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Af^ J. A 




/ >f n y .-^ rK I 

— » — 

This Glossaey is intended to assist the student of scientific 
works, and the general reader, by giving the etymologies and 
significations of such words as are peculiar to the various 
sciences, together with those of common use having special 
meanings in science. 

In drawing up the work, the author has collected the defini- 
tions, wherever practicable, from the most modem standard 
treatises on the different sciences. He has also availed him- 
self of the assistance derivable from the " Imperial Diction- 
ary," and the excellent "Expository Lexicon" of Dr. Mayne. 
In all cases he has endeavoured to give the definitions in as 
concise and simple a form as is compatible with clearness. 
The accentuation of the words has been carefully marked ; and, 
for the use of those unacquainted with Greek, the Greek words 
have been printed in both Greek and Koman characters. 

15, George Street, Portman Square, W. 
Novemhevy 1860. 


. . r 


Ab'aons (Lat. a slab or board). An in- 
stmment for calculating, consisting 
of an oblong frame, across which are 
stretched wires, each supplied with 
ten balls; in architectwef a table 
forming the upper part or crowning 
of a column and its capital. 

Abattoir' (Fr. abattre, to fell or strike 
down). A public slaughter-house. 

Abdomen (Lat. abdOf I hide). That 
• cavity of the animal body in verte- 
brates which contains the organs of 
digestion ; in insects, the hinder 
part of the body, which appears 
united to the fore part by a thread. 

Abdom'inal (Lat. abdOmen). Belong- 
ing to the abdomen : applied to an 
order of fishes which have the ventral 
fins attached under the abdomen 
behind the pectoral fins. 

Abdu'oent (Lat. ab, from ; duco, I 
lead). Drawing away or separating. 

Abdtio'tion (Lat. a&, from ; duco, I 
lead). A drawing away. 

Abduc'tor (Lat. a6, from ; ducOj I 
lead). A leader or drawer away : 
applied to certain muscles. 

Aber'rant (Lat. a6, from ; errOf I 
wander). Deviating from the type 
of the natuml group. 

Aberra'tioii (Lat. a&, from; errOf I 
wander). A wandering away; in 
optics, spherical abciTation is indis- 
tinctness in the optical image pro- 
duced by a convex lens, from the 
formation of images on the exterior 
part of the lens ; chromatic aberra- 
tion, £i,lse colouring of an optical 
image from the decomposition of 

light by a lens into its primary 
colours ; in astronomy, an apparent 
motion of the fixed stais, by which 
they appear at a small distance 
from their real place ; in medicinef 

Ablacta'tion (Lat. ab, from ; lacj 
milk). Weaning. 

Abla'tion (Lat. ab, from ; lotus, car- 
ried). A taking away. 

Ablative (Lat. a5, away; lotus, home). 
Taking away ; in grammor, applied 
to a case of nouns, denoting an 
action of taking away. 

Abln'tion(Lat. a6,from; lavo, I wash). 
A washing. 

Abnor'nial (Lat. ab, from ; norma, a 
rule). Not according to rule ; un- 

Aboma'STun (Lat. ab, from ; omasum^ 
the paunch). The fourth stomach 
of ruminant animals. 

Aborig'iiial {Lot. ab, from ; ori^o, an 
origin). First ; primitive ; original. 

Aborig'iiies (Lat. ab, from ; ortgo, an 
origin). The first or primitive in- 
habitants of a country. 

Abor'tion (Lat. ahorto, I miscarry). 
The expulsion of a foetus before the 
proper term ; a miscarriage ; an in- 
complete formation. 

Abor'tive (Lat. aborto, I miscarry). 
Unfruitful ; incomplete ; having Uie 
property of arresting development. 

Abran'chiate (Gr. k, a, not ; fipayxiOf 
bran'chia, gills). "Without gills. 

Abra'sion (Lat. ab, from ; rado, I 
shave). A tearing or rubbing qC, 
as of a piece of ^Vxa. 


Abrapt (Lat ab, from ; rumpo, I 
break). Broken off; in botany ^ 
applied to leaves and roots which 
appear as if the extremity had been 
cut off. 

Abscess (Lat. abacSdo, I depart). 
A collection of pus or matter. 

Abscis'sa (Lat. abacin'dOf I cut off). 
That part of the diameter of a conic 
section which lies between the vertex 
or some other fixed point and a semi- 
ordinate, or the half of a straight 
line drawn at right angles to the 

Absds'sion (Lat. ab, away ; acindo^ I 
cut). A cutting away, or removal. 

Ab'soltite (Lat. ab, from ; soLvo, I 
loosen). lodependent ; perfect or 
complete in itself ; pure. 

Absorb'ent (Lat. abaorb'eo, I sup up). 
Having the property of sucking or 
supping up fluids, as a sponge. 

Abs(nrp'tloii (Lat. abaorb'eo, I sup up). 
The act or process of sucking or 
supping up moisture. 

Abster'gent (Lat. dbste/geo, I wipe 
clean). • Cleansing. 

Abstract (Lat. abs, from ; traho, I 
draw). Separate; applied to the 
ideas of number, properties of mat- 
ter, &c., considered by themselves 
without reference to the subject 
which they qualify ; an outline of a 
treatise or writing. 

Abstraction (Lat. a&«, away ; traho, 
I draw). Removal ; a taking away ; 
the consideration of a part or pro- 
perty of an object independently of 
the rest. 

Acale'phsB (Gr. anaX-n^, acaXepTie, a 
nettle). A class of sea-animals of the 
radiated division ; so called because 
some of them, when taken in the 
hand, sting like nettles. 

Acantha'ceoTLS (Gr. h.Kav6a, acantka, 
a spine). Having prickles. 

Acanthoceph'ala (Gr. 6xavea,acantha, 
a, spine ; kc^oA*);, keph'ale, the head). 
Intestinal worms having the head 
armed with spines or hooks. 

Acanthopteryg'ii (Gr. iucou^ea^acantha, 
a spine; vrepuyiov, pteru'gton,B.^n), 
An order of fishes having the first 
fin supported by bony spiniform 

Acar'diac (Gr. &, a, not ; Kopha^ 
har'dia, a heart). Without a heart. 

Aeanles'cent (Gr. &, a, not ; Lat. 
eaulit, a stem). Having no stem. 

Aeaulons (Gr. a, a, not ; Lat. cavlis^ 
a stem). Stemless. 

Accelerate (Lat. ad, to ; celev, quick)» 
To quicken. 

Accelerated motion. In mechanics,. 
that motion which constantly re- 
ceives additional velocity. 

Accel'erator ( Lat. ad^ to ; cel'er, quick). 
That which quickens : applied in 
anatomy to certain muscles. 

Acces'sory (Lat. a^icedo, I approach,, 
or am added to). Added to some 
person or thing in a secondary rela- 

Aodpltres (Lat ad, to; capioy I 
take). An order of birds including 
the rapacious fowl, as the eagle, 
vulture, hawk, &c. 

Acclunation (Lat. ad, to ; Gr. K\ina, 
Jdima, a region of the earth). The 
process of becoming accustomed to 
a climate. 

Accliv'ity (Lat. accllvus, ascending). 
A slope of the earth, considered as 

Accre'tion (Lat. ad, to ; cresco, I 
grow). A growing or increase ; a 
growing together. 

AccTunnla'tion (Lat. cuf, to ; cilmulo, 
I heap up). A heaping together ; 
in mechanics, accumulation of 
power is the quantity of motion 
existing in machines after constant 
acceleration of the velocity of the 
moving body. 

Aceph'alEi (Gr. &, a, not ; K€<pa\rj, 
keph'ale, a head). An order of in- 
vertebrate animals without a head ; 
including oysters, mussels, and 
other bivalve animals. 

Aceph'alocyst (Gr. iuc€<pahos, akeph'- 
aloSy headless ; Kvaris, hustisj a 
bladder). A parasitic hydatid con- 
sisting of a headless cyst or bag. 

Aceph'aloTLS (Gr. &, a, not ; ^6(^0^77,. 
keph'ale^ a head). Without a head. 

Ac'eroae (Lat. acus, chaff). In botany ^ 
resembling chaff : applied to leaves 
which are linear and permanent, as- 
in the pine or juniper. 

Aces'oent (Lat. acetco, 1 grow sour). 



Having a tendency to 'become 

Acetabulif erous (Acetah'vlum ; ftro^ 
I bear). Having acetabola or 

Acetab'nlnm (Lat. a sancer). The 
round cnp-like cavity in the pelvic 
bone, into which the head of the 
thigh-bone is received ; applied also 
to the suckiug-cups of some inver- 
tebrate animals. 

Ac'etate (Lat. aceturrif vinegar). . A 
compound of acetic acid with a base. 

Ace'tic(Lat. aceiumy vinegar). Belong- 
ing to vinegar. 

Acetom'eter (Lat. cusetumy vinegar; 
Gr. fifTpoUy metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
strength of vinegar. 

Aoe'tOTLS (Lat. aceturrij vinegar). 
Sour : producing vinegar. 

Ax^'etyl (Lat. acetum, vinegar ; Gr. 
{i\% kiUe, material). The supposed 
base of vinegar and its allies. 

Ache'nimn (Gr. d, a, not; x^'"^* 
chaindy I gape). A form of fruit 
consisting of a single hard pericarp, 
not splitting, and inclosing a single 
non-adherent seed. 

^hla]nyd'eou8(Gr. (2, a, not; x^i^vs, 
chlamus^ a garment). A term ap- 
plied to plants, the flowers of which 
have neither calyx nor corolla. 

Achromat'ic (Gr. d, a, not ; xP^^f^y 
ckrama, colour). Free from colour : 
applied to optical instruments in 
which the confusing eflfect of chro- 
matic aberration, or decomposition 
of light into colours, is avoided. 

Achro'matisiii (Gr. ci, a, not ; xptafxaj 
chroma, colour). Freedom from 
colour: applied to optical instru- 
ments which do not decompose light 
so as to produce colours. 

Acic'ular (Lat.aaVuZa, a little needle). 
Occuri'ing in needle-like crystals. 

Acid (Lat. aceo^ I am sour). In com- 
mon meaning, sour , in chemistry^ 
applied to all bodies which combine 
with bases to form salts. 

Addifi'able (Lat. adidus, acid ; fioj 
I become). Capable of being con- 
verted into an acid, or made 

Aflid'iiy (Lat. ac'tdus, acid ; facio, I 

make). To make acid, or change 
into an acid. 

Acidim'eter (Lat. acfidus, acid ; Gr. 
/icrpoVf metron, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
quantity of acid in a fluid. 

Acid salt. In chemistry, a name 
given to some salts which have an 
acid reaction. 

Aoid'ulate (Lat. acfidvs, acid ; dim. 
vltis). To make slightly acid. 

Acid'nloTLB (Lat. ac'idus, acid ; dim. 
ultts). Slightly or mildly acid. 

Acmac'iform (Gr. aKtycucjjs, ahinakcSf 
a scimitar ; Lat. forma, shape). 
Like a scimitar ; in botany, ap- 
plied to leaves which are convex 
and sharp on one side, and straight 
and thick on the other. 

Ac'ini (Lat. ac'inus, a grape-stone). 
The secreting parts of glands, when 
suspended like grains or smaJl ber- 
ries to a slender stem. 

Acin'iform (Lat. acfinus, a grape- 
stone ; fw*ma, shape). In clusters 
like grapes. 

Ac'inose (Lat. a&inus, a grape-stone). 
Consisting of small granular con- 

Acme (Gr. ixfi-^, acme, a point). The 
height or extreme limit. 

Acotyle'donous (Gr. d, a, not ; KorvXij- 
h<av, kottUedon, a cup, or seed-lobe). 
Having no seed-lobes, or leaves 
which first appear above ground. 

AcoTLS'tic (Gr. &Koua>, akouu, I hear). 
Relating to sound and hearing. 

Acous'tlcB (Gr. oLKovu, aJsoud, I hear). 
The science which describes the 
phenomena of sound. 

Ac'iita (Gr. iucpiros, aJdrilos, unar- 
ranged). A term applied to the 
lowest animals, in which the tissues 
were supposed to be confusedly 
blended together. 

Ac'rodont (Gr. hnpos, aJcros, at the 
summit ; ohovs, odous, a tooth). A 
term applied to fossil scaly saurians, 
which have the teeth anchylosed to 
the summit of the alveolar ridge. 

Ac'rogen (Gr. cucpos, akroa, high or 
extreme ; yevyato, genna^, I pro- 
duce). A class of vegetables charac- 
terised by growing from the top or 



Aoro'mial (Acrcmum). Belonging to 
the acromion. 

Aoro'mioii (Or. wpos, ahros, high or 
extreme ; &fu>s, omoSf a shoulder). 
The projecting or outer point of the 

Acrop'olifl (Gr. iucpos, akroSf highest ; 
iro\tSf poliSf a city). The highest 
part or citadel of a city ; in par- 
ticular that of Athens. 

Ac'rospire (Ghr. ixpos, akro8, a sum- 
mit ; oTreipOf speirOf a spire). The 
shoot or sprout of a seed. 

Aerote'rimii (Gr. iucporriptovy ahroti- 
rion). In architecture^ a small 
pedestal at the angle or vertex of a 

Actinic (Gr. olktiv, aktin, a ray). 
Applied to those rays of the sun 
by which chemical effects are pro- 

Actin'ifi>rm (Gh*. cucriv, oJctinj a ray ; 
Lat. forma, form). Having a 
radiated form. 

Ac'tinism (Gr. i-KTiv, alctin, a ray). 
A property of certain rays of the 
sunbeam, by which chemical changes 
are produced. 

Actinoc'erot (Ghr. oktiv, ahtin, a ray ; 
Ktpas, keraSf a horn). A term im- 
plying the radiated disposition of 
parts like horns. 

Actin'olite (Gr. cmctiv, (thtirif a ray 
or thorn ; \idoSf lithoSy a stone). 
A granitic mineral composed of 
radiated thoi-n-like crystals. 

Actinom'eter (Gr. iucnyf oMin, a ray ; 
fi€Tpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the heat- 
ing power of the sun's rays. 

Acnlea'ta (Lat. acuHeusy a sting). A 
group of hymenopterous or mem- 
brane-winged insects, provided with 
stings, aa wasps and bees. 

Aculeate (Lat. acu'leus, a prickle). 
Having prickles or stings. 

Acn'minate (Lat. acvlmen, a sharp 
point). Having a long projecting 

Acupunc'ture (Lat. acm, a needle ; 
ptmgOf I prick). The operation 
of pricking with a needle. 

Acute (Lat. a>cutti8f sharp). Sharp, 
in geometry y applied to an angle 
which is less tljan a right-angle ; 

in medtdne, applied to diseases 
which speedily come to an end. 

Adaptaticm (Lat. ad, to ; aptus, fit) 
A fitting. 

Addn'cent (Lat. ad^ to ; duco, I lead) 
Leading or bringing towards. 

Adduo'tion (Lat. ad, to ; duco^ I lead) 
The act of bringing towards. 

Adduo'tor (Lat. o^, to ; dwio^ I lead) 
A leader or bringer towards. 

Adeliifonii (Ghr. hZriv, aden^ a gland 
Lat. forma, shape). Shaped like 
a gland. 

Adeni'tis (Gr. iiZriv, aden, a gland 
Uis, denoting inflammation). In 
flammation of glands. 

Ad'ezLoid (Gr. &S77V, aden, a gland 
tlHoSf eidoSf form). Like a gland 

Adenorogy (Gr. d87}v, aderij a gland 
\oyos, logoSj a word or discourse) 
A description of glands. 

Adfec'ted (Lat. ad, to ; facio, I make) 
Compounded ; containing different 
powers of the same quantity. 

AcUie'sion (Lat. ad, to ; Juereo, I stick 
fast). A sticking together. 

Adhe'sive (Lat. ad, to ; hcereo, I 
stick.) Having the power of ad- 
hering ; or promoting this pro- 

Adipooe're (Lat. adeps, fat ; cera, 
wax). A peculiar substance pro- 
duced in dead animal bodies under 
certain circumstances. 

Adipose (Lat. adeps, fat). Belonging 
to, or consisting of fat. 

Adit (Lat. adeo, I go to). A passage 
or approach to a mine. 

Adja'cent (Lat. ad, to ; jaceo, I lie). 
Lying near to. 

Adjustment (Lat. ad, to ; Justus, 
just). A fitting ; the means by 
which an optical instrument is fitted 
for taking a correct view of an ob- 

Admiztion (Lat. ad, to ; misceo, 1 
mix). A mixing of different sub- 
stances, without change of nature. 

Adnascent (Lat. ad, to ; naacor, I am 
bom). Growing to or on. 

Adnate (Lat. ad, to ; nascor, I am 
born) . Growing together. 

Adoles'cence (Lat. adoka'co, I grow). 
The period between childhood and 
full growth. 


Adnl'terate (Lat. ad^ to ; cUter, the 
other). To corrupt or make im- 
pnre by an admixture of materials 
of inferior quality. 

AdTLS'tion (Lat. adf to ; uro^ I bum). 
A burning or heating to dryness. 

Adventifioas (Lat. adf to; venio, I 
come). Coming accidentally, or 
out of place. 

Adyxiam'ic(Gr. &, a, not; livyofiis, du'- 
namiSf power). Without power; 
applied to invalids, in which there 
is diminution of the powers of life 
to resist the disease. 

JEg^ph'ony (Gr. h^, aia, a goat; 
ipeavrif phone, voice). In medicinef 
a peculiar trembling sound of the 
voice as heard through the chest in 
some diseased states, resembling 
the bleating of a goat. 

A'erated (Lat. aer, the air). Charged 
with air ; applied to waters charged 
with carbonic acid gas. 

Acra'tion (Lat. aer, the air). The 
art of charging with air or gas ; 
or of exposing soils to the action of 
the air. 

Aelnal (Lat. aer, the air). Belong- 
ing to, or consisting of air. 

A'eriform (Lat. aer, the air ; forma, 
shape). Resembling air. 

Acrodynam'icB (Gr. dr/p, aier, air; 
dwells, du'namis, power). The 
science of the mechanical effects of 
air in motion. 

A'erolite (Gr. drjp, aer, air; \t$os, 
lithos, a stone). A meteoric stone ; 
a mineral mass which falls through 
the air. 

AeroVogy (Gr. d-np, aer, air; \oyos, 
logos, a word or description). A 
description of the air. 

Aerom'eter (Gr. drip, aer, air ; fitrpov, 
metron, a measure). An instru- 
ment for ascertaining the weight of 
air, or the bulk of gases. 

Aerom'etry (Gr. d-np, aJer, air ; fierpov, 
metron, a measure). The science 
of measuring air. 

A'eronant (Gr. drjp, a^, air ; vavrns, 
nautes, a sailor). One who sails 
in the air by means of a balloon. 

Airopho'bia (Gr. arip, a^r, air ; <pofios, 
pkobos, fear). A dread of air. 

A'drophyte (Gr. ^770, aer, air; ^v», 

phtio, I grow). A plant which lives 
in air. 

Aerostatics (Gr.ai7p, a>er, air; Itrrrjfju, 
histemif I weigh). The science 
which describes the properties of 
air at rest. 

JEsfhet'ics (Gr. cdardavo/juu, aisthan'O' 
mai, I perceive). The science of 
sensation, or of the cause of mental 
pleasure and pain derivable from 
observing the works of nature and 

JEstivation. See Estivation. 

Affection (Lat. ad, to; facio, I 
make). A disposition; used in 
medicine in the same sense as 

Afferent (Lat. ad, to ; fero, I bring). 
Bringing to. 

Affin'ily (Lat. affi'nis, near to, or 
bordering on). Relationship; an 
agreement in most essential charac- 
ters ; disposition to unite, so as to 
form a new substance. 

Afflux (Lat. ad, to ; Jltio, I flow), A 
flowing towards. 

Afftision (Lat. ad, to; fundo, I pour). 
A pouring on. 

After-damp. A gas emitted in coal- 
mines, very fatal to life ; choke- 
damp or carbonic acid. 

Ag'amous (Gr. &, a, not ; yc^ios, ga- 
mo8, marriage). A tenu* applied 
to cryptogamic plants, or those 
which appear to have no distinction 
of sexes. 

Agas'tric (Gr. a, o, not; yatrrrfp, 
gaster, a stomach). Without a 
stomach or intestines. 

Agglom'erate (Lat. ad, to; glomus, 
a roll of yam or thread). To col- 
lect together like thread on a ball. 

Aggln'tinant (Lat. ad, to; glvien, 
glue) . Fastening together like glue. 

Aggln'tinate (Lat. ad, to; glvien, 
glue). To fasten together like glue. 

Ag^gregpate (Lat. ad, to ; grex, a 
herd). To collect together into a 
mass; collected together. 

Aggregation (Lat. ad, to; grex, a 
herd). A collection; the act of 
collecting together into a mass. 

Agon'io (Gr. d, a, not ; yavia, goniOf 
an angle). Without an angle : a^ 
plied to two liafe^ wi'Caa tsoaSaRfc ^^ 


the earth in which there is no decli- 
nation of the magnetic needle from 
the meridian. 

Agra'rian (Lat. ager, a field). Rela- 
ting to lands. 

Agricnl'tnre (Lat. ager^ a field ; colo, 
I cultivate). The science of culti- 
vating the ground. 

Aiguille (Fr. a needle). In physical 
geogi'apky, applied to the sharp 
needle-like points of lofty moun- 

Air-hladder. A bladder containing 
air ; generally applied to a bag in 
the interior of fishes, capable of 
being filled with air — a rudimen- 
tary lung. 

Air-cell. A cell or cavity containing 

Air-pnmp. An instrument for with- 
drawing air from a vessel. 

Air-sac. A receptacle for holding air. 

Ak^era (Gr. &, a, not ; Kepas, her as, 
a horn). A family of mollusca 
"without horns or feelers. 

Ala (Lat.) A wing, or a projection 
like a wing. 

Alar (Lat. ala, a wing). Belonging 
to awing. 

Alate (Lat. ala, a wing). Having 

Albi'xLO (Lat. alhiLSy white). A person 
or animal in whom the natural co- 
louring matter of the skin, hair, 
and eyes, is absent. 

Albugin'ea (Lat. albugo^ a white spot 
in the eye). The white appearance 
in front of the eye, formed by the 
expanded tendons of the muscles 
which move the organ. 

Albugin'eons (Lat. albugo, a white 
spot in the eye). Belonging to or 
resembling the white of the eye. 

Albn'men (Lat. albtts, white). A sub- 
stance found in animals and vege- 
tables, of which the white of egg is 
an example. 

Albuminip'arouB (Lat. aXburum, the 
white of egg ; pariot I produce). 
Producing or secreting albumen. 

AlbtL^ninoid {Albumen ; Gr. el^os, 
eidos, form). Resembling albumen. 

Albn'minoTLS (Lat. albumen, the white 
of egg). Belonging to or containing 

Albnr^mn (Lat. albus, white). The 
softer wood or sap-wood, between 
the bark and the heart- wood. 

Al'chemist (Arabic, al, the ; Mmiaf 
secret; or Gr. x««f f^hed, I pour). A 
person who practises alchemy. 

Al'chemy (Arab, al, the ; kimia, se- 
cret ; or Gr. x**> ^^*^> ^ pour). 
The pretended science of chan^g 
other metals into gold, &c. 

Al'coliol (Arab, al, the ; kohol). A 
fluid body produced by distillation 
from fermented spirits, in which it 
has been formed from sugar. 

Alcoholism (Alcohol). A diseased 
state, arising from the excessive 
use of alcoholic liquors. 

AloohoiiL'eter (Alcohol; Gr. fierpov, 
metron, a measure). An instru- 
ment for determining the strength 
of spirits by indicating the per- 
centage of pure alcohol. 

Aleiiil)ic (Arab, al, the ; ambik, a 
chemical vessel). A vessel used in 

AlgSB (Lat. alga, sea-weed). An order 
of cryptogamous plants, including 

Al'gebra (Arab, al, the ; gdbar or 
chabar, to reduce parts to a whole). 
A method of computation in which 
signs (usually the letters of the al- 
phabet) represent quantities. 

Algebraical (Algebra). Pertaining 
to or performed by means 0/ Algebra. 

Al'gia (Gh*. d\yos, aXgoa, pain). Used 
as the ending of a word, denotes pain 
in the part spoken of. 

Al'gide (Lat. aVgeo, I am cold). Ac- 
companied by great coldness ; ap- 
plied to diseases, such as fevers and 

Aliena'tion (Lat. alienus, belonging 
to another ; foreign). A transfer- 
ring to another ; in medicine, in- 

A'lieiiist(Pr.aZic'7i^, insane). Relating 
to insanity : applied to physicians 
who specially study insanity. 

Aliform (Lat. ala, a wing ; format 
shape). Shaped like a wing. 

Al'iment (Lat. alo, I nourish). Food 
or nourishipent. 

Alimenfary (Lat. aloy I nourish). 
Belonging to food. 


Alimezita'tion (Lat. alo, I nooiish). 
The act of receiving or imparting 

Aliquot (Lat. aliquot^ some certain). 
A part which, multiplied by any 
entire number, exactly makes up a 
given whole. 

Aliiqslie'noid (Lat. ala, a wing ; 
sphenoid), A term applied to the 
part of the skull in fishes which 
corresponds to the alae or wings of 
the sphenoid bone. 

Alkales'cent {A Ueali). Having a ten- 
dency to be or to become alkaline. 

Al'kali (Arab.). A substance hav- 
ing the property of changing vege- 
table blues to red, and turmeric 
and rhubarb to brown, and ot 
neutralising acids. 

Alkalig^enous {Alkali; Gr. yfwaxc, 
f/ennaof I produce). Producing al- 

Alkalim'eter (Alkali ; Gr. fierpov, 
metron, a measure). A graduated 
measure used by chemists in pro- 
cesses for ascertaining the amount 
of alkali in any substance. 

Alkalim'etry {Alkali; Gr. fifrpoy, 
metron, a measure). The process 
by which the quantity of alkali in 
any substance is measured. 

Allcaline (Alkali). Having the pro- 
perties of or containing an alkali. 

Alkalinity (Alkali). The condition 
produced by an alkali. 

Al'kaloid (Alkali; Gr. etSos, eidoSf 
form). An organic body consisting 
of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and 
oxygen, having the general pro- 
perties of an alkali. 

Allan'toid (AUantois). A term ap- 
plied to the vertebrate animals 
of which the foetus is provided with 
an allantols ; including mammals, 
birds, and reptiles. 

Allan' tola (Gr. dWasy aUaSy a sausage; 
ilBos, eidoSf form). One of the 
membranes which invest the foetus. 

Allia'ceoTLB (Lat. allium^ garlic). Be- 
longing to or resembling garlic. 

Alliga'tion (Lat. adf to; ligo^ I bind). 
A tying together ; a rule in arithr 
metic for finding the average price 
of a compound of different sub- 

AUophyl'ian (Gr. &A\os, allosj ano- 
ther ; <pv\rit phulcj a tribe). A 
term applied to the races supposed 
to have inhabited Europe before 
the passage into it of the Asian 

Allotroplc (Gr. &KKos, alloSf another ; 
rpewoOf trepdf I turn). Having the 
property of existing in two or more 
forms with diflferent physical pro- 
perties, the composition remaining 
the same. 

Alloy (Lat. ad, to ; ligoy I bind). A 
compound of two or more metals. 

Alln'vial (Lat. allu'vies, a muddy 
stream). Produced by deposit of 
mud, &c., washed down by water. 

Alln'vinm (Lat. ad, to; lavo, I wash). 
The soil or land formed of matter 
washed together by the ordinary 
operations of water. 

Alope'cia (Gr. aKaini^^ aldpex, a 
fox). Loss of hair : foxes have 
been said to be subject to it. 

Alt-az'imnth. A term applied to an 
astronomical instrument for ob- 
serving both the altitude and 

Al'terative (Lat. alter, another). A 
medicine which gradually produces 
a change in the constitution. 

Altem'ate (Lat. altemttSy belonging 
to one another). Being by turns; 
in botany f applied to branches and 
leaves which rise on opposite sides 
alternately; in geometry ^ to the 
internal angles made by a straight 
line cutting two parallel lines, and 
lying on opposite sides of the cut- 
ting line. 

Alternate generation. A form of 
reproduction in which the young do 
not resemble the parent but the 

Alt'itnde (Lat. alius, high). Height; 
in astronomy, applied to the real 
or apparent height of a heavenly 
body from the horizon ; in geo- 
metry, the distance of the vei"tex 
or summit from the base. 

Alnla (Lat. ala, a wing). A little 

Almnmiferons (Lat. alumen, alum; 
fero, I bear). Producing alum. 

Alve'olar (Lat. alveolus^ «» wsr!«.«^. 



Belonging to the fockets in which 
the teeth are fixed ; containing cells 
or pits. 

Alve'olnB (Lai ) A cell or socket ; in 
anatomy J the socket of a tooth ; the 
minute depressions in the mucous 
membrane of the stomach are also 
called alveoli. 

Al'vine (Lat. cdvtiSt the belly). Be- 
longing to the bowels. 

Amal'gam (Gr. ftaXaffaooy malas'so, I 
soften). A compound of mercury 
with another metal. 

Amalgama'tion. A process by which 
silver ore is purified by mixture 
with mercury; a blending. 

Amanro'sis (Gr. i/MvpoSf amauroSf 
dark). Blindness from loss of power 
in the nervous system of the eye to 
receive or transmit the impression 
of light. 

Amblyg'oxioiLS (Gr. &fi0\vs, amhluSf 
obtuse; ywyiOj gonia^ an angle). 
Having an obtuse angle. 

Amblyo'pia (Gr. &fxfi\vs, amhlus, 
dim ; wif^, upSf the eye). Amaurosis 
in a milder degree. 

Ambula'ora (Lat. am'buloy I walk). 
The perforated plates in the shell of 

Am^bnlanoe (Lat. amfbulOf I walk). 
A moveable hospital attached to an 
army in the field. 

Am'bTiIatory (Lat. am'bulOf I walk). 
Made for walking. 

Amenta'oeoiu (Amentum). Having 
flowers arranged in amenta or cat- 

Amen'tia (Lat. a, from or without ; 
menSf the mind). Want of intel- 
lect; idiocy. 

Amen'tnm (Lat., a thong). In botany, 
a form of inflorescence, resembling 
a spike. 

Ammoni'acal (Ammonia, the volatile 
alkali). Pertaining to, or contain- 
ing ammonia. 

Am'monite (Ammon, one of the 
titles of Jupiter, under which his 

. statue was represented with ram's 
horns). A fossil shell of a cephal- 
opod, of a spiral form. 

Am'nion (Gr. dfxyioy, amnion, a bowl). 
One of the membranes suiTounding 
the foetus ; in botany, a thin sub- 

stance in which the embrjo of a 
plant is suspended when it first 

Axnxdot'io (Amnion), Belonging to 
the amnion. 

Amor'plioiis (Gr. &, a^ not ; iMpifnj, 
morphe, form). Without regular 
form; shapeless. 

Amorpliozo'a (Gr. a, a, not ; fiopifni, 
morphe, form ; ((taov^ zoon, an ani- 
mal). Animals without definite 
shape : applied to sponges and their 

Amphi (Gr. iifjul>is, amphts, on both 
sides; or, i^<p<c, ampho, both). A 
prefix signifying the co-existence of 
two things or properties; some- 
times signifying around (from dfupi, 
amphi, around). 

Amphiarthro'sis (Gr. d/npis, amphis, 
on both sides; itpBpou, arthron, a 
joint). A form of joint which has 
the properties of two others, named 
diarthrosis and synarthrosis, and 
allows slight motion . 

Amjibibieh'mtM (Ainphib'ia, animals 
living both on land and in water ; 
Gr. 'X''^^) ichnos, a footstep). Fossil 
footprints of amphibious reptiles. 

Amphib'ionj (Gr. ofupis, amphis, on 
both sides; /Sios, bios, life). Liv- 
ing both on land and in water. 

Am'phibracli (Gr. dfufus, amphis, on 
both sides ; fipaxvs, brachus, short). 
In versification, afoot consisting of 
two short syllables with a loug one 

Amphicoe'lia (Gr. dfupis, amphis, on 
both sides ; koiKos, koilosj hollow). 
A term applied to a sub-order of 
crocodiles which have the vertebral 
bones hollowed at both ends. 

Am'phipods (Gr. dfjxf>is, amphis, on 
both sides ; vovs,pous, afoot).. An 
order of Crustacea having feet for 
both walking and swimming. 

Amphis'cians (Gr. a/ix^is, amphis, on 
both sides ; aKia, skia, a shadow). 
The inhabitants of the tropics, whose 
shadows are thrown to the north in 
one part of the year and to the 
south in the other. 

Amphif roponj (Gr. dfupis, amphis, on 
both sides ; rptirw, trepu, I turn). 
In botany, applied to ovules or 


seeds which are attached by the 

Amphor'io (Lat. amphora^ a pitcher). 
Belonging to a pitcher ; in medi- 
dnty applied to a sound resembling 
that produced by speaking into an 
empty pitcher. 

Ample z'ioaol (Lat. amplexor^ I em- 
brace ; caulis, a stem). Embra- 
cing or surrounding a stem. 

Am'plitade (Lat. amplttSj large). Size, 

Ampulla (Lat. a pitcher). In hotany^ 
applied to a leaf in which the petiole 
is dilated and hollowed out in the 
shape of a hollow vessel, open at 
the upper end ; in anatomy, to the 
diluted part of the membranous 
semicircular canals in the ear. 

Ampntation (Lat. ampfUo, I cut or 
lop off). A cutting off a limb, or 
some part of the body. 

Amy'elotLs (Gr. d, a, not; fivtXos, 
mu^elos, maxrow). Without a spinal 

Amyg'daloid (Lat. amyg'dala, an al- 
mond ; Gt. €lSos,eido8f form). Like 
an almond : applied in geology to 
igneous rocks containing small al- 
mond-shaped cavities filled with 
some mineral of a different nature 
from the mass of the rock. 

Amyla'oeciLS (Lat. amylum, starch, 
from Gr. a, a, not ; fiv\rjy mule, a 
mill). Belonging to or containing 

Am'yloid (Lat. amylum, starch ; Gr. 
ct5o5, eidos, shape). Resembling 

Anach'roiiism (Gr. iu/a, ana, implying 
inversion ; xP^^^h chronos, time). 
An eri'or in stating dates. 

Anse'mia (Gr. &, a, not; aifxa, haima, 
blood). Want of blood. 

Axiae'mic (Gr. a, a, not; aifia, haima, 
blood). Bloodless ; having a very 
InsufGicient quantity of blood. 

A]l8esthe'sia(Gr. a, a, not ; ouadayofiai, 
aisthan'omai, I feel). Loss of feel- 
ing or sensation. 

Anaesthef ic (Gr. k, a, not : cdffdavofxai, 
aistha/n'orrt,ai,I{ee\). Producing loss 
of feeling or sensation. 

A'nal (Lat. anus, the excretory ori- 
fice). Belonging to or like the 

anus ; applied to certain fins in 
fishes, from their position. 

Analep'tlo (Gr. &va\cmfiayta, analam'' 
band, I take up or restore). Re- 
storing health and strength. 

Anallan'toid(Gr. a, a, jxoi;allan'tois), 
A term applied to the vertebrate 
animals, of which the foetus is not 
provided with an allantois, — in- 
cluding batrachians and fishes. 

Anal'ogoiu (Gr. ipo, ana, with ; 
\oyos, logos, ratio). Having a 
degree of similarity, but not iden- 
tical ; applied to parts which per- 
form a similar function, but are 
not identical in structure. 

An'alogue. That which bears a great 
resemblance to something else ; a 
part or organ in an animal which, 
though anatomically different, has 
the same function as another part 
or organ in a different animal. 

Anal'ogy (Gr. apa\oyia). An agree- 
ment in some characters, not in all. 

An'alyse (Gr. ova, an^, back ; \vw, 
lud, I loosen). To separate any- 
thing into the parts or elements of 
which it is composed. 

Anal'ysifl (Gr. dva, ana, back ; \va, 
lud, I loosen). Separation of any« 
thing into its component parts or 

Analytical (Analysis). Pertaining 
to or performed by analysis. 

Anamnes'tic (Gr. dva, ana, back ; 
fivaofiai, mna'omai, I remember). 
Calling to remembrance. 

An'apsest ((}r. aua, ana, back ; vaiof, 
paid, I strike). In versification, a 
foot consisting of three syllables, 
the first two short, the last long. 

Anasar'ca (Gr. dva, ana, through; 
<ro/>|, sarx, flesh). Dropsy of the 
parts lying beneath the skin. 

Axias'tomcse (iir. dpa, ana, through ; 
arofia, stoma, a mouth). To unite 
as if by open mouths, as blood- 

Anastomo'sis (Gr. dva, ana, through ; 
arofia, stoma, a mouth). A com- 
munication as if by mouths. 

Anafomy (Gr. dva, ana, apart ; 
T€fiv(a, temno, I cut). The science 
which teaches the structure cil «s^- 
mals and v^»B*a» wi\«KctkR^\si ^^- 



section. Vegetable ancUomyiedicheB 
the structure of plants ; human 
aruUomy^ that of. man ; compara- 
tive aruttomyt that of all animals, 
-«rith the object of comparing them 
vith each other ; microscopic ana- 
tomy tetiahefi the appearances of 
structures as seen under the micro- 
scope ; pathological anatomyf the 
changes in position and appearance 
produced by disease ; surgical ana- 
tomy describes regions of the body 
in reference to surgical operations. 

^Anaf roponfl (Gr. dva, ana, back ; 
Tpfvta, trepOf I turn). In botany, 
applied to a seed or ovule which is 
curved down and grown to the 
lower half. 

JLnchylo'sis (more properly Ancylosis ; 
Or. dyKvXecOf anku'leuj I bend). An 
immoveable state of a joint, from 
union of the surfaces which should 
move on each other. 

.Anoone'iu (Gr. ayKay, anJcon, the 
elbow). A name applied to a 
muscle situated over the elbow. 

.Anco'iioid (Gr. kyKav, anhdn, an 
elbow; ciSos, eidos, shape). Like 
an elbow. 

J&ndrog'ynoiLS (Gr. airup, anir, a man ; 
yvm}, gwrie, a female). Having 
two sexes : applied to plants of 
which some flowers have stamens 
only, and others pistils only, on the 
same plant. 

.Anelec'trode (Gr. ava, ana, up ; 
electricity; ^5os, hodos, a way). 
The positive pole of a galvanic 

Jbiella'ta (Lat. annellus, a little ring). 
See Annulata. 

-Anemog'raphy (Gr. dvefios, an'emos, 
wind ; ypa<pu, grapho, I write). A 
description of the winds. 

Anemorogy (Gr. dvefios, an'enios, 
wind ; \oyos, logos, discourse). The 
doctrine of winds. 

Jjiemom'eter (Gr. dvcfios, an'emos, 
wind ; fitrpoy, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
direction and force of wind. 

.Anem'oscope (Gr. duefios, an'cmos, 
wind ; aKovew, shopeo, I look). 
An instrument for showing the 
direction of the wind. 

Anenoephal'io (Gr. d, a, not; ^icc- 
^oKov, enJceph'alon, the contents of 
the skull). Without brain. 

Anen'teroiLS (Gr. &, a, not ; ivr^pav^ 
en'teron, an intestine). Without in* 

An'eroid (Gr. d, a, not ; &T7p, a>erf tax ; 
6(8o5, eidos, form). Witiiout air : 
applied to a peculiar kind of baro- 
meter, consisting of a small box 
from which air is exhausted. 

An'onrism (Gr. dva, ana, through ; 
tvpvva, euru'rio, I widen). A dis- 
eased state of an artery, in which 
it is widened at any part (generallj 
from injury) so as to form a pouch 
or bag. 

A2Leiiris'mal(il7zet(mm). Pertaining 
to an aneurism. 

Anfractuoelty {Anfractuous). A 
turning or winding ; in anaiomy, 
applied to the windings on the sur- 
face of the brain. 

Anfrac'tuoiLS (Lat. anfracftus, a wind- 
ing). Winding ; in botany, applied 
to the lobes of an anther which are 
folded back on themselves, and 
doubled and bent, as in the cu- 

Ang^en'chyina(Gr. &yy€ioy, angei'on^ 
a vessel ; iyxvfia, en'chuma, any 
thing poured in). The vascular 
tissue of plants. 

Angi'na (Gr. dyxa, anchd, I strangle). 
Quinsey ; a choking. 

Angiocar'poTis (Gr. dyy^iov, angei^on, 
a vessel ; Kopwos, karpos, a fruit). 
In botany, applied to seed-vessels 
inclosed in a case which does not form 
part of themselves, as the filbert. 

Angiol'ogy (Gr. dyyftou, angei'on, a 
vessel ; \oyos, logos, discourse). A 
description of blood-vessels. 

Angiomonosper'moiu (Gr. dyytiov, 
angei'on, a vessel ; tiovos, monos, 
single ; ffvepfut, sperma, a seed). 
Having one seed only in a pod. 

AngioBper'moTis (QT.dyyetov, angeHovif 
a vessel ; airfpfia, sperma^ a seed). 
Applied to plants the seeds of which 
are enclosed in a vessel. 

Angle of contact. The angle which a 
circle, or other curve, makes with 
a tangent at the point of contact. 

Angle of depression. The angle at 



which a straight line drawn from 
the eye to any object dips below 
the horizon. 

Angle of direction. In mechanics, 
the angle contained by the lines of 
direction of two forces tending to 
the same point. 

Angle of elevation. In trigonometry, 
the angle formed by two straight 
lines drawn in the same - vertical 
plane from the observer's eye, one 
to the top of the object, the other 
parallel to the horizon. 

Angle of incidence. The angle which 
a body, or a ray of light, forms at 
the surface on which it falls with 
a perpendicular to that surface. 

Angle of inclination. The mutual 
approach of two bodies, so as to 
make an angle where their lines of 
direction meet. 

Angle of polarization. In optics, the 
angle of incidence of a reflecting 
surface which, added to the cor- 
responding angle of refraction, sup- 
posing the ray to enter the medium, 
would make up a right angle, or 
90 degrees. 

Angle of position. In astronomy, the 
angle contained by two great circles 
passing through the earth, one per- 
pendicular to the plane of the 
ecliptic, the other to that of the 

Angle of reflection. The angle which 
a body or a ray of light rebounding 
from a surface makes with a per- 
pendicular to that surface. 

Angle of refraction. In optics, the 
angle which a ray of light passing 
from one medium to another makes 
with a perpendicular drawn through 
the line of incidence. 

Angle, solid. An angle made by 
more than two plane angles meeting 
in a point, and not lying in the 
same plane. 

Angle, spherical. An angle on the 
surface of a sphere, contained within 
the arcs of two intersecting cir- 

Angle, visual. In optics, the angle 
formed in the centre of the eye by 
lines drawn from the extremities of 
an object. 

An'gnlar (Lat. an'guLus, a comer). 
Having or relating to angles. 

An'gnlate (Lat. an'gvlus, an angle). 
Having an angular shape. 

AnhelatUtn (Lat. ankelo, I breathe 
short). Short breathing; x^^^^* 

Anhy'drons (Gr. ii, a, not; 6hap, 
hudor, water). Free from water; 
without water of crystallization. 

Animal (Lat. anima, life, breath). A 
body having life, sensation, and vo- 
luntary motion. 

AnimaVoule (Lat. animal, an animal; 
ide, signifying smallness). An ani- 
mal of very small size. 

Animal heat. The warmth which 
animals possess in themselves. 

Animalisa tion (Lat. animal, an ani- 
mal). The art of imparting the 
properties belonging to an animaJ, 
or to animal structures ; a peopling 
with animals. 

Anion (Gr. dva, up ; luv, ion, going). 
That substance which passes to tiie 
anode in electrolysis. 

Anneal (Saxon on, on ; celan, to 
bum). To heat glass, &c., for 
the purpose of rendering it less 

Annual (Lat. anmis, a year). Oc- 
curring every year. 

An'nelids (Lat. annel'lus, a little ring ; 
Gr. tiSos, eidos, form). A class of 
invertebrate animals, so called be- 
cause apparently composed of rings, . 
including earth-worms and leeches. 

An'nolar (Lat. anrmlus, a ring). 
Shaped like a ring. 

Annul a^ta (Lat. annvXtis, a ring). 
Having rings : applied to a division 
of the animal kingdom, including 
invertebrates having the body ar- 
ranged in rings. 

An'ode (Gr. iya, ana, up ; d^os, JiocPos, 
a way). The way by which elec- 
tricity enters substances. 

An'odyne (Gr. d, a, not ; oBwn^, odt^ne, 
pain). Believing pain. 

Anom'alons {Or. &, a, not ; 6fM\os, 
hom'alos, level, or equal). De- 
parting from a general rule ; 

Anom'aly (Or. a, a, not ; 6fw\oSf 
hom'aios, level or equal). Irregu- 



larity ; deTiation from an ordinary 
law or type ; in attr&nomy, the 
angle formed by a line drawn from 
the sun to the place of a planet, 
with the greater axis of the planet's 

Anomodon'tia (Gr. avonos, an'omos, 
irregular ; oBovSj odous, a tooth). 
An extinct order of reptiles, with 
teeth wanting, or in various irregular 

Anomou'ra (Ghr. ityofwSf an'omoSy irre- 
gular ; ovpOj ourtty a tail). A 
section of decapodous or ten-footed 
crustaceans, having tails of interme- 
diate length between the long- tailed 
and short-tailed, as the hermit crab. 

Anoplothe'rium (Gr. d, a, not ; drXoy, 
h&plon, a weapon ; Oi\piovy therionf 
a beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
animal, having no evident organs 
of defence. 

Anopln'res (Gr. d, a, not ; ^Xov, 
koploTij a weapon ; ovpa, ouroy a 
tail). An order of wingless and 
stlngless insects, living as parasites 
on other animals. 

Anorexia (Or. d, a, not; opt^is, 
orexis, desire). Loss of appetite 
for food. 

Anor'mal (Lat. a from ; normal a 
rule). See Abnormal. 

Anou'rons (Gr. c2, a, not ; ohpoy ouray 
a tail). Without a tail. 

An'serine (Lat. anser, a goose). Be- 
longing to or resembling a goose. 

Antac'id (Gr. &vt(, avUi, against ; 
add). Opposed to acids ; counter- 
acting their effects. 

Antee. In architecture^ the pier- 
formed ends of the side-walls of 
temples, when, they are prolonged 
beyond the face of the walls ; pilas- 
ters standing opposite a column. 

Antag'onism (Gr. kvriy anti, against ; 
ayavi(oixai, agoni'zomaiy I contend). 
Active opposition. 

Antag'onistio (Gr. dvrty antiy against ; 
dryaviCofjiaiy agoni'zomaiy I contend). 
In direct or active opposition to. 

Antaro'tio (Gr. dyriy anti, against or 
opposite ; dpicrosy arhtoSy the north 
pole). Relating to the south pole. 

Ante. A Latin preposition used in 
composition, signifying before. 


Anteoe'dent (Lat. antCt before ; eedoj 
I go). Going before. 

Ante^cian (Gr. &m, anfo*, opposite ; 
ohctVy oikedy I dwell). In geo^ 
graphyy applied to the inhabitants 
of the earth, under the same meri- 
dian of longitude, but at equal dis- 
tances on opposite sides of the 

Antefiz'ae (Lat. antCy before ; jingo, 
I fix). In architectwrcy upright 
ornamental blocks placed at inter- 
vals on the cornice along the sides 
of a roof ; also heads of animals 
as water-spouts below the eaves of 

Anteflex'ion (Lat. antCy before ; jUcto, 
I bend). A bending forwards. 

Antemu'ral (Lat. antey before; mivrusy 
a wall). In architecture, the out- 
ward wall of a castle. 

Anten'nae (Lat. an^na, a sail-yard). 
Filaments, apparently organs of 
touch, projecting from the heads of 
insects and Crustacea. 

Antepenolf (Lat. antCj before ; penCf 
almost ; uttimusy last). The last 
syllable but two. 

Antever'sion (Lat. ante, before ; verto, 
I turn). A turning forwai-ds. 

Anthe'lion (Gr. cun-ty antiy opposite; 
rfXtos, helios, the sun). A mock-sun. 

Anth'eliz (Gr. dvriy antiy opposite; 
eA.(|, helixy a spiral). A part of 
the external human ear, before or 
rather within the helix. 

Anthelmin'tic (Gr. dtn-iy antiy against ; 
^KfitySf helmvnSy a worm). Ca- 
pable of destroying or removing the 
worms which inhabit the animal 

Anther (Gr. dvBoSy anthosy a flower). 
The top of the stamen, or male part 
of a flower, containing the pollen 
or fertilising dust. 

Antheridlmn (Anther), A structure 
in some flowerless plants, supposed 
to be the analogue of an anther. 

Anthocar'pons (Gr. auBosy anthoSy a 
flower ; Kapvosy karpoSy a fruit). 
In botany, a term applied to fruits 
which are formed of masses of in« 
florescence in a state of cohesion, 
as the fir-cone and pineapple. 

Anthooy'anine (Gr. kvOosy antho8, a 



flower ; kvovos, Jsu'ano's, blue). 
Blae colouring matter of plants. 

Anth'olites (Gr. dvOos, anthoSf a 
flower ; Kidos, lithos^ a stone). The 
fossil impressions of flowers. 

Anthol'ogy (Gr. &p0ost antkos, a 
flower ; X070S, logoSy discourse). A 
description of flowers. 

AnthoxazL'thine (Gr. &v0o5, avUTios, a 
flower ; ^ayOos^ xanthoSy yellow). 
Yellow colouring matter of plants. 

Anthozo'a (Gr. &v0os, anthosy a flower ; 
(uoVf zoon, an animal). Animal 
flowers ; the class of polypes in- 
cluding the actinia and allied 
species, which resemble flowers. 

Anth'raoite (Gr. dvdpa^y anthraxy a 
coal). A peculiar shining kind of coal. 

Antluracotike'riiim (Gr. hvepa^y an- 
tkraXy coal ; OriptoVf th^Hon, a 
beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
animal found in the coal-formation. 

Anthro'poid (Gr. hfBpa-Kosy arUhropos, 
a man, i.e. human being; c2$os, 
eidoSf form). Besembling man. 

Anthropol'ogy (Gr. iofOpunrost ^'f*'" 
thropos, a man ; \oyos, logosy dis- 
course). A description of the human 
body or of the human species. 

Anthropomor'phoiu (Gr. hydpanrof, 
anthropoSy a man ; fMp^y morpke, 
form). Resembling man. 

Anthropoph'agoas (Gr. Mpcovosy 
anthropoSy a man ; ^payof, phago, 
I eat). Eating men ; cannibal. 

Anthropos'ophy (Gr. huOpayiroSy an- 
thropoSy a man ; ao<piay soph'ioy 
wisdom). The knowledge of the 
nature of mau. 

Anti (Gr. &rrf, anti), A Ghreek pre- 
position used in composition, signi- 
fying against. 

Antiarthrif ic (Gr. ianiy antiy against; 
apBpiTiSy arthritis, gout). Curing 

Antiasthmatic (Gr. iLvriy antiy 
against ; asthma). Curing or pre- 
venting asthma. 

Antibra'chial (Lat. antibra'chivmy the 
forearm). Belonging to the fore- 

•Antilira'chiimi (Lat.). The forearm, 
from the elbow to the wrist. 

Antloli'nal (Gr. &vti, anti, against ; 
K\iy(o, hlind, l\)end), Jnclkdngin 

opposite directions, like the ridge of 
a house. 

An'tidote (Or. ian-i, anti, against ; 
SiBwfiiy didomiy I give). A remedy 
to counteract poisons or anything 

Antife'brile (Gr. ivrt, antiy against ; 
Lat. febris, fever). Removing 

Antilithlc (Gr. iwrt, anti, against ; 
\i0oiy lUhoa, a stone). Prevent- 
ing the formation of calculi. 

Antip'athy (Gr. dvriy anti, against ; 
vadosy pathoSy sufiering or passion). 
A strong dislike or repugnance. 

Antiperiodlo (Gr. dm-iy antiy against; 
periodic). Preventing or curing 
diseases which recur at regular 
periods, as ague. 

Antiperistal'tic (Gr. dvriy anti, 
against; vcpiy peri, around; areWw, 
stdlo, I send). A term applied to 
an unnatural or reversed action of 
the alimentary canal. 

Antiphlogis'tio (Gr. dvri, anti, 
against; <p\o^y phlox, flame). 
Diminishing inflammation. 

Antip'odes (Gr. &vti, anti, against; 
vous, pouSy a foot). The inhab- 
itants of the. opposite side of the 
globe, whose feet are, as it were, 
applied against ours. 

Antis'cians (Gr. dpTt, anti, against ; 
iTKta, sJda, a shadow). The in- 
habitants of the earth on different 
sides of the equator, whose shadows 
at noon are cast in contrary direc- 

Antiscorbu'tic (Gr. dvriy anti, against; 
Lat. scorbfittbs, scurvy). Prevent- 
ing or curing scurvy. 

Antisep'tic (Gr. dyri, antiy against ; 
ariTrcoy sepoy I make putrid). Pre- 
venting putrefaction. 

Antispasmod'ic (Gr. dvriy anti, against; 
Tirawy apao, I draw). Preventing 
spasms or convulsions. 

Antith'esis (Gr. dvriy antiy against ; 
ridrifn, tithemiy I place). Opposi- 
tion or contrast, especially of words 
or ideas. 

Antif ragos (Gr. &vti, antiy opposite ; 
tragus). A projecting part of the 
outer ear opposite the tragus. 

Antif ropons (Gr. dvr^ a-nXs «^^^'»^^> 



TptirUf trepo, I turn). In botany, 
applied to the position of the embryo 
in a seed in which the nucleus is 
erect, the embryo being consequently 

Antlia (Gr. dvrKia, arU'liaf a baling- 
out). The spiral apparatus by which 
butterflies and other insects pump 
up the juices of plants. 

Ant'orUtal (Lat. cmte, before ; orbit). 
In front of the orbits. 

A'orist (Gr. &, a, not ; 6pi(<0f Jwri'zo, 1 
limit or define). In grammar, a 
tense which expresses past action 
without reference to duration or time. 

Antrum (Lat. a cave). In anaiomy, 
a term used to designate certain 
cavities of the body. 

Aor'ta (Gr. dftpa, aei'rd, I take up or 
carry). The great vessel which, 
arising from the left ventricle of 
the heart, carries the blood to all 
parts of the body. 

Aor'tLc (Gr. aopTji, aorte, the aorta). 
Belonging to the aorta. 

Aorti'tis (Lat. aorta ; ith, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the aorta. 

Ape'rient (Lat. aperio, I open). Open- 
ing; laxative. 

Ap'ertore (Lat. aperio, 1 open). An 
opening; in geometry, the space 
between two straight lines forming 
an angle ; in optics, the hole next 
the object-glass of a telescope or 
microscope through which the light 
enters the instrument. 

Apet'alouB (Gr. d, a, not; verdKov, 
pet'aUm, a flower-leaf or petal). 
Having no distinction of sepals and 

Apex (Lat.). The top or highest 
point of anything. 

AphsB'resis (Gr. avo, apo, from ; 
aJipeu), haired, I take). In gram- 
mar, the taking a letter or syllable 
from the beginning of a word. 

Aphanip'tera (Gr. d, a, not; fpaiva, 
phaino, I show ; itrepov, pteron, a 
wiug). An order of insects with 
rudimentary wings only, as the flea. 

Aphe'lion (Gr. aTro, apo, from ; 7i\ios, 
helios, the sun). The point in the 
orbit of a planet which is most dis- 
tant from the sun. 

Aphlog^'tio (Gr. d, a, not ; ^KoyiC^f 
phlogizo, 1 set on fire). Flameless ; 
burning without flame. 

Apho'nia (Gh:. d, a, not ; <p<apri, phoney 
voice). Loss of voice. 

Aph'orism (Gr. dvo, apo, &om ; dpi(M, 
hori'zd, I limit). A principle or 
precept expressed in a few words. 

AphthflB (Or. airreD, hapto, I fasten 
upon). Small white ulcers on the 
inside of the mouth. 

Aphyllous (Gr. d, a, not; ^vAAoy, 
phuUon, a leaf). Leafless. 

Ap'ical (Lat. apex, a top). Belonging 
to the top of a conical body. 

Aplanaf io (Gr. d, a, not ; v\avaofjuu^ 
plaita'omai, I wander). Opposed 
to wandering ; applied to lenses or 
combinations of lenses which cor- 
rect the effects of spherical aberra- 
tion of light. 

Aplas'tio (Gr. d, a, not; vXoffvu, 
plasso, I form). Incapable of being 
moulded or organised. 

Apnoe'a (Gr. d, a, nut ; irvco^, pneo, I 
breathe). Loss of breath ; suffocation. 

Ap'o (Gr. eiiro, apo). A Greek pre- 
X>osition in compound words, signi- 
fying from. 

ApooaPpoos (Gr. drro, apo, from; 
Kapiros, Jcarpos, fruit). Applied ta 
flowers and fruits in which the carpels- 
are separate or only partially united. 

Ap'odal (Gr. d, a, not ; irovs, poiM, a 
foot). Without feet. Apodal fishca 
have no ventral fins, which are th& 
anologues of feet. 

Ap'ogee (Gr. dvo, apo, from ; yn, ge, 
the earth). The point in the orbit 
of a planet which is most distant 
from the earth or the moon. 

Aponeuro'sis (Gr. diro, apo, from; 
vevpoy, neuron, a string or tendon). 
The membranous spreading out of 
a tendon. 

Apoph'ysis (Gr. dvo, apo, from ; ^vco, 
phtw, 1 grow). A prominent eleva- 
tion from the surface of a bone. 

Apoplec'tLo (Gr. oVo, ajjo, from ; 
vkTjaao), plesso, I strike). Rela- 
ting to apoplexy. 

Ap'oplezy (Gr. diro, apo, from; 
'jr\ri(T(rco, plesao, I strike). A dis- 
ease in which consciousness of the 
power of voluntary motion is 



abolished, from injury Within the 

Appara'tus (Lat. ad^ to ; paro, I 
make). An instrument or organ 
for the performance of any operation 
or function. 

Ap'plioate (Lat. ad, to ; pUco, I fold). 
In geometi^f a straight line drawn 
across a curve so as to be bisected 
by the diameter. 

Ap'sides (Gr. aTrrw, Jiapto, I touch). 
The points in the path of the moon 
or a planet when it is respectively 
nearest to and most distant from 
the earth. 

Ap'terous (Gr. d, a, not ; impov, 
pteron, a wing). Without wings. 

Ap'tote (Gr. d, a, not ; Trraxris, ptosis^ 
case). In grammar, applied to 
nouns which have no distinction of 

Apyref io (Gr. i, a, not ; irupecrcrw, 
puresso, I have a fever). Without 

Apyrez'ia (Gr. d, a, not ; vvp€a<ra, 
puressdf I have a fever). Freedom 
from fever. 

Aq^ua fortis (Lat. strong water). A 
name for nitric acid. 

Aq^ua regia (Lat. royal water). A 
mixture of nitric and hydrochloric 
acids, used to dissolve gold. 

Aqua vitsB (Lat. water of life). A 
name for strong spirits. 

Aquafio (Lat. aqtta, water). Belong- 
ing to, or living or growing in water. 

A'qneous (Lat. aqua, water). Wateiy ; 
consisting of or having the proper- 
ties of water ; made with water. 

Ar'able (Lat. aro, I plough). Capable 
of being cultivated by the plough. 

Aracli'nida (Gr. ^ax^n, arachne, a 
spider). A class of invertebrate 
animals, including spiders, scor- 
pions, and mites. 

Araclmi'tis (Arachnoid; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the arachnoid membrane of the 

Arach'noid (Gr. dpaxvn, arachne, a 
spider or spider's web ; €t5os, 
eidox, form). A thin membrane 
covering the brain. 

Ara'neifbmi (Lat. ara'neus, a spider ; 
/ormo, shape). Besembling a spider. 

Arbor (Lat. a tree). In meckanics, 
the part of a machine which sus- 
tains the rest ; an axis or spindle. 

Arbor vitsB (Lat. tree of life). In 
anatomy, a tree-like appearance of 
the brain>substance, seen when the 
cerebellum is cut transversely. 

Arbores'oent (Lat. arbor, a tree). Re- 
sembling a tree ; becoming woody. 

Aro (Lat. arena, a bow). A part of 
the circumference of a circle or of 
a curved line. 

Arca'xmm (Lat. area, a chest). A 

Aroli (Gr. dpxnt arche, the beginning 
or head). A prefix denoting emi- 

ArohsBol'ogy (Gr. dpxcuos, archaios, 
ancient ; \oyos, logos, discourse). 
The science which describes an> 

Ar'ohaism (Gr. dpxcuos, archaios, 
ancient). An ancient or disused 
word or expression. 

Archencepli'ala (Gr. apxos, archos, 
chief; iyK€<f>a\o5, enkeph'alos, the 
brain). Chief-brained : a term 
proposed by Professor Owen to de- 
note the highest sub-class of the 
mammalia, comprising only man, 
from the superior development of 
his brain. 

Ar'chetype (Gr. apxVt arche, a begin- 
ning ; ruTTos, tupos, a type). An 
original pattern or model. 

Arohune'des' screw. An instrument 
formed of a tube woimd round a 
cylinder in the form of a screw, 
and used either for raising fluids 
or for propelling through water. 

Archlteotare (Gr. apxos, archos, 
chief; rcKrwy, tekton, a builder). 
The science of constructing houses, 
bridges, and other buildings, 
according to rule. 

Aroh'itrave (Gr. dpxos, archos, chief ; 
Lat. trabs, a beam). The lowest 
part of an entablature, being the 
chief beam resting immediately on 
the column. 

Ar^oiform (Lat. arcus, a bow ; forma, 
shape). Like an arch. 

Arctio (Gr. iLpxros, aihtos, a bear, or 
the north pole). Relating to th.^ 
north pole. 



Arsenate (Lat. arcuSf a bow). Shaped 
like a bow. 

A'rea (Lat. an open space). A plain 
surface ; in' geometryy the super- 
ficial contents of any figure. 

Arena'oeonB (Lat. are/M, sand). 

Are'nicole (Lat. arenas sand ; colOf I 
inhabit). An animal which inhabits 

Are'ola (Lat. areOf an open space). 
A small surface or space. 

Are'olar (Areola), Containing little 
spaces ; applied to the connect- 
ing tissue of the body, which 
forms a number of little spaces or 

Areom'eter (Gr. dpcuos, araiost thin ; 
fierpop, metroUf a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the spe- 
cific gravity of liquids. 

AxgeaiixPetOTUi(La.t.argen'tumf silver; 
fero, I produce). Producing or con- 
taining silver. 

Argil (Gr. dpyost argosj white). Gen- 
erally clay ; technically, pure clay 
or alumina. 

Arg^a'ceOTU (Lat. argiXla, white 
clay). Consisting of argil or clay, 
especially pure clay. 

Aril. In botany, the expansion of 
the funiculus or placenta round the 
seed, as the mace of a nutmeg. 

Aris'ta (Lat.). In botany, the beard 
of com and other grasses. 

Arithmetioal mean. The middle 
term of three numbers in arithme- 
tical progression. 

Arithmetioal progfreseion. A series 
of quantities increasing or decreas- 
ing by the addition or subtraction of 
the same number. 

Arithmetioal ratio. The difference 
between any two terms in arithme- 
tical progression. 

Ai'matare (Lat. armM,, arms). A sup- 
ply of weapons ; applied, in physics, 
to two pieces of soft iron fastened 
to the poles of a magnet, and con- 
nected at their ends by a third piece, 
so as to increase its power. 

Armil'lary (Lat. a/rmilla, a bracelet). 
Like a bracelet ; generally applied 
to an artificial sphere composed of 
a number of circles of the mun- 

dane sphere, placed in natural 

Arrag'onite. A mineral consisting of 
carbonate of lime, with some car- 
bonate of strontia. 

Arrhi'ioiu (Gr. a, a, not ; PiCa, rhiza^ 
a root). Without roots. 

Arse'niate (Arsenic). A salt of arsenic 
acid with a base. 

AnexLlc. In chemistry, applied to 
an acid containing an equivalent 
of metallic arsenic and five of oxy- 

ArBe'niolU (Ar'senic). In chemistry, 
applied to an acid containing an 
equivalent of metallic arsenic and 
three of oxygen ; the common 
arsenic of the shops. 

Ar'senite (Arsenic). A salt formed of 
arsenious acid with a base. 

Arte'rial (Artery). Belonging to 
an artery or to arteries. 

Arteri'tis (Lat. arteria, an artery ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of arteries. 

Ar'tery (Gr. &rip, aer, air; mpHOf 
tereo, I keep ; because originally 
supposed to contain air). A vessel 
or tube which conveys blood in a 
direction from the heart to all parts 
of the body. 

Arte'sian (Lat. Artois, a province of 
France). Artesian wells, supposed 
to have been first made in Artois, 
are perpendicular borings to a con- 
siderable depth in the earth for 
procuring water. 

Arthrific (Arth-itis), Relating to 
inflammation of the joints, or gout. 

Arthri'tis (Gr. dpdpov, arthron, a 
joint ; term, itis, inflammation). 
Any inflammation of the joints; 
but specially applied to gout. 

Arthro'dia (Gr. dpdpoa>, arthroo, I fit 
by joints). A joint in which the 
head of one bone is received into 
the socket of another ; a ball-and- 
socket joint. 

Arthrodyn'ia (Gr. apOpov, arthron, a 
joint ; o^vvn, odu'ne, pain). Pain 
in the joints. 

Arthropdd'aria (Gr. dpdpov, arthron, 
a joint ; vovs, pous^ a foot). A 
term applied to those invertebrate 
animals which have jointed limbs. 



including insects, mynapods, arach- 
nides, and Crustacea. 

Artlo'iilar (Lat. artididui, a joint). 
Belonging to joints. 

Artionla'ta (Lat. a/rti4:^uiu8, a joint). 
A division of the animal kingdom, 
including the invertebrates with 
jointed bodies. 

Artio'iilate (Lat. artidvlusy a joint). 
To join together ; jointed or having 

AxtioTila'tioxi(Lat. ar^tVtt^, a joint). 
A connection by joint ; also speech, 
because composed of sounds joined 

Artiodao'tyle (Gr. dpriosj ar^tioSf even, 
iaicrvXjoSf dakfttUos, a finger). Hav- 
ing an even number of toes. 

Aryte'noid (Gr. dpvraivOf artUai'nOy a 
pitcher; ct8os, eidos, shape). 
Shaped like a pitcher ; applied to 
two small cartilages at ike top of 
the larynx. 

Aflbes'tos (Gr. (2, a, not ; (rfieywfii, 
sbennumif I extinguish). A fibrous 
variety of hornblende, capable of 
resisting heat. 

Aa'caris (Gr. da-KoptCuf asTcarizoy I 
leap). A small intestinal worm. 

Ascen'sioii (Lat. cucen'dOf I rise). A 
rising ; in cutrorwmyy right ascen- 
si(m denotes the distance of a 
heavenly body from the point of the 
spring equinox, measured on the 
celestial equator. 

A'seian (Gr. d, ct, not ; (tkio, akia^ a 
shadow). Having no shadow at 
noon : applied to the inhabitants of 
the torrid zone, who, at certain 
times, have no shadow at noon. 

Aflcid'iaxL (Gr. wTKosy asJsoSf a leather 
bottle; ct$o5, eidoa, form). Acepha- 
lous or headless moUusca, shaped 
like a leather bottle. 

Aseidlum (Gr. dtrnos, asJsoSf a leather 
bottle). In botany f a form of leaf 
in which the stalk is hollowed out 
and closed by the blade as a lid. 

Afld'tes (Gr. da-KoSf cukos, a leather 
bag). A collection of fluid in the 

Asez'nal (Gr. &, a, not ; Lat. sexua, 
Bex). Without distinct sexes. 

Alhlar. In architectwre^ the facing of 
square stones on the front of a 

building; freestones roughly squared 
in the quarry. 

Asper'it7(Lat. aaper, rough). Eough- 

Asper'mons (Gr. (2, a, not ; ffvcpfjutf 
gperma, seed). Without seed. 

Asphyz'ia (Gr. (2, a, not ; <r^v^<v, 
sphtuso, I beat, as the pulse). 
Originally, failure of the pulse ; 
but now applied to the symptoms 
of sujSbcation produced by an ac- 
cumulation of carbonic acid in the 

Assay (Fr. essayer, to try). To try 
the quality of metals. 

Assimila'tion (Lat. ad, to ; sim'Uis, 
like). The process by which a sub- 
stance or thing is rendered similar 
in form and property to that with 
which it comes into contact. 

As'sonance (Lat. ad, to ; aort/iu, 
sound). Besemblance in sound or 
termination without making rhyme. 

Astatic (Gr. &, a, not ; itrrrifu, hiS' 
te'mif I fix or make to stand). Not 
moving; applied to a magnetic 
needle which is not affected by the 
magnetism of the earth. 

Asteracan'thus (Gr. darrip, aster, a 
star ; dKovQa, aJcan'tha, a thorn). 
A genus of fossil fin-spines of fishes, 
having star-like tubercles on their 

As'teroid (Gr. darrip, cater, a star ; 
6t8os, eidos, form or likeness). A 
name applied to the small planets 
of the group which revolves be- 
tween Mars and Jupiter ; also to 
star-like echinoderms. 

Asterophyriites (Gr. dffTtip, aster, a 
star ; ^Wov, phullon, a leaf). In 
geology, the fossil remains of some 
plants found in the coal-measure, 
lias, and oolite, having leaves ar- 
ranged in star* like whorls. 

Asthen'ia (Gr. ^ a, not; (rO^yos, 
gthenfos, strength). Want of 

Asthen'io (Gr. d, a, not; <r0fvos, 
sthen'os, strength). Cluuracterised 
by want of strength. 

Astheno'pia (Gr. d, a, not; (retvos, 
sthen'os, strength ; ^, ops, the 
eye). Weakness of vision. 

Asthma (Gr. «»^ ow^WX'yw^. K^cSv- 




cnlty of breathing, oocarringinpar- 
ozyBxnSjWith intenralB of freedom. 

Aflthmaf ic (Gr. curBfiOj cuthma). Be- 
longing to, or having asthma. 

As'tomons (Gr. d, a, not ; arofio, 
stomOt & mouth). Without a mouth. 

Aftrag'alnB (Gr. aa-rpayaXos, cutra'- 
gcUoSf an ankle-bone). The bone 
of the foot which forms part of the 

As'tral (Gr. iurrpoy, astron, a star). 
Belonging to stars. 

AJBtric'tion (Lat. ad^ to ; stringo^ I 
bind). The act of binding. 

ABtrin'gent (Lat. ady to ; stringo^ I 
tie fast). Binding or contracting. 

Afl'trolabe (Gr. iurrpoUf astron^ a star ; 
KafiiWy Idbeiriy to take). An in- 
strument formerly used for taking 
the altitude of the sun or stars. 

Astrol'ogy (Gr. harpov^ astron, a star; 
A070S, logoSf a word or description). 
The science which pretends to teach 
the effects and influence of the 

Afltrom'eter (Gr. dorpoi/, cutrorif a 
star ; ficrpoVf metrony a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
relative brightness of stars. 

Astronomical (Gr. htrrpovy astron, a 
star ; pofxos, nomosy a law). Be- 
longing to astronomy. 

Astron'omy (Gr. darpovy aatrony a 
star ; vofiosy noTnoSy a law). The 
science which describes the magni- 
tude, position, motion, &c., of the 
heavenly bodies, as taught by ob- 
servation and mathematical calcu- 

Asymmef rical (Gr. d, a, not ; (rvv, 
sv/rif with ; yxrpovy metrony a mea- 
sure). Not consisting of similar 
parts on each side. 

Ai^rxn'ptote (Gr. &, a, not ; (rvvy swoy 
with ; iTTOftj, 'ptody I fall). A line 
approaching a curve, but never 
meeting it. 

Atax'ic (Gr. d, a, not ; Toxt^iay tassoy 
I put in order). Wanting order ; 

Ate (Lat. term. <Uus). In chemistryy 
a termination applied to compounds 
of which the acid contains the 
largest quantity of oxygen. 

Atelec'tasis (Gr. a, a, not ; tc\os, 

telosy an end ; itertipw, eJeteUnd, I 
stretch out). Imperfect expansion. 

Athorio'era (Gr. dOripy aiker, a spike 
of com ; Kipasy heras, a horn.) A 
section of dipterous insects, having 
only two or three joints to the an- 

Ather'mancy (Gr. a, a, not ; dtpfjuuvw, 
thermaindy I make warm). The 
property of transmitting the light 
but not the heat of the sun. 

Ather'manonB (Gr. d^aynot; 0fpfAauw, 
thermainoy I make warm). Inca- 
pable of transmitting heat. 

Atiiero'ma {Qcr. dBapOy cUkara, or 
dOrjprfy cUkerey a porridge of meal). 
A diseased state of blood-vessels 
and other structures of the body, 
characterised by a soft pulpy de- 

Atlas (Gr. 'ArXaSy AtlaSy a mytholo- 
gical personage, who was said to 
carry the world on his shoulders). 
The first vertebra of the neck ; so 
called because the head rests on 

Atmom'eter (Gr. arftos, cUmos, va- 
pour ; ficrpoVy metrony a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation from a moist 
surface in a given time. 

Atmosphere (Gr. drfxosy cUmoSy va- 
pour ; ffitKupOy gphairOy a baJI or 
globe). The mass of air surround- 
ing the earth ; also applied to any 
gas surrounding an animal or other 

Atmospheric Pressnre. The weight 
of the atmosphere on a surface ; tiie 
mean being 14*7 pounds to the 
square inch. 

Afell. A coral island, consisting of 
a circular belt or ring of coral, with 
a lagoon or lake in the centre. 

Atom (Gr. ci, a, not ; rejuvw, temr^y 
I cut). A particle of matter which 
can no longer be diminished in size. 

Atomic (Gr. &,Tofu)s, at'omoSy an 
atom). Relating to atoms. 

Atomic Theory. An hypothesis in 
chemistry, which teaches that the 
atoms of elementary substances 
become combined in certain definite 
I Atonlo (Gr. &, a, not; reiyWf ieinOf 



I stretcli or tighten). Weakened ; 
characterised by want of energy. 

At'ony (Gr. &, a, not ; reivcOf teinOf 
I stretch or tighten). Want of 

At'rophy (Gr. d, a, not ; rpc^, ire- 
phdt I nourish). Want of nourish- 
ment ; a wasting. 

At'ropons (Gr. &, o, not; rpeva, 
trepof I turn). Not turned ; in 
hotany^ applied to that form of the 
OYuIe or seed, in which its parts 
have undergone no change of posi- 
tion during growth. 

Atten^iiant(Lat. ad, to; ten'uiSf thin). 
Making thin ; diluting. 

Atten'nate (Lat. ad, to ; ten'uis, thin). 
To make thin. 

Attollent (Lat. ad, to ; tollOf I raise). 
Lifting up. 

Attrac'tioxi (Lat. ad, to; traho, I 
draw). A drawing towards ; the ten- 
dency of bodies to unite or cohere. 

At'trahent (Lat. ad, to ; traho, I 
draw), rirawing towards. 

Attrition (Lat. ad, to ; tero, I rub). 
The act of wearing by rubbing 

Auditory (Lat. au'dio, I hear). Be- 
longing to the sense or organ of 

Aiig'ite(Gr. i.vyyi, auge, bright light). 
A mineral, closely allied to horn- 
blende, entering into the composition 
of many trap and volcanic rocks. 

Au'ricle (Lat. awndula, a little ear). 
The external part of the ear ; also 
apart on each sideof the heart, from 
resembling the ears of animals. 

Aurif/nlar (Lat. auriduUby alittleear). 
Belonging to an auricle. 

Auric'iilate (Lat. auric'ida). Shaped 
like a little ear ; in botany, applied 
to leaves which have the lobes at 
the base forming distinct segments 
like little ears. 

Aixric'iilo-vexitric'nlar. Belonging to, 
or lying between the auricles and 
ventricles of the heart. 

Aiurif 'erons (Lat avrntm, gold ; fero, I 
produce). Yielding or producing gold. 

An'rifomi (Lat. auris, an ear -, forma, 
form). Shaped like an ear. 

Aiisealta'tion (Lat. ausculto,l\\s\j&si). 
The act of listening : applied, in 

medicine, to a means of distinguish- 
ing the condition of internal parts 
by listening to the sounds which 
are produced in them. 

Austral (Lat. avuAer, the south wind). 
Belonging to the south : applied to 
that pole of the magnet which points 
to the south. 

Antooh'thon (Gr. odros, autos, self; 
X^«v, chthon, the earth). Origin- 
ating from the earth of the country ; 

Antog'enoiu (Gr. avros, atUos, self ; 
ytvyoM, genndo, I produce). Self- 
produced : applied to those parts 
of a vertebra which are developed 
from independent centres of ossifi- 

An'tograph (Gr. avros, autos, him- 
self ; ypaupa, graphJo, I write). The 
actual signature of an individual. 

Autographic Telegraph. An electric 
tel^raph for transmitting messages 
in the handwriting of the person 
sending them. 

Automatic (Gr. ahros, autos, self; 
fjMoo, mcMy I move). Having me- 
chanical movement, as anautomaton: 
applied, in physiology, to muscular 
movements produced independently 
of the will ; self-moving. 

Autom'aton (Gr. aanos, autos, self; 
tuiM, mad, I move). A machine 
which, by means of mechanical 
contrivances, imitates the motion 
of living animals. 

Au'topsy (Gr. ahros, autos, self: h^is, 
opsis, sight). Direct or personal 
observation; applied especially to 
an examination of the body after 

Auzil'iary (Lat. auxil'ium, help). 
Aiding ; taking a share of labour. 

AValandie (Fr.) An accumulation of 
snow, or of snow and ice, descend- 
ing from mountains. 

Aves (Lat. birds). A class of ovi- 
parous vertebrate animals with 
double circulation, mostly organised 
for flight. 

Avic'ula (Lat. a little bird). An un- 
equal valved shell, fixing itself by 
a byssus. 

Avic'uloid (Avidiila; Gr. 4tbos, eidos, 
form). Lilse ana^ifi.>\\&. 



Az'ial (Axis). In the direction of the 

Ax'il (Lat. axUta^ the armpit). In 
botanpt the angle formed by a leaf 
with the stem. 

Axilla (Lat.) The armpit. 

Azil'laiy (Lat. axilla^ the armpit). 
Belonging to the armpit ; in botcmy, 
growing in the angle formed by a 
leaf with the stem. 

A^iom (Ghr. &|iow, axiodt I think wor- 
thy). A self-evident truth, incapable 
of being made plainer by reasoning. 

Axis (Lat. <ms, an azletree). A 
straight line passing through the 
centre of a body ; a pivot on which 
anything tarns ; the second verte- 
bra of tiie neck, because the head 
turns on it. 

Az'imath (Arab. samtUhaf to go to- 
wards). The direction of an object 

in reference to the cardinal points, 
or to the plane of the meridian. 

As'lmnth Compass. An instrument 
consisting of a magnetic bar or 
needle iMtlanced on a vertical pivot, 
so as to turn freely in an horizontal 

Azoic (Gr. &, a, not ; C<^v, zoon, an 
animal). Without animals ; ap- 
plied to the lowest or primary geo- 
logical strata, in which no renudns 
of animals are found. 

Az'ote (Gr. a, ct, not ; (wiy zoe, life). 
A name for nitrogen gas, because 
it will not support animal life. 

Az'otised {Azote). Containing azote 
of nitrogen. 

Az'ygos (Gr. &, a, not ; (vyoVf zugon^ 
a yoke). Without a fellow ; having 
no corresponding symmetrical part. 


Baccate (Lat hacca^ a berry). Re- 
sembling a berry. 

Baily's Beads. In cbstronomy^ an 
appearance as of a string of beads 
round the sun in an eclipse. 

Bal'anoid (Gr. iSoAovos, hai'anoSf an 
acorn). A family of cirripeds or 
barnacles, having shells arranged 
conically, like an acorn. 

Balsam (Gr. fia\<rafjiov, hal'samon). 
A natural mixture of resin with a 
volatile oil. 

BarVnle (Lat. harha, a beard). A 
little beard. 

Barilla (Spanish). An impure car- 
bonate of soda. 

Barom'eter (Gr. fiapos, &aro9, weight; 
fierpoVf metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the weight 
or pressure of the air. 

Basalf . A close-grained rock of the 
trappean group, dark-coloured, 
oft^ arranged in more or less regu- 
lar, columns. 

Base (Gr. fiacrts, 5am, a foundation). 
The lower part of anything, or that 
on which it rests ; in chemistry^ a 
substance which, when combined 
with an acid, forms a salt. 

Basement Membrane. A fine, trans- 
parent layer, lying underneath the 
epithelium of mucous and serous 
membranes, and beneath the epi- 
dermis of the skin. 

Ba'sic (Base), In chemUtry^ having 
a large proportion of base ; basic 
water is water which appears to act 
as a base in the formation of certain 

Basilar (Lat. hasia, a base). Ba» 
sic ; belonging to the base of the 
skull ; applied especially to an ar- 
tery of the brain. 

Basin (Fr. hassin). A hollow vessel ; 
in geology, a hollow or trough 
formed of rocks older than the 
deposit contained in it. 

Basioccipltal (Lat. ftom, a base; 
otfcipiUf the back of the head). A 
bone of the head of lower vertebrate 
animals, answering to a part of the 
occipital bone in man. 

Bathymef rical (Gr. fioBvs, hcUhMi, 
deep ; fitTpovy metron, a measure). 
Belating to the distribution of 
plants sAd animals along the bot- 
tom of the sea, according to the 
depth which they inhabit. 



Batra'oliia (Ghr. ficn-paxoSf hatfrachos, 
a frog). The order of reptiles of 
which the frog is the type. 

Batra'chian {Gr^fiarpaxoSf hat'rachos, 
a frog). Belonging to the order of 
RniTnalfl of which the frog is the 
type. ^ • 

Baf tery. In chemistry, an apparatus 
of coated jars for electrical action, 
or of portions of zinc and copper, 
used for producing electro-chemical 
or voltaic action. 

Belem'nite (Gr. fieKefivoVf hekmnon, 
a dart). Arrow-head ; also called 
thunderbolt ; a fossil shell of the 
oephalopod order, found in chalk 
and limestone. 

Bell-metal. An alloy of copper and 
tin used in making bells. 

Ben'zoate {Benzoin). A salt formed 
of benzoic acid with a base. 

Bergmehl (Swedish, mountain-meal). 
A whitish, mealy earth, contain- 
ing infusorial animalcules, said to 
be eaten by the Finns and Laplan- 
ders in scarcity. 

Bi (Lat. hiSf twice). A prefix signi- 
fying twice or twofold. 

Biba'sic (Lat. bis, twice ; hose). In 
chemistry, applied to acids which 
unite with two equivalents of base 
to form salts. 

BiVoloiLS (Lat. Ubo, I drink). 
Spongy ; having the property of 
imbibing moisture. 

BicarlMnate (Lat. bis, twice ; carbo- 
note). A carbonate containing two 
equivalents of carbonic acid, to 
one of base. 

Bicen'tral (Lat. bis, twice ; centrum, 
a centre). Having two centres. 

Bi'ceps (Lat. bis, twice; cap'tU, 
a head). Having two heads; 
in ancUomy, applied to certain 

Bichlo'ride (Lat. bis, twice ; chlorine), 
A compound consisting of two 
equivalents of chlorine with one of 
another element. 

Bicipital (Lat. bis, twice ; cap'ut, a 
head). Belonging to that which 
has two heads. 

Bicusp'id (Lat. bis, twice ; cuspis, the 
point of a spear). Having two 
points or fangs. 

Bidens (Lat. bis, twice ; dens, a 

tooth). Having two teeth or prongs. 
Bien'nial (Lat. bis, twice ; annvs, a 

year). Continuing two years; or 

occurring every second year. 
Bifid (Lat. bis, twice ;^n<2o, I cleave). 

Cleft in two parts. 
Bi'farcated (Lat. bis, twice ; fwrca, a 

fork). Divided into two prongs or 

Bifaroa'tion (Lat. bis, double ; furca, 

a fork). A division into two 

Bigem'inal (Lat. bis, twice ; gem'ini, 

twins). Arranged in two pairs. 
Bi'hamate (Lat. bis, twice ; hamiut, 

a hook). Having two hooks. 
Bi'jngate (Lat. bis, twice ; jugum, a 

yoke). In botany, having two pairs 

of leaflets. 
Bila'biate (Lat. bis, twice ; la'bivm, a 

lip). Having two lips. ^ 

Bilat'eral (Lat. bis, twice ; laJtuSf a 

side). Having two sides. 
Bil'iary (Lat. bilis, bile). Belonging 

to or containing bile. 
Bilif era! (Lat. Us, twice ; lit' era, a 

letter). Containing two letters. 
Bilo'bed (Lat. bis, twice ; Gr. XojSo;, 

lobos, a lobe). Having two lobes. 
Biloc'ular (Lat. bis, twice ; lodvlus, 

a little place). Containing two cells. 
Bi'manonj (Lat. bis, twice ; mam/us, 

a hand). Having two hiuids : ap- 
plied in zoology to man. 
Bi'nary (Lat. bini, two and two). 

Arranged in couples. 
Bi'nary Theory of Salts. In chemistry , 

a theory which supposes that oxygen 

salts are constituted on the same 

plan as haloid salts (as chlonde of 

sodium), of a metal in union with a 

Bi'nate (Lat. bvni, two and two). In 

botany, applied to compound leaves, 

the leaflets of which come off in two 

from a single point. 
Binazlal (Lat. bini, two and two ; 

axis). Having two axes. 
Binoc'nlar, (Lat. bini, two and two ; 

oduhis, an eye). Having two eyes ; 

also applied to optical instruments 

that have two apertures, so that 

both eyes may be used at once. 
Bino'mial (Lat^^ku^ Viivi>^\ wyrowt^^ 



name). In aZ^e&}*a, applied to a term 
consisting of two quantities joined 
by the sign + pliu or — minus, 

Binozfalate (Lat. bis, twice ; oxalic 
acid). An oxalate containing two 
equivalents of acid to one of base. 

Binozlde (Lat. his, twice ; oxygen), 
A term applied in chemittry to the 
second degree of oxidation of a 
metal or other substance. 

Bipar'tite (Lat. his, twice ; pars, a 
part). Haying two corresponding 

Biped (Lat. lis, twice ; pes, a foot). 
Having two feet. 

Bipen'nate (Lat. bis, twice ; penna, a 
wing). Having two wings ; or 
wing-like leaves on each side of a 

Bipin'nate (Lat. his, twice ; pirmate). 
Doubly pinnate ; applied to com- 
pound leaves, of whidi the leaflets 
are pinnate. 

Biqnad'rate (Lat. his, twice ; qtuidra, 
a square). Li ma/tJiematux, the 
foui*th power of a number, or the 
square multiplied by the square. 

Bira'mous (Lat. bis, twice ; ramiis, a 
branch). Having two branches. 

Bisecf (Lat. his, twice ; seco, I cut). 
To divide into two equal parts. 

Bise'rial (Lat. his, twice ; series, an 
order or row). Arranged into two 
series or courses. 

Biser'rate (Lat. his, twice ; serra, a 
saw). Doubly serrated ; applied 
to the edges of leaves which are 
doubly marked like the teeth of a 

Bisol'cate (Lat. his, twice ; sulcus, a 
furrow). Cleft in two ; having 
cloven feet. 

Bisol'phate (Lat. his, twice ; sulphu/ric 
acid). A sulphate containing two 
equivalents of sulphuric acid to one 
of base. 

Biter'nate (Lat. his, twice ; temi, 
three and three). In hotany, ap- 
plied to compound leaves, which 
form three leaflets on each second- 
ary vein. 

Bitaber'cTilate (Lat. 6i8, twice; tuher^- 
cidwm, a tubercle). Having two 

Bitmoiiiif erouB (Lat. hitu'men, min- 

eral pitch or tar ; fero, I prodace)» 
Yielding bitumen. 

Bita'minoTU. Having the property 
of or containing bitumen. 

Bivalve (Lat. bis, twice; voZvoe, 
folding-doors). Having a shell of 
two valves, closing with a hinge. 

Black flnx. A mixture of carbonate 
of potash and charcoal, used in 
chemical operations. 

Blaste'ma (Gr. fiAcurTauw, hUuftanS, 
I bud forth). Material exuded 
from the blood through the minute 
vessels or capillaries, and capable 
of organisation. 

Blas'toderm (Ghr. fiXwrros, hhutos, a 
bud ; BfpfJM, derma, a skin). IHie 
germinal disc which forms on the 
ovum or egg in the early stage of 

Blende (German hlenden, to dazzle). 
A term applied to minerals having 
a peculiar lustre or glimmer. 

Blow-pipe. An instrument by which 
a current of air is driven on the 
flame of a lamp or candl^ thereby 
producing an increased heat. 

Boiling-point. The temperature at 
which a substance boils ; it varies, 
greatly for different substances, 
but is constant for the same, under 
the same circumstances. 

Bole (Gt. fia\os, holes, a clod). A 
friable clayey slate or earth, usually 
coloured with oxide of iron. 

Borate (Borax), A salt formed of 
boracic acid with a base. 

Bo'real (Gr. ^optas, horeas, the north 
wind). Belonging to the north or 
north wind ; applied to the pole of 
a magnet which points to the north. 

Borboryg'mas (Gr. fiopfiopvyfios, hor^ 
horug'mos). The sound caused by 
wind within the intestines. 

Bof any (Gr. fioTcwn, boifane, a plant). 
The science which describes v^e- 
tables. Descriptive botany teaches- 
the description and naming of 
plants ; geographical hotany, the 
manner in which plants are dis- 
tributed on the earth ; pcUtB' 
orUological hotany compreb^ds tiie 
study of fossil plants ; physiologiedf 
hotany describes the functions of 
plants and their organs ; strwstwral 



hotam/ teaches tlie stmcture of the 
yarions parts of plants ; systematic 
or taxologiccU botany^ tiie arrange- 
ment and classification of plants. 

Bothren'chyxna (6r. fioOpos, hotkros, 
a pit ; iyxvfiOf enfchuma, any thing 
poured in, a tissue). A vegetable 
tissue, consisting of cylindrical cells 
marked by pits resembling dots. 

Botryoid'al (Gr. fiorpus, botriis, a 
bunch of grapes ; iiBos^ eidos, shape). 
Besembling a cluster of grapes. 

Bonlder. A rounded or water-worn 
block of stone. 

Bonstrophe'don (Gb. fiovs, hotuf, an 
ox; arpe^, strepho, I turn). A 
form of writing alternately firom 
left to right, and from right to left, 
like ploughbig, used by the ancient 

Bo'viform (Lat. &o«, an ox ; forma, 
shape). Besembling the ox. 

Bovine (Lat. &o«, an ox). Belonging 
to oxen and cows. 

Brachely'tra (Gr. iSpaxvs, brachtis, 
short ; iKurpov, ehtftron, a case). 
A fftmily of beetles characterised by 
the shortness of their elytra or 
outer wings. 

Bra'chial (LaX. bra'cJiium, the arm). 
Belonging to the arm. 

Bra'oMo-cephal'ic(Lat. bra'chium,ijiie 
arm; Gr. K€<l>a\rif Tceph'aU, the 
head). Belonging to the arm and 
the head : appli^ to an artery of 
the body. 

Bra'cMopods (Gr. fipaxuoVf bra'chidn, 
an arm; irov^, pouSt a foot). A 
genus of molluscous invertebrate 
animals, so called because their 
feet, or organs of progressive mo- 
tion, resemble arms. 

Brachyn'ra (Gr. iSpaxvs, brachus, 
short ; ohpa, our a, a tail). A class 
of Crustacea with short tails, as 
the crab. 

Bract (Lat. bracftea, a thin leaf of 
metal). In botany, a leaf from the 
axil or angle of which a flower-bud 

Bractlet (Bract), A little bract ; any 
rudimentary leaf on a flower-stem 
between the bract and the calyx. 

Sraa'chiflB (Gh:. fipayx^a, brcm'chiat 
gills). The gills or breathing oigans 

of animals which live entirely in 
water ; they are analogous to lungs 
in air-breathing animals. 

Bran'chial (Gr. ppayxioi bran'chia, 
gUls). Belonging to the branchise 
or gills. 

Bran'chiopods (Gr. ^paryx^o^ branfchia, 
gills; irovs, poibSf a foot). Crus- 
taceous animals which have gills 
attached to the feet. 

BrancMos'tegal (Gr. Ppayxia, brcm'- 
chia, gills ; CTeyw, stegOf I cover). 
Covering gills : applied to certain 
rays or bent bones which support a 
membrane covering in the gUls of 

BranchioB'tegons (Gr. ^payxich^^'^'' 
ehia, gills ; (rnyos, stegos, a 
covering). Having covered gills. 

Brassica'ceous (Lat. bratfsica, a cab- 
bage). Belonging to the order of 
plants of which the cabbage isatype. 

Brec'da (Italian, a crumb). A term 
applied to rocks composed of agglu- 
tinated angular fragments. 

Brevipen'nes (Lat. brevis, short; 
penna, a feather). A fomily of 
gndlae or stilt-birds, characterised 
by the shortness of their wings, as 
the ostrich and emeu. 

Bro'mate(^romtcacid). A salt formed 
by the combination of bromic acid 
with a base. 

Bron'ohia (Gh:. ppoyxoSf bronchos, the 
windpipe). The smaller tubes into 
which the windpipe divides in 
entering the lung. 

Bron'ohial (Gr. $poyxos, bronchos, 
the windpipe). Belonging to the 
divisions of the windpipe. . 

Bronchi'tis vGr. fipoyxos, bronchos, 
the windpipe ; term, ins, iiis, de- 
noting inflammation). Inflamma- 
tion of the tubes into which the 
windpipe divides. 

Bron'chocele (Gr. $poyxos, bronchos, 
the windpipe ; Kr)\ri, kele, a tumour). 
A kind of tumour on the front part 
of the neck. 

Bronchoph'ony (Gr. $poyxos, bron- 
chos, the windpipe ; ^vri, phJone, 
sound). The sound produced by the 
passage of air thi*ough the bronchi. 

Bronchotomy (Gr. jSpoTxos, browJics^ 
the windpipe \ T€iu»«^tcTOfoSk>V^2^' 



An operation in which the windpipe 
is cut open. 

Bronch'xis(GT. 0poyx'>h hnmckos^ the 
throat or windpipe). One of the 
large or primary divisions of the 
trachea or windpipe. 

Bryozo'a or Bryozoa'ria (Gr. j9pvot, 
bmoSf moss ; (cooy, zoon, an ani- 
mal). A term denoting the minute 
mollusca which live united in 
masses in a branched and moss- 
like manner. 

Buccal (Lat. buccaf the cheek). Be- 
longing to the cheek, or to the 
cavity of the mouth. 

Buc'cina'tor (Lat. hudcina, a kind of 
trumpet). A muscle forming a 
large part of the cheek, so called 
from its use in blowing wind-instru- 

Bnf^ Coat. The viscid layer formed 
on the surface of blood in inflam- 
matory diseases. 

Bulb (Lat. hvlbvs). In hota/nyf a part 
of a plant, generally beneath the 
ground, formed of layers of scales 
in the manner of a bud, as the 
onion ; in anatomy, applied to 
various parts from their shape. 

Bnlhif'eroiu (Lat. huZbus^ a bulb; 
ferOf I bear). Producing bulbs. 

Bulblet (Btdb). A Uttle bulb. 

Bulbous (Lat. bulbus^ a bulb). Con- 
taining bulbs. 

Bulim'ia (Gr. j9ov, bou, a prefix sig- 
nifying large or enormous ; Xtfios, 
limoSf hunger). Excessive appetite 
for food. 

Bulwark-plains. In attronomyf 
circular areas in the moon enclosed 
by a ring of mountain-ridges. 

Bunter (Germ.) A term in geology 
for new red-sandstone, from its Ya- 
riegated appearance. 

Bursa (Lat. a purse). In anatomy^ 
a closed sac containing synovial 

Butyra'ceous (Lat. btUyrunif butter). 
Having the properties o^ or con- 
taining butter. 

Butyr'ic (Lat. biUyrum, butter). Be- 
loDging to butter; applied to an 
acid formed in butter. 

Byesus (Gr. fiv<r<ro5, btuaos, fine 
flax). The thread or fibres by 
which some marine animals attach 
themselves to rocks. 


Cachec'tic (Gr. kokos, hikos, bad ; 
l|is, kexis, habit). Belonging to, or 
having, a vitiated state of the body. 

Cachex'ia (Gr. kokosj Jcakos, bad; 
i^is'f hods, habit). A deranged or 
vitiated state of the constitution. 

Cacoe'thes (Gr. kokos, kokos, bad ; 
ilBoi, ethos, custom). A bad habit 
or disposition. 

Cacoph'ony (Gr. kokos, kaJcos, bad ; 
</>wvT7, ph^e, voice). A disagree- 
able sound, produced by the meeting 
of harsh letters. 

Cacoplas'tic (Gr. kokos, kakos, bad ; 
7r\a(r<ru, plassd, I form). Having 
a defective power of being organised 
or taking a definite form. 

Cadaveric (Lat. cadaver, a carcase). 
Belonging to a dead body. 

Cadu'cous (Lat. cado, I fall). Having 
a tendency to fall off. 

Caecal (Ccecum). Having a closed 
end ; belonging to the caecum. 

CsBcum (Lat. caucus, blind). A tube 
with a closed end; applied to a 
part of the intestinal canaL 

Csenozo'ic, or Cainozo'ic (Gr. kcupos, 
kainos, new ; (<»ov, zoon, an 
animal). Applied in geology to 
the tertiary strata, which indude 
the most recent remains of ani- 

Caf 'f)9in. A vegetable alkali found in 
tea and coffee. 

Cal'amites (Lat. caVamus, a reed). A 
genus of fossil stems, resembling 
gigantic reeds, occurring in the coal 

Calca'neal (Lat. calx, the heel). Be- 
longing to the heel. 

Cal'carate (Lat. calcar, a spur). Like 
or having a spur. 



Calcaireo-arena'ceoiu. Consisting of 
lime, or chalk, and sand. 

Calca'reons (Lat. calx, lime). Haying 
tlie properties of or containing lime. 

Cal'ceolate (Lat. calfcetu, a shoe). 
Like a shoe or slipper. 

Calcifica'tion (Lat. cab:, liine ; fado, 
I make). A hardening by the de- 
position of salts of lime. 

Cal'cify (Lat. ccdxj lime ; fadOf I 
make). To change into lime or 
chalk ; to harden by the deposition 
of salts of lime. 

Calcina'tloii (Lat. calx, lime). The 
expelling by heat some volatile 
matter from a substance, as carbo* 
nate of lime (limestone) is reduced 
to lime by driving off the carbonic 
acid by heat. 

Calci'ne (Lat. calx, lime). To drive 
off volatile matter by heat so as to 
render a substance friable, as in 
the operation of lime-burning. 

Cal'ciilas (Lat. a pebble). In mcUhe- 
matics, a term applied to certain of 
the more abstruse branches of 
calculation ; in medicine a concre- 
tion formed within the body. 

Calefa'cient (Lat. coZor, heat ; fado, 
I make). Making warm ; heating. 

Cal'endar (Lat. calen'dce, the first 
day of the Boman months). A 
table of the days of each month, 
with the events connected with 

Cal'entnre (Span, calentar^, to heat). 
A violent ardent fever, principally 
affecting sailors in hot climates. 

Cal'ibre (Fr.). The diameter of a 
round body ; the bore of a cylin- 
drical tube, as of a gun. 

Calic'iform (Lat. calix, a cup ; forma^ 
shape). Shaped like a cup. 

Calistiienlcs (Gr. icoXos, halos, beau- 
tiful ; ffBevos, stken'os, strength). 
Exercise of the body and limbs to 
promote strength and graceful 

Callos'ity (Lat. caUus, hardness). A 

Callus (Lat.). A hard deposit ; also 
applied to the excess of bony matter 
which is often formed in the process 
of union of broken bones. 

Calor'io (Lat. color, heat). The prin- 

ciple;.*of heat ; the cause of the 
effects or phenomena popularly 
recognised as heat. 

Calori&'cient (Lat. color, heat; fado^ 
I make). Producing heat ; fur- 
nishing material for the production 
of heat. 

Calorific (Lat. color, beat ; fado, I 
make) . Producing heat. 

Calorim'eter (Lat. color, beat ; Gr. 
Iierpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument ibr measuring the rela- 
tive quantities of heat contained in 

Cal'otype (Gr.KoXos, Jedlos, beautiful; 
Tviros, tupos, a type or impression). 
A process of photography, in which 
the picture is produced by the rapid 
action of light on paper prepared 
with iodide of silver and gallo- 
nitrate of silver. 

Calyc'ifioral (Lat. calyx, a cup or 
calyx ; flos, a flower). A subdivi- 
sion of exogenous plants, including 
those which are provided with both 
calyx and corolla, the stamens being 
perigynous or epigynous. 

Calyp'tra (Gr. KoKwro}, kaluptd, I 
cover). An appendage of the theca 
in mosses, covering it at first. 

Calyp'trate (Gr. KoXinrrpa, hduptra, 
a covering). Having a calyptra or 
covering ; in hotany, applied to the 
calyx of plants when it comes off 
like an extinguisher. 

