Skip to main content

Full text of "A Glossary of Botanic Terms, with Their Derivation and Accent"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 












^a rigUt raentd. 




Pun or THE WOBE ....... xU 

6L088ABY 1-SM 

Additions dubjko pRunxiio .... 295-319 


A. SlQHS A2(I> AXBBKVUTIOnH ..... 322 

B. TBI P&oirntiDUTioK o> Latix Ain> LATUtuu) Wobds 322 

C. Tbe Use or thb ImitB "BiaHT" and "Lut" 323 

D. BIBLIOQIUCBI ...... 324-328 

ERRATA .■)27 

1*3 'S ST 

" Every other ftuihoor ma; upire to 
praiie, the leiioographer can odI; hope 
to escape reproach." 

Db Samuu. Josvsoh. 


Nkajilt thirty-nine years ago Dr M. G. GoOEi: published his 
" Manual," which reached a second edition nine years afterwards. 
Since then no botanic dictionary has been published in Britain, 
while during the period which has passed since then botany has 
undergone a momentouB change. While systematic botany has 
been actiTely prosecuted, the other departments of morphology, 
physiology and minute anatomy have been energetically pursued 
by the help of improved appliances and methods of investigation. 
One result has been a large increase of technical terms, which are 
only partially accounted for in the various text-books. The time 
seemed therefore ripe for a new Glossary which should include 
these terms, and, encouraged by the help of many botanic friends, 
I have drawn up the present volume. After the work had been 
partly written, and announced for publication, Mr Crozier's 
"Dictionary" first came under my notice. I have consequently 
compared it with my manuscript, and inserted many words which 
had not come within my knowledge, or had been rejected by me, 
as will be seen by the acknowledgment in each case. Mr Heinlg's 
" Glossary " only reached London after the early sheets were 

The task of selecting what terms should be included in any 
branch of science offers many difficulties : in the case of botany, 
it is closely linked on with zoology and general biology, with 
geology as regards fossil plants, with pharmacy, chemistry, and 
the cultivation of plants in the garden or the field. How far it 
is advisable to include terms from those overlapping sciences 
which lie on the borderland is a question on which no two 
people might think alike. I have given every word an indepen- 
dent examination, so as to take in all which seemed needful, 
all, in fact, which might be fairly expected, and yet to exclude 
technical terms which really belong to another science. Words 


in commoD use frequently have technical meaDings, and must be 
included ; other technical words are foreign to botany, and must 
be excluded. Thus " entire " must be defined in its botanic 
sense, and snch purely geologic terms as Triassic and Pleistocene 
must be passed by. The total number of rare alkaloids and 
similar bodies recorded in pharmacologic and chemical works, if 
included, would have extended this Glossary to aa inconvenient 
size ; I have therefore only enumerated those best known or of 
more frequent mention in literature, or interesting for special 
reasons. Many words only to be found in dictionaries have been 
passed by; each dictionary I have consulted contains words ap- 
parently peculiar to it, and some have been suspected c^ being 
purposely coined to round off a set of terms. 

The toundatiouB of the list here preseuted are A. Gray's 
" Botanical Text-Book," Lindley's " Glossary," and Henslow's 
"Dictionary," aa set forth in the Bibliography. To these terma 
have been added others extant in the various modem text-books 
and current literature, noted in the course of reading, or found 
by special search. The abstracts published in the Journal of the 
Boyal Microscopical Society have aSbrded many English equivalents 
of foreign terms. In drawing up definitions, the terms used to 
denote colour were found to be so discordant that I was compelled 
to make a special study of that department, and the result will be 
found in the Joumai of Botany, ixxvii. (1899) 97-105, where are also 
noted some unusual colour-terma not brought into the present work. 

The total numbers included in this Glossary amount to nearly 
15,000, that is, nearly three times as many as in any other previous 
Tork in the language. The derivations have been carefully 
chei^ed, but as this book has no pretension to be a philological 
work, the history of the word is not attempted ; thus in " etiolate " 
I have contented myself with giving the proximate derivation, 
whilst the great Oxford dictionary cites a host of intermediate 
forms deduced from stipeUa. The meaning appended to the roots is 
naturally a rough one, for to render adequately all that may be 
conveyed by many of the roots is manifestly impossible when a 
■ingle word must serve. The accent has been added in accordance 
with the best discoverabla usage ; where pronunciation varies, I 


have tried to follow the beat ange; in some worda euch ns 
" medullary " I have given the accent as it is always spoken, though 
all the dicUonaries, except Henslow's, accent it as " med'ullary." 
When words have become thoroug^y anglicised, it would have been 
mere pedantry to accent them otherwise ; we say or'ator, not as in 
lAtio, ora'tor. The accent does not imply syllabic division, but 
when the accent immediately follows a vowel, that vowel is long ; 
if one or more conaonants intervene, then the vowel is short ; thus 
ea'vius, ca^mt, as though they were printed cO-nus, eds-tas ; in a few 
instances the pronunciation is also given when the word would 
oUierwise be doubtful as to sound. 

The word having grown bo much under my hands, it has been 
my duty to condense the definitions, a difficult matter in many 
cases, when a longer explanation would have been far easier to 
draw up. I trust that I have in each case succeeded in setting out 
tiie main or central meaning, but many writers have their own 
modified or restricted meaniug of even well-known terms. To still 
further economise space, worda drawn from the same leading word 
have been grouped into paragraphs, thus obviating the neceasity of 
repeating the leading word with its meaning many timea over, and 
only requiring the additional root to be given; occssionaUy this 
has led to the intentional neglect of strict alphabetic sequence. 
The names of groups of plants have given much trouble ; whilst all 
proposed terms manifestly could not be included, many have be- 
come so often quoted as to demand recognition ; as a rule I have 
not admitted groups of even ordinal value, still leas of lower rank. 
Compound terms have been left out when intermediate between the 
meaning of the primitives ; these included seem to require mention 
on special grounds. 

Authors' names in parentheses, following definitions, are those 
who have been taken as authority for auch definition, and when 
the actual language is used, it is indicated by quotation marks ; 
the authority sometimes coincides with the inventor of the term. 
Substantives in the headings have been shown by the use of a 
capital letter, adjectives and other parts of speech by a small letter ; 
exceptions being adjectives drawn from a proper name as "Dar- 
winian," and those which form part of such terms as " Conjoint 


Bmidle." Greek is quoted in the original cbaractera, I^tin in 
italic, or where otherwise it would be doubtful, it is indicated ; this 
ia further explained on the page facing page 1 of the Glossary ; the 
use of small capitals refers the reader to the word eo printed for 
a definition of the term, or to a correlative term. 

The Appendixes hardly need any detailed expUnation ; it will 
be seen that the Bibliography is a selected list of works chiefly 
in alphabetic fonn, arranged chronologically. General dictionaries, 
and large works in which technical terms form only a small pro- 
portion of the whole, have been omitted. 

The progress of the work through the press has occupied twelve 
months; advantage baa been taken of this to record new terms 
which have been published during that time, as well as those con- 
tributed by friends from obscure sources, some previously rejected, 
and a few which had been overlooked ; many in the last category 
are directly due to the defective indexes in certain standard works. 
No attempt has been made to bring the book beyond the date of 
1st January 1900, but I have done my best to include all valid 
terms up to the first day of this year. 

The pleasant task now remains of acknowledging most heartily 
and gratefully the invaluable help I have derived from a host of 
friends during the progress of the work. Dr D. H. ScOTT, F.R.S., 
not only encouraged me to undertake the labour, but has always 
been ready to help with his advice, and has read a part of the 
proofs ; Mr A. Gepp, of the British Museum, has read the whole 
in proof and part in revise ; he has spared neither time nor trouble to 
ascertain the correctness of the derivations and accents throughout, 
as well as in the special branch of descriptive botany which is nnder 
his charge ; Professor Hartoq, D.Sc., of Cork, has had the entire 
proof through his hands, and has improved many definitions; 
Mr H. H. W. Peahson has read nearly all the slip-proof, sug- 
gested improvements, and helped in the compilation of the work 
in many ways. To these fonr gentlemen I am especially indebted 
for their kindly undertaking a very troublesome and irksome task. 

Other friends at Kew and the British Museum have also 
generously aided me in response to questions when drafting the 
manuscript. Mr G. Massbe, Mr C. B. ClARKX,, and Dr 

Otto Sta^ have constantly been under reqaiBitlon ; Mr I. H. 
BURKUL, Mr C. H. Weioht. Mr G. Murray, F.R^., and Mr 
N. E. Brown, have given me help with the greateeb readinees 
and kindnesB ; other Bpecialiste to whom I have occasionally ap- 
pealed, and never in vain, are Mr J. G. Baxkr, F.R.S., Professor 
L B. Balfour, F.RS., Mr L. Boodlk, Dr H. T. Brown, F.Ra, 
Mr F. Darwin, F.R.S., Mr F. Esoombr, Professor J. B. Farmer, 
Mr W. E Hkhslet, F.R.S., Mr R A. Bolfk, Mr K S. Salmon, 
Professor J. W. H. Trail, F.RS., and Professor H. M. Ward, 
F.RS. To each and all my indebtedness for their kindness is great, 
the value of this Glossary being largely due to their ready aid. 
This does not exhaust the list of helpers who have kindly answered 
single questions on special points. 

In every volume of simibr character to this which I have had 
to consult, I have found errore, sometimes numerous, occasionally 
serious. This much lai^er volume offers a greater chance of 
error, and it would be vaia for me to expect to escape scathless. 
Still I trust that comparatively few errors will he found ; some are 
likely to be due to accidents, as that on p. 76, where " helicoid " is 
printed " Delicoid," from the misunderstanding of a mark in the 
press-proof; the word was correctly spelled in both proof and 

I hope that the volume will be useful to the student and the 
expert ; to the former as supplying a concise definition, without 
pretending to supplant the fuller information of the text-book ; to 
the latter acting as a reminder of some obscure term, or word 
employed in a special sense. If I have succeeded in this my aim, 
I shall have reason to be glad at ths result of nearly two years' 
continuous labour, and may look forward at some future time to 
improve the work. 


CuTUH, loih Apni leoa 


Headings in Uatik type ; Bubstantives are shown by the use of an initial oapital 
letter; adjectives and adverbs by the use of a small initial letter 
(exceptions are explained in the preface) ; the sign '^^ is used to avoid 
repetition of the heading; t was used by Lindley to denote a word 
which is obsolete or improperly formed, and is used here for un- 
doubtedly obsolete terms. 

Latin words are shown by being in Italic where practicable, elsewhere by the 
abbreviation Lat. appended ; other languages are indicated by Fr. for 
French, Qer. or Qertn. for Gennan^ Ital. for Italian. 

Cross-references in small capitals are employed to spare repeated defini- 
tions ; they are usually preceded by the sign of equality, =. When 
variants do not difiPer save by the termination, that only is given, but 
if the accent varies, they are spelled out in full. A few well-known 
abbreviations are also employed, such as dissyll. for dissyllable, pr. for 
pronounced, and the like. 




1, pritslive; in Greek oompouDds- 
witJiDut, as apebaloaa, without 

EtaU : modiged iato an- or tin- 
■ euphony. 
ab (Lat,), from; aa abnormal, a 

deviation from rule. 
abu'Ul iab, axif, an axle); (1) ap- 
plied to an embryo which ia out of 
the axil ol the wed by oneaided 
thioknetia of the albumen ; (2) the 
side of a lateral organ away from 

ttbbra'Tlatwl, afibt«i-ia'(tu. shortened, 
as when one put ih shorter than 
another ; Abbrevla'tloii. a aelsalion 
of those most frequently uwd will 
be found in the Appendix. 

abBT'Tant, aber'ranf {alw.rro, I go 
aslray), differing from usual strac- 
tui«, departing from the type. 
Abarm'tlati, non-t;pical struatnre. 

aMeflo iAbia, a Qr-tree), used of 
certain coniferous products whioh 
are not exclusively from Abie^ ; - 
Anliy'drlds, the resin in turpentine ; 
- AC'td,acoinpoundof the last with 
water, forming a large proportion 
of the oonatituents of frank incense : 
Ab'imn, resin from ^Aim ■piainata,, 
DC, and Ab'lBllte, a sugar from 
the leaves of the same species ; 
AUeU'nna (Lat.. made of fir), ap- 
pLed to cryptogams which (1) 
grow on firs, or ('2) resemble a 
fir-tree in habit, as .j'fi'a afx'elina, 

AUeestt'«ila(a, not; jSioi, life ; y^vi^k, 
beginning), spontaneous genera- 
tion ; the assumed origin of living 
organisms from non-living matter. 

AbjM'tlOB \ah)ttXio, throwing away), 
oasUog off spores from a sporo- 

attjolnt' (o/' + joiot), to delimit by 
septa or joints ; a hybrid word. 

AbJune'tlDn {.ahjuncliui, unyoked), 
cutting off spores on portions of 
growing liyphso by septa. 

Ablacta'tlon {ablcuta, I wean), in- 

Ablaqneatloa, Ahla^uea'Cio, loosening 
the soil round trees- 

ablast'lc (a, not; ^\air6i, a bud or 
shoot), applied to parts of a dower 
or other organ which have not been 
developed; ablaa' tons, withoutgerm 
or bud. 

Abnoda'tion (oAnofJo, toclearof knots), 
cutting away knots from trees. 

abnorm'aj, abnorma'/ii [abnormU, ir- 
regular), deviating from mie, as 
wnen stamens are opposite the 
petals instead of being Bltemate. 

aborl|:'lll&l(<i&, from ; onVo< a source), 
I indigenous ; not introduced. 
I Atwr'tloil (nWtio. B miscarriage), 
' non-formation or incompletion of 
a part ; abort'ive, aborti'init, im- 
perfectly develof'ed, as abortive 
stamens when filaments only ; 
nbort'ienH, becoming abortive. 

abra'ded, abra'tus, rubbed or scraped 

abrupt', ahmp'iaii, snddenly ending 
as thongh broken off; abmpt'ly- 
aca'tninate, having a point arising 
from a broad extremity: " pln'nate, 
a pinnate leaf ending with a pair 

Ab'sulM-lay'er, a layer of separation, 
especial! J' with reference to the 
phenomena of defoliation. 

Abflds'iloQ (abscUiut, cut ofl^. detach- 
ment of spores from a sporophore 
by the disappearance of a coDQMt- 
ing lone. 



▲Mntb'lo, referring to AriemUia 
AbBinthium, Linn. ; AMntli'lii, a 
bitter principle obtained from the 

actual, the opposite of relative. 
The absolute direction of an embryo 
may be inverted, but erect rela- 
tively to the carpeL 

▲iMorp'tion {ahsorp'tio, a beverage), 
the act of imbibing liquids or sases. 

Atetrlc'tion (a6, from, strictus, curawn 
together), a term which oovers both 
Abjunction and Abscission. 

aoalyca'llB (a, not ; irdXu^, a cup) ; (1) 
having no calyx ; (2) having no ad- 
hesion to the calyx ; aMl'yelna, 
aoalyc'lnoua, oco/yo'nitf, accU'yds, 
destitute of calyx. 

aoana'ceouB {Akwos, a thistle-head ; + 
aceous), prickly plants, such as 

Acantb'a, Aean'thon {dxapBa, a thorn), 
a spine or prickle ; acantha^ceous 
(+ aceous), (1) armed with prickles ; 
(2) belonging to the natural order 
Acantha'ceae, the typical genus 
being AcarUh'ua, Toum; aoanth'lne, 
pertaining to that eenus; aoan- 
thocaxp'ooB {Kopwos, fruit), having 
spiny fruit ; acanthocla'doua (irXddos , 
a branch), tuanthocla'dwi^ with 
spiny branches; aoantliopb'orous, 
i^pw, I bear), aearU?ioph'aru8t 
spine-bearing; aoaiithop'odou8(T(n;f, 
wodotj a foot), having; petiole or 
peduncle furnished with spines or 
prickles; Acantli'ospberM {<r4>cuf>a, 
a sphere), ciliated bodies in the 
cells of NiteUa, termed "Stachel- 
kiigeln " by the Germans. 

jtoaro-doma'tia {Aeams, the typical 

genus of mites ; 3w/ulrioy, a little 
ouse), formations on plants adapted 
to shelter Acari when of service to 
the host. 

aoarp'ouB (a, not, xa/^irof, fruit), des- 
titute of fruit. 

aoaulesc'ent, acaulesc'ent, becoming 
stemless ; acaul'lne, aoaul'oM, 
aoaul'ooB, acatU'is, stemless or 
seemingly so. Aoanlo'ila, abnor- 
mal deficiency of stem. 

aooew'ory (oceeMio, something added), 
an adcQtion or appendage ; -' Bndii, 
those additional to the axUlary and 
normal buds, and frequently as- 
suming their function ; ^Branchiw, 
those which spring from the fore- 
going ; x* Cell, the sister-cell of a 
guara-oell of a stoma ; '^ TraitM, 
parts which are conspicuous but 
form no part of the pistil, as the 
enlarged torus of the strawberry, 
a pseudo-carp ; ~ Qonid'la, forma- 
tions ooonrring in Muoorini besides 
the typical aonidia. 

aoddent al = adventitious. 

acd'sus (Lat.) denotes an end havinff 
an acute sinus between two rounded 

Aooommoda'tion (accommodcUio, an 
adjustment) Adaptation. 

aocreso'ent, aecre«ereti«, increasing in 
size with age, as the calyx of some 
plants after flowering. 

aoorete' {accre*tu$, grown together), 
agglutinate, naturally grafted. 
Aocre'tion, Accreftio, (1) growing to 
one another ; (2) increase b^ addi- 
tion of piurticles to the outside. 

tmmmb'ent, (iccumb'enH, lying against 
another body ; ^ Ootyla'dons, those 
having their edges against the 
radicle, thus o=. 

aoeUera'tuB (Lat.), somewhat aoerose. 

Aoen'lom = Achbnk. 

aoeph'alons, aeeph'alus (a, without; 
jre^X^, a head), headless ; used for 
an ovary which is not terminated 
by the stigma, as in Labiatae. 

aoer'lc, pr. a-ser'-ik, pertaining to the 
genus Acer, the Maple or Sycamore. 

a'cerose, a'oeroiiB. actro'sw {cuar, 
sharp), needle-shaped, like the 
leaves of Pintu ; Aoero'sae, a term 
proposed by A. Braun for the 

aoer'Yate {acervua, a heap), heaped 
up ; Aoer'vulua (Lat., a little heap), 

51. Aoer'vnli, small clusters, as of 
'ungi appearing on bark or leaves, 
aoetab'ullform, cicetahuliform'is {Ace- 
tabtUum, a cup or vinegar cruet; 
forma^ shape), saucer-shaped, used 
of the fructification of some lichens ; 


Boatab'Dlmu, ae.rC<^)u'laii, aetiaini- 
to'tia are varintiang in farm of the 
word ; Acciab'nlnm (Lat.) the re- 
ceptacle of eome Fungi. 

ac«ta'rlouB (ivyXaria, vegetables with 
vinegar), relating t« salad herbs ; 
Ao'etai7, Grew's term (or eatoiiing. 

acetic, pertaining to vinegar, nre- 
itim ; ~ Fenniata'tlou, oxidation of 
alcoholic liquida, cauned 

rium lyiinam, A. J. Brow 

-x'eevi, a Latin safiix of reeemblaace, 
aa folia'tew, leal-like ; in Engliah 
it becomes -aceoiia. 

Achae'na, Aohae'niuiii, - Aohbni. 

Adute'DOcarp ([txa>'''?i. not jjapiog-. 
JiapirdT, fruit), or Aabt'noaarp, any 
dry indehiscent fniit. 

Acbaacophy'tum (a, privative, xdaiu, 
J open, ipiTiy, a plant), a plant 
with indehiacent fruit. 

aohsU'aiy (a, without ; x'''^"'- » 
lip), wanting a lip, asBome Orchids. 

Aelieiie,pr, a-ken', JcAe'niuin (a, not ; 
Xalru, I gape), a small, bard, dry, 
indehiaoant fruit, strictly of one 
tr«e Darpel m in the buttercup : 
DooaaioDaUj consisting of more than 
one oarpel as in Compositea, in the 
latter cose with adnate calyx. Also 
■pelt Akena, Ake'slom, etc. ; AQliano'' 
dltun, a diiuble achene, as the cre- 
niocarp of UmbelUfprae. 
" " nyd'Mras, actdamyd'ewi (a, with- 
; ^ofitn, a cloabl, destitute of 
perianth, as in willows. 

AcAyrDphy'tnin (iI;iciifioi', chaff: ^t^i, 
a plant), a plant with glumaceous 
flowers, as grasses. 

mdiTOinatla (a, without ; xp^f^' 
oolonr) ; {I) without colour, ach- 
hkiub; (3) not readily taking colour ; 
r- BpiDdlB, the thread-like proto- 

Elasmio figures in karyokineais, 
stween the polea ; Acbro'matln, 
Flemming's term for the basic sub- 
•UDce of the nucleus, less sua- 
esplibla of staining than the chro- 


the Nuolein of Straa- 

acliro'miu, acb'rooe (ixpoiu, to b« 
without colour, pale), colourless ; 
hyaline ; AobTOOdei'tiln ( + Dextrin) 
one of the group of dextrtns not 
coloured by iodine ; c/. Ebtthbo- 

Adc'nla (ariiK, a needle), the bristle- 
like continnatioD of the rhachilla 
of a grass ; Acic'ulae, tooth-like 
processes of the hymen ium of 
certain Hyroeooinycelous Fungi ; 
ada'alar, ocieiJu'm, slender or 
needle-shaped ; adc'ulate, aricu- 
la'tiu, aci™[i'nu#, superficially 
marked as if scratched with a 
pin ! adcu'lifonn {/omui, ahapo), 
needle -like. 

ADido'tDa (dnjuret, pointed), when 
branches or organs end in a spine 
or hard point. 

A'dea (Lat, eilge), tlie edge or angle 

ac'iform ((kiia. a needle ; /orma, 
■hapv) = ai:icular. 

aolna'aeoui (eiciiiu>i, a seeded berry + 
aceoui), full of kernels. 

aolnac'ifollns [aciiwuren. n scimitar; 
/oliiim, a leaf), a fleshy leaf, curved 
like a scimitar : ACtiiAc'iform, ncina- 
fi/onn'ia, scimitar-shaped. 

adna'iluB (oriniM, a grape-seed), 
when a, stem is covered with 
vesicles resembling grape -seeds ; 
Ac'lne. Ac'tuus (^t,). a single 
member of such fruits as the 
raspberry, a drupol ; foimerly 
used for a bunch of frnit, as of 
grapes ; Aolnoden'drus {SirSpor, a 

boncheH ; ac'lnoae, nri^io'fin.^, like 
grapes, or of granular bodies re- 
sembling them. 

Adpliyllus {iii), a point, ^liXXw, 
a leaf), a linear and pointed 

AolytbTopfaj'tum (a, without, i.\fi8pov, 
adoor, 4)vi'Av, a plant), plants whose 
seeds are supposed to be naked, 
without a pericarp. 

Moud'yloH. aoond'yloni (a, without, 
tifiuXos, a knuckle or finger-joint), 
said of plants which have no jointfl 



Aoonltin, the alkaloid derived from 
monkshood, Aconitum Napellua, 

A'com« the fruit of the oak. 

Acotyle'don (a, without, xorvXriduip, 
uaed for seed-lobe), a plant desti- 
tute of cotyledons or seed-lobes; 
Cryptogams and such plants as 
CHScuta ; adj. acotyle'donoiiB, 

aenmplilb'ryoiiB (^Kpot, apex, d/x^l, 
on both sides, ^pvu, to bud), plants 
producing lateral as well as apical 
Duds ; AcramphiVrsra, a division 
proposed by Endlicher to em- 
brace Dicotyledons and Gymno- 

Aeroblaste'sii {dxpot, apex, /SXaorof, 
a bud), when the germ-tube of 
Lichens proceeds from an end of 
the spore ; acroblas'tlo, Gelakov- 
skv's term for the branch of an 
inflorescence which arises from a 
terminal bud ; Acrob xya (^pvw, to 
bud), plants growing at the point 
only, as all Acrogens having a 
distinct axis ; adj. acrob'ryona. 

aorocarp'ouB {axpot, apex, irapx6s, 
fruit), terminal fruit^ ; a main 
division of Mosses; aerod'romouB 
{8p6fioi, a course), venation-strands 
uniting at the apex of the leaf, as 
in PlarUago; acrog'amoiiB {yd/ioSf 
marriage), plants producing the 
egg-apparatus at the summit of the 
emoryo-sac, as in most Angiosperms 
(Van Tieghem); Acrog'amy, may 
be double, as when the pollen-tube 
and egK-&pparatus are both apical ; 
or partly basigamic, either of male 
(pollen-tube) or female (egg-ap- 
paratus) ((/. BA8I0AM0US) ; EOOg'- 

enouB {yipos, race), (1) used of 
plants growine at the apex, such 
as Ac'rogens, Ferns ; (2) produced 
at the end of a filament, as some 
fungus spores ; Acrogonld'iom 
{y6po$i offspring, etSot, form), a 
gonidium form^ at the apex of a 
gonidiophore ; acrog'yiioiia (yvH), a 
woman), having the stem termin- 
ated by female organs, as arche- 
gonia ; aorogyra'tna (gyratus, 

turned away), having an elastic 
rin£[ at the point (Lindley) as in 

Ac'ronna (perhaps from ojcpop, the 
highest point), Necker's term for 
an ovary without a basal disk. 

acronyohlna {axpos, apex, tfrv^, a claw), 
curved like the claw of an animaL 

acTop'etal {dxpot, apex ; peto, I seek), 
produced in a succession towards 
the apex, as applied to develop- 
ment of organs ; the antithesis 
of baaipetal ; Acrosaro'om {adp^, 
caoKot, flesh), Desvaux's term for 
a oerry from an ovary with adnate 
calyx, as the currant; acroscop'lc 
{ffKoriu, I see), looking towards 
the summit ; the reverse of basi- 
Bcopic ; AoroBpdrm'eae {(nripfia, a 
seed), Ac'roBperms, those Angio- 
sperms which are presumed to 
have begun with simple poro- 
samous mode of impregnation ; </. 
Pleurosperm; Ac'roB^bra (ffweipa, 
a coil), Grew's name for the first 
sprout of a germinating seed, the 
extruded radicle ; acroi^'red, ger- 
minated, as in malting ; Ac'rospore 
(axopd, a seed), a spore formed at the 
summit of a sporophore or fila- 
ment ; acrot'onona (rovoif a cord), 
the tissue of the pollen -sac in 
Orchids prolonged to the upper 
end of the anther. 

Actlnancli'jana (dicrltf a ray ; eyx^f^t 
an infusion), cellular tissue formed 
in a star-shaped manner, as seen in 
a croes-section of Juncus ; actlxi'ic, 
used of certain rays of the spectrum, 
which have a powerful effect on 
growth; Act'inism, the chemical 
action of sunlight ; Act'inocarp, a 
fruit which is aotinocarplc {Kopros, 
fruit), having the carpels or pla- 
centas radiating like the spokes of 
a wheel ; actinomorph'ic, -cos, 
{fwfxp^, shape), having flowers of 
a regular or star pattern, capable 
of bisection in two or more planes 
into similar halves ; Actinomyco'slB, 
a disease in the jawbone of man and 
animals attributed to a Fungus, 
Oocardia Actinomycodis, Trev. ; 

R^ttnoat'omona {trriita, a nioutb). 
radiuu atruutuiv round the oatiotes 
of LiulitinB and olhar Cryptogams. 

AeKjioph'rjia (A'^einophri/K, Ehreob., 
ft geauB uf KhiZDpodB), Gobi's term 
for globes with racially-arranged 
pMadopodia in Piatdoipora, a 
paraaiM on Yajiehtria. 

■stlVB, in s. growing condition ; not 

■en'ltata, nealta'lut [aruleiu, ■ sting 
or pritkle), armed with prickles as 
the stem of a rose ; acn'leolate, 
aCultola'tTu, BOmowhat pricikly ; 
unlao'nu, deoiilpdlj priukly ; 
RCtt'laUorm, tKultiform'U [/ormn, 
■hap«), prick le-B ha pad ; Aou'leus 
(Lat.), a sharp epidermal emerg- 
ence, a prickle ; pi. Aott'lel ; 
Aoa'leolns, a diminutive of the last. 

Acn'men (Lat.. a point), a tapering 
point : aou'minate, arumina'fuii, 
having a grsiiually dimimshing 

Glint : acotniulfO'liu* {/oliam, a 
af), with albuminate leaves ; 
Bca'nUnose, oiiimiiio'iniii. approach- 
ing acuminate^ aoumlu'illate, having 
a small terminal point. 

KOatMis'nUx, acatang'iiltui (Lot.), 
when stems are sharply angular ; 
UntSito' (ocu'fiM, sharp), slightly 
•barpened, as at the apex ; acn'ts. 
iKtt'tuM, distinctly and eharply 
pointed, but not drawn out ; MU- 
tlflor'tu (Lat., floa, fiorin, a flower), 
with acute perianth segracnls ; 
ftcatifo'llns (Lat., /btium, a leaf}, 
with pointed leaves ; acntllo'bns 
[Lat., Mmn, a lobe), composed of 
lobeswhich are acute: acutlna'cnltis 
(LaU), some what scute. 

■Ofello (a, not ; tli/Xot, a circle}, used 
of flowers whose parts are arcajiged 
■pirally. not in whorls. 

AdapWtlon {adafitaluf, fitted), the 
means by which an organism adapts 
itself to changed surroundings. 

mdRx'tal (ad, to : axit, an axle), the 
side or face next the axis, ventral. 

•ddnoenfU Vk'Ut {ad, to; duco, I 
lead), the spirals in tracheidl, 
which spirals were fonneTl;^ B»P- 
poied to De vessels. 

Addncto'rea, Hedwig's term for arohe- 

Adelph'la (d3;\^i, a brother) ; (I) a 
fraternity ; a collection of stamens 
by their Blaments into one bundle ; 

El. Adalpb'lae, two or more similar 
nndUs; (2) used by Galton for 
fraternities in variation -, adelph'le, 
tulelph'ieia ; adalph'ani, aileliih'ia, 
having brotherhoods of stamens ; 
Adelphotaz'y {rdfii, order), used 
by Hartog Ui express the mutual 
attraction of spores of Ai:hyla and 
of Pedastreae after extrusion. 

Adalome (possibly from i!ji)\ai, con- 
Gealed) = ALBlTBNl7H (Lindley). 

Aden (dS7)i>, a gland), a gland or 
tubercle : aden'iforni(/o™Mj, ihapo), 
a hybrid term for glaodshaped ; 
adenoca'lyx (koX^, acup), where the 
calyx is studded with glandular 
spots ; ad'enold (cISoi, like), gland- 
like : ~ Ol'gwi, Williameon's terra 
for the ligule of Ijtpidodtndron ; 
Adenopet'aiy (:r^aXai', a flower 
leaf), a term proposed by C. Morren 
for the transformation of nectaries 
into petals, or similar structures ; 
Aden'opliore (^ap^u, bear), a etalk 
anpportingagland ; adenoph'oroua, 
bearing glands ; adeDopbyl'loua 
(<^XXo«, a leaf), glandalar leaved ; 
adenop'odoua, nJcn'o/iiHi (iroL!t,TD3ii, 
a foot), with the petiole or ped- 
uncle glandular; adenoite'mon 
(srij^oi', a stamen), having glands 
on the stamens ; ad'enoae, ad'eaons, 
gland n tar. 

Adea'my (a, without ; ieafiit, a bond), 
Morren's term for congenital eopar- 
atian of parts normally united. 

Ad&uz'ioii {ad, to-, Jlao, I dow), the 
attraction by which sap is drawn 
towards the leaves. 

adgln'tlnata, adglufina'ltia (a J, to, 
'jludno, I glue), grown together, 

adbe'rant, adhe'rena [adhatreo, to stick 
to), the union of parts usually 
separate ; ~ Vema'Hon, when the 
baJwe of Fern - fronds are continu- 
ous with the oaudei ; Adbe'K 
AdlM'sloil, the state ol u^icm 'vK'Ctv 

e othor orgao or p&rt ; Ooabel 

parti ; cf. Cohksioh. 
AdlpooellulOMi {adep», adipu, tat, + 

CalluloM), B groQp of bodiei whioh 

oonatitDte the caticular tJMueg of 

iMves and fmita ; ^. CsLLnLoaE, 
•dUM'lli(a, without; Slinoi, a quoit), 

destitnte of a di«k. 
adU'guu (ad, to ; ligo, I tie), holding 

lut ot binding, u the afiiial hold^ 

&8t8 of try. 
Admlnlo'iiliuii (Lat., a imip)=Fui^ 

ftdmotl'Tiu [eui, to ; movto, I move), 
when in germination the albmnen 
remaini attached to the aheath of 
the ootjledoo. 

adnaa'oent, adna^ceiu {adruucor, to 
grow to), growing to or upon Bome- 
thing elM ; Adnaa'oMU ; ( 1 ) a yonug 
bnlb, as a "olove" of garlic; {2) 
a sucker of some Monocotyledoua. 

atf^ute, adna'ttu {adnoHor, to grow 
to), attached the whole length, 
~ Antti'en have the lobe« attwSied 
their entire length to the filament ; 
Adnk'tlou, the itate in question ; 
■dnesed' (n«zo, to tie), used of the 
lauellae of some Agarioe, which 
reach the stem, but are not adnate 
to it; ad'preiaed, adprtt^iu^AF- 


adnrg'snt, aiigurg'rru=Aa&VBacsT. 

adniic'ate, adono'oni {adtOKui, booked) 
bent or crooked »■ a hook. 

a&nafna (Lat.), loot-ooloured, fuli- 

adnntlt'loiu, adveRlWiiu {ad, to; 
cento, I come), applied to plant« 
lately introducnd; " Bnda, thoee 
prodnced abnormally, aa from the 
•tem instead of the axils of the 
leaves; - Boot*, thoee which do 
not arise from the radicle or its 
snbdiTisions, but from other part; 
advent'lve = advbntitiocs. 

■d'Teiae (ad. to; va-»o. I tarn); (1) 
opposite ; (2) facing the main axis 
or other object; adTen'ua (Lat.), 
opnosjte ; adTandfo'llato, ailvtrsi- 
/o'liua (/oiium, a leaf], having oppo- 
site leaves. 

Adynaman'dry {tJlvrafda, weakneaa ; 
iriip, Mpoi, a man], Delpino'B 
term for •elf-st«rility ; that is, 
when A flower does not set iMa 
from its own pollen. 

Aedd'loapore (Aecidium, infr» ; rv«d, 
a seed], a spore formed in the fol- 
lowing : Awld'lnm (probably from 
olKlStor, A little home), a sporooarp 
consisting of a cup-shaped env^ope, 
its interior surface oonsisting la a 
hymemam, from whose baaidia 
the aecidiosporei are sncceMively 
thrown off; the name was pro- 
ponnded by Penoon as a genus of 
Fangi, but it is now rvrauded as 
only a form-genns of Uredineae. 

Aeool'ogy = EcoLOOT or Obddloqe. 

aa'nmu (Lat. bronse), nsed for bnai- 
coloured ; somatimeB for verdigris. 

Mqna'lla, ae'qnui (Lat.), equal or 
equalling ; similar in size, uniform ; 
atquUarenl, atguUatera'tit, equal- 
sided, of equal length ; asquaU- 
ILor'iu (Lat.;, with flowers alike in 
form and character ; aaqnlmaf'nns 
t (I^t,), equal sized ; ••qiilnoa'tUl, 
aequinoclia'lit, pertaining to die 
equinoi ; used of flowers, which 
open or oloee at stated honn ; 
MQulvalT'li (Lat.), having valvea 
of flowers or fruit of similar sice ; 
Mqnive'nliu (lAt.), all the veins of 
equal disttnctuesa. 

ae'imtUiff (o*r, air) Boots, peonliar 
roots rising out of the mud, oovercd 
with a loose, oorky tissue^ and 
having large intarcellnlar spaces ; 
aii'rial, agriiu, plants (or parts of 
plants) living above the surface of 
the ground or water ; ~ Plants, 
epiphytes, OS TiilandMa and many 
tropical orchids ; •>• Boots, those 
whiob vegetate altogether above 
the ground ; Atirench^ma (fyxi/'^i 
that poured out), Schenk's term 
for a tissue of thin. walled cells, 
and large inter- oeliular spaces, 
found in the stems of some marsh- 

Slants, serving for aeration or 
oating tissue ; AJtra'Unffl Olot, 
life), an organism which thrives only 

certain bacteria; 
Deeding air tor eiiBt- 
enoe; JUtoUo'«1i, life in Btmo- 
^erio air ; Atirocrat (lArrit, a bag 
or pouch), tbo air-bladders of aucE 
•Igae u Fuciu vaicMttuus, Linn. : 
Urmpbytt {^vrir, a plant), air- 
plant, epiphyte ; AlJroUz'la {rii", 
•miDgement), used by Eartog to 
ezpresB positive stimulus b; oxf gen 
to the irritability of zoospores, adj. 
mirota£t'la ; AJirot'roplnn (rpoiri), a 
turning), the inSuence of gases on 
growth and cnrvature, it is a 
form of Ghemotropism ; adj. aSro- 

Ijru'gliiose, ■•nv'liunu, aerugin'tui, 
aeraffino'tu* {aervgo, the rust of 
brass), the blue-greea colour of 

Aew'aliii, ao alkaloid from the horse- 
cheatnut; Aeeculaa Hippocaatantiin, 

Aeatlie'sia {<ila6i}ci!, perception by 
sense). Czapeh's expression to de- 
note the capacity of an organ to 
respond to definite physical stimuli, 

•Aa'UTat, oeMiBa'lig, beloogiogor pecu- 
liar tosumoier; Aeatlva'tlon, AenU- 
rn'fio. the manner in which the 
parts of a flower are folded up before 

AeW'rlo = Etakrio. 

Astha'llnm {alSaXat, soot), a oom- 
pouod sporiterouB body, tormed 
from a combination of Plasmodia 
in Myiogastres : Ae. nrplKum. Ft., 
IS linown ae "Flowers o( Tan"; 
uUkft'llDld ((»«, form), like the 

aeiha'os {i^TK, unusual), in com- 
pounds - unusual : Bitheogam'io, 
a^lheog'amous (71*1111, marriage), 
aynonymons with cry|jtogamio. 

aetbe'reuB iLat.], aerial- 

Aetlol'osT (olTia*, cause ; \67(i<, dis- 
course), the doctrine of the cause 
ofdiseaee, as of Vegetable Galls; 
al'o spelled Altlolog; and BUology. 

Affln'lty (iijin'itaa. near alliance), the 
closeness of relation betwten plants 
■■ shown bj similarity of import- 
sal orguiB, 

{affijc'iu, fastened to), fixed 

Ag'amae (a, without, ydtioc, marriage) 
= Cryptogamae : agam'lc, ax'amoiu, 
Necker's term for cryploganious ; 
Aguu^en'sals (-y^i'toii, origin), 
asexual reproduction by buds, 
gemmae, etc.; Agunopby'ta (^vric, 
a plant), C. Mauniillun's term for 
protoohytes; AKun'otpore {sropi, 
a seed), a spore or gooidium pro- 
duced asexually. 

A'Kar, a gelatinous product from 
Agar -agar, or Agal-agsl, which 

from tropioal Asia ; also caUed 
"Ceylon Moss" and "Bengal 

Akkt'Ic Add {Agaricnt, Toum., a 
genus of Fungi), found id Polyponu 
off!cinali: Fr.; AKAridc'olA (coto, 
I inhabit), applied to a parasite 
oD Hymeoomycetoua Fungi ; Hens- 
low priota it as acsiilColQS. 

agan'lns t («• without, yim, sex, raoe) 
= neuter; a'gsnus, used of cellular 
Cryptogams. " which are enlarged 

d-yTtMiiw, a little vessel), the spor- 
angium of Mosses, ami of PiKcmia. 
Ag'gersB (Lat, ). banks or rockwork 
in botanic gardens. 

agslom'srate, acfglam'erAted. agijlom- 
era'(iM(Lat. crowded together), col- 
lected into a head, as the flowers 
of Scabious. 

asKln'Unate (agglvtino, I glue], glued 
together, as the pollen-maases ot 
Asclepiada or Orchids; accrete. 

a^KregAt«, ac'sregaled, agyrtaa'iua 
{Lat. assembled), collected to- 
gether, as the flowers of CuKaitii ; 
— Flowers, those gathered into a 
liead, as Dipmciu, but not as in 
Compositae, which are capitulate ; 
~ Fruits, collection of sHparate 
carpels produced by one flower, 
the product of a polycarpellary 
apocarpous gynaecium ; Aggre- 
ga'tlon, condensation of cell-oou- 



the field). H. C. Watson's term for 
the cultivable portion of Great 
Britain ; '-' Region, divided into three 
•« Zones, the super-, mid-, and infer- 
agrarian zones. 

agrest'al {agrestiSt belonging to the 
field) ; (1) Watson's term for plants 
growing in arable ground ; (2) rural 

agricolVural Bof any {offriculiura, 
husbandry), that part of eoonomic 
botany which relates to farm plants. 

Agro8tog'rapliy^d7p(tfyrtf, grass, 7pa^, 
writing), the description of grasses ; 
Agrostol'ogy (Xdyof, discourse), the 
botany of grasses. 

acyna'rina X (a, without, yvy^i, a 
woman) ; agynlous ; (1) said of 
stamens which are free from the 
ovary ; (2) pistils wanting, desti- 
tute of pistils ; agr'ynons, monstrous 
flowers with pistils missing. 

Al'gret (Fr. Aigrette, tuft of Withers), 
the pappus of Compositae ; Eng- 
lished by T. Martyn as B'grot. 

ftiophyllna (aZcby, eternity, ^i^XXor, 
a leaf), evergreen. 

alma, in Greek compounds = blood- 
coloured; properly Imma (from 
aXfw,, blood). 

Alr-Blad'den, intercellular spaces in 
some Algae, serving as floats ; «« 
Oayity = '«Ghambbbs(2); '^ -Cells, ^ 
-Chambers, (1) intercellular spaces 
occurring in aquatic plants, usually 
prismatic in form, (2) the inter- 
cellular space beneath a stoma ; «~ 
Passage, = '«' -Ghambbr ; •« -Flanti, 
epiphytes, as Bromeliads and some 
Orchids; /^ Pore, = Stoma; /^Baos, 
cavities in the pollen-grains of 
Pinvs ; •« Vessel, term formerly 
applied to empty tracheids, etc. 

Akene', Ake'nlnm,=AoHBNS, Aohkn- 


Akine'sis (a, without, irfyi^rts, move- 
ment), increase without the phenom- 
ena of karyokinesis ; A'klnetes, in 
green Algae, sinele cells whose 
walls thicken and separate from 
the thallus, corresponding to the 
ohlamvdospores of Fungi ; immotile 
reproductive cells, formeid without 

true oell-formation, or rejuvene- 

▲la (Lat. wing), (1) formerly an axil, 
but now obsolete in that sense ; (2) 
a lateral i>etal of a papilionaceous 
flower ; (3) a membranous expansion 
of any kind, as in the seed of 
Bignoniaceae ; (4) employed by 
Wm. Smith for the marginal pro- 
cesses in Surirella; (5) the outer 
segment of the coronal lobes in some 
AMslepiads ; (6) in Mosses, the alar 
cells are those at the basal angle 
of a leaf. 

Alatiai'trom (Lat. bud), a flower-bud. 

alar, cUa'ris {ala, wing), (1) formerly 
used for axillaris; (2) «« Cells, c/. 
Ala (6). 

alate', aia'ttts (Lat. winged), furnished 
with an expansion, as a stem or 
I>etiole; alatepinna'tns, when the 
common petiole of a pinnate leaf is 
marginally winged. 

alte'tna (liat.), whitened ; Albe'do 
(Lat.) whiteness; Albefius'tion {Jacio, 
I make), blanching; albes'cent, 
aXbtftctntj becoming white ; al'blcant, 
cU'bicans, tending to white ; 
albid^tUus, cWbtdus, albin'eus, 
whitish ; Al'Mnlsm, a disease from 
absence of normal colouring, dis- 
playing itself as an Albl'no ; alU'nni, 
al'bnlns (Lat.), somewhat white. 

Al'bnmen (Lat., white of an egg), the 
nutritive material stored within the 
seed, and in many cases surrounding 
the embryo. (Note. Not to be 
confounded with animal Albumen.) 
Al'tmmin, in plants, the proteids 
which readily coaguUte from their 
aqueous solutions by the action of 
heat or acids ; Albn'minoids {etdot, 
resemblance), nitrogenous organic 
substances, proteids; albnmlno'se, 
albn'minoni, album\no'»u8, contain- 
ing albumen, a term restricted to 
seeds ; Albu'minates, nitrogenous 
substances insoluble in water, 
soluble in dilute acids or alkalis, 
e.y., gluten of wheat; Albumo'ses, 
similar to albuminates, but soluble 
in water ; common constituents of 


ABnu'nlUa (aJAurMum, B»{i-wood), s 
diseue in trees, % tendency to 
rem&in aoft like ihe recent wood ; 
alliur'iioiu. relating to the sap- 
wood 1 Albai'niun, the ontennoat 
snd youngest portion of the wood, 
8 till peruiesble by Quids. 

al'mu iLat,), dead white, without 

AlMhol'lc Fermuita'tioti, Kr Fekmkn' 

mlector'iold \AU'-iar!u, Aoh., Mot, 
reeeiubUnce). lilsmentous. its the 
thatius of thL- gunul after which it 

«Jepllto'tni,;'g, Dot, XtTiiuirit, scaly), 
dent! lute of scurf or scales. 

AlB<i'Toil,ocAl«D'TOlui,(IX(iipiv, whenteo 
Sour), proteid granules of globulins 
and peptones, present in seeds, 
'-Lara', a apeoial periphcrio layer 
in most seeds, especially in grasses ; 
adj., aleaTon'le. 

AlexW i6.\i(u. I ward off), a sab- 
stance bypothetically ossurned to 
be formed by plante for proteation 
against bacteria ; sotitoiine. 

Al'gae [a/ga, seaweed), chlorophyll- 
containing Tluillophyt«B, which 
naually grow itomeraed in water, 
freah or marine ; known popu - 
larly as "Seaweeds," or "Water- 
weeds"; al'gaj, ralating to Al^ae;~ 
■Utyer, the green band of gonidia in 
the thalluB of beteromeruus liobens. 
also styled ~ -Zoo« ; algl'nus t re- 
■embling a tbreadlike Alga ; Al'eiit 
^Algol'oglit. a stndent of Algae ; 
Ml'gimt-AUiAJ^; Algol'ogy, [^^oi, 
disaourae), the science of Algae : 
Alga, F. von Mueller's word for 

Allen, used by E. C. Wateon for 
introduced plants which have be- 
come naturalissd in Britain. 

allf eroni {afa, a wing ; Jero, I bear), 
bavine wings ; al'lfonn (j'orma, 
sbapeY, wiog-shaped : aUg'sTooB 
iotro. 1 bear) = ALiriSRons (CroKier). 

■Us'lllu' {a from, lipJa, strap), 
BuBBow'a term for that leaf-faoe in 
Sdagiadia which is turned away 
from the ligule and stem. 

AUnio'aia ; (L>t. tiouriahiiieiil) = 
ascending sap. 

-alia, Latin termioatJOD indicative of 
belonging to ; thus i-ndic-alu, be- 
longing to the root, Txutix. 

allama'ceooi {AMma. Dill., -f oeoui), 
belonging to the order Atismaoeae, 
of which the genus named islbelyp& 

AUi'arln* I Fr. Atizari, mitdder-rDOl], 
the colouring matter of the root of 
madder. Ridiia tincloriii, Una. 

Alkaohlor'DpIiyU (Alkali +Cin«B(i- 



chlorophyll, produced by the 
action of an alkali ; aUnles'ceiit. of 
th« nature of an alkali ; Alk'aloldl 
(eWd(. resemblaDce), general term 
for the organic bases in many 
plants, markedly medicinal or 
poisonous, as Morphia, Strychnia. 

aliaC^ipbyU'oaB (dXXa7Ti, a chooge, 
^liXAov, a leaf), alternate -leaved ; 
allagoate'inon, aUagnitem'aiiona, 
when stamens ore attocbed aller- 
naiely to the petals and the torus. 

allanto dloid, applied to ferns which 
resemble the geouB AllaiUoilia, 
R. Br. in habit or fractiSoation. 

ftllant'oid (nXXat. a BauBa|{e, dSot, 
forml. fluusage-abaped. 

Bllsuoton'lc (dXXiicrvu, to Torv, r6rts, 
turgeecence), movements of^matore 
organs, caused by aagmeotation of 
targor with diminution of volume. 

aUla'caoas, -eeun {aUiiim, garlic, + 
aeeiu), having the smell of garlioor 
onions; klUa'Tllu (Ut.) is a 

Alll'ancs, a group of Orders, now 
usually styled Cohort. 

AlUga'tox {alUgo, I bind ) - FuLORUU. 

aliooti'ronB, (dXXoi, another, jcjiia, 
complexion), changing from one 
colour to another ; AUoetr'py 
(lopirai fmit), fruiting from cross- 
fertilixed Sowers ; AUoE'luny iyd)iBt, 
marriage), croes- fertilization ; sub- 
divided into tlEiTONOUAHV, from 
another flower on the same plant, 
and Kkkogaht. from another 
plant of the same species ; adj. 

AUSoVyaU (dUiMiK, different, Mca, 



loosing), applied to the mode in 
which natural diastase acts on the 
endosperm of the date, and the 
changes thereby caused. 

allot'roponi (dtXXof, another, rporf^, a 
turn), MacLeod's term for plants 
having stores of honey open to all 
insect- visitors ; Allofropy, other- 
wise turned or formed. 

alpes'trine, alptt^trisy strictly ap- 
plicable to plants growing above 
the limits ot forest growth, on the 
Alp, but practically synonymous 
with Alpine ; alpes'ter ( Lat. ) is used 
by some botanists for the more usual 

alphltomor'plioas (dX^croi', pearl 
barley, /iop^, form), like biurley- 
meal ; applied to certain fungi. 

alp'lgene {cupig'enaf bred in the Alps) 
= alpine. 

alp'lne, alpVnus, proi>erly denoting 
plants belonging to the Alps {cUpeSf 
mountains), but frequentlv used in 
a wider sense, embracing aipestrine, 
as well as the higher situated plants. 

alslua'ceouB {Alstne, Toum. +CEons), 
used of a petal having a short, but 
distinct claw. 

alter'nate, alter^nus ; alUma'tuSy 
cUter^nanSf (1) placed on opposite 
sides of the stem on a different line ; 
(2) when between other bodies of 
the same or different whorls, as in 
Umbelliferae, where the stamens are 
alternate with the petals, that is, 
between them; altemipln'nate, or 
altem'ately-pin'nate, when the 
leaflets of a pinnate leaf are not 
exactly opposite each other ; Alter- 
na'tion, AlUma'tio, the fact of being 
alternate, ^ of Oenera'tlonB, the 
reproduction by organisms which 
do not precisely resemble the parent, 
but the grand-parent, applied espe- 
cially to the regular succession of 
sexual and asexual phases, as in 
Ferns, etc. ; alter'natlve, altemcUi'- 
VU8, in aestivation when the peri- 
anth segments are in two rows, and 
the inner so covered by the outer, 
that each exterior member overlaps 
the half of two interior members. 

Al'tbelne, a principle from the marsh- 
mallow, Althaea, Toum., analogous 
to Asparaffin. 

Altitude, AUUt^do (lAt. height), used 
to specify the height above the sea 
of the vegetation m question. 

aluta'oeoui, ahUa'ceus {aiuta^ soft 
leather + 0]Eon8), (1) the colour of 
buff leather, or light tan ; (2) 
leathery in texture, coriaceous. 

Alve'ola {aivealua, a hollow vessel), 
pi. Alveolae; cavities on the sur- 
face, as the pits on the receptacle 
of many Compositae, honey-combed ; 
(2) the pores of such Fun^ as 
Potyporus; (3) the perithecia of 
certain other Fungi ; Alve'oli, the 
pit-like markings on the valves of 
many Diatomaoeae ; Alve'olar- 
Iflasma (rXd^rAui, modelled), term 
used by Strasburger in place of 
TsoPHOPLASM, granular protoplasm ; 
al'veolate, alveda'tus, alveola'ris, 
marked as though honey combed. 

Amadou' (Fr. ), ( 1 ) the substance of cer- 
tain Fungi used as tinder, as Poly- 
poruafomentariiis, Fr. ; (2) as stvptio 
when from the pubescence of the 
Phanerogam Mdaatoma hirta, Linn. 

Amalthe'a t {AfUL, together, d\0iu), I 
increase), used by Desvaux for an 
aggregation of dry fruits within a 
calyx which does not become fleshy, 
as Alchemilla, and SangtUsorha, 

Aman'ltlii (from Amanita, Dill.), (1) 
the red pigment of the pileus of 
the Fly-Agaric, (2) the poisonous 
alkaloid from the same, also 
written Aman'itine. 

ambig'eiius {ambo, both, genus, race), 
applied to a perianth whose ex- 
terior is calycine, and interior 
coroUine, as Nymphaea, 

ambigolflor'us {ambiguus, doubtful, 
Jlo8, floris, flower), applied by 
Gassini to flowers of an indeterm- 
inate form ; ambig'aouB, (1) said of 
an organ when its origin is un- 
certain, thus the dissepiments of an 
orange may belong to the axis or 
the paries ; (2) of a plant when its 
position is doubtful. 

amUp'arous, -rw, {ambo, both ; pario, 


IbrUg furth),produciiig two kind*, 

u when a bud contsins both flowers 
and leaves, as the Horse-chestnut ; 
unWiporang'Ute ( + Sporasoh'm), 
hermaphrodite doners, otherwise 
macro- and mioro-aporanaiate, that 
ii, beariDg ovoles and poTlen-aKi. 

Amb'ltu* (Lat. a going round), the 
outline of a figure, aa of a leaf. 

ajiiblaocaT'pni(a;i^X6u, to be abortive, 
KUfTtit, fruit), wbeu mosl. of the 
ovules abort, a few only becoming 
perfect seeds. 

ambros'ULCtu [o^pJuioT. divine food), 
poBBeSBiDg a BtTOng scent of 

Ambula'cnun (Lat.): ' ivalk in a 
botania garden. 

une'lloratlUK ^Fr., am^lioraiuHi, on 
improvement) ~ Plants, those 
bacteria which cause nodules od 
the roots of Leguminoeai. 

Arn'ont. Atiiaii'uni {Lat. a strap), ■ 
catkin, a spike of flowers usually 
bractesM, and frequently deciduous; 

«( + 


form {/oi'ma, shape), 
(/tro, I bear), catkin-beariug ; cat- 
kin-like ; Amant'ula (diminutive) 
the so-called catkins of the male 
inflorescence in Hphoffnum, 
uuaris'Ue {a., not, lupiittat, divuible) 
— Fs(nu, are those whose prothalli 
being ioauffioienlly provided with 

and produce antheridin only, 
unetbyit'eiu, unettiyst'luiu [Lat.), 

the colour of amethyst, violet. 
unetoa'elouB (a, not, iieri. with, after, 

Bitot, house), B parsnite wbicb does 

not change its hoet ; the reverse of 

Am'ldAS (.\[D[-moDia1 -I- ide) oerUin 
subatancea occurring in plants, 
soluble in water, diffusible, cry- 
stal lizable, not coagulating on 
boiling ; those of common occur- 
r«aoe are Aaparagin, Leucin, anil 
Tyroain ; Amld'ulln, noluble starch, 
existing in email ijuantily in ord- 
toary atarch-graioa. 

Aml'doplJKt {r^ainit, modelled), an 
error for Amiloplast. 

Amlto'ils (a, without, itlroi, a web], 
defined aa degenerat« mitosis, 

when nuclear division takes place 
directly without the phenomenft 
of ksryokineaia ; ad], amllo'tto. 

Am'modytas (Am;'d<> sand, iuu, I aink 
in), living in aondy placea ; Aouno- 
ph'iloui, -liif [^^(111, I love), sand- 

Ammo'nUk (Ammon, the Libyan 
Jupiter, first found near hta 
temple), a pungent gas ; the ao- 
called volatile alkali. 

Am'nloii. Am'UoB (ii;u'(ii(, Eoetal 
brane), a viacous fluid whicl: 
rounds certain ovules in an early 
HtaKS ; amnlot'lc 9xe. = Khbrto- Sao. 

uno«'eold {iiisi^BJM, interchanging), 
appltbd to the jelly-tibe plasmodium 
of Myxogastrcs when in motion, 
resemblinK an Amof'ba, a protean- 
shaped rnizopod ; Amoebold'aaa, 
□sed by Gobi for the lowest forma 
of plant-life whiob are destitute of 

atnorpli'oiu, amorph'un (a, without, 
)ioixp^, form), sbapelesa, the form 
not regular or definite ; Aioorpll'- 
opbyte {<pvTif, a plant), a plant with 
anomalous So were. 

AmiitiaiitlL'ium X (i-P''PU around, dvCot, 
flower), the dilated receptacle of 
an innoresceoce, aa in Dorstenia ; 
cllDaotbiuni ; Am'phlMter {ie-r^p, a 
stsr), the combined nuclear- spindle 
and cytaatcra ; also [or the com- 
bined cytaaters only (Croiier) ; 
ampblb'toni (j^ioi, life), growing on 
dry land or in water equally well i 
~ Altema'tlon, the adaptation of 
organiam, originally of aquatio 
habit, to aubatrisJ conditions ; 
MnpUb'ryoiiB, 'Vua t^pi^iii, to 
sprout), growing by innrease over 
tile whole aurface ; Ampbib'ryM, 
Endlicber'a name for Monocotyle- 
dons ; ampblearp'tc, -pons, -piu 
|«aprii, fruit), poesensing two kinds 
of fruit, differing in character or 
time of ripening ; Ampblcarp'lnm, 
an archegonium persiating as a 
(niit-envelope, after fertibzation ; 
ampUoarpOK'anout {-ytttiia, I bring 



forth), producing fruit above 
ground, which is subsequently 
buried beneath ; </. htpogarpd- 
OBN0T7S ; Amphlcotyle'don 

(irorvXi^dc^y, a hollow), De Vries*s 
term for cotyledons united so as 
to form a cup. 
•mplilgae'us, amiAige'aa (d/uf>l, 
around, yij, the earth) ; (1) plants 
which are natives of both Old and 
New worlds ; (2) used of flowers 
which arise from the rootetook ; 
as in Krascheninihoviaf Turcz. ; Am- 
phlg'amae [ydfiot, marriage), plants 
whose fructification is unknown, 
possibly of both sexes ; amphl- 
gam'eous, amphig'amouB, supposed 
to be destitute of sexual organs, or 
where their presence has not yet 
been ascertained ; it has been ap- 
plied to Cryptogams ; Ampblgast'er, 
proposed alteration of the follow- 
ing ; Amphlgast'rla {yaar^p, bell^), 
stipular organs in Hepaticse, which 
clasp the stem ; amphig'tturas 
{yewvdta, I bring forth), growing 
all round an object, used of Fungi 
when the hymenium is not re- 
stricted to any particular surface ; 
'^ Oastra'tion, the action of UstUago 
arUherarum, DC., when it mingles 
the characters of both sexes by 
developing in each, some of the 
characters of the other; Amphi- 
mix'ts {/jd^ts, intercourse), sexual 
reproduction (Weismann) ; Amphl- 
py'rtnin (Tv/H)r, stone of fruit), 
the membrane of the pyrenin, the 
body of the nucleus ; Amphlsaro'a 
(cdp^, aapKbs, flesh), an indehiscent 
multilocular fruit, dry without, 
pulpy within, as a melon ; Amphl- 
spwrminm {cwip^f a seed), a fruit 
which is ampbisper'mouB, when the 
pericarp closely invests the seed and 
assumes its shtupe ; Amphitlie'oinin 
{B'/fKfff a case), peripheral layer of 
oells surrounding the endothecium 
in the earlv stage of the develop- 
ment of the moss-capsule ; aoj. 
amphitlie'eial : amphit'ropal, or 
more correctly ampbifropous -pus 
{rpowiw, I turn), said of the ovule 

when it is curved so that both 
ends are brought near to each other ; 
Amplilt'ropby, Wiesqer's term for 
growth when greatest in the shoots 
and buds on the sides of the mother 

Am'phora (Lat. a wine-jar) the lower 
part of a pyxis, as in Henbane. 

tLmpleatf9SLX,ampleet'an8, amplecti'viu, 
amplea^aru ( Lat. ) embracing ; am- 
plex'us, in Vernation, when two 
sides of one leaf overlap the two 
sides of the one above it ; amplex'- 
loaul, ampltxicau'lis {cavlisy stem), 
stem-clasping, when the petiole- 
leaf, or stipule, is dilated at the 
base, and embraces the stem. 

am'pliate, am/^ia7fM (Lat.) enlarged ; 
ampliatiflor'us X {flos, flower). Com- 
posites having the ray-florets 
enlarged, as in the Corn-flower. 

Ampul'Si, (Lat. a bottle), the flasks 
found on aquatics such as Utri- 
cularia ; ampulla'ceous, -cetM, am- 
pul'liform, ampidlijor^mist swollen 
out in flask-shape, as the corolla 
in some Heaths. 

Amygr'dala {amygdalum, a kernel), an 
almond ; amygd'allform (format 
shape), almond-shaped ; Amyfir'da- 
lin, a glucoside found in the fruit 
of many Rosaxseae; amyg'daline, 
pertaining to or resembling an 

amyla'ceooB (dCjuvXoy, fine flour+ao- 
eou8),starchy ; Am'ylase, an enzyme, 
the same as Diastase ; amj^e- 
rous (0^/Hu, I bear), starch-bearing ; 
Am'ylin, a product of the action 
of diastase on st-arch ; Am'ylltas, 
skeletons of starch-granules com- 
posed of amylodextrin (Belzung) ; 
Amylobacte'ria {paKrrfpiov, a little 
rod), microbes producing butyric 
fermentation, ascribed to the action 
of Bacillus Amylobacter,V&n Tiegh. ; 
Amyloceriulose (+ Cellulose), a 
supposed constituent of starch- 
granules ; Amylodex'trin ( + Dex- 
trin) an intermediate in converting 
starch into dextrin ; cf, Achboodex- 
trin; Amylogen'esls {y^veciSf be- 
ginning), the formation of starch ; 



n'lo (yiftiiu. I bring forth], 
If starch ; - Bodfaa, Lkcc- 
ti9 1 Amrloby'droUit [BSaip, 
.iVii, a tooBing), an etiEjme 
nnaforms starch by hjilro- 
Ifais ; AmjIobrdroryilB, the act id 
question ; am'yloid {tllo!. reaem- 
blance). analogoua to Btatoh ; 
AmylolsQ'olMB (Xci'io!. white), plas- 
tidB proilucinij st«rch - granmeB ; 
AmrlOl'Tila (Xumt, a. looningi, Iraofl- 
formation of starch inU) other 
bodies, as angar ; unyloljt'la 
Sn'iyme, an unorganiaed ferment, 
whii:h hresba up the starch cell- 

> deit 

Amy'lome. a term applied 
parenchyma, when it contains 
starch ; Am/lon, Amy'lnm, in oom- 
pomtioQ = 8TAiica ; Amy'lmn-Bofl'y, 
a rounded body in a chlorophyll 
buid or plat«, which is a centre of 
starch formation ;~Cen'treB. Stras- 
burger'i term for Pvhenoids ; 
-Oralni, or—Oran'nlM, the lamin- 
ated bodies which are formed of 
(tareb aa reserve material in plant- 
cells ^ — Star, a tuber-like or^tan in 
Chara nlrlligtra, Bauer, which is 
of an isolated subterranean node ; 
Am'yloplaat {wXairrd!, inoulded)^ 
LKCcopr.*STiiJ, a colourless granule 
of protoplasm, which generates a 
■torch - granule ; amyloplast'ic, 
Starch-tormiDg ; Am'yloaes (Amyl, 
a chemical term + ose), a group of 
Bubatancea of which celluloaa and 
sutrr.h are the commooeat. 

An'aUz, pi. Anab'lcee ( am^ieu, I 
revive], those vegetative parts of 
CcTptogams whiuh perish below, 
but vegetate above, aa L'jcopodium, 
Lichens, and Hepatios. 

HWlwrie (ori, up, (JoX^, a throw, 
Stroke), adj. of Ansb'olliiii, con- 
structive metabolism of the proto- 
plasm, the building up of more 
complex from Bimpler aubstanoes ; 
" Bauatoffwechsel '' of theGermans. 
Jnp'yla f (dvaid^iirrui, I bend 
kok), lacerations of the epidermal 
^"" " 'a Bome Agarics. 

uiacftntb'oiu (of, without, itavSa,, a 
thorn), without thorns or spines. 

aoacariUa'oeoai, resembling ^iiacar. 
diam, Linn., as to arrangement of 

Anaobon'sls [irax^fi^'t, a going 

back), retrograde meUmorphoeis of 

an organ or whorl. 

I MiaaraK'y»oai (ar, not, dipm, apei, 

ivri), woman), said of Hepatica in 

I whioh archegonia do not arise at 

I the extremity of the shoot, whioh 

j continues to grow ; cf. acbd<;yiiov3. 

, anad'ieinoiii (aVi, up, Spiiios. a 

< coarse), in venation, that in whioh 

the first set of nerves in each 

segment of the frond is given off 

on the upper side of the midrib 

towards the apex, as in Aapidiam, 

Anatro'tM, Anatro'bliun, pt. Anatto'Uft 

(oc, without, iiip, air, piej, life), an 
organism able to live in the abaenM 
of free onygen, aa many bacteria i 
rac'nltatlTe ~, organisms which can 
live as Anaerobes; ob'U^ta — , ihoee 
which can exist or thrive only in 
the absence of free oxy((i^n. 
anatro'biaii, -bloui. -bic, anaSroUo'tlo, 
adj, ; Anaeroblo'ais, the state of 
living without oxygen i Anat'ro- 
phyta (i/iirTir. plant), a plant whioh 
does not neea a direct supply of 

Aual'ofcy {iyaftnyla, proportion), re- 
semblance in certain points, as in 
form not function, or function not 
form, as the tendrils of the Pea, 
Snilax, or Vine; "thai resem- 
blance of structures whioh depeoda 
upon similarity of function " (Dar- 
win) ; anBl'oKOUS. resembling, bnt 
not homologous : An'alognei, struc- 
tures corresponding to previous 

AwU'ysla (drriXuTii, releasing). (1) the 
examination of a plant to deter- 
mine its attinicies and position ; (2) 
the details of the flower, etc., on a 
botanic drawing. 

anametad'romona [i'i, np, -f Mbta- 
DROH'.ius), in the venation of Femi, 
when the weaker pinnales are ana- 



dromons, and the stronger are cata- 
dromons ; Anamorph'ism (Crozier), 
=Aiiamor]fli'oaiBm, Anamorpbo'sis 
{/tSp^tfiffii, a shaping), (1) a gradual 
change of form m a group of plants 
in geologic time ; (2) a similarohanffe 
in a group now existing ; (3) a stril- 
ing change in form, the result of 
clumged conditions of ^^wth 
(Crozier); anandrar^ious, -nua, aa- 
and'rous (ar, not, MiPt ^^p^h a 
man), having no stamens, but with 
floral envelopes and pistils. 

ananth'eroiis, AnantheTum (ay, with- 
out, aifOrfpSs, flowering), applied to 
filaments destitute of anthers. 

anantli'oaB, -thus (ay, without, (b^dos, a 
flower), wanting the flower; An'a- 
IdiaM, Anaph'aais (^tf, appear- 
ance), the formation of daughter- 
nuclei in karyokinesis, following 
the Mbtaphasis ; An'apbjrte (0vr6y, 
plant), the potential independence 
of every branch or shoot ; An'aplast 
(irXaffrJt, moulded), A. Meyer's 
term for Lbuooplahtid ; Anasar'ca 
{trdp^f 0-apir6t, flesh), dropsy in 
plants; anaatat'io (ardffis, a stand- 
u>g)t reviving, as certain plants 
after desiccation. 

ijmstomo'sls {dpoffTo/idta, I form a 
mouth), (1) union of one vein with 
another, the connection forming a 
reticulation; (2) Vuillemin's term 
for conjugation in Afucor, two 
equal gametes conjugate and are 
out off from the parent hypha by a 

IsftFomy {di^iLt up, rofjAs, cutting) in 
botany, the study of structure ; 
anafropal, more correctly anat'- 
ropous, anaifrofAis (rpoiri), a turn), 
the ovule reversed, with micropyle 
close to the side of the hilnm, and 
the chalaza at the opposite end. 

An'toory, Am'berxy, a diitease caused by 
PUiifnodiophora Braasicae^W oron,, 
in Crucifers, the root becoming 

aa'caps (Lat. two-headed) « andp'Jtal, 
anolp'itoiis, two-edged, flattened or 
compressed, as the stem of Sisym- 
brium ancepa, Gav. 

Aochu'ilii, the colouring matter of 
Anchuaa tinctariaf Linn., now re- 
ferred to the genus Alkanna, 

aada'tnis {dyxUrrfKOP, a small hook), 

aader, -dra, -dro, -dnun (oH)/), dpSphs, 
a man), in Greek compounds = the 
male sex ; AndzoeUnlom (irXtH), bed), 
the bed of the anther in Orchids, 
an excavation on the top of the 
column, usually written Gljnan- 
DRiUM ; androdioe'dous {8U, twice, 
dUotf house), used of a species with 
two forms, one male only, the other 
hermaphrodite ; andrody'namous 
{ii^pafus, power), of Dicotyledons in 
which the stamens are highly de- 
veloped ; Androe'dnm (oZirof, house), 
the male system of a flower, the sta- 
mens collectively ; Androgametan'- 
fl^nm (yafU-np, a spouse ; dyyeiop, a 
vessel), =ANTHKRiDinM, the organ 
in which the male sexual cells are 
formed ; And'rogametes, zoosperms, 
male sexual cells; Androgam'eto- 
phore (^/)w, I bear), male sexual 
form of a plant, as in Equisetum ; 
aadrog'enoos {yevpdta, I bring 
forth), male-bearing ;«~Oaatra'tion, 
the action of UatUago antheraramt 
DC., when inciting production of 
male organs; Androgonidlnm (+ 
Gronidium) = Anurosporb ; androg'- 
ynal, androgr'ynoas - wu (yw^, 
woman), (1) hermaphrodite, having 
male and female flowers on the same 
inflorescence, as in many species 
of Cartx ; (2) occasionally used for 
MONOBGious ; androgyna'xlB (Lat. ) of 
doa ble flowers in w hich both stamens 
and pistils have become petaloid; 
androgynlous t (Lat.), belonging 
to, or of an hermaphrodite flower ; 
androgynlflor'as % {flos, flotria, a 
flower), a hybrid term for when 
the head of a composite bears 
hermaphrodite flowers ; Androg^y- 
nl'^m, a change from monoecious to 
dioecious ; aadromonoe'doiiB {fiApos, 
alone ; oZ«co$, house), having perfect 
and male flowers, but no female 
flowers ; andropet'aloas, andrope- 
Uda'rifu (WraXor, a flower leaf), 


flowerBdanble,the slamenipetaloid, 

IbepbtUBUDchaoged; An'drophon, 
Andropli'onuu (^jiu', I boar); (1) 
a support of a column of Btumcns, kb 
in Malv&ceSie: (2) s stAlk supporting 
allwi), amaleeporophyll, a BtainHn ; 
An'dtttphyte (#i/r£y, ■ plant), a male 
plant in tbe sexual generation ; 
Androaponui'Blimi (arapi, a acsd ; 
ilndof, a vessel), uporanginm eon- 
tainioa An'droaparea, awarmapores 
of Oedogoniae, which give ri«e Ui 
Dwarf -males, destined to produce 
■perautozoida ; an'dTDnl, i 

1 produced on the vital 
IB of plants by n constant 
DulTont of electricity from the anode. 

jUum'imLii, an acrid substance 
from aeveral ipeciM of AriemoM, 

uiunopti'llous (ivefiix, wind ; ipMfi, I 
love), Bpplie<i to flowera which are 
wind -fertili led, the pollen being 
conveyed by the air ; Anemopb'Uu, 
wind-fertilized plants -, Anemo'sll, 
wind-Bhate, a disease of timber- 

■nftftct'noM, anf rof I vo'^UK. antlrae'- 
tDU, ai\frat,'tiui {Lat., a curving), 
einuoiiB, aa the antbera of gourds ; 
^BO spirall}' twisted. 

jLll(l«uih']rm& (avyrior, a vessel ; 
l-fXviui., an infusion), vascular 
tiiaiie of any kind ; anslacayplc, 
angtocarp'oiu. -pM» (lapirii, fruit), 
(1) having the fruit invest'-d by 
some covering which maeks it, aa 
in the Cupulifcrae ; (2) with 
spores encloaed in some kind of 
receptacle : a closed spotheoium in 
Liohens: Anilog^ainaA, Ardissona's 
group for AniiioBperm- and Gymno- 
spermii; Angt'olum.thB apore-case of 
certain Pungi (Lindley) ; aiUfiomO- 
BOaperiD'oUB {tiiroi. one ; aHpiia, 
seed), having only one seed tn the 
carpel ; AnKlaspemi'n, Aa'glo- 
apu'ins. plants having their tteeda 
enclosotl in tin ovary ; ftngloaperm'- 

ftl, belonging to the plants classed 
as AngioBpaniiB ; ~ type of Stomata, 
characterised by the development 
of the inner and outer border ol 
their cuticle, the outer border 
usually considerably thickened ; 
anglDa'parona, used of Cryptogams 
producing spores in a closed recep- 
tacle ; Anglosp'oraa. plants so 
An'gle, An'gultui (Lat,, a, comer), in 
botany not limited to the inclina- 
tion of two lines, bnt often refers to 
the meeting of two planes to form 
, an edge, as in angular stemsi — of 
Devlatloii, that which a branch or 
similar organ makes with its axis ; 
"Ot DtverEBUca ; that measured in 
the cycle between suocesBive mem- 
bers in the same spiral or whorl. 
ftueuUlalaaform'tB (Lat., shaped Hke 
I a imiill eel), applied by Koerber to 
I Lichen-spores which are worm-like 

MlK'nlar, angiUar'U, ang-ula'lwi, 
] anguio'sus (nniju/iifl, a ooroer), used 
I when an organ shows a determinate 
□umber of angles, as the quadrao- 
I golar stems of Labiatse ;~DlTer- 
! gmce, in pbyllotaxis, is given under 
I Anolb of divergence; an^cOato, 
onflu/a'/iM, more or less anmilar ; 
anguIiDerv'ed anijvliiarv'iiu t (nei"- 
I mm. a nerve), when veins form aa 
I angle with the midrib, as in most 
I Dicotyledons; antolodent'ate {deas, 
tUnlvi, a t«oth), having angular 
teeth {C roller). 
I anpiatlfo'Uate. -Uoni, -liaf (an^rusfiM, 
narrow ; /oliiim, a leaO, narrow 
leaved \ auKUBtlsept'al, an:/Ktli*ep- 
latim (neptiim. a division), having 
a n arrow- parti I ioned fruit, as the 
Bilicle of Thlanpi; AngnitlMp'taa, 
plants HO ohBraoterisod. 
, Anbalo'iiliie, a poisonous alkaloid 
from Anhalottiiiin Lfeinii, Hen- 
! nings 1 it resembles Strychnine. 
An'llapliyll. a product from Chloro- 
phyll after treatment with Aniline, 


: tbe Di 



anlia'tiu, partaking of the Boent 
of Anise, Pimpinella Anisumf 

aniioVrions, anisdb'riua t (^M-of, on- 
e^ual, ifjijppvo9^ embryo), a name 
ffi^en to Endogens, £rom one side 
beinff Buppoeed to poeaen greater 
developing force than the other, 
hence only one cotyledon is 
formed ; anlBody'naiiioiii, -fmw, 
(Bvpofut, power) = anisobriona ; 
Aniaogam'etei (yafUrrit, a spooBe), 
sexual cells, showinff a dinerenoe 
between male and female; anis- 
og'yiioiis {yvr^, woman), with fewer 
carpels than sepals ; anlsom'aroiiB, 
anMomer^ictu ijupMy a part), where 
the parts of a flower are not all 
regular, unsynmietrical ; Aniao- 
mwr'phy (au>/>^, shape), change in 
form of an organ, caused by its posi- 
tion in relation to the horizon of the 
mother-axis ; anlsopef alous, -Iim, 
(r^aXov, a flower leaf), having un- 
equal-sized petals ; anlsopbyll'ona 
(0f?XXor, a leaf), when the two leaves 
of a pair are diverse in shape or 
size ; Isi'iOifliyUy, used by Krasser 
for the different forms of leaf- 
structure due to difference of 
position, as in aquatic plants, the 
submerged or floating • leaves ; 
Inlsopl^tes (0in-oy, a ^lant), 
formerly used for Muscineae ; 
a]il8<Mep'alou8,-/tt« (Sspalum, calyx- 
leaf), the sepals unequal ; aiilsosta- 
m'enouB (Grozier), anlsofte'monona, 
-nua {ffTiifiU¥. a thread) = having 
stamens of different size ; anlso- 
stemopet'alna = anisoetemonous ; 
anisotropic, aniaotrop'ona, (r/>ox^, 
a turn), endowed with diiOferent 
kinds of irritability ; Inlso- 
trop'iixn, Inlsof ropy, the Quality 
itself, as shown in leaves and roots 
which respectively seek and shun 

Anla'ge, (Ger.) may be variously 
rendered as rudiment, inception, 

assex'ed, annex^ua (Lat. fastened to), 

aanot'inoua, -nuB (Lat. a year old), 

applied to branches of last year's 

airnual, annua'list anfnuua (Lat. 
lasting a year), within one year ; 
(1) umd of plants which perish 
within that period; (2) ol the 
rings in wood which denote the 
year's growth ; Annual King, the 
marks seen on cross-section of wood, 
which show the respective in- 
crement during each year ;<« Shoot, 
= ramus annotmus. 

an'nnlar, annular^is, annfdar^itia 
(annu/iM, a ring), used of any 
organs disposed in a circle ;<« Dact, 
<«Vesael, one in which the second- 
ary thickening has taken place in 
the form of rings ; an'nnlata, 
annula'tua, anmUjform'ia {forma, 
shape), ring-shaped; Annula'tlon, 
a ring or belt (Crozier) ; annulatl- 
form, ring-like, as the apex of the 
thecae of Schixaa, 

An'nnlna (Lat. a ring) ; (1) in Ferns, 
the elastic organ which partially 
invests the theca, and at maturity 
bursts it; (2) in Fungi, a portion 
of the ruptured marginal veil, 
forming a nill upon the stipe after 
the expansion of the pileus ; (3) 
in Mosses, the ring of cells between 
the base of the peristome or orifice 
of the capsule and the operculum ; 
(4) in Diatoms, used by W. Smith 
for a compressed rim of silex 
within the frustules of such genera 
as Bhabdonema, Kutz. ; (5) in Equi- 
setaceae, the imperfectly developed 
foliar sheath below the fruit spike ; 
(6) the fleshy rim of the coroUa in 
Asclepiads, as the genus Stapelia ; 
'^infems, '^moUlls, as defined in 
1. , '^ snperus, = Armilla. 

anod'al, anod'io (aVd, up, Mi, a way), 
in the upward direction following 
the genetic spiral. 

anom'alons, -Iv^ (a, not, 6tw.\6t^ 
equal), unlike its allies in certain 
points, contrary to rule ; anomaloe'- 
oiona X (of'cos, a house), = polygam- 
ous ; Anom'aly, variation from 
normal character. 

Inomod'romy (dro/ua, without law, 


MODDt be assigned 
order (Prantl). 

AnopIiT'tk, An'optijrtei (orui, upwMd, 
^vnr, plant), — Bryophfta. 

Aa'n« (niua, « huidle), the partial 
le*f atalka of & compound leaf -, klt'- 
mlcW, coiled at the apex ood then 
bant orer in a loop, oa the ahoota in 
■ome Cnonrbitoceae (Crosier }. 

Ast-plonta, plants utilised by ants for 
habitation ; 

aaUkgonlBt'le (iiTayiunoTlji.advsrsarj) 
Symbto'sia, where the STinbionta 
ore Dol Diatually helpful or neutral, 
but hurtful, at leut an the part of 

M, (ante, before), the apace 
immediately below the guard-oella 
of a stoma 1 tatamtxg'iiitHmnrffu, 
edge) need of son which ore a little 
within the margin ; uktema'dlnH X 
(medim, middle) atandiog before the 
aiiddle of another body, opposite, 

AaUa'ak (lAt. aail-yard) Darwin's 
tenn for the slander proceaa of the 
ro«t«lluni in CataietKm. borrowed 
from entomologr ; antennaeform'la 
; t/orma. ehape) naed of the fruit of 
Ammi majn», Linn., the two styles 
anggetrting the antennae of inaecta. 

uttaplacen'tal {aiUe, before, + Pla- 
centa) in front of the placentae ; 
q/". IsTBRPuicBNTH. ; ADtepoBlt'lon 
(pono, poiilnm, placed) = Scfer- 

uU'rlor (Lat. that before) (1) of time, 
previoas : (2) of place, position in 
front, or turned away ftom the 

atL'taro-poft«'tlor(Lat. later], median. 

Astlia'la {dren>.ioy, a. little flower |. the 
panicle of jimcw. where the lateral 
axes exceed the main axis. 

Aatb'MDf , Antbe'mla {irS^tio*, flower- 
pattem), a flower-cluster of any 

An'ther, Anlhe'ra (irS-npos, flowering). 
(1) that portion of a atomen which 
conlaina the pollen, usually bilocu- 
lor, and leaaile, or attached to a flla- 
menl; (2) an old term in Fungi, for 

the Antheridium ;~Cap, - 

Orchida, the outer deciduous cose 
or bag, which is virtually the anther 
minus the pollinia; ~IhiBt = Poij.EN; 
"LotMa, the cells which contain the 
pollen ; ~Vlnfrt, the homy, lateral 
expansion a of the anther- lobes in 
Aaclepiadeae : anthartferous, -ran 
(/cro, I bear), anther- bearing ; an'- 
tb>rl»M,deetitutaof anthers, female 
or neuter flowers ; onttierog'eiunw, 
-nui (-ynFclui, 1 beget), applied to 
double flowers arising irom the 
transformation of anthers (Da Can- 
dolle)ian'tliarold(i;jfii, like) anther- 
like ; Antberoma'nla (mania, mad- 
ness) on inordinate deTclopment of 

As'tltetKI, Antharid'lam (itSiipi!, 
flowering, tlios, reaemblanoe) ; (1) 
the male sexual organ in Crypto- 
gams, the analogue of the anther in 
Phanerogams ; (2) in Hymenomy- 
celes, an old term for CvsnniDH ; 
Anthermao'Ela (ilYycror, a vessel), 
microspores of Marnitea and allied 
plants ; Antberld'loiiluiTe (^Dp^u, I 
bear), a unisex usl gometophore, 
bearing antberidia only, a special- 
ised branch in Sphagnum and 

AnUuro|iIi]il'ly (iyeijpis, flowering, 
4>v\\oy, a leaf), the viresceoce 
and phyllomorphy of anthers ; 
Auttaarospomi'gium (inropd, a seed, 
d-ftciiu; a vessel), a synonym for 

MicRoapoR&NoiL'M ; Antberoio'a 
Anlharoio'tda (fuov, an animal. 
(I Jot, reoemblanoe), male motile 
cella provided with cilia, produced 
in anuieridia. 

Antba'ala (arSifa-if, flowering), the 
expanaion of the flower, the time 
when fertilisation takes place. 

Anlheimol'ygti t (Af^a;, a flower, 
XirrTit, a loosing), tbe metamor- 
phosis of inflorescence (Lindley) j 
Anthea'mna t an inflorescence ; 
anthocBip'ous, -pn^ {naprit, fruit). 


with a 

termed peeudocarpa, aa the tjtraw- 
berry or Pineapple ; Anlhooblor'lil 
(xXwpct, pale green), the yellow 


oolouriag of flowers ; xanthein ; 
AnUooUu'liim {tXtm, a bad), the 
recepUole of a Compoiite ; Antho- 
OT'uiln (mtaroi. dkrk bine), the 
blue, Bometimai red, oolouring of 
Sowers ; Antho'diniD {SrBuS-rit, 
flover-like), the capitnlnm of the 
Compoiitae, by Bome restricted to 
^e iDTolacmnt ; Aatlioitoal'oKlst 
(oIiDi, boDBB, X^et, diBcoarae), 
a Btadeot of plant-life in its en- 
viroament ; an'tliolil (djoi, reaem- 
blanoe), flower-like, aa the male 
infloresoeuoe of Polytrichjim ; In- 
tbolen'olil (Xcuioi, clear), the k>- 
ealled oolouring matter of white 
flowen; An'UioUta {\l9ot, a atone), 
a fonil plant which has the sp- 
peoraace of a, flower; Antlud'yall 
(Kvau, a loosing], the retrograde 
metamorphosie of a flower; 
Mitttopli'Uona (0iX^u, I love, ap- 
plied to planta with flower-viaitiag 
meecta which aid cross-fertilizatioD. 
Anthoph'Uiu, a florist, a cultivator 
of garden flowera ; An'Utopliaie, 
AntboiA'omin, -vt, {ipapia, I bear), 
a short stalk which sometinieH 
oocnn between the cal ji and petals, 
supporting the interior organs, as in 
SiterM : anttLoph'oroni, -rue, bearing 
Sowers, floriferous ; Antli'opltTta 
{•porir, plant), R. Brown's term for 
Phanerogams ; Antbop'toiU (rruini, 
a falling), the fall of flowers. 

Am'thoa, Antku* (drtfof, a flower,) used 
in Greek compounds ; An'tbMpemi 
X^wipfia, a seM), " a little ooloured 
concretion tcattered in the tissues 
of certain Fuooids," (Lindley). 
AnlboUx'la, Antbotaz'r (riifif, 
order), the arrangement of the 
flower ; Antlioxan'Uiiu (far Aii, 
yellow), the colouring matter of 
yellow flowera. 

antlirae'iiiBi (Lat.), coal-black. 

Vine, caused by /*Aomo ompe/i 
Berk, et Curl. ; Au'tbiax, disease 
in aoimalB due to Bae^utA nlhraci$, 
Anttln'nu % (Jftfn, flowor, aip^ tail), 

a cluat«r of flowera at the end of a 
long stalk ; An'tlmi, of old aaliiora= 


antl-, in compoeition=a^iiut. 

An'tlarlne, the active poiaonous prin- 
ciple of the npaa tree, AMiaris 
tccitaria, Lesch. 

AntlU'onti (dirl, against, ^lot, life), 
antipathetic organisms ; AntlUo'ila, 
antipathy, a term proposed by 

a&U'oal, antt'cons, arUfevt (Lat. (ore- 
moat), the fore-part ; that most re- 
mote or turned awav from the axis ; 
Bpmoe uses antical to denote the 
upper (dorsal) face of ■ stem in 

antlell'nal (itrl, against, jcXJhw, I in- 
cline), perpendicular to the but- 
lace; -Oella, "parent" -cells whiiji 
pcraist in their primitive state with- 
out producing antipodal cells or 
VBsiolas ; Vesque further aubdividea 
tbem into (a) inert, {b) active or 
albumin igenous, (c) cotyloid ; ~ 
Flaiua, ~ Walls, those which cut the 
surface or the periclinal walls at 
right an glee ; anUcUnan'thoaa (irBet, 
flower), the inferior scaly pairta of 
aomeCk>mpoaite flowers ; anUd'romal, 
antld'romoaa (SpA^wt, a course), the 
direction of a lateral spiral being 
difierent to that of the main atem ; 
>- Tora'lon, a twist againat the 
direction of twining ; Antid'romy, 
diverse twining ; used also when 
different individuals of the same 
species display right and left-hajid 
torsion ; aiitlinyooit'la(^(TiT, iiiicifTot, 
fungus), fun^ddal; anUpaUiet'lo 
(nx^ot, suffenng), applied to planta 
which do not easily unite by graft- 
ing (Croeier) ; antipedanc'nlar 
(pedUTKu^uf, a stalk), placed oppo- 
peduncle ; antlpet'alani 

An'tipHyt (^vTor, plant), in alter- 
nation of generations, that gen- 
eration which produces reproductive 
cell* asexaall; ; anUp'odal (nCi, 
ToSat, foot) — Oslla, thre« cell* at 
the IwM of the embryo sac, formed 

bj dmsioQ of tbo priroary nuclaus, 
when surrounded b; protoplasm 
»nd 6mU]' c«U walls ; uiOMp^&Ioiu 
(ttpaiunt, oalj'X'leaf), opposite to, or 
upon & sepal, lb at is, not alternate 
with it ; anOsep'tle (a-ijuriicii, pat- 
reffing), preventing putrefaction. 

Antliperm'y (aWi, against, awdpita, 
a seed), Delpino's term for tho 
coalescence of the fertile divisiflns 
of the phjllome into a siogte fertile 
body opposed and superposed la the 
•terile division, in Ptianerogauie ; in 
Pteridophytea be t«nns this pheno- 
menon AutUporan'KlBiu ( inrgp^, seed , 
i-f-r<lor, vessel). 

antlUiet'lc larrieiint, opposition), in 
alternation of generations op- 
posed to homolusouB, implying thai 
the two generations urodifferent in 

UltltrDpal,aiiUt ropous, ./iIm (rpoirq, a 
turn), a synoaym of Orthotropal as 
applied loovulesiAnlltOX'UllrafKoi', 
poison], a substance secreted by 
the plant to protect itself against 
b&rmfal bacteria ; adj. MitlMx'le ; 
Mittiym'te, antizymot'lo (i^M, 
yeast), preventing fermentation. 

ULtror*e, anlrtir'inii {anlrro-, before, 
perru», tnmeJ towards), dlteoted 
upwards, opposed to retRoBSE. 

Ant^rom 1 1 Lat. a csvel = Pohdu. 

apAg'ynus; ( Jraf, once, •fvy^, woman), 

Apan'dty Isno, without, doiip, dsipat, 
man), M'Nab'sWrmforfusionof the 
antheridium with the 
also applied to the pollen-tube. 

dpukph'yi&ta (a, without, irapA., near, 
#ija»iiii, I am bom), destitute of 
parapbysea ; apeiisperm'lo, aprri- 
'ptraia I iix (+ Perisperm) = exal- 

Aper'Uo (Lat. nnfoldingl = AHTHESi9. 

Apertn'ra iLat. opening), (1) formerly 
nsed uf the dehisoonoa of anthers ; 
12) the ostiole of certain Fungi ; 
apert'uB (Lat. opened), exposed, 

Aptfalas (a, without, T^raXev, a 
^^■Sawer leaf), pUnte wanting petals 
^^^■F corolla ; ftp«t'tlou, -fui, ftp«t'- 


perianth, as in 
the coloured sepals simulaM 
petals : apet'alonmeM, being with- 
out petals. 

A'pAS^pl. A'plces (Lat. summit) (1) 
an old name for Anther; (2) the 
ostiole of Fungi (Lindtey); (3) the 
growing point of a stem or root ; 
(4) the tip of an organ. 

AplUA'lsla (a^viirii, disappesranoe), 
suppression of parts. 

Apban'eri, pi. (a, nol, rpartpii, mani- 
fest), organisms which are not vis- 
ible witbout the aids of reagest4 

Aphuiocy'cia* (a^v^i, unseen, kIjcXiii, 
a circle), Sachs's name for certain 
plants where the whorls are not very 
manifest, as Nymphaeaceae. 

AptuUot'roplsm (dro, from, i^iat, the 
San, TfKnrri, a turning), turning away 
from the light, negative heliotrop- 
iam, as in roots ; adj . aphallatTDp'bi. 

Aphlati'lSi (a, without, 4i\(^, ip\epn, 
vein), used generioally by C. Presl, 
but by Solms-Laubaoh for anom- 
alous pinnae an the rbachis of 
certain foasil ferns, and the existing 
HemilrJia eapenais, R. Br. 

AplioUi'tea X {a, without, •^Untrtit, 
one who givea tight), a plant 
growing in the abaence of fight, 
BB a Truffle. 

apliotomet'rle (a, not, 0us, ^brroi, 
light. fiiTpur, meaaure), applied by 
Strasburger to pholotactic zoo- 
spores, which constantly turn the 
same extremity to the light; 

opposed to PUOTOMETRIC. 

Aph'roataae % (a^^/ni, froth, onfrii, 
standing), cellular tissue. 

Apb'tllM (l#0ai, ulcerations in the 
mouth), the disease known as 
Thrush, aacribed to Sarxbaromycea 
albicanii, Beess : Aptbaphy'teB 
{•pvrir, plant), the Fungi mentioned 
above as causing the diseaae. 

AplvU'M (a, without, •(•iWoo, leaf), 
Lindley's term tor Thallopbttis ; 



a'ploal, a/pica'lis (apexy (tpicis, vim- 
mit), at the point of any struotnre ; 
'^^ Axis, in Diatoms, the line through 
the centre of the pervalvar axis in 
the direction of the raphe, at e<|aal 
distances from homologous points 
of the girdle band surfaces, and 
through the apices ; '^ Cell, the 
single cell in many plants which 
is the origin of all longitudinal 
growth ; ^ Ck>ne=PuNOTnM Vbob- 
TATiONis ; *^ Growth, extension in 
the length of the axis ; ^ Plane, in 
Diatoms, the plane at ri^ht angles 
to the valvar plane, which passes 
through the pervalvar and apical 
axes; (/.pervalvar '^^ ;trak8apioal 
*^ : ai^oicircixiiia'tiiB i (cirdnnatuSt 
turned round), ending in a circin- 
Date manner ; apldl'laiy, aptdlla'- 
ris, inserted on, or pertaining to the 
summit, as in the dehiscence of the 
capsule of Cerastium. 

Aplc^ila, Apic'vlum (Lat. a little 
point), a sharp and short, but not 
stiff point, in which a leaf may 
end; aplo'ulate, apictUa'tua, fur- 
nished with an apicula. 

A'pUary (a, without, rtXot, hat), sup- 

Sression of the upper lip in such 
owers as Calceolaria; Aplaa'oga- 
metes (rXdi^of, wandering, yafUrrfs, 
a spouse), a non- ciliated gamete, 
which may or may not be set free ; 
Aplan'osporei (<rTopd, a seed), non- 
motile cells which are detached for 
propagation, formed asexually by 
true cell-formation and rejuvenes- 
cence ; aplas'tlc (rXcurr6t, moulded), 
not convertible into organic tissues. 
aplasmodioph'orui (rXdUr/ia, 
moulded, cXSos, resemblance, </>op4utf 
I bear), used of Myxogastres which 
do not produce plasmodia. 

Aploperisvoini (drXdof, simple, repl, 
around, (rr6fMf mouth). Mosses hav- 
ing a single row of teeth in the 
peristome, or none ; adj. aploperl- 

Ap'oUast {dTo, up, /3Xcurr6f , a germ), a 
barren shoot, as from pollard wil- 
lows ; Ap'ocarp, Apocarf/iumf (icop- 
ToSf fruit), a fruit which is apo- 

oarp'ous, -pus, that is, when the oar- 
pels of a Gynaecium are separate ; 
apoey'tial (K&rot, a hollow), multi- 
nucleate and unicellular; Apoo'ytyy 
Vuillemin's term for non-cellular 
tissue in Fungi and Algae, the cells 
being reduced to sevend nudei 
within the cell- wall. 

apodog'ynna t («> without, roOt, 
wodos, foot 71W1 woman), applied 
to a disk which is not adherent to 
the ovary. 

ApoDm'bryonj (dro, from, i^fipvoif, 
an embryo), the embryo-stage sup- 
pressed, the ooephere giving rise 
immediately to tne vascular mem- 
bers; Apog'amy (ydfxot, marria£|e), 
abnormal budding and production 
of a bion by a prothallna without 
sexual intervention ; adj . apog^- 
amona ; Apog'eny {yiyos, offipring), 
loss of power for sexual reproduc- 
tion, the function of both male and 
female organs being destroyed. 

ApogeofroiSsm (dvo, from, 7^, the 
earth, rpoirij, a turn), growing away 
from the earth, as normal stems ; 
apogeotroplc, negatively geotropic ; 
Ap^jnj {yvr^, woman), loss of 
reproductive power in the female 
organ ; apopet'alous {wiraXoif, a 
flower leaf), having free petals ; 
polvpetalous ; apop^U'ona (^vXXoy, 
leaf) applied to parts of a single 
periantn whorl when free ; Apoph' 
3rtis (0v(tf, I grow) (I) the swellinff 
below the capsule of Splachnum and 
other ^Mosses ; (2) also in the oone 
scale of Pinua Pinaster, Soland. ; 
apoph'ysate, possessing such an en- 
largement ; aposep'alous {BepaJum, 
calyx -leaf) having free sepals ; 
Aposp'ory (<nropd, seed), suppression 
of spore-formation, the prothallus 
developing direct from the asexual 
generation ; direct <« , is normal but 
prolonged ; induced '^ , the prothalli 
produce buds forthwith (Lang) ; 
adj. aposp'orona ; Apost'aals 
{crrdffis, standing) the monstrous 
disunion of parts normally united. 

ApcMtax'iB (rd|is, order) the abnormal 
loss of nutritive or aeorvted fluids 


by bleeding, gtiniming etc. ; ^port'- 
ToplM (oTpii^ii, turning) the position 
auumed by the chluroplastidB 
during inteose lisbc, along the aides 
of the oell-wslla, instend of the 
outer lurfaoe ; negatlTe ^ , is caused 
by weak light, aa at night, «nd 
poalUTe~, by strong light : apot'TO- 

r. dire. 

m) u 

i ot a 

BDJitropom ovnle, which when pen- 
dulou* has tlie raphe averse. 

Ap'at]l6M = ApothB'clDm(dq(iI, Bcase), 
>□ organ of fruotificSition pecaliar 
U) lichens, and usually eup-ahaped 

Appan'da^. App«D'dtx (Lat. an ad- 
dition], (Ij apart added to another, 
as leaves are appendages to the 
' m, (2) a 

■ d.i_,. ______ __. 

fungi ! (3) 
plnral the term Appan'dloei was 
formerly applied to auckers, such 
as the oi&ets of the Pineapple. 

Appen'dant, npptn'dens (apptndo, I 
hang by), wh«n the hilum is 
directed towards the api>ei' part 
of the seed, which is Mssila or 
nearly so on the pUcenla, aa in 

appeniUo'alate, a/iptmlifvia'ttut {ap- 
peniiinila, a small appendage), 
furciahid with appencUiges ; ap. 


Appendlculom t, diminutive of Ap- 

appaau' {appen'tiii, weighed), being 
hung up as a hat is upon a peg, an 
approach to penduloua (Lindley 
in Loudon, Enoyo. PI. lOflo). 

Ap'planate, aj/piana'lju (ad, to, ptan- 
afun. made flat), Satteued ont or 
horizontally expanded. 

Ap'pla, a Qeshy, inferior, plurilocular, 
two to five aaeded fruit, teohoically 
styled a Porno. 

applica'tus (Lat. close to, or at- 
tached), apptkati' uuK, applied face 
to face, without folding. 

ap'poilW, appoi^iiiu (Lat, applied to), 
jffben similar parts are placed close 
'~ r side by side ; appoBlfo'Iiar 
t, leaf), an error for oppoaiti- 

folions ; Appodt'lon, side by aide 
or close to ; ~ Theory, of the 

growth of the cell-wall, aa due U> 
repeated dispOBitian of layers of 
substance on the internal aiirfao« 
of the original cell- wall. 

appress'ed, apprena'fui.iad, to, prt/uu*, 
kept under), lying flat for the whole 
length of the organ ; Appres'son, 
organs of attachment ol germinating 
filanii^nte of parasite to host. 

approi'lmate, appro.ciaiaUni [ad, to, 
proximo, X approach), drawn cloec 
together, but not united. 

Aprloa'rlum (apricmt, lying open), the 
summer habitation of plants in 
botanic gardens, for expoture to 
sun and air ; aprl'coi (Lat.), living 
in o^xn sunny placee. 

ap'terons, -rii» (a, without, rr/pit, a 
wing), wingless, used of petioles, 
aeuds. and the like ; apyre'DU 
{tvfiiir, aeed), applied to fruit which 
is seedless, as cultivated varieties 
of the pineapple, orange, or grape. 

Aquar'lnin (Lai. relating to water), a 
tank for aquatics in botanic 

aquat'tc, aqitatinm {oi/ho, water), 
living in water ; rvjuat'Uis, haa been 
defined aa living under water : the 
first category would Include Lemna, 
and Typka, the second, Ccrato- 
phylluta, Chnra, etc. 

; (2) having 

watery); (l)indicaCt 
less stmcinre, hyalii 
much water in the tisaues ; aq uboiu 
Tlnaa, consists of one or more 
layers of thin walled parenchy- 
maions cells, destitute of chloro- 
plastids, with mach watery sap, 
without interspaoei, and aclins as 
water- reservoirs ; aqnlferoiu {/i/rv. 
I bear) Tinne, is a synonym. 

Ar'abls. a substance derived from 
GumArabie,dBflactingthepolari» ' 
beam to the left ; Ar'ablnose, 
glucose obtained from it, ale o frc 
cherry-gum ; Arablnoi'ylan, a homi. 
cellulose, found in the bran of wheat 
and rye. 

aisMili'nold, arach'nokUtu (dpdx"!, 

■eat J 




spider, or spider's web, etdof, re- 
sembUnoe), like a oobweb, from 
Ml entanglement of fine whitiah 

aralia'oeons, resembling the gentu 
Araliaf or the order of which it is 
the type. 

ara'neons $, oraneo'MM tt ara'neoie 
{(Mraneaf a spider), have the same 
meaning as arachnoid. 

Ar'bor (Lat. tree), a woody perennial 
plant, having a bole irom which 
the branches spring; arbores'oent, 
arborfs^cena (+ esoens), attaining 
the size or character of a tree; 
ArlM>ret, a small tree or shrub ; 
Arbore'tum, a place assigned for 
the culture of trees, usually in 
systematic order ; also the title of 
a book devoted to trees ; arbor'eoiis 
arbor'eus^ tree-like ; arborlo'olliie, 
arborlo'clons ( + suffix -cola, in- 
habitant), dwelling on trees, as 
the habitat of Fungi or epiphytes ; 
ar'boroid (eZdof, resemblance), a 
hybrid word for dendroid, tree- 

Izlms'cnla (Lat.), a small shrub with 
the aspect of a tree, as some heaths ; 
Ar'bascle is an old term for the 
same; Arbus'cnliis (Lat.), a small 
tree ; arbns'cnlar, arlmscula'ris, 
shrubby, and branched like a tree. 

arbos'tiye, arbusti'vua (Lat. planted 
with trees), coppiced. 

Artms'tum (Lat.), (1) a shrub, 
a branched woody perennial plant, 
but wanting a distinct bole; (2) 
applied to an account of the woody 
plants of a country, a Sylva. 

AzMs'thlde, Arces'tblda {dpKevBls, -IdoSf 
juniper berry) =GALBnLns. 

arcba'lc {dpxo-i'K^t antiquated), used 
with reference to a type of a former 
age, as Caauarina. 

Ardhebio'sis (d/>/c^, beginning; plot, 
life), origin of life; Arcli'egoiie= 
Abchbookium ; archego'nlal (701^, 
Ttyoe), applied by Tschirch to 
stomata, whose outer walls of the 
guard cells are thickened, inner 
walls only a thin lamella, the 
guard cells separated in their 

central part but not at the poles, 
as in Gymnosperms ; archego'nlatay 
possessing archegonia ; ArdM- 
gonia'tae, plants producing arche- 
gonia, applied to Bryophytes and 
Pteridophytes ; Arohegojiiophore 
{^peu, I bear), the supports of 
archegonia in certain ferns, out- 
growths of the prothalli, also 
specislised branches on Sphagnum 
with the same function ; Archego'- 
ninm, the female sexual organ 
in Cryptogams, containing the 
oosphere, which after fertilization 
develops within the venter; 
Arohene'ma (i^^fux, a thread), term 
proposed by C. MacmiUan for 
gametophytic structures in Thallo- 
phytes ; Aroh'espore, Archespor'iiim 
(dnropd, a seed), the cell or cells 
from which the spores are ultim- 
ately derived as in the pollen sac, 
or its homologue ; arcbespoi<lal, 
belonging to the same ;'*' Cells, the 
first eight cells in spore-formation 
*^ Pad, Bower's term for a mass of 
cells developing beneath the sporo- 
genous tissue in certain Pteridophy- 
tes ; Aroh'etsrpe {r&iroSf a type), an 
original simple type ; restricted to 
a series of forms from the simplest 
to complicated, with common type 
of structure and phylogenetic con- 
nections ; Archlcarp («ra/>T6s, fruit) 
in asoomycetous Fungi, the besin- 
ning of a fructification, the cell or 
group of cells fertilized by a sexual 
act ; Archlclilamyd'eae (x^aftds, 
'vdos, a mantle), a term to include 
the Polypetalae and Incompletae 
of Phanerogams. 

aroh'lng, curved like a bow. 

Ardi'lsperm {apx^, beginning ; awipfM, 
seed), (1) another name for Gymno- 
sperm, from their presumed an- 
tiquity; (2) Boulger*s term for 
structures formed before fertiliza- 
tion, or at an early stage in 
the macrospore ; Arcblstrep'tes 
{(TTpeTToSf twisted), the principal 
spirals formed in phyllotaxis. 

Arch'oplasm {dpxos, chief; rXda/M, 
moulded), Boveri's term for Kiko- 



■dj. OTOliopIu'inlo ; ~ 

Biiaera = u:hromat,iD BpiDdle. 
MCtlc, s lerm applied by H. C. Wat- 

ing three loneB, «t)led super-, mid-, 
oDi] luler-arctlc zooea, rtlnliDf: lo 
plants growing above the limiti of 

are'tuile. nrn'(i'(i(H<<Lat.). bent tike a 
bow, curved : srcna'to-arvoiA'tDi, 
divided into Bpac«8 by curves ;~ 
oontort'iu, forminH a depressed 
spiral, as in some Tegiunea. 

Ardell'a [aptui, 1 sprinkle), small 
apothecia of cerlaio lichens, as 
Arthonia, seemingly dusty. 

A'raa (Lat., a space), (1) a bed in 
botanic gardens ; (S] in Diatoms, 
the BurFuce of avolve wben circular 
and destitute of a etauros ; 1,3) X the 
receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- 

uena'ceoQt, arena'TlooB, arena'Wui, 
arejio'sH» (arena, sand), growing in 
sandy places. 

An'ola (Lat.idimiDuUve of Arba) ; (1) 
a space marked out on a surface ; 
(2) u small cell or cavity ; (3) a 
tesBetlation in the thallus of some 
Liahens ; ayeolar, ar'eolate, areoln,'- 
ttu, marked with areolae, divided 
into distinct spaces ; Aieola'tloii, in 
Mosses, the artaDgement of the 

ug'enUito, argtnt't\is (Lat., silvery), 
silvery as to tint and lustre ; 
arKenta'tna (Lat.), silvered. 

aielUo'suB (Lai.), living in clayey 

ajg'oB, in Greek compounds = white ; 
in Latin, Candidas, 

axgoM', ar(/u'lu» (Lat. ) sharp, as 
ar ante' -nerm' Inn sharply serrate. 

ttr^yros, in Greek oompounds — sil- 
very : Lat. , argfiUcvs. 

arllJ'»al, aihi'iuf (a, without ; ^Ij-a, a 
root), rootless, wonting true roots ! 
Arblzobl&a'tna t {fi\arTo!, a germ), 
an erohryo which has no radicle. 
.'Ictne, an alkaloid from cinchona 
bvk, obtained from Arica, in CMU. 


ftrl'nna {apfiTir, male), Necker's suffix 
to words enumerating stamens, in- 
stead of the Linnoan -androus. 

Aril, AiUlni (Fr., aritle), an expan- 
sion of the funicle, arising from the 
placenta, and enveloping the seed, 
mace is the arit of the nutmeg ; 
Sx'Ulate, arilla'lin, poasessed of on 
aril : irtlUfono'lsl (/onna, shape), 
bsB-ahaped ; A'rUlode, AiUto'dliun, 
a £ue aril, a coat of the seed, and 
not arising from the placenta. 

Aiis'ta, (Lat.), an awn, the beard of 
com : arist'ate, an'Ui'ltvi, awned ; 
«rU'tuI«ite, ai-ialvla'lm, bearing a 

ulBtolocUa'ceons. resembling the 
s Ariflolorhia, Touro. 
(Lat.), Ar'matura, any kind of 

defence, as prickles or thorns ; 

umed, bearing thorns or similar 

coloured, a dull orange, nam^ from 
Prv-nun Armeiiiaca, Linn.; (2) a, 
native of Armenia. 

ArtnUl'a (Lat., bracelet), the frill of 
the stipe of Agarics loft attached 
ou the expansion of the pilens, at 
first it forms a covering of the 

Arnat'to, also written, Anotto and 
AanottO, the red colouring matter 
from the pulp of Ibe fruit of 
Bixa Oreliana, Linn. 

Alo'DUt (Lat., spice), the perfi 

a plant ; aromat'lo. -cu«, possesaiDg 
a spicy smell or taste. 

aireot', arrecl'ui (Lat. set upright] 
stiffT erect. 

Arrest , spoiBl, see Spobjl Abrest, 

arrU'jMus = abhizous, eU 

AT'raw-liaEid'ed,~aliaped, barbed like 

on arrow, aagiltntc. 

arth'onold, of tlie form or conHistenoe 
of the apothecia in the genua 
Anhoiiia. Ach. 

Arth'rospore {af0pe^, a joint, aropA, a 
seed), one of spores like a ohnin of 
beads, formed by fission ; arthro- 
spor'ie, orUurasp OTons, applied to 
Schisomyoetes, in those speoies 
which have no endogenous spores 




formation ; Arthrotterlg'mftfea 

{rnfpiyfjMj -arot, a prop.)* jointed 
■tengmata in some Liobens, made 
np of rowB of cells from which 
spores are abstricted. 

Article, Artiefulus (Lat.), a joint; 
aztio'nlated, artietUa'tua, jointed, 
separatinff freely by a clean scar, 
as in leaf -fall ; Axticala'tlon, a joint, 
popularly applied to the nodes of 

An'lfaot {ara, art, /oc^im, made), a 
substance not naturally existing, 
but resulting from laboratory treat- 
ment; aztmo'lal, artijieia'lis (Lat., 
aocordiog to rules of art) applied to 
any scheme of classification which 
is based on one set of characters, as 
opposed to a natural scheme, which 
takes all characters into account. 

aztiphyll'oiiB, -lua (Apri, forthwith, 
^XXoy, leaf), used of nodes which 
bear manifest buds. 

amndlna'ceona, arundina^ceuSf reed- 
like, having a culm like tall grasses ; 
anmdin'aona, reedy, abounding in 

airvn'sls (arva, arable land), applied 
to plants of cultivated land, espec- 
ially of ploughed fields. 

Aaafoetlda (aza, Persian for mastic, 
/oetiduSf stinking), a gum-resin, 
yielded by Ferula Narthex^ Boiss., 
and other allied Umbelliferae, of a 
persistent alliaceous odour and 

As'arlne, a crystallised substance from 
Aaarum europaeunif Linn., resemb- 
ling camphor. 

ABoell'iiB (1) diminutive of Ascus ; (2) 
thespores of certain Fungi (Lindley). 

asoend^snt, -ens, aAcen'dliig ; (1) 
directed upwards, as the stem ; the 
ascending axis is oblique at first, 
then erect ; (2) opposed to descend- 

-aioens, a suffix, denotes a tendency 
towards something, as ciner-ascena, 
becoming ash-coloured, cinereua, 

aioidla'tas (Lat.), furnished with 
AsciDiA ; Asoldliim {dcKlBioy, a little 
pitcher), pL Asoid'la, (1) the pitcher 
of NeperUhea etc., the metamor- 

phosed lamina of the leaf, become 
tubular, usually with a lid, which 
isa developmentof theapical portion 
of the leaf ; (2) the asci of certain 
Fungi ; asdd'lfonn {forma, shape), 

aaeif arons (eto-irof, a wine-skin, /ero, I 
bear), bearing asci; asolfl^erofii 
{gero, I produce) =A8GiFEBons; 
As'oooaip {Kapros, fruit), the 
sporocarp of Ascomyoetes produc- 
ing asci and ascospores; its three 
kinds are termea Apothecium, 
PsRiTHXCiUM and Glbistooarp ; 
AB'cocijwtB {KvffTiSy a bag), erect sac- 
like secretin^ cells on the creeping 
filaments of Aaeoeycltu ; asoog'enoiii 
{ytpirdta, I bring forth), producing 
asci, asciferous ; As'oogone, 
ABCOgo'ninm (701^, race), a syno- 
nym of Abchioarp. 

Aicoll'chenM, Lichens producing 

Aws'oma (dcxosl a wine-skin) Wall- 
roth's term for Receptacle and 
Hymenium of Fungi ; Aicomyoe'tM 
(jwmis, fungus), Sachs's name for 
a large group of Fungi, forming 
ascospores and stylospores. 

Afloop'ora (deriv.?) sporangia of certain 
Fungi (Lindley). 

Aso'ophore (d^-irof, wine-skin ; ^pita, I 
carry), the ascus-bearing hvphae 
within an ascocarp ; asooph orouB 
ascus-bearing ; AMoph'ysas (0vw, I 
make grow), the hyphae which con- 
stitute the ascoffenous cushion in 
Chaetomium; As^spore (<rro/)d, a 
seed), a sporo produced by an ascus, 
sometimes termed sporidium or 
sporule ; As'ous, pi. As'oi (pr. as'si), 
a large cell, usually the swollen end 
of a hjjmhal branch, in the ascocarp 
of which normally eisht spores are 
developed ; '^Appara'tiiB, a portion 
of the sporocarp, comprising the 
asci and the ascogenous celu; ^ 
sofftato'rliiB, Gorda's term for Bas- 


aaosr'pbouB (a, without, <rirv^$, a 
beaker) without Soyphi ; asep'tate 
{aeptum, an enclosure), without 
partitions or cross-divisions ; asep'- 


tlo {r^mnot, pulreffiDg), not 
liable to become rotten ; RMx'iud 
{itxualii, pertain ing to sex ),destitute 
of maJe or female organs, neuter ; 
~0«nera'tlon. in alternation, that 
generation wbich produces eporea 
aaeinally. but it itielf the product 
of a Beiual act ; thus, in Ferns, the 
full-grown form is the aeeinnl form 
or Bporophjte, tbe prothattuB the 
sexu&l form or game top byte. 
ith. the mioeral residue of plants 
after complete combustion. 


Aapar'agl [ivwdpayiH, anpaTagof). for- 
oiBrly usedforTuRLONSaorauckera, 
joonx BboolB emerging from the 
rootabook under ground, and at 
fint bearing scales onl;, as in Ai- 
paragua : Aip&r'aglii, a oommonlf 
occurring amide, nhicb WM first 
obtained from Aipa,ragw ojlcinali*, 
Linn., hence its name; uparae'l- 
noiia. applied to plants whose young 
■boots are eaten as asparagus. 

aa'per (Lst. rongh), M'pante, »■'- 
peroQl, rough with hairs or points, 

aapergill'lfoim, atptrgilU/ormU (lU- 
pergillum, holv-wsler brush. /urma, 
■hapel, tufted, brushnbaped as the 
stigmas of grassee ; AspergUl'ln, 
pigment of the spores of Anfffrfjilliut 
nigtr. Van Tiegh. , now known as 
BUriifmalocytlvt iiiifra, Sacc. 

•■pnUii'llftte, upwlfo'Iloaa {asper, 
rough, /olittm, leaf), rough ieaved, 
aa Borrogo o^eiiiaiit, Linn. ; 
Jkapcr'lty (oi/fertfiu), roughness. 

AipoTomyca'tet (a, without, inrnpct, a 
seed, iii"ti. (unguB), Mura band's 
name tor Fungi imperfet'ti. 

u'plenold [A^eaium, ttios, re- 
aemblance), like tbe Fern genus, 

upenD'ous (a. without, tripim. seed), 

la'tion. Amimila'tio {annnitilo, 
' .B like), the proceaa by which 
leons matter, crude food, is 
ooDTeited into plant substance ; 
ooastmctiTB metabolism ; used 
Bciallj for the formation of 
~'o substance from carbon di- 

oiid* and water by gn«a pUato 
in sunlight. 

Up'aroaa {a»per, rough), Bcabrou*, 
harsh to the touch. 

Aulm'luam (Fr. Assiminier, a name 
of ^31 III I no triloba. Dun, ), Desvaai'l 
name for SmcABJ'nja. 

ABMda'tiou, Flast : term propOMd 
to supersede Plant Formations or 
Plant Societies ; Dan. Planteaain- 
fund, Ger, PSanEenverein- 

AsauDMn'ta (pi, of oMumeiUum, a, 
patch), tlie valves of a ailiqiia. 

BBBur'gent. cuiur'gens (ad, to, mrgo, I 
rise), rising upward : ascending. 

ABtatb'a;(a0Ta0i)t, unatable), "asub- 
stance suppoBed by Harting to lie 
between the outer and inner lining 
of a cell " (Lindley). 

Asta'ly (a, witbout, irr^Ai;, pillar), 
destitnle of a stele, or axial 
cylinder of tissue, r/. Sanzo«TKLT[ 
adj. aste'Uo. 

Ast'er (aoTiii), a star), used in oompoti- 
tion for stAr-ehaped structure as in 
DiAsrEK, etc. : Mt'erold {dSof, re- 
semblance), (I ) stsr-shaped ; (3) like 
the genus, Astrr. Toum. 

aat'lctioiu, as^iichiut X (o, witbout, 
Trlx"', row, line), not arranged in 

aatlp'ulate (a, witbont, +Stipola) = 

ABtlc'matoB (a, without, + Stioua), 
i Von Tiexhem's name tor the 

Abcueoosiatab ; </. Stiomatai, 
I artom'atal {a, without, + Stoma), 
. wanting atomata ; aat'omoiu 

ajil'trmtta (srij^ia, mouth), not baling 

on orifice, 
I Aatrooen'len i,iar>ip, a Btar, cenlrum, 
I centre), C. Macmillan's term for 

the bodies variously known as 

Attraction - spheree. Directive 

I spheres, Tinoleucitea, etc. ; 

AatroBCle'raiOB (iriXi||»<, bard) thick- 
I walled Btar-abaped cells ooourring 
I in the leaves of Camellia, snd fre- 
I ([uently in bark amongst the sur- 
' rounding pareochymatous cetla 

(Tschin£) ; Atfrosphersa (r^oi^, 
I B. sphere), Slroaburger'a term for 



uynuiMt'rlo, asymxnet'rlcal (a, not, 
adfifurpoSf symmetrio) ; (1) irregular 
in outline or shape ; (2) used of a 
flower whioh cannot be divided in 
any vertical plane into two nmilar 
halves; (3) dissimilarity of the 
number of the members in calyx, 
corolla or genitalia. 

avyngamlc (a, not, a^, together, 
ydfios, marriage), used of plants 
prevented from intercrossing by 
their flowering at different times. 

At'avism (cUavua, an ancestor), an- 
cestral resemblance, reversion to 
an older type. 

atazlnomlc (a, not, rd^it, order, 
\6yoty discourse), teratologic, ab- 
normal structures not represented 
among plants in a normal con- 
dition, as Fasciation, Ghloranthy, 

a'tsr (Lat.), pure, lustreless black ; 
in composition, atro-. 

atlial'amonB (a, without, BdXafios, 
bride-chamber), said of Lichens 
without apothecia on their thallus. 

■Uiall'ine (a, wiUiout, ^oXXof, young 
shoot), without thallus. 

Atb'era (dB^p,-4pos, beard of oom), 
in Greek compounds = awn or stiff 

▲tlant'io type of Distribution, 
Watson's term for British plants 
which occur most frequently to- 
wards the west of Great Britain. 

A'tom (a, not, rifufu, I cut), de- 
fined by NUgeli as the ultimate 
particle of a chemical element ; in 
botanic parlance it means the 
smallest divisable portion of any 

Atomogyn'ia (dro/A^f, cannot be cut, 
yvri), woman), the elder Richard's 
name for the Akoiospkrmia of 

Atraeten'cbyma t (ArpaicTot, a spindle, 
iyXVfM, that poured in), prosen- 
chyma, tissue of fusiform cells. 

atnunenta'rlns {cUramentum, inky 
fluid), inky ; black. 

atra'tus (Lat.), garbed in black; 
blackened, as in some species of 
Oarex, the apex of the glumes 

being darkened; atric'olor (eo^, 
colour), inky-black. 

at'ropal, preferably aVropons (a, not, 
TpoT^, a turn), a synonym of OB- 
THOTBOPons ; applied to the ovule. 

At'rophy (a, without, rpoiffii, nourish- 
ment), wasting away, abortion or 
degeneration of organs ; Atrophy'- 
tes i^vTOP, a plant), those Fungi 
which cause atrophv of important 
organs of the host-plant. 

Afropine, a poisonous alkaloid ob- 
tained from Atropa Belladonna, 

atro-pnrpu'rens (Lat.), black-purple, 
the colour of Sweet Scabious, 
Scabioaa cUropurpurea, Linn.; '^ 
-violacens (Lat.), very dark violet ; 
^ -virena, ^ -viridls (Lat.)* dark or 
blackish green. 

atten'uate, aUemia'tua (Lat. thinned), 
narrowed, tapered. 

Atfire, Grew's term for stamens and 

Attnu/tton-spberei, the same as At- 
trac'tlve-Bpheres, Cbntbosphekbs, 
or Tinoleucites. 

a'tns, a suffix indicating the presence 
of an organ, thus : foU-atus, having 

auc'tos (Lat. increased) ; (1) enlarged 
after flowering, accrescent; (2) 
augmented by an addition. 

Aug'ment-OellB, a modification of an 
auxoepore in Diatoms, after divi- 
sion oeooming transformed into 
daughter-cells, and the starting- 
points of new generations; Aug- 
menta'tion, increase beyond the 
normal number of parts. 

Aulae'um t (Lat., a curtain), used 
occasionally for Cobolla by Lin- 

Avlog'amae (a^Xo$, a tube, Ta/ios, mar- 
riage), employed by Ardissone for 

Anl'opliyte (adk^, abode, ^in-oi', a 
plant), one plant living in the 
cavity of another for shelter 
only, not parasitic; the German 
is **Raumparasit." 

aorantla'ceouB, auran'tiaais, awran'- 
tivs (Lat.), orange-coloured. 


Inns'tlnis (Lot , an orange), a, succu- 
lent Buperior fruit with a, rough 
rind, such as tbe Orange. 

MU^'tlu (Lst. silt), met&llic jellow, 
shot with gold ; an'rena (La.i. gold- 
en), glowing jeliow. not metsllic. 

Anr'lcla, Aune'ula (Lat. ear-lap), (i) 
■ amajl lobe or ear, a.a appeodBKe 
to the leaf, aa in Sage, or the 
Orange ; (3) the lobule, or niinnr 
lobe of the leaf of Hrpatioae, often 
balloon -shaped ; (3) lomierljr and 
sm>neouBly used forAMFHitiAHTBtA; 
(4) a small lobe or special patch of 
ctila at the basal angle of the loaf 
in Moeaes ; anrtc'ulaj, avritiUa'ria, 
aurioled ; ~ CeUR, the celU in the 
leaf described above (4), alan termed 
alar cells. 

aor'tfonil {avrie, the ear), ear-shaped 

anror'eui (Lat,). the colour of dawn, 
roBj or golden. 

»' {aui'ifnit, harsh), astringent 

o the ti 

Kuitralls ( Lat. southern), occoBJonallj 
applied to plants which are Dativea 

from the southern hemisphere, 
Ant'oblasl (oiWi, self, pXaarai, a 
bud), a free and independent " Bio- 
blast " (.Sohlatei) ; Anlooaxp'lan, 
tntceaisi'le, aiiiocarpta'nun {taprii, 
fruit), (Ij a superior fruit, not ad- 
herent to tbe pericarp ; (2) see next ; 
Antoeaip'r. the fruiting of a sell- 
(ertilizod flower, the product of 
witoganiy ; adj. aatocarp'ooi ; 
antoe'ettnu (otiot, a house), ap- 
plied to a parasite which rune its 
whole oonrae on a aioglu host of a 
particular specien ; this state of 
things is Aatoe'dsni ; antoroous. in 
BiTophjteB, the oiale and female 
infloreacencea on the same plant ; 
the following modilicatioDS occur : 
dft'do- ~ ((\riiai, a branch) the male 
inflareacence on a proper branch ; 
go'nlo- ~ iyiros. offspring), tbe male 
infloreaoence bud-like and axillary 
on a female branch ; Tbli- — {fili^a, a 
root), the male branch very short, 
eofaeiing to the female by a rtuEoid ; 

AnXogfamooM {yiiioi, marriage), 
self-farliliiation ; Antog'ail^, when 
a flower is fertiliKed by ite own 
pollen ; Antogen'eila (y^ntns, be- 
ginning), a synonym of Spon- 

g«net'lc Fertilization - self-pol- 
lination ; antoe'enoni {y^rat, race), 
self-derived, used of diseaaea, etc., 
which have their origin within 
the organism ; antog'eiiUB, t«nn 
proposed in place of monotypic, 
to show that the genus contains 
but a single species (Crozier). 

'tc. [a^ 

, self-n 

of c 

spontaueous i 

parts, as the leaflets of Dermodiu; 
gyraiut, DC- 
independent), used of plants which 
are perfect and complete in them- 
aelvei, and not limply phaaea of 
other forms. 

antonyotltrop'ic (ui^dt, aelf, ri^, 

miTot, night, rpoirt}, a turn], spon- 
taneously aasntning the position 
usual during the night ; Anto- 
pbyllag^eiiy (^i/XXot, leaf, ytrtat!, 
beginning), the growth of one leaf 
from another, as from a nerve ; 
ADt'ophrte(^i;Tei', plant). aplantnot 
dependent on humus, as opposed to 
SAtnoi'ByTE; Attt'oplaat (irXaoroi, 
moulded), a synonym of chloro. 
phyll granule ; Autop'ilA {i<f^s, 
sight), actual inspection of the 
plant or phenomenon in question ; 
antotropt'lo (rpi^n), food), existing 
ivithoiit aid of commensalism ; anto- 
tem'noOB (r^/ivoi. I cut), capable of 
spontaneous division, as cella in 
growing tisaoe ; antox'eiiDtu (ii'ii, 
a, host or euest) = actueoiods ; 
Atttox'tny. the antoeoioua condi- 
tion ; Autox'idaton (6(it, sharp), 
cell ■ substances, which at a low 
temperature, and with absorp- 
tion of molecular oxygen, can be 
oxidised by decomposing water ; 
AntoxliU'tlos, the phenomenon 
in question -, aatoxidl'iable, the 
property of readily undergo 
this truMfonnation. 

iMi t Binml 

Mtm&'iial, autumna'lis (Lat.)f belong- 
ing to aatumn ; flowering at that 
season ; *^ Wood, wood formed at 
the close of the growing season and 
notable for its smaller cells. 

▲ucui'agxmxiimes {aC^rj, increase, dvd., 
up, ypdfifia, an outline), bacterian 
fields of increase, marked by greater 
dsTelopment within the diffusion 
area of the nutrient substance 
(Beyerinck) ; Auzanom'eter {fjJrpoy, 
measure), apparatus for measuring 
increase of growth in plants. 

▲vze'sls (a0(i7<rif, growth), (1) dilata- 
tion or increase in the valves of 
Diatoms, etc. ; (2) new formation 
of organs (Czapek). 

Avzll'iuy {auxiliaria, helpful) Cell, a 
oell borne bv a specialised branch 
in certain Algae, which unites with 
the coniugatin^ tube emitted by 
the fertilized trichophore, and then 
giving rise to filaments which bear 
the spores (Osterhout). 

▲luc'otpore (aC^, increase, <nropd, 
seed), in Diatoms, the spore formed 
by the union of two frustules, 
or the excessive growth of a single 
fruitule, whence arises a new bion, 
larger than the parents ; auxotonlc 
{r^ot, strain), applied to the move- 
ments incident to increase of grow- 
ing organs, as heliotropism, nuta- 
tion, etc. 

aTsUanlous {avellana, a filbert), 
drab, the colour of the fresh shell 
of the Hazel-nut, Corylua Avellana, 

aTMUt'oeona, -ceus (averuif oats), relat- 
ing to oats ; Adenine, a substance 
derived from oats. 

aTt'nlna (a, without, vena, vein), vein- 
less, or seeminghr so. 

aTsne', aver^ims (Lat.), turned back 
or away from. 

ATsmmoa'tion (avemtnco, I remove), 
(1) pruning ; (2) uprooting. 

awl-sbaped, nsrrow and tapering to a 
point ; subulate. 

Awn, a bristle-like appendage, es- 
pecially occurring on the glumes 
of grasses; *^ of Chaetoceraa, a 
diatomaoeona genus, having pro- 

longations of the fmstules, reoal- 
ling the awns of grasses; awned, 
having awns ; bearded. 

axe-sbaped, dolabriform, as the leaves 
of some species of MeMmbryatUhe' 

az'lal {axis, an axle), relating to the 
axis ; ^ Wood, the normafcentral 
cylinder of xylem ; azif eroQS (Jero, 
I bear), bearing an axis, but with- 
out leaves or other appendages. 

Az'il, Azill'a (Lat. arm -pit), the angle 
formed between the axis and any 
organ which arises from it^ espe- 
cially of a leaf. 

az'ile {axis, an axle), belonging to the 
axis, as axile plaoentation. 

azlll'ant {axilla, arm-pit), subtending 
an angle ; azill'ary, asciUa'ris, grow- 
ing in an axil; azllla'tas, having 

Az'is (Lat. an axle), an imaginary 
line, round which the organs are 
developed ; '^ of Inflores'oenoo, 
that part of the stem or branch 
upon which the fiowers are borne ; 
aooess'ory '^ , an axis of secondary 
rank ; a'pical '^ of Diatoms, is 
that line which passes through 
the centre of the pervalvar axis in 
the direction of the raphe and 
at equal distances from homo- 
logous points of the girdle-band 
simaces ; Append'ages of the ^ , 
such organs as leaves » flowers, etc. ; 
ascend'lng ^ , = the stem ; descend'- 
Ing'^ , = the root ; pervalVar '^ , the 
main longitudinal axis of Diatoms ; 
transa'plcal '^, the axis which 
passes at right angles to the apical 
axis of Diatoms, and through the 
centre of the pervalvar axis ; trans- 
Ttrs'al '^ , the axis which lies in the 
transversal plane of Diatoms, cut- 
ting the pervalvar axis. 

Azog'amy {(Ui(av, axi8,7o£/M>s,marriage), 
plants bearing sexual organs on 
the leafy stem ; adj. axogam'ic ; 
Axophy'ta {i^vrov, a plant) =Cormo- 
PHTTA ; plants having an axis, that 
is, stem and root ; azosperm'ona 
{air4pfia, seed), with axile plaoenta- 
tion of ovules. 


.1, not, I'lirii, girdle), C. Mao- i 
millan'B t«rm for IlaDt-aBAOciaUoas 
wbicli show DO well-marked radiftl | 
aynimetrj ; AaoM' (ftuij, lifa), Ln. I 
voiaier'B name for nitrogen, atill , 
Died in French works ; sio'tiMd, i 
compounded with nitrogen. 

Ai'nn Euu'rciM (lateLftt., sky-blue), 
blue oa Che skj. 

Asy'BoapernL, (a, not, fuToi, a yoke, I 
ffirtpiui, seed), a Bynonyni of Aiy'- 
EOapors (cTopi. seed), the f^owtb 
of B gamele direct without oon- 
ju^tioQ, a parthenogenetic ipore ^ i 
aiygons, uo paired, as a leaflet ' 
which 18 not tnatched on the oppo- 
site aide of the rhachU. 

Bao'ca (Lat,), a. berry, a miooulent I 
fruit with seeds immersed in the 
puip, as the Gooseberry ; — oor- 
ttca'ta, berry with a rind, the term 
has been applied to the ovary ; ~ 
fioo'ft,t sueonlent while unripe, dry 
when mature ; ~ apn'rls,,! any 
fieshy fruit which is not a true 
berry, as raspberry and strawberry ; 
iMo'oata, batra'tiie, berried ; " ae^ 
mina baccata," seeds having s 
pulpy skin, aa in Cyau ; Bacoaa- 
lar'li, BACoaular'ini, t (deriv. ■), 
Desvaax's nams for Cabcerui.s ; 
BAockv'siu ~ Etixrio ; Baccs'tum. 
Dnmortiec's term for Svsc*Rr ; 

small titoff), Cohn's name for low 
forms of organic life, multiplying 
by fiHion, Sohiiomyoetes ; i*ff- 
terold (crsm, reaemblanoe), re- 
sembling bact«ria ; ~ Tlim«, ap- 
plied to the root- tubercles of 
varioiig plants ; Bftc'taroldB or Bu- 
tet'loldl, organisms found in nitri- 
fying tubercles on the roots of 
plants, especially Leguminosae, at- 
tributed to the action of bacteria ; 
Baoterlol'ogy (XAyoi, disooarBe), the 
science of the life history of bac- 
'--'- Baots'rio - por'pnilii, the 


iring I 

r of E 


beu), berry -beariDE. the fruit a 
barry, usDally applied when the 
normal fruit of Ihe genus is 
otherwise ; bac'dform, hiicri/orm'h 
[forjna, shape], like a berry in 

BaaUl'ni, pL BadU'l {Imcilhaa, a. 
staff), (0 t yoang bulb; (2) the 
fmstnles of certain Diatnmaceae, 
■a BaeU/nria ; (3) rod-shaped Bao- 
toria ; bao'Ular, fxKiHa'ri', bcudl'U- 
fonn, {Jornia, shape), rod- or club- 
Back, that side which is turned from 
the part or subatratum to which 
an organ is attached ; the dorsal 

BMttr'timi, pi Baote'ila ({Saimypiw, a 

iteria ; Bocterlo'sU, dlseasa due 
to tbe attack of bacteria. 

tMumlireTons {hacuitim, a staff; ftro, 
I bear), bearing canes or reeds ; 
baoo'Ufonn, baadi/orm'in {furma, 
shape), stick -shaped, rod -like, as 
the ascospores of certain Lichens. 

bad'lons, baA'i\m fLat.), dark reddish- 
brown ; chestnut-brown. 

Balns'tra, " sometimes applied to 
fruits like the pomegranate" 

Salaus'ta (^iXaiiirnoii, pomegranate 
flower), tie fruit of Panira Omiia- 
Inm, Linn,, with firm rind, berried 
within, crowned with the lobes of 
an adnale calyx. 

bald, destitute of pubescence or downy 

Bale ; (Fr, Bflle), cited by S. F, Gray 
for the out«r glume of grosses, 

Ball'lnf, in nuclear development, the 
fusion of nuclei into one nucleus. 

Balm (ftdXffo^or, batsam), pr. Babm, 
a thick, uiually resinoos exudation 
of reputed medicaletficacy: Bal'sam, 
pr. Bawls'm ; a similar exudation, 
gonerslly of resin mixed with 
volatile oil ; telsam'ic. having the 
qualities of balsam ; balsamlTerons, 
■rw", tfiro, I bear), producing 

Bamb'oo, the name applied to the 
culm of arborescent grasses, not- 
ably species of BambtiJia,, 

Bawl, ( I ) space between two ridges in 
the fruit of Umbellifers; (2) a stripe 
generally ; — ahapad, used of long 



narrow leaves, linear; iMLnd'ed, 
marked with stripee of colour. 

Ban'ner, the standard of a papilion- 
aceous flower. 

Barb, hooked hairs, frequently doubly- 
hooked ; 

Barba (Lat. ), a beard; barliate, ha/rba!' 
HUf bearded, having long weak 
hairs in tufto; BarbaU'ae tf the 
short sti£f straight hairs of Com- 
posite pappus; adj. taxiMll'ate ; 
Barbell'ulae, t similar structures in 
the pappus of Aster; adj. bar- 
beU'ulate, barhellula'tus ; BaxD'ule, 
Barb'fUa, (1) the inner row of teeth 
in the peristome of such Mosses as 
Tortula ; (2) a small barb (Crozier). 

BarUl'a, the crude soda from ScUsola 
and allied genera. 

Baik, (1) the outer intep;uments of 
the wood and extenor to it, 
all tissues outside the cambium; 
(2) frequentW restricted to the 
periderm and tissues external to 
it ; ^ bared, stripped of the bark ; 
<«* bound, having the bark too 
tense, thus impeding gprowth ; <«* 
galled, having the bu-k injured. 

Barm, the floatmg yeast as used in 
bread-making, the "Oberhefe" of 
the Qermans; barm'y, containing 

barred, crossed by lines approx- 
imately paralleL 

bar'ren, unproductive, infertile ; ap- 
plied to the male inflorescence of 
certain Mosses; ««'Flow'er, the male 
or staminate flower. 

Barymorpho'sls (fiapM, heavy, fu>/>^- 
o-tt, shape), Sachs's term for the 
changes produced in organisms in 
consequence of gravitation. 

iMi'sal {hasis, foundation), at the base 
of an organ or part ; f^ (Ml, the first 
cell of an angiospermous embryo 
which becomes attached to the wall 
of the embryo-sac ; *^ Orowtb, in- 
crease near the base, as distin- 
guished from apical growth; '^ 
nerved, baainervist with nerves 
from the base of tJie leaf; «*' Fla- 
oen'ta, the placenta at the baseof the 
ovary ; «*' Wall, the division of the 

oospore in Archegoniatae into an 
anterior and a posterior half ; 
Base, the extremity of attach- 
ment, by which nutrition takes 

Bas'idrrBasidlam, pi. Basid'ia {haai- 
dium, a little pedestal), the mother- 
cells of HymenomycetouB and Gas- 
tcromycetouB Fungi, having little 
points from which spores are thrown 
off; baildiogenet'io {yivin, race, de- 
scent), produced upon a basidium ; 
Basidlogonldlum (70H), race, off- 
spring), proposed emendation of 
' ' basidioepore " ; Basidlomyoe'tes 
(/idri^f, fiLKTiTos, funffus), Fungi pro- 
ducing spores on basidia; Basid'- 
iophors {^pi<a, I carry), a sporo- 
phore bearing a basidium ; Basi- 
diorhi'iaa Wa, root), Vuillemin's 
name for Basidiomyoetes ; Basid'io- 
spore (<rxo/>d, a seed), a spore pro- 
duced by a basidium ; basidlo- 
sp'orous, producing such spores. 

ba8ifl'xed,6a«(/fjr'tM(&am8, foundation, 
JixttSt fast), attached by the base ; 
basifugal {/ugo, I put to flight), 
developing from the base upwards ; 
baslg'amons {ydfioSf marriage), when 
the normal position of egg-apparatus 
and antipodals is reversed ; the 00- 
sphere and synergidae being at the 
lower end of the mother-cell of the 
endosperm (embryo - sac) ; Van 
Tieghem contemplates the possible 
occurrence of double Bas^amy; 
Basigynlam {yvrij, a woman), a the- 
caphore, the stalk of an ovary 
above the stamens and petals ; 
bas'llar, basila'ris, basal ; basin- 
er'ved {nenms, a nerve), veined from 
the base ; baslla'tus X arising from 
a broad base as certain hairs ; basi- 
p'etal {peto, I seek), growth in the 
direction of the base. 

Ba'sis (Lat.) the base; baslsooplc 
{ffKoriwf I look), looking towards the 
base, the reverse of acrosoopio ; 
baalBOlu'tus t {advitis, unbound), 
used of such leaves as those of 
Sedum which are prolonged down- 
wards beyond their true origin ; 
Baalst'oiiiiui (r^of, a cord), the pro- 



loDgatioD of Lhe ttsBue of Ihe pollen- 
s*c U) the lower ead of >he uitbec 
in Opbry dinese ; bal'opllll {•pMu. I 
love), rsadily taking aloin fruni basio 

B4M, the iooer fibrous bark of the 
time, uBsd by oultivators for tem- 
porary tttts ; the libsr. 

Bast, (1) the «iue at in the lut; (2) 

Jhlo^m ; (3| fibrous tiuuea serving 
>r mechjuiical support : ~ Calli, 
IbecompDnenlsof thebark; ~ Ool- 
lenoh'ymo, tissue with the walls of 
the sides thiukenud on nil sides 
(C. Mueller) ; - Hbrei, = liber- 
fibres : ~ Shaath, layer of thin- 
walled cells Burroandiog the fibro- 
vascular cylinder next within the 
corUx, the periphloem ; ~ TiMU«, 
pbloi'm ; ~ Vessel, sieve - tube ; 
Hard~. liber-dbres; Bon~. the 
sieve-tubeB, with tJie thia-walled 
pari of the phloem. 
Bus'oiln, u product of Basaont Gum, 
TragflJ^anth, etc., which does not 
dissolve like Gum Arabic, but swells 
up whan placed in water, and forma 

baU^nut'Ticol (;3a0L^, deep or high, 
/Urpai, meaHUre), used of the dis- 
tribution of plants on the sea- 
bottom ; and the depths at which 
thev grow. 

BatoIOKlst (^roi, a bramble, XAyDt, 
discourse), a student of brambles, 
the species and forms of Huliw. 

Beak, a pointed projection ; bMKcd, 
used of fruits which eod in a long 

l>eara'letted, having small awns. 

Beard, Eynonymous with Awn ; 
beSLTd'ed, (1) awned, as bearded 
wheat -, (2) having tufts of hairs, as 
on the lip of PtiiUlanoii baTbatue, 

BMr'ers, used by Blair for Bower- 

BabMB^ln, a tonic alkaloid from the 
Green heart, Xtelaridra Rodiati, 
Hook., native name, Btbttrti. 

BMeffUAT', a fibrous gal! produced on 
t rose-bush by the puncture of s 
~ iciee of Cijmpa. 

BsB-brsftd, the pollen of flowers, ool- 
lect«d by bees sa food tor the young 

bell-shapsd, tubular and ioQated, as 
the corolla of Carapanulaceae. 

tMll'ying, swelling on one side as in 
many Labiatoe. 

BaniDlu', a fragrant resinous exuda- 
tion from SlyrOrr Ilen:ynii, Dryand.; 
called also Gum Benjamin. 

Bar'berlue, a yellow bitter principle 
from the root of Berl/eri^ vnlyarU, 

ber'rieil, baccate, possessing berries. 

Ber'ry, a puljiy fruit, with immerBed 
seeds ; (f. Baoca. 

Bes'imsn, % pL Bsslm'ina (^luoifuii, 
havinu the power of living) Necker's 

Be'taln, an amido-like aubatanoe from 

Btla, the beet. 
Bst'uUn, a substance derived from 

Brl'iln, the birch, 
W-, Ma-, in compound words moaning 

«(b> + 

blaca'minat*, biacuminn' 

minate), having two diverging 

EointB, OS the hairs of Malpig- 
iaceae, attached by the centre ; 
Uang'nlRte faiupdMA, a oomer), 
having two corners or angles ; bi- 
Ortlo'ulatO, biarticiUa'luK (uriiWiH, 
a joint], two-jointed. 

tdator'liie, resembling the Lichen 
genus iSialora. 

blaarlc'ulate {lii, twice, avriouia, the 
ear lobe), with two auricles or ear- 
like appendages ; bUnil'tus (Lat.) 
is aubstaatially the same ; blbraof - 
eata, di'mjcffiVm {h-aciea, a tbin 
plate], having two bracts ; bibno- 
t'eolAte. with twobrocteoles; bical- 
D'OTBte {caJtiir, a spur), having two 
spun ; blooU'tw* btca^o'atm (caUtu, 
hardened skin), with two callosities; 
blDap'nilar(fa/Mu/a, asmallbox)(I) 
with two cansules ; (2) having a 
capsule which is bilocular ; blear'' 
lliat4, bieari'ia'liis {cariiiii, a keel), 
with two keela ; bloor'pellM; ( -i- 
tarpeltnm), of two carpels or pistils : 
blMpb'sJotM {icipaXii head) ; bl'oept 
(Lat.) two-headed ; blolp'ttU, nitU 



two heads or two supports; Moi- 
I'late, bicilia'tua {cilium, an eyelash), 
with two cilia, as many zoospores ; 
MooUat'eral {con,+ IcUtts, tateria, 
side), applied to a vascular bundle 
with two groups of phloem lying 
upon opposite sides of the xylem ; 
BtooUaterallty, is the state just 

Uo'olor (Lat.) two-coloured, parti- 

Uoo&cen'trlc (&f, con + centrum^ a 
point), Poulsen's term for the fibro- 
vascular bundles in Eriocauloneae ; 
round the axial hadrome bundle is 
a layer of leptome, which is again 
enclosed by a hadrome layer; bl- 
oon'Jugake, hiconjuga'tuB, (conjuga- 
iu8y joined), twice-conjugate, that 
is, when each of two secondary 
petioles bears a pair of leaflets; 
bicondaga'to-pUmA^tuB, similar to 
the last, but each petiole pinnate ; 
Bioor'nes (comu, a horn), the heaths, 
from their homed anthers ; bicor'nis 
(Lat.) Mcom'nte, bieomu'tus, two- 
homed, as the siliqua of MaUhiola 
hia>mi8, DC.; Mere'nate {crenaf a 
notch) (1) having two crenatures or 
rounded teeth (Orozier) ; (2) doublv 
crenate ; biorn'rls ( Lat. ) two legged, 
as the pollen- masses of Asdepiads ; 
bicuspid [cutpis, spear-point) ; bl- 
ensp'ldate, having two sharp points; 
Udent'ate, hidenta'tus {dem, dentis, 
a tooth), (1) having two teeth ; (2) 
doubly dentate, as when the mar- 
ginal teeth are also toothed ; bl- 
dlglta'tus (Lat.)=BicoNJuoATX. 

Ud'uouB, biduuB {hiduumy two days 
long), lasting for two days. 

Bienn'lal, {bienniumi a period of two 
years), a plant which requires two 
years to complete its life-cycle, 
growing one year, and flowering 
and fruiting the second ; signs or 

©; Men'nial, 6teniiM=monocarpic. 

Btere'mns {hi, twice, eremus, a hermit), 
a two-celled fruit, the cells so far 
apart as to seem separate, as in 
CeritUhe; blfa'olal {/aeiea,&n appear- 
ance), when the leaf has spongy 

tissue on the lower face, and com- 
pact tissue on the upper sides; 
opposed to centric. 

bifii'ilam (Lat. in two parts), arranged 
in two rows ;'«'imbrica'tuB, imbri- 
cated in two rows ; bifii'riona, hi- 
fa'riuSf distichous. 

Bi'fer (&t, /(TO, I bear), a plant which 
ripens fruit twice a year (Oozier) ; 
bUTerons, bifenis, double bearing, 
producing two crops in one season ; 
bl'fld, bif'idus {Jindotjidi, to cleave), 
twice-cleft, divided halfway into 
two ; blf Idate = bifid (Crozier) ; 
blflsVular {Jistula, a pipe), with 
two tubular openings (Crozier) ; 
blflor'ate (Crozier), blflor'oiu, -rua 
UloSf floris, a flower), having two 
flowers; bLfoHate, btfolia'tus (fo- 
Hum, a leaf), two-leaved ; blfo'lio- 
late, bifoliola*tus, having two leaf- 
lets ; ^ Leaf, binate ; blfoUlc'ular, 
possessins a Bifollic'ulUB (foUicu- 
lua, a smiul sack), a double follicle. 

bifo'rate, htfora'tua {hiforis, having 
two doors), with two perforations ; 
Blf orlne, an oblong cell, opening at 
each end, contAming raphides ; 
blfo'rouB = bif orate. 

bLform'is (Lat.), two formed ; in two 

bl'firons (Lat.), (1) having two faces 
or aspects; (2) growing on both 
surfaces of a leaf, amphigenous. 

blftirc'ate, h\furca'tu8 (Jbifurcus^ two- 
pronged or forked), twice forked ; 
Blftiroa'tion, division into two 

bigem'inate, higtmina'tus {gtminuB, 
a twin) = BicoNJUOATE ; blgem'inns, 
in two pairs, as in the placentae of 
many plants. 

Bl'gener (Lat. a hybrid), mule plants 
obtained by crossing different 
genera, usually spoken of as a 
bigenerlc Cross. 

bigland'ular (&t, two, glandvla, a 
gland), with two glands. 

biglu'mls {gluma, a husk), consisting 
of two glumes, the components oi 
the perianth of grasses ; bihlla'tus 
t (-t-HiLUM), having two scars as 
in certain pollen ; bUu'gate hijuga'- 


tHt, bUn'coni {jugvm, * yoke), 
appliod to a pinnate leftf, with two 
paini of leaflets : bUatil&ta, MaM'j'- 
(iM (iafiium, Up), divided 

hilameila'tu) {lamdla, a tliiD plat«). 
(sODtistiDg of two plates, ae aome 
placentae ; bllat'OTal, biiatera'tis 
{UUiit, iide), arruiged on opposite 
•idee, as the leaves of the yew ; 
Ula'bBta, bitoba'tvs, Ulo'bed (Xo^oi, 
the e*r-6ap), divided into two 
lobea, as mo«t anthers, or the 
leaves o( Banhiiua ; Wlocell'ate 
tfoctSvg, s smaU compartoient], 
made up of two looelli : biloe'nl&r, 
Kfocu&n'it {localvs, a compart- 
nent), two-celled ; blmaa'alate 
{mae'ula, a spot), with two spots. 
UBiBi'tilB (L&t.), of two months' 

til'miU (Lat.], totting for two jears. 

U'ury Atna'n'tu (Ai'iii, b; twoe), coo- 
■iiting of two DieiaberB ; bl'nate, 
Wna'f im (lAt. ), (1) where a leaf is 
Domposed of two leaflets at the 
and of a common petiole ; (2) a 
aiiDple leaf nearly divided into 
two ; blna'tlm (I^t. ), in pairs ; 
bina'to-plnna'ttti X = bipinnitb. 

Uner'vale {bi, two, nentu, a nerve), 
with two oerves, especially if pro- 
minent ; binamuIaW j: (Lot.), 
having two vascular strands. 

U'nl (Lat.), two togetber, twin; as 
UniOor'ui, bearing Sowers on pairs. 

Mso'dkl. hina'ilU (hi. [iwa, ^lodta, a 
knot), consirting of two nodes. 

tdao'mtal (hi, two, iiotnen, a name), in 
botanic nomenclatore, the use of a 
generic and speoific name to con' 
□ote a given organism ; used also 

for NKWTONIiN CuavE. 

U'kons, bi'ntui (Lat.), in pain ; cf. 

Uau'cleaj, blnu'oleata (hi, two, 
foultti*, a kernel), having two 
nnclei; btnn'cteolate, tnnadtola'tut 
(I^t.), with two nuclei. 
~" " " " I, life, ^cuTTot, a shoot), 

m proposed by SchUter for the 
It of lite, comprising antobUsts, 

of lite, cc 

or free ezisting bJoblasta, and 
c)rU>blHl« or colonies of anoh bio- 
blastaaa have lost their independent 
eriatenCB ; </. EiopHon. 

bloe'ellAte (bi, two, otel/tu, a little 
eye), marked with two eyespota, 

BlOpn'viil (plo!, life, -yfrrtiu. begin- 
ning), the docttine of life from Hie, 
the production o' ' 

others already 
opposition to Spontane 
tioD ; UoE'enons {yivot. race), grou - 
ing on living organianis ; Uog'Ni^', 
the evolution of living forms, in- 
cluding OvrooENv and Phtlooen v; 
Blol'ogy i^6yot, disoourae), tbe 
«oience which investigatea vitiil 
phenomena, both of plant and 
animal ; Molrt'lo {Xitii, a. loosing), 
destructive of life ; Bl'oa, an indi- 
vidual, morphologically and phyni- 
ologically independent ; Btonom'ici 
(*rf*uis, a law), Oaddea's term to 
express Phytobiology, the oeoology 
of plants ; in German, FQanzen- 
biologie : btopb'agODi {•piyoi, a 
glutton), feeding on Lving organ- 
isms, truly parasitic ; Bl'oplMm 
(irXrfffjia, moulded), Beale's name 
forPBOTOPi-ASHi bloph'iloni (^X(u, 
I love), used of Fungi which are 
parasitic on leaves or stems of 
Living plants : U'opbor (inpiu, I 
carry), G. C. Bourne's name for the 
cell, as the vital unit. 

blpU'eolate. bipaltola'ttis (b\,^palt- 
ola), oooBisting of two paleae, or 
■mall scales in graases ; blpAl'- 
mata, bijiaiina'lvs (palma, the palm 
of the hand), twice palmata, palm- 
atety compound ; bip'axosa (pon'o, 
I bring forth), bearing tuvf ~ Oynu; 
Bravais's eipreaaiun foitft normal 
dichotomous inflorescedc* : Upar- 
VOAn. Upartih'ilii, b4«r'tU« (jur- 
fUU, divisible), capable of ready 
division into two mrailar parts ; 
biput'ite, biparti'ta^{lML. ), divided 
nearly to the base into two portions; 
Blpartle'lan, tbaactof dividing into 
two : Upeoc'lnmto iptcten, a comb), 
toothed like a oamb on two sides ; 
Mpelt'Kt* (pe^fo, ■ shield), having 



two shield-shftped parts (Crozier) ; 
biperen'nial {perennia, perpetual), 
used of a part that lives two years, 
but reproduces itself indefinitely 
(Crozier) ; bipef alona {TfrdKoVf a 
flower leaf), Blair's term for two- 
petalled flowers as Circaea ; blpen- 
tai^yll'ns (x^iti;, five ; if^vXXw, leaf), 
having from two to five leaflets. 

