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Full text of "A grammar of the Cree language; with which is combined an analysis of the Chippeway dialect"

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J 2 7 3.^7. i 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




/:> ' ^u^ ^Uu^My-^jQ^ 



^^Zx'^'-i-'^^ 



A GRAMMAR 



CREE LANGUAGE 



WITH WHICH IS COMBINED 



AN ANALYSIS 



CHIPPEWAY DIALECT. 



Bt JOSEPH HOWSE, Esq. F.R.G.S. 

AND RB8IDBNT T-WBNTT TEARS IN PRINCB RUPBKT's LAND, IN THB 
SBRYICB 07 THB HON. HUDSON'S BAT COKPANT. 



LONDON: 
J. G. F. & J. RIVINGTON, 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH TARD, AND WATBRLOO PLAOB, PALL MALL. 

1844. 



OIBSNCBSTEIl: 

PRINTED BY THOMAS PHILIP BAILT, 
Colombian Press. 



■ A 



V 



THE NOBLEAIEN AND GENTLEMEN 

OP THB 

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 

AMD OF THB 

CHURCH-MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

DESIGNED TO FACILITATE THE COMMUNICATION 

<XP 

CHRISTIANITY AND USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 

TO THE 

UNINSTRUCTED NATIVES OF NORTH AMERICA; 

AND 

TO DEVELOPE THE STRUCTURE 

OF 

A LARQE AND PECULIAR FAMILY OF LANGUAGES, 

IS, 

BY PERMISSION, DEDICATED, 

WITH 
SENTIMENTS OF UNFEIGNED GRATITUDE AND RESPECT^ 

BY 
THEIR OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

THE AUTHOR, 



Harvard Collegre Library 
July 1, 1914. 
Bequef i of 
Qeorgrina Lev; ell Putna„i 



PREFACE. 



It has been truly observed, that with the abundant 
information we possess on all other subjects, it is 
astonishing to reflect how little correct philosophical 
knowledge we have of the real condition of Man in a 
state of nature. Nor is it difficult to account for this. 
Travellers give us ample accounts of the physical 
character and condition of the inhabitants of newly 
discovered or uncivilized countries — they tell •us of 
what is obvious to the senses — and here their accounts 
end.. But Man is a compound subject. The mind 
and moral character are beyond their reach. A 
knowledge of these can be attained only through the 
medium of their Language, to acquire which, where it 
is merely oral, is a work of time, labour, and perse- 
verance. To separate into distinct words the ever- 
varying and unbroken articulations of an unknown 
tongue, — to arrange them in conformity with the 
genius of the language — to analyze and reduce them 
to their proper elements — in short, to reduce a chaos 
of new combinations of sound to order, and to dis- 
cover the intelligible though perhaps novel system in 



VI PREFACE. 

. which they ought to be classed, is a most difficult, 
but, at the same time, a necessary task. Where this 
has not been accomplished, the native character can 
never be duly estimated — ^his answers and enquiries are 
often misunderstood ; his intentions misrepresented ; 
and the real state of his mind can be but very inade- 
quately conjectured. Hence arise m^tual distrust 
and hostile feelings on both sides, which'too often lead 
to acts of violence, and impress still more deeply the 
prejudice already existing in the mind of the stranger, 
as to the moral character and intellectual powers of 
the Indian, whom be was at first prepared to call an 
untutored Savage. 

The American Indian, notwithstanding his long 
connection and intimacy with the whites, is generally 
contemplated by them as coming under the same 
description. The object of this work is to raise him 
from this degrading designation to his just rank 
among our species, and to leave an evidence for future 
times, when the people to whom it relates shall, in 
the progress of civilization, have been swept away, 
that its mental powers were of a higher order than 
had hitherto been supposed. 

The Iftnguage of which the Grammar is now for 
the first time laid before the public, has always ap- 
peared to me a subject of peculiar interest. In an 



PRBFACE. VU 

Ethnological point of view, it may be considered as, 
substantially, the leading native language of all 
the tribes belonging to the British Settlements in 
North America — ^it is the language, indeed, of a na- 
tion which, in its different dialects, is dispersed over a 
vast extent of country — from Pennsylvania, south, 
to Churchill River, in Hudson's Bay, north, or twenty 
degrees of latitude : from Labrador and the Atlantic, 
east, to the Missisippi, west — from Hudson's Bay, 
east, to the Rocky Mountains, west — ^that is, in its 
greatest width (55° to 115°) sixty degrees of longitude. 

Historically, or as connected with the origin of 
nations, it is also full of interest — accordingly I have 
endeavoured so to shape my investigations as to enable 
the philologer to compare, in some points at least, 
this leading language of the new with those of the old 
world ; at the same time exhibiting to the gramma- 
rian the internal structure and mechanism of a new 
system of speech — a new plan of communicating 
thought. 

The Cree language, independently of its inherent 
interest, possesses great importance in relation to the 
diffusion of Christianity. The formidable difficulties 
in this respect, with which the missionary has to con- 
tend, which it requires almost a life to surmount, and 
which, in fact, few do surmount, are here removed — 



Vm PREFACE* 

he becomes at once, so to speak, a member of the 
Indian family, as well as competent to form an esti- 
mate of the mental powers and moral character of 
the New World, and to direct his course, and suit his 
coimsels and arguments accordingly. 

In order to render my work as extensively useful 
as possible, on the appearance of the Translation of 
the Gospel of St. John, by Mr. Peter Jones, to whom 
the Chippeway dialect is vernacular, I was induced to 
alter my plan, by combining as far as I conveniently 
could, the two dialects, the Cree and the Chippeway. 
His work is besides to me as a foundation— a rock 
that cannot be shaken. I have accordingly fortified 
myself with about 2200 citations ; my great aim being 
to leave as Uttle as possible to be desired — nothing 
unexplained or unproved. 

It may be observed that the grammatical system 
of the Crees (and Chippeways) is composed of the same 
philological elements as are found in the Grammars of 
cultivated languages, but they are sometimes diffe- 
rently arranged and differently combined. The joining 
to the verb of the personal pronoun (def. and indef.) 
in all its cases, and in all their combinations, as 
Agent, Object, and End, to form the verbal inflexion, 
has a somewhat startUng aspect for the student, but 
it should be borne in mind that there is a limit to 



PREFACE. IX 

these forms — a fixed plan or form for these several 
combinations — and that, when once the scheme of 
inflexion, &c. is well understood, the dietails are perhaps 
scarcely more difficult to acquire than the same pro- 
nominal, &c. elements in their changeful form and 
order in European tongues.* Transitive expressions 
are, especiafly, from this operation, necessarily long, 
as well in simple as in, compound words— the attri- 
butive root is, to the eye, in a manner lost amongst 
its accessories; but they are nevertheless simple, 
because synthetical, every syllable or modifying ele- 
ment carrying with it a defimtive meaning. From this 
hew manner of structure, — this new, unalterable 
collocation of the pel-sonal (inflected) signs, — ^we have, 
as it were, a new organization of the same mental 
matter. A sentence often consists of much fewer 
separable parts or words. 

It has been absurdly stated, by some writers, that 
the Indian is obliged to gesticulate, in order to make 
himself understood by his fellows. On the contrary, 
it may safely be said, that in all the multifarious 

* It may be here observed, as worthy of notice, that this, among 
other forms of the yerb, seems to bring into view a third generic 
family, as respects language. 

1. Agent and Action, separate, as English. 

2. Agent and Action, combined, as Lat. Ital. 

3. Agent, Action, Obj. &c. combined, as Amer. Languages. 



X PREFACE. 

tranfiactions between the white and the red man, 
public and private, there is never contemplated (a 
competent interpreter being employed) jany obstacle 
or difficulty on the ground of an imperfect appre- 
hension between the parties concerned. The red 
Indian, uncivilized as he is, can give expression 
to his thoughts with precision and fluency. With 
his Dictionary and Grammar in his mind, and always 
ready for his purpose, he describes, defines, compares, 
&c. in a manner suitable and in every way equal to 
the ever varying necessities of social intercourse — or 
of those connected, with higher objects. All this he 
can do in the dark, or otherwise when gesticulation 
would be useless — as well as the civilized white man. 
Of the understanding and of the heart, his language 
is a faithful interpreter. 

The unseemly appearance which the Algonquin 
dialects generally present to the eye of the learner, 
proceeds often from a wrong division of the words — as 
well as a too fastidious or false orthography, they 
being generally characterized by a pleasing alternation 
of vowels and consonants. As respects sound — in the 
northern dialects (including the Cree and Chippeway) 
of this language the "rabid r," the obtuse Z, the labials 
/ and Vy are never to be found. Compared with the 
Cree, the frequent omission , (as in French,) of the 



PREFACE. XI 

hissing s — the frequent insertion, &c. of the nasals m 
and n (p« 13, Note), mitigating the abruptness of the 
mute, &c. consonants, and a scale of intonation in the 
vowels, from the deepest d to the attenuated ee, all 
clearly enounced in a deep diapason tone of voice, 
with its native cadence and accentuation^ give to the 
Chippeway ah altogether delightful eflfect on the ear. 
My affections are naturally with the Cree, but I admire 
most the grave, majestic, dulcet tones of the Chip- 
peway. 

'Hie pretensions of these tongues, are however 
limited. The circumstance that adjectives, which stand 
equally attributive to their substantive, must often 
take, each separately, the verbal or personally inflected 
form, would alone unfit them for poetry — a string of 
epithets so encumbered would make an indiffei'ent 
figure in verse. But this languid manner of expres- 
sion harmonizes with the cautious character of the 
Indian; and should his more than classically regular^ 
language have few attractions for the man of ima- 
gination — to the philologist and the philosopher I 
cannot but believe that it will be an object of great 
price. 

* " More than classically regular^" because the verb has no 
Gonjugational exceptions, whereof to form an " As in praesenti" 
&c. as in European tongues. 



XU PREFACE. 

It is curious to observe that the language of the 
Algonquins of the American continent, and the Esqui- 
maux df Greenland, totally differing as they do in 
matter, should so strikingly agree in form — even in 
leading peculiarities of grammar — as respects Euro- 
pean languages, in grammatical anomalies — and would 
hence seem fully to justify the inference, that these 
two languages, which are generally called *' mother- 
tonguefs," belong to one and the same high generic 
family. (See p. 318.) 

On the other hand, the many strong — fundamental 
ANALOGIES with Europcau, &c. tongues, which pervade 
and form the basis of the Algonquin System, shew 
clearly an affinity between the languages of the two 
Continents ; and leading us still higher in the history 
of nations, establish an intimate relationship between 
the primitive inhabitants of the Old and the New 
Worlds. I cannot doubt that, as radii issuing from a 
common centre, the Red and the White man are 
descended from a common source. 

In another point of view. The Grammatical cha- 
racter of the Cree, as an Inflected language on an 
extended plan, leads to the inference of a higher 
Origin than the mere casual, irregular, invention of 
man : and an attentive analysis of its Structure con- 
firms this view. When I observe in the verb, the 



PREFACE. XIU 

method and consistency of its various Derivative 
Modes* — the regularity and exactness of their respec- 
tive subdivisionst — the manner, extent, and accuracy 
of the Pronominal, &c. Inflexions (Def. and Indef.) in 
their manifold (double, triple, quadruple) combina- 
tions — clearness of the correlative modifications | 
— distinctness in form and signification through all 
the details — j^vhen I contemplate this complicate but 
accurate mechanisnj in connection with a " Concord 
and Government" blending and connecting the several 
parts of the System together, and a peculiar idiom 
or Genius presiding over all, I cannot but recognize 
in such a System, a regular organization of vocal 
utterance, affording to my own mind a circumstan- 
tially conclusive proof, that the whole is the emanation 
of ONE, and that a Divine Mind. 

Having been employed for twenty years of my life 
in the service of the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, I 
was during that period engaged in an almost uninter- 
rupted intercourse with the natives. As long as it 

• Deriv. Adject (verb.) — Imitat — Augment. (Frequent, and 
Abund. Iterat.) and Dimin. — Distrib. — Transit (General, Special, 
and Particular) — Causat. — Making — Possess. — Instrum. &c. — ^and 
their various combinations. 

t Conjug. Voice, Mood, Tense^ '* Gender," Number, Person. 

X Princip. and Subord. Absol. and llelat. Act. and Pass. Defin. 
and Indef. of Person, Time, Action. Pos. and Neg. (Chippeway); 
&c. 



XIV PREFACE. 

was requisite, I had the assistance of an Interpreter ; 
but the absolute necessity of understanding and being 
understood by those among whom I was to live, made 
me diligent in endeavouring to learn their language ; 
and some knowledge of Latin^ French, and Italian, 
acquired before I left England, enabled me to reduce 
to a Grammatical f(»rm, what could only be learned 
orally, and by routine. Notwithstanding the peculi- 
arities in the structure of this ^md other American 
tongues. Habit will, with attention on the learner's 
part, so familiarize them to the mind, that they may, 
after the lapse of many years, become as spontaneously 
the vehicle of his thoughts as his mother tongue. 
Such in fact was my own case, and this circumstance 
will, I hope, plead as my apology for any errors in 
style or phraseology which may be found in this 
work. I trust that having had so long and such 
favourable opportunities of making the Cree Language 
as it were my own, I shall not be tbou^t presumptu- 
ous in supposing that I couM explain the pecidiarities 
of their Dialects more deaiiy and correctly than had 
been done previously : and if this little work should 
serve to raise in the estimation of their feUow men, 
the MENTAL CHARACTER of a Pcople, for whom, to my 
latest moments, I shall entertain feelings of grateful 
and affectionate regard — if, especially, it should prove 



PRBFAGB XV 

serviceable to those pious men who are labouring to 
instruct them in the truths of the Christian Religion, 
I shall think my labour in composing it amply repaid, 
and the distinguished Societies to whose Uberality I 
am indebted for its publication, willr have no reason 
to regret their patronage of this attempt to convey a 
more perfect knowledge of the structure of the Cree 
Language. 

The following extracts from Letters written by Mr. 
BiBD, at Red River, who has lived upwards of fifty 
years among the Cree Indians ; and the Rev. Mr, 
Evans, who has also resided among them some years^ 
and assisted in the translation of one of the Gospels 
into the Oojibway C'Chippeway'O Dialect, published 
at New York, in 1837; will probably be considered as 
favourable testimonies to the ability and execution of 
this work. 

^Frmn Mr. Bird to the Author.'] ,. 

My dear Friend, Red River, July 26, 1842. 

I cannot find t^ms to expreaa my aibniiatum of the extent oF 
knowledge which your Grammar evinces^ 



\^From the same to the safne.] 

Red River, Aug, 8, 1843. 
The Rev. Mr. Smithurst has, by well studying your 
Grammar, been enabled to read the Communion Service to the 
Swampeys, in Cree, a few days ago; and my son ^an Interpreter],, 
who went to hear it, says he did it wonderfuUy weU. 



XVI PREFACE. 

[^The Rev, Mr, Evans to Mr. Xis/JBird.] 

Norway House^ (Lake Winnepeg,) 
My dear Sir, 20th July, 1843. 

Having done me the honour to request me to furnish you 
with my opinion of the Cree Grammar you so kindly lent me 
during the season, I feel bound to gratify your wish — I hesitate 
not to state, that amidst much which has fallen under my eye, on 
the subject of Indian Languages, I have met with nothing equal 
to it. No author whose works I have met with, has entered so 
fally and so satisfactorily into the subject ; and I think the know- 
ledge of the Cree language, in all its ramifications, is possessed in 
a higher degree by your friend Mr. H. than by any other person 
who has hitherto attempted its investigation. It cannot fail to be 
a great acquisition to the furtherance of Missionary objects 
amongst the nativ^s, both by aiding the Ministers in acquiring the 
Language, and in translating the Scriptures and other books into 
the Cree and kindred Dialects. 

James Bird, Esq., Red River. 

To facilitate the progress of the reader, whether he 
studies the work for its own sake, or as a part of the 
philosophy of language, an analytical Index has been 
prepared, to which the student may refer, as an aid 
in recalling any part of the whole, which has either 
escaped his recollection, or may be peculiarly the 
object of his enquiries. 

J. HOWSE. 

Cirencester, March, 1844. 



INDEX. 



Preface. 

Introduction, page i. 

NOUNS, Primitive and Derivative, 181 et seq. 244. 309- 

Abstract and Instrumental, 1 82. 

Frequentative, 322. 

Passive, 322. 

Diminutives, 182. 

Gender, 181,244. 

'. Cases, 55, 183, 244, 245, 247, 256, 271. 

Numbers, 181. 

and their Derivative Verbs, (Denomin. Imitat. &c.) (p. 

1 6 et seq.) 
ARTICLE, Defin. and Indef. 248, 275. 
ADJECTIVE, a Verb, 24, 26, 27, 245, 311. 
PRONOUNS, Personal, 51, 60, 97, 136, 185, 245 et seq. 273, 311. 

Indeterm. and Indef., 97 et seq. 189. 

Possessive, 186. 

Relative, 187- 

Demonstrative, 188,271. 

Relative, 189> 247, 273,311. 

Interrogative, 189,279- 

VERBS, Of the, 15 et seq. 19O. 

Root and Affix, 35, 37, 51 et seq. 176. 

Impersonal, 130, 145, 146, I90 et seq. 

Intransitive, Verb Substantive, &c. 135, I98 et seq., 254, 

314. 

(Adj. and Neut), 25, 27, 30, S5, 49, 142 

et seq., I92 et seq., 249, 300. 
Accidental (Neut.) 146. 

b 



XVlll INDEX. 

VERBS, Intransitive (Participial forma), 25etseq. 49, 111 et seq. 

129, 212, 227, 312, 322. See 
Indef. Time. 

Primitive and Derivative, I6 et seq. 38 et seq. 67. 

Augmentative&Diminutive,21,69et seq. 104, 172 etseq. 

Simple and Compound, 134. 177. 

Transitive, General, 39, 76, 211, 255, 301, 311. 

Causative, I9, 38, 88, l65 et seq. 

Special, 86 et seq. 95, 103. 

Particular, 95, 96. 

Reflective, 82 et 8eq. 95, 228, 233, 324. 

Reciprocal, 84, 95, 228. 

Simulative (4th Conjugation), I9, 20, 84. 

Negative (Chippeway), S3, 206, 234, 278. 

' Possessive, 21 obs. 10, IS9. 

: Instrumentive (3d Conjug.), 20, 121, 234. 

Absolute and Relative, 132, 158, 162. 

Active and Passive, 26,27, 57, IO6 et seq. 

114 et seq. 212, 213, 255 
et seq. 262 et seq. 

MOODS, Indicative, I9I, 199> 213 &c. 252, 260. 

Subjunctive, 195, 201, 251 &c. 252, 260. 

Imperative, 204, 220, 225, &c. 

Suppositive (Indicative), 205, 302, et seq. 

Dubitative (Subjunctive), 205, 302. 

Negative (Chippeway), 63, 206, 234, 278. 

Infinitive, 262, 313. 

TENSES, Present and Preterite, see Accidence and Addenda. 

Future, &c. Auxiliaries, 1 99- 203. 302. 

Indefinite (Time), 73 et seq., 202. 203. 217. 275, 323. 

Present and Indefinite (Imperative), 204, 220, 225. 

CASES, Direct, 256, 311. 

Oblique, 55, 117 et seq., 209, 229 etseq., 256,265 et seq. 

271,277 Vocat). 
Possess, or Accessory, 123, 209, 265 et seq. 



INDEX. xlX 

GENDERS, 130, I99, 212. 

NUMBERS, Singular and Plural, Passim. No Dual. 

PERSONS, 51, 60, 185. 

Indefinite, 98 etseq. 105, 107 et seq. 122, 259- 

ADVERBS, 33, 239 et seq., 281. 
CONJUNCTIONS, 34, 242, 284. 
PREPOSITIONS, 34, 242; 288, 29O. 
INTERJECTIONS, 34, 243, 29I. 

ELEMENTARY WORDS, as Being, Quality, Energy, &e. 134 

et seq. 

Relation, I67. 

Privation, I69. 

Degree or Intensity, 152, 172. 

COMPOUND WORDS, 177, 292. 

ACCIDENCE, 181. 

SYNTAX, 244. 

NEGATION, 63, 206. 234, 278. 

INTERROGATION, 279- 

SENTENCES, 252, 294. 

THE ELLIPSIS, 296. 

ACCENT, &e. 297- 

ADDENDA, 300. 

FURTHER REMARKS, 309- 

Of the VERB SUBSTANTIVE, &c. 135 et seq. I98 et seq. 254, 

314. 
DIALECT, 316, 323. 
ADDITIONAL NOTES, 318. 
ELEMENTARY WORDS, 321. 
SUPPLEMENTARY REMARKS, 322. 



ERRATA, &c. 

For "Ethinu," read '* Ethin'u*' passim. 

p. 77, line 17, dele " Italian and." 

pp. 80, line 5, and 146, line 17, to "it so moveth," add "groweth, becom- 

eth/' 
p. 129, line 19, dele "(the subjunctive)." 
p. 135, line 29, for '* Eth," read '* Eth or Ethe." 
p. 213, line 15, to " he loves him," add " or them." 
p. 233, line 9, read " Accusative, Dative, and Possessive Cases 

combined." 
p. 301, line 1, to " subjunctive" &c. add "(see Verb Subst. Subj. Present, 

p. 201.)" 
p. 304, line 21, for **(plu. -tr<f)" read " (plu. -wow)." 



A GRAMMAR 

OF 

THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE ALg6nQUINS. 

Of all the peculiar circumstances which charac- 
terize the new world, none is more calculated to 
attract the attention of the general enquirer than the 
vast mmiher of nations, apparently distinct in origin, 
which overspread that immense continent. Of the 
chief of these, various writers have, according to their 
respective means of information, given us some ac- 
count, and especially of the Alg6nquin people, one of 
the most conspicuous among the ancient nations of 
the northern division of the new world. In the Indian 
family, these stand in high relief. From their numbers, 
as well as the extent of the territory they possess, they 
derive a paramount claim to distinction, as from their 
long intercourse with ourselves, commercially and 
otherwise, they ought to have a strong hold on our 
affections. It i». probable that the history of such a 
nation is closely linked with that of the first peopling 
of the western hemisphere. 



-•^> 



2 A GRAMMAR OF 

Descriptions of the whole country of the Alg6n- 
quins,* we possess in ample detail ; its numerous lakes 
and rivers have all been explored, and are delineated 
on our maps ; his native habits, means of subsistence, 

♦ The country of the Alg6nquin8 may, perhaps, be defined, 
in general terms, as lying between the fortieth and sixtieth 
degrees of North Latitude, and between the Mississippi and a line 
drawn from its head waters north-westerly to Cumberland House, 
Sec* on the west side, and the Atlantic and Hudson's Bay on the 
east. Within this extensive region are found most of the Great 
Lakes of America. This nation consists of many tribes, (vide Dr. 
Prichard's '' Researches, ^c" vol. 2,) of which the Crees, called 
by some authors Kris, KnUteneaux, Killistenoes, N4hethorvays, &c. 
seem to be the principal, and to occupy the greatest extent of 
country^ viz, all, or nearly all that territory, the numerous rivers 
of which carry their waters into Hudson's Bay. 

The domain of the Crees (whose national name is NShethdtvuck, 
i.e. ''exact beings or people,") may also be considered as divided 
into large districts, which are severally distinguished by the name 
of some notable hill, lake, river, &c. within or bordering on these 
territorial divisions, and each of them has generally its own dialect 
— that is, their language is marked by some of those interchanges 
of cognate sounds which will hereafter be more particularly noticed. 

The inhabitants of each of these districts further divide them* 
selves into bands or families, which are also distinguished by the 
name of some remarkable G^ject in. the tract in which they are 
accustomed to hunt; but, in this case, instead of the general 
denomination '*^ethinuMF — "Indians," by which the inhabitants 
of a district or a whole nation are known, and which may be con- 
sidered at the generic appellation, they receive or assume, in these 
smaller divisions, its diminutivs form, '' ethlnSesuk," indicative 
of their subordinate importance ; so W6skwy-wuch6e-ethin^e*«^, 
'' the Birch-hill Indians/' may be considered as a branch of the 
Kisseesk^chewun-ethlnutt^, i. e. of the Indians belonging to the 
district on the river of that name* 



•iibv 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



and indeed almost every thing connected with the 
Alg6nqmn and his wigwam have been accurately 
described. Nothing seems to be wanting to com- 
plete our thorough acquaintance with him, but a 
correct account of his language; a point indeed of 
importance, as being the only avenue to a knowledge 
of his origin and intellectual and moral character. In 
more general terms, it is through the medium of hit 
language alone that we can attain to the native Indian's 
mind — ^to that peculiar kind of himaan intellect, which, 
in all probabiUty, is one of the links connecting the 
history of these tribes with that of other nations. 

In order to supply this desideratum, I shall en- 
deavour to exhibit the information I gained on this 
subject, during a residence of many years among 
the Crees (one of the Alg6nquin tribes), in a detailed, 
but as compendious a manner as I am able. I pro- 
pose, in the first place, to take a cursory view of 
the present state of our information respecting the 
Alg6nquin laiiguage, making, at the same time, 
some brief observations on its general character; 
and secondly, to give an analytical and grammatical 
view of the Cree dialect — with such illustrations, 
from the kindred dialect of the Chippeways, as may 
throw additional light on disputable or difficult points, 
and elucidate, in a manner more generally intel- 
ligible, those principles in their structure which have 
hitherto proved a barrier to the attainment of these 
languages. 

It has been already hinted, that the knowledge we 
possess of the native American langua^s ia vtaty 

B 2 



A GRAMMAR OF 



limited, though, perhaps, we are better informed 
respecting that of the Alg6nqiiin family than any 
other : this information appears to have been chiefly 
derived from the missionaries, whom a great part of 
a long life passed among those people in the diligent 
exercise of their spiritual calling (for which an intimate 
acquaintance with the language would seem indispen- 
sable), may be naturally supposed to have thoroughly 
qualified for furnishing abundant and correct infor- 
mation, theoretical as well as practical. But their 
endeavours do not seem to have been crowned with 
the success which their pious intentions merited : 
nor has any advance, I think, been made since the 
venerable Eliot published his * ' Indian Grammar begun^ 
in 1666," (more than a century and a half ago,) which, 
as the title implies, was considered by himself as 
merely an elementary treatise. 

From the circumstance of his having translated 
the Bible into the language of the Massachusetts 
Indians, or rather from his being the reputed trans- 
lator, (which is a very different thing,) it has been 
erroneously supposed that he was thoroughly versed 
in their language ; I say erroneously, for he himself 
admits, in his Grammar^ published two years after the 
first edition of his Bible, that he " thinks there be 
some more (concordances), but I have beat out no 
more." From this admission alone, it may be fairly 
inferred, and, indeed, any one qualified to judge of 
the nature of the undertaking will at once conclude, 
that the translation, if correct, was formed only by 
the assistance of a half-breed interpreter, to whom 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 5 

both languages were equally familiar. I am much 
inclined to think, however, that, grammatically con- 
sidered, it is an imperfect performance. 

Cotton, also, was a learned missionary, and to 
him his contemporary Eliot acknowledges his great 
obligations for assistance, especially in the second 
edition of this translation. Though he wrote sermons 
in this language, yet he did no more towards com- 
municating a knowledge of it than compile a copious, 
and, as far as it goes, a valuable vocabulary. It does 
not appear that either of them could make a grammar 
embracing all the principles of the language in which 
they preached and wrote. 

These observations are by no means made with a 
view to discredit the labours of the very respectable 
persons here mentioned, but merely to show how diffi- 
cult it is for any European to make himself thoroughly 
master of the principles of the Alg6nquin tongue. 

Nothing appeared on this subject, I believe, between 
1666 and 1788, a period of more than 120 years, 
when Dr. Jonathan Edwards* communicated to 



* Dr. Edwards also, as he informs us^ enjoyed the most favour- 
able advantages for acquiring the Indian tongue. He ''constantly^ 
from his childhood upwards^ associated with the Indians^ and 
acquired a great facility in speaking their language ; it became 
more ^uniliar to him than his mother tongue ; even all his thoughts 
ran in Indian^" &c. 

To this " perfect familiarity with their dialect^" (the Mohegan) 
he is stated to have " united a stock of grammatical and other 
learnings which well qualified him for the task of reducing an un- 
written language to the rules of grammar/' &c. With all these 



b A GRAMMAR OF 

the Connecticut Society of Arts and Sciences, a 
paper on the Mohegan dialect, (see Massachusetts 
Historical Chllections, vol. 10,) containing various 
desultory remarks on the grammatical structure of the 
North American languages, but without much extend- 
ing the knowledge respecting them already possessed. 
Though he was, perhaps, a less skilful grammarian 
than Eliot, he corrected one of his (Eliot's) promi- 
nent errors, by denying the existence of an infinitive 
mood. The value of his authority is however greatly 
lessened, as was before observed, by the singular 
errors into which he has fallen. 

In 1823, nearly half a century after the appearance 
of the above paper, the American Philosophical 
Society published a Grammar of one of the dialects 
(the Delaware) translated into English by the learned 
Mr.Du Ponceau, from the manuscript of Zeisberger, 
a German missionary, with a very valuable preface by 
the Translator. This grammar contains a great deal 
of matter, much more than all the rest put together, 
but, in its present form, is ill calculated to improve 
our theoretical acquaintance with these idioms. The 
materials for illustration are generally ill chosen, the 
parts of the verb often erroneously constructed, and 
withal the arrangement of them is made on such an 



advantages, however, it cannot be denied that, same of his obser- 
vatiians, even on important pcnnts, are erroneous^ and others are 
6akuiated to mislead, as^ 1 trust, will be shewn in the proper place. 
'^ JoNATHAlf Edwards, D.D., was pastor of a diurch in New Haven> 
and member of the Connecticut Society of Arts and Sciences.^ 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 7 

incongruous plan as greatly to lessen the merit whidi 
the work would otherwise possess. It is, besides, de- 
fective in several important points. Yet we are told, 
that this venerable missionary, who died in 1808, at 
the advanced age of eighty-seven, had resided among 
them upwards of sixty years, *' preaching the gospel to 
them in their native idioms." But in this compila- 
tion there is sufficient evidence of his having never 
thoroughly understood theoretically this or any other 
language of similar structure. 

We come now to another venerable and experienced 
missionary, (and he is the last on my list,) in the person 
of Heckewelder, who was likewise considered as well 
skilled in the languages of the Indians, having passed 
forty years of his long Ufe among them. He was also, 
it appears, a member of the American Philosophical 
Society. An extended correspondence on this very 
interesting subject, between him and that eminent 
scholar, Mr. Du Ponceau, its then secretary, has been 
laid before the pubUc. The observations of Hecke- 
welder prove however too desultory and unimportant 
to be of much use, and are often too carelessly made to be 
judicious or correct; his definitions, also, are frequently 
crude and unsatisfactory. To generalize correctly on 
this subject, above all others, requires great reflection 
and care. So perplexed and intricate is the structure 
of these languages to a person who does not possess a 
comprehensive knowledge of their ancHnalous forms, 
that he must return to his point again and again, for 
the hundredth time, before he can obtain such a result 
as deserves to be noted down. It cannot be investi- 



8 A GRAMMAR OF 

gated hastily without danger of the risk that Hecke- 
WELDER often incurred, of being lost in a mist of his 
own raising. Besides, though doubtless sufficiently 
skilled in the language for all practical purposes in 
his vocation, he was evideiitly far from being a pro- 
found Indian scholar. 

In taking this brief retrospect, I have been perform- 
ing an unpleasant task, but I could not do otherwise, 
considering the acknowledged darkness in which we 
are still involved, with respect to the grammar of 
these North American languages. The several au- 
thors, enumerated above, seem indeed to have reached 
a certain point of information, beyond which the 
genius of the language has been to them all, as a 
terra incognita. 

The study of these idioms, and very probably of all 
oral uncultivated languages, is indeed full of perplexity. 
The path of the enquirer is beset with obstacles in 
every direction. Even supposing him to have sur- 
mounted, in some degree, the first difficulty of gaining 
the names of things and actions^ he has yet to attain 
to a distinct knowledge of the various relations in which 
they are combined together, or their grammatical 
value in a sentence, and this too in a system differing 
altogether from that of his own language. This is, 
indeed, even in a simple phrase or sentence, no light 
task, but the great, the hitherto unsurmounted diffi- 
culty is correct interpretation, and correct classification 
of, or the giving of right names to, the anomalous 
members of a sentence, or groups of ideas. This is 
a fruitful source of confusion and error, arising indeed 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 9 

sometimes from a necessity inseparable from the cir- 
cimxstances of the case, of generalizing from too few 
particulars. Accordingly, I have been able to detect, 
among these grammarians, no fewer than six different 
names for the same form of the verb. Thus have 
they all gone astray. Their participles and infinitives 
are mere phantoms, that irrecoverably seduce them 
from the right path, and would be alone insuperable 
obstacles to the forming of a right system. The 
native American has a grammatical system of his 
own. 

From this view of the subject, we need not feel 
surprized that very strange notions, as erroneous as 
strange, have been entertained with respect to the 
American Indians and their languages. So has it not 
only been said that they have few ideas, and that 
their languages are consequently poor, but a writer in 
a respectable American periodical, of a recent date, 
{N. A. Review, Jan. 1826,) has even gone so far as to 
assert that *' this strange poverty in their languages is 
suppUed by gesticulation ; and that no man has ever 
seen an Indian in conversation without being sensible 
that the head, the hands, and the body, are all put in 
requisition to aid the tongue in the performance of its 
appropriate duty." An assertion so extravagant, so 
diametrically opposed to the truth, may be safely left 
to the disposal of the better informed writers before 
named ; and is only here noticed as an evidence of 
the ignorance that still prevails on this very inte- 
resting subject. 

As, on the one hand, the assertion just quoted is a 



12 A GRAMMAR OF 

Yet it is a system complete in the mechamsm of its 
parts, and adequate to the end desired. It is only, 
indeed, if I may so say, language under a new phase. 
The want of some forms, and the modification of others, 
are compensated in a manner to which the European 
is wholly a stranger. This system furnishes a beautiful 
specimen of order ^ in the midst of the greatest apparent, 
and, as it would seem, unavoidable confusion and 
disorder. Regular in its forms, it has especial care to 
distinguish the natural from the adventitious; the 
definite from the indefinite accidents, as well of person, 
as of action ; the act from the habit ; the particular 
instance from the general character or disposition. 
In want of a name for a thing, the American defines or 
describes it. 

It is not so copious as languages enriched by science 
and civilization, but analogous, perhaps, in character 
to that which we find in the early part of the first 
book of the Bible, which appears to describe the cir- 
cumstances of mankind in a state antecedent to the arts 
and sciences of civiUzed life ; but it is abundantly stored 
with terms connected with the arts of fishing, huntv 
ing, &c. the sciences of savage life. Indeed, contrary 
to the prevailing notions, this language will be found 
to be adequate, not only to the mere expression of 
their wants, but to that of every circumstance or 
sentiment that can, in any way, interest or afiect un- 
cultivated minds. 

I may add that as, perhaps, no cultivated language 
is more susceptible of analysis than the Cree and the 
Chippeway, so I am greatly disposed to think that 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 13 

no language is better adapted than the former of 
these,* for the purpose of philosophical investigation, 
whether with a reference to its own system, or, as 
an object of comparison, with the languages of the 
old world. 

As the Indian languages are nimierous, so do they 
greatly vary in their eflfect on the ear. We have the 
rapid C6otoonay of the Rocky Mountains, and the 
stately Blackfoot of the plains, the slow embarrassed 
Flat-head of the moimtains, the smooth-toned Pierced- 
nose, the guttural difficult Siissee and Chepewyiuy 
the sing-song A'ssinneboigne, the deliberate Occ, and 
the sonorous majestic CMppeway. Diflfering as they 
do in this respect, it is worthy of notice that the 
different tribes, or nations of that hemisphere discover 
a much greater aptitude or facility in acquiring 
the language of each other than they do in learning 
any European tongue, which, indeed, they can rarely, 

* My reason for preferring the Cree for the purpose men- 
tioned, is not that the Chippeway does not contain in its structure 
the same grammatical elements^ but that they are sometimes not so 
obvious — so well defined— e.g. the nasals m and n, which constantly 
occur in the latter, are often founds (as in mb, nd, ng, &c.) when 
compared with corresponding terms in the former, to be unnecessary 
adjuncts, not modifying the meaning of the root, and are therefore 
merely expletive, at least>however they may add to the beauty of the 
language. But^ besides this, by the change of th and tord into their 
cognate n (see Dialect), which frequently happens, three important 
elements are resolved into one^ which consequently^ even without 
the addition of the redundant n above mentioned, becomes, to the 
mere Chippeway scholar^ ambiguous and perplexing, if not &tal to 
the object of his research. 



14 A GRAMMAR OF 

if ever, (I here speak of the Crees) be induced to 
attempt. The European finds the same difficulty in 
acquiring theirs. Their turn of mind leads them to 
group their ideas and combine their thoughts after 
their own peculiar manner, though indeed, in some 
of these languages, the thoughts are expressed through 
the medium of sounds, as unlike to those uttered by 
other nations as it can be imagined the vocal organs 
can produce. 

Some of these languages are, more than others, 
in accordance with our own system of articulation, 
as the Cree and the Chippeway now under con- 
sideration, which are therefore fortunately well 
adapted for our purpose. These, though strictly 
cognate idioms, are marked by differences of an inte- 
resting description ; the one (the Chippeway) is, even 
in the vowels, very strongly nasal, from which the 
Cree is, in the northern districts at least, perfectly 
free. The Chippeway has two negatives, like the 
French ; one of which, in negative propositions, is 
interwoven with the verb through all its forms. Its 
cognate Cree knows nothing of this negative form. 

The great characteristic which distinguishes the 
languages of the new from those of the old world, is 
found in the peculiar structure and powers of their 
verb, and this will be the subject of the next chapter. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 15 



PART I. 



OF THE VERB. 

Of the Indian verb^ as respects its nature or essence, 
it may, without hesitation, be said to be strictly 
analogous to the part of speech in European lan- 
guages, bearing the same name ; viz. as — ^predicating, 
being ; as — Nef i-dn, I am ; or manner of being or 
acting y as — Ne neMtheteny I am glad ; Nefdwhoosin^ 
I am sick ; Nenepovdn, I stand ; Ne pemootan^ I walk, 
&c. ; and of all this class of terms I consider the verb 
substantive y in the Cree language, to be proximately or 
remotely the nucleus. To convey a right notion of its 
powersy however, we must necessarily go into detail. 
These are, as already remarked, more extensive than 
in some European tongues, and are proportionately, at 
least, more difficult to exhibit in an inteUigible arrange- 
ment. With a view to clearness on this point, I shall 
make my observations on this intricate subject under 
three general heads, viz. 

First — ^The matter or materials of which the verb 
is composed. 

Secondly — Its kinds. 

Thirdly — Its forms as developed in its various in- 
flections. 



16 A GRAMMAR OF 



Chapter I. 

The first of the heads above mentioned, or the mat- 
ter of which the Indian verb consists, may be further 
viewed with advantage in these five ways, viz. 
I. As to its origin. 
IL As consisting of a root and aflSx. 

III. As primitive or derivative. 

IV. As absolute or relative. 
V. As simple or compound. 



Section I. 

As to the Origin of the Verb. 

The Indian verb is of various origin, e. g. 
1. It comes from the names of things^ as nouns. 

2 qualities, as adnoims. 

3 energy or action, as 

verbs. 

4 reZafion^, as pronouns 

adverbs, &c. 
First. — ^The noun is the root of several kinds of 
verbs, among others of the following, formed firom 
Nippee, water. (See Accidence.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 17 

1. Nipp^eiroo (animate.) He it watery i. e. possesses the nature 
of water. 

N4pliyoo« a man; (vir) nkpkywoo, he is (a) man. 

Oow&ssis^ a child; oowkssiaewoo, he is (a) child. 

H6okemow^ a chief; h6okem6ii^oo^ he is (a) chief, 

K6ona^ snow ; kdoneivoo^ he is snowy^ i. e. he is covered 
with snow. 
Nipp^fvun (inanimate). It is vrdiX/eTy i. e. possessing its na- 
ture). It is wet. 

Mtjinnet6i9tm^ it is God^Uke (supernatural). 

Numm&isemin (iskee (inan.) ; it is a fishy country (from 
nummdisy a fish). 

A^ssiskeetPtfit (inan.)^ t^ is dusty (from 6ssiskee, dust, also 
earth). 

Kbonewun, it is snowy, covered with snow. 

This form asserts the nature or essence of the noun 
to be in the subject * 



The subjoined notes are taken from Mr. Peter Jones's Ch^ppeway Translation 
of the Gospel qf St John, printed for the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, London, IS31. [^See Acddence.li 

It will be useful to the reader, in investigating these two dialects, or in 
comparing them together, to bear in mind that the labial letters, b, p, m, 
and 00, or w, are convertible, as are also the Unguals, th, d, t, n, s, st, ts, 
eh, sh, t, zh,j. The CkCppeways also often omit the Cree s. 
Cree-— Net* Et^theten, I think it, is in Chippeway, Nind' en^ndon. 
Tlihn^ ispeet^k. How large is it? A^hneen menik ? 

U^skee, country, A'likeh (Jonbs). 

^ote^-Animate and inanimate refer to gender. [See Accidence.^ 

1 St. John, i. 23, 06gemah. . Lord or chlrf. 

xviii. 37, Ked*6ogeaumh (Indie.). . T%oti art (a) chief. 

06gem&hwe3f(m (Subj.). : That lam (a) king. 

ni. 42. W^em&bw^ (Sobj.). . Who were chiefs, 
vi. 70. Mfihje-nitined6oiee% (In^c). .He'is <a) devil. 
X. 21. M&je-mtineddoiPMf (Subj.). ; Who is (a) devil, 
iv. 24. Oojechlihgoofoeik (Indie). . He is (a) spirit. 



18 A GRAMMAR OF 

2. Nipp^efviMtt (anim.) heiswaUr']ike, waier'ish, (notdiminut.) 
Ndp4yoo^ a man; (vir) n&piy tvUsu, he is man-like> 

manly. 
Ethinu^ (homo) a man, an Indian ; Ethin^w^ he is wise, 

discreet. 
"Sijpp^ewonf (inan.)^ it is tvaier-W^e, tvaiery, tvatenah, humid. 
Kdsketayoo, a burnt coal; kdaket^ytvow, it is coaUVke, 

f . e. black. 
Mithkoo^ blood; mithkn^on^^ it is blood-Uke, t. e. red. 
P^wdpisk, metal; pkwipisknfow, it is metalMke, i.e. 

metallic. 
This form shows the manner, or resemblance^ of the noun 

to be in the subject 

8, Ktpp^ewissoo (anim.)^ he is watered (wetted). 
Nipp6fPftoyoo (inan.) it is watered (wetted). 

This form implies the accident or accession of the noun 
to the subject. 

4. NippeeAiyoo (anim.).— This is a causative form^ and indicates 
the causing of the object to become the noun^-^ 
turns or changes him into water.^ 



• vi. 63. W^yos. . Flesh. 
i 14. Ke wey6sewe(^)(f& (pass, indie). . He was made flesh. 

L 23. 06gemah. . The Lord^ also king, chief, &c. 

viii. 54. 06gemiihweih)idezooy(m (reflect, subj.) ..ff I cbief-myMif> 

" if I honour myself.*' 
» » W%em6hwe(A)u2 (act. subj.) .. That clMeth me, "that 

honoureth me.'' 
yi. 15. We 6ogem&hwe(ik)^o(Kf (subj.) . . That he was to he king-eJ 

(by them), " To make him a king." 
six. 12. W&gw&in wigea^w^Jidezoogwmm (reflect, subj. dub.). . 

Whosoever maketh hmsejf a king. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 19 

^\^pipeei&w (iiian.)^ ke turns U into water. 
M6ni8-&ppwoo7> berry-Uquor, i. e. wine. 
M6iiis-dppwoo^<5n;^ he turns t^ itUo wine. * 

5. Nipp^weAoyoo (anim.)— -The transitive of Nipp^e«oo> indi- 

cating the transfer of the aiirtbule to the object— Ae 
iva/fry-eth (wets) him. 
Nipp^ewetoip (inan.) — The transitive of Nippfeewttn — Ae 
waiery^e^ (wets) it. 
A'ssiskeewetow (inan.)^ he dusty^eih it, cavers it with dust. 

6. Nippee^iy^ (inan.) — This form asserts the fnaking of the 

noun — he water':make9, i. e. he is making water 

(indefinite). 
Mijskesin^ a shoe ; miiskesine-^ayoo> he is «Aoe-making. 
Wiinnaheggun^ a trap; wilnnaheggune-^4y^> ^ ** trajh 

making. 
Wdskah^ggun-e^oyoo^ he is making a h(mse. 
Athdppeei^4y^> ^^ n^-makes (from athuppee, a net). 

They also say, figuratively, 

Cowlshem6one^4yoo9 he or she is making the bed. 

P6taw6ne^df^oo> he makes a smoking assembly. 

'W kekoqkdyoo, he makes a feast. 

Mevr^tekdyoo, he makes up a bundle or load (from mewiU, 

a bag or bundle). 
Ootdpane^4y^> ^^ makes (i, e. arranges the things on) 

the sledge. 



« ii. 3. Zhdhwe-min-dhboo. . Yellow-berry-liquor, i.e. wine, 
ii. 9. Kah zhdhwemendhboow^cAe^aAc{e% (particip. pass, indie.) . . 

That was made wine, 
iy. 46. Zhdhwemendhboowe^doptm (act. indie.) . . He ytme-edit, '* he 

made the water wine." 
ii. 14. Adahwa/t^ (act.) . . " (Those) who sold/' bartered, 
ii. 16. A^dahwdwe.gdhmeg6owefookdgoon (imp. neg.). . Exchange- 

house-moAre-not-it. 

c 2 



20 A GRAMMAR OF 

7« "Sippeekaidyoo (act anim.) — The transitive of the above^ and 
intimating the transfer or addUion of the noun, to 
an object in an iniensatwe manner^ e. g. making, 
&C. (sur-attribute) — He water makes it 

H6QkemoWy a chief; hookemdwekatdyoo, he cAt^makes 
him, he makes him a chief, 

Owak6n9 a slave; owakbnekaU^oo, he makes him a slave. 

Wew^Uekaidyoo (anim.), he loads (makes, t. e. arranges 
the load on) him, as a horse, 

OfAki^katkatdrv (inan.), he arrat^es it on the sledge. 

H6okemow^^^oo (reflect), he chief-makes himself, i. e. he 
" makes or pretends the chief." 

*'S&pa,jkisoo (id.) he *' makes the man." [See Section S, 
Simulative form.]] 
Nipp6eAa/f£m (inan.), (idem) he water-msikea it, i. e. makes 
by the addition of water {as to spirits for a beverage.) 

MMdm,food ; m6chime^^/tii?t, he food-makes it, i. e. he 
baits it (a trap). 

Picku, gttm or pitch ; pickekdtum, he pitches it, (i. e. adds 
pitch toitj) as a canoe. 

S6e8eep4skwut, sugar ; seeseepdskwuteAritonr, he sugar- 
makes it, i. e. by the addition cf sugar to it, as to a 
beverage, S^. 
Wip^ekaidyoo (accid. pass, inan.), it is water^nsAe. 

S6mieow, silver or gold ; stoneby^ekatdyoo, it is silvered or 
gilded. 

Seeaeep&akwutekatdyoo, it is sugar-made, i.e. it is sugared. 

Vickeekatdyoo, it is pitched or gummed. 

8. Nippee^^dfyoo-^This form implies the making of the noun, 
with, or of, the object; ablatively — ^he makes water ^it 
S^wdppwooy, sour liquor, i. e. vinegar. 

wun, it is vinegar, partakes of vinegar. 

tdw, he turns it into vinegar. 

kdyoo, he makes vinegar. 

kdtum, he vinegars it, that is, oAb vinegar to 

some other thing. 



THE CRB£ LANGUAGE. 21 

SkwkppwookaidyoOf ii is vinegaxed. 
kagdyoo, he makes vinegar of it. 

9* NippeefA(5fi; — This form intimates abundance of the noun — 
mater abounds, or there is abundance of mater. 

M6nis, a berry ; xsykms^hbm berries abound. 

Attik, a deer ; 2XXjikoosk6w, deer abound. 

Minnahik, a spruce Jir ; minnahikoof Aroit^, spruce Jirs 
abound. * 

10. Oo-Nipp6e9raf< — This form (pot before a vowel) shows that the 

subject possesses the noun — he has, i. e. owns or 

possesses mater. 
Oonk^k\mu, she has, or possesses, a man, ue. a husband. 
Ocitkmu, he possesses a horse, or horses. 
Assdm, a snom'Shoe. 
Oo^'assamtf, he has snom-shoes. 
[[Thus in these possessive verbs, the object may, in Cree, 

he either singular or plural ; but, in Chippenatf, they 

follow the common rules of agreement] * 

11. H6okempw^^A6i?ta5foo, he cAte^thinks him; i.e. considers 

him a chief. 
This subject^ thinks the person, thing, &c. expressed by the 



* V. 3. N^h. . Water. 

iii. 23. N^eh-A;a^ (pres.'for prater.). . There was much water, 
vi. 10. MeenzhdhshkooMA^ttw (preter.) . . There voas much grass. 

& iv. 16. Ke ndhb^m . . Thy husband, 
iv. 16. Nind' oon^b^e^e. (poss. neg.). . I haoe no husband, 
iv. 18. Kah oondhb^eyuni^r (poss.) . . Whom thou husbandest them, 
hast had as husbands. 
Note^The present and the eompovmd qf the present, are often used for 
the past tenses. 

* viii. 49. Nind' 6ogemahw(£fiemail (indie.) . . I cYad-tUnk-Um, ''honour 

him." 
xii. 26. Ka 6ogemahw(^it«maA/tn (subj.) .."He will honour him" 
V. 23. Che 6ogemBhwdnemegood (pass, subj.) . . That he should be 

honoiured by, (&c.) 



22 A GRAMMAR OF 

noun^ to be in the object The general principle, 
that, in a compounded verb, the accessory member 
is, in these dialects, a secondary attributive, will be 
noticed hereafter. This form constitutes perhaps 
the only exception to the rule. 

Most if not all nouns, both primitive and derivative, 
have their derivative verbs also, as, 

W^ee (g hard), a tent or dmeUing. 
W6egtt (neut), he dtvelU or tents. 

yf^geemayoo (transit) he ^en^-eth (with) him. 

W^geemoggun, a tent-mate or person tented with* [See 
Passive Nouns.'2 

Usk6eoo, he countries, i. e. he dwells in that quarter (from 

iiskee, country). 
fVeet^dskeemdyoo, he com-patriot-eth him (transit). 
Weet'(iBkeem6ggun, fellow-countrymo^e. 

Oot&we, father. 
Ootiwieoo, he is (a J father. 

OotAwemayoo, he fathers him, i. e. he is his father, or by 
adoption, &c. he is a father to him.*' 

f V. 17 N'oos. . My father, 
iii. 35. Way6osemtiuJ (pass.). . Who is fathercc^, " the father.'' 
yiii. 41. Pazhegoo Waydosemtin^ili (act.) .. He is one, whom we 

esteem father, " we have one father." 
viii. 42. Ooydoaeydgoobun (verb possess.). . If he were your father, 
viii 44. Kef ooydoaefnakwdh (act. anim.) . . Ye esteem him father. 

Oof ooydosinddn (act. inan.) . . He fathers it, " the father 

of if' 
viii. 39. Nind" ooydosendn Cv. poss.). ."He is our father." 

iv. 50. Ke gwis . . Thy son. 

i. 34. Oogwisemegood. . Who is son-ed by (God), " the Son (of God)." 
i. 49. Ked* oogwiaenUg. . He eon-^th thee (God), '' thou art the Son 
(of God)." 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 23 

P^poon^ mrUer (or it is winter; iilso a year. 
Vep6onUsu, he rvinUrs, 
W^eche'^pepbonissemdyoo, he winters with him. * 



iii. 16. Kah oogw^seftn (possess.) . . Whom he has for son, " his 

(only begotten) son.'' 
V. 22. Wagw^sefiidk/tf» (act.). . Whom he son-^h, " the son." 
V. 19. Wagyv6sem(nd (pass, indeter.). . Who is sfm-ed, ** the son." 
iii. 36. Wagw^8em«ii%ifi (id. poss. case). . Who isBon-ed, ''the son.'* 

iy. 49. Ne n^j^nis. . My child. 

viii. 33. Nind* oon^j&nesefn^ootton . . Abraham . . (act.) He child^A 

us, ** we be Abraham's seed." 
yiii. 37. Oon^jlkhne8em«m% . . That he cYaid-eth you ''that ye are 

his seed.'* 
viii. 39. Oon^j&hnesemefMfyoopim ..If he child-ecf you, " If ye were 

his children." 

^ X. 22. P^poondb6tfii. . It was winter, 
ii. 20. P^poon. . (Forty-six) years, 
xiii. 30. T^kahd(^t>pim . . It was night. 

i. 10. A'hkeh. . A country, " the world." 
iii. 31. A^hkehweh. .It "is earthly." 

xviii. 15. Mlnzhenahwa. . Disciple. 

viii. 31. Ke^ oominzhenahw&mgntiii (act. indie.) . . I disciple y<m 

(plu.), " ye are my disciples." 
XV. viii. Che minzhenahw6mefu%roo^ (act. subj.) . . That J may 

disciple you (phi.), " so shall ye be my disciples." 

i. 49. Kec^ 6ogemQiWGmigoog (trans.) . . I%ey king thee, "thou art 
the king of" asrael). 

iv. 36. M^netrtfi. . Fruit. 

XV. 2. Mkhnewiinzenoog (negat. subj.). . That beare^A not fruit 

Mkhnewungin (subj. plu.). . That bear fruit. 

Che m^netoKfi^ (sing.). . That it bear fruit. 
XV. 8. Che mineweydig (subj.) . . That ye bear fruit. 

i. 14. Tkpw&win. . Truth. 

viii. 26. Tipw&wineA. . He is truth. 



24 A GRAMMAR OF 

12. These substafUtve-yerbB Bometimea drop the 
first letter or syllable of their noun, as from 

Iappee> a line or chord; dppee-Ar(fyao> he /tittf-makes or plaits ; 

ip^^kdyta, liae-make-thou^U, plait it 
UmiBk, a beaver; i^eskayoo^ he is beavering, i. e. taking 

beaver. 
E^skooiayoOfJlre ; skAiaw or ak&Um, he strikes^re or a light. 
Kbotaxvayoo, he makes ajire. 

13. Others assume a prefix, as from Idppee (Idppee* 
dimin.), as above. 

/i^-£ppee/<kp, he puts a line to or about it^ he cords it^ &c. 
It'&ppeeBahufn, or T&ppeesahum, he threads it (as a needle). 
S^aketdyoo, it is Jired,]ighted (from E'skootayoo,^re). 
Skikahumy he^res it^ sets it on fire* 
S^skethowdisu (temper), he is fiery, passionate. 

SECONnLY, — ^The names of the qualities of things 
famish a numerous list of Verbs, they being all, in 
their simple state, verbalized. I shall divide them, as 
the forms of both these dialects seem to point out, 
into two classes — namely, the natural and the acd- 



vi, 63. Oojecli6g. . A spirit. 

Oo]eehkktkgoowdhnoon (inan.). . They are spiritual. 

Peml^tez^wetroAftooft (inan.) . . They are of life, 
viii. 41. Keshluntinedoo. . Grod. 

zvii. 3. Kesh&mtineddotMytiii (subj.). . Who art (the only true) Grod. 
z. 34. Ke m^ed6oiotm. . Ye are GodB, i.e. supernatural beings. 
X. 33. £iekesh&muned6owe(A)^lM (reflect, indie.) .... Thou msikest 

thyse^ God. 
i. 6. En^neh, (homo) . . A man. 
vii. 12. En^neweA Cindic.)i .HeisB, (good) man. 
X. 33. E'nen^pcyim (subj.). . Who art a man. 
xviii. 35. Ntiiif oo}6wyewh Cmdic). . J am a Jew. 
iv. 9. J^weyim (subj.). . Who art a Jew, 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 



25 



dental. The former^ derived from. the adnoun^ eacpress 
what is inherent f naiwey spontaneous ^ aad will be deno- 
minated Adjective verbs: the latter, derived from 
words expressing what is adventitious to the subject, 
contingent, foreign, acquired, — ^have a passive signifi- 
cation, and will be called accidental passive verbs^ in 
contradistinction to participial and other passive verbs, 
which will be noticed hereafter. 



ADJECTIVE VERBS. « 



ANIMATE. 


INi 


LNIMATE. 


W6we^#u he is circular. 


W6weow 


U w circular. 


Pittikoom he is spherical. 


Pittikwow 


it is spherical. 


Kdwissu he is rough. 


K6wow 


ii is rough. 


S6oskoom he is smooth. 


S6oskwoxp 


it is smooth. 


A^wkoo*ti he is sick. 


AVkwtm 


it is stiong^ tart. 


Kinwoosu, he is long or tall. 


Klnwoft^ 


it is long. 


NupptickfVw he is flat 


Ntippuckow 


it is flat 


Chimmesissu he is short. 


Chimm^fit 


it is short. 



9 ▼. 30. Odnesheshfit (indie inan.) .,itis good, 
i. 46. WdnesheBhmg (subj.) . . wMch is good. [See Sec. 3, Augment 

taiioes.'] 
ii. 10. Mahyahn&hdlUiJktfi (subj. inan.) . . which is bad. [id.] 
vi. 27. PanlihdtiA; (subj. inan.) . . wMch is bad. 
viii. 9. Paht^zetrod (subj. anim.) . . that they^ meMiptmaUL 
viii. 3. Mligwah peshegw&hdezi({ (^j.) . , lUt the 4l^ 

wanton. 
v. 7. M&bkezid (subj.) . . who is lame, 
iy. 6. Ahj&kooM (subj.) . . who is weary, 
xi. 3. A'^hkoose ^dic.) ,.heis side, 
xi. 1. A^oose^wi 6ndic« pret) . .ie loac.sick. 
y. 5. Ay^Uikoocu^ (snbj. augment^ who.is wk. 
jdL 5 and 8. Kadem^geg<yy (subj.) . . wha ore poor, piteous, 
yiii. 54. Tab enttbahtci&sinpoii 6ndic. neg.) ,,itwttLnH &c. useful. 

[See Paradigm of the Negative Verb.] 



26 


A GRAMMAR OF 




A^ppis^em^M he is small. 


A^ppiscUtft 


it is small. 


Mkhcm 


Ae wgood. 


M^thotp 


U is good. 


MeihbsUsu 


he is handsome. 


Methow^fsfit 


it is good, nice. 




kind. 


Math4tfin 


it is bad. 


Maihitusu 


he is bad, ugly. 


A^uttun 


it is useful. 


A'buttww 


Aew useful. 


lap&uj 


it is high, as a 


Pspww 


Ae whigfa. 




house. 


A^ihemissu 


he is difficult 


A^themun 


it is difficult 



ACCIDENTAL (PASSIVE) VERBS, w 

ANIMATE. 

Chimmajoo he is erected, set upright. 

Visoo he is dried, 

M^atBSOO he is consume^^ (by fire), scalded. 

T£ske«oo he is split (as a living tree). 

Eskwdjoo he is hunU. 

T4hkooplf<oo he is tied up. 

Kiiskekw&foo he is sewed. 



Chimmatajfoo 

F&aiaifoo 

M^slatojfoo ^ 

T&sketayoo 

Eskw&toyoo 

T&hkoopt^/^^oo 

Ktakekwktdyoo 



INANIMATE. 

it is erected, set upright 

it is dried. 

a is consumed (by fire), scalded 

it is split (as a dead tree). 

it is burnt. 

it is tied up. 

U is sewed. 



Note-^Vixal u is pronounced as in pure, endure ; and oo as in tiuxm, pool. 



10 i. 27> D&hkoobe(l(6i»^ (subj. inan. poss. case) ., if it be tied. 
xi. 44. TShkoohezood (subj.) . . who is tied, bound. 

T^tepeengwdberooA (indie.) . . about-face-tie(i>tf-ibe. 
XV. 6. N^boo(i(^mahguk (subj.) . . which is withered, 
xix. 23. K&hshkegwahdhisezeiM^oMm (pret. neg.) . . it was not sewed. 
xviii. 34. Minjem4peroofttd(8ubj. a»im. poss. case) . . whowashonnd. 
xxi. 11. Mdoshkenanid (id.) . . which was filled. 



THB CRBB LANOUAOK. 



27 



It maybe observed, that some roots are susceptible 
of both these modes of the verb, e. g. 

ADJECTIVE VERBS. 

AninuUe — U^ckoom he hangs (intran.) 

Inanimate — U'ckoo^in it hangs (id.) 

Ex. Anim, — U^ckoo^icA vMkwuk, i.e. They hang, the stars. 
Inan, — U^ckoo/MttooA n^pea They hang, the leaves. 

W^theptfw he is £ou\, i.e. not clean, dirty. 

W^ethepow U is foul. 

Kippoof ti he is shut, stopped \ naturally or 

Kfppow it is shut, stoppci^ /spontaneously. 

Nuppiickt^^ he is flat 
NUppuckozp it is flat 

Kinwoo^ he is long or tall. 

Klnwotp it is long. 

W&wgissu he is crooked. 

Wdwgon? it is crooked. 

Mtifikbwissu he is strong or hard. 

Miiskowozp it is strong or hard. 

M(isk6wttn it is strong, hard, &c. (moral.) 

Quitiskoofti he is straight, not crooked. 

Quiuskiooip it is straight 

Qliiusktf«tf he is open, straight-forward, frank. 

Q<iiuskQ;iin it is right, reasonable. 



ACCIDENTAL (PASSIVE) VERBS. 

U^ckoojoo he is suspende^^, hung, (pass.) 

U^ckootoyoo it is suspendeif, hung. 

Ex. iMm.— U^ckoosooinclr nef asslbntiJb, i. e. They are hung up, my 

snow-shoes. 
Inan, — U^ckootaynMiA ne miiskesinaA. . They are hung up, my shoes. 



28 A GRAMMAR OF 

Wheithepiisoo he is fovded or soiled. 
W6ethepetoyao it is fouled or toiled. 

Kf ppooMO he is stoppecf 1 artificially^ as a bottle 

Kippootoyoo it is stopped f or a path. 

Nuppdckt^joo he is flatte^^. 
Nuppticke^iiyoo it is flattet^. 

Kinwoosoo he is lengthene(f. 

Kinwoo/oyoo it is lengthene(f. 

Wiiwgissoo he is bent. 

Wkwgetayoo it is bent. 

Mdsk6w»<oo he is gtrengthenei or hardenecf. 
MdsUweta^oo it is strengthenee/ or hardenecL 

Numerals," &c. when predicated of a subject, also 
become verbs, as 

P^yak, one; plyakoo, he is one, or is ahne. 
N^shoo, two ; n^shootiAr, they are two. 
N6annan,^ve ; n^ann&nenmA;, they are five. 
Mech^ttetvuAr, they are many. 
Chuckawissiseu^Ar, they are few. 



" i. 26. Pazhig . . One. 

viii. 41. PIbhegoo. . He is one. 

X. 16. Tah p4zliegoo (anim.) . . He shall he one (shepherd). 

Tah p4zhegi(Wft Qnan.). . It shall he one (fold). 
X. 30. Ne blbhegoomtit . . We are one. 

xvii. 22. Che p&zhegooto(^(2 (subj.), — azhe pdzhegooyfln^ (subj.) . . 

That they may he one, — as ire are one. 
xvii. 23. Che...p&zhegoo(^)^ioaA (pass. sul]j.) . . That they may he 

made (perfect) in one. 

vi. 9. N6hnun. . Rvc. 

iv. 18. Ke nlUinahneum^ (anim. indie.) . . They have been five. 

V. 2. Nflmin^ (inan. subj.). . As they were ^ve. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 29 

Numerals may also be used transitively, as, 

^^shoostowiyoo, he two^eth them, e.g. kiUs two at a shot. 

V&yakooha^oo (anim.)^ he one^eth them, t.e. unUes them. 
Yijakoolow (inan.)^ he nniteth them. 
N^shooAoyoo (anim , he two^eth him or them, i.e. divides, SfC. 
N^shootoiP inan.)^ he ^videth it or them. 

There are, indeed, other words and forms pf expres- 
sion which exhibit no predicate in the English phrase, 
yet, standing as attributives^ are expressed by a verb 
in the Indian language — such are each, every, other, 
of or among (them), the two, &c. as from tahto" wwmfter 
are formed, 

ItxAiBBVMk (intran. anim.), they are» or ihey number, so many. 
Ittihiinwah id. inan.), idem. 

H^ ittii^chick (subj. anim.), as many as they are ; i.e. ef)ery 
one, the whole number, the total of them. 



13 ii. 10. and iii. 20. Aind^chuf (subj.) who numbere^^, " every, 
every one." 
i. 16. Aind^cbeyon^ (id.) . . as we number, '' all we'' bave, &c. 
xiii. 21. Vi'^Dhg...kendlw)ah aind&hcbeyot^ (id.) ..one of you, as ye 

number, " one of you.*' 
viii. 7. Aind^cbeyat^ dd.) . . as ye number; Ang^ce, qfyowr wmnber, 

" among you." 
xvi. 32. Aind&bcbe^oi^r gd.) . . as ye numb^, ''ye, every man." 
vii. 53. Aind^cbetooc? (id.) . . as they number, *' every." 
In tbe following passages tbis verb is, for tbe sake of anpbasis, pre- 
ceded by anotber verb expressive of quantity, or de^ee, viz. meniil (subj. 
inan.) as, A^bneen menA.^ (subj.) . . bow mucb isii? 

viii. 46. A'bneen kenabwab snemjb aind^cbeygty (subj.) . . wbicb 

(of) you, how great it be tbat ye number, 
vii. 19. Kab...&bweyab menik aindflicbeya^. 

Not*»any one great as may be tbat ye, ^c ** of you" all. 



30 A GRAMMAR OF 

Hd iH&btSekee («ubj. inan.) idem. 

Tdhn'h^ itXtisaechik? Tahn\hd itt^t^eitef P how number 

they ? i.e. how many are they ? 
P6too8," different. 

Petoosi^^ti (mdic.)> it is different^ other. 
Hd Fktooaissit (subj. 8ing.)> otitis different^ other. 
N^shoottA;^ thei^ are two. 

Kah likBliechik (subj.), which are two, i.e. the two. 
[See Construction of the Attributive Verb, and of the Article.'^ 

Thirdly — ^The names of Energy and Action, and 
their contraries, famish the class of Neuter Verbs," as 



w X. 1. Pihk6n (adverb) . . separate, distinct, " some other way.*' 
XX. 7. P6hkon . . " in a place by itself.'' 
v. 32. B6hklilme2re Ondic. animate) he is different, other, " there is 

another." 
v. 43. and iv. 37. B&k&hnezid (subj. animate) . . which is different, 

" another" (person), 
xviii. 34, iv. 38, and x. 16. Tak^nezefig (idem) .. which are, &c. 

" others, other," persons, sheep, 
vi. 22. Bdk6hnii^ (subj. inan. sing) . . which is different ''other" boat, 
vi. 23, XX. 30, and xxi. 25. BdkahnoA^it (idem plural) . . which are, 

Sfc. "other" boats, signs, things, 
i. 40. P&zhig ^ewh itoA n^enzher'i^ (subj. animate). . One, those irAtcib 

are two, " one of the two." 

^* xi. 29. Ke bUhzegwe (indie.) . . she arose, 
xiv. 31. P^Uizegw^ (imper.) . . arise (ye). 
V. 6. Shingesh^nenid (subj. possess, case) . . as ib lay. 
V. 3. Shingesh^nootood (subj.) . . were lying, 
ii. 22. Kah ooneshkod (subj.) . . that he had risen. 
y. 8. 06neshk6ii (imperO . .jise (thou), 
iil 29. N^ahweft . . he standeth, 
viiL 9* Ke...n^ahweA . . she was standing, 
ix. 41. Ne wUhbemtii . . we see. 
ix 15. Kah ezhe w&hbid (subj.) . . who thus saw. 
W&hbeyon (subj*) . . (and) I see* 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 



31 



I^ 


Af is. 


A'ppn 


he site. 


Ptissekoo 


he rises (from a sitting posture). 


Fimissin 


he lie* down. 


Wiinneskow 


he rises (from a recumbent posture). 


N^powoo 


Ae standi. 


Wdppti 


he sees. 


Seeb6oytayoo 


hedepaiU. 


P6mooUiyao 


he walks. 


Plmethou; 


he files. 


Fimeskon; 


he swims, as a fish. 


Th&th4ntim 


he swinu^ as a man. 


Pim&stf 


AesaiU. 


Klwoyoo 


he return*. 


P6othoo 


he ceases or leaves off. 


Nippto 


he sleep*. 


Nippu 


he is dead. 


Etkthetum 


he so thinks^ intend*. 


Kiskethetiim 


he know*. 


Kiskissu 


he remember*. 



vii. 3. M^j6n (imper.) . . depart thou. 

xvL 7. Che mlUbjahyoii . . that I depart ^ 

y. 8. P^moos^tit . . walk thou, 

y. 9. Ke p^oosatd (subj.) . . he walked 

iv. 51. Ahne k^wauf (subj.) ..aske was returning. 

vi. 66. Ke azhak^w^id (subj. poss. case.) . . they returned back. 

zi. 11. NebcfA . . he sleepe^A. 

zi. 12. ^^dhgwdin (subj. dub.) ..if he sleep. 

vi. 49. Ke niboowug . . they have died. 

xix. 7. Che n^bood (subj.) that he die- 

xxi 25. Mnd* en^ndtim . . I think. 

xvl 2. Tah en^ndtim . . he wUl think. 

vL 6. Oo kekldndtm . . he knoweth t^. 

iiL 2. Nin keklunda^non . . we know it. 

XV. 20. MequldndahmooJb ^per*) . . remember ye. 

xvi. 4. Che mequ^ndahmof^ (subj.) that ye remember. 



32 A GRAMMAR OF 

Very many, at least, if not all the verbs, of the 
classes above mentioned, may, relatively y be considered 
as permanent, continuous, &c. and have their occasion- 
ah J marking individual, distinct, sudden acts or mo- 
tion. These furnish a new mode of the neuter verb. 
(Vide infra.) 

ADJECTIVE VERBS. 
Mithkoo^ti he is red. 

Mithkoopti^Atf he or it reddens. 

ACCIDENTAL VERBS. 
Quiske^oo he is tamed over. 

Quiskep^Att he or t^ tum« over. 

S^sketo^oo it is Bred, lifted. 

S^skeputhu it Bres, takes fire. 

NEUTER VERBS. 
A'cheeoo he moves, has the faculty of moving. 

A'cheepti^Atf he or it move^ (suddenly). 

Fourthly — ^The names of Relations. — Relational 
words, or words expressive of simple relation, are also 
a source of verbs', as 

PRONOUNS. 
0'weena...who. 

Ke kisklthemitcin...6f9ee7t^weun. 

I know you...ti;^ you are. 
K^koo...what (pronoun). 

K^kwlln (noun)... something. 

K^kw4n ? (verb). ..what is it? 

Ne Kisk^dwten h^ Ukw^ (subj.) 

I know that t^ is somediing. 



THE CREB LAN6UA0E. 33 

Ne kisk^theten hd \i6kwknewdk (subj.) [See verb dweoo, 

anim. ; dwun, inan.^ 
I know what it U, 



ADVERBS. 

Pimich . . . cross-wise. 

Pimich^^in...it is (lying) across, 

Pimiche/ou;... (trans.) he does it across. 

Viimtinum,,,ke lays it across (with the hand). 
Sissoondy . . .parallel. 

Sissoondy^(n(;...Ae does it parallel. 

Sissoonaynttm ,.,he puts it parallel. 
Oosam . . . over-much. 

Ooskmetow ,,,he overdoes it. 
N aspkch . . . wrong. 

Ne }^isptLchooskdk,.,he thwarts me. 
lsae,,.( sometimes It-) so, A relative particle of manner; it 
is also a generic noun, signifying manner, wise, &c. 

Isse;tt2m...he so sees it. Anglice^ it so appears to him. 

Isse^ow...he so does it. 

ltdtissu.,.he so acts (morally). 
Itt^. . . there^ thither. In composition a relative particle of place 
(Fr. y, Ital. ci); also a generic nowi signifying place. 

lt[num,.,he thither does it (with the hand). 

l^skum...he thither mis^moves it. 
W^skutch . . .formerly. 

We8kutchi«^uA;...^Ae^ are old. 
Qdiusk . . . straight. 
' Qm(jL^issu.,.he is straight 

Quiiisketofr...Ae straightens it. 
Peyche . . .hitherward. 

P6yshooAayoo...Ae brings him. 

V^jXJtom ...he brings it 
Ass^che . . .backwards. 

Asskttissahwdyoo...he sends, drives him back. 

A9S^ttdhmahgun...it repels it. 
D 



34 A GRAMMAR OF 

Simmutz . . .perpendicular. 
Simmuti»«w...*c erects it (with the hand). 

tVide Special Transitive, and Relative Verbs.] 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

A'8sitche...also. 
A'88it-ihtim...he puts it to, or with it (quasi, he obo-eth it). 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Ooche...o^ from, hy, also with (instrument). 
Ooch-'koo, (neut)...he is, or proceeds, from. 
06*etow (trans.)... he educes it, i.e. makes it. 
OdcAehayoo...he /rom-eth, hindereth him. 
Odfinum...he/rom-hand-eth-it, i.e. takes it 
P^eche... within, in the inside. 
P^«^enum...he puts it tit. 
P^etohiim...he thrusts it in. 
Fiechm\xm...he puts it in the inside. 
Uttimik . . .underneath. 

EA/Jmahtim...he thrusts it under it 
Sapoo.. .through. 
6'^poosoo...he is passed ^Arot/gA (e.g. by medicine). 
5^po0num...he puts it through 
Kitheekow ... among. 

Kitheekowent^m (act)...Ae puts it among. 
T&kootch...upon. 

Ke gah t&kootches^^A mistik ... he will mii'OCt (come) 
upon yotiy the tree. 
W&ska... around. 

Ne Wkakinht...! surround, enclose it (by hand). 
Ne W&skan&WKWt (refl.).../ surround myself (with some- 
thing). 

INTERJECTIONS. 
Interjections and intensive expressions also furnish 
Attributive Verbs. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 35 

Keeam !...very well ! be it so ! 

Keamiaw, or Keeameoiv...Ae is still, quiet. 

Kkeaxniasu.,.he is still-ish (not dimin.), tranquil. 

K^eaxnkewissu.,.he is peaceful (disposition). 
Awk and Ike (I^ before a vowel)...inten8ativeiMrefixe8. 

Awkoo...very stnmgly. AwkooMi...he is very ill 

I^... forcibly. Iket6w.,.ke fimu, Axes it. 



Section II. 
Of the Root and Affix. 

The verb, even in its most simple state, intransitive 
as well as transitive, consists of two parts or members, 
namely, the Root^ and the AffiXy or characteristic ter- 
mination. 



1. OF BEING. 
l'6fv,,,he or it is, I is the Root, ow the Affix, and so of 
the rest. 



2. OF CIRCUMSTANCE. 

S6ys6yk-tiit. . M hail«. 

Th6ot-tn. ..it hlovrs. Sec. &c 



3. OF QUALITY. 
Nupp6ck-t«^ .„he is flat* 
Ndppuck-Ofp...*^ is flat. 

D 2 



36 A GRAMMAR OF 

Nuppiick-e500...A« is flatted. 

Nupptick-etoyoo...t/ is flatted. 

Pimmee... melted fat^ grease. 

Timm^fvoo,..he is greasy. 

Viaaxn^nmn.,.it is greasy. 

Pimmee-fvmoo. ..he is greasy-e^^ ( Angl.— greased^ anointed). 

Vimm^wetat^...it is greast^-ed. &c &c. 



4. OF ENERGY, &e. 
W4pp-ti (=w4ppe-oo) . . .he see*. 
Wipp^magun...it see*. 
A'pp-ti (=4ppe-ao)...Ae sit*, is at rest. 
Ap^magun...U sit*. &c. Sec. 



5. OF ACTION. 
A^chee-oo...Ae move*. 
A^cb6e-iitagftfit...tV move*. 
P6moot*ayoo...Ae walk*. 

P^moot-ayfiuigtiit...t^ walk*, progresses, goes, as a watch. 

&c. &c. 

6. OF TRANSITION. 
W6eth-ayoo...Ae name* Aim. 
M6eth-ayoo...Ae give* (to) him. 
Pem6ota-Aayoo.. Ae walk* him. 
Pem6ota-tow...Ae progresse/A t/. 
Pem6ota-/(iiiuigtin...t/ progress^A it. 
Pimm6e-f9e-Aay<N)...Aegreas-y-e<A Atm. 
Pimm6e-zpe-toft;...Ae greas-^-e^A tV. 
Pimm^«^-^<^7urgtf It . . . t^ greas-y-e^A it &c. &c. 



7. OF CAUSATION. 
Wd.ppe»A(iyoo...Ae makes him see. 
W&ppe-<<^...A€ makes it see. 



THB CRBE LANGUAGE. 37 

P6mootay-A(£yoo...Ae makes him walk. 
P6mootay-/(^...Ae makes it go. 

Pemootay-<(fmagtfit...t/ makes U go* &c. &c. 

[See Accidence.'^ 

The Affix itself may indeed be considered, generally, 
as also consisting of two parts, namely, the uninfiected 
and the inflected. 

First, — It consists of the uninfiected, or charac- 
teristic vocable or vocables, indicating the manner 
of being, doing, or acting, associated with the root, 
and is analogous in signification and use to the relative 
terms, or the conjugational or other forms, signifying 
to be, to do, cause, make, &c. of which more will be 
said hereafter. 

An enumeration of the consonants of the descriptive 
character alluded to, would extend to almost all that 
are found in the Oree alphabet." They especially 



i* The Cree alphabet is of rather limited extent. The articulate sounds 
of which it is composed may be divided, as in European languages, into 
Yowels and consonants. 

The simple vowel sounds are coextensive with and enounced as those 
in the English language, t. g. 

a (Chip. =ak, Jonbs) as in far, the Italian a. 

d long. 

^ as in awe, law, 

e as in me, see, 

i (=a Jonbs) as a in fate, mate, 

i (short before a consonant) as in pin, thin. 

i before a vowels or final i, is pronounced long, as in mine, 
thine (r=ahy, Jonbs). 

asiuM). 

^ as in foti; (not high), sown, own. 

00 as in moon. 



38 A GRAMMAR OF 

characterize the numerous class of derived transitives, 
and may, in such cases, be said to have some a, general 
and some a special signification. I shall, for the pre- 
sent, confine my notice to the following, viz. ft, *, m, 
w, and th. And first of the h and the t. 

The GENERAL causotive has for its endings (indie. 
3 p. sing,) Adyoo and *6w, and for its constant charac- 
teristic, or energizing sign, the aspirate h (anim.) and 
t (inan.) both of which, used in this sense, b^gin always 
an emphatic or accented syllable. (Chip. -(ft)(fe, ''t6on 
or 'd6(m.) 



u final, as mpwre, endure, or as the pronoun you. 
at and ay as in fair, may, hay. 
But the Gree consonants have a less extensive range than the English, 
and, strictly considered, should perhaps be described as bebnging to the 
class denominated sharp consonants. 

The labials are p and w (oo) and their derivative nasal m. The/ and v 
are wanting. The linguals are th (pronounced as in thin), t, s, st, ts, (t)ch, 
and their nasal n (l and rare wanting — aeeDiaJect). They have the guttural 
k also, to which must be added the aspirate h. I allude here to some of 
the tribes on the coast of the Bay ; those of the interior, as on the Sas- 
kdtchewtm, &c. affect more the jUU series, as th (in this), b, d, z, J, g 
guttural; as do the Chippeways also, as may be seen in the translation 
before mentioned. With all his acknowledged care, however, and general 
orthographical consistency, Mr. JoNBshas sometimes fallen into the use 
of one or the other of these kinds (in the same verb — in the same par- 
ticle), as euphony seemed to guide him. It should be also observed, that, 
on the coast, sh is used for the s of the interior ; sh and zh are also 
very prominent in the Chippeway dialect. See Jones's Translation. 

It may be proper to observe here that the three mutes, viz. the labial h, 
the guttural g, and the lingual d (the first three consonants of the Hebrew, 
&c. alphabets), with th (which I assume to be their common Radix, Vide 
infra), are sometimes denominated in this treatise |>rfmf/t&e consonants ; 
and their sharp cognates p, k, t, with the rest of the vocables belonging 
to these three several classes, are called their derivatives. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 39 

Pemootayoo...he walks^ progresses. 
Pemootay-Aayoo... he makes or causes him to walk. 
Pemootay-^6w...he causes it to go, e.g. as a watch. 
W4pp-M...he sees.^^ 
Wipp6'magun,..ii sees. 
Wdppe-A4yoo...he causes him to see. 
Wappe-Aik...he is made to see, (by him or them, def.). 
Wappe-^ow (inan.)...he causes it to see." (See Sec. 3.) 

The GENERAL transitiveh?L8 the same endings as the 
general causative just mentioned, viz. Aayoo for the 
animate object, and tow for the inanimate object, 
but lightly accented in both genders. In this 
(comparatively) unemphatic form, the consonants 
h and t, as well as those others of less general use 
hereunder mentioned, represent the mitigated verbal 
energy of the simple transitive verb, as sometimes 
expressed in English by do, make, -ate, 4ze, -fy, and 
the prefix or the termination en, or by an equivalent 
emphasis, change of accent, &c. 

Th6skon^ ,,,it%s soft. 
Th6sketow...he sofWneth it. 

^« ix. 7. Ke be-wahbeil . . he has hither-seen, 
xii. 40. Che wlthb^m(%(fAsenig (inan. poss. case) . . that they (their 
eyes) should not see. 

1'^ z. 21. Oo dah w^be(A)dfi . . he would have caused him to see. 
ix. 14. Ke w&t^e(h)6d (subj.). . he has made him see. 
iz.l8. Kew^be(A)^ful(iny.subj.indef.). . who hsAheen made to set, 
ix. 17. Ke w4hbe(A)^[Cree,-hi«k] (inv.subj.). . who has made thee see. 

ix. 26. Kah ezhe wlUibe^ditNl (subj. inan.) . . who so has made them 

(eyes) see. 
ix. 30. Ke yiriSDhet6od{id,) . . he has made them (my eyes) see. 

viii. 2. Ke n^hmahd^beA. . he sat down. 

vi. 10. N^mahdahbe(A)^ (imper.). . make them sit down. 

yi. 51. Che i^em^ie%ehdhg(kug)wah (subj.). . that I make them live. 



40 A GRAMMAR OF 

Kinwofw ..M is long. 
Kiiiwootow...he lengtheneth it. 

Kitteemdhkif^ „.keis poor. 

Kitteem&hkeAayoo...he makes him poor^ im^verisheih. him. 

Miibkwdw..,It is red, 
Mithkootaw,,,He reddens it. 

Kissewa^ii ,.,keis angry. 

KissewdAayoo...he makes him angry ^ irritales him. 

K6esquaycN>...Ae is insane^ mad. 
K6esquayAayoo...he maddens^ makes him mad. 

K6esquaypaycN>...Ae is drunk (insane with drinking). 
KeesqfiaypayAayoo...he inehnaies him^ intoxica/ei him. 

Nipptt...^e is dead. 

J!^ipp^fvissu,..ke isdead^like, ashamed. 

NippeweAayoo...he does him dead-like, wor^f -^^-eth him. 

K6eamfon^.. he is quiet. 

K^eameAayoo...he quiets, tames, paci-/^-eth him. 

Sake^yoo (anim. object)... he lovex him. 
S4ketow (inan. object)... he love^ it^^ 

068eAayoo...he make^ him. 
06setow ... he make^ it. 