Calyx (Gr. koXv^, coZux, a shell, or 
unopened flower). The row of 
leaf-like organs, generally green, 
which immediately surrounds a 

Camliinm. In hotam>y, the mucilagi- 
nous fluid which lies between the 
young wood and the bark of a tree. 

Cam'era Luc'ida (Lat. a bright cham- 
ber) . An apparatus for fiicilitating 
the delineation of objects, by pro- 
ducing a reflected picture of them 
on paper by means of a prism. 

Cam'era Obscu'ra (Lat. a dark cham- 
ber). An apparatus in which, the 
images of objects are received 
through a double convex glass, and 
exhibited in the interior of the 
machine on a plane or curved sur- 



Campan'nlate (Lat. eompanOf & bell). 
Shaped like a beU. 

Campylif ropom (Gr. irofiirvXos, ham'- 
ptUo8f curved; rptirUf trepof I 
torn). In botani/f applied to an 
ovule bent down on itself till the 
apex touches the base. 

Canalic'nlxis (Lat. canaliSf a channel ; 
lUuSf denoting sinallness). A little 

Can'cellated (Lat. cancelli, cross-bar, 
or lattice-work). Resembling lat- 
tice-work : applied to the least com- 
pact structure of bones. 

Canoel'li (Lat. lattice-work). In ana- 
tompt the network which forms the 
less compact part of bones. 

Canic'nlar (Lat. canidulus^ a small 
dog). Belonging to the dog-star. 

Cani'ne CLat. eanis^ a dog) . Belong- 
ing or having relation to a dog. 

Cannel-coal. A compact brittle 
variety of coal, breaking with a 
conchoidal fracture, and not soiling 
the fingers. 

Can'niila (Gr. Kavvoy harmaf a reed or 
cane ; vlaf implying smallness). A 
small pipe. 

Can'tharis (Gr. KwBapos, han'iharos^ a 
kind of beetle). The Spanish fly, 
an insect of the beetle tribe : used 
for producing blisters. 

Canthns. The angle or comer of the 

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber. The 
produce of several trees in tropical 
countries, which produce a juice 
that hardens on exposure to 

Capacity (Lat. cajdo^ I receive). The 
power of containing ; in chemistry^ 
applied to the proportion in which 
bodies take in and contain caloric ; 
the space included within the cubic 
boundaries of a body. 

Cap'illary (Lat. capiXlvSf a hair). Re- 
sembling or having relation to Ado 
hairs, or to the minute blood- 

Cap'itate (Lat. caputs a head). End- 
ing in a knob, like the head of a 

Capit'nlum (Lat. caput, a head). A 
little head ; in hotanyy a flower- 
head, composed of a number of 

florets arranged without stems on 
the summit of a single peduncle. 

Ca'priform (Lat. caper, a goat; formoy 
shape). Resembling a goat. 

Cap'iular (Lat. caj/tida, a capeule). 
Belonging or having relation to a 

Capsule (Lat. cap'svla, a little chest). 
In chemistry, a clay saucer for 
roasting ; in botany, a form of dry 
fruit containing many seeds ; in 
anatomy, a membranous bag in- 
closing an organ. 

Car'amel. Burnt sugar. 

Car'apace (Ghr. Kopafios, har^abos, a 
stag-beetle or crab). The bony 
shield-like structure which pro- 
tects the upper part of the turtle 
and tortoise ; also the shell cover- 
ing the crab, formed by the union 
of the head with the thorax. 

Carbide (Carbon). A compound of 
carbon with hydrogen or a metaL 

Carbona'ceous (Lat. carbo, a ooal). 
Belonging to or containing carbon 
or charcoal. 

Carlionate (Lat. carbo, a coal). A 
salt formed by the union of carbonic 
acid with a base. 

Carbonic (Lat carbo, a coal). Be- 
longing to, or containing carbon 
or charcoal. 

Carboniferous (Lat. carbo, coal ; 
fero, I bear). Producing or yield- 
ing coal. 

Carbonisa'tion (Lat. car&o, coal). The 
process of burning a substance 
until nothing but the carbon or 
charcoal is left. 

Car1)onise (Lat. carbo, coal). To turn 
into coaL 

Carni)nncle (Lat. carbo, a coal). A 
painful form of excrescenceor growth 
on the skin. 

Carburet (Carbon). A compound 
of carbon with hydrogen or a 

Carcino'ma (Or. kopkivos, Jcar^kinos, 
a crab). A form of cancer. 

Carcinomatous (Gr. KopKitw/xa, 
Jearldnima, a cancer). Consisting 
of or belonging to the form of 
cancer called carcinoma. 

Car'dia(Gr. Kap$ta,X;a/c2ta,theheart). 
The opening in the stomach whidi 



admits the food : a term originating 
in the former confusion of ideas 
between the heart and the stomach. 

Car'diac (Gr. KopBiay Tcai^dia, the 
heart). Belonging to the heart ; or 
to the npper orifice of the stomach. 

Car'diaci (Ghr. KopSio, ka'/dia, the 
heart). A term proposed to be 
applied to the diseases of the heart. 

Cardial'gia (Gr. KopBia, kar^dia, the 
heart; d\yos, algoe, pain). Pain 
in the stomach. 

Car'dinal (Lat. cardoy a hinge). In 
aMroTwmyt applied to the four 
principal intersections of the hori- 
zon with the meridian, or North, 
South, East, and West ; in zoology, 
belonging to or connected with the 
hinge in bivalve molluscs. 

Cardi'tis (Gr. Kapdia, kai^dia, the 
heart ; iLia, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the heart. 

Carries (Lat., the state of worm-eaten 
wood). Ulceration of the substance 
of bones. 

Ca'rions (Lat. caries). Affected with 

Carxnin'atiye (Lat. carmen, a poem 
or song). A medicine used to relieve 
pain in the stomach and flatulence ; 
so called because it acts as incanta- 
tions (carmina) or charms were 
supposed to act. 

Cama'ria (Lat. caro, flesh). An or- 
der of mammalian animals which 
live on flesh, as the lion, tiger, &c. 

Camifica'tion (Lat. caro, flesh ; facio, 
I make). Conversion into a sub- 
stance resembling flesh. 

Camiv'ora (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, I 
devour). See Caiiiaria. 

Camiv'oroiu (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, 
I devour). Living on animal food. 

Carot'id (Gr. Kopa, Jcara, the head ; 
obs, ous, the ear). A name given 
to the arteries which proceed to the 

Carpal {Carpus). Selonging to the 

Carpel (Gr. Kopnrot, Jearpos, fruit). 
A name given to the separate pis- 
tils of which a compound fruit is 

Carpellary {Carpel), Belonging to 
a carpel. 

Carp'ology (Gr. Kopwos, Jsarpos, a 
frxiii;\oyo5, logos, discourse). The 
description and classification of 

Carp'ophore(GT.Kapiros, Jearpos, fruit ; 
4>efMi>, phero, I carry). The axis or 
stalk which supports the achsenia of 
which a cremocarp is formed. 

Carpus (Gr. Kopwos, Jearpos, the^ 
wrist). The wrist. 

Car'poliihes (Gr.Kopiros, Jearpos, fruit;. 
XiBos, litkos, a stone). In geology, 
the general term for fossil fruits. 

Car'tilage (Lat. cartUa'go). Gristle. 

Cartilag'inoas (Lat. cartila'go, carti- 
l£^e). Belonging to or consisting 
of gristle ; applied also to certain 
fishes, the skeleton of which is of a 
gristly consistence. 

Carbuncle (Lat. caro, flesh). A small 
fleshy excrescence. 

Caryatides (Gr. Kapvai, Cai^uai, a 
city of Lacouia). In architecture, 
female figures used to support en- 
tablatures; so called from th& 
women of Carjrsd (Kapvou), when 
the city was taken by the Athe- 
nians, being represented in this 
posture to perpetuate the memory 
of the event. 

Caryop'sis (Gr. Kopvov, Jear^uon, a 
walnut; o^is, opsis, appearance). 
A form of diy fruit, consiBting of 
one cell, not splitting, and con- 
taining a seed which is adherent 
to the pericarp. 

Ca'sein (Lat. ca'sefum, cheese). A pe- 
culiar compound substance, the 
characteristic component of milk, 
and the principal ingredient ia 

Cataclysm (Gr. KarcucXvCu, JcatacVulzu, 
I inundate). A deluge or inunda- 

Catalepsy (Gr. Kara, Jeata, down ;. 
\rfr\fis, lepsis, a seizing). A 
sudden suppression of conscious- 
ness, in which the body retains the 
position in which it was when the- 
attack commenced. 

Catal'ysis (Gr. Kara, Jeata, down ; 
\iw, luo, I loosen). A term applied 
to certain chemicsal phenomena, in 
which changes in the composition 
I of substances are e££&s^i%^\r| *^^ 



presence of another body, which it- 
self remains unaltered. 

Catalyt'ic (Gr. KaTOj katOj down; 
\tWf luoy I loosen). Belating to 

Cat'aplatm (Gr. Kara, hUct, down, or 
on ; irXxuract, plasso, I mould). A 

Cat'aract (Gr. Karap^rryvvfUy katar- 
rhegnu^mif I break down). A water- 
fall ; in mediciney a disease of the 
eyes, consisting in opacity of the 
crystalline lens. 

Catar'rh (Gr. Karoj hcUay down ; ^c»y 
rhed, I flow). A disorder attended 
with increased secretion from the 
nose and fauces ; a cold. 

Catar'rhal (Gr. koto, kccta, down; 
^60), rhed, I flow). Belonging to 

Catastal'tic (Gr. Kara, down : <rr€\- 
Xo), stelldf I send). Acting from 
above downwards, or from the 
centre to the circumference : ap- 
plied to nervous action. 

Catas'trophd (Gr. koto, down or over ; 
arpe^fStrephOf I turn). In geology , 
a supposed change in the globe from 
some sudden violent physical action. 

Catena'rian (Lat. catSnay a chain). 
Belating to or resembling a chain. 

Cate'nopores (Lat. coUSnay a chain ; 
poruSf a pore). Chainpore coral : a 
form of fossil coral. 

Cathar'tic (Gr. KoBaipcoy IccahaHro, I 
dean or purge). Purgative. 

Cath'ode (Gr. Karot hcUOy down; 
bZosy hodoSf a way). The surface 
at which electricity i>asses out of 
a body. 

Cation (Gr. Kara, hata, down ; ioovy 
ion, going). A name given by Dr. 
Faraday to those subsumces which 
appear at the cathode. 

Catop'tricB (Gr. icaroirTpoy, Tcatoptron, 
a mirror). That part of optics 
which explains the phenomena of 
reflected light. 

Cauoa'sian {Cou'cosim), A term pro- 
perly denoting the peoples dwelling 
about the Caucasus, but applied 
also as the name of a class to most 
of the European and several Asi- 
atic nations. 

Cauda eqni'na (Lat. a horse's tail). 

The bmsh-like collection of 
which terminates the spinal 

Caudal (Lat. cauda, a tail). Belong 
ing to the taiL 

Caudate (Lat. cattdOf a tail). HaTing 
' a tail. 

Caul'ide (Lat. caulisy a stalk ; de, 
denoting smallness). Li botanff, a 
term sometimes applied to the neck 
of the embryonic plant. 

Caul'ixiaxy (Lat. caulis, a stem). In 
botanj/y applied to the leaves of 
mosses when produced on the 

Caul'ine (Lat. cauZts, a stem). Be 
longing to a stem ; applied to the 
leaves growing from tiie main axis 
of a plant. 

Caustic (Gr. icatw, JcaHoy I bum). 
Burning; in surgery, destroying 
animal textures by powerful che- 
mical action. 

Cau'terise' (Gr. kcuu, hai'oy 1 bum). 
To destroy animal tissues by heat^ 
as with a hot iron. 

Cau'tery (Gr. kcuu, Icai'd, I bum). 
The destroying animal tissues by 
the application of heat ; an iron in- 
strument for the purpose. 

Cav^emous (Lat. caver'tuiy a cavern). 
Full of caverns ; or like a cavern. 

Celee'tial (Lat. ccdvmy heaven). 
Belonging to the sky or visible 

Cell (Lat. cellay a store-house or 
chamber). In physiology^ a mi- 
nute bag or vesicle. 

Cellular (Lat. ceVlula, a little cell). 
Consisting of or containing oeUs; 
applied to the connecting tissue of 
the diflerent parts of the body, 
which form cells or interstices. 

Cellulose (Lat. cel'lula, a cell). A 
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, forming the fundamental 
material of the structure of plants. 

Ceut'igrade (Lat. ceT^um, a hundred ; 
gradus, a degree). Consisting of a 
hundred degrees ; the scale on 
which thermometers are constructed 
in France. 

Cent'igramme (Fr. centy a hundred ; 
gramme, a weight so called). A 
French weight, the hundredth part 



of a gramme : about ^tbs of a 
grain avoirdupois. 

Cenfilitre (Fr. cent, a hundred; 
litre, a quart, or IJ English pints). 
The hundredth part of a litre : 
about ^th of an English pint. 

Cenfime'tro (Fr. cent, a hundred; 
m^tre, a measure equal to S^j^ Eng- 
lish feet). The hundredth -ptixt of 
a metre : equal to a little more 
than )^ths of an English inch. 

Cenf ipede (Lat. centum, a hundred ; 
pes, a foot). Having a hundred 
feet : applied to certain insect-like 
animals which have a large number 
of feet. 

Cen'trical (Lat. centrum^ a centre). 
Having coinciding centres ; centri- 
cal interposition, in astronomy, is 
the appearance presented in eclipses 
when the centres of the discs co- 
incide, the margin of the larger 
disc being lefb free. 

Centrifugal (Lat. centrum, the'centre; 
fugio, I flee). Having a tendency 
to fly off in a direction ft'om the 
centre; in botany, applied to plants 
in which the expansion of flowers 
commences at the top and proceeds 

Centrip'etal (Lat. centrum, a centre ; 
peto, I seek). Having a tendency 
towards the centre ; in bota/ny, 
applied to plants in which the 
flowers expand from below upwards. 

Cephalal'gia (Gh:. K€<f>a\'n, Jceph'ale, 
the head; &\yos, algos, pain). 

Cephal'ic (Gr. KfipaXrj, heph'dle, the 
head). Belonging to the head. 

Cephal'ici (Gr. Kf<pciXr\, heph'dle, the 
head). A term proposed to be 
given to diseases seated in the head. 

Ceph'alopods (Gr. Ke<pdK% Tceph'aU, 
the head ; vovt, pons, a foot). A 
class of molluscous invertebrate 
animals, which have their organs 
of motion arranged round the head, 
as the cuttle-fish. 

Cephaloiho'raz {(3tT.K€<f>aX7i, heph'aXe, 
the head ; 9wpa|, th^ax, a breast- 
plate). The anterior part of the 
external skeleton of arachnida, 
consisting of the head and chest 
united in one mass. 

Cerate (Lat. cera, wax). An oint- 
ment consisting of wax and oil. 

Cer'atites (Gr. R^pas, keras, a horn). 
A genus of fossil cephalopods in 
the triassic strata. 

Cer'ato- {Qv.Ktpas, keras, a horn). In 
anatomy, a prefix in compound 
words signifying connection with 
the comua or horns of the hyoid 

Cer'atose (Gr. Kepas, Jceras, a horn). 
Homy ; applied to sponges, of which 
the hard part is of a homy con- 

Cerose (Gr. KepKos, herJsos, a tail). 
The feelers projecting from the hind 
part of the body in some insects. 

Cer'eal (Lat. Ceres, the goddess of 
com). Belonging to, or producing 
eatable grain. 

Cerebellar {Cerebdlum). Belonging 
to the cerebellum or little brain. 

Cerebellum (Lat. cei^ebrum, the brain ; 
eUwm, signifying smallness). The 
little brain ; a portion of the mass 
within the skiUl, situated at the 
lower and back part. 

Cer'ebral (Lat. cer^ebrum, the brain). 
Belonging to the brain. 

Cer'ebric (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain). 
Belonging to or produced from the 

CereVriform (Lat. cer'ebrum, the 
brain; forma, shape). Shaped 
like the brain. 

Cerebri'tis (Lat. cer^ebrum, the brain ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of the brain. 

Cer'ebroid (Lat. cer'ebrum, the brain ; 
Gr. €t5os, eidos, shape). Like or 
analogous to a brain. 

Cer'ebro-Bpi'nal (Lat. cer'ebrvm, the 
brain ; spina, the spine). Belong- 
ing to or consisting of the brain 
and spinal cord. 

Cer'ebrum (Lat). The brain proper. 

Ceru'minouB (Lat. cerCmien, the wax 
of the ear). Belonging to the wax 
contained in the ear. 

Cerulean (Lat cesium, the sky). Sky- 
coloured ; blue. 

Cervi'cal (Lat. cervix, the neck). Be- 
longing to the neck. 

Ce8't(^ (Gr. K€<TTos, Icestos^ «. ^^<ftk \ 
tV^z^ eido%, ioTia^ . \i^^ ^^eaS^^ \ 



applied to intestinal worms with 
loDg flat bodies, as tlie tape- worm. 

Clestra'oioiitB (Gr. KcoTpOy hestroj a 
kind of fish). A family of fishes, 
mostly fossil, of which the Port 
Jackson shark is a type. 

Ceta'ceoiu (Gr. KTtros, hko$, a whale). 
Belongiog to the order of mamma- 
lian animals of which the whale is 
a type. 

Chala'za (Gr. x^^^C^h chala'zoy a 
small tubercle). The twisted mem- 
branous cord attached at each end 
of the yolk of an egg ; in botany y 
an expansion at the base of an 
ovale, uniting the ooyerings with 
the nucleus. 

Chalyb'eate (Gr. x^W'* chalvbbSf 
steel). Oontaining iron. 

Chaine'leon(Ghr. x^t/^^ chamai, on the 
ground ; Aewv, leon, a lion). A kind 
of lizard ; in chemistry, a manganate 
of potassa, from the changes in colour 
which its solution undergoes. 

Cha'cs (Gr. x^^^^i chaos, void space, 
or unformed mass). A mass of 
matter without arrangement. 

Cheirop'tera (Gr. xup, chew, a hand; 
mtpov, pteron, a wing). Wing- 
handed animals ; applied to an 
order of mammalian animals, of 
which the bat is an example, in 
which the toes of the fore-limbs 
are connected by a membrane, so 
as to serve as wings. 

-Chelate (cMlB). Having chehe or 
two-cleft claws. 

dhele (Gr. X'?M» chele, a hoof or 
claw). The two-cleffc claws of 
the Crustacea, scorpions, &c. 

Chelic'era (Gr. xv^Vi chele, a claw ; 
K€pas, Tceras, a horn). The pre- 
hensile claws of the scorpion. 

ilhelo'nia (Gr. x^^^^i cheldne, a 
tortoise). The order of reptiles 
including tortoises and turtles. 

Chem'ical (Gr. x^®* ^^^> I pour). 
Belonging to chemistry. 

Chem'istry (Ghr. x««, ched, I pour). 
The science which has for its object 
the study of the nature and proper- 
ties of all the materials which 
enter into the composition of the 
earth, sea, and air, and of the 
beings inhabiting them. 

Chert A term applied to flinty 
portions occurring in limestone aad 
other rocks. 

Chia'ro-owa'ro (Italian, chia'ro, dear; 
oseu'ro, dark). A drawing in black 
and white ; the art of advantage- 
ously distributing the lights iad 
shadows in a picture. 

Chilogna'tha (Gr. x*^^^^ cheUos, a 
lip ; yvc^os, gnathos, a jaw). A 
family of myriapodous invertebrate 
animals, having a pair of stout 
homy mandibles with sharp toothed 

Chilop'oda (Gr. x^^f^h cheilos, a lip; 
vovs, pons, a foot). A family ot 
myriapodous invertebrate animalB, 
having an additional lip formed by 
the second pair of legs, containing 
each a canal for the dischai^ of a 
poisonous liquid, as the centipede. 

Chimr'gical (Gr. x^^Pi cheir, a hand ; 
ipyov, ergon, work). Relating to 
surgery, or that branch of medicine 
which treats diseases and ioguries 
by manual operations and instm- 

Chi'tine (Gr. X''''"'') cliitor^ a coat). 
The hardening suhstance of the 
covering of insects. 

Chi'tinoxis (ChUi'ne), Consisting oi^ or 
of the nature of^ chitine. 

Chlo'rate {Chlorine ; term, ate), A 
compound of chloric acid with a 

Chlo'ride {Chlorine; term. u?e). A 
compound of chlorine with a metal 
or other elementary substance. 

Chlo'rine (Gr. x^^P^^t cTddros^ yel- 
lowish green) . An elemental^ gas, 
so called from its yellow colour. 

Chlo'rite (Ghr. x^^P^h cfdoros^ yel- 
lowish-green). A mineral occur- 
ring in the granite and metamor- 
phic rocks, often disseminated 
through or coating the laminae. 

Chlorom'etry {Chlorine ; Gr. fxerpov^ 
metron, a measure). The process 
of testing the quantity of chlorine 
contained in chloride of lime or any 
other bleaching materiaL 

CMo'rophyll (Gr. x^po^t ehJdrogf 
yellowish-green ; 4>v\A.oi', phnUoUj 
a leaf). The green colouring mat- 
ter of the leaves of plants. 



Crhloro'sifl (Gt. x^^f^h chloras, yel- 
lowish-green). A diseased state, 
characterised by poverty of blood, 
and in which a greenish colour of 
the skin is a prominent symptom. 

dhlorotlc (Gr, x^^posi chloro8, yel- 
lowish-green). Relating to or 
having chlorosis. 

dhoke-damp. Carbonic acid gas dis- 
engaged in mines. 

Cholagogue \Gr. xo^Vt chole, bile; 
itycof agOf I lead). Having the 
property of caosing an evacuation 
of bile. 

dholed'ochiu (Gr. x^^>7) ckde^ bile ; 
Sexofjuuj dech'omaif I receive). Re- 
ceiving bile ; applied to the tube 
formed by the junction of the cystic 
and hepatic ducts. 

Chorera (Gr. x^^V* chole, bile : ^€«, 
rheOf I flow). An epidemic disease, 
characterised by diarrhoea and 
vomiting, and symptoms of depres- 
sion of tiie powers of life. 

Choles'terin (Gr. x^^^Vi cholej bile ; 
(TTepeos, ster'eoSf solid). A sub- 
stance having the properties of fat^ 
found principally in bile. 

Chondiin (Gr. x'^^^poh (^I'Ondros, 
a cartilage or gristle). A substance 
somewhat resembling gelatine or 
animal jelly, produced by the ac- 
tion of hot water on cartilage. 

Chon'dlites (Lat. chondrust a kind of 
sea-weed). Fossil marine plants 
in the chalk and other formations. 

Clhondropteryg'ii (Gt. x'^'^^P'^h c^ow- 
dro8, cartilage or gristle ; irrepvyiov, 
pteri^gionf a little wing). An order 
of fishes, the fin-bones of which are 
composed of gristle only. 

<7hord (Qt. x^P^i chorde, a string). 
In geometry, a line extending ^m 
one end of the arc of a circle to 
the other ; in mime, the union of 
two or more sounds uttered at onc^ 
forming a harmony. 

Chor'ea (Gr. x^P^^t choros, a dance). 
The disease commonly called St. 
Vitus's Dance, consisting of in- 
voluntary movements of the mus- 
cles, consciousness being retained. 

€ho'riO]i(Gr.xe»p€a), cTwred, I contain). 
The external membrane which 
covers the foetus. 

.Gho'risis (Qtr, x^p^Cf^i chdrHzdf I sepa- 
rate). A separation; in botcmy, 
applied to the increase in number 
of the parts of a flower produced by 
the splitting of organs during their 

Chorog'raphy (Gr. x^^P^h choroa, a 
place or region ; ypoupta, graphJo^ I 
write or describe). The descrip- 
tion of a region or country. 

Chor'oid (Gr. x^P^^^t chorion, the 
chorion; ctSos, eidos, shape). Be- 
sembling the chorion : applied to 
a coat of the^ye, also to a network 
of blood-vessels in the brain. 

CShro'mate (Gr. xP^M-'h chroma, co- 
lour). A compound of chromic 
acid with a base. 

Chromatic (Gr. xp^f^ chroma, co- 
lour). Relating to colour ; in 
music, the chromatic scale is that 
which proceeds by semitonic inter- 

Chro'matropo (Ghr. xp^f^ chrome^ 
colour ; rpnroD, trepo, I turn). An 
optical apparatus for exhibiting the 
appearance of a stream of colours, 
by the revolution of a double set of 
coloured circular arcs. 

Chro^xnogen (Gr. xp^f"h chroma, co- 
lour ; ywvoM, gennao, I produce). 
The colouring matter of phtnts. 

Cbronol'ogy (Gr. xP^^^^y chronos, 
time ; \0y05, logos, a word or de- 
scription). The arrangement of 
events in order of time. 

Chronom'eter (Gr. xp^vos, chronos, 
time; fitrpou, metron, a mea- 
sure). An instrument for measur- 
ing time. 

Chronomef rio (Gr. xP^^^h chronos, 
time ; yxrpov, metron, a measure). 
Relating to or employed in the 
measure of time. 

Chro'tici (Gr. xp^h chrds, the skin), 
A term proposed to be applied to 
diseases of the skin. 

Chrys^aliB (Gr. xp^tros, chrusos, gold). 
The form which certain insects as- 
sume between the caterpillar and 
the winged states; so called be- 
cause yellow in some. 

Chyle (Gr. x^^^^t chulos, juice). The 
milky liquid prepared from the 
I food, to be absorbed bi \3ttfc\ari«ss^ 



vessels, and supplied to the blood 
for nutriment. 

Ghylif eroiiB (Lat. chylus, chyle ; fero, 
I carry). Carrying chyle. 

Ghylif ic (Lat. chylua^ chyle ; /aoo, I 
make). Making chyle ; especially 
applied to a part of the digestive 
apparatus of insects. 

Ghyliflca'tioii (Lat. ckylus, chyle; 
faciOf I make). The process of 
making chyle. 

Ghylopoiet'ic (Gr. x^^^ ehvlott 
juice or chyle ; iroiew, poi'eOf I 
make). MaJdng chyle : commonly 
applied to the stomach and intes- 

Chyme (Gr. x^fios, ehvmoSf juice). 
The pulpy mass formed by digestion 
of the food in the stomach. 

Cicalzi'otQa (Lat. cicdtrix, a scar ; 
ula, denoting smallness). A spot 
resembling a small scar. 

CicatiiBS'tioxL (Lat cicdtrix, a scar). 
The process of healing a wound. 

Cic'atrue (L&t. cicdtrix, a scar). To 
heal a wound, or induce the for- 
mation of a scar. 

Cica^trix (Lat.) The scar left after 
the healing of a wound. 

Cil'ia (Lat. ciVium, an eyelash). Li 
anat<ymy^ the eyelashes ; also cer- 
tain minute bodies projecting from 
various parts of animals, and having 
waving motion ; in hotomy, hairs on 
the margin of a body. 

Cil'iary (Lat. cil'ium, an eyelash). 
Belonging to the eyelashes or eye- 
lids, or to the minute vibratory 
bodies called cilia. 

Ciliated {OiUta). Provided with vi- 
bratile cilia : applied to a form of 

Ciliolxra'chiate (Lat. cil'ium,; hra'- 
chium, an arm). Having the arms 
provided with cilia ; applied to a 
class of polypes. 

Cil'iograde (Lat. cU'ivm; gra'dior, I 
step). Swimming by the action of 

dnen'chyma (Gr. Kivtw, Mneo, I 
move ; iyx^fjut, en'chtima, a tissue). 
A name given to the laticiferous 
vessels of plants. 

Cineri'tioxis (Lat. cinis, ashes). Re- 
sembling ashes ; grey. 

Cin'nabar. A crystalline sulphide of 

Cir'oinate (Lat. cir^cino, I turn round). 
Curled round like a shepherd's crook 
or a crosier. 

Cir'cnlate (Lat. ci/cuZitf, a circle). To 
movein sucha manner asto return to 
the starting point, as the blood does. 

drcnla'tion (Lat. cir^culus, a drde). 
A motion in a circle ; the prooen 
by which a moving body retumB to 
the point from which it started. 

drciun. A Latin preposition, used as 
a prefix in compound wordbs, signi- 
fying around. 

Circomdne'tioiL (lAt. circum, around; 
duco, I lead). A leading round ; 
in physiology, a motion in which a 
bone is made to describe a cone, 
the apex of which is at the joint ; 
as with the arm. 

Cir'cimiflex (Lat. circum, around ; 
flecto, I bend). Bent round; in 
cmcUomy, applied to certain vessels 
and nerves, from their course. 

Circnmgyra'tion (Lat. circum, about; 
gyrus, a circle). Motion in a drde. 

Circiinmav'igate(Lat.cif'(n»m, around; 
^ navis, a ship). To sail round. 

Cironmpolar (Lat. circum, around; 
polus, the pole). Eound the pole : 
a term applied to the stars near the 
North Pole. 

Circnnuds'sile (Lat. circum, around ; 
scindo, I cut). In hotomy, applied 
to a form of dehiscence or opening 
of fruits, in which the upper part 
separates like a lid, as if cut off. 

Cirrho'se (Lat. cirrhus, a curl or ten- 
dril). Having or giving off ten- 

Cirrho'sis (Gr. ictp^os, Idrrhos^ tawny). 
A term applied to a diseajsed state 
of the liver. 

Cirri (Lat. cirrus, a lock of hair or 
curl). The curled filaments acting 
as feet to barnacles ; in hotomy^ 

Cirrig'eroxis (Lat. cirrus, a curl ; 
gei^o, I bear). Supporting cirri or 
curled filaments. 

tHr'rigrade (Lat. cirrus; gra'dior^ I 
^ step). Moving by means of cirri. 

Cir'ripeds (Lat. cirrus; pes, a foot). 
See Cirropods. 



Cir'ropods (Lat. ctrruSf a fringe ; Gr. 
vovSf pouSf a foot). A class of 
invertebrate animals with curled 
jointed feet. 

Ci'tigrade (Lat. cittis, quick ; graduSf 
a step). Moving quickly. 

Ci'trate (Lat. citrus^ a citron or lemon). 
A compound of citric acid with a 

Cit'ric (Lat. cUrtts, a lemon). Be- 
longing to or existing in lemons ; 
applied to an acid found in lemons 
and some other fruits. 

Cladoo'era '(Gr. kAoSo;, Madosj a 
branch ; K€pas, keras, a horn). 
Having branched horns : applied 
to a family of crustaceous animals 
with branched antennse. 

Clairvoy'aiLce (Fr. c/atV, clear; voir^ 
to see). A state in which persons 
pretend to see that which, under 
ordinary circumstances, is not ap- 
parent to the eye. 

Clarifica'tion (L&t. clarusy clear; 
fdciOj I make). A making clear. 

Class (Lat. classis). A group of 
things or beings, haying some con- 
spicuous mark of similarity, but 
capable, on further examination, of 
being subdivided into other groups 
or orders. 

Classifica'tioa (Lat. clasaiSf a class ; 
fadoj I make). An arrangement 
into classes. 

Cla'vate (Lat. clavuSf a club). Club- 

Clavicor'nes (Lat. clavus, a club ; 
comUf a horn). A family of insects 
whose antennse end in a club-shaped 
enlargement, as the necrophorus 
or burying beetle. 

Clay. In g&)logy, a fine impalpable 
sediment from water, nearly en- 
tirely consisting of aluminous and 
flinty particles, forming a tough 
plastic mass. 

Cleav'ftge. A tendency to split in 
certain fixed directions. 

Clep'sydra (Gr. kXcttw, hlepto^ I steal 
or hide ; 6$o>p, hudovy water). An 
instrument in which time was 
attempted to be measured by the 
flow of water ; a water-clock. 

Clixnao'teric (Gr. kXiixo^, Jdimaxy a 
ladder). A period of human life 1 

in which a marked change is sup- 
posed to take place in the constitu- 

Climatologlcal {Climate ; \oyoSf lo- 
gos, discourse). Relating to climate, 
or to a description of climates. 

Climatorog^ (Gr. ic\i/ia, Mima, a 
region ; Koyos^ lof/os^ discourse). 
The description of the general phe- 
nomena of the climate or state of 
weather of different countries. 

Clinical (Gr. K\ivri , klinef a bed). 
Belonging to a bed ; in medicine, 
applied to instruction derived from 
the actual observation of patients. 

di'noid (Gr. KKiyq, kline, a bed or 
couch ; €($os, eidoSy form). Like 
a couch ; in anatomy, applied to 
certain processes of bone, from an 
imagined resemblance to a couch. 

Clinom'eter (Gr. K\iv<a, klind, I bend 
or slope; ixerpov, metron, a mea- 
sure). An instrument for ascer- 
taining the angle at which geological 
strata are inclined. 

Cloa'ca (Lat. a sink). The common 
excretory outlet of birds and some 
other animals. 

Clonic (Gr. K\ov€a>, Tclon'ed, I agitate). 
Applied to spasm or convulsion 
which rapidly alternates with re- 

Clove (Lat. clavus, a nail). A bulb- 
let formed in the axil of a leaf 
which is still part of a bulb, as in 

Clyp'eifbrm (Lat. clyp'eua, a shield ; 
fwma, form). Like a shield. 

Clyster (Gr. h.\v^o», Uuzo, I wash). 
A liquid substance thrown into the 
lower intestine. 

Coag'nlable (Lat. con, together ; ago, 
I drive). Capable of being con- 
gealed, or changed from a liquid to 
a thick state. 

Coag'nlate (Lat. con, together ; ago, I 
drive). To turn from a fluid to a 
thick state. 

Coagnilft'tion(Lat. con, together ; ago, 
I drive). A turning from a fluid to 
a thick or solid state. 

Coal-formation. The strata or layers 
of the crust of the earth in which 
coal is found. 

Coales'cent (Lat. coo^e^'co^ \ ^s^^^ 



together). Growing together or 

Coalition (Lat. coates'co^ I grow 
together). A union of separate 
bodies or parts in one mass. 

Coapta'tion (Lat. con, together ; apto, 
I fit). A fitting together. 

Croarcta'tion (Lat. con, together; 
arctuSf narrow). A narrowing or 

Coohlea (6r. kox^os^ kochlos, a shell- 
fish with a spiral shell). In ana- 
tomyt A V^^^ of the internal ear, of 
a conical form, marked by a spiral 

CoefBis'ieiit(Lat. con, together ; effi^ioy 
I effect or make up). That which 
unites with something else to pro- 
duce a result. 

CoBlelxnin'tha (Gr. koiXos, hoiloSf 
hollow ; iX^ivSf helminSj a worm). 
The intestinal worms which have 
an alimentary tube. 

Coeliac (Gr. KoiXiOy hoilia, the belly). 
Belonging to the abdomen. 

Ck>er'ciye (Lat. c(mf together ; arceo^ 
I drive). Driving together; applied 
to the force which brings about the 
recomposition of bodies after separa- 
tion into their elements. 

Cohe'sion (Lat. con, together ; ha^reo, 
I stick). The property by which 
bodies stick together. 

Coleop'tera (Gr. ko\€os, koVeos, a 
sheath ; impov, pteron, a wing). 
Having sheathed wings : applied to 
an order of insects of which beetles 
are the type, in which the outer or 
upper wings form sheaths for the 
inner or lower. 

Coleorhi'za (Gr. KoKtos, IcoHeoSy a 
sheath ; ^i^o, rhiza, a root). The 
sheath which covers the bundle of 
young roots in endogens. 

Col'ic (Gr. KuKoVf koloTij a part of the 
large intestine). In aruUomy, be- 
longing to the colon ; in medicinef 
a painful disorder of the intestines. 

Collapse (Lat. con, together ; taboTf 
I glide or fall). To fall together ; 
a falling together. 

Collaf oral (Lat. con, together ; IcUw, 
a side). Placed side by side ; des< 
cending from the children of a 
common ancestor. 

CoUen'chyma (Gr. koXXo, hoUii, glue ; 
iyXvfULf en'chumOf a tissue). In 
botany, the substance lying between 
and uniting cells. 

Collima'tion (Lat. con, with ; limetf 
a limit). The art of aiming at a 
mark ; in astronomy, the line of 
oollimation is the line of sight that 
passes through the point of inter* 
section of the wires fixed in the focoa 
of the object-glass and the centre 
of that glass. 

Colliq'native (Lat. con, with ; li^ueo, 
I melt). Melting ; applied to 
diseases attended with profuse loss 
of the animal fluids. 

Colliflon (Lat. con, together ; UedOf 
I strike). A striking together. 

CoUo'dion (Gr. koAAo, kMa, glue). 
A solution of gun-cotton in a mix- 
ture of ether and alcohoL 

CoUam (Lat. a neck). In botam/y, the 
portion between the plumnle and 
the radicle. 

CoUyr'iani (Gr. KoWvpa, colMra, 
eye-salve). A wash for the eyes. 

Cololites (Gr. Ka\oy, koUm, one of 
the intestines ; \iBos, lUhoSf a 
stone). In geology, a name given to 
tortuous masses and impressions, 
resembling the intestines of fishes. 

Colnmella (Lat. a little column). In 
conchology, the central pillar roond 
which a spiral shell is wound ; in 
anatomy, applied to the central part 
or axis of the cochlea of the ear. 

Colnin'nsB Car'neas (Lat. fleshy co- 
lumns). Small rounded muscular 
bands covering the inner surfieu^ 
of the ventricles of the heart. 

Colnm'nar (Lat. colam'na, a column). 
Arranged in columns. 

Coma (Gr. Kcofia, koma, a sound sleep). 
A state of complete insensibility, 
with loss of power of speech and 

Coma (Gr. KOfirj, komie, hair). The 
nebulous or hazy appearance which 
surrounds a comet. 

Combina'tion (Lat. con, with ; hint, 
two and two). Union of different 
substances into a new compound. 

Combos'tible (Lat. comburo, I bam 
up). Capable of being burned. 

Combns'tion (Lat. com6uro, I bum up). 



A burning ; the process in which, 
by the aid of heat, a sabstauce 
unites with oxygen, or sometimes 
with chlorine. 

Com'et (Gr. KOfiri, Jeomie, hair). A body 
revolving round the sun in an el- 
liptical orbit, and having generally 
a tail or train of light, whence its 

Cem'ma (Gr. icoirrw, hoptd^ I cut). 
In musiCf an interval between two 
sounds, distinguishable by the ear. 

Commen'snrable, or Commen'surate 
(Lat. conf together; mensu'ra, a 
measure). Having a common mea- 
sure ; applied to two or more num- 
bers capable of being divided by the 
same quantity without leaving a 

Com'minute (Lat. coUf together ; mi- 
nuoy I lessen). To break into small 
pieces ; to reduce to powder. 

Com'missiire (Lat. c(m^ together; 
miMo, I send). A joining together; 
a joint or seam. 

Corn'mutator (Lat. ccm, with ; mutQt 
I change). That which changes one 
with another : an apparatus to con- 
trol and modify the course of an 
electric current. 

Co'mose (Lat. comay hair). Hairy. 

Compaf ible (Lat. con^ with ; pa'tior, 
I suffer or endure). In logic, ex- 
pressing two views of one object at 
the same time ; in ehemintry and 
pharmacy f not decomposing each 

CompexLsa'tlon Balance. In a watch 
or chronometer, a contiivance for 
correcting errors caused by varia- 
tions of temperature, by means of 
bars of two or more metals of dif- 
ferent powers of expansion. 

Com'plement (Lat. com'pleo, I fill up). 
That which is required to fill up or 
complete some quantity or thing. 

Com'plex (Lat. con, with ; plecto, I 
weave). Made up of two or more 

(TompUca'tloxi (Lat. con, together ; 
ptico, I fold or weave). An inter- 
weaving or involving together ; in 
medicine, applied to a disease which 
appears during the presence of 

Compo'nent (Lat. con, together ; pono, 
I put). Making up a compound 

Com'posite (Lat. con, together ; pono, 
I put). Formed of things placed 
together; in architecture, applied 
to an order the characteristics of 
which are made up from other 
orders ; in arithmetic, applied to 
numbers which can be divided 
exactly by a whole number greater 
than unity. 

Compres'sible (Lat. con, together; 
premo, I press). Capable of being 
pressed together into a smaller 

Compres'ser (Lat. con, together ; 
premo, I press). That which presses 
together : an apparatus for exer- 
cising pressure on bodies viewed 
through a microscope. 

Ckm'cave (Lat. <xm, with ; caviu, hol- 
low). Sinking into a depression in 
which a rounded body would lie. 

Coa'cavo-eon'vex. Concave on one 
surface and convex on the other. 

Concen'trate (Lat. con, together ; cen- 
trum, a centre). To bring to a 
common centre; to increase the 
strength of a compound fluid by 
evaporating the water contained 
in it. 

Concen'trio (Lat. con, together ; cen- 
trum, a centre). Having a common 

Concliif' eroiu (Lat. concha, a shell ; 
fero, I bear). Shell-fish ; espe- 
cially those with bivalve shells. 

Conchoi'dal (Ghr. icoyx% konche, a 
shell ; cISof, eidos, form). Like a 

Conchol'ogy (Gr. Koyxn, hmche, a 
shell ; X070S, logos, ti, word or 
description). The science which 
describes shells. 

Conchyliom,'etry (Gr. Koyxv^^^ov, 
konchu'lion, a shell ; lurpov, me- 
iron, a measure). The art of mea- 
suring shells or their curves. 

Concoo'tion (Lat. eon, implying per- 
fection ; coqw), I cook). A diges> 
tion, or ripening. 

Concomltaat (Lat. con, with ; eomes^ 
a companion). Accompanying. 

Conoord (Lat. cou^ -wvSSq.n tw^ ^^ 



heart). Agreement ; in music, 
the union of two or more sounds 
80 as to produce an agreeable im- 
pression on the ear. 

Con'orete (Lat. con, together ; crescOf 
Igrow). Qrowntogether, or united ; 
in logiCf applied to a term which 
includes both the subject and its 
quality ; in architecture, a mass of 
lime, sand, and gravel, or broken 
stones, commonly used for the 
foundation of buildings. 

Concre'tion (Lat. con, together; cresco, 
I grow). The act of growing to- 
gether, or becoming consistent or 
hard ; a mass formed by the union 
of particles. 

Concre'tioxiary Deposits. In geoloqy, 
the recent alluvial strata, including 
calcareous and other deposits from 

Condensa'tion (Lat. con, together; 
densua, thick). The act of making 
dense, or of causing the particles 
of a body to approach each other 
more closely ; the state of being 
made dense. 

Condens'e (Lat. con, with; denstts, 
thick). To make dense or thick, 
by forcing the particles of a body 
into a smaller compass. 

Condens'er (Lat. con, with ; densus, 
thick). An instrument or apparatus 
by which gases or vapours may be 

Conduc'tion (Lat con, with; duco, 
I lead). A leading ; the property 
by which heat, electricity, &c., is 
transmitted without a change in 
the particles of the conducting 
body. • 

Condnc'tor (Lat. con, together : duco, 
I lead). A leader ; in natural 
philosophy, a body that receives 
and communicates electricity or 

Condu'plicate (Lat. con, together; 
duplex, double). Double, or folded 
over together ; applied in botany to 
leaves, when folded together from 
the midrib. 

Con'dyle (Gr. kovBuKos, Jcon'dulos, a 
knuckle). A rounded projection at 
the end of a bone ; a knuckle. 

Con'dyloid (Gr. kov^vXos, kon'dtUoSf a 

knuckle ; tiSos, eidos, form). Re- 
sembling a condyle : applied espe- 
cially to the projection by which 
the lower jaw is articulated with 
the head. 

Con'dylopods (Gr. kop9uXos, Jeon'dvloa^ 
a knuckle ; irovr, pous, a foot). 
Articulated animals with jointed 
legs, as insects and Crustacea. 

Cone (Gr. kwvos, kHruts). A body 
with a circular base, ending in a 
point at the top ; in botany, % mass 
of hard scales or bracts coYering 
naked seeds. 

Ckmfer'vBB (Lat.). Plants consisting 
merely of round or cylindrical cells 
united into a filament. 

ConliBr'void (Lat. conferva^ a kind of 
water plant; Gr. tVhs^ eidot, 
form). Resembling conferra ; a 
kind of fresh -water plant consist- 
ing of jointed stems. 

Confignra'tlon (Lat. con, together; 
figuira, a figure). The shape or 
outline of a body. 

Con'floent (Lat. con^ together ; fiuc^ 
I flow). Flowing or running to- 
gether: applied to the union of 
parts on finally separate. 

Conform'able (Lat. con, together; 
forma, form). In geology, applied 
to strata or groups of strata ly- 
ing in parallel order one above 

Confionna'tion (Lat. con, together; 
foi'ma, form). The manner in 
which a body is formed ; structure. 

Cong^la'tion (Lat. con, together; gelo, 
I freeze). The process of passing 
from a fluid to a solid state, as 
water becomes converted into ice. 

Congen'erate (Lat. con, together; 
genus, a kind). Of the same kind 
or nature, or having the same 

Congenital (Lat. con, with ; gignor^ 
I am bom). Born with; belong- 
ing to an individual from birth. 

Conge'ries (Lat. co% together ; gero^ 
I bear). A mass of things heaped 
up together. 

Conges'tion (Lat. con, together ; gero, 
I bear). An accumulation of blood 
or other fluid in the vessels. 

Conges'tive (Lat. con, together; gerOy 



I bear). Belonging to or attended 
by congestion. 

Con'globate (Lat. con^ together ; glo- 
buSf a ball). Gathered into a 
round mass or ball. 

Conglom'erate (Lat. con, together; 
glomtUf a ball). Gathered into a 
ball or mass. Applied to works 
composed of rounded fragments. 

Con'ic (Gr. Kwyosj konoSf a cone). 
Haying the form of or belonging to 
a cone. 

Conic Sections. The figures formed 
by the division of a cone by a plane : 
they are five in number — the tri- 
angle, circle, ellipse or oval, para- 
bola, and hyperbola. 

Conif eroiLS (Lat. conttSf a cone ; ferOf 
I bear). Bearing cones : an order 
of plants, of wMch the fir, pine, 
and juniper are examples ; so called 
because their iiruit is in the form 
of a cone. 

Coniros'tres (Lat. contts, a cone ; 
rostrum f a beak). A tribe of in- 
scssorial or perching birds having 
strong conical beaks, of which the 
finches, crows, and hornbills are 

Con'jogate FooL In opticsy when part 
of the rays falling on a lens are 
refracted so as to meet in another 
focus than the principal focus, then 
the two foci are called conjugate foci. 

Conjunc'tion (Lat. con, together; 
jimgOf I join). A joining ; in oa- 
tronomy, the meeting of two or 
more stars or planets in the same 
degree of the zodiac ; a planet is 
in conjunction with the sun, when 
it appears in the same straight line 
from the earth. 

Coi^imcti'va (Lat. con, together ; 
jungo, I join). The fine membrane 
covering the front of the eye, which 
is a continuation of the mucous 
membrane lining the eyelids. 

Con'nate (Lat. con, together ; naacor, 
I am bom). Growing together. 

Connec'tive (Lat. eouy together ; necto, 
I knit). Connecting or joining to- 
gether ; in botany, the mass of 
cellular tissue and spiral vessels 
generally connecting the lobes of the 

Co'noid (Gr. khovos, honos, a cone ; 
tilosy eidos, shape). Like a cone ; 
in geometry y the solid figure formed 
by the revolution of a conic section 
round its axis. 

Conserva'trix (Lat. conser^vo, I pre- 
serve). Preserving : applied, in 
the expression vis conservatrix 
naturcBf to the power which the 
body has of resisting hurtful in- 

Consoridate (Lat. eon, together ; soti- 
dus, solid or firm). To make or 
become firm and hard. 

Con'sonance (Lat. con, together; 
sonus, a sound). A sounding to- 
gether; in music, an accord of 
sounds which produces an agreeable 
sensation in the ear. 

Constella'tion (Lat. con, together ; 
stelUi, a star). A cluster or assem- 
blage of stars. 

Conslit'aent (Lat. con, together ; 
stat'uo, I place). Forming an es- 
sential or necessary part of anything. 

Constitntional Diseases. Diseases 
which become developed under the 
iDfiuence of agents acting within the 

Constric'tor (Lat. con, together; 
string 0, I bind). A binder or 
drawer together: applied in <ma- 
tomy to muscles which close any 

Consump'tion (Lat. consu'mo, I con- 
sume). A consuming or destruction ; 
in medicine^ a gradual decay of the 
body, especially attended with a 
disease of the lungs. 

Contact Theory. In electrical science, 
the hypothesis of Volta, by which 
any two different conductors of elec- 
tricity placed in contact with each 
other produce a decomposition and 
mutual transference of their elec- 
tric fluids. 

Conta'gion (Lat. con, together; ta/ngo, 
I touch). A touching; in medicine, 
the communication of disease by 
touching the sick or his clothes, 

Conta'g^oxis(Lat. con, together; tango, 
I touch). Capable of being com- 
municated by touch, or containing 
communicable matt^t. 



Ckyn'tinent (Lat eoUf together ; teneOf 
I hold). In geography i a large con- 
nected tract of land. 

Contort'ed (Lat. con^ together; tor'qwOi 
I twist). Twisted. 

Crontor^tion (Lat con^ together ; tm^- 
queOf I twist). A twisting out of 
the natural situation. 

Ckmtor'tive (Lat. conior'queoy I twist 
together). In botan/y, applied to 
the arrangement of a f ower-bud in 
which the edges of the parts alter- 
nately overlap, while each part is 
twisted on its axis. 

Contra. A Latin preposition signi- 
fying against, used in composition. 

Contrac'tile (Lat. cortf together ; 
trakOf I draw). Having the pro- 
perty of contracting or drawing 

ContoMtil'ity (Lat. con, together ; 
trahOf I draw). The property by 
which bodies shrink or contract. 

Contu'se (Lat. corij together ; tundOf 
I beat). To beat or bruise. 

Contu'sion (Lat. conf together ; tundot 
I beat). The act of beating or 
bruising ; a bruise. 

Convales'cence (Lat. con, together ; 
vcileo, I am in health). The re- 
covery of health after illness. 

Convec'tion (Lat. con, with ; veho, I 
cany). The power which fluids 
have of transmitting heat or elec- 
tricity by currents. 

Conver'ge (Lat. con, together ; vergo, 
I incline). To tend to one point. 

Con'verse (Lat. con, with; verto, I 
turn). In rrMthematics or logk^ a 
proposition formed by inverting or 
interchanging the terms of another. 

Con'vez (Lat. convealus). Rising into 
a spherical or rounded form* 

Con' volute (Lat. con, together ; volvo, 
I roll). Rolled together ; applied 
to leaves rolled together in the bud 
in a single coil. 

Conyola'tion(Lat. con, together; volvo, 
I roll). A rolling together ; in 
cmatomy, applied to the windings 
of the brain and the intestines. 

Convnl'sion (Lat. con^ together ; vello, 
I pull). General involuntary con- 
traction of the muscles. 

Co-or'dmates (Lat. e&n, together; or- 

dino, I put in order.) Ingeometry, 
a system of lines to which points 
under conatderniion ai-e referred, 
and by means of which their po- 
sition is determined. 

Coper'nican {Copernicus, an astrono- 
n>er). In astronom/y,. applied to 
the system proposed by Gopemicns, 
who taught that the earth revolves 
round the sun. 

Cop'rolites (Gr. Korpos, kopros, dung ; 
\idos, lithos, a stone). FossillBed 
excrements of animals. 

Cor'acoid (Gr. icopa^, lu^rax, a crow ; 
ctSos, eidos, shape). Resembling a 
crow's beak : applied to a process of 
the shoulder-blade, which attains a 
large size in birds and reptiles. 

Coral (Gr. KopaWiov, koratlion). A 
general term for all calcareous 
structures formed by the action of 
marine polypes or zoophytes. 

Cor'alloid {Coral ; Gr. tl^os, eidos, 
shape). Resembling coral 

Cord'ate (Lat. cor, the heart). Shaped 
like a heart. 

Cord'ifonn (Lat. cor, the heart; forma, 
form). Shaped like a heart. 

Coria'ceoos (Lat. co'rium, leather). 
Resembling leather ; tough. 

CO'iinm (Lat. skin or leather). The 
true skin, lying beneath the cu- 

Conn (Gr. Kopfios, Jcormos, a stem or 
log). In botany, a thickened under- 
ground stem. 

Corm'ogen (Gr. Kopfios, Jcormos, a 
corm ; yfyyouo, gennao, I produce). 
Producing conns ; applied to plants 
which produce stems composed of 
both vessels and cells. 

Combrash. A coarse shelly limestone 
in the upper oolite. 

Cor'nea (Lat. comu, a horn). The 
hwny membrane : a part of the 
eye, so called from its resembling 
transparent horn. 

Cor'neons (Lat. cornu, a horn). Homy. 

Cor'nenle((7orwea ; ule, denoting small- 
ness). A little cornea ; such as 
covers each segment of the com- 
pound eyes of insects. 

Cor'nice (Gr. Kopwyis, koro'nisj a crown). 
The highest part of the entablature 
of a column ; any series of oma- 



mental work that crowns a wall 
externally or internally. 

Cor'nua (Plural of Lat. comtif a Horn). 
Horns : applied in anatomy to cer- 
tain parts from their position. 

Corolla (Lat. eoro'nOf a crown). The 
inner whorl or row, generally 
coloured, of the leaves which form 
a flower. 

Gor'ollary (Lat. corotla, a crown). A 
conclusion drawn from something 
already demonstrated. 

Corolliflo'ral {Corolla ; floSf a flower). 
A sub-class of exogenous plants 
which have both calyx and corolla, 
the petals being imitedi and the 
stamens hypogynous. 

Coro'na (Lat. a crown). In aruUomyf 
the upper surface of the molar 
teeth ; in botany ^ the circumference 
or margin of a radiated compound 
flower ; in optics^ a halo or lumi- 
nous circle round the sun, moon, or 

Coro'nal (Lat. coro'na^ a crown). Be- 
longing to the top of the head. 

Cor'onaiy (Lat. coro'^tta, a crown). 
Belonging to a crown ; applied in 
anatomy f to the vessels which sup- 
ply the heart with blood for its 
nutrition, also to vessels of the lips 
and stomach. 

Coro'niform (Lat. coro'na^ a crown ; 
forma^ shape). Like a crown. 

Coro'noid (Gr. Koptavri, kordncf a crow ; 
ciSos, eidoSf form). Resembling a 
crow's beak ; in anatomy^ applied 
to cei'tain processes of bones from 
their shape. 

Cor^puB (Lat.) A body : applied in 
anatomy to several parts of the 

Corpus'cle (Lat. corjm^culv/niy a little 
body, from corpus^ a body). A 
small particle. 

Corpus'cular (Lat. corpva'cvZum^ a 
little body). Relating to small 
particles ; applied to a theory of 
light, which supposes it to consist 
of minute particles emitted from 
luminous bodies. 

Correla'tion (Lat. con, together ; re- 
latvSj brought). A mutual or 
reciprocal relation. 

Corro'de (Lat. con, together ; rodo, I 

gnaw). To eat or wear away by 

Corro'sion (Lat. con ; rodOf I gnaw). 
A wearing away, as of metals, by 
the action of acids. 

Corro'sive (Lat. con ; rodo, I gnaw). 
Having the property of gradually 
eating or wearing away. 

Cor'rugate (Lat con ; ru^a, a wrinkle). 
To draw into folds or wrinkles. 

Cort'ical (Lat. cortex^ bark). Belong- 
ing to or forming the external 

Comsca'tion (Lat. cotnisco, I flash). 
A flash of light. 

Cor'ymb (Gr. Kopvfi$oSf hor^umhoSf a 
cluster). A form of inflorescence 
consisting of a raceme or panicle in 
which the lower flowers have short 
pedicels, and the upper short ones, 
so that all form a nearly level 

Cose'cant (Lat. con; seco, I cut). 
The secant of the complement of an 
arc of a circle. 

Co'sine (Lat. con, with ; sine). The 
sine of the complement of the arc 
of a circle. 

Cos'mical (Gr. Koa-fios, IsosmoSf the 
universe). Relating to the uni- 

Cosmog'ony (Gr. Koa-fioSf Jcosmos, the 
world or universe ; y^wouaj gennadf 
I produce). The science which 
treats of the orgin or formation of 
the universe. 

Cosmog^raphy (Gr. Koa-fios^ hosmos, 
the universe ; ypcupWf grapko, I 
write). A description of the uni- 

Cosmorogy (Gr. Kotrfiosy Jeosm^oSy the 
universe ; A67W, legoy I describe). 
The science of the universe, or of 
the formation and arrangement of 
its compouent parts. 

Cosmora'ma (Gr. Koa/xoSf hosmos, the 
universe ; dpaw, horao, I see). A 
view, or series of views, of the 

Cosmos (Gr. Koa-fios, hosmos, order or 
arrangement ; also the world.) The 
universe ; the whole created things 
constituting the perceptible world. 

Cos'mo8phere(Gr. ko^iaos, hosmos, the 
world ; atpcupa^ spkaira, a sphereV 



An instrnment for showing the po- 
sition of the earth with respect to 
the fixed stars. 

Costal (Lat. costa, a rib). Belonging 
to the ribs. 

Cotan'gent (Lat. con^ with ; iangoy I 
tonch). The tangent of the com- 
plement of an arc of a circle. 

Coti'dal (Lat. con^ with ; tide). Having 
tides at the same time. 

Cotyle'don(Gr. KorvKriiwVj hotuledoriy 
a cup-like hollow). In hotany^ the 
temporary leaf which first appears 
above ground ; in ancUomyj ap- 
plied to the portions of which the 
placentae of some animals are 

Cotyloid (Qr,Korv\r\^ Jcot'ule, a cup or 
socket; clSos, eidos, shape). Be- 
sembling the socket of a joint. 

Coup (Fr.). A blow or stroke. 

Coup d*<Bil (Fr., stroke of the eye). 
A general view. 

Coup de Boleil (Fr., stroke of the sun). 
A disease produced by exposure of 
the head to the rays of the sun. 

Coxal'gia (Lat. coxay the hip; Gtr. 
d\yo5f algo8f pain). Pain in the hip. 

Cra'nial (Lat. cra'nium^ the skull). 
Of or belonging to the skuU. 

Craniol'ogy (Gr. Kptofiov, hra'nion, the 
skull; XoyoSf logoSj a description). 
A description of the skull. 

Crasis (Gr. Ktpavwfii, kerannu'mif I 
mix). A mixture : applied to the 
just mixture of the fluids of the 
body : in grammar^ the union of 
two short vowels into a long one or 
a diphthong. 

Crassament'um (Lat. crassus^ thick). 
The thick part or clot of blood. 

Crater (Gr. Kparrip, hrater^ a large 
cup). The mouth of a volcano. 

Crayon (Fr. craie^ chalk). A coloured 
stone or earth used in drawing ; a 
kind of pencil made of the same. 

Cre'asote (Gr. /fpeos, kreas^ flesh; 
<rw^a>, aozo, I preserve). An oily 
liquid consisting of carbon, oxygen, 
and hydrogen, obtained from tar, 
and named from its property of 
preserving animal substences. 

Cre'atin (Gr. Kpias^ Icreas^ flesh). A 
substance obtained from flesh, be- 
lieved to be its essential element. 

Creat'inin (Gr. Kpta% Tereaa^ flesh). 
A modified form of creatin. 

Crem'ocarp (Gr. Kptfuuff kremao, I 
suspend ; KopwoSf karpoSy iruit). 
A fruit consisting of two achsenia 
united by their faces, and covered 
by the tube of the calyx. 

Cre'nate (Lat. crenaf a notch). 
Notched ; in hotany^ applied to 
leaves having superficial rounded 
divisions at their edges. 

Crepitant (Lat. crep'ito^ I crackle). 
Crackling or snapping. 

Crepitate (Lat. crep'itOf I crackle). 
To crackle. 

Crepitus (Lat.). A crackling sound. 

Crepus'cular {hdX.crepua'cvlmn^ twi- 
light). Of or relating to twilight. 

Crepuscula'ria (Lat. creput'etdAMiHy 
twilight). A family of lepido- 
pterous or scaly-winged insects, 
which mostly fly by twilight^ as 
the sphinxes or hawk-moths. 

Creta'ceous (Lat. creta, chalk). Of or 
relating to chalk. 

Cret'inism. The state of a Cretin : a 
diseased state characterised by im- 
becility of mind and body, common 
in Switzerland and some other 
mountainous countries. 

Crib'riform (Lat. cribrum^ a sieve ; 
forma^ shape). Like a sieve. 

Cri'coid (Gr. Kpixos, krikoSf a ring ; 
fi^oif eidoSf shape). Like a ring. 

Cri'noid (Gr. Kpivo^^ krinosy a lily ; 
€t8os, eidoSf shape). Like a lily : 
applied to certain fossil echinoder- 
matous invertebrates supported on 
jointed stalks. 

Cri'sis (Gr. KpivoD^ krinbf I judge or 
determine). That state of a disease 
or other affair, in which it has 
arrived at its height, and must soon 
change; in medicine^ generally 
applied to the change itsel£ 

Cris'ta (Lat. a crest). Li anaitomyf 
a term applied to several propesses 
of bones. 

Critical (Gr. npivoa, krind^ I judge or 
determine). Relating to judging ; 
in medicine^ marking or producing 
a change in a disease. 

Crocodil'ia {Crocodile), The dass of 
reptiles of which the crocodile is the 



Crop. In geology f the edge of an in- 
clined stratum when it comes to 
the surface. 

Cm'cial (Lat. criwj, a cross). Trans- 
verse ; like a cross ; in experiTnental 
science^ searching, decisive. 

Cm'cible (Lat. cru'doj I torment). A 
vessel of clay, sand, and ground 
ware, or other material capable of 
enduring heat : used in chemistry 
and manufactures. 

Cmcif erous (Lat. cruoc, a cross ; ferOy 

I bear). Bearing a cross : applied 

to an order of plants, the four petals 

of the flowers of which are arranged 

' in the form of a cross. 

Cru'cifbrm (Lat. crttXy a cross \»forma^ 
shape). Shaped or arranged like a 

Crudity (Lat. cruduSf raw). Bawness; 
undigested substance. 

Crura (Lat. crus^ a leg). Legs ; in 
anatomy f applied fancifully to pro- 
jections of some parts of the body. 

Crural (Lat. cmsj a leg). Of or be- 
longing to the legs. 

Crusto petrosa (Lat. a strong crust). 
A bony layer which covers the fangs 
of the teeth. 

Crusta'ceous (Lat. cruBta, a crust or 
shell). Having a crust : applied to 
a class of invertebrate animals, of 
which the lobster is an example, 
which have hard jointed shells. 

Cryoph'orus (Gr. Kpvosy Jcraos^ ice ; 
^epctf, pherOf I bear). An instru- 
ment for freezing water by its own 

Crypt (Gr. Kpxmruj Jcruptd^ I hide). A 
hidden recess ; in anatomy y applied 
to some of the minute cavities or 
simple glands of mucous membranes. 

CryptobrcuLch'iate (Gr. Kpvin-tay krupto, 
I hide ; /Spovx'a, hranchia, gills). 
Not having conspicuous gills; ap- 
plied to certain articulated and 
molluscous animals. 

Cryptogam'ia (Lat. Kpinrrwy hruptd, I 
hide; 70^10^, gamoSf marriage). 
An order of plants in which the 
distinction of sexes is not obvious. 

Crystal (Or. /cpuo-ToAAos, hrustal'log, 
ice). A geometrical figure, assumed 
by most substances under favour- 
able circumstances ; also a general 

name for some transparent mineral 

Crys'talline (Gr. /cpverraXXos, hrus- 
tal'loSf ice or crystal). Consisting 
of or resembling crystal : applied to 
a lens of the eye. 

Crystalli8a'tion(Gr. Kpva-raJiKos.hrus- 
tal'losy ice or crystal). The as- 
suming of crystalline or geometrical 
forms by substances. 

Crystallog'raphy (Gr. Kpva-raWoSf 
krustal'los, ice or crystal ; ypcufnOf 
graphoy I write). The science which 
describes crystals. 

Cten'oid (Gr. KreiSf JcteiSy a comb; 
elioSf eidoSf form). An order of 
fishes having scales jagged like the 
teeth of a comb. 

Ctenoptychlus (Gr. irrcfs, hteisy a 
comb ; vTvxVt ptuche^ a wrinkle). 
A genus of fossil teeth distinguished 
by the serrated margin of their 
cutting edges. 

Cube (Gr. kv^os, huhos, a solid square). 
In geom^tryy a solid body having 
six equal sides with equal angles ; 
in arithmetic^ the product of a 
number multiplied twice into itself. 

Cubic (Gr. kvjSos, hubosj a cube). 
Having the property of, or capable 
of being contained in, a cube. 

Cu'bital ^at. cubitus^ the elbow). Of 
or belonging to the elbow. 

CulMid (Gr. KvfioSf JeuboSf a cube ; 
eiSos, eidoSf shape). Like a cube 
or die. 

Cucul'late (Lat. cucuHhiSi a hood). 
Like a hood. 

Cul-de-sac (French). A passage closed 
at one end. 

Cul'minate (Lat. culmen, a top). To 
become vertical, or gain the extreme 
point of height. 

Cultriros'tres (Lat. cutter ^ a plough- 
share ; rostrum^ a beak). A family 
of grallffi or stilt-birds, having a 
long, thick, stout beak, including 
cranes, herons, and storks. 

Cum'brian [Cumbria, Wales). A name 
given to the strata which lie be- 
neath the true Silurian system, 
from their occurring largely in 
Wales and Cumberland. 

Cu'neate (Lat. cu'neWf a wedge). Like 
a wedge. 



Cu'neifonii (Lat. cu'neuSy a wedge ; 
forma^ shape). Like a wedge. 

Cupel (Lat. cupel'la, a little cup). A 
kind of cap used in chemistry, 
which, when heated, absorbs the 
refuse matter of the metals placed 
in it for purification. 

Cupella'tioii (Lat. cifpeZ^a, a little cap). 
The process of refining, especially 
gold and silver, by means of a capel. 

Cu'pola. A spherical or spheroidal 
covering to a building. 

Cupriferous (Lat. eupruMf copper ; 
ferOy I bear). Yielding copper. 

Ciurso'res (Lat. curroy I run). An 
order of birds constituted for run- 
ning only, as the ostrich : also a 
division of spiders which have the 
legs adapted for running. 

Curvicau'date (Lat. curriw, curved ; 
cauday a tail). Having a bent tail. 

Curvifoliate (Lat. curvusy curved ; 
fo'lium, a leaf). Having bent 

Curvilin'ear (Lat. curvtu, crooked ; 
lin'ea, a line). Having or moving 
in a curved line or curved lines. 

Curviner^vate (Lat. cuanmsy curved ; 
nervusy a nerve). Having the 
veins or nervures curved. 

Curviros'tral (Lat. curvusy crooked; 
rostruniy a beak). Having a bent 

Cuspidate (Lat. euspisy the point of 
a weapon). Pointed : applied in 
anatomy to the canine or eye-teeth. 

Cuta'neous (Lat. cutisy. the skin). Of 
or belonging to the skin. 

Cu'ticle (I^t. cutiSy the skin). The 
external or scarf skin, a membrane 
covering the true skin. 

Cutis (Lat.) The skin. 

Cy'anate. A compound of cyanic acid 
with a base. 

Cyanic (Gr. kvovos, Tcu'anoSy blue). 
Relating to blue ; applied to a series 
of colours having blue as the type. 

Cy'anide {Cyan'ogen ; terminal ide), 
A compound of cyanogen with an 
elementary substance. 

Cyan'f^ii (Gr. Kvavosy hu'anoSy blue; 
ycvvojiay gennaoy I produce). A gas 
consisting of carbon and nitrogen : 
it enters into the composition of 
hydrocyanic acid, and has its name 

from the blue colour produced by 
its compounds with certain salts of 

Cyano'sis (Gr. kvovos, 1cu'ano8y blue). 
A diseased condition, arising from 
a defect in the formation of the 
heart, and characterised by blue- 
ness of the skin. 

Cyan'otype {Cyanogen ; Gr. rwirot, 
tuposy an impression). A photo- 
graph prepared by washing paper 
with cyanide of potassium. 

Cyca'deous. Belonging to the order of 
plants which has the palm-tree as 
a- type. 

Cyc'adites (Cycas). Fossil plants 
allied to the cycas and zamia. 

Cycle (Gr. kvkXos, kvkloSy a circle). 
A series of numbers, as of years, in 
which, after a certain round has 
passed, a similar course com- 

Cyc'lioal(Gr. kvkAos, huklos, a circle). 
Belonging to a cycle. 

Cyclobran'chiate (Gr. kvkXosj hik- 
lo8y a circle; fipayx^f^ bran'chia, 
gills). Having the gUls disposed 
in a circle : applied to an order of 

Cy'cloid (Gr. KVKKoSy hJcloSy a circle ; 
6($os, eidoSy form). Resembling a 
circle ; applied to an order of fishes 
having smooth round scales, simple 
at the margin. 

Cycloneu'rous (Gr. kvkXos, hikloSf a 
circle ; vfvpovy neuron, a nerve). 
Having the nervous system in the 
form of a circle ; as in some of the 
radiated invertebrate animals. 

Cyclopee'dia (Ghr. kukAos, hiMot, a 
circle; 7r(u5c(a, paidei'a, instruc- 
tion). A work which contains an 
account of all the arts and sciences, 
or of all that relates to any par- 
ticular department. 

Cydop'teris (Gr. kvkAos, JcukloSf a 
circle ; vrepiSy pteris, a fern). A 
genus of fossil fem-like plants, with 
circular leaflets. 

Cydo'sis (Gr. kvkAos, IcuUoty a circle). 
Motion in a circle : applied to a 
movement of fluid observed in some 
parts of plants. * 

Cydos'tomous (Gr. kvkKos, htildoSy a 
circle ; arofiOf siomOf a mouth. 



Having a circular mouth, as certain 
fishes. , 

Cyrinder (Gr. KvXw^a^ huUn'do^ I 
roll). A roller ; a body produced 
by the revolution of a right-angled 
parallelogram round one of its 

Cyxne (Gh*. kvplol^ huma, a wave ?). In 
botany^ a form of ii^lorescence re- 
sembling a corymb, but branched, 
so as to have in part the character 
of an umbel. 

CyxLon'che (Gr. Kwav^ Icuon, a dog ; 
ayxut anoho, I strangle). Quinsy. 

Cyn'osure (Gr. KvwVf himi, a dog ; 
ovpa, oura, a tail). The dog*s tail : 
a constellatiou of seven stars near 
the north pole ; generally called 
Ursa Minor, or Charleses wain. 

Cyst (Gr. Kvansy Jcmtia^ a bladder). 
A small bladder ; generally applied 
to small sacs or bags containing 
matter of various kinds in disease. 

Cystic (Gr. Kvarts, histiSf a bladder). 
Belonging to, or resembling a cyst 
or bladder : applied to a class of 
parasitic animads ; also to a duct or 
tube proceeding from the gall- 

Cystid'esB (Gr. mcrtis, Jcustis, a blad- 
der). A family of fossil echino- 
derms, of a bladder-like shape. 

Cy'toblast (Gr. Kvrost JcutoSj a cell ; 
fiKcurravWy blas'tanoy I bud forth). 
The nucleus of animal and vegetable 

Cytoblaste'ma (Gr. frvras, Jcutos, a 
cell ; /SAaerrovw, hladtano^ I bud 
forth). The viscid fluid in which 
animal and vegetable cells are pro- 
duced, and by which they are held 

Cytogen'esifl (Gr. icvros, hitos^ a cell ; 
y€V€(ri5f gen'esiSf origin). The de- 
velopment of cells in animal and 
vegetable structures. 


Dac'tyl (Gr. StwcruXoy, dal^tuloSf a 
finger). A foot in verse, consisting 
of a long syllable followed by two 
short ones, like the joints of a 

D^^er'reotype. A picture produced 
according to the process invented by 
M. Daguerre, by the action of light 
on iodide of silver. 

Da'ta (Lat. do, I give). Things given ; 
facts or quantities, the existence of 
which is admitted as a foundation 
for the discovery of other results. 

Da'tive (Lat. do, I give). Giving ; 
that case or part of nouns which 
conveys with it the idea of giving 
or acquisition. 

Debacle (Fr.). In geologi/y & sudden 
flood or rush of water which breaks 
down opposing barriers. 

Debility (Lat debilis, weak). Weak- 

Del>ri8 (Fr. waste). Fragments ; 
broken pieces ; in geology, gener- 
ally applied to the larger fragments. 

Deca (Gr. Sexo, deka, ten). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying ten. 

Decade (Gr. Scko, deka, ten). A 

collection of ten, 
Dec'agOil (Gr. ^exa, deJca, ten ; yavia, 

gdnia, an angle). A figure having 

ten sides and ten angles. 
Dec'agTanmie (Gr. S^ko, deka, ten ; 

Fr. gramme, a weight so called). 

A French weight consisting of ten 

grammes, or neaiiy 154^ grains. 
Decagyn'ia (Gr. Btxa, deka, ten ; yvyri, 

guni, a female). An order of plants 

in the Linnsean system, having ten 

Decahed'ron (Gr. Sewo, deka, ten ; 

I5pa, hedra, a base). A solid 

having ten sides. 
Dec'alitre (Gr. dcKo, deka, ten; Fr. 

litre, a quart, or If English pints). 

A measure of ten- litres. 
Dec'alogne (Gr. Scko, deka, ten ; 

\oyos, logos, a word). The ten 

Dec'ametre (Gr. 9€Ka, deka, ten ; Fr. 

mitre, a measure equal to 3^ Eng- 
lish feet). A measure of ten mitres. 
Decan'dria (Gr. Sevo, deka, ten ; 

ayrtp, ancr, a man). A class of 



plants in the Linnsean system, 
having ten stamens. 

Decap'oda (Gr. Seico, deka^ ten ; irovs, 
poiiSf a foot). Animals having ten 

DecarlMnize (Lat. dCf from ; carbon). 
To remove carbon from a body. 

Dec'astyle (Gr. Scico, deica, ten; 
ffTvKos, stuloSf a column). Having 
ten pillars or columns. 

Decay (Lat. de^ down ; cadOf I fall). 
A slow destruction ; a decomposi- 
tion of moist organic matter ex- 
posed to air, by means of oxygen, 
without senaible increase of heat. 

Decern (Lat. ten). A prefiic in com- 
pound words, signifying ten. 

Decen'nial (Lat. decern^ ten ; annua, 
a year). Occurring every ten years ; 
lasting ten years. 

Decid'aous (Lat. de, down; cado, I 
foil). Apt to fall off. 

Dec'igramme (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. 
gramme). A tenth of a gramme ; 
about 1^ English grains. 

Dec'ilitre (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. litre, 
a quart, or } English pint). A 
tenth of a litre, 

Dec'imal (Lat. decern, ten). Relating 
to the number ten ; increasing or 
diminishing tenfold. 

Dec'imetre (Lat. decern, ten ; Fr. 
mMre, a measure equal to 3^ Eng- 
lish feet). A tenth part of a nUtre ; 
nearly 4 English inches. 

Declen'sion (Lat. decli'no, I bend 
down). A descent or slope ; the 
variation in a noun produced by a 
change of the ending of the word. 

Decli'nal (Lat. decli'no, I bend down). 
Bending down or sloping ; in geo- 
logy, applied to the slope of strata 
from an axis. 

Declina'tion (Lat. decli'no, I bend 
down). A variation from a fixed 
line or point : as of a heavenly body 
from the equator, or of a magnetic 
needle from the true meridian. 

Decoction (Lat. de, down; co'quo, I 
cook). The art of boiling a. sub- 
stance in water ; f)iiid impregnated 
with any substance by boiling. 

Decol'lated (Lat. de, off; coUum, a 
neck). Having the apex or head 
worn off. 

Decolorisa'tioii (Lat. de, from ; a^, 
colour). B«moval of colour. 

Decororise (Lat. de, from ; eotoTf 
colour). To remove colour. 

Decompo'se (Lat. de, from ; compo'no, 
I put together). To separate the 
constituent parts of a body from 
each other. 

Decom'positioii (Lat. de^ from ; com- 
po'no, I put together). The separa- 
tion of a body into its constituent 
parts or elements. 

Decompositioii of Forces. The term 
applied to the division of any foroein- 
to several others, the result of whidi 
is equal to the force decomposed. 

Decompositioii of Light The separa- 
tion of a beam into the several rays 
producing prismatic colours. 

Decomponnd' (Lat. de, from ; com- 
po'no, I put together). In bdanpf 
applied to leaves, of which the 
petiole is so divided that each part 
forms a compound leaf. 

Decor'ticate (Lat. de, from ; cortex, 
bark). To strip off the bark or 
outer covering. 

De'crement (Lat. decre^co, I grow 
less). The quantity by which any- 
thing is lessened. 

Decrepitation (Lat. de, from ; crep'- 
itus, a crackling). A roasting with 
a crackling noise, produced by a 
series of small explosions from snd- 
den expansion by heat. 

Decu'bitus (Lat. de, down ; cumho, I 
lie). A lying down ; position in bed. 

Decum'1)ont(Lat. decumbo, I lie down). 
Lying down ; in botany, appUed to 
stems which lie on the ground, but 
rise towards their end. 

Decnss'ate (Lat. decus'ao, I cut across). 
To intersect or cross, like the strokes 
of the letter X. 

Decuss'ation (Lat. decus'so, I cut 
across). An intersection or crossing. 

Defeca'tion (Lat. de, from; fcex, 
dregs or refuse matter). Purifica- 
tion from dregs ; expulsion of ad- 
ventitious matter. 

Deferent (Lat. de, from; fero, I 
carry). Carrying away. 

Definite (Lat. de^ down ; Jlnio, I 
limit). In logic, marking out a 
particular class ; in botany, applied 



to inflorescence when it ends in 
a single flower, which is the flrst 
on the stem to expand. 

De'fiagrate (Lat. dCf down ; flagroj I 
bum). To burn rapidly. 

Deflec'ted (Lat. de^ down ; fiectOf I 
bend). Bent down. 

Deflec'tioii (Lat. de^ from ; fiecto, I 
bend). A bending or turning aside 
from the direct course. 

Defiec'tive (Lat. de, from flecto, I 
bend). Bending or turning aside. 

Defiuzlon (Lat. de, down; fluo^ I 
flow). A flowing down. 

Degen'eratioii (Lat. de, down ; gemtSy 
a kind). A growing worse or in- 
ferior ; a falling from the normal 
or healthv state to one which is in- 

Deglutition (Lat. de, down ; glutio, 
I swallow). The act of swallowing. 

DegTada'tion (Lat. de, down ; gradtLS, 
a step). In geology ^ a removing or 
casting down step by step. 

Degree (Lat. de, from ; gradus, a 
step). A step ; in geometry, the 
three hundred and sixtieth part of 
the circumference of a circle. 

Dehis'cence (Lat. dehis'co, I gape). 
A gaping or opening ; the splitting 
open of a bag containing eggs, or of 
a fruit containing seeds. 

Dehis'cent (Lat. dekis'co, I gape). 
Opening like the pod' of a plant. 

Delete'rious (Gr. Sri^eotiai, dcleomai, 
I destroy). Destructiye ; injuri- 
ous ; poisonous. 

Deliqae8'cence(Lat. de, down ; liques'- 
co, I melt). A melting ; the pro- 
cess by which saline matters attract 
water from the air, and thus be- 
come melted. 

DeUq'uium (Lat. want or defect). A 
failure of power ; fainting. 

Delirium (Lat. deli'ro, I dote or rave). 
A wandering of the ideas of the mind. 

Delta (the Greek letter A). A piece 
of land enclosed within two mouths 
of a river which branches before 
reaching the sea : originally ap- 
plied to the land enclosed between 
the mouths of the Nile. 

Dertoid (Gr. AfKra,the letter delta or 
A ; flSos, eidoa, shape). Resembling 
the letter A or delta ; triangular. 

Demen'tia (Lat. de, from ; mens, the 
mind). Want of intellect ; a form 
of insanity characterised by a rapid 
succession of imperfect and uncon- 
nected ideas, with loss of reflection 
and attention. 

Demi (Lat. dimid'ivm, half). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying half. 

Demotic (Gr. JiT)fxos, demos, people). 
Belonging to the people : applied to 
the alphabet used by the people, as 
distinguished from that used by a 
certain class ; as among the Egyp- 

Demul'ceiit (Lat, de, from ; mul'ceo, 
I soothe or soften). Softening or 

De'nary (Lat. deni, a series of tens). 
Containing tens; having the number 
tens as the characteristic. 

Dendriform (Gr. Beydpov, dendron, a 
tree ; Lat. forma, shape). Ee- 
sembling a tree. 

Dendrit'ic (Gr. d€pBpov, dendron, a 
tree). Resembling a tree or shrub ; 

Den'droid (Gr. BevBpov, dendron, a 
tree i^ eidos, eidos, shape). Resem- 
bling a tree. 

Den'drolite (Gr. hivBpov, dendron, a 
tree ; KiOos, lithos, a stone). A 
fossil plant or part of a plant. 

Dendrom'eter (Gr. ^epdpov, dendron, 
a tree ; fitrpou, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring trees. 

Density (Lat. densus, thick). Thick- 
ness ; the quantity of matter in a 
subs^nce, compared with that in 
an equal volume of another sub- 

Dental (Lat. dens, a tooth). Belong- 
ing to the teeth; formed by the 

Dental Formula. A formula used to 
denote the number of the different 
kinds of teeth in an animal. 

Dent'ary (Lat. dens, a tooth). A 
bone in the head of fishes and rep- 
tiles, which supports the teeth. 

Dentate (Lat. dens, a tooth). Having 
tooth-like projections. 

Den'ticle (Lat. dens, a tooth ; cle, 
denoting smallness). A little tooth, 
or projection like a tooth. 

Dentic'nlate (Lat. dens^ a tciQt\\\. 



Haying small teeth, or projections 
like teeth. 

Den'tifrioe (Lat. dens, a tooth ; frico, 
I nib). A substance used in clean- 
ing teeth; tooth-powder. 

]>6ntig'6rou8 (Lat. denSf a tooth ; gero, 
I bear). Bearing teeth. 

Den'tine (Lat. dens, a tooth). The 
part of a tooth commonly known as 

Dentiros'tres (Lat. denSj a tooth ; 
rostrum^ a beak). A family of birds 
of the passerine order, having the 
upper bill notched towards the 

Dcaititlon (Lat. den*, a tooth). The 
process of breeding or cutting teeth. 

Denada'tion (Lat. dt, from ; nudw, 
bare). A stripping bare. 

Beo'doriflO (Lat. de^ from; odor, 
smell). To deprive of smell. 

Deodorisa'tion (Lat. de^ from ; odoTj 
smell). A depriving of smell. 

Deoxidate, or Deoxidise, or Deoxyg'- 
enate (Lat. de, from ; oxidate, 
to charge with oxygen). To de- 
prive of oxygen. 

De^Uogis'ticated. Deprived of phlo- 
giston, the supposed principle of 
inflammability : a term formerly 
applied to oxygen gas. 

Depi'latory (Lat. de, from ; 'pUuSy 
hair). Having the property of 
removing hair. 

Deple'tion (Lat. de, from ; pleo, I 
fill). Emptying ; diminishing the 
quantity contained. 

Dcpos'it (Lat. de, down ; pono, I 
put). Any thing or substance 
thrown down, as from fluid in 
which it has been suspended. 

Deprava'tion (Lat. de, down ; jyravus, 
bad). A making bad or worse. 

Depres'sion (Lat. de, down ; 'prem'o, 
I press). A pressing down ; a 
sinking in or down. 

Depres'sor (Lat. cfe, down ; 'prem'o, I 
press). That which depresses or 
draws down : applied to certain 

De^pnrate (Lat. <?e, from ; puru9\f 
pure). To render free from impurities. 

Depura'tioxi (Lat. de, from ; purus, 
pure). Purification ; Tendering'free 
from impurities. 

Derby-spar. Fluoride of calcium, or 

Deriva'tion (Lat. de, from ; rivus, a 
stream). In grammar, the tracing 
a word to the source from which 
it has been obtained. 

Deriy'ative (Lat. de, from ; rivus, a 
stream). Turning aside, or draw- 
ing away from another part, as 
applied to medicines ; in gramm^w, 
a word which has its origin in 
another 'word. 

Derma (Or. Scf^/xa, derma, skin). The 
true skin. 

Der'mal (Or. Sep/uo, derm^, skin). 
Belonging to or formed of skin. 

Dermatorogy (Gr. htpyua, derma, 
the skin ; Xoyos, logos, discourse). 
A description of the skin. 

Dermone'iiral (Gr. htpfxa, denna, the 
skin ; yevpov, neuron, a nerve). A 
name given to the outer or upper 
row of spines on the back of a fish, 
from their connection with the 
skin, and their position in respect 
to the part of the skeleton which 
protects the nervous system. 

Dermoskereton (Gr. Btpfxa, derma, 
skin ; CKeKerou, skeVeton), A skin 
skeleton ; the external covering, 
more or less hard, of many inverte- 
brate animals ; also the skeleton 
formed of bones connected with the 
skin in fishes and some other ver- 

Desici'oate (Lat. de, from; sieciis, 
dry). To make dry. 

Desicca'tioii (Lat. de, from ; sicetu^ 
dry). The act of making dry. 

Desic'cative (Lat. de, from ; siccus, 
dry). Drying. 

Desmog'raphy (Gr. Sea-fxos, desmos, 
a ligament ; ypoufw, grapho, I 
write). A description of the liga- 
ments of the body. 

Desqoama'tion (Lat. de, from ; squta- 
ma, a scale). A throwing off in 

Deter'gent (Lat de, from ; tergo, I 
wipe). Cleansing. 

Deter'minate (Lat. de, from ; ter'-mi- 
nus, an end). Limited ; in mxUhe* 
monies, applied to problems that are 
capable of only one solution. 

De'tonate (Lat. de, from ; Umo, I 



thunder). To explode, or cause to 
Detona'tion (Lat. <2e, from ; tonoy I 
thunder). An explosion or sudden 
De'trahent (Lat. de, down ; trakoy I 

draw). Drawing down. 
Detri'tus (Lat. de^ down ; terOy I 
rub). That which is worn oflF 
horn solid bodies, as rocks, by 
friction : generally applied to the 
more finely diyided portions. 

Ddtru'sion (Lat. dCy from ; trtidOf I 
thrust). A thi-usting from or 

Deu'tero- or Deuto- (Gr. Bivrepos, 
deu'teroSf second). A prefix, deno- 
ting the second degree of the word 
joined with it. 

DetLtoxlde (Gr. Bem^posy deu'teros, 
second ; oxide). The compound 
of a body with oxygen, containing 
the next greatest quantity of oxygen 
to the protoxide, or basic oxide. 

Deyel'opmeiit (Fr. developpeVf to un- 
fold). An unfolding ; the change 
which takes place in living bodies 
ji their progress towards maturity. 

Devo'nian (Devon). In geology, a 
term applied to the old red sand- 
stone system, of which poi;tions are 
particularly developed in Devon- 

Dew-point. The temperature at 
which the watory vapour in the 
atmosphere begins to be deposited 
on the sur&ce of the earth. 

Deztrin (Lat. dexter, right). A sub- 
stance resembling gum, and used 
in art as a substitute for it : so 
called from turning the plane in 
polarised light to. the right hand. 

Diabe'tes (Gr. 5ta, dia, through ; 
ficuvd), baino, I go). An immode- 
rate flow of urine. 

Diacous'tics (Gr. dux, dia, through; 
iucovco, aJcoiio, I hear). The science 
of refracted sounds. 

Diadel'phia (Gr. Bis, dis, double ; 
aitKipos, adePphos, a brother). A 
class of plants in the Linneean sys- 
tem, having the filaments of the 
stamens united into two parcels. 

Diffi'resis (Gr. Bia, dia, apart ; cupea, 
haired, I take). A separation ; in 

grammar, the separation of a syl- 
lable into two ; or the mark ", 
which denotes that the vowel on 
which it is placed is separated from 
that which precedes it. 

Diagno'sis (Gr. dia, dia, through or 
between ; yivuvKw, ginds'ko, I 
know). A distinction or differ- 
ence ; in medicine, the distinction 
of one disease from another. 

Diag'onal (Gr. 5<a, dia, through ; 
7ctfi'm, gonia, an angle). A line 
drawn from one angle of a four- 
sided figure to the opposite angle. 

Di'agram (Gr. dia, dia, through; 
ypatpco, grapko, I write). A figure 
drawn for the purpose of giving a 
general idea of an object, without 
accuracy in minute details. 

Di'alect (Gr. Bia, dia, separate ; \€ya>, 
lego, I speak). The form in which 
the parent language of a state is 
spoken in a province. 

Dial'lage' (Gr.SioAXaT?;, interchange). 
In mineralogy, a mineral con- 
sisting of silica and magnesia of a 
changeable colour; in rhetoric, a 
figure by which arguments are 
placed in different points of view, 
and then brought to bear upon one 

Diamagnefic (Gr. dia, dia, through; 
fiayvrfs, mxignes, a magnet). A 
term applied to substances which, 
under the influence of magnetism, 
take a position at right angles to 
the magnetic meridian. 

Diamag'netism (Gr. dia, dia, 
through ; fiayvjis, magnes, a mag- 
net). A peculiar property of many 
bodies, which, not being themselves 
magnetic^ are repelled bysufiiciently 
powerful electro-ma.;nets, and take 
a position at right angles to the 
magnetic equator. 

Diam'eter (Gr. dia, dia, through ; 
fifrpou, metron, a measure). A 
straight line passing through the 
centre of a body from one side to 
the other. 

Dian'dria (Gr. dis, dis, double ; hnr^p, 
aner, a man). A class of plants in 
the Linnsean system, having two 

Diaph'anoQS (Gr. dia, dia, through ; 



^ouv(Cf phainOf I show). Allowing 
light to pass through, but not so as 
to form distinct images of objects. 

Diaphore'sis (Gr. Sia, dia, through ; 
<f>op*(iif phor'edy I carry). An in- 
crease of perspiration. 

Diaphoretic (Gr. Sto, dia^ through ; 
<f>opfa), pk(y/eoy I carry). Producing 
an increase of perspiration. 

Diaphragm (Gr. Sia, dia^ apart ; 
ippaa-ffWf phrasso, I fence in). The 
midriff, or membranous and mus- 
cular partition which divides the 
chest from the abdomen ; a black 
perforated plate, used in optical 
instruments, for allowing only the 
central rays to reach the eye. 

Diaphragmaf ic (Gr. diatppayfia, dia- 
phragmay the midriff). Belonging 
to the diaphragm. 

Diaph'ysis (Gr. diOy dia^ apart; 
(pvcoy phvMy I grow). A term ap- 
plied to the shaft of a long bone, 
of which the ends are completed 
by the addition of portions ossified 

Diapoph'ysis (Gr. Sto, dia^ apart; 
diro, apoy from ; <pxmy phuoy I 
grow). A name given to the trans- 
verse process of a vertebra in the 
archetype skeleton. 

DiarrhoB'a (Gr. Sto, diay through; 
/ieft>, rheoy I flow). An excessive 
discharge from the bowels. 

Diarthro'sis (Gr. Sto, diay through ; 
dp0f>ov, ar^ron, a jcont). A move- 
able joint, such as those of the 
limbs or lower jaw, 

Di'astase (Gr. Buarnfity dmtemiy I 
separate). A peculiar azotised 
substance found in germinating 
seeds or buds in a state of develop- 
ment, and having the property of 
transfoiming starch into sugar. 

Dias'tole' (Gr. BiOy dia, apart ; 
irreAAw, stello, I send). In physi- 
ologyy the dilatation or opening of 
the heart after contraction ; in gramr 
mavy a lengthening of a syllable. 

Dlather'mancy (Gr. huny dia, through; 
Oepfxouyw, tkermai'iMy I heat). The 
property which some substances 
possess of allowing rays of heat to 
pass through them, as light passes 
through glass. 

Diather'manotLS (Gr. 8ta, dta^ 
through ; dtpfiaii^Wy thermai'noy I 
heat). Having the property of 
transmitting heat, as glass trans- 
mits light. 

Diath'esis (Gr. Sta, dia, apart ; riBrifu, 
tithemiy I place). A particular 
state or disposition. 

Diaton'ic (Gr. 5ia, diOy through ; 
rovosy tonoSy sound). Ascend- 
ing or descending from sound to 

Dibran'chiate (Gr. 5is, disy double; 
fipayxia, hran'chiay gills). Having 
two gills : applied to an order of 

Diceph'alous (Gr. hiSy dU, twice ; 
Kf<f>a\rfy keph'alcy a head) Having 
two heads on one body. 

Dichlamyd'eouB (Gr. disy disy twice ; 
X^c^ivsy chlamusty a garment). 
Having two coverings ; in botanpy 
having calyx and corolla. 

DichobtL'ne (Gr. Bixoy dichoy doubly ; 
fiovvosy hounoSy a ridge). A genus 
of fossil quadrupeds, having deeply 
cleft ridges in the upper molar 

DichotomonB (Gr. 8ix«» dicha^ 
doubly; re/uvw, temno^ I cut). 
Dividing by pairs. 

DicQBlouB (Gr. 8(s, duy double; 
KoiKoSy koiloSy hollow). Having 
two cavities. 

Dicotyle'donois (Gr. Sis, diSy double ; 
KOTvXnBuvy hotvledoriy a seed lobe 
or leaf). Having two cotyledons 
or seed-leaves. 

Dic'tyogens (Gr. hicrvouy dikftuon, 
a net ; ytvvoMy genn'ady I produce). 
A sub-class of endogenous plants, 
having the veins of the leaves ar- 
ranged in a net- work, like exogens, 
instead of parallel. 

Dictyophyrinm (Gr. Sucrvov, diicftuorty 
a net; pvWopy phulloUy a leaf). 
Net-leaf : a genus provisionally in- 
cluding all unknown fossil dicoty- 
ledonous leaves of net-like struc- 

Dicyn'odon (Q;r. 5iy, diSy double ; 
Kxmvy humiy a dog ; oSovs, odottSy a 
tooth). Double canine-toothed : 
a provisional genus of reptiles with 
no teeth in the upper jaw, except 



two long tusks in sockets, cnrred 

Didac'tyle (Gr. 8(s, disy double ; 
doKTvXoSf daldtuloSy a finger). 
Haying two fingers or toes. 

Diderphic (Gr. his^ dis^ double; 
8cA(^vs, ddphuSj the womb). A 
term applied to a division of mam- 
mals of which the young are bom 
prematurely, including the mar- 
supiate and monotrematous ani- 

Didynaxn'ia (Gr. 8is, disj double; 
ZvvofiiSf du'namis, power). A 
Linnsean class of plants, having 
four stamens, two long and two 

Dielec'tric- (Gr. 8io, dia^ between ; 
electric). A bad conductor of 

Dietet^io (Gr. Siatro, diai'ta, food or 
diet). Relating to food or diet. 

Differen'tial (Lat. dia, apart ; fero, I 
bear). Pointing out a distinction 
or difference : applied to a ther- 
mometer which shows the difference 
in the temperature of two portions 
of air ; also to an infinitely small 
quantity in arithmetic or algebra. 

Bifferen'tiate (Lat. differen'tia, a 
difference). To establish a distinc- 
tion or difference. 

Dif&ao'tion (Lat. dis^ apart ; frango^ 
I break). The turning aside of 
rays of light from their straight 
course, when made to pass by the 
boundaries of an opaque body. 

Diffd'sible (Lat. dis^ apart ; fundoj I 
pour). Capable of being poured or 
spread in all directions. 

Biffd'sion (Lat. dia, apart ; fundo^ I 
pour). A pouring or spreading in 
all directions. 

Ihffiuion of Gases. The process by 
which gases mix with each other. 

Digas'trio (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
yaarrjpf gasteVf a belly). Having 
a double belly. 

Diges'tioii (Lat. dif apart ; gero, I 
bear or carry). A division or sepa- 
ration ; the process by which the 
nutritive parts of food are separated 
and rendered available for nutrition. 

Digea'tiye (Lat. digeroy 1 digest). Ke- 
lating to or promoting digestion. 

Dig'it (Lat. digitus, a finger). A 
ftiger*s breadth ; the twelfth part 
of the diameter of the sun or moon, 
used in measuring the extent of 
eclipses ; in arithmetic^ a single 

Dig'itate (Lat. dig'itus, a finger). 
Arranged like fingers. 

Big'itigrade (Lat. dig'ittUf a finger or 
toe ; gradioTj I step). Walking on 
the toes, as the lion, cat, &c. 

Digjm'ia (Gr. 8i?, dw, twice ; ywrif 
gu/ncy a female). A Linnsean order 
of plants having two pistils. 

Bihed'ral (Gr. St;, dis, double ; ISpo, 
hedra, a seat or face). Having 
two sides. 

Dilata'tion (Lat. diSy apart ; lattta, 
wide). A widening in all dii'ec- 

Inluent (Lat. di'luo, I wash away). 
Making thin, or more liquid ; 
weakening in intensity. 

Dilu'te (Lat. di'luo, I wash away). 
Reduced in strength ; rendered 
more liquid. 

Dilu'vial (Lat. dilu'viuniy a deluge). 
Relating to or produced by a deluge ; 
in geologyy applied to those deposits 
which give indications of having 
been carried from a distance by a 
violent current of water. 

Dilu'vinm (Lat. di'luoy I wasb away). 
In geologyy a term applied to the 
results of extraordinary or violent 
agency of water. 

Di'merous (Gr. 8ts, dis, double ; 
litposy meroSy a part). Having 
parts arranged in twos. 

Dimidiate (Lat. dimid'iuniy half). 
Divided into two halves. 

Dimorph'ism (Gr. hiSy diSy double ; 
fjLOpipnriy moi'pkdy form). The property 
of assuming two forms under differ- 
ent circumstances. 

Dimor'phoiiB (Gr. 8is, dis, double ; 
fiopifynt morpJie, form). Having 
two forms. 

Dimy'ary (Gr. Sis, diSy double ; /uvs, 
mtiSy a muscle). Applied to bivalve 
shells which are closed by two 

Dinor'nis (Gr. Sfwos, deinoa, terrible ; 
oppiSy omisy a bird). A gigantic 
extinct bird of New Za^JaxA. 



Dinosau'ria (Gr. Sctvo;, deinosy ter- 
rible ; (ravposy tuauroSj a lizard). 
Gigantic fossil animals of the sau- 
rian or lizard tribe. 

Dinothe'rium (Gr. deivoSf deinoSf 
terrible ; drjpioPj therion, a beast). 
A gigantic fossil pachydermatous 

Dios'oia (Gr. diSy diSf double ; oUoSt 
oikoSf a house). A Liunsean class 
of plants, having male flowers on 
one plant, and female on another. 

Diop'tric (Gr. tia, dia, through ; 
inrTOfuUf opUomaif I see). AfiFord- 
ing a medium for the sight : re- 
lating to the science of refracted 

Diop'trics (Gr. 8ta, dia^ through ; 
Hrrofiaif op'tomaiy I see). The part 
of optics which describes the phe- 
nomena of the refraction of light. 

Diora'ma (Gr. Sto, dia, through ; 
Spcuof liora'dy I see). An apparatus 
in which a picture is exhibited 
through a large aperture, partly by 
reflected, and partly by transmitted 

Dip. The angle which the magnetic 
needle, freely poised, makes with 
the plane of the horizon ; the in- 
clination of a geological stratum or 
bed to the horizon. 

Dipef alpus (Gr. Sis, dis, double ; 
ireroAoi', pet'alorif a petal). Having 
two petals. 

Diphthe'ria (Gr. St^Ocpo, dipKthera, 
leather). A disease characterised 
by the formation of a leathery mem- 
brane in the throat and fauces. 

Diphtheritic (Gr. dicpdepa, diph'- 
thera^ leather). Tough, like leather ; 
attended with the formation of a 
leathery membrane. 

DiphyllOQS (Gr. 5ty, dis^ double; 

. ^vAXo)', phul'lorif a leaf). Having 
two leayes. 

Diphy'odonts (Gr. 5ts, dis^ double ; 
4>w(tf, pkuOf I produce ; oSoi/s, 
odouSj a tooth). Animals which 
produce two sets of teeth in suc- 

Dip'lbe' (Gr. SiirXouy, dip'lous, double). 
The network of bone-tissue which 
fills up the interval between the 
two compact plates in the bones (xf I 

the skull ; in hotany^ the cellular 
substance of a leaf. 

Diplo'ma (Gr. 8firAo», dip'lod^ I 
double). Originally, a folded letter 
or writing ; now applied to a letter 
or writing conferring some power, 
privilege, or dignity. 

Diplo'pia (Gr. StirXovs, di^'hus, 
double ; h-trroyLtu, op^tomaif I see). 
Double vision ; a state in which 
objects are seen double, from a dis- 
turbance of the combined actioii of 
the eyes. 

Diplop'tera (Gr. 8tir\ov9, dip^lous, 
double ; impov^ pter^on, a wing). 
A family of hymenopterous or mem- 
brane-winged insects, having the 
fore-wings folded longitudinally, as 
the wasp. 