U'pes (Lat., two-footed) =BiCBURis. 

Upin'iLate, hijoinna'tua {pinncUua, fea- 
thered), wnen both primary and 
secondary divisions of a leaf are 
pinnate ; Uplnnaf ifld, hipinnaJbyf- 
\du8, when the divisions of a 
pinnatifid leaf are themselves pin- 
natifid ; 1ilpiiiiiAtl]Mtrt'ed = bipin- 
natifid ; UplnnaVlseet, hipinnati- 
atdfus {BtctuSi cut)=bipinnate ; bl'- 
plloate, biplica'ttu (pticOf I fold), 
doubly folded in a transverse 
manner ,a8 some cotyledons; bipolar 
(poluSt the end of an axis), having 
two poles, the usual number in 
nuclear division ; blpolymor'loiis t 
(toX^, many ; fiopiov, a small por- 
tion), consisting of two or many 
parts ; bipo'rose, hiporo'sus {portte, 
channel), openine by two pores 
as the anthers in Erica ; 1ilpro]di3rl- 
la'tOB (+PBOPHYLLA) Buchcnau's 
term for possessing two prophylla 
(Vorblatter) ; bipunc'tate, {punc- 
turn, a point), having two spots; 
bira'dlate, hiradia'tua {radius^ the 
spoke of a wheel), of two rays, 
as in certain umbels ; Url'mose, 
birimo'sue {rimaf% chink), opening 
by two slits, as most anthers; 
blsac'oate (AocctM, a bag), having 
two pouches. 

biacocttfonn'iB (bis, twice ; coetuSf 
cooked; forma, shape), biseuit- 
shaped, applied by Koerber to some 

\AMv'ta.t/6,oi8epUi'tue (&t,two, septunii a 
wall), having two partitions ; Uae'- 
rlal, biaeria'Tis, blse'riate, biaeria'tua 
{aeriea, a succession), arranged in 
two rows as on a flat surface; 
biser'rate, biaerra'tua {aerra, a saw), 
twice serrate, as when the serra- 
turee are themselves serrate ; Use'- 

tose, Uae'tons (aeta, a bristle), with 
two bristles; Uaex'iial, biaex- 
ua'lia (aexua, sex), having both sta- 
mens and pistils, possessing perfect, 
that is, hermaphrodite flowers ; <«* 
Heredity, transmission of qualities 
of both parents ; bUpathelliilate, 
biapathellula'tua X ( + Spathella), 
consisting of two glumes (Lindley). 

Mspl'nose {apino'aua, thorny), having 
two spines; Mspl'roiis {<nreipa, a 
twist), term used by 8pruce for 
elaters having two spirals, </. Dis- 
PIBOUS ; Bi'spore ((nropd, seed) , ( 1 )* ' a 
two-spored tetraspore" (Crozier); 
(2) an ascus with two cells, in place 
of the normal eight; biite'lic {ffHiXri, 
a pillar), having two steles ; blstip' 
iilate( + STiPULA),withtwo stipules; 
blstra'tose {atratum, a layer), cells 
disposed in two strata or layers; 
Ustrl'ate {atriatua, striped), marked 
with two parallel lines or striae ; 
blBulo'ate, biaulcaUua {aulcua, a 
groove), two-grooved; bissrmmet'rlc 
(<n$/!x/ierpof, commensurate), bilateral 
symmetric, each side alike ; Biteg- 
mina'tae [tegmen, a cover), Van 
Tieghem usee this for Phanerogams 
whose seeds have double integu- 
ments ; bitem'ate, bitema'tua {tern- 
ua, by threes), compound temate, 
as a leaf. 

blf ten, abruptly ended, of roots or 
leaves, praemorse. 

bi'TalTe bival'via {bi, two, valvae, leaves 
of a door), having two valves, as 
some capsules; Bi^'^ve, " a capsule 
of two valves " (Crozier) ; blval ved, 

(1) used of Diatoms, as possessing 
two valves ; (2) the indusiaof certain 
ferns, as I>i<iaonia; blTal'Yular= 
bivalve; bivasc'iilar {vaaeulum, a 
vessel), with two vessels ; bivlt'tate 
{viUa>e, fillets), having two parti- 
tions which appear as bands or 

Blad'der, (1) Grew's term for a cell ; 

(2) a hollow membranous appendage 
on the roots of Utricvlarta, which 
entrap water insects ; (3) similar 
growths in the frond of some Algae, 
serving as floats; (4) an inflated 


fruit of pluma, the atone being 
vutticj;, aad a thin bladder repre- 
senting the rest of Ihe fruit ; 
bladder?, thin and inOated. 
Blade, the limb or expanded portion 

of a 


bLmdied, 1 1 ) the whitened appearance 
of leaf or stem from the want of 
iron; (2) artificially prodaced hy 
•xctusion of light, the green chloro- 
phyll pigment not being developed 
in either case. 

BlMM'nui (^XiemiLO, a iprout), (1) 
originally the axis of an embryo, 
the radiola and plumule, excluding 
the cotyledons; (2) t the Lichen- 
thnlluB ; blaita'mal, nidimenlary ; 
bUstemat'looB, thalloid ; Blaste'ila, 
the reproduction of the thallus of 
Lichene by gonidia (Minks). 

Blanid'la \,fl\a^os, shootl. Schleiden's 
(arm for aeoondary cells generated 
in the interior of another cell, 
daughter eolta ; Blast'idules, 
M'Nab'a eipreaaion for all repro- 
dnctive bodies which are not apotea, 
but produced aseEUally, as gemmae, 

Cpagula, etc. ; blastocarp'ons 
iroi, fruit), applied to those 
fmiw which germinate within the 
pericarp ; Blaatowl'la (koXAs, glue), 
the bakam which is produced on 
buds by glandular hairs (Uan- 
•lein) ; Blailogen'sBla (tireaa. be- 
ginning), M'Nab used this for alt 
raethods of asexual reproduction 
which ar^not due to I^porogencsis : 
BUitDgnpb'la {ypi't"'', I writcl, the 
atudjof buds [Du Petit Thouors) ; 
Blaatotnyca'tae iiti'ti}!, funt'UE), a. 
ijnonym of SaocharomyceteB, the 

Siat fungus, etc. ; Blast'ophore, 
anloph'orTm X {<liop4u, I carry), the 
vil«llDS, the sac of the amnios in a 
thickened scale, forming a case in 
which the embryo lies ; Blaat'ui X 
the plumule. 
Blind, a cultivator's entression foe 
abortion, sa when a flower-bud is 
■aid to go blind, that is, does not 

Blea, pr. blee; the liber c 

Blab, Hill's term for a pitb-ce 
Bleed'tng, applied to i 

of sap, auch as oocura in vines ii 
injured in spring during leaf ex- 

Bleudl'ing, a hybrid between races, 
not species. 

Blaph'ai&e, pi. {^'Kfiiapor, an eyelaah), 
the teeth belonging to the peristome 
of a Moss ; Blepb'aioplaat {-rXatrrii, 
moulded), the special iaed proto- 
plasm which givea rise to the motile 
cilia of the antherozoids aa in Zamia, 
and C^tad.-BIepharoplaat'oldi yetios, 
resemblance), in nuclear division, 
two bodies appearing between the 
2- and 4-cclled sta^e at each pole of 
the two spindles, disappearing into 
the cytoplasm before the rise of the 
blepharoph«tB themselves (Shaw). 

Blet, a soft spot on fruit ; Blel'tlnKi 
the change in consistence without 
putrefaction, of certain fruits, as 
the medlar. 

Bligbt, popularly applied to an epi- 
demic, either of minute Fungi, or of 

Bloom, (1) synonymous with Blossom; 
(*2) the white waxy or pruinoae 
covering an many fruits and 

BlM'Hm. the flower, especially of fruit 
trees: ~ Bud, = Flower-hud. 

blotch'ed, colour irregularly disposed 
in patches. 

blunt, ending in a rounded form, 
neither tapering to a point, nor 
abruptly cut off. 

boat-shaped, having the figure of a 
boat, with or without a keeL 

bola'ils (Mod. Lat.), dark red. brick- 
coloured i from the earth, Ar- 
menian Bole. 

Bolt, the main trunk of a tree, with 
a distinct stem. 

bolet'lc, obtained from the genua 
Bolthuf, as boletic aoid, 

BoU, pr. boal, the fruit capsule or 
pericarp, especially of the cotton 

flant ; BoIUngr, pr. boal'ing, = 
OLURii i ballad, pr. boald, coma 


into fruit, ms Bai when the capanle 

is formed. 
bomby'dnna (Lat.), silky, fMling m 

■mooth ■« Bilk. 
bo'ny, of a uloae and hard Uxtnre, aa 

the stones of plums, eto. 
bord'ered. having a margin diatinot 

JD colour or texture from the raat ; 

~ Pit, a pit io wbich tbe margin 

Erojecta over the thin closing mem- 
naf., as in coniferous wood ; ~ 
PoT«, ifl the same thing. 

boir'agold, from the genus Bomgo, 
applied to a form of infloresueoce 
which finds its fullest development 
in Aiuhasa, an extreme case of 
extra-axillary inSoresoence (K. 

Bms, « protuberanoe ; bOMed, with a 
rouncwd surfaco having a projec- 

boat'iTOboid ijioaTpi^, a ringlet, tlSot, 
resemblance), having the form of a 
BosTRVX ; ~ Crms, a gympodial 
braneh system in which the right 
or left hand branch is always the 
moat vigorous, a helicoid cyme ; 
~ Dhtbot'ony, a dichotomy or 
repeated forking of an inSores- 
oeuoe, within the previous defini- 
tion ; Boat'tyx, a, uoiparous, heli- 
coid cyme. 

botanic |^irril>':i, a herb), pertaining 
to the knowledge of plants ; ~ 
Ounlen, a garden especially devoted 
to the cultnre of plants for acientiSc 
ends ; Bot'aaiit, a student of plant 
life, in any of its departments ; 
bot'anln, (I) to seek fur plants in 
their places of growth ; (2) to study 
actual planlB ; Botoaol'ogy (Xa7oi. 
discourse) — Botany ; Bot'any, the 
study of the vegetable kingdom in 
all its divisions, its classification, 
morphology, physiology, and eco- 

Botbrancli'yina {p6Bpas. a pit, tyx"'"', 
that poured io), tissue composed of 
dotted or pitted ducts or cells. 

Bol'rns (Croiier) = BoTKrs. 

bot'ry-oy'inaaa (fli^p"^, a bunch of 
grapes i iSho, a wave), rooemea or 
any botryose clusters cymoaely 

aggregated ; bot'ryojd, botrjold'lJ 
(cOti, resemblance), like a clnster 
of grapes ^ bot'ryoM, boiryo's\w 
racemose ; Bot'iys, a raceme. 

Bottom yMUt, or Low-yeast, the yeast 
which forms at the bottom of the 
vats, in German, " Caterbefe." 

bot'olUOrm, bolvl\form'ie {botviia, a 
sausage forma, shape), aauaage- 
shapM, alUntoid. 

BoulUon (Fr.) mealliroth. Head for 

tMuTKeon (Fr., in English pr, bnr'jiin), 

to bud or sprout. 
Brach'slds {TBuhirch) = BitACHTaoiJt- 

bracbla'lls (r/racAium, the fore-arm), 
a cubit long, roughly about 18 
inches ; bra cliUts, bnuhia'lvn, 
when branches spread and widely 

brachy {ppaxin) ~ short, uaed in Greek 

biachyblostlgniat'lo {pptyit, short, 
^(di, life, nHfiui, a spot), a term pro- 
posed by Delpino to express stigmas 
which are short lived, withering 
before their proper anthers ripen, 
protogynouB ; brachydod'romonB 
(5j)d^[u. a course), with looped veins 



brachyp'odoos (irsi^. roiat. a. foot), 
having a. short stalk or foot ; 
Braetaytcle'relda {atXttpat, hard), 
stone. cells, the sclereids io barks 
and fruits (Tschirch] ; Braohytme'- 
ma (rji^^ia, section), a disc-shaped 
cell, whicli by its rupture sets free 
a gemma in Bryophytes (Correns). 
Bract. Ura't'ea {Lat., a thin plate of 
metal), the modified leaves inter- 
mediate between the calyx and the 
normal leaves; Bract -scsle, in 
Coniferae, a scale of the cone above 
which lies the seed-bearing scale ; 
braot'eal, of the nature of a bract ; 
braiOt'eate, bractfa'tu^, provided 
with bract* ; biacteif anraa {/ero, I 
bear), bearing bracts ; bnKtta'muiX 
formed of bracts ; Biaot'eole, Brae- 
U'cla, ( 1 ) a brae tlet, or small 
bract, (2) a prophyll ; bntcfwOate, 
bracteola'ttit, naving braotlets ; 

t, bracleo'tua, having coo- 
or Dumeroas bracM ; 

1, wanting bracts ; Bnul'- 
tot, s bract of the lut grade, as one 
inMited oa a pedicel or ultimate 
Oovrvr-atalk. iiut«ad of guhtsoding 

Bran, Che busks or outer ooats of 

Sronod corn, sepanited from the 
□ur by bolliog ; brui-Uke, Kvity 
in appearance. 
BntBCll, a diviaioD of the sUm, or 
axis of grovth ; Branch'er;, Grew's 
Wrm for the ramiricationa in the 

Eulp of fruilR ; brancbless, bare of 
ranches ; fiiancb'lst, a twig or 
amall braoch, the ultimate divi- 

Brand, disease caused b; mioute 
Fungi on teaves, aa Uitmgo, et«. 

Bru'llls, (he colonring natter of 
Brazil ivood, Cofnalpinia brmiili- 

bnak, ( 1 ) to put out new leavea ; (2) 
to show a variation, as in florist's 
flowers : Break-baok. reveraion to 
an earlier type ; Breaking, a popular 
eipraaaion for a auddsn profusion 
of algal life in certain lakes or 


bre'rt-raioo'imB (trfi'w,Bhorc, ramomn, 
branched), abort- branched. 

brlck-coknu, aaually implies a dull 
red ; latcrioioug, teataceous. 

BrMd=RAi;K; OroM-lireed - HvHRiii. 

Bri'dlsa, (1) strings of protoplasm 
which often connect the nucleua 
with the layer of protoplasm next 
ths o«Uwall ; (2) atrandi of cells 
oonnecling other blasues. 

Blis'Ua, a at iff hair, or any slender body 
which may be likened to a hog B 
bristle ; ~ pointed, ending in a stiff 
short hair ; bils'U]', beset with 

Brlt'lah, used by H. C. Wataon to 
eipra.'ia the distribution of those 
plants which are found throughout 
the island of Great Britain. 

brochldod'romui (^^lixo'i ■ noose, (M«t, 
like, ipi)iot, a course), Ettingshau- 
■en's t«rm for loop-veined. 

Bro«d-tM>dlM, gemmae on leave* of 
lloaaes, becoming detached and 
growing into prolonemal QlameDta i 
~ Bnd«, [l)a synonym of Sorwiium 
in Lichens ; (-2) the same aa Bulbil 
in ArohegDniatae ; -- Cell, asexU' 
ally produced propagative cell ot 
a fjonidiam ; ~ Oemma, a pluri- 
oolTular propagative body prodnced 
uexually and paaaing gradually 
into a brood-cell on one side, and 
a bulbil on the other. 

Bronte'als, {^porH!, thunder), injury 
to plants by eleclrio abock, 

Brown'ian Morwnent, motion sbown 
by minute partioleswben auspended 

Bm'clna. a poisonous alkaloid from 
Slrj/chiuie Ntie-voraira, Linn., for- 
merly supposed to be from Brtuxa 
/crruffinea, L'H^it. 

bmma'ila (Lat.), pertaining tu the 

winter BoUtice ; Qourishing in mi 

bmn'neolua (Mod. Lat.). browniah. 

brnu'neuB or brun'eui (Mod, Lat 
brown in colour. 

Bmnlisnn (Fr.), injury caused to 
vines by Pltumodiojihora Vitin, 

brush -shaped, aspergilliform. 

Bryorogy ippior, a moss, \oyot, dis- 
course), the eciencB of Moaaei 
Bryophytes generally. 

Biy'onins, a poisonons principle ex- 
tracted from the roota of Bryonia 
alba, Linn. 

Bry'oiAytes Opi^v, a moss, ^uroi', a 

Slant), mosB-like plantd, thc> true 
fosses and the Hepaticae or Liver- 

buckler shaped, reeembling a round 
buckler with a raised rim. 

Back'mait. the fruit of the beech tree. 

Bad, the nascent state of a flower or 
branch ; — Oonsa, of the carob, 
Ceniioitia Siliijua, Linn., arrested 
or aborted iaflorescenceB : ~ Olne, 
— BL.AitTocoLLA ; ~ Ru'dlmeot, in 
Chara, a cell cut off from a pro- 



Bmgimily Fltoli 

embryonio branch aa the primor- 
diam of the young plant ; ^ Scales, 
the coverings of a bad ; <«* Sport 
= Bin)-VABiATiON ; <«* Variation, 
changes of colour or form in plants 
arising from a flower or leaf bud. 
— ^AdventltlouB'^', buds arising out 
of the normal course or lociSity ; 
Brood f^f = Bboodbuds ; Flower 
*^ , the inflorescence before expan- 
sion, or a unit thereof ; Leaf<«', 
an undeveloped leaf. 

Bad'ding, (1) propagation of a garden 
form by inserting a bud or " eye " on 
another stock ; (2) used also for ex- 
pansion of the buds. 

Badlet, '*a little bud attached to a 
larger one " (Crozier). 

Bulb, Btd'hus (Lat.), a modified bud 
usually underground ; (1) na'ked 
f^^ hulbus 8quamomL8, having scaly 
modifications of the leaves, as 
in the lily; (2) tnnioa'ted '^, 
whose outer scales are thin and 
membranous, as the onion or hya- 
cinth; (3) the so-called solid '^, is 
a CoRH ; (4) the swollen base of the 
stipe of the sporophore in Hymeno- 
mycetes ; '^^ Scale, one of the com- 
ponents of a bulb. 

bnlba'ceoos, -ceus, (1) bulbous; (2) 
having bulbs. 

Bnlliiceps {htdbti^, a bulb, capiU, a 
head), a stem bulbous at base; bnlbi- 
f erons, -rus {/ero, I bear), bulb-bear- 
ing, as when bulbils are amongst the 
florets of an inflorescence, or axils 
of the leaves; Bul'bll, BtdhUVua, 
Bnlblet, Bulb'tUus, (1) a small bulb, 
usually axillary, as in LUium btUbi- 
/erum; (2) Bulbil is also applied, 
(a) in some fungi to small pluricel- 
Inlar bodies incapable of germina- 
tion; (6) deciduous leaf -buds capable 
of developing into a new bion or 
brood-bua, in Archegoniatae ; Bnl- 
bo'dium t = CoRM ; 

tnilb'ose, bulho'eus, bnlb'ous, having 
bulbs or the structure of a bulb; 
htdbo'si pi'li, hairs with an in- 
flated base; Bnlbota'ber, Gawler's 
name for Corm ; Bnl1rale= Bulbil 

toaU'ate, buUa'tua {huOti, a bubble), 
blistered or puckered, as the leaf 
of the primrose ; BnUescen'tia 
(+e«c«9w), the state of being blis- 
tered, as the Savoy Cabbage ; bnl'- 
Ufonn {forma^ shape), used of some 
large thin-walled cells, occurring 
on the epidermis of certain grasses 

bunched, gibbous. 

Bon'dle, a strand of specialized 
tissue, variously modified ; '^ 
Flange, communications between 
the unbranched leaf -bundles of 
Gymnosperms and the surrounding 
tissues ; f^ Sheath, the enveloping 
cylinder of closely united paren- 
chyma: — BicollaVeral '^, when a 
second bast-strand exists on the 
inner, medullary, side of the wood 
of the conjoint-bundle ; CauUne '^ , 
confined to the stem ; Closed ^^ , 
destitute of cambium, the procam- 
bium having become permanent 
tissue ; Oollat'eral <«*, when the 
wood and bast lie side by side ; 
Oom'moU'^, that is, to stem and 
leaf, becoming a leaf-trace; Oon- 
oen'trlo '~, when either the wood, 
or the bast system surrounds the 
other; Ooi^oint <«*, consisting of 
both wood and bast ; Corti'cal '^y 
peculiar to the cortical region ; 
Medull'ary '^ , the vascular bundles 
occurring in the pith, when there 
is a well-defined exterior ring; 
Open '^ , when the bundle possesses 
a portion of cambium ; Ra'dial <«* , 
having the strands of wood and bast 
alternately as in roots ; Phloem ^ , 
the bast portion ; Vaso'ular ^ , the 
entire strand, consisting of liber or 
bast portion (phloem) and tracheal 
or wood-portion (xylem) in various 
degrees ; Xyloni '^ , the wood-por- 

Bunt, a common disease of the wheat 
plant, from TUletia Tritici^ Winter. 

Bur, a prickly headed fruit, applied 
to the chestnut, Arciiumy and the 
like ; bnr'ry, resembling a bur. 

Bnr'gundy Pitch, a resin from species 
of Ahiea, 


Bmr, ft woodf oatf[rowth from the 
bark of certain trees : r/. Of^ctt. 

Bnr'aa (LilL, h purse) t lUe antheri- 
dium of Chara -. Ben'lcnle, Bnr- 
■Ic'ola (Lat,, a Bmall puree), the 
pouch-like expaDnioD of the etigma 
into whi«h the caudicle of wme 
Orchids is inserted ; bimic'Qlftle, 
Jw«ic»/o'liui. purse like. 

Botlt, a low Bhrub, branching from 
the ground. 

butterOyllke, - Bhaped, = cAniji>NA- 

Bun'ona.t so old term for Buds. 
Batt'resB, the knee-like growths of 

bu'eona, btix'eua {Baxn», the Box- 
tree), (1) the colour of boi-wood, 
(2)pertaiDiDgtolhat tree; Box'ine, 
an alkaloid from Bucim atmptr- 

brBBa'ceouH, -cciu [byuiu*, fine flax), 
composed of fine threads ; Bth'ui, 
the Blipe of certain Funoi. 

Bn^r'lc 7«r'meBt, caused by Baeillii» 
Amylobader, Van Tiegh. ; ate Fkr- 

a'lnna, chocolate brown; from the 
laiue of ne.ohroma Carao, lAaa. 
^'iTBtlEiat. )theooneof apine-tree. 
t'al, [Cactus, a genus of succulents). 

cad'ens |Lat. falling), when the fami- 
oolns jwsBeH over the top of the 
seed as in Plambagincse; cadn'oous, 
mdii'mn, dropping off early, as the 
sepals of a poppy on eipanaioo. 

Oae'cnia [Lat. blind), a prolongation 
of the Biuhryo in Casuarina and 

OaSDO'blO - CuGNOBlD. 

Caeo'ma (laiu, I bum) Ctutalona. or ~ 

of Ctieoma, Link, believed to be a 
stage of yfflampiora, 
caonUJsBc'ent {ecKruieiit, sky-blue -t- 
eaoBnal. verging towards blue ; 
a, sky-blae. 

eaMptlell'Me ifat*pe»,oTrci^tii, a sod), 
somewhat tufted ; cae'spltosa, rat- 
fpilo'euf, gi'owiog in tufta like 
grus ; CAMplt'lllOM, somewhat 
crowded in tuft -like palcbos. 

OMto'nlnm, Liodley's spelling ol 


Oaifeiiie, an alkaloid from ooSee 

berries. Coffea aroftioi, Linn. 
Calama'iiae idi/umiw, a reed), (I) a 

eraases, chiefly sedges, 
including Itotl'i, J-nnnai, Typha, 
etc. ; (2) at present restricted to 
fossil plants, Eauisetineae ; cala- 
nw'TlKa. sedge-like ; oalamlf eitim 
(/erJ>, I bear), having a hollow, 
roed - hke stem ; (2) producing 
reeds ; Cal'amlte. a foiisil type, 
rBBcmbling recent E'lii't'a. on a 
gigautio scale ; calaml'tean, re- 
sembling the last ; Calamus, a Bs- 
tular stem without an arliculatioa. 
CBl'atbide, Cai'alhUla, Caialh-ium, 
Ctilathid'ium (ni\aBot, a wicker 
basket), the head of a Composite ; 

Ereferably realrict«d to the invo- 
icre of the same ; Ml'athifQTm, 
ca/ai/ii'/nrjn'w, cup-ahaped, almost 
hemispherical ; calatUdlflorui t 
ifiox. Jforin, a flower), having a 
Calathidium or Capitulum ; GalSL> 
thiph'omm {•pofiiui, I bear], the stalk 
of a Capitulum. 
Oalc'alaiT \ralcidiie, a pebble), Grew'a 
term for the selerogenona tissue of 

OaJc^ (Lat.) a spur ; o*lc'«rat«, cdL- 
cant'Uii', fumiahed with a spue; 
calearlfoTm'ia {/orma, shape), ipur- 

M.C, lilUl 


chalk-white, as to colour; (-) grow- 
ing in chalky or limestone places; (3) 
having the substacoe of chalk, as 
the chalk-glands of certain sazi- 

^'c«olat«, caletota'tva; Cftl'MUOnn, 

txU^e\form'ia (coJcsofiM, a slippor. 

forma, ihape), shapad like 4 

eal'Moa (L&t. from taix), cbslk- 
vhite ; ealc'Uomi (/orma, Bh«pe], 
"powdery, like chslt or lime." 
(CroEier): CBldpU'llou* i.<^\ia, I 
love, chftlk-loviDg ; caldTogaJ 
(fii^o, I See), Bhanning chalk, hb 
heather ; caldv'oroiu (uoro, 1 
devour), applied lo Liohens which 
oat into their limeetone matrix. 

CaJda'rlnm |L*t. warm bathroom) in 
botanic garden* Mgnifiea on inter- 
meHiate or warm greenhoDBB. 

CftlMtdd'rlum (Lat., an Aucount-book) 
-'Flor'as, an arrangement of plants 
according to their period of flower- 

Oalend'tUln. a mncilaginons tnbelance 
trom the marigold, CaltiKivia 
ofieitialii, Linn. 

oftUca'Ui - cu.\cAU6 

oalicft'tni = cALTOATua 

oaUdna'ila, caldaa'dn* = CALmN- 
AHIS, etc. 

oalle'iOsT, adUida'ria = CAi.YCiii.aB,eto. 


Oallol'ogy (xaUa, a oabin ; Asyn, dis- 
ooar8e),juveQescenoe;the d jnamica 
of the young oell (J. C. Arthar). 


CAloTlt'ropio (eo/or, beat ; t»t4, a 
tnm). term proposed by Klercker 
for thermotropic ; Oiiorit'iDplain 
= Tbbbk OTBOPiaH. 

oaiyoM, caiio'gia iratlnt, hard akin), 
(1) beuringcalloBitiea ; (2) hard and 
thick in texture; OkU'dbs, Mangin'a 
term for a preiumed ea-tential con- 
stituent of the tcll-K'all : CalloE'lly. 
a leathery or hard thickening of 
part of an organ ; callo'ao-MRa'tiu, 
when the aerratures are calloiiliea ; 
Ctll'iu, ( I ) an abnormally thickenod 
part, aa the baae of a cutting ; (2) 
a tpacial deposit on aieva-platea; 
(3) a synonym of Veeruca ; (4) the 
hymenium of certain Fungi : (S) 
an eiteosion of the Sowering glumo 
below ita point of insertion, and 
grown to the aiia or rhachilla of 
the spikelet. 

Oalopo'dliUB t (caXoi, fur, roih, 
roiif, fool), Bnmph'* term for 

Cal'pa (cdXrij, sn urn), Neoker'a term 
for the capsule of Fontinalu. 

cal'roiiB, eai-mu (Ut., bold), naked, 
oa an achene without pappus. 

CUyb'to {loAt^w, a cottage}, Hirbel'a 
name for a hard, one-celled, in- 
ferior, dry fruit, auch aa the aoom, 
or hsEel-out ; Calyb'tum X ia a 

calycantli'eintiua (naXuf, a cup ; irBoi, 
a flower), (1) having the eepals con- 
verted wholly or parti ajly into 
petola ; (3) the corolla and stamena 
inserted in the calyx ; Calycan- 
th'emy. a montroaity of the oalyx 
imitating an exterior corolla i 
cnIyca,'Ui. of or belonging to the 
oalyi ; Cal'yde, Calyiftiia, a whorl 
of branti exterior to the true calyx ; 
oalyn'tua (LaC), furnished with a 
calyx : Calyo'lA, a stipitate and 
boat-ahaped apothsoium ; Calyd- 
flor'aa [_flOB.Jtoru, a flower), plants 
having their petals and stamena 
aduate to the calyx ; adj.. Cftlyd- 
floi'al, calydllor'oua 1 ca^c'lfomi, 
(/ornta, shape), cup-shaped, applied 
to an induaium ; CaJ'ytdn, a bitter, 
yellow, oryatallimbie subalanoe 
from CaJicium ch ryeorr.phalUTn, Aoh. , 
and other Lichens ; calTdlui'U* 
tlAt.), oal'ydne, caiyd'nua, (I) 
belonging lo the calyx [ (2) of the 
nature of a calyi ; (3) denoting a 
calyx of unDsual size ; caUciaa'rlDa 
t, oallaliui'ila t, polyphylly of the 
calyx ; calydna'rtna, formed from 
the calyx ; Cal'ycle, CaJye'iUue, the 
epioalyx, or in vol acre simulating 
an additional calyx, a whorl of 
bracta outside tJie true calyx ; 
col'ycold, calyroid'eve (tlSot, re- 
semblance), resembling a calyx ; 
GalfCoata'moiL {m-riiuiir, a filament), 
a stamen seabed on the calyx ; 
calyo'olile, cal^cvia'ttis, bearing 
bracta which imitate an eiternu 
calyx ; Cftlypliy'ciiny (^o^i, I 
spring from), adhesioa of the aepala 
to the petals. 

OatrVtn (xaXiirrpa, a Teil) or OolTp'- 
Mr, (1) the hood or cap of a Mow in 
fruit when it urowna the capsule, 
formed from the wchegonial w»ll ; 
(2) applied to anj cap-lilie cover- 
ing of a floirer or fruit, aa the 
eatiDfiaiBher - ibaped calyi of 
Stcluc/tolnia, or the lid which 
falla off on expaosioa of some 
MjrrUceae, aa Eitcaiyptus -, (3) Oo- 
nont'a term for a tbiak inembraDe 
putting off Iha apical cell of a 
tricbonie in Oacillarieae ; (4) a term 
propoaerl by Van Tieghem and 
Douliot (or that portion uf the root- 
oap in lateral roots which belongs 
■trictl; to the root-ayntem ; (o) 
Tonmefort'a word for C-iKirBOLlt ; 
ai.Y^Va.\a, i^niyptra't'", bearing a 
oalyptra ; calyp'tiifonu. atlyptri- 
jormif (farma, ahape), shaped like 
an extinguisher ; caiyptflmoTTtL'oui 
(jioptfij, shape), a ajnonym of the 
laat ; C&lyp'trofren {-ttnt, offsprinR). 
(t) the layer of cells from which the 
root-oap taken its origin, i'2) the 
layer of liasue coveriug the young 
embryo, as in Feros. 

O^lyx [ti\i4, a, cup). (I) the outer- 
moat of the floral exivelopea ; — ad- 
lie'reuB, when not arparable from 
the ovary ; ~ calyoala'tui, when 
■nrrouDded b; a ring of brnota ; 
_ camma'nlt, the involacre of 
Gompositea ; " Infa'rlor, — ll'ber, 
whan free from theovary ; ~aDpa'- 
llor. when adherent to the ovary ; 
~TBb«, a tubular form of the calyi, 
dne to tbe nnion of tlie sepals ; (2) 
X the reosptaole of certain Fungi ; 
(3) the " perianth " of Hepaticae. 
that is. tbe Colksula (Hooker and 

Caia'ara (la^tdpa, a vault), occaaion- 
atly used for the celU of a fruit : 
earner' ula, a diminutive of the fore- 
going ; cania'rlua, resembling a. 
aimple carpel, as the berry -like 
fruit of Arlar.a. 

Mmb'lAl Uainbio, I change), relating 
to Camdiith; camti'lfonn {j'oi-ma, 

^Aapa), ceaeinbliDg cambium : 
" a layer of nascent 

tiwne betwont the wood and bxt, 
adding elements to both ; for- 
merly considered aa a mere viaooas 
mase ; ~ Fl'bTWi, the immediate de- 
rivatives of the cambium, partly 
formed woody Sbres (Sauio) ; — 
Layer, tbe formative tissne during 
active growth : ~ Kln^. the com- 
plet« system of the cambium, separ- 
ating tbe wood from the bast in 
the ahoot 1 — fUdc'Qlar - " ' 




bundles i tnlerfaadc'ular ~ , that 
which is formed between the vaa- 
cular bundles, and the primary 
medullary rays. 
:amell'nnH (Lat,), camel ■ coloured. 

(oitnpiiHn, a hell) ; «uil- 
pau'lforiD, campaniform' M ; cam- 
pan'nlata, campanula' tu*. bell- 
ahsped, applied to a corolla ; 
Croxier adds ounpanU'tform. 

campea'ter [\aI.) cainpft/tTie, growing 
in fields, the second form is that 
usually found in botauio worki ; 
adj. campea'tnJ. 

Oampli'or a solid essential oil from 
Cimmmommn Camphom, T. Neea 
et Eberm., aud other trees; cam- 
phora'oeoua [ -l-aceous) ; camphor'lc, 
pertaining to. or of the oatare of 

camptod'romu* (■il;'Ti,>,Ibendi3/)j>u)(, 
course), venation in which tbe 
secondary veins curve towards the 
margins, but do not form loops ; 
camptat'repal i-rpari). a turn), an 
ortbotropal ovule, but curved like 
a horee-BDoe. 

campiUlt'ropal i<!a^ir6\ns, cnrred ; 
Tporri, a turn) ; campnllfropoaa, ler 
Cahpyijtbopal. etc, ; campylod'- 
romous, -niu {Sponat, a oourse), 
venation which has its primary 
veins cnrved in a more or less 
bowed form towards the leaf apex ; 
OampyloopflT'iiiouB -mru {vrtp/itt, 
seed), having the albumen curved 
at the margin so as to form a, longi- 
tudinal furrow : campylot'ropal, 
campy lot'Topolu iTporii, a turn), 
applied to an ovule, one side of 


which has grown faster than the 
other so as to bring its true apex 
(mioropyle) near the hilam. 

Oan'ada Bal'sam, an oleo-resin ob- 
tained from Abies haUamea^ MilL, 
much used in the preparation of 
miorosoopical specimens. 

Oaaal', eana'lia (Lat. , pipe or channel), 
an internal channel ; ^^ (MUs, an 
axial row of cells in the neck of the 
arohegonium, ultimately forming a 
canal by disappearance of the septa, 
which becomes the way of access for 
antherozoids ; '^ Ba'pihe, modi6ca- 
tion of the rushe in Diatoms, with 
longitudinal fissure, as in SurvrtUa ; 
caaalio'iilate, canaliculaUua, chan- 
nelled, with a longitudinal groove ; 
Oanalio'ulns (Lat. , a small channel), 
a diminutive of Cakal. 

can'otflate, cancdla'tus ( Lat. ,latticed), 
as in Clathrus, and Ouvirandra, 

can'dicant, caniicans (Lat.), white, 
clear and shinins. 

candldns (Lat.), white, and shining ; 

Oane, the stem of reeds, large grasses, 
and small palms; Gane-sngar, a 
sucrose, the crystallised product of 
Sugar-cane, Beetroot, iSforgrAum, etc. 
— Sugar-cane, Saccharvm officin- 
artim, Linn. : its chief fungus-dis- 
eases are Oane Flreekle, '^ Burt, cause 
uncertain ; <«* Spome, by Strumella 
Saecharif Peck; '^ Boot, by Macro- 
sporium graminumt Cooke. 

oaneUa'ceooB, (1) pertaining to the 
order of which Candla, r. Br. is 
the type ; (2) resembling cinnamon, 
Ital. Canella, in taste or shape. 

canes'oens, canes' eens (Lat.), growing 
grey or hoary. 

Oauer, a disease in decidous leaved 
trees, ascribed to Nectria ditissimat 
Tul. shown by malformed rind, with 
swollen cushion-like margin, and 
depressed centre. 

Oantbaroidi'ilae («c<li^/>of, a beetle, 
^X^w, I love), plants which are 
fertilised by beetles, having showy 
colours, and abundance of pollen. 

oa'nns (L^t.), hoary, grey. 

Oaaatch'ono, pr. koot'shook, a sub- 

stance occurring in the milky latex 
of manv plants; it is alUed to 
the Hydrocarbons. 

Cap* (1) GreVs term for the husk of 
a nut; (2) the pileus of Hymen- 
omycetous fungi ; (3) the calyptra 
of Mosses ; '^ Cells, the upper sister- 
cells of the embryo-sac in the ovule 
which are compressed as the embryo- 
sac develops and for a time figure 
as a cap on its apex; <^ Fuigi, 
pileate Fungi, as the Mushroom. 
Otilulose '^t formation by proto- 
plasm of cells of certain trichomes. 

capUla'ceons, -ceus, cap'lllazy, capil- 
la'ris (capillus, a hair), slender, 
comparable with a hair ; capilla'tus, 
hairy; capUla'tae Radi'ces, roots 
with evident root - hairs ; Capil'- 
lament, Capillament'umy the fila- 
ment of an anther ; capillamento'sus 
(Lat.), comose ; Capillif lum, sterile, 
thread-like tubes or fibres growing 
amongst the spores in a sporogenous 
body, frequently forming a net, 
especially m My xogastres; Capillns, 
the width of a hair, taken as i^th 
of a line or about *17 mm. 

Capitalist, a term applied to plants 
having a larg^ reserve of material, 
and insect fertilized. 

capitate, capita' tus (Lat., having a 
head), (1) pin-headed, as the stigma 
of a primrose ; (2) growing in heads, 
as the flowers of Composites ; 
oapitell'ate,capt^/a'^tt8, diminutive 
of OAPiTATE ; Capitell'um, the cap- 
sule of Mosses ; capltifonn'is X 
{format shape), shaped like a head, 
somewhat globose ; oapif ular = 
CAPiTELLATB (Crozicr) ; capiVull- 
fonn, shaped somewhat like a head ; 
Capifulnm (Lat., a little head), (1) 
a close head of sessile flowers ; (2) 
a term vaguely applied to the 
pileus, etc. of Fungi ; (3) a rounded 
cell borne upon each of the manu- 
bria in the antheridium of Chara ; 

oapno'des, oapnoi'des {Kamfib^t, 
smoky), smoke-coloured. 

cap'zeolate, caprtola'txLS {caprtolus, a 
tendril), having tendrils. 


Aptiflca'liKiii, Caprijtea'tio (Lat.)t (1} 
th« ferti Illation of the fig by 
H iiuects, hruicbes of the wild fie 
H bting placed among the culcivated 
F kind ; the subsequeDt fertilimtion 
' U attributed to the punctures of an 
hynionopterousmBsct ; (Z) fecunda- 
tion b; artificial meane ; Oftprifl'cui 
(Lat. ), the wild or " mate " fig, the 
uncultivated form. 

Capsell'a [nii/a., a box), Link's term 
for AniESE. 

Cap'ricin, an acrid altaloid principle 
found in nome epeoies of CapKicnm, 

Capsom&'nlB((d^a.abox,nKiniu, mad- 
Dees), a multiplication of piatiLg, 

Cap'nde, Cn^/nifa, (l)adry, dehiaoent 
•eed-veseel ; (2) the thecn of Ktoaatu ; 
(3| X the perithecium or recept«cle 
of Fungi ; cap'ralar, capeiila'ri«. 

; cap'snlale. enoioaed in 
a capsule ; capauUCe'rooa. -nu, 
(/era, I bear), bearing capButee, 

Ctp'nt (Lat. the head), the peridinm 
of «ome Fungi ;-FlormnI =Capit- 
VLcm; -HaiU'di, the crown of the 
root ; the obeolete etem or bod of 
herbaceouB plant*. 

Cubobydnitef (Carbon + Hydrate), 
nonvolatile Bolide, ae arabic acid, 
eellulose. dextrin, Btarch, sugar; the 
□OS 'Saccharine members may be 
turned into Bugars by boiling in 
dilute acids, usually into glucois 

Cu'boii DIos'lde = COi ; carbonft'ceona 

( + aceoua), consisting chiefly of Bub- 
•tiancei in which carbon piedo- 
minatcB ; earboniaea, turned into 
nearly pure carbon by alow com- 
buBtioD, as charcoal. 
C«r'eerule,C'firreni'/ru. (career, prison], 
Deavaux's name for a dry, todebiB- 
cent, many -celled, superior fruit. 
such as that of the lime-trca; (2) 

■it boa also been employed for the 
rangia of some Fungi ; carcarn'- 
r, rarceniia'ri', having a carcenile 

(nopufuiiit, cane 
l) and Caretno'nw {• 
nloer), have I 

LB dis- 

to denote Camekr and kindred 

Cardth'tnm :t or Oarcyth'lom t (rao- 
«ii<oijff0ai, to become entangled, 
as roote), Ne*;ker's word for^r- 
CELiDM ; Oarey'tei, J = Mtckutth, 

Oarene (Fr. Car*ne) = CARiNA, keel; 
has been used for the keel or midrib 
in the leaves of grasBea. 

Carlcogr'raphy (Cartx. Cancia, ypa^rit 
writing), a treatise on Cyperaceae, 
sedges, from the genua CVir&c, the 
targent in the order; Carlcot'oglit 

C&'iisa (Lai. rottennaBa), pntridtty, 

CMl'na (Ut. keel) ; (1) the two an- 
terior petals of a papilionaceona 
Hower, or similar organ ; (2) the 
keel of the glume of graBBca : (3) 
the principal nerve of a sepal ; 
carl'aal, relating to the keel in 
aestivation when the corina includes 
the other parts of the flower :~ 
Oanal, in Eqiiimlvm, a water canal 

a the \z 

poaite a ridge on the sarface of the 
stem ; culna'lU, that aide of the 
fruit of Umbelliferae which reprw- 
sentB the oarina, or principal nerva 
of the adherent calyx: car'liuM, 
can-na'tjit, keeled ; earina'to-plU 
ca'tui, plaited so that each fold re- 
sembles a keel, as tbe peristome of 
some MosBes. 

Caiiop'alde. Culop'ala {tapuav, a nut, 
Bftt, resenib lance), a one-oelled. ono- 
Beoded, Buiicrior fruit, with peri- 
carp united to the seed ; the fruit of 
cereals ; cailopBld'eua, having a cari- 
opsia as fruit, also spelled Cabtopsis. 

ca'riaDB. cario'i^iti, (Lat,) rotten, de- 

Car'tnlse. the purest red pigment 
obtainable, without admixture of 
blue or yellow. 

catsa'tion (car?ieiM, of fieah), flesh- 
coloured. [Wheat-ear Carnation ia 
a monstrous state of that flower 
with multiplied bracts.] 

cani'eons, cara'eue (Lat. of fie«h), 
flesh-coloured; Canio'tltaa [Lab.] 
fleahineas ; oun'ose, 


Wfiu (Idi.) ftMhy, pulp;; eu- 
nlVoroaa (cot-o, I devour) Besh- 
eating ; applied to those plants 
which digest inaecta ; Can (Lat. 
flesh), (I) the fleshr parts of fraita ; 
{2} the tiBBne ot some Fungi. 
Caro'ttH, the red colouring matter of 
ahromoplasts ; name from Jjauciut 

Car'onUii. a carbohydratQ Bnt ob- 
serred in the Carob ; Caronb'lD' 
■M. » bydrolytic eoxyine formed 
daring germination in seeds oE 
Crratonia Siiiijiia, Linn.; French, 

Carpade'linm ]: Oarp«dalua X [tapirit. 
fruit, dSirXoi, not maDifest) = C&lc- 

Ourp'el, CarptlL'am (napiroi, fniit), a. 
simple pistil, or element of a com- 

Einnd pistil, answering lo a single 
af ; a female sporophyll ; cupel- 
I'axj, carpdla'rie, carp iciui, relat- 
ing to a carpel ; Oarp'ld, Carpiif- 
lum.^diniinaiive of Carpil ; Oftr- 
p'lnm, (I) the oogonium modified 
by fertilization, which remains as 
an envelope aronnd the embryo ; 
[S)! = carprl; Oarpoaid {iaat, a 
wine-akin), the more complex As- 
oomy oetone Fungi,alI,exaepttheEx- 

[iXurlw, a young shoot), "a free 
csae or receptacle of spores founil 
in certain AlgaU" (Lindley) ; Car- 
podarm'la iStpim, skin), Bisehoff's 
emendatioii of Pekicahp; Carpo'des. 
Carpo'dium, pi, Carpo'dia, abortive 
carpels, as in Ty/iha ; Oarp'ogun 
(70^1, marriage), the female organ 
in a proearp : producing a cyato- 
aarp ; Oarpogi'aiiiy, the procoBx 
itmU ; oarpogen'lo, carpoff'enoaa 
(fftioi, race), producing fruit ; in 
Florideae, applied Ic apecia] oella 
of the carpogonium ; CMit'ogone, 
Cupocron'tnm (701^1, offspring), (1) 
part of a procarj> of carpogenoua 
cells reiulting in a Bporocarp after 
fertiliMtion ; (2) in Ascomycptes = 

Akchiuakf : Cup'ollte, Cnrp'oUtb 

(XMoi, atone), a fossilized fruit ; or 
oasts, found in the cosi meaBurea, 

of the r( 

probably of Gymnoapermauaorigiti: 
Cupol'Dgiit. Carpal' ogvM {'Kiyn. 
diS(>ourBe), a specialist in fruits % 
Oupol'ogT. classification of fruits ; 
Carpo'ma Z "a collection of aper- 
Tnangia " (Lindley). i.e. a compound 
Bporocarp ; Caipomanla {Mafia, 
freniy). a disease of grittiness in 
fruit ; Carpoma'ny. piatillody, or 
Bubatitntion ol pistils for stamens \ 
Oupomorph'a % (liop^i), shape], apo- 
tbecia of Lichens, resembling true 

Car'poD (™pxoi, fruit), in Greek oo«- 
pounda^fruit : Oup'oplion, Car- 
pophor'iam l^o/itu, 1 carry) ; (1) the 
stalk of a sporocarp ; (2) that part 
''■■-' —?ptacl8 which is prolonged 
tbe carpels as a ccDtral 
ajDB, as in Centmium; (3) nsed by 
Fayod aa inclusive of stipe, pileus 
and lamellae, of fungi ; Cup'opbyU, 
CarpophyU'um {^iWar, leaf), syno- 
nym of Carpel ; Carp'oplQlM 
(^vrdi-, a plant), Phanerogams ; 
Oarpopo'diam X [podium, an eleva' 
tion). fruit - stalk ; Oarp'oaperm 
(crWpjia, seed), the impregnated 
ooaphcre of Algae : Cuposporan'gla, 
(ffiropft, aseed.a-yyeiw.aTesael), dif- 
ferentiated sporangia in the cysM- 
carp of Rhodopbyoeae ; Oarp'o- 
spore ((rvapi, a seed); (I) spore; 
(2) a spherical uninuclear spore 
formed io a aporocarp, arising 
from the swollen tips of branched 
filaments resulting from the fer- 
tilization of the carpogonium 1 Car- 
poapo'reM, one ot Cohn's, also 
Sachs's main divLsiona of Thallo- 
phytefl, of plants which produce 
spore-fruit as the result of fertiliza- 
tion 1 carpoapor'ia, reaembling a 
carpoepore; Carp'ostome, CaTTHuro'- 
mi'im iari^a, the mouth), the 
opening in the cyetocarp of some 
Alga«; aarpopto'tii(*Tuo'ir, falling), 
abnormal falling of the fruit ; 0*1- 
pOt'ropLc [rpoxii, a turn), used ot 
movements for protection of the 

eftitllBg'inoai, carli/agin'eiie (L>1., 
gristly), hardsiod tough, as the skin 
of an appte-pip. 

Cunuc'la. Carune'ula (Lat., a little 
piece of flash), s w»rt or protuber- 
knce Dear the hilum of a. iceJ ; 
cirano'nlftt«, caruncvia.'tuit, poBBese- 
ing a caruDcle. 

Caryoklna'staorCuTDCine'Elf (Croxier) 
^KARlfOitiMHSls ; nuolear divUion. 

OUTOlyt'lc [Kipvor, a nut, \iaii, a. loos- 
ing), relating to nuclear disHOlutioo ■ 

oarropbjrUa'ceona. Te»«; ouyophyl- 
I'Mmi, -loiu, used of a corolla hav- 
ing petata with a long claw aa 
in Diantlim Caryophyllui, Linn., 
wli«oae the name ; caiyopbyllA'tus, 
=the aama. 

CMi'yaplaain [Kapunv, n nut — nacleuB, 
rXivtut, niould«d), Vuillemin's term 
for the ploama of the nuclene ; 
OU7op'«lJ {S^ii. resemblance ) ~ 
CAKioma ; CBr'yosOTnea ((ru>ia, the 
bodv), the conetituentB ol the 
nualena (Vnillemin). 

Cu'eln, eee Pi.u(t-casein. 

CRsqnB = (:Ai.EA. 

cUBld'eouB. eva {aunt, a. helmet), 
helmet -shaped, ae the apper sepal 

ou'mB (Lat., empty), empty, oa an 

anther destitute of pollen, 
cuta'neos (Lnt.), chestnut-ooloured. 
OBit'lns, prematurely shedding leaves, 

eu'tnts, ea«ni'tiui(Lat. , gelded), said 
of a defective part, as a filament 
without an anther ; Caitn'tlon, in 
botany ; {1} removal of anthers for 
artificial crossing : (2) the action of 
UttUago, etc. oaLychnig and allied 
geoarai divided into a.mphlir'eiioiu 
f-, transformation in either atameos 
or pistils; aiulroB'»m)ni-. proline. 
tioD of anthers ; theljgr'yiioiu, pro. 
duotion of pistils in male-hoxt. 

OH'nal {ca^iaiU, fortuitom). H. C, 
Watson's Urm for an occasional 
weed of ooltivatioci, which is not 

catatiol'la(niTi,down'.^6\af,B throw), 
adj. of Oatab'ollsm, destructive 
motftholiam of the protoplasm, or 
the formation of simpler subsUuioeB 
from more complex, a<icompanied 
by a coDversion of potentiu into 
kinetic energy : also spelt Kata- 
HOLisu ; Cataicle'slaiiL X i'^flO't. > 
shutting up) = Uici.Esin*! ; Oata- 
ooroll'B {cordia, a little garland), a 
second corolla formed exterior to 
the true one ; resembling a 
hose flower: cfttad'romon* [ipiiiai, 
course), Luersaen'a t«rm when the 
first set of nerves in eaoh segment 
of a Fern frond is given off on the 
basal side of the mid-rib, as in 
Oemumla ; Catagen'esls {yirririt, a 
beginning), retrogressive evolution, 
by loss of attributes or aimpUGca- 
tion of structure ; Catkl'ytil (XiJaii, 
a loosing], chemical changea effected 
by a substoncti which does not itself 
undergo obangs ; ferment action ; 
cataJyt'tc, modification of chemical 
force which causes catalysis ; c*ta- 
metad'rominiB ( -f metadromoua) in 
Ferns, when they are sometimes 
catadromous and sometimes meta- 
dromooa, which may occur in the 
•ame speoies ; Mtapet'&laaj, -u«, 
{irrraXw, a flower -leaf), where 
petals are onited only by cohesion 
with united stamen, as in Malta ; 
Oat'apliyU, Cataphyll'a, pi. (^ii\Xav, 
leaf), the early leaf -forms of a plant 
or shoot, as cotyledons, bud-scales, 
rhiuime-scales, etc. ; in German, 
Niederblatter ; cataphyll'ary. of the 
nature of the foregoing; ^Leaves, 

Cat'apult Fruit; those fruits dispers- 
ing seeds or fruit segments by the 
elasticity of their pedonclea. 

Oafecba, pr. Cat'eshoo, ontch, the 
heart - wood of Afoeia Catethu, 
Willd., powerfully astringent from 

oat'eiuto {(alma, a chain), the co. 
herency of Diatom froatules in a 
connected chain ; eatou'olaite, ca- 
ttnvia'taa, formed of parts united 
or linked as in a chaiD. 


catbod'al, CathCHl'lc (lard, down ; 

Oafkln, a deciduous spite, coDBiatlng 
of unUeiual apataloua flowers, an 
amentum : the male flowers of 
C;cads and Cooifers are errone- 
ously styled catkins ; CBt'oIOs |L&t. 
puppy), I a syoonyni ol Catkls. 

Oan'iU {Lat.), a tail, any tail-like 
appendage: caud'ate, eaiidn'tK>, 

Oan'dex (Lat.). the axis of a plant, 
consisting of stem and root ; - de- 
■oan'deiu. the root : ~Radl'olB, the 
root-tip; ~ re'pens* = Rhihomb ; 
cand'lal ■ contln'uuB t continuous 
with the stem, used of tboae leaves 
which have no articulation with the 
stem ; oandic'lfoniL {/ormn. shape], 
like a caudei in form ; Can'dlcle, 
eaiidic'tila, the cartilaginous strap 
which connects certain poUen-maa- 
sea to the stigma, as in Orchids. 

oanlMc'ent, -tnt (cav/iK, a stalk), be- 
coming stalked, where the etalk is 
clearly apparent : caul'lcle, canl'lc- 
nle, ravlic'vlnn, a, diminutive stalk ; 
(1} a small stem produced on the 
neck of a root without the previous 
production of a leaf ; (2) the imag- 
inary spaoe between the radicle and 
the ootyledoaa of an embryo, now 
termed tjie bypocotyl ; (3) the stipe 
of oertain Fnn^ ; catUlo'olottt (co/o, 
I dwelt), apphed to Fungi which 
live on stems ; cauUferoua ( fero, I 
bear), bearing a stalk ; caul'lform 
l/tmna, shape), having the shape of 
a Btalk ; Caol'lSower (-i- Flower), 
hypertrophy of the Sower - ataJk, 
nied by defectiTB flowers; 


. [yiy« 

from a stem ; caulig'eroui [gero, I 
bnir), bome on a Htcm ; Caalld'lnin, 
term proposed by Bower to express 
the leaf in the oophore generation ; 
its sualogiie in the sporophore 
generation is Caulome; CftOl'lnar, 
onul'liULiT, cou/ina'm, -ritii; - 
CADLINX ; Cftnl'lne, catji'ntu, he- 


longing to the stem or arising from 
it, ~ Bnn'dlef, vascular bundles 
growing acropetally with the stem, 
having no direct cominunication 
with the bundles which pass into 
the leaves. 

Oan'lls (Lat.), s stem ; the aacendins 
axis, restricted to the above-ground 
portion in its normal ataCe ; ~ de- 
UqueBc'em,:; s stem which branches 
irregularly ; -^ excnir'ens, a fll«m 
shooting straight upwards, having 
side hronobes as in Ahiui. 

canlocarp'oaa, aiiilocarp'eiif, -otctw 
(cauXiit, stem, •LapTot, fruit), bear- 
ing fruit repeatedly, as trees and 
shrubs ; Oaul'ods (tltoi, resem- 
blance), D portion of a Thallophyte 
which simulatesaBtem; Canlo'ma :|: 
ll)thestemofapaka; (2) the stem- 
like portion of such Algae as Fiici; 
Caul ome the stem as an abstract 
entity, the leaf-developing axis ; 
Bower sugaests its restriction to 
the sporophore generaticn only ; 
Oaul'omer l/upos, a pari ), a secondary 
axis in a sympodmm ; Caolotux'ts 
(rdfii, arrangement), the order of 
branches npon a st«m. 

catut'icoB (Lat. burning), biting in 
taste, as Cayenne Pepper. 

ing in oaves ; CaTem'nll, the pores 
of such Fungi as Potypoma. 

CaT'itug i {caxttf, hollow), and Cninw 
are given by Lindley as respec- 
tively, the perithecium and peri- 
dium of some Fungi; also Oav'nB 
■np'enis. defined by him as the 
hymenium of certain Fungi. 

Ceddl'um \mtfli, a gall), the galls pro- 
duced by Fungi or insects, the oon- 
sequeoce of infection being on 
abnormal growth. 

Cell, Ce/i'«/a (Lat. aamall apartment), 
(1) an independent unit of proto- 
plasm, strictly with a single nuc- 
leuB, contained in a chamber of 
cellulose, etc., which originally 
was recognised and called cell, 
now ~ -Wal] ; (2) the cavity of an 
anther, otherwise anther-tobe ; (3) 
the cavity of an ovary or pericarp. 

oooUtining the ovuiee or Bseda ; — 
Bnn'dlM, n band or bundle of 
Bimilar coIIh. as the lio^t fibre in 
dicoCy It: lions ; - Con'tenta, of two 
kinds, living or pratoplasitiiQ, tind 
□on •living, auoh as Btarch, f&ls, 
prot«idB, orjiBtala, cell-gap, and 
the BubatanccB disBoWed in it -, ~ 
DlTls'lon. in free cell - diviaion, 
teveral daughter-celU sre formed 
in the cavity of the mother-cell ; 
in ordinary cell divieion, as a 
rale only two daughter -cells are 
formed, usually followed by a 
inbeeqaeut further division ot 
each ; ~ Fftffl'ily, a group of cells of 
common oi-igin, a colony or coeno- 
binm : - HTiraB, the aobroraalio 
filaments which form the nuclear 
spindle in nuclear-diviBion ; ~ 
Toniu'tioii, the constructjoa of a 
new cell by reorganiaation of the 
protoplsBmic energid, with or 
without division of the cytoplasm ; 
— Fo'aiona. cells united by absorp- 
Uon or perforation of transverse 
walls as Sieve- vtwselB ; ~ Qroaps, 
Msooiatiotts of BimiUr cells, as Uie 
■olerenchyma in the pulp of tbe 
pear, or in cork ; ~ Uas'Bes. when 
oellfl are united in all directions 
of space, not having neaesssrily 
any definite form ; ~ HulUplica - 
Uim takes plaoe by the forma- 
tion of two or more protoplnamio 
bodies out of one ; ~ Ku'cleiu, 
an organised atmcture within tbe 
oell, the active agent in division, 
iiBually spherical in form, and 
of higher refractive power than 
the rest of tbe cell-contents ; ~ 
natB, formed by tbe thickening ot 
threads of kinoplosm, marking out 
the future septa : ~ BOWB, have tbe 
oells io •»ntaot by tbeir ends, thus 
making a filament ; ~ Sap, a 
watery solution of various sub- 
BtanoeB, ealta, sugars, alkaloids, 
•nd tbe like ; ~ Tissue, dis- 
tingDiithed from vascular tissue by 
bMJDg made up of cells only ; ~ 
lur'tMw, where the cella form a 
tingle layer, aa to some Algae ; ~ 

■eteetUiOMN I 

ine, formed of \ 

Wall, a closed membrane, 
cellulose, and a small proporti 
mineral substances, originaled by 
the layer of protoplaBra which liues 
it, frequently thiokened by second- 
ary deposits. Primord'ixl ~ , a cell 
previous to the creation ot n cell- 

CBl'la(Lat., storeroom), (1) ScopoU'a 
name for the fruit of Counrnpita, 
Aubl. ;(2) ]: a form of perithecium in 
Fungi (Lindley) ; oolllf erona (./era, 
I bear), bearing or producing cella. 

COIllll iceilnla. a cell), Blair's term 
for anther; cel'lular, a/tula'rie. 

the bark, mesoiihloeum ; — Planta, 
plants wbicb do not posaees vas- 
cular tissue ; non-vascular Crypto- 
gams ; -- Spore ~ SroKiDESH ; CMlU' 
la'i«8 ; (1) plants which are built 
up of eells only, as those Inst men- 
tioned ; (2) recently the term baa 
been applied to all planta built up 
of celU, in opposition to non- 
cetlular or unicellular ; CeU'nlB, 
CtU'vla, diminutive of cell ; csUu- 
llferona, [frro, 1 bear), bearing or 
producing cellules; Cell'ulln, Pnng- 
sheim's term for a modification of 
cellnlose ; ~Qnins, bodies found 
in vegetative liyphoe ; Celiulo'aaa, 
Corda s name for Sportuesh. 
JeU'nlOBa [cellida, a cell), (I) a 
carbohydrate, tbe chief organic 
base of tbe cell - wall ; [2) Dia- 
tom valves composed of cellules 
are termed cellulose, a aynonym 
of GELLrLAK % OsIl'uloseB, a generio 
term for tbe carbohydrate group 
above mentioned ; divided by 
chemiats into sub-groups, aa, Adl- 
pocell'nloaes (adejit, adipit, fat), 
consisting of cuticular tissues of 
leaves and fniiu and of cork; 
Hemicell'nloieB. all carbohydrates 
in the cell- wall which are not 
coloured blue by chlor-iinc -iodide, 
such as reserve -cellulose, etc.; llf;- 
noc«ll'nlOBes, ligniu combined wiUi 
cellulose, as in Jute fibre ; Htta- 
ceU'nlaBaB, found in Fimgi and 


Liohens, the fuugine of Bracoonot ; 
FuBaall'nIotaa, the oellnUr tissue 
and epidermat oella of le&vea ; 
FMtocell'ulOMS, oompoied of pectic 
avidB and celluloBe, such ai the puri- 
6ed boat of Rnmiiin flax. — Other 
modiflcationa are named bat not 
charaoteriaed bj Messrs Cross and 
BevBD !□ their work " Gelliilosa," 
189S, as Cnto-. Hydra-. Hydro-, 
Unco-. Nliro-. Pieudo ■ celloloMi. 

Funs'us-csll'ulou = CaiTiN ; Re- 
Mire — , celJ uloBe which ia stored up 
as afood-aupply ; oeUuIo'M-pllc'kte, 
folded so as to farm small cells 
(PhiUipi) ; OsUulo'alDls, a mixture 
of cellulose and pectoiie, oompoa- 
iog the primitive cell-wall ((Ireen). 

Oemanf-DiA, the retioaculuin iu 

OeBwnta'Uaii, union of the membranes 
of hyphae by a Blip of cementing 

0«IUUittl'; (crvoi, empty, ayBos, a 
flower), suppression of the stamens 
and pistils, leaving the perianth 

euio'bi&r, reiwhu>'iietu, cenobionar'is, 
Ceno'bium, see coinobiab, etc. 

CMIOKWtet'lo {teros, void, ycrifiip, a 
parent), secondary (Crorier). 

cmtUO'llotis (ctniiim, a hundred ; 
foli«m, a leaf), literally having n 
hundred leaves; actually, more than 
can be readily counted ; Oent'l- 
llietr«, Genlinm'trum, .3937 of an 
English inch, roughly, Aths. 

oantnl {ctninim, the middle), relat- 
ing to the centre of a body ; ~ OeU, 
of the arcbegonium, that in the 
Tenter from which the oosphere, 
and ventral oanal-cell arise ; ~ 
Oord, a serieB of cells in the leaves 
and other partfl of Moems, which 
eimulates a vessel ; ~ OTllnder, in 
stems and roots the portion within 
the endodermis : Dnit're, in Dia- 
toms, the middle point of the 
pervalvar azJB ; oatit'rlo, in the 
middle ; oentilfiiEal i/vgo, I flee), 
tending outwards or developing 
from the centre outwards; caatrl- 

OMitroffm'eaia {yiyian, bL>ginniog), 
the rotate or peripheral type of 
form assumed by plants (L. H. 
Bailey) ; adj. centrogea'lc ; (Jl 


Cent'Ton {tfrrpar, a sharp point), in 

Cant'rum (Lat.), the centre of a solid 
body ; Oent'rosome (o-u^o, body), 
minute bodies believed to have 
directive influence in nuclear di- 
vision ; the central particle of 
the centroBphera ; Cant'roaptieTea 
fo-^oipa, a sphere), two small 
oolourlees bodies near the nucleus, 
imbedded in the cytoplasoi, having 
a centrosome in each ; cantrocyl'tc 
i(''\or, wood), referring to Centrox'- 
yly, centrifugal primary woody 
structure (Van Ticghom). 

Cent'niy ((tiiiiiria, a hundred], in sets 
of dried plants, each hundred is 
styled a century- 

oepa'ceouE, -reuo [a}ta, an onion), 
having the taste or smell of garlio, 

Cephalaittti'liira t (t(4wX«i, a head, 
Avfot, a dower), the capitalum or 
head of composites, anthodium ; 
Oapha'Unin, a woody enlargement 
at the apex of the stem in some 
Cactcae, from which the flowers 
appear ; ceph'alodlne. forming a 
bead (Ijcighton) ; Oaplialo'dliun, (1) 
a knoblike shield as in the genua 

branched or convex outgrowth 'of n 
Lichen-thallus, in which algal cells 
are situated ; (4) a synonym of 

TCBEBCULUH ; CSph'tllOld, OOptUll- 
old'eons, -fUm [fliot, resemblance), 
capitate ; Cephalo'nlon 0*11, a sac- 
like gall, joined 


CeptuUopb'onun (^opfiu, I carry), (1) 

the receptacle, or (2), the stipe of 

some Fungi, 
cera'ceous, -eua (i:errtu, Lat,), waxy, 

(l( in appearance, or (2) oolour, 

that of uD^ileaohed wax. 

id'lam ittpifuer, s JKr), bvh- 
nnym of Ci-stwarp. 

Cer'aaiJi, a gum my exudation from 
plum BQil oberry treei, iwelling in 
water but not diBsolving ; the name 
is from Pninaa Cfraeat, Linn. 

Oemtenolb'ritui (i/pai. a hom ; fyx"!^! 
pouredin), the tissue of effet« Bieve- 
tubes which become* homy in 

Cer'atiin, the bitter principle of " Ice* 
laud Mobs," Celraria ulaiuUra, 

Cera'tlimiliE^fiai.a hom), along slender 
onS'Oeliod, two ■ v(il\rod, superior 
frait, as in Hypiconm, "capeula 
(iliqoiformis "; CBnitoma'iil& (^vla, 
frenzy), monstrous production of 
hornlike or hooded structures in 
the fiower. 

Oardd'lDiit (iipiliiu, a small comb), 
the mycelium of some Puosi. 

Ce'real, r.erta'lU {Ceree, goddess of 
agriculture), any Gramioeae whose 
SMds serve as food : Oena'ila, oom- 
plaote generallj ; Ce'rmun, Oe'rltun. 
Oa'rlo,— Cabiopsis. 

car'ebrllbnn (eerefcTum, the brain ; 
/nrmn, shape), having an irregular 
brain-like appearance, as the kernel 

Ca'rlu, Ce'rlne [ce 

atatied Ui b 
csrfreroat (c 

wax-prod utin g ; csnuoB |, the 

colour of yellow wax. 
ceru'uoua, ceni'niM (Lit.), nodding, 

applied to Hnob flowers as Xanu- 

9IM, or Coltsfoot when in fruit. 
CBnusa'toB (Lat.), white as though 

painted with white lead, 
cerv'ins, cervi'mut, etrpic'olor (ccrvwi, 

a stag), dark tawny colour. 
Oerr'lx (Lat., the nech)^Rnizoua. 
et'ilOQB ifiesiiia. the grey of the eye), 

bine-arey, usually spelled CiESioUB. 
cespittt loos, pr. oespitish'us ; ceap'- 

Itoae.-fowi {ce-upa, tort), pertaining 

to turf, or growing in tufts ; oea- 

plfnloae, somewhat tufted ; r/. 

Oe'tiarln. a principle from nveral 

species of the genus Celmria. 

a substanco 

Obae'Ia ixa'tv, a bristle), the sleuder 
sporophoreof Mosees, the seta. 

tJliair, (I) amall membranous scales, 
degenerate bracts, in many Com- 
positae ; (2) the outer envelopes 
of cereal grains ; etolTy, pale. 

Chain Kem'ina {yrmnm, a bud), in 
Fungi, having the form of a septate 
oonfervoid flfament, the nogment* 
of which are capable of growth -, 
termed also SntouT-OKMMA. 

Obftltt'nlx'lXiifi', small tubercle), that 
part of the ovule or seed where the 
nncellns joins the iategumeutB ; it 
la the base of the nucleus and is 
always opposite the upper end of 
the ootyledoDs ; ctuUtul'niu, like 
a chalaza, or pertaining thereto, 

marriage), plants which are fertil- 
ized through the diataza, and not 
the foramen, as Caiiiariiia, and 
many Cupuliferae ; Chalaiog'ainy, 
fertilisation by the chalazn ; adj. 

Chalk - glands, multicellular glands 
which deposit calcareous matter a« 
in some Saxifrages, the secretion 
escaping through a (ipecisl channel, 
the water pore : ~ Wtilte, pure 

obalyb'sna (Lat. of steel), steel-grey, 
or lead- coloured. 

Otuunber-fluld. the Kanimerflaasig- 
keit of Crato, comprising cell-sap 
and enchylema between lamellae of 

Chambered- fibres, Gbree which have 
cellular, as in the secondary wood of 
Dicotyledons ; ~ Ovaiy, when the 
margins of the carpels project into 
the interior to form incomplete 
longitudinal diseepimente, the ovaiy 
remaining cnilocular. 

cbau'uBlled, hollowed oat like a 
gutter, aa in many leaf-stalks. 

Cbap'let, a neriea of objects arranged 
like beads <in a string, as the spores 
of Ct/iloj.vH (Crozier). 

Olwr'acliie, a species of camphor friim 
terrestrial Algae, as Paimella, 



O^eiUaria, etc. ; it tmells like Chora, 
henoa the name. 

ebaraol'iiiiB t Chara-hke, oompoeed 
of a single, or » few parallel 

CQiar^aettr(Ijat., a mark), the teohnioal 
difference whereby allied forma are 
diitinguiehed, as ordinal, generic, 
ipeoifb, and so on. 

obarta'ceons, -ceua {charia, paper + 
aoeous), paperv. 

Ohasmog'amy ix^P^* » gaping fiasure ; 
ydfMt, marriage), the opening of the 
perianth at tne time of flowering, 
as opposed to oleistogamio ; adj. 

Check, an experiment or observation 
for confirmation, frequently the 
word '* Control " is used for this. 

Obt'mo-Aesthe'ila (chem + aro-^iTirit, 
perception by sense), term employed 
Dv Caapek to express the capacity 
of a plant-orsan to respond to 
chemical stimufi ; Ohemol'jnds (Xuo-ct, 
a loosing), chemical solution or 
analysis ; Ohemotaz'is (rcC^ct, order), 
the attraction of bacteria, anthero- 
aoids, etc., by certain substances ; 
sometimes spelled ohemlotax^li ; adj. 
ohamotaof io; neir'atlTB Ohemotax'ls, 
repulsion instead of attraction. 

eh«n&eil'niis (Lat. dyed with Cher- 
mes), crimson. 

CQMUonia'nla(xetXot, lip; fuwla^ frensy), 
Morren's term for the doubling of 
the lip in Orchids, as in Onhia 
Morio, Linn. 

CQilla'riiun {x€i\dpiw, a lip), the bound- 
arT of a small pit in the testa of 
PAomo/im, of two moveable valves, 
which, by hygrometrio movements 
cause the rupture of the testa ; 6hl'- 
laiy Laj'er, the investment of the 
teed which contains the chilarium. 

tibildlniT* proliferous. 

Ghl'&a (Ital.), (1) a synonym for Qui- 
KiKX ; (2) the bark of Cfinchona, sup- 
plying, valuable febrifuges and 

GUbIb' = QuiNimk 

adoooph'UoiiB (ytcbr, snow ; ^^, I 
love), F. Ludwig's term for the 
winter-loaves of HtiMoma /oeH' 

dug, Linn.; ddonoph'obons (06/3of, 
fear, dismay), the same author's 
word for the summer-leaves of the 
same plant. 

Gbl'tin Ix'^^'^* ooat of mail), a sub- 
stance allied to horn, which forms 
the protective covering of many 
insects such as beetles, identified 
as being of the same composition 
as Fungus-cellulose. 

Cbiamydogonidlum (xVa/ii)f , xXa/if^dot , 
a cloak ; 701^, race, offiipring), uni- 
cellular gemmae of certain Fungi, 
which are relatively larse and thick- 
waUed, and adapted for a period 
of quiescence before veeetating ; 
dilam'ydoapore, a spore having a 
very thick membrane. 

Oblormm'ylite (VKtapbt, ffrass green, 
AfivKop, fine flour), Belzung's term 
for chlorophyll granules derived 
from the transformation of starch ; 
Oblor'anthy {Ap$ot, a flower), the 
change of all or most parts of the 
flower into leaf-like organs, frond- 
escence ; ebloru'ceos, green, in- 
clining to yellow ; Oblorench'yma 
{iyxvfia, an infusion), assimilating 
tissues; Ghlor'iiL, used by Kraus to 
denote the green constituent of 
chlorophyll ; chlorl'iins, yellowish 
green ; Ghlor'is, used as the title of 
a work on the plants of a district, 
analogous to Aora ; chlorocli'rous 
(xpoo, complexion), having a green 
skin; ahlorofti'dne(0tMros,yuciM, sea- 
weed),a chlorophyll of a clear yellow- 
ish-green colour (Sorby) ; chloro- 
pliae'us (^cu^t, dun coloured), yellow- 
green as the colouring matter of 
Al|pM; Cblorogonidlum (701^, off- 
sprmg),the green gonidia of Lichens, 
as distinguished fiom the ohrysogo- 
nidia; ohlorogon'imQS (ydrc/ios , fruit- 
fol)» applied to the gonidial layer 
in Lichens ; GhUnndeiac'ite (Xevir^, 
pale), Van Tieghem's term for chlo- 
rophyll graniUe, by Belzung re- 
stricted to those which are formed 
from protoplasm, albuminous ; syn. 
Chloroplastid (A« 8chimper), Auto- 
plast (A« Meyer); Oblor'opliyU 
(ftfXXor, leaf), the green colour- 



lug matter of plants ; ~ Bod'y, 
-> Gor'ptuelt, ~ OnUn, ~ Oiao'iUa, 
k protsid or ploetid in the cella of 
pluiti, nao&Uf of a groen ooloiir ; 
5/'. Chi^rolbuciti, Bto. ; - Vb'b- 
klas, ohtorophjU graoulea ; cbloro- 
^ijriia'oeciEu ( + aceous), applied 
to Delia which contain chloropti;^"' 
in oootra-diatinctioD to those which 
do not, and are conaequBQtly 
oolourl(<se : CUoropb'jrUJiie, the 
green principle of chlorophjlt ; 
eblorophyU'oae. containing ohloro- 
phytl : Chlor'oplut, Cliloieplut'id 
(rXoiTrAi, moulded), the plastide or 
grsDutea of protoplasm «hich nre 
of a green colour ; CUoroplaat'in, 
Sobwarx'a term for a proteid con- 
■titutiDg the around subBtance of 
the chlorophyll granule ; Clilonj* 
n'nn |r-i(/W, leddtehl, a reduced 
oblorophyll, the red pigment of 
Chloropbyceae. bo named by Rob- 
taGnsk] : CUoro'Bts, a disease, 
tbown by loBH of colour ; cblorot'lc, 
chJoml'k"', greenJBh in colour ; 
OblDrovaporlia'tlon {vaporalio, 
a reeking), a function snalogons 
to transpiration, but it proceeds 
only from the chloi-oleucitea |Van 
Chord'a (Lat., a cord). piitiUa'rlt, the 
line of tissue batneen the stigma 
and the cavity of Ihe ovary ; ohor- 
da'ceons t ( + aceoua), haviDg the 
figure of a rope. 
c&srdoTTlil'nl {xipffl' catrgut; fil^a, a 
root), ffhere the rootatock produces 
numetoua flowering stems one be- 
fore the other from JtB aides, 
(Syme) aa in Carte r.hordorThi:a. 

Cbor'lon {x^iplof, a oaul), (1) Mai- 
pighi'e term for the pulpy matter 
which fillB the young ovule, and is 
abiOtbed during devolopmont ; 12] 
t a carpel ; Choiioti&'riiu, t = 

<ihorlphell'old(xi->f>It, Beparate; ^XXdi, 

at«, polypetalouB ; chorlpbyll'oiu 
(^ifUot. a leaf), having separate 
leaves, used of the floral members ; 
choilsep'aloiu, -lu (be pal), with 
BEparale eepala, pulysepalous ; ChO- 
rlMlepld'eiu X (Xorit, XcitIJdi, a 
bc&Ib), uhen the ccalea of ihe in- 
volaore of Compo«it«B are distinct 
from each other ; Cbor'Uis. the 
sepumtion of a leaf or phylloid 
member into more than one, dS- 
doublement, doubling ; DoUatenl 
— , when the plane of separation 
is antoro-posterior : par'aJlel ~ , 
tha plane of separation lateral ; 
choriBtophyU'ons, -lu (^liXXov, a 
leaf), separate leaved. 

Oliortoiiom'ia;(>[op7-D(, green hetbage; 
rd^i. law), "The art of making 
an herbarium." 

olmniiKt'lc {xpiii^a. colour), relating to 
colour ; ~ Thread, tha filifortn 
body in nuclear diviaioo, wbiob 
breaks up into CHK0»080HKg ) 
ChroouLtld'luin,; the cnlouiiog 
matter of plants ; duo'inatiii 
(Flemming), that portion of the 
nucleus which readily takes arti- 
ficial staining, termed Nuclein by 
Btrssburger : Cliromatol'yalB {Men, 
a loosing), Cavara'B term for the 
condensation of nuclear chromatin 
in a homogenous moss, which after- 
wards Bubdivides ; OhTo'm&tamere 
liiJpot. a pftft) = CiiiiOMOSOMi ; 
Ohromat'opliore {•fnptai, I carry], 
a, collective term for the various 
ploatids, chloro-, chromo-, leuco- 
plastids ; Otaro'BUltDpUEIU (rXdiTfia, 
moulded), the protoplasm of the 
colouring and sUied Bubstances 
(Strosburger) ; CliTomld'lum, the 
gonidium of a Lichen : Chro'mlsm, 
an abnormal colonring, as of leaves; 
Otiro'moliUst, an error of some 
writers for Chkomoflast ; abro- 
mt^en'tc. chroniDg'BiioaB {■y4ros 
offspring ], colonr-piiiduoing, aa 
some bacteria ; cbromop'arotu 
(pario, I bring forth), applied to 
bacteria which are usually colour- 
lesH, but excrete useleBB colour- 
ing (Beyerinok) ; 



{^piu, I carry), said of those 
bacteria, whose pigmentation is 
an integral part of their organ- 
ism ; Chro'mopliyll (^i/XXor, a leaf), 
any substance which colours plant- 
ceUs; duromoleno'lte {Kevxot, white), 
Van Tieghem's name for protoplas- 
mic colour granules ; Oliro'moplast 
• (A.Meyer),01iTomoiila8t'id(A.Schim- 
per) {w\dffTot, moulded), are syno- 
nyms for granules containing other 
colouring than chlorophyll ; Gliro'- 
moBomee {aufxa, a body), fibrillar 
bodies of definite number formed 
during nuclear division, dividing 
by fission into new groups, and con- 
tributing to form the daughter 
nuclei ; Dangliter '^ , secondary or 
derived chromosomes ; Gliro'mule, 
Ghro'mula, colouring matter of the 
plant, other than chlorophyll, ap- 
plied especially to petals. 

Obronlso'cspore (xpopott time ; ^owy, 
living; (nropd,aseed),amicrozoogoni- 
dium produced by Hydrodictj/on, 
which rests for some weeks before 
germinating; also called Obron'- 
Ispore (Crosier). 

obroocoo'coid, resembling Chroococcus; 
chroococca'ceoos, allied to the same 

obroole'poid, like the genus Cfhro- 
cltpis ; consisting of yellow scales. 

ol)i3nialol'deas {chrymlia, a pupa ; tlSot 
resemblance), rolled up ana folded 
up at the same time ; wrapped up 
as an insect pupa or chrysalis. 

chrysan'tliine (xpi^Vot, gold ; ApOot 
a flower), yellow flowered ; cliry 
Mll'iis, somewhat golden-hued 
cbry'seas, yellow as gold ; chrysi' 
tes (Lat., a precious stone), gold 
coloured; oliryBOCli'roiis ixfi^it skin) 
having a yellow skin ; Ohryso 
gonidlum (70H), offspring), a yel 
low gonidium of Lionens; duryso 
gon'lmna {yoptfwt, fruitful), the 
laver of yellow gonidia in some 
Lichens; duysoplian {(palpuj, I 
show) occurs in Phyacia parietina 
De Not., etc., as gold-coloured 
crystals ; also known as cbryso- 
idUA'io Ac'id ; CbrfwopbyU (^i^XXor, 


a leaf)» a yellow colouring matter 
from leaves; Chzyiorham'iiln, a 
yellow substance from unripe buck- 
thorn berries, Rhamnua cainarticus, 
Linn. ; Ghrysotan'nin ( + Tannin), 
a group of colouring matters in 
plants, when oxidized giving rise to 
brown tints in autumn foliage. 

6hyiiilf eras ix^fM^ juice ; ferOf I bear), 
chymlf era va'sa, t Hedwig's term 
for an imaginary " sap -thread *' 
rolled round a tube to form a trach- 
eid or spiral vesseL 

Gbytridio'ila, a disease due to 
Cladochytrium viticolunif Prunet. 

Cic'atrice, Cico^rtc'u^ Cica'trix (L&t,, 
a scar), the mark left by the separa- 
tion of one part from another, as 
the leaf ; deatrisa'tos, dc'atrlcofle, 
cicairico'sua, scarred or scarry. 

Oicin'nas {kIklppos, a ringlet), =CiN- 


dench'yma (possibly, Klu),lgo; Ih/xv/M, 
an infusion), a system of inter- 
cellular spaces ( Kohler , fide Crozier ). 

OU'la, pi. of OU'iiiin(Lat., an eyelash), 
(1) Yibratile whip-like processes of 
protoplasm by which zoospores 
and similar bodies move ; (2) the 
hair-like processes in the endostome 
in Mosses ; (3) the marginal hairs of 
Luztda; cUia'ris (Lat.), like an eye- 
lash, or short hair; dl'iate, cilia' tuB^ 
fringed with hairs ; eUia'todenta'tos, 
the teeth finely serrate, as if fringed ; 
dl'liform (/orma,shape),resembling 
cilia; dl'iograde {graduB^ a step), 
moving by means of cilia (Crozier) ; 
OU'iola, secondary or diminutive 

dmici'niis (ctmex, a bug), smelling of 
bugs, as Coriander. 

Oinoho'iia (genus), compounds, »u, 
China, Quinine, etc.; cinchona'- 
oeons ( + aceous), relating to cin- 
chona plants ; Gin'chonine, one of 
the alkaloids found in the bark of 
the Cinchona ; dnchonlo, relating 
to the same ^enus. 

dn'ciimal, cincxnna'lia (Lat., curled), 
applied to curled inflorescences as 
f^ Cyme, a cyme in which the suc- 
cessive flowers are on alternate 


OliTiini .' 

•idea of the paeudaxis ; ~ DlClMt'- 
nny, io which alMroaU braDches 
devalop ; dndn'niu (Lai. ,n curl), 
applieil Ui a Dpiparous acorpioid 
oyme ; the erronvous form Cicumca 
IB found in some writers, 
cdnc'tm (Lat., girded), uaed of albu- 
meo when aurrounded by an 

Cinencli'ynia (mwu, I move ; fyxvfia, 
ao infusion), laliciferoua tiai-ue ; 
alnenchyiD'atoiu, poaBeaaing latex 

clnen'ceana. -tttg (Lat.), somewhat 

inuashy grey; cluer'eoiu, -eFui(Lat,, 
aahj), the groy of wood aahea j 
clnerlc'lua, olnerit'toiu, -mm - cin- 

Cm^ulmn [Ut., a girdle), (1) tbe 
neck of a plant, that which ia be- 
tween atero and root, the collnro ; 
{2) the conaecting zone, girdle, or 
boop of Diatom •fruBtulei. 

Oln'iiatMU {•Lirii^api, e. red pigment), 
<I] Dragon's blood, a resinous gum 
— I Daemononipf Draco, Blume, 

bul'niu, acarlet. 

>r dnnuDo'mic, perlaiDiog 
ion ; cliiii&iDo'iiMua(Lat.), 
□ colour, a liglit yellowiah 

Ol'on. an old form of Soion. 

ClODOsper'mtk* | dur. a column, irirEp^a, 
a seed), plants whose uvutaa de- 
velop on a ceotral, more or leu 
columnar placenta, as Olocineae 
and SantalaoeBe. 

oirea, in Latin oompotinda = round 

dr'eliial, cirKiua'Un [niTcino, I make 
round), involute from the tip iota 
a toil ; oir'ciiiitate, cirriiirHi'tua, 
coiled into a ring or partially si> ; 
(ometimea apelled cir'cliiate. 

Clrcnla'tlDa (cimiinrr'o. a revolution), 
the streaming motion of protoplasm 
in cells ; <■/. Rotation. 

drcnmax'lle, circiimaxi^lia [eirtitm, 
round; axia, on axle), surrounding a 

the fruit bj 
(Lat), gin 

■ which sepa rules when 
iplits open; droumcinc'tua 
d round 1 CircniaclSB'io& 
term lor noaing fruit trees ; (2) cut 
round M the apothecia of some 
Liiehens ; elronmter«n'tlal (Lat, 
circun^ftmdia), relating to the 
circumfereiice ; Clrcnmlat'sTaUun 
(liU^v, laltrU, a side), the tendency 
in plant pbylogeny to develop a 
circular arrangement of parts |L. 
H. Bailey); drounmu'tata (nufo, I 
nod), the movements of the growing 
points of plants round the axis ; 
OixcumnDta'tton, the phenomenon 
of the apical portions of stem, 
tendril, root, turning to various 
quartera of the compass ; Clraain- 
IKWlt'lo {ponlun, placed), a layer, or 
brnncb laid into the earth to root, 
whdst atill connected with the 
parent stock ; dronoMctM'Ua, cir- 
ciinuK-wiii'/M, rircumwiw'us {acindo, 
SKUsus, to spbt). dehiscing as if cut 
circularly around, as in the capsule 
of A iiagaJlin ; ClTcnuuorlp'tloii 
(utrifco, erripttim, to write), (1) the 
outline of any organ : (2) the defini- 
tion of a form or group of forms, aa 
of species, genera, orders; □tnmmae'- 
Idana (ae/ies, a hedt(e), surrounding, 
as a proteotiOD ; cirrunwe/nen'eta 
/o'/ia, is used by da Candolle for 
leaves whioh surround the Item, aa 
if to protect the young growth ; 
drcnmmadnll'ary (ineiiu^, the 
spinal marrow), a proposed emenda- 
tion of " perimeduUary." 
dr'rbate, nrra'ivn, cirrka'tua, cirr- 
fta7i»,{ciiTAiM,a tendril), tendrilled, 
or assuming the functions of a ten- 
dril ; oirrliireroui iftro. I bear), 
producing tendrils ; drrb'Uonn, 
cirrhiform'ii {forma, shape], appar- 
ently a tendril ; Olrrbo iltaa, the 
state of possessing tendrils ; elirli'- 
ose, ctrrh'ouE, arrho'e^iJi, (I) ten- 
drilled, (2) with ft wavy hair- 
' (Braithwaite): Clrrh'tis, since 
<ua, used for a tendril, 
a GlifonD organ of attachment, 
modified from a leaf, ati^oln 



ClfCeU'n. Cl*t'ula(Lal., » little chest), 
used for tlie apoCbeoia of Licheni, 
whicb, globular at Gnt, bnrit At 


Otst'om*, CUta'ma {■Istij, a box; trritia, 
s mouth), a membranoui aac which 
wu ■upposed to ■p&aa beneath the 
atomfttic gaord-celU ; hut the cells 
al tha bottom of the stomntic 
oavitj are destitute of cuticle, 

OUtopb'ornm (^op^w, I carry), "the 
stipe of certain Fungala " (Liodle;). 

(HtnU'ttB Ifrom CitTva, Linn.), some- 
what yellow ; dt'reua, lemon-yel- 
low : cltrlnall'iu, yellowish ; eit'ric 
Add is abundant in lemon juice. 

dad&nloi'ooui (lUJos, a branch; af'rds, 
self : oltot, a bouse), having the male 
inflorescence of a Moss on a proper 
branch: ClSlIletlCh';ma;(^,'xl'f^, on 
infuHJon). branched parenchj'ma ; 
daaocarp'oua (unprdt, fruit), haviuR 
a tniit terminating a lateral shoot 
in MoBBes ; Clad'ode, a branch of a 
single intemode simalating S leaf i 
Ol&do'dluin. a flat expansion of the 
Bt«ni ; OladodyatTo'phia (3i<i, bad ; 
Tpo^il, Dunriehment). the perishing 
of branches ; Glod'opliyll, Clado- 
pkyll'a [tftiKKia, a lesf), a branch 
sasuming the farm and function 
of a leaf, a ulodode ; Cladopto'ela 
{rrCKra, a fall), abnonnil casting 
off of branches ; CladaBCle'rdds 
{sfKiipii, hard ; dSo\, resemblance), 
stellate bodies containing calcium 
onalato in leaves and fioral en- 
velopes of Eiiryale /foj, Salisb. ; 
oUdoslphDii'tc lalijKiii>, a tube) hav- 
ing B tubnlar Btete interruplfid at 
the insertion of branches (Jeffrey) ; 
Cladostro'ma t larpQ^, something 
spread), a receptacle or growing- 
point covered with carpels, each of 
which has a free placenta, 
CUmp-oells. small semicircular hollow 
ptotuborances, laterally attached 
to the walls of two adjoining hypha- 


ClAP'lwr. the water-sac, or lobule of 

dasilflu'clta (iXdffiT, a fracture -I- Leu- 
cite), that part of the protoplasm 
differentiated in nuclear division to 
form IhespindleandcantrosomeBOt 
spheres when present (Dangeard). 

OlBlp'ais, (iraw's term for tendrils. 

Olaas, Claa'iii' (Lat. a fleet), a primary 
group of Orders, Dicotyledons for 
example ; Olaaslfioa'Uon, arrange- 
ment under respective groupt ; 
taxonomy, from Class to variety, 
or Form. 

dath'rate, dalhra'luH (Lat, latticed), 
latticed, or pierced with apertures ; 
~OeU = Sieve-tube; Olatb'nu (Lat. 

=e), > 


rcetl with 

boles and forming a sort of gratin 
Clans'Uns [dniigu^, shut), Ricbanfa 
term for his mactopodal embryo, 
when its radicle is united by lik 
edges, and entirely encloses the 
rest (Lindley), 
da'vate, daoa'hui [datiu, a club), 
dab- shaped, thickened towards 
the apex ; olftr'ellate, da'tltn'hiii, 
diminutive of the foregoing ; Clav'- 
icls, Cla'-k'iila {Lat. vine- tendril), 
tendril, cirrhus ; olftvto'iUa.ta, c:/aii'- 
cala'tuu, furnished with tendrils or 

olay'lform, dai-iform'U [dam, a club j 
/orma. shape), club-shaped ; otavll- 
lo'sns (Lat.), clubbed, or markedly 
club-shaped : Clkv'ule, Clat'ufa, the 
club-shaped sporophore in certain 
Fungi, as C/ai'ana; OIb'tiu, the 
disease of Ergot in grasses, the 
young grain being maUormed and 
club-shaped, from the attack of 
C'/ai-ifcps purpurea, Tul. 

Olaw. the narrowed base of the petals 
in Huoh plants as Diaiiihug. 

deft, cut half-way down ; ~ -gnSt'tag, 
insertion of a scion in a cleft made 
in the stock, 

CMa'tooip {tXciirtit, shut ; xapris, 
fruit), an ascocarp, which is com- 
pletely closed, the spores escaping 


by rupture, a cleiBtothecJum ; dsli- 
tooarp'oiu, applied to those Moasea 
whofie capsuleH do not open liy a 
lid ; clelttogam'lD. clstito^unoiu 
(7ii;iot, marriage), with clone fortil- 
ixatiuii, it taking place within the 
UDopened flowers ; ClelstoBr'uny, 
tho condition deacribed ; Clsls'tog- 
•n* iyi'B!, oHepring). a plaot whioh 
bears cleistogamouH Qowers (Cro- 
Eier) : OlelBtoi'sny, bearing cteieto* 
gamic Sowers ; adj. delstoe'inouB ; 
PB«ndo~; Hansgirg'a t«rm for uu 
intermediate condition, the flowers 
being normal, hut not opeoing, and 
poUioation taking place within the 
closed perianth ; Oleletothe'cium 
(flijitTj, a owe), an aacocorp whioh 
remains closed till decay or rupture 
sets free the osoospores, a cleisto' 
oarp ; Oleat'lnoa, large parenchyma- 
tous cells in which raphides are 
frequently deposited. 

011iiu«oAl'me(iTXr>ui{,aladder, ^fo, a 
root), Von Tieghem's berm fnr Oym- 
noaperms and alJ Dicotyledons ex- 
cept the Nympboeaceae, their root- 
bain having an epidermal origin. 

Ql'mUng, ascending by using other 
objecta as supportB. 

CUnanil'iiiim ((XIvij, a bed ; ir^ip, 
irSpoi, a man), the anther-bed in 
Orchids, that part of the column in 
which the anther is concealed ; 
OUnonQi'lnm [dreat, a flower), the 
reoeptocle in Compaeitae ; Cliald'- 
lun, the statk supporting a stylo- 
spore ; Cllnotporajtgr'ilmi (iriropi, a 
■eod ; dyy<m«, ■ vessel), a synonym 
of Pyonidium ; CU'noBporo = Sttlo- 
rpore; Oli'Dlnm, (t) the receptacle 
of a Composite flower ; (2) the 
Bporophore of some Fungi ; OU'dos- 

clock' wlae^dentrorae. 

Oloua'rliuu X (kXui', a little branch), 
the ripe, spiral-coated nucule of 

Close Fertillia'tiDii, fecundation by ita 
own pollen. 

doaed, used of those libro-vascular 
bundles in which all the pro-cam- 
bium cells become permanent tissue ; 

~BimdlM, as described, so that in- 
creaae is prevented i - FertiUlft'tiOIl 
= Cli <sb Feetiuzation ;- Plow'erB, 
are cleistogamic Flowers ; ~ Nu'- 
deus, that of the higher plante. 
Clo'slni: Ham'brone. the original an- 
thickened cull-waU at the centre 

Clo'ster. Cto'etrum {nXuvr^p, a spindle), 
elongated cells, pointed at each end, 
frequent in wood. 

doud'ed, when colours are tineijually 

Clove, a gardener's name for a young 
bulb developed round the mother- 
bulb, as in garlic. 

Club, a phiricellular hair, one of the 
elemeots of the pulp of the orange 
or lemon fruit {Croaier) ; dnb- 
ahaped, gradually thickened up- 
ward from a slender base, olavate ; 
dub.root, malformation in Cruci* 
fers caused by Ptamnodiophora 
Brojuitac, Woron.; Olnbb'lng, is ft 

dtu'ter, (1} old name for raceme, as 
BuKDLE ; diuf Bred, compactly 
gathered together, as the flower o! 

oly'iwate, r/ypea'tnn {dyjKif, a round 
shield), buckler or shield-shaped ; 
clypeutrJTonn'la [/orma, ahape), 
drpeola'iis, dy'pelfomi, dypa- 
form'U, all denote shield -shaped. 

cooceryate, coaccma'fiM (Lat., heaped 
up], clustered. 

coad'nBte, coadim'tua {coadwnatiu, 
gathered into one); (1) an equiva- 
lent of ASNATK 1 (2) cohering ; (3) 

co&etB,'neons (lo 
same ago), exi 
the same time. 

Cooles'cence [coitlenco, to grow to- 
gether), the act of growing to- 
gether ; — of Calls, the absorption 
or disappearance of partitioning 
ccU-waUa, as in the formation of 
vesBels ; coalaa'cent, rwt/esc'eiu, 
union by growth. 

CooUt'lo [coalilui, fellowahip), the 
growth together of parts, as the 



ooalesoence of petals csusea that 
condition ; adj. ooml'ltas. 

ooaro'tate, coarcta'tu8 (Lat., pressed 
together), crowded together; Ooaro'- 
tnre, Coarctufra, Grew's term for 
the neck or ooUum, the junction 
of root and stem at the level of the 

CkMit, the sucoessive layers of a bulb ; 
ooat^ed, occurring in layers, usually 
of varying consistence, as the bark 
of a tree, the rind of fruits, etc. ; '^ 
Bulb, a tunicated bulb. 

ooax'ial (co for con, with, and axis, an 
axle), parallel with the axis, or 
having a common axis. 

Ck>b, the spike of maize. 

oobaltl'nas (Mod. L*t.), the colour of 
cobalt, a light blue, azure. 

oob'webbed, cob'webby, entangled 
with fine filaments, arachnoid. 

€k>oc'i, pi. of Coccus. 

CkHXSid'liiin t {K6KK0St a kernel or berry) 
=Ct8tocabp ; ooodf 'erom {/ero, I 
bear), bearing berries. 

oooQlfbrm'is {coccum, kermes, forma^ 
shape), used by Koerber to denote 
Lichen spores shaped like the 
kermes, or insect which affords the 
scarlet dye from Querctu cocctfera, 
Linn. ; oocdneU'iu, light scarlet in 
colour ; oocdn'eus, scarlet, with a 
tendency towards carmine. 

oocoochromat'ic (ko/c/cos, a berry; 
Xpw/Mi, colour), colour distributed 
in granular patches, as in some 
diatoms, <^, placochromatic ; 
Oooco'dee, spherical granulations 
resembling pills ; Coc'cogone, Cocco- 
go'nium {yorfi^ offspring), a propaga- 
tive cell of the nature of a sporan- 
gium in Cyanophvceae ; oooc'oid, 
applied to amorphous colonies of 
propagative cells in Nostoc (Sauva- 
geau) ; Goc'oolitli (X£^os, stone), con- 
stituent plates of CoocosPHERES ; 
Ooo'cospbere {a^tupa, a sphere), 
spherical masses of protoplasmic 
origin, bearing coccoliths on their 
external surface, CoccMphaera 
leptopora, G. Murr. k Blackm. ; 
Ooo'cole, Cocfcutumj a portion of a 
divided Coccus; Goc'ons, Coc'cum, 

(1) part of a schizocarp or lobed 
fruit; (2) Coccus is also applied 
to the rounded bacteria. 

OoOh'lea {cochlea, a snail or spoon), a 
closely coiled legume ; ooch'lear, 
cochlea' ris ; (1) spoon-shaped ; (2) 
used of a form of imbricate aesti- 
vation with one piece exterior 
oochlMur'iform, cochUariform'is, 
spoon-shaped ; Ooohlidlosperm'atai 
(oiripfuif seed), seeds convex on one 
side, concave on the other, from 
unequal growth or anomalous 
structure ; oo<^'leate, cochlea' tus, 
shell-shape, in the manner of a 

Ood, = a seed pod ; ood'Uke, follicu- 
lar; Cod'ware, an old word for 

Oode'ine [Kiideta, a poppy-head), an 
alkaloid in the opium popp^. 

cooks'oombed, fasciated (Crozier). 

codlophyll'iis {KtbSiWf a fleece ; <pv\Kop, 
a leaf ), when a leaf is covered with 
a woolly pubescence. 

OoelOBperm'ae (icot Xos, hollow; axipfui, 
a seed), plants whose seeds have 
albumen curved at the ends ; coelo- 
■perm'oiu, coelosperm'vs, hollow- 
seeded ; used for the seed-like 
carpels of Umbelliferae, with 
ventral face incurved at the top 
and bottom, as in coriander ; 
Ooenaiitli'liiin (Aydos, a flower) = 

Ooe'nobe = Coenobium. 

CkMno'blum (xoufS^ioy, a cloister) ; (1) 
the same as Cabcebulr ; (2) a 
colony of independent organisms 
united by a common investment, as 
Volvox, jPajidorina, etc.; (3) fruits 
such as those of Labiates, consistinff 
of distinct lobes but not terminated 
with a stigma; sometimes spelled 
Cbnobium, etc.; adj. coeno'biar, 
coenobia'ris, coenohio'neu8 ; ooeno'- 
Mold (efdot, resemblance), like a 

Coenoclad'la {koipos, in common ; 
K\d8os, a branch), natural grafting, 
where branches have grown to- 
gether ; Ooen'ocsrte (ki^os, a vessel), 
an aggregation of protoplasmic 



nnitB (eoerijiila) eDoloaHd in a cuni' 
mon wall, u in I'liiiclirri't ; COeDO- 

coemlei'cens. cixruVcu 

nt the I 

Coeto'tilUBi {KoiTuir, a bed-chamber), 
tbe uutoi- tjlaoiHS »f ■ nmltifloral 
gpiltalel iE graaBHB (TrioiuB), 

coffeu'loa (Moti. Lat.l, Ibe oolour of 
roasted coffee -barties, Cofat •ira- 

ecib«fiVDX^oh*'Tr.HA, oobt'iUigicohaereo, 
Icleavelo); (I) theactof Cohe'llou, 
the incorporation of one port with 
anolher, as the petals to form a 
tubular corolla ; (2) adherent. 

Oo'bort. Co'bor^i (Ut,, a band of 
Holdiers), s group of ordera, forming 
an AUiaocB. 

OOiHOp'OdOB t (totrawoV!, With commoD 
foot), temiinating downwarda id a 
ccne, as moal embryos ; Lindley aUo 
■pells it ooBDop'odai. 

Colch'lcine, an alkaloid yielded by 

Colench'yma = Collehch t m a. 

Coreogen (nD^!SI, a sheath ; yerrdta. I 
bring forth], a ting-ahaped group 
of cells, durrounding the Tnestome 
of Dickmi'ia, etc. (Haberlandt) ; 
OoleopIiTll'nm (^i^XXof, a leaf), the 
first leaf in germination of mooo- 
ootjledotls, which sheathca the auc- 
a feather) — Coleophyllam ; Ooleo- 
rlll'aa (^'iii, a root), the sheath of 
k moaocotyiedonous embryo, when 
pierced by the true radicle ; adj. 
□olBorliliB'taB : Col'eBnle, Colt/fvlu; 
(1) a membraoouB bag-like organ 
enclosing the sporangium of Hepa- 
ticae, the peiichaetial sheath, usu- 
ally termed the Taginule. 

Oollap'iioli.Cci//c(y«io(Lat., falling to- 
gether), the act of closing or falling 

Coll'ar, Ciiram (Lat., neck]: (l)the 
" neck " of a plant, the imaginary 
boundary between the above- and 

underground portion of the axia; 
(2) tbe annulua in Agarics. 
CoUa're t (lAt.. a collar) =;LIOOI.K. 

oollAt'ersl [col-latRTo, to admit on 
both sides), ataudiDg aide by side ; 
~ San'dlaa, those having a aJngla 
Htrand of bast and wood, aide by 
aide, and usually in the sama 
rmiiua ; bicoli^tsbal BnNDL,Es are 
a variation on this type, having two 
of one element to one of the other ; 
— Ohor'lalB. fe-t Churisis. 

coUect'fng {callectio, a gathering to- 

5 ether) Cella, are roundish oells, 
Bstitute of chlorophyll and densely 
tilled with protoplasm ; in German 
" Sanuaenzellen : ~ Hairs, baira 
on the styles of some Compoaitae 
serving to collect the pollen on ita 
discharge from the anthera ; col- 
lact'lTB Fmlta, the aggregation of 
the fruits of several flowers into 
one mass, such as the mulberry ; 
OoUeot'on, CollfOor'ta, the hairs ot 
certain styles, as in Campamiia, 
which collect or brush out the 
pollen from the anthera ; Cf. CoL- 

l.E(7riN(> UAIB.-4. 

OoUench'ynui {tiWa, glue; tyxviia, 
an infusion); {1) parenahymatoug 
cetla with cellulose walls usually 
elongated, forming strands of creat 
etrength under theepidermia, thick- 
ening in angles, etc. ; (2) the cel- 
lular matter in which the pollen is 
formed, uaually sbaorbed, but re- 
maining and assuming a deSnite 
form in some plants as in Orchids, 
or delicate threads, aa in Oenothera 
(Lindley) ; Bast <- . thickening 
chiefly involving the whole wall ; 
Oart'Ukge ~, walls thickened all 
round with sharply diflerentiated 
inner lamella ; Heta- ~ caused by 
alow death of cell, and metamor- 
phoaia of the cell-wall ; Pl&ts ~ , a 
form which resemblea the true hard 
bast; Klft ~, portion of wall 
bordering on an intercellular space 
alone thickened. 

Coll' et — Coll AB. 

Colls'ter (xoXXTrai, glued], mncila- 
ginous hairs on the bnda ot 

mMoj pluuierogMiu wldcb 


eofile'nlOM, eoUieuU^mts (coUictdtu, » 
\i\AXi9 hill), covered with little round 
elevAtionii or hilloclu. 

Milifcroni {coUum, a oollar), bear- 
ing » collar, as the stipe of an 
Agaric ; OoOifiinrm'e {Jorma^ •h^pe), 
an oetiole, the orifice being length- 
ened into a neck. 

eomga'tos (Lat., fastened together), 
collected (8. F. Gray). 

Mdtt'inif (Lat., appertaining to a hill), 
growing on low hills. 

Oorium (Cat. neck) ; (1) the collar or 
neck of a plant, see Gollab; (2) 
the lengthened orifice of the ostiole 
of Lichens. 

Ctorioidi («^XXa, glue ; 9tAo% resem- 
blance), substances of a gelatinous 
character ; opposed to crystalloid ; 
adj. colloidal. 

oolo'nlal (coUmia, a band of settlers), 
in cell-division, every cell depend- 
ent on the other cells of the organ- 
ism at large (Hartog) ; Ooronist, 
H. 0. Watson's term for weeds of 
the cultivated land and about 
houses, seldom found elsewhere ; 
Ck>l'on7, see Coinobium. 

OOlorif io {coloTf colour ,/aao, I make), 
applied to those Lichens which 
vleld a dve. 

Ool'oiir, col oured, possessing any tint 
but green, technically white is re- 
garded as a colour, green is not; 
oorourleis, pale, and hyaline; in 
Lichens, not brown. 

(kApenoh'yxna («r6Xirof, bosom ; fyxu/Mi, 
an Infusion), cellular tissue with 
sinuous cell-walls. 

Oolom t (Lat. a strainer) = Plaobnta. 

OOlQmbi'nns (Lat.)i dove-coloured; 
sometimes used for the tint of a 
blue pigeon. 

Ool'unsl IcolurMllat a small pillar), 
Jaooards term for lignified tissue 
formed in place of tne fertilized 
arohegonium, it bears at its extrem- 
ity the privileged embryo, the only 
one which develops, as in Ephedra 
Wvsttoa, 0. A. Mey. ; Oolumella ; 
(1) a peraistant oentral axis round 

which the carpels of some fruits 
are arranged as in Geraunnm; (2) 
the axis of the cMsale in Mos ses ; 
(3) the receptacle bearing the spor- 
angia of Trichomanes, and other 
Ferns; (4) the oentral portion of 
the anther in Solanaceae ( Halstcd) ; 
(5) a sterile axial body within the 
sporangium of Fungi ; colmnelli- 
fiorm (forma, fthape), shaped like a 
small pillar or column. 

Ck>l'imm, Cotton' na (Lat. a pillar), the 
combination of stamens and styles 
into a solid central body, as in 
Orchids ; ocflum'nar, columna'ris, 
having the form of a column, as 
the stamens of Modva. 

com, in Latin composition, a modifica- 
tion of con, with. 

Oo'ma (Lat. the hair) ; (1) the hairs at 
the end of some seclds ; (2) the tuft 
at the summit of the inflorescence, 
as in the pineapple ; (3) the entire 
head of a tree ; co'mal Tuft, a tuft 
of leaves at the tip of a branch ; 
co'mate, coma'tua, tufted. 

combina'te - veno'sns X (Lat.), joined 
veins, when in a leaf the lateral 
veins unite before reaching the 

comb-shaped, pectinate. 

combi'ned Hy^ds, hybrids hav- 
ing the strain of more than two 
species, as one arising from a 
simple hybrid -f- another hybrid or 

Oom'bns, used by 8. F. Gray for CoR- 
MUS, for which it is probably a mis- 

Oom'ltes (pL of comes, a companion), 
Hegelmaier's term for certain cells 
occurring in the embryo-sac of 

commen'sal {com=con, with ; nunsa, a 
table), used of two organisms living 
in mutual beneficent relations, as 
in the dual-lichen theory, where the 
Fungus stimulates the host-Algae 
to greater energy of function ; 
Oommen'sallim, the state in ques- 

Ck^rn'miasore, Commissu'ra (Lat., a 
joint or seam), the face by which 


two carpets adhere, aa in Um- 

com'mon, (LnC. cmnmu'niii], general or 
priDcipal, oa opposed Im partial : ~ 
Bud, oontaining botb leavea sjid 
flowera, or more than one flower ; ~ 
Bou'dlo, those which are oommon 
both t« stem &Dd leaf, being cob- 
tinuoUB from one tr> the other ;~ 
Ofcljif - Involucre ; ~ Involn'ore, 
that beloDEing to the maio iolior- 
f the (jeneral umlwl ; 
in popular uae fur a 
plant, BiDlusivo of the acientitiki 
name ; ~ ?»d'iuicle, the main stalk, 
when it Bupporta BBVural suliordin- 
ate ouea, or psdiceU ; ~ Per'lanth. 
oocaaioiiallj used Ijy the involucre 
ai in CkjmpoBilae ; " f et'iole, the 
first and principal leaf-stalk in <^uiu- 

eandleaves, thcsecondarypetinlea 
ing termed "partial" :~EeC8pt'' 
&ele, that which supportii more than 
one organ; ~ Dm'tiel, ^coMPonsD 

eommn'nla (Lat.). growing in aociety ; 
not common, nhich is rendered by 

hair) tufted, oomate, 

eompMt'. coni/iacf'iu (Lat.), closely 
joined or pressed together, 

cWpan'lon-Cellii. in Pbancrogama, 
cells which are associated with 
sieve* tubes and are of oommon 
origin, lill»l with granular proteid 

marked nuclei ; — Hyphae (I'l^i;, a 
web), the tip of the irichogyna of 
Polyatjama passing through a stoma 
into the air is ac<!ompanied by 
slender mycelial bjphac, which 
form a tuft, the so-called companion 
Oompa'go, pi. Compa'glnes (LaX. a 
connection), used by Wallroth in 
■peaking of the Lichen -thall us 
when more ot leas brittle or readily 

Kting into layers ; compagltift'tUB 
t.) packed eloBflly one over an- 

Oom'paM-plaiiM, those whiohl ^lace 
thair lesvea ao that their 

comp'llal [romjiita'lU, pertaining to 
cross roods) in venation when the 
veinlets angularly interseut ; also 
when the sori are on the point of 

com'planate, complatia'liia (lat. 
levelled), flaltenei), compressed. 

completa', romple'iun (Lat. filled), bav- 
inK all the parts belonging to it or 
the type. 

Com'plex, (Lat.), interwoven fibr«a, 
or group of complicated parta 
(Crozier). complez'na (Lat. «m- 
braced), in vernation when a leal is 
folded over anotlier at the sides and 
apex ; - cellnlo'sns (Lat,), ^oellular 
tissue; ~ membran&'catu. (Lai,), 
elementary membrane, ground - 
tissue ;- tubnla'rls, (Lat.), woody 
tissue, xylem ; ~ atrlGnla'ris (Lat.), 
angular cellular tissue ; - raa. 
cnla'rls (Lat.), spiral vesBels, some- 
times used for small vessels showing 
secondary deposit* 

com'plloate, complica'l-ag {(omplico, I 
fold toeethei), folded upon itself. 

Compoaltlon.cain/MMif'ui (Lat., putting 
together), the combination of parts 
to form the whole, as of subordinate 
parts to form an organ, or elements 
to fonu a substance. 

com'pound, similnr parts aggregated 
whole ; ~ Cor'ymb, 


« than 

ir to 

each branch ; ~ Diclw'sl 
which the primary axis divides into 
seeondary dichasia ; ~ Flow'er, an 
accumulation of Sorets as in the 
(Dompositae, A^~tuudil<h ; -- Fruit, 
where many distinct carpels are 
associated, as in the mulberry ; ~ 
Fonfiu-body, growth form in which 
the thalluH is constituted by the 
coherence of separate hyphal rami- 
fications ; -Hairs, branched or rami- 
fied hairs ; " laOarea'ceace, where 
an inflorescence is itself composed 
of secondary ones ; ~ Leaf, one 
divided into separate blades; ~ 



O'Tizy, an ovary having more than 
one oarpel ; *^ Pistil, two or more 
carpeU ooalescent into one body; 
*^ Baoeme', =: Paniolb; *^ BpUn, 
occurring frequently on grasees, 
when the inflorescence is made up 
of spikes; *^ Spore, = Sporidism ; 
'^'Bpor'opbore, formed by cohesion 
of the ramifications of separate 
hjrphal branches, Qer. Fruohtkor- 
per ;'*«8tem, one that is branched ; 
'*'Um'btf, an association of simple 
umbels, each ray being itself an 

oomprsi i 'ed, comprtet^us (lAt, pressed 
together), flattened, complanate ; 
oompreisls'ilmus (Lat.) excessively 

ooa (Lat. with), modified bv euphony 
frequently into com — ^both meaning 
" with " in Latin compounds. 

coooafeiutte, conccUenaftua (Lat.linked 
together), joined as links in a chain, 
as strings of spores, or frustules of 

OoooaQlesc'enoe {con, with; cavlia, 
stem), the coalescence of axes. 

oon'oave, conca'vus (Lat. hollowed out), 
hollow, as the inside of a saucer. 

oon'oentrate (con, with; centrum, 
centre), to bring to a common 
centre ; conoen'tzlc, havinff a com- 
mon centre ; *^ Bun'dles, wnere one 
element is wholly surrounded by 
the others, as the xylem by the 
phloSm ; ^ Vaso'Qlar-lmn'dls is the 

Oonoep'tacle, Conceptafcvlum (Lat. a 
receptacle), (1) originally used by 
Linnaeus to express Folugue ; (2) 
afterwards for the fruit of Ascle- 
piads and Apocvneae ; (3) a hollow 
case covering the sexual organs in 
some Algae ; (4) the peridium of 
^VLnai ; (5) the capsule of Mosses ; 
(6) by MedicuB, following Jung, 
used for pericarp ; (7) now a general 
expression for a superficial cavitv 
opening outwards, within which 
reproductive cells are produced. 

oomdh'lftxnn, conchtform'ts {concha, a 
shell ; forma, shape), shaped like 
the shell of a bivalve. 

cooeln'nus (Lat.), neat, elegant. 

ooncolor'ous, con' color (Lat., of one 
colour), uniform in tint. 

ooooomltant (concom'itoTM, attending), 
used of vascular bundles which run 
side by side without being separ- 
ated bv other bundles. 

Ck mc r e scenoe {concresco, to grow to- 
gether) ; (1) becoming concrete ; 
(2) a synonym of Ckmentation; 
concrete', concre'tus, growing to- 

Oonduot'lng Bun'dles, strands of elon- 
gated cells in leaves and even the 
stems of Mosses, simulating a vas- 
cular bundle ; also used for Vascular 
Bundles ; ^^ Cells, long narrow cells, 
associated with sieve-tubes, but 
having imperforate walls ; ^ Sheath, 
elongated parenchymatous cells 
in the inner cortex of the stem, 
continued into the leaves as an in- 
vestiture of the vascular bundle ; ^ 
Tissue, a loose tissue of the style 
through which the pollen-tubes can 
readily make their way ; Oonduc- 
t'lve-Tlssue is the same. 

oondu'plicans (Lat., doubling), doub- 
ling up as, conduplicant'ia Fo'lia, 
the leaflets of a compound leaf which 
apply themselves to each other's 
surfaces ; condu'plicate, conduplica- 
ti'vua^ folded together lengthwise ; 
Oonduplica'tion, in aestivation when 
the sides of an organ are applied 
to each other by their faces. 

Ckmdyllum % {KMvkoi, a knuckle), the 
antheridium of Chora, 

Ckme, Co'nus (lAt.), the fruit of the 
pine or fir tree with scales form- 
m^ a Stbobilb ; ^-^ of Growth, the 
apical growing portion of the stem. 

Conench'yma {Ktiros, a cone ; fyxvfM, 
an infusion), conical cells which 
constitute hairs (Lindlev). 

oonfert'ed, con/ert' us {Lt^t, brought to- 
gether), closely packed or crowded. 

conferru'minate, con/errumina'tun 
(Lat., cemented), adherent by ad- 

Scent faces, as the cotyledons of 
orse Chestnut. 
oonfto'vold, composed of threads, re- 
sembling the genus Cof^erva, 


con'finmit, etm'fiaau (Lat., flowing 
into), blended into one, pnwing by 
degrees oae into tbe other : — I^nlt, 
a compounil fruit, BDch as the mul- 
berry or pineftppls. 

conformed', nonform'it (Lat., shaped) ; 
(I) fliniilar in form; (2) olwiely fit- 
ting, aa a seed -coat to the nucellae. 

Congener |Lat. of the same raoe), 
Boother plant of the same genuB ; 
oongener'lc, belonging to the same 

same on gin. 

OODtre'rlee (Lab., a heap), a collection 
of parte or orgaue. 

eongeit'ed, tongfAt'u» (Lat., brought 
together), crowded. 

coD£lo'bate, fojiylolii'liui (Lat., made 
like a Ull), collected into a ball. * 

oojierlom'erite, coni/lomtra'taa (Ijit., 
rolled together}, clustered. 

Oongln'ttn {eoitfjliUiiialiu, cemented 
together), a constituent of plant- 
casein, UBuallj with legumin ; con- 
gln'tlnate, coiigliititui'lwi, aa though 
glued together. 

con'gngate icoiigrego, to assemble), 
collected iotocloBe proximity, 

Co'Dla (njnwr. hemlock), the active 
principle of Conium miKaJatujn, 
Lion., a poibonoiiB alkaloid. 

mn'loal, con'iVii^ (Lat., cone-shaped), 
having the figure of a cone, as the 

otmldUraroiu (t6r», dust; 4>tip4ia, I 
carrj-|. bearing COHIDIA ; Cooid'l. 
epbore = (ioNimopHORB ; Oonld'lo- 
■pore {tuapt, a seed) = Co>!ij>ii7h ; 
Con'ldi, aiuiptification proposed by 
Bennett and Murray for ConidIa ; 

Conld'ium (pi. Coalilia)~GoNiDiA. 
Oonlf erln (i-oriii", a cone ; /ere. I bear), 
a glucosido derived from coDifuroua 
Hood : oonlferooB, producing or 
bearing cones, as many Gymno- 
aperma ; oo'uJforni (/btoib, shape) = 

Ca'nUu, Co'nein, the name as Coma. 

Oon'locyat', Ooniocyat'a (k6hi, dust; 
iU'DTiT, a bag), a closed sporangium 
reaembltog a tube rcule, containing a 

maasof sporee; Conlotlie'oa, J (H^iir, 
case), the loculus of an anther. 

OoAJolnt BaD'aie, a vascular bundle 
when it is composed of wood and 
bast elements 

con'Jogate, conjuga'im (Lat., united), 
coupled ; as a pinnate leaf, of two 
1 uaneta : -• Spi'iBli, whorled leaves so 
111 ranged sa to give two or more gen - 
etic spiruls running parallel with 
each other ; Oonjugs'ting Tu'bei, 
long prooeases omitted by the fer- 
tilised triahophore in certain Algae, 
which unite with the auiiliary 
cells (Osterhout) ; OonlngA'tlon. the 
fusion of sexual elements, the union 
of two gametes to form a zygote, 
used especially when the two 
gamet«s are similar, as in aoms 
Algae and Fungi : — Qell^GAMBTE; 
cooluga'to-palm'ate, when a leaf 
divides into two arms, each of 
whioh is palmate. 

conJnnc'tlTS [canjimctiitu: joined), 
serving to unite ; ~ Tlireadi, = 
Sfindlb Fibres; ~ Tis'soB, the 
fundamental tissue or ground tissue 
interior to the stele ; Conjuactor'laiii 
tthe operculum of a Moss. 

coimaa'oent, (con, with ; nojicor, to be 
born), produced at the same time 

CQQ'nate, conna'tm (Lat,, born at the 
same time), united, congenitnlly or 
subaequeutly ; Don'nato-perfo'liate, 

nited at the b 

3 pairs 


the supporting a: 

OonnMfliig Cell, {conneHiu, fastened 
together') = Hetbkocyst ; ~ Zone, the 
"hoop" or girdli^ connecting the 
valves of a Diatom frustute ; Con- 
neot'lTe, Coiaudi'mm, the portion 
of a stamen distinct from the fila- 
ment which connects the two lobes 
of an anther ; connectlTalli, having 
to do with the connective. 

oonid'»«nt, conni't'Mtsflit,, winking), 
coming into contact or converging, 

Connu'Unm, (Lat., wedlock), the 
stage of protoplasmic coalesoence 
in the conjugation of filamentous 

Oonoclxp'iiUD (ki^m, a oone ; napwos 

fruit), kh aggreg&te fruit conaiating 
of many fruits on a conioat re- 
ceptacle, ai the strawberrj ; oo'- 
nolel (cIJDi, reaemblanoe), cone-like ; 
conol'dtl, conoida'lit. relembting a 
conical figure, but not truly one, 
■s the calyx of ftHeiit cminidea, 
lAnn. ; Oonapo'dlmn (reus, radei, a 
foot), a conical Soral reoeptaolK : 
OoiuMtro'ma t lirrpujji, spread out), 
Endlinher'B term for a gi-owing 
point, cooBtituting a free central 

OonMTT'AtlTa OT'gans {coivunttlio, a 
keeping I. those which are employed 
in Dutrition, aa root. item, leaves. 

ooatlm'tlar (ronfflini'/ii, entirely alike), 
applied U> the valvee of a Diatom, 
when both aides are alike ; Con- 
■tmil'ltnde, resemblance of the two 
valves, unequal but similar, of the 
EriTHKC* and Hypothec a. 

MnBol'ldated {coiiKolido, 1 make 6rni) i 

(1) when unlike parta are coherent ; 

(2) Crozier adds, having a amali 
aurface in proportion to bulk as 
many Cacti. 

Oon'Hrtlam {cmuiort, sharing pro- 
perty), Reinke's term for Symbiosis. 

eon'nant {connfayia, steadfast), in the 
same condition, or always present. 

coutrlot'ed {<^oiuUric(\i>, compreased), 
drawn togeibLT. contracted. 

Conatrlo'tltm (roiwlriclio, binding lo. 

Kther), the narmweHt portion of 
atiOiDH and Deamida seen from 
the side. 
OonitruGt'lve HetaVoliim, - Assimi- 

eOMU'lUi. (Lat,, stitched together), 
when parts are united by a niem- 
brane of threads, 

Oontabesc'ence {'■onlabenco, to wasLs 
away), the abortive oondition of 
stamens and pollen, 

COQta'glOUl {conlafjio, touch), used of 
diseases when communicable by 
touch ; c/., iNFEtttons. 

oontemato'siu J (dariv. !] covered by 
an armature between bristly and 
aculeate [Lindley). 

oonter'mliunu [coi\twiiin»g, neigh- 
bouring) of equal boundaries. 

(Lat., TTonght together)^ 

oonUg^Daui, coati;fv«a (Lat., adjoin- 
ing), when neighbourinff parts are 
in cnntaot, as moit cotyledc?ns, 

contln'gent \cohtii\ge.n», touching) 
Bymblo'slB, see (iVHiiiosts ; in Ger. 

coDUn'QCnu (ronfinttiu, running 
the reverse of interrupted ; Oon- 
tlau'lty. uninterrupted cooneolior 

caiitort'ed..oni;'i>r7Ti» ( Lat, ), twisted c 
bent ; iu aestivation ths same I 
cosviiLOTE; CoBtor'tlon, atwistinj 
twisted and plaited or folded ; (2) 
twisted back upon iteelf. 

contra, in Latin compounds -against. 

rowed or shortened : spreading but 
llighti)' ; contract'ile, capable of 
actively shrinking in volume and 
expanding again, used of proto- 
plasm; -Vaclioles, small cavities in 
protoplasm, which inoreaae and 
decroase in size rhythmically ; Con- 
troetU'tty, the capacity of altering 
spontaneously in volume. 
con'trary, coidra'riw (Lat,), in an 
opposite direction, as a silicle com- 
pressed contrary to the diseepi- 

Oontrol'. frequently used in the sense 
of the English word Check, aa~ 
Eipcriroenta, to check the original 

Go'dus (Lat.)=C<iNE. Strobile. 

0ODvei^ent(™ji, with ; leryeiM, bend- 
ing), applied to veins which run 
from the bojie to the apex of the 
leaf in a curved manner ; conVOTg'l- 
ner'vlB, -tIob, convergen'tl-nBrvo'- 
SUB (Lat.). simple veins diverging 
from the midrib and converging 
towards the margin. 

con'vei, coii('ez'>M(Lat. arched), hav- 
ing a more or less roundad surface ; 
convexlQEC'uluB, somewhat convex. 

con'volate, coitvolii' lat {Lat. rolled 
round], convoln'tlTS. coni'o/wii'fus.- 
( 1 ) when one part is wholly rolled 
up in another, as the petals of tb« 
Wallflower ; (2) in a ipatbe when 


the marginB iDntu&Uy envelope cottli'i 
each other. Ie>l 

cop'pery, brownish red, with a metal- Cork, 
lie luBtre ; citpreoue. epidrrn 

cop'plolnir. in foreitry, cropping the 
plantation by cultinic the under- 
wood every few years. 

Oop'ropSyM (loiTfiDt, ordure; ^urd'. 

p1ftnt| = SAPR.>PHVTB. 

Copula'tlon [topvlatio, coupling), used 

for CoN.iiiOATiON, the uoion of 

sexual celle. 
Oop'olae Ipl. of cajnila, a thong oi 

band), intermediate bands o[ cell' 

wall in DiatoDiB, as in Terjmiiof, 

etc. ; oop'nlaUTe i, diasepimenta n 

readily separating from the axia 

for Coccr 
Cor Be 'minis t (Lai.) — Rmbrjo. 
coisc'inui (Lat., mven-bl>ick|, glosaj 

Mr'a<!0W(«6(iaf, aravan ; rfSoi. reeem - 

blance)" shaped like a crow's beak " 

oor'tlUne, cm-a/li'iiHs (Lat. corul red), 

resembling coral in appearance. 
corallUorm'lB {Doraiinm, coral, yormn, 

shape), coral like in form ; Cor'al- 

loia, eoral/oi''lts UUot. reBemblaoce), 

corul-like. as the roots of NtoUin 

Nidia-avU, Rich. 
Ooi'cla iCrozier) ; Cor'oale, Cor'cvlum 

(lAt. a little heart) = (l) embryo; 

(2) plumule, or plnmule and radicle. 
Cord, tunbUl'cal = FPNicrn7a. 

applied to leaves having the petiole 

at the broader and notched end ; 

COT'dUorm, cordi/orm'U (Lat.), 

shaped like a heart, 


Core, the aeedi 

pome, such as an apple ; Grew 
spells it " Coar." 

con'mlal {Kd/nma, a broom), like the 
genus Coremiurn, Link; core'mtold 
{tlSm, resemblance), applied to a 
faiciated form as of Penieitlium, etc. 

Cor'eieB (idp.i, ■ bug), "dark red, 
bread, discoid bodies, found beneath 
the epicarpot grapes" (Lindley). 


cells c 

and spongy in 

tFitiire, but impervious to liquid* ; 
the corky layers of the bark ; — 
Hsr'iitem, = Preli.oubk ; Pore- 
cork, auberised portion of lenticela, 
with intercellular (paces beiween 
the cork -calls (Klebahn) ; cork'j', 
of the texture or (|Qalily of cork ; 
- QiT'elope, ~ tay'er, the hut 
layer brneath the epidermis which 
gives rise lo cork, 

COrm,Cm™'iu(«OfiHor,a trunk), a bulb- 
like fleshy steiu or base ol stem, a 
" solid " bulb i Cotmoc'Bmaa (yd.)iot, 
marriage), ArdisBone'a division for 
Characeae and Muscineae ; conno- 
g'onmia (yiroj, offspriog), having t 
stem or eorm ; Oom'ophyte l^ttirir, 
plant), Kndlivber's term for pUnta 
Msaeasing axis and foliage, that is. 
Phanerogams and vascular Crypto- 

cor'neoua, cor^neut (Lat. ), horny, with 
B horny texture. 

Cor'net (coniu, a horn), a hollow 
horn -like growth ; - atispe, cnculU- 
form, hooded ; conila'iila,te, comi- 
ctila'liia (Lat,), furnished with a 
little bom or horns ; coraJmlirar- 
otw, -™* l/fo, 1 bear), bearing 
boms or protuberances ; cor'nlfanii 
{/orma, shape), shaped like a horn. 

Co^nlne. a bitter principle in the 
bark of Conais sangvinfa, Liun. 

Cor'nn (Lat. a horn), (I) a hom-Uke 
process ; (2) occasionally used for 
Calcar or Spur ; cor'nute, corati'lus, 
boroed or spurred : ~ Leave*, a 
sudden projection of the midrib 
forming a spine-like outgrowth, 
often in a tjifferent plane : Cor- 
Da'tfn, a poisonous body derived 
from ergot, the " spur " of rye and 
other grasses. 

Corol (Croiier) - Corolla. 

Corol'la(L»t, a little crown); (1)Uib 
interior perianth, composed of 


petals, free or QDited ; (2) t the 
annulns ofFuajfi; oonfll*'o«ni« ( + 
BceauB]corollH-like, peUloid; cor'ol- 
IftU, corolla' iBt, coroUa'rli, pos- 
MMdog a. aorDlla ; Oor'allat, a floret 
of a. Composite ; coToUlTenni*, 
-mf {fero, I bear), oorolla-bearinK ; 
OOTolUflor'al (j!(M, jlorit, b, flower), 
ooToUlllor'cnu, -nur. having the 
calyx, petals anA ovaiy iaiert^d 
eeparatet; on the diek, the slamens 
on tha ooroUa ; oor'oUliiB.iwro/h'iiiM, 
(1) seated on a corolla, (2) corolla- 
like, petaloid, (3) belonging to a 
OOroUa ; Oor'ollule, CoroUu'la ; (1) a 
diminutive corolla ; (2) floret of a, 
he&d, aa in Compoaitae. 
Con>'iia<Lat. acrown); ()) acorooet, 
an^ body which intervenes between 
Ibe corolla and stameDa : &) t the 
" eye " of npples or peara, the re- 
nuuDB of the calyx limbi (3)t the 
raj of the cupitula in Compositoe ; 
(4) a whorl of ligulea or petale, 
united or free ; (5) a synonym of 
CDOTTU.ITB ; (6) used bj Hill for the 
periovcle, or " circle of propag»- 
tion ; (7) the ring of prinmry wood 
in the medullary sheath ;~tle'mlnls 
=pAppus;~»tejniii'ea, ^OrbiouIuB, 
a ooTonet fonnecl fiom the trans- 
formation of stamens ; cor'ouaJ, ap- 
pertaining to a corona, as ~ Vessels, 
those of the corona ; coro'nana ( Lat. ), 
crowning, seated on the apex ; oor'- 
osAte, cDToiia'tiM (Lat.), orowncd, 
having a corona : coro'nlfomi, roro- 
ni/orm'ii (/or-ma, shape), shaped 
like a crown or coronet : Coi'onet 
= 0oKONA ; Ooro'unle, Coron'fia ; 

(1) a diminutive of corona, a, floret ; 

(2) = pAPrD8; (3) the small calyx- 
like body which crowns the nucule 
ot Chora ; (4) in Diatoms, a aet of 
■pines whi chtenninatethe truHtulea. 

Oor'pim (pi. of corp}is, a body) car- 
llo't» (Lat. fleshy), the sporangia of 
certain Fnngi ; CoT'pns, the maBS or 
■nbatance of anything ; ~- llg'Detun, 
~ Ugno'snm, the mass of the woody 
tiaaue of a plant ; ~ medulU're, 
the maaa of the cellular tissue in 
the pith. 


Oorpiu'cle {mrpvxultim, a tmall 
body), a small mass or body : Cor- 
posc'nla (sing. CorpaBculam) ; (1) 
sporangia of some Fungi ; (2) aroh«- 
gonium, or the central cell of the 
name in Coniferoe ; (3) the connec- 
eions between the arms of the 
pollen -masses in Aaclepiula ; — 
venntfMm'U, spiral vessfla in n 
contracted, ptrajigled condition. 

oor'mgs.te, corruaa'lm; cormgatl'ma 
(Lat.), wrinkled. 

Coi'iieui UosB, dried Algae. 

Cor'tei (Lat.), (I | the bark or lind ; 
the groond tisaue between the stete 
and epidermis ; (2) the peridium of 
Fungi : cor'tlcal, corlicalie, relating 
to the oortai ; ~ Layer ; - Integ'a- 
ment, the investing layers of the 
baat system ; ~ Bays, = medullary 
rays in the phloem j~Bbeat]i, Noeg- 
eli's term for the whole of the 
primary bast bundles : ~ Stn'tum, 
the superficial layer of tho Lichen- 
thallus; cor'UoBte. cortica'iua(Lal.}, 
covered with bark, or with an acces- 
sory bark-like covering ; corticit'- 
erOUi t/'ero, I bear), producing bftrk ; 
coTtlc'ifoTm (/omia, shape). like 
bark ; cOTtic'olous {co/a. I iniiabit), 
living on hnrk, as some Lichens and 
Fungi ; cor'tloose, cor'tiGOUs, barky, 
foil of hark. 

Cortl'nA( Late Lat. a curtain), the fila- 
mentous annuli of some Agarics ; 
oor'tmate, corlina'riuii (Lat.), hav- 
ing a web-like texture. 

corri'ntu (Late Lat, pertaining to the 
raven), raveo-blaok. 

Coiyd'aUii, an alkaloid present in the 
root of Corydaiu luhrfo/a, DC, : 
coryd'allne, con/dalh'tiig, resem' 
bling the genua Corydalis. 

Cor'ymb, CorynA'vi (Lat. a cluster of 
flowers), a flat-topped or merely 
convex and open flower-cluster of 
the indeterminate or oentripelal 
order ; the term, a« now Understood, 
formerly in chid ed moat cymes ; 
cor'ymbate, corymb'latad, having 
corymbs or growing in corymbs ; 
MiTmbifamnB, -run {fcro, I bear), 
b««ring corymbs ; cor'yiniMM, 

coryrnbo'iuH ; corym'bons, nmoged 
in corymb* ; ooTjmli'ulOBe. -looa, in 
an 0.11 corymbs. 

Corytild'ia((Dpi^tit, a club), "Pi-ocessea 
Bunb ioto the oiBrEin of the ger- 
minstiag leaf of Ferns, nnd con- 
taining spiral tbreads" (Lindley) 
[ = Antlioritli»!], 

Coryphyll'y (topi-^, the arown of the 
beftd ; ^I'Uui-, a loaf), a mODstroBity 
in which the aiis eods in a leaf, 
BometiiDes coloured. 

Ooamop'ollte luianot, Ibe world ; 
iritti!, a city), a plant of well- 
nigh universal distribution ; eM> 
rooporitan, diatribut«d throughout 
the world. 

Cos'ta (Lat. ), a rib, when single, a 
midrib or middle-nerve ; cos'tol- 
narred, narvea »pringinB from the 
midrib: oos'tate, rofia^iut (Lat,.). 
ribbed, having one or mora piimary 
longitudinal veins ; coata'to-veno - 
RU, when the parallel aide veins 
of a feather-veined leaf are much 
•tODt«r than those which inter- 
vene ; ooa'taetDrm {Jbrma, shape), 
^iplied by J, Smith tor primary 
vams in fems when parallel to each 
other and very evident ; Ooat'ulas. 
used by the same author for the 
primary veins of Fem-Bcgnienla ; 
coit«riat«, having email ribs. 

Cotton, the hsira of the Cotton-pod ; 
cottony, pubeeceoce of long soft 

Ootyle'dan |toTiiXiifiIi>', a hollow), ap- 

filied first by LJotuLens to the aesd- 
□b«a, tbe fiist leavea of the embryo, 
one in monocotyledons, two or more 
indicotyleflona, rarely a wborl borne 
by the radicle or caudicle ; eotyle- 
donft'iiB. union or dose approxima- 
tion of the seed- lobes ; Cotyle'dimald 
((Use. resemblance), a germinating 
tbreail of a Mobs, a protonema ; 
ootyle'donoua, rolf/hdo'iKun, poa- 
aeaeiDg seed -lobes. 
cotyrUorm. eoiylij'orm'i/ (wri-Xiy, a 
hollow. ./oiTii'i, shape), diah-shaped 
-or wheel-shaped, with an erect 
'jrucendinu border; Cot'yloid Cell, 
I cell of doabtful tunc 

Hibly a iiBt«r-oell of the orabryo 

the Tonquin Dean, DipUrj/x 

oitiyrat'i, Hw. 
Cour'bsril. a reain from Nipnetiata 

Cimrlxiril, Una. 

Cor'ar = O fkrcvuiii . 

Coyer-cell, of Hopaticae, the apical 
cells of the neck oF a young arcbe- 
gonium (Campbell) ; cover-like - 
opBRcrLAKis ; cov'orlng- = vrxil- 
L«Ris~ -Plate, in Ferna, see Steo- 
MATA of Metteniut. 

oowlefl^c'UouLULTB (Crorier). 

on'dliiig^ iNvoLVKNTiA (folia). 

Cram'pon |Fr. ), hooks or advenljtiotu 
roote, which oot aa supports, as in 

craipedod'romouB. -mus {tpiffrelw, 
a border ; 5/wpoi, a course), when 
the iHteral veina of a leaf nin from 
midrib to margin withont dividing. 

craas'iu (Lat.), thick. 

Crals'rs [Kpar^p, a cup), a oup-«baped 
receptaele ; enU'rUonn, rrateri- 
form'ia [forma, shape), goblet or 
cup-shaped, hemispheric or shallow 

CiSib, a disease of the larch, dao to tbe 
mycelium of Ftzixa Willhommii, 

cntlc'iilaT (rmficti/a, a small grid- 
iron), a resting oondition of 
Difttomaocae, in which a pair of 
new valves are formed within the 
original valves, 

cream-coloar, white with a, alight in- 
clination to yellow. 

cresp'lng, mnning along or under tha 
ground and rooting at intervula ; 
restricted by Syme to those DasBS 
where there is onl3' one, or rarely 
two, flowering stema from each 
branch of the rhiiome ; ~ Btsm, 
often means RuizouB. 

cre'mans (Mod. Lat., creamy) = 

Crem'ocarp, Crt uriwiiTj'iiim (■(njatu, I 
hang : KapTot, fruit), a dry and 
seed-like fruit, composed of two 
one-seeded carpels invested by 

ui epigynooa 0BI7Z, separating 
whan ripe into mericvpa. 
cranorlo'olor (eremtui, ixilor, colour] 


On'na (Hod. lAt.,anotch), aronnded 
tooth or notch ; On'nKtnre Oretta- 
ta'ra, a, ronaded notoh on the 
margin of a leaf ; <ire'nate,erema'tu«, 
■o^£iped, toothed with orenstorea ; 
Or«n'el = Csxna ; Oim'alllng = 
Ckkna ; onn'ellM, erenula'rit, mar- 
gined with crenatnrea ; cran'allate, 
erentila'taa, eran'olata, crentila'tia, 
crenate, bnt the toothing* them- 
■elvee am^; Gmi'iila, a diminutive 

cniroant ■ ahaped, approaohing the 
fiEure of a oreeoent, aa the leavei 
of certain apeoiee of PruaiJIora. 

Onrt, (1) an elevation or ndge npon 
the aummit of an organ ; (2) an 
ontgTowth of the f uniooluB in aeeda, 
a aorb of axil ; oreaf ed, poaseeaing 
any elevated line or ridge on the 
•nrface anch aa maj be oompared 
with the erect of a helmet 

oreta'caona, -<xaa (crcCa, chalk], (1) 
cbalky, aa the ohalk-glonda found 
in Saiifragea; (2) chalk-white, 
dead- white. 


dtlnata (cHfrnun, a aieve], nauall^ 
written obibbosb ; cri'biUOnn, en- 
br^fom'i* f/orma, shape), lie ve- like, 
pieroed with many hole* i—Oella^ 
Sntvi-cii.1^ ; ~ Tla'ine, containing 
■ieve-oelU and tubes ; crl'braae, 
eribr&na, pieicod like a aieve; r- 

Oalla - SlEVB-TOBBS. 

inlf erooa (en'nff , hair; fero, I bear), 
used by J. Bmith for hicentA ; 
ai'nlte, crini'tui, bearded with long 
and weak hairs. 

crln'old Itpirar, a lily ; tlSot, rasein- 
blanoe) lily-like (Cmzier). 

Orin'Bla [erinii, hair) = Elatkb; 
Oll'nna, a stiff hair on any part 

erlap, crista (Lat.), oorled ; arlapa'- 
UUb, capable of curling np ; orlap'- 
ate, crlqied, critpa'ttu, cntpaii'tnu, 
curled ; olapM'oaiii, able to ourl 
np ; Orlap'alnn, GritpatH'ra, (1) 
wnen the edge ii axoeatively and 

irregnlarly divided and twitted ; 
(2) or the leaf much puckered and 
crumpled, bat oot so mnch as 
buUate; olaplflor'al {fio$, florit, a 
flower), having curled nowen ; 
crliplfOllons (filiian, a leaf), with 
curled leavea. 

Orli'ta (Lat. }, a creat or terminal tuft ; 
raUVaeTarm (/arma, shape), used by 
J. Smith for crested appeadicea in 
Ferns ; aa in Aclinoitautyt, Wall.; 
erla'tate, crUta'tiu, crested. 

OrltanclL'yma (cpiTot, chosen ; fyxvita, 
an infusion), the tissue of bundle- 
sheaths, open or closed envelopes 
which acoompany fibro-vaaomar 
bundlea; crlfical, nsed of plants 
which need great discrimination in 

orooa'tus, oro'ceona, eroc'tut (Lat.], 
sa&Ton-yellow ; a deep yellow tint 
from the stigmas of Crxtu aativxu, 
Linn. ; Cro'eSi, the colonriog matter 
of the foregoing. 

orook'ed, curved. 

Oroaa, term implyiag a hybrid of any 
deeoription ; '- armed, brochiate 
(Crosier) ;-'Braada, the progeny of 
interbred varieties ; ~ FertHln'Oan, 
fecundation by pollen from another 
flower of another individnal ; — 
Pollina'Ilon, dnsting the stif^ma of 
one flower with pollen from an- 
other ; — BaptBi'tlon, division by 
transverse septa ;~Typ«, in naolear 
division, the formation of tetrads. 

Orossad-plta, cells in sclerenchyma, 
with the slita on opposite walls at 
right angles to each other. 

crowd'ed, oloeeljt pressed together or 
thickly set. 

Onrwn, «ee Corona ; also (1) in 
Charaoeae, the apex of the nucule ; 
(2) in Diatomaceae, a series of 
teeth connecting the frustnles 
into filamentfl, aa in Sltphano- 
pyxis ; — of the Root, the point 
where root and etem meet ; 
erowned, corona'lvs, fnrnished 
with a ooronet ; orowii'lnE, coro'- 
naiu, home on the summit of an 

On'dar, "anything with a coiled 

end, ae the young leaves of most 
FeniB" (Croiier). 

oni'cUte. crririnVtH (Lat.). orora- 
Bhsped, used especially of the 
flowers of Cruciferoe ; ~ Tetragvn- 
Id'ta, those gonidift formed by two 
diviaiona at right angles to eaoli 
other 1 Orn'dlsr ( Lat. , croaa -bearing ) , 
ft plant with four petota sad l«tra- 
dynamous stamens ; crnctfa'roos, 
oroBi bearioff, used of the corolla of 
Cruoifers, wliith bave four petals j 
om'oironn, cnicHorm'tii Lat. |, cross- 
shsped . 

■smaiita'tuB ( Lat. . etained with blood), 
dyed or blotched with red. 

cment'us (Lat., gorj), dark purplish 
red, the ootour of gore. 

onun'pled ~ corkuoatb ; ~ AeiUvft'- 
Hon. when folded in bad irregn- 
larly, as in the poppy. 

Ora'ra (pi. of criig, a leg) divisions of 
the teeth of the peristome in 

<im'ral {crKra'lin, pertaining to the 
lege), " aomewhat leg-shaped ; osed 
mainly in composition " (Crosier). 

OrUBt, Cni-xfa (Lat., rind or ahell), 
the hard and brittle part of certain 
Lichens ; onuta,'c«aus, -tua, of brit- 
tle teiture, eome Lichens are thus 
termed ; crustoli'Dos, toast-colour, 
darker and wai'mer in tint than a 
cracknel biscuit. 

Cl7p'ta(l'Bt,, a vault), sunken glands, 
receptacles for secretions of plaota 
in dotted leaves. 

Cryptogam'la {tpinnoi, hidden ; 7d>i0!, 
marriage), plants dratitate of 
stamens, pistils, and true seeds, 
but often reproduced as the result of 
ft sexual act : ciTPtagBin'ian. orypto- 
gftm'lo, enrplogam'iirua, rayptOK'aiD- 
OtlB, belong to the sub-kingdom 
just defined ; OiyptOK'amlst, a 
botBDist devoted to the study of 
BowerlesB plants -. Cryptog'ftiay, the 
■late of concealed fruotilication ; 
cellular threads produced in Cryp- 
tOBtomata ; Cryp'tophyte (•j>vt6i'. b. 
plant), Cri/lilo]ihy-Uiin. n orypto- 
gamous plant ; Cryptoatom'ate 

(nolo,, a mouth), barren concep- 
tocles in some Algae, oontaining 
hairs, or paraph yses, 

CiTSt'al [nfiiaTaWoi, ice), a mineral 
solid, usually of regular faces or 
angles, foundin the tieauesof plants, 
of very various composition ; Cry. 
st'allold {clint. resemblance), term 
applied to protein crystals as being 
less truly angular than normal 
crystals, as nell as swelling in 
water ; also in oontradisti notion to 

Ctaln'ophytes (ktiii'u, I kill ; 4>inay, a 
plant), Fungi whose inQuence on 
their hosts is chemioal only 

Cu'bebiiie, the active principle of 
Piptr Cvlitba, Linn. 

ca'bUbnn (cudw, AA\e;fortHa, ahape), 
dice-ebaped, cubic: Oa'bua (Lat,), 
a solid birure of six square sides ; 
ca'bic, euliiciw, cn'Weal. of a cubic 

Cn'Ut {cvbicum, the elbow), a measure, 
from the elbow to the finger-tips, 
usually reckoned as equivalent to 
18 inches, 60 cm. ; cnWta'Us (Lat. ), 
about half -a- yard in length. 

cacnUa'rlB, cn'cuUate, ciirailii'liu (cuf- 
ii//i». a hood), hooded, or hood- 
flliaped ; caauU'Uonn (f&i-ma, shape], 
hood. like in ahape; CncnU'ui, a. 


shaped like a ououmber (Cro: 

cocnrblta'eeotis (mcHWnVti. a gourd, 4 

oceous), like a gourd \ of gourd-like 

growth ; cncnrUtl'nas, has the same 

Cad'bear. the Scotch name for Orchil. 
Cal-de-sac (Fr.), "a tubular or bag- 
shaped cavity, closed at one end " 

(Lat. ), straw • like ; DOlmlc'oloas 
(co/o, 1 inhabit), growing on 
the stalk of grasses ; culm'lfer, 
CQlmireroiu (/W-o, I bear), produc- 
ing culms. 
nilt'rale, cii/Ira'Cus (Lat., knife-lihe), 

th« ahape of & kuife-bUde ; calf il- 
fmn, cxdtriform'it {culler, a knifs ; 
forma, ahkpa}, in ihape like « 
knife, or ooalter. 

OnlVnm, in boUa j,>pplied to experi- 
mental growth oondnoted in the 

oa'nMLl (CTOiier), otmM'riiu { (Lind- 
ley), on'iiMte, ctoxa'tiu, on'aaifdnn, 
ewi^orm'ii (cuneut, • wedge), 
wedge-afakped, tri&ngnlu'. 

eiiiilo'lilaite, etmic«la'tu» {cwakvlvt, a 
rabbit), pieToad with a long deep 
paaaage open at one end, ae the 
pednncle of Tropaco/um, 

Onnlx X (deriv. !) "The ieparable 
place wbiob interrenee betveen 
the wood and bark of eiogena" 

Oiqi, { 1 ) lUl inTolnore, aa ot the acorn ; 
(2) the reoeptaole, or " shield " in 
tome LioheoB ; (3) uied for Diaco- 
OABF; ~ilUUpea,formed like a goblet, 

1, nearlj hemiipherical, 


on'prena (cvprvm, oopper), copper- 
ooloarad, with ita loaulUc Inatre. 

On'pnle, Cu'pvla (Lat., a little cup], 
the cap of eucb fmita aa the acorn, 
an invalucre oompoaed of bract* 
adherent hj their base, and free 
or not, upwards ; on'pnla - abaped 
(Lindley} «ee cdpola - sh*pbd ; 
oapnla'iii, en'pnlate, cupuia'lve, 
fnmiahed with, or Bubtended by 
a oupale; Oupn'UfOT (Lat.), cnpu- 
llfntnia (/em, I bear), prodacinp 
onpnlee ; en'pnIUOrm, cvpit/\form.'ts 
{forma, shape), oupola-snaped. 

On'mlne, an alkaloid from " Curare," 
obtained from several apecies of 

Onr'eniiiljia, the coloniing matter of 
the rooU of Turmerio, Cvrcmna 
laoga, Linn. 

Oiid,adiieaBe, shown by deformed and 
curled leavee, ascribed in some cases 
to Exoatau d^ormans, Fnokel ; 
oorled, when a leafy orgao is folded 
or ommpled, at Endive. 

Oarr'aton, oootiBnad flaxnie or band- 

ing from a right line ; ~ of Oon- 
anaa'ion, that produoed as the result 
of a sadden blow ; Darwin'taa ~ , 
e&ecta produced on growing organs, 
•• root-tipa in conBequence of ir- 
ritation : Baolia's - , the differenoe 
in growth of the two aides of the 
root (WettaUin) ; onrva'toa (Lat), 
bent as a bow, or arc of 4 circle ; 
OoiTe, the same as curvature; — 
ribbed, f- veined - cfkvinerved ; 
cnrvail, bent, not rectilinear ; 
oorvlcan'date [cavda, a tail), hav- 
ing a curved tail ; cnrrlcost'ate 
{coita, a, rib), with cui-ved ribs or 
veins ; enivlden'tate [dtiu, a tooth), 
with curved teeth, cur'vifoim, 
[forma, shape] = cnuvBD ; cnr'Tin- 
erred, curWiier'uiu*, cum'tw'nttM 
(Lat.), having carved nerves, 
especially applied to monocotjle- 
dona ; curvlp'etal {ptlo, I seek), 
Viichting'a term for the causes 
which tend to curve an organ. 
cnrvlae'rial {atrieii, a row), in curved 
or oblique ranks. 

