


Pltb, the spongy 
genouB Bteni, chitfly conaisting of 

Sirenchyma; the medulla :~ Flecks, 
uk marka in timber duo to the 
cavities made by the larvae of in- 
Becta in the cambium, but at once 
filled up by oellular tissue (Hartig). 

plt'tMl, marked with small depres- 
sionB, punctate ; used in a ro- 
stricted Beose for pita in cell-walU ; 
~ Tei'sels, dotted ducts, vesnels 
with secondary thickenings leaving 
thinner spots. 

pltu'ltons [jiituila, phlegm), rulating 

Pltyrl'a^ {itWupap, scurf) vataic'olor, 
a skin disease caused by JficrtM/vron 
Fur/ur, Rob, 

Flacan't* (Lat., ucake), (1] the organ 
which bears the ovules in an ovary, 
often the margin of the carpellary 
leaves; (3} in Cryptogams, the 
liHQe from which sporangia arise : 
~ shaped, placentiform ; FIa'- 
ctBtuy, t a placenta which is long 
and narrow and bears many ovules ; 
Plaoanta'ilnm, placenta ; Flaeen- 
ta'tlon, Piacenla'lio, the disposition 
of the placentae ; placenUfsms 
(/rro. I boar), bearing plaoentae ; 
plocen'tUorm. p/arenli/omt'i* (for- 
ma, nhape), quoit-shaped or like a 
dat cake. 

placscbromat'ie (irXif, rXdm, a flat 
body , xfiiBfiaTH Df,relatingtocolonr), 
UBed of Diatoms with endochrome 
io plates or disks ; 

placo'des (irXainiSiji, flat), tisod by 
KoorWr for Lichenn resembling a 
rounded plate in flcrnre. 

FlaD'ophytei (irXdf , a flat body, ^i/ror, 
a plant), a term applied by Schuett 
to the Peridineae, Diatomaoeoe and 
Deamideae ; </. SAO'copQVTBa. 

plaglod'nmioiis {nXiyuH, obliqne, 
JpowH, a course), applied to tortiary 
leaf-veins when at right-angles to 
the secondary veins ; PlaglOphOtO- 
tax'y {•pin, •puvit, light, rrifii, 
order), the obliqne arrangement of 
uhtorophytl granules with regard 
pbototrop'lc irporq, a turning), 
UBSuming an oblique poaition to 
the rays of light, aa the leaflets 
of Robinia, TropiKolum, etc, 
lUltmanns); plaglotrop'le, having 
the direction of growth ohliqnc 
or horizontal ; Plaglot'roplKn, the 
condition described. 

plain, applied to a margin which is 
nob undulate, though it may be 
sinuate (Crozier). 

plalt'ed, plicate. 

plane, p/a'nui (Lat.), level, even, flat : 
FlMie or Inser'ttou, a plane which 
paanes through (he [Kiint of ioser- 
tton of a lateral organ and coincides 
with the main axis and that of the 
orgm : - of Sym'mstry, that which 




PlMiktol'onr (rXa-nTot, wandering, 
\6yai, a diacoune), the departmeni 
of pelagic botany, that is, of the 
floating organiiDM in tho ocean ; 
Plank'ton, free-swinnniiiK or float- 
ing ooeanio life ; freali WAt«r ~ , 
that of lakes or riven; Derlt'lc~, 
found near the coast; ooson'lc ~, 
pelagic, far from land, 

niui'og«mBt« (rXdrot, wandering, 
yaitinti, sepouae), a mobile ciliated 
gamete or Eoogamete, as in C'hloro- 
phjceae ; Flaa'aipore [trapi, a 
seed), Sanvageau'a term for a 
motile KooBpore. 

Fluit, Plan'la, a vegetable prodnotion 
nouriahed by gases or liquids and 
not ingesting solid particles of 
food (except in the plasmodial 
««ge ot MyiogastrBa) ; ~ Ouie, 
the first year's growth of the sugar- 
cane from seed ; ~ Caa'eln, a sub- 
stance akin lo animal casein ; — 
PoTma'tlDn, an assemblage of plants 
living together in a commaDity 
under the same environment, as a 
moor or wood ; -> Ffttliol'ogy, the 
study of plant- d iseases ; Plan'tae 
Wa'tM, evenina flowering plants, 
as MaUhiola hirornia, IX:., etc.; 
plao'tkl, pertaining to plants *, 
Ptan'ttele, the emiiryo in a seed ; 
Plkn'tlet, a little plant; Plon'tnls, 
Flaii'la/a - Plumule; Ftontnla'Uo 

Plum, PIa«'ma (vXifafui, that formed), 
used for pRororLAsu ; PlaimaiDD«'' 
ba« ( + Auoeba), aniocbiform 
miseet of protoplasm, the actino- 
phrydia of Gobi ; pUsniatop'i 

a rounded 
mass, which at once becomes coated 
with a minibrane, and puts out a 
germ-tube ; Flas'mAtome, or Plai- 
mat'Mome (au/ia, » body), a proto- 
plasmic corpuscle, shortened lo 
PixtBOUE ; plstm»t'le, ready, or 
•erving for growth, plastic ; Plu'- 

mode = PLisuonnTH -, Flaamo'dlaA, 
Camel's term fcir Myiogostrea ; 
plaamo'dlal. pUimo'dlc, pertaining 
to a Plasmodium : Ploimo'dioconi, 
(iflpTot, fniit), an asymmetrical 
Bjmrangium of Myiogastre* (Rosta- 
fliiski) ; Plaimo'iUDKeni {fiyot, 
race, affepring), Macmillan's word 
for the protoplasmic unita of n 
Plasmodium ; plaamodtopli'oms 
(^yx'ur, I carry), producing a true 
Plasmodium ; Plosmo'illuin, a mass 
of naked much-nnoleated proto- 
pjosoi, showing amoeboid move- 
ments; kg:gmB*L'ted ~, the myxa- 
mocboe congregated without fusion, 
each cell giving rise to a spore or 
foot-call ; tnsed ~ , union of myxa- 
moebae and subseqaeot fructiflca- 
tion (Van TieRhem) ; Plasmol'yslB 
(Xinni, a loosing), a separation of 
the living protoplasm from tbe 
cell - wall by oamotio action ; 
plu'moljMd, subjected to plasmo- 
lysis ; aidj. plajmolyt'io ; ploamo- 
ph'agoUB {ipdyui, I eat), al^rbing 
the living organic matter of tbe 
host-plant witbont Heleotion (Boul- 
ger) ; PlAnmxyn'agy [i^ri^iYu, I 
collect), accumulation of the pro- 
toplasts of the iratioplasm and of 
the plustida incfuded in it, due to 
plasmolytio irrilatioo (Tawett) ; 
Plu'ome, a living clement of pro- 
top loam, shortened from Plasua- 
TosoME (Wieener) ; pLu'tlo, caoable 
of being moulded or modiSed ; ~ 
Snb'atancea, those employed in 
building up, as cellulose, starch- 
erains, proteids, eto. ; Plaatlo'l^, 
the quatityot being plastic ;PUa'tlll, 
rlastid'imn, » protoplasmic grannie 
in ootive oelu, differentiated as 
centres ofchemicatorvital activity, 
as CuLouo-, CtiiioMO-, and Lm- 
coriutsTii) : Plu'tidpUim, ( -l- 
Ti^tsH), a supposititious substance 
differing from other forms of pro- 
tojilasm by morphological charac- 
ters (R M. Davis) ; Flu'tidiil», 
Klslwre's term for tbe smattest 
mass of protoplasm which can exist 
as such ) Plas'tin, an essential ele- 

I protoplumio 
I, iocluiiing tbenudeuE 
Bod the chromatophoro* (Zach- 
arita) ; Flaatoir'un; (^b^'O). mu- 
liags). the fusion of c;topla«U 
ioto a pluimodmm, the nuclei 
remaiDiDg disCiDot (Hartog) ; adj. 
pUitt^am'lc ; FlaatOff'eiir [^^'oi, 
race, offspring), when cyWpla»tic 
elements ondergo a reorganisation 
by fuiioa (Uartog) ; Flas'told 
(tltiH, likeness), a nee^lle-shaped 
body fonnd in llie glalk-c*llH o£ the 
tentacles o( I>rottra, becoming 
rounded under stimulus ; a thab- 

Plaie, a flattened structure : f/. 

PUtMQ' (Fr.), (1] the tabercuUrdiBb 
in a bulb which produees the 
scales upwards, and the roots 
downwards, ^. Cohu (Crozioc) ; 
(2) a similar structure in oertain 
ConpoaitH, interposed between 
the ovary and the other Soral 
organs (Leooq). 

plaQ'cii'i^e, platycar'pDQa (itXstiji, 
broad, cifiTA!, Iruit;, broad -frui ted ; 
PUtylob'sae (\o^aT, a lobe), used 
for certain Cruciteta with flat ooty> 
ledons; platylo'bate, broad-lobed ; 
plat]i>hyl'lDUS [ipi-Wor, a leaf], 

?lecoIep'U, i I'ii--:o'''/>'idiiii (rU«u, I 
plait. Xfrli. a scale), the involucre 
of Compositae when the bracts 


Plectanch'yma {t> 
l-y^iVia, an infusion), . 

Pakaplbctbn'cbtma and Pkobd- 
PLKtrn^oiTYMA (Lindau). 
PleloblM'tni (rXEior, more, pXamos, 
a bud), used bj Koerber for those 
Lichen spores which germinate 
at several points ; Plelocbu'liun 
(Xflm), BBporation), each relative 
main axis of a cvme producing 
more than two traneheB ; adj. 
plslochas'lal ; plelocjr'cllc (nitn^i, 
a circle), perennial, u ~ Herlw ; 
PIelom'ei7 (iiJpas, a part), having 

plmmUaitte I 

the normal I 
liam, PIMo- ^ 

more whorls than the normal 
number ; Flatomor'phiBm, 
mor'phj' {iu>p>pi. change), the 
currence of more than one inde- 
pendent form in the life-cycle of 
a species ; Flelonf iim, Delpino's 
lerm for PoLtho&FQt ; plalo- 
phyl'louB, -tiu {•piWov, a leaf}, with 
leaves baring no apparent buds 
in their axils ; Plelopbylly, having 
numerous leaves from the same 
point, or more than usual the 
number of leaflets in a compound 
loaf; PleiopTrs'nlnm ( + Pyrbhidu}, 
Bsiall apothecia in one verruca, in 
Lichens ; plei08p«r'moui {aittpfia, 
a seed), with an nnaBaally large 
number of seeds ; Flelotaz'la, Plelo- 
tAi'7 (Tif't, order), increase in the 
number of whorls in a flower ; 
PleiotrAche'se (-^ Trachba), 
" membranous tubes oc tracheae 
containing a compound spiral 
Gbre " (Cooke) ; Plelox'anj ({ern, 
a host nr guest), where a poraeite 
can invade several specieg of hosl- 
plants (De Bary). 

ple'nuB (Lot.), full, as Flan pUnat 
~ a double Bower. 

Fleochro'idtiu (vVav, more, T(fia, 
colour, oomplexioB), with vorioiu 
colours in the cell- wall; syn., ?1m>- 
ctiTo'mlsm ixp^fia, ooloar), adj, 
pleocbro'lc, pleoobroU'tlo ; Flao- 
mor'pliinti, Fieomor'pli7 (lupipii, 
shape). the same as Pleiomokphish. 

Ple'on, Noegeli'a term for an agere- 
t'ate of molecules, but smaller than 
a Mireu^. 

ne'onasm lir\iiraaita, a surpliu), 
redundance in any part (CroKier). 

Ple'nlme (rXt^purfui, that which SUa), 
the cylinder or abaft of a growing 
point enolosed and overarched by 
periblem ; ~ SbOfttll - BcttDLB- 

pleaiomor'phous (rXija-Iai, near, /Mp^, 
thape), nearly of the same form 
H^roiier). \ 

Tiea'n {ilitupi, a side or rib), the gir- 
dle or hoop of Diatoms (O.Mueller) ; 
Plenrencb yma {fyxi-f^i, an infn- i 

sion), woody tissue ; plenroblu'tie J 


(BKaerbt, n bud), used of oerUin 
lonns of Fungi, producing laUtrul 
ontgron'tliB serving as hauBtorisi ; 
pleu'ocaT'poiia, •put {tapTit, fruit), 
applied to tliose MosseH which 
bear their fmctificatiou on lateral 
growthB, ij". ACSOCARPOFS ; pI«uro- 
dU'rana {Slatot, a quoit), when an 
appendage ifl attached to the flides 
of a diHO ; plenrogy'rate, pleiiro- 
ffyro'Ciw {yiipot, roand), wlicn Fern- 
Bporangia have tlie annuluB hori- 
toDtalipIeiuog7n'liu, plenroKjm'ui 
(■yvvi], a woman), UBtd when a 
glandular or tubercular elevation 
riseB close to or parallel with 
the ovary ; plenroplss'tle [x\airroi, 
moulded), Prantl's term for a. leaf 
in which the central portion first 
attains permanency, the meriBtem 
being marginal ; plenroTbi'iaJ, -:u< 
(^Ifa, a root), when an embryo has 
its radicle against one edge of the 
oot;ledoDS, which are then acciim- 
bent ; n«nr'oapenns (o-iriV^, a 
■eed), AngiospermB which began 
with chalaKogsmy, but have De- 
come porogsmouB (Nawaschin) ; 
adj. pleUToaper'mlc ; neurospor- 
■ttg'lilin (oxopo, a Beod, di-yefov, a 
vcBBel), a aporangium which pro- 
duces pleuroepores ; Flenr'a«p«re, 
a spore formed at the sides of a 
basidium in BasidiomjcstoB (Van 
Tiegjiem) ; pleurotri'bal, op plenr'o- 
tribs (T-p/jSu, I heat), used of Bowers 
whose stameuH are adapted to de- 
posit their pollen npon the sides of 
inseot- visitors. 

^exMblas'Ini t (rX^'fn, a knitting, 
pKaarii, a bud), when cotyledons 
rise above ground in germination, 
bat do not assume the appearance 
of leaves i plex'ua(Lat., a twining), 
a networlt. 

FU'ca, pi. FU'OM {plino, I fold or 
plait). (1) a plait or folding: (2) 
the lamella in Fungi : {S) a disoaae 

Flicft'tjon, a fold or folding ; pIto'&- 
Uve, pliefifi'vfu ~ FuoATt; PUtfu- 
tuTB, a fold or doubling ; pUcftt'n- 
late, the diminutive of plicate 
(Crosier): pli'olform (/ormu, ahape), 

Plococar'plnm (rXoic^, a trees, (o^j, 
fruit) = FoLLicLK ; Plopooiir'irinm, 
an error for the last. 

Fltun-pock'eu = UAn-PLCus. 

Plomba'gliie, a crystalline principle 
in ihe roots of Plvmbago. 

plutnb'eua (Lat., leaden), lead-col- 

plumft'tnt (Lat,). feathered, pinnate. 
Plume ( Lat. , the down of a feather), 

(irew's term for the Plumulb; pin'- 

moae, pttimo'iue (IJat.), feathered, 

as the pappus of thistles. 
Pln'mnle, Plti'mtda (Lat., a little 

feather), the primary leaf-hud of 

plDT-, pln'rl (Lat.). used as a prefix 
for many or several, as pturilocolar, 
many-cetled, etc. 

riuT-ui'iiaaJ ( -I- Annoal), L. H. 
Bailey's word for an annual plant,, 
which is so only by being killed by 
the cold at the end of tue scaaon, 
as Rratda odorata, Linn.; plnrl- 
oellular( +cuini..AB), many -celled; 
pla'llcsps ('(■</!« from capiii, a head), 
with more than one head, as many 
roots 1 plnrifo'lUta, pIurUoliOQi 
l/olium, a leaf), having several 
leaves ; plniiro'Uolat«, with several 
or many leaSets ; pluiillor'onB, -rtu 
iJtoB, jfont, a flower), with several 
llowers; plnrlloc'nlaT.p^uH'ocufa'na 
{loculits, a, little place), many- 
celled ; plniipar'tittt, pluriparti'lut 
ipartilui, divided), deeply divided 
into several nearly distinct por' 
tions; plnrlpat'alOQs (rfraXnp, a 
flower-leaf), polypetalous ; plurl- 
sep'lats (teptum, an enclosure), 
with several partitions ; plnri- 

— ' (o-TTopo, a seed), having 

lore seeds ; plurlr'alent 
ig), used of nuolear 
rhioh each element is 
composed of two normal elements 
(Haerker); plBrlY»l'Yls{, 

■par'oiiB (o-Ti 
two c 

tnanj'-valved, u nppoaed to l 
valved or foUicutnM. 

Pnaa'm&to - ohymirerft [Va'u] t 
{wrii-na, i-wi'^Tot, brpBth, air), 
■piral VQBnels (Lindle;) ; Pnen'- 
HMtode IMdi. a way), any open- 
ing of the nature of a lenticel ar 
■toma (Jost) ; Poan'matophore, 
fBnimofD/A'oruin [^p^w. I uarryl, 
(I) need of air-veaaaU of any de- 
aoription, as tracheidx ; (2) inter- 
cellular spaces in Rliizophoreae 
(Karaten) ; (3) X the membranoDS 
tube of a spiral vess«l (Lindley) ; 
pii«nnui,tot«c'Uo {7-airi>»t, npi for 
arraogemeat). applied to those 
EOOBDorea whose irritability is de- 
pendoBt on the presence of die- 
solved f^aseB, the products of 
respirtttioo of the Koospores in the 
sporangium (Harlog) ; Pnannutto- 
tax'y, the uondition described ; 
ns^aUve —, the irritability which 
determines the escape of certain 
■poroa, M in Acklya ; Fneuna- 
toferni {firo, 1 bear), the ex- 
ternal membranous tnbe of spiral 
vessels (Henalow). 

Fook'M-pliLma - BA(!-PLri>a. 

peCnlUtmn, jimvli/orm'U (pncnlian, 
B cup, forma, shape), shaped like 
a goblet or drinking- oup. 

Pod, a dry and many-seeded dehis- 
cent fruit, a legume or silique ; ~ 
■Uke, Applied to such fruits as 
those of CorydaiU, Hypecoum, and 

pada'tUfatm [-i-PoDETitiu from voti, 
woSbi, a fool, forma, ahnpe), shaped 
like a podeliiim ; Fode'ttam, (I) a 
stalk-like elevation rising from the 
thallus and supporting an apothe- 
cium in some Lichens: (2) also 
applied to the Bupport of the 
oapitiilum of Mardmntia ; and (3) 
the seta of Mosaea : Pode'ta t >s 
given by Lindloy as a synonym, 

podlcel'lBlBi Leigh ton's term for 
slAlked, as applied to Lichens. 

PodMl'lnm t B very short podetium 
(Lindley) ; Fod'lnm, Pod'ns, a font- 
stalk or similar support; Fod'ocaip, 
Podooa.t'paji {nipTtii, fruit), a alipi- 

tate fruit, that is, when the ovary 
ta borne by a gynophore ; podo- 
cepb'aloua, -fus (n^Xi}, a bead), 
with a pedunculate head ; PodO- 
gyn'iiuii (Yi»fj, a woman), an 
eleTalion in the centre of a flower 
which carries the ovary, s gyno- 
phore ; adj. podagyn'lnu, podo- 
g'ynns; podop'terout (in ' 

{awtpua, a teed], the 

stalk of a seed, the tnnicle. 
Fo'gun (nfrywr, a beard), used in com- 

positioQ to denote any collection of 

long haira. 
Point'aJ, an old term for PiffnL ; 

polnt'lESB, mnticous; polnfletted, 

Folache'na, Polacke'iia Polnkt'ni'am 
(toXi>i, many, a, without, xaitu, 
1 gape), Richard's term for a fruit 
like > cremocarp, but composed of 
five carpels, <;f. pKNTACnrNinM. 

po'lar, relating to the poles of an 
organ ; ~ Hloc'iilar, applied to 
Lichen spores which have cells at 
the opposite apices. 

Po'lar {iti\n, a. pivotl Bod'I*^ a 
portion of the protoplasm of a 
mother-cell thrown off as iiuole»tcd 
cella from the oospore before fertili- 
sation ; ~ Cell, = ~ Body ; ~ Cor- 
pus'cle, the central maaa in each 
AsTEK of a dividing nucleus ; ~ 
Olob'uls, - ~ Bom ; - Kn'dena 
B fourth nucleus in each group at 
the two extremities of the embryo 
sac, which move towards themidille 
of the embryo sotc and there coalesce 
to form the secondary nncleos ; 
Folai'lty.O) the oondition of having 
distinct poles ; (2) the assumption 
of a direction pointing to the poles, 
- the compaas-plsnt, SU^imn 


m, Lin 

PoIem'bryoiiy = Po£.rKMHBTOKT. 
pe'Ieword [diasyl. ], towards the poles, 

in nuclear divi si on - 
Polexosty'las (woXui, many, i{u, (rat, 

iTTdXot, style) = CAfiCKBlTLB. 

Po'UoplMm {sdXioi, grey, iXdo-w, 
moulded), Tawetl'a term for the 

oirculattng portion ol ths ayto- 


poU'lui iLitt.), poliabed. 

poItaotilg'eimB(ToXXax?, oflen,yctriw, 
1 bring forth) — polycarpic. 

Pol'lan (Lat. Gne fiour), (1) the fertJ- 
Uaing dnst-liko powder produced 
b; the iintberB of PhuierOKUns, 
more or l<»is globular in Mape, 
■ometimeB spoken of ts "Micro- 
ipoTCs"; (2) Ihe sntherozoidi of 
MosaeB (Hooker and Taylor); ~ 
OUT'laT. the retiDacuIum of Ascle- 
piada, the gland to which the 
pollen -niaaaee are attached, either 
immediately oc b; csadiolea ; ~ 
Oelli, cavities of the anthers in 
whioh pollen is formed ; ~ Oha'm- 
Ker, (U a cavity at the apex of 
some ovules beneath the inte^u- 
menta in which the pollen-grams 
lie after pollination, as in Cucat ; 
(2) the eitine of tlie polteo in 
tome Coniferne dilated into two 
hollow oipBnaiona to facilttatc 
dispecaion by wind : r- Qr&ls, 
Qran'ole, the small bodies wbioh 


latter term is also nsed for the 
oontenta of the grain ; ~ BIui, 
poUen grains cohering by a wa>:y 
texture or Son threads into a singfe 
body; ~ 8u, the mjcro-aporangium 
in Phanerogama ; ~ Spore = ~ 
GnArN ; ~ TeX'nA, the shape of 
certain groups oonsisting of four 
grains cohering in a pyramid, sa 
in Oenolltera; ~TetiaIi(>d'ron — lagC; 
~ Tube, the tube emiCLod by a 
pollen grain passing down from 
the ati^a to the ovary and 
ovules. — The various markings of 
the pollen •grains in Acanthaceoe 
have received special names from 
L. Radlkofer and G. Lindau, 
whioh have been used in their 
original form in the " Flora of 
Tropical Africa"; the following 
account of them may be useful : 
Dan'bKi >- (Stave '-) a modifica- 
tion of Schalen- or Bpalten ~ , with 
broadened Gssures having a stave- 

like insertion : So'sen - (Box ~), 
elliptic, with three longitudinal 
stripes and a pore in eochi TamU 
tler'ter ~ (Kscet ~ ), with facetted 
surface; Fal'ten ~ (Fold -), with 
smooth surface and three deep 
longiladinal grooves ; QIat'ter ~ 
(Smooth ~).de«tiluCeot prominent 
markings; 0*r't«l ~ (Girdle -), 
hiLving a zone of varied marking ; 
Kam'miad ~ (Cogwheel ~), having 
regular projecliona on the equa- 
torial resiou ; Kniit'chetL ~ , an 
abbreviation for Snttt^Aendo'sen 
~ .(Nodule — ), having a tuberculala 
surface ; Ltn'san '- (Lens —), 
doubly convex in form ; Boll'inui 
- (Frame ~), with six email and 
three brood streaks between the 

Eulca ; Kip'pen - (Rib — ], with 
ingitudinol riha having punctate 
markinga on them ; Rnn'der ~ 
(Round ~) sphericol in form ~; 
Belui'iMi- (Shell ~ ), with three slit* 
which do not reach the poles, and 
witlicmt pores, the pollen -ttibeB 
emerging from the slita, </. Bpal- 
TES ~ ; Bpal'ten ~ (Fiaanre -), 
with three longitudinal fisanres, 
sometimes with pores in them ; ^. 
SciiALSN ~ ; Span'ten — (Clasp 
~ ), main ribs three, smaller ribs 
six, with three porea in the equa- 
torial region, one between «ach 
two of the smaller ribe ; Sta'chel ■^ 
(Spine — ), having a apiny 
surface, pores from three to 
many ; Wa'twn — (Honey-comb 
~), having an areolate surface; 
pol'lonate, to fertilise by pollen ; 

PoUenft'tton = ?om.ination ; poi- 
Uttireroni, -nw {/era. I beor), 
pollen -bearing; FollBnlne, the oon- 
tentaof poilBH-grains; Pol'lanold = 


Fol'lex (Lat., a thumb), an tuch in 
length, nearly 25 mm. 

poIllca'Tls (Lnt.. pertaining to a 
thumb), an inch in length, about the 
length of the end joint of the thumb. 

FOUliia'iluin, pi. ?alUiw'ria (PolUn. 
fine flour), (1) = AtiDKOtnivu ; (2) 
= CvsTmitiH. 

B (Lat.. pertaining to fine 

flour), pouino'itu, aa though duBted 
with pollen, 
pol'llnate, to applj pollen to the 
receptive am face of the female 
orgui ; porUnated, pnllina'liis, 
when a stigma is supplied wjtii 
pollen ; FoUlnft'tloil, the plaoiag of 
the pollen on the stigma or stig' 
matic surface; lateral — . r^. rLcrtio- 

tc duun'Iiar = Follen-Cuuibeb ; 
PoUUi'lam, vL PalUn'la, a bod; 
composed of all the pollen-graint 
of nn anther-locutus, a pollen-maes; 
PoUlnlia'tlon — Polukation ; Pol> 
llno'dliun, in ABComycetes, a male 
Be:tusl organ which ooojngateH 
with a female oroun, ilirectif orh; 
outgrowth ; Pol llnotdi (tKoi, re- 
semblance), naked molionleaa 
masses of protoplastn, spherical or 
elongated, sometimes beaked, act- 
ing in the place of antherozoide in 
Florideae ; iwUln'lcu* (jieilt», fine 
Soar), composed of or bearing some 
relalioD to pollen. 

Pal'T«riBe (Ital., polverino), calcined 
ash of a soda-jielding plant, 

PolTadel'phla (roX^i. many. i3i\-p6i, 
a, brother), a Linnean artiticial 
claaa with Htaiuens grouped into 
several brotherhoods or bundles ; 

poiyad'snooi {dSV. a gland), with 
manf gUnds ; Polfan'dlla (drij/i, 
luSpos, a nian), a Linnean vloas of 
plants poeseBsiag many stamens in 
each flower ; polyan'drlaii. poljan'- 
droni, having an indefinite number 
of stamens ; polran'thooi, -thite 
(irSm, a flower), having many 
flowora, partioutsj-ly if within the 
same involucre ; polyarl'iiQi (%»|r, 
male), Necker's term tor I'oltaij- 
DKoca ; polyax'tal ( + aiial), nsed 
of an inflorescence in which the 
flowers are borne on secondary, ter- 
tiary, etc., branches ; polyblu'Iua 
{parrot, a bud). Koerber's term for 
those Lichens which have poly sep- 
tate spores; polycam'anu {tatidpa, a 

vault) = POLYCABPic ; polycarpel'- 
laiT ( + CARTKixrH), of many car- 
pels, f[«e or nnited ; poIjTMr'plo, 
polyW'plwtu (lupiroi, fruit), fruiu 
ing man}' timea, indefinitely ; uied 
by Dc Candolte to denote a peren- 
nial herb; polycu'poas, -ptu, (1) 
= poLTCABPic i (2) of a flower in 
whicli the gynaecinm forma two or 
more distinct ovaries ; <if, moko- 
cARPic; polyoepb'alom,-^iu(if^a\ij, 
a head), bearing many heads or 
oapituU ; polyeephaJi PUi. are hairs 
divided at the end into several 
arms ( Lindley ) ; polToUor'la, an 
error for roLvi-HOKis ; Foljolior'loa 
* Folydmrlon'ldas, t Polyohnr'lB 
(xApm'i foetal membrane), ay no- 
nyms for Etakrio ; Polychro'lts 
[jjjia. colour, compleiioo), the 
yellow colouring matter of saffron ; 
Pal'yclirome (x/u;w, colour), a sub- 
stance oocurriog in the bark of th« 
korse-chestnut which givas rise 
to varying colours : Polyotad'lA, 
Polyclad'r (iXdiai, a branch), plica, 
a Bit pern umerary development of 
branches and leaves ; adj. polyiiU- 
d'oQi ; polyooc'cans, -ctm (liirat, a 
kernel), having many cocci ; Pirty- 
clo'DOJi, Pidyolo'ny (n\iir, a branch), 
a aynonym of Poltcladia ; Poly- 
cotyle'don, pi. Polycotyle'doiiei ( -H 
Cotyj.ei)om), a plant which has 
several ootjledona ; adj.polyootj^. 
doQOUS ; Polyootyle'dony, an in- 
creased number of the cotyle<lona, 
more than two ; pOlycy'cLc (mJxXos, 
a circle), when the members of a 
series, such as a calyx, or corolla, 
are in several circles ; polyeyi'llo 
{nVrit, a bag) composed of several 
cells (BaiUon); polydftl'phona = 
PiiLYADELrHOUS (CroEier) ; poly- 
em'biyonate ( + Rmbrto), having 
more than one embryo in a 
aecd ; Polyem'biyony, the pro- 
duction of more tlian a singlo 
embryo in an ovule ; adj. P^- 
em'bryon'lc ; polyfloi'oiu, -nu [Jlai, 
Jlori*, a flower), a barbarism for 

Polygam'ia, a Linnean dImi c 

the stem 

iiewr, the « 

tainiDg plants with [lolfgamoUB 
flowers 1 polygun'laii - pulvoak- 
OCs ; pOlyg'BmDiu (^d^ai, mar- 
riage), with hermaphrodite and 
anise xual Bo vera on the wud€, 
or on ditTerent individaaU «[ 
the Bune species ; Foljg'tunf. the 
condition described : potTK'luO' 
dtoe'olona, dioeciouily poly gam oub 
(Crozier) ; Polyt'eny (yitos, race) 
Huiley's tetm for P(ji.yphvi.ksi3 ; 
■ '■' (■yi'i', * Loee), where 
boa Qtaoj knots ; 
{yayla.. an angle), 

; polTgynae'dAi {yyr- 

multiple f mi tB furmudby the unite'] 
pistils of many Qowere; polygT^'oos, 
polygyii'Jcna(7ui^,a woman), having 
m soy distinct Bty lea ; Folyg^n'lti, a 
Linnean order of planta so oonsti- 
tnted i Poljir'yny = Poly<iamv ; 
polfgy'roi (^iiyHi, a circle), in several 
whorls or cirulee. 

rolyhed'ron, pi. ?o\ybei'rt.(ro\6flpor, 
a solid of many bases), a stage in 
the growth of llydrodictgon, when 
Che hypnosperm or resting spore 
breaks up intfl several niegozoo- 
spores which put out hom-like ap- 
pondsges : these polybedra break 
up into zoospores. 

polytap'ldiia (ro\i)», many, \itU, 
ytnltat, a scale), having many 
Boales : polyni'eroua. -rue (t^pot, a 
part), with numerous members (.u 
eouh series or cycle ; polynior'phic, 
pOlymor'phoni, -pkus [ii,iip^%, a 
change), with several or varioue 
forma ; variable as to habit ; 
Fclymsr'ptiy. the existence of more 
thaD one form of the snme orj;an 
on a plant ; polyssur'ls {mupU, a 
sinew), where the veins of a leaf, 
especially the secondary veicE, are 
numerous ; polfol'coua (oIiot, a 
bouse), a combination of (a) av- 

ST^tOlcouB, with DiOiooDS Uoasos ; 
poIyoTnla'tOB (+ Ovuluu), fur- 
nished with many ovules; poly- 
pefalotu, -Itu ( + Pktal), having 
I MvenU distinot pet&Is ; Pol'yphors, 


PolypKor'ivm {tpop^u, I curry), a 
torus with many pistils, as of a 
strawberry ; Polyphyle'sls ( + puvi,- 
ETic), descent from more than one 
line of descent ; adj. pQlypbylet'ic ; 
Polypbylog'eny (-1- PavLouEwt), 
lineage through several lioes ; poly. 
phyHous {ipi/Wor. a. leaf), having 
many leaves 1 Pol'ypbyll, an increase 
in the normal number of organs 
in a whorl ; Poryplftit (irXsirrai, 
moulded), a group of mono- 
plasts which are the organic 
eleroents of protoplasm (Vogt), 

polyp'oroni, relating to the fungus 
genus PolypoFus. 

polyrhl'iol, poIyrM'ioni (toX£i, nuny, 
^Ifa, a toot), (1) having numerous 
rootlets ; (2) where parasitAs have 
many distinct rootlets apart from 
their baustoria ; Polysai'ak (o-Apf , 
eapKoi, flesh), an unnatural growth 
due to excess of nutriment ; Poly- 
•e'cni i (r7^(oi. a stall), Desvaux's 
term for an Etaewo ai in Mag- 
Hoiin; polytep'almia, -hts ( + Sepal), 
with many distinct sepals ; poly- 
at'phonoils {al^r, a tube), applied 
to a filament of several coherent 
longitudinal rows of cells ; pol'y- 
*p«Tin, polysper'nul, polysper'- 
mant, -rout {mtipiux, a seed), when 
a pericarp has numerous seeds ; 
Pol'yspore (mropi, a seed), a multi- 
cellular spore composed of Mk- 
msroHKS (Bennett & Murray) ; 
polyipOT'ooB, containing many 
spores, used of Cryptogams, as in 
asci when more than four or 
eight spores occur ; polys'tachons 
(CroKier) = polyrtooh'youa {m-dx'^i 
a spike), having many spikes : 
polystello, polyite'lons (-fSTiti^), 
with mote than one plerome strand 
at the growing point, so that the 
stem has more than one st«le, as 
in GititJimi : Polyste'ly, the oon- 
dilion speuified ; poIyiWmoBOtu, 
-nus {trniiuir, a GUmenb), having 
majiy stamens, polyacdroua ; poly- 
•tlff'inu* {+ Stioha) with many 
carpels, each originating a stigma ; 
polfs'tomonf, -mus {irt6pa a 

1 moDlhed, witb 
ken or h&uitoriB ; 
polyityloiu, ■lua{+ Stvlb), wiih 
eeverkl atjlea : polriTmmst'rlal 
[avmxt^a, apt proportion), having 
bilateral symmetry in more planna 
one, autiDomorpbic ; polj- 
u'lo ($dXa^i,A bed-chamber), 
(1) having mora than one female 
fiower nithin the involucre ; I?) 
derived from more than one flower, 
B fruit; poIrtlie'leiiB 
(flij^ij, a nipple), used of a flower 
which contains several dietinot 
; polj^'oootu. -ctu (Tiiot, a 
birth), (miting year after year, 
ooulwjirpaua ; |»I<rt'omoai, -miu 
(to/1^. a cutting), apparently pin- 
nste. but the pinnae not articu- 
lated to the common petiole ; Fotyt'- 
om;, (I) in an infloraocence, having 
more aiea than in dichotomy ; (2) a 
false pinnBti on ; polyt'rlctu>UB(PpIf, 
T^Xo<i 'I hair), having many haira ; 
Palyfiopimi (rpor^, a twining). 
Archangali'B term vhen leaves 
plaoe their lamina vertically and 
meridionally, the two surface e 
facing eaxt and west ; polytrop'lc, 
Loew^s term for bees which visit a 
wide circle of flowers ; polylyp'lc 
Mvat, a type), applied to a geniie 
having »everal species ; Polyi'ony 
[fimt, a guest) = pLtioxEsif ; 
PolTiTgro'iU (Mot, a yoke), the 
ooDJagation of more than two 
gametes (Crozier). 

pomA'oeoiu (pcmum, a fmit, + ac- 
eous), relating to apples ; Pome, 
Pe'ruium, an inferior H'ait of several 
oells, of which the apple is the 

■"■-' — I (Lnt.), in the after- 

pomlTemu, po'mi/tr (pomvm, a fruit, 
_ftro, I b^r), pome-bearing ; po'- 
mllbrm, uom i/omt'ia {/orma , n h npe ), 
shaped like an apple ; Pomol'ogy, 
Pomo/o'gia {\6yo!, diaoaurse), the 
Boienos of edible cultivated froiU. 

Pomo'aa, an accountof the fruits cul- 
tivated in any given diatriot or 
country; the name is mythological. 

jMopb'lIou {ria, grass, inXtia, I love), 
meadow-loving plants which oon- 
lort with grasses (Poand and 
Clements) ; Pn'opbyto {•fiirrir, a 
plant), a plant inhabiting meadowBi 

adj. poopbyt'lo, pratal. 
■ ■. ■■ irvBtallisi ' ' 

from the bark of ti 

Fo'pullii, a c 

iisable substance 

iw rr>-oin/a, Linn. 
POTSiD'dTOiu (ir&iMT, a passage, drtjp, 
drSpot, a man), when the anthera 
open by pores; Pors, Por'iu. (1) I 
any small aperture, as in anthers, 
for the emission of pollen in the 
pollen grains themselves, in the 
epidermis as stomata or wat«r' 
porea ; (2) in Polyporut, any of the 
lube -like openings, forming Ibe 
bymeniuDi: (3) large pitted vessels 
or trachexls in wood : ~ Canal', 
the poBsago through a pit beCwsen 
nuignbouring cells ; ~ Gap'inla, a 
capsule dehiscing by pores, as in 
the poppy ; ~ Clr'ale, the zone in 
the annual rings of certain trees, 
such asoah, which displays nomer- 
oua trocheida ; ~ Cork, cork-celb in 
lenticels with intercellular spacea 
between them (Klebahn) ; ~ ¥*»'■ 
sage, the stomatio passage between 
the i 

cor'tical ~, = Lenticel ; Poran- 
ch'yma (iyxi-iia, an infusion), tiBSiM 
of elongated cells, and apparently 
pierced by pores ; pitted tiaaue ; 
porlei'dal (caedo, ctcidi, to oat), 
applied to anthers whioh open 
by pores, porandroua ; por'UOnll 
(/ornia, ahapo), like a pore (Leigh- 
ton) ; For'ogamB {ydfuit, marriage}, 
EhaneroeamoiiB plants which are 
irlilieed by way of the chalsut 
inst^'ad of the micropyle (Trenb) ; 
Porog'amy, the condition do- 
scribed ; odj.porog'amonB : por'ate, 
pori>'*iM; por'ouB, pierced with 
small holes ; ~ Ves'sels, pitted or 
dotted veeaela. 

porpliyT'eiu(rD/)#i5pfoi, purple), purple 
in colour, purpureas ; porptayraloti'- 
ma (Xtunot, wbite), light purple. 

pom,'Deoaa, porra'ceut (I^t.], leek> 

fomel', porrtc'ttia ( Lat, itretehed 
oat), directed outward and for- 
ward ; (/. ARRBTT. 

por'illiu ( Lnt. ), Bomewhat porouB. 

ror'iu = PoBB. 

poa'ltive, tho absolute or effective 
goDdition, opposed to negative, and 
prefiled for emphaais to auch temiB 
u GeatropisiD, Hctiotropism, H;- 
drotropiim, elc, 

pOlM'ilor (Lat., coming after), {!) 
neit or towarda the main aiis, 
■nperior ; Ihe reyerse of anthbiob ; 
{2} in antherB = extbijrsb ; pOB- 
tt'oftl, jHMtl'coila, posti'etig (Lat., 
that which ifl behind), on the poe 

Spruce and others use " postical " 
foe the ventral or rooting face of 
the atem of Hepaticae. 
pOBtTBDUt'toQa, -fnu (;m»/, after, iiento, 
I come), applied to growths which 
ariee BUbaequenC to their normal 

poMn'tlal (polnWin, force), eiistiog in 
pomibilit;, Dot in action; QsuTin 
oppoaitioo to KiNicTic; ~ Qam'eto- 
pliyte, one which is functionally 
aaeiual ; ~ Psyulta. a sapro- 
phyte whioh can live e()Bally la 
a parasite i — Sap'rophfta, a para- 
Hite capiibte of eiiHttog a« a aapro- 

Pot«toiQ'et«T (■ori)i, 3 drink, v-hpot, a 
meoaure), apparatus for meaearing 
the amount of water sivon off by 
the leaves of plants (Moll) ; PotO- 
in'etar, a aimilar ioatrument for 
meaaurine the flow of liquids in 
tiiBUei (F: Darwin). 

pott'lold (tiJQi, likeness), resembling 
the genua PrMia. 

Pnioh — Siunu; ~ sbaped, hollow 
and bag-like, as the spur in many 
Orchids i (Uges'tiVB- ; used by Van 
Tiegheni and Douliot for the root- 
oap of the lateral roots of Legiim- 
inosae and Cuourbitoceae. 

pow'der?, covered with a fine bloom, 
M the leaves of Frimvla JarintMa, 

■ ■pTM-i or pM- (proe, before), eipreeaei 
priority lo time or place, 


pru'cos (Lat., earlv ripe), appearing 

or developing early ; precocious. 
Praaflora'tlcni (praejloratio. hlosioni- 

ing before time) = Aestivatiis. 
PraefoHa'tlon ffirar,, bnlore, /olirim, a 

l«i.f| = Vbbsation. 
prae'inoiM, praemor'naK (Lat., bitten 

Bt the end), as though the end were 

bitten off. 
praera'sDs (, apparently gnawed 



praena'tne (Lat., burned 
looking as if scorched. 

pras'lnons, praa'intu (Lat.), grass- 
green, leek-f!;re«n. 

pra'tal {pralam, a meadow). 

Watson's term for those plants 
which grow in meadows or lujiu- 
riant herbage-, preten'ili (Lat.), 
growing in meadows, or pertAining 

precator'liiB (Lat., relating to peti 
ing), used lor a rosary, aa the seeds 
of Abrns ; ~ oo&tax'ttu, necklace- 
sbaped, moniliform. 

pre'das (Lat. ),pTsco'oioiU — 

predom'iluijit. "very conspienc 
(Braitbwaite): in exoesa (L.eigfaton). 

PieBora'tlon = pKAEFLottATioN ; Frs- 

PTBlorma'tlon [pre, befc , _ 
a sbaping), the theory of the func- 
tion of gerni-plosm, a complex 
Bubatance whose ultimate factors 
direct ths vital activities of the 
cell, and resultant form of the 

Prehaiutor'limi [pre, before, + Haun- 
TOKllTu), papillate epidermal oells 
of CwKvIa, by which nutriment is 
obtained before the fomation of 
haastoria (Peirce). 

premorsa' (Ct-niier) — PRAEMORSca. 

Prepo'tency (/rre, before, jMleHlia, 
power), the quality by which cer- 
tain pollen fertilixea a given piatil, 
in preference to other polleo. 

Pru'auTS, stress or distributed foroe 
causing turgor or compreBsion ; 
root*, pressure existing in the 
root-tissues tending to cause the 
rise of liquid in the stem. 

prerenttt'loiu (proe, before, vmio, I 

oome) Bndi, donnuit e;«a, pn<- 

WDl on >ny given portion of the 

stem, which prodooe epioormio 

brkDohea (Hsrti^). 
prtTer'iul {jm, before, pentaiii, of 

the gpringl, oarlyjpring flowaring. 
PrloklB, outgrowthe oE the rmil ot 

b&rk, SB those of the roie ; pilck'ly, 

armeil with pricklea. 
pTl'muy, yriiHa'riva {IaU, ohief), (1) 

lued of the ptirt first developed ; 

(2) the m&in divisioas of a leaf or 

umbel ; ~ Ax'li, the main stem ; 

— Bait, conaist* of sieve tiaaucc 
and pireochyma ; — Cor'lex, the 
Pkbirlem ; ~ Dti'moirai, - Pro- 
CAMBiUM ; ■~ Lunsl'lA, of a spore, 
is the outermost lajer of its ooats, 
reprefleDting the origiaal wall ; 

~ LeaTM, the primordial leaven ; 

-Lay'w, 8ee"t«petalceU"(infra|; 

~ Mam'brute, the first {f| oell-wat! ; 

~ HBm'bera. the primary shoot 
and root ; - Her'Utein, the embry> 
onio tiaaue of a young organ ; ~ 
Pat'lole, the main rhaohia ot a oom- 
pound leaf : ~ PUo'aln = ~ Bast ; 

— Root, the main root developed 
from the radicle ; ~ Shoot, tlie maJD 
stem developed from the plumule -. 

— 8tmc'tare, a naaceat orftan, as of 
root or shoot ; ~ tape'tal Call, or 
tAr'er, the source whence the tApe- 
tum is formed by bipartition ot a 
cell or layer of periblem ; the Other 
part of the divieion becoming the 
arohesporium ; ~ Tia'sne, (a) that 
firit formed or {h) formed during 
the first aeason's growth ; ~ Wood, 
the wood developed by tho pro- 

prlndgsn'lns (Lat., first produced)^ 

rn'mlne, Fri'mina (primiis, firat), tho 
outer integument of an ovule. 

prim'ltlve, jirivnli'pwi [ Lst. , firat 
of its kind), applied to the part 
first developed ; specific types, 

bnds ; ~ WoU, a boundary between 
the ooplasm and periplasm of the 
oosphere in Cystopaa BliCi, De 
Bary (Stevens], 

Prtmor'diA, |>l. of Prlmor'dlDni (Lat., 
the beginning), a member or organ 
in tta earliest condition ; the Car- 
man ' ' Anlago " ; priioor'dlal, pri- 
mordia'lU, firsb in order of appear- 
anca ; ~ Oall. a naked ceU, ons 
withoat accU-wall ; ~ Bplder'tnl^ 
the epidermis when first formed • 
-Leaf, an intermediate Eorm be- 
tween the cotyledon and thosA of 
the adult plant produced by growth 
from the plumule ; — Tia'sne, 

S'Qund tissue ; ~ Il'trlcle.the oater 
yer of cell -protoplasm lining tha 
inner aurfaoe of a vacuolated cell ; 
by some eonsidered the same aa 

Prl'mospore {primut, first, oroBd, a 
seed), term proposed by C. Mac- 
millan for those cases in which tha 
spore is but little differentiated 
from an ordinary cell of the parent 

prlsmat'lc, jiriamat'icia (Lat., like a 
prism), prism-sbapadiwith flat faoea 
separated by angles ; PrlanuKicli'- 
ytna [tyx"!"*- an infusion), prio- 
matio cellular tissue. 

Piis'on-FlDw'eTs, those whioh imprison 
their insect- visitors until fertiliza- 
tion is effected. 