Dip'terons (Gr. 5is, dis^ twice; irrepov, 
ptei^oUy a wing. Having two wings^ 
as certain insects : in botany, ap- 
plied to seeds which have the 
margin prolonged in the form of 

Dipteryglan (Gr. 8(s, dis, twice; 
nr€pvyioUfpterufgi(mi&&D), Haying 
two fins. 

Dip'tote (Gr. hs, diSy doable ; irnrru, 
pipto, I fall). A noun having two 
cases only. 

Disc. See Disk. 

Disc'oid (Gr. BiaKoSf diskosy a quoit ; 
el^s, eidoSy form). Shaped like a 
disk or quoit. 

Discord (Lat. diSf separate ; cor, the 
heart). Disagreement ; in mime, 
the mixed sound of notes, the vibra- 
tions producing which are not in a 
simple ratio to each other. 

Discord'ant (Lat. disy apai-t ; cor, the 
heart). Disagreeing; in geology, 
applied to strata deposited horizon- 
tally on other strata which have 
been thrown into an oblique di- 
rection by disturbing causes. 

Disep'alous (Gr. »is, dis, double ; 
sepal). Having two sepals. 

Disinfect (Lat. disy from; infect). 
To purify from infection. 

Disin'tegrate (Lat. disy from ; in'teger, 
entire). To break up into integrant 
parts, not by chemical action. 

Diqiinc'tive(Lat. rfw, separate ;jungo, 
I join). Separating; ingrammarf 



uniting words or sentences, but dis- 
joining the sense. 

Disk (Gr. dicKoSf dishoB^ a quoit). In 
astronomy^ the surface of the sun, 
moon, or planet, as it appears to an 
observer on the earth ; in botant/f 
a body seated between the base of 
the stamens and the base of the 
ovary ; also the central parts of a 
radiate compound flower. 

Dis'locate (Lat. dta, from ; locuSf a 
place). To put out of place. 

Disloca'tion (Lat. diSf from ; locusj a 
place). A putting out of place. 

Disper'moiiB (Or. 8ts, disj double; 
OTrtpfMOj spermaj a seed). Having 
two seeds. 

Bisper'sioii (Lat. diSf apart ; spargOf 
I scatter). A scattering ; in opticSj 
the separation of the coloured rays 
of light in passing through a prism, 
varying according to the refoicting 
power of the material of which the 
prism is composed. 

Dismp'ted (la.t.' dis^ apart; rumpOf 
I break). Violently torn apart. 

Disrup'tion (Lat. dis^ apart ; rumpo^ 
I break). A rending asunder ; in 
geology, a displacement in the crust 
of the earth by earthquakes, or 
other disturbing causes. 

Dissec'tioii (Lat. dts, apart ; mco, I 
cut). A cutting in pieces ; the 
cutting up an animal or vegetable 
to ascertain its structure. 

Dissep'iment (Lat. dia^ from ; sepes, 
a hedge). A partition in an ovary 
or fruit. 

Dissolu'tion (Lat. dis, from ; solvo, I 
loosen). Melting ; the separation 
of the particles of a body from each 

Dissolve (Lat. dUy apart ; solvo, I 
• loosen). To melt ; to separate the 
particles of a substance from each 

Dissyllable (Gr. 8(s, dis, double; 
<rvK\afirif «ttZ7a5e, a syllable). A 
word of two syllables. 

Dis'tal (Lat. c^, apart ; sto^ I stand). 
At a distance from a given line or 

Dis'tichous (Gr. 8fs, die, double ; 
(TTixM, stichos, a row). Arranged 
in two rows. 

Distil' (Lat. dis, from ; stilla, a 
drop). To let fall in drops ; to 
separate a lighter fluid from another 
by heat or evaporation, the vapour 
being cooled and falling in drops 
into a vessel placed to receive it. 

Dis'tillation (Lat. dis, apart ; stiUa, 
a drop). The process by which 
substances are separated which rise 
in vapour at different degrees of 
heat, or by which a volatile liquid 
is parted from a substance incapable 
of volatilisation. 

Distor'tion (Lat. dis^ apart ; torqiieo, 
1 twist). A twisting out of regular 
shape ; in optics, the change in the 
form of an image depending on the 
form of the lens. 

Diu'resis (Gr. Sio, dia, through ; 
ovpov, ouron,\ame). An increased 
flow of urine. 

Diuretic (Gr. Bia, dia, through ; 
ovpov, ouron, urine). Increasing 
the secretion of urine. 

DiuT'nal (Lat. diwrniis, daily). Re- 
lating to, or performed in a day. 

Divarica'tion (Lat. di, apart ; va'rko, 
I straddle). A branching at an 
obtuse angle. 

Diyellent (Lat. di, apart ; vdlo, I 
pull). Drawing asunder. 

Divertic'ulnm (Lat. di, apart ; verto, 
I turn). A turning aside ; a short 
blind tube branching out of a larger 

Divisibility (Lat. dUvido, I divide). 
The property of bodies by which 
their parts are capable of being 

Dedeca- (Gr. 8a>86Ka, dodeka, twelve). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying twelve. 

Dodec'agon (Gr. SwSefca, dodeha, 
twelve ; ywvia, gdnia, an angle). 
A figure consisting of twelve equal 
sides and angles. 

Dodecagyn'ia (Gr. $a>5eKa, dodeha, 
twelve ; ycovri, gune, a female). An 
order of plants in the Linn»an 
system having twelve pistils. 

Dodecahed'ron (Gr. Sc^Scko, dodeha, 
twelve : ISpa, hedra, a seat or face). 
A solid figure having twelve equal 
bases or sides. 

Dodecan'dria (Gr. 8«8€Ka» d.«d.^fio.^ 




twelve ; iunfipf anlr^ a man). A 
class of plants in the Linnsean 
system, haying twelve stamens. 

Doromite. A variety of magne^n 

Dome (Lat. domus, a house). A 
house ; the external part of a 
spherical roof. 

Dominical (Lat. {dies) domin'ica, 
Sunday). Belonging to Sunday; 
applied to the letter prefixed in 
Almanacks to the Sundays, from 
which the days of the week falling 
on the successive days of past or 
present years may be computed. 

Dcor'sal (Lat. dorsum^ the back). 
Placed on, or belonging to, the 

Donibran'cliiate (Lat. dorsum, the 
back; Gr. PpayxiOj bran'chia, gills). 
Having the branchia or breathing 
organs distributed on the back ; 
applied to certain mollusca. 

Dorao. (Lat. dw-sum, the back). In 
anaiomyf a prefix in compound 
words signifying connection with, 
or relation to, the back. 

Doable Salt A salt in which the 
acid is combined with two different 

Doable Stars. Two stars placed so 
close together that to the naked 
eye they appear single. 

Doablet. A magnifying glass, con- 
sisting of a combination of two 
plano-convex lenses. 

Drastic (Gr. Spcuo, drau, I do or act). 
Acting powerfully ; applied to cer- 
tain medicines. 

Dropsy (Gr. i)5wp, Kvddr, water ; o^'iy, 
<ypsis, an appearance). An un- 
natural collection of watery fluid in 
any part of the body. 

Drapa'ceoas {Di'upe). Of the nature 
of a drupe ; bearing fruit in the 
form of a drupe. 

Drape (Gr. dpvrrvOf dinippa, an over- 
ripe olive). A pulpy fruit without 
valves, containing a stone with a 
kernel, as the peach. 

Da'al (Lat. duo, two). Relating to 
two ; applied to a form of nouns 
and verbs in which two persons or 
things are denoted, as in the Greek 
and some other languages. 

Doallty (Lat. duo, two). The stale 
of being two in mftnber. 

Daot (Lat. dticoy I lead). A tube 
or vessel for conveying a fluid, 
especially a secretion from a 

Dactile (Lat. dttcoy I lead). Capable 
of being drawn out. 

Daotil'ity (Lat. duco, I lead). The 
property which substances possess 
of being drawn out. 

Daode'cimal (Lat. duod'ecim, twelve). 
Proceeding in a scale of twelves. 

Daode'nary (Lat. dtiode'nif twelve). 
Increasing in a twelvefold pro* 

Daode'nam (Lat. duode'nii twelve). 
The fint portion of the small v\- 
testine ; which, in man, is twelve 
finger-breadths in length. 

Da'plicate (Lat. duplex, double). 
Double ; duplicate proportion or 
ratio is the proportion or ratio of 

Dora Mater (Lat. hard mother : be- 
cause the other membranes were 
supposed to proceed from it). The 
strong fibrous membrane which 
envelopes the brain and spinal 

Dura'mea (Lat. durus, hard). The 
central or heart wood of an exo- 
genous tree. 

Dyke. A wall or fence ; in geology, 
applied to wall-like intrusions of 
igneous rock which fill up veins 
and fissures in the stratified 

Dynamic (Gr. dvpo^is, du'namis, 
power). Relating to strength or 

D3niam'ics (Or. ^vuafiis, du'namiSf 
power). That part of natural 
philosophy which investigates the 
properties of bodies in motion. 

D3niamom'eter(Gr. ^vpafus, du'riamis, 
power ; ix^rpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring 

Dysaesthe'sia (Gr. Bus, dus, badly; 
cuffdaifofiai, aisthan'omai, I feel). 
Impaired power of feeling. 

Dys'entery (Gr. Jus, dw, badly; 
ivrtpov, en'teron, an intestine). A 
discharge from the intestines ac- 



eompanied by blood, mncuSi or 
other morbid matter. 

Dyi^p'sia (Qr. 8uy, dtts, badly; 
vem-oDf peptOf I digest). Indi- 
gestion ; difficalty of digestion. 

B^lia'gia (Gr. $vy, duSj badly; . 

ipaywt phago, I eat). Difficulty of 
Byspnoe'a (Gr. 5uy, <fiw, badly ; wew, 
pneoj I breathe). Difficult bi-eath- 

Earth. In ehemistryy an oxide of a 
metal : but applied especially to the 
oxides and salts of barium, calcium, 
magnesium, and aluminium. 

Ebrac'teate (Lat. e, from ; brac'tea, 
a bract). Without bracts. 

Ebullition (Lat. e, out ; bvMat a 
bubble). Boiling ; the formation 
by heat of bubbles of vapour within 
a liquid, which rise to the surface. 

Ebnma'tioii (Lat. ehur, ivory). A 
rendering dense like ivory ; the 
excessive deposition of compact 
osseous matter which sometimes 
takes place in diseased states of 

Eccen'tric (Gr. ix, eh, from ; Kivrpov, 
Icentron, a centre). Deviating from 
a centre ; incapable of being brought 
to a common centre. 

Eccentricity (Gr. ^/c, ek, from ; 
Kivrpovy kerUroiif a centre). The 
state of being eccentric ; the dis- 
tance between the centre of an ellipse 
and either of its foci. 

Ecchymo'sis (Gr. ix, ek, out ; x^Mo^» 
ckumos, juice). An effusion of blood 
nnder the skin ; a bruise. 

Ecooprotlo (Gr. iK, ek, out; Kovpos, 
koproa, dung). Promoting the dis- 
charge from the bowels. 

Ec'dysifl (Gr. ^Ky ek, out ; 5iw, duo, 
I pnt on). A casting off or moulting. 

Eohinocoo'oTis (Gr. ix^vos, echi'noa, a 
hedgehog ; kokkos, kokkos, a berry). 
A parasitic animal, consisting of a 
membranous sac or bag, and pro- 
vided with a series of minute 

Echinoder^mataor Eohi'nodemui (Gr. 
ix^vos, echi'nos, a hedgehog ; ^ep/ux, 
dermay a skin). A class of inverte- 
brate animals, the bodies of which 
are covered by a thick covering or 
shell, often with spikes. 

EolLom'eter (Gr. ^x«> ^^Ao, sound ; 
fitrpouy meti'ony a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the dura- 
tion of sounds, and their intervals. 

Eolamp'sia (Gr. ixy eky from ; Xafivw, 
Zam/)o, I shine). An appearance of 
flashing of light which attends epi- 
lepsy ; but now applied to epilepsy 
or convulsive disease itself. 

Eclec'tic (Gr. ixy ek, out ; Aeyw, legoy 
I choose). Selecting or choosing ; 

Eclips'e (Gr. ^/c, ek, from; \€ivwy 
leipo, I leave). A failure ; an inter- 
ception of the light of the sun, 
moon, or other luminous body. 

Eclip'tic (Gr. ^/c, eky from ; Aetiro, leipo, 
I fail). The circle of the heavens 
which forms the apparent annual 
path of the sun : so called because 
eclipses can only take place when 
the moon is very near it. 

Ecliptic Limits. In astronomyy the 
limits within which an eclipse of the 
sun or moon may occur. 

Econ'omy (Gr. oiKosy oikos, a house ; 
poftosy nomas, a rule). The regula- 
tion of a family or household ; the 
operations of nature in the formation 
and preservation of animals and 

Ec'stacy (Gr. ^/c, eifc, out ; IcrrrifUy 
hUtemiy I make to stand). A 
state in which the senses are sus- 
pended in the contemplation of some 
extraordinary object. 

Ecdilip'sis (Gr. ^/c, ek, from ; BXi^y 
thlibo, 1 press or rub). In Latin 
grammary the cutting off in pro- 
nunciation the final syllable of a 
word ending in m, when the next 
word begins with a vowel. 

Ecto- (Gr. iKToSy ektoSy outside). A 
prefix in some compound words, 
signifying out&ldA. 



Ecto'pia (Gr. ix, eJe, oat ; rowoSf 
top^oSj a place). A displacement. 

Ectro'piom (Gr. ^/c, ek, out ; rptwcof 
trepOf I turn). A disease in which 
the eyelashes are turned outwards. 

Eo'zema (Gr. ix^ eky out ; (^a, zed, I 
boil). An eruption on the skin, 
of small pustules, without fever, 
and not contagious. 

Ede'ma, Edem'atons. See (Ede'ma and 

Eden'tate (Lat e, out ; dena, a tooth). 
Without teeth ; applied to an order 
of mammalian animals which have 
no front teeth. 

Eden'tnlons (Lat. e, out ; dem^ a 
tooth). Without teeth. 

Edible (Lat. edo, I eat). Fit to be 
eaten as food. 

Edrioph'thahnia (Ghr. ISpo, hedra, a 
seat ; (KpBotXfjLoSf opTUhod^moSf an 
eye). A section of crustaceons 
animals, having the eyes sessile, or 
not mounted on a foot-stalk. 

E'dnct (Lat. e, out ; dttco, I lead). 
Any thing separated from another 
with which it was previously com- 

Efflsrves'cence (Lat. ex, out ; fer'veo, 
I boil). The escape of bubbles of gas 
from a fluid, not produced by heat. 

Efflores'cence (Lat. ex^ out ; flos^ a 
flower). In botany, the time of 
flowering ; in medicine, an eruptive 
redness of the skin; in chemisti'y, 
the formation of a dry powder in 
some salts on exposure to the air, 
by losing water of crystallisation. 

Efflu'vium (Lat. exy out ; Jlun, I 
flow). A flowing out ; the minute 
particles which exhale or pass off 
into the air from substances. 

Efflux (Lat. ex, out ; ^uo, I flow). 
A flowing out. 

Effodien'tia (Lat. effo'dio, t dig out). 
Digging : applied to a family of 
edentate animals from their digging 
habits, as the armadillo. 

Effd'sioii (Lat. ex, out ; fundo, I 
pour). A pouring out ; the escape 
of a fluid from the vessel or cavity 
containing it. 

Si'd<^^ph (Gr. clJos, eidos, form ; 
ypcufxo, graphs, I write). An in- 
strument for copying designs. 


Igeo'tlon (Lat. e, out ; jado, I cast). 
A casting out. 

Elab'arate (Lat. e, oat ; laho'ro, I 
labour). To produce by labour, 
or by successive operations. 

Elain(Gr. iXouov, elai'on, oil). The 
liquid principle of oils and fats. 

Elas'tio (Gr. i7<avv(o, elau'no, I drive). 
Having the property of springing 
back to its original form after this 
has been altered. 

Elasticity (Gr. iXaww, elau'no, I 
drive). The property by which a 
body, after having been compressed, 
or having had its form changed, 
recovers its original shape on being 
released from the force applied to it. 

EL'ater (Gr. iKavvw, elau^no, I drive). 
A spiral fibre in the thecse or seed- 
cases of some cryptogamic plants, 
serving to disperse the sporules by 

EWtive Affinity (Lat. ^Itgo, I choose 
oat). The disposition which bodies 
have to unite chemically with cer- 
tain substances in preference to 

Elec'tric (Gr. ^Xeicrpov, elelftrortf 
amber). Containing, pertaining to, 
derived from, or communicating 

Elec'tricity (Gr. ii\€KTpoy, eleytron, 
amber ; became first observed in 
amber). A series of phenomena 
(also their cause) in various sub- 
stances ; supposed to be due to the 
presence of a compound fluid, which 
is developed by friction or other 
mechanical means. 

Elec'tro-chem'istry. The science which 
explains the phenomena of the de- 
coraposingpower of electric currents. 

Electro-mag'iietiBm. The branch of 
electrical science which explains the 
phenomena of the action of a voltaic 
current on the magnetic needle. 

Elec'trify (Electricity; Lat. facio, I 
make). To charge with, or affect 
by, electricity. 

Elec'trode {Electricity; Gr. t^os, 
hodos, a way). The termination 
of a voltaic battery, by which the 
electricity passes into or from the 
fluid in which it is placed. 

ELectrology (-^/ec^rictVy; Gr. \070s, 



logoSf disconrse). The department 
of physical science which treats of 

Elec'tro-dynamlc {Electricity; Or. 
^wofuSf du'namiSf power). Re- 
lating to electricity in motion^ and 
producing its effects. 

Electroly'sis (Electricity; Qr. \vw, 
luOf I loosen). Decomposition by 
an electric current. 

Elec'tro-magnet'ic [Electricity; mag- 
net). Eekting to magnetism as 
connected with electricity. 

Elec'trolyte {Electricity; Qr. \va, 
IwOf I loosen). A body capable of 
being decomposed by an electric 

EIec'tro-metalliir'gy(jE7ertnci«y; Gr. 
lieraiKKoVf metaVloUy a metal; ^pyovy 
ergoriy a work). The art of de- 
positing metals from solutions of 
their salts, by the voltaic current, 
on other bodies. 

Electrom'eter {Electricity; Qr.fitrpov, 
metroriy a measure). An instru- 
ment for measuring the intensity of 
the electricity of a body. 

Elec'tro-mo'tive. Moving by means 
of electricity : applied by Volta to 
the power of decomposition by the 
electric current. 

Elec'tro-neg'atlve. Having negative 
electricity, and appearing at the 
positive pole of a voltaic battery. 

Elec'troph'oms , {Electricity ; Qr. 
<p>€pWf pherOf I bear). An appara- 
tus for collecting electricity, for 
the purpose of fixing gaseous mix- 

• tures in close vessels. 

Elec'tro-pla'tiiig. The process of 
depositing a coating of metal on some 
other metal or substance by means 
of electric action. 

Elec'tro-pos'itiyiB. Having positive 
electricity, and appearing at the 
negative pole of the voltaic battery. 

Elec'troBCope {Electricity ; Gr. 
aKOTTta, akop'eof I look). An in- 
strument for measuring the inten- 
sity of electricity. 

Electrostatic {Electricity ; Gr. 
ararucosy stat'ikoSy stationary). 
Belating to electricity in a state of 

Eleo'tro-teleg'raphj (Electricity; Gr. 

T7;X€, teUy far off ; ypoupooy grapkoy 
I write). The application of elec- 
tricity to the conveying of mes- 

Eleo'tro-type {Electricity; Gr. rwrosy 
tuposy a type). The process of 
copying medals, plates, &c., by 
means of depositing metals from a 
solution by a galvanic current. 

Elec'tuary (Gr. ^k, eky out ; \eixaty 
leickdy I lick). A medicine made 
in the form of a confection. 

El'ement (Lat. elemen'tum). The 
first principle or constituent part 
of anything ; in ckemistryy espe- 
cially, any substance which has 
resisted all efforts to decompose it ; 
in anatomyy the autogenous or pri- 
mary part of a vertebra. 

Elemen'tary (Lat. elemen'tum). Pri- 
mary ; incapable of further ana- 

Elephantiasis (Gr. i\€<pas, el'ephas, 
an elephant). A disease of the 
skin, attended with much thicken- 
ing and the formation of tubercles. 

Eleva'tion (Lat. c, from ; levoy I 
raise. ) A raising ; in astronomy, 
the distance of a heavenly body 
above the horizon ; in trigonometryy 
angle of elevation is the angle 
formed by two lines drawn in the 
same vertical plane from the obser- 
ver's eye, one to the top of the 
object and the other parallel to the 
horizon ; in archUedurey a drawing 
of the front or a face of a building. 

Eleva'tor (Lat. e, from ; levoy I raise). 
A lifter or raiser. 

Elim'iniite (Lat. e, out ; limeuy a 
threshold). To thrust out ; to 
remove or expel. 

Elision (Lat. eli'doy I strike out). A 
cutting off or suppression of a 
vowel at the end of a wprd. 

El'lipse (Gr. ^/c, eky out ; Xcmw, 
leipdy I leave). An oval figure, 
produced by the section of a cone 
by a plane cutting both sides ob- 
liquely ; in grammar y an omission 
of words. 

EUips'oid {Ellipse; Gr. €«5oy, eidoSy 
form). A figure formed by the 
revolution of an ellipse round its 



Ellip'tio (Gr. ^/c, eJry out ; Xuvw, 
leipo, I leave). Relating to, or 
having the form of, an ellipse. 
Elong^'tion (Lat. e, from ; longua^ 
long). A lengthening or stretch- 
ing ; in astronomy y the apparent 
recession of a planet from the sun. 
Elntria'tion (Lat. e, from ; Gr. 
\ovTpov, loutron^ a bath). The 
process of removing lighter matter 
from a powdered solid substance by 
washing it with water, and pouring 
off the latter. 
ELy'truni (Gr. ^Au«, eluoy I roll over 
or cover). The outer sheath which 
protects the body and membranous 
wings in beetles. 

Emana'tioii (Lat. e, out ; manoy I 
flow). That which issues from any 
substance or body. 

Emar'gfinate (Lat. e, from ; margo, a 
margin). Having a piece appa- 
rently notched or bitten out of the 

Embank'meiit. The act of surround- 
ing by a bank ; a structure raised 
to protect lands from the overflow 
of rivers or the sea. 

Emboss' (Fr. cn^ in ; 6o*S€, a stud or 
knob). To form bosses or protu- 
berances ; to ornament by the for- 
mation of ornaments in relief or 
projecting from the sur&use. 

Emlwucliure (Fr. hmche^ a mouth). 
The mouth of a river, &c. 

Embroca'tion (Gr. ^v, cw, in ; $p€xo>, 
hrechdf I moisten). A mixture of 
oil, spirit, &c., with which any 
part of the body is rubbed. 

Emliryo (Gr. 4fi$pvov, em'bruon). 
The first or rudimentary form of 
an animal or vegetable. 

Embryog'eny (Gr. ifippxmy, em'bruon, 
an embryo ; 7€vvaa, gennao, I 
produce). The development of the 
embryo. " 

Embryorog^ (Gr. ifippvov, em'bruon^ 
an embryo ; \oyoSf logos, a de- 
scription). A description of the 
foetus or embryo, 

Emer'sion (Lat. emer'go, I issue out). 
In astronomy, th% passage of a satel- 
lite out of the shadow of a planet. 

Emefic (Gr. ^jU€«, em'eo, I vomit). 
Producing the act of vomiting. 

Em'inence (Lat. emin'eo, I stand 
above others). In ana^om^, a gene- 
ral term for a projection on a bone. 

Emollient (Lat. e, from ; mollis^ 
soft). Softening or relaxing^ 

Empbyse'ma (Gr. 4v, en, in ; ^v<roM, 
phiLsa'o, I blow). Distension with 

Empir'ic (Gr. iv, en, in ; xcipa, 
peira, experience). Properly, one 
who makes experiments ; a physi- 
cian whose knowledge consists in 
observation alone ; but commonly 
applied to a quack. 

Empir'ical (Gr. iv, en, in ; ircipa, 
peira, experience). Relating to or 
derived from simple experience or 
observation, without the aid of 

Empiricism (Gr. ip, en, in ; vcipa, 
peira, experience). Practice on the 
ground of experience alone. 

Emprosthofonos (Gr. iynrpoirOey, 
emprosftken, before ; rtivco, ttino, I 
stretch). A form of tetanus in 
which the body is bent forward. 

Empye'ma (Gr. h, en, in ; wov, 
puon, pus). A collection cf pus in 
the cavity of the chest. 

Empyreu'ma (Gr. iv, en, in ; Tvpew, 
pureuo, I set on fire). A disagree- 
able smell arising from the burning 
of animal and vegetable matter. 

Empyreumatlc (Gr. iv, en, in ; tv- 
pevci), pureuo, I set on fire). Having 
the taste or smell of slightly bum| 
animal or vegetable substances. 

Emnl'gent (Lat. e, out; mul'geo, I 
milk). Milking or drawing out :, 
applied to the blood-vessels of the 
kidneys, which were supposed to 
strain the serum. 

Emnl'sion (Lat. e, from ; muVgeo, I 
milk). A milk-like substance, 
produced by rubbing oil with sugar 
or gum, &c., and water. 

Emnnc^tory (Lat. emun'go, I wipe 
out). Removing excreted matter. 

Enai'ma (Gr. iv, cn^ in ; ou/uc, kaima, 
blood). Having blood ; applied by 
Aristotle as a distinctive character 
of certain animals. 

Enaliosau'rians (Gr. iv, en, in ; aXs, 
kals, the sea ; aavpos, sav/ros, a 
lizard). A name given to some 



extinct gigantic lizards, supposed 
to have lived in the^sea. 

Exial'lage' (Qr. ^v, ct?, in ; &A.Xott«, 
aUa^tOf I change). A figure in 
fframmarf by which one word or 
mode of expression is substituted 
for another. 

Enam'el. A compound of the nature 
of glass, but more fusible and 
opaque ; the smooth hard substance 
covering the crown of a tooth. 

Enarihro'siB (Gr. iv, en, in ; h^Bpov, 
curthron, a joint). The ball-and- 
socket joint, such as is formed by 
the head of the thigh-bone and the 

Encaustic (Qr. ^v, ew, in ; icatw, Tcaio, 
I bum). Applied to a kind of 
painting in which colours are made 
permanent by being burned in. 

Enceph'ala (Gr. ^v, en, in ; K€<f>a\% 
keph'alcf the head). Molluscous 
animals having a distinct head. 

Encephali'tis (Gr. iyK€<pa\ov, en- 
keph'alon, the brain ; itiSj denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the substance of the brain, or of the 
structures in general within the 

EnceplL'alon (Gr. ip, en, in ; KitpaXri, 
keph'ale, the head). That part of 
the nervous system which is con- 
tained in the skull. 

Enclitic (Gr. iv, en, on ; kXivw, 
Mind, I lean). Leaning on ; ap- 
plied to certain words which throw 
their accent on the word immedi- 
ately preceding, and thus, as it were, 
lean on it. 

En'crinite (Gr. iv, en, in ; Kpivoy, 
krimm, a Hly). A fossil radiated 
animal, resembling a lily. 

Encysted (Gr. iu, en, in ; kvo-tis, 
kustis, a bladder or sac). Enclosed 
in a sac or bag. 

Endeca-. See Uendeca-. 

Endemic (Gr. iy, en, in ;8r;/*oy, demos, 
people). Among the people ; applied 
to diseases which habitusdly pre- 
vail in any locality. 

Endermatic, or Ender'mic (Gr. iv, 
en, in; Jep/xo, derma, the skin). 
A term applied to the administra- 
tion of medicines by means of the 

Endo- (Gr. iv^ov, en' don, within). A 
prefix to words, signifying within. 

ExULocar'dial (Gr. iv^ov, en'don, with- 
in ; KopSia, kar^dia, the heart). Re- 
lating to the lining membrane of 
the heart. 

Endocardi'tis (Gr. iv^ov, en'don, with- 
in ; Kapha, kar'dia, the heart ; itis, 
denoting inflammation). Inflamma- 
tion of the lining membrane of the 

Endocar'dixim (Gr. iyBov, en'don, 
within ; Kapha, kar'dia, the heart). 
The membrane lining the interior 
of the heart. 

En'docarp (Gr. 4ySoy, en'don, within ; 
KopTTos, karpos, fruit). The mem- 
brane in some fruit, as apples, which 
lines the cavity containing the seeds. 

Endogen (Gr. iy^ov, en'don, within ; 
yeyyao), genna'o, I produce). A 
plant which grows by deposition of 
woody matter in the interior, without 
distinction of pith, wood, and bark. 

Endog'enites (Endogen), Fossilstems 
exhibiting the endogenous struc- 

En'dolymph (Gr. iv^oy, en'don, with- 
in ; Lat. lympha, water). A watery 
fluid in the interior of the mem- 
branous labyrinth of the ear. 

EndophloB'mn (Gr. Moy, en^don, 
within ; <p\oios, pkloios, bark). 
The inner'layer of the bark of trees. 

Endopleu'ra (Gr. iy^oy, en'don, with- 
in ; ir\€vpa, pleura, a rib or mem- 
brane). The coat of the nucleus 
in the seed. 

Endorhi'zal (Gr. iy^oy, en'don, with- 
in ; ^i(a, rhiza, a root). Having 
a root within ; applied to plants of 
which the root bursts first through 
the coverings of the seed before 
elongating downwards. 

EndosSLereton (Gr. iy^oy, en'don, 
within ; <rKf\eroy, skel'eton, a frame- 
work of bone). An internal skele- 
ton ; such as exists in vertebrate 

Endosmom'eter (Gr. iy^oy, en'don, 
within ; wt/jlos, osmos, an impulse ; 
fi€Tpoy, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in- 
tensity of endosmose. 

En'dosmose (Gr. iyloy^ en'don^ with- 



in ; wBHt, otheoj I posh) . The pro- 
cess by which a fluid, separated 
from another by a membrane, mixes 
with it in a direction from within 

Endos'teum (Gr. ivhov^ en' don, with- 
in ; offTfoVf oa^teon, a bone). The 
fine membrane lining the medullary 
canal of bones. 

En'dostome {Qr.iy^ovy en'don^ within; 
crrofia, stoma, a mouth). The inner 
aperture of an ovule. 

Ene'ma (Gr. iv, en, in ; /17/Kt, hiemi, 
I send). A medicine thrown into 
the lower bowel. 

Engineering. The art of construct- 
ing and using engines or machines. 

Engor'gement (Fr. en, in ; goi'ge, the 
throat). A swallowing gi'eedily ; 
but applied in medicine to an over- 
filled state of the vessels of a pai*t. 

Enneagyn'ia (Gr. iyvca, en'nea, nine; 
yvtniy gune, a female). An order 
of plants having nine pistils. 

Ennean^dria (Gr. hnf^a, edniea, nine ; 
hri\p, aner, a male). A class of 
plants in theLinnaean system having 
nine stamens. 

Enode (Lat. e, from ; nodw, a knot). 
Wthout knots or joints. 

En'siform (Lat. ensis, a sword \ forma, 
shape). Like a sword. 

Entablature (Lat. in, in ; tab'ula, a 
board or table). The structure 
which lies horizontally on columns, 
divided into architrave, frieze, and 

Enter'ic (Gr. itn-epov, en'teron, an in- 
testine). Belongingto the intestines. 

Enteri'tis (Gr. imepoy, en'teron, an 
intestine ; itis, denoting inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the intestines. 

En'terocele (Gr. ivnpov, en'teron, an 
intestine ; ici)\% Jcele, a tumour). 
A hernial tumour containing intes- 

En'terolith (Gh*. ivrepov, en'teron^ an 
intestine ; \iBos, lithos, a stone). 
A concretion resembling a stone, 
formed in the intestines. 

Enthetlc (Gr. iv, en, in ; nOrifju, 
tithemi, I place). A term applied 
to diseases which become developed 
in the body after the introduction 
of a poison. 


En'thymeme (Gr. iv'Ovfitoftm^ enthti^' 
meomai, I think). In rhetoric^ an 
argument consisting of two propo- 
sitions only, an antecedent and a 

Ento- (Gr. ivros, en'tos, within). A 
prefix in compound words, signify- 
ing to th^ inner side. 

En'tomoid (Gr. ivrofiov, en'tomon, 
insect) from iv, en, into ; r^fuWf 
temno, I cut ; tiSos, eidos, form). 
Resembling an insect. 

Entomol'ogy (Gr. ivTofiov, en'tom^ouj 
an insect ; \0y05, logos, a descrip- 
tion). A description of insects. 

Entomoph'agons (Gr. ivroiwv, en'Uh 
mon, an insect ; <f>ayw, phago, I 
eat). Feeding on insects. 

Entomofi'traca (Gr. iin-o/xoy, en'tomon, 
an insect ; oarpaKov, os'traJeon, a 
shell). A section of minute crus- 
taceous animals. 

Entomot'omy (Gr. ivTOfwv, en'tomon^ 
an insect ; rffxycc, temno, 1 cut). 
The dissection of insects. 

Entomozoa'ria (Gr. iy, en, into ; 
r^jxpof, temno, I cut ; (wov, zoon, 
an animal). Invertebrate «^ 
having their bodies arranged in 
ring-like segments. 

Entozo'on (Gr. ivros, en'tos, within ; 
(taov, zoon, an animal). An animal 
which lives on the bodies of other 
animals : properly applied to those 
infesting the interior. 

En'trooMte {Gr. iy, en, in; rpoxoSf 
irockos, a wheel). A name given 
in geology to the wheel-like joints 
of the encrinite. 

Entro^pium (Gr. iy, en, in ; rpeireo, 
trepo, I turn). A turning of the 
eyelashes inwards towards the 

Enu'cleate (Lat. e, out of ; ntddeus, 
a kernel). To remove as a kernel 
from a nut. 

E'ocene (Gr. ^ws, eos, the dawn ; 
Koiyos, kainos, new). Early ; ap- 
plied to the earliest deposits in the 
tertiary geological strata. 

Eoripile (Lat. JE'olus, the god of the 
winds ; pila^ a ball). An instru- 
ment consisting of a hollow metal 
ball, with a tube, used for exhibit- 
ing the elastic power of steam by 



filling the ball with water and heat- 
ing it. 

Ep'aot (Gfr. ^t, ep'i, on ; ayoa, ago, I 
drive.) The number which denotes 
the age of the ecclesiastical moon 
on the first day of any year in a 
cycle of nineteen years. 

Epen'thesis (Gr. ivi, ep'u on; iv, 
en, in ; TidrnjHy tiikemi, I place). 
The insertion of a letter or syllable 
in the middle of a word. 

Ephelis (Gr. ivi, ep'i, on ; 7}\ios, 
helios, the sun). Freckles ; an 
emption of gi'eyish or yellowish 

Ephrai'eris (Gh*. iiriy ep'i, on ; rifiepa, 
hemer a, 9, daj). A diary; an ac- 
count of the daily positions of the 

Ep'i, or ep- (Gr. hrt, ep'i, on). A pre- 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Epic (Gr. iwu, ep'of I speak). Nar- 
rative ; applied to poems which re- 
late real or supposed events. 

Eploarp (Gr. ivty ejp'iy on ; KofnroSf 
karpoSf a fruit). The outer skin 
of a fruit. 

Epicene (Gr. iiri, ep'i, on; koivos, 
koinoSf common). Common ; ap- 
plied to nouns which denote both 
the male and the female species. 

Epicon'dyle (Gr. iwiy ep'i, on ; kov- 
hvXoSy kon'duloSj a knuckle). In 
anatomy y an additional condyle, a 
joint placed on a condyle. 

Epicy'cle (Gr. ^irt, ep'iy on ; KVK\osy 
kvJcloSy a circle). A small circle, 
of which the centre is in the cir- 
cumference of a larger one. 

Epicy'cloid (Gr. iviy ep'iy on ; KVKKoSy 
kuklosy a circle ; ii^os, eidosy 
form). A curve produced by the 
revolution of the circumference of 
a circle along the convex or concave 
side of another circle. 

Epidemic (Gr. iiri, ep'iy on ; Sriixos, 
dem08y the people). Attacking 
numbers of people in any locality 
at the same time, but of temporary 
duration, and not essentially con- 
nected with the locality. 

Epidemiorog^ (Gr. ^tti, ep'iy on; 
Ihlfios, demos, the people ; \oyos, 
Uigoif a description). The descrip- 

tion or investigation of epidemic 

Epider^mal (Epidermis). Belonging 
to, or formed from the epidermis. 

Epider'mis (Gr. ivi, e'pi, on ; 8fp/ua, 
dermay the skin). The cuticle, or 
scarf-skin ; the external layer of 
the skin, or of the bark in plants. 

Epigas'tric (Gr. iiriy ep'iy on ; yourrrip, 
gasteVy the stomach). Belonging 
to the upper and anterior part of 
the abdomen ; over the stomach. 

Epiglof tis (Gr. ^i, ep'i, on ; yKtarray 
giottay a tongue). A tongue-shaped 
projection lying over the entrance 
of the windpipe, and preventing the 
entrance of food or drink. 

Epig'ynons (Gr. iiriy ep'i, on ; yvtnriy 
gundy a female). Growing on the 
top of the ovary in plants ; applied 
to stamens which are united both to 
the calyx and to the ovary. 

Ep'ilepsy (Gr. ^jt*, ep'i, on ; Xr/^tj, 
lepsisy a seizing). The falling sick- 
ness; a sudden loss of sensation 
and voluntary power attended by 
convulsions, recurring at irregular 

Epilep'tic (Gr. iviy ep'i, on ; Xrjyl/is, 
lepsiSy a seizing). Subject to epi- 

Epilep'tiform (Epilepsy; Lat. forma, 
form). Eesembllng epilepsy. 

Epime'ral (Gr. ^iri, ep'iy on ; ftripos, 
meros, a thigh or limb). The part 
of the segment of an insect or 
other articulated animal which is 
above the joint of the limb. 

Epipet'alous (Gr. im, ep'i, on; 
ircraAov, j3e^aZow,apetal). Placed 
or growing on the petals. 

EpipUoB'iim(Gr. ivi, ep'i, on ; <t>\oio5, 
phloios, bark). The layer of 
bark immediately beneath the eja- 

EpiphylloTis (Gr. ivi, ep'i, upon ; 
<pv\^oy, phullon, a leaf). Inserted 
on a leaf. 

Epiph'ora Gr. ^t, ep'i, on; <^€p«, 
pher^d, I bear). Watery eye; a 
disease in which the tears flow over 
the cheek, from an obstruction in the 
canal which should carry them off. 

Epiph'ysiB (Gr. im, ep'i, on ; <t>vw, 
phuo, I grow). The end of a long 




bone, wliicli is formed at first 
separately from the shaft, and 
afterwards is united to it. 

Epiphyte (Or. ^wt, tp'i^ on ; <^i/w, 
'pkuo^ I grow). A plant which 
grows on or adheres to another 
vegetable, or to an animal. 

Epiploon (Qr. ^wt, cp'i, on ; irAew, 
'plto^ I float). The canl ; a por- 
tion of the peritoneum, or lining 
membrane of the abdomen, which 
covers in front, and as it were 
floats on, the intestines. 

Epispas'tic (Gr. iin, ep'i, on ; o-ttocd, 
<pad, I draw). Drawing; blistering. 

Ep'isperm (Gr. ^iri, ep'iy on ; avepfia, 
sperma, a seed). The outer covering 
of a seed. 

Epistaz'is (Gr. ivt, ep'i, on ; a-raCwf 
stazof I drop). Bleeding from the 

Epister'nal (Gr. im, ep't^ on ; (rrepuov, 
stemorif the breast). Situated on 
or above the sternum or breast- 

Epithelial (Epithelium). Belonging 
to, or formed of, epithelium. 

Epithe'lium. A covering membrane 
in animals and vegetables, formed 
of the same structure as epidermis, 
but finer and thinner. 

Eplthem (Gr. ivi^ ep'i, on ; Tt^r;/*i, 
tifhemif I place). A liquid in 
which cloths are dipped to be laid 
on any part of the body. 

Epit'ome' (Gr. ^irt, cp't, on ; t€/ai/», 
temndf I cut). An abridgment of 
a book or writing. 

Epizo'on (Gr. ivi^ ep'iy on ; Cc»ov, zoon^ 
an animal). An animal which 
fastens itself to the exterior of 
other animals and lives on them. 

Epizoofic (Gr. ^iri, ep'if on; fwov, 
zoon, an animal). A term applied 
to diseases prevailing among ani- 
mals, as epidemic diseases among 

E'poch (Gr. iirif ep'if on ; ^x"» cchloy 
I hold). A fix^ point of time from 
which dates are numbered; any 
fixed time or period. 

Equa'tion (Lat. cequo, I make equal). 
A making equal ; in algebra^ a 
form expressing the equality of two 
quantities ; in astronomy, the dif- 

ference between real and apparent 
time or space. 

Eqna'tor (Lit. cequo^ I make equal). 
A great imaginary circle, surround- 
ing the earth at an equal distance 
from each pole. 

Eqnato'rial (Equator). An astro- 
nomical instrument, capable of re- 
volving on a fixed axis, coinciding 
in direction with that of the celestial 

Equicm'ral (Lat. csquus, equal ; crtu, 
a leg). Having equal legs ; or two 
sides of equal length, as a triangle. 

Eqnidifferent (Lat. cequuSf eqnal ; 
different). Having an equal dif- 
ference ; applied to numbers in 
arithmetical progression, which in- 
crease or decrease by the addition 
or subtraction of the same number. 

Equidis'tant (Lat. cequu^^ equal ; dis, 
from ; sto, I stand). At equal dis- 
tances from some point. 

Eqnilaf eral (Lat. ceqimsy equal ; 
latuSf a side). Having all the sides 

Eqnilib'rixun (Lat. aiquua, equal ; 
libray a balance). Equality of 
weight or force ; balance. 

Eqnimnl'tiple (Lat. cBquv>8f equal ; 
multip'licOi I multiply). The pro- 
duct of multiplying a number by the 
same quantity as that by which 
some other number is also multi- 

Equinoc'tial (Lat. cequuB^ equal ; nox, 
night). A term applied to the 
points at which the ecliptic inter- 
sects the celestial equator : so called 
from the days and nights being 
equal when the sun arrives in 

Equinoz'es (Lat. cequvA^ equal ; nox, 
night). The times at which the 
sun's centre is found in the equi- 
noctial points, the days and nights 
being equal. 

Eq'uipoise (Lat. aquus, equal ; Fr. 
jjctcfe, weight). Equality of weight ; 
equilibrium ; even balance. 

Eqnirafional (Lat. aquua, equal; 
raJtio, a reckoning). Having an 
equal ratio ; appUed to numbers in 
geometrical progression, which in- 
crease or decrease regularly by 



being multiplied or divided by the 
same number. 

Equiv'alent (Lat. ceqwas^ equal ; 
vaXeOf I am worth). Equal in value 
or power ; in chemistry ^ a term 
applied to the numbers in which 
elements uniformly replace each 
other in combination. 

Erec'tile (Lat. e^rigo, I raise up). 
Having the property of raising 

Erec'tor (Lat. e^rigo^ I raise up). That 
which raises np : applied to some 

Eremacaa'sifl (Gr. iipefxa, erema, gra- 
dually ; /cou», kaiif I burn). Slow 
combustion : the process by which 
the matters formed in the fermen- 
tation and putrefaction of animal 
and vegetable bodies combine gra- 
dually with the oxygen of the air. 

Er'ethiBin (Gr. ip^OiCco, erethi'zd^ I 
excite). Excitement ; unnatural 
energy of action. 

Er^gotLEan (Ergot^ spurred rye), A 
diseased state, characterised by a 
kind of moi-tification, produced by 
eating spuiTed rye. 

Ero'dent (Lat. e, out ; rodOf I gnaw). 
Eating into ; gnawing. 

Ero'sion (Lat. c, from ; rodo, I gnaw). 
The state of eating or being eaten 

Errat'ic (Lat. erroy I wander). Wan- 
dering ; not fixed ; occurring in a 
casual manner. 

Er'rhine (Gr. iv, e», in ; i>iv, rhiuj 
the nose). Affecting the nose ; 
producing discharge from the nose. 

Erucf ation (Lat. erudto, I belch). A 
bursting forth of wind from the 
stomach ; or of gases or other matter 
from the earth. 

Enip'tioii (Lat. e, out ; rumpOy I 
break). A breaking forth ; a rash 
on the skin. 

Erysip'elas (Gr. ipvot, erm, I draw ; 
7r€\aSf pelaSy near). A spreading 
inflammation of the skin ; St. An- 
thony's fire. 

Erythe'ma (Gr. 4pv0posy eru'throa, 
red). A superficial redness of the 

Esca'pement. An apparatus in 
clocks and watches for regulating 

the action of the pendulum or ba- 
lance wheeL 

Escai'pment. (Fr. eacarper^ to cut 

a slope.) Ground cut away nearly 

vertically about a military position ; 

also a natural cutting away of the 

ground, as in ravines. 

Eschar (Gr. iaxapa, ea'charay a hearth 
or gridiron). A crust or scab pro- 
duced by heat or caustics. 

Escharot'io (Gr. itrxapa, es'chara, a 
hearth or gridiron). Producing an 
eschar or crust on the flesh. 

Esophagot'omy (Gr. ola-o<payos, ot- 
soph'agosj tiie oesophagus ; r^fiyo), 
temnoj 1 cut). The operation of 
making an incision or opening into 
the oesophagus. 

Esoph'agus (Gr. ola, oio, I carry ; 
(paytay pihai/oy I eat). The gullet, 
or tube which carries food to the 

Esoter'ic (Gr. ^<r», e«o, within). Pri- 
vate ; applied to the private in- 
structions of Pythagoras. 

Es'sence (Lat. e«se, to be). The par- 
ticular and distinguishing nature of 
a being or substance. 

Essen'tisd (Lat. e«se, to be). Neces- 
sary to the constitution of a thing ; 
specially distinctive. 

Esthetics. See Jlsthet'ics. 

Estiva'tion (Lat. css/os, summer). 
The manner in which the petals of 
a flower are arranged within the 

Es'tuary (Lat. asiuiy tide). An arm 
of the sea, or mouth of a river, 
where the tide meets the current. 

Ethe'real (Gr. o'Vtjp, aiihert ether). 
Relating to or formed of ether. 

Etherisa'tion(£Y/icr). The production 
of insensibility by inhaling the 
vapour of ether. 

Ethical (Gr. iidos, ethos, habit of 
men, manners). Relating to public 
manners or morals. 

Ethics (Gr. ^BoSf ethos, manners). 
The science of moral philosophy, or 
of the duties of men. 

E'thmoid (Gr. f/d/zo r, ethmos, a sieve ; 
€t5os, eidos, form). Perforated 
with holes like a sieve. 

Ethnorogy (Gr. i6vos, ethnos, a na- 
tion ; \oyoSf logos^ ^vgufs^sx^. ^^Jaa 



science which describes the relation 
of the different varieties of mankind 
to each other. 

E'tiolate. To whiten bj excluding the 
rays of the sun. 

E'tlology (Gr. alria, aitia, a cause ; 
A.0705, logoSf a discourse). A de- 
scription of causes ; in medicine, the 
department of the science which 
studies the agents by which diseases 
are produced. 

Etymorogy (Gr. irvfios, et^umos, 
true ; Koyos, logos, a word). A 
description of the origin, derivation, 
and changes of words. 

Et'ymon (Gr. irvfios, efumos, true). 
The root of a word, from which it 
is derived. 

Endiom'eter (Gr. c v, eu.well ; Zios, dios, 
air; fitrpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
amount of oxygen contained in air 
or in gaseous mixtures. 

Eudiom'etry (Gr. ev, eu, well ; hios, 
dioSf air ; firrpoy, metron, a 
measure). The art of measuring 
the quantity of oxygen in the air or 
in gaseous mixtures. 

Eu'phemism (Gr. €^, eu, well ; <^/a<, 
phemi, I speak). The substitution 
of a delicate or agreeable word for 
one which is offensive. 

Euphon'ic (Gr. 6v, eu, well ; (pcovrij 
phoncy voice). Having an agree- 
able sound. 

Eu'phoiiy (Gr. €&, eu, well ; <puvr), 
phone, voice). A combination of 
letters and syllables which is agree- 
able to the ear. 

Ensta'cMaiL Tube (Eusta' chins, a 
celebrated anatomist). The tube 
which connects the internal ear 
with the back part of the mouth. 

Ensta'chiaii Valve. A fold of mem- 
brane lying between the anterior 
margin of the lower vena cava and 
the right auricles of the heart. 

Evac'aant (Lat. e, from ; vadttOj I 
empty). Emptying. 

Evac'uate (Lat. e, out ; vacfuo, I 
empty). To empty or free from. 

Evacna'tloTi (Lat. e, out; vacfuo, 
I empty). An emptying or clear- 

Evap'orate (Lat. e, from; vapor, 

vapour). To pass off in vapour ; to 
convert into vapour. 

Evap'oration (Lat. e, from ; vapor, 
vapour). The conversion of a fluid 
into vapour or steam ; the removal 
of fluid from any substance by con- 
verting it into vapour. 

Evec'tion (Lat. e, out ; veho, I cany). 
A carrying out ; in astronomy, an 
inequality in the moon's place, pro- 
duced by the mean progression of 
,the apsides, and the variation of 
the excentricity, 

Evolu'tion (Lat. e, out ; volvo, I roll). 
An unfolding or unrolling ; in cU- 
gebra and arithmetic, the extraction 
of a root, or the unfolding of a num- 
ber multiplied into itself any num- 
ber of times ; in military affairs, 
changes in the position and arrange- 
ment of troops. 

Evnl'sion (Lat. e, from ; vello, I 
pluck). A pulling out by force. 

Exacerba'tion (Lat. ex, from ; acer^- 
bus, sharp). Irritation ; an in- 
crease in violence. 

Exalbn'minoug (Lat. ex, from ; aUm'- 
men). Without albumen. 

Ezan'thema (Gr. i^, ex, out ; Mos^ 
anthos, a flower). An eruption : 
now applied to contagious diseases, 
attended by fever and by an erup- 
tion on the skin. 

Ezcen'tric. See Eccen'tric. 

Excentricity. See Eccentric'ity. 

Ezcis'ion (Lat. er, from ; casdo, I 
cut). A cutting off. 

Excitability (Lat. eoe, from ; cito, I 
provoke). The power of being 
roused to action. 

Exci'tant (Lat. ex, from; cito, I 
provoke). Calling into action; 

Exci'to-mo'tor (Lat. exdto, I excite ; 
moi-eo, I move). A term applied 
to those actions which arise from 
an impression made on the extremity 
of a nerve, conveyed to the spinal 
cord, and thence reflected, without 
sensation, to the nerves supplying 
the muscles of the part moved. 

Excor'iate (Lat. ex, from ; co'rium, 
the skin). To fetrip off the skin. 

Ex'crement (Lat. ex, from ; eemo, I 
separate). Refuse matter. 



Excrea'cfflice (Lat. ex, from; cresco, 
I grow). An unnatural or super- 
fluous growth. 

Excre'tion (Lat. exj from ; cemoy 
I separate). A separation of fluids 
from the body by means of glands ; 
the fluids separated. 

Excre'tory (Lat. ex, from ; cemoy I 
separate). Having the property of 
excreting or throwing off; removing. 

Exege'sifl (Gr. i^iryeoixcUf exegeomaif 
I explain). An explanation. 

Exfo'liate (Lat. ex, from ; fdlium, a 
leaf). To separate in scales, as 
diseased bone, or the lamina of a 

Ezha'lant (Lat. ex^ from ; AoZo, I 
breathe). Breathing out or evapor- 

Exhala'tion (Lat. ex^ from; Tialo, I 
breathe). The act of exhaling or 
sending forth in vapour; that which 
is emitted as vapour. 

Exhale (Lat. ex, from ; halo, I 
breathe). To breathe or send out 

Exhau'st (Lat. ex, from ; hau'rio, I 
draw). To draw off; to empty by 
drawing out the contents. 

Exooar'dial (Gr. iiw, exo, outside ; 
Kopdia, kai^'dia, the heart). Out- 
side the heart. 

Ex'ogen (Gr. ^|w, exd, outside ; 
yfvvouo, gennao, I produce). A 
plant which grows by additions to 
the outside of the wood. 

Exog'enites (Eafogen), Fossil stems 
exhibiting the exogenous structure. 

Exog'enous (Gr. ^|w, exd, outside ; 
y^woua, gennao, I produce). In 
botany, growing by addition to the 
outside; in anatomy, growing out 
from a bone already formed. 

Exor'dixun (Lat. ex, from ; or^dior, I 
begin). The introductory part of 
a discourse. 

Exorhi'zEd {Qt, i^oo, exo, outside; 
pi(a, rhiza, a root). A term applied 
to plants of which the roots do not 
burst through the coverings of the 
seed before growing downwards. 

Exoskereton (Gr. ifya, exd, outside; 
<ric€A,€Tov, skd'eton). An external 
skeleton, such as is found in many 
invertebrate animals ; also in those 

vertebrate animals which have ossi- 
fied or bony plates connected with 
the skin. 

Ex'osmose (Gr. i^, ex, out ; uB^oo, 
othed, I drive). The passage of 
one fluid to another through a 
membrane from within outwards. 

Ex'ostome (Gr. ^|», exo, outwards ; 
(TTOfxa, stoma, a mouth). The 
outer aperture in the ovule of a 
plant, towards which the apex of 
the nucleus points. 

Exosto'ais (Gr. 4^, ex, out; oartov, 
os'teon, a bone). An unnatural 
projection or growth from a bone. 

Exoter'io (Gr. i^a, exo, outside). 
External ; public. 

Exothe'oinm (Gr. i^a>, exo, outside ; 
driKiov, thefhion, a box). In botany , 
the outside covering of the anther, 
the inner being the endothecium. 

Exofic (Gr. ^|«, exo, outside). 
Brought from a foreign country. 

Expansibility (Lat. ex, out ; pando, 
I open). Capability of being en- 
larged or extended in all directions. 

Expec'torant (Lat. ex, from ; pectus, 
the breast). Promoting discharge 
from the air-passages and limgs. 

Expeo'torate (Lat. ex, from ; pectus, 
the breast). To discharge from 
the air-passages or lungs. 

Expira'tion (Lat. ex, from ; spiro, I 
breathe). A breathing out of air 
or vapour. 

Expo'nent (Lat. expo'no, I set forth). 
A number or figure which, placed 
above and to the right hand of a 
number, denotes what root is to be 
extracted, or to what power it is to 
be raised : in the former case, 
fractions are used ; in the latter, 
whole numbers ; also the number 
which denotes the ratio between 
two quantities. 

Expres'sion (Lat. ex, out ; prem'o, 
1 press). A pressing out ; in 
algebra, any quantity, simple or 

Exsan'gnine (Lat. ex, from ; sanguis, 
blood). Without blood; deprived 
of blood. 

Exsert'ed (Lat. eafserso, I thrust out). 
In botany, extending beyond an 



Exsioca'tion (Lat. ex, from ; siccuSf 

dry). Drying. 
ExBtip'Tilate (Lat. ex, from ; stipule). 

Without stipules. 
Ezten'sor (Lat. ex, out ; tendo, I 

stretch). A stretcher out ; applied 

to certain muscles. 
External Contact. In astronomy^ the 

apparent touching of two disks at 

their edges, without interposition. 
Extine (Lat. ex, out). The outer 

covering of the pollen-grain. 
Extracell'iQar (Lat. extra, beyond ; 

cell'ula, a cell). Without cells : 

applied to the formation of nuclei 

or cells in animal and vegetable 

matter, without the influence of a 

previously existing cell. 
Extravas'oiQar (Lat. extra, beyond ; 

vatfcular). Without vessels. 
Extrao'tion (Lat. ex, from ; traho, I 

draw). A drawing out. 

Extrao'tlTe (Lat.^ ex, from ; traho, I 
draw). That which is drown out : 
a term used in chemistry to denote 
matter of a peculiar kind obtained 
from substances by chemical opera- 

Extravasa'tion (Lat. extra, out of; 
vas, a vessel). The pouring of a 
fluid, as blood, out of its vessels. 

Extro'rse (Lat. extror^sum, outwards). 
Turned outwards. 

Exuda'tion (Lat. ex, out ; sudo, I 
perspire). A discharge of moisture 
through pores. 

Exu'de (Lat. ex, out ; stido, I per- 
spire). To discharge through pores. 

Exu'visB (Lat. from cxuo, I put off). 
Cast-offshells or skins of animals ; re- 
mains of animals found in the earth. 

Eye-piece. The lens or combination 
of lenses in a microscope to which 
the eye is applied. 


Fao^ade (Fr.). The front view of a 

Facet (Fr. : a little face). A small 
face ; applied to the small terminal 
faces of crystals and cut gems. 

Fascial (Lat. fa'cies, the face). Be- 
longing to the face. 

Fascial An'gle. In anatomy, the 
angle formed by a line drawn 
through the opening of the ear and 
the base of the nostrils, with 
another drawn from the most pro- 
jecting part of the forehead through 
the front of the upper jaw; re- 
garded as a measure of intelligence 
in animals. 

Fac'tor (Lat. fac'io, I make). A 
maker up or agent ; in arithmetic 
and algebra, the factors of a 
quantity are those by the multi- 
plication of which into each other 
it is formed. 

Fa'cules (Lat. fa'cula, a little 
torch). A term applied to varie- 
ties in the intensity of the bright- 
ness of different parts of the sun's 

FflB'ces (Lat. fcex, dregs). Excrement 
or refuse matter. 

Falcate (Lat. falx, a sickle). Bent 

like a sickle. 
Fal'ciform (Lat. /oZx, a hook or 

sickle ; focrma^ shape). Shaped 

like a sickle. 
Falx Ger'ebri (Lat. fdhx, a sickle). 

A curved projection downwards of 

the dura mater, which divides the 

brain into two hemispheres ; a 

similar structure also divides the 

cerebellum, or little brain. 
Fari'na (Lat. far, com). Meal or 

flour ; consisting of gluten, starch, 

and gum ; in botany, the pollen or 

fine dust of the anther. 
Farina'ceons (Lat. fari'na, flour). 

Consisting of, or containing meal or 

Fas'cia (Lat. a band). A band ; in 

architecture, a baud-like structure; 

a surgical bandage ; a membranous 

Fas'ciate (Lat. fas' da, a band). 

Bound, or apparently bound, with 

a band. 
Fas'cide or Fascic'nlTis (Lat. fas- 

cic'vlus, a little bundle). A small 

bundle; in anatomy, a bundle of 

muscular fibres. 



Faseic'nlate (Lat. fascidvluSf^k small 
bundle). Arranged in small 
bundles or clusters. 

Fasci'ne (Lat. fas'cia^ a baijid). A 
fagot used in military operations for 
raising batteries, filling ditches, &c. 

Fau'ces (Lat. fauoc, the jaws). The 
opening by which the back part of 
the mouth communicates with the 

Fault (Lat. faUoy I deceive or fail). 
A failing ; in geology^ an inter- 
ruption of the continuity of strata. 

FanzLa (Lat. Faunus), The entire 
collection of animals peculiar to a 

Favose (Lat. favus^ a honey-comb). 
Resembling a honey-comb. 

Favus (Lat. a honey-comb). A 
disease of the skin, popularly known 
as scaldhead. 

Feather-edged. In architecture^ 
made thin at one edge. 

Febric'ula (Lat. febrU, a fever ; ula^ 
denoting smallness). A slight 

Feb'rifuge (Lat./c6rM, a fever ; /m^o, 
I drive away). Diminishing or 
preventing fever. 

Felbrile (Lat. /eftm, a fever). Re- 
lating to, or indicating fever. 

Fec'ula (Lat. /cex, dregs ; vlay de- 
noting smallness). Starch. 

Fec'ulent (Lat. foecuLoy small dregs). 
Containing dregs or sediment. 

Fe'eundate (Lat. fecun'dm, fruitful). 
To make fruitful. 

Fecnn'dity (Lat. fecun'dus^ fruitful). 
Fruitfulness ; power of producing. 

Feld'spar (Germ, fddy afield ; ^ar). 
The soft part of granite ^ consisting 
of a mixture of alumina, lime, 
and potash or soda, with silicic 

Feldspathlc (Feld'spar), Consisting 
of, or abounding in feldspar. 

Feline (Lat. fe'lis^ a cat) . Belonging 
to cats, or to the cat tribe. 

Fel'spar — ^Felspathlc. See Feld- 
spar and Feldspath'ic. 

Fem'oral (Lat. femur, the thigh). 
Belonging to the thigh. 

Femur (Lat). In anatomy , the thigh- 
bone ; in entom>ologyy the third joint 
of the leg in insects. 

Fenes'tra (Lat. a window). A term 
applied in anatomy to two small 
openings in the bones of the ear. 

Fenes'tral (Lat. fenes'tra, a window). 
Having openings like a window. 

Fenes'trate (Lat. fenes^tra, a window). 
Belonging to, or resembling a 

Ferae (Lat. fera, a wild beast). An 
order of mammalia in the Linnsean 

Ferment (Lat. fer'veoy I boil). That 
which causes fermentation. 

Fermenta'tion (Lat. fermentumy 
leaven). A peculiar change oi 
organic substances, by a rearrange- 
ment of their elements under the 
agency of an external disturbing 
force, different from ordinary chemi- 
cal attraction. 

Fer'reons (Lat. ferrwm, iron). Re- 
lating to or consisting of iron. 

Fer'ric (Lat./c?Tttw, iron). Derived 
from iron. 

Ferriferous (Lat. ferrum, iron; /ero, 
I bear). Producing iron. 

Ferro- (Lat. ferrum^ iron). A prefix 
denoting that iron enters into the 
composition of the substance named. 

Ferm'ginonB (Lat. ferrum, iron ; 
gigno, I produce). Producing or 
yielding iron. 

Fertilisa'tion (Lat. fero, I bear). In 
botany f the application of pollen to 
the stigma of a plant. 

Fer'tilise (Lat. fero, I bear). To 
make fruitful or productive. 

Fetal (Lat. fostus, the young of a 
creature). Belonging to the foetus. 

Fetus or Foetus (^t). The young 
imbom animal, in which all the 
parts of the body are formed. 

Fibre (Lat. Jibra, a small sprout). 
A thread ; a minute slender 
structure entering into the com- 
X>osition of various parts of animals 
and vegetables. 

Fini>ril (I^t. Jibray a small sprout ; 
U, denoting smallness). A minute 

Fi'brin (Fibre). An organic sub- 
stance found in the blood, which 
forms, on removal, long white 
elastic filaments). 

Fi'bro-oar'tilage (Fibre; eartilage). 



An animal tissue composed of 
fibrons tissue mixed with cartilage. 

Tilbro-se'roiLS {Fibre ; serum). Con- 
sistiijg of fibrous tissue covered by 
a serous membrane. 

Filnrons (Lat. Jtbra^ a small sprout 
or fibre). Containing or consisting 
of fibres. 

FiVula (Lat. a buckTe). The outer 
or small bone of the leg. 

FiVular (Fib'ula). Belonging to or 
situated near the fibula. 

Fic'tile (Lat. firigo, I mould). Manu- 
factured by the potter's art. 

Fig'iirate Kumbers. In arithmetic, 
a series of numbers capable of being 
placed in such order as to represent 
a geometrical figure. 

Fil'ameiit (Lat. filum^ a thread). A 
thread; in anatomy, a thread-like 
structure ; in botany, the part of the 
stamen which supports the anther. 

Fil'icoid (Lat. Jilix, fern ; Gr. fides, 
eidos, form). Resembling fern. 

Pi'liform (Lat. filum, a thread ; forma, 
shape). Like a thread. 

Filter {Felt, fulled wool). A strainer : 
to strain, in order to separate fluid 
from solid matter. 

Piltrate. The liquid which lias passed 
through a filter. 

Kltra'tion, The act of filtering or 

Timnbriae (Lat. fim'bria, a fringe). 
In anatomy, a structure resembling 
a fringe. 

Pim'briated (Lat. Jim'bria, a border 
or hem). Haying a fringed edge. 

Fi'xiite (Lat. finis, an end). Having 
a limit. 

Tire-damp. Light carburetted hy- 
drogen : the explosive gas of coal- 

Tirestone. A stone that stands heat ; 
in geology, a stone of lime and 

Pirst Intention. In sv/rgery, the 
process by which wounds head by 
direct unioo. 

ris'sile (Lat. findo, I cleave). Capable 
of being split. 

Jissip'arons (Lat. findo, I cleave ; 
par'io, I produce). Multiplying 
the species by the division of the 
ifidividiuJ into two parts, . as in. 

polygastric animalcules and po- 

Fisdros'tres (Lat. findo, I cleave ; 
rostrum, a beak). A tribe of in- 
sessorial or perching birds, having 
the beak much depressed or flat- 
tened horizontally, so as to give a 
wide opening, as the swallows and 

Fis'snre (Lat. findo, I cleave). A 
cleft ; in anatomy, an opening in a 
bone or other part resembling a 

Fis'tnla (Lat. a pipe). In surgery, a 
deep, narrow, callous ulcer. 

Fis'toloiLS (Lat. fis'tula, a pipe). Like 
a pipe ; in botany, applied to cylin- 
drical bodies which are hollow but 
closed at each end. 

Fixed (Lat. figo, I fix). Firm ; fixed 
air, carbonic acid gas ; fixed stars. 

Fixed Oils. Oils which are not capable 
of being distilled without decompo- 

Flaberiiform (Lat. fiabeVlum, a fim ; 
forma, shape). Like a fan. 

Flat'ulency {hiiX. flatus, a blast). A 
generation of gases in the stomach 
and intestines. 

Flex'ible ( Lat. ^cc^o, I bend). Capable 
of bending ; a changing form in 
obedience to a force exerted across 
the length of the material. 

Flexion (Lat. fiecto, I bend). A 

Flex'or (Lat. flecto, I bend). A 
bender ; applied to the muscles 
which bend the limbs. 

Flex'ure (Lat. fiecto, I bend). The 
bending or curve of a line or surface. 

Flex'uo8e(Lat./ccto, I bend). Wind- 


Floc'cnlent (Lat. floccus, a lock of 
wool). Consisting of or containing 
flocks, as of wool. 

Flora (Lat. the Goddess of Flowers). 
The entire collection of plants be- 
longing to a country. 

Flo'ral (Lat. flos, a flower). Belong- 
ing to a flower. 

Flower-bud. A bud which becomes 
developed into a flower. 

Fln'ate {Flu'orin). A compound of 
fluoric acid vrith a base. 

FMd (Lat./«o, I flow). Capable of 



flowing ; not having sufficient force 
of adhesion in the component parts 
to prevent their separation by their 
mere weight readily changing their 

fluidity (Lat. fluo, I flow). The 
state of being flnid. 

riu'or, or Fluor-spar, A mineral con- 
sisting of fluoride of calcium, or the 
element fluorine with the metallic 
base of lime. 

Fluor'io. Relating to, or containing 
the element fluorine. 

Flu'oride {Fla'orine). A compound 
of fluorine with another elementary 

Fln'orine (Fluorspar). An elemen- 
tary substance which, in combina- 
tion with calcium, forms fluor- 

Flu'vial (Lat. flu'vius, a river). Be- 
longing to a river, or fresh water. 

Flu'viatUe (Lat. flu'viusj a river). 
Belonging to a river, or fresh 

Flnz (Lat. /zw>, I flow). A flowing ; 
a substance used in chemical opera- 
tions to promote the melting of 
metals or minerals. 

Flnz'ion (Lat. flm^ I flow). A flow- 
ing ; in mnthematicSy the finding of 
an infinitely small quantity, which, 
taken an infinite number of times, 
becomes equal to a given quantity. 

Flywheel. A wheel used in ma- 
chinery for the purpose of rendering 
motion equable and regular. 

Focal. (Lat. focua, a fire-hearth), 
filiating to a focus. 

Focal Distance. The distance of a 
focus from some fixed point ; in' 
opticSj the distance between the 
centre of a lens or miiTor, and the 
point into which the rays are 

Focus (Lat. a hearth). A point in 
which rays meet. 

Folia'ceons (Lat. fo'liunty a leaf). 
Consisting of, or resembling leaves. 

Foliated (Lat. fo'lium^ a leaf). Con- 
sisting of, or resembling a plate or 
leaf; arranged in layers like leaves. 

Folia'tlon (Lat. fo'lium, a leaf). The 
arrangement of leaves on a tree. 

FolOicle (Lat foUis^ a bag). A little 

bag; in botany j a form of fruit 
with one suture. 

Follic'nlated (Lat. folllc'ulm, a little 
bag). Having follicles. 

Fon'tanel (Lat. /otm, a fountain). The 
opening in the skull of infants, 
between the bones, at each end of 
the sagittal suture. 

Footstalk. The stem of a leaf. 

For'alites (Lat. fwo^ I bore ; Gr. 
Xt^os, lithosj a stone). Tube-like 
markings in sandstones and other 
geological strata, apparently the 
burrows of worms. 

Fora'men (Lat. foro, I pierce). A 
hole or aperture. 

Foraminiferoug (Lat. fora'men^ a 
hole ; feroj I bear). Having a 
hole or holes ; applied to a class of 
marine animals, having shells con- 
sisting of chambers separated by 
partitions having in each a small 

Forma'tion (Lat. formo^ I shape or 
build up). In geology^ a term ap- 
plied to any assemblage of rocks 
connected by geological position, by 
immediate succession in time, and 
by organic and mineral affinities. 

For'miate. {Formic acid). A com- 
pound of formic acid with a base. 

Formic (Lat. formi'ca^ an ant). Be- 
longing to or obtained from ants : 
applied to an organic acid pro- 
curable from ants, and also from 
the oxidation of' wood-spirit under 
the influence of finely divided 

Formica'tion (Lat. formVca^ an ant). 
A sensation of ants or small insects 
creeping over the skin. 

For'mula (Lat. fo^'ma^ a form ; uUty 
denoting smalluess). A form; in 
mathematics^ a general expression 
by means of letters ; in chemistry ^ 
an expression denoting the compo- 
sition of a substance ; in medicine^ 
a prescription, or directions for 
making up medicines. 

Fos'sil (Lat. fo'dio, 1 dig). Dug out 
of the earth ; in geology, applied 
generally to mineralised animal and 
vegetable remains, found in rocks 
or in the earth. 

Fosailif eroiu (Lat. fo'dio, I dig ; ferox 



I bear). Producing or containing 
fossil remains of animals and vege* 

FoB'fidlize (Lat. foilsilia, that which 
may be dug out). To convert into 
a fossil. 

Fourchette (Fr. a fork). The bone in 
birds formed by the junction of the 
clavicles ; the merrythought. 

Fovil^ (Lat. white ashes). The 
minute granular matter which exists 
in the interior of the pollen-grains 
in flowers. 

Frac'tion (Lat. frango, I break). A 
broken part of an entire quantity 
or number. 

Frac'tnre (Lat. frango, I break). A 
break ; the manner or direction in 
which a break takes place. 

Freeadng Mixture. A mixture which 
produces cold sufficient to freeze 
other liquids. 

Freezing Point. The point at which 
the mercury stands in the ther- 
mometer when immersed in a fluid 
in the act of freezing. 

Rrem'itiu (Lat. frern'o, I roar or 
murmur). A vibrating sensation 
felt on applying the hand to the 

Fri'able (Lat. /m, I break or crumble). 
Easily crumbled. 

Fric'tlon (Lat. frico, I rub). The 
act of rubbing one body against 

Frieze. The part ot the entablature 
of a column which is between the 
architrave and cornice. 

Fiig'id ^ (Lat. fri'gua, cold). Cold ; 
wanting heat. 

Frigoriflc (Lat. frUguSf cold ; fa'do^ 
I make). Producing cold ; freezing. 

Frond (Lat. fronsy a leal^ or bough 
with leaves). In botany ^ the 
flattened expansion produced by the 
spores of some acotyledonous or 
flowerless plants : leaf of a tree- 

Frondip'arouB (Lat. from^ a leaf; 
pa'rio, I produce). In botany, 
applied to fruits which produce 
leaves from their upper pai-t. 

Fron'tal (Lat. fron^, the forehead). 
Belonging to the forehead. 

Fmctifica'tion (Lat. frmftus, fruit ; 

fcu/io, I make). The production 
of fruit. 

Fruc'tif y (Lat. fruc'tusy fruit ; /ae/io, 
I make). To make fruitfrd ; to 

Frugiv'orous(Lat/n*'^M, fruit; two, 
I devour). Eating or living on fruits. 

Fms'tum (Lat. a broken piece). A 
piece broken off; in geometi'y, the 
part of a solid body nearest the 
base, which remains after the top 
has been cut off by a plane parallel 
to the base. 

Fuciv'oroiiB (Lat fu'cusy sea-weed ; 
voro, I devour). Eating or living 
on sea-weed. 

Fu'coid (Lat. fu^cus, sea- weed; Qr. 
tlhos, eidoSy form). Eesembling 

Ful'cmm (Lat. fuVdo, I support). 
A support : the fixed point on 
which a lever turns. 

Ful'minate (Lat. ful'men^ thunder). 
To detonate : a compound of ful- 
minic acid with a base, character- 
ised by a tendency to explode 

Fnl'minic Acid (Lat. fuVmen, thun- 
der). An acid produced by the 
action of nitric acid on alpohol in 
the presence of a salt of silver or 
mercury, and forming salts which 
have a tendency to explode vio- 

Fu'marolles (Lat. fu'mus, smoke). 
Crevices in the earth in volcanic 
districts from which steam and 
boiling fluids are emitted. 

Fu'migate (Lat. fulmus, smoke). To 
apply smoke or vapour. 

Func'tion (Lat. fimgor, I perform). 
In physiology y the use of a part or 

Fun'gi (Lat. fun'guSf a mushroom). 
An order of flowerless plants of 
which the mushroom is the type. 

Fun'goid (Lat. fun'giLs^ a mushroom : 
Qr. e($os, eido8, form). Besem- 
bling a mushroom. 

Fimgos'ily (Lat. furigwt, a mush- 
room). A soft excrescence, often 
of rapid growth. 

Fun'gous (Lat. fun'gug^ a mushroom). 
Consisting of^ or resembling mush- 



Fonic'Tilns (Lat. fu'nis, a bundle). A 
ittle bundle : in anatomy ^ a bun- 
dle of fibrils of a nerve, eni^sed in 
a sheath ; in hotany^ the stalk by 
which the ovule is attached. 

Furfora'ceous (Lat. fui-'fur, bran). 
Resembling bran. 

Fuse'e (Lat. fu'sus, a spindle). The 
conical part of a watch or clock 
which has the chain or cord wound 
round it. 

Fusibility (Lat. fun'dOf I pour out). 

Capability of being melted, or con- 
verted from a solid to a liquid state 
by heat. 

Fu'sible (Lat. fun'dOf I pour out). 
Capable of being melted, or con- 
verted from a solid to a liquid state 
by heat. 

Fu'fdform (Lat. fu'sibSy a spindle; 
ffyrmoy shape). Like a spindle : 
tapering at each end. 

Fn'fdon (Lat. fuji'do^ I pour out), 
A melting by heat. 

OaHbion (Fr.). A large cylindrical 
basket of wicker-work, filled with 
earth, used in fortifications. 

Gable (Welsh, gavaely a hold). The 
upright triangular end of a house. 

Galac'tagogue (Gr. ya\a, gala, milk ; 
&7(v, ago, I diive). Increasing the 
secretion of milk. 

Galac'tic Circle. In astronomy, the 
circle at right angles to the diam- 
eter forming the galactic poles. 

Galac'tic Poles. In astronomy, the 
opposite points of the celestial 
sphere, round which the stars are 
most sparse. 

Galactom'eter (Gr. 70X0, gala, milk : 
fifrpoy, matron, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
purity of milk by means of its 
specific gravity. 

Galactoph'agoufl (Gr. 70X0, gala, 
milk ; <f>ayw, pJia^o, I eat.) 
Living on milk. 

Galactoph'orous (Gr. yaXa, gala, 
milk ; <f>€pco, phero, I bear). Pro- 
ducing or conveying milk. 

Gal'axy (Gr. 70X0, gala, milk). The 
milky way : a dense cluster of stars, 
giving to the naked eye an appear- 
ance of whitish nebulous light. 

Ckil'eated (Lat. gaVea, a helmet). 
Covered as with a helmet : having 
a flower like a helmet. 

Ckde'na. Sulphuret of lead ; a com- 
pound of sulphur with lead. 

GiJen'ic {Gale'nus, an ancient physi- 
cian). Relating to Galen : ap- 

plied to medicines derived from the 
vegetable kingdom. 

Gallate. A compound of gallic acid 
with a base. 

Gall-ducts. The ducts or canals 
which convey the bile from the 

Gal'lic (Lat. gaUa, a gall). ,Belong- 
ing to gall-nuts*: applied to an 
organic acid derived from them. 

(}alliiia'ceou8 (Lat. galli'na, a hen). 
Belonging to the order of birds of 
which the domestic fowl and the 
pheasant are examples. 

Galli'nsB (Lat. gaUi'na, a hen). An 
order of birds of which the com- 
mon fowl is the type. 

Galvanic. Relating to, containing, 
or exhibiting galvanism. 

Gal'vanism. See Voltaic Electricity. 

Gal'vanise. To affect with gal- 

Galyanom'eter (Galvanism ; Gr. 
fifrpov, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in- 
tensity of galvanic Qr voltaic 

Ckdvan'OBCope (Gal'vanism ; Qr, 
aKovfco, skop'ed, I view). An ap- 
paratus for ascertaining the direc- 
tion in which the pole of a mag- 
netic needle is moved by a galvanic 

Gamopef alooB (Gr. yofios, gam'os, 
marriage ; irtraKov, p^alon, a 
petal). Having petals united by 
their margins. 



Gamosep'aloiu (Gr. yofioSf js/am'oSf 
marriage ; sep'al). Having sepals 
united by their margins. 

Oan'gliated {Ganglion), Provided 
with ganglia. 

Oan'glion (Gr. yayy\ioVf ga'nfgliony a 
knot). In anatomy, a small mass 
of nervous matter resembling a 
knot, found in the coarse of varions 
parts of the nervous system ; in 
surgery, a tumour consisting of a 
cyst filled with serous fluid, occur- 
ring generally at the wrist and 

Ganglionic (Gr. yay/Kiov, gan'glion, 
a knot;. Containing, or belonging 
to ganglia : applied especially to a 
part of the nervous system in whick 
these structures abound, otherwise 
called the sympathetic nerve. 

Oan'g^ene (Gr. yaYypaiva,gangrai!naf 
an eating sore). Death of a limited 
portion of the body, or of any of 
its tissues. 

Oanoceph'ala (Gr. yavov, gan'os, 
splendour ; K€<f>a\ri, heph'alef a 
head)". An order of fossil reptiles 
having polished bony plates cover- 
ing the head. 

Oan'oid [One. yavos, gan'os, splen- 
dour ; 6<8os, eidoSf appearance). 
Of splendid appearance ; applied to 
an order of fishes, mostly extinct^ 
witk angular scales covered by a 
thick coat of shining enamel. 

Gar'goyle (Lat. gttrgu'lioy the throat- 
pipe). A spput in the cornice or 
parapet of a building for discharg- 
ing water from the roof. 

Gas (Saxon ga^t, German geist^ a 
spirit). A body of which the com- 
ponent particles are not held to- 
gether by mutual cohesion, and 
also have a disposition to separate 
from each other. 

Ckusholder. An apparatus for holding 

Ckuiom'eter (Gas ; Gr. fifrpov, metrony 
a measure) . An apparatus for 
measuring, collecting, or mixing 

Oas'teropod (Gr. yaa-rrip, gaster, the 
stomach ; irovs, pouSy a foot). 
Moving on the belly: applied to an 
order of molluscous invertebrate 

animals, of whick the snail and 
slug are examples. 

CkuitraVgia (Gr. yaarnpy gasteVj the 
stomach ; aXyos, algos, pain). Pain 
in the stomach. 

Gastric (Gr. ycurrrip^ gagter, the 
stomach). Pertaining to the sto- 

Ckuitri'tis (Gr. yaarup, gasteTy the 
stomach ; itis, denoting inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the stomach . 

Ckui'tro- (Gr. ycurr-np^ gasteVy the 
stomach). In anatomy and medi- 
cinCy a prefix in compound words 
signifying relation to, or connection 
with, the stomach. 

Gastrocne'mius (Gr. yaarrjpy gasttr, 
the stomach; KvrjfiTiy hiimey the 
leg). A muscle which forms the 
chief part of the calf of the leg. 

Gastrodyn'ia (Gr. yaa-rrfpy gasfer, 
the stomach ; oUvmjy odtmcy pain). 
Pain in the stomach. 

Ckui'tro-enteri'tis {Qr.ycurrnpy gastery 
the stomach ; ivrtpovy en'teroriy an 
intestine ; itis, denoting inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the sto- 
mach and intestines. 

Gastro-pnl'monary (Gr. ycunripy gas- 
tery the stomach ; Lat. pulmo, a 
lung). Connected with the lungs 
and intestinal canal : applied to a 
track of mucous membrane. 

Gastro'raphy (Gr. ytuniripy gasfer, the 
stomach; pa(p% raphcy a suture). 
Union of a wound of the stomach 
or abdomen by suture. 

Gault. In geology, a common term 
for the chalky clays of the lower 
division of the chalk system. 

Geratine (Lat. geloy I congeal). The 
softish substance produced by dis- 
solving animal membranes, skin, 
tendons, and bones, in water at a 
high temperature ; animal jelly. 

Gelafinize (GeUatine). To change 
into gelatine. 

Gelatinous (GeVatine). Belonging to 
or consisting of gelatine. 

Gemina'tion (Lat. gem'ini, twins). 
A doubling. 

Gemma'tion (Lat. gemma, a bud). 
Budding ; the construction of a 
leaf-bud ; multiplication by budding. 

Gemmip'arous (Lat. gemmOy a bud ; 



par'to, I produce). Producing 
bads ; multiplying by a process of 

Gem'ucule (Lat. gemma, a bud ; ule, 
denoting smallness). The growing 
point of the embryo in plants. 

Geneal'ogy (Gr. ytvosy genos, a race ; 
XoyoSf logos, a description). A 
history of the descent of a person or 
family from an ancestor. 

Gener'ic (Lat. genits, a kind). Per- 
taining to a genus; distinguishing a 
genus from a species or from ano- 
ther genus. 

Gen'oBis (Qr. ytwoua, gennad, I pro- 
duce). A production or formation. 

Genef ic (Gr. ytwcua, gennad, I pro- 
duce). Relating to the origin of a 
thing or its mode of production. 

Ge'nio- (Gr. y^vuov, genei'on, the 
chin). La anatomy, a prefix in 
several names of muscles, denoting 
attachment to the chin. 

Genitive (Lat. gigno, I produce). In 
grammar, applied to that case which 
denotes the person or thing to which 
something else stands in the rela- 
tion of descent, possession, or other 

Genius (Lat. a kind). An assemblage 
of species possessing certain common 
distinctive characters. 

Geocen'tric (Gr. yn, ge, the earth ; 
Kfyrpov, kentron, a centre). Hav- 
ing the earth as a centre : applied 
to the position and motion of a 
heavenly body as viewed from the 

Ge'ode (Gr. yn, ge, the earth). In 
geology, a rounded nodule wijbh 
internal cavities. 

G^eod'esy (Gr. yri, ge, the earth ; 8oi», 
daio, I divide). The science which 
measures the earth and portions 
of it by n^athematical observation. 

Geognos'tic (Gr. yri, ge, the earth ; 
yvQxris, gnosis^ knowledge). Rela- 
ting to a knowledge of the struc- 
ture of the earth. 

Geogno'By (Gr. yn, ge, the earth ; 
yva>iTis, gnosis, knowledge). The 
knowledge of the earth. 

Geographical (Gr. yri, ge, the earth ; 
ypcupa, graphs, I write). Rela- 
ting to geography. 

Geog'raphy (Gr. yn, ge, the earth ; 
ypa<pa>, grapho, I write). The 
science which describes the surface 
of the earth, its divisions, their 
inhabitants, productions, &c. This 
is general or universal geography. 
Mathematical geography applies the 
knowledge of mathematics to the 
solution of problems connected with 
the earth's figure, the position of 
places, &c. Medical geography 
describes the distribution of dis- 
eases on the globe. Physical geo- 
graphy describes the various cli- 
mates, the causes influencing them, 
and their bearing on animal and 
vegetable life. Political geography 
describes the political and social 
organisation of the various human 
inhabitants of the earth. 

Georogy (Gr. m, ge, the earth; 
\oyos, logos, a description). The 
science which describes the condi- 
tion or structure of those parts of 
the earth which lie beneath the 

Geometrical (Geometry). According 
to geometry. 

Geometrical Progres'sion. A form 
of progression in which numbers 
increase or decrease by being mul- 
tiplied or divided by the same 

Greom'etry (Gr. yn, ge, the earth; 
fifrpov, matron, a measure). Lite- 
rally and originally, the art of 
measuring the earth ; but now de- 
noting the science of the mensura- 
tion and relations of bodies, and 
their physical properties. 

Geothermom'eter (Gr. yn, ge, the 
eai'th ; Oepfios, thermos, warm ; 
fxerpov, m^ron^ a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the tem- 
perature of the earth at different 
points, as in mines, artesian wells, 

Ger'minal (Lat. germen, a bud). Be- 
longing to a germ or bud. 

Ger'nunal Membrane. The mem- 
brane, formed of cells, which imme- 
diately surrounds the ovum or egg 
after segmentation. 

Ger'minal Spot. The opaque spot on 
the germinal membrane^ which is 



intended to be deyeloped into the 

Ger'ininal Ves'icle. The small vesi- 
cnlar body within the yolk of the 
ovnm or egg. 

Ger'miiiate (lAt. ger^men^ a spront). 
To sprout or begin to grow. 

Germina'tion (Lat. ger^men, a sprout). 
The act of sprouting. 

Ger'nnd (Lat. gei/^Oj I bear). A part 
of a verb, partaking of the charac- 
ter of a noun. 

BeyBer. A boiling spring or foun- 
tain, of volcanic origin. 

Gibl)OTiB (Lat. gibhus^ a bunch on the 
back). Humped ; presenting one 
or more large elevations. 

Gin'glymoid (Ghr. yiYY^v^os^ gin'glu- 
mo8f a hinge or joint ; tiHos, eidos, 
form). Resembling a hinge. 

Gin'glymns (Qr. ytyyXvfMs, gin'glu- 
mo8, a hinge or joint). A joint 
allowing motion in two directions 
only, such as that of the elbow and 
lower jaw. 

Gla'brous (Lat. gla'her, smooth). 
Smooth ; destitute of hair. 

Glac'ial (Lat. gladies, ice). Resem- 
bling ice. 

Glacier (Lat. glatfieSj ice). A mass 
of snow and ice, formed in the 
higher valleys, and descending into 
the lower valleys, carrying with 
them masses of rocks and stones. 

Gland (Lat. glanSf an acorn). A 
structure in animal and vegetable 
bodies, for the purpose of secreting 
or separating some peculiar mate- 

Gland'ula (Gland), In anatomy, a 
little gland. 

Gland'ular. Consisting of or relating 
to glands ; in botany^ applied to 
hairs having glands at their tips 
containing some special secretion, 
or fixed on glands in the epidermis. 

Glanco'mA (Gr. yKavKos, glaucos, 
blue-grey). A disease of the eyes, 
attended with a greenish discoloi-a- 
tion of the pupil. 

Gle'noid (Or. yX-nvny glrne, the pupil, 
or a shallow pit ; eitios, eidoSy 
form). A term applied to a round 
shallow excavation in a bone, to 
receive the head of another bone. 

GlolKMse (Lat. glohuSf a globe). In 
botany, forming nearly a true 

Glob'ular (Lat. globtts, a globe). A 
very small round body. 

Glob'iilar Projection. That projec- 
tion of the sphere which so repre- 
sents it as to present the appear- 
ance of a globe. 

Glob'nline {Glob'ule). An organic 
substance, somewhat resembling 
albumen, found in the red cor- 
puscles of the blood. 

Glochid'iate (Gr. y\a>xis, gldchis, a 
projecting point ; the point of an 
arrow). In botany, applied to hairs, 
the divisions of which are barbed 
like a fish-hook. 

Glom'emle (Lat. glo'mua, a clew of 
thread ; ule, denoting smallness). 
In botany, a kind of dense tuft of 
flowers ; also the powdering leaf 
lying on the thallus of lichens. 

Glomer'nlas (Lat. glofmua, a clew of 
thread). A name applied to small 
red bodies in the kidney, consist- 
ing of tufts of minute vessels, 
covered in by the dilate end of the 
secreting tubes of the organ. 

GlOB'sary (Gr. yKaacra, gloasa, a 
tongue). A dictionary of difficult 
words ; sometimes an ordinary 

GlosBl'tis (Gr. yXooTtra, glossa, a 
tongue ; itis, denoting inflamma* 
tion). Inflammation of the tongue. 

GIob'so- (Gr. yKwa-ira, glossa, the 
tongue). In anatomy, a prefix in 
several compound words, signifying 
connection with the tongue. 

GlOBSO-hyal (Gr. y\co<r<ra, glossa, the 
tongue ; hyoid bone). Connected 
with the tongue and the hyoid bone. 

Glottis {QT.yhMrra,gldtta^ the tongue). 
The narrow opening at the top of 
the windpipe. 

Glu'eoBe (Gr. yXvicvs, glu'hus, sweet). 
Grape-sugar, or the sugar of fruits. 

Glume (Lat. gluma, chaff). The 
bracts covering the flower of grasses 
and com. 

Glumel'laB (Lat. gluma, chaff; ella, 
denoting smallness). The scales 
forming the flowers of grasses and 



Gln'teal (Qt. yXovroSj glovltos, the 
hinder region). Belonging to the 

Gluten (Lat. glue). An insoluble 
substance obtained from wheat- flour 
by washing with water and straining. 

Glyc'erine (Gr. 7Ai;»ci;y, glukutSf sweet). 
An organic substance existing in 
fats and oils, and obtained by 
saponifying them with an alkali or 
with oxide of lead. 

Glycogen'esis (Gr. y\vKvsy gluhm, 
sweet ; yewcuOf genna'd^ I produce). 
The formation of sugar in the ani- 
mal body. 

Glyphog^raphy (Gr. 7X1/^, glupho, 
I engrave ; ypaupo»y grapko, I write). 
A process by which designs are en- 
graved on a coating of wax or other 
soft substance spread on a metal, a 
sheet of other metal being then depo- 
sited on it by the electrotype process. 

Glyptothe'ca (Gr. yXv<pa^ gluphd^ I 
engrave ; ri&rifju, tithemi, I place). 
A building or room for preserving 
works of sculpture. 

Gneiss. A hard tough crystalline 
rock, composed mostly of quartz, 
feldspar, mica, and hornblende, 
differing from granite in having its 
crystals broken, indistinct, and 
confusedly aggregated. 

GneisB'oid {Gneiss; Gr. tlJiost eidosy 
form). Resembling gneiss ; applied 
to rocks intermediate between 
granite and gneiss, or between mica- 
slate and gneiss. 

Gnomiomet'rical (Gr. yvotyuavy gnomon^ 
an index ; fxerpovy metron, a mea- 
sure). Relating to the measure- 
ment of angles by reflexion. 

Gno'mon (Gr. yvufiuVf gndmorif one 
that knows or interprets). The 
index of a dial. 

Goitre (Fr). A large soft swelling in 
front of the neck. 

Gompho'sis (Gr. yofi<f>oSf gompTioSy a 
nail). A form of joint in which a 
conical body is fastened into a socket ; 
as the teeth. 

Go'niodont (Gr. ywviOf gdniay an 
angle ; oBovSy odouSf a tooth). Having 
angular teeth ; applied to certain 

Goniom'eter (Gr. yotviOf gonia, an 

angle ; fxerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring angles. 

Gorget (Fr. gorge, the throat). A 
piece of armour for defending the 
throat or neck ; in surgery, a cer- 
tain cutting instrument. 

Gothic. Belonging to the Goths : in 
architecture, applied to the archi- 
tecture of the middle ages. 

Gonty Concretions. Calculi or de- 
posits of urate of soda in the joints, 
arising from gout. 

€k>v'emor. A contrivance in machi- 
nery for maintaining uniform velo- 
city with varying resistance. 

Gra'dient (Lat. grad'ior, I step). The 
degree of slope of the ground over 
which a railway passes. 

Grad'uate (Lat. gradus, a step). To 
receive a degree from an university ; 
to mark with regular divisions ; to 
change gradually. 

Gradua'tion. The receiving a degree 
from an university ; the marking 
instruments with regular divisions. 

GrallsB or Grallato'res (Lat. graUal- 
tor, one who goes on stilts). An 
order of birds, remarkable for the 
length of the legs, as bustards, 
cranes, herons, and snipes. 

Gramina'ceoiLS or Gramin'eonB (Lat. 
gramen, grass). Belonging to 
grasses, or the order of plants 
which includes grasses and com. 

Graminivorous (Lat. gramen, grass ; 
voro, I devour). Eating grass. 

Gramme. A French weight ; the 
weight of a cubic centimetre of 
distilled water, or 15 '43 8 grains 

Granite (Lat. granum, a grain, from, 
its appearance). A stone or rock 
consisting of grains of quartz, fel- 
spar, and mica ; chemically com- 
posed for the most part of silica or 
flint-earth and alumina. 

Granitic (Granite), Relating to or 
formed of granite. 

Granitoid (Granite ; Gr. tlios, eidoSf 
form). Resembling granite. 

Ghraniy'orouB (Lat. granum, a grain 
or seed ; voro, I devour). Eating 
grains or seeds. 

Gran'ular (Lat. granum, a grain). 
Consisting of or resembling grains. 



Gran'nlate (Lat. ffranumj a grain). 
To form, or be formed, into grains 
or small nia.sses. 

Grannla'tion (Lat. granum, a grain). 
The act of forming into grains ; a 
small fleshy body springing np on 
the surface of wounds. 

Graph'ite (Gr. ypoupwy grapho^ I 
write). Black-lead ; a mineral con- 
sisting of carbon, generally with a 
small quantity of iron. 

Grap'tolites (Gr. yp<u(>w, grapho, I 
write; \iBosy lUhfoSf a stone). Fossil 
zoophytes or protozoa which give 
the appearance of writing or sculp- 
ture to the stone in which they are 

Grauwac'ke or Greywac'ke (Germ. 
grau, grey ; wacke^ a kind of stone 
so called). A kind of sandstone 
consisting of different minerals. 

(hravirn'otOT (Lat. gravisy heavy ; Gr. 
fxerpovy metrony a measure). An 
instrument for measuring specific 

OraVitate (Lat. gravis^ heavy). To 
tend towards the centre of a body. 

Oravita'tion (Lat. gravis^ heavy). 
The act of tending towards a centre ; 
the force by which bodies are drawn 
towards the centre of the eai-th or 
other centres. 

Grav'ity (Lat gravis, heavy). Weight ; 
the force by which bodies tend 
towards the centre of the earth or 
another centre. Specific gravity is 
the weight of a body compared with 
the weight of an equal bulk of some 
other body, taken as unity. 

Greensand. The lower group of the 
chalk system, in which many of the 
beds are coloured green. 

Greenstone. A rock composed of 
feldspar and hornblende. 

Greg^'rioos (Lat. grex, a herd). 
Living in flocks or herds. 

Grego'rian Tear. The year accord- 
ing to the ordinary reckoning, as 
reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. 

Greywac'ke. See Grauwacke. 

Grit. In geology, a term applied to 
any hard sandstone in which the 
grains are sharper than in ordinary 

Groined. In architectv/ref formed of 

vaults or arches which intersect sjid 
form angles with each other. 

Gnmmif' erous (Lat. gummi, gum ; 
ferOy I bear). Producing gum. 

Gnn Cotton. An explosive material, 
formed by steeping cotton- wool or 
vegetable fibre in a mixture of 
nitric and sulphuric acids. 

Gus'tatory (Lat. gtistOy I taste). Be- 
longing to taste. 

Gntta Sere'na (Lat.). An old term 
for blindness from loss of power in 
the nervous system of the eye. 

Gnttif eroufl (Lat. gultay a drop ; fero, 
• I bear). Producing gum or resin. 

Gnftnral (Lat. gtUtuVy the throats. 
Belonging to, or formed by, the 

Gynma'sinm ((^. yvfivosy gumnosy 
naked). Originally, a place for 
athletic exercises ; but also applied 
to schools for mental instruction. 

Gymnas'tic (Gr. yvfivosy gumnoSy 
naked). Pertaining to atUetic ex- 

Gym'nodont (Gr, yv/xvosy gvmnoSy 
naked ; o^ovsy odouSy a tooth). 
Having naked teeth : applied to 
some fishes in which the jaws are 
covered with an ivory-like substance 
in place of teeth. 

Gym'nogens (Gr. yv/xvosy gumnoSy 
naked ; yevvauy gennady I produce). 
Plants with naked seeds. 

Gym'nosperms (Gr. yvfivosy gumnoSy 
naked ; (nrep/io, spermay seed). 
Plants having seeds apparently 
without a covering. 

Gym'nospore (Gr. yvfuvos, gumnoSy 
naked ; cnropa, sporOy seed). A 
term applied to the spores of aco- 
tyledonous plants, when they are 
develox>ed outside the cell in which 
they are produced. 

Gynan'dria (Gr. yvvriy gwney a fe- 
male ; avrip, aniVy a man). A class 
of plants in the Linn8ean system, 
in which the stamens and pistih 
are consolidated. 

Gy'nobase (Gr. yvvriy guncy a female ; 
fiouriSy basisy a base). In botani/y 
a fleshy substance in the centre of 
a flower, bearing a single row of 

Gynos'cenm {Qr. yvvriy gune, a female j 



ohcoSf oUsoSt a house). The female 
api)aratas of fiowering plants ; the 

Gy'nophore (Gr. yvmif gwiic, a fe- 
male ; ^€pw, pker'df I bear). The 
stalk of a carpel in plants. 

Gyp'seous {Gypsum). Containing or 
consisting of gypsum or sulphate of 

Gyp'Bum (Gr. yv^os^ gupsos, chalk 
or plaster of Paris). Sulphate of 

Gyra'tion (Gr. yvpoif guroSf a 
whirling). A turning or whirling. 

Oyr^ceph'ala (Or. yvpow, gurodj I 

wind; fy/ce^oAof, enkeph'aloSf the 
brain). Winding-brained ; applied 
by Professor Owen to a sub-class 
of mammalia in which the surface 
of the brain is convoluted, but not 
to the same extent as in man. 

Gyri (Gr. yvpos, guroSy a turning). 
In anatomy t a name given to the 
convolutions of the brain. 

Gy'roBCope (Gr. yvpos, gwros, a 
whirling ; <TKoirt<i»y akop'eoj I look 
at). An instrument for demon- 
strating the rotation of the earth 
by another apparent motion arti- 
ficially produced. 


Habitat (Lat. hab'ito, I dwell). The 

natural abode or locality of an 

animal or plant. 
Hsema- or Hseniat- (Gr. o/juo, haima, 

blood). A part of some compound 

words, signifying blood. 
H8eiiiadyiiaixiom'eter(Gr.afjua, haima, 

blood ; dwa/AtSf du'namist force ; 

fxtrpoVf metroThy a measure). An 

instrument for measuring the force 

of the flow of blood in the vessels. 
Hsemal (Gr. oi/io, haima, blood). 

Relating to blood : applied to the 

arch proceeding from a vertebra, 

which encloses and protects the 

organs of circulation. 
Hsemapoph'ysis (Gr. oZ/ao, haimay 

blood ; apoph'ym). A name given 

to the parts projecting from a 

vertebra which form the hsemal 

HsBxnatem'esis (Gr. alfuty Tiaimoy 

blood ; ^/ucw, cn^eoy I vomit). A 

vomiting of blood. 
HflB^matixi (Gr. aifMy haim/iy blood). 

The colouring matter of the blood. 
Hae'llLatite (Gr. m/xa, haimay blood). 

Blood-stone ; native sesquioxide of 

HflBmafooele (Gh*. aZ/io, haima, blood ; 

ici)Xt7, helcy a tumour). A tumour 

filled with blood. 
Hsmatoo'rya (Gr. olna, haim^i, 

blood ; Kpvos, kruosy frost). Ck)ld- 

blooded vertebrate animals. 

H8eiiiatorog7(Gr. odfia, haimay blood ; 

Xoyosy logoSy discourse). A de- 
scription of the blood. 
Haematosin. See Hsematin. 
Haemato'sis (Gr. aljuoy haima, blood). 

The formation of blood. 
Hseinatother'iiLa (Gtr. ou/xa, haima, 

blood ; Qtpfxjos, therm^Sy warm). 

Wai-m-blooded vertebrate animals. 
Hsematu'ria (Gr. aifiOy haimay blood ; 

ovpovy ouroriy urine). A discharge 

of blood with the urine. 
Haemop'tysis (Gr. odfia, haim^ 

blood ; iTTva, piuo, I spit). A 

spitting of blood. 
H8eiii'orrhage(Gr. cdna, haim^, blood ; 

^rjywfju, rhegnu'mi, I burst forth). 

An escape of blood from its vessels. 
H8em'orrhoid(Gr. cdfta, haima, blood ; 

p€09, rheo, I flow ; tl^os, euios, 

form). An enlargement of the veins 

of the lower bowel, commonly at- 
tended with loss of blood. 
Haemostatic (Gr. atfia, haima, blood ; 

IffrrifUy histemiy I make to stand). 