Onah'ion, (1) the enlargement at or 
beneaib the insertion of many 
leaves, the pulvinus ; (2) portion 
of a Fem-prothallns on which 
archegonia are borne, often per- 
oeptibl; thicker than the margioa % 
muMon'ed, tufted, aa in aome 
Mosses ;~Fun'gi, Fungi growing in 

Oosp, Ctuj/ia (I^t. a point), a rharp, 
rigid point ; cnip'ldate, ciigpida'tua, 
tipped with a cuap. 

cnt, the same as incised, or in a 
general way as cleft. 

OntiQle,CWt'cWa(Lat. thecuterskiD), 
the outermost skin or pellicle, con- 
taining the epidermis ; Cvti'ciila 
den'sQ, ~ Aymen^orm'w, ~pri7nordi- 
a'lU, ~ pra^pna, ~ reijula'rig, ~ 
m^muTIa, modifications proposed 
bvFayod, in Ann. So. Nat., 66t. 
Vn. ix. (1889) 243-244 ; Cntocell'n- 
loaaa (-t- Cellulose) modified oellu- 
loee, the eoticnlariied layers of cell- 
watl, impregnated with cutin ; 
OntlciilaiUa'ttoai = Cdtinizatiok. 

M'Ub («Ku, the akin), the snbatanoe. 

allied to Suberine, which repels 
liquids from paiaiag the aell-irsU ; 
(hmnlxa'tlon, tbe modification of 
the cell-w&ll bo as to become im- 
porvioUB to liqiiida ; Oa'Ua : (1) 
the Hkin or epidermis ; (2) the 
pecidium of Bome Fungi -, Ca'tOM, 
the tr&nsparont film covering the 
k^rial orgaoa of pUnta. 

cat - tootlied, "deeply and ahuplj 
t^thfld ■' (Crosier). 

Cnt'laiKe, multiplicatioa by cuttioga 
(L. H, Bailey). 

Cut'Ong. ( 1 ) the aevered portion of a 
plant, used for propagation ; (2) the 
outline of a leaf or frond when 

cjBll'nQS t (Mud, Lat. ) = rYANoOB. 

OT&m'iom t (•i'a*">t, a bean), " a kind 
of follicle rQBembting a legume " 

cyanae'ua, t. ryiiMiu (iiiiriii, corn- 
flower), a clear full blue, cxirn- 
flower-ooloured ; oyanell'ua, almoKt 
aikyblae; ayui'la,blue ;~Ftow'era, 
those whose colouring tends to- 
wards blue, in oontrasb to kanthic 
Flower* : <7uiocIi'Tonj (xpuit. xfi^i 
the akin), hayins a bins skin ; 
ig«iiopli'Uoiia(^iX^, I love), Applied 
to nuelei whicb readily tak« a doep 
blae Bttin : Oyuwpby'als (#ijiibi, 
sea-weed), the blue colouring matter 
of Algae; Cy'aiiophyll (#llI^Xr>l', a 
leaf } = KrANoni yll. 

tjtXh'ilorm, cynlhi/orm'is [xijadot, a 
wine-cup ; forma, shapel. shaped 
like a drinkingcun : Cyatli'liuu, the 
infloresoenoe of kuiihorhinm, con- 
listing of involucrnl bracts, with 
glands between single stamens each 
equivalent to a male dower, and a 
trilocuUr ovary ; cy'atliold |(I3oj, 
resemblance) ; Cyatb'oUte [\i9oi. 
■tone) - CocouLiTH ; Cy'atliuB, 
the cup-iike body which contains 
propajjula in Mnnhaiitia^ etc. 

Oyb'BlB(pr.,Sib'-e-le),H.C. Wateon's 

tribution of plants in a given area, 
an analogue to Flora ; the name Is 
Oy'nlamlne, a principle found in the 

of Cydav 


Cy'de (iviXdi, a circle) ; (1) used for 
one turn of a helix or spire, in leaf 
arrangement ; (2) for a whorl la 
floral envelopes ; oy'oUe, ct/dicvt, 
applied to foliar stniolures ar- 
ranged in whorls, coiled into a 
oyole or relating to a cycle ; CT'oUoal, 
roUed up ciroularty, as many em- 
bryoH ; O/eloireiu [yiyvia, to bring 
forth), exogenous plants, from their 
eihibitins concentric circles in the 
section of their stems ; cyolOK^enoui, 
having concentric circles in the 
stem, exogenous ; Cy'dome, a ring- 
shaped cushion of anthers (M'Nab) ; 
Cydo'alB, the rotation of proto- 
plasm within the cell, in one or 
more ourrenta ; oyolMperm'oiu 
{andpfta, a seed), with the embryo 
coiled round the central albumen. 

cyg'tteous, ry^iir.ivi (Lat., pertaining 
i)' tlie seta of MoBSea when 

rved «. 

cyllndra'ceona, -ttiA (niXiripoi, a 
cylinder, -(- aoeous). somewhat 
cylindric ; OyUndranth'erae [itSat, 
a, flower) syngeneaious. from the 
Btamena forming a lube ; Cyllsd- 
lanch'yma {fyxvtia, an infnaion), 
tiasue made up of cylindric cells ; 
cytlnd'rlD, cyllnd'rical, elongated, 
with B circular cross - section ; 
onindiobuiwta'mcm Ifldait, a 
pedestal ; <rrtiiiar, a Btamen) 

Cyma'tlnm (ci'fuiriu', a little wave) = 

cymb'seform, more correctly oyuVi- 
form, cijmliifonnU (cifmba, a boat ; 
fornta, shape), boat-shaped, used 
for Diatoms, or the keel of Legu- 

Oymbell'aa (rgmbiUa, a little boat), 
reproductive locomotive bodies of 
on elliptio form, found in some 

CTme, Vi/'ma {rviut, a wave, Lat., the 
sprout of u cabbage), a flower- 
oluster of determinate or centri- 
fugal typo, especially a broad and 

fl»ttetMd c 

■ (») < 

Ut«ral branche* of the moceuii 
rsmificatioiis klirnjB occurring on 
the same aide ; acarp'lold ~ (a) 
CincinntiB, aod (b) Rhipidiuro, Uio 
UiMnd bnuichot always ooaaniiig 
alternately on oppont« Bidei ; Q;- 
tnalat, pr. tiea-let, a little cyme ; 
OTinlfanHit {fero, I bear), prodnc- 
ing cymea; cr'nio-bot'TToaaforbot'- 
i7vla],iThen cyme* are amuiged in a 
botryoid manner ; Arnold [ctisi, 
Teaemblanoe), having the form a[ a 
cyme ; ^moM, cynto'nu, ey'moiu, 
bearing cymes or relating to cymea ; 
~ QnA'al, one wit^ centrifugal in- 
floreacenoe ; Oy'mnle, a diminutive 
oyme or portion of one. 
Oju'Kttia, an alkaloid occnning in 

Atitmaa Cynapimn, Linn. 
OynuTliod'loii, -divm (niur, a dog ; 
^Uw, a roee), a fmit like that of 
the dog-rose, fleshy, holloir, and 
encloaing achenes. 
Or'on, Qraw'a Bpelling of Cion := EIcion . 
cypant'oMnu [C^fwru«,-f aoeous), re- 
lating to sedges, from the typical 
genua Oyperat. 
0;nptwl'U (tv^t, bent), "collections of 
Bonidia in the form of cnps " 
(Lindley) ; Oyphal'Ua, orbicular 
fringed spots like dimples, nnder 
the thallus of Lichens ; cyptMl'late, 
marked with CyphellM. 
Oyp'Mla (kuiI'i'Xt), a box), an aohene 
invested by an adnat« calyx, as 
the fruit of Compoaitae. 
Oyr'rhiu^CiBitHns, at«ndril. 
Oyrt, Cytt'is (iruuTii, a cavity), (1) a 
sac or cavity, usually applied to a 
structure whose nature la donbtfnl; 
(2) all cells of non-seinal origin in 
greeo Algae which reproduoe the 
plant b^ germination after a reat< 
mg penod as resting spores, hyp- 
noepores, chronosporeB, aplano- 
sporea, akinetes (F, Gay) ; Cyat'a J 
Neoker's lerra for a berry with dry, 
membranous envelope, as in Fasti- 
flora; Oyst'ld, a proposed emenda- 
tion for Oystld'lnm ; ( 1 ) large, one- 
oelled, eomatiniea intUtted bodiea. 


projecting beyond the basidia and 
paraphytea of the hymeniam of 
Anrios, of nnknown function ; (2) 
^Utriolb ; Oyaf oblast {pkaarit, a 
■hoot), cited by Crozier for Crn>- 
bLlABT ; Oyaf ocvp Cystocarp'mm 
{taprit, fmit), a sporophore in 
Algae, etpeeially Florideae, a cyst 
oontaining sexually produced 
■porea; OrsfoUtb (Xf^ot, stone), 
mineral ooncretiona, uanally of 
calcium carbonate on a. cellulose 
stalk, occurring ahiefiy in special 
oellB of the Urticaceae, as in Ficiu 
dattifa, Roib.; Cyat'opliore {^piu, 
I carry), the same as Ascofhobb ; 
Oyifoaore Cyelom'nu {lupoj, a 
heap), a group of restiog-Bpcres 
within a cell as in Woronina ; 
Orat'oipare ( aro/A, a seed ) = 
Cakpobpo&e (Straaburger) ; Oyst'- 

nlft^ClSTULA, ClSTEU^, 

Cy'tase (nVot, a hollow veaael), an 
enEjme fonnd in germinating seeda 
which hydrolf ees cellnloae ; Cytaa'- 
tar (iirHi/i, a atar), a seriea of 
achromatic raya from each pole of 
the nncleue into the cytoplaam in 
karyokineais (Crozier) ; Oytetl- 
oli'yina (fvx''f'i "^ infusion), 
vacuolar sb^cture iu cells, fluid 
which separates from protoplasm 
a* vaonoles (Croiier) ; Cr'ttoderm 
{Nfipa, skin), the cell-wall in Diato- 
maceae (Crozier). 

Oyt'Ulne, an alkaloid occurring in the 
genus Cytistu. 

Oy^toblast (Eu'riH, a hollow vessel ; 
ptioaTit, a shoot), (1) Schleiden's 
name for the cell-nucleus ; {2j a 
colony of bioblasta which have lost 
their independent existence ; cf. 
BioBLAST ; CytoUaate'raSi, the 
formative material in which cells 
are produced, and by which thay 
are held in union ; protoplaam ; 
O/todM, (1) cella; (2) nuclear 
elements in which the caryoBomes 
are not gronped into nuclei (Vail- 
lemin) ; Cyhxller'eali {Siaiptnt, 
diviaion), cell- division with nuclear 
division, and formation of a nuc- 
lear-spindle and asten (Crosier) ; 

Ojitog'uiif (yd/wt, msninge), tbe 
union of cells ; Ojtogen'etli lytftiiti, 
beginning), origia aiiil develop- 
ment of celU ; lomcttmeB written 
Cytiogenegia ; cftogonet'lc, per- 
taining to cell-farmatioij ; cytos*- 
snODB, having connective tissue ; 
Cyto'Bsny - CvronESEsiB : Cyto- 
liy'droll^t (Mop, w«tor; XiJffit, a 
loosing), on enzyme which atlAcka 
&nd breaks up the cell-wall by 
hydrolysis ; Oytob/ftloplAam ( + 
HyaloplasDi), Irho protoplasm of 
the cell, apart from any granules 
or foreign matter ; Cy't^t (Aujis, 
■ loosing), an enzyme which dia- 
aolvei the oell-wall ; cytolyt'ic, of 
a ferment bo acting ; Cytol'ogy 
(\0701. disoonree), the science of the 
coll. its life hLatory, nuclear divi- 
sions and development ; adj. 
cjtolos'iD, cytoloe'leml ; CyWnH'- 
GroaomSB iu'irpii, small ; awiui. a 
body), the granulea or mioroBomcB 
imbeddeil in the cell- pro toplaam ; 
Cy'toplum {rXds^a, moulded), the 
general protoplasm of the eel! 
(6tra«burger) ; C/topIftst, the cyto- 
plaam as ik nnit, in contraat to the 
nucleus ; CytopUtt'ln, a proteid 
which apparently forma the bulk 
of the Cytoplasm ; Cy'tosomffll 
(tfuua, B body], Vuillemin's name 
for the granules of call-protopluuu ; 

d&CITOl'deiti [SiKpv, a tear ; tISot, 
resemblance), used for pear-shaped 
fmit, oblong and rounded at one 
end, pointed at the other. 

ilactyU'naB(Siijn'i;X»T,afiDger), divided 
like fingers ; DaotjrlorM'ui (^'^n, 
root), the forking of roots ; dac'- 
tylOM, 'itflylo'm", fingered, or 

daed'aleon*, datd'aleiu {Lnt, = skilful 
craft). (1) the apex of a leaf irregu- 
larly jagged, though 

icii'yma (fyx'. . 

raitde up of entangled 

DBh'Une, a aubsttuice resembling 
Btarch from the tubers ot the genua 

Born'mar, a transparent resin from 
Ai/athii loranthifolia Salisb., for- 
merly named Dammara orienliUis, 

Damp'lng, a cultivator's term for 
premature decay in plaQts, especi- 
ally young seedlings, attributed to 
Bxceaa of moisture. 

Dapb'DlD, the bitter principle of 
Da/'hiK Maereum, Linn. 

Darwin. Mr Ksiqiit-Dabwin I^w. 

Darwlii'Un Cnrr'ature, the bending 
induced W the irritation of any 
foreign Bubataoce close to the apoi 
of lbs root. 

date-Ehaped, resembling a date in 

dM3rpiiyii'oni, ■In/' (fctitiH, thick ; 
^iWar, a leaf), (1) thick-leaved ; (-2) 
leaves thickly set ; (3) with woolly 

Datli'dn, a substance having the 
appearance of grape - suj^r. first 
obtained from Daliwa caaiiabina, 
Linn. ; it has been used as a yellow 

Datn'riae, an alkaloid of DaCura 

DaDgh'ter-cellB, young cells derived. 
from the division of an older one, 
the mother-cell ; ^ Cliro'moioiue, 
a aecondary chromosome, derived 
from division of the original;'-' 
Skein, stages in nuclear division 
when the chroiDatin is more or less 
in a reticulate condition ; further 
dislioguished by some observen 
into "loose" or "close";- Spore, • 
spore produced immediately from 
another or upon a promycelium i" 
Star, one of the granpa of chromatio 
tilsnients at the poles of a dividing 
nucleus; the two together with the 
connecting spindle constituW the 
" Dynater" stage. 

Day-poiition, the pose asBumed by 
leaves during the day, iu oontra- 
diatinctioa to that taken for the 

imiTMe, dtalba'tiiJt (Ut., white- 




LlnpBMi utiSoikI order of pUnta 
with tan pistiU ; dMM(7ll'l»ll, 
daoKff'ynoiu, having t«n itylei or 
oarpeli ; dNun'eroiu, duam'tnt* 
(/i^pol, a shkra], in tens ; ]}«oui'dll« 
[ii^p, irSpii, a Dun), a Linnean 
artifioial olaai, of plants with ten 
•tameiu ; dwmi'djian, dMau'droiu, 
-rtti, hBTing ten slAmeiu ; deoapet'- 
aloni, 4tt* {riroKer, a flower-leaf), 
Kith ten petali ; dMap&jU'au, 
(#iIXAm>, a leaf), with tea laavei or 
•egmanti ; daoiol'iitu {ippv', male), 
Neoker't t«nD for ten atainaiia and 
ona pietil ; dwaMp'kloni -Itu (+ 
Skpalum) with (an npala ; deeu- 
penn'al (vrip/ia, a se«d), haring 

dWMHidenfata {decern, ten ; dent, 
litnlit, a tooth), having ten teeth, 
aa the oapsule of Cerattium; 
dwam'fld (Crozier), deoem'lldai 
[jid, the root of fido, I apUt), ten 
deft ; dMMnloonla'rli {loculni, m 
oompartment), with ten cella, aa an 

dwdd'notu, -uiu [decido, I fall doim), 
falliDS in aeaaon, a« petala fall 
after noweriDg,orleaTea m antumn, 
erergreena eToepted ; Dedd'tunu- 
B«M, the qnalitj of falling onoe a 

dMUnate, dtdina'tui (I>t. turned 
aaide), bent or curved downward or 
forward ; daell'iud, diraoted ob- 

SMOIaiiTa'tlon, Decolora'tio (Lat.). 
abaeooe of colour ; deoolora'tn* 
(lAt.), diaooloorod, diaeharged of 
oolonr, oolourleea. 

dWNon'paund, lUeompo^Uwi (Lat.), 
•everal timea divided or com- 

dOMltl'oatod idtcortkaiio, barking), 
deprived of bark ; DMMitlca'tlon, 
■tripping off bark. 

dtore'aaliicly pimi'ate, where leaflela 
dimioiah in aiae tioM the bate up- 

AMiim'bant, -tm (L«t. reoliniDg], r*- 

olining, but with the aummit aa- 
daoni'rBUt, deeta'rtiu (Lat.}, rannins 
down, aa when leavea are prolonged 
beyond their ioaertion, and tbna 
ran down the stem; deenr'alTa, 
dtcvraCwt (decurnu, a de«oent) = 
DaouRBUiT ; deenr'alTelj pln'oato, 
the leaf aeemingly pinnate, bat the 
leaOete decurrent alonl " -■--■- 

pain alternately at 
right angiea ; Seoaiia'tton, oro«- 
ing by p^ir* of leavea. 

MdonUament (Fr.), doubling, = 

Dednplloa'Uon (Fr. d«dnplication), 
a aynon jm of the laat. 

daTerwit {d^ro, I bring down), ood- 
veying anytbing downward. 

deftneif Bliooti, thoae produced by 
buda which have remained long 

definite, (Ufini'lva {dejiniu, pre- 
oiaelv), (1) precise ; (2) of a certain 
number, ae of atamenB not eioeed- 
ing twenty ; (3) applied to in- 
floreaceuce it meana cymoae ; ~ In- 

in a Sower ; daflu'itlve Mn'oleua, a 
reault of the f uaion of one nucleos 
each from the micropylar ajid 
chaUzal ends of the embryo aac. 

dellx'ed, defi-tftm (Ut- faatened) = 

daflect'ed, <fe/«x'iii (I^t. bent aaide), 
bent or turned abruptly down- 
ward* ; deBaxMl', bent outwarda, 
the opposite of mfleied ; DeOa^lon, 
turned downwards, 

deSo'rata, defiora'Ciu (Lat.j, past the 
fiowering atate. 

dellow'er, to deprive of flowera. 

deO'uent(Xjat. tUfliitng), flowing down. 

defoliate, d^olia'tiu (Mid. Lat.), 
havioft cast ita leave* ; DefoUa'tloil, 
tbe act of shedding leavea. 

Detgima'tloti {di/ormii, misshapen), a 
malformation or alteration from 
the normal aense ; deformed', die- 
figared, distorted ; Dafbrm'lty, De- 
/ormitaa (lAt.), an unahapely 

Degmd&'Uon {lUgredior, I deacend), 
leas highly differentiated, ainipler 
fltruotures taking tbe place af more 
elaltomte -.^lower in function, re- 
trograde metamorphoais, or h bats- 
bolic change, oomplex iiibetancen 
resolving into simpler ; — Prodnct. 
the result of katabolJBiii, aa muci- 

deblice' [dekiaco, I yawn], to open 
BpontAneouBly when ript), aa seed 
capeulea, etc, ; Dehli'cence, Dr- 
hifrtal'ui. the mode of opening of a 
fruit capsule or anther by vnlnes, 
elita or pores ; deUa'cent. dehis'ctni, 
detda'cing, split ting into definite 

DehyOra'tion (lie, privative ; Mup, 
nster). depriving of water ae a by the uae of alcohol, 
or cslctc chloritle. 

Italimltti'tlaii (Late Lat. delimiian), 
□Bed for Abjunction; cutting olT 
by a preciee limit. 

dallqvei'cuit, -eiu (Lat. melting 
nwayl, dinsolviag or melting away, 
SM {!{ when the stem loses iUelf by 
repeated branuhing ; or (3) when 
certain Agatios become fioid at 

DcUq'ulum :;: iMiquae. wanting) - 

emarginate (LJndley). 
Del'pUne. an alkaloid present in 

Delphinium Srafthieagri'i, Linn, 
delta-leaved (ieXro, the fJrsak letter 

ij, having triangular Itaves. 

dsl'told, ddtoi'drs. ■•Uiu [lUot, re- 

Beinblani:e). shaped like the (Jreek 

A ; an equilateral triangle. 
demened'. ii«incr'«M (Lat. plunged 

under), under water, eapecially of 

a part constantly submersed. 
demla'soi (Lat,), hanging down, 

Dena'rll I (Lat.) = ten together 

den'diiroim {t^rSpor. a tree ; fomia, 

shape) - DBN DHOiDi dendrtt'lo 


-fciM, -leal, having a branched ap- 
pearance, OS the tirotlae of Lichens, 
etc, : Dendri'tes, cellulose in crys- 
tals: Dendrlo-Uiainiio'des, with thal- 
lus branched as a bush, as the Rein- 
fio^T Lichen, Cladonia ra>ig\frrina, 
Hoffm. ; den'drold, dtndroi'da, den- 
dmi'dtM (diet, resemblance), tree- 
like, in form, or branching ; Den'- 
droUte {^IBoi, sKinel, a foasil tre« ; 
Dendrol'OElat (Xilo^i, discourse), one 
nkiUeJ in the knowledge of trees ; 
Dendrology, the study of trees. 
denl (Lat,), liy tens, ttn together, 
den'tgrate. Hciaip-a'tiia (Lat,), bhwlt- 

1 for 

DenUen, H. C. Watson's 
plants BUBpectod of foreifin origin, 
though maintaining their plooe, as 
rio^ odonUa, Linn. 

Deua (Lat.), a tooth; deu't^ta, deii- 
ta'tui (Lat.), toothed, especially 
with salient teeth directed for- 
ward; dsnta'to-creiM'to - cbenato- 
DbiNTATTiH ; ~ laclDia'tiu, with 
toothings irregularly eitendod into 
long point i~Bena,'ta*, the tooth- 
ings tapered and pointed forward ; 
Daut'lols, a small tooth (Crosier). 

dentfc'ulate, deittioda'tiu, minutely 
toothed i Dentleula'tlont, small pro- 
cesses or teeth ; dent'Uonn ( forma, 
shape), J. Smith's eifuivalent for 
toothed ; deo'told (dSsi, form), 
tooth -ab aped. 

denn'dat«, (isriii'ia'(u.*(Lat.), stripped, 
made bare, or naked. 

dwpera'nlate. dtoperciila'tiif {fie, oper- 
ridain, a lid); (I) when the oper- 
culnm of a Moks does not separate 
spontaneou sly from thesporophore ; 
(■21 having lost the operculum. 

deor'suin (Lat. from dt, down, itTinu 
turned towards), downward. 

depanp'erate, dtpaitptra'lua (Lat.), 
impoverished as if starved, re- 
duced in function, 

dep'lanate, drplami'iu* (Lat.), flat- 
t«ned or expanded. 

depend', dspeu'dent, (J«/>sn'cfetu(Lat.) 
' i^ing d 



wall, more or less covering it, in 
Tarioos forms. 

depres'sed, depres'stu (Lat.), sunk 
down, as if flattened from above ; 
deiirMi'o-tni]ica'tiiB=RBTnsB; Da- 
prei'sio (Lat.)) a pressing or sink- 
ing down, a little hollow ;^dor- 
aalis, a depression in the spores of 
some Affarics extending along the 
back of the spore ;'~]il]a'riB, a 
similar depression, but of less ex- 
tent, above the hilum (Fayod). 

dtrsgnla'riB t {de, opposed ; regvlaris 
in order), between regular and ir- 
regular (Lindley). 

D«ilTatiTe Hyinldi, those sprung 
from a union of a hybrid, and one 
of its parent forms or another 

Dtr'ma {d4pfia, Sepfmros, skin), surface 
of an organ, bark, or rind ; Derma- 
calypt'rogen (iraXvirrpa, a veil; 
'yei'ra(i;,Ibringforth), Schwendener's 
term for a common histogen which 
produces root-cap and root-epider- 
mis in Phanerogams ; derm'al, relat- 
ing to the outer covering ; ^ Tis'sue, 
the substance of the epidermis and 
periderm; dermati'niiB, applied to 
those plants such as Lichens, which 
live on bark or epidermis ; der- 
mafioid {eUoSf form), skin-like in 
function or appearance ; Derm'ato- 
cjBt, Dermatocys^tia (iru(rr», a bag 
or pouch), inflated hairs on the sur- 
face of the sporophore of youns 
A^puics ; Dermat'ogen (yeyyaw, I 
bring forth), the meristem forming 
the layer of nascent epidermis ; 
primordial epidermis ; Dermat'- 
oikhsrte (0vr6y, a plant), any Fungus 
parasitic on the skin of man or 
other animals (Grozier) ; Dermat'- 
OBomes {(FufUL, a body), Wiesner's 
term for granular bodies in rows 
united and surrounded by proto 
plasm, which form the cell-wall 
Dermoblas'tUB (pXturrbt, a shoot) 
" the cotyledon formed by a mem 
brane that bursts irregularly' 
(S. F. Gray) ; Dermocalsrpt'rogen 
see Dkrmaoalyftboobm. 

A^acmA'tnStdeseen'dena (Lat.), tending 

ffradually downwards ; (1) as the 
branches of some trees ; (2) as the 
roots ; '^ Az'is, the root system ; 
/^Metamorph'osiB, substitution of 
organs of a lower mAef as stamens 
for pistils, petals for stamens, etc. ; 
^ Bap, formerly applied to the 
Cambium ; Descen'sus X = Root. 

Deaar'tion of Host = Lipoxeny. 

deslnens, Dennen'tia (Lat., ceasiag), 
ending in, the manner in which a 
lobe terminates. 

DesmoliiT'a (de<r/idT, a bond ; ppvov, a 
moss), a division of Ferns, where 
the fronds are adherent to the 
caudex ; <*/*. Errmobrya ; Des'- 
mogen (y^pwata, I bring forth), dis- 
tinguished as pri'mary^, the pro- 
cambium, or embryonic tissue from 
which the vascular tissue is after- 
wards formed ; or sec'ondaiy ^ , 
formed from the cambium, after- 
wards transformed into permanent 
vascular strands. 

deatmctlye Metab'QUam, those changes 
which take place during the waste 
of tissues ; ^ Par'asite, one which 
seriously injures or destroys the 

detect^UB (Lat., laid bare) = naked. 

deter'mlnate, deUrmina'tus (Lat., 
bounded), definite ; '^ Orowth, 
when the season's growth ends with 
a bud ; '^ Inflores'cence, when it 
ends with a bud, as in cymes ; Da- 
termina'tion, -cUio, the ascertaining 
the names and systematic position 
of plants, identification. 

Denterog'amy (Scvrcpot, the second ; 
ydfMSf marriage), peculiar nuclear 
fusions in certainGryptogam8,8iiper- 
posed upon and subsequent to the 
sexual act (P. Groom) ; Deutero- 
plas'ma {rXdurfia, moulded) = Para- 
plasm ; sometimes contracted into 
Dent'oplasm ; Dauterostroph'ies 
(orpo^, a twist or turn), spirals 
of a third degree in the develop- 
ment of leaves. 

Deyel'opment, the eradual extension 
of the parts by which any organ or 
plant passes from its beginning to 
its maturity. 


S«Tla'tioii, probabla, Galton' 

for i>rol)able variation. 
Dew-le&TeB, leaves which slope up' 

wardij, BO that dew is ooUeotrd. 
dex'tml. ao unuaunl ruo(lific3atiaD of 


. the 

right band) ; Dextrin, a anbalKDce 
produued during (he traneformaliDn 
of ■taroh into sugar, said to be of 
two toimi : — AcQRooDEXTttiN und 
Ahtlodbxthin ; IWx'trliiBis, an 
enzyme stated to be present in 
dieMuetWfstnan): dei'trone. rfe.c- 
fror'siM (troni itthiw, turned to- 
wards), towards the right hand ; 
dsi'tTOT'Biuii TOln'bUlB fLat.). twin- 
ing townrda the right ; Dez'trase, 
glucose, or fruit sugar, it turns the 
plane of polarization to the right ; 
c/. Leviiuisk ; dez'tn-ra'tatoiy, 
taming towards the right. 

dl-. dli*, in Greek coinpouuds=two, 
or double. 

Dl&Qlie'ulmD {Si, two, -)- Acheninm), or 
Dlaks 'nlam ^Chbhocarp. 

Dlach'yma {li&, throueh ; X''l^ '• liba- 
tion). Link's term hir Mesoi'iivll. 

Dlftdel'pMafdi.two; dlcX^i.a brother), 
a Lincoac class having the stamens 
in two bundles or brotherhoods ; 

dladelph'tan, diadelpli'ons. -im, -kiis, 
with two groups of stamens, 
diad'romous {iii. through ; Spdimi, 
conrael. applied to a fan-shaped 
venation, as in Gitigko l/ilol'a. Linn. 
dlageotrop'lc IyS, the earth: rpoi-ot, 
a turn), a modified form of geotnip- 
isni, the organs placini; thunjselves 
in a horizontal position, as thouah 
opposing forces wero neutralised ; 
Dlageofropisni. the state juat de- 
scribed: Dlagiio'ala(ypiIifri<, wisdom), 
a brief distinguishing character ; 
dlag'onal (yuFi'a, an^e). a mean 
betwesn two forces, a compromiae 
of position ; ~ Plane, in a Hower. 
an<; vortical piano which is not 
anl«ro- posterior (front to back) or 
lateral (side to side) i ~ Poslt'loa, 
one intermodiaCe between median 
and lateral : ~ Sjrm'metry. applied 
to the valves of Diitoma when the 
torsion ainounte to 130° ; Dl'agram 

itfiatiliii. an outline), see FlobaIi 
DiahraM ; DlAliellOt'rOpiKnl (fXioi, 
the sun; rporot. a turn), orowth 
more or less horizontal, under the 
influence of light, as when leaves 
place themselves at right angle* 
lo incident light ; adj., dlahellot- 

<UAl7C«rp'lc(3'aXi^u,Idisband ; naprbt, 
fruit), having a fruit composed of 
distinct carpels : tHal7des'iny( Itafiii, 
a bandl, the breaking op of a stele, 
into separate bundles, each with 
its own endodermis ; Dlalypet'alAa 
(BfTaXof. n Bower-leaf), Endlichar'a 
equivalent for the Poltpetalab of 
JuiBieu : diaiypet'aloQi, poly- 
peUlous ; dlalyptiyll'ona (^uXXov, a 
Ieaf>, bearing separate leaves ; dlk' 
lysep'alouB ( + Sefalpm), bearing 
separate sepsis ; DIal'jils, the 

separation of parta normally in 
one, especially parts of the same 
whorl ; Dialyste ly {arjXif, a post), 
s variation of Volvstklt. in which 
the separate steles remain for the 
most part separate during their 
longitudinal course. 

diameEo^amons (3ii, through, itiirat, 
middle, yiims, marriage), fertiliza- 
tion by the means of some external 
agent, as wind or insects ; DlA- 
meaog'uny, the condition just de- 

DiBn'drla (Sit, two, iylip, irSpit, a 
man), a Linnean class with plants 
of two stamens ; dian'drlan, dlui'- 
droua, -re. (diandrr), possessing 
two stamens. 

dlapli'uiouB, -iM {iti. through. <lialrv, 
I show), permitting the light to 
shine through ; also written dlo- 
ph'auaj X : Slapb'ery (ipipv, I bear), 
the calycine aynthesis of two 
flowers (Morren] ; Dl'apbTaKm 
(^fWtfru, I enclose), a dividing mem- 
brane or partition, as (1) the con- 
striction in the neck of the nacale 
in Chara, from the inward projec- 
tions of the segments ; (2) the 
transverse septa in the stem of 
E:iaiselum or of grasses : (3) the 
layer separating the prothallium 



from the cavity of the maoroepore 
in Vasoular Cryptogams ; dia- 
phsrlloiis (0t;XXor, a leaf) = dia- 
LYPHTLLous; Diaph'yids (<pdw, to 
make grow), proliferation of the 

dl'iroh {Sis, two, dpx^, beginnioff), 
two protoxylem groups, used of we 
steles of roots; dIari'nnB {dp/rn^t 
male), Necker's term for dian- 

IM'aBtaae {Udirraffu, standing apart), 
an amylolytio enzyme which con- 
verts starch into malt-sugar ; '^ 
of Translooa'felon, attacks starch 
grains gradually over their whole 
surface, it is almost universallv dis- 
tributed in plants ;««' of Seorrtion, 
acts by corrosion, attacking parts 
of the starch-grain first ; it is 
formed by the glandular epithelium 
of the scuteUum of grasses; adj. 

IM'aBter (dif, two, el^r^p, a star) see 

Diast'ole {SiaffToK^f separation/, the 
slow dilation of a contrac*^'\ vesicle ; 
q/l Systolb. 

DUtbetm'anoy (did, through, ^ep/xairw, 
I warm), the relative conductivity 
of a medium with ^^Ard to the 
transmission of heat (T. W. Engel- 

diatoma'oeons, resembling or consist- 
ing of diatoms whose type is JXa- 
tama; Dl&t'omlne, the colouring 
matter of Diatoms, phycoxanthine ; 
Diat'omist, one devoted to the 
study of Diatoms ; maVomphile 
(0cX^b;, I love), an enthusiastic 
student of Diatoms. 

diatrop ic (did, through, rpiiwoi^ twin- 
ing), used of organs which place 
themselves transversely to the 
operating force. 

dlbof ryoid {pUy double, + botryoid), 
a compound inflorescence, the 
branches of the first and succeed- 
ing orders being botryoid, such as 
the compound umbel, panicle, or 

Dloar'otin (dtf, twice, + Carotin), a 
lipochrome pigment ; dlcarp'eUaiy 

(ica/>irdf, fruit), composed of two 
carpels or pistil-leaves. 

dlclia^sial (dixcirb;, I disunite), re- 
lating to a DicHAsiUM ; '■^ Gymea, 
cymes whose secondary members 
are dichasia, such as occur in 
EuphorbiaoeaB ; Dicha'sium, a false 
dichotomv in which two lateral 
shoots of nearly equal strensth 
arise from the primary axis betow 
the flower which terminates the 
apex, the process being repeated 
by each set of branches ; a two- 
parted or two-ranged cyme; dlch- 
ast'ic, spontaneously dividing ; 
dichlamyd'eonB (xXa/ij);, -xXafiAboi^ 
a cloak), having a double perianth, 
calyx and corolla; dichottUs'tic 
(^Xourrdt, a shoot), suggested by 
Celakovsky to replace '^dichoto- 
mous" when the repeated dicho- 
tomy develops into a sympodium ; 
dlchog'amous (dt'xa, in two, ydfjMs, 
marriase), hermaphrodite with one 
sex earlier mature than the other, 
the stamens and pistils not syn- 
chronizing ; Diidioff'amy, insuring 
cross-fertilization, by the sexes not 
being developed ■imultaneously. 

Blahotcarp'ism (dixoro/t^o;, I cut in 
two, KaproSf fruit), Cooke's term 
for Funsi producing two distinct 
forms of fructification, dimorphic 
as to fruit ; diohoVomal, pertaining 
to a bifurcation, as a '^ Flow'er, one 
seated in the fork of a dichasium ; 
dlchot'omize, to fork or divide in 
pairs ; dlchot'omous, -us, forked, 
parted by pairs ; f^ Gjrnie, of English 
authors =DiCHAi^inM ; Dichotomy, 
the state of being repeatedly forked; 
- Del'iooid '^, m each successive 
forking, the branch which continues 
to develop is on the same side as 
the previous one, the other branch 
aborts; False '^, = Dichasium; 
Scorp'ioid '^, the branches %Le- 
velop on each side alternately ; 
Dichot'ypy (rOroi, a type), the oc- 
currence of two different forms of 
the same orgau on the same stock. 

Blcle'siam {Sis, twice, /cX^if , closing), 
an achene within a separate and free 


oOTAring of perianCfa, &« MirobUia ; 
dt'cUnoiu (Sit, two, iXIt^, a bed), 
aaisexua], havinB the stanieiil in 
CDS llowdr, imd the piatiU in 
BDOlher ; Dl'dlnUm, the aepara- 
tion of pollcD and Bligma in apace, 
aa dichogamy ia in time. 

havJDg fruit of two Cooci; dloae'IooB 
(loiAoi, a hollow), with two cavi- 
ties ; Wcot'ylB, hd abbreviation 
for IHMtfledo'aeKe, Dlcotyla'doiu 
(i«/Tt'\-ijii!ir, cup'Shaped bollow. nsed 
for seed-lobe), plants of the class 
denoted by their possession of two 
ootjleduns ; dlooQ'Ia'donaaB, - niu, 
having a pair of seed-lobes. 

dlMroa'Tomoni (Sinriov, a net, 
ipiliot, a coarse), with reticulata 
venation j Dto'troseos (y4n-aui, I 
bring forth), planls having netted 
veins, proposed byLindl(>f as inter- 
mediate between his En dim BN a and 
ExMiENs i dictfog'anoas, applied to 
monocotyledons with netted veins ; 
~ lAy'er, a lay erof meristeni general 
in monoootyledons, which gives 
rise to the central "body" r>nd 
cortex of the young roots (Man- 

dl^cUo(8Ii, two. K6t\at, a circle). (I) 
when a series of orgaus is in two 
whorls as a perianth ; (2) appliad 
to biennials ; OlcT'nuwe {kPiui, a 
wave), doubly cvmose ; dld'romlc 
{ipi^tt, coarse), doubly twisted, ae 
the awns in Danlkmiia, Sfijia, etc. ; 
Dld'romy, donble torsion. 

dia'ymoii«,-U'<(5(Juf«ii, twin), (I) found 
in |iain<, as the fruits of Umbolli- 
ferse ; {■!) divided into two iobesi 
~An'tben, whsn the two lobes are 
almost doetitnte of connective. 

Didyna'mla 4 Sit, twice, t6raiM, 
power), a Liunean class marked by 
didynamous flowers ; dldyna'mlia 
dldyn'amDDS, four- stamen ed Uower, 
with stamens in pairs, two long, 
two short, aa in most Labiatae. 
Dtdy'aamy, the condition above 

Dieres'Ula, DieresU'l» {Siaipi<.i, I 

divide), Mirbel's name for Car- 

OBRtn.1 ; adj, dlenau'lan. 
DWtaentla'Uoii, of Cell-wall, the 

arising of apparent layers; ~ of 

Tissues, their development into 

permaoent tiesoe and conacquent 

diverse growth. 
auriutlitidijlii'tui. dissolving), having 

Ibe power to (lissolve, or reftdily 

ilBoimti.', diforra'U {tii,\pnTt. forma, 
ah ape), of unusual formation or 
shape ; IHfform'ltu ( Lat. ), an 

durraot'. difracUiia (Ut., broken), 
broken into areolae separated by 

dliruse',ifi/>i'nM(Lat., spread abroad), 
widely or loosely spreading j — 
CoVonr, a colour which has "run" 
into the surrounding tissues ; 
mm'slaii, ( I ) term used by H'eisner 
for the intermingling of different 
gases nnder equarprossure, with or 
without intervening partitions ; (2) 
mixture of fluids, or dispersion of a 
fluid through a solid or tissue. 

dlgr'amoua, -im (Jit, twice, yiii^, 
miirriage), having the two sexes in 
the same clutter ; as in Com- 

^^enous (te. two. yiym, offspring), 
containing boih aexes. or produoed 
sexually ; dlgreaat'ic, aexual. 

Dlfreat'ive PoclCet (or Bac), an invest- 
ment of the secondary rootlets, 
which penetrate the tissues of the 
primary root till they reaoh the 

m^ltaiiiu, an alkaloid contained in 
Digilaii* fmrpurta, Linn. 

di^llata, digita'liui [liiyUtu, a finger), 
fingered: a compound leaf in which 
all the leaflets are borne on the apex 
of the petiole, oa in the Horae- 
Chestnut ; ~ pln'sats, when the 
teaSeta of a di^itBte leaf are 
pinnate ; dlglta'tely, in ■ digitat« 
manner : digltalUorm'li {jorTna, 
shape), shaped like a linger, as the 
corolla of the Foxglove \ dl«ltlliH'- 
T-ln* (nsr™, a nerve), when the 
secondary nervea of a leaf diverge 



from the summit of the main 
petiole, str&iffht ribbed; IMg'itiis, 
a measure oi about 3 inches in 
length, or 8 cm. ; digita'Ufl, a finger- 

dlg'onoufl (8ls, two, yufvlaf an angle), 
two-angled, as the stems of some 
cacti (Crozier); Digyn'la (yvp^i, a 
woman), a Linnean class, with a 
gynaeciumof two pistils ; dlgyii'lan, 
dlg'ynoiis, with two separated styles 
or carpels. 

dilaoera'tOB t (Lat.), torn asunder, 

DUamina'tlon {dis, apart, kunina, a 
thin plate), the separation of a 
layer from a petal, like or unlike it 
in form ; chorisis. 

dila'ted, dtla'tus (Lat., widened), ex- 
panding into a blade, as though 
flattenra, like the filaments of 

dllep'ldus X {^^i t.wo, X6t2$, Xer/dof , 
scale), consisting of two scales. 

dilu'tus (Lat. thinned) of a pale tint. 

dimer'lc, dim'erous, -ni«(dh, two, At^pdf, 
a share), with two members in each 
part or circle. 

dlmld'late, dimidia'tus (Lat., halved), 
(1) halved, as when half an organ 
is so much smaller than the other, 
as to seem wanting ; (2) used of the 
calyptra of Mosses when split on 
one side by the growth of the 
theca; dimldla'to-corda'tus, when 
the larger half of a dimidiate leaf 
is cordate. 

dlmorplilc, dimorpli'oiis (dis, twice, 
fiop<p^t shape), occurring under two 
forms ; UmorjOi'iMm, the state of 
presenting two forms, as long or 
short-styled flowers in the same 

dimo'tus (Lat., separated), somewhat 
remote from. 

Uodang'iam (d^odos, a passage, dyyetov, 
a vessel). Van Tieghem's term for 
sporangium inVascular Cr3rptogams 
and Bryophytet. 

Bl'ode {SI060S, a passage), Van Tieg- 
hem's term for a reproductive bodv 
Seculiar to vascular plants whicn 
evelops into a rudimentary body 

or prothallium, the transition be- 
tween the rudimentary and adult 
stages; </. Isodiodt, Hstbro- 
DIODT ; Dl'odogo&e (701^, ofibpring). 
Van Tieffhem*s term for a sporan- 
gium which produces diodes in 
Phanerogams, the embryo sac and 
pollen sac; Di'odophytes {<f>vr6iff a 
plant), vascular plants (Van Tieg- 

Dioe'da(d2f, two, oIkos, a house), a Lin- 
nean class of plants with unisexual 
flowers; dloec'ian, dioecious, uni- 
sexual, the male and female ele- 
ments in different individuals; 
dioaclo-dimorpli'ous, heterogenous; 
dioec'lo - polyg'amous, when some 
individuals bear unisexual flowers, 
and others hermaphrodite ones ; 
Dloec'ism, the condition of beins 
dioecious; dloi'coas, a spelling used 
by bryologists for dioboious, the 
male and female organs on separate 

diopIi'annB = diaphanous. 

ZM'oamose, Diosnio'sis (did, through, 
&afios, a pushing), the transfusion 
of liquid through membrane. 

dlpef alous, 'U8 {dU, two, x4ra\ov, a 
flower-leaf), having two petals ; 
dipbyll'ous, 'U8 (^XXoy, a leaf), 
having two leaves; dlplanetlc 
(xXdyof, roaming), relating to Di- 
PLANETiSM; Dlplan'etLsm, double- 
swarming ; in certain genera allied 
to Saprolegnia the zoospores escape 
from their sporangium destitute of 
cilia, come to rest in a cluster each 
forming a cell-wall, and after some 
hours the protoplasmic contents of 
each spore escapes, acquires cilia 
and active movement. 

Diplecolo'beae (dt;, twice, tX^/cw, I 
fold, Xo/3of, a lobe), a sub-order of 
Cruciferae, the incurved cotyledons 
being twice folded transversely ; 
Dipleurogen'esls (xXeupd, the side, 
yiveffiif beginning), term used by 
L. H. Bailey for Bilaterality, as 
the type of animals ; c/. Centro- 


dlplo (dixXoof, twofold), in composi- 
tion =duplo. 


{SurXio!, twofold, 4- 
BiciLLiTs), bacilli which are com- 
poHed of two aetlB. or adhere in 
paira t IMplaliacte'ilft ( - DiPLO- 
SAOiLLiis) ; diplocftuleic'ena (lavlrs- 
renA, atem-producng), having aiea 
of the aecood order ; KplDCOC'cus 
( + Co«Trs), a coupled epherule or 
result of the oonjugBtion of two 
ceUa : dlplodilamyd'eons {x^i^M^, 
a. uloak) - dichlamydeooB ; having 
a double perianth. 
Dlplot (iirXo'ii, doubling], Link's tetn 

DlplOgMl'esIi (SiirXiio), twofold, 7EMim, 
a begimiiiig), doubling of parta 
normally aingle ; DlplopaTiato'ml 
( + PKRI3TOMA), with double periB. 
tome, applied to Moaaes : dlplMte'- 
monoiu ((mi/iiuv, a atamen), with 
■tamenH in twowborU, tboaeof the 
out«r whorl alternating with the 
petals, the inner whorl alternating 
with the last ; Dlplosle'maiiy, 
■tamens as jast described ; dlplos'- 
tic, Van Tiegham's terra for root- 
lets when the mother -root has 
only two xylem bundtea ; Dlplo- 
te'gla, -yin. -yiam {riyat, a oovering), 
a capsule or other dry fruit, in- 
TBited with an adnate calyx ; an 
inferior capsule ; dlploxyl'lo {^uXar, 
wood), used of vascular bundles in 
which the centrifngal part of the 
wood is secondary. 

Wp'tero-oecia'l* (8ii, two, wrtpor, a 
wing, iiijkIi, a, gall), galls produced 
by dipterous Ries ; dip'tarons.'iu, 
two-winged, having two wina-like 
procesBCB : iilpyre'nns(irupfjc, truit- 
ttonel, containing two stones. 

DlTOc'tlan Cells, ~ Corpua'Olei, ajn- 
onyma of PonH Cells ; 

Dtrect'-Hetamorph'oaia, the same aa 
I'ROOKKssivE Metamorphosis ; ~ 
Superpotlt'ion, the situation of 
accoaaory buds in an axil above the 
leading bud or that first formed 
(Crozier) ; dlrec'te • Teno'mis, a 
feather-veined leaf, where second- 

. axy ribs iprimaty veins) pass direct 

^fcom mid-rib to margin, digitiner- 
Vins; dlrMt'lng Lsu'cdte, = Timo- 

LBFCiTi ; dlrect'lve Bphaiu, - 


Dlrem'ption, Diremplio (Lat., 
separation), the occasional sep 
tion OF displacement of leaves. 

dlrl'nold, reBembling the apotbec 
of tht) genus Diriaa. 

dlaappetPlng, branching 

dlaanlo'nlate (rfi>. apart, ui-dfuifH, a 
joint), to separate at a joint, as the 
leaves in autumn- 

DUc. or Disk [dUc'tit, a qnoit), (1) 
development of the torus with- 
in the calyi or within the cor- 
olla and stamens ; (3) the central 
part of a uapitulum in Compositae 
OS opposed to the Ray ; (3) the 
face of any organ, in contradia- 
tinction U> the margin ; (4) certain 
marbinga in cell-walls, of circular 
outline; bordered pita; (G) the 
valves of diatoms when circnlar : (6) 
the base of a poIlininm;-^adlie'BlTe 
~. modified tendrils, as in Vilis 
htU.rophyUi, Thunb., ErcUta, etc.; 
dla'cifer (Lat.), diaclfe'rona {fero, I 
boar), diao-bearing, as the wood of 
conifers ; dli'olfonn, diactform'U 
(>i»->na, shape), Sat and circular, or- 
bicular ; disdg'eTons [gero, 1 bear), 
disc-bearing ; ~ Fnu'taleE, in Dia* 
tiOms those having valves more or 
leas circular in outline ; Dtsi'cocarp 
(dopTij, fruit), an aaeocarp in which 
the hymenium lies eiposed whilst 
the asci are maturing ; an apothe- 
cium : Uscocarp'iuin, a collection 
of fruits within a hollow receptacle, 
aa in many Rosaceae. 
dlsc'old dincofiUiiA {SiaKM, a quoit, 
tlSos, like), with a round thickened 
lamina, and rounded margins ; ~ 
Flow'art, those belonging to the 
disk, usually tubular florets ; ~ 
marking, see Disc, 5 : dlsco'ldal. 
dineoida'lin, orbicular; Dlscoll'- 
ohaiiei(-i- Licbenea), Wainio'stenn 
for DiauoMTCBTOUS Lichens. 
dla'color (Lat. of different colours), 
used when the two surfaces of a 
leaf are unlike in colour. 
Diacopod'lnm (ilffiot, a quoit, w-oCi, 
roJoi, a fool), a diao-shaped Sorat 


reoeptMle ; dWou, the Mine m 
di«eoi<t (Crosier). 
.. — ^., jjjCTfjij, (L*t., parted). 


I (L«t. from tlffimf), lee Diso ; 
Olwi'nlni (dim. of DUetu), the 
adventitioiu lobnlo of Hepatioae 
(Spnuw) ; dlao'tU, vord nsad by 
J. Smith u> expreae "on the 
turface of the frond, ■uperfloitd. " 

dlaeiTftleiu, -w [Sit, two+SiPALDii], 
of two Bspali. 

Bl^jiiiuj'tlali (^diijunelio, Beparatioi]) 
MB DiALTSis, Fission, Soldtion, 
Tarying degrees of aeparation in 
organ* ; A^^au^Un, Wonmin's 
' — '-ir a ■Dindle-ihaped oellnloai 
the gonidia it 

mik, see Disa Disk ia the more 
Ditul Bpalling in the oaae of Com- 
positae, aa ~ Ror'ata, ~ nov'atB, 
thoae oocarriDg on the central 
portion of the capitnlum of com- 
poaitae, not of the ra; (or margin) ; 

DUlooa'tlon {dU, apart, locu*, a place) 
= DiSFLACEMEKT ; dlHpeTC olate 
(operculum, a lid), deprived of the 
oover or lid. 

Uapenn'aiiB (Sit, double, sripua, a 
seed], twO'Bbeded. 

Dlapen'km {ditpeiwt. 

wind, birds, adheaioD to animala, 
etc ; in Oenn. , VerbreitDOgBmitteL 

Uipl'rem (J(t, two, + SPt&ui) a 
■tue in nuclear djviuon, aa in 
PaUolvm Iriqiielrum, 8w. which 
follows the Dyaster (Rosen). 

dlspl'roiia {III, double, artipa, a ooil), 
Spruoe'at«rinforthe elaters of Hepa- 
tioae which have double spirals. 

DUpla'oement, the abnormal situa- 
tion of an organ ; diremption. 

DUpoalViO [Lat., arraDgemeaC], the 
manner in which parts are ar- 
ranged, aa "disp. )" indicates 

deeply divided, or ont into many 

'tton [disstminalio, sowing), 
the ooQtrivancee by which ripe 
seeds are shed by the parent plant ; 
in Germ. , Anssast. 

Dtuep'lment, IHi»cpiinene«m (Lat., 
a partition), a partition in an ovair 
or pericarp, cansed by the ad- 
heaion of the sides of carpellary 
leaves ; spn'rlona ~ , a partition not 
having that orislo. 

dlMU'lent, diMieitas (Lat., flying 
apart), burBting asunder. 

dlailm'liiir IdUnmilii, unlike), when 
similar organs assume different 
forms in the same individnal, aa 
the anther* of Cruiia. 

Dlwocda'tton (dissocio^io, separation), 

dlat^ad = dls'tal {disto, I stand apart), 
remote from the place of attach- 
ment ; the converse of proximal ; 
dlst'ant, divans, when similar parts 
are not closely aggregated, in 

' opposition to approximate. 

Dlslea'sloii {diiiauiu, stretched out), 
swollen or bulging. 

DUteleol'ogy, defined by Haeckel aa 
ilesaneas ; for botanic usage 

see Dtsi 

dlrt'lclioni, -u« (Sitnxat, of two rows), 
disposed in two vertical ranks, as 
the florets in many srasaes. 

dlrt'lnct, dutinct'Ki (Lat., separate), 
separate from, not united. 

dlatno'tlla, ditlracti'lit (dUtrrKlu*, 
polled two ways), borne widely 
apart, as the anther-lobea in 

ditbe'Ml (Sit, two, e^KT,, a case), 
dlUM'eona, dithe'eut, of two cells, 
as most anthers ; ditrlcbot'ominu 
(r/nx5, threefold, t4;*ii, a oiilting), 
doubly or trebly divided. 

dlnr'nal, diur'ntu (Let., daily), oc- 

used for ephemeral ; ~ Bleep, = 


dlvar'loate, divarxca'Ins (Lat., spread 
asunder), extremely divergent. 

Dinrg'a&oe (, turning in 
diflftoreut direotiona), need when 


\ triv- 
ia' : Angle or~ , the angle between 
BuoceediDg organs in the same 
ipiral or vborl ; illTer'KenI, -ene, 
lUverK^lng. separating by degrees ; 
diyergliiBr'TlBS {ntrvia, a nerve), 
wilJi rudiBting main nerves. 
dlTsrstQar'auB , - dm (diKermta, contrary, 
/o«, jio™, a flower), with flowers 
of more than one kind ; dlver'tua, 
(1 ) variable (de CandoUe) ; (2) dilTor- 

DlTertlc'nluiii (Lat., a byeway). in 
Algae, a protoplasmio pratniaion, 
commuaicaling with the fuaed 
procarp cells and the placenta, 
>B in Orarilaria m'i/crvoides, Grev. 
dlTl'tted. divi'tiui (parted asunder), 
used where tobing or segmentatioo 
extendi to the base ; dlvlni'rBl 
(line), the line down the teeth of 
the peristome of a Moss, by which 
■^ the teeth split. 

Bfcbfeay (Sii, two, f/voi, a boat), where 
K BD autoeuioDB parasite may infest 
P two Bpeciee, but doea not need a 
I ohan^ of host to ensure its de- 
velopment (De Bary). 
Dodecagyn'ia (SwJfn, twelve, yvrii, 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 
with twelve piaCila ; dodeeag'rnouB, 
-niu, poaaeeeing twelve pistils or 
distiDct oarpeu ; dodecan'eroiu, 
■run (»«(»i, aabare),intwelve parts, 
ai in a cycle ; Dodecau'drlA (drJ)p. 
itipit, a man), a Linnean class of 
plants with twelve stamens ; 
dodacan'drUn. dadecan'draaa, -drm, 
o[ twelve stamens, DoimHlly (occa- 
aionally eitended to nineteen) ; 
dodeoapet'tdoui (Tr^oXor, a flower- 
leaf), with twelve petals, or less 
than twenty ; dodecarl'nns {ippnr, 
male), Necker's equivalent for 
Do'drgLUa |Lat., a npan], a full span, 
from thumb tip to extremity of the 
little flnger, about nine iuubes, or 
23 cm. ; dodraatalls, a span long. 
dolabra'tna (Lat, ), axed, or axe- 
abaped ; dolkb'rlform, dolabr\fonn'U 
(forma, ahaped), hatchet -shaped. 

doleUbim'lB {dolta, caaks, forma, 
shape), barrel -shaped. 

doUa'rlDi, dolia'tua (Lat.), < 

DoUcbone'ms (JoXJxoi, long, f>)*ia. a 
thread), the stage in nuclear divi- 
sion which immediately precedes 
synapsis in the formation of the 
reproductive cellN ; Dollobo'sli, 
retardation of growth in length 
(Czapek) : DoUebo'tmema, (rptjiia, 
free), a filiform cell which roptorea 
and sots free tha gemma of a Moss 

Doma'tla (Su^riot, a little house), 
modified protections for shelter- 
parasites (Tnbeuf). 

domesttDa'ted, thriving under culti- 
vation (Crozier). 

dor'maiit (dm^iem, sleeping), applied 
to parts which are not in autivo 
life, w " Buds, — Eyes, potential 
buds which normally do not shoot 
bat are excited to growth by 
special circumstances ; ~ Btata, 
the condition of a plant daring 
the winter, or when moctive from 

dor'sal, doTMi'lii {dorium, the back), 
relating to the bock, or attached 
thereto ; the surface turned away 
from the axia, which in the case of 
a leaf is the lower surface (NoTK. — 
This is reversed by some authors) ; 
~ Sn'tnre, the suture of a follicle 
or legume which il exterior to 
' : the midrib of a c«rpet) 

, I bear), borne on the 
back, 08 the sori on most Ferns ; 
dor'sUxed, donUx'ns IJxnx), fast), 
fixed on the back or by the 
bock ; doTslven'tiul (vtnter, the 
belly), used of an organ which has 
dorsal and ventral surfaces, as a 
leaf ; Donlventrol'lty, the condition 
of possessing upper and lower faces 
of an organ ; Dor'ium (lAt.), (1) the 
back, or parts of the flower which 
look to the outside ; (2) in Diatoms, 
in forma which are more or less 
lunately curved, the convex side of 
the girdle. 

Doti {1} raoepUclaa of oil io the 
l«av«B ; (2) piU in the oell-wftll ; 
dotted, poDotnred with dote ; •- 
Dooti, vesnli with piC-lika mark- 
iogi OD the walk ; ~ TU'nie ^ 


dmb'le, dv'pUx { 1 ) twice ; (2) used of 
flowara when the petali are mon- 
atroiuly ioorMaed at the expense 
of other orgam, eapeoially the 
•tamena ; ~ bMl'lag, producing a 
crop twice in the lame Beason ; 
DaOtTlag, the ume aa ohoriaii ; 
doubly, something repeated, aa ~ 
toothed, the teeth themaelvea being 

Down (1) toft pubeaoenoe; (2) the 
pappng of Buoh pUnU aa thiaClee ; 
down'7, pabeaoent, with fine soft 

Bn'outb (drapanilam. Mid. I^t.), 
a aynonym of Oniu Traftaoaath. 

DnMriilii*, > red lesmona anb- 
atance from " Dragon's Blood," 
mvdnoed by Daemmtompa Draco, 
' " Draeattta Draco, 


diMn, applied to attenuated shoola, 
diminiahed and etiolated, often 
inoreased in length. 

drep'tnUarm {S/^nrm, a sickle, 
forma, afaape], falcate (Crozier) ; 
Srepa'nlnm, a sickle-ahaped ovme. 

DAp-polnt, Drlp-Up, the aoaminate 
apex of a leaf, from whose point 
water aoon drips; Germ. TrSnfel- 

droop'lnc, inclining downwards, oer- 
nuouB, bnt not quite pendent. 

Drop'per, the jrouns bulb of a tolip, 
not of flowering Biie. 

Drop'plng-polnt - Dm p- point. 

dmpa'oaoua((fntpa.anolire, +aceouB), 
reaamblicg a Dbufk, posaesaing its 
oharsoter, or producing aimilar 
fruit; Dmpe, Z>ru'pa, a atone-frait 
such aa a plum ; — Spu'rioiu -• , any 
Seshy body enoloaing a stone ; 
Dm'pal, Dm'pelet, Drupt'ola, a, 
diminutive drupe, the fruit of the 
Blaobberry ia an aggregation of 
theae ; Ittnpe'tnm, a cluster of 
drupes; Dra'paM,B oonstitnent of 

the Btone^sells of the Sesh of peara 

(Cross and Bevan). 

DiT-rot, deatrnction of tlmbei in 
houses by Men^iua lacryjnaiu, Fr. 

dn'tdou, du'&i'iM (Lat.), doubtful, 
used for plants whose atmctore or 
affinities are uncertain. 

I>aet, Dvdfm (lAt., led, oonduoted), 
an eloneated cell or tabular veeael, 
espeoially occurring in the fibro- 
vMoular portions of pUota ; aa'- 
nnlar ~ , the aecondary thickenings 
occurring more or leas in the form 
of ringa ; closed ~ , long oella, not 
oontinaoua, butwiththeinterveniog 
aepta remaining: dot'tad~,i^BoTH- 
rbhchtha; Intercel'lntar ~, paa- 
soges between the cells ; retwu- 
lated—, where the markinga aeem 
to form a network ; ■aaUTlfan&~ 
with ladder-like markinga oa in 

dnTda (LaL), sweet, extended to ajiy 
kind of taste which is not acrid ; 
ITol'dte, a orystalline substance 
from JUdampyrum, also found in 
Madagascar Manna. 

du'matoaa, dameto'im^ {dumttum, a 
thicket), busby, relating to bashes ; 
Duma'tum, a thicket. 

dnmoae' (dumo'ati^, bushy), full of 
buahea, of shrubby aspect ; Da'nuii 
(lAt.), a bush. 

dnoda'nl (I^t.), by twelves, growing 
by twelves. 

da'plez (I^t.), doable; dn'pllcate, 
daplica'tuf, doubled or folded, 
twin ; Dupllca'Uon, doubling, CaoRi- 
Sis ; dnpUca'to - crgna'tua, doubly 
crenate ; — denta'ttui, doubly- 
toothed ; ~ plnna'tua, bipinnate ;~ 
•om'tuB, donblf-aerrate ;~ tema'- 
tni, bitemate ; dnplo = twice aa 
many, in Greek compounds it ia 

Dnra'men (Lat., a hardened vine 
branch), the heartwood of an exo< 

KQOOS Stem, which has become 
rdened by depoBite. 
Dnat, Blair's word for Pollen ; dnst'y, 
oovered with granulations re- 
sembling duat ; or powdered, fan- 

pared with its allies ; ~ UilIa. t. 

■hort lived Glament of a taw citlla, 
in OedogoQiBoeae, the upper cells 
beirg uiCheridia. 

D7*s't«T (360, double, iirriip, a alar), 
the stage of nticlesr division when 
the rays of linin split longitudinal- 
ly and two stars are formed which 
move apart, ending with tbe forma- 
tion of daughter-slcoinB ; dyblas'tua 
(^HXain-Di. a bud). two-cBlled. ap- 
plied to LichenRporea ; Dycle'iinm, 
or Djdo'iliim, see Diclesifm. 

dynain'lo iS6miui, power), applied to 
tissue which is capable of strongly 
swelling on one side ; Dy'n&mlE, 
used hj Linnaeus t« express the 
degree of development of staniens, 
as Didvniunia, and Tetraiiynamin, 
applied to Howera where reapec- 
tively two and four stamens have 
longer filamenu than the remain- 



dysceog'enooi (Suit, i.e. btui, y^, the 

» earth, ytnia, I bring forth), em- 
ployed by Thurtnano for those 
plants growing on soils which do 
Dot readily yield detritus, hard 
rooks generaliy, eucb as granite ; 
Dysteleol'tOT (tAoj, completion, 
%iym, discourse), frustration of 
Janotion ; aa where an insaot ob- 
tains honey by puneturing a nectary 
instead of by the floral opening ; 
adj., dytteleolog'lc, -oal; Dyatsls- 
ol'Ofltt, an agent which evades the 
teleotogio end, as a bee which ob- 
tains honsy by means which do 
not conduce to fertilization. 

•, ex, in Latin compounds, privative, 


. withou 

Ekr, the spiba of oc 
(Loudon), eaiwl, a 

•IM'SMOI, black OS ebony, the heart- 
wood of Dioupj/rot £bm'im, Koen. 

•Mta'tna = hebetatus. 

aborl'mia {thortu/i, made of ivory), 
ivory-like, or ivory-white. 


brartca, a bract), without braota ; 
ebrae'tsolate, ehrai-itoia'tiui, desti- 
tute of bratwolos. 

etmni'MniS, -r,^is (Lat. of ivory), ivory 
white, while more or less tinged 
with yellow. 

ecalo'arata, Kalcara'iiut [e, priv,, cai- 
ear, a spur], spurleaa; ecaud'ol 
(cau'/a. a tail), without a tail or 
similar appendage. 

Ecblaate'sU (if, out of, fi\im], 
growth), tbe appearance of buds 
within a flower, prol location of 
tbe inflorescence. 

eccen'trlc — EXc^EiiTRii;, 

ecblor'oplijlloM (e, priv.,-f Chlobo 
piiYLL), without chlorophyll ; soari- 
ouB : eoh'lnate, lehina'twi (Lat., 
prickly), beset with prickles; 
«eblii'alate, Pchinyda'tuM, having 
diminutive pricklea 

BcJd'lum (Cro£ier)-AEoiDniM. 

Ech'ma, pi. £ch'maM (IxMo, a aup- 
port), the hardened hook -shaped 
lunicle in most Acanthaceae which 
eupports the seed ; cf. Retinacd- 

LFM (.1). 

Bcol'oKy, etc., see Oecoloov. 

Econom'io Botany (slxai, a house, 
roinnhi, resting on laws), applied 
botany, that branch which takes 
note of technical application of 
plants and plant- products. 

ecort'ieate, ecorfico'dw (e, priv., cor- 
Ite, bark), destitute of bark, or 
bark-like covering ; MMM'tate, ecoa- 
ta'iui (i-oaia, a rib), without ribs, 
nervelsss ; aonuta'ceona [crunta, 
rind, -t- aceoua), destitute of thallus, 
applied to Lichens. 

eefa^mi'lo [itrit, outside, yitot, off- 
spring), capable of living outside 
of ■ given body, as certain bacilli ; 
Ectopar'aalte ( -f. Parasite), a para- 
site which remains on theextorior of 
its host, only sending its hsusloria 
within : opposed to Ehuopaiubitr ; 
eotophloso'des (^Xoiot bark), living 
on the surface or bark of other 
plants as some Lichens ; Eot'opUnn 
{w'Katrfia, moulded), a delicate, firm, 
superficial layer at the cytoplasm 
or general protoplasm of the cell, 

hjrftlopUmn ; Eet'Mpore (rropi, 
■eed), a synonyin of BAaiDlospOKl ; 
MtM'porom, poBMuii^ exogen- 
ataly formed aporeg ; eototbi^Ml 
(0i)in|, a case), in ABOomycetea 
nted far naJfed-spored ; wtotio- 
lOl'lo (Tpo^, DOariahmsnt), when 
a (hdsiu alothea a root only ei- 
twually ; aotottop'lo (rpdroi, direo- 
tioQl, outward onrrature. 

My'phaUate it, priv. + CYraojUL.), 
naad of Liohena deitltnte of ovph- 
ellae ; edMit'ata, tiUnta'hu {dent, 
deMia, a toolhj, withont teeth ; 
•dent'nliu (Lat.), toothleia. 

Id'wtln, (iStOToi, eatable), a globnlia 
oouttitnent of wheat flonr, loTming 
about liz to seven per oent. 

Bdsa, the margin or ontline, ai ol a 
leaf ; edced, when a patch of coloor 
ia rimmed rouad bj> another tint. 

•SM*', ^t'lm, tffoitaa (I^t., ei- 
hanatea), peat bearing, fnoction- 
leaa from age. 

■fflc'iuftte, effigvra'tv* (fgura, a fig- 
ure), (1) when an organ ie oom- 
pleted by the fall development of 
ita Bnboroinate parts ; (2) of definite 
ontline, oppoeed to urusi; Sfflgn- 
n'tlona, ontgrowtha of the re- 
oepbuile or toroa aa in Pcutifiora, 
Capparii, eta. 

VBandaKDJM,SMoraceu'tia [iffioruoo, 
I bloBsom forth), the aeaaon of 
flowering, antheiia. 

Bffiillft'tloii (Lindley ) = Extouatioh. 

•ffnw', y?u'nu (Lat., poored oat), 
patnloni, expanded ; BSa'ilo, an 
expansion ; Bffa'alan, uaed by 
Wieener for an intermingling of 
gaaet under difierent preuuree, the 
onrrent acting throngn opening! in 

«f alloUte, ^o/ioia'iu* (e ,pri V. fdiolum, 
a email leaf), without leaf -like 
Boalea or aquamte ; elO'lloloie baa 
the ume meaning ; atal'onite, 
•fnlon'ttu {>Jcrum, a bed-poat), 
naed of badi from which the 
cnitomary leaf baa fallen. 

B(X (1) Ovum, ovale ; (2) restricted 
in meaning as below i'-Appan'tna, 
the three oells with nuclei at the 

the sj^ergids, and the 
other forms tbe ooiphere ; ~ Cell, the 
odapbere or gynogamete ;~llkaped, 

= 0VATK; ~ flpOTe = 0(jSPOBB, 

^lui'doIOM, eglandfdo'im (e, priv. 
glandidtx, a gland), destitute of 
glandi ; agTMi'nloae [granvia, r 
small grain), w" * 

B'tnt, Martyn's 
Ft. Aigrette. 

aUla'tuj X («! F"^-i +HILDH), imper- 
forate, applied to poUen grains 
having no perforationa. 

tUoiMl, alM'dlil (iIiraJM, an entry), 
anterior, as the onter pore of 
stomates (Tschircb). 

BlacnlA'tlon {ejacaior, I shoot forth) 
= Ejection. 

BJeo'Umi {g'ec^w, cutina forth), 
forcibly throwing out endogenously 
formed spores from a sporangium. 

ZlJitMn'tlon Idaboratio, persevering 
labour), naed of the ehangea which 
take place after the absorption of 
food material to fit it for the use of 
the plant. 

elaeo'dw [Aofa, olive), olive colour, 
brownish green ; SXalolen'dtei 
(XcvKDi, white]. Van Tiegbsm's 
term for Bi.iiofi.astb ; Blal'oplasta 
(i-XuTot, moulded), plastids which 
are believed to form oil, as Isuco- 
plaate form starch ; Slal'ai 

to elaiopUate, probably oil-bodies 
(Lidforss). The foregoing are also 
spelled elaeo-. 

elapbl'nes, (cXa^ir^T, a fawn) ; tia- 
phi'niis {i\a^t, a deer), towny or 

Ela'tar (Aarjgp, a driver); (1) an 
elastio spirally twieted filament, 
occurring amongst tbe sporea in 
the thecffi of Hepaticte ; (2) a free 
cApillitinm threaa in Myiogaatre* : 
(S) in EgviMlum, four clubbed 
hygrosoopic bands attached to 
the sporsa, which serve for di»- 


W'rinm (AoT^/iiOT, driving »w»y) 

= C0CtI7U, 

•b'tui (Lat.. ex&lted), Ull, lofty. 

amber CO loureil; BlMtrol'yBt* [Matt, 
a, loosing), Bnalysig by electric force, 
»dj. dectrolyt'lc ; electrotrop'tc 
(rpovat, direction), ootuated by 
electric force ; Elac'tTCiplim, the 
electrio impulge whiub governs 
certain pl&nt -functions. 

Elamant'aiT Or'guu, the constituents 
of cellular and Tsscular tiuiie, 

slentbtran'therous {iXet'Sipm, free, 
+ ANTaEK], having the unthers 
distinct, not united ; eleathera- 
pet'AlOUS (x/iaXof, a flower-leuf), 
polypetalouB, having free petals. 
choripetalouB ; elmitheropl^'U'nu' 
(^i/XXoi', a leaf), separate leaved ; 

^euUkaroHp'alinui ( + SefalIi'm) 

with distinct sepals, 
aleva'tcd, applied to a Lichen when 
raised above the surface nf its 

BU, a meoaure variously understood, 
the English ell being 45 inches, the 

^FI«nch ell 54 inches. 
ZUsb'orfn, an acrid reain from EmiUkiA 
hyrnutlin, Salieb. lonnerly con- 
aidored a species of HfllrbojTi*. 
•Ulp'uld. •Ulpaol'dal, tilipnoida'lU 
(iXXti^ii, a falling short, cIJoi, 
like), an elliptic solid, eometimet 
employed for elliptic ; elllp'tio, 
•Ulp'tlMl, elUp'ticm, shaped like 
an ellipse, oblong with regularly 
rounded ends. 
BUtritftilnB = Ei.YTBi(;cTi,ii8. 
•loc'niar, elocu/a'rU («, priv. locuiun, 

■ cell), unilocular, 
BlOttgA'tlon, Elonga'tio {elonffo. I 
lengthen), remarkable for length 
in oodparison with its breadth ; 
•lonffa'tad, eianga'iiu (drawn out in 
Slytrtc'DlnB {tXvrpoy, B covering), 
Nacter's term for a floret in Com- 
positae j ely'trlform [/orma, shape), 
resembling the wing-case of a beetle 



emar'gliiala em^rgitin'itiJi {emnririno, 
to deprive of its edge), having a 
notch out out, uBUalfy at the ex- 
tremity ; Emargrinstn'n. (I-At,), 
the notch at the apex of an 
emarginate leaf, 

Sm'bolna (f^sXci, a pump pist^in), a 
plug, a process which projects 
downwards from the nppar part of 
the cavity of the ovary of Armeria, 
and clOBes the foramen of the 

emiKMi'ed, nmbonate, having a slight 

central nodule, 
embra'oliig;. clasping by the t»M, 

Km'bryo, SiH'bryonllti0pvor,afoeUiB), 
the rudimentary plant formed In n 
seed or within the archegonium of 
Cryntagania; - Bnds, "spheroidal 
solid bodies, of unknown origin, re- 
sembling woody nodules formed in 
the bare of trees, and capable of 
extending into branches (Lind- 
ley) : - Cell = Otisphere ; ~Kod'iile, 
the same as Embrvo Buna : ~ Bm, 
the cell in the ovule in which the 
embryo is formed, also by some 
termed the macrouporp ; fixed — , 
a leaf-bud ; embryogen'ic {■yin/ia, 
1 bring forth), belonging to the 
development of the embryo ; ~ 
Bod'les, in Mucorini, naked masses 

Kyguspore, ultimately fusing to- 
gether, becominR - Spheres, then 
surround themselves with a double 
cell-wall, and finally become Em- 
BRVOMC Spueber (Lgger) ; Embryo- 
gr'eny, formation of the embryo ; 
dliBot ->, when a spore gives rise 
to on embryo resembling the adult 
form; liet«robla«t'le ~,when the 
embryo diCTers widely from the 
adult form it is not borne direct, 
bat as a lateral outgrowth ; bolo- 
blaltlo '~ , in which the whole of the 
ovum take^ part : ho'moblasf la ~ , = 
biRECT - ; ia'dlTset - = hftebo- 
BLASTiL' ~ : merobtait'lo, when 
only a portion of the ovum takes 
part in the development ; embry'o- 



xud, etnbryonaflis, relating to the 
embryo ; ^ TalMS, tabular stmc- 
tares which develop in Abietineae, 
forming the saspensor ; '^ Ve'sicle, 
the odsphere ; Emlnyorogy {\6yost 
discourse), study of the embryo; 
ambry'oxujy Sao = embryo sac ; 
amlnryoiiAte, having an embryo 
(Crozier) ; emteyon'lo, rudimentary, 
in an early stage, '^ Branohes, m 
Chara, peculiar branches resembling 
an embryo, which become separate 
and grow into newplants; '^ Bplisrea, 
see under Embrtooenio Sphbbes ; 
Em'bryophore {</>op4<o, I carry), in 
EqtMetum the homologue of the 
suspensor of Phanerogams and 
SelaginMif the lower of the two 
cells first cut off by a septum in 
the oosphere, then again sepa- 
rated, and this time forming 
the lower two of the quad- 
rants, one becoming the ''foot," 
the other the first root ; Emteyo- 
Idiy'ta (0in-6r, a plant), plants pos- 
sessing embryos, divided into '^ 
Siphonogam'la, having pollen-tubes, 
practically all flowering plants, 
and '^ Zoidlogam'la, with ciliated 
spermatozoids, practically Crypto- 
gams ; Emtoyote'ga, - tagum, 
-teglum, '8Uga (rey^, a covering), 
a callosity in the seed coat of some 
seeds near the hilum, and detached 
by the protusion of the radicle on 
germination ; Bmbryotroph'a (t^k)^, 
nourishment) (1) perispermium ; 
(2) amnios (Henslow). 

Emo/gence {emergo^ I come forth), 
an outgrowth from the surface, 
differing from hairs in arising from 
more than the superficial celb, and 
from spines, in arising from a few 
layers only; prickles, warts, etc.; 
•mer'gent, emtr^ensy used of 
capsules which rise slightly above 
the perichaetium ; emer'sed, em- 
er^su8, raised above and out of the 

Bm'etin, a supposed alkaloid from 
Ipecacuanha and similar emetic 

Bm'odin, a gluooside obtained from 

buckthorn and aspeoies of rhubarb, 
jRheum Emodi, WalL 

ampa'led, Grew's term for hemmed 
in, as the flower by the calyx; 
Empalement, = Caltx ; Empalers 
= calyx segments. 

ampeima'tas X (Mod. Lat.), pinnate. 

ampbyBemato'sust {ifx^wrdu, Ibreathe 
upon), bladdery. 

Emph'ytlBm {ifi^ifSt inhering). W. D. 
Cope's term for inheritea or simple 
type of growth force ; Empbyto- 
gen'efils {y4ve<ns, beginning), the 
origin of inherited growth force 
{W. D. Cope). 

Bmplr'lo Di'tLgnm, a scheme showing 
the relative number and position of 
parts of a flower as seen oy inspec- 

am'pty, void ; '^ Olomes, one or more 
glumes subtending a spikelet in 
ffrasses enclosing one or more 

Emul'sln (emulsue, milked), an enzyme 
acting upon glucosides, found 
plentifully in almonds. 

enantiobla8t'ic,-tou8 (evavra, opposite, 
SKcurrbs, a shoot), having the em- 
oryo at the end of the seed dia- 
metricaUy opposite the hilum. 

Ena'tlon (enofiM, sprung up), having 
outgrowths from the surface. 

Enoarp'iom {i¥, in, /capir6f, fruit). 
Trattinick*s term for sporophore. 

Enoa'slng, of protoplasm, the forma- 
tion of cellulose-caps by the proto- 
plasm in the cells of certain tri- 
chomes (Haberlandt) ; Germ., Ein- 

En6hyle'ma {iyx^^t I P^^r ^^t ^^Mi7i 
rheum), the more fluid portion of 
the cytoplasm (Hanstein). 

enoyst'ed {4p, in, kijotis, a bladder), 
enclosed in a bag, or invested with 
a coating when in a non-motile 
state, as some unicellular plants. 
Encysf ment, the condition of being 

end'arcli {Mov, within, dpx^> begin- 
ning), applied to a bundle in which 
the primary xylem, in most Phaner- 
ogams is wholly centrifugal, cen- 



endeugr'yiioiii , eudecaCTn'lu {Mik/ij, 
eleven, yvrij, a woman), having 
eleven pialila ; endecan'Orona (dfiip, 
dfipii. ■ manl. b»ving eleven 
BUmenH ; eiKleoapbyll'ous {^Uor, 
a. leaf), baving eleven lesvog or 
lea Seta. 

aade'mlc, (lule'miftu (Vr, in, J^^joi, a 
country district), confined to a 
given region, as an i el and or 


, ((ySov, witliin. 1 

enclosed jiuidiuni, as in Gostero- 
tnjcetes : uidoblot'le (piori;, life), 
living within a» a paroBiie, aa 
ChTyfophiyHin endohiodtn, Roae, in 
potato tuben ; Bn'doblem {pXijiia. a 
coverlet), tissue beneath the derma- 
tAgen, of smaU-cetled |]arench^a ; 
Sn'docarp (lapTsi, fruit), the inner 
layer of a perioarp ; andourp'oid, 
r«aembting the Liohen genus Endo- 
tarpon; ea<looatad'roiiioiu( +CatA' 
DKOUors), when Ferns in their ner- 
vation have their stronger pi noulea 
Cntwlromous, the weaker one, ana- 
dromous: En'dooblt« (xiTui',a iunio), 
the innermost membrane of the egg 
in Pucaceae (Farmer); En'doolma t 
lXP^'< elcin), a eapposcd interior 
layer of the catide (Lindleyl ; En'- 
diMiIU'oine, EniUichro'rTia (xpu/uc, 
colour), the peculiar colouring 
matter in oolla, egpocially in Algae ; 
Siidooor'tex(i*^iru:, bark), the inner- 
most layer of the cortical region ; 
•ndococ'cold, like the Lichen En- 
docorenn ; En'docyst (ti'^tii, a 
bladder), Clevc's term fur a pro- 
bably sexual organ in the fruatules 
of certain Diitomi ; En'dodennia 
{Siptta, skin), the layer of ground- 
tissue which abuta on the stele, 
beinu difl'erentisted as a sheath 
round it ; Endogi'aioy (yiiiet, mar- 
riage) : an expression for fusion 
or cosleBcenoe of two or more 
female gametes, adj. eudog'usous -, 
E&'dogBn {yiro!, race, ofl'-spring), 
a, monocotyledoDODB plant, sup- 
posed to grow by internal nrces- 


sions; •ndOK'elioiu, (1) pertaimng 
to an Endogen ; [-i) produced within 
another body, arising from deep- 
seated tisanea ; — CaU-tonua'tton, — 
free cell-formation : Bodogoiild'lnm 
( + GoniDlDH), a gonidinm formed 
wit hin a receptacle or gonidangium ; 
EbdoKo'nlnm, the contents ol the 
nucule of Chara ; endoiiaBt'lc 
(vnrTTDi, close prcaaed), applied by 
Van Tiegbem to an anatropons or 
campylotropouB ovule, when the 
ourvBture is horizontal towards the 
edge of the carpel ; EndoluujOR'amy 
(Kipvar, a nut or kernel) = Enou- 
GAMT 1 EndoiLD'clana {liiiFlain, a 
small nut) " the nucleolo - nucleus " 
(Macferlanej ; Eudopar'aslle ( -t- 
Pasasite). a plant which lives and 
develops Within the Ciasues of the 

boat; adj. eodoparailt'lc ; Bndo- 
puld'lnm (ifpijior, a little pouch), 
the inner layer of the peridium In 
Fungi : En'doplileenm («>Xaidi, bark) 
the inner bark; Endophia^ma i 
(0pBy^, a fence), a partition in 
Iha frond of some seaweeds; sn- 
dopbrl'Ions, endnphyUvi (^i\Xo», a 
leaf), (1) formed from within a 
sheathing leaf j (2) living within 
the Bnbgtance of a leaf; endopbr'- 
tal, endopliTt'ic, -cujr (fiTor, a 
plant), one plant growing inside 
another plant, whether porasitic 
or not : En'dopttyte, (1) the woody 
body or timber of an exogen, in- 
cluding the pith (Lindley) : (2) a 
plant which grows in the intenor 
of another living plant ; En'doplAam 
(irXciir^, moDlded), the internal 
granular portion of the protoplasm 
as distinguished from the outer 
portion, the ectoplasm, which is 
tree from eranules ; Odoplan'ra 
[irXfupd. a rib), the inner aeeil-coaC, 
t«gnien ; endop'tlle, nvJi>;i'fiViu 
(iriXav, a feather), used of an 
embryo whose plumule is rolled up 
in the cotj^ledoii; esdorbl'nl, eD- 
dorhl'foni, -iii [jiiia, a root), r 
cotyledonouB, for in gi 
the radicle instead of Tcngthening 
gives rise to eeoondarj rootlets; 



Sndorlil'iaa= Monocotyledons; Sn- 
dOBdlero'tlam (+ SoLBRonuM), a 
persistent tuber-like myceliam of 
endogenous origin (Fayod) ; Bndos- 
monreter {fUrpwy a measure), an 
instrument to show endosmosis ; 
En'dotmoM, Endosnu/ais ((^r/iof, 
impulsion), flow of liquid through a 
membrane into a more viscid fluid ; 
Ba'dOKpwmfEndosperm'um {ffHpfM, 
seed), (1) the albumen of a seed in 
An^iosperms, by recent observers 
limited to the endosperm deposited 
within the embryo sac ; (2) in Gym- 
nosperms the prothallium with- 
in the embrvo sac ; (3) in Selagin' 
ella, tissue formed in the cavitv of 
the maorospore below the protnal- 
lium ; endofpermlc, 'icus^ having 
albumen, or associated with it ; 
En'dospore, Endospor^ium {ffropdi, 
seed), (1) the innermost coat of a 
spore ; (2) the Intink of a poUen- 
grain; endosp'orous, -us, having 
spores formed within]; En'dostere t 
{rrepeos, stiff), the timber of an 
exogen, without the pith (Lindley ); 
En'dostome, Endost^oma (<rr6/jM^ the 
mouth), the foramen of the inner 
ooat of an ovule ; Endotlie'ca (^i^xi;, 
a case), Tulasne's term for endo- 
thecium ; Endothe'dum, (1) Pur- 
kinje's name for the inner layer of 
a pollen grain ; (2) the inner lining 
ofthe loculus of an anther ; (3) the 
inner tissue of the theca in Mus- 
cineae ; endotrophlo {rpwft^f nour- 
ishment), applied to mycorhiza 
when the fun{|us attacks the cells 
of the root itself; Sndofrophy, 
Wiesner's expression for the con- 
dition of thickened growth of a 
shoot in the direction of the 
parent -shoot; q/I Exotbopht ; 
endotrop'ic (rpoiH), a turning), in- 
ward curvature ; endoiolc (fcuoy, 
an animal), living inside an animal ; 
entossoic (Crozier). 

BnaUe'ma (^ye(Xi7/ua, a wrapper), 
the inner skin of the seed. 

Bnergetlos {heprpp-LKott active), the 
science which treats of the trans- 
formation of energy. 

Sn'exgld {i¥€py€iat action, Idris, Greek 
suffix = paternity), Sachs's term for 
the nucleus and protoplasm as a 
vital unit; En'ergy, the capacity 
for doiug work, as'^'of actual mo- 
tion or kineflO'^ ; or '^of Position 
or poten'tial'^. 

ener'vlB, ener'vlus (Lat.)* destitute of 
veins or nerves. 

Rngllsh Type of Distribution, H. C. 
Watson's term for those plants 
whose ranfl» in Great Britain is 
centred in England proper. 

Bnlarg'ement, a swollen or thickened 
oondition due to increase of cellular 
tissue disproportionate to the 
woody frame wall. 

Enneagyn'la (iifvia, nine, tvk^, a 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 
with nine pistils ; enneagsm'ian, 
ennisag'ynous, having nine pistils ; 
Ennean'dria (aH7p, oMdpos, a man), 
a Linnean class characterised by 
having nine stamens; ennean'dricus, 
ennean'drous, with nine stamens; 
ennearl'nnB (dpprjVf male), Necker's 
synonym for enneandrous ; ennea- 
peValooB {t^toKov, a flower-leaf), 
having nine petals ; enneasep'alous 
(+ Sep alum), with nine sepals 
(Crosier); enneasper'mous (<rTrp/ia, 
seed), nine-seeded (Crozier). 

Bnno'bUng, an old term for inarching. 

eno'dal, eno'dia (Lat.), without knots 
or nodes. 

en'sate (Oozier), ensa'tiis (ensMf a 
sword), sword-shaped ; en'siform, 
erui/orm'is {forma^ shape), sword- 
shaped, as the leaves of /m. 

entang'led, irregularly interlaced, as 
the pubescence, or fibres of some 

enterophleo'des (evrepov, intestine, 
4f\oi6i^ bark), bv Wallroth applied 
to Lichens whicn need some amount 
of preparation in the bark, wood, 
etc. , by weathering, before they can 

entire', without toothing or division, 
with even marein. 

entodis'calls (^vrof, within, 5/<r/co9, a 
quoit), inserted within a disk, as in 
the case of some stamens. 



. To^« = IducL, yt'- 
fdui, I bring forth), used of Fungi 
which urn paruiUc on iasects ; 
■ntomapti'lloiu I^Xiui, I tovs), ap- 

Eliad to Howere which are fertiliKed 
y LDseots ; Eutomoph'llaa, pUots 
whom flowars arc feounilated by 
iaMct«, eapecittUy lepidoptera ; Sn- 
tomoph'ily, the condition just do- 
Bcriliud 1 B^tomophy'U] (^urar, a 
plBDt), enldinogeijous. 

EntopKr'aAlte (^vToi, within, rapoaiTDi. 
a paruite). a, parasite living en- 
tirely within ita host (Crazier) ; 
tntophjr'lal {ipirrof, a pIant) = endo- 
phylal ; En'tophyte, Bntophg'la, a 
phuit which grows within other 
plants, as aome Fungi; adj. ento- 
pltft'lc ; «n'tOiDlc iCi^t, an animal), 
growing within anioialB, endozoic. 

En valopfl, Hurrounding parts, the 
Flo'nil Bn'Telopes are the perianth 
or its onaloguiia : " Appaia/tua, the 
sporocarp in AscomyceteB exolnBive 
of the aaci, and (uoigeroUB cella ; 

aggregate of surrounding condi- 

Bn'iyme {iv, in, fii/ii?, yeast,) an 
imorganiaed or soluble fcnnenl, 
as Diastase ; uuylolyfio ~ , as 
Diastase, converting starch into 
sugar ; tat ~ , converting olein into 
oleio acid and glycerine ; glu'coalde 
~, as Synuptase or Emulsin ; bydro- 
lyt'lc ~, iplilting up by hydro- 
lyaJB ; inTert ~ , turning caae-eugar 
into grape-angar ; ozidl'iliig ■~ , as- 
sisting in the oxidation of various 
substances ; protaoljt'lo ~ , doootn- 
poaing prol«ids ; Eniymorysla 
l\6au, a loosing), the action of 
breaking up a substance by the 
solvent power of an enzyme. 

Eoiln'opllll (eoain, a rose- red dye front 
ooal-tar products, •fiiXtu, I love), 
denotes any subatanoo which be- 
oome ooloured by the application of 

Epui'odr {iranios, return to nom 
a return to a regular state frot 
irregulav, ax a peloria flower. 

f u^n ■ 

Bp'sn (Crozier)-EpENcHTUA. 

Epencb'ynui (i'K upon, fyxniia, an 
infuBiuD), Niigeli's term for &bro- 
vaBcuLar tissue; Ephsrmo'ili 
(ip^ofu, I join together), the 
minute anatomy of plants applied 
to taxonomy; adj. sphumot'lB ; 

epbam'eral, epIiam'eToni, -'la, 
tilnJpa, day), (1) lasting for aday ot 
leas, oe the corolla of Culm; (2) 
used by Mobius as ~ polyoorpio 
plants, which Qower severalseneRl- 
tions in the uuae year, as Sltllaria 
mc/it, Cyr. 
eplta'ial (^rl, upon, ^d^ic, the base), 
in front of the basal wall, as in the 
anterior holf of a nroiimbryo ; 

— Cell, the nppec cell of an ouspora 
in liryophytes and Fteridophytei ; 

— Oc'tants, the subsequent divi- 
sions of the ~ Cbu.; Ep'lblut, 
Epihlati'ua (jSXfUTTDt, a shoot), the 
first and undeveloping leaf of the 

a synonym ; EplbUite'ma, a super' 
ficial outgrowth from leaves ; Epl- 
Waate'ois, growth of Lichens from 
gonidia which develop on the 
parent Lichen. 

Eplble'ma {ivi^Xii^, a cloak), (I) the 
extremity of the roots with ita 
root-hairs (Sohleiden), now re- 
stricted to the primary integn- 
mentnry tissue of the root, apart 
from the root-cap ; (2) an epider- 
mis of the thickened and Sattened 
cells (Lindley), 

•picalyo'tiu {iiri, upon, ndXuf, a oup) 
- Ei'isTAHiNEOins ; £ploa']yx, on in- 
volucre rosembling an occeaaory 
calyx as in Malia ; Ep'loaip 
{lapiTM, frnit), the external layer 
of a pericarp ; eplcarpan'tboaa ; 
-iM {atSat, a Sower), eplearp'- 
oni. eplca^'lni. -i>iu, superior, 
applied to a Sower or its parta ; 
Ep'lcbll, Bp'lebUe, EpichWiiim 
(X'lXo!, a lip), the terminal part of 
the laboltum of an orchid when it 



IB distinct from the basal portion ; 
Ef/kHao'tit (tcp^* skin), a supposed 
external layer of cuticle ; Ep'kShkd 
{xkitnil, a bed), a nectary when 
on the receptacle of a flower; 
•pldl'nal, eptdi'mUf seated upon 
the torus or receptacle; eploor'- 
mlc {gopft/if, a tree-trunk), (1) ap- 
plied to preventitious buds which 
deyelop on the trunks of trees ; (2) 
used 01 "branches which develop on 
the body of a forest tree from which 
surrounding trees have been re- 
moved " (Croder) ; tpioor'olllne, 
epieoroUa'tuB ( +CoBOLiiA), inserted 
upon the corolla ; Bpicot'yl (irorvXi;, 
hoUow vessel), the young stem 
above the cotyledons ; eptootyle'- 
donary, placed above the seed- 
leaves ; E^iien'tis {evtia, the skin), 
Fayod's term for the superficial 
layer of the cuticle in Agarics; 
Qp'iderm, Epide/mia {^ipim^ skin), 
the true cellular skin or covering 
of a plant below the cuticle ; 
•plder'mal, relating to the outer 
covering; '^ Tis'sue, the tissue 
which makes up the epidermis ; 
epider'moid (eZffof, like), belonging 
to or resembling the epiderm ; 
epldermoi'dal Layer, the exoderm 
of roots ; Bpidiphyll'um (9tf, double, 
^i^XXoy, a leaf), Kronfeld's term 
for a double leaf, when the growth 
of the lamina has been interrupted 
at a particular spot ; epigae'an, 
eplgae'ous, epigt'v^ (7^, the earth), 

(1) growing upon the ground ; 

(2) on land as opposed to water; 

(3) the above-ground flowers of 
such genera as have hypogaean 
flowers also, as Kraachemnikowia ; 
also occurs as epigeal, eplge'an, 
•pig'eons, especially when used 
of cotyledons which spread above 
the surface; Bpigen'osls {yivetni, 
a beginning), the theory that the 
embryo develops by the differen- 
tiation of new orsans ; opposed to 
the old theory of ** Evolution" or 
Preformation ; oplg'enous, epig^enus 
(y^os, race), srowing on the surface, 
as Fungi on leaves ; Bp'igone, Epi- 

go* mum (701^, offspring), (1) the 
cellular layer covering the youn^ 
sporophore in Hepaticae ; (2) simi- 
lar tissue in Mosses after formation 
of the capsule, frequently ruptured, 
the upper portion carried up as the 
calyptra, the lower remaining as 
the vaginule ; (3) the nucleus in 
Chara; opigynopbor'infl {yvrij, a 
woman, 4>op4ta, I carry), placed 
upon a (pniophore or stipe of an 
ovary (Lindley) ; eplg'ynons, -im, 
on the pistil, apparently above the 
ovary ; epigyn'ious, with the calyx 
or corolla superior, 
•pilith'io (M, upon; Mdos, rock), 
growing on rocks as many lichens ; 
eplm'ennfl(/i^i'ci), I remain), Necker's 
term for the perianth beinff 
superior ; epinastlc (rcurro;, pressed 
close), (1) in leaves when pressed 
close to the ground, or away from 
the axis ; (2) in organs when the 
ventral surface grows the fastest 
as in revolute vernation ; (3) when 
ovules are curved in a downward 
direction (Van Tieghem); Epinas'ty, 
De Vries's term for curvature pro- 
duced by ffreater growth of the 
ventral sunace; Eplne'mufl (H7/M1, 
a thread), the upper part of the 
filament in Gompositae bearing the 
anther ; epiperispermlcus (repl, 
about, 0-Wp/Lia,Beed), without peris- 
perm or albumen (S. F. Gray) ; 
Bpiperid'ium ( + Peridium) = Exo- 
PERiDiuM ; epipet'alous, -us, epi- 
peta'Uus (wiraKo¥^ a flower-leaf), 

(1) borne upon the petals ; (2) 
placed before the petals ; epl- 
petre'oufl (Th-pa, a rock), grow- 
ing on rocks, saxicole ; Bpiphlo'&n 
(0Xocof, bark), the outermost 
or corky bark ; epiphlo'eodal, 
existing in the outer bark ; Bpl- 
phlosa = Epiderm (Lindley) ; Ep'l- 
phragm, Epiphrag'ma {<ppdyfiaf a 
fence), (1) a membrane which closes 
the opening of the theca in Mosses; 

(2) a delicate membrane closing the 
cup-like sporophore in Nidukiria ; 
Bplphsrll (^uXXoy, a leaf), the upper 
portion of a leaf, from which the 



petiole and bliule are developed ; 
■plphyU'ooB, -im, growinaon leavea; 
eplpliylloBpanii'iniB [<rwipva, seed), 
bearing seed or the like on leaf-like 
organs, as the dorsiferous Fenia. 

Bplph'yBls (^ri^i'ui, to grow up), pro- 
tnberancea round the hilum or for- 
amen of Home seeds ; etrophioles. 

Sp'iphjta {^1, upon, ^mror, a plant), a 

Elant whioh grows on other plants, 
at not parasitically ; an air-plantr ; 
aplphy'tiLj, apiptsyt'lo. relating to 
epiphytes ; •plpby'told (ctSst. tike), 
need in ~ Par'SLsitet, as Loron- 
thaceae and ISiiotalaoeae ; Ep'lphy- 
Uun. the condition of epiphytea ; 
•plphTto'tio, used of wideepreading 
dieeaae in plante, as an epidemic 
(Crozior) ; Ep'lplaam (irXtU-fia, 
moulded), protoplasm rich in gly- 
cogen, which remains in the osous 
after the formation of ascospoms : 
glycogen-maaa ; Eplpleu'iS (rXcrpd, 
A rib), the outer half of the diatom- 
girdle, belonging to the epitheca : 
Kplpaa'llUO (xoCi, ToSii, a toot), (I) 
the npiosl portion of a developing 
phyllopodium or longitudinal axis 
of a leaf; (2); a form of disk con- 
■Uting of gUnda upon the stipe of 
m ovary ; (3) % the stalk of the 
disk itself (Lindley) ; epipol'yaidi 
(wsXili. many, ipxii-, beginning), the 
division of the median protoiytem 
ID a triarch stele (Prantl) ; splp'- 
teroni, rjAp'terta [rrtpov, a wing), 
winged, especially at the summit. 

Bplnheorogry {irippeu, I overflow. 
Xo^Ds, discourse), the effects of 
exteroal agents on living plants. 

eplrhl'ioOB. -zue {i-wl, upon, ^i^, a 
loot), growing on roots ■. as certain 
parasites ; epUep'alonsf -*- Sn'> 

seed), the coal or outer covering 
of the seed, sperm wlerm.perisperm; 
eplBpem'lciiB. exalbuminous ; Epl- 
■ponnE'lum (irn-opl, seed, dyyiiov, 
a vessel), the indusium oC Ferns : 
Bp'ttpore, Epiiqior'ivta, nn external 
coat or periniuni formed from the 
periplasm round the oiispore in 


some Fungi and the spores of oer- 
tain of the higher Cryptogams ; 
•plspor'ie, connected with the outer 
ooat of a spore ; epUtuoliut'Ua 

(-fSTAMBS), on the Blamans, as 

Epist'roplia(^irifrrjiD^)l, turning about), 
the arrangement of chlorophyll 
Kranules on the upper and lower 
faces of the cells in diffused light ; 
f/. AroBTKOi'itB ; adj. aplBttoidi'le ; 
~ Int'erral, S- Moore's t«rin for 
that range of intensity of sunlight 
needed to produce Epiatropbe : 
Bplatiopliiia'tlon, the condition de- 
scribed : EpUt'rophy, Morren's term 
for the reversion of a monstrous 
form to the normal condition. 

epltct'raroh {ifL upon, -I- tet&akch). 
when in a triarch st«le, the third 
(median) protoxylem group is 
divided (Prantl) ; eplthall'inB 
(SoAXot, a young shoot), growing 
on the thallus; EplttuHl'nc, the 
cortical layer of Lichens, by Zukal 
employed tor all moiiifieatiouB 
of the cortical hjphae at the 
margin or apex of the thallus, 
which serve as protection to the 
ginidia ; Epltlie'ca (9ij>nr, a case), 
the outer and larger half-frustule 
of Diatoms: adj. epUha'cal : Spl- 
Uie'dnm, the surface of the fructi- 
fying disc in Lichens; Epltbellnm 
(B^\ti, a nipple), (1) any distinct 
layer of one or more cells in thick- 
ness which bounds an internal 
cftvity ; (2)4; = Ei'iDsaMrs. 

Eplthe'ma, Bp'ithema ( trlBijiia, a 

phyll of leaves, serving as internal 
kydathodes, the cells ^ing usually 
devoid of chlorophyll, as in Cnw- 

epltrl'aich (tVI, upon, . 

when in a triarcb stele, the third 
(medial) protoiylem groupie upper- 
most i.e. ventral|Prantl),- Epit'ropliy 
(t(w^, food), the condition when 
the growth of the cortex on wood 
IB greater on the upper side of 
the organ ; or having buds or 
shoots on tbe upper side (Wiesner); 



opit'ropoiiB {rpoiHi, a tarn), denotes 
an aDatropoiu ovule with its raphe 
averse when ascending, adverse 
when suspended; Bpiyal'va, Bpl- 
yalye {vcUva, a valve), the valve 
belonging to the epitheca of a 
Diatom ; epizylo'iieiiB ({lAoy, wood); 
epix'yloiu (Crozier), growing on 
wood, as Hypoxylon; epixoa'rliis 
(^(Soy, an animal), growing on dead 
animals; epliolc, epiio'us, growing 
on living animals, parasitic or not. 

epUoa'tus (e, priv., plieatus, folded), 
not plaited or folded ; epro- 
pbyllatos (+Pbophtlla), without 
prophylla, bracteoles ; — in Germ. 
Vorbl&tter ; epm'inose {pruinoiius, 
irostv), without surface &rina. 

e'qiiil (amuUis), (1) alike as to length 
or number, (2) in Mosses when the 
capsule is symmetrical; ^ si'ded, 
equal, when applied to the two sides 
of an organ; e'4QaUy-pi2i'iiAt6= 
abruptly pinnate, having no ter- 
miniu leaflet ; e'quaiu (Lat. ), equal- 

Equator'ial Plane, the line which 
passes through the mother- star of 
the nucleus, the plane of cell- 
division ; ^ Plate, the nuclear disc 
of Strasburger, the j^ouping of 
chromosomes at the middle of the 
spindle in nuclear division. 

equllat'eral, equikUera'lia {aequilater- 
o/m), equal-sided. 

eqninoofial, equinoctia'lis {aequinocti- 
alU, pertaining to the equinox), 
used of plants whose flowers ex- 
pand ana close at particular hours 
of the day. 

equise'tlc, pertaining to the genus 
Ekpiisetum; equiM'tifonn, resem- 
bhng the same genus as to form. 

•'quitant, e'quiians ( Lat. riding ), 
folded over, as if astride; equi- 
tati'vuB (Lat.) t = equitant. 

equivalv'Qlar (oe^ue, equally ; vcUva, 
leaf of a door), havmg the valves 
of a fruit equi^ in size. 

Equiv'ooal ( ctequivocust ambiguous) 
Oenera'tlon, spontaneous genera- 

enuUc'nlose ( e, priv. radictUa, a 

small root), without rootlets or 
rhizoids ; eramo'sus ( ramus, a 
branch), unbranched. 

erect, erect'us (Lat.), upright, per- 
pendicular to the ground or its 
attachment ; ereo'to-pat'ent {pateiu, 
lying open), between spreading and 

Eremacau'siB (iipifM, gently, Kav<nt, 
burning), slow combustion or oxi- 
dation, such as Ions preserved seeds 
show, as if charred. 

Bre'moblast (ifnjpLos, solitary, /SXcurrof, 
a shoot), cells which united at 
first, afterwards separate them- 
selves ; Bre'mns X & carpel apart 
from its sister carpels ; Bremotxr3r'a 
{fipviaf I grow), a division of Ferns 
having articulated fronds, and not 
adherent to the stem or rhizome. 

Brgogen'eslB [epyov, work, yipeais, be- 
ginning), the exhibition of growth- 
enerffv (J. A. Ryder). 

Br'got (Fr.), also pr. Er^got ; Clavieeps 
purpurea, TuL, causing "Spur" in 
grasses ; Brgost'erln, Ergot ic Acid, 
Er'goti&, substances occurring in 
the sporophore of the Ergot fundus ; 
Er'gotlsm, the effect produced by 
eating bread which is ergotised ; 
er'gotised, infected with Ergot. 

erlanth'onfl, -us (e/xoy, wool, ay$os, 
a flower), woolly-flowered. 

erice'tal {ericetum. Mod. Lat., a 
heath), H. C. Watson's term for 
plants which grow upon moors, 
such as heather. Erica ; ericlti'iins 
(Mod. Lat.), heath -like, in shape 
or habit ; erloo'id (elffor, like), used 
of leaves which are like those of 

e'rlgens (ertgo, I raise), used of a 
branch, horizontal at nrst, rising at 
the point. 

eriopb oronfl (Iptoy wool, ^opeci), I 
carry), wool-bearing, densely 
cottony ; erlophyU'cnB, -ua {4></>\ov, 
a leaf), woolly leaved. 

Erls'ma {ipeiffiM, a buttress), Necker's 
term for the rhachis in grasses. 

ermin'enfl (Mod. Lat.), the colour of 
the fur of ermine, white, broken 
with yellow. 


■to'dad, ero'M, ero'mg (Lat. gnawed), 

&s though bitten or gnawed. 
•TtMt'nM, iroitra'tus, erosl'rie (Lat.), 

Siror, probable, tee Deviation. 

Eraatiru'em, S<uiio = Sdkstitute 
FiEiits, intermediate id furm 
bet<»een woody Bbres and ' 
parencliyma. i 

•rubeac'eiiE (Lat. blushing), bluah 

emcfteform'lB (erHra, n caterpillar, | 
forma, shape), used for suuh Lichen 
spores as those of Grajihia, which i 
are long, septate, blunted at the 
extremities, and in shape suggest a 
short caterpillar. 

enimp'ent, emmp'em (Lat. breaking 
through), prominent as tliough 
bursting through the epidermis. 

Br'rthrtsiii {/pi'Bpas, red), a red colour 
in dowers usually white, the re- 
verse of alhmisia ; Br'ytlirophyll 
(^liXXiH', a leaf), Berzelius'a term 
for the red aolouring of leaves ; 
siytbropli'Uoiu (^X^u, I love), 
lued of nuclei which take up 
red stains in preference to blue ; 
BryUirost'omiim Z {jroixa, the 
mouth), Desraux's word for 
Etaehio; Er'yUinjzyiu (f lifnj, yeaat), 
an enzyme from the root of Che 
madder which acts on glucosides. 

-eicena, a Latin sutiii = ish, thus 
rub-escens = redd-ish. 

et'calent {e»culetitu», fit for eating), 
suitable for human lood. 

Eb'ciUIh, = Aesi^uus. 

Eapat'lsr, n fruit tree trained lattice- 
fashion, in one plane, but not at- 
tached to a wall. 

eBep't>ate(,c,priv.,«rj)fuM, a partition), 
destitute of septa. 

esoter'lc (firuTc,ioi, inner], arising 
from inside the organism. 

•Bpatba'csuB (e, priv., + Spatha, 
•Bceusj. wanting a spathe ; Lindley 
gives the form eipalna'liu J 

BBBen'Ual {enaeiilia, the being of any- 
thing), the necessary constituentof 
an existing object i ~ Char'actar, 
the distinguishing note by which a 
form differa from its alUes, diag- 

noBtio character ; - Or'^ana, thoae 
which are absolutely neoessuy, 
stamens and pistils. 
na'ral - AEsnVAi ; •'aUvrnta = 
; Eittva'tlon = Abgti- 

Btae'rlo, Etairium [fratpeia, oom- 
panionshipl, an aggregate fruit 
composed of achenes or drupes, 
in RaniincMiM, the Sttawber 
and Blackberry ; adj. etalrlona'Tis, 

a'tlolatea, ftWo'eiH (Fr. etiol*, drawn 
out), lengthened or deprived of 
colour by absenoe of light ; Btlola'- 
tlon, the oondition of being 
blanobed ; B'tioUn, the yelloW' 
colouring matter of blanched plants, 
chlorophyll which has not acquired 
ita green colour (Pringsheim). 

E'tiology — AsnoLoav. 

etrabeoula'tns (e, priv., Irabefiiia, a 
little b«am|, cot cross- barred; when 
the peristome teeth of Mosses want 

eu- {rH, well), in Greek compounds 
=: true ; often used in sectional 
names, with a restricted meaning; 
enkCTBIlth'io {atpot, apex, irdos, 
flower), truly terminal ; ~ FloWer, 
B terminal flower which springs 
immediately from the apex of a 
shoot which has produced leaves 
or other lateral structures ; ^ 


by Delpino to denote a mono- 
thalamio flower, the reverse beiog 
psECDANTuic; Eucayotln ( + Cako- 
Tis), Zopf employs this to mark the 
yellow carotin as distinct from 
the red ; euoarp'ic ^sapiris, fruit), 
applied to certain Alaae whore 
part only of the body of the plant 
goes to form the sporangium, in 

(iiijiXoi, a circle), when Boi 
composed of alternalo isi 
wborU ; Engam'optiyte (Tttuor, 
marriage, ^itdv, a plant), term 
proposed by C. Macmillan for such 
Cryptogama as OeJoi/oiiiiim, Mar- 
chaiUia, Sphagnv,m, "whieh sup- 
port dependent tporophytea." 



Ba'gniud, the chief constituent of oil 
of doves, obtained from Pimenta 
acriSf Koetel., and other myrtace- 
oos plants, formerly referred to 

engeog^enouB (e9, well, 7^, the earth, 
yevpdu, I brin^ forth), Thormann's 
word to indicate rocks readily 
yielding detritus and the plants 
which grow on it ; Bunu'deole 
(+NuoLioiiK), used by Rosen for 
an erythrophilous nucleus ; Bolsog'- 
amy (to/ms, marriage), the union 
of a gamete with any other similar 
gamete (Hartog). 

Bapato'iliie, an alkaloid ooourring in 
ifupatoriwn carmabinumt Linn. 

Baj^hor'tiLum, an acrid inspissated 
juice or resin from various species 
of EttpharbicL, 

•upbotomat'rlo (e9, well, ^<at, ^6t, 
light, fifrpoy, a measure), used of 
IcAves which place themselves so 
as to obtain the maximum of dif- 
fused light, as the foliage of forests 

Ba'phyllB (e9, well, ^v\Ko¥, a leaf), 
true leaves, foliage leaves; eu- 
pby'told {4>vr6y, a plant; elffos, 
like) Far'asltes, are erect land 
pluits, parasitic in habit (Johow) ; 
•a'sOhlst (0x^<^of, split), when a 
gamete is formed by successive com- 
plete divisions from the parent- 
oell, the Gametogonium (Hartog) ; 
enspoxang'iate (<nropd, seed, dyyeioy, 
a vessel), in Pteridophytes, possess- 
ing a sporangium, a Eusporan'glum, 
derived from a group of superficial 
cells; BoBporopli^ta (^vrdy, aplant), 
Cryptogams defined by C. Mac- 
millan as ** self-supporting, and do 
not nurse the gametophvtes,e.^. the 
higher mosses, the lower fem- 
worte and club-mossos " ; Bu'itathe 
t (rraSfioSf abode), ''the external 
layer of a cell " (Lindley). 

BatliylMUi'id (emt, direct), Van 
Tieghem's word for those basidia 
which spring directly from the 
sporophore ; </. Pbobasid ; Buthy- 
morpli'oiis (ji6p4>writ, a shaping), 
the rapid succession of members of 

different form on the same stem, 
buds, etc., polymorphism (Camel). 

•a'tliysohist {cMs, immediately, 
ffXiffToSf split), brood-division, when 
each nuclear division is accom- 
panied by cell division (Hartog). 

eatrop'ic (eff, weU, Tp6roSf direction), 
A. Cray's word for twining with 
the sun, that is, left to right, 
dextrorse; Bu'tropy, applied bv 
M'Leod to those flowers to which 
only a restricted class of specialised 
insects can gain access. 

fvalv'ls, evalv'nlar (e, priv., vcUtxi, 
leaf of a door), destitute of valves, 
not opening by them. 

evmnes'cent (evanescena, vanishing), 
soon disappearing, lasting only a 
short time; evaiiisoen'tl-Yeno'sas, 
when the lateral veins of a leaf do 
not reach the margin. 

Bvapora'tlon {evaporation vapouris- 
ing), to pass off in vapour. 

•'▼en, without inequalities of sur- 
face; B'yemiess, absence of eleva- 
tions or depressions ; eyenpin'nate 
= ABRUPTLY-piNNATB (Crozicr) ; 
er'ergreen, bearing green foliage 
all the year ; eyerlast'lng, used of 
some flowers which preserve their 
shape and colour in drying, as 
species of Onaphaliumy Jueltchry- 
sum, eta 

ever'nlaefonn {/otrma, shape), like 
the thallus of Evemiay a genus of 
Lichens ; Ever'nine, a principle 
found in the same genus; evem- 
told {etdotf like), resembling 

Ever'sion {everaio, an overthrowing), 
protrusion of organs from a cavity, 
turned backward or outward ; 
evert'ed, turned inside out. 

ev'ident {evidena, manifest), clearly 

erit'tate, evUta'tus (e, priv., vUta, a 
fillet), not having Vittae, oil- 
reservoirs in the fruit of Umbelli- 

•'▼olute {evolvo, I roU forth), unfold- 
ed, turned back ; Bvolu'tion, (1) 
the act of development; (2) the 
theory according to which complex 


wheD a 

vowel fol 

ows ; too 

= out- 




destitute of al- 

of seeds 

the embrva occupies the 



within the 

tesU; ai 



^ (ilal-us, w 

liged), wi 



(Lai., raiaeiT high) 



ita {ii, a 

ul of, i-B-t, a 


blotches o 

leaves, e 

to., as 

though eruptive ; Exantti'tiini t 
hractlels of the last degree, io- 
oapabla of forming axillary buds, 
and immediately eiternnl to tha 

esaJD'nulats (tx, priv., mmulu*. a 
ring), used of Ferns which do not 
poosega an elastic ring round their 
HporanRia; •xapopbrta'tiu ( + Apo- 
FiiYHis), destitute of an apophysis, 
or Bweliing below the capaule of a 

•z'sTaU (if, out of, ipx^- origin), used 
of vascular bundles in which the 
whole primary wood in oenlripotal. 
almost the same as periiylio. 

•XAr'eoIats, eseanola'tM (ej;, priv., + 
ABBuLAina), not epaoed out or 
marked into amall areaH ; exar'll- 
lata ( 4- Abilla), without an aril ; 
Bxar'Utat«,rjarM(a7tui(4- Abibta), 
destitute of awns. 

esas'perate, tjiuptra't'i» (Lat., rough- 
snwi), rough with hard projecting 

e {fx 

i, hollowed I 

ceiiiTum, the cuotro), oi 
out of the centre, ahaiial, 
Bi'dple, Bi'dpula (Crosier), 
Itliun, Hxr-ip uiiis {rxcipttla, a basin). 



thslluB of certain Lichens, which 
have a qbjtow openiof; : the por- 
tion of thallus which forms thu 
rim round the base of apothecia. 
Exdtahll'ily, EjxitabU'itiui (excitatwi. 

routed), the faculty of responding 
to exl«rnsl stimuli. 
axcrss'oent (&ccn!A:«iL', growing out), 
growing in an unnatural wny, as a 
wart or other outgrowth ; Exotm'- 
eeno*, a gnaur or wart on the stem 

of a 

D Ifix. out of, e\ 


ism ; (2) the thing itaelf sicretod, 
as gum, resin, honey, etc.; ■znu'- 
rent, wcu^'ren. (Lat., running), (1) 
running through to the apex and 
beyond as a m uoro ; (2) where the 
stem remaios central, the other 
parts lieing regularly disposed 
round it ; ~ Vtna'tlon, in F ems, 
when the veinlot is directed out- 


:,, (ySor, 


vwipiio., seed), used of seeds 
which have reserve material stored 
in the embryo. 

eKB'*iu:::(Lat., eaten away), applied 
to a Burface irregularly sculptured 
as though by corrosion. 

•ztO'Uate (cj:, from, /o/iuTn, a leaf), to 
come away in scales or flakeH, as 
the bark of the Plane ; ExfoUa'- 
tlon, peeling off. 

ezha'laut (exAo/o, I exhale), breathing 
out, as szhalau'tlaTa'sa; imaginary 
vessels in the epidermis, aotaally 
the sides of confluent cells ; Ei- 
haia'tlon, tlie function discharged 
by stflmnta in passing olT vapour. 

•dg'uoiu, fxiifnvf iLat., scanty), 
small and narrow, mean. 

•iJ'lls (Lat.), thin, meagre ; lank and 

azim'liu (Lat., distiagDished), ei- 
oellent for size for beauty. 

■xlndn'slate, tiindiuna'tim (ex, priv., 
+ indcsutj:), without an indu- 
sium, the membrane which oovera 
the torus in Ferns. 


fix'tntlne [m. out, -t- Intuib), the 
middle coat of a pollen -grain, that 

.t the m 



ing of MxsiSTEM "thickening ring" 
and Pebistbm, young cortex ; it is 
the tissue of protomeristem which 
is not young pith. 
Bz'oclilte {H<^, outside, x^'^'^t a tunic), 
the outermost membrane of the egg 
in Fucaceae (Farmer) ; Exooor'tex, 
{corieXf bark), a special triple layer 
in the roots of saprophytic Orchids ; 
£xoderm'i8 {iepfm, skin), the outer- 
most cortioed layer of the adult 
root, answering to the hypoderma 
of the stem. 

I'mum {H, out, olffdu), I issue), 
a fringe or tuft of hair at the base 
of the glumes in some grasses 
(Richard); exocatad'romoiu ( + 
GATADBOMOUS), whou Foms in their 
nervation have their stronger 
pinnules anadromous, and their 
weaker catadromous ( Prantl ) ; 
Bxog'amy (ydfioSf marriage), the 
tendency of closely allied gametes to 
avoid pairing; exog'enoiui exo^ent£« 
{y€vydu, I brine forth), (1) growing 
as the wood of Dicotyledons ; (2) 
arising from superficial tissue; 
Imogens, Exog^enae^ plants which 
increase in srowth bv the addition of 
wood on the outsiae beneath the 
constantly widening bark ; Bxog'y- 
noiu, exoffynua (Yvirfr, woman), where 
the style is exserted beyond the 
flower; Bxoisog'amy ( + Isooamt), 
when a gamete will pair only 
with a similar gamete of another 
brood (Hartoff) ; exonas'tlc {vaaroSf 
pressed dose), in anatropous or 
oampylotropous ovules when the 
curvature is horizontal towards 
the median nerve of the side of 
the upper face of the carpel 
(Van Tieffhem) ; (/. bndonastio ; 
Exoneurow {yiipoVf a nerve), the 
separation of veins in appendicular 
organs, and their reappearance as 
teeth, spines, or bristles, as in the 
Barberry (Clos) ; Exoperid'ium ( + 
PsRiDiUM), the outer layer of the 
peridium of such Fungi as Lyccmer- 
don, which peels or flakes off on 
maturity ; exopbyll'oiu -ua (^vXXoy, 
a leaf), not having a foliaceous 

sheath, with naked cotyledons ; 
exop'tUe, exop'tUis (irr/Xoy, a 
wing) = EXOPHYLLOUS, said of 
an embryo whose plumule is naked 
upon, or between cotyledons and 
not rolled up in one (Lindley); 
Bxorhi'sae (/&t^a, a root), = Exoobns ; 
exorhi'sal, exorhizalist the radicle 
not sheathed, so the primary root 
in germination has no covering to 
pierce; Eroafmo9e,Exo8nio^si8{ijl)<r/i6s, 
a thrusting), the passage through a 
membrane outwards from a thin to 
a dense fluid ; Exosdero'tee (o-jcXiypof, 
hard), sderotia which are external 
to the surface of Agarics ; Ex'- 
ospore, Exogpor^iutn {axopd, seed), 

(1) the outer covering of the spore ; 

(2) a thick coat developed from the 
periplasm round the oospore in 
Peronosporeae ; exos'porons, hav- 
ing scattered spores, as Fungi ; Ex'- 
ostome, Exost'oma (o-ro/xa, a mouth), 
the foramen of the outer coat of the 
ovule; Exosto'sls {6<rrioVy bone), 
(1) the nodules on roots of Legumi- 
nosae ; (2) the hard turgescence of 
sound wood, showing as prominent 
knots; Exosty'lns % (+ Stylus), 
Mirbel's word for fruit as in 
Labiatae, four seemingly naked nut- 
lets; Exothe'clun(^i)ir?7,acase), (1) 
the outer case of the anther 
(Henslow, Ldndley) ; (2) Purkinje's 
term for the extine or outer 
layer of poUen-erains. 

exoter'ic {e^urepiKos, external), aris- 
ing from outside the organism, the 

opposite of SSOTERIO. 

exotic {i^bJT^Kot, foreign), not native, 
introduced from abroad ; Exotics 
are those plants which are not in- 

exotropblo (e^o;, out of ,rpo0i),nouriBh- 
ment), employed by Wiesner where 
an organ or lateral shoot, as op- 
posed to the mother-shoot, is most 
strongly developed ; Exot'rophy, 
development of lateral shoots 
instead of the main axis. 

expand'ed, txpan'sua (Lat. spread 
out), diffuse ; Expan'sion, the con- 
dition of a flower in full perfection ; 


~ of protopliiain, the Dormal con- 
dition when it u impermeable 
to oell-Bsp, the oppouita of con- 
traotion, when it is flscoid and 

•rpUnftta, fxplanu'liui (Lat.,fiattened 
out), Bpreod out Oat. 

•xpul'dve ( crpu/jfTu. driven out) 
Fruits, fruits whioh foraibljr ex- 
pel their seedfl. 

ncqnlil'tut t (l^t., choice), used of 
I>artBlargeror mora highly ooloared 
than asuat, u Bracteae txquifitae; 
r/. Coma. 

«X>Olll'ptiu(Lat.,aarved Dut],HhowiiiK 
imtM depresstonB oa though dag 
out, ai the seeds of A achiim. 

•xurt', asMTt'Ml. txKrt'vx (Lat., pro- 
truded), protruding beyond, kb 
atameoB beyond the tube of the 

EzBloon'tli [ezMccalu!, dry), dried 
plante, usually in Bets for i»le or 
eabscribers, frequently with printed 

•uttp'nlaM, exslijiiila'tM l_rr, priv., 
' -I- Stipdi-a). wanting stipalee. 

•nua'coua, tJ^ur'ntg (Lat. ). juioeloaa. 

BxtHUlb'iUtr (u-leiuiu, spread out), 
having the property of stretching. 

•xtasuft'tDa (Lai., thinned), a By. 
nonym of virqatds (Henelow). 

exten'sni (Lat, ), spread out. 

•xte'rlor (Lat., outer), outer ; in the 
flower BometimeB^ANTBBloH. 

•xtani'al, exitm'wi (Lst.), outirard ; 
~ Sheath, a modification of the 
bundle- aheath. stated to oi'eur in 
FerDB (RuBsow). 

Bl'Une {extimae, outaide + ine), the 
outer coat of a pollen-grain. 

•x'trii (Let.), without, beyond, as 
ez'tra azlll'ary, " -axiila'ria, be- 
yond, or out of the axil : ~ 
osll'ulOT, outtide a cell ; — fu. 
clc'ular, outaide the vascular 
bundles ; ~ flor'al, beyond the 

folla'asouB, away from the leaves. 
or inserted in a diflVrent puaition 
from th^m; -- niat'rlcal, nuuide 
of a nidus or matrix ; ~ ma'dUn, 
bsyond the middle ; ~ tem'liuil, 

outside the seed, ae ~ ~ tMvel'op- 
ment, fallowing the sowing of the 
seed, as the escape of the embryo, 
etc. ; - Ble'Iar, the groond-tiaaue 
outside the central cylinder. 
Sxtr&meabil'lty (extra, beyond, mta- 
hi/in, penetrable), the capacity of 
protoptoem to permit sabstanoM to 
pass outwards from its vacuoles 


«zb«'TluB (, outward), placed o 

the 01 


•xtlAtrap'lcal {extra, without, + 
Tbopk), beyond the tropics, to the 
north or south of them ; extr&va- 
gl'ual {ragina, a sheath), beyond 
or oiztside the sheath, applied l« 
branches springing from buds, 
which break through the sheath of 
the subtending lenf, chiefly in 
grasses ; ExtravMa'tlon {iv, a 
vessel], unnatural flow of u liquid 
from a tissue or organ, as the 
"bleeding" of vines. 

es'trona, txtror^iau {ulerag. on the 
outside, rvrHim, towards), directed 
outward, as the dehiscence of an 

ei'tus, a modern term - extba ; 
iiimilar in form to ir'iu, but not 
clasHic Latin. 

Kniia.'Uoii{tj:iiJoortrsiido, I sweat), 
the transpiration of liquids from 
hydsthodes. etc., as seen on the 
leaf-lips of Munocolyledons, 

exnngnlc'iila.te [n, priv. unffuia, a 
claw), without a claw (Crozier). 

sn'Uve {exuCuj; drawn off), applied 
to seeds wanting the usual integu- 

£ia'Tii« (Lat., stripped oiT clothing), 
cost off parts, as shed scales ; Bxu- 
vls'tlon, the operation of shedding 
effete material. 

Ky», (1) a gardener's name for an un- 
developed bud ; {2) the persitteut 
oalyi: of a pome, r/ CaoWN ; (,3) a 
conspicuous spot in a flower, at n 
blotch of colour 1 ~ Spot (1) a 
coloured spot in a motile gamete 
or spore, nhicb is seoaitive to 
light ; (2) markines on the siliuious 
valve of CoM-ittoiiiKtii, consisting 



of an apertnre with a thickened 
margin in each alveole. 

fiOMi'oeoiu, -eus (/aha, a bean,+ 
aoeous), like a bean, or having its 
qtudities ; fitblform'lB (forma), ap- 
plied to Lichen spores which are 

Flaoe, that surface of an organ which 
is opposed to the back, osnally the 
upper or inner side. 

Fa'eiM (Lat., shape), the general 
aspect of a plant. 

UMtfioru, faetifiua (Lat.), artificial. 

fko'nltatlTe {faetdUu, capability), oc- 
casional, incidental, as opposed to 
oblioatb; '^ An'aiSrobes, organisms 
which can exist without the pre- 
sence of free oxvgen or air ; <^ 
Far'asltes, normally saprophytes, 
but able to develop as parasites ; '^ 
Bap'rophjrtes, the converse of the 
last, parasites which can run their 
course as saprophytes ; *^ 8ym'- 
Uont, an organism which can either 
exist and reach maturity independ- 
ently or in symbiosis with another. 

fa'dlng, withering, without imme- 
diately falling away. 

Fae'onla, see fScitla. 

FUiy-ring, a circular patch of 
Agarics which have srown centri- 
fu«dly, and whose influence on the 
sou is shown by greener grass after 
they have disappeared. 

fU'oate, falca'tuB ( Lat. ), sickle- 
shaped ; fUoa'rluB, fUoator^ius, are 
Latm synonyms ; fkl'dform, falei- 
farm'is (foUx, a sickle, forma, 
shape), sickle-like. 

FUl of the Leaf, defoliation, casting 
off the leaves, as done in temperate 
climates by deciduous trees in 

False, /o/'tftM (Lat., untrue), spurious, 
having a specious resemblance ; 
t^ Axia, a pseudaxis, see 8rM- 
PODiUM ; ^ Bark, a layer on the 
outside of endogens of cellalar 
tissue, into which fibrous tissue 
passes obliquely; y Dlchot'omy, 
a dichasium, in which the lateral 
axes are two ; -^ Dlssep'iment, a 

partition which does not arise from 
the edges of carpels, but some form 
of cellular tissue ; •^ Foot, the base 
of the seta in some Bryophytes, 
which becomes dilated ; '^ Fmit, a 
pseudocarp, as a Strawberry; 
'^ Indu'sinni, the recurved margin 
of some Fern-pinnules, which 
serves to protect the sori ; ^ Par- 


f^ Raceme' = Heliooid Ctms ; 
^ Tls'soe, hyphal or mycelial 
felted tissue; fidslner'vls (nertms, 
a nerve), when nerves are formed 
of cellular tissue, without fibro- 
vascular bundles, as in Mosses. 

Fam'Uy, FamU'ia, = Ordeb. 

fim-nerved, havina; the nerves dis- 
posed in the fashion of a fan, 
radiating from the base ; ^shaped, 
flabelliform ; ^veined, = '^nerved. 

farc'tata,/arc7tM (Lat., stuffed), filled 
up, not hollow or tubular. 

fii'xlam, =in rows, as bi-fariam, in 
two rows, etc. 

Fari'na (Lat., meal), (1) Blair's term 
for pollen ; (2) starch, or starchy 
matter ; farina'ceous ( + aceous), 
of the nature of starch, or contain- 
ing starch; far^inose, farino'suSf 
(1) covered with a mealiness ; (2) 
Mohl's term for the cellulose of 

Fas'oia (Lat., a band), pi. Fas'dae, a 
cross-band, as of colour. 

fksda'lis, fasc'iata, fascia'tus {fascis, 
a bundle), used of the condition of 
a stem when several have coalesced ; 
Fasda'tlon, a band or bundle caused 
by a monstrous growth of stems into 

fiuda'riuB (Lat., band-like), banded, 
or band-shaped, narrow and long, 
with parallel margins, as in sea- 

Fas'clde, Faacic'vlus (Lat., a little 
bundle), a close cluster or bundle 
of flowers, leaves, stems or roots ; 
fiudc'ular, faacicula'risy fas'cided, 
fascicuLa'tuSy connected or drawn 
into a fascicle ; fasdc'ular Cambium, 
is that portion which belongs to 
the vascular bundles; ^ Tls'sue, 


— Syit'em = Gbro-ToscularayBtoin; 
~ Xr'Iem = hadrome, the wood- 
elements of B bundle ; (udeli'rta, 
ftMlola'tui. fasciated. 
autVlAte. /ui(imo'(iw l/aiCigium, a 
slope, a gable ), { 1 } paraUel, 
clustered and erect, utliebrsnehee 
of Popnlan foMigiata (Linn.); (2) 
fnqueDtly used aa if it meant the 
■ante sa foDoiute ; PaiUBla'tlon, 
when branches become more or 
lesB parallel with the maio 

Fat-en'ijme, an unorganized ferment 
which breaks up oOb and fata. 

FKther-pluit, in favbrids, the pollen- 
parent or male element. 

F&tlgue-sabatancel, Recnitzer's name 
for bodies thrown off the plant, 
whiob act in a reatrainiuK or poieon- 
ons waf on its own life; Qerm., 

Fan'cei <Lat., the throat), pi., the 
throat of a gamopetaloua corolla ; 
Faux, singular, is an assumed word. 

FATalls (T a diminutive of fnvia, 
honeycomb), the ooneeptiiole of 

»Ctnimi«m, a dense terminal agalo- 
meraLion of sporei within a thin 
ooloorless membrane ; flLTe'oIate, 
favtola'tiK (perhaps from fapu^, 
honey-comb), honej-conibed, alveo- 
lat« : FaTSIlid'lniD ((fSiov. dimiou- 

n»UU, PaTmiiUam.'Lindley'«erron. 

eoua Rpellini; of Favuxa, and 

|h'»oia./a"o'»H* (Lttt.), honey -oomhed, 
as the receptAclea of many Com- 
positae ; fttTD'aaareola'tui, mapped - 
out into spaces, suggestive of the 
oavities of boney-i^omb ; — detda'- 
oens, seeming honey -com bed after - 
dehiscence, as the anther of I'is- 
funi ; faTo'sulUB, somewhat honoy- 
oombed ; F«'»QB, a akin disease 
caused by Achorion Schoeidtrinii , 

f«*tb'er-Telned, with Bscondary veins 
pnweeding from the midrib, penni* 

Mtli'ei7, plumose, with lon^ haira 
which are hairy themselves. 

Pe'oolft (faecula, wine-lees), starch or 
similar substances ; tt'coignt, thick 
with sediment (Crozier). 

Focunila'tlon {fteando. to make fruit- 

ing as a temporary oj 
tion ; (3) used by Via 
" toot " of Sdaginrlia. 
reU'eu (Lat., full of eall), bitter aa 

fslt'ad, matted with intertwined hairs; 
— TlB'aue, hypha! tiasue not regu- 
larly united, but more or leas grown 
together ; syn. Tela conijsxta. 

fe'maJe.tbefruitingelement in plants, 
the pistil and its analogues, arche- 
gonia, oospheras. eta., shown Ijy 9. 

femln'soB (Lat., womooly), female, 
aa Flos — , H Uower which containa 

FatUM, Withoring's word for Ihvol- 

Fenea'tn [Lat., a window), an open- 
ing through a membrane ; fsnes'' 
trats, finfUra'liu, finr-ara-lu. 

(Br, Latin suflii from ft™, I bear; 
occurs in such words as Jtori/er, 
bearing flowers ; aometimea found 
as -tenia, which ia very rarely cor- 

tt'm '{fera. a. wild animal), wild, or 
iudigcnouB ; not cultivated. 

Fn'mest {firmenlum, leaven), a sub- 
stiuice which produces or excites 
chemical changes, but not iteelf 
appreciably contributing t« the new 
producta. Fermentamayhedivided 
into (a) organised ~, such as yeast 
and other SchiEOmycetea, and {h) 
unorganised ~, or enzymes; the 
Utter are related to and apparently 
derived from the proteids ; their 
composition is not absolutely 
hnown, and their names are ns- 
nally derived from the sources 
whence they are derived ; diastase, 
invertaio, papain, etc, ; FarmentB'- 
Uon, the catalytic operation of 



ferments, particularized as aoe'tlo 
^, produced by Bacterium Aceti, 
Lanzi; alcohorio ^^^ by yeast, 
and similar organisms ; batyr'iC'^', 
by a Vibrio ; lac'tlc '*' , bjr which 
BUffars are turned into acids ; an- 
other classification is (1) diastat'lo 
'^ , converting starch into sugar ; (2) 
ferments which decompose gluco- 
sides with production of sugar, 
such as emulsin; (3) ferments 
which convert cane-suffar into glu- 
oose, as invertase; (4) and those 
which convert proteids into 
peptones, or peptto *^, such as 
papain . 

Forrobacte'rla (ferrum, iron, + Bag- 
tkbium), bacteria which oxidize 
ferrous to ferric salts. 

fermgln'eoas, -eti^, ferm'ginoiu, fer- 
rugino'sus (/errugo, rust), ruet- 
coloured ; ferruginas'cens (Lat.), 
becoming rusty ; Ferm'go (Lat. ), a 
disease in plants known also as 
" Rust," due to the Uredo stage of 
various species of Pucci'nia, 

Ux^tHBf fert'ilis (Lat.), capable of pro- 
ducing fruit ; '^ Flow'en, female 
flowers, those which possess pistils ; 
'^ Bta'mens, those bearing pollen 
which fecundates the ovules ; Fer- 
tiliia'tlon, Fertili^a'tiOy impregna- 
tion of the ovules by pollen ; ^^ 
Tube, the channel by which gono- 
plasm passes from the antheridium 
to the oogonium in Peronosporeae ; 
Close ^ , breeding in - and - in, or 
successive progeny of closely re- 
lated parents ; Cross '^ , progeny by 
other forms not of close affinity. 

f emla'ceous, /eru/a'cMM (Lat.) (1) re- 
sembling the genus Ferula ; (2) per- 
taininff to reeds or canes, or being 
formed like them, hollow. 

Fervida'rium {/ervidus, boiling hot), 
applied in botanic gardens to the 

fiss'tncine, straw-coloured, as the dry 
culm of Featuca ; fes'tucous, formed 
of straw. 

fe'tidUB = FOETIDUS. 

Fl'lire, Fi'bra (Lat.), (1) a fine thread 
or filament, chambered or woody ; 

(2) the fusiform cells of the inner 
bark ; (3) the ultimate rootlets ; 
tfemenf axy '^ , the thread in a spiral 
vessel, secondary deposit in a spiral; 
fl'lirlform {forma, shape), fibre- 
shaped; Fi'bril, Fibrill'a, diminu- 
tive of Fibre; '^ of Nu'clens = 
Chbomosomb ; fl'briUata, Jibril- 
la'tus, fl'tarlllOM, fl'brillonfl,/J^7^'- 
n<«, furnished with fibres, as roots, 
or having a finely lined appearance ; 
'^'Lajr'er, two outer layers of closely 
woven hyphae in Geaster; f^Mjctf- 
lium=FiB&ous Mycelium; Fi'brlii 
(vegetable), occurs in gluten, has 
no fibrous structure as animal fibrin, 
but forms when dry a tough, homy 
mass; fl'bro-celliilar, ** composed 
of spiral cells " ; '^ va'sal (Crozier) 
= '^ ▼asc'nlar, tissue of mixed 
vessels and fibres; f^ Bon'dle, 
or Vascular Bundle, an association 
of vessels characteristic of the 
higher plants, usually consisting 
of phloiim and xylem elements, 
often surrounded by a special layer 
of ceUs known as the bundle -sheath; 
'^ Cord, proposed by Strasburger 
for the simimr structure in mono- 
cotyledons ; '^ Cyl'lnder, the central 
ovlinder ; '^ Sys'tem, the whole of 
the fibrous portion of a plant, ex- 
clusive of the purely cellular struc- 
tures ; Flbrole'ln, Fayod's term for 
a very delicate membrane of the 
spirals of protoplasm (hyaloplasm) ; 
fl'broiu, fl'brose, Jibro'sua, having 
much woody fibre, as the rind of 
a Coco-nut ; Fl'brons - myce'lium, 
when the hyphae form long branch- 
ing strands ; Fi'brose, Fr^my's tfrm 
for the substance of woody fibre, a 
variety of cellulose. 

Fl'brosin, a reserve substance re- 
sembling Fibrose, found by Zopf 
in the conidia of certain Fungi, 
in the form of rounded flattened 
discs, embedded in the protoplasm ; 
'^ Bodies, the discs described ; 
fl'bry, used by Loudon for fibrous. 

Filrala (Lat., a buckle), a cylindrical 
podetium, terminated by apothecia. 

Addle-shaped, panduriform. 


^V ea] 

I4diu, Lktin suSix lor cleft, oa fn- 

j!du», 3-cleft. 
'flg.liisecit, the fertilizing agent in 
eaprificalion, BtajtUtpkaga. 

fl'U (pi. of jUii.m, atkrawl), addnafr 
or'li, the abortive "pialiUidia" 
of MoBtea; ~ mcenlent'a, para- 

niunmt, Fila«\fntum (JUian, a, 
thread) ; (1) the aUlk of an &nlher. 
the thread-like stum; (2) anj 
thread-like bod; ; flluiielLt'a o*- 
tlola'rla, delicate oolourloaa tlireads 
lining the poritbeoium round tbo 
epithecium of Vtrruearia ; Ua- 
tDBnt'oui, filametLt'oH, JUavunto'- 
9U«, formed of filameDts or fibres ; 
~ PoQB'n*, growth form from a 
hfpha wiihoQt union with the 
hypbae ; ~ Myoe'llBni = yiBttous 
MycELiiTM; ~ Spor'opbors, = 
iimple eporophore; ~ Thol'lua^ 
v&UTicoSE TUALLUS ; Fllar-plaiaia 
(rXdir/ia, moulded), t^traaburgur'a 
term for KtNorLASM ; aia'iiatii 
(Crozier) = vilamkntous ; Ala'tna 
(Ul,) = vmOATca. 

niM, B series of iVaincu/a-like fruat- 
ulea as in Micromtga. 

U'leoid (filix, a fern, tltoi, like), fern- 
like ; FUlool'ogr (^ayat, diHsourse], 

= PriCHlIlOUMtT. 

ai'ltarm, jUiform'u l^utn, a thread, 
Jamta, shape), thread-shaped ; ~ 
Appara'tQi, the upper ends oF the 
■ynergidae. whtch pierue through 
and are prolooged beyond I lie 
Burnmit of the embryo sao ; flllpsn- 
d'nlous. -lut {ptttduian, hanging 
down), having tuberous Bwellinga 
in the middle or end of filiform 
roots ; FilobaoM'rla [ + Bactebicm), 
tbroad-ltke bacteria ; ll'loae, ending 
in a Ihreail-like process (Crorier). 

nm'twia i.L.<,i., fringe), (1) a fringe; 
(2) an elistio- toot bed membrane 
beneaLli tlie operculum of mosses ; 
flm'brlate, fimhria'tas, with the 
margin bordered bj long slender 
processes ;Bm'brloaw = fimbbiate 
(Croxiar) ; Plmbrll'lA, a diminutive 
fringe ; DmbrU'UtB. fimhriUa'Iwi, 
having Gmbrillae ; Qmbrmifarons, 

^^^L fringe ; Dm 
^^^B having Gmb 


-ma, -with many little fringes as 
the receptacle of the Compoaitae. 

BmeM'ilui (/nicriiMJ, a dunghill], 
growing on or amongst dong. 

Flnger-aad-toa, a disease in Cruoi- 
fers caused by Plamnodiophora 
Braxsicac, Woron. ;— Clubbing or 

ang'sred, digitate. 

Plmllng.Cell, from the Qerm. Erat- 
lingi^lle. the first of a new genera- 
tion from an auxoapore in Diatoms. 

Hs'sUe. jif'nilin (Lat.), tending to 

splitting ; ■ 
cetaa ; FUaip'ai 
forth), the act of multiplicalion 
among the lower forms by breaking 
up into living portions ; flsilp'aroai, 
dividing int > two or more divigioaa 
by splitting: Di'mt (Lat., split), 
split or divided half-way. 
Fla'tola (Lat.). a pipe; ~(plrft'Ili= 
Thachba ; fli'tular.fls'talase.jisfu- 
lo'aaa, fls'tulous, holiow throughout 
ita length as the leaf and stem of 

lUlMllate, JtabeUaftiit (/abtUum, a 
fan), fan-ehaped, dilated in a wedge- 
shaped, snmetimes plaited : Habelll- 
fOTm.fiabellt/brnt'inljoj-nvi, shape), 
shaped as a fan ; flabelUner'vad 
{nerval, a nerve), radiate- veined. 

lljw'oia, Jlac'cidiu (liflt.), withered 
and limp, flabby. 

Flacherle (Fr.), a disease in silk- 
worm cansed by MicnKorxuii Bom- 
by^iH, Cohn. 

flag'ellate, JtagrUa'liu {fingeUam, 
a whip), provided with whip-like 
runners ; Bbgalla'rU, having oreep- 
ing aarinenta ; Oag'sUary, caused 
by dagella, Be the motion of 
Eoospores(Urozier)i PUgerinm, pi, 
Flag^'l& (1) a runner or sarmen- 
turn, branchleta in MoaseH ; \2) the 
whip-like prooess of the protoplasm 
of a Bwarmapora ; (3) similar organs 
in the cells of some Schizorojcetea ; 
flagol'llfonn, yTd^f^/i/orm'u {/onnn, 



shape), (1) resemblmg a nmner, or 
(2) lash-like, as the cilia of zoo- 

Flag'oii-sluiped (Loudon), nsed for 

Flake, a neotariferoos gland ; fla'ky, 

flame - coloured, fiam'mtus (Lat.), 
fiery red. 

Flank-ciuyatiire, unequal growth of 
climbers, Germ. <' Flanken-Kriim- 
mung"; Flanks, the lateral sur- 
faces of a bilateral body. 

Flask, the utricle of Cartx ; flask- 
sliaped, having the form of a 
Florence flask, somewhat globular, 
with a drawn out neck. 

Flats, proposed equivalent for the 
German " Etagenbildung." 

Flattening (1) the fasciation of a 
stem; (2) the production of a 

Flave'do (Lat. ), yellowness, a disease 
in which the green parts have be- 
come yellow. 

flaves'cent, flavufcena (Lat.), veUow- 
ish, becoming yeUow; flaMcans, 
fla'vidus (Lat.), somewhat yellow ; 
fla'vo-vi'rens (Lat.), yellowish 
green; fla'yoiis,^'inM, nearly pure 
yellow, a bright clear hue. 

Flee'dness, villosity. 

Flesh, the soft parts, as the flesh of 
apples or pears ; flesh'y, succu- 

flexed {flexuSf bent), used of Diatoms 
which appear as though bent ; 
flex'ible, jCsxfilUf flexil/Uis, capable 
of beinff bent, but elastic enough 
to be able to resume its original 
figure; flez'uose, JUxno'sus, flez'- 
oous, bent alternately in opposite 
directions, zigzag; Flez'are, the 
" bend " of Diatoms. 

floating, borne on the surface of 

Floo'd, pi. of Floo'cus (Lat., a lock of 
wool), locks of soft hair or wool ; 
floo'oose, Jlocco*8U8, bearing flocci, 
f^ Mycelium, = fibrou s Mtoelium ; 
fLoo'cnleialyjiocculerU'us, diminutive 


Flo'ra (Lat., goddess of flowers), (1) 

the aggregate plants of a country 
or district, (2) a work which con- 
tains an enumeration of them ; 
Flo'rae horolo'glnm, a floral dock, 
certain plants arranged in the 
order of the hours of opening or 
dosing ; flo'ral, flora'lia, belong to 
flowers ; ^ Di'agram, a drawing to 
show the relative position and 
number of the constituent parts ; 
^ Bn'velopes, the perianth leaves, 
calyx and corolla ; ^ Olmne, the 
lower glume of the flower in 
grasses ; flowering glume (Beal) ; 
'^ Leaf = Bract ; Flores'cenoe, 
Flortacen'tiaj anthesis, the period 
of flowering ; Flo'ret, a small flower, 
one of a cluster, as in Gompositae ; 
floribnn'dus (abundua, = produc- 
tion of present activity), abound- 
ing in flowers ; Floricul'ture {cul- 
tura, cultivation), cultivation of 
flowers, flower gardening ; Flor'ie, 
Grew's word for perianth. 

flo'rifer (Lat.), floriferous, flower- 
bearing ; florlferae Gem'mae, flower 
buds; Florlflca'tion, the act or 
time of flowering. 

flor'iform {floa, floris, a flower ; 
forma^ shape), shaped like a 
flower ; Flo'rllege (%o, I gather), 
a treatise on flowers ; florip'aroufl 
-tM {parioy I bring forth), (1) pro- 
ducing flowers, (2) a monstrosity 
producing other flowers instead 
of fruit; Flo'rist, (1) a cultivator 
of flowers, especially those vari- 
able forms known as florist's 
flowers, (2) a writer of a Flora, 
(3) in foreign usage *' Florist'* 
means a local botanist; Flo'mla, 
(1) a small flora, (2) the botanic 
account of a small district ; flo'ru- 
lent, flowery; flo'rus, in composition 
means flowered, as uni-florus, one- 
flowered ; Flos (Lat.), an assem- 
blage of the organs essential for 
fertilization, as stamens and pistils, 
with some protecting envelope ; <-* 
A'quae, floating Algae, as BimUaria 
fluiianSf Gohn ; <-* compos'itus t = 
Gapitulum ; ^ ple'nus, a double 
flower, where the stamens or pis- 


both, are oonverled into 
peUila ; ffloa'cular, floi'calooB, fio'- 
eiiio'ms (1) rGlntinfi lo BoiiiIb or 
llowigra, or [iraaenting many 
florets ; (2) with luhular floratg. 
Flos'cole, F1os*cu]imi (Blair), t'los- 
cu/iui, a little flower, a. II ore t ; 
Sam'l • floB'cuIe a aompiMite Boret ; 
Flow, llie dowD in certain Com- 
poaitoe, as Thistle-down ; nnuUt- 
a'tian, floweriog, expoDHion of 

non'riili, Blnir'fl word for a disk' 
floret of Compocitoe ; ludt ~ the 
iame for ligulate florets. 

n«ir'er, deflned under Flos ; - Bnl, 
ux noeipanded flower, as diitinct 
from k leaf-bud ; ~ BMd, a cluster 
o' flowers, ns the Capitulum or 
Head in Corapqaitae ; Flow'eragre, 
tiB state of being in flower ; 
Fltw'eret, a small flower, a floret ; 
PIow'*rlneaa, abounding with 
fiovers ; Plow'srlng, the matarity 
of the floral organs, and expan- 
iior of their envelopes ; — OIdidb, 
the lower of the two organe which 
Bublend the flower of GrssBBS (the 
□ppir being the paleal ^ -~ Plants = 
PluymioiiAMa : llow'erleis, desti- 
tuteof flowers ;~PlanM = CE¥ITO- 
(lAMi ; Flow'eTleisnBU, absence of 
flow«rs ; flow'ery, abounding in 

Flowen of Tan = Aahaiiam aepticiim, 
Fr. : - or Wlno, growth of Sac- 
charmaj/rti Myi-otUrma, Reese. 

Su'ltMCJi'iiM'M (Lat.), floating. 

flumlsa'lii, iiDiuln'eua [Jlunv.n, a 
river), applied to plants whjoh 
grov in running water. 

nnoTM'ceiu* (from Flnor-epar), the 

Sroperty of diminishing the re- 
angibility of light : ~ ofCIilor'o- 
plljll, the shifting of the spectrum 
by the aolouring matter contained 
in ohloropbyll. 
flv'Tlal, fimna-lin, fluvlat'te (Cnmier), 
fln'rt4tlle,^'tu.W"VM(I.ttt-), applied 
to plants growing in streams. 
.'-WKid, oakwood destroyed by 
'Steream (Tubeuf) ; Fly-ttapi, con- 
. by which ineecta arc 


caught, aa pitchera, lAntacles of 

foemin'euB^FfilllKEVS, female. 

foe'tldua ILaI,, stinking), fetid, smel- 
ling strongly and disagreeably ; 
Foa'tor (Lat., a stench), the odour 
given off by flowera which thereby 
attraut carrion flies. 

ro'ldad, in vernalion when the two 
halves of a leaf are applied to one 
another ; ~ Tla'ane, endoderm with 
auberifled or Uqiiifled membrane, 
confined to a band on the lateral 
and transverse faces of the cella, 
without thickening [Vim Tiegbem]. 

foUa'oeous, -eits {fdium, a, leaf, + 
aoeoiis), having the teituro or 
nhapc of a leaf, aa the branches of 
Xylapkylla ; ~ ThAllus, a frondoae 
thallua, flat and leaf-like, naualW 
uriaped and lobed, which spreads 
over the surface on which it grows, 
and oan be detached without much 
injury ; Folla'c»»», frondose vaacu- 
lar Cryptogoma ; Follaga, the leafy 
covering, eapecially of trees ; ~ 
Leivea, ordinary leavea, as diatin- 
guiahed from those which have 
undergone metamorphoses aa 
hracte, petals, etc. ; fo'llBl,/oiio'i-w, 
(1) leafy or leaf -like ; (2) inserted 
on, or forming an appeniliK to a 
lesi, eniphyllous; cii'rliuii /oUa'rin 
— tendril ; ~ 0«p, a meah in the 
Taacular bundle cylinder from the 
margin of which vaecular bundles 
pass into the frond in Ferns ; — 
BpuT, a dwsrf shoot in a pine-tree, 
which bears a pair of leaves (Har- 
tig] ; - Trace, = LEAF-TEiOB ; the 
remains of the vascular bundle or 
bandies which supplied the leaf. 

with leaves, as bl-foU&te, two- 

Folla'Uon, FMia-lio (Ul.), vernation ; 

ueed by Grew for the act of leafina. 
Fo'llatnre {/oliatura, foliage], Blair a 

term for petals. 
fDllfaroaa. toUlferoiu, -rtig {/olium, 

a leaf, /cro, I bear), leaf-bearing ; 

foiurerae Oern'mae - leaf - buda ; 
foUlc'olons [colo, I inhabit), grow- 



ing on leaves, as some Fansi and 
Lichens ; fo'lUfomi, foli^form'ia 
{format shape) = foliaoeous ; folll- 
p'arous, -rus (pario, I bring forth), 
bearinff leaves. 

FollOle (dim. of folium), a leaflet, the 
secondary division of a oompound 
leaf ; foliolate, folMa'txts, clothed 
with leaflets ; tii-, trl-fo'liOlate, two- 
three-leafletted ; foUo'lean, foUo- 
la'fws, growing from the end of a 
leaf; foUolOM, closely covered 
with leaflets; FoUOlmn, a small 
leaf or leaflet; fo'lloM, folu/ms, 
olosely clothed with leaves ; folions, 
having leaves intermixed with 
flowers; FoUmn (Lat.), a leaf, pi. 

Ftilioe'tum {foUieulum, a small bag), 
a whorl of follicles; Fol'liOle, 
FoUic'vluB, (1) a fmit of one carpel, 
opening by a ventral sntnre to 
which the seeds are attached, 
formerly applied to any capsular 
fruit ; (2) by Linnaeus used for the 
bladder of Utricularia ; follio'iilar, 
foUicula'ris, fJtOlloiiliform'ls {forma, 
shape), shaped like a follicle. 

fb&ta'nnfl, fontiiia'lls (Lat., relating 
to a spring), growing in or near a 
spring of water. 

