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1 EN years ago the work which has resulted in the publication of 
this book was somewhat more than merely entered upon. But I 
am not able to say how long it is ago since the first thoughts of 
publication in the present, or in any, form definitely presented them- 
selves : it was not, however, until some time after the labour bestowed 
had begotten greater interest, and the interest had stimulated not only 
increased painstaking but more diligent and systematic study. In 
the hope the book may prove that neither the labour nor the study has 
been quite without effect towards the illustration of an interesting 
subject and in the cause of philology, it is now submitted to the 
judgment of the public. 

No one can be more sensible than the author of its many imper- 
fections and deficiencies. Many errors, many failures, many short- 
comings will inevitably be pointed out. Working alone and unassisted, 
as he has done, in a singularly remote district, far from any accessible 
collection of books which might have been of aid, or from habitual 
intercourse with cultivated minds, with the duties of a very wide Moor- 
land parish to attend to, with his children to teach himself, it could 
hardly fail to be so, however honest and hearty the labour bestowed in 
his not too abundant spare time might be. 

This is not written to deprecate criticism. He would, indeed, rather 
invite it. For fair and candid criticism might be an assistance to 
him if he should ever be in a position to carry out a plan, much more 
than half formed, of compiling a systematic Glossary of the great 


Northumbrian Dialect as a whole, or both as written in the past and 
as yet spoken in the present. It would be an assistance also to others 
whose object it might be to illustrate the dialects of their several 
districts as the author has sought to do for that of Cleveland. 

One of the chief difficulties in the task of compiling this Glossary has 
been in deciding what words were, and what were not, to be admitted. 
The principle which was finally adopted was not to admit any word, 
unless, either in its form, its application, its meaning or one of its mean- 
ings, it deviated sensibly from recognised or classical usage. This prin- 
ciple in some cases has seemed to require, rather than only to justify, 
the giving of the standard or classical definition of an admitted or clas- 
sical word, in order to trace the connection of that meaning which 
warranted or called for the insertion of the word itself as a provincial 
word. No doubt words have crept in which ought to have been ex- 
cluded : more than two or three such words have been noted while cor- 
recting the press. But it is hoped their number is not considerable. 

Not a very few words also, which were standard words at a given 
date past, which, in a sense, are standard words still, as resting on 
some such authority as that of the English Bible, words of which did, 
bidden are fair types, have been unhesitatingly admitted, because they 
have quite dropped out of use over possibly the greater part of the 
kingdom, although still in utterly familiar use in Cleveland. 

With reference to the definitions, they have been constructed with 
great care ; and it may be stated, as not quite wide of the purpose, 
that so far from having been drawn up to suit the. derivation (real or 
assumed) in each several case, a very large proportion of the whole 
had been composed, and fac-simile copies of them sent to the Secre- 
tary of the Philological Society for use in the preparation of the 
Society's Dictionary, before systematic enquiries as to derivation or 
connection had been,^ in the majority of instances, so much as 

* Some few modifications of the original definitions have, it is true, been made ; but 
the percentage of cases in which this is so is very small. In probably forty-nine out of 
fifty instances the MS. printed from has been the MS. from which the copies for the Phi- 
lological Society were actually taken. 


Besides the care taken in framing the definitions, the author has, in 
every case which seemed to require it, endeavoured to give effective 
illustration by the aid of copious — at least, of sufficient — examples of 
usage, a large proportion of which he had noted down as heard by 
himself at the mouth of some one or other of his Dales friends and 

As to the other illustration appended to a considerable proportion 
of the words constituting the Glossary, it must speak for itself; and it 
is perhaps not strictly necessary for the author, in conclusion, to dis- 
claim any intention to assume the mantle of the etymologist. He has 
simply sought to record, to derive or connect, and as far as his reading 
* would allow, to illustrate. 



iiORN and brought up in one of the Eastern Counties, and translated, 
a few years after taking my degree, into the North, first into Berwick- 
shire, then permanently into Yorkshire, the difficulties and whimsicalities 
attendant on the efforts after mutual comprehension between myself and 
the countryside northerners, with whom my clerical and other duties 
brought me into continual contact, were great enough, and often amply 
quaint enough, of themselves to induce, even had there been no natural 
liking and inclination, some notice of the circumstances in which oiur 
mutual complications originated. I did not comprehend their spoken 
dialect, and they did not understand my Southern English and pronun- 
ciation : and the reason was, not only that a very large proportion of 
their stock of current words, and especially in the case of elderly and 
untaught people, were not to be found in the English Dictionary, but 
that also the vowel and many of the consonantal sounds, as their words 
were spoken, were entirely different from those of the accredited 
English standard.'*' 

This statement, which is true of the North generally, is I believe, as 
strictly and emphatically true of Cleveland as of any other part of ancient ^ 
Northumbria : perhaps I should be almost justified, from circumstances 
and facts to be mentioned below, if I said more true. 

* As illustrative of this statement I may mention a circumstance which occurred to 
myself within a short period after my commenced residence in the North. I had occasion 
to engage a servant, and as there were reasons which rendered it difficult to fix a date for 
her coming, it was necessary to know her name and address. Her name was Charlotte 
Lamb» but the patronymic on her tongue sounded so utterly unlike Lamb to my untutored 
ear, that it was some minutes, and not without some trouble and evident annoyance on the 
poor girl's part at not being understood, that I came at last to the perception that, as she 
spelt it letter by letter, /, a, m, b, might in a northern mouth represent a sound very dif- 
ferent from that of English lamb. The sound to my ear was lorm or laum, in which every 
vocal element was altered except the initial /. 



On coming into pennanenl residence in Cleveland twenty-one years 
ago, it was natural that my thoughts should retiun from time to time to 
this subject, and equally natural that the recurrence of such thoughts 
should lead to speculation and eventually to study; and it is now 
more than twelve years since I began to collect and compare, and, in 
a measure, to investigate, I had already made a fair beginning of the 
Cleveland vocabulary when the Whitby Glossary was brought under my 
notice; a book of which 1 may say here, that die fidelity with which the 
words, and even, in many cases, their spoken sounds,* are indicated, the 
general accuracy of the interpretations annexed, and above all, the inte- 
resting and instructive examples in many cases added — independently 
of the philological value of no small part of its contents — make it worthy 
of a noticeable place in the class of local Glossaries. Taking that book 
in a certain sense as my text-book, I have, during the period just now 
indicated, pursued the subject systematically, alike in the study and 
among the people, and some of the processes and results— and of both 
the study and the collection — will be found in the following pages and 
in the Glossary which succeeds them. 

Every langu^e and dialect of a language, when duly interrogated, 
must always — and without dwelling on what it will reveal, if the enquiry 
be fully prosecuted, of the essential physical and psychical history of 
those who speak, or have spoken, il+ — be able to give in reply much of 
its own history in connection with its origin, coimection, and changes ; 
and it is impossible for any one fairly familiar with the dialect spoken 
in Cleveland, and only moderately acquainted with the Scandinavian 
languages and dialects, or even with any one of them, not to be struck 
with the curious family likeness obtruded on his notice between no 
scanty portion of die Cleveland words and those in current use among 
the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes of our own day. And not only in 
the case of words : — idioms, modes of expression, habitual phrases, 

• 1 lefei to luch tniuneei ii harzam, laabtli. fhanu; gniavt, txea/. See. (ihe true 
DithogTiphy of which is Blien, Utle, Bhive; gravs, Eofe, &c.): the vilui of luch 
phonetic fbrmi being often enceedmgly gre»l in the invesligition of dijlcclicil origin ot 
pcculiaiitiei. Sec below, pp. ixix, xkk, et icq.. p. 318, Sec, 

f ' The indy of wordi aity be tedioni to the ichoolboy. ai btnldng of itonei ii 10 the 
wajiide liboorir j but to the Ihoughtful eye of the geologiit theit itonei ire full of inte- 
teit ; — he leei minclu 00 the highroiil. aod rcidi chronidei in every ditch, t^uiguage, 
too, hu nurveli of hei own, which the unveili to the enqaiiing glance of the patient 
ttudenl. There are chroniclct below her surface, ihete are lennont in eveiy word.' L4c- 
turn OH lit SciniM ofLanguagt, by Max MiiUer, itl Ser. p, 1. 

' If a gefietal deitruction of booki. inch ai look place in China under the Empctor Thiin> 
chi-hoang (113 B.C.) (hould sweep away alt hiitarical documentj. language, even in itt 
mOM depraved ttite, would picierr« tht tecrett «f the pail, and would tell future genera- 
tiaoiof the home and migratloai of their aDceilon.' lb. p. 114. 




proverbs or proverbial sayings are found to occur, which, in many cases, 
are so nearly identical that what is ordinarily called translation is scarcely 
requisite in order to enable the Clevelander to appreciate the Danish 
sajdng, or the Dane the Cleveland formula. Thus, Professor Worsaae's 
expression, a/ pladske paa seen^ is our t' blash uik>' t' 8eea;7>^ har 
iniet imod det^ our Ah hes nowght agen that; Hon lever tnie ved 
daw nodd, our he deean't luik as if he lived upo' deeaf nuts; 
eg er boden tolv d&ler, our Ah was bodden (or boden) tolf pund ; 
e hele by er boden til cervsl, our t' 'heeal toon 's bodden (or boden) 
te t' burial, which last word half a century since would probably have 
been replaced by AnraL All these phrases and numberless others 
must and do strike upon the observation of the Yorkshireman who is 
brought into contact with modem Scandinavian either by means of 
the written tongues or by oral communication: and when one begins 
to study the matter out, the coincidences, in a percentage of cases which 
is very large indeed, resolve themselves into identity. 

It is now several years since, having become myself thoroughly inte- 
rested in the processes of collection and investigation of the constituents 
of the Cleveland dialect, and wishing to interest some of my Dales 
neighbours and parishioners in the subject also, with the hope of, by 
that means, paving the way for the reception of some assistance in my 
researches from among them, I threw together notes for a lecture on 
* The Traces left by the Ancient Danes in Cleveland/ In the introduc- 
tory portion of this lecture I drew an outline, necessarily imperfect, but 
still as faithful and accurate as I could make it within the narrow limits 
allowed me, and drawing upon both Danish and English historical 
sources, of the incursions and invasions of the Danes, ending, as they 
did, in permanent dominion in Northumbria — a dominion, moreover, 
which in many districts of the province in question most certainly rested 
upon systematic and effectual colonization of wide tracts.* Inasmuch, 
however, as Cleveland is not specially named in this page of history, 

* ' After the destruction of Repton, the Danes divided themselves into two armies, one 
of which, under the command of Halfdene, marched to complete the conquest of North- 
umbria, which they accomplished during <the ensuing winter, and extended their depreda- 
tions as far north as the country of the Picts and Strathclyde Britons. The lands were then 
parcelled out among the soldiers, who, growing weary of a marauding life, longed to possess 
settled habitations and fixed property of their own, and, exchanging the sword and battle- 
axe for the plough, applied themselves to cultivate and beautify the realm which they had 
•o long delighted to devastate.' St John's Four Conquests of England, i. 265. This was 
in 876. In 880 a still larger body of miUtary colonists received allotments in the same 
district and settled upon them. The same thing would, of course, occur again and again 
without special historical notice where smaller numbers of settlers were concerned, and I have 
only riven the above extract as a sort of embodiment of statements that appear not inire- 
qnently in the pages of both andent annalists and modem historians. 



I scarcely think it necessary to give even an outline of it here ; it has 
been done by various hands, both English and foreign, and, with what- 
ever variation or discrepancy as to minor particulars, yet without any 
material difference as to the great facts of Danish occupancy, sove- 
reignty, and lasting local, and even national influence.* 

Of course what was true of Northumbria generally, of very consider- 
able tracts in Yorkshire particularly, was as likely, a priori, to be true of 
Cleveland individually as of any other part of the district ; and consider- 
ing the geographical position of tlie tract in question, with Tees-mouth 
at one extremity and the Esk-mouth at the other, even more likely still. 
Nay, the very name itself — Cleveland — the moment enquiry began.'" 
turn in the direction indicated, was capable of becoming a witne' 
the fact that our Dales country, with its f^r and fertile valievs anf" -ly 
wooded hills, had not been overlooked by the Danish invaders and in- 
tending settlers. Camden held that Cleveland was ' so called, as it 
should seem, from precipices, which we call cliffs;' and although others 
are found to contend that ' the primary and leading idea of the name 
is undoubtedly not clif, but clity, as descriptive of its soil' (Graves' 
Clnnlanii. p. 33), yet the existing Old Norse name, KUfflmd, not only 
sets that question at rest by proving the correctness of Camden's sug- 
gestion, but places in a prominent position the facts that it is of Danish 
origin ; that the Danes took or obtained sufficient interest in the district 
to rename it; and that their influence was sufficiently lasting and power- 
ful to give the new name currency and permanence. The merest glance 
beyond the name of the district itself, and directed at what the district 
contains or includes of the same nature, is sufficient to fix the attention 
upon the Saxon name Streoneshalh in the South-East, replaced by the 
Danish name Whitby, and Whitby itself one of a group of equally 
marked Scandinavian names, Preslebi, Stackesbi, Overbi, Ntthnbi, 
Thingwala,^ Helredale, Gnip or Hauehesgard, Norvuinebi, Bertwail, 

• ' " Sweyn, king of Dcnmailc, and Olive, king of Norway, % short time befoce innded 
Yorlohire, and reduced it to labjectian. For there U, and lone hai been, a great admix- 
ture of people of Danith race in that prorincp, and a great limllirily of language." Wal- 
lingford'i Chronicle, Gale, p. 570. ■■ Giraldui Cambreniii and John of WaUingford aiMTl 
in direct lermi that there wai a ttrong infuilon of Danish in the popalalian and langaage 
(.(oui Nonhem pioTincM." ' Garactt't PhU. Buayt. p. 187. 

t The name Tbingwala alone, which occuii ui the Mmorial of BmfatHaa to Whitby 
Abbey, quoted entire by Young, pp. 908-913 : — ' VilUm et portum (Marii) de Witebi; 
Orerbi; et Nelhiebi. id eit Steimecher ; TKHgwala; Leirpel; Helredale; Btc.' : — ihit 
name alone u 10 marked that it i> difficult to concern it ihould nercr hi'e attracted atten- 
tion from any local hittorian or antiquarian before. ' Tingwalt, hroi, lom navnet Qpinga- 
vitlr) antydei, Oernei Hotedlhing gjennem Aarhundreder blev holdl,' ai Wonaae layi of 
the Bimoui Thingwal of Shetland, are woidt fully at cxpreniTe, beyond doubt, and a) 
capable of application in the caie of the Whitby Thingwila, ai in Chester. Orkney, Roi»- 


Sehvaii, Tliordtsa, and others, all included within the limits of what is 
now the parish of Whitby ; and, on the North- West, upon Mtdlelmrg, 
now Middiesborough, with its neighbour Arusum, Aresum or Harhusum 
(Aarkuus)* now Airsome, together with the closely adjoining Lachenebiy 
Leisingebi, Ormesbi, Englehiy Tormozbi\ Linthorpe, Arnodestorp^^^xA the 
like, aJl of them equally suggestive with the Whitby group of local 

In fact, the more closely investigation of this kind is pushed the more 
striking is the result ; and an analysis of the Cleveland names as given 
in the Domesday Survey, with occasional illustration or addition from 
other ancient documents, will I think prove not uninstructive. Taking 
Cleveland proper, together with Whitby and so much of the adjoining 
district as is grouped with it in the Domesday Summary of * Langeberge 
Wapentac,' we have the following names of places, ending — 

I. in bi, 

Witebi (Whitby) 

Prestebi (lost) 

Normanebi (Normanby, near Whitby) 

Ulgeberdesbi (Ugglebamby) 

Baldebi (Baldby Fields, near Whitby) 

Staxebi (Stakesby) 

Bamebi (Bamby) 

Alewardebi, or Elwordebi (Ellerby) 

Michelbi (Mickleby) 


Bergelbi, Bergebi (Borrowby) 

Rozebi, Roscebi (Roxby) 

Asuluebi, Asvluesbi (i. e. Asolf 's-by, Aislaby) 

shire, or Shetland itself. It was, as surely as in these other cases, the boveMing or principal 
political and judicial meeting-place for the district ; and it speaks very intelligibly of the 
extent to which the district was not only under the influence of, but inhabited by, men of 
Northern or Danish origin, that such a place of meeting should have existed in Cleveland. 

* On the South Jutland coast there are two towns nearly adjacent, one of which is Midle- 
burg, the other Aarhuus. It is scarcely possible that the coincidence of name in the case 
of &e two Clereland Danish settlements and in their S. Jutland neighbours should be merely 
accidental. Again, the name Upsal occurs once in Cleveland, and, besides, just on the borders. 
I believe one Essex village has forty-eight representatives and namesakes in New England 
{Geni, Mag, voL ii. 1863, p. 698), to say nothing of the UteraUy innumerable examples of 
which Boston or Chelmsford is a type. Even our own Danby is bom again in Canada 
West, in the name given by an emigrant from hence to the settlement he has formed near 
Niagara. Beyond any reasonable doubt the same feeling and practice in the days of the 
Old Northmen originated such Cleveland names as those now under notice : in other words, 
that emigrants from Upsala, Aarhuus, Midleburg, named their new residences after their 
ancient or original ones. 


BoUebi, Bolebi (Boulby) 

Danebi (Danby) 

Lesingebi, Leisingebi, Lesighebi (Lazenby) 

Lachenebi, Lachebi (Lackenby) 

Normanebi (Normanby, near Eston) 

Ormesbi (Ormsby) 

Bemodebi (Bamaby) 

Esebi (Easby) 

Badresbi (Battersby) 

ToUesbi (Tolesby) 

Colebi (Coulby Manor) 

Maltebi (Maltby) 

Englebi (Ingleby HiU) 

Turmozbi, Tormozbi (Thornaby) 

Steinesbi (Stainsby) 

Berguluesbi, Bergolbi 

Turoldesbi, Toroldesbi (Thoraldby) 

Rodebi (Hutton Rudby) 

Englebi (Ingleby Greenhow) 

Cherchebi (Kirby, near Stokesley) 

Dragmalebi (Dromonby) 

Buschebi (Buzby) 

Feizbi, Fezbi (Faceby) 

Englebi (Ingleby Amcliff) 

Bordalebi, Bordlebi (Mount Grace Priory) 

To these may be added, from other sources : 


Newby (in Seamer) 
Yearby (in Kirkleatham) 
Netherbi, Overbi (in Whitby) 

II. in thorpe. 

Ugetorp, Ughetorp (Ugthorpe) 

Roschetorp, Roscheltorp (possibly Hailthorpe, near Sca- 

Amodestorp (probably Arnold's Toft near Linthorpe, in 

Torp (Kilton Thorpe) 

Torp (Nunthorpe) 

Torp (Pinchingthorpe) 



Ainthorpe (inDanby)* 
Linthorpe or Leventhorpe 

III. in um. 

Jarum (Yarm) 

Morehusum, Morhusum (Moorsholm) 

Locthusum, Loctusum (Lofthouse) 

WesUidum, Westlidf (Kirkleatham) 

Upelider (Upleatham) 

Lid (Lythe) 

Flonim, Flore (Flowergate, Whitby) 

Achelum, Aclun (Acklam) 

Laclum, Lelun (Lealholm) 

Toscotum, Tocstune (Toccotes) 

Cotum (Coatham) 


* The history of this name is rather a curious one. In a Register of Burial, 1623, the 
name is written Axmitthwaite ; in the map in Graves' Qevdand it is Armantbwaite ; in a 
plan of the Manor, dated a.d. 1751, and hanging in the entry of Danby Lodge, it is Arm- 
thwaite. But the tbwaite has completely given place to the iborpe, and in the customary 
pronunciation in the mouth of a true Clevelander it becomes Ain«t*rup, the b being almost 
entirely suppressed. This provokes comparison with the like names so frequently occurring 
in Denmark, and in which the old )>orp has given place to the modem trup, 

f I look upon Westlid and Lid as unquestionably abbreviations for Westlidum, Lidum. 
It is worthy of notice that, independently of Domesday Westlidum, we have also another 
ancient form of the same name in Lithum, besides the forms Uplium and Lyum for 
Upleatham. It is a matter of tolerable certainty that all these names in -wn are simply 
datives plural. There is no doubt in such cases as Morehusum, Locthnsum, Arusum or 
Arhusum, Toscotum, Cotum, and Lidum. About Jarum, Achelum, Ladum or Lelun, and 
Ergum, it is necessary to speak with more reserve, from uncertainty as to their etymology. 
The locality of the last-named is uncertain. * Dimidium piscarise de Hergum* is mentioned 
in the Whitby * Memorial of Benefactions' given by Dr. Young (p. 908), and, according to 
that author, the Ergum or Hergum in question is *near Bridlington' (p. 91a). As far as 
one can derive a suggestion from the geographical course taken by the Domesday scribe, 
the Cleveland Ergun nuy have been in the neighbourhood of Ayton. In the Sununary, the 
order is Ormesbi, Upeshale, Bemodebi, Torp (Pinchingthorpe), Ergun, Atun, Neuuetun, 
Mortun, Torp (Nunthorpe), See. In the notice of the King's Lands, it is Upesale, Torp, 
Ergun, Atun, Neuueton, Mortun, Torp. The only existing name, however, anywhere in 
the vidnity, which presents any resemblance or analogy to Ergum is Arcan, given in Ord's 
Map : — Arcan Hill, a little way north of Seamer. The Ordnance map makes this Harker 
Hill ; but unfortunately local names have been put in so recklessly in these otherwise ad- 
mirable maps that that authority is less than nothing in such questions. It may be men- 
tioned, however, that the ' Ergum or Hergum near Bridlington' is no doubt coincident with 
what is ¥rritten Argam in the Ordnance maps. 



Arusum, Aresum, Harhusum (Airsome) 

IV. in cltf, 

Cmmbeclif, Cmmbeclive (Crunkley) 

Roudeclif, RoudcUve (Rockcliflf) 

Jerneclif, Gerneclif, Emeclive (AmcUflfe Ingleby) 

V. in borg, 

Golborg, Goldeburg (Goldsborough) 

Ghigesborg, Gighesborc, Ghigesburg (Guisborough) 


Mydelburghe, Midlesburg (Middlesborough) 

VI. in dak. 

Childale (Kildale) 
Camisedale (Commondale) 


Basdale, Basedale 
Glasdale, Glasedale 
Handale or Grendale 

\ll, in grif. 

Grif (Mulgrave) 


Skynnergrefe, Skinergreive, Skengrave (Skinningrove) 

VIII. in a/. 

Upeshale, Upesale (Upsal) 

Wercheshala, Wercesel, Wyreshel (Worsall) 

Tonestale, Tonnestale (Tunstal) 

IX. not admitting of classification. 

Ghinipe Gnip, i.e. Hauchesgard ;' Gnipe Howe near 

Hawsker, youngs p. 909). 
Figelinge, Figlinge, Nort Figelinge (Fyling Dales) 
Breche, Brecca (Brackenridge, near Whitby) 
Semer, Semers (Seamer) 


Mersch, Mersc (Marske) 

Dunesla, Dunesle (Dunsley) 

Ildreuuelle, Hildreuuelle (Hinderwell) 

Berewic (Berwick) 

Cratom, Cratome (Crathome) 

Stocheslag, Stocheslage (Stokesley) 

Codreschelf, Codeschelf (SkutterskelO 

X. in ham. 

Neuham, Neuueham, Niweham (Newham in Acklam) 
Neuham, Neueham (Newhohn, near Whitby) 

XI. in ion or hm. 

Snetune, Sneton (Sneaton) 

Hotune, Hotone (Hutton Mulgrave) 

Neutone (Newton Mulgrave) 

Egetime (Egton) 

Soetune, Scetun (Seaton Hall) 

Esingetun, Esingeton (Easington) 

Liuretun (Liverton) 

Steintun, Esteintona (Stanghow) 

Chiltune, Chilton (Kilton) 

Brotune, Broctune (Brotton) 

Sceltun, Schelton (Skelton) 

Midletiuiy Middeltone (Middleton, near Guisborough) 

Hotun (Hutton Lowcross) 

Tometun (Thornton Fields) 

Wiltune, Widtune (WUton) 

Astun, Astune (Eston) 

Atun (Great Ayton) 

Atun alia (Little Ayton) 

Neuuetun, Nietona (Newton) 

Mortun (Morton) 

Martun, Martune (Marton) 

Himelintun, Himeligetun (Hemlington) 

Steintun (Stainton) 

Torentun (Thornton) 

Tametun ^ameton, or Tanton) 

HUtun, HUtune (HUton) 

Mideltun, Middeltun (Middleton) 

Fostun, Foxtun (Foxton, High and Low) 

Broctun, Broctun magna (Great Broughton) 


Broctun alia (Little Broughton) 

Hotun (Hutton Rudby) 

Carletun (Carlton) 


Gotun, Goutun, Golton (Goulton) 

Wirueltun (Whorlton) 

Rontun, Rantune (Rounton) 

Lentune, Leuetona (Kirk Levington) 

Leuetone alia (Castle Levington) 

Apeltune (Appleton on Wiske) 

On the whole, there are in the above list 119 names of places as given 
in Domesday, of which thirty-eight end in -by, six in -torp^ twelve in -«/«, 
three in -cli/f two in -borg, two in -dak^ one in -grtf, three in -a/, all of 
which are indisputably of Danish 6rigin. There are besides eleven not 
admitting of classification, of which, however, several must be Danish ; 
as, for instance, Ghinipe, Figlinge, Semer, Mersc, Cratome, Codreschelf ; 
and also, two in -ham, thirty-nine in -ion. Of the latter it is only neces- 
sary here to say, that, while it is a mistake to assume -ion to be an 
exclusively Anglo-Saxon termination in names of places (iun being also 
an Old Norse word and still used in Iceland in connection with a 
farmer's residence), in not a few cases among these Cleveland names in 
'Iun or 'ton we find the same prefixes as are met with in other names 
of undoubted Danish origin and etymology. For instance, Childale, 
Chiltune; Sceltun, Scalethwaite, Skelderskeugh ; Mideltun, Midelburg. 
Others again — for instance, Carletun, Astun, Tometun — as in the case 
of such names as Baldersbi, Leisingebi, Danebi, Cratorn, leave but little 
doubt that the former element in them is Danish; and thus, on the 
whole, we come to something like the conclusion that at least seventy- 
five per cent, of the Domesday names of Cleveland localities is certainly 
Old Danish, and very possibly a larger proportion still. 

But independently of the names recorded in Domesday there are mul- 
titudes of others, an enumeration and examination of which advance the 
conclusion just stated more convincingly yet. The names of the several 
townships of the divers parishes not separately specified in the Domes- 
day record are, in many cases, more decidedly Old Danish than even 
the names of the parishes themselves. Thus in Whorlton parish are the 
townships of Swainby, Huthwaite, Scarth or Scarth-wood, Potto (Pot- 
howe), Trenholm, Scugdale ; — all, without an exception, of distinct or 
exclusive Northern origin. In short, of some twenty-four or twenty-five 
such Cleveland names, we have three in -^, one in -ihwaiie, two in 
'ihorpe^ three in -howey one in -holmy five in -dale, one in -grif, six 
in -wick, one in -burn^ one in -car, three not classed, of which one — 


Staithes — is surely Norse S/od (see Staith), leaving Picton as almost, 
if not quite, the only name of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

But, supposing the investigation to be pushed further yet, and espe- 
cially with the aid which ancient documents give in addition to the in- 
formation derivable from still existing or identifiable designations, the 
result is even still more conclusive. Thus in the case of Whitby as 
above noticed— Overbi, Nethrebi, Thingwala, Helredale, Gnip, Bertwait, 
Setwait, Sourebi, Thordisa, all appear in deeds connected with the 
Abbey, as the names of Whitby localities. In the parish of Danby, 
again, besides Ainthorpe, already named, is the township of Glaisdale, 
as also Danby Botton, Dale Head, Clitherbecks, Butterwick, Fryop, 
Houlsyke : and this without mentioning similar names — that is to say, 
all of direct Danish origin — distinguishing local divisions of lesser im- 

But the evidence derivable from the local terminology of the district, 
striking and conclusive as it is as to the facts of the effectual and per- 
manent occupation of Cleveland by the Northmen, is not only supple- 
mented, but rendered vastly more striking and unquestionable, by a mas9 
of testimony of a different kind, and supplied by the Domesday volume. 

At the time of the survey therein recorded, or, rather, shortly pre- 
ceding it, the owners of landed property in Cleveland were almost exclu- 
sively distinguished by Danish names. 


Hauuard (Havard) had possessions in Yarm, Kirk Levington, 

Easby and Battersby. 
Siuuard (Siward or Sigur^r) in Ugthorpe, Liverton, Loflhouse, 

Upleatham, Acklam. 
Ulf in Crathome. 

Ligulf in Kildale, Ugthorpe, Normanby. 
Archil (Amkell) in Faceby, Thoraldby, Marton. 
Ulchel (UlfkeU) in Ayton, Nunthorpe, Guisborough, Marton, &c. 
Aschel (Askell) in Ayton. 
Torchil (Thorkell) in KUton. 

Orme or Orm in Ormsby, Appleton, Kildale, Danby, CommondalCi 
Leising or Lesing {Leisingr, a freed man) in Faceby, Tunstal, 

Tameton, Guisborough, Normanby, Busby, Acklam, &c. 
Gamel in Skutterskelf. 
Game (? Gamel) in Ugthorpe. 
Tor (Thor) in East Rounton. 
Altor (Althor) in WUton. 
Carl (Karl or Karle) in East Rounton. 
Aluer (Alfr) in Hilton. 

C 2 


Turome ^Thorarinn) in Aytoiu 

Norman (Nor^mc^j a Norwegian) in Ayton, Broughton, Hinder- 
well, Marske, Kirldeatham, Wilton, Upsal. 

Suuen (Swe)ai) in Egton, Lythe, Goldsborough, Mickleby, Bor- 
rowbyf Roxby, &c. 

Walteof (Valtheofr) in Eston. 

Malgrim in Ingleby Amclifife. 

Gospatric in Whorlton, Carlton, Seamer, Ac. 

Aldred in Ajton. 

Uctred in Stokesley, Seaton, Skelton, Brotton, Moorsholm, Guis- 
borough, Stainsby, &c. 

Edmund in Ayton, Pinchingthorpe, Marton, Toleby, Stainton, &c. 

Magbanec in Newton. 

Lieuenot in Lazenby. 

In all, we have here twenty-seven names (without allowing for possible 
duplicates, the existence of which may be suspected in one place, if not 
in more) : of these twenty-seven, Magbanec would almost seem to be 
Celtic ; Lieuenot, imless it be Norman-French, is hard to class ; Edmund 
and Aldred are Anglo-Saxon ; all the rest are Danish : and, what is 
remarkable, with one exception — that of Orm — different from those of 
the original nomenclators of the settlements or properties or manors 
possessed by them — a fact that shews most conclusively not only the 
extent or prevalence of the Danish colonization, but also its secured 
permanency. * 

* This may be the best place to advert to a singular and extremely interesting confir- 
mation of the views advanced in the text, which has been afforded during the latter half of 
the year 1867 by the disclosures made in the course of the works connected with the 
rebuilding of Kildale Church. In digging for the foundations of the new north wall, and 
also in excavating along the middle of the nave for the reception of the warming-apparatus, 
a number of skeletons, in perfect preservation, were dug upon, in company with several of 
which were obje,cts of bronze, and weapons of iron (swords, daggers, and a battle-axe) of such 
a distinctly marked character that there could be as little doubt of their origin as of their 
antiquity. They were unmistakeably Danish, and there could be no room left for uncer- 
tainty as to the fact that the mediaeval church, the last remains of which had been so lately 
removed, had been built upon the site of a cemetery which had been such from the ninth 
century, downwards. It may be also mentioned that among the skulls obtained, but not 
from the skeletons in connection with the arms--only in company with them as co-tenauts 
of the same burial-ground— were some of such singularly marked dolicho-cephalic character 
as to raise the question whether they could be accounted for otherwise than by supposing 
them to have been the heads of captives or * thralls' brought from the remote North by the 
immigrant Danish appropriators of the place in question. AU these weapons and other 
objects passed under the hands of the writer, and the skulls were measured by him, and his 
accounts and measurements submitted to some of the most eminent archaeologists of the 
day, as well as to the London Society of Antiquaries ; his conclusions being a£nitted, on 
all hands, to be entirely satisfactory and well established. 


But not only were the lords of the soil thus unmistakeably Danish at 
the time of the Conquest, the inferior orders or sons of the soil must 
have been so as well. For in a charter of Henry I, confirming certain 
gifts to Guisborough Priory, made by members of the Lascelles family, 
we find specified, among such gifts, certain persons and families, who, as 
villanes, were transferred like so much stock of any other description, 
and whose names were as follows : — Robert, the son of Ketell ; Godwin ; 
Ervice, the son of Aslac ; Wigan, the son of Gamel ; Robert, the son of 
Ralph ; Ralph, the son of Godwin ; Ingeberg, the son of Aslac ; Alice, 
the wife of Serlo, with their followers (children) ; Ralph, the son of 
William, the son of Turgis, with all his followers; Gunilda, mother 
of the same. 

Ketell, Aslac (two of the name), Ingeberg, Gunilda, Gamel, Ralph, 
Tiu-gis, Godwin — but little in the way of comment is required when 
such names preponderate. They speak very intelligibly as to the ori- 
ginal nationaUty of no small proportion of the lower orders of the popu- 
lation in certain districts of Yorkshire some two generations later than 
the Conquest. 

After the production of such a mass of evidence as that which has 
thus been closed we can have no hesitation about admitting such state- 
ments as John of Wallingford*s touching the ' great admixture of people 
of Danish race' in Yorkdiire, and applying them especiaUy to Cleveland ; 
and the further allegation as to the ' great similarity of language,' follow- 
ing necessarily as a corollary, must be admitted with equal frankness. 
But still the question remains as to the measure or degree of ' similarity' 
between the Scandinavian tongues and the Old NorSiumbrian, even on 
the admission that it was really ' great;' and the question is one which 
has been differentiy dealt with by different writers, and consequendy fur- 
nished with different solutions. Some would make Northumbrian a 
Scandinavian dialect, and others ignore no small proportion of what in 
it is certainly Scandinavian or nothing. And even in the case of others 
more moderate and impartial, and perhaps also better qualified, by their 
general learning as well as by their philological attainments, to pro- 
nounce with some decision upon the subject mooted, there is no Httle 
difference as to the relative amounts of the elements which go to make 
up the mingled mass they agree in calling a Dano-Saxon dialect. Thus 
Mr. Gamett decides that because ' in the Scandinavian dialects the de- 
finite article is uniformly postpositive and coalesces with its substantive,' 
and in the Northumbrian dialects the same article is a distinct prepo- 
sitive term, therefore the said article is not the Scandinavian article. "*" 
Mr. Peacock, on the other hand, contends — and the fact that his con- 

* Garaett's Collected E$saysy p. 49. 


elusions are published in the Transactions of the Philological Society 
lends them a positive weight, which otherwise they might not carry — ^not 
only that the grammar of the dialects in question is in many particulars 
Scandinavian, but that ' the first and most remarkable characteristic of 
Northumbrian is the definite article — or more properly the demonstrative 
pronoim, '/ — which is an abbreviation of the Old Norse neuter demon- 
strative pronoun hti^ Sw. and Dan. eiJ * * There have been retained/ 
he continues {lb, pp. 6, 7), ' amongst the Northumbrian dialects certain 
expressions which are identical with Scandinavian ones at the present 
day, and these leave it beyond doubt that the word so abridged is no 
other than the Scandinavian neuter art. hit or ei, , , , In Tauchnitz's 
Swed. and Eng. Dictionary (pocket ed. Leipzig 1861) under the word 
br'osi = Eng. breasif among other phrases connected \vith that word, we 
find "^// gt/va barnei brostet — To give the child suck'* (lit. to give the 
child the breast). 

' In N. Lonsdale and in Westmoreland the same phrase would be 

" At give 't barn 't brbst." 

where we find the two expressions identical, word for word, except for 
the postpositive situation of the Swedish article ei, which twice occurs as 
a suffix to the nouns barn and brosi. Now suppose, by way of illus- 
tration, we make the Sw. art. /r^ositive instead of /{7j/positive, the 
sentence would then stand thus: — Sw. Att gt/va ei barn et brosf, 
Northumb. At give 't bam 't brbst, and the identity of every word is at 
once apparent; the only difference being that the initial letter e in the 
article suffers aphaeresis in the provincial of Northumbria.' t 

Mr. Peacock further considers the apparent ' outrage on the Sc^di- 
navian idiom' herein involved, the result of an ' amalgamation of their 
languages' among the two races — ' the established Saxon settlers/ and 

* Sotm hading CharaetmsHn of tbtt DiaUeit spoken in Aneunt Nortbumbria^ p. 5. 

t Mr. Pemcock's want of fiill acquainUncc with the Scandinavian tongues disqualified 
him for perceiving the fallacy of his argument, not to say its intrinsic worthlessness, origi- 
nating in the circumstance that he argues on the supposition that all nouns are simply 
neuter. It so happens in the sentence quoted that both the nouns, ham and 6r0s/, arc 
neuter, and therefore both take the postpositive et. But what is to be said of duUningen^ 
Northumb. • t* slope/ biuorien « • t' history/ both feminine and both occurring in the first 
sentence of the first Swedish book lying near enough to me to be opened? Of kroppen^ 
't* body/ bamnen^* t* spirit* (or uncorporeal part), brodren-* t* brother/ &c., all mascu- 
line, and to say nothing of the inflections, in the plural, of these masculine and feminine 
nouns — nay of the neuter ones also ? The fact is, Mr. Peacock's theory scarcely applies to 
one case in twenty that would occur in every-day, homely talk in a Swedish company, and 
becomes less available still as applied to the Old Norse definite nouns, as the merest glance 
at Rask*s Grammar by Dasent, pp. 74, 75, abundantly shews. Out of the sixty-four case- 
endings of definite nouns given there, precisely four are found with the final t or ti. 


the invading Northmen — consequent on their eventual intermixture. 
He assumes ' a fusion of language, the grammar as well as the voca- 
bulary, continuing to gravitate until it came to something common to 
both/ The definite article would have of course to be dealt with among 
other things, and would present one of the greatest difficulties, but the 
difficulty would 'end in a compromise in which the Saxon adopted 
the Scandinavian article, and the Northman became reconciled to the 
Saxon mode of placing it.' {II, p. 8.) 

But not to dwell upon the unnecessary ingenuity displayed in thus 
accounting for the form of the Northumbrian definite article, it may be 
observed that the writer, equally with Mr. Gamett, overlooks the fact 
that the prepositive definite article is nof unknown in the Scandinavian 
dialects ) in other words, is not * uniformly postpositive,' does not ' uni- 
formly coalesce with its substantive.' 

' The most striking peculiarity about the South Jutland dialect,' says 
Mr. Kok, ' is that it does not apply the coalescing {vedhcengte) or definite 
post-positive article (endear Hket), Either no article at all is employed, 
as om Dag^ om Nai^ om Summer ^ &c., or it is replaced by den^ det, de^ 
as den Hostruper^ the Hostrup man, de Tmderinger^ the T0nder folks; 
or, what is most common of all, by simple e or ^, which is used pre- 
positively and is the same for all genders and numbers; as, eBy^ eBarn^ 
e Bynder^ the farmers, e hele HusJ * 

The same writer, in reply to the remark that the article in question, 
the prepositive e or a, is a proof of German, Frisian, Anglo-Saxon or 
English influence, proceeds as follows : — * In our oldest Danish — that of 
the thirteenth century — the postpositive article -en, -^/, -ene, is of very 
rare occurrence; a circumstance which, as Molbech observes, may 
very well corroborate Grimm's remark, that the usage in question " may 
well appear to be one of later introduction and originally imknown in 
the Northern speech, but which becomes of more frequent occurrence 
the lower we come down in the stream of time."t In Henrik Harpe- 
streng's (died 1244) LcBgehog it is met with only two or three times. 
Much the same is true of the Haderslev and Flensborg Siadsrettery the 
latter bearing date 1284, the former 1292, and both written in the speech 

* Det Danske Foikesprog in Sftdirjylland, red Johannes Kok, Sogne pnest i Barkal 
Ted Tender, p. 161. 

t * It is also concluded that the final article was not in use in the more ancient periods 
(of the speech), and that it was at a comparatively later time that it came into that general 
use which we are accustomed to. Even as it is, in certain cases it is dropped in familiar 
language ; for instance, in neuter nouns in «, where the suffixed / is not sounded, as in 
Bdte(/) ; and also in feminines in a, where the added n in all cases drops out, as in hlokka 
for hlMan* Aasen's Norsk Orammatikf p. 157. 


of the burghers of that time. The postpositive article occurs from time 
to time, but frequently it is either omitted altogether, or else replaced by 
the pronoun /han, tluBt^ te (den, det, de); as ihe JBymen, the townsmen; 
/ken By, the town or village, /he Born, the bairns ; /ha mughce ihefr fender 
ei /aJUB /he Bam me/h /herce gooz iJherce gonuB, utan /hefrcender gorcefuU 
ufisscB : in that case the relatives must not take the children into Uieir 
guardianship, except the relatives give full security, &c. 

* From the pronoun /hcen, /hce/, /he* continues Mr. Kok, ' the article 
e ox CB has been derived on this wise: hurried articulation has first 
dropped the final n or /, and next the aspirated or lisping initial conso- 
nant /h (]>), so that nothing but e ox a was left remaining. Correspond* 
ing rejections of the final » or / are of continual occurrence in the 
common speech of Norway, in the dialect of Funen, and in North 
Judand, and even, finally, in the ordinary or every-day conversational 
speech of the Danes, as de mand, de Hus. But, perhaps, the most con- 
vincing proof that ^e article e is thus derived is found in the South 
Jutland dialect, which still employs den, de/, de, where the standard lan- 
guage uses the postpositive article ; zs, de/ er de Pikers Lam : that is the 
gpirl's lamb, for de/ er Pigemes Lam; de Tendrtnger, de AboUinger, 
de Sko/ter, &c. ; and, in the Bible, de Romere, de Karin/ier, &c. This use 
of the pronoun den, de can only be regarded as a trace still remaining 
of a once general Danish mode of speech which the Jutlanders have 
omitted to change as time rolled on.' 

This may serve, perhaps, to throw some light upon the true nature, 
or origin and history, of the Northumbrian definite article. On the one 
side, Mr. Gamett's statement is seen to be by far too sweeping. On the 
other, there seems to be no necessity for subscribing to Mr. Peacock's 
theory of amalgamation and compromise. It is a fact that up to the 
end of the tenth century the influx of the Danes had not materially 
changed the written dialect of Northumbria.* In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, however, the innovations, alterations and additions due to them 

* * It appean that the admixture of the Northmen in the popuhtion of the Northum- 
brian proTincet had not produced its full effect upon the language in the tenth century ; at, 
with tile exception of one or two isolated words, there is nothing that can be satisfactorily 
referred to that dass of dialecu, either in the Durham Texts or the Rushworth Gospels. 
In the fourteenth century the traces of this influence become much stronger. The • Cursor 
Mundi' and the Northumbrian metrical version of the Psalms abound with words toully 
unknown in the Saxon dialects, but of regular occurrence in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish. 
One of the most remarkable of these is the Scandinavian prefix to infinitives, aitbink, aido, 
instead of to tbink^ to do, which is an unequivocal criterion of a purely Northern dialect, 
and an equally certain one of the Scandinavian influence whereby that dialect has been 
modified.* Oamett's Pba. Euays, p. i88. The author then proceeds to give several other 
illustrations of Danish words and granunatical forms. But neither he nor any other writer 


had been fully efifected, although at what particular epoch in the interval 
we have no evidence to shew. The inevitable inference, of course, is, 
that the change which is faintly becoming sensible in the tenth century 
goes steadily on and is accomplished within the next two or three gene- 
rations; in other words, becomes unfait accompli at a period somewhat 
antecedent to that of what Mr. Kok calls ' our oldest Danish' {celdste 
Dansk), when the postpositive article was of very rare occurrence and 
open to be characterised as an innovation unknown to the original 
Northern speech {en sildigere for de Nordiske sprog oprindelig uhekjendt 
Indreimng)^ and when, in the Danish writings still extant, the preposi- 
tive definite article perpetually took the form of the, or more rarely theL 
If we further bear in mind that our English sound of th was unknown — 
almost impossible — to the Scandinavian tongue ; that as Thor was and 
is sounded almost as we sound Tor, * ^ the must have been sounded 
nearly as our te; we arrive at the conclusion that the Northumbrian 
definite article, aifiter all, may be, or rather almost certainly is, the Old 
Danish definite article, but that its proper form is /', and not V, as 
Mr. Peacock would write it. 

Again, while strongly asserting the importance of the partiples in 
indicating the origin of a dialect or language, Mr.Gramett seems scarcely 
to allow for the number actually existing in the Northumbrian dialects, 
and still less for those which may have once been in use, but have since 
passed out under the inevitable influence of advancing knowledge and 
intercourse with the more Saxon parts of the kingdom. * The presence 
or absence of a few Norse particles,' he says, * proves nothing decisive 
either way. Those which are wanting may have become obsolete, and 
those which actually occur might be introduced by the Danish invaders.' t 
But our question being — ' How much in om- dialect is due to the in- 

on the subject seems to make any allowance for what not only may, but must, have been 
lost. In this one district alone the author of the Wbitby Olossary and myself have noted 
probably not less than fifty words hitherto unrecorded, of which the great majority may be 
pronounced to be exclusively Scandinavian. A few years more and these would have been 
finally lost. Nay, it is a common remark among many of the more intelligent of the 
Cleveland Dalesmen, when led to speak on the subject, that their dialect has lost not only 
sensibly but very considerably within their own recollection — a fact that I am myself able 
to bear personal testimony to. And it is idle to suppose that Cleveland affords an excep- 
tional case in this particular. Probably many hundreds of words, which have never been 
written, are lost for ever, and a slow but perpetual change in idiom and construction has 
now neuiy reached its last stage ; namely, that characteristic of mere ordinary or homely 

* Note the name Tor in the Domesday list of owners of land. 

t Phil, Etsays, p. 51. The author is contesting the position that Lowland Scottish is to 
be regarded as a Scandinavian dialect; and regarding, as he of course does, Scottish as 
* standing in the closest affinity to that used on the bank of the Tees and the Tyne ; being, 



fluence of the Danibn invaders ?' the reasonable course appears to be to 
enquire how many of our existing particles are either certainly or most 
probably Scandinavian in origin, and what likelihood there is that others 
may have become obsolete. 

I. As certainly Scandinavian I specify — 

aback, behind, in the rear of, O. N. ddak. 

amell, between, O. N. dmiili. 

amid, among, O. N. dtnedal. 

at, to, O. N. aty apud, cum, quod attinet ad. 

an, than, O. N. an, Sw. an. 

an, if, O. Sw. cm, 

at, that, O. N. at, Sw. ait, &c. 

at efter, afterwards, N. atefter, Dan. efUr at. 

efter, after, O. N. eptir^ eftir. 

fra, firav, from, O.N.yrc^, which as spoken becomes yrov before 

a vowel. 
for, for, O. N. fyr^fyrir, 
i, iv, in, O. N. i. 

of, off, * of, from, out of, Dan. af. 
intil, intiv, into, Sw. intilL 
til, tiv, to, O. N. til 
wi*, wiv, with, O. N. w^, Dan. vtd, 
holder, rather, in preference, O. N. helldr, 
inoo, inow, presently, Dan. I et nu, 
baoklings,t backwards, S. Jutl. baglcBngs. 
parlous, greatly, terribly, J>axi,/erltch, 
sae, so, Sw. sa, Dan. saa, 
sair, very, exceedingly, Dan. saare, 
hine 1 be off, away witii you, Dan. tudan, 

II. As probably Scandinavian : — 

a, X in, on, O. N. <f , in, upon. 

The compounds with a, as afoore, aside, asteead, &c. 

off on. 

out in (perhaps Dan. utan), 

in fact — like that — Northumbrian Saxon, with a strong infusion of Danish,' what he ad- 
vances with respect to the former must be, in the main, held to be applicable to the 

* As in the phrase ' A foal off yon meear/ 

t This is a representatiye of a numerous class; as, nearlings, maistllngs, fair- 
Hugs, &c. 

X In such phrases as ' It ligs a that hand.' 


noo, now, Sw. nu, 

oft, oflbns, often, Dan. q/lfe. 

sen, syne, Sw. sedan. 

Both these lists might be increased : the latter largely so. The pecu- 
liar Northern interjections a ! eh 1, and the adverbial forms in som, * as 
what'soniy hcw-som, in whatsomever, howsomever — compare Dan. 
hvadsomhelst, &c, — are almost certainly Scandinavian, and so also are 
the assentative and negative particles ay, neya (Sw. nej\ &c.), not to 
mention other less obtrusive forms. 

But independently of what actually remains, ^hat presumption is there 
that the Northumbrian dialects still retain all the particles originally in- 
troduced by the Northern invaders ? 

Mr. Gamett adverts to an * inscription commemorating the foundation 
of the edifice, or more probably of a preceding one,' still extant in Ald- 
burgh Church, Holdemess, in the following terms — U//' hei arcean 
cyricefor hamim and for Gunthara saula : Ulf bid erect the church for 
him and for the soul of Gunthar, as remarkable in a philological point of 
view. The word hanum is the O. N. dative of hann (he), Sw. honom^ 
* a form unknown in all the Saxon dialects.' f What has become of that 
dative? This Aldburgh inscription is the sole remaining testimony to 
what we know, as well as if our own ears had listened to the speech of 
those days, must have been the almost exclusive equivalent for our 
modem to or for him. Again, amell has nearly passed out of use. 
I have not heard it myself once in the twenty-one years of intercourse I 
have had with the Cleveland Dalesmen ; that is to say, as a word con- 
tinuing in familiar use. Many of them are still familiar with its meaning, 
and it remains in the compoimd word Amell-door ; but another gene- 
ration will not know either its sound or its meaning. Arval, too, has 

* * Another remarkable Scandinavianism is the particle sum in the sense of as, Dan. wm : 
e. g. ** Swa sum we forgive oure detturs." This form appears to be now obsolete.' Gamett, 
Pbtl. Essays, p. 189. 

f Pbil, Essays, p. 188. It is worthy of notice that another and like inscription, dis- 
covered in 1 77 1, over the south door of Kirkdale church, near Kirby Moorside (Young's 
WbMy, p. 741 )» &°d fixing its own date to about 1055-1064, is conceived in Anglo-Saxon 
words although conmiemorating the pious deed of Orm the son of Gamel ; names as exclu- 
sively Scandinavian as the Ulf of the inscription commented on by Mr. Gamett. It was 
perhaps natural, not to say necessary, in the relative conditions of intellectual culture of the 
resident Anglo-Saxons and the invading Danes, that the language of the former should be, 
so to speak, the language of literature, and the repository of most of the records which it 
was desirable to make. There is abundant reason for supposing that the invaders and the 
invaded found little difficulty in making themselves mutually intelligible, and this would 
fumish another reason why Anglo-Saxon might by common consent continue in use as the 
written language, for even some considerable time after the spoken language had become 
almost or even fu more Danish than Saxon. 



gone quite, and I question if there be two men in the existing population 
of this parish who can remember having heard it in common use. The 
common English word 'burial/ with a sufficient latitude of meaning 
assigned to it to make it imply 'entertainment on occasion of the 
burial/ has replaced it. Probably the history of our dialect, in common 
with its co-members of the general Northumbrian tongue, has been for 
some centimes one of slow alteration, due to the substitution of English 
words and forms for Northumbrian ones ; the substitution itself origi- 
nating in the greater diffusion of the standard tongue by means of 
books, enlarged intercourse with people who used it, attendance on the 
public ministrations of the Church, and the gradual innovations of in- 
creasing connection with the outer districts. It might be a work of 
time ; but most of the causes specified have been more or less strongly 
in operation since the Reformation, and some of them would begin to 
operate from the time that the provinces began to be really and effec- 
tually constituent parts of one consolidated kingdom. And thus not 
only hanum would give place to A. S. and O. E. him, hine, but igjmnem 
would yield to ^rh (through), leaving only gain, gain-way as its repre- 
sentatives ; among, amang would encroach upon amell ; or, nor, owther, 
nowther, and so forth, assume and maintain their present exclusive 
right of usage.* 

Allowing then for the tolerably lengthy list of particles of Northern 
origin which are still in use (or only just obsolete) and for the inevitable 
loss of sundry others, there must have been originally not simply * a few,' 
but a goodly number of these * winged words' introduced by the old 
Danish invaders. 

A few words next on the subject of accents t may perhaps not be out 

* Some twelvemonth ago, on going through Toumel. Mysi. again, I jotted down the 
words which, appearing in it, from their absence in the local glossaries seemed to be no 
longer current either in West Yorkshire or any other part of the county. The list, though 
formed with no special object, and therefore somewhat loosely and carelessly made, numbers 
forty-eight words, and a selection made almost at random shews the nature of the gaps 
indicated : — am/, spirit, breath, O. N. andi, Dan. cumde ; ro^ rest, O. N. r6, Dan. ro ; 
syrtf sinew, O.N. sm, Dzn.sene; rose, rouM, praise, celebrate, O.N. brdsa^ Dan. ros^; 
bodworde, precept, O. N. bodord; skeU, quickly, O. N. skjott^ Dan. $k;0t; layn, conceal, 
O. N. Uyna^ N. Imyna^ Sw. D. lona ; and so on. A similar examination prmecuted carefully 
and systematically in Hampole's writings. Sir Gawayne and Orttu Krugbt, E. Eng. AlUt, 
Poemst and other like sources, would, there is no doubt, give a very long list indeed of 
purely Scandinavian words which have dropped out of use during the Lust four or five 

t Mr. Qamett, Pbil. Essays^ p. 6a, remarks upon ' the importance of the accents of 
words in etymology,' and proceeds to illustrate the subject as foUows : — * jPVmr, Frev, from 
Craven Gl., Cumbrian. Barbarous corruptions I many of our readers will say. They are 
nevertheless genuine descendants of the Scandinavian Jrd, still pronounced /rav in Iceland. 
We may add, that in the Icelandic Lexicons we find d {agna, ovis feminina) a word to aU 


of place, nor without some value in indicating something more as to the 
measure in which our dialect is indebted to the ancient Danes. 

We have two words which are homonjrms for ' little/ lile and lalitley 
the former of which is referred to Dan. ItUe,* and the latter seems at 
first sight to be a mere phonetic freak. A reference to the A. S. Lexi- 
con gives us the form lytel, with the y sounded as in * mystery.'t The 
synonjrms from the Germanic and Scandinavian tongues are South 
Germ, liizel, lutzel, O. Germ. luziUry PI. D. /«//, %V, Fris. littich, 
Dan. lille, lidm^ Sw. lilUy liten, neither of which suggests any solution 
for our puzzle. O. N. litilly however, at once clears the matter up. The 
long or accented i in the first syllable retains its proper power in our 
word, and gives us the form which, for want of better exponents of 
sound, is by some written ' lahtle.'t The same principle explains the 
twofold form of the preposition y^-a./r^w, the latter of which is noticed 
in a preceding note from Gametfs Essays, In his translation of Rask's 
Old Norse or Icelandic Grammar, Dr. Dasent notices the two sounds 
of d, the one like av or au, the other more like that of Sw. aaox'E.o : 
the latter is the sound of our preposition before a word beginning with 
a consonant, an aspirate, or a y, the former before a vowel. In the 
same way, with our preposition i or iv, in, we say (the sound of the i 

appearance utterly unlike any known synonym. But when we obsenre the accent, and 
learn that it b pronounced aw or av by natives, we immediately perceive its identity with 
the Sanscrit aim; Gr. dft (i.e. 6fii) ; Lat. ovis; Prov. Oerm. auw\ and our own raw. It 
would be easy to multiply similar instances : the above will shew the power of the Scan- 
dinavian accents.' 

* Cf. Gamett's PUl, Essays, p. 189. 

f Bosworth's Comp, Anglo-Saxon Diet., letter Y. 

X See the remarks upon the word in the Glossary below, under Iiitle, where the illus- 
tration is fiilly given. The tendency of our dialectical phonesis is to make all long Ts take 
the sound of ab (or Gr. di, more nearly), although in many cases the words are pure English 
or of late introduction. Still, this is simply a consequence of the principle that the sound 
in question depends entirely upon the accented i in original Norse words. I believe the 
principle admits of much wider illustration than is attempted in the text. Thus we have 
what is sounded Orahp (Sc. graip), a fork used for agricultural purposes. But we also 
say grtp, grtp-ho'd, the O. N. vb. being gripa. There is no doubt that there is a long 
vowel involved in the former of these words, the Sw. and N. equivalents being gnpe, gnip, 
both probably from O. N. greip ; while, as to grip, we find that in all compound words the 
sense of which involves the notion of a completed act of seizing, the unaccented i is found 
in the prefix in question, as grip-fugl, a bird of prey, grip-dittld, the act of plundering. 
This is precisely the sense in grip-ho'd, and no less in our verb grip also : there is a 
rapidity or suddenness of action — ^begun and completed in the same instant, as it were — 
implied in grip which is not in the lightest degree conveyed by Eng. gripe, I conceive, 
therefore, that our grip depends upon the derivative grip of the Scandinavian tongues, 
instead of upon the simple verb ai gripa, Cf. N. grip, sb., specially noticed by Aasen 
as pronounced with i short {aab, i), gripa, adj., and gfipaUg, bnides the vb. gripa, grip, 
where the long vowel is found in the pret. greip. 


being very nearly that of ee somewhat shortened) i t' hoos, i places, &c. ; 
but iv all, iv ony case, for ' in all/ ' in any case/ This too is a case 
of an accented vowel, the Old Norse preposition being C. 

But what Mr. Gamett calls ' the power of the Scandinavian accent' 
is not fully seen until we notice the effect of its absence upon other 
words in the dialect. On the one side we have lahtle, Shahve (shive), 
Bahzn (bisen), on the other binnd, blinnd, finnd, winnd (vb.), 
minnd, &c., from O. N. binda, blindr, finna, vinda^ minna, which all 
present the unaccented vowel. I suppose it would be impossible for 
any one only accustomed to the standard pronunciation not to be struck 
with the sound of windy vb., in the mouth of a true Clevelander, as con- 
trasted with that of wind, sb. The latter receives the accent which is 
given in reading poetry, and of course with more or less of the al sound ; 
the other is as short as wind, sb., in ordinary refined conversation. And 
so, in the harvest fields it is the Binnder who binds the Shafik. We 
hear no other pronimciation of the words in the original of which the 
short or unaccented i is foimd ; and the class is not a small one. 

While touching upon this subject of accents, another class of vowel 
sounds, namely those which replace the soimds of o and oo in Eng., 
naturally craves our attention. Thus sione becomes both stane and 
steean;* home, hame, heeam, yamm; loaf, leeaf; fool, feeal, &c. 
This divergence of form induced by sound may at first sight seem rather 
perplexing, but the difficulty will be found to disappear on examination, 
or rather to admit of easy and interesting explanation. Kok remarks 
that, in the S. Jutl. dialects, long e takes the sound of an i before it ; as 
sien (stone), ben (bone), del (a share, division), kf (a loaf), a peculiarity 
observable also in the O. Danish writings of the fifteenth century, 
which afford such instances as stien for sten^ dielle for deU, dieres for 
deres (theirs), myen for mm (to think, suppose). But the Scandinavian 
e takes much the sound of English a, as in ' fate.' Danish sten, then, 
corresponds with our Stane, South Jutland and O. Dan. stien precisely 
with our Steean. 

* It is almost impossible to rq>resent this sound intelligibly. It is, in fact, exceedingly 
difficult, by the aid of only type, to represent any soimd to a reader whose ear is unaccus- 
tomed to it. Neither ##, j, nor y are adequate exponents of the sound in question, though 
it seems to partake of the phonesis of each. On the whole, after much consideration, and 
attentive listening to the speech of the Cleveland people, I conceive that u comes, if any- 
thing, rather nearer the mark than either of the other two signs ; only it must be under- 
stood that what is meant is rather an impulse in the direction of the sound of ## in * feet,' 
than the prolonged sound itself. There is little doubt that the sound in question is that 
of y, Danish y,* but while #«, with the qualification just named, more nearly represents the 
desired sound than y, it has also the additional merit of not making the words written with 
it look so outlandish as if y were employed. This will be seen by comparing steean with 


Now Boswordi's remark on the long or accented A. S. <i is ' that 
words containing this long or accented d are now represented by English 
terms with the vowel sounded like o in no and done. The following 
words have either the same or an analogous meaning, both in English 
and Anglo-Saxon : kdm, home, dn, one, ddn, bone, hdn, s/dn, sdr, rdp^ 
Idr, gds/, wrdt. Sometimes the accented or long d is represented in 
EngUsh by oa, as dc, an oak, gdd, a goad, Idd, rdd, brdd, 6d/, &c. Occa- 
sionally d becomes oe in English; as ^, a dotf/d, a foe, rd, /d, wd; 
but the oe in these words has the sound of o in no. The same may be 
said of ^ in doar. Hence it appears that the A. S. d is represented by 
the modem English o, oa, oe, which have the sound of ^ in no, — ^Deut. 
Gram, von Jacob Grimm, Vol. I. pp. 358-397. 3rd edit. 1840.'* 

There is then a presumption, probably a strong one, that A. S. d may 
have been originally sounded zsoin* no,' and sldn therefore would have 
been ' stone' in utterance. t O. N. s/emnf O. Sw. sfen, however, as well as 
Dan. s/een, Sw. s/en, would be more like our stane, and the same of O. N. 
^ (bone), Dan. 6en, Sw. den ; O. N. heimr (home), Dan. hjemy Sw. hem^ 
and the like. The coincidence between the Cleveland forms stane, 
hame, bane, &c., which are frequently heard still, and the correspond- 
ing Scandinavian words would, by itself simply, be extremely interest- 
ing ; but, with the additional coincidence afforded by the Jutland usage, 
it becomes not alone interesting, but suggestive in a high degree. For 
it not only points to Danish influence in the material and formation of 
the dialect under notice, but also points with some degree of precision — 
and quite independently of any direct historical testimony tending to 
the same point — to the particular or local source of such Danish in- 
fluence, namely the Danish peninsula.t 

U^an^ heeam with hyam^ deeal with dyoi^ and so forth. It must be further obsenred 
that the final syllable — for the single syllable of the long vowel is expanded into two by 
the process under mention — is dealt with as of minor importance ; the on in steean, for 
instance, has precisely the momentum that an would have in the sentence * he saw an 
image.' In the same way, d in feeal is merely as the a/ in * general' in a distinct reader 
or speaker's mouth ; and so of the other instances in i»^ich the u sound is introduced in 
our dialect. 

* Camp, A. S. Diet. p. 11. 

f In the Semi-Saxon of Lajramon's Brut we have several examples of the commencing 
transition in spelling from A. S. a to Eng. o as in ' no/ or its equivalent sounds oa, oe, which 
is probably an additional if not a conclusive argument that this was the original sound of 
the vowel in question. Thus wa (woe) takes uie additional forms wat woo, wo; fa (foe), 
fo; bar, heer (boar), hot; ba, ba^e (both), 60a, bolfSe; balde, b€elde (bold), bolde; a^e, 
a^ene (own), 03#, o^ene, owe, owene. See. And what is worthy of remark u that the 
instances in o are far more frequent in the second text than in the first. 

t No one could compare the very quaint proverbial expressions quoted in a preceding 
page, coincident alike in idea and in expression, and current alike in Cleveland and in 


But, further, it is to the point to observe that words which in English 
are in long a, in the Cleveland dialect follow tlie rule of those in 6 : 
ihus tiait becomes deeal, almost dya! or (fye!, the stress being on the 
' help vowel,' and scarcely at all on the final syllable, ga/e, geeat, ia/e, 
keeal, iave, keeav. This too is of perpetual occurrence ; the following 
instances being met with on simply opening Costelio's Poems: seeam 
for same, &/ieam for blame, ageean for again, _/[■««! for fame (pp. a 14, 
B15). I take braid, or brade (to resemble, or ' take after,' as a child 
resembles or takes after his parents), as an instance of this class. The 
Wh. Gl. example and orthography is, ' you breead o' me, you don't like 
noise.' Now here the original being 0. N. bregda, Sw. Dial, brtigdii, 
Sw. br^s (imp. brSddis), the vowel, by (he syncopation of the original 
word, is necessarily long, And in this case, then, as in that of the Scan- 
dinavian /, equivalent in sound to English d, our dialect, following the 
nile of the Jutland i, takes in the Danish y, or our ee sound, before, and 
partly instead of, the proper sound of the vowel. 

Here again, however, the rule makes no exception in favour of such 
words as have come to us from sources very divergent from Scandi- 
navian tongues or dialects, or, in other words, are of later introduction 
than the formation of the dialect. Thus /iinie becomes feeam, and 
dame, deeam, quite as fully as same (O. N. samr), Beeam, /ame (O. N. 
Jama), leeam, name (O. N. na/n, Sw. tiamn), noeam, &c. 

But, further, with neeam, deeal, boqeuii, for name, dale, same, com- 
pare shauun for shame, gamm for game, dair for dare, and a few other 
instances of the same kind. It is certainly remarkable that, while A. S. 
has saamu, sceomu, PI. D. schaam, Fris. scaim, Eng. shame, &c„ the O. N. 
word is skomm, skamm, the Dan. skam, skamme, btskamme ; as also 
O. N. gaman, Dan. gammen, against Eng. game, Mid. Saxon gamt, gome, 
A. S. gamen; O. N. ^ra (the o unaccented), Dan. Im; Sw. IHr, against 
Eng. dare, A. S. dear. 

But let us revert for a moment 10 a word which, in its several forms, 
has already passed mider review, but did not meet with all the attention 
which, in the matter now under consideration, it deserved. That word 
is home, which in this dialect takes the forms hame, heeam, yaccaa. 
With home A. S. hdm may be collated ; with hame, O. N. hetmr. 0. Dan. 
hem, Sw. hem, Sw. Dial heim, hai'm : and with heeam, Dan, hj'em. But, 
as it would appear, the presence and influence of another principle has 
to be looked for in the case of the third form yamm : and that prin- 
ciple is not, as I conceive, an assumed transition under strong aspira- 
tion (strong aspiration is scarcely the rule in Northumbrian dialects 

,e coDiKctiou between the two diitrictt, and wliit 


generally, and certainly not in the Cleveland dialect) of the hee into ye, 
so that heeam becomes ye-am and eventually yamm, so much as die 
same which accounts for yan, ya (yah) for one, yall for ale, yak for 
oak, and so on without end. 

Mr. Kok* remarks of the South Jutland dialect that in it, as well as 
in that of North Jutland, all vowels admit of that extension of sound 
which is developed by the preinsertion of y (alle selvlyde kunne udvides 
ved et foransat j) ; and, among the instances he gives, 2Lrtjen for en, one, 
jyver ioxyver, udder. Compare our Cleveland yan, Yiire, merely bear- 
ing in mind that Dan. j is almost exactly equivalent in sound — in such 
a position, that is — to our^. 

Mr. Kok further observes that a like extension of sound obtains in 
certain Norse dialects, and even in the later Islandic speech, while in 
fifteenth-century Danish j is frequently found inserted before e. The 
insertion of the j therefore is not a peculiarity affecting barely the Jut- 
land dialects, however true it may be that it prevails more extensively 
and fully in the peninsula than elsewhere. 

It is of course impossible that the peculiarities of dialect adverted to 
in what has been advanced above, and evidently so susceptible of reduc- 
tion to rule, could have originated independently of some specific source ; 
and I think it is almost equally impossible to observe the general corre- 
spondence, and even, in many cases, minute coincidences, between the 
peculiarities in question and the sufficiently marked characteristics of 
Scandinavian tongues and dialects, without being led to the conclusion 
that in all the particulars specified the Cleveland dialect is indebted to 
the Old Danish tongue, and, in a marked manner and no small degree, 
to the Jutland forms in particular. 

As a sequel to, and commentary on, this conclusion, I append the 
following translation from Professor Worsaae's Minder om de Danske og 
Nordmamdene i England^ Skotland og Irland : — * The popular speech in 
North England is specially remarkable for its correspondence with the 
dialects current in flie Danish peninsula. Many words occur which are 
common to N. England and Jutland, but which, otherwise, are not found 
in the Danish tongue. For instance, in North England the shafts of 
the various carriages employed are called Itmmers, which word is most 
evidently of the same derivation as our Juttish Itenij a broom, both of 
them being derived from O. N. Itmif a branch, spray. But, besides, the 
broad pronunciation makes the likeness even more striking and extra- 
ordinary. Thus in N. England, styanf {sieetiy Eng. stone), yen {een^ 

* S. jfyUand Danski Fdhtsprog^ p. 97. 

t It is scarcely necessary to observe that Prof. Worsaac simply uses y where wc, for 
reasons giyen above, have preferred to substitute «f. 


Eng. one), welt (vcsl/e, Eng. to upset), swelt {svelte*, Eng. overcome 
with heat and exercise), maw {mave, Eng. stomach), low {lue, Eng. flame), 
donse (dandse, Eng. dance), fey (feie, Eng. to remove the earth), ouse, 
{pxe, Eng. ox), rami (rogn, Eng. roe of fishes), war and war (^cerre og 
vcBrre, Eng. worse and worse), with many others of the same sort, are 
just pure Juttish.f 

* In fact, the Jutland dialects resemble the English language more 
nearly than any other section of the Danish tongue. The West Jut- 
landers use the article cb before the word in the same way as English 
the is applied, although the Danish tongue otherwise is unacquainted 
with such an article ; % and the broad open w which the folks of Fimen 
and Sealland can only enunciate with the utmost difficulty, falls from 
the Jutlanders as easily as from an Englishman.'§ 

It would have been easy to have pushed illustrations of the kind which 
have been so far adduced considerably further. Thus the sound of the 
Cleveland a in such words as hand, many &c., is utterly imlike any recog- 

* The word van&magte occurs here in the original, and is evidently a misprint 
I have replaced it by svdti from Molbech's Dialect Lexicon, which is current in 
Falster with the signification, to die slowly or of exhaustion. I might also add that 
Kok's Juttish form yen is more to the point than Worsaae's 9m in the line above, that 
in which svdt occurs. 

f It would have been very possible, indeed easy (and apart from the broad pronunciation 
under mention), to make the above parallel much more striking by leaving out such words 
as sweU^ which occurs in Semi-Saxon and Middle English (not to mention E. swdter also), 
maWt danctt and inserting in their stead such words as flan, GKursel, Soran, soouoey 
soraffle, Segg, Sec., — words which are unknown to Danish and English alike, but are com- 
mon to Cleveland and Jutland. In fact, the number of such words is very considerable, 
and the illustration of our dialect derivable from a study of the Danish dialects, and espe- 
cially of those current in Jutland, most important. Scarcely second, indeed, to that from 
the Swedish dialects at large. 

t This statement, as has been seen at a former page, must be received with tome 

$ At a subsequent page (257) the same author, speaking of the Lowlands of Scotland, 
lays, — * According to a tradition widely spread in this locality, the Lowland speech is so 
like the Scandinavian forms that seamen from the Lowlands, who chance to be wrecked on 
the coasts of Jutland or Norway, have no difficulty in making themselves understood by 
the use simply of their mother tongue. That is no doubt a great exaggeration, but so 
much is certain, that the Lowland dialect contains a still greater proportion of Northern 
words and idioms than that even of North England.' While demurring to the perfect 
accuracy of this statement, I may take the opportunity of recording that an English 
clergyman, bom and brought up at the eastern end of Cleveland, and who had not 
only spent a great deal of time in Norway, but spoke Danish with entire facility, men- 
tioned to me that, on many occasions, he had been most forcibly reminded of the ver- 
nacular of the Cleveland people and their mode of speaking it by the words and the 
accent equally of one and another of his attendants in his fishing and other excursions. 
He repeated several of these sentences to me, and they certainly sounded like very pore 
and good * Yorkshire.* 


nised vowel-sound in English. The ordinary orthography hmdy mon,* 
entirely fails to give any adequate idea of it. But, I imagine, it would 
require a nice ear to discriminate the vowel soimd in Dan. haand from 
that in hand as spoken by a true Clevelander. 

Again, there is a remarkable softening of the hard g sound in many 
of our dialect words into ^v oi f sound, or possibly only into that of 
gh^ which runs parallel with many like cases in modem Danish or Danish 
dialects. Thus, Eng. plough^ in Cleveland is plewf or pleeaf. Compare 
Dan. plcVy S. Jutl. plcru^ plove (to plough), sounded pl&Wy with O. N. pldgr^ 
O. Dan. pl<^, ploug, Iiow, again, a flame or blaze, S. Jutl. loge (sounded 
ldw)j Dan. lue^ as compared with O. N. logi, N. loge, Sw. Idga, 

But, however interesting, and even suggestive, such instances are 
in themselves, and however numerous they may be in the aggregate, 
yet they scarcely illustrate principles of such wide application as does 
what has been advanced above; and, consequently, they afford rather 
detached pieces of testimony than an array of weighty and organized 
evidence towards the decision of the question with which we are 

Some analysis of the verbal constituents of the dialect, however, may 
suggest itself as not unlikely to yield valuable results in the prosecution 
of our enquiry : and I think one thing will make itself very apparent to 
any one a little familiar with English in its more archaic forms, as soon 
as he begins to examine and analyse our vocabulary. He will find a 
variety of Old English words and expressions, and several which scarcely 
appear, or p>ossibly do not appear in Early or Middle English at all, but 
which are still to be found in Anglo-Saxon. But, for a few of this 
description, he will find a very considerable number that are not to be 
found either in Anglo-Saxon or any stage of English ; while a not in- 
considerable proportion of the whole will be found to consist of vocables 
which are either met with individually, or by some representative of their 
stock, in both the Scandinavian and Germanic languages and dialects. 

* * We would particularly recommend the perusal of the Craven Glossary to our dra* 
matists and novelists, who, when they introduce a Yorkshire character, generally make 
him speak something much more like Hampshire — occasionally, even, broad Somersetshire.' 
Gamett*s Pbil. Essay s^ P* 55* I ^un afraid this recommendation is as much needed still as 
when it was written. Mr. Browdie's * Yorkshire' would be not too intelligible in Yorkshire, 
either in form or material, while the dialect in Sylvicfi Lovers^ the scene of which is sup- 
posed to be laid in or near Whitby, would certainly not recommend its speaker to the 
kindly notice of the Dalesmen as a fellow-Clevelander. Mr. Browdie says bond and /&o/, 
and so forth, but he makes, among many others, the unpardonable mistake of saying * yan 
day,' while the staple of his discourse is ordinary English in masquerade, with scarcely a 
single characteristic Yorkshire word introduced, and much less any of the peculiar idiom 
and racy pregnancy of meaning which characterise the true Yorkshireman's familiar dis* 

e 2 



It must be my effort to give some kind of analysis in a few following 
pages such as may serve at once to justify and to illustrate these 

In the first place, out of 218 words taken in sequence from the com- 
mencement of the following Glossary, omitting none but those which in 
point of derivation might be justly looked upon as duplicates of one 
already admitted,* 28 appear to be A. S., 97 Scandinavian, t 42 com- 
mon to A. S. (and other Germanic tongues) and Scandinavian, 5 Cel- 
tic, t II Mediaeval Latin or Norman French, 18 Old English, 10 cor- 
rupt or familiar English, and 7 the origin of which may be doubtful. 
Again, out of 359 from the latter part of the Glossary (under letter 5, 
indeed), 21 seem to be A. S., 129 Scandinavian, 103 common or mixed, 
4 Celtic, 8 M. Latin or French, 17 archaic English, 60 corrupt or 
familiar English, and 17 doubtful. Estimating these figures on another 
principle, the tabulated results will be as follows : — 

In each 100 words in the first and second selections from our Glos- 
sary, respectively, there will be, exclusive of fractions — 





Old Eng. 



M. L. or Fr. 

= 100 
= 100 










This result is remarkable in more respects than one. In the first 

* Thus I take Bairn, but omit baimish, baimiahness, &c. Should, however, a 
compound word occur, which appears as a compound in A. S. or any Scandinavian tongue 
or dialect, it has been included, although a representative of its class might already have 
found place : Baim-teaxn being a case in point. I should observe that the work of classi- 
fication was by no means easy, and the difficulty was not lessened by the foregone con- 
clusions existing in my mind. For, with the years of study I had bestowed upon the 
enquiry, it was mevitable that my own decision upon the nature and constituents of the 
dialect should have been arrived at long since ; and that, as word after word passed under 
review, and so large a proportion of all pointed so distinctly, and so many of them so 
strikingly, to the impression produced by one particular class of influences, the effect upon 
my thoughts should have been very distinct and decided. But I think I may say that I 
strove to be strictly impartial, and even to allow for any insensible bias. It may be added, 
first, that the analysis of these 550 words was the work of nearly two days with the com- 
pleted MS. before me ; and, secondly, that in selecting the letter S, a letter has been taken 
which occupies a conspicuous place among the other letters in all tongues of Gothic origin. 
In Haldorsen's Lexicon words beginning with S take up almost X4I per cent, of the entire 
space; in Dalin's Swedish Dictionary about 18 ; iu Molbech's Danish Dictionary nearly 16; 
in Bosworth's A. S. Dictionary about 14^ ; in Hilpert's German Dictionary nearly 17I; in 
Richardson's English Dictionary only about ii ; and in our Clevel. Glossary about i^f. 

t O. N., Swedish, Danish, or occurring in some dialect of either. 

t Gaelic, Welsh, Bret., &c. 


place, we remark upon the decided preponderance of words of Scan- 
dinavian original over those of Anglo-Saxon. Secondly, we have the 
noteworthy particular that the sum of the three first columns is seventy- 
six in the first line, seventy-one in the second; and that, after allowing 
for this coincidence, the main difference will be found under the head of 
corrupt or familiar English phraseology. But the presumption siu^ely 
is, that, when in the one case we have thirteen A. S. terms against forty- 
four Scandinavian, and in the other, six of the former against twenty- 
nine of the latter, that in those terms — nineteen in the one case, twenty- 
nine in the second — ^which are due to vocables common to the Scan- 
dinavian and Germanic classes of languages, the real derivation in the 
proportionate majority of cases must be from the former rather than 
from the latter. 

Put this conclusion side by side with the names of places in Qeveland, 
according to the results of examination stated in a former page, with the 
names of owners at the date of the Domesday survey, with the presumed 
names of serfs or villanes sixty or seventy years later, with the conclu- 
sions drawn from our previous remarks upon the Northumbrian definite 
article and from our notice of the power of the Scandinavian accents 
and other pronimciational peculiarities brought imder review, — ^and I think 
it will be impossible to come to any other conclusion than that, wherever 
the Cleveland dialect diverges from the ordinary or standard language, it 
is indebted to the Scandinavian tongues and dialects for certainly not less 
than sixty per cent, of such divergences. 

Of course, the figures on which this conclusion partly rests may be 
regarded as merely an approximation, but still I am convinced that for 
all practical purposes it is a safe and sufficient approximation ; and it is 
certainly one that is entirely consistent with the suggestions which are 
perpetually offering themselves in the course of continued and attentive 
study of Ae elements of the dialect. It is a remarkable fact, that, with 
all tiie striking illustrations of Cleveland words, phrases and sounds 
which are met with in the Danish dialect, and especially in that of South 
Jutland, yet there are almost more and more striking ones dispersed 
throughout the entire volume — a most admirable one — in which Dean 
Rietz has collected the peculiarities of the Swedish popular speech 
throughout the various provinces of the entire kingdom. At first sight 
it seems scarcely reasonable to anticipate any such result. We hear of 
the Danes and the Northmen as the invaders and ultimate conquerors 
of England. We identify the Jutes as forming no small comparative 
proportion of the invading and colonising hosts. We recognise the 
successful chieftains, who, with their men, settle on the lands granted or 
conceded to them in Northumbria, and Yorkshire especially, as, gene- 
rally speaking, Danes ; but we hear of very few Swedes, either as among 


the troops or the leaders. Not that we doubt there were Swedes 
among them. It could scarcely have been otherwise. But what I 
mean is that the proportion of Swedes among the Scandinavian 
cruisers and marauding or invading parties must necessarily have 
been so small as to be insignificant, and that, as forming or taking 
any part in the various expeditions directed against our English 
coasts, the Swedes engaged must have been simply present more as 
recruits in a Danish force, and in no sense as a separate or independent 
auxiliary force. * 

And still the Northumbrian dialect, and the Cleveland form of it in 
particular, unquestionably indebted to Scandinavian speech for consi- 
derably above one half of the peculiarities which constitute it a dialect, 
is illustrated as much by existing Swedish dialects as by Old Norse or 
existing Danish or Norwegian forms, even if not almost more. 

Anomalous as this seems, yet in reality it admits of easy explanation. 
There can be no doubt that at the time when the Danish conquests in 
the North of England were becoming consolidated, and acquiring more 
and more of Danish form and consistency, as well as population, that 
the original Scandinavian tongue, supposed common to the Danes, 
Northmen and Swedes, was already undergoing considerable modifica- 
tions, which in one direction resulted in Old Danish, leading down into 
Modem Danish; in another, into Old and Modem Swedish. But it 
must be observed that, in the case of Danish, the modification adverted 
to is much more thorough and operative, and has resulted in a much 
greater divergence from the original, than in the case of Swedish. The 
latter is the child in whom ^most all the features of the parent are 
reproduced, and not a few of his peculiarities of personal habit or 
gesture : in the former the likeness exists, and strongly, but it is not so 
obtrusive, and often presents itself rather, as it were, to the thoughtful 
and comparing beholder, than thrusts itself on every passing eye. 
I would say that Swedish, and especially the Swedish dialects, may be 
in a sense (and that not a misleading one) regarded as a kind of instan- 
taneous photograph of a transitional state of the Old Norse tongue, the 
period of transition being not very far removed from the date at which 
the Northumbrian dialect began to assume distinct consistency and 
form ; a date we cannot fix, even very approximately, from internal or 
locally historical data, except in so far as we assume, on seemingly very 
sufficient groimds, that it must have been subsequent to the middle of 
the tenth century. And hence the simple explanation of the fact that 

* See Professor Worsaae*8 remarks apon this subject, and his expUnation of the fact, in 
the opening pages of his able MituUr om de Danskt, &c. 


the Swedish and the Northumbrian dialects still retain a very large pro- 
portion of words common to both, not a few of which moreover occur 
in no other dialect or vocabulary besides these two. 

Another illustration of the extent to which Northern elements still 
prevail in our vocabulary has been obtained by the careful collation of 
the Semi-Saxon Ancren Rtwle* and Layamon's Brut ;\ and, secondly, 
of the Early English Piers Ploughman* s Vtston,X with the Cleveland 
Glossary. In the first-named there are 215 small 4to pages rather 
closely printed, in the second 32,200 short verses, and in the last 
14,700, together with 1700 in the Creed, in all 16,400; while the Glos- 
sary contains about 3920 words. The result of the collation is that 
in Ancren Riwle there are about 235 words which either are found 
in the Glossary or are nearly related to some that are there met 
with : in Layamon the number of such words scarcely amoimts to 
more than 200: while in Piers Ploughman the number scarcely ex- 
ceeds no. 

This result is, it must be admitted, a somewhat remarkable one. The 
average percentage of pure Anglo-Saxon words in the Glossary can 
scarcely be. set down at less than 10 (and it is probably more) ; 
and yet in Ancren Riwle scarcely 5| per cent, of our words or their 
connections occur, in the Brut only a little over 4I, while in the 
Vision 0/ Piers Ploughman the percentage dwindles down to about one 
half of that. 

And what makes this perhaps somewhat more remarkable is the occur- 
rence in the Semi-Saxon writings named of certain phrases or modes of 
speech which not only retain their currency to this day in Cleveland, but 
retain it to the entire exclusion among all the older people of any 
parallel form of expression. Thus, one very striking — at least to a 
Southern ear — ^mode of expression here is, to sit upon one's knees, 
^ an equivalent for * to kneel.' I had compared this with Dan. sidde 
paa hug, simply as regards the external form of the phrase, but the 

* * This work was probably composed, if not in the latter part of the twelfth, at least 
very early in the thirteenth century, and is therefore nearly contemporaneous with the 
Chronicle of Layamon, to the earlier text of which it bears much resemblance.' Marsh's 
Lectures on the Origin and History of the English Language, p. 169. 

t * There is neither internal nor external evidence by which the date of the poem can be 
fixed with exact precision, but there are allusions to events which occurred late in the 
twelfth century ; and, on the other hand, the character of the diction and grammar justify 
ns in saying that it could scarcely have been written after the commencement of the thir- 
teenth.' lb. p. 156. 

X * The precise date of the poem called the Vision of Piers Ploughman is unknown, but 
there is little doubt that it was given to the world between the years 1360 and 1370.' 
lb. p. 295. 


following passage from Lay, ii. 506 unmistakeably suggested a truer 
connection : — 

* J?cos hcrc-)>rlgcs )>rco : These host-chiefs three 

comen to )>an kige. Came to the King 

& setten an heore cneowen :— And sat on their knees 

before |>an kaisere.' Before the caiser. 

Again, to mention but one other like instance, we find our common 
expressions gan nor stand, gan or ride (equivalent to * walk or stand,' 
' walk or ride'), not only in Layamon, but the latter also in Piers 
Ploughman, the idiom, in the Vision, corresponding to the former being 
s/eppe ne stand, 

I turn now to ask attention to a very few grammatical peculiarities. 
The definite article has been already dealt with. Some few plurals in 
en yet remain ; as owseny housen, een, (eyen). Childer is also heard : 
but beyond these forms there is no deviation from the ordinary English 
noun forms, except indeed as to the genitive. The Cleveland man 
invariably says bird nest, not ' bird's nest,' men names, not * men's 
names,' stee foot, bank top, instead of ' foot of the Stee' (ladder), 
'top of the Bank' (hill) — a construction of frequent occurrence in 
Chaucer, and met with in P, Ploughm,,* Merlin, Hali Meidenhad, 
S, Marherete, &c,, as well as in Townel0f Myst, and other books of 
Northumbrian origin, passim. 

The relative pronoim at (see At, below, in the Glossary) is still in 
full use, while wheea, corresponding to O. N. hverr, supplies the inter- 
rogative form. The second personal pronoun, thou, is of continual 
use among the people themselves, hniyou, noiye, plural. 

Among the adjectives are a few which are compared by the addition 
of more and most as suffixes, instead of in the ordinary manner, as 
bettermore (usually bettermy or bettermer), nearmer, farmost, 
baokmest, &c. The forms farr => further, narr « nearer, florr'st, 
neest = furthest, nearest, are also in continual use. 

In the class of verbs, there are some noticeable deviations from 
English usage. Thus sleep, creep, hear, in their preterite forms 
become sleep'd, ereep'd, hear'd (sounded heerd : not as E. heard is). 
Wash, wax, snow, make wesh, wex, snew. Freeze gives firaze, rise, 
V. a., rase, rive, rave, steal, stale, swear (pr. sweer), sware, speak, 
spak, break (pr. breke), brak; while teach, if used at all (leam 
is the word in almost invariable use in the sense to teach), makes 
teacht, hold (pr. ho'd), hodded, heave, heaved (hove being some- 

• • J?at breke)> menne beggis* Skeat's edit. p. 76. ' And se»>en selh and his suster sed* 
lb. p. 118. 


times heaid), weave, weayed and wove. Find (pr. finnd) again 
makes fto', ftin', bind, bun', wind, wun'; but blind gives blinded, 
ding both ding'd and dang, hing (for hang) hin^d and hung 
(» as in 'bull').* 

But it is in the p. participle that the greater number of peculiarities 
is observable. Stand, Btooden, get, gitten, cleave, dowen, shear, 
shoren, creep, croppen or oruppen {u as in * bull' or 2ls oo in' stood'), 
sleep, sleppen, oheeas (for choose), ohozzen or ohossen, knead, 
knodden, freeze, frozzen, come, oiunmen, rive, rowen, swear, sworen, 
weave, wowen, break, brokken, drive, drowen, thrive, throwen 
and throdden, hold, hodden, take, takken, tekken or tukken 
{u as the oo in 'took'), bind, bun' and bnnden, wind, wnnden, find, 
ftin' and fiinden, &c. 

Traces of the pres. participle in -and are met with also, but they are 
now only traces, unless indeed the universal suppression of the final 
g be looked upon as tantamount to the continuance of the and form. 
Gannan I look upon, from its unmistakeable sound, as really gannan(d) 
and not gannin(g) ; wakan' (pr. wakkan) too, I think it is, and not 
wakin' ; and so of a few others, as laitan', lakan', &c. But ridin% not 
ndan'y flytin', not flytati, helpin' and not helpari is, I am sure, the rule, 
and so of the great preponderance. 

The inflection of the present tense of verbs conforms pretty closely 
to the general Northumbrian rule ; as — 

Sing. Plur. 

I (Ah) is. We is. 

Thou is. You are. 

He is. They is. 

Ah gans. We gans. 

Thou gans. You gan. 

He gans. They gans. 

The imperfect of the verb substantive is — 

Smo. Plur. 

Ah, thou, he, wiir. We, you, they, wiir. 

Emphatic, the word becomes war (sounded like the E. sb.). 

* Seen as the pret. of ' see/ is not in infrequent use ; as, Ah seen 'im a week syne, 
as pawky a lahtle chap as ivrer Ah seen. So also gaed is of perpetual occurrence 
as the pret. of gae in preference to E. u/m/. Steead for stood, deean for done, are 
merely phonetic variations. 



What is called the genindial construction is of perpetual occurrence, 
as in he'll be to lite oiiy they 'b to lait, bad to beat, ill to see, &c. 
The future of intention or purpose is frequently rendered by s\ as in 
thou b' ha'e, Ah b' gan, for thou shalt have, I shall go, where I look 
upon j' as undoubtedly the result of a double contraction of the usual 
Northiunbrian form sal, first into x7, the / being slurred as in ordinary 
talk, and then into s\ the / being dropped altogether. Wheea b' aw 
or owe P is also explained on this principle. 

The future of necessity is rendered in a slightly different manner. A 
man may say to another, thou has t' gan, implying the necessity of 
his going, and the * has ' may be rendered emphatic. But thou is t* gan 
is equally good Cleveland, and not infrequently the form as actually 
sounded is simply thoust gan ; thus. Miles, t' maaster says thoust 
gan te Stowsley t' moom, where the emphatic form would be, thou 
is t' gan, a' t' same. 

Aty as the sign of the infinitive mood, is lost, or so nearly so that it is 
unrecognised among the people themselves. I sometimes hear the 
form what 's a' deea now P in which I believe the a stands for at, and 
I have suspected that the expression nowght t* say might rather be 
written, judging by the sound, as nowght 't say, that is, nowght at say, 
or * notWng to say.' 

The tendency of the dialect to use adverbial forms in -lit^s has been 
remarked on. Adjectives in -some, as ridsome, viewsome, langsome, 
fearsome, are fully as characteristic as adverbs in -lings, -ment also, 
as a common termination of nouns, deserves notice; as perishment, 
dasement, trashment, muckment, minglement, and very many 

A few remarks upon the vowel and consonant sounds may, perhaps, 
be not quite uncalled for. 

A has the four sounds noted below : — 

1 . Long, or as in /ate, 

2. Short, or as in/at; in yal, Mally, dander, &c. 

3. Broad, or as between the in 'hole' and au in 'maund;' in 

such words as hand, man, land, stand. 

4. Before /, that of aw, the consonant being suppressed, as in 

cau'f for calf, sau't for salt. 

E has the ordinary long and short sounds of English e, as in perching 
(pr. peerching), pettle. 


/ has three sounds : — 

1. Long, as a + ^, or Gr. d«. See above, p. xxix, and under 


2. Short, as in * hit,' * pit.' 

3. Before r (as in * bird'), that nearly of <? in ' Boz,' as ho*t = hurt, 

bo'd = bird. 

O has five sounds : — 

1. Long, as eea dissyllable; the ee as in 'feet,' but with a 

quick impulse of the voice, the a as in missed^ or the 
short a at the end of Latin words; as stone, steean, 
bone, beean, &c. 

2. Short, as in ' hot.' 

3. Before r, as with i before r, when the sound is as in ' word,' 

not in * lord.' 

4. Long, before /, as auy suppressing the consonant, as oau'd, 

bau'd, for * cold,' * bold.' 

5. Short before /, as in 'sod,' suppressing the consonant, as 

he'd for ' hold.' 

^ has five sounds: — 

1. Most generally as u in £. bully as in lumbering (pr. loom- 

mering), dunter, oluther, oumber (pr. coommer), &c. 

2. As in £. ' dull,' in a few words only, as duzz, changed from 


3. Before r, as /* and before r. 

4. The peculiar sound noted under Tiiflt or Teuflt, nearly 

approaching to, if not coincident with, that of Dan. y. 
The transition from this sound into that of Clevel. 00 in 
' fool,' ' school,' ' door,' or of long <? as in ' stone,' * bone,' 
or of long ^7 as in ' dale,' seems a very easy one. 

5. As in bou'k for * bulk.' Cf. howk, vb., with Sw. hulke, 

Eoy in ' yeoman,' is sounded as ^, as yemman. Compare ' weapon.' 
Ei, in ' eight,' much the same as in £. height, 

Oo has two sounds ; — 

1 . As in * door,' ' school,' ' fool,' and the name Foord, as long ; 

deear, scheeal, feeal, Feeard. 

2. Sometimes, as in * book,' ' nook,' as eu. But the forms beeak, 

neeak, obtain more generally than beuk, neuk. 



Ou has two sounds : — 

1. As in ' hound/ not as in ' wound/ as lound, stound, ought, 

nought, outher, nouther, &c. 

2. As in huff, as in through (pr. thruff), sough, &c. 

For the consonants, it may be noted that b after m is either suppressed 
as in numb, or changed into another m, as in slumber, cumber, lum- 
ber (pr. sloommer, coommer, loommer). 


1. In the middle of a word is very frequently soimded as ih 

hard (%), as in dither, dother, flither, for didder, dodder, 

2. Final, as in and, and in the preterites and p. participles 

of verbs, boimd, bimd, ftmd, is slurred over or sup- 

3. After n takes the soimd of a second n in some words, as 

in thimder, soimded thoonner. But in winder, sunder, 
it is sounded with distinctness, and slurred rather than 
changed in blunder, blundered, &c. 


1. After n is sounded as in Germ, schlangeriy Dan. anger ^ as 

in angered, nang-nail, &c. 

2. Final, is almost invariably suppressed; thus both the ^'s in 

hinging-mind are subject to these two rules respectively. 

3. Guttural, or as in Eng. through, Dan. plog, becomes a labial, 

as in thruff, pleaf or pleuf, beuf or beeaf (bough). A 
very considerable number of Geveland words depend upon 
this principle, and in some of them the form ch or gh, 
intermediate between an original g and our ff, is not easy 
to trace. See Arf, Mauf, &c. 

4. Simply guttural as in enough, of which *enew' does not 

fairly represent the sound. Sc. eneuch is nearer. 

K before x, either immediately or with a silent vowel intermediate, as 
in Stokesley, is softened into w, as Stowsley. 

L after a, 0, u, ou is usually suppressed as in ' calf,' ' balk,' * old,' 
*cold,' 'mouldie,' 'bulk,' which become eau% bau'k, au'd, cau'd, 
mou'die, bou'k. 

Qu is changed into w, as in * quick,' wick, * quaint,' went or 
waint, &c. 


i? after a is in some words suppressed, as a't for 'art/ a'm for 
* arm/ pfi't for * part/ ga'n, gain, for gam, gaim, * yarn,* &c, 

T in the middle of a word in some cases becomes th, as in daugh- 
ter, pronoimced dowth'r. 

Th at the commencement of a word in the mouths of many is 
sounded simply as /, as trone for * throne,' trow for * throw,' while / by 
itself in the same place sometimes sounds as M, as in thrimml for 
' tremble.' 

Wh initial is usually spoken with a strong aspirated breathing, as in 
wheea, well, for * who,' interrogative, * whole.' So also in whewt. 

X, or the sound of k before x is in many words softened into ws or w, 
as in owBO, owsen, Bousby, assel, for ' ox,' * oxen,' * Roxby,' * axle.' 

W and Y are frequently prefixed to words beginning with a, <?, as in 
wots ((? as in ' hold,' but soimded short), wosael, wost'us, for ' oats,' 
' hostle,' ' host-house,' yal, yan, yaoker, yabble, for al (ale), an (one), 
' acre,' * able.' 





O. N. Old Norse. 

Isl. Icelandic. 

Hald.* Lexicon Islandico-Latino-Danicum, B. Haldor- 

sonii. Havn. 1814. 
Egils. Egilsson's Lex. Poeticum Antiq. Linguae Sep- 

tentr. Hafn. i860. 
Mobius. Altnordisch. Glossar, von Dr. Th. Mpbius. 

Leipz. 1866. 
Rask's Icelandic Grammar, by Dasent. Lon- 
don. 1843. 
O. Sw. Old Swedish. 

S. G. Suio-Gothic. 

* Having made by far the most use of Haldorsen's Lexicon, until within the last two or 
three years, I have in the majority of instances quoted O. N. words with his orthography. 
Greater correctness would have been obtained by altering all the (f*i in words properiy spelt 
with IS, and so also of words which by Mobius and Egilsson are written with a J instead of 
the t exclusively employed by Haldorsen. Remarks of the same kind apply to Molbech's 
Danish and Dialect Lexicons in reference to the employment of i instead of the more 
approved j of the present day, and instead of o. As a rule I have simply copied the 
words quoted faithfully from the pages of the author in whose book I found them. 



Sw. D. 1 
Prov. Sw. J 



Dan.D. ) 
D.Dial. V 
D.D. j 

O. Dan. 





Ihre. Gloss. Suio-Gothicum, &c., auct. Joh. Ihre. 

Upsaliae. 1769. 

Swedish Dialects. 

Rietz. Ordbog ofver Svenska Allmoge-sprlket af Joh. 

Ernst Rietz. Lund. 1862-8. 
Dalin. Ordbog ofver Svenska Spraket. Af A.F. Dalin. 

Stockholm. 1850. 
Tauchnitz' Pocket Swedish-English Dictionary. 
Molb. Dansk Ordbog af C. Molbech. Ki0benhavn. 

Ferr. Ferrall og Repps Dansk -Engelske Ordbog. 

Kj0benhavn. 1 8 6 1 . 
Rosing. Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog af C. Rosing. K0ben- 

havn. 1863. 

Danish Dialects, Provincial Danish. 

Molb. Dansk Dialekt- Lexicon ved C. Molbech. 

Ki0b. 1 84 1. 
Kok. Det Danske Folkesprog i S0nderjylland, v. 

J. Kok. K0b. 1863. 
Old Danish. 

Molbech, Dansk Glossarium. Ki0benhavn. 1857. 
Aasen. Ordbog over det Norske Folkesprog af Ivar 

Aasen. Kristiania. 1850. 
Norsk Grammatik af L Aasen. Christiania. 
Bosw. Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, by 

Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D. London. 1838. 
Compendious ditto. 1855. 


O. E. Old EngUsh. 

M. E. Middle EngUsh. 

Rich. New Dictionary of the English Language. 

London. 1856. 
Wedgw. A Dictionary of English Etymology, by H. 

Wedgwood, M.A, London. 1859-67. 
Hall. A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial words, 

by J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. London. 1850. 
Sc. Scottish. 

Jam. Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 

guage, by John Jamieson, D.D. Edinburgh. 

Old High German. 
MiSclle High German. 

Piatt Deutsch, Nether Saxon, Low German. 

A Dictionary of the German and English Lan- 
guages, by J. L. Hilpert. London. 

Frisian, Old Frisian, North Frisian. 




A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, by W. 
Owen Pugh, D.C.L. Denbigh. 1832. 

Latin, Middle or Mediaeval Latin. 




0. H. G. 


M. H. G. 

L. Germ. 



0. Fris. 
N. Fris. 










M. Lat. 





Q p^ j French, Old French. 

Sansc. Sanscrit. 

Pr. Pronunciation. 

pr. Pronounced. 

Flatey. Flateyarbok. En samling af Norske Konge- 

sagaer. Christiania. i860. 
Landnam. Islands Landnamabok. Havniae. 1774. 

Gam. Dan. Mind. GamleDanske Minder in Folkemunde; af Svend 

Gnindtvig. Kj0benhavn. 185 5-6 1 . 
Worsaae. Minder om de Danske og Nordmsendeme i 

England, Skotland og Irland, af J. J. Worsaae. 

Kjob. 1851. 
Den Danske Erobring af England og Nor- 

mandiet ved J. J. Worsaae. Kjob. 1853. 
War. och Wird. Warend och Wirdame. Ett fdrsok i Svensk 

Ethnologi, af G. O. Hylten Cavallius. Stock- 
holm. 1863. 
Ame. Ame, af Bj0mstjeme Bjomson. Bergen. 1859. 

North. Gosp. Die vier Evangelien in Alt-Northumbr. Sprache 

von K. W. Bouterwek. Gtitersloh. 1857. 
A. S. Gosp. The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with 

the Wycliffe and Tyndale Versions, by Rev. 

J. Bosworth, D.D. London. 1865. 
Wycl. The same. 

Lay. La^amon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, ed. by 

Sir F. Madden. London. 1847. 
Ancr. Riwle. The Ancren Riwle. Ed. by James Morton, 

B.D. London. 1853. 
Orm. The Ormulum. Ed. by R. M. White, D.D. 

Oxford. 1852. 
P. Ploughm. The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman. 

Ed. by Thos. Wright, M.A. London. 1856. 
Townel. Myst. The Towneley Mysteries. Surtees Society ed. 

London. 1836. 


Pr. of Consc. The Pricke of Conscience. A Northumb. Poeiri. 

Ed. by R. Morris for Phil. Society. 

E. E.T. S. Early English Text Society. 

Skeat's P. Ploughm. The Vision of William concerning Piers Plow- 
man. Ed. by Rev. W. W. Skeat 

E. E. Allit. Poems. Alliterative Poems in the West Midland Dia- 

lect. Ed. by R. Morris. 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. Ed. by 

R. Morris. 

Rcl. Pieces. Religious Pieces, in Prose and Verse. Ed. by 

Geo. Perry, M.A. 

Gen. and Ex. The Story of Genesis and Exodus. Ed. by 

R. Morris. 

H. Meid. ^ HaU Meidenhead. Ed. by Oswald Cock- 

Hal. Meid. j ayne, M.A. 

S. Marh. Seinte Marherete, the Meiden ant Martyr. Ed. 

by Oswald Cockayne, M.A. 

Merl. Merlin, or the Early History of King Arthur. 

Ed. by H. B. Wheatley. 

K. Horn. King Horn, with Fragments of Floris and 

Blauncheflur, and of the Assumption of 
our Lady. Ed. by J. R. Liunby. 

Kn.of LaTour-Landry. The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry. 

Ed. by Thos. Wright, M.A. 

Man. Voc. Manipulus Vocabulorum, by Peter Levins. Ed. 

by H. B. Wheatley. 

Percy's Fol. MS. Bishop Percy's FoUo Manuscript. Ed. by 

J. W. Hale and F. J. Fumivall. 

Phil. Soc. Trans. Transactions of the Philological Society. 

Gamett. Philological Essays of Rev. R. Gamett. Lon- 

don. 1859. 

Tylor. Early History of Mankind, by E. B. Tylor. 

London. 1865. 

Kelly. Curiosities of Indo-European Traditions and 

Folklore, by Walter K. Kelly. London. 1863. 



Patr. Piirg. 





Burnt Njal. 

Orig. and Hist. Eng. ) 
Lang. ) 

Lect. on Eng. Lang. 

Dip. Angl. 

Gloss, of Architect. 

Sl Patrick's Purgatory. By Thomas Wright, 

M.A. London. 1844. 
Observations on Popular Antiquities, by John 

Brand, M.A. Ed. by Sir H. Ellis. Lon- 
don. 1 84 1. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

J. W. Ord. London. 1846. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

Rev. J. Graves. Carlisle. 1808. 
The Works of Geoflfery Chaucer. By John 

Urry . London. 1 7 7 1 . * 
The same. Bell's Edition in the Aldine Poets. 

8 volumes. 
Deutsche Mythologie, Von Jacob Grimm. 

Gottingen. 1854. 
The Story of Burnt Njal. Translated by 

Geo. Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. Edinburgh. 

The Origin and History*of the English Lan- 
guage, by George P. Marsh. 186 a. 
Lectures on the English Language, by George 

P. Marsh. New York and London. i86a. 
Lectures on the Science of Language, by Max 

MUller. London. 1861. 
Diplomatorium Anglicum Mvi Saxonici, by 

B. Thorpe. London. 1865. 
History of the Four Conquests of England, 

by James Augustus St. John. London. 

A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, 

Italian, and Gothic Architecture. Oxford. 


* The references to this editon are usually made by the number of the page, sometimes 
to the number of the line in the separate Poem or * Tale* quoted. 



Hist of Whitby. 
Pr. Pm. 


Carr, or Cr. GL 
Wh. Gl. 

Lincolns. Gl. 

Joco-Ser. Disc. 

A History of Whitby and Streoneshalh Abbey, 
by the Rev. Geo. Young. Whitby. 1817. 

Promptorium Parvulomm sive Clericorum. 
Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus princeps. Ed. 
by Albert Way, A.M. London. 1864. 

A Glossary of North Country Words in use, 
by John Trotter Brockett. Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 1825. 

The Dialect of Craven, with a Copious Glos- 
sary, by a native of Craven. London. 1 8a8. 

A Glossary of Yorkshire Words and Phrases 
collected in Whitby and the neighbourhood, 
by an Inhabitant. London. 1855. 

Provincial Words and Expressions current in 
Lincolnshire, by J. Ellett Brogden. Lon- 
don. 1866. 

A Joco-Serious Discourse, in two Dialogues, 
between a Northumberland Gentleman and 
his Tenant^ a Scotchman. London. 1 686. 

I will only add further, that the books which I have found most useful 
in my inquiries touching the origin or derivation of our various dialect 
words have been Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary of English Etymology^ 
Dean Rietz's Swedish Dialed Dictionary^ Aasen's Norse Glossary^ and 
Molbech's Danish Dialect Lexicon, I have found Mr. Wedgwood's 
book most suggestive and full of varied learning and material, which, 
even where I was imable to agree with him in his conclusions, was sur^ 
to be of use, and instructive, in the general course of study and research. 
My obligations also to the Swedish Glossary named are very great in- 
deed. It is, I think, the most carefully compiled and comprehensive 


book of the kind I am acquainted with, and, in countless instances, so 
complete an account of the word under notice and its various cognate 

words in other languages and dialects is given, that a perfect word- 
study is afforded at a glance. It is impossible to speak too highly of 
this excellent book. Aasen's Dictionary is also an admirable work, and 
it is to be hoped that it will before long be given to the world in its 
second edition. One feature in the book, that of giving the synonymes 
of the words dealt with as well as their varying forms, might be imitated 
with advantage in all like publications. 





A I int. An exceedingly common interj., expressive of different emo- 
tions, surprise, sympathy, &c. : sometimes used singly, sometimes in 
conjunction with another word. See A I but. 

' A t man : that war a yarker I' 

* A Ihesu Crist, Lorde, full- of myghtc* Rel. Pieces^ p. 67. 

A, num. adj. (pr. yah). One. 

O. Sw. a, one : — * in Dalekarlia, Westrobothnia, Gothlandiaque unitatis nota est.' Ihre ; 
written ae by Jam., Scott, Sec. Under A the former observes that it. A, * is used by our 
oldest writers in the sense of one. The signification is more forcible than that of a in 
Eng. before a singular noun, for it denotes not merely one out of many, but one exclusively 
of others, in the same sense in which ae is vulgarly used.' But it must be observed that 
CI. a (pr. yah) and one (pr. yan) are not interchangeable, and therefore are not equivalents. 
Ane may stand by itself, absolutely or pronominally : a never does ; it is always adjoined to 
a noun expressed, as, * yab day,* * yab lass :' while, on the other hand, it is, * yan iv 'em,' 
' niwer a yan,' and so forth. The same remark applies to Sc. ae and ane, and is borne out 
in regard to a in all the quotations from early writers adduced by Jam. 

•"You have two daughters, I think, Mr. Deans?" ** Ae daughter, sir;— only ane"* 
Heart of Mid Loibian, 

* Ony one or two o' ye come forward.' Black Dwarf, 

* Ae body at a time.' Ih. 

* Ah seen yan o's brithers, a week gone Saturday.' 
' They're twea lads an* yab lass in family.' 

Cf. ' The Trynyte .... thre persouns and a Godd, es maker of all thjrnges .... Haly 
Kirke oure modere is hallyly ane thorow oute )>e werlde.' Rel. Pieces, p. 3. 

The usage, however, in these writings is not Strictly uniform ; as the line, p. 59, ' a god 
and ane Lord yn threhed,' shews. 

Aback, adv. Behind, in the rear. 

O.N. dhah, dbahi; O. S. onb<se. 

* pe justise for schyndisse : nolde loke )>erto. 
Ac bihuld abac and tournde his ejen.' Seinte Margarete, p. 28. 



* Thou shalle abakt bewshere, that blast I forbede/ Toumel, Mysi, p. 241. 

• Deean't t*e thrust sae mich aback there/ 

Cf. • Ok kuomu \>ar er \>etr menn voru er Lappir beitay J>a/ er a hak Finnmork; and 
arrived at that place where the men who were called Laps were. That is aback of Fin- 
mark.' Flat, I. 219. 

Abaok-o-beyont, adv. At an indefinitely great distance ; too remote 
to be within reach or accessible from. 

* I wish they were all aback o* beyont ;* of persons occasioning annoyance. Wb. Ol. 

* We were all thrown aback o* beyont the day through ; ' could never recover the ground 
lost by delay in the morning. lb. 

Abear, v. a. To endure, to put up with. 

Abide, v. a. To endure, to put up with. See Bide. 

A. S. bidan^ abidan, 

* Abide and abie (like guide and guy^ Prov. guidar and guioTy It. gridarey and Fr. crier) 
are essentially the same verb under different forms, of which abide has descended to us from 
our Saxon ancestors, while abie has come to us through the medium of the French.' 

Able (pr. yabble), abable (pr. yabbable), ablish (pr. yabblish), adj. 
I. Competent or possessing a sufficiency, in respect to bodily strength 
or ability. 2. Possessing a competency, in respect of property or worldly 

O.N. afl; O. Sw. a/7, afwel; A.S. dhdly ability, power of body. O.N. afla signifies 
both I can, I am able, and, I get or procure or acquire. Ihre says, ' As the Latin idiom 
applies parere to the acquisition of any matters, so also afla f<B means to get property ; 
whence is derived q/fon, afling^ what is gotten or acquired. Thus, aflinge gods, acquired 
property, is opposed to arfy byrdtfcedemes-jord, &c., hereditary possessions. 

1. *"A yabble kind of a man ;" a strong, stout person.' Wb, Ol, 

2. * Neea. Nanny B. is nane sae needful ; she 's a yabble body eneugh.' 

• " They 're a yabblisb lot ;" a rich family.' Wb, Gl, 

Ablins (pr. ablins), adv. Perhaps, possibly. 

Comp. O. N. afla, I am able ; the idea being that of possibility. 

Abooiiy abmie, prep. Above, higher in respect of place or position. 

A. S. be-u/an, bufan, abufan, 

• The Queen's aboon us all.' Wb, Gl, 

* Will you ax my lord ? He 's over mich aboon us.' 
Cf. also, * Godd >at es abouene hym.' Rel. Pieces, p. 45. 

• Godd is abouen all thynge,' lb. p. 46 ; and, « large and wyde abowne* lb. p. 48. 

• With floodes that from abone shal falle.* Toumel. Mysi. p. 23. 

Aboon-heead, adv. Above, over one's head. 

• " It wets aboon-beead:** it rains.' Wb. Gl. 

A I but. Used interjectionally, but with a tacit reference to some 
mental comparison or remark of the speakers. 

* At bui, that was a big yan ;* big comptred to all the others. 


Ao-oom, sb. (pr. yak'ron). An acorn. 

/v. Pm, * AeeonUt or archade, frute of the oke. Glans.* 

Addle, V. a. To earn, acquire by labour. 

A. S. edUan, adUan, a reward, recompense, requital ; whence the vb. edlt^nan, edleanian, 
to reward, recompense. But cf. especially O. N. odlaz, to obtain, make one*s own, 

* Ah *8 nowght bud what Ah addles ;* I have nothing beyond my earnings or wages. 

AddlingSy sb. Earnings, money got by labour. 

* " Poor addlings ;" small pay for the work done.* Wb. Gl. 

* Hard addlings;* returns laboriously obtained. lb, 

* Saving 's gooid addling;* the terse sense of which is obvious. lb, 

Afore-langy adv. Before long, soon. 

Comp. the parallel forms among ^ bimong in the following passage, Aner, Riwle, 102 : 
' pu ueir bimong wummen, and bimong engles )>u meiht don )>erto : ^u schalt siker elles 
hwar beon ueir nout one among wummen, auh among engles.' Chaucer writes to/ore^ as 
well as a/oret a/oms, aforen, A. S. atforan. 

Observe the idiomatic use of our word in the example. 

* ** It will happen afore long gans ;' before any long time elapsei/ Wb, Gl, 

Afterbirth, sb. The placenta. 

O.N. e/Hrburdr; O. Sw. efterbhrd; Dan. efterbyrd, 

Agait, agate. Astir, agoing, on the move. 

See Oate, Gait. Rich, remarks that the word gait * is applied not only to the way 
gone, but also to the going, the motion in going.' Hence a-gait or on-gaii, implying the 
action of eoing or moving. 

* They ve getten fairly agate;* they have well begun. 

* Thou 's early agate this morning.' 

Agee, ajee, adv. To one side, awry, askew. 

Jam. observes that Serenius * gives Sw. gaa as signifying both to budge, and to turn 
round* Gee is here, as elsewhere, the carter or ploughman's word to his horses when he 
desires them to turn to the right. No doubt the connection of the word is with O. Sw. g&, 
and cognate verbs, and that originally some adjoined particle decided the direction of the 
motion when it ceased to be straightforward. Comp. the terms used in directing the move- 
ments of oxen by their driver : when he desired them to turn from him, or to the right — 
the same as when gee is us^d — the word was bop, or bop off; the turn to be made being a 
turn to what is termed the offside. Gee thus derived, agee would be formed as are a-slcew, 
a-wry, and the like. 

* •• It was all ageeC* quite crooked.' Wb, Gl. 

Agin, conj. As if. 

Probably a contracted Pr. of as gin. 

Ability adv. (pr. ahint). Behind; i. In respect of place or position. 
2. In respect of time. 3. In respect of advantage. 

The pronunciation of our word is its chief peculiarity, and one which deserves notice, 

B 2 


inasmuch as it retains the short i which belongs to all its etymons, as also to the modem 
Germ, binter, 

1 . * He 's close abint* 

2. ' " Tm afraid I 'm late?" •* Nae, thou's nane sae mich abini.** * 

3. * " They say Josey 's come badly on ? " " Nae, he 's not that far abini.** * 

Aim, V. a. i. To intend or purpose. 2. To presume, suppose, or 
conjecture. 3. To expect or look for, to anticipate. 

Gamett remarks, Pbil, Essays, p. 60, * Aim is from the Germ, abmen; Bav. amen, 
bdmen, properly to gauge a cask, also to fathom, measure. This is evidently the sense in 
Mr. Boucher's second quotation from Langtoft ; — 

" A water in Snowden rennes, Aubcr is the name. 
An arm of the sea men kennes, and depnes may none ame.** 
We are not aware of its ever being used by the Germans to denote compute, reckon, as it 
seems to be in the passage, — 

•' Of men of armes bold, the number they ame" 
The connection between the two ideas is however obvious enough. A diligent examination 
of our old writers would perhaps decide whether our aim comes immediately from this 
source, or more indirectly so through the medium of the Fr. esmer* Mr. Wedgwood takes 
the latter view. 

I. * Ah aims t*gan.' 

* Ah 's seear he cdmed o* coming.' 

a. * I aim that is the place.' Wb. Gl. 

* What o'clock is it, aim you ? * lb. 
3. * I aimed he 'd be here by now.' 

* I never aimed he wad ha' ganned yon gate.' 

Aim, sb. Iron. 

O. N. iarn, O. Sw. and Dan. iern. 

Airt, airth, sb. Quarter of the heaven, direction or point of the 

O.N. dtt; O. Sw. att, quarter of the heaven, district, country. Cf. Suduratt, the south 
quarter ; Norduratt, the north. 

* The wind is in a cold airt* 

* *• Did ye hear t'guns at Hartlepool, yesscr nceght, John?" " Ay, I heerd a strange 
lummering noise. I aimed it cam' fra that airt.** ' 

Airtling, pcpl. (Pr. of ettling) . Aiming or intending to proceed in a 
given direction. See Ettlo. 

Aither, sb. A ploughing. Wh, Gl. gives, as the meaning of this 
word, * furrowed ground,' and then, as the instance of usage, a sentence 
which clearly refers only to the act of ploughing, and not at all to the 
land or * ground* ploughed. See example. I believe the meaning to be 
restricted to the ploughing or furrowing. See Ardcr^ in Brock. 

O. N. eria, yria, imp. ar^i, or vr^i ; O. Sw. aria ; M. G. arian ; A. S. erian ; O. H. G. 
erren ; Germ. eren. Cf. also A. S. yr^, ploughed land. The connection with the Bible 
word ear is evident ; * He will take your sons, . . . and will set them to ear his ground,' 
I Sam. viii. 12. * The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground,' Is. xxx. 24. 

* " The first or second aifber ;" the first or second ploughing.' Wb. Gl. 


Ak, sb. (pr. yak). The oak. 

O. N. eiky eyk ; Sw. ek ; Sw. D. eik ; Dan. eeg, eg ; A. S. oc, ac, 

* A piece o' brave aud yak.' Wb, GL 

Akwert, awkert, adj. (pr. ockert or orked). Perverse, difficult to 
deal with, hard to manage. 

* He's bad to do with: he's as awkert as awhert;* he is difficult to deal with; he is as 
perverse and impracticable as possible. 

Akwertnesfiiy awkertness, sb. Perverseness, obstinacy, impractica- 

* Ah nivver seen nowght like his awhertness* 

Al, sb. (pr. yal). Ale. 

O. N. £»/; O. Sw. 61 ; A. S. eale. 

The Pr. of this word suggests a Scandinavian derivation ; inasmuch as A. S. eale presents a 
long syllable or sound in contrast with the shorter and sharper sound of the word in either 
of its three northern forms. Comp. Al-iu. 

* A jill o'yal;' half a pint of ale. 

Ale-draper, sb. An alehouse-keeper, or publican. *A term now 
obsolete, but occurring in the Whitby parochial register a century ago.' 
Wh, GL 

This word probably owes its origin to a corruption of the sense of the word draper, 
which converted it from a merchant-worker in cloth, into a retailer, simply ; the word ale 
being then prefixed. 

Almisse, almose, almous, sb. (pr. ommus, awmous, or awmas). 
I. Alms; an almsgift. 2. A small quantity or proportion; a definite 

O. N. blmtisa ; O. Sw. almusa ; Sw. almosor ; Dan. almisse : A. S. telmesse^ cdmysse ; 
O. H. G. almesy alms, gifts bestowed in charity. * Almessei or almos. Blimosina^ roga, 
Almesse of mete.* Pr. Pm. The second sense or application depends upon the first, the 
sequence of ideas being that an alms may either easily degenerate into a pittance, or at least 
be regarded as such by the recipient. And what is aUke curious and interesting is that a 
like sequence of idea obtains in the case of the O. N. homonym, only there in reference to 
a person instead of to a gift. Thus Hald. gives bomundo as a second meaning for olmusa, 
and the legend of Olaf Tryggvason's meeting with Thor, Flatey, I. 397, afibrds a good 
illustration of such meaning. Thor, under the form of a strong, powerful man of lofty sta- 
ture, youthful, handsome and red-bearded, has caused himself to be taken aboard the king's 
ship, which had formerly belonged to a hero called Raudr. The visitor had soon begun, 
what would be called now-a-days, * chaffing' the crew, telling them they were not fit to be 
attached to so famous a king, or man such a splendid ship; that the ship's company was far 
* more like ' when Raudr the Mighty had her, and that that leader would scarcely permit 
such a man even as he (the speaker) was, to join the crew except it were in the post of 
jester or as a jolly companion : ' and yet, all you,' he continues, • are but mere dwarfs or 
mannildns, ommuses^ by the side of me ! * En nu eru \>er |>o aulmusur bea mer. So, in 
Cleveland a messenger is sent to a shop for, suppose, a shilling's-worth of such and such an 
irticle, and returning with what seems to the purchaser a very small proportionate quantity, 
is greeted with the remark, • Why what an ommus thee has getten ;' as if, like alms, it had 


been sparingly or grudgingly doled out. Cf. the Lincolnsh. use of tfaie word quoted by Hall. : 
* When a labourer has been filling a cart with manure, com, &c., he will say at last to the 
carter, " Have n't you got your awmous?" * 

1. ' " Pray you can I beg my aumas of you?" Formerly the ordinary address of the 
mendicant : now, rarely if ever heard.' Wb, Gl, 

* Those that trow in my myght and luf welle dltniis dede, 
Thay shalle shyne as son brighte, and heven have to thare mede.' 

Toumel, Myst, p. apa. 

All outy adv. Altogether, utterly, beyond comparison. 

• " Yon *8 t' best, Joss." " Ay, all outr * 

Comp. the usage in Ancr. Rtudtt p. a a, where the writer is giving directions for the 
ordering of the anchoresses' private devotions : — 

* Et (at) Placebo je muwen sitten vort (as far as) Magnificat, and also et Dirige, bute 
(except) et le lescuns 8c et te Miserere, & from Laudate al ut* 

All-to-nought (pr. aw-to-nowght). A phrase occurring with differ- 
ences of sense and application, but always as implying an approach 
towards nothingness more or less real and effectual. 

* ** He has gone awa^ all to nowgbt;** he has wasted away to a mere shadow.' Wh. Gl, 

* " Ah aims yon '$ t* best stirk, Jooan." " Ay, man, it beats f ither aU to nowgbt." * 
Cf. ' Secundus ^lemon, Alas, that ever cam pride in thoght. 

For it has brought us alle to nogbt,* Tounul. Myst, p. 5. 

Along ofy prep. In consequence of, owing to. 

' It 's all along 0* his deeins we 's i' this needcessity.' 

* jfostpbe, soliloquising on the circumstance that the V. Mary was ** found to be with 

* Certes, I forthynk sore of hir dede, 
Bot et is long of yowth-hede, 

Alle siche wanton playes.' Towntl, Myst, p. 78. 

' And bad heom leoten weorpen : 
& fondien leod-runen, 
whseron hit weore ilong : 
\>zt |>e wal |>e wes swa strong, 
ne moste niht longes : 
nauere istonden.' Lay. II. aa5. 

AI-11S9 sb. (pr. yall*us). An alehouse. 

Comp. S. Jutl. 9V si^ el-bus, 

Amaisty adv. Almost. See Ommost. 

A' mak's (pr. au-macks). All sorts, of all descriptions or kinds. 
See Mak\ 

Amangy prep. Northumbrian form of among, 

* And for )>At it wountc to be thus in manges mene, >at )>e ffadir was mare ffebill ^ ^ 
sone for his elde, and \>t sone mare vnwyse ^n ^ ffadire for his }outhe.' Rd, Pitcts, p. 45. 


Amang-handB. A phrase or qualifying expression applied descrip- 
tively to work or business of such a nature as to admit of being carried 
on or completed coincidently with other work or business. 

' ** We can do it anumg-bands ;** that is, we can do it together, or at the same time, with 
certain other work we have on hand/ Wb. GL 

Amell, prep. Betwixt, between, in the midst 

O. N. dtniUit O. Sw. emeUant Dan. itrulUm, Dan. D. (S. Jntl.) atmlie, cemelU, . 

* They cam' amtll seven and eight o'clock.* Wb, Ol, 

' Chop in amM;* direction to a Colley or sheepdog. 

' He fand it ameU t' shaffs ;' he found it among the sheaves. 

' Seeundus miles. My Lord, ye have a manner of men 

That make great mastres us tnuUeJ Toumd, Myst, p. 55. 

AmeU-doorSy sb. Doors between the outer door and that of an 
inner room. 

AnoOy adv. (pr. yance). Once. 

Comp. Jut\. Jens, which is ahnost exactly coincident with otuyauee. 

Ancle-bands, sb. Sandals, the support for low shoes so called; 
leathern straps for the shoes, to which they are attached behind, button- 
ing in front over the instep. Wh. GL 

Ane, nimi. adj. (pr. yan). One. See A. 

O. Sw. an ; O. N. einn ; Dan. een ; M. O. mn ; O. H. O. and N. Germ, tin ; Dut. 9en ; 
A. 8. an, ten. The S. Jutl.y«n, which corresponds almost precisely in form and sound with 
our yon, is especially noteworthy. 

Ane : t' ane replied to by t' ither ; but, more frequently, t' tane or 
the t' ane, answered by t' tither or the tither. 

* Tak' thou the fane, an* Ah'll tak* the tUbir: 
Cf. * When thou ministers at the hegh antere 

With bothe hondes thou serve tho prest in fere. 

The ton to stabulle the toiber 

Lest thou fayle, my dere brother.' Boke ofCurtasye. 

' ffor it kennes vs to knawe |ie gud and >e ill, and alswa to sundire ># tant fra \n to)^,' 
ReL Pieces, p. 11. 

Tbe io)fer, in the sense of tbe second, is of perpetual occunence in the writings last 

Anensty prep. Against; i. In the sense of near to. 2. In the 
sense of opposite or over against. 

Jam. sa3rs, * Some derive this from Gr. dycvri, oppositiim. Skinner prefers A. S. man, 
near. The Gr. word, as well as ours, together with M. G. and, Alem. andi, S. G. and, 
anda, contra, seem all to claim a common origin. But I suspect that anens is corrupted 
from A. S. ongean, ex adverso.' Comp. the forms following,— /oroii ongean, opposite, 
Bosw.; foran gen, faran gen Meldry^e aker; over against Mildred's field, Thorpe's 
Diplomat, p. 341 ; Scottish /brf-aiMff/,ybnMfu, aforemm, &c., and I think we may see how 


anenst — written anence iti^Rel. Pieces^ pp. 2, 5— originates, without much trouble. The 
last reference is interesting in another connection. It nms, ' Of the whilke tene (commande- 
mentis) |>e thre )>at ere firste awe us hallyly to halde anence oure Godd, and \>e seuene |>at 
ere eftyre anence oure euen cristene ;' and it gives an instance of what may be called the 
transitional meaning between * ouer against, opposite to,' and * touching, or pertaining to,' 
as in Sc. anentt tbereanent, (pnont in Halt Meidenbad, pp. 9, 17, Ancr, RiwUy pp. 4, 10, 1 10.) 
Comp. also the forms again, againstt smd the meaning, by the side of, of the latter. 

1. ' I sat close anenst him.' 

2. * There, set your name in this spot, anenst his;' over against his. To a witness about 
to attest a man's signature to his will. 

Mr. Wedgwood thinks the word anenst shews a northern influence, from the Isl. giegttt, 
Sw. genty opposite ; gent ofwer, over against. It is more than possible, notwithstanding the 
passage from Thorpe. 

Angry, angered, adj. (pr. with a suppressed gy or with the sound 
that letter has at the end of the words pang^ fling, &c.) Of a sore, 
I. That looks very red and inflamed; 2. That is very irritable and 

O.N. dngr; dngra, grief or pain, anguish; to give uneasiness; O. Sw. angra; Sw. D. 
anger t sorrow, pain, anguish ; N. D. angersom, painful. Nu befir rmg angrat st^an frost : 
the frost has occasioned me much suffering since. Flat, I. 330. 

* Jesu Criste )>at tholede for me 
Paynes and aiders bitter and felle. 
Late me neuer be partede fra )>e 
Ne j>ole |>e bitter paynes of helle.' Rel. Pieces^ p. 72. 

* Holy seintes, 
What penance and poverte 
And passion thei sufirede 
In hunger, in hete. 
In alle manere angret* P. Plougbm. p. 311. 

For the Pr. it coincides precisely with the Dan., Swed., O. N., and Germ., as in Icengeret 
hnger, scblangen. See, 

I.. • "Hoo's Willy's leg t'moom?" «• Whyah, it's nae better. It's desput sair an* 
angerd." ' 

3. * It leeaks desput angered an a'.' 

Anon, non. An interrogative exponent of uncertainty, whether as 
to the meaning or the substance of the words addressed, on the part 
of the person to whom they were addressed ; and equivalent to ' What 
did you say, Sir?' or, * What may that mean, Sir, if you please?' 
Anan in former times, and even yet in country places more to the 

Hall, says of the latter that it is ' a corruption of anon, immediately.' I think it is cer- 
tain that it is not so : the etymology of anon (A. S. on on, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine 
intermissione — Lye) settles the question. Anon or anan is much more likely to be an 
interjectional sound of doubting enquiry, similar to the utterly inexpressible (by letters) 
sound of assent or attention which is employed by many Yorkshire people when listening to 
a nanative or a remark where verbal obiervations are imneeded. 


Anonsker, adj. Eager, very desirous, set upon a thing. 

O. Sw. dnska; O.N. tiska, to wish, almost or quite to the extent of praying for; A. S. 
tvisean, whence our current English word wish. Comp. also Dan. onske, to wish. 

* They have set the lad anonsker about gannan' to sea.' Wb. GL 

Anotherkins, adj. Of another or a different kind or character. 