Pem6otaAayoo...he waXketk him. 
Pem6ota<ow...he progresse^^ it 

18 T. 20. Oo zlilikeoii Cindic. anim.) . . he loveth him. 
xii. 25. Sahyahge^oocl (subj. inan. flat, vowel) . . who he loveth it. 

iv. 1. 06zheod (subj. anim.) . . that he made him or them. 

ix. 11. Oo ge 6ozhe^oon (inan.). . he has educed, made, it. 

xviL 4. Nim ge kezhe^oon*-*/ have finished it. 

ii. 15. Kah doshecfoocKsubj.). . that he made t^ 

iv. 34. xvii. 4* Che gizhetooyon (subj.) . . that I finish it, 

xii. 25. Oo gah wihnetoon . . he shall lose it. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 41 

The following, also, among others, change hayoo, 
their animate^ into tow^ their inanimate object form. 
W(ixmehaifoo.„he loses him. 
W^xmetom (inan.) ,..ke loses U, or them. 
Mkssehaifoo (anim.)...Ae wrestles^ or handles much^ him. 
M6wutcheAayoo .,he collects them. 
'S6ctiehai^oo,,,he works (at) him, 
KwdsseAayoo...Ae jerks away, carries off suddenly, him, 
Vissitchehai/oo,,,he notices him. 
K&ediehaif00...he begins him, 
Kke8eehai^oo...he finishes him. 
Vbo9ekayoo...he embarks him. 
VJke\xggehayoo,.,he wastes, destroys him, 
AlibutcheAayoo...Af renders useful, him. 
Vkyhdyoo...he waits (for) him, 
Mkjchehayoo,..he consumes, exhausts, him. 
'StLggatchehayoe...he meets, i.e. is aware of, him, 
Fkpehayoo...he laughs at him. 
Nahn6ekache^yoo...Ae harasses, distresses, him. 
W6yre(L8sehayoo.,.he circumvents, disappoints, him. 
KitteemsihayGO..,he ill-uses him. 
Chee8eehayoo,,,he deceives, cheats, him, 
MirmsLhayoo,..he gives him drink. 
Kitteemdhke^^oo...A# makes him poor. 
M6ohe^^oo...Ae teases him. 

Mis8ehayoo..,he disgraces him, brings into disfavour. 
K^esoo^yoo ,,he warms him. 
V^yshoohayoo,..he brings him (inan. p6ytaw).^^ 
Note, — The inanimate t is, in some of the derived forms of the 
verb, softened into its derivative (t)ch. See Sect 3. 



w X. 16. Nin gah h6n6g . . I will bring them, 
vii. 45. Ke hendhsewaig (neg. subj.) . . that ye have not brought him 
Oo betoon*«*Ae brings it, 
xix. 39. Ke hetood (subj.) . . (he) brought it, ' 
V. 3. V6etoowod (subj. plu. inan.) . . who waited for it. 



42 A GRAMMAR OF 

Another simple transitive form, which, with regard 
to the extent of its use, may be esteemed of secondary 
or subordinate rank, has t for its characteristic , in both 
genders, making -tayoo (anim.), and -turn (inan.), in 
their respective third persons.*® 
Nfigga*toyoo...he leav-eth him. 
Niiggaphim ... he leav-eth it 
N&ht-foyoo...he feteh-eth him. 
N&ht-ton...he fetch-eth it. 
Goos-^ayoo...he feareth him. 
Goos-^um...he feareth it. 

06t6et-toyoo...he reach-eth^ attain-eth (to) him. 
06t6et-^um...he reacheth (to) it> arriveth at it. 
Ketdo..,ke speaks ; /^ayoo...he so says.-^ 
lttd^oo,..ke so says (to) him. 
lUum (inan.).. he so says of, means, it, 
T^pwk'taifoo.,,ke calls aloud (to) him. 
lJ^ttoo~ta^oo,..he engages him, 
Me!tk'tayoo,..he longs for him, 
Puekwah-/ayao...Ae hates him. 
Tdot'tum (inan.)... he does it. 

Tbot'tawayoo (dot.)... he does it to him. 

30 z. 12. Oo ndhgahnon . . he leaveth him or them. 
viii. ix. ndhgahnoA (inv. indie, indet.) . . he was Itft 

iv. 62. Oo ge nlihgahne^oon (mv. indie. determ). . he was left (by it). 
iv. iii. Oo ge n^gahc^em . . he left it. 

31 i. 21. Ke ^edoo (neut. indie, anim.) . . he hath said. 
i. 38. 41. Ekeddomahgud (id. inan.) . . it says. 

vii. 16. Ke ^edood (subj. anim.) he has said, 
vii. 38. Kah iked6omahguk (subj. inan.) . . as t/ (the Scripture) hath 
said. 

V. 6. Oo ke endin (tran. anim,). . he said to him (or them). 
ii. 21. andxi. 13. Kah edt^n^ (subj. inan.) . which he spoke of. 
xvi. 18. A^di^ (subj. inan. flat. voweL) . . id. 
The conversions of the consonants in this verb give it the appearance 
of being the most irregular in the Chippeway dialect. (See Accidence.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 43 

There is a second form in the same class, viz. 
-fayoo (anim.), -tow (inan.). 

K&ht-toyoo...he hideth him. 
K&hWow...he hideth it 
O'wut-<ayoo...he gathers them together. 
O^wut-toz0...he amasses or heaps it or them together. 
K^too-toyoo...he makes a noise at him^ i.e. he chides him. 
K^too-tow...he sounds it, as a musical instrument. 

A third transitive form has for its characteristic , m 
(anim.), and t (inan.) making -mayoo and 4um.^ 
W4pp-tt...he see-eth. 
Wippa-fiiayoo...he see-eth him. 
Wippa-^um ... he see-eth it. 
Ooche-9itayao...Ae kisses him. 
T&k&-ma^oo„.he stabs him. 
W^gee-mayoo...Ae lives with him. 
A^8SSL-mayoo...he gives him to eat^ feeds him. 
Weepim-moyoo...^ lies with him or her, also figurat. 
U^cke-9iiayoo...Ae counts him. 
U^ckooche-iiiayoo...Ae suspends him in water. 
Mdska-moycx). .he takes it from him. 
TkhkoO'mai/oo...he is related to him. 
Weetuppee-m«ycN>...^ sits with him, co-sits him. 
A^che-moycN). . . he relates him. (A\6otum, inan. ) 
Tab^che-maycN>...^erelates^ narrates, him, circumstantially.^ 



» i. 29. 47. Oo ge w&hbahmon . . he saw him (or them), 
xi. 9. Oowhihbwidon . . he seeth it. 

ii. 24. Oo geldkaemon . . he knew them. 
ii. 25. Oo gek6and(m . . Ae knew it, 
^ i. 34. Mn ge debkhjemoil . . I have related, narrated, Attn, 
vii. 7. Nin debkhdoodtm . . I narrate it. 

i. 15. Oo ge debdhjenton . . he narrated Mm. 
V. 33. Oo ge teb^dooc^ . . he narrated it. 



44 A GRAMMAR OF 

Also, togethei: with its compounds,** 

i^-^themayoo (amm.)...he so thinks him. (See Sect. 4.) 
/if-6thetum (iiiaii.)...he so thinks it. 

As 

M6tho-^themayao...Ae well-thinks^ esteems^ him, 
M^o-6the/ttm ,.he approves it. 
Kisk-6thefftayG0...Ae knows him. 
Math-^emoyoo. . . he despises him. 
Pissisk-6thefiuiyoo...Ae notices him. 
Kunnaw-^eifiafycN>...Ae keeps, takes care of^ him. 
Cheek-ethemaycN>...Aelikes^ values^ him. 
Untow-6them^cN>...Ae looks for, seeks^ him. 
Kwaytow-^themoyoo...^ is at a loss what to think of him. 
M^toon-^emayoo...Ae thinks (on) him. 

^ zxi. 25. Mfuf en-ldndum (neut.) ..1 so think. 

ATtftcT en-^emaft (trans, anim.). . J so think him. 
NintT en-^ndon (inan.). . I so think it. 

iii. 19. Oo ge minw-kindahnakwah . . they liked, approved of, it. 
^. 29. Mdnw-aindun^n (subj. plural) . . which he approves. 

vii. 29. Nin kek-inemail . . J know him. 
inii. 14. Nffi kek-ldndoft . . I know it. 

ii. 24. Oo kek-inemon . . he knew him or them. 
ii. 25. Oo kek-ldndoft . . he knew i^ 

▼ii. 4. Oon dndahw-dinclbit . . he seeks »/. 

iv. 27. A'indahw.ldn(iaAmfm (subj. flat, vowel) . . which thou seekest. 

ii. 10. Ke ge g6ihmhW'(indon . . thou hast kept t^ 

vi. 29* Che t&pway-4nemat^ (subj.) . . that ye think him true, beheve 

on him. 
iv. 50. Oo ge tllpway-6in(2oft . . he beheves it. 

iv. 27. Oo ge mdhmahkahd-ldneme^oofi (inverse def.) . . he was mar- 
velled at (by him or them). 
vii. 21. ICe ge m^hmahkahd-&in<lom . . ye have marvelled at it. 

vii. 43. Pdp&hkon ke ahyen-dnema^ocf . . . qu. diff-difierently they 

thought him. 
X. 24. Ka gwinahw-dindahmoo(A)^o«^ (cans, subj.) . . . wilt thou 

lack-to-think make us. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 45 

M4hmetoon-6themayao...^ coi^templatet km. 
Tab-^emayao...Ae governs, director him. 
Kitteem^-^emoyoo...^ thinks him poor^ compassionates 

him. 
Mdhmuskdt-^thenuiyoo (act) he thinks wonder^ is 

astonished (at) him. 
Kist-6them£ryoo...Ae thinks much of^ respects him, 

A fourth transitive form has w (anim.) , and h (inan.) , 
for its transitive signs, making -wayoo and -hum. 
Oot6mma-fvayoo ..he beat^eth him. 
Oot6mma-Amn...he beat-eth it. 
(Oot6mmaheggun...a hammer^ tomahawk.) 
P6ckama-fvayoo...he knock-eth^ cudgel-eth him. 
P6ckama-Aum...he knock-eth it 
(P6ckamoggun...a club or cudgel.) 

The inanimate gender of the following verbs also is 
formed by changing -wayoo into "hum. 

Uckwdnnaivayoo...^ covers him* 

UckwunnaAum...Ae covers it. 

K&asewai^oo...ke wipes him. 

Ktaaehum .,,he wipes it. 

PistafvayGO...Ae mis-strikes him. 

Uppan^ayoo...Ae opens him. 

KippauMiyoo.. he shuts him. 

^6\kmayoo...he does short of him. 

Ndspittaiva^oo...Ae resembles him. 

V^Ua,ivayoo...he misses him, as in shootings striking, &c. 

Kiskinahfimmati'ayoo...Ae shews, instructs, him. 

Pinmiittissahtt;ayoo...Ae follows him. 

Pds8istahz0ayoo...Ae whips him. 

K&iookB,'wayoo...he visits him. 

M^y8ahfvayoo...he mends, patches, him. 

Nutt6pott;afyoo...Ae asks drink of him. 

Itissahzvoyoo (relat)...Ae sends him thither. 

N4htawayoo. .he fetches him (by water). 

Kittumwoyoo.. Je finishes (eats up) him. [Kittaa>, inan.^ 



46 A GRAMMAR OF 

Miskawoyoo. . . he finds kitn. (Miskum^ inan. obj. )^ 

ChkeBlts.wayoo...he pierces him, 

P6cku8t6wevMiyao...Ae puts him in the water. 

M6tchoostayxi7ayao...Ae puts him in the fire. 

Kdskdska»ay(w...Ae scrapes him, 

M6onawayoo. . . he digs him. 

MootDayoo...Ae eats him (inan. obj. M6ecb«)«^ &c. &c. 

The last vocable to be noticed here, is that expres- 
sed by iA, of more rare occurrence, as an energetic 
element, than perhaps any other. It appears, also, 
in primitive verbs at least, to be of a more feeble 
character. 

W^e^Aayoo (anim.)...he names him. 
W6e/um (inan.)... he names or tells it^ 

W6e^mmawayoo (dat. case)... he tells it to him. 



^ i. 45. Oo ge mikshwon [Cree, mi^kahwoyoo] (indie, anim.) . . he 
found Mm. 
z. 9. Che mikdnff [Cree, misk^] (subj. inan.) . . that he find it. 

M vi. 57. Am6od (mv. subj.) . . (he) who eateth me, 
vi. 61. M6}id (subj.) . . if Ae eat t/. 
vi. 23. M4}ewod (subj.) . . that they did eat t^ 
yi. 26. Ke m4}eyaig (subj.) . . that ye had eaten it. 
vi. 66. M6hjfrf (subj.) . . {he) who eateth it, [See Augment. Sec. 3] 

^ xvii. 26. Nin gah w^endon . . I will tell it. 
iv. 44. Oo ge w^ndofi . . he told t^. 
iii. 11. Ne wSendahnon . . we (I. 3.) tell it. 
iii. 8. Ke tah wienddhzeen (neg.) . . thou canst not tell t^ 
viii. 14. Ke dah wienddhzeuahwah (neg.; ye cannot tell it. 
xvii. 26. Nin ge w^ndahmo^o^ (dat.). . I have told t^ to them. 
iv. 39. Nf» ge w^endahmojr (inv.) . . Ac has told t* to me. 
iv. 26. Nin gah w^endahm(%ocmoji (inv. 1. 3.) he will tell «* to «* . 
iii. 12. Ke w4endBhm6oimahgoog (subj.) ..(if) I tell it to yem. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 47 

M^ygu (accus.)...he gives him, or it.« 
M^^^yoo (dat)...he gives (it to) him (oblique s^isc in the 
direct form.) 

Also, 

K'thkyoo (anim.)...he places or puts him. ^ 

Ast6w (inan.)...he places or puts it. 
This is a generic verb. Though irregular as to 
the root, it is, together with its compounds, regular 
in its inflections, following those of the form before 
mentioned, viz. hayoo and tow. 

U^ckoo<Aayoo...he hang^ (places) him up. 

U^ckoo^ow...he hang« it up. 

Tiickoo/Aayoo...he on-puts, i.e. adds him. 

Tuckoo^ow...he add^ it 



^ i. 17. Oo ge m^ewom . . he has given it, 
iii. 16. Oo ge M4gewanun (possess, case). . he has given his him. 
vi. 61. Ka migewaydn (subj.) . . which I will give, 
vi. 33. M^gewoic^ (subj.) . . (he) which giveth it. 
xiv. 27. M6gewawod (subj.) . . (as) they give. 
X. 11. Oo m4gewktahmahwon (dat) . . he gives it for them. 

iii. 35. Oo ge m6n6n . . he hath given (it) to him. 

X. 28. Ne m6nog . . I give Qt) unto them. 

iv. 14. Ka m^ntt^r (subj.) . . which I shall give (to) him. 

xvii. 2. Ke m6nud (subj.) . . (as) thou hast given (to) him. 

Che m4n6d (subj.) . . that he give (it to) him or them. 
iii. 27. M6nind (mv. subj. indet.) . . that he be given rto). 

^ (Chip. Ood* dhson, anim. — Ood' ^t6on, inan.) 
xi. 34. Ke Qiaaig ? (subj.). . ye have placed him? 
XX. 13. Ke Hkmhwahgwain (subj. dubit.) . . they have placed him, 
XX. 15. Ke hik^ahwahd{wud)ain(\di.) . . thou has placed him. 

ix. 15. Oo ge dh^dbn (inan.) . . he put, or placed, it. 
xiii. 4. Oo ge dh^dbmm . . he had placed them (garments), 
xix. 29. Ke &hfo<nf;oi(subj.). . they put it, 
xiii. 2. Ke dhtooc? (subj.) . . he had put it. 



48 A GRAMMAR OF 

AfssewuMayoo...he puts him into a bag. 
A^ssewut<^...he puts it &c. 

These energizing signs, however, though appearing 
in many cases, when compared with the English cor- 
responding terms, to be mere indications of transition, 
are oftentimes essentially distinctive^ presenting diffe- 
rent modifications of the action qualifying the root, 
as from 

Weeche (used in composition)... n^i^^ cO'. 
W6eche-Aayoo...he co-operates, co-acts him. 
Weeche-n;ayoo...he accompanies him. 

(See Sect. 3, Special Trans.) 

When the root and its characteristic ending do not 
readily coalesce, as is frequently the case in derivative 
verbs, they are connected by means of a vowel, which 
is also sometimes distinctive, sometimes perhaps 
euphonic. In the following examples, the connecting 
vowel is distinctive. 

Nipp-(^z(;...Ac sleeps; nipp-^-hayoo...he lulls or puts him to 

sleep, qu. he en-sleeps him (Fr. il I'en-dort). 
Nipp-u...Ae is dead ; nipp-^-hajoo...he dead-ens (kills) him. 

Of the intransitive verbs there are, as we have 
already seen, several kinds. The following summary 
comprises the chief of their several terminations, with 
their modifications in the same (third) person of the 
subjunctive mood, and in both genders. 

1. SUBSTANTIVET VERBS. 
AssinneewGo (subj. -wit)., he is stoney, of stone, from assin^ 

nee, a stone. 
Assinneen^un (-wak)...t7 is of stone. 



THB CREB LANGUAGE. 49 

Aasinneeskow (^skdh)... stone aboundi. 
Mechim-appwoo-^(xyao j(-A»i/)...meat-liquOT (broth) maket^ 
he. 



2. ADJECTIVE VERBS. 

T&issu {'issif)...he is cold (to the touch). 
T^ikow ('^k)..M is cold. 

Kinwootu ('Sit)...he is long, tall. 
Kinwofv (•'dk),^M is long. 

A^themtfiti (-^issk) he is difficult, cross^ perverse. 
A^themun (-dk) it is difficult, grievous, hard. 

K^eam'issu ('issit),„heis tranquil, quiet 
Keeamitvissu ('ewissU),*.he is of & jpeacefid disposition. 

See Sec. S, Augment. 

ACCIDENTAL (PASS,) VERBS. 

Kwiski^joo ("issooi),. he is tamed over. 
Kwiske^oyoo (-etaik) .,M is turned over. 

Makwoof 00 ('Sooi) .,.heis pressed* 
Makwooiayoo (''taik)..M is pressed. 



4. IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

N^ptn (-^k)...t^ is summer. 
P6poon (-^)...i< is winter. 
Ispiittinoff (-ak)...t/ is a high hill. 
Pimmichexwin (-&k).. it flow*, as water. 



5. NEUTER VERBa 

These may be classed under seven conjugations. They 
take -magun in their inanimate form. 



50 A GRAMMAR OF 

A'ppa (-t7)...he sit*. 
App6magun ('msLgdk),,,U sits. 
A^cheoo (-e<)...Ae move^. 
Acti^magun (-mag^iA:) it move^ . 
Nipp(5w (-a/) .,he sleeps. 
Kusk^thetum ('dk)..,he is impatient. 
P6otlioo (-00^)... Ae leave* off, ceases. 
Tiiekoostn (-eek),.. he arrives (by land). 
P^moot«yoo (-ait).,, he walk*. 

These verbal terminations, generally, and their cha- 
racteristic letters, will however fiimish a subject for 
separate consideration hereafter. 

Secondly, — ^The inflected, or personal, &c. part, 
which comprises (together with the accessories, case 
and gender) aU the usual accidents of voice, mood, 
tense, &c. in the definite and indefinite, positive, suppo- 
sitious and doubtful (and, in the Chlppeway, negative) 
forms. This part of our subject will be fiilly de- 
veloped hereafter. See Accidence, &c. 



In the view that has been taken of the Affix, the 
notice on the inflected or personal portion of it has 
been confined to the third person ; there exists, 
however, in the relative position, &c. of the personal 
signs, when in combination with the verb, a pecu- 
liarity of arrangement and structure, which requires 
particular observation. 

It has been stated, that the Affix expresses the per- 
sonal and other accidents of the verb. This principle 
must be understood with some limitation. The first 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 51 

and second persons singular of the indicative mood 
depart from this rule, and, in an abridged form, precede 
the verb. The following observations will, perhaps, 
place this in an intelligible point of view. 

In the English language, we say " I see him," and 
we express the grammatical converse of the phrase, 
'Vhe sees me," by the transposition of the pronouns, 
with certain modifications of their form and of the verb. 
The Indian system will not admit of this operation. 
The relative position of their pronouns is fixed and 
unalterable. The second person, be it agent or patient, 
has always precedence of the first. In like manner, the 
first and second persons in aU their relations, direct 
and oblique, have precedence of the third. Ex. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (See Accidence.) 

N^tha...Ne (Nef or 'Nt before a vowel), /. 
K6tha...Ke (Kef before a vowel), thou, 
W^tha...Oo (Oof before a vowel), he, she, or it 

1. The first and second persons always stand before 
the {sign of the) thirds be they agent or patient, as 
under. 

J[Note, — The form which, in the arrangement of its personal 
members, is analogous to the English phrase, will be denominated 
the DIRECT ; and that which presents the inverted English phrase, 
the INVERSE form: an attention to this distinction, and to the 
remarks just made, will greatly tend to a dear apprehension of the 
paradigms of the verb^ hereaHer given at large. See Accidence.'l 

Ne Nippahoft^ (dir.).../ kill-Atm. 
Ne Nlppaht^ (inv.)...(fHe killeth-Ae) he kills me. 
£ 2 



52 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ne niidw (dir.).../ fetch-Atm. 

^e nd/iA: (inv.)...(me fetcheth-A«,) he fetches me.^ 

^ Neen, or Nin. . Ne (Nind* before a vowel) /. 
Keen. . Ke (Ked' before a vowel) thou. 
Ween. . Oo (Ood' before a vowel) he, she, or it. 

DIRECT. 

1. 34. Nin ge dehkh]emah . . I have related him, 

vii. 29. Nin kekdnemaft . . I know him. 

vi. 44. Nin gah b^zegw^denoA . . I will raise him up. 

i. 34. Nin ge w&hbahmaA . . I have seen him. 

xiv. 21. Nin gah B&bkeah . . I will love him. 

xii. 21. Newe wkhbahmaAnon . . we would (want to) see him. 

xvii. 10. Nin d^banemo^ . . I govern them. 

zvii. 26. Nin ge w^ndahmahwo^ . . I have told (it to) ^A^m. 

xviii. 20. Nin ge gidinoono^ . . I have spoken (to) them. 

xvii. 12. Mi» ge k4hnahwanemo^ . . I have kept^ taken care of them, 

z. 16. Nin gah b^no^ . . I will bring them. 

X. 28. JNie m^no^ . . J give (to) them. 

X. 14. M» kek^emo^ . . I know them. 

xvi. 33. Nin ge sh&hgoojeo^ . . I have overcome them. 

INVBRSB. 

viii. 29* New^^w»^..me accompany-eth-^, i.e. he accompanieth 

me, and so of the rest. 
iv. 39* Nin ge w^ndahmo^ . . he has told it to me. 
V. 37. Nin ge teb&hjem^ . . he has related me. 
vi. 45. Ne hiuihzekdhgoog . . they come (to) me. 
vii. 29* viii. 42. Nin ge dhnoon^ . . he hath sent me. 
ix. 11. Nin geig ..he has said (unto) me. 

vii. 7. Ne zh^ng&neme^oon . . it hateth me. 
viii. 18. Nin deb^jemt^ . . he narrates me. 
xii. 26. Nin gah ndopenahnt^ . . he shall follow me. 
xii. 49* Nin ge m^nt^. . he hath given (to) me. 
xiii. 20. Mfuf ooddhpent^ . . he taketh me. 

iv. 25. Mn gah w^endahm^oonon . . he will tell us (1. 3.) 

y. 45. Nin gah ^nahmem^oonofi . . he will accuse f» (1. 3.) 

viii. V. Nin ge ^ffoonon . . he has said to us (I. 3.) 

X. 27. JVe ndopen&hne^oo^ . . they follow me. 

vi. 45. Ne h^^n&hieVdhgoog . . they come to me. 

XV. 24. Ntngewdhbahm^ootiaAn^ . . they have seen us (1.3.) 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 53 

Ne w4ppainon; (dir.).../ see-Atm. 

Ne w^ppamtA: (inv.)...(Ital. mi vede, me see-eth-Atf) he 
see-eth me. 

So also with the second person, Ke, as 

Ke nitow (dir.)... Mow fetchest-Am. 

Ke nktik (inv.)...(/Aee fetcheth-^e,) he fetches theeJ^ 

Ke wippamon; (dir.)...^Aotf seest-Atm. 

Ke w^ppamtA: (inv. Ital. H vedc.theeseeth-he), he sees thee. 



DIRECT. 

^1 ix. 35. Ke t^pway&nemaA . . thou believest (on) him. 
viiL 57. Ke ke wkhhahmah . . thou hast seen him. 
iv. 10. Ke tah ge unddotoAmaAtoaA (dat.) . . thou mightest have asked 

it of him. 
X. 36. Ked' endhwah . . ye say (of, or to) him. 
xiv. 7. iTe ke wdhbahmaAK^aA . . ye have seen him. 

Ke kekanemaAu^aA . . ye know him. 
vii. 27. Ke kekanema^non . . we (1. 2.) know him. 
xvii. 9. iTe debdnemo^ . . thou govemest (art master of) them. 
XXX. 6. Ke kah mikdihyrahwog . . ye will find ^Aem. 

INVERSE. 

xi. 28. Ke nund6omi^ . . thee caUs-he, i.e. he calls thee, smd so of 

the rest, 
xi. 22. Ke dah ment^ . . he will give (to) thee. 
vii. 22. Ke ge m^negoowah . . he has given (to) you 

V. 45. ITe^ &hnahmem^oou;a& . he accuseth you. 

vii. 47. jKc wdhyazheej^oom . . they (Ft. on) deceive you. 

viii. 32. Ke gah p&hgeden^oona^u^aA . . he will let go you. 

viii. 33. 36. Ke gah pdhgeden^oom . . they TFr. on) will set you free. 

xii. 35. Ke w4]ewigoonahwah . . it accompanieth you. 

xvi. 14. Ke gah w^hbundah^oowoA . . he wiU show it to you. 

xvi. 23. Ke gah m6negoowah . . he will give it to you. 

XV. 20. iTe gah kdodahge (ft) ^oowo^r . . they will persecute you. 

XV. 21. Ke gah (oonje) t6odaA|^ooti;o^ . . they will do to you. 

xvi. 6. iTc m6oshkenashk(fA^oo7MrAii7aA . . it filleth yow. 



54 A GRAMMAR OF 

2. The second person (Ke) always stands before the 
{sign of the) first, as, 

Ke nippahtn (dir.),..th(m killest-me. 

Ke nippahf«m (iny.)...Cthee kill-/^ / kill thee.^ 

Ke ndstn (dji,).,,thou fetchest-m^. 

Ke nktUtin (iny.)...Cthee fetch-/^ / fetch thee. 

Ke yfkppamin (dir.).../Aau seest me. 

Ke w4ppamt//t» (Ital. ti yedo..,tkee see-/) / see thee. 



DIRECT. 

^ xxi. 15. Ke s&bgeh ? . . thou lovest me. 
xvii. 6. Ke ke m6em:h . . thou hast given (to) me, 
xiii. 36. Ke gah nSopenuzh . . thou shalt follow me. 
xvii. 24. £e s^ge^ . . thou lovest me. 
vii. 28. Ke kekdnemtm . . ye know me. 
v. 46. £e tah ge tdpwatahwtm . . ye would have believed me, 
viii. 21. £e gah tindahw&nemtm . . ye wiU seek me, 
viii. 49. Ke b^penooddhwim. . ye dishonour (laugh at) me. 
xiii. 13. Ked' ezh^nek^zhtm . . ye call (name) me, 
xiv. 19. Ke w^bahmtm . . ye see me. 
XV. 27* Ke gah teb^jemim . . ye wUl relate me. 
xvi. 16. Ke kah w^bahmim . . ye will see me. 

£e kah wdhbahmeseem (neg.) . . ye will not see me. 
XV. 27. £e ke (be-oonje) w^j^wtm. . ye have (hitherto) accompanied me, 

INVERSE. 

xvi. 25. Ke ke kekibiemin . . thee have known- J^ and so of the rest, 

I have known thee, 
i. 48. HCe ke wdhbahmtn . . I have seen ^Aee. 
xi. 27. Ke tdpwayinemtn . . I believe on thee. 
iii. 11. Kef enin. . I say (to) thee. 

xiv. 12. and iv. 35. KedT en^mm . . J say (to) you. 

xiii. 34. Ke m^nentm . . I give (to) you. 

iv. 38. Ke ke ^hnoonentm . . I have sent you. 

vii. 33. JTe w^j^wenim . . I accompany you. 

vii. 37. Ke kekdnementm . . I know you. 

xvi. 22. Ke gah w4hbahmentm . . I will see you. 



THE CRBB LANGUAGE. 55 

In the preceding examples, the grammatical position 
of the personal signs reix^dns the same, although the 
(abbreviated) pronouns Ne I and Ke thou, be nomi- 
native and accusative, or subject and object ^ altematdy. 
So also with the oblique cases. 

Ne nippalowofv (anim.).../ kill-(Afm)^/br-Afin. 
Ne nip]^atv>dk (id.)... me kill-(hiiD)^/2)r^-Ae^ L e. ke kills him 
for me. 

Ne nAtowofv ,,.I £etch'{him)-for'kim, 

Ne nittvdk, , .me fetch- (him)-for,-^e, i.e. he fetches him far me. 

Ne mi^i^klamawaw (inan.).../ kill-(i/)^/or him. 
Nemppitamdk (id.)... me kill-(it)-;/br,-Ae, i.e. he kills it 
for me. 

Ne nktamorvow...! fetch-(t^)^/br-Aiiii. 

Ne nAtamdk...mefeitch~(it)-for,~he, i.e. he fetches it for me. 

£e nlppa^fi/Oftrm (anim.)... thou ki)lest-(^iin)^/br-97te. 
Ke nippatnfdtin (id.)... thee kill-(^tm)-for^-/> i.e. / kill Asm 
for thee. 

Ke nkttvotvin...thou fetchest (him) for me. 

Ke nkdtvdt%n...thee fetch-(^«»i)-for,-/,i.e. /fetch him far thee. 

Ke m^i^ktamomin {jnsxi.)...ihou kille&t-(t<)^;/br-97te. 
Kevii^i^ktamcUin (id.) ... thee kill-(it)far,^l, i.e. /fetch it 
far thee. 

Ke nktamotvin...thou fetchest-(t^)<^/br-me. 

Ke Tiiktamatin...thee £etch'(it)'for,'I, i.e. / fetch it for thee.^ 

DIRECT. 

^ viii. 3. Oo q6 hidahmahwdhwon (anim.) they brought him or her to 
him. 
ix. 13. Oo g€ h4ezhew4ddhmakwdhtDon . . they brought Mm to him 
or them. 

iv. 16. [A^we unddom . . go call thou him.'] 

iv. 10. Ke tah g^ \md6otahmahwah . . thou wouldest have asked it qf 
(to) him. 



56 A GRAMMAR OF 

It will be observed that, in both the animate and 
inanimate forms, the inserted syllable (the sign of the 
oblique relation) (rf which the constant letters in these 
and similar examples are w and its cognate, m, respec- 
tively, is aUke found in the Direct and Inverse forms. 



xvii. 15. Che (m^ 6ihgw9jaahmdhwahdwah (subj.) . . that thou hold it 
to (from) them. 

XX. 23. Afkoonahmdhwdgwdin (dub.) . . (whomsoever) ye shall with- 
draw it to (Jrom) them. 

XX. 23. Mwn}4menakndkwdigwdin (id.) . . (whomsoever) ye shall 
hold it to them. 

iv. 33. Oo g€ hitahmahwon . . he has brought it for him. 

xii. 2. Ke 6o^etdhmakwahwod (subj.) they made it for him. 

XV. 13. Che ^p&tigedmahmahwod (subj.) that he should loose t^ for 
n$m. 

INVBRSB. 

X. 3. OoniOo^ esUikoona^ma^oon (inv.). . it is opened/or Mm. 
xiv. 2. Ke tab g^ w^ndoAfnooRtm . . I would have told it to you. 
xiv. 2. Ket ahwe wahwdsheta&moomm . . I go prepare it for you. 
xiv. 3. A^hwe wd^wizhett^imoondhgoog (subj.) . . (if) I go prepare it 

for you. 
xviii. 39* Che bfihgedina&mootu%oo^ (subj.). . that /loose him to you. 

NEGATIVE DIRECT. 

ii. 24. Oo g4 h^gedinahmahwdhs^ . . fte did not loose it (his body) 

to them. 
iii. 11. Kef oot&bibenahmdhwes^in ... ye take it not to (from) 

U8 (1. 3.). 
iii. 32. Oof ootUhpendhmePiwdhsien . . he taketh t^ not to (from) him. 
viii. 50. Nin* ^dsihwimdahmdhdegoose (refl.) . . I seek it not to miy^ 

self. 
xvi. 23. Ke gah xm^oo^ahmdkweseem . . ye will not ask it to (qf) me. 
xviii. 38. xix. 6. Ne ixi<Quikmahwdhse . . I find it not to (in) him. 

NEUTER. 

xi. 50. N^oofoAtood (subj.) ..Mhe die /or them. 

xi. 51. Che n^aootdhwdhnid (id. possess, case) . . that he die/or them. 

xvi. 2. MncT lUmook^oAwaA . . I work/or him (he wiU think). 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 57 

in the Affix, and that in the latter this relational sign 
is consequently disjoined from its regimen^ the pro- 
nominal prefix. The remark may be extended to 
the auxiliary particles, e.g. ghee (= fef , or ge Jones) 
" have," ga (= gahy or fcoA, Jonbs) " shall or will," 
&c. which, in both these forms, always retain their 
place before the verb. 

Ke ghee natamowin (see p. 55)... thou hast feteh-it-for-me. 
Ke ghee natamatin (id.)... thee have fetch-it-for^-I. 

The exception, here exempUfied, to the rule laid 
down of the affix being the general vehicle of the 
personal accidents of the verb, extends, as already 
stated, to the indicative mood only. In the imperative 
and subjunctive moods, all the expressed pronouns 
accumulate in the aflfcc. See paradigms of the verb. 

The third persons, subject as well as object, are, in 
Oree as already intimated, expressed in the inflected 
part of the Affix in both the direct and inverted, or (as 
regards this " third" person) active:SiiiA passive, forms, 
as, 

Vk^ehayoo,.,he laughs at him, or them (definite). 
Vki^hik,.,he is laughe<^ at by him or them, (definite.) 

T^pw4/ayoo...Ae calli aloud (to) him, 
T^^witik...he is called to by him, &c. Tdef.). 

Kkhtayoo,.,he hide^ him, 

K^ik,,,he is Indden by him, &c. (def.) 

W4ppam(zyoo...Ae aeeth him, 
WdppamtA;...^e is seen by him, &c. (def.) 

Oot6mma«?ayoo ,,,ke heats him. 
Oat6mma,wook„,ke tj beaten by him, &c. (def.) 



58 A GRAMMAR OF 

Kip^m>ayoo„.he ehnU him up. 
Kip]paavook.,.ke is shu/ up by him, &c. (def.). ^ 



^The brevity of this manner of expression is remarkable; the active 
•^00 (Chip, -m), and the passioe -ik or ook (Clup. -egoon or oogoon), axe, 
as above, alike d^ite in their personal signification. The latter can, in 
English, be accurately rendered only by a description — ^by an indefinite 
participle, 9A,heis seen, qualified by a (2^n»^e pronoun with a preposition 
— by him, &c. The ind^nite passive participle will hereafter be foimd 
to have a different form. — ^Vide infra. 

Of the following inverse (definite) forms, those marked * are expressed 
directkf or actively, in the English Original ; the remaining examples only 
are expressed po^nveZ^. 

DIRECT AND INVERSE. — TwO third FeTBOHB. 

ii. 4. xviii. 11. Oo (ge) en<^ (direct) . . he (has) said to him, (her, or 
them,) 

* iv. 9. Oo ge ^goon (inverse). . hehsis been said to by him, her, or them. 
xii. 21. Oo ge ^dwaw^dahmahwahwon (dir. obliq. case) . . they be- 
sought him. 

* vii. 1. Oo ge dndahw&neme^ooft (inv.) . . he was sought by, 4'c. 

iv. 31. Oo ge ezhe dndahwdnemcr^oon (inv.). . he was besought by, ^c. 
zi. 45. Oo ge t&pwayinema^te^on (dir.) . . they believed on Mm, 

* u. 11. viii. 30. Oo ge t£pway£ineme^oon (inv.) . . he was believed on 

hy,Sfc. 

iv. 3. 28. Oo ge n^Jigahdon (dir. inan.) ..heoxsheldi it, 

* iv. 62. Oo ge ndbgahne^ooit (inv. inan.) . . he was left, by it, ^c. 

iv. 52. Oo ge gahgw4jemofi (dir.) . . he asked hkn or them, 

* ix. 2. Oo ge gahgwdjemei^oon (inv.) . . he was asked by, ^c, 

i. 49. ii. 19. Oo ge g^noonon (dir.) . . he spoke (to) him or them, 

* xii. 29. Oo ge k&hnoone^ooit (inv.) . . he was spoken to by, 4*0. 

iii. 35. Oo z&tigeahn (dir.) . . he loveth him, 

V. 20. Oo z&hgeon (dir.) . . he loveth him. 

xiv. 21. Oo gah s&hgeei^ooit (inv.) he shall be loved by, ^c. 

ii. 24. Oo gekdnemon (dir.) . . he knew him or them 
xviii. 15. Oo ge kekdneme^oon . . he was known by, fyc. 

iii. 21. Oo ben^nzekon (dir.) . . he cometh to (him or it)- 

* iii. 26. Oo bendhzeka^^oon (inv.) . . he was come to by, <5*c.. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 59 

In the preterite, and some of the compound tenses, 
however, the Crees prefix the oo or oof of the third 
person, in both the abovementioned forms. See Ac- 
cidence. 

The concurrence of two or more third persons in a 
sentence in different relations, is often an occasion of 
ambiguity, and indeed constitutes one of the leading 



DIRECT. 

XV. 23. Oo sh^englinemoit . . he hateth Mm, 

ii. 10. Oo blilikedenoii . . he looses it, 

xxi. 13. Oo ge m^non . . he has given (to) him, or them, 

ii. 9. Oo ge lindoomon . . he has called him, 

iv. 36. OocP ootihpenon . . he taketh (receiveth) it. 

vi. 5. Oo ge w^bumon . . he has seen him or them, 

vi. 19. Oo ge w^hbumai^on . . the^f have seen him. 

zviii. 15. Oo ge n6openahno» . . he has followed him 

xii. 19. Oo noo^pen&tmahwon . . they follow him or them, 

iii. 26. Ooge h^-mhzekahwahwon . . they have come to him or them. 

INVBRSB. 

* xi. 48. Oo gah t£pwayt<%roon. . he will be believed on by him or them. 

* i. 1. Oo ge wej ^we^roon . . he was accompanied by, Sfc, 

* i. 39. Oo wedahdtf^oon . . he was remained with by, Sfc. 

* iii. 26. Oo be-n4hzek<%roon . . he was come to by, Sfc, 

* iv. 51. Oo ge w^ndahmaA^oofi (dat.) . . he was told it hy, ^c. 

* z. iii. Oo^ esdhkoonalmu%roon (dat.) . . he was opened for^ by, ^'C. 
vi. 45. Oo gah k^(ke)nooahm(%oou;on. . they shaU be taught it, lyy^^c, 

* i. 4. Oo ge w6hsashkiA^oonaAt(;aA . . they have been lighted by, 4*0. 

* iv. 51. Oo ge nlQiguashkaA^oon C^iv.) ftewas met by, dfc. 

The particle Ae or ge (hanoe, &c.) is an uninfleddble amiUary used in die 
compound tenses, and would have been better expressed bj iee (or ghee) to 
mark the stress always laid on it. This form of the word would also have 
rendered it less liable to be confoimded by the learner with the/ironotm 
Ke, when found akne, e.g. as the auxiliary of the mtbjwtctive mood. In 
the use of the pregent and eompomnd qf the present for the poit tense, the 
Indian is in exact analogy with the French idiom. 



60 A GRAMMAR OF 

obstacles to the attainment of the American languages. 
This matter will hereafter be clearly exhibited and 
fully explained. 



It should also be further observed, that the plural 
numbers of the personal pronouns are not, as in 
English, expressed by the substitution of one term for 
another, as we for /, ye for thoUy &c. but by an augment 
annexed to the singular. 

N6thanan...(l-f3. i.e. /, and he, or / and they) We. 
KetMiioft;...(l+2. i.e. /, and thou, or / and^e) We. 
K€duitvow,..Ye. 
W6thafP0f»...They. 

[Note. — With respect to the personal pronouns, it may be proper to 
remind the reader that, between the Jirst person plural, and the second 
and third persons plural, there is this material difference to be observed 
in their grammatical value. The second person plural comprises two or 
more second persons exclusively. The third person plural, in like manner, 
two or more third persons. But the first person plural is necessarily a 
combination of different persons, namely, of the first person singular 
with either of the other two (viz. second or third) persons — ^hence the 
English plural pronoun, we, used to signify, indifferently, I and thou (or 
I and ye), and I and he (or I and they), becomes, in all its cases, and also 
in its possessive pronoim, equivocal, and its precise meaning must be 
sought for in the tenor of the discourse, or the explanation of the speaker, 
as " We praise thee O God." " Our father who art, &c." " Forgive us 
our trespasses." '' And they said unto him, we are all one man's sons ; 
we are true men," &c. Gen. xlii. 11. Again, " And they said one to 
another, we are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the 
anguish of his soul when he besought «« and we would not hear, therefore 
is this distress come upon us." In the last of these examples, it is evident 
that the pronouns we, us, our, include the first and second — in the others, 

the first and third persons. In the Algonquin dialects, this equivocal 

manner of expression is avoided by the use of a separate term for each of 
these two combinations, namely, N^hanan, equivalent to the English we, 
signifying I and he, &c. ; and Kethdwno, equal also to we when implying 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 61 

thou, &c. and I, or the first and secfmd persons. The same distinction 
is maintained through all the forms of the verbal inflection, and 
also of the possessive pronoun. It is generally indicated in this work 
thus, (1. 3.) and (1. 2.). The grammarians of the South Americam lan- 
guages denominate these two forms, the eaebuwe and the inclusive, with 
reference to the person addressed.] 

These plural augments^ or affixed syllables^ of the 
simple personal pronoun, when in combination with a 
verb in the indicative mood, constitute, with the excep- 
tion of the fAird person in some cases, the verbal affix, 
or at least a part of it, the (abbreviated) singular form 
only, being prefixed, 

Ne ndtamin (dir.)...fre (1.3. i.e. first and third persons) 

fetch him, 
Ne ndtlkooitan (inv.) ,.he fetches us (1. S.). 

Ke nitanow (dir.) ...we (1.2. i.e. first and second persons) 

fetch him. 
Ke nktikoonow (inv.)...Ae fetches t/i (1. 2.). 

Ke nk8inan(6di.)..Jhou fetchest us (1. S.). 
Ke nAUttinan (inv.) ..tve (1. 3.) fetch thee. 

Ke n6tw6winnan (dir.), .thou fetchest Imafor us (I. 3.). 
Ke luitwktinnan (inv.). ..we (1. 8.) fetch Jmnfor thee. 

Ne nitowuk (dir.).../ fetch them. 

Ne nktanndnuk (dir )...we (1.3.) fetch them (double plural). 

Ne ni^koondnuk (inv.)...^Aey fetch us (i. 3.). (id.) 

Ke n&tandfvuk (dir.) . we (1. 2.) fetch them, (id.) ^ 
Ke nktikoondwuk i\ny,)...theif fetch us (1. 2.). (id.) 

Ke nktvrdwmawaw (dir.) ...^e fetch him for me. 
Ke nitwkdnowotv (inv.).../ fetch him for you. » 



s& The Chippeway is not, in this point, closely imitative of the Cree 
dialect. In the intransitive form, the '* constant" to of the plurai aug- 



62 A GRAMMAR OF 

The same observation may be made with respect 

to the intransitive verbs, as, 

Indie. ^ep^ootan.../walk. 

Ke p6moatan..Ahou walkest. 
P6mootayoo ».he walks. 
Fkmoot&ymagun (inaxL),.M walks. 

Ne pem6otaniuiiz...ive (1. 3.) walk. 
Ke ^m6otxnanaw..,we (l. 2.) walk. 
Ke p6moot&notvorv . ye walk. 

P6mootiyfvuk (po-^uk)..,Tkey walk. 

P^mootkymagunwah (inan.) theif walk.^ 

ments is represented, in the first and second persons, by its cognate m. 
In the transitive, the affixes are substantially those of the Cree dialect. 
See Accidence. 

N^naAtrtm. .we (I. 3.), 

Kienahwun. .we (I. 2.). 

K6enahwah. . ye. 
W6enahwah. . they. 

i. 32. Nin ge wdhbahmah (anim. sing.) . . I have seen him. 
xii. 21. IVe we wahbahmahnon (plu. 1.3.) ..we want to see him. 

vii. 29. Nin keklbdemah (anim. sing.) . . I know him. 
vii. 27. Ke kdclmemahfioii (plur. I. 2.) ..we know him. 

iv. 25. JVmkek^ndon (inan. sing.) . . I know it. 
iy. 22. Ke kek£indahnofi (plu. 1. 2.) . . we know it. 

zx. 15. Ke kek^dndon (inan. sing.) . . thou knowest it. 

viii. 32. Ke kah ksk^ndsibnahwah (plur.) . . ye will know it. 

ii. 26. Oo kekldndon (inan. sing.) . . he knows it. 
vii. 26. Oo kek^indahnoMoaA (plu.) . . they know it. 

^ ix. 25. Ne wob (neut.) . . I see. 
ix. 41. Ne w^befaiii (1.3.). . We see. 

viii. 52. xviii. 34. Kef ekid . . thou sayest. 
iv. 20. ix. 41. Ked* ^edoom . . ye say. 

V. 1. (Oo) Ke efMh . . he went. 

iv. 45. (Oo) Ke ezt^wug. . they went. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 63 



NOTE. — Of the Neoatitb Vemb* 

It may be regarded, perhaps, as a curious circumstance in language, 
that of two dialects so nearly allied in all other leading points, the one 
should possess, and the other be destitute of, the negative form of the 
verb. The Cree has no negative verbal form. The Chippeway negative 
verb is formed by annexing se or ze to the singular number, with some- 
times a s%ht modification of the ending. The plural augments, and 
other accidents of the verb, are appended to it. The following examples, 
being all in the Indicative Mood, are, for the sake of emphasis only, pre- 
ceded in the Original, sometimes indeed remotely, by the neg&tive particle, 
Kah or Kdkween. See Accidence and Syntax. 

TRANSITIVE. 

ANIMATE (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE). 

viii. 55. xiii. 18. Nin gekdnemaA . . I know him, 
viii. 55. Nin gekkaemahse . . /know him not, 

[_Ke kekknemah . . thou knottiest him.'] 
[Ke kekkaemahse . . thou knowest him not.] 

xiii. 11. Oo ge kekdnemon . . he has known him. 
XV. 15. Oo keUoiemahseen . .'^cknoweth him not. 

[Nin kekknemahnon ..we (I. 3.) know him.'] 
[Nin kekknemdhsenon ..we (I, 3.) know him not.] 

vii. 27. Ke kekiaemahnon ..we (l. 2.) know him, 

[Ke kekdnem(f^6tton ..we (1.2.) know him not.] 

viii. 19. Ke (tab ge) kekdnemaAti;aA ..ye (should have) known Aim. 
viii. 55. Ke kekkaemdhsewah . . ye know him not. 

xii. 9. Oo (ge) kekkaemahwon . . they (have) known him. 
xxi. 4. Oo (ge) kekiaemdhsewon . . they (have) known him not. 

DIRECT. 

xviii 9. Ne ke w^neoA^e . . I have lost him not. 

xviii. 38. Ne m^kahmahwoA^e (obliq. case) . . / find in him not, 

V. 37. Ke ke n6ondBihwdhsewah . . ye have not heard him. 

Ke ke w^hwaui^ewah . . ye have not seen Mm, 
viii. 55. Ke kekkaemdhsewah . . ye know him not. 



64 A GRAMMAR OF 

XV. 15. Oo V^knQmahsem . . he knoweth km not. 

i. 18. Oo w^bahmaA«0efi. . he seeth him not. 

xix. 9. Oo ge "kOaxkooTkohseen . . he has not spoken {to) him. 

xi. 37. Oo tah ge k^shkeaA^een . . he could iiof have caused him. 

xxi. 4. Oo ge kekdnem(fA«et0(m . . they have nof known ^tm. 
xxi. 12. Oo we kahgwdjem(fA««toon . . they want not to ask him. 
X. 5. Oo dah n6openahn(f^6won . . they would not follow him. 
X. 8. Oo ge n6ondahw<^A«etoo» . . they have not heard him. 

INVBR8B. 

xii. 44.^/tn tdpway^nem^i^oo^e . . ^ believeth not on m^. 
xvi. 9* Nin dk^^B.ykatmigooseeg . . they believe not on fiie. 
xiv. 19. Nin gah w^bahm^oo^eey . . they will nof see me. 

viii. 10. £e ke nahn^boom/]700«e . . he has not dead-said thee. 

vi. 32. vii. 19. Ke ke men^oo^et^aA . . he has not given t^ to yoti. 

xvi. 22. Ke m^dikahm^^ooset^aA . . he taketh not from you. 

vii. 7- ^c tah zh^engdnem^^oosenawaA . . It (the world) will not 

hate yott. 
xvii. 25. Ke ke gekdnem^^^oo^ee^ . . they have iiof known thee. 

i. 10. Oo ge kekdnem^^oo50«i . . he has not been known 6y t^. 

xiv. 17. Oo w^bahm^^oo^een .. ^ is nof seen by it. 

xiv. 17. Oo gekdnem^^oo50«i . . ^ is not known by it. 

i. 11. Oo ge ood^pen^^oo^eemm . . he has not been taken by them. 

INANIMATE (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE). 

ix. 25. JVtn gekiindon . . I know it. 

iz. 12. 25. Nin gek^ddhzeen . . I know f^ not. 

xxi. 15. iTe kek^dndon . . thou knowest it. 

xiii. 7. Ke kekdinde^^een . . thou knowest it not. 

xix. 35. Oo kek^ndon . . he knoweth it. 

xii. 35. Oo gekkinddhzeen . . he knoweth t^ not. 

iv. 42. Nin gek^ndaAnon ..we (1. 3.) know it. 

ix. 21. 29. Nin geldkinddhzenon ..we (1. 3.) know it not. 

ix. 31. Ke kekiinda^fton . . toe (1. 2.) know it. 

xvi. 18. Ke kek^dnd(^^enofi ..we (1. 2.) know it not. 

viii. 32. Ke (kah) keV^ndahndhwah . . ye (will) know i^ 
xi. 49. iv. 22. Ke kek^ddhzenahwah . . ye know it not. 



THB emu LANeUAGB. 65 

x^.M. (k g^ Mnhn akm ak . . thtif know U. 

)u5. Oo g fMindift WM J hw w (powasg^ caae) . . ihif know U md. 

liL 3. Oo till w&bnndahiLrtfai . . he could not nee it. 
xvi. SI. Oo m^qriaindalLreai . . ^ (or she) remembereik it not. 
iii. S. Oo tah g£8hket6oMMiii . . he could not accomplish them. 
xiv. 24. (hv^i4aADihMmmn..heh6h5i&^ 

xix. 24. Agiibk^«hkebed6oMiioti .. We (1. 2.) will iio^ rend tt. 

vi. 5S. (A) kMskk^akMenakwah . . ye wear it not. 

loiL 14. Ke dah w^dlUureiiaAioaA . . ye could no^ tell if . 

xvL 24. Ke^ (oonje) ^dootdiuraMiAtffail . . ye aak tt nof . 

ii. 3. Oocf tkjilaufenakmah , . thejf have if nof . 
xxi. 3. Oo ge ndtdoMnoAioaib thejf have nof killed if. 
▼iii. 2T. Oo ge n^setootdiur enaJhooii {possess, case) . . they have mt 
understood it. 

DIBBCT-HISCONO AND f IUST PSRS0N8. 

xiv. 9* Ke kekinemeie , , tkw kpowest me nQt. 

xix. 10. Ke glUu^oQiheie . . thon speakest (to) me not. 

T. 40. Ke we b^niUiieklUiioeMeiit . . ye want (to) come not (to) me. 

XV. 16. Ke ke wahwdn^bahmeyeem . . ye have not chosen me. 

m. 6. jfiuMf eshe kahgw&jemeMem .. ye so ask me not. 

{xvi. 16. iCegah wtiibalumm (posit.) . . ye shall pee ma,] 

xvip 10. Ke wfthbahmeveem .. ye see me not. 

xvi. 16» 17. 19. Ke gah wlihbthmeseem . , ye shall see me mt. 

vi. 26. KetP (oonje) ^d^hw^bnmeseem . . ye (because) seek me not. 

xii. 8. JTecT ahy^wei^em . . ye hay^ me not. 

viL 34. Ke gah m^kah^e^eem . . ye will not find me^ 

viii. 19. £e kekfeneme«igm , . ye know me Mof. 

iii, 11. Ke^ ootUipenahm^weirenHo (dat). . y^ take wot tp (from) tie. 

INVERSE. 

viii. 11. iCe nahn^boom^enooii . . thee condemn not I, i.e. I condemn 

filee fiofy and so of the rest, 
a. 40. Ke ke en^fenooit . . /have not said (unto) thee. 
zviii. 26. K^ ke Mr6hbahm^«eiiooft . . /have not seen filee. 

vi.70. ISekewahwinihbahm^waoofiim., I have iiof chosen yo». 

xiii. 18. Kef eoihuienoomm . . J say it nof (to) yoti. 

ziv. 27» &cPe8hem£iMtefiooMm..l80givefiof (iwfo)yot». 

P 



66 . ▲ QRAMMAJl OF 

idv, 18. Ke kah ezhe nihgekD^senoGmm . . / will not so left?e you, 
xn, 4. Ke ke w^ndalun6oMiiooiiim . . I have no^ named ihem to yon. 
zv. 15. Ked^ ezheDek^imesendonim . . J call, nam^ you not. 
xyi. 26. Kef eji4ne8endonim . . I say no^ (to) yo». 



ADJSCTIVS VSBBS — P08ITIVS AND NEGATIVE. 

V. 30. CKonesheshtn ,.it is good, ''just.'' 

V. 10. (yonesheahinzenoon ..iti$ not good, '* lawful.'' 

vi. 63. Ea&bh&lidkhsenoon ..it is not xhkM, ** pn^teih not" 

ACCIDENTAL (PASSIVE) VERBS. 

XX. 7* Em^ iHbidig (subj.). . there, (where) t^ was placed. 
XX. 7. Ke ddhgoo-ahtcCsenoon . . t^ was not on-placai, added to. 
xix. 31. Che ihgqoddsenoog (subj.). . that they should not be, *' re- 
main/' hung up. 

NEUTER — ANIMATE. 

vii. 8. Ne we eihShse . . J want (to) go not. 
xmi. 20. Mft ge ^edoose . . I have spoken not. 
xviii. 17. Nind^ Qxwese (vide infra.) . . J am he not. 

xviii. 17. KecP Sbwese . . thou art he not. 

vii. 1. We p^oosflwe . . he wants (to) walk not. 

vii. 52. Pd-oond^deze9e . . he hither-^rom proceeds (comes) not. 

ix. 3. Ke m6hje-^zhecheg(£fe . . he has iU-done not. 

ix. 4. Tah dhnookese . . he will not work. 

xi. 9. Tah b^Uiketashntre . . he will not fall. 

xi. 21. Tah ge n^boo«e . . he would not have died. 

xi. 56. Tah hi-ezhdhse . . he will not hither-go (come). 

xvii. 12. W^ne8htft2re . . he has not gone astray, lost himself (not 

reflect.), 
xxi. 11. Ke b^ooshkaA«« . . t^ has not broken. 

viii. 48. .A/incT 6ked6osemn . . toe (1. 3.) say not. 

TV. 35. Ked* ikedooseem . . ye say not. 

iv. 48. Ke tah tdpwayaindlihsreefn . . ye would not believe. 

vii. 22. Ke ke (oonje) ^zhechegdMcm. . ye have not (therefore) done it. 

vi. 36. Ke t&giWKjBind&tizeem . . ye bdieve 110^. 

viii. 21. Ke gah kdhshketooMem . . ye will not succeed. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 67 

ix. 18. Ke t&pwatdiureicw^ . . they have not believed. 

X. 28. Tah nib6o8ewug . . they shall not die. 

xii, 9. Ke b^-oonje-ezh^euTfi^. . they have hither-therefore-go (come) 

not. 
xvii. 14. tMaD,dihgqoz4(jt€)vmg . . they are not governed, 
xviii. 28. Ke ^ndegfaewug . . they have no^ entered. 

(Subj. and Lnperat, vide infra.) 

INANIMATE — P08ITIVB AND NBOATIVB. 

i. 38. 41. ix«r7. xix. 37. E\ed6omahgud . . it saith. 
viL 42. Ke ekeddomdhgdhsenoon . . it hath not said. 

V. 32^ Tipwimahgfidemg (possess, case subj.). . that it istme. 
viii. 13. T&pwimahgdhsenoon ,,iti$not true. 

xvi. 32. A'^hzhe . . tlQigweshen6omaA$rtM^ .... already . . it arrives, 
vii. 6. ii. 4. T&tkgweB\ien6omahgdh8enoott . . it arriveth not, 

xii. 24. 'S^bdomahguk (subj.) .,if it die. 

xii. 24. 'S£b6(mahgdhsenoog (id.) . . ^ t^ die not. 

The particle *' kah" or '' gah/' constantly occurring in Mr. Jones's 
** Translation/^ is of a three-fold character : 1. It is a negaiwe, ** no»" 
or '' not/' and governs the indicative mood. (See Note, p. 63.) 2. It is 
a pronoun relative, (who, whom, which,) and refers to a d^nite antecedent ; 
in this relation it governs the subjunctive, 3. It is an auxiliary of the 
future. Indicative. See Syntax, 



Section III. 
Of Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 

Paragraph I. 

Derivative verbs are, in the Cree language, of 
several kinds ; the component parts of the simple 
or primitive verb, namely, the attribute, the action^ 

f2 



68 ' A GRAMMAR OF 

and the personal accidents, being severally and sepa- 
rately, susceptible of various modifications. I shall 
divide them into two classes, as follows : — 

The first class of derivative verbs includes those of 
which the modification of the root qualifies or changes 
the nature or meaning of the attribute, and which will 
be noticed hereafter. 

The second class comprizes those verbs which 
are varied in their forms by accessory modes of 

INTENSITY, of MANNER, Or of RELATION, aS 

1. Of Intensity J as Augmentatives, &c.; the special 
transitive forms ; and the indeterminate and indefinite^ 
as distinguished from the determinate and definite 
personal and impersonal accidents. 

2. Of Manner, as the transitive and causative 
forms. 

3. Of Relation, as the direct and oblique cases of 
the personal pronouns, as they are inflected with 
the intransitive, transitive, reflective, and reciprocal 
forms. 

These varied forms compose a numerous list of 
derivative verbs, which are all referrable to their several 
conjugations. We propose to exemplify them (3d 
pers.pres. indie.) in the following order : 1 . Augmen- 
tatives, &c. 2. Transitive, &c. Verbs. 3. Reflective 
and Reciprocal Verbs. 4. Special Transitives, and 
their Reflectives. 5. Indeterminate and Indefinite 
Verbs. 6. Oblique Cases and their Reflectives. 7. 
Genders. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 69 

AUGMENTATIVES, &c.*' 
Wippdw,,,he sleeps. 
Nipp^^u...he sleeps very frequently. 
N^ iiipp6w...he sleeps with iteratioun (i9de£) 
Nd mpp6w...he tAeeps at tknes, distributwelif, 
Nippa^...^ sleeps a Uttle. 
Nd mp^iu...he sleeps a Utile, mm and then. 



^ iii. 4. Tah p^endega . . shall or will k^ enter, 
xviii. 38. Ke z^hgahtim. . he went out. 

X. 9. Tah bdhh6endega, kiya tali ^o^zaligalittm . . he shall go in {toith 
repetition), and he shall go out, with repetition (indef.). 

ii. 15. BUizhahnzha^gun (Cree^ Pdssistah^ggun) . . a whip. 

xix. 1. Ke paAp^shonzhawo(2 (suhj.) . . they toAt'-whipped him, 

-^ 
iii. 13. Ke ezhe domheshkoA^e . . he has not so ascended. 

i. 51. Tah <%6omheshkaAtfm» kiya tah b^-noAnahzhetimn (possess. 

case) . . they shall ascend (with rqtetiHon), and they shaU 

descend (with rq^etition). 

iii. 5. Oo ge gahnoonon . . he answered him* 
XX. 18. Ke kahkSibssiOOiDi^good . . that he (or ^) was said to hy Mm 
(with repetition.) 

X. 25. WdzhetooycfAfim . . which I make, (indef.) 
xiv. 3. Ahwe wahwiiiLQtahmoondhgook . . if I go make, intensively, 
i.e. prepare, it for yon* 

X. 1. P^ihkon . . different. 

vii. 43. Pabdhkon ke i%en£neniahwod . . dl-differently ihej thought 
(of) him, (indef.) 

v. 8. P^moosatn . . walk thou, 

iv. 6. Ke p^^moosoti . . as Ae had been walking. 

viii. 52. Ke n€aooh . . he has died. 

iii. 18. Nahn<^{ioah$e (anim.) ,, he is not (quasi) oondemnec?. 

iii. 17. Che ndhm&iHMndnng (inan.) . . that he eoiidemn it. 

xii. 6. PoAp&hmanemoc^ . . that he thought abont Inm or them. 

vii. 20. Bab^.tindah-n^sO; (Cree, .-ish) . . who about goeth (to) kill thee. 



70 A GRAMMAR OF 

Th6spisu.,.he is gentle. 

Th6spis6p«ru...he is of a gentle dispasition {habilual. Angl. 

"OUS). 

Eiib&Bkiiku...he lies very qften. ^ 
Kd kith^ku...^e lies tAth iteratum. ^ndef.) 
£4kith48kiiiErtf...A^ lies wHk iteratum and very Jrequenily. 
Angl.^ He is a very great liar. 

K^etim»...Ae is lazy^ idle. 

Kd \Lie\imu...ke is idle with iter(Uion. (indef.) 

Kietijxasku.,,he is very often idle. 

K^etimiSwisu...he is hahituaUy hzy, indolent. (Angl. -ou^.) 

> P&ptf...^ laughs. 
Pd pl^...Ae laughs much, or with excess, (indef.) 
Vkg\sku...he laughs cften, is addicted to it 
Vki^in>isu...ke is ]ocose, (habit) 

Mdygti...^ gives. 

Jtfif mdygif...Ae gives n^A t^olton. (indef.) 

viii. 44. N^tah gen^weshke . . he knows how (to) lie. 

viii. 65. Ntn dah Iboilgen&hwishk . . I should lie (indef.), i.e. be a 

liar, 
viii. 55. Axhe ii;aAg^nahwislikeyi% .. as ye lie Ondef.). 

^x. 10. Che k^oodtd . . that he may steal. 
X. 1. Kem6ode«MeA . . he steals qften, i.e. he is a thief. 
X. 8. Ke VtrnfiO^eshkewmg . . they have stolen oftenf i.e. are thieves. 
X. 10. Klbn6ode«AHi . . he who steals qften 0ndef.), i.e. a thief. 

X. 1. M&hkondw^AibA . . he plunders often, is addicted to plunder, 

i.e. he is a robber. 
X. 8. Ke mfihkundw^AAietoti^ . . they plunder qften, i.e. are robbers. 

X. 10. Che n^shewoti (subj.). . that he kiU. 

viii. 44. N^hew(MiUt-^5tfii . . he kiU-ed qften, i.e. was a murderer. 

iii. 23. N^beh-JM (Cree, skcm) . . water obcmds. 
vi. 10. M^enzhahshkoo-Aef^bun . . grass abomdre^. 



THE CESB LANGUAGE. 71 

Md mkygu...he gives diitribuHvefy. 

M&ygkysku...he gives veiy often, is in the hahii of giving. 

T£Lto-puthu...if is torn. 

T<t<-t4to-puthtf...tf is torn /o exce^^, to tatters. 

Kinwoo-k^^oo...ie Aoj a long-1^. 
£(2k6nwoo-k&tdfyoo...Ae has long legf (indef.) Anglic^^ he 
is long-legge<7. 

Wdgoii7...t< t> crooked. 

^itf-wligummoo...the path is crooked^ winding. 

Fr^-wdg(st]ckwio»...the river is crooked^ meandering. 

Fti8koonayoo...Ae (an animal) is fat. 
PtiskoonayiPif/r.../^ (id. definite) are fat 
T& ptiskoonay«;tf^...<Aey (id. indefinite) are fat^ generalfy. 
Pd j^^uikoon&ywuk „.th^ are fat^ here and there one. &c. 

Thus this reduplicative form, and its equivalent, / 
long, (see helow) are often, in the indicative mood, 
what the flattened vowel is in the subjunctive (see p. 
73), namely, the sign of an indefinite tense^ or time. 

M^echti (trans.). ..Ae eats it (present, or dejinite, tense). 
Md m6eehti...Ae eats it (inde/inite time) commonly^ &c 
M^echen^it€«;oo...<Aey^ people, (Fr. on) eat it. (def. time.) 
Md mkecheDdnenfoo...they, (Fr. on) eat it, indefinite^; An- 
glicd^ it is eaten^ e.g. as an artide of food> or luxury. 

/ long, = SB (= ahy, Jones.) before a vowel.** 
Itw&yoo...^ says. 

/-itw4yoo...Ae says with vigour or constancy, asserts^ de- 
dares, (indef) 

^T. 19. il^ihechegoui (subj.) . . so Ae doeth ^def. See ''flat vowel.") 
v. 19. A^hyezhichega ..so he doeth (indef.). 
xvi. 3. JTegah (%indood^ootf7(fj^ (inv.). . they will do to you (indef.). 
xi. 11. Kah dkyekeddod (sub.) . . which he said, declared, 
ii. 18. Ke c^^ezhecheg^fi (subj.) . . which thou doest. (indef.) 



73 A OBABIBtAR OB 

I4Mooitm...he does it droi^, Sawly, wMi ^onttalicy. 
I*'iUaai6w...ke places kjbrm. 
J-it-upptf...fo sits Jtrm. 
J-it-uskittoiP...fo sets tf up Jtrm* 
/-it-tittofp.. il€ firms, fixes it. 
I-it-appe^m.-.A^tiest^^rmyieciurdiy. (See IMatipe verbs.) 

(Jro^ Niee, exactly:^ 
Ni it4ootum.,.he does it exactly. 
Ni apptf...Ae sits carefuUy. 
NS asltow,..he places t< carefidbf, in order. 
JT^ Ap«...Ae sees tv^ has a keen sight* 
NS it-turn...^ hears tveU, acately. 
NS it-tiggittii (anim. a person)...^ u of the exad sise^. 
N^ 6cke^»i...4e counts them earefvlbf. &c^ 

ntmi^UTrVES.— >IXPERS01^AL VERBS. 

Mi8poon...t< snow«. 
Misp6onn...& snow« a Uitle. 

'P6edtidf»..M is &r, a great distance^ 
'P^ectuinn,.Mis&r'isk, rather &r. 

KiBoaewvLH^M raini. 

Kimmewiuriit...t< rain^ a little. &c» 

ADJECTIVE VERBS. 

Mis8higitttf...Ae is large. 
Misshigitti«w...A« if larguA, rather large* 
Mi88<$iv...t< & larger 
'Uisadsin,.M is largish. 

Mlthkoom...Ae is red. 

Mithkoomra...ile is red'isk. 

Mithkwdsp ..toured. 

Miihkw6sin...it is red-if^ &cw 

NEUTER VERBS. 

P6mootfl(yoo . . . he wallu. 
P6nooch^y#tf...Ae walk^ a lUtk. 



THB CEB£ LANMJAOS. 7S 

JMtOCB68OS«««^0 CMC* 

Some verbs have only the int^iisive ( r g p rftrt tye ) 
form, as, 

il»-^80o.*«he is tattooed* 

Pj^^^cli^...he is Aow, tedious. 

irif-w^pe-pdtha..at swings^ oscillates. 

2r^.tippe-p<khu...it turns (on its axis)^ 

Tif-td-tippe-piil]iu...it rolls (along). 

Pif-pSt&yoo...it is spotted. 

Cftil-ch&chagow..at is striped* 

^<^w^-p6thu...it rocks^ moves backwards and forwanb.. 

Besides the above-mentioned intetMwe modes of 
frequency^ iteration, &c. there is yet anoth^, which 
may be termed the indefinite mode, (see p. 71) and 
which is distinguished (in the eubjunctive or subordinate 
mood) by the alteration of the fir^ vowel of the root, 
signifying that the action combined with the attribute, 
is generalized, or rendered indefinite in respect of time,, 
and hence, secondly, impljdng sometimes custom^ or 
haMt, in the subject ; when it also often becomes the 
Indian equival^it of English novm ending in er, and 
implying an actor. For more detailed obsehrations 
on this singular modification of the verh, see Syntax. 

In this point (as in some others) the In£an is analogous to the 
Frendi idiom^ which ako renders certain of the EngUdi aonns at 
thekindalluded to, byapfoitotiiirela/tt;eandaver&; e.g.acaller> 
Fr. celoi qui appelle. , .he fvho calls. The Indian form has, however^ 
in this changeable vowel, a power of infusing the intensive mode of 
'^ costom," '* habit," &c. implied in the English terminati<«i (-^r) ;: 
an advantage which the French resolution of the English nom% does 
not possess. 

[Nofe.-^This modification of the verb was noticed by Sliot, but 



74 A GRAMMAR OF 

without his making any remarks on its charaHar or use. He calls it the 
Jktttemd yowel.*^ This is not, indeed»an accurate deicrq^tkm (rf it, since 



^THB PIBST VOWBL PLATTINID. 

fiiL 53. Kah n^boocf . . he who is dead, {d^/bnUe, and so of the rest) 
T. 25. Nifboqf^ . . who are dead. Anglic^, the dead. (Ind^fhuUe, and 

so of the rest, 
iv. 37. K^tega . . he soweth. 
iv. 36. Kdiegmd . . he that soweth, the sower. 

ii. 12. Ke exhc^i . . i^ has gone, went, 
viii. 14. ilsh&hyoft . . (whither) I am gomg. 

V. 30. Che izhechegBiydn . . that I do it. 
V. 10. il^shechegoti . . he doeih it 

X. 9* P^degoti. . (i£) he enter.' 
Xk 2. P^ddegoti . . he that entereth. 

t^diL 25« Ke n^ahweft . . he stood. 

xviiL 22. Ntfihahwid. . he who was standtii^. 

xii. 29. Niiilbihwe^ . . thejf who were standing. 

XV. 2. Che memiwmg . . that it bear fruit. 

XV. 2. l/Lahnevnmgin . . they that bear fruit. 

XY. 2. yLdhxi4w4iuenoog . . they which bear not fruit. 

ju 1. Kem6(}de8hkeh . . he steals qften, emphatically ; is a thief. 
X. 10. Kam6(}de8hkid . . he who steals qften, a thief. 

V. 8. P^oosotn . . walk thou, 

lai. 35. Pifoiooeoti . . he who walkedi. 

vi. 64. Oo ge kek&nemon . . he has known (knew) him, 

vi. 42. KoklmemaiMiii^oo^ (possess, case) . . whose . . we know them. 

XV. 23. Oo sh^eng&nemoii . . he hateth him. 
XV. 23. Shi^nglmemfd . . he that hateth me. 

vi. 58« Kah eshe m^eiDod . . as they^^&d eat it. 
vL 56. 58. Mdl^id.* he that eateth it. 

V. 33. Oo ge teblUidoodoit . . he related t^. 
iii. 32. Tab&hdoondsm^ (subj.) . . he relates it. 



THE CRH LANGUAGB. 75 

H is also sometimes sharpmedj*^ in either case it is always lengfkmei : 
sometimes also an tMUkmal vowel,^ m diphthong, is inserted with it. 

vii. 37. Che m^equatcl. . that he drink, 
vi. 56. yLdneqjaaid . . he who drinketh. 

xii. 3« Oo ge w^dahbemofi .. Ae sat with iUm. 

xi. 31. Wtfhd^hbemoV^ . . they who were sitttn^r with her, 

viii. 55. Ne mtnj^enoii . . I hold it. 

xz. 23. Wagwain . . mabkitmenakmdkwagwam .... whomsoever . . ye 
Shan hold them to him. (dub.) 

«1tHB first VOWBL SHARPBMID. 

zx. 7. AHitaig . . (where) it lay (the linen clothes), 
vi. 13. A^tdkm . . that are remaintn^. 

V. 32. B(iiUcihnese . . Ae m different (another). 
T. 7. BdkStaietid . . he who is different, another. 

vii. 30. Oo ge uadBhwfmdahiiuAwak ..they sought him. 
vii. 18. iHndahw^inddbnofturod (obliq. case.) . . he that seeketh it 
fw Atm. 

ix. 21. KaAgw4jemtib . . ask ye Atm. 

viii. 7. Kdgw&jemaftiiKxl . . (when) thicy (continued) asking hxm. 

ix* 36. Oo ge gif hnoonon . . he answered him. 

ix. 37. Kf^oontsr (Cre^ -isib) ..he who've talking (to) th^ 

^ A Vowd, or D^hthong (=dhy Jonbs), inserted in the first syllable. 
T. 30. (Mnesheshfft ..it is good, just. 
L 46. ii. 10. TTiihesheshtf^ . . which is good. 

viii. 42. .Nifi ge <tojebah . . I came from, 
vii. 29. TTcfinjebahyoii . . whence I come. 

viii. 44. Ket* ooy6osemaikoaib . . ye father him, have Mm for father, 
vii. 22. TToydosemMif^ . . who are had for fiathers, the lathers. 

xviii. 37. (Mgemlihweyofi . . that Jasi (a) chief. 

xii. 42. 7r([%em4hw9i^ . . they who are chief, the dud's. 

V. 7. yLdhketid ..he who was" unpotent.'* 

V. 3. Makyahmihkeiipg . . they who were " impotent." 



76 A GRAMMAR OF 

Tiit rfBict.always pgodnced, ii that of Imff th m i u y ihe time of thepimteye 
fyllable, and coofermig ^i it a degree of ea^kaais. The iq)pellij(ioii 
given to this vowel, 4rc. answering very well the purpose of distinction. 
It has, being accompanied by the above observations, been retained in 
this treatise.] 

Paragraph II. 
Of the Transitive Verb. 

. The kind of Derwative verbs next to be considered 
are those of manner, as the Transitive and Causative. 



iv. 17. Ke tdpwa . . thou speakest truth. 

iii. 18. 36. Ta^(fpwayiinemo(2 . . he that believeth on him. 

X. 17. Sdhgeid, . (whence) he loves me. 

xiv, 21. Sahpdhgetd , . he that loveth me. 

id. 3. Sah^dhgeUd . . he whom thou lovest. 

xiL 2$. Sahffdhgetood . . he that loveth f^. 

xiii. 23. zxi. 20. Sahydhgea^in . . whom he loved him. 

i, 10. Oo ge dbzhefoon. . he made if. 
X. 25. Wdzhetooyahnin . . which I make. 

xvi. 14. Oo gah ood^penon . . he shall receive (take) it. 
xiii. 20. WadStibcDod . . he who taketh Mm, 

X. 21. Oo dah wdhhe{h)dn . . he could make him see. 

ix. 14. Ke wdhhe(h)6d . . (and) he made him see. 

xi. 37. Wahykhhe{h)6d . . he who made them see (the blind). 

vi. 40. WahyMmmahjig . . who (plurO see him, 

V. 24. Ti^wayldnemo(2 . . (and) helieveth on him. 
m. 18. 36. T<%dpway4inemo(^ . . he that believeth on him, 
vi. 40. Tahy&pwB.Yinemahjig . . who (plur.) believe on him. 
vi. 47 TahyipwByisiemid . . he who believetili on me. 

xii. 26. Nin gah ndo^^nShnig , . he will follow me, 
vili. 12. NuKfApen&^tf . . he tktd foUoweth me, 

vu. 52. Kef dbnd^hdis . . thou art, proceedesty^hm. 

xix. 9. Ahn^ende wdindikd&ieyun ? . . \diat place art ihou from ? 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 77 

Before we enter on U^ subject of transitive verbs, 
however, it may be proper to observe, that, from 
certain mtrans^vta, may be derived other intransi- 
tives, as^ 

P^po(m...t^ is winter. 
¥ep6oTiMSU...he winters. 

N^tit ..Mis summer. 
'S€piaissu...he summers* 

W&ptm ..Mis day-light 

WkpisH...ke is ear/^ (riser). Fr. U est matina/. &a 

We now proceed to the consideration of that part 
of our general subject which constitutes the distin- 
guishing characteristic of the American languages 
generally, namely, the trafmtive verb. It may just 
be observed of the Cree intransitive , that its conjuga^ 
tional form has, in the indicative mood, the prefixed 
nominative of the French ; and, in the subjunctive, 
the u^ected personal termination of the Italian and 
Latin, and that both moods have the augmented plural 
of all those languages (see Paradigms of the verb). 
So far, therefore, the strucjiire of this part of speech 
may be said to have an analogy with at least some 
European tongues. But the transitive verb goes 
beyond this point. Retaining the European conju- 
gational forms, it assumes an additional feature of its 
own, adopting into its inflections all the relations of 
its regimen. Besides the subject or nominative before 
mentioned, it combines with the action — ^it engrafts 
on the intransitive verb both the object and the end — 
in other words, the direct and oblique cases of the 



78 A GRAMMAR OF 

j^KHKRnr, m the several modes of determbmte, indeter- 
mkMUe, and indefin^, as regards both the auhjeet of 
the v^b, and its regmm, and m the active BXidpassive, 
animate and inanimate forms. The derelopemeut 
and exemplification of these important points ^nll 
form the subject of the remaining part of this Section* 



Cree transitive verbs are of two kinds — ^the one 
consists of those verbs which are transitive primi' 
twely^ or in their most simple form. These constitute 
a numerous class, and are such as the following. 

AfUkdyoo (irreg.) . he places him. 

T6c^ffwayoo.„he does (it to) him. 

M^thoyoo ..Ae gives (it to) him. 

0^w6&io...he uses it. 

Kiedxehajfoo ..he begins him. 

K^eaeehayoo. . . he finishes hm. 

'bli6orvdyoo (irreg.)... Ae eats him. 

M6echti (jtTeg.)...he eats it. &c. 

The other kind, which it is intended to bring parti- 
cularly under notice here, consists of those transitives 
which are derived from the various kinds of intransi' 
HveSy xiSiXXiAy^ substantive i (see p. 18 et seq.) adjective^ 
accidentaii andneuter verbs. These furnish a numerous 
list of derivative transitive verbs. We shall divide 
them into two classes, as follows : 

1 . Gbnbral, or those in which the ^^ characteristic'' 
letter or sign of the action connecting the (dtribute 
with, its: personal accidents ^ is indicative of simple 
transition, &c. 



THS CRBE LANGUAGE. 79 

2. Special, or those in which the odton has a 
special form and signification. 

Of the several modifications of the intransitive 
verb, indicative of rimple trmuiiwnf the most general 
definite termination is, as already noticed (see p. 39 et 
seq.)> 'hayoOy animate, and -tow, inanimate. The fol- 
lowing are given as additional examples of this kind. 

The most simple form of the transitive, is where the verb is 
combined with a definite object, represented by a personal pronoun, 
or its sign, in the accusative case. 

{Note, — The tUrd person, present, indicative, is given as the conjnga- 
ticMial root, on account oi its general uniformity and susceptibility of 
Bti2e, as regards the other personal inflections, &c. There is no it^imtiioe 
mood in the Cree or Chippeway dialects, its import being resolved into 
the sutjmnetioe. See Syntax.'] 

An#KCTiyE VERBS. 

W6weaw..M is circular. 
W&wekajfoo...ke round^^A kim. 
W6w^ow...ke Toundeth it, 

W^df»..,it is hollow. 
'WiAhehayoo..,he hollowe^A him, 
W&thetofv...^ holioweth it. 

WAgof9...t^ is crooked. 
W^igehayoo,„kehendeth kim. 
W^taw...he benddA it. 

A^wkoosu„.he is sick. 
A^yrkookayoo...he hurt€i^ him. 

S^pssu...he is afraid. 
S^gehayoo...ke frighteneth kim. 

A^ihemissu. ^ke is difficult 

A^'themeii^fipo...^ perplex^i^, embarrasseM kim. 

Nisseewun^tif/tt...^ is vicious, bad (conduct). 
Nisseewun&cheAoyoo...^ vitiatos, spoils, kim. 



80 A GRAMMAR OP 

Fem&(iieiiyoo...he tnakes Urn Ihre^ saveft hit lif^ ; qiiau> h€ 
€itliye9a him. &^ 

(0CCA8t0HAL OR) ACCIBKIITAL TSIIIS. 

l^f^&M..M SO mavOk. (Se9 p. 32 and Betaim Feris^y 
l9^^&ihehagoo,.,ke so moveth him, (suddeoly}* 
lB^f^theknD...he so move/A t^. (id.) &c 

NSUTBR VERBS. 

Nipptf...^ is dead. 
NippaAa^...^e IsSieth hwu 

Ooo8tichti...^e is afraid. 
G6ostayoo...Ae fear^ tiiffu 
Coostiche^5oo..«Af terr|/^ him. 

Ttipptissti...2e flee^. 
Tdppusse^oo... ^ flees ftom Mn. 

F&p»...ft« laiighs. 

Tkpehayoo. . . Ae laughs (ai) him, 

Kowis8immoo...he goes to bed. 
KowisseemooAayoo...he puts him to bed. 

A^pptf...!. Aesits. 9* Ae remains. 

1. A''pptf...Ae sits. ^ 

A^ppeAayoo...Ae makes him mt, e.g. a cMd, 

"2. A''pptf...Ae is^ stays^ remains. 
Ath(^oo...Ae puts, or places, him. 

W&ppti...A« sees 
Wkppa!mayoo...he sees him. 

P&tkeBin...he &}1b, as in walking. 
P&hkeseffiiigfoo...ile miAes him fijl, throws him down 

Pimmi8stfi...Ae lies. 
Pimmio ic w gy oo. . .he lays him down. 



THB CRB£ LANGUAGE. 81 

F^etwdtfoo (neut.) ..he inhalesy^ smokes. 
W6eche-p^etwdii»4yoo (trans.) ... Ae smokes widi him, co- 
smokes him. ^ 

N6onti...^e sucks. 
N6othayoo.,.she suck^« him. 

Vtootay 00... he goes there. 

It6otahdyoo...he carries or conveys him thither. 

Ittissawayoo...Ae sends Aim. 

K6w-ayoo...Ae returns. 

Kewky»tahd^oo...he returns him, conveys him back. 
Keway-tissa-w^^oo...A0 sends him back. 
K6way-Aoo...A« returns (6y water). 
K6wa,y~hoothdyoo...he returns him (id.). 

Wtith&weeoo ...he goes out. 
Wuthaw4y toA(£^oo ..he conveys him out 
Wuthawdytissan;4yoo...Ae sends him out. 

K6ospti...Aegoef inland (from river or hdce). 
Koosp6/aA%oo. . . he convofs him thither^ 

N{^payoo...Ae goes to the river^ &c. 
N^p&ytahdtfoo...he conveys him to the river^ &c. 

W^nnissu...he errs {XDunne", infinite, immense). 
'W^nesin...he loses himself, goes astray. 
WtinneAoyoo. . . Ae loses him. 
W^rmesemayoo...he leads him astray. 

M^chesoo (indef. obj.)...Ae eats. 
Mdowayoo (anim.)...Ae eats him. 
M^echti (inan.)...Ae eats it. 
^6^16800^^00... he causes him to eat. 
Meches6o-Aoipayoo...A« makes him eat, feeds him, as a child. 
Wieche''mMiesoomayoo...he eataxoith, co-eats, him.** 



^ zi. 16. C3ie w^>a^boomii»^ . . that we co-die Amu, die with him. 
zviii. 15. Oo ge neh w^j-pfoidegamoii . . he co-entered Am, entered 
with him. 