Arresting the flow of blood. 
Haglog'rapha (Gr. ayios, hag'ios, 

holy; ypa<pwy grapho, I write). 

Sacred writings. 
Hal'itns (Lat. haloy I breathe out). 

A breathing; the odoar or vapour 

which escapes from blood. 
Hallacina'tioii (Lat. haUu'cinoTy I 

blunder). An error of the senses. 
Halo (Gr. a\aos, kalos, a threshing- 



floor or area). A circle apparently 
round the snn or moon, sometimes 
white and sometimes coloured, pro- 
duced by the passage of light 
through or near vapours in the 

Hal'ogen (Gr. aXs, Ao^, salt ; ytwaxOf 
genna'o, I produce). Producing 
salts by combination with metals. 

Haloid (Gr. a\Sj halSf salt; 6i8os, 
eidos, form). Resembling salt: a 
name given to a class of saline sub- 
stances constituted of a metal, and 
another element which is a salt 
radical ; after the type of common 
salt or chloride of sodium, where 
sodium is the metal, and chlorine 
the salt radical or halogen. 

Eam'ite (Lat. hamuSf a hook). A 
genus of fossil shells of cephalopods, 
with a hook at the end. 

HarnLo'nia (Gr. apfioCvf harmozd^ I fit 
together). A form of articulation in 
which the surfaces of bones are 
merely placed in apposition to each 
other, so as not to allow motion. 

Harmonlcal (Gr. op/uo^cD, harmozOf I 
fit together). Relating to harmony ; 

Harmonical Proportion. In aritk- 
metic, that relation of four quanti- 
ties to each other, in which the 
first is to the fourth as the difference 
between the first and second is to 
the difference between the third and 

Har'mony (Or. opyMQu, harraozo, I fit 
together). A proper fitting of parts 
together ; agreement ; in mudc, the 
effect produced on the ear by the 
sounding of notes, the vibrations of 
which have a certain limit of co- 

Has'tate (Lat. hastcLj a spear). Like 
a spear. 

HanBteriate (Lat. TiauateVlum, a 
sucker). Having a sucker for 
sucking or pumping up fluids ; ap- 
plied to a. large division of insects. 

HaoBteriam (Lat. hau'rio, I draw). 
A sucker, such as some insects are 
provided with for taking their 
liquid food. 

Haver'sian Canals {Havers^ a physi- 
cian, their discoverer). Small longi- 

tudinal canals in the substance of 

Heat. The sensation produced by 
the contact of a hot body; the 
quality of the body by which this 
sensation is produced ; caloric, or 
the agent to which the quality is 
due. Sensible heat is that which 
is perceptible to the body. Latent 
heat is that which a substance re- 
ceives or loses without exciting an 
increased or diminished sense of 
warmth. Specific heat is the amount 
required to raise a substance to a 
given degree of temperature. 

Hebdom'a£d(Gr. kfihoyLas,heh'domas, 
a period of seven days). Relating 
to a week. 

Hectic (Gr. €|iy, hexis, habit). A form 
of fever arising h-om local irritation 
in a weakened constitution. 

Hec'togramme (Gr. kKarov, hehfaton, 
ahundred; Fr. gramme). A French 
weight of 100 grammes, or about 
8^ pounds avoirdupois. 

Hec'tolitre (Gh:. iKarov, kek'aton, a 
hundred ; Fr. litre, a quart). A 
French measure of 100 litres. 

Hec'tometre (Gr. fKorov, kekfaton, a 
hundred ; Fr. m>etre). A French 
measure of 100 mitres, or about 
828 British feet. 

Heli'acal (Gr. 7i\ios, helios, the sun). 
Emerging from, or passing into the 
light of the sun. 

Hellanthoi'da (Gr. rjMos, hUios, the 
sun ; 6.v$os, anthos, a flower ; tlSos, 
eidos, shape). An order of polypes, 
resembling a sun-flower in appear- 
ance ; of which the actinia or sea- 
anemone is an example. 

Hericoid (Gr. 4Xt^, helix, a spiral 
body ; ctSos, eidoa, shape). Twisted 
like the shell of a snail. 

Helleal (Ghr. f\i^, helix, a spiral 
body). Spiral. 

Helicotre'ma(Gr.^A.({, helix, a spiral; 
rprrifia, trema, a hole). An opening 
in the apex of the cochlea, or spiral 
structure of the internal ear. 

Heliocen'tric {Or. iiXios, helioa, the 
sun; K^vrpov, IceiUron, a centre). 
Having relation to the centre of 
the sun. 

Heliocen'tric Lon'gitade. The angle 



formed at the snn's centre by the 
projection of the radius vector of a 
planet on the ecliptic with a line 
drawn from the sun's centre to the 
first point of Aries. 

Heliograph'ic (Qr. ^\iof, Tielios, the 
sun ; ypcupcoj grapho^ I write). 
Delineated by the rays of the sun. 

He'liolitOB (Gr. yXios, helioSj the sun ; 

MQosy lith'oSj a stone). A genus 

of fossil corals, distinguished by 

the central radiating or sun-like 

aspect of the pores. 

Eeliom'eter (Gr. rjKiosy KilioSy the 
sui^; fitrpoify metrorif a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
diameter of the heavenly bodies. 

Ee'lioBCope (Qr. ^A.ios, kelioSf the 
sun ; <r»coir€«, shyp'edy I view). A 
telescope fitted for viewing the sun 
without injury to the eyes. 

He'liostat (Gr. 17X10;, heltos^ the sun; 
urrrifJUy histcmif I make to stand). 
An instrument for fixing (as it 
were) a sunbeam in an horizontal 

Eeli£phe'rical(Gr. IXi|, Mix, aspire; 
<r<paipa, sphaira, a sphere). Ap- 
plied to a course in navigation, 
which winds spirally round the 

Helix (Gr. eA(|, helix, from i\i<r<ra>, 
helisso, I turn round). A spiral 
line or winding ; the cartilaginous 
structure forming the external rim 
of the ear. 

Hellenic (Gr. 'EAA.171', BeUen, a 
Greek). Belonging to the Hellenes 
or inhabitants of Greece. 

Herienism (Gr. 'EWriv, ffellen, a 
Greek). The Grecian idiom used 
by the Jews living in countries 
where Greek was spoken. 

Helminth 'agogue (Gr. f\fiws, hd- 
minSy a worm ; kym, ago, I drive). 
Removing or expelling intestinal 

Helmin'thoid (Gr. kXfiivs, helmins, a 
worm ; tidos, shape). Like a worm. 

Hema^ or Hemat-. For words with 
this beginning, see the same words 
commencing with Hsema- or 

Hemeralo'pia (Gr. v/^tpa, hemera, 
day ; &Aao/Mu, ala'omaif I grope 

about ; ci>\lf, dps, the eye). A de- 
fect of sight, in which the patients 
can see by night, but not by day. 

Hemicra'nia (Gr. Jiiuavs, hemisus, 
half ; Kpaviov, kra'nion, the skull). 
A painful affection of one side of 
the head and face. 

Hemihed'ral (Gr. rjfiurvs, hemisus, 
half; ISpo, hedra, a side). Half- 
sided ; a form assumed by crystals 
from the excessive growth of some 
of their sides and the obliteration 
of others, so that they have only 
half the number of faces required 
by the laws of symmetry. 

Hemily'tra (Gr. yifjuvvs, hemisva, 
half ; iXvrpoy, elu'tron, a cover). 
Wing in insects, of which x)ne half 
is firm, like an elytrum, and the 
other membranous. 

Hemio'pia (Gr. rjfua-vs, hemistis, 
half ; ftn|^, ops, the eye). A defect 
of sight in which only half of an 
object is seen. 

Hemiple'gia (Gr. rjfjutrvs, hemisus, 
half; vXTjaaw, plesso, I strike). 
Loss of power in one lateral half 
of the body. 

Hemip'tera (Gr. i}fii<rvs, hemisus, 
half ; irrepov, pteron, a wing). An 
order of insects which have the 
upper wings half hard and half 
membraneous ; as the cock-roach 
and grasshopper. 

Hem'iBphere (Gr. nf^a-vs, hemisus, 
half; (Tipoupa, sphaira, a round 
body). A half sphere ; the half of 
the earth, divided by the equator ; 
a map of half the globe ; in 
anatomy, applied to each lateral 
half of the brain. 

Hemispher'ical (Gr. thjmtvs, Khntsus, 
half; ir<paipa, sphaira, a round 
body). Having the shape of half 
a globe. 

He'mitrope (Gr. rifiiavs, hemistis, half; 
Tpevat, trepfo, I turn). Half turned. 

Hemop'lysis. See Hsemop'tysis. 

Hem'orrhage. See Hsem'orrha^e. 

Hendec'agOB (Gr. ivBtKo, hen'deka, 
eleven ; yavia, gonia, an angle). 
A figure of eleven sides and as 
many angles. 

Hepaf ic (Gr. ^ap, hepar, the liver). 
Belonging to the liver ; applied to 



a tube or duct conveying the bile 
from the liver. 

Hepati'tiB (Qr. rprapy hepar, the 
liver ; itisj denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the liver. 

Hepatiza'tion (Gr. rjvapy hepar^ the 
liver). A diseased condensation of 
parts of the body, or the lungs, so 
that they resemble liver. 

Hepato- (Qr. 77irop, hepar, the liver). 
A prefix in compolind words, signi- 
fying connection with, or relation 
to, the liver. 

Hepatoga'stric (Gr. Vop* hepar, the 
liver ; yaarrip, gaster, the stomach). 
Belonging to the liver and stomach. 

Heptagon (Gr. cttto, hepta, seven ; 
7o>i'ia, gonia, an angle). A figure 
of seven sides and seven angles. 

Heptagyn'ia (Gr. eTrro, hepta, seven ; 
7i;*'r7, ^Tttwe, a female). ALinusean 
order of plants, having seven 

Heptan'dria (Gr. eirro, hepta, seven ; 
&K77P, anerj a man). A Linnsean 
class of plants, having seven sta- 

Heptas'tichons (Gr. Ittto, Acpfa, seven; 
(TTixos, atichos, a row). In seven 
rows ; in botany^ applied to the 
arrangement of leaves in seven 
spiral rows, the eighth leaf in the 
series being placed above the first. 

Herba'ceons (Lat. herbay a herb). 
Pertaining to herbs ; applied to 
plants which perish yearly, at least 
as far as the root. 

Herbiv'oroiig (Lat. herba, a herb; 
voro, 1 devour). Feeding on vege- 

HerT)orize (Lat. herba, a herb). 
To search for plants for scientific 

Hereditary (Lat. h(Bres, a heir). 
Acquired from ancestors ; trans- 
mitted from parents to children. 

Hermaph'rodite (Gr. *Ep/u7jy, Hermes, 
Mercury ; A(ppodtrr), Aphrodi'te, 
Venus). Partaking of both male 
and female natures in the same 

Hermeneu'tic (Gr. ^pfityevoty her- 
meneu'o, I interpret; from 'Ep/xris, 
Hermes, Mercury). Relating to 
interpretation or explanation. 

Hermeneu'tics (Gr. ipjxtvevoi, her- 
meneu'o, I interpret). The art of 
explaining the meaning of a writ- 

Hermetically (Gr. *Epfiris, Hermes, 
the supposed inventor of chem- 
istry). Chemically ; a vessel is 
hermetically sealed, when the neck 
is heated to melting, and closed by 
pincers until it is air-tight. 

H^nia (Gr. (pvos, hernos, a branch). 
A protrusion of any organ of the 
body from the cavity containing it. 

Herpes (Gr. kpva, herpo, I creep). 
Tetters or shingles ; an emptive 
spreading disease of the skin. 

Herpetic (Gr. kpvtc, herpo, I creep). 
Relating to, or of the nature of 

Herpetol'og^ (Gr. kpinrov, her^peton, 
a reptile ; \oyos, logos, discourse). 
The description of reptiles. 

Hef fero-(Gr. irepos, het'eros, another). 
A prefix in many compound words, 
signifying another, or different. 

Heterocer'^ (Gr. ^repos, hetferos, 
another ; KfpKos, herkos, a tail). 
A term applied to fishes in which 
the caudal fin, or tail, is unsym- 
metrical ; arising from the pro- 
longation of the vertebral column 
into its upper lobe. 

Het'eroclite (Gr. ertpos, hetferos, 
another ; kXivw, hlino, I bend). 
Leaning another way ; applied to 
words which depart from the 
ordinary form in declension or con- 

Heterod'romons (Gr. knpos, hetferos, 
another ; hpotxos, drom'os, course). 
In botany, applied to the arrange- 
ment of leaves in branches in a 
different manner from the stem. 

Heterog'amoiis (Gr. ^repos, het'eros, 
another ; yafios, gamos, marriage). 
Having florets of different sexes on 
the same flower-head. 

Heterogaii^gliate(Gr. €r€pos, het'eros, 
another ; yayyXiov, gan'glion, a 
knot or nervous ganglion). Having 
the nervous ganglia scattered un- 
symmetrically ; applied to the 
molluscous invertebrate animals. 

Heteroge'neons (Gr. krtpos, het'eros, 
another ; y^voi^ genos, kind). Un- 



like in kind ; consisting of elements 
of different nature. 

Eeterome'ra (Gr. irepos, hetferos^ 
another; fxripovy mtrouy a thigh). 
A section of coleopterous insects, 
having five joints in the four 
anterior* tarsi, and one joint less 
in the hind tarsi. 

Eeteromor'phoTis (Grr. hnpos^ het'eros^ 
another; iJiop<p% inorphe^ form). 

- Having an irregular or unusual 
form ; applied to the larvae of in- 
sects which differ in form from tho 

Eeteropa ^Gr. krepos^ het'eros^ 
another ; irous, potbn^ a foot). A 
section of amphipodous Crustacea, 
having fourteen legs, of which at 
least the four posterior are fitted 
only for swimming. 

Heterophyl'lous (Gr. inpos^ heiferosy 
another ; ^vXXov, phvllon^ a leaf). 
Having two different kinds of leaves 
on the same stem. 

Het^eropods (Gr. It€/)os, he^eroSf 
another ; irovs, poiLSf a foot). An 
order of gasteropodous molluscous 
animals, in which the foot forms a 
vertical plate, serving as a fin. 

Eeterop'tera (Gr. ^rtpos, JieiferoSf 
another ; m-epov^ pteron, a wing). 
A section of hemipterous insects, 
having the wing-cases memhranous 
at the end. 

SeterorM'zal (Gr. kreposy het'eros, 
another; ^1(0^ rhiza^ a root). In 
botany^ applied to acotyledonous 
plants, because their roots arise 
from every part of the cellular axis 
or spore. 

Seteroa'cian (Gr. kr^poSf heierosy 
one of two ; o-fcto, ahia^ fi shadow). . 
Having a shadow only in one direc- 
tion ; applied to the inhabitants of 
the earth between the tropics and 
polar circles. 

EeterofroponB (Gr. ^rtpos, hetferoSy 
another ; rpeira;, trep'Of I turn). 
Turned another way; applied to 
the embryo of seeds when it lies 
in an oblique position. 

Sez'agoii (Gr. I|, hex, six; ycopia, 
gonia, an angle). A figure having 
six sides and six angles. 

L'ia (Gr. i^, /tex, six ; yvirrif 

gune, a female). A Linnsean order 
of plants, having six pistils. 

Eezahed'ron (Gr. €|, hex, six ; ISpo, 
hedra, a base). A regular solid 
body of six sides ; a cube. 

Eezam'eter (e^, hexy six ; fxtrpop, 
metron, a measure). A verse in 
ancient poetry consistiDg of six 
feet, as in the Iliad and Mneid, 

Eezan'dria (Gr. €|, hex, six ; &irnp, 
aner, a man). A Linnsean class of 
plants having six stamens. 

Eezan'gular (Gr. I|, hex, six; Lat. 
an'gulus, an angle). Having six 

Eez'apod (Gr. I|, hex, six ; vovs, 
pous, a foot). Having six feet. 

Sez'astyle (Gr. €|, hex, six ; arvKos, 
stuloa, a pillar). A building with 
six columns in front. 

Hia'tus (Lat. hio, 1 gape). An open- 
ing or chasm ; the effect produced 
by the uttering of similar vowel 
sounds in succession. 

Hiber'nate (Lat. hibe/nua, belonging 
to winter). To pass the winter in 
a torpid state, as some animals. 

Hierafic (Gr. iepos, hieros, sacred). 
Sacred ; applied to the characters 
used in writing by the ancient 
Egyptian priests. 

Hieroglyphic (Gr. Upos, hi'eroSf 
sacred ; y\v<f)a, glupho, I carve). 
A sailed character ; the represen- 
tation of animals and other objects 
used by the ancient Egyptians to 
represent words and ideas. 

High-pressure Engine. A steam- 
engine in which the direct power of 
stean^ is used, or that produced by 
the evaporation of water. 

Hilnm (Lat. the black of a bean). The 
scar marking the union of a seed 
with the fruit. 

Hippocraf ic (Gr. 'linroKparrjs, Hippo- 
crates, an ancient physician). Per- 
taining to Hippocrates ; applied to 
the appearance of the face indica- 
tive of approaching death, as de- 
scribed by him. 

Hippopathorogy (Gr. iwiros, hippos^ 
a horse ; pathology). The doctrine 
or description of the diseases of 

Hippu'rio (Gr. ImroSf hippos, a horse 



evpoy, ourorit urine). A term applied 
to an acid existing in the mrine of 
Hippu'rites (Gr. Imro;, hippos, a 
horse ; ovpa, our a, a tail). A genns 
of plants in the coal-formation, re- 
sembling the hippuris or mare^s 

Hirsute (Lat. hirsu'tits, hairy). In 
botany, applied to plants having 
long, distinct, and tolerably soft 

His'pid (Lat. Ais'|3icftM, rough). Shaggy 
or prickly ; in botany, applied to 
plants having long soft hairs. 

Higtogen'esis or Eistog'eny (Gr. 
iffTos, histoa, a tissue; yevvata, 
gennao, I produce). The forma- 
tion of organic tissues. 

Histolog'ioal (Gr. la-ros, kistos, a tis- 
sue ; \oyos, logos, discourse). Re- 
lating to histology or the descrip- 
tion of tissues. 

Historog^ (Gr. la-ros, histos, a tissue ; 
\oyos, logos, discourse). The des- 
cription of the tissues which form 
an animal or plant. 

His'tory (Gr. icropeu, history, I 
learn by inquiry). A narration of 
events ; a description of things that 

Homo- (Gr. dfios, hornos, the same). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying identity or exact similarity. 

Homocen'tric (Gr. dfAos, homos, the 
same ; Kivrpoy, Jcentron, a centre). 
Having the same centre. 

Homocer'cal (Gr. dfios, homos, the 
same ; K€pKos, her'kos, a tail). 
Having a symmetrical tail ; applied 
to fishes. 

Homod'romoufl (Gr. byioi, homos, 
similar ; hpofios, drom'os, a course). 
In botany, applied to the arrange- 
ment of leaves on branches in the 
same manner as on the stem. 

HomoB'o- (Gr. dfiotqs, homoifos, 
similar). A prefix in compound 
words, implying similarity but not 

HonuBomer'io (Gr. d/xoios, homm^os, 
similar ; {JL^pos, meros, a part). 
Having or relating to similarity of 

Honueop'athy (Gr. dfioios, homoi'os, 

similar ; iraBos, pathos, suffering). 
A system by which it is alleged 
that diseases can be cured by 
doses of substances capable of ex- 
citing similar diseased states in 
healthy persons. 
Homogan'gliate (Ghr. byuos, homos, 
the same; 7077X10*', gan'glion, a 
knot or nervous ganglion). Having 
the nervous ganglia arranged sym- 
metrically ; applied to the articu- 
lated invertebrate animals. 
Homogen'eous (Gr. dfios, homos, the 
same ; 7€i'os, genos, a kind). Of 
the same kind ; consisting of ele- 
ments of a like nature. 
Homorogoufl (Gr. djxos, homos, the 
same ; \oyos, logos, reasoning). 
Constructed on the same plan, 
though differing in form and func- 
Hom'ologoe (Gr. S/ios, homos, the 
same ; \oyos, logos, reasoning). 
The same part or organ, as far as 
its anatomical relation is concerned, 
although differing in form and func- 
tions ; as the arms of man, the 
wings of birds, and the pectoral 
fins of fishes. 
Homorog^ (Gr. ifios, homos, the 
same; \oyos, logos, reasoning). 
The doctrine of the corresponding 
relations of parts in different beings, 
having the same relations but differ- 
ent functions ; affinity depending 
on structure, and not on similarity 
of form or use. 
Homoxnor'plioiiB (Gr. Sfios, homos, 
the same ; fiopiprif morphe, form). 
Of similar form ; applied to certain 
insects of which the larva is like 
the perfect insect) but without 
Homop'oda (Gr. dfios, hxmios, the 
same ; trovs, pov^s, a foot). A sec- 
tion of amphipodous crustaceans, 
having fourteen feet all terminated 
by a hook or point. 
Homop'tera (Gr. dfios, homos, the 
same ; irrepov, pteron, a wing). 
Having the four wings alike ; re- 
stricted to a section of the hemi- 
pterous class of insects. 
Hom'otype (Gr. dfios, homos, the 
same; rimos, tupos^ a type). A 



part homologous with another in a 

Eo'rary (Lat. hora, an hour). Ee- 
lating to, or denoting an hour. 

Hori'son (Gr. tpi^ot^ horiw^ I bound). 
The line in tlie celestial hemisphere 
which bounds the view on the sur- 
face of the earth. 

HorizoiL'tal {Horizon), Parallel to 
the horizon. 

Eomblende (Germ, blenden, to daz- 
zle). A mineral, generally of a black 
or dark green colour, found fre- 
quently in granitic and trappean 

Hc/rologe (Gr. &pa, hora^ an hour ; 
A«7w, legOf I describe). An in- 
strument for indicating the hours 
of the day. 

Herorog^ (Gr. wpo, horaf an hour ; 
keyw, legOf I tell.) The art of 
conslaructing machines for indicat- 
ing time. 

Horom'etry (Gr. &pa, hora^ an hour ; 
ficrpovy metroThy a measure). The 
art of measuring time by hours. 

Horse-power. The power of a horse, 
estimated as equal to the raising of 
33,000 pounds one foot high per 
minute, used in calculating the 
power c^ steam-engines. 

Horse-shoe Magnet. An artificial 
magnet, in the form of a horse- 

Herticul'tiire (Lat. hortuSf a garden ; 
colOf I cultivate). The art of cul- 
tivating gardens. 

Hortos Siccas (Lat. a dry garden). 
A collection of dried plants. 

Hot Blast. A current of heated air 
thrown into a furnace. 

Hu'mate (Lat. humua^ the ground). 
A compound of humic acid with a 

Hmneota'tion (Lat. humedto, I 
moisten). A making wet. 

Hu'meral (Lat. hu'raerugy the shoul- 
der). Belonging to the humerus, 
cr upper part of the arm above the 

Ha'merus (Lat. the shoulder). The 
arm from the shoulder to the 
elbow ; the bone of this part. 

Hu'mic (Humus). Belonging to hu- 
mus ; applied to an acid produced 

from the decomposition of humus 
by alkalies. 

Hu'moral (Lat. humors moisture). 
Belonging to humours or fluids : 
in medicine^ humoral pathology is 
the doctrine which attributes dis- 
eases to a disordered state of the 
fluids of the body. 

Humoar (Lat. humor, moisture). 
Moisture ; in anatomy, applied to 
certain parts of the eye which 
abound in flail. 

Hu'mns (Lat soil). The common 
vegetable mould or soil, consisting 
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
arising from the decay of vegetable 

Hy'ade8(Gr. t/», huo, I rain). A cluster 
of five stai-s in the BuWs Head, 
supposed by the ancients to bring 

Hy'aline (Gr. 6a\os, ku'aloSf glass). 
Like glass ; transparent. 

Hy'aloid (Gr. vaAos, ka'alos, glass ; 
fiSoSf eidoSf form). Resembling 
glass ; transparent. 

Hy'bodonts (Gr. 6j3o$, ku'bos, humped; 
o^ovSj odous, a tooth). A family 
of fossil sliark-like fishes with 
knobbed teeth. 

H3rni>rid (Gr. vfipis, hubris, force or 
injury). The offiapring of two ani- 
mals or plants of different varieties 
or species ; in etymology, applied 
to words cumpoanded from difierent 

Hydat'id (Gr. vdtop, huddr, water). 
A transparent vesicle tilled with 
water; often applied to parasitic 
animal growth found in the liver 
and other organs. 

Hydrac'id {Hy'drogen ; Lat. acfidus, 
acid). An acid containing hydro- 
gen as one of its forming elements. 

Hy'dragogue (Gr. vSap, hudUr, water ; 
ayw, ago, I lead). Producing a 
discharge of fluid ; applied to cer- 
tain medicines. 

Hy'drate (Gr. vdap, hudor, water); 
A compound body in which water 
exists in chemical combination. 

Hydraulic (Gr. vBup, hudor, water; 
avXos, aiUos, a pipe). Relating to 
the conveyance of water through 




Hydraulio Depth. The depth which 
a volume of flowing water would 
take in a channel, whose breadth is 
equal to the outline of the bottom 
and sides of the actual bed. 

Hydraulic Head. The measure of a 
given hydraulic pressure, expressed 
in terms of the height of a baro- 
metrical column of the fluid. 

fiydraulic Press. A machine in 
which powerful pressure is produced 
by water forced into a cylindec, and 
therein acting on a piston which 
raises a table on which the material 
to be pressed is placed. 

Hydraulic Pressure. The pressure 
which a liquid moving in a closed 
channel, exerts on the surfaces by 
which it is confined. 

Hydraulics (Gr. 6$wp, hvdSTf water; 
ai\oi, auloSf a pipe). The science 
which teaches the application of the 
knowledge of the forces influencing 
the motion of fluids, to their con- 
veyance through pipes and canals. 

Hydrenceph'alocele (Gr. 68wp, hudory 
water ; ^Kc^oAor, tnJeeph'alony the 
contents of the skull ; ici^At?, iteZe, 
a tumour). A hernial protrusion 
from the head containing water. 

Hydrenceph'aloid (Gr. d$»p, huddr, 
water ; fyice^oXoi', enteeph'cUonf 
the brain ; cl$os, eidosy from). Ee- 
sembling hydrocephalus or dropsy 
of the brain. 

Hydri'odate {ffi/drogen and Iodine). 
A compound of hydriodic acid with 
a base ; now described by chemists 
as an iodide, or compound of iodine 
with a metal, together with an 
equivalent of water. 

Hydriod'ie (Ht/drogen and Fodine), 
Consisting of hydrogen and iodine. 

Hydro- (Gh*. i^top^ kudor, water). A 
prefix implying the existence of 
water; but, in chemical terms, 
implying that hydrogen is a compo- 
nent part of the substance. 

Hydrocar'hon {Hijdrogm and Car- 
bon), A compound of carbon and 

Hydrocarl)uret (Hj/drogen and Car- 
bon). A compound of carbon and 

Hydroceph'alus (Gr. ^»/7, hudor^ 

water; icc^aXiy, TcepK'aZe^ the head). 
A disease characterised by the 
presence of water within the head ; 
a dropsy of the membranes covering 
the brain. 

Hydroc]ilo'rate(^y(2ro^enand Chlor- 
vm). a compound of hydrochloric 
&cid with a base : now described by 
chemists as a compound of chlorine 
with a metal, together with an 
equivalent of water. 

Hydrochlo'ric {Hy'drogentjodi Chlor- 
ine). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hy'drocy'anate (Hy'drogenandCyan'- 
ogen). A compound of hydrocyanic 
add with a base : now described by 
chemists as a compound of cyanogen 
and a metal, together with an 
equivalent of water. 

HycLrocyan'ic (H'l/drogen and Cyan - 
ogen). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hydrodynamics (Gr. ^wp, hudor^ 
water; SvvafuSf du'namis, force). 
The science which treats of the 
motion of liquids and the causes 
influencing it. 

Hydro-elec'tric (Gr. 65wp, hudor, 
water ; electric). A term ap- 
plied to a machine in which elec- 
tricity is developed by the action of 
the steam of water ; also to the 
voltaic current into the combina- 
tion of which a liquid element 

Hydroflu'ate {Ei/drogen and Flv!- 
orine). A compound of hydrofluoric 
acid with a base. 

Hydrofluor'ic (Ht/drogen and Flv!- 
orine). Consisting of hydrogen and 

Hjr'drogea (Gr. i^8»p, Aiedor, water; 
ytwoMf gennao, I produce). The 
lightest of elementary bodies; a 
colourless combustible gas, which, 
with oxygen, forms water. 

Hydrog'rapher (Gr. ^«p, huddr, 
water ; yfuupWf grapho, I write). 
A person who describes the physical 
or geographical conformation of 
seas or other bodies of water. 

Hydrog'raphy (Gr. vSvp, hvdor^ 
water; 7pa0», grapkoj I write). 
The science of describing the physi- 



eal or geographical conformation of 
seas, lakes, and other bodies of 

Hydrol'ogy (Gr. dSo)/), huddTf water ; 
koyoSf logos J discourse). The science 
which describes wat«r. 

Hydr<mi'eter (Gr. v$wp, hudor, water; 
fierpop, metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the spe- 
dfic gravity of fluids. 

Hydromef rograph (Gr. v^ap, hvdor, 
water; fierpov^ metrotif a measure; 
ypcupMf graph^f I write). An in- 
strument for recording the quantity 
of water discharged from a pipe or 
orifice in a given time. 

Hydroperiear'diiim (Gr. v8a>p, iltM^, 
water ; p&'icar'ditmi). Dropsy of 
the pericardium or covering mem- 
brane of the heart. 

Hydropholxia (Gr. 6S«ip, hudSrj water ; 
ffwfioSf phob'oSy fear). A disease 
characterised by a dread of water. 

Hy'drophyte (Gr. 6dupf hudory water ; 
(jmu, phtto, I grow). A plant 
which grows in the water. 

Hydro-salts (Gr. v$»p, httddry water). 
A name given to salts, the acid or 
base of which contains hydrogen. 

HydroBtafic(Gr. 6^a>py hudor^ water; 
hrrjfUy kistemif I place). Relating 
to the pressure of fluids at rest. 

Hydrostaf io Frenmre. The pressure 
of water or any fluid, at rest, on a 
given surface. 

Hydrostaf ios (Gr. 6iwp, hudwr^ 
water ; icrTrnxiy kistemiy I make to 
stand). The science which treats 
of the properties bf fluids at rest. 

Hydrosnl'plmret {Hydrogen and 
Stdphvr), A compound of hydro- 
sulphuric acid with a base: now 
described by chemists as a sulphide, 
or compound of sulphur with a 
metal, together with an equivalent 
of water. 

Hydrotho'raz (Gr. 6^apy huddVy 
water ; Bwpa^y thorctXj the chest). 
A disease characterised by the 
presence of water in the chest; 

• dropsy of the chest. 

Hydrous (Gr. v^wp, hvdory water). 
Containing water ; watery. 

Hydroso'a (Gr. i9pa, hibdra, a water- 
serpent; (uoVf zoon^ an' animal). 

The polypes which are organised 
like the hydra. 

Hyetog'raphy (Gr. 6«tos, hvletos, 
rain ; ypw^tay graph' o, I write). 
The science of rain ; the knowledge 
of the quantities and localities in 
which rain has fallen in a given 

Hyg'iene (Gr. ^717^1, hu'gies, healthy). 
The science which treats of the 
preservation of health. 

Hygienic (Gr. U7117S, ku'giSs, healthy). 
Relating to the health and its pre- 

Hygro- (Gr. iypos, hu'gros, moist). 
A prefix in compound words, im- 
plying moisture. 

Hygrom'eter (Gr. ^ypos, httgrosy 
moist ; fifTpoVy metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuiing the 
amount of moisture in the atmos- 

Hygromefric (Gr. iypos, hugrost 
moist : /xerpov, metroUy a measure). 
Relating to the measurement of 
the moisture in the air ; readily 
absorbing moisture from the air. 

Hygrom'e^ (Gr. vyposy hu'gros, 
moist ; titrpovy metron^ a measure). 
The branch of meteorological science 
which treats of the measuring the 
pressure, quantity, and effects, of 
watery vapour in the atmosphere. 

H/groscope (Gr. ^posy llugrosy moist ; 
ffKo-Ktoiy skop'eoy I view). An in- 
strument for ascertaining approxi- 
matively the moisture of the at- 

Hygroscopic (Gr. vypos, htigros, 
moist; ffKovewy sJcop'ed, I view). 
Liable to absorb moisture from the 

Hyme'nitim (Gr. ^fiWy hvmeriy a mem- 
brane). The mass formed by the 
union of the organs of fructification 
in the mushroom tiibe. 

Hymenop'tera (Gr. vfi-^Vy humen, a 
membrane ; irrepov, ptet^oUy a wing). 
An order of insects having fine 
membranous wings, as bees and 

Hy'o- (The Qreek letter w, or upsUon). 
In ancUomyy a prefix in compoimd 
words, implying connection with 
the hyoid bone. 

a 2. 



Hy'oid (The Ghreek letter v, or upsUon; 
cl8of, shape). fiesembling the 
letter v ; applied to the bone which 
supports the tongue, from its shape. 

Hypse^thral (Gr. 6iro, hupOf under ; 
a^p» aithirj the air) . Exposed to 
the open air ; without a roof. 

Hypal'lage' (Gr. 6iro, hupoy under ; 
iiXKucnrUf aUas^so, I exchange). In 
grammar J an interchange of cases ; 
as an accusative of the thing given 
and a dative of the recipient, for an 
accusative of the recipient and a 
dative of the thing given. 

Hypapoph'ysis (Gr. 6iro, hupo, under ; 
apoph'ysis). An apophysis of a 
vertebra growing downwards. 

Hyper- (Gr. ^ep, huper^ above). A 
preposition signifying excess in com- 
pound words. 

Hyperse'mia (Gr. Wtp, huper, be- 
yond ; at/io, haima^ blood). A^ 
excessive supply of blood. 

Hyperaem'ic (Or. Htp^ huper^ be- 
yond ; oi/ui, haimaf blood). Re- 
lating to, or having an excessive 
supply of blood. 

Hypereesthe'sia (Gr. 6ir€f>, huper^ 
beyond ; alcrdavo/iat, aisthan'omaij 
I feel). Excessive sensibility. 

Hyper'baton (Gr. 6irfp, huper ^ be- 
yond ; fiaivcOf hainOj I go). A 
figure in (p'ammar, in which the 
natural order of words or sentences 
is inverted. 

Hyper'bola (Gr. hrep, hupery beyond ; 
jBoAAfitf, ballo, I throw). A cm*ve 
formed by the section of a cone by 
a plane passing parallel to its axis. 

Hyperni)ole' (Gr. vvtpf huper^ beyond ; 
i3a\X», haXlOy I throw). A figure of 
speech, characterised by exaggera- 
tion, or the representation of the 
qualities of an object as greater or 
less than they really are. 

HyperT>oloid (Hyptr^bola ; Gr. ^iloi^ 
eidoSf form). A solid formed by 
the revolution of an hyperbola 
about its axis. 

Hyperboi^ean (Gr. iirep, hupery be- 
yond ; fiopeas^ bor^eaSy the north 
wind). Dwelling far to the north. 

Hyperoathar'si|i (Gr. hrtpy huper^ 
beyond ; ica$tupa>y hathai'ro, I 
cleanse). Excessive purgation. 

Hyperino'sis (Gr. fire/), huper, be- 
yond ; Uy is, force or fibre). A 
state characteiised by an excessive 
formation of fibrine in the blood. 

Hyper'trophy (Gr. wirep, hupery be- 
yond ; Tp€(p(Oy trephoy I nourish). 
Excessive growth of a part. 

Hypo- (Gr. 6iro, hupOy under). A 
preposition implying diminution or 
inferiority, in quality or situation. 

Hjrpocarpoge'an (Gr. ivoy hupOy 
under ; Kopvosy karpoSy fruit ; 717, 
pe, the earth). Producing fruit 
under ground. 

Hypochon'driiim (Gr. 6to, hupoy 
under; x^^^P^h chondrosy a car- 
tilage). The part of the abdomen 
which lies under the cartilages of 
the lower ribs. 

Hypochondri'asifl (Gr. hroxoyZpia, 
hapochon'driay the hypockond/riay 
because formerly supposed to be 
connected with this region). A form 
of insanity, in which the patient 
convei-ts an idea of purely mental 
origin into what appears to him to 
be a real material change. 

Hypocrater'ifomi (Gr. imo, hwpo, 
under ; Kparripy IcrateVy a cup ; Lat. 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 
saucer or salver. 

Hypogas'tric (Gr. hro, hupOy below ; 
yaarripy gastcTy the stomach). Re- 
lating to the middle part of the 

Hypoge'al (Gr. hvo, hupOy under ; yv, 
gi, the earth). Under the earth. 

H/pogene (Gr. ivoy hupOy under; 
ytwaw, germafo, I produce). A 
term proposed to be applied to the 
primary strata in geology, to de- 
note their formation from below. 

Hypoglos'sal (Gr. ^0, hupo, under ; 
yXoKTffOy glossa, the tongue) . Under 
the tongue. 

Hypog'smous (Gr. 6iroy hupOy under ; 
7ui^, guncy a female). Inserted 
beneath the pistil. 

Hypoplios'phite {Hypophos'phorous), 
A compound of hypophosphorous 
acid with a base. 

HypophoB'phoroiui (Gk. ^0, hupo, 
under ; phos'phonis), A name ap- 
plied to an acid which coutains less 
oxygen than phosphorous acid. 



Hypo'pion (Gr. diro, hupo^ under ; 
o^, opSf the eye). A collection of 
pus in the anterior part of the eye. 

HTposTil'plLate (Gr. 6iro, hupOf under ; 
sidphate), A compound of hypo- 
sulphuric acid with a base. 

Hyposul'phite (Gr. viro^ kupOy under ; 
avZphiie). A compound of hypo- 
sulphurous acid with a base. 

Hyposnlphu'rio (Gr. vvo, hupo, under ; 
sidphu'ric). Applied to an acid 
containing less oxygen than sul- 
phuric and more than sulphurous 

Hyposul'phurous (Gr. (nroy hvpo, 
under : aal'phurotM). Applied to 
an acid containing less oxygen than 
sulphurous acid. 

Hypoth'enuse, or, more correctly, 
Hypot'enuse (Gr. 6iro, hupo^ under; 
T«iv«, teino^ I stretch). The side of 
a right-angled triangle which sub- 
tends or is opposite to the right 

Hypoth'esis (Gr. iJiro, kupOf under ; 
TiOrifUj tUhemiy I place). An ex- 

planation of phenomena, not founded 
on the actual observation of facts, 
but assumed in order to demonstrate 
a point in question. 

Hypozolo (Gr. viro, hupo, under ; 
^ctfoc, idony an animal). A term 
applied in geology to the rocks in 
which no organic remains haye been 

Hypsom'etry (Gr. vt^o^, Ivwp'iosy 
height ; /lerpoVf metroriy measure). 
The art of measuring the heights 
of places on the earth, by the 
barometer or by trigonometrical 

H7Steraii'thoiui(Gr. do-repos, hwlteros, 
later ; kudosy antkoSj a flower). In 
botany^ applied to plants of which 
the leaves expand after the flowers 
have opened. 

Hyste'ria. A diseased state, consist- 
ing in a morbid condition of the 
nervous centres, giving rise to 
paroxysmal symptoms, and to the 
imitation of various diseases. 


Iaml>ic (Gr. lafi$os, iam'hos). Re- 
lating to or consisting of the iambus. 

lam'biu (Gr. lafifiosf iam'bos). A 
foot in verse consisting of a short 
syllable followed by a long one. 

la'teo- (Gr. larpos^ ta'^ro9, a physician). 
A part of some compound words, 
signifying a connection with medi- 
cine or physicians. 

-lo. In chemistry f a termination de- 
noting the acid containing most 
oxygen, when more than one is 
formed from the same element. 

lsieberg{Ice; Grerm. berg^ a mountain). 
A mountain or hill of ice. 

Ich'nites (Gr. Ixf^os^ ichnos, a foot- 
step). In geology, fossil foot-prints. 

Ich'nolite (Gr. Ix^os, ichnos, a foot- 
step ; \i0os, lUhoSj a stone). A 
stone retaining the impression of 
the foot mark of a fossil animal. 

IduLorogy (Gr. Ix^os, ichnos, a foot- 
step ; \oyos, logos, a discourse). 
The science of fossil foot-prints. 

Ichor (Gr. «x"P> ichir). A thin 

watery humour. 
Ich'tiiyic (Gr. Ix^vs, ichlhus, a fish). 

Relating to fishes. 
lohthyodor'iilites ^Gr. Ix'^u.i, ichthus, 

a fish ; SopVf doru, a spear ; Xi0os, 

lithos, a stone). Fossil spines of 

Ich'thyoid (Gr. Ix^h ichthus, a fish ; 

€f8os, eidos, shape). Like a fi^h ; 

applied to certain saurian reptiles. 
loh'^yolite (Gr. ix^vs, ichthus, a 

fish; \i$05, lithos, a stone). A 

fossil fish, or portion of a fish. 
Ichthyol'ogy (Gr. Ix'^vs, ichthus, a 

fish; Xoyos, logos, a discourse). 

The description of fishes. 
Ichthyoph'agouB (Gr. Ix'^vs, ichthus, 

a fish ; <pary(a, phago, 1 eat). Living 

on fishes as food. 
lohthyopteryg'ia (Gr. tx^vs, ichthus, 

a fish ; vrfpuyiov, pteru'giort, a fin). 

An order of fossil reptiles with limbs 

formed for swimming, like fins. 



lehthyoian'mf (Gr. Ix^vs, iehthua, a 
fish ; ffaupoSf sauroa, a lizurd). A 
foflsil animal, hayiog a stmcture 
between that of a lizard and a 

lehthyo'sifl (Gr. Ix^vs, ickthusj a 
fish). A disease in which the body, 
or parts of it, are covered by scales 
overlapping each other like those of 
a fish. 

Icosahed'ron (Gr. cucoo'i, eUTcoai^ 
twenty ; 48pa, hedra^ a base). A 
figure having twenty sides and 

Ieo8an'dria(Gr. elicocn, d'hotif twenty; 
cun7p, oner, a man). A class of 
plants having twenty or more 

loter'io (Lat. iefteruSf janndioe). Re- 
lating to, or affected with jaundice. 

Ic'terns (I^t.). The jaundice. 

-Idas (Greek termination -1877s, 'idiSf 
signifying descent). A termination 
employed in zoology, signifying some 
degree of likeness to the animal to 
the name of which the termination 
is affixed. 

-Ide. A termination applied in chem- 
istry ^ to denote combinations of non- 
metallic elements with metals, or 
with other non-metallic elements. 

Idea (Gr. ii^m, tidd, I see). An 
image or model formed in the mind. 

Ide'aliini {Idea). A system of phi- 
losophy, according to which what 
we call external objects are mere 
conceptions of the mind. 

Ideograph'ic (Gr. iSca, idea ; ypa<lHt>f 
grapho, I write). Expressing ideas. 

Idiocy (Gr. fStwn^s, idiotes, a private 
or ignorant person). A state of 
defective intellect existing from 

Idioelec'trio (Gr. Idiocy id'tos, pecu- 
liar or separate ; electric). Having 
the property of manifesting elec- 
tricity on friction. 

Idiom (Gr. iSioSj id'ios, proper or 
peculiar). The form of speech pe- 
culiar to a country. 

Idiomafic (Gr. i5<os, icPios, proper or 
peculiar). Pertaining to the par- 
ticular modes of expression be- 
longing to a language. 

Idiopath'ic (Gr. «8ios, id'iof, peculiar; 

ira0os, patk'oBf suffering). Applied 
to diseases which arise without any 
ai^rent exciting cause. 

Idioqrn'oratj (Or. iSioSt idioSf pecu- 
liar ; tnyKpcuriSf ttmhra'aisy a mixing 
together). An extreme susceptibility 
to the effects of certain articles of 
food or medicine, consisting gene- 
rally in the production of effects 
different from those which usually 

Idiot (Gr. iduonif, idioiegf a private 
or ill-informed perscm). A person 
whose intellect is altogether deficient 
from birth. 

Idol (Gr. €i8»A.ov, eidoUm, an image, 
phantom, or fancy). A term used 
by Bacon to denote fallacies of the 

Idols of the Den. The mental 
fallacies arising from the nature of 
the mind and body of the indi- 

Idols of the Market. The fallacies 
arising from reciprocal intercourse, 
and the popular application of 
words and names. 

Idols of the Theatre. The fj&Uacies 
arising from false theories or per- 
verted laws of demonstration. 

Idols of the Tribe. The falkcies 
inherent in human nature. 

Ig'neouB (Lat. ignis, fire). Arising 
from, or connected with fire; in 
geology, applied to the apparent 
results of subterraneous heat. 

Ignis Faf uuB (Lat. foolish fire). A 
luminous appearance sometimes 
seen at nigh^ and produced by the 
combustion of phosphorus which 
has escaped from organic matter. 

Ignif ion (Lat. ignis, fire.) A setting 
on fire* 

Ileo- (Ileum), In anatomy, a prefix 
denoting connection with, or rela- 
tion to, the intestine called ileum. 

neo-coB'cal {Ileum ; caecum). Be- 
longing to, or lying between, the 
ileum and coecum. 

n'eum (Gr. fi\cw, ei'led, I roll). 
The lower portion of the small 

n'iao (Lat. Ulia, the flank). Be- 
longing to the ileum; or to the 
bone called ilium. 



H'lO' (Ilivm), Inanctiomyf a prefix 
deiLoting connection with, or rela- 
tion to, the iliac bone. 

ninm (Lat. i'lia^ the flank). The 
large partly flattened bone which 
forms the principal part of the 
pelvis, and enters into the compo- 
sition of the hip-joint. 

Ula'tiye (Lat. in, on ; la'ttts, borne). 
Denoting an inference ; applied in 
logiCf where the truth of the con- 
Terse follows from the truth of the 
proi>08ition itself. 

Ima'go (Lat. an image). A name 
given to the perfect state of an 

Imbecility (Lat. in, on ; haciVlui, a 
staff). Weakness : a defective 
state of intellect, not amounting to 

Imlnioate (Lat. imbrex, a tile). 
Lying over each other like tiles ; 
in botany, applied to the arrange- 
ment in the bud in which the outer 
leaves successively overlap the 

Lnmer'ston (Lat. vn, in ; mergo, I 
dip). A putting beneath the sur- 
fikce, as of a fluid ; in astronomy, 
the entrance of one body into such 
a position with regard to another, 
as to apparently sink into it^ and 
become invisible. 

Im'pact (Lat. tn, on ; pan^o, I drive). 
A stroke ; the action of two bodies 
on each other in coming together. 

Impal'pable (Lat. in, not ; palpo, I 
feel). Incapable of being felt. 

ImpariByllab'io (Lat. in, not : par, 
equal; syl'laiba, a syllable). Not 
having the same number of sylla- 
bles ; applied to nouns which have 
not the same number of syllables 
in all their cases. 

Impenetrability (Lat. in, not ; pen'- 
etro, I pierce). In physics, the 
property in virtue of which a body 
occupies a certain space, which 
cannot at the same time be occu- 
pied by another body. 

Imper'ative (Lat. im*pero, I oom- 
miind). Commanding ; in gram- 
mar, implying a command or en- 

Imper'meable (Lat. in^ not; per^ 

through ; meo, I pass). Incapable 
of being passed through by a fluid. 

Imper'BOXuU (Lat. in, not ; perso'na, 
a person). Without persons ; ap- 
plied to verbs which have only the 
third person singular. 

Imper'vions (Lat. in, not ; per, 
through ; via, a way). Incapable 
of being passed through. 

Impeti'gpo (Lat. im'peto, I attack). 
A disease of the skin characterised 
by clusters of pustules which run 
together into a crust ; a running 

Im'peta8(Lat. from in, against ; peto, 
I urge). The force with which a 
body is driven. 

Impii^g^e (Lat. impin'go, I strike 
against). To strike or dash 

Implu'vinm (Lat. in; plu'via, rain). 
A basin to receive rain, in the 
middle of the atrivmi or court- 
yard of ancient Roman houses. 

Impon'derable (Lat. in, not ; p<m- 
dit», weight). Without perceptible 

Impulse (Lat. in, on or against; 
peUo, I drive). The effect of one 
body striking on another, being 
the result of the motion of the 
striking body. 

Impnl'sion (Lat. in, against ; pello^ 
I drive). The act of driving 
against : the process by which a 
moving body changes the motion 
of another by striking it. 

Inan'imate (Lat. in, not ; an'ima, 
animal life). Without animal life. 

Inanition (Lat. ina'nis, empty). 
Emptiness ; want of nutrition ; 

Inartic'nlate (Lat. in, not ; artic'- 
ulus, a joint). Not having the 
power of articulation or speech ; 
in botany, without joints. 

Incandea'cence (Lat. in; candeifco^ 
I grow white). A white heat ; 
the luminous appearance which 
bodies assume when heated to a 
certain point. 

Incandes'cent (Lat. in ; eandes'co, I 
grow white). White or glowing 
from heat. 

Incep'tLve (Lat. incip'to, I begin). 



Beginning ; applied to verbs which 
imply a commencement of action. 

In'cidence (Lat. tn, on ; cado^ I fall). 
A falling on ; in dynamics and 
optics^ the angle of incidence is the 
angle made by a body or ray of 
light falling on an object, with a 
line drawn pei-pendicularly to the 
surface struck. 

In'oldent (Lat. tn, on ; cctdo, I fall). 
Falling on. 

Incin'oiute (Lat in, into ; emiSf 
ashes). To burn to ashes. 

Inoinera'tioii (Lat. m, into; dnis, 
ashes). A burning to ashes. 

Incision (Lat. in, into ; ccedOf I cut). 
A cutting into ; a cut. 

Inci'Bor (Lat. in, into ; ccedo^ I cut). 
A cutter ; applied to the fore teeth, 
which cut the food. 

Inolina'tion (Lat. in; clinOj or Gr. 
kKivw, klinOf I lean). A leaning ; 
in physics, the direction of one 
body with respect to another, as 
measured by the angle formed at 
their point of meeting. 

Inoline (Lat. tn^ towards ; clinOf I 
bend). A slope ; the direction of 
a surface, as of a road, with respect 
to the horizon. 

Inclined Plane. A plane forming an 
angle, less than a right angle, with 
the horizon. ' 

Incln'ded (Lat. in, in ; claudOf I 
shut). In botany, applied to sta- 
mens when they do not project 
beyond the corolla. 

Incombns'tible (Lat. in, not; com- 
bu'ro, I bum up). Licapable of 
being burned. 

^icommen'surable (Lat. in, not ; am, 
with ; mensu^ra, a measure). Not 
capable of being measured together ; 
applied to quantities and magni- 
tudes which do not exactly measure 
each other, or of which one is not 
contained a definite number of times 
in the other ; or which cannot be 
divided without a remainder by 
some other number. 

Inoonunis'cible (Lat. in, not; con, 
together; mit^ceo, I mix). Incapable 
of being mixed together. 

Incompatible (Lat. in, not ; eon, 
with ; ptUfior, 1 suffer). Not capable 

of subsisting with something else ; 
applied to substances which chemi- 
cally decompose each other when 
broil <!ht into contact in a solution. 

Ldcompressibillty (Lat. in, not; con, 
together ; pi'tm'o, I press). The 
property of resisting forcible reduc- 
tion int-o a smaller space. 

Incompres'sible (Lat. i'n, not; eon, 
together ; prem'o, I press). Resist- 
ing compression into a smaller space. 

Incorporate (Lat. in, into ; corpus, 
a body). To mix into one body or 

Incorpora'tion (Lat. in, into ; corpus, 
a body). A mixing into one body 
or mass. 

In'crement (Lat. in; cresco, I grow). 
An increase ; in mxUkematics, the 
quantity by which a variable quan- 
tity increases. 

Incrasta'tion (Lat. in, in ; crusta, a 
crust). The covering of a body 
with a rough coating, as with a 

Incnba'tion (Lat. in, on ; cvmho, 1 
lie). The act of sitting on eggs 
for the purpose of hatching young. 

Incnmnbent (Lat. in, on; cumho, I 
lie). In botany, applied when the 
radicle lies on the back of the 

Incnrva'tion (Lat. in, towards ; 
curviLS, bent). A bending, or turn- 
ing out of a straight course. 

Indecli'nable (Lat. im, not ; de, from ; 
dino, 1 bend). Not declinable; 
applied to words incapable of being 
varied by terminations. 

Indefinite (Lat. in, not ; de, down ; 
finis, an end). Not definite or 
limited ; in botany, applied to in- 
florescence, in which the central or 
terminal flower is the last toexx>and. 

Indehis'cent (Lat. in, not ; dehuleo, 
I gape). Not gaping ; applied to 
fruits which do not split open, as 
the apple. 

Indenf ^Lat. in, in ; den^, a tooth). 
To notch, as if by the teeth, or 
into inequalities like teeth. 

Indented (Lat. in, in ; dens, a tooth). 
Notched, as if bitten by teeth, or 
into margins like teeth. 

Indenf nre (Lat. viif in ; dms, a 



tooth) . A deed of agreement between 
two persons, of which the upper 
edge of the first page has a waving 
line like a row of teeth. 

IndiBter'minate (Lat. tn, not; d^y 
down; ter'minua, a limit). Not 
limited ; in mathematics^ applied to 
problems which admit an unlimited 
number of solutions ; in botany ^ 
applied to inflorescence with the 
same meaning as indefinite. 

In'dioator (Lat. in'dico, I point out). 
A pointer : applied to the muscle 
which extends the fore-finger. 

Indig'eiioiiB (Lat. tn, in ; gigno^ I 
produce). Native ; produced natu- 
rally in a country. 

IxLduc'tion (Lat. in, into ; dtbco, I 
lead). A bringing in : the leading 
an inference or general conclusion 
from a number of particular in- 
stances; in electricity and mag- 
netism^ the process by which an 
electrified or magnetic body pro- 
duces an electrical or magnetic 
state in surrounding bodies. 

liLdxuitomfetieir(IndiLCtion; Or. fitrpoVf 
metron, a measure). An instru- 
ment for measuring differences of 
electrical induction. 

Induo'tiye (Lat. in, into; dttco, I 
I lead). Leading to inferences : 
applied to those sciences which are 
l»sed on the observation of facts 
and the conclusions drawn from 

Indu'plioate (Lat. im, in; dwpUx, 
double). Doubled inwards : in 
botany, applied to the arrangement 
of a flower-bud in which the edges 
of the petals are slightly turned 

Indiira'tion (Lat. in, into; durua, 
hard). Hardening. 

Inda'siiim (Lat. in' duo, I put on). A 
covering : in botany, the epidermic 
covering which encloses the spores 
or analogues of seeds in some ferns. 

Inen'ohyma (Gr. U, is, fibre ; tfxviia, 
en'chwna, a tissue). In botany, a 
tissue consisting of cells with spiral 
fibres in them. 

Iner'tia (Lat. iners, inactive). The 
quality in virtue of which matter 
is incapable of spontaneous change, 

whether from motion to rest, or 
from rest to motion ; inactivity. 

In'fantile (Lat. infans, an infant). 
Belonging to or occurring in infants. 

Infeo't (Lat. injii/io, I taint). To 
introduce into a healthy body the 
emanation or miasma proceeding 
from one which is diseased, so as 
to propagate the disease. 

Infec'tion (Lat. infidio, I taint). 
The communication of disease l>y 
means of the miasm or emanation 
proceeding fnim a diseased body. 

Infec'tloiu (Lat. infic'io, I taint). 
Capable of being communicated by 

Infe'rior (Lat. below). In botany, 
applied to the ovary when it is ad- 
herent to the calyx, or to the calyx 
when it is not • adherent to the 

Inferobran'chiate (Lat. in'ferus, be- 
low ; Gr. fipayxta, bran'chia, gills). 
Having the gills arranged along the 
sides of the body under the mar- 
gin of the mantle : applied to an 
order of gasteropods. 

Infiltra'tion (Lat. in, into ; filter). 
The process of entering a body 
through pores ; the substance 
which has so entered. 

In'finite (Lat. in, not ; finis, an end). 
Without a limit ; an infinite 
decimal or series is one which 
cannot be brought to an end. 

Infinites'lmal (Lat. in, not ; finis, an 
end). Indefinitely small : having 
relation to indefinitely small num- 
bers or quantities. 

Infln'itiye (Lat. in, not; finis, I 
limit). Placing no limit : in gram- 
mar, applied to that part of the 
verb which expresses its name. 

Inflarn'mable (Lat. in^ into ; fiamfMk, 
flame). Capable of being set on 

Inflamma'tioii (Lat. in, into ; fi^m- 
ma, flame). A getting on fire : 
in medicine, a diseased state, 
characterised by redness, heat, 
pain, swelling, and disturbance of 
the function of a part. 

Infleot'ed (Lat. in, on ; fiecto, I 
bend). Bent or turned out of a 
straight coarse ; curved inwards. 




Inflee'tioA (Lat. in, towards ; JUcto, 
I bend). A turning from a straight 
coarse: in opticSf the effect pro- 
duced by the edges of an opaque 
body on the light passing in con- 
tact with them, by which the rays 
are bent out of their course either 
inwards or outwards ; ia grammar, 
the variation of words by changes 
of termination. 

Inflexible (Lat. tn, not; fleeto, I 
bend). Incapable of being bent. 

Infiores'eenoe (Lat in, in; flot, a 
flower). The arr^mgement of flow- 
ers on the flowering stem or 

Infiaeii'za (Italian, injltiema, in- 
fluence). An epidemic catarrh or 
cold, attended with great loes of 
strength and severe fever. 

Influx (Lat. in, into ; Jluo, I flow). 
A flowing into. 

Infracos'tal (Lat. infra, beneath ; 
coata, a rib). Beneath ribs. 

Inframaxilluy (Lat. infra, be- 
neath ; maxU'la, a jaw). Beneath 
the jaw. 

Infraorliltal (Lat. infra, beneath ; 
or^bita, an orbit). Beneath the 

Infraspi'nons (Lat. infra, beneath ; 
spina, a spine). Beneath a spine 
or spinous process. 

Infondib'nliform (Lat. infwndib'u- 
lum, a funnel ; forma, shape). 
Shaped like a funnel. 

Infa'sion (Lat. in, on; fwndo, I 
pour). The process of steeping 
substances in liquid, so as to ex- 
tract certain qualities from them ; 
the liquid thus prepared. 

Infiuo'ria {Infu9i4)n), A term given 
to microscopic animals of several 
orders, found in water in which 
organic matter has been infused. 

Inges'ta (Lat. in, in ; gero, I carry). 
Things taken in ; applied to food. 

Inglu'vies (Lat. a crop). A crop or 
partial dilatation of the oesophagus. 

In'gninal (Lat. in'guen, the groin). 
Belating or belonging to the groin. 

Inhala'tion (Lat. in, into ; halo, I 
breathe). A breathing in ; the 
act of drawing in fumes or vapours 
with the breath. 

Inhale (Lat. in, into; halo, 1 
breathe). To draw in air or va- 
pours by means of the breathing 

Inject' (Lat. in, into ; jcn^io, I throw). 
To throw into. 

Injee'tlon (Lat. in, into; jcufio, I 
throw). A throwing in ; a medi- 
cine thrown into the body : the 
act of filling the vessels of a body 
with some coloured substance, so 
as to render them distinct; also 
the substance thrown in. 

Inna'te (Lat. in, into or on ; ncueor, 
I am bom). Natural ; applied to 
ideas supposed to exist in the mind 
from birth ; in botany, applied to 
anthers when attached to the top of 
the filaments. 

Innerva'tion (Lat. in, into ; nerrms, 
a nerve). The properties or func- 
tions of the nervous system. 

Innom'inate (Lat. in, not ; rhomen, a 
name). Without a name ; applied 
to a bone forming the pelvis, con- 
stituted of three bones which grow 
together; also to a large arterial 
trunk arising from the aorta. 

Inoo'ulate (Lat. in, into ; ocfidui, an 
eye). To engraft buds; to com- 
municate disease to a person by in- 
serting infectious matter into his 

Inoper'calar (Lat. in, not ; oper^cu- 
lum, a lid). Without an opercu- 
lum or lid. 

Inor'dinate (Lat. in, not ; or^dino, I 
put in order). Irregular : mmMhe- 
mattes, applied to two ranks of 
quantities, which are proportionate 
in a cross order. 

Inorganic (Lat. in, not; organ'ic). 
Without the organs or instruments 
of life : in medicine, not apparently 
connected with change in structure. 

Inos'culate (Lat. in, into ; o^ctthim, 
a little mouth). To open into^ as 
by little mouths. 

Insallyation (Lat. in, into ; saliva). 
The blending of the saliva with the 

Insa'ne (Lat. in, not ; sanus, sound 
or healthy). Unsound in mind. 

Insanity (Lat. in, not ; sanus, sound 
or heiJthy). A term used to express 



in general derangements of tbe 
mind, except the temporary deli- 
rinm occasioned by fever, 

In'ieet (Lat. tn, into ; aeeo, I cut). 
A dass of inyertebrate animals, 
haying a body composed of three 
distinct parts jointed together, with 
three pairs d feet, and generally 

InsectiyoiroiiB (Lat. vMetfta^ insects ; 
vorOj I devour). Living on insects. 

Inseniibil'ity (La.t. tn, not ; sentio^ 
I perceive). Loss of the power of 
feeling or sensation. 

Inteflso'res (Lat. in, on ; Mcf eo, I sit). 
An order of birds, including those 
which habitually perch on trees, 
excepting the rapacious and the 
climbing birds ; as the crow, star- 
ling, finch, and swallow. 

In situ (Lat. in, in ; sUus^ a situa- 
tion). In the place where it was 
originally formed or deposited. 

Insola'tion (Lat. ifi, in; soly the 
sun). Exposure to the rays of the 
sun ; or the effects of such exposure. 

Insolfiible (Lat. tn, not ; 8olvOf I 
melt). Incapable of being melted. 

Inspira'tion (Lat. tn, into ; spiro, I 
breathe). The act of drawing in 
air by the langs. 

Inspi'ratory (Lat. tn, into ; <ptro, I 
breathe). Belating to the act of in- 

Inspi^re (Lat. tn, into ; spirOy I 
breathe). To draw in air by the 
breathing organs. 

Inspisa'ate (Lat. in, in ; spissttSj 
thick). To thicken. 

In'stinct (Lat. instin'guoy I urge on). 
The power by which, independently 
of instruction or experience, animals 
are unerringly directed to do what- 
ever is necessary for their preserva- 
tion and the continuance of their 
species, in a manner incapable of 
modification or improvement by 

Instinc'tive (Lat. i/nstin'guo, I urge 
on). Arising from instinct. 

In'snlate (Lat. in'avlay an island). To 
separate ; to surround a body with 
substances incapable of carrying 
off the electricity or caloric accu- 
mulated in it. 

Insnla'tion (Lat. in'mUty an island). 
The state of being separated or 

In'snlator (Lat. in'ndoy an island). 
The substance which prevents the 
passage of electricity finom a body. 

In'teger (Lat. entire). The whole: 
applied especially to whole numbers, 
in contradistinction from fractions. 

In'tegral (Lat. in'teger, entire). En- 
tire ; making part of a whole. 

Integral Calcoliu. A branch of 
mathematical analysis, in which the 
primitive function is derived from 
its differentiate, or its differential 

In'tegrant (Lat. in'teger, entire). 
Making part of a whole ; applied 
to parts which are of the same 
nature as the whole. 

In'telleot (Lat. iniel'ligo, I under- 
stand). The faculty of the human 
mind which receives and compre- 
hends the idea enunciated by the 
senses or by other means. 

Intel'ligenoe (Lat. intel'ligoy I under- 
stand). The faculty which leads to 
the performance of operations as the 
result of experience, and capable of 
improvement by exercise. 

Interambnla'cra(Lat. inters between ; 
atnbiUa'crum), The plates between 
the perforated plates, or ambu- 
lacra, in the echinoderms. 

Interartio'nlar (Lat. inter, between ; 
articfuliLSy a joint). Between joints. 

Interanric'nlar (Lat. inter, between ; 
awridvXa, an auricle). Between 
the auricles of the heart. 

Interoal'aiy (Lat. inter, between ; 
calo (Qr. KoXta, haled), I call). 
Inserted : applied to the day in- 
serted in the calendar every fourth 
year to compensate for the deficiency 
in the three preceding years : also 
to a month inserted in the old 
Rpman calendar to make up a 

Ldtercellnlar (Lat. inters between; 
ceVlxdct, a cell). Between cells. 

Intercep'ted (Lat. inter, between ; 
cap' to, I take). Included or com- 
prehended between. 

Interclavic'iilar (Lat. inter, between: 
dav'icle). Between clavicles. 



Intereoii'dyloid (Lat. tn^^r, between ; 
Gr. KovivKoSf kon'dvloSf acoudyle). 
Between condyles. 

Interoos'tal (Lat. inters between; 
casta, a rib). Between ribs. 

Intercnr'rent (Lat. inieVf between ; 
cvrrOj I run). Banning between ; 
in m':dicinef applied to diseases 
which occur in a scattered manner 
daring the prevalence uf epidemic 

Interdig'ital (Lat. inter, between ; 
dig'ittUf a finger). Between the 

Interiia'cial (Lat. inters between ; 
fac'ieSf a faceV Included between 
two faces or planes. 

LoLterfe'renoe (Lat. inters between; 
fero, I bear). A term applied to 
the phenomenon of the e£Eacement 
of an undulation by the meeting of 
two waves ; and in optics especially, 
to the matual intersection of rays 
of light under certain conditions, 
so that they extinguish each other. 

Interfoliar (Lat. inter, between ; fo'- 
Hum, a leaf;. Between two opposite 

Interganglionlo (Lat. inter, between ; 
(Jr. yayy\iov, gan'glion, a knot). 
Lying or extending between gang- 

InterluB'mal (Lat. inter, between ; 
Gr. aifjLo, haima, blood). Between 
the haemal processes in vertebrae. 

Interlob'nlar (Lat. inter, between ; 
lo'hviXus, a little lobe). Between 
lobules or little lobes. 

Intermaxillary (Lat. inter, between, 
maxU'la, a jaw). Between the 
maxillary or jaw bone. 

IxLtermis'sion (Lat. inter, between ; 
fnUto, I send). Temporary cessation 
as applied to fevers ; complete ces- 
sation for a time. 

IxLtermit'tent (Lat. inter, between; 
mitto, I send). Ceasing for a time ; 
applied to diseases in which tbe 
symptoms leave the patient entirely 
for a time, and then return. 

IntermiiB'onlar (Lat. inter, between ; 
fnvis'cvlus, a muscle). Between 

Intemeu'ral (Lat. inter, between, 
(Gr. yevpoVf neuron, a nerve). Be- 

tween the neural processes in ver- 

In'temode (Lat. tn^er, between ; nodus, 
a knot). Tbe space in a stem be- 
tween the nodes, or parts where the 
leaves are formed. 

Interos'seoiu (Lat. inter, between ; oi, 
a bone). Between bones. 

Interpednn'cnlar (Lat. inter, be- 
tween ; ped'uncle). Between ped- 

Interpet'iolar (Lat. inter, between ; 
pet'iole). Between petioles of oppo- 
site sides. 

Interpola'tion (Lat. inter^polo, I place 
between). The insertion of words, 
passages, or numben between others. 

Interposition (Lat. inter, between ; 
puno, I put). A placing or coming 

Intersect' (Lat. inter, between ; seco, 
I cut). To cut or cross mutually. 

Interseo'tion (Lat. inter, between ; 
seco, I cut). A matual catting ur 

Interspi'nal or Interspi^nous (Lat. 
inter, between ; spina, a spine). 
Inserted between the spinous pro- 
cesses of the vertebrae. 

Interstellar (Lat. inter, between ; 
Stella, a star). Between the stars, 
beyond the limits of our solar system. 

Inter'stice (Lat. inter, between ; sto, 
I stand). A small space between 
the parts which compose a body. 

Interstitial (Lat. inter, between ; 
sto, I stand). Relating to or occu- 
pying interstices; taking place 
gradually throughout a body. 

Interstratlfied (Lat inter, between ; 
stratum, a layer ; fadio, I make). 
Interposed in strata between other 

Intertu'bnlar (Lat. inter, between ; 
tvhvle). Between tubules or small 

Interver'tebral (Lat. inter, between ; 
ver'iebra, a bone of the spine). 
Between vertebrae. 

Intes'tines (Lat. intus, within). The 
alimentai7 canal from the stomach 
to its termination. 

Intine (Lat. intus, within). The 
inner covering of the pollen-grain. 

Intona'tion (Lat. in, in ; tomu, a 



tone). The manner of sonnding the 
notes of a musical scale. 

Iiltracellnlar (Lat. intrOf within ; 
eeUida, a cell). Within cells ; ap- 
plied in histology to the formation 
of cells within cells. 

Intralobular (Lat. intra, within; 
lo'bvlutSj a lobule). Within lobules 
or little lobes. 

Intran'sitiye (Lat. Wy not ; trans, 
over ; eo, I go). Not passing on : 
applied to verbs in which the action 
does not pass to or act on an object. 

Intran'terine (Lat. tn^ra, within ; 
u'teruSf the womb). Within the 
uterus or womb. 

In'trorse (Lat. mtror'sumj within). 
Turned inwards ; in botany, applied 
to anthers which open on the side 
next the pistil. 

Intaifion (Lat. in^ on ; tu'eor, I look). 
The process by which the mind 
perceives a fact at once, without 
the intervention of other ideas, or 
of reasoning. 

Intaltive (Lat. m, on ; tu'eor, I look). 
Perceived immediately by the mind, 
without a process of reasoning. 

LDLtnmes'oenoe (Lat. in, in ; tu'meo, 
I swell). A swelling. 

IxLtiiBsnscep'tioii (Lat. intus, within ; 
siMcip'io, I take up). A drawing 
of one part of a tube or canal into 

Inven'tioii (Lat. inven'io, I find). A 
finding ; the production of some 
combination or contrivance that 
did not before exist. 

IxLver'se (Lat. in; verto, I turn). 
Placed in a contrary order ; as in 
an arithmetical proportion, when 
the ratio of the numbers to each 
other appears to be reversed. 

Inver'sion (Lat. in; verto, 1 turn). 
A placing in a contrary order ; a 
mutual changing of position. 

LoLver'tebrate (Lat. in, not ; va^tebra, 
a bone of the spine). Without ver- 
tebi-ffi or spinal bones. 

Involu'cel {Involu'crum; eel, de- 
noting smallness). In botany, the 
collection of bractlets which sur- 
rounds a secondary or partial umbel. 

Invola'onim (Lat. in, in ; volvo, I 
roll). A covering membrane : in 

botany, a collection of bracts round 
a cluster of flowers : the layer of 
epidermis covering in the spore- 
cases on ferns. 

Invornntaiy (Lat. in, not ; volum'tas, 
will). Not dependent on or pro- 
ceeding from the will. 

In'volnte (Lat. in, in ; volvo, I roll). 
Holled inwards; in botany, applied 
to a leaf which has each of its 
edges rolled inwards towards the 

Involn'tion (Lat. in, into ; volvo, I 
roll). A folding or rolling in ; in 
arithmetic and algebra, the raising 
a number from its root to a power, 
as if it were folded or rolled on 

Todate {Fodine). A compound of 
iodic acid with a base. 

lod'io {I'odine), Containing iodine. 

Todide {I'odine), A compound of 
iodine with a metal or other sub- 

I'odine (Gr. lov, i'on, a violet). A 
solid elementary body, the vapour 
of which has a violet colour. 

Todism {I'odine). In medicine, a 
morbid condition sometimes pro- 
duced by the use of iodine. 

I'on (Gr. l<ov, ion, going). A name 
applied to the elements of sub- 
stances capable of decomposition by 
the voltaic current, and which are 
evolved at the poles of the battery. 

Iris (Gr. Ipis, iris, the rainbow). 
The ring-shaped diaphragm which 
surrounds the pupil of the eye ; so 
calkd from being coloured. 

Irides'oence (Gr. Ipis, iris, the i-ain- 
bow). A play of colours like a 

Irides'cent (Gr. ipis, iris, the rain- 
bow). Marked with colours like 
the rainbow. 

Ironstone. A term for the car- 
bonates of iron found in nodules or 
thin layers in secondary rocks. 

Irra'diation (Lat. in; ra'dius, a 
ray). Emission of light ; illumi- 

Ir'rigate (Lat. in, on ; rUgo, I mois- 
ten). To moisten. 

Irritability (Lat. irrito, I excite). 
Excitability : the property of 



moBcles by whicli they contract 
on the application of an exciting 

Irrtip'tioii (Lat. in, in; rumpOf I 
break). A breaking in. 

rsagon (Gr. iaos, isos, equal ; ywvta, 
gdnia, an angle). A figure with 
equal angles. 

IieMafic (Gr. Urxtov, u/ckion, the 
hip). Belonging to the hip. 

Ibo- (Gr. iffosy isos, equal). A prefix 
in compound words, denoting 

IsobEuromet'rio (Gr. Iffos, isos, equal ; 
barom'eter). Applied to lines con- 
necting places on the earth's sur- 
face which present the same mean 
difierence between the monthly 
extremes of the barometer. 

Isochei'nuLl (Gr. la-os, isoSf equal ; 
XC'/AO, cheima, winter). Having 
the same winter temperature. 

Isoelixomat'ic (Gr. <Vos, isos, equal ; 
Xpf^f^ chroma^ colour). Haying 
the same colour. 

Isooh'ronal (Gr. Uros, isos, equal ; 
Xpovos, ckronos, time). Uniform 
in time ; occurring in equal times. 

Ifoelin'ic (Gr. l<ros, isoSf equal ; 
K\iya>, JdinOf I bend). Bending 
equally ; applied to curves in the 
earth's suHace in which the dip of 
the magnetic parallels is equal. 

Isodynam'io (Gr. iVos, isos, equal ; 
dvvofxis, du'namis, power). Of 
equal power ; applied to lines on 
the earth where the magnetic in- 
tensities are equal. 

Isogeother'iiial (Gr. iaros, isos, equal ; 
yri, ge, the earth ; Bepfjios, thermos, 
warm). See Isothermal. 

Isogo'nio (Gr. iVos, isos, equal; 
yavia, gonia, tin angle). Having 
equal angl^ ; applied to lines on 
the earth's suiface in which the 
magnetic needle has the same de- 

Iflohyeto'ses (Gr. Itros, isos, equal ; 
v€Tos, hu'etos, rain). Lines con- 
necting places on the surface of the 
globe where the quantity of rain 
which &lls annually is the same. 

Isomer'ic (Gr. Itros, isos, equal; 
fi^pos, meros, a part). Consisting 
of the same elements in the same 
jM'oportions, but possessing different 
physical and chemical properties. 

Isom'eriBm (Ghr. hos, isos, equal ; 
fifpos, meros, a part). The state 
of compounds which contain the 
same elements in the same propor- 
tions, but have different proper- 

iMmior'phism (Gr. Itros, isos, equal ; 
liopipii, morpke, form). The pro- 
X>erty which certain substances 
have of replacing each other in 
crystallised compounds without 
change of form. 

Isomor'phoiu (Gr. iffos, isos, equal ; 
fiopiprq, m^orphe, form). Of equal 
form ; applied to substances capa- 
ble of replacing each other in crys- 
talline compounds without altera- 
tion of form. 

iBop'odoos (Gr. Itroi, isos, equal, 
irovs, pons, a foot). Applied to an 
order of crustaceans with fourteen 
legs, not having the respiratory 
organs attached to them. 

Iw>B'ceIes(Gr. itros, isos, equal; vk^Kos, 
shel'os, a leg). Having two equal 
legs or sides. 

Isoste'monoos (Gr. lo-oj, isos, equal ; 
ffrfifjuav, stembn, a stamen). In 
botany, applied when the stamens 
are equal in number to the sepals 
or petals. 

iBOth'eral (Or. Itros, isos, equal ; 
0€pos, theros, summer). Having 
the same mean summer temper- 

Isother'mal (Gr. i<ros, isos, equal; 
Btpfjuas, thermos, hot). Having 
equal heat : applied to lines drawn 
round the globe, and passing over 
points where the mean temperature 
is equal. 

-Ite. A termination in chemistry, 
denoting a salt formed of an acid 
in a lower state of oxygenation. 

-Itis. A termination denoting in- 




JacoVs Membrane. A layer of tbe 
retina in the eye, described by Dr. 
Jacob as a serous membrane, but 
consisting of numeroas rod-like 
bodies placed vertically together. 

Jactita'tion (Lat. jac'tUo, I throw 
about). A tossing about of the 
body; restlessness. 

Jeju'mxm (Lat. jeja'nus, empty ; be- 
cause often found empty). A part 
of the small intestines, reaching 
from the duodenum to the ileum. 

Jo'vian (Lat. Jovis^ the genitive case 
of Jupiter), Belonging to the 
planet Jupiter. 

Ju'ga (Lat. jugum, a yoke). The 
elevated portions traversing the 
carpels of umbelliferous plants. 

Ju'gate (Lat. jitguniy a yoke). In 
botany f applied to the pairs of leaf- 
lets in compound leaves. 

Ju'g^olar (Lat. ju'gulumj tiie throat). 
Belonging to or connected with the 
neck or throat. 

Ju'lian {Julius Cceswr). A term ap- 
plied to the system of reckoning 
the year promulgated by Julius 
Gffisar, and which continued until 
the adoption of the new style. 

Joras'sic {Jura, Mont Blanc in 
Switzerland). A name given in 
geology to the oolitic system, from 
its occurrence in the Jura moun- 

Jnrispm'dence (Lat. jus, law ; pru- 
den'tia, knowledge). The science 
of law. 

Juxtaposition (Lat. jiudaf near ; 
ponoy I put). A placing side by 

Kalei'dophone (Gr. koXos, JcaloSj 
beautiful ; f^os, eidos, form ; 
^VTi, phone, sound). An in- 
strument consisting of an elastic 
rod, with a polished knob at the 
free end, which exhibits beautiful 
curves of vibration when put in 

Kalei'doscope (Gr. koKos, halos, 
beautiful ; ciSos, eidos, shape ; 
ffKoveco, shop'eo, I look at). An 
optical instrument, formed on the 
principle of multiplied reflection of 
light, for the purpose of exhibiting 
a variety of beautiful colours and 
symmetrical forms. 

Ea'olin. A very fine earth or clay 
C(m8isting of decomposed feldspar, 
used in the manufacture of porce- 

Xathetom'eter {Or. KoBeros, hath'etos, 
perpendicular height; fierpov, me- 
tron, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring small differences of 
perpendicular height. 

Eelflsnone'sian {Or. KeXcuvos, Jeelai'nos, 
black ; vritros, nesos, an island). 
A term applied to the inhabitants 
of the islands in the Pacific, whose 
skin is of a dark colour. 

Kelp. The ashes of seaweed, from 
which carbonate of soda was pro- 

Kepler's Laws. The laws of the 
courses of the plMDiets, according to 
Kepler: viz., that a line drawn 
from the sun to the planets de- 
scribes equal areas in equal times ; 
that the planets move in elliptic 
orbits ; and that the squares of 
the periods of revolution of the 
planets are very nearly in tiie ratio 
of the cubes of th^ mean dis- 

Kn'ogramme {Qt. x^^^^ ckU'ioi, a 
thousand; Fr.^amme) . A French 
weight equal to a thousand grammes, 
or 2 '205 pounds avoirdupois. 

Xil'olitre (Gr.x«Aioi, chil'wi, a thou- 
sand ; Utre). A French measnie 



of a thousand litres, or 220 gal- 

Xil'ometre (Gr. x'^^'* chiVioi, a 
thousand; metre). A French mea-> 
sure of a thousand metres, or about 
1094 English yards. 

Kim'meridge Clay. A blue and 
greyish yellow clay of the oolite 

Kleptoma'nia (Gr. kK^ktu, ielepto, I 
steal; /iacio, ma'nia, madness). 
An irresistable desire to steal. 

Kinef ics (Or. inyc», hineo, I move;. 
The part of mechanical science 
which treats of motion without 
reference to the forces producing it. 

Kreasote. See Cre'asote. 

Ere'atm and Ereat'inin. See Cre'a- 
tin and Creat'inin. 

Ey'anize (Mr. Kyan, the inventor of 
the process). To steep timber in 
a solution of corrosive sublimate in 
order to preserve it from dry rot. 

Labelliim (Lat. Wbium, a lip). A 
little lip. 

La'bial (Lat. Whium, a lip). Be- 
longing to the lips; produced by 
the lips. 

Lal>iate (Lat. la^bium^ a lip). Having 
lips; applied in botany to a form 
of flower in which the corolla pre- 
sents two portions resembling lips. 

Labioden'tal (Lat. la'bium, a lip; 
dens, a tooth). Formed by the 
sction of the lips and teeth. 

Lanbium (Lat. a lip). The lower lip 
of insects ; the inner lip of a shell. 

Labor'atoiy (Lat. labo'ro, I work). A 
place where operations or experi- 
ments are carried on. 

Lab'radorite {Labrado'r). A mineral, 
consisting of a species of feldspar ; 
consists chiefly of silica, alumina, 
and lime, with some oxide of iron. 

Lalnrnxn (Lat., the brim of a vessel). 
The upper lip of insects ; the outer 
lip of a shell. 

Lab'yrinth (Qr. \a$vpivBos, labvrin'- 
thos, a maze). A name given to 
the internal ear, from its complex 

Labyrinth'ifomi (Gr. XafivpivOos, 
labwin'thos^ a maze ; Lat. forma, 
shape). Having the form of a 
labyrinth; applied to a family of 
fishes in which th^e are a number 
of cells for containing water, formed 
by the plates of the pharyngeal 
bones above the gills. 

LabjTOth'odonts (Gr. \a$vpiv0os, 
laburin'thos, a labyrinth; ol^vs. 

odous, a tooth). An order of 
fossil reptiles, so called from the 
complex undulating structure of 
the teeth as seen in section. 

Lacer'tiazL (Lat. Zoce/fus, a lizard). 
Relaling to the lizard tribe. 

Lacertil'ia (Lat. lacertus, a lizard). 
An order of reptiles of which the 
lizard is the type. 

Lach'rymal (Lat. lack'ryma, a tear). 
Relating to the tears. 

Laoli'iymal Canals. The canals 
which convey the tears from the 
eye to the nasal ducts. 

Laoh'rymalDucts. The ducts or small 
tubes which convey the tears from 
the lachrymal gland to the eyes. 

Lach'rymal Gland. The gland which 
secretes the tears. 

Laoin'iated (Lat. lacin'ia, fringe). 
Irregularly cut into narrow seg- 

Lac'tate (Lat. lae, milk). A salt of 
lactic acid with a base. 

Lacta'tion (Lat. lac, milk). The act 
of giving milk ; suckling. 

Lao'teal (Lat lac, milk). Conveying 
milk, or a fluid like milk ; applied 
to the vessels which take up the 
chyle from the alimentary canal 
and convey it to the thoracic duct. 

Lactes'cence (Lat. la^, milk)i. A 
state resembling milk. 

Lactes'oent (Lat. lac, milk). Tield- 
ing milky juice. 

Lac'tic (Lat. lac, milk). Belonging 
to milk ; applied to an acid ob- 
tained from milk. 



Lactiferous (Lat. Zac, milk ; /ero, I 

caiTy). Conveying milk. 
Lao'tin (Lat. laCy milk). Sugar of 

milk ; a sweetish substance existing 

in milk. 
Lactom'eter (Lat. lac, milk ; Gr. 

fierpovy metron, a measure). An 

instrument for ascertaining the 

specific gravity of milk, 
Lacu'na (Lat. a ditch). A little pit 

or depression, or hollow cavity. 
Lacns'tniie (Lat. lacuSf a lake). Be- 
longing to or produced in lakes. 
LaBmodip'oda (Gr. \aifios, laimos, a 

throat; n-ovs, pous, a foot). An 

order of Crustacea in which the 

two fore-legs form part of the 

Lamb'doid (The Greek letter A, 

Aa/ijSSo, lamhda; ttdos^ eidoSy 

shape). Eesembling the Greek let- 
ter A or lambda. 
Lamella (Lat.). A little plate or 

Lamel'lar (Lat. lameVUiy a little 

plate). Arranged in thin scales or 

Lajnellibran'cliiate (Lat. lamd'la, a 

little plate; Gr, fipayxtct, bran'chia, 

gills). Having gills in symmetrical 

semicircular layers. 
Lameriiform (Lat lamd'lay a small 

plate; /orma, shape). Having the 

form of a small plate. 
Lamelliros'tral (Lat. lamel'lar a 

small plate ; rostruMy a beak). 

Having the margins of the beak 

furnished with plates, as the duck 

and goose. 
Lam'ina (Lat. a plate). A plate or 

scale ; in botany , the blade of a 

leaf, or the broad part of a sepal 

or petal. 
Laxn'inar or Lam'mated (Lat. 

la'mina, a plate). Arranged in 

plates or scales. 
Ltmuna'tion (Lat. la'minay a plate). 

An arrangement in plates or scales. 
Lanate (Lat. lanay wool). Covered 

with a curly hair like wool. 
Lan'ceolate (Lat. lan'ceay a lance). 

Gradually tapering to the outer end. 
Lama'riform (Lat. Janioy I tear ; 

formay shape). Shaped like the 

canine teeth of carnivorous animals. 

La'niary (Lat. lanioy I tear). Formed 

for tearing. 
Lanig'eroiis (Lat. lanay wool ; gero, 

I bear). Bearing or producing 

Lanu'ginons (Lat. lanu'goy down). In 

botany y woolly; covered with inter- 
laced hairs. 
Lanu'go (Lat. down, or fine hair). 

The first hair which is produced in 

the foetus. 
Lapidif'icatioii (Lat. lap'ta, a stone ; 

facioy I make). Conversion into 

Lapid'ify (Lat. lap'isy a stone ; fadio^ 

I make). To convert into stone. 
Lapil'li (Lat. lapil'lusy a little stone). 

A variety of volcanic cinders. 
Lap'is (Lat. a stone). A term applied 

to various mineral substances. 
Larda'ceous (Lat. lardumy lard or 

bacon). Resembling lard or bacon. 
Larva (Lat. a mask). An insect in 

the caterpillar or grub state. 
Lar'vifonn (Lat. larva; forma, 

shape). Like a larva. 
Laryip'arouB (Lat. larva; par'ioy I 

bring forth). Producing young in 

the state of larvae or grubs. 
Larynge'al (Gr. Xapvy^y larunxy the 

larynx). Belonging to the larynx 

or windpipe. 
Laryngis'imui (Gr. Xapvy^y larunx, 

the larynx). Spasmodic action of 

the larynx. 
Laryng^'tis Gr. \apvy^y larunXy the 

larynx ; itisy denoting inflam- 
mation). Inflammation of the 

Laryngot'omy (Gr. Kapvy^y larwnocy 

the larynx ; refxyay temnoy 1 cut). 

The operation of opening the 

Larynx (Gr. Aopiryf, larunx). . The 

enlarged upper part of the wind- 
pipe, projecting in the neck. 
La'tency (Lat. lat'eo, I lie hid). A 

lying hid. 
Latent (Lat. lat'eo, I lie hid). Hid- 

den ; not apparent to the senses. 
Lat'eral (Lat. latusy a side). Be- 
longing to or placed at a side. 
Lat'erigrade (Lat. latusy a side ; 

gradiMy a step). Able to walk 




Lateritloiu(Lat. later^ abrick). Like 
bricks or brick -dust. 

Latex (Lat. a liquor or juice). The 
elaborated sap of plants. 

LaticifeFons (Lat. latex; fero^ I 
carry). Conyeying latex or elabor- 
ated sap. 

Latitude (Lat. latus^ wide). Width. 
Terrestrial latitude is the position 
of a place on the surface of the 
earth north or south of the equator. 
Celestial latitude is the distance of 
a heayenly body from the ecliptic, 
measured in a direction perpen- 
dicular to the ecliptic. 

Lava. The general name for melted 
rocky matter discharged from yoI- 

L'ative (Lat. laxo, I loosen). 
Loosening ; mildly purgatiye. 

Laxa'tor (Lat. laxo, I loosen). That 
which relaxes or makes loose ; 
applied to certain muscles. 

Leaf-bud. A bud which produces 

Leg'ume (Lat. Ugvlmen, pulse). In 
botany y a pod opening at the front 
and back, as in the pea. 

Legu'minous (Lat. legu'men, pulse). 
Belonging to the bean tribe, the 
fruit of which is a legume or pod. 

Lemma (Gr. ^a/AjSovo), lam^bandt I 
receiye). A proposition laid down 
to demonstrate for the purpose of 
rendering more plain another that 
is to follow. 

Lens (Lat. a lentil). A transparent 
substance, with two cunred sur- 
faces, or with a curyed surface and 
a plane surface, for the purpose of 
altering the direction of rays of 
light passing through it. 

Lentic'iilar (Lat. lerUii/vluSf a little 
lentil). Haying the form of a 
double conyex lens, or the form or 
size of a lentil. 

Lentor (Lat. lenttis^ slow). Slowness; 
yiscidity or thickness of fluids. 

Lepidodeu'dron (Gfr. Xcirts, lep'is, a 
scale; Bfv^ipoPf dend/ron, a tree). 
A family of fossil plants in the coal 
formation, so called from the scale- 
like arrangement of the scars of 
their leayes. 

Lepidogan'oid {Oct, Xeirts, Up% a 

scale ; yavos, ganoSy splendour ; 
tiSos, eidoSf form). A sub-order 
of fossil fishes. 

Lep'idoid (Gr. \tirts, lep'is, a scale ; ' 
ctSos, eidoBy shape). Resembling 

Lepldote (Gr. Xeirt;, lep'ts^ a scale). 
Coyered with scales. 

Lepidop'tera (Gr. Xeirts, lep'iSyikWS6\Q ; 
irrtpoVf ptet^oTif a wing). An order 
of insects haying four membranous 
wings coyered with fine scales, as 
butterflies and moths. 

Lepra (Gr. Xerts, lep^is, a scale). 
The leprosy ; a disease of the skin 
characterised by the formation of 
whitish opaque scales. 

Le'sion (Lat. Icedo, I hurt). An in- 

Letli'argy (Gr. \ri$ri, Uthe, obliyion ; 
ttpyoSf argoSf idle). Preternatural 

LencsB^mia (Gr. Xcvkos, leukoSt 
white ; ol^uo, haima, blood). White 

Leooin (Gr. \€vkos, levJeos, white). 
A white crystallisable organic sub- 
stance obtained from muscular fibre, 
and from the compounds of protein. 

Leooocyths'mia (Gr. Xevicos, leukoa, 
white ; kutos, kvUoSy a cell ; eufiOf 
hainub, blood). A diseased state 
characterised by an excess of white 
corpuscles in the blood. 

I«acophlegma'8ia(Gr. Xwkos, leuhos, 
white; ^Xc7/ia, phlegma^ phlegm). 
A condition of body characterised 
by paleness and flabbiness, with an 
excess of serum in the blood. 

Leva'tor (Lat. levOf I raise). That 
which raises : applied to certain 

Lever (Lat. Uvo^ I raise). A solid 
bar turning on an axis or fulcrum, 
employed for the purpose of raising 

Lev'igate (Lat. 2tm8, smooth). To 
make smooth ; to rub to a fine im- 
palpable powder. 

Lex'icon (Gr. Xc7», Ugoj I speak). 
A dictionary : applied generally to 
dictionaries of the Greek or Hebrew 

Leyden Jar. A glass jar coated on 
both sides with tinfoil to within 



several inches of the top, for the 
purpose of accumulating electricity. 

Lias (said to be from liers or layers, 
from its occurrence in thin beds). 
The lowest portion of the oolitic 
system in geology^ composed of 
dayey b'mestones, bluish clays, and 
bituminous and pyritous shales. 

liber (Lat. bark). The inner por- 
tion of the bark of a tree. 

libration (Lat. libra, a balance). A 
state of balancing : in astronomy, 
a Tariation in the appearance of 
portions of the edge of the moon, 
whereby, under certain circum- 
stances, they become alternately 
yisible and invisible, as if the mo- 
tion of the moon were subject to 

Id'ohea (Gr. Xtixn^t l^cheri, a tree- 
moss). A division of cryptogamic 
plants covering trees and rocks : a 
disease of the skin. 

Iden'tery (Gr. \€ios, leios, smooth; 
ivrtpop, en'teron, an intestine). A 
disease in which food is discharged 
undigested from the bowels. 

lig'ament (Lat. ligo, I bind). That 
which binds together ; a fibrous 
structure connecting bones. 

Idgamen'toiui (Lat. ligo, I bind). 
Having the nature of or acting as a 

lig'atnre (Lat. ligo, I bind). A 
band ; the act of binding ; a cord 
or string used in surgery for tying 

lig'neoiis (Lat. lignum, wood). Con- 
sisting of or resembling wood. 

lignifioa'tioxi (Lat. lignum, wood ; 
facio, I make. A making wood, 
or converting into wood. 

lignin (Lat. Hgrmm, wood). Vege- 
table fibre ; the substance which 
constitutes the essential part of the 
structure of plants. 

Lignite (Lat. lignum^ wood). Brown 
coal : a variety of coal of recent 
formation, in which the woody 
structure is distinctly apparent. 

Lig'iilate (Lat. lig'tUa, a strap). Like 
a bandage or strap. 

LUia'ceoiu (Lat. lU'ium, a lily). Be- 
longing to or resembling a lily. 

Limb (lAt. Unfits, an edge or bor- 

der). . In astronomy f the border or 
outer edge of the sun or moon. 

Limestoxie. A mineral composed of 
carbonate of lime, and of which 
there are several varieties. 

Linctns (Lat. lingo, I lick). A me- 
dicine of the consistence of honey 
or treacle. 

Lin'eal (Lat. lin'ea, a line). Belong- 
ing to a line or length ; like a line. 

Lin'ear Numbers. In mathematics, 
numbers which have relation to 
length only. 

Lin'ear Ferspectlye. That perspec- 
tive which regards only the posi- 
tions, forms, and sizes of objects. 

Lin'eate (Lat. lin'eay a line). Marked 
longitudinally, with parallel de- 

Lin'goal (Lat. lingua, the tongue). 
Belonging to the tongue. 

Lingnis'tic (Lat. lingua, tongue or 
language). Relating to language 
or the affinities of languages. 

Lin'iment (Lat. lin^io, I anoint). 
An oily composition for rubbing 
into external parts of the body. 

Liqna'tion (Lat. liquo, I melt). The 
art of melting ; the process of 
mellang out from an alloy an easily 
fusible metal from one less capable 
effusion. - 

LiqnefiEU)'tion(Lat. Iiqu>efa</i0flmake 
liquid). A melting. 

Liq'nefy (Lat. liqvefacfio, I make 
liquid). To melt or dissolve by 

Liq'nid (Lat. liq^ueo, I melt). A 
substance of which the component 
parts are not held together with 
sufficient force to prevent their 
separation by their own weight, 
but have not a mutual repulsion 
like gases. 

Liquor San'goiniB (Lat. the liquor of 
the blood). The transparent colour- 
less fluid part of the blood, in 
which the corpuscles float. 

LUsenoeph'ala (Gr. Xurcos, lissos, 
smooth ; kyKtipoKos, enkeph'alos, 
the brain). Smooth-brained ani- 
mals ; a term applied by Owen to 
a sub-class of mammalia in which 
the brain is more connected than in 
lyencephala, but has few or ,no 



convolutions, as in the rodents and 
insectivoroas animals. 

literal (Lat. lit'era, a letter). Ac- 
cording to the letter or exact ex- 
pression ; consisting of letters : in 
algebra^ applied to equations in 
which the known quantities as well 
as the unknown are represented by 

Idih'ate (Gr. Xi9of, lith'oSf a stone). 
A salt of lithic acid with a base. 

Lithlc (Gr. XtdoSf lith'os, a stone). 
Belonging to a stone or calculus ; 
applied to an acid formed in the 
animal body, and often forming a 
part of calculi. 

liih'o- (Gk. Kidoiy lithfoSf a stone). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying stone, t 

Idth'ooaip (Gr. Xt^or, litk'oSf a stone ; 
Kapvost karposy fruit). Fossil fruit. 

lithog'raphy (Gr. kiOoSy lith^os, a 
stone; ypa<l><o, grapkb^ I write). 
The art of tracing letters or figures 
on stone and transferring them to 

lithol'ogy (Gr. XiOosy litk'os, a stone; 
\oyoSf logos f discourse). The de- 
partment of geology which describes 
the rocks and strata, without refe- 
rence to fossils. 

Idth'opliyte (Gr. \i0os, lith'oSf a stone ; 
ipvroVf pkiUoUf a plant). Stone 
plants ; a tribe of jwlypi having a 
fixed internal axis of stony con- 

lithof omy (Gr. \i0os, lUh'oSy a stone; 
rtfipcoy temnOf I cut). An opera- 
tion for the removal of stones from 
the bladder. 

litmus. A blue colouring matter 
obtained by the action of ammonia 
on certain lichens, and used in 
chemistry to detect the presence of 
acids, which turn it red. 

litre (Fr.). The French standard 
measure of capacity, equal to a 
cubic dedmitref or about IJ Eng- 
lish pint. 

littoral (Lat. littusj the shore). Be- 
longing to the shore. 

Lixiviate (Lat. liea, ley of ashes). 
To impregnate with salts from 
wood ashes, as by passing water 
through them. 

Llandeilo Fonnation. In geology, 
the lowest series of the Silurian 

Llanos (Spanish llano, flat, firom Lat. 
planus). A name given to the 
plains extending along the banks 
of the Orinoco in South America. 

Loadstone (Lead and Stone). The 
magnet ; an ore consisting of prot- 
oxide and peroxide of iron. 

Loam. Any soil composed of clay 
and sand, containing neither in a 
distinct form. 

Lobe (Gr. XojSot, lohos). A part 
or division of an organ, as of 
the brain, lungs, or liver ; or of a 

Ldb'nlar (Lobule). Belonging to or 
affecting a lobule. 

Leb'nle (Gr. XojSos, lobos, a lobe). A 
little lobe, or sub-division of a lobe. 

Local (Lat. locus, a place). Belonging 
or confined to a part. 

Locomo'tion (Lat. locus, a place; 
tnot/eo, I move). Motion from 
place to place. 

Locomo'tive (Lat. locus, a place ; 
mov'eo, I move). Moving &om 
place to place. 

Loc'ulament (Lat. loc'vXus, a cell). In 
botany, a cavity in an ovary. 

Loc'nlar(Lat. lodulvs, a cell). Having 
one or more cells. 

Locnlici'dal (Lat. loc'vXus, a cell; 
coido, I cut). In botany, applied 
to that form of opening of fruits in 
which the cells are split open at the 

Loc'nlose (Lat locfulus, a cell). Di- 
vided by one or more partitions 
into cells. 

Locus (Lat. a place). In geometry, a 
term applied to a line by which a 
local or indeterminate problem is 

Lode (Sax. IcBdan^ to lead ). In geology, 
a vein or course, whether contain- 
ing metal or not. 

Log'arithm (Gr. X070S, logos, a ratio ; 
apidnos, arith'mos, a number). 
The index or power to which any 
number, taken as a base, is to be 
raised so that the result may be 
equal to a given number. 

Logic (Gr. \oyoSf logos, a word, rea- 



son). The science of tbe operations 
of the nnderstanding which are 
subservient to the estimation of 
evidence; pointing oat the rela- 
tions between given &ct8 and 
the conclusions to be di-awn from 

Logog'raphy (Gr. \oyos, logosj a 
word ; ypoufHe, graphd, I write). 
A system of printing by words 
instead of lettei-s. 

Logom'eter (Gr. A0709, logoSf propor- 
tion ; fierpov, metroUf a measure). 
A scale for measuring chemical 

Logomefric (Gr. ^070;, logos, a pro- 
portion ; fierpovj metron, a mea- 
sure). Measuring proportionate 

Lomenta'ceoiis (Lat. lomenftumf bean- 
meal). In botani/, applied to 
legumes or pods with transverse 
partitions, each division containing 
one seed. 

Longi- (Lat. longtis, long). A pre- 
fix in compound words implying 

Lon'g:itiide (Lat. longtis, long). 
Length; the distance, eastward or 
westward, of any meridian on the 
earth's surface from some fixed 
meridian arbitrarily selected. The 
longitude of a celestial body is the 
arc of the ecliptic between the first 
point of Aries and the circle which 
measures its latitude. 

Loph'iodoxi (Gr. \o<poSf loph'os, a 
crest or ridge ; oBovsy odovSy a 
tooth). An extinct pachydermatous 
or thick-skinned animal found in 
the tertiary strata ; so called from 
the eminences on its teeth. 

Lophobran'cliiate (Gr. Xwposy lojilCoi, 
a tuft ; fipayx^Of bran'chia, gills). 
Having gills arranged in tufts : ap- 
plied to an order of fishes. 

Lc/iicaie ' (Lat. lori'ca, a coat of 
mail). Covered as with a coat of 
mail or plate armour, as crocodiles, 
alligators, &c. 