Food-lK^es, small pear-shaped bodies 
formed on or near the leaves of 
certain plants, as Aeada spadici- 
/era, Cham, k Schleoht, and Z/tea 
aequcUa, Linn., which are utilised 
by ants as food ; Gtorm. '* Ameisen- 

Foot, (1) as a measure, 12 inches, or 
90.6 cm., sign ' ; (2) = Podium ; 
(3) a development from the hypo- 
basal part of the embryo, as an 
organ of attachment and temporary 
nutrition; (4) in Myxogaetres, 
the first development from the 
Plasmodium which leads to the 
formation of spores, a cell-wall of 
oeUulose, forming an axis (Van 
Tieghem); '^ oSd, the spore of 
OuUulina rosea, Cienk., arising 
from a naked cell of protoplasm, 
from the aggregated Plasmodium ; 
^ Bm'larjo, an arrested terminal 

growth of the embryo of CuUeria, 
thus dififorinff from the proto- 
nematoid embryo of the same 
species; '^ Bot, a disease on 
species of Citrua caused by Fus- 
arium Limoma, Briosi; *^ Stalk, 
a stem specialised as peduncle, 
petiole, etc 

Fora'men (Lat., a hole), an aperture, 
especially that in the outer inte- 
guments of the ovule,(^.MiCBOPTLK; 
foram'inose, foramtno'sus, per- 
forated by holes; Foramin'oU, 
*' the ostiolum of certain Fungals " 
(Lindley); fbramin'uloso, markdd 
with little holes. 

Force, any cause which changes the 
state of a body as to rest or motion ; 
vital force is kinetic energy. 

Forgoing, the operation by yAiich 
cultivators produce fruit and 
vegetables out of season, eady or 

fbr'olpata, foridpa'tus {forcepts nip- 
pers), forked like pincers. 

forflca'tus {forfex, scissors), scissor- 
like, resembUng shears. 

forked, separating into two dinsions, 
more or less apart. 

Form (for^ma, shape), a slight 
variety, or variation, as long and 
short-styled Forms ; '^ Oavos, a 
genus made up of an assonblage 
of '^ Spe'des, an apparent species 
which is really a smgle stage of 
the life-cycle of a pleomorphous 
species ; '^ Spore, a body simulat- 
ing a spore, but without g«rmina- 
ting power, or remaining attached 
to its sporophore ; Formae oxy- 
da'tae, crustaceous Lichens which 
have become rust-coloured from 
an infiltration of some salt of 

Fonna'tion (formatio, a shaping), in 
botany, applied to an assemblage 
of plants of similar habits and en- 
vironment, as a forest is s ^ of 
trees, turf a '^ of grasses ; an asso- 
ciation, in Gorm. ** Fflanzenverein"; 
form'allTe, giving form, plastic ; 
•^ Kata'rlals, applied to such as 
starch, sugar, fats, and albumi- 


nuida : ~ Ba'gion, the growing 
poiat proper. 
(Or'nleaU, /ornica'ttu (Lnt., arched 
over), pravidad with Hcula-Uke 
sppeQdsgea in the oorolla-tube, &a 
in Afyotitlu; Tor'nlCM, pi, of For'- 
nb ( LaL, ). a little acalc, 

B remaioa of 

BJBtence, from various strata ; ~ 
Bot'Mir, the d apartment which 
talies note of foaail plants, paloeo- 

Fot'tula (Lat., a little dltcli). a Bnull 
groove in Bome Diatom- valves. 

Foit'er- plant - Hosr. 

rouT-IOId, quodrupla ; ~ Fol'Ien - 
Qrtint, as in Ocnotltera, wbioh 
form coherent t«trada, 

Fov'ea (Lat., a einall pit}, « deprea- 
aion or pit, as in the upper anrface 
of the leaf.baga in Inoilvt, which 
contains I he eporsngium. 

FoVaola, (1) a small pit; (-2) "the 
periihecium of oertiin Fnngals" 
(Lindley) i <31 in laoStn, n small 
depreaaion above the fovea, from 
trbich the ligula springs ; IbVaate, 
/ova'iif, pitied ; for'eolAla, fovea- 
la'tut. diminutive of the laaC. 

FoTll'U i/ooto, I nourish), the ooa- 
tt^Qte of the pollen-grain. 

Fox'glore-ili&ped, like the corolla of 
Di'jitrUin. digitallform. 

B«c'ldna (Lat,, mellow), of a putj 
texture. iMtween fleshy and pulpj, 

Fngmenta'tton ^Jrag nicii/um.apiece), 
Van beneden's term (or direct divi- 
sion of the nucleus, 

Flan'gulin. a yellow crystalline body 
from tlie parenchyma of RhammiM 
Fraiigiiln. Linn. 

Frstein'lty (frattmilas, a brother- 
hood), ! 

fr«e, not adhering, the reverse of 

adnnte ; Free-oeU, a cell formed by 

~ Oell-fonna'tion. the production 

_ of new cella from several nuclei 

within the mother - oell, as in 

, endogenous cell-formation. 

caused by 

Fnn'cliIiiK, a 

Fiimrium .«« 
tha laaf of 

&e'qnent, used of a species often 

Frlglda'rlam (Let., the cool room), 
in botanic gardens applied to the 
Orangery, or Temperate House, 
with simple exclualon of frast. 

Frill- Akmili,a. 

Fringe, used by Sir W, J. Hooker 
[or the peristome of mosses ; 
ftlnged, margined with hair-like 
appendages, timbriatc. 

Frond, Froai [IjiX., a lenf), (1) the 
foliage of FeroH and other Crypto- 
gams ; (2) the leaves of Palms, ac- 
oarding to Linnaeus ; tto&deic*', 
to unfold leaves ; FrondM'oenoe, 
FromUtcca'tia, (1) vernation; (2) 
phyllody ; (^j by Morren re- 
stricted to the formation of leaf- 
like organs in the plane of petals ; 
see also Viafsisiscs ; tramUreroDs 
[ftro. 1 bear), producing fronds ; 
trcin'dirorai [forma, shape), like 
the fronds of Ferns ; frondip'aroua 
{pario, I bring forth), (1) bearing 
fronds ; (2) the mooBtrouH produc. 
tion of leaves instead of fruit ; 
Fion'dlat, u small frond ; IKin'dOH. 
fton'dons, frondo'fuji (Lat., fall of 
leaves), (I) leafy ; (2) (rond-lika Or 
bearing fronds ; - ThftlllU, folia- 
ceoua thalluB ; Fron'dola, Frou'- 
dnlea, used bv J. Smith for the 
main stems of Siiagiiutla. 

FroQ^ of a Diatom, is that view 
which has the oingulnm facing 
and the valves fore- shortened in 

(roat'ed, with a surface having the 

appearance of hoar frost, 
Fnwtes'eenoe, Fraeieacen'tia (/ruriiw, 

fruit), the time of maturity of 

OuctirGroQs {fratli/ii; fruit-bearing), 
producing or beanng fruit; Oa'lyl 
frac'tlfar, the fruiting oalyx. 

Frnotifioa'tlon, Friv^J-^ca'lio (Lat)., 
(I) fruiting; (2) in Cryptogams, 
the result of the aexoal aol ; (3) 



any sporogenous structure or an 
aggregate of them. 

ftnotlp'aroiui {/rtictust fruit, pario, 
I bring forth) ; Fmc'tOM, fruit- 
sugar, or levulose ; it exists with 
other sugars in fruits, honey, and 
treacle ; Froc'tas (Lat.), fruit, the 
product resulting from fertilization. 

firoglf eroQS {frugea, pi. of frux, fruits 
of the earth, fero, I bear), pro- 
ducing fruits or crops. 

Frait, (1) strictly, the pericarp and its 
seeds, the fertilized and developed 
ovary ; (2) widely, the matured 
pericarp and its contents, with any 
external part which is an integral 
portion of it ; '^ Dots, the sori of 
Ferns ; '^ OoJli, diseased growth 
caused by UatUctgo Treubii, Bolms ; 
'^ Stalk, (1) peduncle ; (2) the seta 
of Mosses ; ^ Bu'gar, = levulose ; 
*^ Walls, (or ^ Coats) = pericarp ; 


fjrnmenta'ceoas, /rumenta'ceua (Lat., 
of com); finunonta'rious, frumen- 
ta'rius (Lat.), (1) pertaining to 
grain ; (2) producing sufficient 
starch to warrant culture; Fm- 
men'tom (Lat., grain), produce of 
corn-lands ; grain or cereals. 

fkustra'neouB (frusira^ useless), relat- 
ing to the Linnean order Frustra- 
nea, Compositae with the disk 
flowers hermaphrodite, and those 
of the ray neuter or imperfect. 

Rros'tnle, Frus'tula {fnutulum^ a 
small piece), a Diatom cell, consist- 
ing of valves, girdle and con- 
tents ; Ftos'tilla, an obsolete 
synonym ; fims'tnlose, consisting of 
small fragments. 

Fjm'tex (I^t.), a shrub, a woody 
plant destitute of a trunk ; fxuV 
es'oent, fruteefcejiSt becoming 
shrubby ; tru'ticant, fmltxcam^ 
growing into a shrub-like plant ; 
fta'ticose, fnUico'swit firu'ttcouB, 
shrubby ; ^ Thallos, a Lichen 
having a shrub-like thallus ; ftati- 
c'alOM, somewhat shrubby ; Ftnti- 
o'nlUB (Lat)., a small shrub. 

Ftu'tose = Fbuotoss, Fruit-sugar. 

fU'coid (yU'citf, from 0Dirof, seaweed. 

eldof, like),flicoi'dal, resembling 
weed ; Fa'cosan, Hanstein's name 
for a granular substance found in 
the assimilating tissue of Fucoi- 
deae, the Phaeophyceae-starch of 
8chmitz ; Fa'cose, is probably a 
partial inversion of it ; Foco- 
xan'thine (^oy^of, yellow), Sorby's 
name for the colouring matter of 
the olive-green seaweeds. 

ftiga'dOQS {fugaXf fleeting), soon 

fU'dens (JtUdOf I support), support- 
ing, used of an organ above another. 

Fol'cra (pL oi fularum, a prop), the 
appenaages of the feaves, as 
prickles, tendrils, stipules, etc; 
fkilcra'06118, % of or belonging to the 
fulcra ; fol'crate, fulcra' tva, having 

fuUgln'euB (Lat., sooty), ftilig'inoas, 
fullg'inosa, fvligino'6U8t sooty, or 

ftilmin'eiu {/vifMUy lightnins), ful- 
vous, almost brown ; used of a 
species of Cortincurius by Fries. 

ftill, used of a double-flower, the 
stamens and pistils being trans- 
formed into petals. 

folverius, fnlYee'cens, fal'yidas(Lat)., 
fnl'vid (Crozier), the diminutive of 
the next; ftd'Yons, ful'vMS (Lat)., 
yellow, tawny. 

fli'meuB(Lat., full of smoke), smoky, 
or smoke-coloured ; fli'mldns (Lat.), 
sliffhtly smoke-coloured ; ftuni- 
ga^QS (Lat.), as though smoked, 
fumed ; fli'mose,/umo'aii«, fu'mouB, 

fima'liB (Lat., of a rope) = funhj- 


foma'rloid, like the genus Fumaria. 

Funo'tion Ifunctio, performance), the 
peculiar action caused by certain 
stimuli ; ftinc'tional Metab'oliBm, 
the kinetic effects of certain chemi- 
cal changes in the plant. 

ftmdamen'tal {/undamerUutn, ground- 
work), basic ; ^ Oells, parenchyma; 
^ Origans, the nutritive organs es- 
sentiid to plant existence ; ^Bpi'ral 
= genetic spiral ; ^ Sjrs'tem = cell- 
ular system ; f^ Tis'sue, tissue not 



belunging lo the normal or fascicu- 
lar oyHtem, ground-tiHoe ; nmda- 
menta'liiu, an essential part, as tbe 
axis and appendafies of a plant ; 
FunflamBn'tum = Hvpocotvl. 

Fun'doi (LaC, fuuDdatioo) =Colluh. 

tan^'oeooB i/niigui, amushroom], F. 
von Mueller's word (or fungoid or 
fungus-like; ftm'gtJ, relating to 
fungi ; ftm'glc, beloo^ing ' 

x'li, a 


malic, and phosphorioaoids( Cooke); 
tan'gliAiiaH-ci'ia, a killer), deatruo- 
tive of fungi : Fnnglct'ile, an ^ent 
or mixture for killing Fungi, anti- 
mycocio ; fun'gifonn, /iingi/orm'ia 
{/arytta, shape), fanBU'lilorni, /uii. 
gilli'form'ir, raushrooin - shaped ; 
FnngU'lua, a small parasitic fungus ; 
FoUB'ln, the " deah " of musli- 
rooms, fungus cellulose ; lungl'- 
nui, belonging to a fungus ; fang'- 
old [tliat. like), pertaining to a 
fungus; — Far'ailtea, paraaites 
■ ' ' 1 Fungi ; rnii'oae, Jung- 
ig to a Fungus ; (3| 
d by a Fungna ; Fungi, F, 
Maeller's word for the plural of 
Fnng'iu (Lat. , a mushrooni), pi. 
Fongi. lballophyt«B destitute of 
cblocophyll, parasitic or saprophy- 
tic, comprehending forms from the 
aimplest unicellular structure to 
Bome of complex character, many 
are symbiotic ; -Cel'lttose, the sub- 
stance of tbe cell-wall in Fungi ; 
~ Oftm'boge, a yellow, resiuous 
colouring matter found in Fungi ; 
~ Trapa,or "oatoh-cropa, "quickly 

Growing crops to secure attack by 
'latmodiophora Bmimcat, and re- 
moval with the fungUH, leaving the 
land free for that season for a later 
crop of Cruoifera ; fang'oaMl, at- 
tacked by funguB (Crozier). 
Fa'ntde, Fuidr'alax [Jnaie, a rope), 
(1) the cord or thread which some- 
times connect* the ovule or eeed to 
the pUoenta ; ('2) in Nidvlaria, a. 
oord of hypbae attaching tbe peri- 
diolnm to tbe inner aurfoce of the 
1 of the peridium ; (u'ulfoim 


{forma, shape), rope- like ; fnnll't-^ 
ienn, applied to organs, tough, 
cylindrical, and Seiible, aatheroott 
of arbareeoeot Monocotyledons. 

Pun'nel, inMarailiaoeae.a space below 
the thick outer coats of the ma- 
crospore into which the apical 
papilla projects (Goebel) ; Cim'nel- 
foim, fnn'iiel-iliaped. hfpocra- 

fur'oate, /Hrcd'f ,M (Lat.) forked, with 
terminal lobes which are like 
prongs; riir'cellaW,/iirc«/^'ru«, dim- 
inutively forked. 

fuTrnra'cMDB, -tiiM {furfur, bran), 
scurfy, having soft scales. 

fur'rowed, suloate, striate on a largi 

tax'Ty, pubBBoent (Lowe). 

fur'vns (Lat. swarthy), black i 

fosca'tus, foBcel'lui, fnicei'ccnt, -oMtl 
fUscld'nlns, somewhat duik; jfl 
nifl'couB, fut'eun [Lat. dark), 
dusky, too brown for a grey ; 
the word is akin to /vrtme. 

fu'sU(inn,/twri/bm»'t«(/uBU«, aspindle, 
forma, shape), thick, but tapering 
towards each end; fBBl'r"" " 
synonym of the lost. 

Fu'alon (yiuM,a melting), thecompletafl 
union of vessels, aa in the latid<B 
ferouB veesets. \ 

fU'sold {fatvg, a spindle, tltoj, like), 
somewhat fusilorm. 

aalM'Un [-ii>.a, milk), (I) a priaoiple 
in the juice of CaiaclaUiidnm ; (2) 
a Bubataoce io leguminous aa^a 
likeGum Arabio; ffalactl'tta, whita 
as milk ; Oalao'tose, a sugar pro- 
duced from Galoctin. 

Qallwnum (Lot,), a gum of uncertaiD 
origin ; gal'baniiB (Lat.), a colour 
resBiabliog tbe same, greenish. 

Oal'bulns (Lat.), the fruit of the 
cypress, a modified cone, the apes 
of each carpellary scale being m-4 
larged and somewhat Qesby. L 

Oal'aa tLat.,a helmet), a petal ahapeda 
like a helmet, placed next to th«V 
axis, as in Aconilum : cal'eatc,.! 



galea* tu8f hollow and vaulted, as in 
many labiate corollas ; galeifoxm'iB 
(forma, shape) = jgaleate. 

galerio'iilate {galenculum, a cap), 
covered, as with a hat. 

CMl, Gal'la (Lat., an oak-apple), a 
monstrous growth caused oy an 
insect puncture ; '^ Flow'srs, atro- 
phied femaJe flowers of the fig, 
within whose ovaries the eggs of an 
insect undergo evolution ; Gallic 
Ac'id, an astrinsent occurring 
abundantly in oak-galls ; Oallo- 
taa'nin, a glucoside occurring in 

galoch'rouB (7<(Xa, milk, xp<*^ft skin), 
milk white. 

Oalto'nian Onxre, see Newtonian 


galvanotrop'lo (after Galvani, the dis- 
coverer of galvanic electricity, 
rpon), a turn), curvature shown 
when subjected to a galvanic cur- 
rent, usually towards the positive 
pole; Oalvanot'roplsm, the condi- 
tion just described; neg'ative ^, 
when the curvature is towards the 
neffative pole of the current. 

QuaoHogt, a yellow resinous gum 
from several species of Guttiferae ; 
FongUB '^, a somewhat similar 
product found in some Fungi. 

Oam'etange, Gametang'ium {yafUrris, a 
spouse, d776u>i', a vessel), differenti- 
ated cavities in the filaments of cer- 
tain Algae which produce Gametes; 
Oam'ete, a unisexual protoplasmic 
body, incapable of giving rise to 
another individual until siter con- 
jugation with another gamete, and 
the joint production of a Ztgote ; 
gametogen'io {ytppdut, I produce), 
giving rise to gametes ; Oameto- 
g'eny, the production of sametes ; 
Oametogon'ium {ydpost olbpring), 
the mother- cell of a brood of 
gametes ; Qam'eto-na'oleus, the 
nucleus of a gamete ; Oameto- 
gen'asla {yevpdw, I bring forth), 
the production of gametes ; Qam'- 
etold (tfldot, resemblance), an apo- 
cytial structure which unites like 
a gamete, producing a zygotoid 

as the result ; Oam'etopbora (0o/>^», 
I bear), the portion of an algal 
filament which produces gametes, 
according to function further 
discriminated as Andbooamsto- 
PHOBB and Gynooambtophobk ; 
Oam'etopbyll (^(JXXor, a leaf), a 
more or less specialised leaf which 
bears the sexual organs; Qam'eto- 
phyte {4>vt6p, a plant), the genera- 
tion which bears the sexual organs, 
producing gametes, in turn giving 
risejto the Sporophtts; Oam'eto- 
plasm {rXdfffM, moulded), the pro- 
toplasm of gametes, 
gamodss'mlc (ydftot, marriage, union, 
d€fffi6s, a bond), used of a stele 
which has its component vascular 
elements fused together ; Oamo- 
dss'my, the stelar condition in 
question ; Gamoe'oia (olirof , a house), 
used by Lindberg for the inflor- 
escence of Bryophytes; gamo- 
gas'trons {yaaTTjp, the belly), ap- 
plied to a pistil formed by the more 
or less complete union of ovaries, 
the styles and stigmas remaining 
free ; Gamogen'esls {ytpcffis, be- 
ginning), sexual reproduction ; 
gamogenlc {ycpos, offspring), de- 
veloped as the result of a sexual 
process ; Qamome'rlQS % {fJ^poff 
a part), a flower whose parts are 
united by their edges (Lindley) ; 
Gamopet'alae {viraXoPy a flower- 
leaf), plants having the petals 
united, adj.; gamopet'alons, -lus; 
gamophyll'ous, -Iw {<f>v\\op, a leaf), 
with leaves united by their edges ; 
Garn'ophyte {(purop, a plant), pro- 
posed by C. Macmillan for ** sexual 
plants ; " gamosep'aloos, -lus ( + 
Sspalum), the sepals united into a 
whole ; Gamospor'ae (<nropd, seed), 
Cohn's term for those Algae which 
produce zoosonidia or zygospores, 
as the Gonjugatae, Volvocineae, 
and Fucoideae, c/. Carposporeae ; 
Gam'ostele {<mi\rjf a post), a poly- 
stele, in which the vascular bundles 
are not distinct throughout their 
entire length, but fused together at 
some portion ; adj. gamoste'lic ; 


ita'ly> ^B Htate detoribed : 
gMnotrop'ic (r/uixii, a turn), the 
poiition of flowers when expaoded 
(HanBgirg), rf. c*RPOTROPTr ; 
Oamolniplsni (rponj. a turning), 
M acmillan's l«rni for the movenieiil 
of mutual attraction in iitnilar con- 
jugating aametas. 

auig'U&. pL of Qans'llon {-fayi\iar, 
B little tumour), used for various 
enlargenmnta of mjcelium. Home 
being rudim«ntarj fruotificalions 

Qftnff^TBne, Gaitgre'iia (TiTypaifa, an 
ealing ulcer), a dieease ending in 
putrid decay. 

Gu, pi, Guea, in plants, a continu- 
ous ayatem from the atoniata and 
leu ti cola by the intercellar s|>aces. 

Gaiteromyce'tes (yairrjip, tlie belly ; 
/ivfl!, fnngUB), a division of Fungi 
whioh includeB Lyrofieniwi. Puff- 
balls ; QuWrothalam'eae {ei\a.iu>i, 
a bed-ohauiber), refening to those 
Lichena vhoee sporangia ore al- 
wajB oloeed or which burst through 
the cortical Ujer of the Thatlas; 
gu'trlc Bacta'rlk, those which are 
found in the digealive tract of 

Oattliie' (Ft-], a dineue in silkworms 

citiiBt'd by parasitic Fongi. 
Oaal'themsa, an anijme producing 


I Ganl'tli 



(teltoiiocarp'y (i-e'tuv, a neighbour ; 
iflpirci!, fruit), fruit produt-ed by 

the same individual ; OsltOQOK'uiiy 
iTtt^wi, marriage), ferliliiation by 
another dower on the «aine plant. 
Gal'aHii (j(/o'riis, congealed), in plants 
conflned to atbumen-like bodies, 
which are lough, viecid, and scarcely 
soluble in water ; Oolat'lni, hy- 
UBBB'ft, a gelatinous subatancu 
•urrounding the asci and para^ 
phywB in lome Lichene (Leighton) ; 
OiUUulHL'Uau. us<^d when a niem- 
brane bieaka don n into a jelly-likB 
mass; gelat'inouB. jelly-like ; — 
Felt : ~ Tli'sne, tissue which is slimy 

{rem th« Mil membraae being 
soft and muoilaginoUB ; g«Iat'lluiM, 

gelalino'iue {geialio, freezing), hav- 
ing the oonsistenca or appearanoe 
of jelly : Oel'atold (tMot, likel, aug- 
gested for protain-like subatanoea 
rerembling gelatin (Eacomba) ; 
Oellflca'CIiM], Lycoming gelatinous ; 
Oelln'eat, cells in Algae whioh 
secrete vegetable jelly ; ObI'dbb, 
vegetable jelly from AKar-Agar. 

Gem, a leaf-bud. ef. Gkuha. 

Gam'lnata, ytmiau'ius (Lat. doubled), 
in pairs, binate. 

Otm'HU |Lat.), twins, paired ; K*ml- 
nlflor'as (/oa, /oria, a flower), bear- 
ing two flowers, or two ftoweri 

Oein'ma (Lat.), (I) a young bud, 
eilhsr of flower or leaf as need by 
Ray ; (2) an asexual product of 
wine CryptogamB, as in the Hepsb- 
ioae, analogous to leaf-buds; ~ 

Brood = liKUOP-flBHUA 1 ~ Onp = 

Ctathds! Eeniiaa'eBOiu(-(- ooeous), 
relating to leaf-buds ; Oemma'tloii, 
Getnma'tio, (I) budding, vernation ; 
(2) diapoaitioii or phyllotaxis of 
buds ; Ktminlferous {/rro. 1 bear), 
bearing buds ; gem'mlfonn {forma, 
shape), bud-shaped i gBiuinlp'aTaiu 
{pario, I baarl, producing buds; 
Oern'mtde, Oeiu'mnla, (1) buds of 
Mossee, and reproductive bodJei 
of Algae; (2) = Plumolb ; (3) = 
UvuLE (Endliaher) ; (4) certain 
primary formative granules in the 
protoplasm (Naegelij. 
OeaeftEen'eslB iytwii, stock, race ; 
7<vc [Ti I. beginning) = pA&TUBsoaRH- 

Oen'era. pi. of Genps. 

Ksn'oral, gtnra'IU (Lat., pertaining 
to all), opposed lo partial, as ~ 

Cen'eratiiiE (jut^rado, a begetting), 
prodnoing ; - Spl'nJ - ussvno 
Sptiul: Tis'nM=MKHisTEu; ges'< 
entlva Call. (I) a gamete or sexual 
reproductive cell ; (2) the cell in a 
pollen grain which develops into 
male gametes ; -~ Ka'deni, the 
nucleus in a pollen-grain which is 



actively oonoemed in fertilization; 
Genera'tlona, alternation of, Bee 
Alternation; aen'eratlYeNa'cleiiB, 
aee Nuolbus. 

gVBMfiQ,gener^icn8 {geniu, birth, race), 
the differences which make the 
genus as opposed to those which 
make the oraer, or species. 

Oenesiorogy {y4v€ffu, origin, X^yot , dis- 
course), the doctrine of the trans- 
mission of qualities from the parent, 
both in veffetativeand sexual repro- 
duction (Archer); genet'ie, genea- 
logical, that which comes by in- 
heritance; '^ Bpi'ral, a spiral line 
which passes through the point of 
insertion of all equivalent lateral 
members on an axis, in order of 

gwnlc'nlate, genkvla'tus (Lat., with 
bent knees), abruptly bent so 
as to resemble the knee-joint; 
Oenic^ulum, a node of a stem 

Qenltalia, Genltali {genitalis^ per- 
taining to birth), in plants, the 
stamens and pistils, or their an- 

Oana (Lat., a nation), a tribe in 

Oen'tlaiilne, the bitter principle of 

Geimflec'tLon {genu^ the knee, flectOf 
I bend), a bend in a conjugating 
filament of an Alga; gen'uflexed 
(flexnSf bent), bent, as the valves 
of certain Diatoms. 

Oen'os (Lat., a race), the smallest 
natural group oontaininff distinct 
species ; large genera are freouently 
for the sake of convenience aivided 
into sections, but the generic name 
is applied to all species ; ^ Hytrld, 
a hybrid between two genera, a 
bigener or bigeneric cross. 

Qd'oblast, OeoMcu^tus (7^, the earth, 
/SXcurrof, a bud), an embryo whose 
cotyledons remain under ground in 
germination as the pea. 

geocal'yeal, resembling the Hepatic 
genus OeoccUyXj Nees ; marsupial. 

Qeoaetlie'iia (yrj^ the earth, atffOricrts, 
perception by sense), the capacity 

of a plant to respond to the stimu- 
lus of gravity. 
gtognvit'ic {ypcuftiif writing), descrip- 
tive of the earth or a portion there- 
of ; '-^ Bot'any, that department 
which takes account of the '^ 
Dlstrilm'tion of plants over the 
earth's surface; geolog'ic (Xdyot, 
discourse) Bot'any = Palaeobotany 
or Fossil Botany; geopli'lloas 
(0i\ew, I love), earth loving, 
used of such plants as fmit 
underground; ^ Fan'gl, those 
which grow saprophytically on 
decaying vegetable matter on the 
ground ; Ge'cphytes {(pmr, a plant), 
applied by Areschoug to those 
plants which produce underground 
buds, without partial development 
there; geonyotitroplc (ri>£, rvrrot, 
night, Tpowiif a turning), sleep- 
movements requiring also the 
stimulus of gravity; Geotax'iB 
(rd^is, order), movement in plants 
caused bv gravity (Czapek) ; Geo- 
thermom eter {dep/wSf warm, fiiTpop, 
a measure), a thermometer for 
earth temperatures ; Oeotorflam 
{tortvsy twisted), torsion caused by 
the influence of gravitation (Schwen- 
dener and Krabbe) ; Geof ropby 
(Tpo<f>i}^ food), unilateral inequality 
in growth due to position with 
regard to gravity (Wiesner) ; geo- 
trop'ic {roori^t a turning), relating 
to the innuence of gravity on grow- 
ing organs ; Geot'roplsm, the force 
of gravity as shown by curvature in 
nascent organs of plants ; neg'ative 
'*' growinff away from the earth, 
as stems do normally; positive, 
growing towards the earth's centre, 
as roots ; trans'yerse ^ , = Djaqeo- 


Germ {germenf a bud), (1) a bud or 
growing point ; (2) the ovary or 
young fruit; (3) a reproductive 
cell, especially in bacteria; ^ 
Cell, (1) a female reproductive cell ; 
(2) a spore of the simplest character, 
a sporidium (Brefeld) ; ^ Nu'deus, 
the nucleus resulting from the 
union of the pronuclei of two 


gftinetes in conjugation ; - -Plaun, 
the auuined original generstive 
■ubatAnce oontained in the body 
of the parent from which now in- 
dividual! arise ; cf. Soma ■ pla^ii 
(Weiamann) ; ~ Pen, a pit on the 
■urtace of a spore-en Telo|« through 
which a germ-lube makes its ap- 
pearance ; " Tnbc, a tubular pro- 
cess from a. spore developing iotn 
s hjpha, and then iuto a mycelium 
or proniyceliom. 
Oermkn'lD, M'stson's term for a type 
of distritintion in Great Britain of 
those plants whoao headquarters 
are iu the eastern portions of the 

0«r'men(Lat., a bud). (1) Linnaens's 
term for the ovary ; (2) formerly 
ased for the capsule of Mosraa : (3) 
by Pliny and later writers it signi- 
fied a bud generally ; Oer'inlclda 
(-ct'tfa, a killer), an agent which 
(MUseB the death of bacteria 

»at spores; ^. Spobocidr; Oermi- 
pa'tnn ( -f CrbTDKE), the prautine 
if bact«rioloby ; gar'mlnabis ( + 
ptle), capsble of germinating ; 
Hible ; ^sr'ialiial, relating to a 
tad ; - Appars'tns, = Eiiu- 
ArfA&ATV9 ; - Oor'puBole = 
OAsPHEtU; ~ Dot. of Diatoms, 
the centrosome (?| ; ~ Ud, a 
aepsrable area of a pollen -graio, 
breaking away to permit a. polten- 
tnbe to JBBue ; ~ Pro'oess % a 
part belonging to or pcoooed- 
ing from on ovary (Lindley) : 
~ Bllt, a email break in tiie need- 
oosl of Scitaminoae ; ~ Ve'dole, 

= Oi^PBBKE : Oemlna tton, <?«r- 
mina'fio, the first act of growth in 
a seed ; sprouting ; gemi'liuitlTe 
Wn'oleiw - Ni'CLECB, uknera- 

Kerontagae'oua, '□eiH(7/pur, yiparTot, 
an old man, 7^, the earth), used of 

Slants which are confined to the 
Id World. 
Elb'ber ( , bump-backed), Bl1>'boic, 
gIb'tMtu, !ji('>erD'm«, more convex in 
■jOlit place than another, a ponch- 
*" B enlargement of the bwe of an 

oraan, as of a calyi ; DlbtNM'ltr. 
OiUtos'iUu, a swelling at the base of 

Ele&n'tlc. gigaH'tai* (Lat., pertaining 
to ginnte), of unusual beivht. 

QlUi, the plates or lamellae of an 
Agaric which bear the spores. 

EU'tui (Lat)., pale yellow, a term 
of confused application. eometimeB 
reddish or even greyish. 

ainger-beer "plant," an association 
of organisma which ferment & 
sweetened liquid into Ginger- Beer. 

Olr'dle, (1) the hoop or cingnlum of 
Diatoms, that portion of the fnis- 
tule which unites the valves ; 

(2) also applied to a ring-like 
branch of the leaf-trace of Cycae; 
Otti'Mag, in cultivation, ringing. 

jflUi&gln'eni (Lindley) 1 gHha^Wsiu 
(Hayne), defined as greenish red, 
meaning red or purple streaks on a 
green ground, as the calyx of 

gla'brona, gln'htr [Lit, , without hair), 
gla'brate, glahra'tus, deetitnte of 
pubescence, by Bentham entended 
to mean also destitute of any 
roughness ; glalirat'c«iit.s/(i6ri»'«?i*, 
becoming glabrous, or slightly so ; 
aia'brltm, the nnoothnesa of nor- 
mally bairy Darts ; fflabrlna'oitltu 
(Lat.), somewhat glabrous. 

Ela'dlxte, ■jladia'tut {ff/adiat. a aword) 
( I) Hat, etraighl, or slightly carved, 
with acute apex and approximately 
parallel edges, ensiform ; (2) 
anc pilal. 

aland U/lant, glandii. an ooom) : (1) 
an ocom, or ncorn'like fruit; (2) a 
deSnite secreting struoture on the 
surface, embedded, or ending a 
hair : any protuberance of the like 
nature which may not secrete, aa 
the warty swellings at the base of 
the leaf in the cherry and peaoh ; 

(3) in Orchids, see Glandula ; ~ of 
the Tonu, see Lbpai, (Crozier) ; 
glandulA'oeoaa, -cva ( + aceons], 
the colour of a ripe acorn ; raw 
sienna yellow ; glaodlTeroai tfero, 
1 bear), bearing or producing 
glands I gland'lfonn [forma, shape), 



shaped like a gland ; CBaad'nla, 
CBaad'nle, a viscid gland in Orchids 
and Asclepiads, which holds the 
pollen-masses in their place ; the 
retinaculum ; glan'dnlar, possessing 
glands ; ^ Disk, = Glandula ; *-* 
Hair, an epidermal appendMe, the 
end of which is usually enuurged, 
and contains a special secretion ; ^^ 
Wood'y Tis'sue, coniferous pitted 
tissue ; COandula'tlon, -^io, the 
arrangement of the glands on a 
plant ; glandnllf arous, -rus, eland- 
bearing ; glan'dolose, glandtuo'sua, 
gland'nlons, glandular; glan'dulo- 
so-serra'tas, having serrations tip- 
ped or bordered wiui glands ; Olans 
(Lat.)) A fruit one-seMed by abor- 
tion, or a few-seeded dry inferior 
indehiscent pericarp seated within 
a cupular involucre, as the fruit of 
the oak, nut, etc. 

gla'real {glarea, gravel), term em- 
ployed by H. G. Watson for those 
plants which ffrow on dry exposed 
ground, chieny gravel or sand; 
gla'reoae, glareo'nw^ frequenting 

glaooes'oent, glaucet^eena {yXavKbf, 
bluish grey), becoming sea-green ; 
glaucl'nus (Lat.)) bluish sea-green ; 
glan'oous, -cua (1), sea-green; (2) 
covered with a bloom as a plum or 

Gle'ba (Lat., a clod), the chambered 
sporogenous tissue within a sporo- 
phore of Phalloideae; Gle'bula (1) 
a synonym of Glkba; (2) the 
sporangia of certain Fungi, as 
Nidularia ; (3) a rounded elevation 
on the thallus of Lichens. 

OU'adin (7X£a, glue), vegetable slue or 
gelatin forming part of gluten ; 
OU'an, the alcohol-soluble part of 

cnrding-growih = Sliding Growth. 

ffUt'terlng, lustre from a polished sur- 
face which is not uniform. 

glolMite {glcbuB, a sphere), globular ; 
Globes, Grew's term for pollen- 
grains ; Qlo'bl spermatid, spores 
of some Fungi (Lindley) ; Olo'bolds 
(eldof, like), roundea masses of 

mineral matter in proteid snuna ; 
glo'bOM, gloMsuB^ nearly spherical; 
glob'iilar, glcbtUa'ris, spheroidal 
in shape ; Olob'nle, the spheri- 
cal antheridium in Charaoeae; 
Glob'nlet, used by Grew for (1) a 
glandular hair, (2) a pollen-grain ; 
Olob'ulin, (1) *' roundf transparent 
granules in cellular tissue, consti- 
tuting fecula " (Henslow) ; (2) the 
chief ingredient in aleurone or 
protein granules, occurring amor- 

Ehous or as crystalloids ; (3) in 
ichens = Chlorophyll (Olivier) ; 
OloVnlOB (Lat. a little globe), (1) 
used by Necker for the fruit of 
Hepaticae ; (2) the deciduous shield 
in some Lichens ; soredia. 
Glo'clild, Glodiidlum {yXtax^s, an an- 

gular end or barb), (1) a barbed 
air or bristle ; (2) a similar struc- 
ture on the massulae of certain 
Cryptogams which act as organs 
of attachment to a macrospore ; 
glochid'eouB, -eu9, glochid'iate, glo- 
c?Mdia'tuaf pubescent with barbed 
bristles ; Olo'clils, a barb. 

OloeoU'chenes {y\<H6s, sticky), For- 
sell's name for homoeomerous 
Lichens, asCollemacei, Ascolichenes 
with gonidia belonging to the Chro- 
oooocaceae ; Gloe'oi&srte {(pvrop, 
a plant), Gobi's name for Thallo- 
PHTTE ; Oloiocar'pus {KOfTos, &uit), 
a tetraspore (Lindley). 

Olome {glomus^ a ball), a rounded 
head of flowers ; glom'erate, glom- 
era'tvSf agglomerate, collected into 
heads ; Qlom'erule, Olomeru'lus, (1) 
a cluster of capitula in a common 
involucre, as Echinops ; (2) a Sohe- 
DiUM ; glomeruUf erous {fero^ I 
bear), bearing clusters of coral-like 
excrescences; glomer'ulose, having 
glomerules ; Glom'uB % = Glomb- 


Olossorogy {yXdaaa^ a tongue, \6yot, 
discourse), the explanation of tech- 
nical terms ; Qlos'sopode, Olosso- 
podlum {irovsy To^6%, a foot), the 
sheathing base of the leaves in 
laoHtes ; adj. glossopod'laL 

Glu'case {yXvKdSt sweet), an enzyme 


t — Bn'iTms, a 
Syoaptuae or 

L BurfiLce of 

which bjdroljssB maltose ; Ola'ooM, 
( 1 ) A group ofcarboh;dratBB,cryBtBl- 
liuble and uiluble in WBt«r, oocur- 
ring in fruits, as grape-augar, etc., 
He DixraosB, Levclose ; (2) also a 
commercial term For Bymps made 
from stftrah or grain ; ain'coalde, 
[<Uei, like), for oomplei Biibatancea 
which give riae on decompQi""' 
to Glucose, suoh 
Coniferin, Salicin 
ferment such as 

01b«. viscid secretio 

Bome plants; Bud- = Blastocoll* . 

Kliuiu.'ceona (gluma, husk of corn, -i- 
(ujeous), resembling the glumes of 
grasses, as tlis periaoth-segmentK 
of JjiHciia; fflnme, Olu'ma, the 
obsffy two-ranked menibers of thu 
infloresoenes of grosses and Bimilar 
plants; tiMTai~,ain'pt; —.glumes 
which subtend a epikelet. and do 
not inclode aSower ; ter'tlle ~ .flor'ol 
~ , flower'iiig ~ , the glome in grasses 
whiuh includes a flower, the pales ; 
(rall'lDt[~ , the fertile glume at the 
time of maturity; Bt«r'll8~', a 
which Hubteods other glumes 

•rhas D 

; glun 

terized by having a glnme ; Olum- 
al'la, Olu'meUs, (1) the palea of 
grasasB ; (2) the lodicule of the same 
(Richacd) ; glumeUea'nusi^of orbc- 
loDging to a glumclU ; Gluiuel'lule, 
aiuTHfilu'lu, (1) = palea; {i) = lodi- 
cule : gla'iuiiaa, having glumes, ajt 
a flower which hu a subtendiDg 

Ollttunlll {:iluUn, glue), an amide 
allied to asparagin found with 
it in the juico of beets, eto. ; 
CQu'tan. H tough protein substance 
occurring in grain after the removal 
of the starch; ~CelIs, of the endo- 
denii contain oil, but no starch ; 
Olntts'lnm, "the flesh of certain 
FuDgals" (Lindley) : Klo'^iiiOBi- 
i/liUtiia'mK, covered with a sticky 

Oly'gas* (■yXnici^i, sweet), an enzyme, 
the same as Olucase. 

OlTOORblx'in, or aiy'cdon, a saccharine 

matter from the roots of Oi^cyrr- 
hiia glabra, Linn., liquorice. 

Olycodni'poiB (7\i>ii>i, sweet, -I- 
D&irposE), a lignooellnloae, form- 
ing the har<l concretions in the 
flesh of pears ; Oly'cagen {ytteiai, 
I bring forth), a carbohydrate 
present in ouaDtity in epiplaam, 
capable of being converted into 
glucose ; — Haas, protoplasm per- 
nieaMd with glycDgen, epiplasm ; 
QlycoliK'noM {U-jitiim, wood), a pre- 
sumed glucoside, from pinewoed. 

Qnaurs, burrs or knotty excrescenceB 
on tree-trunks or roots, probably 
from clasters of adventitious buds. 

gnomon'lcaJ, gnotiuni'iauiyriiiuir, the 
pin of a dial), an appendage when 
abruptly bent at an angle to its 

gob let-shaped = <^itp-siuped. 

Oommg'iiuii [ylimi, otTspring, iyy''"'! 
a vesBel], a spherical Colony of 
Paimtlla, etc., overgrown with 
thick - walled brown Lichen-hy- 
phae ; goneoclln'Jc iMmj, a bed), 
applied to a hybrid which approii- 
mates to one parent, and not inUr- 

gongroil'rota, resembliog the genus 
(longroiira, Kuetz.; applied to the 
restiog-st&ge of yaiicheria. 

gongylo^BS {-/o-fyi\a!. round), knob- 
like; OOBg'yIns ( 1 ) for round oorpus- 
cles on certain Algao, which become 
detached, and germinate as separate 
individuals : (2) globular bodies 
in the thallue of Liohena; (3) — 
Spore, SpoBiDiru, Spkiriha. 

gonlantol'couB (Yowt, o&pring, airit, 
self, dIudi, a house), the male in- 
florescenoe of a Moss, bud-like and 
axillary on a female branch : 
Oon'ld, proposed abbroviatiou of 
GoNiDiUH ; Oonfd&n'Klnin (flint, 
like, dyYi'o'i A^'BBsel), in a gameto- 
phyte. the organ which prodnoes 

Id'lopliore {ipopiui, 1 carry], a 

rophore which DearESgoniiuum ; 

Ckmidinm (1) in Lichens, an algal 

sporophore which bi 
OoWinm (1) in Li 
cell of the thallus ; (2) the same ai 



Brood-oell, a propAgative oell, 
asexoally prodaoed and separating 
from the parent; gonid'lal, per- 
taining to gonidia, as *-* Lay'er, (1) 
an aggregation of simple sonidio- 
phores to form a oushion-like layer 
or orust ; (2) the algal layer in the 
Idchen-thallua ; Gonide'ma, Minks's 
term for the ffonidial layer. 

Ckmlm'la, pi. (3 Oonlm'ium {y6pifMt, 
productive), the gonidia in Lichens ; 
gonimlo, relating to |;onidia, as *-* 
Laj'er, the alsal layer in the Lichen- 
thallas; Ooirlmoblast (fl\a<rr6s, a 
■hoot), filaments which are often 
clustered, arising from the ferti- 
lized carpogonium of certain Algae ; 
Qe&'lmolobes (Xo/Sot, a lobe), the 
terminal tufts of gonimoblasts ; 
Gon'lmon, Wallroth's term for the 
gonidial layer ; gon'imooB, relating 
to gonidia. 

Ckm'ocyBta {yd^ot, offspring, lajtms, a 
bag), used b^ Minks for metamor- 
phosed gonidia extruded on the 
superficial crust, having a peculiar 
appearance; Ckmo-liyp£nnla (00a, 
woven), applied l^ Minks to the 
hyphal layer of Lichens ; Qon'o- 
]&ore, Oonoph'orum Opopiu), I 
carry), an elongation of the axis, 
a receptacle baring stamens and 
carpels, as in Cavparis ; Ckm'oplasm 
(wXd/TfMt moulaed), hi Peronos- 
poreae, that portion of the proto- 
plasm of the antheridium which 
passes through the fertilization 
tube and coiuesces with the oos- 
phere; Qoootax'iB (r(i|tf , order), the 
movement of antherozoids towards 
the female organ (Macmillan) ; 
adj. gonotac'tlo ; Oonot'roplim 
(rpon;, a turning), MacmiUan's 
term for the motion of antherozoids 
and pollen-tubes towards the fe- 
male organ ; the author also sug- 
gests Uie restriction of this term 
to pollen-tube growth ; adj. gono- 
trop'lo ; Gon'ospliere, Gonos- 
idUM'rium (<r0aipa, a sphere), = 
OdspHSBB ; Q o n o s pl iae r ld'lnm, = 

Oorffs, the throat of a flower. 

goa'sypine, gostupi^nua, oottony, floo- 
culent, like the hairs on the seeds 
of Oossypktm, 

Qenrd, a fleshy, one-celled, many- 
seeded fruit, with parietal 
placentas, as a melon. 

grao'llia (Lat.), slender; Crozier has 
the needless word ** graciie." 

Qimft, a union of different individuals 
by apposition, the rooted plant 
being termed the stock, the portion 
inserted the scion ; '^ Hy'tirid, ef- 
fect produced by one or the other of 
the united individuals on its grafted 
fellow ; Graft's^, L. H. Sailey's 
term for multiplication by grafting 
or the state of being thus in- 

Grain, a general term for cereals, 
those grasses cultivated for food ; 
the caryopsis or the fruit of the 
same ; grained, having grain-like 
tubercles or processes, as in the 
flowers of Burner. (Crozier). 

giamlna'ceouB, gramln'eal {gramen, 
grass), synonyms of gramln'eouB, 
-euSf gTa'mlnoQ8,(l) relating to grass 
or grain-bearing plants ; (2) grass- 
coloured ; gramlnlc'olons {colo, I 
inhabit), growing on grasses, as 
some Fungi ; graoSnlfo'llooB, 
{folium, a leaf), having ffrass-like 
leaves ; Gramlnol'ogy {Myos, dis- 
course) = Agbostolooy (Crozier). 

gram'mlons (Lat.), {ypafifuxos, lined), 
lettered, marked as though in- 
scribed; gnunmopodlns t {iroGs, 
Todosy a foot or stem), having a 
striped stalk. 

Gra'na, pi. of Gra'num (Lat.), a seed, 
(I) any small bodies ; (2) the 
coloured drops in chloroplasts 
(Strasburger) ; ^-^ tetras'tlclia, 
'* the spores of certain Fungals '* 

granatl'nuB (Lat.), pale scarlet, the 
colour of the flower of Punica 
Oranatum, Linn., the pome- 

Qraalf eras {gran\ferf srain-bearing), 
a synonvm of Monocotyledon 

gra'nlform {granvm, a grain, format 


■biip«), having the shape of graina 

1 (fide Lindley) ; (3) 
sporangia in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) 
by FrommaDn uaed for tha 
nnclaohia-like structure io the 
nucleus of the terminal calls of the 
glandular haira of Ptlargonitim 
tonatc. Ait.; OTUi'nla E(>»'ii''ai< ^l^e 
goDidia in Licheoa ; gran'ular, 
jpitniMrU, (1) composed of grains ; 
(2) divided into little knots or 
tubercles, as the roots of Siixi/raga 
gruHuiaia, Linn. ; Kru'aUM. granii- 
la'ltu, means tlie same thing ; 
graauUTeTons C/b-n, 1 bear], gran- 
nie-bearing igrmn'nloM.jraHu/o'truB, 
oomposed of grains ; — used as a 
substantive by Noegeli for true 

anpe-sagar. a sagor found abund- 
antly in the ^spe, dextrose. 

SiaacUA'Uo (Mod. Lat.), uaod by 
IJeavauji for Eticiuation. 

OiUB-greea, clear lively green, in 
L.alin. prssinuB, gramineus. 

Grav'mlence {gra''ral/iUia, b. rank 
small), a ameti bo strong a^ to be 
unpleasant; giaT'MilaBt, 'jrat'eo- 
Inu, BtronRly scented, of intense 
and heavy odour. 

QnTita'tlon {gravitia, waigbt), the 
act of t«nding towards a centre, aa 
of the sorlh ; in botany sometimes 
confused with (ieotropism and 

gnaay, oily to the touch. 

Qrasn-rot, a disease in wood, the 
tissues becoming venligris green, 
ascribed Co I'tzica aenigiiiiMii. Pers. 

OreSa {Fr.) graft ; '■ dsa Charlatans, a 
fraudulent apparent graft, tbe 
scion being passed through a hole 
trared in tbe stock. 

gngar'lcnu {jp^gariut, belonging to a 
flock), growing in company, usso- 
oiated but not matt«d. 

gray, grii/evt {Lat.], ooIdneatraJ tint, 

gTlsel'lna,!;r>«'co/fw(lAt.), diminutive 
of foregoing, somewhat greyish. 

arlt-csll, a. iclerotic cell, as in tbe 
flesh of pears. 

gromon'lcal, an error of Lindley's for 

Orosslflo'tloil (groiiii, thick, /ncio, I 
make), the Bwelbng of the ovary 
after impregnation *, btob'sub ( Lat. }, 
uoarse, larger than uaual. used 
adverbially as gnw'se-erena'ttis, - 
■arra'tns, coarsely crenate or 

gross oU'ceons, gros'snlor, relating to 
the gooseberry, ftihe^ ilro^idaria, 
Linn.; Oros'suUne, a principle 
found io certain acid fruits, 

Oronnd-tlBBue, applied to tbe pith, 
uort«i, BJid medullary rays. 

OToWlBg-polnt, the eilremity of thu 
Bt«m, or cone of growth, the seat 
of tbe activity of the apical cell, 
and its divisions, 

Orowtli, increase by new cell-forma- 
tion or extension of old G«tls; 
~ Form, a vegetative structure 
marksd by some oharacl«ristio 
feature which does not iodioate 
genetic aftinity ; a tree, shrub, 
sprout- fungus, are growth-forms ; 
~ Ring, the aonuol rings of growth 
in exogens. 

Grub'Mng, in forestry, the uprooting 

gm'mose, ifnimo'siia, gm'motu 
(jnimMd, a hillock), divided into 
little clusters of grains. 

Gronil-Fann (Germ,), the original 
form, sometimes hypothetic, from 
'hi oh other forms have been derived 

Giiarana bread, or ISroiilian coooa, 

Gnord-cells, Qoard' Ian-cells, in stoiti- 
ata, two cells which open or cloee 
the stoma by their greater ot less 



gular {gvla, the throat), pertaining 
to the throat (Crozier). 

Chim, {gummi, gum), a viscid secre- 
tion frequently extruded from 
stems, and hardening in the air ; 
*^ Ar'ablc, derived from species of 
Acacia in tropical countries, dis- 
solving easily in water ; '^ Cells, 
Germ. Eleberzellen, see Oil-oklls ; 
^ Lao, excretion by insects, Car- 
Uria Lacca^ from various trees ; 
f^ Paa'sage, an intercellular passage 
containins gum ; '^ Bee'in, exuda- 
tion partuLing of the nature of gum 
and resin; gummix'erous {ftro^ I 
bear), producing sum; Ourn'ming, 
a disease, known uso as Ghunmo'sls, 
producing gum in excess. 

Ons'set, an intercellular space, at an 
angle whero more than two cells 
meet (Crozier). 

Gnf ta-per'clia (gutta, a dnn>), a kind 
of chaoutchouc, said to be derived 
from Dichopais ChiUa, Benth. and 
Hook.f. ;gat'tate((7u<to7iM,spotted), 
as to colour ; Ontta'tlon the exuda- 
tion of drops of fluid ; Ont'tifer 
iferOf I bear), a plant which pro- 
duces gum or resin (Crozier), adj. 
gutttfarous; guVtnlate, resemblins 
drops of oil or resin ; Gat'tule, used 
for drops of oil (?) contained in the 
capitate paraphyses of Fungi. 

gyalec'tifOTm {jorma^ shape), urceo- 
late, like the genus Oyalecta, now 
merged in LecuUa; gyalec'tiiie, and 
gyt&G'toHA (cidos, Uke), are syn- 

gymnaa'tlious, -vs {yvfiyos, naked, 
dwBot, a flower), naked-flowered; 
Qynmaz'ony (<i^r, an axle), Mor- 
ren's term for the placenta 
protruding through the ovary ; 
gymnoblas'tQS {pKaaros, a bud), 
having the ovary superior ; gym- 
nocar'picus, gymnooar'pons, -us 
{Kapwos, fruit), (1) naked fruited; 
where the perianth does not ad- 
here to the outer intesument ; (2) 
whero the fruit is without pubes- 
cence (Henslow) ; (3) when the 
hymenium is exposed during the 
maturation of the sporos ; Qym- 

noddlom t (^Kidiw, tubercle), 
Necker's term for the swelling 
sometimes formed at the base m 
the capsule in Mosses, the apo- 
physis ; Qyxnnog'amae Mfiot, mar- 
riage), Ardissone's term for Hetero- 
sporouB and Isosporous Cryptogams; 
C^m'nogen {yepydua, I brinff forth), 
= Gtmnosp£bm; gsmmog^ynoos X 
{yvrrf, a woman), having a naked 
ovary ; Oymnosper'mae (<nr^p/xa, 
seed),Qyino8per'mia,(i) the Linnean 
order Didynamia, plants having 
four nutlets, taken for naked fruits, 
as Labiates ; (2) the modem order 
of naked-ovuled plants, as coni- 
fers; gjrmnosper'matoas, relating 
to conifers and their allies, recent 
and fossil ; gynmosper'moua, the 
ovules developed without the usual 
tegumentary pericarp, as in Coni- 
ferae ; oppoised to Angiospermous ; 
Oymnosper'my, the state of bearing 
really or apparently naked fruit ; 
Oym oospore, a naked spore, one 
not produced in a sporangium; 
grymxios'tomous (drd^ui, a mouth), 
applied to the peristome of Mosses 
when destitute of t-eeth ; gsrmnote- 
trasper'miu t {rcrpdSf four, (nr^p/xa, 
seed), having a four-iobed ovary, as 
in Labiates, once considered to be 
naked; gsrnmotre'moid {rpij/xa, a 
hole, elSoit like), a bare open spot 
or space (Leighton). 

Oynaeceum {yvucuKcior, the women's 
house), the pistil or pistils of a 
flower ; the female portion as a 

gsman'der {yvtrfj, a woman, Avript ^t^Spos, 
a man), gynan'drons, when the 
stamens are adnate to the pistil, as 
in Orchids, etc. ; Qynan'dria, a Lin- 
nean class, with gynandrouB flowers; 
adj. gynan'drian ; Qynan'drophore 
(<fH>pi(a, I carry), a column bearing 
stamens and pistils ; gynandros- 
p'orons (<nro/>d, seed), dioecious 
forms of Oeaogoniae in which the 
female plant produces androspores; 
gyxum'tlieirous, -us (+ Anther), 
used of stamens converted into 
pistils ; Oyne'dnm = Oynaeceum ; 


OjBlx'si, OTiil'nii [liit, birdlime), 
the tiigmk in Orchids ; Qy'nobue, 
Oynob'ani Obo-ii, e, pedetUtI). kn 
snlArgement d[ tbe torue on whiuh 
the gynMceum rests ; gysolMs'lc, 
applied lo a ityle whioh vtherea by 
its bue to s prolongation apwsrda 
of the torus belweeo carpeUj flyno- 
dd'iiim, ui error for OrimociDinii : 
gjoodloe'doiu, dioecioQB.with HOQie 
flowers hertti&phrodit«, other* pistil - 
1st«oiil}', on separate plants; S7I10- 
dy'tumni {ii-ra^t, pow^r), applied 
to an organism where the female 
element is preponderant ; Oyno*'- 
elnin = Gvsaeceuh; 07iiog«]net> 
ftn'ginm (ToiMnit, a spouse, dnifo', 
a vessel), an organ in which female 
■ezual obUb are formed : an archo- 
soDinm ; Qyttogua'tttt. eggcelU 
I carry), tlie female gametophore i 
Grnomonos'cioua, monoecious, with 
female nnd hormaphrodit« flowera 
on Che same plant ; OjmomonM'cUm 
ia the condition ; O^'nopIioTe, Gytto- 
phor'iam {■papiui, I carry), the stipe 
of a pistil : adj. gTUOpbora'tiu X 
gynoidioiia'naa Z ; Oynophyl'lf 
\pu\\o,, a loaf), viroBcence or phyl- 
lomorphy of the ovary ; Oy'nopbyte 
(^DTor, a plant), the female plant 
in the sexual generation : OyDM- 
ta^'liuil (ffTi'voi, a roof), the staminal 
OTown in Agdtpiag ; Gjntoteg'lniii 
(Tf^cii, a roof), the sheath or Haver- 
ing of a gynaeceuni of an; kind ; 
OpuMtA'miaiii {rr^iioir, a stamen), 
the column of an Orchid, the androe- 
cium and gynaeceam combined, 

BTp'seus (Lat., plastered with lime), 
chalk-white, oretaceous. 

gy'lftte, yyra'tu* (Lat. ), curved into a 
circle, or circular ; ciroinate. 

Oj'roUUi {yi'pm, round, XWrn, stone), 
tbe presumed fossil fruits of Chora ; 
OfntU. (1) the annuluH of Feraa ; 
(2) the button-like shield of Q^jro- 

era i gy'rose, yyTv'ma. curvnl 
kward and forward in turn ; 
Q;''^ (Lat., a circle) — GrsoHA. 

taU'lti Uahi'liu (Lat., nppearancu), 

Habitat, Habiia'lio (Lat., dwelling), 

(1) the kind of looalily in which a 
plant grows, as woods, moors, etc.; 

(2) the geographic distribution of 
limits, now termed Localttv, or 
more precisely Statios ; ~ Orosp, 
applied to those plants which hara 
common habitats, though not re- 
lated, as Haijii'Sytss, HrvRO- 
PHYTBS, and the like ; - Ba'eM, 
used by Magnus for those heter- 
o^cious D red inea, which are adapted 
to tespective species of host 

Had'rome. a shortened form of Hadn- 
mss'toms liSpAt, thick, ripe, strona, 
iicirris, tilled), the lylem or woody 
portion of a vascular bundle ; con- 
siatiogof tbe Utdronk and part of 
the Amtloub: together with tho 
Leftomi it formi the Mestohi. 

Bae'mateln iat/ui, of^urot, blood), the 

colouring mailer of Logwood ; htM- 
matl'nus. baem'attlas, b-.emitlt'le, 
atinge), blood-red; Baemaloclm'iiie 
(■XpCilia, colour), Cohn's term for the 
pigmentof Haemat<Kotra4 pliiviaiii, 
etc, ; Baematox'yUn IfuKar, wood), 
the colouring matter of Logwood, 
IfiKmoloxyton rampwAionHm, 

Linn,; Haemorrha'gla (^a-yla, from 
jr/iy6)un, to break forth ), a disesae in 

Hair, an outgrowth of the epidermis, 
a single elongated cell, or row of 
cells ; ~ -point'ed. ending in a fine. 
weak point j - -ahapMl, filiform, 
very slender, as tbe ultimate divi- 
sions of the in6orescence of many 
grasses; HalT-brBBilth = CkPn.i.DS ; 
Hair'lnsas, hirsute, more rigidly 
bairy than pubescent ; hlilr'j. 
pubescence when tho hairs are 
separately distinguishable. 

hal'berd-, or bal'bert-shaped, hastate; 
~-b«aded, means Iha same, 

Balf(I) a moielyi one part of that 
wbiuh is divided into two e<|UBl 



portions ; (2) sometimes it means 
one-8ided,dimidiate; '^anaVropoiu, 
amphitropous ; ^ Breed, the pro- 
duct of a croes-fertilization ; f^ 
oor'date, heart-shaped on one side, 
*^ cylin'drlc, applied to a stem 
flattened on one side ; '^ eqn'itaiit, 
partially equitant ; '«'liife'rlor,iised 
of an ovary when the stamens are 
periffynoas ; ^ monopefaloiu, the 
petiSs united, but so slightly as to 
separate easily; ^^ moon-sbaped, 
semilunate, cresoent-like ; '^^net'ted, 
when of several layers, only the 
outer is netted, as the oorm of 
Okuiiolua eammunis, Linn. ; f^ stem- 
tilasp'ln^, partly amplexioaul ; '^ 
Biipe'rlor, the same as half -inf erior ; 
*^ terete', flat on one side, terete on 
the other :~Half-Oaltoiiian-cnrye, 
see Newtonian Cubve. 

Halm, see Haulm. 

halona'toa (AXwf, the disk of the 
sun, halo), when a coloured drcle 
surrounds a spot. 

lialopli'ilous (AXs, iXbs, salt, the sea, 
^Xiujj I love), salt-loving ; Hal'o- 
pbjTte {4>vTbv, a plant), a plant 
which grows withm the influence 
of salt water ; adj. lialopliyflo. 

Hal'ospore, an error for Haplospors. 

halved, dimidiate. 

ha'mate, hamaftus (Lat., hooked), 
hooked at the tip; ha'moM, 
ba'moQS, Jtamo'sus, hooked ; ham'n- 
late, hamtda'tus ; ham'nlose, 
hamulo*8U8, beset with small hooks ; 
Hii'mnlus, a hooked bristle in the 
flowers of Uncinia; Ha'mos, a 

Han'dle, the manubrium of the anthe- 
ridium of Gharaceae. 

bapazan'thlc, bapaxan'thons (dfro^, 
once, ap0ost a flower), used of herbs 
having a single flowering period. 

baploebSunyd'eous (dirXoot, single, 

3\afws, a mantle), monochlamy- 
ecus, having a single perianth ; 
haplogen'eos {yeypdta, I bring forth), 
= heteronemeus ; Haplogonld'iom 
( + Gonidium), a Lichen gonidium 
resembling Protococcua ; haploper- 
ist'omous (+ PsBiSTOME), used of 

Mosses with a peristome of a sinffle 
row of teeth ; haplopet'alOQS, -Zua 
{HtoXop, a flower leaf), with one 
row of petals ; Haplospore (<nrop^ 
seed), a simple spore in Lichens ; 
]iaplOBte'monona(<rn^/ui»', a stamen), 
with a sinele series of stamens 
in one whorl. 

Hiip'teron, pL Hiip'tera(arr(i;, I fasten 
upon), Warminff's term for organs 
of attachment iniich do not contain 
vascular tissue, as in Podosto- 

Hiiptot'ropism {AwrofMi, to attach 
oneself to), curvature induced in 
climbing plants by the stimulus of 
a rough surface (Czapek). 

bard'y, enduring without protection ; 
not injured by the climate. 

haa'tate, Juutatua (^a«to, a spear), 
halbert-shaped, sagittate, with 
the basal lobeiB turned outward ; 
has'tifOTm {forma, shape), spear- 
shaped, hastate ; has'tile, has- 
ti'lia (Lat., like the shaft of a 
spear), used for hastate. 

batoli'et-sliaped, dolabriform. 

Hiiulm, Halm, Haum, (1) the culm of 
grasses ; (2) the stem of herbaceous 

HauBtor'ium {hauetor, a drawer), a 
sucker of parasitic plants ; used bv 
Komarow for an appendage of pen- 

Haut'schicht (Ger.), the layer of cell 
protoplasm known as Ectoplasm. 

HmuI (1) &n inflorescence ; the 
capitulum of Composites ; (2) for- 
merly used for the theca of Mosses ; 
'^ dell, the capitulum of Chara ; 
head'ed, capitate. 

Heart, used by Grew for the centre, 
as heart of oak, the duramen ; '^ 
shaped, cordate ; >-' Wood, the 

hebecar'pus (ff/Si;, puberty, «capir6s, 
fruit), having the fruit covered 
with downy pubescence. 

heVetate, hebeta'tus (Lat., blunted), 
having a dull or blunt or soft 

hedera'ceous, hedtra'ctiis {ffedera, 
ivy, + aceous, (1) pertaining to 


iij : (2) resembliiiB ivy in habit ; 

bwt'eral. composad of ivy ; heda- 

ttreroiu i/ero, I bear), produoinn 

He'g«moD ; (Ir/tiuiy, a leader), fibro- 

vnBi^ular tiBsae. 
beUwa'Us (n^'n'oi. belonging to tbe 

sunl. heliacal ; Hpiral. 
Halioliry'alii, the yellow colonring 

matter of several species of 

bBllo'Uonn (Mil, a bmiI, forma. 
^hape), coiled like a snail shell : 
Hel'loocarp (la^x-Ai, fmil), Niootra'a 
Lerta Car a fruit whoBe caostitiieat 
oarpeU are arranged in a spiral ; 
btUwcT'r&ta, Micoffy'ratEf l-jy- 
raiiu, lumod in a circle), having a 
ring carried obliquely round, as the 
uiaulus IB some Ferns ; tul'loatd, 
hrlieaiieitia (ftioj, like), coiled into 
a helix, or like a snail-shell ; ~ 
Oysu, a BympodJal inflorescence 
whoM lateral branches are all de- 
veloped on one side, a boBtryx, 
or ctrepBnium ; in some text- 
books this is erroneously cslled 
* scorpioid ' ; ~ IlicliofDnty, when 
in two une<|ual branches, the 
mote vif[orous one is uniformly 
on the same aide ; >- Inllores'- 
oanea, vben the flowers are in a 
aiosle row ; ~ nnlp'orons Cyme, 
a bostryx ; tlellcol'dal, spirally 
twiated, in the maoiiDr of a aoail- 

heUopb'oble (j|X.ot, the snn. fv^^ur, 
I dread), shunning the light, nega- 
tively heliotropic ; Helio'sls, injury 
done by sun-burn : Hallotor'tiBm 
(torliw, tiHated), torsion caused by 
incidenoe oi light (.Schwendencr and 
Krabbe) ; hallotrop'le (7,1^01, 
direation), tumiog towards the 
light ; - An'lM, the angle of inci- 
dence at which light bas the most 
stimulatina: effect : Heliot'Toplam, 
the act of turning towards the aun 
or source of light; aegr'fttivo ~, 
■hunniug light; pos'ttlva ~, 

S rowing in the direction of the 
gbt ; tTMU'TtTM r-, = DlAHE)X>- 


ballMo'old (f)XiiH, the bud, iSxr. an 
animal, tttos, like), amoeboid, but 
having distinct ray -like paendo- 

Bel'mat, - Galba ; ~ itatpad =■ 

galea te. 
helo'blaus {(\m. a marab, ,3Iai, life), 

living in marshes, palodal- 
Hel'otiam (([Xui, a slave], Warniing'» 

term (or the relation of tba sym- 

bionts in the Lichen thallus. 
bal'TOloi (Lat. ), pale ochreoua yellow ; 

hel'Tns (Lat.), light bay, dun- 

He'matl&e = Qaimatin. 

HemerBn'thy (V«f«>. day, inSiui, I 
flower), day-flowering. 

beml- (W), >n composition means 
half : Bainl-albuinoae'( -1- Albnmooe), 
a mixture chiefly of proto- and 
hetero-albumose ; bemluiKlocor'- 
pons (ayytiov, a vessel, tcajMrM, 
fruit), when thehymenium o£ aome 
Fungi is for some time covered 
with a meoibrane. tbe gonidiophore 
issolermed ; bemlaaat'ropana (drA, 
up, -rfKurq, a turn), half-anatropous, 
the ovule being partially bent 
back, half the raphe free ; hemi- 
tropouB, amphitropouB ; Heml'- 
aut'opbyte ( + ArTOPHTTE), chlor- 
phyll-bearing parasites (Koulgerl ; 
Ham'ioorp, Hemienrj/ium (xsproi, 
a fruit), a half-carpel, a meri- 
oorp ■ HeniaaU'nlMe (+ Ckulv- 
LuSK), all carbobydratcB present 
in tbe cell - wall wbicb are 
not coloured blue by cblor-iinc- 
iodide, such as pectinaoeous sub- 
stanceB, reserve oellulose, etc. 
(Qilaon); formerly termed Pseudo- 
celluloae ; Bemioy'cla (nliKoi, a 
circle), a hatf-oircle, or half coil ; 
beml^oUo. partly in whorls, aa 
the perianth Vaves in whorls, and 
the sporopbylla in spirals ; beml- 
cylln'dllc {liXipipof, a cylinder), (1) 
half-terete ; (2) a leafy expansion, 

oiber 1 HemldystTopb'ta (iva-, 
bad, Tpdi^, nourishment), partial 
nouriahment, semiatarvation in 
planta ; Hemlep'lpbrte (irJ, upon, 



0V7VP, a plant), employed by Went 
for a plant which at first roots in 
the soil, afterwards developing 
atrial roots ; Hem'iform ( + Form), 
used of heteroeciouB Fungi, having 
uredospores and teleutosporee, the 
latter only germinating after a 
resting jperiMl ; hemlgona'ria t 
(T^rof, offspring), employed when a 
part of both stamens and pistils 
are changed into petals ; Rntdgf- 
roB t {y^pot, rouna), = Folliole ; 
iMml^ngyii'iciiB (<r^, with, yvprj, 
ywaiKoSt a woman), half-adherent 
(Lindley) ; Hemipar'aslte ( + Para- 
site), a ^ultative saprophyte, a 
parasite which can exist as a sapro- 
phyte ; HemliOiyU (^i^XXop, a leaf), 
the hypothetic segment of a 
carpel ; oVnlar <«', plaoen'tal '^, 
those which become modified into 
special parts of the ovary respec- 
tively, </. Triphtllomb ; Heml- 
■ap'ropbyte {aaxpos, rotten, 4nrr6vy 
a plant), a facultative parasite ; 
lltm'isclliBt (<rx«rr6t, split), in 
brood - cell formation when the 
nncleos only divides, the cyto- 
plasm remaminff whole (Hartog); 
Hemitetraootyle^on {rerpds, four, 
+ CoTTLBDON), De Vries's ex- 
pression when both cotyledons 
are divided, or one normal and 
the other divided; Hemite'rla t 
{TfjpiWf I keep), ''a monstrosity 
of elementary organs, or of ap- 
pendages of the axis " (Lindley) ; 
heml'trlchoiiB t (^P^t rpiKos, hair), 
half covered with hairs ; Hemitii- 
ootyle'don ((rp€(f, three, + Coty- 
ledon), used by De Vries, when 
one cotyledon is apparently divided 
into three; bemlt'ropal, heml- 
VropoiiB {rpoTos, direction) (1) am- 
phitropous, the axis of the ovule 
being more curved than the ana- 
tropons condition ; (2) employed 
by M'Leod for flowers which are 
restricted to certain insects for 

Hamp, the fibro-vascular tissue of 
Cannabia aativa, Linn. 

Hen-and-Chickeiis, proliferous flowers. 

the centre flower or head being 
surrounded by subsidiary flowers. 

HenBlo'vian Mem'brane, the cuticle ; 
so named from Prof. Henslow's 
researches on the same. 

hepatic, hepaf icons, -cua (Lat., dis- 
eased in the liver), liver-coloured, 
dark, purplish-red ; HepaUcoroglst, 
an expert in Hepaticae ; Hepati- 
ool'Dgy (\oyo% discourse, the study 
of the Hepaticae or Liverworts. 

Heptagyn'la (^irrd, seven, tvi^, a 
woman), a Linnean class of plants 
having seven pistils ; heptagyn'ian, 
possessing seven pistils ; hepta- 
m'eroos {fUpot, a part), having the 
parts in sevens ; heptan'der {dvvp, 
dpSpos, a man), heptan'drons, having 
seven stamens ; Heptan'drla, a 
Linnean order of plants with seven 
stamens ; heptan'drian, relating to 
the same, or possessing seven 
stamens ; heptari'nus (dp/n/v, male), 
Necker's term for heptandrous ; 
hep'tarch, a fibro-vascular cylinder 
or stele with seven rays or bundles ; 
heptapefalous {viraXoyy a flower 
leaf), having seven petals ; hepta- 
phyriooB {4fv\\ov, a leaf), with 
seven leaves. 

Herb, Htrha (Lat., grass, herbage, 
plant), a plant with no persistent 
stem above ground ; herba'ceons, 
-ceti«, ( + aceous), (1) with the text- 
ure, colour and properties of a 
herb ; (2) with annual stems from 
a perennial root, as aU'^Peren'nlal ; 
Herb'age, herbs collectively, grass, 
pasture ; Herb'al, (1) a volume con- 
taining descriptions of plants, such 
as John Gerard's *'HerbaU"; (2) 
sometimes = Herbarium ; Herb'al- 
iBt, (1) a writer of herbals, one of 
the old botanists ; (2) a person 
skilled in the knowledge of herbs ; 
Herb'arist, an old wora for botan- 
ist; Herba'rium, a collection of 
dried plants, formerly styled a 
**fiortu8 siccus*' ; Herb'elet, Herb'- 
let, a small herb; herbes'cent, 
growing into herbs ; Herb'orlst, a 
collector of plants for medical use ; 
Herboriia'tlon, a botanic excursion 


^^^rtor the aollMtion of planU : httV- 

^^^ oilM, to botanixs. 

Bntog'smy (Ipio!, a leaee, yifuit. 
marriage), applied to hermapbro- 
dite flowers, when lome Btructaral 
peculiarity prevent* self -fertiliza- 
tion, reiiuirin)! mBaet-viBitation ; 

adj. beroogwn'lc, hmkogun'lo, her- 

cog'amoiu, -rniu, 
having the charaatersof both xexesl, 
the lUutienB and pialiU in the aame 

BaMd'lty {here'ditim, heirship). poB' 
•easioD b; inheritance, of cerlain 
qnaiitieaor BtruclureB; tdtes'lULl ~ , 
nnlMx'ual ~, having the qualities 
of both, or of one pai'ent only trans- 

Her'pM {ipriit, a cutaneaoB eruption) 
tonn'rana |Lat.. abaving). ring- 
worm, a diBe&BB of the akin as- 
cribed to Trkhopht/ton lonauraitg, 

Ku'poblAat (fpiru, I creep, ^amat, \\ 
shoot), Cramer's tenii for a con- 
ferroicl prothallium lying flat on 
its subBtraCum. 

Haipertd'iimi (frcin the golden fruit 
of the ganlen of Vaelltupftidee). 
Desvoiu's term for a fruit, such 
as the orange, a superior, poly- 
carpeUary, Hyiicajpona berry, pulpy 
within, and externally covered with 
a toQgh rind ; Achantium of De 

H«Iaa'ilo UraipFla, a biotberhood), 
a Dollection of distinct indehiscent 

Bntteroap. Raspberry ', UBually 
Bpelled ETAERin. 
Bnerae'my (fTcpei, other, dn^q, apex), 
= DicwAHT : betarsa'drou* (afqp, 
irSpit, a man), applied to flowers 
whose stamens vary in size ; Betcr- 
an'dry, tbe condition described ; 
H«t*ra,aze'sls {atiwh, growth). 
variation in the lelative growth 

of opposite sid 

liatMax'ou (ofwi' 
by O, MueUer t. 

iile), > 

t the I 

(-l-Al*u«iOBK), Kuhne'B 
terra for proteid, phytslbnmoae; 
hetamblai'tlo (^Xsittoi, a shoot), 
applied to embryogeny whiuh is 
indirect, the oSspring not eimilar to 
the parent, but producing the adult 
fonn as an outgrowth, as in Chora; 
Iiet«rai»T'poaa, -pm (lapTO!, fruit), 

Sroducing more than one kind of 
'uitibetsTocai'picQB (fructus). "an 
inferior fruit " (Lindley ; Hetaro- 
cai'py, having two kinds of fruit ; 
beterocapb'aloui, (ic^Xq, the 
head), bearing two kinila of head 
or capitulum ; hMwoohlamyd'eoni, 
■dirve (^Xa^iii, a mantle], when tbe 
calyx and corolla clearly differ ; 
HBtsrocluo'matlani (jtpi^/ia, ooloor), 
■ change in the colouring or mark- 
ine of petals ; beleTOCbn'mous, 
when the SoretB of the diak Id 
Compositae differ in colour from 
thoae of the ray ; baterods'mal, an 
ill-contrived version of hfteroiu:!!- 
avs -, bet'eiooUne, beterocU'noua, 
.«.« (.X(»7,, a bed), with the male 
and female members on separate 

het'arocllte. Iirleror'/Uiin (^(penXiToi, 
varying in declension), anomalous 
in formation. 

bet«rooy'eUo (itfpo^, other, ■I'lXet, a 
a circle), used when tbe floral 
whorls are heteromerous, not uni- 
form or isomerous ; Hat'arocyst 
(mVnt, a bag), large inert cells in 
the filanienlJi of certain Algae, separ- 
ating contiguouB hormogonia ; adj. 
heterocysfoDs: Beterodl'Ddy ( JIojIdi, 
a passage). Van Tieebem'a term 
for the oondition of those DiODEa 
which are differentiated into Mac- 


IsoDioDT ; betarod'romoaB, -mwr 
(Jpjjuot, a course), having spirals of 
changing directions, as in some 
tendrils, or phyllotaiis ; Belerod'- 
romy, with varied spiralsi beteroe'- 
clona, forms whiish pass through 
their Btages of development on 
different noata are bo termed ; 
metoeciouB is a synonym ; Heter- 
oe'cUm, the condition of a hel«T- 




house), ft Pungns whiab 

EBMea lis stages on mora Iban one 
DSb plant ; n metoecioua paraaits ; 
beteroecU'm&l. ehould be hbtib- 
0EC10U8 : Het'iroecyit (Crozier), - 
HrrRBOTTKT; iietanv'^mso*. -miu 
("rilttoi, marriage), (1) hearing two 
faiad* of flowen, as in Compoaitae, 
the floreU of the ray may be neuter 
or anisexual, and those of the disk 
hermaphrodite : (2) an abnormal 
arrangement of the »eimal orgaiu 
(Masters) -, Batoroc'uny, ohange of 
the function of male and female 
flowers, or in their nrrangameDt ; 
heterage'iieotis (y^ot, race), not 
uniform in kind ; HeteTagene'ity, 
dinaimilarity of nature; heterof^'en- 
oiu iQdao'ttOD. used by Noll to de- 
note si-nsitira moTemenl« in which 
two diflereot causes uo-operato ; 
HeleroEen'MlB (yrnm. be^nning), 
alternation of generations i betero- 
gcnet'lc, when applied to fertiliza- 
tion means cross - pollination ; 
Bet'eroKone iywri.offaptiaii), a plant 
whose Sowers are dimorphic or tri- 
morphicin the length of the stamrns 
or stylca ; adj. tMteroB'onooa, lnuro- 
(lo'ntae ; Heterog'ony. the same as 


Iietgnil'cous, a form preferred 
by some hryologists to the 
UBUal spelling iieteboegiohs ; 
bettrol'deiu t UUat, like), di- 
veraified in form (Lindley) ; bot- 
■Tomal'loiu, -lut {fiaWii, a fleece or 
loft of wool) spreadinn in all direc- 
tions ;betierom'aIoa)(Crozier). —the 
foregoing ; HotBTomer'icarpy l/icpoi, 
a part, xaproi. fruit), Huth's term 
for a binary froit, the halves of 
which differ from each other, as 
Turoenia heterooirpa, DC. ; taetero 
mer'lciM, strati Sed, as in some 
Lichens ; betBrom'eronB (1) when 
the number of the members ia not 
aniform : (2) in Lichens, the appo- 
site of isomerouB ; beteromor'pbic, 
llstennnoT'plioni (/iop^, form). (1) 
variation from normal structure, as 
deformities, etc ; (3) having organs 

diSiBtingin length, dimorphic, with 
Ions; and short styles ; trimorphic, 
with lang, short, and medium 
length, the male organs (stamens) 
being of corresponding length ; 
heterone'mens {'ijiia, a thread), ap- 
plied to plants which on germina- 
tion produce thread-like bodies, 
which afterwards unite, nich as 
Bryophytes and Pteridophyles ; 
bstaropbyad'lc. helemphyad'icii' 
(4itr^, growth), used of those species 
which have fertile stems ot different 
form from the barren stems, as in 
some Egiiitela ; heteropbylloiui 
(«i)XXo>. a leaf), having leaves of 
different forms ; HetMopbyl'ly, 
used by Kraaaer, for two ditTerent 
forms of leaves, when caused by 
differenoe in organization ; Het'ero- 
pliyta. HetfTofiWlim {^ttav, a 
plant), (DTrattinik's name for those 
plants which bear leaves and flower* 
on separate stems, as CaTeama 
Ztdoaria, Rose,; (2) Boulger's term 
for parasites destitute of cbloro- 
phyll ; adj. bateropbjr'toaB ; betero- 
po'lar (iroXsi, a pivot), for the axis of 
Diatomaceae when the extremities 
differ; Heteropro'tbally (+ Pro. 

the production of aniBUXual pro- 
thallia ; haterorhl'sLl (pifa, a root), 
having roots or similar organs pro- 
ceeding from any indetei-minat« 
portion of a spore in germination, 
or rooting from no fixed point ; 
Heterotper'niT (orrpua, seed), hear- 
ing two kinds of seeds, as in S\iatila, 
some species producing both seeds 
with endosperm, and other seeds 
destitute of it ; beteros'porom 



I in Sdagintlla ; Hsteroi'- 
pory. the condition ot producing 
microspores and macrosporea. etc.; 
bet'eTDBtyl»d, beteroity'IoDB { + 


ityl'la, hetcroganious plants; Hetero- 
Bty'llEm, having flowers differing 
in the styles, aa CompostCae when 
certain florets are uniseiLual and 
others hermaphiodite in the same 

head ;H « t M M y iy ^Hitexooamy ; 
HatMOtax'j (rafit, arraDgeoieDt), 
devisCion. m the produotion of 
orgMU in aituutioas where under 
norniBl oonditiona they wonld not 
be found; Iiet«rot«p'tc (rovot, a, 
pUoe). used of planla found on soils 
apparently very diverse from their 
normal Btations ; beterot'ropol. 
betsrot'ropouB (TptJirot, direption), 

(1) ID ovules, the same aa amphi- 
tropouB ; (2) oraployed by Agardh 
for collateral ovules, back to back ; 
(3) lying parallel with the hilnin : 
beterotropb'lc -m irprnp-ii, food) ; 
Beterat'ropliy,(l)uBedby Miokefor 
those Lichens living gymbjotically ; 

(2) by Wioaner for the oompound 
poiitioD of a shoot with regard to 
the horizon anil of the mother* 
ahoot ; Het'erotyp* (riVot, form, 
type), Flemming's term for a 
peculiar nuclear division connected 
with the redaction of the chroma- 
somes, marteil by the early fission 
of the chromatic thread, a special 
form of the cbromosomcB them- 
■elrea (Farmer) ; adj. heterotjp'lc ; 
heterox'Mioai (f^ivt, a host) — 

ilx, irifcrtDi, a kernel), 
a fruit of six cells, as Tri'jlochia ; 
Hftzaponlench'yina {yurla, angle, 
*r(u/ui, an infusion), oetlmar 
lisaue which exhibits hexagonal 
cella in section ; haxagr'onna, six- 
angled ; heza^onold (rISoi. Like), J. 
Smith's term for heiagonal areolae 
on Ferns, which are bordered by 
veins ; Hsiagyn'ia (yvf-i, a woman), 
a Linnean order of plants poseessing 
six pistils ; hexagyn'lan. plants be- 
longing to that order, or having it« 
character : besag'ynoiis, with six 
^Btils : bexalep'idoi (XetIi, \rrlSot, 
a Boale), siX'Scaled ; heiam'arouB, 
-™» (iiipot, a part), in sixes ; 
baxan'der (trijp, iripit, a, man). 
bBXan'drous, with six stamens ; 
Bazan'diiSi, a Linneau class charac- 
terised by the possession of six 
stamens ; bexan'drlan. relating to 
that class ; heiapet'aJons (irtroXw, 

» (in 

a lloweT leaf), with six petals ; 
h«xap«t'alold (rlSm, like), having a 
perianth of six pieces, which re- 
semble petals ; bflsapbyl'lons, •(«» 
(^uXXat, a leaf), six leaved ; Hez'a- 
pWl (rout, rMs. a foot), a fathom of 
six feet, used son leti Dies as a 
I of altitude ; bexap'tarons, 
. -ipir, a wing), six winged ; 
baxapyra'ans {irv/ni'', a kernel), 
having six kernels ; bex'arcb (dp^'^, 
beginning), applied to a stele wiUi 
six strands or origins ; bexirl'imi 
[dppi7>, male), Necker's synonym 
for heiandroiis ; hexaaep'aloni, ■lu» 
I A- Sepajlcm), with six sepals; 

men) hoxandrous, aix -atamened. 
bl'uu (Lat.), gaping, as a ringent 

Hlbem'acle, BltMrna'culum (Lat., a 
winwr room), (1) a winter bud : (2) 
in botanic gardens, the winter 
quarters for plants, especially plant 
houses and frames : bibsr'luJ. 
hibema'lk (Lat.), pertaining to 
winter : Hlbema'tlon, passing the 
winter in a dormant state- 
Hlber'nian, H. C- Watson's term tor 
those pbintaof the United Kingdom 
whose bead-qnarters appear to be 
in Ireland (Hiberaia). 
bld'den, concealed from view ; — 

I Ttdned, with veins which are not 

' obvioui, as in Pinks and HoUM 

I leeks, by excess of parenchyma, 
tdde^bound, a cultivator's expression 

I when thq barb does not yield to the 

I growth of the stem. 

I Hlgh-yeast, barm, the yeast which 
forms at the surfaoe; £j. low or 
bottom yeast. 

I ttl'smal, hiema'Ha (Lot.), relating to 

; HlKb'land.nsed b^ Watson for a type 
of distribution in Great Britain, of 
those plants obiefly found tn the 
Highlands of Scotland. 
bllar, hila'rii {hUum, a trifle), re- 
lating to the hilum ; Hlla (S- F. 
Gray) = HlLOM ; ~ bear'lllK, 
marked with a hilum ; bUiferotis, 
hU'i/tir, (/"cv. I bear), having a 



failum on the anrface ; Bllofan, the 
■eooDd or internal integnmeat of a 
teed ; Hl'lnm (1) the aoor left on a 
Med where formarlj ettoched to the 
funiole or plaoente ; (2) the central 
point in a, aterch gruiule which 
the riog-like mukinf^ aaem to aur- 
lonnd ; (3) f >□; point of att*ch- 
ment ; (4) t ka apertora in pollen 

ni^Be, (1) the iathmna of Diatoma; 
(2) in atomata, delicate lamellae of 
oelluloae, npon which the mobility 
ol the gii»ra-a«lla DsnaU; depend a ; 
they may form an inner or onter 
hinge ; in Qennon, " Hautgelenk." 

Utt'snleni (Lat., a voung atog), a 

kiBO'ldKia (h prefixed, bwii^i, fibrous), 
naed when veins proceed from the 
midrib and are parallel and un- 
divided; vannla'ao- ~, the wme, 
if oonneoted by oroea-veina. 

Blp, the fruit of the roee ; teahoically 
• oyDarrbodJam. 

blppcwie'pUonn, hippocrtp^orm'tH 
([»TrDi, a horse, npijirii, aboe, forma, 
ahape), horse-ahoe ahaped. 

hlnd'lliu (Lat., pertaining to a goat), 
amelling like a goat ; hlroaana i 
means the aame. 

hlr'aute, A>r«u'fu« (Lat, rouah, hairy), 
hairy, with long, tolerab^ diatinct 
hairs; Blrfn'Uea, the hairinesa juat 
desoribed; blltlU'ODl, -Itu, minutely 
bireote ; Ui'toae, need by R. T. 
Lowe for Ur'tni (Lat.), hairy, 
practically the same as hirsute. 

hU'pid, liufpidut (Lat., briatly), beset 
with rough boira or briatlea ; hll- 
pld'nlatiB, -laa, minutely biapid. 

HlMIol'ogy (Croiier) - His'toloov. 

HlMo<UaI'yBla (Ivrot, a web, Sid, 
throDgh, Xmtii, a loosing), the 
aeparatioD of Uie cella of a tisane 
from each other (Crozier) ; Biat'o- 
gm {yirrdu, I bring forth), the 
origin of tiaaue ; Mitogenet'lc, 
hmogen'te, tiaaue.fomiing ; ~ 
nu'm&, Weiamann's term for 
tiasue'fonning protoplaam ; Hlato- 
ren'etU (T^rEsti, beginning), Hlato- 
g'auy, formation or origin of tissue ; 

BiMUA'agy [Xiyat, diacourae), the 

science of tissues. 
Uttl'cna, (Lat.) gaping, split 
hoar'y, conescent, grey from fine pub- 

HoohbULtUr (Ger.) bracta. 
BiHA'ttMtM, the diso-like attachments 

holnra'eeona (Crozier) = olxkackovs. 
.Helobu'ld {Skat, whole, basidiam, t, 
little pedeatal), an undivided basi- 
dium in Basidiomyoetea (Van Tieg- 
hem) ; holoblM'tte {fl\<uToi, a bad 
orahoot), employed when the whole 
apore is concerned in the embryo- 
geoy, <if. MBROBUsnc; Hol'oeaip 
(naprot, fruit), Nicotra'a term for 
an entire fruit resulting from a 
Domber of carpels, it may be an apo- 
carp or a ayncarp, or an insensible 
blending of the two forma ; other 
divisions are ootinocarp, and beli> 
oocarp, aooording as it ia toaaded 
on a whorl or spiral ; and onti- 
Bpermio or pleurospermic according 
to the position of the placenta ; 
bOlOOaTp lo. holooup'ous, (1) having 
the pericarp entire ; (2) in simple 
Algae, the whole apore (individual) 
becomes a sporangium, and in- 
veated with a oell-walli Bologonld'- 
Inm ("yiif ot, ofiapring), employed by 
Walliotb for the algal gonidia 
pare and aimple, or soredia ; holo- 
phyf la, pertaming to Holopby'tlBm 
l^vrir, s plant), the condition of 
a plant with its growth main- 
tained entirely by ita own organs, 
without any suspicion of saprophy- 
tiam or parasitism ; Holosap'roptiyte 
{aawpit, rotten, ipuTor, a plant), 
employed by Johow tor a true 
aaprophyte, a plant wbioh ia 
dependent npon humua for its 
existence ; twlOMrla'eoni, -cena, 
(cericetu, silken), covered with a 
fine and ailliy pubescence. 

honiAlot'iopons (AfLaXot, even, rpor^, 
a turning), applied to organs wbiiji 
grow in a horizon taldirection(Noll). 

homohlas'Ue [ii^t, one and the same, 
fiXairnt, a shoot), denotes embryo- 
geny which ia direol; bomocaip'ooa. 

-pint (lapwii, fruit), hnTiDg fruit 
of ontt kind only ; bomocen'trlc 
{Kirr/w = centre of a cirole). con- 
oentric (Croxier) ; homocepli'aJlc 
(m^iiXq. B head). Delpino'a term 
for homogsm]' whea the aotheiH 
fttrtiliae the Btigma of another 
Hower of the samt) iodoreecence ; 
hamDChlamyd'aoiu (x^n^^i, » 
mantle), the perianth leaves all 

4like : HomocIiro'iiiatlBm <x>>">"<- 
cotonr), constant na [o the colour- 
ing of the flower : bomocliro'nioiu. 
uniform in colour ; liomoellii'lc, 
homocll'lioliB ((Xivii. abed), used by 
Delpino for that kind of homa- 
gamy when the anthers fertilise 
the stigma of the same complete 
fluw«r i Jomadromlc, homiid'ro- 
suJ, bomod'romooa. -mw (Ipo*u)i, 
a coune). having the epirais all of 

the s 

marriasa), the impregnatic 
tntipodal oell. initead of the 
ooephere b« in Bitlanophora ; {Van 
Tieghem), Bomoeo'ila (^uii, dawn), 
Bat«Bon'B term for MetAmorpby, a 
variation bj assumption b; one 
member of a meriitic Beries, of the 
form or character proper to others. 
bomag'ainiliu, -m\u (oiuii, one and the 
tame, 70^01. marriogH), bearing one 
kind of flower; HotDOg'amy. siniiiita- 
neous ripeness of pollen and stigmas 
in a perfect flower ; by I>elpino 

liinnog«'neaai, homage'neal {fitot. 
raoe. kind), of the same kind or 
nature, uniform, opposed to hetero- 
geneoDH ; Hom'ogone [yivos, ott- 
■pring), a plant bearing only one 
kmd of Bowers ; adj. Iiomiig'oiiont, 
HomaK'Diiy, the stnte of uniform 
reepective length of nnlhers and 


opposite of Heter- 


X>a;ii)), a mantle), used by Engler 
and Prantl when the perianth is 
uuiform ; homolom'eroui (lUpm. a 
part), used of a Lichen I hall us when 
the gonidia and hyphoe are dis- 
tribated in about equal propor- 
tions ; Wallroth employed the word 
homotom'tn* from iiaioiiepm. 
lomol'oEon* (o/idi, one and the same, 
Xo^gt, diecourse), of one typ«, 
constructed on the same plan, 
though varying in form and iuno- 
tion, na leaves and parts which 
answer morpkologically to leaves ; 
~ Alternation of Generationa, differ- 
entiation of generation! which are 
fundamentally alike as regards 
deeoenb, either in form or the 
character of their reprod active 
organs, cf. antithetic ; Hom'o- 
loffne, the equivalent of certain 
organs ; Homid'ogy, the identity of 
part4 apparently diifereat 1 bomo- 
m'alotu (Crozierl, homomal'lous, 
■/(M (;ui\Xdi, a lock of wool), re- 
curved, arising from all sides but 
turned to one direction : bomo- 
mer'lcni {liipot, a part) - uohoi. 
ouKBOtia ; bomomor'pbonB, -/i/itw, 
bomomor'pblc, {tap^, form), uni- 
form in shape ; Honointv'pliy, 
uniformity, aa when the diuk and 
ray florets of Compositae are alike ; 
either normally or by conversion 
of the disk florel* from tubular 
into ligulate florets ; Boin'oiiytii, 
cally, the same speoifio name in 
another genus of tbe same plant, 
as MffTtat lmx\/oiia, Sw. is a 
Homonym as well aa a .Synooyro 
of Eiii/fiiiu (■Hj:>/oii(i,Willd.; bomo- 

pet'ftloua {T^taXvr, a llower leaf), 
(1) all petals being alike; (2) the 
receptacle of Compositae when the 
florets are alike, as the Ligalatae ; 
taomophy'adio, ho7n/>phy<i'ileu» i^in), 
growth), applied to those species 
of Bquuilum, whose fertile and 
barren stems arc similar in form ; 
Homoplaa'iDj {rXdirpa, moulded), 
aimilsi in form but not of similar 



origin, as Cacti and sucoulent 
Enphorbias ; Hom'oplast^ oorres- 
pondenoe in extemid form, bat die- 
tinot in nature ; adj. homopUs'tic, 
Hom'oplaiy, moulded alike but of 
different origin, analogous, not 
homologous, of. Homoplasmy ; 
homot'poraiiB ((rro^d, seed), similar- 
seeded, in opposition to hxtkro- 
SPOROUs; hom'ostjled (+STrLB) 
= HOMOOONOUS; Homos^'ia, homo- 
genous plants ; homotlial'amns 
(0d\a/Aof, a room, bride-chamber), 
resembling the thallus, used for 
Liohens only ; homoVropal {rpoirlj, 
a taming), applied to organs having 
the same direction as the bodj to 
which thej belong ; homof ropons, 
-mis (1) curved or turned in one 
oireotion ; (2) used of an anatropous 
ovule having the radicle next the 
hilum ; Hom'otype (n^rot, form, 
type) (1) correspondence of parts ; 
(2) in nuclear division this term is 
applied to those cases resembling 
oroinary karyokinesis,save in minor 
respects, immediately following the 
Hbtb&ottpb; in some cases itoccnrs 
in all the stages after the Hetero- 
type, in which the reduced number 
of chromosomes ai-e retained up to 
the formation of gametes (Farmer) ; 
homo^yp'ic, homologous ; Homo- 
Vypy, the condition of corres- 
pondence of parts which are in 

Hon'ey, the sweet secretion from 
glands or nectaries, which acts as 
an inducement to insect visitors; 
^ Gup, used by Withering for 
nectary ; <*' I>ew, a sweet secretion 
voided by aphides from the juices 
of their host-plants ; *^ Quldes, 
lines or streaks of honey or colour 
leading to the nectary ; '^ Pore, 
a supposed pore or gland which 
secretes honey ; '^ Spot = ^^ Guides ; 
Hon'eycomb-oells, in Diatoms, hexa- 
gonal hollows, as in TricercUium 
Favus, Ehrenb. ; hon'eycomhed, 

Hood, = CnouLLUS ; hood'ed, Hood- 
iliaped (Crosier) = gucullate. 

Hook, a slender process, curved or 
bent back at the tip ; '^ Cll'mbers, 

Slants which support themselves 
y hooks or prickles, as the bramble; 
hooked-back, curved in a direction 
from the apex to the base as the 
side lobes in a dandelion leaf. 

Hoop, the zone or girdle of Diatoms, 
the connection TOtween the valves 
of the frustule. 

hora'rlus, hor'ary {hora, an hour), 
lasting an hour or two, as the ex- 
panded petals of Cistus. 

hoardoa'oeiiB (Lat. pertaining to 
barley), shaped like an ear of 
barley ; Hor^deln, a starch-like sub- 
stance in barley. 

horlson'tal, horizonta'lis {opi^tav, the 
circular boundary of vision), level ; 
Horison'tal Bys'tem, the cellular, as 
distinguished from the fibro-vascu- 
lar system (Crozier). 

Hor'mogon ((Cozier) = Hor'mogone, 
Hormogon'ium {i^p/ios, necklace, 
7^ot, offspring), in filamentous 
Algae, those portions composed 
of pseudocysts marked off by 
heterocysts which become de- 
tached, and after a short period of 
spontaneous motion, come to rest 
and develop into new filaments ; 
Hor'mospores {(nropa, seed), a term 
used by Minks for spores which 
are similar in origin to stylo- or 
teleutospores of Fungi, colourless, 
dividing into cells, microgonidia, 
etc., with diliquescence of the 
mother-cell, the microgonidia de- 
veloping into heterocysts. 

Horn (1) any appendage shaped like 
an animal's horn, as the spur in 
Linaria ; (2) the antheridium of 
Vaucheria ; Homlet, a little horn 
(Crozier) : hor'ny, corneous as to 

HomlNwt (Ger . ), a tissue of obliterated 
groups of sieve-tubes, specially 
thickened and of homy texture 

homoflnus, hor'nus (Lat.), of this 
year, the present year's growth ; 
Ba'mi hor'ni, branches not a twelve- 
month old. 



henlOK'iOftl (tioroloificuit, pertaining 
to & clock), iaid of flowera which 
open uid olotie Bt slnted hours ; 
Horolo'giimi Flo'rae, a time- table of 
tha openiog and closing of cortaio 
flowerB :— see Linnfteus, Phil. Bot. 
2T4 ; Kemer, Nat. Hist. Plants, ii. 

Iiorl«a'fl« (Liiit.). pertaining to 
gardens, or onl; found there ; 
BOTttUaniu (LaC.) (I) ii gardener ; 
(2) betoagiijg to a garden ; Hor'tna 
(Lut.), a garden; ~ slc'ciu, an 
herbarinm ; formerly it consiBt«d 
of volumes with dried BpecimeiiB 
glued down. 

EoaA-ln-hoie, a, duplication of the 
corolla, as though a second one 
were tDsertcd in ihs throat of the 

Bnt, a plant which nouriehes a para- 
■ile ; Host-plant, the aame. 

BetM'rioia lhaslu>, I mjuite, ex Hens- 
■low) ^ Hadstokiuh. 

Im'ml (Lal.)i >i> or on the ground. 

bn'mUOM, humifu'mu (hiimiu, the 
ground, ftmm, ^rcad), spread on 
the sarfnoe of the ground ; buml- 
•Ira'tiu (itnUv*. stretahed oul), laid 
Hat on the nil. 

bn'mlUafLaC), lowlf. 

Sn'mor (Lat., moisture) - Baf. 

Bu'mnlin, the oleoroain of the hop, 
HunuJ'tn Lnpulim, Linn. 

Bn'tnna (Lat., the ground), decom- 
posing organic matter in the soil ; 
~ Pluta, = Sai'hophttes ; ~ 
SoUa, garden soils enriched with 
organic manure. 

Bn*k, the outer covering of certkio 
fruits or seeds ; hiu'k7, abounding 
with or consisting of huaks. 

lijacln'tbine. Ayaciit f A im . hyacintk 'invi 
iiaxlrStvot, hyacinth -coloured) (1) 
dark purplish blue ; (2) hyacinth, 
like in habit, a scape bearing 
spicato flowers. 

BfalM'c«nt, " somewhat hyaline " 
(Crozier) ; by'allns, hyalfiiu^ 
(MXi>oi, of glass), colourless or 
translucent ; hyailc'olor [i^oior, 
colour), wanting in colour. 

By'uoplasm, B^lopUa'nui (daXof, 

crystal or glass, wXdc/m, moulded), 
the hyaline matrix or clear and non- 

Eranular portion of protoplasm ; 
y some restricted to the Ecto- 

Ryber'naele.HybeniA'cQlnm - Hideb- 

hybema'lla - 

Hy'bllil, Myb'rida (Lat., a mongrel), 
a plant obtained by the pollen of 
one species oo the stigma of 
another ; HybTld'ity, Hyhrid'iUu, 
crossed in parentage; Hjrbrldini' - 
tloo, (1) theart of obtaioing hybrids 
by artificial crossing ; (S) also used 
for the same operation ocuurriog 

Hy'dAlIiode [tiup, water, 6foi, a way), 
Haberlandt's term for water-pore 
or watpr-gland, an organ which 
extrudes water or other liquid ; it 
resamhles a xtomu with fuuctioolese 
guard-colls 1 Hydral'gae ( -I- Algai>) 
= HvDKOj'irvTBS ; BydracenuloM 
(-f Ccllalose], sue Cblliilosk i 
ET'drate, a compound containing a 
definite proportion of water in 
chemical oom^iination ; Hydra'tlim, 
tbo act of becoming chemically 
combined with water ; bydrocar'plc 
[tafiiri!, fruit), used of aquatic 
plants which are fertilized above 
the water, but withdraw the ferti- 
tiied Bowers below the surface for 
development, as in Vallianeria ; 
BydTDoel'Iulose, see Celldix)«ik ; 
Bydiol'd [tlio!, like) ^ Tuacubid 
(Crozier) ; hy'drogar (gtro, I bear], 
water-bearing, as hydro^ira va'm, 
threads in a spiral vessel whiuh 
wore formerly supposed to convey 
fluid i by'drol&ted, combined with 
the elements of water, hy Hydrola'- 
tion ; hy'drolfsed (\Cir\t, a loosing), 
chemically decomposed by taking 
up the elements of \vat«r ; Hydro- 
Vyiia, the act of being hydrolysed ; 
BydTOlBu'clte (-f LKtTCiTE), Van 
Tieghem's term for vacuoles in cell' 
sap, which be further subdivides 
into tuiniferous ~, ozalifarous ~, 
oolonred ~ , atbuminifsrous ~ , Jn 
socordaoce with their prodacUon 


of tauuin, oxnlfttM, oolonring 
nutter, or aleuroDe ; Hy'droUst, 
^. CrrOHTDBOUHT, Pbotkiht- 
DKOLiar ; HT'drome, the hjdral or 

wftter-ayBtem of a vtucaUr baodle, 
c^. Hadbohk 1 Hydnph'llaa (^iX/u, 
I love), water- pollinated plants; 
brdroph'Uoiu, Bome aqaatio Phan- 
erogamt, &ad many Cirptoganu 
which need water [a order to be 
fertilized ; ~ RuL'gl, refen to those 
FoD^ which are ^lied U> Sapro- 
kgnia; Hy'dToptiTtM, Hydiopby'ta 
l^vrir, a plant), water-plan te, 
parti^j or wholly immersed ; 
Hrdrophytel'oBy (Myot, disooorM], 
a treatise on water-plants ; Hy'dro- 
pUst (vXucTTJi, mouLded], an ap- 
parent vacuole in which alettrone- 
Kraios arise ; Hydropls'on (tUsv, 
fall, — an aggregate of moleculea, 
bnt imaller than a micella], water 
of crystalluation ; Hrdrot'rophj 
iTpop^, food), aneqosl growth 

(Wiesner) ; RyinA'tOfiMm (rporj, 
tnrniagtithe pheDomena induced by 
the in£ience of moisture on growing 
organs; pM'ltlve~, turning towards 
the aooroe of moisture ; neffatlre ~ , 
tnming awa; from oioistore. 

by'eiiul, hytma' tia {hiems, ■wintot) = 
HIIHAL1S, pertaining to winter. 

lljriTOchai'tlo (<^pdi, moist, x^'l^", 
I fawn), applied b; Ascherson to 
those plants in which the bursting 
of the fruit and disperBJon of the 
■pores or seeds is caused by ab- 
•orption of water, as in Anattatica 
hitrofJiunlica, Linn. ; HrgTO0li'BS7, 
the act la question ; By'drocdirome 
(xpSita, oolonr), used by Nadson 
Kir the pinnents of Buemla and 
ATnanita Masfaria, Fr. ; bjglD- 
met'rio {/lirpor, a measure), moving 
under the influenoe of more or less 
moisture, hygroscopic ; liygra- 
ph'aiLoaB {ipttru, I appear), looking 
watery when moist, and opaque 
when dry (Cooke) ; Hy'grophytaB 
(^tirat, a plant), manb-plaote, or 
plants which need a large supply 

of moisture for their growth; 
Hj'KToplaam (w\Airna, moulded), 
Nageli's term for the fluid 
portion of protoplasm, i/. Sterbo- 
PLASU ; liyBioacap'lc (friar/ui, I 
see), susceptible of extending or 
ahrinkiag on the application or 
removal of water or vapour ; -^ 
(Mia, oertain cells Ut the leaves 
of grasses which cause them to 
alter in shape in dry weather, 
known also as bolliform cells ; 
HyvTCweoidc'l^, HygroteopieOtai, 
the hygroeoopic property. 
BTlopbyte (CXir, a wood, ^irror, a 
plant), a plant which grows in 
woods, usually moist ; Sdj. hylo- 

H^ni, Hylnm = Hildu . 

^men {i^dw, a membrane), « skin 
or membrane; byme'nlal (1) per- 
taining to the HVHENii;!! ; (2) 
relating to the reproductive organs 
in certain Cryptogams ; — Al'gk, 
the algal cell in a sporocarp in 
Lichens, also termed ~ Donld'lnm ; 
'-Lay'er-EiuRNiuM ; Hyme'nlum, 
an aggregation of spore mother- 
oella in a continuous layer on a 
sporopbore, the sporiferous part 
of the fructiSoation in Fungi ; 
tiymeiui'dBS [tJSot, like), having a 
membranous texture ; Hymmo- 
U'olien (-(-Lichen), a term devised 
by Mattirolo for a Lichen which is 
symbiotically associated with a 
hymenomycetous Fungus ; bymsno- 
myce'touB {jiit^t, a mushroom), 
having the hymenium exposed at 
maturity, the spores borne on 
baaidia; Hymenapbare, Hymeno- 
phor'ivm {^lopiw, I carry), in Fungi 
that part which bears the hymen- 
ium, the sporopbore ; Hy'meuo- 
pode, Hymnwpoaiam (riDi, woSos, 
a foot), Fajod B name for the hvpo- 
thecium ; Byms'nnlnm, a disk or 
shield containing asoi, but without 
an excipulum. 

Hrow^unln, an alkaloid contained in 
Henbane, Hyoacyamiu ntger, Linn. 

meat or develapmcal of Lbe totxia 
nnder the oalyj, a Byconimu. 

Bypenaiiog'amj [irip, above, iymai, 
□nequal, yej^oi, marriage), Che 
femals gamete, at firat active, and 
much larger than tlie male gamete 
(Hartog) ; i/. Oooiwr. 

hTperborW), hyprrbrn'tia Ifiopiat, the 
north wind), Darihem. 

hypenbromAt'ia (irip, above, xp'-'i^- 

Tim't, suited (or colour), readily 
miBceptible of taking coloor, or in- 
tensified colouration ; Hyperd'romy 
(ipiuM, a oourae), when anndminoiiB 
and catadromous venation occurs 
on one aide of a Fem-trond(Praiitl) j 
Hypeiwomat'ic | + Stoma|, having 
the BtomalA on the upper surfac? ; 
liypertropta'le {rpoip^, food), mor- 
bidly enlarged ; Hyper'troi^, an 
abnormal enlargemeni of an or^sn, 
preeumably by eiceas of nouneh- 
ment ; H;n>*^tropbyt«B (^in-ov. a 

Riant), a term employed by Wakber 
>r those parasitic Fungi which 
oauM hypertrophy in the tisquca. 

Bj'pliE (iifii,, a web), pi. ^phae, 
element of the Ihallua in Fungi, a 
oylindrio [hread-liko branched body 
dtivetoping by apical growth and 
nsnally aeptato ; Sieve - , or 
Trtun'pet ~ , a special form found in 
Algae, bulging at each septum 
(F. W. OUver); liy'plial, relating 
to hyphae ; ~ Tla'sne. interwoven 
byphae, constituting the tissues of 
the larger Fungi. 

^fhas'ms (C^airpA, s web), the 
thallus of Agarics. 

Syphe'wAllnjnj a web).uaedby Minks 
for the hyplial layer in Licheos ; 
Sjrphld'lum, a term proposed by 
Miaks for SrEaaATlcu ; bypho- 
d'nanoiu, -mua {Spitun, a course), 
used when the veins are sunk in 
the luhetance of a leaf, arJ thus 
not rraddy visible ; ^phopoda, 
Hgpha/iod'ium (ruut, Foidt, a font), 
appendages on the mycelium of 
MdUia which bear the psrithecia 
(Gaillard) ; byphomyce'taoi (;ii''«iit, 
« mushroom), applied to Fungi 
bearing their spores on simple or 


branched hypbae : Hypbomyce'taa 
are Fungi iiaptrfoHi ; HypbOBtTo'nui 
XiflTpuiiia, spread out), the my- 
celium of Fungi. 

Eyp'DOcyrt (Otvoi, sleep, KiiiTrii, a bag 
orpuucb), in Pediaatreae.etc, a dor- 
mant stage asBUmed when the con- 
ditions for growth are unfavourable; 
Hyp'note, an organism in a dormant 
state; ttypnot'lc, dormant, not dead, 
aa in seeda ; Hyp'nophum {r\iir)ia, 
moulded), the protoplasm of a dor- 
mant individual, aa of a SMid, rj'. 
Necropusm ; ^pno'^, the state 
of dormant vitality shown by needa 
whilst atiU retaining their power 
of germination (Rsoombc) ; Hyp'no- 
apann (irripiia, a seed), the winter 
stale of the zygosperm of Hydro- 
diclyfnt; Hypnoiponui'gluiB (iTopd, 
a seed, iyytiar, a, veasel), ■ sporan- 
gium containing resting spores ; 
Hyp'nospore, a resting ipore ; 
Hypnoth&llna (SoXXoi, a young 
branch), Cbodat'a term for growth 
by coll-diviaion from hypnocjate, 
as in Monoslroma. 

hypoba'sal (ivu, under, ^ooit, a ped< 
eatal), behind the basal wall, em- 
ployed as regards the posterior half 
of a proem bryo ; r/. kpibasai. ; Hypo- 
blaa'nu (^Xoi^'di, b shoot), the 
fleshy cotyledon of graases -. Hypo- 
Cbrp tnm (topni, fruit), an enlarged 
griiwth of the peduncle beneslb the 
fruit, as in AmuMrdium ; lijpo- 
enrpoge'an. -geiu {fapirot, fruit, 
•fi, the earth), = htpooaean; hypo- 
carpog'enoui [ytniui, I bring forth), 
the flowern and fruit produced 
underground (Pampaloni). •;/. IM- 
pmcAHPooENOua; By'pocbU, Hypo- 
chii'ium, Hypockflvi (xii^oi, a lip), 
lh>- Ivni-al poriun of <h-< lat>etlum 
oi OrohidE ; ^pDcblor'ln (^Xuipoi, 
li^hL tureen), Pringahrim's name for 
a constituent of chLirupbyll i-or- 
pupclos, auppoped lo be the Gri>t 
visible prodiicl ofcnn»liuctive met- 
abolism ; BypocbTo'myl (xp^>"^. 
Do!our) = HrvocHLORis; Hypooot'j'l 
U^6\^. a hollow), the exia of an 
embryo below the cotyledons, but 



not pBAaiDg btjand Ihem ; bypo- 
eo^«'doiiar7. below the cntylKdona 
&Dd above the root; ll]rpoci«t«' ■ 
rUonn, Ayjjocroffri/br™'" (k/mttj/j, 
a bowl, forma., ihnpc|, aalvor- 
■haped, an the corolla of the 
Primrofle, Priiavla vulgaris. Huds. ; 
bjpoanMrim.oT'p'haaa,'plinn (luv^'^j 
shape), Bslver-shaped ; the saiue 
meaning as in the last, but derived I 
whcUv from the Greek : Hyp'odorm , 
- ByioAttmA, ffypod^rmi/iiSipfia, , 
akin, hide), the inner layrr of the , 
capsules of Mosses ; hrpoder'nial, 
beneath the epidermis; liypogae'- 
onB, -*iis. hjjMge'al. tifpOKo'fui {yv. 
the earth), growini; or remuicing 
below ground, «H certain ™tylcdons, 
as in the Pea ; bjpot'uiotu (^c'vai, 
offspring), produced benenth :liypo- 
g'yaott*. -nn* {yv,i. a woman), free 
from but inserted beneath ths 
pistil or gynoecinm ; Iiypolltb'lc 
{\j9<n, a stone), growing beneath 

bnont'enonB, -us {Irro/ityu, I stay 
behind), free, not adherent, arising 
from below an organ without ad- 
hesion I» it. 

BTpomlellft [nV, possibly a misprint 
tor " Hypomyoelia " from ii ' 
nnder. + Mycelidm]. " the myi 
ium of certain Fungals " (Liodley) ; 
hTponas'Ho {voardt, close pressed), 
(I) uaed of a dorsiventral organ tr 
which the ventral surface grow 
more actively than the dorsal, a. 
shown in flower expansion ; (2) by 
Van Tieghem employed for 
pous or campy lot ropons ovules 
when the curvature is in an up- 
ward direction ; Hyponaa'ty, ttie 
state in question ; HTpooff'aiiiy I tiir, 
an sge, 7ai">ii marriage), a short' 
ened form of HvpEHAKisniiAUT ; 
hnMpbla«'od«l, hTpopUae'iKUc 
(^Xoto!, bark), applied to Ltpbens < 
when growing under the epidprmia 
of the bark ; bypopIiTl'Ioua, -Im . 
(^uXXoF, a leaf), situated under a 
leaf, or growing in that position ; 
Hypophyll. B'jpophynum (1) an 
abortive leaf or ecala under another I 

leaf or leaf-like organ, as in Jluscu* t 
(2) also used for the loner portion 
of the leaf from which stipules de- 
velop, adher<^nt to the axis and 

from which the primary n 
root-cap of the embryo in Angio- 
tperms is derived ; adj. tiypo- 
pbya'iMl ; Bypoplea'is (rKitipi, 
a rib), the inner half -gird Is 
of the fnistule of a Diatom (0. 
Mueller) ;Hjpopod'limi (i-ofi.imSAc.a 
foot), the stalk of a carpet ; Hypop'- 
t«rlM t {-rr'fii', a feather or wing), 
a wine growing from below, as the 
seed of a Fir-tree ; bypoptera'tiu, i 
having wings [iroduced from 
below:BypMatli'rla|oa0;wT, rotten), 
the stale of secondary ripening 
styled blelting, as in medlars; 
HJpOsporaii'BlDia iarBpi, a. seed, 
d77ergr. a vessel), the indusium o( 
Ferns, when proceeding from below 
the sporangia ; Bypost'aals t 
(frrdo'ii, a. standing), the luspeneor 
of an embryo ; hypostomat'ic ( + 
Stoma), with the Btomata on the 
under surface; Hypoatro'iiuilaTiu^ia, 
spread-out) ^ MrcELitru ; hyiw- 
tet'rarch ( + tetrarch), in a triarch 
8t«le, the division of the median 
protoxylem ; BypoUialllU (0aX\Di, 
a yonng branch), the marginal out' 
growth of hyphoe in crustaceous 
Lichens ; brpotbal'Iliie, relating to 
the hypothallua or resembling it ; 
Hypotts'ca (fliinij, aoase), the inner 
balf-fruBlule of a Diatom (O. 
Mueller); hypothe'cal, belonging 
to the hypotheca of a Diatom ; 
Hypotbe'diun, a layer of hyphal- 
tiesue immtHliatcly Iwneath the 
hymenium in certain Cryptogams ; 
bypolri'arcb ( + triarch), when 
In a triarch stete, the median 
protoxylem gronp is lowermost, 
{Prant!) ; Hypot'ropty (t/is^iJ, 
food). Wiesner's lerm when the 
growth of cortei or wood is greater 
on the lower side of the branch ; 
also when buds or stipules form 
on the lower aide ; Hypoval'TA 

(vd/ra, a, door), the valve of Itas 
inner " Bhell " or Hypothecs of a 
Diatom (O. MuellBr) ; Hypozan'tMn 
{ivBoi, yellow), & sub«ltiiice akinlo 
lantbin, which baa Iwen found in 
germinating Keel 8. 

S^'tothfH (Cfi, high, aloft, ^t/XXor, 
a leal), a bract of the infloreacence, 
B reduced or molified leaf towards 
the upper end of a ahoat, rj', 
CATAPHYI.L ; Germ. Hochblatl ; 
bJlMOittayl'UiT. relating t« btaats ; 
— LMf > a braot. 

byB'Klnai {Bayiror), a red colour, or 
dark reddisb pink. 

byittnui'tlioni, -tAui. -thu {Bimpot, 
following, i'Sos, a flower), ueed of 
leaves which are produced after the 
flowerg, as in the Almond : 
hynerogBn'ioiyuM, nicB,,off»pringl, 
lued of intercellular spaces which 
are formed in the older tjuoes j 
Hys'teropbTme {•pO/ia, a tumour or 
excr-.Bcence), elementary organs 
which have been mistaken for in- 
dependent animal or vegetable 
organisma (tl. Karaten) ; l^tsrO' 
phy'tal (pirnJ*, a plant), fungoid ; 
Hys'terophyts, a plont which lives 
opoD dead matter ; a aaprophjte. 

iMith'laas iiarOiyot, violet colour), 

bluish purple, violet, 
leod, having a glittering papillose 

surface, as Sftaembrj/arilhcm'ini 


roonsi, pi. lictm, lUiir, a figure), 

ELclorial representations of plantH, 
otanic figures. 
leonhed'nl (tltoei, twenty, iipa, a 
seal or base), having twenty aidee, 
as the pollen grains of Tragopogim ; 
ieosander, Icosui'ilnnu, -nu {ir^p, 
Avipii, a. man), with twenty or 
nnre stamens ; iMUUl'driA, a Lin- 
nean class of plants with twenty 
stameoB or more inserted on the 

ioter'lciu, lcl«ll'nna {Irrtpitii, jaun- 
diced), the colour of a person 
■nffering from jaundice, impure 

"1 (Uiit, suffii implying paternity). 

an hereditary unit recognised in 
granules and chromasomes ; I'd&iit, 
a serial complei of ids, WeiBmana's 
term for Curouosome. 
Ideutliloa'tion, used for Determination 



-I'des, -Ideas (elitac, like), & m&x in 
Greek compounds denoting similar, 

Id'loblaac (I Jim, personal, pecnliar. 
(JXoffrof, a, bu>l or shoot), (I) a 
special cell in a tissue which 
markedly differs from the rest in 
form, size, or cootenls, as the 
"stellate-cells" in Aj/mpAma ; 
(2) used by Hertwig for Panobk, 
a unit of hereditary subetanoe ; 
Idlo^yims t (7'^4 a woman), not 
haviiiK a piatit ; Id'loplum (sXaaMB, 
moulded), Noegeli's term tor the 
active organic pari of the proto- 
plasm ; Idlolbal tunOM, idiothal'a- 
mt», {BiXap-ot. a bedroom), having 
different colouration from the 
thalluB, a term in lichenology ; 
Idlomarph'ofllB {pipipuait, a shap- 
ing), a special kind of metamor- 
ghosis, as the petals of Camrilia, 
om bundles of stamens, or peta- 
luid sepals of Polygala (Delpino). 

t^neus (Lat., Gsry), flame coloured, 
used for combinations of red and 
yellow, or brilliant in tone. 

Icnla'Hiu (Lat., pertaining to Hre), 
of the consistence of German tin- 
der, derived from puff-balls. 

lUsglt'lmate, fertiliEation in dimor- 
when occurring between parts of 
diverse length, as long with short, 

iffiDerb'la (Lat.), beardless, devoid of 


ImblUt'lon {itnbiho, I drink in), the 
act of imbibing ; ~ Tbs'orr, l^achs's 
suggestion that water ascends in 
plants by a chemical process in the 
cell-wsils, and not by actual pas- 
sage upwards by vessels. 

imtnomte, Imbrlca'tail, imbrica'tm 
(Lat., covei'ed with gutter tile*), 
(1) overlapping as the tJUs on a 
roof ; (2) m aestivation, usd of ft 


calji or corolla where one piece 
must be wholly internal and one 
wholly eiUrnsS, or overlapping at 
the edge only : imbrlc'ftUve is a 

Inuurg'liiale, inanari/iita'lut (ini = 
not, margo, tnargiiiu, a border), 
not margined or burdered. 

imnimlla'tni, (Mid.Iiat., not mediate), 
proc«ediDK direo'ly from a part, u 
pedicels of a niceine. 

tnunor'aad. immtr'ais{Ltt., plnnKed), 
below the Burface : (1) entirely 
under water ; (2) embedded io the 
aubiitance of thu leaf or thallus. 

Inuno'tdlU (Lit.), immovable, aa 
many anlher» ; opposed to versatile. 

Impa'rl'pin'nate, ~ -piniia'lui {im/iar, 
nDequal. + pinnatk), pinnate with 
an odd terminal leaflet, 

luperTeet, imper/t<ilia (Lat,,incom' 
pteie), where certain parte uBually 

6 resent are not develaped ; as a 
ower may be imperfect, that is, 
Imparf'oiatfl (in, into, pn; through, 
fora'ta*. bored), without an open- 
ing, closed (C roller). 
Impious, (, an entwining), en- 
tangled, interlaced. 
Impllea'tiu (Lat, ), entangled, woven 

Impngna'tlon [im = in, /imejnodM, 
pregnancy), fertiliiation, the union 
of male and female elements. 

Imprea'niB (Lat,, pri-Hiied into), marked 
with slight depreesiona. 

ImpD'bM, not mature, as impiibtra 
Atlaa, the period before impregna- 

liudlie'rlns {iiuutha^trts. not cling- 
ing), free from adjacent parta. 

Inaeqna'Us (LAt,], unequ^ in the; 
lULeqolmiig'niu,; (nin^tu, large), 
not the same io size; tiia*qnUat'ar^ 
inarqvilalfra'tin, iiuicgiiilul'eriii 

{laltla, /aferia.aaide),une({tisl sided, 
as the leaf of Bvjonia; Inaamiliigr'- 
Tlnl, {atTvia, a nerve), when the 
veins are of dissimilar eiEe. 

lauie', ina'riM (Lat.), empty, void; 
u BO anther containing no pollen. 

liuii'Ilienit* (Croiier) =liiaiklbera'Iiui. 


Inappendlo'tUats, inappatdicvla'tia 
(m — not, aiipendicula, a small ap- 
pendage), without appendages ; Ib- 
ftper'tni, [apertm, opened), oot 
opened, contrary to its habit, 

tnajoh'lnc, grafting by approach, the 
scion remaining partly attached to 
its parent, until union bu taken 


InarOc'iilkte, inarticvia'tti 

indietincl), not jointed, oontmuoua. 

InoanM'oant. incaifi'cma (Lat., turn- 
ing hoary), becoming grey, canes- 

Inca'noiu (Crozier) = Incs'itoa (Lat.), 
cjulle (trey, hoary. 

Inor'nata, ijKama'tag (Lat.. clothed 

In'oept, laoep'tlon \inei:ptum,i begin- 
ning), Buggesled rendering o( the 
German "AnUge." 

Incb, an English measure, equalling 
2,54 cm. : in Latin, u/icia, uiiciWii. 

liud'sed. iutVtun (Lat,, out into), cut 
sharply into the margin ; luM'sD- 
denla'tna. sloshed toothed ; ~ -mt- 
n'ttu, drpp-slsahed serrations ; In- 
ds'lon, l'.cU'io, an indentation on 
the margin of a foliar organ. 

IncU'lillig, Incli'nMl lincliiialiiB, bent 
down), falling away from the hori- 
lontal direction. 

iBClu'ded, inda'aiu (Lat, shut in), 
not protruding beyond the flur- 
rounding organ ; imfluden'tlA fo'lla, 
applied to allernate leaves which 
in the sleep- poii I ion approach buds 
in their aiils, seeming to proleot 
them as in Sida (De Candolle), 

Inoog'olt {ineoani/vi', not examined), 
used by H. C, Watson for IhoM 
British plants wboae nativity or 
distribution are matters of doubt, 

Inoomple'ta, incomple'tiu [Ui., not 
finished), wanting some essential 
part ; Incouple'tae, usually lynoDy- 
mous with Monuchlamyrleae. but 
variously circumscribed by differ- 
ent authoi's. 

Ijicoiuplc'noiu, -cuut (Lat., not re- 

markable), not r 
'■ * irUck 

lacn«'ut«, i 

BDsd), made b1 

{inereato, Ijirow). vro 

of ooLu 

a thci: 
e Kith it 

(2) enoriut«d 

Inoaln'tlon (iTicuJKifia, a brooding), Che 
time ftoni the momenl of infeotion 
or nwing of spores, until growth 
is manifest. 

In'imbcmi, -but iinciiho, I lie upon), 
the oblique iDaeition of dielichouB 
leavei, lo that the lower overlap 
the upper on the ume side of the 
atem on the dorsal surface, aa in 
Bazainia ; cf. SDUCtruocs, 

Inciua'bent, incum'beiui (Lat., leaning 
on), resting or leaning upon, pro- 
cunibaiit ; — An'UieT, one which 
lies against tho inner lace of ita 
filament ; ~ Cot^a'doua, when the 
back of one lies against the radicle, 
■hoWD IK II o. 

iBenr'TAd, incnr'vus, luoar'vftM, in- 
curua'fiM [incarmu, bunt), bonding 
from without inwards. 

Indtflnite, indtfini'tva (Lat., not pr«- 

io obarw:t«r ; ('i) too manT for easy 
stion, OS an abundance of 
I, denotod bj the sign so ; 


1 axis being capable 
L of constant exteaaion ; — Orowtb, 
■ oontiDuouB growth and not the 
I mere extension of a limited organ- 
I ism or bud ; ~ Inflorss'aBiica, m- 
determinate or oentrifugal, aero- 
petal of some authors. 
Indedd'uoua |iit — not, <{f.aduiif, cut 
or lopped off), evergreen or per- 
sistent foliage (LVoEierJ ; Indebla'- 
omt, -cent {•tchucitu, gaping), not 
opening by valves or along regular 

tBdepw'dmM, tho separatioi 

organa Dsoailj eotire. 
iBdfMnn'liwAt, indUermina'tti 


termioaled absolutely, aa .... __ 
Soreaoence in which no flower ends 
the axis of the flower-olusler. 

In'dloan, a nitrogenous glucoaide, , 
its decompositioD forming iHDltlo. 

iaaift«nuV.tndifrreiu. wittaoutdiffer- 
once), not speoialiied or differenti- 

lu'dlgene (indigee, native), a native 
plant ; IsiIlg^enouB, xru, original to 
the oouotry. not introduced. 

In'dlKO. a deep blackiiih cdue obtwned 
from Indiyoftra tiactoria, Linn. ; 
In'digogww, white indigo, or colour- 
less indigotine ; Indigot'lms, in- 
digo blue, atro-cyaoeua, 

In'dliotina, pure blue indigo, forminK 
about four-tenths of the corameroial 

ids I 

by J 


Tsno'suB, Link" 

term for 


within tho 


and emitting 

ther Lttie 

bLdlTld'ual, Individ' uam {iiuiivitl'uuf, 
inHeparable), a unit of the series 
which constitute species ; IiUUvld'- 
naJiani,(l)capableof separate exist- 
ence ; (2) symhiosia in which the 
total aggregate result is wholly 
different from iiny of the sym- 
bionta ; bidlvldaa'tiou, a synonym 
of the taat (2). 

IndiTl'ios l,Lat,), undivided, entire. 

ludn'CBd, applied to those movements 
which are the result of tome irrilA- 
tion or stimulus, as pressure, light, 
heat, etc, : Indac'tion, the produc- 
tion of BeaaLttvc moveoieats; hetaro- 
ix^enotu ~, due to one cause. 

IndumBn'tnm (Lat., a garment), any 
coverlnit, as hairiness, 

Indn'pIlcaU, iitdupiica'liu -. Inda'pll- 
oattva, with the msrgina bent in- 
wards, and the external face of 
these edges api>lied to each other, 
without twisting. 

tndoraa'cena {im/ureico, I harden), 
hardening by degrees ; Isdiuu'lad, 

ladn'saeform, IndD'ilfarin (Indd- 
aiHH, /orma, shape) ; Indn'aioUl 
(d»M, like), John Smith' ' - 

te j t o ltwi 

for anj indoBium-like oovering in 

X^u'iliim (Lat., a woman's under- 
garment), (1) an epidermal out- 
growth ooverine the sori in Ferns ; 
(Z) a ring of oolleoting hairs below 
the stigma; (3) the annulus of some 
Fungi (Lindle;^) ; Indu'slate, indu- 
8ia'tu8, possessing an indusium. 

Uidn'^riaA (Lat., clothes), (1) persist- 
ent portions of the perianth, or 
leaves whioh wither, out do not 
fall off; (2) scale-leaves; indu'- 
▼late, induviaUia, induviaUus, 
dothed with withered remnants. 

inflmtoyona'tus {in, not, embryo, an 
embryo), having no embryo. 

inaaguilaVena, inaequUcUera'lis (tn, 
not, (uqualia, equal, lotus, Ukttris, a 
side), uDequal-sided; Inae'qulvalye, 
IxutequlvarTUlar {vcUva, a door- 
leaf), used of the glumes of plants 
which show inaequality in their 
constituent valves. 

bisnoli'yma {in, in, iTxuAia, an infu- 
sion), fibro-cellular tissue, the cells 
having the appearance of spiral 
vessels, as in Sphagnum. 

Inmn', ixier'moiui, iv^mia (Lat., un- 
armed), without spines or prickles. 

Inay*', to inoculate, or bud. 

Inftxc'tate {infaretus, stuffed into), 
turgid or solid. 

InflBO'ttouB, communicable by infec- 
tion, as diseases in plants, etc. ; 
caused by some organism from 

In'ftr-agar'iaa Zone, H. C. Watson's 
term for the lowest portion of the 
cultivated lands in Great Britain ; 
'*' axo'tie Zone, a similar term for 
the lowest division of his arctic 
region in Britain. 

Infe'rlor (Lat., lower), (1) below some 
other organ, as an /^^ Oalyx is below 
the ovarv, or an '*' O'vary seems to 
grow below the adnate calyx ; (2) 
has been used for anterior, or turned 
away from the axis. 

infla'ted, infla'tus (Lat., puffed up), 
bladdery, swollen. 

iBfleo'ted (infiedto, I bend), bent or 

I&'ftralB, a division of gamopetalous 
Dicotyledons, proposed for Rubi- 
aceae, Gompositae, Companulaceae, 

inflex'ed, infltafus (Lat., bent), turned 
abruptly or bent inward, in- 

Iiiflore8'enoe,/n/IorMeen'/»a {inflortaco, 
I begin to blossom), (1) the disposi- 
tion of the flowers on the noral 
axis ; (2) less correctly used for the 
Flower Cluster ; definite '^ , when 
each axis in turn is terminated with 
a flower, as in a Cyme; indefinite '«' , 
when the floral axis is capable of 
continuous extension, as in a 

Info'liate {in, in, folium, a leaf), to 
cover with leaves. 

infos'sus, (Lat., buried), sunk in any- 
thing, as the veins in some leaves, 
but leaving a visible channel. 

ln'fint-azillanr» in/raroxUla'ris {itkfra, 
below + AXILLARIS), below the axil ; 
Infirano'dal {nodus, a knot) Canals', 
gaps in the medullary rays of Cal- 
(unites, below the node, leaving 
prints on the casts (Williamson). 

In&ac'ted, ii\fr<ic'tus (Lat., broken, 
bent), incurved. 

Inflmctet'cenoe {fructus, fruit, by an- 
alogy to inflorescence), (1) the in- 
florescence in a fruiting stage ; (2) 
collective fruits. 

Infimc'tuoBe {infructuo'sus, unfruitful), 
barren, not bearing fruit. 

infkmdib'nlar, ir/undibula'ris {ir\fun- 
dibu'lum, a funnel), funnel-shaped ; 
Infnndllnilifonn, ir^undibuliformis 
{forma, shape), shaped like a 

lnfkui'ca;t» {ir^fuscus, dusky), of a 
brownish tint. 

miiib'itlon {inhibitio, a restraining), 
modification or restraint in func- 

InlVlal {initialis, original) ^ OellB, 
cells from which primordial layers 
or nascent tissues arise ; ^ Lay'er, 
the middle cambium layer. 

Uljeo'tion {injectus, cast into), the 
filling of intercellular spaces with 
water (Crosier). 


in'n&M, inria'Hu IL&t., natural), (1) 
borae oo the spet of lbs sappon. 
Id an anther the antithesis of 
adnata ; (2) iinliadded (Laightun). 

In'ner, intcrual, nearer the ceotre 
than something else ; ~ Lam'Uia, 
the lajer of a lign tiled cell- wall 
whieh is neit the inside o[ the 
aell ; ~ Petld'lnm, — Tn'nla, a 
more or Igbb coloured membrane 
whiob Burroimda the hymenium in 
FerrtKaria lienenth the perithe- 

iu'navaiu |Lat.), reneviog; Inno- 
Tsn'lst Oem'nuu, the &xed or per- 
aistent buds of Mosses. 

tnnova'tUm laaoM'tia, (Lat., an al- 
teration), a now formed shoot in 
Mo&ses, which becomes indepen- 
dent from the parent stem by dying 
off behind ; '- Hlioot, a figorona 
shoot whicli carries on the further 
growth uf the plant. 

» (.■-. 


+ Ni 

• name for phanero- 
gamic plants whose ovules Want 
nuceltus and integumeota. such as 
the Snntaloceae. 

Inoonla'tlim {iiioculatio, ingrufting). 
grafting, more properly budding, 
a aiogle bud only being inserted. 

laorcaii'lc (in, not, -l- obgakic), de- 
void of organs ; ^ Jitb, the final 
residuum after complete combus- 
tion, the minsrul portion of a 
vegetable tissue ; ~ Com'ponnds, 
those which form part of animal 
or plant structure derive<l friim 
mineral substances ; ~ Far'Dienta, 
eotynicB, aa opposed to organic 

inot'culfttlDK (>'n, into, oKvlatw, 
kilned), anastomosing: Inosonlk'- 
Uon, budding or grafting. 

I'notlta [It, Irii, strength, sinew), a 
saocharine aromatic principle which 
occurs in manyaeeda and other parts 
of plints. especially in climbers. 

IIu>TnlA't>a,(in, not, + OitTLUUj.phan- 
erogaouo planla which have no 
ovules discernible at the time of 
fertilisation, aa the Lorantiuoeae 
(Van Tieghem), 


iuaoulpt' {iiuciUpiua, engraved), im- 
budded in rocks, aa some Lichens. 

iniectlT'oTonj {inmetum, an insect, 
voro, I devour), used of those 
plants wliich capture insects and 
absorb nutriment from them. 

IntMUliu'tke (iit^not, letnm, seed), 
Vau Tieghem's name for those 
plants which do not oontain seed 
separable or distinct at maturity ; 
in order to germinate, the fruit 

lusspara'tdon {ineeparalua, not sepa- 
rated), Masters's term for coal- 
escence ; adj. Iniap'arate. 

Inaer'ted, iiitr'cmi (Lat., put into), 
joined to or placed on ; Intei'tton, 
liuer'lia, (I) mode or place where 
one body is attached t^ its support ; 
(2) Grew's term for a medullary ray. 

Inalt'lon {iiintiu, a grafting), the in- 
sertion of a scion into a stock, 

Inaolft'tion {intalo. 1 expose to the 
sun), exposure to the direct rays 

iuspii'sated lin, into, siAtsit\m, thick- 
ened), Chickened, asjuice by evapora- 

laitlp'nlKta {in — not, + sTirci^Tu}, 
exstipulate (CrozierJ. 

la'tegsr (Lat., whole), entire, not 
lobed or divided ; in'tegrk Ba'dlz, 
an unbranched root ; ~ Vagl'ntl, 
the Bheathing petiole which forms 
H continuouB tube, aa in aedges ; 
isteKei'rlmna, an emphatic asser- 
tion of the entirety of an organ ; 
IntaETUolioiu [foiium, a leaf), with 
undivided, or simple leaves, 

Integmina'tae (in — not, ttgmen, a 
covering). Van Tiaghem's name for 
plants whose nuoeUoa ia devoid of 

InteE'uniant {,inUgm>un'fum. a cover- 
ing), the covering of an organ or 
body ; iategwnen ta Jlora'lia, the 
floral envelopea. 

la'ter-axUl'aryir'iiei', between -1-Axn.- 
LAKta), between the siils. 

Inter'calafy (inrcnWiria, that to be 
inserted), used of growth, which 
is not apical but between the apex 



and the base ; — Tag'etativt Zone, 

a partion lying between mature 
tisBue which takes on growth as 
though a ({rowing point ; inter'ca- 
lated, inlArpoBcd, placed between. 
IsMlCUp'eUaiT {iiitir, between, + 
Cabpbl), between the carpels ; iu- 
teroall'DlaT, { + cEti,iri.AR) between 
the cells or tissues ; ~ Fu'sagfl, a 
oontinuoQH opening between the 
oells ; ~ Space, a cavity bounded 
bj the cells of a tissue ; ~ 8ub'- 
■tancB, material cxtravasaCed from 
Withintaoutside the cell; -Syi'tem, 
the interoelluUr spaces and adja- 
oent tisBuea (Crozier) ; luteroos'lal 
(eosta, a ribj. between tho ribs or 
nerves of a leaf ; Intercros'ilOK, 
cross -fertilization ; iDterfatcic'alar 
i/atcicvlut, a bundle), between the 
vasoalar bundles ; ~ Cajn'tlum, 
that formed between the bundlva 
in the primary medullary rays ; 
~ oosJnno'tiTe Tla'sue ~ preceding ; 
~ Phlo'tim, -~ Xylsm, respectively 
formed from the~CAMBiOM j later- 
fl'lu- [ filvm, a thread), between 
filaments, a» the resting spore in 
Maocarpiu (Croder) ; lateiTolla'- 
Moua {folium, a leaf 

e lea 


site leaves ; Int'erfoyles, Grew's 
name for (1) bracts ; (2) scales ; (3) 

Intargerl'iLuin (Lat., placed between), 

Interlob'ttls {inter, between + lobule), 
DMue given by Spruce In a amaii 
plane process of a subuiale or tri- 
angular form, between the lobule 
and the stem in oenain Hepalicae. 

Intaime'dlate, initrme-'diiui (Lot. , that 
which is between), half-way. 

, the 

tissue in eiogrna, exoepl that 
therpidermi^and vasculur biinrllee; 
-Type,.-mpbv6.lhy H.C.Waton 
for tbuse plants wbuse distribu- 
tion in Greiit Untain U of a lo..'al 
or doubtful range ; - Sons |1) Vte 
active zona between the pith and 

epidennis, oontaining the vascular 
bundles in Monocotyledons ; [2) by 
Watson used as indicating a certain 
elevation, between the agrarian and 
arctic zones ; intemUcerUU' ( + Mi- 
cella), between the micellae; Intar- 
nulK'nliT ( -I- Molecule], betweea 
the molecules. 

Intar'nal {iidenir, inwardly) - Ptrt- 
cy'de, Flot's expreasion for the 
prooambium retained on the inner 
side of the vascular bundle. 

In't«mode, JiUenui'diam (Lat.), the 
space or portion of stem between 
two nodea ; adj. liit«rao'dal. 

interpet'loUr, inir^TiTiiola'rii {hOrr, 
between, pclioiiu, a little stalk), 
(1) between the petioles; (E) eo- 
cloned by the expanded base of a 
petiole ; (.1) also applied to connate 
stipuleB which have coalesced from 
two oppoiilc leaves. 

Interpo'saa {inltritos'itiu, placed be- 
tween) Hem'bSTB, those parts 
which have arisen in a whorl sub. 
sequent to its earlier members ; 
InMrpodt'ioa, IiUe,rpositio, forma- 
tion of new parts between those 
already existing in a whorl ; IntOT- 
poiltl'TUl (Lat.), interposed. 

latemip'ted {iiUerruplua, broken or 
separated), when any symmetrical 
arrangement is destroyed by local 
causes ; a solution of continuity ; 
~ Qrowtn, an alternation of abun- 
dant and scanty development, 
appearing as conBtriclions in an 
organ, as a fruit or tap - root ; 
Intannp'tedly pliL'nAte(l)BpiDnate 
leaf without a terminal leaflet ; 
('2) having small leaflets tnterpoMd 
with those of larger size. 

interstam'tual {iriier, between, + sta- 
HiNiL), placed between two at«- 
men>iiiiIerst(iia'inatB is a synonym. 

Inter'sUce {inlcrtlii'ium, a space be- 
tween). amuU air-spaces; larger ars 
termed tscunue, aiiU largrr, air- 
pa^sa^es ; lutersUt'la] Orowth, the 
Ihuory which requires the interpo- 
sition if new pirtules between the 
oldpr portiuns.iuatead of superficial 

■.r, between, itna, a 
vein), » portion of parenphyina be- 
tween tbe veins of a leaf; Inter- 
WAa'vlng ( 4- weaving), the union of 
lyphae by growing amongst each 
otber, without coheajon ; Germ. 
Verflechtung ; lntenyTajy ( + Xr- 
lih), amongat the xylem elementa. 
Intsx'liie, bit«x'tlu« [iiuui, within, -t- 
ExTtKE), the inner inembranB when 

QDvering of a pollen-grain ; In'UllA, 
the innermost tuMt of a pollen- 

tntor'alo (Lat., curling or crisping): 
Inlor'tlsn — Torsion ; Intor'tui 
(Lat., twiflted), practically a ayn- 
onym of oontorUid, twisted upon 

iBtodlaoa'lli t(>n'u«, within, liiicut, • 
diito), inserted within the dink of a 

liLtnu«rp'eU&Ty(in(ra, within, 4 Car- 
pel), within the oarpela ; iJitra- 
oell'nlM- (+ CEu-ULAK), within a 
cell ; intratUote'alar {jhncir'^dug, a 
bundle), within a bundle ; intra- 
ll'lar Ol\an, a thread), within a 
filament ; lutrafoUa'caaus, -echo 
[folium, a leaf, + ftceous). within 
or before a leaf, aa within the axil: 
littraJaiti'eUai {latiwila, a amall 
plate), within plate- like atructareii, 
as the trama of Agarics-, intnunug:'- 
Inal {maryo, a margin), placed 
within the margin near Che edge ; 
tntramat'rlcal {matrix, a oiourd), 
inside a matrix or nidua; tntra- 
BiMbU'lty imfahilis, penetrable), 
the capacity of protoptasm to per- 
mit siibstaooes to pau into ita 
TMuoles (Janse) : intiamolM'nlix 
(•t- UoLacciJ!}, within the mole- 
cule* ; Intruna'ral [muraiii, per- 
taining to a wall), between the 
walla of erUs, aa " Qlanda, used 
bj De Bary for multiceltar organs 
of aecretion, whoae product ap- 
peara in the limiting walla : 
liilnuin'el«ai {ntuUui, a ternel), 
within the dqcIcu-i ; inErapet'lolar 
fjMioluf, a small stalk), uithin the 

L petiole, or between it and the 

as in Ptalaf. 

Intrar'loaB, iiifrar'iiui (h. Lat, ) turned 
inward toward the axis. 

Intnsem'lnal [intra, within, ecnun, a 
seed), within the seed; -DaTel'ap- 
mant.the whole devetopment under. 
gone by the embryo during the 
conversion of the ovule into the 
ripe seed; Intratte'lar (4 Stele), 
within the stele, aa~Tta'ine = Con- 
JcircTrvB TissDE i lnInivaj;l'Dal 
(iagina,a sheath), within the sheath, 
applied to branches which spring 
from buds which do not break 
through the aheatb of the sub- 
tending leaf (Soribner); latravalTu- 
la'Tla( 4 vALVDLABia). within valves, 
as the diagepiment in many Cruci- 
fecae ; lntnxy'laiT( 4 Xtlbm) with- 
in the xylem. 

in'tTlcate,in/rica7iu(Lat.), entangled. 

Introcnr'Ted, in/rociir'nui (Lot.), in- 

iutroda'oed (inlroduet'ua, brought 
within), used of plaota which have 
been brought from another country. 

i]itrollez'ad(>nfro, inside ijfectu, bent), 

iil'trorM,infrr>r'«iu (Mod. Lat.)tumed 
inward, towards the axis. 

introve'nlus lintro, inside, feno, a 
vein), hidden veined i from the 
abundance of parenchyma, the veins 

intru'dad, In'tmte, tntra'aus (Lat., 
thrust in), pushed or projecting 

tntnasnaoip'tlon {intv*. within, «vs- 
ctpliia, taken up), the theory of 
growth, which aasumsi the inter- 
calation of new particles (micellae), 
between the alreadv eiiatiog par- 
ticles of the cell wail. 

In'ulaae (from the genus Jnida), an 
enzyme in Campisitae which oon- 
verta Inulin int > Levuloao ; Inn'- 

of Tnulin (Tanret) ; In'olto, a 
body like starch, first found in 
Cumposttae, in the form of spbaero- 


Inun'ouiB t (Lat.yhookin^ ),the sarfaoa 
oovered with glochidia or hooked 

inmUUi'tal {inundcUtu, oyerflowed), 
Watson's expression for those 
plants which grow in places liable 
to be inundated in wet weather, 
but dry in summer; inimda'tiiB, 
flooded, sometimes under water, 
sometimes dry. 

-inns, a Latin suffix, meaning, (1) 
resemblance ; (2) augmentation. 

Inft^inated (tn, into; vagiruif a 
sheath), endosed in a sheath. 

InTsrae' (tnvcrtftM, turned about), in- 
verted ; InTsr'iion, (1) a chanoe of 
order or place ; the action of In- 
vertase; (2) In'y«rt- en'iyme. In'- 
Tertaie, an unorganised ferment, 
which transmutes cane-sugar into 
inverted-sugar; inver'ted, having 
the apex in an opposite direction 
to the normal ; Inver'ted-sa'gar, a 
mixture of fructose and glucose by 
the action of invertase on cane- 
sugar ; ^ Buperposlf ion, the position 
of accessory buds below the princi- 
pal bud,or one first formed (Crozier); 
inver'tens (Lat.), inverting, becom- 
ing reversed, as inverten'tta Fo'lia, 
leaves which in sleep hang down- 
ward, but touch b^ the upper sur- 
face, as in Cassia ; Invertln= 
Invkrtask; this form is chiefly 
employed b^ zoologists, 

inyislble {invmb'ilis, not to be seen), 
used of any organ which is not 
sufficiently developed to be seen, 
▼orncel, Involticdlum (Fr., involu- 
oelle, from involticnim, a wrapper), 
a secondary partial involucre; 
involncel'late, xnvoluceUa'tua^ pro- 
vided with a secondary involucre ; 
involn'cral, involucra'l%8t belonging 
to an involucre; Invorncrate, In- 
volucra'tus; involn'cred, having an 
involucre of some kind ; Involn ore, 
Involu'crumt (1) a ring of bracts 
surrounding several flowers or their 
supports, as in the beads of Compo- 
sites, or the umbels of Umbelli- 
ferae ; (2) the tissue of the thallus 
in Anthoceroteae, grown up Mid 

overarching the embryo, afterwards 
pierced by the lengthening sporo- 
gonium; (3) the peridium, volva 
or annulus in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) 
the indusium of Ferns ; gen'eral'^, 
that which is at the base of a com- 
pound umbel ; par'tial ^ , sec'ondary 
*« , that which surrounds a partial 
umbel ; involu'cra lA^nea, Mal- 
pighi's name for the concentric 
zones of growth in exogens; In- 
▼oln'cret, an involaceL 

in'volnte, invdu'tuB, invtfluti'yns 
(Lat., enwrapped), having the 
edges of the leaves rolled inwards ; 
Involn'tlon, (1) the act of rolling 
inward ; (2) the return of an organ 
or tissue to its original state ;*« 
Form, a swollen bladder-like form 
of Schizomycetes, supposed to be 
a diseased condition of the form 
associated with it ; ^ Pe'riod, the 
resting period ; *« Bpore, a rest- 
ing-spore ; ^^ Btage, the resting 

invol'vens (Lat.), rolling together, as 
invclven'tia Fo'lia us^ by De Can- 
doUe, for trifoliate leaves whose 
leaflets rise up, unite at the summit 
. , . so as to form an arch which 
shelters the flowers, as in Trtfolium 
incamatum, Linn. (Lindley). 

io'des (Itbdfiij violet-coloured), todi'nvs, 
violet ; I'odine, an elementary body 
obtained from marine Algae, etc.; 
io'nides, violet-coloured. 

irreg'ular, irrtgvla'ris (Late Lat. , not 
according to rule), (1) wanting in 
regularity of form; (2) asymmetric, 
as a flower which cannot be halved 
in any plane, or one which is 
capable of bisection in one plane 
only, zygomorphic ; '*' Pelor'ia, 
a monstrosity oy which irregular 
form has become regular by sym- 
metric development ; Irregular'ity, 
Irregtdar^itaSt the state of being 
uneq-ual in form. 

Irritability {irritdbilis, easily ex- 
cited), phenomena induced by 
stimuli, such as shock, absence 
or presence of light, warmth, 
gravity, etc. 


IwtMlU'nD* (Mod. Lat.). IuIwIIb 
colour. B dirt J tawny tint. 

iisdBlpb'onB. -u« (tiTDi, eqosl to ; 
ii3c\«<ti, a brotbor), eqiukl brother, 
hood, the number of the alumens 
in the two pfaBlaageB being e<jual. 

I'labn, the coiounng prinaiple of 
wo«d, ImtU tiTUitoria, Linn. 

iBld'ioiil, resi'mbling the Lichen 
genua, hidium ; titdUTeroua [fcro, 
I bear). beariDg a tballua lilie the 
([enuB whence it derives its nuns ; 
IMd'lose, having powderj, coral - 

Md'laiu (ioii-a genua of ooralBi cXSoi, 
Hkel, the coml-like elevation of a 
Liplien thalluB with a globule on it. 