Comp. Lane, anotber-gates^ bearing nearly the same signification : though this seems to 
look more to the manner of action peculiar to the person qualified, while the Cleveland 
word adverts to the indoles, the peculiarity of nature or breed of the actor. The kins in all 
these compound words, ntu kins, onny kins. See, it hardly need be observed, is the genitive 
case, following the old usage. 

* He was anotberkins body te t* ithcr chap.' 

Anthers, ananthers, enanthers, conj. In case that, lest. 

Corrupted from N. Fr. aventure, which occurs in the form aun:re in Chaucer. Comp. the 
form ptrawnter, Rel. Pieces, p. 2, and peradventure. Hall, gives anters in the senses, both 
current in the North, of i. In case that ; 2. adventures. Compare auntrous, adventurous. 

* Thou 'd best tak' t' umbrella, anantbers it rains.' 

* I weant be far anthers he comes.* 

The an is scarcely a reduplication of the first syllable : but probably a corruption of on ; 
thus, on auntre, on adventure. Cf. on a venture, at a venture. 

A-quarty adj. In a state of variance, or mutual opposition. See 

« «( 

What, then, Marget an* her man hae getten aquart agen?" ** Ay : they 's had another 
differing-bout." * 

Arf, arfiBh, adj. i. Afraid or fearful. 2. Reluctant, backward. 

Brock, quotes A. S. yrb^, sluggishness, cowardice or dread, and gives the form air:b as 
well as arf, adducing as example, * an airthful night ; i. e. a fearful night :' but there can 
be no doubt that the words a;/ and airtb are both but other forms of the word which Jam. 
writes arcb, argb, airgb, ergb (guttural), and which bears almost exactly the same signi- 
fications with arf; and this is etymologically the same as O. N. argr, as well as quite 
coincident in meaning ; O. Sw. arg^ a coward ; A. S. earg, earb, timid, slow or slothful. 

1. * Ah felt arfsb in the dark.* Wb. GL 

2. * Ah *s or/ about gannin'.' lb. 

* Nis he erub chaumpion J>et sldrmeS touward )>e uct?* Is he not a cowardly champion 
who strikes at the feet? Ancr. Riwle, p. 274. 

In another text the word is written arcb; in Lay, i. 185, ear^b; iii. 266, ar^i; and in 
Pr. Pm. anve, arbwe, arowe. Repeated instances of the substitution in our dialect of the 
/-sound for the guttural cb, g, or gb will be met with in the following pages. Cf. the form 
arcb, as also O. £. grucb, our gruS. 

Argufy f V. a. To argue, dispute. 

* It *s t* nae use argufying the matter.' Wb. Gl. 

* " He 's ower fond o' argufying ;" too ready to gainsay or dispute.* lb. 

Aries, sb. Earnest-money given to a sers'ant on concludinu iji-: (oji 
tract of service or hiring. Elsewhere, arks-penny. See God'« ijouny, 

^ Aries \% a diminutive from Latin arra, which is itfelf a;i abbreviation ln^m mil ,if^". 


formed as in many other cases by adding the termination le* Arrhaho or arrba denoted, in 
general terms, an earnest or pledge for the completion of any contract, and at the same 
time implied or, in a sense, proved, the contract to have been made. 

Arr, sb. i. A scar or cicatrix, a mark left by a wound or ulcer. 
2. Hence a guilty recollection, as if a mark left on the conscience. 

0. Sw. <jerr; O. N. orr; Dan. or. 

1. • I *11 gie thee an arr thou *11 carry t' thee grave,' Wb. Gl. 

a. • It *s nobbut a black arr, thae deeings o' thahn (thine) wi' t* aud man ;* the way you 
dealt with the old man must have left a black mark on your conscience. 

Arridge, sb. i. The edge of a squared stone or piece of timber. 
2. * The ridges of furniture,* Wh. Gl, 3. The edge or selvedge of a 
piece of cloth or cotton, &c. 

The derivation of this word seems uncertain, as also its orthography. Jam. gives ' arrcut 
arresSf the angular edge of a stone or beam. Lothian.' Hall, gives * arridget the edge of 
anything that is liable to hurt or cause an ar;* an etymological definition which at least has 
the merit of simplicity. In some MS. annotations on Brockett's Gl. which have come into 
my hands, with permission to make use of them, I find arisb given as a Durham word, and 
signifying an edge ; while, further, it is derived from arete (Old French areste) : * L'angle 
saillant que forme deux faces.' Did. de VAead. It seems more probable that the Yorkshire 
arridge^ Durham arish and Lothian arras all originate in the same older word, from which 
also the French artite may descend through another channel. I suspect a connection with 
O. fi.jaiSarr orjaiSar, Sw. D.jddert an edge, extremity, list or selvedge, but cannot make 
it out. 

Arse-end, sb. Lower or bottom-end, of a sheaf of com, for instance ; 
of what stands on a lower end, generally. 

O. N. and O. Sw. ars ; S. Jutl. arts, abs, a/s, the hinder part of man or beast. * Mdlem to 
stole f alter artz paa jorde :' between two stools, &c. ; artslangs, in a backward direction, 
with which comp. arselins, Norf., given by Halliwell. 

* Pick thae stooks doon, and let t* arsends o' t' shaffs lig i' t' sun a bit.* 

Arsey-varsey. Topsey-turvey, in confusion, contrariwise. 

* Etymology obvious.' Brockett. 

Arval, sb. A funeral entertainment. 

* In the North the funeral feast is called an arwd or arvil'supper; and the loaves that are 
sometimes distributed among the poor, arval-bread.* Douce's Illustrations, li. 303. Halli- 
well says, * Arval supper is a funeral feast given to the friends of the deceased, at which a 
particular kind of loaf, called arval-bread, is sometimes distributed among the poor. Arval- 
bread is a coarse cake, composed of flour, water, yeast, currants, and some kind of spice ; in 
form round, about eight inches in diameter, and the upper surface always scored, perhaps 
exhibiting originally the sign of the Cross.' Jam. remarks that * The term arval may have 

' been left in the north of England by the Danes : for although A.S.yi/denotes an inheritance, 
I see no vestige of the composite word in this language.' There can be no question that 
arval — heir-ale, as Dr. Dasent Englishes it — is a Scandinavian term. S. G. ar/^ makes so 
much quite apparent ; while Wormius gives the combination arfwol as an ancient Danish 
term, the modem Danish form being arvol. 

As to what the arval or arvel was, Dasent tells in a few terse words, as follows : — ' On 
great occasions, ai at the Yule feasts in honour of the gods, held at the temples, or at arvei 


— ** heir-ale" — feasts, when beirs drank themselves into their feUbers* land and goods, .... 
there was no doubt great mirth and jollity, much eating and hard drinking of mead and 
fresh-brewed ale.* The usage — which seems to have had the force of a law — was that no 
heir could take possession of his inheritance before giving the arval feast. In the early 
Christian times, the complete funeral rites were solemnised on the day of the funeral : after- 
wards on the seventh day after, then on the thirtieth day, and ultimately at the expiry of 
the year from the death ; and the inference from Ihre's statement on the subject is, that the 
day thus set apart was also fixed upon, by use and custom, as the day on which the division 
of the deceased man's goods was formally made, and on that account the occasion was 
designated arj^ or arfwisdl. Besides these northern etymologies, the Celtic term for full 
funeral rites is stated as arwyl. 

That the observances still kept up at our*Cleveland funerals, and, certainly not less, some 
of those which have only recently passed into desuetude, evidently descend from the old 
Scandinavian arfol, will be sufficiently apparent from a brief account of them, for a part of 
which I am indebted to the Whitby Glossary, though most of it is of wonted occurrence in 
my own parish and in the country part of the district at large. 

On the occasion of the death of an inhabitant, one or more persons, according to the 
extent of the deceased person's acquaintance, or the esteem in which he was held, go 
through the parish to the several houses of the neighbours and relatives, and of others who 
are to be invited, to bid them to the burying. These persons are designated the Bidders. 
Occasionally the friends and others thus hodden or boden amount to two or three hundred, 
and the provision that is necessarily made for them is of a proportional magnitude. On 
more than one occasion within the last ten years, in the author's parish, the number of 
stones of beef and ham provided for the funeral of a well-known or much-respected 
parishioner has been specially quoted afterwards. Compare the above extract from 
Dasent's Introductory Chapter to Burnt Njal, and this from Landnamabok, Part III, ch. x. 
* That arval {erfe) which "Thorward and Thord held in honour of their father, was the most 
famous ever known in Ireland. They bade {fmdo) all the principal people round, and the 
number of those that were bidden (bodsmenn) was twelve hundred ;' and it must be borne 
in mind that the hundred was what is still known in Cleveland — having been introduced by 
the countr3rmen, perhaps kinsmen, of these very Icelanders — as the Itang-liiindTed, or six 
score. The company assembled — and the bidding is usually for an hour preceding midday — 
the hospitalities of the day proceed, and after all have partaken of a solid meal, and before 
the coffin is lifted for removal to the churchyard, cake, or biscuits, and wine are handed 
round by two females whose office is specially designated by the term Servers. ' At the 
funerals of the rich in former days,' says the compiler of the Wh, GL, ' it was here a custom 
to hand Btimt wine to the company in a silver flagon, out of which every one drank. This 
cordial seems to have been a heated preparation of port wine with spices and sugar. And 
"^ any remained it was sent round in the flagon to the houses of friends for distribution.' 
ference is also made to the disinclination, on the part of many of the older inhabitants, to 
carried to their last home in a hearse : they prefer * to be carried by hand and sung 

fore* as their fore-elders had been. * Uncovered coffins' of wainscot were common some 

£ars ago, with the initials and figures of the name and age studded on the lid in brass- 
.eaded nails ; but coffins covered with black cloth are now commonly seen. The coffin is 
ihnost never borne on the shoulders, but either suspended by means of towels passed under 
it, or on short staves provided for the purpose by the undertakers, and which were custo- 
marily, in past days, cast into the grave before beginning to fill it up. The author saw 
one of these bearing-staves dug out when re-digging an old grave in August 1863. Men are 
usually borne by men, women by women, and children by boys or girls according to sex. 
Women who have died in child-birth have white sheets thrown over their coffins. In the 
case of an unmarried female, the custom, until recently, was to carry a Qarland, composed 
of two circular hoops crossing each other, dressed with white paper cut into flowers or 
leaves (Young's Hist, of Whitby), or in the form of a wreath of parti-coloured ribbons, 

C 2 



having a white (paper ?) glove in the centre inscribed with the name, or initials, and age of 
the deceased. This garland was laid on the coffin during its passage from the church to 
the grave, and afterwards, at least in some cases, suspended from the ceiling of the church. 
In the chancels at Hinderwell and Robin Hood's Bay some of these garlands were still in 
being only a few years since. Compare with all this, the picture drawn by Shakspere of a 
Danish damsel's funeral : — 

' Her obsequies have been as far enlarged 
As we have warranty : her death was doubtfiil ; 

• • • • • 

Yet here she is allowed her virgin crarits, 

Her maiden strewments, and the bringing home 

Of bell and burial ; ' 
where crants is simply the O. N. and S. Q. krans, a garland or chaplet. Truly our Cleve- 
land custom is here ^gured forth, as vividly as the arval-feast in the * funeral baked meats/ 
which did * coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.' 

Other peculiarities in the conduct of a Cleveland funeral are yet, or have been till lately, 
that when the corpse of an unmarried female is carried to the churchyard, the bearers are 
all single, and usually young women dressed in a kind of uniform, in some places all in 
white, in others in black dresses with white shawls and white straw bonnets trimmed with 
white. The Servers also always precede the coffin as it approaches the churchyard, or is 
borne to the grave, sometimes in white, more usually in black with a broad white ribbon 
worn scarf-wise over one shoulder and crossing over the black shawl ; or else with knots or 
rosettes of white on the breast. Verses of a hymn or psalm — often selected before death by 
the person about to be buried — are sung at lifting the body, as houses are passed on the 
way to the church, and on approaching the church-gate more nearly; and the chief 
mourners kneel round the coffin, which is usually laid in the chancel — in former times just 
in front of the altar railing — during the reading of the Psalm and Lesson, the males with 
their hats always on ; and after the Lesson three verses of a Psalm are usually sung before 
leaving the Church. 

Arval-bread, sb. (pr. averil-breead). A species of bread, or rather 
cake (see Spice-bread), specially prepared in days gone by for con- 
sumption at the Arval or Burying. Confectioners at Whitby still pre- 
pare a species of thin, light, sweet cake for such occasions. 

Asher, adj. Made of ash, ashen. 

• An asber pail ;' * an asber broom.* Egton Sword Dance Recit, 

Ask, hask, esk, sb. The newt, eft, or water-lizard, supposed by 
those who know no better to be venomous, as is noticed also by 

Gael. asc. It is somewhat singular that the Celtic name of this^ creature should have 
maintained itself against any competitor from the northern dialects. A. S. apexe and Germ. 
eidecbse are the nearest in sound perhaps : Old N. edla^ S. G. 6dla do not seem to approach 
in any particular. See Fleein'-hask. 

Ass, sb. Ashes. 

O.N., O.Sw. aska; Dan. ash; M. G. asgo or asja; O.H.G. asca; G. and Dut. aub«; 
A. S. asce^ axe, axse, abse. The sound of the double consonant seems to have been softened 
down as in several other cases ; e. g. asset for axle, Stowsley for Stokedey, Rousby for Roxby, 


and thus a^a or axse has bocome ass ; a change which seems to have aheady, in Anglo- 
Saxon times, taken place in some degree, if we may found a surmise on the form abse, 

* ** Burnt tiv an ass ;" burnt to a cinder.' Wb. Gl. 

* Clamed wiv 055 ;' smeared over with ashes. 

Ass-oard, ass-oaird, sb. A fire-shovel for cleaning or oarding up 
the hearth-stone. See Card. 

Ass-ooup, sb. A kind of tub or pail to carry ashes in. See Coup. 

Assel-tree, sb. An axle-tree. 

Brock., besides adducing Fr. asseul and Ital. assile^ in both of which the x of axle is simi- 
larly softened, quotes also Gael, aisil. The change is one which occurs not infrequently in 
the CI. D. ; as owsen for oxen. See also the instances quoted under Ass. 

Ass-hole, ass-pit, sb. The place provided for receiving the ashes, 
usually a hole or pit, and so differing from the dust-heap of the South. 
Also applied to the square hole beneath the fire-place devised for 
collecting the ashes. 

Assil-teeth, sb. The grinders. 

O.'S. jaxlart dentes molares, maxillares; Svf.D. aisla-tand; Svr. oxel/and; D An. axel- 
iand. For the softening of the x -sound comp. Sw. oxel, N. asallt names of the 
Sorbus aria. 

Ass-manner, sb. Ash-manure : manure, so called, of which the chief 
constituent is ashes, especially peat or turf ashes. 

Ass-midden. The heap of ashes collected by the daily casting forth 
of the ashes of the household. See Midden. 

Ass-riddling. Riddling or sifting of ashes ; on the hearth, namely. 
On St. Mark's Eve the ashes are riddled on the hearth, for the super- 
stition still lingers, though it may be partially veiled under the guise of 
laughing incredulity, that if any of the inmates of the house be going to 
die within the year, the print of his, or her, shoe will be found impressed 
in the soft ashes ; — a superstition which has led to many a thoughtless, 
but very cruel and mischievous, practical joke. See Cauff-riddling, 
Marks E'en. 

At. Now rarely used before the infinitive instead of /o. 

Conmion to the Scand. tongues. Cf. Dan. Dt gave mig eddike at drihhe; they gave 
me vinegar to drink. Ferguson gives an instance or two in which at still takes the place 
of /o, with the infinitive, in the Cumb. dialect ; and I have, though rarely, heard it in 
Clevel., in such phrases as * What 's at do, now ? ' Hall, gives two instances out of the many 
afforded by MS. Lincoln, * I have noghte at do with the,' and ' that es at say,' that is to 
say. There is little doubt that the idiom was common throughout this district fifty 
years ago. 

At, rel. pr. That, which. 

It is usually supposed, or rather taken for granted, that this is merely a vocal corruption 


or contraction of Aai, However there is no question (see Jam. in v.) that in the Northeni 
dialects it was of old continually written ai ; for instance : 

* Claudyus send Wespasyane 
Wyth that Kyng to fecht or trete, 
Swa that for luwe, or than for threte, 
Of fors he suld pay eU he awcht.' Wyniown, v. 3. 89. 

It is, in fact, the O. N. rel. pr. a/, unaltered. Thus, bwxr er sd at gat? where 's him at 
gat it ? And it is used indifferently in either number ; sd at^ he that ; \teir at^ they that. 

* " Is there nought at Ah can dee ?" " Nowght, a/ Ah can tell." ' 

Cf. * That at is dry the erth shalle be,' Townd. Myst. p. 2 ; and, * bot if we make assethe 
in |>at )>a/ we may,' Rel. PieeeSt p. 6, side by side with * ffor as many we sla in >at at we 
may, als we slaundire or backbite.' 76. 5. 

At, conj. That 

0. N. at; O. Sw. and Sw. att; Dan. at, Jag will att tu gor that: in the Clevel. form. 
Ah wishes cU thou wad dee it. Oh sua uar gert at bentii uar gert annat bal^ en Sigurdi 
annat; and so it came to pass that one bale-fire (funeral pile) was made for her, and 
another for Sigurd. Flat. i. 355. 

' Ah said at Ah wad, an' Ah ded.' 

* Weean't ee ? Bud Ah '11 see a/ thou diz.' 

At, prep. I. To. 2. Of or from. 3. With, a person namely (the 
sense of the Lat affud) ; as with the intent of urging a suit, or hearing 
a purpose or resolution. 

O.N. a/, ad, usque, apud; Sw. D. at; Sw. &, to, at, with; A. S. <Bt, at, to, with, of, 
from : * because you approach a person or thing when you wish to take something away, as 
they say in and about Nottingham ; Take tbit at me^ i. e. from me.' Bosw. 

1. ' Ah caan't dee owght mair ai it ;' spoken by a workman of a job of work he had 
been labouring at. 

* What did he do at thee ?' A very common formula. 

Cf. ' What aileth this same love at me, 

To blinde me so sore ?' Chaucer, Rinu of Sir Topaz, 
3. * T' maaster wur here a bit syne, an' he wur speirin* at me about apples.' 
Cf. O. N. Nema at monnum, to learn from men ; A. S. J& bwam nima)^ eyningas gafol 
0^^ /o//f of whom do kings take custom or tribute. Matt. xvii. 25. And begeat med 
bit smeb wrencan . . <s/ Steorran ; and with his sly tricks obtained of or from Steorra. 

Hforpe'i Diplom, A.S.p, 339. 
* Gabrielle. Mary, madyn heynd 

Me behovys to weynd. 

My leyf a/ the I take.' Tottmel, Myst. p. 75. 

3. * Well, I was at my lord agen, laast neeght, an* he said he wad nae hev it sae ;' he 
would not permit it to be so. 

* Ah was at t* priest about it, but 't wur te na use.' 

At after, adv. and prep. After, afterwards. 

An archaic form which is met with in Chaucer and other early writers, in both its 
characters. See At under, and comp. at our, » at-over, in the senses over or beyond, 
and moreover. Jam. 


* I trust to see you att-after Estur 

As conning as I that am your master.' MSS, Rawl. C. 358. 
' All things i' their proper places : ploughing first, sowing at after* Wb. Gl. 
Cf. also at beforty in the following lines from Robert of Gloucester, quoted by Mr. Marsh, 
Origin and Hist, ofEng. Languagt^ p. 332. 

* Wateres he ha^ eke gode ynow, ac at hefort alle o)>er )>re 
Out of )>e lond into >e see, armes as )>ei be.' 

Athouty prep, and conj. Without 

A corruption of without. Jam. gives hetbout as a Fifeshire form, adding that * it may be 
analogous to A. S. he^tan^ sine.' Home Tooke observes that ' hut and without have 
exactly the same signification ; that b, neither more nor less than be-out. And they were 
both originally used either as conjunctions or prepositions,' which renders such an analogy 
more than possible. Bethout may form the link between without and athout, the be initial 
getting changed, in course of time or use, into a, as in the case of ahini for bebint, atwixt for 
betwixt, &€. 

Atter, atteril, sb. i. Purulent matter from an ulcer or sore. 2. The 
fur on the tongue in cases of fever, &c. 

A. S. dttor, dtter, poison, matter, pus : Bosworth. Comp. O. N. eitr; O. Sw. ttter, 
eiter; Dan. edder; O. H. G. and Germ, eiter; Dutch eyter: both the latter bearing the 
sense, matter or pus. The original application of the word in each of these tongues seems 
to have been in the sense of poison, the root being supplied (see Ihre in v. Etter) by the 
O. H. Germ, eiten, urere, from the * eating ' or consuming nature of many poisonous sub- 
stances. In connection with this the O. N. word ata, which signifies both a consuming 
efficacy and a cancer or * eating' sore, deserves notice. 

1. • " Whyah, Willy's ban's brussen then?" "Ay: an' a strange vast o' bloody atter*s 
coomed frae it." * 

• A thick yellow atteril,* Wb. Gl, 

3. ' Mally 's varrey dowly te day : her tongue 's a' covered ower wiv a thick white otter* 

Atter-cop, sb. A spider. 

It would be strange if this word, which is familiar in Northumb., Durham, Cumb., and 
South Scotland, should not be retained or remembered in Clevel. According to all analogy 
it must have once been freely current here, but it is now of very rare occurrence. 

A. S. atter-coppa. Jam. writes, ' evidently from atter venenum, and copp caliz : receiving 
its denomination partly from its form, and partly from its character : q. d. a cup of venom* 
No doubt atter, venenum, is the prefix in the word in question, but the rest of the pro- 
posed etymology is less satisfactory. Upon the O. Sw. hopp, which, he says, survives only in 
the word koppe fund, occurring in an ancient legal enactment, and there means bee, Ihre 
remarks that it must once have had a wider signification, and denoted aU hinds of insects, 

* I conjecture this,' he adds, * from the fact that in other Scythian dialects the word is used 
for spider ;' and he quotes the Germ, spinnekopp for the creature itself, besides E. cobweb, 
Belg. kopwebbe ; and he might have added Dan. edderkop, O. Sw. eterkoppa, Wal. adargop, 
and Sw. D. etterkoppa, ederkoppa. He also adduces the Welsh cop or coppin, in the word 
gwer-coppyn, spider's web. On the Germ, spinnekopp his comment is, that it does not mean 
caput (one of the meanings of hop or hoppe)filum ducens, but an insect possessing the power 
of such production. Rietz, however, thinks etterkoppa may properly signify etter-piu — that 
is, venom-bag — from the great bag of eggs the spider is wont to carry, the Dalecarlian word 
huppe being synonymous with pose, bag, pouch. Palsgr. gives addircop as equivalent to 

* spinner's web,' which according to Ray is the case in both Cumb. and Yorkshire. 


In Toumel. Myst. p. 1 13, the word batters stands for spiders : — 

* But batters 
I can find no flesh, 
Hard nor nesh. 
Salt nor fresh, 

Bot two tome platters, 
Whik catelle bot this, tame nor wylde 
None, as I have blysse.' 

Aud, auld, adj. Old. 

A. S. aJdat ald^ eald. The corresponding O.N. noun is alldr, Dan. alder, Sw. ilder; 
but there seems to be no Scand. adj. from the same root. 

Aud-farrand, adj. i. As applied to adults, sagacious with the saga- 
city of experience. 2. As applied to children, gravely or quaintly wise 
or sagacious beyond their years; * old-fashioned,' as copying the manners 
and expressions of their elders. 

0. N. and O. Svr.fara; O. H. G.faran, to gain experience, become used to a thing, or 
experienced in it. Comp. erfarenbet^ skill or use, acquired by practice. Brock, quotes 
Dan. erfaren, Dutch ervaren^ experienced. 

1. * Ay, he 's an aud-farrand aud chap : he 's oop tiv ought.* 

2. * A-but she 's an aud-farrand l&htle lassie ! She 's like a l&htle gran'mother I' 

Aud-lad, Aud-sorat. Names for the devil, prompted perhaps by a 
feeling of unavowed fear, or a disinclination to mention the being in 
question by his more forcible appellation. 

O. N. skratti, a fiend, an evil spirit ; skrattin, the devil ; Sw. D. skrate, skrat, sihret, a spirit* 
ghost, nisse ; skratten, the devil ; O. H. G. scrato, a ghost, bugbear ; M. H. G. scbrate, 
scbratze; Cam. sebrdtt; Slav, sbkrat, id. ; Boh. seret, cobbold or nisse. Hence, no doubt, 
the English by-name Old Scratcb. The common E. name answering to T* aud lad, is * the 
Old Boy,' as often heard in the South. 

Aud-like, adj. Having the appearance of age. 

* *• He is beginning to look varrey aud-like ;** to become much aged.' IVb, Gl, 

Aught, ought, sb. (pr. owght). Anj'thing ; opposed to nothing. 

* Ougbt or nought ;' something or nothing. 

* He *s owther ougbt or nought ;' of any profession or none : that is, virtually of none, an 

Aund, auned, awned, adj. Fated, destined, ordained. 

The instance of usage given by Jam. in v. An almost justifies the assumption that that 
word and the word awn or aun used in Cleveland, as well as in other parts of Yorkshire and 
the North", arc the same ; — * Y take that me God an,* which is thus explained, * What God 
owes me: i.e. means to send me.* How * What God means to send me' becomes equivalent 
to * what God owes me,' or how it is right or correct, in any sense, to say that * God owes* 
anything, is another question. To justify it at all, an is derived from S. G. egna and 
assumed to mean * to appropriate, to allot as one's own.' Certainly egna does mean to 
appropriate, to make one's own, but the action is in the person appropriating, not io 
another : the idea being strictly of taking, and not of receiving. This, however, is the 


direct converse of the sense of our word a$ttud, and of the word an in the quotation adduced. 
A more probable etymology might perhaps be sought in O. Sw. ana, animo praesagire, ominari ; 
Dan. ant. Germ. tUmen, Still, I bdieve the origin of our word will be found elsewhere. Mr. 
Hylten Cavalllus, speaking of the relics still to be met with in South Sweden of the heathendom 
of remote antiquity, says there is still a very <l^p-rooted conviction in Warend of the existence 
of a blind, all-controlling destiny, called (kle; and on the next page goes on thus : — ' More- 
over in the popular language of the district the word oden, den, on is still in conunon use as 
applied to what is destined or ordained by fate ; as, for instance, — " ass ja a oen t* & loha 
Uss din daen kommer :" if I am awud to live till that day comes ; ** ban va inte ben U & fa sot 
tia boira vdxena ;" he was not auned to see his sons grown up.' Cf. O. N. audid: * audid 
vtrdr \>es8 :* it is auned to happen. This is not the only curious instance, by many, of illus- 
trations of Cleveland words from the expressions or practices of Warend, in South Sweden. 
See Naok-reeL 

Auntersome, adj. Adventurous, bold, ready for any risk or ad- 

See Axumthers or Anthers. The sense is precisely that implied in auntr* in Chaucer's 
Kne, — 

* I wol aryse and auntrt it, by my fay.' 

Pr, Pm, * Auntron, aventryn, Fortuno* * To aunter, put a thing in danger, adven- 
ture.' Palsgr. 

* ** Dinnot be ower aunUnome;" do not be too rash.' Wb, GL 

Awantingy adj. Needed, required. 

* ** Well, I hope, Mr. B., its going to take up and be fine weather." Mr. B, ** It 's to be 
hoped sae. It 's sair awanHng" ' 

Away-gannan-orop, away-golng-crop, sb. The crop of com which 
an outgoing tenant is entitled to sow and reap on his late farm, in con- 
sideration of, and in proportion to, the quantity of land duly fallowed 
and manured by him during the last summer of his occupancy. The 
rules which regulate the proportion of land thus appropriated vary 
slightly, I believe, according to the district 

Awe, V. a. To own, to possess, have belonging to. 

A. S. agan, <Bgan ; N. S. tgin ; Fris. »gtnj$ ; Dut. eigmen ; O. H. G. eigan ; O. N. eiga ; 
Dan. ej$ ; Sw. ega. 

Latham, Engl, Chr, ii. 309, says that the word own, which he distinguishes from oum, 
to aclmowledge, by calling it *own (possidentis),' had no n until after the time of Elizabeth. 


* This is no sound 

That the earth oivts.' Temp, i. a. 

* . . . . Thou dost here usurp 
The name thou owesi not.' 76. 
In older times still it was awe. Thus, — 

* Ffor Oodd awe vs to lufe hally with herte, with all our myghte, with all our thoghte, 
with worde and with dede. Oure euyne crystene als swa awe vs to lufe vn-to |>at ilke gude 
|>at we lufe oure-selfe.' ReL Pieces, p. 7. 

With this form cf. O. N. pres. a (of eiga), A. S. 3rd pers. pres. ab. See Wheeas a' P and 
cf. O. N. hverr d T which is exactly equivalent in form and sense. 



Awebun'y awebxmd, adj. i. Under restraint or discipline, so as to 
be orderly, obedient, attentive. 2. Submissive to authority. 

Jam. * hesitates whether to view this as formed from the sb. awbimd, or as compounded 
of atae and bound' Awband is a Lanarkshire and Lothian name for a peculiar apparatus 
used for fastening unruly cattle by the neck to the rudstaki. And there is an Isl. word 
hdhand^ which signifies a ligature (of hide) applied to the legs of sheep in such a way as to 
prevent them from leaping or straying far. The similarity of sound and application between 
awband and bdhand is certainly suggestive, and probably, if not surely, supplies the deriva- 
tion of the sb. (tweband in the sense of, i. check or restraint; and, 2. a moral restraining 
influence. The word awebiind» however, can scarcely proceed from this source ; for the 
verb is not awbind, but awband^ O. N. a/ bdbinda, still in use in Lanarkshire ; and one is 
accordingly thrown back upon the more obvious compound derivation. 

* ** Thae bairns are sadly ower little qwebun* ;" too little under discipline, ill-trained.' 

* " They were cnvebun nowther wi* God nor man ;*' disregarded all precepts human an4 
divine.* lb. 

Awf, sb. I. An elf, or fairy. 2. A fool, a silly or half-witted person. 
See Awflsh. 

O. N. alfr, alfi: O. Sw. (Of; Dan. alft; A. S. alf, cdf, • The word Af* says Sir Walter 
Scott, Minstrdsy^ ii. iio, * which seems to have been the original name of the beings after- 
wards denominated fairies, is of Gothic origin, and probably signified simply a sfnrit of a 
lower order.' To these spirits were attributed the various operations of nature, and conse- 
quently various kinds of dfs were distinguished. The Scandinavians divided them into 
svart alfar and lios alfart black elves and white. The Anglo-Saxons * had not only dun-dfrn, 
berg-ei/en and munt-el/mt spirits of the downs, hills and mountains ; but also fdd'-^en, 
wudu-el/ent sae^lfen^ and vfoter-elfent spirits of the fields, of the woods, of the sea, and of 
the waters. And in Low German, the same latitude of expression occurs ; for night-han 
are termed aluinnen and aluen. But the prototype of the English Elf is to be sought chiefly 
in the birg-elfen or duergar of the Scandinavians. From the most early of the Icelandic 
Sagas, as well as from the Edda itself, we learn the belief of the Northern nations in a race 
of dwarfish spirits, inhabiting the rocky mountains, and approaching, in some respects, to 
the human nature. Their attributes, amongst which we recognise the features of the 
modem fairy, were supernatural wisdom and prescience, and skiu in the mechanical arts, 
especially in the fabrication of arms. They are frirther described as capricious, vindictive, 
and easily irritated,' Mimtr, ib. This * harsher character of the Elves' seems never to have 
quite passed away in the folk-lore of this district, as in Southern England, giving place to 
the gentler, more amiable, though still, possibly, capricious attributes of the Fairy proper— 
a circumstance which stands out strongly in the notions connected with the words next fol- 
lowing ; the explanation of which probably is that the traditions of the district, under the 
one name * Fairy,' confoimd the persons of the Dwarf proper and the Elf proper. The 
Fairies in Cleveland make and wash butter, and even tub it, or put it down for keeping ; 
wash their linen industriously, nay often noisily ; fire their bolts at animals ; dance around 
the fairy-ring ; are capable of inflicting mischief on mankind ; take charge of deserted chil- 
dren, rear them to manhood, protect them through life, and bury them when dead ; abstract 
children ; stand in need of the services of human midwives ; resist the building of churches, 
destroying the work done in the day and flitting the materials to a spot less objectionable to 
themselves, by night ; haunt certain tumuli or HouM as their chosen residence ; live under 
ground; and the like. The author has collected various legends embodying all these 
notions, and all with a distinct locality assigned to them. Gaymore Well, a certain spring 
in Baysdale, and a stream in the vicinity of Egton Orange, besides Fairy Crofll Platm in the 


pariih of Danby, and other places in the neighbourhood, are spedally famous in the fairy - 
lore connection. But most of these legends point distinctly, as an attentive study of the less 
disintegrated folk-lore of North Continental Europe abundantly shews, to the Dwarf or 
Troll as the agent, and the small remainder to the Elf proper. Thus the Dwarf or Troll 
does not dance, the Elf does. The Elf uses its supernatural artillery, the Dwarf does not. 
But while the abstraction of children is a trick of the Troll or Dwarfs, the detention (or re- 
tention) of mankind in fairy haunts may belong to either Troll or Elf. All stories, how- 
erer, wtdA involve the practice of any handicraft or manual operation seem to belong to 
the Dwarf society by special prescription. As to our Clevel. form Awf, comp. the form 
ottpbt, and * Obtron, that is, Aubtron for Alberon* Grimm, D, M, p. 431. 

Awflsh, awvish, adj. i. Half-witted, silly, dull. 2. Out of sorts, in 
the sense of not feeling well without being positively poorly ; neither sick 
nor well. 

This must surely be referred to aw/, oupb§, df, cdf, alfr, A:c. In the Cant. Tales, Pro- 
logt to Sirg Tbopas, is a description which is taken as a sketch of Chaucer's own appear- 
ance and demeanour : — 

* Thou lokest as thou woldest find a hare ; 
For ever upon the ground I se the stare,' 

says the host to the poet ; and then of him this : 

* He seemeth dviseb by his countenaunce. 
For unto no wight doth he dalliauuce.' 

The thoughtful look, with eyes fixed on the ground, combined with absence and reserve of 
manner, are certainly the characteristics described by the word tlviscb, which, in the Glossary 
to Bell's CbaueeTt is explained by Mike a fairy, shy, reserved.' It is, in fact, not an 
unlikely remark to be passed on either a very absent or a very shy person, that he seems to 
be ' not all there,' or, in other words, not so wise as he might be. And from this the tran- 
fition to half-witted, or weak in intellect, is easy. It is further supposable that in the 
meaning of awvish, which is given second, there nuy be a reference to the fancied connec- 
tion between the fairy and mankind ; on which indeed, according to Ihre, Andrew Gud- 
mundsson founds his etymology of cdf; deriving it, namely, from balf, the elf being 
supposed * semi-human.' On tMs principle awvish, elfish, would naturally mean half-and- 
lialf, neither one thing nor another; and so the transition to the sense in the example 
wouU easily follow ; — 
, * Ah feels quite queer an' awvisb* Wb, Gl. 

Awf-shoty sb. An arrow-head of flint, or other like material, of 
pre-historic origin, but alleged by popular superstition to have been 
fabricated and used (in malice) by the Elves or Fairies. See Awf-shot, 

Awf-Bhot, awf-shotten, adj. Stricken or affected by an Awf-shot ; 
* shot by fairies.' Jam. 

O. N. alfr and sJnota; O. Sw. cdfznA skjuta. Under the word skott, Ihre states that it 
is the Swedish name for a disorder which sometimes attacks cattle, and under which they 
die as suddenly as if struck by lightning ; adding, that it is vulgarly attributed to super- 
natural agency. The Norwegian name for the disorder is aUskaadt, and the Danish elle- 
skud; both words meaning awf-shotten. The same superstition prevails to a marked extent 
throughout the Northern districts of England and Scotland generally ; only, alike in Scot- 
land and the English home of the belief, the malady is not instantaneously fatal, if at all. 

D 2 


Jam. states, on the information furnished by a friend, that the disease consists in an over- 
distention of the first stomach, and mentions the mode of cure adopted in Clydesdale ; while 
elsewhere he notices the more prevalent notion as to the efficacy of the arrow-head itself in 
curing the tlf-tboi animal. * In order to effect a cure the cow is to be touched by an df- 
sboi, or made to drink the water in which one has been dipped.' Pennant's Tour in Seoi- 
land. Comp. the following from the IVb, Gl, for Cleveland : * to cure an awf-ahotten 
animal it must be toudied with one of the shots, and the water administered in which one 
of them has been dipped.' It would appear also, that in Upper Germany the disease which 
'instantaneously deprives a person of his senses is called alp or alp-^brueken ; literally the 
pressure of an elf.' I place side by side with this the following extract from Landnamabok, 
p. 1 19 : *6r horn i Tborarmn • . . oc bamadisi bann :' the arrow, that is, the el/-^bot, came 
upon Thorarin and he went distraught. In one district of Jutland it is believed that cattle, 
when df-sbott become stiff and surdy die unless speedy hdp is at hand. The quickest and 
surest remedy consists in driving the beast up out of the moss, and firing a shot over it ; 
only care must be taken to fire from the head in the direction of the tail. 

Awmous-loaves, sb. Alms-bread, distributed in the church to the 
poor after Divine Service; usually provided from money specially be- 
queathed for the purpose. Wh, GL 

Awrnus. See Almiflse. 

Awn, V. a. To own or ackno^edge, as a friend or acquaintance, 
that is ; to visit 

* You never awn us now ;* you never come near us to pay us a visit. 

* T' au'd dog put a pheasant hen aff her nest Sunday was a week, an' she 's niwer aumed 
it nae mair.' 

Awns, sb. The beards of com. 

O. Sw. agn ; O. N. bgn (in the pi. agnir) ; Dan. avm ; N. agn ; M. O. abana ; O. H. O. 
agana ; the idea of pointed (like a ipear) sttppl3ring the radical sense in each case. 

Ax, ex, vb. To ask. 

A. S. dxiant destan, dbdan. The etymons in the cognate languages are O. Sw. «ila, 
O N. askia, Dut. tiscben. Germ, beiscbm. But the form of the A. S. verb is decisive, and 
we find the word in the earliest English writers, with some little variation of ^lelling but not 
of sound. 

*And fid be dna was, bine axodon iS<Bt bigspdl He twdfe ^ mid bem waron' A. S. Ootp. 
Mark iv. 10. 

* And when he was singuler the twelue that weren with hym ttxiden him for to expowne 
the parable.* Wycliffe's Traml. 

* When he was alone, they that were aboute hym with the twelve axsd hym of the simi- 
litude.' Tyndale's Trand. 

:*d, pcpl. I. Invited or bidden, to a funeral especially. 2. Pro- 
claimed or announced; in reference to the publication of banns in 

Wb. Gl., afrer noticing the second application, states that * formerly in our Moordale 
churches, after the clergyman had proclaimed the marrying parties, it was customary for the 
clerk to respond with a hearty ** God speed them weel." ' In the Uncolnsb. Gl. a distinc- 
tion is made, in a note, betweed axed and axed up; as also, in the text, between axed up 
and axed oti/— distinctions which make axed up to bear different meanings in different 
localities. Here axed out means asked all three times, axed up not being usual. 


Aye marry! int. An expression of assent, conveying a different 
expression of feeling on the speaker's part, according to intonation; 
sometimes of a little quiet triumph at the consciousness of superior 
wisdom, sometimes of irony or semi-contempt. 

» » 

• " Th^i Willy bad the book all the time?" **Ayt marry I I knowM he had/ 
•*• What, they're forgiven you, Mr. Dale, and asked you to go and see them again?" 
** Aye marry I They wants ma' brass, ye ken.'* ' 
See Marry! 

Aye seear, (Pr. of ay, sure.) An expression of assent, sometimes 
slighdy interrogative, sometimes conveying a tinge of reserve. 

)•' • 

• " Well, Joscy, I am going to be married." " Ay*, tetarV 
* ** Than thou 's gannan to get wed, after all, Jeeams ?" (With a sly smile, perhaps) "Aye, 
;" which only means, yon are at liberty to suppose so, if you like.' 

Ayonty prep. Beyond. See Beyont. 
Comp. AforOy Afhout. 

Babbish, babish, adj. i. Childish, puerile. 2. Faint, strengthless; 
as when a person speaks of * feeling faint' 

This word is to babe, or its familiar provincial equivalent, bob, (' Alas my bob, myn inno- 
cent, my fleshly pet.' Toumei, Mytt. p. 149,) what btUfyisb is to baby, 

* I felt babbub enough to be Imocked down with a feather.' Wb, Gl, 

In Toumei, Mysi. p. 78, hdbysb occurs as a vb., apparently in the sense, ' Treated me as a 
child, told me such Ules as they would to a child.' Joseph speaks of the Virgin Mary : — 

* Thay excused hir thus sothly 
To make hir clene of her foly 
And babysbed me that was old.' 

Babbles and Saunters. Gossipping tales and repetitions. 

Sw. D. 6a66e/, empty prate, chattering gossip ; O. N. babb ; Dan. bablen, id. ; Dan. D. 
bable; N. S. babbdn; Fris. babbeln; Dut. babel; Fr. babiUer, to prate, chatter idly, utter 
inarticulate sounds ; together with £. babMe, sufficiently account for babble. Hall, quotes 
the word saundris as meaning * slanders,' in the following couplet : — 

' I may stonde in thilke rowe 
Amonge hem that saundris use.' 

Gower, MS, Soc, Amiq, 134, f. 74. 
And to this word probably saunters should be referred rather than to the Engl, saunter, 

Baoky V. a. To retard, keep down or under. 

Comp. prov. vb. backen, coincident in sense. 

* T* doctor did all he could to back t' inflSmation ; bud t' wam't te neea use.' 
' That fit o' caud weather jest afore Mayday bcuked t' grass strangely.' 


Baok-bearaway, sb. The bat, or rere-mouse : genus Vespertilio, 

The former part of this name is an archaic and still-used pror. name for the bat. 
Pr, Pm, * Bakkg. Flyinge best. Vespertilio' Comp. O. Sw. natt-baeka, Dan. aften-bakke. 
It seems difficult to giye any explanation of the latter part of the name. The A. S. name is 
brere-mui, whence £. rere-mouse, Rietz gives the Sw. D. name nait-blakka, and also 
nat-batta from Warend, and naUer Uakhsla, collating Old Dan. natbback€B, as well as 
rvicrofi69a^ a bat, and wicro0tMa, night-wandering. 

Baok-burden, sb. A load or burden borne on the back. 

Baok-oasty sb. (pr. bakkest). Anything which causes loss of ground ; 
or, the loss itself, i. In business matters, a loss or failure. 2. In respect 
of health, a relapse, or any cause which sets recovery at a greater 

The Scand. tongues and dialects present numberless instances of compound words used as 
^ouns, of which de first element is a preposition and the second a participle ; or else, in 
which both parts are nouns. The same is specially true of our dialect. 

1. ' Josey Deal's lossen three of *s kye: Ah doots it's gannan to be a sair baek-kest 
tir 'im.' 

2. * Mally 's had anither bout o' t' aud complaint, an' its gien her a desput haeh-cast' 

Baok-end, sb. The latter part of some definite period of time; 
e. g. of a week, a month, a year. 

* Last baek^nd;* the latter part of last year. 

* Baek-end o' hut week.' 

Baokerly, adj. Backward, late; applied either, i. To the season; or 
3. To crops generally; or 3. To peculiar varieties of produce. 

A contraction of B<iekwardly, 

Baokerly, adv. Late, after the usual time. 

* T' far side o' yon field weeant be fit yet a bit : it wur ower baekeriy sown.' 


Bad, bod, pret. of to Bid. 

Bad, adj. In continual use in colloquial phrases in the sense of 
I. Hard, difficult; 2. Disagreeable, annoying, worrying. 

I. * Bad to beat ;' not easily surpassed or excelled. 

a. * Bad to do with ;' said of a person who is provoking in his conduct, or unmanageable 
or disagreeable in his wajrs, or exacting in his expectations or demands ; and the like. 

* Bad to bide ;' hard to be borne ; requiring much fortitude or patience in the endurance. 
It need hardly be remarked that all these instances present also instances of what is called 

the gerundial construction in the case of the verbs employed : a construction which is suffi- 
ciently frequent in the Cleveland vemacuUr. 

Bad, badly, adj. Poorly, indisposed, ill or sick. 

The derivation of E. bad is possibly not very certain. Mr. Wedgw. collates Germ, bose, 
Dut. boos, Pers. bud, bad. See Wedgw. in v. Bad, It may be remarked that the idea of 
active or operative badness seems always present in the idionutic use of the word bad, and 


its dcrivatiTes, in Clerrl. and the North. See Badness ; and comp. BadUng in Brockett, 
* a worthiest person, a bad one ;' as also Pr, Pm, * Bad or wykjde.' 

* Our Mary 's varry badly , for seear. She 's desput bad in her booels an' sair foUered on 
wir a lax.' 

Badger, sb. A huckster; one who goes about the country with 
basket and bag, or with ass and panniers, or with a cart, to buy up 
butter, eggs, fowls, fruit, &c., to sell again at some market-town in the 

Some few years ago, when shops were few and far away, the Badger was a pedlar as well, 
and dealt in needles, liiread, and the various small wares with which the pedlar's pack was 
wont to be stocked, for which he would take the abovennamed farm-produce in exchange. 
On the supposition that the Badger was a ' licensed hawker' the word has been supposed 
to take its origin from the circumstance that he possessed a badgt. In Selkirkshire, how- 
ever, badgt still signifies * a large ill-shaped burden,' and Jamieson s suggestion is, that that 
is the origin of Badger : of. O. N. baggi, a burthen, a pack-saddle ; O. Sw. baggt. This is 
die more likely explanation, particularly as the calling of badgtr must have been followed 
by great numbers who needed no licence, and probably long before licences were issued. 
Brockett, however, says that * Originally he was a person who purchased grain at one 
market and took it on horseback to sell at another ;' and Mr. Wedgw., in a very ingenious 
notice, and availing himself of the Fr. name of the animal called badger, blatreetu, derives 
our word Badger directly from Fr. Madter, a corn-dealer, one who supplies the markets he 
attends with com carried on mule-back. This word, he alleges, would be corrupted in 
Pr. as soldier is, that is to say, into solger, sodger ; and then an omission of the /, not with- 
out analogy in several other words, would give Badger. 

Badger, vb. i. To beat down the price of an article in the process 
of bargaining. 2. To banter, treat with rude or rough raillery. 

I. * Him an' me cou'dn't agree, nae-kins form. He wad ha' badgered me doon to 

a. ' Mebbe t' lad 's not mich aboon a gauvison : but they badgered him ower sair for 

Badness, sb. Depravity, active wickedness. 

* '* They war gi'en tiv a' maks o' badness;" to all kinds of practical evil.' Wb, Gl. 

* Nobbut a ragally chap, at aUays had a vast o' badness iv 'im.' 

Cf. ' Felice her faimesse 

Fel hire al to sdaundre ; 

And Rosamonde right so 

Reufulliche to bileve. 

The beaut^ of hir body 

In baddenesse she despended.' Piers PI. p. 231. 

Baflbxmded, adj. Perplexed, bewildered, stunned. 

I find this word in no printed collection except the Wb, Gl.^ in which it occurs with the 
following example appended : — * I was quite bewildered and baffounded* In its present form 
it is not easy to suggest an explanation. True, the Sw. Dial, presents the forms baff, a prac- 
tical fool, a stupid, and baffing, a half-witted being ; but there is no clue to the terminal 
portion of our word. Possibly the word should rather be spelt befaunded, and it may be a 
corruption of some such word as Hire's befiBngd, Germ, brfangen, disconcerted, embarassed. 


The A. S. befangen, hejdngtn does not seem to possess the special meaning of the German 
word just given. Be-JieruMl {be-feonuMP) analogous to he-divU'ed is possible, but not 
likely. But the most likely sypposition is that £e word is really befimded. See Fond. 
Hall, nvesjimns, to be foolish ; and Wydif uses/)imy</ in his TrandatioH of&t New Test., 
and the form hefonded would easily connect with this. Comp. Sw. D. JSo>»ig% JS'"^* 
JS^tntig,JjynUdt£anUd,fjonUd; Dzn.JSaniid; all with the meanings fond or foolish, silly, 

Baaiiy adj. Near, direct, easy ; as applied to a road or way. 

O. N. beinn ; Sw. D. hen or hajnt direct, straight, near. Comp. O. Sw. 6aii, a good or 
even road. Bain appears to have had, or to have yet, other meanings in diiSferent parts 
of the North, while in Scotland it is of wide application : see Jam. Ray explains it as 
* willing, forward;* and to be * bain about one' implies officiousness, forward readiness to 
help in the person spoken of — senses illustrated in the following extracts : — 

* Noab, He saide alle shalle be slayn bot oonely we, 

Oure bames that ar bayn, and thare wifes thre.' 

TowHti, Myti. p. a8. 

* Thow (St. John) was bouxsome and bayne his body to tent.' 

Rel. Pieces, p. 90. 

Perhaps Pr, Pm, * Beyn, or pljraunte (beykn. P.). Flembilis,* throws some light upon this. 
The form beyhn leads one at once to O. N. beygja, Sw. bdja, A. S. bugan. Sec. ; to A. S. 
boesumt Fris. boegsum. Old Dut. ghe-hoogh-&aem (Bosw.), flexible, obedient, humble. 
' BtibaonUHesse or bougbsomeness, PUableness, or bowsomenees* Wedgw. 

Bainiy sb. i. A child. Also, 2. A term of address from an elder to a 
younger person, without regard to stature. 

O. N., O. Sw. and Dan. bam ; A. S. beam ; M. O. and O. H. G. bam, 

* ** I 'm giving you a deal of trouble, William, I fear." ** Nay, baim, nay : nowght 
o' t' soort ; ' from a man of sixty to the parson, a man of forty-five. 

Baim-bedy baim'8-bed, sb. The womb, uterus, matrix. Comp. 
Calf-bed, Eoal-bed. 

* She 's getten a swelling o' t' baim-hed;* a tumour of the uterus. 

Baim-birthy sb. Lying-in, a confinement. 

O. N. bamburdr. 

Baimish, adj. Childish, puerile. 

BaimlBliTiess, sb. Childishness, imbecility. Wh. GL 

Baim-lakingB, baim-laiTrings, sb. Children's toys, playthings. 
See Lake. 

Baimteam, sb. A continuous succession of children, a family, 
generally in the sense of a large one : ' lots of children.' Brock. 

A. S. beani'teamt posterity, generation ; Sc. baim-iymet bame-ieme, Cf. N. S. toom, pro- 
genies, stirps ; Dut. toom, a team of ducks ; also a bridle, as in the case of N. S. toom and 
Fris. iam, ieam ; also A. S. team, issue, offspring, a succession of children, anything following 
in a row, order, or team : Bosw. See Team. 

* Jems. Ye doghters of Jerusalem, I byd ye wepe nothyng for me, 

Bot for yonre self and youre bame-teme' T\jiimel, Myti, p. a I a. 


* And schalt greni godles inwi'S waste wahes. and in bread«s wone brede ti bamteam :' 
thou shalt groan without goods within bare walls, and in want of bread breed thy haimteam. 
Halt MeidSmbadt p. 31. 

* The fende was fadyr of thiese doghtyrs. pe firste )>er-of |>is foule hame-tyme highte 
Envye, the to>er highte Pride,' &c. ReL Pieces, p. 57. 

Baimworty banwort, sb. The common daisy {bellis perennis). Spelt 
also Banwood. 

An apparent derivation is offered in A. S. hanrwyrt; honewort, a violet, perhaps the small 
knapweiMi. Bosw. Hall, gives * a violet, Dunelm.,* and then adds, * According to Cooper, 
beUtt is the white daysy, called of some the margarite, in the North hanwoort* A. S. dages' 
eage is the original of E. dedsy ; and it certainly seems, both on that ground, and on account 
of the accentuation and consequent sound of bdn-wyrt, that the plant indicated by that name 
was distinct from the daisy and our Bairn- or Ban-wort. Dr. Prior gives banewort, * from 
its baning sheep, by ulcerating their entrails,' as rammeulus flammea. There is very great 
perplexity about the majority of the local names of plants, ^om the uncertainty (or worse) 
of their application ; the same name being often applied to two, three, or more plants which 
are perfectly distinct. 

Bake-house, sb. (pr. backus). A baker's oven, or rather the building 
containing it. 

Pr, Pm, • Bakbouse, or bakynge howse. Pistrina* 

This is of course the origin of the prevalent North Country name Baekbouse, which in the 
Danby Registers, 1 50 to aoo years ago, appears in the form Backus or Bakkus. And, rather 
quaintly, on the same page in one instance I find the name (still borne in the district) of 
Venus or Venis : a name much more difficult to account for. 

Baking, sb. The quantity of com — varying with the size of the 
family — sent by the several fanners to the mill to be ground, and which 
is fetched away by the Cadger at stated times. 

What Batch is in connection with the oven (comp. Dan. b€Bgt, Sw. bag, &c.), that Baking 
is in reference to the mill ; that is, as regards the usage of the word. 

Baksta'xiy bakstone, sb. A circular plate of iron with an iron Bow 
to hang it by, to bake cakes upon. It is sometimes, though rarely, 
formed of slate. 

Comp. O. N. bakstjam, literally, bake-iron, or iron for baking purposes. The transition 
of sound from what I take to be the O. N. original to the Clevel. word as spoken (the j 
sounding as y), is simple when once the sense of the original has ceased to be noticed. The 
Leede Gl. spells the word bakstan, varying that spelling in the explanation with backstone, 
baxsU>ne, or baxston. Brock, gives bachatone, with the definition, ' a heated stone or iron 
for baking cakes ;' and Cr. GL biukstone, * formerly a slate, but now a plate of iron on 
which oatcake is baked.' The author of the Gl. named first describes the Bakstan as a 
stone fitted by shape and dimensions for insertion in the ordinary fire-side ovens, but adds 
afterwards, ' A baxston* cake is now made when the stones are nil by taking one of the iron 
shelving-plates out of the oven, fixing it over the fire, and placing the cake thereon.' This 
is the true use of the Bakstan, and for my own part I doubt if stone ever were, or could 
conveniently be, used in the way the real Bakstan is applied. In * Hire cake beanie's o 
)>e Stan,' Hali Mdd, p. 37, we have a reminder of the Alfred legend, the cakes burning on 
the hearth-stone. 


Bakster, baxter, sb. A baker. ^ 

A. S. baeestrt, a woman who bakes, a baker. 

' Baktr, or baxter, bakstar. Pisior, paniehts, pani/tx.* Pr, Pm, 

Balky sb. (pr. bawk). i. A beam. 2. A ridge of land left between 
two furrows, or by the wall or hedge-side. 

Hald. gives hjdVti, a beam ; Dan. hjMt ; and Ihre, hclkt a ridge between two furrows. 
A. S. halca bears both meanings. Comp. also O. N. hdUnr, a wooden partition ; e. g. a 
planked wall of or in a house, or merely a means of separation between cattle. According 
to Ihre, Gudmund Andr. remarks that Icel. hdUtr signifies not only the ridge left in plough- 
ing, but any low ridge. Sw. D. haUca, bblka, is to miss certain ridges or strips in ploughing ; 
baikt a beam, a wooden partition, a strip in a ploughed field left untouched by the plough. 
Pr, Pm, * Baikt, trabs ; balkt, of a lond eryd. Porea* 

* With his own hand he made them laddirs thre 
To dimbin by the ronges, and by the stalkes 
Into the tubbis hanging by the baliti ;' 

of the roof namely : MiUer^i TaU, p. 28. 

See Hay-bauks, and cf. * The owle all neght aboue the balkis wonde.' 

Legmdi 0/ Pbihmeia, ^, ZS4' 
* He can well in myne e3rin sene a stalk. 
But in his own he can nought sene a balk,* Rev9*i ProiogM, p. 30. 

For the second sense, comp. — 

* Primus Pastor, To my shepe wylle I stalk and herkjm anone, 

Ther abyde on a balk, or sytt on a stone 

Full soyne.* Towml, Myst. p. 99. 

Ball, sb. I. Of the hand, the palm. 2. Of the foot, the sole. 

Dan. bald*, ball of the hand or foot, as baldt i baanden, bald* vtukrjodm ; Sw. D. band" 
ball, palm of the hand ; /otball otfoitbaU, planta pedis, sole of the foot ; Gtxm, fuss^MiUm, 
Comp. Lat. vela, 

* About t' bigness o* t* baU o* my hand.' 

Bally-bleezOy sb. A bonfire. 

A. S. bdH-blcUt, bal-blisi, the blaze of a funeral pile. The Scand. languages and dialects 

gVe equivalents for both the parts of this compound word; thus O.N. bdl and Mosst; 
. Sw. bSl and bloss; Dan. baal and blusser; but they are not met with in the same con- 
junction. Sw. D. 6^, * or the more usual form ojferbSl, denotes a pile of boughs, stones, 
and other materials of every description, thrown up by means of the contributions of passing 
wayfarers on the place where a human being has lost his life ; the object of the contri- 
butors being by this means to bind the spirit (ait binda gasttn) and render it harmless 
^oad se,* Rietz. To this Mr. Hylten Cavallius, Wartnd ocb Wirdamt, p. 161, adds that 
the piles thus formed are firom time to time burnt, and that such burning is expressed by 
the words att brdnna b&l, and that even as late as 1828 divers prohibitions are met with as 
issued by the authorities against such bait-btiming. The Dan. Dial, gives the vb. baaU, to 
make a blaze, or a great blazing fire ; the connection of idea with Dan. baal, a funeral pile, 
or pyre, being evident enough. What the blaze of the funeral pile, or M/, must have been 
may be easily conceived by any one who has ever seen the opening of a tumulus containing 


an interment after burning. The writer has met with many urns in which the remains of 
die human body were reduced to two or three handfuls of crumbling bones ; and in some 
cases incredible quantities of charcoal still in close company. Again, in Flat. I. 355, Bryn- 
hilldr is described as first slaying her seven thralls and her five maids, then stabbing herself, 
and ordering herself, still living, to be carted away together with the twelve dead bodies to 
the funeral pile {til hah) to be burnt : * And so it came to pass that there was one hal for 
her and one for her husband Sigurdr.' But imagine the pile required for consuming thirteen 
human bodies to ashes. It need scarcely be added that any assumption of an etymological 
connection between the name Baal and this word Bally-bleeze must be groundless. Even 
in the Gaelic form baltein, while iein is equivalent to our Bleeze, Dan. blysset Sw. Idoss, &c., 
I doubt if bill be radically distinct from E. bale, Sw. 6^, &c. In other words, I do not for 
a moment suppose that ihe worship of Baal, any more than that of Balder, or Apollo, or 
Pbcebus, considered as persons with distinct ethnic names, was intended in these baU-ftrti, 
It was the worship of the Sun-god simply, and his name not even hinted at in that of the 
fire-rites involved. 

• Firste to brenne the body 

In a hale of fiir. 

And S3rthen the sely soul slen. 

And senden hyre to helle.* P, Plougbm. Creed, 1329. 

Balm-bowl, bawm-bowl, sb. An urinal, chamber-pot 

Only a cant term, probably. There is a Teut. word harme, with a signification which 
would probably include urine ; and if the word is really an old word, that is its probable 
derivation. Hald. also gives hamhur, a vessel of corresponding form, a bowl or pot. 

Balragy ballyrag, bullyrag, vb. To abuse violently ; to pour foul 
or savage words and epithets on ; to banter contemptuously and angrily. 
Also spelt balarag, bfdlerag, bullirag. 

There can be little doubt of the essential identity of our word with bully-rook, 

* Host. What says my bully-rook? Speak scholarly and wisely.' M, Wives o/W. L 3. 
Wedgw. connects bully-rook or -rock, * a hectoring, noisy fellow,' with PI. D. buller-hrook, 

buUer-jaan, huller-hak; and these words, together wi^ £. bully, he links with Dut. 
bolderen, bulderen, verbulderen, to bully with loud menaces ; O. poltem, Sw. huUer, noise, 
outcry ; buUer-bas, a blusterer. 

Baiter, v. n. (pr. bauter). To trample or tread heavily or clownishly. 

The connection of this word is not very evident. On one side we have Germ, poltem, 
to beat, thump, strike heavily or noisily; Sw. hulta; Lat. pultare; with which may possibly 
be classed Sw. D. bullta, to drive a roUer ; buUtklabb, a bittle, battledoor. On the other, 
Sc. paut, Sw. D. pallta, to hobble, to walk with faltering, uneven steps ; pjaUta, id. ; and 
possibly our own paddle, with all the class of words it introduces. 

BalHomm, sb. Riotous proceedings; the boisterous merry-making 
which often accompanies a bonfire. 

* They played the very baltiorum.* IVb. GL 

I do not find this word printed anywhere except in Wb. Gl, ; nor is its alleged resem* 
blance to Beltane in Jam. very suggestive of any reference to the customs described under 
that word. 

E 2 


Bam, V. a. i. To put a joke or trick upon one. 2. To take in 
or delude. 

Br. bamem, to bewitch, cheat. 

Baniy sb. i. A deception. 2. A trick, or imposition. 

1. * " It 's all a bam;" all a deception, or take in.' IVb, Gl, 

2. * ** Thae V putten a ham on him ;" played him a trick or ** made a fool" of him.' 76. 

Bamseyy sb. A fat, red-faced female. Wh, Gl, 

Cf. Sw. D. bdmmb&, a stout bulky woman ; Swab. hamM, bampd, bompd, a stout slut 
of a woman. 

Ban, V. n. To curse, blaspheme. 

Pr. Pm. * Barmyn, or war3ryn. Impreeor, maledico, exicror,* 

O. N. and O. Sw. banna, to interdict, to denounce by ecclesiastical authority. But O. Sw. 
bannas was applied to such as made use of wicked imprecations in their talk. Ihre. The 
same author also quotes O. N. bannaz and Belg. barmen in the same sense. 

* " He banned till all was blue ;" gave loose to furious imprecations.' Wb, GL 

* Primus Pasior For this trespas. 

We wille nawther ban ne flyte, 

Fyght nor chjrte.' Toumel, Mysi. p. 115. 

Baiiy sb. A curse. 

O. Sw. bann or ban; O. N. bann; A. S. ban; Dan. band. The meaning of the O.Sw. 
and O. N. words seems to have been to interdict, or prohibit. The primitive meaning of 
the O. E. or A. S. word seems to have been to summons the army. Wedgw. Thence was 
derived the sense of exclusion from the privileges of religion ; and from this the meaning 
which our present word still bears. And it is worthy of note that, inasmuch as there was 
a formal publication of the summons, or prohibition, or interdict, the word bann came to be 
applied to other formal proclamations ; as, e.g. that of the purpose of marriage between any 
two contracting parties : whence the phrase, ' banns of marriage.' 

Band, sb. i. Small string or twine. 2. A rope of small or moderate 
size. 3. The ligature of a sheaf of corn. 4. Thin straw rope twisted by 
hand, employed^ to secure the thatch of stacks, &c. 

0. N. band seems to have had a sense almost exactly coincident with our first ; viz. 
thread, small ties whether of wool, linen or other material. The ordinary sense of O. N. 
and O. Sw. band was simply (from binda, to bind ; pret. band) something bound, that is, 
applied in binding ; a ligature, fillet, surgical bandage ; and thence the other meaning just 

1 . * Such and such a thing is not worth a band's end ;' i. e. it is valueless. 

1. * ** There 's a band for thee ;" there 's a rope : go and hang yourself.' Wb. Gl. 

Band-maker, sb. i. A twine-spinner or rope-maker. 2. The per- 
son, usually a lad, who makes the Bands for tying up the sheaves of the 
newly-cut com. 

The operation of Band-makintf is performed by twisting lightly together, at the ear end, 
two handfuls of the long corn ; and the Band, so made, is carefully laid on the ground so as 


not to untwist before the substance of the sheaf is laid upon it. Comp. Dan. baandt, to 
twist straw rope for binding sheaves. 

Bands, sb. Hinges. 

* A pair o' bands ;* a couple of hinges. Wb. Gl. 
Cf. O. N. kroka-par^ par fibularum. 

' David. For of this prynce thus ere I saide ; 
I saide that he shuld breke 
Youre barres and bandes by name. 

And of youre warkes take wreke.* Toumtl. Mysi. p. 248. 
' Et solvit Ricardo Smyth pro davis, bandU et crowkis pro tenementis in Elvett.' Pr. 
Fineb. p. ccclx. 

Bandster, sb. The person who binds the sheaf laid upon the Band, 
as described under Band-maker, by the Gatherer, usually a woman, 
who follows the mower with a light four-toothed rake to collect the com 
into masses sufficient to form each a sheaf. 

Bank, sb. i. The steep hill-side running up to the moor-edge. 
2. Any hill-side. 3. A road nmning up a hill-side. 

A. S. 6anc, and O. Sw. bcenkf the idea implied in each word being, according to Ihre, of 
a thing which rises from or above the ordinary level. Sw. D. bank^ meaning a cloud-bank 
or fog-bank, must be collated with N. bahl^t, O. N. bakhi, with the same signification. 
And these forms are coincident with Sw. backt, a hill, hill-side. The phrase en brant baekt, 
a steep hill, is one of continual occurrence, and answers with the closest correspondence to 
our own a brant bank. We may observe that like as bane^ b<znk, backe vary in form 
only by the presence or absence of n, so the Sw. adj. brant differs from O. N. brattr, but 
no furtiier. 

I. * " Have you seen my brother, Josey?" *' Aye, Ah seed him gannan' alang t' bank~ 
tUU an' oop til t' moor nae lang tahm syne." ' 

a. ' A brant bank;* a steep hill. 

Cf. ' And up that bank that was so sUire.' Percy's Fol. MS. I. 244. 

3. ' T' bank 's desput sleeap wiv ice, t' moom ;' the road is in a very slippery condition 
with ice. 

Banky, adj. i. As applied to land; steep, lying on the hill-side. 
2. As appUed to a road ; hilly, abounding in steep places. 

1. * Aye, he *s getten t' farm nane sae dear : but there 's a vast o' banky land iv it.' 

2. ' T' rooad to Wliitby 's sair an' banky: 

Bar^ adj. Bare. 

• Primus Tortor. To bett his body bar 

I haste, witfaoutten hoyne.' Townel. Myst. p. 206. 
' Nobbut t' bar walls ; that 's a' he 's getten ;' of a man who had had a house left him, but 
everything else bequeathed some other way. 

Barfaniy barfan, sb. A horse-collar. See Bumble-barflm. 

The derivation of this must have seemed as uncertain as its orthography. It is written 
bar/am, bar/bame, barribantt barson, barkbam, barkbaanii braffam, braugbam^ baurgbam, 
baurgbwany brecbam, brecbem. Jam. says ' Gael. Ir. braigb, the neck ; whence braigb 


aidain, a collar. The last syllable has more resemblance to Tcut. bamme, a collar.' The 
last sentence shews he is not satisfied with the suggested derivation : and no wonder. 
Brockett gives, 'Barkbantf a horse's collar, formerly made of bark ;' the derivation hinted at 
being, however, even less satisfactory than the Gaelic one. Under homes or beams, Mr. 
Wedgwood gives what is, beyond doubt, the true origin of the word : ' The stuffing of hay 
or straw by which the hames were prevented from galling the shoulden of the horse was 
called bamberwe, or betnaborougb, a coarse horse-collar made of reed or straw ; from berwe 
or borougbf shelter, protection against the hames. The same dements in the opposite order 
may be recognised in Prov. E. baurgbwoHf hrauebin, a collar for a horse, made of old stock- 
ings stuffed with straw (Grose) ; and in Sc. brtebame. " The straw breebame is now sup- 
planted by the leather collar." Jam.' Our BarfiEUi or Barfiiunt allowing for the g or gb 
concealed under / presents the true word only slightly disguised : hargb-{p)am\ Comp* 
the Pr, Pm. forms; berwbam, berubam; and bargbeame in Caibol, Angl, 

Bargh, bamghy baurgh, sb. (pr. barf). A hill, usually one forming 
a low ridge by itself; as Lang-barugh in Cleveland. 

O. Sw. berg; O.N. berg, biarg; Dan. b;<Brg; O. H.G. berf; M. G. bairg; A.S. beorg, 
beorb. The word barf (JLineolns, Gl.) is merely the phonetic way of spelling Bargh or 
Baorgh, and the closest analogy is foimd in the Clevel. Pr. of ibrougb, ibougb, phugb, &c. : 
namely, tbruff, ibof, pieeaf or j^euf, Comp. O. N. pldgr, plough ; pUgjam, coulter, with 
Dan. piov, fdotjem, coulter ; Clevel. pUuf, pleufin'-aim ; for a parallel softening of the gut- 
tural. Ijangbaurgh is written in Domesday and other andent documents Langeberg; 
and so of other places now known as Barugh or Baiirgh. 

Baorgniesty sb. An apparition in the form of some animal, most fre- 
quently a large shaggy dog, but always characterised by large saucer eyes 
and a terrible shriek or roar. 

Correctly, no doubt, this word should be bier-gbosi; Germ, babr, geist; Dan. baare, 
geist. Scott's Minstrdsy I, cix. note. Several other derivations have been proposed, all 
more or less absurd ; but Sir Walter's, besides falling in with the still conmionly recdved 
notion — once, I bdieve, universal — that the Barg^est is, in its proper office, a harbinger of 
death, at once suggests a comparison with the Sw. ktrke-grim, Dan. kirhe'Varsel or kirhe^ 
vare. See Montbly Packet, xxix. 247. It was the custom, in the countries referred to, for 
the workmen engaged in building a church to take the first living creature which crossed 
their path on the day the work was to be completed, and build it in alive in the wall. It 
became afterwards the office of this animal to give warning of approaching deatii to the 
people of the township it bdonged to. Thus, animal forms of many kinds belonged to 
the several hirke-grims of a district ; and similarly, in Yorkshire we hear of Barguasta in 
the form of a mastiff, a pig, a large donkey, a calf, &c. Other names for the Bargaeat 
are padfoot (East Yorkshire and Leeds); gytrash (Leeds); skriker, trash (Lancashire; 
Choice Notes, p. 23), shuck, &c. 

Barkened, adj. Coated or crusted over with dirt; or with anything 
calculated to form a dry superficial coating. 

S. Jutl. borhen, a scab, or crust forming over a sore. 

* T' puir bairn's heead an* feeace an' airms an a' wur fairly barkened ower wi* dry muck.* 

Barley-bairn, sb. A child bom too soon after the wedding of the 

So called, it is said, because the barley-crop comes forward sooner than other com. 


Wb. Gl. See Barley-orop. But the explanation is unsatisfactory. There is a word 
commonly used in the North, quoted by Brock., Hall., and Jam., and current also in 
Lancashire, with the sense, to bespeak, put in a claim. The word referred to is barley ; 
and its special sense would give a significance to Barley-bairn not alien to the Northern 
genius ; that is to say, a haim already bespoke before the formal rites of marriage. 

Barley-cropy sb. Not quite synonymous with Barley-baim, inas- 
much as it is applied rather to the fact of the too early birth than to the 
child bom. Thus : — 

* So and so 's getten a barley-crop, then ;' in reference to the circumstance that his wife 
has getten her bed within too short a time after marriage. 

Barmy sb. Yeast. 

O.Sw. berma; DaiL barme; A.S. beorma; Dut. barm. 

Barren^ sb. The external part of a cow's sexual organs ; the ' shape.' 
HalL extends the meaning further and makes it the ' vagina of an ani- 
mal :' but I think mistakenly. The cow seems to be the only animal to 
which the word is applicable. 

Sw. D. barane, a cow's sexual parts ; other forms being bdranne, bdme, bare, Dan. D. 
barend, barild; Old D. barand<St bcerande, Cf. Germ bdrmuUer, Dut. baarmoeder. The 
word is closely connected with O. N. bera, O. Sw. bora, &c., to give birth to. Comp. N. 
bara^ to calve ; bera being also specially applied to the parturition of a cow, and Sw. bam'- 
ing meaning the act of calving. Ihre remarks that the modem use of b^era is restricted to 
cows simply ; /ola being applied to mares, lamma to sheep, bwalpa to the dog tribe, hisda 
to cats, and yngla to other animals. The spirit of this restriction of course gives its peculiar 
sense to the word Barren, as the part so much concerned in the act of calving. 

BarroWy sb. The flannel in which a newly-born infant is received 
from the hands of the accoucheiu'. 

* When Sir Ameloun was worn out with leprosy, and reduced to " tvelf pans of catel" 
(ltd, in money) the faithful Amoraunt expended that little sum in the purchase of a 
barowe, therein to carry the Knight about. A. S. berewe, veetula :* Note to Barowe, 
Pr. Pm, The barowe in question was a vehicle of some sort, of course ; but the funda- 
mental idea is the same in its name and in our Barrow; that in which one is borne. 

Base, adj. Of indifferent character or behaviour. See Mean* 

Bass, bast, sb. i. Matting; originally, no doubt, confined to that 
made of the inner bark of the linden-tree, but now inclusive of other 
materials, as straw, large rushes, &c. 2. A hassock or cushion to kneel 
upon; again from the common material employed in their structure. 
3. A limp or flexible basket, of like material, used by joiners &c. to carry 
dieir tools in. 

O. N. bait; O. Sw. b^tst; Dan. bast; A. S. frees/; N. S. and Oerm. beat. 
■ 2. * A knee-fross.' 
3. • A tool-fross.' 


Bat, sb. A blow, a stroke, stricken whether in labour, strife, or 

This word is at least related to O. Sw. badda, to strike, if not directly derived from it. 
It might be due to a disused pret. of a verb corresponding to, if not coincident with, A. S. 
beatoHt like the old pret. bet, of £. betUf which is still in conmion prov. use. Comp. 
A. S. and Old E. bat, a club, which remains to us in the restricted sense of an instrument 
for striking a ball; ^/I's, «= staves, Matt. xxvi. 47, Wydif's Verdon, 

' Drop it : or Ah 11 gie the' tha' bats;* leave of, or 1 11 give you a thrashing. 

' Ah hevn*t strucken a bai sen Marti'mas ;' I have not done any work since Martinmas. 

' *' Puir tyke I 't gets mair bats an bites ;" more blows than victuals.' Wb. GL 

' Tak' heed ! mebbe he '11 tak' it a bat;* he will strike at it 

Batch, sb. A set, or association, of people, namely. 

Instead of being appropriated in Clevel. to peers and baronets, this word is used, some- 
what disparagingly, to group together any clique or set of associates, of not the best possible 
repute, perhaps. Comp. Sw. D. bakster, the entire quantity l>aked at once. 

Bate, pret of bite, vb. 

Comp. Chaucer's pret. bote, 

* God for his menace him so sore hath smote 
With wounds invisible, incurable. 
That in his guttis carfid so and (olf , 

That his peynis werin importable.' Monh^s Talt, i. 624. 

Bath, V. a. (pr. as sb. bath), i. To apply hot water in the way of 
fomentation. 2. To wash children all over. 

Comp. Sw. badda, to foment ; Sw. D. bdda, to soften by means of heat ; Dan. badi, to 

I. ' Ah batb'd him wi* yett watter, an' laid yett chissel tiv 'm, bud he niwer gat nae ease 
while moom.' 

• " How often 's your bairns batb'df" " Three times i' t' week. How often 's youm ?" 
" Iwery nceght." ' 

Battel-door, sb. (pr. battle-deear). One portion of the former substi- 
tute for the mangle, not yet fallen into entire disuse: called also the 
Bittle. The other portion is called the Pin, or the BoUing-pin, and 
in shape and dimensions very much resembles the roller of a small 

The Battel-door is a heavy piece of wood, with a handle, like that of a cricket-bat, at 
one end, flat on both sides and about four to five inches wide. The linen to be operated 
upon is wound round the pin and then rolled backwards and forwards on a linen-board 
under the Battel-door, subjected to whatever amount of pressure the laundress is able or 
disposed to put upon it. The process is not unaccompanied with noise from the clapping 
of the wood upon wood, or upon the linen rolled on the wooden pin, and it is this clapping 
noise that is, at least in part, implied in the various local legends touching Fairy linen-wash- 
ing. At least in part — for it must not be overlooked that beating formed an important 
portion of the lavatory proceedings in days gone by, at least in England. Note the descrip- 
tion in P. Ploughman^ vol. ii. p. 506. 


' And whan he is wery of that werk 
Than wole he som tyme 
Labouren in lavendrye, 

And pakken hem (the matters to be washed) togideres, 
And bonken hem at his brest, 

And hetm bem elen§ 

And leggen on long. 
And with warm water at hise eighen 
Wasshen hem after/ 

With this comp. Pr, Pm, • Btttyl dourt, or wasshynge bctylle ;' the note to which is, 
' Batykhrt, betyll to bete clothes with.' Palsgr. Fereiorium is explained in the Medulla to 
be ** imstrunufUum cum quo mtdUrts vtrberant vesturas in lavando, a battyng stalTe, or a 

Batten, sb. A sheaf or bundle composed of the straw of two sheaves 
of com bound together in one. 

I connect this word immediately with bait^ the pret. of O. N. binda, to bind. Comp. 
N. D. btmd, a bundle ; N. binda, forming its pret. in bani or band. 

Batten, sb. A spar of wood, of indefinite length, five or six inches 
in breadth, and two or three in thickness. 

Closely connected with baton, batoon, and with bai, a club : ' Lo, Judas, oon of the 
twelve, and with hym cam a grete cumpanye with swerdis and baitis ;* A. S. bati. * From 
bai, in the sense of a rod : perhaps first used adjectivally, bat-en, made of bats ; as wood-en, 
made of wood.' Wedgw. 

Batter, v. a. i. To beat. 2. To pelt with stones. 

These are merely modifications of the meaning of £. batter, 

I. ' T' aud chap 's getten hissen sair battered aboot t' feeace.' 

a. * T' bairns wer battering t' aud deeam's deear wi' cobble-stanes.' 

Batter, v. n. i. To grow thinner from the base upwards as a wall 
does, or a railway embankment, the sides of which slope more away 
from the perpendicular as they rise in height. 2. To slope inwards or 
recede from the perpendicular. 

This word might seem to admit of comparison with O. N. beittr, having a sharp edge, 
like a knife, the sides of which are oblique or slope inwards or towards the edge ; especia^y 
as the word is a participial from the vb. beita, and employed to designate the oblique or 
sloping course, relatively to the wind, which a vessel has to make in working up against 
the wind on the bow. There is, however, no countenance in the general application of the 
word for such a notion, and it is scarcely open to doubt that our batter depends rather on 
bate or abate, to diminish, to lessen. Comp. Sp. batir, to beat, beat down, lessen, remit, 

1. ' The wall batten one foot in six ;' it is a foot thinner at six feet high than at the 

2. ' It batters o' baith sides ;* it slopes inwards on both sides. 

Batter, sb. A sloping backwards or inwards; a recession from the 



perpendicular ; applied in case of a stone or brick wall, the sbping side 
of a railway embankment, &c. 

* T' wall has a vast o' batter;* is much thinner at top than at bottom. 

BatterfiEUiged, adj. Beaten and scratched, as one may at least 
expect to be in a battle in which a woman is engaged. 

Batterfanging, sb. The consequences, in the sliape of combined 
blows and scratches, which await the champion who engages a female 
combatant in battle. 

Bauoh, adj. (pr. bauf or bofe). Lively, saucy ; of a little boy, and 
not in an ofifensive sense ; lusty. 

This is a perplexing word. All analogy leads to identifying it with Sc. bdueb or baugb, 
but the sense is diametrically opposite. Comp. Wb. Gl, instance — 

* " A braye, bauf lad ;" a fine, stout boy,' with 

* Without esute 
A youth though sprung from King's looks baugb and blate ;' 

or ' Beauty but bounty's but baucb/ both quoted by Mr. Wedgw., under Bcffie^ and the 
contrast appears forcibly enough. Probably bof^ nequam, quoted by Ihre, as well as Icel. 
bdfiy is the same word, and if his supposition that the word originally meant a small boy, 
and then a servant, and lastly a scamp, be correct, it may give some clue to the connection 
of the CI sense. Or it may be an instance of application analogous to that of rogue, and 
even scamp, rascal, &c. to a lively pet child ; as in * you little rogue,' &c. 

Beacon, sb. A name applied to the highest hill on the Danby North 
Moors, and of remote imposition. 

A. S. beaeen, beacn, becen, a sign, token. * Cmorisst yflo and drg soeetts becon : and birt 
ne bilS nan becon gesald, buta Jones becon ^<u wiigo ;' literally, a generation evil and arf 
seeks a sign, and to it there be no sign given be-out Jonah's sign the prophet. The beacon- 
fire was lighted as a token or sign, of an attack or invasion, suppose ; and thence the word 
became applied to the fire itself, or that which contained or supported the fire, Cf. Pr, Pm, 
*Beekne, or fyrebome. Far, Pbarus.* • Danby Beacon' — in Danby itself, • T* Beacon' — % 
Celtic tumulus of large dimensions originally : and it is quite possible that it may have been 
the site of sacrificial fires (see Bally-bleose) long ages before it received the Saxon epithet 

Bead-houBe, bede-house, sb. (pr. bead-'us). An almshouse. See 

Beadsman, bedeman, bedesman, sb. ' A man whose business it is 
to pray for another.' Johnson. The inmate of a bead-house. 

Pr. Pm. * Bedman. Orator, supplicator, exorator.' A. S. biddan (pret. bced, to pray) ; 
O. N. beidi; O. Sw. bedja. * The designation,' says Jam., ' has originated from some rdigious 
foundation, in times of popery, according to which a certain number of individuals received 
a stated donation, on condition of offering up prayers for the living.' It may be observed 
that A. S. bead is a prayer. Hence the common meaning of the word bead; ' because one 
was dropped down the string every time a prayer was prayed, and by this means was marked 
the number of times it had been prayed.' Tooke. 


* This carpenter teide his devotion 
And still he sett, and biditb his prayere, 
Awaiting on the raine.' Millar's Talt, p. 28. 

In the following passage the mention is of six thanes * reduced in their circumstances' by 
the Saxon conquests : — 

• No raccheo'S heo to borde : Nor reach they to table 

buten brxd ane. But bread alone ; 

no to heore drencches ; Nor to their drink, 

but water scenches. But water draughts. 

\>u$ heo leodefS heore lif : Thus they lead their life 

inne )>ine leodp. Among thy people 

& heore beoden hidd^* And their heads bid. 
Lay, II. 404. 

• To ihesn M hedt a bed*.* Assumpcio B, Mart. E, E. T. 8, p. 99. 

* Scheome ich telle uorte beon euer her itold unwurO, and beggen ase on harbt, )if hit 
neod is, his liueneV, and beon o9res beodemon^ ase je beo9, leoue sustren ;' Ancr, RhuUf 
p. 356 : shame I reckon (it) for to be ever here reckoned unworth, and (to) beg as a harlot, 
if it need be, one's living, and (to) be others' beadnuxn, as ye be, dear sisters. 

Beadswoman, bedeswoman, bead-'us-wife. The same as Beada<- 
man, sex being altered: or, more strictly, the female inmate of a 
Bead-'us, or alms-house. 

Pr. Pm, * Bedewoman, Oratrix, suppiicatrix.' 

Beaker, sb. A large glass or tumbler standing on a stem and foot 
like those of a wine-glass ; an old-fashioned tumbler or beer-glass. 

Pr, Pm, * Byker, cuppe. Cimbium,* O.N. bikar; Sw. bdgare; Sw. D. b«kar§; Dan, 
hager, a cup, goblet, chalice ; Germ, beeher ; Dut. bektr, 

Beal, V. n. i. To bellow, to low as a cow. 2. To raise the voice 
above its usual pitch, as in singing, &c« 

Pr, Pm, * Bellyn, or lowyn as nette. Mugio* O. N. belia^ baula ; O. Sw. baHa, bdla ; 
Sw,bdla; "S, baula, belja; Germ, bellen ; A. S, bellan ; Dan. D. 6<e^. Sw,D, hzs belja, 
bdlja, bolja^ baula, to cry at the full pitch of the voice as a child does ; as well as to 

1. * What gars yon coo beeal sikan a gait ?' 

2, * She wares maist ov her tahm i' btealin' an' singin';' she spends most of her time in 
squalling and singing. 

Bear, bere, sb. A variety of barley, otherwise called Bigg. 

A. S. here, barley ; N. Fris. berre, bdr, bar ; M. G. baris ; O. N. barr, com ; Sw. D. bar, 
com, com intended to be ground. Of E. barley Mr. Wedgw. says, it * seems derived from 
W. barllys, which might be explained, bread-plant, from bora, bread, and llys, a plant.' 

Beared, pret. of Bear. 

Beast, sb. An individual animal of the ox kind. The plural of this 
word is Beeas or Beas ; applied to cows or fatting stock collectively. 

F 2 


BeastlingSy beeslings, sb. (pr. bizlin's). The first milk drawn from 
a cow after csdving. 

A. S. 6«)W, bysting, Englished in Bosw. by • bicstings/ Pr, Pm. * Beestnynge, CoUm- 
trum* In Leeds cH. the word beest appears, as well as beestings. Hall, also gives heeti as 
in proT. use, and Brock, quotes Dut. biest. Possibly beesi and beestings are due to an A. S. 
origin, and bislings, beeslings to a Scand. form. And it is observable that a word biding is 
given by Ihre, and is conjecturally referred by him to the word beta, pascere. 

Beastling-, beesUng-pudding, sb. The pudding to the composition 
of which the Bisslings are applied, and for which concoction, regarded 
as a great delicacy, the milk in question is much prized. 

The usual custom is to portion the Beastlings out among such of his neighbours as the 
owner of the cow wishes to shew a little kindly attention to. But, in the great majority 
of cases, the jug or other vessel containing the present is scrupulously returned unwashed. 
Not a few persons in this district, and in S. Lincolnshire also, send with the present a 
special direction that the containing vessel be not washed out, as otherwise, beiides the 
general reason, * it is unlucky,* the particular unluck of the newly-born calf's death would be 
sure to befal. 

Beb, V. n. To drink, in small quantities, but for a lengthened time ; 
to soak. 

Comp. E. bib, bibber, and A. S. bebr, a cup. 

' He wad sit bebbing an' soaking fra moom an' while neeght.' Wb, OL 

Book, sb. The general name for a stream of running water. 

O. N. beckr ; O. Sw. back ; Dan bah ; N. bekh ; A. S. bece ; Germ, btich ; Dut. beek, 8cc. 
* Fryup Beck,' ' Goathland Beck,' &c. The Esk, after it has received Commondale 
Beck, Danby Beck, and two or three other and smaller streams, is called * T* Gret Beck.' 

Beok-stanes, sb. Stepping-stones, by means of which the foot pas- 
senger may, in the absence of a bridge, cross the beck dryshod. 

Beolamed, adj. Smeared over with dirt or mud or any equivalent of 
'dirt;' dirtied, bemired. 

Comp. A. S. becltemed, ghied to or together, plastered over. Cf. O. N. ttmmi. See 

Beolarted, adj. Bemired, smeared over with dirt, smirched. See 
Clarty, Clart. 

BedflEUrt;, adj. i. Confined to one's bed by chronic ailment or in- 
firmity ; bedridden. 2. Confined to one's bed by sickness, or for a time 

We have also the word hoiue-fast, sometimes, though rarely, varied by hom^-fMi. 
I do not think these compounds are analogous to the A. S. compounds with fdsi, * denoting 
fast, very, perfectly, effectually ; as aw-fast, fast in the law, firm, religious ; tot^/eest, fast 
in truth, true, just; stafSol-fast, of a firm foundation, stable, firm.' Bosw. The id^ is 
rather of being fixed or fastened in or to a place, as in the Sw. Dial, word fast and our own 
fasi (sec Fast), both of which signify not only incapable of further action {bindrad <Ui g9ra 


hfod man or anmodad om : preyented from doing that whidi one hat a mind to do) ; but 
also nnable to leaye one's place of stay or residence {bindrad att Umna sUt bem ; som d 
kan komma bitnifrdn). Comp. our weatherfast, and with it Sw. D. bof'/ast, detained by 
want of a fitvonrable wind ; and Sw. and Dzn. jord-fast, fast or fixed in the earth, of large 
stones ; almost equivalent to our Moor-stone. The A. S. equivalent to our word is btd^rida^ 
bidd-ndda, btdd-reda, whence E. bedridden : in Pr, Pm. bedertd-man, bedlawer. 

Bed-happings, sb. Bed-clothes ; sheets, blankets, and coverlet See 
Hap, Happings. 

Bed-stooks, sb. The bedstead proper, exclusive of the accompani- 
ment of sacking, Sec, by aid of which it becomes capable of supporting 
the bed. 

O. N. ttoekr, O. Sw. stoci, both signify bedstead, or rather, bed-frame. Whether bed is 
a quite modem prefix, or merely presents an analogy to such compounds as O. Sw. bugg^ 
tioeh^ a chopping-block, is not perfectly apparent, although Sw. sdng'Stock, O. Sw. stenga- 
thikkr present &e strictest analogy to Bedstodk : on the other luind, Sc. stock coincides 
with S<and. Uockr, The original meaning of stokker or stukkir was a beam pointed at the 
ends. Rietz. 

' He 'ad getten his legs ower t' bedstoeh. But he cou'd nowther gan ner stand ; an' afore 
Ah could win tiv 'im he 'ad tunmiled his lang-length o' t' fleear.' 

In one of the Witchcraft cases in Fork CasSg Depositions, p. 65, the word bedsi oup i 
occurs : and in the Glossary, the bedstoope is defined as * one of the principal timbers in a 
bed that runs into the posts or stocks. The thin laths or spars that ran across the bed from 
one stoop to another were called bedstauts.* I think this is written mistakenly : the stoops 
are the posts, the stocks the timbers running into the stoops. What the inference may be 
which arises from the original difference in meaning between £. bedstead and Clevel. Bed- 
stooks, Scand. stock, I must here leave undiscussed. 

Beeagle, sb. An oddly or grotesquely dressed figure ; ' a fright,' as 
used of a person ill-dressed and in bad taste : also ' a guy,' * a scare- 

I think this word, which occurs in the Leeds Gl., written beagle, and in Wb. 01., written 
as above, is merely bogle or bogUl, with the Clevel. pm. of long o— as in steean for stone, 
beeam for borne. See.; and that the sense is merely an accommodation from that of Tlay* 
boggle See Bogs^, Boggart. 

* A bonny beeagle;* equivalent to * What a guy I' Wb. Ol. 

Beeas, beas, sb. The collective plural of Beast. 

Bee-bee. A word in continual use among such as have charge of 
very young children, and applied when the latter are apparently sleepy, 
or when it is time for them to be put to sleep. * Baby go bee-bee now;' 
or, * Poor baby wants to go bee-bee.' 

Hald. gives bi-bi, the soothing voice of nurses when lulling their little charges. 

Bee-bike, sb. See Bike. 

Beeld, sb. i. A shelter; or, rather, anything which affords a shelter 
from the wind, or from inclement weather. 2. Hence a shed, a hovel. 


or a mere stone wall, or walls, though without roof. Also spelt Bield; 

The derivation of this word is, like its orthography, uncertain. O. N. 6«/f and bdl 
both signify the den of, or cave inhabited by, wild beasts ; and the former means also the 
haunt or abode of lawless men. O. Sw. boU has a yery similar application, besides the 
word bol, which, in either tongue, signifies a dwelling, a homestead. 

2 I. ' Ay, it *% a gay good bield when t' wind blaws fell ;' said of a yery large and bushy 
holly growing in the fence of a field. 

1. * ** A bit of a bield in a field neuk ;" a hovel or cattle-shed, in a field comer.' Wh. Ol, 

Bee-8kep, sb. A bee-hive. See Skep. 

Bee-suoken, adj. Quoted in Wh, GL from Marshall's Yorkshire^ 
where it is defined as ' cancerous, black and turgid ;' applied to the bark 
of the ash. 

A curious word and worthy of preservation. Possibly the derivation may be obvious. 
' Natural history teaches,* says Grimm, * that swarms of bees settle on the sweet sap of 
the ash, and the Edda declares that a dew drips from the holy ash Yggdrasil, whidi is 
called honeydew, and supplies nutriment to the bees.' D. M. p. 659. But, recollecting the 
familiar fact that the woodpecker specially afiects such trees as would be termed bee-sookeny 
and that a name for the woodpecker is bienenwolf, contracted into the A. S. forms beovuff, 
beovt beav; Scand. biar^ biaf (See Grimm, D, M. p. 34 a); and the meaning which O. N. 
wucka, and sucken in banti'suekent eventually take — ^namely one involving more or less of the 
idea of wasting, injuring, ruining, or destoying — it appears at least possible that the deri* 
vation of bee-sudken may not be the apparently obvious one. The remark that if a 
woodpecker be seen busy about an ash-tree, symptoms of disease will always be found 
at the spot or spots visited — ^a remark I have heard made once and again — is, in this con- 
nection, noteworthy. 

BefondecL Probably the true form of Baffounded in the Wh, GL 
See BafiEbundecL 

Beggar-staff, sb. Used to imply the state or condition of beggary, 
or impoverishment ; a long staff being one of the insignia of the beggar 
when beggars were ' an institution.' 

* ** They brought him to beggar-staff;** to beggary or ruin.' Wb, OL Compare the 
phrase, ' we are brought to begger-ttaffk,* which occurs in the Plympton CorrespoiuUnce^ 
p. 199. Hall. Frequent reference is made in the Old English ballad poetry, and else- 
where, to this customary part of the equipment of the professional beggar. Thus in * Robin 
Hood, a Beggar, and the Three Squires,* Bp. Percy's Fclio MS, i. pp. 16, 1 7, we find 
Robin Hood exchanging clothes with a beggar, and then, — 

* Now Robin he is to Nottingham bound. 
With his bags hanging down to his knee, 
His staf and his coat, scarce worth a groat. 
Yet merrilie passed he.* 

And" again : — 

' But Robin cast down his baggs of bread, 
Soe did he his staffk with a face.' 

Begging-poke, sb. The beggar's bag, or scrip, in which to put the 


scraps of food, &c., given him on his rounds. Another of the equip- 
ments of the genus Beggar. See Poke. 

* " He coomed t' tak' oop wi' t' hegging-pooak ;** was reduced to the condition of begging 
his bread from house to house.' Wh, Gl. 

Besides the extracts given under Beggar-staff, compare these from p. 14 of the same 

' An old patcht coat the beggar had one, * 

Which he daily did use for to wear. 
And many a bag about him did wag 
Which made Robin Hood to him repair. 

• • • • • • 

Now a change, a chan^, cri'd Robin Hood, 

Thy bags and coat give me, 
And this mantle of mine, ile to thee resign, 

My horse and my braverie.' 

Behalden,belia'den, pcpl. (pr. behodden). Under obligation, indebted. 

A. S. bebialdan, p. p. bebealdent to hold to, to incline ; the prefix b€ rather intensifying 
the action. Thus ' beholden is holden, bound, obliged.' Rich. The old word Mde is used 
in the same sense. Thus— . 

' . . . To hym in speciall, 
Aboue all other, I am most bolde* 

Ffor \t fyrtte (that God made us) es man haldene till hym for to lufe hym with all his 
herte.' Rd Pieces, p. 32. 

* Terchts MagisUr. Mekylle I thynk that thise prophetys 

Are botden to God.' Toumel. Myst, p. 159. 

Shakspere, Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4, uses the word in an active form : — 

' She is beholding to thee, gentle youth.' 

* Ah 's mickle behodden t' ye. Ah 's seear.' 

Cf. Lonsd. misbebodden, unsuitable : of words ; cross, angry. 

Behint, adv. Behind. See A hint. 

Belantered, adj. Belated, benighted. See Lantered. 

Bolder, v.n. i. To bellow, as a bull or cow. 2. To cry or shout 
vociferously and continuously. 3. To cry loudly or roar, as a hiut or 
cross-tempered child. 

Comp. O. N. buldra, to be noisy, to bellow ; Sw. bullra ; Dan. buldre, to roar, bluster, 
storm, knock thunderingly ; Sw. buller bas ; Sw. D. buller bokk, buUer httke, a noisy bois- 
terous fellow. See also Bolder. Although I quote these words as possibly closely con- 
nected with our word, yet with the parallel forms, £. winnow, CI. winder; Sw. bullra, 
O. N. btddra; O. N. spinna, Dan. spinde; and the many similar instances in which d takes 
the place of the second of two n*s or two /*< ; it is at least equally probable that belder 
is simply another form of £. bellow, A. S. bellan. Germ, bellen, O. N. bylia (pret. buldi), 
Sw. bdla, &c. 

1. * What's thae kye beldering that gate for?' 

2. * " What 's yon lad beldering sae for?'* " Wheea, he 's laitin' his broother I" ' 

3. * Whisht ! baixn, whisht I thoo 's beldering like 's thah leg wur btussen.' 


Belderment, sb. A loud continuous crying or shouting, such as 
may be made by one child crying loudly and purposely, or by a party of 
children at their play, and raising their voices altogether, especially in 
make-believe crying or singing. 

Belike, adv. Possibly, likely, very likely. See Idke. 

Belk, V. n. To belch ; to vent wind from the stomach. 

Mr. Wedgwood looks upon bdcbf IM, bolk, or bokt as ' doubtless an imitation of the 
sound.' See Bolk or Bouk. 

' In slewthe then thai syn, Goddes warkes thai not wyrke, 
To belk thai begyn and spew that is irke.' Townel. MyU, p. 314. 

' I shall opyn my mouth in parables ; I shal hoUte out hid thingus fro makyng of the 
world.' Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wyd. Version. 

Belk, sb. A belch; a single act of belching 

* He bigan Benedidte with a hcXk, 
And his brest knokked 
And raxed and rored 
And rutte at the laste.' P. Plougbm. p. 100. 

Bell-houfle. The name of a lonely house in the parish of Danby, 
close to the line of the former Causey, which ran across the moors from 
below Castleton to Staithes, and which is said to derive its name from 
the circumstance that the bells worn by the leading horses in the train 
were customarily suspended here during the night halts. 

Bell-houfle, sb. The bell-tower, church-tower, belfry. 

The A. S. word belMfiis occurs, but it does not seem to have been applied ezclasirdy, 
as our present word is ; one meaning given by Bosw. being manuoH. 

Belly-timber, sb. Food; a supply of material for the belly or 

A. S. timbrian is employed in a metaphorical way which is worthy of notice, and gives 
point to the accommodation existing in our word — ' to prepare wood for bnilding; to 
build with timber or wood ; the first building being probably of wood : hence, generally, 
to build, to erect. From this the sense passes to that of building up tbe mind; to instruct, 
to edify.' The transition of idea in BeUy-timber is not nearly so startling as in the notion 
of mind-timbering, Comp. also the following, FUu. ii. 1 1 *.^ — * Oerdizsi dk auo at/utthmUga 
JramkuamduzU ord ok aiquade ^essa goda guds asiuinar Olqft konungs Trygguaaomar 
at bans samnafne Olafr Haralldxson upp timbradb ^ soma smide baHagrar truar sem adr 
var giftuliga grunduallat ;' and so it came to pass that fully accompluhed was the word 
and saying of the good God's fast friend King Olaf Tryggvason, that his namesake Ohf 
Haraldsson built up the same fabric (literally, timbered up the same smith-work) of Holy 
Faith, of which had the foundation before been happily laid. Comp. also *timbnmg9 
touward blisse.' Ancr, Riwle^ p. 124. 

Belly-wark, sb. (the a in wark sounded as in lark). The stomach- 
ache, colic, gripes. See Wark. 


Belong, V. a. To be the property of, or most closely connected with. 
See example, and comp. use of Speak. 

* A coat Mtmging Thomas.' 

* Wheea 's thae tweea ladies, sa' thee ? Whah t they belongs me — they 's our Janey 
and Mally.' 

Bent, baint, (pr. beeant). Be not. 

* " 'T Uean'i seea ;" it is not $0.* Wb. GL 

* Him an' me huan*t no ways kin ;' we are not any relations. 

Bent, sb. A kind of short, wiry, dark-coloured grass, which forms the 
chief herbage (of the grass kind) of the moors and moor-banks. Cr, GL 
mistakenly makes it TriHcum junceum. The word is loosely applied to 
any short, harsh, blue-looking grass growing in such places. 

* Tfreius Pastor. Bot fulle ylle have I ment, 

As I walk on this btni 

I may lyghtly repent.' Toumii. Myst. p. 10 1. 

* Maria. And alle my brethere dere, that ar on this bent. 

Take tent to my taylle tille that I have told 
Of my dere son,' &c lb. 303. 

Benty, adj. Short, wiry, blue-looking; applied to pasture herbage. 

' Nobbut puir benty mess wiv nae natur in it.' 

Be-out, prep. Without. 

A. S. be^an. Sc. but, is simply the contr. form of our be-out. HalL gives ftou^/s without, 
whidi would seem to be merely a corruption of be-out. 

The ' Doctor,' in the Clevd. Sword Dance Recitation, says of his * gret gran'mother,' — 

' Her said ef her lived t* have nahnty nahn tahms 
As mony long years as Methusalahm's, ^ 

Her'd niwer be be-out a box o' mah pUls.' 

' And >eonne )>ouht ich gon awei, uor me luste slepen : and nolde buten leaue :' and 
then thought I I would go away, for I longed to sleep; and I would not be-init leave. 
Ancr. Riuke, p. 238. 

* Nezst flesche ne schal mon werien no linene clo^, bute jif hit beo of herde (See 
Hards), and of greate heorden (See Harding). Stamin habbe hwose wule : and hwose 
wnl mei beon buten* lb. 418. 

Berries, sb. Gooseberries, par excellence. 

* Oan an' pick berries, honey ;' go and pick gooseberries, dear. See Blaokberries 
and Ourran'-berries. 

Berry, v. a. To thrash. 

O.N. beria, to strike, to thrash; O. Sw. bma, id.; N. berja, to thrash; O. Dan. 
b^ergha ; Sw. D. bargd, to thrash newly-harvested com hastily or carelessly. Rietz collates 
A. S. berian, to strike ; O. H. O. perian ; Germ, beren, beeren ; but I do not find the first 



in Bosw., nor the last-named In Hilpert. Comp. Sc. buryt to thrash. The word is 
extinct here as to daily use, and only preserved in a couplet connected with the 'Hob' 
traditions. See Hamp. 

Berth, sb. An abode, fixed residence. 

The usage in the following example from Wb, GL is peculiar, and justifies the insertion 
of this word : — 

' He has nowther bairn nor berth ;* he has neither family nor home ; is a roving bachelor, 
with no domestic ties of any kind, even such as are implied in the possession of ' rooms,' or 
lodgings. It may also imply friendless and homeless, in a sadder sense. 

Besom, sb. (pr. beziun). A broom, whether made of Birk or long. 
See Wire-ling. 

A. S. besem, besm, bism; Germ., Dut. besem; N. S. bessen, 

Pr. Pm, * Besme or besowme, besym. Seopa* 

' As fond as a besom ;' absurdly foolish ; apt to commit frequent and absurd mistakes. 

Besom-head, sb. One who, besides Fondness, or ordinary folly, has 
stupidity in his composition. 

Besom-headed, adj. Stupidly foolish. 

Bessy-bab, sb. One fond of childish amusements. 

Hall, gives this word in the form of Bessy-bad, which is probably an error. 

Comp. Southern Molly-coddle ; and * don't be a Bessy,* as said to a perion who inter- 
meddles with feminine matters or businesses. The final sjrllable bob is simply babe or baby : 
hence the slightly contemptuous meaning of the word in its ordinary usage. 

* Deean't be sikan a great bessy-bab ;* to a big boy playing with a little girl's doll. The 
Leeds GL gives a further instance of the meaning of the word. The whimperings of a spoilt 
child are of the * bessy-bab' order; — ' Coom te thee mammy, then, thou little bet^fbah. 
She does nowt bud spoil thuh 1' 

Better, adj. The right; as applied in connection with the words 
hand, foot. 

An exceedingly interesting instance of usage. Comp. A. S. sioHS hand, strong hand, the 
right hand, or sun%re band, the stronger hand ; the word swU^re alone sometimes signifying 
the right hand. Bosw. Comp. also Dan. hmre, Dan. D. boger, O. N. b^egre, from bagr or 
bagr, habilis, easy to use, or handy; Sw. hoger; and not less E. right, straight, direct — 
whence the application to the hand which is most directly made use of ;— Mr. Wedgw. sayi, 
* which it is right to make use of.' Gamett remarks, * that the phrase right hand was intro- 
duced into the Teutonic tongues at a comparatively recent period ; and that there is an 
older form than even swi^Sre in Caedmon, viz. teso, which he connects with Sanscr. daksbina ; 
Gr. 8c^i<$f, Sf^ircp^f; Lat. dexter; Lith. deszine; Goth, taihswo; O. G. z<so, zeswo; 
Ir. and Gael, deas, whence deasil; Welsh deheu ;' in all of which words, probably, the idea of 
dexterous, handy originally took precedence of that of right, as applied to hand, foot, Sec, 

Bettermy, bettermer, adj. Superior, belonging to a better class. 

Bettermy, which is the form in current use, is no doubt a vocal corruption of bettermore^ 
which, with its similar superlative bettermost, finds an exact parallel in fiirthermore, fitrdter- 
most; further beine the reguhr comparative of forth, as better is of good. 

* She was nane o your commonality, but quite a bettermy soort o body.' 


Bettennest, adj. Best of two or more ; the best. See BettQpnier. 
Bettemess, sb. Amendment or improvement in respect of health. 

* As for ma ailment, Ah finds nae hetttmtu in it.' Wh. Ol. 

Betottledy betwattLed, adj. Bewildered, confused or confomided^ 

Comp. Sw. D. hettuitad^ bewildered, coniiised; S. Jutl. betuttet: * Men <b Mn blow diH 
hehitttt law ban kom :* but she was sadly astonied when he came. Gam. Danske Minder, 
1st Ser. p. ao4. Cf. O. Sw. iwdtta, O.N. \fw<Eita, to talk nonsense, plaj the fool in 
speech : collate also Sw. D. betussen, betytta. The word obtains in Cornwall as well as ia 
the North ; thus, * betwattled, turned fool ; twatde, to chatter childishly.' Specimens Com. 
Prop, Dial. p. (^. I am more inclined to suppose a Celtic than a Teutonic origin of the 

"* Ah 's fairly betwatOed and baffounded ;' thoroughly bewildered and confused.' Wb, OL 

Beyont, prep. Beyond. 

Comp. Ayont ; as also Ahint, parallel with behind. 

* They gat fairly beyont him in that matter.' Wb. CH. 

Beszle, v. n. To drink inmioderately ; to guzzle. 

Of uncertain deriyation. Mr. Wedgwood thinks that it is ' formed from an imitation of 
the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Bezzle was then applied to wasting in 

V. a, I. To bespeak attendance; to invite, a. To offer money* 
as a price. 

O. N. bidda (pres. byd) ; Sw. bjuda ; O. S. biau\>a ; Sw. D. bjauda ; N. hjoda (pres. byd) ; 
Dan. byde ; M. G. biudan ; A. S. beddan ; all to invite, to bid, to offer. G. bieten^ to bid, 
offer, tender. O. N. bidda til brvllups^ to bid to a wedding (comp. * Bid to the marriage,* 
Matt. xzii. 9 ; the A. S. text having elypia\>, and Wycl. clepe, in the place), is strictly 
parallel to our bid to a burying. Comp. S. Jutl. * e bele By er b6den til JErvol :' the 
whole town is bidden to the Arval. It may be noted that there is a good deal of the 
imperative in the bidding phrase or formula, * You are expected,' or * You are desired to 
attend the burying' of so and so. Still, the term is used in the simple sense of inviting; as 
' Ah bad him t' tea ;' * Maist pairt o' t' parish wur bidden te t' tea-feast.' Note, besides the 
pret. bad or bod, the pcpl. bidden, boden, or bodden ; and, with the example, * Ah'd ten 
pund an' a crown bodden me tweea tahms i' t' oppen mark't ,' comp. the S. Jutl. * Eg er 
boden fern (five) d&ler;* and also the usage in the following passage from Townel. Myst. 

p. 177 •— 

' Judas. Sir, a bargain bede I you ; 
By it if ye wille.' 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on Bid is : — * Two words are here confounded of distinct form 
in the other Teutonic languages : 1. To bid in the obsolete sense of to pray; in this sense 
the word is the correlative of Goth, bidjan; A. S. biddan; Germ, bitten; Icel. bidhja, 
a. To bid, in the sense of offering, bringing forwards, pressing on one's notice, and conse- 
quently ordering or requiring something to be done : Goth, bjudan, in anabjvdan, faur- 
bjudan, to command, forbid ; A. S. beodan ; Germ, bieten, to offer ; Dut. bieden.* The two 
senses of our vb. both belong, of course, to the verbs of the second class defined in the extract. 
For an analogue to those of the other class see Beadman. ^ 



Bidden, bodden, boden, pp. of to Bid. 

Bidder, sb. The person deputed to * bid to a burying.' 

Comp, S. Jutl. bydsven, Funen hydster^ of exactly equivalent meaning. In many or most 
cases, in days hardly quite past yet, the parish clerk was the person customarily engaged for 
this service : sometimes the sexton, or rather, Dog-whipper. His business was to visit the 
neighbours' houses, with scarcely an exception in some instances, and fonnally bespeak their 
attendance at the funeral. 

Bide, V. a. and n. i. To wait, stay, or tarry. 2. To dwell, have one's 
habitation. 3. To bear, endure, put up with. 

0. N. Hda (pr. hid), to await, to stay, to be afifected with sorrow, to endure ; O. Sw. 
hida ; O. Dan. bide, Dan. hie, to tarry, to await ; M. O. beidan, to look for ; A. S. bidan, 
ahidan, gebidan, to abide, tarry, wait 

1. * Sit ye doon, an* bide a piece, while Ah gets it.' 

* Bide a wee I Ye're gannan ower fast by owght.* 

2. * Where does thee bide, noo?' where do you live? 

3 * It 's bad to bide;* said of anything very painful or trying to one's fortitude ; ' a thorn 
in the flesh,' or bereavement, or things capable of irritating sorely. 

* ** He wean't bide crossing ;" won't bear, or put up with, contradiction.' Wb. Oi. 

* ** He can still bide a vast, thof he 's bodden a deal in his day ;" he is still strong, though 
he has undergone many hardships in his past life.' lb. 

Comp. ' ArS 9u setJe tocymende wsbs, otSISflB we otSeres bidas* Nortbumh, Oosp, Matt, 
xi. 3. 

* Thou shuld have bide til thou were cald ; 
Com nar, and other drife or hald.' Townel, Myst. p. 9. 

* Tercius Magister, The Holy Gost shalle in h3rr lyght. 

And kepe hir madyn hede fulle cleene. 

Whoso may byde to se that sight 

Thay ther not drede I wene.' lb, p. 159. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that * in O. E. the active sense of looking out for a thing was 
much more strongly felt in the word abide than it is now, when the signification is nearly 
confined to the sense of continuance, endurance,' may, as the first extract of those just given 
shews, be extended to the language of the Northumbrian Version. This is even more 
apparent in Mark xv. 43, where the Engl. Version description of Joseph of Arimathsa, — 
' which also waited for the kingdom of God,' — stands thus : * tt^t sec he Godes ric bidimd 

Big, adj. Strong, violent ; of the wind. 

* Aye, it '$ a varry big wind.' 

Big, V. a. To build. 

O. N. byggia, Sw. bygga, Dan. bygge, A. S. byggan, 

* He says oure temple ne shalle downe bring, and in three dayes big it on hy.' 

Townel, MyU, p. ao8. 

* Seeuudut Danum, Bot, Sir, I telle you before had domysday oght tarid. 

We must have bigged helle more, the warid is so wand.' lb, p. 309. 


' When erthe appone erthe hat ^g*d yp his bonrris. 
Than schalle erthe for erthe suffire scharpe stoarxyf/ RM, PUe$$, p. 95. 

' To higgi hem castles, higg* hem holde/ Cbauur, 

' He 's biggin* his^el* a gran' new hoos'.* 

Sw. D. btgga is simply to repair, mend, make good. 

Bigg, sb. A variety of barley, known as * four-rowed/ and in use in 
Cleveland as being somewhat earlier in ripening than the six-rowed 
varieties. Also called Bere or Bear. 

O.N. bygg; O. Sw. bjug ; Sw. hjugg; Sw. D. hygg^ bdgg ; Dan. hyg. A word of 
purely Scand. origin, and supposed by Rietz to be possibly connected with O. N. hua, to 
take ap a fixed residence ; as an agriculturist must. 

Bigger, v. n. To grow bigger, or increase in size, as a house under 
the masons' hands. 

' ** It higgtn on 't :*' the building, that is, which is in process of construction.' Wb, 01. 

Biggin', sb. A building. ' Properly a house larger than a cottage, 
but now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf.' Brock. 

Bike. sb. A wild bee's nest. Often Bee-bike. 

Jam. quotes Icel. biikar, a hive, alvear ; and Teut. bii-boekt bit-buyck, apiarium, alvearium, 
Kilian. ; and supposes the word connected with A. S. bycgan, O. Sw. bygga, 8cc. to build. 
Rietz gives the word byke, a pack of good-for-nothings, a lot or host, which is evidently 
coincident with Jamieson's word in one or more of its sensef ; e. g. * to skale the byke,' to 
disperse the assembly; and refers it, I think erroneously, to bykka, a bitch. 

Bile, byle, sb. A boil or carbimcle. 

Comp. O.N. bdla, bdlga; Dan. byld; Sw. hold, boUU; Sw. D. bul; A.S. byl; Fris. 
buU; Germ, beule. 

Billy, sb. A comrade, a familiar acquaintance. 

* Probably allied,' says Jam., * to S. O. and Germ. biUig, Belg. billik, sequalis, as denoting 
those that are on a footing as to age, rank, relation, affection, or employment.' Billig, 
however, in both tongues quoted, signifies what is equitable rather than equal ; just, lawfid, 
right Note Sw. D. biUingy which means, I. a twin, a. a window with two lights ; billingt' 
bam, a twin ; also bil, byl, bile, biU, Germ, bohle, an uncle ; whence bbblenkinder, cousins. 
Comp. also bilkona, an uncle's wife. These words may perhaps suggest a connection for 
our Bill7. 

Bind, V. a. (pr. binnd; pret. bim', bund; pcpL bund'n, bundin). To 
bind ; to tie up the sheaves of com with Bands. 

Cf. * Hann bafde ^ar marga menn mtd set: tumir skaru komn tutnir bundu tumir baru 
beim komn, tumir blodu : * he had there many men with him ; some shore (reaped) the 
com, some bun* it, some bare it home, some la^ed it (stacked or put it in the bam). 

The pronunciation of this vb. coincides closely with that of the Scand. vb. binda, and I 
have no doubt that in the following extract from Toumd. Myst, p. lai, the sound of y in 
fynd; wyndt, behyndt, bynde was precisely as in lordyngu, or coincident with the pronun- 
ciation of f in our flnd» behint, bind, and E. sb. vAtd, 


' Nuncius, And, certes, if I may any fynde, 

I shalle not leyfe oone of them behynde. 
Herodes, No, bot boldly thou thaym bynde 
And wyth the leyde ; 
Makowne that weldys water and wynde 
The wyshe and spede. 
Nuncius. Alle peasse, lordynges, and hold you styile 
To I haye tayde what I wille.' 
For pqpl. form bun, comp. 

* Deus, Thi devoute prayer^ have me bun,* lb. p. 36. 

Binder, sb. The person, usually a man, whose work it is in the 
harvest-field to tie up the sheaves. Also called the Tier. See Band, 

Bink, sb. i. A bench; a form or long seat without a back. 2. A 
long, flat slab of stone of fourteen or fifteen inches wide set benchwise near 
the house door, and used for various purposes other than only those of 
sitting on ; such as setting out the freshly scoured dairy utensils to dry 
and air, and the like. 3. A rack, or set of shelves, for plates and dishes. 

O. Sw. b<enk; O. N. beckr: Dan. b<enk; A. S. btnc. The absence of the n in the O. N. 
word, as in the former instance of brant (O. N. brtUtr), is to be remarked here also. See 

Birk, sb. The birch-tree {Befula alba). 

O. N. bjbrkf birki; Sw. bjark; Sw. D. birk, birk, bork, bark; Dan. birk; A. S. biree, byrce, 
biorei; Germ, birke; Dut btHk, 8cc. 

BirkB, sb. A coppice or small wood in which the growth chiefly 
consists of birches. 

Birr, sb. Forceful or rapid motion, a strong impulse. 

Hall, says, * Any rapid whirling motion. It is applied to the whizzing of any missile 
violently thrown, as in Wickliffe, Rev. xviii.' Comp. our Widder or Witber and 
£. wbirr. 

* And he saith to hem, Go ^ee. And thei goynge out wente in to the hoggis ; and loo I 
in a great birt al the droue wente heedlynge in to the see, and thei ben dead in watris.* 
Matt. viii. 33, Wycl. Virs. 

* Uxor, Thei water nyghys so nere that I sit not dry. 

Into ship (the Ark) with a byr therfor wille I hy 
For drede that I drone here.* Townei. Myst. p. 29. 

Bisen, sb. (pr. bahz'n). i. A spectacle, or sight, or show, in an invi- 
dious or offensive sense. 2. A person or object held up to contempt or 

O. N. bitn, something portentous, a prodigy ; A. S. bitn, bysn, byssin, an example. The 
O. N. bisn, from its accent, is clearly the origm of our word, and with the same accommo- 
dation of sense as is perceived in our standard uses of the word monsttr. The same uncer- 
tainty of orthography is noticeable in this word as in so many othen : bixon in Brock, and 


Hall., hanum in Wh. GL, bysHt byming in Jam. (who appears to have classed together, as 
also does Rietz in t. Bisa-vigg, derivatives from bysn and from hysmr), Bisen, with the i 
long, is, however, adopted here, as obviously suggested by the derivation. 

I. * He 's a greedy Insen wi' niwer a penny to spare for a puir body's need.' Wb, GL 

* Loo' ye ! Didst 'ee iwer see sike a mucky bisen /' 

a. ' What a ** holy bisgn** she be, for seear :' spoken of a tawdrily dressed female, of pos- 
sibly rather less than questionable character. The allusion may be to the tawdry finery of 
popish saints, but much more probably points to the custom, practised within the memory 
of livins men in some of our Dales churches, of setting offenders against morality, supposed 
or required to be penitents, arrayed in white sheets, on the stool of repentance during the 
hours of Divine Service. 

BiMhel, sb. Pr. of Bushel. 

Comp. Pr, Pm, * Byscbelle or buschelle (bysshell, otherwyse called busshell, P.). Modius, 
eboruSf bussellus,' 

Mr. Morris, Granmi. Introd. to E. E. 7*. S. Ayenbitt of InwyU p. vi. writes : * In the 
works of the Southern writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries we find the words 
Jitit biil, tbin, sm, &c., written fust, bul, tbun, sun, &c. Our modem pronunciation coin- 
cides generally with the Northern dialects, in which this substitution of u for i was unknown.' 
In the present word we have a curious instance, not without parallel (comp. the surname 
RidtdaU as sounded, RudsdaU as written) of the substitution of i for u, I may add that, 
whatever the date of the introduction of the substitution of u for i into the Northern dia- 
lects, it is not unknown now. In Cleveland we say hinder for thuUr, brussil for brisde, and 
in Fork Cast, Depot, p. i6l, note, bussbop is four times written for bisbop. There is also 
one Scottish district in which almost every short i is changed into u. 

Bite, V. a. i. To partake of food, chiefly used in the pass. pcpl. 
2. To make an impression ; of a cutting instrument on some hard sub- 
stance ; e. g. a file upon hard steel, a knife or axe on case-hardened 
metal, &c. 3. To adhere by friction, in opposition to to slip ; as of 
the driving wheels of a locomotive engine upon the rails, and the like. 

Cf. O. N. bita, to cut ; Dan. bide, to cut ; of cutting instruments. The O. N. usage is 
well illustrated in the following passage from Flat, I. 258 : ' Thorsteinn steighed up to the 
bedstocks and took down the sword and drew it. He stripped the bed-clothes o£f the 
giantess. He saw she was all covered with shaggy hair, save one little spot under the left 
arm ; (this) saw he that it was smooth. He thought for sure that in this spot the sword 
would bite (ywjam bita) or in no place else. He sets the sword to this same spot and 
drives with the hilt. The sword bites to (jsverdit bitr sua) that the point stuck in the 

I. *Ah've niwer sae mich as bitten sen yestreen;' I have taken no food at all since 
yesterday evening. 

a. Under this sense comp. — 

* |>a scipen biten on |>at sond : 
& al ^t folc code an lond.' Lay. I. 76. 

The second text reads smiten, which makes the word in the first even more interesting. 
Under 3. comp. N. * bit 1 mig,* sagde lynget: * take fast hold of me,' said the ling; and 
bet sd/ast : took such fast hold. Ame, pp. 6, 7. 

Bite, sb. A piece bitten, a morsel ; anything to eat. 

O. N. biti, a mouthful or morsel ; Dan. bid. 

' Ah hev'n't had nowther sup nor bite sen moom.' 

* Please you, bestow a bite o* bread iv a puir aud chap.' 


Bittle, bittle and pin. See Batteldoor. 

* The bittU is a heavy wooden hattUdori^ the pin is the roller ; and with the linen wound 
round the latter, it is moved backwards and forwards on a table by hand-pressure with the 
hatAidore: Wb. Ol, 

A. S. hyd, bid, hiohd; N. S. htUlt a beetle, hammer. Mr. Wedgw. quotes ' hyd, t bat for 
washing.' Cf. E. he§dt, 

* Ant )>er je schulen iseon bunsen ham met tes deofles hetda :* Aner, RiwU, p. i88 ; and 
ye shall see bunch them with the devil's biitles, 

Comp. ' Ftrriiorium, a battynge staff, a batyll dyr, or a betyU* Pr, Pm, note on p. 48a. 

Blaokavised, adj. Dark complexioned, tawny visaged. Comp. 
£. visage. 

Blackberries, sb. Black currants. What are called blackberries 
in South England here are Brambles, Brammles, Brummies, Bum- 
melkites, &c. 

Blaek-olooks, sb. Black-beetles. See Clocks. 

Black starved, adj. Blue with cold; thoroughly chilled, so that 
the complexion shews it by becoming leaden or blue-coloured. See 

Black to t' bone, adj. Said of a person with hollow features and a 
complexion darkened by disease. Wh. GL 

Bladdry, adj. Muddy, dirty. In Leeds GL the word * blather' is given, 
meaning ' mud or puddle so thin that it will splash when trod upon.' 
In fact the sound of the ^ in Clevel. frequently passes into that of th 
hard, or ^. 

Sw. D. bladda, sb. soft wet dirt ; and yb. to splash with dirt Comp. also ko^addi, 
fresh cow-droppings. 

Blae, adj. (pr. bleea). Of a livid or pale bluish colour : also written 
bla, blaa. 

O. N. Idar {bid fem. and in compounds), blue, of a dusky colour. The original mean- 
ing of bloTt as Rietz observes, seems to luive been black ; thus bldfddr is a black robe or 
doak ; bldmadrt an Ethiop, a black man ; bldjidradr, having black feathers, &c. Sw. bid, 
Sw. D. blar, bl&tr; N. bid, Dan. blaa, Comp. the A. S. form bUo, Oerm. bUtu, Dut. 
bltuw^ &c. 

* ** He leuks as hleta 's a whetstone ;" of a person leaden-blue with cold.' Wb, 01, 

* He 's getten his bats : his feeace 's bbu:k and bUta wi 't.' 

Blaeberry, sb. The common bilberry ( Vaccimum myrHUm), 

Comp. O. N. bldbtr, Dan. bladbar. 

Blaeberry-wires, sb. The small shrubs or stems on which the 
Blaeberries grow. See Wires. 

Comp. O. N. bld4mia4yng, the blaeberry-thrub. 


Blae milk or blue milk. Milk from which the cream has been 
removed after it has stood some time. The skim-milk, or sky-blue, of 
the South. 

blare, vb. i. To bellow as a cow. 2. To cry loudly or 
noisily as a child that is much hurt or frightened. 3. To protrude the 
tongue as a furious animal of the ox tribe when bellowing. 

Jam. giyes Teut. hlceren, mugire. In Leids Ol. it is said that * an impudent and ill- 
trained child ** blairs out" its tongue to the passer-by' — a usage of the word identical with 
the third signification above. Cf. with this usage, Sw. D. blddra, to vibrate or brandish, as 
in the example l&ngkusen blddrar stygnet : the snake vibrates its sting, i. e. its tongue. 
Mr. Wedgw. takes Dut. blaeren to be contracted from hladeren^ and parallel with it is Sw. D. 
bladdra, to prate, chatter, make a loud talking ; other forms of which are blarra, bldddr, 
with a further meaning, to bleat as a sheep. What hiaderm^ bladdra, blarra are to blair or 
blare in its first two senses, that blddra seems to be to blare in its third sense. Indeed I 
am much inclined to believe that, notwithstanding an apparent sequence of idea in the 
several meanings of the word before us, there may be in reality two separate words 
involved. Dean Rietz collates O. N. blaka with blddra, and supposes it connected with 
O. H. G. Uajan or bldban, Pr. Pm. gives * Blerynge wythe mowe makynge. Patento, 
valgio ;* and * mow3mge wythe the mowthe :' and in a note is added, * I gyue him the best 
counsayle I can, and the knaue bleareth his tonge at me, threr la langue, Palsgr.' 

Blake, adj. Of a fair, soft, yellow colour or tone, not so deep as 
that of fine bees'-wax : applied to describe the colour of fine spring butter 
or very beautiful cream. 

O.N. A/mV; Dan. bUg; Sw. bUh ; Sw. D. blejk ; A.S. bide; Dut. bUek; Germ, bleicb 
Pr, Pm, * Bltyhe of coloure. Pallidus, subalbus.* 

* Ay : t' creeam 's to'nned gey an' blake, noo t' kye ha' getten te t' grass agen.' 
' As Uaki 's butter.' 

The sense of the word in O. E.— cf. the extract from Pr, Pm, — ^is diverse from ours. 
Comp. Lay. a. 411, 

* sBnne stunde he was blac : one while he was wan, 
And on heuwe switSe wac ;' and in hue exceeding pale. 

And again : ' Hire bleo bigon to blaJnen for )>e grure |>e grap hire,' Stinti Marbereti, p. 9 ; 
her colour began to grow pale for the terror which seized £er. 

Blane, v. n, (pr. bleean). To become white, to bleach. 

O. N. bleiktutt to grow or become pale or white ; Sw. blekna ; Dan. blegne. These words 
are derivatives from the act. vbs. bleikja^ bleka, bUge, to bleach, to make white ; and Sw. 
blekmng (I believe also Dan. blegning) is applied in exactly the same sense as our blaning. 
The words in fact are simply coincident. 

* Tak' they cleeas oot and lay 'em on t' gerss t' bleean* 

Blash, V. a. and n. i. To splash with water, clean or dirty. 2. To 
splash, as water under foot, or in puddles when trod in, and the like ; or 
from a pail or other vessel in consequence of the ill-regulated motions of 



the bearer. 3. To have to do with water, as the seaman has. 4. To 
blaze abroad a private matter by dealing with it as a subject of general 

Sw. and O. Sw. pliuJta ; Dan. pladske, to splash in or with water. Comp. the third mean- 
ing with the following (Worsaae, Minder om de Damke og Nordmcmdene, &c., p. 149) : 
* De ncarmest E/terkommire a/satidanne M<gnd,/or bvem S^ivet var en Natumadvendigbed, 
tnaatte vedblive idelig at pladske paa Soen :* literally, the descendants of such men, for 
whom a seafaring life was one of nature's cravings, could not but continue to bladf upon 
the sea. 

1. T* bairn *s hla&Vd ma* eooan a* ower ; dotty lahtle brute V 

2. * T* watter Hashes oot ? t' can, every step thoo taks. It *s ower full by owght, bairn.' 
* He goes blasbing about, plodging and ploading through thick and thin.' Wb. OL 

3. * ** What he has got he has blasted for :" i. e. obtained by a seafaring life.' 

Again, in the same sense : — * '* Her man may weel blasb ;" spoken of a seaman's wife, 
one of whose chief characteristics it extravagance.' Wb, OL 

4. * She 's bin an' blasbed it a' ower. It 's toon's talk noo.' 

Cf. 3if hit dustef$ swuf$e, heo vlaskeV water )>eron : and jif dust of lihte >ouhtes winded 
up to swuf$e, flaskie teares on ham : Aner, RtwUt p. 314 — wherein vlasken orflasken Is almost 
surely the same word as plaska, pladske. 

Slash, sb. I. Puddle-water, very liquid mud. 2. Nonsense, frivolous 
or nonsensical talk. 

Comp. Sw. D. plask, puddle, liquid mud ; as also E. plasb, and splasb. See Blash, vb. 

1. ' There 's bin a vast o' rain through t' neeght ; t' rooad 's all iv a blasb' 

2. * Wheeah I It 's a* blasb, Nivver heed ;' it is all nonsense ; don't you mind it. 

Blash-kegged, adj. With a protuberant stomach ; dropsical. 