Froan'glospeniu {pro, for, •)- Angioa- 
perm), an Angiosperm in the aot of 
becoming so fi-om some ancMtrst 
form (Saporta and Marion ) ; Pro- 
anglosper'my, the state inqueatJon. 

Froanthe'sls (r;;^, early, arBifffti, 
Bowering), flowering in advance of 
the normal period, aa some flowoia 
appearing in autumn in advanoe of '. 
the ensuing spring (Pax). 

Probas'td (/iro, for, + Basidittu), Van < 
Tiegbem's term for an organ intei^ . 
mediate between a basidinm and ki 
sporuphorein BosidJomycetas, bear- 
ing a teleutoBpore. 

prcbosdil'sas {prdioecK, a snout], 
having a large terminal hom, aa ' 
the fruit of Marlimia. 

Procarn'Mum (/»'o, for. + Cahbium], , 
the embryonic tissue, consisting ^ 
somewhat elongated cells, froiab 
which the raacuuLr liasaB is evflnfen- 

ally formed ; Pro'carp, Procai'piam 
(taprDi, fruil), an urchicarp with a 
Bpecial rooeptive organ, tho trkbo- 

proM'nu {Lat.), very tall, u a tree. 

pTO'OMB, Froce»'aua (LaI., a proloo- 
KatioD), any projeolioK appendaKe, 
Pnjca'gKS Hyme'nii, " the apioulao 
of oertaio Fungala " (Lindley). 

procam'lKDt, proaim'hent (Lit., 
leanina forwaril), lying along the 

Prob'able Er'ror. see Deviation, fbo- 

Prod'nctl. gabataocea reaulting from 
nietaboliani or chemical cliangee ia 

Prodne'timiKproJiJrtits, lengtliened), 

FTO-emlnTo {pro, tar, +EMBByo), (1) 
in Characcae, the product of the 
ooBpore, npon which the Chara- 
plaat develops aa a lateral hud ; 
(2) in Archegon^ntae the product of 
the oospore before differentiation 
of the embryo ; |3) % the younj^eBt 
thalluaof aLichen ; proembrron'lc, 
relating to a pro-emliryo, aa the 
~ Bnuiell in Chara, a propagstive 
body having the structure of a 
pro-embryo arielng from a node of 
the stem. 

pnMi'nilnflni (Lat., projeeting), used 
of on unusually extended part. 

proKun'et*! {pro. for, + GAMEtE), of 
the nature of a Progam'sts, a cell 
which divides U> form gametes, or 
occasionally passes into a gamete 

Progame tango, Progametan'ginm 
(a77<riu', a veisol), resting hodiea in 
Pn>tomyi:f» macroiporue, Unger; 
progam'le (Bartog), pro'gainoiu, 
in advance of fertilisation ; ~ Call, 
a cell formed in tlie pollen-grain 
vhioh has the sperm-nucleua 

progred'tena (Lat., advancing), ex- 
tending at one part, and dying in 
the rear. 

pTogres'sive [prwp'eanui, an advance), 
advancing ; ~ HeHUncoTli'oalB, the 
appearance of organs in an ascend- 

ing scale, as when potala are re- 
placed by Btamens ; opposed to 

Progym'nospenaB {pro, for, + Gym- 
noapemi), prototypic Gymnos- 
perma, as Btiinetfilfi (Saporta and 

Projeotu'ra (Lat., a jntbing out), a 
small longitudinal projection on 
some stems where the leaf ori- 

Proloe'pory = Pbosfort. 

ProfeUM'sls (*/», before, Klrrimt, a 
moving), the early stage of nuclear 
division, up to the A^eb. 

pro'Iate [prol/ilnn, a bringing forward ), 

Prole (Croiiier), = Pto'Im (Lat.. off- 

pTOle'psIs (iroiXiiil'it, anticipation), (1) 
a foreshadowing, something of an- 
ticipation ;-(2) "hurried devolop- 
roent as in the disease known as 
' peach - yellows ' where axillary 
buds develop into branches the 
first year" (Crozior) ; pmle'ptlcna 
(Lat,), need by Wimmer instead of 

Proleta'rian {proUtariua, a citizen of 
the poorest class), a name Buggest«d 
by M'Lood to denote plants having 
only a small reserve, and self-fer- 
tiliied ; <if. Capitalist. 

pro'lUer, proli/tnu, ptotlfsraas 
{proUa, off-apring ; /ero, I bear), 
beanng progeny as offshoots ; 
ProlUsra'tlon. Prtrfi/era '( io, do velop- 
ment proliferonsly ; prolific, pro- 
l\fKii» (M, Lat.. producing off- 
spring), fruitful, fertile ; PtdUHcb'- 
tlon, the nroduction of termiiul 
or lateral leaf-buds in a flower ; 
pioUff'erani, -ru« igero, I bear], 
proliferous, in Lichens applied to 
the spore -bearine portion of the 
apothccinm (Henslow) ; e/. Lamina 

prom'lnent, jrrom inens (Lat. , jntting 
out), standing out beyond some 
other part. 

Pronjosle' = Promyce'llnm (pro, for + 
MiOEUim), the short-lived pro- 

dunt of tube-gerroinatioo of u spore, 
which abjoints a low Eporea unlika 
the mDlhar-apore,uii! then perishes. 

pro'oRte, "iocliDBiitofltowproatrato" 

pioiu, pro'nug (Lat,. leKDiDg forward), 
lying flat, eipeciollj the upper face 

Fronn'elsns (pro, for, + Ni 
nucleus of a conjugi ' ' 
which OD coaleaoing 
proDiicleua forms the germ -nucleus. 

Prop, used hy Withering for Stipulb. 

propAcnUfaroui (jn-apaga, a set or 
Uyer./^ro, I beiir), bBBring off-Mis, 
u Sr-wpfrririim ; Propk'oalnm, a 
runner or oET-set. 

prop'sgatlTe, tending to inoreaae by 
aseiu&lly producnd growths, u 
geranino, aoredia, oto. 

Propft'tcnlum (dim. of propago, a set 
or layer). (I) an off-set i (2) in 
Lichens, the powder; organs 
which constitute the Soreiik ; 
Propft'go, pi. PTopt'gtnet, (I) a 
bulblet ; (2| the branch bent down 
for layerini;, 

propen'dent, prvijint'cjeju (Lat.), rang- 
ing down. 

proper, true, or correctly under- 
stood -, ~ JnlM. nny characlarittic 
" fluid " of a plant, as the " milk " 
of lettuce, etc 

FraperlmeT'lBtem (pro, for, -f- PesT' 
MBRisTEK), a Bynonym of PcRl- 

Froph'aala. pi. Froph'MM [*po, 
before, 4A<i<s, an appearance), the 
cbaoges in the mother- nucleus 

Ererious to division, inclnding the 
irmation of the nuclear plate and 
the longitudinal division of tbe 
chromosomes ; Frophlo'tm ( -t- 

PhLOBH), (I) PROTOFHUJEM [ (2) the 

cylinder of elongated cells with 
tnickened walls, occurring in the 
■eta of some Mosses round tbe 

E-oto)iyl«n ; Pro'pliyllnm(pii\Xo>', a 
af), tbe braclaole at the base of 
an individual flower, in German 
''Vorblatt";prophyIl*'tM, provided 
with prophylla ; piophyl'lold (itSoi, 
resemblance), like prophylla- 

noph'rils - PaospBTSia. 

Piopby'togmmB (i-fw, before, ^fi; • 
plant, -ydfut, marriage). Focka'i 
proposed name for vascular Cryp- 

propTluB (lAt., flpecial, peooliAf), 

ftOMOl'la t ('pot, close to, iijWs, 
glue), a viscid gland on the upper 
side of the Btirana of Orchids, to 
which the poUen-masses becoma 
attached, the RKnNaouLDM. 

ProMm'brynm (irpoi, near, 4iifi^vai, 
an embryo), ~ PRKlsPERSinTit ; 
prosench'ymsi (J7x<''"''*<i>'i^''S'(ni)i 
tissue of lengthened oelli with 
tapering ends which overlap : adj. 
prosenahy'mahnu ; ProsanUiis'slB 
{ft^ijirit, imposition), the quaoUir 
which determioea the divergeno* 
between two successive whorb in 
a shoot (Pax). 

FKM'pbyses (0u'o/iai, to grow with), 
"abortivu piatillidia of the Uusoal 
ollianoa" (Lindley); PlMoplMS- 
tencIi'Tiiui ( +■ Plbotbhohtiia), % 
mortification of h;pbal Umob 

Proaporan'glnin (rfw, for ; rropl, 
a seed; iyytiw, a. vessel). (I) in 
Chytridieae, etc.. a Teaicular oell 
whose protoplasm psssea iuUi an 
outgrowth of Itself, the sporangium, 
and then divides ioto swarm- 
spores ; (2) in Pbaeosporeae, ao 
early formed sporangium, formed 
of a layer of the filament combiued 
with an outgrowth (Knckuck); 
prone'llQ (-f- Stblii), when an axis 
consists of a single ooooeoitria 
bundle (Jeffrey), 

Proa'pory {rpuiiot, precooioua, rmfU 
a spore), abbreviated 
roKY, the preoociouB 
of spores in oer 
Pros'tady (a-riSi 
early fruiting 

pros'trata, proalra'ttis (Lat,, Ham 

to the ground), lying flat. 
Pros'typus {rpbtrrvrgj, emboaied) 

Protal'bnmosa = Proto - 



protan'Orona {rpu/rot. first, iriip, 
drSpai, a man), Cha aatheiD malum 
before the pistils in the same 
flower; frolaii'iliy. theamlroecium 
ripeDiDg before the gyniaoima, the 
pollen being (JiaperBsd before the 
piatilfl are receptive. 

protea'ceona. relating to or resembUng 
the ordor Proteaceue. 

Protec'tlTe SbsaU-ENDODKEuis. 

Fro'teid, (1) a group of albaminoiiU, 
more or leas resembling albiinien ; 
with vatcr, ths group of proteids 
oonstitube tho bulk of protoplasm ; 
(2) used also for - Qran'nis or ~ 
Plu'tid ; ~ Ba'sl*, that portion of 
prolupliMui which is not composed 

ot gl 



'-Crya'tal^CiiYSTAi.LoiD ; -Oran'- 
nlBi, reiKrve materials, or aleurone 
gi-anulea ; Pro'tetn, a groap of 
coruplei nitrogenous subslancea. 
OS Ndclkin, etc.; adj. pro'telnic; 
— Oryi't«l=CBvaTALU)iD; -Ontln 
=AlkdiioniGiuin ; protcdDk'ceons 
{ 4-aceouB), pertamingto protein, or 
Lvrnpoaed of it. 
Pro'teo [Saohs] = Peotkschyma, 
ProteftOh'Tma {rp^rot, firat, lyxvim, 
an infusion), fundameDtaloc ground 
tissue 1 Protene'ma^PiioTtiMiMA, 
the fitamcnlous embryo in Muases. 
FrouohyilraryalB (PBOTEii>+ UydkO' 
LYSIS), the deCoDi posit ion of 
proteids by hydrulysis ; adj. 
pioteohydTOlyt'ic ; proteolyt'lc 
(Xi^ii, a loosing), decotiiposing 
proteida ; ~ En'^me, an unorgnn- 

cause In breaking up proteida ; 
Pro'MOBS, a soluble albuminoid 
found in gluten ; Pra'teosomes 
{bu/ui, a body), granular precipita* 
tioDS in the coUs caused b3' the 
action of certain alkaloids, as 

pnteran'droui IrpSnpm. Erst, irijp, 
arSoi, u man), the antbers ripe 
before the pistils in the same 
flower ; protaodroUB, one kind of 
dioliogamy (Delpino); ProMran'- 
dl7, the eondition described ; 
prourui'Utona, -ihm (Irffei, a 

flower), where flowering precedes 
leafing, hyiteranthooa ; proUrog'- 
yacniB, -»u» iyri), a womao), when 
the piatila are receptive before 
the anthers have ripe pollen (Del- 
pino); Proterog'yBy, the slate de- 
HCribed ; proteropet'aloua {riroKor, 
a flower-leaf), the Btate of obdiplo- 
stemonous flowers, when the epi- 
petalouB wborl oi stamens is the 
umer (tkhumann) ; proteroiep'alons 
(+ SKriLDM), as above, when the 
wborl in question is the outer. 

FrotbaUa'tae (t^, for, 0a\Xai, a 
sprout), Haeckol's term for Mosses 
and vascular Cryptogams ; pto- 
tttal'llIOnn (/crma, shape), re- 
sembling a protliallus ; Prothal'- 
Ilnm, pi. Prothal'lla, ProthEaliu, 
a tballoid oophyto or its bomo. 
logue reaolttng from the germina- 
ticn of a spore, usually a Satt^ned 
leafy expansion and bearing soiual 
organs ; Protballagani'la (70/101, 
marriage), Oaruers term for tho 
vascular Cryptogams. 

pTOtla'told [ProlUla — Protophyta + 
Protozoa, from Trptiri'rriH, the very 
first, (IJoi, rescmblanoB), in cell- 
division, not influenced by the 
cells forming part of a complex 
multicellular body (Bartog). 

Pro'toblaat [ttpCito^, first, ^Xao-nt, a 
bud), Baillon's t«mi for the Cell 
before tho formation of a cell-wall, 
the naked mass of protoplasm ;PTa- 
tocMor'opbyll ( + UaiAROPim.t.), a 
pigment found ID etiolated leaves 
with carotin and lanthophyll 
(Montcverde) ; Frotoohloropliyl'- 
Une, a product of reduotion of 
tbe greoD principle of chlorophyll 
(TimiriaMff), r/ Pbot<.!-ht UJSS ; 
protococ'cold {flioi, rcsemblanoe), 
resembling the algal genas Frolo- 
cocevt ; ProtocoUencb'yma [ -f Col- 
lemchyha), the earliest formed 
elements of coUenchyma ; Pn'- 
tooorm {xBpfiot, a trunk), the tuber 
of Pkiflloglostum and other Lyco- 
pods, the only branch which deve- 
lops into next year's tuber ; Pro- 
tofp'lpbyt* [-i-GpiFBTTX), a plant 

inepiphjte para 
Hemiepipbvtb ; 
ftotocmmopliy'tk {yi/iif, marriage, 
^vnit, > pUnt), a groap of plunta 
K) nuned by C. Mnomillnn. 
without defiDUiuD ; Frotosen'eni 
iyitiait, ft beginning), reproduc- 
tion b; budding 1 protOKsn lo, pro- 
losuiat'tc (yiroi, race, offsprioy), in 
developnisnt, atructarus formed 
when tiBBuei begin todifTerenLiate, 
(/. nTPEROOEMic ; protog'riioaa 
l7w)l, a. woman) = pROTXBOor- 
Nors ; Protog'yiiy = Protkrooist ; 
ProtobBd'roioe { + Hadhoue) = 
PkotoIlVLBH ; ProtoUp'toina ( 4- 


mer'laUm ( -i- U eilistim), the niari- 
Btem □[ tbe growing point form- 
ing Ibe found&tioD of a member ; 
PiOloiM'ma (ri^fLS, a thread), tho 
oonfervoid or pl&le-like growth in 
Maaft«a on which the oonepicuous 
pUnt in developed as a lateral or 
terminal shoot ; adj. protone'mal, 
aUo protone'matold : " Em'bryo, of 
OyUieria mjilti/da, Orav., a form of 
embrjo which reproduces the nor- 
mal plant (Charcli) ; Protopblo'iJm 
(•1-Fhi.jieu), the first formed ele- 
ments of bast in a vMoular bundle ; 
Protophyl'Une, TiniiriaielTH alter- 
native name for Protocwlobo- 
PHTixiNB ; Pro'tephyU, I'roini'hi/I'- 
lum (^i^XXw, a leaf), a leaf borne 
by B Fbotocorh ; a cotyledon or 
primordial leaf, os pea gully naed 
of aCryptogami Pro'tophyt (*mo>', 
a plant), a plant of the sexual 
genecktion (Bower); Pro'topbyte, 
pi. Prolophy'ta, the •implcat plants, 
the lower uaicellalar Cryptof^ams ; 
adj. protopliTt'ia ; Proloj^ytorogy 

(\f>IH, diB«0UrBe} = PALAE0BOTAMyi 

pTo'topIaam, pTDtoplaB'ma {rXdntm, 
moulded], the viscous lining sub- 
Rtance in ptsjits, into which all 
nourishment ia taken, and from 
which all parts are formed ; vari- 
m modifications of it have special 

; Pro'toi 

, tbe \ 

. of 

ont a wall (Haiulein) ; FrotopUa'- 
tfd, an individual or presnmable 
type ; Protoplaa'tlii, 

— 1 for a hypothetic 



, tbe ultlni 

t and chemical com- 
bination ; ProtOBClsraneb'yma ( ■>■ 
SCLERRKcnVMA), used for certain 
ColleDcbyma which resembles true 
hard bast, provisional oullenchyma 
of Haberlandt ; Pro'toipoTs (irriipA, 
a seed), (1) a spore which develops 
a promyoelium ; (3) certaiueoargids 
or nninaeleate bodies in PiTohUtu, 
etc., the ultimate product of cleav- 
age (Elarper) ; Prototpor'aplij^ 
{tfinir, a plant), C. Macmillan's 
term for certain Cryptogams, not 
otheru'tee defined ; Pro'tonropIlM, 
pl, [trTpoipli, a turning), seeondary 
■pirals in the development of 
leaves (Lindley) ; Prototti«JIO|:'a- 
maa, pi. ( + Thallogahae), Ardie- 
floae's Mrra to include Angiosperms, 
OyninoBpermB, and vascular Crj-p- 
togama ; FrototliAl'lM (fldXUi, a 
shoot) - HvpurnALLUS, the firat 
formed stratum of a Lichen ; Pro'- 
totroph (t^^. nouriahmeDt), a 
"lodger" in Lccidia iTttumevxnt, 
Nyl. , whiob eventually gets its 
nourishment by means of another 
lodger, a ditferent Lichen {Minks) ; 
Frototropliy. tho peculiar com men- 
Balism described above, also styled 
" Wet- nurse relationship") also 
spelled Pro'trophy ; Proto^lam 
( -t- Xtlbh), tbe first formed ele- 
ments of wood in a vascular bundle ; 
protoioopIi'lloaB (fuiw, on animal, 
^A/u, I love), used of oert^D 
water-plants which are fertilized 
by small animals, or protoioa. 
pTotra'dlng (pi-ofmrfo, I tbnurt out), 

protu'benuu I Lat. ). bulgine ont, 

ProliilKran'lia tlonga'la, "the aoi- 

culae of certain Fungal* "(Lindley), 

provins' (Fr,, provignei), to layer a 

proi'lmal {proximvx, next, nearest). 
the part nearest the axil, m oppoaad 



proxylarl {rpo, for, fi)Xw, wood), 
capable of formiug wood ; Ptoxyle', 
pToi/Um = PnoTOXYLBM ; Proiy'- 
mogan ( -f Zvmoobn). a mst^ri&l 
formed of the chromatin of Cbe 
□ocleua which ia extruded into the 
oytoplaam thei'e bemmiiig Kymo- 
gen (Macallnm]. 

Pnl'iuk (Lai., boar-froBt) Mmliia'Ua, 
" the Bporas of certain Fungala " 
(Lindley) ; pTu'lnata, pniiaa'laa, 
pm'inaia, pruino'ms, pra'lniniB, 
having a waxy powdery aeerBtJon 
on the surface, s " bloom." 

ItmnlTeroiu tjrrunMm, a plum, /fro, 
I bear), bearing plutnai pra'nlfDrm. 
pruni/onit'w (/orma, shape), plum- 
ahaped ; Fn'nni t — Dbupb. 

prn'rlent, pru'ritia (Lat., itching), 
causing tin itching seDaation. 

ptumno^'llaiu (^li^^iDi, eaad, ^Mu. 
I lovB), aand-loving, as the vags. 
tation of dunea ; FMrn'mopbyta 
(ipurit, a plant), a aaod-loring 
planl., as dune plaota. 

PBeudacran'tbio (^(uHi, false, + 
AUKANTHJo), applied to flowers 
from dicliaaial abooU which are 
apparently terminal (K. Schu- 
mann] ; Pasud-aiL'naal ( 4- Annijai.), 
an herbaceous plant which hiber- 
nates as a tulrar or bulb (L. H. 
Bailey); FMnd&n'noliu [+ Annt- 
I.U3), an apparent annuloa of 
Epecialized cella. exterior to the 
perislume in MoBstw ; paaadan'tblc 
(fcflot, a flower), a flower which 
limulatea a simple flower, but is 
compoaed of more than a singla 
axia, with subsidiary ttowers (Itol- 
pino) ; FMnd&Q'UUs, the State in 
uuesCion ; PMUdax'is ( + Axig) = 
SrmPODiOBi ; pMndbomotiytii'lo ( -i- 
Homonym), used by F. S. WiUiama 
for a partial homonomy, aa Oa»- 
trolyehnia and Gagtrosilcne ; tami- 
ain'uliu { + IsuLiH), a Bubordinate 
coriBlituent of inolin (Tonorst) ; 
pieudoblatOT'liie, falsely biatorine, 
having an apotheciuin without a 
oonspicuous tnalline margin ; Paen.'' 
dolmlb ( + Bulb), a thickened and 
bnlb-like iDtetnode in Orohida, a 


oonn ; FHndobnl'bU (-i-BDLfiii.), a 
growth from the roota of Acrioptit 
jutunica, Reinw., composed ot two 
intemodes, and beuring leavea at 
the npex ; PMBdo oapUiltlom ( -f 
Capillitigm). Liater'a term for a 
atruclure in Enttridiam, oonaitting 
of the perforated walls at the 
compooenb cporangia ; Xiea'da- 
oarp , FK^uiiKnr'piu m , Fieudocar'pttt 
(tnpirAT, fruit), (1) a fruit with ita 
occompaoyinK parts, ai a straw- 
berry ;{2) - GALBDLnalHflQslow) ; 
FHndocel'lQloae ( + Cellulosi), 
see Cblliti^se ; Pseudooaphftle'- 
dlDln I 4- Cbphalodii'u), a growth 
formed in the prototbnilus by a 
germinating hypba inveating on 
algal colony of aoms other type 
thnu the normal gonidia of the 
Lichen (Forsell) ; PaendoaU'lnia 
[cilimn, an eyelash), a motionless 
whip-like body, proceeding in pairs 
from each cellof J^iory«/i( Brauni- 
ana, Naeg. (Correna) ; pwodo- 
Coa'tate, pitadoeoila'lwt (eojCadu, 
ribbed), lalae-ribbed, as where a 
marginal vein is formed by con- 
Buenoe of the true veins ; Psaodo- 
cotyla'don ( -i- Cotvledon) = Pro. 

KUDUVo ; PsBUdOdya'tropy [Sua ^ 

bad, r 

EQUB insects gain acoess to honey 
7 secondary means, as when oar- 
tain beea bore throuah to the 
nectaries, instead of entering 
by the opening of the flower 
(Loew) ; PHUdoip'lpbyte {+ Epi- 
puvtb), a plant whose atoms die 
away at the base, and the apper 
part derives its nonriahment from 
Its own aerial roots, as Aroida 
(Went); Psea'do-feoandk'Uon (-H 
PEOfKnATiiiN), two nuclei of foar 
combine to form the egg, the other 
two form the albumen (Guignard) ; 
Faandog'aiiiy {ydiiot, marriage), 
porthenogeoetic fruiting, as polli- 
nation without impregnation of 
ovulea ; paeudOBTra'tD* {yvpii, 
curved), falsely ringed, aa when 
the annutuB is confined to the 
vertex of the aporoDgium in Fema g 




Pseadoha tutor' lom (+ HAraroH- 
lUH), aji immature or nidioiDDlary 
orgun observed in eeetUiDgs of 
Cnsciiia (Kiozel) ; ptea'do-bemia- 

pb'rodlt* [+ BERH\raBODITE), 

Kemer's term for flowen wbicb 

bX by the aoppresB 
■taniens or piatiU ; Piendohf- 

ing of Bpoiiiiiai, reeembling the 
hymeoium of Fuogi ; PMudoiin- 
pngiik'tio&( + Ihpreiination), the 
cocleacence of tbs two nuclei of the 
calU of ftteleutoBpore (Duigeord k 
Sapiii-TroiilF;) ; Fiendola'tex ( + 
Latix), Heckel'a term tor an 
ftbunduit gummy juioe, white 
or oolanrlsM, in oertAiQ apeciea 
of CaiiiUaiFMndoU'b«T[+ Liber), 
Guillaud's term for libriform 
tiisue, dertvetl from secondary 
merielem without geaetii] affinity 
with the cambium or vucular 
bundles; FHUdoll'clien ( + Lichea), 
a Lioheo whiuh does not possen 
an algal layer of ita own, but is 
parasitic on another Li aheD>t hall us; 
FamdomDiiocotylB'doii ( 4- MonO' 
ootvledon), in Dicotyledons the 
early abortion of one of the coty- 
lodons, as in CaptcUa {Va.t.) ; 
paenda-mOQoootyle'doiiDiu ( -i- Uo- 
nocotvledon), having two or more 
cotyleduna consolidated into a 
■ingle masB, as in the Horse-Cbest- 
nut ; ~ £m'biyo, having one coty- 
ledon only developed, although two 
were originally indicated ; Fieu'do- 
morpli liiop^^, a form), an unusual 
OT altered form, a term borrowed 
from mineralogy ; pBsudamorpllT'- 
tUI (inrrir, a plant), when a capi- 
tate inflorescence affectn the form of 
acapitulum of Compositae: Ftenda- 
nemathe'diuii (+ Nkuatuecium), 
a thread-like body in certain 
Algae, which ia now stated to be a 
paraeitio Alga, ^cfinocofriu cub- 
(■alanrue, K. Rosenv. (Darbishire) ; 

PaaudoDod'uie ( + Noddlk), a Bpaog 
on n Diatom valve devoid of 
markings resembling a nodule. 

but not thickened ; 
oleole (-f Ndclbolr), described by 
Roaen as a cyanophilona nucleola ; 
Fwadojwr'aaite ( * Vit.BJ.snt), a 
false psrosilc, either (a) a Sapbo- 
THYTB, or ('>) an EfrpBTTi ; Piaad0< 
ptTanab'yraa ( -l- Pabbnchyma), 
aymphyogenetio cellular liaaoe ; ij. 
Pljcttrn'chvua 1 mil. pMndopaz- 
enchj'mattnii ; Paeodoper'Unth ( -1- 
Pkrianth), the cup-shaped en- 
velope of the arohefjonium which 
develops after fertililation in c«r- 
tain Uepaticae : Piendopertd'lun 
( -I- Pehidiuh), the outer envelope 
of a Eporopbote in Urodioeae; 

PaeudopwlUie'altu) I + Pbbjtrr- 
ciUM), B covering of sporidia re- 
sembling a perithecium ; PHtldo- 
plasmo'dlum ( -i- Plahmodicu), the 
protruBiDD of the protoplasm of an 
in or may absorb the wbole in itself; 
PiBDdopod'ium ( + PoDiuu), (11 a 
temporary changeable foot - like 
protrusion of protoplasm in the 
Plasmodium of Myiogastrea ; (2) the 
stalk-like extremity of the oophyte 
bearing a aporogootum or gemmae 
in Mosses, etc. ; PBenOoiTTa'iiliim 
[+ FlR(NlUH), the peritbeoinm 
of " certain Pungals " ; (Lindley); 
Pieadora'mnltu ( -i- RAi<in.os), 
a spurious branch in oert&in 
species of Noalot, a young fila- 
ment adhereut to an older one 
for part of its length ; FMudora'- 
ptie (-^-Raphk), an apparent raphe 
in Diatoms, a transitional form 
towards its entire disappearaaoe ; 
PBendorednc'tlon ( -I- liEiiDi.'noM), 
the period of tetrad formation in 
nuclear division (Bueakert) ; Fmu'- 
dorhlze (^lia, a root), (1) a root 
Bbaped like a turnip or carrot in 
bulbous Monocotyledons (Royei); 
(2) a root-like mycelial stmctore 
which develops at the base of a 
carpophore from its oells ( Fayod ) ; 
Pseu'dDipSTm, Paeudosprr'miiim 
{irirlpiui. a, seed), any fmit which 
IB indehiscent and resembles a 
seed, as the "nuts" or carpels 


of Labiatae, adj. pMUdosper'- 
mlc ; pteadoiper'micta ; paeailoB- 
per'mout ; FHoaoapoTaii'se, Pwn- 
do*poran'glnm(-i-Hi-UKANuiuii), ao 
organ producing gemmae or pro- 
pagula, a simulated HporaDginm 
(Davig) ; Piend'oapore (oiapa, a 
seed), a eenuna or asexual vegeta- 
tive bud 1 PBea'dOBtels { + Stele), 
wben a peliolo asaumea the cod- 
ditions of a stem, with iimiUr 
arntngemect of tileuei (TuDHlej) ; 
FMUdoatau'nw { -i- Staurus), a 
broadening of tbe atauroa in floms 
Diatoma ; paendoater'ena ; {uTtpebi, 
■olid), partly grown together, aa the 
bad-acalea of the crown-imperial; 
Paendoatro'nia ( -^ Stroma), the 
peritheoium of certain Fungi ; 
FMUdoayn'oftTp ( + ^tscarj'), a ool- 
leolive fniit: cf. BYNOiW ; P«en- 
doth&lliut ( -I- TiULLus), the axis 
□f a crowded iofloregeBuce aa a 
Glomerule or Dmbel ; Pacndotrl- 
dt'opbore ( + TBicuoi'aoRB), avege- 
tative Glament of Algae, which 
■inulatei a triahophore ; Paen- 
dOTlTlp'ary ( + Vivipaby), the pro- 
duolioQ of leaf; rooting ahoote in 
tbe floral region, aide b; aide with 
the Sowers, aa in Juncna bt^onitti, 
Linn. (PoloniiS); Paea'do-Teait {-i- 
Veast), any yeaat which does not 
produce fermentation ; PaeodMy'- 
(oapoxe (-hZvoospobb) = Azioob- 

pallo- (^iXot)> >^ Greek prefix, aanally 
meaning slender, but more cor- 
rectly ueed far bare or naked, aa 
palloatacli'ya, which is cited by A. 
Gray aa bare-spiliBd, under the 
form ptiioflarh' i/ut. 

Piyclioph'llae {leijdn. ^Xeu, I love), 
pUnta which are fertilized by 
diurnal lepidoptera, poaaeaaiDB 
brightly coloured flowers, with 
honey in the fiower-tube. 

FiychTDkll'iiy [•fftxp", cold, rXfiu, I 
incline), Voechting'a term for the 
behaviour of growing parte under 
the inflnenue of low teniperatarea ; 
pgycliromet'rio {piTpw, a meaaure), 
applied by PfeSer to the hygro- 

mo trie mavemeota of planta (?oecb- 
paydomorpbyl ua = psbudohoopbt- 

Pteram'pelld [inipii, a fern, a«»Ao<, 
a viae], any climbing Pern (J. 

ptera'tua (iTipd.. a wing), winged ; 
Ftaiid'lnm, Pteiid'laa = Sahara. 

Pterldograpb'U (irTrptt, trtiMot, a 
tern, yptpii, a writing), a treatise 
on F^roa, or the acience of Feme; 
shortened by J. Smith to Pt«ll- 
graph'la ; Pterlg'rsphUt, aud Ftail- 
graph'Ulat (^iVm, I love), a writer 
on Fema ; pter'ldold [elSos, resem- 
blance), used by E. Newoian for 
Fern- like, as ~ Ao'roBWW ; Pter'ldo- 
pbyte (^rrop, a plant), a Fern, or 
closely allied plant. 

pterlK'yntu {xripit, a wing, yvr^, a 
woman), wing-eeeded ; pteroMr'- 
pona, -pua {xaprii, fruit), wing- 
fruited; pWroMnloaa, -lit {savXit, 
aatem), wing-atemmediPtero'diun., 
= Samara ; pteroso'nna (7uiila, ao 
angle) ; puWld, pteroi'deua {flSoi, 
r^aemliUnce), (I) having an eleva- 
tion of Burfaco aasumine a wing-like 
appearance ; (2) J. Smith ueee 
" pteroid " for Pem-Uke ; ptorop'o- 
dons (i-oC), itoiit, a fool), wing- 
footed, tbe petiole being marginal^ 
winged ; pteroaper'moiu, -ntiu 
[antpua, a seed), with the aeeds 
winged ; pterys'7iiQa (yvtri, a 
woman), wing-aeeded. 

Pteiyg'ttim (unpiytot, a little wing), 
a wing. 

pteryff'opoua, .piw (irripij, a wing, 
irovi, taiot, a foot), having the 
peduncle winged ; ptuyseapeiin'- 
ona, -mat [rwipua, a aeed), — plero- 

Fto malne {riiL^io, oalamxty, corpre), 
used of any alkaloid due to the 
activity of pathogenona bacteria. 

Pty'ftlln (rri^Xdt, aaliva), a ferment 
ooDtained In aaliva which traoa- 
forma ataroh into a augar capable 
of fermenting. 

pty-cAade, Plytho'dti [ttiVJ. nyxht, 
a [old), tbe primordial utricle ; 

PtTchol'dea (rIMi, reMmbUoce), 

the onter earface of the uune 

FtTX"!* (xriJjit. a foldiog), «om»li<m. 

pulMlll (Lat., arrived at puberty) = 
pubescent; pnbsr'ulni ^^IiIll. of 
Lat. piAtr, downy, ripe), elightly 
hairy ; Pn'ber (Lat,), nialurily, as 
of flower or fruit; Pn'berty, 
Pu'brrt(u, the transition from a, 
yoang stat« to maturity of func- 
tion :Pu'tMl (Lat.), Pabea'cenca. the 
tuurinesH of plants ; pubea'ceol, 
pubtn'ctna, clothed with soft hair 
or down ; pa'bera (Ae'taij. the 
period in a fruit succeeding the 
lertiliEttian of the ovules ; publff'- 
•roiu Isero, 1 l)ear), pubeBoent, 

Tnltag, tbe emisajon of iporei in a 
eland ; the equivalent of the 
German "Stftuben." 

pnglo'iillbrm, pugioaiform'U [pugio, 
a dagger, forma, ebape), dagger- 

pulla'toi (Lat.), otothed in blaolc. 

pailey-ibapMl, circular, and grooved 
in its Dircumterenue. 

pul'lttlftte (putlulo, to bud), ia bud, 
aa in iprin^ ; Pullnla'tlon, sprout- 
ing; eepecially charaoteriatio of 
tbe yeaat-plant. 

pnl'lna (Lat., duaky}, black or nearly 

Pulp, Pal'pa (Lat., tbe flesh of fmit), 
the juicy or fleeliy tieaue of a 
fmit ; pul'poie, putpo'nut, pulpy. 

Pnlu'UOQ {paiiiuio, a beating), of 
vacuoles, tbe rbythmia increase and 
decrease of size in naked zoospoiea 
and pLismodia. 

pnlTara'ceons, .e«iu,pnlrer'eQi(Lat.), 

, duaty), 
dutted over. 

PnlTU'lnm (Lat.), in botanic gardens, 
a bot-bed. 

shaped ; pulvlu'lfomi, pvlvini- 
farm'it, having the shape of a 
onshion or pad ; Pulvtn'nlua. pi. 
PDlTln'nU, simple or branched 
eicreaoences on the surfice of 
•ome Lichens, soredia ; Polvl'iitu 

(Lat., 4 cushion), an enlaTEement 
close under the insertion of a leaf. 
the swollen base of the petiole aa 
in Mimoaa piidica, Linn. 

Pul'Tis (Lat.], dust, powder, etc. 

Pnlvli'cnlat (LaU, small dust), "the 
powder contained in the spore- 
cases of some Fungi " (Hen- 

pn'mllus (Lat,, dwarGsh), low or 

the marking on tbe valves of Dia^ 
toma ; pnno'tate, pwifta'tita (Lat.J, 
marked with dots, depressions or 
translucent glands ; jmncta'ta Fo'sa 
= dotted veascls ; pnnetillor'ni 
{^01, JlorU, a dower), bavins dot- 
ted flowers : punc'uiorm (Jorma, 
shape), in the form of a point or 
dob, reduocd to a mere point ; 
ponctlc'nlate, puncticula'lva, pono- 
tlculo'sUB, minutely punotato ; 
PunctnmVegetatlo'nlB, the growing 

ptm'gent, pun'genf (Lat., piercing), 
ending in a rigid and sharp point, 
as in a b oily -leaf. 

pnrs, applied to forests, means uo- 
niiied, the growth being confined 

pur'plB, a secondary tint, a miztora 
of red and blue in varying propor- 

pnipoiar'iiu (Lat.), pertaining to 
purple; pnTpura'Ini (Lat.), em- 

Cpled : puipnru'oMU (Lat.}, 
□Ditng or turning pnrple; pnr- 
pnrsl'lus (Lat.), purplisn ; pur. 
pa'reus (Lat.), purple; Pur'porliM, 
a colouring pnncipte in madder, 
Rubia linriona, Linn. ; pnipiul'nna, 
(Lat.), somewhat purplish. 
parse -BliBLped, pouch -shapad, 
poailloi (Lat., pett;), very itaall, 

or weak and slender. 
pus'tular (pastula, a pimple), having 
slight elevations like blisters ; 
pus'tnlata, pnilida'las, as though 
blistered ; Piu'Inle, a pimple or 
hiinter ; pos'tnlOM. prutulo'ma 
(Lai.), blislery or pimply. 



FuU'aen (Lat., ehella, rind), {l| the 
ahell of a nut ; (2) the hardened 
endocarpof etooc-fruit ; pntuaiii&'- 
eaiu (-f aceus), having the teiturc 
of the atone of a drupe. 

Fyo'nid, Pfo'iilda. ^nmld'lnm, pi. 
Prcnld'i& (wvmt, donge), a cavity 
reBembling a pyrenooarp in 
Liohena, eto., containing gonidia 
[pycnoconidia or styloBporcB) ; 
Pfonid'lDptiote (0<>p^u, 1 carry), a 
compound Bporophore bearing 
pyonidia; pycnoceph'aloni (nr^Xi, 
a head], thick-headed, " ""'" — 
■aile flower- heada 
a spore), a ipora produced 
pycuidium ; PrcQOcanld'iuoi ( + 
CoNiDiuii), a conidium produced in 
a pycnidium, aatylospora; Fyano- 
KOQlil'lnin (-^GoNIDlp»l) = PiCNO- 
oaNiDiuH : Pyo'notpoT* (i7iro^, a 
aeed) = Pycnocohidium ; pyimaa'- 
taehona (ordxui, a spike), in com- 
pact apikeo. 

pjgnue^ (Lat.), dwarf, pygmy. 

DTOgwwt'io (*0o>, pue, ytwtt, begin- 
"iogli puB-forming, the function of 
certain bacteria. 

pynMU'ttia* (rup, fire, i<tat9a, a 
thorn), with red or yellow gpinea. 

pynm'ldaJ, pyramida'lie (Lat, ), pyra- 
mid -ahaped. 

Py'Tane, Pyre^na (riiri'i temel or 
stone), (!) a nuoula or nutlet; (2) 
B small itone of a drupe, or similar 
fruit ; Fynnar'luin, a pear-fruit, 
pome-like, but tapering ; Pyian- 
■'iloa, a drupaoaons pome, oa in 
Oralaigtu ; Pyrt'nln, Schwara'a 
term for the constituent of 
the body of the nucleus ; ■/. 
Ampbipykbnix ; PyTe'nIiim : on old 
name for the reoeptucle of Sphaeri- 
aceouB Fungi; Pyra'DOcarp (KaivrDi. 
fruit) (1) = Perituecikm; (2) = 
Drufr ; ttdj, pyrenocarpouB : py- 
reno'deoos IrlJoi, resemblance), like 
a pyrenoid, wart-like; pyrene'dine, 
"globular and nuclear" (Leightoo); 
Py'renold (ttioi, leaemblance), 
minute rounded gmonlar colourleas 
bodies, embedded in the chromatrii- 

phorea, amylum-oentres (SofatniUs); 
^•noU'ebenesf -i- LicheD),WBiiuo'a 
term for Pyreiiamy'aMai, that it. 
Fungi posauaaing peritheoia. 

Pyrld'lon (jiyrug, or pirug, a pear), 
used by Linnaeus for the pear- 
fruit, a tapering pome ; pyrlfarooa 
(/n-o, I bear), pear-shaped ; py'rl- 
forin, pyr\fonr(i» {/m-ma, abape), 
resembling a pear is abape. 

pyx'ldate, pi/xida'lui (Lat,, box-like), 
furnished with a lid, as some cap- 
Hulea ; Fyxid'ula, X ~ Pyxld'iun, 
Moench's term for the fruit of 
Anaranthm, a dehifoent capanle, 
sometimes need for the following; : 
Pyx'la, (1) a capsule with circum- 
Bcisaile dehisoenoe, the upper 
portion acting aa a lid ; (2) Z the 
theca of a Moss ; (3) "the same aa 
Scypbus" (Lindiey). 

four - cornered ; qiMdran'irulas, 
quadrangnIa'tlu(lAt,), having four 
anglea, which are usual); right 

Qiuulnat Iqwidram, a fourth part), 
the quarter of an oospore, which 
ia ao divided by the ~ Wall ; qiud. 
rlcap'niUi( + CArsu la), having four 
capsules; qnadrloolyledo'nena ( + 
CoTVLKWDS), apparently with four 
cotyledona, each normal cotyledon 
being divided to the base ; quad. 
ricnr r«l, 9 ufuirff ra'™ (CTTM, cru™, 
a leg), with four aupporta ; qoadii- 
dau'tata {dt^iUalu*, toothed), having 
four teeth ; qnadridlglta'tO'Pin. 
na'tna (liigifiM, a, finger), with four 
digitate diviaiona, each of which ia 
pinuate : qnadTldlglUt'tna, divided 
into four ilivieions ; Qnsidiiere'm(Ui 
(-1- ERKHDa)-GoBNOBiDii ; quadrl- 
flV'lOQI, -riiM (Lat,, fourfold), in 
four ranks, aa leaves ; quad'rtfld, 
qvadr\l'idag (Lot,), four - cleft, 
to about the middle or below ; 
4<iftd'rl[oll(r'i'<um, a leaf) = quad- 
lUo'Uale, whan the petiole bears 
four leaflet-a at the same poi — 
qaadtirollolate, strictly, with f 
aubordiuaUi leaQete, but ~ 


IB an eqaivslent of quadrifo- 
qudilfliz'atta (/■urraitu, 
forked), diviiiing into four 
branohcs ; qnkdrlKtttn'liiata {gfrni- 
niu, a twin), growing in fours ; 
qoadriliUa'tQB ( -f Hildu). having 
four apertures, u in lome pollen- 
gmins ; qaadilj'ug^te, ^uutjriju. 
ga'tia, qiudrlj 'ug'oas, ijualjii-jfan. 
a yoke), bsving four paira of Ih&F- 
leU ; qnadrUolNLM (M"u<. a lolie], \ 
with four lobes ; qoadtlloo'alaT, : 
(tonJtu, a little apace j, having four 
oalU. ae some anthers : qusd'iiiiata, 
qaadrina'tia, qnadrl'nua, with (our 
laafleU at the end of a petiole, in a 
digitate irraDgement ; qa&dTiao'- 
tSiMta { ■¥ Jioci^va), UBed of a cetl 
with four nuclei, from the division 
of a binuoleate oell ; qu»drtpM'ti(«, 
qvadriparli'lu* {paHUuM, divided), 
lour-uleft, nearly to the base ; 
qudrlpbyl'Ioiu (^AXw, a teat) = 
qnadriloliate : qukdrlpo'lai (poiat, 
a pole), in nuclear diviaion, when 
four daughter nnclei arise at the 
game time : qnadzlT'aleitt {I'cdeo, to 
beefleotive), applied to a oell which 
divides into four daughter oella ; i^, 
BiVALKtiT (in Add.) ; qoad'rlTklTe, 
qnadrl»«lT'iilar(i«/iw, adpor-leaf), 

qnaqnavM-'aal [qwuiua, wheresoever, 
vtrto, 1 turn round), directed or 
bending in every direction. 

Qn^totpora iguartua, fourth, trepi, 
a seed), C. Macmillan's turm for a 
spore enclosing protective imd 
more or leas vegetative cells oa in 
Jtieeia ; <liuT'tlna,a fourth integu- 
ment i^ wme ovules, "inrealitya 
mere layer of either the secundine 
or " Ducellus (Lindley). 

qnasirBidlA'tiiB t (iitcui, as though, 
Tajiialu*, spoked), slightly radiant, 
OS where the florets of the ray in 
some Composilae are small and in- 

QoAs'slnfl, a bitter principle tn quas- 

qnater'nuy, qualer'nate, qtialema'- 
Iwi {qjtattriiariua, ounsiating of 
tour], on arraDgement in fours; 

qantar'ni (Lat., b; fonn), growing 

four together. 
QuBT'dte, a gluooside derived from 

acorns, sweet like sugar, but not 

fermenting with yeast. 
Qaer'citriii, a gluooside in quercitron 

bark ; its colonring matter, and 

a commercial dye. stuff. 
Quetelet Oalton Onrre, see Newton- 

qulUed, normoll; ligulate florets 
which have become tubular. 

qol'nary iq^ini, five eaoh), in fivM ; 
qni'n&te, guhta'lvji, erowing to- 
gether in 6ves, u leaflets frrai ths 

Quin'lft, QulDln', or QuioliiA', an allca- 

laid oocurring in the bark ot spades 
of Cirte.hona, Remija, eto. 

qalDdon'olal ('/uinciincio/is, contain- 
ing fivetwelfths), (1) arranged in 
a iiuincunx ; (2) in aeativatioo par- 
tially imbricated of five p*rt«, 
two being exterior, two interior, 
and the nfth having one margin 
exterior, the other interior, as in 
the calyx of the rose ; Qnls'cnax 
(Lat., the fraction A), (1) an 
arrangement like the five on dice, 
four at the comem, and one in tbe 
centre ; (9) in five ranks, qoin- 
qaefariooa ; (3) " the disposition 
of objects so that the intervening 
spaces are all hexagons " (Crozisr). 

Qninlu', see Quinia. 