G 



62 A GRAMMAR (fF 

{[Minnekwoyoo. . . he drinks.]] 
Miimekw^A4yoo...Ae gives htm to drink. 
Miimekw4y-^oit;ayoo...Ae makes Mm drink^ drenches him. 
Fri^ecAe-minnekway-m^^oo...Ae co-drinks^ drinks with, him. 

'i^6che-haifoo.„he works at him. 
N6che-toit; (inan.)...Ae works at U. 
'i^octi6'k(noaifoo,..he courts her. 

P6othoo...he leaves off, ceases. 
]*6one-Aayoo...Ae leaves him off, lets him alone. 

Ootdmme-/ Aoo...Ae is occupied, busy. 
Oottimme-Aa^oo...Ae interrupts him. 
Ootthnme-iitayoo...id. by speech. 

Pdskay . . . diverging, branching. 
Vuakiy~wethayoo...he parts (company) with him. 

Paragraph III. 

To the Transitive verb, generally, belong the Re- 
flective and Reciprocal forms,** as 

1 A^wlioohayoo...he hurts him. (See p. 39, et seq.) 
A^wlu)ohCssoo (or ~hiUissoo)...he hurts himself. 

** RBFLBCTIVB — INDICATIVE. 

viii. 13. Ke tehkhiindis (meg.). . thou relatest thyself. 

z. 33. Ke kesyuntinedoowe^i5(caus.) . . thm God-makest thyseff'. 

zzi. IS. Ke k4ch.e]pcni^dezoon'^dhbun . . thou gird'thyseff-edst. 

viii. 59- Ke g6hzoo (trans.) . . Ae hid himself. 

T. 13. Ke m&hjewen^c2e2rooA (caus.). . he had conveyed himself kwkj. 
viii. 22. Tah nis^dezoo . . he will kill himself. 
ziz. 7. Ke ezhtSdezooh ..he so did, made, himseff. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

V. 31. viii. 14. Tehbh.}ifMzooydn . . if /relate m^se\f. 
viii. 18. IfAidhyindizooydn (flat vowel). . who relate myseff. 

ivi. 54. (yogemkhwe^dezooydn . . if J chief-mdbe myseff. 

zvii. 19. Wainje ^ne^dezooydn. . whence I pure-moJte, pur\/y» mynjf. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 83 

Kitteeina^^oo...Ae ill-uses him. 

Kitteemahissoo (id.),., he ill-uses^ injures, hims^. 

Keeskwaypayoo...Ae is drunk. 
K6e8kwky]^jhdi/oo...he intoxicates him. 
K^eskwiyp&jhissoo (id.).. .he intoxica/f« himself. 

"2 Kaddifoo...he hides him. 
KaiSOO...he hides himself. 

3 Afs9amayoo...he gives him food. 
A'sssm(ssw}...he gives himself food, serves himself. 

Kisk^emayoo...^e knows him. 
Kisk6themff«oo...^e knows himself. 

4 Uckw(innait;ayoo...^e covers him. 
UckwdnnaA(^oo...^^ covers himself. 

Fistawayoo...he miB'Strikes him. 
TistsJidossoo...he mis'Sirikes himself. 

5 W6ethdyoo...he names him. 
y^kethissoo...he names himself, tells his name. 

Note — See Redprocais of the above forms, p. 84. 



i. 22. ilyen^jindexrc^tm (flat vowel). . which thou sayest (of) thyself. 
viii. 53. AfhjiikiWGidezooyun . . whom thou makest thyself. 

vu. 18. TahkhjifUUzood (flat vowel). . he that narrates, relates, himself. 

zi. 44. Tbiikoohezood Taccid.) ..oahe was ^d. 

xiii. 5. Kah g^chepe^ood (accid.) . . (wherewith) he was gilded, 

V. 18. Ahp^t-ainddhgoo^cfezood (comparison) . . he so-much-thought- 
oUmade-himself. (as &c.) 

viii. 9. Kekdnind^2ooii;oi . . as they knew themselves. 

xi. 55. Che hineideioowod , . that they (might) puri-^^ themsekes. 

ii. 6. '^xi(d4dezoowod , , when they puri/Stfd themsehes. 

vii. 17. T^ticLyindizoowahndin (dub.) . . whether I relate myself, 

xii. 49* JVtii ge XJ^Avndetdose (neg.). . 1 have wot related myself. 
xvi. 13. Tah \JOazhimdeM6oH (neg.) . . he will not relate himself, 

g2 



84 , A GRAMMAR OF 

Is-pdtheAoo...^ 8o moves hmu^. 
0'opftAo9..«^ raises himndf (a bird). 
Tyriyhoo...he alights himself (a bird). 
A^chehoo,„he changes himself (dress). 
A^tEJioo,.,he chokes himself (without intention). 
Th4keAoo...^e lightens himself, (priv.) 
Woy9iiaehoo..,he dresses^ adorns^ himsdf 
W&ppamoo...^ sees himself (as in a mirror). 
It-^emoo...^ so thinks himself, (see p. 44). 
Kist-6themoo...Ae great-thinks himself is proud, (id.) 
K&-k6che-moo...Ae great-talks^ boasts. 
Pimmit4chemoo...Ae moves himself horizontally^ crawls. 
Kechistapp6woo<Aoo...Ae washes himsdf. 
Ootiinmie<^...Ae busies himself is much occupied. 
'P\iawkyskoothoo...he cloys Atm^e^with fat (priv.) 

To the Reflective class belongs also the Simulative or 
feigning form, viz. -Udsoo, " he makes himself," the 
reflective of the transitive termination, -katdyoo, '* he 
makes him." (See p. 20.) 

M<isk6wiss-ti ...he is strong. 

Musk6wisse-ibd«oo...A« strong-maifcef himself, pretends to be 
strong. 

Nipp-(^...A« sleeps. 

't^vp^kdsoo...he sleep-iiiaAef himself, pretends to be asleep. 

K6esquaypay-oo ...he is dnmk. 
YikeBq^ky^ky'kdsoo... he pretends to be drunk. 

RECIPROCAL.** (See pp. 82> 8S.) 
1 K'y9}LooUWkmk...theyh!axt one another. 
S JLiiitt6oiiik^.ihe!f\aile one another. 



*^ RECIPROCAL — INDICATIVE. 

xiii. 14. Ke tah k^zeb^iesedan^iiHii. . ye shdDi wash^foot owe emo^Acr. 
zvi. 19. Ke kahgw&jfficKfii .. ye ask owe tmother. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 85 

S A^a8amiii6ouk.„theygiyeoneanoiher€ood. 

4 Vckw&im&hooitdouk...tkey cover one another. 

5 W6ethitt6ouk...iheif name each other. 

RECIPROCAL, ANIMATE AND INANIMATE.** 

^^ge'Skofvdi/oo...he meets him. 
^^ge'skdmagun.,.it meets it. 
^^ge-^kootdtoouk (anim.)...M^ meet each other. 
H^^ge^kootdtdomagunwd (inan.)...thei^ (things) meet one 
another. 

▼.1. Ke w4quondeuntg . . they feasted one another. 

yii. 35. Ke et^tcw^ . . they said one to another. 

xix. 24. Ke ed^bu^ . . they said one to another. 

xiii. 22. Ke kahVkhnBhw&bibiJmdewug . . they looked {with rqfetUUm} 

at one another. 
xi. 47. Ke m&hwjinieSdeumy . . ^Aey collected one another. 
xix. 24. Ke m&tidBhoon^deumg . . f A<y divided among them, one ano^ 

ther. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

V. 44. Ooyood&k^nahjndhdeyaig (obi. case, flat vowel). . ye who take 

to (receive from) one another. 
xiii. 34. Qie sShgeideyaig . . that ye love one another. 
xiii. 34. XV. 12. Che ezhe sShge^deyaig. . that ye so love one another. 

iii. 25. Ke m&li^e-gahgwijindewod . . they began to ask one another. 
xiL 19. Kah oonje ediwod . . whence they said one to another. 
iv. 33. Kah oonje dhyed^iood . . whence they said (le^ik r^p«fi<tofi) om 
fo another. 

XX. 19. Kah . . m£hwwi}eidewod . . loAo had assembled, collected one 

another. 
xxi. 23. Wow^kahnes/fule^ (flat vowel) . . who brother one another, 

i.e. brethren, 
xvi. 17. Ke ezhe k^noon^ietiwft (possess, case) . . they so talked one 

to another. 

^ [xii. 13. Ke ihwe n&hqudiBhkahwdhwod . . (snbj.) ** and" they went 

(to) meet him.] 
[Sihgeahkooddhdencuff (anim.) they meet each other."] 
[NihgtMhkooddhd^nahgahddon (inan.) . . . they (thingf) meet each 
other.'] 



86 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ni88ewundchetofv...Ae spoils it. 
l!^i8aeYnm6ichetdtnagun..M spoils it, 
'Si88ew\xnkchetat6omagunwd,.Jkey (things) spcnl each other ^ 



Paragraph IV. 

The Special differ from the Oeneral transitive forms 
(see p. 38 et seq.), generally, in the energetic letter or 
letters only. These special signs may be considered 
as of three kinds . The first have an intensive meaning, 
implying force, &c. and are positive. The second, 
intimating accident or mi^-hap, or the English prefixes 
mis-, or dis-, &c. may be classed 2iS privative (vide infra). 
The third kind indicate the means by which the action 
is performed, as by the hand, &c. and are instrumentive. 
These several ** characteristic signs" are expressive of 
particular, yet, common modes of action, and are there- 
fore of constant occurrence in speech. They may, with 
their personal adjuncts, forming together the ** special 
afl^es,'* as under, be united to any suitable root. 

Note. — The *' characteristic" letters are in Italic — ^the personal inflec- 
tion in Roman characters. 

AKIM. IKAN. 

'fvkjoo -Mm implies an exertion of strength, "he forces 

him or it," after the manner expressed 
by the root. Joined to certain roots of 
" motion" it implies also 6y water, 

'4awijoo -toAdm implies he beats or batters the object, after 

the manner of the root. 

-^kawkyoo 'Skum implies force, or cavsativeness. (See Ge- 

nera/ Causative, p. 38.) 

~skawiyoo '^kvan is also privative, indicating acoident, mis^ 

chance, what is adverse. 



THE CRKB LANOUAGB. 



87 



-miyoo 

-nkyoo 

'pUtkjoo 

-skawiyoo 



-/um 



-itum 



"fUXdm 



-skma 



signifies that the action is performed with 
the mouth ; it implies^ also by speech. 
{Metdon, the mouth). 

implies with the hand, or other gentle 
means. {MecMechee, the hand.) 

implies the action of the arm, " he puUi 
him or it. {Mdspittoon, the arm.) 

also (see above) implies^ with certain roots^ 
the use of the leg or foot, as in walk- 
ings &c. {MesMt, the 1^.) 

signifies by cutting, or burning, '^he cuts, 
he bums him or it/' after the manner 
of the root. 

The ** special affixes" may, as above remarked, be 
joined to any suitable root, as under. 

They form severally the three persons singular, as follows : 



-iirayoo -nun 



1 

'W6w 


ANIMATE 

2 

'Wdw 


3 

'Wdyoo 


1 
-h^ 


INANIMATE. 
2 8 

-aen -hi*iii 


-taw(fw 


"t&wdw 


-tSLwdyoo 


-tah^ 


-tah^ 


•takdm 


"Skdwdw 


-skaw(^ 


'SksLwdyoo 


-sk^ 


-sk^ 


-sktfm 


-mow 


-mow 


-mayoo 


-t^ 


-t^ 


-ttim 


-now 


-now 


-nayoo 


-n^ 


-n^ 


-nicm 


-pitt(^ 


-pitt<^ 


-pitt^fyoo 


-pitUfi 


-pitt^ 


-pitti^OT 


-swow 


-swow 


-swayoo 


-8^ 


-8^ 


-8am 



Belonging to only two conjugations — ^the animate and the inanimate — 
the personal adjuncts, or endings, of which may be succinctly exhibited 
thus — 

ANIMATE. I INANIMATE. 

-ow -ow 'Oyoo I .in -in -urn 

See " Paradigms, &c." 

ANIMATE. 

Ne T&koo-pitt(^ . . J tie him 
Ke Th&ke-now . . thou pushest Am. 
Kiss^e-mayoo . . he affironts him. 

INANIMATE. 

Ne Ndta-h^ . . / fetch it (by water). 
Ke P^koo-sk^ . . thou breakest it aceidentaOy. 
M&kwa-tttm . . he bites it. 



88 A GRAMMAR OF 



-w;dyoo, -Aum. 
TiekoO'Wa^foo...ke breaks km by farce. 
Ptekoo-Aiif»...Ae breaks it hj force* 

K688e-iP(£^oo...Ae wipes him. 
K6s8e-Atfm..Je wipes it 

'P{itheepa^hum,,.ke perforates it. 

Cyi3ipa^hwn.,.he supports it. 

Pdeta-Aiffft...Ae puts> thrusts, it in. 

Kw6ppa-Ajim ..he scoops or lades it out> as water^ &c. 

W^pa-/^um ...he sweeps it away. &c. 

[Ndt-oyoo ..^ fetches kim.^ 

Nka-ir£90O...Ae fetches Atm> by water. iec. 

"tawiyoQ, -toMm. 
Nuppdcke-/aMm...A« ftattens tY 6y hammering or striking. 
Ta8Sw^ga«toAi^m...Af opens t^ out> expands it^ id. 
SMLwa^taktim...he beats it into smaller pieces^ e.g. loaf 
sugar. iec. 

CAUSATIVE^ &C. 

iVipT App6oy stft . . . / sweat. 

Net' A^pwdojse^kdkoon (inv. inan.) ..t^ makes me perspire. 
Appw6o]rse-/ib)iiu^» ... t^ sweat-ootudA^ is sudori- 
ferous. 

Ne Nippon.. / sleep. 

Ne Nippa-«ib^iboii (inv. inan.)...»< makes me sleep. 
l^ipj^'skdmagun...it is aommferous. 



*7 xii. 32. IVtn gah w6\iooihkahwog (6k.) . . I will draw forcibly, drag, 
them. 



THE CRSK LANGUAGE. 89 

PRivATiVB (vide infra.).^ 
Mi8pooft...i^ snowx. 

Ke miejpoo^kdkoon (inv* iuan.)....t< mu-floow-eth jfou, i.e. 
snows upon you. 

Kimmewuft...f< rams. 

Ke kimmew^'eskdkoon (inv. inan.) ii mti-rain-eth i/ou, i.e. 

rains upon you. &C. 

Ne kiasew^kuUBLj'^kdkoon (inv. inan.) ... t/ gives (mu- 

causeth) me the cholic. 

A^te'Skawd^oo,,.he mis'sliates him. Anglic^^ he dis-places 

him. 
(yoBe^kamdi^oo...he mis'Temoves, starts^ him (an animal). 
Th&e'Skamdifoo...he mix-pushes him, Le. acddentallif. 
KdoskdO'skawdi^oo he mtx-shakes> jogs^ Aim (e.g. as a person 

writing). 
A^yrkoo^kafvdyoo...he hurts him, inadvertmUy. 
Koottippe-xA:attkf^oo...A« upsets Mm, acddetUaUg (as in a 

canoe). 
Nissewundte-xibim.. he spoils it by accident. 
WMb€!pe'Skdm...he soils it, id. 



B V. 14. Ke kah d6nge«Ait<^A^oo» (inv.) . . i4 will miX'^Mime igMm thae. 
ziii. 27. Oo ge pSendegashkdhgoon (id.) . . Ae was mis-entered by 

him. 
xii. 35. KekBiipslh''ti6hgooneshkdhgoonahiwdh (id.) . . it will mif-oome 

upon yoif . 
xvi. 6. iTe m6oshkenaxAlr££l^oofiaAio<£& $d.) . . it msx-fiUeth you. 
XX. 25. Ke b&hgoonaxAlr(%rooJ (id.) . . that he was mis-akixmed by- 

them. 
xviii. 4. Wah hiiigBJtimeshkdhgoqjin (id.) . . by which he should be 

mix-struck. 
XX. 25. K4h erktshkdhgood (id.) . . as Ae was mtx-done to, injured^ 

hy them (the nails), 
xviii. 28. Che w4neshkdhgoowod (id.) . . . that they should mis-be de- 

med. 



90 A GRAMMAR OF 

K^pe'3kum.„he throws U down^ id. as from a shelf. 

S6ke'skum...ke spills it, id. 

K6we'Skum,..ke prostrates it, id. 

FkelioO'skum...ke breaks it, id. 

Takoo-skum ...he treads on it, id. &c. 

-mayoo, -ftim.** 
^Kiskis8ti...Ae remembers.^ 
Kiskisse-mayoo...Ae reminds him. 

Kuckwkyche-977(£^oo...Ae asks him. 
F^ke6kksoo-md^oo...he saddens him, hy speech. 
Ntittoo-mayoo...Ae calls him. 

[[A^theme-Aayoo...Ae hard-e^oe^ him, places in a difficult 

situation.]] 
A^theme-ma^oo...Ae h&idraays to him, e.g. asks a difficult 

favour. 
A^them6o-ma^oo...Ae hard-^oy^ of him, accuses^ complains 

of^ him. 



*» [vi. 6. Elahgw4je-(^ . . that he might try, *' prove," Aim.] 

[viii. 6. Ke kahgwaje-aAic(^rf. . as they tried Atm.] 

xviii. 19* Oo ge kahgwdje-7?ion . . he asked (tried by speech) kim. 

X. 3. Ood' ezhe tindoomcm ..he so calleth them. 

xi. 28. Ken undoomig (inv.). . he caUeth thee. 

ix. 2. Oo ge gsihgwi^emegoon (inv.) . . he was aaked by them. 

[iii. 18. Nahn^oo<^Ase ..he is not condemnee?.] 

viii. 10. Ke ke nahn^oowi^flrocwe (inv.) . . he hath not dead-^oui, sen- 
tenced, thee. 

viii. II. Ke nahn^boom^«ioon (inv.) . . thee sentence not I. 

V. 45. Mft gah dhnahmem^oonon (inv.) ..hemUl accuse iw (1.3.) 
(think ye ?). 

vii. 32. E^zhemahnid . . (possess, case) . . that they so said qf him. 

viii. 10. A^nahmem/H^ (Cree -misMk) (inv.) . . . who (plur.) accuse 
thee. 

viii. 46. Ka tabemi^n . . who can convince me. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 91 

^Sk\ioO'hayoo...he overcomes^ subdues^ him.^ 
Sakoo-mdifoo ,,ke conquers him by speech, convinces him. 
S^ooche-m^yoo...Ae persuades^ prevails on^ him, 

Wdnne-moyoo . . . ( wunne^ infinite) ,.,he perplexes^ confounds^ 

him, 
W6esa-mayoo...he invites him to accompany. 
Pdpisse-moyoo [^p&pK, he laughs]]-. .A^ jokes^ diverts^ him. 
[]N^pewe-Aayoo...Ae shames him by conduct, "^ 
N^pewe-«?iayoo...id., by speech, 
Kheg2i-mayoo,,,he scolds him, 
M& metho-mayoo...he speaks well of Aim. 
Kipp6eche-?7iayoo...Aestops> silences^ him, 
T^wa-moyoo (anim.)...Ae holds him in his mouth, 
T4kwi-/f/m (inan.)...Ae holds it in his mouth, 
M^yrk-mayoo (amm.)...Ae bites him, 
M^wd-/um (inan.)...A« bites it, 
Kissee-mayoo...Ae affronts him, 
K& Kee8ke-mayoo...Ae counsels^ reproves^ him, 

[[Kusk6the^2<7n. ,,,he is impatient.]] 

Kusk6thettimme-A^^oo. . . he makes him impatient (by conduct), 
Kusk^thetdmme-m(£yoo...Ae9na^e^ him impatient (by speech,) 
[]Sege-Aflyoo...Ae terrifies him, by eonduct,"^ 
S^ge-'mayoo, , , id.^ by words, &c. 

-nayoo, -num."* 
N6ote-nayoo (anim.).. he fights Atm. 
Oot^ete-nayoo...Ae assaults^ attacks Atm. 



INDICATIVE. 

M> vi. 44. 54. Nin gah bdhzegwinde-n(^A. . / will raise him by hand (from 
a seat.) 
vi. 40. Nin gah blihzegwindefu^ . . I will raise them up. 
viii. 55. Ne minj^menon . . I hold^ keep, it, 

xiii. 18. Nin ge dohenahmdg (inv.). . he has lifted t^up to (against) me, 
[xxi. 18. Che ^zhewen/A; (Cree, -jnisk). . that he may away 2efl(f thee.'\ 
xvi. 13. Jfc kah &hne ^zhewen/j^ooK^aA (inv.) . . he will away /eoif yaw. 



92 A GRAMMAR OF 

P<ickoochee-itayoo...A« eviscerates him (as an animal). 
Cli^ech4eke-ita3f00i..Ae scratches him. 
K&wdyih&gge'naffoo .,,he tickles him. 



xvi. 2. Ke kah sShgeiewihe-nSgoowdg . . they will out-fling you. 

viii. 36. Ke kali plJiged^fie^re^om . . they (Ft. on) will free you. 

i. 42. Oo ge b^eshewenoft . . he brought him. 

six. 13. Oo ge b^&hgejeweiMJfi . . he brought, oui4ed, him. 

xiii. 5. Oo ge zigenon . . he poured it. 

xy. 2. OocT ^Ubkoo-wdbenaAittm . . he flingeth them away. 

y. 22. Oo ge h^ihged6nahmahwon . . A« has committed t^, let it go, to 

him. 
ii. 15. Oo ge zegwihendhmahwon (poss. case) . . he poured t^ away, 
ix.' 34. Oo ge z^gejewdbeno^oii . . they out-flung him. 
xyiii. 28. Oo ge ne 6onje mahj^wenoAioon . . they thence removed him. 
X.3. Oon ea^koonahmdhgoon (iny.) ..he is oi^ned to by him (the porter) . 
xii. 34. Tah 6ombenaA . . he will be lifted up. 
yiii. 4. Ke d^koonaA ..he {or she) has been taken. 
xy. 6. Tah ^oonahwdbeno^ . . he shall be flung away. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

xii. 32. 0^ombe-fie^(%(m . . if they (Fr. on) lift me up. 

iv. 11. W6mdenahmun (flat, vowel) . . that thou takest tV. 

xiii. 12. Kezeb^gez^da»(^(2 . . that he had wash-footed them. 

xix. 27. Ke kewdwetw^rf. . Ac returned, led back, ^. 

iii. 14. Kah ezhe domh&bkoondd . . as Ac had lifted Aim up. 

xviii. 16. Ke p^ndegahfu^ . . he in-handed, led in, Aifii. 

xix. 12. Che bdhgedeiK^c? . . that he nyght let him go. 

viii. 28. Ke 6obena^ . . (that) ye shall have lifted him up. 

vii. 30. Che t6hkooftaAii;<^c{ . . that they might take him. 

viii. 3. Kah blihged^au7(^ . . that they had let go her (or him). 

xix. 16. Ke ne mahj^wenaAu^c^ . . they led him away. 

viii. 36. Viitigedinendig ..if he let go you. 

viii. 3. Kah d&bkoon^nd . . who had been taken. 

ix. 22. Che zUigejewabenifui . . that Ac should be out-flung. 

viii. 51. Minj^menun^ . . if Ac hold, keep, it. 

xiii. 12. Kah ood&hpemtn^ . . that Ac had taken them. 

x. 4. Kah zl^gejewen(%m . . when Ac out-handeth ^Acm. 

XV. 6. Azhe ikoonaihwihenegahddig ..as it is flung away. 

V. 13. Ke mih}4wen^dezoo (reflect.) . . he had walked? himself away. 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 93 

Westigge-iuijfoo...^ hurts him, puts him to pain. 
MAkwa^ntiifi...^ presses it with the hand, squeezes it 
T4kwaF-ittifii...Ae grasps^ holds it in the hand. 
'PiLket^num..,he looses it from the hand, yields^ gives> it up. 
Q6isk&-nfif»...tum-handeth-(it)-he> he turns it with the 

hand* 
N^ete-itt«f9i...Ae down-hands it, takes it down (from above). 
Sdckuskin-itum...A« closes it, as a door. 
S^e-ftfim...Ae touches t^ with the hand. 
Oote-num,„he from^handeth, i.e. takes it. 
P^me-ittifii...A« awry-edi it. 
Pimme-itfim ...he twists i^. 
Cyope-fttfiit...Ae lifts tV. 
Sissoon&y-nfim...Ae |ni/x it parallel. 
Th^e-ittint ...he pushes it. 
W6pe-iitim...Ae flings it. 
A^pplthkoo-fttfm...Ae unties it. 
P6ekoo-ittif7i...Ae breaks t^. 
. S6ekoo-itfim.. he empties it. 
Skekee~num...he pours it. 
ChkeSte»num...he pierces it, 
Koottippe«ntif7i...Ae upsets it, places upside down. 
Ittissee-ittim...Ae sends it by hand, hands it thither. Sec 

'jnttiyoOy -ptVftim." 
'S^eche-pittdi^oo. ..he puUs him down. 
N6eche-pi^t^in...Ae pt<Z£f it down. 

[xiii. 4. Ke oonje pihzegwe . . he rose (from a seat).] 
vi. 39. Che bdhzegwindenoAfiu^ . . that I raise it up (id.). 

IMPERATIVE. 

ii. 8. Z6ge-4Mhmook . . pour out pe it. 
xi. 39. E^oonahmook . . with-drawye it. 
xiz. 15. Mahj^eittib . . lead he him away, 
xzi. 6. A^hpfihgent^ . . let go ye it, drop ye it. 

*i zi. 44 TUikoo&Airoorf (acdd. pass.) as he wof tied 
xi. 44. Ke taht^peengwi^effooft (lA.) . . he um$ tie*fiiee-ec^. 



94 A GRAMMAR OF 

M6o»ke'piUdifoo...he bares kim kf pulling (samething away). 
M6o8ke^iUum...he exposes, uncovers, ii, idem. 
Ktiske''pittiim...ke breaks it hy pulUng. 
TitO'pittiim,.,he tears it by pulUng. 
Thase'pittiim...he puUs, draws, it down (as a curtain). 
K^e8ke'pitttim,,.he tears it off, by pulling. &c. 

'SkawiyoOy -^fcum. 
A^wkw&r^kafvdyoe.. he passes behind, avoids, him. 
Athewii''Skafvdyoo...he out tvalks him. 
M^]i.W3L'skawdyoo...he meets, i.e. falls in with, him. 
Tkclie-skarvdyoo...he kicks him. 

^^gge'Skan>dyoo...he meets him (by land). 
^VLgga^mdyoo...he meets him (by water). 

[[Ndggat-flyoo...Ae leaves Aim.] 

Ndggata-fV(£^oo...Ae leaves him by water. &c. 

-5trayoo, -5um. 
M4tis-jfvayoo...Ae cuts him. 
M4tis-^ttm...he cuts it. 

M.{ame'Sfvayoo...he cuts him out. 

Miinne-Jum...Ae cu/^ it out. 

P^ekoo-^m...Ae breaks t^ by cutting (as a seam). 

06xhe-sum...he cuts it fair or regular. 

K6eske-^f7i...Ae ci^^^ f/ off, amputates it. 

Nktwi'Sum,. he cuts it in two. 

[^K&sp-ow.. t^ is brittle.3 

Kkspe'Sum,..he makes it brittle, by jlre, crisps it. 

Pit-ram... A« dries iJt by the fire. &c. 



i. 27. D^ihkoo&edc^M^ (id. possess, case) . . as they are iked. 

V. 21. Azhe ooneshk^denod . . as ^ raiseth, puUeth them up (from 

a recumbent posture, 
six. 24. Ke gah k^shke&ecidbseiion (neg.). . we (1.2.) will not tear it. 



THE CRES LAIMUAGE. 



95 



Roots are variously susceptible of one or more of 
these Affixes. 

£P6ekoo-puthu ,.M break^.^ 

P6ekoo-Az<m...Ae breaks it by force. 

Tkekoo-tahdm,..he breaks through it hy striking or ham'' 

mering. 
Peekoo-skum..,he breaks it by accident, or with theybo^. 
P^koo-/iim...Ae breaks^ tears it with the mouth. 
VkekoO'num...he breaks it with the hand. 
P6ekoo-pt/fum...Ae breaks it by pulling. 
P^koo-^m...Ae breaks it by cutting. 

A'8tow-ayoo...t/ is extinct 

A8tow6-ittim...Ae extinguishes it, by hand, e.g. as a candle. 
Ast6we-Afim...id., hj force, e.g. as &Jire, quenches it 
Ast6we-^^tim...id.> by accident, or with theyoo^. 

The *' Special Affixes" make their Reflectives and 
Reciprocals, respectively, as follows : 



TRANSITIVE. 


REFLECTIVE. 


RECIPROCAL. 


8d. P. Sing. 


3d. p. Sing. 


3d. P. Plu. 


-wdfyoo 


"hoossoo 


"hoottdouk 


'tawdyoo 


'tsUtidossoo 


'tahoottdouk 


-skawcfyoo 


-sk^joo 


-akootdtoouk 


"mdyoo 


-missoo 


-mittdouk 


"Tidyoo 


"TiisSOO 


-nittdouk 


-pitt%oo 


"^^issoo 


'pittittdouk 


"Syrayoo 


-awdosoo 


"SSfoottdouk 



To the " General" and '' Special" we shall add 
what may be denominated particular affixes, namely, 
those expressive of the action or operation of the 
Senses f after the manner of the attribute with which 
they are respectively compounded. 



5M^ 


A 


GRAMMAE OF 






SIMPLE. 


Amu. 


INAN. 




W&ppa-mayoo 


"turn 


he sees him or ii. 


Tfy'towa^oo 


'turn 


he hears him or i^. 


M6th4^fiiayoo 


'turn 


Ae smells him or t<. 


Nis6et<5o-#pt^%oo -spUHm 


Ae tastes (perceives a flavour in) him 


M6ose-Aajfoo 


'tow 


Ae feels him or t^. 




COMPOUNDED. 


M^tho-nofvc^oo 


-fttllfl 


Ae good- or> well-ieex^ admires^ Asm 

or U, 
he yfeVL'hearSy likes to hear, him or t/. 


M^tho-/ozp(f^oo 


"turn 


Metho-mo^ifyoo 


'tnatum 


he yfreWsmeUsy likes the smell of, 
him or t<. (Reflect, -nt^^oo.) 


W^ke-pfvajfoo 


'Stum 


he SYfeet-tastes (likes much the taste 
of) him or it. 


Meth6-<^<^fvd^^ao 


-skum 


he vreM-feels, likes the feel of, him 



or »<. 

K tittoo-non^^^oo. . . he seeks himM 
Nisset6we-noft;iyoo...A« knows Asm, Inf sight. 
A'hwe-noiP(f^oo...Ae recognizes Asm, 6y ^tgA/. 
Kittem&hke-nowdf^oo...Ae ^A« on him with pity. 
Moost6we-9toit;(f^oo...Ae longing-^ea^-Atm, longs for him. 
Aht6we-9ioiz^4^oo(priv.)...Ae dis-^ef him, dislikes his appear- 
ance. 

[[T4pwayoo...A« speaks the truth.] 
T&pwdy-tofv%oo...Ae true-Aear^, believes, Atnt.^ 



^ viii. 38. Kah ^zhe-ndhwaig (anim.) . . as ye have seen Mm. 
vii. 24. A^zkenahjndig (inan.) . . as ye see it, ** according to the ap- 
pearance." 
V. 19. Ajf6zhenahwod (flat vowel). . as they saw Aim. 

^ i. 37. (h ge ndon-ddhwdhuxm . . they heard Aim. 
iv. 21. T&pwa/(fAtoesAtfi : . believe thou me. 
viii. 40. viii. 26. xv. 15. Kah 4netdhtDug . . as /hear of Attn, 
xviii. 27. Ke n6oiiddhgooze (see Par. v.) Ae (the code) was heard. 
V. 30. A^ne^oAm^ (flat vowel) . . as J hear it. 



THB CREB LANGUAGE. 97 

Kfnyi^'totvdyoo (priv.) . ,.,ke dis-Aear^^ disbelieves^ (also^ 

denies) him. 
'Sisseet6o'towdyoo,,,he understands him. 
Nutt6o-/ofz;(fyoo...Ae listens to him. 

Weeke'mdkoosu.,,(8ee Par. V,) he is sweet-^me/ZeJ.** 



Paragraph V. 
Of the Indeterminate and Indefinite Pronouns. 

Intensity is, emphatically, an Accident of the Cree 
and Chippeway verb. In extent, or degree, it contin- 
gently modifies the several members of which the 
simple verb consists, as 

1. The Attribute — ^in *' degree," as will be noticed 
hereafter. 

2. The Action — in *' extent," as the repetitive^ 
frequentative, habitual, and (in respect of time) inde- 
finite, forms : — in '' degree," as in the different forms 
denoting special degrees of energy in the action, as 
causation, force, &c. (See Par. I. and III.) 

3. The Personal Accidents — in ** extent," as the 
indeterminate and indefinite pronouns, which form the 
leading subject of this paragraph. 

The verbal examples, which have been given in this 
work, have been chiefly confined to the determinate 
or definite forms of the personal pronoun, as regards 
both subject and object ; this being, as already ob- 



^ xi. 39* Ke nib'ihzoo-mdhgooZ'idoog , . . he is desLd^^ke'smeU-ahle- 
probably. 

H 



98 A GRAMMAR OF 

served, the most simple form of the Transitive verb. 
We now proceed to point out the verbal forms ex- 
pressive of the intensive or amplified English pronouns 
they^ onCy people ^ some one, 8fc. (Fr. on) which I denomi- 
nate Jnrfeierminafe pronouns ; and also those others of a 
still more extended signification, implying, some, any, 
8fc. person or thing, in an indefinite manner — these 
I call Indefinite pronouns. We shall consider them in 
connection with the Intransitive and Transitive Verbs, 
and in the active and passive forms of the latter. 

I. — ^The Intransitive verb is susceptible of only one 
intensive modification of the personal pronoun, namely, 
the subjective, and in the third person singular only. 
It is formed by changing the inflectible termination 
(3 p. sing.) into the indeterminate ttnewoo (or anewun), 
at ncinewoo (or nd^nevmn),^^ as, 

AVkoos-tt (:^e-foo)...^e is sick, ill. 

A^Vfrkoose-ndnewoc.ikei/, (Fr. on) some one is sick, or sick- 
ness prevails. (Subj. -Sek, or -ndnewik.) 

Seeb6oyt-ayoo...^e departs. 

SeehboyUdnetvoo (Fr. on pi^rt).../Aey (indeterm.) depart. 
(Subj. -^ek or -dnewiL) 



^The Chippeways add m, the cognate of oo or w (see p. 6l> note 35), 
to the verbal termination, making in the Subj. -ng. 

i. 28. Ke t6hzh-ezhecAe^rftm (indeterm.). . (these things) they (Fr. on) 

were doing. 
11. 32. Ke n6otiddhsi6em . . they (id.) have Mt heard. 

SUBJUNCTIVB. 

vii. 10, 11. Ainddhzhe wikoond-(ng. . as they (indet.) were feasting, 
zi. 4. Che n^b6o-N^ . . that one (Fr. on) should die (from it), 
xiii. 2. Ke . . . . w^sen-in^ . . as they Qndet.) had . . . eaten, 
iv. »5. Ahpe ka k^eshk-iiiMi^tihithJegdi^nff . . then shall grass-cut- 
they Qndet.) 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 99 

TiJickoo#t7t...^e arrives. 

Ttickoosim^neft^oo (Fr. on arrive) ... thet^ (indet) or some 
one arrives 

II. — ^From the peculiar structure of the Transitive 
verh, as including in itself both the Subject and 
Object (intensive as well as simple) in its active and 
passive forms, a variety of combinations occur. The 
range of the Intensive Pronouns being however re- 
stricted to the third person of the singular number, 
the forms which they furnish are comparatively few, 
as they are also simple and consistent in their conju- 
gational formation. 

The Transitive Affix consists, as already shown, of 
two parts, namely, the '* energetic'' letter or letters, 
and the *' inflection" ; the intensive personal modifi- 
cations alluded to here belong to the latter — the 
former, or energetic letter, remaining unchanged. 

Note — The " energetic" / (or d) is an exception to this rule. (See 
below.) 

The Indeterminate objective pronoun belongs to the 
** animate*' — the Indefinite^ to the *' inanimate" class. 

1 — ^The Indeterminate objective pronoun is expressed 
by changing the general determinate termination -ayoo 
(Chip, -on, or -aun) (3 p. sing.)=Ae — him, (see p. 38 et 
seq,) into the indeterminate termination -ewdyoOy (Chip. 
-ewa) or, which is almost the same thing, by prefixing 
to the former the *' constant" intensive Wy together with 
its preceding connecting vowel, which is generally e.** 



M INDSTBHMINATB INJDICATIVB. 

[xii. 47. Nin deb4hkooa(^M (neg. det.). . /judge him not.] 
V. 30- NincT ezhe depihkoon«u;<f . . / ao judge. 

h2 



100 A GRAMMAR OF 

S^e-h-oyoo {det)...ke loves him. 

Sake-h-ew-(fyoo (indet.)...Ae loves^ and so of the rest. 

Cheesehayoo...A€ deceives him. 

Ch^8ehetvdi^oo...he deceives. 

Minnahayoo...Ae gives him to drinks qu. he en-drinks him. 

Minnahervdtfoo...he gives to drink. 

These form^ respectively^ their three persons singular as follows : 





ANIM. DET. 




ANIM. INDKT. 


1 

otv 


2 3 
'Ow -ayoo. 


1 
-dn 


2 3 



iVe s^keh-on; (det.).../ love Afw. 

Ne sakeh-ew-(fn (indet).../love {some one). 

Ke ch6eseh-ofv...^Aof^ deceivest him. 

Ke ch6eseh-*ew-(fn.. thou deceivest (some one). 

It-6them-ayoo...Ae so thinks (of) him. 

It-6them-ew-(£yoo...Ae sb thinks {some one). 

Note-^The Transitives ending in -wdt/oo, (see p. 45.) make 
-hew^^ooin the Indeterminate objective form^ as W^eche-n^oyoo... 
he accompanies him; W^eche-hervdyoo...he accompanies. 

Note. — Mdskam^oo {he takes from, robs, him) makes Mtiski- 
twiyoo {he robs). Atkiadyoo {he exchanges with, him) makes 
At^w^yoo ihe exchanges, barters). A^ssam^^oo {he gives him food, 
feeds him,) makes A^ssagdyoo {he administers food). A^che-moyoo 
(anim. he relates him) A^t-ootum (inan. irreg. he relates it) make 
A^che-moo (indef. he relates). Ndttoo-mo^oo (he calls him) makes 
Ntittoo-kaymoo (he invites). These and some others are irregular. 



viii. 15. Kef ezhe tehihkoonewdim ..ye bo judge, 
xi. 3. Ke n4endQhewdwun (obliq. case) . . they sent (some one) unto 
him. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

viii. 16. Teh^hkoon-ewdydn . . (if) I judge. 

X. 10. Che n46\i-€wdid (subj.) . . that he kill. 

[v. 20. Oo w^bundahdn . . he causeth him to see, sheweth him.] 

xi. 57. C)he wfihbundahewai<i . . that he shew. 



THB CR££ LANGUAGE. 101 

2. — The Indefinite objective is formed by changing 
the inflectible terminations of the definite '* Inanimate" 
forms, generally, both General and Special (3 p. sing.) 
into the indefinite termination -egdyoo (Chip, -ega}^ the 
intensive g (always hard) of which is *' constant,'' the 
termination -ayoo only being inflectible." 



*7 INDEFINITE INDICATIVE. 

vii. 21. JVtfi ge 6zhech-ega . . /have done. 

i. 26. Nin z4gBh6xidBh-gd . . I pour on. 

zviii. 20. Nin ge k^enoo&limali^a . . J have taught. 

iii. 10. Ke kekenoo&hmah^(f, nah? . . thou teachest ? nah, interr. part. 

iii. 23. Ke tdhzhe z^gahtindah^c^ . . he was pouring on, baptizing. 

[iv. 38. Ghe dhwe kiesYkk'&lishk'ishzhahmdig (def.) . . that go cut- 

gnaa-yeM. Cree, K^sk-dsk-esumnu^.] 
iv. 37. K^eshklihshkishzhe^tf (indef.) . . (another) cut-grass-^, reap- 

eth. Cree, K^esk-tisk-ese-^cfyoo. 
xii. 34. Nin ge (oonje) n6ondah^(fmtn. . We (1.3.) have (out oO heard, 
viii. 38. Ket* 4z\iechegdim .,ye do (that, &c.). 
viii. 44. Ke we 6zhechegdim', . ye wish, will, do. 
xvi. 26. Ke kah und6otahmah^(ftm . . ye shall ask (for), demand. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

V. 30. Che iz\iQch-egay6n . . that I do it. 

xiv. 13. Ewh ka izhechegaydn . . that shall do-/. 

iv. 29. Kah hh-dhyizhechegaydn (intens.). . which Jhitherto-do, have 

done, 
i. 33. Che z^gahtindah^a^(^ . . that I pour on. 
i. 25. Z6gah6nd9hgdyun . . ? . . (Why) pourest thou . . ? 
i. 38., xi. 8., iv. 31., viii. 4. Kdkenoo4hmah^(fyten (flat vowel) . . . 

tJtou who teachest (habit.) ** master." 
ii. 18. Yie dhy6^Qchegdyun (intens.). . (these things) which thou hast 

done (with iteration), 
iii. 2. Azkechegdyun (flat vowel) . . (which) thou doest (habit.), 
vii. 28. K^enoollhmah-^(f«(f (def. time). . as he taught, 
iii. 2. Kdkenoodhmah^tltd (flat vowel). . he who teaches (habit.) quasi, 

a teacher, 
iii. 22. Ke tllhzhe-z^gahtindah^(ue^ . . (and) he constant-poured. 



102 A GRAMMAR OF 

When i is the energetic letter of the animate verb^ as in 
n^mi^dyoo ,,,he fetches him ; ndgga-^-oyoo ,,,ke leaves him ; pdck wi- 
Ua^oo,*.he hates him; it is^ in the indeterminate form^ softened 
into its cognate s (or sh) as, na-s-ew4yoo...Ae fetches (some one) ; 
ntigga-j-ewcfyoo...Ac leaves (some one, people, &c.) ; puckwA- 
S'ervdyoo,,,he hates. On the other hand, when t is the energetic 
letter of the inanimate verb, it is softened, in the indefinite form, 
into its cognate (t)ch, as 

GENERAL. 

O'ose-^-of0...Ae make^ it. 

Oose-cA-eg4yoo...Ae make^, is making (something). 



X. 10. Che hahxMi^echegdid . . that he spoil, make bad. 

i. 21., iv. 44., iv. 19. Anw^hegdid (flat vowel) . . he,07ie, who speak- 

eth, an orator, " prophet." 
ii. 12. Kah iahquBihizhechegdid . . when he had end-done, ended, 
iii. 20. Mije-izhechegdid (flat vowel) . . (he) who evil-does. 
ix, 8. Und6odahmah^(^ , . (^)who begged, demanded, 
vii. 14. Ke k^enoo4hmab^£^u? . . he taught, 
viii. 8. Ke oozh^be^gdid . . he wrote. 
1. 33. Ka s^gahtindah^iu^ . . (he) who shall pour, baptize. 
X. 40. Kah ddhzhe-zi^h^dahgaid . . that he constant-^vaed, was 

baptizm^. 
iii. 22. Ke tdhzbe z^gaihAndaixgdid . . he constant-poured, 
vi. 59. Ke t^zhe k^enoodhmah^cfu^ . . as ^ constant-taught. 
V. 29. Kah m^noo-^zhecAe^4;i^ . . who (plur.) well-do. 
V. 29. Kah mlihje-^zhec^t^'i^ . . who (id.) evil-do. 
viii. 62. 53. Anwiihchegdjig , . who Cid.) speak, orators, "prophets." 
xiv. 27. Azbe migewatodd . . as they give, 
vi. 13. Kah w^sen^'^ (irreg,) . . who (plu.) had eaten. 

NEGATIVE. 

viii. 28. JVie . . ^zhechegdse . . I do not. 

iv. 2. Ke zegahdndah^^ . . he had not poured on, baptized. 

ix. 3. Ke mUije-^heche^cCfe . . he hath not iH^done. 

vii. 22. Ke ke 6onje ^zheche^<Cr^?m(ewh) . . ye have therefore done 

not (that). 
X. 37. ^^zhwhtgdsewdn (subj. possess, case^ ., (iO I do not hu it. 



THE CRB£ LANGUAGE. 103 

W6ime-^(^ (def.)...A€ loseth it. 
Wuxme'ch-egd^oo (\nde£.).„he losdh. 

M6wutche*l-(^...Ae collects^ gathers together^ it. 
M6yf\itch^'Ch>^dyoo.,,he collects together. 

Tkka-t'Um...ke stabbe^A it 
T^k'Ch'egdyoo,,,he stabbeM. 

P6ot^-^-tim „.he blowdA it. 
Pooti'Ch-egdi^oo. . , he hlowetk. 

SPECIAL (See p. 95.) 
P6ekoo-A-2£m fdef.) makes -h-egdyoo (indef.)...Aebreakc/A, b^ force, 
-tah-tim . . . -tah-egdyoo, .,ke breake^i^ by striking. 
-sk'Um . . . 'Sk'Cigdyoo ,,.he breaketh, by accident. 

"t'Utn ... -cli-egdy 00 ,,ke tear ethyriik the mouth, 

"n^um . . . "U^egdyoo ...he hreaketh with the hand. 

-pitt'Um ;.. -pi(t)ch'egdyoo,..hehreakelh, by pulling, 
-s-um . . . -s-egdyoo ...he breake/A^ by cutting. 

See p. 87 and Paradigms. 

Ne wdnne-t-an (def.) . . . / lose it. 
Ne wdnne*ch-eg^n (indef.).../ lose. 

Ke n6che-t-a»...^A(n^ workest (at) it. 

Ke n6che*ch^gdn.,Jhou workest, art employed. 

M4sse-t-on;...Ae agitates t^ 
M&sse-ch-egefyoo. . . he agitates. 

Ne m^tha-t-^u (anim.-m^ayoo).../ «mell it. 
Ne meth4>^-eg<£5 . . . / smell. 

Ke w6pa-h-^ii (anim. "Vr -ay 00),,. thou sweepest it. 
Ke w6pa-h-eg^it...^Aot£ sweepest. 

Miimie-s-t<m...Ae cuts it. 
M iinne-s-eg^^oo . . . Ae cuts. 

Kumia-w^ppa-t-um.../<e long-sees^ looks at^ it. 
Kunnah-iy^ppa*ch-eg<f^oo...Ae looks out, watches. 



104 



A GRAMMAR OF 



M6tooii-ethe-t-tt9ii...Ae complete-thinks, considers i7. 
M6toon-^the-ch-eg^^oo...Ae reflects. 

Note — The Indefinite, being more extetisive in its meaning than 
the Indeterminate, which is exclusively personal, comprehends the 
latter, and may be used for it ; but, for the same reason, not vice 
versd. 

The indeterminate -ewdyoo, and the indefinite 
-egdyoo belong to the same conjugation, which is an 
Intransitive form, having the three persons singular. 



as follows : — 














INDICATIVE. PRES. 








CRBE, 






CHIPPEWAY. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


"Cwdn 


-ewrfn 


-ewdi/oo. 


-eyrd 


-ew(f 


-ewrf. 


-egdn 


-egdn 


-egdtfoo. 


~egd 


-egd 


-ega- 






SUBJUNCTIVE. PRES. 






1. 


2. 


3. 


I. 


2. 


3. 


'^wedn 


-ew^fi 


^ewdil. 


•'QYikydn 


-ewa^t/n 


-ewdid. 


"Cg^dn 


-eg^un 


-egdit 


-egkydn 


^egiyun 


-egdid. 



The plural is, in all cases, formed from the singular number. 
(See Paradigms.) 

Note, — The above two intensive forms of the objective pronoun 
are susceptible of those other intensive forms (of the action} 
noticed p. 69 et seq,, as 

Ch^sehe-way-oo (indet.)...Ae deceives. 

Ch6esehe-w&y-*^-M...Ae deceives often. 

N6oten-eg4y-oo (indef.)...Ae fights, is fighting. 

N6oten-eg&y-*A:-M . . . Ae fights qften.^ &c. 

These intensive objective take also, besides the 



*8 X. 8. Ke mkhkundrwd^hketoug . . they have roh-people-frequenthf-edr 
are robbers, 
viii. 44. ^^Bhe-wd'shk^hun . . he kill-^«i-ed, was a murderer. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 105 

plural, the intensive subjective forms (see p. 98, Intran- 
sitives), thus exhibiting double intensive signs, as, 

Ch6ese-hew-rf^-oo (det. subj., iiidet. obj.v..Ae deceives. 

Cheese-hew-dy-foulcAhey (idem.) deceive. 

Oi^eseAiew-ctnervoo (Fr. on):,. they (indet. subj. and obj.) 
deceive. (Subj. -herv-dik, or, -hew-dnewik.) 

^dote-Ti-egdyoo ,.,he fights. 

N6ote'n'egdywuk.,Jhey (det.) fight. 

Ndote-n-egdnetvoo (Fr. on).., they (indet.) some one is fight- 
ing. (Subj. -egdik, or, ^egdnewik.) 

It'dyoo...he so says (to) him. 

lUfvdyoo...he so says (Angl. he says). 

Jt'fvdnetvoo (Fr. on 6ii%)..,they (indet.) so say, Angl. peo- 
ple say ; It is said. (Subj. 'fvdik, or, -tvdnervik.) 
This verb, from its Relative form, is commonly used at the 
end of the sentence. See Relative Verbs, Sect. IV. 

Note. — Dr. Edwabds, speaking of the Mohegans, one of the Algonquin 
tribes, observes that " they cannot say, I love, thou givest, Sfc. but they 
can say, I love thee, thou givest him, 8ic." The examples, of similar 
grammatical import, which have been adduced in both the animate and 
inanimate forms, will, I imagine, be sufficient to shew that he is 
completely in error. Dr. E.'s opinions having, however, been quoted by 
eminent Philological writers, (see Tooke's Diversions qf Purley, Booth's 
Analytical Dictionary^ &c.) they have, generally, an especial claim to 
notice, and will be hereafter considered in detail. See Additional Notes. 

The simple objective forms, also, take the intensive 
subjective,*® as, 

Keese-t-on^...Ae finishes it. 

K^eBe-t-dnervoo (Fr. on).,. they (indet.) finish it* 



&9 i. 38, 41, 42. A^hnekanootahm-in^ . . (if) they (indet.) translate it. 
iv. 35. Che k^eshk-dhshknsh(zh)ahm-ik^ . . that they (indet.) cut it. 
vi. 13. Kah eshqtiundahm-^ . . which they (indet.) left. 
See Note 55. 



1^ A GRAMMAR OF 

Reciprocals and Reflectives take also the same form.^ 

N6otenayoo...Ae fights him, 

H^doteniHdouk (Fr> iU s'entre'hsLttent).,Jke^ fight one ano- 
ther, are fighting. 

Hidotenittoondnefvoo (Fr. on s'entre-bat) ... they (indet.) are 
fightings there is an engagement 

'Pk8ke8mdosoo,,,he shoots himself. 

Tk8ke8w6o8oondnervoo,.,some one shoots himself. 

To which may be added the *' accidental" and 
'* participial" passives (see below), as taking also this 
form. 



Of the Passivb: forms. 

The complete investigation of these intensive forms 
of the pronoun, in the Algonquin dialects, brings under 
notice both the Active and the Passive Verb. 

It need scarcely be observed^ that the manner of using these 
two modes of the verb, when in relation with the intensive pronoun, 
varies even in European, or written, languages ; thus we say 
indifferently, " people say," actively ; " it is said," passively ; 
while the French, with their indeterminate on, affect the former, 
or active form, " on dit" The Algonquin dialects assimilate to the 
jpreracA idiom ; as, Ne sakehik-(^frm, Fr. m'aime-t-on, onm'aime... 
MeAoYeth-'Somehody, I am loved. This diversity of idiom appears, 
however, to be limited, generally, to the personal agents or subjects ; 
for, with a more vague or indefinite subject, or, indeed, when it is 
intended to give pi;pminence to the action rather than the agent, 
they all coincide in a common passive form ; as, '* It is spoiled," 



•» ii. 1. Ke wew^kooddhdiw (recip.) . . they (iter, indet.) were feasting 
(one another), 
ii. 2. Aind^hsshe-wew^oodlhdiwfl' (iter, subj.) . . (where) they (id.) 
were feasting. See Note 55. 



THE CR££ LANGUAGE. 107 

Crce, niaseyfunkchegdM^oo ; Fr. il est gftt^. "/< is lost; Cree, 
w^amechegdidtfoo ; Fr. il est perdw. See Syntax. 

In Construction, the Cree and Chlppeway dialects have a phrase- 
ology of their own^ in which the English and Frendi active phrases 
are both very often rendered by the passive voice, and vice versa. 
See p. 58 and Syntax, 

The indeterminate subjective pronoun is (like the 
objective of the active form) of the *' animate'' class, 
and is also exclusively personal; and the indefinite 
subjective, or common passive verb, is of the **inani. 
mate" class or form. 

1. — ^The indeterminate subjective is formed from 
the '* inverse" determinate termination -iAr, -afc (Chip. 
dhg, Jones), or -ook, (3 p. s. inv,) = he — by him^ by 
adding to it the indeterminate -dmn (Chip, -rfo) for the 
first and second persons, and by changing -i/p, &c. into 
'6w (pron. as in low, not high) = he — by some one, 
(Chip, -dh) for the third person.** 



«> INDBTBRMINATE INDICATIVE. 

ill. 28. Nin ge b^n%ahn-4hzhahoog-(^o . . they (indet.) have hither- 
first-sent me, 

v. 14. Ke ke kdhyuhddhweeg-(^ . . they (\d.) have cured thee, 

viii. 33. 36. Ke kah pdhged^nege^bm . . they (id.) will let go, release, 
you. 

vii. 47. Ke wahydzheeg^^om . . they (id.) deceive you. 
The third person is passive, as follows : 

i. 8. Ke hh-ihnoon-dh (indet.) . . he was hither-sen^ (by some one). 

viii. 4. Ke dMnoon-dh , . (he or) she was takm. 

viii. 9. Ke . . ndhgahn<^ . . he was lef^. 

xii. 34. Tah 6omben^A . . he wiU be ]ihed up. 

xix. 20. Ke . . ohgwihqusixwdh . . he was " crucifiwf." 

XV. 6. Tah ^ooneihwkhendh . . he will be flung away. 

ii. 2. Ke ^ndoomdhwug . . they were callecf, invited. 



106 A GRAMMAR OF 

DIRECT INDICATIVE.- 

Ne skke-h-OR^.../ love him, 
Ke 8kke'h'Otv„.thou lovest him. 
Skke-h-ayoo...^e loves him. 



XX. 23. "E^koo-n-dhmahwdh (obliq.case). . they are withdrawn to (from) 

Mm. 
XX. 23. Mmi^me-Ti'dhmahwdh (idem.). . they are held, retaineef, to him. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

xii. 7. Che ningwahoog-(^dn . . that they (indeterm.) bury me. 

xii. 32. 0'ombeneg-e%<^ (if) they (indet.) up-lift me. 

XV. 7. Ka t6otahg(%ai^ . . they (indeterm.) will do to you. 

vii. 4. Che kekinem-{nd . . that he be known. 

[iii. 14. Kah ^zhe 6ombikhkoono(2 . . as he up-hanged him.'\ 

iii. 14. Ka ^zhe 6ombdhkoonin(2 . . shall so be up-hanged he. 

iv. 25. ilzh^nekahnine? (flat vowel.) . . who was namec?. 

viii. 3. Kah d^hkoonine? . . who was taken. 

ix. 22., xii. 31. Che zdhgeje-wdbeniiul . . that he be out-thrown. 

iii. 27. O'onje min^nd . . (if) thence he be given to. 

iii. 18. Ke nsihnibooind . . he has been condemned?. 

xii. 16. Kah b^shegainddhgooiiul . . when he was glonfied. 

xii. 23., xiv. 13. Che b^shegainddhgooiiul . . that he should be glori- 
fied. 

xii. 38. Kah wdhbundahinc^ . . {he) who hath been made to see it. 

XX. 24., xxi. 2. Aninc^ . . who is saie? to, or of, callecf. 

V. 33. Ke nikhzekahw/ndl-ebun . . he has been gone to. 

xix. 16. Che ahgwdhquahcfcmi . . that he be " crucified." 

xix. 41. Kah ddhzhe dhgw4hquah(^ond . . where he was being " cru- 
cified." 

xii. 16. 'E^zhehedond . . that he was written* 

iii. 23. Ke z^gahunddhwindu^c^A . . they were poured on. 

xvii. 19' Che b^netndu^dA . . that they be cleansed. 

xvii. 23. Che pdzhegooindii;e£A . . that they be united, perfected. 

xix. 31. Che ^zhew^nindtc'dA . . that they be taken away. 

xix. 31. Che b6okoog4hda(^(>ndi(;dA . . that they be break-legged. 

i. 24. Kah b^dhnoon/n/i^ . . who were hither-sen^. 

ix. iii. Che w&hbundahmdhwind (obliq. case) . . that they be Been in 
him. 

xi. 3. Che . . w^endahmdhw/nd (id.) . . that he be named to^ told. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 109 

Ne 8kke-h-en;-(£n.../ love^ some one, people^ &c. 
Ke 8kke-h-en^-^».../A{m lovest. 
Skke-h-eft^-(fjyoo .,,he loves. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Che 8kke-h-^fi^-ean...that love-some-one'I, that /love. 
Che 8kke-h-eft^-^2^n...that thou love. 
Che skke-h-ew-<ft7...that /*€ love. 

INVERSE INDICATIVE. 

Ne sake-h-/A:...wie-loveth-Ae, he loves me. 
Ke sake-h-fA:...Ae loves thee. 

Sake-h-/ifc...Ae is loved by him, or them (determ.). 



V. 23. Wayff^i%em%nd (flat vowel) . . who was conned, called son. 

Angl. " the son." 
V. 23. WayooBevaind (flat vowel) . . who was fathered^, called father. 

Angl. " the father." 

A mistaken view of this kind of words, namely, a subjunctive verb with a 
pronoun relative understood, &c. (see p. 73,) has led to an erroneous classi- 
fication. Zeisbergsr has greatly erred in this respect hy classing as 
NOUNS, not only intransitive verbs, e.g. " Weliliswiw.' . . O, pious man \" 
literally. Thou who art good ! but even transitives vnth their regimen, e.g. 
" PemlkuchsoAc^/ian. . O my Saviour," &c. which, also Uterally rendered, 
is Thou who mdkest me live ; agreeably to his own more correct version 
of a similar expression, found among his paradigms of the verb, viz. 
" Wtilamkllesohalian ^vocative), . O thou who makest me happy" — not 
less incorrectly classed under the head of " Participles." This want of 
accuracy in classification, has compelled Mr. Du Ponceau to use for a 
simple|?rc*e»^ of the subjunctive, the perplexing unintelligible denomination 
of the *' participiaUpronominal'VOcative" form. — Trans, qf the Amer.Phil. 
Soc. vol 3, new series, pp. 99. 137. — See Syntax. 

negative. 
iii. 24. AhpdhgenaA-sepun . . he was not depositee^, " cast." 
vii. 39. P^shegainddhgoo(f^-sebun . . he was not glorifiec^. 
vi. 65. M^n^sig (subj.) . . (if) Ac be not given to. 
vii. 39. Mekewdsewitwi-^un . . (for) he was not given, 
xix. 41. Ke ahs&hsewind-^un . . (where) he had not been placee^. 



110 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ne 9^^'Yi''ik^4win (Fr. m'aime-t-oit, on m'aime)... me loves- 

somebody, i.e. / am \oyred (by some one)^ and so of 

the rest (Chip. -i^-<fe). 
Ke s^ke-h-i^'^-^^n^in (Fr. on t*3^xae)...ihou art loved. (Chip. 

-ig'66). 
^tke-h-drv (Fr. U est aim^^ de quelqu'un ; not on Taime) 

,,,he is \oyed. (Chip. -^A). 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Che s^e-h-ik-dtve-dn ... that love-people-me, (Fr. qu'on 
wi'aime,) that / beloyed, by some one. (Chip.-tg-day<5n). 
Che 8ake-h-tA:-(fn?e-w» . . that love-people-thee, (Fr. qu'oi* 
/*aime), that thou be loved, by some one. (Chip. -^- 
doyun.) 
Che sike-h-^e^ (Fr. qu'i/ soit aim^)...that he be loved. 
(Chip, '{ndy 
With the first and second persons the phrase is active — in the 
thirds passive ; they being the return of the direct form. See 
p. 51 et seq. 

INDICATIVE. 

Ne ■p6yUdk,,,me heareth-Ae (det. subj.). 
Ke -pkytrdk . . . thee heareth- A€. 

V^yUdk (pa6s.)...Ae is he&rd by him^ ^c. 
Ne "p^jt-dk'dtvin (Fr. m'entend-o«).../ am heard, by some 

one (indet) 
Ke F€yt'dk'drvin (Fr. /'entend-on).../Aott art heard, by same 
one. 
Vkytr-orvdw (Fr. il est entendM)...Ae is heard, by some one. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Che p6ytrhk''6tve'dn (Fr. qu'oi» m'entende)...that I be heard, 

by some one. 
Che p4yt-kk-(^fi^-ifn (Fr. qu'on fentende)... thai thou be, Stc 
Che j^^jt-dfV'dt (Fr. qu'tV soit entendM)««'that he be, &c. 
Note. — The '^constant" orv or w, in the active, -fy4yoo(Chip.-w&), 
as well as in the return or passive terminations^ 'dmn (Chip. '60), 
or "dfo (Chip. ^6K), belong to the indeterminate pronouns <^euk, 
<^ft^ea, <5fi^inah, seme one, somebody, SfV. (Chip, ahwea, Jonbs) which 
assume here, being in a compounded form, the verbal inflection. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. Ill 

2. — The indefinite subjective, or common passivei 
which, to distinguish it from the accidental (see p. 26), I 
shall call the participial passive form, is the opposite of 
the indefinite active, and is formed from it, by changing 
the active termination -gdyoo (Chip, -grf) into ^gp^tdyoo^ 
the inanimate passive ending (Chip* gahdd, Jones) ,^ 



«2 INDICATIVE. 

xvi. 20. Tah gw&kene-g-ahdd (and so of the rest). . it shall be tvaned, 
iv. 11. D^meydhne^a^^ ,,it is mode deep, 
vi. 31., vih. 17. Z'z\iehe4gaMd ,.itis writtwt. 
xix. 19. Ke izhehe6gahdd . . it has so been writt«i. 
zix. 36. Ke 6zhec\iegahddtoun . . they were so don^. 
vi. 45. WzheheSff ahddmahgut ., it is so written, 
xi. 38. Wiembsihxiekdhddn^bun (obliq. case) . . it was hdQowed, ex- 
csLYBted. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

i. 3. Kah oozheche-^a^c^t^ . . which was made. 

xvii. 24. Chepwah dozhecliegahddig . . before it was mAde. 

ii.Q. Kah zhdhwe-inen-4hboow^che^aA(f<%. . which toflwyellow-berry- 

liquor, i.e. wine-made, 
ii. 17. 'E/zheheigahdaig . . (that) it (is) was wiittefi. 
xv. 6. Azhe ^koonahwabene^aA(iai^ * . &s it is away-flung (a branch), 
xix. 14. Wahwdzheche^aAc^(fi^ . . that it was prepared, 
xix. 28. Ke k^zheche^aMa% . . that it was finishec^. 
XV. 25. Wazheheigahdaig (flat vowel) . . which is writt«i. 
xxi. 25. (yoz\iehe4gahddgebiin ..if it were writt^. 
xix. 23. A^hnzwat^gene^^M^^roo&t^ . . it «9a« wot«i». 
zii 6. Kah b^nah^^a^t^m^ (obliq. case) . . which was put in it. 
iii. 20. Che wdhbunje^a^^ni^ (idem.) . . that they might be seen. 
iii.21. C/ozichegahdanig (idem.). . that they are made, "wrought." 

NEGATIVE INDICATIVE. 

i. 3. Tah ge dozhechegdhddsenoon . . it could not have been made. 
X. 34. 0^ozliehe4gdhddsenoon ..it is not writt6}». 
z. 35. Tah bahndhjeche^i^^^Tioon. . it will not be spoiki, made bad. 
xix. 36. Tah h66k'6og9Akii'ai6gdhddsenen^h (obi. case). . he shall not be 
break-bone-ee?. 



112 ' A GRAMMAR OF 

the inserted participial letters at (or ad) being pro- 
nounced precisely as the same letters in the Italian 
participle amai-o, the a being long, and the t ending 
the syllable. It makes, in the animate form -go^oo, 
the t being softened into its cognate s or z (Chip. 
'gahzoo JoNBs's Orthog.). 

Note, — The letter h following a, in Mr. Jones's " Translation," 
indicates the Italian sound of that vowel, as in *' father ;" without 
distinguishing between its long and short sound ; when unaccom- 
panied by h, a has the sound of the same vowel in ^' fate," 
*' state ;" k final, merely indicates the prolonging of the preceding 
vowel. 

O^ose-ch-eg-cfyoo ,,,he makes. 
Oose-ch-eg^t-(fyao ..make-ed it is, 
Oose-ch-eg^s-oo...Ae is make-ed, m&de. 
K^skekw^'Uum (def.)...Ae sews it. 
KdskekwA-ch-eg<f^oo (indef.)...Ae sews (act.). 
Ktiskekwi-ch-egat-(£yao...fV is sewed (pass.). 
Kilskekwa-ch-egks-oo...t^ (he anim.) is sewed, as a mitten. 
W^pe-n-egrf^oo (act.)...Ae flings away. 
Wepe-n-egkt-oyoo (pass.)., it is flung away. 
W^pe-n-egks-oo...Ae or it (anim.) is flung away. 

S6ge-n-eg<fy 00... pours he, as from a cup. 
S6ge-n-eg^t-c£yoo...pour-ed it is, 

Sega-h-eg^^oo... pours he, with strength, as from a bucket. 
S6ga-h-6gkt-rfyoo . . . pour-ed-t/ is, 

Kippa-h-eg4yoo...he shuts, as a door. 
K$ppa-h-6gkt-<fyoo...close-ed it is. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

vii. 23. Che h9ihnih.}Gchegdhdds€nooff . . that it be not spoilt, made 

bad. 
XX. 30. Whzheheigdhddsenoog (flat vowel) . . which are not written 

(indef.) 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 113 

O^'ott-n-o^oo. . . he takes him, 
O^ote-n-eg4yoo. • • he takes. 
0^ote-n-eg^f-oo...Ae is (has 6een) taken. 
O^ote-n-eg^^-(fyoo...tl t; (has 6een) taken. 

0^opa-h-2^m...Ae lifts t<, with force. 
O''opa-h-eg^^oo. . . he lifts . 
0^opa-h-ega«oo...Ae w lifted. 
O^opa-h-4g/}^4^oo.. it is lifted 

Nipp4-ch-eg4yoo. .Ae kills. 
Nippa-ch-eg^^oo...^ is kiUe(/. 

The animate and inanimate persons are formed as follows :— - 





CREJB. 


INDICATIVE. 


CHIPPEWAY. 




1 


2 


3 1 


2 


3 


(An.) -gJlsoon 


^^oon 


-gksoo -g^ 


-gkz 


-gJlzoo 


(In.) 




'g^tdyoo 




-giuli£ 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

(An.) 'g^ooydn 'gksdoyun ^ghsoot i ^ilzooydn -gkzdoyun -gkioot 
(In.) -gilttfi^ I 



Note, — It may be observed, that the above mentioned two passive 
forms, namely, the Accidental and the Participial, have exactly their 
equivalents in the two English participial forms, of which one is 
considered to be irregular, e.g. 

U^ckoo-t-oyoo (inan.)...tV is hung up (accid. state). 
U'ckoo-ch-e|f^/-<£^oo.,.iV is (Anglicd, has been) YiBUged up 

(by an agent implied). 
£skw&-t-^^oo (inan.)...t7 is hnmt (accid. state). 
Eskw^ch-egf^/d^oo ... ii is (has been) bumec^ (as by an 

incendiary). 
Kippoo-t-(£^oo...27 is stop/ (accid. state). 
Kipp6o-ch-eg^/-^^oo ... it is (has been) stoppecf, by some 

agent. 
K6che-piss-oo (anim.)...Ae is gir/ (accid. state). 
K6che-pi(t)ch-eg^«-oo ... he is (has been) gixdied (by an 

implied agent). &c. 

I 



114 A GRAMMAR OF 

From the above indeterminate verbal forms are 
derived Adjective verbs (of a transitive signification), 
by adding to the intensive signs, the termination of 
MANNER, viz. -wiss-u^oT -s-u — equivalent, respectively , 
to the English active 4ng, -ive, or -ous, and the passive 
-ed, -able or -ible, as, 

Sakehe-fr(£yoo...Ae loves {some one, people, &c.). 
Sakehe^wdif'tvissu .,, he loves-generally-like^ is lov-some- 

one~ing, i.e. lovtn^, am<nr-{nfx. 
Sklieh{k...ke is loved. 
SakehSk'00su.,.ke is loved-generaUy-like, he is lov^able, ami- 

able. 

VkyUdk,.,he is heard by him, or them. 
P6jtAk-oow...Atf is {may he) hear J, is aud-ti/f. 
P^ytUc-ivKit...!/ is hear<i, is aud-t6/e. 

M^thkmkkoow...Ae is (may he) smellfif, is 8mell-a6/e. 
W6eke-m^fv«n...t/ is sweet-smelltfif. 

N5k-o(Mt^...Aeu (may he) seen, uvi8-t62e. 
Nok-ivfin.».tV w vis-t5^. 

M^tho-n^koom.. he is well*seeit, Angl. (act) good-looking. 
M6tho-n^kfv«n,..t^ ttf well-seen, has an agreeable appear- 
ance. 

Mdtho-8ptickoow...Ae is well-tastei. 
Mutche-sp(ickfrfin...f/ is ill-tastecf. 

The three persons singular are formed as follows :-«- 

CREE. CUIPPE WA Y. 

INDICATIVE ACTIVE. 
13 3 12 3 

-wis-in -wis-ira -wis-u | -wiz -wiz -mz-eh, 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

-wis-eirt -wis-^ -wis-i^ | 'mz-eydn -wiz-^un -wiz-irf. 



1 


2 


3 


-o6z 


-ooz 


"OOzeh . 
•yfud. 



THB CREB LANGUAGE. 115 

INDICATIYB PASSIVE. 
1 2 3 

(Anim.) -oos-in -oos-in -oos-t/. 
(Inan.) -w-t^n. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

(Anim.) •*oo8-e<^n -oos-^n -oos-tV. i -ooe-^(^n -ooz-eytm -ooz-uf. 
(Inan.) -w-dk. | -w-iiit.** 

«* INDICATIVB. — ANIMATE. 

iii. 30. Nin gah ne en-^dkhgoor . . J will be so-tliouglit of. 

viii. 53. iv. 12. Kef ahp^t-dind^hgoo^ . . thou art so (much) -thought of. 

xiv. 28. iii. 31. A^hwahshemd mah ahp^t-dindkhgooxr^^. . beyond for 

he is so (much) thought of. 
vii. 28 . Qudyahqu-aindkhgoofre^. .he is straight-thought, esteemec? true, 
xii. 13. Shdhw-dind^hgoozeA ..he is qu. very-thought of, blessed", 

favoured. 
xxi. 1. Ke ezhe wahbahm^gopje^ . . he was so seen, 
ix. 9. £zhen^hgoo2reA ..he is so seen, he so appears, is like, 
xviii. 27. Ke n6oad^goo;?e(^) . . he was heard (the cock), 
xiii. 31. P^sheg-dind^goozeA ..Jieis one-thought,-considered. 
XX. 29. Shahw-aind^gooarewm^r . . they are favoured, blessed, 
xvi. 7. KecP en-kindkhgoozim . . ye are so thought, considered, 
viii. 23. Ke teb-dindkhgoo2rtm . . ye are governed, 
xiii. 17. iTe zhahw-aindkhgoo2r«m . . ye are blessed, favoured. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

iii. 33. vii. 18. Quiyukqu^&indithgoortd. . .he is straightH;hotf^Af,is true, 
viii. 47. T^b-dindkhgooirid (flat vowel) . . (he) who is governed. 
i.27. viii. 53. iv. 12. Ap^t-^nd&hgoo2rtd. . who so (much) is thought of. 
xiii. 32. P^sheg-dindiihgoo£rid . . if he be one-thought, i. e. great* 
thought, gloriotM. 

i. 32. Ke b^-ezhenkhgooarid . . he was hither-so-seen, was like. 

XV. 19. Teh'^ndkhgoozeydgooh^n . . if ye were governed, 
xviii. 37. Thh^iindkhgoozefig (flat vowel) . . who are governed. 

INDICATIVE. — INANIMATE. 

zix. 7. En-dind^igtof^d ..it is ao thought. 

viii. 16. Tah qtiiukqu-^nd^igtimd . . it will be straight-, just-thought. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

xviii. 31. An-^andkhgwuk (flat vowel) . . as t^ t^ thought. 

i2 



116 A GRAMMAR OF 

This passive adjective form may be rendered still 
more intense by inserting an additional oo or w before 
the Affix of manner. 

Sow^themayoo.,.he favours him. 

Sow^themti^ (det.)...Ae U f&yotxred by him, or them. 

Sow^themoft; (indet)...A€ is favoureif (Jby some one). 

Sow^thech^/^f 00 (indef. agent, def. time;...Ae is (has been) 
favoure(2. 

Sow6themikooftt (agent and time indef.)... Atf is favourec?. 

Sow^themikdozotJ^ (infinite^ universal)... Ae is highly, su- 
premely, favoured (qu. by Providence.). 

S^kehayoo...Af loves him. 

Skkeht^ (det)...Ae is \oyed by him, or them. 

S^keh(^ (indet.)...Ae is \oved (by some one). 

Shike^egiisoo (particip. pass.)...Ae is loved (def. time). 



xviii. 14. U^ndahw-iindkhgtrtfib . . that it was to be ezpectec?. 

XV. 13. Ap^t-dindkhgum^ . . as it is thought, esteemec^. 

V. 36. Andind-khgtraAieidg (possess, case) ..d^ his ..is consider^?. 

NEGATIVE INDICATIVE. 

i. 27. MiuT ahp^tidnd^goor^ .. I am not so (much) thought of, 

deemed worthy, 
▼iii. 23. Mft deb-ainddhgoor^e ..I am not governed, ruled, owned, 
ziii. 16. XV. 20. Ahp^Utindyigoo;?^tf. . (more) he is not deemed worthj. 
ziii. 38. Tah ndondihgoozdse . . he shall not be audtife, hean^. 
zvii. 14. Teb&inddhgoo2^(5e)ioti^ . . they are not governed, owned, 
ix. 33. Teb^ddhgooxre5^^^ . . (if) he were not governed, owned, 
xi. 4. En-^ndihgwdhsendon (inan.; ..it is not so-thought, deemed. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

xvii. 16. Azhe tehiandihgooz^sewon (obi. case). . as J am no^ governed^, 

owned, 
vii. 15. Ke k^enooahmihgooxr^i?i^ ..as he has not been instruct6cf, 

taught, 
viii. 47., XV. 19. Tebaind4hgoo;?^«o(ft^ ... as ye fire not governed, 

owned, (of God). 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 117 

Skkehikoosu (indef. time. Sic.),., he is, (may he,) \oyed, is 

2ixa\able. 
Silkehik<^(wwM (infin.)...Ae is lowed, qu. by Providence. 

There is yet another form, which is also passive, 
and implies obligation or necessity, viz. -ctt-ikoosu^ as, 

G6ost''{k'00'Su.,.he is fesLred-generally-like, is terr-ible. 
G6ost'dt'{k'00'SU ,,he is to be feared. 



Paragraph VI. 
Of the Oblique Cases. 

It has been observed, that both the direct and 
the oblique cases of the pronoun are combined 
with the verb. The nominative and accusative, ex- 
pressive of the subject and the object, have just been 
exemplified in their determinate, indeterminate, and 
indefinite forms. We now proceed to the Oblique 
cases, or remote object. 

These cases are as follows, namely — two Datives ; 
the Vicarious ; the Instrumental ; and the Possessive. 
Their conjugational forms differ little from those of the 
Direct cases, the added sign being supplied generally 
by inserted letters, rather than by change of termina- 
tion. See Paradigms. 

^These have, like the other cases, their animate and 
inanimate forms. 

The first, or common Dative, signifies to or for, and 
is formed (3 p. sing.) as follows : 

Nippa-h-(fy-(X) (accus. anim.)...kill-eth-Atm-Ae^ he kills him.^ 
Nippa-t-(^w (id. inan.)...kill-eth-f7.Ae, he kills it. 



118 A GRAMMAR OF 

'Srppk*-t'*otv*d^oo (anim.) ...quasi> kill-eth-Atm^/br-^tm-A^, 

he killeth him for him. 
l9ip^k'Udmofv*dy»oo (inan.)...kill-eth-t7^/br-Atm-Ae^ he kill- 
eth it for him. See p. 51 e/ seq. ®* 

Note, — ^The -«y is pronounced as in " may," " say/* &c. The oo short. 



INDICATIVE. 

M xvi. 2. Nfiuf Qmookitahwdh . . J work /or him (he will think), 
xiv. 16. Nin gah lUmahmed^oAioe^ . . I will pray to him, 
xyii. 26. Mn ge wiendahmdhwog . . J have named, told, t^ to them, 
X. 15. Ne hShgedinahmdhwog . . /let t^ go, yield it, /or ^Aan. 
ziz. 38. Oo ge \md6odahmahwdn , , he demanded it to ((^) him, 
T. 22. Oo ge hdhged^noAmoAioi^ . . he has let t^ go, delivered it, to 

him. 
iv. 33. Oo ge \^idahmahwdn . . he has brought itfw him, 
ii. 15. Oo ge zig--7i^vBidkmakvo6n, , he spill - flung, poured away, t^ 

to them, 
X. 11. Oo m4gewitahmahw6n . . he giveth it for him, or ^*«fi. 
xii. 22. Oo ge b^w^endoAma^e^ . . he has hither-named, told, f7 to 

him 
xii. 22. Oo ge wiendahmahwdhwon, . /A«y have named, told, t^ to him, 
viii. 3. Oo ge b^doAmaAu^^f^ioon . . they have brought him, Sfc.for him. 
ix. 13. Oo ge b^zhew^doAma^iDtfAtoofi . . they led, carried, Atm /or 

him, 4rc. 
xii. 21. Oo ge tindwaw-alndaAmaAio(fAiooii . . they expected, desired, 

to (of) him, 
xiii. 18. Nfft ge 6obenaAf}K^ (inv.) . . he has taken up, raised, to me, 
X. 3. Ooft' esUhkoonoAfiuCAAioon 6d.) . . A« w opened/or, by him, 
xviii. 35. Nin ge bdhged^naAmiA^oo^ . . . ibe-y6wh (id.) . . they have 

delivered it to me, thy'hody, 
XX. 23. Wkoondhmahwdh (id.) ..it is, or, t^ ar«, withdrawn to 

(from) him. 

XX. 23. Minj^men(^Ama^(i% (id.). . it is, or, they are, held to Mm. 

xix. 4. Jr« hidahmdonim (id.) . . / bring him to you, 

xiv. 27. iSTc n^kahdaAnu^tm (id.). . /leave t* to, or for you. 

xiv. 29. Ke ke w^endoAfiu^onim (id.) . . / have named, told, it to you. 

xiv. 2. JTe tah ge wiendahmdonim (id.). . / would have told it to you. 

xiv. 2. JKf^* ah we wahw&zhe^oAmf^onim Cid.). . J go prepare iV/or yow. 



THE CRBB LANGUAGB. 119 

Zeisberoer has stated^ and I believe correctly^ that^ in the L4nni 
Lendpe^ a kindred dialect^ there is a verbal dative case, but his 
Indian examples are> with one exception, in the accusative. 

xvi. 7' Ke kah pkhged6nahm6onim (inv.)- • I will dehver Mm to you. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

[viii. 59. Ke gkhzoo (reflect.). . he hid himself, "] 

xii. 36. KekShzoo-tahwdd (id.). . he hid himself -tO'Cfrom) -them. 

xviii. 14. Che n^ootahwdd . . that he die for him, or them. 

XV. 13. Che ^Shged4nahmahw6d . . that he let go, yield, it for him, 

or them, 
xix. 16. Ke hkihgedenahmdhwdd ,.helet go, delivered, him to him or 

them. 
iii. 33. Kah oot&tipendhmahw6d .... (he) who hath taken, received, 

to (from) him it (his relation), 
xii. 2. Ke 6ozhttdhmahwdhwod . . (and) they made it for him. 
xvii. 15. Che medihgwAuahmdhw^ahdwdh. . (rudwah) that thou take t^ 

for them. 
xix. 11. Kah bdhged^naAm(^o-Ar (sk, Cree) ewh ne-ydwh. . he who let 

tf go, i.e. delivered it, to thee, my-body. 
i. 23. QtCayukqaBtdhunk ^mperat.) . . strait-make ye it for him. 

xiv. 3. Ahwe wahwdzhetahm6onaA^(^oib (inv.) . . (if) I go prepare 

it for you. 
xviii. 39. Che b&hged^naAmoona^<^o^ (id.). . that /deliver him to you. 
iii. 12. Ke w^ndahm6o(ne)naA^^oAr (id.). . (if) I have named it or 

them, to you. 

xvi. 23. Ka \md6odc^mdhwdgwdig . . (whatsoever) ye shall demand 
to (qf) him. 

XX. 23. (Wdgwdin) dVoonahmdhwagwdin (dub. flat vowel.) . . (whom- 
soever) ye withdraw to (from) him. 

XX. 23. (Wdgwidn) m(f»nj^menaA9ii(fAu;(fyt<;(im (id.) . . (whomsoever) 
ye hold t^ to him. 

XV. 16. (Wdgdodoogwdin) ka \iXLd(Kidahimahmdkmd^din (dub.) . . . 
(whatsoever) ye shall demand, ask, to isjf) hkn. 

NEGATIVE INDICATIVE. 

[xvii. 9. Kmd* dhDahmei/oAtPoigr . . I ^XK^for them^ 
xvii. 9. 20. Miuf ^nahmeli^aAto(iA«ee^ . . I pray notfw them. 
ii. 24. Oo ge hiihgedinahmahwdhseen ewh oou^e-yowh (inan.) . . he has 
not committed it to them that his'hody, or person. 



120 A GRAMMAR OF 

The *ccofid Dative, implying motion, signifies to, or 
at, an object, and is thus formed — 

W6pe-n*ayoo...fling*eth-Atm-Ae^ he flings him. 
W6pe-n-Mm...fling-eth-i7-Ae, he flings it 

W^pe-n->^^4yoo...fling-eth-a^-Ati?t-Atf^ be flings at him. 
W6pe-n-(}<-t^m...fling-eth-a/-t^-^e^ he flings at it. 

The Vicarious case, signifying in the room or 
stead of another (from w^cstum, " turn*'), is thus 
expressed — 

It-wayoo. . . he says. 

lUw&y'St'iitnofV'^i/oo (def.)...8ays*«/ea<^^^-Atin-Ae^ i.e. he 

interprets it for him. 
It^way-*<-ii«ikg-dyoo (indef.)...Ae interprets. 