We have other words which more or less resemble kegged; e. g. kedged, stuffed full, 
with food, namely ; kedging, food generally ; kedge-belly, a glutton ; oaggry, irascible, 
'stomachy'; kegged, irritated, provoked, not able to 'stomach' a thing; — all of which 
more or less imply the sense of stomacb, belly. O. N. kaggi, S. G. kagge, Eng. keg^ all 
mean a small tub or cask, the leading idea in which is probably of some^ing closed in all 
round; A. S. caggian. There is, besides, the Welsh cawg, pelvis, to which Ihre feels 
inclined to refer kagge. But without this, there is little difficulty in tracing the connection 
of sense between keg, and belly or stomach : comp. pot-belly, pod, tub, &c., all familiar 
names for the stomach. And thus, our present word means simply water-bellied, or drop- 
sical ; and then, from the coincident fulness of size, corpulent, pot-bellied. 

Blashy, adj. i. Rainy, wet; as applied to the weather. 2. Wet, 
puddly ; as applied to the roads. 3. Weak, poor, watery, without good- 
ness or strength. 

1. * It 's bin straange an' blasby, all on, for a bit, noo ;' it has been very rainy weather for 
some time past. 

2. * It 's blasby deed, gannan' alang t' rooads, sike weather.' 

3. ' Puir blasby stuff;' of tea, or small beer. 

Blast, V. a. To blow, throw a current of air upon. 

• Blast the fire up.' 


Blate, adj. Shy, bashful, wanting boldness. 

O. N. blautr, blctudr; S. O. bl^, blodig (said of a spirit somewhat too prone to timidity* 
respect or mildness. Ihre); Sw. blot; Sw. D. biaut^ soft, weak; Dan. hl^d; Germ. bldd«* 
w«dc, shamefaced, bashful ; Swiss blod. 

In Gloss. Remarks upon bUtSere, Lay. i. p. 328, 

* For ne funde we na blifkre : for we are no cowardlier 
|>enne beo9 )>a Bruttes ;' than are the Britons. 

Sir F. Madden says : * In the A. S. Orosius this adj. is used in the cognate sense of 
ffitnmaie, and it seems to be allied with the Isl. blayta, blautr, Sc. blate.' Comp. the use 
of the word in Nortb. Gosp. Matt. vi. 22 : * Gift iSin ego bifS blifSe, all 9m licboma bifS lebt; 
gift fSin ego bUS unbliHe t y/el wyrcende biG;* and again, Luke xi. 34 : * Gif fSin ego mildi 
i blifie t btlwil bitS* wherein the sense is coincident with that of blod, bled, blautr, &c. 

* He 's ower blati for owght. T' lasses has t* kittle him.' 

Blather, v. a. and n. i. To talk fast and of an3rthing that comes 
uppermost 2. To talk much nonsense. 

0. Sw. and Sw. D. bladdra, to prate, gossip, talk loud and fast ; Germ, blattem. Modem, 
plaudem; Swiss bladem; Sw. pladdra; Lat. blaterare. Rietz collates also D. Dial. 
blqffre, blabre ; Eng. blab and brabble. Comp. Pr. Pm. * Blaberyn, or speke wythe-owte 
resone.' See Blether, which is essentially the same word, only with a more special appli- 
cation or meaning. Comp. also Blair. 

1. « " How cam' you t' hear yon, Mary ?" •• Wheeah, aud Jenny Deeal, she bin blatberim' 
•t a* ower t* toon." * 

a. ' His chafts hing lowse. He 's alias blathering and talking.' 

* He 's a fond blatberin* chap, that yan.' 

Blear, v. n. To expose oneself to the wind, or to the cold wind, thence 
to cold generally. 

I find this word in no collection with the exception of Wb. Gl. ; but I am assured by an 
intelligent Craven woman that it is current there also. The second example is given me by 
her. The association is with cry with a loud, blatant noise, as in the blare of a trumpet 
Note also, * Bhre signifies a roaring wind : — ** hurried headlong with the S. West blore.^ 
Pr. Pm.^ note to * Bloryyn or wepen (bleren). Ploro^fleo* 

* They run blearing about without either hat or bonnet.* 

' Blearing out in the cold, bareheaded and with no happings.* 

Bleb, blob, sb. i. A drop of water, or of any other and more viscid 
fluid. 2. A bubble, on water or other liquid. 3. A blister, such as may 
be caused by a scald, an ill-fitting shoe, or a tool on hands unused to 

Jam. and Rich, both quote Skinner's derivation of this word from Germ, bldben, to swell, 
puff up. Mr. Wedgwooid looks upon blab as a radical syllable adopted for the purpose of 

* representing the sound made by collision of the wet lips in rapid talking,' as in Eng. blab, 
Dan. blabbre, to babble, gabble; PI. D. blabbent; G. plabbem, id., &c.; and equally 

* employed to signify the sound of something wet or soft falling or striking aj;ainst anything, 
and hence to designate the object making such a sound ; a lump of anything wet or soft, 
drop of liquid, bubble, &c.* 

II 2 

*t p 


I. * A Ueb of water.* * Nose-6/o^.' 
a. ' Soap-6/065/ 

* T' pool *s a' ower Hobs ;* from the falling of heavy rain-drops. 
3. * He hannles 's tool agin he 'ad blebs vr his haands.' 

Bleok, sb. The black substance or grease at the axle-tree of a wheel ; 
blackened oil or grease at any centre of friction in machinery. 

* Blcee. According to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, " the greas taken o£f the cart-wheels or 
ends of the axle-tree, and kept till it is dry, made up in balls, with which the taylors rub and 
blacken their thread, is called in Yorkshire blah** * Hall. * Bleke (blecke). Atramenhtm* 
Pr. Pm. ; and in a note, * Horman says, ** Wrytter's ynke shuld be finer than blatche.** 
** Bleche for souters, atrament noyr." Palsg.' A. S. 6/<ec, atramentum; O.N. blek; Sw. 
black; Dan. blakt id. 

* Thee 's getten the-sel a* clamed wi' cart hlech^ honey 1* 

Blee, sb. A tear. 

This word does not appear to have been hitherto written except in Wb, Gl, At least it 
is not in Jam., Hall., or Brockett, nor in any other collection of local words accessible to 
me. It is surely connected with the extensive family of words of which blican, to glitter, 
is the A. S. representative ; hlickot to glance, shine, look, the Sw. : and thus there is no real 
difference between it and blee or 6/e, complexion, colour. 

* That bride soe bright of blU: Percy's Fd. MS. i p. I05. 

Sw. D. blig^ meaning a glance (of the eye, namely ; Sw. blich\ and bearing in the pi. 
the signification of the eyes themselves, gives us, together with a singular approximation 
in sound, another and an analogous variation of meaning as compared with O. E. blet and 
our own word. But perhaps the most interesting illustration is in an example given in the 
Wh. Gl. under Blink, which is simply blick with the ' nasal inserted* (Wedgw.), and therefore 
closely related to Blee. The example in question is, * '* She never blinked a bUe for him ;'* 
never shed a tear for him.* 

* •• A sau*t blee;*' a salt tear.* Wb. GL 

Blendcom, sb. (pr. blencom). Wheat and rye mixed; the seed 
having been mingled previously to sowing. 

Sw. D. blandkorn, mixed rye and oats; Dan. blandkontt blandingskom, meslin ; O.N. 
and Sw. blanda, to mingle; Dan. blonde; A. S. blendan. Sw. D. also has the form iK>rn- 

This is one of the multitudes of purely Scand. words which still remain in use in our 
district. See also Blendings. For the composition with blend, note — 

• The tea res he for his master wept 
Were blend water and bloude.' Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 236. 

Blendings, sb. A mixture of peas and beans. 

Comp. Dan. blanding, mixture, a composition of different materials ; Sw. D. bldnmng, 
spring-rye and oats mixed ; and bla/idsad, barley and oats mixed. Another noteworthy 
application of the word is O. N. blendingr, a being of mixed blood ; as, e. g. bom of a Troll 
and a human female. Sw. D. blening, the same ; also any cross among anmials. 

Blether, v. n. To cry loudly, like a fractious child. 

The same word as Blather, slightly altered in Pr., and with this definite meaning 
attached to it. Note Blethorixig. sb. and prpl. 


Blethering, sb. Loud, vulgar talking. 
Blethering, pcpl. Talking loudly ; noisy. 

• " A gret bUtbering chap, allays i' some tow-row or ither ;" always in some loud, angry 
squabble/ Wb. Gl. 

Blink, V. a. and n. i. To move the eye involuntarily, to wink; as 
■when an object suddenly comes near the eye. 2. To shew emotion or 
attest affection by some (quick) action of the eye. 3. To evade or 

Sw. Uinka, to twinkle, blink ; O. N. hlUa^ to shine, twinkle ; Dan. blmkt, hUkkt ; A. S. 
blican ; Germ, blieken ; N. S. bliben ; Sw. D. blikat bleka^ bliga. In O. N. augablik, 
an instant of time, lit. eye-blink, E. * twinkling of an eye'; Sw. ogonbliek or ogonblini; 
G. augetMich; the rapid or glancing motion of the eye in winking or blinking is necessarily 
implied. Note the relative forms Wkh, hlink, as in braU, brant, &c. See Blee. 

I. * T' bairn 's a bau'd lahtle chap. He niwer blink* t at t' flash nor t' thunner-crack.' 

* ** She niyrer blink* t a blee for 'm ;" she never shed a tear, or shewed any sign of emotion 
at his death.' Wb. Gl, 

The Leeds GL example is of a woman who does not * blink her ee' at her husband's funeral. 
3. * Nobbut he disn*t blink *t ;* only, or provided he does not evade it, get out of it, escape 
direct action. 

Bliflh-blash, sb. Nonsense, foolish tittle-tattle. 

Blob, V. n. To bubble, to rise in bubbles ; as water in the action of 
boiling, or when anything is thrown in. See Bleb. 

Blobbing, sb. The rising of air-bubbles on the surface of liquids. 

Blood-boar, blood-sow, sb. A boar or sow of the smoother, more 
highly-bred stock of swine; in opposition to the long-haired, shaggy 
animal, of what is called the Coarse or laarge Breed. 

Blood-iron, sb. A fleam, or lancet for bleeding horses or cattle. 

Pr. Pm. * Bloode yryn, Bledynge yryn, Fleosotomivm* 

Blood-stick, sb. A heavyish knobbed staff or stick, used for striking 
the fleam in the operation of bleeding a horse. 

Bloody, adj. Well-bred, as to genealogy ; having good blood in its 
veins, of different kinds of stock. See Blood-boar. Comp. Blood- 

* A desput 6/oo<()^looking lahtle meear/ 

* A canny gilt, enew ; she cooms ov a bloody sort.' 

Blotch, V. a. To blot ; as paper, or the leaves of a book. 

Mr. Wedgw. collates Dut. placke, plecke; Sax. blech, a blot, stain ; plack-papier, blotting- 
paper ; A. S. blaco^ a discoloured spot on the skin, blatch or blotch. Comp. Sw. D. blaga, 
to smear, bedaub ; blage, a spot or lump of wet filth ; en stor blage pa goUet: a great blotch 
(of wet dirt) on the floor. Illustrative of Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that * the word blot 
arises from an attempt to represent the sound of a drop of liquid or portion of something wet 


or soft falling on. the ground/ blaga has the second meaning of to thrash, to overwhelm with 
blows ; while blaka means both to strike, strike so that the blows resound, and to pour down 
with rain ; da blakar som bimlen vcre bppen : it blotches down as if the heavens were open. 

Blotch-paper, sb. Blotting-paper. 

Blue-flint, sb. The local name for the whinstone or basalt derived 
from the basaltic dike which runs across the N. Riding from out of Dur- 
ham, in a direction southerly of east. It is extensively raised in many 
places to be used as Boad-metal, alike for home use and export See 
also White-flints 

Blunder, v. a. i. To disturb water or other liquid so as to render it 
turbid or muddy. 2. To derange the works of a lock, so that it refuses 
to act 

Rich, gives the derivation of this word as ' from blofit the pret. of A. S. bUnnan, to come 
to a stop ; and to blunder is said to be * to act like one whose faculties halt, or come to a stop.* 
Mr. Wedgw., however, regards the * original meaning of blunder to be to dabble in water,' 
and itself to be, * a nasal form of such words as blotber, bluiter, bluUer ; all representing the 
agitation of liquids ; and then generally idle talk. Dan. ptudder, earth and water mixed 
together, puddle, idle talk ; pluddre^ to dabble in the mud, to puddle. Then with the nasal, 
to blunder water, and metaphorically, blunder, confusion, trouble.* Comp. * To shuffle and 
digress, so as by any means whatsoever to blunder an adversary.' Dillon, quoted by Rich. 

' Noe, I shalle make ye stille as stone begynnar of blunder t 

I shalle bete the bak and bone, and breke alle in simder, 

Townel, Myst. p. 30 ; 

where the blunder referred to is the confusion and trouble occasioned by his wife's dispu- 
tatious, eontrdrying spirit of opposition. 

1. * Moother, t' bairns ha bin an' blundered t' watter, while its a' 's thick as soss;' all 
a puddle together. 

2, * Tak' heed, lad, or theell Vunder t' lock wi' thor aud kays.' 

Blur, v. a. To blot, to smear. 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon blur and blear in the expression ' to blear one's eye' (of frequent 
use in Chaucer ; for instance, Reve*8 Tale, 939, 

* They wenin that no man mowe them begyle ; 
But by my thrift yet shall I blere their eye.') 

as identical ; and in a passage which he requotes from Rich., the expression of ' eyes blurred 
with the darkness of vices' occurs. ' In this sense,' he adds, * it agrees with Bav. plerren, 
a blotch, a discoloured spot on the skin.' Still, collating Dut. blader, blaere; ader, aere, 
ear of com ; Eng. slubber, slur ; he thinks it probable that * blur may be from bludder, 
blutber, blubber, to make a noise with the mouth, disfigure with crying ; bluter, to blot, 
dirty, blubber.* But assuming blur and blear to be, at least, different forms of the same 
word, I think I would rather connect it with bladder, blader, blaere, which I take to be 
cognate with plerren — an idea suggested by blowre, Townel, Myst. p. 6a, where the reference 
is to the plague of blains and boils :— > 

* For we fare wars than ever we fowre (fared) ; 
Grete loppys over all this land they fly ; 

And where thay byte thay make grete blowre. 
And in every place oure bestes dcdc iy.' 


Here blown is clearly equivalent to swelled or inflated spots or tumours — * a boil breaking 
forth with blains upon man and upon beast ;' and its relationship must surely be with hlaere, 
bladder^ rather than with 6/ii/er, blvdder, blubbtr. Cf. N. S. bleddtr; Dan. blare; N. bl^ara ; 
O. Sw. bladra : the origin of the family of words being O. H. Q. blAjan, G. bldben, to 
inflate, render turgid. Rietz. 

Blur, sb. I. A blot, a smear. 2. The same, metaphorically; i.e. the 
blot or stain left on one's character by misconduct 

1. • Thee *s getten a blur V tha* buik, J5anny.* 

2, * Hell niwer cast t' wyte on it. It has lef^ a sair blur ahint it ;* he will always be 
blamed for that. It has left a sad blot on his character. 

Blurred, pcpl. Stained or blemished, metaphorically. 

• He *s getten a tsdily-Murred neeam wiv it.* Wb Ol, 

Blurt, V. a. i. To speak in jerks, or bit by bit, without connection 
or coherency. 2. To speak — not so much, inconsiderately, as— by con- 
straint of a sudden impulse : one, perhaps, which gathers force until it 
becomes overpowering ; as in the case of an impulsive, excitable man, or 
of one who longs to speak but is held back by considerations of timidity 
or shame, and the like. 

• Related to blutter, bludder, as splirt to splutter* Wedgw ; and as Jliri or Jlurt to 
flutter, &c. 

1. • •• Then he telled you all?" " Aye ; he blurted it all oot. bit by bit." * 

2. ' A windy chap, blurting 's tales oot, all ower t' toon.' 

' Blurt it out, man, and ha don' wi' 't ;' to a person longing to tell or say something, but, 
with some motive of reluctancy creating a difficulty of speaking, which can only be over- 
come af^er a long struggle or by some overpowering impulse. Leeds Gl. quotes * He does 
nowt but blurt,' of one who speaks abmptly * without either sense or argument in what he 
says.' Perhaps it is an acconmiodation of this sense — not in use here, I believe — which 
brings in the meaning given by Brock., ' to cry, to make a sudden indistinct or unpleasant 

Blustery, adj. Boisterously windy. Applied when the wind is very 
high, but not amounting to a regular gale, and, instead of howling or 
roaring, comes in loud rattling blasts. 

• •• Very windy to-day, Willy. Are your corn-pikes safe?" ** Aye, 't *$ blustery. But 
Ah dean't think tfiere *s enew t* raffle t' thack mich ;" * to disturb or derange the thatching 
of the stacks. 

Blutherment, sb. Dirt of an adhesive or unctuous description; 
mud, slime. 

A word which belongs to the same stock as bluter in Hall., ' to blot, to dirty, to blubber ;' 
and bludder, bluther, in Jam., * to blot paper in writing, to disfigure any writing, to disfigure 
the face with weeping, &c.' I do not find it in any Yorkshire collection of words except 
the Wb. Gl, ; but it is freely current in Clevel. 

Bodden, p. p. of to Bide. 


Boden, bodden, p. p. of to Bid. 

Bog, sb. A puffy swelling ; a tumour that 3delds easily to pressure, 
rising again on its removal. 

' Puir lahtle thing I Its head *s all iv a hog;* of a child born with great difficulty, and 
one side of whose head was, from the force necessarily employed, in a state of soft, puffy 

Comp. * Boggyscbe, boggisshe. Tumidus* Pr. Pm, 

Boggart, sb. A hobgoblin, a sprite. See Boggle. 

Boggle, bogle, sb. A goblin, or sprite ; a malevolent being of the 
supernatural order. 

Welsh bwg, bwgwL Comp. O. N. puki, an evil spirit ; pukr^ a bugbear, terrific object — 
sometimes, at least, of the supernatural order ; S. G. puke, die devil, a daemon. Jam., 
who spells the word bogle or hogill, gives the two meanings of the word as * i. A spectre, 
a hobgoblin. 2. A scarecrow, a bugbear.' Comp. our Flay-boggle. The other Glos- 
saries, generally speaking, are indefinite in their explanations. Thus Hall, gives * a ghost, 
a goblin ;' Brock. * a spectre or ghost ;' L§ids Gl. * a goblin, generally supposed to be of 
a sable complexion ;* and Wb. Gl. * a fearful object, a hobeoblin.' I believe the true 
idea of the word is that of a bugbear ; some fearful or homble, but indefinite, object of 
terror ; a goblin frightful to behold, and equally malevolent ; to the entire exclusion of the 
senses, sprite, and ghost or spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. * Buggtt or buglarde. Maurus, Ductus* Pr. Pm, Also, * Higins, in his version 
of Junius' Nomendator, 1 585, renders " lemures noctunu, hobgoblins or night-walking 
spirits, blacke bugs. Terriculamentum, a scarebug, a bulbegger, a sight that frayeth and 
frighteth " ' That the belief in Bogles or Boggarts was once very prevalent in the 
district might be inferred, if there were no other means of knowing, from the many local 
names involving the word Boggle ; e. g. BqggMlHMse, Boggle-wood^ &c. 

Boggle, V. n. To start, or shy, or swerve ; applied to a horse which 
is startled by some means and starts away from the object of alarm. 

Derived directly from the sb. Boggle. See Wedgw. in v. 

Boily, sb. Properly, food prepared specially for an infant's use ; milk, 
with soft bread crumbled fine or biscuit broken up and powdered, boiled 
in it. Applied also to any food similarly prepared and intended for 
children's sustenance. 

Bolden, v. n. (pr. bowden). To shew courage; or rather, perhaps, 
to take courage, so as to play a bold part. 

This seems to be not so much an acconmiodation of sense from the archaic vb. hold, 
to make bold, encourage (cf. 'to balden )nne leoden,' Lay, i. 187; ' ure Louerd beldetS 
ham,' Ancr, Riwle. p. 162) as a reflective vb. proper_I noake myself bold — and, as such, 
curious in its analogies to Northern forms. 

* Bowden tiv 'er, lad ! Faint heart niwer wan fair laady.* 

' He houfdened oop te 't beeast, agin he 'd bin a man : pawky lahtle chap I ' 

Bolder, sb. A loud, resonant noise, or report. 

Sw. hullra, to make a noise ; O. N. bylia (imp. huldi). Comp. huller, strepitus, which 


it almoit identical with our word, and expresses the loud sounds giyen out under heavy 
blows laid on a resonant body. Comp. also Germ, poliem, to give a loud or resonant noise ; 
Dan. huldir^ noise, crash, uproar, 8cc. 

Solders, boulders, sb. Rounded stones of large size, owing their 
form to the action of water. 

0. N. hyita^ to roll over and over ; boUr, a globe or sphere-shaped body, as produced by 
rolling over and over ; Dan. bold. Sw. D. gives buller-iten^ a detached mass of stone ; in 
opposition to the word klappersten^ which is equivalent to our Cobble-steean : and also, 
as cognate with it, bulUr-wier, the globe-flower {Trollius Europ<eus), 

Bolk, V. n. (pr. boak or booak). i. To retch, strain to vomit, with 
the usual sound implied. 2. To feel the sensation of being about to 

A.S. btalcan, to belch; Fris. battje; also sb. bale, a belch; Pr. Pm. * BoUtyn. Rueto, 
emeiOt onxo.* Brock, gives * to belch* as one of the meanings of bokt, bouk; these being in 
fact merely phonetic forms of O. £. bolk : — 

* He bigan Benedicite with a bolk* P, PL p 100. 

' I shal bolki out hid thingus fro* makyng of the world.' Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wycl. Vert. 
The usage in this passage almost presents a transitional sense between to belch and to 

Boll, sb. The trunk of a tree ; that part which lies between the roots 
and the head or branches. 

O.N. bolr; S. O. bol; Sw. D. bol; exactly coincident in meaning with each other and 
with our word. 

Bolts, sb. Narrow passages, rather than streets, between houses in 
certain Yorkshire towns, possibly arched over in places. 

The meaning of this word is probably an accommodation of the derived sense of E. bolt 
implied in its application to an arrow, &c., — something long and narrow. Compare the 
sense when the word means ' a narrow piece of stuflT;' or again, when it means * a single 
width of doth.' 

Bondsman, sb. A surety, one who gives security for another. 

* What 's thou to be surveyor, George ? An' wheea 's tha' bon's-man, man ?' 

Bonny, adj. i. Fair to look at, handsome, fine, beautiful; applied 
either to persons or things. 2. Well-pleasing, causing delight. 3. Simply 
an augmentative added to words denoting size, quality, &c. 4. Used with 
a strongly ironical sense. 

Cf. Sw. D. bonnt^ bunnt^ high-spirited, jolly ; with which Dean Rietz collates our word. 

1. *A! what bonny claesl' * A bormy lahtle chap.' * A bonny spot.' ^ Bonny is, at 
^owiy dis.' Wb. Gl. 

a. * Thoo 's a bonny bairn : thee 's deean weel.' 

Cf. ' He laughed the bony Child to scome 

that was the bonny Lord oi leame.' Percy's Fol. MS. I. 1 87. 

3. • " Ay, he 's a bonny bouk ;" he 's of a very considerable size.* Wb. Gl, 

• " How far is it to Whitby, my man ?" •• Eh I it 's a bonny bit yet" ' 

4. * A bonny mess.' * Bonny deed, for seear f * 'A bonny to do,' 8cc. 



Bonnyisli, adj. Able to bear inspection ; good in quality or fair to 
look at. 

• »* You have some good sheep there, Joseph." " Ay ; thae 's a bonnyisb lot o* yows." ' 

Boon, sb. A stated service rendered by the tenant to his landlord, 
without remuneration. 

Boon, V. n. To render the services implied in the sb. Boon. See 

Boon-days, sb. The days on which the tenants are bound to render 
the stated unpaid-for service, or Boon, to their landlords. Brock, states 
that large * quantities of land in the Northern counties are held under 
lords of manors by customary tenure, subject to the payment of fines and 
heriots, and the performance of various duties and services on the doon- 

S. G. b6n ; O. N. bin ; Dan. hon ; A. S. h^. The classical word 60011 is rightly defined 
by Rich, as some ' good or benefit either asked or graifted.' The original meaning of each 
of the abovo-gi?en etymons is a prayer, entreaty, or request. Thence it passes to the thing 
prayed or requested, and thence to the same as obtained. But in mediseval writings, sajrs 
Ihre, hbn stands for something rendered in the way of payment or tribute, as if what was in 
itself distasteful would be rendered less so by the term employed to describe it. This, he 
says, was probably only the adoption of an ancient German tuage, under which pajrments of 
this kind were termed btd» — * scilicet preces erant, sed quibus contradid non posset, ut ait 
Tacitus,' — requests there was not much option about declining. The historian thus quoted 
states, Oerm. cap. xv., that it was customary among the trib^ occupying that country for 
each man to present to his chieftain gratuitous offerings of produce, whether arising from 
live-stock or land, which, though purely honorary in one sense, were still, in another sense, 
compulsory, as meeting a case of necessity. It may be further remarked, as connecting 
these medisBval boons^ or quasi-gratuitous subsidies, more closely with our usage, that in 
another place Ihre shews that while the word bond* originally meant one who held land of 
his own right (O. N. buandiy boandi, occupier ; and therefore owner or possessor), yet 
when the distinctions of rank implied in titles of nobility, &c. were introduced, the bondi 
always — ^what the nobles did not — paid some kind of acknowledgment, in kind or other- 
wise, for the land he held : and, finally, by a further change in the same direction, the name 
came to imply any occupier whatever, whether he farmed his own land or another's, whose 
tenure depended on rendering the specified acknowledgment. The ancient German custom ; 
• the mediflBval Northern usage, with its euphuistic b6n ; and the progressive changes of status 
&c. in the bonde^ but always with the boon to be rendered by him prominent in the fore- 
ground, coupled with what Brock, says,— are a pertinent comment on the Clevel. word 
before us. Comp. the Lincolnsh. use of the words : — Boon, to repair the highway ; booningt 
carriage of materials for repairing roads ; boon-mastert the surveyor of highways. 

Bore-tree, bnr-tree, sb. (pr. bottry). The common elder (Sambucus 
nigra) . 

The prefix in this word must necessarily be a noun, and the word itself is probably of 
Scand. descent. The A. S. name is ellen or tllam ; N. S. elloom ; Germ, bdundtr, boildtr ; 
Dan. byld; Sw D. and N. byll, &c. ; all of these names signifying the hole-, or hollow-tree. 
The der in the Eng. and Germ, names is tree. See Wedgw. Probably, then, Bore«troe may 


be Old Danish in origin, from O. N. hdra^ a hole, a boring. In Scotland, however, the forms 
bouH'tr§e, bun-trte, prevail as well as bour-tree, hur-trte ; and for the former element see 
Bun, which is A. S. 

Botoh, sb. A bungling or inexpert mender, a cobbler. 

To houh^ to repair in the way of adding a new piece ; a botcb, the piece so added, pro- 
bably proceed from the A. S. 6J/, h6te. Comp. O. H. G. puozan^ Germ, hutzen, to patch, 
mend. Sw. boi, b6t, as well as the A. S. words, imply the idea of repair by the addition of 
new materials to the old, and the cognate vb. is used in the sense of mending, both in 
mpect of clothes and of nets ; boia klceder and bota fuet. In our instance, the invidious 
sense which modem usage has put upon the word is transferred from the action and its 
subject to the agent. Mr. Wedgwood's view of the formation of the word is different. 

* He's nobbot an aud botch. He 's mair lahk t' mar an t' mend.' 


Botohety sb. A species of fermented drink made from the last drain- 
ings or washings of impure honey obtained from the wax of the combs ; 
weak honey-beer, rather than mead. 

This word appears under almost as many different forms as Barflun : e. g. bragwori, 
bragget, bragoi, brotebet, brotcbert; all of which, as well as our word, by metathesis 
and consequent change of sound, come from the Welsh bragodlyn, spiced wort, as it 
from brag, malt 

* Her mouth was swete as brahi or the meth. 
Or horde of applis layd in hay or heth.' MiUn's TaU, 153. 

Bothennenty sb. Trouble, difficulty. 

* FoDa sez there 's boun t' be a bit iv a botbemurU about thae intaks.' 

Bonk, bu*k, sb. The Clevel. form of E. bulk. 

* Thae tweea 's about t* seeam bu*k* 

Bottle, sb. A bundle ; of hay, straw, Breokens, &c. A Bottle is a 
bundle wisped up ; a Batten a bound bundle. 

Pr. Pm, * BottUe of hey. Fenifaseis* * Bret, bdtel foemn. Fr. botel, boieau, the dimi- 
nutive of boitif a bunch ; botte dt fwn, a wisp of hay ; Gael, boiteal, boitean, a bundle of 
hay or straw.' Wedgw. * Bottle. A bundle, applied to hay, straw, and rushes.' Lm- 
coins, GL 

Bottoiiy sb. The deepest portion of a valley; that part of the dale in 
which the containing banks rise to their full height with the most rapid 
and continuous slope. 

O. N. botn, a bottom, a depth, and O. Sw. botln, are similarly applied. In both branches 
of the language the word is employed to denote the innermost recesses of the sea: 
Norrboitn, the Gulf of Bothnia ; fiardar-botn, a deep or inland bay. But besides this, the 
Old Northmen seem to have applied the word precisely as it is locally applied in Cleveland. 
Thus, Hald. gives dali-botn, intima pars vallis, the innermost recesses of the dale ; i. e., says 
the Danish translation, where it is most shut in ; which is exactly descriptive of that portion 
of Danby Dale which is called Dauby-Botton. Also the word before dal&4>otn is daU-mynni, 
the opening or mouth of a valley or dale, which answers exactly to our Dale-X2nd. 

' At a little distance towards the South, lies the township of Greenhowe, a part of which, 

I 2 


significantly called Greenhowe-Bottom* — written correctly, it would be Botton — ' is a narrow 
secluded vale, so deeply intrenched with mountains that here (like some parts of Borrowdale 
in Cumberland) in the depth of winter the sun never shines.' Graves, Hisi. of CUvdandf 

P- 254- 

Boiuiy bound, adj. Under compulsion, whether moral or otherwise 
arising. The word always implies a kind of necessity of action. 

O. N. hundirm (p. p. of binda). The phrase hundinn tkopum, under constraint from £ite, 
aftbrds an instance of the use of the original word in a strictly analogous sense. The S. G. 
word binda^ in its forensic sense, — to give force to, or render binding — approaches the same 
usage, as also our modem technical word hound: e. g. * bound to keep the peace,* * bound 
under a penalty,' &c. 

* " Div 'ee think at he *11 stand til it?" *• Aye, he *s houn t* dee % noo, onnyways.** * 

* He 's houn X* gan ;* he is obliged to go ; has no choice about it. Comp. Tied. 

* *' You '11 never do such a thing as that, Joseph?'* *' Ah wadn't wivoot Ah wur hound. 
It 's nane o' ma' ain latin'." ' 

In the following extract, Percy's Fcl, MS, i. p. 2j8, both our present word boun, and a 
vb. cognate with boun, ready, prepared, occur. 

' Then the king called a earle .... 
he bad buske him & bowne him : to goe on his message ; 
then that knieht full courteouslye kneeled to the ground, 
sales, ** I am hound to goe as ye me bidd wold." ' 

Boun, adj. Ready, prepared, on the point of doing any given 

O. N. huinn (p. p. of hua^ to make ready, to equip) is of continual use in precisely the 
same sense : see also albuinn, tilhuin, omnino paratus : Hald. Comp. likewise Sw. rede- 
hoen, fitly prepared ; farhoen, ready to set out on a journey, &c. 

* Ah lays there 's boun t' be a wedd'n t' moom.' 

* It 's boun t' raan afore it 's lang.' 

* Ah 's boun for off a bit ;* or, ' Ah 's houn off for a bit ;' I am going away for a little 

* Ah 's boun for Cass'lton hirings ;' Castleton statute fair. 
Comp. the following extracts : — 

* Abrabam, Luke thou be bourns; 

For certan, son, thi self and I, 

We two must now weynd furthe of towne 

In far country to sacrifie.' Toumel. Mysi, p. 38. 

* Says, Lady, He ryde into yonder towne 

8c see wether your friends be bowne.* Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 76. 

* Lords and ladyes of the best. 

They busked and made them bowne.* lb. p. 91. 

Bounder^ sb. The impact, more or less forceful, of a weighty and 
not inelastic substance or object, on a solid surface ; of a wall, e. g., or 
a pavement, or the hard earth. Cf. E. bounds rebound, 

* " It fell with a great bounder T fell heavily and rebounded.' Wh, Gl. 

BounderSy bounds, sb. i. Limits, boundaries; the line between one 
property, or manor, and another, whether defined (as by a wall, or fence, 


or water-course), or undefined, as on the moor or common, between the 
several boundary-marks, Mere-stones, or Bounders. 2. Mere-stones or 
boundary-marks, consisting sometimes of natural objects, more usually 
of single upright stones, or piles of stones — Steean-rucks — set up on 
the boimdary-line. 

Cf. A. S. pyndtm, to shut in, or enclose. Mr. Wedgw. refers the word to the * Celtic root 
boH, htm, a stock, bottom, root,' and collates * Bret, men-honn, a boundary-stone ; bonnetn, to 
•et bounds, to fix limits.* 

I. ' Bounders or limits of the said manor.' Peramb. o/Danby Manor, 1577. 

' A view and perambulation of the limits and bounds of Danby, &c.' Id, 1 750. 

' The names of those who rid the bounders* Id. 

a. ' By the antient marks, mere-stones and bounds.* Id. 

' The bounders, upon some certaine day, once in the year, yearly, are to be viewed and 
perused.' Id. 1577. 

Bounder-markSy bounder-steeansy bounder-stoupsy sb. Upright 
stones, specially set, or other objects serving to mark the limits or 
boundaries of any manor or manors. 

* The exact distance between each bounder'tnark and other.' Peramb. Danby, 1666. 

Bausyy bowsy. Plump, full of flesh, Falstaff-like. Hall, says, 
* bloated by drinking/ 

Hald. gives bussa, a fleshy, well-fed female. Oerm. betus-baek is plump-cheeked ; buyse 
is, in Dutch, ' a cup with two handles, which on account of its size is taken up and set down 
with both hands.' Comp. also boss, a hollow vessel ; Fr. busse, bosse, a cask, and Sw. D. 
pysa, Sw. p&sa, to swell up, rise, as leavened dough does ; £. Dial, bawsin, large, unwieldy, 
swollen ; as well as £. boss, bos^. Sec. 

BoWy sb. A semicircular hoop or handle to anything ; as a basket or 
Souttley a Backstone, a pail. Also, in the pL; the hoops on which the 
tilt of a wagon or cart is supported. 

A.S. boga, a bow, an arch; O.N. bogi; Sw. boge; Dan. bue; Oerm. bug. 

Bow-bridge, sb. A high-pitched, one-arched bridge, of which there 
are still several in the district, all of them ancient. 

Stratford is the last village in Essex on the great London road, and is built on the banks 
of the river Lea where it is aossed by Bow-bridge, said to have been the first arched-bowed 
bridge in England. Stowe, speaking of this bridge, says Matilda, queen to Henry I, * caused 
two stone bridges to be builded, of the which, one was situated over Lue at the head of the 
town of Stratford, now called Bow, because the bridge was arched like a bow. A rare piece 
of work : for before that time the like had never been seen in England.' 

Bowdykite, sb. A forward or impudent child: one who absurdly 
affects the air and manners of those older than himself. 

Brock, gives as the definition of this word * a contemptuous name for a mischievous child, 
an insignificant or corpulent person.* The latter part of the definition is probably the 


original meaning of the word» from bowed, in the sense of curved or arched, and kite, 
the belly or stomach. And from this meaning the tnmsition in idea to that of contemptible, 
or of an object to be scorned or slighted, is easy. And thus probably originates the signifi- 
cation given in the definition quoted above, and also implied in our word. 

* A saucy bowdUtite lad.' Wb. Gl. 

Bowkers. An interjection, expressive of surprise. 

Brack, pret. of to Broke. 

Braoken-clocky sb. A small brown-sharded beetle, often found 
about the bracken, or ferns generally. See Clooky Blaok-clock, &c. 

Brade, braid, v. a. To publish abroad, proclaim publicly and osten- 

* He hrades it out everywhere that he is Mr. B*s natural son ; and the family don't like it.' 
Cf. * RiwaeSSlan braid ut his sweord.' Lay. iii. p. loi. 

I have scarcely any hesitation in referring both these words to the same source, viz. 
A. S. bredan, bregdan, to gripe, lay hold of, draw out ; O. N. bregda, Comp. ai bregda i 
loft, to raise on high ; bregda swerdi, to draw sword. The word would thus, by derivation, 
be connected with braid on, to resemble ; and it may be observed in passing, that the O. N. 
word admits of almost as great a variety of signification as any other of the many-meaninged 
words and phrases of the Scand. tongues. 

Brae, sb. (pr. breea). The overhanging edge or margin of a river- 
bank, arising from the greater toughness of the top soil, or sward, over 
the subsoil ; the like edge in a gully, or moor road, which is often worn 
down three or four feet below the moor-surface; rarely, the broken 
moor-edge itself. 

O. N. bra, the brow, in a human face ; O. Sw. and Sw. D. bra, Sw. bryn has the same 
signification, and is applied, as are also Sw. D. brun, brunt, N. brun, exactly as our Breea 
is ; and in fact, the analogy or resemblance between the brow on the human visage, and 
the breea of a bank or abrupt hill-side is apparent enough. Comp. Dut. brauwe or browe, 
the edge ; £. brow of the hill. 

* Loo' ye I heear 's tahlin's nes* : jis' i' t' breea, heear ;* look 1 here is a titling's (meadow 
pipit) nest, just in the brae : a favourite site for such nests. 

Brae-foll, adj. (pr. breeaful). Full up to the Breea, or bank-edge ; 
applied to the Book when full up to the margin, and only not overflow- 
ing. Equivalent to * bankfull' of Herefordshire. 

Brag, V. n. To boast, to exalt oneself in words. 

For an instance of the use of the word as an adj. note this :— 

* And syker, as I trowe, 
Weren her confessiones 
Clenlv destrued 

Hy shoulde nought beren hem so brag, 
Ne belden so heyghe.' P. Plougbm, p. 493. 


' He bannede his ferde. 
and saide >at he wolde : 
Ba)>e bi-Iigge 
and eke Bnistowe : 
pis W9BS hire broc* 

Sir F. Madden's note upon broc being : * This is the modern term hrag^ the meaning of 
which was originally the same with tbrecU. G. Douglas writes it hraik. The vb. in 
M. H. O. is brogen, which is connected with A. S. bregan, broga. See* 

* He 's a maaster at braggan\ His geese *s maistlings mickler an' ither fo*ks swans.' 

Braid, brade, v. n. (pr. breead). To resemble, to take after. Fer- 
guson observes that in Cumberland it usually implies resemblance or 
similarity of disposition. Jamieson's definition seems to carry the same 
limitation. In Cleveland it certainly includes resemblance in feature or 
external appearance, as well as in nature or disposition. 

• _ 

Comp. O. N. bngda, used with the prepositions til or a. The instances of usage given 
by Hald. are such as to place the origin of our word beyond doubt : bvert a baminu ai 
brigda nema til fbdr sins f — in our vernacular, * wheea su *d t' bairn breead ov wivoot 't 
be 's fUther?' bonum bregdr til attar: * he breeads ov *s fore-elders.' In the same 
way the O. N. word is employed to express that derived, or * second nature/ which ' use' 
b, bond bregdr a venju : * one's hand breeads o* use ;' i. e. one gets to do that naturally 
which he does habitually. Further, bragd signifies features, lineaments ; and CBttar-bragd, 
hereditary personal characteristics, family likeness. The S. G. correlative word is bra, 
which is used of a child, says Ihre, who reminds one of his father ; or, as our Dalesmen say, 
ftothers hissel'. Sw. Dan. br& p&, which in one district becomes brdda p&, is exactly 
coincident with our word. 

Braid-band, sb. A corn-swathe laid outwards. 

As com is usually cut with the scythe, the severed portion, or swathe, falls against the 
uncut com, and is taken up thence by the raker, who follows the mower, and laid over on 
the Band ready for the Binder. Occasionally, however, for some reason or other, it is cut 
the other way, or from the com, and falls over in a regular band or swathe ; and when a 
field or part of a field is cut thus, it is said to ' lie in braid-band.' The explanation of the 
phrase given by Jam. and Hall, is different ; possibly from difference in local practice. 

Bramble, v. n. To pick blackberries. 

Brambles, sb. (pr. bramm'ls, brumm'ls). Blackberries, the fruit of the 
bramble (Rubus /ruiicostis), 

A. S. bremel, brembil, brember, a bramble ; Dan. brambcer ; Sw. Dial, brambar, brom- 
bar. The A. S. name for the fruit was branwyrt. With the Dan. and Sw. forms comp. 
Line, brame-berries ; and note the Pr. Pm. forms (under Brere) brymmeylle, bremmyll, 

Bramlings, sb. Brandlings; worms in much request for trout- 
fishing, found in old and well-fermented dung-heaps. They are of a 
bright red colour encircled with numerous yellow rings, and give forth 
a thick yellow fluid, of rather an ill savour, when touched. 


Brander, brandreth, sb. A kind of trivet, or tripod, or frame with 
crossbars set upon feet, and placed over the fire to receive pans or cook- 
ing-utensils generally. 

A. S. brandred, a gridiron; Oenn. brimdruibe. Jam. quotes also Dan. brimdriib, and 
Teut. brander, hrandroede; and Brock., Dutch brander. Brann/'fing is given in Rietz, 
and explained by brand-ring; the circular frame of the instrument being kept in mind 
instead of the cross-bars, as in other etymons : while Sw. brandjtm is a griduron. 

Among the Finchale Pr. Inventories, at p. ccccxiv., the following entry occurs : — * Et in 
i le Brandreth empto de Bursario ponderanti xliiij. petris ferri.' It is obvious that the article 
meant here cannot be what is understood by a Braadreth now. The Olossarist in Pr. Finch. 
supposes a massive grating of iron before and over the fire. May it not rather have been 
the massive bar of iron which seems, in the gigantic fireplaces of old, to have crossed the 
open chimney just above and in advance of the fire ? Such a bar remains amid the debris 
of the great Idtchen fireplace and chimney at Ludlow Castle. Cf. also ' Upon the herthe 
belongeth woode or turues, two and3Tons of yron {Jbrandturs\ a tonge, a gredyron.' Note 
to Aumdeme, Pr. Pm. In point of fact, there are probably two words connised in Bran- 
der and Brandreth. Cognate with the former are Teut. and Dut brander; brandeur, in 
the above extract ; Sw. brandjem, &c. ; and with the latter A. S. brandred, Dut. brtmdroede. 
Germ, brandrutbe, Dan. brandritb, a brand-rod. See Bosworth. 

Brander, v. a. To broil; to cook over the bare fire, live coals or 
embers. See Brander, sb. 

0. N. brandr, live coals ; Sw. D. brannd, in the compound brannd-kdra, the equivalent 
of our Ass-oard (which see) ; A. S. brand ; &c. Comp. £. brand, fireAtrand, 8cc, 
Our vb. is therefore simply to expose (meat) over glowing coals. 

Brand-new, bran-new, bran-span-new, brand-spander-new, adj. 
Freshly or perfectly new. 

Brand-new is simply new from the fire or forge. All the Teut. tongues preserve the 
word brand in some form or other, and all have the word new ; whence Jamieson's remark, 
that our word is simply the Teutonic brand-new. Shaksp. uses the quite equivalent form 
/ire-new, still heard in some districts. Span-netv is found as O. N. ^dn-nyr, from spdnn, 
a chip. Sw. spdn. Germ, span, Dan. spaan, all bear the same meaning ; and Sw. D. 
span-nbj, new as a chip, spliUemy, preserves the form for Sweden. Brand-new, therefore, 
is a word suggested by the newness of a metal implement ; span-new by that of something 
fashioned out of wood. This is cbip-new; new from the artificer's tools: that burning- 
new ; new from the smith's forge. Brand-spander-new is hence an unscientific, not to say 
blundering, compound involving two dissimilar ideas. 

Brant, brent, adj. i. Steep, as applied to the side of a hill, or 
a portion of very hilly road. 2. Pompous, consequential. 

Sw. bratt, brant; O. N. brattr; N. bratt; Dan. brat. Ihre gives as an example of usage, 
. «fi brant backe, a steep hill; which, as has been noticed, corresponds exactly with our 
8 brant bank. The interchange of n and / has also been noticed ; and the circumstance 
that the word is not of Sc. usage, and seems to have no A. S. etymon, is also noteworthy. 

1. * •• A hilly field this, Mr. Dale." " Aye brant enew, for seear. Amaist ower brant for 
t' pleuif." ' 

* As brent *s a hoos'-sahd.' 

a. ' So-and-so 's as brent as a yackeron (acorn) ;' of a pompous, stuck-up individual. 
Cf. Dan. D. brente, to stick one's stomach out. Hvor den dreng brenterl how that 
lad puffs himself out I 


Brash, sb. i. Refuse matters, such as twigs, chips, short hedge- 
dippings, &c. 2. Rubbish, in the sense of a confused mass of refuse. 

The leading idea in this word, in ahnost every instance, as illustrated by local usage in 
diitricts widely apart, seems to be of matters that are either brittle — twigs (Northumb., 
Durham), the small growth of a hedge, or its clippings (Leeds) ; or that have been already 
broken — * a mixture of coal-dust, chips and twigs' (Whitby). Taking this as a clue, the 
word is probably a derivation from A. S. breean (see also S. G. braeeka), and a near 
relative of hreacb, broach. Sec. O. N. breisk^ weak, frail, is almost exactly coincident. 
See Ihre in v. Bnuk, 

Rich, observes that the ' noun brocbes is used in P. Plougbm. as bits of wood broken or 
^^ off;* and ' skewers or sharp-minted sticks,' are still (or were, not long since) termed 
broebts in some parts of Yorkshire. The same idea of broken, or easily broken, holds good 
in the quasi-geological term brasb, the fully geological term Com-brasb, and the Italian 

1. * Qan an' mak' a bleeze, bairns, wiv thae hedge-clippings and brasb.* 

a. ' Thae taties 's a' brasb tegither. There *s niwer a guid yan amangst 'em.' 

Brash, sb. A rising of acid or acrid liquid into the mouth ; a symp- 
tom depending on a disordered or overloaded state of the stomach. See 
Water-brash ; also called * water-springs.' 

Pr. Ptn. • Brakyn, or castyn, or spewe. Vomo, evomo.* * He wyll not cease fro sur- 
fettynge tyll he be ready to parbrake.' Note, lb. * Braking. Puking, reaching. Teut. 
bratekmt, to vomit, braecke, nausea. This seems to be properly a secondary sense of braecken, 
to break.' Jam. That is possible ; and, originally, I had included this word under Brash, 
refuse ; and its meaning as a third sense to that word ; for there can be no doubt that it 
originates in brakt, O. E. brakyn, to vomit. However, Sw. D. brdkka se, Dan. brakke sig, 
Qam. ucb breeben, N. S. sieb bracken, seem to justify its separation. Comp. the idiom 
in break wind, break cover, &c. ; and Brash, an eruption, or breaking forth on the skin ; 
also the forms E. breach, Fr. brecbe. 

Brashy, adj. i. Of inferior quality, poor, indifferent. 2. Weakly 
or delicate in constitution, liable to be frequently ailing. See Brash. 

I. * Puir brasby bits o' things;' applied to a sample of apples, or potatoes, small in size 
and poor in quality. 

a. ' She 's nobbut a brashy body ; she *s maist alla's i' t' ane ailment or t' ither.' 

I, sb. Impudence, unblushingness. 

O. N. brass, insolence, forwardness. 

' He 's brass enew for owght : he 'd ex t' C^een t' coom by, if iwer she war in 's road ;' 
he'd bid the Queen stand on one side if she were in his way. 

I, sb. I. Money in general. 2. Copper money. 

I. • Thay *ve lots o' brass : they w'oUy stinks ov it.' 

* Ah 's seU'd thae kye, and getten t' brass.* 

a. ' Thee '11 want a hau'p'ny back. Ah 's feared Ah 's nae brass' 

Brassened, brazened, adj. (pr. brSz'n'd). Impudent, without 

' She 's as brassened a browl as iwer Ah ligged een on.* 



Brat, sb. i. A child's pinafore. 2. The rag or patch secured to 
any part of a sheep, to save that part from the attacks of * the Fly/ 

A. S. 6ra/, a cloak, a clout ; Welsh brat^ a rag ; Gael, hraty an apron, cloth. 

* For n'ad thet but a shete 
Which that thei m ight w rappin hem in a night, 
And a brattt to waJxen in a daie light, 
Thei wold hem sel, and spend it on this craft.' 

Cbanon's YenuoCt Tale, p. 123. 

Bratted, adj. Covered with a slight film, as milk when beginning 
to turn sour, or slightly curdled, is. (Wh. GL defines the word as 
' slightly curdled.') 

Hall, gives * Brat, Film or scum. North,* apparently from Brock., who defines it, * the 
film on the surface of some liquids, at on boiled milk when cooled ;' and suggests Germ. 
breiien, to spread, as a derivation. It is probably an adaptation of the sense of Brat, sb., 
a clout, covering ; such as a pinafore, or sheep's Brat, for instance. 

Brattioe, sb. A wooden partition, serving, e. g., to divide a closet 
or store-room into two parts. 

Cf. Pr, Pm, * Betrax, of a walle (bretascc, bretays). Propugnaculum ;* and in the note, 

* Bretesse, breteche, bretesque, tour de bois tnohUe, . . . palissade. Roquef.' Mr. Wedgw. 
says, ' brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery, from Sc. bred, 
G. brett, Dut. berd, a plank or board, as lattice, a frame of laths, from Fr. latte, a lath.' In 
some parts of the North the high screen reaching from the wall, close to the door, from an 
outer passage some way into the room, forming, with its back, a sort of passage, and having 
a seat affixed to its front by the fire-side, is called a Brattioe. 

Braiingingy adj. Large-featured and red-faced. 

This word appears to be used with a variation of sense according to locality. Hall, gives 

* pompous,' as its meaning. In the Leeds dialect, * a great braumghig fellah' is a man * with 
massily set features, and a stout, fresh, country look ; while in the Wb. Gl, it is defined as 

* brazenfaced,' and * a gret braunging weean' is * a coarse impudent-looking woman.' Brana 
is given by Haldorsen as ' a woman with a man's mien and spirit,' while the O. N. vb. 
brana, and S. G. brdngas both imply impetuous motion, such as that of a bulky or massy 
body. But the probability rather is that the word is related to braum, bravmy, as stunge to 
s/un, tntmge or munch to mun (mouth), &c. 

Brave, adj. Of good quality as well as appearance. 

O.S^.braf, good, excellent; Sw. and Dan. brav; and probably O.l^. bragd, bragga. 
Sec Ihre in v. Braf, and Wedgw. in v. Brag. The two cardinal meanings of Lat. virtus, and 
of Gr. dya0o$ meet with their exact parallel in those of the word brave. Valour was with 
all primitive nations the great virtue, bravery the peculiar excellence, approving itself to the 
eye as well as by more tangible proofs of superiority. The Scotch braw and our brave 
are curious reminiscences of this old-world mode of sentiment and expression. 

* Miranda. What is 't? a spirit? 

Lord, how it looks about ! Believe me, Sir, 
It carries a brave form.' Tempest, \. 2. 

* It is (rovf-looking beef, and it eats bravely.* Wb. Gl. 


• " He 's getten a hrave bit o* \jrass for t' fann an* stock, Ah lay ?" " Ay, he$ he. But 
t* wur a hrav§ spot an* all.'* * 

* " How aro you, this morning, Thomas ? '* " Brcnte an' wcel, thank *ee. Hoo 's 

Bravely, adj. and adv. Very well, famously. 

• " Hoo is 't wi* thee, man ? '* " Bravely, thank 'ec.** * 

• •• He 's getting on well there, then ?** " Aye, bravely" * 

Bray, v. a. To beat or thrash with violence ; simply to beat or flog. 

Pr. Pm. * BrayyH, or stampyn in a mortere. Tero* Cf. Sw. D. briija, to bruise flax ; 
Bay., Swab., Swiss brecben, id. The word involves an accommodation of the sense of the 
standard word, viz. to pound or beat until the substance is reduced to powder or a pulp ; 
thence to beat a person violently. Mr. Wedgw. collates Sp. bregar, to work up paste, knead. 
Cf. Pr. Pm. * Brayyn, as baxtert her pastys ;* Prov. Cat. bregar, to rub, Fr. broyer and Bret. 
braea, to bray in a mortar. 

* ** Ah *11 bray thee tiv a mithridate ;** a mithridate being a medicinal confection of smooth 
and soft consistency.* Wb. Gl. 

* Be sharp, and get thee 3ramm, or thee '11 get tha' back bray*d a bits. T' moodher 's 
Utin' thee.* 

Bread-loaf, sb. (pr. breead-leeaf). i. The loaf of bread; the mass, 
as opposed to a piece or portion. 2. A loaf of bread, as opposed to 
bread-cakes, &c. 

0. N. braud'leif. The corresponding words are found of course in the other languages of 
Teut. origin, but in actual composition only in our dialect and O. N. ; brod-kaka in Sw. D. 

Cf. ' cuaeS t>et Sas stanas hlafa gewordeno sie ;* command that these stones be made 
bread. North. Gospels, Matt. iv. 2. 

1. * Reach me here t* breead-leeaf, wilt *ee. Ah deean't want nobbut a shahve.* 

a. ' Ah couldn't get a breeadrUeaf annywheres. Ah was fossed to send intil Whitby 
for *t.' (A fact : the bread being required for the Holy Communion ) 

Bread-mealy sb. (pr. bre6ad-meal). Flour with the coarsest bran 
taken out, but still such as when made up into bread produces * brown- 
bread.' See Meal. 

Breaks, brooks, sb. Boils or carbuncles. 

There can be little doubt of the origin of this word in either form ; A. S. brecan, 

pcpl. brocen, will supply both. The idea is well given in the passage, * and it shall be 

a boil breaking forth with blains.* In fact, in the ordinary use of the word, it is frequently 

associated with the word Byle. 

• * He 's nobbut dowly. He 's had a strange vast o* thae nasty brooks an' byles aboot 'im.' 

BreokenSy biirk'ns, sb. Ferns. The general name for the I^i/tx 
tribe, but from its greater abundance especially applied to the common 
brakes or brackens (Pieris aquilina). Growing as these do in great luxu- 
riance, and over spaces of many acres in extent, on our Bank-sides, 
they are carefully harvested in considerable quantities and applied as 
litter by those who have an insufiicient supply of straw for the neces- 
sities of their pig or their cow. In the autumn of 1866, when fodder 

K 2 


was very scarce, twenty-seven scythes were seen at work on one hill- 
side, and numbers of the substantial farmers had recourse to this substi- 
tute for litter. 

O.N. burkni; Dan. hregne, Sw. D. broken, hrdgen, brage, brakne, brdgjen, seems to be 
more exclusive in its meaning than our Breokens, as it includes only the * common brakes.' 
It should be observed also that by many the e and r are transposed in Pr., and the sound of 
the word becomes somewhat guttural — berh*ns, or rather, burVns. Cf. O. N. burkni. 

Brede, breed, sb. i. Breadth, extent. 2. A breadth of cloth, silk 
or other material. 

0. N. breidd; Sw. bredd; Sw. D. brajd; Dan. brede; A.S. breed, bred, Pr. Pm. * Brede 
of mesure. Lat'Uudo* 

1. • There was t' w'oll brede o' t* garth betwixen him an' me.' 
* T' brede o* t' road.' * T* brede o' mah hand.' 

2. * Whyah, there *s ten bredes iv her dress, if there *s yan.' 

Bree, brere, sb. i. The brier or common dog-rose (Rosa canina), 
2. A thorn or prick from the stem of the same. 

A. S. br<Br, brir. The word appears in Wicliffe's Translation of the Bible, brer is, and in 
Chaucer, breres, much as it remains in Clevel. to this day. One local name in the town- 
ship of Danby is Red-brere, which, though written in the registers as Red-brier, is always 
sounded as written above. 

2. *As sharp as a bree;* applied both literally, and as implying natural sharpness or 

* I have oone (a wife) to my fere 
As sharp as a thystle, as rugh as a brere.* Townel. Myst, p. 100. 

Bree, breese, sb. The gadfly ((Esirtis bovts). 

A. S. briosa. Another A. S. form of the name of this insect is brimsa ; comp. S. G. 
broms ; Dan. brems ; Sw. and Sw. D. brems, brims, broms ; Getm. bremse, breme ; &c. 
Brotnma, to buzz, is probably the origin of the S. G. broms (Ihre, Rietz), and sijnilarly in 
the other cases. Our Clevel. and N. English Bree or Breese, with its original A. S. form 
briosa, are ako most likely referrible to some derivative from a verb nearly related to 
hrimma, and due to the sound made by the wings of the gadfly : enough of itself to set a 
herd of oxen or cows half wild. Comp. Dan. bruus, a rushing sound. The other Clevel. 
name for the insect in question is also referrible to the noise it makes. See Bumbore. 
The eggs laid by the Breese, when hatched, lead to the swellings in Beasts' backs known 
as Warbles. 

Breeam, sb. (Pr. of broom). (Genista scopart'a.) 
Breeast-beean, sb. (Pr. of breast-bone). 

The breast-bone of a goose is still employed by some of our Dalesmen as a medium of 
prognostication for the coming winter. A translation of Thiele's notice, Overtroiske Men- 
inger, p. 1 1, requires only the substitution of a word or two in order to be applicable in 
Clevel. : * From the breast-bone of a goose, eaten on Martinmas Eve (Old Style), it is pos- 
sible to ascertain what the winter is likely to be. When picked it must be held up to the 
light, and the white marks then discernible betoken snow, the darker ones frost and cold 
weather. It should also be remarked that the front part of the bone foretells the weather 
before Christmas, the binder part the weather af\er Christmas.' Sec also Grimm, D. M. 


pp. 1067, 1068, where the same notion is quoted as mentioned by several different writers 
and as pertaining to divers localities. Here, a mottled appearance of the bone is held to 
prognosticate changeable winter-weather, alternating snow and thaw ; a prevailing whitish- 
opaque cast much snow ; a dark colour severe frost ; and comparative transparency, open 
weather. The goose also must be eaten before Martinmas (New Style), though not neces- 
sarily on Martinmas E'en. It is observable that the Clevel., Germ., and Dan. signs or 
tokens all vary more or less, according to the prevailing climate of the district they 
obtain in. 

Breed, sb. A brood, a litter of young ones. 

I do not think this word is simply tlie English brood with the Cleveland pronunciation ; as 
it wants the peculiar accent which in its effect is almost to convert a monosyllabic word into 
one of two syllables, as stone^ tteean ; sebooly scbeecU, 8cc. It is not, however, given in 
Hall., Brock., or Wb. or Leeds Gl. ; although it is in very common use in Clevel. Cf. E. 
breedf a kind, strain, as in the phrase * a breed of cattle,* * fowls,' 8cc. 

* A gran' breed o* pa'tridges.' Cf. Pr. Pm. * Bredde or hecchyd, of byrdys.' 

* Moor bods 's nane sae rank : t' breeds 's wakish, an' nobbut a few ov' em.' 

* T' and sow 's getten a gay guid breed o' pigs.' 

in% sb. The natural division of the stem of a tree into the 
branches or forks which form the head. 

The tree * breaks' or parts at the point in question ; which may suggest the derivation. 
Comp. Qerm. breebung, Dan. brydning, as applied to express refraction ; and Pr. Pm, 
' Brdt§ or brekjrnge. Ruphtra* See also Breeks. 

Breek-lesSy adj. Without breeches. See Breeks. 

* " Thae 's varry needful. Ah *s seear. Thae 's nigh sarkless an' breekUss ;" almost in a 
state of nudity.' Wb, Ol, 

BreekSy sb. Breeches. 

O.H, brdk (^\. brcekur) ; 0,Siw.broh; Svr.brackar; A. S. br^c, braeea ; If. S. brook; 
Dut. broek. Cf. Lat. bracca, Irish broages^ Arm. brag, Ihre objects to Junius' derivation 
of the word from brecken, to break or part, on the ground that it is not known what form 
the article of attire first named breeks (or its equivalent in other dialects) really had. 
Dr. Rietz gives his opinion that the M. Lat. word is derived from the Gallic tongue, and 
that the word is originally Celtic. Jam. gives a curious proverbial usage of the word in the 
sing., or as denoting one leg of the garment in question : * They sit fuU still that have a 
riven breike* 

Breke, v. a. The accustomed form of to Break. 

Pr, Pm, • Brehyn or breston (brasten). Frango* 

Breke one's day. To. To fail in keeping an appointment, break 
one's tryst. 

* Certis {ofi he) nothing anoyith me 
To lene a man a noble, two or thre. 
Or what thing were in my possession 
Whan he so true is of condicion 
That in no wise he brekin wolle his date. 
To soche a man I can nevir sale naie.' 

. . CbanoH^s Veman^s Tale, p. 1 24. 


Brenty adj. Another form of Brant. 

Bride-ale, sb. The warmed, sweetened, and spiced ale, yet pre- 
sented in some villages, to a wedding party on its return from chm'ch. 

O, N. hrud-'6l ; A. S. bryd-eala, a bride-ale, bride or marriage feast. The latter word is 
of course the origin of £. bridal, Ihre, under the word d/, remarks, it is clear that this 
beverage has been a favourite one among the ancient Scythian and Gothic nations, and 
indeed the sine qua non — whence all their more important banquets were named o/, e. g. 
Arfblf Bamsol, Kirkegdngs-dl^ Grafwa-dlt &c., or. Heir-ale, Cbtlits-baptism-ale, Motber^S' 
cburcbing-ale. Grave-ale. Comp. the old word Cburcb-ale. Our Clevel. word is re- 
markable as presenting the two constituents of bridal in a separate form, and as dissecting 
out from the complex sense of brud-bl the single element connected with the liquor chiefly 
drunk on such occasions. See under Bride-door. 

Bride-door, sb. The door of the house from which the bride pro- 
ceeds to church, and at which the wedding festivities are to be held 
afterwards ; used in the phrase * to run for the bride-door/ 

With this word comp. Sw. D. bryllopsbus, brollopsbus. 

The aistom in which it originates is doubtless of Northern extraction. It rea^^pears under 
somewhat varying forms in many of the Northern counties, but always in such guise as in 
some way to embody the same idea. • To " run for the bride-door" is to join in the race for 
the bride's gift, run by divers of the young men of the neighbourhood, who wait near the 
church-door till the marriage ceremony is over. The prize is usually a ribbon, which is 
worn for the day in the hat of the winner.* Wb. Gl, Hall, simply adds to a precisely 
similar statement, that the race is run * to the bride's door,' and both might have added that 
the ribbon when won is supposed to be destined for the winner's sweetheart, actual or to be. 
In Cumberland, says Brock., it is usual * for the bridegroom, attended by his friends on 
horseback, to proceed in a gallop to the house of the bride's father. Having alighted, he 
salutes her, and then the company breakfast together. After breakfast the whole party ride 
to church together, a fiddler in attendance, and at the conclusion of the ceremony they all 
proceed to some neighbouring alehouse where many a flowing bumper is drunk to the 
health of the happy pair. Thus inspired they set off full speed towards the future residence 
of the bride, where a handkerchief is presented to the first who arrives. In Craven,' he 
continues, * after the service is over a ribbon is offered as the winner's prize, either in a foot 
or a horse race. Should any of the competitors, however, omit to shake hands with the 
bride, he forfeits the prize, though otherwise entitled to win. Whoever first reaches the 
bride's habitation is ushered into the bridal chamber, and, after having performed the cere- 
mony of turning down the bed-clothes, he returns, carrying in his hand a tankard of warm 
aUj to meet the bride, to whom he triumphantly offers the cup he bears, and by whom in 
return he is presented with the ribbon as the trophy of his victory.' From a MS. I have 
been permitted to make use of it appears that much or all of what is thus described is ' still 
practised at St. Helen's, Auckland, and other villages in Durham : only the handkerchief is 
supposed to be a delicate substitute for the bride's garter, which used to be taken off as she 
knelt at the altar ; and the practice being anticipated the garter was generally found to do 
credit to her taste and skill in needlework, and was made the chief prize at the ensuing 
sports.' In Clevel. and the neighbouring district the hot ale (see Hot-pots), duly sweet- 
ened and spiced, was presented by the friends of a bridal party at some point or points of the 
return journey from church. * This custom is upheld in full force at Robin Hood's Bay, 
near Wliitby ; and as many as twelve Hot-pot8 have been brought forth and partaken of 
in the one-mile distance between the church and the town.' Wb. Gl. The foot-race, or, as 
it is now more commonly designated, raxming for the ribbon, is by no means fallen 


into desuetude in Clevel. ; indeed, it is almost too much to say it has totally superseded the 
horse>race. Within twenty or twenty-five years these races were hotly contested in Danby 
by mounted men, two or three of whom, together with their steeds, were well known for 
their many racing exploits on such occasions. The writer has met with an old and dim 
tradition that in days gone by, the race was always from the churchyard gate to the 
Bride-door, and that the prize was not barely the bride's garter, but the added 
privilege of taking it himself from her leg as she crossed the threshold of her home. The 
Heeat-pots of the Dales, no less than the potations of ale in Ciunberland and Craven 
emphasized by Brockett; the mounted cavalcade; the rapid riding (comp. brullup, or 
brutUaup^ hasty thronging to a wedding; brudguma-reid^ the bridegroom's journey with 
a mounted cavalcade to the bride's-house), — all point explicitly to Northern customs. 
Comp. also the following : — ' The most ancient mode of wooing had at least the merit of 
simplicity: it consisted in carrying off the desired object by physical force. There are 
traces of the custom in a game or ceremony still occasionally practised on the marriage of 
a Welsh peasant. After the wedding, the bridegroom mounts on horseback and takes his 
bride behind him. A certain amount of ** law" is given them, and then the guests mount 
and pursue them. It is a matter of courtesy not to overtake them, but whether overtaken 
or not, they return with their pursuers to the wedding feast.' Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. p. 155 ; 
Notes and Queries, xi. 415 ; Anglo-Saxon Home, p. 22, and note. To the above may be 
added, from Jam., that to * ride the bruse or broose ' is to ride a race on horseback at 
a wedding. * The custom,' he says, * is still preserved in the country. Those who are at a 
wedding, especially the younger part of the company, who are conducting the bride from 
her own house to the bridegroom's, often set off at full speed for the latter. This is called 
'* riding the bruse :" he who first reaches the house is said ** to win the bruse." ' For some 
time, the author states, he thought the word bruse must be closely connected with some 
ancient word signifying a wedding, or relation to a wedding ; but that he changed his view on 
meeting with the following account of a custom common in the N. of Engl, seventy or eighty 
years ago. * Four young men, with their horses, were waiting without : they saluted the 
bride at the church-gate, and immediately mounting, contended who should win what they 
called the *' Kail ;" that is, a smoking prize of spice-brotb which stood ready prepared to 
reward the victor in the race.' Query, was it kail, or ale (yall)? Was it • barley-bree' or 
ordinary * brose*? 

Bride-waiiiy sb. A waggon, loaded with household goods, to be 
conveyed from the bride's father's house to the bridegroom's. 

* down. Good speed, good speed, old Geoflry now, and unto thee good day. 

Ah 've got a tale to tell to thee as we go on the way ; 
For Ah 'm to be tha' son-i'-law an' marry ihah lass, Margery : — 
What portion you will give to her, discover Ah pray to me. 
Oeoffr. Wheeah I ma dowther shall ha' hawf of a' Ah hez, except ma' grizzle meear : 
She 's have a bridewain o' t' best : she 's have a' she s'ud. Ah decleear.' 

From a MS. copy of the Egton Sword Dance Interlude. 

* Mr. Marshall observes that formerly great parade was exhibited in connection with the 
bridewain. The waggons were drawn by ** ten, or perhaps twenty pair" of oxen garlanded 
with ribbons, while a young woman sat at her spinning wheel in the centre of the load, and 
the friends of the parties increased the gifts as the procession went on.' Wb. Gl. ' In 
Cumberland,' sa3rs Mr. Brockett, * it is a custom for the friends of a newly married couple 
to assemble, upon invitation given, and after partaking of " cold pies, furmity and ale, to 
join in various country pastimes." The bride and bridegroom are then placed in two 
chairs, the former holding a pewter dish on her knee, half covered with a napkin. Into 


xli^ disb every persoa present makes it a point to pat something ; and these offerings occa- 
sionally amouut to a considerable sum. I suppose it has obtained the name of wain from 
a very aucient custom, now obsolete in the North, of presenting a bride who had no great 
stock of her own, with a waggon-load of furniture and provisions. On this occasion the 
horses were decorated with ribbons.' In Northumberland such a waggon is styled the 
• plenishing-wain/ To this I may add that some forty or fifty years since it was the custom 
here to place one of those curious and handsome black oak cabinets or presses, not long 
since conmion in the Dales, well stored with the necessary Ghraithing or Qear for a newly 
married couple, in a Wain, and harnessing to it several yoke of oxen gaily garlanded, to 
drive it as a part of the bridal procession to the church. Arrived there it was lifted off and 
carried within the church porch, remaining there the whole time daring which the service 
was going on. It was essential that the waggon should travel along the ordinary church- 
road, and not make short cuts, or other deviations from the established route. One such 
Bridewain, which took its departure for the church from Danby Castle, is specially men- 
tioned by my informant as having had no less than sixteen oxen yoked to it. 

It ii interesting to find traces of the same custom in Normandy, as well as in other 
districts indebted to the Danes for no small infusion of their present population. 

Brief, sb. A document carried by one who solicits pecuniary assist- 
ance, under circumstances of loss or calamity ; a begging petition. 

O. N. brdf; S. G. bref; Dan. brev. The Brief in former days was the recognised or for- 
mal mode of seeking assistance, whether on behalf of communities or individuals, towards 
the performance of works to which their unassisted means were inadequate. Thus, to 
mention but one instance, the inhabitants of Scarborough, when the parish church had been 
partially destroyed during the siege of the castle, ' were under the necessity of having re- 
course to a Brief, in 1660, 12 Charles II, to enable them to rebuild it.' Hinderwell's Sear- 
borough, p. 103. Many Briefs, duly signed by minister and churchwardens, may commonly 
be seen still in course of circulation through the country side in Clevel., sometimes to help 
the bearer replace his * lahtle coo,' or the horse he carried on his trade with, or the furniture 
or stock lost by a fire, &c. 

Brigg, sb. A bridge ; a quasi- natural pier projecting into the sea. 

O. N. bryggia, a bridge, a pier ; Sw. brygga, a bridge ; Dan. brygga, a pier ; A. S. brycg, 
hricgy &c. 

* But ackerd fields, an' narrow riggs. 
They 've spoiled us quite for building briggs* CastiUo*» Poems, 

* Do boote to brugges 
That to-broke were.' P, Plougbm. p. i^g, 

Brigg, vb. To bridge ; to build a bridge over a stream, &c. 

Brigg-stane, sb. i. A stone culvert laid across a Gktte-stead, or 
carried beneath a road, the upper stones, or CovererSy of which are of 
sufficient length to span the entire width of the water-way. 2. Each 
of the single stones thus employed. 

Brim, breme, v. a. and n. i. As applied to a sow; to desire the 
boar. 2. As applied to the boar; to serve the sow. 

O. N. brimi or brjme, flame. Comp. A. S. bremman, to be hot, furious, raging, vehe- 
ment. Hald. gives the word bl<gubrytni as signifying the first enjoyment of coition by 


newly married people : a use of the word hrinu exactly coincident with that of our local 
wofd. The following passages may serve to illustrate the transition of thought and sense 
from flame, heat, to we heat of passion or lust. 

' Ant spreche in ham sprekes of lustes swa lu'Sere thet ha forheme'S in wilS ant )>urh )>e 
hrhnt abUnde'S,' SiitUt Marb. p. 15 : and strike in em sparks of lust so lither (bad) that 
they bum away inwardly, and through the burning go blind. 

* Then spake the turke vith wordes thraw, 
Saith, " Come the better of your tow (two) 
though ye be breme as bore." ' 

To which Bishop Percy's note is, • brwu, i. e. fierce ;* Mr. Fumivall's, * One of the com- 
monest phrases in early romances.' 

* I see the bull dothe bull the cow ; 
and shall I liue a maiden still ? 
I see the bore doth brim the sow ; 

and yet there is neuer a lacke for gill.' 

Percy's Loose and Humorous Songs, p. 29. 

Note also, — * And erOe brimm and beren dede.' Story of Gen, and En, p. 4. See also 
lb, p. 33. 

Briaalingy adj. Brisk, blowing freshly; of the wind. 

Under Breezt Mr. Wedgw. quotes Fr. brise, a cool wind ; It. brezxa, a cold and windy 
mist or frost. And he adds, * The origin is the imitation of a rustling noise, as by the 
Sc. brissle, properly to crackle, then to broil, fry.' Our word then approaches the proper 
meaning of brissle very nearly, denoting the mitigated rushing or whizzing of the wind. 
Cf. Sw. D. brisa, to msh. along hastily ; brusa, id. 

' A canny brissling wind : 't 11 soon dry t' land.' 

Broach, broohe, sb. i. The spire, or steeple, of a church. 2. The 
instrument, or spindle, on which yarn used to be wound. 

The leading idea in each of the applications of the word (as also in a spit, a skewer ; 
besides those above given) is of pointedness. Wood splintered or broken presents instances 
of such pointedness : hence the p. p. broeen, from brecan, to break, is taken as the origin of 
broebe. Bofw. quotes the Fris. word brok as meaning a fragment or broken piece. Comp. 
Fr. broebe, a spit ; Welsh procio, to thrust, stab ; Gael, brog, to goad, to prick ; and also 
E. brooeb. Pr, Pm. * Broebe for a thacstare (see our Thaok-prods) : Broebe, or spete ; 
Broeiyn or lettyn a vessel a broche ;' piercing it, i. e. with some pointed instrument. 

* Then broyled and broaebl on a buchers pricke 
The kidney came in of a holy sister.' 

Loose and Humorous Poems, p. 4a. 
' As kenspack as a cock on church broacb,* Wb, Ql, 

Brook, sb. The badger {Meles taxus), 

Dan. brok; A. S. broe; Erse broe; Welsh and Cornish broek. See Jam. in ▼. Broakit, 

Brooky sb. The froghopper or cuckoo-spit insect {Aphrophora spu- 
maria); the latter popular name being due to the froth in which the 
creature envelopes itself when in the pupa-state. 

Welsh broeb, foam. 

' Ah fweeats like a broeh* 


BrooUe, bruokle, adj. Easy to be broken, frail, brittle. 

O.Sw. braekeUg; Sw. brdcklig: Sw. and O. Dut. brokd; Q, hrbeklig, Comp. S. Jutl. 
brok, broken pieces of bread ; Pr. Pm. * Brokdoi, or frecf (brokyl, brokill). Fragilis. 

* Ay, thae pankins at is getten oot in t* hones, — they 's desput bruckU for seear/ 

Brog, V. n. To browse ; to Crop the short herbage or small hedge- 
shoots, as cattle do. 

Almost certainly a frequentative from a vtrb signifjring to break, crush, bruise ; e. g. S. G. 
brtteha^ Sw. brdcka, A. S. hrican, Dan. brMt, &c. Comp. Sw. D. broggOt to break or 
crush, reduce to fragments or small pieces. In fact, the standard word browse is itself 
probably referrible to an analogous origin. Sec Wedgw. in v. Browse,' and also under 
Brake, 2. ; where he collates O. E. brogt a iwampy or bushy place ; O. Fr. brogUle, 
bregille, broel, &c., copse-wood, cover, brush-wood; Prov. Germ, gebroge, gebhUbe, 
a brake, thicket. Comp. our definition. 

Broken-bodied, adj. Ruptured, afflicted with hernia. 

Comp. Dan. brok, Sw. briek, a rupture; A. S. 6roM<f, afflicted with a rupture; and 
Germ, gebroeben ; Sw. D. brakUig, braikier, id. 
Cf. Pr. Pm, * Brostyn man, yn >e cod. Hermotus.* 

• He 's broken4>odied V baith sahds.' 

Brole, browl, sb. i. An impudent girl; a htttsy, bold and tmblush- 
ing. 2. A saucy, forward child. 

Hall, gives * brol, a child or brat, A. S. ;' but I know not on frhat ground. Our word 
seems always used in an offensive sense, and I am doubtful whether to refer it — not directly 
to £. brawl, but— to some such origin as Dan. br^le, to roar, to bdlow (cf. O. N. bralla, 
Dan. D. braUa, to talk at the top of one's voice ; Germ. bruUen, Sw. trA/a ; in which case 
the idea is primarily that of one who is loud and violent in word, passing on then to the 
sense given in our definition, and hi the following example from Wb. Gl.-^* Thoo *s a braz- 
xened young broud*); or to Welsh brawl, a shooting out, an offshoot; in which case a 
child is the primary meaning. 

The word occurs twice in P. Plougb, precisely in our first sense :^ 

' Now mot ich soutere hyt tone 
Seten to schole, 
And ich a beggeres broi 
On the book leme.' (p. 494.) 

* I dorste have leyd my lif. 
And no lasse wedde 
He sholde have be lorde of that lond. 
And also kyng of that kith 
His kyn for to helpe, 
The leeste brol of his blood 
A barones piere.' (p. 55.) 

Brough, bruff, sb. A faint luminous ring or disk about the moon, 
technically called a * corona.' 

Jam. supposes the name brougb to have been given to this appearance * because of its 
circular form, or resemblance to the encampments so designated ;' from O. N. and O. Sw. 


Unrgt A. S. horgt burb. Still, it may be expedient to notice a word yet current in Icebiid : 
* RoM'btutgur, or storm^rings, formed about the moon.' Iceland, Se. and Sagas, Intisod. 
xzzi. ; and Hald. gives rosa-baugr, a circle about the sun or moon ; although baugr can 
scarcely be the origin of our word, unless it has passed through a stage of great corruption. 
Comp. bur in Hall., and burr in Lineolns. Gl. 

Bitow-band, sb. A leathern strap, passing across the forehead of 
the bearer, by which the Fish-creel is suspended. 

Browl, V. n. To scold, to urge a demand in violent or abusive terms. 

* When these three women 's brought to bed and after thee does browl. 
Thou must reply immediately I Imow ye not at all.' MS. Sw. Dance Interlude. 

Another reading is, ' and round thee thae does browl.* As the person advised is * the 
Lusty Miller,' who has seduced his bndlady, her daughter and her servant, each under 
a promise of marriage, the idea in the word browl is apparent enough. Probably the vb. 
is derived from the sb. See preceding word. 

Brown-leemers or learners, sb. Brown or ripe nuts that separate 
or slip easily from the husk or hull. Wh. Gl. simply says ' large fil- 
berts/ without specifying any degree of ripeness, which is insuflScient 
See Learn. 

Brock, suggests, not too happily, that learners may be les rnUrs, the ripe ones. It is 
simi^y gliders or slippers. Hall, says, ripe nuts which leave the husk readily are called 
brtnoH'sbuUers, The sense is the same. See our Blitirly Bliool, or Blioll, to slip, glide« 

Bmff, adj. Full-faced and florid or fresh-looking ; hearty in look and 
manner ; loud and rather rough, or more than jolly, important 

Comp. Sw. D. borger, borg, berg, fuU-grown, strong, hearty; byrg, burg, byrgr, setf- 
sufficient, confident, self-satisfied. These words are all derivatives, with secondary mean- 
ings, from S. G. borgare, civis, one possessed of real rights and importance, therefore ; and 
borga, to act as bail or surety. See S. G. berga ; O. N. biarga ; A. S. beorgan, 

Brully, sb. i. A broil, squabble, disturbance. 2. Moderate roughness 
or motion of the sea. 

O. Sw. brylla, to disturb, create a disturbance. BryUa or briUa is still used in the 
same sense in Sw. D. Ihre quotes as synon3rms or derivatives. Arm. brella ; Eng. br(nl ; 
Fr. brouUler; ItaL imbrogliare. 

Brummel-nosed, adj. Having a nose with the characteristic signs 
of intemperance, purple and granulated, like the Bramml or Brumm'L 

Brummels, brum'ls. See Brambles. 

Brunt, adj. i. Abrupt, precipitous, steep. 2. Blunt, unceremonious, 
abrupt, in manner. 

Probably the same word as brant or brent ; or, if not, from S. G. bryn, vertex montis, 
prsBcipitium ; for comparison with which Ihre quotes O. N. bruna, to lift up, or exalt one- 
self; adding, that he looks upon bryn as denoting whatever prominently overtops other 
things near. Comp. Sw. D. bryni, a bank, or steep hill. 

3. * He 's a bit 6rMn/-mannered ; but he 's not a bad sort.* 

L 2 


Brussel, sb. Pr. of E. bristle. 

Another instance of the change of i into u, and as compared with Sw. horsi, Sw. D. husi, 
horste, Dan. bersitf Dut. borstel, also of the transposition of r and its vowel. Comp. Pr. 
Ptn, • BfystylU, or brustylle (burstyll). Seta,* 

Brussen-heartedy adj. Broken-hearted. See Heart-brussen. 

Bnissen-kited, adj. Possessing a very protuberant, or swollen-look- 
ing abdomen. See Kite. 

Brussen-outy adj. Covered with blotches, or pimples, or sores. 

* He 's hrussen-out wV lahtle water-blebs all ower his body.' 

Bnisten, pcpl. (pr. brussen). Used adverbially ; as in 

* •• Brussen-hig ;** exceedingly stout or corpulent.' Wb. GL 

* ** Brussen-bTeezdwsLys ;" about as broad as long, for excess of fat.' lb, 

Brosten-upy adj. Reduced to smaU pieces, pulverised, as bread by 
satiated children ; clods by frost, or the roller and harrows ; crockery- 
ware by a fall, &c. 

Buch, butoh, v. n. To act as a butcher; carry on the trade of 
a butcher. 

Mr. Peacock gives the vb. buteb as in use in N. Lonsdale. It seems to be simply 
derived from the sb., formerly spelt bocbouret bucber, 

BuckheadB, sb. The live stems or stumps of a thorn hedge after 
the branching heads have been cut off, leaving the stumps to shoot forth 

The word is probably due to, or expressive of, the idea of shooting forth from the head 
into many branches, as the horns of the buck do. And from the noun is taken the verb 
buck-bead, to lop. See Hall. 

Budge, V. a. and n. i. To move or be moved, as a nail in a wall, 
or a screw in its socket (or female) or in a piece of wood. 2. To 
lower or abate (in a demand, or price asked). 

E. budge is usually connected immediately with F. bouger. Looking to the sense our 
word takes, I am disposed to collate O.N. bjuga, buga, to master, get the better of; 
the primary meaning of the word being to bend, to make to bow. Comp. Dan. bugte, 
bugt, S. Jut. D. bege, bagge, to bend, to sway. Comp. also the O. N. phrases, aka 
einum d bug: in fugam pellere; almost literally, to make him budge; enginn btfir mir 
sva a bug ekit, sem J>m : no one has ever made me budge as you have. 

I. * Ah caan't budge 't a hair-breed : it 's stiff as a stithy ;' of any object fixed in another. 

* It 's gran'est drag at iwer Ah seen : 't weeant budge for now't ;' of a Coleman's Culti- 
vator, which passed steadily on in its work at the same level, however hard the ground. 

3. * Price is fower pun', an* he weeant budge a hau'pny.' 

Buer, buver, sb. A gnat. 

This word is probably derived from the same root as the Germ, p/eiffer^ to pipe, to 
whizz. Comp. S. Jutl. pibe, sounded pi/. Kohy p. 1 18. In some Sw. districts also, pipt 


pivi. Thus the name would mean the piper. Piping is a north-country word 
for * the noise made by bees preparatory to swarming/ Hall. ; a peculiarly sharp buzzing : 
and the word is certainly very applicable to the sound emitted by the gnat. 

Bugh, sb. (pr. bufe or beeuf ). A bough. Compare the pronunciation 
of plough, eneugh. 

Doubtless this form or pronunciation of bougb is preserved in the following stanza :— 

* But Robin he walkes in the greene fforrest 
as merry as bird on bughe, 
But he that feitches good Robin's head 

heele find him game enoughe.' Percy's Fol, MS, i. p. 19. 

Boll, V. a. and n. i. To serve a cow, as a bull does. 2. To desire 
the bull, as a cow does ; to shew symptoms of such desire. See quota- 
tion under Brim. 

BtQlaoe, sb. The wild plum, or 'wild bullace' of botanical works 
{Pnmus tnsiiiiia): * fruit globular, austere, black with blue bloom.' 
Neither to be confounded with the sloe, nor with the ordinary fruit 
known as Bnllaoe, which is green, with a partial russet tinge when ripe. 

Pr, Pm. * Bdas tre. Pepulus.* Also * A bulas tre. Ptpulus.* Cath. Angl, 
The word is no doubt due to the same origin as httll (Pa^), huUet^ ball, &c., and simply 
expnuiyt of the spherical shape of the fruit 

Bull-dance, sb. The festivities or merry-makings of the country 
people on occasion of * Cattle Shows,' or Agricultural Exhibitions. Wh. GL 

Bull-flEkees, sb. (pr. bull-feeaces). The turfy hair-grass {Aira ccBspi- 
/osa); called also, as it appears from Hall, 'Bull-fronts' and * Bull's- 
forehead': probably from some supposed resemblance between the 
manner of its tufty growth and that of the hair on the bull's forehead. 

Bullock, V. a. i. To bully, to address another with violently abusive 
language. 2. To use loud unmeasured tones and terms in speaking. 

I. * Noo, thoo lap oop ! Ah' wean't bide hae mair o' thah bullockin\* 
S. * I should like him better without all that bidlocking: Wb, Ol. 

Bullocking, adj. Loud-tongued ; overbearing, imperious in word. 

Bulls, sb. The crossbeams of the harrow in which the teeth or 
tines are inserted. 

Bui, pi. buller, kaldes de tr€ur paa barven bvori ttenderm indnBUtt : but, pi. btdler, 
the name by which arc called the beams of the harrows in which the teeth are set ; Jutl. 
and Sjxlland. Molb. Dan. D. Diet. Comp. Sw. D. 60/, a plank; slaa-bol, the runners 
of a sledge, the gunwale of a boat, its planking. I do not find this word in Hall., or in 
any of the Yorkshire Glossaries, though it is common throughout a wide district in the 
North and East Ridings ; nor yet in Jam. It presents one more instance such as Begff, 
flan, peen, skare on, &c., of the singular illustration thrown by the Scaud. dialects 
on our Yorkshire forms of the Northumbrian dialect. 


Bnll-seg, sb. A bull castrated after having arrived at full matnritf. 

See 8«gg. None of the derivations hitherto proposed for this word has been the leMt 
Mtisfactory. Probably the suffix stg refers to the alteration which has been made in the 
hcasff power or spirit, or both. And in this connection we may note, not only the Crav. 
words ag'biad, a blockhead; stg-kitt, an over-grown and greedy youth— one, therefore, 
who is proverbially neither active, nor sharp or bright; A. S. seeae, P>g^» l*zy, slow; 
O. hf. uigla, animal tardum et lentnm ; but also the fact that with setg or t€eg, a boar 
castrated after arriving at maturity, Molb. couples setg or stg, a lazy, indolent drawler. 

BnU-spink, sb. The chaffinch {Fringilla ccBlebs). 

The word tpink occurs in the Sw. names of birds in several instances. Thus gid'Spink, 
the greater tom-tit ; and Pennant quotes golspittk as applied in Faun, Stiee, to the yellow- 
hammer. See Qold-ipink. It is worthy of notice, that btyfiu is the Sw. name of the 
chaffinch, or 8pink : the prefix bo possibly answering to our hvJl. The name qpink seems 
to be applied, with some prefix or qualifying word, to the mouatain-findi, goldfinch, 
yellow-hammer, and chaffinch, in the north of EngUnd. 

BuU-ttang, sb. The dragon-fly. 

Dull, here, Is, It is likely, expressive of size or power (see Ridi.) ; as also that siang 
Implies the supposed power of the insect in question to sting, to inflict a venom-tainted 

Cificture. See Flying-ether and itang. Comp. also the name given by the fisher- 
;yi to the weever, vis. Btang-flah. 

Bum, bumble, v.n. (pr. bumml). To hum or buzz, like the 
humblc-bco, or like a top. 

<). N. bumla ; Pr, Pm, * Bomhon as been {hummyn or hmmbym). Bomhizo, bombHo ;' Sw. D. 
bumlii, bumbtii, to give a dull sound like an empty cask; Germ, bomtium or bumnun, 
hnmrntln, bummtln^ to give a dull reverberating sound, to buss. Jam. quotes also Dut. 
btrntMH, to resound. * Bumblar i tuMHtmm * is a phrase given by Hald. Comp. Teut. 
bomntih, a drone ; the name taken from the sound, doubtless. 

Bum, bumm'l, sb. The humming or buzzing noise emitted by the 
Ikjc, drone, or top. 

Bumbla-barflmi sb. A horse-collar made of reeds or rushes, as 
dUUnguiiihed from a leather Barflm. Wh. GL 

\UW. gives bumblii as signifying rushes in Lmcolnshire, which explains the first part of 
the word ; for the other, see Barfam. 

Bumble-bee, sb. (pr. bumm'1-bee). The general name for the va- 
rieties of the humble-bee family. Comp. the name quoted by Brock, for 
tlte same insects — * humbler ;' and also the name ' bum-clock/ as applied 
to tl»e beetle, which makes a loud humming noise in its evening flight 

* The bum-clock hummed wi' lazy drone.' Bums. 

Bumble-kitee, bummel-kiteSi sb. Common blackberries. See 

It is not all plain sailing suggesting a derivation for this word. Brock, gives it as a 
Pufiiam word ; Hall, quotes it ; and it appears in Wb, Gl, It is also found in the iMdi 
Ol. ; tMit there \n a totally different sense — that of an unluckily clumsy person. A child. 


by tome awkwardness or carelessness, upsets a table covered with crockery, and is at once 
greeted as a * bumblt-kUt.' Kite in Clevel. usually means 6«//y, while bumble or 
Inmimel imports a buzzing or humming sound. But, then, humble-foot means a thick 
foot; bumbU-tiaff, a thick staff: so that it is possible that in Buxumel-kite there may 
be a reference to the form of the fruit, bellying or bulging all round. The simpler 
explanation is, that it refers to the effect produced, by eating them in sufficient quantities, 
in the stomach of the eater ; namely, no little rumbling, or bumxnling. 

Bumbore, sb. The gad-fly {(Esirus bovis). See Bree. 

The prefix is the same as in buxumel-bee, hum-clock. See Bum, bumm'L The latter 
part of the word is doubtless due to the piercing or boring process passed through when the 
msect's eggs are dq>osited, or, at least, to the perforation in the skin in the Warbles. Se^ 
Burtree, Boifetree. 

Bunch, V. a. To kick or strike with the foot or knee ; (never applied 
to an animal). 

Pr, Pm. * Buncbon. Tundo, trudo* Comp. H. Germ, pocbtn, L. Germ, boeben, Dutch 
biukem, S. Jutl. boJte, S. G. boka, banka, Dan. banke, Welsh ytbong. Possibly the Celtic may 
be th^ more direct source of our word. The M in the Jutl. dialect has a somewhat guttural 
sound. Kok. Danske Folk-sp. S. J. p. 65. 

' He bunebed me wiv his foot.' 

* Deean't thee coom na furder, or Ah '11 huncb ;' addressed to a clegjrman at the font in 
a Dale's church, by a juvenile candidate (I) for * Christening.' 

Bunoh-olot, sb. An uncomplimentary name for a farm-labourer or 
his master, nearly equivalent to the soutli-coimtry * clod-hopper.' See 

Buns, btinnons, sb. The dry hollow stems, of the cow-parsnep or 
hogweed (HeracUum sphotufylium), and other like plants. 

A. S. butUf a cane, reed, pipe. Jam. gives both bunwand and bunneris as synonyms of 
the cow-parsnep. The first is identical with our Buxmozui, and the second is simply buu" 
or bum-iuori. The Sw. names of this and like plants at least suggest a comparison of 
them with our names and their A. S. original ; viz. hj'drn'floka, the cow-parsnep, ^*dni- 
/olo, the wild angelica {A, sylvestris), Sw. D. names for the last-named plant are bjenstui, 
bjam-pipa, both meaning bear-pipe or tube; and for the former we meet with bjont-ram^ 
or bears-paw. It may be a matter of enquiry whether there is any real connection 
between A. S. bune and the prefix in all these words. 

Burden, v. a. (pr. bodden). i. To oppress, in the way of imposing' 
too much work for given pay. 2. To charge with or impute to. 

I. ' T' highway maaster hodden* d t' men over sair wi' t' flints ; maist part iv em had 
bralcken mair 'n tweea hund'ed ower mich fur a leead.' 

3. * Ah bodderCd her heavily wi' 't (pregnancy) ; but she steead me out she wam'L' 

Burden-band, sb. A hay-band made of hemp; used to bind bundles 
of hay for conveyance by hand from one place to another ; as from the 
stack to the Byre, at foddering time. Comp. ' Burn-rope, a rope for 
carrying a burden.' Hall. 


Bum, sb. A brook, a stream of water. 

A. S. bume, byma; Gad. bdm, A word very little used in this district. * A bum' says 
Brock, * winds slowly along meadows, and originates from small springs ; while a biek is 
formed by water collected in the sides of mountains, and proceeds with a rapid stream, 
though never applied to rivers that become estuaries ;' a statement which is perhaps hardly 
borne out by facts. Strictly, the difference is simply one of language ; and O. Sw. brunn^ 
O. N. brunnr, &c^ are more significant (as Jam. remarks) of a well-head, or the water of 
it, than of the same water in rapid motion away from the source. Comp. Rietz on Sw. D. 

Burnt-wine, sb. A preparation of port wine, sweetened and spiced, 
offered to the guests at a funeral entertainment See ArraL 

Burr, sb. The stone or other obstacle placed behind the wheel of 
any vehicle going up hill, for the purpose of preventing its recession 
while the horse or horses stop for rest and wind. Properly the wooden 
cylinder or barrel-shaped object with which some waggons are furnished, 
and which is so arranged, by means of a spindle and chains, as always to 
roll in rear of the hind wheel 

Cf. Pr. Ptn. * Birwbt, serde (burrowe). Orbietdtu;* which in the notes Mr. Way con- 
nects with Norf. burr^ our Brough, adopting Jamieson's derivation, and adding that, 
probably, * bttrr of a lance, the projecting circular ring that protected the hand ; and also 
the btirr of a stag's horn, or projecting rim by which it is surrounded close to the head,' 
may be referred to the same derivation : i. e to A. S. bwrg, munimentum. Mr. Wedgw., 
however, with more reason, connects the word burr named in the note under mention— -and 
our word is, I think, certainly coincident with it — as also burr, the flower-bud of hops, with 
Fr. bourgeon, bourjon; O. £. burton, bourion, burjown; Engl, burgeon, the young bud or 
putting forth of a vine, a pimple on the face. Pr. Ptn, form of the verb is burgyn, or 
burryn, and the Lat. definition is germino, Jrondo, gemmo. The idea in 6»rrs Brough, 
is simply that of a ring or annular disk, which applies but badly in the case of our present 

Burr, V. a. To block or stop the wheel of a waggon or cart, when 
going up hill, by placing a stone or other sufficient object behind it, so 
as to prevent its going back. See Burr, sb. 

Burst, v. a. (pr. bost). i. To break up into small fragments, to pul- 
verise. 2. To break. 3. To bruise or crush one's members badly. 

O. N. bnsta ; Sw. and Sw. D. britia ; Dan. briUt, to break, be broken, into fragmentt 
and with a crash. See Hald. Comp. A. S. birtian. Germ. brisUn, to burst, or be burst. 
The signification and ihe conjugation equally correspond with those of the Scand. verl>s : — 

Sw. and Sw. D. britia; brtut; bnuti; broUi, br^, brutia, 

Dan. bri$t§, brast, brusim, 

O. N. brtUa, brati, brotiX, 

Clevel. D. burU (pr. bosi), brati, burti (pr. boti), bmtim (pr. brootttn). 

Comp. • Beate1$ |>e ant butt^ |>e as his ibohte M.' Hali Mtid. p. 31. 

* With mighty mads they the bones to breti.* Kn^hift Tali, 4613. 


* Him gainith neithir, for to get his Iife» 
Vomit upward, ne downward laxatife ; 
AU is to borstin thilke regioun. 

Nature hath there no dominacioun.' lb. 2757. 

* The knight stoode in the middle, and fought, 

that it was great loy to see, 

till his collaine brand brake in his hand, 

and his miUaine knife burst on his knee, 
and then the danish axe burst in his hand first, 

that a sur weapon he thought shold be/ 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 69. 

1 . * Gan thou an' best thae clots i' t' far intak'.* 

* Ay, it wur a noble pankin (cinerary urn). 'T 'war a shamm te bost it all i* bits.* 

2. * Thoo 11 get thah head hrusserty ef thee deean't tak' heed.' 

3. * He *s getten his foot sairly brussen wiv' a wheel gannan ower it.* 

Cf, ' The neighbouris alle, both small and grete. 
In ronne for to gawrin on this man. 
That in a swoune lay both pale and wan, 
For with that fall he brostin hath his arme.' Miller's Talt, 718. 

Bturthistle, sb. The spear, or spear-headed, thistle (Cnictts lanceo^ 

Comp. Sw. D. boltn-tisttl ; where the prefix bolm is expressive of magnitude. It is ques- 
tionable whether the syllable bur originates in the idea of the resemblance between the 
blossom-head of the thistle and the *bur' of the burdock (Dan. borre^ O. Sw. borre^ hard' 
borrt; Sw. hard-borrar^ Sw. D. burrar), or whether it is due to an equivalent to the 60/m, 
biU, bol of the Swedish, and our E. bull. 

Bufiiky sb. A low bush or tuft of a growing plant ; a single or de- 
tached growth, or Bush, of a plant. 

Sw. buskt^ a shrub ; O. N. buskr ; Dan. busk. 

* A Lmg-lmsk* * Sezve-busk,* &c. 

Butty sb. The halibut (Htppoglossus vulgaris), 

Pr. Pm, * Butt fysche. Pecten* In a note Mr, Way adds, * Yarrell, in his Hist, of Br, 
Fisbes, observes that the flounder is called at Yarmouth a butt, which is a Northern term ; 
the name is likewise given by Pennant, but does not occur in the Glossaries of Northern 
dialect.' The tenn* is quite common in this district, applied as in the definition ; not to 
the flounder. 

Butter-soot, butter-sootoh, sb. A superior kind of toffee or hard-^ 
bake, more butter being said to be used in its composition. 

Buzznacking, buzknaoking, pcpl. Gossipping, tattling. 

Probably a popular compound of two words of much the same signification. Hall, gives 
' buz, a report or rumour,' and the phrase * buzzed about' is a common one. To knicbok 
is to talk in an affected way, and may have had a less restricted meaning once. 

* She 's in an' oot t' toon thruff', buzknaehing aboot.' Wh. GL 

By-gang, sb. A by-way, by-road. See G-ang. 

A compound precisely similar to the Dan. bi-tinuy leisure time ; bi-aarsag, subordinate 
cause ; bi-navn, by-name, &c. 



By muoh ; equivalent to ' by a good deal ;' as, — 

* There 'i nit eneugh by mieh* 

By now ; equivalent to * by thii time;' as, — 

* Ah lay he MI be there by now,* 

Cf. * I Me get my horse betimes in the mom, 

by it be break of dty.' Percy's Folio MS, i. p. 41. 

* I hold here a grote she lykys me not weylle 
Bt we parte.' Touma. Myst, p. 148. 

By-past, adj. Bygone, passed by ; used in reference to past time. 

* At all times bypoii.* Wh, GL 

By the time; equivalent to 'past or beyond the time;' fixed, 
namely : as, — 

* They 'r' a lang way by tbtV tobm.* 

Byre, sb. The building, or house, in which the cows are tied up, or 
kept ; commonly, Oow-byre. 

Comp. S. Q. ftur ; O. N. 64r or bfr, &c, and its applications : — S. O. tuifiUmr, a sleeping- 
place (* box-bed* of North Britain); faiabwr, store-chambtr ; pmgfru4mr^ vrcmoi's apart- 
ments ; Dan. yVjr'f-^Mr, bird-cage, &c., in all of which the use of the babiiaadum, which 
is implied in btir is qualified by the prtifix. CoUate Oow-byre wiihfiigU-htir. 

Oab^Jeen, sb. A cloak with a hood to it; as Yfom by females many 
}*ears ago. A corruption of Capuchin. 

C(vtnp. alto Sw. D. knhmA^ a (Vined hood for winter wear, with lappets to fiiU down orcr 
the tVice and tars : Dan. ktihmdt^ N. S. M^na^hootL 

OMidle, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder: applied when the furni- 
ture, ^., of a room, or the house, are, or have been, undergoing the 
process of cleaning, and are not )*et put back into their usual order. 

Comp. Welsh rW, strimx^ battle, tumult : as alst> S« tvH wiUi Gael toOimt^ stir, moTe- 
m«<\t. nx^se : and It with gtml boilui|t. fVime, battle, (Virr. See Wedgw. 

Oadge, V. a. and n. i. To i^ck up and com-ey something portable; 
as ct^rn t\^ the mill, i^rcels K> their destination, te* a. To go about on 
such ai\ errand as m^y furnish something to be carried : h^xre, to beg, 
ti> i^ay the |^rt of a * dinner-hunter/ 

I'hb w\>^i U c\MtH HW<\t with $*f . rwli^ <Ni»rK ci m ^ p^ which bear Hm mhr * to taM^ to 

* tWfY«i away. wlfiiir«k Jani« tayt, * Hm 

1>ut.<^^vMMii« l«^#«i v<fM^M*^« (TM^stMi^^ «ik«r«rrw«v 1^^ nM« «r cwMt^l* m ahogl). 
or. RvHK^i «M^. Ft. tkmm s ^ hunt* * ftv«i the ilnl «(whlch wt ' 


Stfll, Haldorten's verb kiagga, to move as one does when carrjring a burden, may possibly 
suggest another derivation. See Oad^fer. 

* Sc alle ()>at) swypped un-swoljed of )>e sworde kene 
\>zy wer caggtd and kajt on capeles al bare 
& bro>ely brojt to Babyloyn.' E. E. Allit. Poems, B. 1254. 

In Sir Oaw. and Gr, Kny^, it is applied to going heavily, when the heaviness is that of the 
^irit and not of a burden ; 1. 1 792 : — 

• " pat is a worde," quoth )>at wy^i, " ►at worst is of alle ; 
Hot I am swared for so|>e, that sore me Hnkkej ; 
Kisse me now comly, and I shal each he^en 
I may hot moume vpon molde, as may ^at much louyes." ' 

1. ' Ah aims he*s cadging for t' miller at Deeal-end.* 

2. * He niwer diz nowght t' addle *s meat : he nobbut cadges aboot fra spot t' spot, an' 
pikes oop owght he can.' 

Oadger, sb. i. A person employed by a miller to collect the bags of 
com (see Bakings) set aside^ weekly or oftener, by the several farmers 
m the coimtry side, and to convey them to the mill, returning the flour 
on a subsequent cadging visit. 2. Any person who habitually picks 
up matters — not over honestly, perhaps — and conveys them to anodier. 

I. 'What's thoo yan o' Willie M.'s cadgers V said to one among some servants who 
were supposed to carry things, purloined from their master's house, to the W. M. in 

3. * Remember many years bygane. 

When he that ruled us right was slain ; 

Respect to Quality was lost. 

Tinkers and Coblers ruled the rost : 

The Nobles were the Commons' Cadgers, 

The Gentry but the Soldiers' Badgers.' Joeo-^er, Dis. p. 36. 

Caff, sb. (pr. cauff). Chaff. 

A. S. eeaft cef; Germ, kaff; Dutch haf, &c. 

CaflCy, adj. Worthless, mean. 

Caff-hearted, adj. Unprincipled ; of a mean, worthless disposition. 

Caggy, adj. Ill-tempered, ready to quarrel. 

Cf. Sw. D. kagg^ a nun of an evil disposition. It may be open to question if hagg, in 
its turn, be not a provincial form of kargt and through it derived from O. N. Margr^ 

CahL Pr. of Kyle. 

Caingy, adj. Peevish, ill-conditioned, snappish. 

Comp. Sw. D. hangs, h&ng, k&nger, all with meanings more or less approximating to 
ours ; e. g. fiill of fim, wild, pert, petulant. Hall, gives conge, to whine ; as well as eaingelf 
a crabbed fellow. 

* As caingy and cankery as an ill<lep'd cur.' Wb. Gl. 

H 2 


Cake, V. n. To cackle, as geese do. The word is applied also to 
the uneasy-sounding cry uttered by a hen which wants to sit. 

O. N. gvaka, Dan. kv€ekke, to cackle as geese, quack as ducks, do ; also, Sw. D. kauka, 
kdiot kdkd; Norw. kaukt; N. S. kaken; all meaning to emit a high-pitched cry. 

Cake-couping, sb. An interchange of social visits, at which such 
refreshments as cake are consumed ; tea-visits, &c. See Ck>up. 

Calf-bed, sb. The matrix of a cow. Comp. Foal-bed, &c. 

Call, V. a. I. To summon or cry to. 2. To scold, abuse, apply 
opprobrious and angry language to any one. 

In its first or ordinary sense this vb. is used with the prep, on or of subjoined, as in the 
following sentence : — * Upon which, this informer cold on her master's daughter, who cold 
of other people out of the roome below.' York Castle Depositions, p. a02. A woman with 
her child in her arms, and seeing her husband out of the window, would say to it, * Lookstee, 
there 's dadda ! Call ov him, honey t call ov him I ' 

Call of, call on. See under CalL. 

Caller, adj. i. Fresh; of fish. 2. Cool, fresh, refreshing; of the 

Pr. Pm, ' Calvur as samoon, or o>yr fysshe.' * Palsgr. renders it '* caluer of samon, 
escume de saulmon.** This term appears to denote the state of the fish freshly taken, when 
its substance appears interspersed with white flakes like curd.' lb. note. 

Callet, V. n. To scold, to rail angrily. 

* They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs.' Wb, Gl. 

Callet, sb. A scold, a railing, foul-mouthed, or impertinent female. 

Wedgw. gives * Callet, a prostitute,' adducing * Gad. eaile, a girl, hussey, quean, strumpet. 
Fr. caillette, femme frivole et babillarde.' It would be too much to say that Oallet does 
not mean prostitute in any case ; for no doubt it does. Still I think that a stormy, or at 
least loud, use of the tongue is the leading idea in the word ; and unchastity not thought of 
in nine cases out of ten when the word is applied. Chaucer's expression, * A calat of leude 
demeaning,' sufficiently proves that lewdness was not the distinctive quality of a Oallet in 
his time ; and Shakspere's * A callet of boundlesse tongue,' Winter's Tale, Act ii. Scene 3, 
is a telling description of a scold, and could scarcely have been intended to imply the grosser 
accusation : a remark which is equally valid touching both the passages in Henry III 
(Parts II and III), wherein the word occurs. Brock, gives * Callet, to scold ; calleting, saucy, 
gossiping ; a calleting housewife, a regular scold.' Cr. Gl. gives * Callet, to rail ; calletin, 
pert, saucy, gossiping ;' and Wb. Gl. * Callit, to rail, to chide.' See also example to vb. OaUet. 
The Fin. word kallottaa, altA voce ploro, ululo, seems to me much more nearly allied to 
our word than the Fr. word for quail (see Wedgw.), or the words calle, calote, which are 
merely designations of head-dresses. In fact, the word is most likely a derivative from the 
same source which furnished our oall with its peculiar sense (to scold, to abuse), which is 
itself analogous to O. N. kails, derision, mockery. 

Callety, calleting, adj. Scolding, quarrelsome, saucy. 


Calling, sb. Abuse, vituperation, a scolding. 

Calm, adj. (pr. cau'm). Mild, in contradistinction to frosty or sharp. 

• «* Well. I think it is softening a little, James." ** Ay, Ah thinks it 's a bit cau'mer ;" ' 
qx>ken on a perfectly still day, when a thaw appeared to be commencing after the con« 
tinuance of a Storm, or fit of severe weather, with snow, lasting ten or fifteen days. 

Calven-Gow, sb. A cow which has not long since had a calf. 

Comp. Sw. D. ialv-ko, and Dan. halv4tu, both with the same signification. 

Cam, sb. A ridge or long earthen mound ; a hedge-bank. 

O. N. htmbr ; Sw. ham ; Dan. j^am, &c. Hire's remark is, * Saxones de vertice aggeris 
adhibere lolent ;' while the Dan. use is exactly equivalent to ours : hammen paa m digt, or 
dig^^mm. Cf. dikes comb : Gen, and Ex. p. 73. 

Cam, V. n. To form a bank, as for the purposes of enclosure ; to 
throw up a Cam. 

* It *s te nae guid takkan yon bit o* moor in : why there *s nae sods te cam wiv ;* the 
soil is so very poor, no sward has ever formed. 

Cambrel, oambril, sb. A somewhat crooked piece of wood, with 
three or foiu* notches at each end, employed by butchers to keep the 
hind legs of a slaughtered animal apart, and at the same time to form 
a means of suspension. Spelt also cammereU, oaumerill, gambrel, 

Wedgw. quotes Webh campren^ crooked stick, as the origin to which our word is due, 
and which sometimes is met with in the form cambren. Comp. Ir. and Gael, cam ; Bret. 
hamm ; Fr. cambri, arched or crooked ; and also cam', camow-, or camber-nosed, crooked 
or hooked-nosed ; cambril or cctmmerel, the hough of a horse ; cambering, of a ship's 
deck. Sec, 

' Soon crooks the tree 
That good camerii will be.' 

Camden's Remains, Proverbs; Gl, to Fincb. Priory, 

• «< 

As crooked as a gaumeril;*' of a deformed person.' Wb. Gl. 

Can, sb. A tin vessel or utensil, the particular use of which is design 
nated by a prefix. 

Molbedi explains Dan. kande by * a drinking-cup or vessel fashioned with lid, handle and 
lip ;' and then adds — ' any other vessel which has some resemblance in form to a kande ; 
as vand-kande, water-can ; malke-kande, milk-can, &c. ; with which comp. our Milk-oan, 
Water-oan, a watering-pot, &c. 

Canker, sb. Rust ; oxidisation on any metal, but especially iron. 

' Canker,' says Rich., * is cancer differently written. It is applied to anjrthing that eats 
gnaws, corrodes, consiunes ;' and is certainly singularly descriptive of the operation of rust 
or oxidisation upon iron. 

Canker, v. n. To rust, or corrode. 



Cankered, To be, v. p. To be rusted, or corroded 
Cankered, cankery, adj. Cross, sour-tempered, out of humour. 

See Canker, sb. The transition of idea from the fretting effect of rust npon metal, to 
the fretted condition of one's temper, is both natural and graphic. 

* Said they, ** wee had neuer sudi a eankir§d carle. 

Were neuer in our companie." ' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 48. 

Canny, adj. i. Ejiowing, skilful, clever. 2. Prudent, cautious, 
handy. 3. Well-suited, possessing evident or admitted advantages, 

This is a word of very frequent and varied application, which it is difficult to convey by 
dint of definition. Jam. alleges eighteen different senses. I believe, however, the tiiree 
given above may prove sufficiently inclusive. Brockett's remark is, * It refers as well to 
the beauty of form, as of manners and morals ; but most particularly is used to describe 
those mild and affectionate dispositions which render persons agreeable in the domestic 
relations.' But there are two words, sufficiently distinct in themselves, yet confounded 
together, which must be noted before these remarks can become fully apposite ; namely, 
ooxiny and caimy. * The former of these I take to be a near reUtive of die Danish hjmtt 
pretty, &c. ; but our present word to be analogous to S. Q. Jhrnnctr, Sw. hunnig^ Sw. D. 
konnu^ O.N. kunnugr. Old Germ, kunnig, Dan. kyndig; and throu^ them to the several 
verbs whence they are derived, O. Sw. and O. N. kunna, Sw. D. ktmna. Sec. : in most, if 
not all of which, the idea of power as complementary to that of knowledge seems to be 
involved. It is worthy of remark, that oanny seems to be a word of comparatively 
recent growth : it is not met with in Hampole or Tawiul, Mysi., nor yet in Early Englidf 
AUit. Poems, or in Oaw. and ibe Gr, Knyyt; and the earliest authority quoted by Jam. only 
dates from 17 15. ConamOy, however, which is no doubt allied, occurs in Toumd, Mysi. 

' Mervelle, methynk, have I, 
Where ever this bame has bene 
That carps thus eonamOy* (p. 160). 
I. * A canny skeely man.' 

* As canny a workman as iwer Ah see.' 

* A canny lass at 's worth a better spot ;' a higher or better place or situation. 
3. * A canny chap with horses.' 

* A canny au'd carle ; yan wunna get t' blin' sahd o' he.' 

* Gan canny t man I gan canny;* cautiously or gently. 

* A canny spot ;' of one's residence or farm. 

* A canny convenient house.' 

* Ah wi^ Ah 'd bin still at canny Yatton' (Ayton). Margery Moorpooi, 

Gannily, adv. Knowingly, cleverly; cautiously, moderately, gently; 
handsomely, suitably, fittingly. See, tmder Canny, the quotation from 
Townel. Myst. 

Gannyiah, adj. ' Canny' in a slightly modified sense. 

* A eannyisb bit o* ground ;' e g. a fair-tized garden or farm. 

* She brow't him a eannyisb lot o' gear ;' of property. 

Canting, sb. A sale by auction. 

* Cant,' says Rich., * It. incantare ; Fr. eneant or incani. An outrope or outcry of goods 


(Cotgrave). From contort^ to proclaim (a public sale), to sell.' Comp * horse-chanter/ 
a sharper who cries up the merits of a bad horse to the taking in of the unwary. 

Canty, adj. Lively, cheerful, brisk. 

' This word/ sa3rs Jam., * is more modem than cant, and evidently is a derivative from 
it/ Kok, however, gives the Jutland expression hantt seg, to turn oneself in one's bed, 
as a first step in approach to convalescence ; and thence, he adds, hantir, fresh, brisk, hale, 
hearty after recovery from sickness ^i^on/cs, to be set up on end; the metaphor being 
identical with that in Engl. ' set up again.' Our word is nearly related to this Jutl. idiom 
and its general usage, implying a reference to some influence naturally opposed to the quali- 
ties specified : such as age, trouble endured, sickness or privation endured. 

* She 's a caniy au'd deeam for her years ' Wb. Gl. 

(In Norfolk, to cant is to set a thing up on edge. Note to Pr. Pm. p. 60.) 

Cap, v.a. To surpass or excel; to do that which cannot be sur- 
passed ; to astonish by some feat done or statement made. 

O. N. keppa, contendere, certare ; S. G. and O. N. happ, certamen ; &c. The Jutl. word 
kappi is a champion, one who strives successfully, outdoes his competitors ; and, like the 
other Scand. words quoted or referred to, replaces an m with the first of its two p*s {Kok, 
p. 84), which connects our word with kemp, to strive for the mastery (which see) : only, 
in cap the mastery is supposed to be obtained. The parallel forms kippe, kempe, occur side 
by tide in the two texts. Lay, ii. 413. 

* That caps owght that ivver Ah beared ;' beats, or goes beyond. 

* Weel, Ah 's fairly capped ;' amazed, astonished. 

Cape-stanes, oaping-staneB, sb. The several stones of which the 
Gaping, as a whole, is composed. 

Caping, sb. The uppermost or last course of stones in a wall, 
usually dressed to an angle, or perhaps in some cases merely rounded over. 

A. S. cop, cappc; N. Sax. kop ; Germ, hopf, * the prominent or uppermost part of a thing, 
top.' Hilpert. Sw. Dial, hipa, the leathern pad forming the back or top portion in a set of 
harness, affords a curious coincidence with our word. 

* Heo bi'8 ikest sone adun, as ^ leste ston is from ^ tures coppc;* the coping of the 
tower. Aner, Riwle, p. 228. 

Gap-nebbing, sb. The peak or front of a cap which projects 
forward. See Neb. 

Gapper, sb. One that is super-eminent, or easily superior to others 
of the kind ; of both persons and things. 

Gaps, sb. That which cannot be outdone or surpassed ; occurring 
in the common schoolboy phrase, to set one his caps ; i. e. to propose 
some feat which he cannot hope to equal, much less to go beyond. 

In Chaucer's description of the Maunciple, at the close, there is this line (Bell's Chaucer^ 
i. loi): — 

* And 3rit this maunciple sette hem alle her cappt ;' 

to which is appended the note, * To set a man's cap is to cheat him ;' the gist of the whole 
description, notwithstanding, being to shew the eminent superiority of the man described. 
Among his ' moo than thries ten maystres,' * that were of lawe expert and curious,' 


* ther wer a doseyn in an house, 

Worthi to be stiwardes of rent and lond 

Of any lord that is in Engelond, 

To make him lyve by his propre good. 

In honour dettdes, but if he were wood ; 

And able for to helpen al a schire 

In any caas that mighte falle or happe ; 

And yit this maunciple aeite bun alU ber capp$ '* 

could set them their oapi, skilful and experienced as they were, in respect of busineu 


In the Milltr*s Tale, the gist of which is to describe 

* How that a clarke hath set a wrightis eapp* 

the meaning is * got the better of him/ by imposition, namely. 

Cap-8creed> sb. The border or edging of a woman's cap. See 

Car, carr, sb. A flat marshy piece of land tmder natural herbage, 
usually lying at or near the foot of a bank, and, in that sense, low : not 
necessarily low otherwise. Generally used in the plural 

O. N. ktr, hiorr; S. G. kcarr; N. kjerr ; Dan. har. Of the latter word Molb. says, • it is 
originally a Norse word, and is commonly used to express a tract distingoished by depth 
of soil and burdened with accumulated water ; mose, on the other hand, mipljring a wider 
tract, whether wet or dry, possibly overgrown with scrub or trees, and more or loa serrice- 
able for pasture. 

Car, carr, sb. A small wood, or grove, of alders. Usually Alder- 
oar ; and, of course, growing on boggy soil. 

N. J^errtt a small wood, or grove, especially of trees of small sixe ; as oldirkjirrt, alder- 
car, isUrkjem, osier-ground. Current in Helgeland and North TroD<Uijem distikt. Aaseo. 

Carberries, sb. Gooseberries. . 

This is the Northern equivalent of the German slac:5«/-6Mr» = pricUe-plant, and the 
first element due to the same root as ^ors# spnckle-plant ; A. S. gar, O. N. gdr, a javeUn. 
a pointed missile ; N. gar, gam, a point, sharp piece of grass or heath. Wedgw. also 
quotes Fin. kairi, a borer ; and A. S. lu^-, naiu-, nuf-, or fuifihgar, an auger ot wimUe ; 
to which add, Sw. Dial, gere, a point, or pointed piece ; Old Germ, gir, ktr, a pointed 
missile ; Sansc. car a, cam, an arrow. The English gort, both vb. and sb., are very near 
relations ; while, as Teut. analogues of sb. gore, and its sense, nuy be quoted Sw. D. 
gere or gera, Dan. D. gcare, M. H G. gh-e, geer, Sw. gere, geren, gairen. 

The latter words supply the explanation of gair in the 'Jew's Daughter' and 'Young 
Johnstone' ballads (Bell's Early Ballads, pp. 190, 173): 

* And she has ta'en out a little penknife 

Hanging low down by her gair ; 
She has twined the young thing of his life, 
A word he never spake mair.' 

* But young Johnstone had a wee penknife 

Hung low down by his gair.* 


Comp. Sw. D. sarkO'giri, skorte^irt, shirt- or smock-lappet, or ' tails ;' and in the 
O. Dan. Transktion of the Bible, 1550, Hag. ii. la, * If any one bear holy flesh in the 
ildrt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, &c.,' it stands * Om nogen h<Br 
billigi hod i tin kjortd gtre^ oe rbrdt sitUn nut tamme gere, brod, &c/ In Luther's Bible, 
also, the words are, ' in seines kleides geren,* Molb. Dansk. Glossar, 

Card-up, v. a. To sweep up and make neat or tidy ; applied to the 
fire-side, and consisting in the process of removing or shovelling up the 
fallen ashes. 

S. O. kitra, to collect, to sweep together. Ihre gives an example of the use of this word 
which leaves no doubt as to the correctness of our derivation : ittra eld under grytan, to 
gather together the scattered coals under the pot. Sw. D. hrannd-kare, brannd-iiira, means 
Uie oven-rake for withdrawing the hot coals or embers from the oven. Comp. our Ass-oard. 

Carkiiig, adj. i. Anxious, apprehensive, discontented. 2. Careful, 

It would almost seem that there are two vocables instead of only one— one of Germ., 
the other of Northern affinities — here : A. S. care^ care ; cearig^ careful, anxious ; O. Sax. 
mod^barag, sorrowful, for the first definition ; and for the second, O. N. kargTt energetic, 
pig-headed, grasping; Dan. karrig, grasping, niggardly ;- Sw. D. karg^ (i) industrious, 
(a) keen, (3) greedy; which latter word Rietz connects with the vb. kara, to collect or 
sweep together, to scrape up : a phrase, by the way, often used of greedy money-gatherers. 
Wedgw. also adduces W. careus, solicitous ; Fin. karkds, greedy ; words which help to shew 
tiiat our ftft^Mng is a word of very wide relationships. 

Cf. ' Christ bad them be both simple and slie 

And earke not for no cattell.' Plowman* s Tale, p. 180. 

Carl, sb. A coimtry fellow, a clownish person : often with the idea 
of age associated. 

O. N., Sw., Dan., M. O., karl ; Germ, kerl ; A. S. carl, a male, man, married man, old 
man, servant man, See, : the idea of a male human being being the leading one. Wb, Gl. 
states that earl is a term often * sneeringly applied to both old men and old women.' Comp. 
Pr. Pm, * Carle, or cberle, bondeman, or woman ;' as also the parallel forms in the extract 
following, which occur repeatedly in the same page : — 

* Whan these kynges herde the wordes of the karll thei be-heelde the oon the tother, and 
than thei seiden. What deuell who hath tolde this cberllf Merl, p. 168. 

Carlings, sb. Grey peas steeped all night in water and fried the 
next day in fat or butter. 

They are eaten on the Fourth Sunday in Lent, which is called Carling Sunday, the other 
Sundays in Lent having also their own peculiar designations, preserved in the old rhyme,—- 

* Tid, mid, misers, 
Carling, palm, and paste-egg day.' 
The custom is still so far retained that bags of grey peas, specially provided to meet the 
demand, may be seen in the country shops as the day draws on. It is difficult to come to 
any conclusion with respect to the origin of this word. It is certain that the Fifth Sunday 
in Lent was called * Care^ or Carr-Sunday' from a remote time. Ihre quotes Kcerueunmt' 
dag as the name of the Sunday in question, and gives one explanation of the name thus :— 
* Lundius derives it from kara or Hara, fluid pitch or tar, with which folks are wont to 
daub their doors in the sign of the cross.* Another authority — * Vetus interprcs Evangeli- 
orum ' — is then quoted, who states that this Sunday has its name from the diarges (i«ro- 
malomyn) and purposed proceedings against Jesus Christ framed by the Jews, as recorded 



in the Gospel of this dty, and which they brought to fbU effect in His deatfa-pasiion 'on 
Good Friday. 

Again, Hospinian states that the German names Karrwoehen and Karrfireytag, for 
Passion Week and Good Friday, depend upon the German word harrt which signifies a fine 
or penalty for an offence committed, or rather a satisfaction or atonement in Ueu of sodi 
penalty. Besides these three suggestions as to the possible meaning of cart ot earr in 
the name in question, Ihre adds, and in reference to Marshall's statement, that * Carr- or 
Care-Sunday' was not unknown to the English, that he does not feel certain the word 
should not be referred to some other source, such as gara, preparaticm, or kara^ grief» 
concern. Yet again : a word ekira in the sense of faraUa is adduced from SchiUci^t 
TbnattruSt and having reference to * crimina et scelera, quse, poenam sanguinis inogantia* 
efficiebant ut homines malefid nov& pomp& morti ducerentur.' From all of which six 
suggestions of an origin for etar* or earr only one thing is apparent, and that is, that 
the said origin is utterly obscure and uncertain. Next, it would seem that the Fifth 
Sunday in Lent was sometimes called * Carle Sunday,' as well as ' Care- or Garr-Sonday/ 
and eventually, at least, ' Carling Sunday ;' and the question is, whether the Sunday ao 
called took its name from the Carlings, or the Oarlizigs took theirs hem. the Sunday. 
In the first place, there is no evidence and no analogy to connect carling with care or carr^ 
whichever of the significations above adduced be selected: all analogy is against such a 
connection. The evidence on the other side is scanty and not very consistent. In die old 
Scottish song, * Fy I let us all to the Briddel,' quoted in Sir H. Ellis' Brandts AnHjmsieM, 
and by Jam., where mention is made of ' Carimgs both sodden and ra/ it is apparent that 
grey peas are called carlings before they are cooked. The Leeds Oi., however, makes a 
vb. of carl; a vb. which describes the processes that go to make up the cooking. It gives 
' Carled peas ; grey peas, steeped all night in water and fried the following day with butter. 
Often a substitute for garden peas.* llie probabUity seems to be, that darUzigs is an old 
popular name for grey peas, perhaps in reference to their old-fashioned homeliness : and in 
the like spirit to tlut which in North Britain calls the last handful of com cut in a late 
harvest the carline; and, in Sweden, a dish of potatoes peeled before they are boiled, 
kdrringa-bagg ; kdrringa being merely another form of kallmg, and that of kSrlmg or 
karling, the original of Scot, carline. The connection of peas, as a viand, with the Fifth 
Sunday in Lent is another matter ; like that of pancakes with Shrove Tuesday, or croii- 
buns with Good Friday: but being so connected, Care^unday might easily pais into 
Carling-Sunday^ and then the verb earl be mistakenly coined from the noun. 

Carry, sb. A kind of waggon with solid floor but unplanked sides; 
these being, usually, only rails. Used for carting stone, wood, ftc, and 
also in hay and harvest-time. 

O. N. herra ; S. G. hSrra ; Dan. carre^ &c., a car or rude carriage. 

CasingB, cassons, sb. The droppings or dung of animals dried for 
fuel. Also written cazzons. 

O. N. ^05, a little heap ; hasa, to pile in a heap ; S. G. haee^ congeries, acervns ; ioprimis, 
lignorum virgultorumque ; Sw. D. kas^ kase, a small heap of dried cattle-droppings, used by 
poor people in districts where wood is scarce, for burning. Hence also, Sw. D. and Dan. 
ko-kase^ cow-droppings. Molb., however, simply defines Mkase, as the round or disk-like 
heaps in which cowdung falls. Probably Rietz is the more accurate. 

The Pr. Pm, word is easard, explained by ' Netes donge : P. casen ;' and the note, 
' ** Casings, stercus siccum jumentorum, quod pauperes agri Lincolniensis ad usum fbd ooDi- 
gunt ; a Teut. koth, fimus, q. d. cothings," Sldnncr.' The derivation is mistaken : but the 
further remark that * it is still the usage in the neighbourhood of Lynn to employ oow-dnDg 
for fuel ' is worth noticing. 


Oassen, kessen, (Pr. of casten, p. p. of to east), i. Thrown down ; 
as applied to an animal, a horse or bullock, e. g., which has fallen,- or 
been thrown, and is unable to rise again. 2. Added up ; of an account 
or bill, for instance. 

Cassen-hearted, cazzon-hearted, adj. Out of heart, dispirited, 
cast down ; as being without energy, spirit, or hope. 

Possibly, eassm4)earUd, wiih nearly the sense of down-eassen, or doum-biorUd, Still, 
there it abundant rude energy in the metaphor eazzon-btarted, possessing a heart with no 
more pluck or pith than a clot of dried dung, to make it a probable word. 

Casty sb. A twist, a distortion or deflection from linear directness. 

A meaning which has resulted, no doubt, from many adaptations and transitions of sense 
in the motd as at first used. At an early period to east was used in the sense of to contrive^ 
diviti, plan: as in these lines from E. E, AUit, Poems, p. 81, 1. 143 :— 

' Salamon sete him seuen jere and a sy|>e more. 
With alle }« syence j>at sende |>e souera3m lorde. 
For to compas and kest to haf hem clene wrojt.' 

And Oastf sb. in the same way meant a device, stratagem, wile or trick : 

Comp. * And comaundej me to j>at cortays, your comlych fere 

]>at ]>us hor knyjt wyth hor hest han ko3mtly bigyled.' 

Gaw, and Or, Kn, 2411. 
also I * This u a good gyse and a far east; 

Yet a woman avyse helpys at the last.' Toumei. Myst. p. 107. 

C<mip. also Sw. D. kast, a trick, a deceit. 

At line 2376 of Sir Gawayn the word appears in, it would seem, a very similar meaning 
to ouri;— 

* penne he kajt to |>e knot, and >e kest lawsej :* 

L e. the twist, or interfolding of the knot, with which a certain girdle was fastened. 

Casty V. a. I. To lay aside for a season, as warm or winter clothing 
when summer weather comes ; or entirely, as clothes that are worn out, 
a cratch which has been used during temporary lameness, &c. 2. To be 
sick, to vomit. 

Pr. Pm. * Castyn, or brakyn (as man owt the stomack). Vomo, evomo* 

I. ' . . . . Never think to east a clout 

Until the month of May be out.' Wb. Gl. 

Casty To be, v. p. To be warped, or have got a twist, or deflection 
from straightness. 

Cast up, V. a. and n. i. To mention a matter, in the way of re- 
proach or upbraiding, to another. 2. To happen, befall, turn up. 