Quln'lclDe and Qnln'ldlns, alkaloids 
from Cincknna bark. 

qutaqnan'gxiUT, quinpiangviat'i* 

{'jviiuiiian'/v/u», five-cornered), fivo- 
angled ; quinqDeeap'salaT (-fCAP- 

vith I 

pnulea ; quls- 

leta ; qnlnqneJ'DgaiM {jutfunt, a 
voke). in live psin, M ot leaf- 
lets ; qnisqatlo taW itviagatJoia'- 
lua {luliif, a lobe), five-lobeJ ; 
qoinqueloc'ular, gttitujueiocularii 
(ta-rUiui, a little space ), five-celled ; 

qalnqnener'ved, guin/iuenti-'fia, 
■nia {ntrpwi, a, nerve), the midrib 
dividing into live, that is, the 
main rib, and a pair on each Bide ; 
^ulnqttepftr'Ute, guin^Mparti'ius 
{paiiilut, divided), deeply divided 
into five parts ; qnlaqaevAl'TaM. 
quin'qneTalve.^iiu/uet'oJ'ina ( I'oira, 
s door-leaf), five-valved ; qulaque- 
valn'ed, "the laine ait quiii'iue- 
nsrved " (Crozier). 

a nuppoud integument of an ovule, 
the fifth from the outside, "in 
reality the sitin of the " nueolluB 
(Lindley) ; Qnin'toipore (nopd, a 
seed), C. MaomilloD's term for a 
Bpore whicb has attained sexual 
poteutialitv, bb in vaacalar Cryp- 
tosami and Phaoerogams. 

quintuple, qnln'tnpled ii[u.itUaplex, 
five-fold), niultiplidd by five ; " 
-nerved, ijuioiiucncrved; ~ ribbed, 
qainquec<wtat« ; when of live ribs 
the four lateral ariae from about 
tbe base of the mid^rib ; quin- 
tvpllner'ved, qnlntupllTalu'ed, 
quinquenerved, five -veined. 

B&b'dold l^loi, a rod) = Rhabdoid. 

Bsoe, (I) a variety of suah fixity aa 
to be reproduced from seed ; (2) 
used also in a loose eeiue for re- 
lated individuala iiithout regard 

Bacena'tlon (racemalio, the gleaning 
of a vineyard), a cluster, as of 
grapes) Baceme', Jia^r'nuu (Lat., 
a hunoh of gragiee), an indetermi- 
nate or centripetal inflorescence 
with longthened alia, and equally 
pedicellate flowem ; ncemiferon* 
l/ero, I bear), bearing racemes ; 
ncetnUlor'ai {Jlo», fiorin, a fiower], 

having racemes, or raoeme-ljlce ; 
ntce'mnlose, raccjntilo'nu, a ditn- 
inutive of the luit, somcvhat race- 
mose ; Rac'emnle, a small raceme, 
raohemor'phui (Lindley) = luoai- 

BacMl'la = RuAcmixa. 

iftclilmDr'pbns (^il^'ii the backbone, 
nop'/ri, shape), the small zigiag 
flowering axia of some grasses, as 

Ka'oUa = Rbachu ; Ra'obea«, used 
by J. Smith as the plural of 
Rachis ; ra'cblfom — ruauhidi- 
roRU : Kachl'Ua, in botany, a disease 
producing abortion in Ibe flower 

ncur'TaDt (rri^utmu, running bock), 
in venation, when the veinleta re- 
taru townrda tbe main rib. 

ra'dlal, radia'lii (radiiu, the spoke 
of a wheel), (1) radiating, as 
from a centre ) (2) belonging to 
the raj[, aa in the flowers of 
CompaBit«B ; ~ Bnn'dle, a bundle 
or atele which has stranda of 
baat and wood in different radii, 
a frequent ooourrence in roots ; 
" Fl&iM, any pUne whioh passes 
Ibrouuh the axis of growth, and 
LUte the surface at right angles ; 
ta'dlar, a system of branching 
uuilormly on all aides (Goebel) ; 
lu'dlanl, rad'iatii, radiating as 
from a centre ; ~ Bm'bel, when 
flowers on the outside are coa- 
apiouously larger than thoAe which 
form the rest of the umbel ; ra'dl- 
ate, rmiiu'luA, (1) spreading from 
or arranged round a common 
centre, as the circumference of a 

.:..:. , 121 ■ ■ 

florets ; 

veined ; ra'diatlng. paasing in a 
straight line from the centre ; radl- 
a'HiOTTO, radiiui/bnn'it (forma, 
shape), when the Ululate Qoreta of 
Compoaitao increase in length ont- 
warda ; radla'tlm (Lat.), in a radi- 
ate manner. 


crowD ; T»d'ieant, radi'caiu (Lkt,, 
■trikiDg root), rooting, UBaBll; sp- 
jdied to Bteros or laavei ; rad t- 
ntod, luving a root or mate 
(Crozier) ; itut'lMllnc, rooting ; 
B&dlea'tlOD, Radica'lio, the rool- 
syrtem of > plant, it« diBposition 
and branching ; radloa'tai (Lat,), 
posKBsiDg rootB. especialt; a tap- 
root ! Rad'lCBl, Rudiid'lu, - Radi- 
□ul^; Kailicalla'tio(Lat.),~ Kadi- 
cation ; Tsdtdo'oloua, -la Icolo, 
I inhabit), (1) when the flower ia 
tea ted immediaMly upon the crown 
o( the mot ; (2) dwelling in Iho 
root oa a paraaite ; nuUdTeronB 
(firo, I bear], root-bearing, or 
rooting, aa prostrate ateoiB ; ndl- 
olflDr'oni, -rua {flo», fiona,a flower), 
flowering apparently Irom the 
root; ndio'iligna (fomia, shape) ; 
ndlcl'iiiu (Lat.), of the nature or 
appearance of a root i Rad'lele, 
Jtadi^ciUa, the hypocotyleilonary 
and primal intemode, the rudiman- 
tary root of the embryo ; Radi'ciUa 
byHol'dea, th« mvoelium of Fun^ ; 
nd'iooae, rruiicoma (Lat., having 
many roots), having targe orabtm- 
dant roots ; radlc'ulaT, pertaiaing 
to Uie radiole; radlculUonc'tB 
(/ortna, shape), ahaped like a 
radiole ; Eadlcolo'da, BadlcuJo'- 
dltuu, the apeK of the radicle in 
graaaaa ; radlo'illoie, radictdo'tiia, 
bearing rootleta. 

Ra'dlas, pt. Ba'dU (LAt.,aray), (I) 
the ray of ConipoBitae, the outer- 
most florets when dietinct in form 
from those oompoBine the dink ; 
(2) a partial umbel lu Umbelli- 
fsrae ; (3) the Btrncturei known as 
medullary rays ; ~ nwduUa'rU = 

Ra'< a«di'oeB(Lat.,aroot), the 
root or descending axis, the de- 
veloped radiole. 

Itaffia, Bapb'lft, orBoffLa. the native 
Malagasy names for the fibre-like 
matenal obtained from the leaves 
of Ra/jAia pcriuneu/a, Beauv,, and 
S. vinifera, Beauv. 

(Fr. raffiner. to refine). 

en^me which deoompowt 
tiMM, a sugar occurring id 
beet, BJid germinating oe reals. 
Saln-lBAvet, those whiiih are adapted 

to shed tha rain from their Bar* 
faces, and generally acnminat«, r/. 

ra'm*l (ramiu, a branch), belonging 
to a branch; Kamaa'biim t {-aMrum, 
a Buffii, - likeness), a seooodary 
petiole or petiolulcs of oompoond 
leaTes ; ra'meal, ramea'lU, per- 
taining to a branch ; ramaariiu. 
restricted to atrial roots, which 
arise from branches (Hensiow). 

Banun'ta, pi. of Saman'tnm (Lot., 
BorapingB, shavinga), thin obaffy 
scales of the epidermia, as the 
scales of many Ferns : Ba'mants, = 
Rambkta ; rMnenUi'MOtu. -rxut 
(-l-Aceous), posBesBing ramenta, 
clothed with them. 

ra'msoui. ra'aitve (Lat.), belongiog 
to a branch. 

Kamla' (Pr.], the Bbre of Rhea. 
Buthmeria teixicMnina, Hook. ^ 

nuniferoua, -nu (ramus, a branch, 
fero, I bear), bearing braoohoa, ra- 
maae; Bamlflm'tion, lio {fiKio, I 
make), the scheme of branching or 
separation into branches ; rainlfl- 
cu'tiu (Lat.), branched ; TamlSor'- 
oua, -tiu, [fioa, fiorin, a flower), 
flowering on the branches : m'ml- 
lorm, ranaformHa [foma, shape), 
shaped like a brancji ; Tunlp'aroni 
ipario, I bring forth), producing 
branches, ramoae ; ra'mlUai?, Isnn 
employed by Mossart for those bnda 
of climbers which develop into 
short branches, fruit or leaves, tf. 

ra'moas, branching, having many 
branches ; ramosls'almna, very 
much branched ; ram'lfy, to 
branch ; B&'mulet, used by Grew 
for the vascular strands in the 
Bhell of a not ; ra'mnlose, ramulo'. 
ni), )iBVing many branchleta ; 
Ra'mnlna (Lat. ), a branchlet ; 
Ramun'enlQi, a twig, the ultimate 
divisionof a branch; Ra'mni(Lat. },a 


branch ; Runni'cnliun (Lat.), -las, 
(Ijthesameaa ramulus, abriiuchlet-, 
(2) ^ " Lhe mvcclium of cert&in 
Fungals " (Lindley). 

Bftngs. the region over which a 
given form grows BpoDtaneonBly. 

Buk, ft raw, eapeoullf t, vertical 

Tkpk'oMia {rapum, a turnip), fuBifonn 
or turnip- ahiiped. 

Ba'phe, pc. ra'phy, Raph'a [fiap^, a 
Beam), (I] in a more or Ibbs anatro- 
pous ovule a cord or ridge of 
fabro-viuoular tiasDe connect ing the 
base of the nucellus with the pla- 
centa, the adherent funicle i it ma; 
ocour on the side ol the ovule 
turned to the aiia (ventral), or on 
the external face of llie ovule, that 
is dorsal; (2) in DiatoiuB, the median 
line or rib of a valve, and ma; 
be heterop^lar or i si, polar (0. 
Mueller) ; (3) the euture between 
the carpels in Umbelliferae 

Bapb'ld, pi. Bapb'ldea, Raph'ida, or 

Ilhkpb'ldra(^#ii,^a^(jat, sneedle), 
needle-ehaped cr;Bt&la in the cells 
of plantG ; raptild'Uii, pertainiDg to 
raphidea; - Cell, one which oontaina 
raphidea i Bapb'ldliiet, Radlkofer's 
term for free, needle-shaped cetli!, 
with parti; lignified cellulose- 
walU, occurring amongst phlojim- 
islands in certain Acanliisceae ; 
rapb'lold {rlSoi, resemblance) 
Fl'bres, Roulet and Chodat's term 
for the preaediag. 

me-ilpe, earl; ripe, preoocioua ; 
rUb-rliM (Croiier) meana the some. 

r&'nu (Lat.. not close or thick], 
thinly placed, not ooneeatcdi 

Ratoau, a shoot from the root of a 
plant which has been cut down 



r*'Wdu», ra'vas (lat.), jp'e; or tawny, 
applied to doubtful tinta. 

Bay, Ra'<liu3, (1) the marginal por- 
tion of a Composite flower, lAien 
distinct from the disk ; (2] a branch 


of an umbel, a partial umbel ; — 
Flo'rst, ~ FloVer, an outer floret, 
ligutate or tubular, of Cumpoaitae. 

Recanles'cence (re, back, + Caulea- 
cence), the ad nation of leaves 
on their sl«lks to the stem 
(C- Schimper). 

Becsp'taale. Recepta'cvlu-m (Lat., a 
reservoir), (1} that part of the axis 
which beara one or more organs, 
the toniBi (2) in Fungi, variously 
applied, usu^l; a houow or cup- 
like body cDntaioing other bodies, 
as (a) I^veille's term for a eporo- 
phore; [h) = Snujua ; (c) an 
apothecium in Ascom;cetcs ; 
id) H pyonidium ; (<) the inner 
portion of the simrophore 8op- 
porting the gleba in Pbolloideae ; 
(/) a cup 01 the Lichen- thallua, 
which containe aoredia : (3) the 
placenta ; — of » Flow'er, the 
Biile part of the blossom 
which snpporU the sepals, petale. 
stamens and pistils ; — of In- 
florae'eenea, the rhachia or axis 
of the head, spike, or other 
dense oluster ; ~ of OU, a o;st 
cODtBioiog an oil; Beoretion, as in 
the rind of an orange ; ~ of 
BacTs'tion, any cavities of the 
interior containing special pro- 
ducts : Eecepta'cula acddenta'Ua, 
indeterminal« pmsages filled with 
secretion ; ~ casolform'ia, i the 
vittae of the fruit of Umbelliferae ; 
~ Bnc'd prop'rli; " tnbu]o'M,= 
ClNENCHTHA, taticiferous veaseia ) 
~ Tesiculo'sa, receptacles of oil ; 
reesptao'ular, recejitacalar'u, per- 
taining to the receptacle, or 
attached to the reooptoole ; ~ TnlN, 
the oal;i-tube. 

reoep'tlve (N. Lat. rKepruiia], having 
IbBijuality of recciving;~Spat, (1) 
the point in the ooaphere of Femi, 
etc., where the antheroxoids enter ; 
(2) that hjaline spot on a Urge 
planogamete where it w ill coalesce 
with a imall (male] planogamete. 

Secan', = Sinds. 

ncip'rocol {reeipmrnu, going back- 
ward and forward), mutual ; •• 

Brtvldi, hybrid! between the 
Mine p&rents, each b«ing fertili£e<l 
by iho other, 

iuiiia»M,re(lina'lm { tAt. ,bent b»ok ), 
turned or bent downward ; re- 
Oli'lMd, l«oll'lllllc having ita bue 
on the grouDd. klao one pl&nt 
preued on another. 

r*cln'inii'Lat.,l&id open), improperly 
u»ed for ijWujih. 

raoon'dlttu (Lat., conoealed), hidden, 

Beenidea'osnea (t-fcnidam, bo open 
»fre*h), the produotion of ■ fooog 
■hoot from a ripened inf nicteecence. 

a flower), where the axes of the 
floreU ar« panllel to the mun 
(uIb of the inflorescenoe, u in (OTiie 
Compoeitae ; Teottner'vcil, rrcliiur'- 

tlfe'nlm (rtiw, a vein), straight- 
veined, parallel -veined, u in 
Eraue*: B»«tlpelal'U?(/Kf(i,laeek), 
Voechting'a term to express the 
tendency of organs to grow in a 
straight line ; rectlie'rl»l («ri"r, a 
row), in straight ranks ; itM'ttu, 
in a right line, straight, not 

rMiir''rata, recnr'Ted, recur'vu^ (Lat., 
bent back), cvrred backward or 

ttontl'tiu (Lat., skinned), apparently 
bare of epidermis. 

red, a general term for the most 
vivid of tha primary oolours, in 
lAtin rvhtr ; ~ -brown, porphyre us 
aooording to Lindley ; -- Snoir, 
discolouration of saow by Haema- 
loco'^cuf niivUU, Agardh, sic. 

R«dD'aad Vm'mU, a term used by 
Rothort for {a) replacement of 
bordered piU by simple pits, (6) 
an incomplete development of the 
thickening bands and their looser 

Bedac'tlon {rtdaclio, a leading bock), 
diminution, as of the number of 
cbrorooBomea in nuclear division ; — 


radu'pUcate, redu^ka'tua {LM.. 
doubled) = rsdn'^lcaUT*, rtdujii- 

cMiras, doubled baek, a t«nn of 
aestivation when the edges are 
valvatc and refisxed ; B«ilnpllea'- 
Uon, an iucreaae of parts by the 
insertion of additions on the tame 
plan, as of whorls, etc. 

nflec'Md {r^fltcio, I bend back), 

reflszed', re^'tu (LaI., bent back), 
abruptly beet or turned downward 
or backward ; Reflex'loii. a terato- 
lo^cal change in position, 

Reflores'ceiLoe [njlortKo, to blossom 
anew), flowering again, a second 

retTMt'ed, nfmc'lus (LaI., broken), 
bent sharply from the baae back' 

KeKenera'Hon [regen^nUio, a. repro- 
duction), veftetative growth aiter 
amputation and the drying of the 

BeKennlna'tlon {regtrmino, I sprout 
again), resumption of Kerminatian 
after it has Ixien completely inter- 
rupted (L. H. Bailey). 

Ke'gloD, the area occupied by pven 
forms; ~ of Distribution, Wataon's 
term for the British regione dsfiued 

by h 

I [liYJiia, a fracture), a fruit 

ofschizooarp; Re'emacjup, Seffttut- 
ea/jiium (lu/iiot, fruit), a gtxutttl 
name fur a dry aud dehisoent frait. 
Regres'sloD {rfjrutio, a retreat), 
(jalton'a term for RsVIBStOFI ; r*- 
gres'sna (Lat,, gone back), (1) tb« 
same as rktuxos ; (2) the ahaafn 
1 organ into that whiMt 


tinomorphio ; ~ Pelo'ria, peloria i 
which have not produced their nor- 
mal irregular parte ; regulailfloT'olU 
[flo>,fiorif, a flower), when a disk 
or head of Compositoe contains 1 
only tubuliir florets: regulaxUonn'la 
i/oraui. «hapo), approximating 1 
regularity; Kagulftr'lty, symmetty. ' 



B<]«o'tioii-iiii'elel, pL, certain □nclei 
wbiah do noL beoouie put ot the 
fuDo(,ioniLl ooapheres. the aaalm of 
bbortive ooapheres (Hartog). 

- ■ - •'Mnoo (re, bock. jutvtKKO, 

(roung), the formation of 
1 from the protopl&am of 
a cell already ej^istiog ; meta- 
Ktm'etal ~, see mkt&<iaubtal 
Eellq'ulMtL»t.,leavinK8) = lBnuviAK. 
iMnoIe', Ttmo'tva (Lat., distant), 
■cattered, not olostt togother, the 

rtmar'lna [renatii, pertaining to the 

kidney e), reniform. 
Saiunr'aJ, tbe thct of forming anew ; 


n'nllOtm, rtniform'it (reuca, the 
kidneys, /orma, shape), kidney- 
■haped ; r«ni/irrm'i-<:orda'tu», com- 
bined heart and kidney ahape, a» 
the leaves of Amntm tvropaetim, 

Ben'nel, rag'«tabl*,Bn enzyme which 
ourdlee milk, found in the flowers 
of Oalium rervm, Linn., and other 

BainlT', making good, as ~ of Waste, 
restoring the spent material. 

miand', rrpan'dtis, repan'doui {Lat., 
bent bactHards), with slightly un- 
even margin, len so ihoin "sinuous." 

re'pcnl, re'pena (Lat., creepingi, pros- 
trate and rooting. 

Bapla'cament, a tbeory of fertilization 
wbicbasHumoB ibut the female cell 
eeti rid oE certain elements which 
teavea it an imperfect cell nntil 
fusion with the mole cell replaces 

Se^tnn {rtplrlna, filled), a frait 
with the valves connected by 
threads, persistentofter dehiscence, 
such as in Orchids, JrMto^Aia, and 
some Papaveraceae. 

np'Ilcite, rrjilica'tut (Lat., fold*! 
back), dODbled down, so that the 
upper part comes against the lower; 
rep'licative,r«f^ii;(i(i'nM — replicate. 

Se'plmn<Lat,,door-caie), (1) a frame- 
like placenta from which the valves 
fall away in dehiscence ; (2) fre- 


quently used so aa to Inulude the 
septum of Cruciferoe in the term. 
Reprodnc'tloQ, increase (a) aaenually 
from one individual, (b) sexually 
from two individuals or organs ; 
reproduo'Uvs, applied to parts 
which share in reproduction ; ~ 
Oslla, cells which have no power 
of further vegetative development, 
but by coalescence give rise 
to a product which forms the 
starting point of a new plant ; 
~ Or'Kons, the parts especially con- 
oerned in the production of seeds, 
spores, and analogous bodies ; in 
Phanerogams, the stamens and 

rop'taut, rcp'iaiu (Lat., crawling), 
kKPENT ; creeping on the ground 
and rooting. 

Bai buba'ila (Lat.), the science of 
plants ; botany. 

aoBervt' (nsfrt-ufl, laid up), a storage; 
~ Cel'IUlOS*, a special thickening 
in the cells of seeds, auob as tbe 
date, which can be turned to ac- 
count in germination as food mate- 
rial ; ~ Mate'riol, the ploatio 
Iiroducts of metaboliBm, aaaimi- 
ated food material in a resting 
condition, as starch and other 
carbohydrates ; ~ Pro'told, nitro- 
genous substances stored in the 
plant. OS proteids, amides, etc. ; 
~ Tr&'chalds, tracbeid-like cells 
from the parenobynia sheath, for 
the storage of water (Heinricher). 

rftsU'lent (miUifM, springing back), 
springing or beading back, as some 

Eei'In {Ttiina, rosin), a term applied 
to a group of oxydiscd hydro- 
carbons, so^diSed or hardened tur- 
pentine, and insoluble in water ; ~ 
Cell, a oell which sBcretes resin ; — 
Dnots, canals which contain Quid 
resin : '- Tim, an unnatural and 
abundant flow of resin caused by the 
attack of Armiltaria mxUfa, Sacc. 
on Conifers ; - aland, s group of 
oelU which form resin ; - OInt = 
RKSiN-Ft.DX I - Pu'ao^ ; " Toba, 
on interDeUaUr pasture cootaining 

resin, ft rcsia-ducl ; resliilfm«ii*, 
-rtu (jera, 1 hear), eecreting resin ; 
BM'IiwcTit (i^tTTiF, & bug), hemi- 

Sherio strautureB in the oell'W&ll 
the h&in of the ■Ifrm knil leaf of 
Btffoma (Schoennett} ; Keslno'Rli 
= Rmin-Fldx. 

BMpll&'tlon {ru/n'rotio, breathing), 
the gaseous int«rohati)je between 
the plant anil the air in which the 
plant abiorba oxygen, and nWee 
oS carboD dioxide : ttunlti'tloii -, 
the plant gives off oxygen in the 
deoompoiiition of vegetable ocidi ; 
Inter'nal -, gives off carbon dio- 
xide, but does not absorb free 
oxygen, as in jeast -fermentation ; 
Htn-'mal ,>, as defined; yincDla'- 
tton — , oxygen is absorbed, but no 
carbon dioxide is given off; it 
oocurs in the early stages of ger- 
mination of oily seeds (Detmer) ; 
adj. mpi'ratorr, as ~ CaVlty, ~ 
Chim'ber = Stouatic Crahbeb. 

iM'lut (Crosier) ; rt^lans (Lat., 
■landing still), persistent. 

TMtlb'lUs (Lat., restored), perennial. 

rsa'ttng, in a dormant slute ; " Cell. 
an isolotsd cell which has piisBed 
into a qniescent state • ~Nu'oleni, a 
naoleus not in the act of division ; 
~ Fa'Tiod, the time during which 
dormancy is maintained, the in- 
volution period ; ~ Sporaa'eiiun. 
dormant ^onidia of snch Fungi aa 
Baproiegnia, which ultimately give 
rise to snarmsporcs ; ~ Spore, a 
spore with a thick integument, 
needing lime before germinating, 
usually passing tlie winter or dry 
season in a dormant state ; " Stage, 
the resting period ; '- State, quies- 
oenoe, as of winterspores. or dor- 
mant bntbs. 

rMu'pliUite, rerutn'na'ftu (Lat., bent 
back], npside down, or apparently 
■o, as when the hymenium of a 
Fnngus is uppermost. 

BBsnrrec'Won Plants, those which 
after being drieil, whon pUoed in 
water assume their living poiition, 
as Anantatica and Seiagiiulia If.pi- 
dophj/ila. Spring. 

Ratarda'tiim, tha inanence of light 
DO growth ia cerUin structures. 

B«'u (Lat., a net), network ; nOe'- 
ulaM, reiieula'tia, netted like net- 
work, as in oertuin oell- thickening ; 
-- veined, netted veined ; ntiea- 
la'Ced Tei'Ml, one with netted 
thickenings (Croiier) ; BaUcolA*- 
tion. network, the regiiUr cross- 
ings of threads ; BsUc alum (l^t.. 
a little net), (1) a membrane of 
croes-fibreB found in Palms at the 
base of the petiole ; (2) applied 
to the network of lioin in the 
nucleus ; retlf mu ; (/cro, 1 bear), 
re'tUorm, rtii/orm'it {forma, 
shape), apparently netted. 

retlnaoula'tUB (Lat.J, booked ; Ba- 
tlna'cnlom (Lat., a tether). (1) the 

are attached in Orchids ; (2) in 
Asdepiads, a homy elostio body 
to which the pollen-massfa are 
fixed, the Corpusculum of Bent* 
ham, Polten-carrier of N. K 
Brown, Translator of the Germana; 
(3) the funicle in moat Acanthaaeas. 
which is curved like a hook, and 
retains the seed till malnre. 
ratlner'Ted, red'ner'i'M. r^iner'viia 
(refe. a net. nemts, a nerve), net- 

retrac^tns (Lat., drawn back), when 
cotyledons are so tor prolonged at 
their base as to oampIet«ly hide the 

Retort' Cells, special enlarged culicnl' 
lar cells with an apex more or leas 
reoun-ed in .S";j*a^utn. 

TSfroour'TSfl, rtxrtxitr'w*, rtlroeitrva'- 
(la {rttro, backward, mmu, 
curved), recurved, bent b<Mk ; 
retrollei'ed, Tttrt^Ux'u* (lAt.), 
bent back, rcflexed; ntrofno'tad, 
rer-rofrac'tus (Lat.), refracted. 

Ketrogrss'sion {retrognttua, a 
movement backward), revnrsion 
or development towards simpler 
organisation : retrogrM'slTS, de- 
cadentin structure: -H 
osis, in teratology tbe 
of organs of lower gradi 
of the notui ' 

piatiU oonverled int« atameni or 

rrtrorM', rttrm^af-m {Lat.). direated 
backward ordowQward; retror'ialj 
scu'laate, with pricklea turned 
bsok or do WD, bb in Galium 
Aparine, Linn, 

retronr'rkta frtlro, backward, ser- 
Tolui, sawed) = HUMLilHATK ; m&o- 
Tar'tBd, rtlrmvr'ina, inverted ; 
Betrorer'slo (lAt.). an mversioD. 

BM'Uns, Eteeping flax or hemp in 
water to obtain the Gbni-vaacular 
portion freed from the cellalar. 

miua', rttu'mu (Lat., blunted), with 
a shallow notcb at a roanded apeii. 

nrarMd', rei'er'sHs (Lat., turned 
back), QpHide down, reeupinate ; 
IUtu^iIoii, Rever'aio, a change back- 
ward, as to an earlier condition. 

reroln'bllla (Lat,), capable of being 
rolled back; rev'olute, rti-olu'!iia 
(Lat.), rolled buck from the margin 
or apex ; rsvoluti'nu (Lat.), in 
aeetivatioD when the edges roll 
back spirally on each side, as in 

EeTOl'ver Flow'sra, Kemer's term for 
those Qowers "which exhibit 
within their outer portala a number 
of fine tubes reaembling the barrels 

of a 

>l'Tlitg KatA'tton (Sachs), = CiR- 

of rhubarb; rbabarbart' . . 

barb-oolourtHJ, the colour of the 
ofGoinal root, orange brown. 
B&ab'dold {laffSoi, a staff, rlSm, re- 
semblance), a, rod- shaped body 
found in the cells of the tentaclen 
of Droaera, and in the mesophyll 
cells of Dionara, becoming more 
spherical on stimulation ; Ehab'- 
dolith (Xi^DT, a ntone), a detached 
portion of a RliIib'doEphere(i^ai'j]a, 
B sphere), applied M certain pela- 
gic Algae, Rhabdogphatra Tviiifer 
and S. Claviger, G. Murr, and 

BlUib'dni X the stipe of 

RhBOlie'ola ()Ux<ti ^ backbone), 

RHtOHn.i.a;Blian]>lll*,B secondary 
axis in the inBorescence of grasses ; 
Rha'ctals. Rach'ie, the axis of on in- 
floruscence or compound leaf or 

rluuDna'oMOS, resembling or belong- 
ing to Rhamnaceae. 
Rhkm'iiAsa, an enzyme acting upon 

tlucosidea which occurs in the 
erries of Rhamnaa tufutoria, 

Linn. ; Rham'nln, the colouring 

matter of the same fruit. 
Bba'pbA l^o^q, n seam), usually 

spelled Rafhe. 
Rliaph'ls, pi. Klutph'ldes (^a^i, a 

needle), more uaually oocurring as 

Rai-his and Rapbides. 
Bhe'gma, - Regua. 
Rhs'lne, a proximate principle of the 

officinal rhubarb, Rhtian. 
BliMt'rapUm ((Uu, I flow, rpari}, a 

turning), the phenomena in a 

growing organism produced by the 

of I 

-. of 1 

(jGnBson) ; adj. Theotrop'lii. 

itiezlgesaflc (^£ii, a rending, yimi, 
oifspring), the origin of tissues 
when formed by mechanical rupture 
(De Bary); rluzolytic (Xi^n;, ■ 
loosing), when gemmae are do- 
taobed by the rupture of a cell and 
the disorganization of its contents 

Ethipld'liun (^iirli, i^arliai, a tan), a 
fan -shaped cyme, the lateral 
branches being developed alter- 
nately in two opposite directions. 

rMiunor'pboU, - bbizouorfhotts. 

rhlxan'thous, -Ihvs (M^a, a root, itSot, 
a flower), root- flowered, flowering 
from the root or seeming to do so ; 
(/. RADlDALia; KU'witlu, plants 
so characterised, Rbizogens ; tttix- 
anlo'lCDUs, in Mosses when the 
male inflorescence is on a abort 
branch, cohering to the female by 
a rbiioid ; Sbl'sal, Van Tieghem's 
term for the "base" of the root, 
that is, the root apart from its 
radicles ; BUild'ltmi, term sug- 
gested for Rhizoid in the oophore 
condition (Bower). 

RMU'iia, pL Uilil'nM, or RUi'lnM, 

the Rwt-hoin of 
Hhikoids ; Uliloplir'il* t (4^it, a 
natural production), ui elpADsion 
of the riullcle, u id Nelumiiiiim ; 
Bhlao'bla (^loi, lifo), Ihe orgaDLsms 
trhicb Bltiue root-tuberalM in Lega- 
minosae ; RblMblu'tW i (^Xarrii, 
a bud), aa embrj'o which emits 

used of Maraileaceae, which 
produce sporuigiB on root-like 
proceaies : rUMcai'iMnu, rttlio- 
ear'pie, -picitt, ( 1 ) root-fraited, 
used by De Caadolte to deoote a 
pereDiiial herb ; (2) produciafc onb- 
terranean So were and fniit, in 
addition to aerial, as CynoTTUtm 
(UfdiXora, Linn., and Anona 
rhi:^ntha. Eichl. (Hulh) ; BU- 
■OOOl'leiy {xiKSa, glue), the union 
of the axes of Iwo individuala of 
the salne apecieg solely by the 
roota (Morren) ; BUlMOton'la 
(irr^Kii, murder), hypliae twisted 
into Btranda like twine which 
fasten on the roote of trees i Rhi'- 
logen {yitot, race, offspring), (1) 
a plant which produces a root 
and Qower only, as RagUsia ; (2) 
paraaitio on the roots of other 
plants ; (3) any organ which gives 
rise to rools or rliiioids ; flilt- 
atcenet'le, rbiiotces'lc, producing 
roots ; ~ Cell*. ~ Tla'ma, the 
mother- cellp d the peripheral 
layer of the central cylinder which 
frequently give rise to all the 
tJBBUGsof therootlet; BblMg'enam, 
the dilated base of the frond in 
(ome Algae, from which proceed 
hoiatsBta (Henilow) ; RU'mU 
((lie), reBenibliuice}, a hsir, fre- 
quantty branched, serving aa a 
root in Moeaes and Hepaticae, not 
niorphotogically distinct from the 
protonema, the same asRinztKB; 
Thl'ioid, rhizoifCain, root-like ; 
lUlioma'ldftwm (forma, shape), re- 
aenibling a rhisome in ahape ; 
Khl'ione, Rhi::o'ma, pi. Bhiia' rnala 
(I) the tootetock or dorsivenlral 
■t«in. of root-like appearance, pros- 
trate on or under ground, sending 

off tvoUstB, the apex progresairety 
■ending up sterna or leavea ; (2) = 
CiCDKX (Henslow); (3) =Kidicije 
(Henslow); rbUomat'lc, -nu, Tblw'- 
nuitOM, having the character of a 
rhizome ; fb^'mlc is nsed by 
Harvey for the same thing ; Blil'< 
lomorpti (Mop^^i shape), s root- 
like branched strand ol mycelial 
hyphae ; rUiomor'pble, -phold, 
-phoni, (1) root-tike ; (2) reaembl- 
ing a rhixomorph ; Bliliopli'ic<at 
(^yfiV, to eat), Boulger's term for 
a plant which ia nourished by its 
own roots, an autophyte or rhi- 
tophytc ; rhlxoph'llona (^Xiu, I 
loVB), growing attached to roots ; 
BU'sopIlorB (ipopiv, I carry), a 
leafless branch in SrlnyinrJla, which 
eventaally emits true roots ; SU'- 
Hpbyll (^i/XXsK, a leafl, Schaett's 
name for a oomponnd pigment in 
Algae, ooDsisting of Phycoerytbrin 
and Floridean Green; rhlMpbyl'- 
loUi, when roots proceed from 
the leaves ; BJil'ioptiyta (^vror, a 
plant), — Riii7«PHA0IST ; Btll'- 

lopuyila'caM (^tftXw, a leaf, -i- 
lerii'}, a division of Fema pn>- 
l>oaed by E. Newman for thoae in, 
which the fronds are atlaahad la 
the ihiiome or root ; IbisopbfU^'- 
oeons. reBembling such Ferns; Kbl- 
lopby'sla = Rmziopursis ; Rhiso- 
pcd'iiun t (s-dPt, roSit, a foot), the 
mycelium or "spawn" of Fungi; 
[tbliotai'la, RtUiotax'y (rdfu. order), 
the system of arrangement of the 
roots; Bbl'mla t the protonema 
of Mossee. etc. 
rhodelluB (yiiSor. a rose), rosy pink j 
rhodooh'rouB (xfio, colour), roet- 
coloured. pink ; Btiod'osen (ylMa, 
oSspringl, an easily oxidiiable 
body in the beet (Remhe); rbodo- 
leu'cui {Xivf6t, whil«), reddiah 
white ; Khodol'ogy {\6yot, dis- 
course), that port of botany whioh 
treats of roses; Bhod'opbyll (^Uov, 
a leaf), a name for the compouDd 
pigment of the Red Algae (Remke), 
^ Rhizopuyll : Rbodoipaim'lii 
(or^pfia, a seed), rose-coloured 


rtiom'beas, rhom'Wc, rhom'Oicva, 
Ipil'^oi, a Lop), Bhsped likesrbomb, 
an e^uiUceml oblic|ue-angle>t 
figure : rhamblfo'lliu (jo/mm, a 
Uftf), rh om bo id b1 leafed ; rbomU- 
form'lB (forma, abape), rhonib- 
Bhaped ; rhomiwld, rhoml-oi'iUun, 
rlunnbol'ilal, rhomboida'lii (dSoi, 
resembUiDce), approaching a rhom- 
hia outline, quadrangulu', witli the 
lateral angles ubtuae. 

ibTnohoa'porouB (ii'yxat, a beak, 
avaod. a seed), wiieu the fruit endi 
iD a beak. 

BbrUdo'mft {^.TiJu;w, a wrinkle), the 
formatioD of plates of oellulartieaue 
vithin the liber. 

Bib, A primary vein, especially the 
central lonsitudiDal or midrib j 
ribbed, fumiBhed with prominent 

Bldnolaili, tfae glyoeride of Ricino- 
leio Aoid, preaent in the seede of 

Bte'tni (L&t., tbe opened mouth), 
the mouth or gorge of a bilabiate 

- ElilBe, an elevated line on the fruit 

of Umbel lifevae ; either primary 
or Mtcondary . 
rl^am (Lat.), stiff, rigid ; rlgea'eent, 
rigt^caa, having a tXiS consie- 

rifftit-luuid'ed-DEXTBOBfiR ; r/. Ap- 

Tig'id,nyHiua(Lat.), ■till', inllelible ; 
rlgld'olona, eoniewhat rit(id. 

al'mk (Lat., a cleft), (1) a chink or 
oleft ; (2) the oetiole of certain 
FuDgi (Lindley) ; lima'tuB, ;: (Mod. 
Lat.), rimoee ; ri'mlTorm i/ornia, 
■hape), Bbaped like a cleft; ri'mose, 
n'miMui, rl moua. with cbinkB or 
orooka, as old bark ; rlmulo'iua 
; (Mod. Lat.), a dimioative of ri- 

Etnd, (I) the outer bark of a tree, all 

tbe tiaaue outside the cambium ; 
(2) eoiTieiime« reitrioted to tbe 
tissnea exterior to the active 
pbloam ; (3] the outer layer or 

cortex of Fungi | (i) in Lichens 
the Sira'tum cortka'le, also ityled 
Slug, see Annclus for the varioua 
HtuiseH io which it ie uaed; -• Bark, 
the outer bark when diBengag«d in 
strips or layers (Hartig) 1 ~ PnM, 
venaels in wood when arranged 
in the annual rings, m Been in 

OBsa caused by Tniaielu Fini, Fr. ; 
~ Type, an appearance in nuclear 
division : BtDg'worm, a disease of 
the skin due to Trifhophyton 
(dTuurand, Ualmaten. 

rin'^ent, rii\'<jr.n» (Lut,, gaping), 
wide open, gaping, as the mouth of 
a labiate corolla ; rinfrentlflo'ni* 
(/o8, a Bower), the receptacle of 
such Compositoe as bear riogent 
Qoreta (Henslow); rlugentifonn'la 
(/ormo, shape), apparently giiping, 

lipa'rian, rlpa'rloua, ripoVm* (Lu., 
frequenting river-banks), growing 

re, the completion of an 
organism for its allotted 

&lp«, mat 

function ; . _, 

rlTA'Ul (Lat. , pertaining toabrook), 
growing by a brook -side, 

rlTularlrn'OGOui, resembling the genua 
HiiiUaria ; rlvula'rlold ((Hoi, re. 
semblance), means the same. 

ri'voM, Tifo'su* (t rivu*. a stream), 
having sinuate channels (Croiier). 

ilTula'rla (n'lWu*, a rill), growing by 
walsrcouries ; ri*'nlOM, having 
small sinuate ohanuels (Crouer). 

riio'mlc. en error for RtiiKuujTic. 

Bod - biutlflM'tlOQ, special simple 
gonidiophures in Basidiomjoetea ; 
Rodlets, straight rigid booteria. 

Kogne, ■ gardener's name for a plant 
which does not come true from 
seed, a variation from tbe type. 

Boot, the descending aicis, growing in 
the opposite direction from tbe 
stem, enotlole, mostly developing 
underground, and absorbing mois- 
ture from the soil ; — BaoUlna, a 
bacillus which has its station on 

Uk« oovering for the Bmaller mils 
in TViT (grnwbg point) ; •■ Balra, 
Blender ootgrowUn from the oella 
of the piliferom layer of ihe newly 
formed portions of roots ; ~ Le&f, a 
leaf ipringing from the boee of Che 
Btt'm ; ~ Panudt'lim, when plnnte 
■re partiallj pariMitic and their 
roota penetTftte others, as in Bhia- 
arUhiia ; ~ Poo'ket, the [alee 
' ' Cap " in LemrM roots : ~ Pole, 
the Mat of new growth wht^n 
the root is detached ; - Pna'saTe, 
the forcing of floidi into the 
xylem hy oimotio force in the 
roota ; " Shaatlt — CoLKon- 

HI2A i ~ BtOOk = RHIEOHI ; ~ 

TatiMClM, the reault of attack b; 
PuD^ or bacteria, a case uf sym- 
bioau, and source of nitrogeDous 
nourishtnent to the host. 

Boot, R^TStltlt'lonB, an^ not developed 
lis a branch o[ the primary root, but 
Irom other inernberB ; atir'lal ~, 
used of tliosc which are developed 
above ground, as of epiphytes ; 
pil'inai? ■• , that developed at the 
appetite pule of the embryo to the 
Bboot, the main descondtng axis. 

root'lng, radicont. 

Booflet,(l)avery slender root, or (2) 
the branch of a root ; Boot'tRock, a 

rop«-iluip«4, funicular. 

ror'ldni (LaC, bedewed], dewy, 
covered with partialos which re- 
eemble dew- drops. 

roM'MOiu, -ceue (roaa, +■ aceous), (1) 
arranged like the five petals of a 

; (21 

order of which Rosa 

(3) rose-ooloui', pink. 

rowlK'tui = (1) 


or (2) 

Boul'l& (dim. of roM) = BOMtl«', a, 
cluster of leaves or other organs in 
a circular form, as I^anlago major, 
Linn. ; <- Shoot, a cluster of leaTsa 
on a branch from the same point ; 
the Umblll'cal — of Diatoms ie a, 
central star-shaped projection or 
depression of a few larger celU, as 
In OoKinoducua. 


Toa'wdiu (If od. LaL ), pink or pinkiah. 
Bote'tnm (Lat.), a roae-garden. 
ros'eua (Lat-i, rosy, pale-rsd, pink, 
Roa'in, crude Rksin ; rcia'liionB(6rcw) 


Koi't«llate, tvttella'lua (ntsUllum, a 
little beak), the diminutive of 
roetrato, somewhat beaked ; Boetol'- 
Inm. (1) a small beak ; (2) applied 
bj Linnaeus to the candicle or 
radicle : (3) a narrow extension of 
the upper edge uf the atigma of 
certain Oruhids, the abortive 
anterior lobe ; nw'tnto, roalra'lut, 
with a beak, narrowed Into a 
slender tip or point ; roa'trUonn 
{foraui, shape), beak - abaped ; 
Kos'tmm (Lat,, a beak), (1) aoy 
besk-tike eiUmaion ; (2) the inner 
eegment of tbe coronal lobea in 

Kos'ula (dim. of ro»a], (1) k (mall 
rose; (2) = RoaaiTE; a oollec- 
tion of oliutered leaves, 01 the 
Houseleek ; roa'alar. romiat'i*, 
rot'olale, roeula'im, collected into 

Bot, applied to various dlseasea of 
fungous or bacterial origin. 

rota'cens t (rola, a wheel, -f- aoens) 
= rotate', rola'tiu, wheel-afaaped, 
circular and Bat, applied to a 
gamopetalouB corolla with a short 
tube ; ro'tate- plane, wheel-ihaped 
and flat, gamopetelous and with* 
out a tube ; Bola'tlon, Sota'lio, 
the internal circulation of Uie 
protoplasmic couteots of a cell 
oyolosis ; ~ of Oyra'Cloii, bba 
peculiar rotation in Characeae - 
~ of Pro'loplaam, the movement 
round and within the cell i ntk'to- 
plana = botatk-pi,*ni[ ; ro'tUbrm, 
roti/orm'it t i/onna, shape), whoal- 
shaped, ae of a gamopetalona 
corolla with spreading limb and 
a short tube. 

rotund', rotund' lu (Lat,, round), 
rounded in outline, somewhat 
orbicalar, but a little inclined 
towards oblong ; rotunda'tna 
(Lat,), rounded ; rotundUO'llODl, 

Jius {/oliurn, a leaf), round - 

roogb, 01 BODibrous ; (2) also of 
BurfaceB covered with stiff coaree 
hairs : ~ Leavra, a gordeDer'a name 
for the first true leaves of a 
seedling ; Tough'lah, soabrouB. 

tnb«na« (Lat.), reddiab. 

nib'eiu (Lat.), bliuh-red. 

rab'eolus |N. Lat, ), somewhat red, 

TTiIi'n (Lat., red), red in ■ general 
tense ; mte«'cent, niAM'cens, 
turning red. 

mUo'olOU (ruAiu, a bramble, cola, I 
inhabit], parasitic on brambieB. nr 
attached to them ; Henslow spells 
it rubico'lui, 

rablaim'diu (Lat., red, ruddy), btuab- 


nUg'lnoM, rubigiJio'niH, raUg'lnoiii, 
ruhigin'eus {robigtt or rtibigo, rnst), 
ruBt-ooloured, usually implying it 
ia due ta glandular hairs. 

Knlxir, Kata'do (I<at.), rednsss of an; 

m'dml, tvdera'tia (from rudun, old 
rabbiah), growing in waste places 
oi amoDg rnbbiah ; ~ ?lant>i, those 
which are characteriatic of rubbish 

Bil'dlmant (rvdimfnlum, a Gret at- 
t«mpt),(l I an imperfectly developed 
and functionally UBeless organ, a 
vestige ; (2) bos been suggested as 
an equivalent of the German term 
" AnlagB " ; (J". Incrpt, Pbtm- 
ORDirH ; mdlmsn'tal, rudlmen'- 
Mry, arrested in ao early stage 
of development ; - Or'gaiis, those 
whose development haa been 
arrested at an earl; stage. 

mfea'cBnt, rti^ea'efnt(LaL), becoming 

BnfSe, used by Withering for the 
VoLVA of Fungi ; rnfflea, with a 
strongly waved margin (Crosier). 

mfld'ulDS (N. Lnt,), somewhat red. 

n'tons, ru'/tui (Lat.), reddish, of all 

Bo'kb. pL Kn'soe (Lat.), a wrinkle 
or fold ; m'^te, wrinkled. 

ms'Ked, scabrous (Cr«zier), 

m'sose, fu^D'me, ni'froui, covered 
with, or thrown into wrinkles ; 
m'siiloie, mgtilo'aua, somewhat 

rn'mlnata, riiTninaUuB (Lat., chewed), 
looking OS though chewed, as the 
albumen of the nutmeg ; ~ Bn'- 
dMlMrm, mottled in appearance, 
due to the infolding oi a dark 
inner layer of the seed-coat into 
the lighter coloured endosperm. 

run'clnate, runcina'ftu {rttttcina, a 
lar^ saw), saw-toothed or sharply 
incised, the teeth retrorae. 

Ron'dla, used by Withering for 
Uhbel ; and Run'dlet, for a partial 
or secondary umbel. 

BOB'&er, a stolon, an elongated lateral 
shoot, rooting at intervals, the 
intermediate part apt to perish. 
and thus new individuals arise ; 
run'nlofi:, repent, reptant. 

rapes'ttftl {rvpejf, a rock), H. C. 
Watson's term for plants of walls 
and rocks ; rupei'trtoe (Crozier), 
nipe^lrii, growing among rooks, 
or as Lichens, on rocks ; some 
write it rtipea'ltr; Rnple'ola {colo, 
I inhabit), a plaut which dwells 
among rocks ; adj. mplc'oIoiM. 

rnv'tlle rvp'lUis (rupltie, broken), 
dehiscing in an irregular manner ; 
raptUm^Tli, rupt^er'viiia (N, 
Ia(.), when a straight -ribbed leaf 
has its ribs interrupted and 
swollen at intervals : mp'toiliiK, 
bursting irregularly. 

ntra'lli (Lat., ruaUc), growing in 
peculiarly rural places as the thatch 
of a cottage. 

rni'cifoim (Atucus, forma, shape), 
with leaQets recalling the shape of 
the phyllodes of Husciu aftUtatu^, 

nts'nu (Lit.), red; ruHset, when 

□leaning reddish -brown. 
Butt, a fungoQS disease in cereals 

oaosad by Pttecinia graminii, Pcrs. ; 

it ia aUo applied to other diseases 

of plants from similar attacks ; 

n*'^, mbigioow, famiginoni, the 
ooloor of iron nut. 

n'tUknt, nWiiaru, mfUiu < Lat. , red , 
glowing), uaed for plants having 
glowing flowcrt : r«d, orange, 
yellow, or on uliDixtare of tlieee. 

rytUocftr'piu {fivrlt, ^vrtitu, a wrinkle. 
Kapros, fmit), when the Enrfacs o( 
Iha fruit is covered with wrinkles. 

ulmllc'oU (nftWun, w&d, eolo, I io- 
habit) ; nb'ulOM, mbnlo'iue, grow- 
ing in Bandy places ; Henfllow 
pnnta the former word taliuli'eolua ; 
wli'nUiia (CrOKJer) is a B;non;m. 