Lezodromlo (Gr. Xo^oSf loxos, ob- 
lique ; Bpo/JLoSf drom'oSf a course). 
Having an oblique course ; applied 
to a course in sailing, in which the 
ship is directed constantly towards 

the same point of the compass in 
an oblique direction. 

Lnlbrioate (Lat. lu'bricus, slippery). 
To make smooth or slippery. 

Ln'onles (Lat. Ittx, light ; ulCj de- 
noting smallness). A name given 
to the variations in the intensity of 
the brightness of the sun's disk. 

Luxnba'go (Lat. lumbiUf the loin). 
A rheumatic affection of the region 
of the loins. 

Lumbar (Lat. lumbtis, the loin). 
Belonging to the loins. 

Lombrioales (Lat. lurribri'cufy an 
earth-worm ; from their shape). A 
name given to certain smtJl long 
muscles of the fingers and toes. 

Luxniniferous (Lat. lumen^ light; 
ferOf I bear). Producing or con- 
veying light. 

Ln'minons (Lat. luTnen, light). 
Shining; applied to bodies which 
are original sources of light. 

Lu'nacy (Lat. lunay the moon : be- 
cause formerly supposed to be in- 
fluenced by the moon). Insanity 
or madness ; strictly, that form of 
insanity which is accompanied by 
intervals of reason, but commonly ap- 
plied to all states of unsound mind. 

Lunar (Lat. luna^ the moon). Re- 
lating to the moon ; measured by 
the revolutions of the moon. 

Ln'nate (Lat. luna, the moon). 
Shaped like a crescent. 

Ln'natic (Lat. luna^ the moon). 
Affected with lunacy. 

Luna'tioxi (Lat. Iwna^ the moon).. 
The period of the monthly revolu- 
tion of the moon, or the time from 
one new moon to another. 

Lnnisi/lar (Lat. Zttna, the moon ; sol, 
the sun). Compounded of the 
periods of revolution of the sun and 
^Ln'nula (Lat. a little moon). The 
portion of the human nail near the 
root, which is whiter than the rest ; 
also the narrow portion at the 
margins of the semilunar valves of 
the heart. 

Lupus (Lat. a wolf). In medicine, a 
disease characterised by its tendency 
to desti-uctive ulceration of the 
parts which it attacks. 



Luxate (Lat. litxOf I looien). To pnt 
out of joint. 

Lnza'tioxi (Lat. Ivxo^ I loosen). A 
putting out of joint ; a dislocation. 

Lyeneepli'ala (Gr. \vw, ludy I loosen; 
^Ke<l>oLKoSf enJcefth'aloSf the brain). 
Loose-brained : a term proposed by 
Professor Owen to denote the lowest 
group of mammalia, in which the 
hemispheres of the brain are com- 
paratively loose aud disconnected, as 
in the monotremes and marsupials. 

Lymph (Lat. lym/pKoj water). A 
transparent and nearly colourless 
fluid, which is conveyed into the 
blood by the lymphatic vessels. 

Lymphafic (Lat. lympha, water). 
Belonging to lymph : applied to the 
vessels which convey lymph. 

Lyrate (Lat. lyrOy a lyre). In botcmy^ 
applied to leaves of which the apex 
consists of a large rounded lobe, 
and the divisions become gradually 
smaller towards the base. 

Uac'erate (Lat. macer, lean). To 
make lean or thin; to soften and 
dissolve away by steeping in a 

Xaoeratioii (Lai mocer, lean). The 
act of softening and dissolving away 
by steeping in a fluid. 

Macro- (Gr. fioucposy mahroSt long). 
A prefix in compound words signi- 
fying* length. 

Uacrooeph'aloiis(Gr. fuutpoi, makroSf 
long ; Kc^oAi}, keph'altf the head). 
Having a long head; applied in 
So^an;^ to embryos of which the two 
cotyledons grow together. 

Kacicdactyric (Gr. /uairpos, makroSf 
long ; SoucTvKos, dcikftvlos, a finger 
or toe). Having long toes* 

Macrom'eter (Gr. fioucpos, makroB, 
long ; fifrpop, metron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring in- 
accessible heights and objects. 

Kacrop'odons (Gr. /xoucpoSf makros, 
long; iFovSf pouSy a foot). Having 
long feet; applied to a family of 
crustacean invertebrate animals. 

Macrou'rons (Gr. fAoucpost makros, 
long ; ovpOf mira^ a tail). Long- 
tailed ; applied to a tribe of crusta- 
ceans of which the lobster and 
shrimp are examples. 

Mac'nla (Lat. a spot). A spot : the 
name is given in the plural (mocuto) 

. to an order of diseases of the skin. 

Mad'repore (Fr. madrCy spotted; 
pore). A kind of coral. 

Uaestricht iBeds {Maesti^ichtf a town 

in the Netherlands). In geology , 
the upper layers of the chalk form- 
ation, consisting of a soft yellowish 

Kag'debiLrg EemiBpheres. An ap- 
paratus for illustrating atmospheric 
pressure, consisting of two hollow 
brass hemispheres fitting together, 
which, when the air is withdrawn 
from their interior, cannot be 

MagtiUan'lc CIoudB (MagciUhaena or 
Magel'lan, a Portuguese navigator). 
A name given to two nebulous 
patches of stars in the southern 

Kagma (Gr. /uao-o-o), I knead). A 
mass of matter worked up into a 

Magne'siaii Limestone. A limestone 
containing magnesia ; in geology, 
the term characterises a portion of 
the Permian system, or new red 

Uagnet (Gr. nayvt\s, magries; from 
Magnesia in Asia Minor, where 
first observed). The loadstone; 
an ore consisting of protoxide or 
sesquioxide of iron, which has the 
property of attracting small pieces 
of iron and of pointing to the poles; 
a piece of iron to which these pro- 
I>ertie8 have been imparted. 

Magnetic (Gr. ixayvr)s, magnes, a 
magnet). Belonging to or having 
the properties of the magnet. 

Magnetic Baf tery. A battery formed 



of several magnets with all their 
poles similarly disposed. 

Magnetic Eqoa'tor. A line on the 
earth traced through the points at 
which the magnetic needle rests 

Hagnef ic Merid'ian. A line on the 
earth's surface, bearing the same 
analogy to the magnetic equator as 
the terrestrial meridian to the ter- 
restrial equator* 

Hagnetlo Poles. The two regions of 
attraction separated by the equator 
of a magnet. 

Hag'netism (Gbr. fiayvriSf magneSf a 
magnet). The science which de- 
scribes the properties of the magnet; 
the property which is possessed by 
the magnet. 

Mag'netise (Gr. fxayvris, magneSj a 
nAgnet). To impart magnetic pro- 
perties : to become magnetic. 

Mag'neto-electriclty {Magnet ; elec- 
tricity). The phenomena of elec- 
tricity cidled into existence by 

Magnetom'eter (Magnet; Gr. iitrpov, 
metroTif a measure). A magnetised 
bar of steel for the purpose of de- 
termining the absolute amount of 
magnetic declination, or the inten- 
sities of terrestrial magnetism in 
horizontal or Tertical directions. 

ICag'iiitiide (Lat. magniiSf large). 
Size. Linear magnitude is length or 
distance. Superficial magnitude or 
area is the space included in length 
and breadth expressed in squares. 
Solid magnitude or Tolume is the 
bulk expressed by the length, 
breadth, and thickness of a body, 
or the space which it fills, expressed 
in cubes. Apparent magnitude, in 
opticSf is the size of the picture 
formed on the retina, as measured 
by the angle formed between the 
object seen and the centre of the eye. 

Kal'acMte (Gr. fia\axrii mal'ackiy 
mallows ; from its appearance). A 
mineral, consisting of green car- 
bonate of copper. 

Kal'aco- (Gr. fia^.aKos, mal'akoSf 
soft). A prefix in compound words, 
signifying softness. 

Halacorogy (Gr. fuxXcucos, maXdhoSf 

soft; XoyoSf logos, a description). 
The description of molluscous or 
soft-bodied animals. 

Malacopteryg'iaiL (Gr. fiaXwcos, 
moL'aJcoSy soft ; irrtpvyioVf pteruf- 
giouy a little wing, or fin). Having 
soft fins ; applied to an order of 
fishes, of which the rays of the fins 
are cartilaginous. 

Malacopteryg'iiabdominales. Abdo- 
minal malacopterygians ; soft-finned 
fishes, with the ventral fins situ- 
ated under the abdomen behind the 
pectoral fins. 

Malacopterjrg'iifiibbranohia'ti. Sub- 
branchiate malacopterygians ; soft- 
finned fishes, with the ventral fins 
placed under the pectorals. 

Malacopterjrg'ii ap'odes. Apodal or 
footless malacopterygians ; soft- 
finned fishes, without ventral fins, 
the homolognes of feet. 

Malacos'teon (Gr. /uoAoKof, maVdkos^ 
soft ; oartoVf os'teon, a bone). Soft- 
ness of bones ; the disease other- 
wise called mollities ossium. 

Malaoos'tracons (Gr. fidKaxosy mal'a^ 
Jcos, soft ; oarpcucoVf oiftrakon, a 
shell). A section of Crustacea, of 
which the shell is generally solid ; 
named from the relative softness of 
the shell as compared with that of 

Malar (Lat. maZo, the cheek). Be- 
longing to the cheek. 

Mala'ria (Italian, mal, bad ; a'ria, 
air). Bad air; an exhalation, as 
from marshes, tending to produce 

Mala'rial (Mala'ria). Produced by 

Mala'rioas (Mala'ria). Containing 
or of the nature of malaria. 

Malate (Lat. malumj an apple). A 
compound of malic acid, or acid of 
apples, with a base. 

Ma'lio (Lat. malum, an apple). Be- 
longing to apples : applied to an 
organic acid, found principally in 

Malleability (Lat. mal'letu, a ham- 
mer). The property of being re- 
duced to thin plates or leaves by 
hammering or rolling. 

Malleable (Lai. mal'leua, a hammer). 



Capable of being beaten or rolled 
into thin plates. 

Malle'olar (Lat. mal'leolm). Belong- 
ing to the ankle ; applied to certain 
small arteries. 

Malle'olns (Diminutiye of Lat. maV- 
leuSf a hammer). An ankle, or 
the joint formed with the legs on 
each side of the foot. 

mammal (Lat. mamma, the breast). 
A name given to those vertebrate 
animals which suckle their young. 

Kammalif' erons {Mammalia or 
mammals; fero, I bear). Pro- 
ducing mammalian animals ; ap- 
plied to the geological strata which 
contain remains of mammals. 

Uam'mary (Lat. mamma, the breast). 
Belonging to the breast. 

Uam'mifer (Lat. mamrna, the breast ; 
/wo, I carry). See Mammal. 

Uammillary (Lat. mammil'la, a 
teat). Belonging to or resembling 

Uam'millated (Lat. mammil'la^ a 
teat). Having protuberances like 

ICan'cUble (Lat. m^ndo, I chew). 
The upper jaw of an insect. 

Mandib'ulate (Lat. mando, I chew). 
Provided with an upper jaw. 

Manduoa'tory (Lat. mandu'co, I 
chew). Relating to or employed 
in chewing. 

Han'ganate (Manganefse). A com- 
pound of manganic acid with a 

Uangan'io (Mangane'se), An acid 
consisting of an atom of manganese 
with three of oxygen. 

Manipula'tioxi (Lat. manip'ulus, a 
handful). Work by hand ; ap- 
plied to the manual and mechanical 
operations in science. 

Hannite. A variety of sugar ob- 
tain ed from manna. 

Uanom'eter (Gr. iua/os, manos, thin ; 
fifTpovy metron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the 
rarity or density, or the elastic force 
of any gaseous substance. 

Han'oscope (Gr. fiavos, manos, thin ; 
ffKoireWf skop'edf I view). See 

Uantis'sa (Lat. over-measure). A 

name given to the deciuLal part of 
a logarithm. 

Mantle. In zoology, the skin of mol- 
luscous animals, which covers in 
the viscera and a large part of the 

ManiL'briam (Lat. a handle). A 
name sometimes given to the upper 
part of the sternum or breast-bone. 

Maras'miis (Gr. /xapouyw, marai'nd, I 
cause to waste away). Atrophy ; 
a wasting of the body. 

Harces'cent (Lat. m^rces'co, I pine 
away). Withering or fading. 

Mar'garate (Gr. fiapyapirris, marga- 
ri'tes, a pearl). A compound of 
margaiic acid, with a base. 

Margar'io (Gr. fmpyapirris, mxirga- 
ri'tes, a pearl). Belonging to 
pearl, or to the pearl-like substance 
called margarine ; applied to one 
of the acids existing in oils. 

Mar'g^arine (Gr. fiapyaptTTjSimarga- 
ri'tcs, a pearl). A pearl-like sub- 
stance obtained from oils by expo- 
sure to cold. 

Mar'ginate (Lat. margo, a rim or 
edge). In botany, applied to the 
calyx when it is reduced to a mere 

Harine (Lat. mare, the sea). Be- 
longing to or produced in the sea. 

Marl. A general term for all friable 
or crumbly compounds of lime and 

. clay. 

Marlstone. A layer of calcareous, 
sandy, and isony beds, forming 
one of the strata of the lowest or 
liassic group in the oolitic system 
in geology. 

Marsu'pial (Lat. m^rsu'pium, a 
pouch or bag). Having or belonging 
to a pouch ; applied to an order of 
mammalia which bring forth their 
young in an imperfect state, and 
keep them, imtil developed, in a 
pouch formed by a peculiar ar- 
rangement of the skin on the ab- 
dominal surface of the animal. 

Marsupia'ta (Lat. marsu'pium, a 
pouch or bag). See Marsupial. 

Mursa'pinm (Lat. a pouch). A dark 
coloured membrane in the vitreous 
body of the eyes of birds. 

Mas'sioot. Yellow oxide of lead^ 



Mas'ticate (Gr. fuurroSf mastoSf the 
jaws or mouth). To chew. 

Masti'tis (Gr. fuurros^ mastoa, the 
breast; itiSf denoting inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the breast. 

Mas'todon (Gr. fuKTros, mastos, a 
nipple ; obovs, odous^ a tooth. ) A 
fossil animal of the elephant kind, 
so called from the nipple-like pro- 
minences on its teeth. 

Mastodyn'ia (Gr. (Maros, mastoSt the 
breast ; ddvvrj, od/unCf pain). 
Pain of the breast. 

Has'toid (Gr. fiaaroSf mastos, a 
nipple ; ei8oF, eidoSf shape). Re- 
sembling a nipple. 

Mater (Lat. a mother). A name 
given to two of the membranes 
covering the brain, because for- 
merly supposed to be the source of 
all the other membranes. 

Mate'ria Medlca (Lat. medical ma- 
terial). The collective name for the 
substances used in medicine ; the 
science which describes these sub- 
stances, their properties, modes of 
preparation, &c. 

Mathemafics (Gr. fMBrjixOf matkema, 
learning; from fuivBavoiy man'thano, 
I learn). The science which treats 
of whatever can be measured or 
numbered. Pure mathematics 
considers quantity and number 
without reference to matter. 
Mixed mathematics treats of mag- 
nitude in connection with material 

Matrix (Lat. mater^ a mother). The 
place or substance in which any- 
thing, as a mineral ore, fossil, &c., 
is imbedded. 

Hafnrate (Lat. matu'rusy ripe). To 

Maxilla (Lat. a jaw). A jaw ; the 
lower pairs of horizontal jaws in 
invertebrate animals. 

Maxillary (Lat. maxU'la, a jaw). 
Belonging to the jaws. 

Maxil'liped (Lat. maxU'laf a jaw ; 
pegf a foot). A jaw-foot ; applied 
to the foot-like organs covering the 
mouth in Crustacea. 

Max'imum (Lat. greatest). The 
greatest quantity or degree attain- 

Mean (Fr. moyen, from Lat. mefdiuSf 
middle). Having an intermediate 
or average value between two or 
more quantities. 

Mea'tns (Lat. meo, I pass). A pas- 

Mechanics (Gr. firixayrit mechanSf 
an artificial contrivance). The 
science which investigates the ac- 
tion of bodies on one another, 
either directly or by means of ma- 

Mec'onate (Gr. firjKcopf mekony a 
poppy). A salt of meconic acid 
with a base. 

Meconic (Gr. firiKwVf meJcorif a 
poppy). Belonging to the poppy ; 
applied to an acid found in opium. 

Mediae'val (Lat. me'dlmy middle ; 
cevumy an age). Belonging to the 
middle ages. 

Me'dian Plane (Lat. me'diuSt middle). 
A plane or flat surface supposed to 
pass down through a body from 
before backwards, so as to leave 
equal parts on both sides. 

Mediasti'nxun. The partition formed 
by the meeting of the pleurae, divi- 
ding the chest into two lateral 

Medical Jurispm'dence. The science 
which treats of subjects in which 
both law and medicine are applied. 

Medicate (Lat. med'icuSy a physi- 
cian). To impregnate with medi- 
cinal substances. 

Med'icine (Lat. medfeor^ I cure ; from 
Gr. fieSofuu, med'omaiy I attend 
to). The science of relieving, 
curing, or preventing diseases; 
any substance used with these 

Medie'val. See Mediaeval. 

Me'dinm (Lat. mefdius, the middle). 
The space, substance, or matter in 
which bodies exist, or in which 
they move; the agent through 
which a cause or power acts in 
producing its e£fect. 

Medul'la (Lat.). Marrow; ia botany f 
the pith of plants. 

Mednlla Oblonga'ta (Lat.). The 
lengthened or prolonged marrow ; 
the continuation of the spinal cord 
within the skull. 



Hednlla SpinaOis (Lat.) The spinal 

marrow or cord. 
Xed'nllary (Lat. meduVUt, marrow). 

Relating to marrow ; in botany, 

belonging to or connected with 

Med'nllary "BAjn. In botcmpf masses 

of cells connecting the pith with 

the bark. 
Hed'ullary Sheath. The sheath 

which surrounds the pith in exo- 
genous plants. 
Mega- or Megal- (Gr. fieyas, meg'cu, 

large). A prefix in compound 

words, denoting large size. 
Megac'eros (Gr. fA§yas, meg^cta, great ; 

KfpaSf ke/as, horn.) The fossil or 

sub-fossil deer of the British Isles, 

commonly named the Irish elk. 
Megalieh'thys (Gr. fityasj meg/'aSf 

great ; ix^vs, ichthtiu, a fish). A 

large fossil fish. 
Hegalon'yx (Gr. fi^as, meg'as, 

great ; ovv^, onux, a nail). An 

extinct animal allied to the sloth ; 

named from the large size of its 

Kegalosan'nu (Gr. /ucyos, met/ as, 

great ; cavpos, sauroa, a lizard). 

A large fossil land reptile. 
Hegathe'rioids (Gr. fuyas, meg'as, 

great ; $vpiov, iherum, a wild 

beast ; tlBos, eidos, form). A 

Cunily of fossil mammalia allied to 

the megatherium. 
M^^the'rimn (Gr. juc^ar, mes^as, 

great ; 0rip, iker, a beast). A large 

extinct animal, allied to the 

UelsB^na (Gr. jucAas, mel'as, black). 

A discharge of dark blood from the 

Melaao'sis (Gr. fieXas, mel'as, black). 

A diseased formation of a black or 

dark colour. 
Uelanot'ic (Gr. /leXas, meVas, black). 

Having or of the nature of mela- 
Uelas'ma (Gr. /ueAas, mel'as, black). 

A blackening or darkening. 
Melliferous (Lat. mel, honey; fero, 

I bear). Producing honey. 
Melliv'oroiui (Lat. 7nel, honey ; voro, 

I devour). Feeding on honey. 
Mel'ody (Gr. fieAos, mU'o8f a tune ; 

&Jhi, ode, an ode). An agreeable 
succession of sounds. 

MemlnraxLa'ceons (Lat. membra'na, a 
membrane). (Consisting of mem- 

Membra'na Nic'titans (Lat.) The 
winking membrane ; a moveable 
fold of skin with which bii'ds cover 
their eyes, 

Memliranoiui. See Membranaceous. 

Menin'gos (Gr. iiiiviy^, meninx, a 
membrane). The membranes cover- 
ing the brain and spinal cord. 

Meningi'tis {Meninges; itis, deno- 
ting inflammation). Inflammation 
of the membranes covering the 

Menia'cns (Gr. ixrivurKos, menishoSf 
a crescent; from firivr}, mene, the 
moon). A lens convex on one side 
and concave on the other, with a 
sharp edge. 

Mensnra'tion (Lat. meruu'ra, a mea- 
sure). The art of measuring. 

Mentag'ra (Lat. mentum, the chin ; 
Gr. &ypa, agra, a seizing). An 
eruptive disease affecting the chin 
and upper lip. 

Mephific (Lat. mephi'tis, an ill 
smell). Offensive ; pestilential ; 
destructive to life. 

Meroa'tor's Chart (Gerrard Merca'tor, 
a Flemish geographer). A repre- 
sentation of the earth on a plane 

Merou'iial (Lat. Merc^rius, Mercury, 
also quicksilver). Belonging to or 
formed of mercury or quicksilver. 

Mer^icarp (Gr. fi^pos, mer'os, a part ; 
KapnoSf karpos, fruit). The half of 
the fruit of an umbelliferous plant. 

Meridian (Lat. merid'ies, mid-day). 
A great circle supposed to be drawn 
through the poles of the earth at 
right angles to the equator, dividing 
the hemisphere into eastern and 
western : when this circle arrives 
opposite the sun, it is midday at 
the place. Celestial meridian is 
the vertical circle which passes 
through the celestial pole. Mag- 
netic meridian. See Magnetic. 

Meridional {Mend'iun). Belonging 
to the meridian. 

Merismat'io (Gr. fA€pi((a, meri'zio^ I 



divide). Fis8iparoiiB ; moltiplyiiig 
by division. 

Mesenceph'alic (Gr. fitcos, me^osy 
middle ; ^K6^>aAof, enceph'alon^ 
the contents of the skull). Be- 
longing to the middle part of the 

Mesenter'io (Gr. fieffos, mes'oSf midst ; 
iyrtpov, en'teron, the intestine). 
Belonging to the mesentery. 

][e8'«iter7(Gr. /u6(rof, m«s'o8, middle; 
iyrtpoVf en'termij an intestine). The 
fold of membrane which attaches 
the intestines to the spine. 

Hes'o- (Gr. futroSf mes'osy middle). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying middle. 

Meflocae'cnm (Gr. fittroSf me^os, 
middle ; Lat. ccecum, a portion of 
the large intestines). The part of 
the peritoneum which attaches the 

Hes'ocarp (Gr. fmros, mea'osy middle ; 
KOfnroSf karpoSf fruit). The mid- 
dle of the three layers in fruits. 

Hesooeph'alon (Gr. fieaos, mes^os, 
middle ; icc^kiAtj, keph'cUe, a head). 
A name sometimes given to the 
pons Varolii of the brain, from its 

]d[esocoloxi(Gr. fitcos^ mes'os, middle ; 
colony a part of the intestines so 
called). The portion of mesentery 
which attaches the colon. 

Hesogas'tric (Gr. jueo-os, malosy mid- 
dle ; yatrrnpt gaster, the stomach). 
Attaching the stomach to the walls 
of the abdomen. 

Hesono'toin (Gr. ixwos, mes'osy mid- 
dle ; vwTos, riotosj the back). The 
upper half of the middle segment of 
the thorax in insects, covering in 
the back. 

HesophlQB'um (Gr. /uco-os, mes'osy 
middle ; <p\oios^ phloi'oSy bark). In 
botany, the middle layer of the bark 
of a tree. 

Hesophyll'iun (Gr. fxftros, mes'os^ 
middle ; ipvKKovy phuUonf a leaf). 
The cellular substance of a leaf. 

Hes'osperm (Gr. fietrosj metlosy mid- 
dle ; (TTep/uo, ipermxi, a seed). The 
middle coat of a seed. 

Hesoster'nmn (Gr. jxtnos, mesfoSf mid- 
dle ; ffTtpifoVf sternonf the breast). 

The lower half of the middle seg- 
ment of the thorax in insects. 

Mesotho'rax (Gr. /xco-os, mes'ost mid- 
dle ; Bapa^t thonxXy a breast-plate). 
The middle part of the thorax ot 
insects, bearing the anteiior pair 
of wings and the middle pair of 

Mesozo'ic (Gr. fi€<ro5, mes^oSf middle ; 
(un}f eotf life). A name given in 
geology to the middle period, as 
regards animal remains ; compre- 
hending the cretaceous, oolitic and 
triassic epochs. 

Met'a- (Gr. /i^ct, metfci, beyond). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying beyond. 

Metacar'pal (Gr. fitrOf metfay be- 
yond ; KOfnros, karpos, the wrist). 
Belonging to the mctacarpos. 

Metaoar'pnB (Gr. fiera, metfa^ be- 
yond ; KofnroSf karpos, the wrist). 
The hand between the wrist and the 

Metach'ronism (Gr. fifra, metfOf be- 
yond; XP^^^h chron'os, time). The 
placing an event in chronology after 
its real time. 

Hetagen'esifl (Gr. fiera, metfa^ im- 
plying change; yevvoM, gtnndo^ I 
produce). Alternating generation ; 
the succession of individuals, which 
present the same form only at every 
alternate generation ; the changes 
of form which the representative of 
a species undergoes in passing from 
the egg to a perfect or more com- 
plete state. 

Uetagenef ic (Gr. m^to, fuel! a, imply- 
ing change ; ytwata, gennady I 
produce). Referring to the changes 
of form undergone in passing from 
the egg to a p^ect state. 

Uetalliferoiui (Lat. metatlum^ a 
metal; fero, I bear). Producing 
or yielding metals. 

Uetal'loid ((St. ftcroAAov, metaVlony 
a metal ; ctSos, eidos, form). Like 
metal ; a name sometimes given to 
the non-metallic elements. 

Met'allurgy(Gr. iitraXKov, metaXlon, 
a metal ; ipyov, ergon, work). 
The art of working metals ; 
especially separating Uiem from 
their ores. 



Metamor'pldo (Gr. fxtroy met^a, im- 
plying change ; it'Optpri, morphea 
form). Changing form ; a name 
given in geology to those rocks 
which have undergone a change in 
their original structure and texture ; 
in mediciney applied to diseases 
having their seat in the processes 
of development and nutrition. 

Metaxnor'phisin (Gr. ii^roy mel!a^ im- 
plying change ; fiop^f morpkef 
form). Change in form ; a term 
applied in geohgy to the change in 
structure and texture which has 
been undergone by some rocks. 

Metamorph'osis (Gr. fifroy met'a, im- 
plying change ; fJiop<prit morphe^ 
form). A change in shape ; the 
change undergone by some ani- 
mals, such as insects and reptiles. 

Metano'tum (Gr. /uero, md'a^ behind ; 
vwTos, notosy the back). The up- 
per half of the hinder division of 
the thorax in insects. 

Uef aphor (Gr. juero, metfoy beyond ; 
^ep<ay pher'o, I bear). A similitude 
expressed without the sign of com- 

U^taphys'ics (Gr. ^eTo, metfoy be- 
yond ; <f>vaiKrij phu'sike, physics, or 
the science of nature). The science 
of mind or intelligence. 

Metapoph'3rsi8 (Gr. /uero, metfa, be- 
tween ; apoph'ysis). A part grow- 
ing between apophyses. 

Metas'tasis (Gr. juero, me^a, beyond ; 
iar-nfii, histemif I place). A trans- 
ference of diseases from one place to 

Uetaster'niun (Gr. fxeroj met'ay be- 
hind ; (rrepvoVf atemoriy the breast). 
The lower part of the posterior 
division of the thorax in insects. 

Uetatar'sal (Gr. /iero, met'ay beyond ; 
rapffost tarsos, the instep). Be- 
longing to the metatarsus. 

Metatar'sus (Gr. fiero, met'ay beyond ; 
rap(roSj tarsos, the instep). The 
foot from the ankles to the toes. 

Uetath'esis (Gr. fAtra, met'ay imply- 
ing change ; riOyiixi, tkhimi, I 
place). A transposition of the 
letters or syllables of a word. 

^etatho'raz (Gr. juero, met'ay beyond ; 
BwpaJiy tkoraXf a breast-plate). The 

hinder part of tlie thorax of insects, 
bearing the posterior pair of wings 
and legs. 

He'teor (Gr. fiercwpos, meteo'rosy 
lifted up ; from /Aero, wici'a, beyond ; 
aipooy airoy I raise up). Any at- 
mospheric appearance or phenome- 
non of a transitory nature. 

Meteoric (Me'ieor), Kelating to 

Heteoric Stones. Aerolites, or 
masses of hard matter, containing 
metallic iron, nickel, and other 
bodies, occasionally falling on the 

Me'teorite (Me'teor). A solid sub- 
stance falling on the earth from 
the higher regions of the atmos- 

Ue'teorolite {Me'teor ; Gr. A*0os, 
lUh'os, a stone). See Meteorite. 

Ueteororog^ {Meteor ; \oyos, logosy 
a description). The science which 
describes atmospherical phenomena, 
whether accidental or permanent. 

Meth'yl (Gr. /ne^w, meth'uy wine; vKtj, 
hvXiy material). An hypothetical 
compound of carbon and hydrogen, 
forming the base of certain com- 
pounds, as wood-spirit and chloro- 
form, analogous to the alcohol series. 

Heton'ic Cycle (Mt/twv, MetdUy an 
Athenian astronomer). A cycle or 
period of nineteen years, at the end 
of which the lunations of the moon 
return to the same days of the 
month as at first. 

]d[etoii'3nii7 (Gr. /x€Ta, met' ay implying 
change ; ovofia^ on'omay a name). 
A putting one word for another 
which has some relation to it ; as 
an effect for a cause ; an author's 
name for his writings ; &c. 

Ue'tre (Gr. fierpovy metrony a mea- 
sure). A French measure of length, 
being the ten-millionth part of the 
distance from the equator to the 
north pole, equal to 39 '37 English 

Uef ronome (Gr. fitrpovy metrouy a 
measure ; yo/xosy nom'oSy a law). 
An instrument consisting of a pen- 
dulum suspended by a point be- 
tween the extremities, used for 
measuring by its vibi-ations the 



quickness or slowness of musical 

Uezzotin'to (Italian mezzOy middle or 
half; tintOf painted). A manner 
of engraving on copper, in which 
the lights of the figure represented 
are obtained by the erasure of dents 
and furrows previously scratched 
on the plate. 

Mias'nia (Gr. lucuvmy mtaind^ I taint 
or pollute). Effluvia floating in 
the air, often injurious to health. 

Miasmatic (Gr. /umtr/ia, miaa'ma). 
Pertaining to or characterised by 

Mi'ca (Lat. mico^ I glitter). A soft 
glistening mineral, chiefly composed 
of silica, potash, and magnesia ; it 
forms the glistening scaly appear- 
ance in granite. 

Mica-schist. A slaty rock, of which 
mica is the principal ingredient, 
together with quartz. 

Mica'ceons (Mica). Belonging to or 
resembling mica, or chiefly con- 
sisting of mica. 

Micro- (Gr. fUKpoSf mikroSt small.) 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying smallness. 

Microm'eter (Gr. fxtxpoSf mtkrosj 
small; fitrpovy met'rorif a measure). 
An instrument for measuring small 
bodies or spheres, or small visual 
angles formed by remote objects, by 
means of which the magnitude of 
bodies seen through the telescope 
or microscope may be ascertained. 

Mi'cropyle (Gr. fuKpos, mUcroSy small ; 
irvXrtf ptUif a gate). The opening 
or foramen in a seed, towards which 
the radicle is always pointed. 

Mi'croscope (Gr. /iiKpos, mih'OB, 
small ; (tkoitcw, sTcop'edy I look at). 
An optical instrument formed of 
lenses which magnify the image of 
small objects placed in their focus, 
80 as to render them visible or 
more distinct than before. 

Microscopical {Mi'croscope), ReUi- 
ting to the microscope ; visible by 
means of the microscope. 

Midrib {Mid and rib). The principal 
vein of a leaf, which runs from the 
stem to the point. 

Mil'iary (Lat. milium, millet). Like 

millet-seeds ; applied to an erup- 
tive disease characterised by the 
presence of innumerable white 

MUky Way. An appearance of 
nebulous light extending over a 
large extent of the celestial sphere, 
and found by the telescope to con- 
sist of countless multitudes of stars, 
so crowded as to give the place 
they occupy a whitish appearance. 

Mil'ligramme (Lat. mtZ7e, a thou- 
sand ; Fr. gramme). A French 
weight of a thousandth part of a 
gramme^ or '015 English grain. 

Millime^tre (Lat. miVle^ a thousand ; 
Fr. mMre), A French measure, 
.equal to the thousandth part of a 
metre^ or '03937 English inch. 

Mimef ic (Gr. fiififoficuj mim'eom>ai, I 
imitate). Imitative. 

Min'eral {Mine). A body destitute 
of organisation, existing naturally 
within the earth or at its surface. 

Mineral'og^ {Mineral; Gr. \oyoSf 
logoSj a description). The science 
which describes the properties and 
relations of simple mineral sub- 

Min'immn (Lat. min'imuSf least). 
The least quantity assignable in a 
given case. 

Mmlnm (Lat.) A compound of pro- 
toxide and deutoxide of lead, of a 
red colour. 

Min'oend (Lat. min'uo^ I diminish). 
That which is to be diminished ; 
in arithmetic^ the number from 
which another is to be subtracted 
or taken. 

Min'nte (Lat. minu'lus^ diminished). 
A sixtieth part of an hour or de- 

Mi'ocene (Gr. imuv, meion, less ; 
KaivoSf kainoSf new). A name 
given in geology to the middle 
group of the tertiary strata, from 
its containing a less number of 
shells identical with existing species 
than the upper or pliocene group. 

Mira'ge (Fr.) The name given to an 
atmospheric phenomenon, consbt- 
ing in the appearance in the air of 
inverted images of distant objects, 
produced by the rays of light pro- 




ceediDg from them througli a dense 
stratum of air falling on the surface 
of a rarer stratum, and being, 
under cei-tain conditions, reflected 

Ki'tral (Lat. mi'tra, a head-dress, or 
mitre). Resembling a mitre ; ap- 
plied to the valve at the orifice of 
the left ventricle of the heart. 

Mi'triform (Lat. mUtray a mitre ; 
formay shape). Shaped like a 

Mnemonics (Gr. fivaofAaif mna'omai, 
I remember). The art of assisting 
the memory. 

Hobil'ity (Lat. mo'bilisj moveable). 
Capability of being moved. 

Mo'dal (Lat. mo'dus^ manner). Re- 
lating to manner or form ; in logiCf 
applied to propositions which show 
the manner in which the predicate 
is connected with the subject. 

ICod'ole (Lat. mod'ulusy a measure). 
A model : in architeciurey a mea- 
sure taken to regulate the propor- 
tions of an edifice; generally the 
semi-diameter of the column at the 
bottom of the shaft. 

Molar (Lat. mo7a, a mill). Grinding; 
applied to the large double teetJi 
by which the food is ground. 

Molec'nlar (Mol'ecule), Consisting 
of or relating to molecules. 

MoWnlar Attraction. That form 
of attraction which operates on the 
molecules or particles of a body. 

Molec'nlar Forces. The attractive 
and repulsive forces existing be- 
tween the molecules of a body. 

Mol'ecnles (Lat. mo'les, a mass; ule, 
denoting smallness). A very mi- 
nute particle of a mass. 

Mollifies (Lat. softness). In medi- 
cinCf a diseased softening of various 

MoUns'ca (Lat. moVlis^ soft). A di- 
vision of invertebrate animals, so 
called from the softness of their 
bodies ; comprising cephalopods, 
pteropods, gasteropods, acephala, 
and brachiopods. 

Mollni^coid {MolMca; Gr. €*8oy, 
eidoSf form). A subdivision of 
the molluscous division, including 
tunicata and biyozoaria. 

Momen'tnm (Lat. moveo, I move). 
The force which a moving mass of 
matter exercises against an object 
with which it comes into contact, 
being the product of its quantity 
of matter and its velocity. 

Mon- or Mon'o- (Gr. fxouos, mon'os, 
alone). A prefix in compound 
words signifying single. 

Mon'ad (Gr. /xovoSf mon'oSy tingle). 
An ultimate atom ; a name given 
to the smallest of visible animal- 

Monaderphia (Gr. iiovos^ mon'os^ 
single ; obiKi^tos, adelpkoSj a bro- 
ther). A class of plants in the 
Linnean system, in which all the 
stamens are united in a cylindrical 
body, through the midst of which 
the pistil passes. 

Monan'dria (Gh*. fiovoSf mon'os, 
single ; &i^p, aner^ a man). A 
class of plants in the Linusean sys- 
tem, having only one stamen. 

Mongolian {Mongol). A term ap- 
plied to a class of mankind having 
the Mongols and Chinese as the 

Monil'iform (Lat. moni'Uy a necklace; 
foT^ma^ shape). Like a necklace ; 

Monoba'sic (Gr. fioyos,mon'o8f single; 
fituTiSy ba'siSf a foundation). Having 
a single atom of base. 

Monocfur'pons (Ghr. /xovos, monfos, 
single ; KopiroSf har^poSf fruit). 
Bearing a single fruit. 

Monoclilamyd'eoas(Gr. yuovoty mon'osy 
single ; x^^^^> chlamusy a tunic). 
Applied to flowers having a single 

Monodi'nate (Or. fiovos, mon'osj 
single ; kAiv«, klinoj I bend). 
Having one of the axes turned 
obliquely ; applied in mineralogy 
to certain crystals. 

Mon'ochord (Gfr.juovos, mon'oSj single ; 
Xop^Vf chordCf a chord or string). 
A musical instrument or apparatus 
of one string, used for the purpose 
of determining the rates of vibration 
of musical notes. 

Monochromaf ic (Gr. fiovosj mon'os, 
single ; xp^y^ chroma^ colour). 
Of one colour only. 



][oiioeot7le'donoiu(Gr.fu>yo5, mon'09, 
sin^ ; cotyWdan). Hftying one 
cotyledon or seed-lobe. 

Mdnoc'iilar (Gr. ftwosy numfotf one ; 
Lat o^uluB, an eye). Having one 
eye only. 

Xomce'eia (Gr. ftoror, mon'of, single ; 
oucos,(nJcot, a house). Aclass of plants 
in the T.mnMMm system, haying the 
stamens and pistils in di£ferent 
flowers, but on the same plant. 

Konogam'ia (Gr. /lopos, mon'os, sin- 
gle ; yoMos, gamoSf marriage). An 
order of plants in the Linnffian 
iq^stem having the anthers 

liaa!ogr9m.{Qtr. fioyos,ftt(m'o9, single; 
ypofiyM, gramma, a letter). A 
character composed of two or more 
letters interwoven. 

Mon'ograph (Gr. iiovos, mon'otf sin- 
gle ; ypfupv, graphbf I write). A 
treatise or book on one snbject or 
class of subjects. 

Xonogyn'ia (Gr. fiows^ mon'os, sin- 
gle ; yvvriy gune, a female). An 
order of plants in the Linnsean 
system, consisting of plants having 
one pistil. 

Uonoma'nia (Gr. fiovos, mon'otf sin- 
gle ; fiOMui, ma'nia, madness). A 
form of insanity in which the mind 
is deranged with regard to one idea. 

IConome'ra (Gr. fwvos, mon'ot, single; 
firipoy, merotij a thigh). A section 
of hemipterons insects having only 
one joint in the tarsL 

lIoiionioi'phoiiB (Gr. /lovos, mon'os, 
single ; fiop^, morpke^ form). Of 
a single form. 

Monomy'ary (Gr. ijlovos, mon'os, sin- 
gle ; fws, mus, a muscle). Having 
one muscle ; applied to certain bi- 
valve moUusca, of which the shell 
is dosed by a single muscle. 

MonopefalouB (Gr. /liovos, mon'oi, 
single ; ireroAov, pet^alon, a petal). 
Having petals united by their 

Kon'optote (Gr. ftwos, mon'os, single ; 
vTMtriSf ptosiSf a case). A noun 
having only one case besides the 

Xonorgan'ic (Gr. fioyos, mon'os, sin- 
gle ; hpyatfoVf or'ganon, an organ). 

Belonging to or affecting one organ 
or set of organs. 

MoiUMep'aloiis (Gh:. ijlovos, mon'os, 
single; sepal). Having sepals 
united by their margins. 

Honospeir'moiiB (Gr. ijmvosj mon'vtf 
single; tncfpfui, tpe?ma, a seed). 
Having a single seed. 

UomosyllaVie (Gr. fiovoSf monfos^ 
single ; avWafiriy std'labe, a syl- 
lable). Having one syllable only. 

Xonothal'amoiui (Gr. fioyos, mon'09, 
single; 0aAa/iO5. /Aofamof, a cham- 
ber). Having one chamber only ; 
not divided by partitions. 

Uonotre'xiiatoiis (Gr. fioyos, monfos, 
single; rfn^/xo, tre'ma, a hole or 
opening). Having only one external 
opening for the passage of excreted 
matter ; applied to a small class of 

Monsoon. A name given to a modi- 
fication of the course of the trade- 
winds in the eastern seas. 

Moraine. A name given to the longi- 
tudinal mounds of stony detritus 
found at the bases and along the 
edges of glaciers. 

Morbid (Lat. mor'6i», disease). Be- 
lating to disease ; diseased. 

Morbid Anatomy. The study of the 
alterations produced in the struc- 
ture of the body by disease. 

Morbific (Lat. morbus, disease; 
fcicfio, I make). Causing disease. 

Morlnlli (Lat). The measles. 

Mordant (Fr. biting; from Lat. 
mor^deo, I bite).* Any substance 
employed in dyeing for the purpose 
of fixing the colours. 

Mor'phia (Gr. Mop<p€vs, Morpheus, 
the god of sleep). A vegetable 
alkaloid obtained from opium. 

Morpholog'ieal (Gr. fiop<t>fij morphe, 
form ; \ayos, logos, description). 
Belating to modifications of form. 

Morphol'ogy (Gr. fiop^, morphe, 
form ; \ayos, logos, a description). 
The study of the forms wMgIl 
different organs or parts assume, 
and of the laws that regulate their 

Mortifica'tion (Lat. mors, death ; 
facfio, I make). Loss of vitality 
or life in some part of a living body. 



Mortise. A cavity cnt in a piece of 
wood or other material, to receive 
a corresponding projecting piece 
called a tenon. 

Hososau'ros {Mo'sa, the river Mease ; 
Gr. aravpoSf sauroSy a lizard). A 
large fossil reptile found in the 
cretaceous formation. 

Motor (Lat. moi/eot I move). Pro- 
ducing or regulating motion ; 
applied to certain nerves and 

Mouldings. A term applied to all 
the varieties of outline or contour 
given to the surfaces or edges of 
the various subordinate parts of 
buildings, whether projections or 

Mn'cilage (Lat. mu'cus), A kind of 
gum found in vegetables; a solu- 
tion of gum in water. 

Mudlag^inons {Mu'cilage), Per- 
taining to or of the nature of 

Mneor (Lat.). Mouldiness. 

Mu'cons (Lat. mu'cus^ slime). Pertain- 
ing to or of the nature of mucus ; 
secreting mucus. 

Mucous Membrane. A membrane 
secreting mucus, and lining in- 
ternal passages and other cavities 
which open on the surface of the 
body, as well as the cavities which 
open into these passages. 

Mu'oronate (Lat. mu'ci'Of the sharp 
point of a weapon). Ending in a 
stiff point. 

Mucus (Lat.). The slimy substance 
effused on the surface of the mem- 
branes covering the inner surface 
of the body, as the alimentary 
canal, nose, lungs, &c. 

Multi- (Lat. mul'tuSy many or much). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying many. 

Multan'gular (Lat. muVtus, many; 
an'ffuluSf an angle). Havmg many 

Multiartic'ulate (Lat. mul'tuSfmskny; 
artufuliM, a joint). Having many 

Multicus'pidate (Lat. mul'itutf many ; 
cus'piSf the point of a weapon). 
Having several points or tubercles ; 
applied to the molar teeth. 

Multioos'tate (Lat. murtuSf many ; 
co^tttf a rib). Having many ribs. 

Mul'tifid (Lat. mutttis, TnsLnj;fin'do, 
I cleave). Having many divisions ; 
in botany^ applied to leaves divided 
laterally about the middle be- 
tween the edge and the midrib 
into numerous divisions. 

Mul'tiform (Lat. mul'tusy many ; 
fojinay shape). Having many 

Multilateral (Lat. muttuSf many; 
laUiSy a side). Having many sides. 

Multilin'ear (Lat. mul'tuSf many ; 
li'neaf a Une). Having^ many 

Multiloc'ular (Lat. muVluSy many ; 
loc'uliis, a little place). Having 
many cells or chambers. 

Mnltino'date (Lat. mul'ttLs^ many ; 
nodtbSf a knot). Having many 

Multino'mial (Lat. mtd'tus, many; 
nojnen^ a name). Having many 
names or terms ; applied in algebra 
to quantities consisting of several 
names or terms. 

Multip'arous (Lat. muVitLSy many ; 
pcM^iOf I bring forth). Producing 
many young at a birth. 

Multipar'tite (Lat. muVtus^ many ; 
par'tiOf I divide). Divided into 
many parts ; applied in botany to 
leaves having numerous and dee; 

Mul'tiple (Lat. mvl'tus^ many; plic'o, 
1 fold). Containing many times ; 
a common multiple of two or more 
numberis is a number which can 
be divided by each of them without 
leaving a remainder. 

Mul'tiplicand (Lat. multip'lico, I 
multiply). The number which is 
to be multiplied. 

Mnltiplica'tion (Lat. mvl'tusy many ; 
pli'cOf 1 fold). The process of 
repeating a quantity a certain 
number of times, as though it were 
repeatedly folded on itself 

Mul'tipUer (Multiply). That which 
multiplies ; an instrument for in- 
dicating the deflecting influence 
of a weak electric current: so 
called because the influence of 
the current is multiplied by being 



conducted several times round a 
magnetic needle. 

Unltiply (Lat. muZ^iu, many; pli^co, 
I fold). To increase a quantity a 
giyen number of times. 

Unltiplying Glass. A kind of lens 
presenting a number of plane sur- 
&oes, so that the rays of light from 
an object enter the eye in different 
directions, and make the object 
appear as if increased in number. 

Unltispi'ral (Lat. muUus, many ; 
spirOf a spire). Having many 
spiral turns. 

Unl'tivalve (Lat. mvMus, many; 
valvcBf folding doors). Having 
many valves. 

Uultoc'iilar (Lat. muUua, many : oc^- 
uluSf an eye). Having many eyes. 

Unltiim'giilate (Lat. muUuSf many ; 
un*ffida^ a hoof). Having the 
hoof divided into more than two 

Mural Cirde (Lat. muruSy a wall). 
An astronomical instrument, con- 
sisting of a large graduated metal 
circle, carried on an axis placed 
horizontally in the face of a stone 
wall or pier; it has a telescope 
fixed on it, and is so arranged that 
the whole instrument, including 
the telescope, moves on its axis in 
the plane of the meridian ; it is 
used to determine with precision 
the instant at which an object passes 
the meridian. 

Uurex'ide (Lat. mvreXf a shell-fish 
yielding a purple dye). Purpurate 
of ammonia ; an organic compound, 
which forms a purple colour with 
solution of potash. 

Un'riate (Lat mu'ria, saltwater). A 
term formerly applied to chlorides, 
on the supposition that they were 
compounds of muriatic acid with a 
base. ■ 

Unriat'ic (Lat. mu'ria, salt water). 
Belating to brine or salt-water, an 
old name for hydrochloric. 

Wafxilona. (Lat. muruSf a wall ; forma, 
shape). Like a wall ; arranged 
like bricks on a wall. 

Kusch'elkalk (Germ, mvachel, a 
shell ; kcdJCf lime). Shell-lime- 
stone; a series of the Triassic 

system in geology found in (Ger- 
many, eonsisting of a compact 
greyish limestone, abounding in 
fossil remains. 

Una'dtes (Lat. muscus, moss). Fos- 
sil plants of the moss family. 

Uucle (Lat. mas'ctdus, alittle mouse). 
An organ by which the active move- 
ments of the body are produced ; 
the name is derived probably from 
the shape of some of the muscles. 

Uus'ciilar (Lat. mv^cidtu, a muscle). 
Selating to or performed by mus- 
cles ; provided with muscles. 

UnBCular Tissue. The tissue which 
forms the substance of muscles. 

Uute (Lat. mittiw, dumb). In grttm- 
mar, applied to consonants which 
intercept the voice, as it, p, and t, 

Myal'gia (Ghr. /ivs, muSf a muscle ; 
iKyoSf algoSf pain). Pain in 

Uyoelia (Gr. fiviens, makes, a fungus). 
The flocculent filaments of fungL 

Uycorogy (Gbr. ftvicris, mukes, a 
fungus ; \oyos, logos, a discourse). 
A description of fungL 

Uyelenoe^'ala (Gr. (wtKos, rnu'dos, 
marrow; iyK€<t>a\oVf enkeph^cUon-, 
brain). Animals possessing a brain 
and spinal chord ; vertebrate ani- 

Uyeli'tis (Gr. fiveXos, mu'elos, mar- 
row : itis, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the spinal cord. 

Uylodoxi (Gr. fivKos, mtUos, a mill ; 
oSovs, odous, a tooth). An extinct 
animal ; so named from the flat 
grinding surfaces of ite molar 

Uyorogy (Gr. fivs, mus, a muscle ; 
Kayos, logos, a discourse). A de- 
scriptiim of muscles. 

Uyo'pia (Gr. fiuw, miio, I shut ; ofi^, 
ops, the eye). Near-sightedness. 

Uyod'tis (Gr. fws, mtis, a muscle ; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of muscles. 

UyoB'tici (Gr. fius, mus, muscle ; 
wTTfoy, os'teon, bone) A name 
proposed to be given to diseases 
affecting bones and muscles. 

Uyot'omy (Gr. fsvs, mus, a muscle ; 
r€fivu, temtw, I cut). The anatomy 
of the muscles. 



Kyrlagramme (Gr. fivpioif mu'rioij 
ten thousand ; Fr. gramme) . A 
French weight of ten thousand 
grammeSy or about twenty-two 
pounds avoirdupois. 

Uyr^iainetre (Gr. iivpioi, mu'rioij ten 
thousand ; Fr. mitre). A French 

measure of ten thousand m^res, or 
6*21 English miles. 
Kyr'iapods (Gr. fivpioit mu'i*ioi, ten 
thousand ; vovSf poiLSf a foot). A 
class of invertebrate animals, gener- 
ally resembling insects, but with 
numerous legs ; as the centipede. 


Va'creotLS (Fr. nacre, mother-of- 
pearl). Having a pearly lustre. 

Vadir (Arabic naiaraf to be like, or 
correspond). The point in the 
heavens of the opposite or invisible 
hemisphere, which would be reached 
by a perpendicular line drawn from 
an observer on the surface of the 
earth, and reaching at the other 
end a point in the visible hemi- 
sphere, called the zenith. 

Nsvns (Lat.). A tumour consisting 
essentially in an excessive growth 
of the vascular tissue of a part. 

Na'piform (Lat. viapus, a turnip; 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 

Varcof ic (Gr. popKoa, nar^koo, I 
render torpid). Producing insen- 
sibility to pain and external im- 
pressions, with sleep. 

Var'cotisin (Gr. vapKoa, nai^kod^ I 
render torpid). The efifect of a 
narcotic medicine or poison. 

Na'res (Lat. naris, a nostril). The 

Va'sal (Lat. nasust the nose). Belong- 
ing to the nose ; formed by the nose. 

Nascent (Lat. tmscot, I am bom). 
Beginning to exist : the nascent 
state of a gas is the condition in 
which it is at the moment when it 
is liberated from combination. 

Nata'tion (Lat. nmto, I swim). The 
act of swimming. 

Natato'res (Lat. naio, I swim). 
Swimmers ; an order of birds with 
feet provided with webs for swim- 
ming, as ducks, geese, swans, and 

Na'tatory (Lat. nato, I swim). 
Enabling or assisting to swim ; 
formed &>r swimming. 

Vaf nral History. The science which 
describes the natural products of 
the earth, animal, vegetable, and 
mineral; their characters, relations, 
arrangement, &c. 

ITatural Fhilos'ophy. The science 
which describes the material world, 
the bodies which compose it, and 
their qualities and properties. 

ITat'ural Sys'tem. The classification 
of animals or plants into orders, 
genera, and species, according to 
their alliances in points of struc- 
ture which are I'egarded as essen- 

Nan'sea ((jh*. vavs, naus, a ship). A 
disgust for food, with inclination to 
vomit ; probably at first applied to 

Van'tical (Gr. vavn\s, navies, a 
sailor). Pertaining to seamen or 

Nau'tiUtes (Lat. nau'tilus). Fossil 
shells apparently allied to the 

Navic'nlar (Lat. navic'ula, a boat : 
from navUi a ship). Belonging to 
or like a boat ; applied to one of 
the bones of the wrist, from its 

Veb'nla (Lat., a mist). A little cloud 
or mist : in astronomy, an object 
resembling stars seen through a 
mist, or a cloudy speck, but found 
by the telescope to consist of a 
cluster of stars. 

Neb^nlar (Lat. neb'ula, a mist). Re- 
lating to nebulae; the nebular 
hypothesis was a belief that the 
appearances called nebulae were the 
results of the aggregation of a soiii 
of luminous fluid diffused through 
different parts of the universe. 



NeVnloHB (Lat. neb'tUa, a mist). 
Misty ; having the appearance of a 

Neoroph'agfOiu (Gfr. y^Kposy neh'ros^ 
dead : <payw, pfiag'd, I eat). Eat- 
ing dead bodies of animals. 

N'eorop'olis (Gr. yenpoSf neTdros^ dead; 
TFoKis, pol'iSf a city). A city of the 
dead ; a cemetery. 

Vec'ropsy (Gr. veicpoy, nek'roSf dead ; 
o^iSi opsiSj sight). The examiua- 
tion of a dead body. 

Necroscop'io (Gr. vexpos, neJtfros, 
dead ; (rKoirew, shopped, I view). 
Relating to the examination of 
bodies after death. 

Necro'sis (Gr. veKpouj neldroo^ I kill). 
A disease of bone terminating in 
its death ; a state analogous to 
mortification or gangrene in soft 

Nectarif erons (Lat. nectar; fer'oy I 
produce). Having a honey-like 
secretion : in botany, applied to 
petals having furrows at their base 
yielding a sweet secretion. 

Nec'tary {Nectar). In botany, any 
abnormal part of a flower; but 
properly any organ secreting sweet 

Neg'ative (Lat. nego, I deny). Im- 
plying denial or absence ; in phy- 
steal science, applied to one of the 
forms of electricity which a body is 
capable of assuming ; in algebra, 
applied to quantities which have 
the sign — {mmits) prefixed. 

Ne'matoid (Gr. vrifxa, nema, a thread; 
€(8of, eidos, form). Like a thread ; 
applied to a class of parasitic 

Nematonen'ra (Gr. in\yuaL, nema, a 
thread : vevpov, neuron, a nerve). 
Having the nervous systm arranged 
in filaments or threads. 

Nemoc'era (Gr. yrifio, nema, a thread; 
Kfpas, ker'a>s, a horn). A section 
of dipterous insects with filiform or 
thread-like antennae, of six joints. 

Neoco'mian (Lat. Neocomum., Neuf- 
ch&tel). A term applied in geology 
to the green sand formation, which 
is especially developed in the vici- 
nity of Neufoh&tel. 

Neol^ogy (Gr. yfos, neos, new ; \070s, 

logos, discourse). The introduction 
of new words or doctrines. 

Neoter'ic (Gr. vfortpos, neoteros, 
younger). Recent in origin; 

Neozoic (Gr. veoy, neos, new ; (otov, 
z^on, an animal). Having new 
animals ; a term applied in geology 
to a division of the fossiliferous 
strata, including the cainozoic and 
mesozoic of some geologists. 

Nephral'gia (Gr. v€<f>pos, neph'ros, 
a kidney ; 0X70;, algos, pain). 
Fain in the kidney. 

Nephritic (Gr. ve<ppos, neph'ros, a 
kidney). Relating to the kidneys. 

Nephri'tiii (Gr. y€<ppos, neph'ros, a 
kidney; itis, denoting inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the kidneys. 

Neptu'nian {Neptune, the god of the 
sea). A term applied to stratified 
rocks, or those which have been 
deposited by water. 

Nep'tanist {Neptune, the god of the 
sea). A name given to the geolo- 
gists of the school of Werner, who 
believed all old rocks to have been 
of aqueous origin. 

Nerve (Lat. nervus). A bundle of 
white fibres, forming an organ for 
the conveyanee of impressions be- 
tween any part of the body and the 
brain or spinal cord. 

Nervine (Lat. nervus, a nerve). 
Acting on the nerves. 

Nervous System. The collection of 
organs, comprising the brain, spinal 
cord, and nerves, the office of which 
is to receive and convey impres- 

Ner'vures (Lat. nervus, a sinew). 
The frame-work of the wings of 
insects : also applied sometimes, in 
botany, to the frame-work of 

Neural (Gr. vtvpov, neuron, a nerve). 
Belonging or having relation to the 
nervous system. 

Neoral'gia (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve ; kKyos, algos, pain). Pain 
having its origin espeoially in the 

Neurapoph'ysis (Gr. vevpou, neu/ron, 
a nerve ; apoph'ysis). The part 
projecting &om a vertebra^ which 



aids in forming the canal that pro- 
tects the spinal cord. 

Neurilem'ma ((^r. vevpov, neuron^ a 
nerve ; ^ffifiOj lemma, a peel or 
skin). The sheath of a nerve. 

Nevrine (Gr. v^vpov, newon^ a 
nerve). Nervous sahstance. 

Nenrorogy (Gr. vevpoif, neuron, a 
nerve ; \oyos, logos, discourse). 
A description of the nerves. 

Veuro'ma (Gr. vevpov, neuron, a 
nerve). A swelling or tumour in 
the course of a nerve. 

Neurop'athy (Gr. vevpov, newron, a 
nerve ; voSos, pcUh'os, sufifering). 
Disease of a nerve. 

Neurop'tera (Gr. pevpop, neuron, 
a nerve ; irrtpov, pter^on, a wing). 
An order of insects with four mem- 
hranous transparent wings, with a 
net-work of veins or nervures ; as 
the dragon-fly. 

Neim/ses (Gh*. vevpov, newron, a 
nerve). A term appled to nervous 
a£fections or disease. 

Neuroskel'etoxi (Gr. v€vpov, neuron, 
a nerve ; trKfXtrov, skel'eton). The 
deep-seated bones of the vertebral 
skeleton which have relation to the 
nervous system and to locomotion. 

Neutral (Lat. ne, not ; uter, which 
of the two). In chemistry, applied 
to salts composed of an acid and 
a base in such proportions that they 
exactly destroy each other's proper- 
ties ; in botany, applied to flowers 
having neither stamens nor pistils. 

Ventralisa'tioxL (Lat. netUer, neither). 
In chemistry, the process by which 
an acid is combined with a base in 
such proportion as to render inert 
the properties of both. 

Nea'tralise (Lat. neuter, neither). 
To render neutral or inert ; to de- 
stroy the properties of a body by 
combining with it another body of 
different properties. 

Nic'otin {Nicotia'na, the tobacco 
plant). A principle obtained from 

Nio'titate (Lat. nicftiio, I wink). To 

Nio'titating Uembrane. A fold of 
skin with which birds cover their 

Vidaxnen'tal (Lat. nidamen'tum, the 
material of which birds make their 
nests). Relating to the protection 
of the egg and young; secreting 
material for constructing nests. 

Nilom'eter (Gr. NciXos, NeUos, the 
Nile ; fjuerpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
rise of the waters of the Nile. 

Ni'trate (Nitric). A salt consisting 
of nitric acid with a base. 

Ni'tric {Nitre). Produced from nitre 
or saltpetre ; applied to an acid 
obtained from nitre or nitrate of 

Ni'trite. A salt consisting of nitrous 
acid and a base. 

Hi'trogen {Nitre; Gr. yewau, gen- 
na'd, I produce). An elementary 
gas, without colour, taste, or 
smell, forming the larger portion 
(79 in 100) of the atmospheric air. 

Hitrog'enised {Nitrogen). Contain- 
ing nitrogen. 

Nitrog'enoiui {Nitrogen), Contain- 
ing nitrogen. 

Ni'trouB {Nitre). Pertaining to i Itre j 
applied to an acid containing less 
oxygen than nitric acid. 

Nodal (Lat. nodus, a knot). Relating 
to a knot ; applied to the points 
and lines at which the vibrations 
of a body become arrested, and 
which assume various regular 

Node (Lat. n>odtAs, a knot). A small 
oval figure made by the intersection 
of one branch of a curve with ano- 
ther; in astronomy, the point at 
which the moon or a planet crosses 
the ecliptic ; in botany, the point 
in a stem from which a leaf-bud 

Nodo'se (Lat. nodu^, a knot). Knotty. 

Nod'nle (Lat. nodtts, a knot ; tUe, 
denoting smaljness). A little knot ; 
an irregular concrietlon of rocky 
matter round a central nucleus. 

Nomadic (Gr. vofxoi, nom'os, a pas- 
ture). Wandering ; subsisting on 
cattle, and wandeiing for the sake 
of pasture. 

No'mendature (Lat. nomen, a name ; 
calo, from Gr. koAcw, kaled^ I call). 
The collection of names peculiar to 



scienoe in general, or to any branch 
of science. 

Nom'inative (Lat. nomen, a name). 
Naming ; applied to the first case 
of nouns, which denotes the name 
of the person or thing. 

Non-conductor. A substance which 
does not conduct heat, electricity, 

Normal (Lat. iwrma, a rule). Ac- 
cording to rule ; regular : a per- 
pendicular, especially to a curve at 
a given point. 

Nosog'rapliy (Gr. voaoSf no^oSj dis- 
ease ; ypa<p(a, grwph'o^ I write). A 
description of diseases. 

Nosolog'ical (Gr. voaos^ no^os, dis- 
ease ; \oyosj logos f discourse). Ke- 
lating to a classification of diseases. 

Nosorogy (Gr. poa-osj nos'oSf dis- 
ease ; \oyoSf logoSf discourse). The 
branch of medical science which 
distributes diseases into classes, 
orders, genera, and species, and 
distinguishes diseases by their pro- 
per names. 

NoBtal'gia (Gr. votrroSf nostos^ re- 
turn ; &\yo5f cdgoSf pain). Home- 
sickness ; a desire to return to one's 
country, amounting to disease. 

Notal (Gr. vorroSf niitos, the back). 
Belonging to the back. 

Nota'tion (Lat noto, I mark). The 
marking or reading anything by 
figures or other characters. 

No'tochord (Gr. vwtos, ndtos, the 
back ; x^f^t ckordOj a cord). 
The fibro-cellular gelatinous column 
which forms the primary condition 
of the spine in vertebrate animals. 

Notorhi'ial (Gr. vwros^ tiotos, the 
back ; ^t^a, rhizOy a root). Haying 
the radicle in the embryonic plant 
on the back of the cotyledons. 

Nnbeo'nla (Lat. a little cloud). In 
iutronomy, a name given to the 
Magellanic clouds, or two extensive 
nebulous patches of stars. 

Nn'ohal (Lat. ntccAo, the back of the 
neck). Belonging to the neck. 

Hn'olear (Lat. nu'eleiu.) Formed of 

Nn'oleated (Lat. nu'deus, a kernel). 
Having a nucleus, or central par- 

Nn'oleolns (Nu'deus), A little nu- 
cleus ; a small body sometimes ob- 
served within the nucleus of an 
animal or vegetable celL 

Nn'clenfl (Lat. a kernel). A body 
about which matter is collected ; a 
small compact body found in ani- 
mal and vegetable cells ; in cm- 
tronomy^ the bright central spot 
sometimes seen in the nebulous or 
misty matter forming the head of 
a comet. 

Nndibra'chiate (Lat. wadu8f naked ; 
bra'chiunif an arm). Having 
naked arms ; applied to polypi, the 
tentacles of which are not covered 
with cilia. 

Nndibran'ohiate (Lat. ntidus, naked ; 
Gr. $payx"h hrcm'ckiay gills). 
Having exposed gills ; applied to 
an order of gasteropodous moUusca 
which have no shell, and have the 
gills exposed. 

Numera'tion (Lat. mimerusy a num- 
ber). The art of reading or writing 

Nu'merator (Lat. nvlfMrus^ a num- 
ber). The number in fractions 
which shows how many of the parts 
are to be taken. 

Numer'ical Method. The branch of 
science which treats of the right 
manner of deriving conclusions from 
the colloofM numerical statement 
of the results of certain forces or 

Nnmismaf io (Lat. nvmiilma ; from 
Gr. vofuafiUf nomi^mOf money). 
Relating to coins or money. 

Nnmismatorogy (Lat. numyma ; 
Gr. \oyo5f logoi, discourse). The 
science of describing coins and 

II'um'mnlated(Lat. nwrnmuB, money). 
Having some resemblance to a coin. 

Num'mnlite (Lat. nummus^ money ; 
KiBoSf lith'oSt a stone). A fossil 
shell resembling a coin, found in 
the limestone in the tertiary strata. 

Nnta'tion (Lat. nutOf I nod). In 
astronomy y the alternate approach 
and departure of the pole of the 
equator to and from the pole of the 
ecliptic, combined with the alter- 
nate increase and decrease of its 



retrogressiye motion ; in hotany, 
applied to a property which some 
flowers have of following the appa- 
rent motion of the sun. 

Vn'triexit (Lat. nu'triOf I nourish). 

Vn'triment (Lat. nu'trio^ I nourish). 
Food; the material supplied for 
repairing the waste or promoting 
the growth of living bodies. 

Nntritlon (Lat. nu'trio^ I nourish). 
The process by which animals or 
vegetables appropriate to their 
repair or growth material taken 
from external organic substances. 

Nyctalo'pia (Gr. yv|, nux^ the night ; 
iXaoiAxu, ala'omaif I grope about ; 
0^, opSf the eye). A defect of 
vision, in which the patient can see 
by day, but not by night. 


Ob (Lat.) A preposition in compound 
words, signifying against, reversed, 
or contrary. 

Obcompress'ed (Lat. oh ; comprimo, 
I press together). Flattened in 
front and behind. 

Obcor'date (Lat. o5, against ; cor, the 
heart). Like a heart reversed ; 
applied in botany to leaves shaped 
like a heart, with the apex next 
the stem. 

Ob'elisk (Gr. 6$€\os, oVelos^ a spit). 
A four-sided column, of one stone, 
rising in the form of a pyramid, 
and having a smaller pyramid at 
the top. 

Obe'sity (Lat. oJc'aw*, fat), An ex- 
cessive fatness. 

Ob'ject (Lat. o6, against ; jacfto^ I 
throw). That which is acted on 
by the senses, the mental faculties, 
or other agents. 

Object-glass. The lens in a telescope 
or microscope which first receives 
the rays of light coming from an 
object and collects them to a focus 
or central point, where they form 
an image which is viewed through 
the eye-piece. 

Objec'tive (Lat. o&, against ; jac'Wy 
I throw). Belonging to an object ; 
in medicine^ applied to symptoms 
observed by the physician ; in 
grammar, denoting the case which 
is acted on. 

Obla'te (Lat. oh, against ; laius, 
borne or carried). Flattened at the 
poles ; applied to spherical bodies 
flattened at the poles or ends, like 
an orange. 

Obli'qae (Lat. ohli'quuB, sideways) 
Neither perpendicular nor paral- 

Ob'olite Grit. In geology, the lower 
Silurian sandstones of Sweden and 
Russia, from the abundance of 
shells of the oholm, a brachiopod 

Obo'vate (Lat. oh; ovate). Reversely 
ovate, the broad end of the egg 
being uppermost. 

Observa'tioxL (Lat. o6se/vo, I observe). 
The art of observing ; one of the 
processes by which natural pheno- 
mena are to be investigated. 

Obser'vatory (Lat. obser^vo, I observe). 
A place or building constructed for 
astronomical observations. 

Obsid'ian (Lat. obsidia'num vitrum, 
a kind of thick glass). A glassy 
lava, much resembling artificial 
glass, but usually black and nearly 
opaque ; it consists of silica and 
alumina, with a little potash and 
oxide of iron. 

Obsoles'cexLce (Lat. ohsoles'co, I grow 
out of use). The state of becoming 
disused ; in medicine, applied to 
the stage in diseased formations at 
which they cease to undergo further 

Obsolete (Lat. ohsoles'co, I grow out 
of use). In botany, imperfectly 
developed or abortive. 

Obstet'ric (Lat. obstet'rix, a midwife). 
Relating to midwifery. 

Obtec'ted (Lat ob'tego, I cover over). 
Covered over ; applied to a form of 
metamorphosis in insects in which 
the wings and limbs are lodged in 



recesses in the integument of the 

Ob'tnrator (Lat. obturo, I stop np). 
That wl\^ch stops up ; a name ap- 
plied to two muscles, which arise 
near an opening in the pelvis called 
the obturator or thyroid foramen. 

Obtusan'gnilar (Lat. obti/^tu, blunt ; 
an'gvluSf an angle). Having angles 
larger than right angles. 

Obta'se (Lat. oUu^ms, blunt). In 
geometry^ aj^lied to angles which 
are larger than right angles. 

OVverse (Lat. 06, opposite ; vertOf I 
turn.) The side of a coin which 
has the &ce or head on it. 

Ob'volnte (Lat. 06, against ; volvOf I 
roll). Kolled into ; in botany^ ap- 
plied to an arrangemept of leaves 
in buds in which the margins of 
one leaf alternately overlap those 
of the leaf opposite to it. 

Occiden'tal (Lat. ocfcidens, the west ; 
from obf down; cado, I fall, in 
allusion to the setting of the sun). 
Belating to or produced in the 

Occipital (Lat. o&ciput, the back of 
the head). Belonging to the back 
of the head. 

Oc'dpnt (Lat. oh, opposite ; cap'ut, 
the head). The back part of the 

Occulta'tioxi (Lat. occul'to, I hide). 
A hiding ; the concealment from 
sight of a star or planet, by the 
interposition of another body. 

OcelltLS (Lat. oc'uZi», an eye). A 
little eye ; one of the small eyes of 
which the compound organs of 
vision are formed in many inverte- 
brate animals. 

Ochle'sis (Qr. oxAos, cchlos, a multi- 
tude). A crowding together. 

Ochre (Gh*. wxpost dchros, pale). A 
fine clay, coloured by more or less 
X)eroxide of iron. 

O'chrea or O'crea (Lat. a boot). In 
botany^ the tube formed in some 
plants by the growing together of 
the stipules, through which the 
stem passes. 

Oct- or Octo- (Gr. oictw, ohtd, eight). 
A prefix in compound words imply- 
ing eight. 

Oc'tagon (Gr. oieru, ohtoj eight; 
yuviOf gonia, an angle). A figure 
having eight angles. 

Oetagyn'ia (Gr. oktw, oktOf eight ; 
yvyrif gurie, a female). An order 
of plants in the Linnean system, 
having eight pistils. 

Octahed'roxi (Gr. oktu, oUd, eight ; 
ISpo, hed'ra, a base). A solid 
figure bounded by eight equal sides, 
each of which is an equilateral 

Octan'dria (Gr. bKra, oktOf eight; 
oanjp, aniTt a man). A class of 
plants in the Linnean system having 
eight stamens. 

Octan'gnlar (Lat. octOf eight ; an'gu- 
luUf an angle). Having eight an- 

Oc'tant (Lat. odo, eight). The 
eighth part of a circle ; the aspect 
of two planets in which they are 
distant from each other the eighth 
part of a circle, or forty-five de- 

Oc'tastyle (Gr. oktw, oktOj eight; 
(rrvXoSf stuloSf a pillar). A build- 
ing having eight columns in front. 

Oc'tave (Lat. octa'vus, the eighth). 
In music, a collection of eight con- 
secutive notes, of which the eighth 
(or highest) is produced bv twice 
the number of vibrations which 
form the first or lowest. 

Oc'topod (Gr. iKTWf oktby eight ; iroi/y, 
povSy a foot). An animal having 
eight feet or legs ; a tribe of cepha- 
lopods so called. 

Oc'nlar (Lat. oc'ulttSf an eye). Re- 
lating to the eyes. 

Oc'ulifomi (Lat. (x/uliis, an eye ; 
forma, form). Having the form 
of an eye. 

Oc'ulist (Lat. oefvJus, an eye). A 
person who treats disordei'S of the 

-Ode or -Odes (Gr. cohis, odes). A 
termination generijly denoting 
abundance of that substance which 
is implied by the previous part of 
the word. 

Ode'om (Ghr. uBdoVf ddeion; from 
to^ri, ddCf a song). A small theatre 
for the recitation of musical com- 



Odom'eter (Ghr. 6Sos, hod'os, a waj ; 
fierpoVf met'ron, a measure). Aa 
instrument for measuring tbe dis- 
tance travelled over by the wheels 
of a carriage. 

Odontal'gia (Gr. o^ovs, ocPous^ a 
tooth ; &\yoSf algos^ pain). Tooth- 

Odon'tograph (Gr. dSovs, od'ous, a 
tootn ; yptupWy graph'dj I write). 
An instrument for measuring and 
designing tbe teeth of wheels. 

Odon'toid (Gr. o^ovsy od'ous, a tooth ; 
ctSos, eidoSy shape). Like a tooth ; 
applied in anctiomy to a process of 
the second vertebra of the neck, 
also to ligaments connected with it. 

Odontorogy (Gr. HBovs, od'ous, a 
tooth ; A070S, logosy discourse). A 
description of the teeth. 

Odorif'erotLS (Lat. odor, smell ; fer'o, 
I carry). Giving or carrying scent. 

-(EeiotLS (Gr. oiKoSy oikos, a house or 
family). A termination used in 
botany, in reference to the arrange- 
ment of the stamens and pistils in 

(Ede^a (Gr. ol^&o, oi'ded, I swell). 
A swelling ; in medicine, a minor 
form of dropsy, consisting in a 
puffiness of parts from a collection 
of fluid in the tissue beneath the 

(EdematoTU (Gr. olBew, oi'deo, I 
swell). Having oedema. 

(Enan'thio (Gr. oipos, oinos, wine ; 
iufBoSf anthoSf a flower). A term 
applied to a liquid or ether sup- 
posed to give its aroma to wine. 

(Esoi^'agas (Gr. oho, otd, I carry ; 
9070, phag'o, I eat). The gullet ; 
the tube which conveys the food 
from the mouth tc the stomach. 

(Esophage'al {(Eioph'agus, the gul- 
let). Belonging to the oesophagus. 

(Esophagofomy {(Esoph'agvs ; Gr. 
rffivto, temno, I cut). The opera- 
tion of cutting into the oesophagus. 

Offie'inal (Lat. offici'na, a work- 
shop). Kept in shops. 

Ogee. In aixhiteciure, a form of 
moulding consisting of two mem- 
bers, the one concave and the other 

-Old ((jh:. €t8os, eidos^ form). A ter- 

mination implying likeness or alli- 

Qinoma'nia (Gr. olvos, oinos, wine ; 
/ucrta, ma'nia, madness). An in- 
sane desire for wine or alcoholic 

Old Bed Sandstone. See Sandstone. 

Oleag'inoiu (Lat. o'2eum, oil). Ha- 
ving the properties of or containing 

Oleate (Lat. &leum, oil). A com- 
pound of oleic acid with a base. 

Olecranon (Gr. d>\fyri, dime, the 
elbow ; Kpavos, kranos, a helmet). 
The projecting part of the upper 
end of the ulna, forming the back 
of the elbow. 

Ole'fiant (Lat. o'leum, oil ; fac'io, I 
make). Making oil ; applied to a 
gas consisting of carbon and hydro- 
gen, from its forming an oily 
liquid when mixed with chlorine. 

Oleic (Lat. o'leum, oil). Belonging to 
oil : applied to an acid obtained 
from oil. 

Olein (Lat. o'letm, oil). The thin 
oily part of oils and fats. 

Olfoe'tory (Lat. olfdc'io, I smell). 
Relating to the sense of smelling. 

OliiBUS'tory Nerves. The first pair of 
nerves proceeding directly from the 
brain, being the nerves of smelling. 

OligSB'mia (Gr. 6\iyos, ol'igos, little ; 
cUfio, haima, blood). That state 
of the system in which there is a 
deficiency of blood. 

Oligan'drotLS (Gr. ^Ai709, oHigos, 
few ; iarrip, anir, a male). Hav- 
ing fewer than twenty stamens. 

Origo- (Gr. 6\iyos, ol'igos, little). A 
prefix in compound words, signify- 
ing defect in quantity or number. 

Orivary (Lat. okva, an olive). Re- 
sembling an olive. 

Oma'snm. In comparcUive anatomy, 
the third stomach, or manyplies, of 
ruminant animals. 

Omen'tal (Omen'tum), Belonging to 
the omentum. 

Omen'tnm (Lat.). The caul: a fold 
of the peritoneal membrane cover- 
ing the intestines in front. 

Omniv'oroas (Lat. omnis, all ; voro, 
I devour.) Eating both animal and 
vegetable food. 



Chiu>- (Gr. mftos, omoSj the shoulder.) 
A prefix in com pound words, sig- 
nifying oonnection with the scapula 
or shoulder-blade. 

Omohy'oid (Gr. w/uor, omoSf the 
shoulder; hyoid bone). A name 
given to a muscle attached to the 
hyoid bone and the shoulder. 

Ozmfmo'ulate and On'gnlate. See 
Unguic'ulate and Un'gulate. 

OxLom'atopcaia (Gr. irofia, on'omoy a 
name ; rofc«, poieo, I make). A 
formation of words so as to pro- 
duce a real or fancied resemblance 
to the sounds which they are in- 
t^ded to describe. 

OxLtoIog'ieal (Gr. wr, dn^ being; 
koyoif logos, discourse). Eelat- 
ing to the science of beings or 
existing things. 

OxLtol'ogy (Gr. w, on, being ; \oyos, 
logo*, discourse). The science of 
being ; that part of metaphysics 
which investigates and explains the 
nature of beings. 

Onyeh'ia (Gr. hyv^, (m'ux, a nail.) 
A whitlow. 

(Oolite (Gr. wov, oon, an egg; XiBos, 
Uth'os, a stone). Limestone com- 
posed of small rounded particles like 
the eggs or roe of a fish : the name 
in geology of a system of stratified 
rocks, characterised by the pre- 
sence of limestone of tiiis deserip- 

Oolif ie (Gr. aov, don, an egg ; XiBos, 
lith'ot, a stone). Pertaining to the 

Opaleifoenoe (O/NxQ. A coloured shin- 
ing lustre reflected from a single 
spot in a mineral 

Opex'cnlar (Lat. oper^etdum, a lid). 
Having, or of the nature of, a lid 
or cover. 

Opex^cnlated (Lat. oper'euiuTn^ a lid). 
Provided with an operculum or 

Oper'oaliim (Lat. oper'io, I cover). A 
lid or cover. 

Ophid'iauB (Gr. 6<tH5, oph'is, a ser- 
pent). An order of reptiles, hav- 
ing the serpent as the type. 

Ophiol'ogy (Gr. 6^is, oph'is, a ser- 
pent; \oyos, logos, discourse). 
The description of serpents. 

Ophite (Gr. ^s, oph'is, a serpent). 
The mineral called serpentine. 

OphUial'mia (Gr. o^aX/uos, ophthaV' 
mos, the eye). Inflammation of the 

Ophthal'mio (Gr. o^oX/uos, opldhal'' 
mos, the eye). Belonging to the 

Ophthalmorogy (Gr. 6<peaXfios, oph' 
thal'mos, the eye ; \oyos, logos, 
discourse). The part of anatomi- 
cal science which describes the eyes 
and whatever relates to them. 

Ophthalmom'eter (Gr. wpBaXfios, oph- 
thaJUmos, the eye ; lurpov, mdfron, 
a measure). An instrument for 
measuring and comparing the 
powers of vision of the two eyes. 

Ophthal'moseope (Gr. o^oXijms, oph- 
thaHmos, the eye ; aKowtw, tikopfeS, 
I view). An instrument for ex- 
amining the interior ot the eye. 

O'piate {Opium). A medicine con- 
taining opium. 

OpisthoooB'lian (Gr. hnnvB^v, opis'' 
then, backwards ; koiXos, hailos, 
hollow). Having the vertebras 
hollow at the back part. 

Opisthof onos (Gr. imtrdtv, opufthen, 
backwards; rttvu, teino, I stretch). 
A form of tetanus in which the 
body is bent backwards. 

Opposition (Lat. ob, against; pono, 
I place.) A standing over against ; 
in astronomy, the position of a 
heavenly body, as seen from the 
earth, in the quarter directly oppo- 
site the eun, so that the earth lies 
in a direct line between it and the 

Optiom'eter (Gr. ii^is, opsis, vision ; 
fi€rpo¥, melfron, a measure). A 
measurer of sight, or of the pow^r 
of vision. 

Opta'tive (Lat. opto, I wish). Wish- 
ing : applied, in grammar, to that 
mode or form of the verb by which 
desire is expressed. 

Optic (Gr. iirrofuu, op'tomai, I see). 
Relating to sight, or to the laws of 

Optio Nerves. The second piur of 
nerves proceeding directly f]x>m the 
brain, being the nerves of sight. 

Optics (Gr. bwroiAcu, op'tomai, I see). 



The branch of ricUtJi^dl philosophy 
whiclL treats of the nature and pro- 
perties of light, the theory of culoors, 
the changes produced on light by 
the substances with which it comes 
into contact, and the structure of 
the eye and of instruments for aid- 
ing vision. 

Optom'eter. See Opsiom'eter. 

ClraX (Lat. os, the month). Belong- 
ing to or uttered by the mouth. 

Orbic'iilar (Lat. orbk'vlusy a small 
round ball, &om orhU^ a round 
thing). Circular ; in anatomy^ 
applied to the muscles which sur- 
round and close the eyelids and 

Orbit (Lat. orbis, a wheel). In c»- 
irorwmy, the curved course in 
which any body, as the moon or a 
planet, moves in its revolution 
round a central body ; in anatomy^ 
the cavity or socket in which the 
eye is situated. 

Whital (Orbit). Belonging to the 

Or'bito-splienoid. A term applied to 
the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, 
which forms part of the orbit. 

Order (Lat. ordo)» A group of genera, 
agreeing ib more general characters, 
but differing in special conformation. 

Or'dinate (Lat. ordOf order). In 
conic sections f a straight line drawn 
from a point in the abscissa to ter- 
minate in the curve. 

Org^ [Qt. opyayoVf or^ganon, an in- 
strument, from ^f>7w, ergoy I work). 
A natural instrument, by which 
some process or function is carried 

Organic (Gr. hpyavov^ ov^ga/iwrtf an 
. instrument). Consisting of or pos- 
sessing organs ; rdating to bodies 
which have organs ; in geology^ ap- 
plied to the accumulations or addi- 
tions made to the crust of the earth 
in various places by the agency of 
animals or vegetable matter, and 
to the fossil remains of animals and 
vegetables ; in medicine^ applied to 
diseases in which the structure of 
an organ is. evidently altered. 

Or^ganism (Gr. opyavov, or'ganon, an 
instrument). The assemblage of 

living forces or instruments const! 
tuting a body. 

Or'g^anize (Gr. opyca^oVf or'ganon, an 
instrument). To form with suitable 
organs, so that the whole may work 
together in a body. 

Oi^anog'eny (Gr opyavoy, oi^ganouy 
an instrument ; yevvauaj genna'o, 
I produce). The development of 

Organog'rapliy (Gr. opyayoPf of^ga- 
non, an instrument ; ypoujxof 
graph' Of I write). A description 
of organs ; used especially with 
regard to plants. 

Org^orogy (Gr. hpyaofov, or'gwMm, 
an instrument ; A070S, logosy dis- 
course). A description of organs, 
especially of the animal body. 

Orien'tal (Lat. o'riensy the east, from 
o'Wor, I arise). Eastern : relating 
to the east. 

Omithicli'nites (Gr. opyiSj omiSf a 
bird ; tx^^o;, ichnos^ a footstep). 
Fossil footprints of birds. 

Omi'tholites (Gr. dpviSf omis^ a bird ; 
\iOoSi liih'oSf a stone). The fossil 
remains of birds. 

Omithd'ogist (Gr. opviSf omis, a 
bird ; \oyoSf logos, discourse). A 
person who is skilled in the know- 
ledge of birds. 

Omithol'ogy (Gr. opyiSf omisj a bird ; 
\oyo5t logoSf discourse). The 
branch of zoology which describes 

Ororogy (Gr. o/ws, or'oSj a mountain ; 
\ayos, logoSf discourse). The science 
which describes mountains. 

Or'rery. A machine to represent the 
motions and aspects of the planets 
in their orbits. 

Ortho- (Gr. 6pdoSf orthos^ staight). A 
prefix in compound words, signify- 
ing straight. 

Orthooer'atite (Gr. opeos, orihos, 
straight; icepos, her'aSf a horn). 
A genus of straight horn-shaped 
fossil shells, with several chambers. 

Orthodromics (Gr. opdoSf orthos, 
stiuight ; ^potJtoSf drom'oSf a course). 
The art of sailing in the arc of a 
great circle, being the shortest dis- 
tance between two points on the 
surface of the globe. 



Or'thoepy (Gr. opOos, orthoSf right ; 
hros, ep'o8f a word). The correct 
pronunciation of words. 

Orthog'oxial (Gr. opOos, orthos, 
straight ; twvio, gonia, an angle). 
At right angles, or perpendicular. 

Orthog'raphy (Gr. 6p$oSf orthosy 
right; ypcup»i grapkoj I write). 
The art or practice of writing words 
with the proper letters : in archi- 
tecture, the elevation of a building, 
showing all the parts in their due 

OrthopnoB'a (Gr. ipdoSf orthos, upright; 
iirew, pneoy I breath). A diseased 
state in which breathing can only 
be performed in the erect position. 

Ortho^tera (Gr. opBos^ orthaa, straight ; 
irrepov, ptet^on, a wing). An order 
of insects, which have the wings 
disposed, when at rest, in straight 
longitudinal folds; as the cricket 
and grasshopper. 

OrthofropouB (Gr. opeos, ortkos, 
right; rpeirUf trep'o, I turn). 
Turned the right way ; applied in 
botcmy to the ovule where its parts 
undergo no change of position 
during growth. 

Oryotog'xiosy (Gr. ipvieros, orukftos, 
fossil, or dug out ; yvaxriSt gruisis, 
knowledge). The description and 
classification of minerals. 

Oryctorogy (Ghr. opvicroSf oruJifios, 
fossil ; \oyoSf logos^ a discourse). 
The description of fossils. 

Oseilla'tloxi (Lat. oscU'lvmif a swing). 
A swinging backwards and for- 
wards ; centre of oscillation is the 
point into which the whole moving 
force of a vibrating body is concen- 

Os'cnla (Lat. plural of otfculmm^ a 
little mouth). The larger orifices 
on the surface of a sponge. 

Os'mazome (Gr. offfji.% osme^ odour; 
(cofios, zomoSf juice or soup). The 
name given to the extractive matter 
of muscular fibre, which gives the 
smell to boiled meat. 

Os'mose (Gr. uOfut, diked, I impel). 
The process by which fluids and 
gases pass through membranes. 

Ofl'seons (Lat. os, a bone). Formed 
0^ or resembling bonet 

Os'side (Lat. ossic'tUumf from os, a 
bone; ulurOf denoting smallness). 
A little bone. 

Ossif 'erons (Lat. o«, a bone ; /e/o, I 
bear). Producing or containing 

Ossif 'ic (Lat. of, a bone ; facfio, I 
make). Making bone. 

Ossifloa'tioxL (Lat. os, a bone ; fatfia, 
I make). A change into a bony 
substance ; the formation of bones. 

Os'siiy (Lat; os, a bone; facfiOf I 
make). To form bone ; to become 

OsslT'oroiiB (Lat. os, a bone \vorOf I 
devour). Eating bones. 

Os'teal (Gr. o<movy os^teon, a bone). 
Belonging to bone. 

Os'teine (Gr. oareoy, os'teon, a bone). 
The tissue of bone. 

Ostei'tis (Gr. 6<rrtov, os'teon, a bone; 
itis, denoting inflammation). Li- 
flammation of bone. 

Osteoden'tine (Gr. wrreov^ ot/teon, a 
bone ; Lat. dens, a tooth). A 
structure formed in teeth, in part 
resembling bone. 

Osteog'eny (Gr. hcrr^ov, os'teon, a 
bone ; yewau, genna'dj I produce). 
The formation or growth of bone. 

Osteoid (Gr. oTreov, os'teon^ a bone ; 
6(8os, eido8, form). Resembling 

Osted'ogy (Gr. htn-tov, os'teon, a 
bone ; Xoyos, logoSf discourse). A 
description of the bones. 

Osteomala'cia (Gr. hareov, osfteon, a 
bone ; fiaXcucoSj maVakos^ soft). A 
diseased softening of the bones. 

Os'teopliyte (Gr. otrrfovj os'teon^ a 
bone ; ^vo), phm, I grow). A 
bony tumour or projection. 

Os'teotrite (Gr. hareov, os'teon, a 
bone ; Lat. tero, I rub). An instru- 
ment for redioving diseased bones. 

Osteozoa'ria (Gr. htrrcovy os'teon, a 
bone*; (otovy zooUy an animal). A 
name for the vertebrate division of 
the animal kingdom, comprising 
those animals which possess bones. 

Ostra'cea ( Gr. h(rrp€0Vy os'treon, an 
oyster). A family of bivalve mol- 
luscous invertebrate animals, of 
which the oyster is an example. 

Ostrap'oda (Gr. harp^ov^ oa'trean, an 



oyster; iroi/t, potu, a foot). An 
order of entomoBtracons crastacea, 
which have the body enclosed in a 
bivalve shell. 

Otal'gia (Gr. oiy, ous, the ear ; &A70S, 
algoSf pain). Pain in the ear. 

Otio (Gr. ovs, ofiSf the ear). Belong- 
ing to the ear. 

Oti'liB {Qt. oifSf ou8y the ear ; Uis, 
denoting inflammation). Inflam- 
mation of the ear. 

CVtocrane (Gr. obsf ovs, the ear ; xpa- 
viov, hranton^ the skull). The 
part of the skull which is modified 
for the reception of the organ of 

(VtolithB (Gr. ovsy otu, the ear ; Aidos, 
lith'oSf a stone). Eax-stones ; small 
masses of carbonate of lime con- 
tained in the membranous labyrinth 
of the internal ear. 

Otorrhe'a (Gr. obSf <yus, the ear; 
ptu, rkeof I flow). A flow or dis- 
charge from the ear. 

O'tosoope (Gbr. ous, oua, the ear; 
ffKoirecOf skop'eoj I view). An in- 
strument for listening to the sound 
passing through the tympanum in 
diseased states of the ear. 

Otos'teal (Gr. ohsy <mSf the ear ; 
6<rr€0Vf oa^teoriy a bone). The ear- 
bone in the skeleton of fishes. 

•0x18. In chemistry, a termination 
implying that the compound has a 
smaller quantity of oxygen than 
that whoHO name ends in -ic 

Outcrop. In geology ^ the edge of an 
inclined stratum when it comes to 
the surface of the ground. 

Outlier. In geology, a patch or mass 
of a stratum detached from the 
main body of the formation to 
which it belongs. 
Ova (Lat. plund of owm, an egg). 

Oval (Lat. 01mm, an egg). Shaped 
like an e^. 

O'vary (Lat. wumj an egg). The 
organ in animals in which eggs are 
formed and contained; in plants, 
the case containing the young seeds, 
and ultimately becoming the fruit. 

Ovate (Lat. owm^ an egg). In 
any, like an ^g, with the lower 
d broadest. 

Overshot Wheel. A wheel which is 
moved by water which flows at its 
upper part into buckets placed 
round its circumference. 

Ovieap'sule (Lat. ovum, an egg ; 
caps'ula, a capsule or casket). The 
sac which contains the egg. 

O'vidnct (Lat. ormm, an egg ; duco, 
I lead). A passage which conveys 
eggs from the ovary. 

Ovig'erouB (Lat. ovttm, an egg ; get^o, 
I carry). Carrying eggs ; applied 
to receptacles in which, in some 
animals, eggs are received after 
being discharged from the ovary. 

O'viform (Lat. owm, an egg ; forma, 
shape). Like an egg. 

Ovine (Lat. ovis, sheep). Pertaining 
to sheep. 

Ovip'axons (Lat. ovtim, an egg; par'io, 
I produce). Producing eggs; ap- 
plied to animals in which the egg 
is hatched after ^trusion from the 

Oviposit (Lat. ovum, an egg ; pono, 
I put). To lay eggs. 

Oviposit'ion (Lat. ovum, an egg ; 
pono, I put). The laying of eggs. 

Oidpos'itor (Lat. ovum^ an egg ; pono, 
I put). The organ which transmits 
eggs to their proper place during 

Ovifl (Lat., a sheep). The generic 
term for the animals of which the 
sheep is the type. 

O'visac (Lat. ovum, an egg ; sac). 
The cavity in tiie ovary which 
contains the ovum. 

O'volo. In architecture, a round 
moulding, generally the quarter of 
a circle. 

Ovovivip'aroTUi (Lat. ovum, an egg ; 
vivus, 'alive ; par^io, I produce). 
Hatching young from eggs in the 
body of the parent, but not in an 
uterine cavity. 

Ov'nle (Lat. ovum, an egg). A little 
egg, or seed ; the small body in 
plants which becomes a seed. 

Oz'alate (OxaX'ic), A salt composed 
of oxalic acid and a base. 

Oxal'ic (Lat oa^alis, sorrel). Per- 
taining to sorrel : applied to an 
acid, first obtained from the sorrel, 
but of very common occurrence. 



Oz'idate (Oxide). To oonyert into 
an oxide. 

Oxide {Oxfygen), A body formed of 
oxygen wiih another elementary 

Ox'idiae (Ch!ygen), To charge or 
impregnate with oxygen. 

Ozy-. A prefix in compound words, 
signifying generally that oxygen 
enters into tiie composition of the 
substance ; sometimes also im- 
plying acateness. 

(h^rg'eiiate (Oafygen^ firom Gr. h^vs, 
ofiTttf, acid ; yeyvau, genna'o, I 
produce). To unite or cause to 
combine with oxygen. 

Oxyg'eiiise. See Oxygenate. 

OxTg^enonB (Ox^ygen), Belating to 

Qxyhj'dzogen Blowpipe. A kind 
of blowpipe in which oxygen and 
hydrogen gases are burned together, 
to produce intense heat. 

Ozyhy'dzogen Mi'eroscope. A mi- 
croscope illuminated by a cylinder 
of limestone exposed to the flame 
of the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe. 

Oz'ysalt ((hfygen; salt). A salt 
into the composition of which 
oxygen enters. 

Os'one (Gr. o^w, o^o, I smell). A 
modification of oxygen, produced 
by electrical action, and emitting a 
peculiar odour. 


PaVnlum (Lat. from ptucOf I feed). 

Pacchio'nian 'Bodieam(Pacchio'ni, an 
Italian anatomist). Small fleshy 
looking eleyations formed on the 
external surface of the dura ma- 

Pachyder^iatonB (Gr. vaxvstpach'tUf 
thick; 8ff>/ua, c2erffia, skin). Thick- 
skinned ; applied to an order of 
animals having hoofis, but not 
chewing the cud, of which the 
elephant, hippopotamus, horse, pig, 
and a large number of fossil animal 
are examples. 

Padn'ian Bodies (Paci'niy an Italian 
anatomist). Minute oval bodies, 
attached to the extremities of the 
nerves of the hand and foot, and 
some other parts. 

Pals'o- (Gr. ira\(uos, palat'os, an- 
cient). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying ancient. 

Patoog'raphy (Gr. roAouos, palaifoSy 
ancient ; ypwpia, graph' 5^ I write). 
The art of deciphering and reading 
ancient inscriptions. 

PakBol'ogy (Gr. waXcuos, palai'os, 
ancient ; \oyo5f logos, discourse). 
A discourse or treatise on ancient 

PalflBontorogy (Gr. iraXcuos, palai'os, 
ancient ; wy, ofif being ; Koyos, 

logos, discourse). The branch of 
science which describes the fossil 
animals and plants found in geolo- 
gical strata. 

Pal8Boph3rtorogy (Gr. iraXatos, pa- 
lai'os, ancient ; <p\nov, phvion, a 
plant ; \oyos, logos, discourse). 
A term proposed for that branch of 
palaeontology which treats of fossil 
vegetable remains. 

Palarasan'ms (Gr. voXaios, palaHos, 
ancient ; traopos, sauros, a lizard). 
Ancient lizard : a fossil reptile 
found in the magnesian limestone 
of the Permian system. 

PalsBothe'riam (Gr. voXcuos, pdlaiSos, 
ancient ; Bripiov, tJirrion, wild 
beast). A fossil pachydermatous 
or thick-skinned animal, found in 
the tertiary strata. 

PalsBOZo'ic (Gr. iroXouor, palai^os, 
ancient ; (oni, zoS, life). A term 
applied to the lowest division of 
strata which contains fossil re- 
mains of animals. 

PalflBOZool'ogy (Gr. toXcuos, pala'ios^ 
ancient ; itoov, zOon, an animal ; 
X070S, logos, a discourse). A term 
proposed for that branch of palseon- 
tology which describes fossU animal 

Pala'tal (Lat. pala'tum, the roof of 
the mouth). Belatbg to the pa- 



late : a letter formed by the aid of 
the palate. 

Pal'atiJie (Lat. pala'tum, the roof of 
the mouth). Belonging to the 

Pal'atine (Lat. pala'tium^ a palace). 
Belonging to a palace : having royal 
priyileges : counties palatine, in 
England, were Chester, Durham, 
and Lancaster, oyer which the pro- 
prietors — ^the Earl of Chester, 
Bishop of Durham, and Duke of 
Lancaster — formerly possessed 
rights equal to those of the king. 

Pala'to-. In anaiomy^ a prefix in 
compound words, signifying connec- 
tion with the palate. 

Pa'Iea (Lat. chaff). A name given 
to a part of the flowers of grasses ; 
also to the small «Bcaly plates in 
the receptacle of some composite 

Palea'ceous (Lat. paflea, chaff). Ee- 
sembling chaff ; covered with small 
membraneous scaled. 

Palim'psest (Gr. vaXiVj pal'iny again ; 
^ouo, psaof I rub). A sort of 
parchment from which anything 
written might be rubbed out, so 
that it might be again written on. 

Pallial (Lat. pat Hum, a mantle). 
Belonging to the pallium or mantle. 

Palliobranchia'ta (Lat. pal'liumy a 
mantle ; Gr. fipayxui, bran'chiOf 
gills). A class of molluscous in- 
vertebrate animals, havii}g the 
branchise arranged on the inner 
surface of the mantle. 

Pallium (Lat. a mantle). In zoclogy, 
the fleshy covering lining the in- 
terior of the shells of bivalve 
mollusca, and covering the body of 
the animal. 

Pal'macites (Lat. palma^ a palm- 
tree). Fossil remains which bear 
an analogy or resemblance to the 
existing palms. 

PaI'mar (Lat. palma, the palm of the 
hand). Belonging to the palm. 

Pal'mate (Lat. palma^ the palm). 
Eesembling a hand with the fingers 
spread ; in botany^ applied to 
leaves divided into lobes to about 
the middle. 

Palmaf ifid (Lat. palma, the palm ; 

findOf I cleave). Divided so as to 
resemble a hand. 

Pal'miped (Lat. palmar a palm ; pes, 
a foot). Web-footed ; applied to 
an order of birds having the toes 
connected by a membrane for the 
purpose of swimming, as the pen- 
guin, petrel, pelican, swan, goose, 
duck, &c. 

Palpa'tioxi (Lat. palpo, I feel). Feel- 
ing : examination by means of the 
sense of touch. 

Pal'pebra (Lat.). An eyelid. 

Pal'pebral (Lat. paVpehra, an eye- 
lid). Belonging to the eyelids. 

Palpi (Lat. palpoy I feel). Feelers : 
jointed filaments attached to the 
heads of insects and some other 

Paln'dal (Lat. palus, a marsh). Be- 
longing to or caused by emanations 
from marshes. 

Paxn'piiiiform (Lat. pam'pintu, a 
tendril ; forma, shape). Like a 
tendril. • 

Pan-, Pant-, or Panto- (Or, iras, 
pas, all). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying all, or every 

Panace'a (Gr. irav, pan, all ; hctofMt, 
akfeomai, 1 cure). A medicine 
supposed to cure all diseases. 

Pan'ary (Lat. panis, bread). Eclat- 
ing to bread ; formerly applied to 
the fermentative process which 
takes place in the making of bread. 

Pan'creas (Gr. irov, pan, all ; xptas, 
kreas, flesh). A narrow flat gland 
extending across the abdomen 
under the stomach, and secreting a 
fluid which aids in the digestion of 

Panoreat'io (Pan'creas). Belonging 
to or produced by the pancreas. 

Pandem'ic (Gr. trap, pan, all ; ^fios, 
demos, people). Attacking a whole 

Pan'duxiform (Lat. pandura, a 
fiddle ; forma, shape). Shaped 
like a fiddle ; applied, in botany, 
to leaves which are contracted in 
the middle and broad at each end. 