A'toosk4y-oo (neut)...Ae works^ labours. 
A^toosk4y-^/on;-(fyoo...^e works |/br him. 
Ktoo^ky 'St'UmoW'dyoo^.he works in the stead, of him. 



ill. 32. Ool^ QQ\xiicc^\idhmahwdhsien . . he taketh it to (fromj him not. 
xiz. 33. Oo ge b6okoo-g^dagahnaAm(fA«eti;o-J (it indie.) . . they have 

break-leg>fo-Aim not, 
y. 34. NincP donde-n-^m-dhgoose (mv.), . me-takeB-for-he-not. 
xviii. 30. Ke dab g4 p&liged£nahmahg6ose (id.). . they (indeter.) would 

not have delivered him to thee. 
xvi. 23. Ke kab und6odaAi}u^e5e«m (dir.) . . ye shall no^ ask t^ to 

CqfJme, 
iii. 11. Kef ootihpenahmdhwesemin (id.). . ye take it to (receive from) 

us (1.3.) not. 
[zii. 42. Oo ge oonje windhsewon (accus.anim.). . they have therefore 

named Aifii itof .] 
xvi. 4. JTe ke wSen-dt^imdosendonim (inv. inan.) . . / have not named 

(told) f ^ to you. 
yiii. 50. Nin tadsikwimdahmdhdezoose (reflect.) . . I seek to or for 

myself not. 
iv. 21. Che tdbzbe ihn&hmei-tahwdhsewdig (subj.) . . that constant 

pray-to him-not-ye. 



THS CREE LANGUAGE. 121 

The Instrumental case is formed from the inanimate 
form of the indefinite objective, by changing the third 
person -gdyoOy into -gct-gdyoo, and implies with, or of, 
an instrument or material, as, 

Nippk-ch-eg(fyoo ... ^e kills. 
Nippll-ch-^^-g(fyoo...Ae kills with (something). 

O^ose-ch-eg^y^ • • • ^^ makes. 

Oos^-ch-^/^-ga^oo...Atf makes with, or of, something. 

Oblique cases take also the Reflective and Reci- 
procal forms. 

CVose-t-£{fr-(fyoo (anim.) ...Ae makes him for him. 
O'ose-Xrdm^drV'dyoo (inan.)...Ae makes it for him. 

O^ose-t-wdssoo fanim.)...Ae makes him for himself. 
O^ose't'dm^ssoo (inan.).. he makes it for himself. 

O'ose-Urvdt'toouk (mim,)...thei/ make them for each other. 
O^ose-Udm^ditoouk (iuan.)...the^ make them for each other. ^ 

The Intensive forms of the Oblique are formed as 

those of the Direct cases — namely, by the terminations 

-wdyoo and -gayoo. 

O'ose-t-^ir-ayoo (axiim.)...he makes him for him. 
O'ose-t-dm-dW'dyoo (inan.) ,,he makes it fo>r him. 

O'ose-t-nd'gdyoo (anim.)...Ae makes ^br {others'). 
O^ose't'dm-dgdyoo (inan.) ...he makes for (others, some 
one).^ 

^ RECIPROCAL. 

y. 44. Ooyood&ixpenahmdkdeifdig (subj.) . . ye who take to (from) one 
another. 
M [ii. 14. Mahydshquahdooni^n^i^ (subj. inan. flat. vow. def.) . , . who 
exchange them]. 
ii. 15. MahydshquahdoonaAmaA^ro/t^r (id.) . . who exchange (indef.), 
for others. 



122 A GRAMMAR OF 

Again — ^To the Indefinite form of the Objective case 
may be super-added a definite Oblique case, as above, 
e.g. 

O^ose-t-oip (def. obj.)...A6 makes it. 
Cyose-ch^egdy-oo (indef. obj.)...Ae makes. 
0'ose-ch-eg4y-t-iKm-^fr-4yoo (indef. obj.)...Ae makes^ Jor 
him. 

It must not be forgotten, that the Oblique cases 
are, as well as the Direct (see p. 105), susceptible of 
the indeterminate Nominative (Fr. on). 

0'ose-t-wA-g£fyoo...Ae makes^br (others^ people). 
O^09e*t-yrk-gdnefvoo (obi. case> double intensive)... jom^ one 
maketjbr (others). 

It-w4ystamag4yoo...Ae interprets ^/br (others^ people). 
It-w4y8tamag<2iiefvoo.. some one interprets for (others). 

Intransitive forms also take oblique cases, &c. 
NIggamoo.. he sings. 

Niggam6o-f/on^ayoo...Ae sings to him, or them. 
A^chemoo .,he relates. 
A'cheia6o'Stowdyoo.,.he relates to him. 
Kksoo (reflect)... Ae hides himself. 
Kksoo*stowdi/oo,..he hides himself to (from) him. 
Ne niggSLm6o'StofV(kD...2 sing to him. 
Ne mggamoo^tdk.,.he sings to me. &c. 

'* Substantive-verbs" form their cases in the same 
manner ; as from Assdm, a snow-shoe, 

Assdm-e-k-(fyoo (see p. 19) •• •snow-shoe-makes- Atf. 
Ass&m-e-k*on;-^^oo (def.)...A^^ &c. for him, e.g. a pair for 

his use. 
A8s4m-e-k4y-^amon;-4yoo (indef.) ...he, &c. generally, ^/br 

him. 
Net* aLSsAm-e-kowdrv (def. dir.) ../, kc.for him. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 123 

Net* assAm-e-k^i^ (Id. inv.)...Ae, Stcfar me. 

Net' aBs&m'e~\Lkk'6fvin.,Jheif (indet.) make> e.g. a pair^ &c. 

for me. 
Net' &s3Am'e-kky'tam'dk'drvin ,,,me snow-shoe-make-(gene- 
rallyYfor-he + they (Fr. on), &c. 

The Possessive or Accessory case, being very 
puzzling, at least, to learners, must be given at 
some length ; we have therefore assigned to it the 
last place in the list of verbal oblique cases. Unlike 
the other cases, this refers to third persons exclusively ^ 
as the '^ end," &c. Though thus limited in its appli- 
cation, it is nevertheless of very extensive use. It 
may be superadded to all the other cases. 

The simple form of this verbal ending, viz. Indie. 
-ethu, anim. and inan., (Chip, -wwn anim., -ene'h inan.) 
Subj. -ethit (anim.), -eth{k (inan.) ; Chip, -enid (anim.), 
-enig (inan.), signifies to him, that is, vdth respect to, 
or, in relation to him, her or them ; but, in English, 
the equivalent of this sign is often omitted, and vaguely 
only, if at all, understood. 

There does not appear to be, in English, any equivalent term for 
this oblique case, at least one which is uniformly used. Its import 
is variously expressed by the prepositions to, /or, tvith, &c. as> it is 
lost to him, that is, as regards him — a child is bom to him — ^it is 
difficult for him — ^it goes hard with him, &c which may be all 
resolved into in relation to him ; but, as just remarked, this sign so 
frequently occurring in the Indian, is comparatively seldom found 
in the English phrase, and seldom is, grammatically, even under- 
stood. With the appropriation to the " third" person before men- 
tioned, it is conjugated through the different forms of the verb. 

Some notion of the manner of using this case may 
be conceived from the following example. 



124 A GRAMMAR OF 

If I wish to say simply " It rains," the Cree verb 
is expressed thus, Kimmew-wn {-dk, subj.) — and this 
we shall, in our examples, call the absolute form ; but, 
if I mention this circumstance with reference to a 
** third" person or persons, I then use the termination 
above mentioned, -ethu, as, Kammewun-c^M. .*^ It 
rains to him, in relation to him/' &c. — ^this we shall call 
the relative form. 

The " constant" sign of this case is th (Chip. n.). In some 
forms^ tv or m, in both dialects. 

Mispoon (indie.) ,At snows. 

Mispoon-ethd (id.)... it snows-to him, as respects him. 
Net' dppin h^ Mispoo^ (subj).../ stay, as it snows. 
Kef 4ppin he Mispook., Miou stayest^ as it snows. 

A'pptt he Mispoon-e^A/^...Ae stays, as it 8now8'to him,*'' 



«T vi. 22. Ahp^ . . gab wdhbdn^ (absoL). . the time . . when it dawned, 
zxi. 4. Kab b^-wdbbabn-6n»^ (relat.). . that it bitber-dawned to him, 

ix. 4. Mdgwab . . k^zbeguA (subj.) . . whilst it is day. 
xi. 9. K^zhegkhd-enfy . . (whilst) it is day to him, 

iz. 4. "P^t^bekud (indie). . hitber-nigbt-»f is, night is coming. 

iii. 2. vii. 50. xx. 1. T^ekfibd-eni)/ (subj.). . when, as, it was night. 

viii. 14. TdpwamabgiM^ (indie.) . . it is true, 
xix. 35. Tapwdmabg4bd-en^ ,.it is true. 

iv. 37. Tdpwimabgu* (subj.) . . that it is true. 
V. 32. Tapwdmahgud-en^. . that it is true. 

xii. 50. Pem&bdez^mabgabd-entjyf (id.) . . that it is life, 
iv. 14. Che ezbe m6ok^jew^n-eni^ . . that so it spring. 

The h used by Mr. Jones, to indicate the Italian sound of the vowel a, 
is, when accompanying a short, very inconvenient ; often vitiating the 
grammatical division of the syllables^ as above. So also we have -ahgig 
for 'Ug-ig, the plural of -ug, I-to him ; -ahdwah for -ud-toah, the plural 
of -ttrf, thou-to him, &c. Also, -ahjin for -ud-jin, &c. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 125 

It may be observed of the cases before men- 
tioned, that they express the relation between the 
subject and the object, &c. ; but the case now before 
us shews also the relation between subjects, &c. 
themselves. When two *' third" persons (both of 
them agents, or both of them patients) meet together, 
this relational form serves to distinguish the accessory 
or dependent, from the principal or leading '* third" 
person — the relative from the absolute agent, &c. — 
thus obviating, by shewing their relative position, the 
ambiguity which would otherwise arise from the meet- 
ing of several third persons in the sentence. For a full 
explanation of the use of this case, see the Syntax.^ 



M The grammatical import of the following examples will be best 
understood, by comparing them with the context of the English Original. 
The " absolute" form involves only one, the " relative," two agents, &c. 
viz. a Principal, and an Accessory, — See Syntax, 

xi. 6. Ahp^ kah n6ond«n^ ihkoozenid. 

The time . . that he (Jesus) heard . . that he (access, viz. Laza- 
rus) was sick to, in re- 
spect of, him, Jesus. 
V. 9- Ke "pimoosaid , , (and) he (absoL) walked. 

vi. 19. Oo ge wihbsihmahwdn. . Jesus (relat.) ^moosdnid. 
They have seen him .... Jesus as he (Jesus) walked. 

INDICATIVE ANIMATE. 

vi. 9. Ahy&h . . (here) he is. (Absolute, and so of the rest.) 

ii. 1. Oo-geen emdh ke ahydh-t&tm . . His mother . . there he (she) 
was. (Relative, and so of the rest.) 
Note. — ^The Possessive pronoun of the third person, oo or oof (his, her, 
or their,), governs this case — the object possessKD being the Accessory, 

y. 13. Em&h ke ahyih-wug . . there they were. 
XX. 26. P^ndig ke ahydhunm . . within they were. 

vii. 37. Ke n^ihweh . . he stood. 

XIX. 25. Ke nebdhwe-wwn . .he or they stood. 



126 A GRAMMAR OF 

Without this compensating form^ the Indian phrase would 
be especially liable to ambiguity of expression^ from> among 
other causes^ the {personaUi/) compounded form of the transitive 

iy. 45. Ke ezh&h-tru^ . . they have gone. 
iy. 8. Ke ezh^-tovn . . they have gone. 

vi. 14. Ke eked6o-i(m^ . . they said, 
xi. 12. Ke eked6o-4fmn . \ they said. 

xi. 3. A^hkoozc ,.heis sick. 

xi. 2. Ay&hkooz-en^-bun . . he was sick. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

The present Subjunctive is often determined in its meaning as present, 
past, or future, by ^t principal verb of the sentence. We may also repeat 
here, that the Ck)mpound of the present Indicative is often used for the 
preterite tense. 

iv. 25. Ke t&hgweshin-^ . . (when^ that he arrive. 

iv. 47. Ke d4hgwesh^n-€i»iii . . that he had arrived. 

V. 5. Aylihkooz^ . . (that) he was sick, 
iv. 46. Ay4hkooz-entd . . he was sick. 

V. 20. A^zhechegdid (flat vowel) . . '* which himself doeth.*' 
XV. 15. il'zhecheg-efnirf (id.) . . (what) he doeth. 

xi. 1. A^zhenekdhzoo-d . . who is (was) named. 
X. 3. A^zh^nekahz6o-nul . . as they are named. 

xi. 25. Ke neboo-d . . (though) he be dead. 

xi. 13. xix. 33. Ke uSbdo^id . . (who) he is (was) dead. 

viii. 59. Ke zdhgah-un^ . . (and) he went out. 

xi. 31. Ke zihgahihm-enid . . she went out. 

xi. 41. Shingeshin-^ (anim.) . . as Ae lay. 

V. 6. Sbingeshin-enid . . as he lay. 

vii. 11. Ke eked6o-wod . . (and) they said. 

iv. 31. 51. Oowh ke eked6o-n»cI . . these (things) they said. 

V. 29. Che ezhih'Wod . . that they pass, go. 

vi. 15. We hh^zhSh-nid . . (that) they want hither-pass, come. 

vi. 17. Ke h6o8e-wug ftndic). . they embarked. 

vi. 22. Ke b6os-^u; . . (where) they embarked. 

xix. 25. Ke nibihwe-wwi (indie, relat.). . they stood, 
xix. 26. N^dhwe-nW (subj.) . . who (plur.) stood. 



THE CBBB LANGUAGE. 127 

verb|-^-a8, whom I see him ; which I see it ; 6ec. (see Syntax) — ^and 
the want of separate distinctive forms of the personal pronoun^ as^ 

zviii. 14. Che n^boo-/a^io<^c? (dat. absol.) . . that he die/or them, 
xi. 51. Che Ti^oQ-tahwdhnid (dat. relat.) . . that he die /or them. 

vi. 19. B^nfth zpkfthmfw^ (relat.) . . as A« approached it. 
▼n. 10. Kah mdhjdhnii . . (when) they were gone, 
vi. 22. Mahjeoon^M/ . . (that) they had departed (by water), 
vi. 66. Ke ahzhe giw^id . . had already back-gone-^^. 
vii. 32. £zhe-m^Umt(2 . . that they bo said of him. 

In certain cases, -ethit (subj.). Chip, -enid, is softened into Jth%{t)che, 
Chip. -.^Mjin. See Syntax, 

ii. 14. A'dahwd-ji^r . . wAo (plu.) exchanged, 
ii. 16. A^dahwd-n6^ . . who exchanged. 

xir. 5. 8. Kademdhgez-e/i^ . . who are poor, miserable, " the poor." 
xiii. 29. xii. 6. Kddemdhgez-^n^/in . . who are poor, &c. 

vii. 41. Pakahnez-e;t^ . . who are separate, " others." 
xxi. 2. Pdkdhnez-^ne;m . . who are, &c. 

ix. 8. Kah kibeengw-did . . (he) who was blind, 
ix. 6. Kak^eengw-<k£;tn . . who was blind. 

V. iii. Kak^eengW'djig . . who are blind. 

X. 21. xi. 37. Kak^eengw-(fn«;»n . . who are bUnd. 

xvii. 14. A^kew'^nejin , . who earth, are of the earth. 

x. 5. May&hgez^ne/m . . w?io are strange (to them, the sheep). 

vi. 11. Kah nahmahd-ahb-^6;»n . . who erect-sat. 

V. 21. Nap6o)ic;m (flat, vowel) . . who are dead, *' the dead." 

vii. 39. Ka ootdhpen4hne/i». . which they should receive. 

X. 3. Kdnahw^ndahm^n^m. . who takes care of, keeps; qu. a keeper. 

INDICATIVE INANIMATE. 

xvii. 1. Bahg^ihme-a%(fA. . it is near, 
xvi. 21. Pahglihme-ahy<^A-neA . . idw 

ii. 17. Oo ge miqaimdahnahwah , . they remembered it, 
ii. 22. Oo ge m^qudind^iAm-en^ . . they remembered it. 

vii. 26. Oo ^ekiindahnahwah . . they know it. 
X. 4. Oo gekJ^nddhm-enih . . they know it. 

xi. 38. Weemhdhnekihdi-n^'bun (part, pass.) . . t* was hollowed, ex- 
cavated. 



128 A GRAMMAIU OF 

he, him, himself, she, her, &c; the third person^ WAha (Chip. 
fVeen), being, when expressed^ the representative of them all. 

^ote, — ^EoEDE notices a corresponding modification of the verb, in his 
QrammaHca Gronlandica. See Additional Notes. 



vii. 38. Tah 6onj^jewun-^««w« (plur.). . they shall from-flow. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

vi. 12. A^i-dkin (flat vowel). . which are laid up, which remain. 
XX. 5. Ke hhy-^Udniff (jintens,), . as they were lying. 

i. 46. ii. 10. W&nesheshin-^ (inan.) . . which is good, 
ii. 10. Wdneshesh^n-en/^ . . which is good. 

i. 27. Dkhkoobed&-ftt^ (accid. pass.) . . which are tied. 

iii. 20. 21. Che w&hbimjigdhd^bt»^ (part. pass.). . that tJtey be shewed. 

xii. 6. Kah b^nah^gsLhd^t^ (id.) . . which, it, was entered, put in. 

V. 36. Andind&hgwShdtfft^ ,»zsit is thought, deemed. 

xiii. i. Ke b^g&hmeahy^hn^ . . that it was near. 

xii. 38. Che d^eshkoos^i^r . . that it be fulfilled. 

i. 51. Ahj6d (anim.) . . (where) he is. 

iii. 22. £m^ dLtiydhnidke dhydd. . where they (relat.) were he (absol.) 

was. 
iv. 42. AOik^e-ng ay^-n^^n . . the earth-in who are. 
iv. 5. Ahy6g (inan.) . . (where) it is (the ground), 
iv. 6. Ke ahydhnitjf (id.). . it was, existed (Jacob's well). 

vii. 13. K6o8Bhwdd . . as they feared them. 
ix. 22. K6o84hni€? . . id. 

iv. 47. Che ahwe . . noojemoo^hnidoo-gw^sttn. . (possess, anim*) that 
he go save {to him) his-aon, 

i. 27. Che ^heihahmdhwug (id. inan.) . . that J unloose it or them to 
him. 

NEGATIVE. 

xviii. 38. Ne mikahmahwdhse . . I find not to (in) him. 
xix. 6. Ne raikahmt^wdhseien) . . I find not to (in) Mm. 
xix. 4. IJiikahmahwdfisewug (subj.) . . that I find not to (in) him. 
XX. 25. W^hunddhmahwdhsewug emah oo-ninjee-n^ . . If / see not to 
him there^his hand-tn. 



THB CREB LANGUAGE. 1^9 

The way in which the grammatical difficulty just mentioned is 
met in European languages is^ perhaps, not undeserving of notice : 
e.g. by a Participle, as, 

St John i. 36. And (John) looktii^ upon Jesus as he (Jesus) walked. 
£t respiciai^ (Joannes) Jeswni ambulantem. 
£t (Jean) YOjant Jesus qui (Antecedent, Jesus) marchoit. 
Kahnahw4hbahmo(^(subj.). . Jesus. . p^moosanidCsubj.) 
As he (John) looked at him. . Jesus. . as ^(ilcce^^ory, viz. Jesus) 

walked. 
The Infinitive mood serves the same purpose, 
iv. 8. His disciples were gone away. . to buy, &c. 

Oo minzhenahwiuntm. . ke ezhlUi-umn (Indie.) g^hpenaht6o- 

nid, (subj.) 
His disciples (access.). . had gone (relat. to him) that they 
buy Qd. to him), &c. 
But the Cree and Chlppeway have no Impersonal verbal forms : 
they have neither Participle (active, or passive), nor, as already 
observed. Infinitive mood. These are all resolved into a personal 
(the subjunctive) mood, as above. Vide infra. 

But not all relations between the Verb and its Re- 
gimen are expressible by Cases. -Prepositions are 
sometimes employed, being prefixed to the verb, and 
governing the verbal termination in the Accusative or 
Dative forms already mentioned. Neuter verbs fol- 
lowed, in English, by a preposition and a personal 
pronoun, become, by the process alluded to. Transi- 
tive verbs, e.g. 

A^p-ti (neut.) ...he sits. 

Ne w^'ip^-mdw (dir.accus.).../ with-sit-Atm, I sit with him. 
Ne w6et-&p3-mi% (in v. id.)... me with-sits-Ae, he co-sits, sits 
with, me. (See p. 51, et seq.) 

Ne wkakah'kp^'StdkwUk (inv. da,t)...me round-sit-(to)-^Aey, 
they sit round me. 

F6mooUdyoo (neut). ..he walks. 

iVe t^che-p^moot-^ibvtfi^ (inv. accus.)...me upon-walk-<Afy, 
they walk upon me. 
K 



130 A GRAMMAR OF 

P^oot^oo (neut) ,.he walks 
P&p^mootoyoo (id.)...Ae walks> with repetition. 
P^pkmoot^yoo (id.)...Ae walks about Fr. il se promene. 
Ne w6etche-p&pkmootay-m<^ (dir. accas.).../ with«walk 

about him, I walk about with him. 
Ne w&skdh-sk^^fpf<^ (inv. accus.) ... wie round-walk-^^^ 

they walk rounds circum-walk, me. 
Ne yfi^^-^dX'dkrvuk (id.) ... me round-run-/^, they cir- 

cum-run, run round, me. 
Ne w dskah-pt'ithe-^/^ A:n;u^ (inv. dat)...me round-move (to) 

they, they move round (/o) me. 



Paragraph VII. 
Of Gender. 

We come now to the last grammatical modification 
of the verb, that is, to those conjugational forms 
which, according to the rules, or rather to the practice 
of this language, are considered to be in '* agreement'* 
with the animate and inanimate genders or classes of 
the noun, &c. See the Accidence. 

Note. — It has seemed more convenient to arrange the ^^ genders" 
in this order, viz. animate and inanimate; we are nevertheless 
aware> that the latter, as the generic universal subject should have 
stood first The same relation subsists between the third, and the 
first and second persons of the verb ; the first of these being, in 
Cree, the root of the others, is also entitled to precedency, and 
ought to have held the first place. 

1. Those verbs which are by grammarians com- 
monly denominated Impersonal, are of the *^ inanimate'* 
gender, and have the third person only, as, 

P§poo-n (subj. ''k)...%t is winter. 

S^kwu-n (subj. -^)...t^ w spring. 

Th6oti-» (subj. 'k).,.it (the wind) blow«. 



THB CREK LANGUAGE. 131 

Some Impersonal verbs have indeed two modes of 
conjugational ending — the one temporary or definite^ 
the other contwiwus^ — orindefinitevnih respect to time. 

Kisaen-dtv =id + oo (defin.)...t^ is cold, i.e. at present 

(subj. -^^). 
Kksen^dmagtin, (contin.)...t^t^ cold (Anglice) weather. 

2. Intransitive personal verbs have generally, and 
are always smceptiUe of, both the animate and the 
inanimate forms (see p. 27) ; and in the temporary and 
continuous (quasi, Anglic^ -ous, 4ng, &c.) modes also. 
The latter, or inanimate form, has the third person 
only. 

Udw = a + 00 (defin. anim.)...Ae t^ being, or existent 

I-dw ^ & 4- 00 (id. inan.) ,At is (id.). 

l-amagun (contin* inan.) ,.Mis (id«). Indefinite with respect 

to Time. 
Mithkoo-^tt (def. temporary) ,,ke is blood-like^ red. 
Mithkw-(^ = a + oo (id.)...i^ is red. 
M.itbkwk-fnagun (contin. inherent), „it is (Anglic^) a red 

thing. 
Ach6-oo (contin.).. .Ae (anim.) is, is capable of> moving. 
Ach^mag^i»(id.)...t^ (inan.) is moving, is ( Anglic^) a mov« 

inir thinir. 
A^che-piithu-wA: (de£.),.,they (anim.) move suddenly (see 

pp. 32, 80.) 
A^che-piithu-^A (id.) .Jh^ (inan.) id. 

3. The Transitive verb has, actively and passively, 
three conjujgational modes, corresponding, in respect 
of gender, with the same number of combinations of 
the subject with its object, e.g. (vide supra.) 

1. Subject Animate, Object Animate. 
Mithkoo-A-oyoo (dir.)...A« redd-ens him, 
Mithkoo«A-{^ (my.),,. he is redd-ened by him. 
k2 



132 A GRAMMAR OF 

2. Subject Animate^ Object Inanimate. 
Mithkoo-f-oit^ = a + 00 (dir.)...^e redd'Cns it. 
Mlthkoo-A-i^bo (inv.) ,.,heis redd^ened by it. 

3. Subject Inanimate^ Object Inanimate. 
Mithkoo-/a-fitagim (dir.)...t^redd-en« it. 
Mithkoo-At^-^^omagtm (mv.)...t^ is Tedd'Cned hy it. 

The last of these has the third person only. 



Section IV. 
Of Absolute^ and Relative^ Verbs. 

Verbs are here considered as Absolute^ or Relative, 
with reference to their Attribute only. 

Verbs which have a specific attribute of Being, Qua- 
lity, &c. (Seep. 142 etseq.) we class as Absolute verbs. 
On the other hand, those verbs which have as o, generic 
attribute, the relative Adverb of '' manner," viz. Isse- 
** so'^from the generic nounls^c, *' manner" or *'wise"), 
Chip, ^zhe ; or that of ''place," viz. It-, ''there," 
"thither," (from the generic noun Ft-e, "place",) 
Chip, ^ende, we class as Relative Verbs. 

JVb/e.<— -The Attributes here mentioned correspond sometimes 
with the French relative particles le, and y, as. 

Net' isse^issin...! so-aia, I am so. Fr. Je le suis. I am it. 
Net' it'in,..I there-am, I am there, or here. Fr. J'y suis. 

&c. 
The particles Ft and Fsse are also Prefixes to verbs, as from 
pem-ootay 00... ^e walks. CPem-, qu. Fr. jjar-.) 

Net* ff-ootan.../ thither-go. Fr. J'y vais. &c. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 



133 



These Adverbial attributive particles may be used 
generally with the Affixes of the General (see p. 38 c< 
seq.) and Special (see p. 86) transitives ; which affixes, 
as before observed, cannot stand without an Attribute 
or root joined to them. Ex. 

(see pp. 86. 96.) 
he so does him or it, 
he so does^ causes to^ himself, 
he so does him or it (with the hand). 
he so pulls him or it, 
he so forces or (priv.) mis-does him 

or it. 
he so forcibly does him or it. 

he so sees him or it. 
he so hears him or it, 
he so smells him or it. 

he THiTHER-does him or it. (with the 

hand.) 
he THiTHER-puUs him or it. 



ANIM. 


INAN. 


Tsse-hoyoo 


-tow 


-hissoo 




"Udyoo 


-num 


"pittdyoo 


-pittMWi 


"^dtvdyoo 


-skfim 


"Yfdyoo 


-hdm 


&c. 




Vs^e-XiGwdyoc^ 


-num 


-towdi/00'^^ 


-turn 


-mitdi/oo 


-m&tum 


Ite-udyoo 


-num 


-pitt^yoo 


-pittww 


&c. . 





^ V. 19. Ay^zhe'iishwdd (anim. flat vowel) a« he saw him. 
vii. 24. A^zhe-nahmdig (inan. id.) .,as ye see i/. 
viii. 38. Kah izhe-Tahwdig ranim.). . which as ye see him. 

''o viii. 26. 40. XV. 15. Kah ^-tahwte^ . . which as I hear him. 
V. 30. A^ne-tBhrndn (flat vow.). . as Jhear»V. 

The reader will, by noticing the " conversions'* of the Ungual conso- 
nants here exemphfied, viz. dzhe = dne, izhe = 4ne (see p. 17), be some- 
what prepared for our future observations on this head. iSee also, 

iii. 4. 9* V. 44. 47. vi. 52. Ahn* eeN (i.e. ahh' ezH)?. . what " man- 
ner," "how?'* 

iVb/c— The Chippeway zh has the sound of s in " measure," " plea- 
sure." 



134 A GRAMMAR OF 

These generic attributes are espeeially used (in the subjunctive) 
in Questions of "manner," " place," &c Tdn' isse ?...What manner? 
How f Tdn' U-e f ..what place ? Where ? WhUhet* 9 

Tkn' ISSE ^issE-pitt^^ ? (generic)... what manner so-pulleth 

"he-him ? 
Ne^ch E-pitt(£^oo (specific) . . . DowN«pulleth«Ae-AtM. 
T4n' isse i^ssE-mat^Ar f (gener.)...how so-smelleth-Ae-t^ ? 
ME^THo-mdttffTf (specif.)... AewELL-smells it, likes the smell 

of it 
Tin' iT-E I'x-ootait? (gener.)...what place To-goeth-Aef 
M^gew&p-ee^ I'x-ootayoo (specif.)..the TenUat TO-goeth-Ae. 



Chapter II. 
Of Simple and Compound Verbs. 

Of the Simple Verb. — In noticing the Simple 
Verb, as respects its component parts, we have pointed 
out (p. 16 et seq.) the various Origin of the Root. This 
will be a fit opportunity to complete the description 
of this member of the verb ; which shall now be 
considered in its other character, namely, that of AU 
tribute, or with a reference to its Signification ; and we 
propose to contemplate it as resting (simple, or modi- 
fied,) on four principal points, namely, 1, Existence ; 
2, Relation ; 3, Privation ; and 4, Intensity : — 
which last comprises the other three. 

To these fundamental Principles (which will in due course be 
defined) may, indeed^ be proximately or remotely referred the 
whole Gree language, as we shall endeavour to shew in the sequel ; 
but our immediate concern is with the Attribute of the Verb. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 135 

Section I. 

Firstly, of Existence. This subject presents itself 
under a two-fold aspect, viz. Existence, and Privation 
of Existence— or Being in its Positive and Negative 
modes. These opposite modes are indeed expressed, 
substantially, by modifications of the same Element 
(vide infra Privation) ; but, furnishing two classes of 
terms difiering widely from each other in signification, 
they will, for the sake of clearness, be noticed, gene- 
rally, apart. 

With reference then to Existence, in its positive 
mode, we proceed now to bring into view the Simple 
Verbs expressive of the primary generic *^ Attributes'* 
following, namely, those of 1, Being ; 2, Manner; 3, 
Rest ; 4, Motion ; 5, Action. These Verbs, although 
few in number, are of very extensive use ; and, as 
entering into and constituting, under difierent modifi- 
cations, integral parts of other verbs, they may be 
considered as Elementary. Some of them will be 
noticed in both their positive and privative (see Priva- 
tion) significations. And first of the Verb- Substantive. 

We would remark, by way of preliminary to what follows, that 
there are, in the Cree language,ybMr primary generic nomis, namely, 
1. F-d (anim.), F-e (inan.), "person," "thing," &c. ; 2. Fss-e or 
Fs-e, "manner," " wise," &c. ; 3. Ft-e, " place;" and 4. E'Ar-e, 
'^matter," "subject." Of which it may be further remarked, 
Uiat their roots, represented by /-, /*-, /<-, Eh- (pron. Eek-), 
respectively, are modifications (vide infra) of the still higher — ^the 
UNIVERSAL Substantive Element, or Root, Eth — the remote point 
— ^the substratum (however obscured by its modes) on which the 
whole Edifice of the Cree — the Algonquin language rests. 

This ultimate Element has, in its simple form, a Substantive 



136 



A GRAMMAR OF 



meaning — ^but it cannot stand alone ; — ^like the indefinite Subject 
of which it is the representative^ it is ever in a modified form^ e.g. 
as we have it in the personal pronouns^ I, thou^ he, JV-e^th-&, 
K'E^TH'&, W'm^TH'&, qu. my, thy, his, Being or Essence ; the 
lingual. It, the guttural, k, and the labial, oo, being the distinctive 
personal signs of the same. (Quasi, Anglice, tru-TH, wid«TH, 
mon^TH = moon-ETH, &c.). It is "energetic" in the verb 
^Th-ethe^-oo (repetit. see p. 73)...BR-EATHes-A^, Sec. 



Paragraph I. 
Being, I-dw (=d+oo) " he is." We have, m 
the last Chapter, classed verbs as Absolute, and Rela- 
tive. The Verb Substantive, in its Absolute form, 
hdw.Chip. ahy-rfA, (anim. and inan.) "Ac, or if, is being, 
or existent,'' Anglic^, " he, or it, is'' — ^may, like the 
noun first above mentioned, viz. Id, be viewed as a 
Derivative (Seep. 141.) from the ultimate Element 
Eth. We consider it as being the Nucleus of the whole 
Indian verb. It forms its three persons (sing.) as 
follows, 



Anim. 

Inan. 

id. (contin.) 

Anim. 

Inan. 

id. (contin.) 



CRliE. 

-4n -4n 



INDICATIVE. 

-6w 
-4magun 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



CHIPPEJVAY. 

-dh -dh -ah 

-dmagud 



Ian 



-lun 



-dmagak 



-dhy6n . -4hyun -6d 
.<5g. 
-^magdk '^^ 



■^1 INDICATIVE. 

vi. 9. viii. 35. 50. Ahj-dh ,.he%8 being or existent, Angl. he is. 
i. 1. 6. iv. 40. vii. 9. Ke ahy-ef^ . . he has been, 
xii. 26. Tab ^ky-dh . . he shall or will be. 

ii. 1. XX. 26. xxi. 25. xii. 48. xiv. 2. Ke ahyih-ioun (possess, case). . 
he or they was or were. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 137 

Note. — ^It would seem strange that the writers on the Algonquin lan- 
guage, viz. Eliot, Edwards, &c. all deny the existence of the Verb 
Substantive in the dialects on which they have severally written. This 
mistake has clearly arisen — ^partly from the idiomatic omission of the verb 
substantive in a certain kind of Expressions (see Syntax); — and partly from 
an entire misconception of the Subject, as is evidenced by the tenor of 
their Examples, which go to prove only that these dialects have no 
AUXILIARY Verb Substantive. See Additional Notes, 

lU6w {=d + oo) " he is there/' Fr. il y est. The Re- 
lative form of the Verb Substantive has for its Attribute 



vi. 64. Ket ahy-dm . . ye are. 

V. 13. xvii. 11. xii. 20. xxi. 2. Ke ahjiUk-vrng . . tJiey were 
V. 2. xii. 24. 28. 30. Ahj&ii-mahgud (inan. indie.) . . it is. 
XV. 7' XV. 11. 16. Ahykh-mahg^k (id. subj.) . . if »* be, that it be, re- 
main. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

i. 15. 30. vii. 34. 36. ix. 5. xii. 26. 32. xv. 6. A^hydh-ydn . . that, &c. 

Jam. 
i. 48. Ke dhydh-yun . . (when) thou wast. 

i. 51. vii. 11.29. viii. 19. ix. 12. x.40. Ahj-dd. (that, &c.) he is. 
i. 18. 33. iii. 22. xii. 37. Ahydhnid (acces. case.). • that, &c. ^is (with 

relation to another), 
viii.* 31. xiv. 2. 3. A'hjdhydig . . if, &c. yc be. 
i. 29. vi. 51. vii. 4. A'ydhjig . . who {they) are. 
iii. 8. iv. 22. iv. 40. xii. 20. xxi. 23. AzYi^^ydh-wod. . as, so, are they. 
XV. 4. A''hy4hyooA: (imperat.) . . be ye . . .' 
i. 15. Ch^wah. . . . ^ydhydn (subj. pres.), ahy(IA-bun (indie, pret.) 

. . Before .... J am, he was. " He was before me.*' 

INANIMATE. 

iv. 5. ix. 41. xi. 55. xii. 1. xiii. 1. xvii. 5. A'hyd^r .. (which) t* is. 

ii. 25. iii. 36. Akydhnig (access, case) . . which {it) was. 

iv. 6. xix. 42. Emah ke dSajdhnig . . (possess, case) . . his. . (or their) 

was there, 
iii. 36. Ka dhydh-nig (possess, case) . . his, . shall be. 

NEGATIVE. 

viii. 35. Ahy dh-s4 dndic). . he is not, abideth not. 

vi. 24. XV. 6. Ahy&h-«9r (subj. anim.) . . that he was w>t, if Ae be not. 

vi. 22. viii. 37. xv. 4. Ke ahydh-5enoo^ (subj. inan.) . . that if was not. 



Anim. -i4n -Idn -4t 
Inan. -akw(ik 



138 A GRAMMAR OF 

the relative prefix of **place," It- (see p. 132), as 
lU6w (aaim.), rt-akwwn (inan.), '' he or it is there ;'* 
and is often used, as in the English colloquial phrase- 
ology, to signify indifferently '' being at," '' staying 
at," *' residing at." Strictly, it imports only (in the 
animate form) a temporary abiding at, &c. 

INDICATIVE. 
CREE. CHIPPEWAY. 

Anim. -4n -dn -6w i -^ -4h -ah 

Inan. -akwun | -ahgoo 

SUBJUNCTIVK. 

-4hy<Sn -dhyun -6d 

-ahg6og''* 

This form is also used without a particular reference 
to " place." Its animate and inanimate forms are 
then equivalent, respectively, to the EngUsh Indefinite 
Verb Substantive form, '* There is" a, person or thing. 
(Fr. il y a,) 

The Chippeway corresponding terms are (Jones's Orthog.) 
Indie. Eend'dh (or d-dk), and E'end'^hg6o (or d'dhg66). Subj. 
E^end-orf,and, E^'end-ahgoo-g (or d-dd, and d-ahg6o-g).'^* 

Note, — This Relative verb is further deserving of notice, as exem- 
plifying the manner in which the generic Attribute of Bbino, I-, or 
Ei-y is commuted for (or according to our own views, vide infra, modified 

'^^ ANIMATE. 

i. 38. Ahn' eende kmdidhyun (subj. flat vow.). . where art thm at, 

dwellest-f^ot^. 
i. 39. xviii. 28. xix. 27. Emdh iXndidd (id.). . where he was abiding, 
xvi. 32. Emah HxidLdhyaig (id.). . where ye abide, dwell, 
vii. 53. kfyindidhwdd (id.) . . where they dwell. 

INANIMATE. 

xviii. 1. Emah ke Xkhgdo (indie.) . . there {it) was, 
vi. 27. Ka tahg(% emah (subj.) . . which {it) shall be there, 
ii. 1. ii. 11. iv. 46. A'indahg% (subj. flat vow.). . which {if) is (m. 
GaHlee). 



THE CRBB LANGUAGE. 



139 



into) a speeyks Attribute— where, of die primitive verb, the accented 4(^^00 
gign of 3d pers.)> or distinctive predicative ngn, (retained through all the 
inflections) is alone preserved. This mode of the verb substantive, affecting 
a very numerous class of verbal terms (vide infra), exhibits a partial view 
of our reasons for considering the verb substantive to be the Nuckut of 
the Indian verb. 

The Possessive verb we shall consider as two-fold, 
viz. to *^ have/' and to " own." The former of these, 
impl3dng a temporary possession, is also expressed by a 
modification of the Verb Substantive. It is Transitive 
both in form and signification, as, 

V'OYfdyoo (anim.).. he has him. (Chip. Ood' Uiy-ahwdn.) 
\''6w (inan.)...Ac has tV. (Id. Ood* ahy-c^n.) 



CREE. 

Anim. -ow6w -ow6w -owayool 
Inan. -kn -4n -6w I 



INDICATIVE. 

CBIPPEWAY. 

-ahw4h -ahwdh -ahw6n 



.6n 



-6n 



-6n 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Anim. -6wuk -6wut -ow4t | -4hwug 
Inan. -Ian -Tun -ak | -4hy6n 

Net* I'ow-dfv (indie.) . . / have him. 

Ktitche l'6yfuk (subj.)...that / have him 
final cause. Fr. que), ra 



-dhwud -ahw6d 
-^yun -6ng 

{Ktitche, conj. 



■J^S POSSESSIVE — ANIMATE. 

vii. 20. Kef dhyahwrfA . . thou hast Urn. 
X. 20. xix. 1. 16. Oo^ lihyahwe^ . . he has him. 
X. 16. Mn(f 6hyahwd^ (anim. plu.) — ^Ihave them, 
xii. 8. Ked? dhyahwrf^ww^r . . ye have them. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

iv. 18. viii. 48. 52. A'yIihwtMi . . (whom) thou hast him. 

iii. 29. Afj^w6d . . he who has him. 

vi. 11. Wah 4hy6hwa^w(^ci . . (as much) as they wanted to have them. 

xviii. 31. xix. 6. xx. 22. A^hydhwiA: (imperat.). . have ye him ! 



140 A GRAMMAR OF 

Note, — Some of the forms of the Verb Substantive, an<J of the Posses- 
sive Verb, resemble each other so nearly, that it may appear to be a 
matter of difficulty to assign to them their right meaning in Speech : e.f^ 
The verb substantive Nef I-an, " I am*' — ^the possessive (inan.) verb 
Nef I-an, ** I have it," and also the relative possessive pronoun Nef Ian, 
C* my thing") " mine," all consist, in writing, of even the same letters ; 
these terms are nevertheless, in practice, as free from ambiguity as are 
the English pronoun "mine," and the substantive "mine," or other 
Homonymes. Cadence, Emphasis, Accent, the qualifying terms used in 
discourse, &c., all contribute, as relative parts of an integral sentence, to 
affix the right meaning, to the perfect exclusion of the wrong meaning 
from the mind. See notes 7 1 and 73. 

The latter or ** continuous" mode of Possession, 
namely, to '* own," is expressed by prefixing to the 
noun possessed, (which takes also a verbal ending,) the 



INANIMATE. 

V. 36. iv. 32. X. 18. Miwf ahyow. . I have it, 

viii. 26. xvi. 12. Nind' ihyahnun (plu.) . . I have them. 

vi. 68. Kef ahy^hnitn (plu.) . . thou hast them. 

V. 24. vi.47. 64. iii. 36. viii. 12. xvi. 21. Oof ihjon. . he has it. 

V. 39. Nind^ khydihndn . . (1.3.) we have it. 

xvi. 22. 24. 33. xxi. 5. Ked' ahj&linahwdh , . ye have it. 

xii. 13. xix. 23. Oo ge ahyihnahwdn , , they have had (taken) them. 

xii. 6. xiii. 29. xviii. 10. xix. 30. 38. Ke Bhydng (subj.) . . that he 

had it. 
xiv. 21. A^jdng (id. flat, vow.) . . (that) he have it. 
xvi. 16. A^ydnkin (id. plu.) . (that) he hath them. 
xii. 35. 36. xvi. 33. xx. 31. A'hyahwM% . . (that) ye have it. 
vi. 7. 40. xviii. 3. x. 10. xix. 40. Che dhyahmoow<^c?. . that ^% have «V. 

NEGATIVE. 

viii. 49. Nind' ahyahwHh^^ — ^Jhave him not. 

ix. 41. Ke tah ge ahyonzenahwdh . . ye could not have had it. 

XV. 22. 24. Oo dah ge ahy6uzenahwdh. . they could not have had it. 

xii. 8. Ked* dihyihwes^em . . ye have not me. 

XV. 5. Ahyihwesewdig (subj.). . if ye have not me. 

i. 47. iv. 44. Ayihnzig (id.) . . (that) he has it not. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 141 

particle (preposition) oo- {oot- before a vowelj. See 
p. 21. This particle signifies, as a preposition, *' of," 
or, " from." 

M<5okoom&n ... a knife. 

Net' oo-m6okoon]4n-in.../ own, possess, a knife. 
Ustfs...a glove. 

Net* 6ot-ustis-m.../ have (own, &c.) gloves. 
Muskesin...a shoe. 

Xe/' oo-mdskesin-m nah? (nah? interrog. part.;... hast 
thou (Anglice, any) shoes ? 

Oo^-iA^-n-tf... quasi, on^n-THiNO-eth-Ae, he owns it. 

O'wenah wet-iA-n-tY oomah ? . . . who o wn-T h iNO-eth-Ae f or 
who own-iT-eth-he ? who owns it? (N.B. fvi=oo 
flat. See p. 75. n. 42.) See Syntax, 

The above two forms of the Possessive Verb may also, in another 
point of view, that is, with reference to the Object, be considered 
as definite and indefinite — the former being used in connection with 
a definite, the latter with an indefinite object. 

Reserving for another place a more detailed view of the " con- 
versions" of the consonants in these dialects, we shall remark here 
that the letter /-, mentioned above as the root of the generic noun 
P'd, &c. is a perfect diphthong, deriving its two-fold sound from 
the union of the initial vowel of Eth (somewhat flattened) with the 
th softened into i short, or p = Ei or Ep, or Ai — a more accurate 
representation perhaps of this diphthongal Root : quasi, Lat. iBther, 
Aer (qu. flat. vow. p. 73). The Chippeways give the initial vowel 
a still graver sound, viz. that of the Italian a, thus, ae, as, {ahy* 
Jones. See p. 136. n. 71.) 

It will be proper to add, by way of illustrating the aptitude oi the vocal 
organs to the conversion alluded to (^mong others), that in the cases 
where the Crees in the vicinity of the Coast, lat. 57> pronounce the th, 
the contiguous inland) tribes of this nation always use I or y ; or 
at most, the th is so soffly uttered that a nice ear only can detect it. 
More westerly, it is decidedly lost in the t or y as above : thus the pers. 
pron. N^tha, K^tha, W^tha, are pronounced N^ya, K^ya, W^ya. ThlOjie- 



142 



A GRAMMAR OF 



or Thlige- becomes Yi^ (g bard) tbe root of the verb> he ** pmsbes" or 
*' drives'* (Germ. Yagt. , drives), &c. The reasons for considering tbe 
th as the Primitive will be given hereafter. 



Paragraph II. 
MANNer of Being, as Quality, &c. The attributes 
of Quality, &c. we shall consider as generic and specific ; 
of the latter we shall subjoin a few examples. The 
former, or generic Attribute, brings again before us 
the second generic noun mentioned above, viz. Fsse, 
is-e, or isi (Chip, ^zhe, Jones), which constitutes, from 
the various functions it performs in these dialects, an 
important element of speech. It is, as already stated, 
1, a noun; 2, an Adverb of manner; Anglic^, (w, so, 
(Fr. aus'Si, si) ; and as such it becomes, 3, a generic 
attribute of " manner." (See pp. 133 and 134.) 

Note. — ^Tbis Element is also the nUddk member of the Adjective Verb, 
connecting the Attribute of " quality*' (which it also indicates,) with its 
subject, as, -iss-tf (= isse + oo). This same element, viz. isse, is, is also, 
in Cree, the general verbal and substantive Dimin. sign, Anglic^ -ish, 
(See Privation.) It famishes also the adverbial terminational sign of 
*' manner,'' (jt)ch. 

It seems likewise worthy of remark that issb or M (or is he near the 
Coast, — see Judges, chap. xii. ver. 6.) Chip, bzhe, is also analogous to 
(and, quasi, the Root of) some European signs of '* manner" of Being ; 
e.g. the English formative elements, -ish, .ict, -^gi-, 4t%-, kc, (Vide 
infra.) 

Of the following Verbs, the Adjective and the Ac- 
cidental may, among others, be considered as Specific. 
(See p. 132.) 

ADJECTIVE VERBS. 
MBKTAL. 
E^thin^em ...he is wise. 
K}Siki6wisiu,..he is artful^ cunning. 



THB CREB LAITGUAGB. 143 

KSk^pAtissu,..he is stupid> focdish. 

Kiskissu ...he remembers. 

Wimne-kisktffM ...he forgets. 

p[t-6the-/-fim (gener.).. so thinks-A^^ he thinks. 

Kisk-6the^t<m...Ae intensive-thinks^ knows. 

M6toon-^the^t«m...entire-thinks-Ae^ he reflects. 

W(in-6the<wm...^e indefinite-thinks, is bewildered. 

Kw6etow-6the^«m...A6 lack-thinks, is at a loss. 

Nisset6o-^t/9it ...he — hears, understands, it. See p. 9^.] 

PASSIONS. 

Kissew^^u.. he is angry. 
Siggethkysu.,.he is glad, rejoiced. 
S^gissu...he shrinks, is alarmed. 
Gdostkchu.. he is afraid. 
QK4wkw-6thetfi9it...^e is jealous. 
Ng-6thetfim...A« is content^ satisfied. 
P^gesk&t2<m...^e is melancholy .^ 

VIRTUES, &c. 
Ki386wktissu...he is good-natured liberal. 
8askgissu...he is niggardly. 
Kisses6wmtt...Ae is industrious. 
K&iihowissu...he is persevering. 
A'wkoowi . he is very sick. 
Fthin4ywoo...Ae is recovered. 
Mtisk6wmfi...Ae is strong. 
N6thamt^^tt...Ae is weak. 
Kdtaw4s»^^tt. . . he is handsome. 
W6thepi>«i...Ae is foul, dirty. 
Meth6stf^...^e is good. 
MgLthitissu...he is bad. 
MAtdiissu...he is wicked. 

M(itche-n^koo^...A« is ugly-looked (pass.) Ang. ill-looking. 
M6tho-n^ooM...AeMwell-looked(id.). AngLgood-looking. 
QThithipp»...Aeis nimble. 
P&p6ych6oo...A« is slow. 
K6etimii ...he is lazy . 



144 A GRAMMAR OF 

£''theb6oakoft7...^ U prudent. 
S6k-etay-(£^oo...Ae is strong-hearted^ bold. 
Sakoo-tay-(£^oo...Ae is faint-hearted^ cowardly.^ 

FIGURE^ Sec. 
Kinwoosu,,,k€ is tall or long. 
Chimmi8issu..,he is short. 
Missiggt/Ztt ,,,ke is big. 
A^ppea^esissu ...he is small. 
Seekooftf ...he is slender. 
A^'thagtiskt^jtf ...he is broad. 
Skgbwissu ...he is narrow. 
Kisp\ickissu...he is thick. 
Fk'puc\i{ssu...he is thin. 
Wathtxw ...he is hollow. 
Kwiiiskooftf...Ae is straight. 
W^issu,..he is crooked. 
'PeeTaissu...he is awry. 
Ch6epoost<...^e is tapering. 
W6wissu...he is rounds as a circle. 
Pittickooftf ..he is spherical. 
Nupp(ickw«ti...Ae t^ flat. 
M^sk6wissu...he is hard^ or strong. 
Th68kissu...he is soft. 
Kbwissu ...he is rough. 
P&piskoo^...Ae is uneven. 
S6oskoo^...Ae is smooth. 
Kk9pissu...he is crisp^ brittle. 
S6epithkwoft'...t/ is tough. 
Kksissin..M is keen (as a knife). 
Pithkwto'ii...t^ M blunt (id.). 
S6epissu...he is durable^ lasting. 
W^kjwissu ..he is weak^ not lasting. 

OF THE SENSES. 

QWApii...A€ see*. 

F^ytum ...he hear*. 

F^B8oo..,he scents (as, an animal). 



THE CESS LANQUAOB. 145 

M^tbktum . . . Ae smelb d. 
Nist6ospetiiift...Ae taster ii. 
M6o9etaw..,ke feels iiSJ 

COLOURS^ See. 

W4ppisk-f«w«..Ae is white. 

KAaketiysu„.h€ is black. 

Mithkoosu...he is red. 

Oo8kwissu,..he is yellow. 

Oo8£w-ii8ktxm...Ae is yellow-grass^ i.e. grass-yellow, or 

green. 
CHE^Pi«TA'K-oon<...Ae is DEAD (pet^le's) couNTRY-Uke> i.e. 

•KY blue. 

W6ekutchtjm...Ae is sweet. 
W6es<iggtfm...Ae is bitter. 
S^wtfw...A^ is sour, or salt. 
A^wkoofti he is strong, acrid ; sick. 
W6enissu.,.he stinks. 
K^6oftf...Ae if warm. 
K6wutchff ...Ae is starved, with cold. 
S^kutchti...A^ is starved, lean. 
Mecli6/tenntck...tkey are many. 
ChSika,w&am4nmk.„ihe!f are few. 
N€ywoonnik.,.ihey are four. 
KUaissu...he is hot (to the touch). 
Tkkissu ..he is cold (id.). 

TIMK. 

K^sekoft^ ..t^ is day. 
Tibbiskofv...!^ if night 
Wipun...ii is dawn, day-lig^t. 
N^n...t^ is summer. 
P^poon...!^ is winter. 
Tiickwftktn...t/ is autumn. 
Sikwun..Al is spring. 

L 



146 A GRAMMAR OF 

WEATHCR. 

Kimmewtfii.. itrauM. 

Ml8pooit...t^ snow^. 

P6wtiit...t^ drifts. 

S&ys&yktin...t/ hail«. 

Kisshinc^ ..M is cold. 

K6es-appw(^...t^ is hot (weather). 

Ki8^&8tayoo...t7 is hot (in the sunshine). 

PLACE. 

Wutch^woo.. it is hilly. 

Piissachon;.. ii is low ground^ a vale. 

T6 w-uttinJf» ..Mis 'twixt-hill, a valley. &c. 

^o^e.— All the Adjective Verbs, mentioned above, have the two 
verbal endings, viz. the Animate and the Inanimate. See p. 131. 

Occasional or Accidental (Neuter) Verbs. 
See pp. 25, et seq. 32. 

Is-piith-fi. fChip. -ped^, inan.3...so-moveth il (see p. 80). 

S6ke-puthti...t^ spills. 

T^e-puthtf...»^ splits. 

TMthicke-piithtf ...f^ rends, as cloth. 

T4to-piithti...f^ tears. 

Tft-t^to-piithtt (iterat.)«.t/ tears to pieces, to " tatters." 

Ktiskutche-piithti...t^ breaks (as a stick). 

N^tw^pCLthti...t^ breaks in two. 

P(iske-puthti...t^ snaps (in two), as a line or cord. 

Chech^eske-piithti.. k creaks. 

P4sta^piithti...t^ breaks (as a nut). 

Pdske-puthti.. it bursts (from without) as a bladder. 

P6o8koo-puthti...t^ bursts (from within) as a gun. 

T^pe-puthu...t/ suffices. 

Not^puthu...t^ falls short. 

K6we-puthfi...t^ MLs prostrate, as a tree. 

N6eche-puthfi...t/ falls from on high. 

Miinne-puthti...it falls off, detaches. 

P4h-puthtf...t^ moves hitherward, i.e. it comes. 



THE CRIE LANGUAGE. 147 

Ithke-puthfi...t£ falls cS, sinks (as water). 

Thiske-puthu...t< rises (id). 

S^ke-puthu. . . t^ spills. 

SMcoo-|mthi»...t< empties. 

K^nekwdn-e-p6jthii...^ revolTes, as a wiieel or eddy. 

T^{qpe-p^ti...d over^vms. 

Tg t^tippe-ptithu (iterat.) ...it rolls. 

P6ekoo-ptithtt ..M breaks. 

Kissh^-ptithtt ,.M swift-moves. 

Mtitche-ptithti...t7 moves slow or ill. 

M6tho-p<ithtf...t^ well-moves. 

S^itche-pdthti...t< tightens^ contracts. 

(yope-pdth«i...t^ ascends. 

TMse-ptithtf . . . tV descends. 

Ispkk4y-ptithfi...t^ goes up above. 

S4poo-p!ithfi...t7 through-passes^ i.e. through an aperture, 

e.g. the eye of a needle. 
A^8see-p6th«-tf^ (pliir.)...<ftey gather together, assemble. 
Th6th6wee-puthff...t^ diqierses. 
Tdche-ptithti...s^ moves, mounts upon. 
Th^e-pdthtf...t^ advances. 
Pkke-ptithtt...tY swells. 
Ass^eche(priv.)-p(ithtt...»^ moves backw^ds. 
A^ssitche(intens.)-pdthtt...t^ also-eth, mixes with. 

Ptissukee-piithu it fl|dinters. 

P^kiske-ptithtf ...f^ iaUs to pieces. 
Miitchoo8tay-p(ithtf...lf fidls into die fire. 
Ptickust6way-piithtf...id. into the water. 
P4ssitche-pidthti...t^ passes over. 
Niee-pithti...^ exact^moves. 
Kwfts«kwi^oo^t]ifi...t< moves by leaps, or jumps. 
Ch^h^pdthtf.. it quivers. 
K6oskoo-ptithtf...t< shakes. 
QtHske-puthtt...t^ turns, changes sides. 
Mahkoo-ptithM...t^ condenses, compresses. 
Ntippoo-p(ithti...fV doubles. 
Pikne-ptithtf...t< opens out, expands. 
l2 



148 A GRAMMAR OF 

T6ke-p(ithti...t^opeiis> as a slit. 
Tdssoo-piithtf...*^ spreads open. 
P6eche-piithflr...t^ fidls into. 

W&w^pe-p!ithtt...& swings badkwards and forwards. 
Ki8s^U^i&'pdtfati...t^ clings or sticks to. 
Koottippe-ptithtt ...t^ turns iqisidedownj capsizes^ as a canoe. 

&c. 

Paragraph III. 
Rest, or Absence of Motion, Apu or -46m (Chip. 
Ahbehf Jones). This elementary verb has a two-fold 
bearing, viz. Absolute and Relative. Used " abso- 
lutely" it signifies he sits^ — or ** he abides/' " stays," 
having a reference to place — when it may also be classed 
as ** positive." On the other hand, when used '' rela- 
tively," it signifies he stays, remains, &c. as opposed 
to a verb> &c. of motion. In this sense we class it as 
*' privative," as indicating contrariety. The inanimate 
form is irregular.^* 

Apt^ or Abii = &be + oo (anim.) ... sits-Ae^ he sits : — he is, 

Le. stays, abides ; is lying, A-Bsing. 
Ast&yoo = ^ist4(y)oaXinan.)...i^ is lying, placed, &c. 

7* ANIMATE. 

xxi. 9* Ke khbeh (indie.) . . he was *' lying.'' 

xxi. 22. 23. Che 6hbid (subj.) . . that he remain, *' tarry." 

INANIMATS. 

xi. 38. AhU^bun (indie, preter.) . . it was lying, lay. 

▼i. 11. At^ffi (subj. plur. flat vowel). . which (thejf) remain. 

XX. 6. 7. Ahyiht% (subj. intens.) . . which (t^) is (was) lying. 

XX. 5. Ahyaht<^.iit^ (subj. intens. access, case) . • which (jU) is (was) 

lying (in relat.) to him. 
XX. 12. Ke 4ht<fy-ebtin (subj. preter.). . (where) t^ had laiQ. 
ii. 6. Ke aht6-mah^aAd(^)(^ (accid. pass. inan. plur. see pp. 49, 

60, -magun) . . they were set. 
XX. 7. Aht48eiuxm (negat. indie.) . . it (the napkin) was not lying, 

emah iiht(% (posit, subj.), where it (the clothes) lay. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 149 

Relatively^ the same terms imply^ 

A^tf or kbti...Ae stays^ he remaios. 
A'8t4(y)oo...t^ stays, or remains. 

A'teet 6otin-egi^soo-ifik^ (part. pass. anim. plur.) 6teet A^Bu^uk- 

...part (number) they are taken, part they remain. 
A^teet 6otin-egitdy-fpaA, (id. inan. id.) ^teet AST6y'ivah.,Ad. 

This verb forms its three persons (sing.) as follows : The inan- 
imate form has only the third person : 

CRBE. 

{Net', 4^?.) ab-in, -in,-u, or, 

abi-n, -n, -oo, (I,^c.) sit, &c. quasi. Germ. (Ich) 

bun, Aug], be. 
ast- -ayoo, or, astk-^oo. It is lying, being, 

&c. (quasi, Ital. std.) 

CHIPPEWAY. 

{Nind, Jj^.y dp, tip, ahheh (/, &c.) stay, &c. 
aht'6..M is lying, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
CRBE. I CHIPPEWAY, 

Ab-edn, -6un, -it | Ab-eyon, -6yiin, -it 

To the same (privative) class may be referred (p=b), 

Nip-ff...Aetf dead. 

Nip-(^...Ae is asleep. 

Kip-(^...Ae is shut, stopped. 

Kip-6ch^...A^ stop-moves, i.e. he stops (e.g. in walking). 

Kfp-&tdt-tim.. he stop-breathes, expires. 

filip-&tik-moo... (reflect) he suffocates, &c. (See Privation.) 

Note. — ^It is somewhat remarkable that this element (a5) has both a 
positive, and privative or reverse, signification in certain BngUsh, &c. 
words also, e.g. (posit.) a-bet, a-bound ; (privat.) ab-ate, ab-use, av-ert, 
&c. (vide infra.) 

In its primary sense, viz. of Posture, this verb takes 
for its transitive, abe-h(£yoo, he seats him, e.g. a child. 
In its secondary meanings it takes, athdyoo, (anim.) ; 



150 ^ A GRAMMAR OP 

z&i6w = ASTA-00 (man.). Chip. Ood' Stsdun (anim.) ; 
Ood' iX6on (inan.) he srts, puts, places, ^tows him, 
or it.'^ 

The three persons (nng.) of the Transitive form are as follows : 

crcb* 
{Net', 4^.) ath-d«p> 'dfv, ^dyoo (anim.) (/, S^.) put him. 
(Nety 4^.) ast-an^ -an^ "Ofv (inan.) I, S^. put k. 
A^dae-gagco (indef. obj.)...^put8, places. (See p. 101.) 
A^ehe-gJts-oo (partidp. pass, anim.) ... Ae is put^ placed. 
'f^U&yoo (id. inan.)...t^ id. (See p. Ill ef seq.) 

CHIPPEWAY. 

{Nind, ^) J»-^> 'Ok, -4un (anim.) ... (I, 4^.) put him 

Qpron. ^uhs&h^ &c.). 
{Nind, 4*c.) kt>6on> -6on -6on (inan.)...(/, 4t?.) put »^ (pron. 

kt-t6on« &c.). 

^o^e.— The root (aTH) of this verb^ irregular in both dialects^ exhibits 
in its modifications, as above, some of the *' conversions'' of the (lingual) 
element th* 

The above signs ab, aih, ast (C3iip. dt), are privative or opposite 
also in the folkywing and other similar expressicms. JVb^e.— The 



W TBANSITIVB ANIMATE. 

zi. 34. Ke ^S£% (subj.) . . ye have laid Um, 

xix. 42. AhsoAiodcI Qd.) . . that they laid Um. 

XX. 15. Ke zhsdhiwdhd^n QA. dubit.) . . (the place) tlwu hast put, 

** laid,'* Awn. 
XX. 2. 13. Ke ahs(£^aig-wldn C^d. dubit) .... (id.) they have put, 

« laid,*' Amu. 

INANIMATE. 

ix. 15. Oo ge aht^ findic). . he did put it. 

xiii. 4. Oo ge ahtdbmni (id. plur.) . . he put, placed, " laid aside," 



xiii. 2. Ke ehXiM (subj.) . . he had put t^ 

xix. 2. 29. Ke 4htooto(^ (id.) . they put tV. 

xix. 29. Ke ihehe-^flMf (parftct|7. pass, see p. ill). . it had been set. 



THE CRBE LANQUAGE. 151 

Chippeways often miit the O^ «> JiangthemBg the pri^ca^ifig 
vowel. (Quasi^ AngL tnofterj Hrar^e; Pr. maitre, Strange^ &(C.)'* 

Ab'0(Akyoo...be back-gaee. 

I-M>e-p)idHi (I ss JE intens. see p. 71) -. he backward and 

iforwaid moves. 
AhAa^isu (anim.) ... he is back-like> i.e. is recovering, or 

recovered^ e.g. &ioxa a fit. 
Ab-ow Qnaxi.)...k is back, i.e. op-en. 
Aharhum,..he op*«ns it. 
A'b^oot^ym,.. back-takes he^it, turns It inside out. 

A'8t-ow4yoo..j7 is hack, extinct (fire), Angl. "out." 
A'8ta(y)-p&y-oo...back-drink-w-Ae, he is (become) sober. 
A'sta(y)-kwamtt...^ back^sleep is, is recovered from sleep. 

A'thoo-4sti-it...t/ pause4dxvir is, it is (beecmw) edm, still. 
Athoo^u, pron. ^tfa^w^ (intena.)...Ae ve-siU, rests, re- 
poses. 
Atoo-^thetusi...^ back-thinks, dislikes, t^.''^ 
[[Metho-^thetttm...Ae well-thinks^ likes, approves, if*2 
Anwe^tifm (see p. 96) •.•^ bl^do4)lears^ dis-beUeyei^ it* 
A'8t<k>-gummu...»^ is back-, still-water, modei^ted current. 
A^stum-oow(^oo...A^ back-does, hind^jBf, obnstructs, him. 

There is a second Simple Verb, expressive also of 
a state of Rest, of which the attributive sign may like- 



ns vi. 63. ily-IUibeze-^wlUmahgdk (Indet. an. obj. Detenu, inai^. subject. 

flat vowel). . which recovereth, testoreth (see pp. 9d. 36). 
xi. 44. A^b-ah(^ib! ^mperat.). . back-, " loose-^ ye-Mm. 
XX. 9' Che 4hbe-j^-(^ (neut. subj.) . . 4ihat he back*^ un-dead, rise 

from the dead, 
xii. 17. Ke ihJbe-^^>-9k6d <trans. sub}.) . . has baek-deadwJbe-Mi, he 

raised him from the dead. 

"xii. 48. A^Y-dhtMhw-iaemid (subj. intens.) ...he that inilt..tlniyc8, 
" rejects,'' me. 



152 A GRAMMAR OF 

wise be classed as both positive and privative. It has 
its three persons (sing.) as follows :^ 

POSITIVE. 

{Nee, 4^.) fikdoesM^ -m^ ^mi or, dckeos-; (/> S^.) hang, 

depend, hover. 
ftk6o- -tin (inan.) U hangs, &c. 

PRIVATIVE. 

(ATe^, S^.) IdLoo-sift, -siii, -sv : or, l^goo-; (/,4^«) am very- 

back,^ very sick.^ 
dkw- -uft or, fkgw-un (inan.) t< is very- 

back,* i.e. strong, (taste, 
smell, &c.) acrid. 

TRANSITIVE. 

A'koo-thiiyoo, or, uckoo- (anim.)...Ae hangs him up. 

A^koo-tofv (inan.).«.Ae hangs U up. 

A^koo-ch^;fb-oo (part pass. aniin.)...Ae is hangei up (by 

an agent). 
A^oo-di^^it-ayoo (id. inan.)... t^ is hangeil up (id.). 

A^oo-sti...A^ sits (a bird in a tree). 
A^koo-moo...Ae suspends, sits (a duck in the water). 
Alcoo-tiii...t^ hangs, suspends, is n(-uate, e.g* an island, in 
the water. 

The fidlowing expressions also, among others, exhibit this 
attributive sign as being likewise sometimes positive, sometimes 
privative ; in whichsoever sense it appears, whether as the primary 
OS the acoessOTy attribute, the signification may be considered as 
'^ intensive" also. See Intensity. 

A^goo-thow&yoo...t< very hard-blows, blows a hurricane. 
AwkQo-tho-w&y-sti...hurricane-ish-(is)-Ae, he is stormy, i.e. 
he is passionate. 

ra vi. 31. Ke fligwahsrf-mahgnd. . it was suspended, ^ anchored.'' 
xiz. 31. Che AIigood<£-fenoo>^ (acdd. pass. neg. subj.) . . that they be 
not, ** remain'% hung up. 
)• xi. iii. A^hkoo-ire . . fte if sick. 

• See Privation. 



THB CRBE LANGUAGE. 153 

A^goo-a8t4yoo...t< t^ quite-oppo8ite-(8un)light> i*e. shade. 
A^g6o-aFht^n...t/ quite-opposite-> back-wave-t#^ the waves 

are quite still. 
A^g6o-e-8kow&yoo...Ae 8trong-back-forces> re-pulses^ him. 
[[AViwe-ttffn...Ae back-hears (see p. 96), dis-sents^ dis- 

believes t<.] 
A^goo-^we-tttm...Ae strong-back-hears, denies, ii.^ 
A^g6w-ftMti (tempor*)...^^ i* very-hard-like> austere, cruel. 
A^gW'kwissu (contin.)...Ae is of & cruel temper. 
A^kum-^emoo (intran.)... he strong-thinks, is fixed in 

resolution. 
AVkw-^emoo (id.) ...he back-, or, very-hard-thinks. 



Nei' 4wkwah-mdf».../ back-say, contra-diet, him. 
Net' dwkoo-m^.../ very-hard-say, provoke, him. 
AVgw-ah (prepos.)... behind. 

A^wgwah-puthtf...behind-moves it, it goes behind, on the 
other side of, an object. 

Ab/e.— Hereafter we shall endeavour to show that the same (or equiva- 
lent) letters, in similar combination, are positive, or privative, and inten- 
sive, in certain English &c. words also; and that they are alike ultimately 
referrable to the correlative or opposite Intbrjbctional Expressions of 
Plxasubx and Pain, &c. (Vide infra.) 

Gonnected with the subjects of Rest and Motion, 
are Identity and Diversity^ continuous and variable, 
Disposition and Conduct. (See next Par. and Inten- 
sity.) 

80 xviii. 25. 27. Ke lUigwah-nwatibi . . he strong-denied t^. 
xiii. 38. Ke £hgoo-nwat^wqftm. . (when) thou shalt strong-deny me. 
i. 20. Ke dhgoo-nwatimre (neg. inan.) . . he denied t^ not. 
joi. 11. Ke ^hgwah-dlttibalinocl ;subj.) . . (and) he hard-drew t^. 
xiz. 15. Nin gah ahgw-IUiquahwif A ? . . shall I Qntens.) hang up, 

crucify, him? 
XV. 2. Ood' kkoo-w4be-n-lihn-un (inan. plur.). , he quite away-fling- 

eth'tJiem (with the hand). 



154 A GRAMMAB OF 

The dement as (as whUl mb the cognate hbiab , m and oo or w) is 
abo the rooi of words expressive ef IdetUii^ : E*Mhkck, the sAMe 
(E- intens. 'db^, root, -tch, adv. tennfaL) T4&^8k6otch^ like. 
JS4>AW-e, (E^, intens.) the samc, coiUinwdfy, unifbmily. 

A'Be-p6pooit...f^ it re-winter> wint^ over again. 
Tdbe^4^.,.he tame^^eSih, re-does, re-news, U. 

TJib-&8kwahu«f he re-wood-eth it, puts anew handle 

to it 
Tkbe»kw&mM...Ae re-sleeps, i.e. sleeps in the same place. 

(^A^chemdb...A£ relates.^ ^^ 

T^b-&chem(^ (intens.)... Ae relates, with accuracy. (Fr. il 
m-conte.) 

T^p-w4yoo...Ae same- i.e. true-says, speaks die truth.^ 

K6e-AM-abe, or k^eant-b^ (inq>erat.)...vay-#a9ite-, i.e. still- 
sit-/Aotf. 

K^-ant-issti (temper.) ..very-fanie-i8h-(is)-Ae...he is quiet. 

K^ewim-ewisstt (contin.).-.he is very sedate, quiet, (disposi- 
tion), qu. Aug}, calii-ous. 



^1 [xvi. 18. Ewh lidahmoo^-wain (intrans. subj. dubit.) . . that (which^ 
he discourses of.] 
[v. 32. En.6hjem«i (subj.) . . (which) he so-relates (of) me.] 
V. 32. Tab4hjems(^ $d.) . . who narrates, " beareth witness" of, me. 
iii. 32. Tab.lUid6ondf^r (id. inan.) . . he "testifieth" t^. (<9ee p. 43. 
note 23.) 

^ iv. 17. Ke tdp-w4. . thou true-speakest. 
iv. 21. T^pwa-t^wefffttfi. . true-hear-tAou-me, believe thou me. See 
p. 96. 

V. 46. TdpwlUtahw(£7.oopun (subj. pret. dubit.). . had ye believed 

him. 
Ke tah g^ tiipwa-tahu^tm (indie). . ye would have beUeved me. 



THB CRBB LANGUAGE. 155 

Ay9vfoo,.,ke is hb^ or it. 

AV.6eio> pron. 4-iir6oo (|Ay8i<ally)...Ae w he, the same 
man, &c.^ 

A'w-isstf, (morally).. .Ae ii the same, in character. 

AV-^Wisstf (id. intens. see p. 70). ..Ae w the same continu- 
ously, i.e. in dispatUion. 

{Net', 4t?.) kw-in, -i», -600 (/, 4^.) am he, the same. 

^w- -tilt t^ t# it, the same. 

^w- 'iicko (intens.) it is very same he or U, 

(Net, <Jh?.) aw-issi», -issin, -issn (/, S^.) am the same-like, 

the 8ameperson(moirally). 
A'we-now(^oo...Ae same-sees Atm,re-oognizeshim. Seep. 96* 

83 INDICATIVE. 

vi. 41. 48. xiii. 13. xviii. 5. 6. zix. 21. Mmf 6wh .. J am he, or it, 

the same, 
i. 21. 42. xviii. 33. KecP dwh . . thou art he. 

SUBJUNCTIVB* 

viii. 24. 28. xiii. 14. 19* xviii. 8. Ahweyt^ . . that I am he, or it. 

iv. 19. vi. 69. XL 27. Ahw^wi . . that thou art he, &c. 

iv. 42. vn. 26. xx. 14. 31. xxi. 4. 7. 12. Afawwl . . that he (Angl. it) 

iff he. 
V. 15. Akwtmd (access, case) . . that t^ is (was) he, &c. 
X. 24. K^pin (sah) 96hwewahmQtnm)dim (suhj. dabit. intens.) . . if 

thou be he. 
viii. 53. Wanain. . Iihy4hwe^ez6qytiii ? (cans, reflect) .... whom 

SAMB-make-ihyself-^JIott (oAy- intens. See jpp. 71. 82.) 

NBOATIVB. 

i. 20.21. iii.28. xviii. 17. 25. Nind^ iihwG-^ (indie). , I am not he, &c. 

xviiL 17. 25. JTatf ahwese $d.). . thou vrt not he. 

vi. 42. ix. 8. Ahwesei 0d.) . . ^ is no^ he ? 

i. viii. Ke ahwete (id.). . he was not he (or, it). 

X. 12. Aihwe5^ (subj. flat vowel). . who (he) is not he (the shepherd). 

X. 26. AhweMiM% (subj.). . (as) ye are not they. 

i. 25. Keshpin a,y^wes^ahn(wun)din (neg. subj.dubit. intens.). . if 

thou he not he. 
viii. 7. Ke idttiy-ahwe-ti4(neut.). . he re-established, re-samed, lifted 

up himself, 
ii. 19. Nin gah mihy-ahwe-ndn (trans.) / will very-same, re- 

estabUsh, it (with the hand). 



156 A OEAMMAR OF 

It should at the same time be observed^ that two Pronouns^ or a 
Pronoun and a defimle Noun^ occurrmg in apporiiion, the copula- 
tive verb is ^ien omitted, aa, (ywen& kAM ?...who (art) tkau ? See 
Syntax.^ 

Paraoeaph IV. 
Motion. Ache-oo (ch = tch) or Age-oo (g = dg), 
Chip. A UN J -EH, he moves (quasi^ Lat. age-re). The 
Attribute, or root, of this simple verb would seem to 
be derived from, or to be the continuous form of, the 
elementary particle cU-^ (a long), the sign of Diversity 
(see last Par.), indicatin:g "diverse," ** other,*' '* dif- 
ferent," &c. which shall first be exemplified as follows : 

1. A't- A'Uidtv [[Chip. AunjVahyc^]] ...other-is-Ae-(at), he is else- 
where. 
A't-&p-tt (anim.) [[Aund^-ihbeA3...Ae o^er-sits, change* his 
seat. 

A't-ast&yoo (inan.) ^Aund^-aht^j*"^ ^^ ^ ^ lyings ^^ 

another place. 
A^t-ath(f^oo (anim.) ^Ood' aund^-assduft]]*-*^ <i^>-ates, puts, 

km in an-o<Aer place, Angl. removes him. 
A^UaaXdw (inan.) f Oocf aund^-aht6oit]]...Ae removes it. 
AVootdyoo faund'-oot(f]...^e goes elsewhere, " removes." 
A^-ethow-kd-^oo.. other-being-maketh-Ae, he relates fables. 

8* vi. 20. Nee» (sah) ween. . / {sah affirm, part.) he, orit, Anglic^, it is /. 
ix. 9. Me ... . wowh . . why this ! Anglic^ why this (is) he ! 
i. 21. Elijah (nah) fteoi P. . Elias (nak, interrog.) tkouF Artthou 

Elias? 
xxi. 24. Me .... wowh mlnzhenahwi^ Ital. Eeeo . . . this Qs) thx 

disciple. 
X. 7. Neen (sah) bwh oo^ eshqu6ndlanaMa . . / (aoA affirm, part.) 

THAT their door, " / am thb door of (them) " 

X. Q. Neen (sah) bwh i8hqu6nd4im. . /, that door, '< I am thb door." 
♦ Quasi Angl. " odd," " ADd-le" 



THB CRBE LANGUAGE. 157 

Aukw6oo.. ,he is other he, or person (than he was^ physicaUy) . 
A't'ak [An-dngj—o^Aer Beings viz. a star. 
Ach'kk [[O^oje-ch6g3...0<Aer Beings viz. the soul or spirit 
E^chr-Ethinn (E intens.)...(a) very-other Indian (homo) a 

foreigner. 
£-^t-oogiim-tAr w6egu (id.)... very-other (distant) habitation- 

tM be dwells. 
A't-ee (adv.) (Chip, ahne^ ne)...on^ fromward^ away.^ 
A't-& (conj. advers.),.. yET, although^ &c. (qu. Lat at). 

This element is not only a prefix or accessory attribute^ as 
above^ but it b alto a verbal rooit signifying change, aUeration, 

A^issti... (morally) other-like-(is)-^, he is different 

/ kt-eW-isstf (id. intens. see p. 70)... Ae is changeable^ ca- 

pricious^ quasi, very ali-ous. 
A't'issoo (aocid. pass.) [Afht^zdo} ••• other-M-Ae-ed> he is 

change<f» turned*, ripened (fruit). 
A't-^^oo (id. inan.) [AfhUetd}..,ii is id. 
A't-e-nc£^oo [[Oocf aund^-e-n(^]]...Ae ali-hand-Am-eth ; ali- 

ates, '^removes," hm, with the hand. Se6 Special 

Affixes, p. 86. 
A't-e-skafP(£^oo^O(xfaunz'-e-shkahw<i»it]]...id.with strength: 

or (priv.) inadvertently ; Angl. he dis-places Ann. 
A^Ue-swdgoo (anim.) [Ood^ ^t-e-swimt^—Ae alters, changes 

(by fire) him, dyes him. 
A^tre-sum (inan.) [Ood' dht-e-s^tfit3...Ae dyes it. 
A't-^w^iyoo []dhd-ahwiQ...Ae exchanges, barters.^ 
Awkw-kt-aw4yoo...^ hard-barters, deals hard. 

As a verbal root, this element {dt) is, further, expressive of 
energy or action; when it may perhaps be also considered as 

^ xvi. 13. Ke gah dkne eBhew6'negoowdh . . he will away guide yon 
(into, &c.). 
xix. 17* A'lme pem^e-doocJ . . as ile away bore. 

8«ii. 14. A^d'Skwdfig (subj. flat vowel). . who {they) ** sold." 
, ii. 16. A^d-ahwdncfift Cid. acces. case). . who *' sold." 



156 A GRAMMAR OF 

bel(»igiiig to the elementary verb £T-u...Ae does (see Parag. V). 
In the following and similar expresttons^ it is qualified by the 
sign of "maxmsr" isse^ forming with it a compound (-kt-is-ti) 
in meaning precisely equivalent^ and, in form, nearly approaching 
to the English, &c. formative termination, -at-ile (e.g« vers-o^-tfe). 

It-dt-isn pn-^d-ez^A^ ... so-act-like-(doth)«Ae, he so acts 
(morally), behaves. See p. 138, Note 70. 
T^n' isse H^kUi^-U ? [Alm'^en ^on-^d-esicf ?3 (subj. flat 
vowel)... what manner (how ?) behaves he f 
It«c^6wissfi...so-acts-like-Ae (continu.;, ^ is so disposed* 

jKTole.— iSome tribes, Gree as well as Ch^[>peway, use the generic verb, 
Eihe-wABezeh, in the same sense, i.e. relating to conduct^ 

W^n-kt-issti., err<-at-ive-(is>*Ae, inconsistent, unsteady, tin 

behaviour.) 
K6es-kway-kt-issii. . .giddy-head-acts-like-ie (id.). 
Pis8in-^isstf...m]sdiiev-ous-(is)-Ae (id.). 
Pissekw-d,t-issii ^P^shegw-4hd-ea^3 ••• ^ is wicked, looi^e 

(id.).8« 
Kt88^w-4iit48sii.* he is kind. 
Ki8-&t-is8ii...Ae stick&-like, is fond. 

2. AcH- (=a(t)ch). This mode of the particle, dt, retains the 
signification of its Primitive, whether as an accessory or primary 
attribute. 

A'che or ache..." else," other, alias. 

A^ch-M (= al-ibi, Lat)...efce-where, other place. 

A^che-g£lpow-oo...^ stands aloof; quasi, di-stant-(is)-Ae. 

A^che-weegM...Ae tents elsewhere. 

A^che-p6ostesk«m.. he o^Aer-puts it on, changes it (e.g. his 
shoes). 

A^die*kippaF.Atcm...^ other (=extra) shuts ii, ie. locks it. 

A'ch-6kin...t^ other-goes on,"the case is altered." See Par.V. 

S7 xvii. 25. O way6osemfn(2 quiyuk kzhewihez6pm (flat, vowel). . O he 
who is fathered {see Note 61 p. 109) straight (t.e. uprightly) 
who {quasi) bdluivefff . " O ri^teous lather." 

^ viii. 3. 4. M^ah p^i^ies^l&deztd. . whilst he («Ae) was loose, wicked. 



THB CRBE LANGUAGE. Id9 



As a primary attribute or root : 






CASE. 




{Nct\ Sfc,y Ach-ii^ -to. 


-^oa 


Ach- 


-emagun. 


CHIPPEWAY. 




{Kind, SfC) h\m], aunj, 


aunj-eh. 


Aunj- 


-^mahgut. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 




CREE. 




CHIPPEWAY, 


Ach'-ean, -^n -^t. 


Aunj^ 


-ey<Sn, -^yun. 



-et. 

Ach-6oo (contin.) [|Chip. Aunj'eh]|...Ae moves> is moving. 
A^che-piithu (tempor.) [[Aunj^e-b6zoo]|...A^ dlf-moves^ i.e. 

re-moves (guddeiUy), alters. (See pp. 32. 80. 14>6.) 
Ach^-fftogtin [[amiy^-mahgutQ^ (contin.)... fV moves. 
A^che-h-oyoo {Ood^ aunj^e-(h)-oii> or, -auro (trans, anim.)... 

he alters (a(l)ters), changes, him. ®' 
A'che-t-oir Xpof aunf e-t*ooit] (id. hian.)...fte, &c. it. 
I-^he-t(^ (id. inan. intens.)...Ae re^4oes, re-*makes, it. 
A^che-che-g&yoo [amij6-cli-eg(r| ^def.)...Ae alters changes 

(somednng). 
Ach6-che-g^t(^oo (jp^urticip. pass. inan.)...t^ is altered. 
A^che-hdo (reflect)., he changes Mmself (Ins clothes). 

A^che^hdtfoo (caus.)...Ae causes him to move. 

Gh6-di6-p&th«; (iterat)...a^ quivers or throbs. 

N6ie. — We i&ay just observe, m passing, that the above generic (lingual) 
eleownt a(f)ck or a(d)g9, or with the euphmic Chip* «, emch or ange, &c. 
is analogous in signification to similar elflmaits in certain English 
words, in^tying also generic motion, &c. namely, the integral termina- 
tions of such verbs as, to sn-atch, diq^ch, f-eteh, str-etch, b-udge, 
tr-udge, cl-ench, wr-ench« r-ange, &c. (vide infra) of which the prefixed 
letters, &e. deSmB^e species of motion. Also, d'^ash, m-ash, cr-ash; 
d-ance, pr-ance, &c. (See Intensity.) 

^xii. 40. Che ge xuNJE-tftdwc^bun (subj.) . . that theg might be 
CBANO.e<l, "convert-«d." (See Note 61. p. 108.) 



160 A ORAMMAR OF 

Paragraph V. 
Action, Exu^Ete+oo, he does, acts (so). This 
elementary verb, growing also out of the ultimate root 
BTH (and of which it may, compared with the Verb 
Substantive, be considered the more "energetic" mode) 
has likewise a two-fold bearing, expressing, positively, 

he does or acts — privatively, he or she suffers, is unwell, 
&c. 

Note, — ^In the former sense^ the " constant" t begins — in the latter^ it 
ends the syllable : in th6 one case it is acHve^n the other (I shall call it) 
passive. 