Bm (#acirtM, a bag), a poQch, as AlT 
~, an empty cavitj in t)ie pollen 
of Pinua : Em'bryD - . see Embrvo- 
SAO: i*o'c*te,™«a'fTH, bag. shaped. 

taccluirk'tna lim-r-hamm, sugar), 
mguT, or yielding sugar, si the 
sap of some species of maple ; aftc- 
cbarlferona (/cm, I bear), sugar- 
bearing ; taooliul'iiiu (Lst.), 
sugary i Bftc'chftlOM, cane-sugar. 

MO'olfoTm, amxi/brm'ii {aac^ii, a bag, 
forma, shape), bag-shaped ; flao'- 
onltii (Lat., a little bsg), the 
peridium of some Fungi ; Bac'cns, 
sometimes applied to the coronet 
of Slapelia, etc. 

Bao'copbytes {fdnnm, a sack, ^urir, 
s plant), Schuett's term for all 
plants which are not Plauufhytcs. 

SMMl'lna {larellm, a little bag), X f^ 
one-seeded indehiscent pericarp, 
inoloaed within a hardened calyx, 
a« the Marvel of Peru. 

SMbi'i Cnr'vBtar*, a curved growth 
of the root, due to a difference in 
the rate of growth of the two sides 
of the organ (Wiesner). 

Suk = Sah. 

•Wl'dle-sliaped, apptied to Ruoh valves 
of Diatoms 04 those of Voadnodis- 

laf ttan, the dried stigmas of Crocua 
filicat, Linn., which yield ■ yellow 
dye ; ~ col'oupefl, = ci-ofurtts. 

Bfcgl t ■ tal, tag'ittate, mgiUu'ini, 
(ungil-la, an arrow), enlarged at the 
base into two oouM atraighb lobes, 
like the barbed head of on arrow ; 

Mglf tUonn, »agitt\fi»rm'i» {Jbntut, 
shape), arrow-shaped. 

8<t'E0< graoulated starch obtained 
from tbo pith of certain palms, 
especially from species of Sagut. 

Saint- ValB^^ Ap'ple, a monstrosity in 
which the petals ore sepaloid, the 
BtaoieaB ahsent, and a aoable row 

species of Onhii, also spelled 
Bal'op, Soloop'. 

Sal'Ictn. a ghicoside occurring in the 
bark of willows, species at Salix ; 
Salicyl'oiu Ac'ld occurs in many 
flowers, especially of Spiraea, pro- 
bably by oxidation of its oorro- 
sponding alcohol, SauaBinir. 

sa'liaut {»iiit^a, springing forward), 
projecting forward. 

Sailg'eidix, BQ aromatic sahctane* 
formed by the decomposition of 
Salil-in, eto. 

BtUns'. M^>'nti4 [lai, talU, salt), (1) 
coasiating or partaking of the 
qualities of salt ; (2) growing in 
salt-marshes ; ~ Kat'ton, chemioal 
salts occurring in plants, the unioa 
of acids wiLh bacca, 

•almo'nens (so/mo, a salmon) ; lal- 
monleolor (color, colour), salmon- 
coloured, pink with a daah of 

aalplgan'thy (frrlXiri7(, a trumpet, 
ir9n, a flower), the transformation 
of ligulate or disk-florets of Com* 
positae into conspicuous tubular 
florets (Morren). 

Hliu'elBOiu, laJtiigino'mi [arUgvgo, 
Baltness), growing in places inon- 
dated by salt or brackish water, 
as saltings: aal'sns (L^t., salted), 
is used ID the same SBose. 

aal'ver-ronn, ~ shaped, hypocratori- 
morphous (A. Gray). 

Bama'rB, (or Same'ra, IaC, the fruit 
of the elm), an indeUiscent winged 
fruit, OS that of the sycamore ; 
atmuid'eoiu. um'oroU, MunaroT- 
dttu (tliot, resemblance), uaed of a 
fruit resi'iiibling a samara. 

Sam'bncena, a terpene derived from 
San^uaii tuj/ra, Linn. 


ua'snlnv, lan^via'eat (Lat., blood- 
red), the oglour of blood, crimHin. 

Sanlo't lAV, the order of oell- 
diviBioQ of the cunbium, as set 
(octh in PrJQgBheiru, Jahrb. ii. 60. 

Sui'ttilD, a resiDDUH substance from 
red Bundal'Wood, PUroearptu tan- 
taliniis, LiDD. {,, wheace ils □ame. 

Btui'lonln, a bitter principle from 
voriDirood, Artemitia SatiMnkion, 

kp {aapa, new wioe boiled thick), 
the juioe of a plant ; ~ CftViUM, 
vainiolea; — Per'ldBnn,distiDguiBhed 
from ordinary periderm by its cell- 
wall Bod contents being in a living 
condition, serving as absorption 
tissue {Wiesner) ; ~ PrM'sure, the 
force exerted on passing upwards 
throHgh the tissues ; - Vseicle, a 
vaeuolo surrounded by a thin skin 
of protoplMm : ~ Vee'Kl, a duct 
or conlinuouB vessel ; ~ Wood, the 
new wood in an exogenous tree, 
■o Ions as it is pervious to the 
flow of water, the alburnum ; the 
sap of oak is Orew's term for 
the alburnum of that tree; up'Iets, 
dry, dettituts of sap ; Bap'Unc, a 
young tree ; tep'ft - Sap. 

a pleatant tMt«. 

' ■ (mpo, aoap, 
lippery to t 
ing qualities like soap ; Sap onin, a 
Boap'like principle from tiaponaria 
ofieinaJig, Linn., and other plants. 

Sap^or (, flavour), the taste whioh 
a plant oSers. 

saprog'enoua (aarpit, rotten, y^ai, 
race), growing on decaying aub- 
stancea ; Sapromylopb'ilM (^lUu, 
I love), plants which are fertilized 
bjoarrion- or dung-flies ; the flowers 
are putrid. Hmelling ; aapToph'ltons 
(«««iu, I love), huniUB - loving : 
Bap'rophyta (^i^o'. a plant), a plant 
which lives upon dend organic 
matter : arlj. saprophy'tal, lapro- 
pliyt'ic : Bap'rophytism, the state 
of subsisting on hiimua or similar 
material ; tymldo'tlc ~ , a phai 

Saicob'a*!* (trdpf. •rapns. flesh, pdaii, 
base), a carcerule, used [or gyna- 
basia when very fleehy : Baro'ooup 
Sarcorar'piam {lafirU, fruit), (I) 
the euooulent and fleehy part of a 
drupe ; (3) a general name for a 
baccate fruit ; Sar'code, Dujardln's 
term far prutoplsam i ftar'codBlin, 
Sarcodtr'ma, Stircodrr'mii (WpMH, 
skin), a fleshy layer in eeed-ooata 
between the exopleura and the 
endoplsura ; Mmol'dM (((Jot, re- 
semblance), having the apcearanoe 
of flesh ; Baroo'ma i a flesby diek. 

Sar'inent, Samum'tura (Lot., twigs, 
brush- wood), a long slender runner, 
or stolon, as in the strawberry ; 
» 1 + 

aarmentlf erous, ■ 

M i/ero, 1 bear). 

group of cymes or spikes arranged 
cuntrifugally as those in the cyme 
itself (Lindfey) ( eatmantlt'iiu, be- 
longing to twigs (Henslow); emr'- 

Bvelop iolo the long slender 
braaobes and tendrils : lar'men- 
tosa, sar>nei;'o'<us, ■umen'toni 
( Lat. , toll of twigs), producing long 
and lithe nnuiers ; S&mun'tam, a 
runner, ^. Sakhent. 

Sar'nlan, U. C. Watuin's t«rro for 
plants conlined to the Channel 
Islands [ .Samia = Jersey. 

Mtliropli'ilaai {aaSpit, decayed, ^<Klu, 
I love), applied by Pound and 
Clements to tbose Fungi which 
feed on "oBal." 

uti'TDfl (Lat.), that which is sown 
or planted, ai opposed to spon- 
taneous or native. 

satnn'te-Ti'rens (Lat. ), green as 
grass ; a full deep green. 

•aa'sace-sliaped. alUntoid. 

Banttl'ln* (Vr. sautelte, a vine ahoot), 
a bulbil, such as tbose of i^iiini 
tii/i'iiiuin, Ker ; misprinted by 




Henslow at "SaiiteUus" with on 

■aw-toothBd or Mired, aerrale. 

wU'&tUs (Crazier). «ajvt'tilU (LaC). 
dwelling or growing Among rocks : 
■wc'lcols. uxlc'alliia. aula'oloas 
{rolo. I iiihabitl, growing od rooka 
as do many Lichena ; Sulc'olA, a. 
dweller among rocks, printed by 
Henilow as "saij'colos" ; uxl- 
rncova {/rug, the root a! /rtjugo, 
I break), rode 'breaking, aa plants 
which grow in crevices seem to 
be ; uxo'ru (Lat.)i stooy. 

Bofcb, a disease due to various Fungi, 
oansing roughneia of the cortex ; 
in the potato it is ascribed to 
Eorotponum teobitt, Fiach. de 
Waldh., in the Dnited States attri- 
buted to Ootpora icabUi, TbaiUr. 

•ca'bar (Lat.). rough, scarv; ; atAV- 
rate, scoAru'lTU, made rough or 
roughened ; ecab'Tiil, acai'ridue ; 
•oab'rldona (Lit., rough), sooie- 
what rough ; soabrid'olona, and 
■Mlnlilliii^nilna, slightly rough ; 
BMlfflt'lM (Lat.), roDghnesa of 
nirface ; iMb'TOiu, = boaakb, roagb 
to the touch. 

Wtlar'ilbim, $caiarifornt'iii (tcatarit, 
pertainiDg to a ladder, forma, 
shape), ladder- shaped, having 
markings suggestive of a ladder ; 
~ Dnot, — Ves'sel, a vessel having 
Bcalarifonu markings, as in many 
Ferna ; ~ Haik'lng, an e1onKal«d 
pitofaBcalariform vessel (Crozie 

Bcftle, (1) ■■ ■ 

times of epi 

triohome, if diac*1ike ^ ~ Bark, 
outer bark which is thrown off in 
scale-like portions, as in the plane- 
tree ; ~ -farmed, shaped like a 
seals ; ~ Leavsi, catapbyllsry 
leaves, usually oa undorgrouod 
ahoota, but someiimes on the obove- 
ground portion a. 

loall'oped, orenate. 

■oalpel'llfonn, tcaJpelliform'U {saxl- 
prUam, a lancet, Jonna, abupe), 
shaped like the blade of a peo- 
knife ; often set vertically. 

)[ a BcaiariioriD vessel ^\£jer;. 
(1) anv thin scarioua body, 
illy a deaenerate leaf, some- 
s of epiilermal origin ; (2) a 

Eoal7, sqoamose, t 

leaf-bods of a strong character, 
that ia, well protected by scalee ; 
- Bnlb, one having aeparate acalea, 
as in lilies. 

Bcan'de&l, scait'cfeiu (Lat., climbing), 
climbing, in whatever manner. 

Bcspe, Sca'piu (Lat., a stem), (1) a 
leaflesa floral axis or peduncle 
arising from the ^und, as in 
C])damt,ji ; (2) the itipe of Fungi ; 
Soapel'lu t the neck or caulicle o{ 
a germinating embryo (Liadley ] ; 
■oa'pelasB, dealitnte of «i ecape. 

ScapUd'lnm {acaphinm, a hollow 
veasel), the sporangium of Algae ; 
Scaph'lnm; the keel ot a papiuon- 
ocBODS corolla ; Scaph'otnya l^puu, 
I sprout), a term applied to the 
Marattiaceoe, an order of Ferns in 
which the frond rises from between 
two stipnlar appendages forming a 

■oipb'old (d-h^^, a boat, tXiat, re- 
semblance), b<»t'ahaped ; MSpb'j- 
fonn l/orma, shape), used by J. 
Smith for boat-shaped. 

■oaplflo'roiu, -rw {»capiu, a Bt«in, 
Am, fioria, a flower), having flowsra 
borne on a scape ; toa'pUDrm, 
aca/ii/orm'u [forma, shape), r«- 
sembling a scape, a atem wanting 
leaves ; acaplg'erani (gov, I b«*r), 
scape-bearing ; sca'pi^ (rl3«, re- 
semblaDce), scapifonu (Croder) ; 
■ca'pose. geapo'svji, having scapes ; 
Sca'puB (Lat.) - Scafk, 

Bear, a mark left on a sUm by the 
aoparatioQ of a leaf, on a seed by 
its detachment, b cicatrix ; loaiTWl, 
marked by scars. 

■ca'riose, Kario'siu, aoa'rloaa [scaria. 
Late Lat,, a thorny shrub), thin, 
dry and membranous, not green. 

tcar'let, vivid re<l, having some 
yellow in its compositioOi 

Bcar'iose I, a variant speUing of 

seat tered, without apparent order. 

•chlata'c«oiu, -cevs [ithiiloa, a atone 
e&aily split, e.g., Blat«, .>- acau), 
slate-colouted, » deep-toned grey ; 



•cbli'tOH, tchisla'tju, slat;, aa to 

Bchlitogi'uiUM (ii^iiirTDi clefl, ', a 
marriage), used bj Ardiasooti la 
designate the Charoceae ; Bcblst'o- 
gunt, Behialogam'ia, CMuel'a termg 

Schl'iocarp [oxifu, I split, npirii, 
fruit), a pericarp vhich apUta iato 
one-tBoded portiooi, mcrioarpa or 
"aplit - fniiU" ; icliUoKeaet'lc 
{ytrof, offapring), formed by split- 
ting ; " iut«ro«llal(ir Spaces are 
formed bj the separation of tissue 
elenientJ owing to the aplitting of 
the common wall o£ tbo celU ; 
■cMtOEen'Jo Devel'opnent, develop- 
ment arising from division ; 
Bdiiiog'eiiaiia, = BchizogenHtic ; 
■cblio-lyalK'eitoiu (Xi^x, a fooeing}, 
arising from Eplitting or tear- 
ing of the liseueB, applied by 
Tsohirch to those cavities whiuh 
arise at lirat from aplitting of 
the cell -watt, but are enlarged 
by the breaking down of aur- 
ronndiog tisaaes ; HlllMljrt'lO, 
applied to those gemmae which are 
detached bj splitting through the 
middle- lamellae of the cells 
(Correns); BchliomycB'tea (^urqi, 
a fungus), Naegeli'a term for biic- 
tcria (Cohn) ; flohliophy'taa (^wiK, 
a plant), was also uxcd by Cohn (or 
thepreoeding;8chl'iopbytea, plants 
which increase by Bssion ; Bcblio- 
Bpor'eae (iropd, a seed), a name 
proposed by Cohn for the Schizo- 
mycetes ; Sohliotte'ty {n-HiKti, a 
column), when the single primitive 
stele breaks up into as many 
distinct strands as there are vas- 
oular bundles ; adj. ichlioste'loua. 

•dm'ltar-ahapsd, aciaacifnnn. 

■d'on, a young ahoot, a twig used for 

Soiipc'tnm, Warming's term for an 
association of Scirpua plantn. 

adi'iioii (MMsio, a cleaving) Lst'st 


[pario, I bring forth), uaeil for 
rissiFitnucs, as bacteria. 
■da'Toid, aclDTol'des, icitroi'datu 

trtlavpot, a squirrel, (Hot, resom- 
lance), curved and bushy, like a 
squirrel's tall, 
Sclsran'thiam (sKKripof. hard, ar^oi, 
B. flower), an aohene encloaed in on 
indunit«d portion of the calyx- 
tube, as in Mirabilit ; aelemicli'- 
yma (t-ix"fi< an infusion), (1) 
formerly applied to atons-oelli, 
ScLEBnoa ; ('i) afterwards proposed 
for bast or liber oella, which are 
immensely thickened, with their 
protoplasm lost : — Cells, all 
thick -walled cells which retain 
their pi-otoplasm (Tsohiroh) ; 
adj. Rolerenehy'niatous : aa ~ 
Tla'sue, composed of thtck-wal]«d 
cells : Scle'reld, a aolerotic or stone- 
oell, a strongly thickened or ligni- 
fied cell ; it is sometimes spelled 
Bole'rld : scle'ilstd, aolarosed ; 
Bder'oblasI IjJXairroi, a bud), a 
stone-cell, or solereid ; Sder'ogvn 
(7^>a<, offspring), the bard lig- 
nified deposita in such cells as 
those which compose the shell 
of the walnut, or grit-cells of the 
pear ; BoleroECo'lft, Berkeley's 
term for indc ration of parts 
amounting U> a disease ; soleToid, 
uderoi'di'i {tliot, reBemhlanoe), 
having a hard teitnre ; loleropliyl'- 
lue (4>i:X\or, a leaf), having bard 
and stiff leaves : ■clBropol'dni (roui, 
ro3oi. a foot), when persistent 
peduncles become hard and homy ; 
sclerosed, hardened, tigniSed ; 
Solero'sls. the hardening of a 
tissue or cell-wall by tigniScation 
of a membrane or intercellular 
deposita ; Sclerote', a proposed 
emendation of .Sciebotium ; 
sdero'tic, hardened, stony in 
texture ; ~ Cells, grit-cells or 
aoUreida ; •• Farenob'yma, grit- 
celU or Btone-oelU in pears, etc. : 
BcIero'Uet, A. S. WiUon'a 

11 SCLt 


tions of lime have been also so 
told (rlJoi, resemblance), like a 
iclcrotium ; BclHo'Uttin, pi. ScIbto'- 
tlli, ( 1 ) a compact mass of hyphoe in 


a dormant staM.occurriDR in Mvaral 
RTOups of FuDgi : (2) &bo applied 
□V some to the reatiDg itaRe of 
toa ptoimodium of the M;xo- 

■ooblc'niBi (uotoa, aawduat] = BcoBi - 
roBH (Crozjer) ; icoMcnla'tua, id 
fine ^raina like aawiluat ; toab'UMm, 
•coAi/brm'M [forma, ahape). having 
the appearance of aawduat. 

SooU'n* (Lat., a raap), the tigzag 
rhachii of the epikelet in some 
graaaea ; icob'ilLatfl, icobina'tue, 
wlien the nirfact fsela rough aa 
though raaped. 

Soole'olta (rriruXijf, a worm). Tulaane'a 
term for the vermiform ATchiearp 
of Aia^iolv» ptilckerrimaa, the 
'■Vermiform Body" of Woronin. 

Scot'UalL Type of DiatributJon, used 
b; H. C. WataoQ for those planta 
in Great Britain whose bead* 
qaartera are in Smtlond. 

Morpto'ld, aoorploi'dal, tcorpioi'dit, 
leorpioida'lit (mopwlion a scorpion, 
clidf, resemblance), wbeD the main 
axis (paeudaiia) of infloreacence ia 
Doiled like the tail of a scorpion, 
more ttrictty with flowers two- 
ranked, these bein^ altemaMly 
thrown to opposite sides ; — Oyme 
or CiNClNHCS, the lateral branohea 
developed on opposite sidea alter- 
nately as in Borrafpneae ; in some 
English teitbooks erronoously 
given as"helicoid"; — DlctMt'om?, 
when alternate branches develop 
diohotomously ; — unlp'arfiDS 
Oyma, a cymose branchi 
the nght and left forks i 
nately the larger. 

ftonw' lines, spirals in phyliotaxis 

S«l'iiluin(Lat.,a<»se), Necker'sterm 
for the fruit of Myrtoceae, aa of 
Ltcuihie : adj. wrlna'ceni. 

■croblo'iilate, tci'oJneida.'l'u* (act'oft'- 
cuitLS, a litttu treocb). marked by 
minute or shallow deprosBJona, 
pitted ; scTOblculD'mu, pitted ot 

SwoIl-K»U, Keruer'a t«rm foe mal- 

leaves, which onrl np ( 
■cro'tUoim, »erol\form'%t {tentvm, ■ 
ScTo'tom, the pouoh or volva of 

&<iurf, small bran.tike scales on the 
epidermit ; Scnr'aiMM, the appear- 
ance produced by membcaaoua 
scales ; tmxfj, lepidoM. 

Bcn'tate, tcuTi'ltu l»calu,m,ia oblong 
shield I, buoklBr-shliped,»orfa'(i PiT\ 

Bcu'tel {HruttUa. a salver) = Scittsl. 
LCM ; RcateUa'rlB, scu'tellate, taUtX- 
la't-a», shaped like a ainaJt platter ; 
acQtel'lltOnn, 8c«.tflliform:w {/orma, 
sbspc), patelliform, but oval and 
round (Lindley): platter-shaped [A. 
Uray); Bontariom, pi. SonM'Ift, 
(1) a seoood and anUrior coty- 
ledon io gcostes, as in wheat 
(Scriboer) ; (2) the conical cap 
of the endosperm in Cycadeae ; 
(3) in Liuhens, such an apothecionv 
as in Parmdia, with an elevated 
rim dorived from the tballus- 

•ca'ttfOTiD, KiUi/orm'u {eeulum, a 
shield, forma, ahape), buckler- 
shaped ; ~ L^f, the first fonned 
leaf in Saivima, the protophyll 
which differs in shape from those 
which succeed it. 

Boa'tom, (1) used by Jacquin to de- 
note Che outer corona m Dumlia, 
Haw. ; (2] the broad dilated apei 
of the style in Asclepiads. 

scTm'ltaT-iIiaped (A. Gray) = aouu- 

"open cups" (Leiuuton) ; (2| ^ the 
corona of ,Vai-.-i«M- (Liadley) ; 
■cyph'tfonn (forma, ahape), cop- 
like ; BoypUpli'oroui (^ap^w, I 
carry), bearing cups ; BcjrphOK'Miy 
{ymaai, 1 produce), Morran's term 
far the production of asoidia ; acy- 
pli'oae, possessing scyphi ; Soj- 
ph'alui, the coleanle or vaginula of 

■^Unnm {atinros, leathern), used 
b; Necker lo denote an indehieoent 
pulpy pod, SB of the Tamarind. 


Mba'cwna, stba'ctiu (Lnt., a talbw 
<sndle), like lump* of tallow. 

Mtdferoui (lebutn, tallow, /tro, I 
boar), beating vegetable wax or 

MC'oitdUT. KCundar'ins, not primary, 
Babordiuate ; ~ Batt, the result of 
the aontinued activity of the cam- 
binm, a formation of bast of the 
same eatentinl character aa the 
primary baat, but not forming a 
part of the original bundle ; ~ 
Bad, additional to the usual bad, 

□e« the aiil ; - Oor'les, suooee- 
eive formationi of liber or baat 
within the oortioal ehoath and 
primary cortex, eialuaive of the 
•econdary corit, phellodcrm : ~ 
Dea'mogen, farmed from the cam- 
bium and destined to become 
■econdary permanent tjlsue : — 
Pon'gu, a parasite or saprO' 
phyte which attacks a plant after 
it has been injured or killed 
by aome other Fungus ; '- Qrowtll, 
additional or subsequent to prim- 
ary growth ; -- Hy'tnld, a hybrid 
one or both of whoie parents Were 
also hybrids ; ~ Ll'b«r, = ~ 
Bast ; » Mednl'-Iaiy Hays, those 
which are iutertnediate between 
the primary rays, and do not 
extend to the pith ; ~ Kem'- 
b«TS, all those which are de- 
veloped from the primary mcmberB, 
if borne directly, tbey are said to 
be of the first order, if on the 
latter, of the second order, and so 
on : >- Mer'istem, a cambium 
which arises in an organ after ite 
first development, by means of 
which further growth is pos- 
sible ; ~ llyoB'llniii, rhJEoid 
attachments to the base of the 
sporophore resembling the 

the union of the two polar Daolei ; 
— Pednn'ete, a braoch of a manj- 
fiowered inflorescence ; - Psflole, 
the footstalk of a leaflet ; ~ Koot, 
a, lateral root, or a branch from 
the primary root ; — Sclsren- 
ob'jma conusta of elongated pr»- 
eeochynutotis cells having ligni- 
fied walla marked with narrow 
oblique bordered pits ; ~ Spore, a 

rre borne on a promycelinm or 
ived from another spore ; ~ 
Stmc'Inrei (1) any structure not 

Crimary, or (2) after it has grown 
eyond its early condition ; — 
Tls'stie, refer to DisuoaKN, Vasoit- 
ijlv. TissnB, etc. ; - Wood, derived 
from the cambium but not in the 
original bundle aa first formed, it 
dioers from the primary wood by 
not having spiral or annular veseejs 
like those on the protoiylem 

Bec'oBdiae - Sscitndini (Cro7.ier). 

Secre'tlDn (tfcrttio, a dividing), a 
substance formed from the fluids 
□f the plant by the agency of gland- 
uUr cells; ~ Bod 'let, secretory sacs; 
iecre'tory, producing a secretion ; — 
Bac. a unicellular or aggregaUid sac 

oil ; ~ Space, on intercellular spooe 
contain tng simitar products of 
secretion ; — Tla'soe, as above, it 
forms a storehonae for the waste 
products of the plnnt. 

Ho'tlle, Kci'ilit (Lat., cut or cleft), 
as though cut up into portions, as 
the poUon of some Orchids. 

Ssc'tion [aeuio, a catting), (I) a thin 
slice taken usually for microsoopjo 
inspection, tn a given direction ; 
(2) an important divisloa of a 

Sec tor (Lat., one who cuts), the term 
jierloy'oUo ~ , is used by Bastit for 
interruptions of the continuity of 
the central cylinder of the subter- 
ranean portion of FidylTichKvt, aa 
viewed in cross -sect ion. 

■ec'tua (L^t., cut), parted, vomplelely 
divided to the base ; in composition 
it forma the suffix MOt. 



WOOBd', Kom'dut (Lat,, foUowiog or 
•aoond), pkrU or orguia directsd 
to one tido ody, u<uall; hy 
tonioD ; wcnndA'tiu (Lst, , second 
in ran It) is j^wm bj Henalow 
■■ afnonymous ; ibciukUIIo'tiib 
{fioi, fioria, a Bowor), Uie flowera 
•11 turned in the annie direc- 
tion ; Sec'niuUns. the lecoDd, that 
ia, the inner ooat of on ovnie; 
Secundi'iuu inter'nat, an old term 
for Albcmkn of a »eed ; S«ciin'do- 
«pon ( + Sfobe), C. MaciDillan'a 
term for a spore which can also 
act ai a uamete. aa in Utolhrix. 

M'dei Flo/la (Lat.), t the torua of a 

B«ed, ths fertilised and matured 
ovule of a plisnerogamouB plant ; 
~ Bad, Blair's word for Pi.a- 
CKNTA : ~ Bod, in Milne's Uic> 
tionujr cited for Ovaby ; ~ 
OMt = TiOTA ; - Le^r, ~ Lobe 
= CoTTLBDON ; ~ Sput, a ea- 
tninal variation : ~ Btallc. the 
FUNicLR or podoaperm ; ~ Taria'- 
Uon. a variation arising from a 
seed, and not a bud ; ~ Vul'ety, a 
variety produced from a aeed- 
■port, or one which cornea true 
from seed ; ~ Vea'aal = Pehi 

reproduced by seed 

plant produced from seed, in 

b;..i — 1. — ._ , plant propagated 

J QTopa), growing in fields of 
h^BMnt, Segmen'lutn (Lat,, a piece 
ont off), (1) one of the divisions 
into which a plant organ, as a leaf, 
maj be oleft ; (S) each portion of 
meriatem which originatea from a 
single SEQHE.tT Cell ; ~ ObU, the 
bami portion which is successively 
out on from the apical cell in 
growth :S^m«it>'tl<ni, (l)di ' 

1 apical cell ; (3) the prim: 

tive cell -divisions of the em- 

H'Kregate, mtgnga'tat (Lat.. aepar- 
atedj, kept apart; a Be'Kr«K*(a ia 
a speciea separated from a eoper- 

Sel'roapore (a-iipi, a string or rope, 
inrojn, a seed), » spore produced in 
a branched row resulting from the 
division of terminal cells of partio- 
□lar branches in certain Ceramia- 
cese ; adj. •elroapoT'lc. 

tejn'goiia, w'jagiu {mx, six, jiigunt, 
a yoke), having six pairs of leaSel«, 
OS some pinnate leaves. 

Selac'Uon, Mat'nral, Darwin's «i- 
pression for that which Herbert 
Spencer has termed the " Sorviv^ 
of the Stteet." 

Belenot'ropisffi (ftEXiJmr, the moon, 
Tpari), a turning), movements of 
catued by the light of the 

n (MuB 


Self, a Borist's term for having the 
same tint throughout, withoat 
markings of other colours or tints ; 

rs ("f." 

FartUioa'tiOD, fertilized by its own 
pollen ; " For'ailtlsm, parasitic on 

happens with V'i'cum ; ~ Pollin*'- 
UoB, the pollen of the same flower 
brought into olose contact with its 
own stigma ; ~ Bterll'lty, when 
poUon thongh ripe ia inoperative 
on the stigma of its own flower. 

■eUaetotm'li {lella, a saddle, fonr^, 
shape), Baddle.sfiaped, 

Se'man (Lat., seed), the i 
flowering plants; — oomlei 
the receptacle of certain Fangal* 
iLindley); - mol'tlplei = Sfou- 

Be'mst {nmdi, seed), a term used hj 
drew and others for Amthbk, 
l/. SlUlKE. 

sam'l (Lat.). half ; seml-adbs'mnt, 

teTni-adKeTen) {adkoYiix, Hticking], 
half -adherent, that is. the lower 
part or half ; Mml-amplec'tena, — 
ampleo'tua {Lat,, wound aboul)> 



e^uilaot; ~ unplBotl'viu 
cit«d for the s&me ; aeml-BnipIez'l' 
embtaclDg, cauli», the slcm), ap- 

Elied to leaves whose lower portion 
air einbrsces the atem ; lUnl- 
unplex'iu, hull embracing ; Bemi- 
auafropkl, ■eml-anat'Topoua ( 4- 
AKATSOroos) = aniphitropous ; 
■■ml-c&ljcifonn ( + oaltcitorh), 
half oup-BbAp«d (J. Smith) ; Senii- 
osp'nU* ( + CapsclaJ = Cnppu: ; 
Miuluiiuit'lo ( -I- aquatic), lena for 
those water-planta which root in 
the BoiI,but prodace aquktio leaves, 
otherwise living aa land-plants ; 
Bem'leell, one haU of a Ltesmid ; 
■emicolam'nu', »tmicoluiaJia'rii [ + 
colohsak), aemtterete ; Mmlcos'- 
lUita ( -^ CONNATE), spptied to 
fluoh Btruotures as the half-united 
(JluDeiltt of certain wiUows (Win- 
■ner ; Mml-Mr'daW, KinUorda'tus 
( -i- CORDATB), heart-shaped on 
one side only ; twmloordUorm'li 
{/orma, shape], somewhat cor- 
date ; stmioTi^ilTB'Dsiu, ~ q/lin'- 
drjciit {+ ctundricitb), esmj- 
teteie ; leinldlg'yniu (+ Dinv- 
Nus). when two carpela cohere 
near the base oolj' ; tsmidODbl*, 
tanidii'plejc, when thii inner sta- 
mens oontinue perfeat, and the 
outer are pclaloid, half changed 
into a double Sower ; semtelllpUc 
(+ ELLiPTiu), half-elhptic, thedivi' 
sion being longitudinal ; semleq'ul* 
UILl [-1- EQUiTAKT), haif-equit*nt; 
BamlDor'at ( -t- Floret), a lignlate 
floret ; senUfloc'cuI&r, Mtnifloa'cO' 
lotui, «em(/foecu/o'«u« ( + m/oicclar), 
having the corolla splitand turned 
to one side as in ligulat« florets of 
Compusitae ; Bemlflos'cnlB, a semi- 
floret ( Croiier ) ; flemlfni'Mx (/ruie^, 
a ihrub), an under-shrab : Mmi- 
liaita'Iiw ( + HAOTATC^), hastate on 
one side only ; Mlnilaii'cMlate ( + 
LARCtoLATE), half 'lanceolate, longi- 
tudinall; divided ; Bemtlentic'iilU' 
LBNTICDLAR), sublenticular [Cro- 
rj ; Hmlioo'ol&r, temilocula'rie, 
•'~'vSiui+ docclab), with in- 


complete dissepiment, practically 
unilocular; Semlll'ctiBn ( -)- Lichen), 
Zukal's term for forms which when 
deHtituteof thoir appropriate Alg» 
can subsist aa saprophytes, or 
Fungi which can combine with 
some Alga tu form a Lichen ; se* 
miln'nar, ssmllu'iiate, BtT/iiluna'tKi 
( -f LUNATK). lunate, shaped like a 
half-mooD, or crescent-shaped. 

H'minal, temina'IU (Lat., pertaining 
to seed), relating to the seed; 
~ Lear, a ootylodon ; ~ flport, 
- SEBO-sroBT ; Samluft'tae, Van 
Tieghom'sterm for plants furnished 
with true seed-coats ; Semlu'tlo, 
the act of natural dispersion of 
seiiiU ; Ba'mine, used by Grew to 
include both hfs Semet and Chive, 
the genitalia ; Mminlferoui, -rut 
{/ero, I bear), (1) seod-heariDg ; (2) 
used for the special portion of the 
pericarp bearing the seeds ; (3) 
= Dicotyledons ; ~ Scale, in Coni- 
ferae, that scale above the bracts 
scale on which the ovules are placed 
and the soed borne ; iemlnlflc 
(/ocio, I make), forming or pra- 
ducing seed ; BemlolAca'tlon, pro- 
pagation from seed ; seminUona'ii 
{forma, ahapa), applied to repro- 
ductive bodicB in Cryptogams 
which are not part of the 
fruotiflcation ; Se'menln, a sinis- 
trorse carbohydrate oocarring In 
reserve- cellulose in tbe endosperm 
of some seeds (Reise) ; Be'mlnoie, a 
dextrose form from ordinary cel- 
lulose belonging to the group of 
grape-sugars (Reisa) ; Se'mllllile, 
Srntin'u/um, ^ Sfoke ; Bemlnnlir' 
vpx> {/ero, I bear), (1) that part 
of Cryptogams which bears tbe 
spores, a aporophore ; (2) the cavity 
of the ovary while the ovules are 
yet unrertilized. 

MUloiUc'iUu', eemiorhicula.'liu (semi, 
half, -f ORBICULAB), half-round 
or hemispherical ; Mmio'nl, 
temwva'lia, MDilo'vftte, aemiova'- 
tui (-t- OVAL), haU-oval, one s ~ 
only, or ovate in longitudi 
halves ; MtnlpetalDi'deni 4 ' — 

IiUid], pet&loid : o( the ahape or 
bBilara of ■ pelkl ; wmlpalUn'rla 

{ + po/ltx, ■ tbunib-brc»dlh). about 
hall an inch in lenglh ; Mmlrk'- 
Olant, »«iiiit&' dlAta, ttmiru'tia'tiLt 
(radiaiia, emitting beam*), whtii 
only a portion of tbe oater flurtts 
.. 1 Coinposilc are r«rli»nt aoi! 
diOereat from tboM of the disk : ■>- 
mlrs'liUlniil, H'-.mirrn^onn'is {rrna, 
the kidney B,/oniia.Dhape), kldney- 
"'"" ^ ■ ono aide only; aeinl- 
(rttkvJatui, netted), 
when one of aeversl layers ia 
nett«d, the others niembranoua ; 
^Itttta, Btmitagitta'tM {aa- 
gitla, an arrow), arrow-shaped on 
one side oF the longitudinal axia ; 
aeiolMp'Uita, n-mU'pta'tHg I -f- ssr- 
TAtrs), half-partitionnl, the dis- 
aapiniant not projecting farcaougli 
to divide it into two eella ; MnU- 
stam'inat*, eimintamiiiar'iui, -rU 
{4- 8TAmN), when part of the 
atamena are changed into petals ; 
Mmliyinpliloate'moiiii ( + Tv^ip<'m, 
1 unite, irri/iutPf a stamen), wlicn 
some of tbe stsDinna cohere, the 
reat remaining free ; aem'lMrate, 
Kmiler'ee [irrtJt, round and taper- 
ing), half' terete ; aamltrlg'ynaB 
(will, three, ti'»Ii, a woDian), when 
of lhr«e Btylea two are united half 
way, the third being free on tho 
ovary (Meiaaiier) : aeinlTal'Tate, 
lemivaira'ttu (+ valvate), whea 
the Talvea of a fruit are only par- 
tially dehiaoent ; aamlTsrtlc'illate 
1+ vaBTlciLLATB), BubverticiUalo 

MmpaiTl'rant, iempfrvirma (Lat,), 
evergreen, retnining its leaves 
during the winter. 

m'ouT, ama'n'tia (Lat.), belonging 
to, or containing, aii. 

•cow'oanoa (kim«7o, I grow old), the 
ageing of protoplasm ; a term used 
by Maupas for tbe oondition of tbe 
offapring of a long continued seriee, 
which, oJl«r continued ttssion, ulti- 
mately deganemU), and lose first 
the power of oonjugating, and 
Anally that of fission. 

•endVlUa (Lat.), Maaitive, manifest- 
ing irritability ; taa'iltlra. leatili'- 
i-Hi, reaponaive to atimului, as 
the leaves of Mimosa pudira, Linn. ; 
~ na'tUH, thoae in vhich tha 
sensibility reaides ; Sen'ilttrBiiBai, 
irritability ; aan'aoiT, Bensitire. 

Sop'al, Sep'aiiim (oiwrij. a covering), 
Necker's eonvenioiit tenn iu uni- 
versal use for each segment com- 
posing a calyx ; aap'aliiiB, aepa/i'- 
iiini ; ■ap'alooa, relating to aepals ; 
aep'alold, stpaloi'dttit (itlot, re- 
semblance), roaetnbling a aepal ; 
Sepalo'dy, the metamorphoais of 
petals into sepals or aepaloid 
organs ; Bapal'nlnln. Necker'a di- 
minutive for a small sepal. 

aap'arate [Kparatan. put apart} 
Flow'en, those of distinct aexca. 
diclinous ; Mp'araUng laT'er, the 
Absciss- LATE a, as in leaf-fall ; 
Bepara'tlon, multiplication by natur- 
ally detachable portions, such as 
gemmae, bulbils, etc. 

av^'eana [nepia, a cuttle fish), sepia- 
coloured, a dark clear browo. 

Baplc'ol* [etpa, a hedge, nolo, 1 
inhabit), an inhabitiuit of hedgea, 
Henslow prints it H'.pi'coliu. 

Sep'M, pi. of Bsp'tam (lAt., a hedge 
or enoloBure), any kind of parti- 
tion, whether a true diasepiment 
or not ; aepta'tia (Lat.), belonsiog 
to a septum ; aep'tal, H. C. Wat- 
for plants growing i 

■eptam'fld (atpUtn, aeven, Jid, the 
root of fiitdo, I cleave), cut into 
seven divisions; MptemiMr'tlte {par- 
litut, cut), divided into seven lobea; 
■apten'ate, teplciia'Ciui, atptaiiit, 
having parts in bsvoos, as in > oom- 
pound leaf, with seven leaflati 
arising from the same point; Mp- 
tena'tal-pin'nate, used by Bab- 
ington for those bramble* whidi 
have seven pinoules in each leaL 

Mptlcl'dal, Hp'tlddt, atplicida'lia 
{teplvm, a hedge or enclosure, 
eaeda, I cnt), when a capsule 


dehisces through tha disaepimeiits 
or linos of junction : ■eptiTBTOVB 
[/rro, I bear), bearing the parti- 
tion or diHsepioient. 

taptUoHoni [stpltm. seven, folium, & 
leaf), seven -leaved, 

Np'tlfona, 'epli/orm'U [Kptum. a 
hedge, fomux, shnpe), having >a 
kppearance of a diHaepimeot, as the 
placent* of Planlago ; MptirrasaJ, 
ttpiif'ragMg {/rag, the root of 
/rnnf/o, I break). when indehiacence 
the valves broiik away from the dis- 
aepiiuents ; sapt'ille, of or belon^- 
log to dissepimenta ; sep'tulate, 
having Bpurioua transverse diasepi- 
ments, (a) aparsalj^ teptate, ('') 
indistinctly septate, its true sense ; 
Bep'tnluni, a little partition of any 

•eptnpUner'rli, -viui {Mpiu/i/uia, in 
sevens, n«ntu, a nerve), seven- 
nerved, applied to a leaf. 

Ba'tali. a diseaae of sugar-cane, pro- 
bably due to Hypocrca SofrAori, 

M'lla], •enriVw, H'rl&U, Kria'lua 
{aeria, a row), disposed is wriet of 
rows, either tranaverso or longi- 

■Wle'wraa, teric'tut (Lat.), silky, 
clothed with olose-pressed soft and 
straight pubescence. 

Se'riM (Lat.), (I) a row ; (S) by A. 
Oray need as equivalent to sub- 
kingdom, by others used for vari- 
ous groups, 

tero't^al, sero'tlnooi, -nvs (Lat. , 
that comes late), produced late in 
the season, or the year, aa in 

Sar'iu (Lat., a saw), the booth of a 
sarrate leaf ; serraefolini, prefer- 
ably sanatlfo'llns ijo/iiim, a leaf), 
having serrate leaves ; ■ar'rata, 
lerra'lsu, beael with antroree teelh 
on the margin ; ser'nte.cll'Ute, 
toothed, and with a marginal series 
of hairs : terra'tulus, slightly 
toothed, denticulate ; Ber'rature, 
Sermlii'ra, the toothing of s aer- 
rate leaf ; ser'nUate, ffmi/uViu. 
serrate, bat the teeth minute ; 

Bermla'tion, (1) being sermlate ; 

(2) a serrulate tooth. 
aar'iled, close together in rows 

Ser'tulum (scrtvtn, a garland). (!)• " 

simple umbel ; (2) a seleation of 

plants described or figured ; 8«r'- 


, for B 

, of I 

;ion of plan 

d {SetaviHin. -t ilSos, resem- 

'), granular, like the seeds of 

sesqnl (Lat,), a prefix meaning one 
and a half; sesqnlaJ'tM, (1) when 
the stamens are ball as many again 
as the petals or sepals ; (2) when a 
fertile Sower is accompanied by a 
neuter flower, as in some grasses ; 
•asqnlpciU'lls (Lat.), a foot and a 
half in length. 

•ea'iUB, Kti'mliB (Lat., sitting), as 
though sitting close, destitute of 

Se'U (Lat., a bristle), (1) abrisUeor 
bristle-shaped body ; (2) the sporo- 
phore of a Most, the stalk which 
•nppoTta ibi capsule ; (3) the arista 
or awn of grasses, when terminal ; 
(4) a peouliar stalked glaad in 
Ruh-m % (5| by cy)>erologista used 
lor the bristle within the utricle of 
oertsin species of Oitrtx; it repre- 
sents the cuotinuatJoD of the 
fioral axis (C, B. Clarke) ; 
seta'ceous, -ceM(-i-BOoous), bristle- 
like i applied to a at«m it means 
slender, leaa than subulate ; seta'ceo- 
sern'tns, having the serratureH end- 
ing in a bristle-ltke point i Mtlfa'- 
rons [/fro, I bear), brutle- bearing ; 
ae'tltQrm(rbmia,shaiie),in the shape 
of a bristle ; ■eUK'srona Uitro, I 
bear), bristle- ben ring ; se'tosa, «((/- 
«>ui (Lat.>. bristly, beact with 
bristles ; Se'tula, the stipe of cer. 
tain Fungi (Lindley) ; Mtnlllorm 
[forma, shape), thread-like ; ss'tn- 
lose, settilo'svs, resembling a fine 

Bex. Self us (Let,), in botany, male 
or female functions in plants. 

■exau'gular, nfxangvXa'ru.atxan'ipiliu 
(Lat.), sii-angli^. 

■V* (lex, KX, /ariant, 
1 rows), preflentmg lix 
:t«D<liD); loDgitudinallj' 

= cleft), Bix-clsrt 
(Croztei) : suloc'iilAr {locviiu, a 
■mall cell), aii-oelUd. 

, texpartftut (1*1.). o"' 



Bax'tuit (wxbini, a suth part), a 
radial cell diviiion of aegmenta 
in three eeriea, a siitb part o{ the 
original (De Bary). 

••x'tnplgx(iAt.)>Bii-rald or aii-timsH. 

mz'iulI, Kxaa'lu (Lat,, perlAioing to 
aei), {1) the distinctioD of Bex; 

(2) applied to the phenomena 
of ooDjuaalion generally ;-aeiiar'- 
ttUon, the eUge which b«ars 
the sexual organs i in Femi the 
prothatluB ; — Sfa'tem, Linnaeus's 
artificial arranaement by tbe num- 
ber and poBitiOD of the sexual 

BhAft. Witbering's word for Style. 

Shac-hal'n, Viixi, in Germiin 

■Iia^gy. TillouB. 

Sliake, defect ia timber due to the 
attacks of Tramtitt Pini, Fr. ; 
also liDown as Bark-, Heart-, or 

■bup polnteii, acute. 

Sbaatli, (1) a tabular or enrolled part 
or organ, as the lower part of the 
leaf in grasses ; (2) a limiting layer 
of nirrounding cellular tissue, as 
the Bl7!(lu,R-R8KATa ; aheath'lng, 
GDolosing as though by a sheath, 

Bhall, eondoo'tliicc, DioIcsod's term for 
a ledge within the ascidium ol 
Ctphaiotiitjbllicuiarit, LabilL 

Bball, (1) tbe hard envelope of a nut ; 

(3) a mass of layers in the oell-wsll. 
Bhal'tar-par'aBltA, see Bouatil. 
Stileld, (1) an apotbecium or disk 

arising from a Lichen -thall us, con. 
taining asci ; ('2) in Characeae, one 
of the eight cells forming the 
globule; (3) the stsminode of 
CypripediTim (S. Moore) ; ~ shaped, 
in tbe form of a buckler ; clypeate, 
peltate, or soatate. 

SUft'lng, tbe same as Gudiko 
Okowtu; in Germ. Versohiebang. 

■hl'Dlae, faiilid, a cl^ and polished 

ShMtt, (1) a young growing braaeh a 
twig ; (2) the ascending axis j when 
segmented into diasimilar mem- 
bers it beootnee a Stkm ; ~ ?cile.that 
point where new s boot-growth 
Deginf, rj. RooT-poli ; laaff - 
branched shoot ; tbal'lold — , 
□nsegmented shoot. 