Cat-ooUop, sb. Cat's meat ; more particularly applied to that which 
consists of parts of the inside of other animals. See CoUop. 

Cat-gallows, sb. The two uprights, with a cross-stick, set up by 
boys to jump over ; jumping-bars. 

N 2 


Cat-hawBy sb. The fruit of the hawthorn {Mespilm oxyacanthus). 

The prefijt of cat in this and tome following words may be comp. to the like prefix in 
several Sw. Prov. names of plants : e. g. kattO'^avia, cat-boots, the primrose ; kaU-hattat, 
cat-balls, geum rivale ; kali-ilokkoTt cat-bells, campanula, 8cc, 

CattijugSy sb. Hips ; the fruit of the Cat-whin or dog-rose. 

Cat-swerrily sb. The common squirrel {Sciurus vulgaris), 

Cat's-whelpSy sb. Kittens, the young of the cat See KitlinB. 

Cat-trail, sb. The great white Valerian ( Valeriana officinalis) ; or, 
rather, the root of it, 

* The root, particularly when the plant grows in dry places, has a very peculiar disagree- 
able odour, and affords a medicine of considerable value. Cats are so fond of it as to be 
almost intoxicated by it into outrageous playfulness.' johxiiiotk^t Botany of BrnvnetHm- 

Comp. Sw. D. kcUte^eka, a name for the same plant. 

Cat-whin. sb. (pr. catchin). The dog-rose {Rosa canina); or perhaps, 
as generally applied, any of the varieties of the common wild or hedge- 
rose : Marshall says, the Burnet rose {Rosa spinosissifna). 

Cauff. Pr. of Caff, for Chaff. 

Cauff-riddling, sb. A practice, in some instances still observed, of 
riddling chaff on St. Mark's Eve, with the view of deriving auguries or 
presages of the approach of death to persons connected with the 
riddlers, whether by family or vicinity, or possibly to the riddlers 

The Biddle is filled with chaff, the scene of operations being the bam floor with 
both barn-doors set wide open ; the hour is midnight or just before, and each person of the 
party takes the riddle in succession and riddles £e contents. Should no appearance pre- 
sent itself during the action, death is not immbient to the person operating, or to his friends. 
But, on the other hand, the appearance of a funeral procession, or even of persons simply 
bearing a coffin, is a certain augury of death, either to the then fiddler himself, or some one 
near to him. See Aas-riddlingy ICarks-een. 

Causey, causeway, sb. i. A narrow paved path or trackway; often 
leading directly across the moors. 2. A flagged path by the side of the 
road ; for the use of foot passengers. 

The first are the relics of the horse- or bridle-roads which, almost into the present 
century, were the only means of getting into or out of the * Dales.' Many of these have 
been worn out and never replaced, or have been taken up, and others are nearly or quite 
overgrown by the ling and other moor-herbage, so that it is only by the revelations afforded 
by a moor-tradc, or a moor-current in wet weather, that their position and general direction 
can be ascertained. In the same way, the houses of call to accommodate the trains of 
loaded horses and their drivers, which used to traverse these wild roads, have, in severaf 
instances, disappeared ; while others only preserve any memorial of their former purpose in 
some distinctive appellation, which to the present generation has lost its signifi(^mce. 
See Pannier-man'B Causey, Bell-house. These cauteys are probably of very great 


antiquity : becanse, while they of necessity tend, on either fide of the Esk, to the sites of, 
if not to the actually existing, single-arched, high-pitched, narrow, picturesque Bow- 
bridgM, all of which date bade to the commencement of the fourteenth century or earlier, 
and whidi, it is very evident, were only reared in anticipation of horse-traflic ; still by the 
side of each of these bridges there yet exists a ford, or 'Wath (often regularly paved or 
floored with sbbs of stone evenly set), together with a set of Beok-stones : both of them 
concomitants which surely testify to a regular passage of the river at those spots at times 
anterior to the construction of the bridges, and ^therefore to settled means of crossing the 
country to the spots in question. Cf. ' There wgs a causeway at Lynn leading to Gajrwood, 
on which was situated the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and among the benefactors to 
the Hospital of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketel, **J3ius sanetimonialis dt Sctringes" who 
grants *' totam ttrratn in Lituu super ealcetam" Mon, Ang. vi. 648.' Note to Coicv*- 

CesBy sb. Rates, laid and levied for parish purposes. 

* Cess, a tax. For uss from osmss, but spelt with a e from the influence of the Latin cmstw, 
the rating of Roman citizens according to their property. Fr. cencer, to rate, assess, tax, 
value.* Wedgw. The different kinds of rate are distinguished as 

Ohuroh-oeM, sb., the church-rate ; 

Coiinty-ceM, sb., the county-rate ; 

Hi^way-oeM, sb., the rate for the maintenance of the roads ; and 

Poor-oeM, sb., the poor-rate. 

Cess, V. a. To rate ; to apportion the relative payments to be made 
by many persons to a common fund. 

Cess-getherer, sb. The collector of any of these rates. 

Chaffy V. a. i. To banter, to address playHilly-provoking language 
to another. 2. To use intentionally irritating, or higUy provoking terms, 
likely to lead to resentment ; to quarrel outright. 

Ed/, insultus ludicrus ; kd/a, ludicre insultare ; Hald. Wedgw. also alleges Dut. kiffen, 
to yap, to bark ; also to prattle, to chatter ; Wall. cba/eUr, to babble ; Germ, kaff, idle 
words, impertinence. Comp. O. N. kd/a uppa, provocare ; Sw. D. 6pp^d/iig, dMhkdftig, 
faisolent, impertinent, ' chafl^.' 

Chaff-boney sb. Jaw-bone. 

Chaflbr, v. n. To interchange testy or irritating remarks, to use 
mutually provoking language. The word implies something short of 
a serious quarrel. 

Pr, Pm. • Cbajfaryn, Negocior, mtreor* 

* fro galaad men wiiS ehafare 
Sag ne "Sor kumen wi9 spices ware.* Otn, and Ex. p. 56. 

Both vb. and sb. are very common in O. £. See the etymons under Ohap, Ohapman. 
The idea in our word is of the altercation which often accompanies bargain-making, the 
true sense of the word being allowed to drop completely out. 

Chaff-MLen, adj. (pr. chaif-fawn). Chop-fallen, dispirited, dejected. 


Chaflby ohaltSy sb. The jaws. 

0,'S.k;aftr,k;aptr; S,Q.k<sft; Dzn.kf<sft; Sw. kdft. The Danes appear to make 
a distinction between ll^afl and k/avi : thus, en hj<Bft bar to kj^ever, one mouth hath two 
Jaws. Also, the vulgar use of the word is like that of our CSiap, in the sense of person; 
ikke tn hjcefit never a soul or person. 

' Poor an'd Josey 's getten his ebafis tied up ; L e. is dead.' Wb. Gl. 

Chamber, sb. (pr. chaumer). An upper room: i. In a house; a 
bed-room. 2. In a stable or other building; a loft: as, for instance, 
* Hay-chamber,' * Apple-chamber,' &c. 

Wedgw. quotes Fr. ebambre, besides Lat. and Greek et3rmons. The word appears, how- 
ever, in all the Teut. tongues, and could scarcely come to us in the North vift either Lat. or 
Fr., especially if it be, as is reasonably assumed, nearly allied to Celtic eamm or cam, O. N. 
kamers, S. O. kammar, Sw. kammerSt Dan. kammer. See. The ordinary meaning, more- 
over, is that of a small room>space, or chamber, off, or subsidiary to, a large apartment. 
Thus in the sentence, ' en stor stue med et kammer wd siden,* the relation of ' chamber* to 
'apartment' is shewn. Molb. quotes the following sentence: * Enbver stue og eAvtrt 
kammer er et vcerth^ (room or apartment), ' mgn en stue er et sterre varehe; et kammer er 
et mindre. Man siger baade paa og i et kammer; men altid kun i en stue' C<»np. * Let 
us make a little chamber, I pray thee, on the wall :' a Kings iv. lO. Comp. also Dsm. bog' 
kammer, pige^», spise^,, krud-k„ &c. The idea in our use of Ohamber is exactly coinci- 
dent with that in the Danish usage. 

CliaxLce->baim, sb. An illegitimate child. See Ck>me-by-ohaaoe« 

Changed, adj. i. Having begun to turn sour; of milk. 2. Having 
begun to shew symptoms of approaching, or commencing, decompo- 
sition ; of a dead body, or meat. 3. Somewhat intoxicated. 

This is rather a curious instance of adaptation of sense, in the case of a standard word. 

Ohap, V. a. To knock, rap. 

' Chap. Chip. Chop. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to 
represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies, or the cracking of one, the 
thinner vowel t being used to represent the high note of a crack, while the broader vowels 
a and are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of hard bodies. Sc ebap, to 
strike, as to ebap bands, to cbap at a door. — ^Jam.' Wedgw. To me it would appear pro- 
bable that there may be a strong aflinity between our word Ohap and the Dan. ku^^, to 
strike, to drive with a stick : of course with a free use of the stick understood. Tliis is 
a derivative from the sb. kjep, a staff, stick, switch ; and this from O. N. keppr, Sw. kdpp. 
Comp. S. O. kappla or kippla, bacillo os obturare ; and Ihre suggests that M. G. kai^aiUm^ 
to inflict strokes, may belong to the same root. 

Chap, sb. A customer or purchaser : or, more generally, a dealer. 

O. N. kttupi; Sw. kbpare; Dan. kjober; Sw. D,kdpe, a buyer, purchaser. 
* Ah ha*e some bacon to sell. Canst 'ee finnd me a ebap for 't.' Wb» Gl, 

Chap, sb. Any male person : of very various application. 

O. N. kiaftr; Sw. kdft; Dan. kj^, &c. Comp. Dan. tkke en kj€^, never a soul or per- 
son ; Sw. D. bvar dveliga kdft ; bvor evige kdft, every individual soul ; bd ftmns int *n kdft 
bdjm : he found nobody at home. It is scarcely necessary to notice that, allowing for the 





• « 


^ IS 




A. S. c«q/7; Semi-Sax. ebeude; Dan. i/<evf, the mouth, jaws, or cheeks ; A. S. ctftvan, to 
chew. From the motion of the jaws, or cbawles^ a word used in the account. Early Eng. 
Allit, Poitns, C. 1. 268, of Jonah's reception into the whale's belly — 


* And >rwe in at hit Jvote with-outen ]>ret more. 
As mote in at a monster dor, so mukel wem his ebawU^.* 

Comp. ' Cbavyl-bone or chawl-bone/ Pr. Pm. ; and also Dan. kjcevle, Sw. D. kafta, to 
scold, revile, &c., both descriptive of the motion of the jaws in the act designated. 

Cheep, V. n. To cry as a young chicken does ; or as a young grouse 
or partridge. Applied also to the notes of other young birds, or to any 
sound resembling these notes. 

Sw. D. kip\ to pipe or squeak ; of chickens and birds in general. Comp. O. N. itypa, to 
cry as a seal does, or as children ; * Lith. czypii, to cheep like a chicken, or squeik like 
a mouse.' Wedgw. 

' Nu hi (a pair of lovers) ebippe\> and cusse|» 
And make)> togadere muchel blisse.' Flori^ and Blaitncbiftur, p. 66. 

Cheeper, sb. A young partridge or grouse, before it has attained its 
growth and powers of flight, and whose cry of alarm is acuter than that 
of the full-grown bird. The * squeaker' of S. England. 

Cheese-cake grass, sb. The common bird*s-foot trefoil {Lohis cor- 

Cheese-lop. See Keslip. Other forms are Cheslip, Cheslop. 

Chet, sb. Pap, soft food prepared for infants. 

I have met with this word only in Wb. GL If a word of more than local coinage, or if 
it have more than a merely modem existence, it may be allied to Sw. D. kdta, ioUi, to 
mince, cut fine with a knife or the like, in reference to the finely comminuted state of the 
solid ingredients of the prepared food designated. 

Child-bed, sb. The matrix or womb in a woman. 

Childer, sb. Children. The still-preserved plural of child. Comp. 
brether, old pi. of brother. 

* Esau, Welcome, brother, to kyn and kythe, 

Thi wife and ebUdrt that comes the with.' Twmd, Myti. p. 48. 

* His awen chosen ehildyre* Rel, Pieces^ p. 31. 

Chimpings, sb. Grits, oatmeal of a coarse description or only 
roughly ground. 

Probably nearly allied to Ohump, a lump or knobby piece cut off a larger. Comp. 
Sw. D. kumpa, to cut smaller lumps from a larger ; kumping, the pieces cut. 

Chip, V. n. To crack or begin to break: i. As the hands or lips do 
in cold weather or when imperfectly dried. 2. As the egg-shell does 
when the hatching-stage is just begun. 

There is probably a very near connection between this word and our Ohap, to knock or 
rap : the one, that is, the crack, being the result of the other, that is, the blow. Comp. Teut. 


hipptH, cudere, fcere ; and Dut. kippen,' same meaning, and also, to batch. This is Jamie- 
son's view ; Wedgwood's being that chip is one of those words which depend upon sound for 
their origin. 

Chip up ; chipped up, To be, v. n. and p. To trip or be tripped 
up, as by tiie foot catching against a stone, or other obstacle, in walking 
or running. 

See To Chip. The idea here also would seem to be that of striking, and with a short, 
sharp contact. But the occurrence of such a phrase as the following — mafir kipH f6tum 
widan BdriSi sua cU bannfeUf the man tripped Bardr up so that he fell, leads us at once to 
O. N. hippa, which is explained by Hald. by raptare. Sw D. kippa, besides the meaning, 
to totter, to be unsteady, also has those of, to sUp one's shoes on hastily and imperfectly ; 
and, to go slip-shod. And the adj. hipped means to be unsteady, ready to fall. In these 
words again, the first idea seems to be of hasty contact, as in the act of snatching, catching 
up hastily. 

Chisel, ohizzel, sb. Bran; the coarser portions of the husk of the 
wheat-grain, dressed out after grinding. 

A. S. ceosdt ceod ; Dut. hesel ; Germ kies^ gravel, coarse sand, sand. A transference of 
sense to the coarse parts of the rougher matters resulting from grinding gives our word. 
Cf. * In Norfolk, chizzly signifies dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from 
Teut. kieseU, gluma. The Lat. Engl. Vocab. Harl. MS. 100a, f. 147, gives among ** perti- 
funcia pUtrintt Caniabrum, Anglice chycelle," ' Pr. Pm. note to * Cbysel, or grauel.' 

Chitterlings, sb. The small entrails. 

Comp. kdtelen, intestina, quoted by Ihre as current * apud Silesios ;' Germ, kuttel, Belg. 
sehyterling (quoted in Or. G/.). Wedgw. makes * cbitter, to chirp or twitter, then to shiver,' 
the origin of the word. Dire refers it to the same root as Sw. kott^ O. N. kjot, &c., fiesh. 
Cf. * Let us have trypis, chitterlyngis, and tryllybubbys (see TroUebobs) ynough,' 
Pr, Pm, note to Cbytyrlynge, 

Cholter-headed, adj. Thick-headed, stupid, dull of apprehension : 
another form of ' jolter-headed.' 

Wedgw. thinks that *joult'bead^ or jolter-bead comes from the notion of wagging the 
head to and fro, and not from the idea of thickness.* Possibly ; but still from the notion 
of the head being moved or jolted, scarcely ' wagged,' about on account of its great weight, 
size, or disproportion ; as in the case of an idiot's head, which is often of abnormal size, lies 
over on one shoulder, and, if moved at all, is moved with a sort of jolt, or uneasy roll or 

Chop, V. n. To cut or break in abruptly upon the course of man or 
animal ; to cut across one. 

* Cbop ayont r — to a sheep dog is run ahead of and across the fiock. * Chop amell !' run 
in amidst the fiock. 

Chow, V. a. To chew. A mere vocal change of the standard word, 
as in the Pr. yew, = (i) ewe ; or (2) you. 



Chucky, sb. A chicken, a hen. Of most frequent use, in the plural, 
in speaking to children, or by children themselves. 

Probably due to the note or manner of calling domestic fowls. Comp. 

* And with that word he flew downe from the heme, 
For it was day, and eke the hennis all. 
And with a cbucke he gan hem for to call.* Nonne*s Priests TaU, p.171. 

Chunter, v, n. To murmur, to complain or be querulous ; \o mutter 
or continue speaking half inaudibly, like one not disposed to give up 
a dispute. 

Hall, gives ebunder and cbunner as other forms of this word ; and according to Cr. Gl. 
* Mr. Wilbraham refers the latter word to A. S. cionian^ obmurmurare.' But that word 
teems only to be a mistake or misprint for ceorian ; and if otherwise, though cbunner may 
be a vocal variation of ebunder or cbunter, the convene is not true. It is at least not 
impossible that as the Dan. kjavle is a derivative from kj<eft or kjave, and expressive of the 
motion of the parts in question in the act implied in kjcnle (see OluiTel) ; and as 
O. N. kjapta means to work the jaws, and Jutl. kjabse (the eiact equivalent, in sense, of our 
cdiavel)* the same, in point of action, so ohimter may originally have been a derivative 
from Sw. or S. G. kind, or some of its etymons, and have been used to imply the motion of 
the lower jaw observable in a muttering, discontented person's action. 

Church-priest, sb. A clergyman of the Church of England: in 
contradistinction to the R. C. priest, or the travelling preachers of the 

Churlish, adj. (pr. chollos'). i. Ill-natured, ungenial; of persons. 
2. Ungenial, cold, rough, bleak; of the weather, or wind. 3. Cheerless, 
rugged ; of a look out, or a piece of bad rough road. 

A. S. ceorlic, eeorlise, churlish, in the sense of belonging to or characteristic of the 
clownish or commonalty, as distinguished from the gentle or well-born ; * Cberlycbe, 
cborlyscbe, carlyscbe.* Pr. Pm. Our ohurlish affords a curious instance of transition of 
sense in a word, the original meaning of which is strictly limited to human beings or what 
belongs to them. Comp. Sw. D. kar{l)sker, distasteful, disgusting. 

1. * ** To be dour and cboUos;** to look dismal and act ill-naturedly.* Wb. Gl, 

2. * ** A shill cbolios wind ;" a cold pining wind.' 76. 

Also ; * Certain medicines, as saline solutions, are deemed '* cold and cboilos,** * lb, 

3. * " A l>ad cbolios road ;" a piece of stony, uneven turnpike/ lb, 

Churr, v. n. To emit a murmuring sound as partridges do when 
undisturbed in their haunts and collected in the covey; to chide or 
chatter in symphony, but with low, not shrill notes, as sparrows going 
to roost in a winter's evening, starlings or fieldfares when sitting to- 
gether in companies; to make a whirring soimd as the night-jar in its 
nocturnal flight. 

O. N. kurra, kura, ktturra, to murmur, make a low, whirring noise ; Sw. D. kurra, korra ; 
O. Sw. korra ; O. D. kwrra ; N. kurra, to coo or murmur as a dove ; Swab, kurren, 
Cf. A. S. ceorian, cerian, to murmur, complain. Eve<burr, as a name for the fern-owl 


or night-jar needs no comment. Connected with our word are charm, a hum, low mur- 
muring noise. Hall. * Charm of birds' in Milton's line; cberme, — * I cherme as byrdes do 
whan they make a noyse a great nomber togythcr.* Palsgr. (quoted by Hall.) A. S. cyrm, 
noise, shout, &c. See Char. 

Cinder-hills, sb. Deposits of scoriae, or slag from ancient iron- 
furnaces, often of considerable extent, and of very frequent occurrence in 
most parts of Cleveland. 

Bosw. quotes W. sindw, forge-cinders : Somn. explains A. S. sinder by * sinders, dross, the 
scumme of metal tried by the fire ;' and Dut. sindel is slag, scori<2 ; all of which are pro- 
bably allied radically to O. N. siWr, Germ, sinter, &c., the scoriae or red-hot sparks which 
fly off from heated iron under the blows of the smith's hammer ; as well as to Lat. einis, 
Comp. Pr. Pm. * Cyndyr of [>e smythys fyre. Casuma. Cocbiron* It would appear that 
the deposits of slag referred to in the definition are of remote antiquity, and that the name 
Oinder-hills has been attached to them time out of mind. From a document yet extant 
it is known that the Rosedale Stone was wrought in King John's time ; but I have met 
with no similar testimony as to the time down to which the Cleveland iron continued to be 
wrought In the township of Danby alone there still exist more than sixteen accumulations 
of the slag in question ; but no traces whatever of any source from which the ore could 
have been obtained : and in many instances the position of the Cinder-hillB is such that 
the stone must have been brought to these furnaces, from which they are the residuum, 
from some considerable distance. It would seem probable that, as wood must have supplied 
the source of heat for smelting, and as this entire district, from the earliest historical time 
downwards till a century or so since, abounded with wood, the ore must have been brought 
from alar, on mule- or horse-back, and smelted on the spots where we find the deposits of 
shg ; as is well known was the case in Nottinghamshire and elsewhere. One of these sites, 
some thirty or forty years since, yet presented traces of the ancient furnace arrangement : 
rows of small conical-shaped pits in the vicinity of the Oinder-hiU were still traceabij. 
As in operation in times certainly very remote, there is at least a possibility that they were 
in operation contemporaneously with or before the Danish occupation, and that the name 
Cinder-hill may have been one of purely Northern origin. 

dag, V. n. To stick to, or adhere, as any viscid substance does to 
that which it touches ; or as wet grass to a mowing-machine, interfering 
with its action. Used also metaphorically. 

O. N. kUggit a mass so pressed together as to be characterised by coherency : thence the 
idea of tenaciousness or viscidity which is expressed by Dan. klag or kUg, viscid, sticky, 
tenacious ; and kl<Bge or kUggt, to be heavy or viscid, as bread ; as, hrmdet hugger^ the 
bread is heavy ; or heavy and tenacious, as soU. Comp. also A. S. cl^tgt day ; Dan. hUtg, 
the same. 

* Yan can't dig it, nae kin' o' form ; t' dags te t' speead sae.' 
' Lahtle un clogs tiv its mammy.' 

Claggy, adj. Sticky, glutinous, adhesive ; dirty or muddy. 

* Desput claggy walking, for seear : 'frost 's meead it ower mucky fiir owght.' 

Claggum, sb. Any viscid or glutinous substance in mass ; specially 
applied to treacle loUipops, or Gkxxlies made of treacle and sugar 
boiled together. 

o 2 


Clam, V. a. i. To pinch, compress, force together, a. To castrate 
by aid of compression. 3. v. n. and p. To sififer from the pinching 
effects of hunger, to starve. 

0. N. hlemma^ co-arctare ; S. G. kl<emma, primere, stringere ; Sw. Dial, kldmma ; Dan. 
hUmme ; Mid. Genii, klimmen ; Germ, hlemmen. Rietz observes that * in all probability 
there must have once been extant in O. English a strong vb., climant clam, clemmen or 
clummtn* Possibly our existing vb., generally current in one or more of its senses 
throughout the North, is the only vb. ever in use, no instance of its occurrence being 
quoted as a South English word ; although the A. S. sb. elam^ elom, bondage or bonds, 
constraint, exists. 

1. * " What 's wrong with your hand, mun ? " •* Getten my fingers clamm'd V t* vice." ' 
3. * Ah 's fairlings clammed (or clemmed) for want o' meat.' 

Clam, sb. i. Moisture, especially viscid moisture. 2. Any soft adhe- 
sive substance. 

A. S. clam, * what is clammy ; mud, clay, a poultice or pkister.' Bosw. 

Clam, V. n. and p. To stick or adhere to, as dhe's shirt to one's 
back when hot, or moistened paper to a wall; to stick together as 
one's tongue and palate do with thirst. 

This vb. probably depends upon the sb. clam, and it, no doubt, upon A. S. lam, loam. 
' My mouth and throat are jest clammed up.' 

Clame, v. a. i. To smear or daub over. 2. To smear or daub over 
with some unctuous or adhesive matter. 3. To make to stick upon, or 
cause to adhere. 

0. N. and N. kleima ; Sw. D. klema, kldima ; A. S. daman ; Old Germ, kleimjan, 8cc, ; 
to smear, besmear, daub. In reference to definition 3, it may be observed that the word is 
applied to making a paper, or the like, stick (to a wall or door, say) by means of tacks, as 
well as by the use of paste or other glutinous, or unctuous matter. See example. 

1. * What 's t'u claming t' walls fur, thatten a way, wiv thah nasty mucky hands?' 

2. * Whah, bairn, thee's getten t' butter a' clamed ower thah feeace, an' t' treeade ower 
tha' cleeas.' 

' Deean't clame that breead sae thick.' 

3. * See thee, gan and clame thae posters oop o' t' big yett.' 

' Tell Willy Dogwhipper to clem that notish up o' kirk deear ;' put it up with tacks. 

Clammy, adj. Stickily moist, somewhat adhesive. 

Cf. Pr, Pm. * Clam*, or cltymows (gleymous). GluHnosus, viscosus.* 

Clamoursome, clammersome, adj. Noisily urgent, greedy, rapa- 

Comp. O. Dan. klammer, wrangling, litigation ; and, for form, the words lovesome, 
laboursome, lonesome, &c. 

Clampers, sb. i. Fangs or claws, on any metal instrument or object. 
2. Metaphorically, of an animal ; the fingers. 

O.N. klampi, a buckle or brooch, also a vice, klbmhrur; N. hlhnhr; Dan. klamme or 


Uamntir, a vice, a thing to hold fast with. Comp. also Dut. hlamptn, to hook things 
together, to hold tight ; hUm-, or hlamp-vogel^ a bird of prey. 

a. ' If I had my elampirs on him he should feel the weight of my neif.' Wb, Gl. 

Clan, sb. A considerable number, a great many ; always with some 
bond of connection, however slight, supposed. 

Gael, c/onn, children, descendants ; of one common ancestor, namely. 

* " A cUxn o* bairns ;" a troop or crowd of children.* Wb. GL 

Clap, V. a. and n. i. To apply a blow, gently, but also quickly or 
smartly. 2. To use any action in which quick application of hand 
or other member, or material instrument, is characteristic. 3. To pro- 
duce the sound which results from such quick action or application. 
4. To squat, assume a sitting or crouching posture quickly, which may 
be maintained for any leng^ of time. 

0. N. klappa, to stroke or pat, to strike, to smite ; S. G. and Sw. D. hlappa ; A. S. clap- 
pian. Ihre's remark on the vb. is that it implies ' a motion or action of the hand, whether 
for the purpose of patting or caressing, or of inflicting a blow.' As to the sense in defini- 
tion 3, Wedgw. observes that the word itself * is an imitation of the sound made by the 
collision of hard flat things ;' an observation which is, perhaps, hardly borne out by 
the facts, as neither of the Northern words quoted above seems to imply the sound pro- 
duced as well as the action producing it. The sense in question proceeds naturally from the 
other, as in many similar cases, knocks crack, See, 

2. * Clap ho'd, mun ;* catch hold quickly. 

* T' cau'd clapped til her breeost, an' she went off intiv a wearing.' 

4. * Ah seen t' partridge run t' length o' this busk, an' then it clapped;* or squatted. 

Clapperclaw, v. a. i. To assail, or use violence, but with the open 
hand in opposition to the closed fist, the nails being employed as well 
as the hand proper. 2. To abuse, scold, vituperate. 

Perhaps the word might be properly written — as it is certainly sounded — clapper-clore, 
from O. N. and Sw. D. hlora, to scratch with the nails. Still we have claw, vb. in Toumel. 
Mysi, p. 149. 

* Then the skalp shalle I clefe ! lyst thou be clawdV 

and Pr, Pm, * CUtwyn, or cratchyn. Scalpo :' with which comp. O. N. kl€ea, Sw. kla, 

Clart, V. a. To daub, smear, make dirty. See Clarty. 

* T' bairn's bin an' getten his feeace darted* 

* Tak* heed, mun I Thoo '11 clart tha' new beeak.' 

Clart, sb. i. A spot; either of dirt or other substance that adheres. 
2. Insincerity, outside show, flattery. 

1. * Loo' thee I there's a gret clart o' snow o' tha' neb;' a great snow-flake on your 

a. 'It's all clart;* not to be depended on, as mere profession, or compliment; what is 
on the surface only, and not in the substance. 

Clarted over. Flattered up, propitiated by smooth and compli- 
mentary language. 


Clarty, adj. i. Unctuous, sticky; the idea being always of moist 
substances that are apt to stick. 2. Dirty, with the implied sense that 
the object or person qualified by the adj. would be likely to make dirty 
by contact. 

Jam. in v. Clatty (with the same signification, and no doubt the same word, essentially), 
quotes S. G. kladd, filth, contaminating dirt, with the phrase, hladda dg ned — in the Clevel. 
remacular, * to muck one's self up/ He also notices S. G. lort^ filth, ordure, and O. N. leir^ 
which, besides its primary meaning of clay^ signifies mire^ fi^^ mud. There can be 
scarcely any doubt that the latter word is the origin of dair^ dairy, dart, datbery, or slad- 
dery, sdl words of like meaning, and more or less in use in Line, and ancient Northumbria, 
as also of glair, glaur, and glairy, meaning dirt, filth, a muddy puddle, and mucky. And 
just as the addition of 5 in the former case, of ^ in the latter, forms the derivative in ques- 
tion, so — even if elarty be not identical with ge4eir-t — a prefixed k would give our present 

I. ' Ah've bin amangst t' honey, an' ma' hands are jest that darty wiv it.* 

* T* pudden' 's sair and elarty.* 

' It 's gi'en agen a bit, an' t' rooad *s getten varry elarty* 
a. ' A elarty hussy ;' a dirty, dauby slut. 

' Clarty deed ;' doings or circxmistances such and so dirty, that some of the dirt may be 
expected to stick to any one concerned. 

Clash, V. a. and n. i. To clap, or shut suddenly with a bang, as 
a loose door does. 2. To cause a door to shut suddenly and with noise. 
3. To throw down, or cause anything to fall, so as to make a noise. 

Comp. Dan. hladdt, sb. ; and hladdte, v. n. 

I. * Whah, there 's street deear elasbin' agen. Wheea 's left it lowse ?' 

a. • Nay, marry. It *s yon neer-do-weel JOahny, elasbin* *t fur spoort.' 

Comp. * With kene dobbej of \>zt dos >ay elat^ on )>e wowej.' 

E. Eng, AUit, Poems, B. 839. 

Clash, sb. I. A blow or bruise, the result of a fall or any intended 
violence. 2. The noise of such a blow or fall, or of a loose door, &c. 
3. Common talk or gossip ; in the pi., news. 

I. * ** Thou's getten a sair eltab, Thomas." " Aye, Ah hes. Ah's dinged ma shackle 
oot ;** dislocated my wrist.' 

3. ' It was lang t' elasb o* t* country side.* 

Clash, sb. A large or considerable quantity or number. 

Welsh elasg, a heap or collection ; elasgw, to aggregate, collect. 

* A elad> o* good things.' Wb, GL 

* ** dadftt o* brass ;" lots of money.' Ih, 

Clashing, sb. A shaking or jolting, as in a roughly moving convey- 
ance ; the application of a blow, or the striking of one object or substance 
against another. 

Clat, V. n. To talk fast, with but little meaning ; to chatter or prate. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on the word elator is, that it is * from the imitation of the 
sound of a knock by the syllable dot, equivalent to dock or dap,* The present word feemt 


to be simply a vulgar abbreviation of clatter^ in its sense of loud« empty talk, and to supply 
the verb answering to such a noun. Comp. Sw. D. kladra^ to prattle, as a child does ; and 
observe that we have * clai or clatte* as synonymous with * clappe or clakke of a mylle' in 
/v. Pm, 

Clatter, v. a. i. To beat so as to make a rattling noise. 2. To beat 
or chastise. 

Jam. quotes Teut. hUttem^ fragorem edere, retonare, concrepare. Comp. also the A. S. 
sb. clatrung^ anything which makes a clattering, a rattle. Bosw. Both these words testify 
to the former presence in the Northern languages of others formed from the same origin, 
and in which our present word also took its rise. We meet with it and its derivatives in 
Early English writers in sense i ; and also, more frequently, in the sense of falling noisily, 
or coming down with a crash or rattling sound For instance, in sense i ; 

* So harde sautes to the cite were jeven. 

That the komli kemeles were io^latend with engines.* 

Will, and tU Werw, 103. 

In the other sense, this, from the account of the Fox-hunt in Sir Oawayn, and descrip- 
tive of the * crash' when the fox was viewed by the pack : — 

' When alle |>e mute hade hym met, menged to-geder. 
Such a sorje at )>zt syjt [>ay sette on his hede. 
As alle >e clamberande clyffes hade clatertd on hepes.' (1. 1720.) 

* Sodomas schal ful sodenly synk into grounde. 
And )>e grounde of Oomorre gorde in-to helle. 
And vche-a koste of |>is kyth claUr upon hepes.' 

Early Eng. Allii, Poems, B. 910. 

» • per as claUrand* fro |>e crest J>e colde borne rennes, 

and henged heje ouer his hede in hard ysse-ikkles.' 

Sir Gaw. and Or, Kn. 731. 

Clatter, sb. i. A blow accompanied by resonance or rattling sound, 
from a fall or otherwise. 2. Noise or din; hence chattering talk, loud 
and idle gossip. 

* Caypbas, Weynde furthe in the wenyande 

And hold still thy clatter* Townel. Mysi. p. 257. 

Cf. ' And the women that her herde speke held her for a fool and untrewe, and clatered 
it aboute.' Merl. p. 12. 

' Every one crieth and clatereth what him likith.' Chaucer's Tale o/Melibaus, p. 149. 

Claut, V. a. To scratch with one's nails. 

Cf. * HweSer [>e cat of helle claurede (clacbte, elabte, in other texts) euer towarde hire.' 
Aner. Riwle, p. 102. Cr, Gl, gives c/at/c3/ = scratched, clawed ; a word exactly coincident 
in form with Jamieson's * claucbt = snatched, laid hold of eagerly and suddenly ;' both, as if 
from some verb the present of which is lost. It is observable that O. N. kid, hlaa, klaja, 
to claw, to scratch, makes its imperf. kl6, and befi hlegit in the pret., and so furnishes a 
word very like ours in form and sound, while the formation of a new verb from the pret. of 
an older one is not by any means an unprecedented proceeding. 


Clawer, sb. A rabble; a numerous and not very orderly asaem- 

Possibly the same word as caleevert which is given by Ferguson as meaning obstreperous 
conducty the vb. signifying to make a riot^ and which are referred by him to O. N. gidlifi, 
light-headedness, dissohiteness ; giaifra^ to make a riot. To me it would seem, however, 
more likely to be allied to £. cleave^ Dut. kleverig, sticky ; cf. also Germ, kleben, Sw. D. 
klebbig, &c. ; and descriptive of the assemblage, or quasi-cohesion, of the individuals who 
collectively constitute the Clavrer. 

• Glowers o' folk at your tail.' Wb. 01. 

Clawer, v. n. To climb, as one does a hill ; or as a child does on to 
its father's or mother's knees.; S.G.kli/wa; Dan. Havre; Sw. D. klMva, to climb, scramble up, using 
both hands and feet. See Molb. in v. Khvre, The Dan. use if ' at klavre op t et tree,* to 
clawer up into a tree. 

Cled, adj. Clad, clothed. 

O. N. kladdr, clad, clothed ; Dan. klade, to clothe ; £. elad. Sec, 

• They wur beeath weel fed and weel cled* Wb. Gl, 

* ffor |>aire knaues ware cledde in clethyng full clene.' Rel. Pieces, P* 93* 

' Some clowde, for sothe, that stame has cled 
From us away.' Townel. Myst. p. iSi. 

• A lytter redy cled* lb. p. 133. 

Gleeas, sb. Clothes, garments. 

* If thou gif me mete and foode 
And close to body.' Toumel. Myst. p. 46. 

The same form occurs again at p. 292, and our present word is just to that form what 
our steean, beean, &c. are to stone, bene, 8cc. 

Cleg, sb. The common horse-fly (HcBmatopota pliwtalis), 

O. N. kleggi; N. klegg; Sw. D. kldgg, kldgge. I give O. N. kleggi on the authority of 
Rietz. The idea is that of sticking, adhesion ; and certainly no other insect sticks so close 
and so tight to the animal it attacks as does the Oleg. 

Cleik, sb. A hook, fixed in a shaft and intended to catch things 
up with. 

The proper spelling of this word probably would be Oleeak, as the Clevel. form of the 
word cloke; as in Ancr. Riwle, p. 10a, * And drouh al ut |>et bodi efter mid clokes of 
crokede and of kene vondunges.' Cleik is properly a Sc. form. Comp. our Click, and 
HaUiweU's cleke. 

Cleik-hooks, sb. Four hooks of three inches in the bend, set back 
to back, affixed to a rope and used as ' drags,' or to feel for and attach 
themselves to things at Uie bottom of a pool or other water. 


Clem, V. n. and p. To suffer from the eflfects of hunger. Another 
form of Clam (which see). 

* there company was clemmed: and much cold did suffer ; 
water was a worthy drmke : win it who might.' 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 225. 

Cf. ' Et this whan the hnngreth. 

Or whan thou clomsest for cold 

Or clyngest for drie.* P. Plough, p. 276. 

Clep, V. a. To call, name, designate. 

A. S. clypioHt cleopian ; Dut. klappen^ to speak, call, say. An older and frequent use of 
the word seems to have been to cry aloud to or for a person or thing ; as in Pr. Pm. Clepyn 
owte, depe to mete, 

Comp. also * pctc he kneles and callej, and elepes after help.' 

E. Eng. AUit. Poems, B. 1345. 

And, * And he ryches hjrm to ryse, and rapes hym sone, 

Clepes to his chamberlayn, choses his wede, 
Bo3e3 forth, ouen he wat3 boun, bly|>ely to masse.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 13I(X 

Clep, sb. Name, description, kind or species. 

From dep, to name or designate : a transition of sense similar to that exemplified in 
* description,' * species,' our word xnak', and the like. 
' It was of a queerish clep* Wb, Gl, 

Cletch, sb. I. A brood of young birds, especially domestic birds. 
2. A collection, set, or party of persons. 

O. N. klekja, to sit, as a bird ; to hatch ; Sw. kldcka ; Dan. klctkhe, id. The vb. itself 
appears to have been in use in Yorkshire in former days, and in its full sense of to rear or 
foster young, equivalent to the Dan. kl<Bkke op ; at klakke et lam op : to foster a lamb, the 
mother of which is dead. 

Comp. * Thou art best on thi wax that ever was clekyt* Townel. Myst. p. 31 1. 

deugh, sb. (pr. cleuf). A narrow rocky glen, or ravine. 

Cf. O. N. kleyft fissura rupium, Hald. ; Sw. D. kl<h/, a breach, gap, chasm, hole or den in 
the rocks ; A. S. clougb, a deft of a rock. Cf. Pr, Pm. clyff", and Sc. cleucb, 

Clioky V. a. and n. i. To snatch, to seize quickly. 2. To shrivel up 
or contract in folds, as leather or parchment under a hot iron. 

There seems to be some little uncertainty as to the origin of this word. Wedgw. would 
refer it to an attempt to imitate sound, and together with Mr. Morris (Gl. to E. Engl. AUit, 
Poems) quotes Sw. or O. Sw. kldncka, kl'dngat to snatch, seize, as allied. These verbs are, 
it would seem, more closely connected with our Clinoh ; and the Jutl. expression klakke 
ved, to stick tight to, to hold fast by, corresponds more nearly to our Cliok, especially 
when we find it occurring in the phrase, oliok ho'd, more frequently than in any other single 
allocution. In E. Eng. AUit. Poems the word occurs in the sense of take = get, acquire, 
become possessed of; but more frequently in the sense of taking or rather catching up, 
more or less of quickness seeming to be implied in the action spoken of: thus Abraham, 



after desiring his wife to be * cof and quyk at J»is one3* in her preparation of food for his 
angelic visitors, and ' saying to his servaunt J^at he hit se)>e faste/ himself, 

• To be bare-heued buske3 hym thenne, 

Clecbe^ to a clene clol>e and keste3 on J»e grene.* (B. 631.) 

Again, of Lot it is said, at 1. 857, that, — 

• He went forthe at J»e wyket and waft hit hym after, 
pat a clyket hit cU^t clos hym byhynde/ 

In the lines, — 

• and whyle i>zt watj clet^ clos in his hert 

J^ere wat3 no mon upon molde of my3t as hym selven,' 

the sense is evidently the passive of the Jutl. word given above ; viz. held fast. 
In Toumel. Myst. p. 324, last line but one, 

* Fro dede you cleke in cloke,' 
the sense is seize, snatch, lay grasp upon, which is coincident with ours. 

Cliokum fair. * It was got at Clickum fair / Wh, GL = purloined, 
stolen, taken without acknowledgment. 

Glinoh, V. a. i. To clutch or grasp with the hand. 2. To meet with, 
or come upon a person suddenly, so as to arrest him in his course. 

S. G. klanga^ to seize or grasp with the hand ; kldncka, to snatch, seize. Comp. Dan. 
klinke, to fasten together the parti of a broken plate, &c. by means of klinker, or flattened 

2. * I just clinched him at the comer.' Wb, GL 

Clip, V. a. To hold close together, to compress. 

O. N. hlipa^ to squeeze, gripe, compress, catch ; Sw. D. hlipa or hlif ; N. hlipe ; Swiss 

Cf. • Power hem failleth 

To clucche or to clawe. 

To clippe or to holde.' P, Plougbm. p. 359. 

* Sonmie sayde they lovyd a lusty man 
That in theyr armys can clypp them and kysse them than.' 

Percy's Fol. MS, i. p. 109, note. 

Clip, V. a. To cut short off; to shear, of sheep. 

O. N., S. G., Sw. D., N. klippa ; Dan. klippe; A. S. clypan. Dan. ai klippe baaret, to cut 
the hair; ai klippe faar^ to clip, or shear, sheep. Pr. Pm. * Clyppyn, Tondeo.* 

Clip, sb. A short piece cut off; e. g. a pattern of cloth or calico. 

Comp. Dan. klip^ a cut made with a pair of scissors ; O. N. klippa^ a piece cut off. 

Clipping, sb. The act, or occasion, of a general clipping of any 
farmer's flock (see Sheep-olipping), in which his neighbours are in- 
vited to assist, and which terminates in an entertainment: the farmer, 
in his turn, holding himself ready to return the same office to those 
who have been his assistants. The same system holds good with 
respect to the Pig-killing about Christmas. 


rtime, sb. The time or season for shearing sheep. See 


* Laban ferde to nunen kep. 

In dippmg-dMe to hise sq).* Story 0/ Gen. and Exodus, p. 50. 

Cloam, dome, v. a. (sometimes pr. claum). i. To clutch, vdth both 
hands at once : or, simply to clutch or seize with decided grasp. 2. To 
pull or make tugging efforts, with both hands engaged, as in pulling 
a sack, or the like, along ; to pull about rudely or roughly. 

I hzre little bfCsitatioD in referring this word to O. N. Uambrur, a vice ; that whidi grasps 
firmly, holds in a tight dutc^ ; N. Uhnbr, Sw. Uamma, Dan. Jdamnur, 8u, themselves 
dcriratiTes ftom verbs signifjing to grasp tight, compress, squeeze. 

Clock, sb. A general name for a beetle ; for instance. Black-dock, 
the conmion black-beetle. Water-dock, the water-beetle {Dyiiscus 
margtnalis) ; and Ijady-clock, the lady-bird (Coccirulla sepUm-punctaia), 

HakL gives bnmn-UtUa, commonly but incorrectly written brun-Jdukka^ as the name of 
the Dytiteus. The word is, therefore, an exact equiraknt to our 'Water-dock. But I 
meet with no other instance in a Scand. tongue, in whidi the word kluia, or Uvika, which 
must be the origin of our present word, occurs. Gamett, howerer, PbiJ. Etsays, p. 68, 
tpcfks of it as * a genuine Germanic word, and of remote antiquity, as is shewn by the 
ancient gloss published by Gerbert — ** ehuleich, scarabxus." It appears from Schmelkr 
that kieUek was the Bav. appellation for the uaralKtta sUrcorarius, late in the seventeenth 
centnry.* He also names the insects called Bracken-dock, wiUow-dodk, Sec, 

dock, V. XL To cluck as a hen does. 

Sw. D. kloUka, Uakka, kltMa ; Dan. klukke ; N. S. ilvkken ; A. S. doecan ; Ux. gloeire. 

* Sely Capyil, oure hen, both to and fro 

She kakyls. 
Hot beg3m she to crok. 
To grojme or to clok. 
Wo is hym of our cok. 

For he is in the shekyls.* Townei. Afysf. p. 99. 

Clook-aeves, dock-aiyes, sb. The sharp-flowered rush (/uncus 
acutiflorus). Described as the black-headed bulrush in Wh. GL from 
Marshall, but mistakenly. (Other plants may be included under this 
name, but I am not able to ascertain.) 

Aasen quotes klekk, as applied to grass and plants, and meaning soft, flexible, yielding (as 
opposed to rigid, hard or harsh). This is the character oi the leaves of the Clook-seaTe ; 
and the existence of the distinctive local name 'Wire-mah, given in Wb. Gl, as synonymous 
with • the seaves of the moors and wastes,' and really denoting the so-named * hard-rush' of 
the botanists {Juneus glaueuM), might be sufficient to decide the origin of the prefix in 
Glook-aeaTea, were it not that Rietz gives klak, klak, klok, a word also applied to plants 
or vegetation ; as klak sad, aker, luxuriant com, or cornfields ; kldk sad, kick stut, klbkt bam ; 
the word in the two latter instances implying well-grown, vigorous. He also gives Uak, 
klag, synonymous with N. klekk, connecting it with O. N. klokkr, flexible, yielding. It is 

P 2 


not clear, however, that the two words, given by Rietz as separate, are unconnected. 
There is certainly no inconsistency between the meanings ; luxuriant growth is apt to jrield 
soft herbage ; and besides that, the special application of the N. and Sw. D. words seems 
sufficient to do more than hint a relationship. 

Clod-olags, sb. See Clow-olags. 

Clodder, cludder, oluther, v. n. To collect in a close group, as 
chickens round the hen; to be closely packed, as people in a small 
room ; to cluster together. 

Gamett, Essays, p. 165, quotes Welsh eluder, heap, pile ; clutUiriaw, to gather in a heap, 
as the origin of ^s word. There may be also a relationdiip between both and the O. N., 
N., S. G. klot, Sw. D. klotr, the main idea in which probably may be of concretion, or 
agglutination. Comp. Dutch klotteren, coagulare: and * cluttered blood' is an expression 
met with in Holland's writings, as well as elsewhere ; e. g. * Cloteryn, as blode, or other lyke. 
Coagulo* Pr. Pm. 

* " They were all cluthered up ;" of a number of people collecting in a room comparatively 
only small.' Wb, Gl. 

Cloddy, adj. Thick and short ; full-fleshed. 

O. N. kl6t is the pummel of a sword, and, generally, a rounded lump ; that in which the 
idea of length gives way to that of thickness. Dan. klod, klode, Uods, all have the same 
characteristic kind of application. Hence our oloddy. 

Clog, sb. A log, block of wood. See Hag-olog, Yule-olog. 

Comp. Dan. klods, Sw. klots, a block, log, clog ; also Germ, klotz, bach-elotz, a chopping- 
block, Hag-olog. Sw. D. klakk, a lump, L. Germ, hlak, come nearer still to our form, and 
to Pr. Pm. * Clogge, Truncus* 

Clogged, adj. Suffering under oppression of the breathing-tubes; 
wheezy, asthmatical. See Closed. 

Cloggy, clogging, adj. Causing satiety or its consequent loathing ; 
heavy, indigestible. 

Clogs, sb. Ancle-shoes of thick leather, with wooden soles strength- 
ened with iron at the heels and edges. 

* From clog in the sense of a block or clumsy piece of wood.' Wedgw. Comp, Germ. 
klotZ'Scbub, a clog or wooden shoe, Dan. klods. 

Cf. * His luddokys thai lowke like walk-mylne elogges,* Tounul. Myst. p. 313. 

Closed, adj. Experiencing much difficulty in breathing, as in pneu- 
monic affections. 

I do not find this word in any of the north-country Glossaries, nor in Hall. It is, how- 
ever, together with Closing, of extremely frequent occurrence in this district. 

* *• How is Willy T. to-day?" " Desper't* sair closed, an' like to lose his wind rccght oot, 
a' tahms." ' 

Close-neived, adj. Niggardly, stingy, parsimonious. See Neif. 


Closing, sb. i. A difficulty of breathings produced by cold or 
pneumonic affection. 2. The producing cause itself; pneumonia, 
bronchitis, &c. 

I. • " What is the matter with your baby, mistress?" " Why, it *s a elodtC ; it 's getten 
a sair cow'd an* Ah 's frcc'tn'd o* lossing *t." * 

a. ' T' au'd man *% getten a closin* on 'im, an' it '11 fare te gan hard wiv 'im.' 

Cloty sb. A clod, lump of earth. 

A. S. clud; N. S. fdoot, &c. ' A clotte^ cespis, oecarium. A dottynge malle, ocecUo- 
num.* Catb. Ang,, quoted in note to Clodded Pr. Pm, * Ane dot of heui eoi^.' Ancr, 
RiwUt p. 140. 

' That cursyd clott of Camys kyn 

Forsoth was I.' ToumeL Mysi, p. 328. 

the reference being to ' a lothly lumpe of fleshly syn/ as Judas describes himself as having 
been in his mother's womb. 

Clotrbiiry sb. The biirdock (Arc/ium iappa), 

' Clot-bur, in Chaucer and Pr. Pm. dote, sometimes spelt incorrectly clod-bur; A. S. date. 
Germ, dette, a bur that sticks to clothes.' Popular Names of Br, Plants, p. 49. 

Cloth, To draw the. To remove the cloth when the meal, during 
which it has been spread, is done. 

* So she ete tylle mete was done, 
Tylle they drew dotbes, and had wasshen, 
As is the gyse and maner.' 

Sir Oawan and Dame Ragndl, quoted in Percy's Fol. MS, i. p. X15. 

Clour, sb. A lump or bump ; an unevenness ; the swelling occa- 
sioned by a blow. 

Perhaps transposed from Su. G. kullra, decidere cum impetu, says Jam. Hall, quotes 
' Bareyn dowris,* from Lydgate, as an instance of the sense, * hollow ground, or a field,' 
and gives the word as A. N. I believe that in Lydgate as well as in the North, the idea 
implied in dour is that of unevenness, Hald. gives klur, coarse, rough, unfinished, uneven, 
as a word which, in its metaphorical sense, implied a servant or slave, from the contrast of 
such an one's clownish, or boorish behaviour with that of a free-bom gentleman. Super- 
ficial roughness, whether of conduct or manner, or such as may be left by a bad climisy 
workman, or by a lack of pains in removing unevennesses, seems to be the radical sense of 
the word, and it is more than probable that our word is the same, scarcely altered in either 
sound or spelling. 

Clout, sb. A blow, or stroke, as applied to some limited area or 

Jam., imder this word, quotes Teut. klotsen, pulsare, pultare ; but under the word dutter- 
mg he gives Teut. Uoteren, kleuteren, tuditare, pultare, pulsare crebro ictu, in which the 
affinity seems even closer than in klotsen. 


Clout, sb. I. A cloth of limited size. 2. A patch or piece put over 
a ragged place. 3. A rag. 

Garnett gives Welsh clwt, patch ; clytiaw, to patch, as words which * appear to be of Celtic 
origin/ Pbil. Essays, pp. i6i, 163. Ihre gives klui in our third sense, a rag ; alleging also 
A. S. elut, cleot in its sense of a seam as the origin of our Engl, eloui, to patch : adding that 
from this the conjecture is a reasonable one, that the ancient and original signification of 
clut must have been a scrap or segment of material applied to the repair of worn garments. 
Certainly, besides A. S. clut, ' a little cloth or clout,' (Bosw.) we have Sw. D. Uui, 
O. N. klutr, N. klut, Dan. klud, in the senses of — a portion of material, or a part of the 
dress, as clotb in £. neck-clotb, &c. * Clowte of clothe, (doute or ragge.)' Pr, Pm» 

1. Cf. Chaucer's ' An herin clout to wrappe me in,' Pardoner's TaU, p. 135. 

* In clowtis he was wondene.' Rel. Pieces, p. 41. 

2. * Vor a lute clut mei lodlichen swuOe a muchel ihol peche;' for a little clout (patch) 
may very lothly impair a mickle whole. Ancr, Riwle, p. 256. 

3. ' Thou wald nowthir in purpure ne byse 

Be lappede, ne in nan o)>er clothes of pryce. 

Hot in vile clowttes for to couer thi body.' Rel, Pieces, p. 63. 

* And when she of this bill hath takin hede 
She rent it all to cloutis* Marcbaunt*s Tale, p. 71. 

Clout, V. a. I. To patch, to mend a hole or ragged place, in a 
garment or the like, by the apposition of a patch, or piece of fresh 

Pr. Pm. • Clowtyn, sarcio* The word was anciently employed to express what was rigid, 
as well as what was pliable, like leather or cloth. Thus * " A clowte of yme, crusta ferrea, 
et cetera ubi plate." Catb. Ang. In Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron plate 
with which a shoe is strengthened. A. S. cleot, clut, lamina.' Note to ' Clowte of a schoo.' 

* Uxor. Yei, Noe, go cloute thi shone, the better wille thai last.' Townel, Myst. p. 39. 

And in Ancr. Riwle, p. 356, where directions are given to the recluses to be very careful 
of what they say, on rumour, touching a sister, the writer proceeds, ' Cause the person who 
bears the message to repeat it often in the manner she is going to report it, that she may 
not report it otherwise, " ne ne clutie nanmore J^erto." * 

Clout, V. a. To Strike, to inflict a blow or blows on any given part 
(see preceding word); no doubt from the idea of applying a blow as 
one claps on a patch. 

* Clout his heead for 'im.' * Gout him weel.' 

Clowen, p. p. of to Cleave. Stuck together by means of some glu- 
tinous substance ; in a state of cohesion. 

Comp. Sw. D. klabbed, cohering, adhesive ; hl'djed, sad, heavy, doughy ; of bread, &c. 

Clow, V. n. To work laboriously, to labour or strive at anything 
with much exertion. 

Cf. Sw. hluddra, N. and Sw. D. klatra, to toil, to work with trouble and pains, to labour 
tediously and wearisomely, or to poor purpose. It may, however, be noted that the 
Sw. D. word klor, to make slow or laborious progress, by combination with maw « myra. 


an ant, takes the signification of a laborious person who labours perseveriugly like an ant, 
only very gently or deliberately ; a sense which corresponds rather more nearly to that of 

Clow-olagged, adj. Having their own dung adhering to their hinder 
parts, dried and clotted : said of sheep and cattle. 

This word may be derived from O. N. klof^ femorum intercapedo, oi fori; which word 
Hall, defines ' as the lower half of the body/ adding that^ the haunch of a deer was called 
zfork:* this, with clag^ furnishes our word. Cf. Pr, Pm. * Clyfft cl^, Sissura, rima:* and 
in the note, Clift = la fourcbeurt. Walter le Biblesworth. 

Clow-olags, sb. Dried masses of dung adhering to the wool, or the 
hair, on the hinder parts of a sheep, or other animal. Another form of 
the word is Clod-olags. 

Clow-olaah, sb. Disturbance, or confusion; such as occurs when 
a house is turned inside out in the process of the spring * cleaning.' 

See Glow, Glower. 

QLower, sb. One who works or labours at his occupation toilingly 
or heartily. 

• " A dower at a trencher ;'* a hearty feeder/ 

A dower efter pelf/* a. striver after money.' Wb, GL 

t (( 

Cloy, sb. Nausea, inclination to vomit, or the sensation of it. 

O. N. kHa, to feel sick : kliot nausea ; kliu lakningar, emetics. Comp. Sw. D. klo, 
risings from the stomach, heartburn ; found also in composition, as va//«ii-ib/o— answering 
to our 'Water-brash ; Cr, GL watter-taums ; Halliwell's water-springs or water-springe — 
and brdnnvins-klo, the regurgitation after drinking brandy. The idea involved in this is 
probably the origin of the expression ' as drunk as cloy.' See Gloy, v. a. 

Cloy, V. a. To glut, satiate to the pitch of repletion, or rejection 
of more. 

In the expression ' as drunk as cloy' (see Wb. GL in v.), is not our verb the word 
employed ? This would surely be a preferable explanation to, ' as drunk as Chloe/ which 
has been suggested by some. See Gloy, sb. 

Clubster, sb. The stoat {Musiela erminea). 

Called dub-tail in Line, and elsewhere — A. S. steort^ Fris. stert, Dan. stiert^ Sw. stjert, 8cc., 
a tail — a name which leaves the origin of our word not at all doubtftil. The merest com- 
parison of the short stiff tail of the animal named, with, e. g., the flexible one of the rat, 
is a sufficient illustration of the appositeness of the name. 

Cludder, cluther, sb. A cluster, close group ; a large quantity, or 
mass of anything, gathered together. See Glodder. 

• " A rare dutber of money /' a great sum.' Wb, GL 


Clue, sb. Thread, string, cotton, worsted, wound, whether into a ball, 
or upon a bobbin or card. 

Wedgw. says * the origin of this word seems to be a form of the same class with Welsh 
c/o6, a lump ; Russ. eluh\ a ball, pellet ; Lat. globus, a ball or sphere. The b readily passes 
through V into z w or t/.' Comp. Dut. klauw, klouwe, a ball of yam ; Sw. D. klavse, klauUt 
hl'dvse; Dan. D. >/at/s ; all with the same meaning. Rietz seems to refer these words to 
the vb. kliova^ to cleave, to separate, as their stem-word.' Possibly, however, Pr, Pm. * Clow- 
cbyn, or clowe, clewe. Glomus^ globus, indicates a guttural as the origin of the w or v. 

Cluniy oliimby adj. Tenacious, viscid, sodden, doughy, sticking 
toughly together ; of heavy or clayey soil when trampled upon in a wet 
state ; of heavy, ill-baked bread. See Clung. 

Comp. N. Fris. klum, damp, sodden ; Sw. D. hlam, applied to snow when moist enough 
to be compressed into a compact mass ; Dan. and N. Sax. klam ; O. N. kramr, id. 

Clung, adj. i. Heavy, tenacious; as clayey soils become after satu- 
ration with wet, especially if trampled or otherwise kneaded while in that 
state. 2. Very tough, tenacious, unyielding; of extremely close-grained 

A. S. elingan seems rather to express the toughening or stiffening process which is the 
result of gradual drying of things which have been wet, as in the case of the Sussex phrase, 
a clung bat, for a clung stick. Wedgw. Cf. * Whan ^ou clyngesi for drie.' P. Plougbm. 
p. 276. On the other hand, the idea of drying or withering is wanting in the Scand. forms 
of the word, and simple adhesion or coherence seems to be involved : as in Sw. kldnga, to 
cling, stick to, adhere ; Sw. D. kldng-borre, the bur-dock — literally, cling-bur ; and in Dan. 
klynge, a cluster, or knot ; klynges, recipr. v., to collect or cluster together. This approxi- 
mates more to the idea of tenacious cohesion, which is the characteristic of our word. 

Clunter, v. n. To walk or tread heavily, so as to make a noise with 
the feet. 

Comp. Dan. hlunttt, awkward, lump-like, or in a lumping way, from hlunt, a block, a 
lump, which, there is little reason to doubt, suggests the original of our word. Wedgw. 
quotes Dut. hluntet and klunt in the same sense as the Dan. words. 

Clunter, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder. 

See Olunter, v. n. The idea may be due to that of awkwardness or clumsiness. 

Coal-ooop, ooal-ooup, sb. A coal-scuttle. 

Comp. O. N. kupa, a circular vessel or pail ; Sw. D. kubOy a round or oblong basket with 
two ears or handles ; pdre-kuba, a potato-coop ; also, Sw. D. and N. kupa, and Sw. D. kypa, 
gryn-kypa ; with similar or analogous significations. Comp. Ass-ooup. See Coup. 

Cobble, oobble-Btean, sb. A roundish stone of moderate size, such 
as may be used for ordinary paving. 

Wedgw. says, * from the sound of pebbles rolling on the beach.* Comp., however, 
N. koppel, a oobble-stone ; while Sw. D. has both kobb, a lesser rock, such as is not quite 
covered by the water, and kobbel, a Mere or boundary-stone. The latter may probably 
be a derivative from, if not a form of, O. N. kumbl, a pile, a Buok ; while ^e former, 
as probably, is nearly related to 00b in our Cob-stone, oob-nut ; eob » head ; and to 
cop, a mound, the top or summit. Sec, See Hall. The idea seems to be that of a rounded. 


up-itanding surface, like that of the upper portion of the human head, and the word itself 
to be referrible to A. S. cop^ copp, the top, culmen ; Fris. and L. Germ, kop, the same ; and 
the hke. Wedgw., however, takes cob as meaning * a blow, and thence, as usual, a lump 
or thick mass of anything,' referring the word to W. co6, cobio, Comp. Pr. Pm, 

* Cobyllstone, or cherystone. PetrUla^ lapis cerasinuSf ceramus* 

Cobble, V. a. i. To throw stones at, pelt with stones or dirt. 2. To 
pave with Gobbles or rounded stones. 

Gobble-tree, sb. A swingle-tree ; the bar to the ends of which the 
traces of a draught-horse are attached before the plough or in double 
harness. Comp. Stretcher. 

This may be simply couple-tret; Dan. kobU : as swingle-iree, from Dan. svingel. 

Gobbling, sb. A stoning or pelting with Gobbles and such like 

Cobby, adj. Brisk, lively, hearty ; in good health. 

Comp. Sw. D. kopugur, vigorous, lively : a word applied to the sea when the waves move 
briskly and with consequent sound. 

Coble, sb. A kind of boat peculiar to the north-east coast, in use 
among the fishermen and pilots, with sharp bows, flat, sloping stern, and 
without a keel; used also as a pleasure-boat at the various watering- 
places on the said coast. 

Welsh eeubal, a boat. From this source, perhaps, the A. S. word cuopUt a coble, small 
ship, navicula (Bosw.), originally proceeded. 

' And ^a be ofstag in lytlum scipe t in cuople :* and when he ascended into a little ship 
or coble. Nor thumb. Gospels^ Matt. viii. 28. 

Cob-stones, sb. Stones of a size to be thrown, or which may be 
applied to paving purposes. See Gobble, sb. 

Cock-light, sb. (pr. cock-leeght). Day-dawn, the hour of * cock- 
crow,' when the first gleams of light shew themselves. 

Comp. ' The cock^ that horiloge is of thorpes lite.' Assembly o/Fotiles, iv. 204. 

* The image,' it is said in the note, ' brings before us the little remote village, or thorpe, 
and the hinds called up in the early morning by the crowing of the cock, their only horo- 
loge or clock.' 

Cockly, adj. Unsteady on its basis; easily moved or overthrown; 
wavering. Brock, gives the form * cogly.' 

The origin of this word is probably the same as that of Dan. htgle, and Germ, kugel, 
a ball ; kugeln, to roll ; O. N. hogla^ id. ; and the idea is that of a standing body, but stand- 
ing on an unsteady basis, as a globular one would be. Wedgw. derives the word from 

* cock^ a rapid movement,' which he connects with Du. kokelen^ to juggle, * from the rapid 
movements of a juggler's tricks.' 

Cock o' t' midden, sb. One able and disposed to assert his supre- 


Cook-shut, sb. The twilight hour at the close of the day. Comp. 

Cod, sb. I. A bag, of leather, as in Fireood; natural, as in the 
scrotum. 2. A pod; the shell or outer envelope of peas, beans, &c. 

A. S. codd, a bag, sack, cod. Comp. Welsh cod, ewd, the same ; Bret. k6dr gdd, a 
pocket ; O. N. koddi, a cushion { i. e. a bag with special contents ; Sw. kuddg, a cushion, 
but also the bag containing it ; a pod. CoUate pod with Dan. pudi, a pillow, as well as 
cod wi^ O. N. ioddit Sw. kudde, Wedgw. is of opinion that there is a near connection 
between the words in question, as in OaeL plod or dfocfs English elod or clot, 

Cf. Pr. Pm. * Coddif of frute, or pesecodde. Siliqua' 

* O belie ! O wombe ! And O stinking cod 

Fulfilled of dong and of comipctoun I* Fardomm^t TaU^ p. 134. 

In the following extract, TwmA, Mytt, p. 84, 

* For even or for od I have mekylle tene. 
As hevjr as a sod I grete with myn eene. 
When I nap on my cod, for care that has bene, 

And sorow,' — 

the sense of the word is pillow, bolster. Cf. * i senricale cum cod&ir oontezta.' Fr, Finch, 
civ. ' Coddt a pillow or cushion.' Brockett. 

Coif, sb. A woman's cap or head-dress, of a style which used to be 
worn in days gone by. 

O. N. qocif, a hood, a covering for the head. Comp. O. N. hilfr^ a species of female 
head-gear. Hald. Allied to h^fa, Sw. hufua^ Dan. hue, A. S. huft. The S. O. form of our 
word is hwif; Sw. D. hv\v. See Ihre and Bosworth. Oa^c seems to have been the name 
for the head-covering of the tonsured clergy. Note to Cappc, Fr, Fm, Also, note to 
Cqxfc — ' A coyfe, piUius, pilUoiut, PiUiut cttjyvmunit pcrcgrmumqui galtrum* 

Collar, sb. The leathern Head-stall, or halter by which the horse is 
secured to its stall in the stable. See Head-stalL 

Collier, sb. The swift or deviling {Cypselus apus). 

CoUop, sb. A sliced piece of meat or bacon. Used also figuratively 
to express, according to the connection, the ideas of costliness, distaste- 
fulness, &c. 

Ihre quotes the word koUops, slices of meat, well beaten and softened before cooking, as 
common to the O. Sw. and English tongues. ' From clop or colp, r epresenting the sound 
of a lump of something soft thrown on a flat surface,' says Wedgw. Dire is more cautious : 
* If,' says he, * the word originated in the kitchen, I should not doubt its connection with 
Uappa, klopfm* Probably, however, the source of the word is more distant, and not un- 
connected with the root of «oXo/3ut, a cut-off piece ; ico\ofi6o», to cut short, to mutilate. 
Richardson's derivation is * Collop, by corruption from the obsolete collow or colly, to make 
black with a coal, and then applied to anything of similar form and shape to a collop* (!) It 
is worthy of notice, as at least a curious coincidence, that while Ihre mentions Or. «dXAo^, 
pars spinae bovis, — and this word, in its metaphorical sense, means ' a youth hardened in 
debauchery' (Donnegan), — in Wb. 01. we find that ' a young spendthrift is pronounced to 
be a costly collop to his parents.* 


Example of metaphorical tense : — * " It will be a costly coUop to him " = prove a very 
expensive undertaking.' Wb. Gl, 

* " A sau*t coUop ;** something irritating or disagreeable or hard to put up with.* lb, 

* " Ood saue the Queene of England," he said, 
** for her blood is verry neshe. 
As neere vnto her I am 

as a colloppi shome from the fleshe." ' Percy's Fol, MS, i. 141. 

CoUop-Monday. The Monday before Lent, a day on which the 
customary dish is CoUops — ^i. e. rashers of bacon, and eggs. 

* The poor in the country now go about and beg coUops for the feast, of their richer 
neighbours.' Wb, GL 

* A cock and bacon are, in some farm-houses, boiled on the day after CoUop^Monday, 
Shrove-Tuesday, or Fasm's-eve ; and if any one omits to do justice to the dish, Hobthrust 
is sure, at night, to cram him fall with bigg-chaff.' Brockett, in v. Hobthrust, 

Come again. To, v. n. Of a ghost, or the spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. Dan. gjtn'gangtrt a ghost, that which goes again ; gjm^ard, an apparition or 
ghost ; Sw. gengoMgare; Sw. D. gm-Jard. The south of England expression is * to walk.* 

Come-away, v. n. (pr. cow-away, or cow-wa). To be on the move, 
leaving one's present place of tarrying or resting. 

Comp. Do-way, as in the passages below : — 

* Angtlus, Do wa, Joseph, and mend thy thoght ' Toumtl, Myst, p. 79. 

* " Mak, with youre lefe, let me gyf youre bame bot vi pence." 
Mak. • " Nay, do way : he slepys." ' 76. p. 1 14. 

Come by, v. n. To move on one side, so as to be out of the way of 
one passing by. 

Come-by-ohanoe, sb. An illegitimate child. Called also Chanee- 
baam, Love-begot, &c. 

Comp. O. N. laun-gftitm^ furto genitus, stealth-gotten, as another instance of the spirit 
which prompts the coinage of such names. 

Comen, p. p. of to Come. 

* " Gan and see, bairn, gin Jossy be eomen** ' 

* What tydings hast thou brought me, child ? 

thou art eomin home so soone to me.' Percy's Fol, MS» i. 183. 

Comp. ' ouer eomim* R^. Pieees^ p. 43. 

Commother, sb. A godmother. 

Comp. Fr. eomnUre, A. S. evm-padeTf godfather ; the latter given by Bosw. 

Company, sb. Any assemblage of persons for a special purpose ; 
attendance at public worship, for instance; or at a concert or lecture. 

Conceit, v. a. (pr. consate). To suppose or assume ; to be of 

' I nmaU you'll be firte Lunnun.* Wb, Gl. 

Q 2 


Conceited, adj. (pr. consated). Somewhat flighty, weak, apt to 
entertain silly notions. 

* " A consated body ;** a person given to foolish notions or of nervous tempenuncnt.' 

Conjuror, sb. One able to exorcise the devil or to lay ghosts. 

The power involved here is, or was until lately, held to reside in the dcrgy ; and I haye 
myself been applied to by a woman, who was sane enough in most points, to lay certain 
spirits which pertinaciously disturbed her : one the ghost of a deceased * minister ;* another 
the evil one himself. But the power of the Churoh-priests, or clergymen of the Churdi 
of England, was held to be light, or almost nothing, in comparison with that of ^ Roman 
Catholic priests. See Ord's Hisl, of Cleveland, p. 30 x. 

Conny, adj. Neat in person and figure; pretty, pleasing to look at; 


Comp. Sw. D. kinn, korm, hynn, kdn, neat, pretty, handsome, pleasant and pleasant- 
looking ; Dan. kJ9n (in the pi. kjanne) ; Old Dan. and Jutl. kOn. Comp. also- the mod. 
Dan. use : en hjan pige, a conny maid ; saa lader en hone kjwU i et buus^ in the ClereL 
vernacular, * a misthress i' t* hooss *s conny t* see ;' * den gaard bar eostet hj^nne pmge ;• 
that farm cost a conny lot o' brass ; or Anglice, * a pretty penny.' See Oanxiy. 

Con over, v. a. i. To consider, think over. 2. To persuade or 

talk one over. 

O. N. kenna; S. G. kanna; Sw. and Sw. D. kdnna ; D. kiende; Fris. henna, hnma; Germ. 
henneti ; A. S. cunnian. The signification of the latter word is to enquire, seardi into, eon; 
of the others, generally speaking, to know, to take knowledge of. In O. Sw. Henna, and 
in Sw. Dial, kdnna, there are senses almost exactly coincident with ours. Thus, as to sense 
2, swa l'<Bnner nod nakna hono spinna : necessity teaches or persuades the naked woman to 
spin, quoted by both Ihre and Rietz. So also of O. £. ken. 

Consumpted, pcpl. Suffering under consumption or phthisis. 

* T* doct'r says he *s heavily consumpted ' 

Coom, cum, sb. Dust, fine dirt ; also dust or scrapings of wood 
produced by the saw, or in other modes. See Saw-oom. 

O. N. kdm, a speck or spot of dust, soot or smut, &c. Comp. Sw. D. hdm, doll, at bri^t 
metal becomes by the lodgment of dust, or corrosion ; Dut haam, particles of mould on 
beer or vinegar ; Germ, kabm, the same. 

* Comys, of nialte.* Pr, Pm, • Cummynge as malte, germinatus* Catb, Angl. (note, iJ.) 

Coop, coup, sb. A vessel of wood, possibly made with staves, and 
something of the pail description, though not necessarily so now. See 
Ass-coup, Coal-coop, &c. 

* Coupe or coule for capons or other poultrie ware.* Pr, Pm, note to Cooude, A ccmU 

is a tub, and coope or coupe synonymous with it. 

Cooscot, sb. The ringdove (Columha palumhus), 

A. S. cusceote. The name takes a variety of forms — cowscot, cowsbol, etisbai, eusba'doo. 


kowsebot, aucbetti, dec. Brock, suggests that the name is due to * A. S. eusc, chaste, in 
allusion to the conjugal fidelity of the bird/ pigeons of all kinds being understood to be 
particularly faithful in their loves : whence Chaucer's notice of the turtle-dove, — 

* The wedded turtelle, with his herte true.' Bell's Cbaucer, iy. 204. 

Cordwainer, sb. A shoemaker. 

Pr, Pm, * Cordwaner, Alutarius, Cordwane, ledyr.' 

* His shone of cordewane.* Rime of Sir Tbopaz, p. 145. 

* & doe me of thy cordiuant shoone.' Percy's FoL MS, i. 185. 

And in the note to the same, — * Cordivant : proprie cordwane, corium denominatiun a Cor- 
duba, urbe Hispanix. The same as Morocco leather, i.e. cordovan. Cordouan, properly 
a goat's skin tanned. Cotgr.' * Of felles of gheet, or of the bukke make men good 
eordewan* Note to Pr, Pm. (ut supra). 

In St. Olafs Saga (Flatey. ii. 34), when the author gives an account of Olaf 's visit 
to his mother and stepfather. King Sigurdr S3rrr, the latter being busy in the harvest field 
when the visit is announced, and not in fit array consequently to receive so distinguished 
a visitor suitably, this is the notice given of his toilet : — * Then sat King Sigurdr down and 
caused draw off his ordinary shoes and drew on hose of cordovan {kordunobosur), and 
bound on his gilt spurs. Then took he off his cape and kirtle and put on a robe of fiir,' &c. 
Whence cordovan was evidently a portion of what the Cleveland folks call their * Sunday, 
or bettermy cleeas.' 

Com, sb. A single grain or particle of any substance or article 
usually found aggregated; e.g. of sand, salt, wheat, shot, &c. 

Comp. Sw. D. kom (dei som or sm&ttt anything that is little ; bierte-kom being used as 
a word of affection or petting). Especially observe the Dan. use of the word — ' any quite 
small and round, or nearly round, object.' Molb. Gtddet Jindes undertiden i kom : gold 
may be occasionally met with in corns. Sand-horn^ bvede-korn ; senneps-kom, mustard-corn ; 
senepes-^om, A. S. and N. Gospels ; bagel-kom, hail-com ; peber-kom, and many other like 
compounds are in continual use. Leeds Gl. gives corns of tobacco, affiled to the shreds 
left in an exhausted tobacco-box. 

Ck>rp8e-yatt, oorpse-yett, sb. A lych-gate. 

Corruption, sb. Pus, or matter from an ulcer, boil, &c. 

Corve, ctirve, ^sb. A small waggon, wheel-less, but having iron 
runners, in use in the coal-pits. 

• Corf, a large basket made of strong hazel-rods, called corf-rods, in which the coals are 
drawn from the pits.' Brock. Our Corves, though now made by the carpenter and shod 
by the smith, yet retain the old name. Cf. O. N. harfa, kiirf; Sw. korg ; Dan. kurv ; N. S. 
and Dut. Icorf; Germ, korb. 

Cot, sb. A man who does those ofl&ces for himself which are usually 
done by a female in a house. 

Mr. Wedgwood connects this with • Cotqucan* (which he also spells quotquean), * an 
efifeminate man, a man interfering in women's concerns. Du. kutte ; Fin. kutta, kuttu, the 
distinctive feature of a woman ; thence as a term of abuse for a feeble womanly man.' But 
the old Sw. word kalisquinna, a stnmipet, from S. Q. kdt (salax, lascivus), Ihre — Sw. D. 
kdt, kdter, and Dan. kaad, having the same sense still — suggests another origin for cot-quean ; 


and 1 do nol tee »ny very evident conneciioc between out Cot and ihe Hue lenie of 
tol-jvnin, I should be more iaclined to refer it to the lime sonrce with Sw. D. tufur, 
iStur. kyllar, a pan r lodger in a cottage; O.N. Imtimgr: O.N. and S.G. hol-iarl, t poor 
cottager ; the KCondary or derived meaning being, a miierablj poor or wielched being, who 
would natuially be oUiged to do ereiything for himself, whether woman't work or not. 
See Cot tb., and Cf. Fr. Pm. CoUnllt and note, 

Cot, V. n. To cook for one's self; to do one's own household work. 

Cote, sb, A building, hovel or shed, ihe customary dwelling of some 

species of domestic animal ; e. g. Pig-oote, Sheep-cote, Hen-cote, &c 

O.N.^.- S.G.Iralt; Sw. D.ltdta; Dm. D. ioddt ; S.}atl.iid: Finn.toM: A.S.edM,- 
N. Fril. andN.S. jtoH; M. H,G. *oU,' Dut, ^of.&c; Wall. civH; Hind. Jvf^r,ta^,- Sinter. 
*0M, Ww. Pr. Pm. ' Ooo«, lytylle howie (cosh, eosche. coiihe). Casa.' See Cr. 01. 

Gotten, cotton, v. n. To think and feel with another; to agree with 
him; to take very kindly to him. 

HaH. [peaks of thii word as ' a common archaism,' by which he probably means that it ii 
commonty met with in old writeis. Rich, layi ' it ii, perhaps, merely, — to be. or cause to 
be. like cotton, u soft, as easy, as yielding as cotton ; and thus to lake anything easily or 
quietly 1 ... to yield, to accede, to agree to.' It it more probable that, springing Tram 
the ume toot as canon, it simply implies the idea of intimacy, harmony of sentiment and 
feeling, ai a derivative from that of coherency or slicking together, as dotted wool, or lock* 
of hair. Sic,, do. Comp. our ootter, and eof, a fleece of wool matted together in in 
growth. Wedgv. Comp. also Germ. lolt, the knots on a fleece, clotted hair or locks ; 
Sw. laia^i number of hairs sticking together. Hilpert, See example to Oolter. and note 
cottar*, refuse woo) so clotted together that it cannot well be pulled asunder. UalL 
Comp. alto S. G. ioiu, amicus. 

■ " I cannot caOm to him :" yield to him ; give up my views for his.' IVb. Gl. 

' We can't eolUit together in any shape.' lb. 

Cotter, V. n. I. To become entangled, to run into a confused twisted 
and interlaced mass, as string, thread, or worsted, carelessly handled, 
does. 2. To contract or run up, as a woollen fabric does under the 
action of moisture. 

See To aott«n or ootton. Comp. Lang, ct 
clotted locks of wool from near the tail ; WaU. n 
lock of wool; iotal, shaggy, oottered. &c. 

t. ' All lettered and caatrtd like a wild colt'l back,' Wh. 01. 

' CaUTtd up into snock snarls.' Ih. 

Cotterils, cotterels, sb. Goods in general ; money, cash, { Wh. Gl. 
adds, ' materials.') 

May not the idea be of that which has. so to speak, grown together.— of acereliiins of 
subitan«. — and which therefore has come to form one lot or mass ? See Gotten, Colter. 

Coul, sb. A wheal or lump on the person, such as rises after a blow. 

Sw. D. hil, a lump, knob, hump: 'ba i» hit p& lygg"! ■' he hat a hump on his back ; 
Sw. Ma. a bump; O.N. tula. 


Coul, V. a. To scrape or rake together ; to pull towards one with 
a rake or other instrument. 

Fr. eumlUr, seems to propose itself to our notice here. The Sw. dialects have kyllar or 
ijoUdr, to tie a lot of things together ; kylU or kjoUs, a promiscuous mixture of things of 
dUferent sorts ; iylta, to bundle things together carelessly ; but I doubt the connection with 
our word. It is possible that it may be connected with O. £. cowU, a tub or vessel, the use 
of a smaller specimen of which for collecting matters together is conceivable. 

* Tommy has spilt some o' t' flour oot o' t' poke, an' he 's couling it oop wiv his hands 
again.' Leeds Ol, 

* He 's getten a stick wiv a gib tiv it, to coul thae flowers oot in t' beck.' 

Couler, sb. A wooden scraper, with a long shaft, used for pulling 
mould, &c. towards one. 

* Reach me here yon eouler, David ;' spoken by a sexton who was about to use the 
implement designated for the purpose of pulling the up-cast earth back into the grave. 

Coul-press, cowl-press, cow'-prise, sb. A lever of wood, or staff 
capable of being used as a lever. 

* Mr. Malone says, that in Essex, eowl is used for iub; and hence that eowl-staff'n a itafF 
to carry tubs or baskets' (A. S. cawU eowl) * by the handles. Holland (in his Pliny) renders 
fitttes by bostons, clubs and coulsiaves* Rich, in v. Caud, 

*Take up these doathes heere, quickly. Wher's the eolwU^i^aStV Merry Wives of 
Wind. Act iii. Sc. 3. 

It is more than open to question if our present word has any connection with eowl, in 
either sense, tub or basket. It is met with in the forms eoupraise. Hall. ; eowpress, eow-prise 
Cr. Gl, ; as well as in those given above, all of which seem to be corruptions of the com- 
pound word coul'press or -prise (comp. Colpieke, Pr.Fineb. Iii; Colptee, a lever, Hall.), 
the first member of which is due to O. N. hylfva, S. G. hy\fva, Sw. D. hyUa, hyla, kolva, 
a club, a strong, thick stick ; Dan. kolU, M. H. G. hale, N. S. kUde, Germ, keule : the latter 
to O. N. pressa, O. Sw. persa, Dan. perse, N. S. pcarsen. It should be observed that, until 
a comparatively recent period, the press depended upon leverage for the power of compres- 
sion <^tained, and the majority of the dieese-presses in this district are made on that 
principle still ; as are also not a few presses of other kinds, the printing-press, copjring-press, 
&c., not excepted. But suppose for a moment the relative positions of ihtfiderum and the 
point d'apptd inverted, and the pressing power becomes a prising, or in our dialect, paaing, 
power: the latter word resulting from the form perse — comp. persevere always pro- 
nounced passevere, or pa'sivere, ODul-preta or Coul-prise, therefore, seems to be simply, 
wooden lever. 

Coul-rake, sb. A rake or scraper for collecting or scraping up 
manure, dirt, ashes, &c. 

Pr, Ptn, * Code rake (col rake). ResteUum^ batiUum' * Cowyl rayk de ferro.' Finch. 
Pr. ccxcix. 

Cotims, sb. Hollow-lying places recessed among the hills or banks 
running up to the moor: a local designation of not unfrequent occur- 

Welsh cwm, a valley ; whence comes the term comb, a low place enclosed with hills, 
a valley ; quoted by Bosw. in his il.<9. Diet. 


Coup, V. a. I. To. barter, to exchange one article for another in the 
way of bargain or trade. 2. To overset or overturn; a cart, e.g., so as 
to empty, or for the purpose of emptying it. 

0. N. kaupa ; S. G. kbpa^ to traffic, to barter. It must be observed that the ancient 
kaupmaiSr or kopman must have conducted much of his business on the principle of barter ; 
and these verbs just named, with their aiulogues in the other Northern tongues and dialects, 
all carry the meaning of /o excbange^ as well as that of buying and selling outright. Thus 
in Ihre is quoted the phrase, — kbpajord ijord; to coup land against land ; and again, — idpa 
til bdttra ocb ej till sdtnbra : to change for the better, and not for the worse. In fact, in 
coup we have what Rietz calls the general meaning of concluding a deal or exchange ; as 
in Cliap we understand his straitest sense (inskrdnktaste bemdrkelse) of an out-and-out 
purchase. Sw. kopa^ Sw. D. kaupdt kepa, Dan. Jgmbtt A. S. cedpian^ cipan^ O. Germ, kaufian. 
Germ, kau/en, &c., are other verbs cognate with those already given. From the sense of 
to exchange, to cbop (another form of coup : comp. O. Germ, cbouf, and the imp. and sup. 
of Sw. D. kepOt viz. kjdjfie, kjdffi), that is of one dealer turning over articles to another, so 
that the articles in question change place as well as hands, comes the sense of a literal turn- 
ing over, or over-setting, as in 2. 

1. * Will you coup seats with me?* 

* I '11 coup thee ;' = I '11 exchange with you. 

Coup, ooup-oart, sb. A cart with a pole, but only two wheels, to 
which oxen were customarily yoked. See Hopping-tree. 

Brockett defines Coup-cctrt as ' a short team, closed with boards.' In Fincb. Pr. Invent, 
p. lii, the entry, * i coupe bodi pro fimis ' occurs. Coupe-wagons are also specified in the 
same documents, whence the editor objects to Brockett's definition, and assumes that 
the bodies were * cooped' or planked at the sides, instead of, as more customarily, railed. 
Cf. coup or coupCf our Coop a pail or wooden vessel. 

Couping-word, sb. The final or decisive word which establishes the 
bargain or other transaction. 

Comp. O. Sw. kbpumal, kbpmal, the verbal part of making a bargain ; Sw. D. kaup^agd, 
Sw. kbpslaga, to strike a bargain ; kbp-dagan^ the completed strilong of a bargain. Ihre 
quotes Germ, kauf-scblagen^ that (obligation, namely) which if supposed to arise from 
shaking-hands on completing a bargain. 

Coup over, v. n. To fall or tumble over, 

* " He couped ower heeads an' tails ;" he threw summersets.' Wb, Gl, 

* Puir lahtle bairn, it 's couped ower, an' hotten itsel'.' 

Couther, v. a. i. To comfort by the aid of refreshment and warmth, 
or other means. 2. To make better of a sickness by the use of remedies. 

I am inclined to refer this to cuiSe the imperf. of A. S. cutman, to know, to be able, as the 
origin of the O. E. adjective coutbe, with its gradation of meanings, known, familiar, affable, 
kind, comforting, comfortable, and so, refreshing. The word is of continual occurrence in 
the old writers in the four first of these senses, and Jamieson gives examples of the others : 
thus, ' the spence was ay coutbie and clean.' Jam. Popular Ballads, 

* A mankie gown of our ain kintra growth 
Did mak them very braw, and unco coutb* Galloway*s Poems, 

* Cleanliness is coutbie^ said the wife, quhen she turned her courche.' Sc. Prov. 

And, the adjective once in use in these senses, a vb. might easily be formed from it, 
admitting of analogous application. 


Covins, ouwinB, sb. Periwinkles or pinpatches ; the common sea- 
snails, eaten with the aid of a pin to extract them : (Turbo liitoreus), 

O.N. Hfungr, hufungr, and kufSungr; N. D. kuvungt kuungje, the sea-snail or peri- 
winkle : more generally a snail-shell, ft-om O. N. kufr, convexitas ; N. kuv, ku, a small 
round promiilence or bump ; Sw. D. kuv^ a small rounded heap, or knob on an otherwise 
even surface, which express the idea suggested by the form of the pinpatch in its natural 

Covin-soar, sb. The low flat expanse of rock especially, where 
Covins, or pinpatches, are found in quantity. See Soar. 

Cow, V. n. I. To subdue, render tractable. 2. To bend or twist: 
hence 3. To walk with the foot atwist, or turned awkwardly inwards. 
See Pow. 

O.N. kuga, cogere, adigere; O. Sw. kufwa; Sw. kufva; Sw. D. hugga; Dan. hu§t to 
constrain, subdue, make to yield, to bend : * <U brn, som hues under vaxten :* children who 
are taught to obey while young. Molb. 

I. • His wife will cow him, I *11 a-warrant her.* Wb, Ol. 

a. ' Cowed shoes ;' shoes worn down on one side ; twisted by awkward walking. 

3. ' " To cow and pow ;" to walk atwist, or with the toes turned inward.' Wb. Gl. 

Cow-byre, sb. The farm-building appropriated to the use of the 
cows. See Byre. 

Cow-olags, sb. Probably a corruption of Clow-olags ; which see. 
Cowdy, adj. Frisky, frolicsome, pert. 

O. N. hdtr; S. G. hht, full of life and spirits ; Sw. D. hdt, k&ter, h&d; Dan. kaad, lively, 
frolicsome, wild with overflowing health and spirits. ' Ret som man seer den kaade dreng, 
dei nys er sluppen ud fra tvang og skole:' just as one may see a eowdy lad, newly escaped 
from constraint and school. Molb. 

Cower, V. n. (pr. coor). i. To crouch down, to squat, to stoop low 
by bending the knees, or sitting on one's heels, or the like. 2. To be 
or become submissive. 

Wedgw. is in doubt whether to consider the r as intrusive, marking a frequentative form 
of the verb, or as an essential part of the root. In support of the latter view he quotes 
' the Celtic and Finnish relations,' instancing Welsh ewr, a comer, nook ; cwrian, to squat, 
to cower; Esth. kddr, crookedness; Fin. kaari, bow, curvature. But the purely Scand. 
relations are omitted or unnoticed, and they surely settle the question. Thus, referring 
en passani to O. N. kura, to maintain a crouching posture, expressive of abject sub- 
mission, misery or despair, we find S. G. kura, to hide oneself, bending the legs in 
order to do so; Sw. D. kura, to bow oneself down for the purpose of concealment, to sit 
bowed together with the head on the breast ; Dan. D. kura, to hide oneself by ducking 
one's head down; N. kurOt to bow down the head on the breast, to remain quiet and 
cowering. Molb. quotes * kure, som en bone paa ag eller kylling .*' to cower, as a hen 
over eggs or chickens. Further, the phrase, gammel bwnd tit kwra, for an old hound 
to cower, is given in Molb. Dansk Gloss. The second sense follows naturally as a derivative 
from the fint. 

3. < I '11 mak' thee coor under me.' Wb. Gl. 



Caw-footed; adj. Having an awkward gait ; of a person who walks 
with the toe turned in and on the outer side of his foot. See Cow, vb. 

Cow-gate, sb. Pasturage for a single cow. See Gtate. 

Cow-grip, sb. The channel in the floor of the cow-house just behind 
the part where the cows stand, intended to carry off the Mig, or urine, 
&c., of the cows. See Grip. 

Cowl, V. a. To clip, or cut close. 

S. G. itdla, verticis capillos abradere ; Sw. D. kulla^ to clip the hair ; kuuU^ the same ; 
and to cut the wool off, a sheep, namely. Comp. also O. N. koUr, bald-pate. Cott in Jam. 

* I 'U eowl his topping for him ;' Wh, GL ; — explained mistakenly by the compiler as 
meaning, * I '11 pull his hair for him.' 

Cow-lady, sb. The lady-bird {Cocctnella hipunctata or sepiemrpunctata). 
See Lady-dock, Lady-oow. 

This is a curious inversion of both name and sense ; the name being curious, to begin 
with, as presenting an interesting analogue to continental words. The Fr. names are 
Vache a Dieu, Bite a Duu^ and Bete de la Vierge ; the Germ. GoUephMtin, little cow ; 
Gottes-kdlb ; Herr-Gottes-thitrchtn^ Marim-kdlblein or kdlbcbm; and then come in the 
counterparts to our £. Lady-bird, viz. Marien-vbglein {Herr^ottes-voglwi, also), Mariem- 
bubn. Unsire Henm-bubn serves to introduce Dan. Vor Herrts Hmng; and MarU; or Mori' 
b^ntt corresponds to two of the Germ, names aheady quoted. Germ. MaruH'kqftr answers 
to our Clevel. Iiady-dook, and the south-country Lady4nig, *Just as in the case of 
divers plants and stars,' says Grimm, speaking of these names, * so here the name of Mary 
seems to have superseded that of Freya, and Maritb^fu in old dajn was FriXfubtuta, whi(^ 
also lies at the root of our Frauen-bmn«y Frauen-kublein* It does not seem absolutely cer- 
tain that the old names of two beetles (Cbrysomda and Coecinella) have not been confused 
in the list above given ; for in Upper Germany the little Goldkd/er {Cbrysomda), is called 
frauMbudt or liebt froue benje, in antithesis to berracbudo (the Lady4nrd or coccindla) ; 
though, as Grimm remarks, the names probably alternate between both the beetles specified. 
This remark is illustrated by the fact that he quotes Sw. Jungfru Mart* nyckdfiga, the 
Virgin Mary's key-maiden, as the Gold beetle, while another aumority makes it to be the 
Lady-cow, In spring time the Swedish girls let them creep about their hands with the say- 
ing, — ' Now, you shall show me my bride's glove.' Should the insect fly away, then, what- 
ever direction it may take, from that quarter the bridegroom will be sure to come. Thus 
the creature has evidently been regarded as a messenger of the Goddess of Love, or Freya. 
But an augury of another kind, also, has been drawn from the number of spots on its wing- 
covers. Should they be more than seven, com in the ensuing year would be sure to be dear ; 
if, on the other hand, fewer, a plentiful harvest might be reckoned upon. Our own^ 

' Lady-bird, Lady-bird, fly away home, 
Your house is on fire, your children will bum :' 

or, as others read it, * your children do roam,' or, ' thy children are flown,' may be set tide 
by side with the Germ. ' Mary chafer, fly away 1 Your house is on fire I Your mother if 
crying, your father sitting on the door-step. Fly off, either to heaven or hell I' German 
cUldren have also another address of the kind. Taking either a cockchafer or a Irfklj^ 
oow, they set it on their finger and question it thus x— 

* May-bug, May-bug, tell this to me, 
How many years my life is to be ? 
One year, two years,' Ac., 


' until the little beetle, whose home-place is the sunnj air/ says Grimm, * flies away and 
settles the question/ In Switzerland, it is further added, the children place a gold beetle 
on their hands, and say, 

* O chafer, O chafer, fly oflT and awa' 
For milk and for bread and a silver spoon bra.' 

* Chafers in dajrs of yore,' concludes the eminent philologer, * must have been regarded as 
the messengers and confidants of the gods/ 

Cow-leech, sb. A cow-doctor, a veterinary surgeon, or * Horse-doctor' 
of the South. 

Cow-pasture, sb. A pasture-field near the farm-stead, always kept in 
grass and always fed ; never mowed, that is. 

Crack, v. n. i. To give a loud or resonant report, like a thunder- 
clap. 2. To boast or talk of in self-gratulatory tone. 

* Hunteres Wjrth hyje home hasted hem after, 
wyth such a eraikatuU kry, as klyffes haden brusten.' 

Sir Gaw. and Or, Kn, 1 165. 

Comp. Oerm. kraeben, to crash ; der kraebtn des dormer, the burst of thunder. The 
word is also applied to the roar of artillery or the report of a single cannon. Cf. ' But when 
they heard our great guns erakkt* Perc/s Fol. MS. i. p. 1 a6. Comp. also Sw. D. dont* 
tkrapp, crack of thunder. In its second sense, which results easily from the first, the word 
was in extensive use in archaic, and in even more recent, periods. Thus, Townd. Myti, 

p. 85 :— 

' Both bosters and bragers God kepe us fro. 

That with thare long dagers dos mekylle wo. 

From alle bylle hagers with colknyfes that go, 

Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro 

For to crak* 

Chaucer's Miller (Reew^s Tale), 

' Cracked host, and swore it was not so / 

and Tnrbenrille, quoted in Rich., says — 

' Then cease for shame to vaunt 
And crowe in craking wise/ 

a. ' To hear him eraek, yan 'd say he wadn't own t' Queen, wiv her crown ov her h^ead, 
gin she cam' tiv 'im and said, *< Hoo is't wi' thee, Tommy?" ' 

Craok, sb. i. A crash or peal (of thunder). 2. (And especially in 
the pi.), chat, talk, news. 

Pr. Pm, • Crakke, or dyn. Crepitus, fragor* 

I. ' A flaaysom' ihoofmex-craek, for seear. T' wur fit t' brust yan*s ears 1' 

3. * MOiat eraekt, lad, doon i' t' low-sahd?' 

The second sense flows from the first— or rather, from the general sense, sound — by the 
arbitrary limitation of that kind of sound which is produced by the human voice in ordinary 

Cracky, adj. i. Not quite sound of intellect: equivalent to the more 
Southern * cracked.' a. Given to or fond of retailing gossip, talkative. 

R 2 


Crafty, adj. Ingenious, skilful, inventive. 

A. S. eraftig, ingenious, skilful. Bosw. * The A. S. eraft,' sajrs Molb., ' signifies know- 
ledge, cunning, or skill ;' and our present word is an interesting instance of the preservation 
of the original signification of a word which otherwise would have retained only an invidious 
sense. However, while in Sir Gaw. and the Gr, Kn, we read 

' The stif mon . . \>e stel hondelei. 
Dubbed in a dublet of a dere tars, 
8c sythen a crafiy capados,' 

where erafiy » * skilfully made ;' and in Early Eng, Allit. Poems, A. 888, 

' Now)>e-lese non watj neuer so quoynt 
For alle |>e era/Uj |>at euer >ay knewe, 
pat of >at songe myjt synge a poynt ;' 

and in Pricke of Cons, 9084, of heavenly ' wards' that were 

* Clenly wroght and craftily tayled 
Of clene sylver and gold enamayld ;' 

remembering besides Demetrius' craftsmen^ Acts xix. 24 ; and such compounds as ieieb-eraft, 
witcb-erafit &c. — it will not be out of place to remark that the Scand. sense of the word, 
i. e. power t migbtf appears to have been at one time not unusual in Northumbria. Thus, 
only three lines below those just quoted from Hampole, we find, that those same * wardei of 
the citd of heven' 

* £r mare eraffy and Strang >an any kan neven ;' 

and in Early Eng. Allit. Poems, C. 1 28, the Divine rousing of the storm which was to cause 
the throwing overboard of Jonah is thus described : — 

' For ]>e welder of wyt, )>at wot alle )>ynges, 
pat ay wakes and waytes, at wylle hat3 he sljrjtes ; 
He calde on )>at ilk crafie he carf with his hondes ; 
** Eurus and Aquiloun, |>at on Est sittes, 
Blowes bo]>e at my bode upon bio watteres." ' 

* He wur a crafty chap at fost fun oot thae sun-pictur's.' 

Crake, cruke, sb. The common or carrion crow (Corvus coram) : 
sometimes improperly applied to the rook (Corvus /rugtlegtis). 

O. N. krdka ; S. G. kraka ; N. kr&ka ; Dan. krage ; O. Qerm. kraia, ehrha ; M. Germ. 
kr&t kraje; A. S. cr&vet &c. 

Crake, v. n. To cry, or utter its note, as the crow, or as the land- 
rail, does. 

Comp. O. S. hria ; Br. krid ; Sanscr. krue, 

* Bot begin she (a hen) to crok. 
To groyne or to dok. 

Wo is hym of oure cok.' TWim/. Jifyst. p. 99. 

Crambaszle, sb. An old man exhausted more by vicious indulgences 
or habits than by age merely. 

It is not easy to derive this word, which I meet with only in Wb, Crl. 


Cramble, v. n. (pr. crammel). i. To be halt or infirm on one's feet; 
disabled by natural causes. 2. To hobble along, or walk with much 

We have the word crump-fooied ^ club-footed, O. N. k!umbu'Jbtr, quoted by Wedgw. ; 
arump-hcuk, erttmpt or erookt, Nomenclator, p. 44, quoted by Hall. ; also crumple-footed, 
having no motion of the toes, lb.' ; all closely connected with A. S. crumb, crump, erymbig, 
trom a possible or probable A. S. vb. crimpan, cramp, crumpen, to force together so as to 
cause flexures and wrinkles ; see Rietz in v. Krimpa and comp. O. N. krbm, sickness, last- 
ing and severe, from kremja, used of sickness in the sense to afflict, to oppress. Just as 
GaeL crub, to crook, has as an offshoot, crubach, a cripple, so cripple itself follows on 
erimpcm, crump, there being an actual form, moreover, still retaining the m, viz. crump- 
ling, a diminutive or deformed person. Hall. Sw. krympling, a cripple, one who hobbles 
or moves badly or awkwardly, also retains the m, while in the dialects it seems to be quite 
dropped. Comp. hypling, krbpplingr, krbbling, krevling, kruling ; as also O. N. hypplingr ; 
N. krupel; Dan. kroHing; Germ, kruppti; Dut. hreupel. Our Clevel. D. corresponds with 
the Sw. in keeping the m. S. G. krympling is given as ' paralyticus, cujus membra ita con- 
tracta sunt, ut ambulare nequeat, sed reptando se promoveat;' a kind of action which 
would be almost exactly described by our participle orambling. Comp. also Sw. D. krum- 
md-fingrad, having the fingers numbed with cold, so as to remain bent or curved ; krummel- 
bdndt, with a crooked or deformed hand. 

* T' aud man 's aboot nutched to get him crammel* d alang.' 

CrambleSy sb. (pr. cramm'ls). The larger boughs of trees, of gnarled 
and twisted growth ; such as are frequent in the oak. 

Comp. S. G. krammel, Sw. D. krammel, a piece of wood used in keeping down the flax 
during the process of steeping ; a pole used in keeping the hay from shaking off the load : 
otherwise krammel or krdmil, and kremmel. These words are referred by Rietz to the same 
origin with krum, crooked ; krumma, to bend ; krummei, crooked or twisted, &c. 

Crambly, adv. (pr. crammelly). Hobblingly, lamely, with difficulty; 
of personal motion. See Cramble, vb. 

Cramp-ring, sb. A ring made from old coffin-tyre, or the metal 
ornaments of decayed coffins, and worn as a preventative of cramp. 

Cranchy v. a. and n. i. To crush any substance, which gives a crepi- 
tating sound in the process, with the teeth; to crush the stones and 
gravel, with the attendant harsh soimd, as the wheel of a heavy waggon 
does on a hard road. 2. To break up with a cracking sound, as s^t or 
large sand, or a cinder, under the foot on the floor. 

Probably a derivative from crasb, like cruncb from erusb, the insertion of the n contri- 
buting to a more efficient expression of the resonant action implied. Cf. Pr. Pm, ' Crasebyn, 
as tethe. Fremo,Jr<mdeo, etrideo* 

Cranohy, adj. Gritty, apt to give a cracking sound in the process 
of breaking or crushing. 


Cranky^ sb. A checked linen fabric^ blue and white, much in use as 
material for aprons some years ago. 

Comp. erankf an ann bent at right angles for turning a windlass ; crank, vb., to mark 
crossways on bread and butter to please a child. HalL CringU'erangU, a zigzag. lb. The 
first idea is that of bending : O. N. hringr, O. S. kringer, Sw., N., Fris., Sec. bring, a circle, 
a bending round ; and then follows that of crossing, from the new direction the bent part 
takes in relation to the unbent. The idea of crossing is pushed much further than the limit 
of material transverseness in the Northern tongues, as indeed it is in our own phrase ' cross 
purposes.' Thus Dan. krange, Sw. D. krdnga, is to turn inside out ; * blir du viUad . . si 
hrang trojan d las Fader vdr avigt:* if you get bewildered (or lost) turn your jacket and 
say your Our Father without ceasing. Krdnga is also to be obstinate, cross-grained : or, 
full of tricks, in Sw. vara krankUg : comp. £. crank ^ jest, trick. 

Cranky, adj. Ill able to move, whether from debility originating in 
sickness, or from stiffness the result of an injury, or of local ailment, or 
of age. See Grenky. 

O. N. krdnkr; O. Sw. krankir, kranck; Sw. D., Dan., and N. krank, sick, weakly, infirm. 

CrapSy sb. The shreds of fatty skin left after rendering the fat of 
pigs into lard. See Tallow-oraps. 

The prominent idea expressed by this word is that of contraction, the shreds in question 
from the combined action of heat and partial drying becoming shrunken and shriTeHed, and, 
to a certain extent, even crisp. Comp. O. N. kreppa, to make to shrink, to contract ; krepHr 
I6fi, a contracted or shrunk hand ; N. krcppa, Sw. D. krappa or krdppa. The Dan. adj. trap 
is applied to twine or cordage-work, wrought so tight that it breaks too easily, becomes, as 
it were, crisp or brittle. Note also Sw. D. krapp, Dan. D. krap, shrunk, scanty. There is 
another derivation possible which perhaps involves the Pr, Pm, word * Crappts, or gropys of 
come. Acus, criballum* These are what fall out (see note to Crappe) or are rejected. 
Comp. ' Scrap, remnant, refuse, leavings, what is scraped off. Sw. afskrap, skrdp, refuse, 
rubbish ; Dan. skrab, scrapings, trash.' What Pr. Pm. craccbyn is to scratch that crappe 
may be to scrap, and our Craps may be simply scraps, Cf. Pr, Pm, * Cracokc, relefe of 
molte talowe or grese (crauche, crawke or crappe). Cremium* The editor connects the 
word with IsL and S. G. krak, quisquilisB, from krckia, to throw away. 

Cratohet, sb. The crown or upper part of the head. 

Is this a mere cant word ? Or does the same root give origin to it and to Or. itpiit, 
Kpdros ? 

Craw, V. n. To caw or croak ; said of the crow and rook. 

A. S. crawan; M. G. brukjan; Germ, kraben, to crow like a cock ; krdcbztn, to croak or 
caw ; Dut. kracyen : * a direct imitation,' says Wedgw., * of the cry of different birds.' 

CSreaker, sb. A rattle ; a child's toy. See Night-oreaker. 

CSreakwamer, sb. A watchman's rattle : called also Night-oreaker. 

Oree, oreeye, v. a. To set to soak, soften and swell. Said of rice 
and wheat ; of the latter, in course of preparation for making Formity. 


The grain, when duly prepared, is put into cold water and set by the 
fire to grow warm (or hot), but short of actually boiling. 

I believe this obscure word to be closely connected with the Sw. D. word krava, to fer- 
ment, which is applied to the earth when subjected to the influences of spring — moistened 
and warmed. lola kravar seg : the earth is becoming creed ; lola dogtr inte te r<lg, Jbr 
ho kravar: the earth is unsuitable or unprofitable to the rye before it is oreeved. 

Creel, sb. i. A basket or pannier ; especially as intended for the 
reception or conveyance of fish. See Fish-oreel. 2. A lathed frame 
upon legs, used to place the slaughtered pigs on after they have been 
scalded ; or living sheep during the process of salviiig. 

Jam. makes reference to Ir. kril or crr/m, a basket, or coffer ; Gael, erioit a chest or 
coffer ; and to S. G. harlt a dish or vessel ; adding that O. N. kurla is to cut twigs or osien. 
There is no connection between the two words last named, if between k'drl and the Celtic 
words. O. N. krUa is to weave, to plait ; and may suggest an origin for Creel, if it be not 
rather referred to Ir. kril, 

Creepings, sb. The peculiar cold sensation which often terminates 
in a shiver, and is usually a symptom of an approaching inflammatory 

* " I believe I have got my erupings ;** have caught cold.' Wb. Gl, 

Crewels, sb. (pr. crules or crewls). Fine worsted of various colours, 
used in a species of embroidery, and especially in covering balls for 
young children, or for indoor use. 

* Properly, a ball of worsted. Germ, kndutl, PI. D. klevel, a ball of thread. The inter- 
change of liquids in this class of words is very common.' Wedgw. Ferguson refers the 
word to N. kruUat to blend or mix, to curl. 

Crioket, sb. A small, low stool ; which may serve as a milking-stool, 
a foot-stool, or a child's seat, indifferently. 

N. krakk, a little stool, without cushion or back-rail ; Sw. D. kr<ikkt a form or stool, 
originally formed of the end of a cleft fir-tree, and then furnished with three legs supplied 
by the boughs of the same. Rietz. Comp. Sw. D. kranka, a little stool ; a bench to set 
tubs or casks on ; Fin. krenkku, a four-legged form. 

Crob, V. n. To revile, worry with bitter scolding ; to hector or bully, 
by word. 

Comp. S. G. krtpsk, morosus ; Sw. D. kripituk, krippajtuk, captious, ill-tempered ; N. S. 
knbbisebt passionate; kriNfdn, to provoke; Dut. kribbigt vexatious. Ihre assumes the 
word kribbtn, irritare, as the origin of kribbiseb; and kribbeln is a popular Germ, word, as 
also krUbil'kop/, a passionate, or enraged man. Rietz says comp. Lat. in-cri^re. Note 
also O. N. grobba, to brag ; grobbtttn, a braggart. Our word is another interesting instance 
of the way in which old words are crystallized in local dialects, like twigs in amber. 

Crook, sb. (pr. cruke, or crSwk). i. A nook or comer; such, e. g. as 
is formed in a field by the sudden and considerable curvature of a stream. 



2. The iron hooks on which gates, doors, &c. are hung and swing. 

3. A disease in sheep which causes curvature of the neck. 4. Distor- 
tion or curvature of the hinder legs of an animal, originating in weakness 
or disease, or from injudicious confinement. 5. A crotchet, whim, piece 
of foUy. 

O. N. hrdhTt a crook or hook, a comer ; O. Sw. kroker, a hook, a bending or crook, 
a deviation from directness, wile, stratagem, trick ; Sw. D. krok, generally, whatever is 
crooked ; a hinge or hasp ; a comer or angle ; an underhand device, a trick ; a poor, 
miserable or wretched object or being. We have here all the meanings of our own word 
included. Dan. krog is used in most of the same senses ; thus, at boUb krogen for d»ren : 
to fix a crook for the door ; veim gimr en krog : the road makes a crook ; krog4oVt crooks 
or quirks of the law, &c. Note dso N. krok, Sw. D. kroka, is to fix crooks or hooks for 
the hinges of a door. 

a. * Ex f smith t' coom an' fix thae deear-«rM/b an' yzt-crwhs t' moom's moora.' 

' Yee, hangjrd be thou on a erukt* Tewtui, Myst, p. 249. 

4. * Pigs has getten t' ertuk sairly, lira bein' ower close kept iv a cau'd cote.' 

5. * What fond crvke 's he on t' waay wiv noo ? ' Wb, Ol, 

Crook, V. a. and n. To become or to make crooked. 

O. Sw. kroka; Sw. D. kroka, to make crooked, to become crooked. 

' For I can nawthere erowke ne knde.' Townel. Mysi. p. 163. 

Orookt, adj. (pr. cruickt or crSwkt). Crooked, bent, twisted out of 
the straight line. 

O. N. krdkdttr; O. Sw. krokoUr; Sw. D. krokn^ krokot; Dan. krogit. 

* A vast o' stidcs to choose frav, but he 's nobbud piked a ertdki jran efter a 's deean.' 

Crop, sb. A joint cut from the ribs of an ox, and with the bones 

O. N. kroppr, truncus corporis ; m krop utUn boved, a headless trunk. Hald. ; Sw. kropp, 
Dan. kropt with same limitation of sense. In the expression, quoted by Molb., at varm$ 
mtd sin uld bans nmgnt Und og krop : to warm one's naked loins and crop, the meaning at 
least appears to be more restricted still, and « that part of the body at large which lies 
between the head and the loins. 

Cropen, oroppen, p. p. of to Creep ; perf. oreeped. 

A. S. eropen ; a form which appears in the imp. and supine of almost all the Scand. 
tongues and dialects : e. g. Sw. kriopa, imp. krdp; Sw. D. hype {krop, krbppe) ; O. N. kriupa 
{kraup, kropit) ; Dan. kryht (krmb, krmb§t). 

CrosB-gang, oross-gate, sb. A cross-road; a foot-, or other path 
across a field or common, such as to shorten the distance in passing 
from one point to another. 

CrouB, oroiuie, adj. Brisk, lively, frolicsome, pert. Also spelt 

Jam. suggests S. O. krus, krusig^ Qerm. kraus, Belg. kras, all signifying curly, frizsled, 
crisp, as the possible origin of this word : * the primary allusion, indeed,' he says, * seems to 


be to a cock who is said to be erouse when he bristles up his feathers, so as to make them 
ap|>ear as if eurUd, Dan. kruse, adomo, concinnum paro.' Ferg. adopts the hypothesis. 
But neither of these authors observes that kruSf krustg, kraus, all have precisely the applica- 
tion supposed in the languages they belong to. Under krepsk, Ihre quotes hraushopff and 
knubufvud; and under krust krusigtbu/tnid, as signifying a cross, irritable or excitable man. 
Sw. D. krus-buvud seems rather to imply angularity of character than mere pettishness or 
, irritability. Sw. hrusa bears the meaning of * to be highly complimentary/ and Sw. D. kru- 
9€ra, * to be very polite.' The idea of crispness, curliness, smartness, lies at the bottom of 
all these expressions (which might be multiplied), and our own word gives another instance 
of a like and almost still more natural transition from the original and material con- 

' As fresh and as erous 
As a new-washed louse.' 

* ** As erowse as a lopp ;" as brisk as a flea.' Wb, GL 
' Quite erowst and hearty.' Ih, 

Crow-berries, sb. The fruit of the crow-berry {Empeirum nigrum). 

Crowdle, craddle, v. n. To crouch, to huddle together in a crouch- 
ing manner, as frightened chickens about the hen, or folks over a fire 
that has burnt low. 

' Crowd, Curd. A crowd is a lump or mass of people ; eur^ or eruds, as it was for- 
merly written, are milk coagulated or driven into lumps ; to cruddlt, to coagulate or curdle ; 
to crowd or huddle. To croodlc, to draw oneself togedier into a lump from cold or other- 
wise, to cower, crouch.' Wedgw. Comp. S. G. kroia, conferta turba ; A. S. cru^S, 

Crowdy, sb. Oat-meal porridge, made thick enough to turn out of 
the containing basin, like a pudding, when cooled. 

* This word is very ancient, and claims aflinity with a variety of similar forms in other 
languages ; S. G. grod, O. N. grautr, porridge, made of meal and water, mixed and then 
boiled.' Jam. Note also Dan. gr^d, Sw. grot, Comp. A. S. grut, grit, meal ; £. groats, 
husked oats prepared for making gruel. Sec. ; grout, coarse meal. Jam. ; ground malt. Hall. 
Belg. gruttc. Germ, gruss. Sec. 

Crow-ling, sb. The common heath (Erica cinerea), 

Crowp, V. n. i. To croak, as toads do. 2. To rumble or murmur, 
as one's bowels do when full of wind, or when one has been too long 
without food. 3. To gnunble or murmur, as a discontented person 

A word radically identical with roup, which see : one of the many instances of * the 
facility with which an initial g, h, w, or /is added or lost before r* Wedgw. O. N. brdpa ; 
S.Q.ropa: M,Q,bropjan; Dan. raabe; Sw. ropa. It may be observed that, in either 
form current in Clevel., it is taken to express a hoarse sound or cry, as is also the case with 
croupt the fatal infants' disorder. Neither is the distinction noticeable m the use of the 
Scand. word, as specified by Molb., observed with us. His remark is : * Both man and beast 
are said at skrigc, to scream ; but raab is applied in respect of man only.' Cf. Pr. Pm. 
* Crowkin as cranes. Gruo : as todes, or frosshes (froggis). Coaxo ;' as also O. N. ropa, 
Dan. rabe, to belch. 



Orowping) sb. t. The croaking of toads or frogs, a. The rumbling 
in one^B bowels induced by flatulence. 

Orowpy^ adj. Apt to grumble or repine; given to the expression of 

Orud) V. a. To coagulate^ to induce the formation of curds : chiefly 
used in the passive. 

rhMn the <Mtf totm of lh« pretcnl twmi, Stt Orowdl«. Cf. Pr, Pm, CurtU, cnidde, 

Oniddita^ v. n. To curdle, become coagulated. 

$e« OMtrdll«v with which it wemM ttem to bt csMntiiny cotnckknt. 

Orutdtfta^ v. a. and n> t« To crush, or jam; as a person's body 
by a waggon against a wall d« To push, crowd, or thrust one against 
aiMther, as in a throng of sight^^eers, or people whose curiosity is excited. 

This <» )f»6wihly M Mtctmelkit fonM befwc«n O. £. cromC. to push, sboTc; Pr. Pm. 
^^t^MswIl mi'th n b<irdw;^ ni^ irmh^ Wki sctrvs to conoect the litter with ^ fonner. 
A«M)lht^ fMiii\ is tpwudt^ See OtiialL 

Cru^sb. Curds. 

Oruk^ sb. THe common rook ; or die carrion crow {Corvmx frugi- 

l^m or C e(}rm(\ 

A. S. \fr^, AvM>lh«t fftiiNin«e in whkli the initial r h«s tkken m r or jr hefore it. Tlie 
iKren^ t^ the M|4nite w<y«M in WMiny <3Mes «hiiMi cAdci ^k same lesah as the prefixing 
^ I «r I'. See O l t MMs OvlMViliiC^ We4gw. is inclined to refer N. £. cnti^ a crov-- 
irtiMher i(>elK«|g <^ <ym w«rd— ^ «rMiJK •> expressing dx sound of ^ac tod's cry. 

OhlMk,sb. The hoarse <Ty or croak of tiie raven or carrion crow. 

O.N. #riiid^ ctmMi^; *nteA«, to <M>riL ^ CHwrf or rrwMe . To 07 ISce a crane or 
lieeMi. Lfth. h wt ki , to m ai c e a hanli mnte, «e sunt, croak ; inmkimtL, kr a mk uuL , to 
«fMik.* Wedlfw ; a woird farmed by ^ iaseition of an m, so as to pwc a more na»] 
YMWi^ In «r««l or c rdk ; as in the case of <»«»&, ertmdi, from cnosi, eruA. Pramik, 
f Nmk h^ are KaslerfiOoMities names for ^die common henw : ] heliere, sin^y hecsose 
tliefe is some resemblafioe in the srord to ^le soimd of tiie hircTs ay. ObieiTe ^ use of 
t)ie n in this case alto. 

V. 4, To tumble or nni^p>Ie Hnen, iu^, so as to cause it to 
feim creases. 

* The inleN^itte of fi^ and mI is so ftoqoem that we can hard)}' sqMDste enmk from 
■fMli^^ On. wl^OPiMMn from iv. ^^im^wi, £. trutUt from nt'intfiM, ^fecigw. iuis prmcniie 
^mmM Mi% «s in <coitia<<t at onoe with Sw. D. krivi^a, to press togi^ier so as to form 
ureases or inrrinkies ; tmt there seems to me a simpler nnd profoabK- more conect way of 
y oce ^ M. K. ffMky /rA^ifif, 4^ are of the closest relationship to S«'. krmgla^ ^h«^, 
Dan. «m*Sf<^, Sw.D. ^trmfi, hingwl^ krmf^, 0/N. hrimfrr or hrmfp-, ifcc. ; and what 
E. 4 rMh h to ^. h>it^^, ^trit^^ihtiK k a curvature or fieacure in etexy fold or crease 
<»rwHfiMe i m i < c t hei>ameisowr4awai>:l^to^.*yx»<b. O.X. *rD»r.Dau.4>ry".Jto..toSw.D., 


O. N., and N. krokna : and, be it noticed, this word in one Sw. district takes the foim 
krbnkdn : — ryggen gdhhom ba kronJmd : the old man's back has grown crooked. Further, 
Sw. D. krokli, other forms of which are krokla, kroklot, and O. N. brokkin, have the sense 
of wrinkled ; in other words, are equivalent to enmkUd^ the Sw. word expressing which is 
skrynklig. We have here an interesting sequence : the b of brokkin changing into k pre- 
fixed to r, the first of the two medial Vs nasalised — collate Dan. rynkt, O. N. brukka, to 
wrinkle; brokka^ to shrink, of cloth — and then, as it would seem, an initial s assumed 
before all, as in not a few other instances, some of which will be fully noticed below. 

Crash, sb. A crowd or throng of people ; thence, a country enter- 
tainment ; as a dance, or other merry-making. See Crudge. 

Cry up, cry up and away. A phrase used in connection with bees' 
and applied to the peculiar note or tone of their buzzing within the hive> 
which, to a person knowing in bees, notifies that they are on the point 
of swarming. 

• They'll be awa* inow ; they *s crying oop this ha'f-hour. * 

Cuddle, V. a. and n. To embrace or hug ; to interchange affectionate 
pressure. See Crowdle. 

* The existence of forms like eruddle and cuddle, one of which begins with a mute and 
a liquid, and in the other the liquid is omitted, in the same or in related dialects, is a phe- 
nomenon of frequent occurrence,' says Wedgw. ; and he proceeds to quote many instances 
in point ; e.g. cuffamd duff, to strike ; Du. konkeUn and kronkelen, to crinkle ; E. speekU, 
Sw. spreckla ; E. speak. Germ, sprecken ; Eng. pin, Sc. prin. Sec. He also quotes from Prior, 
who speaks of the partridge, when a falcon is * towering nigh,' as 

* Cuddling low beneath the brake.' 

Still this is a very unusual manner of appljring the word, the next quotation serving far 
better to illustrate the more prevailing application of it as met with in the South of England : 

* They hopped from spray to spray. 
They billed, they chirped all day, 
They cuddled close all night.' 

So far as my own opportunities of observation extend, the idea implied in cuddle is that of 
two or more individuals in close and consenting contact ; in the South, in a recumbent or, 
at least, crouching posture ; here, in any posture whatever. The man cuddles the woman, 
who puts his arm round her as they walk or stand side by side ; the child, or grown person, 
sitting on another's knee and held dose to the supporter, is cuddled ; and so on : and the 
idea in all this is but a far-off derivative from crowd, eruddle. It is at least open to question 
if the word be not rather, as Jam. suggests, a derivative from Teut. hidden, coire, or some 
like word. 

Cuddy, sb. The hedge-sparrow {Accentor modular is). 

Of cuddy, as the popular Sc. name for the ass. Jam. says that it is * most probably a cant 
name.* Still, I believe, that so-called ' cant names' frequently have some very respectable 
origin ; and, almost certainly, the names of our more familiar birds may be referrible to 
something beyond mere slang. I cannot, however, suggest anything as probable in the 
present instance. 

Cuffidaft, sb. Light or easy talk, badinage, such as people indulge 

s 2 


in when they unbend among their friends, and are in a happy or 
jesting vein. 

The latter half of this word may probably be a connection of the Sc. word daff, to jest ; 
dqffin, jesting, light or sportive taXk, It is less easy to suggest an origin for the former 
element. Perhaps the idea involved may be that of light or quick interchange of words, 
and either A. S. ea/t quick, rapid, or the same source which supplies Eng. ctff, might ori- 
ginate it. The former word is met with three or four times in E, Eng, AUit, Poems, 6., 
in the sense of quiek, bandy. The etymology of the latter word seems uncertain. Wedgw. 
refers it to elap. Ihre refers S. G. kuffa, verberibus insultare, to kiffwa, to quell, intimidate ; 
and on Mr. Wedgwood's principle, alleged in the same page with the word cuff, E. cuff 
and Sw. knuffl should be set side by side, and the latter used as an index to the origin of the 
former. If cuffi in our word be related to E. cuff, the idea would be very like that implied 
in the expression * to bandy words.' 

* He was fain for half-an-hour's euffidaft; and for myself I like to blow my horn when 
1 Ust.' Wb. Gl. 

Cumber, sb. (pr. coommer). Care, trouble, inconvenience, obstruc- 

O. S. kymber; Sw. D. and Dan. hummer; Germ, hummer; Dut. hammer, hombre, Molb. 
quotes it as of Germ, origin. 

For the vb. note the following : — 

* 8c then they tooke him out againe, 
8c cutten all his ioynts in sunder ; 
8c burnt him eke vpon a hyll ; 

I-wis the ded him curstly cumber,* Percy's Foi, MS, i, 197. 

* pay ware cumbyrde in covetyse, >e caytifs had care.' Rei, Piecet, p. 9a. 

Cumber-ground, sb. An useless person or thing; one that is un- 
profitable, or good-for-nothing. 

Comp. * Cut it down ; why cumberetb it the ground ?' Luke xiii. 7. 

Cuprose, sb. The poppy of the corn-fields (Papaoer rhceas^ &c.). 

Currant-berry, sb. The common currant {Rihes rubrum). For 
Black-currants (Ribes nigrum)^ see Blaok-berries. 

Cushat, sb. The ringdove {Columba palumbus). See OooBOot. 

Cush-love, (pr. coosh-loove). A pet or coaxing term of address to 
a cow. 

Comp. Isl. husa, hussa, husla, to address a cow coaxingly. 

Custard-winds, sb. The cold easterly winds prevalent on the N. E. 
coast in spring. Probably a corruption of ooast-ward winds. 

Cutter, V. n. To talk in a low and confidential tone ; to whisper ; to 
make private communications in an undertone. 

S. G. huttra, garrire ; Sw. D. huttrd, to talk low and in secret. Other forms are hudrd, 
kdudrd ; huttra 1 bop, to hold confidential communications ; N. S. quadem • Brunsw. (H. G 
Dial.) hoddem ; Dut. hoeteren, to talk slang ; Swab, hudem. 


Daoity, sb. Capacity, ability or fitness for a position, duty, or office ; 
also activity, energy. 

Probtbly connected with died nearly as triekty is with triek. Hall, gives dossity, which 
is probably only another form of this word. Dotonu signifies thriving, likely to do well ; 
dndy is industrious, notable ; deedily is actively, diligently ; while, in the opposite sense, we 
have d§edUs8, dadliss, Comp. Sw. D. d&dios, O. N. dadloMt, 

Daddle, dadle, v. n. To trifle, move lazily or saunteringly, to be 
listless. Also written Daudle. 

This word is supposed to be a diminutive of dctu, a sluggard, which is referred to O. N • 
dd, S. G. dd. See Datt, 

* A (UUdlingf sauntering body.* 

Daff, sb. A coward, a dastard, a fool. 

Cf. Pr, Pm, * Dafit or dastard, or he kzt spekythe not jm tyme.' 

One of a numerous family of derivatives reappearing under various forms, and with 
various shades of signification, but all implying a want or a £iiilure of some power or quality. 
Hire remarks of the probable root-word (dd, deliquium animi), that it is ' like the stock of 
a felled tree which has pushed forth a great many shoots.' Among others, our Clevel. 
words daffle, daft, deai*, dowly, &c., are referrible to this stock, descending through 
the forms ddf, dofha, da/ha, ddlig, &c. In Sw. Dial, we find duven, benumbed ; ddven, 
powerless ; divna, to become powerless or inert ; and, in O. N., dqfi, inertness, want of 
energy ; do/inn, feeble, faint ; in M. G., dtvan, to become feeble ; Sansk. div, to be heavy, 
sluggish, &c. ; and, just as in these words privation or loss of feeling, vigour, energy, and 
the like is implied, so in our word that of moral energy and vigour, or courage, or intdlect. 
In the old writers it usually means fool. 

• " Thou doted daffe,** quod she, 

•• Dulle are thi wittes." * P. Ploughm. p. 23. 

' For lat a dronken dajfk 
In a dyk falle, 
Lat hym ligge, &c.* /(. p. 337 

Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense, cowardly fool : — 

* He auntrith him and hath his nedis spedde. 
And I lie as a draffe sak in my bedde ; 
And when this iape is told another day 

I shall be hold a dajfk or a Coknay.' Rmn^s Tale, p. 33. 

Daffle, V. a. and n. i. To confuse, disturb one's mental powers, as 
by noise or disorder. 2. To become stupid or confused. 3. To grow 
weak in faculties, forgetfiil and childish, from old age. 

See Daff. Comp. Sw. D. ddvle, N. dauwUg, both of which adjectives involve or imply 
at least a part of the above significations. 

I. * Ah 's just that daffled wi' thae bairns' din, Ah 's nae use o* ma heead.* 
8. ' He fails fiut and begins to daffie^ 


DaflOy, adj. Half-imbecile, weakened in faculties, forgetful and 
childish ; of old people, often. 

* He's becoming quite daffly.* Wb. Gl, 

Daft, adj. i. Simple, half^silly, 'not all there.' 2. Flighty, giddy, 
thoughUess. 3. Foolish, stupid, dull of apprehension. 

From its fonn possibly a p.p. from the vb. daff. Jam., it will be seen, gives that vb. in 
the sense, ' to be foolish ;' but he derives daft from O. N. daufr, fatuus, or at least from its 
neuter dauftf quoting also S. G. d6/, stupidus. 

I. * Send daft Willie. He 's nobbut hau'f theear ; but he's canny eneugh aboot sik an 
earrand as yon.' 

a. * T' lass has gaen clean daft. She weean't mahnd her ain neeam lang, a' this gate.* 

3. * As daft as a goose ;' * As daft as a deear-nail.' Wb. Gl. 

Daftish, adj. Only of very moderate quickness, or ability and sense. 

* A daftisbt dizzy soort o' body.' Wb. Gl. 

Dagg, degg, v. a. and n. i. To sprinkle with water. 2. To drizzle. 

Sw. D. dagga : O. N. dbggva^ to bedew, sprinkle ; )»a'S doggvar, it drizzles ; Sw. dugva, 
to sprinkle or splash ; Sw. and Sw. D. dagg, O. N. dbgg, Dan. dug, dew. 

1. * Gan an' dag thae claithes, Marget. Ah '11 mind t' bairn.' 

2. * A fine dagging rain.' Wb. Gl. 

Bagged, adj. Wet, bedaggled. 

* She 's getten her sko'ts finely daggtd* 

Dainsh, densh, adj. Fastidious, dainty, nice. 