INDICATIVE. 
CREE. CHIPPBWAY. 

(Net,^c.)E%in, -in, -u. (Nind, ^.) Vnt, I^it, Int6h. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

EU6kn, -6un, -it Ind-6y6n, -^yun, -it. 

Tan' ET^tift f (posit sabj.)***what Doesi^hou, art thou doing 

(morally) ? 
Tan' isse ET^n? (priv. id.) [|Chip. ahn een dind6ytmr|«**what 

manner ill-est, ail-est, thou, is the matter with thee f 
Thxk' etU f (posit id.). ..what doeth he ? how does he act, 

or, has he acted ? 
Tdne w6yche ETiif ?...what from (so) ACTeth he f why acts 

he so? 
Tf^ gah gh^ ETfi^-(^pun !...what could / do ! 
(M&hmusk^tch) F-etu (intens.) • ... (surprisingwly, won- 
derfully) continu-ACTeth-Ae, he conducts himself 

(strangely). 
Kah ETE^tfit Tsubj.) net' E^Tin (indie.) ... (that) which thou 

Doest, i.e. as thou ACTest, / do, act, so. 

N£-6the-T-tffit, w^ha .,he rejoices, he. Nie-'hX^k net' 6Tiit... 

(posit, or act) / also, / do (so). 
Ne ghee ootthnme-H-ickoostn; 6skw& m6gg& nef s^Tin (priv. 

or pass.) / have been embarrassed ; still, also, / am 

so. 



THB CRlfiE LANGUAGE. 161 

Note, — ^For this intransitive verb in its positive sense of acting, Mr. 
JoNBS uses (in Chip.), idiomatically, the indefinite transitive izhe-ch-egd, 
from Ood^ ezhe-t-oo» (def.) he so does it, (See p. 102. 1. 6. and * 
p. 162.)^ 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that these elementary verbs 
are, in common with other intransitives, susceptible of the intensive 
&c. formatives. 

The Transitive form of this generic verb may be 
said to constitute the generic or formative ending of 

90 INDICATIVE. 

vii. 21. Nin g^ ^zhecheg(£ (inan.)« • I have done (one work). 

viii. 29* Nind ^zhechegd-ntm (id.). . I do them 

V. 19. A'liy-^zhecheg(^ (intens.) . . he do-eth. 

viii. 38. 41. Kef ^zhechegefim . . ye do. 

viii. 39. Ke tah k^ ^zhecheg<fim . . ye would have done. 

viii. 44. Ke we ^zhechegtfim. . ye want, wish, *' will" do. 

IMPERATIVE. 

ii. 5. E^zhechegd-ydbit. . do ye it, 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

iv. 34. vi. 38. Che ^zhechegaydn. . that I do. 

xiii. 7. A^zh^chegaydn (flat vow.) . . (which) I do. 

iii. 2. A^-zhechegdyttn (flat vowel) . . (which) thou doest. 

ii. 18. Ke Ithy-^zhechegdyun (intens.). . which thou hast done. 

vii. 4. A''zhechegdif;(£Afi(tmfn)(^in (flat vow. dubit.) . . if thou do (these 

things), 
vii. 17. ix. 31. E^zhechegdid. . if he do. 
xxi. 21. Ka ^zhechegdic? . . (what) shall he do. 
7. 51. Kah ^zhecheg%ti7(fin (duhit.) . . (what) he doeth. 
XV. 15. A'zhechegdntd (flat vowel acces. case). . what {his-) he doeth. 
V. 19. A^zhechegd-wt^r-wdin (id. duhit.) . . (what) soever he (access.) 

doeth. 
vi. 28. Ka ^zhechegdyon^ . . ?. . (what) shall toe do . . ? 
xiii. 17. XV. 14. E^zhecheg%(^i^ . . (if) ye do (them), 
xiii. 27. Wah ^zhechegdyun (suhj.) waw^ep ^zhechegldn (imperat.). . 

what thou wantest to do, quickly do thouy (it). 
X. 37. K^shpin ^zhechegdsetoon (neg. inan.) . . if J do (them) not. 
xix. 36. Ke ^zhechegahd4-«mn (particip. pass, inan.) . . they (things) 

were so done. 

M 



162 A GRAMMAR OF 

the General Transitive and Causative verbs, i.e. in the 
Inanimate (or universal) form : (p. 38. et seq.) 

Note-^The relative sense implied in the piimitiye, E^tu, is, in the derived 
transitive form expressed, by the generic attributive of ''manner/' ^sse, m, 

CREB. CHIPPEWAY. 

Iss^e-H-oyoo 0(Nf Ezh^e(-H)-on {pvy -aun^ (def. obj. anim.). 

Iss'e-T-oiP Ood* EzhVToofi (id. inan.). 

Is8^e-H-ew<£^oo E2h^e(-H-)6wa (indef. obj. anim.). 

l88'e-CH*-eg4yoo Ezh'e-ch-ega (id. inan. pp. 102. 104.). 

Iss^e-ch-egasoo Ezhe^-ch-egasoo (part. pass. anim. pp. 111. 

113.) et seq- 
Iss^e-ch-egat(f^oo EzhVch-egad<£ (id. inan. id.). 
* See p. 102» line 6, also Note 90. 

CREE.«— INDICATIVE. 

{Nef, 4*^.) Iss^e-H-oip^ -h-ow^ -h-oyoo^ (anim. obj.)...(/, &c.) so- 

Do-Atm^ i.e. so actuate, or act upon, him (pp. 132. 133.). 
(Net% 4^.) Iss'e-T-afi, -Uan, -Uonfy (inan. obj.)...(/, &c.) so-do-«7. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Iss'e-H-tiilb^ -h-ut, -h-a^...(If, &c) I, thou, he, so-do-^tm. 
Iss'e-T-icffi, -t-iJi«, »Uat. .,(!{, &c) /, thou, he, 8o-do-t<. 

CHIPPEWAY. INDICATIVE. 

(Nind, 4t?.) Ezh'e-H-oA, "h-ah, -h-o», (or, -aun)...(/, ^c.) so-do- 

him, &ۥ as above. 
(Nind, ^c.) Ezh'e-T-oon, -t-oon, -t-oon...(/, 4^.) 8o-Do-t< (id.). 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

£zh^e-H-tig, -h-iirf, -h-0(i...(lf, &c.) /, thou, he, ao-vo-him, (id.) 
Ezh'e-Too^c^it, 'tod-^H, 'tood,.,(lf,Scc,) I, thou, he, so-Do-it, (id.) 

But the English verb^ do (transit), has, in Cree, &c. a second 
(physical) Transitive, viz.** 



M ii. 4. Ka t6o'idonen^F. . (how) shall I do to thee? 
zv. 21. Ke gah (6(mje) t6o-ddhgoow6g $nv.) . . they will do it to you 

(because), 
zvi. 3. Ke gah 6h7i-nd6o-d(Cl^ooto(^ $d. intens.) . . they will do it to 
you (repetit). 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 163 

Too-t-um (inan. accus.)...Ae Does U. 
T6o-t-on;ayoo (anim. dBit.)...he does (it) to him. 
T6o-ch-egc£^oo (inan. indef. obj.)...Ae does. 
T^ch-eg^t-(fyoo (part. pass.)...t7 is done. 

Etu has, for its Impersonal or indefinite form, EKin 
(from Eke, '' subject," &c. p. 135) implying 'Ht is so," 
" it is the case" '' it is passing," '' going on," or the 
provincial expression "it is agra*e,"&c.^ (Fr. il s'agit.), 
as, 

Kutt^ 6ki», (indie.)... «7 will happen, it will be so. 

Tan' isp6 6ki»-oopun?... what time, when (past), happen-ed 

Tkn* EK^ek f Chip, ahn' een ain-A^K-iimeg^Ar (subj.)...what- 

like, is going on, happening, &c.? 
Tkne ghee ek6e^ (id.)... what will happen, take place? 
Tkne w^yche 6k6ek ?...what from happeneth-t7, from what 

cause P 
Tane gh6e 6oche 6k^ek ?...what will from fit) happen ? 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

xix. 11. Che doo^dhweyun . . that thou do it to me, 

ix. 26. Alin'^en gah d6o^6o'g cCree, sk) . . which manner (how ?) 

which he has done to thee ? 
xiii. 12. 15. Kah t6o-t6onendhg6og , . which J have done to you, 

Kah dooddonendhgdog . . id. 
XV. 7. Ka tdo-tdhgdoydig (inv.) . . they (indeter. Fr. on) will do it to 

you, 
vi. 2. Kah dhyi-n-d6o«da%to(^(l {dhyi=^I, intern, n euphon. hef. d, -ddo, 

root, 'dahwdd relat. he to them}, . which he did (contin.) to 

them, 

^ xxi. 1 . Kah eshqu' IhkahmegtIXr dush oonoowh. . when end-happened, 
also, these (things). . . . 
ix. 30. Ahn' ^n, m&hmdhkahd-dhkahmig sah oowh . . what manner, 

(how) wonderful this I 
ix. 32. Pahahp^t-ilKU^hki^megi^it; (intens.). . as it has hitherto-hap- 
pened, come to pass . . " since the world hegan'^ . . . 
M 2 



164 A GRAMMAR OF 

For its definite inanimate form, Et^-u has EK^E-magt^fi ; in its 
Positive sense signifying " it takes place/' &c Privatively, it 
implies something wrong, ^^ out of order," &c. 

T^' 6thekok ghee ^ke^magdk (posit subj.)*--what quantity 
(Anglice "how long*) i.e. "when" (fut) willt< (def.) 
happen, take place. 
T^' ekk-msigcikf (subj.)...what mattereth it ? i.e. what is 
the matter with it } 
Note,— To the Conjugational form of the above indefinite Eki-n (Indie.) 
Eld-^ (subj.) belong those other Impersonals, N^pi-n. . it is summer ; 
Mispoo-fi. . it snows ; and the like. 

Eki-w and EKB-majrwn, also, take for their transitive 

form the General transitive signs (sing.) -t-an, -t-an, 

-t-ow (def.) ; and -g-dn, -g-dn, -g-dyoo (indef.). (p. 

104. and Accidence.)^ 

Net' ek^'e-t-an (def. obj .).../ bring it to pass. 

iVe/' ek''e-ch-eg4» (indef. obj.).../ bring to pass, "bring 

about" 
£ke-ch-egkt(£^oo (part pass.) ..itia brought about, brought 

to pass. 

Thus the constant elements t, and k, (the initial e being some- 
times '^ flattened" into e, = a in fate) of the above verbs Etu and 
Ekin, in their active modes, supply the formative energetic t, and 
k, (or g) of the General Transitive (and Causative) forms, viz. 
-T-an, &c. and -eo-&n, &c. as above. On the other hand, the 
Passive t (p. l60) is the ''characteristic" consonant of the Accidental 
and Participial Passives. 

Note. — This active consonant t, and its derived Unguals (t)ch,j, s, e, &c. 
are analogous in character and force to the like " energetic" elements in 
the English formatives -ore, -t Te, -t sh, -tze, &c. and to their cognate it in 
the energetic prefix en-, e.g. BN-able — and the energetic or active affix -en. 



'^xi. 47* Ahn' een (nah?) an-a^iblttun-eg^zeyiin^ . . . . what manner 
fthings] happen-make-toe, ** bring to pass ?" " What do 
we?" 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 165 

e.g. black-EN. As respects position, also, it may almost be said to connect 
in like manner the attribute with the object, as, Ne kinwoo-T-an, quasi, 
/ length-EN-tY. In the Accidental and Participial passives the same 
element (jt or d) is also analogous to the English participial signs d, t, 
and (their cognate) ». Cree -ax-. Chip, -an- ; Ital. -aT-, Span. -aD-. 
pp. 111. 112. (Vide infra.) 



Paragraph VL 

Force, Causation, &c. Thus far, then, of the 
primary generic modes oi Existence, and the " Simple*' 
verbal terms by which they are represented in this 
language. The " Attribute" of the verb being, how- 
ever (p. 97), a subject of Degree, it must be further 
observed respecting certain intensive modes of Energy 
or action that the same are, in Cree, represented in a 
two-fold manner — ^by Words, and also by Signs. 

First, by Words, as the verbal terms corresponding with 
the English verbs, (to do, see last Par.) to force, to make, cause, &c. 
The attributive roots of these verbs have, in Cree, a composite form, 
— ^have two or more " constant" elements (s-k-oo, k-sk, oo-s), and 
are transitive, as follows, 

[[S£iKoo-h-ayoo...Ae conqu-ers-Atm / subdues, overcomes, 

him. 
SkKoO'Uow,,,he overcomes it, e.g. a heavy weight] 
SkKOo'-c^-h-oyoo ... conqaer^Uke-he'him, he forces, com- 
pels, Atm.^ 
SsiKOo'-cA^-m-oyoo (Special, by Speech, p. 87).-^ "forces," 

prevails on, convinces, him, 
KasK'e-t-(^w...Ae causes, " effects," t^.^* 

®*xvi.33. Nin gi sh^goo-je-c^igr. . I have conquered-like-, " overcome" 

them. 
^ xvii. 2. Che kkhshke-od (subj. anim.) . . that he have " power" over 

them, 
r. 27, Che klihshke-t-eferf (id. inan.) that he " execute" it. 



166 A GRAMMAR OF 

Oose-h-oyoo ... from-do-(eth)-^-Atm^ i. e. he produces^ 
^' makes," him.** 

Oose-t-oit^...Ae "makes" it. 
This last verb is the transitive of 

Ooche-oo. . .firom-eth-A€. 

Ooch6-fiuig^fi...from-eth-t<, it proceeds. 
Secondly, by Signs, as the active or " energetic" tord (lingual), 
fv (labial), ^ or g (guttural), the aspirate A, the diphthongal / (^), 
and the conjoint sk, all of which have been already described as 
severally expressing, in certain positions, intensive meanings of the 
Action, similar to those of the English verbs above mentioned, 
(pp. 37 et seq. 18. I9. 86.) 

vi. 52. ix. 16. K& ezhe ^Uishketdo-pun (id.). . (how) shall so achieve, 
effect•f^Aef &c. 

NBGATIVB. 

xi. 37. Oo tah g6 kihshkedhseeni (anim.). . he could have " caused'* 

him not . . F 
V. 30. Nin tah g^8hket6osien (inan.). . (notluDg) I can effect it not. 
V. 19. ix. 33. Oo tah g^shket6o5^4»» Qd.) . . he can (or could) effect 

it not. 
iii. 2. Kah .... dhweyah 00 tah gdhshketoo^en-un (id. plur.). . not 

any-one he can effect-no/-/Aem. 
vii. 34. Ke kah k&kshket6os4nahwdh Qnan.) ye will not effect it. 
XV. 5. Ke tah k^ahkei6os6uihwdh 0d.) . ye can not effect it. 
viii. 21. 22. Ke kah gsihshkedosiem (reflect.) . . ye will not pravail. 

9«ix. 11. Oo g4 6ozhetoon (inan.) . . ^made it. 
ix. 6. Oo g4 6onje 6ozhetoofi (id.) . . he has from (it) made it, &c. 
xix. 23. Oo g4 n4w'008ed6(mahw6n (id."". . they four-made it. 
ix. 14. K^ 6ozhet6o-pun (id. preter.). . (Jesus) he made it. 
iv. 1. (yozheod (subj. anim.). . that he made him or them. 
ii. 15. Kah 6ozhetoo{7 Cid. inan.). . that ^ had made it. 
X. 25. W&zhetooyahnin . . (subj. inan. flat vowel) . . (which) I make 
tJiem (continu.) 

xii. 2. Ke 6ozliQ't-dhmahwahw6d (subj. dat.). . they made 6t)/or Aim. 
xvii. 24. Ch^pwah oozhechegahdif^ (par. pass, subj.) . . before it is 

(was) made, 
i. 3. Kah kigoo tah g6 6ozh^chegahdii9»toon (particip. pass.) . . not 

anyirthing it would have been made not. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 167 

Note. — The emphatic or causatwe, t, affixed to a verbalized noun, 
is (with its distinctive accented vowel) correspondent in character to 
Anjfl. &c. -fy, as, Nef assinee-Ti^^, (Chip. -Too-n) I petri-PY-«*, lit. I 
8tone-Do-»^, or, cause, change, it into stone, (pp. 18. 19. 121.) Vide infra. 

The '^intensive" English term^ make, used indifferently in 
respect of things, qualities, and actions, is, in Cree, rendered vari- 
ously by the Signs above mentioned, as, 

Muskesine-K-^^oo (intrans.)...A^ shoe-MAKEs, is shoe-mak- 
ing. 
Mithkoo-T-oft; (trans.). ..Ae makes it red, i.e. redd-SNS it. 
Kissewft-H-ayoo (id.)...Ae angers him, makes him angry. 
W4ppe-H-i£^oo (caus.)...Ae makes him see. (p. $9, Mote 17*) 
Ne Keeskwiypky^sK-dkiMn (inv.) ... me drunk-MAKeth-t< 
(with reference to its properties) ; it causes, make8« 
me drunk, (p. 88.) 



Section II. 

Relation also is, as already stated, a source of 
(verbal) attributives. 

Relational Terms, however, although often appear- 
ing in the verbal form, constitute, primarily, a Class 
of Words analogous in character and signification to 
the English Definitives and Connectives. But 

Relational Expressions^ in their full extent, consist, 
in Cree, of both Words and Signs : 

Words, as Conjunctions (posit, and priv.). [|See Accidence.'^ 

Prepositions, pd.] 

(Articles, the defin. and the indef. are expressed hj 
Construction. See Syntax.) 

Pronouns Demon. (See Aocid.) Often used for the 
Dejin. Article. (See Syntax.) 

Pronouns Personal, Possessive, and Relative. (See be- 
low.) 



168 A ORAMMAR OF 

SioNS^ as the inflected Personal Pronouns. 

But the Personal Pronouns also are expressed both by Words 
and by Signs. 

By Words, as, N6tha, /; K6tha, thou; W^tha, he, she, or U, 
&c. Ow^uk (indeterm.) some one ; K^kwdn (indef.) something ; 
used absolutely, e.g. in answer to a Question ; or, for the sake 
of Emphasis. See p. 51 et seq., also Accidence. 

By Signs, as the Pronominal adjuncts of the verb in their 
inflected ^' Relations" or Cases, comprising Agent, Object, End, in the 
active and passive, determinate, indeterminate and indefinite, forms 
(pp. 25. 99. 107. 111. 117. and Accidence). 

The Ablative Case, generally expressed by the Preposition, 
oo(t)che, or w^che (flat vowel Note42)yrom, hy, or with; Chip. oonfe, 
wainfe ; may, when " instrumentive," be also expressed by a verbal 
Sign. (pp. 20. 121.) 

The Relations of (verbal) Manner, or the Moods, are also, in 
Cree expressed by Words and Signs. 

By Words, as the Optative, Potential, &c. auxiliary Particles. 

By Signs, or Inflections, distinctive of 1. The Declarative or 
Indicative ; 2. The Subordinate or Subjunctive ; and 3. The Im- 
perative, Moods. 

Note. — The English Infinitive is, in Cree,* resolved into the Subjunc- 
tive. (See Syntax.) 

The Relations of Time, or the Tenses, are also expressed both 
by Words and by Signs. 

By Words, as the Auxiliary particles, Kdh or Gdh (p. 67), 
of the fut Indie. " shall, or will :" Ke or Ghee, the Compound of 
the Present, " have ;" &c. 

By Signs, as the terminational -ti (anim.;, -pun (inaq.) ; Chip. 
'bun (anim. and inan.), of the preterite. Indie. &c. Angl. ^ed, (or 
did,) was (see Accidence) ; the " Iterative" of the Indie, the " flat 
vowel" of the Subj. and the il or g of the Imperat expressive of 
" indefinite" time. (pp. 71, 73.) 

The Pronoun Relative also is two-fold ; the i^ar- 
TiCLE Ka or Ga (p. 67), who^ whom^ which, referring to 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 169 

a definite — the flat vowel (p. 73 et seq.) to an in- 
definite — Antecedent or Subject. See Syntax. 



Section III. 
Privation, in its largest sense, I shall, as respects 
this language, consider as a genns comprising three 
species, viz. 

1. Simple Negation, (p. 6S and Accidence.) 

2. Contrariety, already noticed. 

3. The particular mode now before us, and which, for want of 

an authorized special denomination, we shall call the 

Adversative mode. 
The first two of these, implying simply, 1. the Absence, 2. the 
Extinction, of an attribute, are, as opposites, definite in their signifi- 
cation ; the last, or third species, is indefinite in its '' adversative" 
meaning. 

The collective body of terms which we consider as 
composing this (adversative) portion of the language, 
have, for the most part, a negative aspect, and may, 
perhaps, be characterized generally as importing, 

1. Lessening, receding, declining, deviating, withdrawing, de- 
grading, falling off or away, &c. from some middle point, physical or 
moral; being another mode of " Diversity" (p. 153.). Having re- 
ference to moral subjects, words of this class have commonly an ill 
sense. 

A leading root of this *' species" is a modification of the ultimate 
Eth (p. 135, line 5.), viz. lih or Ith-k, constituting, as primary 
or accessory attribute, a descriptive (adversative) element; although 
often obscured by special modification or by dialect, it may be also 
often recognised. In both its '^ converted" and dialective forms, it 
becomes (the i only being ^^ constant") it, il, in, isk, ik, ig, &c. — ana- 
logous, seemingly, to the English privative prefixes, il, in, ig, &c. 
as in-sane, il-lude, ig-noble, &c. 



170 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ith^en6-woo...Ae recovers (hb health). 
Ith^en6-ka-h(fyoo...A€ causes him to recover, restores him. 
Ith^ipai(^n7...t^ recedes, slants from wards, as a sloping bank. 
Ith6wiin-issii...^ lacks food, is starving. 
Ith^is-atch . . . withstanding-ly , resisting-ly . 
Ith^ewaik . . . nevertheless. 
Ith^esah^^oo...Ae declines (from), rejects, him. 
Ith^'esah^o (reflect.)...^ constrains himself, forbears. 
Ith^e-skow(fyoo...^e withstands, re-sists, him. 
Ith'eway-piith^tt...«7 lessens, falls away (as a swelling). 
Ith''eway-gapowoo...Ae stands back. 
Ith'ewaystt...Ae is from ward, froward, perverse. 
Ith^eway-immoot/A; ^t-ee ... /Aey airay- haste from ward, 

*^ make oflF." 
IthkVputhu...»^ falls off, away, sinks, (as water in a river). 
Ithk^etoo (neut)...^ is purged. 

IthkVn-ttiw...Ae drains it (with the hand), e.g. milks it. 
Ithk^oo-n-ttm...Ae with-draws (id.), takes awatf, it.^"^ 
IthkVh-ttm...Ae lessens, sucks up, it, (as with a bucket, 

sponge, &c.) 
Ith^ek-^t(£^oo...^e wt^^-draws, goes away. (Fr. il s'^carte.) 
Ith'eka-th6wtt^ . . . they away-fly. 
I th^ek£i-p4t6w2i^ . . . thei^ away-run. 
Ith'^ekk-b^^oo...^ away-eth him, reject-eth him. 
Ith6k-^tissti...^e is reserved, sullen, disagreeable. 
Ithk^itcheg6woo...Ae is iMBecile. 
Ith''ik-6o-magf<n...t7 w concealed, obscured, by it 



Wxvii. 15. Che ^koo-n-ahdwdh lud-wdh'] (subj. anim.). ...that thou 
withdraw them. 
xi. 41. Ke ^koo-U'dhmoowdd (id. inan.). . they have withdrawn it. 
XX. 23. Wdgwdin (sah) kkoo-n-ahmdhwdg-wdin (dir. dat. flat vow.). . 
whomsoever ye withdraw-^o-Atm. 
'Ekoo-U'dhmdh'wdh (inv.id.). . they are withdrawn, ''remitted" 
to him. 
XX. 1. Ke ek'oo-n-egahd<% (part. pass.). . that it was withdrawn, 
xi. 39. Ekoo-n-rfAwoo* (imperat.). . withdraw-ye-tf. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 171 

Ithikw-uskwufi...^Atc^-cloud-i8-t^, it is overcast. 
Ithk^ikoop4yoo...t< is rimy (weather). &c 

Note, — ^The derived formatiye -wit-, implying Accident, &c. is " priva- 
tive." (p. 87. and Accidence.) 

To the same (adversative) class we refer, by " conversion," &c. 
such words as the following : 

Eg'k (=ithk^) Cree, subord. neg. not : used with Subj. and 

ImpercU, 
Eg'awaudj (adv)... hardly, scarcely. 
£g^kwissti-2iA;...//iey are rare, scarce. 
Isk^oosK...Ae is weary.* 
Fiskoot^^oo (intens.)...^e is tired by walking. 
I''i8koo-gkpowoo...Ae is tired by standing. 
Isk^oo-puthtt...!^ remains, is overplus. 
Ab-ithkoo-n-Mw...Ae wnties (by hand), unbinds, loosens, it, 
Kech^-ithkoo-n-ttm...Ae complete-wt^Mraws, unbolts, takes 

to pieces, it, 
W-ith'ip-issM...Ac is dirty, foul. 
P-ith^is-iss2i . . . Ae is numb(ed) . / 
N-eetham-iss2i . . . Ae is weak. 
K-ith4sktt...Ae lies, speaks falsely. 
P-ith''an^(£^oo...Ae peels it, as a fish of its scales. 
Ch-ees''e-h-ayoo...Ae cheats, deceives, him. 
P-issin-dtiss» . . . Ae is mi^hievous. 
P-issekw-^tisstt (=p-w^oo-)...Ae is wick-ed. 
M-isse-h-ayoo...Ae injures, harms^ him, qu. Angl. amiss, 
M-isse-m-oyoo (8peci.)***id. by speech. 
K-iss6-m-ayoo...^ affronts him. 
K-isse-wassf«...Ae is offended, angry. 
P-ist4-h-tim...Ae miss-eth-t^, as a mark. 
P-ist6-n-tim...Ae mis-takes-i^ (with the hand). 
P-eek^isse(^ft^...t< ismist-y, hazy. 
S-eek'utchti ... ^ is lean. 



« iv. 6. Ahy-AKOoztd (intens. flat vowel) . . as A« was very weary. 



172 A GRAMMAR OF 

P-eek'oo-n-oyoo (=p-ithkoo-)...Ae breaks t^ (by hand). 
P-eeg^skattiiit (= p-ithk-) ... Ae is melancholly. (Fr. il 
s'ennuie.) &c. 

2. As expressive of lessening, &c. this element ith becomes in its 
lingual ^* conversions" the General Diminutive of the Adjective 
and Neuter Verbs, as well as of the Noun Substantive, viz. -is, or, 
'ish, Anglic^, -ish. 

This '' diminutive," -<>-, is also, as distinguished from acA- (p. 
156), indicative of quick motion, as in the generic or formative 
ending, -iss^-emoo. 

It-iss^emoo (intran.)...Ae flees, speeds, thither. 
It-W-awayoo (tran.)...Ae dispatches him thither. 
Correlatively, or as opposed to ooth-, or oot-^ from, or out of, 
the same (adversative) element -I/-, or eet^, signifies in or into. 
P-eet'-che...in, within. 

P-eet'oo-gayoo (Chip. b-eend''ega)...Ae into-eth, entereth. 
It also implies inward, intellectual, moral. (Vide infra.) 

A^k- or awk'-, and kkoo- (awkoo-)...i;e/^ back or bad, are both 
" privative" and " intensive." 

Awk-ekin (p. l63)..,it is AWK-ward, ''back-ward." 
[Awkw-ah (prepos.)... behind.] 
Awkw-u«...«/ is very bad, sore, acrid. 
Awkoo-SM...^e is very sick or ill. 
To the same (adversative) class belongs the Passive, or reverse, 
form of theCreeandChippeway verb: -eet, -oot; 4nd,'0(md. (p. l60.) 



Section IV. 

Of Intensity or Amplitude. — We come now to 
our fourth or last General head, comprising and 
modifying the other three, namely, Intensity. 

The Cree language, in describing, or assigning 
names to, Existence, &c. and their modes — to Things, 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 173 

Qualities, Energies, &c. — may be said to contemplate 
the latter as subjects, not only of" Manner" or Kind, 
but also of Degree or Intensity, as, 

Th-6oti« (Manner^ simple)... t< blows. 
K-^stin (id. intensive)...!/ stormetb. 

Thith^ippu...Ae is active, nimble. 
Kith'ippti...Ae hastens, is very speedy. 

Ath^im-isstt...^ is difficult. 

Awk'6w-i8s«...Ae is very hard, cruel. 

AwkV^-Wisstt (double intens.) ..id. in ^'Disposition." 

I^immu,,.he speaks. 

Kisse-wayoo...Ae speaks loud. 

K& K6che-m(^...Ae proud-, lofty-talks, boasts. 

Jl^chesoo,,,he eats. 
Kaw8^iik-ayoo...Ae gorges. 

Nipp^e-wtt»...f/ is wet. 
Awk^oo-stiit...t< is soaked. 

Nkp&y-woo...Ae is a man. 
Ook''em6w-woo...Ae is a chief, a governor. 

Thk'dw,,.it is cold (to the touch). 
Awk V-uttin ,,.it is frozen. 

Ath'im- tin... tV is bad, difficult. 
Awk^w-tfn...t/ is very bad, sore, acrid. 

A^ssk-gdryoo (trans.) ...he feeds. 
Miik''oo-s(f^oo...Ae feasts. 

Sesk^e-to^oo (acdd. pass.)...t7 is lighted. 
Awk^'w-^wk^oo-Zoyoo (id.)...t/ blazes. 

NlppS^h-a^oo...Ae kills him or them. 
Skw4''-h-ayoo...Ae massacres, slaughters, them. 

It-^e-t-tim...^ 80-thinks it. 
Kisk-ethe-t-ttm...Ae knows it 



174 A GRAMMAR OF 

ThlJc^e-n-ayoo...A« pushes him. 
Kw&^-kw&-n-ayoo...Ae thrusts him (with force). 

It^ttimoo-t^(^...Ae attaches it (to something). 
Klk^timoo-t-(^...Ae sticks^ fastens^ it (id.). 

l'&nane-h~d^oo...he speaks (to) him, 
K6t'oo-t-ayoo...Ae noise-eth^ reproveth, him. 
K6glL-m-ayoo...Ae scolds him. 

Oot^e-n-egd^oo ... he takes. 
Musk^^-t-w4yoo. ,he takes forcibly^ robs. 

Oot6mma-w-(f^oo...Ae hammers^ beats^ him. 
Pdck^omma-w-ifyoo ..he strikes with force^ knocks^ him. 

Too'-t'Um ...he does it. 
Kask^e-t-otv...he causes^ effects^ it. 

As8fe-n-um...he assembles^ brings together^ them. 
M6w^utche-t-oft'...Ae accumulates^ heaps together^ them. 

Metho-^themoyoo.. he well-thinks^ likes^ him. 
Cheek^-^themoyoo.. he thinks highlj of, esteems, him. 
Shk^e'h-ayoo...he loves him. 

AVow-6the-m-ayoo ..he anti-thinks, dislikes, him. 
F}^^wk-t'affoo...he hates him. 

Oot6ete-n-^^oo...Ae attacks him. 
M6osk^esta-wayoo...^e rushes upon him. 

Ootiim'e-h-ayoo...^e disturbs, interrupts, him. 
Mick^oosk^che-h-ifyoo...Ae troubles, perplexes^ him. 
KiikV^ke-h-^^oo...Ae harrasses, torments, him. 

Kdwkw-^thet«m...A^ qu. very acrid-thinks, is jealous. 
Kow-issti ...he IB rough. 

Musk6w-isstt ...he is strong, hard. 
Awkoo-sti...Ae is very sick or ill. 
Awg6w-isstf...Ae is very hard, austere. 
Koosekw-tittt<...Ae is heavy, weighty. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 175 

Kuske-pittihn...Ae hard-^ dose-pulls^ it, draws it together 

tight 
Kuske-tibbisk . . . very thick darkness. 
Ku8k-6thetum...Ae strong-thinks^ is eager^ impatient. 
Sok-i8Sti...Ae is very strong-like^ firm (in mind)^ determined. 
Groost-achfi (intran.).. he is very afraid. (Fr. il cr-aint.) 
Kaskaska-h-2^m...Ae scrapes it- 
Kookoos.. a hog. 
Kawk-w&...a porcupine 

Keche, and A^k or Akoo^ ^^ intensive" expressions of opposite 
character^ signify^ generally — ^the former, what is pleasing, ex- 
cellent, SfC, having the stress on the foUowing vowel e — ^the latter, 
what is PAINFUL or cfi^-pleasing, reverse, Sfc. having the principal 
accent, when used emphatically, on the preceding (or initial) vowel 
d or aw. The former we class as •' positive" — ^the latter as ^^ pri- 
vative." 

Kechiit...f/ is prime, first-rate, excellent. 

Keche-Ethinu (homo)... a superior-man. 

Kesh^Ethinu (id)... an aged man. 

Kees-itchewun...t^ is very swifl current. 

Kees^-tk. . . the sky. 

Kees'-lk<^...i< is day-light 

Kist-dchewu7t...t^ is (a) chief, principal, current, i.e. river. 

Kist-^emoo (reflect) „,he prime-thinks-Atm^/j^ is haughty, 

proud. 
Awkoo-stt „heis^^ very" sick, ^^bad," or ill.' 
Awkw-un...t^ is " very bad," strong, biting, acrid. 
Awkw&-giimtt...t^ is very strong liquor 
(Aw)Kw^kwttit (impers.)...!^ (the earth) trembler, quake-j. 
(Aw)Kootupe-ntfm...Ae reverses it, turns it upside down. 
K-awk-eth6w (intens. number)... all. 
K-awk-ek4y (id. time) ..always. 

But Intensity of Signification, in respect of either 
'' Extent" or " Degree'' (p. 91), is, in Cree, often ex- 
pressed both by Words, and by Signs. 



176 A GRAMMAR OF 

By Words — ^Absolute^ as above. Indeterm. Pers. Pronouns. 

Accessory, as "intensive" Adverbs of Manner, Ctuan- 
tityy &c (See Accidence.) 
By Signs — ^Augmentative, sk, w, I=JE, (pp. 21, 69 et seq.) 

Causative General, h, t, k, sk, (pp. 18 et seq. 38, 
39. note 17, p. 86.) 
Special w, h, sk, (p. 86.), 
Plur. and Indef. pers. pron. &c. -k, -knewoo, w, g, 
ow, (pp. 73. 98. et seq. 110). 
Among the " intensive" signs used in Indian Speech, Emphasis 
and Accent, must not be omitted. 

Note.— These varying modifications of Vocal Expression, inadequately 
represented in writing, seem to constitute an essential, if not the vital, 
part of Indian language. With a curious aptitude they are acquired 
evem by children, simultaneously with un-emphatic sounds ; and there 
needs, perhaps, no further evidence of their efficiency than (and it is 
worthy of note) as they are instrumental to our understanding the im- 
perfect Articulations and "Conversions'' abounding in infantile discourse; 
and which, but for the appropriate expression of these modifying Signs, 
would often be unintelligible. 

Indeed Intensity, as respects both the Vocal 
Expression and its Signification, may, in strictness, 
be considered as modifying generally (absolutely or 
relatively) all the Parts of Speech, in other words, 
the whole Cree tongue. (See also, Accidence , viz. 
Pron. Demon. Adv. &c.) 

Note. — It seems to be worthy of observation that, in the intensive Ex- 
amples above adduced, as well as in those others referred to, the gut- 
tural k (or g) and the labial 00, or w, are especially prominent, as 
constituting, singly or combined, (with their accompanying vowels,) an 
integral part, or the whole, of the intensive member modifying the 
exemplifying Term, whether the same be attributive, formative, or per- 
sonal accident: This circumstance will hereafter furnish occasion for a 
few remarks on the relative powkrs of Articulate Sounds, as they are, 
in Cree, expressive of feebleness, or force, of Signification : — ^a topic 
involving an Hypothesis respecting the Origin of this Language. (Vide 
infra). 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 177 

Section V. 

Of the Compound Verb. 
The Root or attributive member of the Cree Verb 
is often modified in its meaning by an accessory or 
secondary attribute, forming together what we shall 
call a Compound Verb. 

Note. — The Simple Verb, indeed, consisting, as in some European 
languages, of two parts — ^root and affix — ^predicate and subject — ^is itself a 
Compound expression, and more especially when in combination with 
the various formative, &c. adjimcts of which it is susceptible : the root 
remaining however the same, unaltered both in form and meaning, we 
class such terms as Simple verbs, as above. 

The diffisrent parts of speech furnish many kinds of secondary 
as well as of primary (p. l6.) attributives^ which combine together 
in the relations of Concord^ Government^ &c. (see Syntax) as, 

A Noun with a Noun. 
Assinnee-wutcheea . . . the rock (y) -mountains. 

An Adnoun with a Noun. 
Wap-istekwan^-w . . . white-head(ed)-is-Ae. 
T^k-ippee-k4yoo . . . cold-water-maketh- Ae. 

A Verb with a Noun, in a direct relation. 

Kick-assam&yoo...wear-snowshoe(eth)-Ae, he wears snow- 
shoes. 

K6s8e-cheech-<£^oo...wipe-hand(eth)-Ae, he cleans, ^^ wash- 
es," his hands. 

A Verb with a Noun, in an oblique relation. 
Kipwutt4wmoo-akoon-dyoo...Ae suffocate-snow-eth...he is 
snow-suffocated, suffocated bi^ snow. 

An Adverb with a Noun. 
Oosam''e-toon^-«<. . .too-mouth-(ed)-is-A€, ''he talks too much." 

A Preposition with a Noun. 
Tdstow-ask-oostow . . .between-wood(s)-puts-Ae it, 

N 



178 A GRAMMAR OF 

A Verb with a Verb, one being in the relation of G&rund, 
Fesk-oot;ayoo...tire-'walketh-Ae, he is tired 6y walking or 

going about. 
I<eskoo-t^pdyoo...tire-hauleth-Ae... he is tired by hauling, 

e.g. a sledge. ^ 

An Adverb with a Verb. 
Nuskw-iittin...quick-fTeezes-f7, it freezes suddenly. 
Sok-^emoo f reflect)... Ae very-thinks, -intends, is resolute. 

The following Adverbial prefixes are thus in very frequent use, viz. 
oot', or w^', from; iU, to; pe^fpey', or peyt-, hitherward; litte-, fromward, 
away. (Chip, oonj-, ezhe^, be-, ahne'.) 

A Preposition with a Verb. 
Tet-astc;n;...Ae sur-places it, places it upon (something). 

To this head also belongs a manner of expression which is of 
frequent occurrence in Indian speech, and requires our eq)ecial 
notice. Certain generic nouns or names (few in number, and 
chiefly used in Composition) are constantly annexed to the attri- 
butive when the Subject of the Verb comes under either of such 
classes. 

Note, — In the English phrase these generic expressions are generally 
omitted as expletive, or not necessary to precision. 

The principal of these Substantive signs are the following : -ask-, 
signifying. Wood; -appisk-. Metal or Stone; -gum-. Liquid or 
Liquor ; -pegg-^ Line or Cord ; -puck-, Le<xf; -g6minik. House, 
&c. Thus speaking of (e.g.) a stick or tree, mistick, we say, 

[]KhiW"00sz^...A^ is long.] 

Kinw-c^^-oo8Z£...long-ft^ooef-is-^e. Angl. (simply) it is long. 

fW^-issa ... ^e is crooked.] 
W^'dsk'i8Bu...CToo\ied'tvood'iS'he. Angl. it is crooked. 

Of a Stone, asstnnee ; a Metal, pem-dppisk ; as, 
[W6w-i83u,..he is round.] 
W6we''dppisk'issu,..round'Stone'i8 he. Angl. it is round. 

Of Water, &c. nippee, &c. as, 
[;Tak.ow...itiscold.] 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 179 

T^ke-^am-u...cold-/»gtfMf-is-d. AngL U is cold. 
Tkke-gdtn'Unip]pee...co\d'liquid'h'-U the water^ the water 

is cold. 
[[Kinw-ofi/ ,.M is long. lippee. . .a cord.]] 
Kinwi-p^gg-un,..\ong-cord'iS'i^. Angl. it is long. 

[Sk\i'eHn.,.ii is (come) forth. jV^epeea... leaves.]] 
Sake~puck'dtv.,.i88ue-leqf~is'iL Angl. the leaves are out. 
, Esp'dsk'W-iow...high-tDood-'is''ii. It is high woods, 

Mistick-w-(lfA:-oo-skdiv...tree-ft^ooc2-thick-if ii. It is thick 
woods^ a forest -skoff^ augment, p. 70. Note 38. 

The seomdary attributive may itself be a Compound^^ as^ 
Mt^M'oo-mtit-&ppwooy...r^-6erry-juice^ i.c. wine. 

Primary Attributes will not coalesce or associate together. (See 
Syntax.; 

Thus far of the qualifying of one attribute by 
another. 

But the signification of the verbal root is modified or varied in 
two ways: 1. By Words^ as above. 2. By Signsh— as in words 
where some departure frcnn the exact meaning of the primitive root 
is implied. This occurs both in simple and in Jigurative terms. 
Words of the description here brought under notice^ constitute our 
first class of Derivative verbs (p. 68.). 

The modifying Signs alluded te are^ among others^ 

1. An Initial consonant^ as, 

P-oos^-tt...Ae em-BARKS^ from oos'ee, a canoe^ boat^ or bark* 
P-ucKoocHE-n-oyoo ... he em -bowels him, from Met- 

ucKoosEB-ttA:^ the bowek. 
S-E8K-a-Afifrt...Ae puts fire to^ ignites, it (firom EsK^oot&yoo, 

fire). 

2. A Retrenchment of initial letters, as, 

(£s)Kootk-wa^oo...Ae makes, lights, a fire, (from Esk^oot- 
dyoo, fire). 

99 ii, 3. 10. Zh6hwe-min-&hboo . . yellow-berry-juice, wine. 

n2 



180 A GRAMMAR OF 

3. A " Conversion" of Consonants or Vowels, or both, as, 

Miss-oft;...t< t^ \axge, great. 
MEECH^-6t...a GREAT many. 
PEBCH''-oiv...a GREAT distance it is* 

W6we-Aistt...t< is full (moon) ; from Wow-issu.., it is round. 

4. A Repetition of initial letters ; &c. as, 

P^-pamoot4yoo...Ae walks about (Fr. il se promene) ; from 

p6mootayoo ...he walks. 
Kd''KE'P'iti88u...he is stupid ; from Ki'p-(^w...he is stopped 

up. 
Ni5-NEV-ewissM...Ae is ashamed, MORTi-fied; from Ni'p-m, 

he is dead. 
WASK'-umme-k^sick ... a clear-liquid-sky ; from WASEG'um- 

mu, it is clear liquid. &:c. 

Note. — ^rhe Derivatives here alluded to seem to be analogous to such 
English words.as the following : (to) Don, Doff, &c. from on, off, &c. 

Kinds of Verbs. Returning to the second head of 
the first General division of our subject (p. 15), we 
have to observe that the Verb may be considered as 
of three kinds — the Impersqnal, the Intransitive, and 
the Transitive, in their various modes, as already 
exemplified. 

Forms. The forms of the Verb, as exhibited in 
its numerous inflections, are the subject of the last 
General head, which comprises the topics of Conju- 
gation, Voice, Mood, Tense, &c. in the positive^ suppo- 
sitivey and doubtful (and, in the Chippeway, negative) 
forms. (See Accidence.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 181 



PART 11. 



ACCIDENCE. 

Chapter I. 

Sect. 7. 

Having, in the preceding pages, given an outline 
of the Cree and Chippeway Verb and its forms, I 
proceed now to enter more fully into the grammatical 
details of these languages — and, first, 

OP THE NOUN. 
The Cree and Chippeway Nouns are divisible into two classes^ 
analogous to those of Gender in European languages^ but more 
appropriately denominated, in these tongues^ the Animate and the 
Inanimate classes — ^the former in the plural ending in "uk or -fviik 
(Chip, -fig, -og, or 'fvug), the latter in -d (Chip. 'Cen, -«»).'•* 





CRBE. 


CHIPPEWAY. 


A Bear 


Mdskwah 


Mtikwah 


Bears 


M^kw-uk 


Mdkw-wg 


A Duck 


S^seep 


Sh6esheep 


Ducks 


S^6e^uk 


Sh^esh6ep-ug 



>«• i. 6. 30. En4neh (homo). . a man. 
i. 4. Eninewug (id.) . . men, people, 
xxi. 12. Oog^emoA . . a chief, " the Lord." 
vii. 26. xix. 6. Oog^emo^. . chiefs^ ** the rulers," " officers." 
i. 1. Ek^eddowin . . a word, 
vii. 9* £ked6owin-ttn . . words. 



182 A GRAMMAR OF 



A Shoe 




Mdskesin 


M^esin 


Shoes 




MtLsk.e8^~it 


Muck^esin-un 


A River 




oeepee 


S^epee 


Rivers 




S^^epee-a 


S^epee-ivtin 


Aperscm 


I'd 


Persons 


V^uck'^^ 


A thing 


Vd 


Things 


r-ee 



The Animate plural^ -uk (Chip, ^ug), is^ when in regimen with 
the third person^ changed into d (Chip. "Un). See Syntax, 

Many Inanimate nomis^ however^ from possessing some real or 
imaginary Excellence^ are personified or class as Animates. 

Abstract and Instrumentive nomis^ ending respectively in -win 
and '^gun (sing.)^ class as Inanimates. 

^ofc.— This Substantive ending, -twfi, appended to verbal roots, or 
their formatioes, is equivalent, generally, to the English terminations, 
-emce, "mess, -ment, "ion, -ty, ing, &c. as is, in like manner, the termination 
-gtm to the -er, &c. of English Instrumentive nouns. 

The Substantive termination **ofi, quasi^ " made," is used to 
signify an image or representation of a thing. 

Nisk^...a goose; l^isk-ekdn... an artificial goose, used by 

the Indians as a decoy. 
Wdtee...a vault or hole in the earth. 
W&tee-k6n...an artificial vault, a cellar. 
Mistidk...a tree ; Mistick-oo-k6n ..an artificial tree, a long 
pole fixed up^ e.g. as a beacon, &c. 

Oowd8sis...a child; Oow4ssis-c^6n-tf (dim.)...a Uttk arti- 
ficial child^ a doll. 

Nouns have iheir Diminutives, ending, in the singular number, 
in "is or 'Oos, 



101 vii. 25. A^yaho^ . . persons, " them." 
ill. 12. A'hyeccn . . things. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 183 

Moost^oos^ a buffalo (bison) Moodt^oosW 

Mistick^ a tree Mistick-oof 

Mook'oman^ a knife Moc^oman-t^ 

Assinnee^ a stone As8inn4f 

It may be added^ that the force of the Diminutive is encreased^ 
generally^ by the " conversion" of the casual^ as well as the 
" constant/' s, into its cognates sh, or {t)sh (t)ck, especially 
the latter^ as^ 

Oow4ssis...a child. 
Oowishish...a little child. 
Oow&(t)chee(t)ch...a very little child. 

Note, — ^The above modification of the Consonant seems analogous to 
Angl. " little'* when pronounced " leettle ;" &c. 

In some cases a modification of the Diminutive sign^ as^ ^ais, 
-aish, or aitch, signifies mean, defective, contemptible, &c. 

Op Cases. 
The Cases of the Noun are transferred to the Verb (see Part I.), 
with the exception of the Vocative, which^ in Cree^ takes in the 
plural, -e/a. 102 

Woman ! Eskwayoo ! 

Women ! Eskway w-e/tcA: ! 

Such a one ! Vd ! 

Id. plur. V^etkk! 

The Ablative case also may be expressed (as well as by the 
Verb, p. 121) by the Preposition ootfche (Chip, oon'je), from, with, 
&c. placed before or after its noun, &c. (See Syntax,) 

Q/* leather (material) Pahk^^gin oot'che. 

With a needle (instrument) S^p6o-n-egun (pierc-er) oot'che. 

^^ iv. 11. Equ6 . . a woman, 
viii. 10. Eqult ! . . (0) woman ! 
iv. 11. Oog^emah! .. (0) chief, sir! 
xi. 41' xii. 27. 28. N'oosd! . . (0) father ! 



184 A GRAMMAR OF 

From the tent {at) Meeg^ewap-tcit ooi'chc 

From the ceiluig^(e.g. it hangs^ Espim-tcil oo/^cAe^ i.e.yromoiihigh 

or falls) 

Becaume it rains Hd kimmew^il (subj.) oolfcke 

The cognate labials (for so I designate them^ vide infra)^ oo 
and m, are^ in certain positions^ possessive signs — ^the former when 
prefixed (in the possess, verb^ p. 140)^ the latter when affixed^ to 
the noun possessed — both generally expressing the force of the 
English ^^ intejisive" term^ own, as,^^^ 

Ustis. . .a mitten or glove ; Ustis-u^. . .gloves. 
Nef U8tis-t9ii...my own glove. 
Net^ ustis-tfn-ti^...iit^ own gloves. 
Note, — Oo (or oot) is a mode of the preposition oot^che, of, from, &c. 

The Local (or Locative) case, as it has been appropriately called^ 
is expressed by the affixed sign^ -Ar or ->g, with generally a connecting 
vowels as, -oifc, -t*, 5k, (Chip, -g, -ng, ^ing, -ong, &c.) implying, at, 
in, on, &c. as,^®* 

W&tee ... a vault or cave. 

W^itee-i&...vault^tn, in a, or the, vault. 

Mewdt...a bag. 

Mew^iUik ..in the bag. 

Mistick...a tree. 

Mistick-oifc...t9i or on the tree. 



iw iv. 32. vi. 27. M^im . . food, *' meat." 

iv. 34. Ne m^im-tm . . my food, " my meat." 

iv. 23. Kezhig . . day, " hour." 

vii. 30. Oo kezhig-oom . . his day, " his hour." 

Oog^emah . . chief, principal, king. 

111. 15. JTecT oog^emdm . . thy king. 
»w iii. 17. Ahk'e* . . the earth, *' the world." 

iii. 17. 19. Ahk^eeii^ . . in, or i^ito, the earth, or '' world." 

i. 33. Hiibeh . . water. 

ii. 4. N^b^Ni^ .. fit the water. 

vi. 1. 18. K^che-gahm^ . . the great water, the sea. 

xxi. 1. 7. K^hegahm^en^ . . at, in, or into the sea, 

iii. 10. Israel-tfi^ . . in Israel. 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 185 

If the noun be used with a possessive pronoun in the plural 
number^ the above-mentioifled " constant" elemait (k or g) is 
affixed to the latter, as,i»* 

[^Ne wut...m^ bag. 

Ne wut-tA:...m my bag. 

Ne vrutrendn.,.aur (l.S.) bag.^ 

Ne wut-enaAr...m our bag. 



Section II. 

OP THE PRONOUN. 
The Algonquin Pronouns are, as in European lan- 
guages, Personal, Possessive, Demonstrative, Relative, 
Interrogative, and Indefinite. 

Personal Pronouns. 





CREE, 


CHIPPEWAY. 


I 


N^th& 


Neen 


Thou 


K^th& 


Keen 


He or it 


Wdthft 


Ween 


We (J and Ae, or/ 


N6tha-nan 


N6n-awun 


and^Aey) 






We (/ and thou, or 


Kdtha-now 


K^n-awun 


/ and ye) 






Ye 


K6tha-wow 


K6n-ahwah 


They 


W6tha-wow 

/ 


W^n-ahwah 



10* [xix. II, Ne y6wh . . my body, '' me." 

XV. 4. 5. ^e y&tiwing. . tit my body, ** in me.'' 

XX. 20. Oopema oo weydwh . . the side (of) Ms body, '' his side." 

iii. 36. Oo w4y^wmg .. tit or on Aw body, " on him."] 

ix. 19. Ke gw4&^wdh . . your son. 

V. 38. viii. 37. XV. 4. Ke yHhw-^wdng . . tit your body, " in you." 

xvi. 6. Ke 6ji-ew6^ . . iii ymir heart. 

viii. 17. X. 34. Ke kShgekwima-ewd-ng . . in your law. 

viii. 21. Ke bahtahzewin-etoc^-n^ . . in your wickedness, sins. 



186 A 6KAMMAR OF 

Possessive Pronouns... Absolute. 
The Possessive Pronouns are expressed before nouns as the 
Personal before verbs^ that is^ in the abbreviated form; in the 
following examples^ however^ (with a few others) we have N' 
instead of Net'; K' instead of Kef; and euphony suppresses the Oot 
of the third person. '<>• (See Poss. Pron. Relat.) 



J«« ii. 16. V. 17. vi. 32. &c. N'oos . . wy father, 
viii. 19. iToos . ..% father, 
vi. 42. Oos-tm . . his father, 
iv. 12. viii. 53, N*oo^en6n (1.3.) . . our father. 
viii. 38. 41. 44. 56. K*ooMwdh . . your father, 
iv. 20. vi. 31. N*oo%en6n^ (1.3.) . . our father-5. 
vi. 49. 58. K'oosewd^ . . your father-^. 



vi. 51. Ne wiyoB ,,myi 

iv. 49. Ne n^jahnis . . my child. 

vii. 6. 8. Nin kizheg-oom . . my day, " time." 

V. 24. Nmd^ ^eddowin . . my word. 

X. 16. MimP enwdywin . . my saying, ** voice.'' 

iv. 50. xix. 26. Ke gwis . thy son. 

V. 8. Ke n^b6hgun . . thy bed. 

iv. 42. Ked^ ^eddowin . . thy saying, word. 

vii. 3. Ked^ Hhnook^win-tm . . thy labours, work^. 

i. 42. 45. Oo gwisun . . his son. 

vi. 52. Oo w^yoB . . his flesh. 

V. 28. Ood' ^keddowin . . his voice. 

i. 27. Oo m^hkezin-tffi . . his shoe-^. 

iii. 21. Ood* ^hecheg&win-tfn (act.) ,.his doing-^, '' his deeds." 

iii. 11. Mil deb^jemdowinen^ (1.3«) . . our relation, ** witness." 

ix. 19. Ke gw^-etooA. . your son. 

ix. 41. Ke b^t&hz^wiQ-eiP(^ . . yom badness, " sin." 

xix. 14. Ked" oog^em^hm-aoii . . your chief, " king." 

vii. 6. Ke k^Mg^mm-ewdh . . your day. 

iii. 1. xix. 19* Ood^ oog^emlihm*aooii . . their chief. 

iii. 19. Ood* 6ikeeh!eg6mn>-ewdh (act.) . . 4heir doing, '^ deeds." 

viii. \7» Oo tebllijemdowin-etoifA . . their relation, " testimony." 



THE CR££ LANGUAGE. 



187 



CREE. 

My father ^oot4wee 

Thy father X'oot4wee 

His father Ootawee 

Ottr(/ and Ae) father jY'ootawee-n^n 

Our (/ and ihou) K' ootksf et-n6rv 

Your K'ootkyfee-oowdtv 



Their 

My fathers 

Thy father* 

His &ther* 

Our (I and he) &c. 

Our (I and thou) &c. 

Your father J 

Their father* 



Ootawee-oow(^ 



CHIPPEWAY, 

N'oos 

ICoos 

Oos 

N'oos-endn 

K'oos^^enbn 

K'oos-efvdh 

Ooa'^ervdn 



N'ootdwee-tt^ 

K'ootdwee-M^ 

Ootdwee-^ 

N'ootdwee-niin-ii^ 

K*ootkwee-n6w'Uk 

K'ootawcJfr-oow6w-ttA: K'oos'-ew6-g 

Ootdwee-oow6w-& Oos^-ewdh-n^on 



N'oos'-i^ 

K'oos'-ug 

Oos'un 

bl'oos'en6n-ig 

K'oos'-en<ki-i^ 



Possessive Pronou ns . . . Relative. 
These are no other than the Possessive form of the Generic Noun 
Fa, Angl. person or thing. (See p. 1S5.) The Ghippeways add 
the Possessive m. (p. 184). 

CREE. Singular. chippeway. 

Net* I'a-n (i.e. my thing)^ mine (==Tny-n) Nihd ahy'ee-m 



Kef I'an, thine (= thy-n) 
Oot* I'an, his (= his-n^ vulg.) 
Net' I'an-en^ (1*3.)> ours 
Kef I'an-en6w (1.2.)> ours 
Ket' I'an-oow6w, yours 
Oof I'an-oow6w, theirs 

Plural 
Nef I'an-uk^ mine (Fr. les miens) 
Kef Tan-uk 
Oof I'an-& 

Nef Tan-enibi'^uk (1.3.) 
Kef ran-en6w-uk (1.2.) 
Kef Fan-oowdw-uk 
Oof I'an-oow6w-& 



Ked' ahy'eem 
Opd' ahy'eem 
Nind ahy'eem-endn 
Ked' ahy'eem-endn 
Ked' ahy'eem-ew^ 
Ood' ahy'eem«ew6n 

Nind ahy'eem-ug 
Ked' ahy^eem-ug 
Ood' ahy'eem-un 
Nind ^hy'eem-endn-ig 
Ked' ah3r'eem-en6n-ig 
Ked^ fthy'eem-ei;^-g 
Ood* ahy'eem-ew&h-woii 



188 


A GRAMMAR OF 






Pronouns Demonstrative. *®7 




CREE. 


CHIP. 


This (anim.) 


Ow'a 


Wowh 


(inan.) 


Oom'& 


Oowh 


These (anim.) 


Ook'oo (or Ook'ee) 


Oogoowh 


(inan.) 


06hoo (or Oohee) 


Oonoowh 


That (anim.) 


VmA 


Owh 


(inan.) 


Unnem& 


Ewh 


Those (anim.) 


Unnekee 


Egewh 


(inan.) 


Unnehee 


En^wh 



Singular. crbe. Plural. 

A'ywokoo (anim.)^ the self same A'ywokw-tinnick 

A'ywokoo (inan.)> id. A'ywokw-6nnee 

(See Syntax.) 



i<^ i. 15. M^sah %D6wh kHh deb^jenui^(tf^)-^un . . why this (is he) 

whom / related Mm, 
ix. 19. M^nah w6u>h he gw48'ewdh ....?.. why (is) this your son. . ? 
ii. 16. MUhj^weniAr oog^oowh (anim. plur.) . . take ye away these. 
xvii. 11. Ooff^oowh. . Bhkfeeng BhyShwug. . these the world-m they are. 
iv. 15. Oowh n^h . . this water, 
xvi. 17. W^igoonlun oowh inenung (subj.^) . . what (is) this (which) 

he saith to us. 
viii. 40. K&h ween oowh ke ^zhecheg^e . . not this he has not done. 

iii. 22. Oonoowh . . these, " these things.'' 

XX. 31. Oonfoowh^ . . ke oozVebeegahddwim (part. pass.). . these have 

been written, 
xxi. 24. Wowh minzhenawd k^ deb^doodtin^ oon'oowh . . this (is) 

the disciple who narrateth> '' testifieth of/' these (things). 

viii. 10. Wgiwh 6nahmem^ib|^ (subj.) . . those (who plur.) accuse-^A^e. 
xvii. 12. Eg4wh kah m^enzh^aAii(ytf»)f^ . . . those whom thou hast 
given me, them. 

iii. 11. Ewh kakldndalmu^ . . that we know 

Bwh kah w^bundalmu^ . . that which we saw. 
iv. 37. Bwh ^keddowin . . that saying. 

viii. 29. Bmiwh vakrvMndi^ngin . . those [things'] (which) he approves 
them. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 189 

Pronouns Belative. 

The Pronoun Relative^ referring (in Cree and Chippeway) to a 
definite or an indefinite antecedent^ is represented — ^the former by 
the indeclinable particle kd or gd (Chip, kah, Jones) — ^the latter by 
the "flat vowel" (p. l68). See S^ntaa:. 

Pronouns Interrogative.*®® 
cree, chip. 

Who? (sing.) Ow'ena Wain'ain' 

(plur.) Owln-ekee Wain'ain'-ug 

What? K6koo K^oo 

What (thing) K^kwan Wdgoonain' 

K6kwdn-ee (things) W6goonain'-un 
Which? (anim.) T^nS 

(inan.) Tanemah 

(anim. plur.) T^n-dnekee 
(inan. id.) T^n-dnehee 

Pronouns Indefinite. *^ 
Some oncy any one Ow'eiik Ah'we^ 

Somethings anything K6kwan Kdgoo 

Whosoever Ow'enS Wdgwain 

Whatsoever K^kwan W4g6odoogwain 



108 viii. 25. xxi. 12. Wdndin k^en ? . . wAo (art) thou ? 
. ix. 36. Wdn^ 6wh? . . who (is) that ? 
xvi. 18. Wdgoondin ewh idUng . . . what (is) that (which) he says, 

means, 
iv. 27. Wdgoon&in aind'^ahw&indoAimifi ? . . what seekest thou ? 

*^ xiii. 28. Kah (dush) dkweyah . . (now) not any one, ** no man.'' 
viii. 33. Kah w^kah dhweydh . . not ever, ** never," any one, 
XV. 6. K^shpin ^weyah . . if any one, '' if a man.'' 

XV. 5. K&h ween kdgoo . . not any thing, '* nothing." 

xiii. 29. Kdgoo che m4ndd . . something that he give (to) them. 

xiz. 12. Wdgwdin w^emihwe^idezoogwiaxk (refieet. dub.). . whosoever 
chie{''maketh'hm8elf. 



190 A ORAMMAR OF 



Section III. 

OP THE VERB. 

Paragraph L 
The Algonquin Verb may be considered as of three 
kinds, namely, the Impersonal, the Intransitive, and 
the Transitive. First, of the Impersonal. 

Note, — ^The great obstruction to a Theoretical knowledge of these 
tongues is found in the manifold powers and anomalous structure of 
the verb. The root uniting with/ormo/tre signs of different signification 
and personal signs in different relations, is often in a manner lost amongst 
its accessories. To separate these — ^to assign to each its proper meaning 
— ^to ascertain the various order in which they respectively combine —is, 
to the learner of these languages, only oral, an undertaking of no ordinary 
magnitude; an unwearying diligence, joined with much practice, can 
alone accomplish it. These difficulties, however, overcome, we discover in 
the varying fomu ot the Indian verb a number of eLsments or signs — 
not, as some ima^ne, arbitrarily linked together, but gystematicalkf com^ 
bined, on a plan founded on certain laws, which fit them to perform, in 
their several relative positions, every required purpose of Construction — 
of Language, in a manner as effective, and, viewed as a whole, as simple, 
as that of the corresponding elements, or words, in languages where the 
verb has a less compounded form. 

With this complex subject, then, before us, and having already noticed. 



V. 4. W^igw6in(dush)n^tum b^oobc^ain . . whosoever (f* then") 

first waded, entered the water, 
vi. 54. Wligwian m&hje^^n . . whoso eateth t^. 
xi. 26. W^igw^n (dush) psaakhtezeffwian . . whosoever (and) liveth. 
xii. 50. Wdgdodoogfoam . . eswk Hadnooy^n . . whatsoever tibat (which) 

I speak. 
XV. 16. W&g6odoogwain ka und6odahmahw(fAtr(^^ain. . whatsoever 

ye shall request (of) Tiim. 
xvi. 13. W^6odoogwain kanoond'ahmoo^rwain . . whatsoever he shall 

hear. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 191 

under the head of Derivative Verbs, the formative signs connecting the 
root with the inflectioii> we now proceed to the inflection itself, fii^st, 
singly ; and, secondly, with the superadded, formatives of Suppo9iti(m§ 
&c. which, regarding only the mind of the speaker, hold the last place. 
To the above will be subjoined the negative form of the Chippeway verb. 
We shall begin our Exposition with premising that the Algonquin 
possesses in common with the European verb, all the modifying cir- 
cimistances of Conjugation, Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person 
(anim. and inan.); that it is, in short, the European verb— but sometimes 
much more (p. 77)- 

The Moods will be considered as three in number, viz. the Indi- 
cative, the Subjunctive, and the Imperative. The Indicative is 
declarative, absolutely. The Subjunctive is, also, declarative, but 
relatwely or dependently only. See Syntax. The English Infini- 
tive is, as already observed, resolved into the Subjunctive. The 
English Participle Present is expressed (as in French) by a personal 
verb. (Vide infra.) 

Note* — From the Present of the above moods are formed their other 
tenses respectively. 

INDICATIVE. "<> 

Pres. P^poon ...it is winter. 

Pret. P6poon-oc5p'ii»...& was winter. 

Fut. KdUd p^poon...t^ toill be winter. 

Comp. of pres. Ke p6poo7t...t^ has (been) winter. 

Comp. of pret. Ke p6poon-ooptin...t^ had (been) winter. 



no [v. 9. Ewh k^zhig . . that day.] 

v. 10. Almahme^-k^zhegiu}. . it is pray (ing)-day,'' the Sabbath day.'^ 
ix. 4. P^-t^ekfkl. . hither-night it is, night cometh. 

V. 9. ix. 14. Almahmed^k^zhegifd-d()ptffi . . . t( was pray (ing) -day, 
the Sabbath. 

xiii. 30. T6bekahdiud)''6obm ..it was night. 

X. 22. P^poon-db&tift . . it was winter. 

xviii. 18. KeBenkhmBhgahd(ud)'dobun . . it was cold (weather). 

xviii. 28. Kekezhdp&hwahga^(ttd)db^fi . . %t was early (in the morn- 
ing). 



192 



A GRAMMAR OF 



SUBJUNCTIVE.*" 

Pres. (He) pep6oi^...(as) it is winter. 

Pret (H^) pep6o^-ooptiit...(as) it was winter. 

Fut Pepoo^^...irAen it shall (be) winter. 

Comp. of pres. (H^) ke pep6ok,„(as) it has been winter. 
Comp. of pret. (H^) ke pepooAr'oopuit...(as) it had been winter. 
Inde£ Tense Fdpook (flat vow.)... when it is winta*^ or Angl. 

in the winter. 

The Preterite, and the Compound of the Present, Tenses arc 
analogous in use, as well as in signification, to the same tenses in 
the French language. 

Paragraph II. 

The Intransitive verb has, in its several conju- 
gations, two forms, namely, the Animate or Personal, 
and the Inanimate, which last has the third person only 
(pp. 131. 181.). 

The Personal pronouns, when in connection with the verb, are 
abbreviated or '* converted" thus, 1, Ne, or (before a vowel) Net ; 
2, Ke or Ket ; 3, Oo or Od. (p. 51.) [Chip. iVe, Km, or Kind; 
Ke or Ket; Oo or Ood.^ 

Note, — The sign of the third person is not prefixed in the Present 
tense ; in Cree it is affixed. 

The first and second persons singular (Indie.) have their terminations 

alike. 

Cree — Indicative Singular. 



2. 

1. (Ne, &c.) Nip-an -ka 

2. (Net',&c.) Ap-in -in 

3. (Ne, &c.) ' P^moot-4n -kn 

4. (Ne, &c.) Ket-6on -6on 

5.(Net',&c.) Ach'.^n -6n 

6. (Net', &c.) It6thet-en -6n 

7. (Ne, &c.) Tdckoos-innin -innin 



-6w (I, &c.) sleep. 



-u 

"kyoo 

'6o 

"600 
-tim 
-in 



sit. 

walk. 

speak. 

move, 
think, 
arrive (by land) 



111 ix. 4. Mdgwah . . k6zheg^k . while it is day. 

vii. 23. ^'nahmea-k^zhegaM-in (flat vowel) . . when (indef.) it is 

pray-day, on the &c. 
vi. 22. xii. 12. Ahp^ kah wdhbidn^. . the time that it was d^y-light^ 

i.e. the morrow. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 



193 



The Plural of the Present, Indicative, is formed, by adding to 
the respective Sing. Persons (with sometimes a connecting vowel) 
the suffixes following, viz. 

Cree. — 1 Plur. (1.3.) -nan; 1 plur. (1.2.) -^-now; 2 plur. 
-ow6w ; 3 plur. -iik or -wiik. 

Chippeway. — 1 Plur. (1.3.) -min; 1 plur. (1.2.) -min; 2 plur. 
-m ; 3 plur. -ug or -wug (see below) : as. 

Plural. 



1 (1.3). 1 (1.2). 


2. 


3. 


1. Ap'-init(fn 'indnaiv 


'inowdw 


-ewtt^. 


2. Nip-4nna» 'kndnow 


'iiUOWWU 


•6wuk. 


3. P6m6ot-annan -axidnow 


^knowdw 


'kywuL 


4. K6t-oonnan -oondnow 


'6onow6w 


'6&wuk 


5. Ach'-en»^n -endnaw 


'knowow 


^eamk. 


6. Itethet'enndn -endnow 


"inowdw 


-dmumAr. 


7. Tuckoos-fnninnrfw -innin^now 


'inmnowSw 


^ixiwuk. 


Chippeway — Indicative, Singular.^^* 


1. 2. 


3. 




l.(Nind,&c.)A'hb 


-6h 


(I, &c.) sit 


2.(Ne, &c.) Neb-^ -&h 


-ah 


&c. 


3. (Ne, &c.) Pemoos-a -a 


-4 




4.(Nind,&c.)Ekid 


.60 




lis 
1. ix. 25. 2Vc w6b . . J see. 






ix. 7. Ke p^wahb(wob)cA . . Ac did hither-see, " 


came seeing." 



xxi. 9- Ke ^Sabeh . he was lying, being, 
viii. 2. Ke n&hmahd-dhbeA . . ^ sat down, 
ix. 41. Ne wdhb-«iii». . we (1.3) see. 
vi. 10. Ke ndhmahd-dhbetotf^ . . they sat down, 
xiv. 19. Ne bemdhtis . . /live. 

viii. 53. Ket ahp^t-^indlihgoos (indef. pass.) . . Ahtm art so-much- 
thought, esteemed, considered, 
v. 50. 51. Pemdhteze , . Aeliveth. 

ix. 9. Ezhe-ndhgooseA (indef. pass.) . . Ae is so-seen, resembles. 
X. i. Kem6ode-shkeA (freq.) . . he steals-often, is a thief, 
xi. 3. Alikooze. . he is sick. 

xvi. 7> Ked en-dindihgooztm . . ye are so-thought, considered. 

O 



194 A GRAMMAR OF 

5* (Niiid> &0.) Aunj' ... -^h 

6. (Nmd^ &c*) £ii«ind'-um -um -um 

7. (Ne, &c.) T^hgwesh-in -in -in 

Note, — ^In the first, fourth, and fifth conjugations, the Chippeways 
drop the (Cree) inflections of the first and second persons (sing.). 

xiii. 10. Ke b^nezm . . ye are clean. 

T. 25. Tah bemdhtez^trtf^ . . they shall live. 

vi. 17. 24. Ke boozcKm^ . . they embarked. 

3* xi. 11. Nind ezhdh . . / go. 

tdii. 21. xiv. 28. Ne m^^dh ., I go away, depart, 
xii. 36. iv. 43. Ke m§ih}dk . . he went away, 
ii. 12. Ke ezhdh ^wede . . he went there, 
vi. 67* Ke we mSh.jdm . . ye wish to go away, 
iv. 45. Ke ezhili'Wuy . . they have gone, " went." 

8. xvi. 7. Nin dipwd . . I true-say, tell the truth. 
iv. 17. 18. Ke tkpwd . . thou tellest the truth, 
vii. 1. Ke pahp^ihmoos(f . . he walked about, 
iii. 4. Tah b^endegd . . will or can he enter. 

vii. 21. Nin ge ^zhechegi (indef.). . I have done, executed^ 

iii. 10. Ke k^enoodhmahgtf . . thou teachest. 

xii. 34. Mfi ge noondahgdmtfi . . we (1.3> have heard. 

viii. 38. 41. Ket ^zhechegdim . . ye do. 

iv. 38. Ke ke b^endegiim. . ye have entered. 

4. X. 34. Nin ke eldd . . I have said, 
viii. 52. Ket ekid . . thou sayest. 

i. 42. Ke kah ezh^nekaufl (reflect.) . . thou shalt be named, 
i. 42. ix. 38. Ke ^edoo . . he has said. 
X. 30. Ne bdzheg6omtii .. ire are one. 
iv. 20. ix. 41. xiii. 13. Ked ^ceddom . . ye say. 
tiii. 21. Ke gah nebdom . . ye shall die. 
viii. 53. Ke n^ooum^ . . tJiey have died. 
vi. 14. 42. Ke ^ed6oim^ . . they have said. 

6. xxi. 25. xvii. 24. Nifid eniindnm . . Jtiiink, will, intend. 
xvL 2. Tah endindum . . Jie will iMnk. 

It. 42. vi. 69. Nin tdpwd-dindahmin . . we (1.3) true-think, believe, 
xvi. 31. JK> tdpwa-dinddm . . ye believe. 

xviii. 39. Ked endinddm nah. . ? . . ye think, will, intend (nah^ inter.)? 
tiii. 29. Ke endindldimoo^ . . they have thought. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 



196 



1 (1.3) 
1. Ahh''emin 


I (1.2) 
'emin 


Plural. 

2. 

"im 


3. 
-eliiimg. 


2. Neb-^wzw 


'khmin 


-ahm 


'khwug 


3, F€moos-amin 


-kmin 


-am 


'kwug. 


4. Ekid-6o7wt?i 


-bomin 


-oom 


'6owug^ 


5. Aunj'-emt« 

6. En^nd-ahmm 


'emin 
-ahmin 


-tow 


'€fvug. 
-timoog. 


7. Tahgwesh-inewm 


-inemtft 


-intm 


-invmg. 



The Pronouns which, in the Indicative, are prefixed to the 
Singular number are prefixed also, in the same form, to the Plural, 
as below ; 

Note. — This seems analogous to the Provincial French, faime, 
faim-ons, Sfc, 

Cree. — Ne ket-oon, / speak ; Ke ket6on, thou speakest ; Ket6o> 
Ae speaks; .Ne ket6on-fkin, rve (1.3.) speak; Ke k^toon-dnom, we 
(1.2.) speak ; Ke ketbon-orvdw, ye speak ; ILeXho-ivuk, they speak. 

Chippeway. — Kind ekid, / speak ; Ked ^kid, thou speakest ; 

ekid(^, he speaks ; Wind ekid6o-»ii», me (1.3.) speak ; Ked ^ked6o- 

min, we (1.2.) speak ; Ked <^ked6o-m, ye speak ; 4ked6o-iOTfg, they 

speak. 

Cr££ — Subjunctive, Singular. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


1. Ap-ea» 


"iian 


-i< 


2. Nip-i^» 


Ann 


-a< 


3. P«n6ot-erfn 


-6tt» 


-(it^ 


4. Ket6o-y(f9} 


-yw« 


't 


5. Ach^-erf« 


"hin 


-U 


6. Eth^thet-umm^n 


-iynxmun 


'kh 


7. T'uckoos-innetfn 


-inncMn 
Plural. 


-kek 


1 (1.3> 1 (1.2> 


2. 


3. 


1. Ap-ea)t -e^lit 


-e^ 


-^iXD^ 


2. Nip-iaJfc Alik 


Aaig 


'{ffcmfoi 



7. iv. 5. xi. 28. Ke tdhgweshifi . . h^ has arrived, 
xi. 32. Ke ahptingeshin . . he (jshe) has fialkn. 

o2 



196 


A GRAMMAR O*' 




8. Pem6ot-eaAr 


-e^fAr 


-e^^ 


-aitrodw 


4. KetbO'jdk 


^yak 


-jdig 


'tw6w 


5. Ach'-ea^t 


-e^ 


-edig 


'^twdw 


6. Et^thet-ummajfc 


-ummoAr 


-nmmdig 


'kkw6w 


7. Tdckoos-fimeajfc 


-inneo^ 


-iiihey(% 


-eekwdw 



Chippbway — Subjunctive, Singular, i*' 
1. 2. 3. 

1. Ahb-ey<^n -6ytt» -irf 

2. Neb-4hy(5n -4hytin -(k? 

3. Pem6o8-ay(5it -dytiit -aic? 



1. ix. 11. Ke wahbe-yon . . (and) I have seen, " received sight." 
ix. 10. Kah ezhe-w£hbeyttfi . . that thou so-seest. 

ix. 39. Che wihhewdd (defin.) . . that they see. 

W&hy&hbe/i^r (indef. flat vow.). . they who see. 

2. xiii. 36. A'zhahyoit . . (whither) / go. 

Ahn' eende kzhkhyun ?. . whither goest thou ? 
xiii. i. Che ezh6(2 . . that he (should) go. 
V. 29. Che ^zhahir(^ . . that they go. 
vi. 21. Em&h dzhah«7(^(i . . where they went. 
X. 8. Kah p^lQiy-ezhdhjt^ (plur.) . . who hither-passed, came. 

3. viii. 46. K^shpin t&pway(^ . . if J say truth. 
X. 38. K^shpin . . ^zhechegdyon . . if J do. 

iii. 2. vii. 3. Ewh dzhechegdytm . . which thou doest. 

viii. 4. K(fkenoodhmahg%ttn (flat vow.). . ^Aou who teachest^^'master.' 

xi. 9. P^moosflM^ . . (if) Ac walk. 

v. 24. Ke b^endegatd . . he has entered. 

xiii. 15. Che ^zhechegdye% . . that ye do. 

XX. 10. Ke \i€wQ!U)6d . . they returned. 

xiv. 27. Azhe migem^wdd, . as they give. 

ii. 11. Jdahwa/i^r (flat vow.). . they who exchanged, bartered. 

V. 29. Kah m^noo-^zhechegft/tgr . . they who well-do. 

4. V. 34. W^nje ^edooyt^ . . whence, '* wherefore" / say. 
zii. 34. W^nje ^eddoyun. . ? . . whence sayest thm . . ? 
iii. 27. Ke ^dooc? . . (and) he said. 

viii. 53. Kah n^boocl . . who is dead* 

X. 12. (yozhemooci (dush). . (and) he fleeth. 



THE CRBB LANGUAGE. 



197 





4. Eked6p-y(;n 




-yun 


-rf 




5. Aunj-ey(5n 




"iyun 


.&iJ 




6. Endind-ummdn 


'{anmmun 


^ung 




7. T^hgwesh-inneye^n 


-inneyttw 


4ng 






Plural. 






1(1.3). 


1(1.2). 


2. 


3. 


1. 


Ahb-ey<^ng 


-eyung 


-eydig 


-ewe^ 


2. 


Neb-4hy6»g 


-^yung 


'Qiydig 


-&h«7dJ 


3. 


Pem6o&-ay(^»g 


-ayung 


-aydig 


'Bxcdd 


4. 


Eked6o-y<^«g 


•yung 


.y% 


'Wod 


5. 


Aunj-ey</ng 


-eyung 


-eydig 


•^ewdd 


6. 


En4ind-umm(^ 


"Vanmung 


'UTDxndig 


'Vanmoowdd 


7. 


T4hgwesh-inney(^ftg -inneywn^ 


'iimeydig 


-innoowdd 



7. 



xiv. 8. Che dkhsihg-isiemooydng (1.3) ..that we enough-think be 

satisfied, 
xvii. 22. A'zhe pdzhegooyi^r (1.2). . as we are one. 
V. 34 Che n6ojemooy<^^ . . that ye escape, 
vii. 15. Ke ^edootood . . they said, 
xvii. 21. Che pdzhegoou;(^i . . that tJiey be one. 

iv. 53. Kek-^ndttn^ . . (thus) he knows, " knew/' 
xvi. 21. W68ahg{ug)~idndung . , he (she) anguished, 
xi. 15. xix. 35. Che tdpway-landahm(% . . that ye may true-think^ 

believe. ♦ 

xiii. 22. Ke gw^nahwe-endindahmoow(^i . . . they lack-thought were 

at a loss, &c. 
viii. 9. Kah n6onda%t^ (indef.) . . they who heard. 

xxi. 22. NUinonzh tdhgweshene^ . . till J arrive. 

xvi. 28. Ke tdhgweshen(^ . . (and) I am arrived. 

iv. 25. Ahp^ ke tdhgweshin^ . . when he has arrived. 

xi. 41. Em&h shingeshin^ (sing.) . . there which lay. 

vi. 26. Kiya iAhesm-eydig . . and ye were filled. 

vi. 12. Kah tdbe8inet{7(^ . . (when) they were filled. 

V. 3. Shingeshin-ooto(^i. . they lay. 

vi. 5. Che w6senew6d . . that they eat. 

vi. 13. Kah w^sin^t^ (plur. indef.) . . who eat, had eaten. 

xii. 12. Kah t6hgwe8hfng(»sr) . . (id.) who arrived 



198 A GRAMMAR OP 

The personal Intransitive verb is represented above as belonging 
to seven conjugational forms ; the first four only are however of a 
GENERAL chavacter^ the remainder being of limited use. The third 
person (sing.) is the Conjugational Sign. 

It will be proper to remark here that. 

To the first conjugation belongs the Adjective Verb, pp.25. 27.49. 114, 
115. 14^. etseq. 
Neuter (accid.) Verb, p. 146. 
Augment, oi Manner, -wissit; of Energy, -sku. 
(pp. 69, 70.) Pass. Indef. 115. 
To the second, the Verb Substantive ; 

To the third, the Indeter. and Indef. Transitives Active, (p. 104.); and 
To the fourth, the Reflective, Simulative, Reciprocal ; Accid. and Par- 
ticip. Passives, Aram. (pp. 82. et seq. 111. et seq.) 

To the fifth belong some Derivatives of the above Verb. 

To the sixth, the Compounds of the above Verb. 

To the seventh, Pimissin . . he lies (prostrate) and a very few others. 

To the second and sixth Conjugations belong also the Inanimate -an 
^a» -ow, and -en ^en -um, of the (Cree) Transitive Verb (vide infra). 

Adjective Verbs, in their Inanimate form (Indie), end in -«, -in 
(subj. -i^), -Of», -un (subj. -ak) [[Def. pp. 25. et seq. ISO.] and 
'tnagun [[Indef.]] — the Neuter Inanimate ends in -nuLgdn (p. 490 > 
their Plurals are formed by adding -4, or -wd (Chip. -w» or -w«») 
to the Singular. (See Accid, Neat. Verbs, p. 146.) 



Paragraph IIL 
The Verb -Substantive (p. 135 et seq.) has, in the 
Algonquin dialects, a *' constant" Attributive sign, or 
Root ; and being a regular verb (of our second conju- 
gation) it will be given as an Example of the manner 
of forming the Intransitively generally. (Abstract 
Noun, I-k-mw, Beingr. p. 182.) See pp. 77, 78. 

The want of the auxiliary verbs, Angl. to *'be", and to "have," 
is adequately provided fw — ^tbe former is supplied by the Verbal 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 199 

Injleciion, as in the Adjective^verb, e.g. Mithkw-ow, it is red (Lat. 
rub-c^) p. 25 — in the passive forms^ Skke-h/^ (def. p. 57) S^e-ht/w 
(indef. pp. 107* 110.) he U loved (Lat am-atur) — as vfeQ. as in the 
Particip.pa8s.> as^ Nlpa-che*g^<lxoo (p.1 112) he is kiWed ; xiat omittillg 
the Accid. pass. (p. 26), aa, Pa&-ta^oo, it is dned.-^Tbe latter, vi». 
*'have/' is supplied by the indeclinable monosyllabic particle ke or 
ge (g hard), as above. Indeed not only this but the other declinable 
words auxiliary to the English tenses, have, in like manner, their 
equivalents in corresponding indeclinable particles, as Indicative 
Fut. g& (Chip, kak, Jones) ; Conditional, pit ; Optative, we ; Poten- 
tial, ke, or gd; &c the Inflection always remaining with the V^rb 
(see Notes, passim), as, 

[iSTc nip~^ / sleep.] 

Ne ke mp-dn I have slept. 

[Ne nip-^» (pret.) I slep^] 

Ne ke nvp~Ati I had slept. 

Ne ga nip-a» I shall or will sleep. 

Ne ga ke nip-an I shall have slept. 

Ne pa nip-an I should or would sleep. 

Ne pa mp'dti I would have slept. 

Ne we nip-a» I wish, want, or am about, (to) sleep, 

Ne we nip-iifi I wished, &c. (to) sleep. 

Ne ga we mpdn I shall wish, &c. (to) sleep. 