Panicle (Lat. panidula, the down 
upon reeds). A form of inflores- 
cence, consisting of spikelets on 



long peduncles coming off in the 
manner of a raceme, as in grasses. 

Panic'iilate (Lat. panu/ula). Hav- 
ing flowers arranged in panicles. 

Panora'ms (Gr. irov, pan^ sXl ; bp<uo, 
hiorao, I see). An entire view ; a 
form of picture in which all the 
objects tiiat can be seen from a 
single point are represented on the 
inner surfetce of a round or cylin- 
drical walL 

Paa'togrsph (Ghr. way, pan, all ; 
ypcuptc, grapho, I write). An in- 
strument for copying drawings. 

Paatom'eter (Gr. irav, pan, all ; 
Herpov, metfrom^ a measure). An 
instrument for measuring all kinds 
of elevations, angles, and distances. 

FapaTera'ceouB (Lat. papa'ver, a 
poppy). Belonging to the order of 
plants of which the poppy is the 

Fapiliona'oeoas (Lat. papU'io, a 
butterfly). Besembling a butter- 
fly : applied to plants of the legu- 
minous order, as the pea, from ^e 
shape of the flowers. 

Fapil'la (Lat. a nipple). A small 
conical or cylindrical projection of 
the skin or mucous membrane, 
containing blood-vessels and nerves, 
and serving sometimes to extend 
the surface, and sometimes for re- 
ceiving impressions made on the 
extremities of the nerves. 

Papillary (Lat. papil'la). Consist- 
ing of or provided with papillse. 

Pap'illated or Pap'illose (Lat. pa- 
pi/la). Covered with small nipple- 
like prominences. 

Pappose (Lat pappvs, down). 

Pap'ulsB (Lat. plural of pap'tUa, a 
kind of pimple). Pimples. 

Papyra'ceoTU (Lat. papy'rtu, paper). 
Papery : of- the nature or consis- 
tence of paper. 

Par'a- (Gr. irapo, pai^a), A Greek 
preposition used in compound words, 
signifying close to, side by side, 
beyond, passing through, or con- 

Parab'ola (Gr. iropo, pai-'a, beyond ; 
/SoAAw, balld, I cast ; probably 
from being the curve described in 

the motion of projectiles). The 
figure produced by cutting a cone 
by a plane parallel to one of its 
Paraboric {Pardb'ola). Having the 
form of, or relating to, a parabola. 
Parab'oloid (Parab'olu; Gr. ciSos, 
eidos, form). The solid body pro- 
duced by the revolution of a paro- 
bola about its axis. 
Paracente'alB (Gr. Trapa, pat^a, 
beyond ; Ktvrea, hen* ted, I pierce). 
The operation of perforating a part 
of the body to aUow the escape of 
Paracen'trio (Gr. iropo, par'a, be- 
yond ; Kivrpov, hentron, a centre). 
Deviating from the curve which 
would form a circle. 
Par'adox (Gr. wapa, pcu^a, beyond; 
^o^ doxa, opinion). Something 
that seems at first to be contrary 
•to received opinion, or absurd. 
Par'affin (Lat. parum, little ; affi'nis, 
allied to). A substance obtained 
from tar, remarkable for its resis- 
tence to strong chemical agents, and 
for not being knovm to combine in 
a definite manner with any other 
Parago'ge' (Gr. wapa, par^a, be- 
yond ; 07W, ago, 1 draw). The 
addition of a letter or syllable to 
the end of a word. . 
Parallac'tio (Gr. vapa, par^a, be- 
yond ; aXAour<r(», alias' so, I change). 
Belonging to the parallax. Paral- 
lactic inequality in the moon^s 
course is the inequality dependent 
on the difference between the dis- 
turbing forces exercised by the sun 
in conjunction and opposition. 
Par'i^az (Gr. iropo, pai'^a, beyond ; 
iXXaurcra^ alias' ao, I change). The 
apparent change in the position of 
an object, according to the point 
from which it is viewed. Diurnal 
parallax is the difference between 
the place of a celestial body as seen 
from the surface, and that in which 
it would appear if seen from the 
centre, of the earth. Horizontal 
parallax is the greatest amount of 
diurnal parallax, occurring when 
the object is in the horizon. An- 



diiaI parallax is the apparent dis- 
placement of a celestial body aris- 
ing from its being viewed from dif- 
ferent parts of the earth^s orbit. 

Par'allel (Gr. iropo, par'a, opposite ; 
iWfiXcoVf aUelorij one another). 
Extending in the same direction 
and equally distant in every part. 

Parallerograin (Gr. xapaWtiKos, pa- 
ralleloSf parallel ; ypeufxot graph' o^ 
I write). A figure with four straight 
sides, having the opposite sides 
equal and parallel. 

Parallelopi'ped (Or. TapoXAs^Xos, pa- 
ralleloSt jMirallel; ^irtircSos, epip'e- 
doSf level). A solid figure bounded 
by six parallelograms, parallel to 
each other two and two, as in a 

Paral'3rsi8 (Gr. i-opo, pa'Ha, from ; 
kuUf luOf I loosen). Palsy ; a loss 
of power of voluntary motion or 
sensation, or both, in any part ,of 
the body. 

Paralyfic (Gr. ropo, pa^a, from ; 
Xu», IWf I loosen). Affected with 

Par'alyse (Gr. irapa, pcvr^af from ; Xuw, 
hiOf I loosen). To render incapable 
of motion or sensation. 

Paramagnet'io (Gr. iropo, por^o, by ; 
futyvTiSf magrieSt a magnet). A term 
applied to bodies which are attracted 
by both poles of the magnet, and 
which then arranges itself parallel 
to the straight line joining the poles. 

Paraple'gia (Gr. vapo, par^a, across ; 
ir\ri<r<rUf plesaOf I strike). Palsy 
of the lower half of the body, or 
of both lower limbs. 

Paiapoph'3rsi8 (Gr. xapa, pa/i^a, be- 
yond ; apoph'ysis), A name given 
to the transverse process of an ideal 
typical vertebra. 

Fara8ele'iie'(Gr. xapOf par' a, beyond ; 
(re\riyri, Selene^ the moon). A 
mock moon ; a luminous ring sur- 
rounding the moon. 

Far'asite (Gr, iropo, par^a^ by ; ffiros, 
sUoSf corn : applied originally to a 
class of public servants, who were 
maintained at the tables of the 
richer people). Any plant or ani- 
mal which lives and feeds on the 
body of another plant or animal. 

Parasif ie (Parasite), Living on some 
other body, and deriving nutriment 
from it. 

Paratomnerre (Gr. irapa, par^a^ from ; 
Fr. tonnerref thunder). A light- 
ning conductor ; a pointed metallic 
rod erected over a building or 
other object to protect it from 

Pareg^r'ic (Gr. itapriyopeUf paregoreo, 
I mitigate). Mitigating pain. 

Paren'chyma (Gr. -n-apo, par'a, by ; 
iyXVfJMf en/chvma, a tissue). A 
term used to denote either the 
solid part of a gland, including all 
its tissues, or any substance lying 
between the ducts, vessels, and 

ParexLohy'matOlu (Paren'ehyma). 
Consisting of parenchyma ; or 
affecting parts formed of paren- 

Paren'thesis (Ghr. vapo, po/a, beyond ; 
iVf eUf in : ridrifUf tithJemif I place). 
An insertion of words in the body 
of a sentence, giving some explana- 
tion or comment, but not forming 
a part of its grammatical struc- 

Parhe'llon (Gr. irapa, pai^a, beyond ; 
ri\ioSy hJeliosy the sun). A mock 
sun ; a meteor appearing as a bright 
light near the sun, sometimes 
tinged with colours like a rainbow. 

Pari'etal (Lat. parties, a wall). Be- 
lating to or acting as a wall : in 
a/MUomyy applied to a large flat 
bone at each side of the head ; in 
botany^ applied to any organ which 
grows from the sides or waUs of 

Parletes (Lat. plural of par^iesy a 
wall). The enclosing walls of any 

ParisyUab'io (Lat. par, equal ; Gr. 
auWafirif atd'lale, a syllable). Hav- 
ing an equal number of syllables. 

Paronoma'sia (Gr. irapa, par' a, near ; 
hvoiia(u^ onoma'zo, I name). A 
figure by which words nearly alike 
in sound, but of different meanings, 
are used in relation to each other 
in the same sentence. 

Parot'id (Gr. irof o, par'a, near ; ovs, 
ouSf the ear). 14 ear the ear ;. ap- 



plied to one of the saliTary glands 
from its situation. 

Faroti'tis (Lat. paro'tiSy the x)arotid 
gland ; UiSf denoting inflammation). 
Mumps; inflammation of the parotid 

Par'ozysm (Gr. rapo, 'par'a, beyond ; 
o|vs, oxusy sharp). A fit of any 
disease, coming on after a period of 
intermission or suspension. 

Farozys'mal {Paroxysm), Oecnr- 
ring in paroxysms or fits. 

Farthenogen'eslB (Gr. xape^vos, par'- 
thenoSf a virgin ; ytwaa, genna'd, 
I produce). The successive pro- 
duction of animals or vegetables 
from a single ovum. 

Far'ticle (Lat. parSf a part : cUf de- 
noting smallness). A. minute part 
of a body. 

Far'tite (jjat. pa/Ztio, I divide) In 
botaaipt divided to near the base. 

Farta'nent (Lat. pa^tu'rio, I bring 
forth). Bringing forth young. 

Fartniifion (Lat. paHu'rio^ I bring 
forth). The act of bringing forth 

Fas'seres (Lat. passer, a sparrow). 
An order of birds, characterised 
by slender legs, feeble, straight or 
nearly straight bill, sufficiently 
large wings, and small or moder- 
ate size.; including the sparrow, 
swallow, blackbird, and numerous 
oth^ birds. 

Fas'serine (Lat. passer, a sparrow). 
Belonging to the order passeres, of 
which the sparrow is a type. 

Patella (Lat. a dish with a broad 
brim). The knee-pan. 

Fathogenet'io (Gr. iraOos, path'os, 
suffering ; f^waua^ genna'o, I pro- 
duce). Producing disease : relating 
to the production of disease. 

Fathog'eiiy(Gr. vados, path'os, suffer- 
ing; ytvvoM, genna'o, I produce). 
The study of the seats, nature, 
general forms, and varieties of 

Pathognomonic (Gr. ira9os, path'os, 
suffering ; ytvcoffKof, ginosko^ I 
know). Peculiar to any si)ecial 
disease, and distinguishing it from 
all othei-s. 

PathoVogy Gr. vados, path^os, suffer- 

ing ; XoyoSf logos, discourse). The 
branch of medical science which 
treats of the nature and constitu- 
tion of disease. 

Patholog'ical (Gr. xaOos, path'os, suf- 
fering ; \oyos, logos, a discourse). 
B^lating to the study of the nature 
of disease. 

Paf olous (Lat. paJlfto, I am open). 
Spreading open. 

Pancispi'ral (Lat. paums, few; vpira, 
a spire). Having few spiral turns. 

Pavement Epithe'liom. A form of 
epithelium in which the particles 
have the form of small angular 
. masses or thin scales. 

Pe'cilopodfl. 8ee Poe'cilopods. 

Pec'ora (Lat. pedus, cattle). A name 
given by Linnnus to the ruminat- 
ing mammals. 

Peo'tin (Gr. tt^ictos, peletos, solid, 
congealed). The jelly of fruits. 

Pec'tinate (Lat. pecten, a comb). Ba- 
sembling the teeth of a comb. 

Pectine'al (Lat. pecten, a comb). In 
arMUomy, applied to a line forming 
a sharp ridge on the pubic bone of 
the pelvis. 

Pectinibraaohia'ta (Lat. pecten, a 
comb ; Qr.fipayxia,hran'chia, gills). 
An order of gasteropodous mollus- 
cous animals, which have the gills 
in a comb-like form, usually seated 
in a cavity behind the head. 

Pec'tiniform (Lat. pecten, a comb ; 
forma, shape). Resembling a comb. 

Pec'toral (Lat. pectus, the breast). 
Belonging to or situated on the 
region of the breast ; the pectoral 
fins in fishes are the anterior fins, 
which represent the fore limbs of 
the higher vertebrate animals. 

Pectoiil'oqay(Lat. pectus, the breast; 
loquor, I speak). A direct trans- 
mission of the sound of the voice 
from the chest to the ear, heard on 
listening over the chest in certain 
diseased states. 

Pectus (Lat.) The breast. 

Pedate (Lat. pes, the foot). Having 
divisions like the toes. 

Pedicle (Lat. pes, the foot). A sab- 
division of a peduncle or stem. 

Ped'iform (Lat. pes, a foot ; formn^ 
shape). Shaped like a foot. 



Fedig'erous (Lat. puf a foot ; gero, 
I bear). CanTfiUg feet. 

Fedilu'viom (Lat. peSf a foot ; lavo, 
I wash).. A foot-bath. 

Ped'imtAt (Lat. pes, a foot). In or- 
cMtecture, the triangular surface 
formed by the vertical termination 
of a i*oof consisting of two sloping 
sides, and bounded by three cor- 

Fedipal'pi (Lat. pes, a foot ; palpi, 
feelers). A section of arachnida, 
remarkable for the large size of 
their palpi, which are furnished 
with claws or pincers, as the scor- 

Ped'nncle (Lat. pes, a foot ; cle, de- 
noting smallness). A stem. 

FedTm'cnlated {Ped^ uncle). Growing 
or supported on a stem. 

Peg^matite (Ghr. tniyfia, pegma, any- 
thing fastened together). A form 
of granite, being a fine-grained 
compound of feldspar and quartz, 
with minute scales of mica. 

Pelag'ic (Qr. v^Xayos, pel'agos, the 
open sea). Belonging to the deep 

Pellag'ra (Lat. pellis cegra, diseased 
skin). Italian leprosy; a disease 
of the skin common in the north of 

Pellicde (Lat. pdlis, a skin ; cle, 
denoting smallness). A thin skin 
or film ; in botany, the outer cover- 
ing of plants. 

PeUu'cid (Lat. per, through; lu'ci- 
dus, light). Clear ; transparent. 

Pel'tate (Lat. pelta, a target). Ha- 
ving the shape of a round shield or 
target ; in botany, applied to leaves 
having the stem inserted at or near 
the middle of the under surface. 

Pelvic (Pelvis). Belonging to the 

Pelvis (Lat. a basin). In anatomy, 
the cavity or inclosure in the ani- 
mal body made up of the innomi- 
nate bones, the sacrum, and the 
coccyx, and supporting the lower 
organs of the abdomen on the in- 
side, and the lower limbs on the 

Pemphi'gns (Gr. vefupt^, pemphix, a 
small blister). A disease of the 

skin, consisting in an eruption of 
blisters of various sizes, from the 
size of a sixpence to that of a half- 

Pencil of Bays. In optics, a collec- 
tion of rays of light radiating from 
or converging to a common point, 
and included within the surface of 
a cone or other regular limit. 

Pendant (Fr. hanging, from Lat. 
pendeo, I hang). An ornament 

, used in the vaults and ceilings of 
Gothic architecture. 

Pen'dolous (Lat. pen'deo, 1 hang). 

Pen'dolam (Lat. pen'deo, I hang). A 
body suspended so that it may 
vibrate about some fixed point by 
the action of gravity. 

Penicil'late (Lat. penicHlus, a small 
brush). Having the form of a 
pencil or small brush. 

Penin'snla (Lat. pene^ almost ; in'- 
sula, an island). A portion of 
land nearly or in great part sur- 
rounded by water, and joined to 
the mainland by a part narrower 
than the tract itself. 

Pennate (Lat. penna, a feather). 

Pen'nifer (Lat. penna, a feather ; 
fer^o, I bear). Covered with fea- 

Pen'niform (Lat. penna^ a feather ; 
forma, shape). Having the shape 
of a feather ; in anatomy, applied 
to muscles of which the fibres pass 
out on each side from a central 

Pen'ninerved (Lat. penna, a feather ; 
nervtis, a nerve). In botany, ap- 
plied to leaves which have the 
nerves or veins arranged like the 
parts of a feather. 

Pennnle (Lat. penna, a feather ; vie, 
denoting smallness). A small fea- 
ther, or division of a feather. 

Penta- (Gr. irei/rc, pente, five). A 
prefix in compound words, signify- 
ing five. 

Pentac'rinites (Gr. n-erre, pente, 
five ; Kpivov, Jcrimm, a Uly). A 
tribe of echinoderms, mostly fossil, 
in which the animal consists of a 
jointed flexible column fixed at the 



base, and supporting a ooncaye 
disc or body, with five jointed cy- 
lindrical arms. 

Fentadac'tyle (Gr. tcvtc, pente, 
five; teuervKos, dalftuloSf a finger). 
Having five fingers or toes. 

Fen'tagon (Gr. x^jne, pente, five; 
Twi'ia, goniaf an angle). A figure 
having five angles. 

Fen'tagraph. See Pantagraph. 

Fentag^'ia (Gr. veme, pente, five ; 
yvyrjf guniy a female). A term 
applied in the Linnean system to 
those classes of plants which have 
five pistils. 

Fentahed'ral (Gr. verre, peatey five ; 
^8pa, hed'ra, a base). Having 
five equal sides. 

Fentahed'ron (Gr. tcktc, pente, five ; 
{Spa, Tied' r a, a base). A solid 
figure, having five equal mdes. 

Fentam'era (Gr. ircKxe, pente, five ; 
titpoSf meroSf a part). Having five 
parts ; in zoology, a section of the 
coleoptera or beetle tribe, having 
the tarsi of all the feet five- 

Fentam'eter (Gr. ircyre, pen^e, five ; 
fierpoyy medron^ a measure). A 
verse of five feet. 

Fentan'diia (Gr. irem-e, pente, five ; 
&V77P, OTier, a man). A class of 
plants in the Linnsean system, 
having five distinct stamens. 

Fentan'gn^lar (Gr. ircKre, pentey five ; 
Lat. an'guluSy an angle). Having 
five angles. 

Fentaphyllous (Gr. tcktc, pente, 
five ; <pv\XoVy phvllon, a leaf). 
Having five leaves). 

Fentasper'moiLS (Gr. ircKxe, pente, 
five ; (TiripfjLa, sperma, a seed). 
Having five seeds. 

Fen'tastyle (Gr. ir^vre, pente, five ; 
oTvAos, itvlos, a pillar). A bxdld- 
ing having five columns in front. 

Fenol'timate (Lat. pency almost ; 
vl'tinvm, last). Last but one. 

Fenumlira ^Lat. pene, almost ; urti' 
hrOf a shadow). Partial shade or 
shadow ; in optics and astronomy^ 
a space on each side of a perfect 
shadow or eclipse, from which the 
rays of light are partially cut off 
by the opaque body ; in painting^ 

the part where the shade and light 
blend with each other. 

Fepsine (Gr. Tcirrctf, pepto, I digest). 
The active principle of the gastric 
juice, which effects digestion. 

Fep'tic (Gr. i-eiTTw, peptd, I digest). 
Promoting digestion. 

Fer- (Lat) A preposition used in 
compound words, signifying through, 
thoroughly, very, in excess. 

For Axmom (Lat.) By the year. 

For Cap'ita (Lat ). By the head. 

Fercep'tioii (Lat. per, by or through; 
cap'io, I take) . The process by which 
the mind takes notice of external 

Fercblo'rate (Lat. per, through ; 
chlorine). A salt consisting of per- 
chloric acid and a base. 

Feirclilo'rio(Lat.f>fr, very; chlorine), 
A term applied to an acid consist- 
ing of one equivalent of chlorine 
and seven of oxygen. 

Fer'colate (Lat. per, through ; nolo, 
I strain). To strain through. 

Fercola'tion, (Lat. per, through ; colOf 
I strain). The act of straining. 

Fercufreat (Lat. per, through ; 
curro, I run). Running through 
from top to bottom. 

Fercns'siOE (Lat. perctU'io, I strike). 
A striking. 

Feren'nial (Lat. per, through ; an- 
nus, a year). Lasting through 
several or many years. 

Ferennibran'chiate (Lat. peren'nis, 
lasting ; Gr. fipayxia, bran'chia^ 
gills). Having lastbg gills ; ap- 
plied to batrachian reptiles in 
which the giUs remain throughout 

Ferfoliate (Lat. per, through ; /o'- 
lium, a leaf). Applied to leaves 
which have the lobes at the base 
united, so as to surround the stem, 
as if the stem ran through them. 

Fer'i- (Gr. irept, per^i, around). A 
preposition in compound words, 
signifying around. 

Fer'iaiitii(€pi,j9c/i, about; &v0of, 
anthos, a flower).' A term applied 
to the calyx and corolla of flowers ; 
especially when they cannot be 
easily distinguished from each 




Feriaa'diBX {Pericar^dium), Belong- 
ing to or produced in the pericar- 

Perioardi'tis (Pericar^dium ; itia, 
denoting inflamation). Inflamma- 
tion of the pericardium or mem- 
brane covering the heart. 

Pericar'diTim (Gr. irepi, per'if around ; 
Kop^iOf kar'diat the heart). The 
serousmembrane covering the heart. 

Per'iearp (Qr. wep/, per'ij around ; 
KoprroSf harpoSy fruit). The seed- 
vessel, or shell of the fruit of 

Periehon'drixim (Gr. vepif pei'^i, 
around ; x^'^^P^h chondroSj carti- 
lage). The membrane covering 

Pericra'niiun (Gh:. ircpt, per'ij around ; 
Kpctyioy, hrafniorif the skidl). The 
membrane immediately covering 
the bones of the skull. 

Per'iderm (Gr. xtpi, pe/i, about; 
StpfjLOf derma, skin). In botany, 
the outer layer of bark. 

Perigee (Gh:. irepi, per^if about ; 717, 
gcf the earth). Tbe point in the 
moon's path which is nearest to 
the earth, and where it therefore 
appears largest. 

Per'igone (Gr, irfpi, pe/i, about ; 
yovrit gon'e, a pistil). A term for 
the floral envelopes : sometimes 
restricted to cases in which the flower 
bears pistils only. 

Perig'yxiOTXS (Gr. irepi, per^i, about ; 
7i;v»7, gtme, a female). Growing 
on some part that surrounds the 
ovary in a flower ; applied to the 
corolla and stamens when they are 
attached to the calyx. 

Poihe'lion (Gr. irept, perH, about; 
TjXioSt helios, the sun). The point 
of its orbit in which a planet or 
comet is nearest to the sun. 

Perim'eter (Gr. irept, per% around ; 
fierpov, melfron, a measure). The 
bounds or limits of a body : in a 
circle, the circumference. 

Pe'riod (Gr. irept, per^i, about ; 680s, 
hados, a way). A circuit : a stated 
portion of time. 

Periodic or Periodical (Gr. ircpt, 
pc/i, about ; 68oy, hodoSy a way). 
Performed in a regidar circait in a 

given time ; occurring at regular 

Periodic (Lat. per, very ; i'odme). 
A term applied to an acid contain- 
ing an equivalent of iodine and 
seven of oxygen. 

Periodicity (Period), The disposi- 
tion of certain things, or circum- 
stances, to return at stated intervals. 

Periodon'tal (Gr. irept, per'i, about ; 
080VS, odotis, a tooth). Surroxmd- 
ing the teeth. 

Perice'ci (Gr. xcpi, pe/i, round a- 
bout; olxeot, oi'keo, I dwell). The 
inhabitants of the earth who live 
in the same latitudes, but whose 
longitudes differ by 180 degrees, so 
that when it is noon with one it is 
midnight with the other. 

Periostl'tis {Periosteum : itis, denot- 
ing inflammation). Inflammation of 
the periosteum. 

Perios'teiim (Gr. irepi, per^i, around ; 
otrrtov, osteon, a bone). The 
fibrous membrane which invests 
the bone. 

PexiOB'tracnm (Gr. urepi, per'i, 
around ; hcrrpcucov, oStrakon, a 
shell). The membrane which covers 

Peripetefic (Gr. rtpnrartUf peri- 
patfed, I walk about). Walking 
about : a term applied to the philo- 
sophy of Aristotle, because taught 
during walking in the Lyceum at 

Periph'eral (Gr. n-epi, pet^i, around ; 
^6p(tf, pher'of I bear). Belonging 
to the periphery or circumference. 

Periph'ery (Gr. ircpi, per^i, around ; 
^epo), phero, I beieu:). The droum- 

Periph'rasis (Gr. vfpi, per% about ; 
<ppa((i), phrazOf I speak). Circum- 
locution : the use of more words 
than are necessary to express an 

Perlpliu (Gr. irepi, per^i, around; 
ir\€u, pled, 1 sail). A sailing 
round a certain sea or coast. 

Peripnetuno'xiia. See Pneumo'nia. 

Perisc'ii (Gr. irf pi, jow^'t, around ; oicta, 

■ shia, a shadow). A name given 
to the inhabitants of the frigid zonee 
whose shadows move round, and at 



oertahi times in the year describe 
a circle during the day. 

Fer'iicope (Gr. irepi, per^ij ahout; 
o-Koirectf, sJeop'eOj I look). A gene- 
ral view. 

Fer'isperm (Gr. vepi, per^ij about; 
airepfjMj apemtOf seed). The albu- 
men or nourishing matter stored up 
with the embryo in a seed. 

Feris'sodactyle (Gr. Trepiffffos^ peris'- 
soSf odd, or uneven ; ScuctvAos, 
daJifttUos, a finger). Having an 
uneven number of toes on the hind 

Feristal'tic (Gr. vepi, pc/t, about; 
areWw, iieUd^ I send). Sending 
round : applied to a motion like 
that of a worm, such as takes place 
in the intestines and other internal 
muscular organs, by the contrac- 
tion of successive portions. 

Fer'lfltome (Gr. irepi, per'i, around ; 
(TTOfjux, atom' Of a mouth). The 
ring of bristles situated close round 
the orifice of the seed-vessel in 

Fer^istyle (Gr. irepi, p€r% around; 
(TTv/^St stuloSf a pillar). A range 
of columns surrounding any thing. 

Ferit'omous (Gr. irept, per'i, around; 
rcfivoff temnof I cut). In miner- 
alogyf cleaving in more directions 
than one parallel to the axis, the 
fisices being all of one quality. 

Feritone'al (Peritone'vm), Belong- 
ing to the peritoneum. 

FOTitone'um (Gr. wepi, per'i, about ; 
T6t»'«, tevno, I stretch). The se- 
rous membrane which lines the 
cavity of the abdomen, and is re- 
flected over tbe organs contained 
therein, so as to hold them in their 
place, and at the same time allow 
free movement where required. 

Feiitoni'tis (Peritonei urn, ; itis, de- 
noting inflammation). Inflamma- 
tion of the peritoneum. 

Feritre'ma (Gr. vtpi^ pet^ly around ; 
rpTifiOf tremoy a hole). The raised 
margin which surrounds the breath- 
ing holes of scorpions. 

Fer'meable (Lat. per^ through ; meo, 
I pass). Capable of being passed 
through without rupture or appa- 
rent displacement of parts. 

Fer'meate (Lat. per, through ; meo^ 
I pass). To pass through without 
rupture or apparent displacement, 
as water through porous stones, or 
light through transparent bodies. 

Permuta'tlon (Lat. per^ through; 
mutOy I change). An exchange; 
the different combination of any 
number of quantities, taking a cer- 
tain number at a time, with refer- 
ence to their order. 

Ferone'al (Gr. v^povri, per^one, the 
fibula, or small bone of the leg). 
Belonging to, or lying near the 

Feroxlde (Lat. per, very ; oxide). 
The oxide of a substance which 
contains most oxygen, but has not 
acid characters. 

Ferpendic'ular (Lat. perpendic'tUum, 
a plumb-line). Hanging in a 
straight line towards the centre of 
the earth or of gravity ; meeting 
another line at right angles. 

Fersis'tent (Lat. per^tOy 1 con- 
tinue). In hotomy, applied to parts 
which remain attached to the axis. 

Fer'sonate (Lat. perso'nay a mask). 
In botanyt applied to an irregular 
corolla with the petals inverted, 
and having the lower lip projecting 
so as to close the opening between 
the lips. 

Fenpec'tive (Lat. per, through; ipetf- 
tOy I look). The science which 
teaches the representation of an 
object or objects on a surface, so 
as to affect the eye in the same 
manner as the objects themselves. 

Ferspira'tion (Lat. per, through ; 
spi'rOy I breathe). The exhalation 
of vapour or fluid through the 

Fersul'phate (Lat. per, very ; smZ- 
phate). A combination of sul- 
phuric acid with a peroxide. 

Fertorba'tion (Lat. per; tvrhoy I 
disturb), A disturbing ; in astro- 
nomy, applied to the deviation, 
produced by the gravitation of a 
body external to the orbit, of a 
planet or other revolving body, 
from the path which it would follow 
if regulated solely by the attraction 
of a central body. 



Pertos'sU (Lat. per, yery; ttLssis, 
cough). Hooping-cough. 

Pestiferous (Lat. pestisy plague; fer'Of 
I bring). Lijurioos to health ; 
producing disease. 

Pestilen'tial (Lat pestiSy plague). 
Partaking of the nature of, or 
tending to produce, an infectious 

Pet'al (Gbr. ireroA.oi', petfaUm, a leaf). 
A flower-leaf, or pstrt of the corolla, 
generally coloured. 

Pet'aloid (Gr. itctoAoi', pet'aZon, a 
leaf or petal ; ccSos, eidoSf shape). 
Like a petal or leaf. 

Pete'chia. A small red spot like a 

Pete'chial {Pete'chia). Belonging to 
petechise, or characterised by their 

Pefiolate (Petiole), Having a stalk 
or petiole. 

Petiole (Lat. pet'iolus, the stalk of 
fruits ; probably diminutive of peSf 
a foot). The stem of a leaf. 

Petif io Princip'ii (Lat. a demand of 
the principle). A species of faulty 
reasoning?, which consists in taking 
the question in dispute as settled, 
and drawing conclusions from it. 

Petri&c'tioii (Lat. petra, a stone or 
rock ; fac'iOf I make). A changing 
into stone ; a process efliected by 
the entrance of particles of stony 
matter in solution into the pores 
of an animal or vegetable body, 
taking the place of the organic 

Pef rify (Lat. petra^ a stone or rock ; 
fadioy I make). To change into 

Petro'sal (Lat. peiroy a stone or rock). 
A name given to the ossi6ed por- 
tion in the fish, corresponding to 
the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone in the higher vertebrates. 

Pef roxLS (Lat. ptArOy a stone or rock). 
Like stone ; applied to a portion of 
the temporal bone, from its hard- 

Phsenog'ainons (Gr. <l>atyct, phaino, 
I show ; yafjiosy gam'oSy marriage). 
Having conspicuous flowers. 

PhagedsBna (Gr. ^a^v, phag'dt I eat). 
A rapidly spreading malignant ulcer. 

Phagede'iiio {Gtr. tparYUy phagS, I eat). 
Of the nature of a spreading ulcer. 

Phalange'al (Gr. 4>aA.a7{, phalanx, a 
line of battle). Belonging to the 
phalanges, or small bones of the 
fingers and toes. 

Phalanx (Gr. 00X07^, phalanx, a 
line of battle). A name applied to 
the small bones forming the fingers 
and toes, which are arranged in 
three rows. 

Phanerog'amoiui (Gr. ^ovcpos, phan'- 
ero8, manifest ; yufxosy gam' 08, mar- 
riage). Having conspicuous flowers. 

Phantasmago'ria (Gr. <p<unauryM, 
phantatfma, an appearance ; ayop- 
ao/juu, agora'omai, I meet). An 
optical instrument, consisting of a 
magic lantern which is made to 
to recede from or approach a screen, 
so as to mitgnify or diminish the 
appearance of objects, and give 
them an appearance of motion. 

Pharmaceu'tic (Gr. <paptuxKov, phwr'- 
makoTiy a drug). Relating to the 
art of preparing drugs. 

Pharmaceu'tist (Gr. <t>apfjuacoyf phar^' 
makon, a drug). One who prepares 

PluurmacopoB'ia (Gr. tpapixwcov, phai^- 
iMjikon, a drug ; Trotew, poi'eo, I 
make). A book which teaches the 
method of preparing drugs for use 
as medicines. 

Phar'xnacy (Gr. <f>apiJLaKoy, pha/r^rMXr 
Icon, a drug). The art of collecting 
and preparing drugs for use as medi- 

Pharynge'al (Pharynx), Belongiiig 
to the pharynx. 

PlLaryngof omy (Gr. (papvy^, pha- 
runx, the pharynx ; r^fiyw, temno, 
I cut). The operation of cutting 
open the pharynx. 

ThBijnx{>apvy^, phartmx). The 
muscular organ or tube at the back 
part of the mouth, which leads into 
the oesophagus or gullet. 

Phase (Gr. ^acrts, phasis, an appear- 
ance). An appearance ; in a,8tr<h 
nomy, applied to the different 
appearances which the moon or a 
planet presents, according to its 
position with respect to the sun and 
the earth. 



Fhenom'eiioii (Gr. ipaivofjuuf phaino- 
maij I appear). That which ap- 
pears ; whatever is presented to 
the senses by observation or experi- 
ment, or is discovered to exist. 

Fhilorogy (Gr. ^iXos, pMl'os, a 
friend ; \oyos, logoSf a word). The 
branch of literature which compre- 
hends a knowledge of the etymo- 
logy and structure of words ; the 
science of language. 

Fhilos'opliy (Gr. ^tAoy, phU'os^ a 
friend ; ffoipMy soph/iaj wisdom). 
Love of wisdom ; but applied 
generally to an investigation of the 
causes of all phenomena, both of 
mind and of matter. 

Fhlebi'tiB (Gr. ^Aet^, phlepSy a vein ; 
itiSf denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of a vein or of veins. 

FhleVolites (Gr. ^Aet//, pMeps, a vein; 
KiOoSf lith'oSf a stone). Small dense 
masses found in veins. 

Phlebot'omy (Gr. ^Xet^, pUepa^ a 
vein ; rtfjLvwy temnoy I cut). The 
act or practice of opening a vein to 
let blood. 

Phlegma'sia (Gr. ^A67«, phleg'oy I 
bum). Inflammation accompanied 
by fever. 

Fhleg'nioii (Gr. ^A67«, phleg'o, I 
bum). An inflammatory swelling 
on the extemal surface. 

•Fhleg'monous (Gr. <t>\^af phleg'o^ I 
bum). Having the nature of 

Fhlogis'tic {PMogis'ton), Belonging 
or relating to phlogiston. 

Phlogis'ton (Gr. ^Ao7if«, phhgi'zdy 
I inflame). A name formerly given 
to what was supposed to be pure 
fire fixed in combustible bodies. 

Fhlyctse'na (Gr. <pKwo, pMuo, I boil 
up). A vesicle containing serous 

Phonetic (Gr. ^v?;, phoney sound). 
Belonging to sound; applied to 
written characters which represent 

Phon'io (Gr. ^kt;, phone, sound). 
Belonging to sound. 

Phonocamp'tic (Gr ^vtj, phone, 
sound ; KofiirrcOf kamptoy I bend). 
Having the power to turn sound 
from its direction. 

Phonog'raphy (Gr. (fxavriy phoriS, 
sound; ypatpw, graph'oy I write), 
A description of the sounds uttered 
by the organs of speech ; a system 
of writing, in which every sound 
of the voice has its own character. 

Phon'olite (Gr. tpwirqy phoney sound ; 
\iBoSy lith'osy a stone). A species 
of basaltic greenstone, so called 
from its ringing sound when struck. 

Phon'otsrpy (Gr. ^cojnjy phoney sound ; 
Tinros, tu^pos, a type). A proposed 
system of printing, in which each 
letter represents a single sound. 

-Phore (Gr. ^fpWy pher'oy 1 bear). A 
termpiation in compound words, 
signifying a bearer or supporter. 

Phos'gene (Gr. (pm, phdSy light ; 
yfpvaxe, genna'o, I produce) . Pro- 
ducing light, or produced by light. 

Phos'phate (Phos'phorus), A salt 
consisting of phosphoric acid com- 
bined with a base. 

Phos'phene (Gr. (fxusy phos, light; 
<l>aivofAaty pha^nomaiy I appear). 
An appearance of light in the eye. 

Phos'phite {Phos'phorus). A salt 
consisting of phosphorous acid com- 
bined with a base. 

Phosphoree'cence (Gh:. ifxas, phos, 
light ; <ptpa>y phei^'o, I bear). A 
faint luminous appearance presented 
in the dark by certain bodies, not 
accompanied by sensible heat. 

Phosphores'cent. Shining with a 
faint light. 

Phosphoric (Phoa^phorua). Belong- 
ing to phosphorus; applied to an 
acid containing one equivalent of 
phosphorus and five of oxygen. 

Phos'phorous {Phosphorus), A term 
applied to an acid containing one 
equivalent of phosphorus and three 
of oxygen. 

Phos'phonu (Gr. ^f, phos, light ; 
^cpw, pher'oy I bear). An element- 
ary non-metallic substance, having 
the property of burning at a low 
temperature, so as to produce a 
luminous appearance in the dark. 

Phos'phnretted (Phoifphorus), Com- 
bined with phosphorus. 

Photo- (Gr. 4>ctfs, pho8y light). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation to or connection with light. 



Fhotogen'ie (Gr. tfnoSf phos, light ; 
ytwoua, gewMfo, I produce). Pro- 
duciiig light ; produced by light. 

Fho'togpraph (Gr. (paSf phos^ light ; 
ypcufxa, graph' Of I write). A re- 
presentation of an object) produced 
by the action of light. 

Fhotog'raphy (Gr. <txos,pho8f light; 
ypoupuy graph! Of I write). The pro- 
cess of producing representations 
of objects by the action of light on 
a surface coated with a preparation 
capable of being acted on by certain 
rays of the sun. 

Fhotorogy (Gr. ^j, phda^ light ; 
KoyoSf h^OBf a discourse). The 
science which describes light. 

Fhotomag'iietism (Gr. ^s, pMa^ 
light; magnetism). The branch 
of science which describes the rela- 
tion of the phenomena of magnetism 
to those of light. 

Fhotom'eter (Gr. ^s, phos, light ; 
fierpoy, me^ron, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the in- 
tensity of light. 

Fhotom'etry (Gr. <f><as, phos, light ; 
fierpovy metfroriy a measure). The 
art of measuring the intensity of 
light by obserration. 

Fliotoplioni>ia (Gr. (pas, phos, light ; 
<j>o$os, phob'oSf fear). Dread of 

Fhragma (Gr. tppoffvw, phrasso, I 
divide). A transverse division or 
false dissepiment in fruits. 

Fhrag'mocone (Gr. ippcuraw, phrasso, 
I divide ; koovos, honos, a cone). 
The chambered cone of the shell of 
the belemnite cephalopods. 

Fhren'io (Gr. <PfniVy phren, the 
diaphragm). Of or belonging to 
the diaphragm. 

Fhreni'tis (Gr. ^>fniv, phren, the 
mind ; Uis, denoting inflammation). 
Inflammation of the brain. 

Fhrenorogy (Gh:. <pprnvt phren, the 
mind ; ^070$, lo^os, discourse). 
Literally, the science of the human 
mind ; but applied especially to a 
doctrine of mental philosophy, 
founded on a presumed knowledge 
of the functions of diffierent parts 
of the brain, obtained by compar- 
ing their apparent relative forms 

and magnitudes in different indivi- 
duals with the mental propensities 
and powers which these individuals 
are found to possess. 

Fhthi'sic or Fhthis'ical (Gr. <f>eia>, 
phthio, I consume). Belonging to 
or affected with phthisis or tuber- 
cular disease. 

Fhthi'ns (Gr. ^Ouo, phthio, I con- 
sume). The disease commonly 
known as consumption, connected 
with a morbid deposit in the lungs, 
called tubercle. 

Fhyeorogy (Or. <t>vKot, phu'hos, sea- 
weed ; X070S, lo^os, discourse). 
The study of algje or sea-weeds. 

FhyUo'dium (Gr. <pv\Koy, phullon, a 
leaf ; tiSos, eidos, form). A leaf- 
stalk enlai^ed so as to resemble a 

Fhyli'ogen (Gr. <f>v\\uvy phuHon, a 
leaf; ytwaoa, genna'o, I produce). 
The terminal bud from which the 
leaves of palms grow. 

Fhyll'oid (Gr. <pvWov, phtdlon, a 
leaf; ci$os, eidos, form). Like a 

Fliylloplas'tic (Gr. ^i/AAoi', phuUmf 
a leaf ; vXatrffu, plas'so, I form). 
Forming leaves. 

FhyUopti/sis (Gh:. <pv\Kov, phuUon, 
a leaf ; xrua-is, ptosis, a falling). 
The fall of the leaf. 

FhyUotaz'iB (Gr. ^uAAoi', phuUon, a* 
leaf; ratrffw, tasso, I arrange). 
The arrangement of leaves on the 
axis or stem. 

Fhys'ical (Gr <fw<ris, phu'sis, nature). 
Belonging to natural or material 
things, as opposed to moral or 
imaginary ; applied also to those 
properties of bodies which are 
directly perceptible to the senses, 
in opposition to those which are 
known as chemical or vital. 

Fhys'ico-MathematicB. The branch 
of mathematical science which in- 
vestigates the laws and actions of 
bodies and their combinations, by 
means of data drawn from obser- 
vation and experiment. 

Fhys'ics (Gr. ^y<rt5, phu'sis, nature). 
In its literal sense, the science of 
nature and natural objects, imply- 
ing the study or knowledge of every- 



thing that exists. In modem 
acceptation, howeyer, the word is 
limited to that department of 
science commonly known also as 
natural philosophy, which describes 
the general properties of bodies, 
their mutual action on each other, 
their causes, effects, phenomena, 
and laws. 

Fhysiogn'omy (Gr. 4m<riSy phu'sis^ 
nature ; yvtuijuuv, ffnomon, one who 
knows). The general appearance 
of an animal or vegetable being, 
without reference to special ana- 
tomical or botanical characters. 

Fhysiolog'ical (Gr. <l>v(ris, phu'siSf 
nature ; \oyos, loc/oSf discourse). 
Belating to the science of the pro- 
perties and functions of living 

FhyBiol'ogy (Gr. ^wriSj phu'siSf 
nature ; X070S, los^oSf discourse). 
Iiiterally, a treatise on nature ; 
but now applied to the science which 
inyestigates the functions of or- 
ganised beings and of their several 
parts, and their relations to each 
other and to external objects. 

PhyaiophiloB'ophy (Gr. (^vo-ts, phu'sisy 
nature ; ^iXocro^to, philosoph'iay 
philosophy). Natural philosophy. 

Physograde (Gh:. <l>v(rcM, phusa'oy I 
blow ; Lat. gradvSy a step). Moving 
in the water by air-bladders ; ap- 
plied to a tribe of acalephs or sea- 

Phytiv'orous (Gr. ^vrovy phu'ton, a 
plant ; Lat. vo'vo, I devour). Liv- 
ing on plants or herbage. 

Fhyto- (Gr. tpvrov, phu'toUy a plant). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying plant. 

Fhytogen'esis (Gr. i^movy phu'ton, a 
plant ; ytviauy genua' tiy I produce). 
The development of plants. 

Ptajrtogeograpli'ical (Gr. <f>xnovy phu'- 
ton, a plant ; geography). Relat- 
ing to the distribution of plants on 
the surface of the globe. 

Phytog'raphy (Qr. <l>vT0Vy phu'touy a 
plant ; ypwpwy graph's, I write). 
A description of plants. 

Phy'toid or Phytoi'dal (Gr. ^vroy, 
phu'ton, a plant; 9l^s,eidos, form). 
Besembling plants. 

Phytol'ogy (Gr. ^vroy, phu'ton, a 
plant ; \oyos, log'os, a discourse). 
A discourse or treatise on plants. 

Phytoph'agoiu (Gr. <^vroy, phu'ton, a 
plant; <payw, phag'o, I eat) Eating 
or living on plants. 

Phytophysiorogy {Qr,4>vToy, phu'ton, 
a plant ; physiology). The physio- 
logy of plants; the doctrine of 
their intimate structure and func- 

Ph3rtofomy (Gr. <pvroy, phu'ton, a 
plant ; ttiivu, temno, I cut). The 
dissection of plants. 

Phytow'a (Gr. <pvTov,phu'ton, aplant ; 
(oooy, zoon, an animal). Moving 
filaments in the antherldia or 
analogues of flowers in cryptogamic 

Pia Mater. A name given to the 
membrane immediately Investing 
the brain, and which consists chiefly 
of blood-vessels finely divided be- 
fore entering the substance of the 

Pigment (Lat. pin'go, I paint). In 
anatomy, applied to the material, 
contained in minute cells, which 
gives colour to various parts of the 
body, as the interior of the eye, 
the skin in coloured races, &c. 

Pileate (Lat. pi'Uus, a cap). Having 
the form of a cap or cover for the 

Pileiform (Lat. pHUua, a cap ; format, 
shape). Resembling a cap or hat. 

Pi'lifer (Lat. pHlus, hair ; /w^o, I 
bear). Covered with hair. 

Pi'liform (Lat. pilus. hair ; fo^ma, 
shape). Resembling hairs. 

Pilose (Lat. |>i'2iM, hair). Provided 
with hairs. 

Pinaoothe'ca (Gr. invoJi, pin'ax, a 
picture ; Btiktj, theke, a repository). 
A picture gallery. 

Pi'neal (Lat. pi'nus, a pine). Be- 
longing to, or resembling the fruit 
of the pine. 

Pinen'chyma (Gr. xiva^, pinax, a 
tablet ; iyxvfia^ en'ehuma, a type). 
A term applied to the cellular 
tissue of plants when arranged in a 
tabular form. 

Pi'nitet (Lat. pi'nus, the fir-tree). A 
generic tenn for fossil remains ot 



plants allied to the coniferouB 

Pin'na (Lat. a fin or wing). In 
anatomyy the part of the external 
ear which projects beyond the 
head ; in hota/ny^ a division of a 
pinnate leaf. 

Pin'nate (Lat. pin'ruZt a feather). 
Like a feather ; in hotomy, applied 
to leayes which have a series of 
leaflets on each side of the petiole. 

Pinnatifid (Lat. 'pin'na^ a feather; 
fin!dOy I cleaye). In botany, ap- 
plied to leaves which are irregularly 
divided, to aboat the midrib, into 
segments or lobes. 

Finnatipar'tite {la.i.'pin'na, a feather; 
par^tiOf I divide). In h(^any, ap- 
plied to leaves cut into lateral 
segments nearly to the central rib. 

Pinnaf iped (Lat. pin'na, a feather ; 
pea, a foot). Having the toes 
bordered by membranes. 

Fifl'ces (Lat. pis'ds, a fish). Fishes : 
a class of oviparous vertebrate ani- 
mals, inhaltiting the water, breath- 
ing by gills, having a heart with two 
cavities, and the body generally 
covered with scales. 

Fis'ciiie (Lat. pk'cU, a fish). Ecla- 
ting to fish. 

Fiflciv^orons (Lat. pisfcis, a fish ; 
vo'ro, I devour). Living on fishes. 

Fi'8iform(Lat. j)i'dum, a pea; for'ma, 
shape). Resembling a pea. 

Fi'solite (Lat. pi' mm, a pea; Gr. \i0os, 
lith'os, a stone). A mineral called 
peastone, consisting of carbonate of 
lime with a little oxide of iron, 
occurring in small globular masses. 

Fifl'til (Lat. pistilflum, a pestle). In 
botany, the central organ of a 
flowering plant, consisting of the 
ovary, style, and stigma. 

Fifltillaxy (Lat. pistil'lum, a pistil). 
Belonging to a pistil. 

Fifltillate (Lat. pUtU'lum, a pistil). 
Bearing pistils. 

Fifltillid'iam (Lat. pisttPluM, a pis- 
til). An organ in cryptogamic or 
flowerless plants, supposed to be 
the analogue of the pistil. 
Fistillif eroiLS (Lat. pistU'lum, a pistil ; 
fer'o, I bear). Producing pistils. 
Fis'ton (Lat. pin'so, 1 pound). A short 

cylinder fitting exactly into a tube, 
and used for the purpose of forcing 
air or fluid into or out of the latter. 
Fitch'stone. A rocky compound of 
silica and alumina, having a com- 
pact texture and a pitchy glassy 
Fitaltary (Lat. pitui'ta, phlegm). 
Secreting phlegm or mucus; ap- 
plied especially to the membrane 
lining the nose : also to a small 
oval body at the base of the brain, 
formerly supposed to secrete the 
mucus of the nostrils. 
Fita'itous (Lat. pitui'ta, phlegm or 
mucus). Consisting of, or resem- 
bling mucus. 
Fityri'asis (Gr. virvpov, pit'uron, 
bran). A disease of the skin, 
characterised by the appearance of 
XMitches of bran-like scales. 
Flacen'ta (Gr. vXokovs, plahms, a 
flat cake). In anatomy, the mass 
or cake, consisting principally of 
blood-vessels, by which a connection 
is maintained between the mother 
and the foetus; in botany, that 
part of a seed-vessel or fruit to 
which the ovules or seeds are 
Flacen'tal (PlaceTUa), Belonging to 

the placenta. 
Flacenta'tioii {Placenta), The func- 
tion and arrangement of the 
Flacentif eroTXS (Lat. placenta; fet'o^ 

I bear). Bearing a placenta. 
Flacogan'oid (Gr. 7rXa|, plax, a flat 
thing ; 701^05, gan'os, splendonr \ 
tlZos, eidoi, form). A suborder 
of fossil fishes, covered with large 
ganoid plates. 
Fla'coid (Gr. -n-Aol, plax, a flat thing ; 
c2$os, eido8, form). A term ap- 
plied to an order of fishes, having 
the body covered with irregular 
plates of enamel. 
Flag'ioBtome (Gr. vXayios, pla^va^ 
oblique ; (rrofMi, stom'a, a month). 
Oblique-mouthed ; applied to cer- 
tain fossil obliquely compressed 
oval bivalve mollusca ; also to an 
order of fishes. 
Flane (Lat. planus, flat). A level 
surfiice, such that a straight line, 



drawn between any two points on 
it, will altogether lie on the sur- 
face ; applied also to an imaginary 
flat surface supposed to pass tlm}ngh 
a body. 

Plane Geometry. The geometry of 
plane or flat surfaces, in opposition 
to that of solids. 

Flan'et (Gr. irAai^oo/uai, plana'omai, 
I wander). A globe revolving 
round the sun in an elliptic orbit ; 
the name having been given by the 
ancients to such bodies on account 
of the apparent irregularity of their 

Plaa'etary (Gr. irAomrn;?, planetes^ a 
planet). Consisting of, or relating 
to planets. 

Plan'etoid (Gr. trXamrniSf planeles, 
a planet ; ctSos, eidos^ shape). A 
name given to the bodies found by 
astronomers in the space between 
Mars and Jupiter, where, on 
mathematical reasoning, a planet 
would be expected. 

Planim'etry (Lat. pla'ntbSt flat; 
fitrpovt met'ron, a measure). The 
measuring of plane surfaces. 

Pla'no-con'cave (Lat. pWnus, flat ; 
con'camts^ hollowed out). Flat on 
one side and concave on the other. 

Fla'no-con'ical (Lat. pla'nuSf flat; 
(x/niM, a cone). Flat on one side 
and conical on the other. 

Pla'no-coiivez' (Lat. pta'nus^ flat; 
conveafus, convex). Flat on one 
side and convex on the other. 

Plantar (Lat. plan'ta, the sole of the 
foot). Belonging to the sole. 

Flan'tigrade(Lat. planHoL, the sole of 
the foot; grad'wr^ I step). Walk- 
ing on the sole of the foot, as the 

Plas'ma(Gr. irAao-o-a), plasaOf I form). 
The colourless part of the blood, 
being the material from which the 
tissues are nourished. 

Plas^tic (Gr. irAao-(rw, plassoy I form). 
Capable of being moulded into a 
form ; giving a definite form. 

Plas'tron. The floor, in tortoises and 
turtles, of the bony encasement of 
which the carapace forms the upper 

Plafy- (Gr, wAoTwr, platftu, flat). 

A prefix in compoind words, signi- 
fying flat. 

Platycoelion (Gr. itAotw, plat'tu, 
flat ; Kot\os, MloSf hollow). A 
term applied to some fossil croco- 
dilian reptiles, in which one end of 
the body of a vertebra was flat 
and the other concave. 

Platys'ma (Gr. trXaruyu, ploUu'no, I 
widen). An expansion ; in anatomy, 
a broad thin muscular expansion 
lying under the skin at each side 
of the neck. 

Plectogna'thons (Gr. itAckw, pleidd, 
I connect; yvoBos, gmUk'os, the 
jaw). AppHed to an order of 
fishes which have the upper jaw 
firmly attached to the skull. 

Plei'ades (Gr. irAc», pleo, I sail). A 
cluster of seven stars in the neck of 
the constellation Taurus ; the rising 
of which, to the Greeks, indicated 
the time of safe navigation. 

Plei'ocene (Gr. icMiwv, plei'dn, more ; 
KttivoSf hai'nosy new). A term in 
geology for the upper tertiary group, 
containing more of recent than of 
extinct species. 

Pleis'tocene (Gr. TAetcrros, pleis'tos, 
most ; KatvoSf TcaHnos, new). A 
term applied in g&>logy to the 
upper or post-tertiary group, im- 
plying that the - organic remains 
almost entirely represent existing 

Ple'onasm (Gr. •KX^ovaffa, pUona'zo, 
I am more than enough). The use 
of more words than are necessary to 
express an idea. 

Pleonas'tic (Gr. irAcoyofw, pteona'zo, 
I am more than enough). Belong- 
ing to pleonasm ; redundant. 

Plesiomor'phinn (Gr. TAi}(r(os, pie- 
sios, near ; liop^jtri, morphe, form). 
Close but not identical resem- 
blance in form ; applied to certain 

Plesiomor'phoiui (Qr.xXriffios, plisiosj 
near ; fJMfxfnif morpht, form). 
Nearly of the same form. 

Pleth'ora (Gr. tAt^^w, pletho^ I be- 
come full). Fulness ; in medicine^ 
fulness of blood; a full habit of 

Pletho'ric (Gr. irAii0a>, pletKo^ I be- 



come fall). ^|vmg a fnll habit of 

Fleu'ra (Gr. irXei/pa, pleu'ra, a rib). 
The serous membrane which lines 
the interior of the chest and covers 
the langs. 

Flenral'gia (Gr. irXcupo, pleura, a 
rib ; ii\y OS f al^f'oa, pain). Fain in 
the side. 

Fleorapoph'ysis (Gr. v\€vpa, pleu'ra, 
a rib; apoph'ym). A name given 
to the bone projecting £rom the 
typical vertebra, which forms the 
first part of the hcemal arch on 
each side ; a rib. 

Fleuren'ohyma (Gr. xXtvpa, pleu'ra, 
a rib ; fyxvfici, en'chumaf a tissue). 
Woody tissue in plants. 

Fleu'risy (Pleura). Inflammation of 
the pleura or serous lining of the 

Fleurif ic (Pleuri'tia), Belonging to 
or having pleurisy. 

Fleuri'tlB {Pleura; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Pleurisy. 

Pleulrodoiit (Gr. rrXevpOy pleu'ra, a 
rib or the side ; o^ovs, odousy a 
tooth). A term applied to saurian 
reptiles which have the teeth 
anchylosed to the bottom of an 
alveolar groove, and supported by 
its side. 

FleuTorhi'zal (Gr. irAf upa, pleu'ra, a 
rib; pi(aj rhiza, a root). Having 
the radicle applied to the edges of 
the cotyledons. 

Flez'iform (Lat. plex'us, a network ; 
fov^ma, shape). Having the form 
of a network. 

Flexiu (Lat. , a network). An inter- 
weaving or network ; in anatomy, 
a term applied to an arrangement 
of blood-vessels, absorbent vessels, 
or nerves in the form of a network. 

Fli'cate (Lat. pli'ca, a fold). Folded. 

Flinth (Gr. irKivBos, plinth! os, a brick 
or tile). In architecture, the flat 
square table under the moulding of 
the base and pedestal of a column, 
serving as the foundation. 

Fli'ooene. See Plei'ocene. 

FIu'moBe (Lat. plu'ma, a small feather, 
or down). Feathery ; resembling 

Flu'mole (Lat. plu'mvla, a little 

feather). In botany, the growing 
point of the embryo in the seed, 
representing the future stem of the 

Flural (Lat. plv^, more). Eelating 
to more than one ; but, in the 
grammars of the Greek and some 
other languages, expressing more 
than two. 

Finn- (Lat. plus, more). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying 

FInrilit'eral (Lat. phis, more ; libera, 
a letter). Containing more than 
three letters. 

Fluton'ic (Lat. Pluto, the god of the 
lower regions). In geology, applied 
to rocks formed by the agency of 
fire at some depth below the surface 
of the land or sea. 

Flu'vial (Lat. plu'via, rain). Bainy; 
relating to rain. 

Fluviam'eter (Lat. plu'via, rain ; Gr. 
fierpop, met'ron, a measure). A 
rain-gauge ; an instrument for mea- 
suring the amount of rain which 

Fnenmatlc (Gr. iry^v/ia, pneu'ma, 
air). Consisting of, or pertaining 
to air ; moved by means of air. 

Fneumat'ic Trough. A trough filled 
with water or meremy, and pro- 
vided with a perforated shelf for 
holding inverted jars op receivers, 
used in chemistiy for collecting 

Fneiimatlcs (Gr. wtvfxa, pneu'ma, 
air.) The branch of natural philo- 
sophy which describes the mechanical 
properties of air and gases, as well 
as those machines which act by 
application of these properties. 

Fneu'mato- (Gr irv€vij.a, pneu'ma, air). 
A prefix in compound words, im- 
plying relation to, or connection with 
air or breath. 

Fnenmatochem'ical (Gr. wevfui, 
pneu'ma, air ; chem^ical). Kelating 
to the chemistry of air or gases. 

Fnetimatorogy (Gr. irvevfxa, pneu'ma, 
air ; \oyos, lo^os, discourse). A 
description of air or breath. 

Fnenmatotho'raz or Fneumotlio'rax 
(Gr. rrvfv/xa, pneu'ma, air ; Owpa|, 
thorax, the chest). Air in the 



chesty between the walls of the 
cavity and its contents. 

Fneumatorogy (Gr. irvtvfxa, pneu'mctj 
air ; Kiryosy lo^os, a disconrse). 
The doctrine of the properties of 
airs or gases. 

Fneu'mo- (Gr. vyevfuop, pneurrwn,, a 
lung). A prefix in compound words, 
implying connection with, or relation 
to lungs. 

Pneomogas'tric (Gr. xvevfuav, pneu- 
mon, the lungs ; 7o<rTijp, gcuter^ 
the stomach). Belonging to the 
lungs and stomach ; applied to a 
nerve which supplies these organs. 

Faenmon'ic (Gr. wtvixiov, pnevmon, 
a lung). Belonging to the lungs. 

Pnemno'nia (Gr. wtvftMVt pneurrwnf 
a lung). Inflammation of the 

Fo'adtes (Gr. irao, poa, grass). In 
geology f the generic term for all 
fossil monocotyledonous leaves, 
having the veins parallel, simple, 
and equal, and not connected trans- 

Podag'ra (Gr. irovs, poTis^ &iooi; iypa, 
agray a seizing). The gout. 

Fod'ocarp (Gr. vovs^ po%L8, a foot; 
KopiroSf har^pos, fruit). The stem 
supporting the fruit. 

Fodophthalmalna (Gr. rrovsy pousy a 
foot ; o^»0aA/iAos, ophthal^mo», an 
eye). A group of Crustacea, having 
the eyes placed on moveable 
peduncles or st-alks. 

Pod'osperm (Gr. vovs, povsy a foot ; 
<nr€pfjMj sper'maf Aseed). In botany, 
the little bud connecting an ovule 
with its placenta. 

^oo'dlopods (Gr. irouctAos, poi'hUos, 
varied ; ttovs, pons, a foot). Crusta- 
ceous animals having the fore-feet 
adapted either for swimming or 

Polar (Lat. pol'v^, a pole). Belonging 
to one of the poles of the earth ; or 
to the magnetic pole. 

Polar Circles. Two small circles of 
the earth, x)arallel to the equator, 
and surrounding the poles, north 
and south. 

Polar'iscope (Lat. pola'rU, belonging 
to a pole ; Gr. <rKoir€», aJcoj/eo, I 
view). An optical instrument for 

observing the phenomena of the 
polarisation of light. 

Pidar'ity (Lat. potua, a pole). The 
quality of a body in virtue of which 
peculiar properties reside in certain 
points of it. 

Polariza'tioii (Lat. poUtis, a pole). 
The act of giving polarity to a body. 

PolarizatLon of I%ht. The process 
by which a ray of light acquires new 
properties when submitted, under 
peculisff conditions, to reflection or 

Pole (Gr. roXos, polios, an axis or 
pole). The extr^nity of the axis 
of a spherical body, or of a straight 
line passing through the centre of 
such a body. Each pole is 90 
degrees distuit &om any part of 
the equatorial circumference. Mag- 
netic poles are two poles in a load- 
stone corresponding to the poles of 
the earth. The poles of a Voltaic 
battery are the ends of the wires 
that connect its opposite ends. 

Polem'io (Gr. n-oXe/ios, pol'emos, war). 
Controversial : disputative. 

Pollen (Lat. fine flour or dust). The 
fine dust on the anther of flowers. 

Pol'y- (Gr. iroAws, poVvs, much). A 
prefix in compound words, signify- 
ing much or many. 

Polyaderphia (Gr. iroAws, pol'us, 
many ; &$€A^os,a<2eZ'^A,oa, a brother). 
A name given to a class of plants 
in the Linnsean system, in which 
the stamens are collected into several 

Polyan'dria (Gr. iroKvs, pol'us, many ; 
avripy aneVy a male). A name given 
to a class of planto in the Linnsean 
system, having more than twenty 
stamens, inserted below the ovary. 

Pol'ybasic (Gr. woAus, poVus, many ; 
fiatrts, hculU, a base). A term 
applied to acids which require two 
or more equivalents of a base for 

Polycar'poiis (Gr. ttoAus, pol'us^ 
many ; Kopiros, kai'^poSy fruit). 
Having many fruit. 

Polychromafic (Gr. toAus, pol'us, 
many ; x^»/ua, chroma, colour). 
Having many colours ; showing a 
play of colours. 



Polyootyle'donoiui (Gr. iroKvst pol us^ 
many ; KorvXri^yf hatuUddTH^ a 
seed-lobe). Having more than two 
lobes to the seed. 

Folydac'tyloiui (Gr. toAvs, poVus, 
many ; SoktvXos, daiftidoSj a 
finger). Having many fingers. 

Polyem'bryony (Gr. iroAw, potus, 
many ; ififipvoy, em'bruonf an em- 
bryo). In botanpf the presence of 
several embryos in the same ovale. 

Folygam'ia (Gr. iroAvs, poVua, many ; 
yafioSf gam' 08, marriage). A name 
applied to a class of plants in the 
Linnsean system, which have neutral 
flowers, with male or female flowers 
or both, not collected in the same 
calyx, but scattered on the same, 
or on two or three distinct indi- 

Folygas'tric(Gr. vo\vs, poVus, many ; 
yaffTTipf gastcTj a stomach). Hav- 
ing, or appearing to have, many 

Fol'yglot (Gr. iroAvs, poVus, many ; 
yAwTTo, glottOf a tongue). Con- 
taining or written in many lan- 

Porygon (Gr. toAvs, pd'ua, many ; 
ywvia, goniaj an angle). A figure 
of more than four sides and angles. 

Folyg'onal (Qr. iroAus, pol'uSj many ; 
ywyiaj gonia, an angle). Having, 
or capable of being arranged in, the 
form of a polygon. 

Polygfyn'ia (Gr. ttoAus, pol'uf, many ; 
yvyrif gune, a female). A name 
given to an order of plants in the 
Linnsean system, which have more 
than twelve pistils or styles. 

Folyhed'ron (Gr. ttoAus, pol'ita, many ; 
eSpo, hed'ra, a base). A solid 
figure having many angles and 

Folymer'ic (Gr. ttoAws, poVus, many; 
/ucpos, mer'oSf a part). Having 
many parts. 

Polymor'phons (Gr. iroAws, poVus, 
many ; /xop^, morpke, shape). 
Having many shapes. 

Folyne'sia (Gr. iroAus, poVus, many ; 
vri<Tos, nesos, an island). A large 
collection of islands. 

Polyiio'mial(Gr. iroAuj, poVus, many ; 
hvouokf on'omoy a name). In cUgebra, 

a quantity or expression which con« 
ststfr of several terms. 

PolyxumL-ie (G»^voXvs, pol'iis, many ; 
yofioSf nom os, a region). In botany^ 
applied to plants whick are dis- 
tributed over several regions of the 

Pol'ypary (Pol'ypus). The organ of 
support, or coral, of a polype. 

Polypefalous (Gr. iroAi/y, pol'uSf 
many ; veraXoVf petfcUcm, a petal). 
Having many petals. 

Polyphyllous (Gr. iroAws, poVuSf 
many; ^vAAoy, phuLlon, a leaf). 
Having many leaves or leaflets. 

Polyp'idom {PoVypas; Lat. do'mus, 
a house). The stony or coralline 
structure inhabited by polypes. 

Polypif'eroTXS {Potypus; Lat. fer'o, 
I bear). Producing polypes. 

Pol'ypus (Gr. iroAus, poltiSj many; 
irovs, povSj a foot). A small soft- 
bodied water animal, generally 
having a cylindrical, oval, or oblong 
body, with an aperture at one end 
surrounded by radiating filaments 
or tentacles ; in sv/rgery, a kind of 

Polysep'alons (Gr. iroAvs, poVus^ 
many ; aep'al). Having the sepals 
distinct from each other. 

Polysper'mal or Polysper^mous (Gr. 
iroAvs, poVuSy many ; airepiMf 
sper^ma, a seed). Containing many 

Polyste'monous (Gr. voKvs, poViis, 
many ; trrrifjicov, st^rwn, a stamen). 
Having many stamens. 

Polysyllabic (Gr. iroA vs, poVus, many ; 
o-vAAa/BT}, svl'labct a syllable). 
Having many syllables. 

Polytecli'nic (Gr. iroAt/y, pol'us, many ; 
rexyri, technif art). Comprehend- 
ing many arts. 

Polythal'amous (Gr. vo\vs, poSus, 
many ; doKafios, thal'amoB, a 
chamber). Having many cells or 

Polyzo'nal (Gr. itoAm, pol'vs, many ; 
Cdoyrf, zmi, a belt). Composed of 
many zones or belts. 

Pomol'ogy (Lat. po'mwm^ a fimit; 
Gr. A070S, lo^oSi * discourse). The 
branch of gardening which teadhea 
the cultivation of fruit-trees. 



Fom'pliolyz (Gr. vofuttos^ pomph'os, a 
bubble). A disease of the skin. 

Foplite'al (Lat. poples, the ham) be- 
longing to the ham. 

Fore (Or. vopo$f por'os^ a means of 
passing). In ncUural philosophy , 
an interstice or minute space be- 
tween the molecules of matter. 

Fo'rism (Gr. vopi^w^ poin'^M^ I bring 
about). In geometry^ a proposition 
afiirming the possibility of finding 
such conditions as will render a 
certain problem indeterminate or 
capable of innumerable solutions. 

Foroslty (Gh:. iropoj, por^oSf a pore). 
The state of having pores : in na- 
tural philosophy^ the quality of 
bodies in virtue of which their con- 
stituent atoms are separated by va- 
cant spaces or pores. 

Forous (Gr. iropos, po/os, a pore). 
Having pores or interstices. 

For'pliyry (Gr. iropipvpa, por^ithwra^ 
purple dy^). Originally, a reddish- 
igneous rock : now used in geology 
to denote any rock containing im- 
bedded crystals distinct from the 
main mass. 

For'tal (Lat. pot^tay a gate). In ana- 
tomyf belonging to the transverse 
fissure of the liver, called by old 
anatomists the porta or gate of the 

Fosses'sive (Lat. possid'eo, I possess). 
In ^amma}', the case of nouns which 
denotes possession, or some relation 
of one thing to another. 

Fost- (Lat.) A Latin preposition used 
in the composition of many words, 
and signifying after or since. 

Fostdilu'vian (Lat. post^ after; di- 
Ivlvium, a deluge). Living after 
the deluge. 

Foste'rior (Lat. later). Later : a pos- 
terio'ri, a phrase signifying "from 
what follows," applied to an argu- 
ment used to infer a cause or 
antecedent from an effect or conse- 

Fostfron'tal (Lat. post, after; frons, 
the forehead). Behind the frontal 

Fostmerid'ian (Lat. post, after; me- 
rUdies, midday). Belonging to the 

Fost Mortem. (Lai) After death. 

Fostposltive (Lat. post, after ; ponOf 
I put). Placed after. 

Fos'tnlate (Lat. pos'tvXo, I demand). 
A position or supposition con-^ 
sidered too plain to require illus- 
tration ; it differs iirom an axiom 
only in being put as a request in- 
stead of an assertion. 

Foten'tial (Lat. po'tens, able). Hav- 
ing the power to impress the ideas 
of certain qualities, though the 
ideas are not inherent in the thing ; 
existingin possibility ; mgrammar, 
applied to the mood of verbs whi(^ 
denotes capability or power. 

FrsD- orFre- (Lat. proe, before). A 
preposition used in compound words, 
signifying before or in front of. 

Frffioor'dia (Lat. prce, before; cor, 
the heart). The region of the body 
in front of the heart. 

Frseflora'tion (Lat. prcB, before ; flos, 
a flower). The arrangement of the 
parts of the flower in the flower-bud ; 
the same as aestivation. 

FrsBfolia'tioxi (Lat. prcR, before ; fo'- 
lium, a leaf). The arrangement of 
the leaves in a leaf- bud ; the same 
as vernation. 

Frseno'men (Lat. pros, before ; no- 
men, a name). Among the Ro- 
mans, a name prefixed to the family 
name, answering to our Christian 

Fre- (Lat. prce, before). See Prse. 

Freces'sion (Lat. proe, before ; c^do, 
I go). A going before. In astro- 
nomy, the precession of the equi- 
noxes is a slow retrograde motion 
which they undergo in a direction 
contrary to the order of the signs, 
and which makes them succeed each 
other sooner than they otherwise 
would have done. 

Frecipltaiit(Lat. pralceps, headlong). 
In chemistry, a substance which, 
added to a solution of another, 
causes the latter to be thrown down 
to the bottom of the fluid. 

Frecipltate(Lat. prcefceps, headlong). 
To throw down a substance from 
its solution ; the substance thus 
thrown down. 

Frecor'dial (Lat. pros^ before; cor, 



the heart). Belonging to the xnrsB' 
cordia, or parts before the heart. 

Preda'ceous (Lat. prai'da, prey). 
Living on prey. 

Predic'ament(Lat. prce^dico, I affirm). 
In logic, a series or order of all the 
predicates or attributes contained 
under one genus. 

Pre'dicate (Lat. prce'dicOf I affirm). 
Li logic, that which is affirmed or 
denied of a subject. 

Fredisposi'tion (Lat. prce, before; 
dispo'no, I put in order). An incli- 
nation or propensity. 

Prefiran'tal (La4>. ^or^ before ; frons, 
the forehead). In front of the 
frontal bone : applied to the middle 
part of the ethmoid bone. 

Frehen'sile (Lat. prehen'do, I take 
hold). Seizing or taking hold. 

Prehen'sioxi (Lat. prehen'do, I take 
hold). A taking hold of anything. 

Premonitory (Lat. ^ee, before; mrya!- 
eo, I advise). Giving previous 

Premor'se (Lat. prce, before ; mor'deo, 
I bite). In botany, applied to a 
root terminatmg abruptly, as if 
bitten off. 

Preposition (Lat. pree, before ; pmu>j 
1 put). A word put before another 
to express some relation to it. 

Prepositive (Lat. prcB, before; pono, 
I pat). Placed before. 

Presbyo'pia (Gr. vptafivs, presb'us, 
old ; ortf/, op«, the eye). A defect of 
vision common in old persons, in 
which, from a flattening of the 
cornea, near objects are seen less 
distinctly than those at a dis- 

Preter (Lat. pra/ter, beyond). A 
Latin preposition used in compound 
words, signifying beyond. 

Pre'terite (Lat. propter, beyond ; eo, 
I go). Fast. 

Prever'tebral (Lat prtB, before ; ver^- 
tebra, a bone of the spine). In 
front of the vertebrse or spinal bones. 
Pri'msB Viae (Lat. The first ways). A 
term applied to the stomach and 
Pri'mary (Lat. pri'mus, first). First ; 
original ; in cistrorwmy, applied to 
those planets which revolve round 

the Sim ; in ornithology, applied to 
the feathers which arise from the 
ulnar side of the hand part of the 
wing of birds; inncUural philosophy, 
to those properties of matter which 
are inseparable from it ; in optics, 
to colours into which a ray of light 
may be decomposed ; in geology, to 
crystalline rocks supposed to owe 
their structure to the agency of 

Prima'tes (Lat. prSmus, first). The 
name given by Linneus to his first 
order of mammalia, inclading man, 
the apes, the lemurs and the bats. 

Pri'mine (Lat. pri'mus, first). In 
botany, the outer covering of the 

Primitive (Lat. pri'mvs, first). See 

Primor'dial (Lat. pri'miu, first ; ot^do, 
order). First in order ; appearing 

Prism (Gr. irpurfia, prisma, a prism). 
A solid figure, the ends of which 
are similar, equal, and parallel 
plane figures, and the sides of 
which are parallelograms; they 
are triangular, square, pentagonal, 
&c., according to the number of 

Prismat'ic {Prism). Resembling, or 
formed like a prism. 

Prismen'ohyma (Gr. vpurfio, pridma, 
a prism; iyxvfjux, en'chuma, tissue). 
In botany, tissueformed of prismatic 

Pro'blem (Gr. vpo, pro, before ; fia\- 
\w, balld, I cast). A question pro- 
posed ; a proposition in which some 
operation is required . 

Proboscid'ian (Gr. irpofioa-Kis, pro- 
bos' kis, a trunk or snout). A 
fisimily of pachydermatous or thick 
skinned animals, which have the 
nose elongated into a flexible trunk, 
as the elephant. 

ProboBcid'iform (Gr. irpofiotrKts, pro- 
bos'Jds, a trunk or snout ; Lat. 
for^ma, shape). Resembling a 
trunk or snout. 
Probos'cis (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; 
fioanw, bosko, I feed). The snout 
or trunk of an elephant and analo- 
gous animals ; the flexible appa- 



ratns which some insects use in 
sacking ; the long tongue of cer- 
tain gasteropods, capable of being 
protruded to some distance. 
Froc'ess (Lat. yroce'do, I moye 
forward). A proceeding or opera- 
tion ; in anatomy and botany, a 
prominence or projecting part ; 
applied also to the parts of a 
vertebra which grow out from pre- 
viously ossified parts. 
Procliv'ity (Lat. prodivtLs, inclined). 

An inclination or disposition. 
Frocne'inial (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; 
Kvrjfnj, hncnie, the knee). In 
front of the knee. 
Frocoelian (Gr. vpo, pro, before ; 
Koi\os, Jcoi'los, hollow). Having 
the vertebra concave in front. 
Frociimn[>exit (Lat. procum'bo, I lie 

down). Lying on the ground. 
Frogno'sis (Gr. rrpo, pro, before ; 
yiyvwa-Kw, gignds'ko, I know). 
The art of judging of the course 
and event of a disease by the 
Frognos'tic (Gr. wpo, pro, before ; 
•yiyv(a(rKoo, gignds'ko, I know). 
Relating to foreknowledge ; applied 
to the symptoms from which the 
result of a disease is predicted. 
Frogres'sion (Lat. pro, forward ; 
grad'ior, I step). A moving for- 
ward or advancing ; in arithmetic^ 
a regular or proportional advance 
of numbers in a series, increasing 
or decreasing ; in astronomy, the 
change which occurs every month 
in the position of the moon's apogee 
and perigee, in which these points 
appear to have moved forward, or 
from west to east. 
Frojec'tile (Lat. pro, forward; jacfio, 
I cast). A body impelled by force, 
especially through the air. 
Frojec'tion (Lat. pro, forward; 
jacfio, I cast). A throwing for- 
ward ; applied also in architecture 
to a plan or delineation. 
Frolate (Lat. pro, forward ; la'tus, 
borne). Extended beyond the line 
of an exact sphere. 
Prolegom'ena (Gr. vpo, pro, be- 
fore; \€yu, leg'b, I speak). Lite- 
rallyy things said first ; introduc- 

tory remarks prefixed to a book or 

Frolegs (Lat. pro, for ; legs). The 
tubercles representing legs on the 
hinder part of caterpillars. 

FroliferoTUi (Lat. pro'les, ofifspring; 
fer^o, I bear). Fruitful ; produc- 

- tlve ; in botany, bearing abnormal 

Frolif io (Lat. pro7c<, ofifspring ;/ac'io, 
I make) . Fruitful ; productive. 

Frolig'eroTUi (Lat. pro'les, ofifspring ; 
ge)^o, I bear). Bearing the rudi- 
ments of the embryo or ofifspring. 

Frona'tlon (Lat. pro^nus, having the 
face downward). The position of 
the arm and hand in which the 
palm is turned downwards. 

Frona'tor (Lat. pro'nus, with the face 
downwards). A muscle which 
turns the arm so that the palm of 
the hand looks downwards. 

Frone (Lat. pro'nus). Bending for- 
ward ; having the face or anterior 
surface downwards. 

Frono'tum (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; 
v(aT05, notos, the back). The 
upper half of the anterior division 
of the thorax in insects. 

Frop'erty (Lat. pro'prius, proper). 
A peculiar quality of anything ; 
that which is inherent in, or natu- 
rally essential to, a substance. 

Frophylac'tic (Gr. vpo, before ; 
<pv\our(ru, phula^so, I guard). In 
medicine, preserving from disease. 

Frophylax'is (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; 
ipv\a(r(r<a, phulas'so, I guard). The 
art of preventing or defending 
against diseases. 
Frop'olis (Gr. irpo, pro, before ; iroAty, 
pal' is, a city). A thick substance 
formed by bees, and used as a 
kind of mortar or cement to their 
Fropor'tion (Lat. pro, for ; por'tio, a 
share). The comparative relation 
of one thing to another ; in arith- 
metic, the identity or similitude of 
two or more ratios. 
Froposit'ion (Lat. pro, forward ; 
po'no, I put). A thing proposed or 
put forward; in logic, a sentence 
or statement in which something is 
affirmed or denied of a subject j in 



mathematics, a statement of a truth 
to be proved — theorem, or of an 
operation to be performed — pro- 

Pros-(Gr. irpos, pros, towards). A 
preposition in compound words, 
signifying towards or near. 

Prosec'tor (Lat. pro'seco, I cut off). 
An anatomist ; one who dissects the 
body for a lecturer on anatomy. 

Frosencepliallo (Gr. irpos, pros, 
near; iyKcipaXov, enJceph'alon, the 
brain). Seated before the brain. 

Prosen'chyma (Gr. vpos, pros, to- 
wards; iyx^fJM, en'chuma, a tissue). 
Vegetable tissue formed of spindle- 
shaped cells, generally applied 
closely together. 

Pros'ody (Gr. vpos, pros, to ; wJry, 
odS, an ode or singing). The part 
of grammar which treats of the 
quantity of syllables, and of the 
laws of versification. 

Proster^num (Gr. rrpo, pro, before ; 
ffrepvoy, ster^non, the breast). The 
lower half of the anterior division 
of the thorax in insects. 

Fros'thesis (Gr. vpos, pros, to ; 
riOrifjn, tithemi, I place). In gram- 
mar, the adding of one or more 
letters to the beginning of a word. 

Pro'tein (Gr. vptoros, prdtos, first). 
A substance consisting of oxygen, 
hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, 
produced by the action of alkali 
or acetic acid on albumen, fibrin, 
and casein. 

Proth'esis (Gr. irpo, pro, before; 
riSrifu, tUhemi, I place). See 

Protho'rax (Gr. vpo, pro, before; 
Bupa^, thorax, a breast-plate). 
The anterior segment of the thorax 
in insects, bearing the anterior 
pair of legs. 

Protich'BiteB (Gr. irpuros, prdtos, 
first ; ixvos, ichnos, a footstep). 
Imprints of the feet of early fossil 

Proto-(Gr. irporror, protos, first). A 
prefix used in compound words, 
signifying first ; frequently em- 
ployed in chemical nomenclature. 

Pro'toplasm (Or. vpanos, protos, 
ilrst; vXcurtrUf plas^aS, I form). 

The material which appears to be 
concerned in the early formation of 
simply organised bodies. 

Protoxide (Gr. vporros, protos, first ; 
oxide). The degree of oxidation 
which possesses the most strongly 
marked basic properties. 

Protozo'a (Gr. irporros, protos, first ; 
C<aov, zoon, an animal). The 
lowest division of the animal king- 
dom, consisting of creatures of very 
low organisation, apparently occu- 
pying a neutral ground between 
animals and vegetables. 

Protozo'ic (Gr. trpwros, prdtos, first ; 
Cu>ov, zoon, an animal). In geology, 
applied to the strata containing the 
earliest traces of animal life. 

Protrac'tile (Lat. pro, forward; 
tra'ho, I draw). Having the power 
of lengthening or drawing out. 

Protu'berance (Lat. 'pro, before; 
tu'ber, a bunch or knob). A pro- 

Proz'imate (Lat. proxfimus, nearest). 
Nearest ; proximate principles are 
those compounds which exist ready 
formed in animals and vegetables, 
as albumen, casein, sugar, gum, 
starch, &c. 

Pruri'go (Lat. pru'rio, I itch). An 
eruptive disease of the skin, accom- 
panied by much itching. 

Prus'siate (Prussic acid). A term 
formerly given to supposed com- 
pounds of prussic acid with bases, 
but now known as cyanides of 

Pms'sic. A name sometimes given 
to hydrocyanic acid. 

Pseud- or Pseudo- (Gr. ^evBos, 
pseu'dos, a falsehood). A prefix in 
some compound words, signifying 
&l8e or counterfeit. 

Pseudomor'phoiis (Gr. i^ev^os, 
pseu'dos, a falsehood ; fJ^op^, 
m^orphe, form). Not having the 
true form ; applied to minerals, 
the form of which has not been 
derived from true crystallisation. 

PBeadosper'moiis(Gr. ^ev^os, pseu'dos^ 
falsehood ; a-vepfia, sper'ma, seed). 
Having single-seeded fruits resem- 
bling seeds. 

Pfloas (Gr. ■if'oa, psoOf the loin). A 



name given to certain mnsdes in 
the region of the loios. 

Fsori'asis. A disease of the skin con- 
sisting of irregular patches covered 
with white scales. 

Fsy'cliieal (Gr. rjnjxvt psuchSf the 
soul). Belating to the doctrine of 
the nature and properties of the 

Fsycholog'ieal (Gr. ^xnt pt^chi, 
the soul ; A070S, lo^os, discourse). 
Belatiug to the doctrine of the 
mind or soul. 

Fsycliorogy (Gr. ^wx»7, psucJitf the 
soul ; ?ioyoSf lof/oSf discourse). 
The doctrine of the nature and 
properties of the soul ; generally 
applied with regard to the faculties 
of the mind. 

Fsychop'atby (Gr. ifvxni psuche, the 
soul; iro^os, path'oSf sufifering). 
Mental disease. 

Fsychrom'eter (Gr. ^xP^s,psu'ckro9y 
cold or cool ; fiefpov, metfrorit a 
measure). A hygrometer, the in- 
dications of which depend on the 
depression of temperature procured 
by evaporation in an atmosphere 
not perfectly saturated with 

Pter-, -pter'a, or pter'o- (Gr. irrepov, 
pter'onf a wing). A prefix, or a 
termination, in compound words, 
signifying relation or likeness to a 

Pterocar'poiis (Gr. irrfpov, pter^on^ a 
wing ; KafnroSf I'ar^poSf fruit). 
Having winged fruits. 

Pterodac'tyle (Gr. m-fpovt pte/on, a 
wing ; dourrvXos, daVtuloSy a 
finger). A fossil fiying reptile, 
with an elongated wing-finger. 

Pter'opodB (Gr. irrtpov, pter'onf a 
wing ; irov9, pous^ a foot). A 
class of molluscous animals, having 
a distinct head formed for floating 
and swimming by means of two 
fins, one being placed on each side 
of the neck. 

Pterosan'ria (Gr. trrcpov^ pter^ouy a 
wing; travposj saviros^ a lizard). 
An order of fossil reptiles, having the 
anterior limbs adapted for flying. 

Pterygoid (Gr. trrtpv^^ pte?uXf a 
wing; tt^Sf ei'dos, shape). Like 

a wing ; applied to a part of the 
sphenoid bone, having some re- 
semblance to a wing ; also to 
muscles, vessels, nerves, &c., 
having connection with, or relation 
to, this part. 

Ptolema'ic (Gr. Uro\€fMioSf Ptole- 
ma^oSf a Greek geographer and 
astronomer). According to Ptolemy; 
the Ptolemaic system in astronomy 
was that which supposed the earth 
to be fixed in the centre of the 
xmiverse, and the other booies to 
revolve round it. 

Pto'sis (Gr. m-axriSy pto^sist a falling). 
A paralysis of the upper eyelid, so 
that it &lls over the eye, and can- 
not be raised. 

Fty'alism (Gr. TrvoKiicD, ptualUzdy I 
spit often). An excessive flow of 

Pn'berty (Lat. puheVf ripe of age). 
The period at which childhood ends 
and adolescence begins. 

Pubes'cence (Lat. pubes^ the down of 
plants). The downy substance, or 
short and soft hairs, on plants. 

Pnbes'cent (Lat. pubea^ down). Tn 
botanyf applied to plants covered 
with soft^ short, downy hairs. 

Fnd'dling. In iron manufacture, the 
process by which the oxygen and 
carbon of cast iron are expelled ; 
the metal being reduced by heat to 
a pasty condition, and stirred so as 
to expose every part to the action 
of the air. 

Fng-mill. A machine for mixing and 
tempering clay, consisting of an 
iron cylinder, in which the clay is 
cut and kneaded by a series of 
knives revolving on an axis within 
the cylinder. 

Fnl'mograde (Lat. putmo, a lung ; 
gra'dior^ I step). Moving by lungs ; 
applied to a tribe of invertebrate 
animals which swim by means of 
the disc on which the respiratory 
apparatus is placed. 

Pul'monary (Lat. puVmo^ a lung). 
Belating to the lungs. 

Fnlmonlc (Lat. ptWrnOf a lung). Be- 
lating to the lungs. 

Fnlmomf' erona (Lat. puVmo, a lung ; 
/er'o^ I bear). Provided with longs. 



Pnl'sate (Lat. jnU'tOf I beat). To 
beat or throb. 

Polfla'tion (Lat. puJfsOy I beat). A 
beating; the act of beating or 
throbbing of the heart or an artery, 
in the process of the circulation of 
the blood. 

Pulse (Lat. pul'so, I beat). The phe- 
nomenon produced in an artery by 
its extension with each beat of the 
heart, and the resistance of the 
flow of blood to pressure. 

Fnltii'ceoTUi (Lat. puUy a kind of 
gruel). Softened ; nearly fluid. 

PxU'verize (Lat. jmUviSy powder). 
To reduce to powder. 

Fid'vinate (Lat. pvZvi'naTf a pillow). 
Like a cushion or pillow. 

Fol'vinated (Lat. pidvi'na^y a pillow). 
In architecture, a term used to 
denote a swelling in any portion of 
an order. 

Ptdvis (Lat.). A powder. 

Func'tated (Lat. puncftvmf a point). 

Punctoa'tion {L&t. punt/turrif a point). 
In grammaTf the art of marking 
with points the divisions of a 
writing into sentences and members 
of sentences. 

Fu'pa (Lat. a puppet or baby). A 
term applied to the third or chry- 
salis state of an insect. 

Fupil (Lat. pupitla). The round 
opening in the centre of the iris of 
the eye. 

Fnpip'arous (Lat: pu'pa ; par^io, I 
bring forth). Producing young in 
the pupa state. * 

Fnrg'ative (Lat. prtr'go, I cleanse). 
Having the power of cleansing ; 
especially applied to medicines 
which act on the intestines. 

Pur'pura (Lat. purple). A diseased 
state of the blood, allied to scurvy. 

Porpu'ric (Lat. pw^pwa, purple). A 
name applied to an acid which 
forms deep red or purple compounds 
with most bases. 

Pn'rulent (Lat. pus). Of the nature 
of or containing pus. 

Pus (Lat.). A peculiar fluid, yielded 
from the blood in consequence of 
inflammation, containing minute 

Puta'men (Lat. the shell of a nut). 
The hard covering of some fruits. 

Pntrefac'tion (Lat. pu'tris, putrid ; 
fadioj I make). A spontaneous 
change, to which complicated organic 
bodies are subject, consisting in 
changes occurring in the presence 
of moisture ; the effect being a 
transposition of the elements of the 
body so as to form new compounds. 

PntrefM'tive (Lat. pu'tris, putrid; 
f(uiix>y I make). Belonging to, or 
promoting putrefaction. 

Pu'trefy (Lat. pu'tris, putrid ; fio^ 
I become). To dissolve and return 
to the original distinct elements, or 
to less complex compounds, as in 
animal and vegetable substances. 

Pntres'cent (Lat. pvtres'coy I become 
putrid). Passing from an orga- 
nised state, having complex chemi- 
cal combinations, to mere consti- 
tuent elements, or comparatively 
simple combinations of these. 

Pnzzola'na (Fuzzuoli, in Italy). A 
volcanic ash, used in the manufac- 
ture of fioman cement. 

Pyse'mia (Gr. was, pu'oSf pus; 
cufiOy hai'mu, blood). A dangerous 
disease occurring after injuries and 
wounds, consisting of a peculiar 
alteration of the blood, and attended 
by great depression of the powers 
of life and the formation of more 
or less numerous abscesses in various 
parts of the body. 

Pyc'nodonts (Gr. wkvos, puk'nos, 
thick ; oZov$, odovs, a tooth). A 
family of fossil fishes, occurring 
mostly in the oolite formation, and 
characterised by blunt rounded 

Pyeli'ti»(Qr. irvfKos, pu'elos, a basin; 
itiSf denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of the pelvis, or ex- 
panded open space of the kidney. 

Pylor'lc {Pylo'rua). Belonging to, or 
connected with the pylorus. 

Pylo'ms (Gr. frv\cDpoSf puloros, a 
gate-keeper). The part of the 
stomach through which the food 
passes into the intestines. 

Pyogenic (Gr. wwos, pu'oSf pus ; 
ywvoM, genua' u, I produce). Form- 
ing or yielding pus. 



Pyogen'esis (Gr. tvosj pn'os, pns; 
y^ycffis, gentfsiSf a prodnction). 
The formation of pus. 

PyohflB'mia. See Fysemia. 

Fyi'amid (Gfenerally said to be from 
Gr. xvp, puvy fire ; but UDcertain). 
A solid body, having a plane base, 
with any number of sides and 
angles, the sides consisting of 
planes meeting in a vertex or point. 

Pyretol'ogy (Gr. wp^Tos, pu'retoSy a 
fever ; KoyoSf log'oSf a discourse). 
A treatise on fevers, or the doctrine 
of fevers. 

Pyrez'ia (Or. irup, pur, fire ; 4|i5, 
?texiSt a holding). A state of fever. 

Pj^riform (Lat. p'i/rnSj a pear ; for^- 
ma, shape). Shaped like a pear. 

Pyri'tes (Gr. irvp, pur, tire). Fire- 
stone ; a name given to the native 
sulphurets of copper and iron. 

Pyro- (Gr. irvp, pur, fire). A prefix 
in compound words, signifying fire ; 
in ch&nmtryy signifying that the 
substance named has been formed 
at a high temperature. 

Pyrog'enoiLS (Gr. irwp, pwr, fire ; 
yevvaa, genna'of I produce). Pro- 
duced by fire. 

Pyrolig'neotis or Pyrolig'nous (Gr. 
wpfpuVf fire ; Lat. lignum, wood). 
Procured by the distillation of 
wood ; applied to the acid liquor 
yhich passes over with the tar 
when wood is subjected to destruc- 
tive distillation. 

Pyrolig^nite. A salt formed by the 
combination of pyroligneous acid 
with a base. 

Pyrol'c^ (Gr. m/p, pv/r, fire ; Koyos, 
lo^os, a discourse). A treatise on 

Pyroma'nia (Gr. irvp, pur, .fire; 
/uavio, ma'nia, madness). An in- 
sane desire for burning houses, &c. 

Pyrom'eter (Gr. m/p, pv/r, fire; fic- 
rpov, met' Ton, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the ex- 
pansion of bodies by heat ; or for 
measuring degrees of heat above 
those indicated by the mercurial 

Pyromor^lioiis (Gr. m/p, pwr, fire ; 
ftopifKfjf morphey form). Having the 
property of being crystallised by fire. 

Pyro^'orous (Gr, wp, pur^ fire; 
ipfpWf pher'o, I bear). A substance 
which takes fire on exposure to the 
air, or which maintains or retains 

Pyrophos'phate. A compound of 
pyrophospboric acid with a base. 

Pyrophosphor'io (Gr. irwp, pur, fire ; 
pkosphor'ic acid). An acid pro- 
cured by exposing phosphoric acid 
to heat, and differing from it in 
uniting with two equivalents of base. 

Py'roscope(Gr. irup, pur, fire ; (r/coir€«, 
skop'edy I view). An instrument 
for measuring the intensity of heat 
radiating from a fire. 

Pyro'sis (Gr.iri;/)«(r(s, jmro'«M, abum- 
ing). A diseased state of the stomach 
attended with severe pain and the 
ejection of a large quantity of watery 
fluid ; water- brash. 

Pyrotech'nic (Gr. vvp, pur, fire ; 
rexvn, techncj art). Relating to 
the art of making fireworks. 

Pyroxyl'ic (Gr. wup, pur, fire; li/Aov, 
xuloUf wood). A term applied to a 
spirit produce<l by the destructive 
distillation of wood. 

Pyrox'ylin (Gr. irvp, pur, fire ; luAov, 
xulon, wood). Gun-cotton. 

Pyr'rhonism {Pyrrho, the founder of 
a sect) . Scepticism : universal doubt. 

Pyxid'ium (Lat. pyx'is, a small box). 
In botany^ a fruit, consisting of a 
capsule with a lid. 


Quad'ra (Lat., a square). la archt- 
tecturCj a square frame or border. 

Qaad'rangle (Lat. quat'uor, four; 
an'gidusj an angle). A figure 
having four sidos and four angles. 

Qnad'rant (Lat. guad'ro, I make 

square). A fourth part ; the fourth 
part of the circumfeience of a circle, 
or 90 degrees ; also the space in- 
cluded between the are and two 
radii drawn from its extremities to 
the centre of the circle ; an instru- 



ment conslstlDg of a graduated 

quarter circle, used for taking the 

altitude of the sua or stars. 
Qoad'rate (Lat. quad'ra^ a square). 

A square ; square. 
Qnadrat'ic (Lat. quad'raf a square). 

Denoting, or pertaining to a square; 

quadratic equations are those 

which contain the square of the 

quantity, the value of which is to 

be found. 
Qoad'rature (L&t. quad'raf a square). 

The reduction of a figure to a 

square ; in astronomy^ the position 

of a planet when the lines from the 

earth to the sun and it form an 

angle of 90 degrees. 
Qnadra'tus (Lat. quad'rat & square). 

Square ; a name applied to several 

muscles of the body, from their 

Qnadren'nial (Lat. qua/tior, four; 

an'iivay a year). Comprising four 

years ; occurring every four 

Qiiadri-(Lat. quat'uor, four). A pre- 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Qnadrifa'rioTUi (Lat. quadrifa'tianif 

in four ways). In four rows. 
Quad'rifld (Lat. qtiad'ra, four; Jlndo, 

I cleave). Four-cleft. 
Qnadryn'gate (Lat. qitatfiwr, four; 

Ju'gvmf a yoke). Having four pairs 

of leaflets. 
Qnadrifar'oate (Lat. quai'uor, four ; 

fw^ca, a fork). Doubly forked. 
Qnadrigem'inal (Lai quciiuor, four ; 

gem'inif twins). Fourfold; having 

four similar parts. 
Qnadrilat'eral (Lat. quatftiOTf four ; 

la'tuSf a side). Having four 

Quadrilit'eral (Lat. qucU'uorf four; 

lit'erttf a letter). Consisting of 

four letters. 
Quadrilo'bate (Lat. qtuttfiwr, four ; 

lo'buSf a lobe). Having four 

Quadriloc'iilar (Lat. quatuor^ four ; 

loc'vluSf a little space). Having 

four cells or chambers. 
Quadripar'tlte (Lat. qua^uor^ four; 

par^tiOf I divide). Divided deeply 

into four parts. 

Quadriplicate (Lat. quatftwTy four; 
plu/ttf a fold). Having four plaits 
or folds. 

Quadni'mana. (Lat. quai'uor, four ; 
man'iUf a hand). An order of 
mammals, characterised by the 
presence of thumbs on all the four 
limbs, as the monkeys. 

Qaad'mped (Lat. qiiaifuor, four ; 
j)€Sf a foot). Having four legs and 

Quadm'plicate (Lat. quat'uor, four ; 
plic'Of I fold). Fourfold ; four 
times repeated. 

Quaqxiaver'sal (Lat. qiiaquay on every 
side ; versus, turned). Dipping on 
all sides ; applied in geology to 
strata that dip on all sides from a 
common centre. 

Qnar'antine (Italian quarantHncfy 
forty). Properly, a space of forty 
days; but now applied to any 
term, during which a ship on 
arriving at port, if suspect^ of 
being infected with contagious 
disease, is obliged to forbear all 
intercourse with the place. 

Qnar'tan (Lat. quar'tm, fourth) . Oc- 
curring every fourth day ; applied 
especially to a form of ague. 

Quarta'tion (Lat. quar'tu^, fourth). 
A process in chemistry by which 
the quantity of one thing is made 
equal to the fourth part of another. 

Qoax'tite (Lat. quar^tua, fourth). In 
astronomy, an aspect of the planets 
when they are distant from each 
other a quarter of a circle. 

Qoar'tiiie (Lat. quar'tus, fourth). In 
botany, the fourth coat of the 

Quartz. Crystallised silica ; silica 
in its purest rock-form. 

Qnasi (Lat. as if). A word used to 
express resemblance. 

Quater'nary (Lat. quat'uor, four). 
Consisting of fours; in geology, 
applied to the accumulations above 
the true tertiary strata. 

Queen-post. In architecture, the 
suspending posts in the f^med 
principal of a roof, where there are 
two such posts. 

Quiee'oent (Lat. qui'es, rest). Being 
at rest ; having no sound. 



Qni'xiary (Lat. qui'ni, five by five). 

Composed of five parts ; an-anged 

in fives. 
Quin'cniiz (Lat. quin'qtie, five). An 

arrangement of five objects in a 

square, one at each corner, and 

one in the middle. 
Qiiindeo'agon(Lat.gmV(f0czm, fifbeen; 

Gr. yuviOf gonial an angle). A 

plane figure with fifteen sides and 

fifteen angles. 
Qninquan'golar (Lat. quiru{tte^ five ; 

an'giduSf an angle). Having five 

Qnin'que (Lat. five). A prefix in 

compound words, signifying five. 
Qnin'quefid (Lat. quin'que, five; 

fin'doy I cleave). Five-cleft. 
Quinquelo'bate (Lat. quin'que, five ; 

lo'biiSf a lobe). Having five lobes. 
QQinqueloc'nlar (Lat. quin'que, five ; 

locfvluSj a little space). Having 

five cells or chambers. 

Qninqnepar'tite (Lat. quin'que, five ; 
par'tio, I divide). Divided deeply 
into five parts. 

Quin'sy (Corrupted from Cynanehe ; 
Gr. Kvtov, Jcmn, a dog ; dyx^t 
OTic^o, I strangle). Acute inflamma- 
tion of the tonsils; inflammatory 
sore throat. 

Qnin'tile (Lat. quin'tus, fifth). The 
position of the planets when they 
are distant 72 degrees, or the fifth 
part of a circle from each other. 

Quin'tine (Lat quin'ttiSf fifth). In 
hotomy, the fifth coat of the ovule. 

Quin'taple (Lat. quin'tus, the fifth ; 
pli'co, I fold). Five- fold. 

Quotid'ian (Lat. quo'tva, how many ; 
(2te8, a day). Occurring every day ; 
applied especially to a form of 

Quo'tient (Lai quo'ties, how often). 
The number showing how often one 
number is contained in another. 

Eab'les (Lat. fury). The disease 
known as hydrophobia. 

Bac'eme (Lat. race'musy a cluster of 
grapes). In hotany, a form of in- 
florescence, consisting of a common . 
peduncle or stem, with short equal 
lateral pedicels, as in the hyacinth. 

Bace'mose {Racime), Bearing flow- 
ers in racemes. 

Bftchis (Gr. ^axts, rha'chis, the 
spine). In botany, a term applied 
to the stems of ferns, and the axis or 
stem of an inflorescence. 

Bachific Gr. pax^s, rhafckis, the 
spine). Pertaining to the back ; 

Bachi'tis (Gr. ^axis, rha'chis, the 
spine ; itis, denoting inflammation). 
LiteraUy, inflammation of the spine ; 
but applied to the diseased state of 
the bones, called rickets. 