ShoTt-roda, abort bacteria. 

Blimll, a woody perennial of smaller 
structure than a tree, wanting tbe 
bole ; sbrab'l^. like a shrub ; 
Bhmb'Iet, an undorshrub. 

ato'cQB (Lat.), dry, juieelees. contAin- 
ing little or no watery juice ; ■!■)- 
clt4't«i;Lat.,abl. absol,), in the dry 
state, that is, herbariam spaeimena. 

Slck'la-staga, of nuclear division, 
ZimmermBo's t«rm for the Pa£a- 
N UOLIUS of Straaburger. a creaoent- 
shaped body at one margin of the 
nuDletiB, supposed U> represent a 
stage in the disappearance of the 

Sieve cells, tbe individsal cells 
which constitute the Sievk Titbbs ; 
~ Disk, '- Flsld, ^ Flats, the 
pierced plate on the tranaverse 
or lateral walls of vessels covered 
on both sides by callus ; — 
Foret, the openinaa in a sieve- 
pUt«; ~ TlJRU, long artionlated 
tubes, whose scEments commuoi- 
cate by means of the aieve-plates ; 
— Tiit>ea, the tubes composing the 
tiague described ; ~ Xfl«i>i, ap- 
plied by Chodat to groups of sieve- 
cells in tbe wood of Dicflia. 

■Igllla'rUn, reaembling or allied to 
Sigiilaria, a genus of fossil plants 
whose surface is marked with 
numerous scars ; slg'lUate, tigiUa'- 
tia (Lat,, sealed), m if marked 
with impreasions of a seal, aa tha 
rhizome of Poti/gonatiim. 

■Ig'matald [aly^ia, the Greek i. iljw, 
resemblance), or ■Ig'mald, mgmof- 
deiu, doubly curved in opposite 
directions, like the Greek i. 


atatJDg certain faala ; a aeleotion of 

tbiMc mare ge Derail j used, u given 

in Appeodix A. 
Bll'lole, Silic'ula, SU'lcnle (Lat., a 

liltle husk or pod), {l| a short 

■iliqua, not muob longer than wide ; 

(2) t ^ Carpoolonicm of Algae. 
•Uloia'olou* (tilex, lilkia, a flint, eolo, 

I inhabit), uied of LicheoB which 

Srow on flinta) SIllclflM'tlon, lbs 
Hpositiau of silica in tiuues ; 
Bll'tco-cal'lDloM ( + Celliiixms), tbe 
conditiOD of tisaue when silex ia 
iiiUmatel^ blended with it us 
in Eijwtetum hi/tmalt, LIdd. 
■Ule'ulou ( -I- SiMDULdt), having 
lilicle* aa fnuta, or reaembling a 

lU'lqna (Lat.), Slllqne, pr. Si-leek', 

(1) the peculiar pud of the Cruci- 
ferae, two valvea falling away 
from a frame, the Refluu, on 
which the seeds grow, &nd aoroas 
which a false partition ia formed ; 

(2) t by Bliiir employed for 
Legume ; Sillquella, a aubordi- 
nale part of a fruit auch as the 
poppy, sonaiating of a carpel with 
two extended pTaoentai ; aUlq'ul- 
roTm i/orma, ahape), ihaped like 
A silique ; lU'IanoM. Mqtu/am, 
when the fruit is a ailiqaa, or 
reaemblea one, 

•Uliy, aerioeoua. 

»1'T» = Stlva. 

BU'rergnibk, the appearance in radial 
longitudinal aeotion of exogenous 
wood, eapeoially of oak, due toahin- 
ing plates of the medullary rays. 

■U'rery, having a lualre like silver. 

■Iqi'Umt Futa, X elementary organs 
or tissues (Lindley). 

■tmUlflo'roiu [timiUe, like,/o9, fiorii, 
a flower), applied to an umbel when 
ila flowera are all alike ; SlntlU- 
aym'me&y ( + SrMUErET),whea the 
two halves of a Diatom valve are 
similar ^Scbuett) ; oonetmilarity, 

■lin'ple, ma'plex, of one piece or 
■eriea, opposed to oonipound, ~ 
Frutla. thoae which result from 

the ripening of a single piatil ; - 
Olanil, a single cell contuoing a 
special secretion ; ~ Oonld'lopbore 
(•H OoMDroFSOfuc), a single hypha 
as in PaucilUam; ~ Hairs, not 
compound or branched, the pro- 
longation of a single epidermal 
cell ; - InflOTM'cenee, a flower 
cluster with one axia, as a spike, 
apadli, or catkin ; ~ Leaf, oi one 
blade, with incomplete aegmenta- 
tion ; •- Nuta'tloo, nutation in one 
direction only ; - Pli'tU, consisting 
of one carpel ; '■ Fit, — Pars, with 
only a slight enlargement at the 
centre, where it mceta tbs neigh- 
bouring cell ; ~ prl'mary Soot, a 
tap-root; ~ SpOT'opbore, a single 
hypha or ita branch, in Germ an, 
Frucbtiaden ; — Etem,astem which 
is unb ranched. 

■ImpUcls'atmiM (Lat.),cntirelyBimple. 

•Imulta'ceona (timidtantun. Late Lat., 
at the same time) Whorla, when 
the members are of the same aga 
and developed at the same time. 

SlDal'blD, mustard oil from Bnutka 
alba, Boiss,, formerly termed 
Siiiapia alba, Linn., whenoe the 

Blna'grln, or Sin'lgrln, a glucoaide 
occurring in the seeda of lirofsica 
aiitapoidei, R<'th, formerly termed 
Sinapit ni^ra, Linn., the origin ol 
the name. 

Slna'plll or Slna'piiin, an alkaloid 
from BroMica alba, Boiaa. (Han- 
bury & Fluekiger). 

■In'gla, naed of a flower which has 
only one set of petals, as opposed 
to double or any approach to 

■luis' trad - a IK I STRAi. 

■InU'tral, stols'trane, tinitlror'iiig, 
turned to the left; lif, dextroesb, 
and Appendix C. 

Sln'lstrln (n'nMfrr, the left], a 
carbohydrate from Urghita and 
other bulbs, formerly regarded aa a 

Sln'ker, the aecondaiy roots of 
Miatleto. Kiacum aSivm, Linn., 
forming laterals which strike 

^V perpsndicQUrlj 

^* the wtMxl of lbs k 



perpsndicQUrlj donnward iato 
the wtMidof lbs boat, 
■tn'iukle, nmia'tii*{lAt.,catvad), with 
& deep Wftv; rasrgin ; «ln'iut«a, 
deeply v&ved ; •lo'uolate, 
nnuo/aVui, repaad, faintly or 
minotel; amnftto ; ala'aoES, ilii'- 

■In'iu (Lat., s onrve, a fold). (I] » 
recBH or re-eDt«ring angle ; (2) a 
pore in aome Fungi {Lindley). 
BljAoiL {ittMi, • tube), a pericenlral 
elongated tube In tbe frond of 
Polyaiphonia and allied Atgae ; 
■tpbo'neooi, relating to Algae 
posaeaaing tabular atruotnre ; 
Blplumipliy'lon (^urdv, a plant), n 
Compoiite with all its Sorete 
tnbiJar ; Blpbo'DOgUD {y'-i'oi, 
marriagB), planta fertilized by 
nteang of pollGu-tubea. all Pbanero- 
gaoiB ; adj. alpbanoEaTn'lc, alpho- 
nogr'atnoiu, tbe oondition bfiing 
81pboD0|;'atiiy ^alphonoMe'lic ((ri-i)Xir , 
a oolumn), having a tubular stele 
Sli'tar-ceUi, cells of the eame genera- 
lion produced by the diviaion ol a 
Mn((le (mother) cell, at the pollen- 
graini ol a tetrad. 
BlVna (Lat., situate), (1) the poaitian 
oaoupied by an oraan ; (2) f the 
mycelium of some Fungi (Lindley), 
Skebk, a condition of the chromatin of 
the nucleus in the initial and final 
■tages of division ; dangliter — or 
mother ~, according to their 
Skel'eton (irj«X(TJi, mummy), any 
framework which persiata after the 
destruction of the organ by fire or 
corroaion, as the remainder of the 
cell-wall in ash. or tbe staroh grain 
after partial solution by an enzyme. 
BUS, a thin eiternal covering, the 

eutiola or epi dermis. 
■hubed, laciniate. 
■Ut«-Kre7, the colour of slate, 

■Imp, the repose ol plo&ta, with 
Obangea in position of organs such 
aa leavea, doe to absence of light j 
<- Hora'menta, poBitiona taken by 

leaves during the night, nyotttMplo 

slea'dar, long and thin. 

SU'ding Qrowtb. a (^adual cbaage in 
tbe relative position of vessels, 
fibres, etc., due to their develop- 
ment in a longitudinal direelion. 

BUme-Suz, a flaw of liquid front 
diseased fruit and forest treea. due 
to the attacks of various Fongi. 
producing a fermentation of the 
cortical elements down to tbe 
cambium tone (Maaaee) ; SUnw- 
Fon'gl = Mrx ocastbes. 

BUng-bult, applied to any fruit which 
by poascBBJng contractile tissue 
projc';t8 its leeda to a distance. 

Blip, (1) described by Loudon aa a 
shoot from the collar or lower part 
of the stem of a plant, used for 
propagation, atem-suckera : (2) a 
papular name for Ctrmiio, but 
not used by enltivatora. 

smarag'dliLB, miarag'riinut [vpApaySai, 
an emerald), emerald green. 

Smll'actiM, a orystaJline bod; oc- 
curring in tho root! of th* officinal 

HUO'lTf, fumoaua. 

smooth. (1) not rough, opposed to 
BCabrauB, free from bairv ; (2) gla- 
brous, as opposed to pubescent. 

Bmut, disease in grain produoad bj 
various species of UtlUago. 

Bnall-planta, those which are mip 
posed to be foctlliied by •oaili aod 
aluga, malaoDphilous plaDte. 

snow-wbite, whitect absolute pnritjr. 

Snow-leaTea, Jungner's 
tain leaves which 
leathery, folded in I 

bud, and 

Sob'ole, kob'oitf (t-at., ■ sprout), 
aahoot.eBpcciatly {romthefn'ound ; 
■oboliTeroiiB (/era, I bear], twaring 
vigorous shoots. 

m'oW [iocialis, pertaining to eom- 
panionsbip), when individuals of 
the aame species usually grow 

company, and occupy - -■"■ 

able extent of ground, 



Socl'My (PUntJ see Associattoi'. 

•oft, applied to tissue which readily 
jielila to the touch ; ~ But, the 
tisHUB of sieve-tubea and paren- 
ohjDia, opposed to the Habd Bast 
of Iftyera of fibres. 

lola'nUl. a poisoaous oryst&llizable 
alkaloid la many speoiea of Sola- 
nuTn, Mpecittlly in .S'. nigrum, 
Linn., the potato, and the tamaUi, 

8D'lu(>o/,(ofi8, thesuD)FlHiita.Grew'H 
name for those which twine with 
the una, that is, dextrorse ; Bolk'l- 
imn, in botanio gardens a spot for 
eipoeiug plants t« the fall rays of 
the Bun. 

Ml'dered, united together. 

•ol'sMfonn, ai^eatform'U (wrfen, a 
aandal, forma, shape), slipper- 
shaped, almost reiembling on hoar- 

Solenu'ldy (ffuX^r. a tnbe, alSoTo, 
geoitals), the conversion of the 
genitalia into barren tubes (Mor- 
rsn] ; solKiOite'llC (rr^Xi), a pillar), 
having a tubular Htelo with inter. 
nal and eiternal phlM^m (Jeflray). 

■Ol'ld, lol'idug (Lat.), Dot hollow, 
free from cavities ; ~ Bull) = 


Ml'itsry, goiila'riue [Lat., lonely), 
single, only one from the same 
place ; Stotos used this for mono- 
typio genera. 

■olu'bUli (lat., that may bo loosed), 
separating into portioni or pieces ; 
SolttUl'lty, SoluMrilai, tbo con- 
dition of being readily loosed. 

■otuta', koIk'Iiu (Lat., unbound), free, 
not adherent, becoming separate ; 
Soln'tlcm, the detachment of various 
whorls Dormally adheirent ; the 
opposite of Adhesion. 

So'ma (rruvii. a body), the body as 
dtstinguisbed from the germ or 
reprodnotive portion {L. H. Bailey), 
pi, 80'mata, granules of any kind ; 
Bo'ma plasm (x-XditMa, moulded], 
Weiamann's term for the proto- 
plaam of the body or vegetative 
portion, in oppoeition to the germ- 
ilasm; SomktU, starch-lilie ■truc- 
orea In Um fovilla of pollen- 


SoTTOwfol novm 

grains (Soccardo) ; lomat'le OsIU, 
cells not specially modified, the 
of reproductive cells ; 
(^^i-o!, offspring), 
word for "acquired 
cbaraoters " ; Sonatot'Toplini 
(rpeti), a turning], Van Tieghem's 
term for the directive influence of 
the substratum on the growth of 
an organism; frequently shortened 
to Bomat'TopUm ; adj. ■omatrop'la. 

■oot'y. foliginouB. 

Sor'bln, a glucose occurring in Pyrus, 
some species of which were formerly 
ranked itcdor Sorbins. 

■or' aid, sor'didii* (Lat. , fouled), dirty 
in tint, chiefly applied to pappot 
when of an impure white ; tor- 
dldla'slmnm, very dirty coloured, 

Soreds' (o-upji, a heap), a proposed 
emendation of Bore'dlnm, pi. 8ore'- 
dla, in Lichens a single algal cell 
or group of them, enveloped in 
hyphal tissue, which is able to 
grow at once into a thallui when 
detached ; a brood. bud ; aors'dlal, 
pertaining to a sorediam ; ~ 
Branch, a branch produced by 
development of a soredium into a 
new tnalluB, while still attached 
to the mother-thaltui ; sore'diata, 
tondia'tus, bearing small aurfaoe 
patohea ; KnwUl'reroni i/tro, 1 
bear), bearing sored ia. 

Sore'ma (irupcii/uii, what is heaped), 
a heap of carpels belonging to one 
flower ; Boreu'ma = Sobedidm 

Ber'ghlB, Paeaerini'i term for the 
product of transformation of 8or- 
ghom'bln, the natural pigment of 
Sirrghiim wigart, Pers. 

wrlferona {aupot, a heap, /tm, 1 
bear), bearing son 1 Boro'se, Son/- 
ai>, Soi-o'siit, a flenhy multiple tmit, 
as a mulberry or pineapple ; adj. 

Bor'TOwflil Plow'en, " those which 
exale their odoura only at certain 
honre of the day, as Pditrgonium 
Iriilt," Soland. (Crorier) ; if, 
PusTAs Tuana. 



So'nw, pL So'tI (tfupoi, a hup), (1) 
« aliuMr of tporuigia in Kerci ; (2) 
ioS^Qcbitrieu, » gronp of n>oruig;i» 
from a atngle nrftrni-ceU; (3) « 
heap of loredia forming a powder; 
mui OD the surface of a thallaa. 

apa^Un'aoua, tpadi'txtu {<rtiSil. a palm- 
br&Dch), (1) as to oolour, dale- 
brown ; (2) having the nature of, 
or bearing a apadix ; apa'dlcoae, 
reHmbbiie a epadii ; flpa'dll, a 
spike with a neahy aiia, aa in 

Spas, nauall; abont nine ioohea, 
betweoB the eitremitiea of the 
thamb and little Soger, Dodk«ns ; 
a the imall apiui of aeTea 

twean the thumb and middle Soger 
wh«n iCrotched out. 

Bptuuw'tliUB (<rin»oi, acarce, dr0oi, a 
flower), bavioB few Sowera. 

8p<irKs'l^iuii-<iO' taz (t'he geooa Spar- 
ganimn, + CohtIx), applied lo 
fouil iteDia with a vertical ayitein 
of fihroui atranda which do not 
annatomoae, U McduUoaa. 

iput'old (cipTDi, eaparto graH, 
rlioi, reaemblsDoe), used b}r Pajod 
for persiateot myceliam which ii 

1 flower), with acntt^red flowera ; 
apaislfo'lloa (.^lutn, a leaf), with 
Bcaltered IcAvea. 
Spatlie, SptUh'a (irirclfi^. a spatula), a 
large bract anctaBing a Sower 
cluster, nauallf a epodii ; ~ V&lTei, 
the braot-likc envalopea beneath 
the flowers id certain Mono- 
cotyledons, aa Alliam and .Var- 
eitfiu ; aptLtttt'ceona, -rr us { -f acem), 
apathe. bearing, or of tbe nature 
ol « apathe ; spatliaA'na, ; havinu 

were included ; Bpathel'lula, i 
palsHi of a grass ; Spathll'la, ; i 
aeoondarj spaUie, aa io tht 

jnflonaoenee of Painu ; apA'tlMM, 
■pKthe-like : ipttth'ubita, tpaihu- 
la'lvt, spM'nlAta, oblong, with the 
bMol (proximal) eod attenuated 
like B dnigaiat'a spatula. 

Bpavn, mTccliom. 

Spa'slM (Lat.,a shape, kind, ora»Tt], 
the particutar kind, the ant I in 
claaaiGcatiQa. the aggregate of all 
those individuala which have the 
same constant and distinctJTo 
characters ; Ihej may be distio- 
guishsd as UolOR'lc ~, moiplio- 
lor'la ~, or pbydolog'la -, ac- 
cording to the basis of diacri- 
miuatien ; ~ B;r'brid, a hybrid 
between two apeciea of the aama 
genus ; — BororM, Schroter's tarm 
for any two species of Uredioaae 
which inhabit two diitinct hoata, 
but show no morphologioal differ- 
ence, aa in Pucfinia ; aptotrie, 
relating to a species : ~ Oaa'tn, 
the particular spot where the 
apeciea is auppoaed to have origin- 
ated : ~ Cliar actST, the diagnoatic 
which aaparatea one speciea from 
another; ~ Hame, the Latin ap- 
pellalive appropriated to a given 
species, usually an adjective, but 
sometimes a subatantive used ad- 

Spac'iiseti (Lat., an eiample), anlBut 
or portion of one, preparM (or 
botanic study. 

ipM'taiu (Lat., Looking), " so in- 
vicem tpeclanlia folia," = oppoaite- 

Bpec'trophoTS Isprrfrum. an appear- 
ance, ^p^u, 1 carry), apparatus 
designed by Beinke to determins 
the action of the diOereut rays of 
light in the elimination of oxygen 
by plants. 

Spelronltty (ffritpa, a twist, irSat, a 
flowerl, when a flower assumes a 
twistod form, 

Bpelra'ma (vwtipjina, a fold ot coil), 
in Lichens, a gunidiiim. 

Spergulln, a fluorescent tubatanoe 
occurring in the Seeds oF Spergvia. 

Bpenn [eHptm, a seedl Cell, a nial« 
reproductive cell, as (a) an anther- 

ozoiil, (t) a polIen-grBJD ; ~ Cbro'- 
tnatln, that portion of tho male 
nucleus which is receptive oE 
BlaininE ; ~ Mn'clatia, the nucleus 
(if a male gamete (male pronucleus) 
uliich coalesces with the nuolens 
of an ooaphere (female pronucleaa) 
to form a germ nucleus ; Bpann'* 
agone, Spermago'idum {ybrot, off- 
apnng) - ^PBaHOOONB, etc. ; Sperm- 
■nuM'lws { + Ahobbae), Pring- 
flheim's term for certain specialised 
portions of the anthoridial proto- 
plasiD of Saprolcgnioe, which 
fertilise the ooapbere ; SpertDAn'- 
eium (dYvcFor, a vessel), the 
sporangium of &n Alga (Lindley)-, 
Spenn'apbore, Sptrwtplvjr'iiim 
{'pupitD, I oarrj), (I) the placenta; 
(2) the funicle ; Bpem'aphTteB 
(itivrar, a plant], used to ioalude 
Iralh AngiOHpemiB aod Gymno- 
spemii ; all ptantn except 
CrTptogama (Sachs) ; adj. ipenn- 
aphjt'ic 1 Bpannapod'iain or Sperm* 
SpCMlOpli'anmi (roti, itoiin, a. foot), 
a branched gynophore in Umbelli- 
ferae ; Iparnut'rliuii, Gibson's term 
for Spenn'ary, employed by T. J. 
Parker for a male organ of repro- 
duction, aa a gamete; Spenn'aUnKS, 
.S/«n7ia(aii'piuni [iyYiiim, a veasel), 

(1) the ontheridium of Baugiaoeae 
(T. Johnwin) ; (2) by A. Braun em- 
ployed for spermogonia and an- 
theridia generally ; Epermal'U, pi. 
of Bperma'tlnm, male non-motile 
gamete-cell ; Sperm'aUd, Sptrm- 
atid'ium (ilim, reaemblunce), (1) 
the mother -cell of antheroioids ; 

(2) fonncrly mod for an Algal 
spore ; spermatlf aroni IJe'^, I 
bear) ; spematig'eroDi {gtro, I 
bear) bearing spermatia ; Bpermato- 
COnia■lum(-^CoMDK■M), A. Bramra 
tenn for Spebuatidm ; Spennato'- 
eyst, Spr.rmalocyalid'ium (nloru, a 
bag), the mother-cell of antheridia, 
eapeoially of Mosses ; Bperm'ati>C7te 
(luToi, a hollow), (I) Goebel'sterm 
for the preceding ; (2) used by 
8haw for four primary orgaoa, 
each ooDtainiug a pair of blepharo- 

plasloids, the eight aecondary or 
spermatid mother-oelU eaob oon- 
(«ins two blcpharoplasts (Coutt. 
Bot. Gaz. xxvi., Deo. 1898, p. 449) ; 
Spenniitooy^tlnm («i'to<, a hollow 
vcaael), a simple sporangium con- 
taining sperm atOKOi da (A. Braun] ; 
Bpamiatogam'ete, H.irtog'e term 
for a male gamete ; Sparmatogen'- 
eila (y/vmit, a beginning), the 
development of the male elementlL 
antherozoids, |>ollen -grains, and 
analogouH bodies ; flpennatogtm- 
Id'lnm (-i- GoNiDiUH), A. Brann'i 
term for Spermatozoid : Sporm- 
alogo'uium (^drn, otTspriDg), the 
male gametogooium, a cell which 
dh'ides to form gametes, or itself 
passes into the stat« of one 
(Hartog); Bparmatoid'lnRi, one of 
"small cells containing gonidia in 
Algae " (Lindley); SpeRuatokal'lDm 
((oXid, a cabin], name given bj 
Gibelli to the porithecium of Vtrni- 
tariu ; speimatoklna'tlc (in^nmii, 
having the power oF movement), 
tending to produce the male 
element in plants ; Bpenn'atoplWra 
{<t>cii4ui, I carry), a structure bearing 
a spermatium ; Spenn'atopbytA 
(^ursf, a plant), a Phanerogam, 
a plant with true leeda ; Bpwm'- 
atoplum [rXaeiia, moulded), the 
'otoptaam of a male cell ; Bpeim'- 
moalded), a 
(a^(|n, a ball), 

irm for a presumeil 
Spirfgyra, declared 

I to be in undoubted 
. SpeniuttoUiuii'nla (dd^mi, 
a buah), the antheridial filamenla 
of Rhodophyceae (A. Braun) ; 
Bpsrmatoio'ld (fuor, a living 
creature, elioi, resemblance), a male 
ciliated motile gamete prodnoed 
within an antheridium ; Bpwmalo- 
id'od, by Shaw taken as the 
product of a blepharoplaat ; 
■psrm'lc, relating to a seed 
(Grozier) ; ■p«nnld'«ns, prodnoing 
■eed ; BpaRnld'lnm = Aohuii ; 
■peimocar'pcnu (lofTJt. trait), tuw 

male sexual 
spluia'rla, pi. 
Itzigsohn's I"" 

by Pringsheii 


been uaed aa & ayoonym of pitANEB- 
ooAMOus ; Spenn'odenn, Sperm- 
O'Ur'mU (lipia., a skto), the oover- 
ing oE a Krd, the seedooat ; 
BpennoODpli'onim {^tpim, I carry), 
ths gyoophare b UmboUiferiie ; 
flpennoKem'iu (gemma, « Imd), 
Cuiisl'i term for ABOllBiiutilDK ; 
t^prioff), a oop-aheped reoeplacle 
in which Bpermatia are abjomted, 
difTering from a pjcmdium by il» 
BDia]lor spares ; Spenn'o-nu'deoi = 
8fkr«-m>clec8 ; ipflirn'oiu^spiB- 
uio : Spenn'ophare, S/n. rmoph'oram 
tifiopii^, I carry), (1) the gynophore 
in Umbelliforae ; (2) the pUcenU ; 
(3) tbe modified shoot of the 
thallus of certain Alsae, producing 
male organg (UarbtahireJ ; Bperm'- 
OPtayte (purit, a plant), ciled by 
Crosier for a FhaneiogaDi or 
flowering plant ; Bpermotbe'ca t 
(0i)i[it, a case) ~ Pekiiasi- : Sp«r- 
m'ttm, a seed or its aoalogus. 

Mpbae'tiate [ftpdtcKvt, gangreno), dark 
and withered an though dead ; 
SpblMl'ia, formerly a ^nua, now 
known to be the oonidial stage of 
ergot, Claviffpl purpurea, Tid. ; 
SphJLO'ellc Ac'ld is derived from 
ergot (Tubeuf). 

BpbMTapIi'Idei {sipaXpa, a sphere, 
^^Ii, a needlD), ctuBtera of crystals 
in plant-cella of a more or teas 
spherical form ; SpItere-cryi'tBls 
and Sphe'ra-erys'tol are Hynonyma ; 
Sphere -yeait, a growth form of 
^f>lcar which reeembles yeast ; 
Bphaeronab'yriUk {lyx"!^. ' ' 

in), spherical cells compoBins 
cellular tiaeuv, as the pulp of 

apbMilA'oeoiu. resemblinG; or allied 
to the Fungus genos <S/>Aaerta. 

SpIuwr'Ke* {e^pa, a sphere), starch 
grains which have been asserted Xa 
be crystallized bodioa ; Bpttaero- 
bMte'iU (+ Baotkkia), bacteria 
with extremely small rounded cells 
which become detached ; Bphaaro- 
blu'tVB % {ffKirrit, a bud), s ooty- 
ledoa which rises above ground, 

fOi a rounded ■ 

■pbMKMar'Mni ^ 

bearing at ita apei a rounded 
tumoor (Lindley) ; aplu 
{•^aprit, fruit), when 
globular; 8pIkaeTDc«ph'alnaU<^^^, 

a bead), having Qowars in a close 
globular he^ ; r/. Soaosia ; 
BpbaarootiDT'Uls | + CHORisia), 
the dtviaion of an axis in all direo- 

(Ferraondj ; Bphae'ro-cryi'tkl* = 
gpiiAEHAi'iiiDK 1 SpIuterophT'liun 
(^vror, a plant), a Fern, ite epor- 
angia being gl^jbular; epiuu'rota 
{rfjof, resemblance), globular, any 
solid Bgure appraacbmg that of a 
sphere i~0ell, a reserve-reoeptacle 
insomecabarcous Lichens (Zukal); 
syn., iplierol'da] ; Bp]iu'tOBpra«, 
bphavospot'a [aicopi, a seed), a 
name proposed in substitution for 
TnKAjro&K 1 Bphaer'nia, a globose 
j«ridiiim emiltiog sporidia nuried 
in pulp (Lindley) ; ~ aadff'eia, tho 
receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- 
ley) ; Sphe'rotiUat [BWairrit, a bad 
or shoot), a wood^ball on the beech 
and other trees, from a dormant 
eye, disconnected from its vsacDlar 
bundles (Word) ) spher'ical, tphif- 
riciu, relating to a sphere ; tpMri- 
eus Li'mti = obbicuub ; Bpliar'- 
nles, rounded bodies occurring in 
the sporangioles of Selagimlia 

8ph»gii«'tiua, Warming's term for a 
Spha-jnuni bog ; spbae'Doas, re- 
sembling or allied to the geane 

SpbJOsroaftr'puni, -piom (o^aXfpai, un- 
steady, iciifiTriii, fruit), on accessory 
fruit, as an ochene in a baoBat« 
calyx- tube. 

Bpblngropli'U&e fcfii-ri - Hawk-moth, 
<pi\ia. I love), Bowers fertilized by 
hawkmotha and nocturnal lepi- 
doptara ; they have a strong sweet 
Bmcll, and honey in the dower-tube 
(H. Mueller) ; adj. sphingapb'Uasi. 

Spbrigo'sis {aifipiyiu, to bo full of 
SBp), ranknesa (Berkeley). 

8pl'ca(j:^t.), = SrlKB. 

■pl'cftte. >^>ca'fiu(Lat,, spiked), like 
a spike, or disposed in a spike ; 

apiei/brm'U {forma, 
■1m|m), ipike-like ; ipUlTBrDQa, 
-rut {ftro, 1 bear) ; aplelflor'ua 
UTo», Jlorit.a flower); Bplolg'erovu, 
-rv» {gero, 1 bear), bearing Bower 
Bpikee ; ■pl'ooH, and ■pl'coiu 
(Crotier) =SP1CATH ; Bplc'nle, Spi'c- 
vla {fpicvivm, a email needle), (I) 

bUo (3) their auiculac ; (4) a Quu, 
floahy, erect, point (LiiidJej) ; aplo'- 
Qlar, epiky ; RFlo'nlate. igncida'lvii, 
with a aurfaee covered with fine 
points ; Splcula'tlon, Nylandei'i 
term for a hyphal constriction in 
spore-formatioo, the oxtremit; be- 
ing left aa a spicule. 

Spike, Spi'ta (Lat,., an oar of oarD), 
(1) an indeterminate inflorescence, 
with flowers aessilo on a common 
elongated axia ; (2) an aggregation 
of sporophyllB at the apex of the 
aboot; com'pOQnd ~, sn inflor- 
escence con Bitting of spikes. 

Spi'kalat, Spit'iUa, a. secondary 
apike, a cluster of one or more 
flowers Bubtended by a common 

Spil'nB X (sirrXoi, a stain), the hilum 
in grasaea. 

8pl'lia(Lat.) = SpiHII. 

Bpln'dle, any structure which in shape 
Biiggeats a thread-spindle;'- Fl'brea, 
the achromatic fiUuienta whicli 
make up the nuclear spindle \ ~ 
Pola, on Bitcemity of the nuclear 
apindle; ~ HaJra, resembling 
malpiahiaceouH haira, attached 
oentndly, with the ends hooked 
(DeBnry); ~ 111^64 = ^01^1 form ; 
Aebnmat'lo ~ , or Nu'clear ~ , the 
thread-liko protoplasmic flgurea in 
nuclear divtaioo between the 

Spine, S^i'na (Lat., a thorn), s sharp- 
pointed wuody or hardened body. 
UBually a branch, aometimea a 
petiole, Htipule, or other part ; 
Bpine-aim, in the genus Najcu, the 
representative of a barren stigma 
(R«ndle);~Oall,(l)a transitional- 
Awi [Handle) ; (2) in Chara, certain 


celb of the cortex on the int«r 
nodes, ending in a apine : Bpinei 
of the leavea, aa of Holly 
hardened extremities of the lobes 
or ipiny elevations 1 Bplnel'Ift (dim 
of apina), a prickle ; Bpinello'soi 
armed with small spinea or hairs 
ajdnea'cent, n/iinu'cetu, ending io i 
spine or sharp point ; aptnlferou 
■ni9 (/ero, I bear), bearing thorns 
■pl'nlfOTm {forma, shape), thorn 
like ; api'nlcar, ■[rinlg'aroDs {gtro 
I bear), bearing or producinf 
thoRU ; BplnUollui (folium, i 
leaf), having spiny leaves ; ipinl 
eaf'polu (irafnrji, fruit), with spin] 


«, apl'n, 

spiny, having spines ; Spln'nlJ 
(Iist.), Spia'ule, a diminutive spine 
•plnulea'cent, slightly spiny, oi 
having spinules ; qrinnliferviw 
■rtia [fero, I bear), having smal 
spines ; ipln'iUoae, apintiio'aai 
with email spines or spinulea 
tpl'ny, beset with spines, oi 
resembling a spine. 

■pl'nl, tpira'lia (Kpira, a coil), ai 
though wound round an axis ; ~ 
Snct, a spiral vessel ; ~ Flow'Br 
when the members are arrangec 
in spirals and not to wborls ; ~ 
Hark'liiga, secondary deposits it 
tracbeids ; ~ PbyUotut'7, see Pfirt 
LOIAXV; ~ Tor'slon = Torsion 
— Tea'aals, ducts having markiogi 
in s spiral form. 

Spl'tAllim {sxcipulii!, spiral-ahaped) 
monstrosity of a flower due bi 

8pir» {ariTpa, a twict), (1) a yotinf 

trees Uke pines"(Cnuiar] 


*il), . 


Bpl««" , . 

liuinarj' stage of nuclear diviaioi 
as in Litivm, the nucleus asamninj 
an involved filamentous condittoi 
or " ribbon " from which tbi 
chromosomes are formed. 

Spl'rlcle {itTttpa, a twiat), a delicab 
coiled thread in the surface <wll 
of certain seeds and ockeiies, wbld 


unooil when moiBtDDed, w in 
Coilomia ; BptrUlani, pi. SplrUU, 
(1) ft term /or AsTUEitozoiti ; (2) 
also aae next ; Bplitibactsr'lft, pL ( ■«- 
Bactiridh), luctem whicb form 
Bpirally curved fiUmeDta, as the 
genua Spiriliam, Cohn ; Spliofl- 
teil'taB, pi. [tf. FlBBlL), Fayod'B 
term for the Bpir&lly twuted 
hollow tfarsulB which be uaertB 
ooDstitute all living protopIiLsni ; 
Bpl'rolsm, the coiling of an organ 
in devctopoieDt (Morren) ; Epirtdo'- 
toae (Xo^ii, ■ lobe), Cruciforas 
which have cotyledoos folded 
traosvereely and radicle dorsal ; 
■pInla'tKnu, with the cotyledons 
■pir»Uy rolled up, shown thui o II II; 
Spl'rotpait (rrai^oi, sown, scat- 
tered), hypothetically the Gaest 
Bpirata of hyaloplasm, which con- 
stitute the 8riRoi'ii)Rii.LAE(Payod). 

Bplth'anui {/jTiSttti^, B span), a span 
of aeveo inches, from the tip of 
the thumb to that of the fore- 
finger; splULamaa'ns (Mod. Lat.), 
measuring a short span. 

■plsn'deiu (Lat., gleaming), glitter- 
ing or shining. 

Splint, a forester's term for Albck- 
NDM or Sapwood. 

■pill, cleft or divided, parted ; ~ 
Fnit = Crimooakp ; — Lay'er, 
a loose felt of hyphae in Otaattr, 
connected with the inner peridium, 
and torn into flaltea at maturity. 

spodocb'rom (irroJAt, ashes, xp^^^ 
colour), of a grey tint. 

Bpons'elet - Sfdnuiole; Sponjr'lole 
(tpanfjia, a sponge), a name given 
to the root-tip, formerly thooght 
to be a special absorbing organ, the 
Epiblema of Schleidea : Spong'iola 
radica'lit, De Gandolle'a name for 
the root-cap; ~ piatilla'ria, the 
extremity of the piatil, the stigma ; 
~ temiita'lis, the carnncle of certain 
Meda ; spongio'nu (Lat.), spongy, 
■oft ; ■pong'y, having the texture 
of a spoDgs, oellalar and oontain- 
ing air, ■■ in many seed ooats ; — 
Cw'toz, cortical tisane with air- 
bMring iDteroeUnlai apMes, fre- 

quent in water-plants ; ~ Paimicb'* 
]>m«, loosely •pgcegated tissue, or 
having oonspicnous intercellular 

Sponsa'lUfLat., esponsals), Plantft'r- 
mu, Z ~ Antussis; the fertiliution 

■ponta'nBOns (apoataneiu, voluntai^) 
Oanera'tlon, the aaaamed origin of 
living orgacisme from non-living 

spoen'fbTm, "having the inner smface 
ol a leaf ooncave or dish-shaped, 

M the outer leaves of a cabbage- 
head " (Crozier). 

Spor'a (rvapA, a iced), = Spobb ; -• 
csUnle'sa, ~ oompoi'lta, '• moltl. 
lociila'rt* = Spobidesb ; ■pcr'al, 
relating (o a spore ; ~ AlTMf , par- 
tial or complete arrest of the 
development of the spores them- 
selves, and cooaeqaent loss of 
reprod active function (Bower). 

■parad'lo (aropeSttdt, dispersed), 
widely dispersed or scattered. 

Bpor'angs, Sporan'glnin {anpi, a 
eeed, iyytior, a vessel), (1) a SM 
endogenoualy prodnoing Sforis ; 
(2} * "sometimes applied to the 
volva among Fungals (lindley) ; 
Bporangid'liun, (1) the oolumeltaof 
Mosses; (2) "the ipore-oaae of 
certain Fungals" (Lindley) ; Bpor- 
anic'iole, Sporan'gicla or Sporan'- 
giolam, (1) a small sporangium in 
Mucorini produoed in addition to 
the larger sporangia ; (2) formerly 
used for Aaonn ; (3) organs of an 
endophy te in Sdagindla , composed 
of filaments rolled into the shape 
of a ball (Janse) ; (4) Spomngioltim 
isQsedinadouble Beoae by Lindley 
(a) for spore, Ih) a case cont«ining 
■poridia ; BponngioUreram [ftro, 
I hear), the axis on which the 
tbeooe of FeruH are boms (Lindley); 
■porauifU'ennu, bearing sporangia; 
Sporan'glDpbore, SporattgiopKorvm 
(QKip^u, I carry), a aporophore 
beariog a sporaugium, such as the 
sporopTiyll in Eqaiittnm, or the 
columella in Ferns ; Bporanyloph'. 
otong, bearing sporangiophores ; 


Sporan'gUm, tha condition of pro- 
ducing eporuiBia ; BpoTBO'ElMPon 
(aiepi, a seed], s terra proposed 
for the sporus of Myxogostrei 
Bponn'KluiD, c/. Sforanok. 
Ipon, Spm'a [awafid, a Heed), a cell 
whioli becomea free and capable o' 
direct dsrelapineDt iDto a nev 
bion ; in Cryptogams the analogue 
ofteedinPuaerDganiii, underetood 
b; Sacoardo as a Basidiosfokk ; 
further particularized by C Mao- 
millui into Prl'mo-, Beamt'do-, Ter'- 
tlo-, Qiur'to-, and Quln'tiOaporeB, 
aocording to theiraaaumed davelop- 
ment; ~ Bal'b]U,abortiveapothocin 
in oertain Lichens ; -- Caia. — 
Sfobakoktu ; " Cell, a ipore, or 
a cell which gives rise to a spore 
(Crodet) ; - aronp, = Spomdkm j 
~ HTlnIO, a hybrid arising in the 
gametopbTtic stage ; ~ Inlf lali, 
■mall processes borne by the fertile 
hyphae of OraipKiola, which pro- 
duce spores by one or more bi- 
psrtiliODB of their conUuti (B. 
Fischer) ; ~ L^er.a layer of mother- 
cells of the spores of Phrucv-m ; 
— Bport, a variation arising from 
a seiual reproductive act; tf. — 
Hy'brld ; flpor'sUng, a young plant 
from a germinated spore ; Spor'e- 
pls^m {■r\i<tna, moulded], the pro- 
toplasm in a sporangium destined 
to prodaoe spores ; Spor'ld, ser 
Bportdidh; BpoT'ldesm [itaiiit, i 
bond), a pturicellular body, be 
coming free like a spore, in which 
each cell is an independent spore 
with power of separate germina- 
tion ; sporidif ems ( -*- SroarniUM, 
fero, I bear), bearing eporidia ; 
spoitdiform'la {/ortaa, shape), 
shaped like a sporidium ; spotldl^- 
•ms [gero, I hear), sporidifer'us ; 
Bporid'lol«, Sporidiolam, pi. 
SjioriiFiota. formerly used for 
spores in the lower Cryptogams ; 
Bporld'liun., (1) a synonym or dim- 
inutive of Sro&K, or a granule 
which re«emhls«aspore{FnBs); (2) 
■ spore abjointed from a promy- 
ceiium ; {3] by Saccardo the term 


is used as ©quivalont to Asco- 
SPORE ; SpOTldo abla, Bporido'clilnm 
[do^fror, a holder), '' the receptacle 
or even the stipe of certain 
Fungals " (Lindley) ; spor'o-sntbsr- 
id'lo, Brthner's terra for that con. 
dition of Naploapora when spores 
and nntheridia are borne by distinct 
individuals ; — -heTms,ph'radlte, 
when some are hermaphrodite and 
others bear asexual ly produced 
spores ; — -oos'oiions, bearing 
spores in one individual and 
oogonia in another ; Bpor'oblast 
(jSXafmJt, a bud), Koerber'a word 
for Mekispobs ; Spor'ocup, Sporo- 
ear'pinm [taproi, fruit), (1) a 
roany-collad body resulting from 
a sexual act as from an aronicarp, 
serving for the formation of spores i 
(2) the indusium or body enclosing 
the sporangia in Hydropteridese ; 
Bpor'odde Jeido, stem of couib, I 
cut), a germicide, any ageot which 
destroys the vitality of spores or 

Grms ; Sporoclad'lum ((XdSot, a 
anch), a branch on which the 
reproductive bodies of some Algae 
are found; Bporsconld'lnm ( + CoN- 
iDicu). used by A. Brauo for 
AcnospoBK ; Sporooys'tk ((litrrit, a 
bag), the sporangium of an Alga ; 
Spor'odenn, Sporodfmt'U {Srpiia, a 
skin), the integument of s spore ; 
Spor'ocyte (kc/toi, a hollow), Cioe- 
bel'H term for the mother-cell of a 
spore ; Sporocy'Clnm, a simple spor- 
angiuin containing spores! A. Braun); 
Sporodo'eUnm, pi. Sporodo'obia 
{ioxilor, a holder), the sporiferoua 
apparatus in Fungi belonging to 
Tubetcul arias, c/. SpoaiDOOHu ; 
BporogUD'iA lyifHii, marriage), term 
which has been suggested tor the 
heterosporous Cryptogams; Sporo- 
gern'ma {gemma, a nud), A. Bratm's 
term for the oogonium (nucule) 
of Chara ; Bpor'ogoo (y™i, off- 
spring), ■ plant which bears Kpores, 
a Cryptogam ; sporog'enoos, pro- 
ducioR spores ; - Fll'unsnls. Olt- 
mann s term for certain outgrowths 
of the fertilized catpogonium of 




Dmlitmaya ; the oobUatem&fiU- 
mMils of tii;hintU ; ~ L«T'<r = 
HTiiEKim:--Nn'alga«, theoucleus 

urpogDaium of Florideae (Olt- 
mann); Bpor'agooa, Sponvo'nlnm 
ly'hi progeiij), tbs iporooorp in 
MiLsciDcae, the whole prodnct of 
ft setual aat rem&ining attached 
to the oophjte or plant be»ring 
the Reiual orgftiii ; ^r'old {ttSot, 
resembUnce), spore- like [Ciozier) ; 
Bporoiayoe'tM {fiKijt, a muah- 
roora), Macchand'a Mrm for a 
gronp to compriBB Myco-, Siphon-, 
Theca-, BDd Buidio-m^rcetes ; 
Bpor'optiOM, Sponph'oram (fopiv, 
I carry), (t) J the Pucksti ; (2) a 
branoh or portion of a thallua which 
bears one or more apores; (3) in 
Ferna and Mogaea, the Sl-OHo- 
paiTE ; Bporaphy'aE, A. BrauQ'a 
term, the name ae Sporophyd'liua 
(dimio. ol ifimi, a ehoot), T. F. 
Allen'a t«nD for the nucale of 
Charsceae while itjll unfertil- 
ixed ; Bpor'opbrll, SponphyVliim 
(^XXor. a leaf), (1) a leaf which 
bears iporei ; 1,2} B leaf-like division 
of the thalluB of an Alga bearing 
fruit, aa in iMrpodonium, adj, 
apocophjl'Iuy ; - LeaTai, atatoDDa 
and pistila ; BpoT'ophyta [(pito>', a 
pUnt), in Fvi-ns and Mosaea, the 
plant in the life-cycle of allrrnatran 
which produces spores; BporosteE'' 
Itun (rrr^ot, a covering), the collulor 
envelope of the nuoiile in Cliara 
(Allen) ; Sporota'mlniii X IjimXtr, a 
atorehouse), the cellular lajer im' 
mediately beneath the disk of the 
shield oE a Lichen ; BporotluUa'iiila 
(PdXatiai, a bed-chamber), oom- 
pound or branched sporophores, as 
of trutioose Liohena or Agarics (A. 
Brauo) ; Spor'oiold. (j'uar, a living 
creature, tliat, tesembUnoe), a 


Bport, variabioa Blarting from a bud 

duced \n t perjtbecium, bat not in 
•n aaous (Ellia and Everhart], 
formerly used vaguely for epore ; 
■porolif oroDa, -t-Hi ( ?cn>, I bear) j 
■ponUlg'eraB \gtra, \ bear), bearing 
Bporulee ; •pamlls'eooiM {ytrvt, 
oSHpring), producing sporales ; 
Spco'ala'tlon, the production of 
spores (Croiier). 
Bpot'ted, when colour ia disposed in 
■pots on a ground of a ditTerenl 

■prc&d'lng, having a gradually out- 
ward direction, aa petals from the 

Spring- wood, the wood produced 
early in the year, characteriMd by 
larger ducta and cella tbui the later 

Bprout, a shoot or germinated seed ; 
~ Cell, one produced by apronting, 
or vegetative growth ; — Chain, « 
chain of cella so produced ; '- 
Osm'ma, = Chain - oimua ; — 
Oermln&'tion, the germination of 
a spore in which a amaU prooMa, 
or uerm-cell, protrudes tron Uw 
surface, becomes cylindrio, and 
finiilly abjoints as a SpKonr-OBix. 

■pront'lngr. the form of an excrescence 
in a cell, becoming cut off by a 
transverse wall ; ~ Fim'gni, growth- 
foim in wbish the th&llus oonsiata 
of ■ uprQul-oell or chain. 

apnmea'oeal, ipittats'teat [apumrua, 
foamy), froth-like in Bppearaao« ; 
■pn'moae, epujoo'^at, frothy. 