Ne gh &c. (^ hard, ^ as a in fate) I can, &c, 

Ne pa gh^ &o. &c. I should be able, could, &c. &c< 

Nb^c.-rThe auxiliary Particle, ke, will be easily distingmshed In the 
subjoined Notes from the abbreviated personal Pronoun, kej the former 
being always in Boman characters— the latter in Italics, (p. 690 

• Note. — In Mr. Jones's "Translation" the abovementioned Particles, 
from their place being before the verb, are often incorrectly united iso it, Jq 
our citations, care has been taktn to give them their right position, 

Note.—^The Cree a and the Chlppeway ah (Jonb»'» Orthog.) ate alike 
pronounced as in man, or, father. The Chippeway a, according to Mr, 
JoNBs's mode of spelling, is pronounced as infate = Cree ^. 

Indicative, Present, Animate, (p. 1S6. and Note 710 

CREE. CHIP, 

ffet* Vf&n Nind Any-^b / am BEing, or 

existent, 



200 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Keei'-an 

Nef I'-an-iuin 
Kef V'Sri'dnorv 
Ket* V'WCk'Owdfv 



Ked A'hy-ah 

Ahy^dh 
Nind Ahy-4h-mtit 
Ked Ahy-^-mtn 
Ked Ahy-4h-m 

Ahy-dh-ivug 



he is. 

fve (1.3) are. 
fve (1.2) are. 
ye are. 
they are. 



Indeterminate. — (Personal Subject p. 98.) 
I-d-n^xpoo^ or l-k^newun Ahy-ah-m they (Fr. on) are. 

Inanimate. — (Defin. or Accid.) 
I-<5f0 Ahy-ah it is. 

I-6w-^ Ahy-4h-ivfin they are. 

Indefinite (continuous, inherent, 4*c.). 
I-4-magu9} Ahy-Mi-mahgu^ // is. 



Net' I'i, or. Net' I-Ui 
Kef I-d, or, Ket' UUi 
Oof I-a, or, Oof I-Ui 
^e^' F-a-t-an 
UTe^' I'-a-t-aikw 
Kef I'^trOfvdiv 
Oof I'k^troroon 

I-{^pun 
I-4-pun-^ 



'don They are. 

preterite.!" 

Nind A'hy-ahn-4h6t<it / was &c. 

Ked dhy-ahn-dh6ttn ^Aou wast. 

Ahy-(£A-6«» he was. 

Mnc? ahy-4h-mtra-ahbun «>g (1.3) were 

Ked ahy-4h-mtn-dhbun n;e (1*2) were. 

Xerf ahy-4h-9ii-wdhbun ^e were. 

Ahy'-^h-bun-t^ they were. 



inanimate. 
Ahy-aA-bun 
Ahy-^-bun-e«i 



t7wasBEing,&c. 
they were. 



comp. pres. and pret. 
Ne ke' Idn Mn ke^ (or oe) ahy-dh / have l>e(en). 

Ne ke' I-a or I-a-Ti Nin ke' (id,) 6hy-dlm-ahBUN/ had be(en). 
&C. &c. 

"* vi. 62. E'wede ahylili-^fi . . there (the same place) he was (being), 
xi. 6. £m^ ahy^-fmn . . where he was, 
xi. 30. Kayiihbe ahydhdim . . still he was, 

ix. 25. Nin gah-g^-eengwan-lih^fi (iter.) . . I was shut-eyed, blind. 
See Note 71. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 201 

INANIMATE. 

Ke I-6w Ke Ahy-4h ii has been. 

Ke I-6w-a Ke Ahy-Qi-vmn they have been. 

Ke I-4.pun Ke Ahy-4h-bun it had been. 

Ke I-4-pun-^ Ke Ahy-^-bun -een ikey had been. 

Note. — ^The siflrn of the third person Oo (Oot before a vowel), he or sJie, 
is, in Cree, prefixed to the preterite, and Comp. of the preterite. Indie, 
only. The Chippeways omit it altogether in the Intransitive, using it 
only in the Transitive forms. 

Note, — ^The same element (-bun or -pun) added to a Proper Name, &c. 
signifies " late," " deceased," &c. Fr. feu. 

The Cree Preterite tense exhibits indeed, in its first form (sing.)^ 
only the elements of its Substantive Root, Tdy a thing, or a BBing; 
but it will be observed that here, in the verb, they are enunciated 
differently, the accent being removed from the / to the a, thus. 
Net* la (as above) / was. The added -ti, in the second form, has 
the force of the emphatic Angl. did. Looking to the other prete- 
rites, I consider this Cree preterite (anim.) as being also fcnrmed 
from the Present Tense. 

FUTURE. 

The Future is formed by the particle gd (Chip, kah^ Jones)^ 
third person gdtd (Chip, tah), prefixed to the Present tense, as 
Ne git Idn, I shall (or will) be ; gdtd Idw^ will he-he, he will be. 
(See p. 199, and Notes, passim.) 

SuBJUNCTivE, Present, Animate. (See Note 71.) 
In this mood the personal subject, instead of preceding the verb 
as in the Indicative, is expressed by the inflected termination. 

(P- 77). 

I'l'dn, or, V-a-ydn ahy-ah-ydn, or -ydn If / am beings &c. 

I'l^-un, or, I'k-yun sihy-Qi-yun thou art 

I'dt ahy-dd he is. 

I'Udk, or, \'9fydh ^y^nAi-ydng we (1.3) are. 

l'\''dk, or, I'k-ydk ahy-4h-y«ng we (1.2) are. 

I-i-a^, or, I'd^yaig ahy-4h-y(£ig ye are. 

V-B,t-m6w (def. time) ^y-ah-rndd (def. time) they are. 

i^t-atch-t^ (indef. time) ay- odyig (indef. time) they are. 



202 A GRAMMAR OF 

Indeterminate. — (Pers. Subj.) 
I'SL-nervik, or l-^-k Ahy-ah»g, or ong If they (Fr. on) be. 

COMP. OF PRES. 

Ke \'\-yan Ke Ahy-4h-y^n (as) / have be^i. 

&c. &c. &c. 

Inanimate. — (Defin.) 

Uak Ahy-6g it is. 

I-ak'tvorv (def. time) Ahy-6g-a?aA (def. time) they are. 

Ai-ak-t^ (indef, time) Ay-6g-t^ (indef. time) they are. 

COMP. OF PRES. 

Ke l-^k Ke shy-dg it has been. 

Ke I'kk'Wotv Ke ahj-bg-wah they have been, 

Indefinite. {Contin. Inher.) 
I'k'Vaagdk Ahy-dh-raahg^AA: It is. 

I-a-mag^-ee Ahy-dh-mahgahk-i/i They are. 

This (Definite) tense is made^ in its several persons^ Indefinite 
or independent of Time, by the Flat or ** altered" vowel ; in 
other words, by changing the Initial / (which in this case consdf 
tutes the entire Root, p. 182) into i, or the diphthong ai, as exem- 
plified above (p. 201) in the third person plural. 

It may be proper here to remind the reader that the Flat vowel 
(p. 73. et seq.) is formed by changing the Jirst vowel of the verb, 
be it initial or otherwise, into a longer vocal element viz. a long 
vowel or a diphthong, as i, or e, or d, or w, into ^ = a in fate ; 
a into ed, o into ed, -oo into edo = u, oo (initial) into tve- ; &c the 
speaker laying a suitable stress on the lengthened (first) syllable. 
Reserving for another place the Exemplification of its important 
uses in Speech, as distinguishing the Indefinite from the Defi- 
nite, I shall, in addition to what has already been said respecting 
it, only observe here as follows : 

First — Of the above two Attributive (verbal) fcnnus, the Deriva- 
tive or altered'Vowel form is analogous, both in extent (^ meaning 
and in use, to the English Attribute, when the same is prefijped to 
\t8 Subject, implying habitual, continuous, Indefinite in respect qf 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 203 

Time, as, a " good man ;" a ^' Uving man." It is found in this 
QUALIFYING seDse^ in the Present tense (subj.) only. (See Syntax.) 

Secondly — The Primitive, or Simple form, is analogous to 
the English Attribute, when the latter is united to its subject by a 
copula or in a predicative form — in its Definite or Accidental 
meaning; as, '* he is, was, &c. good ;" *^ he lives, lived, &c/' This 
mode, only, of the verb is formed through the Moods and Tenses* 

PRETERITE.il* 

The Preterite of this mood, also, is formed by adding to its Present 
tense the element -pun, with generally a connecting vowel. (See 
Acldenda.) 

Future. 
This tense is expressed by changing the Future Indicative sign, ga, 
" shall or wiU," into ge or ke, and placing it, in like manner, before the 
Present (subj.), as Tan itta ke i-i-yunF What place (Where) shalt he-thouf 
But with a special reference to Time, the following form is used ; when 
the same particle becomes as in other cases, the sign of the Compound 
tense, viz. "have." (See pres. subj. p. 201.) 

I-i-ydn-e Ahy-ah-^(^n-in When / shall be. 

I-a-yw7i-e Ahy-4h-^M»-in thou shalt be. 

I'k'tck-e Ahy'ddJ'in he shall be- 

UsL-ydk-e Aliy-ah-t/dng-in rve (1.3) shall be. 

I-a-yoit-oo A'hy-ah-^awg-04m we (1.2) shall be. 

I'K-ydik'Oo A'hy-ah-^rf^-oon ye shall be. 

r-at-TO<^-e A'hy-aha?(^-in they shall be. 

The " altered" first vowel, when used in this form, is equivalent 
to the English Indef. element -ever, as when-erer, &c. See Syntax. 

CoMP. OF FuT. 
Ke I-a-y (fn-e When / shall have been- &c. 



"» xi. 21. K^shpin oomih dky^y^-btm . . if here thfM wert, " hadst 
been." 
xi. 50. Che 6one8h^8heytm5f-oobun . . that we (1.2) should be good; 
XV. 19. K^hpin tebdind4hgoozey<%-oopun. . if ye were governed. 



204 A GRAMMAR OF 

Imperative."* 
The Imperative Mood has two tenses, the Present and the Indbfinitk. 
The third persons of both tenses are alike, being the same as the third 
persons of the Fut. Indie. 

Present or Definite. 



Ud 


Ahy-dhn, or -6n 


Be thou. 


K&ta U(kv 


tab Ahy-dh 


Let him he. 


l^&'tdk 


Ahy-ah-ddh 


Let us (1.2) be. 


Uk-k 


Ahj'k'g or -difoog 


Beye. 


KStil Ui-rvuk 


tab Aby-dh-WKg 

Inanimate. 


Let them be. 


KM I.(;it^ 


tab Aby.6h 


Letf^be. 


KfttA i^w-ar 


tab Ahj-^-rvun 


Let them be. 



Indefinite. 
The Indefinite (future) tense of this mood is formed of the element 
-hm, of which k is the " constant" Sign. 

I-4-k-un Ahy-4b-kun Be ihou. 

K&& Idw tab Aby-£Ji Let him be. 

l-A-kJik Aby-ab-k^A Let us (1.2) be. 

UUi-dik Aby-db-k^eifc Be ye. 

K&t& 1-dw tab Ahj-fHtk-rvug Let them he. 

To the above positive form of the Simple Verb we shall now add the 
supposiTivB, the doubtful or Hypotheticdl, and the (Chippeway) 
negative, forms. 



"« iv. 31. W^seni-n . . eat thou. 

vii. 3. viii. 11. Mahj-lbi . . depart thou. 

vii. 3. XX. 17. £zh-6ft . . go thou. 

ziv. 31. M6h}&liMh. . let us (1.2.) depart. 

xxi 12. P^w^sen-iib . . hither-eat-ye, " come and dine." 

xiv. 31. P&hzegw^-ib . . arise-ye (from sitting posture). 

XV. 4. 9. Ahy-6h-yooAr . . be-ye, 

xvi. 33. Oojdp-iindahmoo-yooA: (reflect.). . cheerful-think-^e. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 205 



Paragraph IV. 

SUPP0SITIVE."7 

The above Simple fonn of the verb is susceptible of the circum- 
stances of SUPPOSITION and doubt ; the former is indicated by the 
added element e-t'ooki (Chip, k-doog) quasi^ " I suppose." It is 
used in the Indicative only, as follows. 

Note. — From the great caution which the Indian observes in narrating 
events, &c. of which he has not a |9^«onaZ knowledge, these sub-positivb 
forms are of very frequent occurrence in discoturs^. 

^e<' I'-an-et'ooke Mnc2 dhy-ahn-dh-doog /am, I suppose. 

KeC I'-an-et^ook^ Ked dhy-ahn-dh-doog thou art 

I'-k-t'ook^ ahy-4h-doogain he is. 

Net' I'-an-9tait-et^ooke Mti^ ahy-ah-meVddoog me (1.3) are. 

Ket' I'-an-^7ioit^-et'ook^ Ked ahy-4h-min-adoog me (1.2) are. 

Ket' I^-an-09t;ofv-et'ook^ Ked ahy-4h-i7i-adoog ye are. 

I'-d-took^ii^ ahy-^-doog-an^ they are. 

INANIMATE. 

I-4-took^ Ahy-^-doogain it is I suppose. 

I-k-took^-R^ Ahy-^-doogain-tfft they are I suppose. 

The preterite of this mood, instead of e-t^ooki takes 4-^oo^pun 
(Sd pers. -^oo-pdn). See Addenda. 



Paragraph V. 

The latter of the circumstances alluded to above, namely. Doubt, 
(in the mind of the speaker,) is expressed in the Subjunctive, where 
only it may be said to have a grammatical form, by the inserted 
'* constant" element, m, and a final grave ^, as follows. 



>i7 xi. 39. N^4hzoo-m^gooz^-<iSt>o^ . . he death-like-smelleth-I-^iif^po^e. 



206 


A GRAMMAR OF 






Subjunctive — Present^ Animate 


.118 


I-i-w-^n-e 


aliy-4h-w-(fAit-ain 


If /be. 


I'^yrun-^ 


ahy-dh-wun-4in 


ikouhe. 


I-ik-w^ 


ahy-^fag-wain 


he he. 


I^a-w^-we 


ahy-ah-wong-wain 


we (1.3) be 


I-d-w^ifc-w^ 


ahy-ah-wtt wg- wain 


we (1.2) be. 


l-i-yrdig-w^ 


ahy-ah-wa^-wain 


ye he. 


I'A-wdk'We 


ahy-ah-w%-wain 


they be. 



Subjunctive Preterite. 
In the first and second persons (sing.) of this tense^ the preterite 
element -pun becomes the inflected member. 



I.a.w-ap(fn-d 

I-a-wapMit-^ 

I-^-Ar-oopun-e 

I-^w^A-^pun-e 

I-a-w^^-oopun-e 

I-a-wc£^-oopun-e 

I-a-wflA:-oopun-^ 



dhy-ah-Wrahb^^4in 

4hy-ah-wahbt<n-4in 

ahy-ahA:-oopun-4in 

ahy-^h-wo«g-6pun-ain 

ahy-^-w«(iig-6opun-^ 

4hy-ah-wcf^-6opan-ain 

dhy-dh-w^Ait-oopun-din 

Paragraph VI. 



If /was. 
thou wast 
^ was. 

we (1.3) were. 
we (1.2) were, 
jfe were. 
they were. 



NEGATION. 

The Negative form of the (Chippeway) verb is indicated by the 
kign -#e or ^ze, added to the Singular (3d pers.) of the Present 
indicative. (See p. 6S and Syntojc.) 



^18 vii. 17. Tab6hjindi]?oo-w-aA»-rfi» (reflect ). . whbthbr I relate myself, 
xviii.23. K^shpin kah m^hje-^ed6o-w-<fAn-din. . if have ill-spoken-/, 
vii. 4. K^shpin oowh dzhecheg4-w-i^»-^n . . if these things thm do. 
X. 24. K^shpin adhwe-w-tin-ain (p. 155.). . if thou be he. 
xiv. 5. Debe azh^h-w-(fA»(iin)-din.. (we know not) whither thou go (est) . 
xi. 12. K^shpin n^ah^'-w-kin ,.\ihe sleep. 
V. 4. Wdigwdin. . n^tmn bticoobe^-w^n . . whosoever (3d pers.) first 

enter-watered, 
vi. 64. Wkigwun mlUije^-wain. . kiya mdnegua^-w^n . . . whosoever 

(id.) eateth . . and drinketh . . 
xvi. 13. W%-6odoog-wMn ka n6ondahmoo^-w^n . . .what-soever he 

shall hear. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 207 

INOICATIVE."S> 
tfind afay-4h-se.. / am not. Mndahy-4h-se-mfw...tt?c(l.S)are not 
Ked ahy-4h*se . . . thou art not Ked ahy-ah-se-mtn ... we ( 1 .2) are not 
ahy-c£A-se. . . Ae is not Ked ahy-^-see-9?i . . ,i/e are not 

ahy'kh-se'Vmg,,Jhe^ are not 

Inanimate. (Defin. see p. 200)*2o 
Ahy-ah-se-noo-72 (sing, and plu.)...£< or thei/ are not 

Indefinite, (see p. 200.)i2i 
Ahy-dh-mahgah-se-n6o-n . . idem. 

SUBJUNCTIVE.^22 

Ahy-4h-se-wo7i . . . f if ) / be not Ahy-ah-se- w(^wg. . . (if) we (1.3) be? 

not 

"» xvii. 11. Nind aliydh^e . . / am not. 

vii. 8. Ne we ezhah^^ . . I want (to) go not. 

viii. 35. Ahydhse . . ^ is, " abideth," not. 

xi. 26. Tah nodose . . he shall die not. 

iv. 14. Tah geshk^bdhgw(£9e . . he shall not thirst. 

viii. 48. Nind 6kid6ose!nin. ...}.. we (1.3) say not ? 

viii. 41. Nin ge(oonje) neg^^min . . we (1.3) are not bom (of). 

xiii. 33. Ke(dah)hh-ez\iihs^em . ye (can) come not. 

iv. 35. Ked ekid6o$66m . . ye say not. 

xxi. 8. Ke ahy^tLseumg . . have heen-not-they, ** they were not." 

X. 28. (Tah) neh6os€wug . . (shall) ^le-not-they. 

i. 3. Ahydh^e&tm (pret.) . . it was not. 

3d. 30. Mahshe t^gweshinre&un $d.). . already he ornyednot. 

i«> [v. 30. O'onesh^shin . . it is good, "just."] 

V. 10. (yoDieAietbhkzenoou ..it is not good, '' lawfid." 
i. 3. Tah ke dozhechegahdd-^efiooft (part, pass.) . . it would not hav^ 
been made. 

191 V. 31. Tkpwi-mBibg&li'Senoon .. it is not true. 

ii. 4. vii. 6. T4hgweshin6omahgdh«e»o(m .. i^ is no^ arrived, 
vii. 42. Ke eked6omahgdhgeno(m. . .} ..it has 910/ said. . . . ? viz. the 
Scripture. 

m zi. 15. Ke ahy&h«ewofi(ewede) . . ^lat I have not been, " was not" 
(there), 
xvi. 7. Keshpin. . mahjdh^ewon . . If. . J depart not. 



208 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ahy-^-8e-wtfn...(if) thou be not Ahy-dh-se-wttfigf...we(l.2) benot 
Aliy-dh.s!-g...(if) he be not Ahy-6h-8e-w(£^...^e be not 

Ahy-ah-8ig-tt^A...^^ey be not 

Inanimate. (Def.)*^^ 

Ahy-dh-8e-noo-g...if it be not 

Indefinite.124 

Ahy-ah-mahg&h-se-noo-g. . . idem. 

IMPERATIVE.^25 

Ahj'^'SC'ddh . . .let w^ ( 1 .2) not be 
Ahy-^-^'^ftfK* . be /Aom «o< Ahy-dh-A:a«g-oo» ... be ye no^ 
Tab Ahy^A-^e...let Aim not be Tab Ahy-dh-jc-«Jtt^...let <Aem not 
be. 

X. 37* Keshpin ^zhechegd^ewon . . If J do not, 

xxi. 18. Email wah ezb^h^ewuTi. . where '' wouldesf' go-not-thou, 

vi. 24. Emah ahy^m^ . . there (that) he was »io/. 

XV. 6. Keshpin dhweyah ahydh^ . . If any one he, " abide, not. 

vi. 50. Che n£b6osig (dush) . . (and) that he die not, 

XV. 24. An-dhnook^st^ . . as ^ works not. 

iv. 32. Kak^ddhr^toat^ . . (which) ye know not. 

XV. 4. Keshpin ahyUi^ewa^ . . if yc be, " abide," not. 

xi. 50. Che neb6o5t^a^ (defin.). . that they die not. 

zii. 39. Tdpway-ainddhre^aA (id.) .... (therefore) they true-think, 

believe, not. 
ix. 39. Egewh wahyihbesigook (flat vow.) . . those who see not. 
123 XV. 4. Keshpin ahydh^evioo^ . . if i7 be, " abide," not. 

XX. 30. Wdzhebe^gahd^eiKOO^ (part. pass.). . which are not written. 

xiv. 2. Keshpin. . ^zhe-ahydh^enoo^^un (pret.). . if . . so tf were not. 

viii. 7. Wdgwfiin pahy^tahz^e^^n(dub.). . whosoever is not wicked. 
XV. 24. Keshpin endhnook^ewaA^on (id. pret.)- .if I did not work. 
>24 [xii. 24. Neb6o-mahguA; . . if t* die.] 

Kiya n^oomahgdh^enoo^ . . and if it die not. 

i*« viii. 11. Mdhje-ezhecheg&-H«n .. evil-do-^Aotf no/, 
xii. 15. Sdgeze-Hin . . fear thou not. 
vi. 20. Zigeze-kdgoon . . fear ye not. 

m. 7. M^mahk&hd-£ndah-^<fm. . wonder-think, ''marvel," no/ /Aow.' 
V. 28. Mdhmahklihd-^ndah-^(^oon . . wonder-think, " marvel," not 
ye! 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 209 

The Negative is^ in like manner with the Positive Verb, suscep- 
tible of the Suppositive and Doubtful forms (p. 205), thus, 

, Suppositive. (Indie.) 
Nind ahy-dh-s^-doog, &c..../ am not, I suppose. &c. 

Doubtful. (Subj.) 
Ahy-4h-se-w-a«-4in, &c....(If) /be not. &c. 

Note. — ^It may be proper to repeat here that in certain forms of 
Expression, the Verb-Substantive is, as respects European Construction, 
dropped. See pp. 137, 156, Note 84, and Syntax. 

It should be borne in mind, that the Intransitive Verb, generally, 
is susceptible of the Augment, and Dimin. forms ; which also take, 
in like manner, the several modifying Accessories noticed above. 
(See p. 69 et seq.) 

Thus far then of the Intransitive Verb in its absolute significa- 
tion, positively and negatively ; we shall now proceed to consider 
it in its Relative form, or in connexion with an Accessory gram- 
matical THIRD person in an Oblique Relation. 



Paragraph VII. 

Accessory Case (p. 123 et seq.).^** 

The use of this anomalous, and therefore to the European learner 
very embarrassing form, will be fiilly explained hereafter. See 
Syntax. 

Indicative — Present, Animate. 
Net* V'&'fV'dn Nind ahy-ah-w-on /am, in relation 

to Aim, orthem. 

Ket' V'&'W'dn Ked ahy-ah-n;-on thou art. 

Ik'thu Ahy-ah-n;-ii» he is. 

Net' I'-a-w&n-nrf« Nind ahy-ah-won-«o« rve (l.S) are. 

KeV I'-a-wan-4mw Ked ahy-ah-won-n(^ii we (1.2) are. 

Ket* V-B.-yfkW'Ofvow Ked ahy-ah-won-ew4A ye are. 

V^di'thu'd Ahy-ah-www they are. 

i2« See Notes 67 and 68. 
P 



210 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Indeterminaie, 
[[I-d-newoo, &c. (p. 200) Ahy-dh-m ^Aey(Fr.on)are. absol.]] 

I'^'Wun Ahy-dh- id. relat. 

INANIMATE. (De£) pp. 127. 128. Notes. 
I'&'thu Ahy^ah-neh it is, in relation 

to him, or them. 
J-irthU'd Ahy-ah^nervun ^^ they are. id. 

Indefinite. 



I-d-magun-e/Ai^ 


Ahy-dh-mahgud-en^A 


it is^ 
sent. 


in relat. to htm. 




Subjunctive Mood — Pre 




l^^wuk 


ahy-ah-fv-tf^ 


(If) 


I am, in relat. 


I'i^tvut 


ahj-ah-fvud 




thou art. 


Ud-^ihit 


ahj-ah-nid 




he is. 


U&^fvuk^^et 


ahy~Bh'tvong'id 




Tve (1.3) are. 


I-a-w^A 


ahy-ah-n^ttitg 




rve (1.2) are. 


I-a^-waig 


ahy-ah-ft^a^ 




ye are. 


I-i-thit 


ahy-ah-mc^ 
Indeterminate. 




they are. 


I-d-w-ait 


Ahy-dh- 


(If) he 


• or they (Fr. on) 






are 


, in relat. &c. 



Inanimate. (Def.) 
\'i.'thik Ahy-4h-«tg (If) it is, in relat. to him. 

-ee 'in they are, id. 

Indefinite.*^* 
I-d-magun-€^M* Ahy-dh-mahgud-eittg^ (If) it is, in relation to 

him, &c. 

The above Accessory Case, in common with every mode of 
the (Chippeway) Verb, is susceptible of Negation, and also of its 
Suppositive and Doubtfiil forms — ^the Negative sign, se or se-n 
al'^ays retaining its place (p. 206), as. 



1^ vii. 38. Tah oonj-^jewun-^tetotm . . they shall from-flow in relat. ^c. 

>M xi. 55. Aliyek%ah ahy^mahgdd-eni^-oopun (pret.). . almost iV was 
hem^-tO'them, " was nigh at hand." (p. 124 Notes.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 211 

Indicative, 
Nind ahy-ah-sK-w-o'» (p. 209).../ am not, in relat. to him, &c. 

&c. 

Inanimate. (Def.) 
Ahy-dh-sen-ew^A ,,It\s not, in relat. to him, &c.^29 

Indefinite. 
Ahy-dh-mahgdh-sen-ew^A.../if is not, fW.^^o 

Subjunctive, (p. 210.) 

Ahy-dh-se-w?/g...(If) I am not, in relat. to him, &c. 

&c. 

Inanimate. (Def.) 
Ahy-dh-sen-e«i^...(If) it is not, id. 

Indefinite. 
Ahy-dh-mahgdh-sen-en%...(If) it is not, id: 

Suppositive. (Indie.) p. 205. 
Nind ahy-4h-se-fV(m-dhdoog.../ am not, in relat. to him, &c. I sup- 
Ac. pose. 
Doubtful. (Subj.) 
Ahy-dh-se-w«g-w-4in...(If) /be not, id. 
&c. 



Sect. II. 
The Transitive Verb comprises, besides the 
Subject and Attribute (as in the Intransitive form), the 
Object and the End (p. 77). 

The Transitive Verb may be divided (p. 35) into two parts — the 
Root and Affix. The Affix itself (of the derived Transitive) may 
also be divided into two parts (p. 37), namely, the Characteristic 

130 xix. 36. Tah b6ok-6ogahn-a^gahda-sen-en^A (part. pass. inan). . it (a 

bone) shall break-boned-be-«o^#o-A»m. 
ISO viii. 20. T6hgweshin6o-mahgdh-*c«-«i^-bun (pret.) oo gezhig-oow. . 

it arrived-no^-^o-^tm-was, his day (Nomin.). 
p2 



212 A GRAMMAR OF 

or Formative sign — and the Inflection; the former intimating the 
Transition, together with the Manner of it^ as General (p. 38 
et seq.). Special (p. 86 et seq.), or Particular (pp. 95. 96) ; — ^the 
latter representing the European Personal Pronoun in its Relative 
forms of Case ; Direct and Oblique (pp. 51. 55.). 

The Transitive, in like manner with the Intransitive, 
verb has its two forms, viz. the Animate and the 
Inanimate ; the former may be said to have only one 
conjugational (pronominal) ending — the latter has two ; 
which will be severally exhibited in their Direct and 
Inverse, &c. forms, in the order following : 

1. Definite Object, &c. (pp. 41, et seq., 86 et seq., 95. 96.) 
Anim. Sdke-h-ayoo Oo sahge-h-aun he loves him. - 

1. Inan. -t-ow; -t-oon he loves il. 

[]Anim.It-^the-m-a^oo Ood en-4ne-m-o». He thinks himJ] 

or -aun 
2.1nan. It-6the-t-um Ood en-din-d-on He thinks it (pp. 44. 

and 64). 

2, Indefinite Object, &c. (pp. 99 et seq. IO9. 110.). 
Anim. Sdke-h-ew-dyoo Sahge-h-ew-d he loves. 

Inan. -(t)ch-egdyoo -(t)ch-eg-d he loves. 

(See p. 104 Note.) 

3. Participial Passive (p. Ill et seq.). 
Anim. Sdke-(t)ch-eg-lt8oo Sdhge-(t)ch-eg-dhzoo. 

he is loved. (Lat. amatus est) 
Inan. Sake-(t)ch-eg-^tdyoo Sahge-(t)ch-eg.ahdd. 

it is loved. (Lat amatum est.) 

</ 

4 Verbal Adjective (p. 114), Active. / 

Indet. Sdke-h-ewdy-fww-w Sahge-h-ewd-wiz-eA. 

he is loving, afiectiono/e. 
Indef. Sdke-(t)ch-egdy-ww-w Sahge-(t)ch-egd-fi;tz-eA. 

he is loving, affectionate. 



^, 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



213 



Passive, (pp. 114. 115.) 

1. Anim. Sdke-h-ik-oos-u Sahge-h-ig-ooz-eh. 

he is (may be) lowed, is aimable, 
Inan. Sake-h-ik-wun Sahge-h-ig-wut. 

it may be loyed, is lov^able. 

2. Anim. lt-6the-t-ak-oos-u En-din-d-dhgoo-zeh. 

he is (may be) so-thought^ considered. 
Inan. It-6the-t-kk-wun En-din-d-ahg-wut. 

it is (may be) so-thought^ deemed. 



Paragraph II. 

Indicative Mood. (p. 51 et seq. and Notes.) 

Present. Direct. 3d. pers. Acctis. 



Ne sdke-h-ow 
Ke sdke-h-ow 

Sdke-h-ayoo 
Ne sake-h-a-/ic£n 
Ke sdke-h-anofv 
Ke sdke-h-oii/ozi; 

Sake-h-dyn^tt^ 

Ne sdke-h-6w-uk 
Ke sdke-h-6w-uk 

Sdke-h-dyoo 
Ne sdke-h-a-nan-uk 
Ke sdke-h-an6w-uk 
Ke sdke-h-ow6w-uk 

Sdke-h-dyw-uk 



Nin sahge-h-ah 
Ke sdhge-h-ah 
Oo sdhge-h-aun^ or -on 
Nin sahge-h-ah-»(^;} 
Ke sdhge-h-ah-;i(^/2 
Ke sdhge-h-ah-n;(£A 
Oo sdhge-h-ah-ft;(^» 

Plural. 
Nin sdhge-h-og 
Ke sdhge-h-og 



/ love him. 
thou lovest him. 
he loves him. 
we (1.3) love him. 
tve (1.2) love him. 
ye love him. 
they love him. 

1 love them, 
thou lovest them. 



Oo sdhge-h-aun^ or -on he loves them. 
Nin sdhge-h-ah-n6n-ig we (1.3) love them. 
Ke sdhge-h-ah-n6n-ig we ( 1 .2) love them. 
Ke 8dhge-h-ah-w6-g ye love them. 
Oo sdhge-h-ah-w6n they love them. 



PRETERITE, 

Ne skke-h-d or -dti Nin sdhge-h-dhbun I loved him. 

&c. See Addenda. 

future. (See Pres. Tense.) 
Ne g& skke-h-ow Ne kah sahge-h-ah I shall, &c. love him. 

&c. 



214 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Note. — ^llie Future sign ga (Chip, kah), used before the first and second 
persons^ is changed into kuttd (ga-ta), Chip, tah, before the third person, 
singular and plural. 

Indeterminate. 
Sake-h-dh-gtf»-en^oo...Ae^ or they, love him, or them. (Fr. on Faime). 



Inverse. 
Ne s4ke-h-ik 



Ke sake-h-ik 
Sake-h-ik 

Ne s4ke-h-ik-oonan 
Ke sdke-h-ik-oondft; 
Ke skke-h-ik-oon;(^n; 
Sdke-h-ik-ft;?/^ 



3d pers. Nomin. 
Nin sdhge-h-ig 



Ke s^hge-h-ig 
Oo s^ge-h-igoon 



(p. 51. et seq.) 

me loveth-he, i.e. 
he loveth me, 

(and so of the rest.) 

he loveth thee, 
he is loved 

(by him, her, or them, dsf.). 

Nin s^hge-hAg-oondn he loveth us (1.3). 

Ke s4hge-h-ig-oo»J« he loveth us (1.2). 

Ke sahge-h-ig-ooxc7^A he loveth ^om. 

Oo s4hge-h-ig-oon^o;i /Aey are loved 

(by him, her, or them, dbf.). 



Ne skke-h-ik-wuk 
Ke s4ke-h-ik-wuk 
Sake-h-ik 



Plural. 
Nin sahge-h-ig-oog they love me. 
Ke s4hge-h-ig-oog they love thee 

Oo sahge-h-ig-oon he is loved. 

Ne s&ke-h-ik-oon^n-uk Ne sdhge-h-ig-oonon-ig they love (1.3) us. 
Ke s^ce-h-ik-oondw-uk Ke sdhge-h-ig-oon6n-ig they love (1.2) us. 
Ke skke-h-ik-oow6w-uk Ke 8dhge-h-ig-oow6-g they love you. 
Sdke-h-ik-wuck Oo 8dhge-h-ig-oow6n they are loved. 
Note. — Some Verbs ending in -to-oyoo (p. 45), a^d -sw-ayoo (Special, 
p. 87)> and others ending in 'ska-wayoo (Special, p 87)» -tlhwajoo (particul. 
p. 96) change ik (3rd pers.)— the former into ook — ^the latter, with some 
others, into hk, or dk (p. 107). 

Direct. (2d and 1st pers.) 



Ke s4ke-h-in 
Ke sake-h-in-ndn 
Ke s4ke-h-in-ow6w 



Ke sake-h-ittin 



Ke sdhgeh 
Ke sahge-h- 
Ke s4hge-h-im 
Ke s4hge-h-im-in 

Inverse. 
Ke sAhge-h-in 



thou lovest me. 
thou lo vest us( 1.3) 
ye love me. 
ye love us (1.3). 

thee love-I, i.e I 
love thee 

(and so of the rest). 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 215 

Ke s4ke-h-ittin-ow6w Ke s4h^e-h-enim I love you. 

Ke s4ke-h-ittin-nani ^i we ( 1 .3) love thee. 

Preterite. 

Ne 8&ke-h-ik-oo> or -ooti Nin sahge-h-ig-oobun me loved he, i.e. 

&c. he loved me. 

Future, (p. 201.) 

Ne gS sake-h-ik Ne kah sahge-h-ig mewilllove-he,i.e. 

&c. he will love me. 



Subjunctive Mood Present Direct. 
. In this Mood both Pronouns (Nomin. and Aceus.) are expressed 
by the Inflection, 
Sdke-h-uk Sahge-h-ug (that) I love him. 

-ut -ud thou lovest him. 

-at -od he loves him. 

-uk-^et -ung-id,or-6ed we (1.3) love him. 

-ak -ung we (1 .2) love him. 

-dig -4ig ye loye him. 

-at- wow (def.) -ah-w6d th6y love him. 

S-e-dke-h-dtch-ik (ind.) S-ahy-^ge-6dj-ig they love him.*^^ 



»3i See p. 52 et seq. Notes 30, 31, 32. 

I xiv. 31. Sdhge-u^. . (that; / love him, 
xiii. 20. AnooD-ahg(ug)-in . . him (indef.) / send, 
iv. 14. Ka m^n-ttflf . . / give (it to) him. 
vii. 23. Ke. . n6ojem6o-u^ . . that / have saved, cured, him, 
X. 15. Azhe kekdnemu^ . . so / know him. 

ix. 36. Che tdpway-4ne-m.aA^(tt5r).^un (pret.) . . that I might true- 
think him. 

xi. 3. Sahyihge-ud (flat vowel). . whom thou lovest him. 

xviii. 26. W6}evr'Ud. . as thou accompaniedst him. 

iii. 26. Kah debdhje-m-iMl . . whom thou narratest him. 

XX. 15. Wdin^n iindahw-iaemud} . . whom seekest thou? 

ix. 17. Alm'een. . an^je-m-iMl? . . what manner, how, relatest-^Aoit- 

him? 
xvii. 2. Kah m6n'dhf(udj)in . . which thou givest him. 
xvii. 3. Kah p^-dhnoon-uc? . (whom) thou hither-sendest him. 



216 


A GRAMMAR OF 




Plural. 


S4ke-h.uk-w6w 


Sahge-h-u^-w^h (that) I love them. 


-ut-w<Sw 


-ud-wah thou lovest them. 


.4t 


-od he loves him, or 




them. 



xix. 38- Koos-dii . . as ^ fears him (or them). 

xvii. 2. Che men-dd . . that he give to him (or them). 

xi. 36. En^h. . azhe sihge-od . . Behold ! . . as *^e loved him. 

xi. 52. Che mdhwunje(h)(^d . . that he " gather together" them. 

ix. 14. Ke wkhbe(h)6d (caus.). . that he made him see. 

V. 6. Ahp^ kah vrihhummdd . . when that he saw him. 

Kiya ke kek^ne-m-o<^. . and that he knew him. 
xviii. 26. Kah k^shke-tdhwahge-gdhnahm-<^d . . who cut-off-ear-ed- 
him. 

xviii. 31. A'hweyah che n^s-un^ . . any one that we (1.3) kill him. 
vi. 68. Wandish. . ka nlihzek&hw-un^^^pun (pret.) . . whom should 
we (1.3) goto (.him). 

xi. 48. K^shpin . . ^zhe ^6one(h)'Ung . . if . . so we (1.2) cease him, 
" leave him alone.'* 

vi. 62. K^shpin wdhhu-m-ot^ . . if ye see him. 

viii. 28. Ahpe ke dohe-n-dig . when ye shall up-lift him. 

vi. 29. Che tdpwa-&nem-(% . . that ye true-think him. 

V. 18. A'hndahwr^ndahm'-oowde? . . they go-think, seek, him. 

X. 39. Che ddhkoon-aAtf;oJ . . that they take him. 

vi. 25. Ahpe kah mikahw-ahwod . . when they had found him. 

viii. 3. Ahp^ kah h&tigedi-n-ahwdd. . when they had set himiher) down. 

V. 16. 18. Che n48'dhw6d . . that they might kill him. 

xvii. 18. Kah(ezhe)&hnoon-a^(tf^)-i(;<fA . . (so) /have sent them. 
xvii. 12. Mdgwah k^ we^^-w-ahg^wdh . . whilst J accompanied them. 
xii. 47. Che deh^hkoon-cJigwdh . . that /judge them. 
Che n6o}em6o'ahgwdh . . that I save them. 

xii. 40. Che na-ndondahwe-aA^toaA-bun (pret.) that J should 

" heal" them. 
X. 14. xvii. 10. Tabknem'dhg(4g)-ik . . (whom) I own them. 

xvii. 23. Ke sahge-a^ (ud)'wdh . . (and) thou hast loved them. 
xvii. 16. Che 6koO'n-ahd(ud)-wdh . . that thou withdraw them. 
xvii. 10. T^hine-m-dhjiudfi-ig. . (which) thou ownest t?iem. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 217 

Sake-h-iik-eet-w6w Sahge-h-dng-id-wdh we( 1.3) love them. 
-kk-w6w -ung-w§Ji we (1.2) love them. 

-aig-w6w -^ig-w4h ye love them. 

-at-w6w (def.) -ah-w6d they love them. 

Seake-h-atch-ik(indef.) Sahyahge-h-6dj-ig they love (hun or) 

them. 
In the " flat voweP* or, as respects Timb, Indefinite form, the plur. 
ending -wow (Chip, -wah), is changed — ^in the first pers. plur. (1.2), and 
the second pers. plur. into -^okj — ^in the other persons, plural, into -ik 
(see e.g. the third pers. plur. and p. 218, where it is exemphfied 
throughout.) 

Indeterminate. 
Sake-h-&h-gun-ewik Sahge-h-ong (that) he or thet^ love him. 





Inverse.*33 


Sake-h-it 


S^hge-h-id (that) he loves me. 


-isk 


-ik he loves thee. 


-Ik^-oot 


-6g-ood he is h>ved. 



vi. 2. Kah &tiymdbo-dahw6d. . which he did to them. 
vi. 42. Kakane-m-tfit^oo^ . . we (1.2) know them. 
xxi. 10. Kdh nis'dig'ook . . ye have killed them. 

vi. 1 1 . Menik wah ihyBhw-ahtodd . . as many as they want (to) have 

them. 
iv. 1. KiysL zegQh6nd'ahw6d ..and (that) t?iey poured on, "bap- 

tized,*' them. 
XX. 19. Koo8'dhw6d . . (as) they feared them. 

vi. 40. 'WBhYihh\jmrdhj(j6dj)ig. . who ^they) see him. 

vi. 46. Kah n6ondahw-rfA/-i^ . . who have heard him. 

V. 38. Kah i}moondh(ddj)in . . whom he hath sent him. 

vi. 29. Kah dhnoon(%'((^<(/)tn . (inan.) whom he hath sent (them.) 

vii. 25. Wah n68-Qh.wdhj(odj)in . . whom they want (to) kill. 

133 iv. 34. xii. 44. 45. Kah ahnoozh-uf . . he (who) sent me. 
v. 32. Owh tab&hjemu? . . he who narrates me. 
V. 3. Ewh andhjemirf . . that (which) he relates (of) me. 
X. 15. Azhe kekinemid ..as he knoweth me. 
X. 17. Wainje sdhgetJ . . therefore he loves me. 
X. 18. Kah m^enzhtd . . which he gave me. 



218 


A GRAMMAR OF 




Sdke-h.6ani^t 


Sdhge- 


-h-6amingid or 
-^ungid 


he loves us (1.3). 


-ittiik 




-enting 


he loves us (1.2). 


-itt&ig 




-endig 


he loves you. 


-Ik'oot-wow 




-6good-wah 


they are loved. 


Plural. 


(Indefinite ; or '' Flat Vowel.") 


Se4ke-h-itch-ik 


Sahyahg< 


5-h-idj-ig* (that) they love me. 


-isk-ik 




-ik-ig 


they love thee. 


-ikoo(t)ch.ik 




-6goo(d)j-ig 


they are loved 


-6am6etch-ik 




-6amingidj-ig 


they love us (1.3). 


-ittak-ook 




-eniing-ook 


they love us (1.2). 


-ittdig-ook 




-endig-ook 


they love you. 


.ikoo(t)ch.ik 




-egoo(d)j-ik 


they are loved 
(by him or them, dbp.) 




•Sdhge 


-h-ewod, DBF. 





vii. 20. Wdn^n babdh-undah-nes/A; . . who about-go-that he kill thee. 
ix. 37. Me owh kdnoon-/A;. . it is ^ (Ital. Ecco to) who talketh (to) thee, 
i. 48. Ch^pwah und6o-m-/it . . before he called thee, 
ix. 21. Ahn'een kah d6od-dbA; .^. . what manner, how, did he (to) thee, 
xix. 11. Kah bdhked^-n-ahm(um)-dbA; ..who (he) has delivered (it) 

to thee, 
xvii. 3. Che kekdne-m-egiM^^ (= -ik^wdh), , that they know thee. 

i. 31. Che kekanem-Zj^ooe^ . . that he should be known by him, 

iii. 2. Wej^we^ood . . if Ae be accompanied hy him, 

vii. 1. Che n^s^^ooe^ . . that he be killed hy him, or them, 

vii. 51. Ch^pwah nbondL-dhgood, .before he is heard hy it (viz the law). 

xviii. 3. Ke Tdhiegood , . he had been given (to) hy them. 

X. 4. N6opendhne^oo(2 . . ^ is followed by him (or them), 

iv. 12. Kah mi&iYi-iyahmingid , , he who gave (it to) us (1.3). 

vi. 52. Che ihshahm-'en/dng . . that fie feed «« (1.2). 

viii. 36. V^tigeden-endig ,,i[ he release you. 

xiv. 16. Che m^n^iat^ that he give (to) you, 

xiv. 16 Che w6}ewendig . . that he accompany you. 

xiii. 14. Kiya kakenoo-dhmoo-wiiflf (flat vow.) . . he who teacheth you, 

xvii. 20. Ka tkpw3i-inem'ej{idj)ig . , who (they) shall true-think me. 
xviii. 21. Egewh kah n6ondahw-e;(»c^')-t5'' • those (they) who heard mc. 
V. 36. vi. 39. Kah raeezh-ejiidfi-in (inan.). . which lie hath given me. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 219 

Direct.!** (2d and 1st pers.) 
Sake-h-eun S&hge-h-eyun (that) thou lovest me. 

-ekk -ey6ng thou lovest us. (1.3) 

-e4ig -ey^g ye love me. 

XV. 18. Ke sheeng'inem'ewdd . . they hated me, 
viii. 10. E'gewh diiahme-m-/A;-tA; (flat vow.) . . those (they) who ac- 
cuse thee, " thine accusers." 

vi. 45. Kiya kah k^enooahmi%oo4r-i^ . . and who (they) are taught 

by him. 
vii. 18. Kah £hnoon-^oo4;-tft . . whom he was sent by (him). 
X. 35. Kah dodea-^goodjig . . who (they) were arrived at by it. 

i. 22. Kah h6'^nooz\i'^ahming^j(ic^-ik . . . they who hither -sent 
iw(1.3). 

XV. 18. 19. Keshpin Bheeng-kaemendig-wdh . . if they hate you. 
xiii. 35. Ka. . k^kBnem'-endg'wdh . . they shall know you. 

xviii. 28. Che w^ne-sk-&hk.^)oir(^ . . that they he defiled by it. 

13* XX. 29. Ke wdhhahm-^uft . . thou hast seen me. 

xvii. 6. 9^ 12. Kah m^enzh-^aAfi-(UN)-t^. . whom (plur.) thou hast 

given me, 
xvii. 7. Kah m^enzh-^aAn(iin)-tn. . which (plur.) thou hast given me. 
xvii. 4. Kah m^enzh-^tm . . which thou gavest (to) me. 
xi. 41. 42. Ke n6ond4hw-eytm . . (that) thou hast heard me, 
xi. 42. Ke £hnoozh-^n . . (that) thou hast sent me, 
xvii. 23. 26. Kah . . s4hge-^«9» . . thou hast loved me. 
i. 48. A'hn'ahp^ kakinem-^un ? (flat vow.). . what time know-^Aou 
me? 

X. 24. Ka gw^nahw-^ndahmoo-^dft^ (caus.) . . . thou lack- thinks 
" doubt," makest us (1.3). 

vii. 19. W^goonain . . ni^-eydig . . why . . ye kill me. 

viii. 19. xiv. 7. Keshpin kekiinemcy<%-oopun (pret.). . if yc knew me. 

xvi. 27. Ke sdhge-ey% .. as yc love me. 

iv. 26. Neen kandon-eftdirt . . I who speak (to) thee. 
xxi. 15. 16. S&hge-ett(^ . . that I love thee. 
ii. 4. Ka x6ot6on-en6n . . shall / do (to) thee. 

xiii. 12. 15. Kah tdotoon—na^ooA; . . what / have done to you. 



220 A GRAMMAR OF 

Inverse. 
S4hke-h-itt4n Sahge-h-en6ii (that) I love thee, 

-ittuk-wow -h-6nug-wah I love you. 

-itt^ -h-en6ng we love thee. 



Imperative Mood, Present (See p. 204.)*** 
Sdk^-h S4hg6-h love thou him. 

Kutt& sdike-h-ayoo Oo tah sdhke-h-at<n, or -on let him love him 

Sdke-h-a-tak S^hge-h-ali-ddh let us love him. 

S4ke-h-^k S4hge-h-6eg love ye him. 

Kutt& s^ke-h-dy-wuk Oo tah sihge-h-ah-won let them love him. 

Plural. 
S^ke-h-ik S4hge-h love thou them. 

Kutti sdke-h-ayoo Oo tah s^ge-h-aun let him love (him 

or) them. 



xiii. 34. XV. 9* Kah ezhe s&hge-Snahgoog . . as J have loved you. 
xiv. 3. Che ood^hpen-^no^oo^ . . that I take, " receive," you. 
xiv 25. Magwah . . w6}4iW-6iahgoog . . whilst . . I accompany you. 
XV. 14. Kah li6kem'6iahgoog . . which / command you, 
xiii. 14. Ke k^zeb^-ezeddn-^toA^oo^ . . I have wash-footed you, 

135 xvii. 17. V6en-6h: , purify, " sanctify," thou (Hm or) them. 
xvii. 11. Kdhnahw^ni-m . . guard, " keep," thou (him or) them, 
i. 46. B^w^hbu-m . . hither-see thou him (or them), "come and see.^ 
xxi. 15. 16.' AVshu-m. . feed thou (him or) them. 
ix. 24. Meenj?^ . . give thou (to) him. 

iv. 29* W^hbu-m-fib . . see ye Mm. 

xii. 7. P6one(h)iA; . . leave off yc him, •* her." 

xviii. 31. XX. 22. Ahy4hw-»A: . . have, " take," " receive," ye him. 
xviii. 31. Ezhe teb^ihkoo-n-i% . . so judge ye him. 
ix. 21. 23. Kahgwdje-m-ZA: . . ask ye him. 
xxi. 10. P^-n-/Ar . . bring ye them. 

xi. 44. Ah^hsL-h'dok . . loose ye him. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 221 

S^ke-h-d-tdh-we-nik Sdhge-h-ah-ddh-nig let us love them 
Sdke-h-^ek-ook Sdhge-h-^ek love ye them. 

Kutt^ s4ke-h-dy-wuk Oo tah sdhge-h-ah-won let them love (him 

or) them. 

Verbs Ending in -^ayoo (anim. p. 42) change the t into s in' the first 
person singular, thus, Nugga-t-ayoo makes nuggu-« . . leave thou him ; 
Naht-t-ayoo (or nk-t-ayoo) makes nk-s. . fetch thou him, &c. 

Indefinite, 

Sdke-h-d-kun Sdhge-h-dh-kun love thou him. 

Sdke-h-a-k^k Sdhge-h-ah-gkk let us love him. 

Sike-h-a-kdik S4hge-h-ah-gdig love ye him. 

Sdke-h-^-kunik Sdhge-h-dh-kun-ig love thou them. 

Sdke-h-a-kw6w-in-ik Sdhge-h-ah-kah-dwdh-nig let us love them 
Sdke-h-a-gdik-ook Sdhge-h-ah-gdig-oog love ye them. 

Present. (Ist and 2d Pers.)*^^ 
Sdke-h-in Sdhge-h-^zhin love thou me. 

Sike-h-inndn Sdhge-h-^zhin-om love thou us (1.3). 

Sdke-h-ik Sdhge-h-^zhig love ye me or us. 

Indefinite. 
Sdke-h-^-kun Sdhge-h-ezh^-kun love thou me. 

Sdke-h-e-k-dik Sdhge-h-^zhe-k-aik love ye me. 



Paragraph III. 

Inanimate Object, Direct. 

1. Sdke-t-6w Oo 8dhge-t-6on he loves it. 

2. It-^he-t-um Ood en6in-d-on he so-thinks it. 



^^ xxi. 19. 22. N6openahzh^^tn . . follow thou me. 
iv. 7. M^na-h-^Atn . . give thou me drink, 
vi. 34. Meenzh-^Atn-om . . give thou (to) us (1.3). 



222 A GRAMMAR OF 

Indicative Mood. 

Ne s4ke-t-an Ne s&hge-t-oon I love it. 

Ke s4ke-t-an Ke s&hge-toon thou lovest it. 

Sdke-t-ow Oo s4hge-t-oon he loves it. 

Ne sake-t-an-n4n Ne 84hge-t-oon-n6n we (1.3) love it. 

Ke sike-t-an-anow Ke 84hge-t-oon-n6n we (1.2) love in. 

Ke 8^ke-t-an-ow6w Ke 8dhge-t-6on-ahw4h ye love it. • 

S4ke-t-6w-uk Oo 8^hge-t-6on-ahwah they love it. 

* 
Net' It-ethe-t-en Nind en-din-d-on I so-think it. 

Ket' It-^e-t-en Ked en-din-d-on thou thinkest it. 

It-6the-t-um Ood en-din-d-on he thinks it. 

Net' It-6the-t-en-nan Nind en-din-don-non we (1.3) think it. 
Kef It-6the-t-en-anow Ked en-din-don-non we (1.2) think it. 
Ket* Tt-6the-t-^n-owow Ked en-din-don-ahwdh ye think it. 

It-ethe-t-tim-wuk Ood en-din-don-ahwdh they think it. 

* This n is expletive, heing simply the cognate liquid of the d follow- 
ing it. See Introduction. 

Indeterminate. 

1. Skke-Uk'netvoo .,he, or thet/, (Fr. on) love it 

2. It-6the-t-ahgun-ewoo...A« or ihe^ so- think it. 

Double Inanimate. 
Sake-t-^-mahgun it loves it' 

Inverse. 
Ne s4ke-h-ik-oon Nin sdhge-h-6goon me loveth it, i.e. 

it loves me. 
Ke sdke-h-ik-oon Ke sahge-h-^goon it loves thee. 

Sdke-h-ikoo Oo sdhge^h-^oon he is loved (by it). 

Ne sdke-h-ik-oon-n6n Nin s4hge-h-egoon-n6n it loves us (1.3). 
Ke sdke-'h-ik-oon-anow Ke sahge-h-6goon-n6n it loves us (1.2). 
Ke sdke-h-ik-oon-ow6w Ke sdhge-h-^goon-ahwah it loves you. 
Sdke-h-ikoo-wuk Oo s4hge-h-6goo-wug they are loved. 

Double Inanimate. 
S^ke-h-ik-6o-mahgun...it is loved by it 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 223 

Subjunctive Mood Direct.*^7 
Sake-t-ian S4hge-t-ooy6n (that) I love it 

-lun -6oyun thou lovest it. 

-at -ood he loves it. 

"ihk -ooy6ng we (1.3) love it. 

"iSk -6oyung we (1.2) love it. 

-idig -ooydig ye love it. 

-at-w6w (def.) -oow6d they love it. 

Se4ke-t-^tch-ik (indef.) Sahyahge-t-6odj-ik they love it. 

It-ethe-t-umm^w En-aind-umm(5ro (that) / so think it, 

&c. See Intrans. pp. 195. 196. 197- Conjug. 6. 

Indeterminate. 

1. Sdke-t-dnewik Sahge-t-ang (that) he or thei^ love it. 

2. It-^the-t-dhgun-ewik En-din-d-ong he or thei^ so-think 

or esteem it. 
Double Inanimate. 
Sake-t-a-magdk Sahge-t-fli-m^k (that) it loves it. 

137 iv. 34. Che gizhe-Uooydn . . (and) that / finish it, 
X. 25. Wdzhe-too-y<£in(^)-t» . . (which) I do them. 
xiii. 2. Ke dht-ooe? . . he had put it. 
V. 18. Ke hahn&hje-t-ooc?. . he had defiled it. 
xix. 39* Ke h6d'6od . . (and) he brought it. 

xix. 10. A''hy-ahm<^. . (that) I have it. 

xviii. 37. Che w^n-d-ahm(^. . that I tell, declare it. 

xiii. 26. Ke gw4hbah-ahm(um)-(^ . . (when) I have dipped it. 

V. 30. An&ind-ahm-(^ . . as J think, intend, " my will." 

X. 17. P4hged^-n-ahm(^ . . as J lay-down it. 

X. 18. Che ooddhpe-n-ahmdn . . that I take it. 

xvi. 30. Kekdind-dhmun . . (that) thou knowest (it or them), 

i. 50. Wainje tdpway-dind-ahmtm ? . . whence true-thinkest, " be- 

lievest,'* thou it f 
iv. 11. Alin'eende . . wdinde-n-dhmun ? . . .what-place . . from-takest 

thou it? 

XX. i. 5. 6. Ke wdhbundim^ . . (and) he saw it (or them). 

xiii. 26. Kah gwdhbah-ilft^ . . (when) he had dipped t^. 

viii. 9. E'gewh kah ndondi'dhg-ig . . those who (fhey) heard it. 



224 


A GRAMMAR OF 




Inverse. 


Sake-h-ik-oo-y4n 


Sahge-h-egoo-y6n that it loves me. 


-6o-yun 


-eg6o-yun it loves thee. 


-oo-t 


-6goo-d he is loved (by it 


-oo-ykk 


-egoo-y6ng it loves us (1.3). 


-oo-yak 


-eg6o-yung it loves us (1.2). 


-oo-ydig 


-egoo-yaig it loves you. 


-oo-t-wow 


-6goo-d-wah they are loved. 



Sdke-h-ik-6omagak 



Double Inanimate. 
Sahge-ig-6omag^ (that) it is loved by it. 



viii. 51. Keshpin. . minj^mi-n-un^ . . if . . ^ hold it. 

viii. 29. Mdnw-dind-tcn^-in (plur.). . which he well-thinks, approves. 

vii. 23. Keshpin. . ootdhpe-n-tm^ . .ii he take it. 

iii. 31. Ahkeh aindahzhindt^^ . . earth, he relates, " speaks of/' it. 

iii. 11. Kak&indahmc^ . . (which) we (1.3) know {it). 

Kah wlihbundahmdn^ . . which we have seen (it). 

i. 14. Ke w^bundahmt^n^ . . (and) we saw it, 
xiii. 29. Ka ahykh-m-ung-oon (plur.) . . (which) we (1 .2) shall have 
(them). 

XV. 10. Keshpin minj^me-n-ahm-c^i^ ..if ye hold them. 

xiii. 17. Keshpin kekdindahm-<% ..iiye know them. 

xvi. 4. Che megu-dindahm-c^t^. . that ye may find-think, recollect it. 

vi. 26. Ke wdhbundahm-£% . . that ye had seen them. 

i. 38. W^oonain lundahw-dindum-(% f . . what seek ye ? 

ix. 27. Wah . . ndndBhrn-dig ? . . (that) ye want (to) hear it. 

vi. 14. 22. Ahp^ kah w^bunddhm-ooti^^c? . . when they had seen it. 
vi. 13. Kah esquand-ahm-oou;cf(i . . which they had left, " remained 

over." 
V. 28. Che n6ond-ahm-oo«;(^(2 . . they will hear it. 
xi. 41. Ke ^koo-n-ahm-oot(;o(i . . they withdrew it. 
xviii. 28. K6o-t-dhm-oow(^(i . . as they feared it. 
vi. 23. Kah . . m4yewod . . they eat it. 





THB CRBE 


LANGUAGE. 


225"-^ 




Imperative Mood^ Present 




Sdke-t-ah 




Sdhge-t 


.ooni88 


love thou it 


Sdke-t-ah-tlik 




Sdhge-t-oon-ddh 


let us love it 


Sdke-t-ak 




Sdhge-t< 


-6og 


love ye it. 


It-ethe-ta 




£n-&in-d-un 


think thou it. 


It-^the-ta-tlik 




En-4ia«dun-dih 


let us think it 


It-6the-t-uni"6ok 




£n-din-d-um-^6ok 
Indefinite. 


think ye it 


1 Sdke-t-s 


i-kun 
-kak 
.kaik 




love thou it 
let us love it 
love ye it 




2 It-^e-t-um-6o-kun 


think thou it. 








-k^ 


let us (1.2) think it. 



-kdik think ye it. 

Paragraph IV. 

Indeterminate^ &c. Object 
Anim. obj. Sdke-h-ewdyoo S^ge-h-ew& he loves, (p. 99) 
Inan. obj. Sdke-che-gdyoo S4hge-ch-egd he loves, (p. 101) 

Indic. Pres. Direct. (Conjug. 3.) 

Ne sdke-h-ewdn Nin s4hge-h-*ew4 I love (somebody) 

Ke s4ke-h-ewdn Ke s^ge-h-ewd thou lovcst (id.). 

S^e-h-ew&yoo Sdhge-h-ew& he loves (id.). 

iM xii. 28. P^8heg-aind6hgoo-t-<fe» . . one-think» " glorify," thm it, 
ziii. 29. K^shpenah-d-dbn . . buy thou (it or) them. 
ii. 19. Bahn6hje-t-(^05r . . destroy ye it, 
xi. 34. XX. 27. W6hbu-nd-im . . see thou (it or) them, 
xviii. 11. P^ena-h-t^» . . enter, " put up,'' thou it, 
V. 8. 11. Oot^pe-n-im . . take thou it, 

ii. 8. Z4f;e'n-dhm^ook . . poury6 1^. 
V. 39. Undah-kekla-nd-aAffi-(^oJt . . go-know ye (it or) them, 
xi. 39. E^oo-n^dhm-ook . . withdraw, " take away," ye it, 
ray. 15. Minj^me-n-oAm-oo* . . hold, '' keep," ye (it or) them, 

Q 



226 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Ne s4ke-h-ewdn-nan Nin s4hge-h-ewd-min 
Ke s4ke-h-ew4n-^now Ke sdhge-h-ew^-min 
Ke s4ke-h-ewdn-owow Ke sdhge-h-ew^-m 



Sdke-h-ewdy-wuk 

Ne 8dke-h-ik-6win 

Ke sdke-h-ik-6wm 

Sdke-h-6w 



Sdhge-h-ewd-wug 

Inverse. 
Nin 8^ge-h-ig-6o 
Ke 8dhge-h4g-6o 
S^ge-h-^ 

Ne sdke-h-ik-6win-nan Nin 8dhge-h-ig-6o-min 
Kesike-*h-ik-6win-£lnow Ke sdhge-h-ig-6o-min 
Ke sdke-h-ik-6win-ow6w Ke sdhge-h-ig-6o-m 
Sdke-h-6w-uk Sdhge-h-dh-wug 



we(1.3)love (id.), 
we (1.2) love (id.), 
ye love (id.), 
they love (id.). 

me love theycindet). 
they love thee, 
he is loved 
they love us (1.3). 
they love us (1.2). 
they love you. 
they are loved 



Subjunctive Moon^ Direct. 
Sdke-h-ew-^dn Sdhge-h-ew-^3wki (that) 

-^un -dyun 

-dit -did 

-6ak -dy6ng 

-e&k -dyung 

-edig -aydig 

-ait-w6w (def.time) -dwod 

-ditch-ik (indef.time) -didj-ig 

Inverse. 
Sdhe-h-ig6o-y6n (that) 

-h-ig6o-yun 

-h-ind 

-h-ig6o-y6ng 

-h-ig6o-yung 

-h-ig6o-ydig 

-h-ind-wdh 



Sdke-h-ik.6w-edn 

-h-ik-6w-eun 

-h-6et 

-h-ik-6we-€dc 

-h-ik-6we-&k 

-h-ik-6we-dig 

-h-6et-w6w 



I love (somebody), 
thou lovest. 
he loves, 
we (1.3) love, 
we (1.2) love, 
ye love, 
they love, 
they love. 

they (somebody) 

love me. 
they love thee, 
he is loved, 
they love us (1.3) 
they love us (1.2) 
they love you. 
they are loved. 



Indefinite Object Indie. Mood. Direct. (Conjug. 3.) 
Ne sdke-(t)ch-egdn Ne sdhge-ch-egd I love. 

Ke sdke-ch-egdn Ke sdhge-ch-egd thou lovest 

Sdke-ch-egdyoo Sdhge-ch-egd he loves. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 227 

Ne sdke-ch-egdu-nan Nin s^ge-ch-egd-min we (1.3) love. 
Ke s^e-ch-egan-^now Ke adbge-ch-egd-min we (1.2) love. 
Ke s4ke-ch-egdn-ow6w Ke 8&hge-ch-eg&-m ye love. 
Sdke-ch-egdy«wuk Sdhge-ch-egd-wug they love. 






Subjunctive Mood. 




Sdke*(t)ch-eg-6dn 


Sahge-(t)ch- 


eg-dy6n (that) Ilove(somethj 


-^un 




-dyun 


thou lovest 


-dit 




-did 


he loves. 


-64k 




-ay6ng 


we (1.3) love. 


-^k 




-dyung 


we (1.2) love. 


-eaig 




-dydig 


ye love. 


-dit-w6w (def.time) 


-dwod 


they love. 



S-e-dke(t)chegdi(t)chik S-ahy-dhge-(t)ch-eg-di(d)j-ig they love. 

The Invbrsb or return form of this (Indefinite) mode of the 
nrerb constitutes the Participial Passive^ as follows^ 

Participial Passive. Past Participle, (p. Ill et seq.) 

Indicative Mood, {Conjug, 4.) 
" Ne sdke-ch-eg-ks-oon Nin sdhge-ch-egdhz 

I am loved (Lat. amatus sum). 
Ke sdke-ch-^-ks-oon Ke sdhge-ch-egdhz 

thou art loved. 
Sdke-ch-eg-4s-oo Sdhge-ch-egdhzoo 

he is loved. 
Ne sdke^ch-eg-ks-oon-nan Nin sdhge-ch-egdhzoo-min 

we (1.3) are loved. 
Ke sdke-ch-eg-as-oon-^ow Ke sdhge-ch-egdhzoo-min 

we (1.2) are loved. 
Ke sdke-ch-^-£^s-oon-ow6w Ke sdhge-ch-egdhz6o-m 
ye are loved. 
Sdke-ch-eg-ds-oo-wug Sdhge-ch-egdhzoo-wug 

they are loved. 

Inanimate, (p. Ill et seq.) 
Sdke-ch-eg4tdyoo Sdhge-ch-eg^hdd it is loved. 

-eg^tdy-wd -wun they are loved. 

q2 



228 A GRAMMAR OF 

Subjunctive Mood, 
Sdke-ch-eg-^soo-ydn Sdihge-ch-egdhzoo-y6n (that) I am loved, 
-yun -yun thou art loved, 

-t -d he is loved, 

-ykk -y<^ng we (1.3) are loved, 

-y&k -y wng we ( 1 .2) are loved, 

-ydig -y^ ye are loved. 

-t»wow -w6d they are loved. 

INANIMATE. 

Sake-ch-eg^tdik Sdhge-ch-eg^hd-dig (that) it is loved, 

-ee -in they are loved. 



1'aragraph V. 
Verbal Adjective. — Active, (Intrans. Conjug. 1.) 
Ne sdke-h-ewdy-wiss-t» Ne s^hge-h-ewdi-wiz 

&c. / am loving, affectionate. 

Passive, (id.) 
Ne sdke-h-ik-oos-tn Ne s4hge-h-ikoos. 

&c. / am lov-able, &c. 



Subjunctive, fid.) 

A ct. Sdke-h-ew4y- wiss-e^f » Sahge-h-e wa-wiz-eyo«. 

&c. (that) I am loving, &c. 

Pass. Sdke-h-ikoos-e(in. Sdhge-h-^g-oos-eyo'n. 

« &c. (that) / am ami-able, &c. 

(See pp. 114, 115.) 

Paragraph VI. 
Reflective, Reciprocal, Simulative, Verbs, (p. 82 et seq.) 
These modes of the Verb involving to some extent (as respects 
Agent and Patient) the character of Transitives, are nevertheless 
conjugated as Intransiiives (of the 4th Conjugation). 

Indicative Mood. 
Reflect. Ne sdke-h-i^y^oow (or -Yi'ittissoon) Nin sihge-h-idis 
I love myself. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



229 



Recip. Ne sdke-h-ittoonn(fn (plur.) Nin sahge-h-^e-mira. 

We (l.S) love eaqh other. 
Simul. Ne sdke-k-asoon (reflect.) Nin sahge-kas. 

/ make myself, pretend, to love. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Reflect. Sdke-h-issoo-y(in S^hge-h-^desoo-y(^. 

(that) / love myself. 
Recip. Sake-h-ittoo-y^^ (P^ur.) Sahge-h-(§de-yc^ng. 

(that) fve (1.3) love one another. 
Simul. S4ke-k-^soo-yan (reflect.) Sahge-k-^soo-ydTt. 

(that) / pretend to love. 



Paragraph VII. 

The Oblique Cases, p. 117 et seq. Notes 64. 65. 

From the Transitive Verb in its Direct Relation (Nomin. and 
Accus.) we proceed to the Oblique Cases; namely, 1, Dative; 2, 
Ablative ; and S, Accessory or Possessive ; beginning here with 
the last It is, as already observed, used in connexion with the 
third person only. See Syntax. 

Possessive, &c. Case. (p. 123.) 
Anim. Ne s4ke-h-im-6w-a I love his him. 

Inan. 1. Ne sake-t-&-wan. I love his it. 

2. Net' It-6the-t-um-waii. I think his it 

Indicative Mood (anim.). Direct, 3d- person Accus. 



Ne 6dke-h-tm-6w-& 
Ke sdke-h-«m-6w-& 
S4ke-h-(f/A-u-& 
Ne sdke-h-tm-dnnan 
&c. 



I love his him, or them, 
thou lovest his him. 
he loves his him. 
we (1.3) love his him. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
S^e-h-iwi-tik (that) I love his him, &c. 

Sdke-h-ew-ut thou lovest his him. 



230 A GRAMMAR OF 

SSke^h-dthit he loves his him. 

Sake-h-im-wAr-r^c^ me (1.3) love his him. 



Imperative Mood. Pres. 
Sake-h-if» love thou his him, &c 

Sake-h-tm-eek love ye his him. 

Ifidefinite. 
Sdke-h-iiw-akun love thou his him. 

&c. 

Inanimate (Indio.) 

1. Ne sdke-t%«i9->dai I love his it. 

Ke sdke-t&-ft;-dn thou lovest his it. 

Sdke-t-(l^Ati-& he loves his it. 
&c. 

2. Net* It-6the-tum-w-6n I think his it. 
Kef It-^e-tum-w-tdn thou thinkest his it. 

It-6the-tum-6thu& he thinks his it. 

Net* It-6the-tum-w-&n-nan we (1.3) think his it. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
1. Sdke-td-n^-uk (that) I love his it 

&c. 
S. It-6the-t-(im-f9-uk I think his it. 

&c. See Addenda. 

Paragraph VIII. 
Dativb Case. (p. 117 et seq. T^ote 64.) 



Anim. 


Sdke-t-ow-4yoo 


he loveth him f<n: him. 


Inan. 


S&ke-t-iim-ow-dyoo 


he loveth it for him. 




Direct. Anim. Indie. 


3d Pers. Accus. 




Ne s£ke-t-ow-6ft; 


I love (him) for him. 




Ke sike^t'OW^dru 


thou lovest (him) for him. 




&c. 





THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



231 



Inverse. 3d Pers. Nomin. (p. 55.) 


Ne s4ke-tw-&k 


he loves (him) for me. 


Ke 8dke-tw.&k 


he loves (him) for thee. 


Sake-tw-dk 


he is loved for him, by &c. def. 


Ne sdke-tw-dk-oondn 


I he loves him for us (1.3) 


&e. 




Direct 


2d and 1st Pers. 


Ke 8ake-tw-6win 


thou lovest him for me. 


Ke sdyke-tw-6win-nan 


thou lovest him for us (1.3) 


Ke sdke-tw-6win-owow ye love him for me. 


Inverse, (p. 55.) 


Ke 8ake-tw-4tin 


I love him for thee. 


Ke s^ke-tw-atin-owow T love him for you. 


Ke 8^ke-tw-*^tin-ndn 


we (1.3) love him for thee. 


Subjunctive Direct. 3d. Pers. Accus. 


Sdke.tw.6w.uk 


(that) I love (him) for him. 


Sdke-tw-6w-ut 


thou lovest (him) for him. 


&c. 






Inverse. 


Sdke-tw-6w-it 


(that) he loves him for me. 


Sake-tw-Usk 


he loves him for thee. 


Sdke-tw-akoot 


he is loved for him,by,&c. def. 


S4ke-tw-6w-eam^ 


he loves him for us (1>3). 


&c. 




Direct. 


2d and Ist Pers. 


Sdke-tw-6w-eun 


(that) thou love him for me. 


Sdke-tw-6we-aig 


ye love him for me. 




Inverse. 


Sike-tw*&-tdn 


(that) 1 love him for thee. 


Sdke.tw4.tiik.ook 


I love him for you. 


Sdke.twa-tak 


we (1.3) love him for thee. 



Indeterminate. Inverse, (p. 226.) 
Anim. Ne sdke-^i9-dk-6win they (some one) love him for m&. 

&c. 
Inan. Ne sdke-/Mm-^.6win they (id.) love it for me. 

&c. 



232 A GRAMMAR OF 

Anim. Ne tern ne n4-fu7-&k-6win. . my horse they (indet.) fetch (Mm) 

for me. 
Inan. Ne mdkoman ne na-^m-dk-6win. . my knife they (id.) fetch 

(it) for me, 

Suhjunclive. (p. 226.) 
Anim. Sdke-tw-^k-6w-edn (that) they (indet.) love him for me. 

&c. 
Inan. Sdke-tum-ak-6w-edn they (id.) love it for me. 

&c. 



Paragraph IX. 

Inanimate. (Indie.) 
Ne sdke-ttim-ofv-(^iz; / love it for him. 

&c. 

Inverse, (p. 55.) 
Ne sdke-tmn-^k he loves it for me. 
&c. 

2d and Ist Pers. Direct. 
Ke s4ke-t^m-6win thou lovest it for me. 

Ke 8dke-t-um-6win-nan thou lovest it for us (1.3). 
Ke 8dke-t-um-6win-ow6w ye love it for me. 

Inverse, (p. B5.) 
Ke sdke-t-um-^tin I love it for thee. 

Ke sfike-t-um-£itin-nan we (1.3) love it for thee. 

Ke sdke-t-um-atin-ow6w I love it for you. 

Subjunctive^ Direct (p. 215.) 

/S4ke-ttim-ow«uk (that) I love it for him. 

S&ke-tdm-ow-ut thou lovest it for him. 

&c. 

Inverse. 

S&ke-tum-6w-it (that) he loves it for me. 

Sfike-tum-dsk he loves it for thee. 

S^e-tum-^oot it is loved for him^ by &c« def. 

Slike-tum-6w-eam6et he loves it for us (1.3) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 233 

2d and 1st Pers. Direct (p. 219-) 
Sdke-tum-6w-eun (that) thou love it for'me. 

&c. 

Inverse, (p. 220.) 
Sdke-tum-^-tdn (that) I love it for thee. 

Sdke-tum-k-tiik-ook I love it for you. 

Sdke-tum-k-tak we (l.S) love it for thee. 



Paragraph X. 
Dative and Possessive Cases combined. 

Anim. Ne sdke-tw-4in-6w-& I love his him for him. 

&c. 
Inan. Ne sdke-tum-^-6w-& I love his it for him. 

&c. 

Anim. Oo t^m& ne nlu-TW-am-6w&. . his horse / fetch (his him) for 

him. 
Oof ustis-S ne nd-TW«^m-6w& . . his gloves I fetch (id.) for him . 

Inan. Oo mtlskesin-^ ne nd-TUM-^m-6wS. . ^ shoes I fetch (his it) 

FOR him. 



Paragraph XI. 

Reflective^ &c. Conjug. 4. Indie. Mood. 
Anim. Ne sdke-^iv-dssoon / love {him) for myself. 

&c. 
Inan. ^e sdke-/tim-dssoon / love (it) for myself. 

&c. 



Subjunctive. 
Vnim. S&ke-tw-assoo-ydn (that) 1 love (him) for myself. 

Sdke-tw-4ss6o-yun thou^ &c. 

&c. 
Inan. Sdke-tum-dssoo-ydn (that) I love (it) for myself. 

&c. 



234 A GRAMMAR OF 

Paragraph XII. 
Ablative or Instrumental Case. p. 121. (Conjug. 3.) 
^e sdke-ch-ega-g^n / love with, or of, something. 

Ke sike-ch-egd-g^fn th&u lovest with something. 



Sub^'unctive. 
S&ke-ch-egk-ge(£n (g hard) (that) I love with, or of, some- 
&c. thing. 



Sect. V, 
NEGATIVE VERBS. (See p. 63 et seq.) 
Anim. Ne s&hge-h-dh'Se I love him not. 

Inan. 1 . Ne a&hge-t^dO'Seen I love it not. 

2. Nind en-ain-(^-aA-^een / think it not. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. Direct. 3d. Pers. Accus. 

Ne s4hge-h-aA-se (plur. -g) I love him not (plur. them). 

Ke sdhge-h-ah-se (-g) thou lovest him not. 

Oo s&hge-h-4h-seen he loves him not. 

Ne sdhge-h-dh-se-non (-ig) we (1.3) love him not. 

Ke s4hge-h-^-se-non (-ig) we (1.2) love him not 

Ke 84hge-h-6h-se-wi^ (-g) je love hkn not. 

Oo Bifag6-h-4h-se-w6n they love him not. 

Inverse. See p. 214. 
Ne sahge-h-^-oose (plur. -g) me loveth-Ae-not, i.e. he ioveth 

me not (and so of the rest). 
Ke sahge-h-igoose (-g) he Ioveth thee not 

Oo sahge-h-ig-oo-seen (-un) he is loved not by him^ her^ (or 

them) DEF. 
Ne sahge-h-ig-oose-n6n (-tg) he loves us (1.3) not (plur. /Aey). 
Ke sahge-h-ig-oose-n6n (-ig) he loves us (1.2) not (id.). 
Ke sahge-h-ig-oosen-ahwdh (-g) he loves you not iid). 
Oo sahge-h-ig-oose-w6n they are loved not by, &c, def. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 235 

2d and 1st Pers. Direct. 
Ke s4hge-h-6se thou lovest me-not. 

Ke sdhge-h-es6e-m ye love me-not 

Ke sahge-h-^se-min thou or ye love us (l.S) not. 

Inverse. 
Ke sihge-h-esenoon I love thee not 

Ke s4hge-h-6sen6on-im I love you not 

Subjunctive Mood. Present Direct. 

Sahge-h-4h-se-wug(plur.-waA)i«9(that) I love him not (plur, them) 

Sahge-h-£h-se-wud {-wah) thou lovest him not 

Sahge-h-ah-s-ig he loves him not 

Sahge-h-4h-.se- wong-id {^wah) we (1.3) love him not. 

Sahge-h-dh-se-wung {-wah) we (1.2) love him not 

Sahge-h-dh-se-w^ ("WaK) ye love him not. 

Sahge-h-^-s-ig-w4h I i , , 

^ > they love him not. 

"Se- woci / 

Inverse. 
S4hge-h-6sig (plur. -ivaA)^^® (that) he loves me not 
Sdhge-h-esen-ik he loves thee not 

S4hge-h-6goo-sig he is not loved (by> &c. def.) 



i3» xix. 4. M^-ahmahw6h-M-t«^ . . (that) I find not to, "in," him. 
iz. 31. N6ondahwdh-«-»^ . . (that) he heareth him, or them, not, 
vii. 35. Che m^ahwdh-se-iot^ . . (that) we (1.2) find hm not. 
vii. 45. Ke henbHtLse^wdig . . (that) ye have not brought him. 
ix. 30. Kek^einlUi-«e-t«7(% . . (that) ye know him not, 
XV. 21. Kekiaemkih-se-wod . . (as) they know him, or them, not. 

1^ xiv. 24. Owh sahy&hge-h-en-^ (flat vow.). . he who loveth me nof. 
XX. 29. E'gewh kah wdhbahm-e«^-^-f^ . . those who have not seen me. 
xii. 42. Che s&hgeje'wihe^n'^g'Oose-wdd . . that they be not onU 
thrown (by them dbf.). 

IMPBRATIVB MOOD. 

XX. 17. Tdngen-^he-kdin . . touch thou me not. 

X. 37. Ti^w9X6h.W'e8h€'k'4ig'Oon . . believe ye me not. 



236 A GRAMMAR OF 

S&hge-h-6s-eainmind he loves us (1.3) not. 

S4hge-h-^-wuiig he loves us (1.2) not. 

Sahge-h-6se-wdig he loves you not. 

Sahge-h-6goo-se-wod they are not loved (by, &c. def.) 

(2d and 1st pers.) Direct. 

S^ge-h-es^-wun (that) thou lovest me not 

S&hge-h-ese-w6ng thou lovest us (1.3) not 

Sdhge-h-ese-wdig*^^ ye love me not 

Inverse. 

Sihge-h-6sen-ow6n (that) I love thee not. 

Sdhge-h-6sen-6nug-oog I love you not. 

Sdhge-h-6se-n-ew6ng we (1.3) love thee not. 



Paragraph II. 

Inanimate Object. Direct. 

Indicative Mood. 

Ne 8dhge-t-6o-seen (plur. -un) I love it not (plur. them). 

Ke s4hge-t-6o-seen thou lovest it not 

Oo s4hge-t-6o-seen he loves it not 

Ne sdhge-t6o-se-non we (1.3) love it not 

Ke skhge-t6o-8e-non we (1.2) love it not. 

Ke 84hge-t6o-sen-ahwdh ye love it not 

Oo 8^ge-t6o-sen-ahw^ they love it not 

Inverse. 
Ne 84hge-h-6g-oo-seen(plur.-tt») it loves me not (plur. tke^). 
Ke s&hge-h-6g-oo-seen it loves thee not 

Oo sdhge-h-eg-oo-seen it is not loved (by, &c. def.). 

Ne sdhge-h-^g-oo-se-n6n it loves not us (1.3) 

&c. 

*^i viii.46. X. 38. (Wdinje) t^pw^'tdw-ese-wdig . . (whence) ye true-hear, 
believe, me not. 
XV. 5. AhytLhw-ese-'waig . . (if) ye have not me. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 237 



Subjunctive Mood. Direct. 
Sdlige-t-6ose-won**2 (that) I love it not. 



-t-6o8e-wun thou lovest it not. 

S4hge-t6o-sig he loves it not. 

S^ge-t6o-se-wong we (1.3) love it not. 
&c. 

Inverse. 

Sahge-h-6goo-se-w6n (that) it loves me not 

S&hge-h-^goo-se-wun it loves thee not. 

Sdhge-h-6goo-sig he is not loved by it. 

S^ge-h-6goo-se-w6ng it loves us (1.3) not. 

&c. See Notes (Obi. Cases, Neg.) p. 56. 



Paragraph III. 

Indeterminate. Animate. 

Direct. (Indie.) 
Nin sdhge-he-wdy-se I love (some one) not 

&c. 

Subjunctive. 
S£hge-h-6w&y-se-w6n (that) I love (some one) not. 
&c. 

Inverse. (Indie.) 
Ne sdhge-h-eg6o-se he or they (Fr. on) love me not 

Ke sdhge-h-eg6o-8e he or they love thee not 

Sdhge-h-dh-se he is not loved. 

Ne 84hge-h-eg6o-se-min he or they love not us (1.3). 

Ke 8dhge-h-eg6o-se-min he or they love not us (1.2). 

Ke sahge-h-eg6o-s-eem he or they love not you. 

Sdhge-h-^-se-wug they (def.) are not loved. 

»*2 vi. 39. Che wQme-Udo^e-wdn . . that I lose not it. 

iii. 10. Kekimd^'Ze-wunF, . (and) thou knowest not (it, or) tliem. 

iv. 32. Kak6md&li-se'^dig (flat vow.) . . (that) ye know it not, 

iv. 48. K^shpin . . . w^hnndwi'Ze'wdig . . if ye see them not, " except 

ye see," &c. 
iii. 12. viii. 24. Tapwattin-^re-trot^ . . (and, &c.) ye believe them not. 



238 A GRAMMAR OP 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Sahge-h-eg6o-se-w6n (that) he or they (FV. on) love not me. 

Sahge-h-eg6o-se-wim he, &c. love not thee. 

Sahge-h-4h-se-wind he is not loved. 

Sahge-h-eg6o-se-w6ng he or they love not us (1.3). 

Sahge-h-egoo-se-wung he, &c. love not us (1.2). 

Sahge-h-eg6o-se-waig he, &c, love not you. 

Sahge-h-^-se-wind-wih they (def.) are not loved. 

Indefinite Object p. 101. et seq. (Indie) 
Ne sihge-(t)che-g4-se I love not 

&c. 

Subjunctive. 
S^ge-che-g4-se-w6n (that) I love not. 