Ba'dial (Lat. ra'dius, a ray ; or one 
of the bones of the arm). Having 
the quality or appearance of a ray ; 
in anatomy, belonging or attached 
to the radius, or outer bone of the 

forearm ; in astronomy, applied, 
in the theory of variable orbits, to 
that component part of the dis- 
turbing force which acts in the 
direction of the radius vector. 

Ba'diant (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). Send- 
ing out rays, as from a centre. 

Badia'ta (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). A sub- 
division of invertebrate animals, 
characterised by having the parts of 
the body reguliurly disposed round 
a common centre ; as the star-fish. 

Ba'diated (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). Hav- 
ing rays or lines proceeding from a 

Ba'diation (Lat. ra'dius, a ray). The 
shooting of anything, as light, from 
a centre ; the emission of light and 
heat, or sound, in all directions, 
like rays, from a body. 

Sadical (Uit. ra'dix, a root). Be- 
longing to or arising from the root ; 
in philology, a primitive or original 
word ; in chemistry, a compound 
body which enters into combination 
after the manner of a simple body ; 



in botany t applied to hair- like pro- 
jections on young roots, and to leaves 
arising from the root ; radical sign 
in algebrat the sign V ^ith a num- 
ber prefixed thus, Vt pl&<^d before 
any quantity to show what root is 
to be extracted. 

Bad'icle (Lat. radic'ulay a little root). 
The part of the embryo in plants 
which becomes the root ; the end 
of roots, absorbing nutriment. 

Ba'diolites (Lat. ra'diuSf a ray ; Gr. 
Xi0os, lith'oSy a stone). In geologyy 
a genus of biyalves in the chalk- 
formation, having a radiated struc- 
ture of the outer layer of the upper 

Badiom'etetr (Lat. ra'diusy a ray : Gr. 
fierpoVy met'ron, a measure). An 
instrument formerly used for taking 
the altitude of celestial bodies. 

Ba'dius (Lat. a ray). In geometry, 
a straight line drawn from the 
centre to the circumference of a 
circle ; in anatomy , the outer bone 
of the foi'earm, reaching from the 
elbow to the wrist above the thumb. 

Ba'dius Vector (Lat. a carrying ra- 
dius). A straight line drawn to 
any body moving in a curvilinear 
path, from a fixed point considered 
as the centre of the motion. 

Badiz (Lat. a root). In etym,ology, a 
primitive word from which other 
words spring; in arithmetic^ a 
number which is arbitrarily made 
the base of any system of computa- 

Bain-gange. An instrument for mea- 
suring tiie quantity of rain which 
falls at any place. 

Ba'mal (Lat. ra'mus, a branch). 
Belonging to branches. 

Bamen'ta (Lat. ramen'tum, a little 
scraping). Scrapings ; in botany, 
applied to thin brown leafy scales 
found on young shoots and other 

Bam'ification (Lat. ra'mtts, a branch ; 
facfiOf I make). A branching : the 
manner in which a tree produces its 

Bam'ify (Lat. ra'musy a branch ;fa(/iOf 
I make). To make branches, or 
shoot into branches. 

BamoUis'seme&t (French, from the 
Latin mcllis, soft). Softening ; a 
diseased condition occurring in va- 
rious parts of the body, in which 
they become softer than is natural. 

Ba'mous (Lat. ra'mtu, a branch). 
Having or belonging to branches. 

Ba'mus (Lat. a branch). In anatomy , 
applied to branches of arteries or 
other organs. 

Bani'dsB (Lat. rc^na, a frog). The 
family of batrachian reptiles, having 
as its type the frog. 

Ba'nine (Lat. ra'na, a frog, or a 
swelling of the tongue). Belonging 
to a frog ; in anatomy, applied to 
an artery of the tongue. 

Ba'niila (Lat. a little frog). A kind 
of swelling under the tongue. 

Ba'phe' (Gr. ^a^t}, rhaphe, a seam). 
A term applied to parts which look 
as if they had been sewn together. 

Baph'ides (Gr. Pwpis, rhaph'is, a 
needle). Minute crystals, like 
needles, lying in the tissues of 

Bapto'res (Lat. rap'io, I snatch). An 
order of birdj characterised by 
the strength of their claws and bil^ 
and the general strength of their 
bodies : the birds of prey ; as the 
eagle, vulture, hawk, &c. 

Barefao'tioii(Lat. rarus, rare or thin; 
fac'io, I make). A making thin ; 
an increase of the intervals between 
the particles of matter, so that the 
same amount is made to occupy a 
larger space ; applied especially to 
airs and gases ; also the state of 
the lessened density. 

Ba'refy (Lat. rarm, thin ; fa^io, I 
make). To make or become thin. 

Baso'res (Lat. rado, I scratch). The 
order of birds, including pigeons 
and gallinaceous birds, which seek 
their food by scratching the ground. 

Batchet. A piece of mechanism, one 
end of which abuts against a tooth 
of a wheel called a ratchet-wheel. 

Batchet-wheeL A wheel with 
pointed teeth, on which a ratchet 

Ba'tio (Lat. reor, I think or suppose). 
The relation of two quantities ol 
the same kind to one another ; the 



rate in Drhich one quantity exeeeds 
or 18 lees than another. 

Baf ioxial(Lat. raltiot reaeon). Having 
the facnity of reason ; in algebixk 
and arithmetic^ applied to definite 
quantities, or to those of which an 
exact root can be found ; in ehe- 
mittry, applied to formule which 
aim at describing the exact com- 
position of one equivalent or com- 
bining portion of a substance, by 
stating the absolute number of 
equivalents of each of its elements 
necessary to its formation. 

Be- or Bed-. (Lat. back). A prepo- 
sition used in compound words, sig- 
nifying return or repetition. 

Bcoc't (Lat. re; ag'Of I act). To 
retom an impulse or impression. 

BcNEUJ'tlon (Lat. re ; a^o, I act). The 
resistance made by a body to the 
action or impulse of another body. 

Bea'gent (Lat. re ; agf'o, I act). In 
chemistry, a substance used to 
detect the presence of other bodies. 

Becep'tacle (Lat. recip'io, I receive). 
That which receives or contains ; 
in botany, the shortened axis of a 
flower-stem, bearing numerous 

Bedp'ient (Lat. recip'io, I receive). 
That which receives or takes. 

Beeip'rocal (Lat recip'rocus, moving 
backwards and forwards). Acting 
alternately ; interchangeable ; in 
arithmetic, applied to the quotient 
of one or unity divided by any 
quantity, thus the reciprocal of 4 
is i ; and to quantities which 
when multiplied together produce 
unity ; applied also to a form of 
proportion in which the first term 
has to the second the same ratio as 
the fourth to the third, or as the 
reciprocal of the third has to the 
reciprocal of the fourth. 

Beeip'rocally (Lat. recip'rocus, mov- 
ing backwards and forwards). In- 
terchangeably ; applied to quan- 
tities which are so related, that 
when one increases the other dimi- 

Becip'rocating Motion. A form of 
action illustrated in the suspension 
of a rigid bar on an axis, so that 

the parts on each side of the axis 
take alternately the position of 
those on the other. 

Beelinate (Lat. re, back ; elino, I 
lean). In botany, applied to 
leaves which are folded longitudi- 
nally from apex to base in the bud. 

Bedina'tion (Lat. re : clino, I lean). 
A leaning; in surgery, an opera- 
tion for the cure of cataract, in 
which the crystalline lens is moved 
downwards from its place, and laid 

Bec'ondite (Lat. reeon'do, I hide). 

Bec'tangle (Lat. rectus, right ; an'- 
gulus, an angle). A four-sided 
figure, having all its angles right 

Bectan'g^olar (Lat. rectus, right; 
an'giUm, an angle). Having right 

Bectifica'tion (Lat. rectus, right ; 
fadio, I make). A correcting or 
making right ; in chemistry, the 
purification of any substance by 
repeated distillation ; in geometry, 
the determination of a straight 
line, the length of which is equal 
to a portion of a curve. 

Bee'tify (Lat. rectus, right ; fadio, 
I make). To make right ; ia che- 
mistry, to purify a substance by 
repeated distillation ; in astronomy, 
to rectify the globe is to bring the 
sun's place in the ecliptic to the 
brass meridian, or to adjust it for 
the solution of a problem. 

Bectilin'ear (Lat. rectus, straight ; 
lin'ea, a line). Contained in or 
consisting of straight lines. 

Bectiros'tral (Lat. rectus, straight ; 
rostrum, a beak). Having a 
straight beak. 

Bectise'rial (Lat. rectus, straight, 
sdrles, a row). Disposed in a rec- 
tilinear or straight series. 

Beetnm (Lat. straight). The last 
part of the large intestines. 

Bectns (Lat. straight). A name 
given to several muscles of the 
body, on account of their direction. 

Becum'bent (Lat. re, back ; cumbo, 
I lie down). Leaning or lying on 



Becnr'rent (Lat. re^ back ; eurrOf I 
run). Betarning ; in anatomy^ 
applied to a branch of the pnenmo- 
gastric nerve, which is given off in 
the upper part of the chest and 
runs up along the trachea and 

Becnr'riiig (Lat. re, back ; curro, I 
run). Returning ; in arithmetic, 
applied to decimals in which the 
figures are continually repeated in 
the same order. 

Becnr'vate (Lat. re, back ; cvrvtuSf 
crooked). Bent backwards. 

Bedoc'tion (Lat. re, back ; duco, I 
bring). In chemistry j the bring- 
ing back a metal to its simple state 
from a compound ; in surgery, the 
restoration to its place of a dislo- 
cated bone or other part. 

Bedu'plicate (Lat. re, back ; duplex, 
double). In botany, applied to a 
form of aestivation in which the 
edges of the sepals or petals are 
turned downwards. 

Befleeting Goniom'eter. An instru- 
ment for measuring the angles of 
crystals by means of rays of light 
reflected ftx)m their surface. 

Beflec'tion (Lat. re, back ; flecto, I 
bend). The act of throwing back; 
in natural philosophy, applied to 
the motion of light, heat, or sound, 
by which either of them rebounds 
from a body against which it has 
struck, making an equal angle 
with that at which it has fallen on 
the body. 

Beflec'tor (Lat re, back ; fiecto, I 
bend)« That which reflects or 
bends back ; a surface of polished 
metal or other suitable material 
for the purpose of throwing back 
rays of light, heat, or sound, in 
any required direction. 

Be'flex (Lat. re, back;/ecto, I bend). 
Bent back ; in physiology, applied 
to a class of actions in which an 
impression is carried by a nerve to 
the nervous centre, whence a nerve 
of motion conveys the impulse of 
motion to certain muscles, which 
thus act without the will of the 

Beflex'(Lat. re, back; Jlecto, I bend). 

In pai7Uing,ihe illumination of one 
body by light reflected from another 
body in the same piece. 

Be'flnx (Lat. re, back ;Jlu'Oy I flow). 
A flowing back. 

Befrac'tion (Lat. re, back ; f ran' go, 
I break). The change in direction 
which a moving body,* especially 
light, undergoes in passing from 
any medium into one of different 

Befrac'tive (Lat. re, back ; fran'go, 
I break). Allowing or favouring 

Befrac'tory(Lat. re, against ; /ran'^o, 
I break). In chemistry, applied to 
substances which resist the action 
of heat or other agencies. 

Befrangibility (Lat. re, back ; f ran' go, 
I break). The disposition of rays 
of light to be turned from their 
direct course in passing from one 
medium to another ; especially the 
degree of that disposition possessed 
by the coloured rays. 

Befrig'erant (Lat. re, back ; fri'gus, 
cold). Abating heat ; cooling. 

Befrigera'tion (Lat. re, back ;fri'gus, 
cold). Cooling ; the removal of heat. 

Begonera'tion (Lat. re, again ; gen'ero, 
I produce). In physiology, the re- 
newal of a portion of lost or removed 
tissue by the formation of a new 
portion of tissue of the same kind. 

Beg^imen (Lat. reg'o, I rule or 
govern). In medicine, regulation 
of diet and habit; in grammar, 
the regulation of the dependence of 
words on each other. 

Beg'ister Pyrom'eter. An instru- 
ment for measuring high tempera- 
tures by the linear expansion of 
bars of metal. 

Beg'iflter Thennom'eter. A ther- 
mometer which records ita own 

Begres'sion (Lat. re, back ; grac^ior, 
I step). A moving backwards. 

Beg'iilar (Lat. reg'ula, a rule). Ac- 
cording to rule ; in geometry, ap- 
plied to bodies the sides and angles 
of which are equal. 

Belaxa'tion (Lat. re, back ; laafo, I 
loosen). A loosening, or letting 



Relief Valve. A yalye in an air- 
pnmp, to prevent the momentary 
condensation of air in the receiver 
"^hen the piston descends. 

Be'miges (Lat. re'meXy a rower). The 
large quills of the wings of birds. 

Bemittent (Lat. re ; mitto, I send). 
Ceasing for a time ; applied to 
diseases of which the symptoms 
alternately diminish and return, 
but without ever leaving the patient 
quite free. 

BenaiB'sance (French, from renaUrej 
to be born again). The revival of 
anything which has long been in 
decay, or obsolete. 

Be'nifonn (Lat. ren, a kidney \ form' a, 
shape). Resembling a kidney. 

Beo-. For words with this beginning^ 
8ee Rhe'o-. 

Repeater (Lat. rep'eto^ I seek again, 
or repeat). That which repeats ; 
in arithm£tiCf a decimal in which 
the same figure continually recurs.** 

Be'pent (Lat. re'/)o, I creep). In 
natural history^ creeping. 

Bep'etend (Lat. rep'eto, I repeat). 
That part of a repeating decimal 
which recurs continually. 

Beprodoc'tion (Lat. re; produ'co, 
I produce). The art or process 
of producing again. 

Bep'tiles or Beptilia (Lat. re^po, I 
creep). CSold-blooded vertebrate 
animals, breathing air incompletely 
from birth, and having the circu- 
lation so arranged that a portion of 
the venous blood mixes unchanged 
with the arterial ; as the serpent, 
crocodile, and tortoise. 

Bepul'sion (Lat. re ; pel'lo, I drive). 
A driving back ; the power or 
principle by which bodies, or the 
particles of bodies, under certain 
circumstances recede from each 

Beaid'nal (Lat. resicPuuSj that whicli 
is left). Remaining after a part is 

BeBid'uTim (Lat.). A remainder. 

Bes'lnous Electricity. A name given 
to negative electricity, from its 
being developed by the friction of 
resinous substances. 

Besoln'tion (Lat. re; sdvo, I loosen). 

The process of separating the parts 
which form a complex substance or 
idea ; in mathematics^ the enume- 
ration of things to be done in order 
to obtain what is required in a 
problem ; in dynamicsy the revo- 
lution of forces is the dividing of 
any single force or motion into two 
or more others which, acting in 
different directions, shall produce 
the same effect as the given motion 
or force. 

Beepira'tUni (Lat. re ; gpird, I 
breathe). The act of breathing, 
or the process by which the Wood. 
is brought under the action of air 
for the purpose of purification. 

Bes'tifonn (Lat. restis, a cord ; f<yrma^ 
shape). Like a cord. 

Besnl'tant (Lat. resul'to, I leap back). 
In dynamic8y the force which re- 
sults, or arises from, the composi- 
tion or putting together of two or 
more forces acting from different 
directions on the same point. 

Besnscita'tioiL (Lat. re; sus'cito, I 
raise). The act of raising from 
apparent death. 

Betarda'tioxi (Lat. re ; tardus, slow). 
A making slow. 

Bete HiraVile (Lat. a wonderful net). 
An arrangement of blood-vessels, 
in which an artery suddenly divides 
into small anastomosing branches 
which, in many cases, unite again 

* to form a trunk. 

Be'te Muco'sum (Lat. rete^ a net; 
muco'suSy mucous). The mucous 
network : a name sometimes given 
to the soft under layer of the 
epidennis or scarf-skin. 

Betio'nlar (Lat. reticfulumf a small 
net). Having the form of a net- 

Beticnla'ted (Lat. retic'ulnmy a small 
net). Arranged like a network. 

Betic'ulTim (Lat. a little net). The 
second, or honeycombed cavity in 
the compound stomach of ruminant 

Be'tiform (Lat. re'te, a net ; forma, 
shape). Having the form of a net. 

Befina (Lat. re'te, a net). One of 
the coats of the eye, consisting of 
the expansion of the optic nerve in 



tbe form of a fine network ; it is 
the part of the nerrous system 
which receives the first perception 
of the rays of light. 

Betinac'iilum (Lat. a band). In 
botany f the viscid matter by which 
the pollen-masses in orchids ad- 
here to a prolongation of the 

Betini'tis (Lat. retfina ; ^tiSf denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the retina. 

Betor't (Lat. re; tor^queo, I twist or 
bend). In chemiatryt a globular 
vessel with a long neck employed 
in distillations. 

Be'tro- (Lat. backwards). A prepo- 
sition used in compound words, 
signifying backward or back. 

Betn>ce'dent (Lat. reftro^ backwards ; 
cefdoy I go). In medicifief applied 
to diseases which move from one 
part of the body to another, as 

Betroces'sion (Lat. re'tro ; ce'do^l go). 
A moving backwards. 

Be'troflex (Lat. reftrOf backwards ; 
jkcto, I bend). Beut backwards ; 
in botanyf bent this way and that. 

Be'trofract (Lat. retro, backwards; 
fran'go, 1 break). Bent back- 
wards as if broken. 

Be'trograde (Lat. reftro^ backwards ; 
grad'uyi', I step). Moving back- 
wards; in astronomy/, apparently 
moving in the contrary direction td 
the order of the signs of the zo- 
diac, in which the sun appears to 

Betrogres'sion (Lat. re'tro, back- 
wards ; grad'ior, I step). ^ moving 
backwards ; in astronomy, the 
change of position undergone by 
the moon's nodes, in a direction 
contrary to the motion of the sun. 

Betropul'sive (Lat. rtltro, backwards ; 
peflo, I drive). Driving back. 

Be'trorse (Lat. re'tro, Imckwards ; 
versus, turned). Turned backwards. 

Betrover'sion (Lat. rdtro, backwards ; 
ver^to, I turn). A turning back- 

Be'trovert (Lat. re'tro, backwards; 
vet^to, I turn). To turn back. 

Be'tnse (Lat. re; twndOf I bruise). 

Having a broad, blunt, and slightly 
depressed apex. 

Beverlierate (Lat. re; ver'bero, I 
beat). To beat back or return. 

Beverbera'tion (Lat. re; ver^bero, I 
beat). A beating back. 

Bever1)eratory (Lat. re; ver^bero, I 
beat). Applied to a furnace or 
oven, in which a crucible or other 
object is heated by flame- or hot air 
reverberated or beaten back &om 
the roof. 

BeviVificatioiL (Lat. re ; vi'vus, 
alive ; fadio, I make). Restora- 
tion of life. 

Be'volute Lat. re; vol'vo, I roll). 
Rolled backwards. 

Bevolu'tion (Lat. re; votvo, I roll). 
Rotation ; the circalar movement 
' of a body round a centre. 

Bhachi'tia (Gr. paxis, rhach'is, the 
spine). See Rachi'tis. 

Bheom'eter (Gr. peos, rhdos, a cur- 
• rent ; fxtrpop, metfron, a measure). 
An apparatus for measuring the 
intensity of a galvanic current. 

Bheom'etry (Gr. /ieos, rhdos, a cur- 
rent ; /ifTpoy, metlron, a measure). 
The differential and integral cal- 
culus; the method of determining 
the force of galvanic currents. 

Bheomo'tor (Gr. ^tos, rhtfos, a cur- 
rent ; Lat. mot/eo, I move). Any 
apparatus by which an electrical or 
galvanic current is originated. 

Bhe'oBCope (Gr. ^eos, rhefos, a cur- 
rent ; (TKowea, skop'eo, I view). 
An apparatus for ascertaining the 
pressure of a galvanic current. 

Bhe'ostat (Gr. peos, rhtfos, a current; 
iaTTifii, kistemi, I make to stand). 
An apparatus for enabling a gal- 
vanic needle to be kept at the same 
point during an experiment. 

Bhe'otome (Gr. /ieos, rh«fos, a cur- 
rent; Tffiyw, tein'nd, I cut). An 
instrument for periodically inter- 
rupting an electric current. 

Bhe'otrope (Gr. p^os, rhtfos, a cur- 
rent ; T/)«ir«, trep'd, I turn). An 
instrument for reversing the direc 
tiou of a voltaic current. 

Bheforic (Gr. ^€«, rhtfJi, I flow). 
The art of speaking with propriety, 
elegance, and force. 



SheTLmatle (Gr. ^/xo, rheu'ma, 
watery fluid). SelongiDg to or 
having rheumatism. 

Shen'matiBiii (Gr. ^cv/io, rheu'ma, 
watery fluid). A painful disease 
affecting the muscles and joints. 

Bhipip'tera (Gr. pi^, rhips^ a mat- 
work or fan ; impov, pter^oUf a 
wing). An order of insects having 
only two wings, folded longitudi- 
nally like a fan. 

BhinencepValio (Gr. piv, rhin, the 
nose ; iyK^paXoVf enkeph'alon, the 
brain). Belonging to the nose and 
brain : applied to the prolongation 
of brain-substance which forms the 
so-called ol&ctory nerves. 

Klii'wiTithB (Gr. pia, Mza, a root; 
&i>$os, arUhoSf a flower). A class 
of plants occupying a position be- 
tween the flowering and the non- 
flowering species. 

Bhi'zogen (Gr. pi^a, Mza^ a root ; 
ycyvaWf germa'dy I produce). Pro- 
ducing roots. 

BhizocaPpous (Gr. pi(a, rU'za, a root ; 
KopvoSf kai^poSf fruit). In botany ^ 
applied to plants whose root lasts 
many years, but whose stem pe- 
rishes annually. 

Shi'zome (Gr. pi^wyud, rhUzoma, a 
root). In botanyf a thick stem 
X'unning along and partly under the 
ground, sending forth shoots above 
and roots below. 

Bhi'zopodfl (Gr. piCa, rhi'za, a root ; 
irovsy pons, a foot). A class of simple 
organic beings, consisting of minute 
gelatinous masses, generally covered 
by a shell, and often provided with 
long, slender, contractile filaments. 

Bhisotaz'ifl (Gr. pi(ay rhtksay a root ; 
To<r<r«, tassof 1 arrange) . The ar- 
rangement of roots. 

Bhomb (Gr. pofifia^ rhom'boj I whirl 
round). A four-sided figure, with 
the sides equal, and the opposite 
sides parallel, but with unequal 

Bliombigan'oid (Gr. ponfios, rJum'bos, 
a rhomb ; ywosy yan'os, splendour ; 
ct5o9, eCdoSf shape). Having ga- 
noid or shining scales of a lozenge 

BliombQh6d'ral(Gr. pofifios, rhom'bos, 

a rhomb ; iHpot hed'ray a base). 
Of the nature of a rhombohedron. 

BlLOm1xdLed'ron(Gr. pofxfiosy r/iom'bos, 
a rhomb ; ISpo, hed'ray a base). 
A solid figure, bounded by six 
planes in the form of rhombs. 

BlLem1)oid (Gr. poix^os^ rkom'boSj a 
rhomb ; €(5os, ei'doSf form). A 
four-sided figure, having neither 
equal sides nor equal angles. 

Bhon'ohus (Gr. poryxosy rhon'chx)s). A 
rattling or wheezing sound ; in 
medicine^ applied to any unnatural 
sound produced in the air-paEsages, 
by obstructions to the passage of 
the breath. 

Bhyn'diolites (Gr. pvyxosy rhun'chos, 
a beak ; \i$os, lith'oSy a stone). 
Fossil remains of the beaks of cer- 
tain cephalopods. 

Bhythm (Gr. pvBfiost rhtUh'mos, 
measured motion, proportion). The 
agreement of measure and time in 
poetry, prose, music, and motion. 

BlLyth'mi(»l (Gr. pvefiosy rhiUh'mos, 
measured motion, proportion). Hav- 
ing one sound proportioned to 
another ; regulated by cadences, 
accents, and quantities. 

Bhythmom'eter (Gr. pvOfioSf rhuth'- 
mo8, measured motion ; fitrpovy 
met'rorif a measure). An instru- 
ment for marking time to move- 
ments in music. 

Bickets (Gr. Paxis, rharJi'iSf the 
spine). A diseased state of the 
bones in infancy and childhood, 
consisting in a deficiency of earthy 
and other essential matters, and 
leading to distortion. 

Big'id (Lat. ri^idus, stiff). Stiff; 
applied to bodies which have be- 
come 80 from a naturally flexible 

Bigid'ity (Lat. ri^idus, stiff). Stiff- 
ness arising in bodies that are natu- 
rally flexible. 

Bin'gent (Lat. rin'go^ I grin). In 
botany f applied to forms of labiate 
corolla, where the upper lip is much 
arched, and the lips are separated 
by a distinct gap. 

Bing-Monntaini. In astronomy^ cir- 
cular formations on the surface of 
the moon, of the same nature as 



bulwark plains, but smaller and 
more regular in outline. 

Ei'suB Sardon'icTU (Lat. Sardonic 
laugh). A kind of convulsive grin 
observed in some diseases : so called 
because supposed to be produced 
by a species of ranunculus growing 
in Sardinia. 

Bo'dent (Lat. ro'do^ I gnaw). Gnaw- 
ing ; applied to an order of mam- 
mals which nibble and gnaw 
their food, as the squirrel, rat^ 
hare, &c. 

Boot. In arithmetic, the root of any 
quantity is that which, if multi- 
plied into itself a certain given 
number of times, will exactly pro- 
duce the quantity. 

Bosa'ceoTU (Lat. rosa, a rose). Be- 
longing to the rose tribe of plants ; 
like a rose. 

Bostellnm (Lat. a little beak, from 
rostrum, a beak). A beak-shaped 

Eos'tral (Lat. ros'trumy a beak). Be- 
longing to a beak. 

Bos'trate (Lat. ros'trum, a beak). 
Having a beak, or process resem- 
bling a beak. 

Bos'tmm (Lat. a beak). A beak ; 
anything projecting or shaped like 
a beak. 

Bota'tion (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel). The 
movement of a body on its axis ; 
in agriculture^ the mode in which 
different kinds of crops are made 
to succeed each other in the same 

Bota'tor (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel). That 
^hich gives a circular or rolling 
motion ; applied to certain muscles 
of the body. 

Bo'tatory (Lat. ro'^a, awheel). Turn- 
ing on an axis ; moving in succes- 

Bdtheln (Germ.). A form of eruptive 
febrile disease, partaking of the 
characters of both measles and 
scarlet fever. 

Botif era (Lat. ro'ta, a wheel ; /e/o, 
I bear). "Wheel-bearers ; a class of 
animalcules, which have circles of 
cilia, appearing under the micro- 
scope like wheels in motion. 

Botnnd (Lat* rotim'dus^ round). 

Round; bounded by a curve without, 

Bonleaux (Fr.). Rolls. 

Bubefa'cient (Lat. ruber, red ; fadiOf 
I make). Making red ; an appli- 
cation which produces redness of 
the skin, not followed by a blister. 

Bube'ola (Lat. ruber, red) . A term 
often used for measles, but now 
applied to the eruptive disease 
called rotheln, which presents the 
characters of both measles and 
scarlet fever. 

Bubes'cent (Lat. ruhei/co, I become 
red). Becoming red ; tending to a 
red colour. 

Bu'diment (Lat. rudimen'tum). A 
first principle or element ; the 
original of anything in its first or 
roost simple form. 

Budimen'taxy (Lat. rudimen'tum, a 
first principle). Belonging to or 
consisting in first principles ; in an 
original or simple state ; aurested 
in development. 

BugSB (Lat plaits or folds). The 
folds into which the mucous mem- 
brane of some organs is thrown, 
when they are not distended, by 
contraction of the external coats. 

Bu'gate (Lat. ruga, a wrinkle). 

Bu'gose (Lat. imga^ a wrinkle). 
Full of wrinkles. 

Bu'mixLant (Lat. rumen, the cud). 
Chewing the cud; applied to an 
order of herb-eating animals, of 
which the camel, cow, and sheep, 
are examples. 

Bu'minate. In botany, applied to 
the albmnen of the seed when it 
presentPa mottled appeaiunce, as 
in the nutmeg. 

Bun'oinate (Lat. rtme^na, a large 
saw). In botany, applied to pin- 
natifid leaves with more or less 
triangular divisions, pointed down- 
wards towards the base, as the 

Bu'nio (Icelandic runa, a furrow or 
line) . A term applied to the alpha- 
bet of the ancient Scandinavians, 
consisting of letters of peculiar 
shape, principally formed of straight 
lines cut on wood or stone> 




Sab'ulonB (Lat. iah'vlumy sand). 

Sac (Lat. saccits, a bag). A bag. 

Sac'cate (Lat. saccus, a bag). Hav- 
ing a bB.g, or formed into a bag. 

Sac'charic (Lat. sadcharum^ sugar). 
Belonging to sugar; applied to an 
acid formed from sagar. 

SacchariferoTLS (Lat. iodcharu/m^ 
sugar; fefii'o^ I bear). Producing 

Sac'charine (Lat. aac'charumf sugar). 
Belonging to, or having the pro- 
perties of sugar. 

Sac'charoid (Lat. sadchxrunty sugar ; 
Gr. et8o9, eidos, 8hax)e). £e- 
sembling loaf-sugar in texture. 

Saccharom'eter (Lat. zadcharum, 
sugar ; Gr. fierpoVf metfroriy a mea- 
sure). An instrument for measur- 
ing the specific gravity of brewers' 
and distillers' worts, and thus de- 
termining the amount of sugar 
contained in them. 

Sacoholac'tio (Lat. sadcharum, sugar; 
laCy milk). A term applied to an 
acid obtained from the sugar of 

Sac'ciform (Lat. saccuSf a bag ; forma, 
shape). Hesembling a sac or bag. 

Sac'ctiLar (Lat. sacfculus, a little bag). 
Belonging to, or formed of little 
sacs or bags. 

Sa'cral (Sa'crum). Belonging to the 
08 sacrum. 

Sa'cnmi (Lat. sacer^ sacred; because 
originally offered in sacrifices). The 
largest piece of the vertebral column, 
placed at the upper and back part 
of the pelvis. 

Safety Lamp. A lamp surrounded 
by fine wire-gauze, invented by Sir 
H. Davy, to indicate danger in 
mines from explosion of firedamp. 

Safety Valve. A contrivance for pre- 
venting or diminishing the risk of 
explosion in steam-boilers, formed 
on the principle of applying such a 
force as will yield to the pressure 
from within before the latter reaches 
the point of danger. 

Saga. An heroic tale, among the 
northern nations. 

Sagiftal (Lat. sagit'ta, an arrow). 
Like an arrow ; in anatomy^ applied 
to the suture which unites the 
parietal bones of the head, its direc- 
tion being on the centre of the skull 
from before backwards. 

Sagiftate (Lat. sagitfta, an arrow). 
Shaped like the head of an arrow ; 
in botany, applied to leaves having 
two long sharp lobes projecting 
backwards from the insertion of 
the petiole into the leaf. 

Salient (Lat. satio, I leap). Leap- 
ing ; beating ; springing up or out ; 
in geometry, applied to projecting 

SaliferonB (Lat. sal, salt ; /e/o, I 
bear). Producing salt. 

Salifi'able (Lat. sal, salt; fio, I 
become). Capable of forming a 
salt by combining with an acid. 

Saline (Lat. scd, salt). Containing 
or having the properties of salt. 

Salinom'eter (Lat. scUiniis, saline; 
Gr. fifTpov, met'ron, a measure). 
An apparatus for indicating the 
density of brine in the boilers of 
marine steam-engines, so as to show 
when they should be cleaned. 

Salivary (Lat. saliva). Belonging 
to or conveying saliva. 

Salivary Gluids. The glands which 
secrete the saliva; being the parotid, 
sublingual, and submaxillary. 

Salivate (Lat. saUva), To produce 
an excessive flow of saliva. 

Saliva'tion (Lat. sali'va). The pro- 
cess of producing an excessive flow 
of saliva. 

Salpingo- {Or. traKtriyl, salpinx, a 
tube). In anatomy, a prefix in 
some compound words, denoting 
connection with a tube, generally 
the Eustachian tube. 

Salt (Lat. sal, common salt). In 
popular language, chloride of so- 
dium ; in chemistry, any substance 
resulting from the combination of 
two oxides or analogous bodies, of 



whlcli one is highly basic and the 
other highly acid. 

Salt-radlc»Al. In cliemistryj an ele- 
ment, such as chlorine or iodine, 
T^hich forms a salt by combination 
with a metal. 

Sal'tant (Lat. salto^ I leap). Leaping. 

Salta'tion (Lat. aaltOy I leap). The 
act of leaping or jumping. 

Saltatc/rionB (Lat. mlto, I leap). 
Having the power of, or formed for, 

Sal'tigrade (Lat. saUoy I leap; grad'- 
U8y a step). Formed for leaping ; 
advancing by leaping. 

Sal Volafile (Lat. volafcile salt). The 
popular name for carbonate of 

San'atory(Lat. «a7io, Iheal). Healing. 

Sand. In geology^ an aggregation of 
water-worn particles derived from 
pre-existing rocks and other mine- 
ral substances. 

Sandstone. In geology^ sand of 
which the particles have been con- 
solidated together by pressure. 

Sanguiferous (Lat. ian'guU^ blood ; 
fei^Oy I carry). Conveying blood. 

San'guiflcation (Lat. san'guis, blood ; 
fac'iOj I make). The making of 
blood ; the process by which blood 
is formed horn, chyle. 

Sanguig'enons (Lat san'guis, blood ; 
gi^nOf I produce). Forming blood. 

Sanguin'eoTU (Lat. scm'guis, blood). 
Belonging to, or abounding in, 
blood ; constituting blood. 

Sangoiniv'orous (Lat. scm'guis^ 
blood ; vorOf I devour). Eating 

Sangnin'olent (Lat. aan'guUt blood). 

Sa'nies (Lat.). A thin reddish dis- 
charge from wounds or sores. 

Sa'nioTLS (Sa'nies), Having the pro- 
perties of, or pouring out, sanies. 

San'itary (Lat. san'itaSy health). B^- 
lating or conducing to the preser- 
vation of health. 

Saphe'nous (Gr ffcupr\vnh saphenes, 
open, manifest). A name given to 
the superficial vessels and nerves of 
the thigh and leg. 

Sap'id (Lat. sap'iOf I taste). Capable 
of exciting the sense of taste. 

Sapona'ceons (Lat. sa'pOf soap). 
Soapy ; resembling soap. 

SapomfL'able (Lat. sa'po^ soap ; fi'Of I 
become). Capable of being con- 
verted into soap. 

Sapon'ification (Lat. sapo, soap ; 
fadioy I make). The change which 
fats undergo in contact with alka- 
line solutions at high temperatures ; 
the formation of soap. 

Sapon'ify (Lat. sa'poy soap ; fadio^ 
I make). To convert into soap. 

Saporif' ic (Lat. sap'or^ taste ; fddiOf 
I make). Producing taste. 

Sarco- (Gr. capl, sarx^ flesh). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation or similarity to flesh. 

Sar'oocarp (Gr. (rtip^y sarx, flesh ; 
Kopiros, kar^poSf fruit). The fleshy 
part of fruits, lying between the 
epicarp and the endocarp ; a fleshy 
succulent mesocarp. 

Sar'code (Gr. irap^, sarx, flesh). The 
simple gelatinous structure of which 
some of the lowest organic beings 
are formed. 

Sar'codemi (Gr. trop^, aarx^ flesh ; 
Sep/xOf dei'^ma, skin). The middle 
covering of a seed when it becomes 
succulent or juicy. 

Saroolem'ma (Gr. trtip^f sarx, flesh ; 
\efxixa, lemfmOj a husk or peel). 
The proper tubular sheath of mus- 
cular fibre. 

Sarcol'ogy (Gr. trap^, sarx, flesh; 
X070S, lo^os, a discourse). The 
part of anatomy which describes 
the soft parts of the body. 

Sarco'ma (Gr. trap^^ sarx^ flesh). A 
fleshy tumour. 

Sarcoph,'agOTU (Gr. trap^, sarx^ flesh ; 
<l>aya>, pha^Oy I eat.) Eating flesh. 

Sarco'sis (Gr. trap^^ sarx, flesh). The 
production of flesh. 

Sar'cosperm (Gr. aap^y sarx, flesh : 
(nrepfictf aper'maf a seed). The 
mesosperm or middle covering of a 
seed, when it becomes fleshy. 

Saroofic (Gr. <rapJi^ sarx, flesh). 
Inducing the growth of flesh. 

Sarmen'tonB (Lat. aarmen'tum, a 
twig). In botany, applied to a 
stem which is long and almost 
destitute of leaves and buds. 

Sarmen'tum (Lat. a twig). A run- 



ning stem giving off leaves or roots 
at intervals, as the strawberry ; 
sometimes also a twining stem sup- 
porting itself by means of others. 

Sarto'rius (Lat. tar^tor, a tailor). 
In anatomy^ a name applied to a 
mnscle of the thigh, which turns 
the leg obliquely inwards and over 
the other. 

Satellite (Lat. satel'les, an attendant). 
A Secondary planet or moon revolv- 
ing round a primary planet : in 
anatomy^ applied to the veins 
which accompany the arteries in 
the limbs. 

Saforate (Lat. sa'tv/Tf full). To 
supply until no more can be re- 
ceived : to neutralise ; thus an acid 
is saturated by an ailkali, or vice 
verady when no portion of either is 
left uncombined. 

Satura'tion (Lat. ta'twr, full). A 
supplying to fulness ; in chemistry ^ 
the solution of one body in another 
until no more can be contained in 
union by the receiving body. 

.Sator'iiiaiL System. In astronomy ^ 
the system composed of the planet 
Saturn, together with its rings and 

Sau'iia]i(Gr. travpos, sattVox, a lizard). 
The term designating the family of 

Sau'roid (Gr. travpoSf tavfros, a lizard ; 
etSos, et'(£os, form). Like a lizard: 
applied to fishes which approach in 
structure to lizards, as the sturgeon. 

Sauroidich'nites (Gr. aavpost sau'ros, 
a lizard ; ciSos, ei'doSj form ; ixi'oSf 
ich'noSf a footstep). Fossol foot- 
prints of reptiles. 

ScaliroTU (Lat. sca'ber, rough). Rough; 
having small elevations. 

Scagllola (Italian scagl'ia, a scale or 
chip). In architecture, a composi- 
tion in imitation of marble, laid on 
bricks in the manner of stucco. 

Scala'riform (Lat. sca'la^ a ladder ; 
form' a, shape). Having bars like 
a ladder. 

Scale'ne (Gh:. a-KoXrivoSf ikaUnos, un- 
even). Unequal : applied to 
triangles, of which the three sides 
are unequal ; in anatomy, applied 
to certain muscles, from their shape. 

Scan'dent (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 

Scanso'res (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 
Climbers ; an order of birds having 
the power of turning one of the 
front toes backwards, so as to be 
able to lay hold of and climbing 
trees : as the parrot^ woodpecker, 
and cuckoo. 

Scanso'rial (Lat. scan'do, I climb). 
Climbing, or fitted for climbing. 

Scape (Lat. sca'pus, an upright stalk 
or stem). In botany, a naked 
flower-stalk bearing one or more 
flowers arising from a short axis, as 
the primrose. 

Scaph'ite (Gr. trxa^, shaph'e, a skiff 
or boat). In geology, a chambered 
fossil shell, so called from its boat- 
like appearance. 

Scaph'oid (Gr. ffKtupri, sJeapJie, a skiff 
or boat ; clBos, ei'dos, shape). Ee- 
sembling a boat. 

Scap'nla (Probably allied to Gr. 
aKarravn, sJcap'ane, a spade, fr^m 
its shape). The shoulder-blade. 

Scap'ular (Lat. scap'ula, the shoulder- 
blade). Belonging to the scapula 
or shoulder-blade. 

Scapula'rise (Lat. belonging to the 
shoulder-blade ; soil. pennce, 
feathers). The feathers which lie 
over the humerus in the wings of 

Scar'ificatlon (Lat. scarif'ico, 1 make 
an incision). The operation of 
making several incisions or punc- 
tures in any part of the body, to 
let out blood or fluid. 

Scar'ificator (Lat. scarif'ico, I make 
incision). An instrument for 
making several incisions in any part 
of the body. 

Sca'rious {Scar), Like a dry scale ; 
membranous, dry, and shrivelled. 

Scarlati'iia or Scarlet Fever. An 
infectious or contagious febrile 
disease, characterised by a scarlet 

Schindyle'slB (Gr., a slit or fissure). 
In anatomy, a form of articulation 
in wMch a ridge in one bone is 
received into a groove in another. 

Schist (Gr. <rx*C»» sckHzd, I split). 
In geology, properly applied to rocks 



which have a leafy structure and 
split up in thin irregular plates. 

Schist'ose {Schist), Fissile ; haying 
a slaty texture. 

Sclmeide'rian Membrane. The mu- 
cous membrane lining the nose. 

Scholiast (Gr. (rxoXiov, achotion, an 
interpretation). A commentator; 
one who writes notes upon the 
works of another. 

Scholinm (Gr. trxoKiovj schoHum), 
An explanatory observation or re- 

Bciatlc (Gt. iffxiovy iefchion, the hip). 
Belonging to the hip. 

Sciafica (Gr. Itrx^v, vlckion, the 
hip). A painful rheumatic affec- 
tion of the hip. 

Sci'ence (Lat. scHo, I know). Enow- 
ledge ; in 'philosophy^ a collection of 
the general principles or leading 
truths relating to any object ; any 
branch of knowledge which is made 
the subject of investigation with a 
Tiew to discover and apply first 

Sc&L'tillate (Lat. scwUil'la, a spark). 
To emit sparks ; to sparkle. 

Soin'tillatioii (Lat. scirUil'lay a spark). 
A sparkling ; the twinkling or 
tremulous motion of the light of the 
larger fixed starsw 

Sciog'raphy (Gh*. trfcto, shia, a sha- 
dow; ypa4>a>j graph! o, I write). 
The art of casting and delineating 
shadows correctly. 

Sciop'tic (Gr. o-kio, slci'ay a shadow ; 
iirrofjuuf op'tomai^ I see). Relating 
to the camera obscura, or to the 
art of viewing images through a 
hole in a darkened room. 

Soirrhos'ity (Gr. o-ki^^os, sTdi^rhoSi 
gypsum). A hardness. 

Scir'rhoiiB (Gr. trKippoSj shi'/rhoSf 

. gypsum). Hard ; of the nature of 

Sdr'rliTU (Gr. trKiji^os, shir^rhoSf gyp- 
sum). A hard tumour ; a kind of 

SdB'sile (Lat. scin'dOy I cleave). 
Capable of being divided by a sharp 
instrument. ^ 

Scle'ro- {Qt. (rKXnpos, sWros, hard). 
A prefix in compound words, im- 
plying hardness. 

Scle'roderm (Gr. vKXriposy sM^ros, 
hard ; 8cp/ui, dermay a skin). A 
name given to a family of fishes 
having the skin covered with hard 

Scle'rogen (Gr. trKXripoSy aJde'ros, 
hard ; ^ei'vow, genna'Of I produce). 
The thickening or hardening mat- 
ter of the cells of vegetables. 

Scler(/8i8 (Gr. a-KXripos, sUefroSt hard). 
A hardening, or hard tumour. 

Scleroskel'eton (Gr. (rK\riposj sJd^roSf 
hard ; tr/rcAcrov, sheteton). The 
portion of the skeleton which con- 
sists of bones developed in tendons, 
ligaments, and membranous expan- 

Bdero'tal (ScUrotHc), An ossified por- 
tion of the capsule of the eye in 

Sclerof io (Gr. trKXtiposy sht^roSy hard). 
Hard ; a name given to the thick 
white outer coat of the eye. 

Soleroti'tis (Sclerot'ic ; His, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the sclerotic coat of the eye. 

Sco'bifonn (Lat. scnhs, filings or saw- 
dust ; f 011^ ma, shape). Like filings 
or fine sawdust. 

A term for distortion of the spine. 

Scorbn'tic (Lat. scorbu'tus, scurvy). 
Having or liable to scurvy; per- 
taining to scurvy. 

Sco'ria {Or. (TKwp, slcbr, refuse mat- 
ter). The dross thrown off by 
metals in fusion ; in plural, scor^ioBf 
the cinders of volcanic eruptions. 

Scoria'ceonB (Scoria), Like dit)88 or 

Scorpioi'dal (Gr. aKopriosr skor^pios, 
a scorpion ; ti^os, eSdos^ shape). 
Like the tail of a scorpion ; applied 
to a x)eculiar twisted form of in- 

8c(/riform {Sco'Ha ; forma, shape). 
Resembling scoria or dross. 

Scrobic'olate (Lat. scrobic^tdus, a 
little ditch). Furrowed; pitted: 
having small depressions. 

Scrobio'ulnB Cordis. (Lat. the little 
ditch or furrow of the heart). A name 
sometimes given to the epigaatrie 
region ; the pit of the stomach. 

Scrofula (Lat.). A peculiar diseased 



state, characterised by the deposi- 
tion of tubercle in the organs of the 
body, and a tendency to swellings 
of the lymphatic glands and un- 
healthy ulceration. 

Sculp'ture (Lat. scul'po, I carve). 
The art of carving or cutting wood 
or stone into images of men, ani- 
mals, &c. 

Scurvy (Lat. scorhu'tus), A diseased 
state, characterised by an altered 
state of the blood, and its effusion 
either in livid patches under the 
skin or in the form of hsemorrhages 
from the mucous membranes ; which, 
especially in the mouth, become 

Scu'tellated (Lat. scuteUla, a dish). 
Formed like a pan : divided into 
small surfaces. 

Scutellum (Lat. acu'tum, a shield). 
A little shield. 

Scutibraa'chiate (Lat. scu'tum, a 
buckler ; Qr. $payxui, hran'chiaj 
gills). Having the» gills covered 
with a shell in the form of a shield ; 
applied to an order of gasteropods. 

Sou'tifonii (Lat. - acu'tum, a buckler ; 
forma, shape). Shaped like a 

Scu'tiped (Lat. scu'tum, a buckler ; 
peSf a foot). Having the anterior 
part of the legs covered with seg- 
ments of homy rings. 

Sebac'eouB (Lat. sdhv/m, tallow or 
suet). Made of tallow ; resembling 
suet ; secreting a suet-like matter. 

Sebac'ic (Lat. aSbvm, tallow). Be- 
longing to or obtained from fat. 

Se'cant (Lat. aedo, I cut). Gutting ; 
in geometry^ a line which divides 
another into two parts ; in trigo- 
nometryf a right line drawn from 
the centre of a circle, and produced 
until it meets a tangent to the same 

Seoer'nent (Lat. aecer^noy I separate). 
Producing secretion. 

Secre'te (Lat. aecer'no, I separate). 
In phyaiologyy to separate some 
peculiar fluid or substance from the 
blood or nutritive fluid. 

Seore'tion (Lat. aecer^rio, I separate). 
In phyaiology, the separation of 
some peculiar fluid or substance 

from the blood or nutritive fluid ; 
the substance so separated. 

Secre'tory (Lat. aecer'no, I separate). 
Having the function of secreting 
or separating some peculiar fluid or 

Sec'tilei (Lat. ae'co, I cut). Capable 
of being cut. 

Sec'tion (Lat. se'co^ I cut). A cutting ; 
in geology, the plane which cuts 
through any portion of the earth's 
crust so as to show its internal 

Sec'tor (Lat. ae'co, I cut). A part 
of a circle lying between two radii 
and an arc of the circle : a mathe- 
matical instrument, formed of two 
graduated rulers as radii, turning 
in a joint which forms the centre 
of a circle ; in astronomy, an in- 
strument for measuiing the zenith 
distances of stars. 

Sector of a Sphere. Thesolidgenerated 
by the revolution of the sector of 
a circle round one of the radii, which 
remains fixed. 

Sec'ular Inequalities. In astronomy, 
the inequalities in the motions of 
planets produced by the continual 
accumulation of the residual pheno- 
mena other than the variation in 
their relative positions ; remaining 
uncompensated after the disturbed 
and disturbing bodies have passed 
through all their stages of configu- 

Secunda'risB (Lat. secondary — i.e. 
pennas, feathers). The feathers 
attached to the forearm in birds. 

Sec'undine (Lat. aecun'dua, second). 
In botany, the outer but one of the 
coats of the ovule. 

Sed'iment (Lat. aed'eo, I settle down). 
Matter settled down from suspen- 
sion in water. 

Seed-leaf. A primary leaf; applied 
to the expanded cotyledons or seed- 

Seed-lobe. A cotyledon ; one of the 
parts into which a seed, as the 
common pea, splits. 

Seg'ment (Lat. aedo, I cut). A part 
cut off: in geometry, generally 
applied to a part cut off from a 
circle or sphere. 




Segfrnentation (Lat. segmentuniy a 
piece cut off). A dividing or split- 
ting; into segments. 

Se'gregate (Lat. se^ denoting separa- 
tion ; grex, a flock). To set apart ; 
select : in botany^ separated from 
each other. 

Sele'niate. A compound of selenic 
acid with a base. 

Selen'ic {SeWniumS. Belonging to 
selenium ; applied to an acid com- 
posed of one equivalent of selenium 
with three of oxygen. 

Sele'nioos. A term applied to an 
acid consisting of one equivalent of 
selenium and two of oxygen. 

Sele'ninret {Selefnium). A compound 
of selenium with a metal or other 
elementary substance. 

Selenog'raplLy (Gr. <r€\7ivri, selene^ 
the moon ; ypa<p<a^ gra/ph'oj I 
write). A description of the 

Sella Tor'cica (Lat. a Turkish saddle). 
A portion of the sphenoid bone 
in the skull, so named from its 

Bem'apliore (Gr. cn^/ut, stma, a sign ; 
^€pw, pher'df I bear). A telegraph ; 
a means of communicating by sig- 

Semeiolog^ical (Gr. (rrjfxuov, semd'oiif 
a sign ; \oyos^ lo^oSf a discourse). 
Relating to the doctrine of the 
signs or symptoms of disease. 

Semeiorogy (Gr. a-nfieioVf semei'on, a 
sign ; A070S, log' 08^ a discourse). 
The part of mediciae which de- 
s<;ribes the signs and symptoms of 

Bemeiofio (Gr. <rrifi€ioVf semei'oTif a 
sign). Belating to the signs or 
symptoms of disease. 

Sem'i- (Lat. sem'i, half). A prefix in 
compound words signifying half. 

Semicir'ciilar (Lat. sem'iy half; ci/- 
culuSf a circle). Having the form 
of a half circle. 

Bemicylin'drical (Lat. sem'i, half; 
cyl'mder). Like a cylinder divided 
evenly in two from end to end. 

Sem'iformed (Lat. sem'ij half; form' a, 
form). Half formed ; imperfectly 

fiemiligneoos (Lat. sem'i, half; 

Hg'num, wood). Woody below and 
herbaceous at the top. 

Semila'nar (Lat. sem'i, half; Ivlnoy 
a moon). Resembling a half-moon. 

Semimem'braiiOTLS (Lat. sem'iy half; 
membra' na J membrane). Half 
membranous ; applied to one of the 
muscles of the thigh. 

Sem'inal (Lat. sefmen, a seed). Be- 
longing to seed ; in botany, applied 
to the cotyledons or seed-leaves. 

Sem'ination (Lat. sefm^n, seed). The 
act of sowing : in botany, the 
natural dispersion of seeds. 

Sem'inude (Lat. sem'i, half ; nu'dtts, 
naked). In botany, applied to 
seeds of which the seed-vessel opens 
early, as in the mignonette. 

Semipal'mate (Lat. sem'i, half; pal'- 
mxi, a palm). Having the toes 
connected by a web, extending 
along the half nearest to the foot. 

Semipen'nlform (Lat. sem'i, half; 
pen'na, a feathe]* ; foi^m^, shape). 
Penniform on one side only; ap- 
plied, in anaJtomy^ to some muscles. 

Semiten'dinous (Lat. serdi, half; 
ten'do, a tendon). Half tendinous ; 
a name given to a muscle of the 
thigh, which bends the leg. 

Semit'ic (Skem, the son of Noah). A 
name given to one of the great 
families of languages, comprehend* 
ing the Assyrian, Babylonian, Sy- 
riac, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Ara- 
bic languages, with their dialects. 

Sensa'tion (Lat. sen'sus, sense). The 
faculty by which an animal becomes 
conscious of impressions made on 
the extremities of the nerves either 
by some external body, or by some 
change or operation within the 

Sense (Lat. sen'tio, I perceive). The 
faculty by which a living being re- 
ceives the impression of external 
objects, so that they may be con- 
veyed to the seusorium or brain. 

Sensibility (Lat. sen'tio, I perceive). 
The faculty by which an impression 
made by an extemal body on the 
parts or textures of the body is 

Senso'riTun (Lat. sen'tio, X perceive). 
The seat of sensation; the onzsi 



wliich receives the impressions 
made on the senses. 

Sen'tlent (Lat. sen'tiOf I perceive). 
Capable of receiving impressions so 
as to he pei*ceived. 

Se'pal (Lat. sepes, an inclosnre). A 
division of a calyx. 

Sep'aloid (Sepal; Qr. etJoy, eCdos, 
form). Like a sepal. 

Sep'arate (Lat. se'paro^ I divide). In 
botanyf applied when the stamens 
and pistils are in the same plant, 
bnt in different flowers. 

Sep'tate (Lat. septum^ a partition). 
Divided by septa or partitions, 

Sep'tangnlar (Lat. septem, seven ; 
angulttSf an angle). Having seven 

Sep'temfid (Lat. septem, seven ; JindOj 
I cleave). In botany y applied to 
leaves which are divided part way 
through into seven lobes. 

Septe'nary (Lat. septe'nij series of 
seven). Consisting of sevens. 

Septe'nate (Lat. septM^ series of 
seven). Arranged in sevens : ap- 
plied to compound leaves with seven 
leaflets coming off from a point. 

Septen'nial (Lat. septem, seven ; an- 
mtSj a year). Containing seven 
years : happening every seven years. 

Septentrio'iual (Lat. septen'triOf the 
northern constellation called the 
Great 'Bear). Belonging to the 

Sep'tiC (Gr. <nrT», sepdf I putrefy). 

Promoting putrefaction. 
'eptlci'dal (Lat. septum, a partition ; 
cc^Oy I cut). In botany, applied 
to fruits or seed vessels which open 
by dividing through the partitions 
of the ovary; ic, through the 
septa or edges of the carpels. 

Septiferous (Lat. septum, a partition; 
/(g/o, I bear). Having partitions. 

Sep'tiform (Lat. septum, a partition ; 
f(yrma, shape). Resembling a sep- 
tum or partition. 

Septifragal (Lat. septum, a partition; 
frango, I break). A form of divi- 
sion of a fruit in which the parti- 
tions adhere to the axis, and the 
valves covering the fruit are sepa- 
rated ; the dehiscence taking place 
through the backs of the cells. 

Septilaf oral (Lat. sepiem, seven ; 
Lalui, a side). Having seven sides. 

Septillion (Lat. septem, seven ; miU 
lion). A million multiplied seven 
times into itself. 

Sep'tnagint (Lat. septuagin'ta, 
seventy). A Greek translation df 
the Old Testament, supposed to 
have been the work of seventy or 
seventy-two interpreters. 

Sep'tulate (Lat. septum, a partition). 
In botany, applied to fruits having 
spurious transverse dissepiments or 

Sep'tum (Lat. sefpio, I inclose or 
hedge in). A partition ; in botany, 
a division in an ovary or seed vessel 
formed by the sides of the carpels, 
applied in anatomy to the partitions 
between organs in various parts. 

Sequela (Lat. se^uor, I follow). That 
which follows ; in medicine, applied 
to a diseased state following on an 
attack of some other disease. 

Seques'tnun (Lat). In surgery, a 
dead portion of bone. 

Se'rial (Lat, se'ries, an order). Fol- 
lowing in a determinate order or in 
distinct rows. 

Seric'eous (Lat. se^ricum, silk). Silky ; 
covered with fine closely pressed 

Se'ries (Lat. an order). A continued 
succession or order ; in arithmetic 
and algebra, a number of quantities 
succeeding each other in regular in- 
creasing or diminishing order, either 
by a common difference or a com- 
mon multiplier. 

Seros'ity (Lat. serum, whey). The 
serum of the blood, or the whey of 

Se'rous (Lat. serum, whey). Like 
serum or whey ; secreting serum. 

Se'rouB Membrane. A closed mem- 
braneous bag, having its internal 
surface moistened with serum, and 
lining some cavity of the body which 
has no outlet. 

Ser'pentine (Lat. ser^pens, a serpent). 
Like a serpent ; coiled or twisted : 
in geology, a rock of flint and mag- 
nesia, of mottled colour, like the 
skin of a serpent. 

Ser'rate (Lat. serrn^ a saw). Notched 



like a saw ; having sharp processes 
like the teeth of a saw. 

Ser'ratares (Lat. seiTo, a saw). 
Pointed projections at the edge like 
the teeth of a saw. 

Ser^mlate (Lat. /ler'ru^a, a little saw). 
Having very fine notches. 

Se'mm (Lat. whey). The yellowish 
fluid which is left in coagulation of 
the blood, consisting of the liquor 
sanguinis, or blood-fluid, deprived 
of fibrin. 

Ses'amoid (Gr. a-na-apav, sesamon, a 
kind of small grain ; clSos, e^dosy 
shape). Like a sesame ; applied 
to small bones at the joints of the 
great toes and thumbs, and to small 
bodies in the valves of the aorta and 
pulmonary artery. 

Ses'qui- (Lat. one and a half). A pre- 
fix in compound words signifying 
one and a half, or in the proportion 
of three to two. 

Sesquial'teral (Lat. aesquif one and 
a half ; altera the other). In arith- 
metic and geometri/f applied to a 
quantity which contains one and a 
half of another. 

Sesqniba'sic (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; hasisj a base). Applied to 
salts containing one and a half times 
as much base in proportion to the 
acid as the neutral salt. 

Se8quicarl)onate (Lat. sesqui^ one and 
a half; carbonate). A salt con- 
sisting of three equivalents of car- 
bonic acid with two of base. 

Sesqnichlotide (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; chloride), A compound of 
three equivalents of chlorine with 
two of another element. 

Sesqtiidn'plicate (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half ; duplex, double). Having 
the ratio of two and a half to one. 

Sesqtii'odide (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; iodide). A compound of 
three equivalents of iodine with 
two of another element. 

Sesqui'ozide (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; oxide) A compound of three 
equivalents of oxygen with two of 
another element. 

Sesqtiip'licate (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half ; plicfo, I fold). In the ratio 
of one and a half to one. 

Sesqaiflnl'pliate (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; sulphate). A sulphate 
containing three equivalents of sul- 
phuric acid and two of base. 

Sesqnisal'phide (Lat. sesqui, one and 
a half; sulphide). A compound 
of three equivalents of sulphur with 
two of another element. 

Sesquiter'tian (Lat. sesqui, one and a 
half; tertia'nus, tertian). Having 
the ratio of one and one-third. 

Ses'sile (Lat. sed'eo, I sit). Sitting; 
having no stem or stalk. 

Seta'ceouB (Lat. seta, a bristle). 
Bristly, or resembling bristles. 

Se'tiform (Lat. seta, a bristle ; forma, 
form). Resembling a bristle. 

Setig'eroTLS (Lat. s^ta, a bristle ; gei^o, 
I bear). Rearing setae or sharp 

Se'tose or Se'toiu (Lat. seta, a bristle). 
Bristly ; covered with setae or shaip> 

Sex- (Lat. six). A prefix in compound 
words signifying six. 

Sez'angnlar (Lat. sex, six ; an'gvlus, 
an angle). Having six angles. 

Sexen'mkl (Lat. sex, six ; annus, a 
year). Lasting six years ; happen- 
ing once in six years. 

Sezfid (Lat. sex, six ; jlTido, I 
cleave). Cleft into six. 

Sexloc'iilar (Lat. sex, six ; lotfulus, 
a cell). Having six cells. 

Sex'tant (Lat. sea^tans, a sixth). 
The sixth part of a circle ; an in- 
strument for measuring the angular 
distances of objects, having a limb 
of sixty degrees, or the sixth part 
of a circle. 

Sextillion (Lat. sex, six; million). 
The sixth power of a million. 

Sex'tnple (Lat. sex, six; plicfo, I 
fold). Six-fold. 

Sex'ual (Lat. sexus, sex). Denoting 
the sexes ; in botany, applied to a 
system of classification founded on 
the number and arrangement of 
the stamens and pistils. 

Sex'ual System. In botany, the 
classification founded by Lmnseus 
on the number, position, &c., of 
the stamens and pistils. 

Shaft. In architecture, the body of 
a column between the trunk and 



the capital ; in mechanks, an 
axle of large size. 
Shale (Germ, schn'len, to peel off). 
In geology t applied to all argilla- 
ceous or clayey sti-ata which split 
up or peel off in thin laminse. 
Shemific. See Semitic. g 

Shingle. In geologij, loose imper- 
fectly rounded stones and pebbles. 
Sial'ag^gue (Gr. o-ioXov, s^alon^ 
saliva ; 07W, ag'd, I lead). Pro- 
moting a flow of saliva. 
SiVilant (Lat. sib'iloj I hiss). Making 

a hissing sound. 
Sidera'tion (Lat. stdusy a star). A 
blasting or blast in plants; a 
sudden deprivation of sense. 
Side'real (Lat. sidus, a star). Rela- 
ting to, or containing stars ; a 
sidereal day is the period between 
the moment at which a star is in 
the meridian of a place, and that 
at which it arrives at the meridian 
again ; a sidereal year is the period 
in which the fixed stars apparently 
complete a revolution ; sidereal 
period is the time which a planet 
takes to make a complete revolu- 
tion round the sun. 
Siderog'raphy (Gr. ai^ripov, sideron^ 
iron; 7po</>«, graph' d^ I write). 
The art of engraving on steel. 
Sigfilla'ria (Lat. sigUHum, a seal). In 
geologPf a large genus of fluted 
ti-ee-stems having seal-like punc- 
tures on the ridges. 
Sig'sioid (C, the old form of the 
Greek letter, Ciy/Ao, sigma ; elJoj, 
ei'doSy form). Like the Greek 
letter G, or sigma; applied in 
cmaiomy to several structures in 
the body. 
Sign (Lat. aignuniy a mark). In 
astronomy^ the twelfth part of the 
ecliptic ; in algebra, a character 
indicating the relation between 
quantities ; in medicine, anything 
by which the presence of disease is 
made known ; physical signs are 
phenomena taking place in the 
body in accordance with physical 
laws, and capable of being per- 
ceived by the senses of the ob- 
Sil'ioa (Lat sileZf flint). The com- 

pound of silicon with oxygen, form- 
ing pure flint or rock-crystal. 
SU'icate (Lat. sHex, flint). A com- 
pound of silicic acid witii a base. 
SiUc'eoua (Lat. silex, flint). Belong- 
ing to or containing silex or flint ; 
having a flinty texture. 
Silicic (Lat. silex, flint). Belonging 
to flint ; silicic acid, a name 
applied to silica, or a compound 
of silicon and oxygen having 
certain of the properties of an 
Siliciferoua (Lat. siUx, flint ; /e/o, 
I bear). Producing silex or' flint. 
SiUciflca'tion (Lat. silex, flint; 
fa</io, I make). Petrifaction; 
the conversion of any substance 
into a flinty mass. 
Sili'cifled (Lat. silex, flint ; facia, 
I make). Converted into flinty 
Silic'ula (Lat a little pod). A fruit 
resembling a siliqua, but broader 
and shorter. 
•Silic'ulose (Lat siWula, a little pod). 

Bearing silicula or siUcles. 
Siliqua (Lat a pod). A form of 
fruit consisting of two long cells, 
divided by a partition, having 
seeds attached on each side, as in 
the cabbage and turnip. 
Sillqnose (Lat. sil'iqtia, a pod). 

bearing a siliqua. 
Silt. In geology, properly the fine 
mud which collects in lakes and 
estuaries, but generally used to 
designate all calm and gradual 
deposits of mud, clay, or sand. 
Silu'iian (Lat Silu'res, the ancient 
inhabitants of South Wales). Ap- 
plied in geology to a system of 
slaty, gritty, and calcareous beds, 
containing occasional fossils, and, 
largely developed in South Wales. 
Sin'apism (Gr. aivae^h sina'pi, mus- 
tard). A mustard poultice. 
Sin'cipnt (Lat.) The fore part of the 

Sine (Lat. smus). In trigonometry, 
the straight line drawn from one 
extremity of the arc of a circle, 
perpendicular to the diameter 
passing through the other ex« 



Sinlcal (Lat. sinuSf a sine). Be- 
longing to a sine. 

Sinis'tral (Lat. sini^tevy left). 
Haying spiral tnms towards the left 

Sinis'trorse (Lat. ginWter^ left ; 
versiMy towards). Turned towards 
the left. 

Sin'iiate (Lat. ainuSy a bay or inden- 
tation). Having large curved 
breaks in the margin. 

Sinuosity (Lat. nnus, an indenta- 
tion). A winding in and out. 

Sin'uGUS (Lat. ainusj an indentation). 
Winding ; crooked ; having a wavy 
or flexuons margin. 

Siniu (Lat. a bay or indentation). 
In anatomy^ a cavity in a bone, 
widest at the bottom ; a dilated 
form of vein, mostly found in the 
head ; in surgery^ an elongated 
cavity containing pus. 

Si'pliGii (Gr. (TKpiav^ siphoUf a reed). 
A bent tube with legs of unequal 
length, used for drawing liquid 
from a vessel. 

Siphon Barometer. A barometer in 
which the lower end of the tube is 
bent upwards in the form of a 

Siphon Gauge. A glass siphon partly 
filled with mercmy, used for indi- 
cating the degree of rarefaction, 
which has been produced in the 
receiver of an air-pump. 

Sipho'nal (Gr. ai(f>wVf siphon^ a si- 
phon or reed). Of the nature of a 

Siphunde (Gr. tri^wv^ dphoUy a reed ; 
c/e, denoting smallness). A small 

Siphonibran'cliiate (Gr. tri^wv, 
si'phdrif a tube ; fiparyx^^ hran'chia, 
gills). Having a siphon or tube, 
by which water is carried to the 

Siphonos'tomous (Gr. irKpuv^ nphdn, 
a reed ; (rrofiUf atoma^ a mouth). 
Having a mouth in the shape of a 
siphon or tube. 

Siren. In acovstics, an instrument 
for determining the number of vi- 
brations produced by musical sounds 
of dififerent pitch. 

Siroc'co (Italian). An oppressive re- 
laxing wind coming from North 

Africa over the Mediterranean to 
Sicily, Italy, &c. 

Skereton (Gr. <r/c€\Ae.', shd'ld, I dry). 
The bones of an animal, dried, and 
retained in their natural positions. 

Slate. In geologyt properly applied 
to argillaceous or clayey rocks, the 
lamination or arrangement in plates 
of which is not due to stratification 
but to cleavage. 

Snow-line. The elevation at which 
mountains are covered with per- 
petual snow. 

Soap (Lat. sapo). In chemUtry, a 
compound of a fatty substance or 
an oil-acid with a base. 

Soapstone. A soft variety of mague- 
sian rock having a soapy feel. 

Sob'oles (Lat. a shoot or young branch). 
A creeping underground stem. 

Solana'ceous (Lat. aola'nvm, the 
nightshade). Belonging to the 
order of plants which includes the 
nightshade and potato. 

Solar (Lat. solf the sun). Belonging 

• to the sun ; measured by the pro- 
gress of the sun. 

Solar System. In agtronomy^ the 
sun, with the assemblage of globes 
or primary planets revolving round 
it, and secondary planets or satel- 
lites revolving round the primary. 

Sol'eoism. Impropriety in language, 
consisting in the use of words or 
expressions which do not agree with 
the existing rules of grammatical 

Solen- (Gr. ff<i}KriVy solerij a channel or 
canal). A prefix in some compound 
words, implying the presence of a 
canal or pipe. 

Solid (Lat. sol'idus). Having the 
component parts so firmly adherent 
that the figure is maintained unless 
submitted to more or less violent 
external action. 

Solidun'gulous (Lat. sol'idusy solid ; 
un'gulaf a hoof). Having the hoof 
entire or not cloven. 

Sol'iped (Lat. soluSf alone ; pesy a foot). 
Having only one apparent toe and 
a single hoof to each foot, as the 

Sol'stices (Lat. 50Z, the sun ; «to, I 
stand) . In astronomy, the periods 



in winter and gammer at which the 
centre of the disc of the snn passes 
through the solstitial points, or the 
points in the ecliptic, midway 
between the eqaatorial points, and 
most distant from the celestial 

SoLititlal (Lat. 8olj the snn ; 9to, I 
stand). Belonging to the solstice. 

Solubility (Lat. solvOf I melt). The 
property of being dissolved or 
melted in fluid. 

Soruble (Lat. solvOf I melt). Capable 
of being dissolved or melted in a 

Solu'tion (Lat. solvoy I melt). The 
act of separating the parts of any 
body ; in chemistry, the melting of 
one substance in another in such 
way that the latter is not rendered 
opaque thereby ; in mathematics^ 
the finding an answer to any ques- 
tion, or the answer found. 

Sorvent (Lat. solvOy I melt). Any 
fluid or substance which renders 
other bodies liquid. 

Soxnaf ic (Gr. o-w/tm, soma, the body). 
Belonging to the body. 

Somatol'ogy (Gr. trw/uo, soma, a body; 
Koyos, lof/os, description). The 
doctrine of bodies or material sub- 

Sonmam'balinii (Lat. aom'nus, sleep : 
am'bulo, I walk). A walking in 

Sonmif' eronB (Lat. som'nus, sleep ; 
fer^o, I bring). Producing sleep. 

Sonmif' io (Lat. som'ntis, sleep ; facfio, 
1 make). Causing sleep. 

Som'nolence (Lat. som'ntUf sleep). 

Som'nolent (Lat. som'nus, sleep). 

Soniferous (Lat. sonus, sound ; fer^o, 
I bear). Conveying sound. 

Sonom'eter (Lat. sonus, sound ; Gr. 
yuerpov, met'ron, measure). An 
instrument for measuring sounds or 
the intervals of sounds ; an appa- 
ratus for illustrating the pheno- 
mena exhibited ly sonorous bodies. 

Sonorif ic (Lat. sonor, a loud sound ; 
foe to, I make). Producing sound. 

Sono'rouB (Lat. sonus, sound). Giving 
sound : sonorous figures, the figures 

which are formed by nodal lines, as 
when a disc of glass or metal 
covered with fine sand is thrown 
into musical vibrations. 

Soph'ism (Gr. tro^Mr/xo, sophis'ma, a 
cunning contrivance). An argu- 
ment in which the conclusion is not 
justly deduced from the premises. 

Soporif'erouB (Lat. so'por, sound 
sleep ; fer^o, I produce). Pro- 
ducing ^eep. 

Soporific (Lat. so'por, sleep ; fcufio, 
I make). Causing sleep. 

SorbefMlent (Lat. sor'beo, I sup up ; 
fadio, I make). Producing ab- 

Sori'tes (Ghr. trtopot, sSros, a heap). 
In logic, an abridged form of a 
series of syllogisms ; or a series 
of propositions linked, so that 
the predicate of each one becomes 
the next subject, the conclusion 
being formed by joining the first 
subject and the last predicate. 

Soro'sis (Gr. aoopos, sd'ros, a heap). 
A kind of fleshy fruit formed by 
the consolidation together of many 
flowers, seed-vessels, and recepta- 
cles ; as the pine-apple. 

Spa'dix (Lat.). In botany, a form of 
inflorescence in which the flowers 
are closely arranged round a thick 
fleshy axis, and the whole wrapped 
in a large leaf called a spathe ; as 
in the arum or wake-robin. 

Spar. In geology, a term applied to 
crystals or minerals which break 
up into regularly shaped forms with 
Fmooth clearage-faces. 

Spasm (Gr. airaoo, spa'o, I draw). An 
abnormal involuntary contraction 
of one or more muscles or muscular 

Spasmodic (Gr. (nratr/xos, spas'mos, 
spasm ; ci8o9, ei'dos, form). Besem- 
bling spasm ; consisting in spasm. 

Spas'tic (Gr. o-iraw, spa'o, I draw). 
Having the power of drawing to or 
from ; applied to muscular con- 
tractions in disease. 

Spatha'ceous {^athe). Having the 
appearance and consistence of » 

Spathe (Gr. frwaBri, spathe, a broad 
blade). A large membranous bract 



or kind of leaf, attached at the 
base of a spadix and enveloping it 
in a sheath. 

Spathic (Or. <nraQ% ipathe, a broad 
blade). In leaves or plates. 

Spath'iform (Germ, upalky spar; Lat. 
formOy shape). Eesembling spar 
in form. 

Spa'ihose (Gr. <TiraJQ% spaikSj a broad 
blade). In botany^ relating to or 
like a spathe ; in mineralogy, of 
tbe nature of spar. 

Spafulate (Lat. upa^ula, a broad 

. slice). Like a spatula or battle- 
door ; in botany, applied to leaves 
narrow at the base, and gradually 
widening towards a broad-crowned 
or straight top. 

Spe'cies. In zoology and botany, a 
collection of individuals resembling 
each other so closely that they are 
considered to have originated from 
a common parent, and having the 
power of uniform and permanent 
continuance by propagation. 

Specific (Lat. spe'cies, form or figure ; 
fadioy I make). Denoting a species; 
designating the peculiar property 
or properties which distinguish one 
species from another ; in medicine, 
supposed to possess a peculiar effi- 
cacy in a disease. 

Specific Gravity. The weight of a 
body, as compared with the weight 
of an equal bulk or volume of some 
other body (as water) taken as the 

Specific Volnme. In chemistry, 
the atomic volume, or the num- 
ber representing the volume in 
which a body combines. 

Specifica'tion (Lat. spe'cies, form ; 
facfio, 1 make). The act of de- 
termining by a mark ; a statement 
of particulars, describing a work 
to be undertaken or an invention. 

Spec'tmm (Lat. sped to, I behold). 
In optics, the coloured image formed 
on a white surface by rays of light 
passing through a hole, and sepa- 
rated by a glass prism. 

Spec'uliim (Lat. spedto, I behold). In 
medicine, an instrument forexamin- 
ing internal parts by means of light. 

Spel'ter. Native impure zinc, con- 

taining lead, copper, iron, arsenicy 
manganese, and plumbago. 

Sper'moderm (Gr. (rirfpfia, aper^ma, 
seed ; Sc^/to, der'ma, skin). The 
covering of a seed. 

Spliac'elate(Gr. vipaKeXoSiSphaJdelos, 
mortification). To mortify. 

Sphac'eluB (Gr. (r^xeXos, spkaVelos, 
gangrene). Death of a part of a 
living animal. 

Sphaeren'chyma (Gr.(r<^aipd, sphai'ra, 
a sphere ; iyxvfia, en'ckuma, tis- 
sue). Vegetable tissue composed of 
spherical cells. 

Sphe'no- (Gr. o-^v, sphen, a wedge). 
In anatomy, a prefix in compound 
words, implying connection with, 
or relation to the sphenoid bone. 

Sphe'noid (Gr. a<t>riv, sphen, a wedge; 
el^os, eidos, B\i&i>e). Like a wedge; 
applied to a bone of the skull, which 
is wedged in among the other bones. 

Sphe'no-mazillary. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and jaw-bones. 

Sphe'no-pari'etal. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and parietal bones. 

Sphe'no-tem'poral. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and temporal bones. 

Sphere (Gr. a<t>aipa, spliaira, a ball). 
A round body like a baU ; in 
geometry, the solid figure formed 
by the rotation of a semicircle 
about its diameter, and having a 
single surface, every part of wluch 
is equally distant f^om the centre ; 
in astronomy, the concave expanse 
of tbe heavens, having the appear- 
ance of the interior of a hollow 
sphere ; a right sphere being that 
aspect in which the circles of 
motion of the heavenly bodies 
appear at right angles with the 
horizon, as at the equator ; a 
parallel sphere, that in which the 
same motions appear parallel with 
the horizon, as at the poles ; and 
an oblique sphere, that in wh^ch 
these motions appear oblique to 
the horizon, as at any point be- 
tween the equator and each pole. 

Spher'ical (Gr. aipaipa, sphaira, a 
sphere). Like a sphere ; globular ; 
relating to a sphere. 

Sphericity (Gr. atpaipa, sphaira, a 
sphere). Boundnesa. 



Spher'oid (Gr. ff4>oupaf tphaira, a 
ball ; ciSos, eido8f form). Ee- 
sembling a sphere ; a body ap- 
proaching a sphere in form, but 
not perfectly globular ; the result 
of the revolution of an ellipse 
about one of its axes. 

Spherom'eter (Gr. (r<pcupa, sphaira, a 
sphere; ixerpoVf met Von, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the di- 
mensions of a sphere. 

Spher'ule (Gr. cKpcupa^ sphaira, a 
ball ; uhf denoting smallness). A 
little sphere or globular body. 

SpMno'ter (Gr. <T<piyy<a^ sphingo^ I 
bind). A name given to circular 
muscles surrounding the orifices of 
organs or parts of the body. 

Spliygmom'eter (Gr. o-^^vy/ios, sphug- 
moSf the pulse ; iitrpovy metfron, 
a measure). An instrument for 
counting the pulsations of an artery 
by rendering the action of the 
pulse visible, and measuring its 

Splca (Lat. an ear of com). In 
swgerj/y a kind of bandage, so 
called from its turns being thought 
to resemble the arrangement of the 
ears of corn- on the stem. 

Spio'ular (Lat. spic'ulum, a dart). 
Besembling a dart ; haying sharp 

Spio'nla (Lat. spidulun^ a dart). In 
botany, a spikelet. 

Spic'iiliini (Lat. a dart). In svrgery, 
a small pointed piece of bone or 
other hard matter. 

Spike (Lat. spica, an ear of com). 
In botanpf a form of inflorescence 
in which sessile flowers are placed 
on a simple peduncle or stem, as 
in the wheat and lavender. 

Spikelet. In botany, a small spike, 
or clust-er of flowers, as in grasses. 

Spina Bifida (Lat. cleft spine). A 
diseased state in which part of the 
bones of the spine are deficient, so 
that the membranes of the chord 
project in the form of a tumour. 

Spixial (Lat. spina, the spine). Be- 
longing to the spine or back-bone. 

Spi2ial Chord or Marrow. The part 
cf the nervoQs system contained in 
the canal of the vei-tebral column. 

Spinal System of Nerves. The 
nerves which convey impressions 
to and from the spinal cord espe- 

Spine (Lat. spina, a thorn). A 
thorn ; an abortive branch with a 
hard sharp point ; in anatomy, the 
vertebral column or back-bone ; in 
zoology, a thin pointed spike. 

Spines'cent (Lat. spina, a thorn). 
Becoming thorny ; bearing spines. 

Spinif'erous (Lat. spina, a thom ; 
/c/o, I bear). Producing spines or 

Spi'niform (Lat. spina, a thom ; 
forma, shape). Like a spine or 

Spin'neret (Sax. spin/nan, to make 
yam). The pointed tubes with 
which spiders weave their webs. 

Spi'nons (Lat. spina, a spine or 
thorn). Having spines ; in ana- 
tomy, projecting like a spine. 

Spi'racle (Lat. spiro, 1 breathe). A 
breathing hole ; applied to the 
external openings of the air-tubes 
of insects. 

Spiral (Gr. amupa, speira, anything 
wound round). Winding round a 
fixed point, and at the same time 
constantly receding, as the main- 
spring of a watch ; winding round 
a cylinder, and at the same time 
advancing ; in architecture, a curve 
winding round a cone or spire. 

Spiral Vessels. In botany, fine 
transparent membranous tubes, 
with one or more spiral fibres 
coiled up in their interior. 

Spirit Level. An instmment for de- 
termining a plane parallel to the 
horizon, consisting of a tube of 
glass nearly filled with spirits of 
wine or distilled water, and her- 
metically sealed, so that, wh^ it 
is placed in a horizontal position, 
the bubble of air in the liquid 
stands exactly in the centre of the 

Spirom'eter (Lai K)iro, I breathe ; 
Gr. nerpov, metron, a measure). 
An instmment for measuring the 
quantity of air exhaled from the 
lungs, and thereby determining the 
capacity of the chest. 



Spiroi'dal (Gr. o-ireipa, tpetrOy any- 
thing wound round ; elSos, eidoSf 
shape). Like a spiral or cork- 

Spis'situde (Lat. tpissvSj thick). 
Thickness ; applied to substances, 
&c., neither perfectly liquid nor 
perfectly solid. 

C^lanchnic (Gr. o-irKarfxyov, splanch- 
rum, bowels). Belonging to the 
viscera or intestines. 

Splanchno- (Gr. (nrKayxvoVySplanch' 
norif bowels). In anatomy and 
medicine^ a prefix in compoimd 
words, implying relation to viscera. 

Splaachnogfraphy (Gr. anKayx^ov, 
splanchnony bowels ; ypatpcoy 
graph'df I write). An anatomical 
description of the viscera. 

Splaachnorogy (Gr. <nr\ayxvov, 
splanchnoUf bowels ; \oyos, lo^os, 
discourse). A description of the 

Splan'chno-Skereton (Gr. air\aryx^ov, 
gplanchnoUf bowels ; ir/ccAerov, 
skel'eton). The bony or cartilagin- 
ous pieces which support the viscera 
and organs of sense in animals. 

Sple'nial (Lat. sple'niunif a splint). 
Applied to a bone in the head of 
fishes, because applied in the 
manner of a splint. 

Spleiiiza'tion (Gr. (nr\riUf spleUf the 
spleen). A change produced in the 
lungs by inflammation, so that they 
resemble the substance of the 

Spondee (Gr. (nrovi% spondcy a 
drink offering ; because solemn 
melodies were used on such occa- 
sionfi). A foot in Greek and Latin 
verse consisting of two long syllables. 

Spong^lets, See Spongioles. 

Spongia'ria (Gr. triroyyoSf spongos, 
sponge). The class of beings in- 
cluding sponges. 

Spon'giform (Gr. triroyyoSf ipongoi^ 
a sponge ; Lat. frn'ma^ shape). 
Like a sponge. 

Spon'gioles (Gr. crTroT^oy, tpongoSf a 
sponge ; ole, denoting smallness). 
In botany f the ultimate extremities 
of roots, composed of loose spongy 
cellular tissue, through which 
nourishment is absorbed. 

Sponta'neoTU (Lat. sponiey of onc^s 
own accord). Occurring or arising 
apparently of itself, without any 
obvious cause. 

Sporad'ic (Gr. <nropaj, spor^cUf scat- 
tered). Separate ; scattered : ap- 
plied to diseases which occur in 
single and scattered cases. 

Sporan'giuin (Gr. triropa, spor^a^ a 
seed ; &yy eioVf angei'on, a vessel). 
The case which contains the sporules 
or reproductive germs of some cryp* 
togamic plants. 

Spore (Gr. cnropo, tpoi^a^ a seed). 
See Sporules. 

Spor'ophore (5pore; Gr. ^tp<a,phet^Of 
I bear). A stalk supporting a 

Sporozo'id {Spore; Gr. (foov, zoon, 
an animal ; eiSos, eidoSf shape). 
A spore furnished with ciliary or 
vibratile processes. 

Spor'ules (Gr. tncopa^ spor^a^ a seed ; 
ule^ denoting smallness). The mi- 
nute organs in flowerless plants 
which are the analogues of seeds in 
flowering plants. 

Spu'risB (Lat. spurious ; sc. pewiuB^ 
feathers). The feathers attached to 
the short outer digit* in the wings 
of birds. 

Sputum (Lat. gpuoy I spit). Spittle ; 
in medicine^ that which is dis- 
charged from the mouth in disorders 
of the breathing organs. 

Squama (Lat. a scale). A scale ; a 
part arranged like a scale. 

Squa'mifer (Lat. squama, a scale; 
/e/o, I bear). Covered with scales. 

Sqxia'miform (Lat. squama, a scale ; 
forma, shape). Like a scale. 

Squamig'erous (Lat. squama^ a scale ; 
ger^o, I bear). Bearing or having 

Squa'mous (Lat. squama, a scale). 
Scaly ; arranged in scales or like 
scales ; squamous suture, in an- 
atomy, the suture between the 
parietal and temporal bone, the 
former overlapping the latter like a 

Square (Lat. qvAxdra), Having four 
equal sides and four equal angles : 
in arithmetic, applied to the pro- 
duct of a number multiplied into 



itaelf, the number thus mul- 
tiplied being the square root of the 

Stalac'tlte (Gr. <rrdKaCwf stala'zo, I 
drop). A concretion of carbonate 
of lime hanging from the roof of a 
cave, produced by the filtration of 
water containing limy particles and 
its subsequent evaporation. 

Stalag'mite (Gr. trToAa^w,, gtcUa'zo, 
I drop). A concretion of carbonate 
of lime found on the floors of caverns, 
produced from the dropping and 
evaporation of water containing 

Stamen (Lat. tto, I stand). In a 
general sense, that which gives sup- 
port to a body : in botany^ the made 
organ in flowering plants. 

Stam'inal (Lat. stamen). In hotanyf 
having stamens only. 

Staxnin'eoQS {Stamen). Consisting of, 
or having stamens. 

Staminiferoos (Lat. stamen; fei^Oj I 
bear). Having stamens without a 

Stan'nary (Lat. stannum^ tin). Be- 
lating to tin-works. 

Stannio (Lat. stanrvu/m, tin). Pro- 
cured from tin. 

Stannif'eroiu (Lat. ttannum^ tin ; 
/e/o, I bear). Containing tin. 

Staphylf/ma (Gr. aTatpv\ri, staph'tiZe, 
a grape). A disease oif the eye in 
which the cornea loses its trans- 
parency and forms a pearl-coloured 
projection, sometimes smooth and 
sometimes uneven. 

Stapliylor'aphy (Gr. (rrcupv\riy staph'- 
ulif a bunch of grapes, or the ton- 
sils ; pam-w, rkaptdt I sow). A 

■ surgical operation for uniting the 
edges of a divided palate. ■ 

Sta'sis (Gr iVtt^/lk, histemi, I make to 
stand). A standing or settling in 
one place : as of the blood. 

Staf io (Gr. Itrrrifu, hisicmi^ I make 
to stand). Having the power of 
keeping in a stationary condition. 

Stat'iCB (Gr. ItrrrjfUf histemiy I cause 
to stand). The branch of me- 
chanics which considers the action 
on bodies of forces at equilibrium, 
or producing equilibrium. 
. Statis'tios. The science of collecting 

and arranging all the numerical 
facts relating to any subject. 

Steam Hammer. A form of forge 
hammer consisting of a steam cy- 
linder and piston placed vertically 
over the anvil. 

Ste'arate (Gr. o-rcap, ste'ar, suet). A 
salt consisting of stearic acid and a 

Stear'ic (Gr. trrcap, st^ar, suet). An 
acid which is derived from certain 

Ste'arin (Gr. a^tap, st^ar, suet). The 
chief ingredient of suet and tellow. 

Ste'atlte (Gr. o-rcap, stefavj suet). 
Soap-stone: a soft unctuous mineral, 
consisting of a silicate of magnesia 
and alumina. . 

Steato'ma (Gr. o-rcop, ste'ar, suet). A 
tumour containing a substance re- 
sembling fat. 

Steato'matoiis (Steato'ma). Of the 
nature of a steatoma or fatty tu- 

Stel'lar (Lat. Stella, a star). Belong- 
ing to or containing stars. 

Stellate or Stelliform (Lat. stella, a 
star). Resembling a star ; radiated. 

Stem'mata (Gr. ffrtfifjut, stern'ma, a 
chaplet). The simple minute eyes 
of worms, and those which are 
added to the large compound eyes. 

Stenogfraphy (Gr. artpos, sten'os, 
narrow ; ypaipUf graph' d, I write). 
The art of writing in short hand 
by using abbreviations or characters 
for whole words. 

Sterelmin'tha (Gh*. o-rcpcos, ster^eos^ 
solid ; lA/uys, hel'mins, a worm). 
Parasitic worms, having no true 
abdominal cavity. 

Sterec^prapli'ic (Gr. areptos, ster'eos, 
solid ; ypcupWf graph' Oy I write). 
Delineated on a plane ; stereograph ic 
projection is the projection of a sphere 
delineated on the plane of one of 
its great circles, the eye being at 
the pole of the circle. 

Stereog^raphy (Gr. artptos, ster'eos, 
solid; ypcufmt graph'o^ I write). 
The art of delineating the forms of 
solid bodies on a plane. 

Stereom'eter (Gr. artpfoSf stet^eos^ 
solid ; nerpoVf metfron^ a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 



specific gravities of yarions sub- 
stances, solid as well as liquid. 

Stereom'etry (Gr. a-rtpcoSf atev^eoB, 
solid ; fifrpovj metfron^ a measure). 
Tbe art of measuring solid bodies 
and finding their solid contents. 

Ster'eoscope (Gr. a-rtptost ster'eoSf 
solid ; a-Koir««, ahop'eo, I view). 
An optical instrument by which we 
look on two pictures taken under a 
small difference of angular view, 
each eye looking on one picture 
only ; so that, as in ordinary vision, 
two images are conveyed to the 
brain and unite in one impression. 

Stereot'omy (Gr. artptoSf ster^eoa, 
solid ; Tffivw, tem'ndf I cut). The 
art of cutting solids into certain 
figures or sections. 

Ster'eotype (Gr. a-rfpeoSf ater^eoBf 
solid ; TVTToSf tu'poSf type). A 
fixed metal type ; a plate of the 
size of a page, cast from a mould in 
which an exact representation of 
the types set in order by a printer 
has been produced. 

Ster'nal (Lat. ster'num, the breast- 
bone). Belonging to the breast-bone. 

Ster'no- (Lat. st&r'nwniy the breast- 
bone). A prefix in compound 
words, signifying relation to the 
sternum or breast-bone. 

Ster'num (Lat.) The breast-bone 
to which the ribs are jointed in 

Stem'utatory (Lat. stem'w)^ I sneeze). 
Producing sneezing. 

Stethom'eter (Gr. a-rrieoi, ite'thos, 
the chest ; fifTpov, mc^ivny a mea- 
sure). An instrument for mea- 
suring the movements of the chest 
on the outside. 

Steth'oscope (Gr. (mt9oi, ite'thos, 
the chest ; a-Koireuy sJcop^eo, I view). 
A cylindrical instrument of light 
wood or gutta percha, generally 
hollow, fur listening to the sounds 
produced in the chest or other part 
of the body. 

•Stich'oos (Gr. <mxos, stick' oe, a row). 
A termination in compound words 
.implying rows. 

Sthen'ic (Gr.o-^ewy, ^f^^n'of, strength). 
Attended with a morbid increase of 
vital action. 

Stig'ma (Gr. crT*f«, sti'zo^ I prick or 
stick). In botany y tbe upper ex- 
tremity of the pistil, or that part 
which receives tbe pollen; in the 
plural, gti^Tnata, it denotes the 
apertures in the body of insects 
communicating with the tracheae or 

Stigmaf io {Stigma), Belonging to 
the stigma. 

Stirn'olant (Lat. stimfuJus, a goad). 
In medicine^ an article which pro- 
duces a rapid and tran|ient increase 
of vital energy. 

Stim'ulos (Lat. a goad). In medi- 
cine, that which produces a rapid 
and transient increase of vital 
energy ; in botany, a stinging hair. 

Stipe (Lat. sti'pes, a stalk). In bo- 
tany, applied to the stem of palms 
and ferns, and the stalk of agarics. 

Stipltate (Lat. stVpes^ a stalk). Sup- 
ported on a stalk. 

Stip'ular (Stip'ule). Resembling or 
consisting of stipules. 

S^'p'vla.tB {Stip'ule). Having stipules. 

Stip'ule (Lat. atip'ula, a stem). In 
botany, a small leaf-like appendage 
to the leaf, commonly at the base 
of its stem. 

Stolon (Lat. sto'lo, a sucker). In 
botany, a sucker, at first growing 
on the surface of the ground, thw 
turning downwards and rooting. 

Stolonif' eroos (Lat. ato'lo, a sucker ; 
•/«^o, I produce). Producing suckers. 

Stomap'oda (Gr. arofia, stom'a, a 
mouth ; vovs, povs, a foot). An 
order of Crustacea, deriving its 
name from the manner in which 
the feet approach the month. 

Stom'ata or Stom'atee (Gr. irrofia, 
atom'u, a mouth). Opening between 
the cells of the epidermis of plante 
in parts exposed to the air. 

Strabis'mos (Lat. atrab'o, one who 
squints). Squinting; a want of 
coincidence in the axes of the eyes. 

Strangulated (Lat. stran'gvlo, I 
choke). Choked ; in turgery, 
having the circulation stopped in 
any part. 

Stratifica'tion (Lat. ttra'tum, a layer ; 
fac'io, I make). Tbe process by 
which substanoee are formed into 



strata or layers ; an arrangement 
in layers. 

Stra'tiform (Lat. stra'tum, a layer; 
for^ma, shape). In the form of 
strata or layers. 

Strat'ity (Lat. itra'tum^ a layer ; 
fcLcfiOf I make). To arrange in 

Stra'tom (Lat. ster^riOf I spread). A 
layer ; in geology^ applied to the 
layers in which rocks lie one above 

Strepsip'tera (Gr. vrptipw, streph'o, I 
torn ; nmpov, pter'ony a wing). An 
order of insects in which the first 
pair of wings is represented by 
twisted rudiments. 

8tri'8B (Plural of Lat. stH'a, a streak). 
Fine thread-like lines or streaks. 

Stri'ated (Lat. stri'a, a streak). 
Marked with strise or streaks, run- 
ning parallel to one another. 

Stri'dor (Lat.). A harsh creaking 
noise ; a grinding. 

Strigo'se (Lat. atrigo'stUf lank, thin). 
Covered with rough, strong hairs, 
pressed together. 

StroVile (Lat. stroh'iltis, an arti- 
choke). In botany f a large catkin, 
with scaly carpels bearing naked 
seeds, as the cone or fruit of the 

Strob'ilites (Stroh'Ue ; Or. Kidos, 
lith'oSf a stone). Fossil remains of 
cone-like fruit. 

Stro'phiolefl (Lat. stroph'iolvm, a 
little garland). Small tumours or 
cellular bodies produced at various 
points on the coverings of seeds. 

Stropli'uliis (Lat.). A papukir erup- 
tion of various species and forms, 
occurring in infants. 

Stm'xna. A diseased state, charac- 
terised by a tendency to the de- 
position of tubercle or of sweUing 
of glands in various parts of the 
body ; in botany, a cellular swelling 
where the leaf joins the midrib. 

Stu'pose (Lat. stu'pa, tow). Having 
a tuft of hairs. 

Style (Gr. (TTvAos, 8tu'lo8, a column). 
In botany, the part of the pistil 
consisting of the column proceeding 
upwards from the ovary and sup- 
porting the stijona. 

Stylifomi (Lat. st'^lus, a pen or bod- 
kin ; forma, form). Resembling 
a style or pen ; pointed. 

Stylo- (Qr. (rrv\os, stu'los, a style or 
pen). In anatomy, a prefix in 
some compound words, denoting 
attachment to the styloid process of 
the temporal bone. 

Stylobate {Qr. trrvXas, stu'los, a 
pUIar ; /Sao-is, ba'sis, a base). In 
architecture, generally, any base- 
ment on which columns are raised 
above the level of the ground ; but 
especially applied to a continuous 
pedestal on which several columns 
are raised. 

Stylohy'al (Gr. arvKos, stu'los, a 
style or pen ; hyoid bone). A bone 
in the head of fishes, corresponding 
to the junction between the styloid 
process and hyoid bone. 

Styloid (Gr. arvKos, stu'los, a style 
or pen ; eiSos, eidos, shape). Like 
a style or pen : applied in ancUomy 
to a process of the temporal bone. 

Styp'tio (Gr. arvtpoi, stu'pho, 1 con- 
tract). Astringent : having the 
property of restraining bleeding. 

Sab- (Lat. under). A preposition 
used in compound words, sometimes 
implying a lower position, some- 
times a less or inferior degree. 

Subacid (Lat. sub, under ; acid). 
Moderately acid. 

Sabal'tem (Lat. sub, under ; alter'- 
nus, alternating). In logic, applied 
to propositions which agree in 
quality but not in quantity. 

Saba'qaeoiu (Lat. sub, under ; a^ua, 
water). Under water. 

SabaracVnoid (Lat. sub, under; 
arach'noid). Lying beneath the 
arachnoid membrane. 

Sabazillar7(Lat. sub, under ; axU'la, 
an arm-pit). Placed under the 
axil or angle formed by a branch 
with the stem or by a leaf with the 

Sabcarnbonate (Lat. sv^, under; car^' 
bona/te). A salt containing less 
carbonic acid than a carbonate. 

Subcarlniretted (Lat. sub, under ; 
carbon). Containing less carbon 
than a carburet. 

Sub'olaM (Lat. ivb, under ; doss), A 



subordinate class, consisting of 
orders allied to a certain extent. 

Sabola'vian (Lat. svhj under ; clavis^ 
a key). Lying under the clavicle 
or collar-bone. 

Saboon'trary (Lat. suhy under ; con- 
tra'ritLSj contrary). Contrary in an 
inferior degree : in geometri/f ap- 
plied to similar triangles which 
have a common angle at the vertex, 
while the bases do not coincide ; in 
logic, applied to propositions which 
agree in quantity but differ in 

Sabcor'diate (Lat. «u5, under ; cor, a 
heart). Somewhat like a heart in 

Subcos'tal (Lat. iub, under ; cos'tUf a 
rib). Under or within the rib. 

Saboata'neoTis (Lat. sub, under; 
cu'tisy the skin). Under the skin. 

Subcutic'iilar (Lat. sub, under ; cu- 
tic'ula, the cuticle). Under the 
cuticle or scarf-skin. 

Sabcylin'drical (Lat. svJb, under; 
cylln'drical). Not perfectly cylin- 

Sabdu'plicate (Lat. »vh, under ; 
du'plex, double). Having the ratio 
of the square roots : in mathe- 
matics, applied to the ratio which 
the square roots of two quantities 
have to each other. 

Su'berate (Lat. su'ber, cork). A com- 
pound of suberic acid with a base. 

Su'berio (Lat. su'ber, cork). Belong- 
ing to cork : applied to an acid 
produced by the action of nitric 
acid on cork and fatty bodies. 

SuVerose (Lat. sub, under ; ero'do, I 
gnaw). Appearing as if a little 

Sub'genas (Lat. svh, under ; gen'us). 
A subordinate genus, consisting of 
species allied to a certain extent. 

Subglob'ular (Lat. sub, under; 
ghb'ula/r). Having a form approach- 
ing to globular. 

Subgran'ular (Lat. sub, under; 
gran'uLar). Somewhat granular. 

Sabja'cent (Lat. svh, under ; jadeo, 
I lie). Lying under or in a lower 

Subject (Lat. subjic'io, I place before). 
hifframmar and logic, that regard- 

ing which anything is affirmed or 
denied ; in intellectucd philosophy, 
the personality of the thinker. 

Subjec'tlYe (Subject). Relating to the 
subject ; applied in philosophy to the 
manner in which an object is con- 
ceived of by an individual subject ; 
in medicine, to symptoms observed 
by the patient himself. 

Sobjimc'tlve (Lat. sub, under ; jungo, 
I join). Subjoined or added to 
something else ; in grammar, ap- 
plied to a form of the*verb express- 
ing condition or supposition. 

Sablimate (Lat. sMi'mis, exalted). 
To bring a solid substance by heat 
into the state of vapour, which 
condenses on cooling ; the substance 
produced by this process. 

Sublima'tioii (Lat. subli'mo, I raise 
up). The process of bringing solid 
substances by heat into the state 
of vapour which is condensed in 

Sablime. /See Sublimate. 

Sublin'gnal (Lat sub, under; linfgua, 
the tongue). Under the tongue. 

Sablnxa'tioii (Lat. sub, under ; luX' 
action). An incomplete luxation 
or dislocation. 

Sabmari'ne (Lat. sub, under ; ma're, 
the sea). Formed or lying beneath 
the sea. 

Submaxillary (Lat. sub, under ; max- 
il'la, the jaw). Lying beneath the 

Submeai'tal (Lat. sub, under ; men- 
tumi, the chin). Under the chin. 

Submu'eous (Lat. sub, under ; mu- 
cous). Lying beneath the mucous 

Sabmul'tlple (Lat. sub, under ; multi- 
ple). A quantity which is contained 
in another an exact number of 

Subiia8'ceiit(Lat. sub, under ; 'Mis'cwr, 
I am bom). Growing underneath. 

Subnor'mal (Lat. sub, under ; myrmcL, 
a rule). In conic sections, the 
portion of a diameter intercepted 
between the ordinate and the 

Sabocoip'ital (Lat. svh, under ; odd- 
put, tihe back of the head). Under 
or beneath the occiput. 



Siiboesopliage'al (Lat. «u&, under; 
cuoph'agus,) Beneath the oesopha- 
gus or gullet. 