This word occurs in the forms dauncb, daneb, doneb, deneb. Hall, and Lads Gl. The 
last word has for its second meaning ' Danish.' The same meaning is given for Densbe. Hall. 
It is at least open to question whether this is not the origin of the word — if it does not 
bear with it a reminiscence of Danish assumption and haughty self-preference. * So long as 
the Danish supremacy lasted (in England),' says Worsaae {Mindir, p. 187), *the Danes 
naturally could only carry themselves as lords in a conquered country. Their innate taste 
for magnificence and luxury was abundantly fostered, and their pride was flattered by the 
subjugation of the Anglo-Saxons. The old English chronicles contain bitter complaints 
touching the humiliations the natives were exposed to. Thus if an Anglo-Saxon chanced to 
meet a Dane upon a bridge, he was obliged to wait in a posture of lowly reverence — nay 
even, if he were on horseback, he was obliged to dismount and wait, until the Dane had 
crossed over.' Verily the Dane might be looked upon as 'particular,' or *nice,' under 
such circumstances, and his generic name, Dansk^ pass into a word expressive of such charac- 
teristics. Further, it may be observed that the Sw. D. word bdnskat — a derivative from 
bbjt a (or rather the) ci^ or town, and signifying, 1. To use fine or *city' language, to 
talk big; fl. To set oneself up, or Tto expound dialect by dialect) to be bumptious — 
assumes the form of ddnsk, ddnska, dinska, in different Sw. localities, and thus fiimishef 
a term identical with ours in form, and closely approaching it in meaning. 

* Over dinsb by owght ;' far too nice or fastidious. 

Dainah- or densh-gobbed, adj. Dainty about one's eating. See Cak>b. 
Dale, sb. (pr. deeal). The distinctive name of the valleys which run 


far up between the high moorlands of Cleveland and the adjoining dis- 
tricts, each with a small rapid stream, or Book, running through it from 
Head to End, where it empties itself into the larger stream : in Cleve- 
land, into the £sk, which runs along £sk-dale. 

O. N. dalr^ Sw. and Dan. dcd. Comp. A. S. dal. That Dale in Cleveland is a purely 
Danish word, to the entire exclusion of any A. S. intermixture, can scarcely be a matter of 
doubt to any one who gives a moment's thought to the nature of the prefixes which dis- 
tinguish the various dales — all of them Scand. — not to mention the very important part 
filled by the same word in local Scand. nomenclature, especially in Iceland. 

Dale-end, sb. The point at which the Dale attains its full expansion, 
and, so to speak, terminates ; debouches or ends in the central or main 

Comp. O. N. dalt'tnynni, os vel fauces vallis. Danby- or Dale-tfm/, Fryup-eiu/, Glaisdale- 
end. Sec, 

Dale-head, sb. The upper portion of the Dale at or nearest its 
narrowest or commencing part amidst the moorland hills. 

Dall, daid, dawl, v. a. and n. i. To tire or weary. 2. To grow 
tired, to become weary. 3. To become depressed, low-spirited. Also 
spelt Dowl. 

Comp. Sw. D. dala d, ddla d, to become weary, heavy with sleep ; the primary meaning 
of the word being to fall, the first derived meaning to tend towards setting, as the sun does. 
Cf. Dan. dale, to sink, to wane. Note, also, in another direction, O. N. dvali, torpor, 
swoon ; and Old H. G. twelan, to be overpowered with sleep. 

I. * It dauls me sairly, diz this thravellin' by t' reeal.' 

8. * Ah 's dauTd o* t' spot. Ah can't heeaf tiv it naekins way.' 

* Ah 's dauFd o* my meat.' 

' Ah 's very dauled: it 's bin a dree ganging.' 
3. * Ah 's fairiings dowled to deeath.' Wb. Gl. 

Dame, sb. (pr deeam). One's wife, the mistress of his house ; also 
applied to an aged woman. 

Dander, v. n. To tremble or shake with a tremulous motion, as a 
house does from the passage by of some heavy vehicle, or the like. 

O. N. dja (imp. dudt), to shake, to totter. Comp. also O. N. datta, with a similar signi- 
fication. Sw. D. dandrd likewise has very nearly the same meaning. 

Danger, sb. Probability, risk. 

•"Ah's doo'tfiil WiUy'U not cast this aihnent; hell dee." "Weel. there's a danger 
on t. 

DangeroiiBy adj. In a state or condition of danger ; of persons. 

* «* Mrs. Dale 's very ill, they say ? " *• Ay, 'Doctor says she 's dangerous." ' 



DanglementB, sb. Fringes, tassels, or any such easily moveable 
pendants to a garment, &c. 

Dap, adj. Clever, dexterous, handy. See E. dab. 

Wedgw. says, * A dab-band is one who does a thing off-hand, at a single blow. Note also 
Langued. iapa, to strike, to do a thing skilfully and quickly.' See Dap, vb. 

Dap, V. n. To move with short, quick steps. 

* He goes dapping along, as if he were on springs.' 
' Dapping up and down stairs.' 

Dark, v. n. To listen insidiously, eavesdrop, seek for information in 
underhand ways, or with an insidious intention. 

Hall, sajrs, * to watch for an opportunity of injuring others for one's own benefit. In old 
writers, to lie hid.' Our word scarcely implies the malicious intention, but doubtless the 
sense of lying hid contains the germ of its actual meaning ; to conceal oneself for the pur- 
pose of hearing without being suspected as hearing, and thence, to hear in an insidious way. 
Brockett gives us the form dart, Comp. Pr. Pm. * Daryn, or drowpyn, or prively to be 
hydde (privyly to hydyn). LatUo, lateo* See also note to the same. The connection of 
our word is with this and not with £. dark. See Wedgw. in Dart, 

* They dark and gep for all they can catch.' Wb, Gl, 

* What are you darking at ? ' lb. 

Darr, v. a. To dare. 


* Ah darr'd him tiv it, an' he wur fleyed 'o tryin'.* 

Cf. ' This gere may never faylle, that dSor I undertake.' ToumeL Myst,p.2'j. 

Dased, dazed, adj. (pr. deeaz'd). i. Astounded, stupefied, struck 
with amazement or terror. 2. Suffering from the effects of cold, numbed, 
lifeless. 3. Dry, sapless. 4. Ill-cooked, ill-baked ; from the oven being 
too slow, or the fire not properly kept up ; or, perhaps, ill-leavened ; the 
result being, in either case, that the bread is scarcely palatable or fit for 
food ; and so of the meat, whether dried up, burnt, or not sufficiently 

Comp. S. G. dasa, O. N. dasadr, dasasi, exhausted, to be worn out. Ihre supposes ddr$ 
and ddse to be essentially the same word, in which case the sense of *stupef3ring' would 
come in. Comp. Sw. D. dasa, to be utterly lazy and inert ; Dut. datun^ to be beside oneself; 
dwaasMt to be foolish; A. S. dwas^ N. S. dwes, dwas; Dut. dwaas, dull, heavy, stupid. 
Pr. Pm. * Dasyd. Vertiginosus ;' and dasyn, applied to the eyes, to become dull. O. N. 
dasazst {Flatey. i. 536), is applied to the joint effects of cold and exhaustion. 

I. * What 's wrang wi* thee, man? Hast ee getten a gliff ? Thee luiks dttaind like.' 

* I das* and I dedir 
For fcrd of that taylle.' Toumel. Mysi. p. 28. 

a. * It's nobbut a poorish cletch ; bud maist o' t' eggs gat duazid wiv t' aud hen bein' 
aff sae lang.' 

3. * Ay, it 's a strangish frost : t' com an' grass 's fairlings ditaud wt' 't ; an' Ah 's about 
detazed wi' t* cau'd mysel.' 

4. * T' breead-leeaf 's dttazMd: 


Daflement, sb. See Dee&sment, Dased. 
Dauby, adj. Dirty, slovenly, untidy. 

Comp. Sw. D. dabbOt a ragged, slovenly woman of ill conduct ; dabba, to make dirty, 
daub; d<d)ba ug, to feed oneself dirtily; dabba U, to make anything dabbigt, that is, 

* Dauby folks' are people who are ' slovenly in household matters.' Wb, Ol. 

Damn, sb. A portion or share, with an implied idea of smallness. 

Sw. D. dom, a small piece, a morsel. The word is connected with the verb-family. 
S. O. dima, O. N. dami, A. S. demon, Sw. domma, &c., to judge, decide, sentence. The 
idea is evidently that of portions allotted, or assigned at the judgment or will of another. 
See Dtaaot vb. 

' ** It was a dear daum ;" a dear morsel ; very little for the money.' Wb. GL 

Damn, v. a. To deal out or allot, with the implied sense of sparingly, 
almost grudgingly. 

* *' Daunud out ;" dealt out in small or scanty allowances.' Wh, Gi» 

Comp. * For David demys ever ilk deylle, 

And thus he says of chylder 3ring :' Toumel, My$L p. 160 ; 

where the sense of dSrmys seems to be nearly that of dividtt in the expression, * rightly divide 
the word of truth.' 

Day-nettlOy sb. (pr. deea-nettle). The common hemp-nettle {Gale- 
opsis ieirahit). Common in corn-fields, especially where the soil is very 
light and the crop thin. 

* Labourers in harvest are sometimes affected with a severe inflammation of the hand, or 
of a finger, which they uniformly attribute to the sting; of a Day-nettU, the name by which 
this plant is known among them.' Botany of Berwick-on'Tweed, 

Daytaly adj. By the day ; applied to a labourer who works * by the 
day,' or to the work done by him. 

Comp. O. N. dagaial, a diary, day-book or register. 

Daytal-many sb. A man who works, and is paid, by the day; in 
contradistinction to the Farm-servant who is hired by the Term — the 
year or half-year: May-day to Martinmas, or to May-day again — and 
paid at the rate of so much a year, in addition to his food (see Meat) 
and lodging. 

•"What is your father, Robert? A farmer?" " Nae, sir, nobbut a workmg-man." 
•* What, a farming-man (farm-servant) ?" " Nae, sir, on'y a daytal-man** ' 

Daytal-work« Work done by the day-labourer or Daytal-man ; in 
contradistinction to work done by the piece — as a job of draining, or 
mowing or harvesting— or by the duly hired Farm-servant. 



Deady sb. (pr. dee&d). Death. 

* Ah 's harrish'd te deecui;* * dauled to deetut, &c. 

Comp. * He walde be-come mane, and for vs suffire >e de<U in |>at swete manhed.' 
Rel, PUceSf p. 41. 

* With an Iron forke made of Steele 
he held him downe wondorous weele 

till he was scalded to the dead,* Percy's Fol. MS, i. p. 100. 

* How hee saued her from deaden lb, p. 461. 

Deaf, adj. (pr. deeaf). i. Barren, blasted, without produce, hollow or 
empty; thence of the soil, barren, incapable of producing. 2. Tasteless, 
insipid, without flavour or pungency; and thence, 3. Without power 
to sting. 

The varying applications of this word are curious and interesting, all of them implying, 
however, deprivation : see Daff. A. S. dtaJ<om is simply barren corn ; O. N. daufegf^cdSr 
is dull-edged, blunt ; dauf-fingra^r^ one with imperfect use of his fingers ; dauf-mmitr^ one 
who talks indistinctly ; dauf'skygn^ of defective sight ; daufr-liir, a dull or not easily distin- 
guishable colour. S. G. dof-vidr is a non<productive tree; dauf-jord unproductive soil. 
Besides which O. N. daufir is vapid or savourless, and Sw. D. d&ven the same ; while 
S. Jutl. dov corresponds precisely in meaning with our word — barren, blasted. Thus, in 
Clevel., * A dtaf ear of com* is one which contains no grains or pickles, or Ckyrns. ' A 
deeaf nvX* is a nut which contains no kernel within it. Compare the saying, * He does not 
look as if he lived upon deeaf nuts,' with the precisely like S. Jutl. expression, ' Ham lever 
int* ved daw nodr;* literally, *he doesn't live upon deaf nuts.' A good sum of money, 
or any other tangible benefit, also, is said to be * nae deeaf hmX* 

I. * Ay, yon 's a deeaf spot : nowght niwer grows iv it.* 

* It 's a varrey bad year wi' t' bees. Maist feck o' t' keeam (comb) 't deeaf;* contains 
no honey. 

a. * Ay, t* peers (pears) 's past their best. They 's amaist a' deeaf noo* 

3. * Niwer heed him, bairn. He wean't nettle thee wi' yon : it's nobbut a deeaf ntttle,* 

Deafly, adj. (pr. dee&fly; also written deavely). Lonely, solitary, in 
the sense of remote, out of the world. 

O. N. daufligr^ sad, melancholy. * Its neut. daufligi signifies gloomy or saddening soli- 
tude: einum ifikkir daufligt soman; a lonely life is a sad life.' EgilU. N. dawvteg is 
synon3rmous with our word, and nearly identical in form and sound. 

* They live in a far-off deeafly spot.' Wb. Gl, 

Deaf-nettle, sb. The dead-, or dumb-nettle : (genus Lamium). 

Pr. Pm, * Deffe nettylle, Archangelus.' * The plant lamium, or archangel, known by the 
common names dead or blind nettle, in the Pr., has the epithet dejfit evidently because it 
does not possess the stinging property of the true nettle.' 76. note. 

Deary, deeary, adj. (Pr. of doory). Minute, smaU, puny. 
Deave, v. a. (pr. deeav). To deafen, stupefy or stun with noise. 

O. N. de)fa ; Sw. dqfva ; Sw. D. dova ; N. dmyva^ to stun or stupefy. 

* A din fit t' deave yan.' 

* Ah 's fairlings deeav* d wiv 't all : wife callin' (i. e. scolding) an' bairns skrikin'.^ 


Deasementy deeasmeiity sb. (Pr. of Basement). The effects or con- 
sequences of continued exposure to cold ; the sensation of being chilled 
through which is often the fore- runner of a heavy inflammatory cold. 
See Based. 

* Ah 's getten a sair deeas*Tnent* 

Beeath. (Pr. of death). 

Beeath-smear, sb. The clammy moisture of approaching dissolution. 

Beeath-stmokeiiy adj. On the verge of dissolution ; said of one on 
whom the signs of closely approaching death are fully apparent. 

Beeathy-groats, sb. One having a death- doomed look, evidently 
claimed by death as an early victim. 

From O. N. dat^i, and grd^i or groiSr, a shoot, or production. 

* T* ane is a fahn, fat baim : t' ither was allays a puir dowly dteaiby-groats* 

Beed, sb. Doings. A word of most frequent application, and more 
easily illustrated than defined. 

* Mucky dud;* a greeting from one walker to another when the roads are in a very dirty 
condition : or, when a very foul pigsty (or the like) is being cleaned out ; or, in short, when 
anything is proceeding which is emphatically * a dirty job.' 

* Bonny deed;* usually in an ironical sense, nearly equivalent to the south-country 
• a pretty to-do.* 

* Dowly deed;* applied in the case of a person or persons whose condition is one of 
depression, whether arising from sickness, or sorrow, or misfortune, or ill-luck, or even want 
of emfdoyment. * It 's dowly deed for t' working man when there 's nae wark t' git.' 

' Went deed;* great stir or excitement, as at a great * coming-of-age' feast, or the 
festivities at the wedding of the squire. 

* Great deed* — * great deed for the lawyers ;' — an election which gives them plenty of 

' Great deed at t' new hooss ;' a grand housewarming. 
'Great deed about nowght;' a great to-do about nothing. 
Also, * sad deed; * gay deed,* Sec. 

Beedless, adj. Helpless, inefficient, feckless. Hall, writes the word 
' dadless.' 

0. N. ddtSlam, alike unable and unwilling to help oneself; Sw. D. d&dlos, dSlos, dilaus, 
&c. A. S. has dadlic, deedlike, active, but no d<Bd4cBds. 

Beft, adj. i. Pretty, neat. 2. Handy, clever. 

A. S. datfte, convenient. Hall., Brock., and Todd's Jobnton, all look on this word as 
obsolete except in the North : wrongly, as I think. 

1. ' A deft sight ;* spoken ironically, says Wb. GL, and equivalent, or nearly, to * a pretty 
sight, indeed.' 

Beftly, adv. Cleverly, dexterously. 

A. S. daftliee, fitly, conveniently. 

It was all very deftly done ;" dexterously managed.' Wb. Gl, 

T 2 

( (( 


Degg. See Dagg. 

Delve, V. n. and a. i. To dig. 2. To work, labour hard. 3. To 
indent or leave a permanent bruise or indentation in a metal vessel, 
or other object capable of such impression, such as a hat, a tin 
box, &c. 

A. S. del/an, to dig ; Dut. delvtn. In its original sense, to dig^ the word is scarcely used 
at all in Cleveland. Qrave is the word in all but exclusive use to express that operation. 
The derived sense, * to labour or toil at anything/ is more frequent, but, in nine cases oat of 
ten when the word is used, it is applied in the third sense. Comp. Sw. D. dalpa, dolpa, to 
vault or arch over, to turn over or upside down ; dtdpa, a hole or unevenness in the road, 
especially one produced by the inequalities of a heavy snow-fall, or by the continoed pas- 
sage of heavy loads ; datpig, uneven, holey, — spoken of a sledge-road over the snow ; Dut. 
d'dvtt a hole or pit. There is a curious mixture, or succession, of ideas common to our 
verb and its Sw. double ; digging is turning the soil dug upside down ; the piece dug leaves 
a hole and forms a kind of vault ; the hole or rather indentation in a pewter pot or a tin 
box, looked at from the other side, also forms a vault. The coincidence is extremely 
interesting, and makes one anxious to trace the history of the lonely Sw. word ; for it 
seems to have no fellows in the other Scand. languages. 

a. * He 's allays delving at it, gan when ye will ;* always hard at work at the specified 

The vb. is in frequent use in Cbaueer, Townel, Mysi,, &c., in the sense to dig, and in 
Religious Pieces, Percy's Fol. MS., Sec, in that of to bury ; e. g.— 

* All quicke shee shold dolven be.' 
Comp. * He rasyd Lazare out of his delfe* Townel, Mysi, p. 330. 

Dented, dinted, adj. i. Notched, serrated, resembling the teeth of 
a saw. Comp. ' The woodpeckers have a tongue which they can shoot 
forth to a very great length, ending in a sharp, stiff, bony tip, defUed on 
each side.' Ray, On the Creation^ Pt. i. 2. Indented, impressed with a 
sunken mark; applied to soft substances, as the flesh, dough, &c., as 
delved is to harder ones. There is a stitch in use among tailors which is 
called dinting, which is done by passing the needle nearly but not quite 
through the stuff, so that the stitch forms a small depression on the other 

Denty, dentyish, adj. Fine, genial, inspiriting. 

Coincident with E. dainty, but with a more limited application. 

* A gay fine, denty morning.' 

* A deniy day this has been, partic'r'ly for t* tahm o' year.' 

Derse, (Pr, of Dress.) See Dress ; * durse' in Hall. 
Desperate, adv. (pr. despe't'). Used as an augmentative. 

* A despe*f bad cold ;' * a despe*t* awk'rt spot ;' * a despe'i* fahn miss,' a very smart young 
lady ; * a despe't* grann' hooss.' 


Bess, sb. I. A layer or course in any pile or mass that is heaped or 
built up by degrees. 2. The entire pile or mass so built. 

0. N. dSf», a hay-stack ; dys^ a tomulus, or grave-hill ; S. G. dds, a pile made as described 
in the definition, a stack ; Inm i dyss S4StHa : to put com together into a heap ; Sw. D. dos, 
doUf piled heaps of stones : * these sten-dosser have usually bieen heathen altar-piles,' Rietz ; 
also dossf, a stack of hay or straw. Cf. Pr. Pm, Dese. 

1. (^>oken by a working-man while engaged in excavating a tumulus or grave-hill, 
Hone.) * Wheeah ! it all ligs i' disses;' it is all laid in layers. 

9. * A dSns of stones.' Wb, OL 

Pr, Pm. *Deti, of hye benche,' denotes 'the seat of distinction placed on' the dais 
proper, or * rais^ platform always found at the upper end of a hall.* Note to Desi, 
In TowHii, Myst. p. 4, speaking of Lucifer and his beauty, * Secundus malus Angelus,* 

' He is so fayre, with outten les. 
He sem3rs faHe welle to sytt on des ;' 

where the meaning of dgs corresponds with that of Prompt, dese. But at p. ao the word 
evidently bean a sense nearly or quite coincident with that of grade, degree, Lat. gradus, 
and thus connects itself with our word : — 

' Of alle angels in brightnes 
God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly he flyt his des^ 
And set hym even hym by. 

He thoght hymself as worth! as h3rm that hym made. 
In brightnes, in bewty ; therfor he hym degrade. 
Put hym in a low degre soyn after.' 

DesSy V. a. To pile up in an orderly fashion, or layer after layer. 

* Gan thoo, William, an' dess that hay oop i' t* chawmer (hay-loft).' 
' Here 's a vast o' boxes, lad. Thee weeant get 'em a' in, wivout thee dess 'em oop 
canny ;' pile them up orderly, in regular courses, in opposition to throwing them in a con- 
fused mass. 

Dessablyy adj. Orderly, in respect of arrangement. Wh. Gl, 
Diby V. a. and n. To dip. 

Used in the same senses as the standard word, and identical with it. Comp. Sw. D. dobb, 
to dive, dip oneself; and Dan. dyb, deep, &c., in which 6 takes the place of p, as in our 

Diby sb. A depression in the ground, scarcely amounting to a Slack, 
and much less to a valley. 

Didder, v. n. (pr. dither). To thrill or shiver from the effects of cold 
or fear. 

Comp. Pr, Pm. * Dyderyn for colde ;' Catb, Ang, * Dadir, to whake.' Dut. sitUrtn ; Germ. 
zUiem ; and also O. N. /i/ra, to shiver, tremble with cold or fear. Dodder or dother, 
as also dander, a nasalised form of dadir, together with our word, are connected with 
O. N. daiia, to vibrate ; palpitate, as the heart does ; Sw. D. daiia, dutta ; and these probably 


with Haldorsen's dua (imp. dudi), to be in a state of motion, or tremulous. Comp. also 
E, totter, 

* I dase and I dedir. 
For ferd of that taylle.* Toumel, Myst, p. 28. 

* She dithered and shu'k, yan thoght she wad ha' tummled i* bits.' 

Didder, diddermenty sb. Trembling, shivering, thrilling of the body 
from cold or fear. 

* Ah wur a' iv a ditberment, 't wur sike a flaysome skrike.' 

Differing-bout, sb. A verbal dispute or quarrel. 

* Him and me had a sairish diff^rifC-bout along o' thae sheep at was worried.' 

Dike, sb. i. A ditch, a channel for carrying off water. 2. A bank 
or long earthen mound, a fence. 3. A pool, or small pond. 4. A rude 
stone wall on a dike-baek-top. 

O.N. diki; O.Sw. eUke; Sw. D. dike; A.S. die; Dan. dige; Hind. d»ln. The O.N. 
word seems to be limited in signification to a ditch, a water-channel. The S. G. dike has 
both the meanings — ditch and bank. A. S. dic^ as Bosworth seems to think, means pri- 
marily a bank, a mound, which is the case with Sw. D. dike or dige ; while New H. Germ. 
deicbt and Beng. diki both signify a pond, a dam, as well as a mound. Ihre remarks that 
the contrariety of these meanings is easily accounted for when one recollects that the earth 
dug out in forming the dike, in the sense ditch, being laid on the sur^ce at length, forms 
the dike, in the sense mound. Grimm's remark is that the sense of the word seems to 
depend upon the principal motive or object in doing the work, whether the sinking of a 
trench or the raising qf a mound. A dike in the Scottish dialect, it may be observed, 
means a stone wall or fence ; * a slap in a dry stone dike' is a breach in a dry stone wall. 
Probably the gender of the noun may originally have decided the sense ; a presumption 
that presents itself in more than one instance analogous to this of Dike. See Dike-baxiky 
Dike-oaxn, Hedge-dike, Hedge-dike-side, 'Water-dikes. 

Cf. * Twen heuone hil and helle dik,* Gen, and Ex. p. 9. 

Dike-back, sb. The bank which forms one side of a dike or ditch. 

Dike-caniy sb. The bank of the Hedge-dike. 

Dike, V. n. i. To be engaged in the labour of making a dike. 2. To 
cleanse out, by digging, the dike at the foot of a hedge bank, using the 
material dug out to repair the bank where necessary. 

* And he wold thresh and therto dike and delve.' 

Prol, Cam, Tales, The Ploughman, 

* Syche bondage shalle I to theym beyde. 

To dyke and delf, here and draw, 
And to do alle unhonest deyde.' Toumel, Myst, p. 57. 

Dill, V. a. To give ease in pain ; to allay or assuage pain ; to soothe. 

Perhaps connected with O. N. dUla, to lull or soothe as a nurse does a baby, with a 
derived or secondary meaning. 

* Ah 's aboot deead wi' t' teethwark. Ah wad gie* owght for somethin' t* diU it.' 

* Maria, My son? Alas, for care I 

Who may my doyllys d^f Toumel. MyU, p. 136. 


Ding, V, a. i. To push or thrust violently. 2. To hurl downwards 
with force, or dash down. 3. To strike forcefully. 4. To batter or 
bruise. 5, To surpass, out-do, be superior to, in respect of achieve- 
ment or argument, &c. 

O.N. dengia; O.Sw. dtenga, to dash, thrust, bang; N. dangjt; Dan. dange; A.S. 
dtncgan ; M. H. Germ, ttngtn ; Sansc. tung. 

I. • Puir hihtic bairn I Didst'ee get dinged (or dung) off t' cheear ? * 
a. * Tak' heed, man, or he '11 ding thee doon t' steears.' 

Comp. * 34 of my Next Cozens 

will helpe to ding§ him downe.' Percy's jPo/. MS. i. 236. 
See, also, TowntL Myst. pp. 249, 141. 

3. * He dang X* geeaveloc reeght upo' mah foot.' 

Comp. ' Fast upon his face I dangt* Percy's Folio MS. i. 359. 

Cf. Towntl, Myst. p. 960. 

4. * Wheeah, he 's ding§d a hole reeght thruff t* skell-beast, he struck sae sair ;' of 
a Idcking horse or beast. 

5. * *• I 's ding him foirlings ;" I shall beat him entirely.' Wb. Ol. 
In Townsl, Myst. p. 141, and P. Plougbm. p. 395, — 

* Oreatt dukes downe dynges for his greatt aw 

And h3rm lowtys :' 

* Down dyng of youre knees 

Alle that hym seys :' 

* Neither Peter the porter 
Nor Poul with his fauchon 
That wole defende me the dore 
Dyngt I never so late :' 

the usage is of a vb. neuter. 

Ding, sb. The crush and confusion of a crowd, as it sways and 
pushes in different directions ; or the disturbance which always accom- 
panies a crowd. 

• What 's aU this ding and dordom about?' Wh. Gl. 

Dingle, v. n. (pr. dinn'l.) To thrill, tingle ; expressive of the secondary 
effects of pain or cold or a blow. 

Comp. O. N., Sw. dingla ; Dan. dingU ; Sw. D. dinged. The primary meaning of these 
rerbs is to ribrate, to move as any pendulous thing does, whether more or less quickly. 
The transition is easy to the sensation which is described by Brockett as * if of a tremulous 
short motion in the particles of one's flesh.' Hall., Brock., Wb. G/.all spell the word as 
dindlt or dinnlt, dinntl ; with which comp. Pr. Pm. * Dyndelyn, tinnio,' and collate both 
with the Scand. verbs given above, and with E. iingU, which Rich, says is the same word as 
HnHe, and which he defines * to sound, or cause to sound, — as metal stricken ; to ring, cause 
or emit the sound of bells when rung ; to feel a tremtdous, jarring sensation, like tbe 
ruling of metal when stricken* Comp. also Dut. tintden, to tingle. This view of the 
essential identity of the forms in g and in </ or / receives confirmarion also from the meaning 
the verb bears in some parts of the North — ^to tremble or shake, as well as to reel, to 
stagger. The word is used metaphorically in Lowland Scotch : — * Ane aye thinks at the 
first dinnle of (the sentence that they have heart eneugh to dee rather than bide out the sax 
weeks.' Heart of Mid-Lotbian. 


Dinnot, dinna, deeant'ee. Forms of ' Do not/ ' Do not thou/ 
used entreatingly or wamingly. 

Dint, sb. The greater part or proportion. Wh. Gl. says, * it is a 
word we have never heard applied in the sense given, but which, it is 
stated, was formerly in use hereabouts to signify the greater number as 
compared with the less; "the dint of our town in those days were 
smugglers/' ' 

A. S. dynt; O. Sw. dynter; O.N. dyntr. Our word takes an indirect sense derired from 
the original meaning, a blow, a push, the exercise of power or force, that is ; just as * by 
dint of argument' is by force of argument. Comp. a ' power of folk,' * a power of beasts,' 
&c. ; and also the use of the word given by Jam., * an opportunity ;' * Stown tUnts are 
sweetest:' Ramsay's Sc, Provtrhs; where the meaning probably is a stroke of chance. 

Dinting, sb. A stitch in use among tailors. See under Dented. 

Dither. Pr. of Didder. 

Dizzy, adj. Simple, half-witted or deficient. 

A. S. (fysf , dy^g, dysg^ foolish, weak, ignorant Bosw. quotes Low. O. ^Sai^, and Dut. 
duisdig. The Soind. tongues do not seem to have any corresponding word. Hall, gives 
* dizzardly, foolish, stupid ;' and Leeds GL gives dizzy as a noun : * What a dizzy (i. e. 
simpleton) he is.' 

Docken, dock'ns, sb. The common dock, or dock-sorrel, genus 
Runux : particularly the species R, obiusifbltus, 

A. S. docce ; Pr, Pm. Dokkewede. See Sour-dookens, Bur-dooken. 

Do-dance, sb. i. A roundabout way to a place, or to the accom- 
plishment of a purpose. 2. A fool's errand or bootless mission. 

Cf. Haldorsen's dansar, mocking rhymes ; S. G. dant, mockery, making a fool of a person. 

* ** They led me a bonny do-dance about it ;" gave me a great deal of unnecessary or 
roundabout work in the matter.' Wb, Gl. 

Dodded, adj. Without horns. Wh. Gl gives it as applied to sheep 
with short horns. 

Pr. Pm. * Doddyd, withowtyn hom3rs ; doddyd, as trees. Decomatus, mutUtu* The 
same authority gives also the vb. doddyn, to lop, cut short, which, of course, is the source 
of our dodded. Hall, quotes dod^ to lop or cut as a tree ; and also, to cut or clip wool 
from, or near, the tail of a sheep ; the name for the locks so cut being doddings. The 
word is also applied to a person who has had his hair cut very short ; whence dotty'polMt 
Toumel. Myst. p. 145, applied in reference to the tonsured priests of pre-reformation times, 
Comp. *Xe schulen beon i-dodded four si'Sen ilSe jere, uorte lihten ower heaued ;' you shall 
be dodded — i. e. have your hair cut — four times a year for to disburden your head. Aner, 
Riwle, p. 432. See, also, doddunge, hair-cutting, lb, p. 14. 

Dodder, v. n. (pr. dother). To be tremulous; to tremble or quiver, 
with age, or with cold, or fear. 

O. N., Sw. D. datta ; Sw. darra. See Didder. 

* Puir au'd carl I He dotbers mair an' mair.' 


Doddemmfl, sb. (pr. dothrums). Tremulousness, trembling; im- 
plying both condition and accession. 

' Ah thinks he 's allays i' t* dotbrums, noo/ 

' He tmk a fit o' t' dotbrums, afore Ah 'd fairlings getten him tell'd/ 

Doff, V. a. To take or strip off clothes or wrappings. 

.In the following passages the origin of doff is sufficiently evident : — 

* All my bloodye armour q^me was done* Percy's Folio MS, i. 362. 

• When |k)u comest byfore a lorde 
Yn halle, yn bowre, or at )>e horde. 
Hod or cappe |>at ^ou of do 

Xer |)ou come hym allynge to.* Ih, note i. p. 189. 

• Doff the duds, Marget.* Wb. Gl, 

• Doffx* bairn's wet cooats, wilt *ce.* 

Dog, V. a. To set a dog after sheep for the purpose of driving them 
off when straying where they have no right to be ; to drive them off by 
such means. 

Doggers, sb. The globular concretions or nodules met with in 
certain geological formations, usually containing each a fossil, and which 
are applied to the manufacture of Roman cement. See Scar-doggers. 

Comp. Haldorsen's doggr, a projecting object of conical form, which may perhaps be 

Dog-jumps, sb. The fruit of the wild rose, or common dog-rose 
{Rosa cantna, and other varieties). * Dog-hip' in Scotland. 

Marshall gives * Choops ; heps, the fruit of the rose ;' and Hall, the forms cboup^ sboup- 
Note also our Oatt^Jngs. I look upon jump^ jug^ cboop or cboup^ and sbo/up^ as merely 
▼ar3ring forms of the same word, and dependent on Sw. bjupoftt N. bjupa, kjupa^ A. S. 
biop, &c. 

Dog-whipper, sb. A parish official, whose duties consisted in ex- 
pelling any dog or dogs which might intrude into the church during the 
performance of any service. 

The office was usually joined with that of sexton and pew-opener, 8cc. ; for one person 
discharged many offices in our remote and primitive-mannered moorland churches. The 
short, stout dog-whip was a regular part of the Dog-whipper's equipment ; indeed, a 
quasi badge of office ; and his duties, where the land is subdivided into a very great number 
of small freeholds or farms, and where each farmer has a Sheep-stray on the moors, and 
consequently keeps one sheep-dog at least, often more, who are used to follow their masters 
00 all occasions and into all societies, was really not a sinecure. In Danby Church the office 
has existed down to the year l86a, and had become almost hereditary in one family, having 
been held by Richardsons, father and son, through three successions. Written dog-noper 
by Hall., and dog-nauper in Letds G/., both corruptions of Dog-knapper, 

Doit, sb. A jot, an atom, a fraction. 

• Ah deean't care a doit aboot 't.' 

Comp. Dan. dbit ; ' Jtg hryder mig ikke en doit derom ;' exactly equivalent to our example. 



Dole, sb. (pr. dooal). A distribution of money or food, at a Burial, 
to the poor. See Arval, Bid. Sometimes applied in reference to the 
entire preparation of food, &c., which is partaken of by — ^in a sense, 
therefore, distributed among — the assembled throng. In Leeds GL it is 
quoted as applying to the distribution of bread among certain poor per- 
sons in church after morning service. By Brockett it is limited to 
* Alms bestowed at funerals.' 

0. N. deila ; O. Sw. dela ; A. S. dalan, to divide, apportion. The custom of giving 
Dooals at the funerals of persons of substance is only just extinct (if quite so) in the 
Clevel. Dales. The origin is doubtless connected with the old Scandinavian practice of pre- 
senting all (or most) of the guests at an Arval with suitable gifts. Thus when the cele- 
brated Arval in honour of Hialti was held, not only are we told of his sons, * peir hudo 
bllom bofdingiom, oc vdro \>eir tdlf bundrut bodsmen ;* but also, * oe vdro aller virdinga 
menn med gebfum brotileidder ;* all the principal men were let go with presents. 

The following extract from Toumel. Myst. p. 30, Noah's wife being the speaker, gives 
a hint as to the object of the dole, at least in Roman Catholic times : — 

* Lord, I were at ese and hertely fuUe hoylle. 
Might I onys have a measse of wedows coylle ; 
For thi sauUe, without lese, shuld I dele penny doylU* 

Dollop, sb. I. An awkward or clumsy-looking portion of anything, 
as of bread or meat. 2. A quantity or number of individuals forming 
a shapeless whole. 

Comp. Haldorsen's doilpr^ a shapelessly fat brute; Isl. dolpungr, a round, fat baby or 
puppy ; though it may be, perhaps, open to question if the words be connected. 

1. *Weel! thee's getten a fairish dollops thee has. It'sawem-fu* fiir tweea as big 
as thou.' 

a. • Yon troot's biggest o* t* dollop by owght.' 

Dolly, dolly-tub. sb. A washing-tub in the form of a barrel, fitted 
up with an interior cross-headed shafl, terminating at its lower end in an 
object which is not imlike a small four- or six-legged wooden foot-stool. 
Used for washing blankets and other large and heavy articles, the shaft 
(see Dolly-stick) having a kind of semi-rotatory motion communicated 
to it by means of the cross-bar at the top. 

DoUy-stick, sb. The shaft or interior instrument of the Dolly-tub. 
Don, adj. Clever, dexterous, apt. 

O. Dan. dannes folk, dannes m€en, or danneman, is a word or title implying some kind of 
distinction in the persons to whom it is applied. The prefix also occurs separately. Thus 
we have O. Sw. * en bofwelig riddare ok vol damt ;' a noble knight and a finished ; as well as 
a Sw. D. word dann. Comp. Old D. and Dan. dannes ; Dan. and N. Dial, dan ; side by 
side with which may be placed the cognate words of Germ, origin — O. Oerm. iban^ ifroM ; 
A; S. ge^on ; Germ, getban, &c. 

* Ay, he 's a don hand, yon chap ; he 's welly oop tiv owght.' 

Don, V. a. To put on any portion or the whole of one's clothing. 
See Doff. 

* Don thy bonnet.' * Don tha' clacs : sharp, lad f 


Donk, adj. Damp, charged with moisture. 

Identical with E. dank, Comp. Sw. D. ddnka; Dan. D. dBuht, dynke ; Germ, dunken, 
to make damp, cause to be moist. See Wedgw. under Zhnk, for the connection between 
closeness and dampness implied in this word. 

* As donk as a dungeon.' Wb, GL 

Doxmot, doxmet, sb. i. A thoroughly worthless person; a Gtood- 
for-nowght. 2. A designation for Satan; probably as the chief Gk>od- 

* Donmi is derired by Brock, from d<Mtaugbt,* says Ferg. ; * but in Cumberland donnti 
also means the devil, and do-naugbt would be a very inappropriate title for the ever-busy 
author of evil. It is evidently dow-not, not good ; corresponding to ** evil-one." ' But 
naught means bad, evil, as well as notbing ; and thus the objection to Brockett's derivation 
falls to the ground. However, the origin of the word is due to the verb duga, as Ferg. 
suggests, with a privative suffix — cf. Dan. d^genigt, a good-for-nothing fellow; Germ. 
tOMgtmcbtt ; so that, as dugtig means able, eminent, excellent, Donnot means the exact 
converse, good-for-nought, and eminently such. Comp. Ihre in w. Dugan, Danneman, 
and note the phrase, ' That o' t' donnot,' that which belongs to the devil, human or other. 

* *' That 0' f donnot's never i* danger ;" what belongs to the devil ** is not in trouble as 
other men." * Wb, GL 

* That au'd donnot,* or, * T' au'd donnot;* Satan himself. 

Door-oheek, sb. (pr. deear-cheek). Either of the side-posts of a 

Door-ganging, sb. The doorway; the means or space of passing 
in or out afforded by the door. 

Door-sill, sb. The threshold of a door. 

Door-stead, sb. The site or place of the door itself, or doorway, as 
opposed to the space or means of passage in and out. See Stead. 

Door-stone, sb. (pr. deear-stan, deear-steean). The flag-stone, usually 
a single one of some size, placed at the going-in of a door. In the 
plural the word denotes the flags or pavement along the entire house- 

Door, To get to the. To be able to get out or into the open air : 
of an invalid recovering from his illness. 

Doory, adj. (pr. deeary). Diminutive, pimy. 

I look on deearj as being to doory what Deeaar is to door, Soheeal to tcboot, &c. 
Doorj may perhaps be due to the same origin as the Scot, dearcb, dercb, droicb. See Jam. 
Hald. gives drdg, homuncio, which may mean either a manikin or a scamp : probably it 
means both, as Jam. quotes Gudm. Andr. as explaining it by minutissimum quid et fugid- 
vum. In this case, without need of resort to O. N. dvergr, Sw. dvarg, A. S. dwerg, 
dweorb, by the common transposition of r and its vowel, we should have a 
word dosely resembling our doory in form and sound, and exactly coincident in signifi- 
cation. Cf., however, Isl. durgr (derived from O. N. dvergr), a puny wretch. 

' A lahtle deeary bairn ;' a weakly or puny child. 

* A lahtle deeary bit ;' a very small piece or shred. 

U 2 


Dordiun, dtirdmn, sb. Uproar and confusion ; tumultuous or riot- 
ous proceedings. Also spelt dirdiim, dirdam, d^n^dum. 

' I take this word/ says Ferguson, * to be from O. N. dyra-d6rttr, thus e3EpUined by 
Mallet : ** In the early part of the Icelandic Commonwealth, when a man was suspected of 
theft, a kind of tribunal, composed of twelve persons named by him and twelve by the 
person whose goods had been stolen, was instituted before the door of his dwelling, and 
hence called a door-doom ; but as this manner of proceeding generally ended in bloodshed, 
it was abolished." Hence the word might become synonymous with the tumult and uproar 
which, it appears, generally characterized these proceedings/ Still, note N. dur, an uproar, 
with the corresponding vb. dura. 

• The street *s a* iv a durdum* 

Dorze, v. n. (pr. dozz, duzz). Of grains of com; to fall from the 
ear from over-ripeness, whether by the shaking of the reapers, or under 
the influence of wind. 

Sw. D. drosa^ drdsa, drosa, dr&ssa ; * Kama var s'd dgjodt d& vd sidr, ait a drossi hodt 
t rui nea marh'd :* the com was so ripe when we shore it, that it dorzed out on the land. 
Dan. D. drase^ drdse ; * Komet drdsede of negene :* the com donud out of the sheaves. 
Comp. Dan. drysse; N. drysia; A. S. dreosan. Another instmctive instance of the trans- 
position of r and its succeeding vowel under dialectic changes. 

Dossel, sb. I. A bunch of ears of wheat, selected for their size, and 
with their straw sliped (stripped of the exterior sheath), applied as an 
ornament or finial at the apex of the completed Corn-pike. a. A 
homely kind of doll made of a quantity of rags tied up together, 

Pr. Pm. * DotelUf stoppynge of a vesselle : dossell. Ducillus^ ductildiis ;* probably ' a 
cormption of ductulus, which in the Lat.-Eng. Voeab. Roy. MS. is rendered ** dosselle," 
from the Fr. dosil, doucilt or, according to Cotgr., doisil* lb. note. Hall, gives dosseit 

* a wisp of hay or straw to stop up an aperture in a bam.' This supplies the connecting 
link between the meaning of our word and that given in Pr. Pm. Wedgw. looks upoo 

* a bunch of something thmst in to stop an orifice' as * the fundamental idea/ 

DoBted, pcpl. Dimmed, having lost its gloss or polish; dirtied; 
depreciated in appearance. 

This is, perhaps, a corrupt pcpl. of the verb dersiy given in Hall, as implying to dirty, to 
spread dung, &c. The Clevd. pronunciation of dersted would exactly give dosttd: other- 
wise there seems to be no clue to the origin of the word. 

Dotterill, sb. A silly old man ; a doating old fellow ; a dotard. 

Pr. Pm. * DotreUe, idem quod Dotarde.* From the same root, probably, as the Scotch 
doited, doted, doittrie, dottar. Sec. ; Belg. doten, to be of enfeebled intellect ; Dan. D. dode, 
stupid, doting ; which are, in their turn, traceable to O. N. doda, dodna, 8cc. Grimm, 
however, D. M. pp. 987, 988. suggests another connection : * A. S. ist dyderian, htdydirian, 
illudere, incantare ; womit vielleicht das H. D. tattern, dottem (angi, delirare) zusanmienhangt/ 
Comp. * dusie men \ adotede* Ancr. Riwle, p. a 2a. 

Doubt, V. a. To entertain an apprehensive conviction ; to believe, 
when believing is accompanied with pain ; to fear apprehensively. 

* " If your father docs not leave oil drinking, he '11 kill himself." ** Ah doo*ts it, Ah's 
seear/' ' 


Comp. * " Beshrew his hart," says Litle John, 

*• that bryer or thome does doubt** * Percy's Folio MS. i. 48. 

* For he will come this ilke night 
Sc into the forrest slippe anon 
for to waite thee for to sloen ; 
but herof haue thou noe dowht* lb, 484. 

Doubtflil, adj. i. Entertaining an apprehension, or unpleasant con- 
viction. 2. Implying the same. 

I. • " It will rain before night, Peter." " Ah 's doo*t/ul it will." ' 

a. • " He'll certainly be convicted, and hung," " It *s doo*tful^ for seear." * 

Douce, adj. Decent, sober, well-conducted, neat. 

' Fr. douxt douce, mild, gentle, quiet, tractable ; from Latin dulcis,* Jam. 

Douk, V. a. and n. i. To depress one's head, or the upper part of 
one's person; to bow down. 2. To dive or plunge under water, as 
a water-fowl does. 3. To bathe or wash in the water. 

Comp. O. Sw. duha, to press or put down ; Sw. duha under y to yield, to submit ; Sw. 
dyha, Dan. duhhe, to dive, duck under water. The succession of ideas is plain enough. 

Doup, sb. I. The buttocks or posteriors. 2. A heavy, indolent 

0. N. deft the hinder parts of an animal, from the common interchange of p and /, is 
naturally suggested as the direct origin of this word. It is, however, at least open to ques- 
tion whether dbf itself, as well as our Doup, be not referrible to the same source as Sw. 
doppa, N. dyppa, duppa^ Sw. D. duppa, dolpa, A. S. dyppan, to dip, to (rfunge into a depth ; 
O. N. djupTt deep ; O. N. dypt, dypu N. dypt, dyft, &c., A. S. deop, depth, profundity, the 
deep. The English word for the specified part of the human body involves precisely the 
same idea, and it is easy to note by what transition. By a like transition again, among 
those who use very familiar or coarse and vulgar terms, a lazy, heavily- or reluctantly- 
moving person (and especially if somewhat * Dutch-built,' or * heavy behind,') is apt to be 
saluted by some appellation expressive of that peculiarity. Of Doup, thus applied, it is 
enough to say, that it is a great deal less vulgar than most of its synonyms. The word 
dolpTy Hald., an unwieldy or grossly fat beast, may suggest a derivation for the word in its 
second signification, if the above is not regarded as satisfactory. 

' Loo' thee I there's a gret fat doup V 

Doup, dowp, sb. The carrion crow (Corvus corone). 

Dour, adj. i. As applied to the aspect; sullen, gloomy, sour-look- 
ing. 2. To the temper; stem, morose, repellent. 

Jam. gives Lat. durus, O. N. ddr, with a nearly coincident sound, and with a signifi- 
cation partly coincident, and partly correlative, may perhaps be as near the mark. 

1. * He looked as dour as a thunner-cloud.' Wb. Gl, 

a. ' He 's nobbut a dour 'n t' dee wiv ; baith stifif an' hard ;' inflexible and without 

DouBO, sb. A blow, as with the fist. 

' Gie him a douse in 's chops.' 



Douse, dowse, v. a. i. To drench or saturate with water, whether 
by plunging into the water, or throwing a quantity over a person or 
thing. 2. To strike ; thence to strike out, as a light ; to strike off or 
down, as feathers or finery from a girl's bonnet or dress. 

It is posiible that douM miy be nearly allied to dash. The Sw. Diil. Jmhi, with Iha 
lamc ligniGcitioni (except Ihit, in cmuiection with walei, it is applied to Kifl or gentle 
and inlennitting raio-showen), wili iti cognate words di'sa, dusia, dusi, is referred to 
Same. dAs. DtatI, a dtiiiling rain, doitln, to drizzle, ate words used in the Tyrol. The 
connection with daib would supply tbe ntiooaie of the second meaning. But see 

1. ■•■Thou's geliensiir donned, Mally. Wheeah, tliou's "a" binthtuff t' beck, Ah lay." " 

1. • She 's doustd a' ber realhen.' Wb. Gl. 

Dousing, sb. i. A drenching, a. A blow, a beating or thrashing. 

1. ' ■■ A good douciHg;" a thorough soaking.' tVh, Gl. 
1. ' Ah '11 gie thee a doufing, ef thee dizn'I heed.' 

Dout, V. a. To put out, to extinguish ; to do out. 

Wedgw. luggeils a doubt of da out being the origin of this word. His remaiki cerUiolj 

Dout, sb. An extinguisher, wherewith to put out — ' do out' — a candle. 
Wh. Gl. 
Dove, V. n. To dose, t 

O. Sw. dofuia. to hare 

D be heavy and sleepy. 

ine's umn dulled or stupefied. < 

: Sw. dtiva, ii 

Doviug-drink, sb. A sleeping draught. 

Sw. dof-Jtyti. Dan. dnit-dn'k, an anodyne draught. Comp. dmvf'in Jimieson. 

Dow, V. n. I. To thrive, prosper, be successful ; of either persons or 
things. 2. To mend, improve, become better, in respect of health, 
growth, circumstances. 

0. N, duga, 10 be strong, to be strong enough, or able ; O. Sw. duga^ doga, to be good. 
or fit for ; A. S. dugan, to pioSt. avail, be good for ; Frii. duga. Comp , upecially, Dan' 
i6w, S. Jull. dogi, in which two woidi not only docs the ptonundalion approxiuuta very 
closely to ours, but the sense also : a remaik thai is likewise irne of O. N. dafita. The 
Scottish use of the word, which we do not appear to have preserved in Clevcl., if In N. 
England at all, and which is strictly consonant with Ihe simple meaning of these old rerbi, 
is well illustrated in this sentence fiom the Black Duarf:—'tiit single man can keep 
a lower aeainst twenty. A' the men □' the Meami rfonmi do niair than they doui.' But 
the transition of idea from this' sense to that involved in our word Is so simple and nec«- 
siry — like that in vaito, from I an strong or abli, lo / am tuill in btallb or body, and in 
our words itroiiK. wenk, slUy, — that there is no need to seek dllTetent derivations, as 
Jam. does, for dau, lo be able, and don/ in our lenie. 

1. ■ "He rfoits bravely;" lhri»o or prosperi exceedingly well.' Wh. Gl. 

' " March grows, never datiii;" applied lo bloiiom shewing ilself looeiily, or to any pre- 
mtture spun of regeution.' lb. 


* He'll never dow^ egg nor bird/ 

a. * ** He nowther dees, nor dows ;" neither dies nor gets any better.' 

Comp. North. Gospel form in — * HtuBt forfSon deg dnegum min^ gif be all rmddangeard 

gestriona* Sec, : what shall it therefore profit a man, if he gain, &c., Matt. xvi. 26, with 

* Soe mote I tbo^* Percy's Folio MS, i. 97, and 

* Come thou onys in my honde, 

Shaltin thou never the* Coke's Tale of Gamelyn^ p. 40. 

* Evil mote I the* lb. p. 40, &c. 

Dowled, dulled, adj. Dead, flat, vapid ; of liquor which has grown 
flat by exposure to the atmosphere. 

I refer this word to dall or daul. The succession of ideas is from weariness or dis- 
taste to want of spirit or buoyancy, in the person ; and thence easily to want of savour or 
sharpness in the liquid. Cf. the O. N. idioms dofnad ol, do/had vin, vapid or stale ale and 
wine, with their precisely analagous Dan. equivalents, doveni •/, thven vin, and the various 
applications of deaf in our and the Scand. dialects. 

Dowly, adj. i. Of persons; poorly, heavy with sorrow or anxiety, 
low or depressed in spirit. 2. Of things ; lonely, melancholy, wearying 
or harassing. 3. Of the weather ; dull, gloomy, depressing. 

0. N. ddUgr, hapless, wretched ; dauflegr, low-spirited ; S. G. ddleg. Ihre quotes dauf- 
ligr as cognate with this ; Sw. didig, Sw. D. d^lig^ dbllig, dblig (the g silent in all three), 
Dan. daarlig, 

1. * Ah 's doo'tfii' its nobbut a puir dowly bairn : its nowght like dowin'.' 

* She 's varry dowly. Sir. She 've nivver mended sen she getten her bed ;' lay in, was 

* *" He 's as dowly as deeath ;" so ill, and looks it.' Wb, Gl, 

a. * ** It's a desput dowly, deeafly'spot t' won in;" it is a very lonely, out-of-the-world 
place to live in.' 

CL Daufligt ]inkir bonum |>ar : he thinks it very dowly there ; of a man in hiding in a 
lonely cave. Flaiey, i. 136. See also p. 384. 

' Wiv her man off on 't, an' tweea bairns down wi' t' throat-sickness, an' on'y a silly body 
kersel', she 's had a dowly time on 't.' 

* Its dowly deed carryin' on wi' sikan a lot o' feckless folk.' 

* Ay, it's bin a dowly day, this yan : but we've wan thruff it wi' t' Loord's help.' 
3. * Its nobbut dowly weather: it owther rawks or rains ilka deea.' 

* On'y a dowly seed-time. T' land 's sae doom' t' seead weean't hap.' 

Comp. * Now es the wedir bright and shynand. 

And now waxes it all douiland.' Pr. o/Consc. 144a. 

This is the reading of the Coti, MS,; MS, Harl, reads domland; and MS, Lands, gives 
the word droubelmde. With our use of the word dowly (cf. Dan. ddrligt veir, bad 
weather) there can be little doubt of the correctness of the reading douilland, although 
the question is suggested, is douilland a pcpl., and if so, what is the verb ? 

Down, V. a. To fell, as a tree ; to knock down, as a man, or an 
animal; to level or pull down, as a wall or building. 

Down-oome, down-ooming, sb. A fall in respect of condition or 

* She 's had a sair down-come, she hev. Yance she war ower-mich set oop t' mak' her 
ain meat : she '11 mebbc be matched t' come by 't noo.' 


Comp. ' ■' Thou n 


.icinglc now, lad," he tafd; 

10 wilhoul hoTsc-sheet md : 
it alike," ' fl/ac* Diearf. 

Down-comer, sb. The pipe (of iron or other material) which re- 
ceives the collected eaves- drainage, and conveys it down the side of the 
house to the ground. 

Down-dinner, sb. An afternoon meal, intennediate (as usually 
understood) between dinner and tea, but in which the beverage tea 
forms an important constituent. 

It ii [caccelj possible to doubt that thit ii simply i comipIioD of the word still current in 
N. W. England in the form aandom, rmdon, orndooras. undtrn. Sic. Piofissoi Wot- 
uae unheiititingly cUinu thii word a> coincidenl wiih the S. Jutl, oadtH, mid-diy Riiil. or, 
a> it li written by Kok, undent. By ibe lalttr it is dtfincd as middagi-maaltid, mid-day 
ffieal-tiine, dinncr-tlmc, and derived diieclly from O. N. uitdorn. In a passage from the 
Vbluifd four divitlons of the day are named : ' morgin, mSijaa-dag, tindont oh aptan ;' 
morning, mid-day, uadom and evening. lu ttriel accordance with this the Fiidand onrfoi, 
and Sw. D, uadurn, unduH. imply a meal taken in niid-aftetnoon. mid-eftiasmad. In the 
Kxr disiriel (S. Jutl.), where tindem is the mid-day meal, or dinner, Jortaidtnt and tfiir- 
amierii txptcn respectivd}' ihc meali intermediate between bieakfait and diimei, and dinner 
and supper. But what is much to the purpoie, in coniidering the detivatian of ondont, or 
our Down-dlimer, ai a corniptioa of it. ii this, — that O. N. uHdara a coincident with 
Miu/ont, but with a special application to droAmg. Egilss. Now the luoal equivalent for 
Down-dinner at present cuneni in lome pailt of the Dales is p HnVin g or Drinklng- 
time. Hall, gives 'Drinking, a collation between dinner and supper j' and adds. 'that the term 
ii now applied to a refreihment betwixt meals taken by firm-bbourers :' while doundriiu 
is 'afternoon diiokingi' in Derbyshire, and laradtr is * foienaon diinking' according to 
Thoresby, and 'afternoon' according lo Orose. The Lads GI. alio gives 'drinking' [n both 
these applications. In collating these words it it icaccely possible to escape noticing the 
connection which exists between the term omdim, aaiidom, mnirm, and the idea of driiii- 
ing, or drbtkiitg-tinu ; and thus one ii ahnost led lo assume that the Dales term for the 
mid-afternoon meal— Drinking or Drinking* — can be nothing else virtually than ■ 
of the O. N. andarn. The form of the word Down-dlmi«r is probably due 

a confusion or misconception about the word of which its prefix it a 
with the conception that the repast meant Ii in a sense subsidiary, nl. at least, i 
lo dirtaer. I have souieuihere teen i hint thrown out that the first syllibte of eamlam 
may be due to Dan. andtn, second, the next. This, of couiie. is out of the question. 
Jam. gives a long discussion about the word, wUch is well worth considetaljou. In 
Chaucer, undtrn, vndrtn, imply a certain hour of the day; early in the morning at pp. 
<)8, 171 ; and possibly a later hour al p. 104. 

Dovni'gang, sb. A path, or any similar means of descent from a 
height, such as the cliffs above the sea, or a very precipitous moor-bank. 

Down-Ugging, sb. A lying-in or confinement. See Lig, Get 
one's bed, Siokening. 

Down-ligging-time, sh. i, Down -Ijing- lime, bed-lime. 3. The 
lime of lying-in or cliikl-birlh. 

Down-pour, sb. A very heavy fall of rain, the drops both large and 
very thick. Comp, droppy and deling. 


Dozzen'd, dosen'd, dozand, adj. Of persons ; wrinkled or withered, 
shrunk, effete, feeble in mind and body, shewing the effects of age. Of 
things ; (apples or other fruits, &c.) having lost all firmness and round- 
ness, withered, wrinkled. See Bwizzen'd. 

No doubt identical, radically, with dazed or dased. Comp. D. Dial, dose, to be 
heary, listless ; dote, to be numb in sense and faculty ; Dan. dm§ (pqd. dmsendi), to be 
drowsy, heavy or dull with sleep ; S. G. d&si, &c. Hall, and Jam. give the vb. dozens to 
slumber : our word is probably only the pres. pcpl. of this vb., and a kind of inversion of 
sense or idea has come to pass with it In Essex and other parts of S. England a pear 
or other like fruit, which has entered upon the first stage of decay and has become 
spongy and tasteless, is said to be deepy^ just as in Denmark ale or wine that has 
become vapid is termed doven or dovnandi. So with our word there is an analogous 
transition of sense, but in such a way as to convey rather the physical than the psychical 
consequences of age. 

DoBziL Pr. of Drossel or Drasil. 

Draff, sb. i. Dregs, refuse, especially brewers' refuse, or grains. 
2. Mere rubbish or dirt. 

0. N., O. Sw. draf. Ihre conceives the primary sense to be drtgs, lees of wine or beer. 
The secondary sense in the Northern tongues, as in our dialect, seems to have found its 
peculiar application in denoting what was intended to be food for swine, and specially what 
we understand by the word grains, Comp. Sw. D. drav, a mixture made with meal for 
swine or fowb; N. drav^ grains. Comp. abo A. S. drabbet dregs, lees; Germ, trabert 
husks, grains, refuse. Again a derivative meaning, and we have the sense of mere rubbish ; 
* the offscouring of &11 things.' 

1. * Looks t°ec 1 thoo gi'e t* best o* t* draff te thae tweea gilts. Deeant *ee mak' spare 
on t. 

• Ah *s gannan t* brewer's wi' t' draught, fur a leead o' draff, an' Ah '11 fetch t* toom barr'ls 

2. * She 's nobbut a mean 'un. She 's bad as draff-* utterly worthless. 

Drape, adj. (pr. dree&p). i. Not in milk, or dry. 2. Not with young 
at the usual or proper time ; of cows and ewes : often used in application 
to the former as a noim. 

Brock, gives Sax. drtpen, to fail, with the comment ' having &iled to give milk,' as illus- 
trative of the origin of this word, and adds, * drape sheep, oves rejicuUt, credo ab A. S. 
drape, expulsio ; draped, abactus : Skinner.' It seems to me that this is rather putting 
effect in the place of cause. The probability appears to be that drape, and drepe, to 
speak slowly, and with effort — as if the matter to be spoken came forward very falteringly 
and slowly — are from the same source, and that probably the S. G. drypa, to pour in by 
drops, O. N. driupa, A. S. driopan, drypan, Dan. draabe, supply that source. Comp. 
E. drip, to come in very small quantities ; and the word dropmele, by driblets, or portions, 
coming in drops. The idea thus suggested tallies exactly with the marks of a drape cow. 
The imlk comes in less and less quantities, until at bst there is 'such a drop' only, that it 
is not worth while to continue to milk her ; and strictly expressive of this condition is the 
word drape. It was then natural enough that the word ^ould be applied to express the 
condition of an animal, which in farmer's phrase was * nowther in milk nor in calf,' or quite 
unproductive at the proper time. 

* An' nivver a dreeap amang 'em a'.' Cleveland S<mg 0/ Solomon, iv. 3. 


Drasil, droBsel, sb. (pr. dozz'l or duzz'l). A sluttish female. 

By metath. the word becomes dorsel^ and then, by tiie tendency of the dialect to slur 
the r, dossel or dozzel. Comp. Sw. D. drbsla, drosUj a lazy, slorenly female ; droda, to 
be lazy and sluggish over one's work. Mr. Wedgw. collates Dan. D. draaself a dull, inac- 
tive person, and suggests a possible connection with Isl. dragsl or dragsli, a slut. Rietz, 
however, quotes O. N. drosla, and N. S. dryseln, dneuln^ to be sluggish or lazy in moving. 
Comp. also Isl. drdg, a poor jade, and dusUl-bross ; both, moreover, applicable to persons. 

* " A dizen'd dozzU;** a tawdry slut.' Wb. Gl, 

Drate, drite, v. n. To talk slowly or hesitatingly, to drawl ; to speak 
thickly and indistinctly. 

Hall, gives drootj one who stutters, and drotyne, to speak indistinctly, to stammer ; both 
from Pr. Pm. The derivation of the word can hardly be doubtful. It is a derived offshoot 
from the same root which produces the verbs, O. N., O. Sw. draga, A. S. dragon, 8cc, ; and 
though I do not meet with any derivatives expressive of slow or drawn-out speaking (except 
E. drawl), yet there are so many implying slowness and halting in respect of this or that 
action, that it would have been strange indeed had not some of the £unily come to be 
applied as the present word is. I may instance O. N. drattr, procrastination, delay ; Sw. D. 
tb^attf advance by short uncertain steps ; dratta, with corresponding meaning, &c. Comp. 
drepe, with the succession of ideas which it illustrates. 

Draught, sb. A team of horses or oxen, together with that which 
they draw, whether cart, waggon, or plough. 

* T' surveyor wants a' t* draughts he can git t' moom, to fettle oop t' rooads about 
t' new brigg.' 

* Willy Franks 's getten' t' Langlands Farm takken, an' he 's boun to have 's pleeafing> 
deea t' moorn. He reckons he '11 have mair an tunty draughts on.' See Floughing- 

Dream-holes, sb. The slits or loopholes in church-towers, stair- 
turrets, &c., to admit air and light. 

A. S. dream, i. joy, mirth, rejoicing : 2. what causes mirth ; harmony, melody, song, in- 
struments of music. Froift these senses the usage in the early writers passes on to that of 
loud noise. In Halt Meid. p 21, * Ah al is meidenes song unlich )>eose wi'S engles imeane, 
dream ouer al |>e dreames in heuene,' the meaning is simply harmony, melody, song. 
In Ancr. Riwle, p. a 10, ' |?e prude bee's his bemares, drawe'S wind inward of worldlicn 
hereword, t eft, mid idel ^elpe, puffeS hit utward, ase )>e bemare deS, uorte maiden noise, — 
lud dream to scheauwen here horel,' the sense is a loud noise, but still such as is made by 
an instrument, — a trumpet namely. In Lay. i. 43, — 

* l)a he mihte ihcre : 
)>e bihalues were, 
muchel dom, muchel dune : 
muchel folkes dream,*— ^ 

the word is simply clamour, confused noise of a multitude. And so again, iii. 220, in a 
spirited description of a battle and the dreadful din and tumult of it, this phrase occurs : — 

* drem wes on uolke : dream was among the folk ; 

|)a eor^e gon to dunien.* the earth began to din. 

The application of the word to the openings in church-towers, belfries. See, is simple 


Drearisome, adj. Dreary, dismal, lonely, wearying. 

* A lang drtarisomt road.* Wb. Gl. 

Dree, adj. Tedious, long-continued, wearisome. 

Sec Jam. Teut. draegb, slow, lazy ; Goth, drig, driugr^ long drawn out ; O. N. drcBgr^ 
of • what can be drawn out ;* S. G. drbja^ to be long over a thing. Comp. Sw. dryg-mil, 
a long mile ; drygt arbete, a wearisome piece of work ; en dryg bok, a heavy book ; sc. to 
read; Dzn, dr»i, long-continued; en drmit arbeide, a tedious piece of work; and S. Jutl. 
dr»g, which has not only the signification of our dree but also almost the same sound. 

* Ah *s got t* lecas* this coom ; an* a desper't dree job it be : *biggest pairt on *t *s nobbut 
sleean an* popple, or owght.* 

* ** A dree droppy rain ;" a rain that comes only a little at a time, but continues without 
its ever becoming quite fair.* Wb, GL 

* A desper't dree bit o* road, yon, for seear.' 

* ** A dry, dree preachment ;'* a dull, uninteresting, tediously spun out discourse.' Wb. 01, 

Dree, adj. Sad, doleful, cheerless. 

The sense of this word might seem to be a secondary meaning of the last : but with the 
old Northumbrian noun dre^ sorrow, misery, suffering ; — 

' Yhit sal thai that dai dre hafe :* Pricke of Conscience, 5373 ; 

and the vb. dregbe, drigbe, to suffer, endure pain or sorrow, — 

* For thai sal haf a dai thare 
Als mykel bitter payn or mare, 
Als a man mught thole here of penaunce 
A yhere, and fele as mykel grevaunce ; 
And als mykel drigbe thar fourty days 
Als fourty yhere here ;* — 

both of which, as well as A. S. dreorig, probably depend on A. S. dreogan, to bear, suffer ; 
it springs from a totally different root. Comp. the phrase, dreab and atbolde : he dreed 
and tholed ; suffered and bore. Lye. 

* Ay ; it 's a dree life to live, when yan *s parted wiv a* yan*s frin*s.* 

Dree, v. a. To deliver slowly, droningly, tediously. 

Originating probably in the adj. dree, rather than otherwise. 

* ** He dreed a lang drone ;" delivered a tedious dissertation.' Wb, Gl, 

(As far as I have been able to ascertain, the ordinary sense of dree, v. a., to endure, to 
bear, is not now recognised in Clevel.) 

Dree, v. n. To endure, to last. 

See Dree, tedious, and Drith ; noting the extract from the Toumel, Myst, The vb. 
occurs several times in Gen, and Ex. in the forms drecben, dregen, 

* She 's dreed on sae lang, mebbe she *11 win thruff it now ;' said of a person who has had 
a long illness. 

Cf. * Ther was never a freake wone foot wolde fie. 

But still in stour dyd stand, 
Heawyng on yche othar, whyll the myght dre 
With many a bal-ful brande.* Reliques Ancient Poetry, i. 13. 

Dreely, adv. Slowly, tediously. 

* He talks very dreely,* 

X 2 


Dreesome, adj. Tedious, wearisome ; with nothing to give any plea- 
sure, zest, or enjoyment. 

Drepe, dreep, v. n. i. To drip or drop slowly and sparingly. 
2. To talk slowly and haltingly, to drawl. Brock, gives the form 
' draup.' 

0. N. driopOt O. Sw. tkypa, to fall by drops, &c. See Drsx>e. 

1. ' Gan thee, lass, and hing't oot t' drtpe* 

2. * Ay, puir au'd chap, he gans dreepin* on, bud it's varrey dree discoorss.' 

Dress, v. a. (pr. derse). i. To set in order, make neat and orderly. 
2. To apply any matter to the surface or outside of a thing, with a view 
to improving it in any way. 3. To soil or make dirty. 4. To beat, 
chastise, thrash. 

1. ' T' kirk's a' i' good fettle, an' Ah's derse oop kirk-garth, an' sike, back end o' t* 
week ;' in anticipation of a rural dean's visit. 

* Wad ye like t' land amang thae berry-trees dersed ower a bit?' the soil among the 
gooseberry bushes lightly dug or stirred. 

2. * Get yon heap o* soot an' soil dersed ower the grassin', John.' 

Drink-draught, sb. A brewer's dray or waggon, with the horses 
drawing it. Wh, GL 

Drink-driver, sb. The driver of a brewer's waggon. 

Drinking-time, sb. The time of the afternoon refreshment. See 

Drite. See Drate. 

Drite-poke, sb. A drawler; one who speaks indistinctly or hesi- 

I only notice this word further, in order to observe that it presupposes a noun, drite^ 
slow, or drawling discourse, which noun does not remain in any Glossary, as far as I am 

Drith, sb. (pr. dreet). Endurance, lastingness, substantiality. 

A curious and expressive word, which I have seen printed nowhere save in Wh. Gl. It 
is a derivative from the old vb. dre, to continue, to abide, to remain in being, from A. S. 
dreogan. The vb. is also given by Ray — dree, perdurare. See Dree, v. n. 

* Lovyd he my Lord in will and thoght, 
That his servant forgettes noght. 

When that he seys t3rme ; 
Welle is me that I shalle dre 
Tyllc I have sene hym with myn ee 

And no longer hyne.' Townel. Myst. p. 156. 

The sense of dre in this passage, which is part of the expression of the aged Simeon's 


feelings on being told by an angel of the infant Christ's coming to the Temple, is exactly 
coincident with that of our word in the example given below. 

* Ill-gotten gear carries nae dritb ir it.' Wh, Ol, 

Cf. * I trust your grace will doe me noe deare 

for spending my owne tnw gotim getrt.* 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 509. 

Broke, sb. Wild oats, or so-called darnel 

The name, like so many other local names of plants, is applied loosely or indefinitely. 
Dr. Prior gives ' Bromus Uerilis, Avtna foUua,* &c., as among the plants intended to be 
designated; Pr,Pm, * Drawk§, wede. Drauca;* Cath. Ang, 'Drake or damylle.' Ac- 
cording to Forby, drawkt or drake in Norfolk and Suffolk is the common damd grass, 
LoUum perenne; according to Gerarde it is Bromus stmUs. Comp. Dut. dravig, Wdsh 
drtwg, Br. draoh, darnel, cockle, &c. 

Drop, V. a. i. To knock down, to fell with a blow. 2. To shoot 
a bird, on the wing or otherwise, so that it falls immediately. 

Probably a direct bequest from S. G. drcBpe, to kill ; drUp^ death-stroke ; drypa^ to smite ; 
and allied words. Bosw. refers drepe, a slaying, a violent death, as occurring in A. S. 
writers, to the O. N. 

Drop-dry, adj. Of vessels, &c. ; water-tight, not admitting the 
passage of so much as a drop of water. 

Droppy, adj. Wet, rainy ; a weather term, used when the rain-drops 
are of full size, and fall freely. See Deg and Down-pour. 

Hald. gives pluere as one of the significations of driupa (perf. befi dropid) : driupr ttdr, 
the droppy canopy, is an epithet for the sky ; and drupd, in Sw. Dial., means * to rain.' 

* ** A vast o' rain fa'n lately. Tommy." ** Ay ; its bin a desper't droppy tahm sen 
Mart'nmas." ' 

Droppyish, adj. A diminutive of Droppy. 

Drought, sb. (pr. drowt). Dryness ; usually, not to say always, with 
an intensive sense ; continued very dry weather. See Drouth. 

Pr. Pm. * Drowte, ticeitas* Rich., following Tooke's leading, sa3rs this word is drouA 
or dry'tb really, from A.S. drygan, drugan, and ought to be spelt— and he himself spells 
it accordingly — drougib. The A. S. word is undoubtedly drugatSe or drogc^t ; but it is 
idle to assume thence a law for the orthography, and, still more, for the sound of English 
words. It would almost seem as if drought or drouth were originally rather two different 
words, than two different forms of the same word ; the one having a distinct passive sense 
(so to speak) — that which is already made dry ; the other, drouth^ an almost active sense — 
that which makes dry. And it is noticeable that Rich, writes, * drought is that which 
drieth, the 3rd p. s. &c.,' adding, the moment after, * Wallis says, dry, siccus ; drowth, 
droughtht dryUh, siccitas ;' but ttecUoi is that which is already made dry. It is also worthy 
of note, that in both the passages from Chaucer adduced by Rich, the word is drought, and 
has distinctly the passive meaning : 

' When that April with his shoures sote 
The droughts of March hath perced to the rote ;' 


where drougbu is certainly not an agent, but what is acted on. Comp. the following 
extract from Spenser : — 

* Let streaming floods their hasty courses stay 
And parching drouth dry up the crystall wdls ;' 

where drouib is as clearly the agent. And the same remark applies, with more or less 
exactness, to nearly every instance of usage given ; while, in respect of the eleven instances 
of the word occurring in the English Bible, eight of them bear the passive sense. See also 
the instance in Jam., in v. Drouib, I may add, that dry occurs in the Toumel, Mysi. in 
the sense of drought, 

Droiighted, To ba, v. p. To be troubled or oppressed with thirst. 

Droughty, adj. (pr. drowty). Very dry indeed; used as a weather 
term, and especially as descriptiye of long-continued very dry or parch- 
ing weather. 

Drouk, V. a. To drench, soak, saturate with water. 

O. N. dr^hja, O. Sw. droinka, Sw. drdnka, Dan. drukne, to immerse, to drown ; O. Sw. 
drunknot O. N. drukkna, Sw. D. drukkdn, drakkja, S. Jutl. dr<gkne, to be plunged into 
water, &c. 

* I'm doubtful yon lime 's aboot wasted. It 's sair drouVt wiv all this wet.' 

Drouth, sb. Thirst, dryness in that sense. See Drought. 
Drouthy, adj. Thirsty, more than usually so. 

* Weel, Ah's desper't drootby, Ah's seear. 'Seems t' me there's nae sleek i' t' watter ;' it 
seems as if water had no power to quench thirst. 

Druoken, adj. Drunk, drunken. 

O. N., O. Sw., Sw. D., S. Jutl. drukken. Sec, 

Dubler, dubbler, sb. A deep earthenware dish of some magnitude. 

Dr. Rietz, under Dulara, quotes Welsh dwhler, and compares O. N. dallr, I do not, 
however, find dwbUr in Pughe's Welsh Dictionary. In Pr, Pm, the word stands in the 
forms dobeler, dubler, 

* I wisshed ful witterly 
That disshes and doubUrs 
Bifore this ilke doctour 
Were molten lead in his mawe.' P, Ploughm, p. 251. 

Duffll, sb. A kind of coarse or shaggy woollen cloth, chiefly manu- 
factured in Yorkshire 

Dulbard, dullard, sb. A stupid person, a blockhead, one of slow 
or deficient comprehension. 

Hall, gives dulbar as one form of this word, and adds, that * dulberbiad is also used in 
the same sense.' I look upon dulberd or dulbard as most probably a colloquial contraction 
of dulberbead. Pr, Pm, gives * Dullard, Duribuccius, agrtstis* Jam. gives O. N. dul, 
foolishness, and biria, to evince or shew, — a possible but not probable compound. 

Dump, sb. A deep hole in the bed of a river or pool of water. 

* Ich leade ham into so deop dung j^ ha druncnet^ )«rin.' Siini Marb. p. 15, translated 


by the Editor — I lead them into so deep (a) dump that they drown therein. Dung or 
dingt^ he says in the Gl. to S. M., * by letter change Dump, a deep bole in water feigned at 
hast to he bottomless. (Grose.) Germ. DumpfeU a deep place in a riyer or lake ; a deep 
puddle^ pool. By throwing off the liquid, A Dub, a pod of water. Rennet's MS. Cf. 
Low G. Dobbe: 

Dunderhead, dundemoll, sb. A blockhead. 

Jam. suggests a relationship with donnart, hedundered; and a comparison with Dan. 
dummerboved; side by side with which, moreover, Sw. dumbufvud may be placed, Both 
these words simply signify dull-bead or stupid-bead; * mrniskuU,' in short. Perhaps, how- 
ever, we may suggest a different origin for the prefix in our words, and one that presents 
an analogy to the words tbick-bead^ jolter-bead^ See, which are used in the same sense. In 
other words, dunder may really imply abnormal or excessive bigness. In the Sw. Dial, the 
prefixes dunder, dunner, donner, are of frequent occurrence in this application; and we 
probably have another corresponding instance of usage in the word tbundering as frequently 
applied colloquially ; e. g. * a thundering big one,' * a thundering great lie,' &c. Wb. Gl, 
gives dudemoll, which must surely be a misprint 

Dungeon, sb. In the phrase, ' he is a dungeon of \vit/ Wk. Gl, ; 
that is, a person of great natural shrewdness or of much depth of under- 

* She is a dungeon at breaking ;' of a careless, crockery-breaking girl. Communicated by 
author of Wb. Gl. 

Dungeonable, adj. Shrewd, possessing some depth of thought. 
Dunty, adj. Stunted, dwarfed, stumpy. 

I connect this with dumpty, dumpy, dubby, short, slumpy. Mr. Wedgw. says, * from 
dab, dub, a blow.' Dint, dunt, in like way, implies a blow. 

* ** i>un/y-homed kye ;" short or stumpy-homed cows.' Wb. Gl. 

Dwalm, sb. (pr. dwawm or dwam). A swoon, suspension of the 

A word which has its correlatives in all the languages of Gothic origin. Ihre, quoting 
himself from Stiemhielm, defines dwala as a kind of intermediate state between life and 
death, such as files under the influence of cold, and swallows Ij^ng (as supposed) at the 
bottom of the water during the winter months, experience. They are said * ligga i dwala* 
He further gives dwalm, in exactly our sense, as occurring * apud Willeramum in Cant. Cant, 
p. 1 4 3.' Comp. M. G. dwala, a fool ; dwalmon, to be out of one's mind; A. S. dwelian, 
dwolian, to be mistaken ; Dut. dw<elen, to play the fool ; doima, said in Smoland of one 
who is neither wide awake nor fast asleep. Comp. also O. N. and O. Sw. dvali, Sw. dvala, 
Dan. dvale, Sw. D. dvblu ; O, Germ, iwelan, to be torpid ; Germ, tvalm, a swoon or trance. 

Dwalmish, adj. (pr. dwammish). Somewhat faint, or as if likely to 

Dwine, v. n. i. To pine away, waste, become attenuated; of a per- 
son or creature under the influence of sickness, &c. 2. To wither, fade 
away ; of a plant or flower. 

O. N. dvina ; Sw. dvina ; A. S. dwinan. Pr. Pm, * Dwynyn awey. Evaneo^ evanesco.* 


* Tharfor a man may likend be 
Til a flour, that es fajrre to se, 
Than son after that it es forth broght, 
Welkes and dwyrus til it be noght/ Pr, of Consc, 704-707. 

' He dunned away til an atomy/ Wh. Gl. 

Dwiny, adj. Puny, weakly. 

Bwiny-Toioed, adj. Weak-voiced, speaking in only feeble tones. 

Bwizien'dy adj. Withered, wrinkled, shrunk. See Dozsen'd. 

Essentially tiie same word as Dosand or DozBen'd. Comp. A. S. dw<zs^ dwasnes, 
dwaenys, doll, duUness, Sec, 

Dwizsen-faoed, adj. Thin-faced, with a shrunken countenance. 


Earn, sb. An uncle; a familiar friend, a neighbour, intimate acquaint- 
ance or gossip. 

A. S. earn, an uncle ; Germ, obm, obeim ; Dut. 00m ; Fris. iem. Spelt ««m, «m#, in 
Chaucer ; em, erne, in Sir Genu, and Gr. Knigbi. See Eem, and the note to it« in /V. Pm. 

Earn, v. a. (pr. yearn). To curdle milk or cause it to coagulate. 

Jam. takes this word to come from * Oerm. gtrinmn, Su. O. rarnia, Belg. rannen, A. S. 
gerunnon^ coagulare. This use of the verb is retained in Scotl. : when milk curdles, we say 
that it rins. But as the A. S. verb signifying to run is often written yman, the word earn 
resembles it most in this form.' Cf. air, buttermilk, given by Hald., and which must be 
connected with earn. 

* One did aske her (a noted witch) advise touchinge one of her k3me whose milk did earn 
in the galling.' Fork Catde DeposiHons, p. 9, note. 

* This informant could not get butter when she chirned nor cheese when she earned* 
lb. p. 38. 

Earning, sb. (pr. yearning). Rennet, the substance which is used to 
turn or curdle miUc. 

* Bishop Kennett notices the sense of earn, as used in the North, which is given also by 
Brock, and Jam. ; " to earn, to run as chees doth. Earning, chees rennet." ' Note to 
• Emyn, as horse,' Pr, Pm, 

Ease, V. a. To splash with mud, or bemire. Chiefly used in the 

Hall, gives * easings, dung, ordure.' I find no other provincial word connected with ours, 
which is due to O. N. esia, boggy or miry soil. 

* «* You hae gotten sair eated;" sadly bemired.' Wb, Gl, 


Basement, sb. i. Alleviation of, or relief from, pain. 2. Any remedy 
or application which produces such a result. 

* Nor att that word shee sayd noe more, 
but all good tatenunit I had there/ Percy's Fd, MS, i. p. 362. 

Easin'By sb. (Pr. of evesings). The eaves of a house or other 

A. 8. rfttt, eaTes of a house ; qfmm^ ^ftdan, afesian, to cut in the form of eaves. 

' Orcheyardes and erberes 
Evntd wel clene.' P, Ploughm. p. 460. 

Mr. Marsh's note to this b ' tvisid should mean provided with eave-troughs ; perhaps, 
here, sheltered with arbours, roofs, or awnings.' More likely, it would seem, with the 
eaves proper neatly or ' clenely' trimmed. Comp. also O. Dut. ovest, Fris. ou, eaves ; 
O. N. vfi, ups; O. Sw. o/f, ups; Sw. D. bd/s, oft, okt; D. D. aas, out. 

Easter-shells, sb. The pinpatch or periwinkle. See CoTins. 

These articles of food * are considered to be in season from Easter to Ascension Day.' 
Wb, Gi, Hence, the name, no doubt. 

Een, eyen, sb. i. Evening. 2. The eve or vigil of any feast or 
saint's day. 

A. S. a/en; O. N., O. Sw., N., and Sw. D. qfian; Sw. afton; Dan. often; O. Germ. 
dpandt dhant; Oerm. abend. 

I. ' To moom at een;* to morrow at evening. 
a. ' Kessenmas em ;' * Mark's «v«n,' &cc. 

L-holes, sb. The sockets of the eyes. 

Comp. Dan. me^mle, Oerm. augen-bobie. 

Bfter, prep. After. 

O. N. eftir, eptir; Dan. efter; Sw. ejier. 

* Eftyr his lufe me bude lang.' Rel, Pieces, p. 84. 

Effmoon, eftnooxi, sb. Afternoon. 

* I swere you, sir, by son any moyne, 
I com not here by fore eft none 

Wheder ye be leyfe or lothe.' Toumel. Myst, p. 71. 

Egg, v. a. To incite, urge on, provoke. 

O. N. eggia, to incite or provoke ; Dan. egge. Comp. Sw. uppagga, and Dan. D. tgse. 
The Dan. use of the word is exactly equivalent to ours ; e. g. * bm forstod ai egge bam 
$aa lange, til ban endelig blev forbittrei paa manden:* he persisted in egging him until at 
last he became bitter against the man. Comp. ' He was egging the other man on to 

Eldin% sb. Fuel, the material for supporting a fire; peat, turf, 
wood, &c. 

Sw. eldning, fuel, from O. N. elldr, S. O. and Sw. eld, Dan. ild, A. S. «/</, &c. It may 



probably admit of a question whether our word be more than simply a contraction from 
a Scand. compound such as Sw. D. eldtajine^ with same sense. 

' We are getting in our winter eldin* Wb. Gl. 

The word often occurs in the form Fire-eldin, with one of those reiterations of name* 
due to different language-origins, not uncommon in our tongue, and especially in names of 

Eller, eller-tree, sb. The alder (Betida alnus), 

O. N. dfd, dlan, din ; S. G. and Sw. al; Sw. D. ala-bdska, alder-bushes ; Dan. d, iU, dU, 
glUtra ; A. S. air, celr ; Germ. #//«*, trie, &c. 

EU-wand, sb. A name, incorrectly used, for the yard-measure. 
See Yard-wand. 

Elmother, sb. A stepmother. 

*£1-, ell-, ele-, ae!-, prefixed to words denotes other, strange, foreign, alius, alienus; as 
elland, foreign land ; ellend, foreign ; alfyle^ foreign folk or people.' Bosw. A, S. Diet, 
Hall, gives our word, and Brock, also, with the spelling ellmotber; and it occurs in Wb. OL 
In Pr. Pm. both el{d)/adyr and eldmodyr or elmoder occur; and tifadyrt ddmodtr in 
Catb. Ang. I think Janiieson's derivation of ilmotber, referred to in the Pr, Pm, note, 
from A. S. ealde-moder, avia, is mistaken. There is no sufficient authority for the asser- 
tion that elmotber ' must have properly denoted a grandmother,' and the noTarying 
usage of the North, together with the Pr. Pm. and Catb. Ang. words, fairly establidi the 
true meaning of the word, which as denoting strange or foreign mother is sufficiently 

Elsin, sb. A shoemaker's awl. Comp. Frioker. 

Jam. quotes Teut. cdsene, elsene, to which may be added Dut. else, els, 

Enanthers. See Ananthers. 

Endeavour-for, v. a. To labour or work, as one does for one's 
wages or living. 

Endeavouring, adj. Industrious, laborious, careful 

• He *s a stiddy endiwerin* chap, but he 's hard set t' mak' a living.' 

Endlang, adv. Along or forwards in the direction or to the extent 
of the length of an object or person. 

Comp. Dan. D. endelangs, along, or along the side of, a thing : — * A vil kaast «i groh 
engelangs e raaling ;' I shall dig a gutter all along the side of the premises. Molb. refen 
to the meaning, ' without intermission,' given for our word in the HaUanubire Ql., and 
conceives it to be mistaken. Hall, gives the form endlande^ with the explanation * along, 
straight forwards ;' O. Gl. gives ' along, directly forward ;' and Wb, Gl, ' as long as from 
end to end,' which is perhaps both short, and aside of, the full meaning. The example in 
the Gl. last named is, * I tummel'd endlang : I fell down my whole length.' I beliere, 
however, our definition is nearer the exact meaning of the word, and the Danish lexico- 
grapher's criticism to be a just one. The word ocairs in both Townel. Myst. and Pr, of 
Conscience. In the former the passage nm<; thus :— 


* Benste, benste, be us emang 

And save alle that I se here in this thraug. 
He save you and me overthwart and endlong 
That hang on a tre/ (p. 85.) 

Here endlong is joined with overthwart in such a way as to make its meaning abun* 
dantly evident as a meaning of direction, not of continuousness ; although in the Glossary 
the word is explained as * continuously ' as well as * straightforwardly.' It is the same 
idiom again, in Hampole : — 

* Ffor the devels sal, ay, on j'am gang 

To and fra, overthewrt and endlong (^581) ; 

which is rightly explained * from head to tail,' A. S. andlang, and Germ, entlang being both 
quoted ; to which may be added Sw. enlangs, Dut. onlang. 

Endways, adv. (pr. endus). In a state of progression, whether as 
regards motion, or approach towards completion : often occurring in the 
form Even endways. 

* Weel I Ah 's getting end*us wi 't noo ; bud its bin a parlous lasty job.' 

* They spent all they had even endways.* Wb. Gl. 

Eneiigh, adv. (more guttural in sound than as if spelt enew). 
I. Enough, suflficient. 2. Sufficiently cooked, enough done; of any 
article of food. 

Mr. Carr speaks of enew^ enow^ as * applied to numbers, not to quantity,' illustrating the 
statement with the example, * I have cake enif, an' apples enew* He then adds that * Piers 
Ploubman is the only writer I have observed who applies this word to quantity, as 

** Alle the people had pardon ynow** * 

Out of countless instances to the contrary I give two from one book only;^^ 

* Then notes noble in-no^e 

Are herde in wod so wlonk.' Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 514.. 

* W3rth dayntes nwe in-nowe* lb, 1. 1401. 

In fact there is no definite rule which, in old writers, marks off enetu from enough^ and in 
Clevel. ' there 's eneugh,' or * there 's mair an eneugh' is said alike of cake and of apples. 
Marsh, Lectures, 1 Ser. p. 492, quotes Gil (who published in 1 6 19), as remarking that, 
* in the common dialect, enough was often pronounced enuff, instead of with the guttural ;' 
so that really enew, or rather our !Eneugh» is the true representative of the one original 
sound of the word. Cf. the forms anog, ynog, ynug, as well as * grene oliues bog,* w'l^-drog, 
the last rhyming with ynog, from Gen, and Ex, ; and inouh, inouz, from P. Ploughm. 
{E.E.T.S,) p. 81. 

Enow, adv. For the present, presently, by and by. See Inoo. 

* This seems to be a contraction of even or e*en now,* Or. Gl. That is possible ; as also 
that it is the Clevel. equivalent or analogue of Dan. i-et-nu, directly, presently. 

* " Do you want anything else, Henry ?" ** Neea : that *s all enow,'* * 

* Gan thee, honey, an' tell *im Ah 'U be on inoo ;* I '11 be with him presently. 

Entertain, v. a. To occupy the attention of an auditory, by preach- 
ing or serious speaking, quite as much as in any other way. 

* Ah wur at D — church last een an' Ah 's seear Ah wur weel entertained' 

Y 2 


Entry, sb. The space just within the principal entrance to a house, 
of whatever dimensions. 

Ept, eptish, adj. i. Ready, handy; both in an active sense. 2. Neat 
in eicecution, as a skilful workman is ; nice, accurate. 

Simply another form of E. apt. 

* He 's eptisb at his book-lear.' Wb, 01 

Esh, sb. The ash (Fraxinus excelsior), 

O. N. tski, askf Sec. 

Esk, ex. Forms of the vb. Ask or Ax. 

Estringlayer, sb. A manufacturer of string, ropes, &c. ' A term 
which occurs in a local docmnent of the fifteenth century.' Wh. GL 

Ettle, V. a. (sometimes pr. airtle). To aim at, intend, attempt. 

O. N., O. Sw. <etfa, to think, to propose or purpose. 

* " What are they all atrtling at?" what is their aim or purpose?* Wb. Qt. 

* Now if a kyng of a riche kyngryke 
pat had a doghter . . . 

pe whilk he luved specially 

And tgbtild to mak hir qwene of worshipe.' Pr, ofConse. 5780. 

* The whilk he egbuld to coroun qwene.' Ih. 5800. 

* This word is sometimes written attUd^ tyt^d, agbttld* lb. Gloss. 
The Scand. use is precisely analogous. 

Even, V. a. To compare, to liken. 

* What schulde ]>e mone l^er compas clym, 
6c to eum wyth )>at wor)>ly ly3t 

pat schynej vpon )« broke) brym?' E. Eng, Allii. Poitns, A. 1071. 

Even-down, adj. Down-right, direct, perpendicular. 

In the description giren in Sir Gaw. and tbi Or Knigbi of breaking a deer, the author 

* So ryde ]>ay of by resoun bi )>e rygge bonej, 
Ewinden to )>e haunche, )>at henged alle samen, 
8c heuen hit yp al hole, and hwen hit of \tete.* 

The editor's questioning note on euenden is < evenly (?), perpendicularly (?).' It is pro- 
bably only our present word as anciently sounded. 

Even-endwasrs, adv. Uninterruptedly, straight on from end to end. 
See Endways. 

Every-like, adv. From time to time, now and then. 

Hall, gives this word, and I find it in Wb. Gl. Hampole also uses it :— * A dametelle 
wysc and wele toghte >at mene calles Qelosye, )>at es ay wakyre and besy nurylykt wele for 


to do, sail kepe ^ orlogc* Comp. * They kq>t playing the music every-liki* Wb, Ol. 
Cf. ' Me set's upon ancren, )>et euericb mest haue'5 on olde cwene to ueden hire earen :' 
men say of anchoresses that every most (almost every one) has an old quean to feed her 
ears. Aner, Riwle, p. 88. 

{Evirly, with nearly the same signification, given by Jam., is no doubt the same word, 
but ours retains the older form, and may be collated with A. S. anlic, only, that is, one4ike : 
§yiry4ik9 being thus several-like.) 

/, V. a. To suppose, assume, take for granted. 

Eye, sb. (pr. ee in i and 2). i. An eye (pL Een or Eyen). 2. A 
spout; perhaps, more properly, the orifice or aperture of the spout. 
3. An open hole, as a pit mouth, &c. 4. A way or passage through, 
a clear road. 5. The bud or sprout — more accurately, the site of the 
bud or sprout — upon a potato, scion, or plant more generally. 

0. N. auga ; S. O. bga ; Dan. •!> (pi. •ten or mne) ; A. S. fdgo, 8cc. * Metaphorice de- 
notat foramen,' observes Ihre : as, bio kwemstein til augans : he cut through the millstone to 
the very eye ; and Molb. remarks that the Dan. word is used for anything which has any 
resemblance, more or less, to an eye ; as the eyes (buds) on trees, sluubs, 8cc., from whidi 
shoots, blossoms. See, issue, the eye of a mill, or in the upper millstone ^ough which the 
com £ills to be ground, 8cc. 

1. * He gloores wiv a pair o' good een* Wb. Gl, 

2. * T meeal fa 's ower hct fira t' mill-**.' 

4. ' ** A clear eye ;" a clear road or passage, e. g. to a counter-side in a shop.' Wb. Ol. 

• «• Go in when there's a clear eye;" no crowd in the way, to interfere with free passage 
and dispatch of business.' lb. 

Cf. * Sire, )>us ich pleide, o'Ser spec ine chirche : eode o9e pleouwe ine churcheie :' sir, 
I played or spoke thus in the church; went to the play in the eburch-eye; i.e. church- 
yard; (?) the open space in which the church stands. Ancr. Riwle, p. 318. 

Fadge, sb. i. A bundle, a burden in which thickness predominates 
over length, 2. One that is short and thick in person, 

Wedgw. connects ^fadgy^ corpulent, unwieldy, and Sc. fodgel^ plump, fleshy,' with *fagt 
to flag or become flaccid.' Jam. lefets/odgel (without apparent ground) to Teut. voedsel^ 
food, and also g}ve»/adge, i. a bundle of sticks; a. a lusty and clumsy woman, referring 
the former to Sw. fagga, onerare. I would rather refer sb. Fadge to W. jffagod (Gamett 
refers it to Welsh ,^1^, a bundle) ; and vb. fadge to the same source zsjidge^jidgei. Hall, 
gives figt which is probably the more ancient form of Jidge, and Wedgw. quotes Swiss 
figgen^ to rub, shove, or move to and fro, to fidget, connecting it with ^.fiket and there- 
fore with our llok and Cumb. feeh. Still there may be a connection with the Old D. and 
Dan. D. fage, quoted by both Molb. and Kok, which implies the ideas of haste and rest- 
lessness both, as in the instance, de ere fage til cu bevise ondt, which might be construed 
* they are fidgetty, or they fadge, to devise mischief.' Again, in detfager «f , there's no hurry 
about it, there is a very near approach to the second meaning of our verb. As to sb. Fadge» 
the idea of a short, thick bundle or fagot easily passes on to that of a short, squat person ; 
as, indeed, is the case with the word bundle itself in the West-Midland district. 


Fadge, v. n. i. To move along or about with short, irregular steps, 
as a corpulent person does. 2. To move about irregularly, as a fussy 
person does. See sb. Fadge. 

Fadgy, adj. Corpulent, imwieldy, stumpy in person. 

Faff, faff, V. a. and n. To blow in puffs, as when a person blows 
chaff away from corn held in his hands, or the wind when it causes brief 
puffs of smoke to return down the chimney. 

Apparently only another form of puff. Jam. quotes Oerm. pfufftn (not in Hilp.) in the 
same sense ; and certainly, in this district, Wedgwood's remark that * the sound of blowing 
is very generally represented by the syllable pu^ usually with a terminal consonant,' might 
be very well applied with the substitution of the initial sound of/ or ^ for that of ^. 

Faffle, V. n. To play or flap idly or gently, as a sail when there is 
not wind enough to fill it, or a loose garment, &c., just stirred by a 
momentary breath of air. See Faff. 

FaflELe, sb. A wavering or intermittent blowing of a light wind. 

* The boat will not sail without a regular breeze ; there is only a puff and a fqfflg* 

Fail, V. n. To grow weaker and fall off in general health and ap- 
pearance ; to shew evident signs of bodily decay. 

* T' au'd man 's not lang for this world : he 's sair /ai/f</ of late.' 

* He's z failing man, and has been for lang.' 

Fail off, V. n. To shew signs of approaching dissolution ; e. g. in- 
creasing debility, loss of flesh, diminished energies, &c. 

* He *$ failed q/f desper't sharp sen last back-end.' 

Fain, adj. i. Very willing, ready, fully disposed. 2. Glad, rejoiced. 

A. S,fcBgen,fagn, S. O. fagen^ joyful, glad, with a willing heart ; O. N. figinn. Comp. 
S. G. fagna, to be glad, joyful, fain ; Sw. fagna ; Sw. D. fdgna ; O. N. ftigna ; A. S. fag- 
nian, Pr, Pm, * Fayne. Libens* 

* Apon land here anone that we were, /oyn I wold.' TowneL Myst, p. 34. 

I. * Weel, Ah *sfain for my dinner, any ways.' 
3. • T' lahtle lad 'sfain to gan.' 

* ** I hope it will be fine to-morrow." ** Ay, there *s many '11 he fain if it ho'ds fair ower 
t' moom." • 

Cf. ' Cristene men ogen ben to fagen 

So fuelles am quan he it sen dagen, 

t^an man hem telleth so'Se tale 

Wid londes speche and wordes smale, 

Of blesses dune, of sorwes dale.' Siory of Gen, and Ex. 1. 15. 

Wedgw. derives the word in sense i. differently, but I think inconsistently with old usage. 
Cf. *fayn of |>i felawschupc,' P. Plougbm. {E.E. T.S.) p. 34. 


ip, adv. (used intensitively). Altogether, utterly, entirely. 

* Ah niwer seed sikan a lahtle cat for laking : its /air wild/ 

There is a remarkable coincidence of sense and application between this word and the 
Dan. D. adj. and adv. /<sr, /<sre, quoted by Molb. and explained as meaning * greatly, in 
a high degree, remarkably ;' e. g. bun var fcere smykket : she was extremely pretty. The 
same word is used in Jutland to intensify a negation, ikke fcer signifying * not at all,' * never 
a bit.' 

Fair, fair-up, v. n. To become fair weather again ; to leave off rain- 
ing, and grow clear or bright. 

* " Weel, it 's been a sharpish downfall while it lasted ; but Ah thinks its boun X*fair 
now." " Ay, its like /airing oop." * 

Fairish, adj. Passable, pretty good ; often used intensitively, or with 
a species of irony. 

* Fairish off for brass ;* tolerably well-to-do. 

' Thee'd hev z fairish crop, bairn, gin t' swedes wur as rank as t' fooal-foot.' 
' He *i fairish on for bairns : he 's getten three mair wiv his new wife.' 

Fairlings, adv. Fairly. 

Comp. Mostlings, Hardlings, Nearlings, &c. 

* Ah *s fairlings bet wiv it.' 

ir to see. Easy to be seen or perceived. 

* T* rooad *ifair to see* 

Cf. * a /aire path ;' • a well /aire path: Percy's Folio MS, i. 488. 

* Its vinyfair to see whilk on 'em is biggest favourite.' 

Fairy-butter, sb. A species of fungus (Tremella arhorea and albida) 
found growing on dead wood, and even yet believed by many to be the 
produce of the fairies' dairy. 

A well or spring in Baysdale is mentioned as the site of butter-washing by the fairies, and 
Egton Grange has (as alleged) been famous within the memory of living persons for the 
nocturnal proceedings of the said elves ; one of their pranks being to fling their butter so as 
to make it adhere to the gates and doors of the premises. 

Fall, V. n. I. To happen, to betide. 2. Of lime; to become fine 
and powdery, in consequence of having been slaked. 

Fall away, v. n. To waste in corporal substance ; to grow thin, or 
become attenuated. 

Comp. Sw. D./a//a dv^falla samtnan^ to become lean or thin. 

* Ah thinks Ah niwer seen a man sae failed afore ; he 's/a'n awa* to nowght.' 

Fall in, v. n. To meet with, light upon, prove successful in a quest. 

* " I hear your brother's /a'n in weel." ** Ay, he 's getten all he wanted, an* mair." ' 

* He Ml be yamm by neeght. if in case he/a's weel in at Stowsley.' 


Fand, fund, pret. of Find. 

Comp. O. Yi.fitna, imp, fann ; O. Sw. Jinna, fan ; Sw. D. Jinna^ fann ; Jinn, fan, &c. ; 
Dzn. J!nde,fandt, &c. 

Fantiokles, fiekrentiokleBy ftoitioleBy sb. Freckles on the skin. 

The first of these forms is simply the shorter or clipped Pr. of the second and third, and 
these are closely connected (the r being transposed) with O. N.y^whw, S. G.frekna,frakna, 
freckles; O.N. frekknoitr, S,Q. freknoi, freckled; Sw. frakm, frdknig ; Dzn. fregm, 
fregmd, &c. ; the termination being a diminutive of tiok, a mark made with a pencil or 
other means ; a word in frequent use both as vb. and sb. in CleveL 

Far, adj. Further, more remote or distant. 

S. G. Jgdr, JSarrt, adv. ; O. }i,Jirr,far; A. S. ftor, fir, fim ; Dan./f«r», adj. and adv. ; 
O. Yi.ficBr, adj. ; %v.figrran, adj. 

• T far side o' yon field.' 

' Si thee I Yon's a hare liggin': o' yon far land ov a', anenst t' gatesteead.' 

Cf. ' )>u steorest te sea stream j) hit fleden ne mot^ )>an ^ markedest.' S, Marh, p. lo. 
Note also that O. Sw,j}dmur,J}drmeti; O. 'S.firn,fintr, are adj. although the positive in 
either case is an adv. 

Farantly, adj. i. Decent, well-behaved, respectable, a. Neat, 
orderly, with regularity. 

This word occurs as an adv. in E, Eng, Allii, Po»mt, C. 435 :^- 

* Farandely on a felde he (Jonas) fettelej hym to bide. 
For to wayte on )>at won what schulde wor)>e after.' 

The more usual form of the adj. is farrand, faraad, or flEhrrant. Both Lads and 
Wb. Gl., however, give the. word as above, — *a farrantly body,' • fim-antly folks.' The 
2.d].farande is met with several times, in much the same senses as belong to our word, in 
E. Eng. AUit. Poems :— 

* Lest les thou leve my Ulefarande:' (A. 1. 864) ; 

* If )>ay werfarande and fre and fajrre to behold :* (B. 607) ; 

' pe solace of i>e solempnet^ in )>at sale dured 
Of \>%ifarande fest, tyl fayled the sun :' (/&. 1757) ; 

and the same expression, farand* fest, is found again in Sir Gaw, and Or, Kn, In refe- 
rence to the origin of this word. Jam. says, * I have sometimes thought that we might trace 
this term to S. O. and Isl. /ara, experiri; as Isl. wil ortbun farin signifies experienced in 
speaking ; lag-faren, skilled in law.' Ferg., however, is rather inclined to refer it simply 
to O. N. farandi, a traveller ; one who has seen the world, and, therefore, presumably, 
knows how to behave ; has learnt to be polite, well-conducted, decent-mannered, and so 
forth. Morris, Gl. to E. Eng, Allii. Poems, simply quotes Gael, fdrranta, stout, brave, 
which is the more worthy of notice, inasmuch as neither of the Scand. tongues or dialects 
seem to assume any sense for /ora, or any derivative from that word, very nearly approach- 
ing, or even suggesting that of our farantly or Jamieson's farrand. As for die word 
fiurand or farrand, as occurring in our au'd-farrand and Sc,fairfarand,f6ul'farren, 
euil-farand. See, I cannot but look upon it as distinct from farrantly or farrant, in the 
sense decent, orderly, well-behaved. I take it simply to be the obsolete form of the pcpL 


^i to fartt to behave or conduct oneself, to seem or appear. See Fare. It may be ob- 
lerred that Jamieson's explanation of * the maist semely farrand personage/ Doug. VireU,^ 
ti ' one appioring as the most seemly personage,' is more than open to question ; as wiU be 
seen by a reference to the passages quoted above. And the same remark applies with more 
thtfi equal force to his interpretation oifarandt in the passage quoted from Barbour : — 

* Tharfor thai went till Abyrde3me, 
Quhar Nele the Bruyss come, and the Queyn, 
And other ladyis fajrr and /oroiu/, 
Dkane for luff off thair husband ;' — 

the interpretation in question being * they fartd from home' — travelled forth — * animated 
by love to their husbands.' * Fayr zndfaroMd,* '/aroMdi and fayre to behold/ seems simply 
to have been a sort of * household word' to express fair seemliness of person and array. 

Far away, adv. In a great degree, beyond comparison. 

• Far away the best/ 

Fare, v. n. i. To go, to proceed. 2. To approach, draw on, or 
near. 3. To get on, or succeed. 4. To behave or conduct oneself. 
5. To seem or appear. 

0. N. and S. Q.fara, Sw.fara, Dan. /art, A. S.faran, to go, proceed, make a journey. 
Ihre further gives, * agere, agendi modum sequi,' as a secondary sense of the O. Sw. fara, 
and quotes a vb. fara (with its cognates, Al. /artn, IsL/ora), * to acquire, experience ; 
whence, trfara^forfara^ 8cc, Comp. Dan. erfaren, possessing experience. Rietz charac- 
terises Sw. D.fara, as possessing many of the qualities of an auxiliary vb., and some of the 
instances adduced by him are such as to present a strong analogy to the applications of our 
own vb. : e. g./ara/HleSt to begin to proceed, literally ; with which comp. our * he/ar#s te 
gan slowly.' Indeed this very idiom also occurs: — as fara g&; Hio/ara laup, to fare to 
run, &c. In Finland, he adds, /ora is used somewhat in the way of an expletive {utan syit- 
turligt hemarkdu), but certaiidy so as to present a significant likeness to oiu: own usage, 
especially in that sense which led Jam. to explain the word as meaning *to seem,' and 
firand as ' seeming, having the appearance :' thus han far a dger : he fares to be dying ; 
be far & val ilaki: that £ires to be all wrong. Further, the word, with a particle joined, 
seems to take the sense of to proend to (an action or endeavour, namely), besides other 
various {s'dr dtUta) usages not easily classified. 

1. ' An' seea ht fartd zwzy* 

* >enne /art forth.' E. Eng, AUit, Poitns, B. 929. 

3. • T* coo font a cawvin/ 

3. ' He /am nobbut ill, atwixt his wife an' 's maaster.' 

Comp. * pe rauen raykei hym forth )>at reckes fill lyttel 

How alle fodej /ar#, ellej he fynde mete.' E, Eng, AUii, Poems, B. 464. 

4. * He/ar«t like a feeal ; an' a feeal he be/ 

Comp. *.My frendej, your fare is to strange/ Ih. 861. 

5. -* Yon chapy^«f fond, Ah think.* 

Fare, sb. That which happens or proceeds ; chance, or lot. 

• Weel, Ah mun tak' my fare* 

* ffeele folke ware thi frendes >are )>ou ferde froo. 
And for to frayste of thi fare )« to^r ware fayne.' Rel. Pieces, p. 91. 





Far-eniL A point near the close of a matter or action. Of pet^ 
petual occurrence in the form at the tea end, and as varied in applica- 
tion as frequent. 

*A7, he'sdesper'till: he'll be aboot t' far §ind. Ah hy ;* at the end of his life; likdjr 

to die. 

• " Ahnof t done your task, WUy ? " " Aye, Ah 's aboot t'far and o* 't." * 

* ** They say he 's got thruff all his money?** ** Whyah, Ah's donbtful he's nighhand 

r far §iHd o"t:* ' 

FarlieSy sb. i. Something strange, unusual, or wonderful a. Pecu- 
liarities of conduct or character; thence, failings, foibles, weaknesses, or 

A. S. fcerlice, ftrlie, sudden, unforeseen, startling, frightful ; S. O. faarlig^ periculosus ; 
O. 'S./drUgr, id. ; ffrlegr, monstrous, horrible. Sw D./arUga and Dtn. D. (Jvd.)/arl^ 
are used principally as augmentatives, exactly in the same senses and applications as our 
parloiis. Old Dan. /ar/«s comes nearer to our present word, signifying sudden, unfore- 
seen. Farlies more seldom occurs with us in the first sense, in which £ere is a marked 
deviation from archaic usage. 

* If he >an haf drede, it es na /<r/y.' Pr. of Qmse, 3955. 

* For >er zftriy bifel |»at fele folk seien.* E. Eng. AUit. Poimt, B. 1529. 

* Mo/erlyM on >is folde han fallen here oft 

ptn in any o^ )>at I wot.' Sa^ Oa0, and Or. Kn, 23. 

Besides instances of this kind, which are innumerable, /My sometimes seems to stand in 
active sense, as in the following passage from E, Eng, AUit. Poems, A. 1084 :— 

* I stod as stylle as dased quayle 

For ftrly of >at french (?fr<sch) figure.' 

Our present usage is seen in the example from Wb. CU.: * ** A spyer out of other folks 
farluM;" a censorious person.' 

Famtioled, adj. Freckled. 

Farriflh-oiiy adj. Pretty well advanced; of people in years, or at 
their cups^ Sec. 

Far-side. The off or right-hand side in riding or driving ; the other 
being the Nar-side. 

Comp. Sw. D.jgarmer oeh ndmmer; bogtr oeb PmHtr, tumfonpSmda dragart: right and 
left, of draught-animals when yoked ; Dan. D.JUmumi; Jttrnur in Sslland. In the Dan. 
provinces narmant answers to Jiermant, as tuurmir to fitrmtr. See Rietz, and Molb. Dansk 
Dial, Ltx. 

Fash, V. a. and n. i. To occasion trouble or inconvenience, to 
worry or annoy, a. To take trouble, or put oneself to inconvenience. 

Jam. concludes that ' we have borrowed this word immediately from the Fr. ; and there 
is no evidence, as far as he has observed, that it is more ancient than the reign of Mary.' 
Still, there is ' reason to believe that it \% originally Gothic ; S. Q.fcM being sometimes used 
with the passive termination, as han ti ar god at faas vid; of a passionate man whom it is 


not prudent to meddle (or fash) with.' The * borrowing from the Fr.' mty perhaps seem 
questionable to any one who considers the currency of the word over all N. England, 
though the deriration from a Gothic source will not. Carr quotes an expression from 
Archbp. Spottiswoode, ' to put one in great faibtrti* Comp. with this Dan. D.Juuttrt^ 
bothering over snull matters, a word which Molb. looks upon as allied with Sw.^si^, 
jUua, to give oneself unprofitable or useless trouble ; Jiatka^ tarde drcumcursase et parum 
proficere ; alleging also E. Juu, The Sw. D. has both J}dt and j^os, as well as the yb. 
JSotk, the ud}.]gettiug,jSotiu, Sec,, all bearing in their significance more or less likeness to 
fitth. It may be observed that Wedgw. quotes JuuMtri, fids^ Jiatka, 8cc, in connection 
withjua, while Rietz, with some hesitation, collates them with the Sw. adj.y«s, hasty, pre- 
c^tate. To me, however, Dan. D.fcuse, to seek with trouble, to toil and trouble oneself 
after a thing, presents a stiH doscr analogy. 

* NtTver heed, lad I Deean't thee/uft theesel' about it.' 

Fash, sb. Trouble, bother, inconvenience, annoyance. 

TaahotUEi, adj. Troublesome, annoying, vexatious. Comp. Fr. 

* K/atbtm sort of body ;' * zftubout job.' Wh, 01 

Fast, adj. At a standstill, unable to proceed. 

• " Why, you don't get on with that job, Henry." " Neea ; Ah 's about /as/ wi 't" * 

* FoMt for want of materials ;' the miller, fati for lack of water ; the sower, for want of 
seed; ^e workman, with bad or unmanageable material ; and so on. 

Fasten out, v. a. To turn the Moor-sheep to the moor for the 
season, ezchiding them for good from the enclosed land. 

The phrase is often used figuratively ; e. g. of a person whose opportunities for fruther 
action in any special direction are summarily cut off, or who has been desired to abstain 
from further visits to any given house : thus,<— ' So-and-So 's getten hissd' fauntd oof, noo» 

Father, V. a. i. To impute, to ascribe to or charge with, 2. Of 
a child, and in a reflective sense ; to suggest its own origin by a strong 
personal resemblance to its father. 

Comp. O. 'S.fidra, patrem indicare, pronuntiare. 

X. ' Ay, 't wur a mean act : but he fatbertd it mainly on 's wahfe ;' his wife insti- 
gated it. 

* Has'n't 'ee beared at Mally Fawcett lays her bairn on Tommy Stone'us ?' imputes it 
to him. * Ay, an' shell get ixfaibertd on him at Oisburli, Ah lay ;' afiUiated to him. 

a. * Weel, t' lahtle 'n faa&trt hisself anyways. There's nae need t' ex wheeas bairn 
he be.' 

Fat-rascal, sb. A kind of rich tea-cake compounded with butter or 
cream (or both), and with currants intermingled besides. 

Faugh, v. a. (pr. fawf)* To fallow. 

Faugh, ftaghing, sb. Fallow land; the portion of a farm which 
lies uncropped although duly tilled. 

E,/8lhm, with the same sense as our Fsufh, is ordinarily referred to A. S./«afo,/M/tiw, 

Z 2 


pale reddish or yellowish, dun, fallow ; from the ordinary colour of the toil in land turned 
over by the plough, and suffered to dry and become paler in colour by exposure to the sun 
and air. Whether such reference is well-grounded may be open to question. If it be, the 
Dan. D. word /alle,/€elU,/€eldet otfcelgt, must have been borrowed by the ancestors of the 
present Jutlanders, as was certainly the case with other words of decided A. S. derivation 
as opposed to Scand. But many distinguished writers (see Koi, pp. 7, 8, and note, p. a a) 
would oppose this view with great energy, and not without reason ; and it is certainly more 
than possible that prov. Dan.^/tf,/<e/£r, and £. fallow are either coordinate, or the latter 
derived from the former. But further, Molb. contends that the true form of the word is 
falge, and not fedde (whence feelU)^ adducing the A. S. word ftalga, a harrow, and N. Sax. 
falgm^ a field once ploughed and left to mellow, as corroborative of his view ; and if to, 
in the g of the word in question we probably have the origin of the gb in our vroxd-r-fidght 
fdgb ; the / being dropped as in Oftu'f, our pronunciation of ccif, I should therefore look 
upon Faugh {Sc. faucb) as radically the same word as E, fallow, Cf. Pr. Pm, Fahoe; and 
O. E. some with Dan. sorge. 

Faltering-iron, sb. (pr. faughtering-iron). The instrument used for 
separating the awns from the grains of barley; in form a square 
iron frame with cross-bars set lattice-wise, and a long vertical shaft or 

* To Falter; to thrash bariey, in the chaff, in order to break off the awns.' Marshall's 
Rur. Eeon, p. 318. See Hall. also. Probably an arbitrary application of the standard 
word, connected with the interrupted or up-and-down motion of the instrument when in 
use. See Falter in Wedgw. ; Faltryn, cespito, Pr, Pm, 

Fault, V. a. To blame, or lay the blame on; to charge with an 
offence or fault. 

Feared, To be, vb. To be afraid, in dread or apprehension. 

* I am ivXXeferd that we get blame.' Townd. Myst. p. 1 1. 

* We zrefeard of yonder fowle : $0 feircly he fareth.* 

Percy's Folio MS. I 350. 

The vb. is used also impersonally : — 

* for all the words he spake in that time, 

nothing it feared the Knight Sir Grime.' lb. 378. 

• Ah 's feared its te nae youse* (use). 

Fearful, adv. Very, exceedingly; constantly used as an augmen- 

Conip. the use of Dan. D. farlig, Jutl. farleg, Sw. D. farliga, — all meaning, literally, 
fearful, Enfalle god dreng : a fearfiil good Ud ; falle rik, fearful rich ; both given by Kok. 
The Dan. usaee sometimes makes the word an adj., as en farlir M, a fearful heap (of 
money, namely) ; enfaale kaal (farlig harl)for ct alter : a fearful cSap for the altar — mean- 
ing an excellent priest; farli^a fin ; vacker : fearful fine or small ; prAtty. Ihre also obsenres 
on this use of the word farltg. 

Fearsome, adj. Awful, frightful. 

^ather-fUlen, adj. Crest-fallen, dispirited, subdued in demeanour. 


Vtether-lbwly sb. (pr. feather-fewl). Birds, ' fowl of the air.' 

Rietz gives Jjarfogjdt J}ddtrboMa, as the provincial name of the wood-grouse or Caper- 
cailsie. Our word is simply a Northern form of * feathered fowl.' Comp. the form /M€, 
Rtl, Pkus, p. 79. 

Itetly, adv. Neatly, dexterously, properly. 

' He hat/ttfy in face fettled all eres.' E. Emg. Attit. Poeriu, B. 585. 

' Faiy hym kissed/ Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, 1758. 

From ' O. Fr. faiet, Fr. Jait, a deed, a feat.' Gl. to E, Emg, AUit. Poems. The prov. 
Dan. fiU, neat, pretty, handsome, may be put side by side with S. G. faitt ready, handy, 
of which Ihre says he cannot affirm that it is not borrowed from Fr. /ait. Comp. also 
Sw. D.faUtr (same sense), which takes the tormjatt in the neut and flan. (Rietz). 

Feok, sb. I. Activity, ability, might. 2. Number, quantity, mass. 

Jam. r^rds this word as ' of very uncertain origin.' As implying quantity or space, 
' it oorre^Kinds to A. S. /ofc, space, interval, distance ; Qtim./aebeH, to divide into equal 
^ces ; facb, one of these spaces.' As meaning * the greatest part,' ' it seems to have more 
analogy to A,S,/tob, Teut. ve^b, opes.' As implymg ' of value,' or * deserving consi- 
deration,' * it probably claims a different origin, and is nearly allied to Fr. bommt d§ piu 
^tfiet, a weak and witless fellow.' I would ratiier regard it as formed upon the model of 
E. sb. might and its analogues in the Northern toneues ; O. N. md^ makt; Sw. md, magt; 
Dan. maa, magt; Germ, mag {mogeii) macbt; A.S. mttg, mtbti^-iht imperf. of the vb. 
being, in every case, the intermediate step. So O. N./i (imp.y^i^) ; S. Q,fi^flt^fkk^f<ek ; 
Dan./aaf,^; Sw.^fiiik^ &c., fullv supply both the form and the sense of our Peok. 
As to the latter point, Molbech's remark on Dan. faoM — a remark more or less applicable 
also in the case of the other Scand. tongues and dialects — is that it generally assumes the 
meanings ' to own,' * possess,' ' enjoy,' * feel and sufier,' besides several others more or less 
corresponding with ' to suit (be suitable to),' * to retain,' * to receive,' ' to acquire,' * to 
earn or become entitled to ;' and in the various instances of usage we meet perpetually with 
cases in which ability, power to make, to obtain, to keep, is the prominent idea. Like cases 
of the formation of a sb. from the imp, of the vb., and with perfectly analogous transitions 
of sense, are by no means rare. It is at least open to surmise, that the Jutl. word JOtht^ 
a purse, a pouch, may be of similar origin. 

Feckless, adj. Feeble, weak, incapable of helping oneself or others. 

F^ed, V. a. and n. i. To fatten; as a beast or pig. 2. To become 
fat; of an animal or a person. 

Comp. Dan. >SrdSr, to fatten, make fat, the vb. f%d* signifying * to give food to, or feed ;' 
as also do O. N. /oka, S. G. foda^ Ac The Dan. idiom at fid* kriattirt, tvim, gtu, &c., 
corresponds precisely with our own, and the passive form jrields our second signification :— > 
Embver, torn vil tdv ftdn af den Jiok, ban burds fnU og vogtt : every one who desires 
to become fat throu|;h the flock, must needs fised and tend it. See also Sw. D. f^ta, to 
become fat ; O. V.futa, to make fat. 

Feft, V. a. To secure to any one in a formal or legal manner. 

' 0,V, Jt, A. S, Jtobt &c., cattle, riches, money, adopted into the Romance tongues, 
became prov. /»,_/&», Yt.fiif. Latinized, it became /nM/»m, signifying the property in land 
distributed by the Conqueror to his companions in arms, as a reward for their past services 
and a pledge for their rendering the like in future. Hence the term /ir, in En|^ish law, for 


the entire estate in land ; fioffment^ from the ft.Juffer, to convey thtjief, or./ir, ta t liew 
owner/ Wedgw. The existence of our word is a curious instance of the origination of a 
new term by a slight corruption. 

' Ht fiJUd his wife on so much a year/ Wb. Ol. 

* AUe )>is Riche Retenaunce* bat Regneden with Fals 
Weoren bede to ^ Bruyt<ale* on Bo two |>e sydes. 
Sir Simonye is of-sent* to asseale ^ Chartres, 
pat Fals o|mr Fauuel* by eny f3m heolden. 
And Fefi Meede ^-with* In Manage for euere/ 

Skeaf s P. Plougbm. p. 19. 

Feftment, sb. Property legally secured; an endowment, or enfeofment. 

Pr, Pm, * Ftftmmt, Feofamentum/ 

/ Now Simonye and Siuyle* stonde)» for)» bo)»e, 
Vn-foldyng >e Ftfftnunt >at Falsnes made/ 

Skeat's P. Plomgbm, p. ao. 

Feg, sb. I. A dead grass-stem. 2. Anjrthing without worth or value. 

Wedgw. connects ftg wiih/og, defining it as ' grass not etten down in the summer, that 
grows m tufts over the winter/ With us the two words are, in usage, veiy distinct : Tog 
denoting the fresh, bright green growth of grass (not possessing, however, any correspond- 
ing amount of nutriment) which springs in the meadows after the severance of the hay^ 
crop. Peg, on the other hand, is in Westmoreland rough dead grass, and here, as used 
widi the indef. article, a single dead grass-stem. Wedgw. collates yi^driMm, winter pasture 
in the forests, and adds, * perhaps from fag, to flag or wither.' In E, Eng, AIUl Poems, 
B. 1683, it is said of Nebuchadnezzar, that 

* He fares forth on alle faure,y^^« wat) his mete ;' 
but, as the next line runs, 

* A; ete ay (hay) as a horce when erbes were fallen,' 

probably Joggi does not mean dry natural herbage. The Ol., however, gives ' fogge, dry 
grass. W. jwg;' and it may be observed that Oamett, Essays, 165, quotes Vf.J^sg as 
tiie more than probable * Celtic origin' of Jog (which he makes equivalent to * Yorkshire 
sddisb, sc. moss'). In this case, the assignment of one distinct sense to fog, and another 
to ftg, must be looked on as arbitrary : at the same time, it is far from unparalleled, or 
even unusna ; simiUr cases being of frequent occurrence in our own dialect. 

IPele, V. a. (pr. feeal). To hide or conceal. 

O. N. fda, to hide, cover, conceal ; Sw. fsla; N., Dan., O. D., and D. T>,,JUstt; Sw. D. 
Jfala,jgJa; A. S.f9olam,j9olbaH. Both Rietz and Kok look on the word yb/ih— the equiva- 
lent of E. fait*, faUsbood — as derived from the imperf. of the O. N. vb. (See Riets in v. 
Fals; Kok, p. 177). Comp. Dan. }xtt, Jiaii sig, to hide oneself, with oun in the example. 
Comp. also. Dm btUsr bsdst som selv bar fiaki : the hider is the best finder ; Dsi hmmstr 
up i t9, som sr JMsi i stut : what's hid in the snow, 'U turn up in the Thow. Not« alto, 
prov. Dsn^JlaUHskag, hid-beard ; Angl. blind man's buff; Dan. UimMuk, 

* Oan an' get iheejftlt, bairn ;' go and get hid. 

' He yoused (used) to fih his hammer, an' sike as that, iv a hole i' t' steean wall.' 

* My counsellars so wyse of lare. 
Help to comforthe me of care. 

No wyt from me ytfds' TowisA, Mysi, 67. 

Rietz considers the word to be allied to Lat. vtian, si^irt, Ace. 


Fell, V. a. To knock down or prostrate ; used both literally and 
figuratively of men, animals, &c. 

O. H.JtUat to prostrate, knock down, cut down ; S. G. /atta; Sw. /alia; Sw. D. filla, 
to fdl timber ; Dan,/aldt, Sec, 

* Ht JtlTd him m he wad an oz ;' of a man who had knocked another down. 

* UtfdTd em, stoups, rails, and a'/ 

' *' FOUd wiv his aihnent ;" prostrate with sickness.' Wb. Ol. 

IPell, sb. A skin of an animal with the hair on it, an undressed 

O.H.fill^fillar; the former only in composition. Hald. Sw.Jall; Qorh,J!lli; Qerm. 
fill: A. S. fill; Dutch vtl. Dan. pds. Sw. p^, A. S. pylea, pylet, as well as Lat. ptUa^ 
are probably due to the same root as our Pell. In O. E. it seems often to hare meant fiir 
or dressed skins. Thus in Qaw, and Gr. Kn., 

* a mery mantyle mete to )>e er)>e 
)?at ymt^/urrtd M fyne wiihfilU^* (1756.) 

And * a mantyle f^yrt fiand wjrth-inne wiihJtiUi of the best.' lb. (880.) 

In other cases it is applied to the human skin, as in HampoU, TVwom/ Mysi., Sec, as 

* He shalle be fon in Galale 
In fleshe Mid fillt.' 

FeU, sb. A hill, bleak, barren, and lengthened in outline ; a long 
moorland summit 

O.'S.Jiall; S.G. Jail {dicitxa proprie de jugo montium, atque in specie illorum, qui 
hodie Norwegiam a Suedft disterminant. Ihre) ; Dzn, J^tld, Sec, 

Fell, adj. i. Eager, keen, energetic, striving, vehement in exertion. 
2. Of the ploughshare and coulter, when the former is set so as to enter 
the earth too deeply, the latter so as to ' take too much land.' 

Wedgw. quotes Ital. fillo; Fr. filU, cruel, fierce; filon, cruel, rou^ untractable: and 
the editor of Pr. of Come, also adduces the Utter two words. In the Ol. to E. Etig. AUii, 
Poims, however, he quotes A. S.fill, cruel, severe ; while Bosw. collates Fris.yU. Wedgw. 
thinks ' the true origin is probably to be found in the Celtic branch : Welsh gwall, defect ; 
Bret, gwall^ bad, wicked ; fitU, id.' Perhaps the connection is rather a case of affinity than 
of extraction. It is possible that fell may be connected with O. N. fida, to terrify, to 
shock. Comp. Dan. fid, which, says Molb., expresses that degree and kind of hideousness 
which in^ires dread or repulsion. Comp. also Sw. D. fil, fiU, terrific, frightful, which 
Rietz sets side by side with Dan. fiel (taking a like sense), with A. S. ficr, and with Dut. 
fil, grim, fierce, fri^tful. But, whether of Teut. or Celtic origin, the word is of very 
frequent use in E. Eng. writers in the forms fil, fiXU, fill, and meaning * fierce, bold, 
furious ;' and also in the adv. forms fiUy, fiUdy, fiercely, boldly, cruelly. See Pr, Pm, 
* FdU. Severus, ferns, atrox.' 

* T' au'd horse trails mair an hau'f t' draught. He 's owct fill by owght.' 

' T' young un 's keen ; but t' au'd chap — he be fdl. He weean't be bet wiv a Uhtle ;' of 
« young man striving to outwork an okl one. 

Fellon, sb. i. A painful disorder of rheumatic nature to which cows 
(chiefly) are subject. 2. A painful disorder of the hands or other 


members of the human body, of the nature of an abscess. See BOI10- 
feUon, FeU. 

Pr. Pm. ' Filont. soote. Anirax, carbuncutia,' 

• Som, for envy, ill hif m Hi' lyms 
Ali kyllH lod filauHs and ipoilyrai.' Pr. 0/ Come, 1994. 

Felloti, Bone-, sb. A painful swelling, frequently in a finger, or 
other part of the hand, arising from an abscess, which suppurates and 
breaks after a time, and very frequently, then, is accompanied by the 
passage of particles of the bone. This, the bone, is consequently 
assumed to be the seat of the disorder, which is usually intensely 

There on be scarcely any doubt t2ial, in al leail the vait majorilj' of niei, the booe 
become! diieiied fiom the adioa of the confined matter. Thete ii utually an almrut 
iniuperihle rcluclince among the people to call in the aid of the luigeon. ConMquently, 
for dayt after the absceii requirei opening the matter temaint peat up ; and, too often, if 
the medical man be etenlnally called in, the mitcbief ii already done, and the unfonunite 
practitioner geti the credit of having inflirted it. In iti finl lUget, that, which in the end 
becomei Bone-feUOD. ii a veiy manageable ditoider. 

Fellon, Joint-, Skin-. 

' The animal ihows lonie (tiUhets in moving, and if the band ii ptetied on any put of 
the back, the bcait will ihrink at if from pain. This it catted C3>int-fitloH in many 
part) of the cDuntiy:' in Clevel. Sktn-fellon. 'Generally, in two or three dayi, the 
animal appeirt iliff in the joinli ; these aflerwaidi begin to twell, and ate evidently painful, 
pattieularlv when he atlemplt to move. Sometimei the iiilTheii eittendi all over the body, 
and the beatt ii unable lo riie without assistance. Thii it termed yiunl-fiUoH.' Claler^i 
Calili Doclor, p. 59. 

Fellon of the Udder (pr. yuer). 

The udden of cowi are ftequently thickened 

1 in the piogreii of the diiorder. 

Fellow-fond, adj. Enamoured, in love ; said of a female. 
Felly, felve, sb. The felloe of a wheel; one of the curved pieces, 
several of which go to make up the rim. 


Felly, V. a. To break up fallow land. 

Dan. D, [J"''-) f"!'^. f<*tl' or ftlgi ; faitt elsewhere ; to break up sward ; to plough 
tightly and for the Grit time, before the deepei ploughing fur the Kcd, 

Felt, pcpl. Hidden, concealed. See Fele. 