Spur, (1) a hollow and slender ez- 
tionsion of some part of the flower, 
oeually nectariferous, aa the oalys 
of Larkspur or the corolla of tho 
Violet ; (2) sametimes a solid spur- 
like process ; (3) a contracted lat- 
eral bearing shoot, sometimes, in 
forestry, with a few foliage leaves 
in a tuft, and a terminal bud ; (4) 
a buttreas-like ^irojcction of a tree- 
trunk ; (5) see Eboot ; foliar ~, 
short branch, bearing leavesonly; 
~" " -' — ' branch which bears 
bloaaom buds, as in the Peach ; 
spnneil, calaarat«, prodaeiog « 


■po'ilasi.niHT'tKttLiit,, illegitim&te], 
oouDUrfeit, taUe ; ~ BranOh, = 
PsiinDoBA.MnLvs i—niwp'lnent, a 
partdiOD in fruit but not from tbe 
primary infolding of the margina of 
a carpel or upward growth of the 
toruB ; ~ rmlt = Fssircociiu- ; 
~Tla'nie, oell- aggregation oF felted 
byphoe in Agarics, or of coenoc;t«g 
in certain Algae; ^Whorl, oriiranB 
developed at diSereDt tim^, wluob. 
by Bome diaplaeement, appear at 

Bqna'DUL (Lat., a scale), a scale of any 
sort, QBually the homologue of a 
leaf ; ^ fimollfera, a eemiaiferona 
Bcale ; aquomai'DeoaB ( + aceoug), 
Bcaly ; Bqua'matA, ai/Hitin"V>ui, 
furoifihed with scales ; Bqu&ma'tla, 



ion of « 

of Bcale-like leaves u in the Hose- 
Willow ; Squunel'Ift, diminutive of 
SqtJAUA, a scale of the Recood 
order, or reduced id size, bb io the 
disk of CoDipositee ; BqaamslUf - 
aroiu, -us {/ero, I beat), acale- 
boaring ; Bqaomel'lUOnn (forma- 
■hape), Bhaped like a. scale ; 
SquunelluU, (1) a Bub-diviaion of 
the pappus li nib in CompoBitae ; 
(3) a. scale-like appendage within 
the tube of certain corollas ; 
■qtiunlferonB, -nu {/«ro, I bear), 
bearing acatcB ; aqn^iUla'nu {fioa, 
Jlorit, a flower), having a perianth 
ofscale-likebractB, but not disposed 
round an axia oa in CVniferoe ; 
■qiu'mlfoiin,mf«a»ii/("-m'ifi (/orma, 
■hape), Bcale-like ; aqnamig'BroDB 
Igtro, I bear), scale ■ bearing; 
■qiu'inold ((Mot, rosomblanoe), 
■quamifotin fCroiier) ; Bqua'tnoBe, 
tjwtino'ttu, sqna'motw, scaly or 
■oale-like; ~ Bnib - &c.u.v Bulb 
(CroziBr) ; aqua'ntulatB = sqtrAMu- 
Uiaa (Croaier) ; Sqna'mule, ," 

iquaniiili/onn'it (/a 
ahapc), resembling a Bmall scalo ; 
Kaa'miiloee, tguamiUo'nu, beset 

•o'eua, aqiur'roaa 

(Lat.. I 

Btanding processes, a8''th6 tips of 
bracts ; aqnarro'to - denta'tUB .having 
leeth which do nat lie in the plane 
of the leaf, but at an angle ; ~ 
■qnar'ruloae, sjiiarmioViu, diminu- 
tive of sqnarrose. 
itag-head'td, a forester'B term for a 
tree which ia bare of loavoa at tbe 

Stalk, any lengthened Btipport of 
nn organ, as tbe seta of a Most ; 
■talked, borne on n atalk ; - Oland, 
a glandular hair ; Btalk'lBt, 
a sncondary petiole, the stalk of 

Sla'men, pi. Sta'mina, or Bta'msni 
ItT-tmur, a Qlament), a male sporo- 
phyll in a Sower, one of the 
elements of an ondroecium con- 
sisting of anther and filament ; 
Btar'Ufl ~ a body belonging to the 
series of atomens, but without 
poUen ; atam'inal, itami'ia'Ua, 
itaviina'rU, Btamln'Ma, ntaminra'lis, 
relating to atamena, or consisting 
of stamens; atam'inal Oorunin = 
Androfuohs ; ~ Leavas, Iho 
stamens rogarded as luelanior- 
phoBed leaves ; Btam'tnalpod* (■oCi, 
ToJa;, a foot), Goetbsrt's name for 
the organs in the androecium of 
Malvaceae which produce tbe 
stamena on tbeir margins ; atam'- 
Inata, applied to Qowers which are 
wholly male ; atamln'aoiu, -ntui 
(Lat., oonsiBting of threads), 
relating to stamens; fltamlnld'liuii, 
pi. Stamlnid'Ia = AnTitKRinu ; 
■taminlfe'rons, -nn (/fro, I bear), 
atamlnlg'eroni [gtro, I bear), 
stamen - bearing ; Bta'minode, 
Stamino'dium, (1) a sterile or 
abortive stamen, or it< bomologue, 
without an anther ; (2) = 
A»THERII>ICM (Gray'a Manual, ed. 

ttan'daid, (1) tbe fifth or posterior 


patml of > papilionaoeouB ooroUa ; 
(2) > tree or buah wilh a cteor sUm. 
■tuu (LAt.. sUnding), supporting 
itself in an erect position. 

8U>r*rliic:i, im&II central atelea in tlie 
fniBil Mednlloseoe. 

Btueb, ■ oarbohydntto of the Mme 
perceDtsgeoom position as oelluloae ; 
ao amjloae vbich oocun abund- 
anU; in grains aa a reserve material 
in plants ; ~ Bnll'der. a plaatid 
which I'orniB the Btaroh-grain j ~ 
OtllulOM, the frsmeiTDrk of starch- 
grains, remaining after the soluble 
parba bave been removed ; — 
l}«iiera't«Ta = I^dooflabtids ; - 
Orata, ~ 0»a'Qle, a bod; of de- 
Suite shupe, varying according to 
the plant whicli prodaces it, having 
the appearanoB of parallel Uyer» 
around a hilum ; ~ Lay'tr, a form 
of BuDille Sheath, oonsisting of s 
aingle layer of oella filled with 
■mall grains of starch ; — Pro- 
dn'cer = LBUcopt^sno ; - star 
of Chara ittUigcra, Bsaer. gtotUte 
nodules or internodes on the roots, 
filled with starch ; " Snb'itance, 
A. Meysr'g term (or the pure- 
starch material, apart from any 
associated or transformed matters 
which may be also preaeot. 

■tVry, stellate. 

stakTved, when a plant or part is 1«bs 
developed than the normal con- 
dition, by want of nonriahment. 

Btaa'imorphy (imiaii, a atanding or 
paiue, fiop^, shape), a deviation 
from the normal arising frooi arrest 
of development ; StM'll, uaed to 
denote the retardation eapeciatly 
of longitudinal growth. 

Bttte, the moat trivial variation from 
the type. 

Bta'tion [statio, a atanding still), 
botaoically means a partisular 
locality for a given plant. 

BtatospePmiu {irriTm, atanding still, 
aripiut, a seed), when a seed is 
straight or erect within the peri- 
carp ; Btat'oapore («tii/iA, a seed), 
a resting spore. 

StaoTOKam'ia (aTnupis, a stake or 

oron, 74^1, marriue), Delpioo^ 
term tor cross -fertiGzalioa ; adj. 
Btanrogam'lc; Btan'roa, in Diatoms, 
(l| the central nodule of the valve ; 
(2) a transverse band without 
markings ; ataonphyl'liu («i)U>«v, 
a leaf), cruciate. 

Bta'aiis {irrHp, suet), on abnndanl 
ingredient of animal and vegetable 
fats; Btearap'Ieiie( -I- i-rqrii, winged 
^volatile), a solid cryBtalliubla 
matter allied to camphor, present 
in many essential oils. 

Btagr'iiuil [<"f-n' a roof or covering), 
term proposed by Miers for the 
thread-like appendages aometimn* 
found oovering the style of AscIC' 
piada ; Btetr'nuila, pi. flat, tabular 
cells in certain Penis, etc., contain- 
ing a mass of silioa in contact with 
their inner wall (Mettenius) ; alw 
termed Covering- phile ; stepwai'- 
potu |(apirdi, fruit), applied to those 
Mosaes whose oapsufea have a dis- 
tinct opt^rculum. 

■te'lar (rrnJXi), a pillar), posseising a 
Btele ; Stale, an axial cylinder o( 
tieaue passing from the plerone into 
the older tissues, in which the vas- 
oular tissue is developed ; aome- 
Limee more than one,i/. PoLraTKLr, 
ScuizoatsLi ; atelie, relating ta 
a atele or its tisanes. 

StBlld'InjQ, pi. SteUd'U (im)UJti>r, a 
■mall pillar), Ridley's term for tba 
teeth of the column in Btjbophjfi- 

■tel'iste, itdlti'tiwdAi., stwry), staf- 
shaped or radiating like the pointfl 
of a star ; -• Hairs, hairs of a itar- 
like form ; " SoalM, trichoDieSi 
diacs borne by their eilgs or centre ; 
BtelUTeras {/rro, I bear), star- 
bearing ; slelllform'ls [forma, 
shape), atar-shaptd ; stalU^'eroi 
(eero, I bear), star -bearing or pro- 
ducing ; stella'to-pUo'aiu, covered 
with stellate haira ; (telllnar'Tiiii 
(nerntt, a nerve), star-ribbed, oe 
the leaves of BydnKotyU vtdgarit, 
Linn. i8t«l'lnla(Lat., a little star), 

(1) a whorl of 

Mosaea j (2) a 

lular, aUl'lulbW, KleUtda'tus, di- 
miDutive of uleDate. 

Btalolun'ma (triiXi), » pillar, \tittia, 
bftrkoreliiii), sBheathoI tfaicktned 
perideFinic or slelnr tiSBue in sn- 
gioBpermouH petioles (Strasburger). 

SHni, the main aBcendiDg ukib ; — 
Bad, the plumule i — 'Claap'lng, 
amplHiicaiil i — LeiT. n \eiij mven 
off from the ateni, aa opposed to a 
rndictJleaf; ~ Par'MlM, aparaiitio 

EUnt which livee on the stem of its 
oat, as Lorinlhac«ae ; -• Tan'drll, 
a tendril which is morphologically 

~ , a rluKome ; ftem'leu, having no 
viaible item, acaulous; StBtn'lBt, a 
small stem, as the plumule. 
ctenoOT'piia (ariro!, narrow, tapris, 
fruit), narrow fruited ; itenopafal- 

petall«d ; ■tuiDpIiyl'loiiB, -liii 
(f i*Xot, a leaf), narrow leaved ; 
flteno'ila, (1) cell-tonnation with 
constriction of the original cell- 
wall 1 {£) the contraction of a 
itaphanocar'piiB {artijiayuiSjji, wreath' 
ing, tapTiii, fruit], with fruit ar- 
ranged HO aa to rcBemhle a acowQ ; 
Stapliaiiodopby'tiuii (^trdr, a 

Slant), a plant producing an in- 
irtur aohene, aa CompoaitJM ; 
Btepha'noum, X s Bfnonym of 
Cbshocabp and CiffsiHA. 

■te'nld (iTTtpcot. solid), n ligniGed 
cell from the stereome ; Bte'raom or 
Bta'rMms, the elements of a bundle 
which impart Btrenglh to it, the 
fibres, or etrengtheniDg tissue 
generally (Schwendener) ; Ste'reo- 
plaim (rMiina, moDlded), tJie solid 
part of protoplasm (Naegcli). 

Sterl^ma, pi- Sterlff'iaatti {in-iipiyiui. 
a prop), (I) in Fungi, a stalk from 
which a spore ja abjointed ; (2) 
any leafy prolouBation or elevated 
line from the blade of a leaf down 
the stem by deonrrence ; (3) 
Desvaui's name for CutCEKULK ; 
Sterlg'mimi is a Bynonym of the 
Uat definition. 
ir'Ile, Mcr^tlii (I^t.), (1) barren, aa 


a flower destitute of piitil, or a 
■tamon wanting the antheri (2) 
used for a mate or slaminate 
flower : (3) free from living organ- 
isms, such as bacteria; ~ Baild'lain, 
■ body in the hynienium of Agarics 
lilce a biuidiuin, but not produoing 
apores, possibly n paraphysis ; — 
Cells, oellB of unknown function in 
the poUen-grainB of Cynu and 
mioroBpores of Imetet and Sciaff- 
inrila: Btaiil'lty, StrnTiliu (Lat.), 
barrenness, incapacity of producing 
seeds ; BterlUaa'tlan, the act of steri- 
lizing ; iter'lllse, to make free from 
living organiims or their germs. 

Btei'om = Sterxohx (Crazier). 

stemotrl'bal irriptor, the breast, 
rpl^, I beat), Delpino's term for 
those flowers whose anthera are so 
arranged as to dust their pollen on 
the under part of the tonrai of 
their insect visitors; Btern'otrilM is 
a synonym. 

Bte'sony (im)<io^(, fut. med. of 
tanipi, to stop), Morren's term tor 
on arrest of Dietamorphoeis. 

BUobld'liun (sTixfiliD'', a httle bladder), 
(1) in Rhodophyceae, a speoial 
branchof the tballue with imbedded 
tetragonidia ; (2) ^CABPOCLONiim. 

tUohaou'piu, itlcbocar'ploDs (irrlxoi, 

a row, nofnrdii fruit), when fruit is 
disposed alongaspiral line; stiotmi, 
in Greek pompoundB^ row or rank, 
usually vertical. 

■tictopet'Blas (vTirroT, punctured, 
TtraXot, a flower-teaf), when petals 
are covered with glandular points. 

Btlgr'nu, pi. Sli<j'matii, or Btlg'mM 
{rriyiia, a point), (1) that part of 
the pistil or style which receives 
the pollen ; (2) a point on the 
spores at BqitUtlum; (3)acaduoona 
point on the apex of the columella 
in Mosses ; (4) an old name for 
Stsrioua ; (5) a coloured spot in 
unioeUular Algae ; ~ Disk, a disk 
forming the stigmatic surface as in 
AtcUptadt; ~ of Mosses (Hook, 
Mnsc, ed. 2) the mouth of the 
•rchegoniom ; ttl^muttlM (^fo, a 
root), a form of Stigmaria, ragu^ed 


b; ReDBiilt as ft root; Btlenurbl'- 
■onw t -)- RuizoMB), ReiutuEl'a t«rin 
for 4 form of Scigm&ria which he 
holds to be a rhizome ; flUsnUi'rtB, 
rootg of fqnail planta hiving regnlar 
dotted or pitted nurbingn ; StSg- 
na'tae. Van Tieghem'i term lor 
Phani-rosame having atigmata ; 
nlfmat'lc, elignvtf'ieia, relating to 
the Btigma : - Cella, of arobegonik, 
= LiU' ; ~ Cbuo'lMT, that 
{lart of the roet«lluin in Orchida 
in which the relinaculum is de- 
veloped; ~ Fln'ld, — Sacre'Uon, the 
viaoid fluid aecreted b; the etigma 
lit maturity, securine the adhesion 
of pollen grsina and their inbse- 
qtieat germination ; Stlsmat'lcma, 
Knuth'a term for wind-fertilized 
flowers with eoaspioaoua etigmaa ; 
■tlstutiferoiu {/tro, I hear), 
•tignia -bearing ; ■tlgmftUfonn'la 
{/orma, shape), shaped tike a 
stigma, or having the appearanco 
of one ; stigmatal'dsiia {tliat, re- 
•emblance), ^stigmatiformia; SUg- 
matopIi'oTua X (•po/^", I carry), that 
part of lbs atyle of Composilae 
whiuh bears the stigmas : stig'- 
matose, fl iginalo'4ut, provided with 
■tigmas, or bavins them conspicu- 
ous ; 8tl(niiatUt«^011 1 {"T-Zi^ur. a 
filament), a body formed by the 
union of anthers to the stigma 
(I>e CandoUt') ; Stig'mnla. adivision 
of a stigma, when preaeol. 
Rtlll, dormant ; ~ Spon, a resting 


Stllt-roots. the ohliiiue adventitious 
TOotn of the Mangrove and similar 

BUm'ull, pi, of aUm'alni (Lat., a 
goad), — Stino: sUm'nlon* (Lat.), 
alinging : ititn'olOBe, t'imfdo'sun, 
ivithstiagiog hairs : Sttm' 

BUng, a hollow bait seated on a gland 
wbioh seeretiBB sq aorid lymph, oa 
ia nettle*. 

BUng'liiS-tiBlT = Stihg. 

■tt'pate {tlip<Uus, aaiToanded), 

pressed together, crowded ; BUps'- 

tion, an aooumolatioo in the tisanea 

BUpe, Slfpte ilAt.,i stock or trunk), 
a support Buoh as (1) the stalk 
wbi{!h Doars the ptteus of AgoriM j 
(2) the •■ leafBtalk "' of a Fern ; (3) 
the support of a gynaeciam or 

8tlp«l"lA, Sttpal'lnm [dim. 
SriFlTLa), a minate stipule oi 

Cartial petiole of compo' 
taven ; attp'ell4t«, itiptSa'lus, 
furnished with Stipelloe, 

fltlpellna (dim. of Stipa), » 
synonym of the PuaiUKT of n 

■tlplfenu X {H'pet, a stock, /ero. 
bear), bearing small flower-stalka, 
as the reoeptacle of some Com- 
posites ; sli'plfomi, itipi/bna'it 
{forma, shape), having the appear- 
ance of tbo trunk of an endogenona 
tree, as the Papaw ; atip'ltnti, 
tli/iiUt'Cttn, having a stipe or spetual 
stalk; sUp'ltUDml, sfipiti/brnc'ua 

stlp'tlcas^sTYPTiopa, astringwit, 
sUpoIa'caans, -ifu»('&TifvijL + acttu\ 
(I) bctonaing to a stipule ; (2)witJl 
Urge stipules ; stlp'olal, having 
stipules, or relating to them | 
stip'ulary, (1) oooapying the piM* 
of stipnlee, as some tendrils ; (3) 
formed of stipQlee (Croiier), 
Btlp'olat*, ilijniia'tuf, uipviar'U, (1) 
havini stipules, or conepicnouslr 
provided with them ; (2) with 
scales which are degenerate 
stipules ; stip'nlaeEorm, itlf'' 
IHorm [forma, shapel, shaped 
though a stipule : StlpulA'tion, 
Stipala'tio, the arrangement of tha 
Stipules ; Stip'ule, ^ip'vla (LaU, 
stubble), an appendage of a leaf on 
eacli side of the leal- insertion of 
those plants which posaess them; 
Etlpnlea'nna, reralting from tha 
transform at ion of a stipule; attp- 
nlireroua, ■tiw [fero, I bear), beu- 
ing stipules ; Stip'ulode, a stipnloc 


orguD of one cell, in one or more 
rows aubtendiag the branuhletB ia 
CJiara ; Wlp'nlOM, utipulo'ms, hav- 
ing very large elipales. 

■Urpa'lls t {aftrps, a, trunk, a, plant), 
growing upon a atem ; Stlrpa, pi. 
BUr'pee, (I) k race or peroiaiient 
variety, aa the Red Cabbage ; (2) 
foroiBrlf equivalent to species. 

Btook, (1) a flvnonym of Bacb ; (2) 
the Item wuich receives the acion 
in grafting ; (3) a caudex or 
rhiiome which emits roots, 

Itole, Bto'lOQ, S'ol'o (lAt., a ahoot], 
a BDoker, runner, or any bos^ 
branch which ii ditipoBcd to root ; 
■tolDlilfaroni •rug (/fto, I bear), 
Modins out or propagating itself 
b; stoTona ; ■tolon'ifonn (/onna, 
shape) 8tam, " a aleoder oreep- 
; item with minute leaves" 



intercellalar epao 
mnnloatiag with internal tiasue ; 
•oaording to Taohireh of four types ; 
uigiospw'sial ~, arcbego'nlal, ~ 
eUo'dlal^, and oplBtbe'llal ~; (2) 
the oetiole of certain Fungi, e/. 
EptTHSAfiMA ; ito'maUil, atomat'lc, 
pert^ning to atomitta ; Btomat'lc 
OelU=GuAftii-cEi.iJ4 : Btomatirer- 
Oiu. •riui {/trOt I hear), bearing 
■tomata ; Stomat'luin = Stoma ; 
■tom'atoaa, in MoBaea, posseseiog 
■tomata ; Stom'ttun, an opeoing 
on the aide of Fem-sporangia, 
between the lip -cells, through 
which debiscenoe takea place. 

Btone, the hard eodocarp of a drupe ; 
— Calla, the individual cella which 
have become hardened by eecond- 
aiT deposit, the conipouentB of 
acleroaen ; ~ fmlt, B drupe such 
aa a plum or peach. 

Stool, (1) a plant from which ol&ets 
or layers are taken; (2) when 
■everal stemi rise from the Bame 

nop'per, a word applied by Archer 

to the callua-platea in Algae ; — 
Of Pol'len, hyaline protoplasmic 
deposits in pollon-tabea (Degaguy). 

Btop'ples, the projeotionsor lida in pal- 
leu- grains which fall away to admit 
of the paasage of the poUen-tube, 

■trag'gUng, divaricate. 

Btor'ai, = Stvrax, 

Btia'trnlnni]: (Lat., a covering), the 
paleae of grasses. 

■tralgbt. in a right line, not curved ; 
~ ribbed, ~ r^ned, when the ribs 
run io a atraisht line, as in the 
leaves of many MonocotyledonB. 

Strain, (1) in atavism, the influence 
of some ancestor; (S) a alight 

Stra'ineii (Lat.), straw; Btrunlnslliu 
(N.Lat.), some what straw-coloured ; 
Btnmln'MU, -nnu, straw-like or 

Strand, a bundle of vascular tissue, 
reaeRibliog a cord ; ~ Hyce'Unm — 
mycelial strand. 

Strand -planta, used by C. MacmillaD 
for shore planta. 

■ban'gnlated {Btrangiilalut, choked), 
contracted and eipanded in an 
irregular manner. 

Btnp, the ligule of a ray floret in 
Compoiitaa (Cfozier) ; ~ abaped, 
ligulate or torate. 

Stra'ta, pi. {elratnm, a layer), layers 
of tisBoe ; Stratlflu'ldOD {/<ku>, I 
make), the aucoeasive deposition of 
layers on the cell-wall, and the 
arrangement of the said layers ; 
stnt'illed, diipoaed in layers ; ~ 
nial'lni, a Lichen thallus m which 
the gonidia) layer or layers are 
evident; stra'toae, in distinct 
layers (Croaier) ; Btra'tum. a layer 
of tissue ; ~ cellnlo'iKm, the bark 
layer next within the eiiidermis ; 
- cortlca'le, any bast layer ; ~ 
EODldia'lB, ~ Bon'lmon, the algal 
layer in Lichens ; ~ Ug'senm, a 
layer of wood ; ~ modulla're, the 
medulla or pith ; ~ ipOTldlirerum, 
the floah of Agarica ; ~ iperoph'- 
orum, the hymenium of Fungi. 

Straw, the jointed boUow culm of 



ttroarn'mg. Ux flow ot protoplum, 

BH in M;xog«atre>. 

ttreptacu'pu [rrrrrit, twisted, 
fapitin, frait), when fruil 
nikrked by gpiral Blripc&, 

Btrl'w, pi. (glria, a furrow), markings 
on the valvea of Distomi vbioh 
pc«»eiit the Bppear&noe of Unee ; 
■trl'»l«, ulria'liu, marked with fine 
tonjjitudinal parsllot lines, 
groovea or ridges ; BtrlR'tton, 
oell-wall, marhingi believed to 1 
doB bo Ihe maiuier of formation 
bands by the protoplaatD. 

rtilot, ilrie'lui ( Lai. , anwn togethei 
oloce or narrow and upright, very 

Striff'ft (Uat.. a awaths), "a amatt 
«tr»ighthair-likeBaale" (Hcnalow). 

•trlc'lUOM {ilrigilii, a currycomb), = 
STBTOoae (Henalow) ; itll'KOM. 
glrigo'eiu (L<Bt., lank, meagre), 
beiet with sharp-pointed apprraaed 
atraiKhl and atiff bain oc bri«tles ; 

8tli'o]a», pi. {»tria, a groove), liaea of 
minute pusbulea on the outvr aur. 
face of celU of .Spiajnwm (Spruce); 
Btrl'DlBtB, finely itriste. 

strike, to emit roots, as from a 

SttlDK. luij fibre or strand (Croxier). 

Btrlped, marked with longitudinal 
stripes of cotoar. 

Btroii'U — Strobile ; itrobUa'ceoiu, 
-ceiu {aTpifiiXos, a cone, + iiretie), 
relating to or resembling a cone ; 
Btrob'Ua, Slrob'Uai (trrpd^iXai, a fir- 
oone), (I) an ioflorasuence largely 
made up of imbricated Eoaica, a$ 
the Hop or Fir-oone ; (2) ./. STBOBI- 
LOiii ; trtrobilU'eroiu, •nu {/ero, I 
bear), cone-bearin); i abobUl'miB, 
oone-like ; itrobU'lfonn, i-lrof/ili- 
forta'it (forma, shape), oone- 
shaped ; atloti'ilDid {tlSm, resenib- 
lanoe), cone like ; ~ Tbe'ory, the 
assumed origin of Ftoridophytes, 
in those forms whone sporophytea 
are the most primitive, as Lytopo- 
dium and E^uitttum (Bower). 

Stro'mA (arpui/ui, a mattress), a, 
cushion-like body, on or in which 

the perithecia are immersed, a oom- 
pound f anftiia - bodjr ; atro'inUold 
(cGtm, resembUDoe), having the 
nature or •eeming of a atroma • 
■tro'matoiu, producing stroma 



Bbtnnbnllfamna, -i 
■pira) shell, frro. I bear), (trom- 
bnUCoim, HromhvXijorm'u (/ormo, 
shape), when t)ie fruit is spirally 
twisted i Strom'bns, a spirally 
coiled le|j;uine, as in Mcdtfogo \ 
sDom'biu.atiapad, like a mail -dull 

Btrophan'tlilne, a poisanous alkaloid 
from Sltophiin(h\i» hi'pidut, DC. 

Stropb'es, pi. (iTT/io^, a turning), 
any spirald shown in phjllolaxr- 

Stropti'lole, Btroph'lola (itropkioium, 
a email chaplet), an appendage to 
tbe hiluni of some seeds, caruncle; 
stropb'iolata, possessing each ap- 

Stroph'lDn (orpo^, a turning), a 
tendency to twist in response to 
some eitemal stimulus (Ciap«b) ; 
8trapIkaKui'MK>('W'"'"i begianing), 
differentiation of a single original 
generation into the phsaea regarded 
aa alternation of geuerations (Straa- 
burger) ; Strophoma'nl* (jiatia, 
madneoB), special torsion, as in the 

like aweUing 

Btrac'tUTe, Slmtlii'ra (Lat.. fitting 
together), thepeculiarorgsniiation 
of plaots, with special modifica- 
tions ; adj. atruc'tural ; - tataaj, 
includes Organography, Morpho- 
logy, Anatomy, and Histology of 

Btrn'ma (Lai., a sorofuioDB tumour), 
a wen or cushion-like swelling on 
an organ ; atnunlferous {ferrr, I 
bear), oaving a elrumous or goitre- 
■:i 11: — _. — miform, tint ' 

. 1/on 

^, shape), with the 

or having a, small struma ; atm'- 
mose. ftrumo'guj. itm'inouB, •• 
though Borofnlous. 
Stiycb'Bla, Btryah'nin, a powerfully 
poisonous alkaloid from Slrj/elmot 
Nux-vomica, Linn, 



8tud'7 sat, the prinaipsl Bet of a uol- 
I«ctor'a plantf, eonchcil by Dot^s. 

■tuffed, solid, farctata (Crozier). 

Bttt'pa or Btup'pa (Lat,, tha coarae 
part ai Ssil, a tuft or maas of hair 
or filaments matted together ; 
■ta'pMOa, slv'pcua or tluj/peas, 
vooUy : Btu'pou, tttifio'atu, U)W> 
like, with luftB of long haira. 

rtye'lni {Sty.r, Slygia, an infenial 
river), used of pluiU which grow 
in foul wirtere. 

ny'lxi (ify^tu, from ettDXim, a column). 
relating to the Style, &a — Brnah, 
the oofiecting haira of flowers, c/. 
Cou,BOTOBS : - Canal, the tube or 
loose tissue through whioh the 
pollen- tubes pass ; ~ Oaramn, the 
colomn of Orchids [ ~ Foot = Sty- 
LOPODmu 1 ityla'taa (Lat.) = sty- 
Losrsi Style, .Slj/lue.H) the usually 
attenaated part of a piatil or carprl 
between tbe ovary and the stigma : 
~of Hepaticae.= Ihtbkwiehilb ; - 
of Mosses, (1) an old term for the 
neck of the aroheBonium ; (2) the 
oaliole of certain Funei (Lindley) ; 
Stjrie-ta'bls, used by Haworth for 
the flatl«ned npox of the style in 
Aaolepiads ; ity'lUbiin. iiiyl{form'i» 
[for»\a, shape), style - shaped, 
drawn oat; itylifennu (/rm, I 
bear), bearing a style ; EtyU'nus 
(Lat.), beloDgiDgto tDe style ; B^- 
lla'cna - Sttijh Canal; atylo'- 
deos (t^t.). furnished with a Style; 

Stylogonid'lam ( + Goniiiicm), a 
gonidium formed by abstriction 
from Bpeaial hyphae in such Fungi 
oa AecidiomyceCes and Baaidiomy- 
cctes, that ia, uredo-, tvlcuto-, an<l 
baaidio-aporea ; Bty'Iopod, Slylo- 
pod^ium (»oC(, i„Sf,i, a foot), the 
enlargement at the base of the 
styles in Umbelliferae ; str'lose, 
laylo'sia, having styles of a remark- 
able length or peraiatence ; Sty'Io- 
■pore (iTirrjpi, a seed), a spore borne 
on a filaniDnt ; adj. Styloipo'roui ; 
Stylosteg'lmii {arlyi}, a roof), a 
peculiar hood surrounding the 
style, as in AsclepiaHs ; Blylosle'- 
mon ; {iTiiii<jiy, a filuneul), an 

apigynous stamen : slyloste'mni, 
bermaphrodite; 8tyloteK'limi(7-^, 
a covering) = Sttlosteqidu, 

Btyp'tioua (Lat., from imnrTUDt]. 
astringeut ; usually implies use to 
stanch a wound. 

Bty'ras, or Stor'ax, (1) a solid resin 
from Slyrax offidnalt, Linn. ; (2) 
at the present day a aimilar bal»a- 
mio raain from Liqaidambar ily- 
raeifiua. Lino. 

styiido'phytns {aravpit, a croos, 
0unr, a plant), with eruoifomi 
petals (Henstow), 

niav'eoteiit, suai/toltna (Lat.), sweet- 
auielliug, fragrant. 

sub (Lat.), under or below, in oom- 
pounda usually implieB on approach 
to the oonditiou designated, some. 
what, or slightly ; subacan'llB ( 4- 
ACADLIS), with the stem hardly 
apparent ; sub'acnte ( + acote), 
aomewhal acute; subaer'lal (aerii«, 
airy), situated almost on the ground 
level, OS a rhizome which is covered 
with leaves, etc., but above tbe 
soil ; aabaploula'ila ( +AFicni.Aiu9), 
whan the atera is prolonged be- 
yond an infloreacenoe without 
branch or leaf ; lubaplc'nlatft, with 
U-deiint ' 

( + 

sitb I 

tendency to become 
tree - lite ; Bubarchespor'lal (-H 
ABcuESPOBtAi.) Pafl, Bower's term 
tor a cDshion-like group of cells 
below tbe arubeeporium in Liyeo- 
prxlium ; sabai'Ue ( + aiilk), 
nearly axile ; aubazll'lary, below 
tbe axil ; anbtilatOT'liie ( -i- buto- 
kine), somewhat as in the Lichen 
genus BiaJora ; aabWociila rls ( + 
BiLoaoLABiH), with partitions 
which do not quilo join, but leave 
a small interval ; sabbya'soiit ( ■{■ 
Byaaom), aomewhat cobwebby ; 

■ubbif Ido - nun'peiu ; ( -h hiti- 
Itus), "bursting into somewhat 
two diviaioas" (Lindley); aab- 
oanlH'cent {+ OiOLKsim.NT), with 
a very abort item, a trifie more 
developed than aoauloscent ; tnb- 
CN'pitOM {-I- OAnPiTosl), Mune- 

wbM tutled (Crazier) ; Bnb'd&u 
(-I* Class), ■ pvup of Ontere or 
Cohorts neit in rank Ui a C\na», 
or ioWrmediaM between Clan and 
Cobort ; cntiooBaat'ntfttB ( + com- 
UTtNATB), growing in iniparfeot 
ohaini or conneotiona ; ■nbeoii'loai 
( + coNiciL), slightly ooniol ; 

broken}, larelf or imperfectly 
aeptatfl (Grozier) ; nlbcini'Tolnta. 
n^convola'ttm {+ cosvoi.'Jtk), 
porti&lly G!involaI« ; ■obcor'ilaM 
(+ CORII4TE); ■nbcordlftir'mlB { + 
OORDIFDBUI, someirhat heatt- 
■hapeil ; labo^'naM ( + gbekatb), 
obscuraly orenat« ; mlMml'tnte ( + 
TOLTaATE), slightly ciillnite ; lub- 
dsn'tftte [+ PBViATi), imperfeotly 
dentate ; *aMenttc'Qlat« ( -t- denti- 

with s 

lall c 

marginal teelli : snbdljrarm'la 

ot irregularity ; lab'slTiue ( + 
EiTVSK), slightly spreading ; lub'- 
eutlrB ( 4- E.wTiUK), having very 
Blight marginal inciaiona ; anbepl- 
denn'al ( + kpidbrmai.), below 
Iha epidemiB ; ~ Tli'tae, = Ht- 

aa'bsr iLat., the oork-oak], oorb or 
phellogen ; EUber'eoiii, —Haberoee ; 
Bnbarlflca'tion ( fhcia, I make), or 
Bnberlia'tl on. conversion into 
cork, cutinixation ; lalMriied, con- 
verted into cork ; ~ Hen'biMie, 
with cell-walls turned into cork i 
Su'berln, the substance of cork, 
nearly the same aa ciitin ; in'beroM, 
lubero'nu, in'lMroiu, corky in tei> 

Dlb'ArMt, BuLtnct'iit [miJi, BooiBwhat, 
+ krrct), nearly ercot, but nod- 
ding at the top (Babington) ; nilM- 
roM' ( + ebosb), slightly gnawed 
in appearance. 

Bab'BX (LAt,, support, underlayer), 
that part of the aiis whioh bears 
palaphylUry leares (Kerner). 

Snbfun'Uy [nub, below), a Suborder 
or group of genera within on 
Order ; sDbflex'noH I + flexuosk), 
somewhat wavy ; snbgenlc'nlata ( -i- 


uisit'trLATHl, slightly bent o 
kneed; Subgsn'ns (-)- GsNca), i 
group, ranking as a section, a 
puBsibly B true genns held doabt- 

nil ; sahflDboae' ' ■ 

nearly globular ; i 

. aabliyme'nlal [ . 
UBKIAL), below the hjmenian 
■~ Lay'er or Babbyme'nltua, 


Snbic'nlnm (Lat. , an ondarlayer), ft 
felted or by ssoid stratum of hypboe, 
bearing peritheoia. 
iDblin'brtcata, ntirniTifa'lut {suh, 
somewhat, + tuBiticATE), some- 
what overlapping : vnUiMlp'ldns 
{huipidiit. tasteleBs). almost devoid 
of flavnor ; rabja'cutt [jaoent, 
). lying just below (Duoa & 
i) : Bnbktng'iloiii, the main 
of a hingdom, a primary 
botanic division, as Phanerogam* 

lying), 1 

o%'ary has a support, ' real o 

Bublmtlo'ular (sui, somewhat, 
LENTicuLAK). mors Or lees doobly 
oonvei : sQbUt'toral ( ■)- uttoba.1 ' 
employed by H. G. Watson I 
those plants which have a tendency 
to grow near the sea, but not 
actually shore- plan is; ■abmar'BluU 
(-t- MAROINAL), near the margin. 

sobmargad', sntnnersed', tubmtr'imt 
(Lat., dipped or plunged under), 
growing under water ; lubmenlh'l- 
llB, cspable of existing when suV 

iulKUu'omit [tiibiiwi-OT, I grow i , 
under), growing or ariaing fron 
below some object. 

Bubnl'ger [mib, samewbat, -H mora), 
— KidKiCANS ; aab'nuda (miAui, 
naked ), nearly destituteof oo vering, 
as leaves or hairs ; anb'obtna* (••- 
OBTtTSB), slightly obtuse or blunt ; 
EuboTUo'nlar ( -I- OBBlcuLAlt), neorij 
circular ; Subor'der, Suhot'do, % 
group of genera lower than an 
order ; lubo'vate i^ 
what ovate; sntipediuic'Dlate [-*■ 


ra). lupported on a very 
short at«iii ; rabpflt'lolai, tabpelio- 
la'ri«, mbpet'lolaW ( -i- fictiolat<). 
under the petiolei, bb the budi of 
Plataiiim ; ■ubperlph&ei'lciii ( + 
rati PHKRic), Dearly peripherie, 

I of t 



Atrijilrxlti.T.Gnyy, tubramaa'Us 
( + RAUKAL), gron ing on a branch 
below ft leaf; aulmi'lnois, «ii'>' 
rajHo'tag, mbn'mona ( + hauube), 
(1) having a slight lendencr lo 
brannh ; (2) with tew bmncAiBa ; 
■nbtlg'ia ( + BUIU>), slightly rigid ; 
■itliro'Mtu (+ KosBUS), aomewlmt 
Foae-colourad, pinkish ; subrotaiid' 
( + BOTUND), roundiBh ; walKO^li'i- 

below a section, a small section 
■abaer'rata, tub'OTa'ftu [ + rer- 
RATl), vaguely serrate ; mbBsa'alle 
(+ se^siui), nearly aeHilo, almost 
devoid of a Btiik ; Sob'sbnib, an 
under-ihrub, or bidiiU shrub which 
may have partially herhaceoua 

Bnbeld'iaTy {aahgidiarim, serving for 
Bupport) Cells, cerlain E[]idarmHl 
ceUa wbicb are less thickened or 
situated lower than the guard - 
oella whioh they snrround (Straa- 

■nbabn'pla («u£, somewhat, 4 simple), 
with few divisionB ; Snliape'cle*. a 

Eroup of fonna ambiguous in rank, 
stween a variety uid a apeciea, 
usoally marked by an asl«risk,* ; 
Svbapor'al {arapi, a seed) OeUs, 
applied to oertain colourless cells 
in I'llhophora, found in spore- 
beariDg individuals (Wittrock). 
Bub'sUtuta (inJ>»rilut«ii, pat in place 
of) Fl'brea, like libriforia fibres, 
but B much re<lueed form of pro- 
senchjnia, the " Ersatzfasern ' of 

Bnbstotnat'ii) {euh, below, -i- aroUATio) 
Cbam'ber, = Stomatiu Cuahbes. 

lubstra'toae [imb, somewhat, + 
stbatose), Bomewbal stratiSed, or 
in layera. 

■QbtMid' {labltndo, I atret^ih nnder- 
neath), to extend under, or be 
oppoaitB to ; Bvbten'iUiiK Lenf, that 
leaf whoao sxil givea riee to a 
bud or peduncle. 

■ubterete' {eub, somewhat, + tesbti), 
Bomewhat terete ; sabtrop'ic ( + 
Tttopin), applied to half-hardy 
plants which intemperate climates 
can thrive in summer only. 

aabteiTa'aeons, mblerra'neua (Lat.), 

Bub'trlbe (*u6, under, + Trib«1, a 
division between a tribe and a 

Bnbnla (Lat.. a small weapon), a 
tine sharp point ; Bn'bnlB, Duval- 
Jouvc'b term for the lenninal, 
nOD-twiated portion of the awn 
of groBBSs ; lu'tulkts, tubula'tut, 
awl - shaped ; Su'biLll, pi,, " Iha 
auieulae or ebarp prDuessea formed 
by Bome Fungala " (Liodley) ; J 

Bn'biOUm, tubt^wouc [fero, I 
bear), bearing Bharp points; aD'bnll. 
form, aubidijorm'is [forma, ehape), 

snbum'ballate (mi, somewhat, + uh- 
BELi^Tl), somewhat umbellate, as 
the inflorescence of some Rosaceae. 

Bnbvaii'eCy, SuUari'eiru (tiJi, under, 
+ Varieti), a triding variety or 

Bubves'trlcoae («ub, somewhat, + 
VENTBKXMK), somewhat inQated ; 
snbvertio'illtite ( +- vKSTicii-LAtE), 
in imparfect or irrepilnr whorls. 

Bnccedaneom (tiicc^aiuiin, subeli. 
tated), a sobatitate. 

Sncces'dve [stic'eteime, following) 

■DOdf eroos (skccim, sap, /fro, I bear), 

producing or conveying sap. 
modne'tni (Lat., ready) -omoiKA- 

suctdii'mu or tucin'eut (LAt., of 
amber), amber-colour«d; Boa'eliilta, 
the commonest and best knowo 
form of amber, reain exuded by 
Pima tacdnifera, Qoepp., J ; fno- 
clno'slB, Coswentx's term for an 

forail Auber-trMB. 
MUMlM', lucti'ratilM., entoff). u if 
ftbraptly oat or brokao off &t th« 

rae'ooBe, tutco'ttu (Lat., juioj), auc- 
cutont, BKppy. 

■Do'oDiioiu, ■£« (lAt., l;fiiiB DDderl, 
the oblique insorlioii of dwtiabous 
le&vea of HepslioBe, so th&t the 
upper overlap! the lower on the 
dorul tide of the it«m, aa id 

•no'atiltnt, tveCHJtn'tiu (Lat., uppj), 

tne'ou (Lai-, up), any juice wbicli 
can be eipreased from a pUol. 

■nolcar, (1) a Bhoot of «Dbt«rranean 
arigin : (3) an hauBtoriam, Bome 
time! rMtricted to the penetrating 
organ or psptlla. 

« {Fr.. 

suRar. - 

■e). ^ 


group of Buaara, auch as cane- 
Bugar and inaJtOM. 

BulfruMa'cant, tufriUa'cmn {tiii, 
Bomewhat, /nitt.c, a ahmb), ob- 
scurely ehrubbj ; Bufltn'tax, an 
undershrub : anffru'tiBWB, tiiffrii- 
lico'eux, loffnitio'alow, somewhitt 

nilRil'tUB. (I) supported or propped ; 
(2) BaSul'toa, a plate or disc loroi' 
ing the basia al a. butb ; ttbeu much 
leoothenad gives rise to the term 
BMm »ii^iu (Endlicher). 

Bu'K«r, a group of aweet, oryBtaUine 
BUbsIancsB and aoluble in wat«r 
(luoroaes and gluooaea) ; Beet ~ 
eitrBot«d from epecially selected 
■Iraina of Btta vulgaria, Linn.j 
OUM ~, or aaccharoee, from Sac- 
chanan ogidiuiriim, Linn.; Fruit- 

- Lakvclosk; Orape ~ = Qli)- 
OOSB or Dextrose; biTer'tWl '-. 
ocoQi^ in Bamo ripe fruits and 
honBjdeir; Ha'ple ~, from Acer 
laccMiriaum, Wangenh. j Palm ~ 
from apeoieaof Artnjja, etc. 

ml'oate. sulea'iui (Lat,. furrowed), 
grooTed or furrowed. 

Bnl'd, pL of Bnl'cna, (1) small grooTea 


valves I (2) lamellae of oertain 
FuDgi (Lindley); inl'dfOnii {Jim 
ihape) = BVijcaTB. 

anUn'reoua, etc., eee 
OPS, etc. 

Snlphabactar'U, (tulphur, bricistoDe 
■f Bactebu), tboee microbes which 
rednoe sulphur out of itd solutions ; 
ral'pbur-Ml'aured, = stnj'HtrBKirs ; 
— Bala, pollen from pines brought 
by cnrrenta of air ; Bnlpbuiu'la, 
Pjanohard'a name for Algae wliich 
reduce lulphal^a from waters cou- 
taining thoje salts ; sulphnrel'lna, 
slightly sulphur-coloured ; mlpliii'- 
reona, •retu, the colour of brim- 

s very pale yello* 
ra'cens, becoming lulphu 

■ulpbnm'cens, becoming lulphur- 
coloured ; Bolpburl'iuia, tnlpbiirf 

Bnm'mer-ipore, any spore which 

germinates quickly, and retains 
ita vitality a abort time only, as 
conidia and uredospores, in con- 
trast to wint«r- or reating-aporeB. 

Snm'mlt, used by Grew and hia ano* 
ceBsora for Akther. 

SunplantB. plants which prefer (nil 
sun-light ; their etems are often 
abort, the leavea have the paliai 
cells weU developed (Willia). 

anp'or (LaI.), above ; often modified 
into mpni' ; auperagTar'lan [ + 
aqbabian), a name applied to ■ 
zone which includee the regioD of 
vegetation in Great Britain abova 
the limits of cultivation ; 
ue'Uo, those plants which are 
conGoed to the highest lona in 
Great Britain, the most alpine of 
the flora in our islands ; mper- 
azU'lary. laperaxilla' rit { + axil- 
LARV>, growing above an axil; 
topercompos'ltns = ;;uprac<] 
iTUS : Buparores'ceiica {erti 
gron), a parasite (Crozier) ; i 
crea'cent, growing above i 
anotlier body : aupardeeom'pooad 


cnniU'tlon ( + FEtnNDiTlon), the 

uuioQ of more tbso two gametes. 

Saperflc'lei (Lat., the sorfaoe), 

Cor'pOTia, " PlacBnla'ris, " ' 


of oertain FungalB 


■npar&ciax'lQB (IJit., on oDother'ii 
Und). on the gurfnce of sn orgui. 

Snptr'Btia, pi. of Saper'Sntun {avptr- 
Jltuui, overflowing), a Llnnean order 
□f Syngeneeia (domposiUe) oon- 
taining pUnU with the floraU of 
the diah hnrinaphrodit'e, and those 
of the ray female. 

BnperfcMtSi Hon {•nper, above, + 
Koelation), the ferlilization of &■ 
ovary by more than one kind of 
pollen ; inpertoUn'oMUi - scpba- 
i nipcrfo'Iiiu = atrpRA' 

Bnp«r'lor (Lai,, higher), (I) growing 
or placed above ; (2) also in a 
lateral flower on the aide next the 
axis : the ponterior or upper lip of 
a corolla it the saperiar ; ~ O'raiy, 
when all tha floral envelopes are 
ioaerted below it, on the torua ; 

EQpsniB'tuit (iHpematant, swimming 
ttbore), Soaljng on the surface. 

sapenm'meraiy [aiiptmiitnerarias, 
over and above), additional; -- 
Bnd*. are eil' 

Bapeipar'asito [super, above, + 
Fabahetr). a parasite of a panutite : 
Sa'per-plant, a plant which grows 
upon another, either as an epiphyM 

■nperpo'sed, miptrpor'Uits (Lat.. 
placed over), verticall; over some 
other part ; 8ap«rDOilflo&. ploued 
vertically, or in parts of the flower, 

Supennbera'tlon (niper, above. + 
Tuber), the production of second- 
ary tubers upon the normal prirnary 
tubers : fluperspe'olea (+ Species), 
d group of anb-apeoies or new 
speuies regarded as an entity. 

anpervac'uuB (Lat.), redundant. 

supervolutB', lupfn-olu'liu, rolled 
over, when applied to plants, the 
same as roNTOLCTE ', luperrola'tlTa, 
tupfTvoiuti'imt, convolute aeatira' 

back), prostrate, with face tamed 

Sappor'tlUK (mpporUi, I carry or 
bring up) Plant, a plant upon or 
in which another grows; a host 
plant (Crozier). 