I'alASdH, a term applied to isolated 
strands of phloem in the lylem. 

liOMlat'ar&I (fo-oi, equal to, bit. twice; 
lalim. hilcris, ■ side), capable of 
being divided into two similar 
halves ; iiob'Tioui (^/xdu, I 
■tren gtbeQ),of equal BtreDKth,reFar- 
ring to the embryo of Dicotjledons; 
iHbrla'tiiB, dicolyledonary ; lao- 
tikO'niDUi (x'^MBf a mound), applied 
to branchei springing from the same 
item at the same angle ; teoch'ro- 
mona (;i^)u*ui, colour), all of one 
oolour or hue, uniform in tint ; 
Uooy'eUa (n^nXof, a circle), eupyclic, 
■ Sower having iionieraus whorls ; 
iwdlamBt'ilc (Sii, through ; lUtpor, 
a meoeure), of equal dimensions ; - 
Oelll, those having bd equal dia- 
meter in each direction ; Isodl'oOy 
Itioitoi. a passage), the condition of 
produdng Diouex which give rise 
U) unisexual prothallia (Van 
Tieghem) ; Isodr'namoai (ii'-FBuii, 
power), equally developed ; Iso- 
ffim'st* (-ya^i^j, aspouse), gametes 
or serual oelU of similar eise and 
ftppearanoe, which ounjugate and 
reiulb in a zygote ; Iso^'ajnoua 
[yiliDt, marriage), used for thoee 
plaota which produce isogametes ; 
jMO^tmj, the fusion of Eimilar 
■exual cells ; Uog:'enoiu (7^*01, race) 
iBdDO'tloil, used by Noll to eipresa 
(eneitive movements Briaing from a 
■iagle cause ; Itos'Tiioui (vuH), a 

woman}, having the piBtils similar; 
laog7'nu}:(7v^t, round), forminga 
complete spire ; taomalt'ose ( + 
Maltoss), a product of amjtodex- 
trin, paasinK by fermentation into 
maltose ; Isomer'lc, Isom'eroQB, -us 
(lic)>ot, a part), (I) having the same 
elements in tlie same proportions, 
but with different properties; (2) 
having members of eucceasive cycles 
m\aa\ in number, as the petals and 
sepals; Isopti'agoni i,^i-ju, 1 eat), 
applied to Fungi whluh attach 
one, or several allied species {Eriks- 
son ) ; isopli'oroua (tpofiiii, loarry) 
transformable into something elae 
(Crozier): Isoplan'ogMnetet (irXdr«i. 
wandering, + GAnrti:), motile 
seiuat cells of enoal sise, occurring 
in Algae ; Ijopo lar [polim, a pole), 
an axis of Diatom fnisluUs Ib bo 
termed when its extremities are 
similar (O. Mueller] ; Isopro'tballjr 
( 4- Piu>TH4iJ.Iia}, prodnoing pro- 
thallia which are similar in seiaal 
charaoter(VanTieghem|; I'soioblst 
{aX""^'! split)) applied to a cell of a 
brood, all of whioh are equal in 
size and function (Hartog) : IWM- 
mot'lc [iii!)ias. impulse, pushing), 
passing by osmosis in or out with 
equal facility ; I'loapore (ffiropA, 
seed), a spore produced by one of 
the Isospo'Tsaa, plants having one 
kind of spore, as in Ferns, opposed 
to heterosporous : iBoa'porons, 
horaosporouB, or having one kind 
of spore only • ISMp'ory, the state 
of producing one sort of spore ; 
isoste'monouB, nui, having aa many 
stamens as petals, or sepals ; laos- 
te'moaj', equality in number of 
stamens with the segraenta of the 
perianth whorls ; Uosty'lona ( + 
SrYLUH), Che styles bemg similar, 
opposed to heterostylous ; Iwn'tio, 
Van Tisghem's term when the 
mother root has more than two 
xylem bundles; iMton'lo (rirat, a 
■trand, a brace) ODiicentra'Cion, 
that degree of different solutions in 
which they otlract water with equal 
foroe(De Vries); Uot'tomatulrri^, 


a mouth), the calyx and corolla the 
■ame sise ; Iiof rophyte {rpw^, food; 
^&row, a plant), a parasitic Fungus 
whose influence is only chemical, 
with but slight changes in the 
host (Wakker); Isof ropous (rpdrot, 
direction), equal torsion in develop- 
ment, as in valvate and contorted 
aestivation (EL Schumann). 

btti'mus {M/jiist a neck of land), (1) 
the narrowed connection between 
half -cells of Desmids ; (2) the girdle 
of such Diatoms as lathmia, 

IttFa'to-proUf eroua (item^iM, repeated 
+ proliferous) repeatedly bearing 

ttHypliyllus H06t, straight ; ^XXor, a 
leaf), straight and stiff-leaved. 

Jag^goy, a coarse dark sugar from the 

oooo-nut and other piums, which 

produces arrack by fermentation. 
Jal'aplii, a constituent of the officinal 

Jalap, a purgative root, derived 

from Ipomoea Purga^ Hayne. 
Jama'idn, an alkaloid occurring in 

the cabbage bark-tree, Andara tner- 

fiiM, Kunth, a native of the West 

Jupld'eni, or iatpid'euB (Lat., from 

iagper, jasper), a mixture of many 

colours arranged in small spots. 
Je'tems, a mistake of Bischoff, copied 

by Lindley, for Iotkrus, vegetable 

jdbit, an articulation, as a node in 

grasses or other plants; Joinfed, 

articulated, falling apart at the 

jonqiillleus (Mod. Lat.), the bright 

yellow of the Jonquil, Narciagus 

odoruBf Linn. 
Jn'te (Lat., a mane), a loose panicle, 

with diliquescent axis; Jnte'tus, 

ja'ga.te {juga^ttta, connected or yoked 

together), used in composition as 

conjugate, bijugate, etc. 
Jn'gum (Lat. , a yoke), pi. , Ju'ga ; (1 ) 

a pair of leaflets ; (2) the ridges on 

the fruits of Umbelliferae. 
juice, the liquid contents of any 

plant - tissue ; ^^ Vm'MIi, Hill's 

term for vascular tissue ; Juiceless, 
dry, exsuccous. 

JQla'ceous, -ceua {jtUru, Mod. Lat., an 
amentum or spike, + aceous), bear- 
ing catkins, amentaceous; JnHform 
(forma, shape), like a catkin ; Jnlus, 
an old term for catkin, or spike, 
such as in A corns CcUamtis^ Linn. 

jimo'old {juncu8f a rush, eldos, re- 
semblance), Junc'ons, Jnn'ceoui, 

Jnnotu'ra (Lat., a joint), an articula- 
tion or note. 

Jute, the fibre of Corchorus capndaria, 
Linn., and C. olitorius, Linn. 

Juvenet'cenoe {juvenesco, I grow 
young again) = Ruuvknsscenck. 

JtiztapMlvlon (juxta, close to 
posUus, placed), the relative posi- 
tion in which organs are placed. 

K, for many words see also under 
the letter C. 

Xalid'ion, Kal%d'ivm\ pi., Kalid'ia 
(iraX£5(or, from iraXtd, granary) = 

kamptod'romous = CASfFTODROMons. 

Xaxyold (irdpvoy, a nut, eZdof, like) ; 
minute spherical bodies attached 
to the chlorophyll plate of Con- 
jugatae and Desmids ; Kaxyog'amy 
\ydiM% marriage), the union of 
gametonuclei, to form a zygote- 
nadeus (Maupas) ; Karyoldne'BiB 
(irfyiTo-tt, motion, I change) ; 
Schleicher's term for the series of 
changes undergone by the nucleus 
in cell-division ; '* also spelled 
Car^ocinesis " (Crozier) ; it is the 
indirect division of Flemming ; 
adj., Inryokinetlc ; Xaxyol'ogy 
(X^of , discourse), the science of the 
nucleus and its development and 
vital history (Trow) ; Karyorysis 
(XvVtf, a loosing), the dissolution 
of the nucleus, in whole or part; 
adj., karyoljrtlc; Karyomlto'slB 
(M^rof, a thread or web) = Mitosis ; 
Kar'yopUuun (rXd(r/iMi, moulded), 
the more fluid protoplasm of the 
nucleus, between the naclear 
threads; Kaxyoso'ma ((twaui, a 
body), a dose mass of microsomes 


in a nucleus ; pi. Karyoso'inaUi ; 

Saiyovrmpti'yilt (W/i^iwii^roiviDg 

together), nuDl^Br fuBion (Hartog), 
katabol'lc (>ara|3a\Xu, I csat down), 

deBcendiiiK metalioiiBin, Ihe brtalt- 

IDK up of . " 

bodies ; KaUb'oUim., deatructii 



k&ttaiKl'lo {tdOoSoi, a descent), that 
h»lf (if B leaF which is tumad away 
from the directioo io which the 
geaetic spiral liirns ; the opiwaite 


Km], or Caki'na, (1) a ridge like the 
keet of a hi>at ; (2) the two anterior 
and united petals of a papiliooace- 
ouH corolla ; keeled, carinate. 

Kwwneh'yma (■twai, empty, f)^i>/ui, 
an iufuBioa), permanent tiuue 
which has lost its living cootenla, 
aa cotk-tisBue'; In Ger. " L«er- 
Uillengewebe. " 

Keramiu'lnm - Cekamidiuh, or 

kermeil'iiiu (Mod. Lat.), carmiDe, a 
colour from KsmieB. 

Kn'oel, (t) the nuoteui of an avule,or 
of a B«cd, that is, the whole body 
within the cuata ; (2) the softer 
part of the pyrenocarp wtlhio the 
iiuter wall in certain Fungi. 

Ke'tonw ^a variation of '■Acetone"), a 
class of etherial oils ; camphor ia 
probably ooe of this claas. 

Kst'Ue-trapB. ajiplird '« such Sowers 
u those of AristoliKhia, which im- 
prison luieots until fertilization il 

Kay, or Key-fruit, the Sahasa of 

Kld'ney- foTm, Kid'nsy . shaped, ob- 
lalely cordate ; creacent- shaped, 
with the ends rounded. 

Slnd, genua or speoie>, a «ort. 

UiiBt'ic («i».,ni, motion) En'ergT, 
the energy of actual motion, as 
opposed to potential energy. 

kln'lc I.Kina-Kina, a name for Cin- 
chona), pertaining to cinchona ; — 
Ac'ld, an organic aoid in Cinchona 

~ includes oil plants. 
Klado'dlum - Cudodb. 
klelBtOKam'ic, kleistog'ainoiu-CLUB- 

EUnomorph'y (iXivu, I bend, ^^)i, a 
shape), Wieaner'a term for the 
condition of an organ determined 
by the simultaneous oblique posi- 
tion of the principal and median 
planea, so that the right and left 
halves may be distinguished as 
upper and lower, resmtiog in a 
diOerent shape of the two halves ; 
Uelnorbom'Uc (^l/i^Dt, a rhomb), a 
mineraiogio term used by De Bary 
for oblique rhombic crystok in 

Kb'noilat = CuNOSTikT. 


Knea, ( 1 ) an abrupt bend in a stem or 
tree-trunk : (2) an outgrowth of 
some tree roots ; ~ Jolst'ad, genico- 
late ; ~ -pan-aluped, concavo.con- 
vei, palelliform ; kneed, gen ionlate. 

Knight-DarwiQ L«w, generally under- 
stood as "that DO organic being 
fertilises itself for an eternity of 
geneialions" ; preferably "Nature 
abhore perpetual self fertilisation," 
i^f. F. Darwin in "Nature," Iviii., 

knob-Ilk* ^ 

various diseases caused by Fungi. 
OB BlMk- , effected by Ploierighlia 
niorboKa,Sacc.(Tubeuf};XnoI phase, 
in Duolear-di vision, is also known, 
aa skeiD-stage ; knot'ted, knot'ty. 

Knar. Knnrl.aknoborbardsubstance 

= Gnaib. 
Kryp'tObl«at(«/ii™T«i, hidden, pXtto-nii, 

a bud), a preventitious bud 



Ijmnoph'iloiia (icikivof, blue ; 0iX£w, I 
love), used of any tissue which 
readily absorbs blue stainins; 
l^anopbyll {(pvXKw, a leaf), nearly 
pure chlorophyll freed from its 
associated yellow pi^enti xantho- 
phyU ( Wiesner) ; it is bluish-green 
m colour. 

UfWl {labeUum, a little lip)» (l)Grew's 
term for the pinnule or ultimate 
segment of a Fern-frond ; (2) Labbl- 
LUM ; Labtilom ; (1) the third petal 
of Orchids, usually enlarged, andiby 
torsion of the ovary become anterior, 
from its normal posterior position ; 
(2) a similar petal in other flowers. 

latiiate, kUna'tua (Lat. , lipped ) lipped, 
usually bilabiate ; lablatiflor ous, 
•rus, used of certain Compositae 
with bilabiate corollas to their 
florets; la'biose, labio'aw, applied 
to a polypetalous corolla seemingly 
two-upp^ ; Wbium, the lower 
lip of a LAbiate flower. 

latqrrintlilfoar'mls (^a6yrin^Aus, a struc- 
ture with winding passages ; /oniia, 
shape), marked by sinuous lines, 

<if., DAEDALBX7S. 

Lac (Ital., lacca, a varnish), a resinous 
exudation from various tropical 

Slants, occurring in commeroe in 
ifierent forms ; Lac'oase, the en- 
Eyme which produces Lagqueb, 
from fluid lac ; lac'cate, as though 
varnished ; Lac'dne, a substance 
found in lac, insoluble in water, 
i^cohol, or ether. 

lac'erate, lac' ems (lacer, mangled); 
lAcera'ted, lacera'tus ; torn, or ir- 
regularly cleft. 

LaolLrlma (Liat. , a tear), a drop of gum 
or resin exuded from a tree ; also 
spelled Lach'ryma and Lacrima; 
laoh'rsrrimlform, laclirimiform'is 
(format shape), tear-shaped ; some- 
times but less correctly spelled 
laoh'rjrmaeform, etc. 

Laoin'ia (Lat., the flap of a garment), 
a slash or slender lobe; Laelnia'tion, 
fission ; ladn'late, lac%nia'{uSt 
slashed, cut into narrow Ioms ; 
ladn'iform (/orma, shape), fringe- 

like (Crozier) ; Ladn'ulft, (1) a dim- 
inutive lacinia or lobe ; (2) the 
incurved point of the petal in many 
Umbelliferae ; ladn'iilate, ladn'a- 
lose, finely laoiniate, possessing 

Lao^qner, a Japanese varnish ; ^., 
Lac and Laccase. 

Lac'tase {lac, milk), Beijerink's name 
for an enzyme which inverts sugar, 
but is distinct from Invertase ; 
Lac'tealfl, Lac'tifer (/ero, I bear), 
Lac'tents, Grew's names for latici- 
ferous ducts ; lac'teiia(Lat.) milky, 
white as milk ; lactes'oent, lacM- 
cenSf yielding milk^ juice; lactic'olor 
{color, colour) milk-white ; laoti- 
f erous,6rew's word for laticiferous; 
Lac'tose, milk-sugar; the sweet prin- 
ciple of milk, and stated to occur in 
the fruit of Achras Sapota, Linn. 

Laotnca'rlnm, the dried juice of the 
lettuce, Z/Octuca sativa, Linn., con- 
taining an active principle, Lac'ta- 

Lacn'na (Lat., a hole or cavity), (1) an 
air-space in the midst of tissue ; 
(2) a depression on the thallus of 
a Lichen ; lacu'nar, pertaining to 
or arising from lacunae ; *« Tisane, 
thin-walled cells, forming irregular 
trabeculae radially traversing the 
intercellular cavity of the stem of 
Sdagindla ; it may be regarded as 
the equivalent of the Bundle-Sheath 
of most other vascular Cryptogams; 
lacu'nose, lacuno'sus, (1) when the 
suriace is covered with depressions ; 
(2) perforated with holes ; lacu'no- 
rlmo'sus, marked with irregular 
cracks and excavations ; lacu'no- 
m'gose, '*' -rugodUB^ having irregular 
wrinkles, as the stone of the peach. 

lacus'tral {locus, a pond or lake), H.C. 
Watson's term for plants which are 
usually floating in water or im- 
mersed ; laous'trine, lacus'tris, be- 
longing to, or inhabiting lakes or 
ponds ; the form Uicwtter has been 
introduced recently. 

iMT'lgate, laevigatus {levigcUus, 
smooth, slippery), smooth, as if 



3 ths 

Iia'tIi (fell*!, amooth), iirootb, i 

■enu of Dot being roujth. 
lags'nlfortn, lagcni/orm'ii {tagena, a 

fluk ; /oma. gliape), shaped tike a 

Floreooe llMk. 
Imgo'pni (XaTwroiJi, bara's foot), hsro- 

footed, dea»ly covered with taay 

lun'Bl, Lamtl'la {1*1., athin plaMor 
scale), B thin plate : pi., Lunel'lat, 
the gills of Agnrica ; luo'elUr, 
fanwaa'ru. oompoBed of thin plsti 

mushroom ; Umel'llform Wormn, 
ihape). in the shap« of a plate or 
■pslei luo'ellOM. lamclto'mui-UiX' 
BLLATE ; Lainel'lnlae, the gilla of 

Lun'liu (Lat., a tbia leaFji ^^^ limb, 
blade, or expanded part of a leaf : 
~ prollg'w* : - iporlK'en, the 
disk or centre of the apothecium 
of a Lichen i ~ Umlna'tad. con' 
iUting of plates or layers j ~ 
Bulb, a tunicatcd bulb, as a 
h>acinth -. Umlna'tlDK, aeparating 
into layers. 

Lft'iw (Lat.) wool, or woolly ooverinBi 
Ik'iwM, Uuia'tm, olothed with 
woolly and inter)irown hairs. 

lUi'oMlata. latiefoia'lvg (Lat.. armed 
with a little lance), (1) narrow, 
tapering to encb end ; LinnacuB 
osed it for a leaf having nearly 
similar eilremities, but in modem 
lue. the base is luuBlly somewhat 
broadened, and the greatest breadth 
at about one.third from the base ; 
(3) the primitive meaning is p'e- 
■srved in Cordutu lanetolatiu, 
Linn. : ~ haa'tate. a hastate leaf. 
with the principal lobe laTiceolale; 
-MW'lttote. a sagittate leaf, the 
middle lobe lanceolate; ItUtCS-o'vatB 
{Crosier), lanceolate ovate, indica- 
tive of a form intermediale between 
the two named terms ; laucesliaped. 

la'noM, taao-«ua (Lul.) woolly, cf.. 

with lABU'go (Lat,). woollineas ; 
long and interwoven hairs. 

Uptd'ens (Lat., stony). UpiUo'aiw. 
stony, as the seeds of " stone 
fruits": Isp'ldoae. faTiu/o'nM, grow- 
ing amingst stones. 

laptA'ceoui. lappa' tent (Lat. ) bar-like, 

Ittr'm (farw, a Diask),(l)applied to 
the resting stage, aa the sclero- 
tium of ergot ; (i) the early form of 
certain Conifers, whoso perfect and 
adult form is very different ; lai- 
Ta'tns (Lnt.) personate. 

lasian'thns (^dsioi, shaggy ; itSin, a 
(lower), woolly-flowertd; Ultocu'- 
poni (irapTDi, fruit), pul>eBcent. 

latehro'siu (Lat., full of lurking 
places), hidden. 

U'tent [lattm, hidden), dormant ; ~ 
Bud, an advent itiouB bud ; ~ Pe'rtod, 

Lat'en, pL of Lat'iu [Lat., a side), the 
sides ; lat'era], lalrra'IU, fixeil on or 
near the side of an organ : ~ Bod, 
adventitious bud ; - DeMa'couea, 
bursting or opening at the side; 
-NnGlBolM. ~Nn'cleo>, (/., Fab.s- 
NrcLKUS; -Plaiu, the vertieal 
plane at right angles to the antero- 
potteriur plane, as of a Uower ; ~ 
View of a Diatom fruaiule, whea 
the valves are seen in front view, 
the girdle being then in side view ; 
Lat^al'lty. used by Sachs for 
SvMMETHr, both radial and dorsi- 
ventral ; latarlto'liona {folium, a 
leaf), growing on the aide of ■ leaf 
Bttbebaae: l&tArliHr'vii, latarlner'- 
vini (ntmm, a nerve), straiwht- 
VHlned, as in grasses; latarUUp'- 
ulua^ (-t-Srim.!) having stipules 
growing on its sides. 

latarlc'lona or latertt'ion*. laUri/^m, 
laltril'iiu (Lat., made of bricks), 

La'tex (Lat., juice), (I) the milky 
juice of Biioh planta as spurge 
or lettuce; {'!) the nioitture 
of the Btigma; d) the gelatinous 
matter surrounding the spores in 
SQtne Fungi ; ~ C^, laticiJerous 


coenocvtes ; ~ Otui'iiIm, starch 
or outer gr&nulu floalinc in 
Ihs Utex ; - TntiM, kticihrou* 
Iiitloif erolu ilcUex, lalids, jaice, /ero, 
I bear), IsLei-bearing ; ~ Celli, 
Btmctures which are not cell- 
fusiom ; — COB'nocytoi. branched 

cells o 

cells c 

J ~ TU'eae, the Bvaiem of 
QflflB or vBSKela ; -• VH'ieU, the 
tubea or Bimilar struKlHrea which 
have milky juice, usaally branohed 
■yncyMa, Che walls between ad- 
jacent cells bein^ absorbed. 

latiro'llaM, latiro'llOUS, lali/o'llaa 
(Lat.), broad-leaved. 

latlMp'tal {/nliia, broad, M/ifuni. a 
hedgel, applied to thoae Crudfera 
which have broad septa in tlieir 
ailiclea sh Honesty, Lunaria annua, 
Linn. ; l4tliep'Ute, latiaip'tKa, witb 
brnad partitlooa. 

lat'Oced, cross -barred; - Call - 

wra, DC. 

lax, la^iu (laA..), loose, distant. 

Llj'tr, (1) the Stroma or receptacle 
of Fungi ; (2) in propagation, a 
branch oaased to root whilst still 
cuniiect«d with the parent : Lar'er- 
age, term proposed by L. H. Bailey 
for propagation by layering, or the 
Btate of Iwing so multiplied ; Lay'- 
erlng, the art of making layers ; 
Lay'lng. a gardener'a term for the 

InznM'naa (Mod. Lat.). ultramarine 
blue, a pigment obtained from 
"Lapis LaKuli." 

laftd-coI'ouTed, dull grey ; e/. plum- 

Lea'der, the primary or terminal shoot 

Leaf, lbs prLDoipalappenilage or late- 
ral organ borne by the stem or axis ; 
it is a (tmple — when undivided, 
eomponiid ~ when divided into 
diatinotpartai ~ AiiMis'iiiBiit. lee 

PHvr.L0T:ixi3;~ Blade, -Lamina; 
~ Bod, a bud which develoos into 
a leafy branch i opposed to a 
" Flower Bud " ; - (Vcle, in phyl- 
lotaxis, a spiral which pasaes 
through the insertions of inter- 
mediate leaves tiU it attains the 
next loaf exactly above ila starting 
point; ~ Fall, defoliation; ~ Oraen 
= Chloiw)phvi.l ; ~Porea = STDiii- 
TA ; - Scar, the mark or cicatrix 
left by the articulation and fall of a 
leaf ;-81ieatb, thelowrrpartof the 
petiole which more or less invest* 
the stem ; ~ Stalli. = Pktiolk ; ~ 
Ten'aiU, one which isa transformed 
leaf ; ~ Trace, all the common ban- 
dies in a etiom betontring to one leaf. 

tearing, the unfolding of leave* ; 
leafleM, wanting leaves ; LeaTlat, 
the blade or separate division of a 
compound leaf; leaflike ~ rou- 
ACBoua ; laafy, tall of leaves. 

leath'er-yel'lOT, a vague term for the 
tint of tan or buff leather ; alu- 

leatli'ary, tough, coriaceous. 

Iscanor'liie, resembling the apothe- 
cium of the ganus Lfcanora, which 
has a paler margin arising from the 

leotd'elform (forma, ■hBpe),lMild'eln*, 
like the apotbecium of Ltctdea, 
which has a margin of the aame 
colour as the disk. 

Le'oitUn {\linSm, an oil-6aek), a type 
of white, waiy, phosphorous-oon- 
Uiining subslances, some of which 
have been separated from the seeds 
of maixe, peas and wheat. 

lecot'ropal (X^iot, a dish, rpar^, a 
turning), shaped like a hoise-shoe, 
as some ovules, cf. i.yc<in[0FODB. 

Le'cns (\/:(Dt, a bed) = Corm. 

leik-green. vivid green, prasinua. 

IbH. siriistrnrse ; see Appendix C. 

leglt'liiiate {Ugitimiis, allowed by law) 
FeTtUtsa'Uon. in dimorphic or Cri- 
morphic plants, fertilisation by ita 
form pollen, as short.alyl«d 


lioIIhd from other short- 

=. (Dar» 

Icff'iime, Ltgn'mta (Lat., pulae), tha 

■eed- vessel of Leguminosae, one- 
osUed uid two-valved, but various 
ID forni ; Legn'mln, an albuminoid 
from pulse, vegetabla casein; 
legn'miioui, Itgnmina'™, (I) por- 
taJDing to a leguuie ; or (2) to the 
order Legumioosae. 
l«lk'on-ool'oiir«d, pale, pare jeUov, 

leu-iluuMd, lentil-like, doubly-wn- 
vGi, lentionUr. 

IWl'tiCBl, LaUial'la {lau, lentil, a 
leotil), lenticular corky spots on 
young bark, correBponding tjj epi- 
dermat stoniata : »yn. Lent'lceUs 
fCnaier): leiiUc«lla'tu8(Mod. Lat.), 
having lenticela ; Leatlo'ulae. " the 
iporo-cOBes of certain FuiibbU " 
(Lindle}') : leotlc'alU', hHtkuln'ris, 
lutUorm'li [forma, shape), like a 
do II 1)1 f convex lens. 

lentls'liLaie, lenUg'liunu, lentigino'nui 
(Lat., (all of freckles), niinutet; 
dotted as though freckled. 


. XP^f 

eolow), tawny, the ooloarofo li 

hids; ImdI'doi (Lat.,peitaiiiing to 
a linn), something of the same tint. 

Lsp'Sil, Lep'alum (Mod. Latin, from 
Xcirlt, a scale), a nectary originat' 
ing in a barren traiiKformod stamen 

LapBU'tblum (\tTii, a scale, iySm, a 
floH-er}. "a petal which cooloins a 
nectary" (Croiier); Leplo'eiu(ri(pet, 
empty), the glume in grasses, by 
Kichn.rd used for the lower pair 
of gtiimee ; Lep'ldes, scales, usually 
attached by their centre ; lepldo- 
den'drold {Le/iitloilaulroii , eI jot, re- 
semblance), like the fossil genus 
Lfpidodtailron, a carboniferous 

I«pldopl«TopI)'IUe (Lepidopteron, 
^iXeui, I love), applied to plants 
which are (crtilii^cd by lepidop- 

Lap'ldopbyte, Ltpidophi/'iai' (XitI;, a 
scale ; ipi/Toy, a plant), L. Waiil's 
term for Lepidodendroid fossil 

Up'lAot«, I'pido'tua [Xtwiltirot, scaly), 
beset with small scurfy scales. 

Leplo'lA (\cirjt, a Boale, 0l!i, lirof, an 
ear), " the annulns of certain Fun- 
gals" (Lindlay); but LejAola is a 
genua of Agarics, having been pro- 
posed by Pcrsoon for a section of 
AgaricHi ; Le'pU, a scale. 

Lepti'ma QJirirfia, peelml bark), a 
membranous scale in some Rannn- 
culaceae, an apparently aborted 
stamen in Paeonia papaveracta 
Andrz. ; several of them enclose 
the ovary. 

Lep'rt (Ui-pn, leprosy), a white mealy 
matter extruded from the anrface 
of some plants ; lap'roie, lep'rons, 
if pro' ills, scurfy. 

laptodar'mouB (Xcrrei, thin, delicate, 
Uplia, skin), thill-coated, used of 
moss-capsules when pliable ; Lep'to- 
formi ( funiuiy shape), heteroecious 
Fungi baring teleutosporos only, 
which as soon m they arrive at 
maturitygerminateonliving plants ; 
Lep'tome, an abbreviation of Lap- 
tOQMSi'tmiw (^D-roi, filled) ; Haber- 
landt's expression for the phloiim- 
like portion of the vascular bond lea 
in vascular plants; Lep'tomin, a 
subatanoe found in the leptoine of 
aome plants, especially in the 
sieve-tubes and laticiferous vessels. 
the presumed function beiog to 
convoy oiygeu iRaoiborski); Lep'- 
topbla'jjm (-hPaLoEM), rudimeo- 
lary phloem, for storage or con- 
dnction of food material (Vaisey) ; 
Ieptopliyl'l(nia,-;iM (^liXXw, s leaf), 
slender - leaved ; leptosporau'Klate 
(oTo/ii, seed, i-jTifiov, aamnil veasel), 
having leptosporangia : Leptospor- 
an'jflom, a sporangium derived 
from one superficial cell, as in the 
true Ferns, and not from a group 
of cells as in Ophiogloasaoeae ; 
laptotl'dins (rtixoi, a wall), thjn- 
walled, applied only to tissue. 

I.epyropliyl'ly[X(irupo«,aacalo, tfiuXXoi', 
a leaf), Morren's term for arrest of 
the testa in the leaf -stage. 

lett flred, with spots resembling 
letters ; ef. ooAmiicDS. 

Isnean'tlioiu, -thtu (Xiumi, white or 
grey), white flowered ; Len'idii or 

" Amidocaproio acid" ia ■ wbiM 
BubBlsDce, firet (ouod in Buimftis, 
afterwards found id planta ; Lea.'- 



Lbucoplast ; he furthpt modifies 
the t«rm by preSiing amylo-, 
ctalnro-, cbromo-, elala-, oull-, 
for various modifioationH ; furthar- 
more, acflva ~, or paa'tlTS or 
z8BBrTB'~, according to function; 
Lon'coplut, Leuooplaa'tLd (TXaorot 
moulded), A. F. W. Schimper'a 
t«tm for the apecialiaed colourlHsa 
protoplaamin granule ; ayn. Ana- 
PLAaT(A. Meyer ), and LKUClTB(Van 
Tieghem); Isucapbyl'liu (^i^XXor, a 
leaf), white - leaved ; Laa'cophyll- 
graln = Lkucopla^ ; Leu'cowmee 
Icuita, a body}, small spherical 
bodies, apporeolly compoaed of al- 
bumiaoidH Inclosed in the leuco- 
plasU of Commolynaceae (Zinimer- 

lorlgm'ttu (Lat.) smooth, slippery; 
in botaniosl Latin it is asnally 
spelled "laevigatuB." 

It'iia (Lat.) smooth, in the senl« of 
□ol rough ; from the time of 
Linnaeui downward this has been 
spelled botanically as "laevis." 

le'Tnlow (fuet-iM, on the left side)- 
FruotoBe or fruit-eogar ; it deflects 
polarised tight to the left. 

Ua,'iia, lia'ne (Span, liar, to lie), pr. 
leah-ni, le-ahn ; luiuriant woody 
climbers in the tropica with stems 
of anumalous sCructare ; lia'nold 
(elSof, like), having a liuoalike 

U'bar (Ut. inner bark), tlie inner 
bark, which is often fibrous, the 
phlo£m of the vascular system con- 
taioing the bast-tisaue ; '- Ft'brei, 
bast-fib res. 

li'bar (Lat, free), having no cohesion 
with tlie adjoining parts; libBra'tns 
(Lat.), freed. 

llberoll^ttftoiu {lihfr, inoer bark, 
iijjHum, wood), applied txi a con- 
joint bundle oomposcd of bast and 
wood elements ; lib'rlform (/arma, 
shape) 0«U, a narrow, thick - 
walled cell of woody tissue re- 


semblingbast, wood-fibre (Croiier); 
—Tl'bret, Bubfititute fibres reduced 

in form (Germ., ErBalzfasern). 
Lt'chen {\tixh', lichen), a Cryptogani 
which forms « thallua which is 
either shrubby, leafy, crustaoeous 
or powdery, generally regarded as a 
aymbiosia of byphal filameots with 
algal gonidia ; ~Al'g:<M, the eonidia 
or green bodies in the thallua ; ~ 
Pn^gi, the filaments of hyphae, 
which are usually interwoven with 
the gonidia; ~8tafcli — Lk^hbmin ; 
Ll'chanln, the peculiar stirch-like 
body in Ctlrana islaJuiica, Linn., 
and other Lichens ; Li'dienliin, 
tlie special aymbioeis between alga 
and fungus occnrrrng in Lichens; 
U'chenold [tUas, like), irregularly 
lobed, as Lichens ; Ucbsnog'rapllM', 
Ucbeaog'niphlit [rpdipa, 1 uTite) = 
Licbenologiat ; Llcb«nog^n,pby, the 
study of Lichens ; adj. Ucbeno- 
graph'lc ; LlchenoroglBt |\^at, dis- 

Ltchens ; Licbnoisr'ythlilie [ipirBpat, 
red), tiorby'B name for the red 
colouring matter of Lichens; Uch- 
noxui'tlilUB {i<uSi!, yellow), the 
same observer's term for the yellow 
cololuingjn Lichens, 
Lid { 1 ) the operculum of moss-capsales 
(Hooker); (3) the distal extremity 
of the aacidium of Nepenlhet which 
forms a lid-like appendage to the 
pitcher ; (3) the areas of pollen. 
grains which are detached t« per- 
mit the pollen-tubes to pass ; ~ 
Cells, the terminal cells of the neck 
of the arcbegonium which tem- 
porarily close the canal ; the stig- 

Llfe, the state in which plants oaD 
grow or perform their functions of 
absorption, nssimilation, reproduc- 
tion, etc. ; ~ Oy'da, the course of 
development from any given stage 
to the same again, as from the seed 

Llgamau'tum^ (Idt,, a band or band- 
age) =Rafiib. 

Ufcbt-absor'ptioD, the ratio of the 
whole of daylight to that of the 

t grows 

pUcs in which the pli 
Uc'iiMiu, Ue'doiu, lig'nef 

UgBie'alOT {tignum, wood, color, 
colour), tawny, the ooloar of 
freshly out wood ; Ugnlc'slout 
ieoio, to inhftbitj, applied to Fu[));i 
which live on timber; UgnlfeTOiu 
{/cro, I bear), used of branches 
which foriQ wood only, bat do 
flowers ; Ugnl&cft'tion (/ocio, I 
make), the hardenioK or ihickeji* 
ing of the cell-wall by Bocoadary 
depoaitB ; IlK'nlCed. cooverted into 
woodtUgr'nifonQi/cmno, shape), like 
wood 1 Ug'illfy, to turn into wood ; 
Ug'aia or Ll^nlne, an incrustinfc or 
impregnating subatanoe on the cell- 
wall, produuing woody tissue ; it is 
insoluble io water or ether, soluble 
in alcohol aod alkalis, and is the 
remainder after the cellulose has 
been removed by chemical means ; 
Ugnl'mue (deriv.!), Payen'a terra 
for a oonstituent of Lignin, only 
sliehtly soluble in water ; Ug'iiite, 
a loeail or aemi-fossil woody sub- 
stance ; jet ia an example; Ug:- 
aoeel'lnlote ( + Cellulose), see 
Cbildlosk ; UK'none. a substance 
which differs from Lignin by being 
msolnble in water, alcohol and 
ether, but soluble in ammonia, 
potash, soda (Payen) ; Li^'iUMe, a 
oonstitaent of Lignin, but soluble 
only in potash and soda solutions 
(Poyen) ; llg'iMne, ligno'stu, woody, 
ligneous 1 Ug'num, wood, that 
within the cortex, inotuding both 
tdbumum and duramen. 

Ug'ale.Liyu^alLat., a little tongue); 
(1) a strap-shaped body, auch ae 
the limb of the rav florets in Com- 
positae ; (2j a lobe of the outer 
corona in Slapelia (N. E. Brown) ; 
(3) the thin, soanoua projection 
from the top of the leaf sheath in 
grasses; (4) a narrow membranous, 
acuminate structure, internal U> 
the leaf -base in ItoUeK and Sflngin- 
tUa i (S) ao appendage to certain 
petals, as those of 5if me and Cuscufa 

(A. Gray) ; Uff'nlu, Kussow's term 
for that leaf-faoe of Stlagimlla 
which is turned towards the ligule; 
1^. AUOUUK ; llff'alate, ligvla'tu», 
furnished with a Ligulc;llgu'Ilfarm, 
liilaii/orm'U (Jin-ma, shape), strap- 
shaped ; llgtillUnr'ate, UguIUlor'oua, 
-rui (Jton, Jloris, a flower), having 
liguUte Sorets, as Hitracinm. 
U'bw, pale warm purple, the coloor 
of the flower of S^riwja ruljiarie, 
Linn. ; LI'Uoiiie, a bitter principle 
from the bark of the same plant; 
lUa'cens, llUci'iioua, -niu, lilac in 

lilUcwM. -cetM [lUimi, a lily + 

oceousl, lily-like.. 
llmaaUonn'ls (/tmoz, limacu, a slug, 
forma, shape), applied by Koerber 
to those Lichen spores which are 
slug -shaped. 
Umb, liaih iM (Lat.,B border or hem) ; 
(1) the border or expanded part of 
a gamopetaloua corolla, as distinct 
from the tube or throat ; (2) Iba 
lamina of a leaf or of a pet«l ; 
Ilm'tiate, lanhdint, bordered, as 
with another colour- 
Lime, used for calcium carbonate in 
olants ; -Dran'oles, liiue-bnots in 
Myiogostres, concretions oicur- 
ring in the cupillitiuni ; ~ BcAlei, 
the chalk - gland* which eiorete 
lime, as with certain Saxifrages. 
Ll'llwi(Lat.,acroBa-path or boundary) 
commn'iiis % the collum or neck of 
a plant; llm'ltuy, plaued at the 
limit, as a guard ; llm'ltiiig Cell ^ 

mnnefKi (\iiar,, a pool), applied to 
plants which grow in po<ilfl or their 

llmo'nlUB (Mod. Lat.), lemon-like, as 
to colour; oitrinufl. 

Une, Li'nca (Lat., s lins or thread), 
as a meainre of length, the twelfth 
part of an inch, m mitlemetrea, 
Z'1167; the Paris line is mm. 
2-325; Linra franeivraa-Ha, the 
ostiolcm of some Fangi ; line* of 
OTOwtb. the limits of each year's 
growth in woody stems ; — of 
Vageta'Uon, far any given species, 

the BpedM hU^ ; the nniltMit 
linM mftp ont toe diatribntioD of 
the uid ipadM (Kernel) ; UHMllt 
(Let., cotuiBting of Udb*], ineMor- 
ing about » line ; lln'ekr, tima'ru, 
mrrow, leTSTkl timei longer thkn 
wide ; Iltt'eate, linca'fut, tnuked 
with line*, lima'la Va'mi, vhmIb 
trMMverHl; marked, m anouUte 
daoU or trwheidi ; Uneaflpee t 
{pa, a foot), having a lined or 
■biated foot-italk ; Uned = linea- 
tni, atriatnii lltt'eolate, Imtola'- 
ttu, roarked with fine or obaaore 

Hatuitorm'it (lingva, a tongue, 
forma, ahii^), tongue - iha^ ; 
Uag'nlate, ^n^a'tM, abo meana 
tongue -ah apt d. 

U'sin or Ll'mne (Xi* w, a thread), the 
hyaloplaemio filameuti of the na- 
oIkhh in repote (Bchwan). 

Uuu^aii Syit^am, the artificial olautG- 
eatioD deviaed by Limiaeaa, baaed 
npOD the nnniber and poaitioD of 

li'nolelii {JAwtm, flax, oleum, oil), 
"the eljoeride of lineoloio acid 
found in linaeed oiL" 

UoAl'aaa {\tTai, amooth, fil[a, root). 
Tan Tieghcm'* name for Mono- 
ootyledouB and Nynphaeaoeae, the 
root • haira being of exodermio 

Up, (1) one of the two diviaiona of a 
bilabiate corolla or calyx, that la, 
a gamopetaloua or gamoaepalooa 
organ cleft into an upper {superior 
or pmterior) and a lower (infnrior 
or anterior) portion ; (2) the label- 
lam of Orchi a*; -Oella, two narrow, 
llgnified celU on the aponmgia of 
•ome innalate Ferns, diatinct from 
the anuulua, which are the firat 
to aeparata on dehiacenoe ; qf. 

I^lM (Mroi, greaae), a fat-aplitting 
eoETme oocartin|[ in oil; eeedi ; 
Up'odirama Ixfl^^i oolonr], the 
yellow pigment of Sowera, ao 
named by HansMi f rmn Ila raaem* 

Upoor'aiilii (((Wat, blue), t 
pigment of some planta. 
U^n'enoiia {\rlwa, I leave, f^n, 
a heat), deaerting ita hoit ; U- 
pcnCenj, the deaertioo of a hoat- 
plant by a paraaiba to com- 
plete ita developtnent on reaerve 
matariala prcTiousljr obtained from 
the hoat, aa In the falling away of 
Eritot, the aclerotiam of Cordyctpt 
purpUTta, Tnl. 

lipped, =I^BUTR. 

U'qiior (I^at. a liquid) Am'nloa (^. 
Amnios), a term borrowed from 
Mologf for the flafd "oontainfd in 
the rao within which the embryo 
it engendered" (Lindley). 

Ural'lft [dim. of lira, a ridge), in 
Lichena an obtnng apothecinm 
with a furrow along ita midille, 
as in Opeffrapha ; Urellate, llnl'- 
Una, lirella-liks; llnl'lUOrm, lirelli- 
/orm-it [fonna, shape), ahaped Uke 
■ liiella. 

llalganaf la, = LrsiaENBnc. 

UthoMb^a [Tdeot, a atone, fiifiyier, 
a paper or aoroll) = Lithophti. ; 
UtH'oearp {taprit, fruit), foaail 
fruit ; Utb'oeywt (lArrit, a bag or 
pouoh), a crystal cell; Utboph'U' 
ona, saiiooloaa, dwelling on rocks ; 
Uth'ophyl (^liXXot, a leaf), a foasil 
leaforleavu; LiUt'ophytes (^vroV, 
a plant), plants which grow on 
■tones, bat derive their nourish- 
menb from the atmoaphure as 
aaiicolona Liohens; litboaperrn'ona 
{aripfia, aeed), having hard, atony 
•eeda; Uthos'ylB Ui)W, wood), 
fosail wood. 

Llt'lnua, a violet colour derived from 
■Bveral apeoiea of Lichens, sucb as 
Rocella, etc. 

llt'oral, lUora'lia (Lst. pertaining to 
the sea - shore), belonging to or 
growing on the sea-shore (A. Gray 
adds " river banka " which strictly 

rking is "riparian"); need by 
C. Wataon for plants of the 
aea-shore ; frequently apelled lit'- 
toial, liUora'lit. 

[Utmu, a erookad itaff). 

of the 

Utan'tnil {lUara, a imMring), when 
BpoM ore formed by aa Bbmion ol 
the surface. 
Il'TUU, Uv'ld, li'iHdua (L&t.), pale 

lead colour. 
UT'er-otii'oand = hepatic Ps. 
UT'erworta, Eepaticae. 
Lobe, Lo'biis [\ojii!, the tower port of 
the ear), any division of an organ 
or npeciallj rouoded division ; 
■Ud'dle'-, a Bmall conical ortongue- 
■haped growth arising from be- 
tween the two side-lobes of a 
Fem-prothalliu : lolata, loha'laii, 
divided into or bearing lobes ; 
Lolwltt, a imall lobe ; Lob'loliu, 
a sniall lobe into which soma 
Uchaa-thaUi are dirided ; lAb'nla, 
I small lobe, a lobulet ; (2) 
'b word for the minor lobe 
Hepaticae, the 
'i<:le of Nees and others ; lob'a- 
UW, lobula'tiin, ba\-iiig small lobes ; 
Lob'uliu, a small lobe. 
Locality {localUat. a place), the 
approximate geographic position of 
an individual aneoimen. 
locel'late, locrllaim, dividing into 
Locci.Li; Locel'lUB (dim. of Tocu/uB, 
a Utile compartnjent), a secondary 
compartment, as a primitive pollen- 
aao, whicli, by the destmotion of a 
septum, unites with an adjoining 
locellUB to form an anther- 
loculua; Loc'alament, LoctUamen' ■ 
lam (lAt. a, caae or box); (1) 
=LoccLli8 of a carpel ; (2) " the 
petithecinm of certain Pungals " 
(Lindley) : loe'olar, toeala'rit, hav- 
ing cavitiea or Loouli, denoted 
I further by the addition of unl-, U-, 
I tli-, etc., for one-, two-, three- 
I etc., celled; locula'tni, divided 
P into cavities ; locnUd'dftI {cacdo, I 
I out), the canity of a pericarp de- 
hiscent by the back, the dorsal 
Nturc; loo'ttlOM, iorulo'aiu, loo'- 
nloua, divided internally into cells, 
partitioned : Loe'nltu, (l]the cavity 
of an ovary or anther ; (2) tbe pen- 
dann of oertaia Fungata (Lindley). 

Locnu'ta (Lat. crayfish or locust), the 

Bpikelet in grasses. 
Lod'lcnla, Laiiciila (Lat. a small 

ouverlet), a small scale outside 


the ttower 


grasses; gl,umflla. 
Lot'iopbyll, ECord's name for chlo- 
rophyll from LoHum and other 

lomenta'oeoua, -feus (tofntntvin, bean- 
meal], bearing or resembling Lo- 
meols ; Lo'monl, Lanien'tiim, a 
legume which is contracted be- 
tween tbe seeds, falling apart at 
the constrictions when mature into 
one- seeded joints. 

LoDglttamin'eae {longKi, long + Sta- 
men), Delpino's term for Sowers 
with long stamens which are wind- 

Loustta'dlual Syi'tem, an old term 
for fibro- vascular system (Crosier). 

LoDEltu'dD (LaL. length), in thedirec- 




Iongit*slmut (Lfll-), very long. 
lOBSltudiBkl'lter, longitudUu'Ui 

(Lut.), in the direction of the 

looM, (1) as applied to inSoresoenae. 
lax, us a lAiiiuIe ; (2| hardly co- 
herent, as luose tissue. 

lophloi'tooiate (Xo^ a cresl, aritia, 
a mouth), having orestud apertures 
or openings. 

lor'ato, lora'laa {lorvni, a thong), 
strap shaped, ligulatc. 

Lorl'ca (Lat. a leather contel), (1) 
the entire silicious covering of 
the frustnle in Diatoms ; (2) for- 
merly used for the Tksta ; It^leaM, 
[clothed in mail] "equally narrow 
thronghout " (Brailhwaite), is pro- 
bably a slip for lorate. 

Lo'mlum (I^t. dim, of lortim, a 
thonu), the filamentous and branch- 
ed thalluB of some Lichens. 

tow, small as compared to its allies ; 
~ Teast, that which is found at 
the bottom of a fermenting licjuid : 
Qenn, "Unterhefe"; low'tred, used 
when tbe lip of a bilabiate corolla 
is inclined at about a right angle tc 
the tube. 


Inltrlooiu. hi'hriaui (Lat.). iniMth, 

In'oMU, lu'otd. lu'ctrfua (IaI.). •hm- 

ing, referring to the surface. 
Imnbilca'll* ilnmbritag, a maw- worm), 

worm^ehnped, m in aoaXB Algae ; 

lum'Inlcoiu, ehnped like an earth- 

Ln'meB (Lat., light, opening), the 
space whicii is hounded by the 
walls of sD organ, as the central 
cavity of a cell ; La'mtnoiu Line, in 
Mnlpighiacaae, etc., on the testa of 
the seeds, is due to a modification 
□f the oii(«r layer. 

iQ'ltar iliina, the mooa), (I) pertain- 


; (2) L 

n«e which 
' against 

shaped T Inna'tad. 
having lunar markings {Crozierli 
lu'llifonn i/orma, shape), (crescent- 
shaped, (Croiier) ; In'niilate, ^uriu- 
la'liu, diminutive of lunate. 

Lu'ptnlla, a bitter substance occur- 
ring in the leaves of the white lupin, 
Lupinnn alh'tK, Linn. ; Ln'plulne. 
an alkaloid in the Bower-buds of 
Lupinxia latenn. Lino. 

la'pidin, (1) a Hecretiou from the 
glandularhairsof thehop-strobiles, 
ifnmvlui LiipaJaa, Linn., which 
gives a hitter taste ; [2) see lupu- 
LiHic Glikds ; la'pnUue, Inpoll'- 
noni, fupv/i'nuA. resembling a hop- 
strobile ; InpQiln'io Obrnds, the 
reeinoQB glandular bodies within 
the scales of the female flower of 
the hop, "also called Lupulin" 
(Stormonth) ; Lu'pnltla, a lupulinic 

lu'rld. lu'ridv^ (Lit., sallow, wan), in 
botany, dingy brown ot yellow ; 
laiM'to Aotd occurs in Bo/etiin 
liiriduA, Schae?. 

Ln'sns (Lat. a game), a sport or varia- 
tion from BEwl or bud ; ~ Kfttu'rae, 


I [lulfve, yellow, /iik-ui, 
swarthy), blaokish- yellow ; Ln'te- 
olln, a yellow colouring matter 
(ouiid in weld, Hueda Lultola, 

Linn. ; In'teolni (Lat.) yellowiih; 
IntM'oMit, lutta'ctru, beooming yel- 
low ; lu'teui (Lat.) a full yellow. 

Lnxu'iia, Luxu'ries (Lat. rankness], 
exuberant growth ; Inxn'llMli, 
tiiicv'rianii (Lat.], usually signi&ea 
that the organs of nutrition are 
more developed than those of 

lyooper'dlold ILt/copcrdaa. a genus of 
Oasteromycetes, <tSiii, like), resem. 
bting a puff-ball. 

Ijccpadla'csDUB {Lycopodium, + 
aoeous), resembling the genus 

lycot'ropal = l;cDt'Topona, -piu (Um, 
a door-knocker, Tpmnj, a twining), 
when an otherwise orlhotropous 
ovule is bent like a horse-shoe. 

Ijmpli, Lym'pha [Lftt. spring water), 
Grew's icrm for sap ; Lympii'ie™ 
Dnots-DL'c?!!; lymphat'lo, clear, 
pellucid; ~Dnct« = Du<:TS. 

lysigBDBt'ic, lyslgen'ie, lysig^'aiiaiu 
(Xdffti, a loosing, T^voi, offspring), 
when a cavity is formed by dis- 
organisation or dissolving of cells. 

lyTate, lyra'tiia (Xil))a, a lute or lyre), 
lyre -shaped, pinnatiild with the 
terminal lobe large and rounded, the 
lower lobes Bmall: lyntt-parti'taB, 
~ -seo'lUB, lyrateiy pinnate ; lyw- 
shaped— LVKATB. 

Lr'sii, (Xudit. a loosing), the meta- 
morphosis of a part. 

Haoe, the arillus of the nutmeg. 

HMera'tion, {mareratio, a steeping), 
steeping, as in the case of barley 
for malting. 

Hac'ro- (fuiipo!, long), in Ureek com- 
pounds—long; frequently but it 



ir mtgtlo-. 

a'drent (liatpii, long ; dy-rif, 
drdpoi, a man), having large or 
long male plants in Algae (Crozier) ; 
macran'tliuB {iiBos, a flower), long 
flowered ; macTOblostigmat'lc (;SIii>, 
life, nTlyim, a puncture), Delpino't 
term for those plants whose stig- 
mse remain capable of fertilization 
until the anthers are mature ; 

HAo'robtait (pXaiTToi, a bud), a 
normal wood bud (Hsrtig) ; ina- 
erocepli'Klitai. ■/«> ((tfiaXii, bead), 
big headed. diC')ty1edniious eni' 
brjoa with consolidated cot jledona J 
HacTOODiiiil'lani (-i- CoNiniCMl, s 
Urge oonidium produoed at a dif- 
ferent period in the life-oycle 

^¥t (ni'ffTu, a ba^ or pouch), ooa 
of the veaicteB wbioh originalo the 
fertile tiasue in Pyronfmo, et^!. (Tu- 
lasne) : Ukcrodl'sdangB (+ Diode, 
irtrlo,, a vessel) Van Tieghero'B 
term for M.tnRosroiiAnniUM ; Hac- 
rodi'ode, the aame botaniat'e word 
for Macrospohe ; Kaxirogaja'tXt 
{yauirrit, ■ apoUBd) = MehaoaMETB ; 

Mgi«n>^nld'limi {yimt, oSapring, 
iISos, lite) a gonidium of large size 
in Gompariaoo with others produced 
bj the aame apcoies ; cf. MsoiLooo- 
NIDiCM ; maarophyriina {ipvWar, 
a leaf), macropbyl'Ioiu, having 
elongated leafiet* or leaves ; 
. macropliTt'la (^irou, a plant), 
used by Schimper for the large 
forms of marine Alaae ; Hac'ro- 
plaat (ir\a<mii, moulded), Lanke- 
Bter's term for large disc-lilte 
plastida in BacUriiim ni'jPSPnw j 
macrop'odal, maorop'odoui (toCi, 
xMt, a foot), nsed of an embryo 
with enlarged hvpoootyl forming 
the greater part of itamaaa;(Croiier 
adds another meaning, applied to a 
leaf with a long petiole) ; Macro- 
ade'raldi (rrtXijpAi, hard), Tschirch's 
term for long stone-oells with 
blunt ends : maoraseop'lc (kio«/u, 
I see), viewed by the naked eye, 
opposed to mioroscopic ; Macro - 
•poran'glam ta-topi. seed, iyytuiv, 
■ vessel), (1) a sporangium contain- 
ing maorOaporeH; (2) the nucellus of 
the ovule of Phanerogams ; macro- 
■poran'^iata, possessing macrospo- 
rangia ; ~ Flow'ers. carpellary 
flowers, pistillate dowera deatituts 
of Btamensi Mad'rDipar« ; (1) the 
larger kind of apore in vascular 
Cryptogams ; (2) the emhryo- 
■ao in Phanerogams ; Uacroipor'- 

ophyll (*i!XXiiB. a Iaaf) = C*liPKL ; 
macro iporopbylluT, carpellary ; 
maoTDstjnoua (ittuX«. a post], lon^ 
aiyled : Maoroaym'blont («-ii>lfliioi, I 
live with), the larger of the aaao- 
ciuted organisms in symbiosis ; 
Hac'TOtharm (0ipiiri, heat)^MEOA- 

animal, + Gosidium), in Ulolhrir 
the larger bind of tooapore, which 
germinates independently ; ^. Ml- 

a large toosporo when compared 
with others of the same species. 

IUe'ula(Lat.). aspot ; Uac'ulaa; (1) 
areolatedpitBof Coniferae ; (3)alB0 
organs on the aerial stem of CyrUho^ 
phonim, large round whit« dots in 
two rows, probably water-atoriog 
organs ; nutcnlltor'mlB {/ormia, 
shape), used by Koerber for 
apothecia which are shaped like 
irregular spola ; mao'olar, m&o'n- 
lAle, mac'nloia (mac ti/rwiK, spotted), 
blotched or spotted ; Uaaula'tlon, 
the arrangement of spots on a 
plant (Crorier). 

tnadefac'tUB (Lat.), moistened, as 
planie in an herbarium previous to 

Itadn'ra, the fungus -foot disease 
supposed to be caused by Ohio- 
■nyphe CaHrri, Berk. 

ma^moid (jiuL-yju, drees, cISoi, like), in 
Lichens, "likeanAiga.coneiatingof 
spherical green oeUulea"(I>ighton), 

mal'acold \iia\axn, soft, tlSot, like), 
mucilaginous ; Ualacoph'lla (^X/u, 
I love), plants which are fertilized 
by snails or slugs. 

male, a plant or dower which bears 
stamena or their analognea ; ~ 
Cell, the smaller of two unequal 
gametes ; — Flow'srs, stamjnate 
Bowers ; ~ Or'gana, those strao- 
tnres whioh, in fertiliiation, are 
concerned, as the stamens, anthe- 
ridia. etc. ; ~ Protftal'llum, one 
which bears antheridia only ; — 
Sys'tem, all that part of the flower 
which belongs to the Htamen. 

ma'Uc [malvm, an apple), pertAinine 
to applee, as ~ Ao'ld, which is said 


to be the most frequent of organic 
aeida in cell-sap. 

■allcor'iiim (Lat.)f the rind of the 

maUg'nant Oedem'a, diseaae in animals 
resembling anthrax, and like that, 
caused by a bacillus. 

MUleohu (Lat., a small hammer), a 
layer ; a shoot bent into the ground 
and half - divided at the bend, 
whence it emits roots. 

maHoooo'eiu (AutXX6t, a lock of wool, 
k6kkos^ a berry), downy fruited. 

MUplgHia'cei Pl'U, hairs attached by 
their middle, frequent in the order 
Malpighiaceae ; Halplg'lilaii CelLi, 
thoee which compose the outer 
layer of the seed in Malpighiaceae, 
with a "luminous line composed 
of Lignin. 

Malt'aae or Halt'in, a ferment found 
in all germinating cereals, and of 
ffreater activity than diastase (Du- 
Erunfaut) ; Malt'lncr, germinating 
seeds of barley until the radicle 
(acroepire) is produced, and then 
checking the further germination 
by means of heat ; Maltodex'trln, a 
body intemnediate in properties be- 
tween maltose and dextrin ; Halt'- 
oss, a sugar formed by the action of 
diastase on starch. 

malTa'ceous, resembling or belonging 
to the order Malvaceae. 

KamillA (Lat. a nipple or teat) = 

Ibunelon' (Fr.), ov'nlar'^, the papilla 
which precedes the formation of 
the nucellus in Cfycaa (Treub). 

mam'mlfonn {mammae a breast, 
forma, shape), breast • shaped, 
oonical with rounded apex. 

MairnnlTla (Lat.), a nipple or pro- 
jection ; used for granular promin- 
ences on pollen -grains ; mam'millar, 
mammilla' ris, mam'millate, mam- 
milla'tus, having teat-shaped pro- 

mam'mose (fiiamnio'«tM,full-brea8ted), 
having breast-like protuberances. 

man'oiis (Lat. maimed), deficient or 

sum'leate, manicaUus (Lat. long- 

sleeved), applied to pubescence 
so dense ana interwoven that it 
may be stripped ofif, ''like a 

Man'na, the hardened exudation from 
various trees, as from Fraxinua 
Omus, Linn.; Man'nite, a sweet 
substance in the sap of the same 
tree ; Maa'nitose, sugar from the 
pith of ash, oak and elder ; Man'- 
nose, a sugar resulting from the 
hydrolysis of cellulose. 

Manom'eter {fULPos, rare, scanty ; 
fi€Tpop, a measure), apparatus to 
measure the pressure of gas or 

Man'tle, used by Grew for ocrea. 
Man'tle - Cells, tapetal cells ; •« 
Lay'er, a layer of tapetal cells; 
^ Leaf, Goebel's term for the 
prostrate, half-enveloping barren 
frond, as in Platycerium alcicome, 
Desv., as distinct from the fertile 

Manu'lirlum (Lat. a handle), a cell 
which projects inward from the 
centre of the shields in the globale 
of Chara, 

man'y-head'ed, with many distinct 
buHs on the crown of a root. 

marlfled, stained with irregular 
streaks of colour. 

marces'cent, marcM^ceru (Lat. wither- 
ing), withering without falling off; 
mar^ddus (Lat.), withered, shrunk. 

Uar'cor (Lat. decay), welting, flac- 
cidity caased by want of water. 

Margel'la (dim. of margo, a border), 
the elliptic ring round a stoma 
formed by the guard-cells. 

Uar'gln, Mar^go, the edse or boun- 
dary line of a body ; marginal, mar- 
gina'lia, placed upon or attached 
to the edge ; *« Grow'inj^-point, 
in a flattened member when the 
marginal cells remain embryonic 
and capable of growth ; '^ oVule, 
an ovule borne on the margin of a 
carpel ; '^ Veil, a membrane en- 
closing the hymenium in the young 
stage of Agarics, the Velum partiale ; 
mar'glnAte, margina'tus, maraina'- 



• nutrgin of distinct character ; 
nor'glaMl, marginate ; nurglnlcl'- 

dal {catdo, I CDt), dehi«c>-nt by the 
diajuDction of the united margins < 
of the carpels, a form of eopticidal ' 
dehiKcnce ; Kar'go Uullo'det. (be . 
rim of the shield of a Lichen formed | 
hj the thsItiiB. 

■rina', moWiima [L*t,,parlaining to 
the «ea), growing withio the in'' 
ence of the eea, or immersed in 

HftTk'lnCli used of rarioas forms of 

IhinkentDg on the cell -wall, as 
annular, reticulated, ipiral, etc. 

mutnom'tQ* |Lat., marbled), having 
veins of colour, aa aoruH marbles. 

Mar'row, naed by Blair for the pith. 

marau'pial l/uipaiTriay, a. pouch), 
geocalfcal or pouch -fruited, Used 
of certain Hepaticae. 

mu. mas'calas, masciill'iina (Lat.), 
male ; stamiiiate, or with corre- 
sponding structures. 

masked, personate. 

Blaaa, usually written Mast. 

Km'm (Lat., a lump), the moss or 
eubaunco of a body : - lemlna'Ili, 
the flesh of some Fungi (Lindley) ; 

~ aporopb'om ; ~ tbecl|:'era. the 

eporangiaof some Fungi (Lindley)i 
Bbs'sM. ooiiectionn of anything in 
nnusual quantity, as poUen- mosses. 

■aa'snla (Lat., a little lamp), (t) 
th« haVdeaed frothy mucttoge 
BDcloeing a group of microspores 
in Hetnrosporous Filicineae ; (2) in 
Phanerogams, a group of cohering 
pollen -grains produced by one 
primary mother-cell, as in l>r< 
ehidoas ; also styled Pollen-mass. 

HMt, the fruit of such trees as beech, 
and other Cupuliferao. 

Duwt'igoiwd {iidsnf, a whip : irDGi, 
w»Sii, a foot), a, stage in the 
development of Myxogastres, the 
contents of each spore escape as a 
■ooBonidium enclosing a nucleus 
Mid contractile Teeicle, with a 
■ingle oilinm. 

nuu'toid {fuiirrii, abreast; tlSoi, like), 

Blath, an old term for crop, as after- 
math = eei.'ond crop. 

Ua'trlz (Lat. the womb), the body on 
which a PonguB or LAchen grows, 
~ Pol'Unls, the cell in which 
pollen -grains are developed, 

Mattol'la or BUt'tniA {malia, a mat], 
the fibrous material surrounding 
the petioles of palms. 

Ma.taxa:\ioa,JIaiiira'l!o{L».t.), ripen- 

nutturu'oent [matureaeen-f, becom- 
ing ripe), approaching maturity 

nuttntl'iial, maiuiiiia'liB, mattitl'tiDi 
(Lat.), pertaining to the morning ; 
plants flowering early, as Ijiomora 
purpuria, Uoth. 

meal'y, (arinaceoua. 

meaa'diUorin X (lu^'^P^t > winding 
river, forma, shape), having a 
trinding direction, as the antner- 
ceiU of Cuourbitaceae. 

Uea'tos (Lat., a passing) InterMlln- 
laxli. an intercellular psssage ; '- 
pneamftt'lcaa, an air-passage. 

MeoIumomorph'iMli {ii,jix<"'% contrir- 
ance, ii.6p<ptavit, shaping^, a word 
cuioed by Sachs to express me- 
cbaniual changes in structure pro- 
duced in the larger groups by 
similar external causes, as leaf- like 
organs in Algae and Phanerogams, 

Ue'conlne (^i)iui<, a poppy), an alka- 
loid contained in opium jlleoo'liliim, 
botanically, the juice of Papaver 

rne'dUl, me'dlan, mfdi'a'miA {Lat., in 
the middle), belonging to the 
middle ; He'dtan Une, the central 
line of a bilateral organ, as the mid- 
rib of a symmetric leaf ; " Flue, 
when UBsd of a flower, in the plane 
of bract and axis ; >- Vail, in 
Arch eeoni ate s, the wall in a plane 
at rigEt angles to the basal wall 
dividing the proOmbryo into lateral 

MtdlMi'gopItrU iitrdieago, Toum., + 
phyll), tbe chantcWristic chloro- 
phyll of Lucerne, Mtdiaigo tativa, 

medlflz'iu (mediut, middle, Jxtu, 

futened), fixed by the middle ; 

lCe<Uocar'tex( 4- Coktex). the centre! 

kyer ar layers of the hark. 
madlo'arlB (Let., middtiog), inter- 

mvdlMTTB'iuni (Let., midland), (1) 

inbehiUng epota fer from the see ; 

(2) occurring in the Mediterranean 

nudlTal'vla {mtdiw, middle, to^m, 
B valve), eriaing from, or oa the 
middle o( the velvea. 

lIedta']a(Lit.,pitb, marrow); (1) the 
pith ; (2) the central looser portion 
of the Qesh in cerUin Fungi ; (3) the 
" Mattulla"of paImB (Stormonth] ; 
~ Be'minii t thealbumen of needs ; 
msdnl'Uiy, nxdu/fa'ru (Let. , tea ted 
in the marrow), relating to the 

Eith, pith? ; ~ Bun'iUei, the more 
iteral vaeonlar bundles of the leaf- 
trace in Monoootyledona ; <- con- 
Jnno'Ure Tto'ine^ Pith; - Grown, 
- ~ Sheath ; ^ Phlo'tim Bnn'dlea, 
independent phloem bundles de- 
veloped juat within the ring of 
normal vascular bundles; ~ Eaya, 
plates of parenchyma or cellular 
tissue radiating from the piib to 
the cortex; the "silver-grain" of 
ioinere ; — Bheatli, tracheida form- 
ing a circle round the pith, the 
primary lylem bundles projecting 
into the pith from the camhiun- 
ring ; ~ Bpot, an accumulation of 
parenchymatous cells in certain 
woods, aa AInat (Da Eary) ; ~ 
Bya'tam, sometimBs uaed for the 
whole ground tissue, hut more 
properly the pith and medullary 
rays only ; Hednl'Un, the cellulose 
from pith of the sun-flower and 
Ulac(Braconnot); UeduUl'na ( Lat. ) 
= PiTU ; msdnllo'sua (Lat., mar- 
rowy), ha»ing the teiture of 

megaoepli'aliia (m^tqi, large, ke^XA, 
head), used of large capitula of 

Compositae ; Hegaooii'lds (livii, 
aahea), Zokal'a term for the Urge 
conidia borne in pycnidia of certain 
Aflcomycetes; Uegagaai'etes [-ra^- 
nji, a spouse), the larger motila 
sexual cells of Atgae, presumably 
Hesalogonld'liuit (^rydXoi, large -f 

GuNlPllTM)— Macrooonidiou. 
jnegarhi'iooa {t^yat, large, ^ifa, a 
root), large-rooted ; Hegaiporui'ga 
[four syll.] {mapi, seed, ir/ytlar, 
a. veaaef), a Sporangium which pro- 
duces Megatpores ; Hag'aapore, the 
■ " iipto- 

[ ; HBgupor'ophyll (ipiWon, 
a leaf), (l)a carpel ,- (2) a sporophyll 
which hears megospores ; llega- 
lo'oids (fwor, an animal, (ISoi,reBem- 
blauce], large motile daughter -celle 
of certain unicellular Algae (Hazen); 
Kegaiootpor&n'ee {arop^, a seed, 
0771101', a vessel), in Hydrodictyoii, 
the epecial sporangium which con- 
tains a swarm of megazoospores, 
tlie ordinary method of propaga- 
tion, theprotoplaam of a cell giving 
rise to a large number, each pro- 
vided with four cilia. 

Megtl'totheim {luyiinot, greatest, 
Wfjfijj, heat), a plant requiring a 
very high temperature for growth. 

meto^rouB (;i(Iui>'. less, yufiii, round), 
rolled inwards a little. 

met'on (^iciw, lesa), prefixed to an 
organ, shows it is leas than soms 
other organ understood ; Keio- 
ptoyfly (*.;\X<.P, a leaf), diminution 
in number ol the leaves in a whorl. 
as compared with the preceding 
whorl ; HeiosponLn'ge ( + SroR- 
ANOlUM), Sauvageau's name for the 
smaller plurilocular sporangia en- 
closing eoospores of Eclocarjnui 
virfKtmt, Thuret ; metotte'monoua 
((m)/iuiip, a filament ), with fewer 
stamens than pet^a ; Helolar'^ 
(rilfii, order), the suppression of 
entire whorls; Merotbeim (Sf^^i), 
beat), a plant inhabiting cool lem- 
perabe regions ; all ate hardy in 


the I 

al'ftulani (^liXai, blaak), a. diseoHa 

producing block ness : melanoa- 

^t ptrm'oni (mip/ia, aeed), having 

^^< dork - coloured aeeda or sporew ; 

^^Bi«laiu>elikir'u«(xXi"/w'. pale green), 

' pbyl'Iiu (^JXXov, a leaf), having 

leaves of a dark colour. 
mel&Etonia,'ceo<u, resembling or per- 

tnining to thone plants of wnich 

the genUB Melasloma is the tjpe. 
Uslei'ltOM (Ft., mdl^ze, larch], a 

sugar from the laroh, 
KeUb'lBM (me/, honej), a syoanjtn 


nte'llnni ( /i^Xiyas, pertaining to 
quinces), like quince*, or quince- 

Hel'lloM (mf(, honey), sugar from 
JCuraiyptiie " Manna," produced in 
Tasmania ; also spelled Hel'ltoia, 
a synonym of BAFnsoaK ; Mal'l- 
dtasa, an ensyme preHent in 
Ulerigmaioct/ffit ii i[/ra Sacc, ; Mel'i- 
illoso. a sugar eiiating in Alliagi 

UfiDia'tt (Ital.). the name of a 
variety of the orange in which the 
carpallary whorl is multiplied, pro- 
ducing an appearance of proliticii- 
tion (MiiBters). 

mel'len* (Lat., pertaining to honey), 
(1) with the taste or smell of 
honey ; (3) honey coloured - 

Msl'Ugo {Lnb., honey-like juice), used 
for "Uoney-dev," the exudation 
of Aphides. 

melllnna {md, meWia, honey), the 
colour of new honey. 

UflUttMptL'Uae (^\,rT!i, a bee, <p.\iui, 
t love), Sowers which are adapted 
for tertilisstion by the larger bees ; 
the colour and scent are attractive 
tomanaUo(H. Mueller). 

■•lon'lda,} Uslonld'lum ; (c^^o'', an 
apple, fliet, like), an inferior, 
many-celled fruit, as an apple; 
iiialo'lilfonii (forma,, shape), me- 

L hm-shapcMl ; irregularly spherical 

1 Mtlo- 

with projecting ribs as ii 

Hem'ber, any part of a plant regarded 
with reference to its form and 

memtmna'ceouB, -ceiu (Lat.). mem'* 
branons, thin and Hsmi-trans* 
parent, like a fine membrane, as 
the leaves of Mosses : Uem'braiie, 
Membra'na (Lat-), adelicate pellicle 
of homogeneous tissue; Membra'nii, 
ffongyllferA, the hymenium of 
Fungi ; mam'brsnona Lay^er : ~ 
myceTlnm, interwoven hyphac 
forming a layer ; memttTanogen'ic 
[yim, race), productive of a mem- 
brane; Usmbra'DDla,; the induaium 

munnou'liu (Lat. from Mamton), 
brownish block, nearly as dark 

Heoeblasts'ma (»iiin), moon - a month, 
p\ii7TT]iui, a sprout). Minks's term 
for the Boredia of Lichens. 

menlsca'tnt (/ii7rf(i«oi, aurescent). "a 
cylinder bent into half a circle" 

lUm [(Uat, like), thin and cone. 
conveT, like a watch-etaBS. 
Manliperm'lne, an alkaloid from 
genua ^pni>^r;i 

Henta'gra (Lot. an eruption on the 

chin) pajra^t'loa- Syi;usis ; Hen- 
ta'gnphyte (tMn-oi-, a plant), the 
FunguB supposed to cause the 
disease Mentagra or Sycoaig. 
Ven'tnm (Ut. the chin), an exi 
of the loot of the column ir 

I {iUini%, a part, tyxu^, 
an infusion), spherical cellular 
tissue ; ■- OelU. unpitted cells 
in the pith of trees, with inter. 
cellular spaces, and much elon- 
gated radially ;i/. PausadbCells; 
Uer'iearp, ilcricar'piv.ia (copiroi, 
fruit), a portion of a fruit which 
splits away as a perfect fruit ; as 
CDo two carpels in Umbellilera«. 

mtrldia'niis (Lai. belonging to noon), 
at mid-day or noon ; towards the 
south (in northern latitudes) ; 
merid'ian, applied by O. Mueller to 
the plane in Diatoms which con- 
tains the pervalvar axis. 

Mtr'idiflk {lUpoty a part, d^icot, a disc), 
term proposed by Clos for any 
prooesB upon the receptacle apart 
from the floral organs, whether 
glandular or not (Crozier); Mer'iBm, 
Bateson*s term for the repetition of 
parts to form a symmetry or 

iiMriBinat'io {fUpifffia, a share), divid- 
ing into parts or similar portions ; 
'^^ Tis'sae, formative tissue, <^. 

Miir'ispore {fUposy apart, <nropdy seed), 
the segment of a sporidesm ; Mer'- 
istele ((m^\i7, a pillar), a portion of 
the stele of a monostelic stem 
received by each leaf; merls'tlc 
Varla'tLon, see Msrism. 

Kttr'lstem (jjtepiffros, divisible), nas- 
cent tissue, capable of being trans- 
formed into special forms, as cam- 
bium, etc. ; Frl'mary •« , forms the 
whole tissue of very young organs ; 
Sac'ondaiy •«, occurs in organs 
along with permanent ti8sue,usually 
in thin layers ; merlstamat'ic, 
pertaining to the Meristem ; meri- 
ftogenet'io {yeperTjs, a begetter), 

Sroduced by Meristem, actively 
ividing cell -tissue ; Mer^ithal, 
Merithal'lns {0a\\6s, a young 
shoot), an intemode. 
meroblas'tic {fiipos, a part, /SXaor^t, a 
bud) Embryog'eny, when onl v a part 
of the spore is concerned, q/. holo- 
BLASTio ; Meroconidlom, pL Merc- 
oonid'la, (+ Conidium), conidia 
which arise from the simultaneous 
septation of a hypha in Zygomy- 
cetes, and mature together, while 
AcaoGONiDiA mature in succession 
from the apex (A. Fischer) ; meros- 
as a prefix, and its forms -merous, 
-merus, as sufifixes, denote parts or 
numbers, as dimerous, etc. 

I'aroh {fUffos, in the middle, dpx^, 
beginning), applied by Solms-Lau- 

bach to those bundles in which the 
protoz^lem lies in the interior of 
the pnmary strand of the wood, 
thus partlv centripetal and partly 
centrifugal; Mesenter'lca {evripwt 
an intestine), "the mycelium of 
certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; Kes'- 
Istem, contracted from Mesomer'is- 
tom, the thickening ring of Sanio, 
a ring of tissue producing the bundle 
system ; Mes'oblast (jSXcurror, a bud), 
the nucleus ; Mesoblaste'sis, mediad 
growth from Lichen hyj^hae (Minks) ; 
Mes'ocarp, MMOcarpium (icaproT, 
fruit), the middle layer of a 
pericarp ; Mesocauleoxlii'ia (icat/Xot, 
stem, jUi^'a, root), Gaudichaud's 
term for **the line of demarcation 
between the ascending and de- 
scending systems in his ' Phyta,' " 
(Lindley) ; Mes'oobil, AfesochiVium 
Ix^iXos, lip), the intermediate part 
of the lip of those Orchids which 
have it separated into three dis- 
tinct parts ; Mes'ocbite ix^rCdyf a 
tunic), the middle layer surround- 
ing the egg in Fucaceae, composed 
of cellulose and attached at the 
base (Farmer) ; Mesoool'la, t (r^XXa, 
glue), a supposed intermediate layer 
of the cuticle between the upper 
and lower surfaces ; MesodePmls 
(d^p/io, skin), the middle layer of 
tissue in the theca of a Moss ; 
Hesogonld'ium (-H Gonidium), a 
gonidium which is partially en- 
veloped in new tissue; mesogon- 
im'icus {y6piiJLos, productive), having 
the ffonidial layer in the centre 
(Waliroth) ; Mesophlo'iim (^Xotdj, 
bark), the middle, or green bark ; 
Hes'ophyU, MesophyVlum (0(^XXoy, a 
leaf), (1) the interior parenchyma 
of a leaf, the whole interior ground 
tissue of the blade ; (2) the de- 
marcation between leaf and leaf- 
stalk ; Hes'ophyte {^vt6v, a plant). 
Warming's term for those plants 
which are intermediate between 
Hydrophytes and Xerophytes ; 
avoiding both extremes of moist- 
ure and drought; Hesoplisr'tQm, (1) 
a name given by Clarion to the 


■; ..X 

C0L1.AB or jUUCliOQ Ol 8t«Dl >uid 

root : (2] b; Liodle; oiveo &b the 
demiuoHtfioii between the internode 
and petiole; meaophTt'lc, relating 
to pUnta which require an average 
amount of moisture only ; Ueiopo- 
a'lnm (roEt, roSi!, a, fmi), tbe ioter- 
mediste part of a leaf, the petiole 
nr leaf-eUlk ; Ue«'l»pann {aripiia, 
seed), the Becood membrane or 
middle coat of aeeed , the aartoderm ; 
Hei'oipore (o-rofiA, seed) ; Dietel's 
term for an l/redo-spare which ap- 
parently Till only germioale after 
a reatiog period ; meiortf'loiu 
('fSTTLDS}. in trimorphio planla 
thoie whiob poBBetm Qowera hav- 
ing styles of intermediate length ; 
M«HtlM'Qllim {^n;, a cage), (1] the 
intermediate layer of cells in the 
itbU of the anther : in ripe antherait 
aft«n oocurs as the inner layer by 
dlMppearanoe of the endothecium 
proper ; {2) the Thecicm of Lichena \ 
■C*i'oUienii(0^pjii;, heat), a plant of 
Ibe iab-tropical or warm temperate 
Eonee, in Britain needing protec- 
tion against frost; mMOtzl'ucli 
( -H TRlARi^u), when in a triarcbstvle 
tha two principal lylem bundles 
are mora or len fused (Prantl) ; 
ltiawz]rl'la l^iXor, wood), aaynonym 

MM'tom or Hei'tome {lumit, replele], 
fioh wendener'a term lor the duets of 
a bundle, those parts whicli do 
not conduce to its eCrength ; c/. 

Matar'abln (lurd, with, beyond, 
sharing with, -I- Arabin). a sub- 
stance present in eome varieties 
of gum arabic, possibly identical 
with the "Pechise " of sngar beet : 
■stabto'ilB (fjinr, life), symbiosis, 
with one of the organisms pre- 
paring the way tor the other ; not 
aynohronons ; Het'ablut (^Xdirrot, 
* bud), the Nitcellus. 

matetiol'la (/KTa^oX^, change), applied 
to chemioal changes in living organ- 
iims; —Fotca, vital activity: Msta- 
VolluB, the sum of the chemical 
Bhangei in a living cell, anally 

reatrieted to constructive change; 
(/. Anabulish, Kataboi.isn ; maU^ 
b'ollia, to change as described. 
Cetaaet'luloaa (utrii, with, + Cbllit- 
LUSE), found in Lichens and Fungi ; 
it is the same as FmioiNE ; Usta- 
chlamyd'sas [xXa^i>T, a cloak), Mao- 
millan'a proposed term for Compoai- 
tae ; adj. metachlAmyd'eon* ; Meta- 
eoUeneh'Tina ( + CuLLENcuraiA), a 
result of secondary metamorphosis 
which has taken place at a htt« 
period (C. Mueller) : Hatacra'tla 
' " * "lUre], kinetic mata- 



n of e 

met&d'romoiu (ipi/ioi, e 
a form of venation in which in 
a single Fern-frond the first set of 
nerves in the segments are given 
off on the upper, or the lower (basal) 
side of the midrib (Prantl) ; meta- 
gSLm'etal { + Gametk) Rejuvan- 

> cell < 

of cells 

acting as a gamete or zygote 
(Hsrtog) ; Hett^am'opbyte {yiitoi, 
marriage, *mi», a plant), Mao- 
ID ilUin's proposed name for his 
highest group of Phanerogams, 
a synonym of "Siphonogamta" ; 
Hetkgon'saii [■ftyrira, a beginning], 
M'Nab's term for true alterna- 
tion of generations ; HetaUns'sis 
(MHIffii, a moving), the separation 
of the threads in the metaphasis 
stage of nuclear division ; Het'amar 
(liepcs, a part), used by iSicbs to 
denote a Phyton, or one of a 
number of similar parts of a series. 

Btetamorph'osts {nrraubp^ffis, trans- 
formation), in botany the change of 
one organ into another, aa atamens 
into petals ; syn. Uetunar'pb; ; 
adj. metamor'pboaed. changed. 

Metoae'ma. [itri, with, v^fu.a thread), 
Macmillsn's name for ihe second 
stage in the germination of Mosses 
which succeeds the prolonema ; 
a phase), in nauiDui division the 
separation of the daughter abromo- 
Bomes ; Ustopll'ay (^gfx'in, I carry), 
the diaplacement of organs, as wheo 
altsmBte become opposite, etc. ; 

Metaplilo'«ii( + Phloem), Van Tieg- 
bem's term for n simultaiaeous 

Evth of but - tissue with the 
TiTiLBM ; MsUphr'tA (*imi., 
s plADt), (1) planU which maDi- 
feet sexu&lity or indicate by ao- 
oewor; characters that in tbeir 
luiceitral lines seiually oomplete 
progenilora have oocnrred ; (2) 
plants with tissue differentiation ; 
^. Pbotophite, adj. neUiptir'tle ; 
Uet'aplann (ir\daMii, moulded), 
Han stein' ■ term for the proto- 
plaam which contains the forma- 
tive or granular material: HM- 
Bplu'tld, used to designate the 
metaphytic organism iMoore) ; 
Kat'aiperm [imp/ia, seed), (1) a 
Bporophyte in which the egg-organ 
:■ aborted, and no pnrely vegeta- 
tive cells are to be found in either 
mala nr female plants ; (2) a syno- 
nym for AngiOBperme ; (3) applied 
by Boulger for the large-cellet' 
■eoondary protballium m Sela 
gineUa, the aeoondary endoapern 
io Gjmaoaperms, and the en do 
Bpenn. originally so-catled, formed 
after fertiliaation by the division 
of the Heooodary nuolpus of the 
embryo • sac in Angiusperm* ; 
vetuper'mlo, metasper mom, 
angiospermouH ; Bletupor'opliTte, 
Maomillan's expression for a Cryp- 
togam of the highest specialisation, 
as Stlagintila, 

■atoa'tula {luriirrairii, a removing), 
{ 1 ) the ram oF the changes undergone 
by the products of assimilation in 
the celU ; mebiboliEm ; (2) the 
shifting of an organ to some usual 
position (Moijuin^andon). 

Hetaz'ln [^(rdfu, between), a prot«id, 
the miLt«riat of the fibrils of plaatids 
(Sohwaral ; Betaiy'iam ( + Xvlem), 
the centrifugally formed vascular 
bundles superposed Ui the liber 
bundles (Van Tie^hem).^ 

meteor'lo (Mod, ficT(u/iai, in mid air), 
applied to Sowers whose expansion 
depends upon the weather. 

mstta'told (fi^it, counsel, dSoi, lilte), 
composed of differentiated cells, 


each cell being dependent on the 
other ce 111 of the ort(anism(l]sr(og), 

metoa'cioul (luri, beyond, «tiot, 
house), existing on different hoata, 
beteroecious ; metoz'encnia Knot, 
a host) is a synonym. 

HetroKanU'lmii (li-^p, mother, -i- 


Hetta'nlaii Olands, organs peculiar 
to Plumbagineae which secrete 
mucilage and lometimea chalk. 

He'taloids {metula, a small pyramid, 
fliot, hke), modified cystidia. en- 
crusted with lime, which project 
from tbe hymenium of Peniop&ora, 
giving it a velvety appearance. 

HUudq', MUs'm& itxlaiixa, defilement), 
Naegeli's term for thoee diseases 
which are due to microbes. 

Hloel'la (L. Lat. from mica, a crumb), 
on aggregation of molecules in the 
manner of a pleon, but in larger 
numbers (Nageli) ; mliwl'lar Aff'ETe- 
EEt«, a combination of Micellae. 

Wcrui'dn (fuifwi, small, iriip, dvipsi, 
amanl-DwARF-HALfi mlcroHtSro- 
ph'ilons (iijp, air, ^iX(tj, I love) Bei- 
jerinck's term for anaerobic, needing 
but little free oxygen ; Hlcrob'Hla 
{^ioK, a base), a variety of the car- 
cerule, as in Labiates ; Ml'crobe, pi. 
Micro'bia{piat, life), Pasteur's tenn 
bac1«ria: adj. mlcroblo'tlo ; Miaro- 
MD'tram {aiitrum, tn^poy, a sharp 
point], applied to the granular 
inclusions in the astrosphere of 
leucocytes, probably the equivU' 
lent of Centrosome (Farmer); 
:, pi. Hlcrococ'd (tjccoi, 
a genus of bacteria, 
used to express wi- 
urohiotic organisms : Hlarocon'ld, 
Microconid'him [+CoKiDnm), the 
smaller conidia, when two aiies 
are prodnoed ; Ht'erocyit (rttarit, a 
bag), ao amoeboid cell which is snr- 
roiinded by a membrane, the rest- 
ing state of HWarra-cells of Myxo- 
gastres ; Ht'crodeim (Npim, skin), 
= MiCBOBBi Hlcrodl'odange (-t- 
DlODK, dTTEiof, a vessel). Van 
Tiegbem's term for potlea-sac : 


■Icrodl'oda, the i 




ae botjuiist's 
Miltec -g»m ; 
n i/orma, aSapej, Uaad of 
icioua Fungus with t«l- 
a only, which germinate 
only ' after a resting period j 
Hlorogun'fttei (+ Gauets), the 
amallor and male motile oelU 
of Algae ; Hi'croKarm [gcrmtn, 
offahoot) - MiOHOBE ; Wcroffon- 
Id'lun (+ GotHDiCH), a small 
gonidium, as compared with others 
produced by the aame apeciea \ 
HlcTomaUttDph'llat {fuXirra, a bee, 
^Wo>, 1 love), applied to those 
no were whose fertilisation is 
effected by amall bees and similar 
insects ; the atti ' ' 

prehensitile by 
■norom'ater (u(T|»i>, i 
device or apparatus 
minute dimenaioni : Hlciamll'Ia- 
meter, the thousandth part of a 
miUemeter, and the unit of micro- 
■copio meaaurement, denoted by 
the sign it ; Hlaromrlopb'llae (uula, 
■ Qj ; ^\<w, I love), Sowers which 
kre tertiliaed by small diea which 
I are oft«n impriaoned ; adj. micromy' 

loph'iloiu 1 mlcropliyruae (fii'XXar, 

ft loaf), composed of small leaflets 
or suatea ; BH'crophyta (4'i'rar, a 
plant), used of lioctena ; adj. mlCTO- 
phyt'lc ; Hlcropucdn'ia, with aelen- 
toapores only (I'iowright); Ml'oro- 
pyle liru'Xi, a gate), the aperture 
in the ebin of the seed formerly 
the foramen of the ovule, it 
■Darks the poaition of the ra- 
dicle ; adj. mlcropy'lar ; Hicroscle'- 
nte (<ti\TipAs, hard), a sclerotium 
modified by nnfavourable vital 
conditions, after a resting period 
it develops into a perithocium 
(Zuhal); Mi'erowme, Mkj-oto'ma, 
pi. Microeo'mata {aufta, a body), 
in the plural applied to amalj 
granules embedded in the proto- 
plasm; HlerosporanirlDni { + 
Bporancjich), a sporangium which 
produces microspores ; mlcroipor- 
ui'glAteFlow'er, male, oi staminate 
flower ; BU'crospore {inropi, seed), 

(I}the smaller stied spore in helero- 
sporouB plants, as SelagiTuUa; (2) 
ot late years applied to the pollen- 
grain ; adj. mioroipor'lc, mlcioa'- 
porons ; Ulcrospor'oiihyll (^XXor, 
a leaf), a leaf-like organ bearing 
microaporangia ; mlcroBpoTOphyl ■ 
Uiy Flow'er. a male or staminate 
Bower ; Hl'craatom* ivT6)ia, a 
mouth), a small orifice ; HlarMty'- 
iMpora (oTuXot, a column, rropi, 
seed), atyloaporea of a smalt eise, as 
JD Locuiaria ; microsly'loiu, short- 
styled, OS applied to dimorphic 
Bow era ; BHoroiym'Wont (+Svii- 
BIONT), the smaller of the two 
associated orgamams ; Hl'crolherm 
{9t'piiij, heat), uaed for plants 
charaeteristio of the arctic alpine 
Eone, in England needing protec- 
lioD from drought and direct 
sunlight ; Ml'DTOtome (td^J). 

-ting), a 

It for ec 

cutting for microscopical purposes ; 
HlcroHMlslo*'* ((y"> an animal, 
■yXviAt, a sticky substance), a Btag« 
of SchiEomycetes when ihey are 
immersed in a gelatinous snv^ope ; 

HlCTOiaOSOIllll'luiIl ( -F GONIDIDH), a 

motile form of microgonidium ; 
Ulcroio'Dspon {airopi, seed), a 
motile spore, small in size com- 
pared with others of the same 
apecies ; HlcroiD'oid {iISoi, reaem- 
hlance), small motile reproductive 
cella in aome unicellular Atgse. aa 
Sphaerella (Hazen); Ul'croiyina 
(ji;'("l, yeaat), B^hamp'a name for 
microbes and small ferments. 

mid, intermediate ; uaed by U. C. 
Wutaoo for - agraj'lMi, and ~ 
arcUczones of vegetation; ~Er'rar, 
aee Deviation, 

mld'dle, central;- Lunella, the mem- 
brane primary septum between 
any two cells ; ~ Lam'ina, in a 
ligniGed cell-wail, the portion be- 
tween the ~ Lauslla and inner 
lamina ; ~ Lobe, aee Lobe, Middle. 

Uld'rlb, the principal nerve in a leaf. 

Mld'minimer Growth, a second start 
growth after ceaaing ; it does 

n all ti 


mihl (Dat., aing of ego, I), as an 
aathority it means the partioolar 
form aocepted as the true one by 
the author using it. 

mi'Aew, a disease in plants eaused 
by the attack of the conidial form 
of £ry8ipheae ; f reouently used in 
a popular sense for any small 
parasitic fun^pis. 

mUla'zlas {mUtum, millet), minute 

flanduUr spots on the epiderm ; 
[enslow spells it " miliaris^' ; MU'i- 
azy Glands = Stom ata. 

Milk, an opaque white juice; the 
latex; ^^ Bao, laticiferous vessels 
in some species of Acer; '^ 8ap= 
Latex (Orozier);'«'Ves'saiB, latici- 
ferous vessels. 

mill-sail shape, molendinaoeous. 

mlmet'ic {fufitfrucbs, imitative), used 
of organs or plants which resemble 
each other in external appearance, 
but not in characteristic structure ; 
Idm'icry, resemblance to some 
other species, usually serving as 

mlii'late, mitMtus (Lat. coloured 
with cinnabar), the colour of red 
lead ; more orange and duller than 

mlnn'te, minu'tua (Lat. small), very 
small, inconspicuous. 

]fiopliyriy=MEioPHTLLT (Crozier). 

mloste'monons = meiostemonous. 

msdioni'any {fiUrxoSf a pedicel, fiwla, 
madness), increase in the number 
of pedicels, as in Jfhus Cotinus, 
Linn., Afuscari comosum, MilL, etc. 

mis'tns, miz'tns (Lat.) cross-bred. 

mt'om (fjurdWf I weave), Flemming's 
term for the network of threads of 

lUto'sis {fiirosj a thread or web), 
Flemming's term for nuclear di- 
vision ; Karyokinesis of Schleicher ; 
adj. mito'sic, mito'tio. 
'tra {filrpa, a head-dress), (1) the 
galea of a corolla ; (2) the thick 
rounded pileus of some Fungi ; 
mi'tilfonn, mitriform'ie {forma, 
shape), mitre-shaped ; ~ Galyp'tra, 
one which is entire at the base 

mlzad (mictue) Forrest, one composed 
of various kinds, growing inter- 
mingled; *^ InlUures'cenoe, one in 
which partial inflorescence develop 
differently from the main axis, as 
centrifugal and centripetal to- 
gether; '^ Ves'sels, those having 
thickenings of more than one 
description, as annular and spiral 
(Crozier) ; mixotrophlc (rpo^, 
food), half-saprophytic (Pfeffer) ; 
mlxttner'vlas t (Lat.) having veins 
of various sizes. 

nmi'oid, resembling the Moss genus 

mo'liile, mo'bilia (Lat.), easily moved, 
moveable or versatile; Moliillty, 
power of movement, c/. Motilht. 

Mock-pliims,abnormalgrowths known 
also as Bag-plums. 

modioUfonn'is {Tnodiclus, a small 
measure, nave of a wheel, etc., 
fcrma^ shape), like the nave of a 
wheel, depressed, with narrow 
orifice, as the ripe fruit of (Tau/- 

Morecole {rMAtcvla, a small mass), 
an aggregation of atoms, hence the 
ultimate particle of a chemical 
compound ; cf, Pleon, Micella ; 
adj. molec'ular. 

molendina'oeous, -cetM, -a'rin (Lat. 
pertaining to a mill), furnished 
with large, wing-like expansions. 

MoUne'tum, a plant association com- 
posed of Moiinia caendea, Moench 

moriis (Lat.), soft, usually meaning 

molyb'deus,moly1)'dos (M6Xi/i85os,lead), 
lead-coloured ; sad, neutral grey. 

Mon- ifidvoiy one), in Greek com- 
pounds = one ; Monaderphia (d5eX- 
^s, brother), a Linnean Class in 
which the anthers are united by 
their filaments into a single brother- 
hood ; adj. monadel'phlan, mona- 
derphous ; monan'der, Necker's 
term for monan'drian, monan'drons 
{dp^p, dydpbSf a man), with one 
stamen ; Honan'drla, a Linnean 
class, wi]th one-stamened flowers; 
monan'gio {dyyeioPf a vessel), 


BTnatl's word for a Bporaiigiuni 

■ when encloaed by a. liood-like in- 

I dnaium : monan'tboai (nrdof, a 

le- flowered ; moD'arcIi 

§-<<'px'j. beginning), applied to an 

ylem'bnodle wnich oonsistB of one 

roCoiylem- group : — Bno'dla, one 

D which there ia only ono atrand ; 

IS (d/i^i-. male), Necber's 

P'BKpreisioD for moDaiidronB ; Hon' 

tartsr (doTJip, g, gur), in noclear 

f divUion the niother-star, the 

r ehromoaomes forming b ring round 

the centrat spindle ; Monu'on 

I axle), when tbi 

s of a 

organ ■ 

of one embryo only ; adj. moiMin- 

Hon'grel, a, ccasa or byhrid. 

mooU'lfonn, ittoniitformis {monile, a 
necklace, fnrma, ebupe), neokUce- 
sbapod ; like o string of beadi. 

Mon'lam (|i6vDt, one), employed by 
L. H. Bailey for " the doctrine of 
oneneu ; the supposition that all 
phenomena and all forms of life 
ore derived from tbe unfolding or 
evolution of one single prineiple 
And substance. " 

Konob'ulS [.itbtm, one, ^irit, base), 
wheu tbo root is reduced to a small 
unhruiiubed portion, as though it 
were only the base of the stem ; 
Xonoblai toa \p\amht, a, shoot or 
bod), used of Lichen-apores when 
poBsesaing a single oell ; Honocara'- 
tln ( -*- Cabotin) a lipoubrome pig- 
ment allied to Carotin, the colour- 
ing of the root of the carrot ; Uoii'- 
eoarp (tapiroi, fruit), an annual or 
other plant that flowers but once 
(Crozier) ; monooarpel'lary. com- 
poaed of one carpel only ; monocar'- 
plc, bten'nl&l- ~, a bicnniai plant. 
pareii'nial- ~, a plant which lives 
many years before fruiting and 
perishing ; mottooar'pltui. monwar- 
jna'nuj, nionocor'/iiciuf, monoeBi'- 
pona, only fruiting once ; 
oal'lnlu ieelltUa, a little 

uiled by Urozier for i7)iiaELLin.AK ; 
monoospb'almu, -fiu (mpaXIt, a 
head), bearing a single head or 
capitulum ; monochBB'lal {xiii"'i 
separation), a cyme witi 
axis; Hddoi^' As]>, a u n i parona cyme, 
either pure, or resulting from the 
reduction al cymes ( Urban) ; MODO- 
cblamyd'egia \x^auin, a mantle), a 
targe division of Phanerogams 
which hare Only one set of floral 
envelopes ; monochlamyd'eoiiB. 
-deia, having only one kind of 
perianth ; monoobro'ffllc ixp^l"^< 
coloar), of one tint, unioolorous ; 
monocU'noua, -tnitv, monadiii'laii 
(sXiri), a bed), (I) hermaphrodite, 
having both stamens and pistils in 
the same flower ; (2) applied to the 
capitula of CoDipositca which have 
only hermaphrodite florets ; Mono- 
cotyle'don {tvTuX-^wr, a hollow), a 
plant having but one ootyledon or 
sned-tobe; Honocot'ylae, was eug- 
goated by L. Ward as a shorteuwl 
term ; monocotyle'dOBOita. with a 
single seed-lobe, as grasaea and 
poliiis ; inonocy'cllc (niinXDi, a cir- 
cle), (1) when the members of a 
floral series are in one whorl, as 
the calyj. corolla, etc.; (2) annual 
plants ; monodlcblainrd'eaui (A, 
twice, x^a/^s. a mantle), having 
either one or both eeta of floral en- 
velopes ; ntonoOy'namoua (Ju'ra/Mi, 
Eiwer). with one stamen much 
Dger than the others ; Monoa'elA 
(Dlaro!. a house), a Linnean cUss 
cbarai>terised by having flowers 
with the seies separate, but an 

the atamcDS and pistils in separate 
flowers, but borne on the some iu- 
dividual ; — Homo^amy, fertiliza- 
tion from another iDdoreacenc* 
of the same plnnt (Delpino); 
monoec'iously iralyg'amooa, Iiav- 
ing hermaphrodite and unisexual 
flowers on the aanio specimen ; 
MonM'dam, the stale of pos- 
sessing monoecious Sowers ; Mo- 
ttotplgyn'ia {irl, opon, yuyij, i 
a cLaas in Jussieu's system 

Mff tto g*-** 


contaiDing monoootyledons with 
epigynous stamens ; Mon'ogam 
(ydftot, marriaffe), a plant with 
simple flowers, but united anthers ; 
KOnogam'ia, a Linnean order in 
the Composites with united an- 
thers, but flowers free on the same 
reoeptade; momogam'ioiis, Necker's 
term for monogamous; monog'e- 
nons (yipot, race, oflbpring), = en- 
DOOBNOUS ; monogenet'io Bepro- 
dno'tlon, asexual reproduction ; 
nuniog'enas, (1) monocotvledonous ; 
(2) monotypic (Orozier, Diet. p. 18); 
Mon'ograph (ypa^, I write), a 
systematic account of a particular 
senus, order, or group ; Mon'ogyn 
{yvpii, a woman), a plant having a 
single pistil in a flower; Mono- 
gyn'la, a Linnean order, having a 
■olitaiy pistil or style, though it may 
have many carpels ; monogyn'lan, 
monog'ynouB, -ntu, possessing but 
one pistil ; monogynae'dal (yvpot- 
jretby, women's quarters), simple 
fruits resulting from the pistil of 
one flower ; Monoliypogyn'la (^ro, 
under, ywij, a woman), a class in 
Jussieu's system containing mono- 
cotyledons with hypogenous sta- 
mens ; monol'coas {oUoSf a house), 
used by bryologists for monob- 
BUmolep'idos {fi6m)s, one, Xerls, XevlSos, 
a scale), one-scaled; monorobus 
^Xo/3oT, an ear-lobe), used by Spruce 
for one-lobed ; monoloo'nlar, mono- 
loctda'ris (loctUua, a little place), 
one-celled, unilocular, applied to 
ovaries, eto.; monom'erons (pi^poT, 
a part), formed of a single mem- 
ber, as the fruit may l^ of one 
carpel ; monomorph'ous (mo/>^, 
shape), of one form only, not poly- 
morphic (Bailey) ; monopet'alons, 
-lua {wiraXop, a flower-leaf), (1) 
literally one-petalled ; (2) gamo- 
petalous, where the corolla is com- 
posed of several petals laterally 
united ; monophylet'io (^uXf^, a 
tribe), originally descended from 
one tribe, as opposed to polyphyle- 
tio ; mono]diylloQS -Iw (^ifxXoy, a 

leaf), (1) one-leaved, as an involn- 
orum of a single piece ; (2) used of 
a leaf-bud where a single leaf is 
subtended by an investing stipule ; 
(3) gamosepalous or gamopetalons ; 
Mon'oplast (rXcurror, moulded), the 
offfanic form -elementof protoplasm, 
which group into polyplasts ( Vogt) ; 
Mon'o^Hto, Monopodlum (roOf, 
vodos, a foot), a stom of a single and 
continuous axis ; adj. numoi^'ial ; 
monop'teroos {rrep^, a wing), one- 
winged; monopjTe'nas {wp^p, a 
kernel), containing a single stone 
or nutlet ; monosep'alous, -lua ( -h 
Sbpalum), gamosepalous, the seg- 
ments of the calyx being united ; 
monosl p h o n^lc (at^p, a tube), 
applied to Algae consisting of 
a continuous tube, an algal 
filament of a single row of 
cells ; Mono'sis, the isolation of 
an organ from the rest ; Mon'o- 
sperm {aripfM, seed), a plant of 
one seed only; monosperm'oos, 
-miM, one-seeded ; monospl'roiui 
{ffweLpa, a twisted cord). Spruce's 
torm for that condition of the 
elator in Hepaticae, which con- 
sists of a single spiral ; Honospi'roBy 
an elator of this kind ; mono- 
sporan'glate {-\- SpoHAXonrM), ap- 
plied to a flower with sporangia 
borne on separate axis, as the 
beech and oak ; further dis- 
tinguished as mac'ro- or mi'oro- 
sporaaglate, as they bear sporangia 
of the kind indicated ; Hon'osporey 
a special spore in Ectocarpus, by 
Sauvageau considered to be a 
Gbmma ; Monosporaag'ium, used 
by Sauvageau for the organ which 
produces monospores ; manes' - 
tachous {ffrdxmt a spike), arranged 
in one spike ; monoste'llc ((m^Xi?, a 

Sillar), having a single axial cylin- 
er of tissue, in which the vascular 
tissue is developed ; Monoste'ly, 
the stato of having a single 
stole ; adj. monoste'lous ; mono- 
s'tichoui, chu8 {orLxoSi a row), in a 
single vertical row ; monostro- 
mat'io (orpw/Att, bed-covering), ap- 


plied lo tlie leaves of Muuhs uud 
the tballuH of Algae when codI' 
posed of a single Ujer of celU ; 
manot^loai, -Iw ( + Sttlus) luv- 
' ing a tiogte style. 
■oBo'iy {tuituurii, deserted), Morren's 
I term for the abnormal laolatioD of 
) AoKsMY or (b) 


numoeymmat'rioal {M'Ufi one, ai/t- 
litTpot, proportionute), nsed of a 
fiower which can be biaect«d in 
one plane only, zjgoi 

{BiKanoi, a bed-obsmber), ( I ) applied 
Ut apothecia conBisting of a single 
obamber ; (2) wtien galls coneiat of 
only one interior chamber ; mono- 
tbal'mlc, derived from a single 
flower, OS most fruiU (Crosier) ; 
monoUie'OBl (fijarij, a case), having 
ssinglGlocalusorcelli ntonot'MOUi, 
-ciM (T6(of, child-birth), fruiting 
mme only, as sudubIs and biennials, 
moQocarpic ; monotrop'ic {rporii, a 
turning ), applied to beea which 
Tiait only one speciea of flower ; 
monctyp'le (Ti>»ot, a typo), boving 
only ooe eiponent, as a Ronus with 
but one speciea ; Hdhox tay (^troi, 
a boat), used of a parasite on one 
host only. aul»eciouB. 

Mon'Mer, MornCmm (Lat., an un- 
Datural production), an nbDormal- 
ity ; MonitroB'lQr, Moimtnt'iUm, 
some conformation deviating from 
the usual and natural structure} 
adj. mona-troiu. 

mon'laae, moiudnm (Lat.), pertain- 
ing lo mountains, as a plant which 
grows on tbem. 

Hot'Ib ; (luipot, a share], parts of a 
flower in general, as ptutamori-ue, 
all parts in fives. 

Kor'liL {Monu, mulberry), a principle 
derived from the yellow beart- 
wood of fustic, JfiKJHrafiMran/inra, 
Nutt. ; the name is derived from 
Jfcnu. to which genus the plant 
was formerly referred; Kotoxj^atet 

^^11], leaven), an assuuied ennynie 
the mulberry, now believed to be 
k.ft mixtura of diastase and zymase. 

Uorph'la, Uorpli'iiia {Marjihtiu, the 
god of sleep), the best known of 
all the olboloida contained in the ' 
opium poppy. 

mor'ptiUB {liopp^, shape), in Greek 
compounds — appearance, as rhiw- 
morphut, having the appearance of 
a root : Uorpbogen'eslt (y^fait, be- 
ginning), the production of aiorpho- 
logical characters ; morpbolOK'loal, 
relating to Morphology ; — flpe'cdes, 
Pormentier's term for such speciSo 
forms as occur in Hoia, which are 
aasuiDed to have departed from 
their ancestral form in conse- 
quenoB of raried environment ; 
MoTpbol'ogy (\(i70t, discourse), the 
study of form and its develop- 

Horpbo'sls {fiop^uHTii, a shaping), the 
manner of development ; the order 
in which organs f^rin from their 
earliest to their final condition. 

mos'chate, moscAaViw {Tnoschue, 

Kotb'er, used in the sense of 
" parent " ; ~ Cells, thcae which 
di vide to form other cells ; ~ PUut, 
(1) the parent plant, from which 
vegetative portions have been de- 
rived : (2] the female or seed-bearing 
parent of a hybrid ; ~ Skelii, a 
continuous ribbon-like figure of 
chromatin in the early stages uf 
nuclear division, further divided 
intoolou--,10D|nd~, aodIooM~; 
~ Btar - MoNASTKK, a stage at 
nuclear division. 

Hotli'er-of-Vlii'egar, the aotive agent 
in acetous fermentation, Sace/m- 
romycts Myroiitrma, Reess. 

mo'tUe (mofiu, a moviog), move- 
able ; ~ Re'glon, (1) in growing 
members the region of elongation ; 


mbers , 

organ, suub aa the pulvinus in 

mtmoea piidica, Linn. 
Motll'ity (tr. motility), the power of 

movement ; ~ of Pro'toplaam, a 

suggested emendation of "controo- 

tUity " of protoplasm. 
Ho'tor {Lat. , a mover) Zone, anothet 

term for Mutilk Rkcion. 



Mould, applied to microsoopic sapro- 
phytio fungi, such m Mucor and 
its allies. 

llova'alile, the same as motUis^ (1) 
used of a versatile anther whose 
attachment is slight, there- 
fore apt to be moved by wind or 
■liffht shock; (2) with colours, 
'' Act " or changeable (Henslow) ; 
(3) the annnlus of an Agaric when 
it detaches itself from the stipes 
and remains free. 

MoTe'ment, motion, continuous or 
transient ; '^ of Varla'tion, see 


MOx'a (native name), the woolly 
leaves of Artemisia Moxa, DC. 

Ka'oedin (mucedus, mouldy), a tough 
viscous bodv associated with gluten 
in vegetable gelatin (Groodale) ; 
mnce'dinons, mustv, mouldy. 

nra'do {mucuSf nasal secretion), re- 
lating to gum; BCu'dlage (Fr.), 
vegetable gelatine belonging to the 
amyloee group of carbohydrates ; 
*^ Canal'; '^ Oayity, space caused 
by the breaking down of the cell- 
wall of neighbouring cells ; '^ Slit, 
an opening on the under surface of 
the thallus in Anthoceroteae, like 
a stoma without ffuard-cells, lead- 
ing into a cavity filled with gum ; 
mncUag'inoas, slimy, composed of 
mucilage ; Mn'dne, a constituent 
of wheat-gluten which is soluble 
in water ; Haoo-cel'lulose ( -\- Cellu- 
L08S), alluded to under Celluloses. 

Ka'corlXL, an albuminoid substance 
occurring in sx>ecies of Mucor 
(De Bary) ; mnoorln'eous, resem- 
bling the Mucorineae. 

mn'oous, muco'sus (Lat.), slimy, (/. 

BCu'cro (Lat. a sharp point), a sharp 
terminal point ; Mucro'na X = 
MuGBO (Lindley) ; ma'cronate, 
mucrona'ttu, possessing a short and 
straight point, as some leaves; 
Haorona'tion=Mucso ; mucronu- 
la'tos (Lat.), dim. of mucronate. 

Ka'oni (Lat. nasal secretion), gum- 
like matter soluble in water ; mu'- 
oonB, mucilaginous. 

Ka'darln, a substance occurring in 
the bark of the '*mudar," OaUo- 
tropis gigarUeOf Dryand., and C. 
proeera^ Dryand. 

Kneller's Gorpas'des, ovoid or pear- 
shaped bodies in Cecropia adeno^ 
pu8. Mart., which form a velvety 
coating on the under side of the 
base of the petiole ; they are util- 
ised as food by ants. 

Mule, in botany, means cross-bred, a 

mnltang'Qlar, multangular^ is , mul' 
an^vlus {multus, many, angulus, 
an angle), many -angled ; mnltloap'- 
tnlar (cap^u/a, a small box), having 
many capsules ; mnlticll'late {cilium, 
an eyelash), with many cilia; mnl'ti- 
ceps, multioipltal {caputs a head), 
with many heads ; it refers to the 
crown of a single root), multlooB'- 
tate {co8taf a rib), many-ribbed ; 
the ribs running from the base of 
a leaf towards its apex ; mnltidon'- 
tate (dentatus, toothed), with many 
teeth ; multidlglta'to - pinna'tus, 
havinff many secondary petioles 
with digitate-pinnate arrangement 

multuar'ioas, mvltifar^ius (Lat. mani- 
fold), mnltiCa'riam (Lat. many- 
ranked), many-ranked, as leaves in 
vertical ranks. 

multif erons, -rtis {muUiftr^ bearing 
much), often bearing, fruitful. 

mnl'tlfld, multifidus (Lat.), cleft into 
many lobes or segments. 

moltiflor'ous, -rus {multiiSt many, /Ioa, 
florisy a flower), many-flowered ; 
multlfolia'tns (folium, a leaf), 
many - leaved ; mnltiju'gate, mul- 
tijuga'tus, mnltiju'gus {jugum^ a 
yoke), having many pairs or 
juffae ; mnltllat'eral {latus^ a 
side), many-sided, having several 
flattened surfaces ; multiloo'olar, 
muItilocuWria {loculus, a little 
place), many-celled, as an ovary ; 
'^ Spore = Spobidesm ; Mnltilo- 
cnla'res, compound spores; mul- 
tlnn'cleate ( + Nucleus), having 
more than one nucleus to a cell ; 
mnltlp'aroas {pario, I bring forth), 


Bwnj-bearinB, applied to a 071116 
which has many axee ; miittlpar'- 
tlt«, mvllipaiii'tmi iparlUv/i, 
divided), many times divided, 

mul'tiplflx (Lat. with many folds), 
where many of the same parts 
occur together ; mnl'tlpla Caral'lii, 
oae that haa more than one whorl 
of petal* ; ~ Ptuits, the fruit 
of a flower-eluBter when conBuent 
into Doe maaa ; ~ Frl'mur 
Root, a root with several main 
diviaioDS from the crawn, aa in { 
Dahlia (Croziar) ; mulMpU'ote 
{j^ica, a fold), folded often or 
repeatedly ; ~ Flow'ar, a double 
flower ; Bultipllia'aon, widtijilica'- 
(lu ( Lat. , i nc rea«ing ] .aiigm e □ tation, 
pleiotaxy, pleiophylly ; adj. molU- 
pUoa'tna ; mnlttpo'Iar {polan, a 
pole), with more than two poles ; 
~ Spln'dle. Guignard'a term for 
an achromatic spindle when ex- 
tending; in a atar>sha|>e between 
Mveruf nuclei; Halttpalar'i^, the 
■taCe in uuestion 1 mnltlm'illate, 
lauitiradia'tiu [nuliiii, a ray), with 
maiijr ray a. 

mnltira'inoH {miUlui, many, ramia, 
a branch), much branched ; mulU- 
Mp'tatB, multiftiila'luK luejiliim, a 
hedge), with many partitions ; 
mnlUH'ilal, mvllinerta'lis, multlM'- 
lUM, mtUlitiiria'lit [serits. a row), 
in snveral series ; miUUtil'lquons 
(-+8iuqva)i having many pods or 

Mtmimifica'tioli of fruita, used by 
Tnbeuf lo eipreae the fangal rest- 
ing body or aulerotium. 

nn'nlBiu ( L>at. ) fortifying; mnnisn'- 
tla Folia, protecting leaves which 
overhang or otherwiae guard porta 
which nerd protection. 

mu'TBl, mnra'lU (Lat., pertaining to 
a wall), growing on walU ; mnra'- 
lliu (Lat.) means the same. 

BHl'ilcat«, fflun'ca'fiia (Lat., like 
rnurtr), rough, with short and 
hard tubercular e 
nurlc'QlAte, mui-icula' 
live of Ihe preceding. 


mn'ilfOnii, muri/orm'i» (>nunu,awaU> 
/ornia, shape}, (I) flattened cellular 
tissue, with cells resembling bricks 
in B wall ; (2) Eoerbar applies the 
term to certain Lichen-spores. 

muri'niu (Lat., of mice), mouee- 

Haacardlne' (Fr,), a silkworm disease 
caused by SotrylU Bipmknia, Bals. 

mnscar'U'orm, muKari/brm'ia (miu- 
(■arifirM, a fiy-flap, forma, abape), 
(I) fly-brush shaped: (2) like the 
genus M'UKari as to habit or in- 
florescence ; Has' oarlne, a poisonous 
alkaloid froio Avmtiila ntfwran'a, 
P. Karst. ; Husck'rlam (Lat.), a 
loose and irregular corymb. 

Hna'ci, sing. Hoa'ciu (Lat.), Mosses; 
mna'olfomi, tnui-ciform'is {forma, 
shape], moss-like in appearance; 
muacic'oloui {cdo, I inh^itj, Kfow- 
ou Mosses ; mus'oold {elim, like), 
resembling or belonging to Moss ; 
Huscol'ogy (X^oi, discourse), a 
hybrid term for Bicvouxir ; an 

mnali'rooni'beail'ed, a oyllndrio body 

topped by a convex head of larger 

diameter ; fungiform. 
mDtfk'bUia (Lat.), changeable, either 

in form or colour, 
tau'ttoons, riiuVicu* (Lat. curtailed, 

docked), pointless, blunt, awnless. 
mu'Ulua (Lat. maimed), applied to a 

flower nearly or wholly wanting 

the petals. 
BIn'tualUm [mutual + isni|, the same 


> organ 


is beneficial to both ; also termed 

Hn'tual Par'asltUm. 
H^celconld'lum (-(-CosnnFM) {iiiK-nt, 

for Stvlospokg ; Hyoala' = Mv- 
cb'lium ; mresluid (.ISo., like), re- 
aemblLDg a mycelium ; myce'Iial, 
relating to a mycelium ; -~ Lay'erf: 
MsMBRANOCaMiroxiJCJu : —Strtuid, 
SbrouB mycelium ; Kyce'Iium, the 
vegetative portion of the tliatlus of 
Funiri, composed of hypbae ; llla- 

I'tnna _ th» tKrond-like loOBfl 

.'branooa ~ 


the Ujer formed by the interweaT- 
iBg of the hyphae ; VyMHtlift (Xt9ot, 
a itooe), an old term for Solxbo- 
TiUM ; myoetogmiefio iyevdpfSf a 
parent), prodacint; Fnnin • ^ 
MMamorph'oBiB, deformation of 
parts by Fan((i ; myoetog^enoiu 
(yhot, raoe, offi^pHne), producing 
Fctni;|ri ; '^ OUoran'tliy, the deve- 
lopment of green in organs nor- 
mally of some other colour, dne to 
a fangooB paratite ; '^ Ghlor'liii, 
where the chlorophyll is bleached 
by the action of hsrphae of some 
Fanffns (Tnbenf) ; my'oetold, myee- 
td^dens (cMot, like), fangoid ; with 
the appearance of Fani<i ; ICyoa- 
tol'ogy, MyceJtoU/gia (X^yof, dis- 
oonrte)=MTCX>LOOT ; Kyoe'toioa 
(^(Sor, an animal), De Bary's term 
for Myxooastbes ; adj. msrceto- 
lo'an; Hy'dna, in LiohAns, a sloba- 
lar stipitate apothecium ; M|yooce- 
dd'liun {iniKXi, KtfKiHoty a gall-nnt), 
a gall produced by a Fnngns ; M^y- 
oodoma'tia (dai^uirior, a little honse), 
fanffus-chambers, formations of 
peculiar character found on the 
roots of plants, regarded by Frank 
as possessed of the power of at- 
tracting Fungi and digesting them ; 
liyool'oglBt (kSyotf discourse), one 
skilled in the knowledge of Fungi ; 
MIyool'ogy, the science of Fungi ; 
Mycom/oophytes (^vrdv, a plant), 
Marchand*s term to include Fungi 
and certain Lichens; M^yoophy'to- 
phsrtes, the same writer's name for 
the remaining Lichens ; Uy'ooplasm 
(irXda'fMf moulded), Frank's term 
for bacteroids, as the Rhizobia on 
leguminiferous roots ; Hycoplas'- 
ma, Eriksson's term for a latent 
symbiotic form of Piiccinia which 
may exist in the seed and develop 
into a mycelium when the host has 
grown into a plant ; Kyoopro'teln 
( -f Pbotbtn). a gelatinous albu- 
minoid resembling protoplasm, of 
which the putrefactive bacteria 
are composed ; MyooiU'some ( -f 
Rhizoms), myoorrhiza-like struc- 
ture in CoraUorhiza and Epipogum 

roots; M y o oi fl ii 'M. (^a, a root), 
■ymbiotic Funffi on tAie roots of 

Slants, prothallia, eto. ; they may 
e eototeop'le, *^ entirely outside, 
or endotrop'ic, '^ entirely within 
the cells ; Hy'ooee, Hy'ocMlii, the 
special nitrogenous substance of 
the cell-wall in Fungi corres- 
ponding to the animal substance 
ohitin (Oilson) ; M^yoo'sis, a disease 
in animal tissue canned by sneciea 
of Eurotium ; Hy^croeyst = Miobo- 
cnrsT ; Kyeropro'teln = Mtcx>pbo- 
TETN ; l!^eropyle = Micboftlx ; 
My'eroiyme = Microzyms. 

Myloph'llae (fivta, a fly, <f>iKita, I love), 
plants which are fertilised by dip- 
tera ; their flowers are dull in 
colour and their odours are dis- 
agreeable to man. 

mykoUep'tie (Au^nn^f, a mushroom, 
jrXeimir6f, thievish), applied to 
the hairs on the rhizome of CorattoT' 
hiza innata, R. Br., "which seize 
the mycelium." 

myodh'rous (/iOf, a mouse, xpovf« of 
the skin), mouse-coloured. 

Kynneoodoma'tia (itvp/Ai;^, an ant, 
HotfidTiop, a little' house), shelters 
formed by plants in which antn 
live; myxmecoph'Uoiui (0iX^w, I 
love), plants which are in- 
habited by ants and offer special- 
ised shelters or food for them ; 
liynnecoph'ilism, the state describ- 
ed ; further particularised by War- 
burg, as — ^myrmeood'omonfl {dSfiott 
a house), affording shelter only; 
myxmecotroph'ic {rpo4f^, food), 
furnishing food ; myrmeooz'eBoni 
(^dpotf a host), supplying both 
food and shelter ; Mynne'cophytea 
(0vroy, a plant), ant-plants ; Vjr- 
meoosymbio'sis ( + Symbigsts), the 
mutual relations between the ants 
and their host-plants; adj. myr- 

lly'rosin (/Ai^por, sweet juice), a gluoo- 
side occurring in the seed of 
Bramca ginapoidea. Roth, and 
other Crucifers. 

Kyrrb, an aromatic imm-resin yielded 
by Commiphora Mffrrha, Engl. 


. myrtifvrm,'i» (ntyrluf, the 
r myrtle, forma, ihape), rcnenibling 
^ the mfrtle ; myitol'deni (djoi, 
'" ' ■ » iynoDym. 

lut, a mooBB. Diipi, a tail), 
long and tapering like u mouae'e 
ItfjTonioe'bae or HTxaanoe'tMe, pi. 
Ifii'fn. mucua, J|i»^*Ip inMrohanRe), 
thp Hwann-Bporca of Myxogaotrea ; 
Hyxagaa'tTM (701x^/1, bellj), Friss'e 
term for the group "Slimo FudbIi" 
othertriw known as Hyzamfca'tes 
and Mtcetozoa ; ■yx'cin, s con- 
stituent of wheat-gliit«n precipi- 
tatF-d by alcohol; tnyx'opnd (iraut, 
toIdi, a foot), Ibn amoeboid Btage 
in controBt to tbe maatigopod : 
Hyx'oBpore {e-roiA, a aaed), a aporu 
furtnud in the sporangia of Mjno- 
goBtrea ; adj. myxM'poroiu. 

HiilirlJJa'iuiK ((lerm.), » nutrient lotu- 
tion for laboratory oulturee ; by 
mvcologiats uaually reBtrict«d to a 
aolution of horse -dung. 

Nail, ag n measure, about half an 
inch in length, the average lengtb 
of B finger eail 1 anguieularia. 

ua'ked, wanting ite uaual covering, 
as uithout pubescence, or Dowers 
deatitute of perianth. or buds with- 
out icales; ~ •Md'ed.fllgyniDoeper- 
moua; (2) formerly used of Labiates, 
frorn a (alae idea of the fruit. 

nanau'drooa inlrot, a dwarf, arhpi 



ing I 

produce Dwarf - ualbs ; 
ra, Chodat'a t*rm for becom- 
ii'srf; tui'ntu (Lat.), dwarf, 


napa'ceus huipus, a turnip, 

na'plfona {/orma, shape), turnip- 
shaped or rooted. 
IIAP'P7, tomentose. 
Kar'Mlne (ciipri;. numbness), an opium 

alkaloid forming silky, inodorous, 

bitter crj-Htele. 
VufcoOXMlvapKuiTiKit, making numb), 

alao an opium alkaloid, but of very 

little narcotio power. 
KBr'dloe, pertaining to Nnrd, Nardo- 

ttaehyg Jatatnaiuii, DC. 

naa'oant (na«ror, to be born), in tha 
act of being formed ; ~ Tts'lM = 

n«,'tant, na'lanx (Lat,, swimminp). 
floating under water, that ia.whoriy 

na'tlTs, used hy R. C. Watson for 
undouht«dlv indigenous. 

nat'tual, produced or effeated by 
nature ; ~ Ortift, when branahai 
are uoiteii by "approach" natur- 
ally ; ~ Bys'tam, an arrangement 
accordiEg to the affinity of the 
plants, and the sum of their 
characters, opposed to any arti- 
ficial system, based on one set of 
oharactert ; NatUrallia'tLon. the act 
of becoming naturalixod ; natnnl- 
I'sed, of foreign origin, but es> 
tabliahed and reproducing itaelf aa 
though a native. 

Han'com, pi. Mau'ca (Lat.. a trifle), 
(1) the fleshy part of a drupe (Lind- 
ley) ; (2) seeds with a very large 
hiliini (Hennlnwl ■ Man'nna rwi-tj.ii, 

nant'ltorm (nauTiVux, pertaining to 
shipa or sailors, /omta, shape), = 
navicular (Grower). 

nave-sliapeil. round and depressed, 
with a small opening, modioliform. 

Mavlc'uIaB (pi. A'a.'ifTiia. a boat), free 
fruatules of Diatnma like those of 
the genus Navieida ; nsTlo'nlar, 
tiarietiia'ris, boat-shaped, cymbi- 
form ; navlc'nlold ('Mot, like), like 
the genus Naviaiia. 

nab'ulOM, netu/o'aua (Lat. vaporous), 
(1) oloudy, misty, applied to suoh 
finely divided inflonucencea aa 
EragrmtU ; |2) used by Binchoff as 
meaningEmoke-coloured( —fit imuA), 

MsosBia'ila [n<cu«ariiu, unavoidable), 
Linnseus's term for a division of his 
SyngBneBia( ^CompoBitae)in which 
tbe ray florets are female and lbs 
disk florets male. 

Keck (I), the collar or junction of 
stem and root 1 &) the point where 
the limb separates from the sheath 
of certain leaves ; (3) tbe contracted 
part of tbe corolla or calyx tube ; 



(4) the elongated portion of the em- 
0170 sac or archegonium ; *^ CellB 
in the archegonium of Bryophytes, 
the drawn-out portion, as oiBtinct 
from the venter. 

iiMdclace-Bliaped, moniliform. 

nMroooleopteropli'ilonfl (vex^, dead, 
+Coleopteron; ^iX^o;, I love), when 
fertilised by carrion beetles; ne- 
oroff'enonfl, -us (76^0;, offspring), 
applied to certain fungoid parasites 
which hasten the decay of the 
plants on which they live ; necro- 
Idi'acoiui {<pdy<a, I eat), applied to 
aaprophvtes ; Nec'roplaBm (ir\d<rfUL, 
moalded), the analogue of proto- 
plasm in a dead seed ; Nec'roplast, 
a protoplast whose or^nisation has 
BoffBrea irreparable injury and is 
dead; Necro'siB, (1) canker in plants; 
(2) used by Escombe as meaning 
the death of an organism. 

Neo'tar (v^icrap, the drink of the gods), 
a sweet fluid extruded from various 
parts of the plant ; in the flower it 
18 called honey ; ^ Qlands, the se- 
creting organs which produce the 
nectar ; '^ Onidea, lines of colour 
leading to the nectary ; '^ Harks = 
^ Guides (Crozier) ; ^^ Spots = ^^ 
Guides; Necta'rlum, or Nec'tary, the 
organ in which nectar is secreted, 
formerly applied to any anomalous 
part of a newer, as its spurred 
petals; nectarlferoiu -us {/ero, I 
bear), nectar-bearing ; Nectarl'niui, 
= Nbotabt ; Nectaril/ma {elXijia, I 
wrap round), any appendages to a 
nectary, as the long hairs in Mtny- 
antJies; Neotarostii'ma {ffHyfia, a 
spot), some mark or depression in- 
dicating the presence of a nectari- 
ferous gland ; Nectarothe'ca {B^icrjj 
a case), the portion of a flower 
which immediately surrounds a 
nectariferous pore. 

nee'dle-Bhaped, acerose, acicular. 

neg'atlYe (negcUivuSf that denies), im- 
plying denial or absence of some 
quality or substance; '^^Geot'ropiBm, 
apogeotropism, the growing in a 
contrary direction to gravitation ; 
'^ Heliot'ropism, apheliotropism. 

shunning the light ; ^ Pxei'fDre, 
when gases in plants are at a lower 
tension than air, in consequence of 
the withdrawal of water. 

Ne'ma (v^/ta, a thread), a filament ; 
Ne'meae, ** Cryptogams whose sppr- 
ules elongate into a thread-like 
form in germination '* (Henslow) ; 
cf. Nemoblastus ; Ne'matbece, 
Nemathe'dum [B-^inff a case), a 
wart-like elevation of the surface in 
some Algae containing antheridia 
and paraphyses or cystocarpe. 

Ne'matodeB {wTffjLanidrji, threM-like), 

Ne'matogone (y^jua, a thread, totj^, 
off-spring) ; Correns's term for an 
asexually produced gemma on the 
protonema of Mosses ; ne'meoiis, 
thread-like, filamentous (Crozier) ; 
Nematomy'ces {fwicris, a mushroom), 
a synonjrm of Hyphomycetous 
Fungi ; NefflOblas'tUfl {^affrbs, a 
bud), used by Willdenow to in- 
clude Mosses and Ferns. 

nemora'UB (Lat., sylvan), inhabit- 
ing woods and groves ; nem'oroee, 
nemoro'sus (Lat., full of woods), 
used as if a synonym of ne- 

neogae'an, neogae'us {pios, new, 7^, 
earth). New World, that is, Ameri- 
can or West Indian ; cf. amphi- 
OAEAN, gebontogaean ; Ne'oplaat 
(irXa<rrd;,moulded), a new individual 
arising from one or more previously 
existing protoplasts, as the fer- 
tilised egg-cell (Honstein). 

neph'roid, nephroi'deus (veippoff the 
kidneys, eldos, like), reniform, kid- 
ney-shaped ; Nephros'ta, Necker's 
term for the sporangia of Lyco- 

Ne'relds, a mythologic name used by 
Warming to designate water-loving 
plants which grow on rocks and 

nerl'tic {m^piTrp^ son of Nereus), applied 
to plankton which is coastal. 

nerva'lis (Lat., pertaining to the 
nerves), (1) synonym of loculicidal, 
the dehiscence being along the 
midrib of the carpels ; (2) relating 


to tba midrib of a leaf, aa a 
proloDgatioD of it— as a tendril. 
Herva'tioD, Xfrca'lio (nen-wi.a nerve], 
venation, the manner in which the 
fohar nerves or veins are arranged - 

ktiar'Tate, nttva'iue (Lat.), nerved 
M- veined ; Merva, A'rr'cu^, in 
botanj, a simple or unbraoched 
Tain or slender rib ; nerred, nei^- 
vigtr {gero, 1 bear), having nerves, 
in a botanic sense ; neT'valesa, with- 
out apparent nerves : NerrimotU'- 
1^ (-i-MoTiLiT*), used by ilut- 
rooheb to denote the atimuliiting 
•ffeot of th« substrtitum on a grovt- 
iog organ ; nar'vaBB, ntrvo'umn 
(Lat., sinewy), fnll of nerves, or 
protninentljr oerred ; ner'TVlose, 
nenWo'BiM, diminutive of ser- 
vo us ; Hsr'vUTeB, the principal 
veins of a leaf. 

Nest-ep'lpliTte ( + Epiphttb), an epi- 
phyte whioh accumnlates hum us 
around itself for its growth. 

neafUug, nidulant (Crozier), 

net'ted, reticulated, net-veined with 
any system of irr^ularly ona- 
atomoaing veins. 

Hsnrampliljtet'tJae {ttipm, a nerve or 
•inew ; iiufil, around ; rJraXar. a 
flower- leaf), Caesini's name for 
the Compoaitaa ; BeuTa'tLon ( -t 
atioD) - NmvATiON (Croiier) ; 
nsnr'Me, neuro'fue — nkkvose. 

nmi'ter (Lat., neither of two), sexless, 
u a flower which has neither sta- 
mens or pistils ; '~ now'en, func- 
tionally aaeznal flowers ; DBD'tral, 
pertaining to neither sei ; ~ Zone, 
JD Cbaraceae, that line or place 
where rotating streams of proto- 
plasm flow beside each other in 
opposite directions, the " indiffer- 
ent line " shown by the absence of 
chlorophyll granules ; nentrlllor'nB 
l^oa, /dtik, a flower), used of the 
ray -florets of Cumpositae when 

new, the first publicBtioa of a genus, 

species, variety or form, 
Mewto'nian Ourve, called also the 

binomial or Galtouian carve, a 
rapbic representation of varia 

plotted geometrically in 
two dimenaioDB ; tiaU-OaltoiiUii 
Curve, a similar scheme, from the 

nioked, emorginate or notched, 

uieatta'itQs,tobacco-ooloured, from the 
genus Xieoliaiia ; it naually means 
a full brown ; Hlc'otln, an alkaloid 
found in tobacco- leaves. 

nido'nu - nldoro'ina (Lat., reeking), 
having a foul smell, aa of burnt 
meat, or rotten eggs. 

lUd'uIant. m'tiu/uiu |Lat., neBting).(l) 
partially encased or lying free in a 
cavity, as the gemmae of Mar- 
charUia; (2) embedded in pulp, a« 
the seeds in a berry; nldnla'tna 
(Lat.), nested, nestling; Rldular'- 
liun, "the mycelium of certain 

Ifl'dns (Lat.. a nest), a favoarable 
place for a seed or spore to ger- 

Nledsrbliiftsr{Qerm.) = CATAPBYLLA. 

nl'Ker (Ut.), black ; Higre'do (Lat.), 

Blglit-poBlt'loii, the position assumed 
by leaves daring darkness, the 
edges being usually turned towards 
the zenith. 

ntgrsa'oent, nipreVfem (Lat.), turn- 
ing black ; nl'grlcaiit, ni'yrrieana 
{Lat.), becoming black; this and 
the last are used for lints which 
turn black with age. 

Bi'grltuB (Lat.), blackened, clothed 

Mlp'ple, = Papilla. 

nitell'imB {Lat., pertaining to a dor- 
mouse), dormouse- coloured. 

nlt'id (Crozier) ^ nit'ldona, nil'idua 
{Lat., shining), emooth and dear, 

Mlti11icti'tlon(iiifnim,nitre, -i-Scation), 
the action of a nitric ferment result- 
ing in the production of nitrates and 
nitrites ; Nltrohaete'rla ( + Bac- 
teria), bacteria which produce 
nitriGcation by their action ; 
Nltrocel'lulota ( ■>■ Cbixdlosi), aee 

a'lis (Lat., snouy] ; (I) growing 


in or Dear the enow ; (2) tnow- 
white, more correctly vivsouB. 

Biyeoni, nif/eus (Let., inowy), tnow- 
white ; pare and lustroue. 

no'tdB (dative pi. of e^o, I), aeed as 
an authority in defining species, 

Nooona'miim (deriv.?) Neoker's term 
for the sporangium of Selcigindla (?) 

Bootur'nal {noetumcUis, by night), 
ooourrioff at night, or lasting one 
night only. 

no'dal (nodua, a knot), relating to a 
Node ; '^ Cell, a cell at the base of 
the oogonium in Chara interposed 
between the egg-oell and the stalk- 
oell, with the " Wendungsselle," 
f^ n'aptaragm, any septum which 
extends across the hollow of the 
stem at a node. 

nod'ding, hanging down, nutant. 

Node, No'duB (Lat., a knot), that part 
of a stem which normally has a 
leaf or a whorl of leaves ; the 
*' knot" in a grass-stem ; Lindley 
gives the following modifications : 
OlOMd'^ ; com'ponnd/^ ; dl'vided'^ ; 
entire' ^ ; o'pen ^ ; aln'gle ^ ; see 
his Glossary (1849), p. Ixii.; nodif • 
erooB {fero, I bear), bearine nodes ; 
no'doee, nodo'sua (Lat. knotty), 
knotty or knobby, chiefly used of 
roots; Nodo'sity, Nodo'sUas (Lat., 
knottiness), a woody swellinff ; 
Nod'nle, No'dvluH (Lat., a little 
knot), a small knot or rounded 
body ; t^ of Diatoms = Staukos ; 
no'dnloee, nodvlo'miSt the diminu- 
tive of NODOSE. 

No'menelatnre {nomenckUura, a list of 
names), the names of things in 
any science ; in botany frequently 
restricted to the correct usage of 
scientific names in taxonomy. 

VomOlo'gia {p6fMt, custom, X^of , dis- 
course), relating to the laws which 
govern the variations of organs ; 
nomosper^monfl {<nr4pfia, seed), used 
by Radlkofer to denote the seed 
normally occurring in the order, 
tribe, or genus. 

no'Biifl (Lat)., ninth. 

nor'iiial, nomut'lis (Lat. ), according to 

square, according to rule, osual as 
to structure. 

NMOl'ogy (wSaot, disease, Xo'^ef , a dis- 
course), see VXUETABLE N06OLOOT. 

Noe'toc-lay'er, in Lichens when the 
Al^fal layer consists of Nontoc or 
allied forms (De Bary). 

BOtate', nota*tu6 (Lat. marked), 
marked with spots or lines. 

noteroph'iloiu {wcrtpbi, moist, 0iX^w, 
I love), applied to plants which 
are intermediate between hydro- 
phytes and xerophy tes ; by Warm- 
mg termed mesophytes. 

Botclied, emarginate, nicked. 

notli'QB (Lat.T, false or bastard, 
usually applied to the false root of 
a parasite. 

nototri'lMd {vQroi, the back, rpl^ta, I 
beat), pertaining to those flowers 
described by Delpino as no'totribe, 
whose stamens and styles turn so 
as to strike their visitors on the 
back ; Botorrbi'ial (/>'/^i, a root), 
used for incumbent ; the radicle 
being on the back of the coty- 
ledons in certain Cruciferae. 

Bo'vem (Lat.) nine; ^ diglta'tna, 
nine-fingered ; ^^ lo'bns, nine- 
lobed; ^ ner^yins, nine-nerved. 

Nueamen'tum (Lat., a fir-cone or 
catkin), an amentum or catkin; 
BUoamenta'ceoQB, -ccim, (1) having 
the hardness of a nut ; (2) synonym 
for indehiscent, monospermal firuit. 

Nnoel'la, = Nucellnfl (Lat., a small 
kernel), (1) the nucleus of an 
ovule; (2) the body of the ovule 
or macrosporangium containing the 
embryo sac or macrospore ; Nuoti'- 
lorn, Germain's form of Nucellus. 

nuciferous {nuxy a nut, fero^ I bear), 
bearing or producing nuts ; nu'd- 
form {format shape), nut-like in 

Bu'dear (nitcleua, a kernel), pertain- 
ing to a nucleus; '^ Bu^rel, a 
stage immediately preceding the 
nudear spindle; '^Dirc, the mother- 
star stage; *^ Divls'ioxi, either 
direct by fragmentation, or indirect 
by karvokinesis, the entire history 
of the division of the cell-nucleus; '^ 


Rfbrlli, chromoconiea, ej. Spindle- 
~ PU'&meDt, tha chro- 
)r cbromatio fil&menl ; *- 
ee Motiibk-Stab ; -- Se- 
n'tloit, vben a Bm&ller number 
\ ugmenti ooaur tbsn at tha 
wviouB dJTUioDi of tbe parent- 
qrclfl (Hartog) ; <- Slug, the equa- 
' ' d arrangemeat of chromo- 
BaiQ/'MoTiiiR Star. ;~ Sap, iJie 
totermediate matrix (Schwarz) ; — 
'^^dn'dlB. Blender fiUmonta from the 
poles, Bod croBsing the equator, 
iDJng in the ekeio stagu, and 
,let(3 in the motber-atar ; — 
[Hbses ; BD'olaated, having a nu- 
oleiu or nuolei ; Rn'olelji, Straa- 
burger*! t«rm for Cbro matin. 
Vo'dlM-een'IroMmM (nuc^tiu, a ker- 
nel), a term used by Q. Rarsteo in 
deaoribing the naclear division of 
Pnjotum iTiqwdnan,, Str. \ pro- 
bably the Baiue as Strasburser'a 
■' Secretion bodies " i ~ Hy'slo- 
plBAlu, Htrasbu tier's word for 
LiNui 1 ~ Id'loplum, tbe forma- 
tive part of the nuclear hyalo- 
Elasm ; ~ Hl'CTOBOmGa ( Straa- 
urgBt) = Chromatin ? 
nn'clMlate {nudiua, a. kernel), pos- 
■eaaina a nuoleolua ; Na'clMle, 
Hlula^Di, a sharplj defined 
point in the cell-nucleuH : nacle'olo- 
Kucto'cdiu, = Endondclbus ; Nn'- 
elMphyiea (^liui, I grow), tubnlar, 
■eptate {irojecliona in certain 
Fungi which correspond to the 
base of the pcritbectum, and ulti- 
mately become nscophyBea j Fu'c- 
l*opU«m ( rKitfux, moulded ) nuc- 
lear protoplasm, tbe Ducleo-hyulo- 
flasm of Vines ; Rucleapro'Mld 
+ Protto)), any protein which ia 
a oharscteristic consCitnent of the 
Hn'oleni {Lat. a kernel), (1) tbe 
kernel of an ovule or seed, tbe 
NuCBLLUB ; (2) an organised pro- 
teid body of complei substance ; it 
I contaioa one or more nacleoli, and 
L4ivides either directly by Ftuo- 
ir indireoilyby Kabto- 

KiNKis, otberwiie called Mrnwis; 

(3) the hilum of a starch granule j 

(4) in Liuhena, the disk of the apo- 
theciam, containing asoi ; (S) in 
Fungi, tbe centre of the peri- 
theaium ; (6) a clove or young bulb; 
~ Bar'rel = nuclrar Barkil ; r- 
of the Em'bryo 8ae. the sGoondar; 
nucleus : — ot {yosphare, that in 
the ooBpbere (female pronucleus) 
with which a spermnucleua (male 
pronucleus) coaleoces to form a 
germ nooleua; doaad ~, that kind 
of nucleus which oocurs in the 
higher pisnts, <^. Open ~ : gam'Mo- 
— , tbe nucleus of a gamete ; gon'aiK- 
Uve ~ , ao active nuclens in karyo- 
kineaia \ 0am ~, a nucleus reault- 
iug from tbe fusion of a male and 
female pronucleos; r/. PitONDOLEUa; 
O'pen ~ the central body of Phyco- 
ohromBceae, of much looaer atmc- 
ture than in higher plants, and 
dealitute of true nuclear mem- 
brane (EieronymuH) ; Be]«a't]oii ~ , 
aister-nuclei to the female nuolena 
which play no part in fertilization ; 
(Hortog); ~ Spln'dla — nuclbax 

Nncula'&lDin (rtitcu/u, a amall nut), 
Richard's term for a drupaceous or 
baccate fruit coataining more than 
one stone or seed, adopted by 
Lindley for a superior atony-seeded 
berry, aucb oa a grape ; Kn'cnla, 
S<i('<da, (1) a diminutive of NUT- 
iiBT : IS) the female seinal organ of 
CAara ; nucolo'inB (Mod. lAt.), eoo- 
taining hard nut-Like seeda. 

nDCumenta'ceoDs, an error for nuoa- 

nnde, nu'dtia ( Lat. naked), bare, 

nudlORn'lons, nvdieau'iit itttidut, 
naked, eatUii, a ■t«m), naked stem- 
med, not leafy; iitidiiu'«iltu(Lat.), 
Bomewhat bare. 

nnlUner'Tls (mtUwi, noae, ntreu*, a 

nn'merouB, nvm^ro'siu (Lat,, very 
many), in botany indeSntte, not 
readily counted ; the sigli is gc. 

Hat, Svx (I^t.), a bard and jndeli 



soent one-seeded frtiit, often 
vaguely applied to snch imits 
as those ol the Labiatae and 
Grperaoeae; ipn'rloiifl'^', a fruit 
which owes its hardness to some- 
thing other than the pericarp, as 
in Mirabilis; Nux bacca'ta, a nut 
enclosed in a pulpy covering, as in 
the Yew. 

Bu'tant, nu'tana (Lat.)i nodding. 

NUta'tton {nutatiOy a nodding), the 
revolution of the growing tips 
of young organs; re^'vlng '^ = 


Vaflet, the diminutive of Nut, cf, 
NuGULB ; variously applied to any 
dry independent fruit, as an achene, 
or part of a schizooarp. 

NU'tricism [nutricius, that nourishes), 
a form of symbiosis in which the 
Fungus becomes the nurse and 
feeder of the other symbiont, as in 
Monotropa ; Nntrifion, the process 
of promoting the growth or re- 
pairing the waste caused by vital 

Nux (Lat., nut), see Nut. 

nyctan'tlioiifl (yv{, pvicrbs, night; 
opOos, a flower), used of night- 
flowering plants ; Nyctan'tby, the 
condition of nocturnal flowering ; 
nyctltroplo (rpoir^, a turning), 
placing the leaves as during the 
night ; NycUf ropism, assuming 
the sleep position. 

nymphaeform'lB {nymphay a pupa, 
/omuiy shape) ; Koerber applies 
this to chrysalis-shaped spores of 
some Lichens. 

Oan'gium ((&>y, an egg, dyyeTw^ a 
vessel), an apocytial oogonium 
which forms oospores by free cell- 
formation, as in Saprolegnieae 

ob, as a prefix, means inversely or 
oppositely ; as obovate, inversely 
ovate ; sometimes, but incorrectly, 
used for sub-. 

obcla'vate (o&, inverse, clavcUus, club- 
shaped), attached at the thicker 
end ; obeompres'sed, cbcompra^sua 
{compres^8ti8, pressed together), 

flattened the other way, antero- 
posteriorly instead of laterally; 
oboon'lc, oboon'ieal, obcon'ieus 
{contu, a cone), conical, but attach- 
ed at the narrower end ; oboor'- 
date, chcorda'tus ( -f oordatus), 
inversely heart-shaped, the notch 
being apical ; obcordifoxm, obcor- 
dtform'xsj are synonyms ; obcrena'- 
tOB (+ CRSNATUs), Xt denticulate; 
obcnr^rens (curr^TW, running),^ run- 
ning together and adhering at the 
point of contact; obdiplMte'ino- 
nonfl, -us (9cirX6of, double, <rHinum, 
a thread), where the stamens are 
double the number of the petals to 
which the outer series are opposite ; 
Obdiploste'mony, the condition it- 
self ; oUm'bricate, ohimbrica'tus 
( + IMB&ICATUS), when the imbri- 
cation is from above, downward ; 
oUan'oeolate, cblanceola'tvA ( + 
LANCEOLATDS), strictly speaking 
this cannot occur, but the word is 
used for taperine towards the base 
more than towards the apex ; ob'Iate 
{jtcUus, broad), flattened at the 
poles, as an orange. 

olrligate {obligatwit obliged), neces- 
sary, essential ; the reverse of fa- 
ouLTATivB ; ^ Oam'ete, a gamete 
which is incapable of further de- 
velopment without union with 
another gamete ; '^ Par'asite, an 
organism in which parasitism is 
imperative in order to attain com- 
plete development ; ob'Ugatoxy, 
obligatlYe, as in obligate ; ««' 
Bjrm'Uont, an organism which is 
dependent upon another for its 

oblig'ulate, Migvla'ivs (o&, inverse, 
+ LiouLATE), used of ligulate florets 
of Compositae extended on the 
inner side of the capitulum instead 
of the outside; obliga'llflorous {flos, 
florisy a flower), florets which are 
obligulate, as in Zo^ea, 

oblique', oUi'quua (Lat., slanting), 
(1) slanting ; (2) of unequal sides. 

oldit'erated {obliteratiia, erased), sup- 
pressed ; Oblitera'tion, suppression. 

olrlong, obUm'gus (Lat., rather long), 



^^ ith. 

muoh loDifer Ibaa broad, with 
neorlf parallel aides. 

obo'nl, obova'lii (ob, inverse. + 
ovtLK), ravened ovate, the distal 
end the bToader ; obo'vate, ofioca'- 
(ua, practically the same aa the 
'-- obO'TOld {tlSa, like), an obo- 
aoiid 1 abrln'geiu (+ »ts- 
, t a Hagent fioret of the 
ipoaitae, with an aoterior lip 
Jth, and the posterior lip Itha of 
the whole, aa though the lower lip 
were uppermost ; obrotan'doj { -h 
RWTUNDUsl.J somewhat ronnd. 

Otaeore', ol-Ku'riu [lAt., dark). |l) 
dark or dingy in tint: (2) uncer- 
tain in alGnity or diBtinctiveoeaa; 
(3) hidden. 

oti'solBt«, obfUe'tu* (lAt., worn oat), 
wanting or rudimentary ; used of 
an organ which is suarcelj' apparent 
or has vanished ; obsolH'cent ( + 
ncsirs), nearly obsolet«. 

otabne'tiu (Lac, blocked up), where 
hairs or other appendages partially 
close the throat of a tubular corolla. 

ebsalnilB'tiiB (ob, inverse, + sobdla- 
TUa), very narrow, painted at the 
basa and wideDinn a little towards 
the apex : cibin(<u«.'Us {sulura. a 
seam),:^ applied to the suture of a 
pericarp ; septifragal. 

Obltc'tu* (Lat.), covei'ed over b; 
something: obteo'to-Teno'sua, when 
the principal and longest veins are 
connected only b; simple cross- 
Veins; ob'tegens (Lat.), covering 

Obtura'tor (oJdiriMus, stopped up). (1) 
a. small body accompanying the 
pollen -masses of Orchids and Aacle. 
piadfl, closing the opening of the 
anther; (2) — Cardncls (Hooker 
61.) : (3) a process of the wall or 
the ovary descending on the 
mioropyle, in Ptmnbaijo. 

obtorblna'tn* [ob, inverse, -i-TirBBiNA- 
TtJS), reverse top-shsped, ewoLen 
at the bottom, narrowed at the 

Obtnss', tjlila'awi (Lat.), blunt or 

founded at the end ; ~ An'glad, 

VMem-angles ronnded, as in .Sali-ia 

praUmU, Linn. ; obtnsliu'eiilna, 

(Lat.). somewhat obtuse, 
obTAllatfl, obinSla'tui {ab. about, 
itillaiw, walled round), apparently 
walled up, guarded on all sidea ; 
obvallft'rls, surronnded as by a 
wall, aa in Niirciatwi cbvaJlarit, 
ob'rerM, oftcr/siH (Lat- turned to- 
wards); (1) the side faoing, u 
opposed to reverse ; (2) used when 
the point of a radicle in a seed 
approaches the hilum : ob'TaHti^, 
in an obverse form. 
ob'TOlute, obifila'lue (Lat. wrapped 
round), a modification of oohvo- 

an opposite organ, such aa half- 
equitant; obTOln'UTe ia a synO' 

Ocoln'sioii ioctluAos, shut up), the 

procesH by which wounds in treea 

are healed by the uronlh of callus, 

then said to be occln'ded ( U. Ward), 
ooonlta'tns (Lat.), hidden. 
ooean'ldiu (ottanita, belonging to the 

ocean), used of a marine plant. 
ocal'late. ocella'tm, ooalla'ted (ixelha, 

B little eye), with a circular patch 

of colour. 
Ocel'lns (Lat. a little eye), an eya- 

spot as in HaiUmyx, a genus of 

oebr&'oeouf. -t'.ut [oe-tira. yellow 

eiLrlh), ochre -coloured, yellow with 

a tinge of red. 
O'chrea - Oukka ; o'chreaw - ocaaATK. 
oobreleu'soas, -cu^ {&xi>°-- yelloir 

earth, jKuiiit, white), yBllowish 



I'crea (Lat, a greave). a tabular 
stipule, or pair of opposite stipules 
so combined ; o'oreata, nerea'ttl», 
provided with ooreae. 
Ootagyn'la [Sktw, eight, yvr^, a 
woman), a Linnean order of planta 
with eight-styled flowers ; octv'7- 
nona, m'l'tni/n'icii.-, having eight 
styles ; octam'erona (tUixn> a part), 
in eights : notan'der (irqp, tltSpii, 
a man), with eight stamens; Oe- 
taa'dila, a Linncau class of plaota 



with eight stameiiB; octaa'drova, 
havins eight stamens. 
Oo'tant [oetarUf a half-quadrant), the 
division of an oospore ; *^ Wall, 
applied to the septum which outs 
the oospore into ootants. 
oetan'tberouB (6ktu, eight, iwBripds, 
flowery), having eight fertile sta- 
mens ; octail'nuB (oppi^r, a male), 
Necker's term for ogtakdbous. 
ootofia'rlUB (L. Lat.)f in eight ranks or 

oefeoff'yxuras = ootaotnous. 
ootoloc'ular {octo, eight, loeuluB, a little 
place), applied to an eight-celled 
nruit or pericarp ; ootopefalous, 
4uB (WroXoy, a flower-leaf), with 
eight petals ; octora'dlate {radiuSf 
a ray), with eight rays, as some 
Gompositae ; ootosep'alous ( + 8bpa- 
lum), with eight sepals ; ooto- 
sper'mouB (aieipua, seisd), eiffht- 
seeded; Oc'tospore (o^opd, seed)= 
the Carpospo&b of Porphyraceae ; 
octosp'orons, eight-spored ; octo- 
■te'monoiia {aHiiuav, a thread), with 
eight fertile stamens ; ootos'tiohous, 
'U8 {ffrixotj a series), in eight rows, 
oo'ulate {oculuB, an eye)=ooELLATS; 
Oo'nlUB, (1) the first appearance of 
a bud, especially on a tuber ; (2), 
the depression on the summit of 
some fruits, as the apple, 
-odes {eUoff resemblance), a suffix for 
similar to ; as phyllodeSf like a leaf, 
od'dly pin'nate, with a terminal leaf- 
let, imparipinnate. 
odora'tos {LaI.), fragrant, usually 
restricted to sweet smelling O'dours, 
which, in flowers, are sometimes 
due to essential oils which can be 
distilled off; at other times the 
soent cannot be collected by chemi- 
cal means. 
Oede'ma {otdrffia, a swelling), t the 
tumid glands on woody tissues of 
Oeod'ogy (of^rot, a house, X^m, a 
discourse), the study of plant-life 
in relation to environment ; adj. 
otooloff'ioal ; Oeool'ogist, a student 
of the life of the plant in relation 
to its surroundings ; NoTX. — these 

words are frequently spelled, Boifl'- 
ogy, aecdog'ioal, Eocd'offlst. 
ollloi'iial,oj^iia7M(Lat. ,of the shops), 
used of medicinal or other plants 
procurable at shops. 
Offset, a lateral shoot used for propa- 
gating, as in the houseleek; (MT- 
slioot, an offset. 
often-tNiar'lnff, producing more than 

once in the season, mmtiferous. 
-oldss, -odes, -ides, -oidens, suffixes 
from elSotf resemblance ; as petal* 
aidetUf resembline a petid. 
Oidliim,pL Old'la ((Mr, an egg, + I9u», 
a diminutive), a term us&d to de- 
note concatenate conidia (Cooke) ; 
not to be confounded with the 
form • eenus Oidium, Link, the 
conidial stage of fSiysipheae. 
Oil, used for any fluid fat-bodies in 
plants, chiefly stearic, palmitic, or 
oleic acids ; ^ Cells, gum-cells ; '^ 
Flas'tids, Elaioplasts ; ^ Tabe, a 
synonym of Vitta in the fruit of 
(deag'lnons, -U8 (oleaginnu, pertaining 

to the olive), oily and succulent, 
oleic {oUum, olive oil) Ao'id, a glycer- 
ide or fat occurring in plante ; 
O'lain or O'leine, one of the vege- 
table fats, 
ol'ens (Lat.), smelling, especially 

sweetly odorous. 
Oleores'in {oleums olive oil,+RssiN), 
the natural admixture of a resin 
and an essential oil, forming a 
vegetable balsam or turpentine. 
Olen^oeoas, oUra'ceua (Lat., herb- 
like), (1) having the nature of a 
pot-herb, esculent; (2) X growing 
I m cultivated places (De Candolle). 
Olib'annm (Arab., ol or al, the, 
Lubftn, milk), a bitter and aromatic 
ffum-resin from several species of 
BoswtUia^ the frankincense of com- 
(digaa'droQS, -rus {SKlytn, few, ctr^p, 
ifBpbt, a man), with few stamens ; 
ollgan'thons, 'thus {ApBos, a flower), 
few-flowered ; oligodynamic (96«- 
fuf, power), Naegeli's term for the 
poisonous condition of water con- 
taining minute traces of copper 


tpr brsH ; it kills delioate ogUb 
td Spirogyra ; oUKom'aroa* {lUpot, 
% part), purta ooDHietiiig of tew 
nembers : Ollgoni'sr?, of (ew 
parta ; ollt;op«'lio (riiX^, cUy), 
applied to plActg which prefer 
certain rocks nhich jieM a aaiaM 
wnount of clayey detritoB (Tbur- 
nunu) ; ollgopaaiiii'iulo (i^(l;i>uit, 
■sad), for plantB BfTeDting certain 
snuite and dolomite formationa 
(ThnrmaDn) ; both of these claseea 

OUgapI^'la(^i'Uai',a leaf),Nccker'B 
expreeaion for a bract \ ollfcoptiyr- 
lou. having few loavea; ollgoaperm'- 
oni, -nwn {sTrtpiui, a seedl, few- 
seeded ; oUiMtc'monoua (uTi/iair, a 
thread), with few aba men a i 011- 
gotkx'; (rdjit, order), tbe decrease 
in the number of whorls in a flower ; 
Ollgotrop'ic (r»wrJi, a turning), em- 
ployed by Loew for bees which 
viBit a restricted range of plants. 
oUT&'ceoo*, -crva (olii'a, an olive, + 
aceoua) ; oU'veni (Lat.), the colour 
of a ripe olivo ; olivaa'ceni (LAt.), 
taming olive ■ coloured ; ollvae- 
tOrm'lB {Jbrma, shape), nhnped like 
an olive, drupaceous : ol'lve-colaur, 
Ol'lTe-treen, yeltowiah green dark- 
ened with black ; oUtIo'oIot (co/or, 

colour) = OLIVAOEOOH. 

olapttal&r'lai {SKoi, whole, r^aXav, a 
flower -leaf), the floral envelope! 
changed partially or wholly, as 
■tMucoB or pistila cbaoged into 
petaloid organs. 