Felter, V. a. To entangle, to clot or cause to intertwine and become 


mixed and confusedly coherent ; of hair, wool, &c. : chiefly used in the 

A,S./tlt, clotted hair; Genn/e/z; Dut.vtli; Dzn.fii; and Sw.y?//. Molb. connects 
the Dan. sb. with O. N. fell, fdldr; and Morris, Ol. to £. Eng, Allit. Poems^ collates 
W,gwalt, Gael./a//, hair of the head. The later Lat writers, says Ihre, seem to have derived 
their ,/Scnmi, feltrum from the Goths and Alemauni, the older Lat. allied form being villus. 
There is scarcely room for doubt that prov. Dan. atJUte sammen; atfite penge satnmen : to 
ccnpe money together in a miserly way, involves a figurative use of the same word. The 
L§ids Gl. affords another illustration of our word : ' The wheel gar (got) ho'd 'n his brat 
(pinafore) an'Jklter'd an' draew him in, poor bam I ' 

* With a hede lyke a clovrdt fdterd his here.' Towtul. Myst, p. 85. 
Of Nebuchadnezzar, it is said, E. Eng. Allit. Poems^ B. 1689, 

' Tzxt/yliered and felt flosed hym umbe 
That schad fro his schulderes to his schyre wykes.' 

From the notice of the casting of the devils from out of heaven, lb. 334 : 

* Fylter fenden-folk forty daye3 lenc)>e 
£r )>at styngande storme stynt ne myjt.' 

' FdUred locks ;' quoted from Fairfax's TVisso by Brockett, Carr, Morris. 
' As shaggy and rough as zfeltered foal.' 

Feltrios, sb. A disorder to which horses are liable, in which great 
thickening and hardness of the skin and the integuments beneath take 
place, and the hair becomes matted and staring. See Felter, to entangle, 
clot, as hair or wool does. 

Felve, sb. See Felly. 

Femmer, adj. Slender, slightly made, weaL 

Another instance of a word preserved accurately as to form, while its sense is simply 
transitionary or derived from its original sense. Comp. Sw. D.femnur, D. D,fimmtrtfim, 
quick in one's movements, active, dexterous or handy, light. Tlie next sense would natu- 
tally be what is given above as the meaning of Clevel. femmer. 

Fend, v. n. To be careful and industrious ; to strive or labour, or 
employ oneself; to manage or make shift. 

Dan. D.fanUyf*nt% oxfinte, to seek, try to acquire, with care and toil ; atfint^for noget: 
to give oneself trouble to obtain anything. Molb. adduces the Eng. D. ^otd fend^ fend for 
<m€stif \n his notice oi fcmte oifente; zs zUo ]utl. fond 2nd ff.fcEngte. 'The latter ap- 
proaches more to the Sw. D. iormfdngta. FdntOt however, also occurs. A Dan. example 
is, fetnis om foder HI kreatureme til foraaret, naar vinterfoderet er gcuut op : to fend for 
spring-fodder for the stock when the winter supplies are consumed. Fending for fodder, 
here, seems often to be done by means of a kind of indirect begging from the neighbours. 

* ** He tries Vofend at all points ;" he is industrious in a variety of ways.' Wb. Gl, 

* I assayed him, and heffended weele.' Percy's Fol, MS. i. p. 365. 

Fend, sb. Careful and provident action or labour, contrivance or 
management; industrious striving, activity in one's business or employ- 

A a 


ment ; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself and provide things 

* They make a good fend for a living.' 

*^No moTt fend than a new-bom bairn ;' of a helpless person. Wb. GL 

Fendable, fendible, adj. Active, industrious, notaUe, contriving. 

Fend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously ; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing blame to others. 

*Fendt from Fr. defendre, to forbid, defend, protect; defense, prohibition, protection^ 
fience.' Wedgw. ^Fender, i.e. defender; that which fends, defends, guards.' Rich. He 
also quotes from Beaum. and Fletcher : 

' Your son, an't please you, sir, is new cashiered yonder. 
Cast from his mistress' favour ; and such a coil there is, 
Such fending and such proving,* 

* The landlord was to hold a court. 
And there his tenants were attending, 
Sundry debates preuving and fending* yocthSer. Diseottrse, p. 24. 

Fend-heads, sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife^ 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admitting of defence or justification; capable of 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Fent, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or left, in any article 
of clothing. See Vent. 

F seems sometimes to take the place of v in our dialect, as in this word and in Ftfsom, a 
word given in Wb. GL Observe also Pr. Pm. Fenie, and note. 

Fent, sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The ' binding ' is a narrow strip of material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pose of protection, and, secondarily perhaps, ornament. The narrow strip, however, seems 
to supply the idea of the word, which is exactly correspondent to that in Dan.^&tl», ex- 
plained by Molb. through the word strimmel, a strip. 

Fent, V. a. To bind, or sew an edging on to a garment, &c. See 
Fent, sb., Fents. 

Fents, sb. Remnants of cloth, calico, &c. 

Comp. O. D.finie, which Molb. defines as, ' a ^small strip of land lying alongside other 
lands, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.' Our word most frequently 
occurs in the phrase Fents and fag-ends ; but it is also used simply. See Font, v. a. 
and sb. 

Festy V. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which is probably what Molb. {Dafuk Dial. Lex.) 
means when he says of fastemand, fastenm, fastensgave, fcestensml that they are gamle og 


<Bgt€ Dansie ord^ old and genuine Danish words. Ihre defines y<e5/a, * firmare aliquo modo, 
ph3rsico aut morali :' in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, * sponsalium solenni ritu 
sponsam sponso addicere ;' whence /<£s/«mo, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; faUeman^ &c., 
the man she is engaged or betrothed to ; fcBsteninge-ring^ the ring of betrothal. In the 
forensic usage, he adds, it varies in sense ; as fcesta ed, to stablish an oath by some security 
given ; fasta kdp, to confirm or make binding a bargain ; from which comes the term 
fctste-pening^ the money-pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Festing-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Kok in v. Fctste^l)^ f<Bste 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth oneself. Rietz gives fdsta in the same tenses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire : as fdsta tjenstebjon^ to hire farm-servants ; fdsta sjoman^ to engage or ship sailors ; 
and this almost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Ihre's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of band-fasting over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making fast oijirm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is tlie more probable, and Kok certainly errs in his derivation. 

FeBtiiig-x>eniiy, sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiring-penny, Gk>d'8-peniiy, Aries. 

S. G. fcBSte-pening \ O. H . festi-peningr ; Dan. fcBstepenge. The first of these words is 
explained under Fest. In Jutl. the Dan. word — under the prov. form fcebstpeng* — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was — if not, is yet — held under a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term fcBste : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession on one of these farms, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for all ; which payment is called fabst-ptn^. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb. fcBsta^ or fcBste^ which, like O. Sw. fasii* 
pening, imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of forming 
the contract whether of future marriage, actual marriage, or what not. Thus festandafai 
is mentioned by Ihre; faestensgave by Mo\b. {Dial. Lex.) ; faestefa^ fastningfcSt festendefig, 
fcestnedefa in Dansk Gloss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mtntions fcestensgjav, 
and Rietz fistning, in the same sense. Clevel. Festing-penny is as completely analogous 
as possible: and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hiring- or Festing-penny, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an unlooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Festing-penny with the 
notification of her altered plans, shews the force or bindingness yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-time of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. * \>essa skikkiu kaupir Hauhr oh retdir \>a firir festarpenning ok gengr 1 brott ok efter 
ftnu ;* this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the festing-penny^ and gans forth and afler the 
money. FlcU. i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i. To carry anything with one, when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

• Wants a speead, diz he ? Tell *im, Ah '11 be on inoo, an* Ah 'II fetch yan wi' me.* 

a. * And se iSe ys uppan bys buse^ ne gd be nyiSer f5<Bt be dnig \nng on bis buse fecce.' 
A.S. Gospelst Matt xxiv. 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

* " I have z/etcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.' Wb. Gl. 

A a 2 


Fettle, V. a. i. To adapt, arrange, fit up. 2. To prepare, equip, 
get ready, supply. 3. To contrive, accomplish or manage a thing. 
4. To put into a state of repair. 5. To beat, thrash, overcome or 

In his notice of the Sw. D. word fossa, Jissa, to scour, to fiirbish up, Rietz collates not 
only N. S.JUtjin, Germ. Dia\.foseln, to rub, polish, dress or trim up assiduously ; M. Germ. 
ftitm, to make neat or pretty; M. G./eitian, id., but also our own fettle. Morris, Gl. to 
E. Eng. AUit. Poems, also gives PI. D.Jisseln, with the sense * to bustle about,' and Goth. 
fiitian; but quotes besides O. Fris. Jltla, to adorn, and N.^/a, to labour at a thing to get 
it right. Wedgw. also gives most of these words, adding * PI. D.fissd-maken (fettle-maid), 
an under housemaid.' But he seems to halt between this derivation — founded on ' the light 
work required to finish the preparation of a thing,' — and that which assumes as ' the funda- 
mental idea, that of binding up, binding together, from A.S./etd, a girdle, Svr.faetill, a 
firdle, band, handle of a sword, the equivalent of Qena.fessel, a thong, ^om fassen, to hold.' 
give the following from Landnamahoh, p. 409, explanatory notes on one of the * songs ' 
in the text, * Fetill ligamen, mitella, et in specie, tania qud clypei snspendunhtr. Hinc et 
fetill metonymice pro clypeo vel armis, adhibetur.' If for arms generally, why not for entire 
equipment ? Valeat quantum. Certainly the transition of meaning from that of * buckling 
to,' — ^accingendi se ad aliquid, applying oneself to a matter — to arranging or completing 
the matter itself, is rather less natural than the converse : from busy and diectual activity, 
that is, to resolute effort and application. I should, therefore, be inclined to adopt Rietz's 
view. The word is of continual occurrence in our older North Eng. writers : e. g. * yUtfftyld,* 
in Toumel. Myst. p. 309. Again ; — 

* Now alle |>ese fyue sy)>e3, forso|>e, were fitied on |>is knyjt, 
8c vchone halched in o))er, |>at non ende hade, 
& fyched vpon fyue poyntej, >at fayld neuer,' Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, L 656 ; 

in which passage the sense seems rather to approach to that of S. G. fit^a, colligare, with 
which /<e/{7 is closely connected. But the sense may preferably be that these five specified 
* *y\>^'i ' — graces or moral excellences — were, so to speak, a khid of vesture or array, nicely 
fashioned and fitttd—fetded — upon this knight, rather than simply united in him or his 
character. In the following, however, — 

* When hit (the ark) wzt^/etdtd and forged and to ^ fiiUe gray)>ed,' 

E. Eng, AUit, Poems, B. 343 ; 

* And he )>at fetly in hct fetded alle eres,' Ih, 585 ; 

* Fetded in on (one) form,' spoken of Patience and Poverty (C. 38) ; 

and * farandely on a felde he/ettele^ h3rm to bide,' lb, 435 ; 

there can be no mistake either as to sense or the general turn and run of the idea. Comp. 
the following examples : — 

I. • •♦ A bnyt\y fetded house;" well furnished.' Wb. Gl, 

* Ah fetded t' lahtle chap a spot i' t* au'd cau'f-pen fur 's rabbits.' 

3, • ** We are just fettling for off;" getting ready to start on a journey or expedi- 
tion* Wb. Gl, 

* " Fetde me that, an ye please ;" to a shop-keeper, the speaker presenting at the same 
time an order for goods.' lb, 

' We'll be leading to moorn's moorn. Gan an' get pike-bottom y>///#(/.' 

3, * Ay, Ah aims y/e*\\ fettle it for him ;' get something managed or arranged— e. g. get- 
ting a boy into a situation, or out. of a scrape, and the like. 

4. ' I wish you con\d fettle me my coat a bit.' Wb. Gl. 

* Ah lull' \\m\ fettling '» au'd sled.' 


5. • Ah 11 /#///« *m an' Ah get grip ov 'im.* 

• Noo, young un : thou *\\ fettle t' au*d cock, yit ;' of two cocks fighting. 

Fettle, sb. i. State, condition: the precise sense qualified by an 
adjective, or by the application or connection of the word. 

• Nobbut in bad fettle for work ;' of animal or man, when out of condition, or poorly. 

' Ah 's feared he 's in bad fettle^ poor chap ;' of a man whose circumstances are supposed to 
be but poor or bad. 

' In primtfetde ;* * out of fettle;* of man, animal, machinery, tool, instrument, &c. 

Pew, adj., but used substantively. A quantity or number: if un- 
qualified by an adj., a small quantity or number. Comp. the use 
of Vast. 

k.S.feawa; far; S.Q.fa; Dan. /aa, &c. Some unnecessary ingenuity has been 
aj^lied to explain the idiom ' a few broth.' A specimen may be found in Leeds Gl.^ where 
the explanation is made to depend upon the pieces of meat boiled in making the broth, or 
upon the pieces of bread broken into it preparatory to * serving it out.* The Or. G/., how- 
ever, seems to be much nearer the mark, by suggesting that the word brotb is ' generally 
used as a noun of number ;' and Rich, gives a quotation in which it is actually used in the 
pi. : ' When they exceede, and haue varietie of dishes, the first are their baked meates, and 
then their brotbes or pottage. Hackluyt, Voyages, vol. i. p. 496.* Cf. * Brewes is derived 
from the plural of A. S. ftriw, jusculum.' Pr. Pm. note to Brotoesse, browes. The further 
exi^anation depends upon the substantival use of the word few, analogous to that of Hide 
in the phrases, ' a little water,' ' a little bread,' &c. Comp. the usage of paululum in Latin, 
tm peu in French, &c. It is worthy of remark that O. N. far is used in almost exactly the 
same manner: thus, far jotunn, a few giants ; fdss erfrdtSum vant, of but a few (<:= little) 
is there want to the wise. The neuter, /a//, also is used absolutely, exactly as our few is; 
e.g. fdtt er tU, nema . ., equivalent to our there's nobbut . . to do this or the 

' There was a good/w at church this morning.' Wb, Gl. 

• There was nobbut a poorish few,* lb. 

' There 's a gsiyfew side-awa3rs amang thae whoats.' 

' Not a good crop of apples, but a canny scattering /n& amang t' trees.* 

• Nobbut a hht\e few.* 

Pey, V. a. To cleanse, or remove impurities. 

At first I added to the above definition this more, — ' hence to winnow, the ordinary wind 
being the agency employed ;' but I am inclined to think it would be an error to confound 
fey, to winnow by aid of the natural wind, with the present word, which originates in, to cleanse, to scour. Comp. QeTm.fegenf to cleanse, &c. ; M. Germ, vegen; 
ff.fegja; \>z\\.feje, to sweep, clean up. Comp. also fdga, fa, both signifying to 
clean, to brighten. See Fey, to winnow. 

A curious adaptation of the word is given in the following example, taken from the lips 
of an old lady remarkable for her ' " Yorkshire'* undefiled :* — 

• Fey out thae sheep out in t' garth.* 

Pey, V. a. To winnow, or clear com from its impurities, by aid of 
the natural wind. 

Rietz gives fo{g)a or fba, and faida, in as nearly as possible the same sense as our word ; 
viz. to sift corn in such a way that the refuse is removed from it. Foge^dll. is then given 


as a finer kind of sieve, or a winnowing-fan, while Molb. gives fne sad, /tie af lo as 
a customary N. Ssll. expression for to cleanse com, by aid of a sieve, after thrashing, 
and removing the coarser impurities by other means. 

Fezzon, v. a. i. To seize with fierce eagerness, whether on food, as 
with the avidity of extreme hunger, or as a bull-dog on a bull. Hence 
2. To fight, engage in active strife. 

Possibly a mere vernacular corruption o{ fasten; especially as in Wb, Ql, it is given as 
only used with the prep, on following. Thus * they fairly faxamd on' is explained, • they 
got at last to blows.' 

Fike, flck, feek, v. n. To move restlessly, or fidget, with the feet 
and toes, as an infant does ; applied to any restless action of the feet, 
whether purposeless and unconscious, or otherwise, and of both man 
and animal. 

O. fi.fka, to make haste, to bustle ; S. G. fka ; Sw. D,J!ka,Jiga ; O. Svr.Jikia: D. Dial. 
Jige; Switz.Jicbten — all implying more or less of haste, bustle, fidgetty eagerness, and the 
like. Our word in process of time has come to bear a somewhat varied, but still closely 
allied signification. 

' T' puir bairn nobbut Jicks wi' 's taes a bit He 's not yabble to meeav else ;' of an 
idiot infant. 

' He /eek*d an' he fteVd^ while he gat t' boong oot ;* of a hot-water bottle, in bed, 

Comp. ' He Hang yan (a cracker) upon my breeks. 

And truly, sir, it burnt my leg 
And garred mitfeik like hen with egg.' Joeo-Ser, Disc. p. i8. 

* He louped t' yat' an' nobbut /?tfAr'(/ a bit wiv his hind feet ;' of a pig, which jumped over 
the door of the sty, all but clearing it. 

Cf. * ffor they rcysedc J>e crosse with |>i body, 

An^fychede it in a tre mortasse vyolently.' Rti. Pitces, p. 66. 

* The kynge Boors redressed hym in his sadelle and fieched hym so in his steropes so 
harde that the iren bente.' Merlin^ p. 338. 

Pile over, v. a. To smooth over, wheedle, cajole, whether by dis- 
arming suspicion, or applying flattery. 

In Aner, RiwU we have fkelung, flattery ; JikeUs, vikeltH, flattereth ; wi^es, wiles, pass- 
ing into wibeles, wUUs^ all connected with A. S. wigelungy gewiglung^ deception, juggling, 
enchantment. Contraction from the form wi^eUs, retaining only the interchangeable/ or v, 
gives us our present word with unaltered sense. Comp. Fris. JUcbeln, to flatter, give good 
words ; and with it again the S. Marb. and Aner. RiwU (onnjlken, to deceive, impose on. 

Find, V. a. (pr. finnd). To find (pret. fand, fund ; p. p. fan). 

Finks, sb. The residuary substance left after the extraction of the 
oil from the blubber. 

Comp. Sw. D.Jinkir, sb. pi., i. various small parts from the interior of the goose when 
cooked : a. The fat of pigs cut into small pieces in order to be melted ; ttdg'foikir. 


Riet^ quotes also Dut vinker, small angular bits of meat. Note also Dan. D, father » shreds 
of apple, and Dzn.fatker, a dish of minced meat, especially of the liver and lights of the pig, 
cut up and cooked with vinegar and seasoning. 

Fire-oods, sb. Bellows. See Cods. 

• " Blast it up wi' X*fae^ods;" take the bellows to the fire.* Wb. GL 

Fire-eldin, sb. Fuel generally. See Eldin. 

Ftre-fanged, adj. i. Of food; burnt, or 'caught/ in the prepara- 
tion. 2. Of a person; fierce or vehement of disposition or tempera- 

S. G. fesnga ; Sw. D. fdnga ; Dan. fcenge ; N. fengja ; N. S. fengen^ anfengen ; Germ. 
Dial, anfangen ; Mid. Germ, vanlten^ venken — all, but the last, signifying to take fire, as well 
as to set fire to, to kindle. Our word is a direct p. p. from the original Scand. form, and 
as O. Sw. famga is doubtless derived from fanga, to catch, to take, — see Ihre in v. Fcenga^ 
and Molb. in v. Fcenge^ — ^the coincidence in sense between our word, and the prov. Eng. 
word caught is interesting. Sw. eld-fdngdt inflammable or hot-tempered, coincides with the 
second sense of our word precisely. 

Fire-flaught, sb. i. The flaming coal which sometimes leaps from 
the fire with a report. 2. Any luminous appearance which seems to 
shoot or dart through or athwart the sky; meteors, Northern lights, 
lightning. 3. Metaphorically a hasty-tempered person. 

Jam. says this * is evidently from Su. G./yr^ Teut. vier^ ignis, and vlaeken^ spargere flam- 
mam ; vibrare instar flammae, coruscare.' Rather from Sw. faoga, or some Dialect form ; 
c. g. Sw. D. flauga,flyge,flyg,fluug (imp. flaug) ; O. Sw. flh^a, fliauga; O. N. fljuga. 
Comp. the forms vlubt, Ancr. Riwle; jflubt. Halt Meid. ; flaugb^ for flew^ Percy's Fol. MS. 
i. p. 71. The idea is simply that of fire or flame in flight or motion. 

3. * " A regahr fae-Jlaugbt ;** a hasty-tempered person.* Wb, Gl. 

Fire-foddery sb. Fuel ; aliment for the fire. 
Fire-porTy sb. A poker. See Fire-pote. 

Dan. purre, as, at purre ved ilden : to stir, or poke the fire ; N. S. pttrrtn^ id. The Dan. 
word is used figuratively, much as £. poke is in so-called slang, and sHr in more formal 
speech ; thus, at ptirre ten, to remind one ; at purre folket ud^ to rouse or stir the people up. 
Jam. gives * por, a thrust with a sword,* and quotes Teut. porren, urgere. 

Kre-pote, flre-poit, sb. A poker ; the instrument used for poking 
the fire. See Feat or Fote. 

Fire-smatchy sb. The savour or twang which accompanies an 
article of food which has been burnt in cooking, or * caught.' See 

Fire-stead, sb. The place appropriated to the fire. 

First, adj. In the sense of next, applied to a day of the week ; as 
• Sat'rda' first,' for Saturday next. 


Fishing-gady sb. A fishing-rod. See GtocL 

Fishing-tamn, sb. A fishing-line. See Taxun. 

Fit, sb. A season, a defined portion of time characterised by some 
distinct peculiarity of the weather. 

* A strange dry Jii we 've had for secar. A lahtle soop o' wet *d dee a vast o* guid.' 
Similarly, * a vrelfit;* * a blowy ^/;' • a tempesty^^* &c. 

Fit, adj. Disposed to any given course or proceeding; likely to 
adopt it, or to be led into it. 

* Well, Ah 's zhooX fit for ma dinner, for yan.* 

* He wurfil to fell 'im, he war ; he wur that fell.* 

* Fit fiir bed ;* tired, and wanting to go. 

' Fit to drop ;' from weariness or exhaustion. 

* Fit to boggle ;' disposed, or shewing symptoms of being about, to shy ; of a horse. 

Fizzle, V. n. To be in a state of bodily restlessness ; to fidget. 

Rich, refers this word to fisk. Comp. Sw. ffdslta^ to fidget. But note also Sw. D. 
fissla^ to twist up or entangle, which seems to involve the same idea ; while fissa means to 
be in an excited or restless condition, znd fissa d dansa explains itself. 

Flacker, v. n. i. To flutter, or move the wings quickly as a bird 
does. 2. To be in quick or palpitating motion. 

S. G. flachoy circumcursitare. Ihre adduces O. N. fidka^ adding that Gudm. Andr. 
assigns to that word the meaning of having a fluttering motion (pendulum motari). Molb. 
gives O. N. fl'dgra as the etymon of Dan. fiagre^ which latter coincides precisely in sense 
with our word, and to which it is obviously co-ordinate. Comp. also Sw. D. fiagra ; 
Pr. Pm. * Flekeryn^ as ionge byrdis. Volito, nideo* 

Flags, sb. Flakes, laminae; applied alike to the flat or flag-stones 
used for paving, and to snow flakes. 

Sw. D. flagy fiaky thin flakes, such as loosen and separate themselves from iron ; any 
thin and small matters which separate from the mass in the form of scales. Comp. the 
(orm jdmflag with our form Snow«flag. Other forms of the word SLTefiagatfiagu^flagd 
or fiag'd; N. flak; fi.S. fiag.fiage, a flat surface; CS. fiaga^ a chip, a scale. Either 
from the Sw. verhfidcka, to divide, separate, oifiaga, to split (Rietz); the prevailing idea, 
in either case, being that of separation in the form of flat scales or laminae. The Danes 
keep snee-fiage as we do, implying by it, also as we do, the large woolly-looking flakes 
which fall when the cold is anything but intense; som den /alder ved balv /• : as it falls in 
a half-thaw. Comp. also fiag-torv, fiag, fiage, flat sods of turf peeled off the surface of 
grass-grown land. These are used in some parts of Jutland, says Molb., as a covering for 
peat and turf-stacks ; and Kok adds, as materials for roofing : just as they are in Cleveland. 

Flakes, sb. (pr. fleaks or fleeaks). i. Hurdles, or stack-bars ; pro- 
perly such as are composed of wattled-work, or sticks interwoven 
together. 2. The hurdle-formed quasi-shelf suspended horizontally 
below the ceiling in old-fashioned houses, and used to support bacon- 
sides, or the like. 

Sw.D.flahe^ wattled matters, hurdles or moveable fences of wattle, or made as a gate 


ii ; other fomu being, flagt, flahe, Jldkt; N. S. flak*, flake; N. Fris. flagt^flaeht, Rietz 
adduces also O. N. jidM, any expanded and level surface, and D. flage, which seems to me 
to be in oversight of the true analogy of the word. For this, comp. Germ, flecbten, to 
interweave, to wattle; flecbt-werk — the exact equivalent of Sw.flcU'Verk, used by Rietz to 
explain flake — wattle-work, basket-work. The true O. N. -etymon surely is flcekia, to 
entangle, thence to interweave ; intricare. Hald. Comp. also Dan. D. flage^ which Molb. 
illustrates by Dut. vlaak^ N. S, flake, but, like Rietz, refers to O. fi.flaga, a chip, scale. 

Flam, sb. Flattery ; sometimes, if not always, with the implied idea 
of falsehood rather than simple hoUowness. 

Wedgw. says of flim-flam, under Flam, that it is evidently of an * imitative character, 
probably representing a flapping motion with some light implement,' and compares fiddle- 
faddle. Germ, fick-fack, &c. There is, however, Sw. D. flam, yet current in some parts, 
* almost obsolete in others, signifying both the buffoon, fool or jester, and also a jest, a piece 
of buffoonery, such as the professional jester or fool might display or indulge in. The 
transition thence to our sense is simple enough, and even in a sense necessary. Comp. also 
Sw. D. flams, loud, noisy talk, chatter, loudly-spoken nonsense; flamsa, flatnser, the corre- 
sponding vb. and ^person. 

Flam, V. a. To flatter, to beguile by the use of flattery. 

Flan, V. n. To spread or expand more widely towards the top, as 
a vessel or utensil with sides sloping outwards. 

Hall, gives 'flan, broad and large. North ;* and Wb. Gl. gives ' To flan, to spread wide 
at the top, to expand upwards as the sides of a bowl or scuttle,' — an O. Dan. word, un- 
altered in form and sense. Molb. {Dansk D. Lex.) ^vesflane, l. To gape, to stare ; 2. In 
a sense closely analogous to our own : * It is said of a waggon whose wheels do not 
stand upright, or parallel with each other, on the axletree, so that the space between them 
above is greater than where they touch the ground : thus, den vogn flaner for meget og er 
vcelienem : that waggon flans over mich an' 's like t' ower-welt.' The occurrence of the 
Sw. D. words flana, an unsteady, thoughtless girl ; flane, a downright fool ; flanun, un- 
steady, flighty, tottering; flanka, to be unsteady, I. as to conduct, and 2. as to stability; 
several of which words, as well as Dan. D. flane, an unsteady, flighty, easy-going female, 
being referred to O. ^.flan, thoughtlessness, flana, to be heedless, inconsiderate, rash, leads 
to the inference that our own word and its O. Dan. original are due to the same transition 
of idea which gives force to the expression 'unstable as water thou shalt not excel;' first, 
unsteady or unstable of character ; then unsteady or unstable in the physical sense ; thence, 
narrow at bottom and wide at top, so as to present the form of instability. 

Flappery, sb. The various small appurtenances to one's personal 

^appy> adj. I. Wild, unsteady; applied to a person. 2. Light; 
marked with levity or unsteadiness ; of a person's ways or manners. 

This may, of course, be simply a derivative from flap, * the extremity of any loose and 
pendulous garment or the like ;' but it should be observed that Sw. D.flabba, a slut, flabber, 
a sloven, and Dan. D. flab, a silly, pert, immodest girl, suggest the possibility of a more 
direct origin ; and also that Rietz distinctly refers Dan. flab, as well as the Sw. D. words, 
and the Sc. flaff, a fool, or noodle, to Sw. D. flabb, the lip, mouth ; and that to Lat. 



Flatch, sb. One who wheedles, or tries to gain his ends by^the arts 
of flattery. Generally applied to children. 

There can be little doubt that this is simply another form of Sc. flneb ot fleieht to 
wheedle, flatter, or fawn. Ci, Sw. D. fleha^ to caress, fondle, fawn ; O. Sw. fickra, to 
flatter; 'H.flikra; Dzn. D. Jlegn, Old Gtrm. Jleeben, Dutch vlnJM, come very neat 
our form : while Old S^.flikore^ O. Gcna^flecbaret Dut. vUijer, one who flatters or fawns, 
are essentially the same as our word. Molb., in v. FUgrt, collates O. H.fladr, dissimulation, 
wheedling, adulation, deceit, and its correlative y^odirari; Dan. D,Ji<Bgs oxfi<Bgr. 

Flatter-oap. See Hatch. 

Flatim, V. n. To flame, blaze, shine out. 

* It flaumed out hau'f-way across t* rooad ;' of a certain mysterious blaze of light. 

* As wexe and a weke 
Were tjiryned togideres. 
And thanne a %x fletumynge 
Forth out of bothe.' P. Ploughm, p. 360. 

Flaumy, adj. Tawdry ; * vulgarly fine in dress.' Wh. GL 

Sy/, D, flafnmi{g), on flammsHg): som alskar pralande dragi; of a womao fond of 
showy or gaudy dress, — another noteworthy instance of a Northern word preserved in the 
Clevel. as well as in a Scand. dialect. 

Maun, sb. A custard baked in paste ; * egg-pies' (Cotgrave), 

• Yx. flans; Germ, flader; Dut. vlaede. Of imknown etymology. Cotgr. sajrs — Flans, 

flaunts, custards, egg-pies.' Rich. — ' The origin of the word seems to be the sound made 

by the fall of something soft, represented by the syllable ^a</ or blad; Sw. ko-iladd§; Prov, 

Dan. k(y-blat; G. kubfladen, a cow dung.' Wedgw. — Unsavoury, if true. But A. S. 

flene or flyne, what is made soft, batter, is, of course, the origin of our word. See Pr, Pm, 
Flawne, and note. 

Flaup, sb. Idle, meaningless talk, flippancy. 

O. N. flapr, vana verba, inconsiderantia ; fleipr, apinae, fatilia verba ; fliipra, efiiittre : 
Hald. Comp. Sw. D.flepa,fldpa, to talk and tattle sillily, to talk stuff; Yi.fteipe, id. 

Flauping, fl%upiBh, flaupy, adj. i. Given to light or meaningless 
words; thence, insincere, fawning. 2. Given to levity of conduct or 
demeanour, or to tawdrily showy dress or adornment. 

The Sw. D. ^d],fl£pug,flepi(g\ give our form, but vary in sense. The xkonniflip,fltper, 
fldper,flap, &c., current in different districts, give approxinute senses, if not exactly coio- 
cident ; but, of course, our adj. is due to our sb. Flaup. 

Flawter, flowter, v. a. To flurry or make to flutter; to put into a 
state of trepidation ; to alarm or frighten. 

O. N. /fy/fl, accelerare, festinarc ; Sw. D. flita sej, to make haste, to be in a flmrry or 
bustle ; N. flyta, to quicken or urge to haste ; flitta, v. n., to be in haste or in a hurry. 
Both the O. N. and the Sw. D. words seem to take the active and neuter sense alike, and it 
would seem that our word, if not still, yet at an earlier time, has done the same. In York 
Castle DeposUions, p. 154, I find — • And then the thing that did cry like a hen, did fiawttr 


with the wingt against the bords of tiie floor ;* whtse flawtir seems to imply the signs of 
trepidation or haste made by a winged creature, rather than the haste or trepidation itself. 
SpktflougbUr in Leeds Gl, ; flouier by Carr ; fiowter by Brockett. 

' His maister an' him 's had a few words, an* he 's tuAy floughtertd* Leeds Gl. 

Flay, fley, v. a. To frighten or terrify, to deter. 

Morris, in the Gl. to Pr, ofConse.^ refers this to O. N.^tf/a, to put to flight, to terrify, 
giren by Egilssoa, and rightly. Jam. merely suggests that O. N,/ila is used in the same 
sense as flay, but it » scarcely likely that a word in such general use in the Northumbrian 
dialects from the thirteenth century downwards should be without some distinct original. 
Comp. Sw. D,flB, to drive forth precipitately. 

Flay-boggle^ sb. i. A hobgoblin, an apparition* 2. Also a scare- 
crow. See Flay-cmke and Boggle. 

Flay-oroWy flsy-cruke, sb. i. A scarecrow; any dressed-up object 
set up in the fields to frighten the crows. 2. A grotesquely-dressed 

Flaysome, adj. Inspiring fear or apprehension; qualified to frighten 
or terrify. 

• " A yzny flaysome thing ;" terrifying to look at.' JVb, GL 

Fleoked, adj. Pied, spotted, streaked. 

O. H.fleeka^ to spot or -stain, fleekr, a spot, fleekoUr^ spotted, pied ; Germ, fleck, fleeken, 
a spot, stain, yb.fleeien, to stain; Dut. vleeke, plaeke; Dzn. D. flageret, flagret, not of 
the same uniform colour, spotted, blotched ; S. G.fleek, sb., fleeka, vb. 

Flee, sb. A fly : the turnip-fly (HalHca nemorum\ particularly. 

The name is sometimes written ^^a, which might seem to be due to the active flea-like 
skips made by the insect when disturbed. Bnt I think it is more the Pr. of the word, than^ 
any intended difference in orthography. 

Flee-by-sky, sb. A flighty person; always applied to a female. 
Brock, says * a siily, flirting, absurdly-dressed, giggling giri.' 

* A flowtersomey7tf«-6«-si(M.* Wb, Gl. 

FleeoOy sb. Bodily condition, or fatness: applied to persons who 
are or have been ' fat-fleshed,' and signifying such flesh or fatness as 
may be easily stripped off*; e. g. by sickness, privation, or * training.' 

* " He carries a T2ie fleece;** he is very fat.* Wh. Gl, 

* ** He has shaken a bonny fleece this last bout ;** he has lost much flesh this last illr 
ness.* lb, 

Tleeing-aithery fleeing-eather or ethery sb. The dragon-fly. See 

Jam. says ' we find fleonde naeddre, i. e. a flying adder, given as synonymous with otter 
eoppe* However this may be, the name now implies the dragon-fly throughout a very wide 
area in the North. Hall, quotes it with the word NorA subjoined, as also Adder-bolt, from 

B b 2 


various dialects. Brockett gives it for Durham and Northumberland, while Jam. gives 
Fleetng-adder for Roxburghshire, Atber and Atber-biU for Clydesdale, and AAer^ap or 
Natter-cap for Fifeshire. Brockett's short comment on the name is this : * the vulgar are 
afraid of being stung by it,' which is equally true in Clevel. (as is implied in both the names 
given above), and I doubt not elsewhere. Whether the idea now is not perpetuated by the 
name, as, in the first instance, the name must have followed the idea, is a matter of doubt. 
It is curious, however, to observe the different forms the original word (A. S. at^, ator; 
O. Sw. etir, etter; O. N. eitr; O. D. et<Er; Dan. edder; Oerm. M/«r, venom) has assumed 
in the name of this insect, inclusive of the S. English form, adder. A Sw. D. name for this 
insect is trollsnaU^ snail being the name for a lizard ([Clevel. Aaky "Slak, or Haak), so that 
troll-sndll seems to embody both the ideas involved in our two names, eather and aok. 
The Sw. name, sldnda, contains a very similar idea to that implied in adder-bolt, 

Fleeing-asky fleeing-esk, sb. The dragon-fly : (genus LiMlula). 

Fleeing-nedder. See Fleeing-aither, and comp. ' Tanging-nadder/ 


Flesh, flesh-meat, sb. Butcher's meat generally, in opposition to 

bacon or pork. 

* Ah deean't think at AhVe tzsted Jlesb going iv tolf weeks.' 
*Nobbut bacon an* taties; nzt fle^meat* 

Mesh-fly, sb. The common blue-bottle fly. 

Pr. Pm. * Flescbe Flye. Musco.' 

Flet, sb. Live coals, embers yet glowing, sparks of fire. Wh. GL 

adds * Flaught,' as another form. 

These can scarcely be only variations in form. The idea in Flaught is of fire or flame 
in motion ; in Flet, of fire as simply visible or evidently alive. The word tdettt in the 
first text of Lay. iii. 33, replaced hy Jure in the second, establishes Flet as an old word 
(Sir F. Madden makes it floor ; A. S. flet, fixed residence, hall, floor), with the sense still 
preserved in Clevel. 

Flick, sb. A flitch ; of bacon, namely. 

O.X)^n. flyhhe, et stort kimdstykke; /. ex. en svineside: a large piece of flesh; e.g. the 
side of a pig. * 40 flocke flesk : 40 flitches of bacon ; mentioned in an account of a wed- 
ding-feast ; ftyche off swyn, succidia.* Moor's Suffolk Words also has flick, explained as 
* the flake or flank of a hog :* A. S. flicce or flice. Prov. Dan. flidske, to shear off with a 
great knife, is, by Molb. and Outzcn, adduced as cognate. Comp. Dsin.fl<£kke, to split into 
flakes or slices ; Sw. D. flakka av, to cut oflf flakes, or thin chips from wood ; with which 
£. En^.fleacb or fleecb, a sawn plank, may be compared. 

Flicker, v. n. To shew or look more or less derisively, as a person's 
countenance does who rather makes believe than really tries to suppress 
his laughter. See Flire. 

Mr. Wedgwood says, 'flicker, to flutter as a bird, or flame ; to fleer, or laugh wantonly 
or scornfully. From a representation of the flapping or tittering sound.' 

The sense and usaee of the word, combined with the existence of the Sw. D. yrordsJUk- 
kar, to deride, to make a fool of; jflikker, flekker, ridicule, derision, mockery; O. Sw.fltktr, 
adulation, more or less insincere, of course, together with Rietz's reference of these words 


to^da,— tee Flatoh, with the Dan. D. and Oerm. analogues to Sw. D.Jleka — lead me to 
adopt a rather different view. Fligger is another form ; see Wedgw. in ▼. Fletr. 

* HeJIiektr^d and Ayttd lahk a giming cat.' 

Flig, V. n. To fly. 

* An lamech droge is arwe ner 
And let etflegen oOSe streng.' Oen. and Ex. 1. 478. 

A,S,/le6gaH,Jli6gaH: V.S.Jlegen; Fris, Jlega; That. vUigtm ; Qtrm. flUgen, See. 

Flig, sb. A young bird sufficiently feathered to be on the point of 

Dan.^^, ready to fly ; of the young of birds, Molb., exactly corresponds with our word 
in form and sense, and resembles it in sound. Comp. Sw. D. Jlyg, flygd^ ftygg*^* id** sind 
also fl6t[-f6r. Rietz quotes also A. S. flycge, which, however, I do not find in Bosw. 
O. ^'Jitygr, able or ready to fly, seems to be the original word. 

' *' Are they Jligs or gorps?" feathered nestlings or mere gorpins naked from the 
egg.' Wb, GL 

FUgged, adj. Fledged, feathered, ready to fly. 

Wh. Gl. gives Jlig^ v. n., to fly ; but Cr. G/., Jligg, to fledge, with the example, 
* *' He 's flig^d and flown ;** said of a person who has absconded.* An example from ^ 
Lttds GLii* A nest of sparrows Hi Jligg* d an' flown.' The word is a p. p., coincident with 
JUdgtd. Comp. Flig, and Pr. Pm. • Flygge as bryddys. VdatUis* 

FlipOy sb. The brim of a hat. 

Dxn. flip, the tip, comer or extremity of a thing; e.g. handkerchief, garment, collar; 
Sw. D. Jliibbf id. Comp. O. N. JUpi^ a horse's under-lip ; N. S. Jliipe, id. The word is 
nearly related to E.^ap, flabby, &c. 

* Touch yoxaflipe: Wb. Gl. 

flipe, V. a. To remove or take off, with a kind of brisk action, as • 
dust from one's shoes, or a fly from the wall. 

Closely connected with Flipe, F., flip-flap; Dzn. flab, mouth, lip; Sw. D.^o^fr, flap, 
loose-hanging corner or end, and expressive of the action of such a loose-hanging end or 
flap. Comp. Sw. D.flika af, to undress oneself very quickly : to slip one's clothes off*, from 
fltk, a shirt, or other loose-fitting garment. Mr. Wedgw. xikits flick, flip to be * forms repre- 
senting the sound made by a jerk with a whip, the comer of a towel, or the like. Flick, a 
smart, stinging slap: Forby; a slight, sudden blow: Hall. Hence ^^ti. flig, flip, the imple- 
ment with which a blow of the foregoing description is given, the comer of a handkerchief, 
apron, &c.' 

Flire, flyre, v. n. To manifest the feeling or spirit of mocking or 
scornful ridicule, without actually laughing out. 

Brockett's definition is, * to have a countenance expressive of laughter, without laughing 
out.* Comp. E. fleer. * We should have no hesitation,' says Wedgw., * in considering it 
as a contraction oi fligger ox flicker, to laugh scornfully or wantonly, were it not for parallel 
forms with an n instead of an r : Sw. flina, to shew the teeth, sneer ; Prov. Dzn.fliru, to 
wry the mouth, smile, sneer; 'Norse flina, as well zsflira, to titter.* Still there seems to be 
a difference in sense between the forms in n and those in r. Thus, Dan. D. flim is ' to 


smile, or else to laugh loudly and long, and with twistings of the face ;* as is the case also 
with Sw. D. Jlin, flina and flira : while flire is * to smile (smidske), or laugh slily, as when 
one is inclined to ridicule or make a jest of anodier/ Molb. also quotes from Ihre, 

* £.Gothl. ^ira, indicat risum petulantem ;' and "S.JUra comes under the same remark, and 
thus all these words exactly correspond to our Aire. See Flioker. 

Flirtigigs, sb. A giddy or flighty damseL 

Flisk, sb. A slight blow or tap, as a fillip with the finger. 

Comp. Jiick, Jlip, fillip, * Flisk, to flick with a whip, to skip or bounce. HaL Fiek, 
fisktfiicktjlisk, all represent the sound of a cut with a switch or the like ; then rapid moTe*> 
ment to and fro.* Wedgw. Cf. Sw. D. fiiska, to bustle about, a derivative from ^loto, to 
flow, to fleet 

Flit, V. a. I. To remove one's goods, household furniture, and gear 
generally, in the process of removing from one tenement or residence 
to another. 2. To aid a person in such removal, by conveying or help- 
ing to convey his goods, &c. 3. To remove, as tenants or occupants 
of a house or farm, &c., do. 

0. N. flytht vehere ; S. G. flytta^ fiy^fo* transportare ab uno loco in alterum ; neutr. 
positum notat migrare. Ihre ; Dan. fiytU, a. and n. ; Sw.fiytta, a. and n. I look upon this 
vb. as essentially an active verb ; as, consistently with its O. N. derivation, it should be. Cf. 
Pr. Pm. * Flyttin ; amoveo, transfero.' It seems almost always to imply the removal of 
something ; e. g. of the out-going tenant's moveable property. Thus, a tramp, who is 
constantly on the move personally, is never said to flit from one place to another ; nor a 

* navvy,' who goes from one railway, &c., to another in search of work. If, however, the 
employer were to remove the navvies from one part of the work to another, he would be 
spoken of as flitting them. True, the farmer or other tenant, who goes from one iaxm 
or residence to another, is spoken of as flitting, as * throng wi' flitting' {Wb. G/.); but 
there is something beyond personal removing always implied, as there is in — 

* But, or thay (the children of Israel) ^y// oght far us fro. 
We shall them bond twyse as fast.' Townel. Myst, p. 6a. 

As to such instances as — 

* God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly heflyt his des 

And set hym even hjrm by,' lb, 20, 

where the sb. d!ft ( = Lat. greubit, and thence grade, rank) is clearly the obj. case after the 
yeih fiyt; and 

* For )»e fiite (of the cross) ^y made a pit, 

Ffor no man suld it ^)nnfiU;' Harl, MS, fol. 83, — 

there can be no room for doubt 

1. ' Aye, Thomas ^tttM/ his stock and graithing, an' his family an' a', a week S3me.' 

a. *" Whose goods are those?" (to a man driving a waggon-load of furniture, A^.). 
" Wheea, they 's MUes Dale's. We *i flitting him fra' t' Deeal Heead t' Stangho'." * 

3. • •* Weel, ye' re flitting then f ' The reply came from Hob out of the chum : — •• Ay, 
wc's flatting.'" Phillips' yorksbire, p. an. The author notices the •phy on the 
vowel ;' and Egilss. remarks that the Western Icelanders sound the verb fluttja. Pro- 
fessor Phillips does not, however, give the rejoinder as I have heard it : — * Weel, an thou's 
ganning teea. Ah 'U just awa' back agen.* 


Hit, flitting, sb. I. A removal from one place of residence to 
another. 2. A flight, a runaway or clandestine departure. 

I. * Faather says t* flitting *i to be Saturday first, an' he wad like to ha'e your draught.' 
a. ' Didst hear stunt Willy 'd maad a moonlight^ iv it? He 's sloped for seear.' 

Hit-fold, sb. A moveable sheep-fold, capable of use wherever it may 
be wanted. 

Elite, flyte, v. n. To scold, or engage in a quarrel of words. 

A. S. flitan, to strive, contend, dispute, quarrel. Pr, Pm. ' FlytiH, or chydin. Con- 

' Stynst of )»y strot and f^ne XoflyU 
& sech hys bly)>e fill swefte and swy)>e.' 

E, Eng, AUii, Poimt, A. 35a. 

* Thar thou nowther^/« ne chyde. 
If thou tend righte thou gettes thi mede.' TWimI. Myst. p. 14. 

FLite, fliter, sb. A scold, a scolding or abusive person. ' 
Slithers, sb. The common limpets. 

I look upon this as simply the Clevel. pronunciation, with tb hard (S), oi flitter— comp, 
Dowfher for daughter, ditiier for didder, dother for dodder, 8cc. — zndfliliir to be radi- 
cally the same word as Dzn. flitter , Qerm. flitter, spangles, small scales of metal; and I am 
inclined to connect these words with O.H.flisja, to shce off, take flat pieces oflf; "N.flisa; 
DaiLflise, to split pieces off; Sw. D.flisa^ to shave or slice thin pieces or scales off. Rietz 
gives flittja, to cut chips off with a hatchet, and also as a sb., the chips so cut off; and 
refers the word to O. "S.flysja or flisja, just quoted, * by a transition of the s into /J (Jbvarvid 
t bfifergdtt till t'). On this ground, Flithers {^flitters) implies objects that can be sepa- 
rated, in the form or fashion, so to speak, of spangles or scales, from the places or matters 
on which they are found ; which is simply true of the limpet. 

Flither-girls, sb. The women, usually the daughters and other 
female connections of the fishermen, who collect the Flithers to ser\'e 
as bait; often walking considerable distances for the purpose, and 
bringing back their spoils in baskets poised on their heads : while alike 
by their distinct peculiarities of physiquiy and their costume, they seem 
to be marked out as a class apart — perhaps even, as almost a race 

Flitter-mouse, sb. The bat or rere-mouse : (genus Vesper iilio). See 

Svf.fliidar-mus; Qttm, fleder-maus. 

A name derived from the motion of the creature's wings and its mouse-like body. Comp. 
O. N. flagvr-mus, Dan. flager-muus ; flagre^ to flutter. Both these names, as well as 
Flitter-mouse, are as nearly synonymous as possible with rere-mouse, which comes from 
A. S. breran, to agitate, move rapidly, and mus^ a mouse. 

Elobbed, flobby, adj. Puffed up, turgid, i. As the body is in cases 


of dropsy; a. In manner or bearing; with conceit, namely, or self-appro- 

Probably a co-derivative with, or altered from, flab, flabby, and its sense also derived from 
the usual senses of that word. It is noticeable that Sw. D. flahbiger has a secondary mean- 
ing very like our second sense ; viz. ' given to boastful or unseemly talking ;' and Dan. D. 
flUber comes under nearly the same definition. 

She was not fat, hnxflobbed up ;" of a dropsical person.' Wb, Gl, 

* u 

Floss-docken, flous-docken, sb. The plant fox-glove {Digitalis 
purpurea). Also Fox-docken. 

Irish Celt, luss-mbor, literally great herb ; the name of the fox-glove or fairy-finger. Fie- 
tions of the Irish Celts, p. 92. The Welsh equivalent of luss is llys; and just as Llewellyn 
in Shakspere becomes Fluellen ; JUydd, Floyd, in E. attempts to enunciate Welsh lA, so luss 
or ll^s becomes flous. The word presents a curious instance, one of many such, of the 
retention and composition of a name long after its true meaning has been lost sight of. 

Floss-seave, sb. The plant cotton-grass : (genus Eriaphorum), 
Flourish, sb. The blossom on fruit-trees. 

Cf. O. "S.flur, flowers, blossoms, blooms ; flwradr, abounding in flowers or bloom. 
Comp. the use of the word as a vb. : — 

' then Phoebus full faire : flourished out his beames 
with Leames full light.* Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 227. 

Flowter, adj. Excited, nervous; shewing signs of mental disturb- 

Brock.,* Leeds Gl,, and Cr. GL, all give flowtered in nearly the same sense ; and the 
latter also gives flouter as a noun, with the sense of ' a fright.' See Flawter or Flowter. 
Also comp. Sw. D. flojta, to move about without any definite purpose ; flojta, a light, vain, 
frivolous, coquettish, or unsteady female; together with its corresponding zd].,flojted: 
Svnssfldute, a coquettish girl, if not really worse. 

Flowterment, sb. Loud and eager talking, such as would be heard 
from a person in a state of excitement. 

Flowtersome, adj. Excitable, flighty, frolicsome or skittish. 

FLuffed, flufHsd-up, adj. Flighty, conceited, tumid in manner. 

Either from fluff or flue, fine or downy feathers, down, downy or coherent particles of 
worn woollen material or the like ; or, more directly, from O. ti.fliuga, to fly, or some of its 
Scandinavian congeners. The sequence is not difficult in the former case ; viz. firom down 
OT fluff to an object covered with either — a young bird, to wit — which looks puffy or puffed" 
up; thence, by metonymy, to tumid in manner, and thence to conceited. But just as 
flighty, both in sense and form, is derived from A. S. fleogan, so fluffy or fluffed, alike 
in sense and in form, may spring from the other source indicated. The Dan. equivalent to 
O. N. fljuga is flyve, where the / of our word is fully represented. Comp. Dan. plov from 
O. N. plog, and Clevel. pleuff ; while Sw. D. furnish ^t/uv (pret.^ouv, sup.^io/t), and^wv, 
(flbuv,flugi); besides transitionary forms, illustrated by the imperf. of O. Sw. fliuga; viz. 
flogb (phflughu). Thus fluffy would be a Northumbr. equivalent to E. flighty. 


ElufCy, adj. Covered with down, or downy feathers. 

Fiom Jltff^Jlue. Wedgw. quotes Welsh lluweby motes, flying dust, or the like, and 
adds a little further on, ' fundamentally the same with A. S. fleogatty PI. D. flegen^ to fly» 
whence flog, Jld^t whatever is light and flies in the air. Lancashire fiook, waste cotton. 
Probably Welsh plu, pluf, feathers, down ; Bav. flden, to float, or move to and firo in the 
air; dteflaen^flawentflaiwm, chaff that flies away in winnowing com, flue, or light dost 
that settles on clothes, may be a parallel formation.* 

Fluked, fluky, adj. Maggot-eaten, eaten into holes by maggots or 

Flukes, sb. Properly the creature — animalcule or larva— found espe- 
cially in the liver of diseased sheep. Applied also to the large maggots, 
or gentles, found in dead animals, the larvae of the Flesh-flies. Other- 
wise spelt. Flocks, Fleuks. 

* The liver of rotten sheep always contains the well-known animal the fluke, so named 
from its striking resemblance to a flounder.' Book o/tbe Farm, ii. 387. A. S. fldc, flooc, a 
flat-fish, plaice, sole. 

Flumpy, adj. Short and fat; squat 

Probably coincident with lumpy, clumpy, Comp. N. lump, a block, a thick piece, with 
Dan. Hump, a lump; O. N. klumpr, hlumbr; Sw. klump. 

Fluflhy-flEU^ed, adj. Rubicimd, carrying a high colour. 

* A person looks flushed, or flushed in the face when he has a flow of blood to the face.' 
Wedgw. Dan. D. Jluse, to flow or stream forth in volume and force ; blodet fluser ud of 
saaret: the blood streams or flushes forth from the wound. Wedgw. also alleges Dut. 
fluysen; H.flust, abundantly, »ndflus, liberal, open-handed. 

Fluster, flusterment, sb. i. A state of excitement and consequent 
heat. 2. A determination of heat to the skin, in whatever form, red- 
ness, spots, perspiration, &c. 3. A puffing, high-flown advertisement. 

Rich. looks upon this word as *a corruption of flush;' and Wedgw. as 'closely allied 
with bluster: 

Flying-eagle, sb. A paper kite, the boys' toy so called. 

Comp. Dan. papirs-drage, Sw. pappers-drake. 

Foal-foot, sb. The plant colt's-foot (Tussilago/ar/ara), 

Sw.D. filafotter; Dzn. Jbllejbd ; these words being supplemented, as it would appear, 
by the further names hdsthof, hestehov, respectively. Cf. E. colfs-Jbot, 

Fed, sb. A bundle of straw tied up after thrashing for foddering 
purposes only. 

This is, no doubt, HalliweU's/u/. The sound is that of our ho'd for bold, fo'd foijbld, 
where the sound of the vowel as in the E. words is nearly preserved, though shortened 

C C 


Pog, sb. The aftergrowth in meadows when the hay has been cut 
and removed. 

Wckh^^. See Feg. 

Foist, foisty, adj. i. Smelling of damp or mouldiness; musty. 
2. Damp and mouldy. 

* To foist, /eisi^JSzzU, are all originally to break wind in a noiseless manner; . .^ . Oerm. 

fist, a foist ; Dut. veesi, vijst, flatus ventris. The origin it plainly an imitation of the noise. 

O. N.ytsa, to blow, also to break wind. Foi$ty, fusty having a dose, disagreeable smell.* 

Wedgw. AddSw. D./fs; N. S.y&s/; Bav./fts/; the verbs being, Sw.D.^a,/afsa,y!i/sa; 

N. ^. fysten, Jisseln ; Lat. vissire; Gr. <pvaay. 

Fold-garth, sb. (pr. fckl-garth). The farm-yard; the enclosure pro- 
perly so called : otherwise, Fold-yard. 

Folk, sb. People, persons : a word in perpetual use, and very con- 
stantly as qualified by some prefix ; e. g. House-folk, the people of the 
house ; Foot-folk, the people walking, or on foot, &c. 

O. N.yb/*; Dan. and Sw./o/*; A. S.folc; Germ. vo/*.&c. With Sl. polh, pulk, a troop, 
comp. O. N. ^Iki. The Scand. word is met with in maltitudes of instances entirely ana- 
logous to the compounds noticed above: — Sw.fotfblk, Dzn. fbd-ffUk, infantry; Sw. 71ml- 
folk = the Antiquary's * woman-kind ;' Dan. qvindefblk ; agiefblk, married people ; besifblk, 
cavalry, &c. 

* Folk says.' 

* Maist/o/*;' or. * maist o' folk.* 

* Folks is fit to say so and so ;' are already beginning to * talk/ and well disposed to ' talk* 

* A deal o* folk hasn't getten their hay yet.' 

Fond, adj. Simple, in the sense of half-silly ; foolish, weak, doating. 

O. N. fdni, S. G. f^ne, Sw. fiine, Sw. D. /a«#, a half-witted person, a fool. Wedgw. 
quotes Gael./zom, vain, foolish, idle; Lat. vanus, Comp. Sw. D. fania, to play the fool, 
with its variations, fjanta, pantos, and O. N. fdna. Germ. D. fatajAn. In Sw. D. fantt, 
fjante, fjanter, j^ont : DsLn.fante, a fool, or simpleton ; and Sw. D. JSanig, Jjantig, JganHd, 
jjonted, J^yntedt Dan.j^an/f/, — we have very close approaches to our fond, which, it may 
be, is really a participle. Wedgw. quotes 

' thou shalt begin to fbmu 
And dote in love,' 

from Chaucer ; zndfbnnyd is met with in WicklifTe's Bible: while 

* Herk, syrs, yefbn,* Toumel. Myst. p. 94 ; 

and * Soyn shalle vrefbn hym,' lb, p. 199, 

give us the vb., both as a. and n. See Befounded. 

Fond-cruke, sb. A crotchet, foolish whim, piece of absurdity. 

Fond-hoit, sb. An exceedingly foolish person, a fool twice over. 
See Hoit. 

Fondness, sb. Folly, foolish or silly conduct or behaviour. 


Fond-plough, sb. Part of the procession which used to accompany 
the Sword-Dance performers. See Floiigh-stots. 

Fond-talk, sb. Spoken absurdities, foolish discourse. 

Fondy, sb. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot. 

Comp. Sw. D. ^antig, J^anted, J^antg, JS^f^g* foolish, fond ; and Sw. D. farUe, JjarUe^ 
Jjbnt^ Dan. fcmitt — all with the exact sense of our word. Note also — 

* Maria. Thus longe, where have ye lent ? 
Josepbe, Certes, walkyd abonte, lyke z/bn^ 
That wrangwysley hase taken apon ; 

I wyst never what I ment.* Toumel. Myst. p. 80. 

Foot-ale, footing, sb. An entertainment, or its equivalent in money, 
given by a person — workman or other — to his companions on entering 
upon a new place or employment, &c. 

Foot-falling, sb. Parturition, childbirth; the act, rather than the 
season, simply. 

Comp. • Footing-time, the time when a lying-in woman gets up. Norf. * Hall. Sw. D. 
has the same combination in the form of an z6].—f6tfallen or fotfdUsen, applied to a per- 
son who is lame and scarce able to move, or almost deprived of the use of his feet by some 
other agency, as that of drunkenness. There is a close analogy, and our term wants some 
such analogy to explain it. 

Footings, sb. The first layer of rough or unsquared stones laid in 
the foundation of a wall, on which is placed the first course of the actual 

Footy, Aity, adj. Damp; with a bad smell such as follows from 
being long damp. 

Dzn.fugtig; Svr,/uktig; A.S./ubt; N.S, Jucbt,/ucbtig; Germ, fmcbt, damp, decay- 
ing ; Jugtig lufi, a damp or footy smell. Molb. Comp. Sw. D. /«*/, fdk, O. N. fitgt, Jukt^ 
a smell, a stench ; O. Gtim, fubtjan^ to give out a damp or bad smeU. 

Fooze, foze, v. a. To clip the projecting ends of wool on the fleece 
of a sheep so as to make it even all over. 

The etymology of this word is probably the same as of feaxM, to unravel, untwist, render 
fuzzy or fozy. See Brock. Comp. Germ, fasen^ fasem, to fuzz, feaze, unravel ; and 
fasy fctSt a fringe. The idea is sufficiently obvious. The orthography, however, is rather 
doubtful. Wb. Gl. gives it as fooaz ; and in the Clevel. Version of the Song of Solomon 
occurs the expression, ' Yows at 's weeUfboazed,* Wedgw., however, gives a totally dif- 
ferent form and fundamental sense ; viz. ' Force, to clip or shear. Forcyn, or clyppyn« 
tondeo. Pr. Pm. To force wool, to cut off the upper or most hairy part of it. B. Fr, 
forcer de la laine, to pick or tease wool;' which, however, is a thoroughly different 

Forboden, p. p. of Forbid. 

* And in )»is conmiandement esforbodene vs alkyne mysbeleues and all mawmetryes, &c.* 
Rei, Pieces, p. 5. 

C C 2 


Fore-anent, fore-aneiiBt, prep. Over against, opposite to, in front 

of. See Anenet, 

Forby, prep, and adv. Besides, over-and- above, moreover. 

Dan. forbi (prep, and adv.} ; Sw. forbi Cp"p.) ; Ocini. mrbei, past, beiidei, over-and- 

u. and Gr. Xh. 6ii. 

Fore-eldeM, sb. Ancestors or forefathers 

Dan. foraldri. Sw. foraldrar. parenti. Molbcch's definition ii — ' Only in the pi, ; the 
falhn and mother of a child when both are ipoken of coincidcnlly :' thui, ■ bun bar laiaM 
bigge iiat foraldit:' she has lost txilh her pireuu, O. N. JOitlldrar hu the ume lioiita- 
tion of lenie; bat Jbnlldri lak" beiidej the seoit ' forefather! ' or 'ancHtora;' while 
Ihie allegei Iliit majorei is the proper signilicaiion of S. G. faratdrar, observing that the 
diitindiou ii clearly made by Sturleion. In O.Dan, alio the ninning is clearly ' ancestori' 
or ■ fijtefathen ;' thni, — ' arffuigodz oc losiSrt, lom band baffdt tnltn arffiiit iptbtr fadir 
tUtr modfr, brodtr, <U<r tp&fr nogm bans Jbraldre :' heritage and moveables which he hat 
derived from either father or mother, brother or any one hii fore-eldei ; where the lame 
diilinetion that Ihre adverts lo ii obviously made. Aiiolhei iiisUnce quoted by Molb. 
{Dand QI.) ^ya fiiraldtrts gimiaghrr in the full sense which ' anceilTal deeds' would 

■ They "v 

■ Ah deal 

Fore-end, sb. The commencing part; that which comes near 
beginning of a season or epoch. 

Cf. Din, forendt, the foremott part of a thing; aniith. to bagmdt. Molb. 

■The /or,. 

'He I 


IVh. Gl. 


Foreign, To gan. To go to foreign parts, to emigrate, 

Porkin-robin, sb. The common earwig (Forfimla auricularis). 

Forks, sh. The centres in the timber-work of the roof of a shed, 
bouse, or other building ; commonly, ' a pair of forkB.' 

■ The Pr. /biireba. fircbti, forrti were applied to different kinds of forked itraclurei, M 
a gallows, a piir of sheari. For the same reason we call sirars the tall gallows used for 
□iistini; ihipi.' Wedgw. in v. Fnrci. 

Forwoden, adj. In a wasted or desolate condition, whether by the 
presence and ravages of vermin, or by the consequences of simple 

O. Dan. fondi. lo waste, ravage, btiiij; In luin, or lay desolate : — ban vil vorl land 
fortdt: lie will out land lay wasU; O.ti.foreyda. Tht simple wutd h O.N, fiJa, lyda. 


Sw. oda, Dan. mdi, to waste, consume, spend. A. S. farwyrd, destruction, is derived iiom 
Jbrweor^an, to become nothing, to perish, to die ; an utterly different word in root and 

* " They are lost an' fbrwoden V muck ;** dirty and disorderly in the extreme.' Wb. Gl. 

* Fzifly farwoden wi' rats.' Jb, 

Voaa, force, sb. A waterfall or cascade. 

O. N. firs. Joss; Sw. forsi Dan. Jos; N. Joss; Sw. D. Joss, The word exists with us 
in many local names, as well as in local language ; e. g. Thomasson's Jiass, Falling^bst, See. 
See Spout. 

Foul-flngered, adj. Of thievish propensities, and given to indulge 

Fonlmart, sb. (pr. fou'mmart or fummart). The pole-cat (Mustela 

* Properly the beech-marten, but commonly applied to the polecat. Fr. fouine, the 
foine, wood-marten, or beech-marten ; Joine, the foine, or polecat. Cot. From Joiner Jain» 
(Lat. /oj^ma), beechmast. Wall. /arce, beech ; /aw^, the beech-marten. The E./otimor/ 
is a compound of Fr. Jouine and marten or marten, but the meaning of the former element 
being lost in £., the instinctive striving after meaning converted it into Julmerd, JvUmartf 
when applied to the strong-smelling polecat, as if the name were taken from the fotd 
smell of the animal.' Wedgw. Mr. Bell refers to the names founuxrt, fulmart, Jvlimert, 
* as contractions of Joul marten^ a name given it (the polecat) in contradistinction to the 
swett marten* The existence of the name sweet marten, no less than the distinction for- 
merly made between ' beasts of sweet Jligbt* and * beasts of stinking Jligbt, in which second 
dass are placed the JuUtnart, the ficbat otjlteb, &c.' (Strutt, quoted by Jam.), and inde- 
pendently of the old orthography, leads one to think that possibly the blunder of con- 
founding the polecat with the beech-marten may not in reality have been made. Certainly 
a confusion of names exists. See Man. Vocab. p. 282, and note to Pr, Pm., Fulmare, 

Pout, fowt, sb. A fool, a stupid lout 

O. H.Jauti, fatuus homo ; Jautalegr, fatuus, insulsus. 

Fout, fowt, sb. A petted or over-indulged child; a mamma's 

The Lat. definition of Pr. Pm, Cocknqy — ^which * appears to imply simply a child spoiled 
by too much indulgence ' (Note) — is carijotus, cucunellus, Jbtus ; and the Lat. word twice 
employed in the d&nition surely gives the origin of Fout. 

Fouty, adj. i. Poor, mean, unseemly. 2. Hence (as applied speci- 
fically to an article of dress) misfitting, ill-made, awkward to wear or 
look at. 

Sw. JutHg, mean, paltry, of no moment or weight, miserable, in quality or properties, 
namely. Prov. {oiroiy Jotted, Jdte, J6tt. 

Fox-dooken, sb. The plant fox-glove {DigUalis purpurea). See 

Fra, frav, prep. From. 

O. N./ra; Dan.^a; A. S., O. Germ., and M. G.^a; ]}xi[. Jra, Jrd ; N. and SmW.Jrd; 
O.Dzn. Jraa; S.G. Jrd; Svf.D.Jra. * A with a stroke over it, as d, is sounded like av 



iron; c. g. fi-d (f:om) tai fiat, liip (pith, ilroiglh) Ma^' Kisk'i Ictt. Or. by Datenl, 
I. G. And ititl, before a Towel. it ii amilly loiinded J>iiv; before > cora-Jrau 01 Jro. 

■■■ What 'so' dock?" '■ Fro yui tiv hiu'f efier." ' 

■ Ah ihowght Ah (uddn't ha getlen 't fiav 'xm.' 

' Echelde mefi-a^cfyre of hellt' Rd. Pitett, p. 76. 

Fra'-by, frebby, adv. Beyond, above, in comparison with. 

O. Din, frtmbi, in Jatl.framki 

F«p..' »yi Molb., 'jomelimei hard in lini ot/orbi'i' 
a ndc, Dr drive, ot sail past or beyoad one ; to pais one by. in thfl 
forth. Wb. Gt. wtitet \X/rebby 01 frombj, the latlci form involving 

w»y of oegli 

■This is goodfitbby that." Wi. Ol. 

Frack, adj. Forward, bold; the boldness having rather a spice of 

insolence in it. 

O. a.fiich; energetic; eomf.JraUnH, sirenuus, fottii. See also S. O./rai, 1. tumidiu, 
inloleni; i. alacer, itrenuiu ; Sv.D. Jhilr. fraki. vigorous, active, ilcong. bald; N. /rat, 
yiM*, doughty, energetic; O, Din. >n*, bold, valiant, iictive; Dan. /'"'«*; Din. D. fraUrs, 
fioS- fi"? • Swi" yrwii fresh, sound, vigoions; O.Gam. fribi M. Gtim. vrecb ; ScoL 
fi-ai, Jreii. 

Frag, V. a. To stow closely so as to fill ; to cram, or fill to Tulness, 

Cf. E./riigbl.Jraugbl; Gena. fracbl: Dia.fragl; Sw. frail. May not Jraugbl point 
to a I051 vl).. except out wotii should be a surviving form? 1 meet wilh it oiilv in Wb, Gl. 
Mnlb. seems to regard fragi, freight, ai of Germ, origin, or, ai kait, iniroduction. RieM, 
however, gives ft^a sig, to be well off, well provided, in need of nolhing ; and Jraila(il), 
well ptorided, having wd< eaten, gotten enough, at Prov, Sw. 1 and Eras corresponds clotely 
in Biage. See Wedgw. under Friigbl, for derivation. 

■ A full-^offff''* house." Wb. &. 

' " Ah 's gelteii ma' kite •uttXfraggtd;" have enjoyed a full meal ; got a bclly-fulL* lb, 

Framation, sb. Facility or power of contriving ; skill or readi- 
ness of minagement ; bandiness in planning and commencing any 
work, &c. 

' of a dcrgyman who c«minly had not the knack 

' Wheea. he 's nae framatiait wiv '\a 
of conciliating hii parishioners. 

'There wur nie framation "bout t' 
entertaining the customary large galhcri 

Frame, v, n. To set to work upon or begin anything, in ihe way 
of work or occupation ; to apply oneself in the way of essay or attempt ; 
lo try one's ' 'prentice-hand.' 

* Tofrotm. To contrive, to effect. " And he said Sibboleth, for he could not frann 10 
pronounce it right." Judges xii. 6. A. S. frmmiw, lo form, make, effect. O. N. frtma, 
\o bring lo pass, itaaifiatum, X>an.frtm. forlh, forwards.* Wedgw. To this may be added 
Sw. D, yrnnin, lo execute, accomplish, discbarge; of an cttand, mission, intent; O. Sw. 


fr^emja^ promovere; Dzn, /remme, to forward, put in the way of being done, be the cause 
of a deed or action going forward ; A. S. Jremian^ fremman ; O. Germ, vremjan. 

• " Well, how *8 that colt o* yours likely to turn out ?" *• Wheca I 't frames weel." ' 

* inoh )>e mai suggen : Enough he may say 
])e soO wule urtmmen* That sooth will frame. 

Lf^y- »• 543- 

The new servant * frames well,' when appearing likely to fill her place well ; the appren- 
tice to a trade ^framts well,* or ' ill,' as the case may be, and so on. 

Fratoh, v. n. To squabble angrily, quarrel, chide with another. 

Pr. Pm. *Fracebyn^ as neu cartys.' * Freate, fremere* Man. Vocab. C. aia. 'It seems 
to be derived from A. S. freot^an, fricare* Note to Pr. Pm, 

Fraunge, v. n. To indulge a frolicsome turn ; to be ' up to any lark/ 

0. Gl. gives ^fraungty to fling, to wince ;' and also the noun in our sense, ' a frolic' 
Hall, quotes frangy^ as a Line, word, meaning * irritable, passionate, ill-tempered, fretful.* 
Comp. Isl. frenjulegr, procax ; impudent, indecent, audacious or insolent. See Wedgw. 
Franzyt Frangy, 

Fraunge, sb. A frolic or freak ; the being engaged in * a lark.' 

Free, v. a. To take off grazing-stock from the meadow-land in the 
spring, so as to give the grass liberty or freedom to grow against the 
coming hay-time. 

Freeholder, sb. A yeoman; an owner of landed property, and 
farming it himself : a term antithetical to ' tenant,* and equivalent to 
* statesman' in the western part of the county. 

From, fremmedy adj. Strange, unknown, unfamiliar. framandi; O.Sw. fr^Bmende, framede, fromede, fromande; H. fr amend; Sw. 
frammande; Dzn.fremmed oxfremmei; Sw. D. frammad^ frammtd, frdmmad (the latter 
word applied precisely as our Eng. * little stranger* is) ; O. (3eTm.framadi,framidi,fremede, 
fremid ; A. S. fremd, frcemd^ fremed ; Dut. fremmit, vremmed, 

• The one was a near neighbour, the other nobbut zfrtm body.* Wb. Gl. 

Fresh, sb. i. The additional or new water in a stream which has 
become swollen after rain in the district it drains. 2. The swelling of 
the stream itself; a flood. 

Fresh, adj. i. In good health, in good condition and spirits; ready 
for exertion or w^ork ; eager, in that sense : applied to both man and 
animal. 2. In good condition, in the butcher's sense, fat, or approach- 
ing the state of fatness. 

1. * He 's a dtsper*tfresb man, ov 'is age.' 

• T* au'd meear 's *sfresb as ivvcr : she *s good for a vast o' wark yet.' 

a. ' Thae beeas's zbootfresb; they dune weel sen they wur shifted intiv Langlands 


ProBh-wold, sb. (pr. fresh-wo'd or -wood). A threshold, of wood or 
stone; the flat stone that covers the ground in the Door-stead of a 
cowhouse, stable, or other hke building. 

Corrupted from ibreshvold: cf. fimti, ihiisly. HaL. ; a-/ursl, P. PI. pp. 176, 183 ; and, 
far the converse change, itm, from, Wakifiild GI.; Ibrongb, in Hall. A.S. ^ic-ald, 
^tnc-vKdd, JwoTK- or ^yrcctmld, Bu. Conip. rodt-wold. Cm. and Ex. p. 8, aad arebMnald, 
re. pp. 17, tS. Boib Mi.Wedgw. and Mr. Monii look apon the bller clement in the word 
u A.S. utaldtWold! Pl.D. wold, wood; and the Tonnei remaiki, with respect to the Rrit 
syllable, ' how rDueh the ideu of threshing and treading are mixed up together ; and indeed 
the primiiire mode of ihrohing wai treading out by cattle. Bav. drtscbim, to tramp.' 

Fridge, v. a. To rub up or chafe; as when the skin is abraded by 
friction, or excoriated. 

Comp. L±t,Jrico, the lense pauing from nibbing or chifigg to Its effect!. Rich, quotes 
from Slooner, ' to fiidgt 01 frig about, fiom k.^.fricaa to dance,' adding that ' it ii from 
lufrtgare, LaL fricart, to nib.' Hii eitamples are — ' The little motes ot alomi that fridgi 
and p^y in the beuns of the sun :' and, ' The meer fridging up and down of the parti of 
an extended substance changing their place and diitince.' Cudwotth. Our *b., boweret, ia 
•Iwayi active ; — ' Fridgt, to fray, to wear away by rubbing,' Cait ; 'fridgi, 10 rob, to fray," 
Hall. : 'fridg4d, chafed, excoiiated u the skin ii.' Wb. Ql. 
Cf. ' The bore hit tayle wrigges, 

His rump also hefriggis 
Against the hye bcncbe.' 

Skelton, quoted by O. Cockayne, Sle, Marbtrilt, p. 81. 
Note also/rif = fuluo. See irruBgan. 

Frightoiied, adj. Apprehensive, fearful of a possible contingency- 

' Mi'ifrietia'd it 's gannan t' thoonner.' 

' ■■ Hive you enough?" " Ah "ijVeU'a'rf there'll be a want."' 

Friszle, v. a. To toast (rathei than roast) bacon or meat before the 
fire, or over the coals. 

Under the word Fricmstt, Mr. Wedgw, uyj, ' Fr.frieasier, to fry. hiLfrigtri./rixuni, 
from the hissing sound.' Sw, D. have.^-dssa. to cook in bullet, and thence, to hits, u meat, 
when it is being so cooked, Joes ; and .fl«, the hissing noise made by the meal: with which 
latter word Riets collates O. N.frai, a hissing or tustluig sound. 

' " Cou'd ye eat owghl, Willie?" ■' Ay. Ah thinks Ah cou'd dee wiv 1 bit o' frialid 
mutton." ' 

Prog-fty, sb. Toad-spawn. 

. Fr. 

e on which a house stands, or has formerly 
FroBt-hag, froHt-harr, sb. Ste Hag, and Harr. 


Frowsy, adj. i. Of a sour or forbidding countenance; Sl-tempered 
looking, a. Ill-tempered, cross, peevish. 

Syr, fru; O. N. Jreyja; Dan. fhte; Sw. D. firoa; O. Germ. fr6wa^ frouva; M Germ. 
vrwiwtt vrou; N. ¥m,/rouw; Dut. vrouwt 8cc. Hall, says of /row that it is * still in use 
in the N. of Engl, for a dirty woman, a slattern, a lusty woman ;* and the idea of a forbidding- 
looking one follows easily, and thence our adj. and its meaning. It may be observed that 
/hUt frut frouft like pnnde, koru, originally implied a title of honourable distinction. Comp. 
Eng. quenn. Our Clerel. Wean preserves more of the original sense of qvinde or hone, 
inasmuch as it means a wife, or a female generally, without derogatory implication. 

Fmggan, sb. A curved iron scraper or rake to stir ashes in an oven 
with, or on the hearth. 

Wedgw. says, ' As firip and firieh are found in the sense of light movement to and fro, 
Jhib and firug seem to represent movement of a heavier nature. The last-named root, 
frugt in Uie sense of to rub, to wriggle to and fro, has many relatives in Eng. friggU^ 
VfriggUt &c. :' to which add our Clevd. fridge, « to chafe, to rub; Pr. Eng.>^, = futuo, 
probably identical ynxh frigge, to wriggle: Hall. 'But it appears most distinctly in 
\X.frugare, to wriggle up and down, rub, burnish ; and with inversion of the r, mfimgart^ 
to fumble, grope for, to sweep an oven ; furegonit a groper, also an oven-sweeper. 
Fr.Jburgon, "E, fruggcM, Jruggifif an oven-fork, by which fuel is put into an oven, and 
stirred when it is in it. Cot.' It may be added that Hall, quotes the form furgon also, as 
an arch, form, from Tundale. The ioTTnsJrogon,Jrogun occur in Inv, Fincb. Priory, 

Fudge, fudgy, sb. A short, stout person ; one of squat or stumpy 

Comp. Fadge, a. Also Sc, Jodgel^/udgii, Jam. 

Fudgeon, adj. Squat, short and stout. 

Folly adv. Used intensitively, as in the expressions full sair, very 
sorely ; ftdl soon, very soon, much sooner than usual, &c. 

Comp. */uU delitable,* Pricke of Consc, ; 'ful synful,' /&., &c. 

Follook, V. a. and n. i. To project, in shooting a marble, with the 
impetus of the hand as well as of the thumb — a trick which is not con- 
sidered * fair.' 2. To give way under a pull, so as to come home with 
suddenness and force. 

The form fidh is given by Hall., and it seems not unlikely that the word is due to the 
same radical form zi flick. Leeds Gl. states that our word has come to designate any unfair 
action, and gives as an example, * Thah 's noan bown to fullock it through me ;' impose on 
or overreach me. 

Fulth, sb. Repletion, satiety, utter fulness. 

• Tak' an* eat yer/ultb on 't.' Wb, Gl, 

Comp. Drith from vb. dree, tiltb from till, bealtb from bealy and the like. 

Fun*, Pr. of p. p. of F(nd. 

• It's on'y new/un' out.* 



Purp, sb. (pr. furrh). A furrow. 

A.S. Jur,Jurb; Dzn. Jure; Sw.fara; Svr.D./Sr; O. N. and O. Sw. /or; O. Germ. yWr^, 

Furtherly, adj. (pr. fo'therly). Forward, early; of the season, pro- 
duce, &c. 

A. S.foHS, forth, further, directly, forward ; for^er^ fin^er^ further, more forward. The 
simple addition of ly forms our adj. 

FuBome, fosimiy adj. Handsome, of a good appearance, neat. See 
Viewly, Viewsome. 

Fostilugs, sb. A fat, gross person, properly a female ; any person 
of unpleasant or forbidding aspect. 

Hall, says, ' A big-boned person ; a fat gross woman. Exmoor, ** A fustilug, or rank- 
smelling woman." Howell/ Fustilariaftj he adds, is used by Shakspere as * a cant term of 
contempt ; a fusty stinking fellow.* Probably our word is of like origin. 

Fuzz-ball, sb. The fungus, of a round or nearly spherical form, 
which, when mature, emits its spores in a cloud-like dust on pressure 
{Lycoperdon pratenscy bovisia, &c.) 


Gab, sb. To speak vainly, idly, falsely. 

Dan. D. gahe : a word used to express over-free or chattering talk, says Molb., * and he 
who indulges in such propensity is called a gaber, or gahflah* He also collates our present 
word, as well as Brockett's ' Gab, gabbing^ idle talk, prating.' Closely allied with O. Dan. 
gabbe, to mock, make a jest of; O. N. gabba, O. Sw. and Sw. D. gabba (and gabb^ sb.) ; 
A. S. gabban. 

* TTfomas. In allc youre skylles more & les for misfownding faylle ye, 

Might I se Jesus gost and fleshe gropyng shuld not gab me. 
Novenus Apostolus. Lefe Thomas, flyte no more but trow and tume thi red. 
Or els say us when and whore Crist gabbyd in any sted.' 

Toumel. Myst, pp. a88, 289. 

Under the word gabble, Wedgw. quotes, — 

* ** Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud 
Among the builders : each to other calls. 
Not understood ; till hoarse and all in rage 
As mocked they storm." — Milton :* 

and well remarks that the passage * shows the natural transition from the notion of talking 
without meaning to that of mockery, with which the idea of delusion and lying is closely 


Gktbber, v. n. To talk idly, to repeat long tales without much point 
or sense, 

Comp. Dut. gahheren, to joke, to trifle ; Fr. gaher : Pr. Pm. * Oahhar or lyare.' See 
note, ib, 

Qabriel-ratchet, sb. (pr. Gaabrl-ratchet). A name for a yelping 
sound heard at night, more or less resembling the cry of hounds or 
yelping of dogs, probably due to flocks of wild geese {Anser segetum) 
which chance to be flying by night, and taken as an omen or warning 
of approaching death to the hearer or some one connected with him. 
Odinsjagi of S. Sweden. 

' Gabrielle rache, bic camalion* Calb. Angl, Pr, Pm, ' Ratebe, hownde.' The name, 
then, is one of great antiquity. Comp. Dan. bdrakktr, a sound heard in the air, very like 
the baying of hounds ; and, when heard, taken to presage death and wasting. Thiele, Over' 
trmsht Mining, p. 1641. Dan. D. rakke is a hound-whelp large enough to yelp or bay, 
from O. N. rorih', a hound of a large-footed species. Ihre gives racba, a bitch, collating 
M. Lat racba, A. S. rcecce^ Sc. racbet N. Fr. racchez, and noticing the prefixed b which 
appears in O. E. braebet or bracbete. Dispensing with the said 6, our Clevel form appears, 
met with ako in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 1603, other forms being raebe^, racbcbe^, ^acbes, 
bracbe^. As to the origin of GcUfrielle, Gabriell or Gabriel^ see below. For long I surmised 
that it must be the name of a person, and as such take rank with the hosts of other names 
attached to the Wild Huntsman legend, but involved in more obscurity than the most of them. 
See Grinmi, Z). JIf., Art. Wiitendes Heer, for these names, Scand., Germ., Engl., and French. 
It should be observed that there is another notion in Clevel. connected with the term 
Qabriel-ratcliet. This couples with the name the figure of a mysterious bird, with large 
glowing eyes, hooked beak, and an awful shriek, which appears to, accompanies, or is heard 
by the death-doomed. With this comp. O. Dan. bel-rdkhe, a bird with a large head, staring 
eyes, crooked beak, sharp claws, which in days of yore was believed to appear only as a 
harbinger of some great mortality {imod stor dmd)^ but then to fly abroad by night and 
shriek aloud (fiansk Gloss.) Other forms of the name are Gabriel-ratcbes^ rttcbes, or 
retcbei, and Gabriel-bounds (bounds being simply £. for racbes^ rakker^ &c.). Mr. Hen- 
derson, Folklore oftbe N. Counties, states that the Leeds Gabble-retcbet is held to be ' the 
souls of unbaptised infants, which are doomed restlessly to flit around their parents' abode ;' 
adding that, * in Scotland, such unfortunates are supposed to wander in woods and solitudes, 
lamenting their hard fate;' and that in Deronsh. a notion prevails that 'the souls of 
unbaptised babies wander in the air till the Judgment Day.* This is another bond of con- 
nection with the Wild Huntsman legends. See Grimm, D. AT. p. 872. And yet another 
appears in the tradition yet current in Clevel., that the Gabriel-ratohet originates in the 
ill deed of a gentleman who once lived in the district, and who was so inordinately fond of 
the pleasures of the chase, and so jealous about the hounds who had ministered to them, 
that, on his deathbed, he gave orders they should all be killed and buried with him, that no 
one else should benefit by them as he himself would be no longer able. See Grimm, 
p. 873. For the element ^a6rie/, the entry in Pr. Pm. under * Lycbe, dede body,* gives a 
clue for its derivation, and dispels the notion of its being a personal name. The entry in 
question is, * Funus, gabares, C. F. et UG.* — C. F. and L'G. being abbreviations used by the 
compiler to indicate two older vocabularies, severaUy cited as * Mirivalensis^in campo florum,* 
and * Uguitio in majori volumine* — • in Gabriel dicit gabarett, vel gabbaren.* Gabaren or 
gabbaren, then, would appear to have been convertible terms with Gabriel, as well as mere 
variations in form of gabares, just before given as identical in meaning with */unus,* and 
' dede body.* Comp. * Gabbane, vel Gabbares, cadavcra apud ^gyptios poUinctorum arte 

D d 2 


delibuU. mhzlji, et a camiptione immuiili, mummin.' Faeiiolali Ltxicon. Hence 
Gabritllt-ntcli ippeari to be i\mfly ^ahbarii-raehe. E. eorpst-bmrnd. Camp. HdraUt, 
lemembermg thit the pielix Hil is due to Hs/n, the Scmd. goddess of ileath, and place 
lidc by side with it the Dan. liigbvalf, liigimad, with the atialogoui folk-lore notiont con- 
nected with them. 

Ctad, sb. 1. A tapering rod or wand of some length. 2. A tapering 
rod, lilted with a leather thong, to serve as a whip in driving a team, 
oxen especially, 

Sw. and Sw. D. gadd; N. gadd; O.Dan. »nd Dm.D. yorfd — all meaning anything 
pointed, a thom, a prick, the iting of an insect: M. G. gatd: O. H. Qerm. garl; Gael. 
galb. Mi. Wedgwuod't remark is, ' The lost of the r in gad and goad (which differ only 
in the mote or less bioid pronunciation of the vowel) conceals the fundamental identity of 
the word with Germ. gtrU, E, yard. The primitive meaning ii a rod or iwitch." M. Q. 
gazd, at whip or icourge, doet not imply poinledness, but A, S. gad, gad, gaad, a point of 
a weapon, ipeai, or airaw, a iting. prick, a( well as the Scand. etymons, sccmi diipoied to 
ignore the idea of length in favour of that of acutenesi. O. E-gad; ai in Pr.Pm. •Gad.oi 
gode, Oenaa, Seuliea; Oad, to mele wythe toad. Dtcempeda. ptrtica,' Ihe contrary. 

Oae, V. n. To go. Used especially in the imperative, and orien in 
the pret See Qaed; and also Oan, which is in much more con- 
dnual use. 

Gaed, geed. Forms of the preL of Gae. 

'Mywo'd) Bud he f'lUil sharp I ' he went, oi moved, with great speed. 

Gflg, V. a. r. To strain or wrench ; a limb or joint, namely, j. To 
apply a very powerful bit, such as is used in breaking young horses or 
governing restive ones. See Gog-bit. 

Mr. Wedgwood refen E. gag to the ioirticulate sounds ' made by one endeavouring to 
speak while lufferiog from impediment!,' either lulurai or due lo external violence. Tooke 
refers it to A.S. tttggioH, to shut fast, to lock ; thence lo block up, or confine, from speak- 
ing. Welsh ctgiaw. to choke or strangle, from ag, gtg, gag. the mouth, an opening or 
entrance, is, however, the immediate origin of the word. Fr. Fm. gives " Gaggyn, 10 
streyne by the throte. Suffoeo,' I am very doubtful if our gag, to strain, is al all con- 
nected with this. I am more inclined lo think that it is not ; but that it it lather dependent 
on the sense which stjnds second in Ihe definition. In this lense. Dan. D. kiagil (properly 
Hxvt-ttl. tays Molb.. the (trap which is fuleiied below Ihe jaw-bone in a horse's head- 
collar) lervei to connect the word with Pr. Fm. ' Kntt, oi kevyl, for hort. Mordatt, 
carnal,' and with Manip, VoctA. ' Ktwti, sb,, a brake for a horse's mouth ; vb., os oAifrun.' 
Mr. Way. in his note, niggeits the connection with O. E. tbaiyl (tee Choft. Olmp), and 
(juotei From Jam,. > KiuJ, a halter brought under the jiiwi of an unmanageable hone, and 
paued through hit niouth.' Now Levins' ib. Wujr, like our Ons-blt, iiippotet a strain 
npon, or wrench of, the hone's jaw or mqulh ; and it is poiuble the idea in our Gnl mean- 
ing it thence derived; perhaps more ' . . — 


initial k. In the same connection comp. * Keck, to make a noise in the throat by reason of 
difficulty of breathing:' Wedgw., kik in Sw. kih-ixtsU, &c., with E. gag, 
I. ' Ah trod iv a lowse steean an' gagg*d ma feeat sair.' 

Gkig-bit, sb. A bit of a very powerful description, used for breaking 
horses, &c. 

Gkd'n, Pr. of Gam or Gkdm. 

Gain, adj. i. Direct, and, in that sense, short and near. 2. Near 
at hand, and so, handy, convenient 

0. N. g9gn^ over against ; O. Sw. gen; Sw. D. g'djn, direct. * In our mediseval tongae,' 
sajTS Rietz, ' we have many compound words due to O. Sw. gen, which do not at this day 
occur in our standard language, nor are met with in the dialects.' In Cleveland we keep 
two or three of these compounds. See Gain-hand, Gain-way. 

1. * We '11 gan the gainest way.' 

' This road is a vast gainer than the other.' Wb» OL 
a. ' Ay, its gay and gain for t' market.' 

Gkun-hand, adj. Near, easily reached, convenient. 

The suffix, band, is not uncommon in Clevel. Comp. Nigh-hand, or Near-hand, 
and Maiat-hand ; as also * benden sichem,' Gen, and Ex, p. 53 ; ' benden tSor-bi/ * fSor bende* 
Ih. p. 96. 

' It Tigs fair gain-band;* of farm lands with respect to the fiirmstead ; of a road with 
respect to a house ; of a railroad to a town, &c. 

Gfdnly, adj. Conveniendy near ; and so easy of access. See Gain. 

Comp. O. N. gignilegr, commodus ; Sw. D. or O. Sw. genligber, genliker, short, direct. 

• A gainly soort ov a spot.' Wb. Gl, 

G^unly, adv. Conveniendy, handily, without having to go far or a 
roundabout way. 

Gains, sb. Advantage ; saving in distance or time. 

• He 's getten nae gret gains wiv takkin' t* law.* 

' There '11 be maist gains that 'n a way iv ony way ;' either time or distance being in 

Comp. Jutl. gadning ^pr. ganning), from vb. geta; er bun ikke din ganningbe, da 
bederjeg, at du flyer mig len bid igjen : if the girl I send be no gains to you, I beg you will 
send me her bade again ; N. d'a ikje gagn i da, or, '/i di: there is no gains in that. 

Gkun-way, sb. A short or direct route to a house or place. 

Dan. gjen-vei, a short cut. Comp. Sw. D. adv. gena-vagen, straight, directly. 

• Gan t' gainway t'rufT t' fields, honey.' 

Gaim, gam (often pr. gai'n), sb. Woollen thread, worsted, yam. 

O. N., O. Sw., Sw., Dan., &c. gam ; A. S. geam ; Germ, garn. See., For Pr. comp. 
N. gann, 

• There is gam on the reylle other, my dame.' Townel, Mysi, p. 37. 

Gkdm-windles, sb. (pr. gai'n-winTs). The instrument used for 


winding woollen yam into baUs, consisting of a light rotating wooden 
frame -work. 

Svi.D. ganvinda, gamvinna, garnvingai Oia. garmindi -. Gam. garnwinde. 

Oait, gate sb. (pr. geeat). i. A street in a town. a. A road, a 
way gone. 3. Way or manner of action or demeanour. 

0. N. gala. Bw. gala, Dan. gade, a jtreet, a path ; Golh. gattio. A. S. geai, gal, Genn. 
gaat. ' The original meaning seems 1 narrow opening ; O. N. gat, a hole, an opening ; 
^Bfo, to petfoMle.' Wedgw. Note also, Sw. D. gall, an opening, means of trantil j also, 
and thence, mouth of 1 bay 01 of a deep gulf; as norra galltl, sodra galttt, in F«ro 
Soutid ; talltgaH; Hii:d. gal, an opening or passage. From the gali which gare access to 
the street proper, the name passed over to the latter, unless we look on Hreets as, la Ihre'f 
words, > apertnr^e her quas Iransitar,' From street, the tianiition seems to be to road, path, 
way gone ; und thence, ' meiaphorically, to the way, means, or manner of doing a thing,* 

1. ' Ah seed him gan oop loonV^aM, lahk yau wud ;' o( a country village with one sole 
street m it. It is sufficient simply lo advert to the numbers of (tretts in York, Whitby, 
Leeds, Hull, Lincoln. Boston, Sec, diilinguished by the name ' Gate.' 

1. '" He'i ganging a downward glial;" declining in respect, abihly, proqietity, or 

■ Let him gin his ain gali.' Comp. Sw. ban giti tin egtn gala : he went his own geli. 
3. ' What for did you behave in that gail T ' Wb, Gl. 

Gait, sb. I. Right or privilege of stray and pasturage for cattle, &c., 
whether free on' common land, or purchased, or otherwise acquired by 
special arrangement. 3, Pasturage, simply, for a specified time. See 
Cow-gate, Ox-gate. 

Cf. Ew. D. gala, gjdla, gjcia, &c , N. gjala. to watch 01 teat cattle when graiing, to 
attend cattle 10 their pasturage ; S. G. goto : ' Gia/n a mid birda, si quii pecui luum, in 
ilienn tylvi patcens cuttodiat (Ihre) 1 O. N gala, to watch, look after, derived firam O. N. 
ga, to give heed or attention to, look after a thing or peison. The connection is nthet 
with this class of words than with Oait or Oate. a way gone, &c. Of course, in Ihe dan 
anterior to the creation of fences, and to the destruction or enclosure of the fbresti, the 
presence of some one to watch or tent the pasturing stock would be indispensable: henee 
the Sw. T>. forms gjilart, tenter : gilar-piji, leoting-boy ; gjtiar-ilini, tenting-girl, &c. 

1. ' All ither common-recghu, an' gail for a hoonder sheep.' 

a. ' Oaii for tweea lahtle coos, fiir, mebbe, tolf weeks.' 

Gtait, V. a. To set up clover in small sheaves, or bundles Ued at 
their extremity, to dry into hay, by aid of the free percolation of air 
through the sheaf below the ligature. 

Jamieion's idea is — ' As the sheave is opened towards the bottom, both for drying it and 
making it stand, perhaps from Isl. gal, (otameu, j'lUa, pnToiare;' and Wedgw., aftei quoting 
O. N. glila, N, gUtt, an opening among clouds : gliim, glyaa, to peep, to make an open- 
ing ; glyll, glolt, an opening, hole, clear place among clouds ; goes on to say — ' The ou of 
the t (as in some foregoing examples) would give a cool gal, gil, signifying what admits 
the light lo ihine ihtough, open, separated ; cxemplilicd in E. galloalbta, in O. gaUtr, 


gitUr, a lattice, partition with open interstices, and in O. N., PI. D., and Dut. gat, a hole.' It 
is curious if there be a connection between the much-vexed * gat-tothid ' and our north-country 
word gait, to set up in single sheaves ; but the idea is evidently the same in either word. 

Gaitings, sb. Small sheaves, or bunches tied at their tops, of newly- 
cut clover set up to dry ; single sheaves of com set by themselves instead 
of being stooked. 

Gfdtage, gateage, sb. i. The charge per head for pasturage of 
cattle. 2. The pasturage itself. 

Qallao-handedjgaulio-handedjadj. Left-handed, awkward generally. 

Also written gallook-handed, gallio-handed, gaulish-handed, and gauk-haxided» 
which may be either a contracted form or dependent upon Gauk or Gawk. Comp Fr. gaucbe 
and our Eng. gawky ; also Sw. D. kajtbanded, kjevbdnd/er, kevbdndl ; Dan. keitbandet ; 
D. Dial, kavbacmd^ havbaandet; N. kjeivbendi; but the coimection is obscure. Mr. Gamett 
derives gaucbe from gawk^ and gawk from awk; Pr. Ptn. * Awke, or wronge. Sinister; with 
the prefix ge* It is possible, however, that O. N. skidJgr, obliquus ; Sw. D. skalg, skjalg, 
awry, crooked, may be nearly connected with gallao, as well as with the Scand. prefixes 
just noticed. For the omission or addition of s, comp. Germ, or Germ. D. link^ glink, slink, 
left; Sw. klander, O. E. sclander or sclaunder,E, slander; and kjiilgt kjalg, with the natural 
tendency of the / to be merged in the following consonant, as in our au'd, bau*d, oau*d» 
oau'f, Sw. D. kdVf calf, &c., is not far from kjdvt kjev, kav, on the one hand, nor, with 
the / retained, from gaulio, gallao, ultimately gawk, on the other. Comp. the parallel 
forms, O. N. skeifi", N. skjeiv, D. skjav, Sw. D. skjeva, skjaiva, left hand, with N. kjeiva, 
Dan. D. kei, kau, kav, Sw. D, kaja, kjdva^ kjev, kjep, &c. The Sanscr. word is sayja, which 
Bcnfey surmises was originally kb'avja. 

Galloway, sb. A stiff pony. Any horse under the size of an ordinary 
draught horse, and especially if generally used with the saddle, is called 
a Gkdloway. 

Jam. thinks this word is ' properly Scotch,' and to be usually connected with the Scotch 
county of the same name : but, he adds, *■ it may be merely the S. G. and Germ, word 
waUacb, corresponding to E. gelding, from gcUla, O. N. gelda, castrare.* Ihre, however, 
thinks that the name originated from the Wallachians, who, he says, were the first to use 
horses of this kind. On this ground there is no reason why the Galloway should be limited 
in size — * not more than fourteen hands high.* Youatt says ' a horse between 13 and 14 
hands in height is called a Galloway, from a beautiful breed of little horses once found in 
S. Scotland, on the shore of the Solway Firth. There is a tradition in that country that the 
breed is of Spanish extraction, some horses having escaped from one of the vessels of the 
Grand Armada that was wrecked on the coast in question.' But even as early as temp. 
Edward I, this district abounded in horses, as he adds, * it supplied that monarch with a 
great number of horses.' Comp. the terms, ' an Aldemey,' ' a Shetlander/ 8cc. 

Gallowses, sb. Men's braces, or * suspenders/ 

'Braces are in some parts of England called Gallows,' zs in Germany barrels, as the 
implement by which the trowsers hang.' Wedgw. 

Gally-bauk, sb. The iron bar across the chimney a little above the 
fire, from which depend the pot-hooks or Bekkon-orooks. 

Literally gallows-balk ; as it were a composition of the Dan. galge, O. N. galga, and 


cinccr \i menlinned (Wiimdocb H^irif. 473) ii hiving hanged iaaae'ii ' pA gali-Eliiigtit vid 
gnijvan :' upon the giUl-tlSng by ihe he»t^. 

GttHk, sb. I. Sporliveness, playfulness; of young animals, &c. 2. 
Mockery, ridicule. 

Cnmp., foi bolh lense and sound, S.G. gam-nan, i. IzCilia; 3. iiriiin; O.N. gamna 
jocus; Dan. gammon, I. full, sport, playfulness; 1. mockery, jeiting al another j 
K.gamoMi O.Gam. gamoH; A.S. gamen. 

I. ' Ov all t' joung thingi at iwei Ah lecd, l' young fox beats owghl for gam.' 
' I am 10 fare and blight, 

This gam and all this gle.' Towitel. Mysl. p. 3. 
). ■ Tbey did nowght bud mat" gam' o' nie.' 

Comp. O. Dan. ibe Jom/ninr giordi aff htnni gannntn : the niaidrni then made game of 
her. Molb. Dansk. Gl. 

Qamashes, sb. Gaiters, or leggings, to be worn over the stockings; 
properly short ones covering only the inslep and part of the leg; but 
often applied to longer leggings that are worn over the modern trowser 
instead of the more ancient hose. 

■ From W. gar, the ihank. is Lang, garamaebo, a legging, and ihcnce (rather thin from 
It. gamba. the teg) It. gamascii (for gramasat, as Sc. gramaibli. Jam.), F[ gamacbts, 
E. gamasbtt. A further corruption converted gambagts into gambaJoti.' Wedgw. 

OAmmflr, v. n. To love play rather than work ; to idle or trifle, 

0. N. gambra, to tiille, to gossip or prate idly. See alto Qiuli for the derivatives, lo 
jvhich might be added, O. Dan. gammtit or gamtn, i. pleasure, making onfself glad; 
opposed to sonaw or heaviness : 1. jctt, joke, fun ; oppoied to enmest or seriotunett. 

Gammer 'Stags, gammer-Btang, sb. An idle or rude and wanton 

Gammiah, gamsome, adj. i. FlayTuI, frolicsome, i. Inclined to 
take one's pleasure or amusement, whether ' in sport' or otherwise, 

1. ' Al gamiomi as a youog fox.* 

3. '" He's rather a bit^mMufr," with a turn for sport or p1eanire,iitH] not too d«roted 
W buiineis only,' Wb. Gl. 

Qan, gang, v. n. r. To go; the form gan being by far the most 

usual. 2. To walk ; in contradistinction to to ride, or to stand up. 

A. S. gan. or gangan : O. N. gdnga, ganga : O. Sw. ganga ; Sw, D. ganga : O. Gwm. 
gangan ; O, Sai. gangan or g&a ; Ftii. gan : Sai. fiix. Qrifimi considtTs M. Genu, gan 
> contnction of gangcn, O. Germ, gangan. Bopp, founding on Sanscr. g&, looks u[>Dn gun 
■I the pnmilive fomi. Rietx. 

I. ' Gan thi' lin gate;' do at you like yourself 

' Oan yer ways;' go away, or go on. 

' Oan tiv t' grund;' to relieve natu 

' Qan awa' yamm ■' go off home. 


* OoH all te nowght ;' to watte away, of a person wasting with sickness, or of anything 
that loses bulk greatly by keeping or exposure. 

a. ' He can nowther gan nor stand.' 

* Are you gangmg or riding ?' 

* pus uses yhing men all new gett. 
And \>e world \>zi all awkeward sett, 
Thurgh swylk uncomly pomp and pryde, 

pat )^ schew whe>er )>ai gang or ryde.' Pr, ofConse. 1540. 

' And seknes tuk him in the way 
And put him in sa hard assay 
That he micht nouther gang na ride.' Barbour, 81. 

• Sometimes he went, sometimes he ran.' Percy's Foi. MS. i. 40. 

Comp. S. Jutl. ban ham gdngtnd; and N. koma gangandi: he came on foot ; to come 
afoot. * TTftr kaam gangmd en mMer mand: there came on foot a miller man. Kempe- 

Gang, sb. A way or road; a term not applied to a highroad or 
Turnpike, but with a limitation of meaning conveyed by the prefix, 
making it a definite piece of road, or way. For instance. By-gang, 
Gross-gang, Down-gang, Out-gang, Up-gang. Wh. Gl. 

O. N. gdngr, Dan. gang, the act of going, the way or means of going, the way gone, &c. ; 
D. Dial, gange, a narrow road, or lane, leading to a village or farmstead. The passage or 
entrance from the stable to the chaff-chamber (sitenh, only found in old-fashioned farm- 
steads, however) is called ganget, the gang. 

Gang, ganging, sb. A set; the complete nmnber of anything; 
usually limited to an animal's feet or their belongings. 

Dan. D. gang, a set ; applied to the number of traces requisite for a pair of horses, to 
trace-ropes, and to the seals or Haines, pertaining to the collar or Barfaxn ; not otherwise, 
Molb. says. 

• A gang o' cau'f 's feet,' or • nowt's feet.' 

' A ganging o' shoes ;' when a horse is shod all round. 
' ij ganga et dimidia de fclies de fraxino.' Pr. Fincb. lij. 

Ganger, sb. A goer, usually, if not exclusively, applied to a horse. 

S. O. gdngare, equus tolutarius, qui tolutim incedit. * In poetry, and in writings of old 
date,' says Molb., Dan. ganger means ' a horse, a riding horse, as distinguished from a 
charger or war horse {strtdsbengsttn) ;' and he adds that it is 'a current saying of a horse 
that steps well, ai den er en god ganger, that he is a good ganger* Comp. example : 

• As good a ganger as ever went upon four legs,' Wb, Gl. ; explained by the Gl., but I 
think mistakenly, as simply * a good trotting-horse.' 

Gangerill, gangrill, gangril, sb. i. A vagrant, whether a beggar 
or a pedlar, &c. 2. A toad. 

From Qang, Qanger — comp. O. N. gaunguma9r, a vagrant or beggar — in reference to 
continued moving forwards or about, to vagrancy, in other words ; and then transferred 
to the toad, from its seemingly idle, listless, vagrant-like mode of locomotion. 

Gangings-on, sb. Proceedings, doings, course or line of conduct. 

E e 


Gant, adj. Small, thin, poor or puny. 

Comp. the Essex word — Hall, gives it as Eastern-Counties — fanty-guiUdf thin-bodied 
and thin-bellied. Pr. Pm. gives * Gavmte^ slendyr, GracUis,* as well as ' GawHi^ lene.' Mr. 
Way suggests, from A. S. gewant, p.p. oi gewanian (tabescere). 

Gantree, gaiintree, sb. i. A wooden frame with legs, or stand, 
to support barrels. 2. The timber framework which, in lieu of an 
embankment, is employed on some railways to support the permanent 

* From Lat. caniberius^ a hone of burden { then applied (as in modem languages, a horse, 
ass, or goat) to a wooden support for various purposes. Cantberius, a prop for a vine, 
rafter of a roof, trestle, or borse to saw timber on. Littleton. The Germans use hoek, a 
goat, in the last of these senses. In like manner we speak of a dothesr^orsf ; and Fr. 
cbevaletf a little horse, is a painter's easel (G. Itf/, an ass), the frame which supports his 
work.* Wedgw. 

Gap, sb. An opening at the Bank^top through which a path or 
track winding up the steep BankHSude finds its way on to the open 

O. N. gap, an opening, a chasm ; N. gap; S. G. and Sw. D. gap, 

* Hunter's Oap ;' ' G«>rge Gap ;* both in this parish. 

G«pe, V. n. (pr. geeap). To bawl, or shout loudly. 

Just as E. gapt, from the action it implies, takes the sense, — ' to express astonishmeot 
throu:;h wide open mouth and staring eyes,' so also in the present case there is a derivative 
meaning of the same kind, and not unknown in the Scand. D. Thus, Sw. D. gapa takes 
the meanings to talk big, to talk fiist ; and Dan. D. gabi the same. From O. N. and 
O. Sw. gapa, &c. See Yowp, 

* He geeaps an' hollers lahk a ploughman on a moor.' Wb, Gl, 

Got, v. a. To cause, or make ; to lead to or induce any given 

O. N. gira, gbra ; S. G. gbra; Dan. gjwn; N. gjera; Sw. D. gara, gera, gar^ &c. It 
should be remarked that an equivalent usage to that of our word is rare in the N. 

* It was fit t' gar a man hang hissel*.' Wb. Gl, 

* It gars me great pain.' lb. 

* For my part I shall garr two oxen and two horses maintaine me all my lifetime.* 
Fork Casde Dtp, p. 151. 

* Bere we hym furthe unto the kyrke. 
To the tombe that I gard wyrk, 

Sen fiiUe many a yere.' Tmond, MyU, p. 333. 

Gktrb, V. a. To bedeck, to array in a gaudy fashion ; almost invari- 
ably implying tasteless or vulgar finery. 


Gkfffits, sb. Entrails, garbage ; sometimes with a more limited sense, 
as denoting only the edible portions from the inside of a goose or other 

From garbage (conupted into garbisb), by the interchange of b and /. Comp. O. N. 
gamir, ilia ; N. goH, the head and guts of small fish. 

Gkurlands, sb. i. Wreaths of ribbons enclosing a white glove, for- 
merly borne at the funerals of young unmarried women. See AnraL 
2. Hoops bedecked with ribbons hung at the mast-head of whale-ships 
returning to port after a successful voyage. 

G«rsel, sb. Hedge-sticks ; usually applied to dead sticks and under- 
wood from a hedge and its bank. Brock, says, ' small branches cut for 
the purpose of mending the hedge ;' and Wh. GL extends the meaning 
to whins or furze set apart for burning. Spelt also, Gkurcil, Gkonily 

Oardsd, arbores, ex quibus sepes constniuntur ; gdrdsel gdrd, hedges constructed of trees 
and boughs of trees. Ihre. Sw. gdrdsU, edder, materials with which a fence is made ; Dan. 
gierdsilf materials for making a fence, whether of spray or brushwood, or of wattle woiic 
(Molb.) ; S. Jutl gcerdsel; O. Sw. gat^a, materials for hedge-making. The Sw. dialecti 

five instances of compounds formed with this word : e. g. gardselsto, the line or mark in a 
eld which long remains to shew where an old hedge has once stood ; gdrdsd-stok^ the 
fragments of hedge^takes, &c., remaining after the destruction or removal of a hedge-fence. 
These Scand. words, one or other of them, seem to take in all-sized hedging materials, from 
trees, to brush ; which may account for the somewhat varying, or fluctuating, meaning of 
our word. 

Gkurthy sb. i. An enclosure generally; the specific object of the 
enclosure being specified by a p]:efix, as Stag-garth, Kirk-garth, &c. 
2. An Intak% or enclosure (on sufferance) by a cottager from the 
common, as a substitute for a garden. 

O. N. gariSr; S. Q. gird; Sw. g'drdt; Sw. D. gard; O. Sw. g(Br^ gar\>€: O. Dan, 
gartbt gaar, gaard ; Dsin.gaard; A,S,geard. Molbech's remark upon gaard^ applicable 
to all the above-given words also, is * Originally — but now obsolete — an enclosing (with a 
hedge or fence, namely), a hedge, a place or spot enclosed with a hedge {mbegnt() ; hence 
abildgaard, an orchard ; kaalgaard, kale, or vegetable garden (kaU-garib^ or yard in Sc.) ; 
kirkegaardf churchyard (our Kirk-garth) ; urtegaard^ vegetable-garth ; Imnsigaard, 
fowl-yard, &c' The word, in sense a, often takes the prefix ' Potato.' 

Qauby, sb. A heavy, vacant lout, an oaf, a simpleton; one awk- 
wardly silly rather than simply a fool See Gkauvey, QauYison, and 

These words are all nearly connected with O. N. and Sw. gapa^ Dan. gabe, &c. O. N. 
and O. Sw. gapa is equivalent to, to stare with open mouth, to gaze wi^ stupid astonish- 
ment ; which is nearly the meaning also of the Dan. word ; whence the prov. saying, den 
ene abe faaer den anden tU ai gate : if one be an ape, he sets another to gape. Comp. 
^* g^'^P* ^ gahy, an oaf; Sw. D. gapuger, of a heavy stupid lout with gaping mouth and 

E e 2 


staring ^yes, and Dan. D. gahenar^ a Quuby or Gauvey. It inay be added that in very 
many instances, especially in prov. Pr., the sound of Dan. b passes into that of v or/. Thos, 
in luhke et gab, to stop a gap, Molb. gives gauv as the prov. form, or sound of gab. In like 
manner, Kok gives gjaff as the Pr. of gcebbe, gjaff for that of gabbe; gbjh for gobn, 
a Oowpen ; S)b/ for bob, hope, &c. Hencfe Gauvey and Gauby are, it may be said, 

GBufer, sb. A kind of tea-cake or crampet, of a square or rect- 
angular form, made of batter. 

* And wajres pyp3mg hoot out of the gleede.' Miller's TaU. 

* These were probably the Fr. gaufres, whence the word waftr, gu and w being 
convertible, as Walter from Gualtier. They are usually sold at fairs, and are made of a 
kind of batter poured into an iron instrument which shuts up like a pair of snuffers. It is 
then thrust into the fire, and, on withdrawal, the wafer'— ^r Gaufer — * is taken out and 
eaten/ Note to Bell's Chaucer, 

' Gofer. A species of pancake pressed into a square form by irons.' Lineolnsb. d. 

Gauk, gawk, gauky, sb. An oaf, a stupid, an awkward fool. 

Comp. S. G. gdieh, geek, a fool, foolish, stupid; O.N. gich, gikkr; Sw. gdek; Sw. D. 
gdkkigf foolish, buffoon-like; O. Germ, goucb; M.QcTm. gocb, giege; Germ. D. geckig; 
A. S. geoc, rash, foolhardy ; Welsh coeg. Mr. Wedgw. would connect prov. E. gawi, 
gawky, an awkward person, Fr. gaucbe, with O. £. awke, E. awkward. See his remarks 
under Awk. The assumed connection between Gaiik or Sc. gowk, and Gowk, a cuckoo, 
receives no confirmation from the words quoted above. 

Gkmk-handed, gawk-handed, adj. Left-handed, awkward, clumsy. 
See GkQlao-handed. 

Gauky^ adj. i. Awkward in mind, foolish, blundering. 2. Awkward 
in body or motion, shambling. See Gauk. 

Gaum, V. a. . To understand or comprehend ; to give heed or pay 
attention ; to consider ; to know. 

O. N. gaumr, S. G. gbm, N. gaum, care, heed, attention. O. N. geyma, S. G. goma, 
N. gauma, O. Dan. g9me, Swiss gaumen, gomen, A. S. gyman, geomian, O. Germ, gou- 
men, Dan. D. gaue — all, to give heed, attention, forethought, or the like. Rietz connects 
Sw. gomma, to take care of, to lay up ; Sw. D. g&jm'd, gdma, gimma, with this word. 
Comp. the thought in the words, — * But his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.' 
Luke ii. 51. 

* " Ah dinnot gaum ye ;" I do not understand you.* Wh. Gl. 

* It 's te nae use speaking ; he dizn't gaum nae mair an nowght.' 

The form in P. Plougbm., King Horn, Townel. Mysi., Rel. Pieces, is yeme, ybeme or 

* He \>zt )>ise twa wele ^emes all \>e tene commandementes forsothe he fulfilles.' Rei. 
Pieces, p. 7. 

Gaum, sb. Attention, heed, observance. 

* Ah gav' 't nae gaum ;' I paid no attention. 

* Niwer heed : he '11 give you nae gaum ;' he will pay no regard to what you say. 


Comp. O. Dan, * TTbg gamla fedber gaff ieg ey gbtn, for skemt oc gamen tba bolt Ug 
Attn :* to the aged then gave I no gaum, but held them sdl for jest and scorn. 

* Em gt/aigi gaum at mir :* but gave me no gaum. Flat. i. 554. 

Gkramiflhy adj. Intelligent, acute. 

GkiumlesSy adj. Stupid, unintelligent, vacant or half silly. 

Qaup, V. n. To stare vacantly, to stare with open mouth, as at any 
novel or surprising sight. 

0. N., O. Sw., Sw., Sw. D., N. gapa, to stare with open mouth, to gaze with stupid 
astonishment. Comp. N. gapen, of one who gazes and stares at any new thing. 

Qaut, sb. A narrow opening, whether in a row of houses, or in the 
soil, sufficing to afford a passage, for men, &c., in the one case, for water 
in die other. Spelt also Qawt, Gk>te. 

Comp. Sw. D. g^e, a strait or confined passage between two houses, in which sound as 
well as sense is almost exactly coincident with that of our word. Rietz gives the word in 
question as connected with gatt, gat, or gad; O. N., N., and Dan. D. gai, an opening, or 
hole through. Comp. Hind, gat, a pass or defile. There are several Gauts or Ghotes 
at Whitby ; as Horsemill-^aw/, Fbh-^au/. Wb. Ol. 

Gkiuve, v. n. To stare vacantly or wonderingly, but with the wonder 
of stupidity not intelligence. See Qape, Gauby. 

Gkiuvey, gauvison, sb. A simpleton ; one that is half silly, or with 
less than his proper proportion of wits. See Gauby. 

Qauving, adj. Awkward in manner, given to stare in a stupid kind 
of way. Probably the pcpl. of Gkiuve originally, but by usage passed 
into an adj. 

Gavelook, sb. (pr. geeavlok). A crow-bar, an iron bar of sufficient 
dimensions to be used in moving weighty masses of stone, &c. 

Gamett quotes Welsh gaflacb, a fork, as the origin of Gavelook. Besides which we 
have O. N. gaflok, S. G. gafflak (which Ihre refers to W. gaflacb), and A. S. ga/eluc, 
gaueloc, all meaning a javelin, or missile of that description, the shaft of which could of 
course be used as a bar or lever. It is observable that Gavelook is not applied in the case 
of a large and heavy crow-bar : that is simply a Bar. 

Gkiy, adj. i. Fair or fine to look at; hence, fine, considerable in 
size or quantity, worthy of consideration or regard. 2. Lively, cheerful, 
brisk ; hence, well in health. 

1. * A gay denty morning,' 

' A gay bit o* land ;' a large piece, a good deal. 

• ** A gay few ;" a good many.' Wb. Gl. 
1. * I am quite gay, thank you.' 76. 


Gayish, adj. Fairly or reasonably good. 


■A gayhb sample;' a f»ir1y good tptdmen, not open to objection on the score of 

Gayly, adv. In good health, very well, satisfactorily or prosperously. 

ee of profperitj. 

Gear, sb. i. Equipment in general, the special kind being usually 
indicated by a prefix, as Mill-gear, Horse-gear, or -gears, &c. ; 
dress or array. 2. Property in general, goods of whatever kind. 
3, Matter in hand, or business. The general idea of what is made 
or being made, seems to run through all the signiRcations of the 

Mr. Wedgwood collalei O. N. gtrji, and A. S. gfom/a, habilimenli, adding, ' whileTcr 1* 
TCquired to let a diing in ictioo :' but I am more dUpoted to adopt the riew which giva 
vbat maj be called > pauive leiue to our word, that which hu taken, or ii taking, (orao 
miking, prepatiog, or acquiring, previoui to use or employment. And it ihould be ob- 
•erved that gtarwa itself is Engliihed by Boiworlh with the word ' prepatalion.' ai well at 
■ck)lhingi' while gtdro, gtarv, giane, agmnea, gart. ready, piep»red, paratui, only 
comet by that meaning in virtue of the peculiar or proper sense of the p.p. which faratvi 
ii. Comp. O. D. givd, gird, O. N. girK, which hai the meaning, I. of buiinest, work in 
hand, what it going on, precisely like our sense 3 ; and, 1. a sum prepared, and then paid 
for a given purpose ; quoted alto, in this latter tense, by Molb. as parallel to A. S. giara, 
provitio, apparatus, impenia. And this second sense, moreoTCi, has many more points of 
resonblance iLan of discordance with our first Further, Sw, D. g'ari, a doing, buiineii, 
that which it being done or carried on, very nearly cotretpondt with our word in form and 
part of its meaning ; and its secondary meaning, ' that which Is made by band, as spinning, 
knitting, &c„' brings it nearer itill. The word, at an O. E. word, early gave rite to ■ 
derivative verb, and the part, gind, in the senses, arrayed, dressed, equipped, disposed, Sec., 

I. ' f e bur ber to hit baft Jiat btasle all her giri ;' of the ship. 

E. Bug. Allil. Fo4ms, C. 1. 148. 
' 1 tarry fulle lang fro' my watke, I traw : 
Now my girt wille I fang and thcderwatJ draw.' Toaml. Myil. p. 16. 
' Miche wat) te gyld gin hat glent l^r alofte.' 

Sir Qaur. and Gr. Kn. 1. 569. 
' Alle ))« godlych giri l>it hym gayn schulde (lai lyde.' Ji. L 5S4, 
In both these latter instances the reference is to the various pieces, Htlings and veitmenit 
which went to the full equipment of a knight in complete armour, 

■Wait while Ah gets mi' nor tegilher, an' Ah '11 be wi'ye inoo;' wait until I coiled my 
tools, &c. 

J. ■ Ill-gotten gtar: 

• How are they off for giar T ' Wb. Qi. 

3. ' F'en ar lay synliil hemteirand tulped (polluted) al logeder, 

Bo>e god and his jr<n' E. EHg. AUil. Poina. B. IJi. 


* Noab. The top and the saylle both wille I make. 

The helme and the castelle also wille I take, 

To drife ich a naylle wille I not forsake. 

This gtre may never faylle, that dar I undertake.' Toumel. Myst, p. 17. 

' Nae, Ah '11 nat mell : let him wark his ain gtar,' 

Gee. The word of command to horses in a team to turn to the 
right ox from the driver ; substituted for the older word Bee. 

Jam. spells this word jm, and refers to Sw. gH * as signifying both to budgt, and /o turn 
rounds' which is certainly true, with the limitation that it is so applied in respect of the 
motion, or going, of matters which move only in the way of turning. Still there is little 
doubt that the origin of gee is in gi and its etymons. The occasional use of a particle 
or word in addition — as gee-baok — suggests the possibility that gee may be an elliptical 
mode of expression. See Hauv, Hyte, Bee. 

Geeiiy gien, gi'n. Forms of the pret of Give. 

Geld, adj. Barren or not producing young at the usual or expected 
season ; of cows and ewes. See Drape ; which is the word more com- 
monly in use. 

Sw. D. galduTt barren, of a cow the year she bears no calf; otherwise, gald^ gall, galla, 
gild. Of ewes also; gold #. O.N. geldr; O. Sw. galdtr; Dzn. gold; as en gold ko; 
Dan. D. gield; as m giddko ; N. guid; Sw. D. gahPto, gallh^t gaUku or gdll-iut See, 
Comp. our GKeld-oow. 

Geld-coWy sb. A cow that does not produce a calf in due time. 

Gen, gim, v. n. i. To grin; i. e. to part the lips so as to shew the 
teeth, whether in displeasure or anger, or in mirth : hence, to shew signs 
of displeasure or discontent. 2. To snarl, to give vent to discontent, 
to repine. Sometimes Qenu 

Here again the orthography is uncertain. I scarcely think there is but one word simply 
resulting by metath. from grin, but rather that there are, in reality, two words ; the one 
coincident with Sc. gim, and E. grin, and the other descended from O. N. gina, hiare, os 
deducere ; gin, rictus, oris diductio. Comp. gin-ldofi, a spasmodic tension of the mouth, or 
grin, and especially Sw. D. ginnds, to cry, repine ; gjdnnds, to grin, try to bite, as a horse 
does ; which Rietz connects directly with O. N. gina. Note also O. Germ, gin&n, ginin, 
and A. S. ginan, with Or. xp^i»€i», to gape, to open, as the mouth in the act of grinning. 
I. * Thou gtns lahk a Chesshire cat eating brass wire.' 
a. * He gims all t' flesh off his back the day tiv an end.' Wb. Gl, 

• A genning sort o* body.' lb, 

Gep, V. n. To seek intelligence or knowledge of what is going on 
in a furtive manner; e. g. by listening or eavesdropping. 

Probably a derivative from E. gape. Any one listening closely or intentiy is apt enough 
to do so with his lips parted, possibly with a mouth sufficiently wide open. Comp. Sw. D. 
gepa, to chatter or prate ; gifa, to talk without discretion or thought, to chatter ; both 
frequentatives from gapa. 

* They are always watching and geppimg,' Wb, Gl, 


G'erse, g'ess, sb. Grass. In the pronunciation of this woid the r 
is, in eflfect, dropped, and a faint sound of i — not unlike the Jutland 
* help- vowel' — is heard before the short e, 

Comp. A.S. gears f gears, grass. 

Gtersingy g'essing, sb. Grass land, or rather land in grass; pas- 

G^rt, greeat. Forms of great. 

Gtesling, sb. A gosling, or immature goose. 

Sw. D. gosling; O. Sw. gceslinger; Dan. g<Bsling, As gosling from goost (A. S. gds), so 
our word from the diminutives of Scand. gds, gets, &c. 

Gtet, sb. (pr. gitt, g hard), i. Offspring, what has been begotten by 
any one. 2. A breed or variety among creatures that are begotten. See 
Mak', as applied in nearly the same manner to things without life. 

O.N. geia, to beget, to conceive; A.S. geian, gitan^ O.N. gHnadr, that which is 
gotten, produce or offspring. 

I. * To Abraham I am in dett 

To safe hym and his gette.* TounUl, Mysi, p. 73. 

' Isaac. Fader ! 

Abraham, What, son ? 

Isaac. Think on thi gci : 

What have I done ?* lb. p. 39. 

3. • " Ha* ye seen Willy R.'s new pigs ?" " Ncca. 'S they ony particular giif" ' 

Qetf V. aux. See examples. 

* We '11 get shoren by nee*t ;' shall have finished reaping by night-time. 

* Get sided up ;* get everything put in order. 
' Get peed, honey ;' to a young child. 

Cf. ' En Sigmundr gat skHdit upp :* but Sigmundr managed to crawl up (got crept up) 
on the shore, namely.* Flatty, i. 559. 

* E/ Olafr gati unnit Lunduna bryggiur :* if Olaf should succeed in winning (could get 
won) London Bridge. lb, ii. 22, a6. 

Gtet, Able to. Able to reach a given place. 

* Ah wur gannan te Whitby to-moom, but Ah know n't an Ah sal be yabble te git.* 

Qet a-gate, v. n. To begin or make a start with a piece of work of 
any kind. See Agait. 

Qet away with, v. n. To get forward with a piece of work ; to be 
doing it quickly and well. 

Gtet one's life. To. To be fatal in effect, induce death. 

* Ah 's dou'tful 't 'U get bis life;* of sonow, calamity, sore sickness, &c. 


Gtet the length of, v. n. To get as far as, to reach, this or that 
place or distance. 

* It 's as much as he can do to get the length 0' t* garden-end/ 

Comp. saa gik bun et par agerlangder bar og flyttede htrene : so she went the length of 
a couple of fields and shifted the kye. Gamle Danske Minder ^ 2nd Ser. p. 139. 

Gtetherer, sb. The person whose business it is to rake the com as 
it is mown into separate lots or bundles for the Binder to bind into 
sheaves. See Bandster. 

Gtetten, p. p. of Gtot. 

* He, Godd and man bathe in a personne, was sothefastly of [»at blessyde maydene, Godd 
geiyne of his ffiidire be-fore any tyme/ Rel. Pieces, p. 4. 

* Wrangwisely to halde ]>zt at es getyne.* lb. p. la. 

Qew-gow, sb. (g hard). A Jew's-harp, or trump. 

O.N. giga; Sw. giga; Sw. D. gajgd; Dan. gige; Germ, geige; a kind of stringed 
musical instrument ; a fiddle. 

' Sir Thomas Brown states that a brass Jew's-harp, nchly gilded, was found in an ancient 
Norwegian urn. If so, Sutherland may be indebted to the Norwegians for its favourite, 
almost national instrument.' Notes 0/ Travel in i860, p. 151. 

Gib, sb. A hook, such as is artificially formed on a walking-stick, 
or may be due to natural growth. 

Comp. E. gib, to start back or aside ; Dut. gijpen, of sails, to turn suddenly ; E. gibe, to 
turn from one side or course to another, of a boat under sail before the wind when her 
course is altered without tacking, the sails being shifted from one side to the other. Comp. 
also O. Fr. regiber, to wince, start back ; Sw. gipa, to wry or twist the mouth. 

Gib-stick, sb. A stick with a hook at the end, whether natural or 
formed by hand. 

* Noo, lads, it 's owther scheeal or a taste o* mah gibstieh ower yer shoothers.' An old 
Dales yeoman's account of the way in which his sons had come to be ' sae rigler at 

Gf en (pr. gin or geen), p. p. of Give. 

* A geen bite 
Is soon put out o' sight.' Wh, OL 

Gif, conj. If 

A. S. gif, gyf, Ihre's remark on S. G. jef, doubt, hesitation, is * habent linguae cognatse 
particulam dubitativam ^, si ; A. S. t/, gif; Ang. if, quibuscum convenit M. G. jahai, jau, 
et gau* Another conmion archaic form was y^, 

GifT-gaff, sb. The interchange of familiar or unstudied conversation 
on cursory topics. 

One of the frequent instances of reduplication of consonantal sounds with a change of 
vowel. Comp. O. N. gifr, babbling, tattling, and A. S. gaf-sprcec, a babbling. 



Giglet, giglot, sb. A giddy, laughing girl. 

* G^^. Jig* Giglet. The fundamental idea is lapid, reciprocating, or whirling action, 
whence the O. £. gig, a top. 

" To sec great Hercules whipping a gig** Lovis Labour Lost, 

To jig is to move rapidly to and fro. Fr. gigue, gige, a jig, or rapid dance ; gigtter, to 
run, leap, jump ; gigues, a li^t, versatile girl, a giglot or gigUl, QigUt FortutUt incon- 
stant fortune. Cymbeline. Swiss gageln^ to joggle; g€^lit a girl XhaX cannot sit still.* 
Wedgw. Cf. also Sw. D. gikkdl^ to raise or build up any thing or stmcture, so that it shaU 
be likely to topple down if touched ; gikiel, that which is so raised or put together. Note 
also giga, to put up frail or tottering fence-work. 

Gilder, gildert, sb. A snare or running noose, made of horsehair, 
and used for catching small birds. 

O. N. and O. Sw. gilder, a snare, a gin ; O. D. giider; as Riven gaaer ei to gange paa 
eet gilder: the fox doesn't walk twice into the same snare; Sw. D. giUra, to set gilders; 
Sw. giller, a snare, trap, gin. 

* Falsehede or okyr, or o)>er gelery* Rd. Pieces, p. I a. 

Gilevat, guilevat, sb. (pr. gahlfat). i. The tub or vat in which 
new-made ale or other liquor is set to ferment. 2. The fermenting ale, 
&c., itself. 