SapprM'tlon \ntpprtitio, a keeping 
bock], complete abortion. 

sapra=Bbave, in compounds from 
Latin; ■uins*azll'Iary (-<- axil- 
lart], growing above an axil ; anp- 
racom'potlta, mpnKompoiil'ut, aup- 
Todtfompo^ilui {compoeitna, com- 
posed), excBssivelj subdivided ; 
■upraibUa'oMiiR, -ecus ( -i- iolia- 
CEuvs), inserted above the petiole, 
growing above a leaf ; BUprafli'lliu 
(folium, a leaf), growing on a leaf ; 
sapriitWTa'neaiu, used by Spruce 
BA the oppoaite of aubterraneouB, 
p. 92. 

supreme' (m/n-Erniu, highest), as the 
top or highest point. 

BurcuUg'sroui, -rva [lurcaliu, a young 
branch, u^ro, 1 bear), bearing 
suckers ; but'cdIoss, tarcvio'tux, 
producing auckera ; Bnr'cniliu, (1) a 
Bucter, a aboot riaing from an 
underground baae, as from the 
root 1 (2) the leafy stem of Bryo- 
pbytes and Lycopods (Biachoff) : 
Bur'DiilDm IB uaed by J. Smith for 
the rhiiomo of a Fern. 

■uronr'reiit (Fr., aur = upon, .f cur- 
rent — ranning), having winged 
expanaiona from the baae of the 
leaf prolonged up the stem. 

Sar'f&ce' yeast, the same as Bioh- 

BurToyl, (irow's word for outer Bcalea. 

niT'Bum I, Lat., upwards), directed 
upward and forward; ~ hamnlo'- 
sna. bordered with hooks pointing 
to the apex. 

taspend'ed, imeptn'mi(Lai., hangup), 
hanging directly downward, or 
from the apex of a ctll ; SDapan'ior 
(I) of tlie embryo, a thread of 
cells at the extremity of a developed 
embryo ; (2) the cell which supporta 
the conjugating cell in MuoorUii. 

■a'tnral, nU-ara'Bt [tviura, a mud). 



reUting to % anture; EQ'tnn, (I) 
ft junction ot tetm □( nnion ; (2) 
ft line of opening or dehiftoence ; 
•Dtm'rliu, poaseiuiDg & sutnre. 

Swum, s number of iparea or 
UDioellalar AlROe of BimiUr origin. 
whiob rammin in ooinpkny without i 
beinK unitfld; /f. Asklpbutivy ; ) 
•- 0*11. ~ SiNira, ■ motile naked i 
protoplaamic body, a zoospore ; 
Inim'en, ntoeporea ; •wann'tnE, 
moving by meuui of oUift, ftpplied 
to zooaporen. 

■wlrn'mlng, used vaguely (or aquftticB 
which Boat or have Boating leave* ; 
ftlao reitriot«d to tlioae wholly 
immeraed and free ; ~ Appant'tBB, 
in Aiotla, three apical epiaporic 
■pongj' maesea of tissue, surround- 
ing a centnl oonicoil body with an 
array of fine Slamcnta (Campbell). 

Switch- plalLta, plants whose leftveii 
are wanting or reduced, with green 
ahoota acting in place of leaves. 

vword-ahkiwd, enailorm. 

■jotmocar'pona, -pua {irirxm, frequent, : 
Koprii, frntt), able to prnduce fruit 
many times without perishing, aa 
treea and herbaoaoua perennials. 

87'oaii = Bjam'iam, or Sy'oonni (trvioi-, 
fruit ol Che fig-tree), a multiple 
hollow fruit, as that of the Gg. 

Byoo'lto Irriiicu'iii), a skin disease 
ascribed to species of Uirroit/^oron. 

ByKoUl'pbytam, error (!) for flmoolll- 
ph'jtiun (ciyiHiWm, glued together, 
^uTor, a plant), a plant in which 
the perianth becomes oombined 
with the pericarp. 

Byl'va, or Sil'Ta (Lat., a wood), 
■pplied to an aoconnt of the treea 
of a district, oradiscoiirseon treea ; 
ayl'nui, relating to woods ; aylvat'- 

ir !>iJi<a 

'. 5'°" 

trees ; aylvei'tral, used by H. C. 
Watson for plants which grow in 
woods and shady places ; aylvas'trlB 
or eilrtt'triii, growing in woods ; 
■ylvei'ttlne (Cfroiier), growing in 
woodsi Syl'nla, (I) a plantation ; 
(2) ft amall Silva. 
in, a nodiSoatioo of tyti {ait), with ; 
'^' '"' 1, life), an organ which 


Uvea io a state of Stubiobih; 
lyni'Mint lBjnM«'tes, of Tnbeuf), 
an individual existing in SjmMo'- 
ils, the living together of dieeimilar 
organisms, with benefit toone only, 
or tiO both ; also styled cominen- 
salism, consortism, individnalism, 
mutualism, natricism. prototrophy 
and syDtrophiam ; anUscnla'ttc — 
ia a straggle between the two 
organiama ; ooDjano'UTe ~ where the 
aymbionts are inttmstely blended 
so aa to form an apparently single 
body : aonan'g:ent - , when one 

Sl&nt lives in the interior of another 
>r shelter, Genu. 
Raumparasitismus ; lUaJiuLC'tln — 
when the aaaociation is only tcm- 
))or>ry (Fr&nk) ; mntOAlUUo ~ 
wbenof reciprocalsdvaotase ; 17111- 
Uo'tle, relating to symbioeia j — 
Sap'rophytlim, the condition of a 
higher plant aa a Phanerogam, 
in symbiosis with a Fangus 

perianth is divisible into equal 
parts by several planes of division ; 
symmet'rlc, aymmet'rlcal, (1) acl^ 

number of members in oalyi, 
cori'Ua, and androeoinm ; aym- 
metricar'poB [Kaproi, fruit), a fruit 
which is symmetric, as firft de- 
fined; Bym'metiy, .Syfninef'ria,cap 
able of division into similar halvoa. 

Sym'pathy (irti^ivit^cia, fellow-feeling), 
(1) the faculty oj ready aoioi] in 
grafting; (3) readiness to hybridiie, 
or receive foreign pollen ; adj. 

8yni'peil»e, pi. {air, with, w/hi, a 
fetter), applied by 0- Mueller to 
those Diatoms having superficial 
symmetry: Bympet'alae, (sVroXer, 
a flower leaf) = Gi«0PBTal^B ; 
■ympatal'lcns, t the cohesion of the 
stamena to the petals, as in Malva ; 
sympet'alous, -/lu, with uait«d 
petals, Eiimopet&loua. 

■ympMan^srana , -nu ( ru^iiw, leaoM 
to grow together, irtfijpot, flowery). 


B BjnoDyiu of Sjnikntherui 
pOlU {rapri!. fruit), 
fraiu 1 sympIilogCDet'io (yvoi, s 
race), formed by union of previously 
Bepnrate elements ; lyiopIiriii'Uia- 
roiw t = Bymphiantherous ; Sym- 
bined DvuliferouB scales in the 
Bower of certoin Coniferae (Warm- 
ing) : Sfrnphyl'lous, gamophylloua : 
■7inpliyofanet'lG = 9ymphioj(flTietic ; 
■jmpIirosCe'iDOnotU {eri/ivr, a 
Blanien), having the itumene united. 

Bym'p&TBia (ov^^uirii, growinu to- 
gether). (1) (.'oalesoeace ; (2) tuBion 
of parts (B«ea«j') ; S7inpb7«'l«i ia a 

•yrapbyile'tnonoiui = ajmphyoste 

■frnphyuuthema = symphiajitfaer- 

symphytoBT'yilua (ini/i^vrai, innate , 
-yvv^, a wunian), the calyx and 
piBtit more or leas adherent, the 
ovary beinij inferior [ aympkrt'la, 
formed by fuaion of several nuclei, 
u a gamoto-DUoleui (oogamet«) of 
FeroDosporeae or (isogitme1«) of 
Datydailve iHartog) ; symptiy- 
totha'lDs (BijXij, a nipple) = stm- 


Bym'plaat(iii>i',wilh, I'^BDTAI, lormcd), 
an aaaemblaoe of cnergidi, as in 
Cavlerpa pr3i/tTa, Lamour, ; Bym- 
plo'dnm, or SympIo'klDm (tXc'jcu, I 
plait), old names for the aponuigium 
of a Fern ; Byrn'pode, Sympod'ium 
(rout, roSai, a foot), a al«m made 
up of a seriee of superposed 
branches, so as to imilate a simple 
axis ; ad j, aynpod'lkl ; ~ Dtebot'omy, 
where at eaoh forking, one branch 
oontiuuea to develop and the other 

ayn {air, with], adhesion or growing 
together ; cf. htm ; tynac'mic 
(ajc^h, a puint - prime of life), 
adj. of Syiiac'my, the stamens bqiI 
pialiU mature together, being the 
opposite of HsTBBACMT ; Synan'- 
--■ — (dpiip, d>Sj»i, a man), the 
on of tbo anthers of each 

mole flower in certain Aroideae ; 
Bynas'diy, Morren'a term where 
stameua normally separated are 
soldered or united ; Bynon'gla, pi. 
of Bynaa'ginm [iyyi'iar, a veasel), 
an aggregated ei annulate Fern 
sporangium forming a series ef 
loculi, as in MaralSa (.1. Smith) ; 
adj. Bjnan'elal ; ayiunllie'rictu 
(oi'fljjpot, flowery), the growing 
together of anthers, as in Com- 
poattea, ayngeneeious ; Byiuui'- 
ther&e, a name for Compositoe ; 
adj. synan'tberoua ; Bynantberol'- 
ogfit (X^oi, discourse), on expert in 
the study ot Compositoe ; Bynan- 
the'rua, a flower with coalesced 
anthers ; Bynsjitlie'Bla {a^Svr^s, 
Sewering), simultaueous antheais, 
Btamens and pialiU ripe at the 
aame time, synacmy ; Syn&ntho'dy 
[ttSot, resemblaoce), the latent 
adhesion of two flower-bnds on the 
same stalk, ot on two peduncles 
which have become fasciated ; Bya- 
ui'thy [&f6ot, a flower), Morreo'e 
term tor the adhesion ot two or 
more flowers : adj. aynan'thlc, «yii- 
aa'tlioai i Synaotliropliy'tuin [si; 

with, &9fi6oi, crowded, ^urai', a 
plant), a plant whose fruit is com- 
pounded of many carpels ; the word 
SB cited by Henslow, seems to be 
an error for Necker's group Syn- 
athrophy tum : Bynan'throae, a sugar 
found in the roots and tubercles of 
certain Coropositae. 

Bynap'ili (ffiwdTTTu, 1 join), the con- 
densation of the nuclear filament 
to one side of tbe nucleus previoua 
to heterotypic mitosis. 

Bynap'tue (oivorrAi, joined), the 
same substance as Emnam. 

Bynarmoph'ytua (obrap^uwit, conjuno- 
lion, iiTbf, a plant), gynandroua. 

Byn'oarp, Syntat'inujn [ait, with, 
>iapr6i. fruit), a multiple or fleshy 
aggregate fruit, as the mulberry, 

composed of 
carpek ; Byncar'py. tfai 
adhesion of several fruits . , 
ootyla'donoiu, -n<tu(-i-CDTrLki>o.v), 

, ayncar'poiis, -pu». 

are united J 

accidental ■ 

iiit4 ; ayn- ■ 

>TrLsi>o.v), I 



wiUiixwIeeoedootyUdonE; Bjn'eyte, | 
3yiK]/fiun (ivTtt, > (mall box), a : 
■IruotarA d«riv«d from the mare or I 
ten oompleto kbaorplioa of tbe cetl- 
walh, wDich placea their lumina Id ' 
direot contact. 
■Tlied'nl, ■jnud'roua, -dna lairtS/iet, 
of the same uat), growing on the 

Syium (ffi>», with, i^»ia, a. thread), 
(1 ) tbe calumD of monadelphous elA- 
mens, aa in Malvaceae ; (2) ; that 
part of the oulunm of an Orchid 
whioh repreaenta the filament of 
the atamenB (Lindle;) ; Bynor'gldB, 
Svntr'gidat (mwefyyot, an «ai»Unt), 
the two Duclei of the upper end 
of tbe embryo aac, which with the 
third (the ooaphere) conBtitute the 

Sjnguneta [ai; with, + Gabbti), 
C- Mocmillan'a expreaaioii for the 
cell which ariaea from the fusion 
of two gametea : ^. Oosfsbu, 
Ztooti 1 8; ogenoa'U (7^i'(ii(, be- 

£*nning), a LiODean cUas, with 
I were haviog anitcd an I hern, 
Compoaitae ; tTnganes'loiu - ayn- 
gUN'iotu, tyngesin'v*, (I) with 
anthers cohering in a ring ; {2} 
belonf(tDg bo the order Compoaitoe ; 
Byn'gmmTTiae (yp&iiiia, an ontline), 
DitttODiB with linear Bjmmetiy (O, 
Mueller) ; ByncliOT'ioa Z {v'P^'^. 
foetal membrane). Mirbd'e name 
for Caiii:^biigle ; aynocb'reate ( + 
OoKltA), having opposite united 
■tipalea which encIoEe the stem in 
ft aheath ; (jnoft'dona (oZirat.ahouse), 
having antheridia and archegonia in 
ona innoreecence ; bryolo^istH geem 
to prefer tbe form aynol'cona. 

Byn'onym (evrumiioi, having the same 
name), a Bupersedod or unused 
name ; Bynon ymr, all that reUtea 
to aynonyma. 

Synoph'Uiy, the corrected abbrevia- 
tion of " Synophthal'my " [adr, 
with, 6<^9a\uit, an eye), see next ; 
— Moquin-Tandon's term for oilho' 
■ionof (l)emhryoB; (2j budaj Byu- 
cipli'ty(deriv., eee U<t)i Srnop&'yty 
(Croaer), = Syhofhtht. 

Bynop'tU [airo-fin, a gUnoe), a con- 
denaed description of a genna or 
other group of plants. 

■yvpet'aJaDB [tiw, with, r^aXor, a 
a.^wcF leaf), = gaiiiopet«louB ; 
ajtiorhi'tua I^Jfa, a root), having a 
radicle whose point is united to 
the albumen ; Eynaep'alaiu. -lu» 
{■¥ Sefalch). gamosepatuus, the 
septle oooleacent ; ayniper'moiu, 
adj. of Synaper'toy {attpiux, a «ee<l), 
the union of leveral seeda; lyii- 
apor'Diu (arvpi^ a seed), "pro- 
pagating by conjugationB of cells, 
as in Atgae" |8tormooth) ; mju- 
lUgnutt'lcnB {nl'iiui.. a point), when 
a pollen-maBS is fumiahed with a 
retinaculum by which it adherea to 
the etigma, as in Orchida. 

ayntao'Uc (B-inTitrnii, pnttiaff to- 
gether), ased of irregularity whioh 
is Eygomorphic (Pax). 

Syntagma, pL Systap'mjLta (nir, 
with, rdyua, an array), PfeBer'a 
term for bodies built up of TaQ' 
UATA, Ihenuelvea aggregations of 
MoLBOULBS ; (yntep'alotu ( -i- Tkf- 
ALVH), the tepala unit«d ; lynteo- 
ph'lona {Tpdji)), food), epiphytic ; 
Byntroph'Iim and Byn.trapb'7. the 
antogonislic EVmbioBig of Lioheo 
with Lichen ; Bys'Cropbi, ' ■ Lodgers" 
in'Licheng; Bynxyg'lii t (fi^ii, a 
yoke}, the point of contact of op- 
posite CMityledone. 

Sy^phon, = Siphon. 

Byrlikff'lii, a substance ooourring in 
Syringa, the Lilac ; tyilllgi'lliu, 
lilac- coloured, a light purple. 

Syringoden'Oron, need by nalaeo- 
botaniatB for old or partially de- 
corticated sigillorian stems; the 
name woe formerly generic. 

SystellophT'timi [avirrtWa, I wrap 
olosely, ^urht, a plant), when a 
persistent calyx appears tc form 
part o( the fruit. 

Sya'tem (ouETTijfjJi, a composition), a 
scheme of claaaiGcation 1 nyirte- 
nuit'lc. 8yale<nafK\u, relating ta 
ayBtem ; - Bot'uiy, the studv of 
plants in their mutual relationchip* 
and taxonomic arrangement. 




flyit'ole fffuffToXft, K oontrMlion). the 
cantrsction of the contractile 
vesicleaincertainA Igne , plsamodia , 
and zooaporea. 

Byat'rophs (dujts^, rolling up), when 
strong light GaUBBs ohlorophjll 
grams to congregate into a few 
niaaaaa (A. F. W. Schimper) ; adj. 
pti'lon, that portion of the PaoTsmtl 
in which ayaCrophe can take pUoe 
(S. Moore), 

iTit^rini {air, with, invXtn, ft 
colamn}, tlie lid fixed to the 
oolnmalla in Moaaea, and elsTated 
above the capaute when il driea ; 
ayatrliu. when atylea ooaiesce 
in flo* " 

■a fi/slyla. Bast. 

liana Taliu:ii'n, Linn. 

TfttaabMT', a ailiceouB 
occurring in the jointa of bamboo. 

Tft'bM (Likt., a wasting away), a 
diaeaae, the loaa of the power of 
growth and consequent wasting 
away ; tabea'cent, labts'ccM, woat- 
ing or shrive lUng. 

Tftb'let ilalnUa, a board or plank), 
{1) the fniatule of Diatoma when 
quadrangular ; (2) the rectangular 
ooloDf of Oonium , Tab'nia. the 
pilaua of certain Fungi ; Ikb'niar, 
tabula'rie, dattcned horizontally : 
~ Koolt, buttreas-like roota of 
certain tropical tceea (Kemer). 

tabiila'tna,I(Lat., boarded orfloored), 
layer on layer. 

taeida'Dai t (roouo, a hand), long, 
cylindric and contracted in rarioua 
placea ; tamiop'terold, in foaail 
botany, reBambling the genua 

■-- -I. 1 

gregationa of molecoles ; tagmat'lo 
Com'plM, a higher molecular 

Tftll, any long and slender prolonga- 
tion ; ~ polnl'eil, exoeaaively acu- 
minate, caudate; tBlled, aaid of 
•uthen which have a proloDgation 

from the loculna, which part ia dM- 
titule of pollen -grains. 

Tola'ra X ifi^aria, the winged ahoea 
of Mercury}, the wing or ala of a 
papilionBoeOuB corolla. 

Ta lea (Lat. ), a cutting, a small branch 
for propagating. 

tall, exceeding the normal height. 

tangan'tial [la'ngfia, touching), at 
right angles to the radial or med- 
ullary raya. 

Tan'Ktilii, the poison occurring in the 
ordeal poiaon plant of Madagascar, 
Ctrhtra Tangkin, Hook. 

Tau'glB, the same as Skein (Croiier). 

tanlcanl-aliapAd, thickened and 
gradually enlarged down ward, then 
suddenly contracted or ended, as 
some varieties of turnip (CroEier). 

Tin'iilii or Tan'nle Ai/Ul, an important 
group of astringents, especially 
abundant in some barka, as thai of 
the oak ; Taa'Dln-UM, — Te'slalas, 
strongly refraetive globular bodies 
in cella, which contain tannin. 

Tap-root, the prittmry descending 
root, forming a direct continuation 
from the radicle ; tap-ioot'ad. 
possesaed of a tap-root. 

ta per, evlindric but ODgnUr, and 
gradually diminiahing towards the 
end ; -- potnt'ad, acuminate, as the 
leaf of Saiixailia, Linn.; ta'parlDg, 
regularly diminishing in diameter. 

Tape'alum {Tixrii, a carpel), dense 
and wefted superficial nijoeliam, 
having ascophorea seatea on it ; 
tape'tiu, relating to the tapelum ; 
~ Call, cell of a tapetum ; - taj'w 
= TAPlrrcil ; Tapete', a suggeatcd 
emendation of Tape'tum, a mem. 
brane of granular cells investing 
the Eporogenous Cells in the arche' 
sporium, absorbed as the spores 

Tapbreneh'yma {rippai, a dit^ih, 
^^X''»^, an infusion), = Born- 

Tapio'co, prepared starch of the roots 

of seveAl species of Manikot. 
Tarax'acliia, a bitter crystalline 

Principle found in dandelion, 
'arazocmi offieiiuUe, Weber. 


tfu (Mid. LaL, Cor- 

(rum, wine Urtar), hftving a rough 

crumbliDg lurlMd, lihe some 


tair'nr. falvom, a dull brownish' 

Mxifoni'la (fonu. the yew, /orma, 
ihape], amHiged dislichonsl; like 
the leavea ol yevr. 

Tix'U (rdjii, order), u»etl by Ctapek 
to tfk'preai reaction of free organ - 
imu in reaponie to external 
■timuli b; niovemeDt; Tult'sry 
(Hpai, & WQtiBter), a modification 
which is BO Blight as to admit of 
ooiii pnriaon with the normal fomi ; 
Taiol'ogy (\i>ot, diaeourge) or 
Tftxon'omy (riftos, law), clnaaifica- 
lion ; TaiODo'nilat, one akitled in 
cluBi GcatioQ ; adj. taxoaom'lc. 

Te»r. a drop of gum or resin in its 
native itate ; taar-itLapad, like the 
pip of an apple, Uchrymiform. 

TaeUl, (1) any small marginal lobes ; 
(3) in MoBsee, the divisions of the 

T^men (Lat., a. covering), (I) the 
inner ooat of a seed, previoaaly 
tb« lecandine of an ovule ; (2) t 
tha ginmo of a graas ; pi. Tegmm'' 
te, the icaleB of a leaf-bud ■ ~ 
/olia'cea, fviera'aa, peliola'rea, 
tlipula'eta, modifications of leaves, 
■lipulea and pctioIeB, petioles and 
slipnlea only (Lindley) ; tegmltiB'- 
nu (Lat.), when the nuuellus is 
invested by a covering. 

togiuaant'Ar; (tegunten, a cover), re- 
lating to some covering ; Tega- 
nes'Iun, (1) the induaium of a 
Ten ! (2) the Bpermoderni. 

Ta'l&(LAt.,a web), elementary tiuoe. 
aa meridiem ; — oontai'ta, a wefL 
of distinct hypbae, felted tissue ; 
Oer. " FilzgBwebe." 

talslan'thuB (tiXiidi, perfect, iSr^oi, a 
flower), hermaphrodite. 

meol'ocy (WXni, gen. of rAoi, com 
platioD, Xiyoi, discourse), the 
doctrine of final causes, or theory 

Talsntoemld'inta = TetontogonUI'lDiil 
{rtXrvrii, an end, -i- lloMnilUH). 

= TiLiDTOSPOBB ; Tolm'WxpOM 
(tTOpd, a seed), a resting hilocutar 
spore of Uredineae on germination 
f«™ludng a promycelium. 

lUoi'anuM (tAdi, an end, yi^un, 
marriage), Ardissone'B term for 
Florideae i Ttiagonld'lttm ( + Go.ii- 
Di(TH), a gonidium arising from 
successive generati^ma m the same 
coll (A. Braun) ; Tel'opbM« (^x. 
an appearancel, the last phaw of 
nuclear division. 

Tem'perjitnrea, the sum of, uaed U> 
mark a given period in the lita-oycle 

temalan'tona {tmuilentiu, dmnkeo), 
nodding in a jerky irregular 
manner, </. nutans (Heinig). 

Tem' active principle occiirring 
m Luliwm UnKiltnlum, Linn. 

Tenac'uinm, pi. Tenae'nlft {Lai., a 
holder), hiptera or holdfasts of 
Algae ; adj. teuw'nlkr. 

Teo'diU, a filiform production, uraliae 
or foliar, by which a plant may 
secure itself^in ite position. 

Ten'slon (teniio, a stretching), due to 
turgidity in cells, and manifested 
by movements of parts. 

Ten'tacle {Itaiacidum, Mod. Lat., a 
feeler), a senaitive glandular hair, 
UB those on the leaf of DroKra ; 
Tentac'ulold (dJoi, resemblance), 
applied to long processes whicli 
pass through mammiform protuber- 
anoBB of the perigloea of Diatoms 

tenoUli'Ilaaa -livi {/oliam, a leaf], 
ihin or Gne-leaved ; Taanlnnaal- 
iB'tae ((fiiMtJi, narrow, -t- Ndi.'KLi.os), 
Van Tieghem's t«rm for tho«e planti 
with true aeede, in which the 
nucollufl ia reduced to a layer of 
cells or wholly absorbed b^ the 
endosperm : ten'tdt (Lat.), thin. 

Tep'al, Tefj'aliim (anagram of pelaAm) 
a division of the perianth, sepal or 
petal i restrioted by H. G. Beicheo- 
bach to the two unchanged petkls 
of Orohida. 

tApb'rens, teph'ma (rc^t, ashy), 

Mpbro'iltu, uhj- 





T«plda,'riDm (Lai,, a tepid bsth-room], 
!□ botsnii^ gatdenB a "Cape House," 

TsrftMg'aii; (Wpai, T^paroi, a sign or 
prwligy, ytro!, offspring), the pro- 
iiuctjon of monsters ; Taia.Wi'ogj 
(X4>pi, discourse), the study of 
mat formations and monstrosities ; 
adj. tarfttolos'to. 

Ter'abane, a lerpene which holds 
resia in solution, as turpentine ; 
the nauio is from Piilacia 
Tertblnlhui, Linn. ; terabiii'thlns, 
pertaining to, or ooDBisting of, 

Tet'dne, Terci'na {ler, Ihrioe), o 
supiKued third iotegiimcnt of an 
ot'ule, really a layer of the primine 
or aecundlne. 

Tsnhra'tOT {tertbra, a borar), Lindau's 
name for the so-called trichogyne 
in Qyrophora ; TBrebratolhf pha 
( -hHypha) tueans the same. 

Tsn'do ( Lai. , a boring beetle), disease 
cauMd b; the boring of insects. 

tareta', terti (Lat., rounded), ciroular 
in tranaverae section, cylindrio and 
uBnally tapering. 

UrKeni'liuJ, = trav«nt'iiuite, Itrsem- 
" thrioelwin " (Liodley). 

UTElfraoiu {tergum, a bacli, /era, I 
bear), MrBtsperrn'ons, -lU {aripiui, a 
seed), bearing dorsal sporangia, as 
Ferns ; Ter'sum, back, dortum. 

ter'mlnal, Icrminit'lii (Lat., relating 
to boundaries), prooeeding from or 
belonging tothe end or apex ;~Bad, 
a bud which is apical. 

TermlnoroBy {Tipiio, a limit = term, 
\byiit, diflcoune). glossology, defi- 
nition of technical terms ; Ter'- 
mlnos (LAt.), a term, a technical 

ter'ntry. terna'riiix (Lat., consisting 
of three), in threes, trimerons ; 
" Hy'brid, tlie result of crossing a 
hybrid with a speoiea different from 
either of its parent*. 

ter'iikt*, tcmaiia {lerni, by threes), 
1 threes, as three in ■ whorl or 
oloitari Ur'nftU-plii'iuU, when 

^^ oloitari 

the Beoondsry petioles proceed in 
threes from the summit of the 
main petiole ; twna'tely trltallo- 
Ute, with three ieaSets attached 
at one point, as in clover (Croiier) j 
ter'nus = tebn atb. 
T«r'{ieoe (modif. of Turpentine), a 
^oup of hydrocarbons present 
lu turpentine, liquid reain, or 
essential oils ; tarp'anolil [iJSet, 
reaBrablancB), Kerner's name for 
that group of dower-scents pro- 

tlie dry ground -, the I.atin U 
is also employed ; ter'reas (Lat., 
earthen), " earth culoured " ; 
ter'ilcols, terric'olooB {colo, I in- 
habit), living on the ground, as 
some Lichens. 

Ter'tioipora {lerliu*, third, (rrepA, a 
seed), 0. MoomilUn'a term for a 
fertilized egg which undergOM 
rejuvenescence and segments into 
UBUiiUy four sporee, motile and 
similar to the sporek of a gameto- 
phyte generation ; the result o( 
BDorophytic segmentation, M in 

tewnla'ila {te»iiaiiia, a small square 
stone), of cubic dimensions, all 
aides eqnal. 

tea'sellata, ttateUa'lui ( Lat. , of squared 
Btoiien), chequer - work, as in 
PntUtaria lltieagrit, Linn. 

Tas'tA (Lat,, a brick or lile), the 
outer coat of the se«d, oau^ly 
hard and brittle. 

tetlft'cMnu, luta'ctv (Lat., uf brioke 
or tiles), brick-red. 

tastlD'iilar, testio'iila,t«, ifilievia'tu* 
(Lat.), shaped like the lubua of 
Orrhit, and fruit of Uercjiruilii i 
TMtlo'Qilu }, TM'tla X (Lat.) = 
Ants BR. 

TM'tnla {teetv2a, a dim, of Testa), aa 
old name for FHVaTDI.& 

WMr (iM., offaQti*e), having ft foul 

Tatnblai'tiU {rirpai, foDr, ^lun'di, 
a bud), Koerber's tenn for tho»a 
LicbeD-sporei which comiat of 
foar oelU ; Utnoam'arcmi. -nu 
( t- CAHAKUa), of fonr clooed 
oarpeli ; totnLcupallary {taprit, 
fniit). oflourcarpeU; JWrmov^'Oa 
( ■<- Caiujtin), a lipochrome piRmeat 
resembling carotin. 
Tjtradiaa'nliun ^ (rcr^i, four, + 
Acbxnicm), a fraiC of four *d- 
herent achenea, lu to Labiatae ; 
TetnobOOU'plnm {rirpaxa, four- 
fold, <iafnriT, Iruit) = TkTkaSPOBe ; 
t«tncIuit'oni<nu, tetrachot'onuut 
{rl^tu, I out), when a c^me, in ita 
restricted aease of fascicle, bears 
four lateral peduncles about the 
terminal flower, 
trtnuwo'coiu, -etu {Tirpis, four, 
(dnai, a ben-;), (1) sonsigtinir of 
four closed carpels ; (3) appli 
baateria when in four segn 
tatlAcj'cllc ((i/kXdi, a circle), when 
a flower is compoeed of four whorls 
of organs. 
Tel'rad (Ttrrpiimr, a set or group of 
four), a body formed of four cella, 
a* in the formation of pollen Id the 
tetrad'Tinon* (TrrfxiJu^iDt, foartald), 
(I) having four cells or cases; (2) 
when the lamellae of an Aoaric are 
arranged so that alternate lamellae 
ore shorter than the intermediates. 
and one complete lamella I erminaCea 
a set of four pairs, short and long. 
Tetradyna'mla (rcrjidt, four, SiVa^r, 
power), a Linnean class which is 
characterized b; possesa ingtelradj- 
namouB stamens; tatradf namoDS, 
-tniu, havinjj foar lon^ stameus and 
two short, as in Craoiferse ; teti%- 
four-leaved, more oorrecti; tetra, 
phjUoua ; tatrgig'oQal (^ukla, an 
angle), four-angled ; Tetnconldaii'- 
Eiom ( + OoMOANOtllH). a sexual re- 
prod uctiveorganinFlorideanA Igae , 
producing t^trogonidia ; Taba- 
KUdd'liun ( -t- OoNiDicu), asexuall; 

produoed aporea of Floridcae. etc. , 
usually in groups of fonr ; tatra- 
K'omnis [><vrta. an angle), fonr- 
anglsd ; T«tnie7A'i> (Tvrft, a 
woman), a Linnean artiGaial order, 
the members having flowere with 
fonr pistils ; tetrag'yiioiu, of four 
carpels or styles ; (etrain'aroiu, -rus 
[liifioi, a part), of four memben ; 
tetiainor'pliio(fui|i^, shape),having 
Bowers of four forms, varying as 
to length of Htyle, anthers and 
stigmas, as in Epigaai rfptmi, 
Linn. ; (etran'der, tatran'drona 
{iriip, ivlpii, a man), with four 
stamens ; Tstron'drla, a Linnean 
claoB of tetrondroni plants ; Mlia- 
nu'cleate [ + Ncclbes), having four 
nuclei (Brebner) ; tetra-pst'alou. 
-hm (WraXor, a flower leaf), having 
four petals ; tetrapbylsVIc (^vK^, a 
trilw), applied to hybrids with fonr 
strains in their descent : tebi. 
phyl'Ioni, Jut {ipiWay, a leaf), foar- 

tatraplocau'Iotw [nrfnrKiot, fourfold 
4-CAITLI3), having quaternary aiet 

tetntp'teroQs [Trrpit four ; rrtpa; a 
wing), four- winged, four prodnoed 
angles ; te t r* ro ^'»" {""pi'i ■ 
kernel), vrith four stones or seeds 
in the fruit ; taciaqae'ter, tetra- 
qtie'trous [qTiadra, a, square), with 
four sharp angles ; tafnnb {ipxi, 
beginning), with four vaaoular 
strands in a iibrovssoular ojlinder 

tetrari'nns {rcrpdi, four, ipp^, mala), 
Necker's version of tkt&amdrocs ; 
totrMdUs'tlo (ff^urri'. Split), divid- 
ing into four ; tetraaep'olooa, -Iiu 
(-1- Skpalcu), having four sepals; 
tetrwperm'oos (rripua. a seed), 
with four seeds ; Tetrasponu'Elmn 
( (-SFO£iANcn7M),»nnieellularapor- 
iingiiim containing t^trasporee ; 
Tet'roipore {riopi. a seed), ■ spore 
formed by division of the spore- 
niolher-cell into fonr parts; tatta- 
■poi'lc, tetnapor'ons, bearing tatra- 
spores; tettas'tlcbotu, -cAua (Vr'xaii 
a row), in four vertical tanks. 

lax'tUe, ttaftilU (Lat. .woven), lued for 

Ttz'tnn, Tfxiu'ra (Lat., a web), 

applied bjr SUrback to hyphal 
■tructurea in Diicomvcetes, toiiB : 
" epldemtol'dea, the walls of 
hyphne Qiore or leaa oonfliient ; 
Klobo'M, when tha oelU are nearly 
iBodiumetric. the separate hyphaa 
DOb diatin^^iehablu ; ~ intrlcft'ta, 
tbe hj'pliBe runningin variousdirec- 
tione. with wsIIb not coaleBcent ; 
~ ob'llta, hfpbae nearlj' parallol, 
and having amall cavitiea with 
thickened walls; - porrae'W, 
hyphoo with large cavities and no 
thickened walla ; ~ prlamat'lcs, 
Celts not isodiaiiietric, hyphae not 

UuOunUlor'al, thalamiflor'ont {adXa- 
iMit, a bed-chamber, Jtos. fioni, a 
(lower), when the parts of the 
Howera are hypogynoua. separately 
inaertcd on the tbalamua ; Tbala- 
mUIor'M, a group of Pbaneroyams 
hollow case containing spores ia 
Algals"! (2) "thediskor i^amina 
prnlifera in Lichens " ; (3) " a lonn 
of the hymaninm in Fungala " (all 
from Liodley) ; Tbal'amoa, the 
ceptocle of the tlower, the torui 

thalas'aliius, Ibalu'ilanB (Lat., [roin 
BiXaiaa, the sea), sea-green ; TIuJ- 
kl'Mpbyte (^uTDi', a plant), a marine 

TtuOUd'inm (0bXXi>i, a aprout), a 
vegetative reproductive body, 
especially amongat Thallophytea 
and Muscineae (Kemer) ; t&Al'line. 
thalti-nv*. UuUlo'dal, thAllo'd 
Ihidio'deit, thal'lose, pertaining ti 
thalluB : Thal'los&m*. term used by 
Focke for Vascular Cryptogams ; 
TbaUae'aniM {yiiioi, marriage), 
Ardissone'a term for Algae ; Tlial'- 
logsn (7*»oi, race, offspring), a 
synonym of TUALLOPHVn ; thai'- 
lold {(tSot, resemblance), having 
the nature or form of a thallus ; 
applied Co Bepatieae in which the 
vegetative body is not a leafy stem, 


isasynonym ; Tlial'lome, atballus- 
like growth ; q/". Caulone ; Tlud'- 
lo|)h7te (^ursr, s plant), a plant 
whom growth ia thalloid, no clear 
distinction uf leaf or axis ; Thal'- 
Ina, pi. Thal'll, (1) a vegetative 
body without differentiation into 
■tern and leaf : in Fungi the whole of 
the body which does not serve for 
reproduction ; (2) Ooebel's term for 
tha organ of atlAchment in T«r- 
niaia, a genus of Pudostomaceae, 
composed of coaletced dorsi ventral 
branches ; - aonld'la. the gonidia 
in the thallus of a Lichen ; the 
Lichen thallus is subdivided inM, 
~ lepo'das, cmstAoeous : ~ pla'- 
oodei, foliaceoQs; ~ thamlul'des, 

Thatn'ntiiiYi I (ed/imt, a shrub), the 
bushy thallus of suah Lichens as 
noblaa'tna (^XoaToi, a bud), used 
by Kuerber for a fruticose Lichen. 

Theta'ine (from Thebes, where opium 
was much employed), one of the 
crystalliMd alkaloids oocurrlng in 
tbe opium poppy. 

Tbe'ct l^')"l> a case), (1) the rft>or- 
angium of a Fern ; (2) the capsule 
of ■ Mou ; (3)t an anther ; (4); 
used by Neoker for the fruit of 
Myrtoceoe ; (6) J "a cell of any 
sort ■' (Lindley) ; (8) = Ascus ; 
{7| used by Vines for the loculus 
of an anther ; (S) " a hollow space 
in the pericarp formed by doubling 
of the endocarp " (tiray) ; The'ca- 
pbore {<pi>piiii, I carry), the stipe of 
a carpel, homologous with the 
petiole ; Tbe'caspore (aropt., a 
seed), = AitcosPOBR ; UlsCBBiMr'- 
otu, used of FuD^i which have 
the spores in Asci (Stormonth) ; 
theoa'tUB, bearing a thoca ; tlM'ollil, 
pooBeaiing thecae or pertaining to 
them 1 r- Al'gafl, the hymenial 
gonidia of Lichens i niscld'lon, 
Thtciifivni I = ACHBNB : tlwclf- 
•rons i/ero, I bear}, bearing thecae 
or asci ; Uie'dKer, t&eciff'enu (f/ero, I 
bear), Checa- bearing, applied to the 
hymenium of Fungi, and bnnokM 


of HoMea which be&r aet^e ; 
Tlie'olIUIl, > layer of liMue belaw 
the epilhecium, which oon tains 

thd aporangiit in Licbena (Minki), 


Tha'ln, the moal important alkiituiil 
in the luvei of TKta., the tea- 

nalu, toDietimea osed for tlie thecs 

(bkub) of Lichens. 
thtiaph'orold {Tkritphonif, tl9oi. td- 

■emblanue), like the geaiu THelt- 

tholo'pIiOTui (9iiMi, a nipple, fiapiu, 
I cut; ), covered with nipple-like 

thelotre'mold, having tubercular 
apulhecia like those of Thtlolivma. 

tbeir^BnoTU (0^\vt, female, ylrot, 
raoe, offepriog), indaaing tbe 
female element, aa ~ Oaatra'tlOll. 
the prodaotion of piatila in tbe 
mals>flowera of a host by OttUayo. 

Theolm'iiiliie, the active principle of 
the cacao-bean, Thfj^n-oma Cacao, 
Lion. ; tbMbro'mlnu, the deup 
chocolate brown of the seed of Uie 
same plant. 

theorat'lc (ttafuriiiiln, speculative), 

Krtaining to tbeorj, as distinct 
>m practice ( ~ Dl'acram. a Horal 
diagram of the theoretic oom- 
ponenta, not oecessarily ilie flsnie 
as sseii on iiupection. 
tber'nile l,94pii.Ti, heat), wann ; ~ Oon'- 
ataat, the sum of the mean tem- 
peratDTCB of the days of active vege- 
tation, Dp to some definite phase 
in the plant's life, minus a certain 
initial temperature determined by 
several years' observations, and 
varying for the specieB (Oettinger] ; 
nior'mo-clelttog'aniy { + Clwi*t(«- 
Aui), when flowers do not expand 
BA a consequence of insuffioient 
warmth (Knuth) ; Thennotaz'ia 
(rafit, order), changes produced 
by warmth ; adj. thermotac'tlc ; 
tbannopli'me(«\('u, 1 love), applied 
to those bacteria whioh thrive in 
hieh temperatures ; TtiennOt'oniiB 
(renii, strain), the relation between 
tempcr&ture and the manifestation 

of irritability; tt 

a turning), relating to Tlwrmol^- 
nplira, curvature dependent upon 
leniperature { Wortniann). 

Thlok'enlnc lAy'er. an apparent layer 
of cellulose on the inner face of 
a cell-nail ; ~ Ring, Sanio's term 
for a ring of inenst«m in whioh 
the &rat Gbro- vascular bundles 

Ttdgmofroplam [Blyiia., anything 
lonohed), curvature induceil in 
climbing plants by the stimulus of 
a rough aurface (C'r.apek) ; TUgmO- 
tai'lB {ro^ii, order) la a syDonym j 
adj. thlgmotac'tic. 

Thorn, uBusUy an aborted branch, 
simple or Wsnched. 

TiattA, used by Blair for tbe Fcu- 
uENT : Thread -Ind'icator, a form of 
apparatus tor measuring the rale of 
growth ; thread -sbaped, Sliform. 

tbres-as'gJed, trigonous : ~ deft, 
trifid ; ~ cor'nered, ~ edged, with 
three aides, plain or incurved, and 
three acute angles, triijuetrous ; — 
laav'ed, trifoliate ; - lolwd, tri- 
lobed ; ~ nerred, with three 
principal veins \ ~ parted, tri- 
partite ; ~ rftnked, with three 
vertical rows on a st«m ; ~ ilbbed, 
the midrib and one rib on each 
side more prominent than the rest; 

thrics-dlglta'to pin'nats, = tbitkr- 

corolla or calyx, t 

Thrum (Grow), Ttammb [Blair), (1) ~] 
the filament of a stamen. |2) in 
Composite florote, the anthen ; 
tbrnm-syeil, applied to a short- 
styled dimorphic flower, such bb a 
primrose, the stamens aione baii^ 
visible in the throat of the corolla. 

Thmsli-run'Kiu, the disease ascribed 
to ZJfrma/ium a/liraiw, Laurena. 

Thon'der-hroom := WrrcHKB' bilook- 
Tbyll, Thyl'la, Ttty'lose, TbyHoee 

U;erm. Thvlle), r/. TrLosit. 
thyroid (Cupiot, a shield, Aim. re- 

eemblaooe), Bhield-Uke, peltiifonn 


nyTM, Thyr'tua (l*t,, the Bacohio 
staff), a mixed inftoKsceooe, a 
contracted or ovate panicle, the 
main aiia indGtemiiDate, but tbe 
Beeondarj' and ultimata axes cy. 
moaa ; thyraireroiu, -rva [/ero. I 
bear),beari[i(;a thyrse; tliyralllor'iia 
[fiot, fioria, a Quwer), the Sowers 
ID a thyrse ; thTr'sUonn (/urma, 
shape), ahaped Uke a thjrse ; 
thjrr'Mld (dJet, reaemblance), like 
a thjraus ; Tliyr'tula, tbe little 
Djme which is borne by most 
Uifaiatas in the aiil of the leaves. 


initial Item, used for (a) caulicle 

or bypocolyl, ({>) plumule ; U^lla'- 
Vu, t (1) liaving a short italk, gr 
the plumule of tlie Be.-iu ; (2) when 
the slalk ia well marked ; Tigrel'- 
Inlli ^ a short filament or stalk 
observed in thsTi-ufflei tlgaUula'rlB, 

Tlir'llne, the acrid principle in tbe 
leedi of Croton Tiijlium, Linn. 

TU'lBT, a sucker or branch from the 
bottom of the btcm ; tUleHns, 
throwing out stems from the base 
of the stem ; ■nilow (Croaier), = 

Tlm'bar-Uiie, the upper limit of ar- 
boreal vegetation on the mountains. 

ttnctor'louB, -riun, tinotor'ial (Lat., 
jwrUuninp to dyeing), used for dye- 
ing, imprmting coloar. 

Tin'der - rmiK'ni, Polyporttn /omen- 
lariiu. Fr. 

niiolen'd.ta (rcfvu, I extend, -i- 
Lbucitk], Van Tieahem's i«rm lor 
directing spheres, the controsomes. 

Tip. UBod by Grew for A>tebi(. 

ni'iue, the texture or materia] 
formed by the union of celts of 
slniilar origin and oharactor, and 
mutually dependunt; tiuoeeupitod 
form systems, these again form 
organs ; ~ Oord, central cord 
(Croxier) ; aq'ueoui — , a form of 
hypoJerma, consi sling of thin- 
wolled parenchyma wanting ohloro- 
plaatids, but containing much 

watery sap ; Oonjon'ctlv* -- , gronnd 
tiiaue arising from the pterome or 
^oungBtcle; caac'DlaTUe4~, modi- 
lied oell-wulls. as epidermis and 
periderm ; embryoo'tc '-, - Meu- 
sTEM ^ ex'trA-ite'lar ~ , see Gkound 
Tis!;l*i: tUss ~ = spDnioua - ; 
gUn'dular - , composed of secreting 
cells or glands ; Oronnd ~. funda- 
mental tusue, neither vascular nor 
epidermal, either within or without 
the stele; tutarcv'wioni ~, con- 
sisting of various kinds of cells ; 
homoKa'iiMiui — , when the oells 
areuniform;intiaEta'lar — — Con- 
jo sCTivB-Tissne ; Um'ltsiy ~, 
epidermal tissue ; itsreucby'inat- 
oni ~, (a) thin-walled, aa pith 
ceUs ; (i) thick-waUed, as collen- 
chyms ; per'manent —.adult tissue; 
primary ~ first formed tissue ; 
prosencby'matous ~, woody tissue; 
sclereDohy'iuatoas ~, thickened or 
hsrdened, us libres or aclereida ; 
aec'ondary — , resulting from 
growth from continuous meriste- 
matic activity; atarg ~, of long 
articulated tubes, communicating 
by means of their sieve-plates in 
their walla; spn'Tious ~, an 
approach to a tissue, by hyphas 
massing into a felt, or their apioea 
forming a collective apical growing 
point; tegnmea'luy ~, the ex- 
ternal epidermal layer ; Cn'obeal 
~, composed of tracheids, especially 
adapted for the conveyance of 
liquids; VM'cnlar ~, the com- 
ponents of the vascular system of 

Tmenuk (tjU^^o, section), s oell 
ruptured in getting free a Moss- 
gemma (Corrciia). 

to&'eens (Lnt., formed of tufa), (1) 
tufa- coloured, buffy drab ; (2) 

merly ueed tn France, (I'39f> feet, 

1-9402 metre,6 French feet. 
Toln'. a resinous exudation from 

Mymylon lolui/trum, H. B. K. 
to'mentow, lomeat^mu, . . 

densely pubesoent with matted 

bKbwoikr 1 


■lightly tomentoM i TameB'tmn 
(Lai., auBhioaing), (1) pabescenci) ; 
(2) t myoelinm. 