Suborbic'ular (Lat sub, nnder; orbit/- 
uktr). Almost orbicular. 

Suborbital (Lat. <ud, under; orbital 
the orbit). Applied to bones de- 
veloped in the integument about 
the lower part of the orbit in 

Sab'order (Lat. suib, under ; order), 
A subdivision of an order, consist- 
ing of a number of allied genera. 

Sabor'dinate (Lat. «u&, under ; ordo, 
an order). In geology, inferior in 
the order of superposition. 

Subo'Tal (Lat. sub, under ; ovaJ), 
Somewhat oval. 

Snbo'yate (Lat. sub, under; o'vam, 
an egg). Nearly in the shape of 
an egg. 

Suboz'ide (Lat. skib, under; oaUde), 
An oxide containing a smaller pro- 
portion of oxygen than that in 
which the basic characters are most 

Subperitone'al (Lat. sub, under ; peri- 
toneum). Lying beneath the peri- 
toneal membrane. 

8ab'plintlL(Lat. svb, under ; plinth.) 
A plinth placed under the principal 

Sabro'timd (Lat. sub, under; rotun'- 
dus, round). Nearly round. 

Subsalt (Lat. sub, under ; salt), A 
salt having an excess of the base. 

Sabscap^nlar (Lat. sub, under; sca]f/- 
ula, the shoulder-blade). Lying 
under the shoulder-blade, between 
it and the chest. 

Subae'roiis (Lat. sub, under ; serous). 
Lying beneath a serous membrane. 

Sub'soil ^Lat. sub, under ; soil). The 
bed or layer of earth which lies 
under the surface-soil, and on the 
base of rocks on which the whole 

Subspe'eies (Lat. sub, under ; species), 
A subordinate species. 

Substra'tnxn (Lat. svb, under ; stro^- 
turn). A stratum or layer lying 
under another. 

Sobsnl'pliate (Lat. svb, under ; svl- 
phcUe). A sulphate with excess of 
the base. 

SubBul'tiui (Lat. sub, under ; saltus, a 
leaping). A twitching or convul- 
sive motion. 

Sabtan'gent (Lat. sub, under ; tan- 
gent). The segment of a produced 
or lengthened diameter or axis, in- 
tercepted between an ordinate and 
a tangent drawn from the same 
point in the curve. 

Subtend' (Lat. sub, nnder : trndo, I 
stretch). To extend under or op- 
posite to. 

Snbtriplicate (Lat. sub, under ; trip'- 
lex, three-fold). In the ratio of 
the cube roots; in mcUhematies, 
the subtriplicate ratio of two quan- 
tities is the ratio which their cube 
roots have to each other. 

SuHbulate (Lat. su'bulci^ an awl). 
Shaped like an awl. 

Soc'cinate (Lat. svxicinum^ amber). 
A compound of succinic acid with 
a base. 

Saocin'ic (Lat. suc^cinum, amber). 
Belonging to amber ; applied to an 
acid obtained from amber. 

Sac'culent (Lat. suceus, juice). Full 
of juice ; applied to plants which 
have a juicy and soft stem or leaves. 

Sucons (Iiat.) Juice. 

Sao'tion (Lat. sugo, I suck). The 
act of sucking or drawing in fluid 
substances by removing the pressure 
of the air. 

Bueto'nal {LaX. sugo, I suck). Fitted 
for sucking. 

Sndonf eroQS (Lat. su*dor, sweat ; 
fer^o, 1 bear). Conducting per- 

Sudorific (^dor, sweat ; /a c'to, 
I make). Causing sweat or per- 

Sndorip'aroiui (Lat. su'dor, sweat; 
par'io, I produce). Producing or 
secreting perspiration. 

Saffira'ticOBe(Lat. sub, under ; frvltex, 
a shrub). Partly shrubby : per- 
manent or woody at the base, but 
decaying yearly above. 

Sogillation (Lat. sugiTlo, I make 
black and blue). The mark left by 
a leech or cupping-glass ; applied 
also to livid spots noticed on dead 

Sol'cate (Lat. tuHcuSf a furrow). 



Furrowed ; deeply marked with 
longitudinal lines. 

Snl'phate (Sulphur). A eomponnd 
of sulphuric acid with a base. 

Snl'phide {Sul'phur). A compound of 
sulphur with another elementary 
substance, towards which it stands 
in the same relations as oxygen, so 
as to form a sulphur-acid or a 

Sul'phlte {Std'phur), A com- 
pound of sulphurous acid with a 

Snlpliocyan'io (SuHphttr and Cyan'o- 
gen), A name applied to an acid 
composed of sulphur, cyanogen, 
and hydrogen, found in the seeds 
and blossoms of cruciferous plants, 
and in human saliva. 

Snlpliovi'xiic (Sul'phur ; Lat. vi'numf 
wine) . A term appUed to an acid 
produced by the action of sulphuric 
acid on alcohol. 

Sulphur-acid. An acid in which the 
oxygen is represented by sulphur. 

Sulphur-base. A base in which 
oxygen is represented by sulphur. 

Sul'phuret (SiU'phur). A compound 
of sulphur with hydrogen or a 
metal, or other electro-positive 

Sulph'uretted {Sul'phur). Combined 
with sulphur. 

Sulphu'ric {Sul'phur), Belonging to 
sulphur : applied to an acid con- 
taining one equivalent of sulphur 
with three of oxygen commonly 
known as oil of vitriol. 

Snl'phurons {Sul'phur), Containing 
sulphur; applied to an acid con- 
taining one equivalent of sulphur 
and two of oxygen. 

Snlphur-salt A salt arising from 
the combination of a sulphur acid 
with a sulphur base, in each of 
which sulphur takes the place of 

Super- (Lat. above). A preposition 
used in compound words, signifying 
above or in excess. 

Supercil'iary (Lat. su'per, above; 
ci'lium^ the eyebrow). Above the 

Saperfic'ial (Lat. au'per^ above ; 
/acfiit, a /ace). On the face or 

outer surface; superficial measure 
is the extent of any surface. 

Superflc'ies (Lat. au'per, on ; fatfies, 
a face). The surface of a body, 
capable of measurement in length 
and breadth. 

Superimpo'se (Lat. su'per^ above ; 
impo^nOf I lay on). To lay on 
something else. 

Superincum'bent (Lat. 8u'per, above ; 
incumfbOy I lie on). Besting or 
lying on something. 

SupeMor (Lat. above). In hotany^ 
applied to the ovary when it is not 
adherent to the calyx, and to the 
calyx when it is adherent to the 
ovary ; also to the part of a flower 
nearest the axis or growing point. 

Supeija'oent (Lat. svlper, above; 
jodceoy I lie). Lying above. 

Supema'tant (Lat. 8u'pei\ above; 
na'tOy I swim). Floating or swim- 
ing on the surface. 

Superposifion (Lat. su'per, above; 
po'no, I place). A placing above ; 
in geology f the order in which rocks 
are pla(^ed over each other. 

Su'persalt (Lat su'per^ above ; sclU), 
A salt with a greater number of 
equivalents of acid than of base. 

Supersat'urate (Lat. su'perf above; 
aa'tur, full). To add beyond satu- 

Superstra'tum (Lat. su'per^ above; 
itra'tunif a layer). A layer above 

Supersul'phate (Lat. tu'per, above; 
svlphcUe), A sulphate containing 
more equivalents of acid than of 

Supertem'poral (Lat. «u'jD«r, over; 
temporal-bone). Applied to bones 
sometimes overarching the temporal 
fossse in fishes. 

Supervolu'te (Lat. su'per, above; 
volvOf I roll). In botany, applied 
to l^ves rolled on themselves in the 

Supina'tion (Lat. mpi'nus, lying on 
the back). The act of turning the 
face or anterior part upwards. 

Supina'tor (Lat. sup^nus, lying <hi 
the back). A name given to those 
muscles which turn the palm of 
the hand forwards or upwards. 



Sup'plemeiLt (Lai. tubj under ; pleo^ 
I fill). That which fills up the 
defects of any thing ; in geometry^ 
the quantity by which an arc or 
angle falls short of 180 degrees or 
a semicircle. ^ 

Sappvra'tion (Lat. suppvfrOf I turn 
into pus). The process of the 
formation of pus as a result of 

Su'pra- (Lat. su'prOf over). A pre- 
position used in compound words, 
signifying over. 

Supra-aero'mial (Lat. su'pra, above ; 
acro'mion). Lying above the 
acromion process of the scapula. 

Supraoreta'ceoQs (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
cr^ta, chalk). Applied to deposits 
lying over the chalk formation. 

Supxtidecom'poand (Lat. m'pra^ 
above ; decom! pound). In botany, 
applied to minutely divided or very 
compound leaves. 

Suprafolia'ceons (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
fo'lium, a leaf). Inserted above a 
leaf or petiole. 

SapracBSophage'al (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
cesopha'gus). Above the cesophagns. 

Supraoooip'ital (Lat. su'pra, above ; 
ocfciput, the back of the head). A 
bone in the head of fishes, cor- 
responding to the upper part of the 
occipital bone. 

Sapraorlntal (Lat. su'pra, over ; 
ar^bit). Above the orbit or eye- 

Suprare'nal (Lat. su'pra, over ; ren, 
a kidney). Above the kidneys. 

Suprasoap'nlar (Lat su'pra, over ; 
scap*ula, the shoulder-blade). 
Above the shoulder-blade. 

Sapraspina'tns (Lat. su'pra, above ; 
spina, a spine). Above the spine : 
a name given to a muscle lying 
above the spine of the shoulder- 

Su'ral (Lat. su'ra, the calf of the 
leg). Belonging to the calf of the 

Surd (Lat. sui^dus, deaf). In artth- 
metic and algebra, a root which 
cannot be expressed in integral or 
rational numbers. 

gtupen^sion (Lat. suspen'do, 1 hang 
up). In chemistry^ the state in 

which bodies are held, but not in 
solution, in a fluid, so that they 
may be separated ifrom it by filtra- 

Snspen^Bor (Lat. stispend^o, I hang). 
In botany, the cord which suspends 
the embryo, and is attached to the 
young radicle. 

Sntu'ral (Lat. stUu'ra, a sutur^. 

* Belonging to satures ; in botany, 
appli^ to that form of dehiscence 
or separation of fruits which takes 
place at the sutures. 

Sn'tore (Lat. suo, 1 sew). A sewing : 
in swrgery, the drawing together of 
a wound by sewing ; in anatomy, a 
seam or joint uniting the bones of 
the skull ; in botany, the part 
where separate organs unite, or 
where the edges of a folded organ 
adhere : the dental suture of the 
ovary is that next the centre, formed 
by the edges of the carpels : the 
dorsal suture is at the back, cor- 
responding to the midribs. 

Syco'sis (Gr. o-vkov, su'kon, a fig). A 
form of eruptive disease, aifecting 
the skin of the chin, lower jaw, or 
upper lip, characterised by the for- 
mation of patches of tubercles. 

Syllable (Gr. avWafiri, sul'labe, a 
syllable). In grammar^ applied to 
the augment in the past tense of 
Greek verbs, which is formed by 
the addition of the vowel e, so as 
to produce a new syllable. 

Syllable (Gr. <rvv, sun, together; 
\(mfiava, lam' band, I take). A 
letter or combination of letters that 
can be uttered by a single effort of 
the voice. 

Syllog^ism (Gr. avv, sun, with ; Xoyi- 
Coficu, logi'zomai, I think). In logi4:, 
an argument consisting of three 
terms, of which the first two are 
premises, and the last the conclusion. 

Syllogis'tic (Gr. a-w, sum, with ; 
Xoyiiofuu,^ logi'zomai, I think). 
Belonging to or in the form of 

Symbleph'aron (Gr. (tvv, sun, with ; 
fi\€<f>apov^ bleph'aron, an eyelid). 
A growing of the eyelids to the 

SymlK)! (Gr. <rvjuj3aAA«, tumbal'lo^ I 



compare). A visible object or 
character representing something. 

Sym'metry (Gr. (rvy, switij with ; 
fifTpoVy metfroriy a measure). The 
due proportion of one thing, as part, 
to another with respect to the 
whole ; in botanyf applied in refer' 
ence to the parts being of the same 
number, or multiples of each other. 

8ym,pathet'io (Gtr. avy^ sun, with ; 
TcaBos, path'oSf suffering). Having 
common feeling ; in anatomyy 
applied to a system of nerves which 
are specially supplied to the viscera, 
and blood-vessels. 

Sym'pathy (Gr. trw, sun, with; 
voBos, path'os, suffering). Fellow- 
feeling : in medidnef applied to 
the production of a modified or 
dises^ied condition in an organ or 
part through action or a disease of 
some other organ or part. 

Sym'phony (Gr. awy sun, witii ; 
(jxavri, phone, voice). A consonance 
or harmony of sounds : a musical 
composition for a full band of in- 

Sym'physis (Gr. a-uy, swi, together ; 
ipwio, phu'o, I grow). In ancUomy, 
the union of bones by means of an 
intervening cartilage, so as to form 
an immovable joint ; applied also 
to the junction of the two halves 
of the lower jaw. 

Sympesiom'eter (Gr. aufontCM, sum- 
pi^zo, I press together ; fierpoy, 
met! r on, a measure). An instru- 
ment for measuring the weight of 
the atmosphere by the compression 
of a column of gas. 

Symp'tom (Gr. avy, sun, with ; 
vtirra, pip' to, I fall). Something 
that happens concurrently with 
another ; in medicine, a disordered 
function, or assemblage of dis- 
ordered functions, becoming ob- 
vious in the course of a disease. 

Symptomafic {Symptom), Belonging 
or according to symptoms ; pro- 
duced from some apparent prior 
disorder or injury. 

Symptomatorogy (Gr. <ru/jLirra>fia, 
sump'tom^, a symptom; \oyos, 
losfos, a discourse). The part of 

medicine which treats of symptoms. 

Syn- or Sjrm- (Or. <rw, «m, witili). 
A prefix in compound words signi- 
fying with. 

Synae'resiB (Gr. avy, sv/n, with ; 
cupfw, hai'reo, I take). A com- 
bination of two vowels into one. 
* Synaloe'pha (Gr. <rvp, sun, with ; 
a\€i<f>u, alei'phd, I oil or anoint). 
In ffvosody, the process by which, 
when one word ends and the next 
begins with a vowel, the vowel of 
the first word is cut o£^ or absorbed 
in that of the second. 

Synaii'theroiu (Gr. aw, swn, with ; 
anther). Having the anthers 
widest in a tube round the style ; 
applied to some composite plants. 

Synarthro'siB (Gr. aw, sun, together; 
apdpoy, arthron, a joint). An 
immovable joint. 

Sjmcai'poiu (Gr. avu, sun, with; 
KopTTos, karpos, fruit). Having the 
carpels of a compound fruit com- 
pletely united. 

Synchondro'sis (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 
XovSpos, chon'dros, a cartilage). 
An articulation by cartilage ; ap- 
plied especially to the joint formed 
by the sacrum with the ilium on 
each side. 

Synchronic (Gr. avp, sun, with; 
Xpovos, chro^i'os, time). Happening 
at the same time ; performed in the 
same time. 

Syn'chronous. See Synchronic. 

Syncli'nal (Gr. aw, sun, with ; K\um, 
kli'no, 1 lean). In geology, applied 
to strata that dip from opposite 
directions downwards, or which 
incline to a common centre. 

Syn'cope' (Gr. aw, sun, with ; k&vtu, 
kop'to, I cut). A cutting off; in 
medicine, fainting ; interruption of 
the action of the heart. 

Syndesmorogy (Gr. awd^afjLoSf mch- 
des'mos, a ligament ; \oyos, log^<^ 
discourse) . A treatise on ligannenta. 

Syndesmo'sis (Gr. aw, swn, with ; 
Sea/jLos, de^mos, a binding). Hie 
union of bones by ligaments. 

Synec'doche (Gr. aw, swn, with; 
^KScxojuai, ekdech'omai, I take out). 
A figure in speech by which the 
whole is put for a part^ or a part 
for the whole. 



Syne'ohia (Ghr. aw^ tun, with ; ^x^^f 
eeh'oy I hold). In surgery , an sid- 
hesion of the iris of the eye to the 
cornea or to the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

83r]igene'8ia (Qr. <rvy, sun, with ; 
ytvfffiSf gen'esis, production). A 
term applied to a class of plants in 
the Linnsean system, in which the 
anthers are united, the filaments 
being mostly separate. 

Syn'ocha (Gr. (rvvoxos, sun'oehos, 
holding together). A name for- 
merly given to inflammatory fever. 

Syno'chreate (Gr. a-w, sun, together; 
Lat dchrea, a boot). In botany, 
applied to stipules which unite 
round the stem, on the opposite 
side from the leaf. 

Syn'oohns (Gr. awoxos, sun'oehos, 
holding together). .A name for- 
merly given to a mixed form of 
fever, intermediate between syno- 
chus and typhus. 

SjBod'io (Gr. aw, sun, with ; 6Sos, 
hoctos, a way). In astronomy, 
applied to the common lunar 
month, or the period of time which 
the moon takes in returning to any 
givmi phase ; also to the motion of 
a planet considered merely in rela- 
tion to that of the earth, without 
reference to its actual position in 
its orbit. 

Bjn'oaym (Gr. avp, sun, with ; ivofia, 
on'oma, a name). A word having 
the same signification as another. 

Synop'sis (Gr. avp, sun, with ; oif^ts, 
opsis, sight). A general view. 

Synop'tie (Gr. avy, sun, with ; oif'is, 
opsis, sight). Taking in at one 

Byno'via (Or. <rw, sun, with ; Lat. 
o'vum, an egg). A fluid resembling 
the white of egg, secreted in the 
cavity of joints for the purpose of 

moistening them and fisMulitating 

Synori'tis {Byno'via; kis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of a 
synovial membrane. 

Syn'taz {Qtr, aw, sun, together; 
raa-ffof, tassS, I arrange). A con- 
nected system or order ; in gram- 
mar, the part which teaches the 
arrangement and connection of 

Ssm^fheuB (Gr. trw, sun, together ; 
TtBrjixt, iUhemi, I place). A put- 
ting together ; the uniting of sepa- 
rate elements or constituents into a 

Sjniihet'io (Gr. <rvv, sun, together ; 
TtOrini, iithemi, I place). Relating 
to synthesis or composition. 

Syn'tcnun (Gr. <rvvTOPos, sun'tonos, 
stretched). Fibrin of muscle or 

Sys'tsm ((Jr. <rw, sun, together ; 
IcTijjUi, histemi, I place). A com- 
bination of things taken together ; 
a classification, real or theoretical, 
of parts or objects. 

Systemat'ic (System). Formed ac- 
cording to a regular connection. 

System'ic (System). Belonging to a 
system ; in physiology, relating to 
the system, or assemblage of organs 
of the body in general. 

Sys'tole (Gr. (rv<rTeX\of, susieUlo, I 
contract). In grammar, the short- 
ening of a long syllable ; in physio- 
logy, the contraction of the heart 
for carrying on the circulation. 

Bya'ygy (Gr. wv, sun, with ; O'yoy, 
zu'gon, a yoke). A conjunction or 
coupling ; in astronomy, ' the line 
of syzygies is the diameter of the 
moon's orbit which is directed to 
the sun, its extremes being the 
points of conjunction and of oppo- 


Tabes (Lat.) A wasting. 

TaVular (Lat. tah'ula, a table). In 

the form of a table ; arranged in 

laminn or plates. 

Tac'tile (Lat. tactus, touch). Relating 
to, or employed for, touch. 

TflB'nia (Gr. raivia^ tainia^ a ribbon). 
The tape-worm. 



TsBXiioid (Gt. rtuvM, tcUniUf a 
ribbon ; ciSos, eidoSf a form). 
Shaped like a ribbon, as the tape- 

Talc A mineral consisting of mag* 
nesia, potash, and silica, closely 
resembling mica, arranged in broad, 
flat, smooth plates, translucent 
and offcen transparent. 

Taliaco'tian Operation. In surgery, 
the operation of forming a new 
nose from the skin of the forehead 
or other part of the face. 

Ta'lipes (Lat. talmy an ankle ; pes, 
a foot). A deformity known as 

Tan'gent (Lat. tango^ I touch). In 
geometrpf a straight line which 
touches a circle or curve in one 
point, and which, being produced, 
does not cut it. 

Tan'nic (^an). Applied to an acid 
existing in oak-bark, and in which 
depends its efficacy in tanning. 

Tape'tom (Lat. a carpet). The 
coloured layer of the choroid coat 
of the eye. 

Taphren'di3rma(Gr. r(uf>posy taph'ros, 
a ditch ; iyxvfiOy en'ckuma, tissue). 
A name for pitted vessels in vege- 

Tar'digrade (Lat. tai^dus, slow; 
grad'ior, 1 step). Advancing 

Tarsal {Tarsus). Belonging to the 
instep, or to the cartilage of the 

Tar'siLS (Qr. raptros, tarsos, a flat 
surface). The instep; the carti- 
lage supporting each eyelid ; also 
the last segment of the legs of 

Tartar'io (Tartar^ a deposit from 
wines). Applied to an organic acid 
which exists in tartar, and which is 
found in the juice of grapes and 
other fruits. 

Tartari'sed {Tartar), Impregnated 
with tartar. 

Tar'trate {Tartar). A neutral com- 
pound of tartaric acid with a base. 

Tau'rine (Lat. tauruSf a bull). £e- 
lating to a buU. 

TazidePmy (Qr. raffffa, tasad, I put 
ia order; fepfia, derma^ skin). 

The art of preparing and preserving 
the skins of animals in their natural 

Taxis (Gr. raa-o-ctf, tasso, I put in 
order). In swrgery^ a process by 
which parts that have left their 
proper situation are replaced by the 
hand without the aid of instiu- 

Tazon'omy (Gr. To|tj, taxis, order ; 
vofjLos, nom'os, law). The depart- 
ment of natural history which 
treats of the laws and principles of 

Teoh'nical (Gr. t€x»^, techne, art). 
Belating or belonging to a science 
or art. 

Teolmorogy (Gr. rtxf^i techne, art ; 
\oyos, log' 08, discourse). A des- 
cription of arts or of the terms 
used in arts. 

Tectibran'chiate (Lat. tectus, covered; 
Gr. fipayxtOf bran'chia, gills). 
Having covered gills ; applied to 
mollusca in which the gills are 
covered by the mantle. 

Teg^men (Lat. teg'o, I cover). See 

Tegmen'tum (Lat. teg'o, I cover). 
The scaly coat covering the leaf- 
buds of deciduous trees. 

Teg'nment (Lat. te^o, 1 cover). A 
covering ; in anatomy, the skin ; 
in botany, see Tegmentum ; in 
entomology, the covering of the 
wings of the orthoptera, or straight- 
winged insects. 

Tegumen'tajy {Tegument). Belonging 
to or consisting of teguments or 
coverings. . 

Telangiec'tasis (Gr. t6\os, tel'os, an 
end ; kyyuov, angeHon, a vessel ; 
iKTcivco, ektein'o, I stretdi out). 
Distension of the vessels. 

Teregram (Gr. rrjKe, tele, at a dis- 
tance ; ypatpa, graph' o, I write). 
A message communicated by a 

Tel'egraph (Gr. rnXe, tele, at a dis- 
tance; ypoufxa, graph' 0, I write). 
An instrument for communicatixLg 
messages or news fi*om a distanoe 
by means of signals representiDg 
letters or words : to transmit by 
means of a telegraph. 



Velegn|3i1e (TW'^mp^). Belonging 
to, or communicated by, a tele- 

Telen'gifleope (Gr. ttiXc, iele, far o£f ; 
iyyvs, en'guSj near; aKoweto, ikop'to, 
I look). An instrument combin- 
ing the powers of the telescope and 

Terescope (Gr. tt/Ac, fele^ at a dis- 
tance ; (TKoirca, skap'eOf I view). 
An optical instrument for viewing 
objects at a distance. 

Telescop'ic {Telescope). Belonging to 
or seen by a telescope. 

Tellu'rio (Lat. teUus, the earth). Be- 
longing to or proceeding from the 

Tellu'ric (TeUu'rimn, a kind of 
metal). Belonging to tellurium ; 
applied to an acid consisting of 
tellurium and oxygen. 

Tem'peramexLt (Lat. tem'pero, I mix). 
Constitution ; in physiology, a term 
applied to peculiar characters of the 
human body in health, each of 
which is specially liable to certain 
forms of disease. 

Tem'peratnre (Lat. tem'pero, I mix 
or moderate). The state of a body 
with regard to heat and cold, es- 
pecially as compared with another 

TenL'poral(Lat. tern' par a, the temples). 
In anatomy y belonging to the tem- 

Tem'poral (Lat. tempus, time). Li 
grammar, applied to a form of 
augment in tiie past tense of verbs, 
by which a short Towel is changed 
into a long one. 

Tenacity (Lat. tenax, holding). The 
property which makes bodies ad- 
here ; in physics, the property by 
which a body resists the separation 
of its parts by extension in the 
direction of its length. 

Tenac'uliim (Lat. ten'eo, I hold). 
An instrument used in surgery for 
laying hold of arteries or other 
parts in operating. 

Ten'don (Gr. r^vuv, ten'dn). The 
dense fibrous structure in which a 
muscle ends, and by which it is 
attached to bone. 

Ten'on (Fr. from Lat tenfeo, I hold). 

In ardUteeture, the end of a piece 
of wood cut into a rectangular 
prism, and received into a cavity 
in another piece called a mortise. 

Tenof omy (Gr. r^vntv, tenon, a ten- 
don ; refufu, temno, 1 cut). The 
operation of dividing a tendon. 

Ten'sion (Lat. tendo, 1 stretch). The 
art of stretching, or the state of 
being stretched or strained. 

Ten'tade or Tentac'iiliim (Lat. ten'to, 
I feel or try). A feeler : a thiead- 
like organ, simple or branched, 
seated about the mouth or other 
part of the body of many inverte- 
brate animals. 

Tentaciilif 'eroQS (Lat. teniae' ulum, a 
feeler; fer'o, I bear). Producing 
or having tentacles. 

Ten'tatiYe (Lat. ien'to, I try). £x- 
perimentaL * 

Tento'rium (Lat. ten'do, I stretch). 
In anaiomy, a projecting of the 
dura mater, separating the cere- 
brum from the cerebellum. 

Tenuiros'tral (Lat. ten!uis, thin; 
ros'trum, a beak). Having a 
slender beak, as tiie humming- 
bird, &c. 

Tenuity (Lat. ten'uis, thin.) Thin- 

Tepida'rinm (Lat. tep'eo, I am hot). 
The part of the ancient bath in 
which the garments were removed, 
before the sweating process com- 

Teratorogy (Gr. repay, fer'cw, a 
monster : Koyos, lo(/os, discourse). 
The study of monstrosities, or de- 
partures from the normal forms of 

Ter'cine (Lat. ter'tius, third). In 
botany, the innermost coat of an 

Terebin'thinate (Gr. rfptfiivBos, tere- 
hin'thos, turpentine). Belonging 
to or having the properties of tur- 

Ter'es (Lat. round). In anatomy, ap- 
plied to certain muscles, from their 

Te'rete (Lat. tdres, round). Cylin- 
drical and tapering. 

Ter'gal (Lat. ter'gvm, the back). 
Belonging to the back. 



Tergem'inal (Lat. ter, three times ; 
gem'inuSy doable). Thrice double. 

Tergif ^erons (Lat. ter^gum^ the back ; 
fer'Of I bear). Bearing on the 
back ; applied to plants which bear 
their seeds on the back of the 
leaves, as ferns. 

Ter'miiial (Lat. ter^mintUf a limit). 
Belonging to or placed at the end 
of an object. 

Terminorogy (Lat. ter^mimUy a term ; 
Or. \oyoSy^ log*08, a discourse). 
The branch of a science or art 
which defines and explains the 
woids and phrases used therein. 

Ter'naxy (Lat. ter^ni^ three and three). 
Arranged in threes. 

Ter'nate (Lat. ter^nif three and 
three). In botany ^ applied to 
leaves having three leaflets on one 

Ter'ra (Lat.) The earth; an earth, 
or earthy substance. 

Terra'qiieoiis (Lat. ter^ra, earth ; 
a^jiOt water). Consisting of land 
and water. 

Ter'reoii8(Lat. ter'rat earth). Earthy. 

Ter'tian (Lat. ter'tius, third) Oc- 
curring every third day. 

Tertiary (Lat. teT^tius, third). Of 
the third order : in geology, a 
term applied to the formations 
above the chalk. 

Tes'selated (Lat. tes'sela, a cube, or 
die). Formed in little squares, 
like a chess-board. 

Test (Lat. ies^tiSf a witness). In 
chemistry y a substance employed to 
detect the presence of any ingre- 
dient in a compound. 

Tes'ta (Lat.) A shell; in hotuny, 
the outer covering of the seed ; 
sometimes applied to the coverings 
taken together. 

Testa'ceouB (Lat. tes^ta^ a shell). Be- 
longing to or having shells. 

Testu'diiiate (Lat. teatu'do, a tor- 
toise). Arched; like the back of 
a tortoise. 

Tetanic (Tel'amts), Belonging to or 
denoting tetanus. 

Tet'anoid {Tetaniut ; Gr. ^iBos, e/Hdot, 
shape). Resembling tetanus. 

Tet'anus (Gr. retyw, tei'ndy I stretch). 
A dismse characterised by violent 

and continued contraction of the 

Tefra- (Gr. T6(r<rop€j, tes'mres, or 
rcrraptSf tef tares, four). A pre- 
fix in compound words, signifying 

Tetrabran'ohiate (Gr. rerpa, iet'ra, 
four ; fiparyx^^ hran'chia, gills). 
Having four gills ; applied to an 
order of cephalopods. 

Tetraoan'thous (Gr. rcrpa, tetfra, 
four; iucavBoy ahan'tha, a spine). 
Having four spines or thorns. 

Tetracliotomoiis(Gr. T€Tpox«s, teHror 
ehos, fourfold ; rc/ui/w, tem'nOf 1 
cut). Branching in fours. 

Tetradac'tylouB (Gr. rerpa, tetra, 
four ; SoKTuXos, daJdtulos, a finger, 
or toe). Having four toes. 

Tetradsmaxnla (Gr. rcTpo, tefra^ 
four; ^waixts, du'rhamis, strength). 
A class of plants in the Linnaean 
system, having six stamens, of 
which four are longer than the 
other two. 

Tetragon (Gr. rtrpa, tetfra, four ; 
7a>i'ice, go'nia, an angle). A figure 
having four angles; especially a 

Tetrag'onal (Gr. rerpo, tedra, four ; 
TWKto, gtfnia, an angle). Belonging 
to a tetragon ; in botany, having 
four angles, the faces being con- 

Tetragynla (Gr. rerpa, telfra, four; 
yvm), gtme, a female). An order of 
plants in the linnaean system, 
liaving four pistils. 

Tetrahed'ron (Gr. rerpa, UHlra, four ; 
ISpo, hed'ra, a base). A figure 
bounded by four equilateral and 
equal triangles ; a triangular pyra- 
mid, with four equal and equi- 
lateral faces. 

Tetrahezahed'ron (Gr. rerpo, tdSra^ 
four ; k\, hex, six ; 48pa, hedSra^ 
a base). A solid bounded by 
twenty-four equal fi^ces. 

Tetram'eronB (Gr. rtrpa, tet'ra, four ; 
fAfpos, mer'os, a part). Consisting 
of four parts. 

Tetran'dia (Gr. rtrpa, tetroy fouT; 
varqp, aner, a male). A class <^ 
plants in the Linn»an Bystaa, 
having four stamens. 



Tetrapet^alOTis (Gr. rtrpoy tet'ra, 

four ; trcToKoVf pe^odon, a petal). 

Haying four petals. 
Tetrapliylloiis (Gr. rcrpa, tetfray 

four ; <pvWoVf phulUm^ a leaf). 

Having four leaves. 
Tetrap'odous (Gr. r^rpa, tet'ra, four ; 

irovsy potM, a foot). Haying four 

Tetrap'teronI (Gr. rerpo, tet'ray four ; 

m-epov, ptei^tmy a wing). Haying 

four wings. 
Tetrap'tote (Gr. rcrpo, tet'ra, four; 

XT0WI5, ptosis, case). In grammar, 

a noun haying four cases. 
TetraqnefrotiB (Gr. Terpo, telfra, 

four ; Lat quac^rOt a square). 

In botany, having four angles, the 

faces being concaye. 
Tetrasep^ona (Gr. rerpa, tet'ra, 

four ; sepal). Having four sejMils. 
Tetrasper'mona (Gr. rtrpa, tet'ra, 

four; anrtpfxa, sper^mOf seed). 

Having four seeds. 
TetrasyllaVic (Gr. rerpa, tefra, 

four; avKKa&% sul'labe, a syllable). 

Having four syllables. 
Tetrathe'cal (Gr. rerpo, tet^ra, four ; 

OvKVy thrice, a case). Having four 

thecsB, or loculaments. 
Tet'rodon (Gr. rtrpa, tet'ra, four; 

oSovSf od'otts, a tooth). A genus of 

fishes having four large teeth. 
Textile (Lat. texo, I weave). Woven, 

or capable of being woven. 
Teztnre (Lat. texo, I weave). In 

aricUomyf a name applied to the 

solid constituents of the body. 
Thalaxniflo'ral (Gr. 0a\afios, thaVa- 

mos, a bed : Lat. flos, a flower). 

A subclass of exogenous plants, in 

which the parts of the flower are 

inserted separately into the thala- 
mus or receptacle. 
Thal'amiia (Gr. 0a\afAoSy thaVamos, 

a bed). In anatomy, a name given 

to a part of the brain from which 

the optic nerve is partly derived ; 

in botany, the receptacle of the 

flower, or part of the stem from 

which the flower grows. 
Thallogen {ThdUus; Gr. y^vvaxa^ 

genna'o, I produce). Producing a 

ThalloplLyte (TTmUiu; Gt. ^vtov, 

phu'ton, a plant). A plant pro- 
ducing a thallus. 

Thallna (Gr. 0a\\os, thaVlus, a 
bough). In botany, the cellular 
expansion in cryptogamie plants 
bearing the analogues of fruit. 

Than'matrope (Gr. Bavfia, thauma, 
a wonder ; rpeww, trep'Oy I turn). 
An optical toy, consisting of a disc 
having on successive divisions of its 
circumference pictures representing 
figures in a succession of different 
positions in performing some action, 
80 that, when the disc is caused to 
revolve, the impressions made by 
figures on the eye remain and are 
combined, and the figure appears 
to pirouette before the eye. 

The'ca (Gr. 0riKri, thehe, a sheath 
or case). In botany, the case con- 
taining the reproductive matter in 
some flowerless plants : in anatomy, 
a strong fibrous sheath, enclosing 
certain soft parts, as the spinal 

The'caphore (Gr. ^kt;, theie, a 
sheath ; <pfp», pher^o, I bear). The 
roundish stalk on which the ovary 
of some plants is elevated. 

Thecas'poroiu (Gr. Brjicrt, theke, a 
sheath ; inropo, spor'a, a seed). 
Applied to fungi which have the 
spores in thecse or cases. 

Thl/codonts (Gr. Orficn, theke, a 
sheath ; oBovs, odfoits, a tooth). A 
tribe of extinct lizard-like reptiles 
having the teeth implanted in 

Theod'olite (Perhaps Gr. 0€ao/uat, 

. tkea'omai, I view ; doKos, doVos, 
stratagem). A surveying instru- 
ment for measuring horizontal an- 
gles, or the angular distance be- 
tween objects projected on the plane 
of the horizon. 

Theog'ony (Gr. Beos, Theos, God; 
yivofAM, gin'omai^ 1 am bom). The 
part of mythology which treats of 
the genealogy of heathen deities. 

Theorogy (Gr. e^os, The^os, God ; 
\oyos, lo^os, a discourse). Divi- 
nity ; the science of Gbd and divine 

The'orem (Gr. 9t»pto», thenreo, I see). 
la mathemaiieSf a proposition to 



be proved bj a cbain of reason- 
ing, the conclasion being stated ; 
in arithmetic and algebrOf Bome- 
times used to denote a rule. 

Theoref leal (The'ory). Pertaining to, 
or depending on, theory or pecula- 
tion ; not practicaL 

The'orize (The'ory). To form a 
theory ; to speculate. 

The'ory (Qr. Beapew, theureo^ I see). 
An exposition of the general prin- 
ciples of a science, and the rules 
derived therefrom, as distinguished 
from an art : in 'physical science, 
an explanation of natural pheno- 
mena, founded on facts known to 
be true from evidence independent 
of those phenomena : as distin- 
guished from hypothesis, it means 
an explanation of phenomena 
founded on principles established 
on independent evidence, while an 
hypothesis is a proposition assumed 
to account for certain phenomena, 
and having no other evidence of 
truth than in giving a satisfactory 
explanation of the phenomena. 

Therapeu'tlc (Gr. Qepaviva^ thera- 
peu'dy I heal). Heialing ; pertain- 
ing to the art of healing. 

Therapea'tics (Gr. eepavcvwy thera- 
peu% I heal). The part of medical 
science which describes the proper- 
ties of medicines and their modes of 

Thermal (Gr. Bepfios, thei^moSj warm). 
Belonging to heat ; warm ; applied 
to springs of which the temperature 
is above 60° Fahr. 

Thermo - electricity (Gr. ^cp/xt?, 
thermey heat ; electricity), Klec- 
tricity developed by heat. 

Ther'mo-electrom'eter. An instru- 
ment for ascertaining the defla- 
grating or heating power of an 
electric current. 

Thermom'eter (Gr. Ofpfiv, therme, 
heat ; fierpov, metfron, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the 
heat or temperature of bodies, by 
the regular expansion of mercury 
or some other substance. The 
thermometers usually employed are 
Fahrenheit's, the Centigrade, and 

v.. JB^aumur's. In Fahrenheit's ther- 

mometer, the tipace between th^ 
freezing and boiling points of water 
is divided into 180 degrees, the 
freezing point being marked as 32 
degrees, and the boiling as 212. 
In the Centigrade thermometer the 
space is divided into 100 degrees ; 
and in Reaumur's into 80. Hence 
5 degrees of the Centigrade, or 
4 of Reaumur's thermometer, are 
equal to 9 of Fahrenheit. 

Thermomet'ric (Thermometer), Be- 
longing to the thermometer. 

Ther'mo-mul'tiplier. A thermo-elec- 
tric pile, used for detecting changes 
of temperature. 

Ther'mophone (Gr. 0€pfiri, thermit 
heat ; ^»kt7, phoney sound). An 
apparatus for producing sound from 
.heated bodies. 

Ther'moscope (Gr. depfirit therme, 
heat; (TKowca, shopedy I view). 
An instrument for measuring mi- 
nute di£ferences of heat and cold. 

Ther'mostat (Gr. Oep/tiy, thermic, 
heat ; iarri/ju, hiatemi, I make to 
stand). An apparatus for regu- 
lating temperature in distilleries, 
baths, furnaces, &c. 

Thermofics (Gr. ^ep/tt;, thermie, heat; 
The science of heat. 

The'sis (Gr. ridrifu, tithe'mi, I place). 
A proposition to be maintained by 

thorac'io (Thorax), Belonging to 
or contained in the chest. 

Thoracic Duct. The vessel which 
conveys the chyle into the subcla- 
vian vein. 

Thorax (Gr. Btopo^, thorax, a breast- 
plate). The chest, or the part of the 
body between the neck and the ab- 
domen ; in entom/>logy, the second 
segment of insects, or the part be- 
tween the head and the abdomen. 

Thrombus (Gr. epo/xfios, throm'bos, 
a clot of blood). A small tumour 
of clotted blood that has escaped 
under the skin. 

Thjrmiu. A temporary organ, which 
exists at the lower part of the neck 
in children, disappearing gradually 
after the second year. 

Thy'ro-orThy'reo-(Gr. evp€os,thu'reoi, 
a shield). In amatompf a prefix in 



compound words, implying connec- 
tion with the thjrroid cartilage. 

Thy'roid (Gr. dupeos, thu'reos, a 
shield ; ctSos, eidos, form). Like 
a shield; in anattomy, applied to 
one of the cartilages of the larynx 
from its shape ; also to a glandular 
body lying in front of this cartilage ; 
and to arteries supplying this part. 

Thyrsus (Gr. Qvpaos, thv/r^sos, a 
^ght straight shaft). Li botany^ 
a kind of inflorescence resembling 
a bunch of grapes. 

Thysanou'ra (Gr. duiravos, thu'aanoSf 
a tassel ; oupo, oura, a tail). A 
family of wingless insects with 
fringed tails. 

Tib'ia (Lat. a pipe or flute). The 

, largest bone of the leg ; so called 
from its supposed resemblance to an 
ancient flute. 

Tib'iAl (Tib'ia). Belonging to, or 
situated near, the tibia or large 
bone of the leg. 

Timbre (French). An acoustic pro- 
perty, not yet explained, by which 
sounds of the same note and loud- 
ness are distinguished from each 

Tinc'ture (Lat. tin'gOf I tinge). In 
medicine, a solution, generally in 
spirit, of the active principles of 
any substance. 

Tinni'tus Aifrium (Lat.). A rin^g 
in the ears. 

Tissne (French, tissUf woven). In 
anatomy and botany, the minute 
elementary structures of which 
organs are composed. 

Titiio'nie (Gr. Ti^wvos, TUko'nus), 
Pertaining to those rays of light 
which produce chemical effects. 

Tme'sis (Gr. re/uvcD, temnd, I cut). 
In grammar, the division of a com- 
pound word into two parts, a word 
or words being inserted between 

Tomen'tose (Lat. tomen'tum, down). 
Downy ; covered with a down-like 

Tomen'tnni (Lat. down). In anatomy, 
a term applied to the minutely 
divided vessels on the surface of 
the brain ; in botany, a species of 
l^gish, soft) entangled hairs. 

Tonic (Gh:. rovos, ton'os, that which 
tightens, or may be tightened). 
In medicine, increasing strength ; 
applied also to spasmodic con- 
tractions which last steadily for a 
comparatively long time. 

Tonicity (Gr. rovos, ton'os, that 
which tightens). The property of 
muscles, by which they remain in 
a state of contraction, being at the 
same time counterbalanced by other 
muscles in a similar state. 

Ton'sU (Lat. tonsii'lce). An oblong 
gland situated on each side of the 

TonsiUi'tis (Lat. ton'sillce, the tonsils; 
itis, denoting inflammation). In- 
flammation of the tonsils ; a form 
of sore throat. 

Topha'ceoos (Lat. toph'us, a sand or 
gravel stone). Consisting of depo- 
sited calcareous matter. 

Toph'us (Lat. a sand or gravel stone). 
A deposit of porous calcareous 
matter ; in medicine, a chalky 
deposit on the joints from gout. 

Topographical {Topog'rajphy), De- 
scriptive of a place or country. 

Topo'graphy (Gr. towos, top'os, a 
place ; ypa<pa), graph' o, I write), 
A description of a particular place, 
giving a notion of everything con- 
nected therewith. 

To'rmina (Lat. tor'queo, I twist). 
Griping pains. 

Toma'do (Spanish, tornar', t6 turn). 
A hurricane ; especially applied to 
the whirlwind hurricanes prevalent 
in some tropical regions. 

Tor'ose (Lat. torus, a protuberance). # 
Swelling in protuberances or knobs. 

Torrefac'tlon (Lat. torrefa&io, I 
roast). The operation of drying or 

Torricel'lian Vac'nnm (TorriceVli, 
the inventor of the mercurial 
barometer). The space left in the 
upper part of a long tube closed at 
one end and filled with mercury, 
when it is inverted in this fluid, 
which still remains in the tube to 
the height of thirty inches. 

Tor'rid (Lat. twi^reo, I roast). Dried 
with heat ; extremely hot. 

Tor'Bion (Lat. tor*queo^ I twist). A 



iwistiDg : force of ionion, a term 
employed to denote the effort made 
by a thread which has been twisted 
to untwist itself. 

Torticollif (Lat. tot^queo, I twist; 
coUum, the neck). Wry-neck. 

Tortiioiis (Lat. tar^queo, I twist). 
Twisted ; winding. 

Tar^nloM (Lat. toruHuM^ a kind of 
ringlet). In botany, haying snc- 
oessiye ronnded swellings^ as the 
pods of some cmciferons plants. 

Tot'iis (Lat. a rope ; also a bed). In 
architedwe, a lar^e moalding, 
with a semicircalar section, nsed 
in the bases of colnmns; in botany, 
the receptacle or part of the flower 
on which the carpels are seated. 

Tonr'niqaet (French). An instmment 
nsed in surgery for producing 
pressure on a blood-vessel so as to 
restrain h»morrhage. 

ToxsB'mia (Gr. to^ikov, toaficon, a 
poison; cdfut, haima, blood). A 
poison^ state of the blood. 

Tox'ieal (Gr. ro^ucoy, toa^icon, a 
X>oi8on). Poisonous. 

TozicohsB'mia (Gr. ro^ucov, tosxficon, 
a poison ; al/xa, Juii'ma, blood). 
See Toxaemia. 

Tozioolog'ical {ToxicoVogy). Relating 
to the branch of medicine which 
describes poisons. 

Toxioorogy (Gr. ro^iKoy, tox'tcorif a 
poison ; \oyos, log' as, disconrse). 
The branch of medical science 
which describes poisons, their 
effects, and antidotes. 

Tox'odon {Qtr. ro^ov, toodon, a bow ; 
It^vs, ocPottSf a tooth). An extinct 
genus of pachydermatous or thick- 
skinned animals, having teeth bent 
like a bow.- 

Tra'chea (Gr. rpaxvs, trachuSf 
rough; iiprripia rpax^icii art^ria- 
trachei'ttf the rough artery or air- 
tube). The windpipe, a cartilagi- 
nous and membranous tube, which 
conveys the air into and out of the 

Tra'ohea (Plural of Trafchea), In 
botany, the spiral vessels of plants ; 
in entomology, the vessels by which 
air is carried to every part of the 
ho47 in JBsects. 

Tn'fsbnl (Tradua). Belonging to 
the windiMpe. 

Ihiehea'ria {Tra^a). An order 
of arachnidan invertebrata, whose 
organs of breathing oonsisft of 
tr aches. 

Tndiei'tis (Trackea ; itis, denoting 
inflammation). Inflammation of 
the trachea ; croup. 

TtaelieIip'odoiu(Gr. rpaxn^^os, traM- 
los, a neck ; rovs, pons, a foot). 
Having the feet unit^ to the head. 

Trachen'chyma {Trachea; Gr. ^- 
XVfM, en'chuma, a tissue). V^e- 
table tissue consisting of spiral 

Tracheot^omy (Gr. rpax^ia, traekeCa, 
the windpipe ; rtfiw, temno, I 
cut). The operation of making an> 
opening into the windpipe. 

Tra'chyte (Gr. rpaxys, trackuSf 
rough). A rock of volcanic origin, 
consisting of felspar, and having a 
harsh feel. 

Trac'tile (Lat. traho, I draw). Capa- 
ble of being drawn out in length. 

Trae'tion (Lat. traho, 1 draw). Draw- 
ing ; the act of being drawn ; in 
mechanics, the act of drawing a 
body along a plane. 

Trac'tor (Lat. traho, I draw). That 
which draws. 

Trade-winds (Trade and wind; be- 
cause favourable to navigation and 
trade). The constant winds which 
occur in the open seas to the dis- 
tance of about thirty degrees Uorth 
and south of the equator ; those 
on the north of the equator being 
from the north-east, and those on 
the south from the south-east. 

Tra'g^is {Qt. rpayos, tra'gos, a goat). 
In anatomy, a conical pi'ominence 
projecting backwards from the 
front of the ear. 

Tngec'tory (Lat. traiu, across ; jadio, 
I cast). The path of a moving 
body which is acted on by given 

Transoendeii'tal (Lat. trans, beyond ; 
scando, I climb). Surpassing; in 
philosophy, relating to that which 
goes beyond the limits of actual 

Traa'wpt (Lat. trantf across; iep' 



turn, a partition). The transyerse 
portion of a church built in the 
form of a cross. 

Transfa'se (Lat. transy across ;fun*do, 
I pour). To ponr, as &om one 
vessel into another. 

transfd'sion (Transfuse) . A pouring 
from one vessel into another ; in 
medicine^ the introduction of the 
blood of one person or animal into 
the vessels of another. 

Transit (Lat. tranSy across ; e^Oy.l 
go). In astronomy f the passage of 
a planet between the earth and 
the sun, so that it appears as a 
black round spot on the surface of 
the sun's disc ; the passage of a 
celestial body across .the meridian. 

Transit Circle. An apparatus for 
making astronomical observations, 
combining the functions of the 
mural circle and the transit in- 

Trans'it Instrument An instru- 
ment for determining the time at 
which an object passes the meri- 
dian, consisting of a telescope so 
arranged as to be capable of being 
directed to all points of the 

Transition (Lat. trans^ across ; e'o, 
I go). A passage from one state to 
another ; in geology^ a term applied 
to strata between the primary and 
secondary, containing remains of 
the lower invertebrate animals. 

Transitive (Lat. trans^ across ; e'o, 
I go). Pasafing ; in grammar y ap- 
plied to verbs of which the action 
passes to an object. 

Translu'cence {hdX. trans, through; 
hix, light). The property of trans- 
mitting light, but not the images 
of objects. 

Tranidu'cent (Lat. trana, through; 
luXy light). Transmitting light, 
but not in such a way as to render 
objects distinct. 

Iransmuta'tion (Lat. trans, across ; 
mu'tOy I change). The change of 
one substance or form into another. 

Transpa'rency (Lat. trans, through ; 
par^eo, I appear). The property 
of allowing light to pass so that 
objects can be distinctly seen. 

Transpa'rent (Lat. trans, through ; 
par'eo, I appear). Allowing the 
passage of light, so as to form dis- 
tinct images of objects. 

Transpira'tion (Tramspire), The act 
of passing off in vapour from the 
surfaces of animals, or vegetables. 

Transpire (Lat. tran^, over ; spiro, 
I breathe). To pass off in vapour 
from the surfaces of animals or 

Transpose (Lat. trans, across ; po'no, 
I put). To change the order by 
putting one thing in the place of 
another; in algebra, to bring a 
term of an equation to the other 

Transnda'tion (Lat. trans, across ; 
sibdo, I sweat). An oozing of fluid 
through membranes. 

Transver'sal {Transverse). Lying 
across several lines so as to cut 
them all. 

Transver'se (Lat. trans, across; 
vertOy I turn). Lying across ; in 
geometry, applied to the diagonals 
of a square or parallelogram. 

Trap (Swedish trappa, a stair). In 
geology, originally applied to ba- 
saltic and greenstone rocks rising 
in masses like stairs ; but now 
denoting all granitic rocks which 
are not igneous or strictly volcanic. 

Trape'zinm (Q-r. rpaveia, trapezfa, a 
table). In geometiy, a plane four- 
sided figure, with none of the sides 
parallel ; in anatomy, one of the 
small bones of the wrist. 

Trape'zins (Gr. rparefo, trapez'a, a 
table). A somewhat square muscle 
attached to the shoidder and the 
spine in the neck. 

Trap'ezoid (Gr. rpairefo, trapezia, a 
table ; eidos, eidos, shape). In 
geometry, a plane four-sided figure 
having two of the opposite sides 
parallel : in anatomy, one of the 
bones of the wrist, somewhat re- 
sembling but smaller than the 

Tranmat'lc (Gr. rpaupa, trauma, a 
wound). Relating to, or arising 
from, wounds. 

TraVertin (Italian, traverti'no), A 
whitish limestone deposited from. 



the waters of springs holding lime 
in solution. 

Trem'atode (Or. rpTifta, tre'tna, a 
pore). An order of parasitic 
^tnimala having snctoiial pores. 

Trepa'n (Gr. rpvwctyoVf iru'pcmonf a 
wimble). A circular saw for re- 
moriug a portion of the skuU. 

Trephi'ne (Gr. Tf>€T«, trep'o^ I torn). 
A surgical instrument nsed for the 
same purpose as the trepan, of 
which it is a modification. 

Trip (Lat. tres, or Or. rptiSf treis, three). 
A prefix in compound words, signi- 
fying three. 

Triadel'plioiis (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; 
&li€\<t>os, adel'pkos^ a brother). Har- 
ing, the stamens united in three 

Triaii'dria (Gr. rpeiy, treis, three; 
oviipj ameTf a male). A class of 
plants in the Linnsean system 
having three stamens. 

Trian'gle (Lat. tres, three ; an'gvluSf 
an angle). A plane figure, having 
three sides and three angles. 

Trian'gnlar {Trumgle). Having the 
form of a triangle; relating to a 
triangle ; applied to a series of 
numbers, such as 1, 8, 6, 10, 15, 
21, &c., because the number of 
points expressed by any one may be 
arrauged in aa equilateral triangle ; 
in botany, having three angles, the 
faces being flat. 

Trias'sic (Gr. rpias, trios, a triad). 
In geology, a name given to the 
upper new red sandstone, from its 
consisting of three divisions in 
Germany, whence the term was in- 

Triba'sic (Ghr. rpfis, treis, three; 
fiaais, ha'sis, a base). In chemis- 
try^ applied to a class of salts which 
contain three atoms of base to one 
of acid. 

Tribe (Lat. tri'hus). A division or 
class of people, sometimes origina- 
ting from one forefather ; a num- 
ber of animals or vegetables having 
certain characters in common. 

Trilirach (Gr. rp^t^, treis, three; 
fipaxvs, hrach'us, short). A foot 
in verse, consisting of three short 

Trieap'ffalar (Lat trei, three; caj/- 
sula, a little chest). Having three 

Tri'eeps (Lat. tres, three; cap'vi, a 
head).- Having three heads ; ap- 
plied to muscles which arise by 
three heads. 

Tri^'asis {One. 6pt^, thrix, hair). A 
turning inwards of the eyelashes, so 
that they irritate the ball of the 

Triehop'teroiu (Gr. $pi^, ikrix, hair ; 
m-fpoy, pter^on, a wing). An order 
of insects having hairy membranous 

TriMshofomons (Ghr. rpixa, ti-ich'a, 
thrice ; refivu, temno, I cut). Di- 
vided into three parts. 

Tri'chroism (Gr. rpets, treis, three; 
Xpoa, chroa, colour). An appear- 
ance which some bodies present of 
having three different colours, ac- 
cording to the way in which the 
rays of light traverse them. 

Tricoe'cons (Gr. rpeis^ treis, three; 
KOKKOi, kohkos, a berry). Applied 
to a fruit consisting of a capsule 
with three cells, each containing 
one seed. 

Tricos'tate (Lat. fres, three ; costa, a 
rib). Three-ribbed. 

Tricus'pid (Lat. tresy three ; cwlpiSy a 
point). Having three points : ap- 
plied to a valve situated between 
the right auricle and ventricle of 
the heart. 

Tricas'pidate (Lat. tres, three ; ens'- 
pis, a point). In hotany, having 
three long points. 

Tridac'tylous (Gr. rpcis, treis^ three ; 
ZoMrvKos, ddl^tulos, a finger, or 
toe). Having three fingers or toes. 

Triden'tate (Lat. tres, three ; dens, a 
tooth). Having three teeth. 

Trien'nial (Lat. tres, three; an'nus, 
a year). Containing three years ; 
happening every three years. 

Tri&'cial (Lat. tres, three ; fa<iies, a 
fece). A term applied to one of 
the cranial nerves, from its division 
into three large branches, and dis- 
tribution to the face and adjoining 

Iti&'rions (Lat. tHfa'riam, in three 
I ways). In three rows. 



Tri'^fid (Lat. tres, three; Jindo, I 
cleave). Cleft into three : in ho- 
tanyf divided half way into three 

Triflo'ronfl (Lat. treSf three; Jlos, a 
flower). Having three flowers. 

Trifoliate (Lat. ires, three ; fo'lium^ 
a leaf)- Having three leaves. 

Mfar'cate (Lat. tres^ three ; furca^ 
a fork). Having three forks. 

T^dg'amoiu (Gr. tp^is, three ; yafios, 
gam' 08 f marriage). Having male, 
female, and neutral flowers in one 

Trigem'ini (Lat. tresj three ; gem'inij 
doable). Three-donble ; a name 
given to the fifth pair of cranial 
nerves, which are divided into 
three branches; otherwise called 

Tri 'glyph (Gr. rpfiSf treiSf three ; 
y\v<pvif glu'phcy sculpture). In 
ctrchitectwCy an ornament repeated 
at intervals in the Doric frieze, 
consisting of two gutters or chan- 
nels cut to a right angle, and sepa- 
rated by their interstices from each 
other, and from half-channels at 
the sides. 

Tri'g^n (Gr. rpeiSt treisy three ; yapta, 
gonioy an angle). A triangle. 

Tn'gonal (Gr. rpiyav, trigone a tri- 
angle). Belonging to a trigon or 

Trigonometrical (Trigonom'etry). 
Relating to, or performed accord- 
ing to the rules of, trigonometry. 

Trigonom'etry (Gr. rpiyoovy trigon^ a 
triangle ; tierpov^ met'ron, a mea- 
sure). Literally, the art of mea- 
suring triangles ; but now including 
all theorems and formulae relating 
to angles and circular arcs, and the 
lines connected with them. 

Tri'g^nous (Gr. rpeiSy treiSy three ; 
ycovuxy go'niaf an angle.) In botany, 
having three angles, the faces being 

Trigyn'ia (Gr. rpets, treis, three; 
yvPT}, guntf a female). An order 
of plants in the Linnsean system, 
having three pistils. 

Trihed'ittl (Gr. rp€iSf ti'eis, three; 
i9pa, hed'ra, a base). Having 
three equal sides. 

Tri'jngate (Lat. treSf three ; jugum, 
a yoke) In hotany^ having three 
pairs of leaflets. 

Trilateral (Lat. tres, three ; la'tua, a 
side). Having three sides. 

Trilin'gnal (Lat. ires, three ; lin'gvxt, 
a tongue). Written in three lan- 

TrUif eral (Lat. tres, three ; libera, a 
letter). Having three letters. 

Trilobate (Gr. rptis, treis, three ; 
\o$oSf loh'oSf a lobe). Having 
three lobes. 

Trilobites (Gr. rpeis, treiSy three ; 
\o$oSy lob' 08, a lobe). A genus of 
fossil crustaceous animals, having 
the upper surface of the body di- 
vided into three lobes. 

Triloc'alar (Lat. tresy three ; loc'ulusy 
a little place). Having three cells. 

Trim'erons (Gr. rpets, treis, three ; 
fi^posy mer^08, a part.) Having 
three parts; applied to flowers 
which have three parts in the 
calyx, three in the corolla, an<^ 
three stamens. 

Trim'eter (Gr. rptis, treisy three; 
fi€TpoVy mefroTiy a measure). A 
verse consisting of three measures. 

TrinerVate (Lat. i{rg«, three ; nervusy 
a nerve). In botanyy applied to 
leaves having three unbranched 
nerves extending from the base to 
the point. 

Trino'mial (Lat. tresy three ; no'men^ 
a name). In algebrOy a quantity 
consisting of three terms. 

Trioe'cia (Gr. rpety, trei8y three ; 
oiKoSy oi'koSy a house). An order 
of plants in the Linnsean system, 
having male, female, and bi- 
sexual flowers on three separate 

Tripar'tite (Lat. iresy three; par^tioy 
I divide). Divided into three 
parts ; applied to leaves divided 
into three parts down to the base. 

Tripefalous (Gr. rpeiSy treiSy three; 
iTiraKoVy pet'alon, a petal). Having 
three petals. 

Triph'tiiong (Gr. rpeis, treiSy three ; 
ipOoyyrfy phthon'gcy sound). A 
combination of three vowels in one 

TriphylloQS (Or. rpttsy treis, three ; 



^vAXoi', phufUmf a leaf). Having 
three leaves. 

Tripin'nate (Lat. tres, three ; pin'nOf 
a feather). In botany, applied to 
leaves in which there are three 
series of pinnation ; bipinnate 
leaves being again divided down to 
the base of each division. 

Triplicate (Lat. tres, three; plido^ I 
fold). Three-fold: applied to the 
ratio which the cubes of two 
quf^ntities bear to each other as 
compared with the ratio which 
the two numbers bear to each 

Triplicos'tate (Lat. tri'plex, three- 
fold ; cog^ta, a rib). In bQtany, 
applied to leaves which have three 
ribs proceediDg from above the 

Trip'tote (Gr. rpcts, treisy three ; 
vTOMtSf ptd'aiSf case). A noun 
having three cases only. 

Triqnefrous (Lat. triqueifra, a tri- 
angle). Having three sides; in 
botany, having three angles, the 
faces being concave. 

Trira'diate (Lat tree, three ; ra'- 
diiLSy a ray). Having three rays. 

Trisect (Lat. treg, three ; stcfo, I 
cut). To divide into three equal 

Trisec'tioii {Trisect), Division into 
three parts. 

Trisep'aloos (Lat. tres, three ; septal). 
Having three sepals. 

Tris'miu (Gr. Tp(C<^, tri'zd, I gnash). 
Lock-jaw ; a kind of tetanus affect- 
ing the muscles of the jaw. 

Trisoctahed'ron (Gr. rpis, tris, three 
times ; oktcd, oifto, eight : e^pa, 
hedlra, a base). A figure having 
twenty-four equal faces. 

Trispei'mons (Gr. rpns, treitj three ; 
a-aepfMy spcT^ma, seed). Ha^g 
three seeds. 

Tris'tiehoiui (Gr. rpeis, treis, three ; 
ffTixoSf ttich'osy a row). In three 
rows. ' 

Trisul'cate (Lat. tres, three ; svXcus, 
a farrow). Having three forrows. 

Tri'syllabic (Gr. rp^is, treis, three; 
(TvWafirif suHlabe, a syllable). 
Having three syllables. 

Zri'sjllable (Gr. rpcis^ treU, three ; 

ffvWa^y tuPlabe, a syllable). A 
word of three syllables. 

Tritem'ate (Lat. tree, three ; (em<Ue), 
Divided three times in a temate 

Tritox'ide (Gr. rfwros, trUtos, third ; 
oxide). The third degree of oxida- 
tion of a body. 

Trif orate (Lat. tritu'ra^ a threshing 
or grinding). To rub or grind to a 
very fine powder. 

Tritura'tion {Tridurate), The a<yt of 
reducing to a very fine powder. 

Trival'vnlar (Lat. tresy three ; valves, 
foldiDg-do<M:8). Having three valves. 

Triv'ial (Lat. trivHum, a highway). 
Common ; trifling; in botany, ap- 
plied to the name of the species, 
which, added to the generic name, 
forms the name of the plant. 

Tro'car (Fr. trois quart, three- 
quarters, from its triangular point). 
A surgical instrument used in 

Trochaic (Troch'ee). Consisting of 

Trochan'ter (Gr. rpoxa(u, trockalzo, 
I run along). In anatomy, a name 
given to two prominences at the 
upper part of the thigh-bone, in 
wldch are inserted several of the 
muscles used in motion. 

Tro'clie'(Gr, rpoxvi troch'e, a wheel)). 
A form of medicine in a circular 
cake for dissolving in the mouth. 

Tro'chee (Gr. Tf>€x«, trech'o^ Iran). 
A foot in verse consisting of two 
syllables, the first long, the next 

Tro'chiform (Gr. rpoxos, troch'os, a 
wheel ; for^ma^ shape). Beaoa- 
bling a wheel. 

Trochlea (Gr. rpcxw, trech'o, I ran). 
A pulley ; applied in ancUomy, to 
projections of bones over which 
parts turn as over pulleys. 

Troch'oid (Gr. rpoxos, troch/os, a 
wheel ; cidos, e^dos, shape). In 
geometry, a curve produced by the 
motion of a wheeL 

Troehom'eter (Gr. rpoxos, troch'ogy 
a wheel ; fitrpov, mttfron, a mea- 
sure). An instrument for com- 
puting the revolutions of a wheeL 

Trope (Gr. rpivu, trep'o, I turn). Jjo. 



rhetoriCf a cliange in the significa- 
tion of a word from a primary to a 
derived sense. 

TTOpli'i(QT,Tp€(fH)Df trephfof I nourish). 
The parts of the month in insects 
employed in acquiring and pre- 
paring food. 

Troph'OBperm (Gh:. rpo^os, troph'oSf 
one who feeds ; (nrepfiOj sper^mOf a 
seed). In botany j the part of the 
ovary from which the ovules arise. 

Troplo (Gr. Tpeir», trep'o, I turn). 
A name applied to each of the two 
circles lying parallel to the equator 
ttt the distance of 23^ degrees north 
and south. 

Trop'ioal {Trop'ic). Belonging to the 

Tnm'cate (Lat. trun'co, I cut oflf). 
To cut or lop off. 

Tnm'cated (Trun'cate), Cut off; 
applied to figures the angles or 
edges of which have been cut off. 

TuHber (Lat. a mushroom or bunch). 
In botany, a thick underground 
stem, as the potato; in anatomy, 
a rounded projection of a bone. 

Tiil)eircle (Lat. tuber^culvm, a little 
swelling). A little knob; mmedi- 
cine, a peculiar diseased deposit 
in the lungs and various parts of 
the body, frequently attended by 
the symptoms known as those of 

Tuber'oiila Quadrigem'ina (Lat. Four- 
double tubercles). A name given 
to four rounded projections at the 
base of the brain. 

Tubet'cular or Tuber'culous (Lat. 
tvJber^culumf a little knob). Having 
knobs or tubercles. 

Tubercnlo'sis (Lat. tuber^culum, 
tubercle). In medicine, the name 
applied to the condition under which 
tubercle is deposited in the organs 
of the body. 

Tuberif erons (Lat. iu'ber, a knob ; 
/c/o, I bear). Bearing tubers, as 

' -the ix)tato. . * ' •. 

Ta'berose (Lat. iu'ber, a knob.) Hav- 
ing knobs or tubers. 

Tuberos'ity (Lat. tu'ber, a knob). In 
cmatomy, a kind of projection or 

Tiil)eroiui (Lat. tu'htr, a knob). 

Knobbed ; consisting of tubers con- 
nected together. 

Tubic'ola (lat. tu'bus^ a tube ; ix>l'o^ 
I inhabit). An inhabitant of a 
tube ; applied to an order of 
animals which live in calcareous 

TiiT)ifer (Lat» tiibus, a tube ; fti^o^ 
I bear). Bearing tubes. 

Tn'biform (Lat. tu'bus, a tube ;fot^ma, 
shape). Like a tube in shape. 

Tu'bular (Lat. tu'bus, a tube). 
Having the form of a tube ; con- 
sisting^of a tube or pipe. 

Tu'bTilated (Lat. tu'bus, a tube). In 
the form of a small tube ; fur- 
nished with a small tube. 

1111)1116 (Lat. tu'bus, a* tube}. A 
small tube. 

Tu'bulibran'ohiate (Lat. tu'bulus, a 
little tube ; Gr. fipayxia, bran'chia, 
gills). Having the shell, which con- 
tains the branchiae, in the form of a 
more or less regularly spiral tube. 

Tufa (Italian, tufo). In geology, any 
porous vesicular compound. 

Tnmefac'tion (Lat. tu'meo, I swell ; 
fac'io, I make). In medicine, a 
temporary swelling or enlarge- 

Tu'monr (Lat. iu'mor, a swelling). 
In medicine, a permanent swelling 
or enlargement. 

Ta'muliu (Lat.). An artificial 
mound of earth. 

Tung'state (Tung'sten). A com- 
pound of tungstic acid with a base. 

Tu'nica (Lat.). A coat or covering. 

Tn'nicated (Lat. tu'nica, a kind of 
garment). In botany, applied to 
a bulb covered by thin scales, as 
the onion ; in geology, to a class of 
mollusca, enveloped in an elastic 
tunic not covered by a shell. 

TTir1i>inated (Lat. tui^bo, a top). 
Shaped like a top ; in conchohgy 
and botany, conically spiral, large 
at one end . and narrow at the 
other. ' 

Tnrges'cent (lfi,t, turges'co, I swell). 
Growing large ; swelling. 

Tu'rio (Lat. a tendril). A young 
shoot covered with scales sent up 
ffuoa. an underground stem ; as the 



Tympan'ie {^ym!pa/Mim), Belonging 
to the tympanum or drum of the ear. 

I^^anum (Gh:. ^ Tu/Aircwov, twmf' 
panoUf a drum). In ancUomy, the 
middle cavity of the ear ; in archi- 
tecturef the space in a pediment 
between the cornice of the inclined 
sides and the fillet of the corona ; 
also the die of a pedestal and the 
panel of a door. 

Tympaui'tes (Gr. rvfivayov, twrn*- 
panon, a drum). A distension of 
the abdomen by gas. 

Type (Gr. twos, tu'pos, a figure or 
model). The perfect noimal repre- 
sentation or idea of anything. 

lymphoid {Typhtu; Gr. ciSos, eidoSf 
shape). In medicmey a term ap- 
pli^ to an asthenic or low form 
of fever : a fever characterised by 
general depression, and by an 
eruption of the skin with dis- 
turbance and morbid changes in the 
intestinal canal. 

Typihoma'xiia {Typhus; Gr. fiavia, 
ma'niaf madness). The low mut- 
tering delirium which accompanies 
typhoid fever. 

Typh'oon (Gr. rv^v, iu'phon, a 
storm). A furious whistlmg wind 
or hurricane. 

Ty'phous {Typhm), Relating to 

^phuB (Gr. Tu^ws, tu'phos, smoke 
or stupor). In medicine, a form of 
fever characterised by much de- 
pression, and by the appearance of 
an eruption on the skin. 

Typical (Gr. rinros, tu'poi, a type). 
Having the characters of a type ; 

Typographic (Gr. rxmos, tvfpos, a 
type ; ypcupw, graph% I write). 
Relating to printing. 

Typog'raphy (Gr. twos, tu'pos, a 
type; 7pa^«, graph'o, I write). 
The art of printing. 


Udom'eter (Gr. fiiBwp, huddr, water ; 
fierpov, metfron, a measure). A 

TJl'cer (Gr. iXKos, heXkos, a sore). A 
loss of substance on the surface of 
parts, produced by some action 
going on in the part itself, or 
by ihe application of destructive 

TJl'oerate (UVcer), To form an ul- 
cer ; to become ulcerous. 

TJl'na (Gr. uXevri, iflene, the elbow). 
The inner bone of the forearm, 
which forms part of the elbow joint. 

XJI'nar {UVna), Belonging to or 
situated near the ulna. 

Umbel (Lat. wnbel'la, a little fiEm). 
In botany, a form of inflorescence 
in which numerous stalked flowers 
arise from one point, as in the car- 
rot and hemlock. 

ThnbeUif eroos (Um'hel; Lat. fer'o, I 
bear). Producing umbels ; applied 
to an order of plants characterised 
by having the flowers arranged in 

Umbellule {Um'hel; Lat. uU, deno- 
ting smallness). A small or par- 
tial umbeL 

UmbiU'ons (Lat.) The navel ; in 
hotcmy, the part of the seed by 
which it is attached to the pericarp. 

Um'boiiate (Lat. umlho, the boss of a 
shield). Round, with a projecting 
point in the centre. 

Um1)ra (Lat. a shadow). In astrih 
nomy, the shadow of the earth or 
moon in an eclipse, or the dark 
cpne projected from a planet or 
satellite on the side opposite to the 

Uncial. A term applied to a form 
of letters used in ancient manu- 

Un'ciform (Lat. wn'cus, a hook ; /or'- 
ma, shape). Resembling a hook:. 

Un'cixiate (Lat. un'ais, a hook). Ha- 
ving a hooked process. 

Unc'tuons (Lat. un'yo, I anoint). 
Oily ; having an oily feel. 

Un'dulate (Lat. unda, a waye)i To 
yibrate or move like a wavQi 



Xrn'dalated (Lat. un'da^ a wave). 
Wavy ; in botany, applied to leaves 
with wavy or crisp margins. 

XTxidQla'tion (Lat. un'cUif a wave). A 
waving motion, or formation of 
waves ; in physicSf the vibration of 
& substance in the manner of waves. 

TTn'dulatory (Lat. un'daf a wave). 
Moving like waves. 

TTn'dulatory The'ory. In optics, the 
theory which supposes light to be 
produced by the undulation of a 
subtle fluid, as sound is produced 
by undulations of the air. 

TTngnie'iilate (Lat. vm'guds, a nail or 
daw). Having claws. 

TTn'gnifonn (Lat. tm'guis, a nail or 
claw ; for^ma, shape). Like a claw. 

JJngJUB (Lat). A nail or claw ; in 
anatomy, the name of a small bone 
of the fetce ; in hotcmy, the lower 
part of a petal. 

ITn'gala (Lat). A hoof ; in geometry^ 
a part cut off from a cylinder, 

• cone, &c., by a plane passing ob- 
liquely through the base and part 
of the curved surfoce. 

ITn'g^ate (Lat. un'gula, a hoof). 
Hoof-shaped ; having hoofs. 

ITxii- (Lat. vlmbs, one). A prefix in 
compound words, signifying one. 

ITmaac'ial (Lat. vinus, one ; axis). 
Having but one axis. 

TTnicellidar (Lat. u'nva, one ; ceV- 
Ivla, a cell). Composed of one cell. 

TTnioofl'tate (Lat. vInus, one ; cos'tctf 
a rib). Having one rib. 

Uniiia'cial (Lat. t^'nt^, one; fadiea, 
a face). Having but one front sur- 

Uniflo'roiiB (Lat. v!nus^ one ; flos, a 

flower). Having but one flower. 
tTnig'enouB (Lat. vlnus, one; gen'us, 

a kind). Of one kind. 
TTnij'ngate (Lat. u'ntu, one ; ju'go, I 

yoke). In botany, applied to a 

penninerved compound leaf, with 

only one pair of leaflets. 
UnUaliiate (Lat. vfn^u, one ; la'bium, 

a lip.) Having one lip only. 
Umlaferal (Lat u'ims, one; la'ttu, 

a side). Being on one side only ; 

having one side. 
Unilif end (Lat. u'nus, one ; Utferaf 

a letter). Haviiig one lottor oniy. | 

Uniloc'nlar (Lat. u'nus, one ; locfulus, 
a little place). Having one cavity. 

Unip'arous (Lat. u'nus, one; pat^io, 
1 bring forth). Bringing forth 
only one. 

Uniper'soxial (Lat. u'nvs, one; per- 
so'na, a person). Having only one 

Unipef alons (Lat. u'nus, one ; petfal). 
Having one petal only. 

Unisex'ual (Lat. u'nus, one ; seaduSf 
a sex). Having one sex only ; ap- 
plied to plants having separate 
male and female flowers. 

U'nison (Lat. unus, one ; so'nus, a 
sound). A coincidence in sounds 
arising from an equality in the 
number of vibrations. 

U'nivalYe (Lat. 'ulnvs, one ; valve). 
Having one valve only. 

U'niverge (Lat. vInus, one ; ver'sus, 
turned). The collective term for 
all the bodies which are the objects 
of astronomical observation. 

TJniVocal (Lat. v!nus, one ; vox, 
voice). Having only one meaning. 

UxLstrat^ified (Un, implying not; Lat. 
stra'tuMf a layer ; facfio, I make). 
Not stratified; in geology, applied 
to rocks which do not occur in 
strata or layers, but in shapeless 

TJranog'raphy (Gr. ohpavos, ou'ranos, 
heaven ; ypapco, grapk'd, I write). 
A definition of a heavenly body, as 
of a planet. 

TJ'rate {Uric). A compound of uric 
acid with a base. 

TJi/oeolate (Lat. wr'ceola, a pitcher). 
Shaped like a pitcher. 

Ure'a. An organic compound formed 
in the animal body. 

TJ'tricle (Lat. utri<fulus, a little bag). 
A little bag or cell; in botany, a 
thin-walled cell, or a bladder-like 

Utric'vlar (Wtride), Containing utri- 
cles or vessels like small bags. 

U'vea (Lat. u'va, a grape). The co- 
vering of dark pigment which lines 
the posterior surface of the iris in 
the eye. 

U'vnla (Lat. u'va, a grape). The 
small fleshy part which hangs down 
ai the back of the soft palate. 




Vae'cinate (Lat. vacca^ a cow). To 
introduce the cowpox into the hu- 
man being, as a preventive of 

Vac'nnm (Lat. vacuus^ empty). Space 
devoid of all matter or substance. 

Vagi'na (Lat. a sheath). In botany, 
the sheath formed by a petiole 
round a stem, as in grasses. 

Vagi'nate {Vagina), Sheathed. 

Vaginipen'iLOiu (Lat. vagina^ a 
sheath ; jpenna, a wing). Having 
the wings enclosed in a sheath. 

Vallec'iila (Lat. vai'lis, a valley ; u'la, 
denoting smallness). In botany^ 
the interval between the ribs in 
the fruit of umbelliferous plants. 

Val'vate (Lat. val'vcBy folding doors). 
Having valves ; opening by valves : 
applied to aestivation and verna- 
tion, when the leaves in the flower- 
bud or leaf-bud are applied to each 
other by their margins only. 

Valve (Lat. val'va;, folding doors). 
In anaiomy, a fold of membrane in 
a tube or vessel preventing the 
backward flow of fluids. 

Val'vule ( Valve). A little valve. 

Van'isliiiig Point. In 'perspective^ 
the point at which an imaginary 
line, passing through the eye of 
the observer parallel to any original 
line, cuts the horizon. 

Vaperiza'tioiL {Va'por). The rapid 
conversion of a fluid into a vapour 
by heat. 

Va'riable (Lat. va'rius, changing). In 
the differential calculus, applied 
to quantities which are subject to 
continual increase or diminution. 

Ya'riable Elements. In astronomy, 
a method of viewing the efiects of 
\ disturbing forces acting on a body 
moving in an elliptic orbit, which is 
supposed from time to time to 
change its position, form and mag- 
nitude in a minute degree. 

Varia'tion (Lat. va'nus, changing). 

An alteration or partial changes ; in 

arithmetic and (dgtbra^ applied to 

the different arraugements that can 
be made of auy number of things, 
a certain number being taken to- 
gether ; in astronomy, the inequality 
in the moon's apparent motion, 
which is greatest at conjunction imd 
opposition, and least at the quad- 

Varicella. The chicken-pox. 

Var^icose (Lat. va'rix, a swoUen vein). 
Enlarged ; applied to the veins 
when they are distended and pre- 
sent a knotty appearance. 

Vari'ety (Lat. va'rius, changing). In 
natural history, a plant or animal 
differing from the rest of its species 
in some accidental circumstances, 
which are not permauent or con- 
stant, and are produced by the ope- 
ration of such causes as climate, 
food, cultivation, &c. 

Vari'ola (Lat. va'riv^s, spotted). The 

Vari'olous (Vari'ola). Relating to 
the small-pox. 

Variz (Lat.). An nneven dilatation 
of a vein. 

Vas'CTiIar (Lat. vas'culum, a little 
vessel). Belonging to vessels ; con- 
sisting of, or containing vessels. 

Vas'cular System. The collective 
name for the blood-vessels. 

Vascnlif'erous (Lat. vas'culum, a 
little vessel ; fer^o, I bear). In 
botany, applied to plants which have 
the seed-vessels divided into cells. 

Va'siform (Lat. vas, a vessel ; forma, 
shape). Resembling vessels ; ap- 
plied to a vegetable tissue called 
dotted vessels. 

Veg'etable (Lat. veg'eo, I grow). A 
body having life, but without sen- 
sation or voluntary motion. 

Veg'etate (Lat. veg'eo, I flourish). 
To grow, like plants. 

Vegeta'tion ( Veg'etate). The process 
of growing like plants. 

Veg'etative ( Vegetate). Having the 
power of growing, or of producing 
growth in plants. 



Vein (Lat. vena). In anatomy, a 
vessel which carries the blood to- 
wards the heart; in botany, ap- 
plied to the midrib and its branches 
in a leaf ; in geology, a fissure or 
rent filled with mineral or metallic 
matter, differing from the rock in 
which it occurs. 

Veloc'ity (Lat. velox, swift). Swift- 
ness ; in physics, the measure of 
the rate at which a body moves. 

Ve'na (Lat.). A vein. 

Ve'iia FortsB (Lat. the vein of the 
gate). The large vein which con- 
veys the blood from the intestines 
into the liver. 

Ve'nsB Ca'vsB (Lat. the hollow veins). 
The large veins which pour the 
blood collected from the body into 
the heart. 

Vena'tion (Lat. vena, a vein). In 
botany, the arrangement of the 
veins in leaves. 

Venesec'tion (Lat. vena, a vein ; secfo, 
1 cut). The operation of letting 
blood by opening a vein. 

Ve'nouB (Lat. vena, a vein). Belong- 
ing to, or contained in the veins. 

Venous System. In (matomy, the 
collective name for the veins. 

Ventral (Lat. venter, the belly). Be- 
longing to the belly; in botany, 
applied to that part of the carpel 
which is nearest the axis, or in 

Ven'tricle (Lat. venter, the belly). A 
small cavity in an animal body; 
applied to two cavities of the heart, 
which propel the blood into the 
arteries, also to certain cavities in 
the brain. 

Ven'tricose (Lat. venter, a belly). 
Distended ; swelling out in the 
middle or unequally on one side. 

Ve'nules (Lat. ve'nula, a little vein). 
In botany, the last branchings of 
the veins of a leaf. 

Verbal (Lat. verbvm, a word or 
verb). In grammar, derived from 
a verb. 

Vermes (Lat. ver'mis, a worm). 
"Worms ; applied by Linnaeus to 
all animals which could not be 
ranged under the h^ads of verte- 
brates and insects; but now re- 

stricted to the annelids and entozoa, 
or parasitic worms. 

Vermic'ular (Lat. ver'mis, a worm). 
Pertaining to a worm ; resembling 
the motion of a worm ; shaped like 
a worm. 

Vermiciila'tion(, aworm). 
The act of moving like a worm. 

Ver'miform (Lat. ver'mis, a worm ; 
for'mxi, shape). Shaped like a 

Vei'mifuge (Lat. ver'mis, a worm; 
fu'go, I put to flight). Destroying 
or expelling worms. 

VermiVoroos (Lat. ver'mis, a worm ; 
vo'ro, I devour). Eating worms. 

Vemac'nlar (Lat, vei^na, a bond- 
slave). Native ; belonging to the 
country where one is born. 

Veronal (Lat. ver, the spring). Be- 
longing to the spring. 

Vema'tion (Lat. vemo, I bud or 
spring out). The arrangement of 
the young leaves within the bud. 

Ver'nier. A small portable scale, 
running parallel with the fixed 
scale of a graduated instrument, 
for the purpose of subdividing the 
divisions of the instrument into 
more minute parts. 

Verm'ca (Lat.). A wart. 

Verru'cose (Lat. verruca, a wart). 
Warty ; full of warts ; having ele- 
vations resembling warts. 

Ver'satile (Lat. verso, I turn). In 
botany, applied to anthers which 
are attached to the filament by a 
point at the back. 

Ver'tebra (Lat. verto, I turn). A 
division or separate bone of the 
spinal column. 

Ver'tebral (Vei'tebra). Belonging to 
a vertebra, or to the vertebrae; 
consisting of vertebrae. 

Ver'tebrate (Ver^tebra), Having a 
vertebral column, or spine com- 
posed of a number of bones jointed 

Ver'tebra'ta {Ver'tebra). Animals 
with a spine ; including mammals, 
birds, reptiles, and fishes. 

Vertex (Lat. verto, I turn). The top 
or summit. 

Ver'tical (Lat. vertex, a top). Per- 
pendicularly over-bead, or to the 



plane of tlie hofisoii ; standiiig up- 
right ; in geometry, applied to the 
opposite anglea made by the inter- 
section of two straight lines ; in 
oMronomyf to, a circle passing 
through the zenith and the nadir, 
at right angles to the meridian. 

Vei'tlcil (Lat. verticUlus, a pin or 
peg). In hottmy, a whorl, or form 
of inflorescence, in which the 
flowers surround the stem in a 
kind of ring, on the same plane. 

Verticillate ( Ver'ticU). Having parts 
arranged in a whorl, or verticil. 

Vertig'inoiis ( Vertigo), Taming 
round; giddy. 

Verti'go (Lat. verto, I turn). Giddi- 

Vesicant (Lat. vesica, a bladder). 
Producing a blister. 

Ves'icate (Lat. vesica, a bLidder). 
To produce a blister. 

Vee'icatory (Lat. vesica, a bladder). 
Having the property of raising 

Ves'icld (Lat. vesidula, a small blad- 
der). A small blister ; any small 
membranous cavity in plants or 

Vesic'iilar (Lat. vesicfula, a little 
bladder). Belonging to or having 
vesicles or little bladders. 

Vessel (Lat. vas). In aruUomy, any 
tube in which the blood or other 
fluid is formed or conveyed ; in 
botany, a tube with closed ends. 

Vexillairy (JusX^vexiilum, a standard). 
In botany, a form of lestivation in 
which the vexillum, or upper 
petal, is folded over the other. 

Vexillum (Lat. a standard). In 
botany, the upper petal of a papi- 
lionaceous flower. 

Via Lac'tea (Lat the milky way). In 
astronomy, the galaxy or Milky 
Way, a region of the heavens pre- 
senting a whitish nebulous light, 
but consistiDg of innumerable stars 
crowded together. 

Vi'able (Fr. vie, life ; from Lat. vivo, 
I live). Capable of living. 

Vi'aduot (Lat. via, a way; dueo, I 

lead). An extensive bridge or series 

of arches for the purpose of oon- 

duoting a road above the level of a 

ground in erosEong a valley, or 
wherever it may be necessary to 
raise the road above the nataial 
surCftce of the gronnd. 

l^Atec'tnre (Lat. via, a way ; Gr. 
TWTwy, tdcton, a builder). The 
art oi constructing roads, Ac ; 
civil engineering. 

Vilmte (Lat. vibro, I tomdish). To 
swing or move to and fro. 

^liratilB (vibrate). Used for the 
motion of swinging to and fro. 

Vibra'tion (Lat. vibro, I brandish). 
The act of moving to and fro 
quickly ; in mechanics, the regular 
swinging motion of a suspended 
body, as a pendulum ; in physics, 
the tremulous motion produoed in 
a body when it is struck or dis- 
turbed by any impulse, by which 
waves or undulations are pro- 

Vi1)ratory ( Vibrate), Having a vi- 
bratory motion. 

ViVrio {la.t. vibro, I shake). A name 
given to certain minute thread-like 
animalcules sometimes found in 

Vibris'sfle. The stiff hairs which grow 
within the nostrils. 

Vil'li (Lat. villus, wool or hair). In 
anatomy, minute projections from 
the surface of a mucous membrane, 
giving the appearance of the nap of 
cloth ; in botany, long, straight, 
soft hairs on the surface of a plant. 

Villos'ity (Lat. villus, wool or hair). 
The condition of being covered with 

Villous (Lat. viUus, wool or hair). 
Having a covering resembling hair 
or wool, or the nap oi velvet or 

Vina'ceons (Lat. viwuM, wine). Per- 
taining to wine or grapes. 

Vin'oulum (Lat. from vin'cio, I 
bind). A bond or tie ; in algebra^ 
a line drawn ovw an expression 
consisting of several terms, to show 
that they are to be taken together. 

Vi'noas (Lat. vinum^ wine). Be- 
longing to, or having the quality of 
wine ; applied to the process of 
fermentation which prodmoea al- 



Vir'gate (Lat. vw^ga^ a rod). Shaped 
like a rod. 

Vir'taal (Lat vir'tus, x)ower or force). 
BeiDg or acting in effect, not in 
£BK!t ; in optics^ applied to the 
foctiB from which rays, that have 
been rendered divergent, appear to 
issue ; in mechanics, to the velocity 
which a body in equilibrium would 
acquire in the first instant of its 
motion, if the equilibrium were dis- 

Vir'alent (Lat. vinu, a poison). 
Very poisonous. 

Vi'roB (Lat.). A poison ; in medi- 
cme, applied to the essential mat- 
ter of a disease, which is capable of 
communicating t^e disease from one 
person to another. 

Vis a Fronte. A force acting frt>m 
the front or in advance. 

Vis Iner'tiaB (Lat. the force of in- 
acUon). A term used to denote 
the power by which matter resists 
changes endeavoured to be made in 
its state. 

Vis a Tergo (Lat. force from the 
back). A moving power acting 
from behind. 

Vis In'sita (Lat. inherent force). The 
property by which a muscle, when 
irritated, contracts independently 
of the will of the animal, and with- 
out sensation. 

Vis Medica'trix ITata'rsB (Lat. the 
healing power of nature). A term 
applied to denote the power by 
which a living body is able to 
throw off disease or recover from 

Vis ITervo'sa (Lat. nervous force). 
The property of nerves by which 
they convey stimuli to muscles. 

Vis Flas'tica (Lat. plastic force). 
The formative power of plants and 

Vis Vi'tBB (Lat. force of life). Vital 
power or energy. 

l^'cera (Plural of Lat. vi^cus, an 
entrail). The organs contained in 
any of the great cavities of the 
body, especially the chest and ab- 

■ domen. 

Vis'ceral ( Viscera), Belonging to the 
viaeera or hitornal organs. 

Vis'cid or Vis'ooiiB (Lai. vUcum, 
bird-lime). Glutinous ; sticky. 

Vis'cns (Lat.). An entrail, or organ 
contained in one of the great cavi- 
ties of the body. 

Vis^ible (Lat. wd'eo, I see). Li optxcsy 
emitting or reflecting a sufficient 
number of rays of light to produce 
an impression on the eye. 

Vis'ual (Lat. vid'eo, I see). Belating 
to sight. 

Vi'tal (Lat. viia^ life). Pertaining or 
contributing to life. 

Vitality {Vital), The principle of 
life : the act of living, 

Vitellary (Lat. vUellus, a yolk). Be- 
longing to the yolk of an egg. 

Vifreoos (Lat. idtfrum, glass). Be- 
longing to, or consisting of glass : 
resembling glass. 

Vifreons Body. A large globular 
transparent structure occupying the 
centre of the eyeball, being the 
largest of the transparent media of 
the eye. 

^f reous Electricity. A name some- 
times given to positive electricity, 
because developed by rubbing glass. 

Vitreous Hnxnonr. See Vitreous 

Vltres'cence (Lat. vifrvmj glass). 
Glassiness; capability of being 
formed into glass. 

Vitri&c'tion (Lat. v^trurHf glass; 
facfio, I make). The process of 
converting into glass by heat. 

Vitrifi'able (Lat. vidrum, glass ; /a- 
eu>, I make). Capable of bmg 
converted into glass by heat. 

Vit'rify (Lat. vUfrwm,, glass ; fadiOj 
I make). To convert or be con- 
verted into glass by heat. 

Vifriol (Lat. t^rum, glass). A 
name given to sulphuric acid and 
several of its compounds, probably 
from the glassy appearance of the 
crystals : oil of vitriol is sulphuric 
acid : blue vitriol, sulphate of cop- 
per: green vitriol, green sulphate 
of iron : red vitriol, red sulphate of 
iron : white vitriol, sulphate of zinc. 

Vitriolic ( Vitfriol), Belonging to or 
containing vitriol. 

Vitf a (Lat. a fillet or head-band). In 
arckUeeture^ the ornament of a 



capital, &c. ; in hotany^ (plnral 
vUta^) the receptacles of oil in the 
frnits of nmbelliferonB plants, as 
anise, carravay, fennel, &c. 

Tiftate (Lat. mUa, a band). In 
hatany^ applied to leaves wMch are 

Vivip'aroiiB (Lat. rnvtu, alive ; par^io, 
I bring forth). Bringing forth 
yonng alive ; in hoiany, applied to 
stems that produce leaf buds or 
bulbs in place of fruit. 

Vocab'ulary (Lat. vocah'vtum, a 
word). A list of the words of a 

Vo'cative (Lat. vo'co, I call). Calling. 

Volatile (Lat. volo, I fly). Having 
the power of flying; capable of easily 
passing into an aeriform state. 

VolatU'ity ( VotatiU). Capability of 
rising in an aeriform state. 

Volafilize {Vol'cUiU), To cause to 
pass off in vapour, or in an aeriform 

Volcanic (Volca'no), Belonging to 
or produced by volcanoes ; thrown 
out by volcanic eruptions. 

Volca'no (Italian, from Latin Vtd- 
ca'niu, the god of fire). An open- 
ing in the surface of the globe, 
generally in a mountainous eleva- 
tion, giving issue from time to time 
to eruptions of melted matter. 

Volifion (Lat. volo, I will). The act 
of willing. 

Volta'ic {VoUa). Relating to vol- 

Volta'ic Bat'tery. An apparatus con- 
sisting of a series of pairs of plates of 
different metals — ^aszinc and copper 
— immersed in fluid, and con- 
nected by wires, for the develop- 
ment of voltaic electricity. 

Volta'ic Electricity. The form of 
electrical action discovered by Gal- 
Tani, but first Qorrectly described 

by Volta, in which, ahy two con-^' 
ductors of electricity being brought 
into contact^ an electric action is 
set up. 

Vol'taism {VoUa). A term for gal* 
vanism as produced by Yolta's 

Vdtam'eter ( Volta; Gr. fAtrpov, met!' 
ron, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the amount of a cur- 
rent of voltaic electricity by means 
of the quantity of water decomposed 
in a given time. 

Vorume (Lat. volvo, I roll). Origin- 
ally something rolled ; as much as 
is included in a roll ; dimension ; 
in chemistry, the relative or com- 
parative measure of the combining 
atoms of gases. 

Vd'nntary (Lat. volim'tcu, will). In 
physiology, acting under the direc- 
tion of the will; produced by the will. 

Volu'te (Lat. votvo, I roll). In cbr^ 
chitectwe, a kind of spiral scroll 
used in capitals. 

Vo'mer (Lat. a ploughshare). In 
ancUomy, the small flat bone which 
separates the nostrils from each 

Vor'tex (Lat. from verto, I turn). A 

Vul'canist (Lat. Yulca'nuSy the god of 
fire). In geology, a term applied 
to the supporters of an hypothesis 
which supposed that the older 
rock formations were of volcanic or 
igneous origin. 

Vulcaniza'tion. A process of prepar- 
ing india-rubber by impregnating it 
with sulphur. 

Vul'nerary (Lat. wJbius, a wound). 
Useful in healing wounds. 

Vulsellum (Lat. veUo, I pull or 
pluck). A surgical instrument for 
seizing parts and drawing them into 
a convenient position for operation. 


Wacke. In geology, a German term 
for a soft earthy variety of trap-rock. 

Weald-olay. In geology, the blue 
clay which forms part of the Weal- 
den group, 

Wealden (Sax. vfold)4 In geology, 

a deposit prevailing in Kent and 
Sussex, consisting chiefly of clays 
and shales, with beds of indurated 
sand, sandstone, and shelly lime- 
Weight (Sax. toilU), The pressure 



which a body exerts yertically 
downwards in consequence of the 
action of gravity. 

Weld (Germ, wellen, to join). To 
unite two or more pieces, generally 
of iron, by hammering tiiem to- 
gether when heated. 

"Wldrlpool {Whirl and pool), A 
body of water running round in a 

Whirlwind {Whirl and wind). A 

body of air moving in a circular or 
spiral form, as if round an axis, 
at the game time having a pro- 
gressive motion. 

Woulfe*8 Appara'tns. In chemistry, 
a bottle with two or more openings, 
used for generating gases. 

Wormian Bones. The small trian- 
gular pieces of bone sometimes 
found lying between the other bones 
of the skull. 

Xan'fhic (Gr. lavdos, xan'tJios, yel- 
low). 0^ or belonging to yellow : 
yeUowish ; having yellow as the 

Xan'thogen (Gr. {cu/^os, xan'thos, 
yellow ; yeyvouoy genua! Oy I pro- 
duce). YeUow colouring matter in 

Xan'thophylle (Gr. ^oofBos, xan'thos, 
yellow; <l>v\\oyf phulloUj a leaf). 
Yellow colouring matter in plants. 

Xan'thous (Gr. ^ov^os, xan'thos, yel- 
low). A term applied by Dr. 
Prichard to the variety of mankind 
including individuals with brown, 
yellow, or red hair. 

Xiph'oid (Gr. ii<itos, xiph'os, a sword; 

€iSos, eidos, shape). Shaped like 
a sword. 

Xiphosu'ra (Gr. ^i<t>os, xiph'os, a 
sword ; ovpa, ou'ra, a tail). A 
family of crustaceous animals with 
sword-shaped tails. 

Xylo- (Gr. ^v\ov, xvlon, wood). A 
prefix in compound words, denoting 
relation to wood, or that wood 
enters into the composition. 

Xylocar'pous (Gr. ^v\ov, xulon, 
wood ; Kopiros, harpos, fruit). 
Bearing fruit which becomes hard 
and woody. 

Xylog'raph7(Gr. ^v\ov, xulon, wood ; 
ypcupWy graph' 0, 1 write). Engrav- 
ing on wood. 


Zenith. The point in the arch of 
the heavens which is vertically 
above the head of the spectator. 

Zen'ith Distance. The distance of a 
heavenly body from the zenith, 
measured on the vertical circle 
passing through the zenith and the 

Zen'ith Sector. An instrument for 
measuring the zenith distances of 
stars which pass near the zenith. 

Zenograph'ic (Gr. Zrji/os, Zenos, a 
genitive case of Zevs, Zeus, Jupi- 
ter; ypcupw, graph' 0, 1 write). Re- 
lating to a description of the planet 
Jupiter, or characteristic of the 
appearance of this planet. 

Ze'olite (Gr. C^u, I boil : \t0os, 
lith'os, a stone). A term applied 
in chemistry to certain compounds, 
from their frothing when heated 
before the blow-pipe. 

Zero (Italian, nothing). The point 
of a thermometer from which it is 
graduated : in the Centigrade and 
Reaumur's, it is the freezing point 
of water ; in Fahrenheit's, thirty- 
two degrees below the freezing- 

Zeng^ma (Gr. (tvywfu, zeugnu'mi, 
1 join). In grammar^ a figure by 
which an adjective or verb that 
agrees with a nearer word, is also 
referred to another more remote. 



(Zime; hA.fe/9^ I bear). 
Producing ziiie. 

Ziae'oos (Znu;), Belatxng to zine ; 
applied to the postiTe pole of a 
^ranie batterjr, 

Zo'diae (Or. ^lor, zodton, a little 
amxnal ), The zone of the beareni 
ineladed witliin a ^laoe of the 
celestial sphere extending a few- 
degrees north and sooth of the 
ecliptic, and within ndiich the ap- 
parent motions of the planets are 

Zodi'aeal {Zddiac), Belonging to 
the zodiac. 

Zon'ole {Zone), A small zone or 

Zoo- {Or. {<aoVf zttony an animal). A 
prefix in compoond words, implying 
relation to animals. 

Zoooham'ieal (Gr. («or, aSfouj an 
animal ; chem'icaL). Belating to 
the chemistry of animal bodies. 

Zo'oii (Gr. C'lfop^ zff&n^ an animal ; 
ffiSofy ei'dii^ form). Resembling 
an animal. 

Zo'olite (Or. Cccoy, zlSfony an animal ; 
XjBos, lUk'oSf a stone). A petrified 
or fossil animal substance. 

Zoolog'ical {Zool'ogy). Belonging to 
zoology, or the classification of 

Zool'ogift (Zootogy), One who is 
skilled in the natural history of 

ZooFogy {Or. (uovy zd'on^ an animal : 
KoyoSf lof/o8, a discourse). The 
science or natural history of the 
animal kingdom ; the description 
of the structure, habits, &c., of all 

Zooph'agoiia (Gr. ^wov, zd'mj an 
animal ; ^oyc^, jpAoi^o, I eat). 
Eating animals. 

(Gr. fiNir, 2» OK, an i 
^«fm, pktr^i^ I bear^ Sapp<Hting 
the figure of an animal 

Zo^ophyte ^Gr. ^mt, ason, an animal ; 
fvToif, pkmUm^ a plant). In natwral 
kutory, a name gi^en to bodies 
resembling boUi •»«;»i«i« and r^e- 
tables, and (mee soppoeed to par- 
take of the nature of both. 

ZO'ospofe (Grr. C^mt, 20 on, an animal; 
gpore). A moving spore^ prorided 
witii cilia or Tibratile organs. 

Zoof omiflt (Zootomy). One who dis- 
sects animals. 

Zoot^omy (Gr. ^»oy,2o(m, an animal; 
Tffirttj temno, I cut). Anatomy of 
the lower animals 

Zotter (Gr. (ttarrip^ zotHTf a girdle). 
An eruptive disease which ext^ids 
round the waist like a girdle ; com- 
monly called shingles. 

Zygodac'tyloiia (Gr. (vyoy, zufftm, a 
yoke ; ScucruAoi, daiftuloSj a finger 
or toe). Having the toes formed 
as if yoked together. 

Zygo'ma (Gr. (vyo», zugo'o, I yoke 
together). A bony arch at the 
upper part of the side of the &ce» 
formed by the union of a process 
from the temporal with one from 
the malar bone. 

Zygomat^ic {Zygo'ma). Belonging to 
the zygoma. 

Zymo'sis (Gr. Cvfuwy zumo'd. Heaven). 
In medicine^ applied to diseases 
which are epidemic, endemic, and 
contagious, including fever, small- 
pox, cholera, &c., which are be- 
lieved to be produced by the action 
of certain specific poisons. 

Zymof ic (Gr. (vfiowf zumo'o, I leaven). 
Arising from zymosis or fieimenta- 


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