* N. gil, ale in a state of fermentation ; gil-kar, gU-saa, the tnb in which the wort fer- 
ments ; Dut. gbijlen, to boil, to effervesce ; gyl, gyl-bier, beer in which the fermentation is 
going on. T* bier stoat in *t gijl; the beer ferments * Wedgw. Add also Welsh gU, fer- 
mentation. Gam. p. 165. Probably the Sw. D. gel, gal, gU, brisk, excited, &c., with the 
string of etymons given by Rietz, is nearly connected Hall, gives ' Gail, a tub used in 
brewing ; gail-clear, a tub for wort, spelt gcUlker in Hallamsh. Gl. p. 147 ;' with which 
comp. N. gil-har ; ' gaU-disb, a vessel used in pouring liquor into a bottle or cask ;' and 
also * gidile, of liquor, as much as is brewed at once ; guil-fat, a wort-tub ; gyle, wort.* iZ/- 

^t is Uie Shropshire form, gilefattes in Fineb. Pr. Inv. 

Gill, sb. {g soft). A half-pint. 

* Gylle, lytylle pot, gilla, vel gillus, vel gillungulus. Pr. Pm. GiUo, vas fictile. Oloss. in 
Due. Vascula vinaria quae mutato nomine guillones aut flascones appellantur. — Paul. Dia- 
conus in Due* Wedgw. 

Gill, sb. {g hard). A ravine, a narrow valley or glen, with pre- 
cipitous or rocky banks properly, and usually with a stream running 
along the lK)ttom. 

O. N. gily montis fauces, chasma profundius, geil; N. g'd, gjel, gjyl, a deep and length- 
ened glen or fissure in a mountainous district ; Sw. D. gUja, a mountain pass, or glen ; 
M. Germ. giel. Comp. Hind. gU, a pass ; Pers. gileb, id. A word of continual occurrence 
here, and furnishing a name to many different families, though second in number to the 
* Dales.' 

Gilliver, jilliver, sb. A loose or wanton woman : Wh. GL adds 
* in the last stage of her good looks,' which is probably only a local 
restriction of sense, if really existing in any entire district. Cr, GL 


simply gives it * an old woman of loose habits/ without reference to 
' looks.' Hall, gives ^ gillivery a wanton wench.' 

Carr suggests * corruption from gU-flurt* Is it not as likdy to be in reference to the 
giUyflower — gillofgrt gillo/re — in its redundant or ptusSe stage ? Or the connection may be 

Gilt, sb. A female pig of any age under maturity. When herself a 
mother she becomes a ' sow.' 

Sw.D, gyllta: 1. a spayed sow; 2. a young, half-grown sow pig, which has not yet 
borne pigs ; also gyllt^ goUta, gyllter, &c. O. N. gilta^ gyltr^ gulta^ a sow ; Dan. D. gyU, 
a young sow, the first time she goes with young ; A. S. gilte; O. Germ, galza, gdza, &c. 

Gimmal, sb. A narrow passage between two houses. Wh, GL 
* Ginnel' occurs in the Leeds and Cr, GL with the same signification. 

O. N. gima^ an opening, fissure, gap ; Sw D. gima^ gimman or gitnmen, the mouth of an 
oven ; giman, an opening into a hoop-net. But O. N. gimald, with the same signification 
as gima, gives our exact form. For Ginnel^ comp. O. N. gina, to gape open, as a ckft, or 
the mouth, does ; ginOf chasma nubium ; A. S. ginan, geonant to yawn, gape, be wide open. 

Gimmer, sb. A female sheep, from the time of its first being clipped 
to that of its first bearing young ; otherwise, to that of its second shear- 
ing ; usually termed Shearling-gimmer. 

O. N. gimbur, gimhla^ an ewe lamb ; O. Sw. gimmer, ovicula, quae primum enititur ; 
Sw. D. gimher^ a young sheep that has not had a lamb ; N. gimbrt gytnbr ; Dan. D. gim- 
mer, id. Molb. quotes our Engl, forms from Brock., and Ihre gravely supposes that Ray 
must have been joking when he suggests * possibly from gammer-lamb. Gammer is a con- 
traction of godmother, and is the usual compellation of the conmion sort of women.* Rietz 
adduces Syr. emer, a lamb, and bids compare Gr. x^fx'po'* X^f'^P^* ^ she-goat. 

Gimmer-hog, sb. An ewe-lamb, from the time of its being weaned 
up to the time of its first shearing, or Clipping. See Hog. 

Gimmer-lamb, sb. An ewe-lamb : a term applied until the animal 
is weaned. 

O.N. gimbrurlamb; N. gimbrdamb; Sw. D. gimmerlam, gommerlamt gommaldm; 
Dan. D. gimmerlam. 

Gin, conj. If, in case, even if, although. 

* Gin is no other than the participle givm, gi'en, gi'n,' Tooke ; — a statement as much open 
to doubt as the similar ones made in the case of g^ It is likely there is the same relation- 
ship between gin and an * if, in case, that there is between gjf and if, Comp. S. G. and 
Sw. on, if ; as, on om sd vote: what if it were so. Note also M. G. an, and O. N. end. 

Ginner, adv. Rather, more willingly. 

The derivation of this word would suggest a different orthography— ^frn«r or gemer — 
but that thence would arise the sound go*nner — like Bo'd for fnrd, Wo'd for word, 8cc. 
Comp., however, the Pr. of girl, — Qe'l; and gen, to grin, snarl. The word is due to 
O. N. gjam, gim, willing, ready ; Sw. D. gem ; A. S. geom / O. Germ, gemi, gem. 
Sw. D. presents also the forms geren, gerun, gj'dntn, 

* Ah 'd ginner gan than stay.* Wb, Gl, 

F f 2 


GHm, V. n. To grin; to snarl; to give vent to displeasure or dis- 
content. See Gen, 

Give, V. n. To yield on tension, to stretch ; of cloth, leather, &c 
To give way, or move a little, to efforts to shake or dislodge ; of any- 
thing fixed : as, a stopper in a bottle, a nail in a wall, &c. 

* New gloves always give a bit/ 

* Ah can't stor it. It weeant give nae mair an nowght.' 

Give again, v. n. i. To relent, soflen in feeling or intent 2. To 

I. * " Ah thinks he 's ommost gi^n again about it ;" relented, relaxed his opinions on the 
subject/ Wb. Gl. 

a. ' Aye, it gfes again;* it thaws a little. 

Give back, v. n. To recede or shrink from, an encounter or at- 
tempt, for instance. 

* He 's not o* t* soort t* gi* back : he 'd dec ginner/ 

Give in, v. n. i. To tender or make an offer; as, for a contract, or 
a farm, or a given piece of work. 2. To throw up, or rather to give 
notice of intending to quit, a farm or house, &c. 

Give out, V. n. To cease or fail, as a supply of any given article. 

Give over, v. n. To leave off, to discontinue : of continual use 

Glazzen, v. n. To glaze or put glass into windows ; to ply the craft 
of a glazier. 

The adj. glassen, A. S. gl€Bsen, is used by B. Jonson ; and in the West of Engl., according 
to Hall. Pr. Pm, gives * Glasyn wythe glasse. Vitro* 

Glazzener, sb. A glazier. 

Glead, gled, sb. The kite {Milvus regalts), 

Glease, v. n. To run rapidly in sport or frolic, as children in pursuit 
of their companions in any game. 

This word would seem to be nearly related to O. E. glace^ to glance as an arrow turned 
aside ; Pr. Pm, * Glacynge, or wrong glydynge of boltys or arrowis.* 

Comp. * Her fygure fyn, quen I had fonte, 

Such gladande glory con to me glace^ 
As lyttel byfore J>cr-to wat3 wonte/ 

E. Eng. AUii. Poems^ A. U 170. 

Or it may be more directly connected with Sw. D. glisa, glysa^ glesa, &c., to glance, dart 
through, as a ray or gleam of light does ; O Germ, glizan ; A. S. glisian. The transition 
in meaning would be simple enough, in order to arrive at that of our word. 


Gleasing, sb. i. A sharp or rapid act of pursuit. 2. A suit at law, 
or rather the damages incurred by the loss of it. 3. Loss or damage 
generally. Wh, GL 

I. * " I have had a good gleasing after him ;" a sharp run in pursuit' Wh, Gl. 

a. * " He has had to bide a bonny gleating;** sustain heavy charges in a law-suit.' lb, 

Comp. ' Uxor, It were a fowlle blot to be hanged for the case. 
Mak, I have skapyd, Jelott, oft as hard a glase* 

Toumel. Mysi. p. 106 ; see also p. 201. 

Gleg, V. n. To cast side-looks, to glance furtively. 

Cf. O. N. gluggTt an opening, a window, the eye ; Sw. D. gittgg, glogg, id. ; titta uuntr 
glugg : look askance, cast side looks ; Itaita sneda bliekar. It would appear that our vb. 
has been derived directly either from this, or from the vb. gloggva, videre, quoted by Ihre. 
Note N. D. gl9g. The Leeds form is gUg; a word used of a horse who turns his head 
sufficiently to enable him to see his driver, notwithstanding his blinkers. 

• They go prying and gUgging intil every body's neuk.' Wh. Gl, 

Glent, glint, sb. A glimpse, or mere passing sight or glance. 

Grimm, says Rietz, in v. Glinia, or gl'drUa, * supposes a lost strong vb., glintan, glani, 
glufUun, to shine, glance with light, and probably this word which remains with us is the 
word in question.' Sw. D. glintan gldrUOt implies I. to slip, to slide, or fall from slipping 
on smooth ice ; and a. to slip from one, to miscarry, to miss. O. E. glent bears both the 
meanings, to glance or shine, and to slip or fall : thus, — 

* Miche wat3 ^e gyld gere )>at glent )>er alofte.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, I. 569. 

* . . . red ryche gold naylej 

pat al glytered and glent as glem of the sunne.' Jh, 604. 

* f'e gyltyf may contryssyoun hente 
& be ]>ur3 mercy to grace )vy3t ; 
Bot he to gyle )>at neuer glenU 

At in-oscente is saf and ryjt.' E, Eng, Allit, Poems, A. 1. 668. 

The editor explains the word in this last passage by ' slipped, fell ;' but it would equally 
well bear the meaning, turned aside, which is nearly coincident with that of our Clevd. vb. 
glint. Comp. Welsh ysglentio, to slide. The sb. gUnt occurs in Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, 
1. 1 290 : 

* penne ho gef hym god-day, and wjrth a glent la3ed, 
& as ho stod, ho stonyed hym wydi ful stor worde3.' 

* Ah nobbut gat a glint ov 'im.' 

Glep, V. n. To stare vacandy or as in astonishment See Glop. 

Gliff, gUft, sb. I. A short or hasty glance; a mere passing sight. 
2. A glimpse of something startling or terrifying; thence, a fright or 
startling, or scaring. In Wh, GL Glift bears the second meaning, and 
Gliff the first : but there can be no doubt the words are essentially 

Note the usage of O. E. vb. a. and n. gliff, glyfi, 

* pe god nun glyfte with )>at glam and gloped for noyse.' 

E, Eng, AUU, Poems, B. 1. 849 ; 

• Sir Giviyae gljifiis on ihn gome wilb a gUde wiile.' Mvrti Arlh.f. m. 

Note alio the adverbial foim, agtyfti. Camp. Dan. glippt, lo miu. lo wink, to >lip: 
E. glib, and also N. gltpfxi. Low Genu, glipptn. Sec. Sec Wedgw. in v. Glib. 

I. ■ Ah nobbul gal a y/j^ on 't i' a mere pasiing glance. 

a. '"Ah gal a laic gliff:" 1 got a loie waring, or "saw something." as the phrase 
goes.' Wb. OI. 

Qlint, V. n. i. To glance, or shine brightly but transienily. a. To 
glance, or turn on one side after impact. See Qlent. 

1. • T' shol-cooms glialid aS its wings, iihk lain aff a duck's back.' 

Comp, ' Gawayn gtaybely hit (the blow) bydc^, and gltiu with no membrc, 

Bot node iiylle ai t>e Eton. ot>er a slubbe autet, 

fat rajjcled is in roche grounde with rotes a hundrelh.' 

Sir Gam. and Gr, Kh. I. li^t, 

Qlip, sb. The result of negligence or want of care or vigilance: 
a word occurring in the phrase ' to give glip,' in use among boys, and 
meaning to let one escape or pass vmcaught in the course of any boyish 

O. N. glap, glof, iocnria, inconsideiautia ; glappca. imptudenter Tacere; gt«Pf, failure, 
unluck; Dan. glip, glippi, as, — Ai goat glip of nogtl: to Tail, or miti attaining a thing. 
a.D.glipt. Cf. lifvYvrbitnuiliaiUgluffiiS: oi )cmlis gliffm : if through hcedlrisness 
you blunder. Ancr. RiwlB, p. 46. 

Glisk, 1 

To glisten or glitter. 

D- glas! 

a.glysa; O. Girm. gliza». 

Gloftming, sb, The transitionary state between light and darkness 
at evening ; twilight. 

A. S. ghniKHg, glommung. A word very nearly connected with Chanccr's glombt, and 

' Oute lyte tytlci, he sayi, on sege 10 hyje 
In his glwande gkiiy. and gloumbu (ul lyllel, 
pit I be nummen io Niniuie and Inked dispojled, 
On tode rwly lo-ienl. with rybaudet many 1' 
where the idea is 10 take terious or coniidermg notice. And here we may comp, Sw. D. 
glamina, gldma, to gaze at one allenlively. 01 with ttedliit cyei ; glimug, one with great 
eyei and gixing wilh them intently. From intentness or ieiiouine» of obscrvalioii the idea 
(cems to pais to tliat of ftowoing or (uUeii looking on or al : as wben Fortune 
' . . . whilome woll of folfce smile. 
And glombi on hem another while.' Cbauctr. 
Mr. Morrii obtcrves. 01. to S. Bag. Allil. Ponm, that ' it seenu 10 be connected with 
O. N. glampa, 10 glitter, ^ine,' Rieit coniiecti the cognate glomma with Sw. D. ^lo, 10 


shine, to glitter ; O. N. gloa, A. S. gldwan, O. Germ, glojan, E. Dial, glow, to stare, &c. ; 
and, through some cognate form to glomma, we get Dan. D. glum, fear-inspiring, scowling ; 
glummende, nearly answering to our glum, gluxnpy ; N. S. glummen, to look sullen or 
vengeful ; glum, thick, of the water or the atmosphere ; gloomy, therefore. Mr. Wedgw. 
adds, * Prov. Dan. glomme, Swiss glumsen, to glow in a covert way, as coals beneath the 
ashes ; E. gloom ; a condition of covered light : gloming or gloaming, the time of day 
when the light shines obscurely from below the horizon ; like a person looking out from 
beneath his brows.* 

Gloore, glore, v. n. To stare with fixed look, to gaze intently. 
Spelt also Gloar, Glower. 

Sw. D. glora, to stare, to gaze intently ; N. glora, to stare. The original meaning of 
O. N. glora is to glare, as with excess of light, to glow as burning coals; in which sense 
N. S. gl'oren, Dut. gloren, Swiss gloren, glaren occur. 

* He gloored vfV baith een.' Wb, Gl. 

Glop, V. n. To Stare open-mouthed as in astonishment. 

O. N. glapa, to stare, gape ; N. glipe, gl^ype, to gape, stand wide open ; Sw. D. glipa. 
Rietz considers these words as allied to gliopa, N. glupa, &c., I. to gulp down, to swallow 
¥nth an effort ; 2. to have the mouth open. Mr. Morris collates O. Fris. glupa, to look, to 
peep ; Dan. glippe, to wink. Compare also O. N. gUpa, caligiuem oculis infimdere. The 
word also takes the form Glep. Note — 

* I'e god man glyfte with )>at glam, and gloped for noyse,' 

E, Eng. AUit, Poems, B. 1. 849 ; 

of Lot, at Sodom, when required to give up his guests, where gloped is explained by, 
* was terrified, frightened, amazed.' Our usage supplies an equally applicable sense ; 
as in, — 

* What are you standing and glopping at?* Wb. Gl. 

In Toumel. Myst. p. 146, where glope occurs as a sb., the sense is that of glad surprise. 
Relievetfty the suggestion made to put all the * knave chyldren of two yerys brede, and 
withe in' to death, so as to be sure to include the one dreaded one, Herod exclaims — 

* Now thou says here tylle 

A right nobylle gyn t 
If 1 lyf in land good lyfe, as I hope. 
Thus dar I the warand to make the Pope. 
O I my hart is rysand now in a glope I* 

whereas before his expression had been — 

* My guttys wille oute thryng, 
Bot I this lad hyng. 
Withoutt I have aveng3mg 

I may lyf no langer.' 

Gloppen, V. a. To startle greatly, to terrify. 

See Glep, Glop, from which this is a derivative. 

* Thou wenys to glopyne me vrith thy gret wordes.* Hall. 

For agesten, Ancr. Riwle, p. 21a, the 7V/ws Version reads glopnen, in the sense of 
terrify :—* J^e ateliche deouel schal glopnen ham mid his grimme grennunge.' 

- - - - -- 


Glor, sb. Utter or mere fat. 

Hall, gives * Glur^ soft coarse fat, not well set. Applied to bacon.' He also gives 
* gloar-fat^ immensely fat/ and adduces the expression, 'not all glory-fat' from Fletdier's 
poems. O. N. gollr is the ' leaf* of a sheep, or accumulation of fat about the kidneys and 
neighbouring parts ; and gollur-sikinn^ the pericardium. By metathesis this becomes glur, 

* " All of a glor and a jelly ;" trembling with adiposity.' Wb, GL 

* " G/or-fat ;" loose fat.' /&. 

Glor-fat, adj. Excessively fat. See Glor. 

Glum, adj. Sullen-looking, gloomy. See Gloaming. 

' As glum as a thunder-cloud.' Wb, Gl, 

Gliimps, sb. Sulks ; the condition of being sullen or gloomily out 
of temper. See Gloaming. 

Gliimpy, adj. Sullen, out of spirits and temper. 

Glut, sb. A large and thick wooden wedge, used in splitting blocks 
of wood, &c. 

Pr. Pm. * Clyte^ or clote, or ytggt (clete or wegge). Cuneus.* * Gluts, wedges. Norib.' 
Hall. Cf. N. D. glytta. Possibly connected wi^ N. gloti, an opening, a space between, 
a rift; Sw. D. gluft; and thence with O. Dan. glut: — din er tdtid god som gluttm fyllder : 
all is good which fills the glut ; the relationship being like that which characterises DikOt 
a ditch, and Dike, a bank. The original connection may be with A. S. elifian, clwfittHt 
Sw. D. kliova, to cleave, split. 

Gnag, nag, v. n. To assail pertinaciously with reproaches or re- 
marks tending to irritate, but all of a petty nature. 

O. N. gnaga, rodere ; nagga^ litigare ; nagg, vilis et tsediosa contentio ; Dan. nagt, 
to gnaw, to annoy ; Sw. and Sw. D. gnaga ; Sw. D. gnag&, gnaga, gnava, &c. ; A. S. 
gnagan ; O. Germ, nagan ; Dut. knagen. 

* He 's alla's hiaggin* an' knaggin\ fra moom to neeght.' 

Comp. * Gubbtn gnov pa mej frh mdra tt kvalt :' the old fellow gnaggtd at me from 
mom till even. 

Gnarl, v. n. To gnaw, as a mouse does. 

Comp. Dan. D. gnalde, gnaldrt, to gnaw, or nibble, or rasp with the teeth at the edges 
of a thing ; as, musen bar gnaldret a/osten : the mouse has gnarled (nibbled) at the cheese. 
The word is a frequentative of gnaga, gnava, &c. 

Gnarr, sb. A knot in, or from, a tree. See Knarr, Enorr. 
Gnarr, v. n. To growl, as a dog. 

Sw. hnarha or knarra, to grumble, to growl ; Sw. D. gnarlta, gnurka, gndrrds, gnarrat, 
id. ; N. S. gnarren, to creak, to murmur, to grumble ; gnurren, to grumble, to bellow, to 
growl. Comp. O. N. knurr, murmur ; knurra, to murmur, to growl ; Dan. ibiafiTfii, and 
A. S. gnyrran, to gnash. 


Gnipe, v. a. To crop, or nip off with the teeth, herbage, &c., in 
short lengths. See Enipe, E[nep. 

This form is given in Wb. Gl., and by Hall. It is no doubt identical with Knipe. 

Gk>al, gole, v. n. To blow in strong currents or blasts, as the wind 
does when acted on by some peculiarity of local configuration, or of the 
buildings, &c., it meets with in its course. Also spelt Gk>iil, and some- 
times pr. gawl. 

O. N. goia, to blow, as the wind does, in blasts ; Sw. D. gola, or gala, to blow softly or 

Gk>b, sb. The mouth. 

Gael, gob, the mouth ; ' ludicrously applied,' Wedgw. The real meaning seems to be 
an opening, especially a wide one ; and the word is probably fundamentally allied with 
ga^, O. N. gapa, Dan. gab. Sec. 

Gk>bble, v. n. To reply insolently to anything said, but with the 
insolence of sullen discontent rather than passion : probably implying 
as much the action of the mouth, as the words employed. 

* To gobble* says Wedgw., ' is to eat voraciously, from the noise of liquids pouring down 
the throat. In Dut. gobelen, Fr. degobiiler, O. N. gubba, to vomit, the term is applied to 
the rush of liquid upwards instead of downwards.' Similarly, our word — unless it be taken 
as allied to O. N., and Sw. D. gabba. Sec., to mock, treat with scorn or insolence — will be 
formed from the peculiar oral action employed and the sounds originating in it. 

Gk>bstring, sb. A bridle. 

Go'-'oab-ye. An imprecation, 

Qod-'en, godden. A salutation, contracted for * good e'en,' or * good 

• I give you godden,' Wb, Gi, 

Gk>d-shild, interj. (pr. God-sharld). God avert, God forbid. 

God shield, God defend, or God protect, originally. 

' pus sal )>ai ever mar contynuely 
Haf parfite payne )>ar, withouten mercy, 
Fra whilk payne and sorow God us sbtlde 1 ' Pr, of Consc. 1. 9469. 

* God sebilde hise sowle fro helle bale.' Gen, and Ex. p. 73. 

* God sbdd the, son, from syn and shame.' Townel, Myst, p. 44. 
In Chaucer the phrase occurs in our neuter sense of Crod forbid, pp. 66, 103. 

Gk>d's-penny, sb. Earnest-money, given to a servant on concluding 
the hiring compact : customarily half-a-crown. 

S. G. Gudspenning; O.Sw. Go^s p€tnmngar; O.Dan. Gudspenning, Gudzpenning, 
earnest-money given on completion of a bargain or contract ; Dan. Dial. Gudspenge ; 
Sw. D. Guss-penning, earnest-money given to a servant on concluding an engagement to 
serve a master for a term ; Germ. GoUes-penning ; N. S. QadUgeld; Fr. demer de Dieu; 




ll, dtnario di Dio; Deaariui Dei, in Du Franc; also Htitigis Gtiiiis p/enaiag. 
qual« ihe following curious passage fi-om ' Lament. PeiH Dialogui de mlua :' ' Saera- 
mutlil ar oss gifail UkaKiis ton ni Gudipenning, illtr, torn wi nu stiji, a fesUpttnmg tUl 
fomjo otb itriik:' the Mcrameni is giftn us liltt as il were a Go^s-ptnny — or, u We now 
laj, a feiting-peiinj' — unto concind and charily. See Festrng-peuny. 


With tliat he cast him ^ orfs ^nny,' Percy's JW. MS. \. Ijg. 

Qoke, sb. The central portion of anything; as the core of an apple, 
the inmost part of a hay-stack, the yolk of an egg, the harder or more 
solid mass in a boil or ulcer which does not come away like the Quid 
pus, &c. ^ 

Comp grmdlt'crJit, defined by Wedgw. as ' a remnant of an old uiom-down gtindstoue {' 
by Ball, as ' t wom-down grindslone." ll is essenlially the rare — so lo speak — or centra) 
portion of the original stone, and (educed tQ its present shape and dirneiuioni by weir. 
This w<iid cote, coli or eolti, and our Goke are rimpi)' forms of one and the same word. 
The foUowiug pauage ii, then, injlmctive ; — 

■ For alle erihe by skille ttiay likend be 


n in myddci hit i eoltt: 
1 it may be tille an egge yl 
■a Imydwird 

pt yhoike of |>e egge. when il es hard, 
Ryghl swa es helle pille, lis clerkei IFlles 
Ymyddet frc crthe,' Pr. of Cons. 644,1, 

of tl 

rd-boiled Egg, or the receptacle of the seeds of the ai^le. The 1 
It which would, or which actually does, fill up the place of such a central hollow. Thut 
e word comet to mean the hard yolk, ot ihe yolk in any condition, of the egg ilsdf, the 
itral remnant of the grindstone, the inneimosC portion of a hay-stack, the Bltfaat or 
re of an uh»!r which remains when all the matter else is diichaignl ; and even the entiit 
jnd oTum or pellet uf roe from the {pawn of a Gih : for I think there can be little doubt 
It Kelk is essentially the same word as coOt or coU. Mi. Wedgwood quotei GaA 
xb, empty, caocbag, a nut without a kernel. Comp. Dut. Mi, a pit or deep hollow, 
d Sw. D. killp-djup. of the same meaning, which Kietz thinks may very postibly hive 
en in its original form kdlk-djtip. ' Roten at the caiit' occurs in Toumd. MyU. p. )8l. 

t of the 

Ooldens, gouldens, ((uldens, sb. The dry, charred s 
ling left afier burning the moor. 

The orthography of I hi; 
plaincil at ' hural heath 
a coaL' Of ihe ling, howe 
ttem, which is black eiioug 
gives way to the influciicei 
or yellow, or i 

ward is micertain. In O-. Gl. it appean as ling-collin'f. ex- 
ling. prob;ibly /ififiroaJiM/fs. the ling being burnt as black u 
T, nothing whaterer it left save the thicker part of the m^ 
for a space next afier the fire; but erenlually the charred part 
r rain and wealhei, and the colour, from black, becomes btown 
Here the initial consonant it certainly 
ile land. 

C(. Dan. M gM bidi, a barren heath ; gold grand, 

Oomerill, sb, A fool, a natural bom. 

gonniril ii\i goniitl ; Hall 

ic form g-winn-Aenrf; while )an 


refers to Sibbald's derivation of the word from Fr. goimpre, goinfrt, and then to Grose's 
^gamnur, to idle; gomerill^ a silly fellow; and gamentangs, a great, foolish, wanton girle.' 
Possibly, what wisgacrt is relatively to wise, that Q-oxnerUl or Qaumerill is to gaum. 

Gk>od, adj. Used to qualify words expressive of quantity or number ; 
as a good few, a good little ; meaning, respectively, a tolerable num- 
ber, neither very scanty nor very numerous, and a quantity that is not 
very large without being at the same time really small. 

' Gudi, adjectivis adverbiisque additum, significationem intendit. Sic gudi nog est, 
oppido satis.' Ihre, in v. Oud (Deus) ii. This is curious when set side by side with the 
usage above noted. 

Goodies, sb. Sugar sweetmeats for children; the 'suckers' of the 

Sw. D. guttoTt sweetmeats ; Swiss guteli, sugar sweetmeats for children. Comp. Sw. D. 
g(ktte, raisins. 

Gkxxllike, adj. Having a good appearance, goodly, well-looking, 

O. N. godlikr, bonus, praestans, eximius : Egills. Sw. D. godlik, golik, goodly, excellent. 
• There *s many a goodlike nought :' Wb, GL, — a variation upon • Nulla fronti fides,' * All 
is not gold that glitters,' * Nimium ne crede colori,' Sk. 

Gtorp, gorpin, sb. A featherless or unfledged bird, as when just 

A word of uncertain derivation and orthography. Hall, gives got, Westm., and gorbii, 
Yorks. ; Jam. gives gorbet, gorbling, gorling, gordlin, gorbel, gorb and garb ; besides 
gorlin-bair^ the hair on young birds before the feathers come ; and gorliftt bare, unfledged. 
Wb. Gl. gives gorp, gorpin ; but neither Leeds Gl., Or. G/., nor Brock, give the word at 
all. Noticing the word garfwa, to curry, to dress or prepare leather, Ihre says it is derived 
from Germ, gerben or garben. He then adduces Finn, earvari, with the same meaning, 
adding, that in the same tongue * carwoan means to clear of hair, which conducts us to 
earwa or carwan, which in that tongue means bair, fur* Probably Gorp, Gorpin, &c., 
are connected with ccanoa and its relatives, even if garfwa^ gerben^ garben be not : the idea 
being of doum ox fur opposed Xofeatbers, 

Gossamer, sb. The soft white downy filaments seen suspended on 
the herbage or floating in the air after a continuance of fine summer-like 
weather in the early autumn. 

The Germ, tommer-faden, summer-thread ; tommer-floeken, summer-locks or flocks, ex- 
pressive of the light filmy form of the substance— cf. scbnti^lock, a snow-flake ; sommtr' 
webe, summer-web— our Clevel. Muswipe or Mxuweb, as also Marten fadm, muir Ueben 
Frauin fdden^ Marten-gam, all point to the idea of a fabric, of what is spun or vnwtn. 
Hence Carr's suggestion that summer-goose, as a North prov. name for gossamer, may indi- 
cate the origin of the word, is not an unreasonable one — summer-goose, that is, summer* 
gauze; and thence, by an inversion of the component elements, gossamer; or gossamer, as 
Mr. Wedgw. writes it, with the explanation * properly God-summer.' The names Marten 
fdden, unserer lieber Frauenfaden, are derived, he adds, * from the legend that the gossomer 
is the remnant of our Lady's winding-sheet, which fell away in fragments when she was 
taken up into Heaven. It is this Divine origin which is indicated by &t first syllable of the 

Og 2 


E. word/ Comp. the like practical ellipsis of the legend in the Genn. names db* sommer, 
fliegende somnur. Still, Gost^GoeTs is not in itself satisfactory, and the form sumnur-goose 
makes decidedly against it. Goose, corrupted fh>m gauze, and contracted into gas, as in 
gosling, is clearly more probable. 

Gtotherly, adj. Kind, of a kindly or warm-hearted disposition, 

Cf. M. G. gadiliggs, a friend ; O. Germ, gafulinc, geteling; M. Gterm. geteUne, gedUng, 
a friend, companion, diosen or kindly associate ; A. S. g€BMmg, a companion. But espe- 
cially comp. Pris. gadelik, N. Fris. gadlik, M. Germ, getelik, N. Sax. gaadHieb, suitable, 
agreeable. Note also Sw. D. g'dding, gadung ; Dan. D. ganning or gantUng; 'a word,' 
says Molb. {Dansk D. Lex.), * of frequent use and rarious applications, almost invariably 
in conjunction with the verb to be, and taken to signify what is serviceable or profitable, 
what is suitable, or according to one's manner of thought, taste, or convenience : as, det 
er min ganning, or det erjust min ganning : that is just what I like.' Add li.gade, gading, 
a fellow, an equal, a mate ; giete; te gietes; te gietna's : after one's convenience or liking. 

• A heart-warm, gotberly set.' Wb. Gl. 
In the passage, Townd, Myst. p. 8, 

' Gedlynges I am a fiille grete wat, 
A good yoman my master hat, 
FuUe wellc ye alle hym ken ;' — 

the word gedlyng seems wrongly explained by * an idle vagabond.' A. S. gadeling supplies 
its real origin, with perfect suitability as to sense ; viz. mates, comrades. Comp. the term 
of address used two or three lines before — * felowes.* 

Gtoupen, gowpen, sb. i. The hollow or containing part of the 
hand. 2. The quantity that can be contained or held in the hollow of 
the hands. Also called Gtowpen-ftill. 

* Gopn, manus concava, O. N. gaupn, Apud nos, utplurimum usuipatur pro tanto quan- 
tum simul nunu capere possis.' Ihre. Sw. D. gapn, the hollow hand when the fingers are 
about half closed ; also, a handful, both hands employed. Rietz. Other forms are goppem, 
gokken, gofh, g'opa, gdffen. Also S. Jutl. gobn (pr. gown or gofh), the two hands laid 
together and partly closed. Molb. (D. Dial. Lex.) gives S. Jutl. gmve or gmwe, the hollow 
hand, and other forms, gauf, gimben, gimbn, besides these two from Vendsyssel, giwvn, gievm. 

* " Double gowpens ;" as much as the two hands put together will contain.' Wb. GL 

• *• They gat gold by gowp'ns ;" soon became rich.* lb. 

With this last comp. det er int* godt at grave gull med gobn : it is not well to dig gold by 
gowpens, quoted by Kok ; and at gribe guld med gievner: to grip ho'd o' gou'd by 

Gk>upen-flill, sb. The quantity which can be contained or held in 
the hollow of the two hands placed together. 

Comp S.Jutl. en gobnfull bakkels*: a gowpen-full o' chop, i.e. of chaff; Vendsyss. 
gieben-fuld. Swab, gaufel, a good handful, &c. 

Gk>wk, sb. The cuckoo {Cuculus canorus). 

O.N. gauhri Sw. g6lt\ Sw. D. gaitk, gok, gauk; Dan. geg; A.S. geae; M. Qerm. 
goucb; Nass. gaucb. 


Gk>wk, sb. A fool ; one who is awkward in mind and body. See 

(Rowland, sb. The corn marigold {Chrysanthemum segeiunC). Spelt 
also Gtolland, Gtoiiland. 

Comp. gittUAAommor^ the Sw. D. name for the same flower. This is connected by 
Rietz with guld^ gold. Either it, or ^u/, yellow, furnishes the derivation of the present 

• " As yellow as a gowland ;" jaundiced.* Wb, 01, 

Grace, sb. Benefit, advantage, good results or fortune. 

A curious use of the word, not yet quite obsolete. Comp. barde ^oce =: misfortune. 

' First he wounded me in the face ; 
My eyen were safe, that was my grace * Percy's Fol, MS. i. p. 359. 

' For the devil is oft disguised 
To bring a man to evil grace,* Plowman's TaU, p. 189. 

• " Ye've kessen yer gre't coat, than ?" " Aye, Ah hes ; an* Ah's getten nac grace wiv 
it, nowther." ' Wb. Gl. 

Gradely, adv. See Graithly. 

GriEift. sb. I. The depth reached by one act of digging, a spit. 
2. The portion of soil, peat, &c., turned up by one application of the 
spade. See Spade-graft. 

0. N. grbftr^ S. G. grift^ Sw. D. grofi, Dan. grefi; literally, that which is dug, exca- 
vated. See V. a. Q-rave. 

1. ' Ah 's duggen a' mah garth tweea grafts deep.' 

2. • Get a graft up fra* t* bottom, an* \tvk what *t *$ like.* 

Grafting-too], sb. A long, narrow, concave spade, or digging instru- 
ment, used in draining. 

Grain, sb. A separate, linear portion of a thing, whether still at- 
tached, or detached from Uie rest ; as the branch of a tree, the tine of 
a fork. 

O. N. greutt Sw. gren, Dan. green^ a bouffh, that which grows separately from the rest 
of the tree. Sw. D. gren is the angle (yinkel) which two shoots or branches of a tree, 
springing from the same point, form with each other ; also the crotcb or fttrk of the thighs. 
The O.N. vb. is greina, to divide, separate; not including the idea of to sever, necessarily. 
Rietz collates Mply€tv, to discriminate, lay separate. 

* And as he rode still on the plaine. 
He saw a lady sitt in a graine* Percy*s Folio MS, i. 75. 

Graining, sb. The fork, or division of a tree into branches. 

Comp. Sw. D. gren, grajn, the fork, or angle made by two coincident shoots of a tree, 
or by the thighs ; greinar, the two thighs, with the angle between them. 

Graith, v. a. To furnish, provide or equip : occurring most fre- 
quently in the p. participle ; as, bonnily giaithed, ill graithed, both 


applied to dress or clothing ; a well graithed table, a table nicely or 
handsomely set out, &c. 

O.N. grei^a, to straighten out, unfold, prq)are, work out, make ready; N. greida, 
greia; Sw. D. grej{d), g^^JW* greda, grta, id. Comp. the various meanings of the O. E. 
▼b. below. 

* I shall graytb thi gate, 
And fulle welle ordeyn thi state.* Townel, Mysi, p. 47. 

* Ful gray>ely got; >is god man (Noah) and dos godej hestes 
In dry3 dred and daunger, )>at durst do non o)>er. 

When hit (the Ark) wat; fettled and forged and to >e fulle gray)>ed, 
pen con dryjttyn hem dele dryjlv ^yse wordej.* 

E. Eng, Allit, Poems, B. 1. 34 1 . 

* When Guenore fill gay gray\>ed in l>e myddes 
Dressed on )>e dere des.' Sir Gaw, ami Or, Kn, I. 74- 

* There gode Gawayn watj gray\>ed, Gwenore bysydc. 
And Agravayn on )>at o]>er syde sittes.' 76. 1. 109. 

' A cheyer by-fore ]>e chemn^ .... 
Watj grayed for syr Gawan, gray|>ely with clo^cj.* Ih, 1. 876. 

Graith, graithing, sb. i. Equipment of any kind; furniture, cloth- 
ing, &c. a. In a more general sense, belongings at large. 

See Graith, vb. Cf. O. N. reidi, the tackling of a ship ; N. greidt, grtia, id. ; Sw. D. 
greja, grejer or grdjer, effects, furniture, collection of goods and chattels ; G^hn. gtni, 
naval tackling ; Dut. gereidi, gtrei, furniture, chattels, goods, equipment ; Germ, geraib, 
implements, goods, &c., whence Dan. geraadt bus-gtraad, household goods and furniture, 
with which comp. Clevel. Tea-graiihhig for tea-equipage at large. In O. £. writers the 
word seems often to stand for despatch, quickness, or readiness in that sense. Thus, 

* The rav3m, durst I lay, wille com agane sone, 
He may happyn to day com agane or none 

With gratb,* Toumel, Mysi, p. 3a. 

Graithly, adv. Decently, in order, menseftilly. 

See Graith. The word in the O. E. writers seems often to take the meaning, readily, 
preparedly or speedily, rather than any more like its meaning with us. Thus ;^ 

* pis gret clerk telles )>us in a buke, 

" Benalde," he says, ** graytbely and loke, 

Herbes and trese j>at ]>ou sees spryng. 

And take gude kepe what )nie forth bryng." ' Pr, 0/ Conse, 1. 644. 

Still, our meaning also is met with : — 

* A cheyer by-fore |>e chenm6, J>er charcole brenned, 
Watj gray)!ed for Syr Gawan, gray)>ely with clo))e3.* 

Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn. I. 875 ; 

* And sy)>en Inir; al \>t sale, as hem best semed 

Bi vche grome at his degre gray\>tly watj semed.* lb. 1 1005 ; 
that is, decently, fairly, fitly. 


Grane, v. n. To make the sound which accompanies a great effort, 
such as lifting a very heavy weight, or the like : not infrequently sounded 
as gaim. 

Sw. D. grdnot to emit a dull sound from within : whether of person or thing, as a tab, 
a door ; O. N. grenja^ to rumble, bellow. See Grene^ Hall. There seems to be a distinction 
between this word and groan, the pq>l. of which, in Pr. of Consc, 1. 798, takes the form 

Grass-widow, sb. A woman of loose character, a prostitute. 

Hall, gives as the definition of this word, * an unmarried woman who has had a child ;* 
and in Moor's Suffolk Words and Phrases, Graee^widow is * a woman who had a child 
for her cradle ere she had a husband for her bed ;' and corresponding with this is the N. S. or 
Low Germ, gras-wedewe. Again, Sw. D. grds-dnka, or -enkat grass-widow, occurs in the 
same sense as with us — * a low, dissolute, unmarried woman, living by herself.' The 
original meaning of the word seems to have been (see Ihre) * a woman whose husband is 
away,' either travelling, or living apart The people of Belgium call a woman of this 
description bceek-wedewe, from baeken, to feel strong desire. * Similarly gr<Bsenka seems to 
come from gr<Bdesenka, from gradig, esuriens.' It seems probable then, from the ety- 
mology taken in connection with the Clevel. signification, that our word may rather be 
from die Scand. source than from the German ; only with a translation of the word tnia 
into its English equivalent. Dan. D. grasenki is a female whose betrothed lover (Jastman) 
is dead ; nearly equivalent to which is Germ, sirobwittwe, literally straw-widow. Compare 
* man of straw.' 

Grave, v. a. (pr. greeav*). To dig, to use a spade, or Spit, for 
either digging or paring purposes. See Spit, Turf-graving, Grove, 

O. N. grafa; O. Sw. grafa, grava, grafwa; Sw. grafva; Sw. D. grdva, grdva; Dan. 
grave ; O. Germ, graban ; N. S. graven ; A. S. grcfan ; M. G. gn£an, — all meaning to 
engrave, to dig. 

' Ah 's bin greeavm* t' w'oll deea i' t' priest's gaarden.' 

' He 's awa' 't peat-moor greeavin* ptzU* 

Greasehom, sb. A flatterer or sycophant. 

* The farmers have a cow's horn, filled with grease, slung to their carts, for oiling their 
axletrees.' Wb, GL The allusion seems apparent. 

Great, adv. Used augmentatively, as in the expressions, great foul, 
of great or huge size ; great likely, very likely, extremely probable, or 
* to be sure.' See Hall, in v. * Great-like.' 

* A great-(ou\ ox.' Wb, Gl, 

* A great'ioMl cart-rut.' 

Great-likely (pr. grete-likly). Very likely, almost certainly. 
Gree, v. n. To agree, come to an understanding or concord. 


Oreed, sb, i. Greediness or avarice. 2. A greedy, covetous, or 
avaricious person, a miser. 

The word occuis in both meanings in Chaucer, O. N. eriiitr. greedinos, in both >eniei ; 

Greet, v. n. (pret. gret or grat, p.p. gretten). To cry, lo weep: 
silently, rather than with any loud outcry. 

O.N. grdla (pret. gril): 0. Sw. grata (pr. gnl ar gral); Sw. grdlai Sw. D. grSta 
(imp. gril or gril), grata (pr. grel), grila (pr. f o/) ; Dtn.gradi; M. G. grittaii A. S. 
gralOH {pr. grel. p.p. gralin); O.Six. griolaa, arc. 

Grenky, adj. Out of sorts, unwell, t 
especially. See Cranky. 

1 the latter sense 

O. N. h-iinkr. sick 

Diu.iratJt: Grmi. : 

■ Ah reels grenij a' 

onl of sorts; O, Sw. iranlier-. Sw. 
ani. Conip. Sw. D. kraMig, poor, 


-, but on a small or 

Qrifi*, sb. A deep narrow glen or valley ; 
gentler scale. 

The idea involved is ptobibly that of a space hollowed oat or excavated, id which loue 
— the excarition or hollowing, however, being on a smaller scale, ai well » actual oi done 
hy band — we have O. Sw. grip, gript, grift, as well ai Sw. gri/l, a gnve. an excavation io 
the earth, and gropa. to excavate or hollow out. Comp. S.Jull. grov, Dan. grmji, 
O. N. gr6/. &c. The word is preserved to us in more than one local name. Skianing- 
grove, on our coatt, in a docutnent of the date 1171 ii wiitten Slriniugrivt : Shma-grniM, 
41 Edw. IIIt and othenrisc ShTinirgrtJi, Stc. Mulgrave. again (often corrupted into 
Mtil-grdvts) in Domesday standi as Ori/, and later forms are Mulgrnl, Moitgm*. &C. 

Grime, sb. 

Sw. D, grima, 1 

Soot, or soot-like matter. 

spot Of speck of loot on the face; N. griiHa. a spot or imut, etpcdallf 
on inc race; uan. grime. Id.: O.Sw. grima, a mask for the face; O.N. grima, id.: 
A. S. grima. Id. ; N. Frls. grimt, a mask, or tilack spot, or smut, on the face ; Dan. D. grim 
or griiiH, the set black, or hardened lool, on a pot. It seems scarcely posslile to doubt the 
cloie connection between OrlniB in its seme, soot, smut, black, and grima. a maik. The 
transition teenu to have been from an arliRcial covering for the face or part of the face, te 
any incidental and removable discoloration, i[f arent discoloration, or cause of apparent dii- 
coloration of the face or countenance, and whether in man or beasL Thni N. grima, Dan, 
jrnM a a halter or bridle, that it, a dark band covering part of the horse's head : but the; 
also ilgniiy a dark coloured patch on a creature's head : whence also Sw. D. grimig, applied 
to catSe with while stripes on a dark bead ; albeit Dan. grimtl meant, with a white head 
and dark stripes or blotchei. The bst step is to the Uack oi smut on the face ; and thence 
to the bUck or smut itself. 


Grime, v. a. i. To blacken, or daub with sooty matter. 2. To 
blacken metaphorically, to defame or vilify. 

Moth gives O.Dan, grime, to blacken, daub with black; and Molb. {Dansk Oloss.) 
quotes grimett blackened, marked with black ; from burning, namely ; as applied to trees 
situate on boundary lines and having burnt or blackened spaces on them to mark them out 
from others : as, oeb sa copp ath ti>en tnosse, som ibei grimed tract staar, oeb sa fra ibii 
tr<Bt See, Rietz has no doubt that a corresponding word — grima — signifying to make 
black, smutty or dirty, to pollute, has once existed in the Sw. tongue. But I do not know 
any analogous usage of the word to that presented in our second sense. Cf. Blaok« to de- 
fame, slander, vilify. 

Griming, sb. A slight covering with a matter that can be sprinkled 
or scattered evenly and slighdy, as snow ; a sprinkling. 

This word is probably due to the (apparently) original conception of the word grhm. 
See Grime, sb. I scarcely think that it is immediately connected with O. N. hrim in its 
mere sense of pndnat except in so far as that is connected with grima, ros congtlahu; but 
rather with the thought of a disguising, but, at the same time, removable covering. 

Grimy, adj. Slanderous, given to blacken or defame a person. 

A grimy tongue ;" a slanderous tongue.' Wb. OL 

» »t 

Grip, v. a. To take hold firmly, to grasp or seize quickly and 

O. N. gripa, to hold tight with the hand ; O. Sw., Sw., and Sw. D. gripa, Dan. gribe, 
to catch hold, grasp, hold tight with the hand ; O. Germ, grifan, er^an ; A. S. gripan. 
In N. gripa, vowel-sound and sense are both exactly as in our flprlp. 

* He wur jest £»llin' off t' cart when Ah gripped him by his daes.' 

* Grip ho'd, man.' 

Grip, sb. A trench or furrow hollowed along the surface ; a channel 
or snudl ditch. 

O. Sw. grip, an excavation made by digging, a grave ; Sw. D. grip, a ditch, channel, hole 
dug ; Sw. grop ; Sw. D. gr&>, a ditch, channel ; Dan. D. gr<A), grcv ; O. N. grdf, grof; 
O. Germ, grdba ; A. S. grctp, grep, a grip, furrow, ditch. Note Pr, Pm^ • Growpe, where 
beestys, as nete, standjm.' See C^w-grlp. 

GMpe, sb. (pr. grahp or graip). A dung-fork; or, more generally, a 
fork which may be applied to digging purposes. 

S. G. gnpi, a three-tined fork for stable purposes, &c ; Sw. grtpe, dynggnpi, id. ; Sw. D. 
grtM, ding-grtp;«6, mmg-greb, 

* A three-grained, or three-grain grahp* 

* I grape de ferro pro fimis.' Fincb, Pr, p. lii. 

Grip-hold, sb. (pr. grip-ho'd). A handle, or any projecting part of 
an object which may be conveniently and firmly grasped. 

Comp. O. N. greip, a handle ; Sw. D. grep, id., dorr-grep, the handle of a door ; N. grip. 



Grob, V. n. i . To search or examine by the sense of feeling, as 
with the hand in any dark place, or where the assistance of sight is not 
available; a pocket, e. g., or a dark hole, or drawer. 2. To be desultory 
or unsettled in occupation or haunt. 

A very near connection of E. grope, itself closely connected with a large number of words 
in various languages and dialects, the primary idea in all of which is grasping, taking with 
the hands, whence also, feeling or fumbling with the hands as in preparation to take or 
catch hold of. Comp. Sw. grabba; Bret, kraban, the open hand ; Sw. D. graUbhaiag, krab' 
hatag, a taking with tiie whole hand ; besides many other like words, all derivatives from 
gripa, Comp. also, — 

' The sext (pain) is swa mykel mjrrknes 
That it may be graped, swa thik it es,' Pr. o/Conse. 1. 6566; 

where the idea is more than possibly a transitionary one to tl^at of feeling, from that of 
grasping ; as certainly in * Crrope and fele flesh and bone and forme of man.' Towiui, MyU, 
p. 383. See also Aner, Rtude, p. 314. 

Grob, sb. A small-sized, insignificant-looking person; one whose 
appearance is the very reverse of imposing or personable. 

Comp. Welsh erob, crwh, what is shrunk into a round heap ; a hunch. 
A lahtle groh ;" a diminutive person.' Wb. Gl. 

c tt 

Grobble, v. n. (pr. often, almost as if written groflSe or gruffle). 
I. To poke about, as with a stick in a hole, or among a nimiber of 
objects. 2. To feel about among a nimiber of things for one in 
particular. 3. To loiter or hang idly about; to be long over one's 
work, or any job in hand. 

* Grdfla proprie fodicare notat, sed usurpatur fere de iis, qui, aliquid qnxsituri, res sursnm 
deorsum vertunt :' properly signifies to dig into, to stick m—fodicart lahu, * to give one a 
dig in the side' — but is usually applied to the action of persons who, when looking for an 
object, turn things upside down. Ihre. Comp. Sw. and Sw. D. grabbia, to take hold of a 
thing, but uncertainly, as if not quite able to grasp it. There is an Eng. D. form grabble. 
The O. Sw. form is twice interesting, as not only being a parallel word, but also as giving 
the /form of it, like the Clevel. Pr. 

Grose, v. n. To save up money, amass substance. 

M. Germ, grozen, to become great, sustain accessions ; grazen, to make great, add to. 
Sw. D. grosa, to exalt or magnify above measure, exists, and is considered by Rictz to be 
analogous, at least, to the Germ, words above quoted. Our word is one which does not 
appear in Hall, or the'Northem Glossaries generally. Wb. GL, however, has it. 

Groser, sb. A saving and thriving person, one who has the gift of 
accumulating money. 

Grossy, adj. Thriving, vegetating rapidly and vigorously, full of 
growth. Perhaps an oral corruption of Growihy. 

Comp. Dut. groese, vigour, growth ; Dan. gr^de, growth of plants. 


Ground-work, sb. The preparatory work in laying the foundation 
'of a building, on which the mason-work proper is laid. 

See Pr, Pm. note to GroumtU, where the grottnd-werh of Fotheringay Castle is men- 
tioned, but as iht foundations rather than in the sense given above. 

Orouty, adj. Soiled, dirty-looking, begrimed. 

The complete meaning of this word is doubtless ' smeared or coated with sediment/ 
grouts, grounds; and thence — as sediment is usually thick, muddy, dirty — ^the general 
meaning given above. * Dut. grueUt gruyte, dregs ; the grainy or lumpy matter left in 
decoctions or infusions, as the grains in beer, or the grouts (corruptly grounds) in coffee ; 
.... grouty, dreggy, thick, muddy. Dut gruyten, to mud, or clean out canals.' Wedgw. 
Comp. also N. grut, dregs ; gruttn, thick, muddy ; Sw. D. grossel, dregs ; grosslig, turbid, 
thick, dreggy : the stock, in these latter words, being grut, grud or gryt, gravel, small 
stones, grits ; the connection between which and the small sedimentary matters which con- 
stitute * dregs' is not hard to recognise. See Wedgw. in w. Grits, Orots, Grout, 

Qrov, grove, sb. The Pr. of Groove. 
Orove. Pret. of Grave. 

Comp. O. N. graja, pret. gr6/; Sw. D. grdva, grov; Dan. grave, grov; M. O. graban, 
grof, &c. 

Ghroven, growen. P. p. of Grave. 

O. N. graja, p. p. grqfinn, 

Qrow-dAj, sb. (pr. the ow nearly as in how). A day peculiarly 
suited to promote vegetation, mild and warm after showers, or during 
their continuance. See Grow-weather. 

* A desper't fiihn grouhday for seear ! ' 

Growihy, adj. (pr. gr5thy — the like the in both, and the sound of 
the M almost merging into that of ss. See Grossy.) Full of growth, 
luxuriant, growing rapidly and to a large size; of vegetables, growing 
crops, &c. 

Grow-weather, sb. Weather such as to promote rapid and vigorous 
vegetation, moist, genial and warm. See Grow-day. 

* Gr6drar-vedr, aer tepidus, humidus : tfarmt og JugAg vsjr, som sr beqvtmt for Jord" 
vcenttmt : warm, moist weather, such as is calculated to promote vegetation' (Hald.) ; also 
Dan. D. grmde-^wr, and et gr^dtiigt vtir; and the S. Jutl. expression, dtt er got grmdt i s 
wfr : there 's a vast o' grow i' t' weather. 

' Its tahm we hed a lahtle grow-weatber,* 

Grub, v. n. To be affected or injured by grubs ; of growing crops. 

* T' com *s ssai grubbed V mony spots t' year.' 

H h a 


Grue, adj. Grim or morose-looking ; lowering, dark, dismaL Spelt 
Grou in WA. GL 

Wedgw. gives * Grow^ to be troubled. — B. To grow or gry, to be agaish ; grotuonUf 
fearful, loathsome. — Hall., Dan. gru, horror, terror ; gru€, to shudder at ; Germ, gratum, 
to have a fear united with shuddering ; Dut. grouwen, grouweUn, horrere.' 

* So agreued for greme he grytd with-inne, 
Alle )>e blode of his brest blende in his face 

pat al he schrank for schome >at )>e schalk talked.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr. Km, 1. 2370. 
Add Sw. grufva ag^ O. Sw. grufva sik, Sw. D. gruva uj: to be troubled, to shew signs of 
trouble in countenance or manner, to be * down in the mouth,' look dismal, &c. ; O. Germ. 
griien, ingruen^ Mid. Germ. grUwen, id., N. gruva, grui, to be in dread, to be frightened ; 
Sw. D. grusam or gruvsam, dejected, dismal-looking, frightened or horrified. 

* He looks as grou as thunder.' Wb, Gl, 

* " The sky looks black and grou;** threatening rain.' Ih. 

* '* A grou morning ;" a dull morning.' Ih, 
The adv. gryle occurs in TowneL Myst. p. 137. 

Gruff, V. n. To express discontent or vexation : hence, probably, to 
grunt, to snore, which is the meaning given in Wh, GL 

Identical with O. E. grueb^ only with a guttural pronunciation. Comp. Clevel. thraff« 
through, Slafter=: slaughter, FleufT^ plough, thof— though, watt^ toughs Bcc, Note also 
Sw. D. groffa or groffd, to grunt, to utter low sounds of discontent either in the way of 
grunting or crying ; and comp. Sw. D. gruhbla, to mutter, give half-audible expression to 
discontent or vexation. See Grutcbyn, gruebyn, Murmuro. Pr, Pm, ; and Fr. grugmr^ to 
grieve, repine, mutter ; also groucbier, groucber, 

* For )>ae trow nathyng bot )>at )>ai se. 

But grocbes when |>ai dredful thyng here.' Pr, of CoHse, L 296. 

* OJ>er jif my lege lorde lyst on lyue me to bidde, 
0)>cr to ryde, o]>cr to renne, to rome in his emde, 
What gray)>ed me >e grycbebyng bot grame more sechc?' 

E, Eng, AUit, Potms, C. 1. 51. 

* Johne, be thou buxom and right bayn. 

And be not grucband in no thyng.' Townd. MysL p. 168. 

In E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 809, 

* Loth lahed so longe wyth luflych worde) 

)?at |>ai hym graunted to go, and gru^t no lenger,' 

we have the pret. of grucb, which approximates to our gruff. Comp. * No man wit hard! 
to grucebe (e]>er to make pryuy noyse, muHrt — Vulg.), ajenus the sones of Israel,' 
WiclifT; and, * let them wander up and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied,' 
Ps. lix. 15 ; the latter quotation retaining the old word in exactly the same sense as our 
gruff, while in the former it has given way to * moved his tongue ;' the Greek word in 
the Sept. being 7pt;£« in Ex. ii. 7, and iypv^t in Josh. x. 21 : * And none moved his tongue 
(gniched) against any of the children of Israel.' 

Grund, v. a. To grind (pret. grand or granded ; p. p. gninded 
or gninden). 

Grand, groond. Pr. of Ground. 

* Gati to grund;* to relieve nature. 

* Tew for t* grund;* to be anxious to put feet to the ground, of an infant. 


Gvundage, sb. Ground-rent for leasehold property. Wh. GL 

Gmn'staii', gnumlstan*, sb. A grindstone : the first form merely 
that of pronmiciation, and possibly 3ie second also; grindle-Btone 
being the micomipted form. 

The form grinddstantt ocean in two of the MS. copies of Aner, RiwU; grindttm^ 
in the copy printed from, p. 333. 

Onmti V. n. To grmnble, to vent one's discontent; to speak dis- 

He that is sick ' mei wd >enchen bute euer on of his secnesse, and gronen nor his eche 
(ache), and grutUm nor his stiche (stitch, pang) more >en nor his smmen.' Ancr, RiwU, 
p. 316. 

Gmntle, v. n. To emit a low sound expressive of indisposition or 
discontent See the word in Halliwell. 

Guider, sb. A tendon or sinew. See also Leader. 

Guisard, sb. A person strangely or grotesquely dressed, for the 
purposes of disguise or pastime. 

Fr. guise; Wtlthgwit; Br. giz, kiz; Qerm. unisS, &c. Comp. disguisi, to change 
one's fashion or semblance. 

Gutter, Eaves-, sb. The eaves-trough, or trough affixed below the 
eaves to receive the water from the roof. 

' In z petris plnmbi emptis pio i guiUr* Fineb. Pr, Inv, 

Gumption, sb. i. Intelligence, readiness of wit and hand. 2 As- 
sumption, impertinence, petty insolence of speech. 

See Gaum, from which this is a derivative. 

1. ' He was a man o' some gumption;* of intelligence and information. Wh. 01. 

2. ' O'i* us noan o' yer gumption* lb. 

Habliments, sb. Corruption of habiliments. 

* Noo ye've getten yer babUmenis on. Ah '11 awa' an' knoll t* bell ;' the derk to the 
clergyman about to officiate at a funeral, of the surplice, scarf, &c. 

Hack, sb. A pick-axe with one arm, described by Wh. GL as ' half 
a mattock ;' by Brock. ' as a strong hoe used in agriculture.' 

Dan. bakkt, pick-axe, mattock ; Sw. backa, a hoe, a chopping tool used in agriculture. 


Haokle, v. a. i. To dress, to trim or make neat or smart. 2. To 
dress or trim the gromid. 

Dan. bigU, to hackle, dress : flax, namely ; Sw. bakla, Sw. D. bdkkal, id. ; derivatives 
from bage or bake, a hook, in reference to the principle of the hackling or hatcheling 
instrument. Both the Dan. and Sw. words convey also the meaning of scolding or repri- 
manding — as is the case also with E. drtss. TUs is also true of Clevel. sb. Heoklingy 
although the vb. itself is hardly preserved. 

Haokle, heokle, sb. i. Feathers, wool, hair; the natural covering 
of any feadiered or hairy creature : specially applied to the long pointed 
feathers of a cock's neck. 2. An artificiaJ covering, clothes or equip- 
ment, with the implication that their quality is good. 

The primary idea in this word seems to be of what wiU admit of separation into its con- 
stituent fibres or quasi-fibres, as the flax does under the baekU or batebd. Hence it 
comes to mean wool, hair, or feathers. The hackles of a cock's neck moreover are not 
only separable from each other, but also into their own constituent rays or fibres, in a 
different way from the other feathers, the webs of which naturally adhere, though slightly, 
to each other. In reference, however, to our second sense we must notice A. S. bactla^ 
baeeU, baciU, bacUi, a habit for a man of war, a cloak, a mantle ; a coat, cassock or under 
garment ; a word probably due to a different source, and perhaps suggesting the propriety 
of distinguishing Haokle with this sense, from the present word. 

a. * ** He has a good baekle on his back ; he does not shame his keeper ;" of one who is 
stout and well-looking.' 

* Under ureondes buehl;' under the cloak, that is, sembhnce, of a ^end. Ancr, RiwU, 
p. 88. 

Haffle, V. n. i. To stammer or hesitate in speech. 2. To hesitate 
in reply as if unwilling to speak the truth ; to prevaricate. 3. To hesi- 
tate in action or decision, be slow or reluctant in making up one's 

Hall, gives beffli, to hesitate, to prevaricate, and Wedgw. connects also Halliwell's bqfir, 
to stand higgling ; baJtrtHt unsteady, wavering ; and buffle, to waver, to blow unsteadily, 
with our word ; also Dut. bapertn, to stammer, hesitate, stick fast, and Sw. bappla, to 
stammer. To this add Sw. D. bapld, to do what some one else has just done, to try 
to imitate any one in word or deed, but all in a helpless, blundering, hesitating sort of 
way ; bappla, id., and also to stammer, to hesitate in speaking ; bablda, to stammer, to 
stumble. Collate E. bobble, 

1. * " To bc^e and snaffle ;" to stammer and speak through the nose.' Wb, Gl, 

2. * A baffling sort o' body ;* a stammering, prevaricating person. 

3. * Don't bc^e about it, but finish it at once.' Wb, GL 

Hag, sb. A white fog or mist such as sometimes occurs coincidently 
with frost : whence Frost-hag. 

Perhaps dependent on the same root as O.N. bagall, Sw, bagel. Dun. bagel, bagl ; 
N. bagl, A. S. bagol, bagle; O. Qerm. and Oerm. bagel, hail ; N. bagla, to hail, to fall in 
drops, to trickle ; bigla, to fall in fine drops ,* bigl, drizzling rain or snow : the termination 
el or / being added to convey the idea of spherical or globular form, the other circumstances 
remaining the same. 


Hag, sb. Wood, or coppice: often as growing on wild broken 
ground, or on a broken or rugged bank ; a hanging wood. Cr, GL 

Hall, says, ' A certain division of wood intended to be cut. In England, when a set of 
workmen undertake to fell a wood, they divide it into equal portions by cutting off a rod, 
called a Hag-staffs three 01 four feet from the ground, to mark the divisions, each of which 
is called a Hag^ and is considered the portion of one individual. . . . The word was also 
applied to a small wood or endosure. The Park at Auckland Castle was formerly called 
the Hag.' Wb. GL gives * Hagt a coppice ; supposed, says Mr. Marshall, to be the wood- 
land set apart by the lord of the soil as fuel for his tenants.' In either case the reference is 
to the act of cutting, or chopping, as almost appears on the surface in the sentence quoted 
by Jam. from Dumb. Stat. Account : — * The oak woods are of such extent as to admit of 
being divided into 20 separate bags, one of which may be cut every year.' Comp. Sw. 
byggi, felling of trees ; and O. N. boggva, Sw. bugga, Sw. D. bagga, bogga, Dan. bugge, 
to hew. Note also Qerm. bag, a wood, forest, thicket, grove, &e connections of wUch, 
however, are with E. bow, be<^e, &c. It is more than possible that there are two words 
confused together in our Hag, one corresponding to Sw. bygge, and one to Germ. bag. 

\y sb. Wild and broken ground, such as may be met with in 
boggy, and therefore uncultivated, lands. More generally, a broken or 
rugged bank. 

Jam. defines bag as ' Moss-ground that has formerly been broken ap ; a pit, or break in 
a moss ;' and refers the word directly to boggva, bugga, to hew ; Sw. D. bagga. The idea 
of hewing, chopping, certainly passes on easily to the abrupt ed^es or nocks induced by the 
action, and thence naturaOy to such a broken surface as is intended by the word Hag. 

Hag-berry, sb. The fruit of the bird cherry {Prunus padus). Some- 
times applied to the shrub itself. See Egg-berry, another form of the 
word ; and * Heck-berry,' Halliwell. 

Sw. bagg, the bird cherry, the shrub ; Dan. bttg or bagg, id. The fruit is called 
b€egge-4>€ar or bagtbar; qf bvis safi laves viin: from the juice of which a sort of wine 
is made. 

Hag-olog, sb. A chopping-block ; any largish mass of wood used 
to chop other wood on. 

Sw. D. bagga, to chop, hack, hew. Comp. Qerm. badKhiz; Sw. D. bugg-stubbe; 
Sw. buggkubb, buggbhck, buggbock, buggstock. See Olog. 

Haggle, V. n. To hail. 

O. N. \kX baglar, it hails ; Sw. bagla, Dan. bagli, A. S. b€^dan, bagoloHt to hail. 

* It baith baggltd an' snew.' 

* It baggies sair.' Wb. Gl. Comp. Dan. det bagUde starki i marges: it hailed severely 
in the morning. 

Haggle, V. a. i. To cut unevenly, or so as to leave jagged edges. 
2. To tease or worry, to banter. 

Probably a derivative — as joggle from Jog, &c.^-from bttg, to hack, chop ; a mode of 
cutting not conducive to regularity or evenness of edges, &c. ; whence^ the second meaning 
follows. Rietz gives Sw. D. bugg-ol, mocking or bantering words, in which the analogy 
is complete as to sense, the 0/ being simply a prov. corruption of ord, a word. 



Hagsnar, hagsnare, sb. The stub left in the ground from which 
coppice-wood has been cut; a projecting stump or knot of a tree. 

I take tbii definition, with slight verbal alteration from Wi. Gl. If it had been ex- 
plained as the designated jtubi collectively— that is, if it were applied to a loiality where 
eoppice-wood had been lately cut down — the derivation and preciie meaning would have 
been appaient. Sw. snar or mar it a coppice ot wood where the nnderwood and trcei 
grow dose enougb to make tianiit difficult ; N. snaar, tnitr, id. The prefix hag would 
limply imply the act of calting or chopping, in this particular caie, lately pait oi done. 

Hogworm, sb. The common viper, or adder {Pelfus berus). 

O. N. boggormr. Sw. buggorm, Dan. bugorm, the viper ; colubtr btnii. Molb. and 
Dalln. m. Gl. desnibei the HoEWorm at * the common make of the woods :' Hall, at 
' K tnalie {' Cr. Ql. ai ' a snake, or blind worm, haunting the bag or hedge. A. S. bag, 
tepcs;' Brock., as ' Ihe common make, CtHubtr nalrixi' — mistakenly in every case, as 1 
beliere. The Clevel. usage of the word is simply in the sense of viper. The common 
make (C tturix, Bell't Nalriii lorqiiata) ii called Ihe Q^mHi-BIiake, and the s 
blind-worm {AnguU fiagilis), is also specially dittiuguished. The word E 
jtriking-snake — ii descriptively accorale. 

Hair-breeda, sb. Small gradations, slow degress. See Breed. 

■ " She 'i dying by hair-brads ;" by very slow degrees.' Wb. Gl. 

Halt, hayt, hyte. The old word of command to the horses in a 
team or the plough to turn towards the driver, or to the left: now 
replaced by Harve or Hauve. Also spelt ' height' in HalUwell. 

■ The Northumbrian Bid.' lays Mr. Gnuld, Scam, 8cc., d/IciI. p. iSfi, ■ is Ihe Icelandic 
^y- P'- baiHr.' Foi hoit. hjte. however, Sw. D. bit. bUjl, a word eiaclly equiiralent in 
sound, uie, and tense, suggeiti another origin. Comp. Dan. j^d, hither, this way. 

' Sir, lang time he had cast an eye 
Al winsome maisiriii Property. 

But the would neither byti nor ihee.' JacaScr. Disc. p. 19. 
' This carter imool. and ccyde at he wer wood, 
Hayl, brok ; bayl, Scot ; what spate ye for the stoones ? ' 

Friri's Tait, il p. 98. 
' HarrcT. Morelle, io fbrthe, byH, 

And let ihe ploghe ttand.' TiAimd. Atyil. p. g. 
Halliwell's explanation of ' neither height not ree ; i.e. neither go nor drive, laid of ( 
wilful person,' is erroneous : il simply means will not obey initrucliont, even to fit ta to 
turn either 10 the right hand or Ihc left. 

Hake, sb. A greedy or pertinacious asker or beggar; a grasping, 
avaricious person. 

Ihre gives bait, nebuli 
Seieniui in Dictionar. Angt,, quote la garamal bi 
levilement. and Ihal Eng. on old bag is similarly applied; but that according Io ili deriva- 
Ijon and original application there certainly wat nolliing of contempt or repulsion involved 
in the latlei word. He then mentioni the term lialbalH, as applied to men posseised of 
great powers of body and employing them Io Ihe oppression ot injury of others : O. N. Mir, 


a powerfiil, coarse fellow ; baki, a tea-king ; Sw. D. bake, an energetic, resolute man. In 
these words, as it would seem, we have the origin of our and S. G. beike : the ideas of per- 
tinacity, greediness, regardlessness of moral or other restraints, are each of them involved 
or implied in their various meanings. Possibly, the original thought may have been con- 
nected with bake, a hook. 

Hake, v. a. (sometimes pr. heeak). To persecute with enquiries or 
petitions, and so to tease or pester or worry. 

This vb. and the next may possibly be coincident, though their connection is obsctire. 
This may be a derivative from sb. Hake. In the example the connection would seem to 
be with bake, a hook. 

* He bake$ my very heart out.' Wb, OL 

Hake, v. n. i. To loiter, to go about idly, to lounge: thence to 
hang about pr3dngly, to sneak, or aim at getting at information, &c., in 
an underhand way. 

Comp. Sw. D. baktOf to stay, to deUy. 

To go baking about;" prying, seeking indirectly for news.' Wb, GL 

t «i 

Hale, V. a. To pour or empty out, as water from a vessel by in- 
clining it to one side, or otherwise. 

S.G. baila, balla, i. to incline, tilt ; as a vessel : a. to pour out, as liquid from a tilted 
vessel ; thus, bdlla watn pd ndgot: to pour water upon anything ; O. N. balla; Dan. belde 
or btidde, to incline, to pour out, or take out by dipping, or let run out slowly by indining 
the containing vessel ; to fill another vessel by pouring from an inclined containing vessel ; 
as, ai belde valden afosten : to pour the whey ft-om the cheese ; at belde olie i lampen : oil 
into the lamp ; at belde een over med vand : water over any one. The word has an exten- 
sive application through the shades of meaning connected with inclination or leaning : as, 
Mtifen er saa beld, glasser staaer saa beldi : the ladder, the glass, is on the brink of a fall ; 
belde, a steep place down which one can easily slip or fall ; and so on, inclusive of Clevel. 
Held» inclination, proclivity. 

Hales, sb. The handles or ends of the plough-stilts : usually in the 
compound form Plough-hales. 

* n€d, paxillus, davus, in primis ligneus.' Ihre. H<bI, tyrbtd, t^grbal, a peg, tether 
peg. Molb. Dial, Lex,; O.N. bttU, a crook or hooked peg; Sw. D. bai, bel, a wooden 
peg ; N. bid, a tether peg ; Cdt. boel, pin, peg. Comp. Sw. D. bandbel, the equivalent of 
our Hale. 

Half-baked, adj. Deficient in intellect, silly, slow or stupid. 

Comp. the Dan. idiom ny-bagt, new-baked, as applied to any mushroom quality or 
dignity : as, ny-bagt excellence ; en ny-hagt riddersmand, a new-baked nobleman, &c. 

Half-marrow, sb. One who, in connection with work, is looked 
upon as but half a * man ;' an apprentice not yet out of his time ; one of 
two whose joint work is looked upon as a unit, the two being both boys 
or under age. See Marrow. 

Comp. Dan. D. balf-mUtmand or balv-neismand, a man who borrows another man's nets 

I 1 


Half-nought (pr. haaf-nowghl). Half- no thing ; anything— price or 
consideration — too absurdly small or inadequate to be worth men- 

Hall. wriiBs thii balf-neuil. and explains it by ■ half-price.' Ii is simply batf-nolUng. 
' " Wlial did you give foi it ?" ■' Oh I jesl about ba/t-HOUrgbl." ' 

' Ah'd ding Iha' au'd hetid »ff fur baaf-natugbt. Ah widV spokcD by a man Irritated to 
Ihc very verge of violence. 

Half-rocked, adj. Silly, iFh. Gl. gives as the meaning, ' ill-trained, 
only half-nursed ;' but the idea is that of deficiency of wit, rather than of 

HaJf-there (used adjectively rather than adverbially). Deficient, 
half- silly, simple -witted. 

' Pnii lilly gomcrill 1 He 'i nobbal bauf-lbire.' 

HoUooked, adj. Teased, worried, bullied. 

Bild. gives baUoii; Itoni ballr, bowed, inclined, i 
jugum missus ;' wilh the eiample, oft bifnil sa tr bolt 
nvengei hitrisilf j wfaeacc, probably, our word. 

HoUooking, adj, Idling or wandering about desultorily. 

' HallacUiig, generally ciiupled with tloil : " A gurt hallacking itoit." To go biUiui- 
mg about, wandering up and down giddily without > direct »ini.' Leidi Ol. Hill, eivei 
■ HallacUag, idling, feaiiing ; making meiry. HaUaeH, an Idle feUow. North :' and Jam- 
gives ' HalMil, OT ballacb'd. 1 . crazy or half-witted : a, giddy, fooliih, hatcbrained ; often 
implying the idea of light behaviour." Cf. the latter word with our bftllookedi and 
Halliwell's ballaclti wilh Jamieiou'i baloc, a light, thoughlleu gill, which he coimects with 
A.S. bixlga, levii. inconstani, ai a possible origin. In the Eastern Counties ImHrhig sig. 
niGes not only heavy, lumbering, is in the eiprestion ' a great hulking chap,' but alto 
loitering lazily oi heavily, a> in the expteisinn ' hulking about :' and thus it may be co- 

I, sb, (pr. lieeams). The appendages of iron or wood fitting 
over the collar of a drauglit-horse, or Barfiun, and to which the traces 
are attached, The ' seles' of the South. 

■ Attelej. the baumis of a draught horse'i collar.' Cotgr. ' Esleles, iaiiwj.' Gi. on G. di 
Bibtlttu/, Mr. Wedgwood tays, ■ the origin of the word banit is seen in the Wall. Mm, 
a iplinl, or thin piece of wood, corresponding to Oerm. icbitnt. a iplinl. band to keep thiiigi 
ckne.' He alio []uolei PI. bam, a horte-collar ; and Jam- givrs the form boi-bamrit, 
iaimi or a collar for a cow, from Kilian. While ' batialx^agh, a coaiie hone-collar, made 
of teed or itraw. Devon.' given by Hall., remaini to ihew relationihip tc 

one is diiappoiiited at finding to few tncei 
tongue and iti diilecli. I believe we End a c 
l|dintcr-bar, iwlngle-lrce, which ii conncctct 

form Eoma except in our own older 

;icii wilh bammla. to hL;ad down, to 


pollard, or poll ; O. N. bamlat a small pole or stake ; Dan. bammti^ N. IxBmmelt splinter- 
bar. Probably also, bambe {Dansk, Gl,), described by Molb. as ' an unusual and to himself 
unfamiliar word, which seems to signify either cross-pieces of wood, or curved or crooked 
(hooked) pieces, employed on quays or ships' bulwarks,' may be nearly related. In the 

* We are so bamyd, 
For-taxed and ramyd. 
We are made hand-tamyd 

Withe these gentlery men ;* Toumel Mytt, p. 98, 

the word bamyd is probably a vb. derived from the sb. bamt or bam (him in a passage 
quoted by Jam.), and implying forced to submit and labour for others* profit, as the draught- 
horse is. See BarflEtm. 

Hammer, v. n. To stammer, hesitate in speaking. 

The two words bammer and stammer are frequently joined together in use ; and the idea 
is simply that of repetition, as with the blows requisite for driving anything home with 
a hanmier. It should not be quite overlooked, however, that S. G. and Sw. bappla is to 
stammer ; and that bampa and bappa, to happen, to chance, are coincident, as alto that Ihre 
recognises the connection between E. bamper, to entangle, and Sw. bappla: while from 
bamper to bammer is a very easy transition, in our dialect especially. 

Hamp, sb. An article of clothing, which may have been worn next 
the skin, or, at times, over the mider-clothing. 

Dan. D. bempe, a farmer's jacket, or smock, toga rustica ; O. Sw. bomber, bampntr, 
bampn, vestis, indumentum (Ihre) ; thence, ilosters bamher or bampner, monastic habit ; 
kladb i closters bampn aUar cUfitum, clad in the cloister bamp or habit ; Jiadar bampn^ 
a suit of feathers ; O. N. bamr; N. and Dan bam; A. S. bama^ boma, bom; N. Frit, bam; 
M. Q. bama, bam. See-, generally an envelope, involucre, covering ; more specifically, the 
secundhuB or afterbirth, that in which the fcetus had been enveloped. Comp. also with 
our word Germ, bemd, shirt ; siegbemd, victory-vest ; glueks-bemd, luck-garment ; goldne 
bemd, Beow.; fridbemede; all mentioned in Grimm, D, M, pp. 105 2, 1053. I believe the 
word which occurs in Sir Gaw, and Gr. Knigbt, p. 157, 

* Heme wel haled, hose of |>at same grene,' 

is a very close connection of G. bemd, A. S. bama, &c. I have met with the word Hamp 
in two versions of the well-known Brownie rhyme, current here ; the one given first asso- 
ciated with Hart Hall, in Glaisdale : — 

' Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin' bamp. 
He '11 come nae mair nowther to berry nor stamp.* 

The second is from a tradition connected with a locality in the county of Durham, and it 
defective : — 

* A bamp and a hood I 
Then Hobbie again 11 dee nae mair good.' 

Hampered, adj. Beset with difficulties. But, besides this meaning 
which is common in all parts of England, the word bears another 
which is peculiar, — beset or overrun; with vermin, namely, as rats, or 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon this word as connected with ' Dnt. baperen, to stammer, heti- 
tate, falter, stick fast; baperwerb, bungling bad work; bapmmg, stammering, boggling, 


bindiance, obiticle. The i 

1) the fail 

entangle' In E. Eng. Atlit. Poems, B. 
■ Wj'Ih alle h 

linng uti», 3 


il Pi. givei Se. bsrnp, tc 

r, lUo to hill in walking, ti 
) cauie to stick, to impeih 

raclilire ; 

1:84, iprakiiig of the plnndi 
and costly things taken, il it taid that all theie, 
H of Jiat hous he bamppred logeder :' 
word, iptinging from a lotally different origin, furnish the origin of our word T 

nd »e have juit the thought implied in am Hamper. Rich. luggeiti a con- 
jgh a metaphor, with bamtli or bamblt, la lime the hami ; and thus derives 

genera] sigiuGcalion. 

' " They're a uir bamptrid family ;" bame down with expenses, or by the lonlu of 


liifortnne.' Wb. Gl. 

' We 're sairly bamptrid wi r 


Ham-ahookle, v. 3. To restrain or impede the motion of an animal 
by Tastening its head to one of its legs. 

■ They have bam-ibacUal and knee-haltered me till there ii scarce a thing 1 can do ;' 
ipoken by a steward suspected of malpractices, and consequently acting under stringent 
istrainti, in reply to some application from one of ihe tenants. See Fair Maid c/ Ptr^ 
ii. 3"- 

Hand, bear at. To lay to one's charge, or hold one guilty of a 
thing ; thence to owe a grudge to, to bear one in mind as having done 
an injury, possibly with the wish or intent to return it. 

' I bare bin an boitd he hi 

My dame Uughle me thi 
' And wenches wold 1 beriH ibem or. 

Whan that fur seek ihay might ui 

ikee.' Prol. Wifi o/BaA'i Tal: 

oun wrought, 
in this thing.' 

Mail of Lams Tal: 
In Tuuiatl. Mysl. the tiotdfiddy ii Joined: — 

' Nathrr in dcdc ne in taw can I fynd wiihc no wrang 
Wherfor ye shuld hym diiw, ar btrt falsly on band 
Wiihe ille.' {p. aoj.) 
Cf , £>i if t«r btrr )«< lU banda at )» ^lazsl af noHamni manna (wr^ lids : but If it 
thoaU] occur to you to think you have need of a livi men's help. Flat. i. 115. 

Hand-dout, sb. A towel. See Clout. 

Comp. Dan. D. baandkladir. banilar, bandU-r; Sw D. bontUr, baaiU, hand-clolh«, 
i, e gloves {■ without fingrr!,' Kok) ; banJUadt, a while pocket handkerchief; while 
O. N. bandHadi, N. bmdila. Sw. I), bandUaibi 01 boHilUadbi. mean, like oui word, 
limply a towel. Line, iandtlolb. Iiowcver. is a handkerchief. Hall. 


Handhold, sb. i. That which may be gripped or taken firm hold 
of by the hand, a handle or the like ; as a projecting part, of adequate 
size, of anything. 2. The grasp taken, or act of gripping. 

0. N. bandarhaUd; D. bandbold; Sw. D. bandbaU, bannbSlL 

1. • " Can't ye stor it ? " " Ncca, Ah can't git nae bandbold iv it" * 
a. * Ah couldn't ho'd mah bandbo*dt strahve as I moud.' 

Handle, v. a. To deal with, or treat. 

* And tent him away shamefully bandUd' Mark xii. 4. * Handla,* says Ihre, * manu 
tractare, Alem. bantolon, A. S. bandlian, Angl. bandle : idque vel physice, quo sensu botuBa 
saepe occurrit in Scriptis Isl., vel moraliter, uti dum dicimus bandla wdl tntd en, bene cum 
quopiam agere, cujus contrarium est nussbtuuUa* So Dan. bandle; — as a/ bandit sine 
klcEtder ildi : to misuse one's clothes. Sw. bandla is used with prep, med or pd. The 
Clevel. usage is that of the Bible, or as in the Dan. example, carried out with greater 

* He 's been desper't'ly sair bannled wi' t* fever.' 

* A chap 'f lahk t' be parlously bannled gif he giti intiv t* haands o' thae low-wen 

Hand-mnning (used adverbially). In succession, one after another. 

* I did it seven times band-running* 

* He stopped away three weeks band-running and niwer went til his work at all.' 
Comp. bandpai, fluent; bandsmootb, quite flat; band-^vbile, a moment, a short while. 


* I may not syt at my note 

A band long whUe.' Toumel. Myst, p. 109. 

Handsely hansely sb. i. The first money received by a seller, any 
day, or at commencement of business. 2. The first use of anything, 
from a shop to a new implement, of whatever kind. 

O. N. bandsalt an engagement, promise, or undertaking sanctioned by contact of hands ; 
S. G. bandsol, mercimonii divenditi primitix : first takings for goods sold retail ; Sw. D. band^ 
sol, earnest money ; Dan. bandsel, the first money taken by a seller in the morning ; hence, 
at give een bandsel : to turn over the first money to one (Molb.) ; A. S. band-selen, a putting 
into another^s possession. * The formation of the word,' says Wedgw. {band, and A. S. sy/- 
lan, ullan ; O. N. sella, to give, bestow, deliver), ' has been commonly misunderstood as if it 
signified delivery of possession, giving a thing into the hand of another. The real import 
is a striking of hands in token of conclusion.' See Wedgw. in v., and cf. the following 
extract : — Oh eiga ^eir at ^essu bandsal ok binda ^eir sua fast mna nuddaga : and at this 
(meeting) they give bandtel, and so bind hsl their contract. Flat. i. 109. 

Cf. * Of up-holders an hep* erly by )>e morwe 

3iue >e gloton with good wille* good ale to bonsel,* 

P. Plougbm, (JE, E, T, S,) p. 61. 

Handsel, v. a. i. To make use of anything for the first time, from 
a new house to a pocket-knife, &c. 

O. N. bandsdia; A. S. band^yllan, to deliver up. 


HandfltaflF, sb. The handle or shaft of the flail. The other parts 
are named the Swippla, that with which the com is struck ; and the 
Cap, the revolving leather fitting at the upper end of the Hand-Btaff, to 
which the Swipple is attached. 

Comp. Sw. D. banmiiil. banntial, baitnni, bandol, bannel. &c. ; Din. D, baadvol, banilel, 
banial. Sw. plijilsiafi giv» our own terminalion. 

Hand-tum, sb. A single act of doing, of one's business, occupation, 
work ; almost equivalent to the phrase ' stroke of work.' 

' Ah't niwer deem » bnad-la'a sen Mirti'mai;' spoken by a perion inaipiciUted by 

Handy, adj. r. Dexterous, ingenious, clever with one's hands. 
Thence, 2. Suitable, well adapted, convenient. 

S.G. bandig, igitit; O.N. bfntugr; Sw. bindig; Sv.D. baadig, boHiUig, bannetig, 
biinHug, ivitMt, eaiy to use with the hand : dcvei or dcxlcroiu : Swiu bandlig, bantu ; 
Din. bandig, btbandig; Sw. D. bandugcr, deileroiij, expert, in a hindicraft, namely. 

I. ' A dtsper't Jondy chap wir a tpcead;' oragun; or a hoisc, &c. 

1. > T' tpol 'i nat that bad : it 's bandy enough.' 

• T' new cho'ch ligs fait an' bandy for 1' town.' 

Hangedly, adv, Reluctantly, despondingly, ( 

■ Ha left home this lime very bangidly.' tVb. Gl. 

a a downcast way. 

;-mind, sb. (pr. hinging mind). An inclination or desire for 
this or that line of action or particular doing. 

The Sw. idiom bdnga tfitr nagan appcoichei the (en>e of oui phrase ai well ai the COT- 
leiponding Dan. one. Molb., however, quolci the wonl bang, inclination for, or aiming at, 
a thing, ai a word only latdy introduced (rom the Germ., and not, to far. much uied : — 
Vi arvt upoaniivlilig an ntu, maatiH mdog tl bangi til al syndi : beyond doubt we 
inherit a capability, poisibly eren a propeniity, for tinning. Riela givec bang, bing, eigei, 
desiroQi, and collatet O. N. bang, desire, as well as Germ. £011;. 

' Ay, he 't had a Unging-miitd tiv it, ivver syne hii brither gaed furrin'.' 

Hank, sb, i. A rope loop, or latchet, for securing a gate, move- 
able stack-bar, &c. a. A skein or knot of thread, yam, string, Ac. 

O.N. bauni, hanki, fonicnlusi S. G. banli, annului vimincut. qua conttringuntur luitei, 
«ep«m conlinenlei ; Sw. D. haai. that with which anything ii hung, lignla. habena orbico- 
lala: Sw. ban^, string, band for tying. We have in these words Ibe exact meanings gi*en 

Honk, v. a, I. To fasten or 'hang' a horse: as, by passing hia 
bridle, or halter, over a gate, a hook, or what not. 2. To hold a horse 
in light, to check him by drawing bridle. 

From Hank, sb. Comp. O. N. baxka, lo bind 01 fatten with a rope. 


I. * And when they had hankt their horses, they stood all on a bare spott of ground.' 
Fork Casde Dip. p. 103. 

* And bcmkt him (the colt) to a stobb.' lb. p. 197. 

3. * Ha-a-aw, Landlord ! Hanch your naig a while ; 
For I hae ridden full lang twa mile 
Out of my gate, to overtake ye.' Joeo^er. Disc, p. 9. 

Comp. the use of the vb. in the following extract : — ' Dedely synnes gastely slaa ilke 
manes and womanes saule )>at es baunkedt in alle or in any of thayme.' Ru. Pieces, p. 1 1. 

Hank, To be in a. To be in a state of perplexity, or trouble. 

Hank, To have one in. To have, or have placed, a person in such 
circumstances that he is in a state of perplexity, trouble, or anxiety; or 
that he is imable to extricate himself. 

Comp. O. N. * Hann a baunk uppi bakid d >^ : he has a hank upon the back of you ; 
obligatione te habet ; du er ham forbunden :' Hald. 

Hank, To have things in a. To have one's circiunstances of action, 
or connection with another, much involved or perplexed. 

Hankie, v. a. i. To entangle, or cause to twist up together, as silk, 
thread, &c. Hence, 2. To entangle in some piirsuit or proceeding ; to 
inveigle or entice. 

A frequentative from vb. hank. 

a. * They bankUd him on intiv t' matter.' 

HanUe, sb. A considerable quantity or number ; a great deal. 

* spelt also banket, which Jam. rightly conjectures to be correct. Hancle, a great 
many. Hall. Not from band/ul or bandtal, but from the notion of holding together. Germ. 
benkd weinbeeren, a branch of vine with a number of bunches on it N. baank, cluster of 
things hanging together.' Wedgw. Add Sw. D. bdngla, banka, to be sweet on one, and so 
stick close to her ; bdngla, to be pertinacious in attendance on any one ; banker, a suitor, 
hanger-on in courting. 

Hap, v. a. To cover, by placing or heaping clothes, &c., upon the 
person, straw and earth over potatoes, earth over the dead, and the 

A word of tolerably frequent occurrence in the Early Northern writers. We meet with 
it twice or oftener in Sir Geno. and Gr, Kn., and as of^en in E, Eng, AUiL Poems, 

Mr. Morris' Ol. note is ' Happyn or wbappyn* yn clo)>ys.' * Lappyn' or whappyn' yn 
clo)>ys (bappyn togedyr, S. ; ivrap together in clothes. P.) Involvo* Pr. Pm. Wedgw. 
supposes it ' a corruption of wbap from ulappe! 

* " Are you well bappedT* defended from the cold by clothing.' Wb. Ol, 
' All 's white and bapped up.' lb. 

* All 's dune, now : thou mun bap him oop.' To a sexton after the grave-service was 

* Lord what these wederes are cold and I am ylle bappyd* 

Townd. Myti. p. 98. 


Hapy sb. Chance, fortune, luck. 

O. N. bapp, success, luck ; N. beppa, luck, of whatever character ; O. S. bapp, chance, 
luck ; Sw. D. bapp, fortunate occurrence, good luck. 

' pus tumes sho obout oft hir whele, 
pe whilk )>er clerkes noght elles caOes 
Bot bappi or chaunce |>at sodanli falles/ Pr, o/Consc. 1. 1381. 

In E, Eng. Allii, Poems, wherever the word occurs, it seems to denote good luck, or 
prosperity, or happiness. 

In Clevel. the word is usually qualified, as in ill hap (comp. O. N. and Sw. D. dbapp), 
Bttange hap ; but we also say by what hap, or the like. Cf. * good bapp,* Percy's Foi. 
MS. i. 361 ; and ' o)>er bappes mony mo.' lb. 420. 

Hap, V. n. To befal, chance, happen. 

* Hap what may ;' or, ' bap what bap may.' 

* It bappid on a day.' Kmgbfs Tale, p. 10. 
Comp. N. beppe, to chance, to befal. 

Happen, v. n., and often used actively, in the sense of, To meet with, 
to incur. A very frequent usage of the word is in the sense, Possibly, 
perhaps ; being either impersonal, or elliptical for ' suppose it happen,' 
or a similar form. 

S. G. bappa sig, bampa sig ; Sw. D. bahha sig, bappas, bappa te, bdpa sej, bobba tej, to 
foil out unexpectedly, to chance or befal ; bappa, to happen, to fall out ; babbii, id. 

* " Do you think it will rain ?" " Happen it may." ' 

* Ah '11 think on, bappen Ah gans.' 
In the active sense : — 

' Puir gell I she 's bapp*n*d a misfort'n ;' had, or going to have, an illegitimate child. 
' Ah seen a hare liggin, an' Ah bappWd (t') misfort'n te knap 't o' t' heead.' 

Cf. < An vncoth land he bappened in.' Percy's Fd. MS. i. 367. 

Happing, sb. i. A covering of any kind, whether in the form of 
clothing for the body, or what is laid over matters which require pro- 
tection. 2. A coarse kind of coverlet. See Bed-happing. 

Haps, sb. Overclothes; rugs, shawls, great coats, &c. ; anjrthing 
which may be used as a defence against the cold, by happing, or 
enveloping the person in it. 

• " Have you plenty o* baps ?" " Aye, Ah 's tweea shawls an' mah thick cloak, forby 
t' roog." ' 

Harass, v. a. (pr. harrish). To weary ; distress through the inter- 
vention of annoying or vexatious calls or circumstances. 

* Ah 's barrisbed nearlings te deead by 's ragally gannin's on.' 

Harass, sb. Distress, worry, trouble. 

* It 's been a sair barrisb tiv* *im.* 

Harbour, sb. Shelter, lodging, a home. 

O. N. berbergi, a place of reception and rest, an inn, also a chamber ; O. S. barbeergbi. 


hirhergu a guest-chamber, a store-room ; Sw. bdrberge, id., with the fuller meaning attached 
to the expression ' mine inn ;' A. S. bereberga, a station where an army rested on its march, 
a harbour ; O. Germ, beriberga, beriperga, a halting-place, an inn ; M. Germ, berberge, 
Sw. D. bdrberge, barbare, bdbbar, a store-chamber, a guest-chamber ; Dan. D. berberg, in 
Jutland the men's chamber or sleeping-apartment ; generally a room off the stable : also a 
lesser room or chamber, within or beyond the chief apartment ; O. Dan. berberg, a chamber, 
apartment ; Dan. berberg, an inn, or place for repose and entertainment ; lodgings, or a 
temporary home in any house. A good old word, and in O. English one of frequent occur- 
rence : in Chaucer repeatedly. 

' For I hungerd and yhe me fedde, 
I thrested and at drynke yhe me bedde ; 
Of berber grate nede I had, 
Yhe herbered me with hert glad.' /V. o/Consc. 1. 61 51. 

* I be-seche )>e, lorde, 
8c Mary, |>at is myldest moder so dere. 
Of sum berber, \>et hesly I myjt here masse/ 

Sir Oaw. and Or. Kn. 1. 753. 

' Gode syr, quoth CTawa3m, wolde; )>ou go my emde 
To )>e hej lorde of )>is hous, beH>er to crave.' 7&. 811. 

* " Cleared out of heck and barbour ,*" reduced to the want of both food and shelter.' 

* A gret family, like to eat him (the father) out of heck and bcarbour* 

Hard, adj. Sour; of beer or ale. 

Sw. D. Mr</, bil, bed; as, drikkat a bdrdi : the drink (ale) is sour. 

Hard, adj. Difficult, not easily influenced. See examples. 

* Hard te to'n ;' not easily induced to deviate from a course or plan. 
' Hard te finnd ;' difficult to be met with. 

Harden, v. a. To encourage, infuse spirit. 

* He bardened him on tiv it ;' of a person reluctant or afraid to act, but encouraged by 
another to the venture. 

' Poor lahtle chap I he ommost brak' out when tahm cam' te gan i' aimest ; but he bar- 
dened hissel' oop an niwer grat nae mair an nowght ;' of a child going away to school, 
and resolute not to cry. 

Harden-fiaced, adj. Lowering, stormy-looking, threatening in appear- 
ance ; of the weather, or the sky. 

Comp. O. N. bardindif dear times, hard weather, anything that renders life or man's lot 
heavy or trying ; S. G. and O. N. bardna, to grow hard, severe or tour. 

* The sky looks a bardm-faced look.' Wb. Ql. 

Harding, sb. A coarse linen fabric used for making wrappers, &c. 

Hards, coarse flax, the refuse of flax or hemp. Greites de lin, the bards or tow of flax. 
Cotgr. : Hall. Also barden, hemp. Forks. Dial. 1697 : Hall. A. S. beordan, beordas, hards, 
the refuse of tow. The derivation obvious : O. N. bar, borr; N. borr; Dan. b^r; Sw. D. 
bar; O. Germ, baru, baro; M. Germ., Austr., Bav., bar; Kam. Mr, flax. Comp. D. bor- 
tave, the fibre of flax. See Hamp, for a curious old rhyme containing the word. Hard 
baites in E. Eng. Attii, Poems, B. 1 209, and K. Alex. p. loa, is referred to this same word 
by Mr. Morris. 



HardlingB, adv. Hardly, scarcely. 

We hive tcvenl ndvetbs with the termination -I 
c»o scarcely help comparing Ihem with the Sci 
aratoHgi {S. Jut].), bickwjids. 

And I think il nii 

IS nearllngt, miMtliiiBa ; m.Svt 
an formi in tangs, n baglaaga, 
be obwrFcd, thai while in these 
be implied, a limilar iia ii alwayi 
an idea of molioii. progreuion or 

Hard of bearing, adj. More or less afflicted with deafness. 
Hard-set, adj. Almost overtasked, tried to the verge of power or 
endurance, scarcely able or capable. 

ard-ul wir a family.' Wb. Gl. 


all EC 


1 ihe idoE o: 

;i bard-HI wi' work ;" overtasked.' 76. 
Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Hardeall (or obslynat) yn wyckyduesM, |)>l oeotr wjUb chawnge.' 

Harled, adj. Mottled. 

Hall, gives iarlt. hair or wool. Narlb.; ai also bari, to entangle. Hurlyd, tn the line— 

' Hii tiede is hlce a stowke, biirlyd ac hoggei,' TWml. ntyii. p. 313: 

Ihe Editor*! glotiarial note on whidi is, ' Hurt, (taring, rude, unkemd. brinlie. horrid, like 

> wild boarti head. Coigr.,' ii doubtkic nearly allied to larl; hair or wool; and possibly 

l«rl(. in the paisage subjoined, may indici ' .- - • .. -. ^ .. 

' pe mane of |>at mayn hoii much to hit (his rider's ■ much bi 

h,i,) irte 

Wei ctetped & eemmed wyth knotlei ful mony, 

Folden in wyih STJore aboute he fayre grene. 

Ay > bnir of tit here an o^er of golde :' Sir Gaw. 
unleit, indeed, birli be taken to be allied to burl, urbirl, and to mi 
taking it in coimcction with the ideas of hiihineu and craping, 
the eumple under HaHe in Cr. Gl.—- Sho 'i a fearful hask barltd 
hinh, rtarmg. Infted hair, — Ihe ricw above indicated is at leail a f 
idea of (taring, or tufted hair, ihere might be a transition to that of 
on a creilore'i hide alwayi hai, at leul apparently, t diffefcnt hue from 
parti or the body. 

Ham, sb. Coarse linen, of rough texture and not closely woven. 
Probably an oral .abbreviation of Harden or Harding. 

Harr, sb. A strong fog, or wet mist, almost \erging on a drizzle. 
At limes occuring in frosty weather. See Frost-hag, Frost-harr. 
Written ' Hare," ' Harl,' by Brockett. 

Comp. III. or, pnlvii minutliiimiii. atomut in mdiit inlaribus. The Horr it simply (he 
■uemblage of a vast hoil of minute particle), and Ihe word niiy easily have berii taken to 
denote the mist by Imniiiion from one idea to the other. 

Harrow, To trail a light. To have but few of the burdens a 

nrf Gr. K« 



«mplr a 


L But 

I with 

;' ihat is. 



bable one 



t mottled, 


m that 

the sleeker 

crosses of life upon 

■ " He If ails <i light barrm 

; to be tolerably free from cares and 

JTCrs his fimity ;" of 
Wb. Gl. 


TLsLrVj hauve. The word of command to a horse, or horses, to turn 
to the left, or towards the driver, who always has the team or Draught 
on his right hand as he walks by its side. Replaces the older word 
Halt, Haaght, Heit, or Hyte. 

Hask, adj. Coarse or rough or harsh to the senses of taste or 
touch: the coarseness or harshness of too great dryness, as well as 
austerity or roughness of taste, being included. 

Pr.Pm, * Harske, or baske. SHpUaut poritieus* Jam. gives barsK bars, basky; and 
other forms are basb and barrisb. S. O. barskf austems, tetricus ; Sw. biirsk, rank, rancid ; 
Dan. barsk ; Germ barscbt hard, rough, austere. 

' Hask bread :' — the comparison sometimes being * As bask as chopped hay.* Wb, Gi, 

Haugoed, adj. Tainted, beginning to be ofifensive, as meat or game 
which has been too long kept. Wh. GL 

Fr. baui'goui. 

Haunt, sb. A custom, habit, or practice. See Haunted. 

* Of clothe-makyng she hadde such a bawu 
She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunt.' Prcl. to Cani. Tain, 

Haunted, To be, v« p. To grow used to, or become accustomed. 

The ▼. a. is of frequent occurrence in O. E. 

* Fr. batUir, to frequent, haunt, literally to follow a certain course.' Gl. to £. Eng, AUU, 

' pay ar happen also |>at baunU mekenesse.' 76. CI. 1 6. 

' For swilk degises and suilk maners 
Als yhong men now baunUs and lers. 
And ilk day is comonly sen, 
Byfor )>is tyme ne has noght ben.' Pr. ofConse, 1. 1524. 

' To use and to baunU chiualrie.' Merl, p. 326. 

' )?e |>irde es ydellchipp )>at ouer mekylle es batmUdt* Halt Meid, p. 33. 
' ** He got baunted to it by degrees ;" gradually habituated to it.' Wb, GL 

Hause, sb. The throat, or neck. 

O. N. bah; O, Sw., Dan., A. S., Germ., M. G., Dut. bals^ the neck. 

Hauve, v. n. To stare or gape with stupid wonderment 

Most likely a mere aspirated offshoot of awf. See Auviah, half-witted; and comp. 
oaft a simpleton, a blockhead, — ' formerly more correctly written auf, oupb. When an 
infant was found to be an idiot, it was supposed to be an imp left by the fairies in the room 
of the proper child carried away to their own country. 

" These when a child haps to be got, 
Which after proves an idiot. 
When folks perceive it thriveth not, 

The fault therein to smother. 
Some silly, doating, brainless calf — 
Say that the fairies left this aulf 

And took away the other." ' Wedgw. 

K k 2 



Iblpeniroliib, olpelrulseb. atbtrdrulub, &*!.) 

1 dbt ineaa aagilban habm, luas somi aticb 

Ho» EiaiicH btiat : tlvtui leiebu :' by the wotdt specified ii meant in awkward, sddle- 

headed timpletoa, luppaied to have been bewitched by the elvei, otherwise expieiied by 

iluiii. auvlali. 

' " What are you tauving at?" itariQg stupidly and imaiedly at?' HTi. Gl. 

HauTey-gauvey, sb. A rude or stupid lout, an awkward down, 

slow-witled and slow-handed, 

HauTiBh, hauTing, adj. Simple-witted, half-stupid. 
Haver, sb. (pr. hav\'er). Oats. 

O.N. bafi (pi. bnfrar), bafn: 
sing.); Sw.D. ii^rii, bagro; Sw 
Germ, baffr. babir : O. Sax. bmori 


; Wall, ha/ar. 

Haver-meal, sb. Oatmeal. 

Haw-buck, sb. An ignorant country clown, an uninformed lout. 

Hay-bauks, sb. Loose sticks or poles, of oak commonly, laid side 
by side, with spaces between, above the stalls or standings in the cow- 
or ox-house (Owb-'ub), on which is laid the hay for the present use of 
the beasts below. 

Hays, sb. Enclosure fences, often doing duty as boundaries, in 
which sense the word exists in several local names. 

O.N. hagi; O. Sw. bagb; N. bagji, baga; Sw. D. bag. bagi, baga, bain; Dan. ban: 
M. Germ. bai. btge; A. S. bag; Germ, iiy-; M. Fris. bag, bage. But our word it pro- 
bably more directly due to the Nurmiu form. ^I'a, or baia. ' When the Daniib aod 
Saxo-Norinan monarchs organised hunts on a large scale, the cyitem of netting was foDnd 
ineflieiinl. and a combination of nialeriils, in which nets were iubtnrient to hazels and 
underwood, was Tonned, whereby a larger number nf beasts of a dangeroui chiiactei could 
be entrapped. These hedges, which the Saxoni were probably taught by the Normuu to 
construct, received Ihe Norman appellalioH of Haia' A . SoJt. Honu, p. 365. See Du Cangc 
in V. Hma, Spelmin's Gloss. 

, V, a. (pr. hezzle). To beat, chastise, especially with a stick. 

Ihre givt 

batsia, which signifiei lo mark out, or enclose a space for ■ duel, with 
, — ' En tr MMH bvomM in hum ttO^, tr vollriit var baalalSr, ^a vom 
|Mr sillar u/ bnli ilmgr dU til ulmerkja ^ar tr id ilaVr var, tr orroslan diyldi vtm :' when 
the men came to thai place where the lists were boitlltd, there were set up there haiel rods 
in order to mark out where llie conibit was to be. This is another dcriv. use oF the vb. 
luwel ; and possibly even, obvious as the derivation of our word seemi, there may be in it 
a fefcreiicc to the good liaid blows which would be interchanged in the VoU baslilSr. 

Hozeling, sb. (pr. hezzliiig). A beating, a caning. 

Haslod, adj. (pr. hazzcld). Speckled red and while, ■ 
the hairs of these colours inlcmiixcd. so that it is liard U 

r rather with 
say in some 


cases which predominates. According to the preponderance of red or 
white the beast is dark-hasled or light-hfl^led. Otherwise, roan 
or roaned. 

Hazy, sb. i. A contention, quarrel or scolding-match. 2. The 
abusive language made use of on such occasions. 

Hall, gives baut to breathe short. Line. ; with which comp. Sw. hmja^ to breathe labo- 
riously, to pant. From scolding to panting is not a difficult or unwonted step. 

Head, sb. i. The upper part of a Dale where it just begins to form 
among the hills. 2. The higher portion of the reclaimed part of a pro- 
jecting spur of the moorland heights where it begins to verge on the 
unreclaimed part, or moor. 

0. N. bqfiid: O. Sw. bovo);>, buvu\>, bovod, bofd, Ihre gives bu/umd, i. Quod in qua- 
cunque re primarium est : a. Promontorium. Sw. hufvud; Dan. boved. Sec, Sw. D. gives 
fors-bduv, the commencement of a Force or Fobs ; an application of the word exactly 
analogous to that in our Dale-head. Also bovde, the commencement of a fence where 
it starts out from connection or union with another, wherein the idea is very much the 

1. * Dznby-bead;* * FTyvLp4>ead ;* * Glaisdale-^Mkf,' &c. 

2. * Ainthorpt-bead ;* * V/ediindsrbead,* The latter name, in a deed bearing date 1246, 
is written Wbayttlands bevid. 

Head-gear, sb. i. Head-dress and what appertains to it. 2. The 
inner equipment of the head, good sense, ready wit, information, &c. 

2. * He 's a knowfii' chap, yon. Ah wad lahk weel t' ha' 's stock o' beadgtar' ' 

Head-rigg, sb. The headland of an arable field, or that part at 
either end on which the horses in the plough are turned, and which is 
not touched by the plough until all the rest of the field is turned over. 
See Bigg. 

Head-stall, sb. The halter, or head-gear, of a horse, by which it is 
secured in its stall, or led out to water, &c. ; made of hemp. The 
Collar, on the other hand, is made of leather. 

The latter component of the word is from O.lf. stattr, a basis, pedestal; Svr. stall; 
O. G. stall; Germ, stelle; A. S. steal, a stall, room, place, &c. Comp. Germ, ktmstal, the 
place which holds kernels, the core, and Eng. D. finger-stall, which is analogous to our 

Head-tire, sb. Head-dress generally, with its belongings and deco- 
rations. See Tire. 

Heap, sb. i. A quarter of a peck in measure. 2. Measure, in the 
sense of the quantity measiired, generally; yet only in the mode of 
saying given in the example. 

Brock, mentions beap, a wicker basket. It would seem most likely that the name 
originated in a special quantity or measure ; whether a quarter of a peck, or more, or less. 



tntc of » cetiain or definite quaniiiy, unly not 
measure : il is ' a calleclion of lix sheaves o: 
e Stock, TrttTe. So also S, G. bop, pottLo 

3 h'" 

an eiptession Toe bid measuie of ill n 

Pret. of Hear. 

j. (pr. heart-bnissen). Heart-broken, overwhelmed 

' " They gi' siiorl biiaps ,' 

Heared (pr. heerd). 

Heart-brufiten, a 
with grief or concern. 

Heart-eased, adj. Having experienced great relief under distress or 

Hearten, v. a. To encourage, inspire with hope or confidence. 

Heartening, sb. Encouragement, the confidence imparted by hope 
or strong expectation. 

' ■■ The dotlor gave him good btarlinbig:" gte»l hopes of recovery.' Wb. CI. 

• ■• Bad biarUmng ;" pool protpecl of amendjiienl held out.' lb. 

• •• No biarlining it all ;" no hopes whatever.' lb. 

Heart-grown, adj. i . Very fond of or strongly attached to a per- 
son or thing. 2. With the expectation or desire strongly set upon 
anything future. 

Cottip. Sw. bjcrtaigi; Sw. D. hjirlt-lmnt, a term of endeannent to one't child, iweet- 
hearx, wife ; Din. D. bjerulillt, id. 

2. * " They were no ways btarf-groion in the matter;" not ovrt sanguine of suc- 
cess.' UT,. Gl. 

Heart^sick, adj. (pr. heart-seeak). Sad at heart, desponding, out of 
heart, wearied with ' hope deferred.' 

Heart-warm, adj. Of a kindly disposition; feeling, and ready to 
shew, kindness. 

' Hfarl-vmrm, porheriy folk." See Qotherl?. 

Heart-whole, adj. (pr. heart-w'oU). i. Right-hearted, true, honest. 
2. Not hurt by Cupid's shafts; not in love. 

I. ■ A decent, bmrl-utboU kind of a man.' Wl. Gl. 

Heave, v. a. i. To pour com from the scuttle, or other bam utensil, 
so as to expose it to a current of wind, by way of partially winnow- 
ing it. 

Heave and throw. To retch and end by vomiting. 

Heave the hand. To give alms, to bestow charity : usually apphed 
in an ironical sense, to a person, that is, who only gives in dribblets. 

■ " Ay, ay." it is said, '■ he has btavn! bii band: he is a generous John." ' Wb. Gl. 


Heave-up, v. n. To retch, to suffer the first symptoms of approach- 
ing vomiting. 

Hebble, sb. The wooden hand-rail of a plank-bridge. 

Hall, explains this word by ' a narrow, short plank bridge/ with a reference to HaUamsh. 
Ol, p. 113. In Clevel. the word bears the meaning given above. It is possibly a corrup- 
tion of a Scand. word formed from O. N. band and volr^ a staff, pole. Comp. Dan. D. 
bdndvolt passing first into bantUl or bantul^ and then into baid. Molb. D. Lex, Suppose 
the V changed in prov. Pr. into its cognate b, and b^>bU results as easily as baiel. 

Heck, sb. i. A half-door or hatch-door. When a door is made to 
open in two parts, the upper half which fastens with a latch, is the 
Heok. The lower part fastens with a bolt or bolts, and is sometimes 
called Half-heok. 2. The inner door between the entry and the 
Hoiise-plaoe or kitchen. 

A. S. b€Bea, a hatch. This word and the word Heok, a rack, are, there is little doubt, 
offshoots of the same root, if not actually the same word. But I have thought it better, 
inasmuch as local usage unites ideas with them which are not very plainly connected, and as 
they appear to descend to us from two different sources, to give them as separate words, 
widi each its specific origin. 

I. ' Good wyff, open the bek, Seys thou not what I bryng? 

Uxor, I may thole the dray the snek. A, com in, my swetyng.' 

Townel, Myst, p. 106. 
a. ' Steck t' beck, bairn ;' latch or fasten the inner door. 

Heck« sb. A rack, to hold fodder for horse or cattle. See Stand- 
heok, Water-heck. 

O. N. bagi; O, Sw. bag; A. S. bag, bege or begge; Dan. bctk or bakhe. The original 
meaning in most of these words is a fence or hedge made with boughs and sprays cut from 
trees, to serve as a retaining boundary to pasture-grounds. Then the words bage, bagi, 
came to mean the pasture-ground itself. The transition of idea from these two meanings 
to our word Heok, and the exactly synonymous Dan. b<tk or bakke, the wooden fence or 
enclosure which keeps in the provender of the cattle, is natural and easy. Hall, speaks 
of beek-door being * an inner door not closely panneled but only partly so, and the rest 
latticed.' If this were so generally, or had ever been so, it would tend to connect that 
word very closely with the word now under notice. 

' ** Cleared out of beck and harbour ;" reduced to want of both food and shelter.' Wb, Gl, 
' To eat one out of beck and harbour ;' of a poor man's finmily with good appetites. 

' Thare provand, sir, forthi, I lay behynd thare ars. 
And tyes them fast by the nekes. 
With many stanys in thare bekes* Tcfwnd, Myst, p. 9. 

Heckling, sb. The receiving of a reprimand, a scolding. See 

Hedge-dike, sb. A fence consisting of a bank with- a hedge on it. 

Hedge-dike-side, sb. The bank of the Hedge-dike which lies 
towards the water-channel side. 


Heeat. A mode of pronouncing Hot. From this, by a somewhat 
stronger aspiration of the A, the sound of e€ being simply sharp or 
distinct, and not at all prolonged, the Pr. yat follows, as in yat yune 
(for une or ugn), hot oven. 

Heed, v. a. To be anxious or concerned, to mind (in that sense). 
Chiefly occurring in the expression never heed = don't concern your- 
self, never mind. 

Heeze, v. n. To breathe badly, making a wheezing or hoarse sound 
in doing so. See Hooze. 

Comp. Sw. D. bassja or bdsjat to breathe badly or with difficulty ; bisa, to wheeze, 
to whiz; N. basa, to pant, be short-winded; bds, hoarse; Sw. bet^ id.; O. Sw, beser; 
O. N. bds; A. S. bas; Germ. beistTf &c. Cf. E. wbeezM, For a converse mode of dealing 
with the initial unsound, compare Clevel. wheeze « ooze, w'oUs whole, Whots stoats, 
&c. Comp. also Sw. D. bwdsa, to breathe with difficulty ; as also, gvasa, and O. N. bvasa, 

Heeze, sb. A catarrhal disease incident to pigs, in which they 
breathe hard or wheeze much, cough, &c. 

Comp. O. N. bast ; Sw. D. bisa, hoarseness. 

Heezy, adj. Audibly labouring under the effects of cold, hoarse; 
or, with animals, wheezing, breathing badly. Otherwise, Heasy. 

Heft, sb. I. A handle, as of a knife, &c. 2. A pretext or excuse : 
thence, pretence, dissimulation, deceit. See Whiteheft. 

A. S. bafit a haf^, handle ; Germ, beft, id. ; S. Jutl. befit id., also a knife-handle ; Dan. 
bajiet befie, hilt of a sword, handle. Sw. and Sw. D. b'dfta is to catch hold, hold fast, 
couple together ; O. Sw. bapta^ bafta, to hold fast, to retain, whence b^ipta^ brnpH, b€tftt^ 
bafti^ a prison ; O. Germ, befijan^ to bind, to make fast ; O. N. befU^ a taking, ^e act of 
taking or holding captive, captivity. In all these words the idea of bolding — the vocables 
themselves being frequentatives of ba/va or bajwa, to have — is fundamental ; whence the 
easy transition to our first meaning ; and thence, just as in E. bandU, to the second. 

Heft, V. a. I. To put a handle to, or fit with a handle. 2. In the 
passive, to be fitted with or become accustomed to. 3. To be, or get 
into trouble, difiiculty, * a fix ;' perhaps as the consequence of a bad 
bargain. See Heft, sb. 

a. * She 's (a man's wife) nobbut a bad 'n. Ah doo'ts he '11 fYnd hissel' Mir biJUd 
wiv her.* 

With this comp. the instances given by Ihre, — b€Bfia for skuld^ sere alieno teneri ; and, 
med sjukdom bebafiadt be/ted wi' 'n ailment ; and, * be ba/de i^d sd^iee 4hmt strangnt 
\>eofman geba/ine, se wets genemned Barabbas:* he had then truly a strong (notorious, 
notable) thief imprisoned who was called Barabbas. 


Heigh-go-mad. An expression indicating indulgence in riotous or 
mad froKc on occasion of any festivity or merry-mafing, Wh, GL ; or a 
state of great excitement, from anger or other cause. 

• They went beyond all bounds ; they played the very bey-go-mad* Wb, Gl, 
Hall, defines it rather as an adj. : * in great spirits ; highly enraged.' 

Cf. * he made me dance, de^te my head, 

among the thomes the bey^oitt;* 

corrected by Percy to bty-gty-beat, Loost and Hum, Songt, p. ao. 

Heigh-how, v. n. To yawn, as when weary. 

Ly hine, adv. Hence, away: often used imperatively; be off I 

O.lf.bSdan; Sw.bddan: Sw.D. bonne; Dzn. beden; Dan.D,btnne; A,S. beonan; 
Alem. bina ; Dut. ben, benen ; hence. Comp. the use of the Dan. D. benne, which takes 
the force of a vb. and is inflected as one. Thus ; drengen bar btnnet nud sax : the lad has 
made off — ^literally off-ed — ^with the scissors. 

* Welle is me that I shalle dre 

TyUe I have sene hym with myn ee, 
And no longer byni* Townd, Myit, p. 156. 

The word very often occurs in the form bitben : thus, — 

* Naked we come hider, and bare 

And pure, swa sal we bt&en fare.' Pr. ofConse. 1. 508. 

* Fra babin: lb. 1 6007. 

* On wy))er half water com doun )>e schore. 
No gladder gome be)^en in to Orece 

pen I, quen ho on brjonme wore.' 

E. Eng. AUU. Poenu, A. 1. 230. 
• " Emi away I" Be off.' Wb. Gl, 

Held, sb. Inclination, proclivity. See Hale. 
Helder, adv. Rather, preferably. 

O. N. baidr, potius ; S. O. b€Btta, hdder. Comp. Sw. djisi: Sw. D. bdlati; O. Sw. mi^ 
last; N. bdlni, bdsi, iHui; all superL, as if ftom a lost comp. answering to b^dr or 

' Ah wad bddir gan an' feght an stay an' be ta'en by t' poUis.' 

Helm, sb. A shed in the fields for the shelter of cattle when turned 
out; a hovel or hut 

O. N. bjalmr, I. A covering, envelope : a. A hehnet : 3. Any vaulted or quasi-vauhed 
over-cover ; as, $<ilar bjalmr. Sit sun's helm, i. e. the heavens or sky ; O. S. buelmir, buel' 
mer, balm, a helmet ; A. S., O. Qerm., O. Sax., Fris., Dut., N. Sax. Mm, a hehnet ; Dan. 
bjelm, a helmet, a moveable roof on stoups or posts, to keep com, &c dry ; Sw. D. bjelm, 
an envelope, the seed-husk of oats, a detached shelter or roof under which com or hay may 
be kept dry. In the last two cases a very near approximation to our meaning presents 



Helter, sb. A halter. 

* j belter.* Pr. Fineb, ccxcix. 

Hemmel, sb. A hand-rail, such as is usually fitted on one side or 
both of a planked or wooden bridge. 

Dan. bamniel; Sw. D. bammel, a piece of wood fastened by means of a bolt transversely 
across the waggon pole, to the ends of which are attached the svringle-trees by which the 
horses drag the waggon (Molb.) ; O. N. batnla, a pole or small beam ; N. bammel, id. 

Hempy, adj. Mischievous, of a character likely to bring the pos- 
sessor under the penalties of the law. 

* " A bempy dog ;" a youth disposed to practices which may end in the hangman's 
hemp.' Wb. GL 

Henbau'ks, sb. A hen-roost. 

Comp. Sw. D. bana-bjelke, the uppermost cross-beam which holds together the spars of 
the framework of a roof; deriving the name from the circumstance that the fowls com- 
monly fly up and roost upon it at night (Rietz) : also bana-balke; N. Sax. banebalken. 

Henbird, sb. The domestic fowl. 

* Where t' partridges rase, Ah heered a cheeping lik' a young benbird;* a cry like that of 
a young chicken : — which it was, in fact, the hen partridge having by some chance sat 00 
and hatched the egg of a common fowl. 

Henpen, sb. The manure made by fowls, as removed from the 

Hen-8crats, hen-scrattings, sb. Small streaky clouds of the cirrus 
form, known by other names, as Pilly-tailB, but deriving this name 
from some resemblance to the marks in dust or light soil left by a 
scratching fowl. 

Heron-sew, hem-sew, sb. The common heron {Ardea a'nerea). 
Incorrectly written herriag-sew or -sue, and that spelling ignorantly 
supported on the utterly mistaken ground that the bird 'pursues the 
herrings,' which as a wader it cannot do. 

* Fr. beronceauj a young heron, gives E. beronsbaw* Wedgw. 

Hesp, sb. A clasp or fastening, especially to doors or windows : the 
button which turns on a central pivot and so clasps or fastens a window, 
&c., is specially indicated. 

A. S. bcepSt a latch, clasp, bolt or lock of a door ; Sw. baspa or baspe^ a latch or hasp ; 
Dan. busp or btispe^ a latch or bolt on a door ; O. N. bespa ; S. Jutl. be&pe, id. A further 
meaning in most of these latter words is a reel to wind yam, &c., upon. 

Hezsel, hezz'lin'. Mode of Pr. of Hasel, Haseling. 


Hig, sb. Offence taken, usually implying petulance rather than 
serious indignation; the feeling of petulant or half-passionate dissatis- 
faction, and its manifestation. See Pet. 

Cy*. Gl, gives bigf i. A passion, a violent commotion of the mind: 2. A temporary 
hurricane ; meanings which serve to connect the word more directly with Sw. D. bigay to 
covet greatly or intensely, to strive to obtain vehemently; N. bika; Dan. bige; Dut. 
bijgen ; A. S. bigan^ contendere. Quaere is Dan. D. beg, a person whom no one can endure, 

* They took the big at it.' Wb, Gl. 

nighty, highty-horse, sb. A childish appellation for a horse. 

* Cotgr. explains estre en ses gogues, to be frolic, lusty, all a-boit, in a merry mood, /i 
est a cbival, he is set on cock-horse, he is all a-boigbt* Wedgw. 

High-up, adj. Belonging to the nobility and gentry of the coimtry ; 
of rank or position. See Quality. 

* "Who's your new landlord?" " Wheeah, he's some desput bigb^p chap, a lord, or 
mebbe a duke, or such as that." ' 

Highway-master, sb. The surveyor of highways. 

Hind, sb. An agricultiu-al servant, hired by the year or term, having 
a house rent-free in part remuneration and expected to find other labour 
besides his own — his wife's, or grown-up daughter's, possibly — at cer- 
tain seasons of the year. In some instances, if not sdl, the Hind has 
some of the responsibility of the Bailiff but works with his own hands, 
which the Bailiff does not, or at least need not. 

Hing, V. n. To hang. Simply a mode, and an ancient one, of Pr. 
Conversely, a is sometimes found in the place of 1, as Btang= sting. 

* He says, what es man in shap hot a tre 
Turned up >at es doun. als men may se. 
Of whilk ^e rotes ^at of it springes, 
£r >e hares >at on >e heved bynges* Pr. of Conse, 1. 67a. 

Hing-by, sb. A hanger on, a toady or sycophant. 

Hing for rain, To. A phrase applied to the general appearance of 
the clouds and atmosphere when rain is evidently approaching. 

' Ah aimed it wad be wet : it 's bin binging/br raan ivver sen sunrise.' 

Hinging-mind, sb. An inclination, a strong disposition to do this 
or that. 

Hipe, v. a. i. To push or strike with the horns as cattle do. 2. To 
censure, assail with insinuations or accusations ; to attack in reputation 
or character. 

Both Brock, and Leeds Ol. make bipe, * to rip or gore with the horns ;' Wb. Gl., simply 
to * butt or strike with the horn,' which is probably the more correct explanation of the 

l1 2 


two. Rietz gives bypa, to strike, inflict a blow, and byp, a heavy blow or stroke. Hypa 
also, and Dan. hyppe as well, signify to pat the earth up against growing potatoes — * earth 
them up' — or other crops that require such aid or protection. It is curious if the 
Northumbr. dialects have preserved this word (otherwise lost), in its sense of striking, in 
common with the Sw. dialects. Rietz quotes no correlative word besides Dan. byppe just 

I. ' Som gas tatird als tatird folet. 

Some gase wrynchand to and fra, 

And some gas ^ixP^'"^ ^^ ^ ^•' /V. q^Constf. 1 1 537. 

a. ' They are always biping yan at anither.* Wb, Ol, 

Hipe, hype, v. n. To make mouths, as in * grmning through a 
horse-collar ;' to make ridiculous gestures as well as faces. 

Probably nearly connected with Sw. D. bipa, to gape, to make open mouths in wonder 
or amazement ; Imp, to draw one's breath hard in astonishment over anjrthing. See also 
O. N. giipt absurdity, spoken, or acted, which would appear through gUpr, hums, apertos, 
to connect itself with Sw. D. bipa and our hipe. 

Hiper, hyi>er, sb. A mimic, or one qualified to contend in grimacing 
or making faces, &c. 

• A rare byper,* Wb, GL 

Hippen-ho'd, hipping-hold, sb. A place where gossip is wont to 
be held, a loitering-place, a comer where folks are apt to lounge and 

I connect this with O. N. gdipa, effutire, to chatter, to talk fast and vainly ; g^p^ spoken 
vanities, or nonsense, chatter. See Hipe ; also comp. N. bipetif eager or gr^dy, curious, 
the Dan. being nys-gjerrig, literally news-craving — a highly appropriate qualification of a 
gossip, or gossiping-place. 

Hippings, sb. Napkins (for infants). 

Jam. gives this word as * Hippeti, a kind of towel used for wrapping about the b^ of an 
infant,' which would be a much more satisfactory explanation if folks in N. Eng. and Scotl. 
were more in the habit of using the word bip rather than bttie or buekU. Still Hall, gives 
' bippany, a wrapper for the hips of an infant. East.* 

Hippie, sb. A small hay-cock, or rather a small heap of half-made 
hay, the drying process being not as yet quite completed. 

Sw. D. bypa, a small heap of hay or clover ; and as a vb. the same word means to set 
clover in such heaps. It is a derivative or diminutive from bop, a heap. Grimm suggests 
the former existence of the strong verb biupan, bdup, bupun, congerere, tumere. RMts, 
p. 261. 

Hiring-penny, sb. A piece of money, usually a half-crown, given 
as earnest-money, on concluding a hiring-engagement, by the master to 
his future servant, and which establishes the bargain. See Aries, Fest- 
ing-penny, Gkxl's-penny, &c. 

Hirings, sb. A statute fair, at which agricultural servants of both 


sexes are engaged for the term, or the year. A fruitful source of rustic 

Hirple, v. n. i. To shrug or stick up the back as an animal does 
in inclement weather, when standing under a hedge in an open field, in 
the vain hope of finding shelter. 2. To be dull and inactive from the 
effects of severe cold, or illness. Hence the meaning to creep, to go 
slowly as if lame. Written also Hurple, Herple, Hurkle, Hurtle. 

One can hardly help suspecting a confusion of two words here, one in p and one in h, 
although it is certain that in some cases, as where articulation is imperfect (as in young 
children) or defective (as in some adults), /, >, and p are in a certain sense interchangeable ; 
and a like interchange may arise out of careless or provincial peculiarities of pronunciation. 
Wedgw. refers burkle, as well as burcb (to cuddle), to bug or higgle, £. equivalents to Dut. 
buck, in buekscbouderen, to shrug the shoulders, bucken, to crouch, Sw. buka sig, sitta buka^ 
Dan. sitt$ paa bug; assuming * the introduction of an r (always useful in the expression of 
shivering).' In this connection comp. Sw. D. birra, to shiver t>r shudder, whether with cold 
or sudden fright, to which the Dan. D. burre corresponds ; btming, shivering or shuddering, 
and birrug, which implies tottering, stumbling, as well as bewildered or frightened, and 
so, liable to shiver or shudder. Leeds GL gives ' burkle, to contract the body and become 
motionless ; burple, to shrug up the neck and creep along the streets with a shivering sen- 
sation of cold, as an ill-clad person may do on a winter's morning ; as, ** goas bwpling 
about fit to give a body t' dithers to luke at him." ' 

Hirsel, hirale, v. n. (pr. hossle). To move about restlessly, to 

Jam. gives a different explanation of this word. Ruddiman's is * to move or slide down, 
or forward, with a rustling noise, as of things rolled on ice, or on rough ground.' Sibbald's, 
more approved by Jam., * to move oneself in a sitting or lying posture ; to move without 
the common use of the limbs.' ' It seems properly,' adds Jam., to denote that motion 
which one makes backwards and forwards on his hams. Thus we say that one birsiUs 
down a bill when, instead of attempting to walk or run down, he moves downward sitting.' 
In Clevel. the word is applied to cattle quite as frequently as to human beings, and expresses 
a general sense of uneasy restlessness. Hall, gives birsel, to move about, to fidget. Norib. ; 
and bursle, to shrug the shoulders. Cumb. It scarcely seems to me that either Ruddiman's 
A. S. byrstan, murmurare, bristlan, crepere, or Jamieson's * Teut. aerselen, Belg. aarzeleH, 
retrogredi, quasi culum versus ire, from aert, podex,' have any real bearing on the word. 
Definitions are sometimes framed, at least turned, to meet a derivation, a slight suspicion 
of which may arise on reading both those given above. To me the word wears the appear- 
ance of a frequentative, with an analogy to josde (from joust, to push: Wedgw.); and I 
would much more willingly refer it to dialect-corruption of a word like Arusi than to either 
of the sources suggested in Jam. 

Hiss, V. n. To express discontent venomously ; to be cantankerous. 
See Siss. 

* T' au'd chap sissed and gruffed mair an a lahtle at t' parish tak'ing 's pay off;* reducing 
or withdrawing his allowance from the poor-rate. 

His-sel', his-sen, pr. Himself. 

* his halfe brother dwelt there, was feirce and fell, 
noe better but a shepard to the Bishoppe binfsdl* 

Percy's Fcl, MS. i. 510. 


Hitoh, V. n. To move a short distance in any direction ; to hop. 

* Hitch, motion by a jerk. Swiss gebotzelt seyn, Uughing till one shakes ; Bav. butteben, 
to rock, to hitch oneself along like children on their rumps ; Du. butsen, butsden, to shake, 
to jumble ; Fr. bocber, to sluke ; Swiss botscben, to hiccup ; boseben, to knock ; botterm, 
botzen, botzMm, to shake, jog, jolt.' Wedgw. 