Wmlp'waiu [Tifiij, ■ cutting, pnrto. 
I produce). Bory appliea the term 
to all pluilf which reproduce 
tii«iiualvsa bj fiisioa ; Tom'luis* 
idyyt'or, A tmbgI). Che organ which 
praduoM TouiE9 ; Tom'ls, 
TOm'tM, Vu Tie^he 
■aexu&l reproductive 
ftre neither ^roREa nor diodes. 
Itviog cells which da not arise from 
an adult atAge. but prodnce an 
adult individual direct ; Tom'togoiM 
(yiroi, oSlipringI, the organ which 
produoea Touieb. 

Toncna ^ Lkiitlb ; tongue- shaped, 
long, nearly Hat. Ueehy and 
rounded at the tip, u the leaves 


xliee which 



moulded), Dc Vriea'i 
vacuolar living membraut), con- 
trolling the prewure of the cell> 
Mp ; Toaolai'ti (rdfit, order), 


Tooth, aee TEcra ; toothed, dentate ; 
Toolll'lat, a BDiall or aecoDdury 
tooth ; Wotti'letted, Gnely dentiou- 

top-llup«d, iDveroel]' cODical. 

TopU'rU, pi. (Lat.), omameutal Ear- 
deoing ; topU'flui, top'iary. relat- 
ing to the ume, eepecially imcd of 
troeeand ahrubBcLpped into formal 

(. loo&I), local, oonfined 



a limited ai 

Tor'ftl* (fonu, a bed], Beuey'e pro- 
posed name for Thalamiflokab. 

torfa'ceOB, tur/o'stu (Henelow), grow- 
ing in bogB. 

torn, when marginal 

TOT'dMl. a spiral twisting or bend- 

ing 1 A'pleal ~ . later&l displaoo- 
meot of the Begmente of the apical 
cell in certain Uoasas, resulting in 
the twisting of the resultant stem 
(Correne)j antU'romonj ~ . against 
the direction of twinine, as may 
be caused b; friction of support ; 
bomod'romoni '- .in the sane direc- 
tion as twining, the intemode 
gyrating in the saine way ; Toidon- 
term (oTtbone Diatoms whose valve* 
are twistml i tonl'Tus (Uod. lat.. 
squeezed oat), spirally twisted, not 
quite as in contorted, there being no 
obliouity io the insertion, aa in the 
petals of Oiyhia ; tor'tUis (Lat, 
lwist«d), susceptible of twiating ; 
tor'tna, twist^ ; tor'tuoni, tor- 
iKo'tut, bent or twiated in different 

lOTulft'oaons ( +- toeous) ; tor'nltdd, 

resembling the genus Toruia, Pera. 

toc'lllose, tortdo'sv^ (loTuIn,!, muscular 
part), cyllDdric. with awoUeo 
portions at iatervals, aomewhat 
moniliform; ~ Bnd'illng, increasing 
by budding as yeaet. 

Tsr'ua (Lat. , a bed), the receptacle 
of a flower, that portion of the 
axil on which the parta of the 
Bower are inserted ; when elongated 

OiNOPHoaB; - ofPltt, the thicken- 
ing of the closing membrane in 
bordered pit«. 
Tonch'wDoil, decayed wood doe to 
fungus- mycelium, tormeily uatd 

Tox'ill [Tofiiidi', poison), s poieonotu 
secretion by certain Fungi, which 
kills the oells of the host- plant KDd 
facilitates parasitism. 

Tratac'nU, pi. Tmbeo'ulu (Lai., a 1 
little beam), a cross-bar, '(1) Uib 
transverse bars of the teeth of the 
peristome in Mosaea ; (2) pl&tM of 
tissue forming partial septa in the 
microsporangium of Itoitts; (3)Uia 
lacunar tissue in Belagintlia, bo- 
tweeii the cortex and the oentral 
bundle ; trabeo'ular. like a croa*. 
bar ; ~ Duct, ~ Vos'sol, a vessel 

with croBB'bar marking! ; trabac'n- 
lata, trabrfuia'lHt, croes-barred ; 
TmVecnle, - Tradbcoi^. 
na'oliM (Lat., the windpipe), a 
spiral duct or reuel ; traobeal, 
belonging to or resembling tra- 
Dheae ; " Cells, tracheids ; ~ of the 
vascular bundleB, tha woody por- 
tion, the cribroso part associated 
with bant ; tra'cheaiV, =TaAciiitiL; 
Tra'cbsld {ilio!, resemblance), a 
closed cell having eecondar; thick- 
ening ; vaBifomi wood -cell of Oood- 

of Conifers on both sides nf the 
vascnlaj bundle, and formerly re- 
garded as part of the transfusion 
tissue : TrftcIiBncIi'yiiui {t-fx"tui, 
an infusion), tissue composed of 
tracheids or spiral vessels; Tta'- 
cbeome, stateil by Potoniti not to 
be the tracheal, but the hydra! 
system of the bundle, he therefore 
names it HroKDuu. 

tn^bycsr'poni, -pv^ {rpaxii, rough 
to the touch, aapTO!, fruit), rough' 
fruited : trachyipenn'oni, -mua 
{sTcpiia, a eeed), rough-seeded. 

ftactel'lom ilracias, dragged), the 
anterior Qagelluui of the zoospore 
of Saprolegniosa (Hartoo). 

TragaoaBth, a e?™ which ^ows from 
AKiragalujt TraijacanCha, Linn. ; 
Tragacui'tbln, the same as Bas- 

tnll'lng, prostrate hut not rooting. 

tnjec'llle, trajec'lilU (Irajtrtus, a pasa- 
ing over}, when the connective 
completely separates the anther- 

Tia'nia(la.t., weft), amassof hyphae 
in the lamellae of Rome Fungi, from 
which the hymenium springs ; 
Fayod subdivides it thus : — con- 
tax' ta, the hyphoe usually parallel, 
or slightly oblique ; ~ Invar's*. 
when they are derived from the 
sub-hymeoinm -. — paTmlx't&, when 
without apparent order. 

tiania'plcal {Irant, across or beyond, 
-I- APicai,), used by 0. Maeller for 
f- Jn^U, at right angles to the 

apical axis, passing through the 
centra of the pervalvar (main 
longitudinal) axis of a Diatom ; — 
Plana, the plane at right angles 
to both valvar and apical pUmes, 
passing through the pervalvar and 
transaptcal axis (0. Mueller) ; 
TransBc'tion {teclio, a cutting), a 
term proposed by C. Macmillan 

Trans'fer {iroTi^ero, I bring over), of 
water, the passage of water by 
ducts or cells. 

Tranafonna'tlon {Irans/ormaiiri, a 
change of shape), (1) metamor- 
phosis ; (2) morphologic changea 
in an organ during its existence : 
adj. transformad' ; as ~ Braneta, 
may be a tendril, thorn, or simi- 
larly changed organ ; ~ Cell, Che 
final shape of the cell, as a 6bre, 
Irscfaeid, etc. 

Transfu'sioa llrans/iuio, a pouring 
ont), transference ; ~ Tls sue, of 
two kinds of cells ; (a) nnpittcd, 
with abundant protoplaamic con- 
tents ; or (A) trocheidal cells, with 
similar contents ; ~ Bband, con. 
si sting of pareoohymatoas or 
sliithtTy thickened cells at the 

t' inction of the phloem and lylem 
andle elements, when a ring of 
acloronchyma is formed. 

Tnnsit'loii {iraiuiiio, a passing over) 
Cells, cells which are continuations 
of si eve* tubes, the longitudinal 
division into sieve-tubes and com- 
panion cells stops, and Translt'loD- 
ttsma is formed ; tianiltor'iua 
{Lat., adapted for passing through), 
temporary, soon passing away (S. 
P. Gray)." 

Transla'tor (Lat., a transferror), em- 
ployed for the RaTiNAODLUM of 

Tranaloca'UoD [Irana, across, localio, 
a placing), the trans ferenue of 
reserve material from one part to 

Tmumls'slon {tra-nimistio, a sending 
aoross), used for the conveyance 
of Btimulua as in Drotcra and 
Jfi'mow jwdKo, Linn. , other leavM 

Botiog in sympathy; •-• C«Ill — 


TnnamaUi'tlOD iirantmiUo, I ahili), 
cbemical cbsnge by addition or 
alteration of compositioo without 
oomplete rcsolatioD into ita ele- 
wenta ; - of Boat, - Liroxasv. 

TruMOTDla'tac {trani, acrooB^ + 
OvULilM), Van Tieghem'a torm 
for Phanerogaroa furuished witli 
ti«naitory ovules ; Tiuuptia'tton 

itpiTOiw, a breathing), the ei- 
lalatioQ of watHry vapoor from 
Iho stomata of pfaota, not more 

Trnia port [IrarfjiorCo, I carry acrou), 
tb« ooovpysDce ol BHimilaud aab- 
■tance from one part to ODOtfaer; 

truuvir'ial {framvertiu, athwart], 
lying croBSwi Be; ~Ax'lBof Diatoms, 
that siiBWhioii lias io Lhe trnot- 
versai place, cutting the per- 
valvar (niain longitudinal) axis (O. 
Uueller) ; ~ Vail, that which 
divide! the batal and median wftlla 
of the pro^mbryo of Archegoniatae, 
at right anglea into oppcr and 
lower halves ; tiuiivei'san FUne. 
that wliich passed through the 
centre of a Difitom frustule verti- 
iially to ihe pervalvar axis (O. 
Mueller); tronsTerae, irannfr'giu. 
traniveTKt'lU, aorosn, rigbt and left 
as to braat and axis, collateral; 
Lindley gives "broader than long" 
OS the defiattioD of Iraimtrawi ; - 
Oho'rUU, vben two or more organs 
iDBtead of one appear above or 
within another ; ~ Qeofroptain, - 
DuuioTBOPisu : ~ BaUot'ropiam 
=DuimjoT&oFisit ; ~ Planes, 
thoae which out the axis of groivth 
and HurfacB at right angles. 

tnps'ilfonn, Iraptzi/orm' w ( rpowtf lov , 
a ligure of four unequal Bides, 
Jorma, shape), an unijyinmetrical 
four-aided figure, aa a trapezium, 
altnciet the same as rhomboid ; 
tnp'eioid, -rfeiu (cMm, reietnb- 
lance), like a trapeiium. 

Trtf-btizt, the speuia] hairs which 
confine Insect* in certain flowers 

till pollitiation 


PrJBon- flower*, mch i 
Ariniolochia, which oonfine iiiMi 
visitors until pollination haa take 

Trknbe'a ObUb, artiScial oelU formed 
by vations solutions of gi^tii 
and other colloids, which hai 
been used to explain the phe- 
nomena of intussuisceptioo. 

tnninatrop'lc (rpaiiui, a wotmd, 
rpmH), B turning), showing the 

'ropiim, Pfeffer's term f< 
the phenomena cooaeijueDt on the 
infliction of wounds on tbo tip of 
a growing root. 

Tre'halaae, an cneyme which hydro 
lUea Trelialose, a sugar found ii 
many Fimgi and stated to be 
identieal with the " Trehala " 
(Persian Manna), a wax; excretion 
produced by a coleoptm^ms larv» 
to form ita coooon. 

tremalloid {Trtm^Ua, 

Unce), jelly-like in substance or 
appearance, like the genui 

Ttm, a woody plant with an ovident 
trunk ; tres-lllu, resembling 
Iree, but smaller ; dendroid. 

tri, in compounds, from Greek {rptit) 
or Latin ((res) = three or triple. 

TTlscliae'nliuii firi, from Iru, Ihrea + 
Acuiuniuh), likeacremooarp, but 
of three carpels ; Trladal'pT'" 
[iiiXipit, a brother), a Linni 
order of plants with their stamena 
in three aeU ; trladBl'pbon^ fila- 
ments in three brotherhoods ; TM- 

sJu'ntam = Triach* 
Oer^titan'Oront, trlan'drian {di^t', 
drSpIn, a maij), haviDg thraa 
stamena ; Trlan'diia, a XituieMi 
class of three- stam en ed plaaUt. 
trian'guIOT, triansida'ris {angtdit' 
an BDKle). with three kuIm 
trtangnla'tai (Lat.), threc-aaglad ) 
trlan'thous [iyOoi. a flower), tluw 
flowered, aa a peduncle ; trl'areb 

iifix^, beglboing), a fibrovui:tiUr 
cylinder with three ligneous eroups ; 
trlul'iiiu (it|ipi7>, male), liecker's 


TrllM, Tri'bu-e (Lai., a division of llie 
people), a group superior to ■ 
genuB, but less th&n ui order. 

triUw'tiU iTptii, three, ^SXat-rat, a 
bud), Koerber's term for a Liclien- 
■pore, which is trilocnlar (mil *ble 
to getmiiiate from each loculua. 

trlb'nlold (rliot, resembtaace), li 
the fniit of TriMiu, beset »ith 
sharp bristles, echimitc (Heinig). 

TH'oa (deriv. ■), ■ buttoii-like spo- 
Ibvnium of the oenoi Oyrophora. 

tricun'uus (Iri, uiree, 4 Oaharits), 
when B fruit is composed of three 
loouli : trtcar'tnato icariaatua, keel- 
formed), witli three keulfl oranglec, 
as certaio Diat«ms ; trlcarpel'lBiy, 
trlear'peliale, trlcai'poos, -piu 
{Kaprai, fruit), of three carpels ; 
trlosl'lular (-t-CKLLULAE), consiet- 
iog of thjree cells (A. Braun) : 
tilMpli'alons, -111! ((c^\^, a head), 
triple-headed, with three beada of 

IWchid'inm (Spit, Tpixoi. a hair or 
bristle) = Stekiqua ; trichlferous 
{/ero, I bear], producing or bearing 
hairs ; trldl'lfonil (/orma, abapcl. 
bristle- shaped (J. Smith); Trloh Ite, 
h oeedU-shaped crystal of amyloae 
in starch grains, stated to form the 
latter by aggregnti on (A. Meyer] ; 
Trlohobacte'rlft (-f Bactkbia). those 
bacteria which possess cilia ; Triob'- 
oUaat {pKaiTm, a bud), used by 
Sachs for such IdIoblastb as are 
especiaUv distinguished by their 
sive or branching; trtcbocar'piu 
{KOfirai, fruit), when fruit Is covered 
with hair-like pubescence ; ttl. 
olUKeph'Uui (if ^^q, a head), when 
Qowen ura ooUeoted into headt, 
and SDrroonded by hair-like up- 
peodagcM : trielio'dei [tlStn, re- 
Mmblanoe),retemblinghair; TMcb- 
ogp'nlam iynli, noe, ofispring), 
a proposed emendation of TRion. 
OOYMB ; meh'ofjnw lyvri, a 
woman), {1) Ibe receptive filaaient 


of the procftrp in certain Algac, 
by whiob fertilization is effected ; 
{2) in the Lichen genus Gyro- 
ptiora, by Lindau termed Tbkk. 
SRATOR ; tricbogys'lal, relating to 
a trichogyne ; nicbolo'ma (\ui)ia, 
a fringe), when an edge or border 
is furnished with hairs ; TTidi'oilU, 
pi. Tricliom'ata, (1) the G] amen tous 
tballuB of auch Algae as Conferca 
(Lindley ) ; (2) the filaments in 

Irlohom'anoid [TrirKontanea, ^iat, 
resemblance), like the genus Tri- 
rhomana in habit. 

Trlcli'ome, Tricho'ma {rflx'^iiii, a 
growth of hair), an; hair-Iike out- 
growth of the epidermis, as a hair 
or bristle ; Ttlcti'opliore (•fiapiu, 
I carry), a row of cells of a procarp 
bearing the trichogyne in Floridaae; 
Trichoph'onun, the stipe of Fungi 
when formed of " filaments " 
(Henalow); trldtophyl'lni {•fiiWtr, 
a leaf), hair'like leaves, that in, 
finely cut ; Tilahoaporan'ge = Trl- 
chospoTVn'gliim ( + SFOBANniuu), 
Thuret'e term for the multilocular 
sporangium of the Phaeosporeae, 
apparently of jointed hairs ; trtcho- 
thal'lie {9aK\6i, a sprout), when 
the shoot ends in one or more 
multicellular hairs or tuft of such ; 
~ OnBina'tlo&, the origin of young 
planta from the baira acattered on 
the thallus of Atjierorocctu ; — 
OrowUi, with filiform thallua, the 
tips bearing tufta of hairs. 

trtcbot'omoiu, -mvg i^plx'. in a 
threefold manner, Tofiij, acutting), 
thrce.forked, branching into three 
diviaions ; Trtcbot'omy, division 

trlcoo'coiu, -cm (Iri, three, -I- Coccro), 
conaiating of three oocci ; til'color, 
(foJt?r,eolour). having three colours ; 
tricoa'tate {coslatim, with riba), 
having three riba ; trleat]rle'daDOa 
{-f CoTYLtDON), when three ooty. 
ledoni are present, or when one or 
two are eo deeply divided a« to 
•eem doubte- 

trlcoa'pld, trlcos'pldale, iricntpida'tut 




(IriewqM, IwTinf tktaa poiMa or 
Um*). tippad witk tbttt eoapa or 
poiaial tioa. 
McWmM (In, tkr«e, 4- aunt*), 
naod 1m vboili of tkrra Imtc* 
fMh. ibe Inna ol Mch vhori 
ftltMiaUiig ottb IhoM aboTa Bod 
balow; cT dk:i7»atb IG. 

fedn'OUt (r^ ftma r^fi, UiKe. 
kvuXm, > carele). when ibe nuBban 
ol k aeria kn in three wborU. 

ttUaa'taU, lW</«iifii'(ui((rv{ni«,Uircf- 
proDged), thre»-tootb«d, liidcat- 



■Tidigita^Uu {fri, three, 
diffilui, ■ finger), thrice digitate, 

trl'dmu {triduum, the spue ol three 

dkji), iMting three dara. 
txIdj'niaM (r^JufuK, triple), when of 

three laminae in Agarica, the 

middle is the larger. 
tiMr'naiiuma {tik, three, Sira)u%. 

power), when three stsmena out 

of six are lon|^r than the reat ; 

trla'der (Upa, a wat), trianguUr. 
tilan'iila, trlannla'lU (frKuniuni. the 

■pace of three years), Luting three 

tkree boU within an 

TtUada 1 
in,llill. 1 


1 (Lat., triply), ttUfcrlona, 
111, facing three ways, in three 
vertical rank*. 

tririd, ir\fidta (Lat.l, three cleft. 

trlflo'roiu ((rt, three, Jlot, fioris. a 
flo»er), ihree ■ flowered ; trifo'- 
llolate. ^lifiiiola't-ua ( + roLiOLiTs], 
with ihrws loaaeta; UifO'llato, 
Irifolia'lHt. Iri/o'livt (Jblium, a 
leaf), three-lea red. 

ttUbrm'la ; (Lat., having three 
foi7D«), bearing Sowers ol three 
different kinda, oM certain Com- 
poaitee i trimorphtc. 

tlUQr'cate {Iri/arciu, with three 
proaga), having three (ork* or 

tllg'amoiu (rpi, three, yiiiat, mar- 
riage), bearing throe kinds ol 
SnH'flra ; trlmorphlc. 

trlgem'lnoiu lirigeminut, triple Is), 
tergeminate, trijugate. 

frl'glani [Irj, three, glaru, an aoora]. 

MC'<is*l ('fi7«*M< tbra«-oamered), 
three - angled; Mc'eaM, pL, 
SpTiioe'a tetm for the thiekeniiig in 
the aoglea ot the cells of the leaTe* 
in certain Hepatia. or aa in eollen. 
chjima ; tClgOUMKr'piU (la^r&t, 
frait], fmit faanng three evident 
uglea ; brlc'tBunia, -niu, three- 
angled, with plane faoea. 

Trlgytt'lA Irpi, tjiree, 7i*4, a wotoan). 
B Lionfan order of plants with 
three itylea ; W^jaaoM, -him, with 
three piitila or atylee. 

triUla'taa |fri, three + Hildh), 
having three apertures, aa in soma 
graiEis of pollen ; brlJa'gBta. (njii- 
ga'tut. trtJn'goni, Iri'Jvgiu {jiiytan, 
a yokei, with three pairs olpioQao ; 
trllajn'ellar [tri, tl^ee. lantUa, a 
pUt« of meCAl), applied to a cam- 
poand Btrgma having three divi- 
iions BatMiied like bands ; 
trllaftral, tr'dniTa'tU llniua, 
laUria, a aide), pritmatic, with 
three sides ; ferUo'bate, (nio'btu 
{tiinu, a lobe), three-lobed ; 
tiiloo'ttUr, triliK^la'Tif (Joeubis, a 
little cell), thiee-celled 1 M'ln- 
enniB, ~tv» {pJ/ia, a part), in 
three*, three membered part*. 

trlmea'til* (Lat., of three montha), 
laeting three months, or maturing 
in thattitnf, aa LavaieralrimeMrit, 

tiinor'pUc, trlmor'plion* (t/h, three, 
tuipipl), flhape), occurring ander 
tbree forms, of stamens and styles 

trimorphous condition ; mmor'- 
phism, heterogQny, with long-, 
Bhort-, and mid styled flowers. 
^' I (Lat.), lastiaa three years. 

«l7ltj». triDATWibri'. 

ttlner'Tate, i 
fWiw/™, (riner'Wuj {(rt, three, 
itei-iiM, a nerve), Ihree-nerved ; 
trlnarvnla'tns (Lat.), with tlirte 
□ervc-like atrands in the plaoenta; 
trlno'daJ {nodiu, a knot), with 
three nodes or jointa; Trltw'dft 



(otcof, K house), a Linnean order ol 
pl&ntB with triocuiauB QowerB ; 
trloe'dooB. vitb sUminate, putil- 
late, ukI herniapbrodite flowen on 
tliree diilmct pUnte ; trIoa'elODity { 
bermaph'rodito — trimiirphic ; , 
trlot'cona, cTUi, tbo luodHoIapelliiig . 
preferred by brjologiats ; trloper'- 
cmlata, triopereula'lua { ■*■ Oi'Kit- 
cclch}, haviiiK three lids ; trlov'- 
DUte, Iriomila'tm {+ Ovpldh), 
with three ovulei ; tllpBleolft'tUB 
(+ Palba), consisting nf three 
paleae, oa the flowers of bunboo ; 
trlpar'tea {partiliLi, cleft), parted 
to the base in three diviBiona ; 
Ulpar'tlUe (jiarlibUie, divisible), 
tending to split into tliree parts. 

trlpar'tite ilnparli'tvt. three-fold), 
divided into threo parts. 

ttlpaii'naM, Mpmnatna ((ri, three, 
;icniui, a feather), = tripinoate ; 
tripaf alold, Iripetaioi'deue [rhoKov, 
a Boner-leaf , d&ii, resemblaoce), as 
if three -petAlled ; MpsValoos, •Iw., 
having three petals ; Tilpbyl'lame 
(^(Udk, a leaf), hypothetiualW 
three segments to form a uai-pol, 
two bypcphf 111, BupDrior and fer- 
tile, the tbiid sterile and inferior 
U'asqitale); tliphrl'lous, -fua, threo- 
leaved ; trlpiii'iiAte, tnpinna'tvfi \ 
( 4- Pinna), thriue pinnate ; trl- 
plmutt'lflil, triwatal\f'idii» {fid, 
from Jindo, I cleave), thrice 
pinnatilid ; triplniiaflMet {eectut, 
out), thrice piDDatieect. 

trlpliylBt'le {tfii, three, ^vXcrtrii, 
tribal), used of hybrids coDtain- 
ing the blended strains of three 

THp'lasy ((n/JamTui, threefold), the 
division of an organ into tliree 
analogous structures (Ferniond). 

trlp'le-nBTTsd, ~ ribbed, — volnsd 
{tripla:, threefold), with a midrib 
dividing into three, or sending off 
a strong branch on each side above 
the base of the blade ; brip'lBX, 
triple ; trlp'Ucata, Ulpllca'tna 
(Lat.), in a triple manner, as trlp- 
'' -Kemlna'tui, - terj^emin' 
= tripUnorved ; 

~ -plOBA'toi, = tripinnate; tripll- 
cala-ter'nate, =tritemate(Oroxier); 
trlpTlci Ur (Lat,), thrioe repeated ; 
brtidlcos'tate {eotlalvs, ribbed), 
having three riba, triple ribbed ; 
tripUfonn'U {forma, shape), as 
tripli/ona'ia Fo'lia, "leaves re- 
sembliDg the triple-leaved form " 
(Lindley) ; trlpUnervad', Iriidt- 
Hfr't-ii, -viaa (nfrnia, a nerve), see 
TIUF1.E-NEH1VED, et«. 

trip'lo-canlea'cent {Irijiliu, triple + 
CAClJiStiEKT), when a plant has a 
third (tertiary) system of axes : 
trip'lns (Lat.), threefold ; triplo- 
canlons ( + Cavlis), possessing 
ternary aiee (Pax). 

trlp'toroui, -TVS (ijn, three, -WTipir, 
a wiog], three -winged. 

trlque'ter, trique'troiu, Iriqw^tmt 
(Ij,t., three- cornered), three-edged, 
with three salient angles. 

trlqul'iule, Criqaina'Itu {tri, three, 
-I- QiiiHATDS), divided iolu three, 
then into five ; trl'sect, ttlMo'ted, 
Iriutc'Can (ttctug, cat), divided into 
three, three-cleft to the base : 
trlaep'aloui, Iritfp'alua ( -f Sep- 
ai.Dm), having three eepala ; tri- 
sep'tat« ( 4- ^RFTVM), with three 
Hcpta or partitions, as in many 
spores ; trlie'ilat, IrUeria'tis ; trUe ■ 
iia,te, iriMria'Cvs {Kria, a row), in 
three horizonlal ranks or aeries, 
trifarioDs ; trlfperm'ons {tripua, a 
seed), threo-se«ded ; triitacll'imi 
(oTdxin, a spike of com), tbree- 
spiked ; trU Uchoiu, -cAtu {artj/ta, 
a series), Id three vertical ranks ; 
trlitlgmat'ie, IrieaffmiWictu { •*■ 
Stigua). havine three stigmas. 

tlla'tls (Lat., sad), of a dull or uu- 
altractive colour, as the Sowers of 
MiUlhiola Iri^fie, E. Br. 

trla^ona, -lunfiri, three, -t- Sttxdb), 
with three itjjles ; trlsjucotyle'- 
donons (I>e Vries), = tbicottli- 

trlsul'cate, lTiiiul(a'liu {IrimUcv*, 
having three furrows), with three 
grooves or farrows. 

tnimr'iULte ((ri, three, + tekr*ti), 
thrice teraate. 


M'Udn. the proteld of irheftt, 
Tntidtnt ptilgarc, ViU,, preMot in 
iU glut«o. 

brlnii'diilAU (irt, three, ^ u.imiiuTK). 
UHsd for Diatomn hiving thioo an- 
dulatioiu on the doraal ijile of the 

mnl'mlur (f ri, Ihiee, + talvdi.ik), 
three- valved. 

triT'lkl {trivialit, oommon plana ), 
ordinsry, oommon ; ~ Kunu, th« 
common name of a plant, the 
adjective, or more rarely, the 
■eoood substantive appended to a 
generic name lo oonnotfi a speoies. 

TriX'enj {rfn, thren, (i'at, a gueit or 
host), De Bary'g term for the coa- 
dition of a, paraaite whioh paaaes 
its career in three host-planl*. 

troeli'Ieaf, trochJ,a'rit {irochlta, a 
pulley J, troohlea'iUtmn (/ortuu, 
ahapo), pulley -aha pad, 

trophle {rpoph, noDciahDent), rulaC- 
ing to inoreaae in tbickneas, •/. 
Tbopuv : trophUe'gla (X^7u, I 
ooUect), ooUeoting food . material 
for the plant, ax the ahell-Iike 
banen fronds of Platyariam are 
■apposed to do {ArvhaneeU) ; 
Tnph'oplirts, an error for Teo- 
roPHYTI ; TTopb'opUrt (rXavTAt, 
monlded), A. Meyer'a term for the 
euential granulea in protoplasm, </. 
Plastiu ; Troph'oplum i,ir\iaiia, 
that formed ), theA l veolak- plasma 
of Straeburger ; Tiopb'opollen t 
(■I- PoLLSN), the partition of an 
aDther'loculua or its remains (Lind* 
ley); Tlopll'oaparm, TrophoKperiit' ■ 
ttim, T'ropAo^/Jer'niHrTt [iriipiia, a 

Med), = Placenta ; Trophotazla 
(rdfu, order), Stahl'a term for 
Tropbot'Toplrai (r/iaiH), a turning), 
phenomena induced in a growing 
organ by the chemical nature oi 
its environment ; Troph'y, pi. 
Troph'lM, Wieaner'a term for all 
unequal lateral growth of tissue or 
organ, depending on its relation to 
the horizon and the mother- shoot. 
tiop'tcial, frop'icut (Lat., pertaining 
lo a turning), (1) growing within 
the tropica ; (2) used for flowers 

which expand ij 

close at night daring m 

oeuive days. 

Tnf'iE {jpi-wa. the keel ol 

in composition used for the keel 
of a papitiooaoeous flower, or re- 
sembling the aauio, 

Trop'UBi {-riKri. a turning), a cnrra- 
lure which resulte from a respoiue 
to sume stimuluB ; tropoph'lleiu 
l^iX^u, I love), loving change of 
condition, as TBoPoPHYTca ; ^p'- 
ophyte (^i^riw, a plant), applied to 
the large majority of pUnta, which 
are xerophiloua and bygraphilons 
according to aeaaon (A. F. W. 

Tme-p^'Mtta = Ob lioatb- parasite. 

Tttun'pet-by'pbke, tubea in LAmiB- 
arieae having swollen portiooa 
with tiansverse septa (P. Oliver) ; 
trum'pet sluiped, tabular, with 
dilated oriSce. 

trun'cata, tranca'tua (Lat,, ahort- 
eoed), aa though cut off at the 

Trnn'otu (Lat., tree-stem), (1) Che 
main-Btem or Trunk of a tree ; (8] 
in Lichens, the thallua. 

Tmaa, a floriat'a term for a flower- 

TrfrDM, {rpviui, a hole or opening), 
Necker's term for a dnipaoeoua 
nut with dehiscent exooarp, aathe 

Ttyp'ilii {Bpirrui, I break In piecee), 
a group of proteolytic etuymei 
analogous to the pancreatic [«>- 

and Papain: adj. tryp'Uo. 

tubasform'la [luba, a trumpet, ^m 
shape), trumpet -shaped ; luba'tot 
(Mod. Lot.) ia a synonym. 

Tube, Tv'tmi (Lat., a pipe], (l)any 
hollow elongated body or part of 
an organ ; (2) the united portion 
of a gamopetalous corolla or gamo- 
aepatoua calyr, etc ; — OemiJu'- 
tion, the germination of a ipore 
in which the firat product la a 
germ . tube ; tnba - rorm, tob* - 
ahaped, tubuJar or trumpet-ahapod 




Tn'b«T (Lat., a tumour), a thirkened 
and short BnbtetTftDBttn branch, be- 
set wilh bndg or " eyes " : Tn'ber- 
ole, T'Oxj'cihim (Lat.). {I) a little 
tubrr ; (2) a wurt-Uke apothecium 
ia Verr-ataria ; (3) any Bimilar k\- 
croBcencc, u on roots, ascribed to 
the action of symbiotic organisDia; 
tu'berded, covervd with vmrly ei- 
crestxiiL'ee, aa the ieeds of JiQtiit -. 
ni'nutTy TntisTCle. is used by Treub 
to denote an ovoid body fotmiid by 
the germiDatioii of the spore of 
iy«yfl>i/ii(m;Tn'l)eroorm( + Corm), 
J. Smith's luiiDo for such fleshy 
root« as the be«t, yam, and tur- 
nip ; taber'tnilar, having luberdea 
or like a tubercle ; tnber'ciilat*, 
latKTcuJa'lus, beset with knobby 
projeotions or excrescences ; Ta'b- 
ennilei a tuberous root, as of the 
Jtahlia (Cror.ier] ; tubsr'culcie, 
tuMr'calODs, eoniiating of or hav- 
ing tubercles ; tuberiTarooa (/era. 
I bear), tuber-hearing ; Tubero- 
gam'ma (-(-GehUi), a bud-like 
labec, oceutring in the aiil of 
the leaves, or as a root- tubercle, 
which asexually propagates the 
plant, as in Haauiicalna Fiearta, 
Linn. ; tu'taOTOSe, (iii(ro'«i«, tn'- 

berona (Lat,, full of humps), (I) 
producing tubers : (2) resembling 

Tnb'l, pi. of Tub'iia, the hyoienial 
tubas o( guch Fungi as Polypurue 
tnbUlo'roni, -ma [fim, JlorU. i 
flower), when the florets are tub 
uUr, as in many Compositae ; to' 
Uronn, lubiforjn'it {J'ormA, shape), 
tube-sbaped; TnUllni, (1) sn 
elongated cell of cellular tissue 
(3) the tube of the filaments in 
Compositae ; tn^inlar, tubuia'lug, 
appatently a cylindrical figure aud 
hollow 1 ~FIo'rBt, in Compositae a 
disk or regular floret. 

Tnb'nlna, pi. Titb'uli (Lat., a small 
pipe), (1) the pores or bymeDial 
tnb^ of some Hymenomycetous 
Fungi, as Polyponu ; (2) in Pyre- 
nomycetes. the prolonged apex of 
perithecium pierced by a canal, the 

game as Nrck (5) ; tnbnUflo'roiis, 
-riM {Jlof.Jloru, a flower) = tubiflo- 
rous ; tubalilonn'li {forma, shape). 

Tuft, used by Withering for Crut ■ 
tuft'ed, caespitoae ;~Halra, a modi- 
Gcation of stellate hairs, but 
branched from tbe base upwards 

tn'ltuit {lueoi; 1 defend), whenleave* 
assume the sleep- position, appear- 
ing to guard the stem. 

TimB(Ger.) = TifuiSE. 

Tumlde-wMds, a name applied to 
certain weeds which break adrift 
when dry, and are blown to a dis- 
tance, Boattering their seeds by the 

tunsi'eeiit (runiMcens, swelling up), 
somewhat tumid. 

tu'mld, li^midus (Lat., swollen), in- 
flated, swollen. 

Tu'nle, T^in'iVa (Lat., an under-gar- 
ment), (t) the skin of a, seed, the 
spermoderm ; (2) any loose mem- 
branoas akin not formed from the 
epidermis (Lindle^lj (3) the coat 
of a bulb * (4) the peridium of cer- 
tain Fungi ; tn'nicaM, lanita'hu 
(I^t. ). having coats or tanics ; tn'iil- 
"-,ted ia a synonym ; — Bulb, one 
vered with complete enveloping 
* >n ; (/. ttUtUCAT* 




shape), shaped lik< 

tnrra'ceni, tnrfo'sns, 

Tnrgw'oanoe {turgiMo, I swell), the 
distention of a cell or cellalar 
tissue by water or other liquid ; 
tnrgei'aaiit, becoming turgid. 

tnr'gld, tur'gidtu (Ut., inflated), 
BWoUon, but not with air ; Tor'gm 
(Lat.), turoidity, torgesuenoe. 

Tn'rlon, Tu'no (Lat. , a shoot), a soalr 
sucker, or shoot from the grotiod, 
aa Atpara^ue ; tniionlferoiia, -nu 
(/em, I bear), throwing up Ittriona. 

TBTm'erle (said to be from terra 
meriln, valuable earth), the pow- 
dered rhizome of Curcuma tonga. 


LiuD., which yielda b jellow 

tornad, in botany, directed towarda ; 
aa - ln'*ird« = inlrorM ; — oul'- 

Inr'olp-ttia.ped, sIhi termed napifomi. 
TuTpentlna titrt'iiiuhui, turpciDtin< 

tree), llie solntioD of tvaina id tere- 
b«ne ; ~ Tu'tets. tubes in tho 
wood in which the tarpentine col- 
lects during growth, common in 
ToB'iock, a. tult of grosa or grssa-like 

Twig, a small shoot or branch of a, 
tree ; — (^'mben, Schunck'fl term 
for oertain Brazilian lianei, the 
yooDg leaf; lateral branches being 
■eneilive where in contact wilih 
their sapports ; ~ Qall, a morbid 
growth aaoribed to the «ctio& of 
bseteria ; ~ -like, long, flexible 
and wandlike. 

Twin, in pairs, geminate, didymoui. 

Twi'nan. plantiS which twine or climb 
by winding their stems round tlieir 
support ; twl'iLlng, winding spirally. 

twlai'ed, conUirt«d. 

two-cleft, biSd ; ~ -edsed, anclpitol, 
laterally com preastci with two sharp 
Mlglet parallel with the axis : ~ 
-ftvkad, dichotomous ; ~ -Upped, 
bilabiate ; -• -parted, bipartite ; 
~ 'Tanked, diatiehoaa ; '- -toothed, 

^Chopofamla {rixn, chance, romiiit, 
a river) Flaok'bHl, the floating 
organianiB of pools and river over- 
fiowB (Zimmer). 

trIie'olOT (Mod. Lat.). the colour of a 
woodlouse, slate or dark grey. 

TyiMa, Tylo'ait (niXoi, a callosity), 
a cell intradinii into a duct, 

tTm'panlfonn (Iy7apan«m, a drum, 
Jorma, shape), drum -shaped, as 
the membrane oovering a Moss- 
capsule ; Tym'panain, the mem' 
brane across the mouth of the 
odpBule of a, Moss, the epiphragm. 

Type, the ideal representative of a 
group, genus, apeoics ; ~> Spec'l' 
men, the original specimen from 
whioh a desoriptioD was drawn up : 

typ'ical, Igp'icus, representing the 
plsa or type ; - Cells, fandamentaj 
cells ; - IH'agTam, the retultant 
form from aevoral empiric dia- 

Typl^t'Vica, Warming's term for an 
association of Tmma pLuita. 

Ty'rosln (rufwr, cheese), an amide, 
similar Ui Asparapin ; Ty'roatnaM, 
an oxidising eniy me which attaalu 
the chromogen of certain Fongt 

UU'qnlit (utigtie, everywhere), used 
by Thurmann and adopted by 
Warming for a plant which ocean 
on any kiad of geologii; formation. 

nlig'lnose, u^i^'no'sui, oligliuma, Wi- 
f/inar'ius (Lat., marshy), growing 
in swamps; ull^liukl, occasionally 
used for the foregoing. 

tn'na (lAt., the elbow), a measure of 
aboat twenty-fonr inches ; nl- 
na'ili, the length of the forearm. 

nloden'drold (dia, resemblance), like 
the former fossil genus IHodetuiniu, 
Rhode, applied to branchM of 
Ltfidodendmn and SigOlaria, bell- 
ing two opposite rows of lai^e, 
shaped soars (Soott). 
rtx (oSXt 

(Hen slow). 

nlter'lor (Lat., farther) Pltlt, ceUuUr 
structure formed in the axis of Iba 
root after the separation of the 
stele (Fremont), 

nl'tra-ssta'ceom {vltra, beyond, 
Beta, a bristle, +aceous), very long 
drawn out. 

nm'bel, UmbeVla (Lat,, a eDnshode), 
(1) an infloresoeoce, properly in- 
determinate, in which a cluster of 
pedicels spring from the same 
point, like the ribs of an ambnilla ; 
(3) t the ptleuB of certain Fungi 
(Lindley) ; Dom'potmd •-, when 
each ray itself bears nn umbel; 
CT'moaa ~, an apparent umbel, 
but with the Sowers opeaing cenbi- 



s liosle flower only ; nin'belUM, 
umiwa'ftM, h&ving the inflorei- 
cencein umbels ; tlm'bellBt, a miall 
umb«l orn ginipte ano ; Dmb«l'lUer 
i/ero, I boar), > plant whiuh bears 
ombcla ; Diillrallifaroiis. -rvj, bear- 
ing unibela ; wobel'llform, a-mUUi- 
/otm'u, (/ormo, nhapp), umbrellii. 
shaped ; ombelllllo'nit (/di, fioru, 
a flower), umbellate ; UM'bellale. 
UmlKl'lvia, an ultimate uiiibel in 
a oompoand oae ; lunbel'lolate, 
umbriltda'tv*, having partial or 
■cnondary Diobels : ombeUuUf ■ 
erooi, -rtu (/ero, 1 bear}, bearing 
aim pie umbeLa. 

nm'tMr, a cool brown ; fj. imeBiiiDs. 

nmbill'eal ( pertain ingtotheuinbificiw, 
the navel) Cord, a vaecnlar Btrand 
by whiub Beeda are Bomctimss at' 
tochcil bo the plaoenta, Ibe funicle ; 
mnbUl'cftlly, aa a Lichen tbsUus 
ocntrically affiled to its matrii. 
or an epitbecinro which ia nsTel- 
like; nmbUl'cKM, umbitka'tua, (1) 
navel-like, depreased in the centre ; 

the hilam of s leed ; (2) tbe ostiole 
o( certain Fungi (Liudley} ; (3) 
a muob branchsd rhizoid in some 
Lioheiu, M in Un^Uitaria ; (4) 
the boss on th« valves of some 

DlD'l>0{L»t.,any convex elevation], a 
bou, aa tbe centre of the apaphyaie 
ol the cone-ecalea in Pmiu PinaMer, 
Boland. ; nm'tMnale, um6ona'tiM, 
bearing an umbo or boss in the 
centre; nmbo'nulate, un^Htnuta'tua, 
having or ending in a very email 
boss or nipple. 

umbraculU'erons {vmbraridum, aaan- 
shade, /era, I boar), baring the 
shape of an expanded umbrella ; 
Dmbra'CDllfonn, un^yacvli/orm'U 
(/orina, shape], having the general 
form of a parasol, as the sligiuai 
of Sarracenia ; innlm'aullUD, the 
stalked capitulum of tbe aporo- 
phore in AfarchanCia, bearing the 
reprodactive organs on the under- 

lunbTiiUG'olOUs {vmbratUui, abady, 

eolo, I inhabit), growing in shad; 

tuabrerui-ahaped, umbraCDlifonn. 

mnbn'niu [Mod. Lst). the colour of 
raw umber, a coot but turbid 
brown ; burnt umber is deeper and 

Dmbro'saB (I^t., shady), growing in 

noangnnla'tus (uitiu, one, angulus, a 

corner), one-aoglod, as applied Ma 

stem or similar organ, 
nnanned', destitute of priukles or 

other armature ; sometimea it 

means pointless, mnticoua. 
on'ctLte, unca'(tM(Lat.), hooked, bcDt 

at tbe tip in the form of a hook ; 

Un'ol, pi. of tFn'cna (Lai., a hook}, 

hooka, uncinate hairs. 
Dn'cla(Lat.), an inch; iiucla,'lla(Lat.]. 

one inch in length ; about 3*6 cm. 
nncer'taln, indeterminate. 
nn'olfonn. uncifor'mU {iiiKut, nhook, 
/orma, shape), hook-shaped; nn'- 

einate, vnciiia'fwi, booked. 
nDcoT'ered, naked. 

ment), having a aurface which feels 

Unc'Di (Lat.), a hook, or hooked hair, 
nn'dtkte, uiufa'Cus {uiida, a wave), 

waved, undnlatejCrogier also give* 

Qiidarlr'lng, used for succubodh 

leaves of Hepaticae {Pott«r). 
niido'ru (Lat., billowy), audulate, 

undulate, wndula'lua (Lat), wavy. 
Un'dtrlearec, stipules in Hepatioa ; 

Du'dOTshrub, (1} any low shrub; 

(2) X partially berbaceoua. the ends 

of tlie branches perishing during 

Tinequal (un = not, -*- wjual), (1) 
dissimilar ; (2) applied to stamena 
of diverse lengths, " al'dad, 
irregular ; asB qnallr ptn'naW, 
im pari pinnate. 

uliguic'n^, ntiguicvlar'U, (1) fur- 
nished with a olaw ; (2) the 
length of the middle finger-nail. 
about 15 mm, or a little over holf 
an inoh; Unpnla'aloi, the leuglh 




o( Uia D&il of tlis littlo finger : 
tmCVle'nlaM, ungwtnitt'tut, cod- 
traotw] >t the due into a olaw ; 
on'KnUonn (/oma, «h>M), lik« 
the cUw of ■ petal (Cnnicr); 
nn'KVls (Lat., a nail or aU«). a 
cUw'liku base of a petal, aa in 
Dianthue; (2) the length of a 
finger-Dail, roagblj half an inoh. 

vn'Kt^te, uagvla'liu (L»l., having 
olawi or hoofs), olawed. 

aiil (from unut, one), in composi- 
tion, one, or aiogle ; nnlala'toa ( 4- 
ALATUH), having one wing or d«- 
onrrent ridge ; anlax'UI ( + aiul), 
when • primary stem does Dot 
branuh, thoDgh it may innovate, 
but ends in a flower ; unlcaloan'- 
tna ( + CALCASATUS), one-spurri«! ; 
nmlMp'tular, unicapsiUa'rU [ + CAr- 
8nLA&), with all the carpels unitnl 
into one capeule ; unloar'liiatBd 
(carina, a keel), one - keeled 
(Cro«ier) ; nniearpal'latA («apriit, 
fruit), the fruit oonsiating of a 
■ingle carpel ; n'nlcell {+ Cku.). a 
plant which coneiatB of a (ingle 
cell ; nnical'lnlai, unifdluiar'u { -t- 
CKLLfUB), formed of one cell ; 
Dnleol'orotu, u tuc'olor[eolor, colour ), 
of one colour or unifcmn iu lint ; 
nnloot'tate ( + costatk), having a 
■ingle rib or oosta, with a 
rib; uniootyle'donoM ■ 

n'nletu (Lat., one only), single or 

nnlunbryoiuk'tiu (unt from uniu. 
one, + EHHKTONATVS), having ouo 
embryo; nntra'rlau {■{■/ariu*, an 
la h^ariut), one-ranked (Crozier) ; 
nniTeroa {firo, I bear), bearing 
once a year (S. F. Gray) ; nnlflor'- 
ODl, -rua Ifioi, Jloria, a flower), 
one-flowered juilfo'lUte. tini/olia'- 
ttu {folium, a leaf), with one leaf ; 

nnUo'Uolata, ^aifoliola'tui, with 
one leaflet only : unllo'llu*. single- 
leafed ; DuUora'tui [foralut, 
pierced), opening by one apcrturo. 
unlfonn'U (Lat., having one shspe), 
uaed when the receptacle of Com- 
j>o«it«e bears only one kind of 

floreta, aa all Iigul»te or all