Om'brophlle (ofi^pu), a storm, ^iXru, 
I love), Wiesner's term fur a plant 
which likes rain ; omtiroptL'ilaiiB, 
rain-loving ; Ombropli'lly, the con- 
dition described ; Om'bropliolw 
(0a^ot, fear), a similar term for a 

Slant disliking rain; ombropbotilc, 
[iting min : Ombropb'oby, dislike 
or impatience of rain. 
omaiVoroas (omnivortm, all devour* 
log], applied to parasites which 
attack many speciea and ore not 
confined to one bust-plant. 
OmopleiiliT'tuni (i^unrXcuji, inter- 
laced, ^vtif, a plant), applied to a 

monadelphoiu flower, the stamens 
being in one handle. 

Om'piUlDda, OmphaJo'dium iintfmXis, 
navel, (»«, like), the mark in ttie 
hilum through which the vessels 
pass to the chalazs. 

one-ribbed, having one prominent 
rib, as in the leaves of many 
grasses ; ~ sl'ded, (1) turned toone 
side ; (a) the parts turned the sane 
way ; (3) unequal sided. 

OUlscUonn'ls {omtnia, a wood-louse, 
/orma, shape), KoerbBr*! word for 
certain Lichen-spores resembling 
a wood-louse in shape; onla'eiu 
(LAt.), used for lead -coloured, from 
the lint of the ssme creature. 

Onoinatolo'gla. iSynfia, a name, Xfryoi, 
discourse), the rules to be observed 

n the 

Svra, things existing, 
, offspring), the develop- 
ment of an individual in its various 
stages ; adj. ontogmet'lc. 
ooblaa'tia {lioy, an egg, ^XrMror, a 
bud) ni'MlMQts, see next; OoUl&s- 
te'ma (^Xmiubs, a sprout) ni'a- 
meuta, the FERTiLiBi.xn Turks of 
Bchmiti ; O'ocyst (iiicrfis, a bag), 
a female organ, an Oooomhh ; 
Oagam'ete (-i- Uahite), a female 
gamete (Hartog) ;oog'uiiDiu (vifut, 
marriage), conjugation in which 
the two coalescing gametes are 
of dissimilar form ; Oofc'ainy, the 
reverse condition of Isooamv ; 
the female gamete never active, 
the male a spermatoioon, and the 
product an Oosfbrm (tiartog) ; 
Oogem'ma igrmnui, a bud). Caruel's 
term for Archerosidm ; OogeD'esls 
[yitean, beginning), the develop, 
ment of the egg, the early stage of 
the ovule j O'ogoue, Oogo'niiim, pi. 
Oogo'tiia {yori), race, oil'apring), 
a female sexnal organ, usually a 
spherical sac, containing one or 
more oospheres ; ookinet'ie {ulrii- 
TiMi, putting in motion), tending 
to produce the female element ; 
Oolysla {Xiaii, a loosing), riri' 
descence, espruially in carpels and 
ovules (PenKig) ; Oomyce'tfli {M*l'i 



a maahroom), those Fangi which 
reprodaoe sexually by antheridia 
and oogonia, the resolt being an 
oospore (Tubeof); Oona'Oleiis ( + 
NuoLKUS), the nucleus of an 
oosphere, cf. Sperm - nucleus ; 
O'ophore (0o/)^ai, I carry), the 
OoPHTTE in Archegoniatae ; Oopho 
rldan'gia (c{77eiby, a vessel), J 
Smith's name for the macro 
sporanffia of Marnlea, etc ; Oo 
phoridlam, a sporangium contain 
ing macrospores in SeUtgineUa ; 
O'opbyte {ifiVTOP^ a plant), that 

Sortion of the life-cycle of a plant 
uring which it bears sexual organs; 
the same as Oopho&b; O'oplasm 
(rXd^jua, moulded), the protoplasm 
of the oosphere ; O'osphere (o-^o^, 
a globe), a naked and nucleate 
mass of protoplasm, which, after 
coalescence with the sperm-nu- 
cleus, develops into an oosperm ; 
the egg or ovum ; Ck>m'ponnd '^ , 
one which contains several or 
manv functional sexual nuclei, as 
in Albugo (Stevens); O'osperm 
(ffT€pfM, seed), the product of the 
fusion of a male and a female 
eell; Oo«poran'ge = Oosporan'- 
gium, pi. Oosporan'gia (onropd, a 
seed, dyyeiop, a vessel), the sacs or 
sporangia which produce oospores ; 
Oospore, the immediate product 
of fertilisation in an oophore ; 
Oothe'oa {$T/iKrj, a case), the theca 
or sporangium of Ferns. 

opa'cos (Lat., shady, giving shade), 
(1) not transparent ; (2) dull, not 
shining; opake and opaque are 
anglicised forms of the word. 

o'pen, not closed ; as '^ Bun'dle, one 
which retains a portion of cam- 
bium capable of turther differen- 
tiation ; opposed to closed bundle ; 
/^'Nu'clens, the nucleus of Cyano- 
phyceae (Hieronymus). 

O'peUlng, expanding or becoming 
unclosed ; '^ Cells, those special 
cells by which the dehiscence of 
sporangia and pollen-sacs takes 
place (a) either by tangential 
contraction on drying, or (b) by 

a thickening which causes a hinge- 
Uke motion of the cells themselves 
(Schinz) ; qf, LiP-GELiJi ; '^ of 
Flow'en, the expansion of the 
members at the period of maturity ; 

oper^colar, oper'ciilAte, opereula'tua 
{operculum, a lid), furnished with 
a lid, as in many Mosses and 
Myrtaceae ; Oper'onle, the lamina 
of the leaf of Sarracenia (Heckel) ; 
oper'ouliform {forma, shape), 
shaped like a lid; Oper'cnlnm, a 
lid or cover which separates by 
a transverse line of division, aa 
in the pyxis, and Moss capsules ; 
also in some pollen grains. 

oper^tns (Lat., hidden), the same as 

oplsthe'lial, an error for opis'tliial 
{dwLadioi, hinder) Pore, Tschirch's 
name for the posterior border of a 
stoma ; opis'tiiodal is a synonym ; 
</. BisoDiAL ; opisthod'romoiis 
{Spofios, a course), a flower is 00 
termed, when the genetic spiral 
is assumed to pass as its shortest 
way from the bract to the first 
floral segment by the back of the 
flower, l^tween it and the axis of 
the stem. 

oph'iure (6</>is, a snake, o^od, a tail) 
Cells, usckI by Jonsson for Astbo- 
SOLBREIDS of Tschirch ; the name 
is from their resemblance to Echi- 

O'pium (Lat., dried poppy - juice), 
the concrete juice from the cap- 
sules of Papaver somniferumf 
Linn. ; ^ Al'kaloids are numerous, 
the best known being Morphia. 

Oplar'ium (6irXd/Ha, arms), Keeker's 
word for Scyphus. 

op'posite, opposi'tus (Lat., standing 
in front) ; (1) set against, as leaves 
when two on one node ; (2) one 
part before another, as a stamen in 
front of a petal; opposi'te-plmi'atas, 
with leaflets on the same plane at 
right angles to the common petiole; 
oppositlflor'us {fios^floria, a flower), 
having opposite peduncles ; opposi- 
tifolioaa [folium, a leaf) ; (1) with 




opposite leavea ; (2) oppogile a 

leal, aa u tendril; onwiltlpaf - 

■Jam, -liM (irc'roXoB, a flower-le&f), 

placed before a petal ; oppo*lUMp'- 

alDUa ( + 8efal), situated before a 

Bepal 1 oppoaitl'vna (Lat.), when 

e part staada before another, the 

verse ot " alternate." 

wpsT'iiuita (A^i!, i'f-iut. aisht, 

ipfiA, a seed), tiiberclea on the 

nrface of some Algala canUiniDg 

•porBH (LindlBy). 

Ppci^onjr {di/iyays!, poathamous), the 

[ production aad development of 

' - -iouabuda (WittrocL): ^. 

I iopiimits, beat), the most 

[ advanlageouB for an organiem or 

I function : Op'tlmnm refers to the 
degree of temperature, light, etc., 

[ which best oonduoaa to the rital 
ties of a giroQ organiaro. 
■tfrae (cmr, eitremity) Radl'onm t = 

Or'ange, (1) the fruit of Cilrwi Avt- 
antium, Linn. ; 1,2) a aeoondarv 
colour, red and yellow oombined, 
taking its name from the tint of 
the fruit mentioned. 

orUe'nUT, orbiciila'ri^ (Lat, cir- 
oular), ol a flat body with a cir- 
cular outline ; otUc'alKte, orlrii^n' 
/a'fiu, diak-shaped ; Ortile'nlai, (1) 
the fleshy corona in the genua 
Sla/itlia ; (2) a round flat hymen- 
mm in Fung). 

OrUl'lA (orfiM. an orb), the shield of 
□ertain Liohens. aa in Ueiiea. 

Onbel'Ia, a, general term for Lichens 
which yield dye«, as Iitcaitora, 
Roecdla, etc 

onblda'oMnii, -fiui, (Ijfurniahedwith 
two tubera at the roots, as species 
ot the genus OnAie and it« allies ; 
(2) pertaining to the order Or- 
obideoe : OTcHld'eooi, rslating to 
the Otchideoe. 

(feKebil. also known aa Cudbeak, and 
LiiTuus, a valuable dye from 
Ltcanora laHarea, Ach., and other 

Ol'otn, the colonrinc principle from 
various tinctorial Lichens. 

oronloafiirm'ia {arcaia, a small tun, 
forma, abspe), used b; Kosrber for 
oask -shaped Lichen-spores. 

Or'iler, Wdo (Lat., methodical at- 
raDgemenl}, in botany, a group 
between genua (tribe, suborder). 
and clasa ; or'dliial, relating to 
an order, as ~ Ohar'acter, that 
which marks it off from kindred 

Or'glui (Spvofev, an instrument), any 
deflaite part of a structure, as a 
cell, a fibre, a leaf. etc. ; Ol'gvu of 
Keproduc'tion, those which are con- 
cerned in the production of seeds 
or spores ; in Phanerogaroa the 
stamens and pialiU are so termed ; 
- or Tegeta'eioii, those connected 
with the growth simply, as roots 
and learea; organ'le, organ'iau, 
relating to living organs ;~0«n'tre, 
the point ot axis around which 
growth takes place, it may not be 
the structural centre; OiSHii^eiij 
(7^*01. race, oSspring), or Oicano- 
Kon'etla {yirtait, beginning), the 
formation and development of 
organs from their primitive condi- 
tion ; adj, oreanogenet'ie ; Oiga.- 
nog'rapliy iyttiipu, I write) ; Orga- 
nol'OBy (Ai>ot, diaoourae), the study 
of organs and th#ir relations ; Or- 
ganoid (tlSot, like), an organ of 
apparently unknown function 
(Swingle) ; Or'ganiam, a body pos- 
sesaing organic structure ; orEknO' 
pl&i'tlo (TrXofTTKOT, suitable for 
beinv wrought), with the power of 
producing organs. 

Or'cya {ipyviii, a fathom), six feet in 
height; orgr'alla, a fathom long, 
the height of a man. 

OTlenta'UoD {oritni, the east). (I) the 
correct placing with regard to the 
quarters of the compass ; (!) gene- 
r.llj ' - 

escape ; ostiole. 
Orig'omi = ORTnoMA. 
Otnlthop&'Uae {ifK-it, SprlSai, a bird, 

(/H^iu, 1 love), plants habitoally 



fertilised by pollen brought by 
birds ; adj. omithopli'lloiui. 
Or'mogon, cited by Grozier, = Hob- 


Or'thoblaBt {dpBoSt upright, /SXeurrot, a 
bud), used by Cramer for confer- 
Yoid prothallia growing in an 
ascending direction ; Oxthoplioto- 
taz'y (0<«)f, 4xar6it light, rd^u, 
order), the direct arrangement of 
such organisms as VSvox and 
Spirogyra assumed under the* 
stimulus of light (Oltmanns) ; or- 
tliophototrop'ic [TpoiHi, a turning), 
the direct influence of light shown in 
Vaucheriat Phycomycea^ and shoots 
of flowering plants (Oltmanns). 

Orthoploc'eae (irXoic^, a twining),those 
Cruciferae which have conduplicate 
cotyledons; orthoplo'oeoQB, -ctuBy 
when the incumbent cotyledons 
are folded round the radicle ; Or- 
thospcor'meae ( vT^pfui, a seed ), 

Slants whose seeds have albumen 
at on the inner face, neither in- 
volute or convolute ; Or'thosticliy, 
pi. Or^thosticliles {trrLxoty a row), a 
vertical row, as in phyllotaxis ; 
orthos'tiohous, straight ranked ; 
ortlios'tomoiia {ffrbfM, a mouth), 
with a straight opening ; ortho- 
tac'tic (rd^tj, order), used by 8. 
Moore in the sense of normal, ap- 
plied to an interval in the Phot- 
bum; orthot'ppal, orthot'ropous 
(rpoir^, a turning), used of an ovule 
with a straight axis, the chalaza 
being at the insertion and the ori- 
fice or foramen at the opposite end, 
farthest from the hilum ; ortho- 
trop'ic, assuming a vertical position. 

Oryg'oma (5piry/ia, a ditch or pit), 
Keeker's term for the cup of a 
MarcharUia containing gemmae. 

Os, Or'is (Lat. ), a mouth or orifice. 

oscill&'tliig=VRRSATiLB; oscllla'nus, 
oacUlcUor^ius (Lat. from oscillcUiOy 
a swingine), has the same meaning. 

Of'cnlom (Lat. a little mouth) = 


Onnom'eter {(SxrfMtf a thrusting, 
fUTpof, a measure), an instrument 
to measure Osmosis; Os'mose, 

Omno^Bis, the difiusion of liquidB 
through membranes ; adj. oimo'tio. 

Of'seous, oa'aeus (Lat.), bony. 

Onlc'iQiifl, Ossicfulum (Lat., a little 
bone), the pyrene of a fruit, as a 

Of'slfled (o8, 08818, a bone, faciOf I 
make), becoming hard as bone, aa 
the stones of drupes, such as the 
peach and plum. 

Ostariphy'tam {dardpioPy a little bone, 
«Pvt6v, a plant), a plant which pro- 
duces a drupe or drupe-like fruit. 

Oiteoscle'reidi {6<rT4ow, a bone, 
akkTfpoSf hard), the *' bone-shaped" 
sclereids of Hakea, 

Of'tiolate, 08tiola'tu8 (osticlumi a little 
door), furnished with an opening or 
mouth; Os'tiole, Os^ttolunif (1) the 
opening of the conceptacle in some 
Algae ; (2) the aperture through 
which spores escape from the peri- 

ottracodennat'iiiQB [HirrpaKw, a hard 
shell, SepfiArivoSf leathern), resem- 
bling the shells of mollusca, applied 
to certain Lichens. 

-o'suB, a termination indicating aug- 
mentation, as radio'aus, large- 

out'er, exterior, abaxial ; ^ Glumes, 
one or more glumes at the base of 
a spikelet in grasses, enclosing one 
or more flowers ; '^ Perld'lum = 
Pbbidium bxtebnum. 

Onfgrowth, (1) another name for 
Emeboencb ; (2) a tuberous excre- 
scence on roots. 

Ont'line, the continuous boundary- 
line of an organ, as a leaf. 

o'val, ova'lis {ovuniy an egg), broadly 

Orarioph'ylly ("t&aptov, omdum" 0i5X- 
Xoy, a leaf), descending metamorpho- 
sis of a carpel into a leaf (Morren). 

O'vary, Ova'rium {ovum^ an egg), that 
part of the pistil which contains 
the ovules, the immature fruit, 
formerly termed the Germkn. 

o'vate, ova'tuB (Lat., egg-shaped), (1) 
shaped like a longitudinal section 
of a hen*s ege, the broader end 
basal ; (2) usMTfor ovoid. 


Onl'lnm. DiidbI's tenn for a youog 
oarpel bearinfi the same relation 
ta A mature i»rpel as au ovule lo a 

Omob'TlM (aiiim. an egg ; iyxmut. 

Ml infusion), loose tiBSue of oval- 

■baped oella. 
OTartaus'lng, projecting beyond the 

o'vUOllll, oin/orm'w {onum, an egu, 
forma, shape), ovoid, egg-shaped ; 
o'TOld, oi>oi'al«<l> (tlJoi, reaem- 
blauoe), an egg - abapad solid ; 
OTol'tel, bavins the outline of ao 
egn i OTola'rU (Hod. Lat.}-ovoiii ; 
OT'nUM, ovwla'lva, (1) posacaaiDg 
ovnlea 1 (2) aamewhat ovoid (Hens- 
low) ; Or'iila, Ui/ulam, the youug 
seed in the ovary, the organ which 
after fertili nation developa into a 
Med ; ~ Tabe, a thfead>lika ex- 
tension of thaamDios, rising beyond 
Iha foramen : ovuUferoni i/ero. I 
bear), bearing ovuloa, adj. oVular; 
0'Tii&t,(l) the ovule; (2) - Zvoute; 

(3) = OOSPHBRB. 

oxal'lc, pertaining to OxalU, wood 
■orrel ; ~ Ac^ld, a vegetable acid of 
frequent ocourrence : oiaUTerona 

(/tro, I bear), produoing oxalic 
moid or its salta ; Oxallleu'idte 
(+ Lkuctte), Van Tieghem's name 
for a vacuole whioh cuutains oxalic 

oxjaoan'tbons, -Ihaa (Aiit, sharp, 
fjLoi'^a. a thorn), furnished with 
many Ihorna or prickles ; oxyoar'- 
ptu (lapTBt, fruit), when fruit is 
•harp-pointed ; O^CSl'lnlOlM ( + 
Cklldlohk) constitute the main 
masa of the Kroun<l tissue of Phan- 
erogams, and occurs with lignin in 
the walla of wood-cella; Oz'ydaMa, 
A general term for oxydiaing 
enzymee (Green). 

Fao'ket'form, the association of bao' 
teiin. in such colonies as SarHaa. 

pftchycar'poa (raxi^, thick, nopudi, 
fruit), having a thiuk pericarp ; 
paAhyder'mona|S^p^, skin or hide), 
applied to Moasps when the cells or 
capsuled are firm and — —■- — 

pubrpkjl'Kni' (^I'XXav, a leaf), 
thick - leaved ; pAchyiUcIi'ou 

iarlxoi, a row), thick-Bided, applied 
to cells only. 

Fad. (I) a cuahion-like growth; ^. 
SnBABTKicspoBML Pad ; (2) a popu- 
lar name in the United Statea for 
the Seating leaves of wat«r-lilieB. 

Pa'gliui (Lat., a leaf), the blade or 
surfiice of a leaf, 

pftlnt'ed. having ooloured streaks of 
unequal densitj'. 

paired, conjugated, used of the teeth 
in the peristome of Mossea ; ftlx- 
iDg-oell, an equivalent of Gambte. 

pala'ceons, -rrtu {pa/a, » spade or 
shovel. + aceoUB), when the edges 
of an organ, especially of a leaf, 
adhere to their support. 

PalaeObOt'ftDr (raXawi, ancieot, 
Parir-^, a herb), fossil botany, 
the Btndy of planta in a fossil 
state; PalMopbytol'oey (*v7o». a 
plant, \6ryoi, discourse), IhesoiencB 
of palaeobotAny. 

pa'lar, pala'rie (Lit., pertaining to a 
pale or stake), when the root is 
perfectly continuous with the 
stem ; pala'il-nffio'iaa, when a 
palur root has many branches. 

Pii'Me, Fala'lum (Ut., the palate), 
(1) tho prominent lower bp of a 
ringont corolla ; (2) the projection 
in the throat of a. persoiuit« 
gamopptaloUB corolla. 

Psla, Paleft (Lat., ohoff), (1) the 
chafiy acalcs on the receptacle of 
many Compositae ; (2) the inner 
bract or glume in grasaea, called 
"PalefbyNorlh American writers; 
(3) the ramenta or chatTy aoales 
on the stipe of many Ferns ; ~ 
dathra'la, the latticed scale of 
Ferns (Lueraaen); paiea'ceoiu ( -i- 
aououal, chaffy, furnished with 
I>»le»e or ohatf-like in le«nre ; 
'ia {/orma. ehape), re- 
ibling paleoe ; Fal'eolft, a dim- 
inutive of palea, or of secondai^ 
order, applied to the Lopioulb of 
Braases ; pal'eolate. pa/eola'tiu. 
ftiiniEhed with a lodicule ; pUeo. 

Ufvou {ftro, I beu), bMriog 

PmlMpbTttd'osy = Palaku-bttoumit. 
PkI'M^ Falsa. 

I (*dXt>, agaiD, fititta, 
■ " ' "i term for 

»lao written TkUii'cmr. 

Val'lnUto <Ull, perpendionlu' elong- j 
ated p«reiii]h;mk oella od the aur- 
fkM of moit luvei ; ~ FaMLeh'Tina, 
— TU'nu, tiMua compMed of the 
i&id oelU. 

pal'leiw (lat., wan], pals in colour; 
pallei'oeat, faecomiag lieht in tint ; 
pal'lld, p<d'lidui, wmewbat pallid ; 
pallld'nliu, slightly pallid. 

Palllnm ( Lat. , a oovering or garment), 
a presumed gelalinoua envelope of 

Mlm (paima, the palm of the hand), 
three inches, the width of the 
hand ; ~ veined = palmitblv 
viihid; palmar'li (Lat.), the 
breadth of the palm, about three 
inches ; pftl'mate, paima'ttu, lobed 
or divided, so that the sinuses 
point to the apex of the petiole ; 
pal'nwtely, in a palmate manner, as 
~olett=PAuiATiyn> ; ~ oam'pouiLd, 
~ dlTl'ded, ~ k" - 
BATB ; ~ nerred 

tUonn'la {/orma, shape), the 
venation arranged in a palmate 
manner ; palmjLt'Uld, paimal^idai 
Ifitido, fdi, to cleave), cat in a 
palmate fashion uaarlj to the 

Eitiole ; palauttUolHite {lobatus,' 
bed), paimatcl; lobed ; palmatl- 
nar'Tla {nervtu, a nerve), palmately 
nerved ; palmatlpart'lte {parttlut, 
divided), cut nearly to the base in 
a palmate manDer ; palmat'lHCt, 
paimatiiecC'vt {aecttu, cut), pol- 

Pklmel'lk (inXfiai, palpitation), the 
loogloea stage of Schizomycetes, 
etc., when embedded in a ielly-like 
mass : not to be confounded with 
the algal seani, PaimtUa, Lyogb. 

PalsMllEi, Phipeon's name for the 

oolonring matter of PatmtOa orw- 
Mta, Agh. ; pKlanlTold ((Bdi, n- 
■amblanoe), characteristic of the 
genns named. 

■MMlferoiu {palma, t, date pftloi, 
/tro, I bear), producing palnu. 

piU'llllflllll (paima, pum of tlia 
band, forma, shape) = fauuti- 
Foaii ! palmluer'TMl, paimitter'vu 

palmlVlo (paltna, a palm), relating 
to palma, as '~ Ae'id, derived from 
Falmltln, a givoeride, a scjid fat 
occurring in palm oil. 

?al'mtu (LAt, the palm of the hand), 
M a roeuure may denote a Spam 
or a Palm, nine inobea or three. 

paln'dal tjMiiut, a marsh), Wataon'a 
term for natives of marshes, wet 
all through the year ; pal'ndlna, 
pala'dliLona (Crazier) = pftl'odoaa, 
palvdo'iue (Lat., boggy), growing 
in marshy place*. 

palnmbl'nu (Lat., of wood-pigeons), 
lead -coloured. 

palna'ter (Lat., swampy), iwlni'trlna, 
paius' trit, inhsbitating bogfy 
graund ; the latter I^tio form la 
more usual in botanio usage. 

pun'ptnlform [pampinui, a tendril, 
/orma, shape), resembling the ten- 

Fan-apo«'pory (rSi, rorroi, all, + 
Apospobv), the oondition of pro- 
thalli being developed apoeporoualy 
over the entire surtaoeof the frand. 

pan'dimte, paiuiura'tut (pandvm, a 
musical inatrument). fiddle -shaped, 
as theleaf of AuinftzpuIcAcr.Idriu. ; 
paiuln'rlfOnn (/orma, shape], re- 
sembling the same, 

Panren'eais (raf, niunit, all, yintrn, 
beginning], a theory that each 
wparate unit of a body throws off 
minute gemmules during all stages 
of development, which may develop 
it onoe, or remain dormant and b^ 
transmitted through the repro- 
ductive Celts to later generations ; 
Fui'Eeiii, De Yriea's term for the 
particles aesumed in Dar- 

Sower - clnaMr, as m 
braachnd racMne or oorjmb ; pu'i- 
eled. furaUhed with s panicle ; 
pania'nlaia, panicuta'tan (Lat.), 
lutvine an infloreacence of the kind 
descnbed ; puilo'nllronii i/orma, 
■hap«), panicle- shaped (Croziar). 

PanUlea'Uo& (panw, liresd, fofio, I 
make], l-he fetmentative changes 
by which dough ia converted iuto 

Paiunlz'U (irst, irnirit, all, iiJin, a 
mixing), Weisniann'a term to de- 
note tbe ag'-Qc; a( modiGoation or 
evolatioD which results from the 

L oeuation of natural selection. 

■U'lui'T ipanit, bread), periainiog to 
bread, or suitable for making it 
(Crueicr) ; more oorrectly pui'uy. 

pMUMXter'nft {panuiu, a cluth, ur- 
ttrnw, oulside), = ErJCARPilTM ; 
pan'nlfami, i}anni/orm'is l/orma, 
■hap-), havina the appearanoe or 
textnre of felt or woollen cloth ; 
Fuulntar'na (in/emtu, withiD)^ 
Ekdocakpidu ; panna'aiu (Lat. 
ragged), botanicall;, the some as 

pupttOtOSIVf llO (rSt, rorriT, all, ^t, 
^ffTDt, light, lurpar, a measure), Used 
of leaves which adapt their pi«ition 
to both direct and diffused light 
(Wiemer) ; PMupann'lam {rrrip/ia, a 
seed), the universal dilfusion of 
germ I throughout the atmosphere. 

|MIItMll0b'i7Ui ; {rarraxij, on ever; 
■ide, fffiiia, I grow), growing in a 
oircular manner, 

pautogr'Mioiu (ni, TtwTii, all, 7^*01, 
race, offnpring), applied to Fungi 
which grow everywhere, and are 
not confined to a aingle host. 

Paps'ln. a peptic enzyme from CarUa 
/■./a,,., Lmn. 

pftpavsra'ceous, belonging to, or re- 
sembling the poppy, Fapaivr ; 
papa'veroiu, resembling a p<ippy, 

pa'pery. having the toxiure of paper, 

aaeouB), a butterfly-shaped oorolla, 
as in the suborder PapilioDSoeae 
of Legaminoaae. 

Pkpll'la (Lat, a nipple), pi. ?apil1aa, 
(1) eoh Buper6mal glands or pro* 
luberaucee ; (2) " Also the aoiculae 
of cer'ain Fungils" (bindley); 
papular, papilla' rin, pupll'luy. 
resumbting papillae ; pap'lllat*, pa- 
pUla'tiu (L>t, bud-ehapedl, having 

fapillae ; paptUiferoua, •nu {f'.ro, 
bear), priKlucmg papillae ; pa- 
pll'llfonn {/orma. sbapn), shaped 
like a papilla ; pap'Ulose, papil- 
lo'eai {IjA.), oovered with papillae. 

papplfertnu Idq^^ui, ptaot-doicn, 
J'tro, I bear), De*riiig pappus ; pap'- 
pirarm, /iapp\form ' ia (/oi-mn , sha pe) . 
reaembliog pappus ; Fap'po. Blair's 
word for the down of thistles ; 
pap'poia, pappo'aiiK, pap'poni, hav- 
ing pappus ; Pap'puB. thistledown, 
the various tufts of hairs on 
achenea or fruits, the limb of the 
oalyx of CompDStta SareU. 

P&p'ola (Lat, a pitnple), a pimple or 
amsll pustule ; papnllfeTOUB, -rut 
[frro, I bear), bearing pustules ; 
pap'nloia, papvlo'aue, pap'uloua, 

papyrs'cieoaa, papyra'rtv (Lat. made 
of papyrus), (1) papary ; ('2) white 
as paper ; - Fema. filmy Ferns. 

panbol'tc, pantbol'lcftl, parahtii'icut 
i,Ttapn0ii\)l, a parabola), in botany, 
ovate- oblung or ovale, obtuse and 
contracted below the apex, vised of 

Puabnx'ilie (irajia, from beside, + 
DmiJuK), and Faralnuclii'liUne, alka- 
loids occurring in Bunu scniper- 
virens. Lion- ; Paracalltii (-«- 
CaLLCs), a Bubatanoe resembling 
the callus of sieve-lubea, but differ- 
ing in reaction and chemical con- 
BtitutioD : PanLcajp'lum inapro!, 
fruit), (I) au abortive pistil or 
carpel ; (2) the pcreistent poitiim 
of some styles or atigmas ; Para- 
cel'lnlOM ( + CKLLfLusE) larms 
the epidermal cells of plvnts ; 
paraolinniiopIiOT'le (x/x^im, colour, 
^p/ia, I carry), applied to bacteria 
whose colouring is an excretory 
product, but adherea to the or- 
ganiami ; Pancorol'lA ( -I- Cosolla), 



any appendage to a corolla, the 
corona of a flower ; Par'aoyst 
{k^otis, a bag), Tulaaoe's term for 
gametes in Pezizay etc. ; Paradi- 
pliylliim {dlSf twice, tf^vXKoi^, a leaf), 
a double leaf resoltinff from dicho- 
tomy of the lamina (Kronfeld).| 

par'afflnold (+ Paraffin, eldot, resem- 
blance), Kerner's term for a ffroup 
of scents, such as the Rose, Lime, 
and Elder. 

Paragalac'tan (ira/>d, from beside, + 
Oalactan), a reserve substance in 
the seeds of lupins ; Para^amy 
iydfiott marriage), vegetative or 
gametal nuclei lying in a con- 
tinuous mass of cytoplasm which 
fuse to form a zygote nucleus ; 
apocyf lal ^ , the vegetative nuclei 
of an apocy tium which fuse to form 
an ** Oospore " in Saprolegnieae 
(Hartog) ; Paragen'eslB (y^vetf-it, be- 
ginning), all modes of reproduction 
resulting in a body which simu- 
lates a zygote in the same or allied 
forms (Hartog) ; ParahelloVroplam 
(-I-Heliotbopism), diurnal sleep, 
the movements of leaves to avoid 
the effects of intense sunlight ; cf, 
PARATHSBMOTBOPic ; Parali'nln ( + 
Linin), the substance composing 
the nucleo-hyaloplasm (Schwarz). 

par'allel (irapdXijXof, parallel), ex- 
tended in the same direction, but 
equally distant at every part ; '^ 
Ohor'isia, lateral separation into 
two or more members; '^ nerved, 
^ ner'vls, ^ veined, parallelive- 
no'mi8, straight nerved or veined ; 
(1) the lateral ribs straight as in 
Alnua ; (2) the entire system, as in 
the leaves of grasses ; parallelod'- 
romons, -mua {Spofws, a course), 
having parallel veins, as in lilies 

paramerid'lan (irapA, from, beside, + 
MsaiDiAN), used of planes in a 
Diatom-frustule which are parallel 
to the meridian (O. Mueller); Para- 
mit'om (+ Mitom), Flemming's 
term for the more fluid portion of 
the cell-substance contained in the 
Mitom ; the paraplasma of Kupffer ; 

Param'yl, Paramyliim {dfivkow, 
fine flour), a mucilaginous sub- 
stance probably akin to staroh, in 
the cytoplasm of some Algae, as 
Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyoeae ; 
Parane'mata, pL {inj/ui, a thread), 
the paraphyses of Algae ; adj. 
parane'matid, as ^ FiFamenta = 
Paranemata ; Paraan'oleoius ( + 
NucLBOLUs), a secondary nucleolus 
when there are more than one 
(Strasburger) ; Parana'dans ( + Nu- 
cleus), an apparently additional 
nucleus, generally near the true 
nucleus, and sometimes budded off 
from it ; parapec'tlc ( + pxcnc) 
Acid, derived from pectin by the 
action of alkalis ; Parapeetiii, 
hydrolysed pectin ; ParapeValnm 
(WraXo)", a flower-leaf), any ap- 
pendage to a corolla, consisting 
of several pieces (Moench); para- 
pet'alons, -lua ; parapet'alold (eldot, 
likeness), (1) bearing a parapet- 
alum ; (2) of stamens which stand 
on each side of a petal; Para- 
phyruum (0i^XXoy, a leaf), (1) = 
Stipule; (2) a foliaceous expan- 
sion in some calyces ; (3) a small 
intorfoliar appendage on Moss- 
stoms ; Paraphyses (^o-cf, growth), 

(1) sterile filaments occurring in 
the fructification of Cryptogams ; 

(2) the rays of the corolla in Passi- 
flora^ the parastades; (3) formerly 
used for the cystidia of Funffi ; 
'^En'velope, the peridium of l^- 
dineae ; adj. paraph'ysate ; Para- 
plas'ma (v-Xcur/ui, moulded), the 
more liquid intorfilar portions of 
protopUksm; Paraplectench'yma ( -H 
Flectenchtma), a modification of 
hvphal-tissue (Lindau). 

Parasite («-apd<r(rot, one who lives at 
another's expense), an organism 
subsisting on another (the host) ; 
'^ Sap'rophyte, a parasito which 
kills its host and then continues 
to feed on it ; parasitic, deriving 
nourishment from some other or- 

Sanism ; f^ Gastra'tlon, sterility in- 
uced by the effects of a parasito ; 
Paraal'toB spu'rlns = Epiphyte . 


>y » pi 

Far'AilIlsiii, the state of ] 
npon another orgaoiam ; Paiai- 
pema'tla {+ Spehuatia), small 
reproductive bodiee resembliDg 
Boorea, foaad in some Algala 
I (LindlBy). 

k^4*'tailn (irapaordi, a door-pOBt), 
I the coronai raja ot Pwiaiftora, tf. 

* Vuutk'men ( + 8TiHKN)orPaTut«'- 
mon {aTi\iuM, b. (ilameiit), an abor- 
tive stamen, a Bttuninodium. 
Faikat'lctir, FaranlicJiKH ('opi, from 
b«aide, arfx^x- > aeries), a aecondary 
■piml in phf llotaiiB ; Pai'Mtyle ( + 
Stvue), an abortive style ; ?ant- 
■ymbio'ils ( -I- l:|ivuBi(uiK), when 
the hyphae of a psraaite envelope 
the algal constitucnta of a Lichen 
and infliot in jur^ (Zopf); paratlier- 
inotrop'le {9tpiait, warm, T/»irii, a 
tnming), oroposed by Macfartane 
for parahelio tropic, i« such aaeea as 
the movements of leavea in DToetni, 
O^cidu and ilimoKa ; paraton'lo 
(rint, tension], iffect of light in 
retarding growth ; pualruiBTer'- 
■BU {tranavcrtut. lying across), used 

I of the planes pavallelto the traos* 
verun plane of a Diatom frus- 
lule (0. Mueller) ; puavil'vkr 
( -f, applied lo thoie phuics 
which are parallel to the valvar 
plane of a Diatom, cither epithecal 
or bypothecal (O. Mueller). 
FuvDOti'rina (rapPT^fui, I pour in 
beside), used by Grew, and aince 
bia time for the tisaue cum posed of 
cells more or less isodinmetrio, 
especially auch tissue as the 
pith and meaophyll; paxsuchy'- 
m&toni, ooDsisting of parencbyma, 
spongy, porous. 
Puloh'noi {wapi, beside, tx'Ot, a foot- 
print), the two lateral prints on 
the leaf-scoT of Lepidodendreoe. 
Par'lei (Lat., a house wall), pi,, 
Par'leteB, the nail of any organ ; 
paxl'stal, paritla'tie. borne on or 
belonging to a wall ; ~ (J'trlcle, used 
by NoU tor the layer of proto- 
fUam neit the cell- wall ; Farl'etln, 


Iba colouring matter fonud in the 
Lichen, Phyacia parirlina, De Not. 
pariplu'nata, panpinna'lua (Lat.). 
pinnate, with an equal number of 
leaRots, that is, without a ter- 

pftroe'olons (irapA, from beside, otcoi, 
a house), in Mosses, having the 
male and female organs in the 
same inttorescence, the male naked 
in the axils of the lower bracts ; 
parol'coiu ia a aynonym ; Puor- 
tIiot'ro[iliiii l6pS6i, risht, rpoiH), a 
turning). Archangel] s term when 
loaves pUce themselvea with the 
lamina vertical, but not necesaarity 

pirt'M, part'itfl, parli'lua (Lat,), 
clalt, but not qnite to the base. 

Fait&snogun'ets {rafiS^wct, virgin + 
Gauete), a gamete which develops 
without pairing (Hartog) ; Partlio- 
gsu'eili {yivfais, origin), a form of 
apogamj" in which the oosphere de- 
velops into the normal product of 
ferlilisation without a preceding 
aeiuul act; Faxtbenoff'eny (ycnt, 
□Ospring), ha^ the se 

, (>=« 

. off- 

two sexually different cells; Pix*- 
tbenoapore \irropi, a seed), is the 

par'tlal, p/tHia'/U (Lat.), in botany 
usually means secondary, aa ~ In- 

voln'cre, ~ Fed'nncla, ~ Feflole, 

ultimately separating, or easily 

pftr'tlm (Lat.), partly ; other ex- 
pressions are fx parle, pro parte. 

paxUt'lon {parlilio, a division into 
parta), (l) a wall or dissepiment ; 
(3) a separated part or segment ; 
(3) the aeepoBl division into which 
a leaf can Be out withonl becaming 
compound (Lindley). 


purtt'tiu (Lat.) = parted. 

Tir'trldffs-wood, oak-wood destroyed 
by Stereum (Tubeuf). 

^tarwULox^UM {parvus, small, JloSyiorU, 
a flower), having amaller m>wer8 
than in its congeners ; iMunrUb'liui 
{folittm, a leaf), with smaller leaves 
than the allied species; pur'Yiis 
(Lat.)» smalL 

Pii'Mge OellB, cells in the exodermis 
or endodermis of roots which 
retain thin unaltered walls, by 
which water can pass. 

PiM'salus (irdaffoKot, a peg), a gamo- 
sepaloos calyx. 

pai'oiud {pcucuuiUf a pasture), H. C. 
Watson's term for plants which 
grow in pastures and grassy 
commons, amongst less rank herb- 
age than ** prataf " ; paa'cnui (Lat. ), 
relating to pastures. 

Fatteiizlsa'tlon,the preservation of fer- 
menting liquids by heating to about 
140^ Fahr., so as to germin- 
ate and then destroy Fungi and 
their spores contained in the fluids 
treatea (Crozier). 

Patel'la (Lat., a small dish), an orbi- 
cular sessile apotheciuro, with a 
marginal rim distinct from the thal- 
lus; patellar'old (eldot, likeness), 
resembliog a patella ; patel'Uform, 
p(iieU\f<jrm'is{/orina,thk\>e), shaped 
like a small dish, circular and 
rimmed ; Patel'lnla, a diminutive 
patella; patellulate, possessing pa- 

pa'tent, pat'eru (Lat.), spreading; 
patentls'simas (Lat.), extremely 
spread out. 

paveriform {pcUeraf a dish or saucer, 
forma, shape), saucer-shaped. 

Patli-fl'nderB = Honby-guidcs, lines 
of colour leading to nectaries. 

pathogenic, pathogr'enons (TdSos, 
suffering, disease, yipos, race, off- 
spring), producing disease ; Patho- 
Cene'lty, the quality of disease 
giving; Pathorogy {\6yot, dis- 
course), the science of diseases ; 
V^g'etahle ^, that department of 
botany which treats of plant dis- 


pat'Qlons, 4u8 (Lat.), slightly spread- 

pauciflor'oni, -rus {paucm, few, Jlo§, 
./loTM, a flower), few flowered; panel- 
follui (folium, a leaf), having few 
leaves; paao^Jnga'tns {jitgum, a 
yoke), with only a few pairs of 
leaflets in a pinnate leaf. 

paa'iiaciu {pausia, a kind of olive), 

pavonl'nns ( Lat. , pertaining to a pea- 
cock), peacock-blue. 

pear-formed, '-* shaped, obovoid or 
obconio with a tapering base. 

pearl-grey, "pure grey, a little verg- 
ing to blue *' (Lindley). 

P^hitne' (Fr.), a disease of silkworms 
caused by Nosema Bonibycis, Naes., 
a bacterial organism ; it is a&o 
named Gattins. 

Pec'taae {irrfxros, coagulated), an 
enzyme which forms vegetable jelly 
from pectic substances occurring in 
the cell- wall. 

Peo'ten (Lat. , a comb) t = Stkrioma. 

peo'tlc {iniKTot, coagulated), relating 
to pectin, as peo'Uc Ao'ld, supposed 
to form a large part of fruit-jelly ; 
Pec'tin, or Pec'tine, a jelly-like sub- 
stance in fruits ; cf. Psotose ; pec- 
tina'ceoui ( + aceous) ; resembling 
pectin ; gelatinous. 

peo'tinate, pectina'tus (Lat., like a 
comb), pinnatifid with narrow seg- 
ments set close like the teeth of a 
comb ; peo'tinatory, applied by De 
Bary to two series of vascular 
bundles whose members alternate 
with each other as the teeth of 
two combs. 

Pec'tose {t7jkt6s, coagulated), a sub- 
stance allied to mucilage which 
occurs in unripe fruits (Fr^my) ; 
pecto'sic Acid, is associated with 
pectic acid in fruit jelly ; Pectocel'- 
luloses, cf Ckj^ulose. 

peda'ltnerved, etc. = pedati nerved, 
probably a misprint in Henslow's 

peda'lis (Lat.), a foot long or high. 

ped'ate, peda'tus (Lat., footed), in 
botany, palmately divided or parted 
with the lateral divisions two-deft ; 




^P Ita 

laa, ptdai^idtLi {Jlndo, Jidi' chh), 
divided in a pedal« manner nearly 
to ifae baas ; pedBtlfonn'ls {/omtn, 
•hape) = fedatifid: pedatilo'bus, 
pedAtllolM'tiu. psd&tUo'bed {\opbt, 
esrlap), paloiate, with aupplemeD- 
ury tol^s at the base ; peda'tl- 
naired. pm/a'Cinernt (luntM, a 
nerve), when the midrib slops 
tbort, Bod two strong lateral nervea 
priioaed from its mm. Riving risu 
to othera wbicb extend only to the 
apex ; pedfttlpar'ttM. pedaiii-arti'- 
fiM (jiani<tu, divided), with pedute 
Venation, and tha lohsn nearly ttse ; 
pedat'lMdt, ptdatiitc'lun (mcfui, 
pvdaiely veinnd, the divi- 
noirly reochia); the midrib. 
I'BitU {/!«, pedia, B foot, itrla. a 
flolumi], the peraiKtent biAe of a 
leal wbiub dixarliculates from it, 


•d'lMl. Pediteflnt iptdicaluA, a atnall 
foot), (I) an ultimat« dower-stalk, 
the nuppurt of a aingla flower ; (2) 
in HydrDpterideae tbe sporopborH ; 

peOloel'Iate, pedMla'' 

.licel ; 

= PeuiCBL: Psdlcsl'lnloi (di 

ptdk-l'us), a filiform support to 
the ovary hi certain Compoititae ; 
Peitic'nliu, (1) - Pedicel; I2j the 

■IaIIi of the apple and other frails ; 
(3) tbe filament of an anther, as ~ 

pMtf enu {pa, pedin, a foot, /tro, I 
bear), furnished with a stalk or 
anpporb (Henslow) ; Fedl'lU, the 
OOntracted upper portions of the 
oalyx tube in auoh florets of 
CompoaitBC >a have a Btipit^te 
pappus : pBdila'tns, furnished with 
a I'Kinua ; Pedttn'cle, Pedtiac'vlim, 
the general t«rm for the stalk of a 
(lower, it may alao bear a clunterof 
single tlowere ; pedanculftr'ii, re- 
httinfj to ■ peduDolo or a m >diSca- 
tioci, as ptdtUiCMlar'a Cir'rhi, ten^ 
drilii proueeding from a peduncle ; 
PWtnnii'iiIat*, ptdanc^Ua'lia, ptdm^ 

I eHA>'iHu,furoisbed withafoolviAlk : 

jMdanenlsa'iini, with a modified 
state of tbe peduncle (Henslow). 

Pael, the rind or skin of fruit ; Grew 
apelUit "Pill." 

Pag. an embryonie organ at the lower 
end of the hypoootyl of seedlings 
ol Cvctanii, Oiietttm, etc., lasting 
till the cotyledons are withdrawn 
from the testa. 

peb'Kla]i-palag'ic(TAarai, the sea], 
inbabitiag the open oi;ean, us dis- 
tinct from the shores. 

pel'lDi (riX,6i), blaok, livid. 

Pel'liele, PdiWula (Lat., a BmiU 
skin), a delicate auperficinl mem> 
branu, epidermis ; pelllaular'li, 
having tha character of a pellicle ; 
palU'tualLat., covered with skin), 
" skinned, deprived of skin or ap- 
parently so" (Lindley). 

pBlln'olil. pdlu'cidnt (Lst., trans- 
parent), wholly or partially trans- 

IMlOK'uiDaE (r^iXot, clay, yirK, off- 
epring), applied by Thurmann to 
those rocks which yield a clayey 
detritus, and the plants which 
thrive thereon ; peloph'tloQa (^Uu, 
I love), Warming's variation of the 
same ; pelopsam^n ( >fiiixii,i>t, sand ], 
yielding clay and sand ; pslopaun- 
moK'Hwai, giving rise to clayey 
sand (Thurmnun). 

Petor'Ui {irt\\ipiM, monstrous), an ir- 
regular flower beoome regular by an 
exocptional development of coinple- 
mentary irregularities ; Img'nlar 
~ bv the ayminetric multiplication 
of the irregular portions ; ngr'nl*' 
~ by the euppresseion of the ir- 
regular parts \ PelorUa'tlon. the 
process o£ conversion of a flower 
to a regular /orm. from its normal 
irregular fonn. 

PBl'tft (Lat.. a target), (1} the round 
shield-like apothecium of Peilidea, 
etc. ; {2) a bract attached by its 
middle, as in Peppers ; pal'tadd 
{_fin'Io, Jidi, to cleave), when a 
peltate leaf is out into segments ; 
psl'taW, ptUa'ta*. target- stMped, oi 
a leaf attached by ita lower surface 
toKatalk,insteBci of by it 



palt4'to-diirlta'tni, a digitaM leaf 
with tha petiole much enlarged 
St the iiiMrtion of the leaSets ; 
peltid'eiu, pel'tironn [fomut. Hhape), 
orbicular or buckler-ihaped. as the 
apothecia of many I.ichena or the 
caps of Agarics; peltSner'TBd, pj/- 
lifKr'i'ur. -fiu) {li'.Trat, a nerve). 
with ribs arranged an in a peltate 
leal ; peltol'daoa (cISsi, reaemtiUDc«) 

pel'rUbTni, ptlvi/orm'is {pelvis.a basiu, 
forma, abape}. Laain shaped, formed 
like a shallow oup. 
peu'dlled. marked with fine distinct 

BBn'dsilt, pr.n'deiu (LatOi hanging 
down from it< support : Psud'ent, 
used by Grew tor Anther. 

pen'dnJona, j)«n''iu/i«(Lat.), hanging, 
pendent; penduU'nna (Lat,]. hav- 
ing the habit of beiiifi; pendulous 
(DeCaodoUe); PendnlUor'ae (/foe, 
Jlorin, a flowerl, Detpioa's term for 
wind-fertiliEed pendnlous 6oweri. 

panlc'ellate, an error for the next. 

penlc'illate, pe,niciila'luji Ipeniciliv^, 
a little brush ), poneil-Bhaped ; 
panloU'llform, jteaii:dl\form'U 

(forma, shape), shaped like an 
artist's pencil ; PenloU'Ilum, a tuft 

jwn'iiats. p^nna'tus |Lat, wingeil) — 
PINNATE : pennatldt'aufl ( fiaiiu, 
cut), with inaiaiona of a leaf in a 
pinnate manner; penuat'lfld. fKn- 
mil\f'idu» = PiHHATiFiD ; pan'nl- 
fonn (forma, shape), with ribs as 
in a pinnate leaf, l>ut the upper 
■egmenta conllueDt at the apex, as 
in the date palm ; pannliiar'Tad, 
paminfr' i-ii \jKrrus, a nerve) ; 
peBDlve'DliiE {itiia, a vein), pin- 

pentacarpel'l&iy [rim, five + cab- 
FELLA&y I, having five carpels ; 
penteoam'ama ( + Camarpb), with 
five loculi ; Fentacbae'nlain or 
Pentake'nium (-i- Achenium), bsv- 
iOK the structure of a creniocirp, 
but with fivB carpels instead of two; 
pcntaeoc'eoii*, -c«« ( -f Coccus), 
with five aooai elaitically splitting 

away from the main axia ; p«nU- 
or'cllll (iCiXoi, a oirole). ■ flower 
with five whorl* of members, <f. 
FBNTAMKBODS ; peDtadac'I^^Mit 

(JdcTiiXar, a finger), five-lingered, 
or with Bve finger-like divisions ; 
peDtadel'pboiu. -phjt» \\^% a 
brother), with five fraternities or 
buodloa of stamens ; pe&tag'ciiial 
l^wrjn, an angle), with five angles ; 
Pentagys'U {7>vi|. a woman), a 
Linneao order of plants having five 
pistils ; penta^yitoua. with five 
pistils or styles; Feutake'nlum = 
Pextachaenicm ; pentaim'eraaa. 
■rat {tUpm, a part), with paits in 
fives, as a corolla of five petals ; 
pentan'der iiiiip, iripty^, a man), of 
five stamens ; Pentau'dria. a Lin- 
nean class of plants possessing five 
stamens, the largest in that syBtam ; 
pentan'droua, five-stamened ; pMl- 
tan'Kular. ( ■>- anuular) five-angled, 
pentagonal ; psntapet'slotw. -/lu 
{WtbXo*, a flower-leal), with five 
petals ; peDlapbylet'lc (^uX^i a 
tribe), used of a hybrid which 
has five strains in ila origin ; 
pentapbyl'Iotu, -/ue<«if\Vor, a leal), 
with five leaves ; pentap'taroiu. 
-rtm irtipat, a wing), five^winged ; 
pau'tarcb (ipx'li l^ginnini), with 
five points of origin, applied Ut a 
■tele ; pantsirhl'nns, Henslow's 
emendation of pentarl'miB {ipprir, 
male), Necker's term for pbnt- 
AHDROU3 ; pantsaep'aloiu, -/ua 
( -I- SeI'ALCM), having five sepala ; 
pentasper'moas [inripius, a seed), 
five-seeded; pentaat'tohoa* (ittIxoIi 
a row ). in five vertical rank* : 
Fen'toseB. n name given to com- 
pounds resembling glucose, but 
having only five atoms of oarbon 
in the molecule. 
Fep'o (Lat., a pumpkin), Pepon'ldftJ ; 
Feponld'lomf , agourd fruit, aone- 
celled, many-seerted. inferior fruit, 
with parietal placentas and pulpy 

Fep'tln (T^^it, cooking, digestion), 
the digestive principle or peplio 

pep' tie (irdTTiiTDi, promoting diges- 

Xioa) tat'jnnM, Chose enzymeB 
which convert proteida into pep- 

P«p' tones (Torrdi, cooked), albumi- 
noid! after bein^ acted on by fcr* 
menu, aa Proteida, which are the 
I final result of their action ; they 
ore present in germinating aeeda ; 
peptoni'ilug. applied to enzymes 
BO acting, 

per-, in Latin compounds inereaEes 
their force as per-eimUit, very 

Ferapet'elDni, J (irtpl, abont + pETA- 
LCH), any sppendsga to a petal, a 
synonym of Nectarilvha and Ha- 
KAPETALGH ; Fersphyrinm (^I'XXoi', 
a, leaf) - Paraphvi-luu. 

pgreur'Telit {percurretui, running 
through), extending throughout 
the entire length, 

FeTemtwyvm (mpi, about, iiififivar, 
an embryo), that part of a mono- 
cotyledonouB embryo investing the 
plnmale and radicle, not oiteruatly 

P*raneh^ma (riipa., a sack, ^vx"'^t 
AH Infusion), cellular tisaue con- 
taining starchy matter (Stormonth). 

panu'na,te, pertn' aam (Lut.), peren- 
na'tlng = perau 'nl&l , j^rcii'iiii ( Lat. ] , 
lasting the whole year through ; 
Pertn'al&l, is a plant which laJstH 

fruiting ; ~ Herb, the above ground 

\ portion diee each year, the root 

I persisting ; ~ Mon'ocorp, applied 

I by M dbius to such plants as AgaiK 

r CkiHtricana, Linn., which live long, 

but die alter once flowering. 

ptr'Csot, pey/fc'tia (Lat,, complete), 

(1) applied to a fiower which is 

be1^maphrodite ; (2) of an organ 

which has all ita constituent mem- 

pertO'lUte, ptr/olia'tus (per, through, 
/olium, a leaf), used when a stem 
apparently passea through a leaf, 
OS in SupUuram per/olitUum, Linn. 

parYimte, per/ora'lim (Lat., piercad), 
pierced through, or having trans- 



perTrn'suH (Let., dog 
through), perfoliate. 

parfu'sos (Lat., poured over), eom- 
pletely covered, 

pencame'neoiu, -n«« {pergamfna, 
parchment), like parchment in 
texture; pergameiita'oeoiu. -ceiD 
( + aceous), leaembling parchment. 

Perian'dra, pi. {-rifil, about, drJjp, 
dripo!, a man), the bracts of the 



perian'drlotts (dp*fu™'> manly), used 
of a nectary when it is ranged 
round the stamens ; Fer'lantb, 
Pfrian'lhium la-flot, a flower), (1) 
the Qoral envelopes, calyi or cor- 
olla, or both : (2) in Hepaticoe the 
inflated envelope aurroundina the 
fertilised srchegonium, the CuLC- 
sm,B or vuginute; parlan'theiu, 
perlanthla'uoa. relating to or pos- 
sessing a perianth : Farlantlioiiuk nU 
ifiaria:, madness), an abnormal mul- 
tiplication of perianth segmente ; 
perlai'lal (ifw, an axle) Tood, 
the so-called outer wood, as in the 
stems of BiKnoniacoae. 

Fariblaste'aia ( -i- Blastbbi»). the en- 
velopment of gonidia by surround- 
ing tissue. 

Fer'lblem (iripl^Xiiua, clothing), a 
layer of nascent oorlex beneath 
the epidermis. 

poricalyc'iui {wtpl, about -I- Calvx), 
= I'iUtlSTAHINEDa ( FarlCMii'bluiii 
( 4 CAMBirM), thin walltJ cells of 
the central cylinder in contact with 
the inner face of the endodennis ; 
the pericycls ; Per'lcBrp. Prrirar'p- 
itim (naprit, fruit), (1) the wall of a 
fruoti6ed ovary : (3) applied also 
to the wall of the capsnle in 
Moasea ; (.1) improperly used of 
the protective husks surronnding 
certain fruits: adj. perlcu'plc. 
porlcar'pial, perifarpia'/U ; peri- 

Oell — AnxiUAfir Cell ; Parl- 
ear'yoplasni ~ Perikaktoplash ; 
porlosn'trloiu, applied to perigyn- 



ouB stamens arranged conoentrioally 
with the oalyz; Per'iehaetli 
(Grozier) = Pkriohaetium ; P«rl- 
eliaa'tlQm (xo^nj, a mane) ; (1) the 
involucre around the base of the 
seta in Mosses ; (2) Hooker's name 
for the perianth in Hepaticae ; 
psricliM'tlal, perichaetiaUis, relat- 
ing to the same, as f^ Bracts, '^ 
Lsavet, the organs oomposing the 
perichaetium itself in Mosses, and 
the involucre in Hepaticae ; Per'!- 
tibyle (xvXot, juioe), a plant 
whose water • storing tissue is 
between the epidermis and the 
chlorenchyma, as Rhizophora ; 
Per'icUdliim (irXa^t, a branch), 
the sheathinff base of a leaf when 
it surrounds the supporting branch; 
pertoU'nal (K\i»ia, I bend (iown), 
curved in the same direction as 
the surface or circumference; «^ 
Planes, planes which conform to 
the exterior ; Per'icllnefl, peridinal 
walls ; Perloli'nlum (icX£y^, a bed), 
the involucre of the capitulum in 
Gompositae ; Pericli]iordes,:tftfAl3e 
involucre formed of the scales of 
the receptacle in Gompositae, sur- 
rounding the sides of an elevated 
receptiuue at its summit, as in 
E%yix\ Perlooe'olnm, that portion 
of the protoplasm which envelopes 
the nucleus ; in Germ. Kemtasche 
(Hanstein) ; Perlcorinm^ (/coXedt, a 
sheath) = Fekicuaetium ; psarl- 
corolla' tOB (+ Gorolla), used of 
a dicotyledonous plant with a 
gamopetalous perigynous corolla; 
Per'icycle (ffi)«rXof, a circle), the 
outermost zone of cells of the stele 
immediately within theendodermis; 
inter'nal'^ , Plot's term for the pro- 
cambium retained on the inner side 
of the vascular bundle ; Pcr^iderm, 
Perider^ma, Perider^mi8{UpfM, skin 
or hide), the outer bark or epi- 

£hlo6m, at first restricted by 
lohl to tough cork in distinction 
to the soft cork, now extended 
to the cork cambium and its pro- 
ducts ; phellogen ; Per'idMm \^4<riiJt^ 
a bundle), the layer of cells which 

surround each vascular bnndia 
beneath the speoial endoderm in 
astelic stems (Van Tieghem) ; adj. 
PMd'iole, Perid'iolum, pi. PerieFiola 
(dim. of Pebidium from wriplSWf a 
little pouch), (1) a chamber of the 
gleba forming a nest of spores, fnt 
or attached by a fonide within the 
peridium of the sporophore; (2) 
*' a membrane by which the spores 
of some Algae are immediately 
covered " (Lindley) ; P«ild'lBin« 
one of the colouring matters found 
in the Peridieae, a group of Funsi ; 
Ptridlun, a generu expressionfor 
the outer enveloping coat of a 

rrophore upon which the spores 
slop within a cavity; «« ex- 
ter^nuai, the outer layer which 
opens in various ways ana separates 
from the f^ iati&rwam, the inner 
layer directly enclosing the gleba ; 
^ mitrlfor'me, *' the receptacle of 
certain Fungals" (Lindley); adj. 
perld'lal; as '-^ Oelli, the outer 
cells of a peridium which are 

Ptrld'roma {vtpidpofi'i, a circuit), 
Necker's term for the rhachis of 

Piriench'yxna (re^, about, fyxv/ui, 
an infusion), irregular cellular 
tissue, chiefly in gluids and sphe- 
roidal masses (Henslow), ^. Fkb- 
ENCHYMA ; Perlfor'liim = Peri- 
PHORiUM ; Perigloe'a (7X0101, glue), 
the entire gelatinous investment of 
a Diatom (Buffham) ; Per^igone, 
Perigo'nium (70^?, o£hpring), (1) 
a synonvm of Perianth ; (2) the 
same of Perichaetium ; (3) the 
involucre of the male inflorescence 
in Bryophytes ; adj. perigo'idal, 
as '^ Leaves, the perichaetial 
leaves (excluding Bryophytes) ; 
perigonla'rlas, (1) with the char- 
acter of a perigone; (2) double 
flowers, resulting from transforma- 
tion or multiplication of the floral 
organs taking on the character of 
perianth segments ; Perigynaii'da, 
P«rlgyllan'd^^ -drum (7vny> a 


the iavoluo 

I, dii3pi%, a, man), (1) 
a of Conip(»it»e: — 
cDmmD niB, ~ •iM'rior, the in- 
volucre, — Inte'rlor, the coralU of 
t, composite floret ; Fatlffyn'liun, 
(1) the hypogyoouB setae of sedges -. 
(3) the floalt or utriole of Carex ; 
(3) ftoj hypogynoua disk ; (4) the 
iovoluore of the female ioflor- 
eacenoe in Bryophytea ; pelig'' 
71L01U, literally meaiiB roand the 
ovary, used of organs adnata 
to the perianth, or adnata with 
the lower part of the pulil ; 
FerlKar'ToplaAm (■d|ii'«i', a nut, 
wXdnim. moulded), a lone of 
grauulav protoplasm seen io Cobaea 
tcandaii; Cav., in the cytoplasm 
of the resting pollen muther-cel] 
on its approaching division (A. 
A. LawBon) ; perlSiadnl'Iary ( + 
MEDULi^BY) ZtoLB, the peripheral 
region of the inoer tissue out- 
wardly bounded by the pto- 
toiytein ; rf. circijiimeduli^ry ; 
Porimel'ltma (me/, honey), having 
honey-glands placed in the lower 
portion of the perianth, aa in 
eertaiQ (ientianaceae (Huiley) ; 

Ferlaier'litem ( -i-Meri3te»|, con- 
sists of several layers of cells 
which at fint divide in every di- 
rection, but subsequently divide 
tangentially in the external region 
(Guitlaud)i Per'lne (rcpl, about), the 
oalaniiOBt layer of seuipturing on 

pollen ; peilnectar'ial ( + Nbctart), 
Buri'onndiug ihe nectarial area, 
OB in certain Gentians (Hmley) ; 
Ferl&'luin. the outermoat of the 
three ouats of a Fern spore ; the 

pBrln'tsger (Lat. ), quite entire. 

Pnlod'lo HoTe'ments, used to express 
the opening aud doling of Sowers. 
the njoti tropic niovoments of 
le«v«s, etc., wheo occurring habit- 
ually and with some regularity. 

patlpeVoIflus, -UK (rtpl, about, 
WTa\ai>, a flower-leaf), aroond the 

penpb'aral {npupipiia, tbe airaum- 
feKDee ol a circle), snrroond- 

ing; ~ Tls-sue, 
piliferous layer, famished with 
root hairs ; psripber'lo, p'ripher'i- 
C1U, pertaining to the circamfer- 
ence, as of an embryo coiled round 
the outside of the albumen ; 
peiipher'tco-tarmliu'lis, belonging 
to the circumference and apex of u 
body, need of sterna which grow 
both in li-uglh and breadth ; peri' 
plue'rlcns, peripheric, circauifereo- 
Perlphlo'tm {-rtpl, about 4- Phlosm), 
the phloem -sheath Or poricanibimn ; 
pulpUottnat'le. upplivd to concen- 
tric bundles in Ferns ; Parlpborui'- 
tblnm {ifiopiui, I carry, drSat, a 
flower), the involucre of Com- 
pos iloe ; Perlpbor'lam, a fleshy and 
elongated support to the ovary, 
with the oorollu and alamena 
attached to it ; HbobIow apellB 
it " Periforium " ; Fer'lphra£m 
{^pdyMo. an endoaure), the peri- 
cycle of the Btem JDangeard); 
Per'Ipbylli, Feriplirl'lia t (^bX^iw, a 
leaf), the hypogynoua scales or 
lodiculea of grasses ; Perlphyl- 
los'tmy (7(1-01, race, oflspring), 
bearing numerous leaflets round 
the edge of n leaf-blaile (Weis- 
mana) ; Poilph'yriB )*(i<u, 1 grow), 
a sterile capillifonn hyphal 
branch, projecting from the wall 
of the pyrenocarp when there 
Is no hymeniuDi in the cavity 
(Fuisting) ; Per'lplMm (irAiltftta, 
moulded), ptotoplasni in the 
oogonium and the antheridium 
which does not share in the con- 
jugation : ef. GoN0PL*9M ; Per'l- 
plort (i-Xdffrof, moulded), a hyaline 
structure enveloping I he oell- 
nucleua ; Psrlpod'liuu (x-out. roiot, 

• toot), - PKBIOHAKTIUM ; pSTlp'- 

terous, -rtig {wrepir, u wing), pcHp- 
fera'tu*, surrounded by a wmg or 
border ; FerltCT'plM (r»v^i, a cup), 
Desvaui'H word tor PERiciiAmitH ; 
Par'ltperm, Prntpermuim (^urijifia, 
a aeed), (1) the ordinaiy albumen 
of a seed, realricled to that 
which is formed outside the 



embryo sao; (2) the pericarp or 
even the integumeDte of a seed; 
perlsper'inic, periapgr^mieua, perl- 
sperma'tiui, (1) furnished with al- 
bumen ; (2) ''when the periaperm 
is reduced to a sinffle lamina, or 
when the seed is not furnished with 
a true perisperm " (Henslow) ; 
Perlsporaii'gliim (aropd, a seed, 
dryyeioiff a vessel), the indusium 
of Ferns, a membranous covering 
of the sorus ; Per'lspore, PeriS' 
por^ium, -rum, (1) the membrane 
or case surrounaing a s]pore ; (2) 
the mother-cell of spores m Algae ; 
(3) = PsaiOTNiUM ; Perlstaeh'ynm^ 
{ardxvi, a spike), the glume of 
grasses ; Perlitamln'ia ( 4- Stamen), 
Petrlste'moneB ((m^fuiir, a filament), 
applied to petalous dicotyledons 
with perigynous stamens ; Per'i- 
Btem {tarrifu, I stand), young cortex 
in a nascent condition ; Peristome 
Ptrist'oma, Ptristom'ium {trrbfrnf 
a mouth), the fringe or its homo- 
logue round the orifice of a moss- 
capsule ; perist'omate, peristoma'- 
tu8, periat'omuSf provided with a 
peristome ; peristomat'lc, periato- 
mat'icuSf when perigynous stamens 
are attached round the mouth of 
the calyx tube; peristylicoB ( + 
Stylus), when epigynous stamens 
are inserted between the styles 
and limb of the calyx ; Perisy^he 
more correctly Periscyphe ; pir'i- 
tlieoe = Perlthe'cium, pi. Ferltlie'- 
cia {Oiifcri, a case), (1), a case with 
a small opening containing asci, 
in Lichens ; (2) in Fungi, a re- 
ceptacle enclosing spores which 
are naked or in asci ; perlthe'clold 
(eldos, like) Olands, those on the 
pitcher of Nepenthes^ resembling 
the perithecium of a Sphaeria 
(Macfarlane) ; perlt'ropal, perlt'- 
ropoUB, 'pus {TpoTrijf a turning), 
used of a seed which is horizontal 
in the pericarp, or of a radicle 
which is directed to the side of a 
pericarp; perixylematlc (-f- Xy- 
lkm), said of concentric bundles in 
the roots of Arorus^ Juncaceae and 

Cyperaceae (Laux); perlz/Ue, Van 
Tieghem's expression for kbsabch 
+ EXARCH ; Perlso'nliim (i'c&i^, a 
belt), the thin non-silicious mem- 
brane of a young anxospore. 

perlar'las, pMla'tiu (Late Lat., peria, 
a pearl), (1) shining with a pearly 
lustre ; (2) furnish^ with rounded 
tubercular appendages (Henslow). 
Note : not to be confounded with 
perkUus, carried through, derived 
from pcr/ero, 

per^manent, per^manens {permaneo, I 
persist), persistent ; ^Tlaf BfOM, fully 
formed tissue, as distinct from 
merismatic or generative tissue. 

Penneabll'lty (permeabUiSf that can 
be passed through), applied to 
protoplasm, etc., and further die- 
tinffuished as bxt&ameability, 
ana intraheability, the power 
of allowing the passage of certain 
substances out of or into its 
vacuoles respectively (Janse). 

Permuta'tion, Permuta'tio (Lat., a 
changing), enlargement of the 
floral envelopes with abortion of 
the sexual organs (Penzig). 

permuta'tns (Lat.), completely 

Per'nio (Lat., a chilblain), a local 
affection resembling an ulcer, 
caused by cold. 

Peroddlum X {irepl, about, dyKiStw, a 
tubercle), Necker's term for Peki- 


per'onate, j}erona*tus (Lat., leather 
booted), thickly covered with a 
woolly covering becoming mealy. 

Perovula'tae {per^ much or very, 
ovulcUuSt ovuled), otherwise Sbmi- 
NATAE, Van Tieghem's terms for 
phanerogams furnished with true 

perpe'lic (/?er, very, iryjXoSy clay), 
Thurmann's term for rocks which 
yield clay, pure and abundant, also 
the plants which thrive thereon; 
perpsam'mlc {xf^dfifios, sand), yield- 
ing an abundance of sandy detritus, 
with the flora thereon growing. 

perpendic'ular,p<rpenc{tci/to'm(Liat. ), 
used of an organ with its direction 


vertica), either (a) lo the borimn, 

or (A) to ita attachment ; ~ Syi'- 




perposU'lus (Lat.), very amall. 

penldc'DloT \//erj<ian!t, s peach, Color, 
colour), p«rslcl'iLiu (tdt.), pesch- 
col'iuroil, a rosy pinh. 

pmiB'Uai. ptrais'ltiu {lAt., penever- 
ing}, reinainiDg till the part which 
bears it is wholly matured, as the 
leaveH of evergreen! ; Fsnll'MnM, 
oomtancy, aa — at VarlA'tion, the 
variety or tendeoDy to vary per- 

per'MiULte,7vr«Dna'rit< (Lat. . masked ), 
used for a bilahiaie corolla having 
a proDiincnt palate. 

Periplra'tlDn (CroEier). see Tban- 

panu'sate = penaae', ptrfv'aue (Lat, 
perforate!)), having alita or holea. 

P«'mla (Lat., a little wallet), (1| the 
scale of a leaf-bud i (2) Lindley 
also gives it aa ■ projeclian in the 
flower o! Orchids, the Mbsttm ; 
(3) = P»BiTHKCiDM ; rar'nlata, 
pemla'lii», furnished with protec- 

puTal'Tix {pei; through, raJin, a 
valve) Ax'ia, the mam lonai. 
tudinal axis of a Diatom fmstule, 
the line whiah forms the centre of 
Ihe dividing plane, ponetratfla the 
cell-oavity in the epi- and bypo- 
thecal directions at ennal distances 
from the enclosing walle, and unites 
the cfnlres of the valves (0. 

por'Tioui, pe/iiiue (Lut,, passable), 
havinu an open poaeage- way. 

Pes, Ped'li (Lat.), a foot, (I) used in 
inch cumpounds aa tongipe^, long. 
sUilked ; (2) a foot of twelve inobes 
meaeuremeDl ; i/. For. 

Pefil, Pefalum (r^raXor. a fiower- 
leaJ), one of the leafy eipansiona 
in the floral whorl etyled the 
Corolla ; the word was taken by 
Blair from Columns i — •like. — 
-ilwped, petaioid : ptttala'tni, 
posseMins petals -it. 

VataUllea'tlBn I fru 

Petilodt ; pelaUferoas, bearing; 
petala ; pet'allform, rwfa/i/onn'ta 
t/orma, shape), petal -akaped ; pet'- 
Bline, petaii'nuK. pttal-likc. or re- 
lating to petals ; Pet'aloda (ttioi, 
resemblance), an organ simulating 
a petal; pebLlo'dens (Lat.), (1) = 
Fttalodv ; (3) having petals; 
Peulo'dy, the metamorpbosis of 
stamens or other organs into petals ; 
pst'alold, peialoi'deut, like a petal, 
or having a Uoral envelope resem- 
bling petals ; ~ An'ther. an anther 
borne on a petal, the lilanicot re- 
Mmbling a petal ; Fetaloma'nlJi 
(^arla, niadnesB), an abnormal 
multi plication d> petals ; Petaloste'- 
mones (dTij^uwr, a filnmonC). plants 
with Qowers whose stamens are 
adherunl to the corolla ; pet'olotu, 
Hlair's term for having petals. 

peUola'oena Ijittiolua, a little foot or 
leg -f oreiu) (Lai.), having reference 
to the petiole by attachment, 
tranaformation, or appearance ; 
petloIa'Dens or petlalea'itui (Mod. 
Lat, ), consisting of the petiole 
or of snnie modibcation of it ; pet'- 
lotor, pclio'taris, pat'lolary, borne 
on, or pertaining to a petiole ; pe- 
t'lDlAla, pttiiila'lini. Iiai-ing a pe- 
tiole i Pet'lolB, /'al'ioliu, the foot- 
stalk of a leaf ; Pst'lolule, Peliofu- 
liu, (1) « small petiole; (S) tbe 
petiole of a leaflet ; pstlol'iilata, 
p'liolala'liu, having a petiolute ; 
pstlol'ttlnr, /letMuia'rit, belonging 
to a petiulule, 

pstrae'ni (Lat.), growing amongst 
rocka ; petro'sus (Lat., rooky), 
growing amongst atones. 

Peilnxaii'tliliu (4- XANTntN), a 
special orange- colon ring matter, 
also termed l^il'iln, BosoU's name 
fur the came pigment in Peiiza 
iinrnnlia. Pen., etc. ; ped'Kdd 
Ultot, rcsom bianco ), p«Ki»-, or cup- 

pbaenle'etii - paoKNiciua. 

pIueiUMir'potu -pna (<balru, I appear, 
tapTos, fruit), having a distinct 
fniit, with no odhetiion (o inr- 
roundiag parts ; phaenot'aniotii 

{ya/JMSy marriAge), hAving manifeat 
flowers, phanerogamouB ; PIum'iio- 
garni = PHANiBOOAjfs ; RuMHol'ogy 

Fliaa'oQyit (^cu^t, brown, swarthy, 
xv0Tif, a bag), Decaisne's name for 
the oell-nadeus ; phaMphy'oeaii 
Micot, a sea weed), relating to the 
Phaeosporeae, a groap of olive or 
brown marine A^^; Fliae'opbyll 
(^XKow, a leaf), the colouring 
matter in the living active ohro- 
matophores of brown seaweeds 
(Reinke) ; Fliae'oplast (irXoarof , 
moulded), the special name for 
the chromatophores of Fuooideae 
(Sohimper) ; Tha/b'o&pan (^ropd, a 
seed), a member of the brown 
Algae ; adj. phaaos'porons ; phae'us 
(Lat.), fuscous, swarthy. 

Fliai'opliyU (0aiot, brown, ^XKor, a 
leaf), a group of oolourins matters 
in the leaves of plants of various 
tints of brown. 

Flialan'get, sing. Phal'anx (^Xa7^, 
a band of soldiers), bundles 
of stamens in diadelphous and 
polyadelphous flowers ; phalar- 
siph'sTtus i&pfnit^i male, ^vrbv, a 
plant), polyadelphous. 

Phalline, a poisonous substance from 
various species of Amanita ; Phal'- 
lUB, ** the peridium of certain Fun- 
ffals " (Lindley ) ; the name is imme- 
diately derived from Phallna im- 
muiicti8, Linn., the Stinkhorn 
Fungus, now referred to Ithy- 

Flian'eri, pi. (^ai'cpdt, manifest), any 
organisms which are visible under 
the microscope without the use of 
reagents (Maggi) ; phaneran'thas 
{HvOoif a flower), where the 
flower is manifest; phanerantlie'rai 
{dyByjpoi, flowery), when the an- 
thers protrude beyond the perianth; 
phanerogamic, phanerog^amons, 
phanerog'amua {yd^Sf marriage), 
having manifest flowers ; phanero- 
gam'ian, pt^rtaining to Phan'ero- 
gams, plants with flowers in which 
stamens and pistih are distinctly 
developed ; pbanerop'orons {iropos, 

a way or passage), applied to atom- 
ata which lie in the same plane as 
the epidermis. 

Phellam (^eXX^t, cork) = cork 
(Crozier); Phelle'nui, the outer- 
most layer of the periderm, con- 
sisting of true cork and phelloid 
(von Hoehnel) ; Phel'loderm (depfw, 
skin), the innermost layer of the 
periderm; Phellogfln {ytwpdu, I 
produce), the central layer of the 
three in the periderm, the active 
cork-producing tissue; adj. pbel- 
logeiiat'ic; phailoid {eXdos, re- 
semblance), cork -like, as tisane 
which approaches cork in its 
quality ; Plialloid, non-snberized 
layers in the Phellema (von 

Fhe'nogam = Phankrooam; adj. 
pbenogam'ian, phanogam'to, etc 


OAHic, etc. 

Phenorogy, abbreviated from Pba- 
nomenol'ogy {^it^ofuybw, an ap- 
pearance, \070s, discourse), record- 
mg the periodical phenomena of 
plants, as leafing, flowering, etc ; 
adj. phendog'ical, as ^ Inver'slons, 
an abnormal inversion of the re- 
lative blossoming of plants, caused 
by meteorologic conditions (Rahn). 

Pbillila'siA (0i^XXor, a leaf, iXUrau, I 
wind), a name propounded by Re 
and adopted by Berkeley for '*leaf- 
curl or blister^* ; c/. phyllilesia. 

FliU'otherm (4>i\4u), I love, Oipfoi, 
warmth), used by Baker for plants 
which need warmth to complete 
their life-cyole. 

phleboi'dal (0X^f, 0Xe/3^t, a v«>in), 
has been applied to spiral, annular, 
or porous moniliform vessels 
(Ck>oke) ; Phebomor'plia (/uv>^, 
form), the mycelium of some 

Phlobaph'enes, pi. (^Xot^f, bark, 
j9a^, a dyeing), amorphous brown 
colouring matters of the bark ; 
phloeo'des(6rdos, resemblance), bark- 
liko in appearance ; Phlo'tai, Naeg- 
eli's term for the babt elements of a 
vascular bundle ; it is separated in 




exogenB from the vood (lyUm) 
by the cambiuin ; ~ I'llutdi, 
ffroupa of boat filrands HarrDundc^l 
by Kjlepi (Cbodat) ; ~ Efty. a ray or 
pl&t« of phloilii) between two 
mednllwy rayi : - Eheatb, a layer 
of thin ' wall edcella lurroundiDg the 
vucular tissaa next within the 
cortex, beat seen in roots ; Phloe* 
oter'nui {rip/Aa, a limit), the inner- 
moat layer of primary cortex ; 
Fbloe'nm X, tba cortical lisauaa ; 
FhloiU'iUi (^iri. a root), a white 
crystalline eubatance which givei 
the bitter aatringency to the root- 
bark of the apple, pear, cherry 
and plum - treee ; PMoroglu'dD, a 
body of Frequeot occurrence in 
the bark of tree*, derived from 

pboenlc'eooa, pltoc«ie'tu» {IMo La,l,], 
acarlet ; red with a little of yellow 


Ptumn'tUiun (^f»>, bearing. iiF0ot. a 
flower), the receptacle of the capi- 
tulum in Compositae. 

photeol'lc (0uJT. ^uToi, light. a'liXot, 
moving, motile), used of the sleep 
of plants : ptio'tio, eiposed to light, 
well- illuminated, as Che margina 
of pooU, etc. ; Pboto-atitba'ala 
{aiee-^au, peroeption), Csapek'B 
term to express the power of an 
organ to respond to the alimulua 
of light 1 Phaio'Mft (/Slot, lifei. pi, 

Tulaane'e term for ectoparaBitio 
Fungi; pbotacleUtosain'lc ( + cLEia- 
TOOAMIC), used of [lowers whioh do 
not open in consequence of the 
rapid growth of the outer side 
of the petals, due to Pnoro- 
STTOMASTY {Haosgirg) ; FbOtO- 
epIiiM'tjr ( + Episasty), eiiin«sty 
induced by the action ot light 
(Detmer); pbotogen'le {yrvrdu, I 
produce I, used of tjacleria which 
are lumioous ; Phatohyponu'ty ( + 
HrroNASTY), hypo nasty cau»ed by 
the effect of light (Viaen) ; pboto- 
kliis'tla((ii'i7Ti(oi, having the power 
of movement), tuovitig in oonse- 
quence of the slimulus oE light ; 

it'ilo {lUrptv, a meaaure), 
(1| applied to organisms which turn 
either end to the direction of the 
light-rays; (2) leavea which assume 
a definite position in light, to obtain 
the most of it, ot to screen them- 
selves from too much (Wiesner) ; 
Fbotol'yila {\icit, a loosing), the 
arrangement of chlorophyll granules 
under the stimulus of light, includ- 
ing both apoBtrophe and epistrophe \ 
Phatomorpb'oKia {iiAintxMrtj, con- 
figuration), that kind of mechano- 
niorphoB is which depends upon light 
asthecause ; Pbotosyn' tax (1711^11), 
I put together), the formation of 
complex carbon coni pounds from 
simple ones under the influence of 
light (Barnes) ; Photosyn'tbeilt 
(iTi/ffltffn, a putting together), a 
proposed emendation of "pboto- 
syntai " ; phototac'tic (raicT-ini, 
uualiSed to arrange in order), 
Strasburger's term for taking up a 
definite position with regard to the 
direction of light-rays; phototon'te 
{rdvoj, tenBion). the increasing irri- 
tability by tbe influence of light ; 
Fhotot'oaui, the normal mobile 
condition resulting from the ollec- 
nation of day and eight ; Photo- 
tax'li (tb^ii, order), the deflnita 
self - arraDgement of organiama 
under the stimuluB of light ; Photo- 
frophy (rpo^Ti, food), ucequol in- 
crease 00 one side of an organ, due 
to tbe incidence of light in relation 
to tbe parent sboot (Oltmanns) ; 
Photot'ropiam (rpoiH?, a tnming), a 
syoouym of Heuotbopism ; Pho'- 
tnun. S. L. Moore's term for tba 
whole Boale of illumination aflect- 
ing PHOToLvaiB, 

Pbrag'ma, pi. PbraK'nuta (^ptiYMo, 
an enclosure), a spurious diBsepi- 
inent in fruits ; pbra^tnU'er (/ero, 
1 bear), phne'inlgreT, ;-Arfiyini/ervs 
[gtro, I bear), divided by partitions! 
Pbragmobaa'lil, Fhragmoha^d'ia, 
pi. < -f Basic), septate basidia in 
Basidiomycetes (Van Tieghtm). 

Pbragmlte'tom, Warming's term for 
of reeds, P/iraymiltM. 



Fllxy'gaDa, pL (^/>u7aya, Btioks for 
firewood), an old term for prickly 
and stiff under-shrubs. 
Phtliiri'aBiB {ipOcipLcuris, lousy disease), 
disease produced by aphides or 
Pliycolinr'a (0uicof, sea-weed, pp6ot^, 
moss), a term proposed for Char- 
aceae ; Pbyoooedd'ia (KiiKlt, a gall), 
sails due to the attack of Algae 
(Lundstrom) ; Pliy'coclirome(xp<SAia, 
colour), the colouring matter of 
brown Algae, etc. ; adj. phyoocbro- 
ma'oeoui (+ aceous) ; Pliycocy'aiiiii 
{xOayos, blue), the blue colouring 
matter in Al^ae ; Phycodoma'tia 
{dwfMTLOPf a little house), plant 
shelters inhabited by other plants 
(Lundstrom) ; Phycoer'ythrlne 
{ipvOpoSf red), the red pigment of 
Floridean Algae ; Fhycohae'matln 
{atfiaf blood), a special red colour- 
ins matter in certain Algae, such 
Rhyiiphlota tinctoria, Agardh ; 
Phycol'ogtst {XoyoSy a discourse), a 
student or expert in the study of 
Algae ; Pliycol ogry, the department 
of botany which includes Algae; 
Fby'coma, the entire mass of an 
Alga ; the thallus and reproductive 
bodies; Fliycoma'ter (M^p* Doric 
for mother), the hymeneal jelly 
in which some spores germinate; 
Fbycomyoe'tes (Mu«r^f, a fungus), 
a group of Fungi which approach 
the Algae in some characters ; 
Pbycophae'ine (^aio;, brown), the 
brown colouring matter of Algae ; 
Phyooporph'sTTln (^op^v/ia, purple), 
a purple pigment from several 
species of Zygnema (Lagerheim) ; 
niycopyr'rhine {xvppoi, dark red), 
a pigment occurring in the Peri- 
dineae ; Phycoste'mones X {(rHifAcaw, 
a filament), ** hypogynous or other 
scales adhering to the disk" 
(Lindley) ; Phycoxan'thine ( -i- 
Xanthin), the yellowish brown 
pigment of Algae. 
Plijgoblaste'ma (<f>vyksj a fugitive, 
pkdffnifia, a sprout), Minks's term 
for a modifiea form of soredia in 

Pliykeiudi'yma {^vKot, sea • weed, 
iyxv/JM, an infusion), "the ele- 
mentaiy tissueof Algals*' (Lindley) ; 
Pliy^ocyan = Phyooctanin ; Phy- 
koer'ytlixln = Phtcokbythkikx. 
Pby'la, pL of Pby'lnm {ipvXw, a tribe), 
a system of organisms arranged in 
the assumed succession ox de- 
velopment ; adj. phyleflc. 
Fhyl'la, pi. iiwWoy, a leaf), the 
verticillate leaves which form the 
calyx ; used in composition as 
di-phyllous, two - leaved, etc. ; 
Fhyl'lade, a cataphyllary leal; 
Pbyl'lary, Phylla'rU, a member of 
the involucre of a Composite flower; 
Phyl]idlQm,term proposed by Bower 
for the homologue of the leaf in 
the gametophyte ; PliyUile'sU, the 
correct spellinff of Phillii^bsia; 
Pliyllite, a fossilized leaf ; Pliyllo- 
tdas'tUB (pxdaros, a bud), Koerber*s 
term for Lichens which have a flat 
leaf -like expansion of the thallus ; 
PhyUohry'on t (fipvoM, a moss), the 
contracted pedicel of an ovary, as 
in some peppers (Lindley) ; Phyllo- 
dade, Phyllodad'ium («rXddps, a 
branch), a flattened branch as- 
suming the form and function of 
foliage ; Pliyllocol'ly («r6XXa, glue), 
the production of new leaflets from 
the leaf surface (Penzig) ; Phyllo- 
oy'anin (xvoi^of, blue), a blue 
pigment occurring in chloro- 
phyll, which when combined with 
phylloxanthin produces a green 
tint, c/. Kyanophyll ; phyllodin'- 
eons, -eii«, relating to phyllodes; 
Phyllode, Phyllo'dium, a petiole 
taking on the form and functions 
of a leaf ; Phyllo'dy, the metamor- 
phosis of floral organs into leaves ; 
phylloid {eldos, resemblance), leaf- 
like ; '^ COad'ode = Phyllogladb ; 
Phylloid, a leaf -like appendage to 
the stems of Algae ; phyUoi'deni, 
foliaceous ; Phyllogen [yeppdw, 
I produce) = Phyllophoe; 
phsrllogenet'ic, leaf - producing ; 
phyllog'enoas, growing upon leaves; 
epiphyllous ; PhyUololreae, pL 
(Xo^t, a lobe), plants with ooty- 



ledoEB, graen mad le&f-like; Fliyl- 
lomk'nlA. {iMrta, raadDeas), an ib- 
normal production of Isbtob : PSyV- 
loma. Phj/Uo'ma, {l| aa asaembla^e 
of leaves, or of incipient loaves in 
a. bud ; (2) reveolly used for tbe 
leaf oraun in a generic aense, po- 
tentially lb*t which aDBwers to a 
loaf, I-/. Cadlohe; eptpel'tato ~, 
when the biue of the expaDsion 
roBults from tbe growth of the 
npper surface of tbe primordial 
leu, aa in Coiyltdon iJmliilicus, 
Linn., and Tropaeolum majut, 
Linn. : hypopti'tatfl ~. when the 
growth is from the under surface. 
aa in tbe sepals of Viola (C. do 
Candolle) ; PbfUomor'phy (itop^ 
fonn) = Phyllodt; Phylloph'agiat 
{•piyw, I eat), t«rm proposed 
by itoiilfjer, for plant b ubicb 
derive their BUHtenance by their 
Imvcb ; Pliyl'lopliOT, Phyl'Iophors, 
Fhylloph'&rum (#ojj^ui, I carvj), the 
budding BUDimiC of a stem on wbich 
leaves are developing, especially 
applied to palms ; ptvlIoph'onmB, 
producing leaves ; Fbyl'lopIiTle 
K<fivror, a plant) (1) — CuRMOI-HYTE ; 
(2) a plant wbiohdrawa its nourish, 
ment objefly from its leaves (Boul- 
ger); PhyUop'odaa, pi. (roiii, voJdt, 
a foot), dead leaves in Iio&ef ; 
PbyllopMl'ltun, a loaf regarded mor- 
phologically as an axis, branched 
or unbronched ; Fhyllopto'iU 
{miira, fall), an nnnatural fall of 
leaves ; Phyl'Iorblie (^ij'a. a root), 
an orgaa intermediate between leaf 
and root, w the capillary leaves of 
many water plants (Clog); phyllo* 
■Ipbo'lllc (ci^c, a tiilM), having a 
tubular stele, interrupted at the 
insertion of leaves (Jeffrey) : Phyl- 
loit'pliony, tbe staM described ; 
PhyUotn'onla (raus, a peacock), 
Sohunk'a word for a product of 
cblorophylt, resembling phyUocyan, 
but dull green in tint; PhyUotix'y, 
Phytlolaiii [Tiin, arrangement), 
the mode in which the leaves are 
arranged with regard to the axis ; 
adj. phylloUc'tlc; Fbylloun'tbln 

( + Xanthin), the yellow oolooring 
matter of leaves, xanthophyll ; 
Phyl'lnJa (o^'Xa, a scar) %, the scar 
lett on a branch by tbe fall of a 
Fhyloe'eny (^CXnr, a tribe, yitoi, 
lineaKe), aiioestTal history deduoed 
from development ', adj. phyla- 

Pbyse'ma {^tnrni^, an infiation), (1) 
tbe frond of an aquatic Alga ; (2) 
a branch of Cham (Lindley). 

physiolog'ic (^I'lJii, a natural produc- 
tion, Xd-]<Dt, discourse), relating 
to physiology ; f hystorogy (veg'rt- 
able), the science of the viul 
actions or functions of plants and 
their parts. 

Pbyso'des (ipuira, a bladder, cliai, like- 
ness), vesicles io Algae tilled with 
liquid containirg structures, for- 
merlyealled "nii;roaome8"(Crftto). 

Phytal'buniose(^uTU',aplant, -I- Albd- 
mosk), a. proteid found in seeds, as 
olAbrun; Phytohlol'OKy l/9tai, life. 
U-ytii, discourse), the study of tbe 
vital functions in plants ; Fby'to- 
blaat I^XaiTTot, a bud or sprout), 
Baitlon's term for a cell in its first 

galls produced by other plants 
(Lundstrom) ; Ft^tochsniy ( + 
cbem), the chemistry of vegetation 
and its products : Ptiy'tochlore 
(xXupoi, green) = CllLOBopnyij, ; 
Fhy'toeyst {nJarit, a bag), Baillon's 
expression for a ct-11 with its walU, 
cf. Phvtoblast ; Fbytoder'ma 
(iippa, a skin), any fungous parasite 
growing on the sltin ; Phyto. 
denn'ata, pi., skin diseases caused 
by Fungi ; Pbytodoma'tla. pi. 
(SufuiTior, a little house), shettei-a 
in which other plan(a live (Lund - 
atriim); Phytoero'iU, a misprint 
of Lindley's for pHYTonnosiA ; 
Fbytodyium'lCB (idi-n^i, power), 
relating to the movements of 
pUnta (Sachs); Pliyt<i£:el'lB {gtlo. 



I oongeal), the gelatine of Al|;ae ; 
Pbytogen'eslB {'fiycffis, beginnus), 
the origin and development of the 
plant ; Pliytog'eny, means the same 
as the last; Phytogeog'raphy, 
Phytogeogruph'ia (yij, the earth, 
7pd^a;, I write), geographic botany, 
the science of ]^ant distribution ; 
Phytogno'sii {yt^iaffis, knowledge), 
botany, phytolo^ ; Fbytog^rapbist 
(7pa^, a writms), a describing 
botanist ; Fbytog^raijhy, the de- 
scription and illustration of plants, 
descriptive and systematic or taxi- 
nomic botany ; pbjr'toid (cZdos , like- 
ness), plant-like ; Pby'tolite {XlBos, 
a stone) ; Phy'tolitb, a plant in the 
fossil condition ; PliytoUthorogy, 
{\6yos, discourse), the study of 
fossil-plants, palaeobotany ; Fby- 
torogist, a botanist; Phytorogy, 
Phytolo'giat botany, the study of 
plants ; PhytorsnriB (XuVtf, a loos- 
ing), an error (?) for Photoltsis ; 
pl^rtomastig'opod, see mastioopod; 
n^tomer, pi. Phytom'era {fUpos, 
a part), the unit of a plant, an 
intemode with its leaves, an 
emendation of Fby'ton, applied by 
Gaudichaud to a plant-unit, out 
of a succession of which plants are 
built up ; Phyton'omy, PhyUmom'ia 
{pofjMs, law), botanic physiology ; 
Phytonym'ia {dtfofui, a name), plant 
organography ; Phytoplank'ton 
{+ Plankton), floating pelagic 
plant organisms ; Phytopatborogy 
[iraOoKoyiKbs, relating to diseases), 
vegetable pathology, the science 
of plant-diseases ; PhytopOl'itiis X 
{voXirrjSf a citizen), a plant which 
is or seems to be parasitic ; Ptayto- 
ptocedd'ia (ki^kis, a gall), galls 
caused by Fungi (Loew) ; Phyto- 
■tat'lcs {ffTdffiSy a standing), the 
various causes which tend to pro- 
duce equilibrium in the energies 
of a plant ; Phytotero'sia (repeo;, 
I pierce), Desvaux's term for 
plant pathology ; Phytoteratorogy 
{+ TuRATOLOOT), the study of 
monstrous growths in plants ; 
Pliytofomy (ro/iii, a cutting), plant 

anatomy, or histology; Pliyto- 
troph'ia {rpo^t nonriahment), 
plant culture ; Pbytoio'id (^Mr, 
an animal, ctSos, likeness) =Anths- 
rozoid; PbytoiD'a, pi. of Phyto- 
lo'on, antherozoids, mobile fertiliz- 
ing bodies formed in antheridia. 

pio'ens (Lat.), pitchy black. 

Plc'ro-er'ytlirin {Tixpos, bitter, -h 
Ertthbin), a substance found in 
Lichens ; Picrotox'iii [To^iKbp, 
poison), a crystalline narcotic 
oitter ingredient in the berries of 
Cocctdus indicfiSf the mediaeval 
and trade name of Anamirta 
panicidata, Coleb. ; adj. plero- 

plc'tUB (Lat., painted), adorned with 
colour, as though painted. 

Pla'tra fongaU (Ital.), "Mushroom- 
stone," the Bclerotium of Poly- 
porus tvberaster, Fr. 

plla'rlB t (Lat., from pilua, a hair), 
compoised of small hairs, pilose. 

pileate, pilea'iu8 (Lat., wearing the 
pileu8)f having the form of a cap 
or PiLBUS ; i^lelform, pUei/arm'ts 
{forma, shape), pileus shaped, 
Plleola, PUe'olus {pUedum, a little 
cap), (1) a small cap or cap-like 
body ; defined by Henslow as a 
primordial leaf like an extin- 
guisher, which encloses the bud; 
(2) the diminutive of Pileus; (3) 
'*the receptacle of certain Fun- 
gals " (Linaley). 

Plleorlii'ia (ir£Xeos, pt^iM, a cap, ^^a, 
a root), the root-cap, a hood at 
the extremity of the root ; Pi'lena, 

(1) a convex expansion terminating 
the stipe of Agarics, and bearing 
the hymenium, now extended to aU 
sporophores in which the hyme- 
nium faces the ground, the Cap; 

(2) used by R. T. Lowe to express 
the habit of Convolvttlus Caput-Mt- 
dutae, Lowe. 

Pill, pi. of PiluB (Lat. a hair), hairs. 

Pilidlnm {riKi^iov, a night-cap), an 
orbicular hemispherical shield in 
Lichens, the outside changing into 
a powdery substance, as in Cali- 



pUlferonB, - 

» {piiwi, a bur, /«n>, 1 

ith them ; (2) hair pointed (Liod- 
ley) ; '- Lay'sr, the young superfi- 
cisl tisaue of roota, producing the 
roob-hairs, when present ; pl'Ilfomi 
{/orma, shape), appliid to the point 
of a nerve in Mosbos, whan like a. 
long Sexuoae hair; puis'erons (ycro, 
I bsBir), bearing haira. 

Pill, (Jrew'g spelling of PekL. 

pi'locu-'plne, the active .principle of 
Filoorput, a genus of Rutaceae. 

pU'e-ElAu'diiloae (pi/ii^. a hair), used 
by J. Smith for Ferns bearing 
glandular hairs ; pilose, pUo'tus, 
pl'lona, hairy, any kind of pilosity, 
usually meaning having soft and 
diatiact hairs ; Pllos'lty, Filoa'ifas, 
bairiness ; pUaslus'cnliiB {Lat,), 
slightly hairy ; Pl'loilim, abnormal 
bairioBBB in plants ; dsform'lsg ", 
H'hen in en cess and completely dis- 
figuring the species ; physlolo- 
^tcol ~, occasioned by oiruum- 
stances, as growth in a dry soil ; 
ISratolog'lMl ~ , when it beuomes a 


PU'aU,; (Lst., a globule], (1) a cone 
like a galbnlus; (2) any spherical 

n'loi (Lat.], a hair ; i^. Piix. 

pim'pled. papillose. 

pin eyed, a florist's l«rm for those 
floHevs of dimorpliic species, wliicb 
hare long styles, the stigma show- 
ing itseU at the mouth of the 
corolla- tube. 

71iiaJceiLcb'yini.(irfi'af,atBbIe, fvxi'CB, 
an infusioo), tho murifotm tissue 
of medullary rays, whose com- 
ponent cells are tabular ; Plnea- 
cb'yma is a shortened form. 

FliLCli'InK-Bod'leB. the CoBpnscui^ of 
Asclepiads : the junction of the 
pollinia which clings to the leg of 
an insect visiter ; ~ Trap*, another 
name for the same niechnnism ; the 
German equivalents are Kiemm- 
korper and Kiemmeniallen. 

'~-a (Lat., a pine-^ve), (1) 

Pi'nltB, a gluooside, sweet and ory- 
Btalline, derived from Pinus Lam- 
berfiaiia, Dougl, 

pln'na, pi. Pln'nae (Lat. a feather), a 
primoi^ division of a pinnate leaf, 
ite leaoets, whicli sometimeB thsm- 
selves are pinnate, are restricted by 
Bower to the " branches of the first 
order borne upon the phyllopo- 
dium," the axis of the leaf : plii'- 
nate, pxnjta'lni, with leaflets ar- 
ranged along each aide of a oommon 
petiole; — with anoddone=^impari- 

finnate ; plnna'lely, in a pinnate 
lahiou, as - com'pound. ~ cleft, 
~ deoom' pound, ~ dlri'ded, ~ 
lo'bed, '- por'ted, ~ ter'nBt«, ~ 
triro'Ualate, ~ veined ; plnna'tlfld, 
pinnali/'idwi IJindo, Jiili, to cut), 
pinnately clefl ; pinnatllo'bate, 
pinnatiloba'liis. pinnatilo'biis {lobtis, 
B lobe), pinoately lobed ; pumatl- 
poi'tlte, piiiiia'iparli'liiii, pionately 
parted ; pinnatJadi'sns, (ici'imim, 
clefl), pinnately divided or cut ; 
plmu'tlieoC, pinJiatUr-ii'lut [eeeltu, 
cut), pinnately divided down to the 
rhachis ; pin'idfonn {/orma, shape), 
likeafeather ; pLoolner'Ted (ncn-u*, 
a nerve), pinnately veined, the 
veins tunning parallel towards the 
margin ; pln'nolate, with pinnules ; 
Pia'nule, /"iVnttia, pi. Pin'nidae,{l) 
a secDnd[ary pinnaj (2) in Diatoms, 
tliicicened ribs on (he valves, as in 

pl'nold (jnnv, a pin«, dioj, resem- 
blance), like a pine-needl«. 

Pip, ( I ) the popular name for the 
seeds of an apple or pear ; (2) "small 

(Crozier) ; (3) a florist's term for a 
single flower of a. truss. 
Plp'erln, the active principle of whit« 
and black pepper, Pijier nigrum, 
Linn., a wbite cryctsllino body 
isomeric with morpbine ; plp'era- 
VOB, piperl'tua (Lat.. peppered), 
peppery, having a hut, biting 

nu, pia\form' in (oMutn, 
to, sb&pe), pea-ULaped. 


Vli'ttl, PistU'lum (Lat., a peBtle), (1) 
the female organ of a flower, oon- 
Bisting of ovary, style and stigma, 
when complete; (2) the archegonium 
of the genus Andreaea (Hooker 
and Taylor); plitilla'oeoiu ( + 
aoeoos), growing on the pistil ; 
pAi'tUlaxy, relating to the pistil ;'*' 
Oord, " a channel which passes 
from the stigma throoffh the style 
into the ovary " (Lindley) ; pis'tU- 
lata, pietUla'tus, (1) having a pistil ; 
(2) applied to a.flower having pistils 
only, a female' flower ; pisSuif 'er- 
ona, -nu {/erot I bear), bearing 
pistils ; FistUlidlnm, pi. PlstUlid'ta, 
arohegonia, organs analogous to 
pistils ; pistilUywopg {gero, I bear), 
piatiUif eroos {/ero, I bear), bearing 
one or more pistils ; Pistillo'dy, the 
change of floral organs into carpels. 

nt, (1) a small hollow or depression, 
as in a cell- wall ; (2) the endocarp 
of a drupe containing the kernel or 
seed -stone (Crozier) ; ^ Oliam'ber, 
the cavity of a bordered pit on 
each side of a closing membrane. 

Fitch, a resinous exudation from the 
spruce, Picea cUba, Link, etc. 

FltoAi'er, a tubular or cup-shaped 
vessel, the terminal portion of a 
leaf-blado, usually containing a 
secreted digestive fluid ; an as- 
cidium ; ^ shaped, campanulate, but 
contracted at the orifice. 

nth, the spongy centre of an exo- 
genous stem, chiefly consisting of 
Sarenchyma; the medulla ; '^'Fleoka, 
ark marks in timber due to the 
cavities made by the larvae of in- 
sects in the cambiam, but at once 
filled up by cellular tissue (Hartig). 

plt'ted, marked with small depres- 
sions, punctate ; used in a re- 
stricted sense for pits in cell- walls ; 
'^ Ves'sels, dotted ducts, vessels 
with secondary thickenings leaving 
thinner spots. 

pitaltouB {pUuitaf phlegm), relating 
to mucus (Crozier). 

Pl^ri'asifl (wlTvpov, scurf) ▼erslo'olor, 
a skin disease caused hyMicraapo ran 
Furfur^ Rob, 

FlBoan'ta (Lat., a cake), (1) the organ 
which bears the ovules in an ovary, 
often the marf[in of the oarpellary 
leaves; (2) m Cryptogams, the 
tissue from which sporangia arise ; 
«~ shaped, plaoentiform ; Pla'- 
oentaiy, X ft placenta which is long 
and narrow and bears many ovules ; 
nacenta'rlnm, placenta ; Plaoen- 
ta'tion. Placenta tio, the dispoeition 
of the placentae; plaoentifenia 
(Jero, I bear), bearing placentae ; 
plaoen'tifonii, pUtceniQbrm'ia {for- 
ma, shape), quoit-shaped or like a 
flat cake. 

plaoochzoznat'le (irXd{, rXcUot, a flat 
body, xfi(ai»ATiKot, relating to colour), 
naed 3 Diatoms with endochrome 
in plates or disks ; cf. goooochbo- 


Idaoo'dss (irXair(6di;f, flat), used by 
Koerber for Lichens resembling a 
rounded plate in figure. 

Plao'ophytea (xXd(, a flat body, 4*vrhv, 
a plant), a term applied by Schuett 
to the Peridineae, Diatomaceae and 
Desmideae ; cf, Sac/cophttbs. 

plagiod'romoiui {irXdyioi, oblique, 
dpofijoSf a course), applied to tertiary 
leaf-veins when at right-angles to 
the secondary veins; Flagioidioto- 
tax'y {4ms, ^omof, light, ndlit, 
order), the oblique arrangement of 
chlorophyll granules witn regard 
to incident light(Oltmanns) ; plaglo- 
phototrop'lc {rpoTTj, a turning), 
assuming an oblique position to 
the rays of light, as the leaflets 
of Robinia, TropatMlum, etc., 
(Oltmanns) ; plagiotroplc, having 
the direction of growth oblique 
or horizontal ; Plagiot'ropism, the 
condition described. 

plain, applied to a margin which is 
not undulate, though it may be 
sinuate (Crozier). 

plaifed, plicate. 

plane, pla'nua (Lat.), level, even, flat ; 
Flane of Insar'tion, a plane which 
passes through the pomt of inser- 
tion of a lateral organ and coincides 
with the main axis and that of the 
organ ; <^ of fljm'inttiy, that which 



FlanJctol'OKy (tXiyhtdi, irandericg, 
AoTOi, a diBconrge), the departmaDt 
of pelagic bot&ny, thnt ie, of the 
floating oreaniama in the ocean ; 
niJik'toii, free-swimming or fioAt- 
ing oceanic liie : ItMbwater ~, 
that of lakea or Hvera ; narlt'lo^, 
fonod near tbe coaal; ocBaa'lc /-, 
pelagic, far from land . 

Flau'osamata (■Uvm, wandering, 
■yofUn]!, a apoiue), a mobile ciliatM 
gamete or aoogamete, as in Chloro- 
phycAse : FlBn'oapora {arapi, a 
■eeil), Saiivage«n'8 tenii for a 
motile zoospore. 

FlUl't, PUm'ta. s vegetable production 
nonriibed by gaaai or liquids and 
not ingetting solid particles of 
food (Hioept in tbe plsamodial 
■tags of Myiogastreg) : ~ Cane, 
the fint year's growth of thesugar- 
oane from seed ; ~ Caa'elii, a tub- 
stance akin to animal casein ; — 
Forma'tlon. an assemblage of plants 
living together in a community 
under the same Bavironment, as a 
moor or wood ; ~ PatlkoI'oKT, tbe 
study of plant-diseases ; Plan'tae 
trU't*!, evening flowerini; pUats, 
as Mallhiola IncomU, DC., etc.; 
plBU'tol, pertaining to plants ; 
Plau'tlcla, the embryo in a seed ; 
FlMl'Uet, a little plant ; Fluk'tula, 
Ptaiituia - PLf-aiTLi; PlantDU'Uo 

Rum, Flas'ma (r^ilvfia, that formed), 
used toT pHO-roi-LkSM ; Plumunos'- 
baa ( + AuoKBA), amocbiform 
masses of protoplasni, the actiao- 
phrydis of Gobi ; plftiiiiatop'«TonB 
Ipario, I bring forth), in germina- 
tion the whole of the protoplasm 
of a gonidium issues as a rounded 
mass, which at once beoomes ooat«d 
with a membrane, and puts out a 
genn-tabe : FlM'muome, or Flas- 
mat'oMnu [au/ia, a body), a proto- 
pUamio corpuscle, shortened to 
Pl.««>mk ; pl&imat'lG. ready, or 
serving for growth, plastic ; PIa«'- 

^^H serving fo 

mode = Flashodium : plaamo'dlae, 
Camel's term for Myjogaslrea ; 
plaimo'dial, plasmo'dlc, pertaining 
to a plaauiodium ; Plssmo'dlOCUp, 
(la^ai, fruit), an asymiuetrical 
sporangium of Myxogastres (Bosta- 
finski) ; Plasma 'diogena iyitot, 
race, offspring), MaomilUn's word 
for tbs protoplasmic units of a 
pIssmodiuTD : p)amio<UopIt'onis 
l^piw, I carry), producing a tme 
Plasmodium : Plasmo'dlum, a mssa 
of naked much- nucleated proto- 
plasm, showing amoeboid move- 
ments; aggrega'ted ~, the m}[xa- 
moeboeconiiregateil without fusion, 
each cell giving riac to a spore or 
foot-cell ; fused - , miion of myxa- 
moebae and subsequent fructifica- 
tion (Van Tieghem) : Plasmol'yala 
(Xi'Mit, a loosing), a separation of 
the living protoplasm from the 
cell - wall by osmotic action ; 
ptai'molyied, subjected to plasmo- 
lysisj odj, plaamolyt'ic ; plaamo- 
pb'AKOOS (^d7u, I eatj, absorbing 
the living organic matter of tbe 
boat-plant without eelection (Boul- 
ger) ; Plaamoayn'agy {ririya, I 
uollecl), accumulation of the pro- 
toplasts of the polioploem and of 
tbe plostids included in it, due to 
ploamolytio irritation (Tswett) ; 
nat'oma, a living element of pro- 
toplasm, shortened from Plash.s- 
TOSOHB (Wiesner) ; pUi'Qc, <«pable 
of being moulded or modified ; ~ 
Bnb'sts^oss, those employed in 
boilding up, OS eelluloae, starch- 
grains, protfiids, etc. ; Tluttc'ltr, 
the qnalityof being plastic; Plaa'Ud, 
floMiii'iuni, a protoplasmic granule 
in active calls, differentiated aa 
centres of chemical or vital activity, 
OB Chloro-, Ciibouo-. and Lsr- 
coFLAHTiD : Flaa'ttdpUnn, | -r 
Plabu), a supposititious substance 
differing from other forms of pro- 
toplasm by morphological aharao- 
tcrs (B. M. Davis) ; Flas'tldnla, 
Elaberg's term for the smallest 
mass of protoplasm which 
as each ; Plaa'Un, 

ich oan exist J 

essential ale- | 



ment of the entire protoplasmio 
oell-contents, indading the naolena 
and the chromatophoree (Zach- 
arias); Plastog'aaiy {yd/iot, mar- 
riage), the fusion of cytoplasts 
into a Plasmodium, the nuclei 
remaining distinct (Hartog) ; adj. 
plastogam'ic ; Flastog'eny {y^ot, 
race, offspring), when cytoplastic 
elements undergo a reorganisation 
by fusion (Hartog) ; Flas'toid 
(etdot, likeness), a needle-shaped 
body found in the stalk-cells of the 
tentacles of Droaera, becoming 
rounded under stimulus; a rhab- 
Plata, a flattened structure; </. 


nateau' (Fr.), (1) the tubercular disk 
in a bulb which produces the 
scales upwards, and the roots 
downwaras, (/. Corm (Crozier) ; 
(2) a similar structure in certain 
Compositae, interposed between 
the ovary and the other floral 
organs (Lecoq). 

platyoar'pic, platyoar'poua {vXari^i, 
broad, xapTbSy fruit), broad-fruited ; 
Flatylol/eae (XojSof, a lobe), used 
for certain Crucifers with flat ootv- 
ledons ; platylo'lMita, broad-lobed ; 
jOa^Hyllons (^i^XXov, a leaf), 

Placolap'is, t Plecolep'idus {T\iKu, I 
plait, Xerls, a scale), the involucre 
of Compositae when the bracts 
are united into a cup. 

Plactanch'yma (irXe/n-of, woven, 
Itxu/uk, an infusion), a tissue of 
woven hyphae ; a pseudo-par- 
enchyma, further divided into 
Pabaplectenohyma and Pboso- 

Plaioblas'tns {wXeToy, more, jSXourrof, 
a bud), used by Koerber for those 
Lichen spores which germinate 
at several points; Pleiocliaslimi 
(X(i<rt9, separation), each relative 
main axis of a cyme producing 
more than two branches ; adj. 
plAiochat'ial ; plalocy'clic {k6k\os, 
a circle), perennial, as ^ Herte; 
Pleiom'oiy {fUpos, a part), having 

more whorls than the normal 
number ; Plalomor'pliiim, Plaio- 
mor'pliy (/m^^, change), the oc- 
currence of more than one inde- 
pendent form in the life-cycle of 
a species; PleUmfism, Delpino's 
term for Poltmospht ; plslo- 
phyllouB, 'lus (^vXXoi^, a leaf), with 
leaves having no apparent buds 
in their axils ; Plelo]diyl1y, having 
numerous leaves from the same 
point, or more than usual the 
number of leaflets in a compound 
leaf; Plfliopyre'nium ( + Ptbenium), 
smidl apothecia in one verruca, in 
Lichens; pleiosper^mous {<rv4pfia^ 
a seed), with an unusually large 
number of seeds ; Plfliotaz'la, Plaio- 
tax'y (ra^(f, order), increase in the 
number of whorls in a flower ; 
Pleiotraohe'ae (+ T&achba), 
*' membranous tubes or tracheae 
containing a compound spiral 
fibre" (Cooke); Plelox'eny {^vot, 
a host or guest), where a parasite 
can invade several species of host- 
plants (De Bary). 

ple'nuB (Lat.)* full* as Flos pUnua 
=: a double flower. 

Plaoohro'lclBm (irXeor, more, xP^f 
colour, complexion), with various 
colours in the cell- wall ; syn., Pleo- 
cbro'mlsm (xpiHifM, colour), adj. 
pleochrolc, pleocbrois'tlc ; Pleo- 
mor'phism, Pleomor'ptay (/u>p0fy, 
shape), the same as Plbiomobphism. 

Ple'on, Naegeli's term for an aggre- 
gate of molecules, but smaller than 
a Micella. 

Ple'onasm (irXeofcur/Mi, a surplus), 
redundance in any part (Crozier). 

Ple'rome [rX-ftpcafia, that which fills), 
the cylinder or shaft of a growing 
point enclosed and overarched by 
periblem ; ^ Bheatb = Bundle- 

pledomor'pliouB (irXi/o-foj, near, fJMp4*^, 
shape), nearly of the same form 

Plea'ra (irXevpd, a side or rib), the gir- 
dle or hoop of Diatoms (O.Mueller) ; 
Plflurenchyma {iyxvfia, an infu- 
sion), woody tissue ; pleuxoUaa'tio 


]B\atrTii, & bud), nied of certSiUi 
loriru of Fungi, producing lateral 
aubgrowths serving (u hauatoria ; 

. plearocar'polu. 'piis Ixa/iTrd;, fruit). 

I applied to thnae Mosses nhich 
be«r their fructification ou lateral 

grOWthi, rf, ACBOCAKPODS : plaUTD- 

dla'coua iitaxot, s qooit), when an 
> appeudage ia attached to the aides 
01 a diso; pIsurogy'iB.te, plmro- 
gyra'ttm {y\>p6t, rountij, when 
■porangis have tlia aonulua hori- 
Eontal ; pleurogyn'lua, pleurogTn'ua 

glandular or tubercular elevation 
rises close to or parallel with 
tbe oTary; plBoioplaa'Ue (irXaoTat. 
moulded), Prantl's term for a leaf 
in which tbe '■cnirral po lion 5rat 
attuina permarieacy. the meristem 
being margiDal ; pleurorbl'tal, -:>ui 
(^Ifo, a root), when an erobrja has 
its radicle agairiat one edge of the 
cotyledons, which are then accum- 
bent ; nenr'oapenns [a-ripiia, a 
seed), AngiosperniB which began 
with cbalazogamy, but have be- 
come porogamoUB (Nawaschin); 
adj. pleoroEper'inlo ; Flenioipor- 
ang'tum {ainpd, a seed, iyytlot, a 
veesel), a sporangium which pro- 
ducea plcuroapores ; PleuT'oipore, 
a Bpore formed at the allies of a 
basidium in BasidioniyueteB (Van 
Tiegheni) -. pleumtrl'bal, or plenr'o- 
trtbe (Tfii(9ur, I beat), used of Bowers 
whose stamens are adapted to de- 
posit their pollen upon the sides of 

■ t ('Xtfit, a knitting, 
pXaSToi. a bud), when cotyledons 
rise above ground in germination, 
but do not assume the appearaaco 
of leaves; plax'ualLat., a twining], 
a network. 
Rl'ca, pi. PU'CM Ipiko. I fold or 
plait). (1) a plait or fotding ; (2) 
tbe lumella in Fungi ; (3) a £sea<e 
of entangled twigs, the buds pro- 
ducing ^DomiBUy short shoots ; 
pU'cata, plica'tas, folded into ptaita 
the property of folding toguther ; 


Tllea'tlcii, a fold or folding ; pllc'a- 
tlYS, plicrUt'inu — PUCATB ; Pllc'ft- 
tnre, a fold or doubling ; pllcat'o- 
late, the diminutive of plicate 
(Crosier) :pll'clfi)Tin(7b7'nia, shape), 
Plococar'plum (ir^oii^. a tress, tapwot, 
fruit) = Foixicu: ; Plopocar'i^uiii, 
an error for the last. 

Plampock'ete = BAii-pLrMS. 
Flumba'gtne, a cryatalliue principle 

in the roots of Piumlmffo, 
plunb'oui (Lat., leaden), lead-col- 

plmna'tOB (Lat.), feathereil, pinnate. 
Flnme (Lat., tbe down of a feather), 

Grew'fl term for the PuTMCLBi plo'- 

moBB, plumo'eut (Lat.), feathered, 

as the pappus of thistles. 
Pln'mule, Plii'mula (Lat., a little 

feather), tbe primarj leaf-buJ of 

an embryo. 
plnr-, pln'ri (Lat.), used as a prefix 

lor many or Boveral, aa plurilocular, 

many -celled, etc. 

nur-an'naat ( + Annual), L. H. 
Bailey's word for an annual plant, 
which is eu only by being killed by 
the cold at the end of the season, 
OS R'Sfiia oiUtrattiy Linn.; pltlrt- 
oeriularl -HcEu.ui.AR),many-cflled; 
pln'rlceps (-rc/ic from ra/w/.a head), 
irith more than one hea-l, as many 
roots ; pluiifo'lUte, plurtto'lloui 
[folitim, a l(ai). having several 
leaves : p]uiUollolat«, with several 
or many leaQets ; pliulflot'inil, -ma 
{JtoB, ^florin, a flower), with several 
Ho were; plnrtloc'olar.jJniniocii/o'rH 
{loculue, a tittle place), many- 
celled ; plurlpar'tlta. piiinparti'luii 
{parlitiit, divided), deeply divided 
into several nearly distinct por- 
tions; plDrlpet'aloUS (i-^aXar, a 
Qower-leaf), polypetalouB ; pltlTl- 
iep'tate (Kptum, an onclosare), 
with several partitions ; ploil- 
apor'ons (r7ir0pa, a seed), having 
two or more seeds ; pluiiValent 
(iWeiM, strong), used of nuclear 
divisiona in which each element is 
composed of two normal elements 
(Hoerker); plnriTal'vlB ( -4- Valva), 

mftny-valved, as opposed to nni- 
▼alved or follionlste. 

Fnsu'xBato - cbymlf «ra [Va'sa] t 
{vPiVfMf vpei^fjuiTot, breath, air), 
spiral vessels (Lindley) ; Fneu'- 
xoatoda (63or, a way), any open- 
ing of the nature of a lentioei or 
stoma ( Jort) ; Fnen'matopliore, 
PneumcUoph'orum {^oiwt I carry), 
(1) used of air-vessels of an^ de- 
scription, as tracheids; (2) inter- 
cellular spaces in Rhizophoreae 
(ELarsten) ; (3) X the membranoos 
tube of a spiral vessel (Lindley) ; 
pnenmatotao'tlc (rarrtmt, apt for 
arrangement), applied to those 
soospores whose irritability is de- 
pendent on the presence of dis- 
solved gases, the products of 
respiration of the soospores in the 
sporangium (Hartog) ; Fnenmato- 
tu y, the condition described ; 
neg'atiTe ^^^ the irritability which 
determines the escape of certain 
spores, as in Achlya ; Pnenma- 
toferos (fero, I bear), the ex- 
ternal membranous tube of spiral 
vessels (Henslow). 

PoOk'et-pliims = Bao-plums. 

poo'iillfonn, poculiform'is {poeulum, 
a cup, format shape), shaped like 
a goblet or drinking- cup. 

Pod, a dry and many-seeded dehis- 
cent fruit, a legume or silique ; ^ 
•like, applied to such fruits as 
those oiCorydaliSf Hypecoum, and 

pode'tiiform (-t-PoDETiUM from iroOf, 
ToBbs, a foot, forma, shape), shaped 
like a podetium ; Pode'knm, (1) a 
stalk-like elevation rising from the 
thallus and supporting an apothe- 
cium in some Lichens; (2) also 
applied to the support of the 
oapitulum of Marchantia ; and (3) 
the seta of Mosses ; Pode'ta t is 
given by Lindley as a synonym. 

pedicellate, Leiehton's term for 
stalked, as applied to Lichens. 

Podldllam X (^ ^^^7 short podetium 
(Lindley) ; Pod'inm, Pod'us, a foot- 
stalk or similar support; Pod'ocarp, 
PodocoAT^pus {Kaprot, fruit), a stipi- 

tate fruit, that is, when the ovaiy 
is borne by a gynophore; podo- 
oeph'alons, 4ub (ict^i}, a head), 
with a pedunculate head; Podo- 
gyn'inm (yvH), a woman), an 
elevation in the centre of a flower 
which carries the ovary, a gyno- 
phore; adj. podogynloiis, podo- 
g'ynus; podop'terons {rrepow, a 
wing), having winged peduncles 
(Crozier); Pod'ospszm, Podoapef^- 
miwn, -ma {<nripfia, a seed), the 
stalk of a seed, the funide. 

Po'gon [wtirYiap, a beard), used in com- 
position to denote any collection of 
ionff hairs. 

PdintJil, an old term for Pistil; 
poinfleat, muticous; poinfletted, 

Polacbe'na, Polackct'oa Polaht'nium 
(iroX^, many, e^ without, X"^^* 
I gape), Richard's term for a fruit 
like a cremocarp. but composed of 
five carpels, </. Pentaghenium. 

polar, relating to the poles of an 
organ ; ^ hUoc'alar, applied to 
Lichen spores which have cells at 
the opposite apices. 

Po'lar (ir6\os, a pivot) Bod'iea, a 
portion of the protoplasm of a 
mother-cell thrown off as nucleated 
cells from the oospore before fertili- 
sation ; ^ Cell, = ^ Body ; ^ Cor- 
pos'cle, the central mass in each 
AsTSS of a dividing nucleus ; ^ 
CaoVule, = ^ Body ; ^ Nu'clens 
a fourth nucleus in each group at 
the two extremities of the emorvo 
sac, which move towards the midale 
of the embryo sac and there coalesce 
to form the secondary nucleus ; 
Polar'ity, (1) the condition of having 
distinct poles ; (2) the assumption 
of a direction pointing to the poles, 
as the compass-plant, SUphium 
laciniatum, Lmn. 

Polem'bryoiiy = Polyembryony. 

poleward [dissyl.], towards the poles, 
in nuclear division. 

PolexoBty'lUB (iroXi)f , many, e^u, out, 
ortiKos, style) =Cakcebule. 

PoliopUunn (iroXiof, grey, irXdo'/ui, 
moulded), Tswett's term for the 


airculatiDg portion ot thft oyto- 


poll'Ini (Lat.), poliahed. 

palla£tils'eniii(TDUax4. oftei),7»i'du, 
I bring forth) = POL¥CABFlC. 

Pol'len (Lat. fine Soar). (1) the ferti- 
luiDg dust- like powder produoed 
bjr the anthers of Phaneronms. 
more or lesa globalar in ehape, 
■ometimes apokeo of m "Mioro- 

Xrea"; (2) the Mitharaw>ids of 
laes (Booker and Taylor); ~ 
Our'leT, tba retinaoulum of Atote- 
piadB. the gUcd to which the 
poUea- masses are attached, either 
iiDiDediatelj or by ouudiclea ; — 
Oelli, cavities of the anthers in 
which pollen is formed ; ~ Cba'm- 
ber, (1) a cavity at the apex of 
■ome ovules beneath the intogu- 
meots in which the poUaD-grBins 
lie after pollination, as in Cycai' ; 
(2) the extine of the pollen in 
some Coniferae dilated inUi two 
hoUow eipaostoiu to faci]itst« 
dispersion by wind ; ~ Oralu, 
ann'nla, the small bodies which 
compose the entire mass ; the 
Utt«r term is also Dsed for the 
ooDtentiB of the grain : ~ Haas, 
pollengraimi cohering bj a waxy 
textore or fine threads into a single 
body; ~ Sm, the micro-sporangium 
in FhaneitiganiR ; -- Spon = ~ 
Gbaik ; ~ Tet'nd, the shape of 
oortain groups oonsisttng of four 
grains cohering in a pyramid, as 
laOcnolhera; ~ TetishMl'TOn = last ; 
•- Tntie, ihe tube emitted by a 
pollen grain passing down fi'om 
the stigma to the ovary and 
ornle*. — The various markings of 
the pollen-grains in Acanthacaoe 
have reoeived special nanea from 
L. Radlkofer and G. Lindau. 
which have been nsed in their 
original form in the " Flora of 
Tropica) Africa " ; the following 
account of them may be useful ; 
DMi'bat ~ (Stave -) a modiBoa* 
tion of Sohalen- or Spalten ~ , with 
broadened BssDree having a stave- 

like insertion ; Do'saB -• (Box -•), 
elliptic, with three longitudinal 
Btripen and a jure in each ; Focet- 
tterter ~ (Facet - ), with facetted 
surface ; Fal'ten ~ (Fold ~ ), with 
smooth surface and three deep 
longitudinal groovee; Olat'tar - 
(Smooth ~ I. destitute of prominent 
markings ; Otir'tel - (Girdle ~|, 
having a none of varied marking ; 
X&m'mrod ~ (Cogwheel ~ ). having 
regular projections on the equa- 
torial region ; SnOt'ohsn ~, an 
abbreviation for KnOtchando'sen 
- ,[ Nodule ~ ). having a tubercnlute 
BU[4ace ; Lln'sen ~ I Lens ~ ), 
doubly convei in form ; Rah'men 
~ (Frame ~), with six small and 
thiiM broad streaks between the 
poles; Blp'pea ~ (Bib ~), with 
longitudinal ribs having punctat« 
markings on them ; Knn'der ~ 
(Round —) spherical in form '-; 
ftaha'len - (Shell- ), witli three slits 
which do not reach the poles, and 
without pores, the pollen -tubes 
emerging from the slits, cf. BrM.- 
TSN ~ ; Bpal'tcn ~ (Fissure -). 
with three longitudinal fissures, 
sometimes with pores in them : r/. 
ScBALEK ~ 1 Span'gen ~ (Clasp 
~), main ril>s three, smaller ribs 
six, with three poros in the equa- 
torial region, one between each 
two of the smaller ribs ; Stft'eliel ~ 
(Spine — ), having a spiny 
surface, pores from three to 
many ; Wa'beo ~ (Honey-comb 
~). having an areolate surface ; 
pollenate, to fertilise by pollen ; 
Polleui'tloii = Pollination ; pol- 
leniTeroui, -ni^ i/iro, 1 bear), 
pollen-bearing; Pol'lauina. the con- 
tentsof pollen-urains; Porisnold = 


Pollax (Lut., a thumb), an inch in 
length, nearly 25 mm. 

polUcft'riJ (Lnt., pertaining to a 
thumb), an inch in length, about the 
length of the end joint of the thnmli. 

Pollliut'tiam, pL PoUUia'rlA [PoUeH. 
fine flour), (1) = AnDBOKlim ! (2} 
= Ctstididh, 



poUiiia'rlUB (Lat., pertaining to fine 
flour), poUlno'iiiB, aa though dusted 
with pollen. 

pollinate, to apply pollen to the 
receptive surface of the female 
organ ; poriinated, poUina'tua, 
when a stigma is supplied with 
pollen ; FoUina'tlon, the placing of 
the pollen on the stigma or stig- 
matic surface; lateral '*' , </. plsubo- 
TRIBAL ; <nrer **», </. nototbibal ; 
under '^ , qf, steilnotribal ; pollln'- 
ic OliamlMr = PoLUEN-CuAMBsa ; 
PoUlnlum, pL POllin'la, a body 
composed of all the pollen-grains 
of an anther-looulus, a pollen-mass ; 
Polllnisa'tion = Polunation ; Pol- 
lino'dinm, in Ascomycetes, a made 
sexual organ which conjugates 
with a female orsan, directly or by 
outgrowth ; Poninoids {etSot, re- 
seniolance), naked motionless 
masses of protoplasm, spherical or 
elongated, sometimes beaked, act- 
ing in the place of antherozoids in 
Florideae; polllnlcna {pollen, fine 
flour), composed of or bearing some 
relation to pollen. 

Pffl'yerlne (Ital., polverino), calcined 
ash of a soda-yielding plant. 

Folyadel'pliia (toXi)?, many, ddeX^s, 
a brother), a Linnean artificial 
class with stamens grouped into 
several brotherhoods or oundles; 
adj. polyadelp'boiis, poljradel'pliian; 
pol3rad'enouB {dS^p, a gland), with 
man^ glands ; PolyaiTdria (di^p, 
oMdpotf a man), a Linnean class of 
plants possessing many stamens in 
each flower ; polyan'drian, polyan'- 
drous, having an indefinite number 
of stamens ; polyan'thouB, -thus 
{&V0OS, a flower), having many 
flowers, particularly if within the 
same involucre ; polyari'nus {Apprjy, 
male), Neoker's term for polyan- 
DRODS ; polyaz'ial ( + axial), used 
of an inflorescence in which the 
flowers are borne on secondary, ter- 
tiary, etc., branches ; polyblaa'tns 
(fiXarrot, a bud), Koerber's term for 
those Lichens which have polysep- 
tate spores ; poljrcam'anu {Ko/idpa, a 

vault) = POLTGARPio ; polyoarpel'- 
lazy ( + Carpellum), of many car- 
pels, free or united ; polyovple, 
polycar'plooiiB {Koprot, £ruit), fruit- 
ing many times, indefinitely ; used 
by De CJandolle to denote a peren- 
nial herb; pdlycar'poiis, -pus, (1) 
= poLTCARPio; (2) of a flower in 
which the gynaecinm forms two or 
more distinct ovaries; <^. mono- 
OARPic ; po]7oepli'aloiis,-^u«(«:c0aXi7, 
a head), bearing many heads or 
capitula ; polycephali Pili, are hairs 
divided at the end into several 
arms (Lindley); polychlor'ii, an 
error for poltchoris ; Polyohor'ioii 
t Folyohorlonldes, t Poly^or'ii 
ix^piov, foetal membrane), syno- 
nyms for Etarrio ; PvOycliro'lte 
(XP^> colour, complexion), the 
yellow colouring matter of saffiron ; 
Porycbrome [xp^/m, colour), a sub- 
stance occurring in the bark of the 
Horse-chestnut which gives rise 
to varying colours ; Polydad'ia, 
Polyclad'y («rXddot, a branch), plica, 
a supernumerary development of 
branches and leaves ; adj. polytila- 
d'ouB ; Polyooc'oouB, -cus {KbxKotj a 
kernel), having many cocci ; Pcdy- 
do'nuB, Polydo'iiy {k\uv, a branch), 
a synonym of Polycladia ; Poly- 
eotyle'don, pi. Pcdyeotyle'dones ( + 
Cotyledon), a plant which has 
several cotyledons ; adj.polyootylis'- 
donouB ; Polycotyle'dony, an in- 
creased number of the cotyledons, 
more than two ; polycy'clic {k^kXos, 
a circle), when the members of a 
series, such as a calyx, or corolla, 
are in several circles ; polycjrB'tlo 
{KvffTiSt a bag) composed of several 
cells (Baillon) ; polydel'plioas = 
polyadelphous (Crozier) ; poly- 
em'bryonate ( + Embryo), having 
more than one embryo in a 
seed ; Polyem'bryony, the pro- 
duction of more than a single 
embryo in an ovule ; adj. p^Sj- 
em'bzyonlc ; polyflor'ouB, -rue (floa, 
floris, a flower), a barbarism for 


POlygam'ia, a Linnean class oon- 


taining plants with pol^gal 
flowerB ! polyg«ii'laa = i^lv 
CDS : pDl7e:'am<nu {yiiiot, lanr- 
ri&ge), with bermaphrodite nod 
unisexual flowers on the same, 
or on differont iudividuals of 
the Borne apeoiea ; PolygT'iuiiy, the 
condition described ; polfg'uno- 
dlos'dons, dioeciouely poljgamoaa 
(Croiier); Poljg'any (y/^oi, race) 
Huiley'fl tenn for PtiLVPnYi-isis ; 
polirgon'stai (y&yv, a knee), where 
the Blem has man; knots ; 
polyg'onoa {ywrla. an angle), 
multangulBr ; polygyna^'clal {yyy 
a«(ioi', the women's house), having 
multiple truitH formed bj' the united 
pistilsof tuanj' flowers; polygyn'oui, 
polygyn'lciis {yvy^.a womim),having 
maoydistinctBlyles; Polygyn'la, o 
Linneno order of planla so ooDsti- 
luled ; Polygr'yny = POLYUAMV ; 
polyB7'rua(70/Joi,a circle), in several 
whorls or oiruleB. 

Folyhed'nin, pi. Polyhed'i»(iraXikJpwi, 
a solid of many bttses), a atago in 
the growth of Hydrodklyaa, when 
the hypnospefm or resting Bpore 
breaks up into several niegazoo- 
■pores which put out hurn-like ap- 
pendages ; these polybedra break 
up into zooapores. 

P0l7l«P'ldui (loA^, many, Xfrlt, 
ycrltvt, a scale), having many 
sonlea ; polya'eroiis, -n'" [i^pot, a 
part), with numerous members to 
each series or cycle : polymor'pble, 
polymor'pboiu, -jihan (*««*);, a 
change), with Several or various 
forms : I'arialile as to habit ; 
Polymor'phy, the existence of more 
than one form of the sami 
n a plant ; polynsDyis (i 

8 organ 

sinew), wher 

the V 

8 of a leaf. 

especially the secondary 
namerouB ; polyai'cooa (ol«oi, a 
boose), a combination of (o) ad- 

TOICODS, (6) HETKKiJlConS, OF (f) 

SiNOicoDB, with DioicM!3 Mosses 1 
polyoTiila'tiu [+ OvfLUM), fur- 
nished with many ovules ; poly- 
pat'&laa*, -hu< (+ Petal), having 
several distinct petals ; Poryphere, 

Polfphor'ium (4vpiu\ I carry), k 
torus with many piatila, as of > 
strawberry ; Folypliylo'sli ( + PHri> 
etIc), descent fiom more than one 
line of descent ; aiij, pelypbylet'le ; 
Polypliylogr'eny (+ Phvlooknv), 
lineage through several lines ; poly- 
pbyl'loua t^AXoi", a leaf), having 
many leavGBj Fal'ypliyU. an increase 
in the normal number of organs 
in a whorl ; Pol'ypIa«t (ir\airroi, 
moulded), a gtdup of 


of protoplas 

poljp'orouB, relating to the"fungus 
genus PotyporiiH, 

polyrhl'ial, polyrM'xoiii (tdXiIi, many, 
|)1|U, a root), (1) having Dumeroas 
rootlets ; |2) where parasites have 
many distinct rootlets apart from 
their haustoria ; Polyaar'ca (oipf , 
sapKoj, flesh), an unnuturul growth 
dne to eieess of nutriment ; Poly- 
m'cdb X (fvroi. a stall), Desraux'i 
term for an Etaerio as in Mag- 
no/ia; polraep'aloiu, -/us ( + Srpai.), 
with many diBtincC fepals ; polj' 
"' " ■ ' tube), applied 

a glac 

t of 3 

longitudinal rows of colls; pol'y- 
ipann, polysper'meJ, polysper'- 
moUB, mux {sTrifiia, a seed), when 
a pericarp has numerous seeds; 
PoryipOT* {anapi,, a teed), a mnlci- ' 
cellular spore composed of Ml- 1 
RLSKiBss (Uemtett &, Murray); 
polyspor'ooi, vontaining many 
spores, used of Ci^plogams. as in 
asci when more than four or 
eight spores occur; polyi'tocboiu 
(Crozier) = polyatacb'yous [arixin, 
a spike), having many spikes ; 
polyaM'Uc, polyite'looa ( + Stele), 



that the 

at the growing poini 
stem has more than 
it) Gumia^ ; Polyately, the eon. 
dition specified ; polygM'monaiii, 
-n?M {ffrfffuarf a filament), having 
many stamens, polyandrous ; polj- 
•tlB'ranB (-(- Stioma) with many 
cnrpelp, each originating a stigma ; 
polya'tcmouB, .mus (ffrrf/ia 

mouth), many moathed, with 
nnmerous suckers or haustoria ; 
pdyBtylims, -lua ( + Sttlb), with 
several styles; pdyiyxiimefrioal 
{ffvfifirrplaf apt proportion), having 
bilateral symmetry in more planes 
than one, actinomorphio ; poly- 
tlialam'io {SdXafiot, a bed-chamber), 
(1) having more than one female 
flower within the involucre ; (2) 
derived from more than one flower, 
as a collective fruit ; polytlieleuB 
{SriKnt a nipple), used of a flower 
which contains several distinct 
ovaries ; pcdyf ocons, -cus (r6icot, a 
birth), fruiting year after year, 
caulocarpous ; poXyf omoos, -mus 
{rofjei, a cutting), apparently pin- 
nate, but the pinnae not articu- 
lated to the common petiole ; Polsrf - 
omy, (1) in an inflorescence, having 
more axes than in dichotomy ; (2) a 
false pinnation ; pcdyfrlobous {$pl^, 
TfKxot, a hair), having many hairs ; 
PoJ^'Fopism (rpomj, a twining), 
Archanseli's term when leaves 
place their lamina vertically and 
meridionally, the two surfaces 
facing east and west ; polytrop'lc, 
Loew 8 term for bees which visit a 
wide circle of flowers ; polytyp'ic 
{r&rof, a type), applied to a genus 
having several species ; Poljnc'eny 
((^or, a guest) = Plsioxknt ; 
Polyxygo'sis {jyyosy a yoke), the 
conjugation of more than two 
gametes (Crozier). 

poma'ceouB {pomum, a fniit, + ac- 
eous), relating to apples ; Pome, 
Fo'mum, an inferior fruit of several 
cells, of which the apple is the 

pomeridia'nuB (Lat.)} in the after- 

pomif erous, po'tntfer {pomunit a fruit, 
/erv, I bear), pome-bearing ; po'- 
mifonn,pomt/brm'M (/orma,8hape), 
shaped like an apple ; Pomor<^, 
PomoLo'gia (X^yof, discourse), the 
science of edible cultivated fruits. 

Pomo'na, an account of the fruits cul- 
tivated in any given district or 
country; the name is mythological. 

pooph'Uoni (rda, gnun, ^cX^, I lore), 
meadow-loving plants which eon- 
sort with grasses (Pound and 
Clements) ; Po'opliyte (^irrvv, a 
plant), a plant inhabiting meadows; 
adj. pooi&srt'ic, pratal. 

Po'iraUn, a crvstallisable substanoe 
from the bark of the aspen, Popu- 
luB tremida^ lann. 

poran'droiui (t6^, a passage, dvijp^ 
MpoSf a man), when the anthers 
open by pores ; Pore, Pof^ua. (1) 
any small aperture, as in anthera, 
for the emission of pollen in the 
pollen sprains themselves, in the 
epidermis as stomata or water- 
pores ; (2) in Polyporus, any of the 
tube-like openings, forming the 
hymenium; (3) large pitted vessels 
or traoheids in wooct; *^ Oaaal', 
the passage through a pit between 
neighbouring cells ; '•^ Cap'mla, a 
capsule dehiscing by pores, as in 
the poppy; ^ C&ds, the cone in 
the annual rin^ of certain trees, 
such as oak, which displays numer- 
ous tracheids; ^ Cork, cork-oells in 
lenticels with intercellular spaces 
between them (Klebahn) ; '^ Paa'- 
sage, the stomatic passage between 
the inner and outer cavities ; — 
cor'tioal ^, = LsNTiOEL; Poren- 
ch'yma {iyxvfia, an infusion), tissue 
of elongated cells, and apparently 
pierced by pores; pitted tissue; 
porioi'dAl {caedo, cecidi, to cut), 
applied to anthers which open 
by pores, porandrous ; por'ifonn 
{forma, shape), like a pore (Leigh- 
ton) ; Por'ogams (ydfiot, marriage), 
phanerogamous plants which are 
fertilised by way of the chalaza 
instead of the micropyle (Treub) ; 
Porog'amy, the condition de- 
scribed ; adj.porog'amouB ; por'ose, 
poro'sus; por'ous, pierced with 
small holes ; ^ Vei'ielB, pitted or 
dotted vessels. 

porphyr'eaB (iro/>0(}peo$,purple),purple 
in colour, purpureus ; porphyrOlea'- 
ens (Xevicot, white), light purple. 

porra'oeons, porra'cetu (Lat.), leek- 

potnct', porr«r!taM ( Lat., Mretahed 

out), directed outward »nd for- 

por'ulua (Lat.), aoniawhat poioui. 

Pot'ob = I'oas. 

poa'itiTB, Ihe absolntv or effectivn 
ooDdition. oppoeed to negative, nud 
preSiedfurempboBiBtosuch termi 
>B GootropiBm, Heliotiopit^m, Hy- 
drotropigin, ate. 

pOita'llOT (LiBt.. L-oming after), {)) 
next or tuwarda the maio axis, 
Buperior ; the rcverae of anteeiob ; 
(2) in HOtharB = extkob^b ; pot- 
tl'cal, poBtl'coui, }iosti'cuB (Lat., 
thikt which ia behind ), on the poH- 

t the ai 

Bpruceand olhera ubh " postieal " 
for the ventral or rooting face of 
the Bt«Di of Hepaticae. 
poBtveatlt'ioua, -liva {poar.a,ivix,vatio, 
I come), applied to growths wbjoh 
ari«) Bubseqaeot to their Dormal 

potan'Oa] {potent'ia, force), exiating in 
puasibility, not in action ; used in 
oppoiJtioQ to KCNRTic; ~ Oam'eto- 
pl^t«, one which is fuDctionally 
Mexnal ; ~ Far'aaita, a sapro- 
phyte which can live equally aa 
B paraBit«; ~ sap'nphyte, a para- 
aile cspahle of I'lialing aa a sapro- 

Potelom'etar (i-orfjt, a drink, uirpor, a 
measure), appar 

the a 

t of V 

the leaves of planta (Moll) ; FolO- 


X the 8ow of liquida in 
titsiiea (F: Darwin). 

pott'lold {ilSot, likeneasj, resembling 
the genus PotHa. 

Pooch - SiiJCLi;~ iliapeil, hollow 
and aa the spur in many 
Orchida ; aigea'tlve— ; used by Van 
Tieghem and Douliot for the root- 
oap of the lateral roots of Leguin- 

pvw'dBIT, covered with a fine bloom, 
■a the learea of Frimvia /arinom. 


pne'eox (Lat., earW ripe), appearing 
or developing early; preoooiDua. 

PnMflara'tion {prarjloratio, blowom- 
ing befora time) = AeanviTiON. 

Praefolla'tton (prtw, before, /oiium, a 
leaf) = Vernation, 

pn^'moTM, praemor'/ni^ (Lat.. bitten 
at the end), as though the end were 
bitten off. 

pTsero'Blia (Lat.), apparently gnawed 

praeoa'tiu (Lat., burned at the end), 
looking aa if aoorched. 

pra^'laona, pran'tiiut (Lat.), graaa- 
green, leek -green. 

pra'tal {pratunt, a meadow), H. C. 
Watson's term for those plants 
which grow in meadow^r luxu- 
riant herbage; praten'ali (Lat.], 
growing in meadows, or pertaining 

preeator'ina (Lat.,relatingtopetitioD. 
ing), uaed for a roaary, as the seeda 
of Almie -, ~ oontwrtne, neokUoe- 
ehaped, moniliform. 


predom'lnant, " very eonspicuoua " 

PreSora'tloQ-PRAKi'LoiuTiON ; Pre- 

folla'tlon= Praefoliation. 
Treforms'tlon (pre, before, /ormalio, 
a shaping), the theory of the func- 
tion of germ-plaam, a uomptex 
substance whose ultimate factors 
direct the vital activities of the 
cell, and resultant form of the 

Fiebatutor'lum (lire, before, -f Bauh- 
ToaiUM), papillate epidermal cells 
of Gwicala, by which nutriment is 
obtained before the formation of 


premone' (Ci'o: 

Prepo'tenoy (pre, before, poltnlia, 
power), the quality by which cer- 
tain pollen fertilizes a given pistil, 
in preference to other pollen. 

Pru'siiTB, stress or diatribated foroe 
causing turgor or compression ; 
rMt~, preeaure existing in the 
roat-tiasuea tending to cause the 
rise of liquid in the stem. 

preventlt'loiu {jirtu, before, t«nio, I 



oome) Budi, dormant eyes, pre- 
sent on any given portion of the 
stem, which produce epicormio 
branches (Hartig). 

prever'nal {pre, before, vemalia, of 
the spring), early spring flowering. 

Friekle, outgrowths of the rind or 
bark, as those of the rose ; prlck'ly, 
armed with prickles. 

prl'mary, prtma'rtu«(Lat., chief), (1) 
used of the part first developed ; 
(2) the main ouvisions of a leaf or 
umbel ; '^ Ax'is, the main stem ; 
'*' Bast, consists of sieve tissues 
and parenchyma ; '^ Cor'tex, the 
PxRiBLEM ; '-^ Das'mogen, = Pro- 
cambium ; '-^ Lamel'la, of a spore, 
is the outermost layer of its ooats, 
representing the original wall ; 
'*' Leaves, the primordial leaves ; 
'^ Lay'er, see * * tapetal cell " (infra) ; 
r^ Mem'lirane, the first (?) cell- wall ; 
^ Mem'bers, the primary shoot 
and root ; '^ Mer'istem, the embry- 
onic tissue of a young orsan ; *** 
Pot'iole, the main rhachis of a com- 
pound leaf ; ^^ Pblo'em = '^ Bast ; 
'^ Boot, the main root developed 
from the radicle ; '^ Shoot, the main 
stem developed from the plumule ; 
^ Btruo'tnre, a nascent organ, as of 
root or shoot ; ^ tape'tal Cell, or 
Lay'er, the source whence the tape- 
tum is formed by bipartition of a 
cell or layer of periblem ; the other 
part of the division becoming the 
archesporium ; r^ Tis'sue, (a) that 
first formed or (6) formed during 
the first season's growth ; '^ Wood, 
the wood developed by the pro- 

primigen'iuB (Lat., first produced) = 


Prl'mlne, Pri'mina {primus, first), the 
outer integument of an ovule. 

primitive, primUi'vua (Lat., first 
of its kind), applied to the part 
first developed; specific types, 
in contrast to varieties and hy- 
brids ; ^ Wall, a boundary between 
the ooplasm and periplasm of the 
oosphere in Cystopus Bliti, De 
Bary (Stevens). 

Primor'dia, pL of Frlmor'diiim (Lat., 
the beginning), a member or organ 
in its earliest condition ; the G^- 
man " Anlage " ; prlmor'dlal, pri- 
mordialis, fint in order of appear- 
ance ; '*' Cell, a naked cell, one 
without a cell- wall ; '*' Bpider'iiiii, 
the epidermis when first formed ; 
'^'Leaf, an intermediate form be- 
tween the cotyledon and those of 
the adult plant produced by growth 
from the plumule ; '*' Tls'siiab 
eround tissue ; '^ U'triole,the outer 
layer of cell-protoplasm lining the 
inner surface of a vacuolated cell ; 
bv some considered the same as 

Pri'mospore {primus, first, avopii, a 
seed), term proposed by C. Mao- 
millan for those cases in which the 
spore is but little differentiated 
from an ordinary cell of the parent 

prismatic, prismcUficus (Lat., like a 
prism), pil8m-s]iaped,with flat faces 
separated by angles ; Frlsmench'- 
yma (fyxu/ut, an infusion), pris- 
matic cellular tissue. 

Pris'on-Flow'ers, those which imprison 
their insect-visitors until fertiliza- 
tion is efiiscted. 

Froan'giosperms {pro, for, + Angioe- 
perm), an Angiosperm in the act of 
becoming so from some ancestral 
form (Saporta and Marion ) ; Fio- 
aagiosper'my, the state in question. 

Froantlie'siB (irp^, early, &y$riff it, 
flowering), flowering in advance of 
the normal period, as some flowers 
appearing in autumn in advance of 
the ensuing spring (Pax). 

Probas'id (pro, for, + Basidium), Van 
Tieffhem's term for an orjgan inter- 
memate between a basidium and a 
sporophorein Basidiomycetes, bear- 
ing a teleutospore. 

prolMSCid'eus (j/roboscis, a snout), 
having a large terminal ' horn, as 
the fruit of Martynia. 