Hitoh, Jamie ; hitoh, Jamie, stride and loup. The bopsh play 
or exercise of * Hop, step and jump.' 

Hither-go-there (used substantively). A digression, wandering 
from the subject in hand. 

* He's a dree au'd chap to talk wiv ; his discoorse 's amaist nobbut biHfir-go-^hens* 

Hoast, sb. A cough. See Heeze, Hooze. 

Hdsti, tassis (Hald.) ; at b6sta, to cough; Dan. bosU; A. S. bweosi; Dut. boisU, a cough. 
Pr. Pm. bost, borst, 

Hoaving, hoavish, adj. Stupid, silly, clownish. See HauYlng, 
AwfLsh, Oaving, &c. 

Hob. The appellation of a spirit, or being of elf-nature, who must 
once have occupied a prominent place in the belief or popular faith of 
the people of the district. 

Probably, like the nisses of popular faith in Denmark, there were many Hobs, each 
with a ' local habitation and a' local * name.' Thus there is a Hob Hole at Runswick, a 
Hob Hole near Kempswithen, a Hob's Cave at Mulgrave, Hobt'rush Rook on the Fam- 
dale Moors, and so on. Obtrush Rook, as well as Hob Hole and the Cave at Mulgrave, 
is distinctly said to have been ' haunted by the goblin,' who being * a familiar and trouble- 
some visitor to one of the farmers, and causing him much vexation and loss, he resolved 
to quit his house in Famdale and seek some other home. Very early in the morning, as 
he was trudging on his way with all his household goods and gods in a cart, he was accosted 
by a neighbour with "I see you are flitting." — The reply came from Hob out of the chum, 
" Ay, we 's flitting." — On which the farmer, concluding that the change would not rid him 
of his visitor, turns his horse's head homewards. The story is in substance the same as 
that told on the Scottish border and in Scandinavia.' Phillips' Vorksbirtt p. 210. I give 
also Professor Worsaae's version of the legend as current in Denmark : — * Once when I was 
in North England the conversation turned on the mischievous tricks of the Nisse, and I 
went on to relate our Northern legend of a Bonder who was teased and worried in all kinds 
of ways by a Nisse. At last he could stand it no longer, and he determined to quit his 
farm and go and take another somewhere else. When ne had brought almost all his goods 
away to his new farm, and was driving along with the last load, he chanced to turn round, 
and what should he see as he did so ? Who but the Nisse himself, with his red cap on, sit- 
ting quietly on the top of the load I Says the goblin to him quite confidentially, " Ajre, 
we 's flitting" (Nu fiytt% vt). One of the persons present then stated that in his youth he 
had repeatedly heard the legend, almost word for word, told in Lancashire.' Mindtr out 
de Danske, 8cc. p. 1 2.^ Hob of the Cave at Runswick was famous for curing children of 
the Kink-oough, when thus invoked by those who took them to his abode : 

' Hob-hole Hob I Mah bairn 's getten t' kin'-cough : 
Tak' 't off! Tak' 't off I' 


Hob at Hart Hall, in Glaisdale, was, as the legend bears, a farm-spirit ' of all work,' thrash- 
ing, winnowing, stamping the bigg, leading, &c. Like the rest of the tribe who ever 
came under mortal eye, he was without clothes — ^nak't — and having had a Harding- 
■xnook made and placed for him, after a few moments of — it would seem, ill-pleased — 
inspection, he was heard to say, — 

* Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin' hamp, 
He '11 come nae mair nowther to berry nor stamp/ 

I look upon the usual derivation of Hob as mistaken, if not absurd. * Hob, hoh^luncb^ 
a country clown. Hal. A boh or clown, piedgris. Sherwood. Hoh-gMin^ a clownish 
goblin, a goblin who does laborious work, where the first syllable is commonly taken as the 
short for Halbert or Robert.' No doubt Hobbie, Hob, is the short for Halbert ; but has it 
actually and popularly been the short for Robert? It seems much more likely that just as 
Oberon comes through the intermediate form Auberon, from Alberon (Grrimm's D. M, 
p. 431), so Hobs 'Ob comes through aub (comp. Clevd. Awf), from alb^tlf. See Hob- 

Hobble, V. n. i. To move with difficulty from having the feet or 
legs entangled or tied, or from lameness. 2. To move as a hare or 
rabbit does, when undistm-bed, with desultory hopping movements, and 
almost as if with its hindlegs tied together. 

See Haini>ered, Hopple, and comp. Sw. D. boppe, a hare. * The idea of insufficient, 
impeded action,' says Wedgw., * is commonly expressed by the figure of imperfect or im- 
peded speech We have Sc. babble, bobber, to stutter, to speak or act confusedly ; 

to babble a lesson, to say it imperfectly ; Du. bobbelen, to jolt, to rock, to stammer ; Sc. 
bobble, to cobble shoes, to mend them in a bungling manner ; PI. D. bumpeln, to limp, to 
bungle ; Sw. bappla, to stanmier ; Eng. bopple, to move weakly and unsteadily. Then, in 
a factitive sense, to bohble or bopple a horse, to hamper its movements by tying its legs 
together.* Still, note £. bammel, bamble, Sw. D. bammla, to lame by ham-stringing, or 
some like cruel process ; thence simply to render lame, or able to move only in a hobbling 
kind of manner. 

Hobble, sb. A condition of trouble, perplexity or distress, from 
which extrication may not be very easy or practicable. 
Comp. Hampered, and see vb. Hobble. 

HobtaruBh, a word occurring in the designations Hobtrush or Ob- 
trush Rook (a tumulus on the Famdale Moors), and Hobtrush Hob, a 
being once held to frequent a certain cave in the Mulgrave Woods, and 
wont to be addressed, and to reply, as follows : — 

* " Hob-trush Hob I Where is thou ?" 
" Ah 's tying on mah left-fuit shoe ; 
An' Ah '11 be wiv thee— Noo I" ' 

* Hobthrust,' says Brock., ' is a local spirit, famous for whimsical pranks. In some farm- 
houses a cock and bacon are broiled on Fassen's Eve, and if any person neglect to eat 
heartily of this food, Hobthrust is sure to amuse himself at night by cramming him up to the 
mouth with bigg-cbaff. According to Grose he is supposed to haunt woods only : Hob o* f 
burst* Certainly, it is not impossible that Hob-thruah, as well as Hob-throBt, may be a 
corruption of this assumed Hob o' /' burst — for I suspect cousinship between it and the 
various derivations, glanced at below, which used to be suggested for Howdie — but I scarcely 



tee it likely. Hill, quoin the following ; — ■ [f he be 00 bob-tbrusb nai no Robin Good- 
fellow, I could finda wilh »ll my he»rt lo tip a lillybub with hini.' Tuio Lane. Lova-t, 
1640; from which it Kppean that two hundred yean ago the form Mobtbrusb prevailed 
u il, 01 Obtnab. itill doei here. Qrimm. who seemt lo hare been acquainted wilh the 
fomi Hoblburst. or Groie'i form with ihe nurfcs of eliiion omitied, haaardi a lurmite — 
one. however, which might h»ve been advanced more decidedly had he known the forms 
Hnhihrvib. Hoblrusb, Oblrusb — that it maj be connected with O, N. fiuri, a being not 
etientially diitinct from the Scand, gianL This ii, at least, more probable than Grose'i 
etymology. Bohlrush U, doubtless, Uie more ipeeial Yorkshire form of Hoblbrmb. Cotap. 
our Amlhrop, Aint'rup foi Ahithorpe, troiiB for throna, Stc, I conceive the Hob 
to be equivalent to Gothic alb, oaf. O. N. idjr, Eng. rif (lee Hob) ; and, u to the entire 
word Sobthruah 01 Hobtnuh, there ii a inggeitive limibrily in form and sound 
between it and olftalrviicb, tlptnlrolub, albcrdrulicb, and the I3ce ; and certainly there 
is no startling incongruity in the lenie ihui suggested; for it is eliiub. E. dviib. Clevel. 
e umlafon ,n our case ,0 .t. primary meanrng-o or ^ on^ng l^o ^n 

-i, half-bred 
pant, or ogre. 

Ho'd, V. a. 1. To retain, keep, or keep back ; of a cow which refuses 
lo yield her milk ; or in reference to her connection with the bull, 2. To 
contest or resist strongly so as to hold the competitor or co-slruggler to 
a continuance of strong effort. 3. To wager. 

t. *T' au'dioan coo bo'ds her milk. We'll hev to quit 'r ;' part with her. 

9. 'She't been Ic l" bull, bud Ah queithun ef she bo'ds,' Sometimet, 'bo'ds t' bull." 

3. ' Ah '« bo'd thee a crown on 't.' See Upho'd, and comp. Wad. 

Ho'd, sb. I , Grasp, 
I. '" He'll ho'd his io'rf," 
a. - " He has hit land undi 

. Tenure, holding, 
got.* Wb. 01. 

Ho'd fiaip, V. a. To remain or continue fair weather, 

' Better weather tu>w ; but Ah quetshun an it '11 bo'd /air while neeght.' 

Ho'd off, V. n. To keep off, not to befal ; of something probably 
impending, as a fall of rain, a change of weather, a fit of illness or pain. 

Ho'd on, V. a. To hold fast, hold tight, without relaxing either ten- 
sion or firmness of grasp. 

Ho'd slock, V. a. 1. To relax the pressure or tension of one's grasp 
especially the latter, as in pulling or holding on to a rope. 2. To relax 
for a time in attention to business or closeness of application. 

4. '"We're bo'dding dad i tAti" goui[4ng awhile, holding talk when there is nothing 
elie to do.' Wb. Gl. 

Ho'd talk, V. n. To chat, converse readily, gossip. 

■ A good hind at ba'dding lidk.- Wb. Gl. 


Ho*d-talk, used as a sb. Chat, gossip, commonplace talk. 

* We *re j«f t having a bit o' bo^d-talk: Wb, Gl. 

Ho'd up, V. n. To remain up and about, antithetical to giving way 
to wealcness or indisposition, and lying down, or going to bed. 

* Match'd t* bo*d up;* scarcely able, with all effort, to bear up against weakness or 

Hofe, sb. (pr. heeaf). i. A residence or abode; a person's home 
for the time being. And thence, 2. A haunt, the place where a person 
or creature may usually be met with. Written ' howflf ' by Sir W. Scott 
in Guy Mannering and Heart of Mid-Lothian, 

Cf. O. N., S. O., A. S. hof^ a dwelling, den, &c. Comp. Low. G. bof^ bove^ a farm- 
stead ; Dan., Sw., Germ, bof; Sw. D. bove. The O. N. word seems first to have denoted 
the holy house or temple, and then to have been transferred to the residence of the local 
magnate ; after which it came to denote simply a residence or abode, a house, a farmstead ; 
and similarly, in the other tongues or dialects noted, there is a gradation of sense betweeq 
the court, of a prince or nobleman namely, and a house or residence in the country. 

I. • " A man's own beta/;" own home.' Wb, OL 

a. * Nat at yamm ? then mebbe he '11 be at Willy N.'s. That '$ a noted bnafo* hisn.' 

Hofe, V. a. and n. i. To abide, lodge, or live. 2. To cause to live 
or abide ; in a place, house, home, &c. 

I. • " Where do you beeafztV* where do you lodge or live?* Wb. Gl. 

* Deeavid ha* left t* au*d spot, an* hes beeafd wiv yoong John Garbutt at t' Grains sen 
Marti*mas ;* of a farm-servant who has taken service in a new place. 

a. ' Ay : Guinea-fowls is desper't' bad to beeaf;* in reference to their unwillingness to 
forsake the old home and adopt a new one, if the owner chances to * flit.* 

Hoffle, V. n. To shuffle along with slow and impeded gait, whether 
from lameness or infirmity. Probably coincident with Hobble or 

Hofiki, sb. Hoofs or hooves ; not infrequently applied, especially by 
a cleanly housewife on the entrance of muddy boots into her clean 
room, to human feet. 

* " Clarted bojffk ;** feet dirty with walking.' Wb. Gl. 

Hog, sb. A male of the pig kind. 

* Bret, boc'b, bouc% swine, from bouc*ba, to grunt. So Lap. snorkeset, to grunt ; snorke, 
a pig ; Fin. naskioy to make a noise like pigs in eating (G. scbmatzm) ; naski^ a call for 
pigs, a pig.* Wedgw. It is, perhaps, not irrelevant to remark in reference to the *call 
for pigs* just noted, that the invariable call or sunmions in Clevel. to the pigs (while as yet 
suffered to ramble about in the day-time) to come to their food at nightfall is * Jack, Jack,* 
many times repeated in a high-pitched and sustained note. 

H m 


Hogy sb. A sheep of a year old. 

' A one-year old sheep. Norm. Fr. bogetz.'' Brock. * From lix months old till being 
first shorn : some say from a lamb ; others, a sheep of a year old.' HalL * Qu. A. S. bogan, 
to take care of; because, on account of their tender age, greater care is required to rear 
them.* Cr. OL Comp. Wedgw. * Hog, Hoggel, Hoggrd, Hogget, Hoggaster, A young 
sheep of the second year. Devonsh. bog-colt, a yearling colt. Dut. bokkding, a heifer, 
a beast of one year old. From being fed in the bok, or pen. Honde-hok, a dog-kennel : 
Scbaapen-bok, a sheep<ote.* The sheep called bogs are, however, not fed in pens, neither 
is there any special care lavished upon them. I suspect that the last of the forms quoted 
by VftAgyr.--^ggaster — affords a clue to the derivation of the word. A. S. bagsttald 
implies a bachelor, a virgin, novice, coelebs, tyro ; O. Germ, bagastalt, bagustalt, id. ; Dut. 
bagestdt; Sw. D. and N. bogstall, a widower. Bosw. collates also O. N. bagst€Bdr, tem- 
peratus, although the word would seem to be due to a different originaL But in all 
the other words the idea seems to be that of continence, whether from being yet single, 
or having become a widower. So, it is at least conceivable, that Hog simply implies that 
the animal so called is yet virgin. It may be a matter for enquiry, is not the sense of con- 
tinence, or restraint, involved in the prefix of the words quoted above ; A. S. b€Bg€t a fence ; 
M. Germ, bac, bege; N. baga; Sw. D. bag, 8cc.7 Also, may there not be a connection 
between this word and Ihre's bogsl, which he seeks to derive from a corruption of 

Hoidle, V. n. To play instead of working ; to lose time, or waste 
time carelessly or wantonly. Possibly a corruption of * idle.' 

Hoity V. n. To play the fool, and with a sort of implication of osten- 
tatiously. To engage in some evident absurdity. 

' Germ. Heyda 1 beysa ! exclamations of high spirits, active enjoyment. Hence E. bey- 
day, the vigour and high spirits of youth ... In the same way Sw. bojta, to shout, explains 
E. boit, to indulge in riotous and noisy mirth : to bite up and down, to run idle about the 
country. — Hall.' Wedgw. The Sw. D. b6jta, byyt, bdja, boa, signifies to shout to cattle in 
order to collect them; to cry shrilly, as in a forest, by way of signal, or for help, and 
the like. 

Hoit, sb. A simpleton, a fool. Leeds GL says the word is more fre- 
quently applied to females and implies awkwardness as well as silliness. 
Scarcely so in Cleveland. 

Hold, V. a. To occupy, find occupation for, lay an abiding claim or 
detainer on. 

* A job at '11 bold him mair an yah year, or tweea owther.' 

* He '11 nivver cast it. 'T '11 bo*d him fur as lang as he lives.' 

Hold, V. n. (pr. h6'd). To last, to continue : in reference to the 

* Ay, it *s faired oop noo, but Ah question if it '1 bo'd* 

Holding-ewes, holding-stook, (pr. ho'dding-yows, -stock). Ewes 
or stock intended to be kept on through the winter by the farmer or 
owner, as part of the permanent stock of the farm. 


HoU, V. a. (chiefly used in pass, pcpl.) i. To make hollow; to 
cause to pine by starvation. 2. To make lean or emaciated; thence 
hoUed, as in the example, puny, without growth or the power of it. 

O.N. hdla^ to make hollow, hollow out; O. Sw. bda; Dan. bult; Sw. bala; Germ. 
2. • " A lahtlc boird thing ;- a puny child.* Wb, Gl. 

HoU, adj. I. Hollow. 2. Deep, in the same sense in which the 
^ depth of winter' is spoken of, and in that sense used to qualify 
the word * time.' 

O.N. bolr, hollowed, empty; N. bol; Sw,D.bdl, hollowed out, concave, deep; A. S. 
boi; O. Oerm. bol; Germ. bobl. Comp. Sw. D. bdlskog, a large, deep forest. 

I. * Dere brother, I wille fayre 

On feld ther our bestes ar. 
To look if thay be bolgb or fulle.' ToumeL Mysl. p. 15. 

a. * ** The boll time of night ;" the dead hour of the night' Wb, Gl. 

HoU, sb. I. A deep narrow depression in the surface of the land or 
place, of no great longitudinal extent See Howl or Houl. 2. The 
depth of winter ; sometimes applied also to what is called the ' dead time 
of night.' 

0. N. bola; O. Sw. bol; Dan. bul; Sw. biU. Dan. bul, in one of its senses, takes much 
the same meaning as our HoU or Honl, namely a hollow on the earth's surface ; and I 
have a note of O. N. boH, in connection with the word ndit, night, but the reference 
omitted, which would answer exactly to our HoU of the night. - Under * Howl, a hollow 
or low place,' Brock, quotes the sajring, — * Wherever there 's a hill, there 's sure to be a 
howl ;' and then he adds * Houd-kite, a vulgar name for the belly ;' which is scarcely true, 
for O. N. and O. Sw. bol is specially applied to * venter, vel pars corporis cava :' the O. N. 
distinguishing between the upper and lower cavities, or those of the breast and the bowels. 

1. In local names, frequent: e. g., Houlsykt, otherwise spelt Howhyktt Holdsyke; Howl- 
dih; both in Danby parish. 

2. • " The boU of winter ;" the depth of winter.* Wb, Gl, 

Hollin» sb. The holly {Hex aqm/olium). In the pL, Hollins» 

A. S. boUgn : O, E. bolyn, bcUen ; W. cdyn, 

* In his on honde he hade a bdyn bobbe, 
pat is grattest in grene, when greuej ar bare.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, 1. 906. 

Holm, sb. Low-lying land by the side of a stream, which in time of 
flood may become more or less insular, and which at an earlier time 
may have been completely so, former channels or hollows having been 
filled up by alluvial matters. 

O. N. b6lmi, bdlmr, a small island ; N. bolm, bolnut id. ; also a spot distinguished from 
the surrounding land, as a bit of grass among com, or viet vers& ; a little unmown meadow ; 
Sw,D,b6lfne; Dan. D. bolm, id.: also, in S. Jutl., any rather more elevated plot in a 

M m 2 



meidow : A. S. and N. S. bilira, a tmalf idand, upecially in a rirec ; also a inull clrratiaTi. 
or quiii flat bill ; O. Sw. bolmber, boimi. a small island, a place or spot fenced off front the 
adjacent lands. We have icreral local namei now ending in balm, but Utterly without coo- 
nection with the present word : e. g.. Maaribalm, the Dometday orthography of which il 
Sioribnium, which ii simply the Dr.Vor«iiii; Ltalboim, which the Whitby Glottaclfl 
refers to laal, little, and io/m— assuming mistakenly, that the latter means trooi— but which 
in Domesday stands at Laeliim, Ltltim. Again. Nnobelm neat Whitby a Neutbam in the 
same record. It is sometimes diflicuU to say what the Domesday spelling really points to, 
and perliapi Laelum, Lilum is a case in pninl. I do not, however, think that balm is dis- 
guiied under the final syllable, whether that be Inm or bib. The woid F~' ■=■_!_- 

s-ignalmg tor 
strict. See n< 

of Ian 

; to Holm in Pr. Pm. 

Holy-bizen, sb. (pr, holy- or hoo%-bahz'n). A tawdrily- or absurdly, 
dressed figure, only fit to be a spectacle fo wondering beholders. A 
rerercnce, probably, to the tawdry, tasteless bedizcntnent of images of 
saints, &c„ still extant in Popish countries and districts. See Bizen. 

Holy-dance, sb. The extravagances and evidences of excitement 
manifested, perhaps aimed at, by one or more religious sects at iheir 
public services, have caused this name to be given to their proceedings. 

Holy-stone, sb. (pr, hooSly-steean). A stone with a natural perfora- 
tion in it, supposed to have peculiar virtues in propitiating luck, and 
efficacy as against wilch-power and mischief. Suspended by a string 
from the bed-tester, or attached to the key of the house-door for the 
safety of the inmates ; hung above the Standing of the cow, or over 
the stall of a horse, especially one that is found to sweat much at night, 
for the several security of those animals, — it was, even is yet, imagined 
to set the witch's malice at nought. 

Comp. the following. War. Dg Wird. p. 357; — ' Upon the border-landi between Eul 
Qoihland and Nenkc. [he people still continue itie practice of hanging round a child's neck 
imall stones of tmooth trap which are niiiked either by water-wom indentations or holes 
through. These are called AlCsUma, became they are held to be remedial aga'mit the 
child's aihnent so called (a kind of iulemiittent), which is supposed to be caused by 
the Elves. In this very ancient popuhir custom, as also in the Scanian practice of hanging 
upon the necks of children the so-called Qomnama-Omar (Qanunon't-stonei i from Oimo- 
dm, or Karmttodm, a local name for Thor}, which correspond exactly with the OiAtm^ 
anar or iSofarsttiiar of Warend, we Rnd not only an analagoui usage, but also a simple 
but clear illustration of the piactice of wearing mere stones as amulets upon the breast ot 
hung ftoni the neck. For these Gobonden's or Gofii's stones ate limply small white lionet 
which, when the lightning has struck any spot, are sometimes found upon the land there : 
they are perfectly smooth, and about the size of the yolk of an egg. They are beneficial in 
many ways: — thus. Laid in the syle. 01 milk-rtrainer, they are a certain prevcnt»ti»e 
agailut the milk being spoilt or in any way damaged by the witch (XrtJlbachmY Thot, 
■lias Qofar, Gobonden, Gomoden or fConimoden, in the old mythology was the dreaded 
etteniy of all the Troll-kind — the progenitors as well ai predecessors of the more modem 
witch ; and when he — the Thunderer— used his heavenly artillery they fled In otier dismay. 
Hence the efHcacy of these stones: the witrh recoils in fcir and impotence before Thoi's 


Home-oome, home-ooming, sb. i. The arrival of a person at his 
home after an absence, whether for the day's work or longer. 2. The 
time of such arrival. 2. The reception or treatment at such arrival. 

Comp. O. N. behnrh>ma, O. Sw. bemkoma, return home, or Home-oome ; Dan. bjetn- 
iommen, having returned home ; Sw. hemkomst^ home-coming. 
' Hwen he beo9 ute ; hauest ajain his bam-cums sar care t eie.' Halt Meid, p. 31. 
a. * He 'II be here about bome^ome* 
3. * I shall have a bonny bome^oming about it with my wife, depend upon it.* Wb. GL 

Honey. A term of endearment, more fondling than ' dear.' Often 
used as a prefix, as in Honey-bairn. Often used also by the aged in 
addressing those they feel both respect and regard for : a kindly clergy- 
man or lady-visitor often gets the appellative Honey, and even Bairn. 

• ffarewell my bony, farwell my sweete.* Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 1 5 1. 

Honey-flEdl, sb. A wind-fall of a more than ordinarily pleasant kind ; 
a piece of great and very acceptable good luck. 

***They have had a brave boney-faU lately;" a great deal of property bequeathed.' 

Hood-end, sb. The flat surface, or hob, at either end of the fire- 
grate, on which the kettle, &c., is customarily set. 

O. Gl. gives ' boodt the place behind the fire : bood-end, comers near the fire, either of 
stone or iron.' I surmise that in older days the sort of enclosure made near the fire 
involved a kind of arched covering;, which originated the name Hood. See NeuUn. 
Jam. quotes ' ** O. £. Hood, the back of the fire, North." Grose. O. £. budd* must cer- 
tainly be viewed as originally the same, though used in an oblique sense, as denoting what 
covers the fire during night.' 

Hooze, V. n. To wheeze or breathe with difficulty and noise. See 
Heeze, which is coincident. 

Cf. Pr, Pm, • Hoostf or cowghe (host, 6r boost).' 

Hop. A word of command, formerly in use by the drivers of oxen, 
and answering to the old word Bee, or the more modem Gtoe, as used 
in driving horses ; i. e. directing them to turn to the right or from the 
driver. Sometimes Hop-off. 

Molb. gives bop, an exclamation employed either to cause any one to move briskly, or to 
stunulate a horse ; and byp, the word of command employed to cause a horse to go forward. 
In his Dial. Ltxicon, however, bop dig is given as the word employed (in Bierre) when the 
horse is desired to back. * It is usual to cry to a stumbling man or beast. Hop I Hop ! — 
Kiittner,' quoted by Wcdgw. Hop I is thus widely used ip directing by voice the move- 
ments of a draught beast, and as bop in different parts of Denmark has a different intention, 
so there may have been an arbitrary use of it in Clevel., meaning. Move to the right, as in 
Denm. sometimes forward, sometimes backward. 


Hopper, sb. The basket suspended by means of a strap passing 
over one shoulder of the sower, and containing the seed-corn it is his 
business to sow. 

'Eofftr. » seed bitket. ■' A sedelepe or a bopirt:" MS, Egcrton, Bag.' Hall. Perhips 
a iimple adapIalioD from hopper, Ibe ucd-recdviug and deliveiing pottioD of ihc mill (T) 
Pr. Pnt. givei ■ Hopyr of a raylle,' and ■ Hopur or a leedlepe." 

Hoppet, sb. t. A s 

I all open basket. 

. The gaol or prison. 

Wb. Gl. niakes boppir aoJ boppi. 
boppil, 'a liltle basket;' Leeds Gl, 
bo^r, ' a hand basket — For. dial.' uid ais 
in ;' bctidci boppil, ' i small field, gcnctally 

; bul, I think, incoitectlf. Cr. Gl. gives 
»icT basket, wilh a bow handle :' HalL 
diih used by miners to meiture tbcir at 
ir a house, or a square form — Esttx.' 

Hopping-tree, '. 

Comp. Dan. D. boppt 

The pole of a couf 
1/ boppe en vagi : to back 
uid Inv. Surl. Soc. i. 104. 

See Conp-oart. 
on. See Hop. ' A bofpyng 

Hopple, V. a. To tie the legs of a horse or other animal together in 
such a way as not to prevent all motion from place to place in grazing, 
but still BO as to render straying to a distance exceedingly dilTicult and 
slow. Brock, gives ' hafile' with this signification ; and ' hobble' is the 
equivalent word in othei districts. See Hofflo, Hobble, Hamper, &c. 

Horse-block, horse -mount, horsing- stonea, horse-steps, sb. 

The steps, usually of stone, with a small plalfomi above them, for con- 
venience in mounting one's horse ; especially to a female. 

Time are of frequent occurrence in the Dales, at the lop of the steep hotte-tracki leading 
up the hill-iides or Bonks to the loadt acrosi the moor. a> well ai al the chnrchjud 

HoTSQ-oouper, sb. 
horses. See Coup. 

Comp. hoTSt-couTSfir, froi 


e who buys, sells or exchanges 

iir, a broker, talesman. See Wedgw. 

HorBe-godmotfaer, sb. A great, ungainly female. 
Horse-gogB, sb. A fair-sized but highly astringent blue plum which 
grows abundantly in the district, and sometimes even in the hedge-rows, 

Comp. guaai-g'^Si ^ goowberries. 

HOTSe-knops, sb. The plant black knapweed (Cmtaur^-a nigra). 
Also called Hard-heads. See Knop. 


Horse-trod, sb. A track or path used as a * bridle-road.' See Trod. 

Host-house, sb. (pr. wost-hus). The inn at which the farmer or 
countryman puts up in the market- (or other) town he visits. 

HostLe, V. n. (pr. woss'l). To put up at an inn. 

Ho't Pr. of Hurt. 

Hotch, sb. A bungle, an ill-managed affair. 

Probably convertible with Intcb^ and in somewhat the same sense as when we say ' there 
is a bitch in the affair.' Sw. D. boia is to fiimble, to be irresolute, to hesitate, and may be 
connected ; as also Swiss boodscben^ botseben, to crawl like a toad, shuffle along, do any- 
thing in a dawdling, untidy way. 

Hot-pots, sb. (pr. heeat- or yat-pots). Pots of hot spiced ale brought 
out by the friends of a newly-wedded couple to be partaken of by the 
bridal party as they return from church. See Bride-door, Bride- 
wain, &c. 

Hotter, V. a. and n. i. To shake, or even jolt, as persons or things 
in a springless cart driving over rough roads are shaken up and down. 
Thence, 2. To move with an uneven pace, limpingly or lamely, in what 
is called in some places *a dot and go one' style; and 3. To throw 
together confusedly or in a jumble, as things conveyed in such a cart 
would be. In this sense, used chiefly in the passive. 

Wedgw. connects this word with buddle. He says, * the primitive image is probably the 
bubbling movement of boiling water ; Sc. botter, soiter, for the sound of boiling or simmer- 
ing ; to botter, to simmer, shiver, shudder, to walk unsteadily, jolt. It*t aU in a botur^ all 
in movement; batter^ a multitude of small animals in motion; bottle^ anything without 
a firm base, as a young child beginning to walk/ I conceive that the original idea of 
to botter is involved in the meanings to sbiver^ to shudder ; whence the meanings of Hacon 
Grizzlebeard's * HutetutetutetuV Dasent's Norse Tales, p. 46, and *He was to be sure to 
lie still, and not to shiver and call out butetu, or any such stuff.' (p. 47.) In Sw. D. we find 
buttra, huddra, bdddra, bbdra, bddra, bddda, to tremble or shiver with cold, to have one's 
teeth chatter ; Swiss bottem, to shake, to tremble ; Dan. D. huddre, to shiver from the 
effects of cold or fever. Cf. also O. N. bossa, quatire ; boss, mollis quassatio. 

1. • We went hottering in the cart all the way on.* Wb, GL 

2. * Hottering on, nae better an a lamitcr.' 

3. * ** All botter* d up ;" jumbled together, confused, crowded.* Wb, Oi, 
With the last example comp. Jamieson's instance : — 

* 'Twas a muir-hen an' mony a pout 
Was rinnin', botterin' round about ;' 

where the idea is not of being jumbled or flung together in a confused heap, so much as of 
voluntary crowding. 

Hottery, adj. Uneven to walk or ride upon; as a bad pavement, 
a rough and ill-kept road. 



Hone, sb. 1. A sepulchral tumulus, or barrow. 2. A natural hill. 

O.N. baugr; O. Sw. baogr, bogbtr; S. G. biig; Din. t»j; S. Jut). i«f (pr. iy ; theji 
much as the Ft. u); N.Jull. byr i a Winulus or tmiU hill riaed by hand, in conlradii- 
liiiclion )□ a natural hill oi eminence. Molbech's ddinilion U, tn JorbtMng paa jordtns 
ovtrjiade: a hill or heap raised on the inr&ce of the earth. He notei alio the phraso at 
hall, 01 opIraM en bmi : to throw up a houe. Ea Jordbai is used ai antithetical to m 
tandbaHt ; baMi illtr banii bruga sadvanSg om slarr* og natarligt bnt. Man Bgtr 
aldrig, m opiasul bakki : the word baiki or banti ii uiually applied to larger hiDi of 
natural origin. No one ever says a thtovm-ap baiit. The special application or O. N. 
baugr, O. Sw. bSgbir, Dan. bti, Sw. bag. Bcc, is to a lepulchial tumulus ; sometunei id 
specified, as in Dan. gravbti, Sw. aiubog, O. Sw. alar-bSgbir : whence Ihe nanics, Dan. i»i- 
fali, Bw. bog-JoU, N. Jntl. byvfoth, be, for the dwarf tribe, O. N. dvergar. who were held 
to bare their dwelUngi in these old sepulchres. In CleveL Ibe word, with about two excep- 
lioni, deooles the grave-hills on the moots, many of which t hare opened, and all of which, 
at 1 bcbeve, belong lo an exceedingly remote epoch. 
I. Black-^ouu. Herd-touf, &c., to any number, 
a. The Bout, near Castleton. Parker's Howt, near Cruiiktey Gill. 

Hool, howl, sb. A depression in the surface of the ground, of no 
great lateral extent or length ; scarcely amounting to a valley, and not 
nigged or precipitous Uke a Gill. See Holl. 

Hound, V. a. To set on ; to make an opportimity for a second 
person and induce him to use it. 

i lake this word and ihe next from the Wb. GL. * valuable and tnislwortby collection 
Bi regards the words ibcmselves, iheir (oftenlimei phonographic) forms, and their appli- 
' "" ■ ■ there given is — ■ Punned, in the sense of one person 

o tlie' 

h is dIRicull tc 

1 clear. 

of making is 

slid lo have beei 

Hounding, sb, An advantage obtained for anotlier person by re- 
commendation, or by creating an opportunity for him. tVA. Gl. 

See Hound. The extract from Wb. Gl. thereunder given is thus continued :— ■ also, 
a sideaway recommendation in any one's behalf it called a bmmdirig for another's bcne£l.' 

House-f^ist, adj. Confined to the house, the result of personal indis- 
position, lameness, incapability of locomotion, &c. Comp. House-kept^ 
and see Bed-fest. 

House-folk, sb. The people belonging to a house. See Folk. 

Comp. O. N. bui-foU. I. domestic servants ; a. lodgers. 

House-kept, adj. Confined to the house, the result of having to 
tend closely on a sick person, or the like, 

Housen, sb, pi. Houses, house-property. 

Several plurals in m are retained in Clevel. Comp. Een or Etso, Ovnoa (oxen), 
Boun, &c. Of, taun (ashes), in Chaucer; flan, olm, P. Plougbm. 

• And after that (a thounder) com a walei so sharply, that drof down the biAi/iyngt and a 
grete pirtc of the pcplc' Mtrl. p. 153, 


Hoiue-plaoe, sb. The principal living-room in a house. 

Housiii'-staf^ sb. Household furniture, inclusive of all kinds. 

Hout, interj. Strongly expressive of incredulity or dissent : not so I 
nothing of the sort I impossible I 

S. G. butf apage : particula, qti& canes imprimis facessere jubemus (Ihre) ; N. but^ cry to 
silence a dog ; Welsh bwt, off with it I away I * Huta ut en,' says Ihre, * is to expel any 
one with indignation and contempt, as if he were a dog; Welsh hwUio; Finn, budtan* 
Wedgw. gives Fin. butaa, to shout, to call ; N. bussa, to frighten or drive out with noise 
and outcry. Add Sw. D. bussa, to shout or shriek ; also to set on or incite, as a dog on 
any one. 

Hover, V. n. i. To hang over or be suspended: thence, 2. To 
wait or remain stationary : and 3. To be in a state of suspended action, 
of either bodily or mental kind. 4. Sometimes used as v. a., to stay or 
suspend an action. See Over. 

This word in the form boue, or bove is not infrequent in O. E. In Clevel. it takes the 
form Ower ; and one of the sayings most frequently quoted as specimens of our dialect to 
puzzle or astonish the South-country hearer will be found below. Hall, quotes bcve in the 
senses, i. to stop or hover: 2, to float on the water, as a ship, &c.; and the derivation 
seems to be from Welsh bqfian, bofio, to fluctuate, hover, suspend or hang over. 

* 8c he (the raven) fonges to |>e fly^t, 8c fannes on )>e wynde3, 
HoMi hy^e vpon hy^t to herken tyt^jrugej.' 

E, Eng. AUii. Poems, B. 1. 458. 

* On ark on an euentyde boue^ the dowve.' lb. 1. 485. 

* pe bume bode on bonk, )>zt on blonk boued* 

Sir Oaw. and Or. Kn. I. 785. 

* Yet boved ther an hundred 
In howves of selk, 
Sergeantz it bisemed 

That serveden at the barre.' P. Plougbm. \. 418. 

a. « " I rather bovered a bit ;" waited awhile.* Wb. Ql. 

* " Titter oop t' spmnt mun oiver a bit ;" the one that is first (soonest) up the hill must 
wait a bit.' lb. 

* My lord, this care lastes lang, 

And wille, to Moyses have his bone ; 
Let hjmi go, els wyrk we wrang, 

It may not help to bover ne hone.' Toumel. Myst. p. 64. 

3. ' " Hovering for rain ;" cloudy, threatening to come wet.' Wb. Ol. 

Hover your hand ;" stop, hold, e. g. in the act of pouring water.' lb. 

t {< 

Howdy, sb. A midwife. 

O. N. j6d, that which is bom, ako the act of parturition, is almost certainly the origin 
of this word. But comp. S. G. jordgumma, Sw. jorde-gumma, Sw. D. jor{d)mor, Dan. 
jordemoder : the latter also occurring with the orthography gjordemoder. * By some,' says 
Ihre, * it has been supposed that the reference is to the custom of depositing the new-bom 
babe on the ground, whence it was to be raised by the father, if he thought it worthy of 
being reared, and given into the care of the female attendant. Others have referred the 

N n 


n of the word ta binla, ta take i 

re of, wait upon, pointing 10 the midwlfe'i cue ind 

tace •ould come Ihe word bjiirdpimma. Bot my 
lid that the word originallji wai — not jan^umma, 
I. for thildbirth : Jidsal the pangi of lilwur.' The 
iuccas Mttiidiug gueises at derivatioa: Hadii, in 
e foe the caul a diild u somctunn bom with; bow 

Howk, V, a. To dig out, to scoop, to work with digging toots in a 
hole, or in making a hole. 

Jam. well reruarki that ' E. dig does not properly convey ihe idea expieised by Howk, 
Fm the laltei lignifiu to take out thE middle, leaving the outside wbole siving the apei- 
tuic' In bet. in ordinary usige, the word sometimei, but coiruptly. jtpproacbes in unte 
W too*. Under boli or Mi, a hollow straw or reed, Molb. {Dot. Dial. Le*.) quotes 
b6lir, a ipout, a hollow leed or cine, a pipe ; and adds, Sw. boli, ' in genere notat ligiitun 
cavalam — radix, bolia, cavaie.' Ihre, he tiirther says, derivM it from bblja. to make hol- 
low, in like manner ai daii from diiljii, Comp. also bullit, brmnd-buHi, a wooden coTCr 
or pioteciioti over the mouth of a well; where the idea is itill of that which it made hol- 
low — had iho iniide howked out — so as to become a suitable cover for something else. 

Howly, sb. A street game played by boys in a town, one of them 
hiding behind a wall or house-end and crying ' Howty' to the seekers. 

It hai been suggested, though not very probably, thai 0!i — ' the commoneit Chriiliin 
name in Norway' — may be the foundation of this cry, Leeds Gl. gives Hid/fy a the name 
of the same game ; • ihe seareh-slgnil employed in the game Is " HiJdy I" and not " Hidtl" 
ai common.' 'Whnopl' is the South-country lignal. 

To bale or dip out w 

r other liquid. See Oubo 

HowsomiTver, howa'iwer, conj. Howsoever, or however. 

EubblQ-shew, hubble-ahoo, sb. The tumultuous movements of 

a somewhat excited crowd ; a state of commotion, or disturbance. 

Jam. rcfttt this wi 
lut lyllable may bi 

anembled to tee someining mat excites attention." is it not at i 
Sw. D, bo*al. bovtt. bovoll .- N. biball. bobbalt. bobboll. bivoU, m 

the inn (Boat, Baidtr) is higheit, may hare tome connection with it? Ihre, who eives 
the (arm bogbaU from one Sw. dislHct. and bogbalt from another, takes the word to bare 
oriKiually denoted dm boge Balibr, the high Balder ; or, as it were, the high and powerliil 
suns special season. It it matter of history that ihii leaion was lirom extremely remote 
times celebrated by the piling and burning of mighty £rei on the hills in different districts, 
at which almott the entire population were assembled, with feasting, dancing aiid diiukiiig, 
continued throughout the night. Herein we certainly hare the main elementi of what ii 
ihui exprctied by Jam. : — • It' (the word ffub6(Iicio») ■ suggests the idea of a multitude 
running and crowding together in a tumultuous manner (without necessarily implying that 
there is any broil).' For the last tyllable compare mappinxbma or aafpiiiicbaii. 

Huokle, sb. The hip. See Huke-bono. 


Huff, V. n. To become swollen and puffy, as the flesh where a blow 
has been received. 

Mr. Wcdgw. gives * Huff, Hoovt. To puff or blow, as wbiff, or G. baueben, to breathe 
or blow, from a representation of the sound. To buff up, to puff up, swell with wind. 
** In many birds the diaphragm may be easily buffed up with air." Grew in Todd. " Ex- 
crescences, called emphysemata, like unto bladders puffed up and hooved with wind." Hol- 
land — Pliny in R.* The examples are unexceptionable, but Sw. D. bdvna, bauna, bdvna, 
N. bovna or bovne, to puff up or become swollen ; bdven, baum, bdven, swollen, huffed ; 
bcvdse, the condition of being swollen ; Dan. boven, swollen ; bovenbed, condition of bein^^ 
swollen ; bcevelse, id. ; also rising or tumour, — are all distinctly referrible to hdva, beyja, 
bave, to heave, raise, cause to be risen ; and it is scarcely doubtful that Clevel. Huif is a 
very close relative. 

* Her eye buffed oop in a minute ;' after a blow received. 

Cf. with the extract from Wedgw. the following : — 

* Th^ buft & puft with many heaves, 
till that th6 both were tyred.' Loou and Hum. Songs, p. 35. 

Huf^ sb. The feeling of dissatisfaction or displeasure excited by 
a slight or petty indignity ; o£fence taken on some such groimd. 

Probably a simple metaphor from huff, to swell or be swollen. Comp. the exactly 
analogous applications of Lat. tunuo, to swell with anger, to be puffed up with vanity or 
pride, &c. Mr. Wedgw., however, derives it from ' the puffing and blowing of an angry 

• " They took the ^^at it ;" they were offended by it.* Wb, OL 

In the foUowing extract from Chaucer : — 

' *' Now, sirs," then qlS this Oswolde the Reve, 
" I pray you alle, that ye nought you greve. 
That I answere, and somedell sitt bis boufe, 
For lefull it is force with force to shoufe :" ' Rivis Prologue, p. 30, 

it would seem, from the general sense, that the phrase in italics may probably mean excit« 
his ire, rather than only be quits with him, as suggested in the Glossary. In that case our 
Huff might have a different origin from that above suggested. Comp. the phrases ' Set 
one's cap,' * Cock one's bonnet' or * beaver,' 8cc, 

Huffle, huffil, huwil, sb. A finger-stall, a cot; a protection for 
a hurt or sore finger. 

O. N. bufa, cap, hood. Comp. also Sw. D. buv, a covering ; a small circular roof; O. S. 
buvtr, thatch, roof; O. E. bow, boovt, and ' Hmtn, bowui,* Pr. Pm., a hood, from whidi 
this is a diminutive. 

Hug, V. a. To carry, the hands, arms, or back being specially em- 
ployed in the act. The idea of effort is oftentimes implied, but cer- 
tainly not quite necessarily, or without exception. 

Comp. Germ, bochm, to take upon one's back. The same vb., as a v. n., is to squat or 
crouch, which probably brings it into connection with Sw. D. buka, to squat, or sit with 
curved back and knees ; Dan. sidde paa bug, O. N. buka, N. buka, bukje, Dan. bug; which, 
besides the preceding meaning of sitting wi3i bent back and knees, has also that of walking 
with a bowed back and head poked forward ; in other words, the very form in which one 
hiigt a heavy burden on his back. We have thus, it would seem, a connection reopened 

N n 2 

ayfi GLossARy of the 

belwcen boc\m jind bugi, through the intetvinlion of Clevel. Hug. Wh. 01. gives Hug, 
to carry ai if toiling with a ciunbiom load, and, as an example, ' " Ah 's bmsleii wi' hug- 
ging on 't i" buiBling or out of breath in contending with the load,' But the word is often 
applied also in the case of loidi which do not require such contending wilh. Peoi^e hog 
tmill parcels ai well ai heavy burdens. 

Hu&e, sb. The hip. See Huokle. 

Conip. bivck. the hip-bone of a cow ; bticli, in beef, the part between the shin and the 
round (Hdll.) ; bug-bont, bvctU-boHi, Sec. See Huke-bone. 

Hoke-bone, sb. The hip-bone, 

Comp. bug-boiw, differently shortened into bubbaii and buggai ,* buck, bucklt, ailch-bont 
or edgfboia ; all of which are probably eonneclcd, and of equally uncerlain derivation : unleu 
Sw. D. buU, a small but higliiih projecting point of hnd oi proniontorj, jutting into the 
sea; Dan., Fiii.. N. Su. but, a cornel or projecting angle; Dutch boti.H.; also a smill 
promontory, supply a suggestioa, as I conceive they do. 

Huke, To crook. To sit down ; to bend the Huke so as, or in 
order, to sit down. 

■ 1 have never eruil^d ray bull the whole of the day," in Wb. Ol., it explained by the 
compiler by ' t hare never crooked my bip to sit down.' However, one never ' ciooki one't 
hip" for that or any other purpose. The word ii only another or pros form of bougb or 
boci, ' Had, the joint of a horie'i leg from the knee to the fetlock ; bougb. the bactt of 
Ibe knee ; A. S. bob, the heel, ham (call, poplei, luffiago)' (Wedgw.) : thus the meaning 
of each word in the phiaie becomes at once apparent. Ckjcnp. ' 1 nae often wondered that 
any atie that ever bent a knee for the right purpose should ever daur to crooi a bougb to 
fyke and fling at piper's wind and fiddler's squealing.' Htarl of Mid-Ltlbion. 

• She laid there was a tough iinew in an old wife'i bougb.' Vartt Castit Dtp. p. 101. 

Huker, V. a. To barter, huckster. 

• G. b'nit, boier, a higgler, huckster : " a retailer, rcgialer, one who sells goodi, especially 
victuah, in small quantities, a petty dealer. Dut. botchtr, bveitr, eaupo, propola." Kil. 
Bay. bugitr, bugiltr, bughur. Swab, buker. buJilir, a petty dealer, huckster. It is esien- 
tiaDy the same word with G. umcba: Dut. viaeelur, otcker, botcktr. Sw. bodur, O. N. 0<lr, 
interest, utury, properly increase, from the same source as Lai. augirt, Goth, aucaii. A.S. 
taeoH, to increase. The O. H. Q. lUKociw ii applied to the iucreaie of plants ; rrdt-auachir, 
the fruit) of the earth." Wedgw. Cf. oi«r»S, oJan, AHir.RMt. p. 3»6. Sec Peddle. 

' He bnlnrtd them (labbil-tkins. eggs, &c., picked up oi collected by the Badger at 
home) at Sunderland Market.' 

' She halh holdcn buUitry, AI hire lif tyme.' P. Plougbm. p. 90. 

Etdigi dm mylbiika iuthir.istAdiibigtH badt mnmshtMiumfl i iropptn m blall idtJilUg 
ufptiAardst-fonn. J dodm aflttiiddti nuttm'siaii dttia lill/alliga bhlji : according to the 
(before-mentioned) mythical view of nature, the body nmply serred the human being is 
an accidental means or fashion of external manifestation. At death this ■ccideiil or exler- 
iC (bidji) wai stripped off. Hefe we hate Sw. bbljt used in almost exactly the tame 
a OUT Hull, Note O. N. bylja, S. G, boija. velare, operire ; 0. Sw, bylja, Sw. D. 


balOf Dan. b€^, N. bela, O. G. belan, Mjan, buljant A. S. belan, M. G. buljan, all meaning 
to cover, envelope, conceal, hide ; and also A. S. bul, bula, hull, shell ; Pr, Pm. * byllyn, 
operio, tego, m/o. Sec. ;* * Hooli, of pesyn, or ben3rs, or o)>er coddyd fhite.' 
• Pea-*tt//s ;' * Nut-*«/fc,' &c. 

Hull, V. a. To Strip the outer covering, shell or pod off anything 
which has such an integument ; as peas, beans, &c. 

Hummel, v. a. To detach or break off the awns, or portions of awn, 
that still adhere to the grains of barley after it is thrashed. See Hum- 

Hummeld, hummerd, adj. Without horns, applied to a cow espe- 
cially ; more rarely to hornless sheep. 

I am disposed to refer this word, as well as hummel* Hummeller, to O. N. bamla, 
to mutilate, curtail by cutting, lop ; O. Germ, bamalon ; A. S. banulan, to hamstring ; 
E. bammel, bangle; Sw. D. bammla, i. originally to hamstring, though that sense is obso- 
lete now: 2. To lop or pollard a tree, whence bammlad, polled or pollarded; and also, 
3. To strike, drub, thrash. Another form is bdrnnda, to strike, flog, whence b6mmd, 
blows, stripes, a thrashing ; O. Sw. bamhla^ to render any one helpless by lopping off his 
limbs. In this last word we have a kind of combination of ideas not unlike what is ex- 
pressed by hummeld as applied to an animal whose means of defence are in its horns. 
The expression, to hummel barley, also takes significance from a like explanation. 

Hummeller, sb. The instrument in use for remo\ing the awns, or 
pieces of awn, still adherent to the grains of barley after tlmtshing. 

Hunger, v. a. and n. i. To suffer from hunger, to be famished or 
starved. 2. To cause to suffer from himger, to starve; by withholding 
the necessary food. 

I. * Ah's about bungtred to deid.' 

a.* And mifSfSy bt gef<Este fnwtrdg daga andfiowirtig nabta, afttr "Son gihyticgtrde,* 
Nortb. Oosp, Matt. iv. a. 

a. ' 'Twur a cruel act, bungerin* thae poor bairns, as she did, fra yah week's end tiv 

Hurple, V. n. See 

HuBSOcks, sb. Large tufls of coarse grass (see BullflEUses) growing 
in boggy places in low pastures, or Carrs, often nearly or quite two feet 
high and twelve or fifteen inches in diameter in the dry, pillsur-like growth 
of root and stem above which the herbage flourishes. 

Pr, Pm. * Hassok. Ulpbus* * In Norfolk, coarse grass, which grows in rank tufts on 
boggy ground, is termed hassock.' Jh, note. Tussocks in Essex. 

Hutter, V. n. To stammer, stutter, have a difficulty in getting one's 
words out, so as to speak more or less imintelligibly. 

See Hotter. * Dut. boddebek, bodddbtik {bee pour bouebi — Diet, du bas Lang.), a stam- 
merer.' Wedgw. Note also Swiss budem, to speak quick and confusedly. 

%y8 OLOssARy of the 

I, prep. In. 

O. N., Sw., Dan. t, in. 

* He *s i t' hoos.' * / 1* thick on't/ 

loe-shoggles, ioe-Bhogliiis, sb. Icicles. 

N.Fris. is-jokkd, jdkel or jogel; lf,is-jukel: Dan. D. egel or egle; Sw.D, ah-tUkd; 
A.S. ises^gicil; Dut. ijs^kegelt kthd. * To jog, shag or sbog is to move sharply to and fro, 
Bav. gigkeln to shiver, to move rapidly to and fro.' Wedgw. Comp. Clevel. nhoggiet to 
shake, with the present word. Mr. Wedgw. derives the idea of a pointed object from rapid 
angular motion ; Germ, ziekzack, * whence zaeken to jag, dent, slash, and, as a noun, any 
pointed or tapering object ; ds-iakken^ an idde.' Comp., however, Sw. D. *<mn9-4kkd, the 
quick of the horn of an ox, goat, &c., where Mel, meaning simply a prick, point or pointed 
object, may be collated with the terminal part of Sw. D. is'StHkel, U-pigge, The word it 
written ice^backU in Litds 01. 

lokles, sb. Icicles. 

Dan. D. egel, egU, an icicle, appears to be used absolutely as our iMt is (Molb. D. D. 
Lex.) ; and Bosw. gives gicel as signifying an icicle without the prefix ises. It may be 
observed, moreover, that in O. GL me word ickU stands for a sUdacHu — the usage of the 
Sw. D. ikkd reproduced. 

If in case. A redundant expression for ' in case/ or ' if/ simply. 
Tlk, ilka, pron. Each, every. 

A. S. tde ; Dut. de ; Pr, Pm, Hke, or eche. 

* I saw him tZit other day.' Wb, Gl, 

* For Uka thyng \>zX God has wroght.' Pr, of Come. 5a. 

* Ilk man that here l3rves, mare and lesse.' il. 89. 

Ill, adj. Bad, evil, evil-intentioned. 

O. N. air; Sw. D. UUr; O. Sw. Uder (neut. Ut); Dan. ild; N. ill, Comp. the Germanic 
forms :—0. H. G. uhil, upU; M. G. and G. vhel; A.S. ubbU, ubU; O.E. j^/U, •ofd; 

* Thou art an ylle quelp, for angres.' Toumd. Mysi, p. 95. 

* He 's nobbut an ill *\m ;* of a bad disposition. 

* An ill deed as ivver Ah kenn'd.' 
Comp. iUe^dy, To%im«L Myst. p. 330. 

Hl-olep'd, adj. Ill-conditioned, surly of address. See Clep. 

Comp. illspokent in the sense addicted to the use of abusive or ill-tempered speech ; and 
also, ill'COfUrived, bad-tempered, perverse, selfwilled. Hall. 

ni-flare, v. n. To fare badly, meet with ill-luck or ill-success. 

* Odds bobbs I what 's here te deea t mah best an' iU-fared man t 
Ah 's seear there 's bin foul pleea. Speak fer and clear yer sen.' 

Sowerby Sword Dance Rediatton. 


Comp. Sw. D. tlt-fdtt^ luckless, onfortanate, our word having much the same Pr., so that, 
in the ahove rhyme, the word, as written on phonographic principles by an unlettered tran- 
scriber, is spelt UUfi, 

Hl-gaited, adj. With awkward action of the legs, possibly arising 
from malformation or from injury leaving permanent lameness. 

niify, V. a. To defame ; to seek to lower one's reputation or take 
away his character. 

Comp. O. Sw. iUat Udta, to vilify, slander, defame. 

ni-put-on^ iU-putten-on^ adj. Badly dressed, shabby. 

ni-tented, adj. Badly looked after, or nursed ; neglected, ill-cared 
for. See Tent. 

Hi-thriven, adj. i. Without the appearance of healthy growth ; pimy, 
poor-looking. 2. With the healthy part of one's disposition undeveloped ; 
ill-conditioned, cross-grained. 

ni-throdden. See Hl-thriven, Throdden. 

Sw. Ul-irivas (imp. ill'irwdes), to thrive badly. 

ni-throven. See Hi-thriven. 

Imp, sb. A ring or circlet of the same material, fabric and diameter 
as the beehive, but of varying height, intended for insertion beneath the 
hive so as to enable the bees to add to their combs. If of three folds 
or pUes in height, it is a three-wreathed imp; if four, a four- 
wreathed imp, and so on. 

A. S. mpoHt impian (p. p. impod, ge^mpod), to imp, engraft, plant ; Welsh imp, a twig, 
shoot or scion ; Dan. ympe^ id. ; Sw. ymp, a graft, a twig ; Oerm. impftn ; Dan. ympe, 
Sw. ympa, to graft. Ihre explains the latter word by inoeulare, instrert : the simple mean- 
ing of our word is just an insertion or thing inserted ; and Hall, gives ' imp, to add ; to 
eke out : also, an addition, insertion ; one length of twisted hair in a fishing line. Norib. 
In hawking, to insert a new feather in the place of a broken one.' Ihre's remark is, 
* a posteriori parte vocis impod, Dani pode formarunt, quod inserere notat. Belg. impoten* 
Mr. Wedgw., on the contrary, looks on podt as the original, and impan, impod the 
derivative : — ' The origin is Dut. pote, Dan. pode, PI. D. paoi, a shoot, slip ; whence PI. D. 
paten, inpaten, Du. pooten, inpoolen, to plant, to set ; Dan. pode, Limousin empeouta, Bret 
embouda, O. H. O. impUon, impten, A. S. impan, O. impftn, to graft. The total squeezing 
out of the long vowel is remarkable.' Ihre's surmise can scarcely be right. Kok looks 
upon S. Jutl. pode, I. to graft: 2. to plant, as allied to putte, and due to an O. N. source, 
perhaps pota, to prick ; while Welsh imp, a scion, impio, to graft, seem to point to inde- 
pendence of the word pode or pote. Any way, however, imp, in the sense of scion, is 
simply an insertion. 


Inear, sb. The kidney. 

O. N. nyra, S. G. njttra, Sw. njure, Dan. nyrt, Oenn. nhrm. Or. QL gives the form 
nur, quoting also Suff. and Northumb. eoTy and Sc. ears, while Lonsd, Cfl, gives nurtes. 

Ing, sb. I. Pasture or meadow lands, low and moist. 2. A dis- 
tinctive name for some field or other in a farm, which field originally 
was a low-lying, wet or marshy meadow, although now it may have been 
long drained and become arable. 

O. N. engi, eingi; Dan. eng; Sw. dng; O. Oerm. angir. Dan. eng is used in a sense 
antithetical to agtr, or arable land ; and the prominent idea is that of low-lying land too 
moist for ordinary tillage. 

Ingate, sb. i. The means of entrance, to a house or building, en- 
closure or other place. 2. The entrance-way, path, &c., itself. 3. The 
act of entrance. 

* The lady Drede is portere . . . and so speres |>e jatis . . . |>at none evylle hafe none 
ingate to \>e herte.' Rel, PieeeSf p. 53. 

Ingle, sb. Fire, fiame. Sometimes used with the definite article, and 
then equivalent to * the fire,' * the fireside.' 

Gael, aingealf fire, light, sunshine. 
* A body's ain ingU^ a person's c 

own fireside. 

Ingle-nook, ingle-nookingy sb. (pr. neuk or neukin'). The inner 
comer or recess by the fire-side. See Neuk, Neukin. 

Inkle, V. a. i. To form notions, guesses or projects. And thence, 
2. To form wishes or inclinations, for this or that gratification, to wit. 
See Inkling. 

I. * He's inkling o* nowght at 's good. 

a. * He inkles after this an' that, and can take nane iv 'em when it cooms till ;' of an 
invalid who fancies things, but can't take them when brought to him. 

Inkle, sb. A narrow linen fabric, or kind of tape, formerly used for 
shoe-ties, apron-strings, and the like. 

Mr. Wedgwood's derivation is ingenious : — ' Inkle, tape, linen thread. Fr. ligneuU lignol, 
strong thread used by shoemakers and saddlers ; Ugnhcl, shoemaker's thread. From the 
first of these forms are E. lingel, lingle, lingan. The second form, lignivol, may probably 
explain O. E. liniolf, Lynyolf or innidf, threde to sow with schone or botys. Indula, 
Ucinium. — Pr. Pm. The loss of the initial /, of which we have here an example, would 
convert Ungle into ingle or inkU, From LaL linum, flax. Fr. linge, Sc. ling, a line; 
Fr. linge, linen, cloth of flax.' Add O. N. lin. Germ, lein, and compare Clevel. Lin, flax, 
and liln, linen. 

Inkleweavers, sb. Weavers of the fabric called Inkle, who, on 
accoimt of the narrowness of the web they produced, were able to sit 
very close, thus giving origin to the proverbial expression ' as kind' 
(see Kind), or, * as thick as inkleweavers.' 


Inkling, sb. i. A notion of, or guess at something, formed from 
some hint or faint whisper of intelligence; a hint or suspicion. 2. An 
inclination, desire or tendency; as, to some line of action, or in- 

* Parallel with E. bum^ O. N. has uma, to resound, ymta^ to whisper or rumour : hann 
ymti a tbvi, he gave a hint, an inkling of it. Dan. ymtt^ to whisper, talk softly, secretly of. 
Sw. bafva hum om n&goi^ to have an inkling or hint of something. For the change from . 
jmt/e, to Unit compare •mmet^ ant. Inkling is from a frequentative form of the same root, 
O. N. um/, Dan. ytnmd, murmur, ymple, to whisper, to rumour — whence E. inkling, by a 
change analogous to that which holds between O. simt^and E. sink; G. scbrun^fm and 
E. shrink.' Wedgw. Another instance of the change of the m into n is seen in Sw. omka, 
ynka, to be compassionate, the latter being the customary spoken form of the former, which 
is the true or accurate form. 

Inmeats, sb. The edible viscera of any animal, four-footed or 

Comp. Sw. innttmdte ; allahanda smdti steki innamdte a/ g'dss : various small cooked 
inmeats of geese. 

Inoo, adv. Presently, just novir. See Enow. 

Comp. Dan. i et nu ; i tt nu v€ar han forsvundtn : he had presently, in a twinkling, dis- 

Insense, v. a. To give any one full or sufficient information or in- 
struction upon any subject or point ; to make to understand. 

A good old Shaksperian word, and in frequent use with us still. 

* I was not fairly insensed into it.' Wh. Gl. 

* Ah couldn't insmse him intiv it, dee what Ah wad.' 

Inses, sb. Additions to make up full weight as well as full tale ; the 
articles or portions ' given in.' 

No doubt from the expression * a dozen and one in* and the like ; the one in coming to 
|;ive a substantival force to the particle in. 

Insides, sb. Entrails, the viscera generally. 

'A desper't' pain i ma' insides;* (the i ma' being pr. immjt, the final a as in aside, 
again, &c.) 

Intak', sb. A piece of land taken from the common, and enclosed 
for the purposes of cultivation : applied in the case of small plots taken 
up at will, and without any reference to, or power derived from, any 
general enclosure act. 

O.Sw. intaka; Sw.D. intag, intaka; Sw. intaga, oskift mark som inhdgnas till odling : 
common or undivided land which is enclosed for the purposes of cultivation. The Dan. 
word is indtagt. 

Intil, prep. Into. See Til. 

o o 


Intiv, prep. Into. See Tiv. 

Inward-flts, sb. An infants* disorder, a mild convulsion-fit 

Inwards, sb. (pr. innards). One's entrails, bowels, inside generally. 

Note * Sux Jonas wtes in daes huales mnaH.* North. Oosp, Matt. xii. 40. 

* Sec fzmne hflBf> on innolSe ;' * a virgin shall have in wombe.' A. S. Qotp., and Wy€i, 
Transl. Matt. i. 33. 

* De of hyra m6dor innofSum cunia|> :' * the whiche ben thus born of the modris wombe/ 
lb. Matt. xix. I a. 

Possibly these words suggest a different orthography for filwarcU. 

Iv, prep. The form the prep, i usually takes before a vowel. See 

* Tolf iv all ;• • Iv oor hoos'.' 

Ivin, sb. The common ivy (Hedera helix), 

Comp. the form HoUin or Hollen, holly. 

Jack, sb. A quarter of a pint measure, or the quantity contained 
by it. 

Comp. black-jack, a large leather can, into which the beer was drawn in oUl times. 

Jack I Jack I The call of summons to tbe pigs of a farm to come 
home and be fed and housed for the night: a call which is willingly 
responded to by the herd. 

All the animals on a Dales-farm are used to a summons from the human voice, and give 
immediate obedience. The cows, as milking-time approaches, may often be seen waiting 
for the call ; or, if not, the moment it sounds they turn and move towards the gate whence 
it proceeds. In winter weather, when it becomes necessary to give the sheep, which are 
still abroad, a small ration of hay, a high-pitched and prolonged, and, as given by some, 
very musical cry, is used to summon them to the fodder-bearer's presence, and is at once 
acknowledged and replied to by them. See Ob-ee f, Bty ! 

Jaded, adj. Placed in circumstances of almost inextricable difficulty^ 
straitened on all sides: a transitional sense, probably, from that of 
wearied to exhaustion, and so, incapable of further exertion. 

Jannook, adj. i. Even, level. 2. Fair, even, equitable. 

O.'N.jq/n; O.Sw. J{Bmn, Jemn, iampner; Sw.jdmn; Dzn. jevn otJovm; Sw. D./omm, 

jiimner, jiivn; M. G. ibns; O. Germ. eb<in, epan; O. Sax. ebban; A. S. tfm^ mvm. See, 

The presence of the ^ in the O. Sw. form leads the way for the entrance, by substitution, of 

a k ; and accordingly, in Ihre we find the form jamka^ to render even or levd ; in Sw., 


jimka, and in Sw. D.,jdnkayjanka,jdnk^ id. ; and this is nearly coincident in forni with our 

1. ' T* cloth deean't ]ig jannock. Draw yon end your-hand way.' 

2. * '* That now is noX jannock ;** unfair, uncandid.' Wb. Gl. 

Jaul. See JoiiL 

Jaup, V. a. and n. i. To agitate water or other fluid sharply in a 
vessel, so as to cause it to dash against the sides ; to cause impact of 
one substance or surface on another. 2. To move or dash against the 
side as the shaken water in the vessel does. 

Hald. gives gidl/ra^ with the example, bit gicdfirar at landi : hie terrain allidit sequor ; and 
gidlfr, allisio maris ad littora, with the additional forms gialpa and gialp^ in which words 
we have, very nearly indeed, both the sound and the sense of jaup, and no doubt also its 
origin. Jowp is simply another form. 

Jauping, adj. Wide, spacious, gaping. Spelt also jawping and 

Equivalent to, not rather to say, identical with £spiii|^ Comp. the form yavm with 
A. S. ganian, cinan^ geonan, Dut. gbtensn. Germ, gienen, 

Jawer, sb. Idle talk, prating, flippancy. 

Comp. Gab, Gkkbber, and see the remark on Jmxjpinff; note also, Dan. D. biabrg or 
babbre, to chatter fast, and without forethought, to let the tongue run ; the person who has 
a disposition this way being called a biabbtr. Collate "E. jabber. 
Give us none o' your jawer ;** hold your tongue.' Wb. OL 

« M 

Jealous, adj. Apprehensive, ready to anticipate something, whatever 
it be, more or less unpleasant in its nature. 

* •* Think you that wall will fall ?" " Aye, Ah '$ very jealous on 't." ' 

* Ah *s jealous he 's efter nae guid.' 

Jenny-howlet, sb. (pr. jinny-hullot). The tawny owl (Syrnium 

Jenny-spinner, sb. The long-legged insect called the crane-fly. 
Otherwise Tommy Long-legs. The name seems to belong to the 
genus Tipula at large. 

Jill; sb. A half-pint measure, or the quantity measured by it. Spelt 
* Gill' in Pr. Pm. 

Jill, V. n. To drink intemperately, but in small quantities at any 
one place. 

* ** He guajillmg about ;" drinking his half-pints at different places.' Wb. Ol. 

O O 3 



Jimp, adj. I. Slight, elegant in figure; applied especially to ii lady's 
waist. Thence, 2. Neat o^ elegant generally. 3. Small, scanty, deficient 
in measure. 

Jam. looks upon Sc. gymp oxjymp^ a witty jest, or taunt; a quirk, a subtUty, as origi- 
nating in S. G. skymf^ O. N. skymp, ludibrium, sport, Germ, sebimpft Belg. scbimpt a cavil, 
a jest, and with much probability. In like manner he considers Sc.gymp or jimp, with the 
fiame meanings as dur jimp, as undoubtedly due to O. N. and S. O. skantt skami, short, 
scanty, sk€emma, skamta^ to shorten, curtail. Comp. Cr, jimp, to indent. 

Jin. A common, rather fondling, abbreviation of Jane. 

' Oor Jin ;' the daughter bearing the name Jane. 

Jobber, sb. A small spade or iron tool for cutting up thistles from 
their roots. 

* Byllen or jobbyn as bryddys, jobbjm with the byl. Rostro,* Pr. Pm, Comp. Nut- 
jobber^ the nut-hatch {Sitta EuropcRo), a bird which digs into nuts and the like with 
repeated blows of the bill ; not simply pecks, but blows given with the whole force of the 
body. Mr. Wedgw. quotes, as allied, Bohem. dubati, Pol. dziobai, to peck, dziob, Gael. 
gob, the beak of a bird. 

Joblijook, sb. Anything tending to interfere with domestic comfort 
or peace ; e. g. a smoking chimney, a scolding wife, &c. 

This is a familiar name for the cock-turkey in some districts, and there is probably a 
connection of idea in the Clevel. application of the word. 

Jodder, v. n. (pr. jother). To be tremulous, like jelly when shaken. 

No doubt nearly related to jog or jock, jot or jotter, joile or jfnul, jolt^ all of which, 
through jog or jock, may be connected with Sw. D.jukka, to move up and down ; Dan. D. 
juke, jykke, to ride about on a stumbling horse, one that communicates an up-and-down 
kind of motion to its rider ; O. N. jacka and Sw. jueka, to be in a state of shaking motion. 
See Wedgw. in v. Jolt, from which our word is an easy frequentative. By the suppression 
of the /, as in au'd, cau'f, bau'd, fau't, Sec, jo't ensues, and thence jotter, Jother, 

Jodder, sb. A state of trembling or quivering, like that of jelly. 

* " Well, how did you like your ride on the railway, Mrs. B. ? " (a very stout, unhealthily 
fat woman.) '* Wheea, sae badly. Ah 'U nivver gan in van o' thae nasty vans nae mair. 
Ah trimml'd and dither'd while Ah wur all iv zjotber.** * 

Jodderum, sb. A tremulous mass, like a jelly. 

Joggly, adj. I. Unsteady, or easily put in motion; of an object 
which does not stand firmly or evenly. 2. Rough ; of a road, causing 
things carried over it to move unsteadily. 


Jollment, sb. A large jug or pitcher-full. Wh, GL 

I have not met with this word elsewhere. The compiler gives it thus : — * A jorum or 
jollmtnt, a large pitcher-fuU : a rare jorum of broth.' I do not think it necessarily excludes 


the idea of the containing vessel, but the contrary, as in the case of Jorum. I connect it 
with the prefix in jolly^hoai, * The original meaning is probably as in Fr. jalle, jalayer 
a bowl, Dut, jolUken, a trough/ Wedgw. See his Diet, also in v. Gallon. 

Jollous, adj. In good case, well-fed, jolly-looking. 

I do not feel quite positive that the connection here is not with Jowl, the fleshy 
appendages of the jaw and throat in a fat person. I incline to think it is, rather than that 
the word is merely synonymous with jolly — fat, showing tokens of good living. In the 
latter case it would connect with N. and Sw. D. jula, to live jollily, as folks do at Yule, 
DuLjoelen, id. 

« A flushy-£aced,7oWttt sort o' body.* Wb. Ol. 

Joo&n. Pr. of John. 

Jotxun, sb. I. Any large pitcher-like vessel; or the contents of the 
same. 2. A large or considerable concourse or assemblage of people. 

Julbntm, in the Leeds Gl. — * a bonny 7»/f&r»m ther' is ;* * zjutbrum o* folks' — is probably 
a purposed corruption of the word Jorum, unless, indeed, it be essentially the same word 
as our Jodderum, with the implied sense of a concourse shaken together and still shaking, 
as it were, with {vessure and swaying motion. 

Joul, jowl, V. a. I. To jolt or shake roughly, as a heavy springless 
cart passing over very rough roads does those who ride in it. 2. To 
bring into rough contact, as when a person knocks the heads of two 
boys together. 3. To strike with a hockey-stick, viz. the wooden ball 
or Knorr. See Jowls, Shinney or Shinnop. Sometimes pr. jaul. 
See Jodder. 

1. * Ah's ibootjauled te deid wi' riding i' t* cart.' 

2. * Ah *\\joul thah heead an' t' wall tegither.' 
* He jaul* d their heeads yan agin tither.' 

Jowl, sb. I. The jaw. 2. The fleshy appendages which, in a fat 
person, hang down from the jaws, forming, as it were, part of the flesh 
of the throat. 

A. S. eeolaSf the jaws ; geagl, a jaw ; geaflas, geahlat^ the jaws. Mr. Wedgwood's re- 
mark is that E.jowl may be as much indebted to Fr. as to A. S. for its origin; quoting, in 
support, O. Fr. gole, golle, geule, Fr. gueule^ the mouth, throat, gullet * Specially applied 
to the head of a fish, as a joll or geotdes of sturgeon. ** The ehowU or crop adhering to 
the lower side of the bill." — ^Vulg. Errors.* Wedgw. 

Jowls, sb. A game played by boys, much the same as hockey, and 
taking its name no doubt from the mode of playing, which consists in 
striking a wooden ball, or S^norr, from the ground in any gWen 
direction with a sufficiently heavy stick, duly curved at the sti^ng 

Jowp, V. a. and n. See Jaup* 


Judy-cow, sb. A name for ihe lady-bird {CaccintUa scpUm-puncIala). 
See Cow-la(^, Iiady-cow, Xrfidy-clook. 

This name cm scaiccJy fail to be a comiplion. I (mpect Fi. vacbi a Dau. biu a Dini, a 

JuntOOB, adj. Given to take offence, ill-tempered, sullen. 

Allied, u il would seem, with O. E. sctninl, lo turn aside wilh a quick niotian, to twetie, 
10 flinch. 

• pe vyH wat) war of lie wylde (the (ox), and warly abidts, 
& braydej out )ic bryjt btond. and it te best cajiej: 
& he sebum lot \>t tchaip. and schulde liaf areted, 
A rach iipei hytn to, lyjt er he my^t.' ^I'r Gaw. and Gr. Kn. I. lyoo: 

the fox started aside, swerved, fiom his swift course u the sword flashed neat him 

would have turned back on hk uaclu but wai caught by a dog. And the itionl action of 
taking offence may be iilly likened 10 this same physical action expressed by the word 
sbuiU, from which to jiiiitOU* would not be a wide or a difficult leap. Jam. gives 
joimdu, jmdii, a puth with the eltiov. with the example, ' If a man's gaun down the biae, 
Ilk ane gi'es him » jandU;' and he coniiden it allied to O. N. siuRifa, tettinni eo prxceps; 
Sw. liynda, to hasten, to push forward i which brings tis lo A. S. Kyndan, of like siguifica- 
lion. and the probable original o( scbtrnl, with its more arbitrary tense of lo move quickly, 
but to DOC side. 

* " Ajaalia ton of a body ;*' a person not very approachable or appeaieable.' Wh- OI^ 

KafCy. Sec ChafE^, Cauff, &c. 

Kale, sb. (pr. keeal). Broth, gruel, porridge ; applied to liquid food, 
whether prepared for human eaters, or for any among the domestic 
animals ; the purpose for which it is destined, or its nature, being 
usually designated by the prefix; as Flour-keeal, Wotmeal-keesl, 
'Eeeal' or ' Eeeal for t' cauves.'&c; the latter being made with 
a mixture of flour and linseed-meal, for use when there is a scarcity 
of milk. 

O.N. idl; S.O. kSl: Dan. iaal; Sw. i&l; A. S. caul; O. G. tot; Genn.ioU; &c. 
The primuy meaning of all these words hat been cabbag4 in general ; but in S. Q., Sw., 
Dan., and Dial., it came lo include other sorts of garden herbs, and then, as Sit Jai. Sndiir, 
quoted in Jam., uyi, ' At many heibi were put into the Scotch kind of broth, hence tail 
came to tignify broth.' Molb., however, Umili it to all the edible kiodi of Ihe genut Brat- 
tita, and the broth made by dreiting them ; lufpm rim dtriffiogn. 


Kale-pot, sb. (pr. keeal-pot)/ A pottage-pot; meaning especially a 
large semi-globular or full-bottomed iron pot on three spiky legs, used 
for cooking the !Kale in. 

An old custom, ol>solete rather by failure of the conditiont than otherwise, has been to 
hold a female servant who had remained seven years in her place entitled to claim the 
Elale-pot as her own. 

Kame, sb. (pr. keeam). A comb. 

O. N. kambr, S. O., Sw. and Dan. kam, a comb. 

Kame, v. a. (pr. keeam). To comb. 

KaxLOf cane, v. n. (pr. keean). To sustain the formation of a scum 
or 'head,' as liquor in a state of fermentation, ale turning sour oi* 
become mothery, milk when turning sour, &c. See Keeans. 

Kanes. See Keeans. 

Kave, V. a. and n. (pr. kee&v). i. To rake, or separate by raking, 
the short straws and detached ears from the thrashed com on the barn- 
floor. 2. To move restlessly, to paw, as a horse does; to be uneasy 
under constraint, to plunge. 

O. N. kd, fsenum explicare rastro, and kd/a, to turn over, or upside down ; kd/a i beyi : 
fsnum volutare ; N. kava^ kaava, to use a rake, turn over, of hay,'&c. ; move thij^s fidget- 
ingly. Besides, Jam. quotes Teut. kaven^ eventilare paleas, which he refers, but mistakenly, 
to kaf^ kave, chaff. The N. word takes the furtl^er meaning, to be cumbered with toil or 
care, to strive or moil ; whence our second sense. Spelt keave, keeve, in Hall. Sw. D. kova, 
Dan. D. kdute, imply restless and continued action with the hands or feet, or both ; as in the 
actions of supporting oneself in the water, gathering small objects together, maintaimng 
one's seat on horseback, striving to extricate oneself. Sec. 

Kavings, sb. (pr. keeavings). The short straws and other refuse 
matters separated from the thrashed com by the process of keeaving. 

Kead, keead. Pr. of Ked or Kade, the sheep spider-fly (Melophagus 

Keek, keoken, v. n. i. To emit the sound consequent on choking, 
which is neither a cough nor simply interrapted respiration, but partakes 
of both. 2. To decline with loathing, aversion, or. disgust, as offered 
food. Thence, 3. To be fastidious. 

Comp. Germ, keicben, keucben, to gasp, breathe asthmatically, cough ; keucb-busten, the 
whooping-cough ; Dut. kicben, to pant, cough, sob ; Sw. kikna, kikbosia, &c. Wedgw. ad- 
duces Lap. kakot, kaklot, to nauseate, * properly, doubtless, to retch ;' and refers keeker, 
squeamish, to this original. See Keoken-heaarted, and compare O. Dan. kiekkem, squeam- 
ish, with our present word. . . 


Keoken-hearted, adj. Squeamish; loathing the sight of food; 
thence, over-nice. 

Jam. spells this word kigben-hearttd^ kicken-bearted, and defines it ' faint-hearted, diicken- 
hearted/ See, however. Keck or keoken ; and note especially O. Dzn,- kiekken, squeamish, 
nice, hard to please or satisfy. In the sense squeatiusb, the word is still in use in the Sjidl. 
and Jutl. dialects, as applied to cattle. 

Keokle, v. n. To laugh boisterously or loudly. 

• Teut. kekereUf cachinnari, immoderate ridere ; Kilian.' Jam. Comp. Germ, kiebem, 
kiekem, to titter, Lat. cacbinnari, as also E. caekU, cackling, applied to discordant laughter. 

Kedge, v. n. To be set on edge ; of the teeth. 

Comp. V. a. edge, similarly applied. Our word may be connected with Suffolk kgdge, 
brisk, elate, full of life and spirits; Sc. caigy^ kedgy; Pr.Pm. kygge; S,Q,kdck; O.N. 
kjcekr, &c. ; but rather with our kegged, oaggy. 

Kedge, v. a. To fill, stuff full ; especially in respect of eating. 
See Kedge-belly. 

• Hasn't thou getten thyself kedged yet ? * Wb* GL 

Kedge, sb. A voracious or gluttonous person ; one who stuffs him- 
self with food. See Kedge-belly. 

Kedge-belly, sb. A voracious or gluttonous feeder, who stuffs him- 
self full to repletion. 

Comp. N. kaggje, a keg or small cask, a close-packed heap or mass, as of hay in a mow ; 
figuratively, a big belly, a thick-set person. 

Kedging, sb. That which goes to fill, the stomach especially; food 


• They love good kedging* Wb. GL 

Keeans, sb. (Pr. of Kanes or Canes). The white scum which forms 
on the surface of ale when it becomes what is called * mothery ;' or on 
that of milk when turning sour, &c. 

Possibly due to Gael, cean, head, the metaphor being identical with that which expresses 
the froth upon porter or ale by the word * head.' 

Keeaving-rake, sb. The rake which is used in the process of 
kavlng or keeaving ; a barn-floor rake. See Kave. 

Keeaving-riddle, sb. The riddle or large sieve used in completing 
the keeaving process, or separating the fragments of straw and broken 
ears from the newly-thrashed com. See Kave. 


Keek, keik, v. a. i. To raise up so as to make more or less erect ; 
to throw back, of the head and neck ; to tilt or prop up, of a cart, so as 
to be handier for unloading; to rear, as a horse. 2. To be brisk or 
in great spirits, elated, puffed up, in a state of exaltation. 

0. N. heUtiaz, recurvari ; kiikr^ erectus animo et corpore. Hald. Egiks. gives gtkk keik, 
corpore rq>ando incedebat, of a woman advanced in pregnancy. Note also especially 
N. kJMk, bent back rather than simply upright or erect ; kjetka, to bow or bend back, or to 
one side. Note 1>esides, Dan. kiak, Sw. kiick, and N. kjik, in the sense brisk, energetic, 
brave, resolute. 

1. * Kitak oop yon cart, an' get t' stooff oot.' 

a. * He did nowght bud winch and kttak oop on *s hln*-legs ;' of a vicious horse. 

Keen, adj. Eager, strongly desirous ; excited, in the pursuit of any- 
thing, to wit; energetic, active. 

S. O. kon, kyn ; O. N. kdn {Kok, p. 339) ; O. Dan. kjon ; Jutl. kon, brave, bold, vigorous, 
energetic ; Oerm. kubn ; A. S. con, cem. Comp. auf etwcu kubn seyn : to be keen after 
something; kauf-kubrtt eager to buy: see Wedgw. En kempe kdn, a keen champion 
(RUmkr, 64) ; en belt saa kdn, a hero so keen. Ihre quotes kdn til goda rada : keen after 
good advice. In Jutl. the word is applied to the right hand, den kon* band: see Kok. In 
our own old writers the word occurs in much the same applications : — 

* With kene clobber [>ay clatj on ]fc wowej.* 

E. Eng. Allit. Poena, B. 839. 

* Kene kyng, kayser of vrj>e.' Ih, 1593. 

* He wex as wroth as wynde, 

So did all )>at )>er were, 
pe kyng as kene bi kynde, 

pen stod )>at stif mon nere.' Sir Otnu. and Gr. Kn. 319. 

* T' lad 's vtrra keen o* gannan te t' scheeal ; mebbe he 11 be as keen t^ coom yamm agin 

* He 's ower keen o' mak'n' brass, to mak' 't fairly.' 
' Aye, he 's a keen fisher an' a guid yan.' 

* He 's getten te t' age to be keen efter t' lasses.' 

Kegged, adj. Affronted, displeased, disposed to be resentful. 

Comp. Caggry* Hall, gives our word as current in Lancashire. Cf. Sw. D. kagg^ an 
ill-disposed or fll-tempered man ; kagemev, a troublesome or annoying person. 

Keld, sb. A spring or fountain. 

O. N. keida, S. O. kaUa, O. Sw. kiOda, Sw. kalla, Dan. kilde. 

Keld, kell, sb. i. The amnion or membrane which envelopes the 
foetus in the womb, and sometimes adheres to it at birth : called a * caul' 
in the case of a human infant, and Foal-kell or -keld, Calf-kell, &c., 
according to the variety of animal concerned. 2. The inner mem- 
brane of a sheep's carcase, with the fat it envelopes, forming the tallow- 
chandler's material ; called Sheep-keld. 

Radically the same word with catd, with which comp. Welsh ca»d, a maw, calf's-maw. 
Possibly there may be some connection between Kell and M. O. kU^ei, womb, matrix ; 



inkil^fo, pregnant. S. G. kilt means also sinus, or * the lap/ as an enveloping means or 
means of carriage. So also, nuts might be spoken of as borne 1 Mtu, as well as a child or 
baby. Collate D. D. tjald, the * receiver/ or Barrow, into which the newly*bom child is 
received. Sw. D. kyl, kojla, a bae, a small sack ; kylla, koll, the scrotum ; O. N. kyliir, 
with both senses ; A. S. eyl, eyll, a leather bag, the belly. Sec, ought not to be passed with- 
out notice. 

Kelk, sb. A blow, buffet, or thump. 

Probably from Oliok, by transposition of the / and the k. Comp. the expression, * a click 
on the head.' * C3ick. A blow. East.* Hall. 

Kelk, sb. A separate ovum, or particle of roe, in the spawn of a 

A. S. gcolea, gioleca, the yolk of an egg ; Wall, cbauke, germe de I'sBuf. See Wedgw. 
under Coke, and our Goke. 

Kelps, sb. I. The iron pot-hooks hanging from the Gkillibau^k in 
the chimney. See Be'k'on-OTOoks. 2. The hinged or moveable 
handle of a Kail-pot, or the like: Bow being appUed to a fixed or 
hingeless curved handle. 

Cf. Sc. clips, clyppys, grapi^ing-irons, an instrument for lifting a pot by its ears. Our 
word is O. N. kilpr, ansula, qua manubrium mulctri annectitur, Sw. D. kalp, kjdp, handle 
of a bucket, and the Sc. word differs only by metathesis. See Pot-kelp. 

Kelter, sb. i. Condition, case, circumstances: thence, 2. Money, 
or rather, perhaps, in strictness, property. 

Wedg^v. defines this word as * readiness for work ;' which is one of our meanings, and 
possibly the primary one. He also adopts Skinner's suggestion, quoted by Ihre, that the 
Prov. Sw. (Gothl.) kiltra sig, to gird oneself up, as in readiness, or making ready, to work, 
may be im ntioned pertinently to our to be in Kelter. Rietz gives kutrd si(g), to gird 
oneself up, limiting its application, however, to female garments. If this be the origin of 
the word, the transitions of meaning are from personal readiness or preparedness, to readiness 
of thing or instrument, to fitness or readiness of equipment, and thence to the equipment or 
state of being furnished itself. 

* That drill is out o' kelier.' 

* " In good kelter;** aU right, sound.* Wb. Gl. 

Kelter, v. a. To care, or provide for ; to supply. 

Kelterments, sb. Belongings of no great account; odds and ends 
of property. Wh. GL 

Kemp, V. n. To strive in order to outdo a competitor ; to * strive 
for the mastery.' 

Sw. kampa, Sw. D. kampa, Dan. kampe, A. S. campion, M. O. kempfen, &c., to fight, 
contend. The Sw. D. word is used in exactly the same sense as our own. 

* They kemfd sae at t' shearin'. Ah was fairlings fleyed they 'd dee thessel's a ho't ;' 
they strove so hard to outdo each other in reaping, that I was afraid they would injure 

Comp. ' *) wel ha dar hopein to beo kempen ouer mon |>at ouercom engel.' Halt Meid. 
P- 43. 


KempS) sb. Hairs among wool. 

Kdmpasdd, in Sw. D., is rye and oats sown, and of course growing, together, under the 
belief that thus they thrive better, each as it were striving (varande i kamp) to outgrow the 
other. Perhaps a similar idea may have given origin to our word, the stiff or elastic hair 
refusing to lie comparatively smooth as the wool does, but sticking up as if in strife or 
defiance ; or, the word may be connected with Kaine» kemp't, combed. Cf. Kempt. 

Kempt, p. p. of Kam^. Combed. 

Ken, V. a. To know, be acquainted with, to recognise, notice or 
observe with assured conception or certainty. 

O.N. kenna; S.G. k€Bnna; Sw. and Sw. D. hanna; Dan. hjende; Fris. kinna; Germ. 
kennen ; A. S. cenan ; Sec, 

' A weel kenned man.' 

' Ah kenned him fail fra day to day :' spoken by a father of a son lately dead of decline. 

The vb. seems to have quite lost its one-time sense, to teach, direct, guide, as in the 
instances — 

• He kende me to >e place,' P. Plougbm, (E. E. T. S.) p. 68. 

* Bote kenne me, quod )>e kniht, and I chul conne erie.' lb. 75. 

Ken, kern, v. a. and n. To churn. 

O. N. kima; S. G. kema, kama; Dan. kjeme; Jutl. kjoma; Sw. kdma; N. and Sw. D. 
kinna; A. S. ceman; N. S. kamen; Dut. kemen, &c. The occurrence of both forms, ken 
( — N. and Sw. D. kinna), and kern, in our district, is interesting. Strictly speaking, per- 
haps, the word ken is more a variation of Pr. than aught else, and might be written ke'n, 
as bo'd for bird, to^ for turn, &c. 

Ken, sb. A chum. 

Sw. D. kannd; N. kjinna. 

Ken-ourdle, ken-oruddle, sb. A churn-staff. 
Ken-milk, sb. Chum-milk ; that is, buttermilk. 

Sw. kammjoUt; Dan. kieme-melk; N.S. kam-melk; Dut. keme-melk; Sec, 

Kenning, sb. Knowledge, recognition. 

O. N. kenning; O. S. ktenning; Sw. D. kanning, 

Kenspack, kenspeok, kenspeckle, adj. i. Easily recognisable, 
easy to be distinguished. Thence, 2. Easy to be seen, conspicuous. 

S. O. kannespak, qui alios facile agnoscit ; a spak, sapiens ; Sw. D. kHnn^spak; N. kjenne- 
spak; Dan. kjende-epag, Rietz adverts to the mistake made by Carr and Jam. as to the 
derivation of this word, giving their definitions in full, and notices the corresponding use of 
the word spak — O. Sw. spaker, O. N. spakr, wise, knowing — in other words belonging to 
the Scand. tongues and dialects, instancing in Sw. D. minnes-spak, good of memory, apt to 
anticipate events or wishes. Tlie word katm-spak is applied to both men and dogs ; to the 
latter in country dialects only ; as, bongana a id kdnn^aka : the puppy is so good at recog- 
nising, or knowing. There is, as Wed^^. remarks, an inversion of sense in the word, but 
there can be no doubt that the latter member is utterly unconnected with Eng. speck or 

As kenspack as a cock on a kirk broach ;' on a church-spire.' Wb. Gl. 

P p 2 

• « 


Eeuspeck, v. a. (chiefly used in p.p.) To mark so as to make easily 
recognisable, lo make conspicuous. 

Kep, V. a. To catch, as a ball is caught, or anything else that may 
be thrown from one to another ; or as any falling liquid may be caught, 
by placing a vessel in a suitable position. 

O. N., S.G., Sw. D.. N. *ij^, to snatch, atch hiMily: Did. iifpi: A. S. wpan; Welsh 
dp. i iudden saalch or pull. The lapid action implied in caiching a ihrown ball, ot other 
□bject, U Ihe original action implied in the Terb ; and thence the other and itower actitmi 

' Swyfte swaynes fill twylhe iwqKn |>er-tylle, 
Kyppt kowpcj in honde, kynge; la leme.' 

E. Eng. Aim. Foans, B. 1509. 

Eem, sb, A churn. See Ken. 

Kern, To get the. To sever the last portion of standing corn in 
the harvest-field and bind it in the last sheaf; lo finish the actual 
ehearing'or harvesting labour. See Kem-supper. 

Kem-baby, sb. An image, or possibly only a small sheaf of the 
newly cut corn, gaily dressed up and decorated with clothes, ribbons, . 
flowers, Sec, and borne home rejoicingly after severing the last portions 
of ihe harvest. 

Kem-Bupper, sb. A supper given to the work-people by the farmer 
on the completion of Shearing, or severing the com, on a farm. 

■ Bui our most characttrinic fejtive rcjoicingj," tayi Mr. Hendenon. FolUort ofN. Eng- 
land, p. 7. ' accompiny the harreit — the mell-iupper and the kem-bab)'. In the northeni 
pan of Northumberland the reitival taku place at the close of the reaping, not ihe 
ingadiering. When the (idde is laid down and the last iheaf of golden com set on end, 
it u said that they have " got the kem ;" the reapers announce the fact by loud shouting, 
and an image, crowned wiSi wheat-ears and dressed in a white fioek iimI coloured riblioDi, 
i( hoisted on a pole and carried by the tallest and strongest man of the party. All circle 
ronnd (his iim-iaby, or Harvest-queen, and proceed W the bam. where they set the image 
up on high and proceed to do justice to the haivett-tupper.' This harvest-supper Mr. H. 
calls ' the kem-feast' a little lurlher on. and adds that ■ the mdt-supptr (in Durham county) 
is closely akin to the NorlhunibriaD itm-fiasl.' 1 hare reason to belicTc that when the 
harvest-festivities were fully carried out iu days now gone by. the Kem-BUiiper and the 
Mall-aui?per both formed 1 part of themi the former being given on completing 
the levering of the com. the litter on finishing the leading or ingathering. At least, such 
is the infomiation 1 have collected here, and it is confirmed by Eugene Aram's statement, 
quoted by Brand, vol. ii. p. 1 1, that the ' itrs or cbnnt-aipprr was different from the unit- 
nfptr, the foimer being provided when all was shorn, the latter after all was got in. 1 am 

Ihau to com. at Mr. Henderson does. Aram's statement is that from ■ immemorial limes it 
was customary to produce, u a cbwn, a quantity of cream.' which formed part of the meat 
It is added in a note that the custom survived atmut Whitby. Scarborough, and Gisbunie. 
Sec. in Aram's time ; but that in other places cream hat been commuted for ale. Here, a 
large china bowl in some houses replaced Ihe chum, and new milk, or even lunnity, did 
iluly for Ihe cream. See Kem-baby, Hell-supper, Sec 


», keslopy sb. The substance used for inducing coagulation of 
the milk in cheese-making, &c. ; ' rennet/ usually the stomach of a calf 
properly prepared. Also spelt Cheslip. 

A. S. ceselibt eyslibt milk curded, curding; Teut. kai94ibbe; Dut. kaasUb, kaasUhbt; 
Switz. kaslab, kaslebb. The Sw. D. word is kdse; O. N. kasir; N. kJ€Bs§sz*lope, stycke of 
en kcdf-maget som hegagnas for cut fa mjolktn att lopna* Rietz. Wedgw. considers the 
word to be * derived ^om a Finnish source. Fin. kasa, a heap, whence kasa-Uipa^ old 
bread, bread kept for a year. The Lapps prepare much of their food by la3ring it in a heap 
till it becomes rancid or half-decayed. . . . From them the practice seems to have been com- 
municated to their Scandinavian neighbours, who treat their fish and coarser flesh in this 
manner. . . . The use of the word k^ssirt rennet, shows that the Icelanders recognise the 
identity of the process going on in viands subjected to this process with that which takes 
{dace in the formation of cheese.' But may not Lat. caseus, taken in connection with the 
prefixes eys or cese, kaes, kaas, kas, O. N. kasir, Sw. kdse, &c., suggest one common origin 
for all, quite independent of the Lapp practice referred to ? The suffixes, lib, libbe, leb, lab 
are all near connections of O. N. Uaup, S. O., Sw. and N. lope, Dan. hbe, 8cc., rennet, pre- 
pared calf's stomach, and of our Clevel. loppered. 

Kessen. Pr. of oasten, p. p. of To oaat 

* ** You hae kessen your great coat." ** Aye, Ah hes. An' I fed to hae getten nae grace 
by it ;" no advantage by doing so.' Wb. Gl. 

With this comp. * Beboerne feler at tUenfor dem er sneen kastet ;' the inhabitants become 
sensible that outside their district (Throndhjem) the snow is already kessen, Ame, p. 1 1 7> 

Kess'mas, kess'nmas, sb. Pr. of Christmas. 
Kess'n, v. a. Pr. of Christen. 
Kess'nen', sb. Pr. of Christening. 
Kester. Pr. of Christopher. 

Ket, sb. Carrion ; also, meat that has become tainted or offensive. 

O. N. kot, kjot, ket; S. G. kott; Sw. k'ot; Dan. kJ9d, flesh, meat 

Ketlock, sb. The plant charlock {Sinapis arvensis). See Bunch. 

* Carlock, Charlocke, or ebadlocke, in Gerard.' Note to Pr. Pm. Carlok, herbe. 

Ketty, adj. Carrion-like, offensive, putrid. 
Kevel, sb. A large ^mmer used in quarry-work. 

The name of this instrument seems to be due to its handle or staff, which is both large 
and long enough to require to be wielded by both hands; O. N. kejli; S.G. kajle, a pole, 
a stout staflf; words which, as well as the O. Dan. form kavle, were specially applied to the 
handle, or hilt of a sword. Comp. Scot, kavel, kevU, a rod, a pole, a long staff. Jam. 

Kevel, V. a. To work stone in the quarry with the large hammer 
known as the Kevel. 


Eixnlin, sb. A large tub, applied to bread-making among other 

Wedgw. gives this word under the forms kemlm, kimnel. In Chaucer, MiIUr*s TaU, it 
occurs in the forms ktmelyn, kynulin. Wedgw. connects it with Dut. kam, kamnu, a 
brewery ; O. Fr. ecmibe, a brewing. Mid. Lat. camumt a drink made from barley, ginger, 
and other like hot ingredients. Rietz, however, gives Sw. D. kimma, a tub, or large 
wooden vessel with a top to keep meal, butter, or the like in ; whence, he adds, comes the 
word btr-kimma, ale-cask, and he further quotes A. S. eamb, a vat, dolium, from Bosworth, 
— a reference I have not succeeded in verif3ring. Rietz further connects kimma with kitnbt 
a stave of a barrel ; with which compare Engl, cbimb or cbimbe, ' the prominent part of the 
staves beyond the head of the barrel.' Halliwell. 

Kin, kyn, sb. Kind, in the sense generally of species, sort or speci- 
men, as well as of race or family. 

A. S. eyn, eynd; Sw. D. kynnt^ k'onn; O. Sw. kon, kyn; O. D. kyn; D. D. kynd; N. kynd, 
all with the same sense as our word. Collate A. S.,;&c-cyii, fi^kind; 0,Sw.aUebanda 
Jiska-kdn^ O. E.fele kynjiscbez. Note also the forms, O. Sw. aUkyns, bwarskyns, nockyrkyns; 
O. Dan. alkynSf allskyns^ mangkyns^ &c. ; O.E. alle-kynnes. Many instances of correqwnd- 
ing use in the genitive occur in our dialect ; as aaa-kyna, other-kixiB, 8cc Aikyn, how- 
ever, is of frequent occurrence in HampoU, and nokyn is met with in Townil, Myti,, with 
which comp. O. Sw. mangskyn. Molbech gives no example of this kind. 

* ** An ill kin ;** a bad kind : ** a bettermy kin;** a superior sort.' l^. G/. 

Cf. * Vude kunnes kunde.' Ancr. RiwUt p. 390. 

* What cunnes )>ing is kuynde ? 
Kuynde, quod he, is Creatour of all kuniu beestes.' 

P. Plougbm, {E,E, T,S,) p. ill. 

Kin, V. n. i. To chap or crack, as one's hands do when ill-dried 
after washing in cold weather. 2. To have chilblains form. Frequent 
in both senses in the p.p. 

A.S. cinan, einean, to split or crack, shew fissures or gape; Sw. D. kima; O. Germ, cii- 
nan ; M. Germ, kinan. 

Kin, sb. I . A chap, or crack in the skin induced by damp and cold. 
2. A chilblain. 

A. S. cina, cinu, cyna, a chink, fissure ; rima. 

Kin'-oough, sb. The whooping-cough, or the Kink-oough ; that 
is, the cough which is attended and characterised by Kinks, or 

Comp. the parallel Dut. forms kink^xasi, kick-boesi, and see under Kink. 

Kind, adj. On very friendly or intimate terms. 

Like Skill, crafty, witty, and many other Clevel. words, this adj. preserves an-^perhaps, 
the — ancient sense which has passed away from the current £. word. Comp. the appUct* 
tion in the sentences following — 


* Knowe)> me kynddy* P. Plougbm, {E, E, T, S,) p. 16 ; 

' Hit is a kuynde knowynge* )>at kenne|> he in herte 
For to loue H louerde/ /(. p. 13 ; 

' Teche me ]>e kuynde craft* for te knowe )>e false/ 7&. p. 1 7 ; 

with Clevel. * Him an* me *$ varry kind.* 

Note also O. Dan. kynd, known ; at gimn sig hyndt med dommenn : to make oneself 
known to the judge ; S. Jutl. kynne, to make acquainted, whence kynngon or gort kynn, to 
make known ; N. kjend, keni, well acquainted with a person or thing, and also well known 
to another; as Gudfar og Ame var vel kenie: Godfather and Ame were very kind, 
Amt^ p. 71. 


sb. (pr. kin'lin'). Easily ignited materials, suitable for 
lighting a fire ; small twigs or brushwood, and especially the long Ling 
from the moors. Distinct from Eldin, which imports the fuel proper or 
material support of the fire when fully lighted and burning. 

O. N. Idndr^ kyndr^ fire ; kynda, kinda, to kindle ; O. Sw. and Sw. D. kinda, kynda^ 
kvdnda ; M. G. kiinden, kunten^ zunten. Comp. also Sw. D. kvinsle, kvinstl, and N. kvende, 
the exact equivalent of our Kin'lin*. 

Kink, V. n. i. To laugh hysterically or convulsively; thence, loudly 
and immoderately. 2. To labour for breath through such laughing, or 
especially under the paroxysms of the whooping-cough. See Kin'- 

* Sw. kikna, to have the respiration stopped : to pant or gasp ; kikna af skrattt to chink 
wi^ laughter.' Wedgw. But see also Kink, sb., as an instance of the 2nd meaning. 
Comp. * Peasse, I pray the, be stille, I laghe that I kinke,* TowneL Myst, p. 309. 

Kink, sb. i. A twist or turn in a rope or cord, &c., which prevents 
the same from running freely. 2. A violent or convulsive fit of cough- 
ing or laughing, interrupting the passage of the breath: in this sense, 
a paroxysm. 3. Rheumatic stiffness of any part : e.g. * a stiflf neck.' 

O. N. kmgr, keingr, t crook or bending ; kingia, to wry or twist the neck ; N. kyngfi, 
id. ; Sw. ki^t a twist in a chain, such as to prevent its running ; Sw. D. kimka, a similar 
twist in string or rope ; N. S. kinke, id. ; Dut. kink. Next note A. S. eincung, violent 
laughter, a paroxysm of laughing, which is surely connected with the above, the transition 
of idea from the twist which hinders the free passage of the chain, rope, or string, to the 
effects of the paroxysm, whether of coughing or laughing, which interferes with the free 
passage of the breath, being both simple and natural. 

Kipper, adj. Light-footed, nimble, lively, frisky or in good spirits. 

Molbcch, Dansk Gloss., quotes the couplet — 

Heist naar nuendene dem styrke derudi, 
Blijffve de kihhre, oc puckefri: 

and remarks that the word kihher is unknown to him otherwiae, but that he concludes it 
bears some such meaning as daring, bold {dristig), or pert, saucy (mundkaad). These 


meanings meet our definition very well. Comp. Welsh cipgatt snatching, rapacious, and 
N. kfapt, briskly, impetuously. Perhaps connected with O. N., O. Sw., Sw. D. k^pa, whidi 
as we have seen under Kep implies briskness of action. 
* As kipper as a colt.' Wb. Gl. 

:, sb. A church. 

O. N. kyriia ; S. O. kyrka ; Dan. kirhe ; Bcc, 

Kirk-garth, sb. The churchyard. 

S. O. kyrke-gdrd; Dan. kirke-gaard. 

Kirk-master, sb. A church-warden; more frequently caUed the 
Kirk-, or Ohiiroh-wamer. 

Eirk-wamer, sb. A church- warden ; sometimes Churoh-wamer. 

Comp. O. Dan. kirkewertt Sw. kyrko-vard, Sw. D. kyrki-varji, kyrka-varjarit O. Sw. Mr^ 
kiu-vcerjU kirkiu-vcariandit N. kyrkja-virjot Dan. kirkt-V€Brgi. 

Kim, sb. A chum. 

Kirsty. Pr. of Christie, short for Christopher. 

Elist, sb. A chest, of whatsoever kind. 

O. N. kista^ S. G. kUta, Dan. kiste. Germ. kUH, A. S. eyU, eitt, Welsh eitt. In O. Dan. 
the word kiste, without prefix or taken absolutely, signifies prison, cell of a dungeon, whence 
the popular expression, at ligge 1 stocken dler kisten, Comp. Eng. cant phrase, ' to find 
oneself in the strong box.' Wb, Gl. gives ktrh-gartb kist^z coffin. 

Kit, sb. A small tub or dipping-pail, with one of the staves continued 
above the rim and fashioned so as to serve for a handle. 

Dut kit, kitte, a small tub or pail. See Fosskit, for the various applications of Kit. 
Perhaps connected with Sw. D. kiUte, a small boarded-off space in a room, which tometiiiiet 
takes the form kitt, kett ; O. Sw. hBtta^ to enclose, encompass. 

Kite, sb. The belly, or stomach. 

O. N. ih^'Sr, S. G. qwed, O. Sax. qyi\fer, quidbtr^ quider, Sw. D. kwifS, O. Dan. gundbt 
qvtytb, M. G. gvi^us, qvitbi, A. S. ewHS. Most of these words imply, I. the stomach or 
belly : a. the womb or uterus. A. S. cwifS seems to be limited to the latter. 

Kithy sb. (pr. kyth). Acquaintance, connections; properly anti- 
thetical to Kin = blood relations. 

A. S. CM^a, * one known, an acquaintance, a familiar fnend, a relation.' Bosw. It is 
most frequently, almost unvarjringly, heard in the phrase * kith and kin.' 

* both kitb 8c kinn I wiU for-sake 

bonny sweete wench, to goe with thee.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 243. 

f, sb. Food, provisions ; a supply for the Kite or belly. See 


Eitlin's, sb. The young of the cat, kittens. See Cat's-whelps. 

O. N. hitUngr. Comp. Sw. D. h'dUa, kdssla, kissla, kittsla, and N. kjetla, ij^Oe, to 
kitten ; and Dan. kattthiUing, a kitten. 

Kittle, adj. i. Ticklish, easily excited physically. Thence, 2. Excit- 
able, nervous, fidgetty; requiring delicate or judicious handling or 
management; uncertain; difficult: and, 3. Easily moved from standing 
or place, unsteady, ready to yield or give way before a touch. 

Sw.D. kitaU, hjetaU, kJUaU, kbiUig, hjikklig ; Sw. kittlig or ketUg; N. hitaU, hidug; 
Dan. kUden, Comp. the fonn kfikJdig with our Engl kicJd€, kicklub. See Wedgw. in w. 
KicHe, KittU. 

Kittle, V. a. To tickle ; to stimulate or rouse. 

O. N. kida; S. O. kitila, hUda; Sw. kitda; Sw. D. kiUa, kisla, keta; N. kida, kidi, kUa, 
kjeta; Dan. kildre; A. S. citdian; Germ, kitzeln; Dut kittdtn; &c, 

Kity, adj. Having a large or protuberant stomach or belly. 

Kisen, kizzen, v. a. To dry the moisture out of anything ; to parch 
or dry up. Used most frequently in p. p. 

Cf. O. Sw. and Sw. D. kysa, which, among other meanings, takes that of to suffocate, to 
choke. Besides this, however, Dan. D at fyse •/, mdk, &c., implies to ' take the chill' off 
them, by setting them to the fire. Carry the idea a step further, coincidently with that 
involved in to suffocate, and the drying, parching effect of fire presents itself to the thought. 

Knaok, v. n. To talk in an affected way, to ape refinement in 

Wedgw. defines knack, * a snap with the fingers ; a trick, or way of doing as it were at 
a snap ;' and quotes Ir. cnog, a knock, crack, &c. With our word and E. kmuk collate 
S. O. knaeka, Sw. kniicka, Dan. ktuekke, to crack, to break with a sharp noise. As to the 
peculiar sense which our word takes, and about which there is a forcible or graphic fitness, 
an example quoted by Molb. affords a curious illustration : — * Den (talen) klmgtr som naar 
bids nmddtdtaller man huskker :* his talk sounds just like cracking empty nuts. 

* She knacks and knappers like a London miss.' Wb. OL 

Knap, v. a. i. To knock or strike ; to strike so as to crack or break. 
2. Simply to crack in pieces or break any brittle matter, as a stone, 
earthenware, a dry twig or stick, &c. 

S. O. knappa signifies both to give back a sound, and to strike, says Ihre, as Belg. knap- 
pen does ; also to break or crack, as hueppa nodder, to crack nuts. The idea of a sharp 
blow, or of the sound as of such a blow, seems always implied in the word. Sw. D. has kndpp^ 
to fillip or strike smartly with the fingers ; while S. Jutl. knep is used exactly as our sb. 
Knap is : as, De er inge konst aa daae knep far kongen : no power to strike a blow for 
the king; banfek et demt knep: he gat a sair knap; ^e corresponding verb being kneppe. 
See Molb. and Kok. 

* Knappin ' a few flints fur t' rooads ;' breaking stones for road-metal. 


M^m^ ^ ** ^ ^P> ^^ smart blow of slight force. 2. A crack, or 
>;^;k juk) jonK^ficial fracture. 

\ Hr ^ <ctt«u « sair knap ower 's knuckles.' 

i^ U \ w^4 b>wken, only a bit of a knap.* Wb. GL 

KMi^ ^ A person of more than questionable integrity ; a knave. 

- K^kAvtw A. S. cnapa, G. knahe, knappe^ a boy, youth, servant ; a depredatory term of 
^jigiVM^ h> AU iuferior. Du. knegt (the equivalent of E. kmgbt\ t boy or servant, as well as 
In^j^ )uv« acquired a depreciatory sense analogous to E. knal^, Hy u ten knegt, ten 
|,j|^ ^ is a roffue :' so far Wedgw. Our word is curious as preserving the original ortho- 
M4^>i^*<^Xi*P' /mopfs b: male-children in Gen, and Ex. p. 74 — at well as continuing the 
£|H^uih>ry sense ; for Ihre gives the word as applied to servants of a lower or more con- 
l^ui'if* |{f*de (inferioris ordinis). It is curious, however, that in the Scand. tongues the 
%>M\I av\)uired and retains a sense the reverse of depreciatory ; O. Dan. knabe being classed 
^ith kenrer and /drster, lords and chief estates ; Dan. D. kni^, S. G. knapa, being a noble 
s4 K»w«r rank ; Sw. D. knape, a well-to-do, substantial man ; and hu^er4ferre, what we 
«^KmUU call one of the local nobility or hereditary gentry of any given district. 

Xnapi V. a. To cheat or overreach. Wh. GL 

Due, probably, to Knap, sb., a knave, a cheat; although another origin is forcibly 
mgffested by Molbech's notice of the popular usage of the verb knappe, to make less or 
•tralter ; as, at knappe af, to retrench ; at knappg af i buusboldning, or, i sin levemaade : 
to reduce one's household expenses or mode of living ; and thence, a/ knappe i maal, or« 
i ¥0gft to be stingy or skimping in measure or weight, to give short measure. One short 
step further and our sense follows. Comp. the usage in the lines following : — 

* Bot riche and ille-dedy, 
Gederand and gredy, 
Sor napand and needy 

Youre godes forto spare.' Toumd. Myst. p. 320. 

Knapper, v. n. To talk mincingly or with affected distinctness of 
pronunciation. See Knack. 

A similar application of another word of like original signification. It is noteworthy, 
also, that Sw. D. knappdr implies the peculiar action of the teeth and lips used by a hone 
champing on the bit, and the like. 

Knappers, sb. i. A shield or protection for the front of the thighs, 
composed of a flap of leather strengthened with vertical pieces of flat- 
tened wood, and worn when the Turf-spade is being used; the cross 
handle of the latter resting on the Snappers, and the forward or cutting 
motion being mainly given by an impulse from the thighs. 2. In the 
sing. ; a knocker on a door. 

Knappery-ware, sb. China, earthenware, crockery. 

Knappy, adj. Testy, snappish, cross. 

Comp. the expressions * quick tempered,' or * quick of temper,' * hasty,' &c., and also our 
word, with O. N. knappr, Sw. D. and N. knapp, Dan. knap, speedy, hasty ; tenacious, 
grasping, niggardly. 


Knar, knor, sb. A small ball of hard wood used in playing Spell 
and Knor. 

Cf. O. N. hnoitr, Dan. knort, N. knurp. Spell is, of coune, O. N. spil ; ai tpila, Dan. 
spU; spUU, a play or game; to play; and the probability is that the game is a lineal 
descendant from the Ball-play of the old Danes or Northmen and Icelanders. The game is 
called Spell and Knor, and the word Spell has come to be understood as the desig- 
nation of the peculiar kind of trap used in it. But surely ' Spell and Knor' is a corruption 
of * Spell a' Knor' = * the play at ball.' In Lincohish. — see Spki in Hall. — the game is called 
Nur-ipdl, the element Knor standing first; that is, simply ball-play, therefore: which 
name, taken in connection with the fact that the game here is called ' ^)ell and ICnor,' and 
not * Knorr and Spell,' is significant. The object in the game is to exceed one's competitors 
in the distance to which the ball is driven. On the liboation of the spring of the trap or 
Spell, the ball, previously whitened all over with chalk, is struck in mid-air with the 
Tribbit-fltiok, and the place at which it falls being noted by the lookers-out, the distance 
firom the trap is measured in spaces of twenty yards each, or Scores. There is one day 
m the year---Shrove-Tuesday — when the play is customarily practised, though not quite 
exclusively. The Tribbit-stiok is elsewhere called Primstiek, GtlsHck, BucksiUk, TrippU, 
Treviif Sec, * 

Knarl, v.n. To be intertwisted and entangled, to run in knots; of 
twine, thread, silk, &c. 

Comp. Sw. knorla, to curl, to twist up ; and Funen knmli, a knot or exaescence on the 
fingers ; as if something curled or knotted up into a lump. 

Enee-bass, sb. A hassock, or cushion for kneeling on at church. 

Knee-halter, v. a. Toc apply restraint to an animal's motions by 
means of tying. In the case of a bull, the cord is passed through his 
nose-ring after being secured to his knee. In a sheep, it passes from 
the knee and is tied round the neck. 

Knep, V. a. To crop the herbage in small bites, or quantities, only ; 
to bite or crop short herbage, a£fording litde hold for the teeth. See 

S. G. hnappra, leniter admordere ; Sw. knapra, Sw. Dial, knappar, Dut. knappen, 

Knipe, v. a. Nearly identical in meaning with Knep ; which see. 

Comp. Dan. knibt, to nip, firom O. N. bniupa, knipa, to twist, to wring ; N. and Sw. 
hnipa; Germ, kneipm; and E. nip; in all of which the notion of the peculiar action of the 
teeth of a grazing animal is at least latent. Comp. also E. nippers^ a horse's firont teeth ; 
Dan. knibiiand. See also the Scand. words quoted under Knep. 

Knodden, p. p. of Knead. 

Knoll, V. a. and n. To toll ; of a bell, especially the passing-bell. 

Cf. S. G. knallt sonitus ; Sw. and Sw. Dial, knatta, to give a loud sound, to strike so m 
to cause a sound; M. Germ, knillen {kncU, knulUn, geknolUn)^ to resound; A. S. cnyUamp 
to sound a bell ; Welsh cnvl ; N. gnell, gnoU, shrill or loud sound ; Dan. knaldi, to rever- 

Qq 2 


• Weel, they 's hnoOmg tot aa*d WiUie, then/ 

• Wad *ye lahk me t* knoa t' beU a bit, while t* ckik cooms?' that is, nntO die derk 

Knop, sb. Any spherical, or nearly spherical, termination of or pro- 
jection from a thing, in the shape of an ornament, to wit; or the boss 
of a knitting-pin ; or the round flower-bud of a plant, &c. 

O. N. htappr, a small knob, a button, a pommel ; S. O. and N. knopp, the bnd of a tree ; 
knappf a button, Sec. ; Dan. knap, Sw. knapp, Dut. knoppe, knoop, a knot, a bod. Comp. 
Dan. bumla knop, the blossoms of the hop, with onr Knops of the sweet marjoram, 8cc. 

Know, sb. Knowledge, presence of mind and thought. 

' He 's qniet aff 's know, an' talks quiet raffly ;' of a man in great distress of mind ooci- 
sioned by the death of his son, killed, when drunk, on the railway. 

KnowfUly adj. Possessing knowledge; well-informed on various 

* A knowful kind o' body.' 

* He wur very skillful and hmwfid: Wh. 01. 

Kye, sb. Cows. 

This can scarcely be said to be the plural of cow. A cow, in Clerel., is called a Ooo» 
giving the oo nearly the sound of o in do. Comp. O. N. ku, A. S. cti, with their respective 
plurals kytf cy, 

Kye-byre, sb. The Cow-byre or cow-house. 

Kyle, sb. (pr. kahl). A boil, imposthume, or carbuncle. 

O. N. hyli, S. G. hda, Sw. D. hfU, N. hjyU, a boil, carbuncle, or carbuncuUr swelling. 

Laan^ sb. A lending, loan. 

O. N. /(in, Sw. Mn, Dan. loan, A. S. Ian, N. Sax. /«m, &c. 

Labber, v. a. and n. i. To dabble about in water, as with the hands, 
or welter as a fish when caught, or a person who has slipped in unawares 
and rolls about in his surprise and random efforts to escape, a. Also, 
to make wet. In this sense, chiefly applied in p. p. ; as, to a person who 
has been walking through long wet grass or com or turnips, or over 
very wet and muddy roads. 

Comp. Sw. D. lahha, to take with the hapd ; to meddle with, mix oneself up with 
anything, itself connected with /a66, a large hand or foot, and with O. N. lomt, a hand ; 


N. labb. Dm. lab, the foot of a beast ; Gael Uanb, Ir. lam, hand ; Welsh Uauf, the pahn 
of the hand — see Iioof : whence the meaning given in Wb, Gl. to our word, * to dabble 
with the hands in water/ is, doubtless, correct. Comp. also N. hMa, to tramp along, to 
walk with hasty, heavy steps. Rietz also gives labha in the sense * to dirty,' ' to make un- 
clean,' collating Gael, lab, filth ; but the meaning may well be a derivative from the former, 
as in our second sense. 

' But if syke priviledge can do, 
They 11 labber in our swine-troughs too.' Joeo^ir, Discourse, p. 54. 

Labberment, sb. A dabbling in water, as opposed to the regular 
working in water which a * washing-day' presupposes ; and so, a small 
or inserted wash. A * slap-washing/ Wh. GL ; * slop-wash/ Halliwell. 

LabouTSome, adj. Entailing labour or toil; laborious in the sense 
of fatiguing or distressing with toil. 

' " We have a king, laboursonu hill to climm ;" a fatiguing ascent to surmount.' Wb, 01, 

Laoe, V. a. (pr. leeace). To mix spirits with tea or coffee ; otherwise 
called * lining' it. 

Laoer, sb. (pr. leeacer). Any thing or person distinguished for size 
or proportions. 

To lace is to beat, thrash ; as also, to lace <me*s jacket; and, in the same way as other 
words signifying to beat, furnishes another word implying superiority in size; as wbop, 
wbopper, tbump, tbumper, hang, banging (in * a banging great one'). See Switcher. 

Laoing-mob, sb. (pr. leeacing-mob). An old-fashioned woman's cap 
or head-dress. Wh, GL 

Lad-louper, sb. A forward girl ; one who makes the first advances, 
or does not wait to be wooed. 

Lady-olock, sb. The lady-bird or lady-cow. See Clock, Cow-lady. 

Lady-oow. The lady-bird, or lady-bug of the South (Coccinella sep- 
Um-punctata), See Cow-lady, Judy-cow, &c. 

LaOy lee, sb. (pr. lee&). A scythe. 

O. N. Ijar (in Grdgds, le) ; O. Sw. le, lee; Sw. lie; Sw. D. le, lid or Ijo; Dan. le. Ice; 
N. Ijd; N. Sax. lebe; N. Fris. lee. 

Lae-sand, lee-sand, sb. Fine but very sharp sand used for sharp- 
ening the scythe. It consists of minute portions of quartz, and is found 
in nodules or blocks of a species of sandstone possessing scarcely any 
coherency. In some specimens the separate quartz grains are as large 
as tares or small peas ; but others are very fine. See Strickle. 


l4j|«r« «K The entire number of eggs hM, or to be hSA, by a hen, 
^\H>^ A\\ befoit^ sitting. Applied also in die cise of women iHio have 

INiss^. «(>«« ifeMT lOtm tamtmz O. GL Imt. » a Sdalk fioK; mtA bodi qwle 'Tent. 

Jlw>.{^ ^ Idtt^ ^hftran^ «^t«:&t A )mb ooBOBBes k^a^* to wUck Sv. Bgg4ti maj be 
aXM^ V^tt^ii^ 4^ ^^«» iiMitr » X Donet faim. The A. S. i^fam rn gtm^ to bj tggk» as 
>h^ 4\ %4KCkJL v^HM «Ntt ti^ cbnge of the prttunl into a faUit k KflAar. 

* A^ 4UMX xiHr v ^i^^ W 2qfiv.-' of a beo. 

^h\\^>^t«Mut6Stfn..e»jaB. But I hope tbe'f laid her iq^ aw ^T vokn bj die 

1i<fffi (<pX. Wearied, exhausted 

V >icii^AU\« mm tbe onfinaiy sense of E. iag, to trail behind, to 
' S9UI •^cws<^ v^*' bi>S8;i>>g sikan a big bairn/ 

X»»Kl cA adj. Applied to a person who from iOness or odwr disaUe- 
uiM^ttt li incapable of working as usual. 

litdA out, laid forth, adj. Decked out, arrayed, 'got iqp.' 

* ImJ OMi lahk lamb an' sallit ;' i. e. dressed up with a great amoont of pcnoaal inoy. 

liaid to, adj. Resorted to, for aid or supply, as a wdl, a mrdirinal 
*pring, &c. 

* T* well wur despe'tly laid to Y tahms past/ Wb, Ql. 

Lait, late, v. a. To seek, search for a thing. 

O. N. leyta; O. Sw. leta, laita; Sw. Uta; Sw. D. UUorlaii; N. UUa; Dan. IhIk. 

* " Lait it while you finnd it ;" until you find it.' Wb, GL 

Cf. Jeg bar letet dig i beU naU, with Geyel. * Ah 's laitm thee t* 'heeal ne^L * 

Lake, laik, v. n. (pr. lay-Sk or ley-Sk). To play, to sport 

O.N. leiia; O. Sw. and Sw. Uka; Sw. D. laika^ laka; Dan. lege, to play, sport, pby 
on an instrument; A.S. laean, Idcan; N. Fris. leeeben, Uege; M,Q,iaikaM; Mid. Gcnn. 

Laker, sb. A player, or rather one who plays. 

Laking-brass, sb. Money given to a child to spend on its own 
amusement ; in toys, &c., as it may be. 

Lakin's, laikin's, sb. Things to be played with, toys at large. 

Lalder, lolder, v. n. i. To lounge or loiter; to move listlessly or 
as if with no special object, or with nothing to do. 2. To sing hymns 
or psalms in a loud or noisy and ranting maimer. 

See lialling, and comp. Sw. D. lalla, to wander about with no occasion, to idle abont, 
as with nothing to do and no purpose. 


Lalderiflh, adj. Lounging, listless, lazy-gaited. 

lulling, lolling, sb. Loud, lively or spirited singing : * ranting psal- 
mody/ W^. GL 

There are two offshoots of the same family of words, with collateral meanings, concerned 
here, the ideas peculiar to each of which seem to hare been, so to speak, intermingled, and 
a new one caused to result from the union. On the one side we hare O. N. laU, the first 
imperfect walk of a child ; laUa^ to toddle ; /a//i, a toddling infant ; loll, loUa, loUi, slow 
moving, sloth; S.G. and Sw. loUa, a silly, foolish person — that is, one slow of mind; 
Swiss lobli, a booby; Fin. loUi, lelli, wiih both meanings, slow of body, a sloth; and 
slow of wit, a clown. On the other, O. N. lalla, to sing low as in IvUing a child 
to sleep ; Dan. ItdUt Sw. IvUa, id. ; Dan. laUt, to speak imperfectly, as a young child 
beginning to talk, to prattle ; Sw. laUa, id. Then we come to O. E. loll, a word 
* specially applied,' says Mr. Wedgwood, ' to the idle life of persons wandering about 
and living at other men's cost,' appending the following quotation from P, Ploughm. 
p. 514 (Wright's ed.):— 

* For an hydel man thou semest— 
Other a spille tyme. 
Other beggest fliy lyve 
Aboute ate meime hatches. 
Other faitest upon Fridays, 
Other feste days in churches ; 
The which is Lollentu life.' 

' In this sense,* he continues, ' the term (Lollard) was applied to the devotees mentioned 
under Bigot, who in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries went about preaching reforma- 
tion of hit, and excited the indignation of the Church by not joining the regular orders. 
** Eodem anno (1309) quidam hypocritse gyrovagi, qui Lollardi sive Deum-laudantes voca- 
bantur, per Hannoniam et Brabantiam quasdam mulieres nobiles deceperunt." ' In this 
passage it is hard not to connect Deutn-iaudantes with Lollardi, as an explanation, rather 
than simply— or, at least, as well — as a synonjrm ; in allusion, that is, to the loud, ranting 
sing^gf or Tialting, employed in the lauding. Compare also the connection of the word 
quergstur with the name LoUar in the following extract : — 

Pr, Damon, * Now thou art myn awne quirtstur, 
I wote where thou wonnes ; 
Do telle me. 
TuHtfillus. I was your chefe tollare. 
And sithen courte rollar. 
Now I am master LoUar, 

And of sich men I melle me.' TounuH, Myst, p. 310. 

And in this imposition of a further but cognate meaning — singing loudly instead of lul- 
lingly — on a word which also expressed ano&er section of the peculiarities of the persons 
whose doings were to be characterised by it — ^namely loitering, idling, leading a slothful, 
Tagrant life — we find the origin and the explanation of our present word : — * Lollardism, 
the party designation given to certain religionists in former times, who were much given to 
singing, or lolling, as loud, lively singing is here popularly called.' Wh, GL And it may 
be further observed that a word very nearly related to laU or loU, namely lult (probably 
both the ancient and Northumbrian form of the more modem lUt, to sing loudly, merrily) 
is used to express the uttering of loud outcries or shouts and shrieks of alarm in E, Eng, 
Aim, Potms, B. iao7 :— 


* ]zj (the besieged) std oat od a ttjlle nyjt er anj steoen rywd. 
And harde buries )>un l>e oste, er enmies hit wyste, 
Bot er Hjr at-wappe ne mojt ^ wach wyth oote, 
Hije skeh watz l^e askry ]>e skewes an-Tnder 
Loode alarom upon launde IttUed was Kenne.' 

Cctnp. also Dan. D. IcUle, ISle, to laise a complaint, make an ontoy, cry goods lor ttle. 

LallopSy sb. A lounging or lazilj-moving person ; usualty applied to 
a girl, especially if un-neat or slatternly in her work or in person. 

Lallopyy adj. Lounging, idle and slovenly in gait and habits. 

* A lang laUopy hu, as laxy as she's lang.' Wh. Gl, 

Lamiter, sb. One who is lame permanently; a cripple. 

Land, sb. In ploughed fields, the space between furrow and furrow; 
the * ridge' or * stetch' of other districts. 

Land, v. n. i. To arrive, or reach one's destination. 2. v. a. To 
divide a field in the process of ploughing into given spaces or widths, 
* ridges' or * stetches,' there being however no fixed or definite measure 
for each Land. 

In connection with the first meaning comp. the metaph. use of O. N. and Sw. D. /ibmIs, 
O. Sw. landa, ienda, to bring, or be brought, to a conclusion, to hare an isme or ter- 

I. ' He landed seeaf hame last neeght efter dark.' 

3. * T' far field 's landed despe'tly oneven.' 

Landlouper, sb. One who flies the country to escape his debtors or 
the penalty of his crimes; thence one who leaves any part of the 
country without paying the debts he owes in it. See Loup. 

O. N. land-hlauparit a vagabond, a wandering knave ; Dan. landUber, a vagrant, one 
with no fixed residence. 

* Get I those land lepars I breke ilka bone :' Townel, Myst, p. 144 ; 

where the word is applied to Joseph and Mary when they fled with 'the 3roang child' 
into Egypt. 

' None renneris aboute, 
Ne no leperis ouer lond" ladies to shryue.' 

P, Plougbm, {E, E, T.S.) p. 13a. 

Langavised, adj. Having a long visage or face, long-faced. 

Hall, gives the forms avise, avize, to see, to observe, to look at, as well as ms, nsagi, ikt 
front, face or countenance. 

Langoanny. A word implying the idea of having reached the limit 
of endurance, or exhaustion. It is difficult to classify it. Usage appears 
to make it alternately an adj. and a sb. The thought is simply identical 


with that in * as long as I can/ as in such a sentence as * I have endured, 
or carried (a weight, namely) as long as I can/ 

Comp. Sw. D. lanken, to walk with difficulty, or haltingly. Rictz supposes a lost verb 
Uiika, to bow down, to be in a tottering condition. 

* They are almost at langcatmy point ;* i. e. their means or resources nearly ex- 
hausted. Wb. GL 

* Ah fdt at langcatmy wi* t' weight on *t ;* nearly exhausted by the weight of my 
burden. lb. 

Lang-himdredy sb. The hundred of * six score/ or one hundred 
and twenty. 

Comp. O. Sw. sior bundrade, Dan. en siort bundred, O. N. bundrad (= lao). Oc vdro 
Mr ioif bundrai bodsmen : and there were there (at Hiallti's Anral) 1440 bidden men. 
LttHdnam. p. 217. See Hald. ako. Kok, moreover, mentions the long hundred as yet in 
use in Jutland. 

Lang-last, adv. At length, at last, in the end. 
Lang-length, adv. All along, full length. 

* ** I tumml'd doon a' mah lang4engib;'* fell my whole length.' Wb, GL 

* He was ligging his lang4engtb o' t' fleear.' 

Lang-ma'-last. Used adverbially and adjectively: possibly a con- 
traction of long may 't last ; at last ; or equivalent to the very last.