&c. 

Verbal Adjective. Active. (See Intrans. p. 207.) 
Indet Ne 8&hge-h-ewd-wiz6-^e, &c» I am not affectionate. 
Indef. Ne s&hge(t)ch-eg^wiz6-^e, &c. I am no^ &c. 

Passive, (id.) See p. 116. Notes. 
Anim. Ne sdhge-h-fg-ooz6-#e. Sec. I am not lov-able, ami-able. 
Inan. En-din-d-dhg-w^-^enoon it is not so thought (p. 213). 

See Addenda, 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 

Chapter II. 



239 



8ect. 
ADVERBS 

Note, ch is pronounced 
Op Time Prbssnt. 
An-nooch, at present, 
EkVA, now, instantly, 
K^sdch, this instant, immediately, 
K^seskow, the present opportwwty. 



Past. 
Usp'in, ago. 

I'spee, then, when, 
A'stum-ispee, since. 
AVoos-ispee, before, 
Anndoch-egdy, very lately, 
K'yas, ky^tee, hny ago. 
W^skucli, formerly. 
Shdslii, already, 
Oot^oos-diky yesterday. 
AVoos-oot&koosaik^ the day be- 

fore yesterday, 
I-dwoos-oot^oosaik^ two days be- 

fore yesterday, 
P^poon-ook, last winter. 
N^pin-ook, last summer. 



Future. 

Etdp, afterwards. 
Pitoos, hereqfter, 
TktxmsL, by and bye. 
Ch^skwa, presently, 
P^-ch^skwa, id. with emphasis. 
K^k^ek, some time or other. 
K4jf^ at length, 
W^yk^ch, at a future time. 



I. 

(Cree). 

as tch, and J as dj. 

P^pook-e, when it shall (be) winter, 

next winter. 
W&ppdk-e, tomorrow. 
A'woose-w&ppik-e, the day qfter 

tomorrow. 
W^puch, soon. 
NtimmS ^skwS, not yet. 



Op Time Unspecipibd. 

Is-p^ese, whilst, 

Mdosiik^ always. 

AsFow, sometimes, frequently. 

I-4skow^ unfrequently, rarely, 

Neg6otoon^^ seldom, 

Kinwai8,/or a long time, 

Ntiggisk, for a short time, tempO' 
rarily. 

Ki88ik,/or a very short time, 

Methdgas, a long time ago. 

Pitta, /or an instant. 

K5k'ekdy, every moment, on every 
occasion, 

Oofche, ever. 
Numma 6otche, never, 
Mdikwauj, at the same time (or 

place), 
W6ekee, usually, 
Semm^> at once, without delay. 
Ket^tow&ith, all on a sudden. 
Thiskunnej j^^^^ f throughtheday 
Kuppdy J \all day long, 

(Fspee, time,) 
Ecco-spee, that very time. 



240 



A GRAMMAR OF 



(Is-p^eche, space, quantity) 
Tdn-ispeeche ? howfar^ &c.P 
T^-isp^e, when {past)? 
Tdn.ithek6k,W. </«'.) .^ 
T^-ispee doche, what-time from, 

how long? 
£e-dyowee^ continually. 
Oosk'uch, at first. 
Eskwiach^ the last. 
Amdya, my'wais, brfore. 
Mtislum, mwy'stus, after. 

Of Place. 

(Lite, place.) 

Tiln-itte? what place? where? 

0-t^, here. 

N^t^, un'-t^, there. 

Ecco-t^> that very place. 

0-t^6oche, here-from, hence. 

"Nh-th doche, therefrom, thence. 

Ch^ke, nigh, close to. 

Kisshewauk, near. 
Wkthow, afar off. 

O'pemay, on one side. 

IJtte, fromjwards. 

Pey-, Peyche, hitherward. 

T^-tf it-^e, on which side. 

0-t^ it-6ike, on the hither side. 

Kwisk-itt^, on the other, reverse, 
side. 

Ntibbutt^, on one sid^. 

T-eetow, on both sides. 

Astum-itt^, on this sid^. 

Awoo8-itt^, on the other side, be- 
yond. 

Nigootchis, inland. 

Ndntow, somewhere. 

Missliewdy, every where. 

M6och^ek, on the ground. 

Espim-ik, on high. 



Of Quantity and Number. 

Appesis, little. 

Mistahay, a great deal. 

TKck-tik, the whole (number). 

Att6et,part, some (id.). 

Missheway, the whoU (quantity). 

V^e,part, some (id.). 

K6g^t, almost 

K5kethow, aU. 

Kickee, among. 

Ni-ee, exactly. 

Ni-ithekok, exact quantity or 

number. 
Kesdstow, middling, moderately. 
Awoo8-ithek6k, more. 
A'8tum-ithek6k, less. 
Uthew&k, exceeding, very, 
mth, short qf. 
UthewlOt-eptithu, it exceeds. 
N6t^puthu, it falls short, (p. 146) 
Nummah mw&see, not much. 
Eg'ah-waudj, scarcely, hardly. 

Op Quality and Manner. 

Tkhiskooch alike, 
P^toos, different. 
Kwiusk, strait. 
Pimmich, crosswise. 
Stigge, thick, close together. 
I-dspees, thin, far between. 
M4hmow,aW together, collectively. 
Piskis, apart, separately. 
Mummdin, here and there one. 
M^nah, again, another. 
Nkspich, very. 
S6ke, extremely. 
K^tw6m, over again. 
Niss^ek, softly. 
P^ykdcb, slowly. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



241 



S^ak-aith, kindly. 

Pw^stoway, lingering, slowly, 

Pidtucky carefully, 

Piik-^um, very steadily, atten- 
tively, 

Kithippee, quickly. 

Sissekootz^ suddenly, abruptly. 

Mooche, openly, gratis. 

Saik-aith, of one's own accord, 

Ma-mdich, (frtm muche, bad, 
»9h» SfC.) badly,, wickedly. 

Smooch, positively, inevitably, 

K^mooch, privately, secretly, 

Mkhmuskdch, wonderfuUy. 
Pississ^, alone, unaccompanied. 
Ndspkch, wrong, mistakingly, 
A'tbimach, difficultly, 
MknsL, seemingly, 
^iapitche,Jmally. 
Ketktowaith, all at once, suddenly. 
Odm'isse, this wise,^thus, 
Cte, to wit, 
Piko, only, nothing hut. 
M6w-utche, collectively. 
Wtissuswy, dispersedly. 



Op Comparison. 

N6w-uch, inclining to, rather. 

Kes^tow, moderately, middling. 

Mistahay, greatly, a great deal. 

Nlispich, very, 

Ath'^ew^, exceedingly. 

S6ke, very greatly. 

Weysah, very. 
Weysah dthew&k, extremely, 
Oosdm^ too, most, 
NtimmS mw&see, not much. 
Mti6ontt, perfectly, completely. 
E-dp-itch, the same. 
P^t6o8, different. 
Mw6oyche, exactly. 



Op Appirmation. 
T^pwooy, truly. 

ChekdymS, to be sure, certainly. 
Ethinnuttok, in reality, 
S^koo-ch, posittve-ly. 
W^ychetdwee, completely, tho- 

roughly. 
Eth^penay, really. 

Op Negation. 
NtimniS,»o, not. Used with Indie. 
NummS w^tha, id. stronger, id. 
E'gah, not. Used with Subj. and 

Imperat. 
Ntimma-nisse, (sqft neg.) no. 
Nummd-nta, (strong neg.) no. 
Ntimma wAw^tch, not at aU. 
Eck'wiss^, fwbear. 
Eck'wisse ^gah (stronger neg.) id. 

do not. 
PickdonSta, trifling, "nonsense,'^ 

(also Intensive) indefinitely. 



Of Doubt and Uncertainty. 

W^eskowin 1 

me-piko I^^^I^'^^now. 

Mdskooch, perhaps. 

Kistenacli, perhaps. 

E'^tooke, I suppose. 

Mdna, apparently, seemingly, 

M^eskow, by chance, accidentally. 

U'tchethow, in^vain, uselessly. 

Op Interrogation. 
K^kwan? whatF 
Ch6} \ 
Nah? f^^^^^^9' Particles. 

Tka.' iUh ? which place f'^where ? 
Tdn' itt^ 6otche ?/rom«>A*cA|)toecf 

whence? 
T^n' isse ? which wise, how ? 
T^n' t^to? which number, how 
many ? 



242 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Sect 11. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 

1. Copulative. — Minn, and, again j Aasitche, also j W&wauj, likewise, 
3. Disjunctive. — ^Mogga, butj E'gah, or. 

3. Conditional. — K^spin, ifj E'gah, unless. 

4. Adversative. — M6ggah, butj A'cbe, elsej A'ch^-kay, Missowauj, 

so much the more. 

5. Concessive. — A^t^ indeed, although: Wtliewaik, nevertheless ; Kwkj- 

kootow, however, nevertheless. 

6. Causal. — Ootche, from, because, by reason of. 

Final— Ktitche that, to the end that. 

7. Conclusive. — E^cco-isae, thus, therefore j Whche, whence j Mk,/or. 

Eccose (Ekin), thus, so, (it is). 
Mogga (pos.) and J (privat.) but. 
Mustum, after that. 
Mooyais, before that. 
"Sutt^ckaL, fortunately. 
P^etow, \ expressions 
Nuppdit, > of 
Nwppwo^vis, J dissappointment. 
Tdpean, it is a chance \f. 
E^ga, {with subj.) unless. 
H6, as (Fr. comme). 



Tiaepwk, no wonder. 
Tdckoow&j, so much the more. 
T^akwuch, contrary to expectation. 
E^akum, why. 
EgA m^ for {e.g. I did) not. 

1,1 

> expressions of doubt. 
'» J 

{with 



Pdssena, 
Mutwdy, 



A'ta, isoith Indie.) indeed 

subf.) although. 
Untowduj, 
Wiw^es, a fortiori. 



Sect. III. 
PREPOSITIONS. 



P^kche, in, within. 
Wtiskitch, on the outside. 
Esplm-ik, on high. 
Chtippasees, below. 
Tdlikootch^ t^tche, upon. 
UttlUbmik, underneath. 
S^pah, under. 
Ath^eoo, beyond. 
S^poo, through. 
W&skah, around. 



Wdnnuskootch, at the end, extre- 
mity. 

Ch^eke, close, very nigh to. 

Fssee, towards* 

Pdoskoo k^sik, the same day. 

V6o8koowntchee'k,onthesamehill. 

Ass^tche, backwards. 

T^e (m&iskunnow)y all along (the 
path). 

Utte, fromward. 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 



243 



O'oche, FROM^ <fy with, by 

mean8of, 
KithekoWy Kickee> amon^, 
Tu8t6widj> between, 
(Tdbbeskooch, aUke, ^qwUJ) 
Tibbeskoo€h> opposite 
A'bbetow, (ha^,) in the middle. 

Note,— The Preposition gwems its Noun, generaUy, in the Locative 
Case, pp. 184, 185. 



P^ethis, until, unto. 
P&ssichy (passing) over. 
Awkwk, at the back of, behind. 
Sissoonay, parallel to. 
A^8tum-ik, in the front. 
A'b-im-ik, at the back, behind. 



Sect. IV. 
INTERJECTIONS, 



Ah I express, of assent. 

Ah! Ah! yes. 

O ! O ! O ! Angl. I thank you. 

Eh! Ch^I express, of surprize 

and disappoi$Ument. 
I! ah! id. 

Hi ! express, of pleasure. 
TlUt^ch, expressive qf contempt, 

Angl. tush! 
Waw? Angl Eh? 
Kaw! indeed! 
Y6 ho ! Angl. what now ! 
How! comef nowf 
How! untowdudj, well! then. 
Ek'wa! now J 
Chist! look! 
Po'otee! loJ behold. 
A'ttat^pun 1 Angl. I am glad of it! 
Ek'weskne ! Angl. thafs right ! 
Athls ! alas ! there is no help for it I 
M^eakw&m! wiind! 
Pick6(m&tll ! nothing! "nonsense'* I 
S6ke! very! strong! stoutly! 
Miltee! let us seel 
P^gktch! slowly! 



P^edtukl carefully! 

Nissik! softly! 

Pittitne ! would that / 

Tdpwdoy! verily, in truth / 

A^stum! hither {come) '* 

A'woos ! away (go) ! 

'Rm-ek-ootee ! what of that ! 

Titn-eke-in6gg& ! and what then! 

P&p^yway! good luck! 

Hdppwo K^tha ! it rests with you^ 
as you (thou) please ! 

K^ysa 

K^ysa 6tee! it is well 'tis no 
worse! 

K^eam! ah-k^eam! be it so! 

GkanekH Utpwooy ! (ironically) 
yes, I dare say ! 

Kw&chist! dwkw&chist! express, 
of wonder or astonishment. 

Tilpwooy-glinne ! seriously ! with- 
out joking ! 

Esk'wH ! presently t 

E^gHisse! dont! 

Ecco ! just (so) I (Fr. voiUk) 



r2 



244 A GRAMMAR OF 



PART III. 



SYNTAX. 
Chap. I. 

The Parts of Speech are Seven, viz. 

1. Noun; Pronoun; Verb, including the Accid. 
and Particip. Passives ; decUnable. 

2. Adverb ; Conjunction ; Preposition ; Interjec- 
tion; indechnable. 

In Construction the rules of Concord and Govern- 
ment are observed as in European languages. 

Sect. L 

OF THE NOUN. 

The Idiom of this Language^ as seen in its declinable forms^ 
divides the Noun into two classes^ (analogous to those of gender^) 
which we have denominated the Animate and Inanimate. Their 
respective plurals are formed — ^the former by -uk or ^fvuk (Chip. 
'gy 'Ug, or -tvug) — ^the latter by -^ or 'Wd (Chip, -w, -un, or -it^tfn) 
added to the Singular, (p. 181.) 

(tl*» But when governed by a verb, in the third person (expressed 
or understood), the Noun ends — ^the Anim. in -o or -wa (sing. and. 
plur.) Chip, -n, "Un, or -tvun — the Inan. in 'Cthu sing, -^tku'a plur. 
Chip, -en^h sing. -Sneivun plur. Vide Trans. Verb. 

Note, — ^The (Pronominal) equivalents of their Cases wiU be found in 
the Verbal Affix. See pp. 55, 183. 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 245 

The Element me- (and w- or we-) prefixed to certain nouns, has, from 
the manner of the hitter's uniting with the Possess. Pron. been considered 
by some writers as equivalent to the European Article. This is, however, 
a mistake, since it is found only in the names of the body and its parts, 
as W^-ow, the body, Ne 6w, my body ; Me-tdon, the mouth, Ne tdon, 
my mouth ; Me-s(t, the foot, Ne sit, my foot ; &c. — and in those expres- 
sing Relationship, as, Me-gduwee, a mother, Ne gduwee, my mother; 
&c. — ^with a very few others, as, Me-wdt, a bag, Ne vmt, my bag; 
W-4egee, a dwelling or habitation, N4egee, my dwelling. 

Two Nouns coining together, one of which is in the posses- 
sive case, are expressed as follows, (See Possess. Pron. p. 

187.) 

Ne gnosis 00 t^nis-a...my son his daughter ; Angl. my sovit 

daughter. 

iCeg6osis 00 XkmS'-d,.Ahy son'^ daughter. 

Oo g6o8is 00 ih,\m'4thu'd,,,his sonV daughter. 

Ethlnu oo g6osis-c^...the Indian his (or her) son, Angl. the 
Indian's son. 

Ethinu 00 g6osis^ oo thxa%-4thu-d„,^e Indian'^ wm's daugh- 
ter. 

Eskwdyoo 00 t^nis-^...the woman her daughter^ Angl. the 
woman's daughter. 

Eskw&yoo oo tanis-& oo t^m-^ifAtt-cl^...the woman her daugh- 
ter, her (access.) dog. Angl. the woman's daughter's 

dog. 

♦ Vide infra. 



Sect, II. 
OF THE ADJECTIVE. 
The European Adjective, as expressed in the Algonquin 
dialects, is, in its most simple form, a Verb (Intrans). p. 25. 

Sect. III. 
OF THE PRONOUN. 

The Personal Pronoun has three persons in the singular and four 
in the plural. (See pp. 51, 60, 185.) Indet Ofve^Hk, some-body 
any body. Indef. Kekrv-dn, some-things any thing. 



246 A GRAMMAR OF 

The third person sing. Wetha, i» the same in both ♦'genders/ 
Their Cases will be found in the verbal Affix. 

Note. — The Personal Pronoun is expressed in three ways . 1, Unab- 
breviated, as — ^when in Apposition, as Ou>a wetha (anim.) this (is) he i 
Oomawetha (inan.) this (is) it ; Netha wetha I it, i.e. it (is) I, (seep. 254 Of 
the Verb-Substantive) ; or — when used absolutely, as in answer to a 
Question ; or, — ^for the sake of Emphasis, as, Ne ga seehwdoytan, netha, I 
will depart^ I. (Fr. Je partirai, moi.) 2, Abbreviated^ as it is used before 
the (indie.) Verb. 3, And lastly, by the verbal Inflexion. 

The Possessive Pronoun is the Personal Pronoun used in 
combination with its noun. The Inan. changes the (anim.) 
plu. -Wit into -a. 

Net' sss^ixn-uk (anim. )...nry snow-shoe-x. 
Net' assam-emin-uk... oMr (1.5) snow-shoe-*. 
Ne pdskesiggun-^ (inan.)... my gun*. 
Ne pdskesfggun-en(£ra-£f...oi/r (1.3) gun*. 

The Relative Possessive Pronoun agrees with its Subject in 
^^ gender*^ and number (id.), (p. 187,) 

Net' I'an 6wa (anim.)... mine (is) this. Angl. this (is) mine^ 
Net' ran-iiifc 6o-ifcoo. . .mine (are) these. "«* ^ ^^ ^« '^' 

Net' I'an i1nn-&...mine (is) that. 
Net' I'an-nAr tinn-e^ee...mine (are) those. 

Net' Fan 6o-m& (inan.)... mine (is) this. 
Net' I'an-& 6o-hoo...mine (are) these. 
iVef I'an tinne-m&...mine (is) that. 
Net' I'an-a t!inne-hee...mine (are) those. 

The Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns also agree 
with their Subject in gender and number^ as> 
Owa mistik (anim.). ..this tree. 
(Xokoo mistik-wiik... these trees. 
U'nn& e8kwdyoo...that woman. 
U'nnekee eskwdywuk... those women. 
Oom'a mtiskesin (inan.)... this shoe. 
O'ohoo mtiskesin-^... these shoes. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 247 

Unnem& m6okoman...that knife. 
Unnehee m6okomdn-a... those knives. 
Koottick Ethinu (anim.)...the other Indian. 
Koottick-uk Ethlnu-uk...the other Indians. 
Koottick pew^pisk (inan.)...the other metal. 
Kootdck-a pew4pisk-wa...the other metals. 

Ow'ena k^tha ?...who (art) thou ? 

Owiaekee k6tha-wow...who (are) ye ? 

Ow'ena unna Ethinu ?...who (is) that Indian ? 

Owinekee tinnekee Ethinu-uk?...who (are) those Indians? 

K^kwan tinnema?...what (is) that (thing) ? 

Kekwdnee tinnehee ?...what (are) those (things) ? 

(tl*» The Demons. Pronouns, when governed by a verb in the third 
person, change (in like manner with the Noun, vide supra) the 
above (anim.) forms into the Inan. ookee and Unnee or linnehee (Chip. 
oonooTvh, enetvh. (p. ^56.) 

The (indeclinable) Pronoun Relative get (Chip, kah or gah, 
Jones) implies, and stands for, its Antecedent; and when 
there is no other nominative, the verb agrees with it accord- 
ingly, in (the implied) ^^gender,^^ number, and person. It 
governs the Subjunctive Mood. (Ital. che; Angl. whOy w?iom, 
whichy that). 

Ktittaw^sis-ti Iskwdyoo gd wdthaw-tY...(Ae or) she is hand- 
some. Woman, (she) who is gone out. 

Ktittawdssisu-2<^ Iskwdyw-«^^a w6thawit(ch)-f^...id. plur. 

M6eth-2;t (imperat.) m6okoman (inan.) gd kin w^Ar... give thou 
(to) me knife, (that) which is long; AngLthe long one. 

M6thow^sin-ff ^ m6okoman-^ gd kin wak-i^... they are good 
knives, (those) which are long; Angl. the long ones. 

So with the Demonstrative Pronoun, e.g. 

Ke g& m^eth-t7/zn unna (anim.) gd m6tho-ethe-m-ti^ ../ will 
give thee that (e.g. horse) which thou likest (-him). 



248 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ke g& m^eth'Utin tiimema (inan.) gk m6tho-6the-t-u9Rmttn... 
id. that (e.g. thing) which tkou likest (-t/)«i^^ 
As the Pron. Relat. ga refers definitely to its (indef,) Antece- 
dent^ it has thus the force of the European Definite Article, as, 
M6thostt (indie.) Ethinu (homo)... good-is- Ae man; he is a 

good man. 
Ethinu h^ (indef.) m6thosi7 (subj.)...man as good-is- Ae. 
Ethinu OA (def.) m^thostV (subj.) ... man (he) who good 
is-he. 

Ne w^ke-pw6w-M^ sap6o-min-2<Ar he dttissoot(ch)-i^...I like 

gooseberries (such) as are ripe. 
Ne w6eke-pw6w-tt/r s^p6o-min-«/r ga dttisoot(ch)-t/r...id. 

(those) WHICH are ripe. 
Ne weeke-stcn Menississ-^ h^ dtteetdik-ee.../ like berries 

(such) as are ripe. 
iVe weeke-st^w M^nississ-^f ga dtteetdik-ee...id. (those) which 
are ripe. 
When the Attributive is to be understoo<i in its qualifying sense, 
the satne (verbal) form is used, but instead of following, it precedes, 
its subject, thus, 

H^ m^thosit Ethinu... as is good (Angl. a good) man. 
Gk m^thosi/ Ethinu... (that) which is good (Angl. the good) 
man. 
Ne w6eke-ste« h^ dtteet-^kee menississ-a . . . / like ripe berrie*. 
Ne weeke-steTt gk dtteet-dikee m^nisslss-^...! like the ripe 
berries (i.e. not the unripe). 
In this (qualifying) mode of the Attributive, the Indefinite Con- 
junction hi is very frequently omitted, and its place supplied by 

143 xii. 41. Oonoowh kah dhy-eked6opun (p. 71) owh Isaiah . . (it was) 
these things which said Esaias. 
xviii. 9. E'gewh (pliu.) ito* meenzheyttn-f^r (plur.). . those which thou 

gavest me. 
xvii. 3. Jesus Christ, kah hh-shnoon^ud . . Jesus Christ whom thou 
hast hither-sent. 
In Mr. Jones's Translation the pron. relat. (kah), as well as other 
indedin. particles, is ijnifonnly, but very improperly, united to the 
following word. 



THE CREE I.ANGUAGE. 249 

the " Flat Vowel," which aUo has an Indefinite signification, (p. 

73 et seq.) 

So instead of 

h^ in^thosit Ethinu he 4tteet£ikee m^nississa. 

We then say 

methosit Ethlnu (^ as a in fate) eteetdikee m^nississa.*** 

The (definite) Pronoun Relative gd is also often omitted, as in 
English. 

In sentences which have no Pron. Relat. the place of the English 
Definite Article is supplied, generally, by the Demonstrative Pro- 
noun, and in this way the latter is indeed used much more fre- 
quently than grammatical precision requires. 

Qui^ (Cree got) causam significans, subjunctivum exigit^ ut, 
Stultus es, qui huic cred-as. {Eton Gram,) 
Ke kak^pdtissin, get tapwooyt6w-ut 6w&. 

Again, 
// la trouva qui pleuroi-t ,,he found her (who was) Angl. 

weepeng. (Chamhaud's Gram,) 
Ne misk-ow-^ gd mktoo-/.../ found her who was weeping. 

Sometimes a nominative comes between the Relative and 
the Verb. See Trans. Verb. 

Sect. IV. 

OF THE INTRANSITIVE VERB. 
Under this head we include, besides the Impersonal (p. 145. 191), 
the following Personal verbs : — 1, The Adjective Verb; 2, Neuter; 

144 i. 33. vii. 39. xiv. 26. Pdhnezid (flat vow. subj,) Oojech6g (anim.). . 

as A« is " Holy Ghost." 
ii. 10. Ewh winesheshingCid.) zhUiwe-men-^boo (inan.). . which is 

good yellow-berry-liquor, i.e. wine, " the good wine." 
vi. 57. Pdmdhtezui (id.) Way6osemind (nomin.) ., vls he is living 

father, " the living father." 
vi. 69. Vknikhtezid ^id.) Keshd-mtinedoo (id.) ..9a he is living God, 

« the living God." 
xvii. 11. Vdhnez^ifun (id.) waydosemind . . (p. 22.) as thou art holy 

father, (0) " Holy father." 



250 A GRAMMAR OF 

S, Reflective; 4, Reciprocal; 5^ Simiilatiye ; 6, Indeterminate 
(Trans.) ; 7, Indefinite (id.) ; 8, Accid. Passive ; 9, Particip. Pas- 
sive; 10, Verbal Adjective; and 11, Instrument. Verb; — all of 
which, with few exceptions, are formed after the four General 
conjugations already exemplified, — ^the third pers. sing, (indie.) 
indicating the Conjugation to which they severally belong (p. 198.). 
The Inanimate has only the third person in both numbers (p. 200). 

All of the above^ by means of their two (Anim. and Inan.) 
forms, agree with their Subject in ^^ gender/^ as well as in 
number and person. 

Awk'-oosM (adj. verb anim.) Ke gduwee ..{he or) she is sick 

thi/ mother. Angl. thy mother is sick — and so of the 

rest. 
Kinw-oosU'uk (id.) n^peyw-wA...the men are tall. 
Chimmis-issu-t^A: (id.) Iskwdy-wwA.-.the women are short. 
M6ttawdyw-ttA: (neut. id.) oow48sis-ttA...the children play. 
P6ekoo-puthu-tt^ (p. 14*7) Mistik-n;MAr...the sticks break. 
P^ke-puthu-6^ (inan.) ne ch^echee-d... mi/ finger* swell. 
K^es-esoo-u^ (accid. pass.) seeseep-t^A: ... the duck* are 

finished, " done." (Fr. cuits). 
K6es-etayoo (id. inan.) w^eas...the meat is done. 
K6es-etay-ii^a n^ep§es-a...the leave* (vegetables) are done. 
K6ese-ch-ega-soo-tfX: (part. pass, anim.) net' assam-en^n-ti^ 

...our (1.3) snowshoe* are finished. 
K^ese-ch-eg^-tdy-ft;a (id. inan.) ke mdskesin-oowdw-a... 

yoiu" shoes are finished. 
Nokoo-sd-ttA: (p. 114) m(5ost6os-n;t;^X:...the bison* are visible, 

in sight. 
Nokw-un-fz;^ wdskah6ggun-^ (inan.). . .the house* are visible* 
Nipp6e-w;w» tiskec.the country is water-jr. 
Nummdis-ewttw uskee..'.the country «* fish-^./** 



1^ V. 30. O'onesh^shin (adj. verb) nin depibkoonewd-v^in . . it is good, 
" just,'* my }iidgment. 
viii. 14. Tdpwd*maligud (neut.) nin teb^jemoo-im. . it is tme. . . . 
my rela-/wm, " record." 



THE CREfi LANGUAGE. 251 

Both Nouns (see above), and Pronouns (Demonstrative and 
Interrogative), when in the Nominative Case, require the 
verb in the third person. 

Meth6-sissu (adj. verb anim.) 6wa...this is good. 

Mexh6'Si8s-U'Uk 6okoo... these are good. 

Meth6-w^ssi» (id. inan.) 6oma...this is good. 

M6thowassin-n;a...6ohoo... these are good. 

Kinwoo-su 6wa iskwayoo (anim.),,, she (or he) is long, tall, 

this woman. 
Kinwoosu-uk 6okoo isk way- wuk ....they are tall^ these 

women. 
Kinw-ow 6omamookoman (inan.)... it is long, this knife. 
Kinw6w-a 6ohoo m6okoman-a...they are long, these knives. 
So also in the Subjunctive. 
— ^h^ kinw-oostV 6wa iskwdyoo (anim.)... as she (or he) is tall, this 

woman. 
— ^h^ kinwoositTz^c/yz; (def.) or -he kinwoositchi% (indef. time) 6okoo 

iskwdywuk...as they are tall, these women. 
— he kinw-4k 6oma m6okoman (inan.).. as it is long this knife. 
— ^he kinw-^-w6w (def.) or, -h^kinwak-ee (indef.) <!k}hoom6koman-& 
...as they are long, these knives. 

In a simple sentence the (verbal) Attributive commonly 
precedes its Subject, as above, unless an Emphasis on the 
latter require the contrary order. 

As the English Adjective, and present and past Participles, 
are, in these dialects, expressed by a personal verb, it results (and 
it is deserving of attention) that the Attributive, unless when 
compounded with its Subject, is ever in the predicative form ; so 
not only in *' the man is good," but also in ^^ the good," ** the 



V.28. P^-tdhgweshin-6omahgut(id.) ewh k^zhig. . it is hither-arriving 

the day. 
viii. 16. Tah qidyukw-^d<%umc? (p. 213) nin teblihkoonew4-win. . 

it will be strait-think-able, " true/' my judgment, 
i. 5. Ewh (dush) wihsaydbze-win ke z^gaA^cf-mahgud (accid.pass.) 

. . that light is broke forth. See pp. 25 et seq. 36. 



252 A GRAMMAR OF 

living/' *'thc loved man," &c there is a (subordinate) verbal 
assertion expressed, (p. 248.) 

MOODS. 

The Indicative and Imperative moods are used absolutely — 
the Subjunctive and Doubtftd (dub.) subordinately or depen- 
dently. 

Indicative and Imperative Moods. 
Ne g& m6ches-oon...I will eat 
It'-akwt^n ^skootayoo m6gga nippee nummd 't-akwti»... 

there is fire but water there is not. 
A'tt6et tet-dppu-uA, dtteet m6o8t-oot4y-wtt^.. part (of them) 

they upon-sit, i.e. ride ; part they go on foot 
Kiittawdssis-ti (intrans.) Iskwdyoo, ethewaik ntimma ne 
s6ke-h-oit; (trans.) the Woman is handsome^ never- 
theless / love her not 

O'td dpp£e...sit thou here. 
Unt^ it-6otai- A: . . . go-^e thither. 

M6chesoo (pres.) m6ches6o-kun (indef. tense)... eat thou. 
Wiputch p6yche-k6way-k^t^ (indef.)... socm hither-return- 
ee, " come back" ye. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
But if two Verbs are joined by a relational^ or a dependent 
conjimctive word, as the Pron. Relat. or certain Conjunctions^ 
the latter or dependent verb is governed in a subordinate Mood 
— if it be declarative, in the Subjunctive — ^if contingent or 
doubtful, in the Doubtful Mood. 

^ekiskissiw (indie.)., h^ ke itw-edn (subj.).../ remember 

that / have said so. 
Ne kiskissin h^ t6ot-^^.../ remember that he did it. 
Ne kissewdssin h^ t^-wa-mA-.../ am angry that they (Fr. on) 

say so. 
S^shi ne ffi.ke isaehwoojtdn p4yche-k6w^ii«.../ shall have 

departed when you hither-return. 
Ke met6on-in h^ N6hethaw^n...^Aoti perfect-est when thou 

Cisee-e8t> talkest Cree. 



THE CAEE LANGUAGE. 253 

M6tho-w&S8-iii ktitta p6y^k6o-jftm...t< is good that thou he 

one^ i.e. be alone. 
P^eesk£itik-wtiii(p. Il4)h^ nippi/...»/ is regret-ible, melan* 

choly^ that he is dead. 

The Infinitive is resolved into the Subjunctive. 

Nieet6wtfn kiitta it-6otedn..,it is inconvenient that / (for 

me to) go thither. 
W^ytun ki^ta t6octiegkt(Uk,..it is easy that it (to) be done. 

The Subordinate may precede the Principal Verb. 

Ithecok p6etoog-ldtch-e (subj. p. 203). — ^ne gft wdthaw-in 

(indie.) when he shall enter — I will go out. 
Hi kissewisst/ (subj.) oot6mma-w-%oo (indie.)... o^ he was 

angry (Angl. in his anger) he beat him. 
We it-6otedn-e ne ^ it-oot^fn (p. 33.),.. when I wish, or 

want, to go thither / will go thither. 
We it-6otay-wdpp(£iid ne ga it-oot^-ti...if / had wished to 

go thither / should have, &c 
Ke k6waitJ9<^ft^e ne gk n^-^thet^n...ft;Aeit they shall have 

returned / shall be content. 

But it very frequently happens that, apparently at least, 
there is no Principal Verb in the sentence, the Indicative 
being, for the sake of Emphasis^ changed into iJie Subjunc- 
tive ; thus giving to the Indian the force, and somewhat of 
the ybrm, of the inverted English phrase. 

1. Ithecok k^w-^n-e (subj.) ne g^ k6w^n (indie) ndesta... 

when thou shall return / will return also. 

2. Ithecok kiw-Sun-e (subj.) 6kw& k^ k^w-edn (subj.) neesta 

...when &c. — ^then rviU reiurn-I also. 

The comparative strength of these varied modes of Expression may be 
estimated by the number and kind of the Accents, &c. which they 
respectively bear. The former is feeble, simj^y positive — tiie latter 
energetic ; the former admits of only one Accent — in the latter, the 
Time, ke, the Attribute, hew, the Agent, ean, are, as abwe, all accented, 
emphatic. 



254 A GRAMMAR OF 

Before we quit the Intransitive Verb, it may not be super- 
fluous to remark briefly on the Verb-Substantive. 

OP THE VERB-SUBSTANTIVE. 

The Verb-Substantive is expressive of Existence, simply, 
or without reference to manner of Being ; so, 

1. It is not Auxiliary; its place in the English phrase being 
supplied by the verbal Inflection. (See pp. I98. 199.) 

9., Nor is it Copulative ; so it is omitted between words in 
Apposition; as> 

1. O'wena ^^<Aa?...who (art) thou ? 

2. N'ootdwee-nan kitha.„mr (1.3; ^Either (art) thou- 

3. Ne m6okoman ooma ,,my knife this ; this (is; my knife. 

Again, 
W6lha ga t6o-t-ak...(it is) he, who has done-tV. 
Niiha, gk x6ot'Ummdn...I (it was), who did (-/-) it. 
W^iha-rvotv, gkt6ot'ak''ik.,.they (id.), who did (-they) it. 
Ec^co-te, gk w4ppa-m-tf^... there (id.), that / met him. 
Ec'co-spee, ga nugge-skdw-w/c ..then (id.), that / met him. 
Ethlnu tinnema (inan.) gk wd.ppa-t-tiiitfiiun (inan.)...(it is 
an) Indian that (thing) which thou seest (it).^*^ 

This remark applies, however, only when the subject is expressed 
absolutely ; for when the same occurs in a subordinate or depend- 
ent part of a sentence, a verbal form (not of the Verb- Substantive,) 
then appears, in the subjunctive, as, 

1. Ke kisk^the-m-f/^in OY/in-kweun...! know thee who thou art. 

x^ i. 19. viii. 25. Wlinain keen? . . who (art) thou f 

xviii. 38. Wligoonain ewh t&pwdywin ? . . what (is) that, truth ? 

i. 21. Elijah nah keen?. . Elijah (art) thmf nah ? interrog. 

i. 24. Phdrisee^ . . 4gewh kah b^dhnoo-n-inj-i^r . . (inv.) Pharisees 

(were) those who were hither-sent. 
ix. 17. Anwdhchegaid . . . owh . . a prophet (is) that. 
X. 7. Nc«i . . . ewh ood^ eshqudnddm-^ti^cfA . . / (am) their door, 
xi. 25. Neen . . ewh iJibe-jebdh-ttwi kiya ewh pemdhtez^imn. . I (am) 

the resurrection and the life, 
xiv. 6. "Neen . . ewh m^un, kiya ewh tdpw&.ti;tn, kiya ewh pemUh- 

tez^-tmn . . I (am) the path, and the tru/A, and the life. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 255 

2. Ne sfggethdy sin-nan h^ oot6wee-m-e^^...it;e (L.S) are glad 

that thou fatherest-t^^^ art our father. 
S. Ne kisk6theten h^ oo-m<Spkomdn-ettn (poss.) 6oma.../know 
that thou own-knife-est (poss. p. 141) this.>*7 
The elementary verb net* aw-in (p. 155) is, however, for the 
sake qf Emphasis, often used in the Indicative or absolutely.^^ 

Where there is no verbal form the Assertion consists in, or is 
supplied by, the stress on the leading or the emphatic word. 



Sect V, 

OF THE TRANSITIVE VERB. 
The Intransitive verb, in its most simple form, contains^ as 
we have seen, only one person, viz. its Subject, analogous to 
the European verb. The Transitive verb comprizes two (or 
more) — subject and object, &c. A few remarks on the latter 
may not be unnecessary. 

The Transitive verb presents no difficulty, in either the 
Definite or the Indefinite forms, except in their double third 
persons. These in their Direct and Inverse significations are 
Active and Passive, and hence are often confounded by the 
learner, — ^the other combinations of the pronoun being all 
expressed Actively. The forms alluded to are these : 

Direct. Inverse. 

Def. -h-ayoo (p. 213) he-him. -h-ik (p. 214*) he-by him. 
Indef. 'h-etvdyoo (225) he-somebody, -h-div (p. 226) -he-by somebody. 

1^7 iv. 19. Ne wdbwnc^on. . ewh anwkhchegaid ^hweywn ... 7 see . . that a 
prophet thm art. (p. 155) 
viit. 24. K^shpin (mah) t^pwattin-^^-toat^ ewh neen dhweydn..if 
(for) ye believe not that / am he. 

148 iv. 26. Neen.,KkxL6on&n6n, nind 6wH. . I. . that speak (to) thee,I au hb. 
vi. 41. Neen, nind 6wh ewh bdbqudzhe-gim . . I, / am the bread, 
iii. 28. Kdhween neen^ nind AHWK-se owh Christ . . not I, I am not 
(he) the Christ. 

See Note 83. 



256 A GRAMMAR OF 

So in the Subjunctive, 
Def. -h-a/ (p. 215) that, as, &c. -h-<^Wthat,as, ^LC^he-hyhim. 

he-him. 
Indef. 'h-ew'dit (p. 226) as, that -h-^et as, that, &c. he-by-some- 

&c. he-somebody. body. 

It may also be repeated here, that the Noun and the Pronoun 
in Construction are modified, that is, have the Accusative (or 
Ablative) form, only when governed by a verb in the third 
person, expressed or understood. See <1^* pp. 244 and 247* 

Ne g& nippa-h-oit^ unna mah^gun.../ will kill (him) that 

wolf. 
Kegk nippa-h-oir unna mah6ggun...^Aotf wilt kill that wolf. 
Ktitt& nippa-h -oyoo iinnee, or dnnehee, mah6ggun-^...Ae will 

kill that wolf, (accus.) 
Ne gSi nippa-h-t^ dnna mah6ggun...that wolf (he) will kill 

me (See p. 51). 
Ke g& nippa-h-tX: tinna mah6ggun...that wolf will kill thee. 
Kiitt& nippa^h-i^ iinnee, or Unnehee, mah6ggun-6f...A< will 

be killed by that wolf. (ablat)i*9 

»^ i. 24. Phdrisee^ bgbwh kah b^Uhnoo-n-inj-i^ (inv. indet.) . . Phari- 
sees (were) those who were hither-sent. 

y. 1. Ke w^u(md^-imf^ (recip.) ^ewh Jiwyug . . they have feasted, 
(recip.) those Jews (aomin.) 

vi. 10. N&hmahd-^be-(h)^;fc ^gewh en^ne-un^ . . sit-down-make-ye- 
them, those people. 

vii. 11. E'gewh Jiwjug oo ge tindah-wdhbuin-aAii;dn . . those Jews 
they went to see him. 

vii. 26. Oo g^-^ndihn-aAii;<fA ^ewh dogemo-^ . . ?. . do they know, 
these chiefs (nomin ) • . . ? 
. vii. 35. Oowh ke et^wug (recip.) ^gewh J^wyug . . this they said 
(recip.) " the" Jews (nomin). 

viii. 9. E'gewh kah n6onddhg-ig . . those who heard it. 

Enbwh. (Governed of 3d pers. See (!=>• p. 247.) 
viii. 31. Oo ^t endn (dir.) enewh J6wyun kah t^pway-ine-m-ij^oq/in 

(inv.). . he said (to) those Jews whom he was believed on by. 
iv. 42. Oowh 00 g6 enahwdn (id.) en^wh equ^-n . . this they said (to) 

the woman. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 257 

DIRECT. 

Ke ga ixi^^a-h'afidw-nk ..dokoo mah^ggun-uk, 

JVe (1.2) will kill these wolve-*. But with 8d person, 

Kutta nippa-h-dy-n;t/A: oohee mah6ggun-a. 
Thej^ will kill these wolve-*. 

INVERSE. 

Ke ga vi\^i^2i''\iHk-oon6w'uk Moo mah^gguii-ttA-. 

Thei^ will kill us (1.2), these wolve-*. But with 3d person, 
Kutt^ nip^sL-h-ik'tvuk dohee mah6ggun-a. 

Thei^ will be kill-e^i 6^ these wolve-s. 

The Ablative sign, M'che, is often used with its regimen, e.g» 
after the Participial Passive, as, 

Ke (auxil.) nippd-che-g^soo 6otche m6okoman...Ae has been 
killed by, or with, a knife. 

The verb agrees with its Subject and Object, expressed or 
understood, in ^^ gender/' as well as in number, and person ; 
as. 

Note, — In simple sentences the Objective noun commonly precedes, 
the Subject follows, the verb, unless Emphasis suggest a different order. 

Note. — ^The Inanimate object has two conjugational endings of the verb, 
[see below 1 2.] as well as a Double Inanimate form. (p. 222.) 

M6ostoos (anim.) ne k^ nfppa-h^oit^... bison /have kill(ed)- 
him, i^e. I have killed a bison. 
1 W6eas(inan.)neke nippa-t-an... flesh or meat /have kiUed-if. 
Net' ustis (anim.) ne g& wdnne-h-oft^...i7iy mitten / shall 
lose him. 

vi. 19- Oo ge wlthbum-a^oon (dir.) enewh Jesus (im). . they " saw*' 

Jesus, 
iv. 28. Oowh ke endd (id.) enewh en^netcmfi. . this he said (to) 

*' the" men. 
vii. 1. Oo ge tindahw-£ue-m-^oon (inv.) enewh Jewyim che n^s- 

egood Cmv.) . . he was sought by the Jews, that he might be 

killed (by them def.) 
vii. 3. En^wh w^k^nis-ttn oowh oo ge tkoon (id.)* • those his breth-> 

ren this he was said (to) by, 
S 



258 A GRAMMAR OF 

1 Ne miiskesin (inan.) ne g& wiinne-t-ait...iity shoe / shall 

lose-t/. 
Mah^gun (anim.) ne g6os-t-oiv...a wolf / fear-Am^ i.e. I 
fear a wolf. 

2 Eskdotayoo (inan.) ne g<5os-t-eii...fire / fear-t^. 
Mis-tik f anim.) it' 6ote-n-of9...a sticky /take^Atm. 

S P&skesiggun (inan.) n'6ote-n-eit...a gun^ / take-t<. 

Ow'e-uk (anim.) nah Ke w&ppa-m-ofv?...any one (dost) 
thou see-Am ? {nah, Interrog. part.) 
2 K6kwan (inan.) nah ke w&ppa-t-en ? something (do) thou 
see-itl 

Note. — It may be useful to observe that, among others, the Special 
Inanimates -h-uni, -ta-h-um, -sk-mii, &c. (see p. 86 et seq.) belong to the 
2d (Inan.) conjugation, throughout. 

^ATote.— -In Gree, the Inanimate form of the verb remains the same for 
both niunbers of the Object, i.e. sing, and plur. 

INYBRSB. 

Ne g& nippa-h-ZA mah^gun (anim.) me will kill-Ae> a^ or, 

the wolf^ i.e. the wdf will kill me. 
Ne gk nippa-h-ii^-ooft ^skootayoo (inan.) ..t^ will kill me the 

fire. 
i^« w^ethippee-h-i%-ooft Missiraia-h-^gun-ap'pwoc^ (id.) 

it aoilfl me (the) writing-liquor^ or ink. 

DOUBLE INANIMATE, (p. 222.) 

Net6wage-t-&-9iiag»9t iiskee^ moskoosee-c^...^ brings forth^ 

produces^ the earthy grass. 
Kissi-gumme-t-dmagtin (p. 178) ^kootayoo (inan.) nlppee 
Gnan.)...the fire warms the water. 

See p. lai. The TransitifVe verb has, &e. 

A member^ or part^ of a sentence^ whether standk^ as 
Nonunative or Accusative, dasses in Construction with /n^ 
animate Nouns, and the verbal inflection agrees with it accord- 
k^ly, as, 

Weyt-im kutche t6o-Uumm6n.,,it is easy that / (Angl. for 
me to) do k. 



T.HK CREfi LANGUAGE. 259 

Ath'em-u/t kutche t6o't'Ummun,,At is difficult that thou do 

a. 

Ne m^tho^the-t-en... kutche too-t>umniUn.../ well-thitik" 

it, approve^t^^ that thou do it. 
Ne pdckw4-t-eit kutche t6o-t-ak.../ hate»t< that he do it 

The Indefinite Transitives, ^ewayoQ and ^egayooy classing in 
form (p. 99 et seq.) and use as Intransitiyes^ have generally> 
like these) no Accusative noun (as AngL I love> intran.) ; the 
latter {-^egayoo) however admits an Indefinite (uninflected) 
Accusative, as, 

M6ona-h<i«gdyoo &8kee-pw6w*ttk..khe digs potatoes^ AngU 
he is potatoe«digging. 
The Indefinite Transitites take the oblique Cases (p. 1^). 

^ofe.— «^The latter (Inan.) i% as already observed, the more oomprdkai* 
9we of the above two forms, it being (AiliwrM^^referting to periont as 
well as things, (p. 104. Note,) 

Lastly, our inflected verb, then> expiresses its (pronominal) 
Subject and Object, both definitely and indefinitely^ and in 
both (Anim. and Inan.) forms : 

aniHatb^ 
SfJLe-h'^oo he loves-Atm. 

S^ke-h^dganewoo they (Fr. on) love^AtM. 

Si^-h-€iP(fyoo he loves (somebody). 

S'^\LB'\i*e90&nenfoo (p. 93).) theg (Fr. m) love (somebody). 

INANIMATK. 

Sdke^t-oM^ foloves^t^. 

S&ke-t-dii€iroo they (Fr. on) love-tl. 

Sdke-(t)ch-eg^j^oo he loves (something). 

Sdke-ch-i^dii€iroo they (Fr. on) love (something). 
See Accidenee. 

It seems worthy of remark, that the tndi^tmte Personal Pronoun, so 
imperfectly seen in European tongues, is, in these dialects, distinctly 
brought out, and placed on 4 footing with the D^mte Pronouns, /> f Aon, 
&c» It is liirther interesting to observe that the Cree (and Chippeway) 
Indians can, in like manner with Europeans, be Gbnbral or Parti- 

b2 



260 A GRAMMAR OF 

CULAR (as regards the meaning of the terms which they use) according 
as the Subjects and Objects occurring in their discourse may require. 

The Accidental and Participial Passives class^ in all respects^ 
with the Tntransitive Verb. 



Paragraph II. 

Of the Moods, (p. 252.) 
The Indicative and the Subjunctive Moods are alike 
Declarative — but are used in the relations of Principal and 
Subordinate — ^absolute and dependent. The former is used 
as follows^ 

Ne ke n^ge-skow^dm k'6otkwee.,.I have met thy father. 
Ne ke natt6o-t-oir-(^it^ (p. 96) ke gduwee.../ have listened 

to her, thy mother. 
M6o8uk ne nugga-t-t^ ne g6osis... always my son leaves me. 
Ne ke wydise-h-^^ ne stdis-.-m^ (eldest) brother has deceived 

me. 
Ke sake-h-i]^^ ke g6ost-i% m6gga...Ae loves thee, he fears thee 
also ; he loves and fears thee. 

The latter^ as well as the Doubtful (see below) is used when 
dependent on another verb, expressed or implied, as, 

Ke ga meeth-tV/tn tippahum6w-et/«-e.../ will give it to thee 
when thou (balancest it to,) payest, me, 

iVe ng-6the-t-en he peyt~ummdn.,,I am content, pleased^ 

that / (to) hear it. 
Ntimma k^kw^n ne meeth-ofv he k6etim-t< (intran.) ...not any 

thing / give him as he is lazy. 

^e p^ekeskdche-h-i'Xr-oon kenunew-(^-e (flat vow.) ...it 

depresses me when (ever) it rains. 
Ne kusk-6thetume-h-ik-oon he klmmew-&k...it impatient- 

eth me as it rains. 
Nippee s^ge-n-aA ooth6ggun-tX:...(some) water pour-ZAou- 

it into the dish. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 261 

M6eth'ik attlk-wyd kutta M(iskesfnna-kaitch-t^ .... give 
(thou) them deer-skin^^ that tkei/ shoe-make^ make 
(some) shoes. 

Suppositive and Doubtful, (pp. 205. 206.) 
The Suppositive (Indie.) form is used absolutely — ^the Doubtful^ 
relatively or dependently. 

Nippd-took^-m'Ar (intran.)...Mey. sleep I suppose. 
I'-esk-oot^y-took^-m^ (id.)...//i^ are tired (with walking) 

I suppose. 
Sdhke-h-dy-took^-nt^ (trans.)... /Ae^ love them I suppose. 
S4hke-h-ik6o-took^-«iA: (id. inv.).../Aey are loved bi/ (them) 
I suppose. "<> 

Doubtful. 
Kuckw4yche-m-fA- kutta iu6otky'ivdk'ive.,.&sk {thou) them 

if they go or not. 
Niimm^ ne kisk-6the-t-en itt^ ga ath^j'rvdk^m^...I do not 

know (it) the place where thei^ may have laid him. 
Keespin sdke-h-^-w-M/i-^...if thou love me. 
Tkn et^the-m-^-w-nn-^... whatever thou mayest think (of) me. 
Keespin tintow-^the-m-€-w-<%-w^...if ^e seek wf.^** 

The Subordinate (subj.) may precede the Principal (indie.) 
verb in a sentence (vide supra), 

Tiickoos-^t^e ne ga w&ppa-m-on^...ft^^i he arrives / shall 
see him. 



iM xi. 13. Neb&h-doogdn-tm (suppos.). . he sleeps (to them) I suppose. 

1*1 XX. 16. K^hpin , w^indohmhhweshin d6be ke ahg6h-w-«W(tt(0 

-6in . . if , tell thou me where thou hast laid him. 

XX. 2. 13. Kah (neg.) ne kek&inddh-ze-en (neg.) d^e ke ahs&h-w- 
ahg (d^)-w&in. . I know not where they have laid him. 

xiy. 15. K^shpin 8ahge-b-^-ti;-a«^-w^ii . . if ye love me. 

xviii. 8. K^shpin tindaw-&ne-m-e-u;<it^-wdin . . if ye seek me. 

XV. 20. K^shpin ke koodahge-h-i'i9r-oot<;^A^-w^n . . if they have per- 
secuted me. 

xi. 12, K^shpin n^-khy-w&in . . if Ae sleep. 



262 A GRAMMAR OF 

K6 doae-tm^w^eun-e (dat.) ke g^.tippa^hum-^^tii.. wlmx thou 

hast made it Jar me J will pay thee. 
Ke 6o6e-t-ii<(ch)e ne g& in^h-ti(...wheii he shall have made 

it he will give (it to) tne» 

Tlie Indioative Mood^ also^ as of the Intransitiyes^ may be 
changed into the Subjunctive. 

Ke 6oae'twdW'^eun^e ^kw& k^ tippa'>h<im-d/<lit...when thou 

shalt have made itjor me then will pay-^A^-/. 
K6 dose^Udtche 6kwi k6 meeth-ft...when he shall have made 
it then will give (it)-Ae-ffie. 

The Infinitive Mood is resolved into the Subjunctive with 
the Conjunction Ad, as (Fr. eomme), when ; or IMtii or kutehe, 
that (Fr. que), as, 

Ne p^->tow-d» h^ iim4t»..I hear Asm as^ or when, he speaks; 

Angl. / hear him speak. 
Ne w&ppa-m-^MV h^ too-t-oil.../ see Urn as he does it; Angl. 
/ see him do if. 

iVe ge tt^ik^wtn ktittanigga^moo-^(lit...<Aey have desired 
me (Fr. on m'a dit) that / (AngL to) sing. 

Ne k6 iUik'dmn kutche mMti-'Uk,..! was told (Fr. on m"a 
dit) that / (Angl. to) give (if) to him. 

Ittissaw-(fyoo.. .kutche i6o^U€ik,..he sends him that Ae (Angl, 
to) do iin 



Paragraph III. 

OP THE PASSIVE VERB. 

We have seen that Attributive words or (in Indian) verbs 
of a Passive signification^ are found in both the Transitive and 
the Intransfitive forms. 

As respects the Transitive vwb, which indudea botii Sub- 
ject and R^men> the Passive is found in the (Inverse forma 
of the) double-third persons only, the other combinations of 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 263 

the pers. pron. having all an Active signification (See pp. 106 
et seq. 255 and Accidenee). 

In simple sentences^ the Active or Passive foraa may be 
used^ generally, as in otiier languages, together witii its noun 
in the appropriate Case (pp. 244. 247)* 

(Dir.) S&ke-h-ayoo £skw4y-oo (nomin.)...she loves him, the wo- 
man, (nom.) 
Sdke-h-oyoo Eskwiy-it^^ (accus.)...Ae loves {her) the wo- 
man, (accus.) 
(Inv.) Sdke-h-iAr Eskwdy-oo rnom.)...*^c is loved 6y him, the wo- 
man, (nom.) 
Sdke-h-tAr Eskwdy-wa (ablat)...Ae is loved by, the woman. 
The Indeterminate^ &c. verb (p. 225) takes no noun after it in 
regimen. 

But, in Construction, the forms of the verb and the signi- 
fication, &c. of its pronominal elements, sometimes impose a 
certain manner or order of expression, which gives to the 
Indian what may be called a Phraseology of his own. We 
particularly allude here to the frequent use of the Passive 
Voice, in the place of the Active as it is commonly employed 
in European tongues, and which is therefore an occasion of 
much perplexity to European (oral) learners. 

In English we may say^ actively, *^ she loves him because he be- 
friends hef^* — ** he knows that she hates him," and the meaning is 
dear and precise ; but if changing^ simply^ e.g. the femin. into 
the mascul. pronouns, we say> in the same reciprocated sense^ '' he 
loves Mm because he befriends htm" — *^he knows that he hates him,** 
the meaning is ambiguous — may be misunderstood : we rather^ in 
such case8> would say ^^ he loves Aim, because he (pass.) is be- 
friended hy him"'-'*^ he knows that he is hated by him," &c. Just 
so it is in the Indian language. The above^ and similar examples^ 
for want of the sexual distinctions id the personal pronouns^ 
must in Cree, kc be almayt expressed as in the latter sentences^ 
that is^ by giving the inverted or retwm meaning of tlie subordinate 
verb, in the Inverse or Passive Snstead of the Active) voice. [See 



264 



A GRAMMAR OF 



p. 57 et seq. and Noie 34^, the Examples (*) of which should be 
compared with the context of the EngUsh (active) Originals.3 

The aboTe Examples must be resolved thus^ 

S&ke-h-oyoo (dir.) (Eskwdy-oo) ootche h^ kittem^k-6the- 

m-ik-oot (inv.). 
She loves him (the woman) because that she is befriended 

6y him, 
Kisk-6the-t-tim (dir.) h^ puckw^-t-tAr-<$o^ (inv.). 
He knows that he is hated hy {him ox her, understood). 

Direct. 
" Gk)d is the father of those whom he Idves." 
K^che-mdnneto oot&wee-m-o^ao dnnehee ga sdke-h-a/. 
God (he) father-e/A {them) those whom he loves (them). 

Inversely. 
" God is the father of those who love him." (act.) 
K^che-mdnneto oot4we-m-/i^oo dnnehee gk 8ake-h-i%oo/. (pass.) 
God fatber-eth those whom he is loved by. 

" He protects those that fear him." (act) 
Kdnnaw-^the-m-oyoo unnehee gk g6ost-i^-<^^ (pass.) 
He protects those whom he is feared &^."2 

This Idiom^ or Inverse mode of Expression^ may be further 
exemplified in phrases of another kind^ where the distinction 



159 iv. 60. " He believejd the word that Jesus had spoken (act.) unto 
him." 

Oo ge tdpway-dind-on ewh ^eddowin kah ^good (pass.) Je- 
sus (im). 
He believed the word which he was said to by Jesus. 

iv. 51. "' As he was going down, his servants met (act.) him and 

told (act.) him/* &c. 
Mdgwah i\me^g6waid 00 ge n^qua-8hk-(%-oon (pass.). . 00 

b^metlUigun«ttn^ 00 ge w^^ndah-m-(%r.o(m (pass.) dush. 
As he was returning he was met by (pass.) . . his servant«> he 

W*8 told by (them) (pass.) also. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 265 

between Agent and Patient is less obvious^ and which are also 
in English expressed Actively, thus, 

(Dir.) V^liom does A« love? ovf-ithua sdke-h-a^oo? (indie.)... i.e. 
whom love-eth-Ae {him) ? 

The converse or return form is, • 
(Inv.) Who loves him? ow-Mud sdke-h-t'Ar? (id.)... i.e. whom t> 
he loved hy ? 

These and similar sentences, from their usual places in discourse, 
are more commonly expressed in the subjunctive, thus, 

(Dir.) Whom does he love? ovr^thud hh s4ke-h-a/ ? ...i.e. whom 

(is it) that he loves {him) ? 
(Inv.) W^ loves him? owethua h^ sdke-h-f Aroo< ?... i.e. whom (is 

it) that he is loved by ? 

(Dir.) Whom has he given it (to)? ow6thu& h^ m^th-o/ ?...i.e. 

whom (is it) that he has given it (to him) ? * 
(Inv.) Who gave it (to) him? owethua h^ m^eth-t'Aroo/ ?...i.e. whom 

(is it) that he has been givcft (to) by ? 

The Intransitive Passives, namely, the Participial, the Ac- 
cidental, and the ^^ Adjective^^ Passives (p. 114) are used as 
other Intransitives. The Particip. Passive may take a Noun 
of the Instrument, &c. after it, with the ablative sign ootcke, 
of, from, with, &(;. 

Tkto-pitch-egd/-^^oo net' uckoop dotche cheesta-ask-wan. 

It is tor-n or ren-t my cloak by a pierdng-iron, i.e. a nail. 



Paragraph IV. 
OF THE POSSESSIVE OR ACCESSORY CASE. 

Having noticed, in the preceding pages, the verbal Root^n 
combination with the Cases (of the Pronoun) direct and 
oblique, corresponding with the same relations (under other 
forms) in European languages, we now proceed to the Pos- 
sessive or Accessory Case, which being of an anomalous 



266 A GRAMMAR OF 

character^ becomes one of die leading difficulties of the 
Algonquin dialects^ and therefore demands particular atten- 
tion. 

This case we call Possessive, because it is always used when in con- 
nexion with a Noun preceded by the Possessive Pronoun of the 3d pers. 
00 or oof, Angl. his, {hsr, or thmr) — ^Accessory^ when the same relational 
sign has a more extended meaning, implying simply " in relation to 
him, &c." 

This additional oblique case (p. 123 et seq.) refers exdu- 
sively to a 3d pers. as the ^' End/' and signifies or implies^ 
generally, ^^ Aw/' or, "in relation to him (Acr, or them).^^ It is 
indicated, in its simple form, by the element ethu, and may be 
superadded to the other (verbal) Cases. 

To have a clear view of this subject^^we must refer to the two 
forms before given, viz. — Intran. p. I99. Net' I'-an, &c. and p. 
209. Net V^anW'dn, &c. Trans, p. 213. Ne sdke-h-oit;, &c. and 
p. 229. Ne skke'h'im-dW'd, &c. together with their respective 
subjunctives — and in both " genders." 

The former of these two forms I shall call the Absolute— the 
latter, the Relative form. Ex. 

Intransitive (Indie). 
Absol. Unt^ I'dw ne, or ke, gdosis... there b he nty, or thi^, son; my 

or thy son is there. But with an access. 3d pers. 
Relat Unt^ i'dthu 00 g6osis-£{... there is-Ae- (relat. to him) his son; 

Angl. Ais son is there. 

Subjunctive. 
Absol. Tdn-itt^ Udt (subj.) ne or ke g6osis ? Unt^ 1-^ (Indie.)... 

where i8-A« my or thi^ son .> There he is. 
fiei&i. Tdn-itt^ Udth-it (id.) 00 gikisis-a ? Unt^ i-dthu (id.).. .where 

U'he (to him) his son ? There Ae is (to Am). 

Inanimate. (Indie.) 
Absol. Unt^ T-ofv piflkesiggun... there is (-t^) the gun. 
Belat Unih I'dthu p4skesiggun... there is (it, to him) tibe gun. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 267 

Subjui»ctiv€. 
Absol. T4n-itt^ UtJc p&skesiggan ?... where U (it) the gun? 
Relat Tdn-itt^ i'dih4k p&skesiggun?... where is (to kim) ^ gun ? 

Transitive. (Indie) 

Animate. 

Absol. Ne or Ke g6osis ne w&ppa-m-oit^ (p. 213) my or tkif soiu../ 

see Atm ; I see my^ or thy^ son. 
Relat. Oo goosis-^ ne w^ppa-m-tm-oit^d (p. 229).,. his son / see his 

him, I see his son. 

Inanimate, (pp. 222. 230.) 
Absol. Ne or Ke m6okoman ne ke wt!inne-t-(£n (1st conj.)...my or 

<Ay knife^ / have lost (it), 1 have lost m^, &c. knife. 
Relat Oo m6okoman ne ke w6nne-t-a-it7^it...Atf knife / have lost 

(it " to him.*') 
Absol. Ne or Ke m6okoman ne ke 6ote-n-eit (2d conj.)...my or thy 

knife / have taken (it). 
Relat. Oo mookoman ne ke doite-n-'Um-wdn (id.)... his knife / have 

taken it, (relat. " to him"). 

So in the Subjunctive. 

Animate. 

Absol' Ne or ke g6osis h^ w&p'pa-m-tiA...fit^ or /Ay son as / see him. 

Relat. Oo g6osis-a h^ w&p^pa-m-tiit-iii^...A» son as / see (his) him. 

Inanimate. 
Absol. Ne or Ke m6okoman h^ ke wdnne-t-f(fit...ffiy or thy knife 

as / have lost (it). Angl. having lost. 
Relat. Oo m6okoman h^ ke wtinne-tk-it^-t<i^...At> knife as /have 

lost (it) " to him.*' Angl. id. 
Absol. Ne or Ke nuSokoman h^ ke <Sote-n-«fiini(£ii...iiiy or thy knife 

as / have taken (it). Angl. having taken. 
Relat Oo mdokoman h^ 6ote-n-ii»i-iPtfifc...AM knife as / have taken. 
(U " to him").^^ 

So also in the Imperative^ as^ 

158 vi. 42 6os«tNi, kiya oo-g^e-n kSkioe-m-iM-i^f-oo^ f . . JUf father^ 

and his mother (that) know-His-ir6./A«m f that toe know 
(Ms) them. 
%y. 10. Kah ^zhe miDJ^me-n-um*(i%-ii;-«^ (inan.). • as / have hel4 
«' kept" them (relat. to him). 



268 A GRAMMAR OF 

Animate. 
Abflol. Oo-ti-9t ne t^pan-a8k...take thou my sledge. 
Relat Oo-tYfi-tm oo tikpan-ask-oom...take thou (his) him, his sledge. 

Inanimate. 
Absol. 0'ose-t-(^ ne nipp^y win... make thou my bed. 
Relat O^ose-t-k-»(oo) oa-nipp&ywin-tift...make/AoM {his t/) Airbed. 

But this Relative form is not limited in its use to nouns 
having the Possessive prefix oo or oof (3d pers.); it is used 
also in its Accessory character, referring simply to an ante- 
cedent (or Principal) 3d person. 

When the discourse is continued concerning the same (3d) 
person which the sentence began with, the absolute form is 
proper^ as, 

1 P6etook-«yoo A he dwkoos-t< A... he (A) comes in as he 

(A) is sick. 

2 Wdth^w-a^oo B h^ we mkch-et B ... he (B) goes out as he 

wants to hunt. 

But when another person is introduced into the sentence, in 
the same relation, the Relative form is used, distinguishing 
the Accessory from the Principal agent, &c. (see Mavor's 
Eton Lat. Gram. The Construction of Pronouns, Note) as, 

1 P6etook-a^oo A h^ 4wkoosi-M-t/ B,..he (A) comes in as Ae 

(B) is sick (rel. to him). 

2 Wtith& w-oyoo A he we mache-/A-t/ B,,.he A goes out as 

he (B) wants to hunt. 

Ne gk weetum-0ft^-6n^ t<ickoos-<ft^-e (fut )..;/ will tell him 

when he arrives. 
A ktitt& wketunt'OW 'dyoo Bwd ti!ickoos-in-^/A-ttoA-e...Ae (A) 

will tell him B when he (B) arrives (rel. to him). 
Ne g& w6etum-^m-(^f»-a oo goosis-^ tuckoosin-^/A-t/cA-e... 

/ will tell {his him) his son when he (the latter) 

arrives (rel. to him). 

Ne g& w^etum-ofV'dw wdppa-m-wAr'-e.../ will tell him when 
/ shall see him. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 269 

Ne ga w^etum-dm-c^w-a oo tanis-a (accus.) w&ppa-m-tm-u^-e 

... / will tell (Aw him, S^c») his daughter when / shall 

see {his him, S^,). 
Ne ke w&ppa-m-ofr h^ p6etook-at/.../ have seen him as he 

came in. 
Ne ke w&ppa-m-tiTt-r^it^a^ h^ peetook-ot/A-?/^ oot* oowlLss- 

im-is-a (accus.}...I have seen {his him, S^c) as thejf 

came in (rel. to him) his children. 

Wappa-m-a^oo A (nomin ) hwa (accus.) h^ pimmlttissliw- 

dt Mooswd . ... A saw B as Ae (A) followed {him,) a 

Moose. 
Wappa-m-ffyoo A (nomin.) Bwa (accus.) h^ pimmlttissaw- 

dth-it Moosw^...A^ A saw him B as he (B) followed^ 

&c. 

Ne gS w6etum-(w-(^w kuckwdyche-m-tifcAe..,/ will tell him 

when he shall ask me, 
Ne g& w6etum-£Jm-(^a;-5(A*s B) kuckwayche-m-i2A-i^cAe (B) 

.../will tell {his him) when Ae (B) shall ask me 

(rel. to A). 

Ndttoona-w-(fyoo oof ustiss-<S (anim.) >ye ke kat-t-tm-($ft;-a... 

he searches for his mittens. 1 have hidden {his) 

them. 
Nutt66-n-t(m oo chicka-h-6ggun (inan.)...^e ke k^t-t-d-ft^^it 

...he searches for it, his hatchet. / have hidden 

(Am) it. 

The Relative form expresses a Relation with a definite 
3d person ow/y, expressed or implied; with other Nomin- 
atives^ (e.g. the Indefinite 3d person)^ tiie Absolute form is 
used. 

P6etook-^iteft;oo (indef.) he dwkoos-^(£it (ab8ol.).../Ae^ (Fr. 

on) enter^ as / am sick. 
P^took-^^oo (def.) h^ dwkoos^-n^-ti^ (relat) he enters^ as / 
am sick (rel. to him). 

Nippi-iteivoo (indef.) h^ peetook-^n (absoL).../Aey (Fr. on) 
sleep (arc asleep) when thou etUerest. 



270 A GRAMMAR OF 

Nipp-(^ (def.) h^ p6etook&j-W'Ui (relat.)...he sleeps as^ or 

when^ ikou enterest (rel. to him). 
li^ckooB'm'dnewoo (indet.) hd m6diteoo-n*anewik (absol.) 

.,.th^ (Fr. on) arrive when Ikey (Fr. on) eat, or, are 

eating. 
T(ickoo8*tii (de£) h^ m^edteaoo^m^dil (relat)...A« arrives 

when they (Fr. on) are eating (rel. to him), 

iV'ittik-<^ii (indef.) k^tche wdthaw^n (absol.)... /Aey (Fr. 

on) tell me that / (Angl. to) go out 
Witt'ik (def.)k(hche wlitkawdy-it^-tfik (relat.)...Ae tells m^ 

that / (to) go out (rel. to him). 

Nutt6om**ik-»(^b^(iii-e (indef.) ne g& iUoct'^n (absol.)... when 

Mey (Fr. on) call me I will go. 
Ndttoo*m«t(/)cA-e (def.) ne gjk it*6otay-w<f9t (relat.)...wheli 

he calls me I will go (rel. to him). 

Kisk^he^t^-ganen^oo (indef.) hk U m6eth«ik-(^-^f« 

(absol.)... <Aey (Fr. on) know that thejf (Fr. on) have 

given it to me. 
Kiskdthe-t^trm (def.) h^ k^ m^h^'k-dipe-tp-nib (relat.)...Ae 

knows (it) that they (Fr. on) have given (it to) me 

(rel. to him). 

Wfinnetk-diiffvoo (indef.) h^ p^etookatl (ab9o}.).../Aey (Fr. 

on) rise as he enters. 
W(innesk-on^ (def.) h^ petook-at/At< (relat.)... /lenses as he 

(the latter) enters (relat. to him). 



Paragraph V. 

Unlike €be (verbal) Cases already noticed^ this Relational 
element affects also the other inflected parts of speech^ viz. 
the Noun^ and Uie Pronoun (Demons* and Interrog.)^ thus 
distinguishing the Object from the Subject. And firsts of the 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 271 

NOUN. 

We have already seen (p. 244) that Inanimate Nouns, when 
governed by a definUi 5d pers. in order to form their 
Accus. and Ablative cases, take for their ending this Particle 
-etkA (sing.) -Sthu-d (plur.), as, 

N' 6ote-n-0it pdskesiggun.../ take (it) a gun. 

Oot6-n-tiiii pdskesiggun-e/Au...Ae takes (it) a gun. 
Ne nt!igga-t-0it n* iskootoggy.../ leave (jU) my coat 

Nt^ga-t-tim It' iskootoggy-6<Ai^...^e leaves (t/) my coat. 

PRONOUN. 

In like manner, the Pronoims (Demons, or Interrog.) 
Cfwena (sing.) Owinekee (plur.) AngL who, or whom ; — and 
kikwdn (sing.) kikwdnee (plnr.) AngL tc;Aa/ (nomin. and 
accus.) make respectively, when in connexion with an Acces- 
sory 3d pers. owithua, kikwdtku, (sing, and plur.) as, 

Absol. (ywena dwkoos-u? (indie) who {he) is sick ? or 

(ywena gk dwkoos-d? (subj.) ivAo (is it) that is sick ? 

But in reference to another 3d person, 
Relat Ow6thu& dwkoos-^Atfc^? (indie.) who is^ or are> sick (reiat. 
to him) ? 
Owdthu& g^ dwkoos-^Att (subj.)... who (is it) that is sick 
(WL)? 
Absol. Kekw&-n miiskow-(^ ? (indie.)... what (it) is hard? or 

K6kw&n gk mdskow-niEr? (subj.) ..what (is it) that is hard.^ 

Relat. Kkkwi-thu mdskow-a/A-tt f (indie.)... what (reka.) is hard 
(rel. to him)} or, 
K6kw^lhu gk m^iBkoW'Oth'ik 9 (subj.)... what (is it) that is 
hard (relat)? 

With the Transitive Verb, both owithua and kSkwathu 
become the Accusative or the Ablative case when governed 
by a double 3d person, e.g. he'-him, he-by him, as 

DIRECT. 

O'w-ena (nom.) sdke-h*ayoo? (indie.) ...who (he) loves Attn? or 



272 A GRAMMAR OF 

O'weiia (id.) gk skke-h-al? (subj.)...who (is he) that loves 

him ? 
Ow6.thu& (accus.) s4ke-h-ayoo? (indie.)., whom does Ae love 

(him)? or, 
Ow6thuSi (id.) gk skke-h-at? (subj.)...whom (is it) that he 

loves (him) ? 

INVERSE. 

O'wena (nomin.) sdke-h-i%?...who is loved (6y him, ^.)? or 
OVena (id.) gk s^ke-h-»^oo/ ?...who (is he) that is loved 

(by him, ^,) ? 
Ow^ua (ablat.)...8dke-h-tA: ?...whom is he loved by ? or, 
Ow6thu& (id.) gk sdke-h4A-oo<?...whom (is it) that he is 

loved 6y ? 

DIRECT. 

K^kwa-n ke meeth-on^? (indie.)... what (dost) thou give (to) 

him? or, 
K^kw^ ga m^eth-u7?...what (is it) that thou hast given (to) 

him f 
K^kwd-thu meeth-o^ ? (id.) ...what gives-Ae-Atm ? 
K^kwd-thu ga m^eth-a/?...what (is it) that he has given (to) 

him ? 

INVERSE. 

K^kwdn ke m6th-t^? (indic.)...what; gives-Ae (to) thee? 
K6kw^ gk m€eth'{sk} (subj.)...what (is it) that he has given 

(to) thee} 
K6kw&-thu m6ethik} (indic) ..what is Ae given (by him, ^.) 
K^kwd-thu gk m^eth-ik-ooi} (8ubj.)***what (is it) that he has 

been given to (by him, 4«.) ? 

INANIMATE. 

Kekwdn ke s^e-Uan (indic.)... what (dost) thou love (it), or 
K^kw^ ga s4ke-t-tt<n? (subj)...what (is it) that /Aou lovest 

(t/)? 

K^kw4-thu sdke-t-Oft;? (tWtc.)...what (does) he love (it)} or, 
K^kwd-thu ga sdke-t-a/ ? (subj.)...what (is it) that he loves 

(t7) ? 



THB CREE LANGUAGE. 273 

K^kwftn ke wdppa-t-en (indie.)... what (dost) thou see (if) or 
K^kw^ ga wdppa-t-t/9mift/n (subj.)...what (is it) that thou 

seest uV). 
K6kyriihu wappa-t-um (indie.)... what seeeth he. 
Kkkwk'thu gk wippa-t-d^ (8ubj.)...what (is it) that he sees 

(it). 

See Additional Notes. 



Paragraph VI. 
OF THE PRONOUN RELATIVE. 

Sometimes a Nominative Case comes between the Pronoun 
Relative (get) and the Verb. (p. 247.) 

It has been seen that when there is no other Nominative^ the 
subordinate verb agrees with the Relate Pron. gd. in (its implied) 
gender^ number^ and person. We subjoin a few more examples. 

Note. — In the following Examples the indeclin. get, is rendered by the 
indeclin. that, or, which, as more analogous to it than the declinable 
who, whom. 

M^kowe-k(£^oo na > dnna mlstuttim gk (nomin.) mdthkti>-tV. 
Is he swift that horse whieh ugly-t^-(Ae). 

Ket oogduwee-m-on; nk ? (inna ga meth6sis8-i7 oow&ssis. 
Thou mother-est (Angl.) eh ? that (whieh is) niee ehild. 

Ne ke w&ppa-m-(^ft^-ti^ Ethln'u-u^ g^ tuekoos-aik-it;c^it;. 
/ have seen (them) the Indians that are arrived. 

Ne we idmme-h-of& iskwdyoo gk w^che-h-ew-dii (indet). 
/ want (to) speak (to) her the woman that accompanied. 

Ne g'6ote-n-en gk k&ssis-t^ m6koman (inan.). 

/ will take (it) which is keen> Angl. the keen^ knife. 

Ke misk-cn nk ? ooth6ggun gk k6 wuune-ch-egel/-^tA: (part.p.) 
Hast thou found the dish which was losec^^ lost ^ 

T 



A^ 



374 A GRAMMAR OF 

Ne kisk^the-m-anit(£n iskw&yoo g^ mi8kow-(t^ kdwkw&. 
We (1.3) know (the) woman that found (the) porcupine. 

Tkn-itt^ it-6ot-at7 tinna EtW'u gk ke k^^ook-o^^ f 

What place go-eth-Ae to that Indian that vis]ted-(Ae)-<Afe f 

Tkxi iith I'dt Ethinu gk nuttoo-m-t7 f 

What place^ wher^, is {he) the Indian that called (Jie^) me f 

K^tha, g^ ootdwee-m-ed^^ ga t6o-t-2^9nmtift. 
(It was) thou, that fatherest (jthou-) us {l.S), that didst (thou-y 
it 

Nomin. between Relat. and Verb. 

Iskwdyoo g^ sake-h-u^ ndspitch dwkoo-#». 
Woman (she) that thou lovest (her) very iW-As-the. 

U'nna iskwdyoag^ w^chenn^chesoo-m-tt/... 
That woman that with-eatest-/Aou-(Aer). 

Netha unna Agkthksu gk dntow-wappa-m-ai^. 
I (am) that Englishman that go-seek-ye(Atm). 

W^ekt!issin-ft;aA che ? m^niss^ gk m^ch^fiit. 

Are iheif sweet ? (the) berries which eatest-^Aou-ZAem. 

Ne k^ w&ppa-m-ow eskwiyoo gk sake-h-u/.../ have seen 
(her) the woman whom lovest-/Aoti C-her). 

Ne k6 wdnne-t-an m6okoman gk k6 m^th-^it.../ have 
lost (t^) the knife which thou gavest (to) me. 

Ne ke misk-^ missina-h^ggun (inan.) gk ke wdnne-t-ftin. 
I have found writing, or book, (the) which hadst lost-/Ao2i-(t<). 

...k^kwan gk wkpj^&'Uummdn gjk ^y-Uummdn n^esta. 
...any thing which have 8een-/-(t0 which have heard /-(t<) 
also ; Angl. which I have seen and heard. 

Note.-r^We may just remark here, that from the peculiar personal 
C9mbintttums which form the subjunctive verbal Inflection, e.g. "Ut, 
thou -him ; -it, he -me^ &c. (see above) i.e. subject and regimen, the 
(signs of the) personal pronouns are, in the Transitive form, necessarily 
repeated where in English they are often omitted. In the Intransitive 
forms (Adject. Neut. &e.) the Subjunctive Inflection, in Construction, is 
in all respects in perfect accordance with the verbal (personal) ending^ 
of European inflected languages, e.g. ItaL &c. 



THE €REE LANGUAGE. 275 

Articles. (See p. 248.) 
I'^k kinwoo-st7 nkpdyoo (Lat. vir)..,ih€ def.) that is tall man ; 

Angl. the tall man.' 
H^ kinwoo-st/ nkp4yoo...(Af indef.) as is tall man; Anfj^l. iz 

tall man. 

Without a Noun, as, 

fyk kinwoosi/...(Ae def.) that is tall ; Angl. ike tall one. 
H^ kinwoodt7...<^ indef.) as is tall ; Angl. a tall one. 



Paragraph Vll. 

OP THE FLAT VOWEL. 
The PLAT, or altered. Vowel (pp. 73 et seq. 202) is the 
sign of Indefinite time and indicates in the Verb what is con- 
tinuous, habitual, natural, &c. as opposed to what is Accidental, 
&c. It is equivalent to the Iterative Indicative (p. 7lX ^^^ 
is found in the Subjunctive (or Dub.) mood only : -thus we 
say in the simple 

INDICATIVE. 

K^kwdn ke mlnnekw-dn ?..,what drinker/ thou f 

K^kw4n ke n6che-t-an f ...what workest thou (at)? &c 

SUBJUNCTHTB. 

K^kwan "gk" mlnnekw-^un ?....what (is it) ^' which" thou 
drinkest? 

K6kwau '' gJi** n6che-t-iti»?...what (is it) '^thaf* tkou work- 
est at ? &C. 

«nd these forms are susceptiUe of the auxiliary Particles <&€. of 
Tense, as^ 

K^kwan ke "k^* (ghee) minnekw-^n ? (indie.)... wlurt; ^hast" 

Ihou drunk ? 
K^kwan gk k6 (id.) minnekw-^ft f (sulj.)...what <is it) which 
thou hadst drunk ? &c. 

t2 



276 A GRAMMAR OF 

But the ^* altered vowel'^ form, which, as already observed, is always 
in the Subjunctive, signifies Indefinite^ continuoui^ &c. Time, as, 

K^kwan m^nekw-f uit f (not mtn-)... what drinkest thou (habit.)? 

or art (hrinktng f 
K^wan ne-6che-t-tiin f (not n6che-)...what workest thou($t) 
(id.) ? or art working at ? &c. 

Tan' itt^ ^it (not &p-) (p. 148)... where is he sitting, dwell- 

ing, hewing. 
Tan' itt^ hst-, or, ^sUaik (not &st-) (id.)... where is it lying, 

placed, bet'n^. 

The (verbal) Attributive^ so modified^ is used to qualify^ in- 
definitely, its Noun, and is, generally, placed before it. In the 
neuter and transitive verb it has (as above) the force of the 
English Participle -ing. In the 3d. pers. it appears thus, 

M^skow-isstV (not Musk-) ethYn'u (Lat homo).* 

Who is (indef.) strong man, i.e. a, or the, strong man, Indian. 

K^wdss-issf^ (not Kut-) iskwayoo. 
A, or the, handsome woman. 

P^m-kt*is8t< (not PS-) oow^sis. 
A, or the, living child. 

The Attributive, in this form, may also be used without a 
Noun (expressed or understood), when, if it imply an energy 
or action it is a verbal equivalent to English nouns ending in 
-er, &c. — ^if simply a quality (acyect.), it is then also (Anglic^) 
used substantively, as, 

W^s-itch-e-gatY (not Oos- p. 202). t 

Who makes (habit.), Angl. a or the mak-er — and so of the rest. 

W^-t-o/ (id,).„he who makes it (def. obj.), the maker of t^. 

Ne-6oti-n-eg<lt< (not Noot-)...the fighter. 
K^lnoohtim-^cft^ (not Kisk-)...the teacher. 

K^mkk-]ssit(ch)-t^ (not Kit-)... who are poor. Angl. the poor* 
W^dt-iss-itch-iifc (not With-)... the rich. 

• See Note 144. t Vide infrik 



THE CRBB LANGUAGE. 277 

K^w&t-is8-itch-tiEr (not Ke-)...the friendless. 
M^kow-iss-itch-tA: (not Musk-) ..the strong. 
They are also used> in the same sense> in the sing, number. 
Nb*e.— See p. 76, The eflfect, &c. 

In the 1st and 2nd persons^ it sometimes conveys a Vocative 
or Intefjeciional meaning, (see Note 144) as, 

M^os-iss-^it (not Me-) ethln'u U.Jkou (who art) good man ! 
P^m-kt-iss-^it (not Pg-) ethln'u ! ,,tkou (who art) living man ! 

Or without a Noun^ as, 
K^sklnoo-h-tim-^^i» ! (not Kisk-). 
Thou (who) teachest (habit.). Teacher ! '' Master !'* 
Khtemkk'isS'edn ! (not Ktt-)... destitute, wretched, that I am ! 

The same "altered^^ form is expressive of the English word 
when — ^osed in the indefinite sense of whenever (p. 203, The 
^^ altered^^ first vowel, &c.) as, 

Tdckoosin-eifit-e (fut.) ..when / shall arrive* 
T^koosin-e<lft-e (indef.)...when(ever) /arrive. 
W&ppa-m-it^-e (fut.)... when / shall see him. 
We-dppa-m-i^^-e (indef.)...when(cver) / see him. 

After the Inteijection Ecco ! Chip. Me! (Ital. ecco ! Pr. 
voila !) expressed or understood, it is also employed, by way 
of Emphasis, as, 

Ith'ec5k gk nippah-a/ pissiskti-a ^co ! (or eckwa !) V.'kvrait. 

When he had killed an animal behold ! or, then ! he returned. 

(Ith^ekok) g^ k^ese-Tdm-tV, ecco ! n^o/. 