Frocam'binm {pro, for, + Cambium), 
the embryonic tissue, consisting of 
somewhat elongated cells, from 
which the vascular tissue is eventu- 


Kllj formed; Pro'cMp. Procar'piiiTa 
(Kapnii, fruit), &n archioarp with k 
■peciat receptive organ, tbe tnobo- 

prcM'nu (Lat.), very tall, u a tree. 

no'oaia, Procee'aus (lAt., a prolon- 

Stion), an; projectiDj; appendage, 
•Ofe/i'inii Hymt'nii, " the acicime 
of oertnin Fungala" (Lindley). 
procnm'btnt, Dcocum'beiw (Lat., 
leiuime forward), lying along the 

Frob'abla Er'ror, tee Deviation, pko- 

Piod'nota, fubBt&Qceii reenltiuft from 
netaboliam or chemical changes m 

Frodae'tum t (producluf, leogthuQed), 

fto-em'bryo {pro, for, -i- Ehbbvo), (1) 
in Characoae, the proiluot of the 
oospore, upon which the Ohara- 
plant develops as a lateral bud ; 
(2) in Archegoniatas the product of 
the oospore before differentiation 
of the embryo ; (3) t the youngest 
IhalluBof aLichen ; proembryon'lc, 
relating to a pro-embryo, as the 
~ Brancli In Cham, a propagative 
body having the structure ot a 
pro-embryo arising from a node of 
the stem. 

proil'iiiliiMu (Lat., projecting), tited 
of an unusually extended part. 

progun'stal {pro, for, + Gahets), of 
the oatare of a ProKam'ete, a cell 
which divides to form gametes, or 
oooaaionally passes ioto a gamete 

FTSKam elftngs, Proi/amelan' giant 
{ayydmi, a vaeel), resting bodies in 
Prolomycen macrwporus, Unger i 
proguit'le (Harh>B^ pro'g&monB, 
in advance of fertilization ; ~ Cell, 
a cell formed in the pollen-gram 
which has the sperm-nucleus 

progrnl'teiu (Lat., advanoing), ex- 
tending at one part, and dying in 
the rear. 

pnvres'siTa {pro'jrcseim, an advance), 
advancing ; ~ Uetomorph'oitB, the 
appearance of organs in an ascend- 

ing scale, as when petals are re- 
placed by stamens; opposed to 


Frogym'noipeniu {pro, for, + Oym- 
nosperm), prototypic Oymnos- 
perma, as BnnneUilca (Saporta and 


Projecta'ra, (Lat., a jotting out), a 
small longitudinal pro j cation on 
some stems where the leaf ori- 

Frolos'pory = PBoapoav. 

ProUne'sls (irpo. before. nlnTiaK, a 
moving), the early stage of nuclear 
division, up to the Astks. 

pro'l«te(p™ta(tH, ttbringing forward), 
drawn out towards the poles. 

Prol* (Crozier), = Proles (Lat., off- 
spring), (I) progeny; (2) sometimes 
nsed for race ; (3) t the species, 

Prole'psia (Tdi\^|tit, anticipation), (1) 
a foreshadowing, something of an- 
ticipation ; (2) " hurried develop- 
ment aa in the disease known as 
' peach - yellows ' where axillary 
buds develop into branohei the 
first year " (Crozier) ; prole'ptloiu 
(Lat.), used by Wimmer instead of 

Proleta'rian {pro/etariim, a citizen of 
by M'Leod to denote plants having 
only a small reserve, and self-for- 
tili«ed ; ^/. Capitaust. 

pM'llfer, prt^iftnui, prolifennu 
l^rolft, otf-spring ; /tro, I bear), 
bearing progeny as offshoots ; 
ProlUera'tlon. I'rilifera'l io, do velop- 
ment proliferously ; prcUf lo, pro. 
lificTU (M. Lat., producing off- 
spring), fruitful, fertile ; ProllAca'- 
tlon, the prodaction of termioal 
or lateral leaf-buda in a Hower ; 
proUg'ercos, -rw Ig-ro, I bear), 
proliferous, in Lichens applied to 
the spore-bearing portion of the 
apothecium (Henalow) ; </. Lamiha 

prom'ilMllt, prom intiui (Lat,, jutting 
out), standing out beyond some 
other part. 

Promyoelo'=:pTOmyce'Iium {pro. for + 
MvcEUCFu), the short-lived pro- 



dact of tube-germinatioo of a spore, 
which abjomts a few spores unlike 
the iDother-8pore,and then perishes. 

luro'xutte, ' 'inclined to grow prostrate" 

prone, 'jpro'nw (Lat., leaning forward), 
Iving fiat, especially the upper face 

Pronu'cleaB {.-pro, for, + Nucleus), the 
nucleus of a conjugating gamete, 
which on coalescing with another 
pronucleus forms the germ-nucleus. 

Prop, used by Withering for Stipulb. 

propacullf eroui {propago^ a set or 
layer, fero^ I bear), bearing off-sets, 
as Btmperv%mmi\ Propa'oolum, a 
runner or off-set. 

prop'acatlvB, tending to increase by 
asezually produced growths, as 
gemmae, soredia, etc. 

Pzopa'firulum (dim. of propago^ a set 
or layer), (1) an off-set ; (2) in 
Lichens, the powdery organs 
which constitute the Sobsdia ; 
Propa'go, pi. PTopa'gines, (1) a 
bulblet ; (2) the branch bent down 
for layering. 

propen'dent, prc/perCdtM (Lat.), rang- 
ing down. 

pifjipeTt true, or correctly under- 
stood ; '*' Joioe, any characteristic 
'* fluid " of a plant, as the *' milk " 
of lettuce, etc. 

Froperimer'istem {pro, for, + PsRi- 
meristem), a synonym of Pe&i- 


Proph'asls, pi. Proph'ases (rpo, 
before, ipduris, an appearance), the 
changes in the mother-nucleus 
previous to division, including the 
formation of the nuclear plate and 
the longitudinal division of the 
chromosomes ; Prophlo'em ( + 
Phloem), (1) Protophloem ; (2) the 
cylinder of elongated cells with 
thickened walls, occurring in the 
seta of some Mosses round the 
protoxylem ; Pro'phyllum (^XXoy, a 
leaf), the bracteole at the base of 
an individual flower, in German 
"Vorblatt"; propbylla'tas, provided 
with prophylla ; prophylloid (eldof, 
resembkuice), like prophylla. 

Froph'yBii = PROSPursrs. 

Fzophy'togaiiis (rpo, before, ^vtop, a 
plant, ydfun, marriage), Focke's 
proposed name for vascular Cryp- 

proprliiB (Lat., special, peculiar), 

Froscol'lat (rpof, dose to, KdXXa, 
glue), a viscid gland on the upper 
side of the stigma of Orchids, to 
which the pollen-masses become 
attached, the Retinaculum. 

Frosem'bryum (rpof, near, Hp^pvw, 
an embryo), = Perispbrmium ; 
FroM&ch'yma (f^u/ta, an infusion), 
tissue of lengthened cells with 
tapering ends which overUp ; adj. 
prosenohsKmatoiu ; Prosentlie'ils 
{Mrfffit, imposition), the quantity 
which determines the divergence 
between two successive whorls in 
a shoot (Pax). 

Fros'physes {4>uofmi, to grow with), 
*' abortive pistillidia of the muscal 
alliance '* (Lindley) ; Prosopleo- 
tench'yma (+ Plectenchtma), a 
modification of hyphal tissue 

Frosporan'gium (rpo, for ; <rropd, 
a seed ; dTTctby, a vessel), (1) in 
Chytridieae, etc., a vesicular cell 
whose protoplasm passes into an 
outgrowth of itself, tne sporangium, 
and then divides into swarm- 
spores ; (2) in Phaeosporeae, an 
early formed sporangium, formed 
of a layer of the filament combined 
with an outgrowth (Kuckuck) ; 
proste'lic ( + STELE), when an axis 
consists of a single concentric 
bundle (Jeffrey). 

Pros'pory (rpt^ios, precocious, viropdL, 
a spore), abbreviated from pROios- 
FORY, the precocious development 
of spores in certain Algae ; 
Pros'tady {(rrdSios, steady), the 
early fruiting stage described 

pros'trate, prostra'tua (Lat., throvm 
to the ground), lying flat. 

Fros'^QmB (rp6<rrt;rof, embossed) = 

Frotal'Iramose = Proto- albumose. 



pTDlui'ilroiu (rpuTiH, first, irt)p, 
itSpat, a man), tbe gathers nmlure 
before the pistils in the BUme 
flower; Frotan'diy. tbeandroecium 
ripening before the gynaeciuni, tJie 
pollen being dispersed before the 
pistils are receptive. 

piotea'ceom, relating to or reaerobling 
the order ProCeaueae. 

Protac'tlTe BbMIh-ENDnDSEiMis. 

Fro'teld, (I) a group of albuminoiils, 
more or less resembling albumen ; 
with water, the group of proteids 
eooatltute the bulk of protoplasm ; 
(2) used also for - Oran'nle or - 
Flai'tld 1 ~ Ba'ili, that portion of 
protoplofni which is not composed 

»of gmnulcs, it ii sometimes abseDl ; 
— CTya'tal=CHYMTAi.LoiD ; ~Qrwi'- 
nlss, reservb materials, or aleurone 
granules ; Pro'teln, a groap of 
oom|^iex nitrogenous substanoes, 
as Ni'ci.EiN, etc.; adj. pro'telnJc ; 
~ Cr7«'tal=CitYiiTAi.corD: —Grain 
— Ai.i:ttK(iNKUftAiN ) pratelaa'ceoni 
( + aceous), pertainiog to protuin, or 
compoxeil of it. 

Pro'ten (SrtchsJ^PBOTKNCBYMA. 

Protcnoli'yiiia (i-piirot, firm, lyxvua, 
an infusion), fundamental or ground 
lisaue ; PTOteQe'iaa= PfiOTONRHA, 
the tilaiucntous embryo in Mosses. 

Frotsot^drol'yals (pKOrsiD + flvoRo- 
LYSis), the deoompi-isilion of 
proUiida by hydrolysis ; adj. 
protMbTdrolyt'lo ; protaolyt'lo 
(Xi^ii, a loosing], decotnpo«iDg 
proteida ; ~ Ea'iyilie, an unorgan- 
ised ferment which is the actiTe 
cause in breakina ay< proteids ; 
fro'teoM, a solable al^mminoid 
found in gluten ; fto'teoMmes 
(ou/w, a bodj), granular precipita- 
tions in (he ceils cnu^ud by the 
action of certain alkaloids, as 

pTOteran'droni (rpdnfiai, first, d>>)pi 
orjat, a man), tlie anthets ripe 
before the pistils in the same 
flower ; protandrous. one kind of 
dichogamy {Delpino) ; PTatena'. 
diy, the condition described ; 
pTOtana'tluiiu, -thmi {StBoi, a 

Bower), where flowering precedes 
leaSng, hysteranthons ; proterog:'- 

fBOOE, -juiA {yofi), a woman), when 
the pistils are receptive before 
the anthers have ri[ie pollon (Uei- 
pino); Protarog' Toy. the state oe. 
scribed ; proteropet'slDOE (rtTuXor, 
a flower-leaf), the state of obdtplo- 
Btemonons flowers, when the epi- 
petalouB whorl of stamens is the 
inner (Schumann) iproterosep'sJoua 
{+ Sepalum), bs above, when the 
whorl in question is the outer. 
Trotballa'Uw {rpo, for, 0a\^iji, a 
sprout], HaeclierB term for Mosses 
and voBi^ular Cryptogams ; pro- 
tbal'Utona {/orma, shape), re- 
sembling a prothallua ; Protbal'- 
Uimi, p!. FrotlULl'lla, Protlial'IaB, 
a thalloid oophyte or its 
logue resulting from the germina- 
tion of a spore, usually a Sattenod 
leafy enpansion and bearing seicual 
organs ; ProtliBlIogam'la {yip-m, 
marriage), Carucl's term for tho 
vascular Cryptogams. 
proHa'totd UYoiUta = Protophyta + 
Protozoa, from rpiirtirtot, the very 
tint, tli«i, resemblance), in cell- 
diviaion, not influenced by the 
cells forming part of a complex 
mnlticellnlar body (Bortog). 
Fro'totiliuil (irpJrr«, first, pXarrit, a 
bud), Baillon'a t«rm for the cell 
before the formation of a oell'W&ll, 
the nuked niasa of protoplasm ;Pn>. 
tocbJor'DpbyU ( + t'iiLOEOpim.L), a 
pigment found in etiolated leaves 
With carotin and zanthophyll 
(Monteverde) ; ProtocbloraptiTl'- 
Une, a product of reduction of 
the green principle of chlorophyll 
(Timiriazeff), c/ PnoTOPflSLusB ; 
protococ'cold [ftlBs, resemblance), 
resembling the algal genus Prolo- 
fOTfue ; rntacoUench'fma ( -^CoL■ 
lj:.\oaYiiA), the earliest formed 
eletnenlB of collenchynm ; Pro'- 
tooorm (•:Dp»u>. a trunk), the luber 
of Fhyllouloiimnn and other I.yco- 
pods, the only branch which deve- 
lops into next Tear's tnbcr ; Pro- 
K«p'lpliyt« I -h Epiphyte), a plant 



which is primariW an epiphyte pure 
and simple ; (f, Hkmiepiphttb ; 
Protogamopby'ta (7d/ios, marriage, 
^tn-oi', a plaQt), a group of plants 
so named by C. Macmillan, 
without defioitioD ; Protogen'esis 
{yhtvvi^ a beginning), reproduc- 
tion by budding ; protogenlo, pro- 
togenet'lo (7^0$, race, ofibpring), in 
development, structures formed 
when tissues begin to differentiate, 
</. HTPEBOOKNiG ; protog'ynoai 
(tvi^, a woman) = pbotbrogt- 
Kous ; Frotog'yiiy = Protkrooyny ; 
Protohad'rome ( + Hadroms) = 
Protoxtlsm ; Frotolep'tome ( + 


mer'iBtem ( + Mbristem), the meri- 
stem of the crowing point form- 
ing the founaation of a member ; 
Pzotone'ma (I'^Aia, a thread), the 
oonfervoid or plate-like growth in 
Mosses on which the conspicuous 
plant is developed as a lateral or 
terminal shoot ; adj. protone'mal, 
also protone'matoid ; ^ Bm'bryo, of 
Cutltria mult\fidaf Grev., a form of 
embryo which reproduces the nor- 
mal plant (Church) ; Frotopblo'<»m 
( + Phloem), the first formed ele- 
ments of bast in a vascular bundle ; 
PTOtophylline, Timiriazeff*s alter- 
native name for Protochloro- 
PHTLLINS ; Fzo'topbyll, ProtovhyV- 
lum (^vXXoi^, a leaf), a leaf borne 
by a Protocorm ; a cotyledon or 
primordial leaf, especially used 
of a Cryptogam; Fzo'tophyt (^tn-ov, 
a plant), a plant of the sexual 
generation (Bower); Pro'toplijrte, 
pi. Protophy'ta, the simplest plants, 
the lower unicellular Cryptogams ; 
adj. protopbytlc ; Protophytorogy 
(\670f, discourse) =Palaeobotaky; 
Pro'toplasm, Frotoplas'ma {TXdafM, 
moulded), the viscous living sub- 
stance in plants, into which all 
nourishment is taken, and from 
which all parts are formed ; vari- 
ous modifications of it have special 
names ; Fro'toplast, the umt of 
protoplasm capable of individual 
aotion, a oell either with or with- 

out a wall (EEanstein) ; Protoplai'- 
tld, an individual or presumable 
primitive type ; Frotoplas'tia, 
Hanstein's term for a hypothetic 
substance, the ultimate source of 
vital movement and chemical com- 
bination; FzoUMClereiicli'yma ( + 
Sclerxnchyma), used for certain 
ooUenchyma which resembles true 
hard bast, provisional ooUenchyma 
of Haberlandt ; Pro'tospore {aropit,, 
a seed), (1) a spore which develops 
a promyoelium ; (2) certain energids 
or uninucleate bodies in Pil6bolu8f 
etc., the ultimate product of cleav- 
age (Harper); Pzotospor'opliyto 
{^vTov, a plant), C. Macmillan's 
term for certain Cryptogams, not 
othem-ise defined ; Pro'tostrophea, 
pi. {vTpoi^y a turning), secondary 
spirals in the development of 
leaves (Lindley) ; Protothalloff'a- 
mae, pi. ( + Tuallooamae), Ardis- 
SOD e's term to include Angiosperms, 
Gymnosperms, and vascular Cryp- 
togams; Prototballus (^dXXos, a 
shoot) = Htpothallus, the first 
formed stratum of a Lichen ; Pro'- 
totroph {Tpo4»^i nourishment), a 
'dodger*' in Lecidia irUumescens, 
Nyl., which eventually gets its 
nourishment by means of another 
lodger, a different Lichen (Minks) ; 
Protot'rophy, the peculiar commen- 
salism described above, aleo styled 
** Wet-nurse relationship"; also 
spelled Pro'trophy ; Protozy'lem 
(-hXylem), the first formed ele- 
ments of wood in a vascular bundle ; 
protoEOoph'ilons (i'u^oi^, an animal, 
0iA^w, I love), used of certain 
water-plants which are fertilized 
by small animals, or protozoa. 

protru'ding {protrudo, I thrust out), 

protu'berans (Lat.), bulging out, 
Protuberan'tia elonga'ta, **the aci- 
culae of certain Fungals" (Lindley). 

provine' (Fr., provigner), to layer a 

prox'imal {proximuSf next, nearest), 
the part nearest the axis, as opposed 
to distal. 


proxjlu X ('i»i for, (6\ar, wood), 
oapabls of tunning wood ; Prolyl*', 
PToxy'lem = Protoxvleh; Proiy'- 
mogen ( + ZYMO(iEN), > maturial 
formed of the ohromatio of the 
Ducleua which in extruded inUi the 
cytoplum there becoming tjiao- 
gen (MncaJlum). 

Piol'na (L«t., htwr-froBt) aomliui'Us, 
"the Eporea ot certain Pung&ls " 
[Lindley) ; pro'lnate, jyuini'fiw, 
pzu'lnow, prui'no'Hii', pru'inoua, 
having k waxy powdery occretioD 
OD the mrface, ■ " blooDi." 

prtiuirerou {fmninm, a plum, /irv, 
I bear), bearing plumi : prn'mform, 
pruai/orm' is (forma, shape), plum- 
ahaped ; Pm'iiua t ~ Dkupk. 

prn'rlent, jn-u'rieuf (Lat., itching), 
causing na itching MnBatioD. 

punuQoph'Uoiu lif^fiim, sand, ^X^ui, 
I love), sand-loviug, a» the vege- 
tatioo of dunes ; Fiam'moptiyt* 
{^vTor, a plant), a sand-loving 
plant, as duno plants. 

Fiaudacran'tbic (ittii^!, labe, + 
AcnANTHH.!), applied to flow era 
from dichaaial shootB which are 
apparently termiaal {E. Schu- 
mann) : FHnd-an'naal ( + AHyiTAL), 
an herbaceous plant which hibef' 
nates as a tub«r or bulb (L. H. 
Bailey) ; FBandan'nnluB { + Asnu- 
Lra), sn apparent annulus of 
specialized cells, exterior to the 
peristome in MosseH ; psendan'tlilo 
(dyflor, a flower), a flower which 
simulates a simple flower, but ia 
composed of more than a single 
axis, with subsidiary flowers (Itel- 
pino) ; Fsendan'thls, the state in 
question ; Psandax'ta ( + Axis) = 
Sruponiuu; pseudliotnoiiyin'lc ( + 
JJoinoityra), used by F. N, Williamc 
for a partial homonomy, as Gag- ' 
(ro/prAnw and GantrO'ilfJie ; Psen- 
dln'ullll { + iNULl!'), a subordinate 
constituent of inulin (Tanoret) ; 
ptendobiator'lne, falsely bistorino, 
having an apothecium without a 
uonipicuoun thalline maretn ; Paen'- 
dobulb ( + EiTLB), a IhicSened and 
bulb-Itke intemode in Orchids, a 


corm ; Fseudalnil'Ul ( + Bulbil), a 
p^wth from the roots of Acriopms 
jaiuHk'i, Reinw., composed of two 
internoiles, and bearing leaves at 
the apex ; FasaaooapSuttum ( -i- 
Capillitium), Lister's term for a 
HtrucCurein Enltridium, consisting 
of the perforated walls of the 
component sporangia : EseU'Ao- 
carp , l'*t adoi^r' pi-a nt,Pse •ulocar'pwi 
{sapwiH, trait), (1) a fruit with its 
oaoompanying parts, as a straw- 
berry ; (2) = GiLBULOs (Hcnslow) ; 
Paeudocel'luloae (-i CELLtiLnHE). 
see CKLLDLoas ; FaeadocepIuJo'- 
dlnm ( + CKFHAt/JDtiiu), a growth 
fonued in the protothatlua by a 
gorniiuating hypha inveaiiug an 
algal colony of some other type 
tl^n the normal gonidia ot the 
Lichen (Foreell) ; FsBiidocil'inin 
[ci/ium, an eyelasta), a motionless 
whip-like body, procBedinginpaira 
from each callof Apiory»ti» Braiini- 
awi, NacK- (Correns) ; pwQdo- 
coa'tat«, pfeuilocoila'liiii (riMfu/iui, 
ribbed), false-ribbed, as where a 
marginal vein is formed by con- 
fluence of the true veina ; Pseudo- 

COtyls'dOII (+ CoTTI-KDOft) = PRO- 

KHUKfo -, Pseudodyi'tropy {S<ia - 
had, Tpoiri, a turning), when autro- 

E3UB insects gain access to honey 
/ secondary means, as when cer- 
tain bees bora through to the 
nectariea, instead of entering 
by the opening of the flower 
(Loew) ; Fasadotip'ipbyte (-i- Epi- 
phyte), a plant whose stems die 
away at the base, and the npper 
part derives its nourishment from 
Its own atrial roots, as Aroids 
(Went); Pnn'do-fecnnda'Uoii (-i- 
Fn^lTNDATlnMl, two nuclei of four 
combine to form the egg, the other 
two forai the albumen (Guignard) ; 
FsaudOK'amy {ydnoi, marriage), 
partlienogenetic fruiting, as polli- 
nation without impregnation of 
ovules : pMudogyra'tui h^pi', 
curved), falsely ringed, as whan 
the annulus is confined to the 
vertex of Ihe sporangium in Ferns ; 


PMadohanBtor'iiiiii (+ Haustob- 
ictm), an immature or rudimentary 
organ observed in seedlings of 
C^isctUa (Kinzel) ; pMu'do-henna- 
ph'rodlte ( + hermaphroditb), 
Kemer's term for flowers which 
have become functionallv uni- 
sexual by the suppression of either 
stamens or pistils ; Psendohy- 
me'iiinm (+ Uymknium), a cover- 
ing of sporidia, resembling the 
hymenium of Fungi ; Paeudo-im- 
pregna'tlon ( + Impbegnation), the 
coalescence of the two nuclei of the 
cells of a teleutospore (Dangeard k 
Sapin-Trouffy) ; PwudoUt'tez ( + 
Latex), Heckel's term for an 
abundant gummy juice, white 
or colourless, in certain species 
of Vanilla ; Pseudoli'ber ( + Libeb), 
Ouillaud's term for libriform 
tissue, derived from secondary 
meristem without genetic affinity 
with the cambium or vascular 
bundles ; PseudoU'chen (+ Lichen), 
a Lichen which does not possess 
an algal layer of its own, but is 
parasitic on another Lichen-thalluB; 
Pseudomonoootyle'don (+ Mono- 
ootyledon), in Dicotyledons the 
early abortion of one of the coty- 
ledons, as in Capaella (Pftx) ; 
psendo-monocotyle'donomi (+ Mo- 
nocotyledon), having two or more 
cotyledons consolidated into a 
single mass, as in the Horse-Chest- 
nut ; '^ Em'bryo, having one coty- 
ledon only developed, although two 
were originally indicated ; Pseu'do- 
morph ifiopip^f a form), an unusual 
or altered form, a term borrowed 
from mineralogy ; pseudomorpby'- 
tos (0trrov, a plant), when a capi- 
tate inflorescence affects the form of 
acapitulum of Compositae; Pseudo- 
nemathe'dun {+ Nematheciuh), 
a thread-like body in certain 
Algae, which is now stated to be a 
parasitic Al^, Actinococcua «ii&> 
cutaneus, K. Kosenv. (DarbiBhire) ; 
Ps«udonod'ule ( + Nodule), a space 
on a Diatom valve devoid of 
markings resembling a nodule, 

but not thickened ; Pwudonn'- 
tilaola ( + Nuolbole), described by 
Rosen as a cyanophilous nncleole ; 
Pwndopar'asite (-f- Parasite), a 
false parasite, either (a) a Sapro- 
phyte, or (&) an Epiphyte ; Pwodo- 
parenoh'yma (+ Parenohtma), 
svmphyogenetic cellular tissue ; <^. 
Plbctenohyma ; adj. paeiodopar- 
enchy'matoiui ; Pseodopor'iantli ( + 
Perianth), the onp-shaped en- 
velope of the arohe^nium which 
develops after fertilization in oer- 
tain Hepaticae ; Pieudoperldlnm 
( -f Peridium), the outer envelope 
of a sporophore in Uredineae ; 
Pseudoperltlie'olum (+ Periths- 
gium), a covering of sporidia re- 
sembling a perithecium; PMndo- 
plasmo'diom ( + Plasmodium), the 
protrusion of the protoplasm of an 
amoeboid body, which may be drawn 
in or may absorb the whole in itself; 
Pseudopodlum ( + Podium), (1) a 
temporary changeable foot - like 
protrusion of protoplasm in the 
Plasmodium of Myxogastres ; (2) the 
stalk-like extremity of the oophyte 
bearing a sporogonium or gemmae 
in Mosses, etc. ; Pseadopyre'nium 
(-H Pyrenium), the perithecium 
of '* certain Fungals " ; (Lindley) ; 
Pseudora'mulQs ( -f Ramulus), 
a spurious branch in certain 
species of Nostoc^ a young fila- 
ment adherent to an older one 
for part of its length ; Pseudora'- 
phe ( + Raphe), an apparent raphe 
in Diatoms, a transitional form 
towards its entire disappearance ; 
Pseudoreduc'tion ( + Reduction ), 
the period of tetrsrd formation in 
nuclear division (Rueckert) ; Pseu'- 
dorhise (^/^a, a root), (1) a root 
shaped like a turnip or carrot in 
bulbous MonocotylcKlonB (Royer) ; 
(2) a root-like mycelial structure 
which develops at the base of a 
carpophore from its cells (Fayod) ; 
Pseu'doBpemi, Pacudosper^mium 
{cTepfULt a seed), any fruit which 
is indehiscent and resembles a 
seed, as the ''nuts" or carpels 


^H, yMBdoaparmla 

^^H mo : p»tud 

^^H pai^moiu ; 

^^H doaporan'gli 

^^H organ prodt 

^H poguta, a. 

^V seed), a gen 

^^H tive bod ; 1 

LabiBtae, adj. pieudotper'- 
Inla : patutloiptr' miens ; psaudos- 
pai^mouB ; PaeadoflpoTaJi'Ke, Pmh- 

doaporan'glamf + SpoitANGicu), aa 
organ producing gemmae oc pro- 
paguU, a Bimulatcd sporBBnium 
[Davii) ; Ftend'oipoTa [awoiia, a 
seed), a semma or asexual vegeta* 
tive bnd: Faao'doitola ( + STFiB), 
when a petiols asBumes the con- 
dilions of a stem, with aimilar 
arrangement of ti«iiie» (Tanaley) ; 
FMiidMtan'roi ( + Stavkos), a 
broadening of the stauros in some 
Diatoms ; pBandoatar'ens J [artptbt, 
Boliil), partl.ygroun togelher.sBlhe 
bud-Bcslee of the crown -imperial : 
pBsndoatrD'ma ( +STaoMA j. the 
peritbecium of certain Fungi ; 

?MDdM;il'0U7 ( + t^YNCAKP), a col- 

ieoiive fruit; ef. Svncabf ; Paeu- 
dothallttaf ( + THAU.rB), the aiia 
of a orowded infloreBceace as a 
Glomerule or Umbel ; FMOdotrl- 
Gh'ophor* ( -i-TttiCHopuoBK), a vege- 
tSitive Glameat of Algae, which 
«imulateB a trichophore ; PhU' 
dOTlTip'aiy [ + Vitipary). the pro- 
duction of leafy rooting aboota in 
the Qoral region, side by pidc with 
the floweni, aa in Jittvitn bujoniiu, 
Linn- (Potoniri) ; Psen'do-yeut [ -t- 
Ybasx), any yBMt which doee not 
produce fermentation ; PMUdoiy'- 
sospore (-HZvaospoiic) = Azraoa- 

piUo- (V'tUi), a Greek prefix, usually 
meaning slender, but more cor- 
rectly used tor bare or naked, aa 
p«Uoat«eIi'ya, which is cited by A. 
Gray as bare-spiked, unJer the 
form pailailaeh'yu^. 

Flyaliopli'llft* {tajche, ^Xtu, t lore), 

Slants which are fertilized by 
iumal lepidoptera, posBOBBing 
brightly coloured flowers, with 
honey in the flower-tube. 
FiTcliTakll'ny (if/ixfiDi, cold, Mt^, I 
incline), Voechtina'B term f"P the 
behaviour of growing parts nnder 
the influence of low teraperfttures ; 
psycbTomet'rle |^Tpo>, a measure), 
applied by PfefTer to the hy^ro- 

motric movements of plants (Voech- 
pB;domorphyt'iu = 

Ptenun'pelld {rripit, ■ fern, iimeKn, 
a vine), any climbing Fern (J. 

pCeni'tuB (irripDii, a wing), vioged ; 
Ftciid'lum, Pterld'les = Samaka. 

Pterldagraph'U {wrtpU, mplSot, a 
fern, ypapti, a writing), a treatise 
on Ferns, or the science of Ferns ; 
shortened by J- Smith to Ptari- 
STaph'lB ; Pterlgr'rBpItiat, and Ptsrl- 
grapb'UlJt (tb<7fu, 1 love), a writer 
on Ferns ; pter'idoid (rlSo!, resem- 
blance). uaed by E, Newman for 
Fern-like, as ~ Ac'rogeni ; Pter'ldo- 
pbyte (^■'TOF, a plant), a Fern, or 
closely allied plant. 

ptarlff'yDUS {-trtpcr, a wing, yvvq, * 
woman), wing-»eeded ; ptwocar'- 
pons, -pus (■□/nrDi, fruit), wing- 
fruit«<I; ptorocaulous, -/in (mvXai, 
astern), wiD^-Btemined;Ptero'dltmi, 
= Sahara ; pt«Tog:o'nui lyi^yla, an 
angle) ; pter'oid, pteroi'ilc-ni (elj«t, 
reaemblance), (1) having an eleva- 
tion of surface assuming a wing-like 
appearance ; ('J) J. Smith niea 
" pt«roid " for Fem-like ; pterop'o- 
don* {iroiJi, xoJoi, a foot), winB- 
foot«i, the petiole being marginally 
winsed ; ptsrospsr'liioils, -mus 
{(rtrrpfui, a seed), with the aeeds 
winged ; ptarye'ynni (yuv^, a 
woman), wing-seeded, 

Pteryg'lnni {mpdyior, a little wing}, 
a *ing. 

pteryg'Dptnii, -pug {wrifiii, a wing, 
roOt, voJoi. a foot), having the 
pedunole win^il ; pteiygoapenn'- 
ODB, ■mti» {a-xtpttei, a Beed), = ptem- 
Pto malne (n-ri^ia. calamity, corpse), 
used of any alkaloid due to the 
activity of pathogenou* baoterio. 
Pty'alla {nia\iH>, aaliva), a ferment 
contained in saliva which trans- 
forms stATcb into a sagac oapable 
of fermenting, 
Pt/ehods, Ptyfho'dfs {rrii, mx^, 
p. fold), the primordial ntri^ ; 



P^ydioi'dM (eld^f, resemblance), 
the outer surface of the same 

Ptjx'is (frrC^is, a folding), vernation. 

pulMns (Lat., arrired at puberty) = 
pubesoent; puber^ulos (dim. of 
Lat. puber, downy, ripe), slightly 
hairy ; Pa'ber (Lat.), maturity, as 
of flower or fruit; Pu'berty, 
Pu'bertcu, the transition from a 
young state to maturity of func- 
tion ; Pa'bes (Lat. ), Pabes'cence, the 
hairiness of plants; pubes'cent, 
pube^cenSf clothed with soft hair 
or down; pu'bexa [Ae'tas], 4^he 
period in a fruit succeeding the 
fertilizatiein of the ovules ; pubig'- 
erous {gerot I bear), pubescent. 

Puf flng, the emission of spores in a 
cloud ; the equivalent of the 
German "SUiuben." 

pj^^o'xiiloxm, jmgioniform'ia (jmgio, 
a dagfi^er, Jorma, shape), dagger- 

pnlla'tos (Lat.), clothed in black. 

pulley-shaped, circular, and com- 
pressed in its circumference. 

pollnlate {jmUvlo, to bud), to bud, 
as in spring ; Pullula'tion, sprout- 
ing; especially characteristic of 
the yeast-plant. 

pullns (Lat., dusky), blacker nearly 

Palp, Ptd'pa (Lat., the flesh of fruit), 
the juicy or fleshy tissue of a 
fruit ; pul'pose, ptdpo'sus, pulpy. 

Pnlsa'tion {ptUaatto, a beating), of 
vacuoles, the rhythmic increase and 
decrease of size in naked zoospores 
and Plasmodia. 

pulvera'ceoua, •ceu«,pulver'eus(Lat.), 
powdery ; pulver'ulent, ptUverulen'' 
tu8 (Lat., dusty), powdered, as if 
dusted over. 

PalTlllum (Lat.), in botanic gardens, 
a hot-bed. 

pul'vlnate, puLvina'tus (Lat. ), cushion - 
shaped ; pulvln'ifonn, pulvini- 
form'is, having the shape of a 
cushion or pM; Pnlvln'ulus, pi. 
Pnlvln'ula, simple or branched 
excrescences on the surface of 
some Lichens, soredia ; Polvl'nus 

(Lat., a cushion), an enlaraement 
close under the insertion ofa leaf, 
the swollen base of the petiole as 
in Mimosa pudica, Linn. 

Pnl'vls (Lat.), dust, powder, etc. 

PvlTls'culai (Lat., small dust), "the 
powder contained in the spore- 
cases of some Fungi " (Men- 

pa'miloi (Lat., dwarfish), low or 

Pnnc'ta, pi. of Ponc'tum (Lat. , apoint), 
the marking on the valves of Dia- 
toms ; punatate, puneta'tus (Lat.), 
marked with dots, depressions or 
translucent glands ; puncta'ta Va'an 
= dotted vessels ; pnncrtiflor^qa 
(flo9^ floris, a flower), havinff dot- 
ted flowers; pnnc'ttfozm (Jorma, 
shape), in the form of a point or 
dot, reduced to a mere point ; 
punctic'nlate, punctietda'ttu, pune- 
tloalo'sus, minutely punctate ; 
Pnnctum Yegetatlo'nls, the growing 

pun'gent, pun' gens (Lat., piercing), 
ending in a rigid and sharp point, 
as in a hoUy-leaf. 

pnnio'eooi, -ceuSf crimson. 

pore, applied to forests, means un- 
mixed, the growth being confined 
to one form. 

pnr'ple, a secondary tint, a mixture 
of red and blue in varying propor- 

pnzpurar'ins (Lat.), pertaining to 
purple; purpura'tus (Lat.), em- 
purpled ; purpuras'cens (Lat.), 
oecoming or turning purple ; pur- 
pnrellus (Lat. ), purplish ; por- 
pu'reus (Lat.), purple ; Pur'puTlne, 
a colouring prmciple in madder, 
Bubia tinctoria, Linn. ; purpnrl'nos, 
(Lat.), somewhat purplish. 

purse-shaped, pouch-shaped. 

pnsillus (Lat., petty), very small, 
or weak and slender. 

pus'tnlar (jmatula, a pimple), having 
slight elevations like blisters ; 
pus'tulate, pu8tvla'tti8f as though 
blistered ; Pos'tule, a pimple or 
blister ; pns'tulose, ptutuU/sua 
(Lat.), blistery or pimply. 


^H ihell < 


(Lst., shells, rind), (1) the 
■hell of & nut ; (2) the hsrdendd 
endocarpof Btone-fraitipatunliu'- 
aeus ( <-aceuB). haviDg the texture 
of the stone of a drupe, 
^'nld. Fyc'iilda, ^t^d'ftim. pi. 
PyonJa'ta (ti'i'ot, dense), « cavity 
reeembliDg n pyrenocarp in 
Lichena, etc., containing j^nidja 
I (pycnoQonidia or stjWsporeB) ; 
■ Fyenld'lopliote {^^v, I carry), s 
I com pound sporopbore bearing 
r pycnidiat pycuocepb'alous (telta\7i, 
a head), thiob-headed, as when 
Oompoiite flower- bead« are cIdb- 
teredeloaely; Pycnid'loipore lirwopi, 
a iporo), a ipore produced in a 

Bcnidium ; Pycnooonld'ttuii (-i- 
nidium), b cooidiam produced in 
a pycnidium, aBtyloepore ; Pycno- 
pndd'lnm ( + Gomdium) = 
coNtDiCM ; Pyo'nmpora (mrepa, a 
seed} = PvoNOCOBiDrnii ; pjrouM'' 
tadtoni (ffrdxvi, a epike), in oom- 
pact spikes. 

pygUka'na (Lat.), dwarf, pygmy. 

pyoKOWt'le {rO<H>, pus, ■yiytaii, begin- 
uing), puB-forming, the funotjon of 
certain bacteria. 

pyracsn'tliiii (ri!|i, fire, inaria, a 
Ihom), with red or yellow qpinet. 

pynm'ldal, pynanidaHis (I^l. ), pyra- 

^raoe, I'yre'na {rvpiiti, kernel or 
■lone), (I) a nucule or nutlet; (2) 
a amall atooe of a drupe, or aiEoilar 
[mil ; PyreojLr'liuii, a pear-fruit, 
pome- like, but tapering ; Fyreo- 
a'rlui. a di-upacoouB pome, as iu 
Cralax'jiis ; Fyra'iiln, Sciiwar^'H 

for the 


the body of the nucleus ; zf. 
Ascphipyre:!]!' ; Pyre'nlum ; an old 
name for the receptacle of Sphaeri- 
acoouB Fungi: Pyre'DOOUpltaproi, 
fruit) |1) = Pkkithbcktm ; (2) = 
DftUPKi adj. pyrenooar'pouB ; py- 
rano'deona (clioi, resemblance), like 
a pyreuoid, wuxt-ltke ; pyreuo'dlne, 
"globular and nuclear" (LeiehtOD); 
Fy'renold (dSsi, resemblance), 
minute rounded granular cotourlete 
bodies, embedded iu the chroniato- 

phoree, amy lum -centres (Schmits); 
Pyrentrtl'chenesC -f- Lichen),Waloio'8 
term for Pyrenomy'celet. that is. 
Fungi possessing perithecia. 

Pyrla'ion {pyrus, or pirns, a pear), 
used by Linnaeua for the pear- 
fniit. a tapering pome : pyiiferoaa 
{fcro. I boar), pear-shaped ; py'rl- 
form. j/yr\form!i« {/orma, shape), 
resembling a pear in aliape. 

pyi'ldate.TOJTirfa'tris (Lat., box-like), 
furnished with a lid, aa some cap- 
sules ; Pyxid'nla i ~ Pyxld'iimi, 
Moenoh's term for the fruit of 
AmarnnlhuA, a dehiscent capsule, 
sometimes used for the following': 
Fyx'ia, (1) a capsule with circum- 
scissile dehiscence, the upper 
portion acting aa a lid ; (2} X the 
theoa of a Moss ; (3) " the same as 
Soyphus" (Lindley). 

qtudran'gnlar, qvadrarigvla r'ul Lat. ), 
four -cornered ; qn&dnui'ffnliu, 
qaftdruigti]a'tua(Lst. ). having four 
angles, which are uaually right 

QnadTMlt (qiiadraiti', a fourth part), 
the quarter of an oospore, which 

; quadricotyledo'ni 
CifnrLKDOK}. opparontly with (our 
Mlyledona, each DOtmal cotyledon 
being divided to the base ; quad- 
riortrnl, giuxdricru'riilfnu, cnirin, 
a leg), with four supports ; qoAdil- 
den^te (lUniatoJi, toothed), having 
four teeth ; quadridiglta'to-piii- 
na'tus IdigitHi, a finger), with four 
digitate divisions, each of which is 
pinnate ; qoadrldlglta'tua, divided 
into four divisions; Qiudriere'iniu 
(-(- ERB«ua) = (.'oE(!OBU'M : quadrl- 
far'loiu, -i-ivf (Lat., fourfold), in 
four ranks, as leaves ; qnad'ii&d, 
q\iadr}/'idii» (Lat.), four - claft, 
to about the middle or below ; 
qiud'nfoil {loltum, a leaf) = qiud- 
iiro'llat«, when the petiole bears 
four leaflets at the same point; 
qnadrifo'llolatfl, strictly, with four 
subordinate leaflets, but aometimea 


q nfaq it^l^flfllrtft 

lued as an equivalent of qnadrifo- 
liate ; qnadrifiir'cate (Jurcatus, 
forked), dividing into four 
branches ; quadrifi^m'inate {gemi- 
nu8, a twin), growing in fours; 
quadrihUa'tuB (+ Hilttm), having 
four apertures, as in some pollen- 
grains ; quadr^'ngate, quadriju- 
ga'ttia, qaadr^'n^mi, -gua {jugum, 
a yoke), having four pairs of leaf- 
lets ; qaadrUo%ate [lohus, a lobe), 
with four lobes ; qoadrlloo'iilar, 
(locidtut, a little space), having four 
cells, as some anthers ; qnad'riiiate, 
quadrina'UiSj quadri'nua, with four 
leaflets at the end of a petiole, in a 
digitate arrangement ; quadrlnu'- 
olMite ( + Nucleus), used of a cell 
with four nuclei, from the division 
of a binucleate cell ; quadripar'tite, 
ttuadriparti'tus {parUtua, divided), 
four-cleft, nearly to the base; 
quadripbyllous (0()XXoy, a leaf) = 
quadrifoliate ; quadripo'lar {pdust 
a pole), in nuclear division, when 
fonr daughter nuclei arise at the 
same time ; quadriv'alent {valeo, to 
be effective), applied to a cell which 
divides into four daughter cells ; qf, 
BIVALENT (in Add.) ; quad'rlvalve, 
quadrivaly'iilar {valva, a door-leaf), 

quaqoavBr^sal {qvjoqua^ wheresoever, 
verso, I turn round), directed or 
bending in every direction. 

Quar'tOBpore {quartus, fourth, ffropa, 
a seed), C. Macmillan's term for a 
spore enclosing protective and 
more or less vegetative cells as in 
Riccia ; Quax'tine, a fourth integu- 
ment of some ovules, *' in reality a 
mere layer of either the secundine 
or '* nucellus (Lindley). 

quaairadla'tus X {quasi, as though, 
radiatus, spoked), slightly radiant, 
as where the florets of the rav in 
some Compositae are small ana in- 

Quas'sine, a bitter principle in quas- 
sia wood. 

quater'nary, quater'nate, quatema'- 
tus {quatertmrivSy coneisting of 
four), an arrangement in fours; 

qnater'ni (Lat., by fours), growing 
four together. 

Quer'olte, a glucoside derived from 
acorns, sweet like sugar, but not 
fermenting with yeast. 

Qner'oltriii, a glucoside in quercitron 
bark ; its colouring matter, and 
a commercial dye-stuf^ 

Qnetelet-Oalton Carve, see Newton- 
ian CUBVE. 

quilled, normally ligulate florets 
which have become tubular. 

qui'naxy {quini, five each), in fives ; 
qni', quma'tus, growing to- 
gether in fives, as leafliBts from the 
same point. 

Quln'la, Qninin', or Quinine', an alka- 
loid occurring in the bark of species 
of Cinchona^ Bemija, etc. 

quincun'dal {quinatnctcUis, contain- 
ing five- twelfths), (1) arranged in 
a quincunx ; (2) in aestivation par- 
tially imbricated of five parts, 
two being exterior, two interior, 
and the fifth having one margin 
exterior, the other interior, as in 
the calyx of the rose; Qnln'ciuiz 
(Lat., the fraction i^), (1) an 
arrangement like the five on dice, 
four at the comerfl, and one in the 
centre ; (2) in five ranks, quin- 
quefarious ; (3) *' the disposition 
of objects so that the intervening 
spaces are all hexagons " (Crozier). 

Qniiiin', see Quinia. 

Qolnlcine and Qnlnldine, alkaloids 
from Cinchona bark. 

quinquan'gular, qvinquangvlar^is 
(9wi7i7t«a7i^«/M«, five-cornered), five- 
angled ; quinqnecap'sular ( -f- Cap- 
sula), with five capsules ; qnln- 
quecos'tate (co«^a/i/4,ribbed), having 
five ribfl ; quinqueden'tate [dentatust 
toothed), with five teeth ; Qutn- 
quere'mus ( + Eremus), a five-celled 
gynobasic fruit, as Oomphia ; quin- 
quefar'ious, -rius {fariam, suffix = 
rank),in five ranks; quin'quefld (7f(i, 
the root of Jindo, I cleave), five- 
cleft ; quinquefo'liate, quinque/o- 
lia'tus {quinquefoliuSf five-leaved), 
with five leaves ; quinquefo'liolate, 
quinqurfolioia'tuSf with five leaf- 



I lets ; i)tii<a(|ne]'i>ff»U {jugum, k 
), in fire fisirs, aa of leaf- 
qu]nqttelo'b&t« qiiiiupteloba'- 
[/ofciH, fi lobe), fivB-lobed; 
qDlnqattoc'nlair, qiiinqaflorvlang 
{locuitm, a Utile space), five-eelled; 
quinquener'ved, qaingitrmr'nr, 
-viiu [iKi-iiu, n netvv), Ihe midrib . 
dividing into live, that ie, the 
main riTi, and n pair od each euis ; 
qulsqiupar'tit«, ipiiuguepnrii'liu 
(j/ariiliis, divided), ilHUply divided 
into five ptria ; qnlnqtiaral'TAM, 
a doorlenf), tive-vulvad ; qnluane- 
valn'ed, *'tbe Bsme ks quinque- 
nsrved " (Crosier). 
0iiln'tm»,9iiiWi'nfi(7mn' us, the fifth), 
K sapposed integument of an ovule, 
the fifth from the onUide, "in , 
ntklily the tkiu of the" nuoelluB ' 
(Lindlev) : Qnin'toaiMia (irwapi, a 
seed), C. Maoniillaii'B term for a 
Bpore which hao attained aeiunl 
potentialily, ub in Toeoulsr Cryp- 
togam ■ and Phanerogams. 
quintuple, qoin'tapled {qiilnii'p/'x, 

five-fold], multiplied by five; ~ 
-ssTTed, quinquaDerved) ~ ilbbed, 
quinqueooatate ; when of tive ribB 
the four latetal arise from ahoat 
the base of the mid-rib; qnljt- 
tupUser'Twl, qulntupilreln'ed, 
quioquenerved, five- veined. 

Rab'doid (^h^Sdi, arodl^RHASDOts. 

BMW. (1; a variety of sacb fixity ob 
to be reproduced from seed ; (3) 
Qsed also in a Ioobo sonBe (or re- 
lated lodividuala without ngord 

SMema'tiaD (raetnialio, the gleauins 
of a vineyard), a oluster, as tn 

grapes; Raceme', Sace'mug (Lat., 
a hunch of grapes), an indetermi- 
nate or oentriptital infloreeoence 
with lengthened axis, and equally 
pedicellate Hawcrs ; raoemif entUB 
{/ero, I bear), bcaiiiig raceiuea ; 
racamlflor'lis [Jlon, Jtori*, a flower), 
flowers borne in a raceme j nuie'- 
tniform, raamifonn'it (/ormn, 
shape), in the form of a 


having racemee, or rsceme-like ; 
rirOe'mnlDBe, nureiHTi/o'niM, a dim- 
inlltive of the last, Bomewhat rooe- 
niose : fiae'emole, a small raceme. 
TOchemor'phaB (Limllry) = raori- 

BftCUl'la = RitACHILLA. 

rochlmor'phus ifiix"' ^e backbone, 
liopifrn, shape), the Bmiill zigESg 
Aawerin){ aiis of some griaaes, ax 

Ra'chls - Hhacuis ; Ea'choae, used 
hy J. Smith as the plural of 
Rochis ; ra'chUorm - KFiAfHiDi- 
roRU ; Raohl'tlSgin botany, a disease 
producing abortion in the fiower 

Tacnr'noct (refurrerw, running back), 
in venation, when the voinlete re- 
turn tou'Brtlg the main rib. 
Tft'dlol, radia'IU Iradivi, Ihe spoke 
of a wheel), (1) radiating, al 
from a centre ; {2) belonging to 
the ray, as in the flowers of 
Composites ; — F.nn'dle, a bundle 
or alele which has atrsnds of 
bast and wood in differeut radii, 
a frequent occurrence in Toots ; 
~ Plaiie, any plane which passen 
throueh the axis of growth, and 
cots the surfuce st right angles ; 
ra'dlv, a Bystem of branching 
uniformly on all Piidca (Goebel) ; 
ra'dlaiLt, rad'tana, radiating as 
from a centre ; ^ Um'bel, when 
flowers on the outside are con- 
apicuoDsly larger ilian those which 
form the rest uf tlio umVl : ra'dl- 
oM, riufiaVtu, (1) gpreaiiing from 
or arranged rooad a, oommoit 
centre, a<i the circumference of a 
circle ; (2) bearing rays, or rav- 
Sorets 1 ~ -Tslnsd = palmately 
veined ; ra'dlaUiig, passing in a 
straight line from the centre ; ladl- 
a'tUonn, rmiialifonn'iii (forma, 
I nhapu), when the liKulate florets of 
' Compoeitae incease in length oat- 
I warns ; ladia'tlm (Lttt. ), in a. rodi' 


crown ; rad'icant, radi'cana (Lat., 
striking root), rooting, osaally ap- 
plied to stems or leaves ; rad i- 
oated, having a root or roots 
(Grozier) ; rad'icattnff, rooting ; 
Badlea'tion, Radica'tio, the root- 
system of a plant, its disposition 
and branching; radloa'tos (Lat.), 
possessing roots, especially a tap- 
root ; Radical, Radtcel'la, = Radi- 
CULA ; Radicella'tio (Lat.)> = Radi- 
CATiOK ; radido'oloiis, -la {coh, 
I inhabit), (1) when the flower is 
seated immediately upon the crown 
of the root; (2) dwelling in the 
root as a parasite; nuUdfextraa 
i/erot I bear), root-bearing, or 
rooting, as prostrate stems ; radi- 
dflor'oiis, -ma (/o«, florista flower), 
flowering apparently from the 
root ; radic'iform {forma, shape) ; 
radid'niis (Lat.), of the nature or 
appearance of a root; Bad'iole, 
Badi'ciUa, the hypocotyledonary 
and primal intemode, the rudimen- 
tary root of the embryo ; Badi'cnla 
l^ynoi'dea, the mvoehum of Fun^ ; 
rad'icose, radicosus (Lat., having 
many roots), having large or abun- 
dant roots ; radic'ular, pertaining 
to the radicle; radiOQlifbm'iB 
(forma, shape), shaped like a 
radicle ; Badioolo'da, Badicolo'- 
diam, the apex of the radicle in 

grasses ; radic'ulose, radiculo'aua, 
earing rootlets. 

Ba'dius, pi. Ka'dii (Lat., a ray), (1) 
the rav of Compositae, the outer- 
most florets when distinct in form 
from those compo8in|; the disk ; 
(2) a partial umbel in Umbelli- 
ferae ; (3) the stractures known as 
medullary rays ; '^ meduUa'rls = 
Mbdullabt Ray. 

Ba'dix, pi. Radl'ces (Lat., a root), the 
root or descending axis, the de- 
veloped radicle. 

Saf fla, Baph'la, or Rof fla, the native 
Malagasy names for the fibre-like 
material obtained from the leaves 
of Jia]ahia pedwiada, Beauv., and 
/?. vin\fera, Beauv. 

BaCflnase (Fr. rafi&ner, to refine), 


an enzyme which decomposes 
Baf finoie, a sngar occurring in 
beet, and germinatina; cereals. 
Baln-leayes, those which are adapted 
to shed the rain from their sor- 
faces, and generally acuminate, cf. 
ra'mal (ramus, a branch), belonging 
to a branch; Bamas'tnim X {'ostrum, 
a suffix, = likeness), a secondary 
petiole or petiolnles of compound 
leaves; ra'meal, ramea'lia, per- 
taining to a branch; xameariiis, 
restricted to atrial roots, which 
arise from branches (Henslow). 
Bamen'ta, pL of Bamen'tom (Lat., 
scrapings, shavings), thin chaffy 
scales of the epidermis, as the 
scales of many Ferns ; Ba'menta, = 
Ramenta ; xamenta'ceouB, -ceua 
( + aceous), possessing ramenta, 
clothed with them. 
ra'maoQs, ra'meua (Lat.), belonging 

to a branch. 
Bamie' (Fr.), the fibre of Rhea, 
Boehmeria tenacissima. Hook. & 
ramlf erooi, -rus (ramus, a branch, 
fero, I bear), bearing branches, ra- 
mose; Bamiflea'tion, -tio (/ado, I 
make), the scheme of branching or 
separation into branches ; ramlfi- 
cartas (Lat.), branched ; ramlflor'- 
ons, -rus, iflos, floris, a flower), 
flowering on the branches ; ra'ml- 
form, ramtform'is {forma, shape), 
shaped like a branch ; ramlp'aroiu 
{pario, I bring forth), producing 
branches, ramose ; ra'millAry, term 
employed by Massart for those buds 
of climbers which develop into 
short branches, fruit or leaves, c/. 
SAKHBNTARY ; ra'mose, ramo'sus, 
ra'mous, branching, having many 
branches ; ramosls'simQs, very 
much branched ; ram'ify, to 
branch ; Ba'mulet, used by Grew 
for the vascular strands in the 
shell of a nut ; ra'mulose, ramuU)'- 
8us, havinff many branchlets ; 
Ba'mulQs (Lat.), a branchlet; 
Bamnn'coliiB, a twig, the ultimate 
division.of a branch; Ba'miu (Lat. ),a 


k branch ; Runua'culum (La[,.)i ■'i^. i 
I (l)theeanieBB ramiiliiSiabraiicliIut; | 
H (3) t " Vne mvocUum of certain 
I Funj{aIa'*(LinJley). 

Bulge, the region over which a 
given form growa flpontaneouslf . 

Ranlc. a rtivr, eapeciallj a vertical 

rapa'ceiu {rapv,m. a turnip), foaifonu 
uc tutnip'shapeil. 

Ea'phe, pr, ra'pby, Raph'a (>a^, a 
Beam), (1) in a more or less anatro- 
poua ovule a cord or ridge of 
tiLro-vasoulac tissue connectingthe 
base of the nueellua with the pla- 
centa, the adherent funicls ; il may i 
ooDur on the side of the ovule 1 
turned to the nxis (ventral), or on I 
the external face of the ovule, that 
ia dorsal ; (3) in Diatonis, the median 
line or rib of a valve, and maj 
be heteropolar or iiopoUr (0. 
Mutller) ; (3) the suture between 
the carpels in Umbelliferae 

Sapli'iil, pt. Raph'idea, Rn-ph'idrt, or 
KllAph'ldeal^afili.fia^lfai, aneedle), 
needle-shaped orysula in the cells 
of plants ; raphid'Uui, pertaining to 
raphidea: ~ Cell, one which contains 
raphides ; Kapli'idlnas, Radlkofcr'a 
term for free, needle-shaped eells, 
with partly lignified oelluloae- 
walla, occurring amongst phloem- 
iilands in certain Acontbaceae ; 
rtpb'lold (cZJai. resemblanoe) 
Fi'bres, Roulet and Chodat's term 
for the preceding, 

nuw-TlpB, early ripe, precocious ; 
lath-rlpe (Crozier) means the same, 

nt'roB (LiLt., nol close or thick), 
thinly placed, not congested. 

(Cro . 
Baumpar'aalt (Ger 

rk'ridui, rft'TUE (I^C.),grey or Lawny, 
applied to doubtful tints. 

Bay, Rfx'rlitif, (I) the marginal por- 
tion of a Oompoaite flower, when 
distinct from the disk ; (2) a branch 

of an umbel, a partial umbel ; ~ 
no'ret, — Flow'ar, an oiit«r floret, 
ligulat« or tubular, of Compoaitae. 

Becaales'ceace {n, back, + Caules- 
cence), the adnation of leave* 
ott their stalks to the stem 
(C Sohimper). 

Eeoep'tadB, RtctplA'cviiim (Lst., a 
reservoir), (I) that part of the axis 
which beuta one or more organe, 
the toruB ; (2) in FonRi, variously 
applied, Dsuall;f a hollow or cup- 
like body containing other bodiee, 
aa (a) lievelUi^'B term for a eporo- 
phore ; ('-) = Stuoma ; [c] on 
apotheoium in Ascomyoetea ; 
(d) a pycnidium ; (<) the inner 
portion of the e^rophore aup. 
porting the gleba in Phalloideae ; 
(/) a cup of the Lichen-thallua, 
which oontalna aoredia ; (3) the 
placenta ; ~ of a Flow'er, the 
uiile part of the blossom 
which Bupporte the sepals, petals, 
Btamana and pietils ; — of In- 
flarea'cance, the rhachis or axis 
of the head, spike, or other 
dense oluater ; — of Oil, a cyst 
containing an oily secretion, as in 
tlie rind of an orange ; ~ of 
Beors'tion, any cavities of the 
interior containing special pro- 
ducts ; Becepta'cnlk Accldenta 11a, 
indeterminate passages tilled with 
aeoretion ; — oaadfOnn'la. :f the 
vittoe of the Fruit of Umbelliferae ; 
~ Bite'd prop'rU ; ~ tubnlo'aa, = 
CiNKNCBVMA, iBtlciferous vessels ; 
~ Teslcnlo'sa, receptacles of oil ; 
r«o«ptao'aIftr, rfceplaraiar'u, per- 
taining to the receptacle, or 
attached to the reoeptoole ; ~ Tube, 
the oalyx-tube. 

raesp'llva (N. Lat, recej^itiuK). liuving 
the quality of receiving ;-- Spot, (1) 
the point in the ooaphere of Ferns, 
etc., where the antheroioids enter ; 
(2) that hyaline spot on a laige 
planogamete where it will coalesce 
with a aniall (male) planogamet«. 

K«oaaB', - Sinus. 

rsdp'roc&l (reriproeiw, going back- 
ward and forward), mntual ; — 



Bj^joAAb, hybrids between the 
same parents, each being fertilized 
by the other. 
rooiiBate,rec/tna'^tM (Lat., bent back), 
turned or bent downward; re- 
dli'ned, reeli'nlnff, having its base 
on the ground, also one plant 
pressed on another. 
reeiu'soB (Lat. , laid open), improperly 

used for incltuus. 
rscon'ditiu (Lat. , conoealed), hidden, 

not readily seen. 
Beorades'oenoe {recrudescot to open 
afresh), the production of a young 
shoot from a ripened infnictesoence. 
reotiflo'nui (rect?M, straight, /o.Y,^orM, 
a flower), where the axe^ of the 
florets are parallel to the main 
axis of the inflorescence, as in nome 
Compositae ; reotiner'Ted, rectifier'' 
vist 'Hits (nervuSf a nerve) ; reo- 
tlTe'niUB {vena, a vein), straight- 
veined, parallel-veined, as in 
grasses ; Bectlpetal'lty (peto, I seek), 
voechting's term to express the 
tendency of organs to grow in a 
straight line ; rectiBe'rlal {series, a 
row), in straight ranks ; rec'tus, 
in a right line, straight, not 
reonr'vate, recnr'ved, recur^mia (Lat., 
bent back), curved backward or 
reonti'tus (Lat., skinned), apparently 

bare of epidermis. 
red, a general term for the most 
vivid of the primary colours, in 
Latin ruber ; '*' -brown, porphyreus 
according to Lindley ; ^ Snow, 
discolouration of snow by Hciema- 
tococctis niixilia, Agardh, etc. 
Redn'ced Yes'sels, a term used by 
Rothert for (a) replacement of 
bordered pits by simple pits, (6) 
an incomplete development of the 
thickening bands and their looser 
Rednc'tion {reditctio, a leading back), 
diminution, as of the number of 
chromosomes in nuclear diTision; ^^ 
I>iviBlon=NncLEAB Reduction. 
redu'plicate, reduplica'tua (Lat., 
doubled) = redu'pUcatiye, redupli- 

coUt^vua, doubled back, a term of 
aestivation when the edges are 
valvate and reflexed; Bedniflloa'- 
tlon, an increase of parts by the 
insertion of additions on the same 
plan, as of whorls, etc. 
rwflec'ted {reflecto, I bend back), 

rtflezed', reflex'ua (Lat., bent back), 
abruptly bent or turned downward 
or backward ; Beflex'lon, a terato- 
logical change in position. 
Reflores'cence {refloresco, to blossom 
anew), flowering again, a second 
refiracfed, refract tm (Lat., broken), 
bent sharply from the base back- 
Bdgenera'tion {regenemtio, a repro- 
duction), vegetative growth luter 
amputation and the drying of the 
Begermina'tion {regermino, I sprout 
again), resumption of termination 
uter it has been completely inter- 
rupted (L. H. Bailey). 
Se'gion, the area occupied by given 
forms ; '^ of Distrlbu'tion, Watson's 
term for the British regions defined 
by him. 
Be'gma {^vy/^i ^ fracture), a fruit 
with elastically opening segments 
or cocci, as in Euphorbia, a form 
of schizocarp ; Be'gmacarp, Regma- 
car'pium (/ca,o»6$, fruit), a general 
name for a dry and dehiscent fruit. 
Begres'sion {regressio, a retreat), 
Oalton's term for Reversion ; re- 
gres'suB (Lat., gone back), (1) the 
same as reflex os ; (2) the change 
from one organ into that which 
preceded it, as of petals into sepals, 
reg'ular, regula'ris (Lat., according to 
rule), uniform or symmetrical in 
shape or structure ; of a flower, ac- 
tinomorphic ; ^ Pelo'ria, peloria 
which have not produced their nor- 
mal irregular parts; regnlariflor'oaa 
(floe, flwria, a flower), when a disk 
or head of Oompositae contains 
only tubular florets ; regulariform'ii 
{forma, shape), approximating 
regularity; Begular'l^, symmetry. 


taJec'Uonnii'clBi, p!., certaia Duclui 
whioh do not become part oF the 
fniiclional oospheres. the nuclei of 
Abortive ooapbereB (Hartog), 

aeJnvsDM'cenca [rt, book, ji 

n of 
s oell already existing ; meta- 

Eeliq'u)tt«{Lai.,le«viogB) = lNDijviAK. 

remote'. remo'iuH (Lit., distanti, 

HiAlCrred, nut close togetber, the 

renar'lui {rnialiii. pertaining to the 

kidneys), renifumi. 
Rtnaw'ai. the aat of forming anew ; 

~ of Calla^RBJtlVKSBSOESCB. 

n'nifomi. reii{form'u {rente, tlie 
kidnejx, forma, shape), kidnsy. 
shaped i renifvnn'i-corda'lus, com- 
Uned heart and kidnej' shape, as 
the leaves of Aairum euroiiatiim. 

Ben'net, vc^'etatils, an enzyme which 
curdles milk, found in the flowers 
of OaCium itniia, Linn., and other 

B«palr', making good, ae - of Tuta, 
reatarirm the spent material. 

npuid', repan'duf, TSpan'doiu (Lat., 
bent baakwards), witb slightly un- 
even margin, lass so than "sinuous. " 

re'pant, re';ieiM (Lat., creeping), proa- 
trate and rooting. 

Kapla'cement, a theory of fertilization 
which aasumea that the female cell 

Kts rid of certain elementH which 
Lvee it an imporfeac cell until 
fusion with the mule cell repWea 

Bepla'tnm {re/itelwt, filled), a fruit 
with the valvtB conoocled by 
threads, pprsiaCen taftecdehiecence, 
such as in Ombidii.Arialoiochia, and 
some Papa veraceae. 

tap'llcate, rfplica'tun (Lat., folded 
back), doubled down, so that the 
upper part comes aj^ainst the lower; 
xijtTiiMiYt.repiieaii't'vg — replicate. 

Be'pluni(Lrvt.,door-oa8e), (1) a frame- 
like placenta from which the valvM 
fall away in dehiaoence ; (2) fre- 

quently used HO as to include the 
««ptum'of Cruoiferoe in 
Baprodac'tloii, increase (a) aBexnally 
Iram one individual, (f>) seiualty 
from two iodividuata or organs ; 
reproduc'tive, applied to parts 
which share in reproduction ; -' 
OeUi. cells which have no power 
of further vegetative development, 
but by ooaleacence give rise 
to a product which forms the 
starting point of a new plant ; 

— Or'guis, the parts especially oon- 
usrned in the pro<luction of seeds, 
spores, and analogoua bodies ; in 
I'hanerogums, the stamens and 

rep'tant, rej/'tana (Lat,, crawling), 
nsPBM: creeping on the ground 
and rooting. 

Km turtn'ria (Lat.), the scienca of 
plant* ; botany. 

Reaerve' (i'<?s'T-ni.«,laid np], astora^ei 

— Oel'lnloss, a speciul thickeoing 
in Che crlls of seeds, such as the 
date, which can be turned to ac- 
count in germination as food mate- 
rial ; ~ Hate'rlal, the plastic 
products of metabolism, a««imi- 
iated food material in a resting 
condition, as starch and other 
oarbohydrates : ~ Pro'tald, nitro- 
genous Bubstanceg stored in the 
plant, OB proteiils, amides, etc. ; 
~ Tra'olisldi, tracheid-like cells 
from the parenchyma sheath, for 
the storage of water (Heinrioher). 

TesU'iutt {reniUena, springing back), 
springing or bending back, as some 

Rss'lii {raina, i^oain), a term applied 
to a group of oxydised hydro- 
carboDS, soudifiedor hardened tur- 
peatine, and insoluble in wster ; ~ 
Oell. a cell which seoretea resin ; ~ 
Docts, canals which contain fluid 
resin : ~ Ploi, an unnatural and 
abundant flow of reain caused by the 
attack of Artnillaria mdlta, 8ncc. 
on Conifers ; ~ Oland. a group of 
Mils which form resin i ~ Otat = 
Rbsis-Flux ; ~ Fas'saga ; — Tube, 
an intercellular posauge containing 


resin, a resin-duot ; reginif enrai, 
-rtM ijero, I hear), Booreting resm ; 
Baa'inocyBt {K(nms^ % bag), hemi- 
spheric structures in the cell-wall 
of the hairs of the stem and leaf of 
Begonia (Schoennett) ; Basino'sis 
= Kbsin-Flux. 

Baapiza'tloii {respiroUio, breathing), 
the easeous interchange between 
the plant and the air in which the 
plant absorbs oxygen, and gives 
off carbon dioxide ; Insnla'tloii ^, 
the plant gives off oxysen in the 
decomposition of vegetable acids ; 
later'nal ^, gives off carbon dio- 
xide, but does not absorb free 
oxyffen, as in yeast-fermentation ; 
Hor^nal ^^ , as defined ; Vlnonla'- 
tlon f^ , oxy^n is absorbed, but no 
carbon dioxide is given off; it 
occurs in the early stages of ger- 
mination of oily seeds (Detmer) ; 
adj. respiratory, as f-* Cav'ity, ^ 
OhamliOT = Stohatio Chamber. 

res'tant (Crozier); ret^tana (Lat., 
standing still), persistent. 

Tsstlb'ills (Lat., restored), perennial. 

res'ting, in a dormant state ; '^ Cell, 
an isolated cell which has passed 
into a quiescent state ; f** Nu'cdeus, a 
nucleus not in the act of division ; 
^ Pe'riod, the time during which 
dormancy is maintained, the in- 
volution period ; ^ Sporan'ginm, 
dormant ^nidia of such Fungi as 
Saproleffma, which ultimately give 
rise to swarmspores; '^ Spore, a 
spore with a thick integument, 
needing time before germinating, 
usually passing the wmter or dry 
season in a dormant state ; '^ Sts^, 
the resting period ; '^ State, quies- 
cence, as of winterspores, or dor- 
mant bulbs. 

resu'pinate, resupina'tus (Lat., bent 
back), upside down, or apparently 
so, as when the hymenium of a 
Fungus is uppermost. 

Basnxrec'tion Plants, those which 
after being dried, when placed in 
water assume their living position, 
as AnastoUica and Selag\wUa lepi- 
dophylla^ Spring. 


Sttarda'tion, the influence of light 
on growth in certain structures. 

Se'te (Lat., a net), network ; nM- 
nlate, retieula'tust netted like net- 
work, as in certain cell- thickening ; 
^ yeined, netted veined; rstlcn- 
la'ted Yes'sel, one with netted 
thickenings (Crozier) ; Bttioiila'- 
tlon, network, the regular cross- 
ings of threads ; Betic alum (Lat., 
a little net), (1) a membrane of 
cross-fibres found in Palms at the 
base of the petiole; (2) applied 
to the network of linin in the 
nucleus ; rstif ems X (/ero, I bear), 
ra'tiform, retiform'ia {/onna, 
shape), apparency netted. 

ratinaoola'tas (Lat.), hooked; Se- 
tina'oolnm (Lat., a tether), (1) the 
gland to which one or more poUinia 
are attached in Orchids ; (2) in 
Asclepiads, a homv elastic body 
to which the pollen-masses are 
fixed, the Corpusculum of Bent- 
ham, Pollen-carrier of N. E. 
Brown, Translator of the Germans ; 
(3) the f unide in most Acanthaceae, 
which is curved like a hook, ana 
retains the seed till mature. 

retlner'ved, retiner^viSf retiner^vius 
{rete, a net, nervus, a nerve), net- 

retrac'tos (Lat., drawn back), when 
cotyledons are so far prolonged at 
their base as to completely hide the 

Betoit' CeUB, special enlarged cuticu- 
lar cells with an apex more or less 
recurved in Sphagnum. 

retroonr'yed, retrocur'uus, retrocurva'- 
tUB {retro, backward, curvtia, 
curved), recurved, bent back ; 
retroflex'ed, retro/lex'ua (Lat.), 
bent back, reflexed ; retroft«c'ted, 
retrojrac'tus (Lat.), refracted. 

Betrogres'sion {retrogressue, a 
movement backward), reversion 
or development towards simpler 
orffanisation ; retrogres'siye, de- 
cadent in structure; '^Metamorph'- 
osiB, in teratology the occurrence 
of organs of lower grade in place 
of the normal structures, as 

piitils converted i 

retrors*', relror'eum (Lat.)i (lireated 
bsckwurdordawnward: retror'ialy 
acu'leate, with prickles turned 
book or down, as in Oaliiim 

retroaei'nkte iretro, backward, «r. 
ratuf, sawed) = HtJNcrlKATI ; rttro- 
TSr'tfld, retroiir'iiiii, inverted ; 
BetroTer'ilo (Lat.). an inverBion. 

HM'tlnc. steeping B&x or hemp in 
water to obtain the fibro- vascular 
portion freed from the cellular. 

nlllM', relu-mu (Lat., blunted), with 
e aballow notch at a rounded apex. 

rerened', rrver'gtis (Lat., turned 
b&ok). upside down, resupinate ; 
Bever'Blon.AEiicr'mo, a change back- 
ward, OH to an earlier condition. 

reroln'Ullf (Li>t.), cnpsble of being 
rolled back; reVolnte, reiiJii'lii» 
, (Lat,), rolled bock from the margin 
' or apex ; revolutl'Tiis (I*t.). in 
I Motivation when the edges roll 
I hock spirally on each side, as in 
r Rosemary. 

BeToI'Ter FloVeri, Kemer'a term for 
thone Bowers " which exhibit 
within their outer portals a number 
of fine I ubes retembling the barrels 
of a, revolver." 

ravDl'vliig Huta'tlon (Sachs), — Cib- 

BIiAbarb'uiii, a proximate prinoipte 
of rhubarb ; rtubirbftrl'DDa, rhu- 
barb- colon •«!, the colour of the 
officinal root, orange brown. 

BhAb'ddld (piffSoi, a Bisff, tlSai, re- 
semblanoe), • cod* ah aped body 
found in the cells of the tentaolea 
of DmifTa, and in the mesophyll 
cells of Dionara, becoming more 
spherical on stimulation ; KtlKb'- 
dOIlth |Xi«ai. a stone), a detached 
portion of a Klwb'doaphere (o^iaipa, 
a sphere), spplird to certain puis* 
gic Atiiae. /fWirJoapAatra TtAiffr 
and R. Clai-igtr, O. Murr. and 

SIiBb'diu : tbe Hipe of some Fnngi 


Rluicbe'oU (^Bxit, a backbone), => 

RuxcBiLhA : ahaelillla, a secondary 
axis in the inUaresoence of grasses ; 
Rba'cbis. Jtiich'iM, the axis of on in. 

rbunna'ceous, resembling or belong- 
ing lo Rharanftoeae. 
Rham'nase, sn enzyme acting upon 

Elucosides which occurs in the 
erries of HhamJias i^ffcloria, 
Linn. ; Mutin'titD, the colouring 
matter of the same fruit. 

Blu'pUB (^1^^, a scam), usually 
spelled Baj-hb, 

Kbaph'li, pi. Sbapb'ides (^a^f, a 
needle), more uaually occurring as 
Raphis and B*phidbs. 

ahe'^mft, = Reoma. 

Rhe'lns, a, proximate principle o[ ths 
officinal rhubarb. ffA^um. 

Rheot'ropUm ()Mu, 1 Sow. rpc-r^, a 
turning), the phenomena in li 
growing organism produced by the 
influence of a ourrent of wat«r 
(Jiiorann) : adj. rlMatTop'lc. 

rhexlcenet'lc Oifii. a rending, yiroi, 
affaptiog), tbe origin of tissues 
wbeoformed by mechauicsl rupture 
(De Kory); rhexoljt'la (Xivii, a 
loosino). when gemnioc are de- 
tached b; the rupture of • cell and 
the disorganization of its cont«nt« 

BUpld'lnin {^iwU, ^.rlJot, a fan), a 
fannbaped cyme, the Ut*rol 
branches being developed alter- 
nately in two opposite diieotiiins, 

rUiuaor'pliDld, = RiimiuoKPiioiTfl. 

rhlSUl'lbOU*, -Ihueipl^a, a root,a*0M, 
a Uower), roul-Sowered, Qouermg 
From the root or seeming lo do so ; 
f/. KAMCALin ; BU'ioatlw, plants 
BO character ieed, Rhizouens; rhil- 
knto'leons. in Mosses when the 
male inflorescence is on a short 
branch, oohering to the female by 
a rbiioid ; Bbl'iel, Van Tiegbem a 
term for the "base" of the root, 
that is., the root apart from its 
radicles ; Bhlild'liim, term sug- 
gested for ltBi7X)iD in tbe oophore 
condition (Bower). 

Khlil'iM, pL BblUnM, or BUis'iiies, 



the root-bain of Mosses, etc, 
Bhizoids ; Bhiilopby'sis % (^i^it , a 
natural prodaction), ao expansion 
of the radicle, as in Nelumhium ; 
Bliiio'liia ifttot, life), the organisms 
which canse root-tnberdee in Lega- 
minosae ; RblioWaii'tus t (5Xeurr6f, 
a bud), an embryo whicn emits 
roots ; BU'iocarp (ica/>r6f, fruit), 
nsed of Marsileaoeae, which 
produce sporangia on root-like 
processes ; rbiiocar'poiis, rblio- 
oar'plo, jpictM, (1) root-fruited, 
used by De CandoUe to denote a 
perennial herb ; (2) producing sub- 
terranean flowers and fruit, in 
addition to atrial, as Cynometra 
cauliflora, Linn., and Anona 
rhizafUhat EichL (Huth); Bhi- 
locoriesy (icdXXa, glue), the union 
of the axes of two individuals of 
the same species solely by the 
roots (Morren) ; Blilsooton'la 
(rr6yof, murder), hyphae twisted 
into strands like twine which 
fasten on the roots of trees ; Bhi'- 
logen {yhot, race, ofibpring), (1) 
a plant which produces a root 
ana flower only, as Bo^fflesia; (2) 
parasitic on the roots of other 
plants ; (3) any org^ n which gives 
rise to roots or rhizoids; rlili- 
ogenetlc, rhliogen'ic, producing 
roots ; ^ Oells, ^ Tli'sue, the 
mother-cells of the peripheral 
layer of the central cylinder which 
frequently give rise to all the 
tiuaes of the rootlet ; Rhiiog'enum, 
the dilated base of the frond in 
some Algae, from which proceed 
holdfasts (Henslow) ; Bhi'soid 
(eZdot, resemblance), a hair, fre- 
quently branched, serving as a 
root in Mosses and Hepaticae, not 
morphologically distinct from the 
protonema, the same as Rhizine ; 
rhl'zoid, rhizoid'eua, root-like ; 
rhizoma'tiform {forma.^ shape), re- 
sembling a rhizome in shape ; 
Bhi'iome, Bhizo'ma, pi. Rhizo'moUa 
(1) the rootstock or dorsi ventral 
stem, of root-like app^rance, pros- 
trate on or under ground, sending 

off rootlets, the apex progresrively 
sending up stems or leaves ; (2) = 
Caudex (Henslow) ; (3) =Hadiglb 
(Henslow); rhisom&Vio, -ctis, xliiio'- 
matose, having the character of a 
rhizome; xliiio'mio is used by 
Harvey for the same thing ; Bill - 
mmorph (/Aop^, shape), a root- 
like branched strand of mycelial 
hyphae ; rhizomor'pbic, -i^l^old, 
-phouB, (1) root-like J (2) resembl- 
ing a rhizomorph; Bhlzoph'agiit 
(0aYe<^» to eat), Boulger's term for 
a plant which is nourished by its 
own roots, an autophyte or rhi- 
zophyte ; rbiioph'ilous (^cX^w, I 
love), growing attached to roots ; 
Bhi'iophore (^opew, I carry), a 
leafless branch in Selciginella, which 
eventually emits true roots ; Bhi'- 
MpliyU {i>iiXXoy, a leaf), Schuett's 
name for a compound pigment in 
Aleae, consisting of Phycoerythrin 
and Floridean Green; rhisophyl'- 
lous, when roots proceed from 
the leaves ; Blil'zoplisrte (0irror, a 
plant), = Rhizophaoist ; Bill'- 
loplisrUa'ceae {ifH^w, a leaf, -h 
€iceu8), a division of Ferns pro- 
posed by £. Newman for those in 
which the fronds are attached to 
the rhizome or root ; xliiiopliylla'- 
oeouB, resembling such Ferns ; BU- 
lopliy'sis = RmziopHTSis ; Bhiso- 
podlnm t {toOs, ro96st a foot), the 
mycelium or "spawn" of Fungi; 
Bhisotax'is, Bbliotiy'y (rd^tf , order), 
the system of arrangement of the 
roots; BU'mla t tne protonema 
of Mosses, etc. 
rhodellna (^6dor, a rose), rosy pink ; 
rhodoch'rous (x/x^ colour), rose- 
coloured, pink ; Bhod'ogen (yirott 
offspring), an easily oxidizable 
body in the beet (Reinke) ; rhodo- 
leu'cus {\€VK6t, white), reddi^ 
white ; Bhodorogy (\6yoi, dis- 
course), that part of botany which 
treats of roses; Bhod'ophyll (0vXXor, 
a leaf), a name for the compound 
pigment of the Red Algae (Reinke), 
(/. RmzoPHTLL ; Bhodosperm'in 
{ffvipfia, a seed), rose-coloured 


grsnuleB BrisinK from tbe effects oC 
rsAgentfl in ceirconteats. 

rhom^iw, Tbomtilc, rKom'bicv*, 
fjiili^os. a Utp). Bbaped like a rhomb, 
an equilateral obliqna-angled 
figure ; rbomUTo'llDB i/olium, a 
leaf), rhomboidnt- leafed : rbomU- 
fbrm'U i/onnn, abape). rhomb- 
abaped 1 rbom'bolil, rhomhoi'deiui, 
rbombol'dal. rhoniboida'/it (elSoi, 
resemblance), approauhing a rhom- 
bic outline, qUBuranguIu', with the 
lateral angles obtuse. 

rbrnchoa'porons (^(>yx<it, a beak, 
cirapA, a seed), when tbe fruit ends 

RbytlAii'ma,]{fiirrli0)ui, a. wrinkle), the 


ion of plates of cellular tiuue 

Rib, a primary vein, eBpecislly the 
central longitudinal or midrib ) 
ribbed, furnished with prominent 

Ele'tns (Lat.. the opened month), 

tbe mouth or gorge of a bilabiate 

Bldge, an elevatsd line on the fruit 

of Umbelliferae ; either primary 

or secondary. 
rlg'eiiB (Lat.), stiff, rigid i rlgM'ceat, 


1 stiff c 

rlclit'luuid'ad = DEX'rHOBss ; •J'. Ap- 
pendix C, 

rlff'ld. rig'i(/tui(Lat.), stiff, inflexible : 
ngld'nloiu, somewhat rif(id. 

Bl'ma(Lat., a cleft), (1) a chink or 
cleft ; (2) the ostiole of oectaio 
Fungi (Lindiey) ; rimA'tiis, t IMod. 
Lat.), rimoBs: ri'mlform {forma, 
shape), sbap«d like a cleft; rl'moM, 
riTiunue, rlmolti, with chinks or 
{rriLcks, aa old bark; rlmnlo'ana 
; (Mod. Lat.), a diminative of ri- 

Blnd, (I ) the outer bark of a tree, all 
the tissue outside tbe cambiam ; 
tricMd to the 


Dort«x of Fungi ; (4) in Lichens 
the Slra-tum corttco'Je, also styled 

BlnE, see Anmiti.d» for the various 
senses iu which it is used; ~ B&lk, 
the outer bark when disengaged in 
stripsor UyerB(Hartig); ~ Pores, 
vessels in wood when arranged 
in the annual rings, as seen in 
transverse Bection ; ~ Scale, dii- 
©BBB caused by Trameteii Piiii, Fr. ; 
~ Type, an appearuooe in nuclear 
division ; Elug'woTlD, a disease of 
tbe skin due to Trichopbylon 
tonetiraits, Malms ten. 

(in'gent, rin'gtat (Lat., gaping), 
wide open, gaping, as the mouth of 
a labiate corolla ; rlngenUSo'ma 
\fio», a flower), the receptacle of 
such Compositae as bear ringent 
tlorets (Henslow) ; rlngentlfonn'ls 
{/oniia, shape), apparentlj' giping. 

ripa'li&m. rtpa'rious, ripa'rtiui (Lat., 
frequenting river-banks), growing 
by rivers or streams. 

Blpo, mature, the completion of an 
organ or organ isia for its allotted 
function ; ri'pening, maturing. 

Tlva'Ila (Lat,, pertainiuK to a brook), 
growing by a brook-aide. 

riTHlvia'ceoD*, resembling the genns 
nipolaria; rlTal&'riold (iraof, re- 
semblance), means the same. 

TlVose, riiv'siiii (! riwiu, s stream), 
having sinuate cbsnnels (CroEier). 

riTKla'rii (ri'ti/Ziu, a rill), growing by 
wttlercoursea : fIt'qIom, havinj; 
small sinuate cimnneU (Croder). 


Hod - fracUflo'tlDD, scccisl simple 
gonidiopbores in Bosidiomycetes ; 
Bodlota, Btraight rigid bacteria. 

Eogns, a gardener's name for a plant 
which does not come true frem 
seed, a variation from the type. 

Soot, the descending axis, growing in 
tbe opposite direction from the 
Bl«m, enodoiH-, mostly developiug 
underground, ^uid absorbing mois- 
ture from the soil ; ~ BaeU'lns, a 
bacillus which has its station < 
■■oota, as the nitrifying bacteria [ 
Otip, large oells which form a cap- 

lika ooT«ritig for tlie ■ 

(rf thB piiiferoot Uj«r of the newlj 
formed poitioiu of rooU ; ~ L*»f, a 
l«kf (pnnging from the bue of the 
■tem ; " nmwit^lim, when pUnta 
•re partiall; poiantio and their 
root* penetrate others, u ia AAin- 
on^Aiu ; — Poo'ket, the felie 
"Cftp" in Lemna root*; — Pole, 
the seat of new groirbh when 
the root ii detttohed ; ~ Pret'nra, 
the fording of Audi into the 
zylem hy oemotio foroe in the 
toote; ~ Bhektb = CoLBOR- 
aiu ; ~ BfaxA = BatiOHc ; " 
ni1in«toi, the reeult of ftttaok b; 
Funsi or beoteriA, a owe of eym- 
hioaii, and loaroe of nitrogenous 
nonrlBhiuoat to the host. 

Boot, advanUt'loiie, any not developed 
as a brtmidi of the pmnar; root, but 
from other membera ; •^ir'Ul ~, 
nted of thoM which are developed 
above gronnil, aa of epipby t«i ; 
pri'muy — , that develo^M at the 
oppoiite pole of the embryo to the 
■hoot, the main dewending axii. 

root'lttg, rodicant. 

Bootlsl, (l)a very slender root, or (2) 
the branoh of a root; Boofatook, a 

ropa-ahsped, funicular. 

ror'tdna (Lat,, bedewed), dewy, 
covered with particle* which re- 
eemble dew-drops. 

naa'oeona, -cau {rata, -H aoeons), (1} 
arranmd like the five [>etaje of a 
DonoM rose ; (2) belonging to the 
order of which Roia is the type; 
(3] rose-oolour, pink. 

lOeela'tns = (1) kosclatub, «r (2) 

BoMl'la (dim. of r(iM)=:Boeette', a 
olnater of leaves cr other organs in 
a circular form, aa Plantago major, 
Linn. ; ~ Shoot, a cluster of leaves 
OD a branch from the game point ; 
the UmbUl'oal ~ of Diatoms is a 
oantral Bl«r-Bhaped projection or 
depression of s tew larger oells, aa 
in CJMCinodwcvs. 

I (Hod. Lat. ), pink or pinkiih. 
BoM'tnm (Lat.), a rose-garden. 
Rw'eiu (Lat.), rosy, pale-rod, pink. 
Boa'ln, omde Risin ; raa'lnoni (Grew) 

BM'tel = RoeTKLLim. 

Bte'tallate, rvtUlia'ltu (rosteUum, a 
little beak), the diminutive of 
roetrate, somewhat beaked ; KostaT- 
Inm, (1) a small bfak ; (2) applied 
by LinnaeoB to the caadicle or 
radicle ; (3) a narrow eitenaion of 
the upper edge of the atiama of 
certain Orchtds, the abortive 
anterior lobe ; roi'trate, nulra'tiu, 
with a beak, narrowad into a 
•leoder tip or point; ica'tilroiiii 
iforma, shape), beak - shaped ; 
Boa'tnua (Lat., a beak), (1) any 
beak-like extension ; (2) the inner 
segment of the coronal lobes in 

Koa'ola (dim. of ro»a), (1) a small 
roes ; f2) = BoeiTTi ; a collao- 
tion of clnatered leaves, aa the 
Houseleek ; ros'nlar, rom/or'iif, 
rae'nlMs, nMu/o'Ctu, oollect«d into 
a rosette. 

Bot, applied to various diseases of 
fungous OT bacterial origin. 

TOta'OBus X (">ta, a wheel, + aoeos) 
= rotate', rota'tiu, wbeel-ahaped, 
circular and flat, applied to a 
gamopetalooB oorolla with a abort 
tube ; lo'tate-plane. wheel-shaped 
and fiat, ssmopetaloos and with- 
out a tube ; Kota'tlon, Rota'Uo, 
the internal circulation of the 
protoplaamio contents of a cell 
oyclosis ; ~ of Oyra'tloii, the 
peculiar rotation in Characeae ; 
~ of Pro'toplaam, the mov 
round and within the cell ; r 
plane = rotatk- plane ; ro'tuorm, 
roi(/"onn'i« I [forma, shape), wheel- 
shaped, H8 of a gamopetalous 
corollk with spreading limb and 
a short tDbe. 

rotund', rotund' aa (Lat., round), 
rounded in ontlioe, eomewhat 
orbicular, bnt a Uttle inclined 
toward* oblong ; rotanda'tu 
(Lat.), rounded ; ratandlfo'Ilous, 

*™ l/oiiu 

a, leal), round' 



tougll, (1) acabrnuB ; (2) alio of 
Burloces covered with still coarse 
liairB i ~ l<ftTM, a g&rdiiaer's nanio 
for tbe first trim leaves of a 
seedling ; mugh'UIl, scabrous. 

Tnb«l'tuB (Lat.), reddish. 

TUb'en* (Lat.), blush red. 

mb'aolos (N, Lai,), somewhat red, 

mti'eT (L:it., red), red in a geneml 
sense ; mbsa'eeiit, ruMt'ceiu, 
turning red, 

mblc'olous (rufiiu, a bramble, ciJ^, I 
inbabit), parasitic on brambles, or 
attached to them ; Uenslow speUa 
it ru*«o7u*. 

mUonn'dua (Lat., red, mddy), btuah- 

raUg'iiiDM, rubiijino'iut, TMg'iitoaa, 
ntliigin'taa [robiga or ndiiyo, rust), 
rust- colon red, obobII; implyiog it 
is due to glandular hairs. 

Bailor, Baba'(lo(LAt.), redness of anv 

rn'daral, nuUra'lii (from nidru, old 
rubbish), growing in waste places 
or among rubbish ; ~ Plants, those 
whi-h are charaateristic of rubbish 

Ett'dlnwnt (rudimcn'uin, a first at- 
tempt ),{ I )an im perfectly developed 
and functionally useless organ, a 
veatige ; (2) has been suggested as 
an equivalent of tbe German t«mi 
" Anlage " : c/. Isckpt, I'miii- 
oaDiuu ; mdloiBn'tai, rudunen'- 
M17. arrested in aa early stage 
of development ; ~ Or'gans, those 
whose development has been 
arrested at an early stage. 

mfM'Mnt, ru/WcfflgJLat.], boooming 

Enfae. used by Withering for the 
VoLVA of Fungi ; ruTfled. witb a 
strongly waved margin (Crozier). 

mfld'ulua (N. I^t.}, somewhat red. 

Sit'tOttt, nt'/tM (Lat.)i reddish, of aU 

Ka'ra, pi. Su'gae (Lit.), a wrinkle 
or fold ; m'Kate, wrinkled. 

ms'sed, soabroufl (Crozier), 

ru'gose, r\igo's\t», m'gous, covered 
with, or thrown into wrinkles ; 
m'rulose, rumt/o'siu, somewhat 

ra'mlnata, rumina'fua (Lat., chewed), 
looking as though chewed, as the 
albumen of the nutmeg ; ~ En'- 

1 (™ 

large saw), eaw-toothed or sharply 
incised, the teetb retrorse, 

Ran'dle, used by Withering for 
UuHEL ; and Rim'dlet, for a partial 
or secondary umbel. 

Rnn'uar, a stolon, an elongated lateral 
shoot, rooting at inter vols, the 
intermediate part apt to perish, 
and thus new individuals arise ; 
mn'nlng, repent, reptant. 

nipei'tral iraf>f», a rock), H. C. 
Watson's tei'm (or plaats of walls 
and rocks ; mpes'tzlns (Crozier), 
imptiitTv, growing among rooks, 
or as Lichens, on rocks ; some 
write it rupu'ttr ; Rnplo^ola {txia, 
I inhabit), a plant which dwells 
among rooks ; adj. ruplc'olana. 

nip'ttle ni^'fai* (rnptut, broken), 

Lat.), when a straight -ribbed leaf 
has its ribs interrupted and 
BvtoUen at intervals ; rnp'tniUig, 
bursting irregularlv. 

m'lls (Lat.. rustic), growing ia 
peculiarly mral places aa the thatch 
of a cottAge. 

u'aUorm (Arwcw, forma, shape), 
with leaflets recalling the shape of 
the phyllodes of Hmu^u arulcatui, 

la'ani (Lat.), red; russet, when 

meaning rediliah- brown. 
tut, a fundus disease in cereals 

caused by Fucciaia graminu, Pers.; 

it is also applied to other diwasei 

of planta from similar allAcka ; 


nu'ty, robiginose, lerrngiiioDB, tha I 

colour of iron ruat. 
ra'tUmt, ru/'i^diw, nK'i/uj (L*t., red, 

glowiDg), used for planta having ' 

glowing Sawen : red, oraoge, I 

yellow, or aa admiiture of theae. I 
rytidocar'piuyiffli,^v7-Iio(,» wrinkle, I 

taproi, frail), when the surfiice of ; 

the fruit is covered with wrinkles, j 

Babnllo'oU («iMiim, sand, eolo, I in* 
habit) : sab'olOBe. wihii/uVu^, grow- 
ing in Bandy pUces ; Hen slow 
pnnla the former word mj^iili'foiiuf ; i 
Hb'nlUie (CroEitr) is a Byimiiym. | 

Sm (Mcrun, a b»g). a poDch, ib Air 
~, >D empty cavity in the pollen 
of Fimut ; Em'tnyo ~ , see Eubrvo* 
sac; aw'cate, oocca'f iu. hag-ghaped. 

B«acliBm'tiu ('CKchaniia, sugar), 
sugary, or yielding sugar, as the 
asp of Home Hpecies of maple ; *ac- 
Ohklil'eroiu {/ero, I bear), gngar- 
bearing ; aacdiRTl'DnB {Lat.), 
sugary ; SM'clluvse, oane-sugar. 

MO'cUonn, eani/orm'ii {»afMs, a bag, 
forma, abape), bag-shaped ; Sm'- 
culm (Lat., a little bag], the 
peridium of aoms Fnngi ; Bac'oua, 
BODietimpg applied to the coronet 
of Sloptlia, etc. 

Sac'eopbyteB (sdoiDt, a sack, i^iTir, 
a plani), Hchuett's term for all 
plants which are not PLicupHVTEa, 

Bftoelliu [iacdt-ia, a little bag), X i^ 
one' seeded in dehiscent pericarp, 
htclosed within a hardened calyx, 
as the Marvel of Pern. 

tlMbi's Oni'Tanire, a curved growth 
of the root, due to a difference in 
the rate of growth of the two sides 
of the organ (VViesner). 

sad' die-shaped, applied to such valves 
of Diatoms aa those of CoscinodU- 

Saffron, the dried sligmaH of Cmcvs 
mli'iaa, Linn., which yield a yellow 
dye ; ~ ooronred, = frocattt». 

Saglt'tal, aa^ittate, aagiUa'tna 
{sagitia, an arrow), enlarged at the 
base into two acut« straight lobes, 
like the barbed head of an arrow ; 

■agll'tlfonn, aagiUyform'u \/orma, 
»hape), arrow-shaped. 

Ba'KO, granulated starch obtained 
from the pith of certain palms, 
eapecially from species of Sagu*. 

BalnVTale^ Ap'ple, a monstrosity in 
which the petals are sepaloid, the 
Btamene abaont. and a doable row 
o( carpels present. 

Bal'ap. the dried tubercles of inme 
epeciea of Ordiis, also spelled 
Bal'op, 8«Joop'. 

Sal'lclu, a glucoside occurring in the 
bark of willows, species ol Halix ; 
Balloyi'ouB Ao'iii occurs tn many 
flowers, especially of Spirata, pro- 
bably by oxidation of its corre- 
sponding alcohol, 8au(igmi<. 

sa'llent (goiKn», springing forward), 
projecting forward. 

aali^enln, an aromatic eubstance 
formed by the decomposition of 

■alius', lali'nva {eal, nali», salt), (I) 
consisting or partaking of the 
(juolities of salt ; (2) growing in 
salt-Diursbes : ~ Haf t«n, chemical 
salts ouuurriDu in plants, the union 
of acids with bases. 

Balmo'neiu {foimo, a salmon) ; ul- 
monic'alor {coior, colour), salmon- 
coloured, pink with a dash of 

Salplsan'tbjr (0iL\iri7f, a trumpel, 
irffoi, a dower), the transformation 
of ligulate or disk-florets of Com- 
positae into conspicuous tabular 
BoretB (Morren). 

■alBn'g:iI10tUI, ralmi<jino'»\m [tnfiugo, 
saltoeas), growing in places inun- 
dated by salt or brackish water, 
as saltings; lal'sua (Lat., salted), 
is uaed in the same sense. 

Hl'TBT-form, •- shapod, hypocrateri- 
morphous (A. Gray). 

Sama'ra (or Satne'ra, Lat., the fmit 
of the elm), an indehiscent winged 
fruit, as that of the sycamore ; 
samarld'Mias. ■om'arold, ntmaroi'- 
deua (tltot, resemblance), used of a 
fruit resembling a samara. 

Bam'btuwtu, a terpene derived from 
5a)n6ucus ni^ra, Linn. 


HUi'ffQbie, tanguin'ru* (Lai,, blood' 
rod), the coloar of blood, criinMn. 

Buiio'l IMM, the order of cell- 
diviBioD of the cambium, aa set 
forth in PrinKBheim, Jahrb. ii. 00. 

Ban't&llli, a reiiDoiis aubBtaoce from 
red Bandal-wood. Pferoan-pm san- 
talinua. Linn, f., whence ita name. 

Bas'tonln, a bttt«r principle from 
wormwood, ATttmida Santonkitm, 

Sap («apa, new wine boiled thiok), 
the juice of a pUnt ; -- OaT'lUea, 
from ordinary periderm by its cell- 
wall and QontentB being in a living 
oondition. serving o» abaorptii 

B (Wiei 



force exerted on paiiing apwardf 
throueh the tisauet ; ~ Te'ilcle, a 
VKCuoTe surrounded by a thin skin 
of protoplasm ; ~ Ve«'Ml, a duct 
or continuous vessel ; ~ Wood, the 
new wood in an exogenous tree, 
■o lone a» it is pervious to the 
flow of water, the alburnum ; the 
tap of oak is Grflw's term for 
the atbumum of that tree ; Mp'leu, 
dry, destitute of itap ; 8ap'lin(, a 
jfoung tree ; Sap'a = Sap. 

Up'ld. Hip' i(i>u<Lat., savoury), having 
a pleasant taate. 

Htpona'CMoa [mpo, soap, 4 aceons), 
napy, slippery to the touch ; 
sapoiu'rtns (N. Lat. ), having scour- 
ing q4ialitiea like soap ; Eap'ouln, a 
BoBp-like prinoiple from Saponarn 
officii\aiii, Linn,, and other plants. 

B«p'or{Lat.. flavour), thetoate which 
a plant offers. 

■■proK'enottB (irarpjt, rotten, yirot, 
race), growing on decaying sub- 
BtancBB ; Sapromyloph'ilM [>pi\iai, 
1 love), plants which are fertilized 
by carrion, or dnng-fiiea ; the flowers 
are putrid -smelling ; aaproph'tloua 
(0iXfu, I love), humus - loving ; 
Bap'rophyte [•pvTir, a plant], a plant 
whioh lives Upon dead organic 
matter ; ad). MprophT'tal, Mpra- 
phja'io : a&p'TopbyUim, the fltat« 
of lubeigting on bumua or simitar 
matfcrial ; aymbia'tlo ->,a phanero- 


aaproliK'idmu, allied to the genu* 

B«rcob'aalB lonpf, irapist, flesh, piait, 
base), a carcenile, used for gyno- 
baais when very fleaby ; Saro'ocarp 
Sorcoca/pium (irapirii, fruit), (1) 
the succulent and fleshy part of a 
drape ; (i) a general name for a 
baccate fruit ; Bar'code, Dujardin'a 
term for protoplasm : Sar'codsmi, 
Sara>(Ur'ma, Sareodfr'mU [Ifp/ia, 
skin), a fleshy layer in seed-coata 
between the excpleura and the 
endoplenra ; aarcol'dea ((Mot, re- 
seDiblance). having the appearance 
of flesh ; Sareo'ma ; a fleshy disk. 

Sar'msnt, Sarnifii'rnm (Lat., twiga, 
braah-wood), a long slender runner, 
or stolon, as in the strawberry ; 
Bumenta'cMiu, -reus ( + aceous) ; 
aarmentlferoila. -rut (/tro, I bear), 
sarmentose ; Sarmantid'lum, * a 
group of cymes or spikes armnged 
centrifugafly as those in the cyme 
itself (Lindley): sarmanttt'ltu, be- 
longing to twigs (Henslowl; aar'- 
msntaiy, applied by Massart to 
the buda of alimbing plants which 
develop into the long slender 
branches and tendrils ; sar'men- 

(Lat, , foil of twiga), producing long 
and lithe runners ; Sannen'tum, a 
runner, ff. 8ahmr!jt. 
Bar'ntu, H. C. Watson'a term for 

Slants confined to the Channel 
(lands ; .^HirriMi — Jersey. 
iktIiTopIi'lloiu(rTa0|Mi, decayed, ipAioi, 
I love), applied by Pound and 
Clemen ta to those Fungi which 



'vat <Lat.), that which is sown 
or planted, as opposed to spon. 
taneons or natix'e. 

Baian,'te-Tl'ien« (Lat.). green as 
grass : a full deep green. 

Min'iwe-iliaped, allantoid. 

tautel'ltu (Fr, sautelle, avine shoot), 
a bulbil, such as those of Lilium 
tigrinvm, Ker ; misprinted by 



Henslow as '^Santellas" with an 
errooeouB deriyation. 

■AW-tootlied or sawed, serrate. 

saz'atlle (Crozier), saxa' tilts (Lat.)> 
dwelling or growing among rocks ; 
saz'icole, sazic'cline, sajdo'Oloos 
{coh, I inhabit), growing on rocks 
as do many Lichens ; Bazlc'Ola, a 
dweller among rocks, printed by 
Henslow as " saxi'oolus " ; sazi- 
f ragons {frtigt the root of franffo, 
I break), rock-breaking, as plants 
which grow in oreTices seem to 
be ; saxo'siu (Let.), stony. 

Soab, a disease due to Tarious Fungi, 
causing roughness of the cortex ; 
in the potato it is ascribed to 
Soraaponum acabks, Fisch. de 
Waldh., in the United States attri- 
buted to Oospora aaibies, Thaxter. 

•oalier (lAt.), rough, scurvy; scab'- 
rate, scabra'tuSf made rough or 
roughened ; soab'rid, gedb'ridtis ; 
■caVridOQS (Lat., rough), some- 
what rough; scabrid'nlous, and 
■cabirldiiuroalas, sUghtly rough ; 
BoatarlVles (Lat.), roughness of 
surface ; scab'rona, =80abkb, rough 
to the touch. 

■oalar'lfonn, scalariform'is (scalariSf 
pertaining to a ladder, formay 
shape), ladder-shaped, having 
markings suggestive of a ladder; 
*^ Duct, '^ Ves'sel, a vessel having 
Bcalariform markings, as in many 
Ferns ; '^ Kark'ing, an elongatea 
pit of a scalariform vessel (Crozier). 

Boale, (1) any thin scarious body, 
usually a degenerate leaf, some- 
times of epidermal origin ; (2) a 
trichome, if disc-like ; ^^ Bark, 
outer bark which is thrown off in 
scale-like portionfl, as in the plane- 
tree; ^ -formed, shaped Gke a 
scale ; '^ Leaves, cataphyllary 
leaves, usually on underground 
shoots, but sometimes on the above- 
ground portions. 

icall'oped, orenate. 

scalpel'liform, accUpelliform'ia {bccU- 
peUum, a lancet, format shape), 
shaped like the blade of a pen- 
knife ; often set vertically. 

•oa'ly, squamose, scarious ; '^ Buda, 
leaf-buds of a strong character, 
that is, well protectea by scales ; 
*^ Bulb, one having separate scales, 
as in lilies. 

■oan'dent, acan'dena (Lat., climbing), 
climbing, in whatever manner. 

Boape, Sea' pits (Lat., a stem), (1) a 
leafless floral axis or peduncle 
arising from the ground, as in 
Cyclamen ; (2) the stipe of Fungi ; 
Boapellna X the neck or caulicle of 
a germinating embryo (Lindley); 
•oa'pelen, destitute of a scape. 

Boaphid'inm {scaphium, a hollow 
vessel), the sporangium of Algae ; 
Boaphlnm t the keel of a papilion- 
aceous corolla ; Bcaph'obrya {ppvta, 
I sprout), a term applied to the 
Marattiaceae, an order of Ferns in 
which the frond rises from between 
two stipular appendages forming a 

•oaph'old (<ricd0i7, a boat, etSot, re- 
semblance), boat-shaped ; soaph'y- 
form {forma, shape), used by J. 
Smith for boat-shaped. 

■oaplflo'roos, -rus {scapus, a stem,. 
fios, floris, a flower), having flowers 
borne on a scape ; soa'piform, 
scapi/orm'is {format shape), re- 
sembling a scape, a stem wanting 
leaves ; scaplg'erona {gero, I bear), 
scape-bearing; soa'poid (clSot, re- 
semblance), scapiform (Crozier) ; 
■oa'pose, acapo'suSf having scapes ; 
Boa'pofl (Lat.)=SGAPB. 

Bear, a mark left on a stem by the 
separation of a leaf, on a seed by 
its detachment, a cicatrix ; scarred, 
marked by scars. 

■oa'riose, sca/rio'sus, sca'riona {scaria. 
Late Lat., a thorny shrub), thin, 
dry and membranous, not green. 

scar'let, vivid red, having some 
yellow in its composition, 

Bcar'rose t> a variant spelling of 

■oat tered, without apparent order. 

soliista'oeous, -ctus (schistos, a stone 
easily spUt, e.^., slate, -f- acetw), 
slate-oolonred, a deep-toned grey ; 


■cbii'toas, KhUtamu, lUtf, u U> 

BctUstOE'lUIULe {rx^sTot cleft, yin«%, a 
marriage), used by Ardifsono to 
deaiguate the Characeae ; BollUt'o- 
guna, b'eliiiaoyam'ia, C»niel'ii Wrnm 
for tbs same. 

■obl'iiMBTp (ii^Tu. I aplit, KOprit, 
fruit), a pericarp which iplita into 
one-seeded portioin, mericarpi or 
" Bplit ■ fruita " ; achlMgeaat'lo 
(7/voT, oflbpring), formed by split- 
ling ; ~ liiMrcdliil«T Bpa«e« are 
formecl by the BcparatioD of tiasue 
elemenlB owing lo the iplittins of 
tbe common wall of the cells ; 
«oUiOBen'leI>«rBl'opineitt, develop- 
raeot arising from diviaion ; 
actiliog'molu, — «ohi&':™etic ; 
•cUio-lyilc'aiioui (Ai'int, a loosing), 
arising from splitting or tear- 
ing of the lissuBB, applied by 
Tschlrch to tho^e cavities vhicii 
arise Bt first from splitting uf 
the cell -vail, but are enlarged 
bj the breaking dawn of sur- 
rounding listuei : aoUMlyt'fc, 
applied to those gemmae which are 
detached by splitting through the 
middle' lamellae of the cells 
(Correos); Scblwniyce'tet (/iiiiii, 
a fungus), Narfjeli's term for bac- ' 
teria (Cohn) ; Scblxopbr'tae (^vri>, I 
■ plant), was also used by Cohn for ' 
lhapr«oeding;Solil'Mpbytai, plants | 
whieh increase by Gasion; BcMio- 
apor'aaa [rrofii, a see«l), a name 
proposed by Cohn for the Schizo- 
mycetes : Sohlioate'ljr (sTijXq, a 
oglumn), when the sinflle primitive 
■tele breaks up into as many 
distinct strands as there nre vas- 
cular bimdles ; adj. lohiioito'loiu. 

sctm'ltar-ibaped. aoinaciform. 

Sd'on, n young shoot, a twig used for 

Solrj^'lum. Warming's term (or an 
Asijuiution of .Seirjuir plants. 
■ Sdi'ilon {iciVwio, a cleaving) Laj'ar 
= Absciss - lateb ; aolHlp'arotu 
{pario, 1 bring forth), used for 
nssiFABOCs, SB bacMria. 

■dn'nlil, . .Mlnrot'dta, acivroi'deiM 


{rilaipiH, a squirrel, «!3or, resem- 
blance), curved and busby, like a 
Hquirrel's tail. 
Bdaras'tlilam (imXtipat, hard, ardot, 
a dower), an achene enclosed in an 
indurated portion of the calyx' 
tube, aa in Mirabilin ; Sderancli'- 
yma {lyxviie, an infusion), (1) 
fnrmerly applied to etone-cella, 
BcLKBEina i (2) afterwards proposed 
for bast or libr r cells, which are 
immensely thickened, with their 
protoplasm tost ; ~ Calif, all 
thick -walled cells wbich retain 
their p.Mtoplasm (Tsohirch) ; 
adj. sclarencby'matoaB ; aa ~ 
TU'tue. composed of thick-walled 
cells ; Bcle'ratd, a sclerotic or itone- 
oell, a strongly thickened or ligni- 
fied cell ; it is sometimes spelled 
Scle'rld ; ade'rlsed, sclerosed i 
Sclar'otilaat {liXaaro!, a bud), a 
stnne-oell, or sclereid ; Bcler'ogen 
('yti'iii, offspring), the hard lig- 
niQed deposits in luob cells as 
those which compose the shell 
of the walnut, or gril>c«llB of the 
pear ; BcleroE*i>'lk, Berkeley's 
term for induration of parts 
amounting to a disease ; BOlArold. 
tc/troi'diit (tliot, resemblance), 
having^ bard texture ; tcleropbyr- 
tna (^liXXw, a leaf), having hari 
and stiff leaves ; ■cUiropol'dna [rout, 
raSoi, a foot), when persistent 
peduncles become hard and homy ; 
aolero'sed, hsnlened, lignified ; 
Bdaro'als, tbe hardening of a 
tissue or cell-wall by ligniliastion 
of a membrane or intercellular 
deposits ; Bolwote', a proposed 
emendation of ScLKBoTltTK ; 
sclera'UC, hardened, stony in 
l«itnre ; ~ Oalla, grit-celia or 
sulereids ; — Parenoh'yma, grit- 
cells or Btone-cells in pears, etc, ; 
Solere'tlat. A, S. Wilson's name for 
A small ScLtlioitm ; small concre- 
tions of lime hKve been also so 
termed, in error ; «cl«n>'Uold,solBi«'- 
toill {lUoi, resemblance), like a 
rclerotium ; Sdero'tlniii, pi. Belero'- 
tla, tljaoompactmaasofbyphaein 


KTODpe of Fongi ; (8) ■£» applied 
b; toiDa to tne rMting (tacre of 
the plaunodiam of tbe Myxo- 

MOUe'alar (»eobi», MwdmD^sooBi- 
fORM {CrOEJar) ; ■ooUonlk'tiu, ia 
Bne ^nuDi like uwdoit ; ■ooli'lfonn, 
aeofti/brm'M {/orma, Bh&pe), having 
tbe appearanoe of aawdilBt. 

■wid'ui (Lat., a rsap), the Eigiag 
rhaohit of the apikalet in iome 
graaaei ; MoVlnata, acobina'liu, 
when the eurfaoo feeU rongh aa 
thoDgh nuped. 

Soola'alta {niiXtrf, a worm), Tolame't 
term for the Termifonn arohioarp 
ot Atcobolvt pulcfurrrinuit, the 
"Venniform Body" of Wonmit). 

■oot'Uab Type of Diatribntion, need 
hj H. C. Wataon for tho«e planU 
in Great Britain whoae ne«td- 
qoartera are in Bootland. 

■otoplo'ld, aooipiol'CUJ, leorpioi'di*, 
nWjn<Mda'tii Ittofrwlur, a aoorpiOD, 
(liot, reeembluioe), when tbe vaain 
aiia (paeudaxU) of infloreaoenoe ia 
ooUed like the tail of a aoorpioa, 
more atrictlj with flower* two- 
ranked, these beinf alternately 
thrown to oppoaite iidea ; ~ Oyina 
or CiNoiHiTDB, the lateral branchea 
developed on opposite eidea alter- 

given aa " heliooid " j •- DlolLOt'oiiiy, 
when alternate branohaa develop 
diohotomouily ; ~ nnlp'arona 
Ojme, a oymoee branohing when 
the right and left forks are alter- 
nately the Ur^r. 

■onw-llnai, spirals in phyllotaxia 
( Solms- Lanbaoh). 

Sert'nlnin (Lat. , a caae), Necker'i term 
for the fmit of Myrtaoe^, u of 
Ltcgthit ; adj. aerlna'otna. 

■eroUo'nlate, «ero6icu/a'(u« (»crtAi- 
culitt, a little trencb), marked by 
mlnnte or that tow depreaBions, 
pitted ; KroUonlo'nu, pitted or 

•noll-gvll, Eemer's tarm for mat- 
* - - g^ ],y insecta od 

learaa, which onrl np on the aide 

•oni'tUmii, Krot^form'U (•crodnt, a 

poocb, forma, shape) poQcb-ahaped ; 

■oro'tnin, the ponch or volva of 

tone Fungi- 
Soorf, small bran-like acalea on the 

epidermis ; Sonr'aiMaa, the appear- 

anoe produced by membranona 

Bcalee ; HDify, lepidote. 
■on'tata, teuta'titi (taitum, an oblou 

shield ),bnokler-shaped,«eufa'ti Piu 

Son'tel {aaUtUa, a salver) — Scdtkl- 
LDH ; aontelU'rla, wii'teUata, aoitcf- 
la't'ut, ahaped like a small piatter ; 
aentallUann, KvttUiform'U \Jorma, 
shape), ^telliform, bat oral and 
round (Lindley) ; pi itt«r-sbaped (A. 
Qray) ; Btfnlel'lom, pi. Bcntd'la, 
(1) a aecond and anterior ooty- 
ledon in graasee, aa in wheat 
(Soribner) ; (2) the conioal cap 
of the endosperm ia Cycadeae ; 
(3) in Lichens, such an apotheoinm 
as in Parmtlia, with an elevated 
rim derived from the thallua. 

aan'tiiaRn, tculifarm'it {aculurA, a 
(hi eld, forma, shape), backler- 
ahsped ; ~ Leaf, the flrtt formed 
leaf in Saivinia, the prolophyll 
which diffen in shape mm those 
which sncoeed it. 

San'tmn, (1) ased b; Jacquin to de- 
note the outer corona m DuvcUia, 
Haw. ; (2) tbe broad diUted apex 
of tbe style in Asclepiads. 

■oym'ltar-abaped (A. Gray) = soun- 

Seypta'a or Boypli'na {^Kfipet, a cup or 
goblet), (1) a cnp-like dilatation of 
the podetinm tn Lichens, having 
shields on its edge i Bcy'phl, pL 
" open oups " (Leisht^) ; (2) X the 
corona of Narctaatii (Lindley) j 
seypb'ltartn [forma, shape), cup- 
like ; scyphlpta'arOBa (ipofJai, ' 

for tbe production of aacidia ; i^- 
ph'oaa, possessing sojphi ; flcj- 
ph'nliis, tbe ooleenle or vaginule of 

1 {aivTovi, lemtbem), uaed 
by Necker to denote an indohiBoant 
pulpy pod, as of tha Tamarind. 
~ia-BT«eii, glaucoiu. 

lUn, sen Tracheid-siau. I 

Hba'ceoiu, Kba'ctti* (Lat.. a Ullow 

ciLTidlf)), like lumps of tallow. 
ieblTBrons {ttham, tallow, /cro, I 
bear), bearing vegetable wax or 
seo'oiuluy, leeunijdr'ifui, not primary , 
subordinate ; ~ Bait, the reeolt of 
the continued activily of tbe cam- 
bium, a formation of bast of the 
eame eBseDtinl character aa the 
primary bast, but not forming a 
part of the original bundle ; ~ 
Bud, additional to the usual bud, 
when more than one occurs in or 
near tbe axil ; ~ COT'tez, micces- 
aivB formations of liber or bast 
within the cortioal ebsatb and 
primary cortex, eiclueive of tbe 
secondary cork, phelloderni ; ~ 
Defi'mogen. formed from the cam- 
bium and destined to become 
Moondary permanent tiaaue ; ~ 
Fnn'ffns, a parasite or sapro- 
phyte which attacks ■ plant after 
It has been injured or killed 
by some other Fuugus ; — OroirUl, 
additional or aubaecjuent to prim- 
I ary growth -, - H/brld, a hybrid 
B one or both of whose parents were 
I also hybrids ; ~ U'bsr, — ~ 
w Bast ; ~ UAdol'-lary Bay*, those 
whicb are intermediate between 
the primary rays, and do not 
extend to the pith ; ~ Hem'- 
ben, all those whicb are de- 
veloped from the primary members, 
»if borne directly, they are said to 
be of tbe first order, if on the 
latter, of the second order, and so 
on 1 ~ Her'litein, a cambium 
which arises in an organ after i 
first development, by means 
whioh further growth is pc 
eible ; ~ Myca'Uiuii, rhizoid 
attachments to tbe base of tbe 
aporophore resembling the normal 
mycelium; ~ Hu'oleiu, thenaoleus 
of the embryo-sac, resulting from 

the union of tbe two polar nuclei i 
— Fedun'cia. a branch of a many- 
flowered inlloreacence ; ~ Pet'lole, 
the fiwtstalk of a leaflet; ~ Root, 
a lateral root, or a branch from 
the primary root ; ~ Scleren- 
ch'yma consists of elongated pro- 
SeoohymatouB cells having ligni- 
fied walls marked with narrow 
oblique bordered pits ; ~ BiMre, a 
spore borne on a promyoelinm or 
derived from another spore ; ~ 
Btmc'turs, (I) any structure not 

Erimary, or |'2) after it has grown 
eyond its early condition : — 
Tlt'iae, refer to Desmoiikn, Vascu- 
lar Tissue, etc. ; ~ Wood, derived 
from the cambium but not in the 
original bundle as first formed, it 
diflera from tbe primary wood by 
not having spiral or annular vessefs 
like those On the protoxylem 

fiec'ondine - Sgcokmmb (Crosier). 

Seore'tlon (ateretio, a dividing), a 
substance formed from the Quids 
of the plant by the agency of gland- 
ular cells; ~ Bod'lei. Bocretorysacs: 
SBcre'tory, producinga secretion ; - 
Soe, a nniceltular or aggregated sac 
containing excreta as eum. resin, 
oil ; - Spaoe, an intercellular space 
containing similar prodnols of 
secretion ; ~ Tls'siu, as above, it 
Corms a storehouse for the waste 
products of the plant. 

sec'tlle, fecl'ilU (Lat., cut or oleft), 
as though cut up into portions, u 
the pollen of some Orcbids. 

Sec'Uon (lectio, a. cutting), (I) a thin 
slice taken usually for microscopic 
inspection, in a given direction ; 
(2) an important division of a 

Sec'tor(L^t,,one who cuts), the term 
peric/cUo ~ , is used by Bastit for 
interruptions of the continuity of 
the central cylinder of tbe subter- 
ranean portion of Folylrkhum, as 
viewed m cross -sect ion. 
sec'tiu (Lat., cut), parted. completely- 
divided to the bate; in composition 
it forms the safllx oect. 

MOand', tteun'dua (L«t., following < 
Moond), puta or orguii diieoted 
to one lide onlj, nnullj bjr 
toniOQ ; Monnda'tai (Lat., seoond 
in rmok) ia given bj Henslow 
H •ynonyraooa ; wcmUUflo'nu 
(jloa, Jtoris, n flower), the flowars 
ul turned in tha aame dirao- 
tioD ; Bao'iuLdlna, the wooDd, that 
if, the inner oott of ma ornle ; 
Seeaiuii'nae irUer'nat, an old term 
for Albumin of a eeed ; BMtm'do- 
■pon ( + Sfokb], C. Uaamillao'i 
term for a apora which oan alao 
Mt as a Rameto. a* in Ulothrix. 

to'Oaa norlJ (Lat.). t the toma of a 

BMd, the fertiUied and matured 
ovule of a phanerogamoua plant ; 
~ Bad, Blair'a word for Fut- 
oiKTA ; ~ Bod, in Milne'a Dio- 
tionary cited tor Ova&t ; ~ 
Owt = TI9TA ; ~ Leaf, ~ Lobe 
= CoTYi-KDON ; '- Bpcnt, a ae- 
minal variation ; ~ Btalk, the 
Ftnnou or podoaperm ; ~ Vuia'- 
tton, a Tonation ariiing from a 
aeed, and not a bnd ; ~ Vari'ef;', a 
variet; produced from a teed- 
■port, or one which oomea trae 
from aeed ; — Vaa'aal =: Pericakf ; 
8a«d'ace, proposed bj L. U. Bailej' 
for the ttate or ooodition of being 
reprodaced by aeed ; gwd'Ung, a 

Slant produoed from aeed, in 
ittinotlOD to a plant propagated 

NBttalla (Lat., pertaining to stand- 
ing cropa), growing in fields of 

Sag'inent, Stffmen'tam (Lot., a piece 
cut off), (1) one of the diviaioni 
into which a plant organ, aa a leaf, 
maj ba cleft ; (2) each portion of 
meristom which originate* from a 
aingle Sbomint Cbli. ; ~ Oell, the 
boaal portion which is sncceativelf 
out off from the apical oell in 
growth ; Segmenta'tlon, (1) division 
uito members ; (aj similar, aa in 
a thallophfte, or (6) disaimilar, aa 
in a oorroophyte ; (2) the division 
of the ^ioaf oell; (3) the ^imi- 

tive Mll-diviaiona of the em- 

M'gng«ti, ntgrtga'tua (Lat., aepar- 
ated), kept apart ; a Sa'gTagate is 
a apeoies separated from a super- 

M'toipan (nip^ a string or rope, 
tropi, t seed), a spore prodneed in 
a branched row resulting from the 
division of terminal cells of partio- 
nlor braDches in certain Ceramia- 
oeae ; adj. tslroipor'la. 

Mjn'goiia, tt'}iigii» (sex, six, jttman, 
a yoke), having sji pairs of labels, 
aa acme pinnate leaves. 

Belse'tloA, Xat'ui*!, Darwin'a ei- 

SraesioD for that whioh Herbert 
penoer has termed the " Survival 
of thefitteat." 

Belanofropism (ircXi)nr, the moon, 
T/mi), a turning), movements of 
plants canaed by the light of the 
moon (Musset). 

Self, a floriat's term for having the 
same tint thranghont, without 
markings of other colouis or tints ; 
~ -bnd, the o&pring of self- 
fertiliied flowera (F. Darwin) ; ~ 
-ool'oured, uniform in tint ; ~ 
Fertlllia'tion, feriilised by it« own 
pollen ; ~ Psr'asitlim, parasitic on 
Its own species, as sometimes 
hsppena with YUcvm ; ~ FolUnk'- 
tlni, the pollen of the aame flower 
brought into close oontaot with its 
own stisma ; '- Btarll'lty, when 
pollen though ripe is inoperative 
on the atigma of its «wd flower. 

iOllaefbrm'ts \,»dla, a saddle, fomia, 
shape), saddls'shaped. 

Be'men (Lat., seed), the seed of 
flowering planta; ~ oomloalatuffl, 
tbe receptacle of certain Fungals 
(Lindley) ; •>' mnl'Uplax = Sfou- 

EW'mat (Mmm, aeed), a term used by 
Grew aod others for Antbib, 
tif. Semihb. 

•em't (Lat.), half ; aeml-adhe'nnt, 
MMit-adAercfM [adhvnia, stioking), 
half-adherent, that is, the lower 
part or half : soml-ainplee'tsns, ~ 
mnplM^tu (I^t., wound about). 

equitant ; 

oited for the ume ; ■•ml-UnplBX'i- 

CKtii,iemi-amiilt^iiaa'liii (amplextm, 

Bmbracing, cavlia, the alem), ap- 

nlied to leavea wboie lower portion 

L naif ambracsB the Btem ; leml- 

r ■mplex'ni, b>U-embraoing ; semi- 

¥ knaf ropal, Hml-uwt'ropoiu ( + 

' ARATRUPOcs) = Bm|ihitropoua ; 

■eml-calyolfoim ( + calycuvrh), 

half cup-ahApcd (J. Smith) ; S«ml- 

cap'aula ( +■ Catsdla) = Cupule ; 

■emUuinat'la { +■ aquatic), term for 

Ihoae water-pltuita which root in 

the iwil.bat produce aquatic leaves, 

otherwise living aa laud- plan tB ; 

Bem'toaU, one half of a D^smid ; 

■emlcolum'a&r, mmkolumtia'rii ( ■<■ 

iMta ( + (wn.vatb). applied to 
Buoh structures as the h&lf-UDited 
filaments of cerluo willows (Win- 
Diur i ■aml-eoi'dftta, aemicorda'liii 
(-)- cordate), heart-shaped on 
ooe side only ; Rsmlcordiforin'is 
i/ornta, shape). 



- fj/.-n' 

; BAinldlc'fna* ( 
NFS), when tiFO carpels cohere 
Dear the base only; aemiilotib'le, 
temidu'pl'j, when the ioner bIB' 
men* aontinue perfect, and the 
onler are petaloid, half ehanaed 
into a double fluwer -, MinlaUlp do 
(+ Ki4.[rr(c),h*lf-elliptie, the divi- 
sion being longiloHinal : semiMi'til- 
1 tent (-i- EiJL'lTANT), halr-equitanl ; 
[ lamiJlor'at (-1- ^'loretI, a ligulate 
t tt'-ret : Mmlfloa'cnlar, seml&os'ca- 

lOBS, MHlj^OIWu/cl'silS (+FU>SCnLAR), 

having the uoiolla eplitand turned 
to one aide ns in ligulate Soreti of 
Gompositae; Ssmillos'culfl. a aemi- 
A ihrub), an under-ehrub : geml- 
luita'ttu ( -f HASTATDs). hostate on 
one aide only ; EemUu'MOl&te ( -t- 
LANCliOl,ATB),half-laDceolatH. longi- 
tudinally divided 1 Mudlentlo'u^ 
( + i.enticdlar). sublenticular (Cro- 
: aemUoo'nlar, trmiloeula'rii. 

trn\iloc' idit» ( -I 

), with il 

complete dissepiment, practically 
nnilocularj SendU'cttm ( + Lichen), 
Zuksl's term (or forms which when 
destitute of their appropriate Alga 
Dim subgiat es aapropbyiea, or 
Fungi which can oombine with 
some AlgB to form a Lichen ; sa- 
mllu'nsj. semUn'nate, scmHuaa'taa 
( -i LrNATK), lunate, shaped hke a 
half -moon, or oreiioent-shaped. 
■e'mliul, »emina'li» (Lat., pertaining 
(o se«d), relating to the Hced ; 
~ Leaf, a cotyledon ; ~ Sport, 

- 8eeI)-8fort ; Semlns'tae, ^'an 
Tieghem'sterm for plants furnishpd 
with true leed-coats ; Bemlna'tici. 
the act of natural diapr-rsion of 
seeds : M'mlne, used by firew to 
include both his Semet and Chive, 
the genitalia ; aeminlfennii, -run 
{/rro, I bear). (1) seed-leariug ; (2) 
uaad for the Bpeoial portion of the 
perioarp bearing the seeds ; (3) 

— Dicotyledons ; ~ Scale, in Coni- 
ferae, that soaie above the bract- 
Boale on which the ovules are placed 
and the seeil borne ; semlnif lo 
[fatio, I make), forming or pro- 
ducing seed : SemlnUlca'tion, pro- 
pagation from seed ; semlnlfarm'li 
{j'onna, shaiic), applied to repro- 
dactiva bod it's in Cryptogams 

which are not part of the 
fructification ; Se'menlii, a aiais- 
trorse carboHjdrate occurring In 
reserve-cellulose in the endoxperm 
of Bome aeeds (Reias) ; Se'culnose, a 
deitrose (otra from oidinary cel- 
lulose belonging to the group of 
grape-sugars iBeisa) ; Se'nitnala. 
SaniWidum, = Sporb ; aemUttkUf- 
enu i/tro, I bear), (1) that part 
of Cryptogams which bears the 
spores, asporophore ; (2) the cavity 
of the ovary while the oifulea are 
yet unfertilised. 

aemlorUc'iilu', feraiorbKiUi'liu (wmt, 
half, + DRBlPDtAB), half-round 
or heminphe'ical ; aemio'val, 
aemioin'lis. semlo'vaiM, ttmiova'- 
im (-H OVAL). haK-oval. one side 
only, or ovate in longitudinal 
halves ; lemipetalol'deM -i- (peta- 


d), petaloid ; of the shape or 
' I pcUil ; HamliKillic&'rii 
thumb-bre»dth), about 
h in lenglh ; Mmlra'- 
ouuu, SBttun' dl&ta. aemiradia'lita 
(rofjiaiu, emiuiug betiina), whea ' 
only a portion of the outer floreU 
of & Compoaitu are TsdiaDt and 
different from thoae of the disk ; at- 
mln'mfonn, iiniureni/orM'l.t (rene*, 
the kidneyt./arma, shape), kidnej- 
Bhaped on one side only ) laml- 
ntioiil&'ttu {recictUatui, netted), 
when one of oevenl lay era ie 
netted, the others niembruioiiB ; 
■amlug'inkte, semuagiita'iue (na- 

one aide of the )oQ|!itiidinal aiia ; 
Mmlsep'tate, etmistpla'tm { + seP' 
TATDS), half-partitioned, the dis- 
Hpimeot not projecting far enough 
to divide it into two oetls ; isai- 
■tam'lDate, stmitlaminar'iw, -ris 
( + STiMBfJ). when part of the 
■t«menB are chungcd into petals ; 
ludayinpIUoBte'monla ( -f oii^i'ia, 
I unite, oni/iiuf, a stanienl, when 
some of the stAmpne cohere, the 
rest remaining free ; lemltarete. 
wnuter'e« (ierec, roand and taper- 
ing), half-terete ; BemltiiK'ynaa 
[r^t, three, 7U1-T), a woman), when 
of ijiree stylei two are united half 
way, the third being free on the 
owy {Meiagner) ; aemlval'vata, 
aemiralfa'tw { + valvate), when 
the valves of a fruit are only par- 
tially dehiscent ; BemlverUc'm&t* 
( + vKSTici limits), Bubvatticillatc 

wmpervl'rMit, mmpfrviretm (Lat.). 
evergreen, retaining its loaves 
during the winter. 

H'najy. atna'riiu (Lat.), belonging 
to, or containing, six. 

SuiM'oesM (uneaco, I grow old), the 
ageing of protoplasm : a term used 
by Maupae for the condition of the 
offspring of a long continued series, 
which, after continued RsBion, ulti- 
mately degenerate, and lo«e first 
the power of conjugating, and 
finally that of fission. 

MBdb'Ul* (Lat), sensitiTe, manifesU 
iog irritability ; sen'slUvB, teruUi'- 
■•ui, reiponaive to itimulaB, as 
the leaves of Mimosa pudica, Linn. ; 
~ TIb'bdm, those in which the 
sensibility reeideg ; Sen'sitlveiMH, 
in'itability 1 sen'saiy, sensitive. 

Bep'al, Sep'aium lati-ni, a covering). 
Neoker's convenieDt term in uni- 
versal uw for each segment com- 
posing a calyx ; Bep'sjiiie, sepaif- 
niie ; Bsp'alDiis, relating to sepaU ; 
■ep'alold, S'paloi'iirL'ii' (itiot, re- 
semblance), resembling a sepal ; 
Sepalo'dy, the metamorphosis of 
petals into lepaU or Hepaloid 
organs ; Sepal'aluin, Necker's di- 
minutive for a small sepal. 

np'aiate {neparaiiiJi, put apart) 
Flow'ers. those of distinct sexes, 
diutinouB ; sep'aTBtlii£ Iat'st, the 
Asscisa-LAVEB, OS in leaf -fall ; 
Bapara' tlon, mul ti plication by oator- 
ally detachable portions, such as 
gemmae, bulbils, etc. 

sepU'oeus laepia, a. cuttle fish), sepis- 
cotoured, a dark clear brown. 

Seplc'olA {lepcs, a hedge, nio, I 
inhabit), an inhabitant of hedges, 
Henalow prints it mtpt'coltu, 

Sap'ta, pi. of Sep'tom (Lat., a hedge 
or enclosure), any bind of parti- 
tion, whether a true dissepiment 

BOn'a t*rm toe plants growing in 
hedgerows ; sep'tale, itpMivs, 
divided by a partition ; ~ 8pore = 

Mptem'Rd [»eptern, seven, fid, the 
root of Jindo, I cleave), cut into 
seven divisions; septeminytltA (par- 
tUvf, out), divided into seven tobas; 
septan'ate, mptaia'ltu. stpi'am*, 
having parts in sevens, as in aoom- 
imund loaf, with aeven leaSela 
arising from the same point ; aep- 
tena'tal-pln'nata, used by Bab- 
ington for thoge brambles whioh 
have seven pinnules in each leaf. 

BsptiQi'dal, asp'tlDlde. tepticida'lu 
{upturn, a hedge or enoloanre, 
eatdo, I cut), when a capinle 

I or lines of Junction : MpUTeroni 
I (/cTO, I bear), bearing the parti- 
tion or disBepimsDl. 
f^tifolioai iMplem, Beven, folium, a 

Uaf), aeven-leaved. 
Mp'tUoim, Kpfi/brm'u (Mprum, a 
hedge, forma, abape), having an 
•pp«araDce of a diaeepiDient. aa the 
placenta of Planlago ; aapUf ragal, 
teplif'raijm (frag, tbe root ot 
fraiigo, I break), wben in dehiicence 
the va!»eB break away from the dia- 
aepimenta ; Hpt'UiS, of or belong* 
ing to diascpimenta ; tap'tnlate. 
havinK sparioiia transveree diaaepi* 
ments, (i) sparaely aeptate, (6) 
indiatinatly septate, ita true eenee ; 
8«p'talnm, a little partition of any 
nptupllnei'vlB. -ii'iia {leptuplum, in 
■eveoB, iMrinie, a nerve], Boven- 
nerved, applied tn a leaf, 
■•'nh, a disease oE HUgar-cane, pro- 
bably due to Hyjiocrea Sacchari, 
M'rlal. nria'lin, ae'rUle, seria'fus 
[icria, a row), disposed in series of 
rows, either Cransveraa or loagi- 
MTle'Mnu, neric'eua (Lat.), ailk;, 
olothed with close-pressed soft and 
straight pabescenoe, 
■•'riea (Lat.), (I] s row; (2) bj A. 
Gray uaed as equivalent to sab- 
kingdom, by others used for vari- 
ona giroups. 
MTo'tlnal, sero'tlsoaj, -nus {Lat., 
that comea late), produced late in 
the seaaoQ, or the jear, as in 

»B«r'ra (Lat., a. saw), the tooth of a 
serrate leaf ; seTTaefollus, prefer- 
ably serraUfo'lloa ifolittvi, a. leaf), 
baviDg aerrata leaves ; ■er'rtte, 
terra' tins, beaet with antrors^tecth 
on the margin \ oer'rata.cll'late, 
toothed, and with a marginal aeries 

toothed, dentioulato ; Bbt'i' — 
Serrata'ra, the toothing of 
rate leaf ; ■er'Tiaate, scrni 
but the teeth m 

Sermla'tlon, (1) being aorrulate; 

(2) a serrulate tooth, 
ter'rled, close together in rows 

Ser'tnlnm {etrtnm, a garland), (I)* a 

simple umbel; (3) a aslection of 

plants described or figured ; Sar*- 

tnm, osed for an account of a 

oollection of plants. 
M'samoid {Sieamum, + Mtn. rctem- 

blauce), granular, like the seeds of 

sesqul (Lat.), a prefix meaning one 
and a half; aewinlal'tar, (1) when 
the stamens are half as many again 
as the petals or sepals ; (2) when a 
fertile tlower is accompanied by a 
neuter flower, as in some grasses ; 
BOsqulpeda'Ut (Lat.), a foot and a 
half in length. 

•M'alle, tes'sUi* (Lat., silting), as 
thoaeh sitting close, destitute ot 

Se'U (Lat., a bristle), (1) a bristle or 
bristle- shaped body : (2) the sporo- 
phore of a Moss, the stalk which 
supports its oapsule ; (3) the arista 
or awD of Classes, wheo terminal ; 
(4) ft peculiar stalked gland in 
Rvhne J (.7) by cyperologisM used 
for the bristle wit hi a the utricle of 
certain species of Carex ; it repre- 
sents the coDtin 

floral axis (C. 

aerra'tiw, having the 

ing in a bristle-like point; sstHe'- 
rOBB {fero, I bear), bristle-bearing ; 
Ba'tlforni(Jorina,shape).in the shape 
of a bristle ; sstlg'eroiu iqtro, 1 
bear), bristle -bear ing ; le'tuae, ne'o'- 
S1U (lAt.), bristly, beset with 
bristles ;Se'tula, the stipe of cer- 
tain Fnnci (Lindley) : setaljfonii 
[forma, shape), thread-like ; M'tn- 
ioM, $ti\do'iru», resembling 

Sex, Stx'itt (Lat.), in botany, male 
or female functions in plants. 

■Mun'gular, »a;angtila'r{>,axan'gvii 
(, six -angled. 

fine I 




■IM (Mr, rii, fariam, 
■ufiix = io rowa), preaenting six 
rowii, exMndin); longitudinally 

HX'Ifld (»ex, ■ix./ci ^ oleft), aii-cleft 
(Croiier) ; Hiole'ttlar [iocidm, a 
uuMil cell). siX'Celled. 

Hxpar'Ute, ntxparti'tus (Lat.), cut 
into BIX segmentf. 

8«'tMit [tatant, a sixth part), a 
radial oell division of segmenta 
ID three Bente, a siitli put of the 
original (De Bary). 


Mx'nal, AM'iutVia (Lat., pertadniDg to 
KX), (I) the distinction of sex i 
(2) applied to the pbenom^na 
of coDjugalion generally ;~0«lieT'- 
atlon, the stage which bears 
the seiunl orgsjis ; in Ferns the 
prothaltue -. ~ Sya'tein, Lionacuti's 
artificial arrangement by the uum- 
ber and position of the sexual 

Sbklt. Withering's word for Sttl«. 
fhAs-hal'rs, Vilu, in Germ an 


•IWB'Ky. villous. 

StialCft. defect in limbat due to the 
Bttacka of 7>amW(« P\a\. Fr. : 
also linowa as Bark-, Heart-, or 

■barp pointed, acute. 

Sliaatl), ( 1 1 a tuhular or enrolled part 
or organ, as the lower part of the 
leaf in grasses ; (2) a limiting layer 
of surrouodiDg cfllular tiieue. as 
the Bun DLK-sH BATH 1 stieaUi'bie, 
cccloBiriiJ IS though by a sheath. 

Bbtlf, eondne'tlns, l>icki^~ ' ' ~ ' ~ 



Cuphalottui/ollicularU, Lftbill. 

Bbell, (1) the hard Buvetopa of a nut ; 
(2) a masB of layers in the cell-wall. 

BkBl'tw-psr'uita', ree Douatia. 

Shield, (t) an apotheciuni or disk 
Biiaing from a Lii^hen-thalliia, con- 
taining asoi ! (2) in Chiracaae, one 
of the eight cells forming the 
globule ; (3) the stimin de ol 
Cypriiitiliiim (8, Moore) ; ~ abaped, 
in the form of a buckler ; clypeale, 
peltat«, or scutate. 

ShUfliiK, the same aa GLIDtlta 

G BowTH ! in Germ. VerBchiebong. 

ibl'nlnK. lucid, a clear and polished 

Bboot, 1,1) a young growing branch or 
twin : (2) the asceiiding axis ; when 
aegmented into dissimilar tnem- 
hersitbmomesBSTBM ; — Pole, that 
point where new shoot-growth 
begins, <^. Root.fole : learj' — , & 
branched shoot; tluJ'loUl ~ , an 
unsegmented shoot. 

B&olt-rodB, short bacteria, 

Shmb, a woody perennial of smaller 
structure than a tree, wanting the 
bole : shrtib'by. like a ahrub ; 
Shxub'let, an undershrnb. 

slc'cua (Lit.), dry, juicelesa, contain- 
ing little or no watery juioe ; ale. 
cita'te fLat., abl. ahaol.), in the dry 
state, that is. herbarium specimens. 

Slck'le ataKe. of nuclear division, 
Zimmerman's term for the Paka- 
Nt'CLKUSaf Strasburger. a creacent- 
shaped body at one margin of the 
nuoleuB, supposed to represent a 
stage in the disappearance of the 

Blore csUa, the individual cells 
which constiiute theSiKVB Tiraxs ; 
~ Disk, ~ Field, - Plata, the 
pierced plate on the transverse 
or lateral walla of vessels oovercd 
on both sides by callus; ~ 
Pores, the openings in ■ uev«- 
plate ; — TlR tue, long articulaMd 
tubes, whote segments conimuDi- 
cute by means of the sieye-pl^es ; 
~ Tubea, the tubes composing the 
tissue drsoribed ; ~ XJ/'lfm, ap- 
plied byChodat 10 groups of sieve - 
crlls in the wood of Dialla. 

stgUUk'ilvi, resembling or allied Io 
6vjiltaria, n genus of fossil plants 
whose surface is marked with 
oumerODs soars ; tigr'Ulate. ti^ilia'- 
tv» (Let., sealed), as if markc'l 
with itiipreBsions of a seal, as the 
rhizome of Ptdngaaatum. 

llff'lIUltoU (^17^11. the Greek f, ellei, 
resemblance), or alg'moia. mgmoi'- 
dewi, doubly curved in oppoaito 
directions, like the Greek t. 

Hgna, arbitrary evmbols far shortly 
stating certain ucta ; a selesUoa of 
those more generally ubbJ, ia given 
in Appendix A. 

■U'ids, Silic'u!a, SU'ionla (Lat., a. 
little huak or pod), (1) a ihort 
siliqna. Dot moah longer than wide ; 
<3) t = Cabpoclonicm of Algas. 

■Uido'aloiu {silex, ailitis, a flint, eolo, 
I inhabit), used of Licbena wbinh 
grow on flints ; BUlciflok'ttoii, the 
dopontion of silica in tiasnes ; 
BU'lM-eellnloaa ( + Ceu.close), Ibe 
coodittOQ of lisiae when ailex is 
ioliaiiitely blended with it u 
in Equisetum hyemalt. Lion. 

■Ulo'ulOH (-«- SiLicnu), having 
■ilicles as fruita, or rsHembliag a 

■. Si-1( 

(1) the peculiar pod of the Cruci- 
ferae, two valves falling away 
from a frame, the Rkpluu, on 
which the leeda grow, and across 
which a false partition ie formed : 

(2) t by Blair employed for 
Legume ; SUlqael'la, a snbordi- 
nate part of a fruit aach as the 
poppy, consiBtins of a carpel with 
two eitended pTacentag ; slUq'ul- 
form {forma, shape), shaped like 
a silique ; aU'iiiaoH, eUiqvo'tut, 
when the fruit is a ailiqne, or 
resombles one. 

■U'ky, s 

BU'vei-gnUn, the appearance in radial 
longitudinal section of exogenous 
wood, espeaially of oak, dne to shin- 

I ing plates of the medullary rays.'^^n't having a lustre like silver. 

[tfm'lluy Parta, X elementary organs 

■ or tissues (Lindley). 

P tfmUlflo'roiu {aitnUis, Vi^e, JIok, JlorU, 
a flower), applied to an umliel when 
its Bowera are all aliito; SlmUl- 
ayin'tnMry( + Svi!«i7r»r), when the 
two halves of a Diatom valve are 
similar (Schuett) ; oouaimilarity. 

the ripening of a single pistil ; — 
dlaiLd, a aintile cell containing a 
special secretion ; — Oonld'loptioie 
( + QOKCDIOPBOKB), a single hypha 
aa in Psnirilliam; — B«Jn, not 
oompound or branohed, the pro- 
longation of a Mingle epidermal 
cell; ~ InEorea'aenM. a flower 
cloitsr with one axis, ai a spike, 
■pndlii, or catkin ; •• Leaf, of one 
blade, with tncomplet^ s 
tioa : r- Hnta'tlon. nuts 
direction only ; ~ Pla'tll 
of one carpel; ~ Fit, ~ Pora, witH 
only a slight enlargement at the 
centre, where it meets the neigh' 
bounng cell ; ~ prl'm«ry Boot, a 
tap-root; ~ Spor'ophore, a single 
hypha or its branch, in German, 
Fruchtfaden ; ~ Btem, a stem which 
is unbranchod. 

slmpIicls'slmiiB (Lat. ),entirely simple. 

almoIta'DBOiu (timiUlaiieus, Late Lat., 
at the same time) Whorls, when 

the n 

B age 

SliUL'KTla, or Sin'lgrin, a glucoside 
ooourring in the seeds of Braaaka 
tinapoida. Roth, formerly termed 
SinajiU lunra. Linn., the origin of 
the name. 

Slna'ptn or aina'plalll, an alkaloid 
from Broiuica aJhit, Boisa. (Ban- 
bury &. Fluekiger). 

tln'gls, used of a flower which has 
only one set of petals, as opposed 
to double or any approach io 

■Inls'tial, iliilB'troTse, liiiialrot^inu, 
turned to the left ; r/. PKXTRORSK, 
and Appendix C. 

Sln'lstnn [liiiUier. the left), a 
carbohjdr^le from L'rgiiira and 
other bulbs, formerly regarded a» a 

Sln'ker, the secondary roots of 
Mifltleto, Fmcuib alhitm, Linn., 
forming laterals which strik- 

perpsDdicalsrly downward into 
the wood of the host, 
rin'nsta, nniia'fu4(LAt.,carTed), with 
ft deep wavy margiD; dn'iutod, 
deeply waved ; eln'tiolAle, 
tinuela'tvt, repand, faintly or 

nona, liDnat^. 
Ua'W (Lat., a onrre, a fold}, (1) a 
receea or re-eotering ansle ; (2) a 
pore in some Fnngi (Liodler). 
UjihoB (ffl^uT, a lobe), a perioentral 
eloogated tube In the frond of 
Folyti/ihonia and allied Algae; 
■IpEo'neaiu, relating to Algae 
poeiessiDg tabular itmotare ; 
■Iphonl^jr'taB (^ur^, a plant), a 
CompiMite with all iti florete 
tabular ; BlplLo'napuil (T^/uif, 
marriage), plants fertilized by 
meaoa of pollen-tabea, all Phanero- 
ganu ; adj. ■tptumoKsm'ia, ilpho- 
nog'ainaiia, the condition being 
Slplionog'aiii; ; ■Iplkonoatalla (imiXii , 
a oolamn), having a tabular stele 
Bla'tw-cdli, celli of the lame genera- 
tion prodnced by the divition of a 
■ingle (mother) cell, as the pollen- 
graiDi of a tetrad. 
Urni (Lat., situate), (1) the position 
ocoapied by an o»an ; (2) t the 
mycelium of some Fungi (Lindley). 
akeln, a condition of the chromatin of 
the nucleiiB ID the initial and final 
stages of division ; (Ungliter •" or 
motliar ~, according to their 
Bksl'eton (aiAfrii, mummy), 
framework which persists after the 
destruction of the organ by fire or 
corrosion, as the remainder of the 
ceU'Wall in ash, or the starch grain 
after partial solation by an encyme. 
Skin, a thin external covering, the 
outialu or epidermis. 

Sleep, the repose of plants, with 
ohaagei in position of organs stieh 
as leavei, dae to absence of light ; 
A- HoTe'manta, pontiont taken by 

leave* during the night, nyctitropia 

■iMi'dar, long and thin. 

Sli'dlng' Orowtb, a gradual change in 
the relative position of veaeels, 
fibres, etc., due to their develop- 
ment in a longitudinal direction. 

fUine-flnx, a flow of liquid from 
diseased fmit and forest trees, due 
to the attacks of various Fungi, 
producing a fermentation of the 
oortioal elements down to the 

I (Ua* 


Fnn'Kl = Mtsooastrm. 

■ll'my, mucous. 

BUnK-ault, applied to any fruit which 
by poasessing contractile tiasne 
projects it* teeds to a distance. 

Slip, (1) described by Loudon a* a 
■hoot from the collar or lower part 
of the stem of a plant, usea for 
propagation, stem-eucken ; (2) a 
popular name for Gottino, but 
not uled by cultivators. 

an emerald), emerald green. 

BmU'acliM, a crystalline body oc- 
curring in the root* of the officinal 

■mo'ky, fumosus. 

■moolb, (1) not rough, opposed to 
Boabrons, free from hairs j (2) gla- 
brous, as opposed to pubesoent. 

SmnI, disease in grain produced by 
various species of UtiUayo, 

Bnall-planls, those which are sup- 
posed to be fertilised by snails and 
•lugs, malaoophilouB plantA. 

■now-wbita, white of absolute parity, 

Bnow-leavei, JuuKner's name for cer- 
tain leavei which are thin or 
leathery, folded in the bud, and 
with no pulvinuB ; winter- leaves. 

Bob'ole, Sob'olm (Lat., a sprout), 
aBhoot,espocialIy fromtheground ; 
HboUTuwu ifero, I bear), bearing 
vigorous BhootB. 

Bo'djal [tocialU, pertaining to oom- 
panionship), when individuals of 
the Bome species usually grow in 
oompany, and ooonpy a oonsidDr- 
able eitmt of groDnd. 


Bool'rty (Plant) aee AasocunoK- 

■ort, applied to tiaiue whiob readily 
jiBluB to the touch ; ~ But, the 
tiasue of sieve-tubes and pnren- 
oh^mo, oppoaad U> the Hakd Bast 
of layers ol fibres. 

Bola'oln. a poisonotis crystalliEablo 
alkaloid in many apecies of Sola- 
iiiim, especially in S. nujrum, 
Linn,, Iho potato, and the tomato. 

Bolarisol, solia, the bud) FlanU.Grew'a 

name for those which twine with 

the Buo. that is, dextcorae ; SolA'r- 

ium, in botanic gardens a spot for 

I expoBing plaote to the full rays of 

I the Hun. 

■ •ordered, united together. 

Mreaefonn, aolca^orm'is (•o'co, a 
SBDdttl, /or ma. shape), eUpper- 
shaped, almost resembling aa hoor- 

B<deiia'id7 (D-oiX^r, a lobe, aiSoia, 
gBHituls), the conversion of the 
genitalia, into barren tubes (Mor- 
ren) ; solanoate'llo <im)XTr, a pillar), 
having a tabular stele wiili inter- 
nal and BJtternal phloem (Jeffrey). 

nl'ld, tol'idue (Lat.), not hollow, 
free from cavities; - Bnlb - 

Kl'itUT, mlila'riuii (Lat, , lonely), 
single, only one from the same 
place ; Stokes used this for mono- 

■Ola'bllls (LAt., that may be loosed), 
separating into iiortions or pieces ; 
Bolatdl'ity, Soluliil'ilas, the eon- 
ditioo of bsina readily loosed. 

HlDle', wlu'tiu (Lit., unbound), free, 
not adherent, beooming separate ; 
Soln'tlon, thedeta'jhmentol various 
whorla normally adherent ; the 
opposite of Adhrbion. 

Ba'ma (rr^^a, a body), the body as 
diatiuBuisbed from the germ or 
roproduotive portion (L. H. Bailey), 
pi, So'mata, granutea of any bind ; 
8o'ma,pls*m {irXiaiui, moulded), 
^Vl]iBmann's term for the proto- 
plasm of the body or vegetative 
I opposition to the germ- 

grains (Saocardo) ; aosuit'ic Delia, 
cells not specially modified, the 
opposite of reprodactive cells ; 
Mmatogen'lo iyiyot, offspring), 
Weisroann's word for "acquired 
characters " ; Bomatofropism 
[TpmHi, a turning), Van Tieghera's 
term for the directive inSnence of 
the substratum on the grosth of 
an organism; frequently shortened 
to Somat'roplBin ; odj, somatrop'le, 

BOOfy, fuliginous. 

gor'UD, a glucose ocoDrring in Pyrue, 
some species of which were formerly 
ranked under Sorbin. 

sor'dld, sor'didw (Lat,, fouled), dirty 
in tint, chiefly applied to pappus 
when of an impure white ; sor- 
dldls'stmum, very dirty coloured, 

Bciede (irupi!, a heap), a propoeed 
emeniatioo of aora'dlam, pi, Snre'- 
dla, in Lichens a singlti algal cell 
or group of them, enveloped ia 
hyphal liasue, which is able to 
grow at once into a thajlus when 
detached ; a brood-bud ; sora'dlal, 
pertaining to a soredium ; — 
Branch, a branch produced by 
development of e, soredium into a 
new tballus, while still attached 
to the m other- 1 hall us ; sore'diate, 
nortdia'liif, bearing small surface 

Ctches ; eoTsdli'ferous (yc?-o, I 
ir), bearing soreilia. 

Sore'ma (eJ^p^vna. what is heaped), 
a heap of carpels belonging to one 
flower ; Boreu'ina = Soeedium 

Sor'gbin, Pasaerini's term for the 
proiluct of transformation of Bor- 
Sbom'bln, the natural pigment of 
Sorghim fuigare, Pers, 

■odferoiu {aupit, a heap, /em. I 
bear), bearing nori ; Sera'aa. Soro'- 
si«, Soi-a'tni*, a fleahy multiple fruit, 
aa a mulberry or pineapple ; adj. 

Bor'rowrQl Flow'en, " those which 
exale their odours only at certain 
hours of the day, as Pdargtmivm 
IrUle." Soland. (Croiier) ; y". 
Plant AH TRiaTAE. 

fe^ru, pL fo'il («ip>t, a lu^). {1) 
a clnaUr of aponuigia in Fenu ; (2) 
inSfDohitrieae, a gnmp of ipoiBiigia 
from a aingb iwann-oall; (3) a 
heap of acmdia formuig a powdw; 
mrr* on tha rartaoB of a t.h»iin« 

■padlo'Mnu, apofffeeii* (na&f, a palm- 
branch), (1} aa to ooloar, date- 
brown ; (2) having tha nataro of, 
or beaiiog a ipMixi qNi'dleOM, 
rewmbling a anadiz ; ^m'OIx, a 
*pik« with a neabj azia, ■■ in 

Ipaa, nanallv about mite ioehca, 
betWMD the oztramitiea of tim 
thnmb and little fioger, DODKUra ; 
'he ■mall apan (rf MT«a 
i« intended, the apace ba- 
the thomb and midole finger 

ganivm, + CoKTMt), appliedto 
loaail Btema with a vMtioal syatem 
of fibrona itrandi which do not 
anaatomoae, aa Med/uUoaa. 

■pait^old {wifTM, eaparto P"^' 
ABot, reaembtanoo), lued bj Fa;od 
for peraift«nt myoBlinm which ia 

■pane, apar'mu (Lat., Bpr«ad ODen), 
acatterad ; apanlflo'mi {/Un, fiorit, 
a flower), with aoattered flowen ; 
■panlflt'lliu {folivm, a leaf), with 
■calMred leaves. 

IPkUw, Spalh'a {ariSii, a apatula), a 
large bract encloain^ a flower 
clOBter, uaoallj a epadiz ; ~ TalTM, 
the bract-like envelopea beneath 
the flowen in certain Mono- 
ootfledona, aa Allium &nd Nar- 
cu«u«;BpaiUia'caaiu, ■am{ + a,cat»), 
•put he-bearing, or of the nature 
of a Bpathe ; ipathae'iw, I having 
a very large apatha (Lindley) ; 
•pa'Utal, apa'ttiate, apathed, fiir- 
niabed with a apathe ; Spatballa, 
an old name for the glnmea of 
graaaea, aometimes aUo the paleae 
were incladed ; SpaUMl'Inla, a 
p^lea of a graas ; Bpathll'la, t a 
Moondary apathe, aa ia tite 

inflareaomea of Palma ; qa'tboaa, 
•pathe-Uke ; qtatti'Blata, ^patkm- 
la'lvM, ■pal'nlata, obtoog, with Uie 
baaal (proxialal) end attennated 
Uke a draraat'a apatnla. 

Spawn, myo^nm. 

Spa'daa (I«t. , a abape, kind, or eort), 
the partlciilar kind, the nnit in 
olamfication, the aggregate of all 
thoM indinduala wUch hare the 
nmo oonatsot and diatinetiTe 
charactera ; thej maj be di*tiii> 
gniahed aa Uolo^le *», noiplio- 
Sicle —, or phjalolec'le >-, ao- 
oindiDg to the baaia of diaeri- 
-'-"" - ByyriA, a hybrid 

lea of the aame 
Schriiter'a term 
for any two apeoiM of Uredineae 
which inhabit two diatinct boata, 
bat ahow no morphological differ- 
ence, aa in Puccima ; ipecino, 
relating to a species ; ~ Oen'tre, 
tho particnlar apot where tho 
■peciee ia auppoaed to have origin- 
ated ; -' Obaractar, the diagnoetio 
whioh aeparatea one species from 
another ; ~ Name, the Latin ap- 
pellative appropriated to a given 
apeciea, naaally an adjective, bnt 
Bometimea a aabatMitivs naed ad- 

Speo'fmaii (Lat., an example), a plant 
or portion of one, prepared for 
botanic atndy. 

■peo'taiu (Lat., looking), "ae in- 
vioem tpteUaUia folia," = oppoaite- 

■pao'bxi^kor* (tiie^mm, an appear- 
anoe, ^lopia, I carry), apparatna 
designed by Reinke to determine 
the action of tbe different raya of 
light in the elimination of oijgsn 
by plants. 

Bp^anthy {cnipa, a twiat, irem, a 
Sower), when a flower oaaumea a 
twiated form. 

■palre'ma {aTtipttita. a fold or coil), 
in Lichens, a gonidium. 

Bpei'gnUn, a fluoreacent aubBtanoe 
occurring in the aeeds of Spergnia. 

Spans (rW/i/ia, a seed) 0«U, a m^e 
reprodnotive oell, aa (u) an anther- 


doid, (6) B pollen-grkin ; ~ OliTo'- 

matm, tbat portion of Ihe maJe 
nuuleui which is receptive of 
atsininu ; ~ Mu'cIbm, the nucleus 
of tt mate gamete (m&le pronucleus) 
which L-onlesces with the Duclena 
of an oosphure (female prouucleua) 
to form a germnucleus ; Bperm'- 
Rgtme, Spir mayo' III nm {■y6nt, off- 
■prinB) = SPKiiMaaONE, etc.; Speim- 
kiOMbu (-1- Ahoebai), Pring- 
abeim'a term for certain apecioliaMl 
portioiu of the antheridiol proto- 

SiUsm of Saproleguiae. which 
ertiliee the oDsphere ; Bpennan'- 
Etoin idTViio*, a ve««el). the 
Bporangium of an Alga (Lindley) ; 
Bparm'aphora, Sptrmaphor'tHui 
{•popiai, I carrj). (1) the placantu ; 
(2) the fuDicle ; Spenu'apbytM 
(0iiTar, a, pUot), used to inalude 
bath Angiospenni and Uymno- 
■penen ; all plants except 
Crj-ptogonis (Sacha) ; adj. qMnn- 
apbjt'ia ; Bpannapod'tnin or 8penn- 
Kpodopb'anun (iroi)i, woSis, a foot), 
a brauohed gynophore in Umbelli- 
feroe ; Bpertna'rliuii, Gibson's term 
for Bpeim'MT, employed by T. J. 
Parker for a male organ of repro- 
duction. asa gamete ; Spenn'atuigB, 
Spermalan'gium (iyyiioj', a veaael), 

(1) the antheridiuni of Batigiaceae 
(T. Johnion) ; (2) by A. Braun em- 
ployed tor spermogonia and an- 
theridia generally ; Bpannat'ltt, pi. 
of Bparma'tlnm, maJe non-motjle 
gamete'Cell ; Spvnn'ktld, Sperm- 
o'itfiuDi iitiet, resemblance), (1) 
the mother-oell of antberoioids ; 

(2) formerly used for an Algal 
spore ; apermfttlf eroni (./Vro, I 
hear) ; sptnnati^erauB (i/era, 1 
bear) bearing apermatta I BpemialO- 
oanld'tttint + CuNiDiiiu), A. Braun's 
term for Spskmatidm : Spermato'- 
<y«t, Spfrmatocyslitl'iuin (n'orn, a 
bi4;), the tnotber-cell of antheridia, 
especially of Moases ; SpenD'atocyte 
(xiro,, a hollow), (t) Ooebel's l«rm 
for the preoeding ; (2) used by 
Shaw tor four primary organs, 
each ooDtuQiog a pair of blepbaro- 

plaatoida, the eight secondary or 
spermatid mother-cells each con- 
tains two blepharopluta (Coutt, 
Bot. Goa. «vi., Deo. 1898, p. 449} ; 
Spennatooy'tluu (mh-ai, a hollow 
vesselj, a simple sporangium oon- 
taining spormatozoids (A, Braoa) ; 
Spenofttoe&m'ete, Har tog's term 
for a mote gamete ; Spanuatacen'- 
•■la (Y^rtvif, a beginning), the 
development of the male elemeats. 
antberoioids, pollen, grains, and 
analogous bodies ; Spermatogon- 
td'lum (-f GoNiDiPH), &. Braun's 
term for SPKltMjtTozoiii : Bperm> 
stogo'itliun (Torgt, oOspring), the 
male gamclogonium, a cell which 
divides to form gametes, or itself 
passes into the state of one 
(Hartog) ; Bpennatoid'lam, one of 
"small cells contaiomg gonidia in 
Algae "( Liod ley ); Bpetmatokal'ltun 
(laXii, a cabin), oame giveo by 
CJibelU to the peritbecium of Vtrru- 

caria ; spetmatokliie'tie (ini'iiTicdi, 
having the power of movement), 
tending Ui produce the male 
element Jo plants ; Bpena'atopbore 
{^apiu. Icarry), astructure bearing 
a spermatium ; Spenn'atophylA 
{^imr, a plant), a Phanerogam, 
a plant with true seols ; Bperm'- 
fttOp]a«m (x\a<r>ia, moulded), the 
protoplasm of a male cell ; Sperm'' 
fttoplut (i-Xaffrot, moulded), a 
male sexual cell ; gpermato- 
aphae'rla, pi. ia.f>a:pa., u ball), 
Itiigaohn'a term for a presumed 
male body in S/iiroyyra. declared 
by Pringabeim to be on undoubted 
error ; SpermatoUum'ala [Si.)irot, 
a bush), the antberidial GlamantH 
of Rhodophyceae (A. Brann) ; 
Spermatoio'td (i'uoi', a living 
creature, tUot, reaemblance), a male 
ciliated motile eamote producod 
within an anthendium ; Spermi,to- 
w'on, by Shaw taken as the 
product of a blepharoplaet ; 
(psrm'io, relating to a seed 
(Crozier) ; apermid'ens, producing 
seed; Spsrmld'lum ^ Ackenb; 
■pennocar'ponR (toprot, fruit), baa 



been used as a synonym of phankb- 
OOAMOUS ; Bpenn'odenn, Sperm- 
oder^mia (i^pfui, a skin), the ooyer- 
ing of a seed, the seedooat; 
Bpennodoph'oram {</>opeu, I carry), 
the gynophore in Umbellif erae ; 
Spennogein'nia {gemma, a bud), 
Camers term for Abcheoonium ; 
Spexm'ogone, Spermogcn'iwn (76^01, 
ofibpring), a oup-shaped reoeptaole 
in which spermatia are abjomted, 
differing from a pycnidium by its 
smaller spores ; Bpenn'o-na'clsas = 
8pntM-NircLEU8 ; spenn'oiis=8PBB- 
Mio; Spenn'ophore, SpermopWorum 
t{<pop4uff I carry), (1) the gyiiophore 
in Umbelliferae ; (2) the placenta ; 
(3) the modified shoot of the 
thallos of certain Alffae, prodnoinfl; 
male organs (Darbishire) ; Bpenn • 
ophyte {^vTov, a plant), cited by 
Crosier for a rbanerogam or 
flowering plant; BpermoShe'ca X 
(OiJKrjj a case) = Pericarp; Bper- 
m'nm, a seed or its analogue. 

iphac'elate (ir^diceXof, gangrene), dark 
and withered as though dead ; 
Spb&cel'ia, formerly a genus, now 
kiiown to be the conidial stage of 
ergot, Ciavicepa purpurea, TuL ; 
8]Siac'elic Ac'id is deriyed from 
ergot (Tubeuf ). 

BplLMraphldeB {ai/HUfxi, a sphere, 
^0it, a needle), clusters of crystals 
in plant-cells of a more or less 
spherical form ; Sphere-crjrs'tals 
and Sphe'ro-crys'tal are synonyms ; 
Sphere-yBast, a growth form of 
Mucor which resembles yeast ; 
Sphaerench'yma {(yxvfxa, an infu- 
sion), spherical cells composinff 
cellular tissue, as the pulp of 

sphaerla'oeoiis, resembling or allied 
to the Fungus genus Spkaeria, 

Bphaer'ites (ir^cupa, a sphere), starch 
grains which have been asserted to 
be crystallized bodies ; Sphaero- 
bacte'ria (+ Bacteria), bacteria 
with extremely small rounded cells 
which become detached ; Bphaero- 
blas'tDS X {^cLffTos, a bud), a coty- 
ledon which rises above ground. 

bearing at its apex a roonded 
tumour (Lindley) ; ■phattooar'poiifl 
(KaMTot, fruit), when a frait is 
globular; 8phaerooeph'aliiB(ce0aXi7, 
a head), having flowers in a close 
globular heM ; qf, SoROSis ; 
BpbMToohor'islB ( + Chobisis), 
the division of an axis in all direc- 
tions, as in ''witches-broom,'' etc 
(Fermond) ; Bphae'io-erys'tals ^ 
Sphakraphides ; Bphaeropliy'tam 
{^VTOP, a plant), a Fern, its spor- 
angia being globular; sphaa'roid 
(etoot, resemblance), globular, any 
solid figure approaching that of a 
sphere ;^Cell, a reserve-receptacle 
in some calcareous Lichens (Znkal); 
syn., splieroi'dal ; Spliae'rospoxv, 
Sphaerospor^a ((rro/>d, a seed), a 
name proposed in substitution for 
Tetraspore ; Sphaer'ula, a globose 
peridium emitting sporidia buried 
m pulp (Lindley) ; «« ascig'era, the 
receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- 
ley) ; Bplie'roblast (iSXcurrot, a bud 
or shoot), a wood-ball on the beech 
and other trees, from a dormant 
eye, disconnected from its vascular 
bundles (Ward) ; spher'ical, 8phe'- 
ricuSt relating to a sphere ; aphefri- 
eu8 ZA'mea = orbicular ; Bpher'- 
ules, rounded bodies occurring in 
the sporangioles of Sektginella 

Sphagne'tom, Warming's term for a 
Sphagnum bos ; spha^noas, re- 
sembling or allied to the genus 

Bplialerocar'piim, -pinm {(npakepot, un- 
steady, Koprot, fruit), an accessory 
fruit, as an achene in a baccate 

Bphiziygopli'ilae {(r<f>ly^ = Hawk-moth, 
4>i\ifa, I love), flowers fertilized by 
hawkmoths and nocturnal lepi- 
doptera ; they have a strong sweet 
smell, and honey in the flower-tube 
(H. Mueller) ; adj. spliixic:op]i'iloiiB. 

Sphrigo'sls {ffipptyddf to be full of 
sap), rankness (Berkeley). 

Spi'ca (Lat.), = Spike. 

spl'eate, apica'tvs (Lat., spiked), like 
a spike, or disposed in a spike ; 



ipl'dtonn, npici/ona'it l/orma, 
ihape), epike-Uke ; tplctTeroni, 
■rus (/fro, I bear) ; ■pldBor'nt 
(/ot. Jloris,B, flower); ipldg'sroiu, 
-nu (jero, I be«r), beariug flower 
■pikes ; apl'coM, and apl'Miu 
(CrOEiBr) = sPiCAT« ; Splc'iila, Spic- 
vla [npiculum, a anudl needle), (1) 
ft diminative or woondary iipi' 
(3)thepointof B baaidium in Fu 
also <3) their aciculae ; (4) 
floshy, erect, point (LindU;| , . 
nlai, apikj ; iplc'nllita, epicula'tut, 
with a eurface covered with flue 
points ; Splcnlft'don, Nylander's 
term for a hyphal constrict ion in 
spore-formation, the extremity be- 
ing left aa a spicule. 
BpUM, Siii'ca (Lat., an ear ot oom), 
(1) ao indeterminate inflorescence, 
with flowers Bevsile on a oommon 
elongated aiis ; (2) an aggre)!atiDa 
of spHrophyllii st the apex of the 
ahoot : oom'ponsd ~, an inllor- 

Spl'kelet, Spic'iita, a secondary 

lubtended by a 
pair of glumes, ■« in gnusea. 

Spirit* t {trlXat, a lUin), the hitum 

B^'u(Lat.) = SFlNl. 

Spdn'dle.any Btruuture which in shape 
suggests a thread i!pindle:~FI'I>res, 
the achromatic filamenta which 
make up the nuclear spindle ; — 
Pole, on extremity of the niiotoir 
spindle 1 ~ Hairs, rescmbline 
malpighiaceoua hairs, attached 
centrally, with the enA» hooked 
(De Baryl ; ~ ahaped = rcsiFoRM ; 
Aebronuit'lo ~ , or Nu'deax ~ , the 

Ithread'like protoplasmic tigurel in 
nn clear division between the 
Bplne, 5;ii'na(Lat., a thorn), a sharp- 
pointed woody or hardened body, 
UBnally a branch, sometimes a 
petiole, stipule, or other part ; 
Sptna-um, in the genus Saja-, the 
repreeeutative of a barren stigma 
(Bendle) ; ~OeU, ( 1 ) a transitionsl ~ 
Abh [Reiidle); (2) in Chara, oertain 

cells of the cortex on tho inter- 
nodes, ending in a spine ; Spines 
of the leaves, as of Holly, 
hardened ejlremiliea of the lobas, 
or spiny elevations ; Splnel'la (dim. 
of tpina), a prickle : splnello'sus, 
armed with small spines or hairs ; 
aplnea'sant, ipititt'ctnt, ending in a 
spine or sharp point ; splnlfarotu, 
-ra» i/ero, I bear), bearing thninB ; 
■pl'nlform (forma, shape), thoro- 
like ; spl'Dlger, aplnl^oroos (g<ro, 
I bear), bearing or producing 
thorns ; spialfo'litu (folium, a 
leaf), having spiny leaves; tpllil- 
car'pons (ib^jii, fruit), with spiny 
fruit ; ipl'iuiae, irpiito' nw. tpl'noni, 
spiny, having spines ; Spln'ulA 
(Lat.). Spln'ula.adiminutive spine; 
•plnulei'oent, slightly spiny, or 
having spinules ; aptuuliraroui, 
■ma ijtro, I bear), baring small 
spines ; splo'iiloia, ijn'nu/o'nu, 
witli small spines or spinules ; 
■pl'ny, beset with spines, or 
resembling a spine. 

Bpl'ni, apira'lif (tpira, a coill, as 
though woand round an axis; — 
Duet, a spiral vessel ; — now'ar, 
when the members are arranged 
in spirals and not in whorls ; " 
Hulc'lngs, secondary deposits in 
tracheids; -PhrllotBx'y, seePHTL- 
lOTAXi : - Tor'iloii = Torbion ; 
~ Ves'seli, ducts having markings 
in a spiral form. 

gpt'nJlam (airtipaiStit, spirsl -shaped), 
monstrosity of a flower due tij 

Spire (/rwflpa, a twist), (1) a young 
leaf or shoot of grass ; (2) " the 
continuation of the trunk in ai- 
onrrenl trees like pines " (Urozier) ; 
(3) one turn of a coil or twist. 

Spi'ism (inrflpTuui, a coil], a pre- 
liminary' stage of nuclear division 
as in Lilium, the nucleus assuming 
an involved filamentous condition 
or "ribbon " from which the 
chromosomes arc formed. 

Spi'ilole (trtlpa, a twist), a delicat« 
coiled thread in the surface eella 
of certain seeds and aohenes, which 



uncoil when moistened, m in 
CoUomia ; Bpirilliiin, pL tpirllla, 
(1) a tenn for Anthkrozoid ; (2) 
alio see next ; Bpizolwcter'iA, pL ( + 
Baotirium), bikcteria which form 
■pirally carved filaments, as the 
genua Spirillum, Cohn ; Spizoft- 
lirlllae, pi. (</. Fibril), Fayod'a 
term for the spirally twisted 
hollow threads wnioh he asserts 
constitute all living protophism; 
Spi'roiam, the coiling of an organ 
in development (Morren) ; 8pir^'- 
beaa (Xo^t, a lobe), Cruciferae 
which have cotyledons folded 
transversely and radicle dorsal ; 
■pirolo'lKras, with the cotyledons 
spirally rolled up, shown thus o II i|; 
Spl'rospart (ovapTDt, sown, scat- 
tered), hypotheticidly the finest 
spirals of hyaloplasm, which con- 
stitute theSpiROFiBRiLLAS(Fayod). 

Bpitli'ama {(r-KiOaii^, a span), a span 
of seven inches, from tiie tip of 
the thumb to that of the fore- 
finger; spithainae'us (Mod. Lat.), 
measuring a short span. 

spton'dena (Lat., gleaming), glitter- 
ing or shining. 

Splint, a forester's term for Albur- 
num or Sapwood. 

split, cleft or divided, parted; '^ 
Fjruit = Crxmocarp; '«' Lay'er, 
a loose felt of hyphae in Oeaster, 
connected with the inner peridium, 
and torn into flakes at maturity. 

■podoch'rous ((TToMt, ashes, x/^t 
colour), of a grey tint. 

Spong'eiet = Sponoiole ; Spong'iOle 
{gpongia, a sponge), a name given 
to the root-tip, formerly thought 
to be a special absorbing organ, the 
Epiblema of Schleiden ; Sponff'iola 
radica'lis, De CandoUe's name for 
the root-cap ; ^ pietiUa'ris, the 
extremity ot the pistil, the stigma ; 
*^ aemina'lia, the caruncle of certain 
seeds; sponglo'sus (Lat.), spongy, 
soft; spong'y, having the texture 
of a sponge, cellular and contain- 
ing air, as in many seed coats ; *^ 
Cortex, cortical tissue with air- 
bearing intercellular spaces, fre- 

qnant in water-plants ; «« Bumelif- 
yma, loosely aji^gregated tissoe, or 
having conspicuous intercellular 

BponsaliA (Lat., espousals), Flmta'r- 
mn, t = Amtuesis; the fertilization 

qMmta'neoas (dpontaneua, voluntary) 
Oenera'tion, the assumed oriffin of 
living organisms from non-living 

spoon'form, ' ' having the inner soilace 
of a leaf concave or dish-shaped, 
as the outer leaves of a oabbage- 
head " (Crozier). 

Bpor'a (<nropd, a seed), = Spore ; *^ 
oeUnlo'sa, ^ oompoa'ita, '^ mnttl- 
locnla'rls = Sporidesm ; spoir^alt 
relating to a spore ; ^ Azresf , par- 
tial or complete arrest of the 
development of the spores them- 
selves, and consequent loss of 
reproductive function (Bower). 

sporad'ic ((rxo/Mtdiir^, dispersed), 
widely dispersed or scattered. 

Bpor'ange, Sporan'glnm (<rxopd, a 
seed, d77£(or, a vessel), (1) a sao 
endogenously producing Sporbs ; 
(2) X *' sometimes applied to the 
volva among Fungsls ' (Lindley) ; 
Bporangidlom, (1) the columella of 
Mosses; (2) *'the spore-case of 
certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; Spor- 
ang'iole, Sporan'giola or Sporan'- 
qiolunif (1) a small sporangium in 
Mucorini produced in addition to 
the larger sporangia ; (2) formerly 
used for Ascus ; (3) organs of an 
endophy te in Selaginella, composed 
of filaments rolled into the shape 
of a ball (Janse) ; (4) Sporangiolwn 
is used in a double sense by Lindley 
(a) for spore, (6) a case containing 
sporidia; Sporangloliferum {ferOf 
I bear), the axis on which the 
thecae of Ferns are borne (Lindley); 
sporangif erous, bearing sporangia ; 
Bporan'giophore, Sporangtoph'orum 
i^piu), I carry), a sporophore 
bearing a sporangium, such as the 
sporopnyll in JSquiattum, or the 
columella in Ferns; sporangloph'- 
orons, bearing sporangiophores ; 


»i^omi'Klam, the conditioD of pro- 
diic>ii« sporaneia ; Sporan'glMpore 
(vwopi, B ie«l), a terra propised 
lor the spores of Myiogutrea ; 
BpanLa'glam, •■/. SmaAMoa. 

Spore. Spor'a {aropd, a seed), a call 
which becomes free and capable of 
direct development into a nev 
bioo ; in CrjptogEima the analogue | 
of seed in Phanerogams, understood i 
by Saccardo as a Basioiospdre ; I 
further particularized bj' C. Mac- 
miUaninloPil'mo-, Becnn'do-,T»r'- 
tto-, Qiur'to-, and Qtiiii'to-iporea, 
aooordicg U> their aasumed develop* 
ment; ~ BlU'bil«,ahortiveapathecia 
in certain Lichens ; ~ CaM, — 
SPORANoirM ; — CbU, a spore, or 
a oell which gives rise to a spore 
<Crozier) ; ~ Oronp, - Spokidbsm ; 
f- Hylirld, a hybrid arising in I' 
gametopbytic atage ; ~ luit'll , 
•mail proceMes borne by the fertile 
hyphae of OrapAioio, which pro- 
duce aporoB by one or more bi- 
mrtitions of their coat«nta (E. 
Fischer 1 ; ~ Lay'er, a lay er of mother- 

IoelU of the spores of /'Aiuciim ; 
•- Sport, a variatioD arising from 
K sexual reproductive act ; cf. ~ 
Ky'brid ; Spor'eUiit;, a young plant 
from a germinated spore; SpDr'e- 
plasm {tKAuiio., moulded), the pro- 
toplasm in a aporangium deatiued 
to produce spores ; Spor'ld, see 
Spokiuium : SpoT'ldeam {biaiat, i 
bond), a pluricellular body, be 
(Mming free like a spore, in which 
Moh cell is an independent apore 
with power of »eparat« germina- 
tion ; apoildlfenu | + Spohidium, 
fvto, I bear), bearing sporidia ; 
•porldl/orm'la (/orma, shape), 
ahaped like s sporidium ; sporlillK'- 
•nu (gtro, I bear), sporidifer'us ; 
BpoHd'lols, Sporidiolum, pi. 
8porid'u>la, formerly used for 
cporel in the lower Cryptogams ; 
Spoild'tmil, (1] a synonym or dim- 
inutive of Spobe, or a granule 
which resembles a spore (Fries); (2) 
a spore ahjointed from a promy- 
celium ; (^) by Saccardo the term 

18 uaed aa aqnivolenl to Asoo- 
SPOKE 1 gporldo chla, Spoiido'otalDin 

(aoxeioi', a holder), "the receptiole 
or even the stipe of certain 
Fungala " (Lindley) ; ipor'o-anther- 
Id'ie, Brabner's term for that con- 
dition of Haptoapora when spores 
and ontheridia are borne by distinot 
individuals ; ~ -bwTnapli'rodlta, 
when some are hermaphrodite and 
othere bear asexually produced 
spores ; ~ -oog'onona, bearine 
spores in one individual and 
oogonia in aooCber ; Spor'oUait 
{pXaOTot, a bud), Koerber'a word 
for Mgbisfore ; Spor'ocup, Sporo- 
car'pivm (napiroi, fmit). (1) a 
many-celled body resulting from 
a sexual act aa from an archicarp, 
serving for the formation of aporei j 
(3) the induainm or body enclosing 
the sporangia in Hydropterideae ; 
apor'DOlde Jcido, stem of taedo, I 
cut), a germicide, any agent which 
destroys the vitality of spores or 
germs ; SporocLul'lum (y\iSat, a 
brsjich], a branch on which the 
reproductive bodies of some Algae 
are found ; SporocoDid'luin ( + Con- 
iDTuu), used by A, Brauu for 
AcRoaPORE ; Sporocya'ta (juVth, a 
bag). Uie sporangium of an Alga ; 
Bpor'odenn. Sporoderm'is {itpiio, a 
akin), the integument of a spore ; 
Spoi'oDyte (niirgt, a hollow), Goe- 
bel's term for the mother-cell of a 
spore; Sporocy'tlnm, a aimple spor- 
angiumcontainiug BporeB( A . Braun ) : 
Sporodo'chiiuu. pi. SpoTOdo'etllK 
{idX''"'- ' holder), the sporiferous 
apparatus in Fungi belonging to 
Thiberculariao, c/. SpoBinoTHii ; 
Bporogam'la |7s»iot, marriace], terra 
which has been snggested for the 
heterosporoue Cryptogams : Spnro- 
gem'iDB {i/emma, a bud), A. Braun's 
term for the oogonium (nucule) 
of Chora ; Spor'agen (y»oi. off- 
spring), a plant which bears spores, 
a Cryptogam ; ■porog'enoiu, pro- 
ducing spores ; •- FU'unents, Olt- 
mann s terra for certain outgrowths 
of the fertilized corpogoninni of 


Dudruna/ya ; the ooblastema-fil*- 
ments of Schmitz ; *^ Laj'er = 
Hymenium ; ^MU'deiii, the naclemi 
resulting from the fusion of the 
nuclei of the spermatium and the 
carpogonium of Florideae (Olt- 
mann) ; Bpor'ogone, Sporogo'nimii 
(701^, progeny), the sporooarp in 
Muscineae, the whole product of 
a aexual act remaining attached 
to the oophyte or plant bearing 
the sexual organs ; spor'oid {etdot, 
resemblance), spore-like (Grozier) ; 
BpoTomyoe'tas {fi^tnft, a mush- 
room), Marchand's term for a 
group to comprise M^co-, Siphon-, 
Theoa-, and Basidio-mycetes ; 
Bpor'opliore, Sporoph'orum (4>opiWf 
I carry), (1) t the Placenta ; (2) a 
branch or portion of a thallus which 
bears one or more spores; (3) in 
Ferns and Mosses, the Sporo- 
PHTTE ; Sporophy'as, A. Braun's 
term, the same as Sporophydlmn 
(dimin. of 0vdt, a shoot), T. F. 
Allen's term for the nucule of 
Gharaceae while still unfertil- 
ized ; Bpor'ophyll, Sporophyl'lum 
{^XkoVf a leaf), (1) a leaf which 
bears spores ; (2) a leaf -like division 
of the thallus of an Al^bearinjj 
fruit, as in Carpodontum, adj. 
sporophyllary ; *^ Leayes, stamens 
and pistils ; Spor'oplijrte {i>vT6w, a 
plant), in Ferns and Mosses, the 
plant in the life-cycle of alternation 
which produces spores; Bporosteg'- 
imn (areyotf a covering), the cellular 
envelope of the nucule in Chara 
(Allen) ; Sporota'mlum t {ra^T(», a 
storehouse), the cellular layer im- 
mediately beneath the disk of the 
shield of a Lichen ; Sporothala'mia 
(OoKafios, a bed-chamber), com- 
pound or branched sporophores, as 
of fruticose Lichens or Agarics (A. 
Braun) ; Spor'oioid (^(Soi', a living 
creature, elSos, resemblance), a 

Sport, variation starting from a bud 
or seed. 

Spor'ula, Spor'nle (dim. of Spora), 
(1) a smsdl spore ; (2) a spore pro- 

duced in a peritheoium, but not in 
an ascus (Ellis and Everhart), 
formerly used vaguely for spore ; 
ipomlif erous, -rus {/erOf I hear) ; 
spomllg'enui {gero, I bear), bearing 
sporulee ; ■pomlig'eiunui (t^ot, 
omsprinff), producing spomles ; 
Spornla'tloii, the production of 
spores (Crozier). 

■pof tod, when colour is disposed in 
spots on a ground of a diffnent 

■pread'lng, having a gradually out- 
ward direction, as petals from the 

Spring-wood, the wood produced 
early in the year, characterized by 
larger ducts and cells than the later 

Sprout, a shoot or germinated seed ; 
/^ Cell, one produced by sprouting, 
or vegetative growth ; «« Olialn, a 
chain of cells so produced ; '^ 
Gem'ma, = Chain - oemma ; '^ 
Qermina'tion, the germination of 
a spore in which a small process, 
or eerm-cell, protrudes from the 
surUce, becomes cylindric, and 
finally abjoints as a Sprout-csll. 

sprout'ing, the form of an excresoenoe 
in a cell, becoming cut off by a 
transverse wall; «« Fnn'gna, growth- 
form in which the thallus consists 
of a sprout-cell or chain. 

spumes'cent, spumes^cens {spumeua^ 
foamy), froth-like in appearance ; 
spn'mose, spumo'nu, frothy. 

Spur, (1) a hollow and slender ex- 
tension of some part of the flower, 
usually nectariferous, as the calyx 
of Larkspur or the corolla of the 
Violet ; (2) sometimes a solid spur- 
like process ; (3) a contracted lat- 
eral Dearing shoot, sometimes, in 
forestry, with a few foliage leaves 
in a tuft, and a terminal bud ; (4) 
a buttress-like projection of a tree- 
trunk ; (5) see Eroot ; fo'liar '^ , 
a short branch, bearing leaves only; 
f^ruit <« , a short branch which bears 
blossom buds, as in the Peach ; 
spurred, calcarate, producing a 


•po'iloiia. apur'iui { Lat. , illagi timate), 
oouDterfait, laiae ; ~ Bnneh, = 

Pair l>OKt MOLDS ;-DlWBp'llIlBIlt, a 

partition in fruit bat not from the 
primatj infoltling ot Lbs niBrgiDB of 
a carpel at upward ^wth of the 
toniB ; ~ Fruit = PsBDDOCiKi- ; 
—Tll'llM, oell-aggregatioii of felted 
hjiphae ia Af(artoa, or of ooeDooyt«« 
in certain Al^ae ; ~ Wliorl, organs 
developedat different times, which, 
bv aome ditplaceraeot, appear ut 
the game level. 
Sqiui'ma [Lat., a acole), a scale of aay 
sort, DBaallf tbe hornolO|^e oF a 
leaf ; -- CraoUTara, a semiQiferouH 
SDale ; BqQAiiia'c»oaa ( + aveous). 
acaly ; aqua'mata, t'jtuima'liui. 
furnished with Bcalea : Sqnama'Uo, 
tbe unnatural formation of rosettes 
of Rcala-lilce leaves as in the RoBe> 
Willow : Bquamal'la, diminutive of 
ggCAUA, a icale of the aepoiid 
order, or reduced in aim, as in the 
disk of Composites ; aquaMSllir* 
•rona, -lu (/m>, I bear), suale- 
bMrioj; ; ■qcuuael'Ufoim {forma- 

tahape), shaped lilie a eoile ; 
fqnunel'liUa, (1) a aub-division of 
the jiappua-limb in Compositim : 
(9) a scale-like appendage within 
this tube of cerCaiD coroUaa ; 
tqnamlferons, -tva {/era, 1 bear), 
bearing soales ; ■qoamUo'nu {JIo>, 
Jlorii, a Qower). having a perianth 
of seale-like bracta, hut not disposed 
round an axis aa in Coniferse ; 
■qna'mitonn, ffuam if orm'i»i forma, 
■hape), soale-like ; ■qnamlg'eraiia 
{gerOt I bear), scale • bearing ; 
•qtia'mold (cIAoi, resemblaDcv), 
•quamiform ICrozier) : aqoa'mose, 
•TUanio'stu, aqua'Diont. seal; or 
■cale-like; ~ Bulb - Soalt Bulb 
(Crozirr) ; squa'mulate ~ squahd- 
L08B (Crozier) ; Squa'tanls, Sqiiam'- 
via, the hypogynoas scale of 
grasaes, the lodiuule : sqna'mvll- 
IbRll, tqvamvliform'it (forma, 
shape), resembling a small seals : 
sqna'mulosB, »quatnido'auti, beset 
with Boiall scales. 

■quar'roie, f(wtrro'nu, aqnar'rona 

(Lat., rough, scurfj), rough or 
■curfy with spreading ana oul- 
atanding proceaaes, as the tips of 
bracts; sqnuro'sa-dsnta'tos, having 
teeth which do not lis in the plana 
of the leaf, but at an angle ; '» 
aqnar'mloie, i^/tinmi/o'iu, diminu- 
tive of squarrose. 
■tag bead'ed, a forester's term for a 
tr«« which is bare of leaves at the 

Stalk, an J lengthened support of 
an orgau, lU the aeta of a Mass ; 
■talked, borne oq a stalk ; — alanO, 
a glandular hair ; StkUdat, 
a Bncoodary petiole, tbe stalk of 

Sta'msn, pi. Sla-jnina,, Or SU'meu 
{oT-iiioit, a Glament), a male sporo- 
phjU in a Hower, one of the 
elements of an androeciam con- 
sisting of anther and filament ; 
Btor'Ue ~ a body belonging to the 
aeries of staoiens. but without 
I'inal, giaviina'lii. 

relating to s 


tarn ens. or consisting 
ui siBuiena; stajn'lnal Coramn — 
A.SD&DFBonR : ~ Leaves, the 
stamens regarded ss luetamor- 
phoaed leaves ; Stam'lnalpode {tovt, 
waiit, a foot), Uoethart's name for 
the organs in the androeoium of 
Malvaceae which produM tbe 

Inate, applied to flowers whidi an 
wholly male ; stamln'eona, -neiu 
(Lat., consisting of threads), 
relating to stamens; St&mlnld'lam, 
pi- Stamlnld'ia - Anthekidia ; 
■tunlnlCe'TDQa, -ma |/cro, I bear), 
Btamlnig'aroua {gem, 1 bear), 
stamen ■ bearing ; Sta'mliUMle, 
Stamino'dium, (1) a sterile ox 
abortive staman, or its homologuo, 
without an anther ; (2) = 
Antdbrisidu (Gray's Manual, ed. 
i., p. ixivi): Stoni'liio^. the con. 
TeraiOD of other floral organs into 
stamens ; itam'tnose, utammo'twi, 
when the stamens form a marked 
feature of the flower. 
Btan'dard, (1) the fifth or poateri<w 

petal of a papilionaoeons ooroUa ; 
(2) a tree or bash with a olear item. 
(Lat., standing), supporting 
itself in an erect position. 

■tar-zings, small central steles in the 
fossil Medalloseae. 

tlaroh, a oarbohydrate of the same 
percentage composition as oellnloee ; 
an amylose which ocoors abund- 
antly in grains as a reserve material 
in planU; ^ Bnil'der, a plastid 
which forms the starch-grain; «« 
CWllalost, the framework of starch- 
grains, remaining after the solnble 
parts have been removed ; ^ 
Oenera'ton = Lkuooplastids ; ^ 
Qndn, *^ Gtoan'ule, a body of de- 
finite shape, varyinff according to 
the plant which pro£ices it, having 
the appearance of parallel lavers 
around a hilum ; <« Lay'er, a K>rm 
of Bundle Sheath, consisting of a 
single layer of cells filled with 
small grains of starch ; ^ Fro- 
da'cer = Leuodplastid ; '^ Star 
of Cham stelligera, Bauer, stellate 
nodules or intemodes on the roots, 
filled with starch ; ^ Bub'stance, 
A. Meyer's term for the pure- 
starch material, apart from any 
associated or transformed matters 
which mav be also present. 

■tar'ry, stellate. 

starved, when a plant or part is less 
developed than the normal con- 
dition, by want of nourishment. 

Btas'imorpliy (tfrd^is, a standing or 
pause, fiopipiiif shape), a deviation 
from the normal arising from arrest 
of development; Stas'is, used to 
denote the retardation especially 
of longitudinal growth. 

State, the most trivial variation from 
the type. 

Sta'Uon {statio, a standing still), 
botanically means a particular 
locality for a given plant. 

Statosper'mas ((rrdrot, standing still, 
(Tvipfia, a seed), when a seed is 
straight or erect within the peri- 
carp; BtaVospore {(rvopA, a seed), 
a resting spore. 

Stanrogam'la {aravpos, a stake or 

orofls, ydftot, marriaae), Delpino's 
term for oross-fertiuai^ofi ; adj. 
■taiirogam'le ; Stan'roa, in Diatoms, 

(1) the central nodule of the valve ; 

(2) a transverse band without 
markings; stanropbylliia (^tfXXor, 
a leaf), cruciate. 

Ste'azln {criap, suet), an abondant 
ingredient of animal and vegetable 
fats ; 8t6arop'tfliie( + wrjfif^^ winged 
= volatile), a solid orystallisAle 
matter allied to camphor, preaent 
in many essential oils. 

Steg'tnm (^ryi;, a roof or oovarinff), 
term proposed by Miers for the 
thread-like appendages sometimes 
found covering the style of Asole- 
piads ; Bteg'niata, pL flat, tabular 
cells in certain Ferns, etc, oontain- 
ing a mass of silics in contact with 
their inner wall (Mettenius) ; also 
termed Covering-plate ; ■tegoou'- 
pons {Kopros, fruit), applied to those 
Mosses whose capsules have a dis- 
tinct operculum. 

■telar (trr^Xi;, a pillar), posseasing a 
stele; Stele, an axial cylinder of 
tissue passing from the plerome into 
the olaer tissues, in which the vas- 
cular tissue is developed; some- 
times more than one,^. Poltstxlt, 
SoHizosTBLT ; stelic, relating to 
a stele or its tissues. 

Stelid'ion^ pL SteUd'ia {imiKlBitm, a 
small pillar), Ridley's term for the 
teeth of the column in Btilbopkyl' 

ftellate, sUUa'Uu (Lat., starry), star- 
shaped or radiating like the points 
of a star ; ^ Hairs, hairs of a star- 
like form ; ^ Scales, trichomes, 
discs borne by their edee or centre ; 
stellifems {fero^ I bear), star- 
bearing ; stelliform'is {forma, 
shape), star-shaped ; stelUg^eroa 
{gerOf I bear), star-bearing or pro- 
ducing; stella'to-pilo'sns, covered 
with stellate hairs ; ■teUiner'yias 
{nermiSi a nerve), star-ribbed, as 
the leaves of Hydrocotylt vulgariSf 
Linn. ; Steilula (Lat., a little star), 
(1) a whorl of periffonial leaves in 
Mosses ; (2) a smafi rosette ; «t^'- 



tnlar, itallolaM, aleUvia'lue, di- 
m inn live of staltate. 

8teloleiii'iii& {(ir^\ii, a pillar, X^fiiia, 
bark or akin), asliealhof thiakened 
paridesmio or atelar tiaiue in an- 
giospennoua potiolea {Struliurger). 

Btun. the main osceodiDg luia ; ~ 
Bud, the pliuaule; - -Clup'ing, 
■mplexicaul ; ~ Leaf, a leaf givea 
off from the atpm, as opposed t<i a 
radical leaf: ^ Par'ulta, a paraaitio 
plant which livea on tba at«m of ita 
host, as Loranthaceae ; ~ TeQ'dlU, 
a tendril which a morphalngicallj 
s stem Rtructure ; aubterra'nean, 
- , a rhi7/>me ; iMm'leu, having no 
visible atem, acauloua; Btem'let, a 
smatl item, as the plumule. 

■Unoctr'pDi (uT^rot, narrow, lapirai, 
fruit), narrow fruited ; tt«llO|»«t'ftl- 
OU»(WrttXop, a flower-leaf), narrow- 
potalled : sleiiopliyl'IoUB, -toB 
{^ivWar, a leaf], narrow leaved ; 
Stano'alB, (1) oe II -formation with 
oonstrictioD of the original cell- 
wall ; (2) the contraction of a 

■tepbsnocar'pDB (ori^aniSTit, wreath- 
ing, Kaprii, fruit), with frait ar. 
ranged eo an to resemble a crown ; 
StepbAnodophy'tiim {furii-, a 
plant), a plant producing an in- 
terior achene, as Compositae ; 
Steptw'nonm, t a synonjm of 
Cbkmogaup and Crpsei-i. 

SU'reld {rrf/Hai, solid), a ligniSed 
cell from the abereome ; Bte'reoffl or 
Ste'i«oine, the elemenM of a bundle 
which impart atrengtb to it, the 
fibres, or atrengtbening tisaiio 
_ generally (Sohwendener) ; flte'reo- 
pUfln [rtiiviia, moulded), the solid 

. part of prutoplaam (Naegeli). 

■tari^nu, pi. Sterls'iiwttt lar^piyiui, 

' a prop), \\) in Fungi, a stalk from 
which a spore ia abjointwl j (2| 
any leafy prolongation or elevated 
line from t^e blade of a loaf down 
the stem b; decnrrenoe ; (3) 
DesTaui's name for CAtunotDLi ; 
SUDlg'nituii ia a STnonjm of the 
last definition. 

■tar'U*, tter'ilif {Lat], (1| barren, as 

a flower destitute of pistil, or a 
stamen wanting the anther ; (2) 
used for a male or staminate 
dower; (3) tr»e from living organ- 
jama, such aa bacteria; ~ Buld'lniii. 
abodf in the hymgnium of Agarics 
like a basidiam, but not producing 
spores, possibly a paraphyaia ; ~ 
Oella, cells of unknown fuoction in 
the pollen- grains of Cyca* and 
mioroaporea of Ii-oSt^ and Sdag- 
inrlla; SteiU'tty, SUril'Utu) (Lat.), 
bturennees, incapacity of producing 
aeeds ; StorlUia'tiDa. the act of steri- 
lizing ; star'Ulxe, to make free from 
living organisms or their germs. 

Ster'om — Stereomr (Croiier). 

stemotrl'bal (tnl^or, the braaat, 
Tol^, I beat), Delpino's term for 
those Sowers whofle anthers are so 
arranged as to duet their pollen on 
the under part of the thorax of 
their insect visitors ; atnu'otrllN is 
a synonym. 

Bte'somf (m^o^i, fut. med. of 
tffTiitu, to stop), Morren'a term for 
an arrest of mvtamorphoitis. 

BtieMd'lnm(irTixiii», all ttle bladder), 
(1) in Rbo(lophvce«e, a special 
branch of the thallus with imbedded 
tetragonidia ; (3| =CAl(Foctx>MUM. 

stlchocar'pui, sBcbocar'pieus (srlxoi, 
a TOW, la^mjf, fruit), when fruit ia 
disposed along a spiral tine; stlcbus, 
in Greek compounda = row or rook, 
usually vBrticsl. 

itictopet'alni {rtucrit, punotured, 
TcraXov, a Hower-Ieaf), when petals 
are covered with glandular points. 

SUir'liui, pi. Htig'tnata, or SUg'illu 
{irritiia. a point), (ij that part of 
the pistil or style which receives 
the pollen ; (2) a point on the 
aporps of EiivUttum ; (3) a caducous 
point on tbe apex of the columella 
in Mosses ; (4) an old name for 
Btbricma ; (3) a coloured spot in 
unicellular Al^ao ; - Disk, a disk 
forming the stigmatic surface as in 
Aadtpuids ; — of bloeses {Hook. 
Muse. ed. S) the mouth of the 
arohegonimn : Sttgr'in&rliiie [jiia, a 
root), a form of Sci'jmaria, regarded 



by Renault as a root ; Btigmailii'- 
some ( + RHIZOMB), Renault's term 
for a form of Stigmaria which he 
holds to be a rhizome ; Btigma'rta, 
roots of fossil plants having regular 
dotted or pitted markings ; Btlg- 
ma'tae, Van Tieghem's term for 
Phanerogams haying stigmata ; 
stlgmatlc, etigmaficue, relating to 
the stigma ; «« Oells, of arohegonia, 
= LiD-osLLS ; ^ Obam'tMi, that 
part of the rostellum in Olrohids 
m which the retinaculum is de- 
veloped ; <« nuld, <« Beore'tioii, the 
viscid fluid secreted by the stigma 
at maturity, securing the adhesion 
of pollen grains and their subse- 
quent germination ; Btigmat'icaie, 
Knuth's term for wind-fertilized 
flowers with conspicuous stigmas ; 
BtigmatiferouB {/ero, I bear), 
stigma-bearing ; stigmatifonn'is 
{forma, shape), shaped like a 
stigma, or having the appearance 
of one; stigmatoi'deus {elSot, re- 
semblance), = stigmatif ormis ; Btlg- 
matoph'onis t {</>opi», I carry), that 
part of the style of Compositae 
which bears the stigmas ; stig'- 
matose, atigmcUo'aus, provided with 
stigmas, or havine them conspicu- 
ous ; Stigmataste men X (<n^M(^} ft 
filament), a body formed by the 
union of anthers to the stigma 
(De Gandolle) ; Stigr'mula, a division 
of a stigma, when present. 

■till, dormant ; <« Spore, a resting 

Btilogoiiid'ia = Stylooonidia. 

Stilt-rootB, the oblique adventitious 
roots of the Mangrove and similar 
forms (Kemer). 

Btim'uli, pi. of BtLm'nlos (Lat., a 
goad), = 8TiNo; stim'ulous (Lat.)t 
stingiuff ; stim'ulose, stimtUo'aua, 
covered with stinging hairs ; Stim'- 
nlns, the particular active agent 
which produces definite chanses in 
the organism, as moisture, light, 

Bting, a hollow hair seated on a gland 
which secretes an acrid lymph, as 
in nettles. 

Btlng^lng-ludr = Stino. 

iti'p&ta {itipatus, sniroimded), 
pressed together, crowded ; Bftlpa'- 
tion, an accumulation in the tissues 
or cavities. 

Btlpe, Sti'pes (lAt,, a stock or trunk), 
a support such as (I) the stalk 
which bears the pileus of Agarics ; 
(2) the'* leafstalk "of a Fern; (3) 
the support of a gynaecinm or 

8tip«lV Bttp^limi (dim. of 
SnpULA), a minute stipule on a 
partial petiole of compound 
leaves ; stlp'Allatt, tt^oeua'iuit 
furnished with Stipdlae. 

Btlpellus (dim. of Stipbb), a 
synonym of the Fiulmbnt of an 

stlpif ems t {Btipes, a stock, /ero, I 
bear), bearing small flower-stalks, 
as the receptacle of some Com- 
posites ; sti'piform, stipiform'ia 
{forma, shape), having the appear- 
ance of the trunk of an endogenous 
tree, as the Papaw ; stip'ttate, 
atiptta*tu8, having a stipe or special 
stalk; Btlpltiform, 8tipU{form'u= 


Btlp'ticnssSTTFTious, astringent. 

stlpnla'ceous, -ceua (Stipula + acetu), 
(1) belonging to a stipule ; (2) with 
large stipules ; stip^ular, having 
stipules, or relating to them ; 
stlp'ulaxy, (1) oocapymg the place 
of stipules, as some tendrils ; (2) 
formed of stipules (Crozier). 

stlp'ulate, aiiptda'tus, etiptdar^U, (1) 
havinff stipules, or conspicuously 
provided with them; (2) with 
scales which are degenerate 
stipules ; stip'ulaefozm, stlp'it- 
liform {forma, shape), shaped as 
though a stipule ; Btipula'tion, 
StipiUa'iio, the arrangement of the 
stipules; Btip'ule, Stip'ida (Lat., 
stubble), an appendage of a leaf on 
each side of the leaf-insertion of 
those plants which possess them ; 
atipulea'nas, resultmg from the 
transformation of a stipule ; stip- 
Qlif erous, -ruB {fsro, I bear), bear- 
ing stipules ; Btip'nlode, a stipular 



organ of one cell, in ooe or more 
TOWS BubMnding the branohlets in 
Chara ; iCp'nlOM, ittipalo' tw, hav. 
ing very lar^e Btipnles. 

■tlrpalla * ftltrpe, a, trunk, a plant), 
growing upon a stem ; BUrpa, pi. 
Stlr'pM, II) a race or iiermaDent 
variety, aa the Red Cabbage ; {•!) 
formerly equivalent to Bpeoies. 

Stock, (1) a Bj-nonym of Race; (3) 
the itsni which receives the scion 
in grafting : (3) a caudex or 
rhizome which emits roots. 

Btole, Sto'lon, A'roTo (Lat., a shoot), 
■ sucksr, rnnnsr, or any basal 
branch which is disposed to root ; 
■toloDlferoaa -ruii l/rro, 1 bear), 

shape) Btem, " a elcnder creep- 
ing stem with minute liases" 
(Dixon and Jumeaon). 
BUm'a. pi. Stom'kta (irrs/ia, a mouth) 
or Sle'nuite, (I) a breathing pore 
or apertoi-B in the epidermis, sur- 
rounded by two guaril. IK Ua, leading 
into an intercellular apace com. 
nunicating with internal tissue ; 
acoording to Tscbirch of four types; 
angios^ernuLl ~, archago'iiUl, ~ 
•Iso'iUal-, and optitbe'Ual -; (2) 
. the ostiole of certain Fungi, </. 
V EpiPHRAnuA ; ito'niatal, stomat'ic, 
m pertaining to atomata ; atosutt'lc 
K fMla = aDABD-cKl.Ls; stom&tlfar- 
r cms, -nu \/rro, 1 bear), bearing 
■tomata : Btomat'lam - Stoma ; 
atom'atOM, in Moaies, posaeaaing 
stomata ; Stom'toin, an opening 
on the side of Fern sporangia, 
between the lip-cella, through 
which dehiscence takes place. 
Stone, the hard endocarp of a drupe ; 
— Cells, the individual cells which 
have beooms hardened by second- 
ary deposit, the components of 
Bclerocen ; ~ Frnlt, » drupe such 
aa a plum or peach. 
Stool, (I) a plant from which oHsets 
or layers are taken ; (2) when 
several stems rise from the si 

Btop'P't', A vorA applied by Aroher 


I to the callua-platea in Algae ; ~ 
' or Pol'Ien, hyaline protoplasmie 
deposita in pollen-tubes (Degaguy). 

I 8toppl»s,theprojeotionaorlidBinpol- 
I len-grains which fall away to admit 
I of the ^kssage of the pollen-tube, 

I ■traff'gllng. divaricate. 

I Btor'wt, =Stvrax. 

, Stn'gulnin; (LbL, a covering), the 

leaves of many Monocotyledons. 

BtTAln. (1) in atavism, the influence 

of BO me ancestor; (2) a slight 

BtTft'man (Lat.), straw; •tramtDel'lni 
(N, Lat.), some what straw- coloured ; 
(tnnnln'mia, -neiu, atniw-tike or 

Btnuiil, a bundle of vaacnlar tiaaue, 
resembling a cord ; - Uyeg'Uum = 
mycelial atrand. 

BtiMid-plaiita, used by C. Maimillnn 
for shore plants. 

■trui'Kid>t«d {atrifiigidatttt, choked), 
contraoted and eipondoi in on 
irregular manner. 

Btrap, the ligule of a ray floret in 
Compoeitae (CroKler) : ~ aluped, 
ligulate 01' lorate. 

Btnts^ pi. {itralum, a layer), layers 
of tissue ; Btntlflca'Uaii ()'^io> I 
make), the successive deposition of 
layers on the cell-wall, and the 
arrangement of the aatd layers ; 
■tntt'iaed, disposed in layers ; ~ 
Thal'lu*, a Lichen thallus in which 
the gonidial layer or layers ore 
evident ; stra'tOM, in distinct 
layers (Crozier) ; BtiA'tuffi, a layer 
of tissue : '- cellalo'sum, the bark 
layer next within the epidermis ; 
~ oortlca'le, any bast layer ; ~ 
sonldla'le, ~ goo'lmou. the aJgal 
layer in Lichena ; ~ U^neum, a 
layer of wood ; ~ nuduUa're, the 
medulhi or pith ; - aporldilfsmm, 
the Uesb of Agarics ; •• iporopli'- 
orom, the bymenium of Fungi. 

the jointed hollow culm of 


ttnua'ing, the flow of protoplMm, 
as in Mjxogastres. 

•treptoctr'piu (orcvror, twisted, 
Kopw^f fruit), when fhiit if 
marked by spiral stripes. 

Strl'ae, pL (atria, a furrow), markings 
on the valyes of Diatoms whioh 
present the appearance of lines; 
■tri'ate, atria'tus, marked with fine 
longitudinal narallel lines, as 
grooves or ridges; Btrla'tloii, of 
cell-widl, markings believed to be 
due to the manner of formation in 
bands by the protoplasm. 

■trtot, 9tr%etuB (Lat., orawn together), 
close or narrow and upright^ very 

ttrlg^a (Lat., a swathe), "a small 
straight hab>-like scale" (Henslow). 

gtrlg'illose {strigilist a currycomb), = 
STRiooss (Henslow) ; stri'goae, 
atrigo'mts (Lat., lank, meagre), 
beset with sharp-pointed apprised 
straight and stiff hairs or bristles ; 

Strl'olaa, pi. {atria, a groove), lines of 
minute pustules on the outer sur- 
face of cells of Sphagnum (Spruce) ; 
■tri'Olate, finely striate. 

strike, to emit roots, as from a 

String, any fibre or strand (Crocier). 

striped, marked with longitudinal 
stripes of colour. 

Btrob'il = Strobilb; strobila'oeous, 
•cetia ((rrp6/3tXof, a cone, + aceua), 
relating to or resembling a cone ; 
StroVile, Strob'Uua {arpS^Oios, a fir- 
oone), (1) an inflorescence largely 
made up of imbricated scales, as 
the Hop or Fir-cone ; (2) </. strobi- 
Lon) ; strobillf erous, -rua {fero, I 
bear), cone-bearing ; strobili'iius, 
cone-like ; strobUlfonn, atrobUi- 
formfia [forma, shape), cone- 
shaped; stroViloid {eldotj resemb- 
lance), cone-like ; ^ The'ory, the 
assumed origin of Pteridophytes, 
in those forms whose sporophytes 
are the most primitive, as Lycopo- 
diwn and EkixUaelum (Bower). 

Btro'ma {arpvfui, a mattress), a 
oushion-like body, on or in which 

the peritheda are immersed, a oom- 
poond fungus -body; wtn/nuMiA 
(eI9of, resemblance), having the 
nature or seeming of a stroma; 
stro'matoos, prwlucing stroma 

■feromlrallf erons, -nw (atrombu$, a 
spiral shell, fero, I bear), rtrom- 
b Qllfonn, atromhuli/orm'ia {/orma^ 
shape), when the fruit is spirally 
twisted ; Btromlms, a spirally 
coiled legume, as in Medtcago ; 
stromlms-flbaped, likeasnail-sh^L 

Mrophan'tliiiis, a poisonous alkaloid 
from Strophanthua hiapiduB^ DC. 

Stroph'es, pi. (or/w^, a taming), 
any spirals shown in phyllotazr. 

8tn>ph'10Is, Stroidi'iOla {atrophiolumt 
a small chaplet), an appeodage to 
the hilnm of some seeos, caranols ; 
stroph'iOlate, possessing such ap- 

Btroidi'ism {ffTpo4>j, a turning), a 
tendency to twist in response to 
some external stimulus (Czapek) ; 
8tropliogen'e8i8(yFe0'if , beginning), 
differentiation of a single original 
generation into the phases regarded 
as alternation of generations (Stras- 
burger) ; Strophoma'iiia (/larca, 
madness), special torsion, as in the 
stems of certain monstrositiee. 

Stmo'ture, Structu'ra (Lat., fitting 
together), the peculiar organization 
of plants, with special modifica- 
tions ; adj. stnio'tiiral ; ^ Bof any, 
includes Organography, Morpho- 
logy, Anatomy, ana Histology of 

Stra'ma (Lat., a scrofulous tumour), 
a wen or cushion-like swelling on 
an organ ; stmmlf erons {/ero, I 
bear), having a strumous or goitre- 
like swelling ; stm'miform, atrumi- 
form'ia {forma, shape), with the 
appearance of a wen ; stra'muloae, 
atrumvlo'aua, somewhat strumous, 
or having a small struma ; stra'- 
mose, atrumo'aua, strn'moos, as 
though scrofulous. 

Btzyoh'iiia, Strjroh'nln, a powerfully 
poisonous alkaloid from Strychnoa 
l^ux-vcmioa, Linn. 


Btnil'7 Ht. the principal set of t, ool- 
lector's plants, enriched b; Dotee. 

BtnlfBd, eolid. fsrctate (Crozier). 

Stn'pa or Slvp'pft (Lat., the ooaraa 
pan of flax), a tuft or maas of hair 
or GlamentB matted together ; 
■ta'peoiu, Ktii'ptiu or ituii'peiii, 
woolly : sta'poas. itttpo'suK, low- 
lilce, with tufu of long hairs. 

aty^'lna {Sry.c, Slygis, an infernal 
liver), used of plants which grow 

Bt)'Tar{s(y/tu, from BTuXot, a column), 
relating to the Stjle, aa ~ Brush, 
the coflecting haira of flowers, <■/. 
Collectors ; ~ Canal, the tube or 
loose tissue through wliicli the 
pollen-tubes paea ; ~ Cornmo. the 
column of Orchids ; - Poot = Srv- 
LOPODiuu ; ityla'tiiB {Lat.) - STV- 
uosvs \ atyla, Sly'lve, ( I ) the luusllf 
atlenuated put of a. pistil or carpel 
between the ovary and the atigma ; 
~of HBpatioae,= InTtaLoBOLE ; ~ 
of UoBses, (1) an old term for the 
neck of the archegonium : (2) the 
ostiole of certain Fnniii (Liadley) ; 
S^letatds, used by Baworth for 
the flattened apex of the style in 
Aaolepiads ; atj'lUOrm, ttylijorm'ia 
[forma, shape). style - shaped, 

Itbawn oot ; st^lf eroiu (/to, I 
bear), bearing a style ; stfii'ima 
(Lat, ), belonging to the style ; 8ty- 
Ua'cns = Styur Canal; ttylo'- 
< dauB (Lat.], fumiehed with aitylei 
Itylo^onld'ium < + GoNiniirii), a 
EOQidium formed by abstriction 
from special hyphoe in such Fungi 
•s Aeoidiomycetes and Unsidiomy. 
oet«h, that is, uredo-, telouto-, and 
bMidio-Sporea ; BQnopod, Slt/lo- 
pod'ivm (rouf, volit, a foot), the 
anlargement at the base of the 
(tyles in Umbelliferoe ; atr'lOM, 
ttylo'mi, having styles of a remark- 
able length or persistence ; Sty'lo- 
■pore (iiropd, a seed), a spore borne 
on a fiUment ; adj. slylOBpo'Taul ; 
BtTlMteg'iuni (etiyi}. a roof), « 
peculiar hood surrounding the 
■tyle, as in Asclepiods : BtylMte'- 
aoil i iar^fLoir, a filament), on 

epigynons stamen ; s^rlOBte'miu, 
hermaphrodite; 8tylat^iD)n(r^ycit, 
a covering) = Sttlostboidm. 

styp'tlcua (Lat., from arumtit), 
astringent ; usually implies use to 
stanch a wound. 

B^'tox, or Stor'az, (I) a solid resin 
from Styrax oMciuale, Linn. ; (2) 
at the present day a similar balsa- 
mtc resio from Liipiidandiar tty- 
raH^«a, Linn. 

nyrido'phytiu (araupis. • cross, 
^vTor, a plant), with cruciform 
petals I Hen alow). 

BttaT'eoluit, mai'toitnt (Lat.)> sweet- 

pounds usually implies an approach 
to the condition designated, some- 
what, or slightly ; intMcanllB ( -i- 
ACAULls), with the stem hardly 
apparent; inb'acnte {+ ac;ijte), 
somewhat acute ; Bliba<JT'lal(a«ri«(, 
airy), situated almost on the ground 
level, as a rhizome which is covered 
with leaves, etc., but above the 
soil 1 anbaplcDla'Tls ( +APlcctARls), 
when the stem is prolonged be- 
yond an inSorescence without 
branch or leaf : sabapic'nlftte, with 
an ill-defined point ; Bubarboree'- 

. (-^ 

■). with I 

tendency to become somewhat 
tree . like ; rabarchespor'lal ( ^■ 
abcbespo&ul) Fad, Bower's term 
for a cushion-like group of cells 
below the urchesporium in Lyeo- 
poditim ; subaz'lle ( + axile), 
nearly anile ; lubaxU'laiT, below 
Che axil ; lUbblator'Uia ( -t- smtu- 
bim), somewhat as in the Lichen 
genus Binlora ; BnbbUoeala'rla ( -I- 
BiLoouLAKis), wlth partitions 
which do not quite join, but leave 
a small interval ; snbbyi'Mid ( -l- 
BTB-^oiD), somewhat cobwebby ; 
Bubbirido- rum'peiu :;: (-f Biri- 
DtPS), " bursting into somewhat 
two divisions" (Lindtey) ; nb- 
canles'cent ( + cadlescknt], with 
a very short stem, a trifle more 
developed than acanlesoent ; nib- 
CM'pltosB ( + 


what tufted (Crozier); SaVdUM 
(+ Class), a group of Orders or 
Cohorts next in rank to a Class, 
or intermediate between Class and 
Cohort; subeoncat'eoata (+ oon- 
oatknate), growing in imperfect 
chains or connections; suhoon'ieal 
( + GONiGAii), slightly conical ; 
■nbcontiii'aoas {continuus, un- 
broken), rarely or imperfectly 
septate (Crozier) ; raboon'TOlnt^ 
subcanvolu'tus ( + convoluti), 
partially conyolute ; subeor'data 
(+ cordate); raboordifoir'iiils ( + 
oorditobm), somewhat heart- 
shaped ; subere'iiata ( -H gbbnate), 
obscurely crenate ; subeul'trata ( + 
cultbatk), slightly cultrate; sub- 
den'tata ( + dentate), imperfectly 
dentate ; subdentic'ulata ( -I- denti- 
culate), with small or imperfect 
marginal teeth; subdiffonn'is ( + 
DiFFORMis), having some amount 
of irregularity; suVemise ( + 
etfuse), slightly spreading; sub"- 
entire (+ entire), having very 
slight marginal incisions ; subepi- 
denn'al (+ epidermal), below 
the epidermis ; '^ Tis'sua, = Ht- 


Bn'ber (Lat., the cork-oak), cork or 
phellogen ; suber'eous, =8ubero8e ; 
Suberillca'tion {/ado, I make), or 
Baberisa'tion, conversion into 
oork, cutinization ; su'berized, con- 
verted into cork ; '^ Mem'brane, 
with cell- walls turned into cork ; 
Su'berln, the substance of cork, 
nearly the same as cutin ; sa'berose, 
aubero'aw, su'beroiis, corky in tex- 

rab'erect, 8vberect''tts [sub, somewhat, 
+ erect), nearly erect, but nod- 
ding at the top (Babington) ; snbe- 
rose' (-1- erose), slightly gnawed 
in appearance. 

Bub'ex (Lat., support, underlay er), 
that part of the axis which bears 
oataphyllary leaves (Eerner). 

Snbfiun'lly {sub, below), a Suborder 
or group of genera within an 
Order ; subflex'nose ( + flexuose), 
somewhat wavy ; snlijgenic'alate ( + 

GENICULATE), slightly boot or 
kneed; Sabge&'os (+ Genus), a 
group, ranking as a section, or 
possioly a true genus held doabt- 
rul; sabglobose' (-1- olobosb), 
nearly globular ; sabglvma'oeoiiB 
{+ OLUMACBOU8), somewhat gln- 
maoeous; sabhyme'iilml (+ ht- 
menial), below the hymeninm ; 
^ Lay'er or Snbhyma'iiiuii, — 

Snbic'iiliim (Lat., an nnderlayer), a 
felted or byssoid stratum of hyphae, 
bearing perithecia. 

■aUm'biliBate, mbimbrica'tus (aub, 
somewhat, + imbricate), some- 
what overlapping ; snUnilp'idiii 
{huipidua, tasteless), almost devoid 
of flavou : sutsJa'oent (jocens, 
Iving), lying just below (Dixon ft 
tfameson); Snbkiiig'dom, the main 
division of a kingdom, a primary 
botanic division, as Phanerogams 
and Cryptogams. 

sabla'tns (Lat., lifted up), when the 
ovary has a support, real or ap- 

■ablentic'Qlar {sub, somewhat, + 
lenticular), more or less doubly 
convex ; subliVtoral ( + uttobal), 
employed by H. C. Watson for 
those plants which have a tendency 
to grow near the sea, but not 
actually shore-plants; ■abmar'ginal 
( -I- marginal), near the margin. 

submerged', submersed', gubmer^sua 
(Lat., dipped or plunged under), 
growing under water ; submenib'i- 
lis, capable of existing when sub- 

subnas'cent {subnascor, I grow up 
under), growing or arising from 
below some object. 

subni'ger {sub, somewhat, + nioer), 
= NIGRICANS ; sab'nude (nudus, 
naked),nearly destitute of covering, 
as leaves or hairs ; sub'obtose ( + 
obtuse), slightly obtuse or blunt ; 
suborbio'ular ( + orbicular), nearly 
circular ; Subor'der, Subo/do, a 
group of genera lower than an 
order ; subo'vata ( + ovate), some- 
what ovate; rabpeduno'alata ( + 


FEDDNcin^TE), Hipported on a very 
short stem ; aubpet'lolar, aubpelio- 
ta'ris. Bttlipet'ioUle { + pktiolatb), 
nndsF the petiolen, tu Lhe buds of 
Plalaaiui ; Bubperlphaai'loiu ( + 

used of a,a embryo, such ns in 
AlripitxiS.F.QTAj); aotmmH'Ua 
( -I- raueal), Rrowing on a bnoch 
below a leaf ; anbr&'moie, lub- 

branch ; (2) with few brani 
■ubrlg'iil ( -I- fiioiu). slightly rigid ; 
■Qbro'sena ( ^- ROSECa}, aotiien-hal 
rose -coloured, pinhiah ; subrotand' 
(+ luiTPNt)). roundish; anbicypli'l- 
form {+ soiPQiroRU), Bomewbal 
boat-shaped ; SntMSo'tlon ( 4- Sec- 
tion), the division of a genuR 
below a Bention, a small section ; 
mbaai'TaW, «Ht«erra'(ua ( + ser- 
Katr), vaguely aerrate ; BUbsea'slIa 
( -I- Sl», nearly Beaaile, altnost 
devoid of a slatk ; BDb'slmiO, an 
uader-shnib, or small shrub which 
may have partially herbaceouB 

■nbsld'Ury (tuliDiiliarim, serving for 
support) CsUb, certain Bpidertnal 
cells which are leas tbiclioned or 
situated lower than the guard - 
cells which they surround (Straa- 
tBbslm'ple («ni£, somewhat, -fttiMpi.E), 
with few divisions ; Subape'des. a 
KToap of fonna ambiguous io rank, 
between a variety and a specicB. 
neuolly marked by an ast«riBk,* ; 
Sttbspor'al ieropi. a seed) Calls, 
applied to certain colourlew cells 
in I'ithophora, found in spore - 
bearing individuBla (Witlrock). 

VSntt'ttitute [subf/ituliu, put in tilaoe 
of) Fl'bTsa, like libriform fibrea, 
bat a much reduced form of pro- 
•euchyma, the " Erastiiasera ' of 

f liibttoiiut'to(«ub, below, -t-STOJiATtc] 
jn'tMr, = Stomatio Chahiikb. 
ni'toBa (sub, aomewhit, + 
btkatosk), somewhat stratified, or 
in layers. 

subtend' {tiihlendo, I stretch under- 
neath), to eiteod under, or be 
opposite to; Babtsn'dlDg: Leaf, that 
leaf whoge uil gives riao to a 
bud or peduncle. 

•uMeretA' fii^, somewhat, 4- TRnETE). 
somewhat terete; mbtrop'ic ( + 
TKOF:a), applied to half-hardy 
plants which in temperate ctimatsa 
can thrive in summer only. 

snbteTTa'DBOua, nibCrmt'neiM (I^t.), 

Bub'trlbe {jut. under, + Tb:dk), a 
division between a tribe and a 

Snbula (Lat., a small weapon), a 
fine sharp point ; Sa'bnle, Duval- 

Jouve'fl term for the terminal, 
non-twisted portion of the awn 
of grasses ; su'bulate, et^vla'tiia, 
awl-shaped ; Su'bull, pL, "the 
■ficuloe or sharp proceasea formed 
by some FungalB" (Lindley) ; 
ra'bollfer, aubuUTsroua (/ero, I 
bear), bearingsharp points; iU'buU- 
Ibnn, aubtili/orm' i» i/orma, shape), 

■abnm'bsllate (aub, somewhat, + um- 
bellate I. somewhat umbellate, as 
the inQiireeoence of some lioMoeae. 

Snbmrl'etf, Subi'ari'eliu {tub, under, 
+ Varikti), u trifling variety or 

■nbTen'tncose {suh, somewhat, -i- 
vENTRicosi), aomewhat inflated ; 
■ubvenlc'lUAte ( + ruBTtoiixATe), 
in imperfect or irregular wborla. 

Sncoeda nenin {tuceedanetu, aabeti- 
tuted), a substitule. 

SvcoM'slTe faucce^kits, following) 
Whorl, one whose members did 
not originate ei mill taneou sly. but 

•ncdTerous (ivaue, sa,p,/ero, I bear), 

producing or conveying sap. 
■noaiiio'tai (Lat., ready) ^circina- 

amber), amber-colon red ; Suc'clnlw, 
the commonest and beat known 
form of amber, resin exuded by 
PiniH gutcini/era, Uoepp., t ; Boo- 
elao'ali, Conwentz's term for an 

mbnomial ooonrraiioe of min in 
IomU ambar-treM. 

wuMlM, tued^nu (Lat, out o£f), as if 
abmptly ont or brokon off at the 
lower end. 

niB'eoM, 9uee</9Ui (Lat., joioy), mo- 
onlent, eappy. 

no'eiilMfiis, -hui (Lat., lying under), 
the oblimie iniertion of oistiohoae 
leaTee A Hepatioae, so that the 
upper oTorlape the lower on the 
dorsal side of the stem, as in 

■se'eiilfliit, mteculei^'tui (Lat., sappy), 

•ao'eu (Lat., sap), any jnioe whioh 
can be expressed from a plant. 

•o0lnr, (1) a shoot of sobterranean 
origin; (2) an hanstoriam, some- 
times restricted to the penetrating 
organ or papilla. 

■n'erase (Fr., Snore, sugar, + ase), = 
Ihykbtass; Bn'erose (+ ose), a 
group of Buears, suoh as oane- 
sugar and mMtose. 

mStates'oent, iu/ruUdeeM {tub, 
somewhat, fnUex, a shrub), ob- 
scurely shrubby; Snfltn'tsiz, an 
undershrub; snflta'tioose, n^ru- 
UocttiuMt soffinitie'ulose, somewhat 

nUnil'tns, (1) supported or propped ; 
(2) Bufltal'tna, a plate or mso form- 
ing the basis of a bulb ; when much 
lenffthened ffives rise to the term 
BMuB afuf^MuB (Endlioher). 

■n'gar, a group of sweet, crystalline 
substances and soluble in water 
(sucroees and glucoses) ; Beet «^ 
extracted from specially selected 
strains of Btta vulgarU, Linn.; 
Oane ^, or saccharose, from Sac- 
charwn ofieinarum, Linn.; Fruit '^^ 
= Lasvuloss ; drape «^ = Olu- 
006B or Dbxtross ; Xnrer'ted <«, 
occurs in some ripe fruits and 
honey dew ; Ka'ple «^, from Acer 
§aed!ar%num, Wangenh. ; Palm «^ 
from species of Arenga, etc 
iil'eate, wlea'tu$ (Lat., furrowed), 

grooTcd or furrowed, 
•ol'oi, pi. of Sul'ons, (1) small ffrooTes 
or F06817LAS in some Diatom 

▼aires; (2) lamellae of osrfenin 
Fungi (Lindley); iol'dftem Ififnma, 
shape) =8ULGyLT& 

ralfti'rsout, etc, see sulphubb- 
0U8, etc 

•■ll^liMbeter'la {itUphnr, brimstone 
+ Bactbbia), those microbes which 
reduce sulphur ont of its solutions ; 
■nl'plrar-otf 'oared, s BVumnMDS ; 
'*'Baln, pollen from pines bionffht 
hy currents of air; Snlplnfai^n, 
Planchard's name for Algae whidi 
reduce sulphates from waters ooo- 
taininfl those salts ; ralpluirsllna, 
slight^ sulphur-ooloaied ; aolpinif- 
rsout, -reiM, the odour of brim- 
stone, a TSfT pale yellow; 
■olidnirss'osBS, becoming sulphnr- 
coloured; iulpharl'BUi, sul^^nxy 
in tint. 

flhun'mer-spors, any spore which 
f^rminates quickly, and retains 
its vitality a short time only, as 
conidia and uredospores, in con- 
trast to winter- or restinff-spores. 

gnm'mit, used by Grew ana his sac- 
cessors for Anthsb. 

Bun-plants, plants which prefer full 
sun-light ; their stems are often 
short, the leaves have the palissdo 
oeUs well developed (Willis). 

sap'er (Lat.), above ; oftoi modified 
into supra- ; supengrmr^ian (+ 
AORABiAN), a name applied to a 
Toae which includes the region of 
vegetation in Great Britain above 
the limits of cultivation; sopsr- 
aro'tio, those plants which are 
confined to the highest lone in 
Great Britain, the most alpine of 
the flora in our islands; iopsr- 
azil'lary, tuperaxilla'ris (+ axil- 
labt), growing above an axil; 
saperoomposltus = supbaoompos- 
RUB; Superms'csnoe (ereaco, I 
grow), a parasite (Crosier) ; super- 
eres'oent, growiug above or on 
another bcMy; superdeoom'ponnd 
= suFBADBcx>MPonNi> ; Buperfs- 
cnnda'tlon (-t- Fboundation), the 
union of more than two gametee. 

Buperflo'ies (Lat., the surface), 
Cktt^poris, «^ naoenta'zls, "the 



hviiieaiaia of oertain Fongftli " 

tapniteiariaa (IaI., on another's 
land), an the aurCace of bq organ. 

Bnp«r'fliu, pi. of 8ap«r'llDam {tuper- 
fimu, overSoniag), & Linnean order 
of Syngenoaia (CompoBitM) oon- 
tsining pUal« with the florets of 
the disk hermaphrodite, and those 
of the ray female, 

Bnp«i1o«t«'tleii {iiuptr, nbove, + 
Foetalion), the fertilization of as 
ovary by more than one kind of 
poUeo ; Bnp«ifolla'c«onB = sdpba- 
. g^pjifo'uni = aupRA- 

np«r'lor (Lat., higher). (U growing 
or placed abore ; (2) also in a 
lateral flower on the side next the 
axis ; the posterior or upper lip of 
B corolla is the superior ; - O'vary, 
wheo all the floral envelopes are 
inserted below it, on the torus ; 

mvenia'I&nt (Kapfmataru, ewimming 
above), floating on the surface. 

lapemn'meraiy {svptmumtraTiia, 
over and above), additional ; ~ 
Badl. are either , 


Bnperpar'ulta {mper, above, + 
Pahasiti), a paraaile of a parasit« ; 
Sn'pST-ldSLilt, a plant which grows 
upon another, either as an epiphyte 
or parasite. 

nperpo'sad, mptrpot' Unt (1^1". 
placed over), vorlically over some 
other part ; SnpenKMit'loit, placed 
vertioally, or in parts of the flower, 

■BjwrtnberA'tiim (mper, above, 4- 
TnBlCK], the production of second- 
Bry tubers upon the normal primary 
taben ; Bnperape'eUi ( + Species), 
• group of aub-speoies or new 
■peoie* regarded aa an entity. 

nparrui'niM (Lat.), redondant. 

npOTOlnta', tuptrB^u'tut, rolled 
over, when applied to plants, the 
same sa cwnvolute ; sapaTOln'tlT*, 
tvipervotuli'vat, oonvolnte aesliTa- 

nplu*', mpi'nus (Lat., lying on the 

back), prostrate, with faoe lamed 

Buppor'tlng- {tupporto, I carry or 
bring up) Plant, a plant upon or 
in which another grows; a boat 
plant (Crozier). 

Bnppru'sloli (aupprun'o. a keeping 
back), complete aboriion. 

Bopis^above, in oompounds from 
l^tin ; mpra-azU'l&ry ( + axib' 
LASy), growing above an axil ; >aP' 
tMMm'poilM, ertpratompoa'ituji, aup- 
Todtcompoi'iliis {compotitui, com- 
posed), eicewively subdivided ; 
snprafolla'ceoni, -reia ( + roLiA- 
ceoub). inserted above the petiole. 

■ring a 

a leaf; 

[Joliam, a leaf), growing on a leaf ; 
anpraterTa'naoiia, used by Spruce 
as the opposite of subterraneous, 
p. 92. 

■npram*' (tuprtmat, highest), aa the 
top or highest point, 

nmullg'arauB, -nu (jiureuIiM, a young 
branch, gtro, I bear), bearing 
tuckers ; anr'cttlOBe, surcu/o'tut, 
producing suckers : Bnr'oiiiiu, (1) a 
sucker, a shoot rising from an 
undergronnd base, as from the 
root ; (2) the leafy stem of Bryo- 
phytes and Lycopoda (Bisohoff) ; 
Bnr'inilnin is used by J. Smith for 
the rhiiome of a Fem, 

■UTOtu'rest (Fr,, sur = upon, + cur- 
rent = running), having winged 
expansions from the base of the 
le^ prolonged up the stem. 

Bur'fkce-yeast, the same as Hiqh- 

Snr'Coyl. Orew's word for outer scales. 

mr'sain (Lat,, upwards), directed 
upward and forward ; ~ lumnlo'* 
SOS, bordered with hooks pointing 
to the apei. 

nupend'ed, sujjiM'rai (Lat, hungup), 
hanging directly downward, or 
from the apei of a eel) ; auspen'Mr 
(I) of the embryo, a thread of 
cells at theextremity of a developed 
embryo ; (2) the cell which sa^^tX» 
the conjugating cell in IbluconDi. 

■n'timl, mtura'ltt (tururi > iMnil 



relating to a sature ; Sn'tnre, (1) 
a mnction or seam of udIoq ; (2) 
a line of opening or dehiscence ; 
ratnra'riiis, possessina a suture. 

Swarm, a number of spores or 
unicellular Algae of similar origin, 
which remain in company without 
being united ; </. Adelphotaxt ; 
'*' dill, ^ Spore, a motile naked 
protoplasmic body, a zoospore ; 
Swarm'en, zoospores; Bwvrm'ingt 
moving by means of cilia, applied 
to zoospores. 

nrlin'miiig, used vaguely for aquatics 
which float or have floating leaves ; 
also restricted to those wholly 
immersed and free ; ^ Appara'tos, 
in AzoUa, three apical episporic 
spongy masses of tissue, surround- 
ing a central conical body with an 
array of fine filaments (Campbell). 

Switch-plants, plants whose leaves 
are wanting or reduced, with green 
shoots acting in place of leaves. 

■word-ibaped, ensiform. 

■ychnocar'poiiB, -pus {<rvxp6tt frequent, 
KafiwoSf fruit), able to produce fruit 
many times without perishing, as 
trees and herbaceous perennials. 

47'oon=Syoonlam, or Sy'coniiB {(rvKw, 
fruit of the fig-tree), a multiple 
boUow fruit, as that of the fig. 

Syoo'iiB MKUffit), a skin disease 
ascribed to species of Micraaporon. 

SygoUi'pbytum, error (?) for Synoolll- 
ph'ytum {ff&yKoWoSt glued together, 
^vroPf a plant), a plant in which 
the perianth becomes combined 
with the pericarp. 

Syl'va, or Sil'va (Lat., a wood), 
applied to an account of the trees 
of a district, or a discourse on trees ; 
syl'van, relating to woods ; sylvaV- 
icuB or stivcU'icuSt growing amongst 
trees ; sylves'tral, used by H. C. 
Watson for plants which grow in 
woods and shady places ; sylves'trlB 
or 8Uvt»*trist ffrowing in woods ; 
vylves'trlne ((>ozier), growing in 
woods; Syl'yula, (1) a plantation ; 
(2) a small Sylva. 

Vym, a modification of syn (0^), with ; 
Symliion {^ioi, life), an organ which 

lives in a state of Symbiosis; 
8yml)lont (SymUo'tas, of Tnbeof), 
an individuid existing in 9yimUo'- 
■is, the living tosetiier of dissimilar 
organisms, with oenefit toone only, 
or to both; also styled oommen- 
salism, consortism, individualism, 
mutualism, nntricism, prototrophy 
and syntrophism ; antagonls'tlo <« 
is a struggle between the two 
organisms ; ooi^imc'tlve ^ where the 
symbionts are intimately blended 
so as to form an apparently single 
body ; contln'ge&t ^ , when one 
plant lives in the interior of another 
tor shelter, not parasitism, in G^erm. 
Rauroparasitismus ; diajune'ttvs'^ 
when the association is only tem- 
porary (Frank) ; mataalls^tlo '^ 
whenof reciprocal advantage ; mjm- 
Uo'tio, relating to symbiosis ; '^ 
Sap'rophytism, the condition of a 
higher plant as a Phanerogam, 
in symoiosis with a Fungus 

■ymmetzwtliiiB (avfifurpta, propor- 
tion, ap$ot, a flower), when a 
perianth is divisible into equal 
parts by several planes of division ; 
■ymmet'ric, ■ymmefrical, (1) act- 
inomorphic ; (2) similar in the 
number of members in calyx, 
corolla, and androecium; ^jm- 
metriotur'piiB (Kopwotf fruit), a fruit 
which is symmetric, as first de- 
fined ; Sym'metry, Symmetfriay cap- 
able of division into similar halves. 

Sym'pathy {avfiwdSeia, fellow-feeling), 
(1) the faculty of ready union in 
giiif ting ; (2) readiness to hybridize, 
or receive foreign pollen ; adj. 

Sym'pedae, pL (o-iV, with, Wdi7, a 
fetter), applied by 0. Mueller to 
those Diatoms having superficial 
symmetry ; Sympefalae, {wH-dKop, 
a flower leaf) = Oamopetalae ; 
ssrmpetal'icas, X the cohesion of the 
stamens to the petals, as in Malva ; 
83rmpet'alouB, -/u«, with united 
petals, gamopetalous. 

aymphian'tlierouB, -rus (avpu^f^ta, Icanse 
to grow together, Mripot, flowery), 


a BjiioDym of SfnantlicruB and 
poiu (n:apir^, fruit), with conSueot 
fruits ; ■ymphloganet'lc {yivot, s 
race), formed by anion of previously 
separate elementfi ; tympbyas'tbe- 
roni t = BymphianthirrouB ; Sym- 
phyllo'dlnm (^uXAop, B le*f 1 , Ihu lajin ■ 
bined OTuliferouB ecales in the 
flower of uorlnin Coniferau (Warm- 
ingl ; sympliyrious, gumophylloui ; 
^mpliyogeiiei'lc ^aymphioKetietio ; 
Bjmpbyotte'niDiiinu {irriiuiir, a 
Btamen), having cbestBineiii uniteil. 

Bym'pbyils (mi^ftf-it, growins to- 
gether), ( I ) coaleacence 1 (2) hision 
of parta (Beuwy); Bympl^'l* JB a 

■ympliyBM'monotu - symphyoste- 

■ymphytan'therua - Bymphiiiotber- 

■ymphytOK'Tllui [irif^^irtot, innate, 
Yur^, a womsD), tho ualyi anil 
piatil more or losa adherent, tho 
ovary being inferior ; RympIiyVla, 
formed by fusion of several nuolei, 
as a gameto nucleus (oogamet«) oE 
PeranoBporeoc or (isogwnete) of 
Da/n/fladM) (Harloe) ; lyinjdiy- 
totbe'Iiu {ffiX-n, a nipple} = aiu- 

>ym'plsn(ai''>', with, «Xai>Tit, formed), 
on aBsemblase of energids. as in 
CaaUrpa prdi/rm, Lnmour. : 8yni- 
plo'clnm, or Symploldain (ir\c>u, I 
pinit), old names for the sporangium 
of a Fern : Sym'pode, Syn/ioaium 
(voiii, Tojoi, a foot), a stem made 
up of a series of superposed 
branabes, so as to imitnte s simple 
axis; adj. lynpod'tel^-Dloliot'oiiiy, 
where at each forking, one branch 
eontinuea to develop and the other 

t aju !'><!'. with), adhesion or growing 
together ! c/ sm ; synao'mio 
(dijil), a point = prime of life), 
adj. of Syuc'my, the stamens and 
piatils mature tog;ether, being the 

OppoBltO of UrTERACMV; BjIUUl'- 

dilnm (drijp, irSpit, a man), the 
cobeaion of the antbors of «aoh 


male Sower id certain Aroideae ; 
Byman'diy, Morten's term where 
atamena normally separated are 
soldered or united ; Synan'ElA, pL 
of SynsLU'etniii (d-y7(>oi>, a vessel), 
an aggregated eiannulate Fern 
aporangium forming ■ series of 
Ioculi,aB in iliinUtia (J. Smith); 

adj. lynangial ; lynantlia'ncnt 
^,it8^pot, flowery), the growing 
together of antherB, ns in Cam- 
posites, syngonesiouB ; Syiuiii'- 
theraa, a name for Compoeitae : 
adj. Bjn&n'tlieroiu ; SjumiUmtoI'- 
ogiBt(X<>70i, discourse), an expert in 
the Btudy of IJompuaitAe ; Syiuui- 
the'rue, a flower with coalesced 
sntliera ; Bynantbe'slB [M-rjaxt, 
(lowering), simultaneous antheaia, 
stamons and pistila ripe at the 
same time, synacmy ; Bynuilbo'dj 
(Mot, resemblanoe), the lateral 
adheaion of two flower-buda on the 
same stalk, or on two pedonolei 
which have become fascisted ; Byn- 
an'thy (fpflot, a flower), Horr«n'B 
term for the adhesion of two or 
more Sowers ; adj. aynkn'thle, syu- 
an'thoui; Synanthrophy'tum {air, 
with, iepbct, crowded, ^i/niv, a 
plant), a plant whose fruit is com- 
pounded ol many carpels ; the word 
as cited by Henslow, aecms to bo 
an error for Necker's group Syn- 
slhrophy tum; Synan'tbroM, a sugar 
found in the roots and tubercles of 
certain Compositae. 

Synap'sls [tuni-wrai, I join), the con- 
densation of the nuclear filament 
to one side of the nucleus previous 
to heterotypic mitosis. 

Synap'tue [avrarrhi, joined), the 
same substance as EucutlK. 

Synuuopb'ytas {swapiioalt, conjunc- 
tion, tptrrbt, a plant), gynandroua. 

Syn'cont, Sjincar'jjium {a!-¥, with, 
Kairwit, fruit), a multiple or fleshy 
aggregate fruit, as the mulberry, 
or Maijnolia ; •yncmr'poai, -ptu, 
composed of two or more united 
carpeb ; Byncar'py, the accidental 
adhesion of several fruita ; Brn- 
cotyle'doiunu, ■iieua{ + Cottledo!i), 


with ooalefloed cotyledons; Bjn'pjrte, 
Syncytium {KvrUt a small box), a 
structure derived from the more or 
less complete absorption of the cell- 
walls, wnich places their lumina in 
direct contact. 

^ysed'ral, syned'roiis, -dms (<n6wedpos^ 
of the same seat), growing on the 

BpunaoML (<n>y, with, r^A^, a thread), 
( 1 ) the column of monadelphous sta- 
mens, as in Malvaceae ; (2) t that 
part of the column of an Orchid 
which represents the filament of 
the stamens (Lindley) ; Bynar'glds, 
Syner^gidae {awepiyot, an assistant), 
the two nuclei of the upper end 
of the embryo sac, which with the 
third (the oosphere) constitute the 

Byn^gameta (<n>r, with, + Gamete), 
C. Macmillan's expression for the 
cell which arises from the fusion 
of two gametes ; q/*. Oosperm, 
Zygote; Qyngenes'la (yipcffit, be- 

S inning), a Linnean class, with 
owers having united anthers, 
Gompositae ; syngenesloos = syn- 
genes'lous, syngene^us, (1) with 
anthers cohering in a ring; (2) 
belonging to the order Compositae ; 
Syn'grammae {ypd/tfui, an outline), 
Diatoms with linear symmetry (0. 
Mueller) ; Synclior'ion t ixh^^t 
foetal membrane), Mirbel's name 
for Cabcesulx; synoch'reate ( + 
Oorea), having opposite united 
stipules which enclose the stem in 
a sheath ; synoe'dous (oUof, a house), 
havine antheridia and archegonia in 
one innorescence ; bryologists seem 
to prefer the form synoi'oons. 

Syn'onsrm {^wtawtuny having the same 
name), a superseded or unused 
name ; Synon ymy, all that relates 
to synonyms. 

Synoi&'tliy, the corrected abbrevia- 
tion of " Synophthal'my " ((ri>r, 
with, 6^^aX/iidf, an eye), see next ; 
— Moquin-Tandon's term for adhe- 
sion of (1) embryos ; (2) buds ; 8yn- 
oph'ty (deriv., see last) ; Synoph'yty 
(Crozier), = Synofhthy. 

Bynop'iiB (o^ro^f, a glance), a 
densed desoription of a geniia or 
other group ox plants. 

^ynpefalou (o^, with, WroXor, a 
flower leaf), = gamopetalons ; 
lynoilii'iiis ikiioy a root), having a 
radicle whose point is united to 
the albumen ; ^yxiMp'aloiia, 4iu 
(+ Sepalum), gamoeepalona, the 
•epalB ooaleioent; syiispai^mMia, 
adj. of Syiuqwr^Biy {jmripiuL^ a seed), 
the union of several seeds; WfUr 
■por^ovis {jmropi^ a seed), "pro- 
pagating by ooniugations of oeOa, 
as in Algae " (Stormonth) ; lyB- 
■ttgmaf iims (vriyitA, a point), when 
a pollen-mass is furnished with a 
retinaculum by which it adheres to 
the stigma, as in Orchids. 

^yntac'tio (<rvrreurrur^, putting to- 
other), used of irregularity whioh 
IS zyffomorphic (Pax). 

8yntairiiuL> pi- Syntag'mata (^f, 
with, rdy/MOy an array), Pfeffiar's 
term for bodies built up of Tag- 
MATA, themselves aggregations of 
Molecules ; ^yntepjtloiu ( + Tkp- 
alum), the tepals united; ^yatzo- 
ph'icns {rpwp^, food), epiphytic ; 
Byntroph'ism and Byntropli'j, the 
antagonistic symbiosis of Lichen 
with Lichen; 8yn'troi»h8,** Lodgers^ 
in Lichens; Qyuyg'la X it^y^, a 
yoke), the point of contact of op- 
posite cotyledons. 

Sy^phon, = Siphon. 

Syring'in, a substance occurring in 
Syringa, the Lilac; syiingi'mis, 
lilac-coloured, a light purple. 

Syringoden'dron, uwd by palaeo- 
botanists for old or partially de- 
corticated sigiUarian stems; the 
name was formerly generic. 

Systellophy'tam (<n;<rrcXXw, I wrap 
closely, 4>vT^, a plant), when a 
persistent caAyx appears to form 
part of the fruit. 

Sys'tem {avmitia^ a composition), a 
scheme of classification ; syste- 
matic, 8y8temcU'icu8, relating to 
system ; '^ Bof any, the study of 
plants in their mutual relationships 
and taxonomic arrangement. 


Byit'ole (mitroMi, a oontraclion), Lha 
oontraotioQ of the contractile 
TeaicIesincertaiD Algae , pluimodia, 
and zooapors*. 

Byst'ropbe \auiTi>tp^, rolling up), whtn 
Strong light causea otilorophyll 
graiDB to uou)tregate into a (aw 
masieB (A. F. W. tSchimpar); adj. 

■yitropti'le, u ~ In'ttrval. or STttro- 
ph'lon, that portion of the Photruu 
in which Bjstrophe can tabs place 
(8. Moore), 
■yityl'liu {sty, with, ftrilXiH, a 
column), the lid flied to the 
oolumelln in Mobbcs, and elevated 
above the capsule when it dries ; 
iftty'tua. when atyles coalesce into 
one tjody, aa in Ro»a lyityla, Bast. 

% Tabacum., Linn. 

occurring in the joints of bamboo. 

Tft'baB (Lat., a wasting sway), a 
disease, the loss of the power of 
tirowth and consequent wasting 
awa; ; tatMa'cent, (aAcs'cciw, wast- 
ing or shri veiling. 

Tab'in {tabula, a board or plank), 
(1) the fruslule of Diatoms when 
qaadrangular ; (2) the rectangular 
oolonp of Gonium ; Tab'nla, the 
pileus of certain Fungi ; tab'ulw, 
tafmla'ris, flatlieoed boriiontall; ; 
— Boon, buttresB-Iike 

. (Ker 


Ubiil»'tni,t(Lat., boarded orfloored), 
lajer on layer. 

tMiila'iiiu X {.taenia, a band), long, 
cylindric and contracted in various 
places ; taenlop'terold, in fossil 
botany, resembling the genus 

Tts^mx, pi. TMf'mata {rA-nia, AD 
array), Pfeffei'a term for all ag- 
gregations of molecules ; tacDUtlo 
Ootn'plex, a higher molecular 

T»il, any long and slender prolonga- 
' tioo ; ~ potnt'ed. eicesiively acu' 
minate, caudate ; taileil, said of 

I ftnthers whiob have a prolongation 

from the localus, which part is des- 
titute of pollen-grains. 

lUa'ia : (talaria, the winged shoes 
of MeicDry), the wing or sta of a 
pa)iilianaaeous corolla. 

T»lM(,auutting,aflmall branch 
for propaeating, 

tall, exceeding the normal height. 

tangen'tl*! Uangent, touching), at 
right aoglea to the radial or med- 

n the 

Tui'KbUi. the poison occurring a 
ordeal poison plant of Madagascar, 
Cerbrra Tanghin, Hook. 

Tfts'sl*, the same as Skiin (Croeier). 

taa'kard-ibaped, thickened and 
gradually enlarged downward, then 
soddeoly contracted or ended, as 
some varieties of turnip (Croiier). 

Tan'nln or Tu'nlc Ac'id, an important 
group of astringents, especially 
abundant in some barks, aa that of 
the oak ; Tan'itln-iaci, ~ -Te'slelM, 
stronElj refractive globular bodies 

Tap-ioot, the primary descending 
root, forming a direct continuation 
from the radicle ; tap-root' Ad, 
possessed of a tap-root. 

taper, cylindric but angular, and 
gradually diminishing towards the 
end ; ~ polnt'ed, acuminate, as the 
leaf of SaiicaHia, Linn.; Ik'peilllK, 
regularly diminishing in diameter. 

Tape'ilom (Tdriji, a carpet), dense 
and wefted superfioiat mycelium, 
having asoopbores aaated on it ; 
tap«'tal, relating to the tapetom ; 
~C*I], cell of a tapetum ; ~ Lkj'tz 
= T<PKTu>i 1 Tapata', a soggested 
emendation of Tape'tnm, a mem- 
brane of granular cells investing 
the sporogeoous cells in the arehe- 
sporium, abeorbed as the spores 

Taphreuch'yma (Ti^pai, a dittih, 
f-fXi'i'O, an infusion), = BoTH- 

Tapto'ca, prepared starch of the root* 
of several species of Manikot. 

Tarax'aeliis, a bitter crystalline 
principle found in dandelion, 
Taraxacvm offifinale, Weber. 



tartar'eoiiB, -ew (Mid. Lat., tar- 
trunif wioe tartar), having a rough 
orambliDg Burface, like some 

taw'ny, fulvous, a dull brownlBh- 

tazlform'iB {taxua, the yew, forma, 
shape), arranged distichously like 
the leaves of yew. 

tazinom'io = taxokomic. 

Tax'iB {rd^tf order), used by Gzapek 
to express reaction of free organ- 
isms in response to external 
stimuli by movement; Tazit'exy 
(Wpaf, a monster), a modification 
which is 80 slight as to admit of 
comparison with the normal form|; 
Tftzd'ogy {\&yot, discourse) or 
Taxon'omy {p6fiot, law), classifica- 
tion ; Taxono'mlflt, one skilled in 
classification ; adj. taxonom'lc. 

Tmr, a drop of gum or resin in its 
native Btate ; tear-shaped, like the 
pip of an apple, lachrymiform. 

Tsieth, (1) any small marginal lobes; 
(2) in Mosses, the divisions of the 

Teg'men (Lat., a covering), (1) the 
inner coat of a seed, previously 
the secundine of an ovule ; (2) t 
the glume of a grass ; pi. Tegmen'- 
ta, the scales of a leaf-bud ; f^ 
folia'ceay fulcra'cea, petiola'cea, 
stiptda'cea, modifications of leaves, 
stipules and petioles, petioles and 
stipules only (Lindley) ; teflnnina'- 
tOB (Lat.), when the nucellus is 
invested by a covering. 

tegument'ary {tegumen, a cover), re- 
lating to some covering; Tegn- 
men'tom, (1) the indusium of a 
Fern ; (2) the spermoderm. 

Te'la (Lat., a web), elementary tissue, 
as meristem ; *** oontex'ta, a weft 
of distinct hyphae, felted tissue ; 
Ger. "Fikgewebe." 

tttlelan'tliUB (WXetos, perfect, dvSoSf a 
flower), hermaphrodite. 

Teleol'ogy (WXeos, gen. of tAos, com- 

Sletion, \6yoi, discourse), the 
octrine of final causes, or theory 
of tendency to an end ; adj. 

TUeutooonldluii = TeleatogOBld'iiim 

(reXevH), an end, + QoNiDinM), 
= Tbleutosporr ; Tilea'tospon 
(o-Topd, a seed), a resting biloonlar 
spore of Uredineae on germiiiAtioo 
producing a promyoelinm. 

Mog'amae (WXot, an end, yd^Moi, 
marriage), Ardissone's term for 
Florideae ; Teiogonidlnm ( -f- Gom- 
dium), a gonidium arising fiom 
successive generations in XhB same 
cell (A. Braun) ; TU'oiihmse (^d#if, 
an appearance), the last phase of 
nuclear division. 

Tem'peratnree, the sum of, need to 
mark a given period in the life-oyole 
of a plant. 

temnlen'toaB {temuietUus, drunken), 
nodding in a jerky irregolar 
manner, q/*. nutans (Heinig). 

Tem'nlln, an active principle oocnrring 
in Lolium Umulentum, Linn. 

Tenao'nlnm, pi. Tsnac'nla (Lat., a 
holder), haptera or holdfasts of 
Algae ; adj. tenac^olar. 

Ten'ibil, a filiform production, cauline 
or foliar, by which a plant may 
secure itself in its position. 

Ten'sion {tensio, a stretching), due to 
turgidity in cells, and manifested 
by movements of parts. 

Tentacle {tentaculum, Mod. Lat., a 
feeler), a sensitive glandular hair, 
as those on the leu of Drowra ; 
Tentao'nloid {eUot, resemblance), 
applied to long processes which 
pass through mammiform protuber- 
ances of the perigloea of Diatoms 

tennlfo'lious -litu (folium, a leaf), 
thin or fine-leaved; Tennlnnosl- 
la'tae {tenuis^ narrow, + NncsLLCs), 
Van Tieghem's term for those plants 
with true seeds, in which the 
nucellus is reduced to a layer of 
cells or wholly absorbed by the 
endosperm ; ten'ois (Lat.), thin. 

Tep'al, Tep'alum (anagram of j^etolum), 
a division of the perianth, sepal or 
petal ; restricted by H. G. Reichen- 
i>ach to the two unchanged petals 
of Orchids. 

teph'reos, teph'ros {T€4>poii ashy). 




uh-coloured i Uphro'lliu, ubj- 

TepKU'rinm (Lat., » tepid bsth-room), 

in bot&nic gsnteaa a "Cikpe House. " 
Termtog'aiiy (Ttpni, r^paroi. a. sign or 

STodigj , yirm, offflpring), the pro- 
uctioD of mODBterE ; Taratorogy 
(Xfryoi, disooiirae), tlia iitudy of 
mBlfDrmatioDS and moDetroeitieB ; 
adj. teratvlog'lc, 

Tar'abtn*, a t«rpone which hoMa 
reaia in solution, ax turpentine ; 
the nBine is from Piflacia 
Teribinlhv,^, Linn, ; tereMn'thina. 
perlaiuing to, or ooDsixting of, 

Tir'cliM, Tfrd'na [(er, thrioe), a 
Buppoaed third integument of »□ 
ovule, raallj a layer of the primine 
or aecundine. 

Taretn«'tor(In-e&ni, aborer), Liadan's 
name for the ao-called trichogyne 
in Oyrophonx ; "ivtibnXotttfjiba. 
( -t- HvPHA) meaaa the aame. 

Ter«'d[)(Lat.,a boring beetle), diaaaae 
L-auaed by the boring ol insecta. 

twata', irref [VaX., rounded), circular 
in tranaverse iHition, cylindrio and 
naually tapering. 

taqrem'liua. - targun'luta, tergtm- 
■ ia'(i«,?(r(;em'iniM{ three at a birth), 
thrioe-twia" (Lindley). 

tarEl''aroui {Itrgam, a back, Jfro, I 
bear), tergiapeim'oiu, -u«(a'ir^p>ia. a 
Bead), bearing dorsal Hponingia, aa 
Feme ; Tar'guln. back, dorsum. 
ir'mlntd, lermina'lU (Lat,. relating 
to boundaries), proceeding from or 
belonging to tha end or apex ; ~ Bod, 
a badwhich is apical. 

TaRDinol'ocy (ripia., a limit = term, 
\lrfia, disoourae), glossology, defi- 
nition of tachnical terms j Tar'- 
mluns (Lat.), a term, a technical 

tar'naiy, (crna'niu (Lat.. consisting 
of three), in thrHea, trimaroua i 
~ as^brid, the result oF crossing a 
hybrid with a apeciea different from 
either of its parents. 
Iltn'oftte, iFf-naliM {tfrni, by threes), 
In thrwa, t* three in a whorl or 
I cluBter; ter'okta-pla'iiate, when 

the secondary petioles proceed in 
threes from the aunimit of the 
main petiole; tama'toly trUO'Uo- 
late, with three leaflele attached 
nt one point, aa in clover (Crozier) i 

Tor'pene [modif. of Turpontino), a 
group of hydrocarbons present 
in turpentine, liquid reain, or 
esaential oils ; tarp'anold (iZioT, 
reaamblauce), Kemer's name for 
that group of Sower-aoents pro- 
duced by terpeoes, as Orange- 
flowers. OtiMenia, Thyme, etc. 

lerpl&'nate [ttr, thrice. + pinnate) 

(erra'nens I ('en-o, earth), growing 
on dry land. 

terres'trlal. ttrrtt'trit (Lat.. pertain- 
ing tu the earth), uaod of plants of 
the dry ground ; the Latin tema'ter 
is also employed; ter'raus |Lat,. 
earthen), " earth coloured " ; 
ttr'rioole. terric'oloua [colo, I in- 
habit), living on the ground, as 
some Lichens. 

Tar'tlolpore iUrtivt, third, trofA, a 
seed], C. Moumillsn's term For a 
fertilired egg which undergoes 
rejuvenescence and segments into 
usually four spores, motile and 
similar to the spores of a gometo- 
phyte generation ; tho reault of 
Hporophytio segmentation, aa in 

teanla'rli {tuM-ruIa, a amall square 
stone), of cubio dimenaiona, all 
sides equal. 

tea'Bellate,iFsw/'u'Iu«(Lat., of squared 
at«neii), chequer -work, aa in 
Frilillaria Matagria, Linn- 

Tes'ta (Lat.. a brick or tile), the 
□ut«r coat of the seed, usually 
hard and brittle. 

testa'ceotu. itsia'ceuM (Lst., of bricks 
or tiles), brick-red. 

lesUa'ular, testlo'iilate, teaticnlit'iui 
(Lat.), shaped like the tubers of 
OrrAis, and fruit oF JfercunWis; 
TeatlCuloB t, Tea'tlB t (Lat.) = 

Toa'tuJe {tatnta, a dim. of Testa), an 
old name for Frvstvlk. 

WUr (lAt.» offeodTe), haTing s fool 

TttnUdai'tiis {rh-pas, four, fikmrr^, 
a Imd), Koerber't tenn for thote 
Lichen-ajpons which oooaitt of 
four cells; totncam'aniiii, -nu 
(•I- CxMAmutf), of four dooed 
carpels; totraeazptllazy (c«^«^ 
frait), of four carpels ; TMnouro'tti 
( + Cabotik), a lipochrome pigment 
reeemhliDg carotin. 

Tistoaeliae'Bliim X (^^^'f ^oor, + 
AcHAXNiUM), a fniit of four ad- 
herent achmes, as in Labiatae; 
IMn/dioear'pftimi {rirpaxtt, four- 
fold, KOffw^, fruit) = TaTRASFOBS ; 
tatrmcliot'omoiia, tetraehatomtu 
{rifuw, I cot), when a cjrme, in its 
restricted sense of fssoiole, bears 
four lateral peduncles about the 
terminal flower. 

tetnooc'cons, -cu» (rcrp&r, four, 
kSkkoi, a berry), (1) oonsistinff of 
four closed cai^pels ; (2) applied to 
bacteria when in four segments; 
tetra«7'clio (rt^cXof , a circle), when 
a flower is composed of four whorls 
of organs. 

Tifrad (rerpdStor, a set or group of 
four), a body formed of four cells, 
as in the formation of poUen in the 

tstnd'ymoQS {rerpddvfunt fourfold), 
(1) havine four cells or cases ; (2) 
when the lamellae of an Agano are 
arranged so that alternate lamellae 
are shorter than the intermediates, 
and one complete lamella terminates 
a set of four pairs, short and long. 

Teferadyna'mia (rerpdf, four, d^a/ut, 
power), a Linnean class which is 
characterized by possessing tetrady- 
namous stamens; tetrady'namous, 
-tnuSf having four lon^ stamens and 
two short, as in Cruciferae ; tefera- 
fOUa'tus, tetrafo'Uus {/olium,m leaf), 
four-leaved, more correctly tetra, 
phyllous; tetrag'onal (ytawla, an 
angle), four-angled ; TMragonldan'- 
gium ( + GoKiDANOiUM), a sexual re- 
productiveorganin Floridean Algae, 
producing tetragonidia ; Tetra- 
fOiildlum(+ €k>iriDiUM), asezually 


Qfloally in gronps of iosir; 
roBOW (-ywla, aa ao^), few- 
angled; TMngym^ (yw^ a 
woman), a finnean arCifieial ofdsr, 
the nemben having flows with 
four piitils ; tateag ^ — — , of four 
oarpeli or stylsa ; talnunf 4 
{/Upo9t a psirt), of faor 
totnmoi'pUeOuffi^ ahapeXhaviog 
flowers of foor f onna, TarjiDg as 
to length of style, aoUiera and 
stigmas, as in Ejpiga^a rqMM^ 
Linn. ; tstnui'flv, tstnn'flrsH 
(dHj^ Mpd9t a man), with iomx 

class of telimndroas plants; 
m'elsats ( + Nuclbub), haTing foor 
nuclei (Breboer); tstm-psfateiM, 
4uB (WroXor, a flower leaf), having 
foor petals; tstrai^hjlsirie (^vX4, a 
tribe), applM to hybrids with foor 
strains in their descent ; MM- 
piiylloiis, 4u$ (^^XXor, a lesi)» foor- 

tsfer^^loeaalou {rerptLrKUt^ fourfold 
+CAUiii8), having qnateroary axes 

tstrap'tflitms [rerpiLt four ; wrtpow^ a 
wing), four-winged, four prodnoed 
angfes; tstr a| iy rs ^Bas {wvpi^f a 
kmel), with four stones or seeds 
in the fruit; tslraqiis'tsr, tstra- 
ipis'troiis {quadrOf a square), with 
four sharp angles ; tsfswdi (d^gtif, 
beginning), with four vasoiUar 
strands m a fibrovascnlar oylinder 
or stele. 

tstrazl'nns (rcrp&f, foor, Appififf ids1s)» 
Keeker's version of TvrBAKDBOUB ; 
tsferasdiis'tlc (<rx<ffTof , split), divid- 
ing into four ; tetrastp'aloas, 4u$ 
{ + Skpalum), having four s^mIs ; 
tstraspsrm'ons (or/p^ta, a seed), 
with four seeds ; TstrasiNnraa'gtimi 
( 4- SPOBAKon7M), a unicdlular spor- 
angium containing tetrasporss ; 
TSt'raspors (^ropd, a seed), a spore 
formed by division of the spore- 
mother-oelb into four parts ; tetra- 
spor'ic, tetnspor'oQS, bearinff tetra- 
spores; tetras'tielioiis, -chm (cnixot, 
a row), in four vertical ranks. 


taenia, tex'(>:u(Lat.,woTeii),uied for 

TV^ton, Ttxiu'ra (Lnt., » web), 
applied b; SUrbiick to hjphal 
■Icuctarea id DiBcaaiycet«a, Ihua : 
" •ptdtomol'dML, the walk of 
hyphso more or lesa caofluent ; ~ 
|10bo'««i, whoQ the cells are nearly 
uodiametrio, the wparfite hyphae 
Dot distinfcuisbable ; » intrlM'ta, 
the hypliae nmniDgin variaaadLreo- 
tiODS, with wslU Dot coaleuteiit ; 
— obllU, hjphae nearlj parallel, 
and having small oavitiea with 
thiakened walla ; — poiTw'ta, 
hyphae with large cavities and no 
tbiokened walls ; ~ prlinut'iea, 
oelll not JBodiametrio, hjphae not 
Huluolflor'kl, tbaiamillor'ciu (fiXa- 
/ut, B bed-chamber, fiot, florid, a 
flower), when the parta of the 
flowers an hypogjFnoua, separately 
inserted on tbe thalamUB ; TbaU- 
inlllcir'a*, a group of PhuneroGams 
hollow case containing spores Id 
Algal*" ; (2) " the disk or Lamina 
prolifira in Lichens " i (3) " a form 
of the hjmenium in Fungali " (all 
from Liodley) ; TtuU'ainni, the re- 
ceptacle of the Bower, the tarns. 
tbalaa'iiiiiii, thalaa'alcus (Lat,, from 
B6,\aaiia, the sea), sea-green ; Thal- 
u'aopbTte (^urar, a plant), a marine 
niallld'lnia {BaWit, a sprout), a 
vegetative reproductive body. 
ospeoially amongst Thallophyt«8 
and MuBcineae (Kerner) ; thal'llne, 
Ihallinvii, thdUo'dal, thallo'dic, 
Ihallo'dei, UuI'lOBS, pertaining to a 
' tballus ; raal'Iogams, term used by 
UyMke for Vascular Cryptogams i 
■ftkallog'anua (7ifMo<, marriage), 
* "uone's term for Algae; Tbal'- 
I (yirm, race, o^pring), a 
I flnonym of TnALLOPHrra ; UaJ'- 
' lold ((tfoi, resembUnce), having 
I the nature or form of a thallus; 
I applied to Hepaticaa in which tbe 
pvaeetative body is not a leafy stem, 
^MilfarchaRfui ; th«Ual'dal (Crotier) 

isBHyaonym ; Tluriome, athallna- 
tike growth ; i^. CAdLOMB ; nal'- 
10[ill]Pta (^i/Tov, a plant), a plant 
whose growth is tballoid, no clear 
distinction of leaf or ails ; Thal'- 
loB, pi. Tbal'lt. !■) a vegetative 
body without differentiation into 
stem nnd leaf ; in Fungi the whole of 
the body which does not serve for 
reproduction; (2)Qoelie1'sterm for 
the organ of attachment in Ter- 
niola, a genus of Podostomaceaa, 
competed of coalesced dorsiveottal 
branches ; - Oonld'U, the gonidia 
in the thallns of a Lichen ; tha 
Liuhen tballus is subdivided into, 
■- lepo'dea, crustaceauB ; — pla'- 
oodas, foliaoeous ; ~ tbmmno'dti, 

ntant'&lnm t (Bitwot, a shrnb), the 
bushy thallua of such Lichens aa 
noblaa'ttu (fiXaan!, a bud), used 
by Koflrber for a fruticose Lichen. 

Thebft'lue (from Thebes, where opium 
was much employed), one of tha 
crystelliEed alkaloids occurring in 
tbe opium poppy. 

ThB'ca (e^ttr, a case), (1) the spor- 
angium of a Fern ; (2) the capsule 
of a Moss; (3); an anther; (4;t 
used by Necker for the fruit of 
MyrlacBae; (5)t "a cell of any 
sort" (Lindley) ; (6) = Aacua ; 
(7) used by Vines for the loculua 
of an anther ; {S) "a hollow spaoe 
in the pericarp formed by doubling 
of the endocarp " (Oray) ; Tbe'ck- 
phore {^iBpfai, I carry), the stipe of 
a carpel, homologous with the 
petiole ; nie'CBapare (a-Topi, a 
seed), — AscosFOKE ; tbecupor'- 
am, used of Fungi which have 
the spores in Asci (Btormonth) ; 
thaoa'tDi, bearing a theca ; tha'olal, 
poBseuiog tbecae or pertaining to 
them ; ~ Al'gae, the bymeni^ 
gonidia of Lichens : niMld'lait, 
rAecuriuTD t = AcBKNK ; thadf- 
emu (/ero, I bear], bearing thecaa 
orasei ; tlie'olBer,(Aici3'fT«i>(s«ro, I 
bear), theca-bearing, applied to the 
hymanium of Fongi, and branohM 



of MossM whioh bear setae; 
Tbe'dimi, a layer of tiisue below 
the epitheoium, which oontains 
the sporangia in Lichens (Minks), 


Tbe'in, the most important alkaloid 
in the leaves of Thea, the tea- 

TbelM, sometimes used for the theoa 
(ascus) of Lichens. 

tliileidi'orold {Thdephorua, etdos, re- 
semblance), like the genos Thde- 

tlMle'idionui (^X^, a nipple, ^pita, 
I carry), covered with nipple-like 

tbeiotrs'mold, having tabercular 
apothecia like those of Thdotrtma, 

tlieiyg'enons (^^Xvt, female, y^pw^ 
race, offspring), inducing the 
female element, as ^ Oastra'tion, 
the production of pistils in the 
male-flowers of a host by UstUago, 

Tlieobro'mlne, the active principle of 
the cacao-bean, ThecA)T<>ma Cacao, 
Linn. ; theobro'mlnus, the deep 
chocolate brown of the seed of the 
same plant. 

tlieoiret'ic {deaptiriKhit speculative), 
pertaining to theory, as distinct 
from practice ; ^ U'agram, a floral 
diagram of the theoretic com- 
ponents, not necessarily the same 
as seen on inspection. 

tlier'mic {Oipfirj, heat), warm ; ^ Gon'- 
Btant, the sum of the mean tem- 
peratures of the days of active vege- 
tation, up to some definite phase 
in the plant's life, minus a certain 
initial temperature determined by 
several years' observations, and 
varying for the species (Oettinger) ; 
Thermo-dlelatog'amy ( + Cleistog- 
AMY), when flowers do not expand 
as a consequence of insufficient 
warmth (Knuth) ; Thermotax'is 
(ro^if, order), changes produced 
by warmth ; adj. thermotac'tic ; 
thermoph'llic (0iX^ai, Hove), applied 
to those bacteria which thrive in 
high temperatures; Tliermot'onus 
{rdi^St strain), the relation between 
temperature and the manifestation 

of irritabilitj ; tl wimulrop ^ie (rptrj^ 
a taming), relating to TlMriiiotf- 
roplam, curvature £peadeiit upon 
temperature (Wortaiann). 

Tliiek'fliitDg Lay^er, an apparent layer 
of cellulose on the inner faoe ol 
a oell-wall ; '^ Binff, Saoio'a term 
for a ring of meristem in whioh 
the first fibro-Taaoolar bundles 

migmofroplim {BfyfiA, anything 
touched), curvature indaoed in 
climbing plants hy the stimulus of 
a rough surface (Coapek) ; TlilgiBO- 
taz'ifl (ro^cf, order) is a aynooym ; 
adj. tldgmotae'tio. 

Tbom, usually an aborted branoh, 
simple or branched. 

Tliread, used by Blair for the Fuji- 
MENT ; Thread-ind'icator, a form of 
apparatus for measuring the rate of 
growth ; tliread-sliaped, filiform. 

tliree-an'gled, trigonous ; *** dsft^ 
trifid ; ^ oor^nend, ^ edgvd, with 
three sides, plain or incurved, and 
three acute angles, triquetrous ; *** 
leaded, trifoliate; '^ lobed, tri- 
lobed ; ^ nerved, with three 
principal veins ; ^ parted, tri- 
partite ; ^ ranked, with three 
vertical rows on a stem ; ^ xlbbed, 
the midrib and one rib on each 
side more prominent than the rest; 
'^ Talved, trivalvate. 

fhrice-diglta'to-pin'iiate, = TBrnob- 


Throat, the orifice of a oamopetalous 
corolla or calyx, the nuces. 

Throm (Grew), Thmmb (Blair), (1) 
the filament of a stamen, (2) in 
Composite florets, the anthers ; 
thrum-eyed, applied to a short- 
styled dimorphic flower, such as a 
primrose, the stamens alone being 
visible in the throat of the coroUa. 

Thmsh-ftin'gus, the disease ascribed 
to Dermatium cUhirans, Laurens. 

Thun'der-broom = Witches' bboom. 

Thyll, Thyria, Thylose, Thy'llose 
(Germ. Thylle), (/. Xylose. 

thy'rold (Ovpeos, a shield, cldos, re- 
semblance), shield-like, peltiform 


TIiyn«, Tkyr'nnii (Lat.. Ibe Bitaohic 
■taff), a mixed inSoreaoenoe, a 
contracted or ovate panicle, the 
main sxia mdetermiDate, but the 
■econdary and ultimate aies cy- 
moBo ; thyrBireroaa, -nis (ftro. I 
bear], beariog a tbyrse; Uiyiidaor'DB 
{fiat, ftoria, a flower], Ihe flowers 
in a thyrae ; tli?T'iUonn {forma, 
shape), ahaped like a tbyrae ; 
thyr'toid (ddoi, reaemblance), like 
a thyrsus ; TIitt'iiiU, the little 
cyme which is boroe bj most 
IJibiales in the axil of the leaves. 

Tlge, pr. teej (Fr., tige), stem ; 
Tljr'rt, = TlgeUs', Tigd'la, Tigel'- 
Inm, Tiyel'lus, a miniature or 
initial atem, used for (a) caulicle 
or hypocotyl, {li] plumale ; Ujr^la'- 
tu, t (1) having; a short, stalli, oa 
the plumule of tTie liean ; (2) when 
the stalk is well marked; Tlgftl'- 
HUa t a abort filament or eulk 
observed intheTrufllei tlfreUnla'rti, 

Tiglliie, the acrid principle in the 
seeds of Croton Tiylium, Lino. 

Til'lar, a sucker or branch from the 
bottom of the stem ; til'larlnf, 
throwing out stems from the base 
of the atem ; Tlllow (Crozier), - 

Tlm'tMT-llne, the upper limit of ar- 
boreal vegetation on the moantains. 

tlnctor'iouB, -riiu, tinotoi'ial (Lat,, 
[>ertaining to dyeiog), used for dye- 
ing, imprinting colour. 

Tln'dw - foDs'iu, Polffporva fomen- 
taritu. Ft. 

nnalra'alte (rcfru, 1 eitead, + 
Lkucite), Van Tieghem'a term for 
directing spheres, the centroaomes. 

Tip, used by Grew for Anther. 

Tia'sne, the teilure or material 
formed by the union of cells of 
similar origin and character, and 
mutually dependent; tisauea united 
form systems, these again farm 
organs; ~ Oord, central cord 
(Crozier) ; aq'usoos ~ , ■ form of 
hypodermn, consisting of thin- 
Bi-valled parenchyma wanting chloro- 
'Mtide, but containing much 

-watery aap; CanJnn'ctlTa ~,groDnd 
ttasae arising from the plerome or 
young stele; ottUo'ulsjliea- , modi- 
Bed cell-Wtttta, as epidermis and 
periderm ; embryon'lc ~, = Meki- 
STBM ; ex'tn-ste'lar - , see Gbouhd 
TisscB ; false ~ = si-dbio(I9 ~ ; 
glan'dulu ~ , composed of secreting 
cells or glands ; Oround ~. funda- 
mental tissue, neither vascular nor 
epidermal, either within or without 
the stele ; heterog'enciiu ~ , con- 
sisting of various kinds of cells; 
homogs'neoua ~, when the cells 
are uniform ; Intra Ete'lar - ^ CoN- 
JtrNcTiVB TisacE ; llm'ltai? -, 
epidermal tissue ; paivnabf'nuit- 
oua ~ , (a) thin-walled, as pith 
cells ; (6) thick-walled, aa collea- 
chyma :|per'niBiieiit ~, adult tissue; 
pii'mary ~ first formed tissue ; 
proaencliy'matoua ~, woody tissue; 
aclsreachr'matoiu ~. thickened or 
hardened, as fibres or sclereids ; 
sec'ondary — , I'ssulting from 
growth from continuous meriBt«- 
matic activity ; alBye — , of long 
(U'ticulated tubes, communicating 
by means of their sieve-platei in 
their walls; EpQ'rioni ~, an 
approach to a tissue, by hyphaa 
uiassing into a felt, or their apices 
forming a. collective apical growing 
point ; tegmnen'tary ~, the ex. 
ternal epidermal layer ; tra'chaftl 
~, cool posed of Iracheids.espeoiaUy 
adap(«d for the conveyance of 
liquids; vas'cular ~, the com- 
ponents of the vascular system of 

Tmern* {T/i^iia, section), a cell 
ruptured in setting Iree a Moss- 
gemma (Correns). 

toni'aena [Lat.. formed of tufa), (I) 
tufa-ooloured, buffy drab; (2) 

TdIh (Fr., a fathom), a measure for- 
merly used in France, 6'39Ci feel, 
1-9492 metre,0 French feet. 

Toln', a resinous exudation from 
Myroxyton fo/ui/tram. H. B. K. 

to'mentosB, lomtnio'tne, lomsn'toDJ, 
densely pubescent with malted 


wool, or ahort hairs ; tomen'tnlOM, 
Blightly tomentose ; Tom«ii'tiim 
(Lat., cushioning), (1) pubesoenoe ; 
(2) t myoeliom. 
tomlp'aroiiB {rSfiii, a enttinff, pario, 
I prodaoe), Bory applies Uie term 
to all plants which reprodaoe 
themselyes by fission; TOm'iaiiffe 
(a77eiby, a vessel), the organ which 

produces Tomas; TOm'ie, pi. 
T6m'iM, Van Tie^hem's name for 
asexual reprodactive bodies which 
are neither 8pobi8 nor Diodes, 
liWng cells which do not arise from 
an adolt stage, but produce an 
adult individual direct ; Tbm'logone 
(T^rot, offspring), the organ which 
produces Tomixb. 

Toogne = LiGULx; tongae-shaped, 
long, nearly flat, fleshy and 
rounded at the tip, as the leaves 
of some Aloes. 

Tcm'oplast {t6pos, strain, TXa^rof, 
moulded), De Vries's term for a 
vacuolar living membrane, con- 
trolling the pressure of the cell- 
sap ; Tonotax'ifl (rd^if, order), 
sensitiveness to osmotic variation 

Tooth, see Tubth ; tootlied, dentate ; 
Tootti'let, a small or secondary 
tooth ; tootli'letted, finely denticu- 
late (Lindley). 

top-shaped, inversely conicaL 

Tdpla'rla, pi. (Lat.), ornamental sar- 
dening ; topU'rlan, top'lary, relat- 
ing to the same, especially used of 
trees and shrubs clipped into formal 

topical (rori«rof, local), local, confined 
to a limited area. 

topha'oeons, = tofaceus (2). 

TcnKala (toriM, a bed), Bessey's pro- 
posed name for Thalamiflorax. 

torfiii'oeiis, tur/o'mu (Henslow), grow- 
ing in bogs. 

torn, when marginal incisions are 
deep and irregular. 

to'rose, toro'tuB (Lat. , fleshy, brawny), 
cylindric, with contractions or 
swellings at intervals ; the diminu- 
tive is tomlo'sus. 

Tttr'floiL, a spiral twisting or bend- 

ing ; a'pioal «*', lateral displace- 
ment of the sesments of the apical 
cell in certain Mos s es, resnltiiig in 
the twisting of the resultant stem 
(Correns) ; antid'romoiif '«', against 
the direction of twining, as may 
be caused by friction of support; 
homod'romoiis '^ ,in the same direo- 
tion as twining, the intemode 
gyrating in the same way ; TonUm- 
«ym'moir7( + Stmmktrt), Schuett's 
term for those Diatoms whoee valves 
are twisted ; torsl'viis (Mod. Lat., 
squeesed out), spirally twisted, not 
quite as in contcnrted, there being no 
obliquity in the insertion, as in the 
petals of OrchtB ; tor'tllls (Lat., 
twisted), susceptible of twisting; 
tor'tns, twisted; tor'tiioiis, tor- 
ft<o'«tM, bent or twisted in different 

tomla'ceons (+ aoeous); toir^ulold, 
resembling the'genus Tomla, Pers. 

tor'nlose, tonUo'itua (tonc/Ms, musoolsr 
part), cylindric, with swollen 
portions at intervals, somewhat 
moniliform ; ^ Bnd'ding, increasing 
bv budding as yeast. 

Torus (Lat., a bed), the receptacle 
of a flower, that portion of the 
axis on which the parts of Uie 
flower are inserted; when dongated 
it becomes the Oonofhoub mod 
Gtvophobb ; ^ ta Pits, the thicken- 
ing of the closing membrane in 
bordered pits. 

Tonch'wood, decayed wood dae to 
fungus-mycelium, formerly used 
as tinder. 

Tox'ln (ro^iicoy, poison), a poisonous 
secretion by certain Fungi, which 
kills the cells of the host-plant and 
facilitates parasitism. 

Trabec'ula, pi. Traheo'iilae (Lat., a 
little beam), a cross-bar, '(1) the 
transverse bars of the teeth of the 
peristome in Mosses ; (2) plates of 
tissue forming partial septa in the 
microsporangium of IsoHes ; (3) the 
lacunar tissue in Selaginella, be- 
tween the cortex and the central 
bundle; trabeo'ular, like a cross- 
bar ; ^ Duet, *^ y«s's«l, a vessel 


wiLh croEa-bBT markings ; tnilMc'a- 
late, Imbitciila'tiu, croaa-barrad ; 
Trab'ecula. ~ TKAiiEOiii~i. 
Tra'cbea (IaI,, Ibe windpipe), a 
spiral duct or veaael ; trft dlMl, 
belonging to or resembling tra- 
cheae ; ~ Oallfl, tracheida ; - of the 
VMcular bundlea, the woody por- 
tion, the cribroM part asaociatod 
Titbbaat; tra'cbeaiy, =t>uohral; 
Tra'cbeld (dJoi, reaemblance), n 
closed cell baving secondary thick- 
ening ; vaaiform wood -coll of Good- 
ale ; ~ Seam, a group of peculiarlj 
thickened cella ^und in the laavea 
of Conifers on both sides of the 
vucular bundle, and formerly re- 
garded as part of the tranifasiun 
tiasue : TncIieiLCb'yma {l-yx''f"^i 
»a infusion), ti«sue oompoeed of 
tracheids or spiral veysels; Tn'- 
obeome, stated by Potoai6 not to 
be the tracheal, but the faydral 
system of the bundle, be therefore 

tndiyiiaT'pani, -piu {rpax^t, roagh 
to the touch, <ap»Dj, fruit), rough- 
^t fruited : tTMhyipenn'oui, -mut 
^^L{irep^, a aeed), rongh-seeded- 
^■juteriiun Uraclvt, dragged), the 
^Kiuterior Bagel! um of the zoospore 
^VtiE Saproleguieoe (Hartug), 
^Blv'acanai, a gum which Hows from 
^^LJtiragaJiu Tra^acanlha, Linn. ; 
^BXnjr^'Caii'aLlii, the same as Bxa- 
■ eo&iN, 

tatU'ing, prostrate but not rooting. 

traJec'Ule, irajec'lilit{lrti)K(iM,ipva- 
ing over), when the connective 
completely separates the aather- 

M'iiui(L»t,, weft), a rnoBS of byphae 

b the lamellae of some Fungi, from 

Ucb the bymenium BpriDgs ; 

ftyod subdivides it thus : ~ con- 

ata, the hyphae usually parallel, 

^ slightly oblique ; w tnTor'aa, 

pirben they are derived from the 

^b-hymenium ; ~ pennlz'ta, when 

E without apparent order- 

* '-■-»! {traiui, across or beyond, 

it,), used by 0. Mueller for 
I, at right angles to the 

apical axis, posaing through the 
centre of the pervalvar {mala 
longitudinal) axis of a Diatom ; ~ 
Plana, the plane at right angles 
to both valvar and apical planes. 


Trana'tsr (franyero, I bring over), of 
water, the passage of water by 
ducts or cells. 

nansfonna'tlon {tran/formaiio, a 
change of shape), (1) metamor- 
phosis ; (2) morphologio changes 
in an organ during its existence ; 
adj. tnuutonned' ; 

lay be a tendril, thorn, i 
larly changed organ ; ~ 
final shape of the call, s 

Cell, the 

trauheid, ete, 

Tnotara'BlOD llran^usio, a pouring 
out), transference ; ^ Tia sue, of 
two kinds of cells j (a) unpitted, 
with abundant protopliismiQ con- 
tents ; or {b) tracheidal cells, with 
similar contents ; - Btnud, con- 
sisting of parenchymatous or 
slii(btTy thickened cells at the 
innotion of the phlofira and xylem 
bundle elements, when a ring of 
Bclerenchyma is formed. 

Tnmiit'loiL {iraiuitio, a paasing over) 
Cells, celts which arc continuations 
of sieve-tubes, the longitudinal 
division into sieve-tubes and com- 
panion cells stops, and Traniit'ion- 
tlHoe is formed ; bunaltor'lna 
(Lat. , adapted for passing through), 
temporary, soon passing away (S. 
F. firay). 

nansla'tor (Lat., a transferrer), em- 
ployed for the EBTiNACUtUM of 

TTUMlaea'Uon (frcitu, across, locatio, 
a placing), the transference of 
reserve maUrial from one part to 

Tnuumls'slon ((rfin.977)iMt(i, a Bending 
across), used for the conveyance 
of stimulus as in DriMtra and 
Mimota pvdka, Lina , other leaves 


acting in sympathy; '^ OAUi = 


Ttammuta'tioin {tranamutOt I ahift), 
chemical change by addition or 
alteration of composition without 
complete resolution into its ele- 
ments ; ^ of Host, = LiPOXSNT. 

Ttansomla'tM {trans, across, + 
Oyulum), Van Tieghem's term 
for Phanerogams famished with 
transitory ovules; Tnnspira'tioin 
UpircUiOf a breathing), the ex- 
halation of watery vapour from 
the stomata of plants, not mere 

Ttansjwrt {transportOt I carry across), 
the oonveyanoe of assimilated sub- 
stance from one part to another; 

traasver'sal {transversua, athwart), 
lying crosswise; '^'Az'is of Diatoms, 
that axis which lies in the trans- 
versal plane, cutting the per- 
valvar (main longitudmal) axis (0. 
Mueller) ; ^ Wall, that which 
divides the basal and median walls 
of the proSmbryo of Archegoniatae, 
at rignt angles into upper and 
lower halves ; transver^san Plane, 
that which passes through the 
centre of a Diatom frustule verti- 
cally to the pervalvar axis (0. 
Mueller) ; tranwrreise, transver^nu, 
trcmweraa'lia, across, right and left 
as to bract and axis, collateral ; 
lindley gives "broader than long" 
as the definition of trcmsvernu ; ^ 
Oho'riMiB, when two or more organs 
instead of one appear above or 
within another ; ^ Geofropism, = 
DiAOSOTBOPiSM ; ^ Hellot'ropism 
=Diaheuotbopism; ^ Planes, 
those which cut the axis of growth 
and surface at right angles. 

trape'ilform, trapeztform'is {rpairij^iop, 
a figure of four unequal sides, 
forma, shape), an unsymmetrical 
four-sided figure, as a trapezium, 
almost the same as rhomboid ; 
trap'eioid, -deus {etSoSf resemb- 
lance), like a trapezium. 

Itap-biin, the special hairs which 
oonfine insects in certain flowers 

till pollination is eflBBOtad; </. 


Itapa, pL, Prison-flowera, inch as 
Arisiolochia, which confine insect 
visitors until poUination has taken 

Ttanbe'a CMls, artificial oelUi fomied 
by various solutions of geUtine 
and other colloids, which have 
been used to explain the phe- 
nomena of intiiasnsoepti<m. 

tnwmatrop'lo (rpa0/u^ a wound, 
rporii, a taming), showing the 
influence of wounded root-tipe ; ^ 
Oor'Tatart, the bending of roots in 
consequence of injury to thcdr tips; 
Itanmafroplam, FfeSSer'a term tor 
the phenomena consequent on the 
infliction of wounds on the tip of 
a growing root. 

Tre'balase, an enzyme which hydxo- 
lizes Trelialoae, a sugar found in 
many Fungi and stated to be 
identical with the ''Trehala" 
(Persian Manna), a waxy excretion 
produced by a coleopterous larva 
to form its cocoon. 

tremeiloid {Tremella, ctSot, resemb- 
lance), j^y-Uke in substance or 
appearance. Like the genus 

Ttee, a woody plant with an evident 
trunk ; tree-like, resembling a 
tree, but smaller ; dendroid. 

trl, in compounds, from Greek (rpccf ) 
or Latin (^re«)= three or triple. 

Triacbae'nium (trt, from tres, three + 
Aghabnittm), like a oremocarp, but 
of three carpels ; Ttiadel'pkSa 
(dSeX^s, a brother), a Linnean 
order of plants with their stamens 
in three sets ; triadei'pboaa, fila- 
ments in three brotherhoods ; M- 
ake'nium = Triachaenium ; trlan'- 
der=trlan'drou8, trlan'dxian {i^^p, 
dp5f>iHf a man), having three 
stamens ; Trlan'dria, a Linnean 
class of three-stamened plants; 
trian'gular, triangida'ris {angulua, 
an angle), with three angles; 
triangnla'tUB (Lat.), three-angled ; 
trian'thous (di'^of, a fiower), three- 
flowered, as a peduncle ; tri'azth 


ivi t b three lign eou 
I {Ipp^, male), 

Tllb«. rri'Aua(Lat.. adiviBionofthe 
people), a, group superior to a 
);Dnu3, but lesB than an order. 

trlUiu'tnt {rpfU, three, ^Xatrit, a 
bud], Koerber'e term for a Lichen* 
spore, which is triloaular and able 
to germinate from ekoh loculua. 

trtb'nloid (<13os, regemlilance), like 
the fruit of TrihuUui, beset with 
sharp briatles, echiuate (Reinig). 

TH'ea (deriv. !), a button-like apo- 
thecium of the geous Oj/rophom. 

Ulcutt'knu (tri, three, -I- Cauardb), 
when a fruit is composed of three 
locali 1 tlicaT'lnxte {r-ariTiatiLf. ked- 
fonned), with three keeta or aogles, 
■■ oerlaio Diatcmn ; ineaLrp«riai7, 
tTle&r'pellate. trlcar'poaE, -put 

(jcaprot, fruit), of three carpels ; 
tarlMl'lnlKr ( + cilldlak), oonsiet- 
ing of three cells (A. Brauu) ; 
trloBpU'slmis, -lia (kc^kiXji. a head), 
triple- headed, with three bands of 
Trlclild'luiii [9pli, rpixoii B hair or 
bristle) = Sibkioma ; trlchlferona 
{/tro. I bear), producing or bearing 

»UlirB ; trtcb'ifonn {foma. shape). 

(lirutlc-shapedfJ. Smith): 
% needle-shaped crj'slal of am jloae 
ia starch grains, stated to form the 
Utter by aggregation (A. Mejar) ; 
toioliotMCW'rla(-t-BAi7rBBM), those 
iMctcria which puBsess oilia ; Tllcb'- 
«IAut {^aarii, a bud), used by 
Skcbs for such Idzoblasts as are 
especially distinc^ished by their 
BIBS or branching ; trlotkMar'piu 
(napinii, fruit), when fruit is coverud 
with hair-like pubeseenco ; trl- 
abocepb'alOB (if «aX4, a heoil), when 
p Sowers are collected into heads, 
kpnd surrounded liy hnir-like ap- 
Kftndages ; trlcho'des idSoi, re- 
rMmblance), resembling hair; Tricb. 
OBo'nlum (yopTj, race, offspring), 
ft proposed emendation of Tkicb- 
oovNE ; Trioh'ogyne {yiKr^, a 
woman), [I) the receptive Slament 

(2) in the Lichen genua Oyro- 
phora, by Lindau tonned Tbrx- 
BBATOB : trlobofryn'ial, relating to 
a trichogyna ; Tricbolo'mii (Awfio, 
a fringe), when an edge or border 
is furnished with hairs ; Trlch'oma, 
pi, Trlchom'sta, (1) lbs filamentous 
thalluB of such Algae as Con/erva 
(Lindley) ; (2) the filaments in 

trlchom'alLold ( TricAomanes, tltof, 
resemblance), like the genus Tri- 
cAomaneJi in habit. 

Trlcb'oms, Trkho'ma {rplxu/ia, a 
growth of hair), any hair-like out- 
growth of the epidermis, as a bair 
or bristle : Trlcb'opliOTB (^op/u, 
I carry), a row of cells of aprocarp 
bearing thetrichogynsinFlorideae; 
Trlcliopli'oruiii, the stipe of Fungi 
when formed of " filaments " 
(Henslow) ; triohophyl'lus (<pu\Xor, 
a leaf), hair-like leaves, that is, 
finely cut ; MohospDran'ge ~ Ttl* 
cboBporan'glum ( + Sfokanoivm), 
Tburct's term for the multilocular 
Bpor;kngium of the Phaeosporeae, 
apparently of jointed baits ; Mclio- 
tbal'Iic (daXXoi, a sprout), when 
the sboot ends in one or more 
multicellular hairs or tuft of suob ; 
- Oenuna'tlon, the origin of young 
plants from the hairs scattered on 
the thallus of Atptrococcut ; " 
Growth, with filiform thallus, the 
tips bearing tufts of hairs. 

tri«bot'omon«, -mtu {rplxa, in a 
thres-fold manner, rs/iq, acutting), 
three-forked, branohing into throe 
divisiouB ; mcbot'omy, division 

trlcoc'cous, •cue {tri, three, + Cocxjds), 
consisting of three cocci ; tri'DOlor, 
(co/(7r, colour), having three coloura ; 
trloas'tale (roflatus, with ribs), 
having three ribs ; tiiootjle'donna 
(+ CoTVLKnoN), when three coty- 
ledons are present, or when one or 
two are so deeply divided M to 
seem double. 

trlcoa'pld, trtcu'pldtite, irieutpida'tiu 

{iriemspis^ haTing three points or 
tines), tipped with three cusps or 
pointed tips. 

trteas'nte {tri, three, + eossste), 
used for whoris of three kaTcs 
esoh, the lesTos of esch whorl 
sltemsting with those abore end 
below; tf. dbcusbatb (6. 

theftOc (r^ from rpeU^ three, 
cvsXm, a circle), when the members 
of a series are in three whorls. 

Mdn'tate, tridenia^tuMitridau^thnt' 
pronged), three-toothed, trident- 

Mdls'ltKte, tridigiia'tM* {tri, three, 
digUfUf a finger), thrice digitate, 

tri'dBiiB {iridvMm^ the space of three 
days), lasting three days. 

tridj'mns {rpiAviwtt triple), when of 
three laminae in Agarics, the 
middle is the larger. 

tridj'iiamoiis (t/m, three, di/rafuf, 
power), when three stamens oat 
of six are longer than the rest; 
trie'dsr {Hpa, a seat), triangolar. 

trieii'iiis, triennialis (rrieiuutim, the 
space of three years), lasting three 

trtftr'iam (Lat., triply), tilllur'iODS, 
-ttu, facing three ways, in three 
vertical ranks. 

trifid, trif'idns (Lat.), three cleft. 

trlflo'nras (tri, three, flo9, Jhris, a 
flower), three - flowered ; triJto'- 
Uolate, trifoliola'tus ( + foliolatb), 
with thr«e lesfleU; trifoliate, 
trifolia'tus, trifo'lius {/olitun, a 
leaf), three-leaved. 

trlform'is t (La^-i baving three 
forms), bearing flowers of three 
different kinds, as certain Com- 
posites ; trimorphic 

trlftur'cate (trifurcus, with three 
prongs), having three forks or 

trlg'amoas (t/m, three, ydfun, mar- 
riage), bcHsring three kinds of 
flowers ; trimorphic. 

trlgem'lnoiis {trigeminua, triplets), 
tergeminate, trijugate. 

Iri'glMis {trif three, glofu, an acorn), 

cwtaimng three aate within an 
iBvolncre, as Cattmmta suliiw. MilL 


three - angled; TMs^obsb* pL, 
Sjpraoe'a term for the thiekeniiig in 
the an|^ of the cells of the leaves 
in certain Hepaties, or as in ooOeii- 
ohyma ; lilswyim^fi (sMr^i, 
frmt), fruit having three •vtdent 
angles: tttf'cBoaa, -nacs, three- 
angled, with plane faosi^ 

IkigyB'ia {rpi, thrse, 7*^ » wwnany, 
a Linnean order of plants with 
three styles ; tUf^jmBmrn, -nns, with 
three pistils or styles. 

trihila'tos i<ri, thrse -I- Hii4TM), 
haying three apertores, as in soms 
grains of pollen ; tfftn'gatoy trifu- 
gafiuM, trUv'ffOva, frT/M^vf {jmgMM^ 
a yoke), with three pairs of pinnae ; 
trilam'eOar {iri, three, lomeflo, a 
plate of metal), applied to a com- 
poond stigma having three diri- 
noos flattened lue bands ; 
trilat'cnl, trilaUra'lu {iaim, 
lateru^ a side), prismatic, with 
three sides; trOoliKte, irOolmM 
{lobuB, a lobe), three-lobed; 
triloe'iilmr, trUoetMris {locMlmM^ a 
little cell), three-celled; Iri'm- 
eroos, -mf {lUpm^ a part), in 
threes, three membered parts. 

tarlmes'trls (Lat., of three months), 
lasting three months, or matoring 
in that time, as Zatvtein trimesfrw, 

trimor'ldiic, trimor'plUNifl (rpc, three, 
fiop^, shape), oocorring under 
three forms, of stamens ami styles, 
long, short, and intermediate ; 
Trimonoe'cism (+ Monoicibx), 
monoecious, but existing in 
trimorphous condition ; Mmor^- 
pMsm, heterogony, with long-, 
short-, and mid-styled flowers. 

tri'mus (Lat.), lastinff three years. 

trlner'vate, trinerwfttu, trinerved', 
triner^vis, triner^viua (<r», three, 
nervus, a nerve), three-nerved; 
trlnervula'tos (Lat.), with three 
nerve-like strands in the placenta ; 
trlno'dal {nodvs, a knot), with 
three nodes or joints; MM'eia 




(oliiii, a house), a Linneui order of 
pUntB wiLb trioecioiu Qowerg ; 
trioe'dooa, with BUuniuate, piitil- 
late, and hemmphnHiite flowers on 
three distinct pUnU ; trloa'donsly 

iMmUpll'tOdlle = TltlMORPHIU 1 

triol'coiu. I'Mi, the mode oC spelling 
preferred by bryologiBta ; trtoper'- 
eol&ts, Iriupercula'tus ( + Ofeh- 
ODLCM), hiving three Ud«; toloT'- 
nlato, trimida'lua (+ OvBi.UM), 
with three ovules ; tilpaleola'toa 
(+ Palia), aoaaiating of three 
paleue/u the Bowera of bamboo ; 
trlpftr'tca (parfifiu, cleft], parted 
to the bu« in three divigioos ; 
tilpu'tlU* IpariibilU, divisible), 
tending to apUt into three parts. 

tripar'tite ((nparti'du, three-fold), 
divided into three ports. 

trlpeo'iuite, triptjinalag (rn, three, 
pcriiiii, a feather), = tripinnate i 
trtpet'alold, Iriptlaloi'dtMt {■wtToKay, 
a Sower-leaf, tlio%, resembUnce), <u 
If three- petalled ; trlpet'alani. -Iwi, 
baviD); three petala ; Triphyllome 
[^iWav, a leaf], hy pathetically 
three segnienta to form a carpel, 
two liypophjlts, superior and fer- 
tile, the third sterile and inferior 
(Pasquale) ; trlpbyl'lons, -lui, three- 
leaved ; tripln'iuite, Iriinnna'ltii 
(-*• Pins*), thrice pinnal* ; trt- 
ptmutt'lfld, tr'tpintiatifidiu (jld, 
from Jittdo, I cleave), thrice 
pinnatifld ; trlpinnAt'Uect {neclut, 
cut), thrice pinoatiBect. 

trlpIi;let'lo irpx, three, ^I'Xtritii, 
tribal), used of hybrids contaiD- 
ing the blended strains of three 

TUp'Iaa; {tnplaeiua, threefold), the 
diviBJon ol an organ int« three 
analogouB structures (Fermond). 

trip' le- nerved, ~ libbsd, — veined 
{triplex, threefold), with a midrib ' 
dividing intfl three, or sending off ' 
a strong bmnch on each side above I 
the baae of the blade ; trlp'lez, 
triple ; trlp'Uc&t«, trlpltca'tns 
(Lat.), In a triple manner, as trip- | 
lloa'to -gemlna'tuB, — tergemin- 
■te; ~ -narrft'tai, = tri pi i nerved ; I 

~ -plmia'tiiB, - tripionate ; tripli- 
cate- tet'oate, -tritemate(CrDEier); 
tilp'licl-ter (Lat,), thrice repeated ; 
trlpllcoa'tate {eoslaivi, ribbed), 
having three ribs, triple-ribbed ; 
trlpIllDnn'la {forma, shape), u 
Iripifform'ia Fo'lia, " leaves re- 
sembling the triple-leaved form " 
(Lindley) ; trlpUnsrved', tripli- 

trlp'lo-canlu'cent {triplut, triple ^ 
CADLBSCENT). When B. plaQt haa a 
third (tertiary) system of axes ; 
trlplna [Lat.), threefold ; Irlplo- 
oKn'ioni ( + Caflis), posseMing 
lerosry axes (Pax). 

iTlp'taroni, -rai (rpi, three, urtpiir, 
a wing), three- winged. 

trlqne'ter, trtqae'troDs, iriqw'inu 
(Lat.,lhree-ooriiered), three-edged, 
with three salient angles. 

trlqul'nate, Iriquitia'tia {tri, three, 
-I- ijDtsATUS), divided into thtve, 
then into five ; tri'ssct, triMe'ted, 
Irivce'tuA {ircltu, out), divided into 
three, three-cleft to the baee ; 
trliep'olont, iriiep'aiiu { + Sip- 
ALDU), having three sepals; isl- 
sep'taU (+ Septum), with throe 
septa or partitions, as in manv 
spores; trlse'rlsl, tri»eria'lis; trUa'- 
TiAte, Iriasria'tiu (Kfiai. a row), in 
three horiaontal ranks or series, 
trifarioDs ; trlspenn'inu {artpua, n 
aeed), three-seeded ; (TlKacb'ynf 
{otAx'^. a spike ol com], three- 
spiked ; trls ttchons, -ehtu {rrlxot, 
a series), in three vertical ranks ; 
trUtlgmftVle, Irisligmal'iciu ( + 
Stioma), having three atigmae. 

trla'tls [Lat., sad), of a dull or un- 
attractive colour, as the flowers of 
MaUhioia trietie. R. Br. 

blrtirloiu, -liu {Iri, three, + Sttlcs), 
with three styles ; trliynco^rl*'- 
donotia (De Vries) 

taimt'cate, Irifutca'ltia {trimleu* 
having three furrows), with three 
grooves or furrows. 

tTltar'nate {tri, three, + ncBKAti), 
thrice temate. 




Trl'tleiii, the proteid of wheat, 
Triticum vulgare, VilL, preient in 
its gluten. 

trlim'diilftte {tri, three, + undulatb), 
OBed for Diatoms having three un- 
dulations on the dorsal side of the 

tEtral'TnUr {tri, three, + yalyulak), 

Iriy'lml (trivialis, common-plaoe), 
ordinary, common ; ^^ Names, the 
oommon name of a plant, the 
adjective, or more rarely, the 
second substantive appended to a 
generic name to connote a species. 

Ttix'eny (r/x, three, l^rof, a guest or 
host), l)e Bary's term for the con- 
dition of a parasite which passes 
its career in three host-plants. 

troohlear, trochlea'rie (trochlea, a 
pulley), trochlea'rlform {forma, 
shape), pulley-shaped. 

troph lo {rjwp^, nourishment), relat- 
ing to increase in thickness, cf. 
Trophy; trophile'gic {\iya, I 
collect), collecting food • material 
for the plant, as the shell-like 
barren fronds of PlcUycerium are