(When) he had finish-speaking, then ! he fell asleep. 

Ne ke meches6o*taiiit(fit (ecco !) t^koos-otX 

We (1.3) had eaten then ! he arrived (by land). 

K6gat oot^coosih-e^Au (ecco) m^ssag-a/. 

Almost (towards) evening (behold) then ! he arrived (by water). 

Ecco-t^ wH-6ot-«^ (not oot-). 

Just there from-come-n;f (1.3) ; we come thence* 



278 A GRAMMAR OF 

Note, — With this " altered vowel" form of the verb the 3d pers. plur. 
(subj.) ends in -ik, instead of --wow. See p. 21 8» 



PARAeRAPH VIII. 

OF NEGATION. 
In Cree there are two primary Negatives, viz* numrna^ no, 
not, — ^used before the Indicative, as, 

Numma ket' ethin-^s^tit... /Aoti art not wise. 

Ndmma ne sake-h-ow,..! love him not 

Nihnma ow'eiik tapwooy-t-tim...not any one believes it. 

W&pip&'ia'-d^'fvuk m6gga ntimma w&ppa-m-t^-frui^...^A€3r 

see them but Mey are not seen by {them), 
Ntimma k6kw^n (inan.) kef i-an-^ww (p. 1S9) ke m^eche- 
dk (1.2) not any thing we (1.2) have (that) we shall 
(Angl. to) eat. 

and ^gd, not — ^used in like manner before the Subjmictive and 
the Imperative, as, 

£glt h^ t^p-w-etfn...a8 thou true-say est not 
£gk h^ kis8h^w-d-t-iss-t^...as he is not kind. 
Nu'mma ke gk gh k6ese-t-ait (indie.) e'oa' w6che-h-t/^d»-^ 
' (subj.) ... thoti wilt NOT be able to finish it, if / do 
NOT assist thee. 
'Egk t6o-t-a...do thou not it. 
£ga t6o-t-z<m-ooA;...do it not ye. 

Note. — ^The addition of the Pronoun w^tha (Chip, ween) it, to the 
former before the Indicative, and to the latter before the Imperative, 
strengthens the negation. 

The element -et'ookk (Sign of the Suppos. mood) added to 
certain words, has the effect of a very soft Negative, as, 

Ow^ena gjk t6o-t-d^ f who (is it) who has done it ? 
Ans. Owin-tookfe (quasi ''who indeed!") Angl. I knoWnot who. 

Owinekee gk tbo-t-ctk'ik ?...who (plur.) id. ? 
Ans. Owin-took^-mAr...Angl. I know not who (plur.) 



THE CRBE LANGUAGE. 279 

Tan itt^ we it-(5ot4y-ivt<Ar f ...where do ^ey want (to) go f 

Abb. Tan-itte-dtook^...Ang]. I don't know where. 
K^kwin-took^ ke m6echAUwdw.. Angl. I know not what thei^ will 
eat. 

Note. — In the Chippeway Dialect also are two negative signs, viz. kah 
(JoNBS) no, not — ^and *$$, or "Ze, not. The latter of these is annexed to- 
incorporated with-r-the verhy in all the forms of the Indicative, Suhjunc- 
tive, and Douhtfdl moods ; it is found also in the Imperative. It is a 
9(^ Negative (quasi Fr. ne). For the sake of Emphasis, the former, kah, 
(Fr. pas) or stronger kdh ween (Fr. point) is used before the Indicative ; 
as is kdgoo (or stronger, kdgoo ween) before the Imperative. The Sub- 
junctive does not admit of the added negative Particle. The 2d negative 
strengthens the negation, (pp. 63 et seq., 206 et seq., 234 et seq. and — 
Notes, passim.) 



Paragraph IX. 
OF INTERROGATION. 

Interrogation is expressed^ generally, by the Particles che ? 
or nh? (Chip, nah? Jones) added to a positive (or negative) 
sentence, or placed immediately after the word to which the 
question refers, as, 

Ke ke nk-X^&m, che ? or n^ ?...hast thou fetched him ? 

Ke ke it-(^^ che?... hast thou said (it to) him f 

M^^su ke ke w&ppa-m-on^, che?... a fox hast thou seen 

(him)? 
M^^uche? gk w&ppa-m-u/...(wa8 it) a fox which thou 

hast seen (him) ? 
Niimmache? kewe m6che8-ooit...dost thou not want (to) 

eat? 

To tiiis bead also belong the Interrogatiye Pronouns (p. 
189), as, 

Ow'ena wee-^-t-um-o^^ ?... who (is it) tells thee ? 
K^w&n gh we 6ose-t-tun f .i.what @s it) which thou wantest 
(to) make (it) f 



280 A GRAMMAR OF 

Tan itte it-6ot&y-WMAr?...what place^ where, go theif to ? 
Ans. Un-t^, there ; Ecco-t6, tfiat very place, just there. 

T^n isse ke (fut.) tSo-i-'Ummdn ?...what wise, how, shall Idioitf 
Ans. O'om isse... this wise, thus. 

£cco-i8se...this very manner, just so. 

T^n ispee (past) too-t-d^-t^ f ...what time, when, did they do it f 
Ans.£cc6-spee...at that very time, just then. 

Tan ithekok (fut.) ke meeth-M<?...how much, when, (is it) thou wilt 
give it him ? Also, 

T4n ithekok (quantity) gk m6eth-tfX:f ...how much (is it) ^at ^ha» 
given thee ? 
Ans. O'om' ithekok... this much. Ecc'o 'thekok...just so much 

Tdn isp^eche .> (space, &c.) . . .how much > 

Tan isp^eche tim-ai^?...how (much) deep-i^-t^ (the water) } 

Tkn isp6eche k^sik-^^ ?...how much d&y-is-it, what time of day? 

T^n isp6eche isp-dk ?...how (much) high-t^-iV ? 

TItn isp^eche 6ga ga wappa-m-t7/(£iif...how much, how long, 

(is it) that / have not seen thee f 
Tkn isi^iet'iss'it ?...(anim.) what time, age, is he ? 
Tan' ispeech-c^^ ?...how far-w-£/ ? Peech-ofi;...t7 is far. 
Tkn' isse-nakoosfV?...(p. 114) how is he seen, what is he like.^ 
Tan' isse-makoosxV ?...(id.) how is he smelled, what does he smell 

like.? 
Tsin'-itt^ isse .^...what place like, which way ? 
T^n', or, tan ispeeche, ittiggit-i7 ?...how big is he f 
Tan' weche?...what from, why, wherefore, for what reason ? 
Tkn' tato . . . what number ? Kekoo t6o-^ . . . what kind ? 
T£in'it-t<iss-iifcA-t^(anim.) Tan' it-tkUdikee (inan. ).?... how many are^ 

they^ 
Tkx^ iskoo-st^ 6wa tkpan-ask? (anim.)...how long if (^e) this sledge ? 
T^' iskwwl^ 6oma ch6man? (inan.)..«how long is {it) this canoe? 
Tkn' iskw-^k-oost7(p. 178)linna mi8tik(am'm.)?...how long (-stick) 

is that stick or tree ? 
T^' isikw4-«pegg-(£/(r(id.)t!innemai4ppee? (inan.)... how long j(-line) 

is that line ? &C.. 



TH£ CRBE LANGUAGE. 281 



Chapter II. 

Sect. I. 

OF THE ADVERB. 
The Adverb (p. 239) is of various kinds, and in simple 
sentences is usually placed before the verb, as, 

Mistahay ke g& m6eth-tn...a great deal ihou wilt give me. 

Pi^tuk ne g& t6o-t-ei}... carefully I will do ii. 

Att^et ne gk w^pe-n-ow-MAr...part (of ^em) / will fling 

(away). 
Athew&k ne w6eke-st-en... exceedingly / like it (taste). 
Nistoo p6e8iin-it;t<Ar " lispin'' gi tuckoos-m^... three moons 

" ago" (it was) that he arrived. 
Ot^ w^skutch it^akwt£ft-^tin (p. 138 pret.) waska-h^gun. 
Here formerly there was a house. 
K6tha^ ke m^ttaw-an isp6ese ^but-iss-e^n, n6tha ..^ou^ thou 

pixyest whilst / am useful^ I. 

Some Adverbs (a few) appear in the (subord.) verbal form 
slightly modified, e.g. of THme^ as, 

Ne gSi is8ebwooy-t-(£» wdppiik-e^ i.e. wkppctke (subj. of 

Wkppun,..it is day-light).../ will depart when ii 

shall be morning, or, to-morrow. 
Ne glk nk't-en ootakoos-at^-e (subj. of oot-akoos-tn...t/ is 

evening).../ will fetch it when it shall be (Angl. in 

the) evening. 

COMPARISON. 

Comparison we shall consider as it respects, 1. Manner; 2. 
Dborbe. 

First, — As it respects Manner of Being, as — so, {sse^^co-se, 

&c. See Conjunctions, p. 287* 

# 

Secondly,— As it respects Degree* 



282 A GRAMMAR OF 

The Degrees of Comparison are usually expressed as follows : — 
Isp^eche^ or Ithekok (quantity)... as much as. 
E'cco isp^eche^ or^ ^co-tbek5k^ just so much. 
A'woo8-itt^...beyond> more. 
A'stum-itt^...on this side> less. 
A'woos-ithekok...more (in quantity). 
A'stum-ithekok...less (id.). 
Ath'ew&k... exceedingly^ very, more, most. 
Oos4m...more, too much. 

1. Equality. Isp^eche. 
O'wa isp^eche m^o-^ dnna... 

This (anim.) as much good-is^he (as) that ; Angl. this is as 
good as that. 

CVoma isp6eche m^thow-dsstn, dnnema... 

This (inan.) as much good-»^-t^, (as) that ; Angl. id. 

Isp^eche mech6t net' i-ow6w-tiAr (anim. p. 139)> h4tha,,. 
As many / have ithem), (as) thou. 

Isp^eche mfstahay net' i-an (inan. id.) w^tha... 
As much / have (it) as he. 

Isp^eche ke kinwoo-gapowin Mha — 6cco-se n6esta n^ka... 
As much as thou long-standest, art tall, thou — just so also /. 
'* Isp^che" hitha^ net* it-igglt-tn... 
"As much as" thou, I am so-big, Le. I am as big as thou. 

K4tha, hh it-iggitt-^n, nef it^iggitt-tit... 
Thou, as thou art big, / am so big. 

Isp^edie ne^ l-ow^dw 86oneow k4tha... 
As much / have money (as) thou. 

Ke ke nippa^-h-c^w-tt^ '* isp^eche mech^t," n4tha (gli nippa- 

huk^ik understood)... 
Thou hast killed " as many" (as) / (have killed them 

understood). 

2. Excess. Awoos-itt^ — ^isp6eche. 
" Aw6os-itt6" kish^w-A-t-wtftt " isp6eche" k4tha,, . 
^' More" he is kind (Angl.) '' than" thou. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 283 

A^wooS'itth m^thow-&8stn 6om&, isp^eche ij^nnona... 
More good-is'tt this, than that ; Angl. this is better than 
that. 

AVoos-itt^ meth6s-i88M 6wa ispeeche tinna... 
More good'is-he this, than that ; AngL id. 

O^oma mathdt-uit^ ni6gga dnnema oos&m, or^ ithewclk... 
This bad-i>-j^^ but that> more; Le.. worse. 

A'woos-itt^ ne kesh-6thindyw-tn ispeeche w4iha„. 
More / am old-man^ an older man, *' than" he, 

Aw'oos-itt^ ne kinwoo-gdpow-i» ispeeche kStha,,, 
More I am long-stand, taller, than thou. 

Aw'oos-ittfe mech6t net' i-ow-6w-fiAr ispeeche kelha,,. 
More (in) number / have ithem) than thou, 

P^poo^^ dwoos-itt^ math4tun-f9^ m&iskiinow-^ isp^che he 

neepee-A:... 
In winter more h^A-are-thetf, the roads, than tit summer. 

So, 
Pepoon-ook, last winter ; dwoose-p^poon-ook, ^e winter before 
last; F-dwoose-p^poon-ook (p. 7l« !•)> two winters before last. 

3. Defect. 
Ndmma w6tha ispeeche oo mis-& kist-6^e-m-oo... 
Not as much as his (or her) elder sister proud-»-Ae (or she). 

Niimma w6tha ispeeche oo tknis-& tippa-h-um-^i(;-oofw^tf 

(p. 114. freq.). 
Not as mueh as her daughter revenge<^/^u-«Ae. 

4. More and Less repeated. Ache — ^A^ch-ekdy, or, A'che-plko. 

A'cHE mistahay mfmnekw-at^-^— a'che^-ka^y we minnekw*ayoo, 
The more he drinks — ^the more he wants (to) drink. 

A'che dppesis m6eth-«/-^— dch^-kdy awoositt^ he sdke-h-til. 
The less thou give ^tm— -the more he loves thee* 



284 A GRAMMAR OF 

A'che dwoot-itt^ kuckwdyche-m-tt/-^ — 4ch^k4y m&mma ke gi 

tiipwoy-t-^ 
The more thou ask him — the more he will not consent (to) thee. 

The Adverb sometimes assumes the verbal form, e.g. Ndt-ow, 
short of; Oosdm, too mnch, as, 

Not-^-tf...A€ is unhandy, awkward. 
Not^pti^-u (p. 146). ..t^ falls short, is not enough. 
N5t<5we-t-(^i9...Ae under-does-i^. 
Oosdme-t^(^...Ae over-does it. 



Sect. II. 

OF THE CONJUNCTION. 

Conjunctions (p. 242)^ as they are of various kinds^ so do 
they govern different moods. 

In simple sentences^ the Copulative and Disjunctive govern^ 
generally, the Indicative mood^ as, 

Ke sdke-h-tA:, ke gdost-t^ " m6gg^" (pos. ''and")... 
He loves thee, he fears thee " also." 

Ne ndttoo-m-dw-iiA:, *' m6gg^" (privat) ntimma ne p€yt'dk'fvuk,.. 
I call them " but" thetf do not hear me. 

But those which subjoin a dependent verb, be the same 
declarative or otherwise, always govern the latter in the sub- 
ordinate (subj. or dub.) mood, as, 

A^'em-un h^ 4wkoosin-dntfi9-i% (indet.)... It is difficult, bad, when 

one is (Fr. on) ill. Angl. to be ill. 
« 
W^3rt-un k6tta boae't-k-newik (id.)...t^ is easy that theif (id.) make 

t^ Angl. to make it. 

Ne m^tho-^e-t-«i n^he-ch-eg/an (flat vow.).../ like it (am 
pleased) when / am worktii^. 



THB CRBE LANGUAGE. 283 

Hh, as (Pr. comme), S^, 
Ne gk m^h'dw h^ sdke-h-iiAr... 
/ will give it to him as / love Attn. 

Ne kisk-6the^t-^ h^ nstU^ewit (p. 17) •» 
/ know that it is a mitten. 

H^kissew&ss-tif ootdma-w-oyoo... 

As he is angry (Angl. being angry) he beats him. 

Ne ne-6the-t-eii hh nippd-che-g^-(£«Ar (part, pass.) mechim... 
/ am glad as it is Mlled (to wit) food. 

Ktitta^ or^ Kutche. (Chip, che) that, to the end that, &c. 

Ne ga it-(^ kutt& t^koo-pit-i'jAr... 

/ will say (to) him that he (Angl. to) tie thee. 

m 

Ne ga littoo-t-c^ft' kutche nippa-Zn^e^it^-t^ (dat.) plssiskd-^,.. 
/ will engage him that kill^/br*me-A€ animals. 

Ne g^ ^ttoot^^n; ktitche mpp^'tum^dwii (id. inan.) w6eas-e/AM... 
/ will engage him that kill^/br-me-Ae meat 

Ktitche w&ppa-m-tt/ g'oo p^y8hoo-w-wA>^€/. 

That thou (mayest) see him is the reason that bring^ft^e (1 .3)-Atm. 



Wfene-t-ia«-fe (p. 203) k6kwan ne '* nuttoon-kpa-t-e»." 
Whenever / lose something I '' look-for" it. 

Mdosuk It-ootdy-w-tiA:-^ ne w^ppa-m-oft^. 
Always when / go (relat.) / see him. 

'• K6espni" tdckoos-aiA:-^...'' in case" he arrive^ 

W^ta-m-(/fVfn... k6 too-t-t/m-oo^-fp^ (dub.). 
Tell-^Aon-me... whether he has done it or not. 

Qe k6ese-missina-h-^g-eaite ne g& w6thaw-t». 
When / shall finish-writing / will go-out. 

Ke g& t/.6otan-dnon' (1.2) ke k^se-m^echesoo-^^iS^oo (1.2). 
We (1.2) will there-go when we (1.2) shall fini8h-eat(ing). 



286 A GRAMMAR OF 

" Tkn isp^eche" dppesis meeth-tt/-fe. 
^' However" little ikon may est give hitn, 

Is's-i kfitta gh it-oot-dt< vfkgh it-oot-^t^. 

Say ihou (to) him that he may go whither he wants (to) go^, 

Niknntia " 6skwk" m^thow^ss-tn kiitta m^ddn-dnefviL 
Not '* yet" w it good to eat (Pr. qu'on le mange). 

" Bth'ewaik" ne^ {Uoot-dn. 

" Nevertheless" / will there-go, go there. 

The addition of a grave ^ (Fr. ^), Chip. -di», to the Subjunc- 
tive gives it a conditional or contingent sense^ (Angl. ify &c.) 
as^ 
Ow'en& ch6ese*h-}V-^...|^any one (Ae) deceive me. 

Niigge-sk-6w-fi/-^ idmee-h*i^Ar-^ m6gg^... 
//* /Aott meet him, if he speak to thee also. 

We it-<Sot-e/{n^ ne g& it-oot-^n... 

//*/ wish (to) thither-go, / will thither-go. 

iCe g& m6eth-t^n tippa^h-imi*6w-^m-^... 
/ will give (it to) thee if thou pay me. 

M^tho-^e-t-i^mvit-^ he g& w^che-w-l//tft... 
If thou like it I will accompany thee, 

Atk t^pwi-^e-fin-^ ntimma ne g& p6y-it-oot-<fn... 
Although /Aofi shouldest call me I will not come. 

H^ mk;iho^ithit ne g& ke meth-c£-tf, ke nutt6o-t^um-(^fi^iit-tf{;^uii-^» 
A good one / would have given (to) him, if he had asked it of me. 

T^ipvrk'SUwdpdnA ne g^ tdckoos-in-i//f... 
If thou hadst called me I would have arrived^ 

8&ke-t-a-ft^(^-pttn.^ ke misslna-h-^ggun "ispeeche" sedke-t-tt<n (flat. 

vow.) kiitta m6ttaw-^n... 
If thou hadst loved thy book " as well as" thou lovest that thou play, 

Angl. to play. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 287 

Ne gft ke 6ose-t-d/t we dose-t-iiiw-^... 

/ could have made it if I wished that / (to) make it, 

£g& tfickoosin-e^n-^ ne g& misslna-h-egcfn... 
If I do not arrive / will write. 

The Condition or Contingency expressed by this verbal 
form is strengthened by the added Conjunction, Kiespiny 
Angl. ^' In case that/^ as, 

K6espin ow'enS, mlnnekw-ai/-^ 6oma nippee-ethu (accus.).,. 
In case that any one (he) drink this water.... 

Note. — ^The fat. (subj.) is ended by a short 6 (p. 203). The inserted 
w, and the added ^ or w^, (Chip, -ain, or, -wain) constitute the signs of the 
Doubtful mood. 

Owa m4na iinn& ..this and that (anim.). 
Ow& ^gct duulk ..this or that. 

Comparative Conjunctions. 
(See Adverbs^ Comparison, p. 281^ also p. 132 et seq.) 

As—so Is/ser-^se, or, Ecco-'se with tsse repeated before the 
following (Indicative) verb ; h^^^sse, (jb=Fr. ^) or, h^*se (Chip, dzhe, 
eu", an-), before the Subjunctive, as, 

G^ isse i-i-^tin, Ecc'o-'se ne/* isse Udn (indie.), or, £cc'o-se 
h^'se I-i-an (subj.)... as thou art just so / so am. 

H^'se ki8k^the-m-t/...ecc^o ndtha, h^'se kisk^the-m-i/Ar. 
As iLnoweth-he-me voila I, so know-/-Atm.**^ 



>^ X. 15. A^ZHE kekdne-m-ti. . me !. . neen, a^zhe kekdne-m-tc^. 
As knoweth-A^-mtf. . ecco !. . I, so know*J-Atm. 

XV. 9. Kah :^ZHB B&kgeAx-id, . me ! . . neen, kah b'zhb s&hge-h-^A- 
goog. 
As hath loved-^e-me. . voild !. . 7, have so loved- J-y em. 

XV. 12. Che ^zhe sdhge-h-^<ie-y(% (recip.) n&hsob kah ^zhe sdhge- 
6tahgoog, 
That so love-one-ofiof Aer-ye, like as have loved-J-yotc. 



288 A GRAMMAR OF 

In the following and similar Examples^ the correlative verb ii 
the (elementary) Et-w (tee p. l60) he "is," or, "does" ; thus, 
Aw'koos-ti, w6tha...n6esta net* et-m. 
He is sick, he... also / am (so). Angl. so ant I. 

Wi!inne8k-of9, w6tha — n^sta net* eUin. 

He rises, he — also / do (so). Angl. ao do L 



Sect. III. 

OF THE PREPOSITION. 

The Preposition (p. 242) governs nouns of place in the loca- 
tive case, generally, (p. 184) as, 

M^egew^p-tA: 6otche...the tent {at) from, from the tent. 
Wdskah6ggun.t^ " issee"..." towards" the house. 
S^p^-ifc " cheeke"-.." near to" the river. 

K6eske-s-a tinnehee muskoos^e-a " ch^eke" usk-ift/t. 
Cut thou those grasses " close to" the ground. 

" Ast'um-ik" w4ska-h-6ggun-t^. 
" Before," in front of, the house. 

'* Pfeeche" mistik-oowdt-tit... "within" the wood-bag, i.e. box. 

They are placed either before or after their nouns, as, 

Mewtit-t^ p^eche, or p^eche mewtit-tJt...in the bag. 
Wutch^e-* p6o8koo, or, p6oskoo wutch^Jt...in the same hill. 

XX. 31. Kah ^zhe IJinoozh-tcf . . me !. . neen, dzhe dhnoon-^A^oo^. 

As hath sent-Ae-me. . voilk. . J, so send-J-you. 
xiy. 27. Kah ween. . kzhe m^gewa-to<^. . ked" ezhe m^ne-«ai-<^-m. 

Not as they give so give-noM-yott. 

ix. 17. Ahn een an-^je-m-iMf. 

What wise, how, so-relatest-^Aott-Atm. 

ix. 10. Ahn een nah ? kah ezhe wahb-6yttit. 
How (is it) that so see-est thou ? 

vi. 30. Ahn een nah ? an-ihnook-^un. 
How workest-^Aotf ? 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 289 

*' Pim"-a8tay-w£{...Mey are lying " about.** 

*' P^esooch" m^egew&p-tAr..." near to" the tent 

" Ch^eke" seep^e-^..." close" at the river. 
Seepee-Ar " issee"..." towards" the river. 

Chdppasis k^tha. Isptm-ik n^thti* 
Below thee. Above me. 

Ne g& mlnnekw(2n '* amdya" k^ka. 
I will drink " before" thee. 

" Sepi" nipp6ywin-tA:, ast-^fA. 
" Under" the bed, put-^Aoti-t^ 

" Tlikootch" t6yt-app6win-t^, ath-(fy. 
** Upon*' the chair, place-/Ao?/-Atm. 

Wdth-ow ^skwa kef lan-ctnow (1 .2) ''6oche" k'6gee'ndk (p. 1 85). 
Par yet tve (1.2) are " from" our (1.2) dwelling. 

Ooch'e— with flat. vow. We^ch'e. (p. 202.) 

K^kwan " 6oche" p^egee-skli-t-ttmmffn. 
What *' from" art thou sorrowful. 

Withow " 6oche" ne pey-it-oot-rfn. 
Far off '' from" I hither-come. 

K^as '' ooche" net' &wkoos-tn. 
Long since " from" / am ill. 

Khch-^gdi'-dytvd (part, pass.) menis-ts-d *^ 6oche'' n^epdes-d. 
Thetf are hidden the berries ^^ by" the leaves. 

Ndmma n* *' ooche" w&ppa-t-en. 
/ have not " ever" (never) seen it. 

Ow^ena " 6oche" kisk-6the-t-uf?tmti» ? (p. IBS). 
Who '♦ from" (is it) that thou knowest it ? 

K6kw&n '' 6oche" ge 6o8e-t-itfn ? 

What " from," of what, wilt thou make it f 



290 A GRAMMAR OF 

Tan-itt^ " w^che"-pitch-it(ch)-tA ? 

AVhere " from" do thei^ remove (their dwelling) ? 

Tkne w^che m6eth-w/ 9 

Which from, why, (dost) thou give (it to) him ? 

Tkne weche gh ge nuggus-^n ? 
Why didst thou leave me ? 

Tkne w^che ^gk h^ 6theb6kk-mit ? 
Why art thou not prudent. 

They are often used without a Noun, or Adverbially ; and 
in this way the Prepos. (or Postpos.) oochey from, (or o/y &c.) 
is used be/ore the verb, thus, 

Ne g' ooche 6ose-t-aii.../ will of (U) make it, 

K6kw&n ke 6oche ^kee-k? (p. l63) 

What will from (it) happen, be the consequence ? 

The Instrumental case of the verb (p, 121) -gk-^dyoo (3d 
conjug.) does not admit the Ablat. sign ooche before, or after, 
its Noun. 

M6okoman ne ga munne-se-gkgcfii...a knife / will cut- with. 

Mtintow-6ggin ne gk 6osi-che-g^(fit... cloth /will make- with. 

The Preposition sometimes assumes the verbal form (p. 
34), as, 

Ne g^ skpoo-n-en.../ will put it through. 
Ne gk p6et-a-h.e«, -n-en, -sk-en, &c..../ will enter it, put k 
in. See pp. 86 et seq. 103. 

[^W^k&h ^skootai-Ar... round the fire.] 

Ne g& wdska-n-en mistik-ft^a. 

/ will round-hand-t7, surround it with, sticks. 

Ne gk wkskk'n-fssoon (reflect.) 6skootayoo. 

/ will round-hand-myje^ surround fra^^e^with, fire. 

W^k^-tay-^oAr, unnem^ mdskootayoo. 
Round-go-^.fi^, let us go round, that plain. 



THE CREK LANGUAGE. 291 

Ne yi^\i^'^i^oyf\stak'rvuk .„they stand round (/o) iwe.* 
Ke '7iik^9!ti'gk^OYf\'St6tV'd.n6rv-uk,..'we stand rovrnd them. 
W4skah-dppt-^/d-g^^-n;MAr (indef.)...M<^ sit round (indef. 

obj.) 
Ne w^skah-sk-^^-fPt<^ (p. 87- sk special )...^Aey walk round 

me. 
* See p. 122, Intransitive &c. and pp. 129. 130. 

[Ooch^'e espimik. from above.] 
Ooch'6oo...Ae proceeds from. 

Ooch'echegun ..produce^ fruit. 
Oos'e-h-oyoo (anim.)...^e from-eth, produces, makes^ htm. 
Oos'e-t'Ofv (inan.)...Ac produces^ makes, it. 

Ooa6-che-gun...a thing produced, made. 

Ooch'-^k...the producing-being ; a name of the Deity. 
Ooch'e-h-^^oo...^e from-eth, prevents, him. 
Oot6-n-ttm...Ae from-hands-i^, takes it. (See p. 87 et seq.) 
Tdn't^ w^ch-^tV ? (flat vow.)... whence is he, proceeds he? 
Tan'tfe w^ch^-magd^ ?... Whence is it ? 



Sect. IV. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

Interjections connected with a verb generally require the 
latter to be in the Subjunctive Mood, as, 

Pittane ! w&ppa- t-^mman... would that ! / saw it. 

Wd! m^sk6w'>M«-f7 (anim.)...how strong-w-Ae .' 

W4 ! TQi&skoW'dk (inan.)...how hard it is I 

Wi! p4p-i/...how he laughs ! 

Wd ! k^tim-iV...how lazy he is! 

Wk\ ke it-dpitch-^l/n.^..how (long) thou hast (been) absent! 

The Interjection is commonly expressed absolutely, or 
without a regimea. 

v2 



292 A GRAMMAR OF 

Chap. III. 
Sect. L 

OF COMPOUND WORDS, (p. 177 et seq.) 

As respects the relative force or value of the Simple and 
Compound forms^ we may observe, generally, that the Simple 
form has a specific — ^the Compound, a general or indefinite 
signification, as. 

Net* &wkoo-6-tn ne sit-ik (defin.).../ am sore my foot-tn, in 

my foot. 
Net' 4wkoo-8it-(fn (indef.),,, I am 8ore-foot(ed). 
Ne w&ppisk-iss-tn »' istikwin-tA: (defin.).../ am white in 

(or, at, &c.) my head, my head is white (accid.). 
JVf wdpp-istikwan-i» (indef.).../ am white-headed (natur- 
ally, &€.). 

So with the Transitive, as, 

Nippe€^-eMfl nat-um... water he fetches (it): for a specifl 
purpose. 

Nkt-ipp-<fyoo...Atf fetch -water-e/A (indef.) ; Angl. is water- 
fetching. 

Att'ik-fv^ noch'e-h-ayoo...Ae hunts, is hunting, a deer (def.) 

Not-attfk-w-^^oo...Af hunt-deer-eth, is deer-hunting Gn- 
def.).i" 



iM ziii. 10. K^zeb^ge-n-i^^. . oo zid-un (defin.;. . that he wash his feet, 
xiii. 5. 12. Kemldijee-k^zeb^-z^-a-n^ (indef.). . Aebegan-wash- 

fooUthem. 
ziii. 5. Ke kHhse-z^d-a-w-e^. . (and) he wipe-footed-^Aem. 
zii. 3. Oo ge n6ome-z^d-a-n-ofi. . she anoint-footed-Atm. 
xiii. 14. K^shpin. . . . ke k^eb^ge-zed-a-n-^ttaA^ooy, 
If have wash-foot-I-yott, 

kcHahwah, ke tah k^eb^e-zed-a-n-^m. (Recipr.) 
ye, ye should wash-foot-one-ano^Aer. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 293 

Natural appearances or events^ common operations, &c. 

are generally expressed in Compound forms — one component 

Root always, in some way, qtutltfying the other, indefinitely, 

as, 

I'sp-kmuttin-c^n^-high-hiU-tV-ftf. 

Thisk-ipp-ayoo...rise-water-e/A-t^, the water rises. 

PtSost-dskesin-oy (imperat ) . . .put-on-shoe-^Aotf ; put on thy 

shoe^ or shoes. 
K^t!iskesin-4y...take-off-shoe-Motf; take off thy shoe, or 

shoes. 

Note, — It must be remarked that the Simple elements (Roots), for the 
sake of Euphony, or to express a slight difference in the meaning, &c. 
are often modified, by elision or otherwise (p. 17), in the Compound. 

When the Attributives are co-ordinate, or equally attributive 
to their subject, they will not coalesce or combine together. 
Your sister is a handsome (and) young woman, (turn), 
Ke mis ktittawis-iss-fi, 6osken^g-eskw&y-f9oo m6gga. 
Thy (elder) sister {she) is handsome, young-woman-w-^Af 
also. 
The verb Oos'e-h-ayoo (anim.), Oos'e-t-ou? (inan.), in its 
ordinary acceptation, he makes -Aim, or-i/, — is rendered, in its 
Indefinite sense, by the Formative -K-ayoOy annexed to the 
Noun, &c. (See p. 19.) 

M6ewut (inan.) ne g' 6ose-t-aft...a (or the) bag / will make 
(it) (defin.) 
M^ewdt ne g' 6ose-t^um-0Q/-(^«;...a bag / will make (it) for 
him. (p. 232.) 
Ne g& m6ewut-e-K-rf».../ will bag-make (indef.) 

Ne gk m^wdt-e-K-ow-(^i»(dat.).../will bag-make-for-Af'm. 
Kiitche m6ewtSt-e-K-6w-ii^ (subj.)...that bag-make-for-/- 
him. 

The verb It-6the-m-ayoo (Chip. Oo(P en-dne-m-on) anim.; 
It-6the-t-tii7» (Chip. Ood^ en-Ain-d-on) inan., he thinks-Aim, 
or,-i/ ; is frequently found in Compounds. 

M^toon-^he-t-tfm...A6comp]ete-thinks, considers, if. 
Wiin-^th^-t-f/wi...Ae lose-ihinks, is at a loss. &c. 



294 A GRAMMAR OF 

Sect. II, 

OF SENTENCES. 

The Cree and other Algonquin dialects resolve themselves, 
in like manner with European languages, into different kinds 
of sentences, as Simple, Compound, &c., and these may 
be expressed Positively, Negatively, Interrogatively, &c. 
(Vide supra.) 

SIMPLE SENTENCES. 

T^k'issoo (accid. pass.) k60n&> 6oche p^sim ,,,he U melted, 

the snow, by the sun. 
Unt6 we- wftppa-m-d/dil ke gkiiwee-now . . . go^see-lei-vs ( 1 .2) 

our (1.2) mother. 
P^this wftpptLke, ne g& p^y-h-annait ..till to-morrow, we (1.3) 

will wait (for) him. &c. 

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

M^tho-pem&tisstt " isp^se" gk !t-lip-itch-CT<fi. 
He well-behaved " whilst" thou wast absent 

Ootl-n-aA k^kwan wi dote-n-UtnTnun, " picko" net' ustis-tfit. 
Take thou any thing (that) thou wantest (to) take, "except" 

my mittens. 
Ne g& p^m-oot-an " ^thewaik" h^ mtitche-k^esik-^iit. 
/ will walk " although'' it ugly-day-i*. 

K^kwan gi n6che-t-tfm '^speese" it-4pitch-e(fn (subj.pres.*). 
What (is it) that thou workedst at " whilst" / was absent 

Ne k6 \t'ik'6n>in (indef. inv.), h^ 4wkoos-^n (^ubj. pres.). 
They (Pr. on) have said (to) me, that thou art sick. 

Ath'em-tin (indie.) kdtt& iXrooUdnemik (subj. indef.) h^ 

timme-koon-^tit (impers. subj.) 
It is difficult that one ( Angl. to) go there, as deep*snow-t/-tj'.' 



• The Present, and the Ck>mpound of the Present, are often used 
for the Preterite tense. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 295 

Ne ^ in6ech-ow (indie.) wdppa-m-t{Ar-« (subj. fut). 
/ will give (it to) him when see-J-Atm, 

W6yt-tt« (indie.) kdtt& t6oehe-gd/-(feA; (purt pass, subj.) 
It is easy that it (Angl. to) be done. 

Ntimma w§th& methow&ss-m (indie.) ktitt&piakoo-^uii. (subj.) 
// ii not good that thou be one> (i.e) alone. 

Nthnma w^tha ke g^ ra^eth-t^^en (indie.), ^gk tippa-hum- 

dweun (subj.) 
/ will not give (to) thee, if thou do not pay me for {it). 

M^thow&ss-tn (indie.) ehe? 6oma, gk "we" m^eth-^n (subj.) 
/* it good ? this, whieh thou art " going to" give me, 

Ndmma ne kisk^the-t-eit, tdn't^ w& it-ootdy-w(£^-w^ (dub.) 
/ do not know, where they want (to) go. 

Unt6we-wdppa-t-aA (imperat.), matee kdtt& ^iesichegd.taik" 

w^ (part. pass. inan. dub.) 
QrO'see-thoU'it, whether it be fim^ed (or not). 

The Subordinate may precede the Principal verb or sen- 
tence (p. 253). 

The Relative clause may follow, precede, or be inserted in, 
the, Antecedent sentence, as, 
^e ke nat-^n(indie.)p&skesiggun (inan.),gk we kputehe-t-iun(subj.) 

/ have fetched (jt) the gun, whieh thou wantest (to) use (t7). 

or, 
Gk we kputehe-t-tun, p4skesiggun, ne ke na-/-^. 

Whieh thou wantest (to) use it, the gun, I have fetched it. 

or, 
Pdskesiggun, gk we kputehe-t-iun, ne ke na-t-^n. 

The gun, which thou wantest (to) use (f^), / have fetched it. 

We have also in these dialects the idiomatic phraseology fre- 
quently found in the Scriptures at the beginning and the end of 
sentences, such as " Thus saith the Lord, &c." and '* — saith the 
Lord." as. 



296 A GRAMMAR OF 

Oom' iite itw-i^oo ktsh^-ethXn'u. 

This wise, thus, saith (-Af) the old-man. 

— -, ttw-(fyao, or, ^cco-se itw-dyoo, 
— , he saith, or, just so he saith. 

— , it-6the^t-tim, or, Ec^co-se it-6the-t-i/m. 
"^, he thinks, or. Just so he thinks 

So 
He says that he saw him. (turn) 
Ne ke w4ppa-m-oiP, itw-oyoo. 
/ have seen Aim, he says. 

They (people) say that he is arrived (turn), 

Tdckoos-tit, itw 'dnewoo (p. 98) ...he is arrived, they my. 

He is said to be arrived, (turn) 

Ttickoos-tn, \t'6v) []Indet. In v. Indic. p. 305]... Ac is arrived, 
he is 9tdd (of). 

I do not like him to be called niggardly, (turn) 
Ndmma ne m6tho-^the-t-en — sa-skk-iss-ti, kiitche it-^/. (id. 

id. SuBJ.) 
/ do not well-think, like, (it) — he is niggardly, that he be 

said (of). 



Sect. III. 

OF THE ELLIPSIS. 

The language of this people is purely oral — ^and their collo- 
quial intercourse^ as is the case with Europeans^ is in a high 
degree Elliptical. In Cree^ &c. as in English, the parts of a 
sentence are relative-HSo e.g. a dependent part, expressed 
with its relative words and forms, supplies the ideas, &c« of 
the antecedent— omitted clause of the same sentence, as 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 297 

M4n& ke ^ wappa-m-t//tit (indie.) che ? Again shall /see tkee f 
Ans. Ah ! Fernktiss-^n-h (subj.) Qm6n& ke g& wdppa-m-m. un- 
derstood^. Yes ! if / live [[again ihou wilt see me. under- 
stood]- 

K^koo uppw6oy (anira.) gk p^yshoo-w-vf (subj. anim.) 
What paddle (is it) which ihou bringest i-kim). 
Ans. Ga methd'Siss-U (subj. anim.) .... (that) which is good. 
Angl. the good one. 

K6koo chicka-h-eggun (inan.), ga p^y-t-iwn (subj. inan.) 
What hatchet (is it), which tkou bringe^^ 
Ans. Gk methow-^J-iA; (subj. inan.) ... (that) which is good. 
Angl. the good one. 

Ke ke too-t-en, che } (p. 279) •••Hast ^^ou done it ? 
Ans. Shkshl... Already (I have done it understood). 

Otherwise the verb is repeated (as in French), as, 
Ans. Ah ! Ne ke too-t-^n... Yes ! / have done it. Angl. Yes, I 
have. 



Sect, IV. 

OF ACCENT, &c. 
The Cree language is expressed, generally, by an agreeable 
alternation of Vowels and Consonants, composing long and 
short syllables. 

Note. — ^We must, however, observe that, in some Dialects, the Cree s 
is changed into sh, which, when joined to another consonant, gives 
sometimes, to the eye at least, an unpleasant effect, e.g. sk becomes shk, 
and in the German orthog. schk. Of the h, see p. 124. Note. 

Every word of more than one syllable has one of its sylla- 
bles accented, as, 
Ottim...a dog. N^p-tn...t/ ii summer. Tibbisk-otc;...!/ w night 

Sometimes \n a long word we find two or more of its sylla- 
bles accented. (Vide passim.) 



298 A GRAMMAR OF 

As respects the Simple verb and its adjuncts, the Principal 
accent or stress may be variously placed — on the Root, the 
FormatiYe; the Person (subj. or obj.), or the Auxiliary,^ thus^ 

Ne s&ke-h-on;.../ love him — with Emphasis on the root, 
becomes 

iVif 8A"ke-h-oit^...I Lov'^E (not^ e.g. hate) him. 

Ne sA"ke-t-a«.../ love (id.) it. On the Formative, it be- 
comes 

Ne a6ike'H"^onf ../do love him. 
Ne s4ke-T''-flw.../ do love it. 

• See also p. 201. The Cree Preterite &c. 

When the Principul stress is on a personal element (nomin. or 
accus.). it is generally expressed by the added pers. pron. used ab- 
solutely, as, 

Ne sdke-h-ofp, ne'th& (nomin.)... (Fr.^'e Z'aime^Moi.) I see 

him, /. 
Ne'tha, ne 8&ke-h-ow...(Fr. uoi,je Taime) I, / love him. 

So on the Object, 
Ne s4ke-h-on7, we'tha (accus.)... (Fr. Je faime, lui) / love 

him, HIM. 
We'tha, ne 84ke-h-oto...(Fr. Luij^eTaime) him, /love him. 

So also in the Subjunctive, where the subjective and objective 
pronouns are combined, -uk, I-him ; -ut, thou-him. Sic. as, 

Kutche sfike-h-uA', ne'Vha. (nomin.)... (Fr. que je faime, 

Moi.) that love-/- Aim, /. 
Kutche s4ke-h-tt^, we'^'tha (accus.)... (Fr. que ^c Taime, 

LDi) Angl. that / love- him. 
Kt&tche s4ke-h-t/, wb"th& (nomin. )...(Fr. qu't/ m'aime, lui) 

that he love me, he. 
Ktitche s&ke-t-t<fn (inan.) NE"THA....(Fr. que^'e Taime, 

Moi.) that / love it, I. &c. 

Note. — See Note 154. x. 15. — xv. 9. — ^xx. 21. 



THE CREB LANGUAGE. 299 

Again, 
N6tha, w6tha...(Lat. ego ipse) (it is) I, myself. 
W6tha^ w6tha...(Lat. ille ipse) (it is) he, himself. 

Sometimes the Emphasis is on the auxiliary particles ke, gd, we, 
g^ (g hard), &c. as on their English equivalents, have, will^ wish, 
can, &c. as, 

Wk" k^edn-^, ne o*" dp-en... when I wish (to) sit, I will sit. 

Note, — ^The learner will not fail to notice the accentuation of the 1st 
and 2d. pers. sing. (Subj. Intran.) -e-rfii, ^-mii, &c. 

A stress is sometimes laid on Demons. Pronouns^ Ad- 
verbs, &c. as opposed to their Correlatives — on Connective 
words also, as, the Pron. Relat. get — Conjunctions, &c. as, 
Eth"ewaik, nevertheless, &c. 

Note. — See also. Of Negation, pp. 278. 279. 

Emphasis affects also, sometimes, the arrangement of their 
Words : thus the objective noun commonly precedes and the 
subjective follows the verb, unless where Emphasis changes 
the order. Inversion is not here a cause of ambiguity, as the 
forms of the words sufficiently indicate the Relations which 
connect them with each other. 



300 A GRAMMAR OF 



PART IV. 



ADDENDA. 

Chap. I. 

INTRANSITIVE VERBS. 

Indicative Future. 
Ne ff ap'-tii.../ skM or will sit. Ne g' apMn-itait...fpe (1.3) shall 

or will sit. 
Keg' a:p'An,,Jkou shall or will Ke g' ap'-in-anofP...i9e (1.2) id. 

sit 
*Gd-id ap'-ii...Ae shall or wiU sit. Ke g' ap''-in-on7^7r...ye id. 

♦ GMd k^'e'Wiik.,Jhey id. 
♦ Pronounce, Ktitt&. 

Compound of the Present. 
Ne k6 ap'-i».../ have sat. We k6 apMn-itaft...ZDe (l.S) have 

sat. 
Ke kk ap' 'in,,. thou hast sat. Ke k€ a,p''in'dnow...we (1.2) id. 

K^ &p''U...he has sat. Ke k6 SLp'-in-owdw.. ye have sat. 

Ke ap'-e-fvt2A;.../Aey have sat. 

The auxiliary Particles^ as regards both their meaning and their 
grammatical position^ are exactly analogous to the English 
Auxiliaries; but unlike the latter^ they are indeclinable, the per- 
sonal inflection belonging to the verb (see p. 199)* 

They are prefixed, in the same manner, to the Subjunct, &c. 
Ke dp-(?(fn-e...when / shall have sat. 
We 4p-e<f«-e...when / want or am about to sit. 
&c. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 301 

SuBJuircTivB — Preterite. (Posit) 

I-i-^{Kin If, &c. / was being, &c. 

I-i-dp»it thou wast 

l-aAr-epun he was. 

I-i-d^-epun we (IS) were. 

I-i-a^-oopun we (1.2) were. 

l-i-£ft^-oopun ye were. 

I'dik'tvd'^xm they were. 

Imperative Mood. (See pp. 192. 204.) 

Present (or Definite) Tense. 
Sing. Plur, 

Ap'-f...8it thou. Ap'e-/^^...let us (1.2) sit. 

Ap'-t^...sitye. 

Indefinite Tense. 
Ai^^'4kun...%\t thou. Ap'-e-kd^...let us sit 

Ap'-e-k{£i^, . . sit ye. 

Accessory Case. 

Indicative — Present (See p. 209.) 

Net* A^^C'fV'dn,,.! sit, in relat Net* apVw-an-non...ft'e (l.S) sit, 

to him or them. &c. 

Kei* Ap'e- W-4/I . ..thou, &c. Ket* apV w-^-(i>iow ...we {1.9) sit- 

&c. &c. 

Subjunctive — Present (See p. 210.) 
Ap'e-w-i^...(If) / sit, in relat Ap'e-w-wA;-^e/...(If; we (1.8) sit, 
&c. in relat &c, 

TRANSITIVE VERBS. 
Subjunctive — Preterite. (Posit.) 
SUie-h-ti^-^pun If, &c. / loved him. 

-h-ti^-^pun thou lovedst him. 

-h-dit-6pun he loved him, or, M«m. 

'h-ukdet'i'^nvi we (1.3) loved Atnt. 

-h-^^-6opun we (1.2) loved Atm^ 

-h-^tg-oopun ye loved At»i. 

-h-^^-n;(^-pun they loved Atwi, or, <Aem. 



302 A GRAMMAR OP 

Subjunctive Future. (See p. 203.) 
S4ke-h-t^-^...ipAen I thall love him, 
S4ke-h-tf/(cA)-^...ft;Aen thou shall love him. 
Q6ke'h'dt{chyi..,nfhen he shall love him, or^ them. 

Sike'h'uk-M{ch)'^,,.fvhen tve (1.3) shall love him, 
S6ke'h'ak'00.,,fvhen we (1.2) shall love him. 
Skke'h'dig'00,..fvhen ye shall love him, 
Sike'\i'2X'fv6rv^^,,,mhen they shall love him, ox, them, 

SupposiTivE — Indicative. 
Ne 8ake-h-li-took-^ (plur.-niX:) / love him, (plur. -them) I suppose. 
Ke &c. thou &c. 

Doubtful — Subjunctive. 

Present Tense. 
S&ke-hd-w-ttA;-^ (plur. -ittilf) If / love him (plur. "them) 
'Vf'Ut'^ (id.) /Aow love him (id.). 

->t-w^ Ae love him, or, /A^in. 

'if'Hckeet'h (plur.-ntA) tve (1.3) love Atm (id.). 
-w-^A-w^ (id.) we (1.2) love him (id.) 

-w-atg^-wd (id.) ^c love him (id.). 

-w-(iA-w^ *** they love Atw, or /Aem. 



>^ i. 33. W4gw4in-^doog ka w4hbahm&b«w-aA<f(tM^-4in. . whom-soever 
<Ao« shah Bee {him), 

iiL 15. 16. Wdgw^n (nomin.) ka tapway-4ine*in-aA^(ikib)-w4in. . 

Whosoever shall believe in him. 
ziii. 22. Wdgwldn-^m (accu8.)kah en-aA^(dib)-wdin..whom (\% it) that 

^ says t^to (of). 

zv. 16. W^6o-doog-wain ka und6odah-mahwih-to-iit^-w&in. . what- 
soever ye shall ask/rom km. 

XX. 23. Wl^jTw^n dkoo-n-aAfii<fA-u;-a»^-w&in . . whomsoever ye with- 
draw them from (-Aim). 

W^igw4in ma»DJ^me-n-aAmifA-io-(%r-w^ . . whomsoever ye 
hold ^A«m to {-him). 



:fhe crbe language. 303 

Preterite Tense. 
S4ke-hd-w-uA*-^pun-^ (plur. -nik) If / loved him, 

-w-w<-6pun-^ (id.) thou lovedst hirtL 

'k'OapvLTi'h he loved him, or them. 

'W'Uckeei^6pun'^ (plur. -nik) we (l-S) love him (id.), 

-w-o^-oopun-^ (id.). we (1.2) loved Aiwi. 

-w-^ig-oopun-^ (id.) ye loved Atiif. ' 

-W'dk'Oo^un-h Ihey loved Aim, or them. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
Ke sdke-hd-w-M^-^pun-^ (plur. -nik). 
If / HAD loved him (plur. -them). &c. 

SupposiTivE — Inanimate. 
Indicative. (See p. 205.) 
Ne 8^ke-t-an-&took^.../ love it-I suppose. 
Ke sdke-t-an-4took^.../Aou lovest tV-I suppose. 

S&ke-t-d-took^ ...he loves t^-I suppose. &c. 

Preterite. 
Ne sdke-t-an-dkoopun.../ loved itA suppose. 
Ke 8dke-t-an-4koopun...^Ao2i lovest it-I suppose. 

S&ke-t-(fit-oopun...Ae loved it-I suppose. &c. 

Doubtful. — Subjunctive. 
Present. (See p. 206.) 
Sdke-tk-w-^n-^ If, &c. / love it. 

S&ke-tk-w-tin-^ thou love it. 

S4ke-tk-^-w^ he love it. &c. 

INVERSE. 

ix. 21. W6gw&n-U9i (ablat.) kah wdhbe-H-iJ^-oogwdin-tm (caus. dub) 
. . by whom he batb been caused to see. 

X. 6. W4g6o-doog-wain kah ^-oow&bg-w4in. . (tbey knew not) what- 
soever they were said to h/ {him). 

xii. 46. Wdgwdin ka tdpway-^ne-m-»Ar-wdin. . whosoever shall believe 
on me. 

xiii. 29. O'owh oocT en-^l^-doog^n-un . . this he said to him 1 sup- 
pose (relat. to them, his disciples). 



304 



A GRAMMAR OF 



Preterite. 
S4ke.tk-w-&p-(^^ If, &c J loved it. 

S&ke-tk-w-Ap-tin-^ thou lovedst it, 

S&ke-t&-A;-oopun-^ he loved it. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
Ke 84ke-ta-A:-oopun-%...if Ae had loved it. 



&c. 



Itwayoo. 
Itw-(fyoo (Conjug. 3),.. he says. 
ItW'dnefvoo (Fr. on dit) they (indef.) say. 

Transitive. 
Indicative Mood — Present. 



CRBB. 


CHIPPBWAY. 




NefiUdwiplvL,^) 


Niud' en-M (plu. dg) 


I say (to, or of) kim 
(plu. them). 


Kef it^^ 


Ked* eu'dh 


thou sayest to him. 


lUdyoo 


Ood' en-dn 


he says to him. 


Net* It-in-nan 


Nind en-^-fum 


we (1.3) say to him. 


Kef lUka-hnow 


Ked* en-^-fum 


we (1.2) say to ^tm. 


Kef It-^w^ow 


Ked' en-dh-woA 


ye say to him. 


li-&y^wuk 


Ood" en-ah-irof|i«7 


they say to him 




Subjunctive Mood — Present 


H^ it^Or (plu. ^wd) 


en-if^ (plu. wah) 


as / say (to, &c.) kim 
(p]u. them). 


itH^ 


en.t» 


thou sayest him. 


\Ut 


en-dd 


he says him. 


it^-^t 


enrung^d 


we (i.3) say him. 


it^ 


en-^ng 


we (1.2) say Aim. 


it-oi^ 


en-£% 


ye say Wfii, 




en-ah-w<Wiw 


<^ say him. 



INDICATIVE. 

1^7 i. 38. Oowb (dush) oo ge en-dn . . (and) this he said unto him (or 
fJkaii). 
X. 36. Ked eU'dhwdh, nah ?. . . . say ye of Aim . . ? 
V. 10. Oowh 00 ge en-ah'wdn . . this they said unto him. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

>w iii. 3. V. 19. Oowh ke en-dd. . this he said (to) him^ 

xviii. 21. Ewh kdh en-ahg-wdh. . that which / said (unto) them. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 305 

Inverse — Indicative. 



N'it-a 


Mnrfig 


he says (to &c.') me. 


icit-a 


Ked' ig 


he says thee. 


IWA:(pas8.) 


Ood* ig'Oon (pass.) 


he is said to by him, &c. 


N* it-ik-oa»an 


Nind* ig'OonSn 


he says us (1.3\ 


IC iUk-ooTKhv 


Ked* ig'Oondn 


^ says us (1.2). 


iP it-ik-oowdw 


Ked* ig'0(yu}dh 


he says yo«. 


It'ik-tvuk (pass.) i59 


Ood* ig-oow6n (pa^s.) they were said (to, &c.) 






&y him or #Aem. 




Subjunctive. 




H^ hM 


kzh-{d 


as Ac says (to, &c.) me. 


iUsk 


hUk 


he says thee. 


it'ikoot (pass.) 


ik-oof (pass.) 


he is said to hy him,Scc. 


is-eam^et 


6zh-eam{nd 


Ac says M5 (1.3). 


iut-ay 


^n-ewdng 


fAow sayest iw (1.2). 



viii. 54. ix. 19. A'n-dig (flat vow.). . as ye say (of) him. 
iii. 26. viii. 39. ix. 19. Oowb (dush) ke en-ah-wdd, . (and) this they 
. said to him. 

SupposiTivE (Indie), 
xiii. 29. Oowh ood* en^dh-doogiin-un. . this he (Jesus) said to him, I 
suppose. 

Doubtful. 
xiii. 22. Wdgwan-«n kah en-efA^-wdin . . whom (is it) that he says 

to, means, 
xiii. 24. Wdgwain kah en-dhg-wkin-un (Relat.) . . whom (is it) that 

he says of, means. 
X. 6. Wdg6odoogwdin kah ^goo-u^aA^-wdin . . what (it was) that they 

were said (to) by (him). 

ii. 5. Ndhmimj ka en-^o-w-flt^r-wain. . whatsoever he may say to 
you. 

INVBRSB. 

1^9 ix. 11. Oowh (dush) nin ge ig (and). . this he said to me. 

u. 3. iv. 9. Jesus (dush), oo g^en oowh oo ge eg^don. . (and) Jesus, 
his mother this he was said (to) by. 
W 



306 A GRAMMAR OF 

H^ it-it'dig hn-endig he says you (plur.). 

it-ikoot-trdw ik-oo-tood i^ they are said (to, &c.) 

by him. 

Indicative — Direct (1st and 2d pers.) 
Kef is'^n Ked ezh-ifi thou sayest (to, or, of,) 

me. 
Ket* is-in-nrfn Ked ^zh-in-n<^ thou sayest ..us {l .3) 

Kef iB'sin-owdw Ked Szh-im ye say . . me. 

Inverse. 
Kef itt-Zn Ked en-ifi I say (to, or, of) thee. 

Kef itt-in-ow<^ Ked en-^»m »<^i I say . . you (plur.) 

Subjunctive Direct, (id.) 
He iss-^n ..as tkou sayest (to, &c) me. 
H^ i8S-ed^...as thou sayest t/f (1-3). 
H^ i8S-eaig^...as^^ say me. 

Inverse. 
He it-2//^n...as / say (to, &c.) thee. 
Hh it'tiikdok >««... as / say...^oii. 

Subjunctive. 
^^ w. 11. xii. 50. Kah ezh-id. . who (he) said to me. 
V. 12. Kah en*0;. . who (he) said to thee. 
iv. 10. An-Oc (flat vow.) . . as (he) says to thee. 

iv. 50. Kah eg-dod . . Jesus which he was said (to) 6y Jesus. 

xvi. 17. Wdgoonain oowh kti-en-Ang?. . what (is) this (which) he says 

{%0)U8f (1.2) 
vii. 45. O'owh (dush) k^ tgoo-wdd (and) this they were said to by 
(them). 

Impbrativb. 
XX. 17. Oowh (dash) 4zh'ek. . and this say thou unto (him, or) /A«m. 

Indicative (1st and 2d Persons). 
1^1 iii. 3. xxi. 18. Kef en-/n. . I say unta /i^. 

i. 51. iv. 35. V. 19. Kef en-Mm. . I Bay \mto you. 

Subjunctive. 
183 1. 50. Ke en-eiM^ . . (because) I said unto thee. 
xvi. 6. Ke en-enahgdog. , as I have sud unto you. 
vi. 63. X. 26. Kah en-^nahgdog . . which I say unto yoit. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 307 

Inanimate. 
Indicative — Present. 
Net* It-t^.../ speak of, mean, it, 
KeV lt't^n,,,thou speak of, mean, it, 
lt''tum.,.ke speaks of, means, it. 
&c. 

Subjunctive — Present. 
H^ it-t«f»m(fn...as / speak of, mean, it, 
Hh it-tummun ...as thou speakest of, meanest, it. 
Hh it-tctk ^^^.,,a3 he speaks of, means, it, 
&c. 

Exam. O'oma, gk it-tummdn (it is) this, which / speak of, mean. 
Un'^nema, gk it-tak (it is) that, which he speaks of, means. 

Inverse — Indicative, (p. 226). 



N' it'ik-dwin 


Nind ik'do (Fr. me 
dit-on) 


they (indet.) say (to) me. 


K' lt-ik-dW» 


Ked^ ik'do 


they id. thee. 


It-dw (pass.) 


In-dh (pass.) 


he is said (to by some- 
body). 


N' it-ik 6u>inr-nan 


Nind* ik-do-min 


M63^(id.)8ay(to)tts(1.3) 


K' it-ik'tkvin-itnow 


Ked* ig-do-min 


us {1,2) 


K* \i'\k-6w%n'Ow6w 


Ked? ig^om 


you. 


It-6w-MA; (pass.) 


In-Qi-wug (pass.) 
Subjunctive (Present), 


they are said (to by, 
(somebody). 


lVJiiL'6vO'edn 


Ig'do-ydn (as, &c.) they (indet.) say (to) me. 


-eun 


-yun 


thee. 


lUet 


lu'dend, or, In-iki 


he is said (to) by, &c. 


It-ik-dwe-ait 


Ig-6o-y% 


they (indet.) say to us 
(1.3). 


^ak 


-yung 


us (1.2). 


'dig 


-ydig 


you. 



Inanimate (Subj.). 
i«3 ii. 21. xi. 13. Kah ed-i^^r (pres.) . . which he "spoke"' of, meant, {it), 
xvi. 18. Wdgoonain ewh dd-t^^ (flat vow.). . what (is) that (which) 
he says of, means. 

w2 



308 A GRAMMAR OF 

It'^et'WOW (def. time) la-ind^dh (def.) they are said (to) by, 

(somebody) . 
^{ch)ik (indef. id.) -jig (indef.) 16* Id. &c. 

Indeterminate. 
ltt'kgg'anewoo.,,tkei/ (Fr. on) say, call, name, him or it. 
T^' itt-^lgg-anew-tAr (8ubj.)...what do /^ey (indct.) call, or 
name, it ? Angl. what is ii called ? 

Passive. (Absolute, p. 213.) 
It-ik-oo-*tt (1st Conjug. p. 192) he is said (to, or, of). 



NUMERALS. 




Piak or P6yak 


One. 


N6esh-oo 


Two. 


Nist-oo 


Three. 


Ndyw-oo 


Four. 


N^annan 


Five. 


Nickoot-wass'ik 


Six. 


N6esh-wassik, or T^ypuckoop 


Seven. 


Swdss'ik, or I-enknaywoo 


Eight. 


K^at metktat, almost ten, i.e. 


Nine. 


M^Mat 


Ten. 


M6tlttat-p6y-ak-oo-skup 


Eleven. 


M^tlLtat-n^shoo-sk-up 


Twelve. 


&c. 


&C. 


Nickoot-w^s'ik-tkto-sk-up 


Sixteen. 


&c. 


&c. 



Indeterminate (Subj.). 
'<^ xviii. 34. Ewh dg'Ooyih, (flat vow.). . which they (Fr. on) say of me. 
XX. 24. xxi. 2. Didymus dn-M (flat vow.) . . Didymus as he is said, 
called. 

Reciprocal (Indie.) 
xix. 24. vii. 35. Oowh (dush) ke et^umg . . (and) this they said one 
to (mother. 

Subjunctive, 
iv. 33. Ewh kah oonje AHY-ed^oJ (iterat. p. 71; • . therefore tJiey 
said one to another. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 



309 



K^gat Nissetdnnoo, almost twenty, i.e. 

Nisse-tiinnoo 

N 'isse-tdnnoo-piakoo-skiip 

&c. 
Nistoo-metunnoo 
Naywoo-metdnnoo 

&c. 
M^tat^to-metunnoo 
K^eche-metatato-metunnoo 



Nineteen. 

Twenty. 

Twenty-one 

&c. 
Thirty. 
Forty. 

&c. 
A hundred. 

A great hundred, i.e. a 
thousand. 



Peyak-wow 
N6esh-w6w 
Nist-wow 
M6ch6t-wow 
Tkn t^to 
Tkn tat- wow 



Once. 

Twice. 

Three times. 

Many times. 

What number, how many. 

How many times. 



The Numerals, like other (English) Adjectives, are, in these 
dialects. Verbs, and are formed through mood, tense, &c. accord- 
ingly. 

Ne p^yak-oo».../ am one, alone. 

Ne i\Ut-endn ,,.we (1.3) are three. 

Naywoo-WMA;.../Aey are four (anim.). 
Ndywin-fi;a.../Aey are four (inan.). 

Oo nkyyve"t'0rv6rv,.Ahey were four (anim. p. 200). 

Ndywin-6opun-^.../^ey were four (inan. id.). 
&c. 



Chapter II. 

FURTHER REMARKS. 

OF THE NOUN. 

Most if not aU Nouns, both Primitive and Derivative, have 
their Derivative Verbs also (Intran. and Trans.). AngL e.g. 
patron-i^e, person-a^e. - (p. 16 et seq.) 



310 A GRAMMAR OF 

Adam was the father of all men (turn) ; 

Ood* oo-n^jdni8e-m-(^n (possess.) kdhkendh Eninnee-n^tin* 

owh Adam (Jones's MS.). 
He childrened (Aim or them) all Men (Lat. Homines) Adam. 

• Not -vmg, because governed by a verb in the third person. This 
example may, perhs^s, solve the Rev. Mr. Daggbtt's difficulty, with 
respect to the Choctaws. Mass. Hist, Coll. vol. x. p. 112. 

We have seen that a final -k or -g (Chip, 'ing, &a) with its 
connecting vowel, has a two-fold signification. First, Appended to 
a noun, it is the sign of the Locative Case (p. 184). Secondly^ to 
«a verb, it expresses (in the Subj. Mood) the Indeterminate Pronoun 
(Fr. on) some one, &c. (See p. 98-)'*' It has this last sense when 
added to a verbalized noun also, as. 

She is as fond as, or loves like, a mother (turn) ; 
Isp6eche oog^'w-ee*, sake-h-ewa^oo (Indet. p. 99)- 
As much as when one is mother, she loves. 

He is as kind as a father (turn) ; 

Isp^eche ootA^Yf-eek, klttemltk-^the-m-ew(fyoo (Indet). 

or 
Ispeeche ootk'w'eek, kittemy^-^the-ch-eg^^oo (Indef.). 
As much as when one is father, he befriends (Trans, p. 99)* 

Zeisbbrger classes the following, although they have ver5aZ endings, 
as Nouns (Voc. Case). 

1, Wo Kit-anittow-WM .'...O God ! 

2, Wetoche-m-ux-ian !...0 Father ! 

3, Shawanow-ian !...Thou Shawanese ! 

4, Wetoche-m-eDan !...0 my father ! 

5, Wetoche-m-ellenk !...0 our father ! 

6, Nihillal-ian !...0 my Lord ! 

7, Nihillal-eyenk !...0 our Lord! 

8, Pemauchso-h-alian !...0 my Saviour ! 

9, Pemauchso-h-aluweyan !...0 Saviour ! 
10, Weliliss-ian !...0 pious man ! 

ifi5 i, 41. 42. Alinookahnootahm-iw^r. . when one interprets it; *' being 
interpreted," " by interpretation." 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 311 

The version here given accords with the English — not the Indian — 
idiom. The literal meaning of these examples is, severally, as follows : 
1, Great-spirit as thou art ! 2, Father-ed (esteemed Father) as thou art ! 
3, Shawanese as thou art ! 4, As father- J-^Aec, i.e. consider as father ! 
5, As ftitlieT-we-tJiee I 6, Who governest-^Aoti-me / 7, Who govemest- 
thou'us! 8, Thou who makest me live! 9 Thou who cause^^ to live, savest! 
10, Rous as thou art I All the above Examples are in the Subj. or Sub- 
ordinate mood, and have (or should have) the "altered vowels*' to express 
Indefinite time. (See p. 277.) 

They therefore do not require — cannot take — the Possessive Pronoun. 
N.B. The same forms he classes as Participles, &c. also. 



The Cree (and Chippeway) Adjective is a Verb (p. 24 et 
seq.)5 but in Compound words it is stripped of its verbal 
adjuncts^ and remains in combination with its subject, in the 
pure form of the English Adnoun, with sometimes a connect- 
ing vowel. Prefixed in like manner to a verb, it qualifies the 
same Adverbially. 



The Personal pronoun has neither case nor gender; its 
Cases are transferred, as those of the Noun, to the Verb. 
The Pronoun is expressed absolutely only when in answer to 
a question, or for the sake of Emphasis, p. 298. 



The Pronoun Relative {get,) is indeclinable ; but in Con- 
struction it is of all cases, genders, numbers, and persons. 
It is expressed or understood (as in English) as Emphasis 
may direct. 

In connection with the Transitive Verb, it will be observed 
that the forms which express the Dative Case of the Pronoun, 
include also an Accusative of the Object in the third 
person, him, or it (see p. 1 17 et seq.) ; but if the Accusative 
be of the first or second person, the verb must be accom- 
panied by ne yow, my body, my self, i.e. me ; ke yow, thy 
body, thy self, i.e. thee, &c. (from weyow, the body) ; thus. 



312 A GRAMMAR OF 

" They have delivered thee unto me" (turn) 
Ne ke pdketin-t/iTt-a/nt^tig (inan. inv.) he y6w. 
They have delivered-t^-to-me^ thy body- 

" He that delivered me unto thee." (turn) 

Ow'enS gk p^etin-wm-(fejAr, ne y6w. 

Whoever (he be) that delivered-t^-/o-<Aee, my body.*^ 



The Cree (and Chippeway) have no Impersonal forms : that 
is, they have neither Participle (active or passive), nor, as 
ahready observed, Infinitive mood. These are all resolved 
into B. personal mood. **7 (See p. 129.) 

I see him comtng^ (turn) ; 

Ne wdppa-m-oft^ he p^t-^tum-oot-^tV. 

/ see him as hither-cometh-Ac. 

Dr. Edwards, indeed, says " Thoupfh the Mohegans have no proper 
Adjectives," which are verbs, as in Cree, " they have Participles to all 
their verbs : as, 

Pehtuhquisseet. . the man* who is tall. 

Paumseet . . the man who walks. 

Waunseet . . the man who is beautiful. &c. 

iW xviii. 35. Nw ge ^dhg^in^ahm-dhg-oog ewh ke y6wh. 
They have delivered-tV-fo-mc, thy body, 
zix. 11. Owh . . kah bdhged^n-oAm-dbib ne yowh. 
He who delivered-i^-fo-^^ce, my body. 

J^7 xi. 38. Ke mahmahpen-(^ (indie.) ke tdhgweshin-^r (subj.). 

" Groaned"-Ac as arrived-Ac ; " groaning cometh to." 

i. 36. Kdhnahwahbah-m-oc? (dush) Jesus. 

(And) as looked-at-A€-Atm. . . . Jesus j " looking upon." 

i. 31. Pah-6onj'-ezhah-y6n zegahtindahgd-y6n. 

Therefore come-f baptize- J; *' therefore am I come bap- 
tizin^r." 

XX. 14. Ke wahbah-m-oc? (dush). . Jesus, n^dhw-eittc? (subj. access.) 
(And) saw .Ae-Aim . . Jesus, as stood-^ (relat.); "standing .^* 

i. 29. John oo ge wahbah-m-on . . Jesus, b^-nahnzek-^coot. 

John he sRW-him. . Jesus, as come-to-Ae-^ him ; " comtw<; 
to him." (Inver. p. 264.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 313 

So in the plural. 
Pehtuhquisseecheek . . the tall men." f 

and he goes on tor say that " it is observable of the Participles of this 
language, that they are declined through the persons and numbers, in 
the same manner as verbs : thus, Paumse-uh,t I walking ; Paumse-an, 
thou walking ;" &c. Zeisbergkr also has given numerous examples 
of the Delaware Participle, in all persons. Sing, and Plur. extending them 
even to the Transitive forms. The corresponding Inflections may be 
found in the Cree and Chippeway Dialects, also — but we must observe, 
that all these and similar forms are not, cannot he. Participles. Firstly, 
because those Inflexions are common, as in the examples given above, 
to all Intransitive verbs — to the Adjective verb as well as to the Neuter. 
Secondly, and conclusively, because " Participles, in their personal 
forms,"§ is, obviously, a solecism in Grammar. See p. 276 et seq. 

• He who, &c. — Ed. t They who are tall. — Ed. 

§ Zeisherger^s Oram. p. 141, Note. t As, or when, I walk; &c. (subj.) — Ed. 

With respect to the Infinitive Mood, . Eliot's account of it in 
the Massachusetts dialect, is very unsatisfactory. Dr. Edwards observes 
that "The Mohegans never use a verb in the Infinitive Mood, or without 
a Nominative or Agent." So may it be said that the verb includes, univer- 
sally, a Nominative Sign (Dep. or Indep.) in the Cree and Chippeway 
Dialects, also. ^^^ 

Dr. Edwards says, however, on another point, that "they cannot say, 
I love; thou givest; &c. but they can say, / love thee; thougivest him; &c." 
Here he is manifestly in error. Sake-h-cw^fyoo, &c. (p. 225) he loves, is 
certainly of less frequent occurrence in Indian discourse than its defin. 
form, 86ke-h-ayoo, Ae loves him or her; and me'g-u, or MB'oB-wtfyoo, he 

1^8 i. 33, Kah khnoozh-M? che zegahdndahga-ydn. 

(He) that sent-Ae-mc that /baptize " to baptize." 

v. 16. Ke dundahw-aindahmoo-ii7(^. . che n€sah-u;(fc?. 

They sought that (might) slay-f^-Aim, "/o slay him." 

viii. 26. Wah enhi-ahgooTc kiya wah endhkoon^n-aA^ooA:. 

(That) wish say-I-(to)-yoM and (that) wish " judge"- J-(of) 
ytm ; ** to say ;" " to judge." 

i.8. Ke b^6hnoon-<fA atah, che k^kenahw^hje-t-oo«/ ewh Wahsaydh- 
zewin. . He has been hither-sent, that he (Angl. "to,") shew 
that light. 



314 A GRAMMAR OF 

gives — the Indet. form of meeth-rfyoo, (Chip, oo mb^n-oji) he gives it to 
him, is an Irregular verb— hence, probably, this mistake. See p. 99 et 
seq. 1^ 

OF THE VERB-SUBSTANTIVE, &c. 
We come now to a topic which has engaged the attention of 
most writers on the American languages. The venerable Eliot 
denies the existence of the (abstract) Verb-Substantive in the 
Dialect of the Massachusetts — Dr. Edwards, in that of the Mohe- 
gans — the Rev. Mr. Dencke, in the Chippeway ; and Mr. Pick- 
ering has thence been led to infer that this important Element of 
Speech is wanting in all the Algonquin dialects. Strange, however^ 
as it may appear, they are certainly all in error. That the Chip- 
peways have it we have amply shown from the native Missionary 
Mr. Jones's translation (see pp. 136, 137, and Note 71). That it 
exists in the Moh^an, may be seen, making allowance for the 
orthography, by referring to Dr. Edwards's own (?) Translation of 
the Lord's Prayer, as, 

Sptimmuck oie-dn (subj.) . . on high (" in heaven") thou (who) art. 

Hkey die^heek (id.) . . on earth they (who) are. 

Sptimmuk 6ie-^?ieek Cid.) . . on high (** in heaven*') they (who) are. 

And that it is found, also, in the Massachusett's dialect, Eliot's 
own Indian Bible will abundantly testify; a^ a few examples, taken 
from the Gospel of St. John, &c. for the purpose of comparison, 
may suffice to shew. 

Lat. Esse. N.B. These Dialects have no Infinitive Mood. 





Eliot. (Mass.) 


JoNBS. (Chip.) 




John, xi. 30. 


A'y-CM (pres.) 


Ahydh-hnu (pret.) 


Ae was. 


xvii. 11. 


Ay^u-o^r 


Ahy-dh-um^ 


they are. 


xi. 32. 


Ay-it (subj.) 


Ahy-dd (subj.) 


he was. 


xii. 1. 


Aiy-tV (id.) 


Ahy-dd (id.) 


Ae was. 


Matt.xxiv.l6. 


Ayit.c% Old.) 


(Ahydd-jig) id. 


they were. 


John, xvii. 11. 


Mattafmf*aiy-«*.* 


Nind ahy-aA-se 


/ am not. 


Jerem. xxxi. 15 


. Mktta ay^u-oo-o^ (neg. pres.) 


they were not. 



>^ xiv. 27. Kdh ween. . dzhe MB'GBWA-i»6rf ked' ezhe MK^NE-sen-don-im 
Not . . as GivE-f^, 80 GivB-wof.I-(#o)-ycm. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 315 

It should be borne in mind that the Verb-Substantive, in these 
Dialects^ is often, idiomatically, suppressed, p. 254. 

Lat Stare, (p. 148, et seq.) 
Cree, Ap'-w (anim.) B&t-dyoo (inan,). 
Chip. A'hb-eA (anim.) ; dht-(£ (inan.). 
Delaw. Wut' dpp-m (anim.). 
Massachusetts, ^^ A'p-cw" (anim.); *'6ht-^au" (inan.). 



Animate. (Eliot.) Animate. (Cree.) 




John, iv. 6. A'pp-ctt (indie.) A^p-w. 


/*cis (p. 148) 


V.6. vi.9. Wut' dp.t« Cid.pret.) Oof dp-t 


Ac was. 


i. 48. Ap-^a» (subj.) Ap^ww 


as thou art. 


i. 18. ii. 3. A'p-tV Cid.) A'p-«Y 


as A^is. 


V. 28. A^p-it.c% (id.) A'p-it-cA«it 


as they are. 


Inanimats. 




John, iv. 6. Oht-^aw flndic. sing.) A^st-liyoo 


tH8(id.). 


Judges, xiv. 8. Ohtd-o** (id. plur.) ABtky-voah 


^Aey are. 


Job, xi. 6. Oht-rf^ (subj. sing.) A'st-dik 


as it is. 


1 Corinth, i. 28. Ohtdg-wA (id. plur.) Ast-4ik-cc 


as they are. 


The (Indian) Esse and Stare are often used indiscriminately, e.g 


Eliot. Jones. 




John, iv. 40. Wut' dpp-tn (indie.) Ke ahy^dk 




i. 48. Ap^-on (subj.) Ahydh-yim 




ii. 23. A'p-»* Cid.) Ahy-dd 




iii. 13. A'p-t^ (id.) Ay-6rf (flat vow.) 




i. 18. A'p^^ (id.) Ay-dh-ntci (id. aceess.) 


vi. 62. Ap^-up (id.) Ahy-(fA-bun (indic.>. 


viii. 68. Negonne Abrahamii^t, nuf 4p-ip (indie, pret.) 


Before he was Abraham, I was, " I am." 



We may pursue the analogies between the Elementary verbs still 
farther, if we allow for the diflference of Dialect and Orthography, as, 
Cree Net* E't-in (or Net It^-in) . . I so-^m, or so>do. 4)p. 132, 133, 
Chip. Nind' In't . . Id. (p. 160) [160, 288) 

Delaw. Nd* iHa-in . . Id. (Zeisb. p. 117.) 
Mass. N'd^ inni-tfi . . Id. • 

* (Eliot) John iii. 8. Wuf inni-m . . he so-is, " every one." 

V. 6. Un* inne-on (pret.). . he so-was (" in that case"). 



316 A GRAMMAR OF 

Inanimate. Ek-tw. (p. 163.) 
John XV. 25. N-n-/^ (indie, pres). .it is; " cometh to pass." 
Gen. i. 7. 9- N-n-/A (id.) . . it " was" so. 
Gen. xli. 1. N-n-i'A (id.) . . it *' was ;" *• came to pass." 
John vi.l. vii.l. N-n-a^r (subj.pres.). . (after) it was; "after these things." 

Again, 
Cree Net* It-at'-is-tn . . / so-act (morally) p. 158. 
Chip. Nind In-khd'-is . . Id. (p. 158.) 
Delaw. Nd' EU-duch-s-m. . "/ live or walk'' (Id. Ed.). Zeisb. p. 132. 

Chap. III. 

OF DIALECT. 

Connected with our subject, in some degree, and deserving of 
attention, is the circumstance of Dialect, as exhibited in the diflPe- 
rent branches of the great Algonquin family. In the several 
lapses by which the gradations are marked, there appear to be 
circumstances worthy of note, such as, 

1. The organic change of one or more letters — in Cree, one 

consonant for another. 

2. The change or modification of the meaning of the Root. 

3. A modification of the Inflection (besides the commutation of 

letters) with some new Roots. 

4. Some new Particles, e.g. Adverbs, Prepositions, &c. 

5. Some new Roots and again modified Inflexions. 

6. New Roots and new Inflexions, varied also in their colloca- 

tion with the Root. 
The Cree, which I assume to be the source (for reasons I cannot 
enter into here) is distinguished by the 1st and second. The 
widely scattered tribes of this nation, change the ih, consecutively 
into 1/, n, Z, and (vide Eliot) r, e.g. We-tha (Angl. he), W^-ya, 
W^-na, W6-la, &c.; and a large portion of those among whom 
this series of permutation occurs, is by themselves, denominated 
N^'-EthowttA; (plur.) i.e. (say) Exact- Persons (see p. 72). The s and 
the sk also mark different families and tribes. See p. 37 et seq.* 

* " On the East-main side of Hudson's Bay, (t)ch is in general used in the 
pronunciation of words instead of the k (or c hard) used on the West side of the 
Bay, as (t)chis8in-0?<? for kissin-oio, it is cold (weather) j (t)che-y-a for ke-th-a, 
&c. thmi, &c." — Hov, Hudson s Bay Co.'*s Papers. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 317 

The 3d and 4th, together with a frequent omission of the s (in- 
dicated by an hiatus in the articulation) before k (c hard), and / — 
and a frequent insertion of m before b, and of » before d and g (see 
p. 213 Note) — mark the Chippeway : which is also distinguished 
by Vowels as well as Consonants extremely nasal, seldom found in 
the parent Cree. The Chippeway differs also from the Cree in 
having a Negative form of the verb (p. 63). 

The 5th removes us still farther to the south, as the Delawares, 
Shawanees, &c. 

The 6th marks, perhaps, those called mother-tongues. 

It appears that the Cree and its cognate dialects permute only^ 
and do not augment, the number of their letters; and that, 
compared with European tongues, they have only a limited scale of 
sounds — yet it is remarkable that all the letters of our Alphabet 
are found separately in some one or other of the American lan- 
guages. 

The permutations of the Cree chiefly affect the linguals, with 
indeed the want of the two labials y and t> — but the Mohawk and 
Huron are in a sad state of privation, having none of the labials 
— ^neither 6, p, f, v, nor m. When conversing, their teeth are 
always visible. The auxiliary oflice usually performed by the lips 
is transferred, or superadded, to that of the tongue and throat. 
So violent a change in the mode of articulation, together with the 
circumstances above mentioned, has naturally produced as violent 
a change in their language, and given it at least the appearance of 
a mother-tongue. But it seems to retain the leading features of 
the others in its general Grammatical structure. 

As a matter of speculation, it is curious to observe that the 
organic powers of articulation existing in the Old world, are found 
also to the same extent in some part or other of the New; and it is 
further interesting to note that the sound given by us to th, which 
so few European or Asiatic nations can articulate, is strongly pro- 



318 A GRAMMAR OF 

nounced by natives of the other hemisphere — by the Cree* of the 
Forest, on the coast of the Atlantic — ^by the Huron,t of the Great 
Lakes — ^by the Rapid Indians, J of the Great Western Plains — and 
by the Flat-heads,§ of the Rocky Mountains, bordering on the 
Pacific Ocean. 

* WethsL, Jie. f HoMore, it is cold (weather). X With, a. knife. 
§ Che/Mais, three. 



Chap. IV. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Nouns have their Diminutives (p. 182); and Adjectives, &c. 
their Augment, and Diminutives (p. 62 et seq.). 

Nomina substantiva, non minus quam Adjectiva, habent, non tantum 

Diminutiva, verum etiam Augmeutativa. Gram, Gronlandica it Paulo 

Egede. HavnuBj 1760. p. 25. 



The Local (or Locative) Case, -iir, &c. (see p. l84). 

Quando significatio est : Apud me, in loco, in, &c. tunc Particula me 
V. ne voci addenda, ex. gr. Killangme, in coelo. (W. p. 203.) 



The Cree (and Chippeway) Adject, is a verb (p. 24 et seq.). 
Nomen adjectivum plerumque describitur per praeteritum, quod &c. 
ut : — k verbo aupiUarpok^ rubet ; kakorpok, albet (id. p. 9)- 



The third person (sing.) is the Conjugational Sign (p. 198). 
Tertia Persona Singul. est Radix sive Character Conjugationum. (Id. 
p. 69.) 

The present, &c. are often used for the Preterite tense 
(p. 294, Note). 

Tempora sunt tria : Prsesens, Prseteritum, & Futurum, quod iterum 
duplex. {Id. p. 71.) 

Prgesens loco Pr«t. interdum usurpatur. (Id.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 319 

Prsesens loco Praeteriti saepissime usurpatur. (Id, p. 1870 

The Transitive verb adopts into its Inflexions both subject 
and object (nomin and accus.). Vide Accidence. 

Habet Suffix. Pers. & Agent. & Patient, in omnibus conjugationibus. 
(Id, p. 71.) 

In English we may say actively, &c. (Construction of 3d 
pers. Dir. and Inv.) p. 263 et seq. 

In quo differt haec & antecedens Flexio ubi tertia pers. singul. utrobi- 
que patitur, ex sequentibus patet exemplis, ut : 

Mattarmane ningekpok. Is (A) iratus est, quia Alter (B) exuebat 
ipsum (A). (Inv. or Reflex. Ed.) 
£ contrario, cum juxta priorem Flexionem esset : 

Mattarmago ningekpok, tunc Sensus est. Ille (A) offensus est, 
quia Alter (B) exuebat tertium (C). [Dib.Ed.] Id. 117. 

Of the Possessive or Accessory Relation. (Construction 
of 3d pers. Absol. and Relat.) See p. 266, et seq. 

Tertia pers. singul. et pluralis est duplex ; Prior (I. a.) notanda^ 
unico Agente adbibetur, ex. gr. 

Hannese Mattarame innarpok. 
Johannes, cum se exuisset, cubitum ivit. 

Posterior vero, (2. a.) notanda, ubi duo fuerint agentes, usurpatur, ut: 
Pauia mattarmet Pele ningekpok. 
Petrus iratus est, cum Paulus se exuisset. (Id, p. 113.) 

Again, 
In tertia Persona Singularis, Dualis and Pluralis, usus Conjunctivi 
duplex est : 

Occurrentibus duobus in sententia Agentibus, ut : Ploravit cum (alius) 
se laverit, tunc dicendum ; Kiavok ermigmet, non : Ermikame. Unico 
autem Agente, ut: Ploravit quod seipsum laverit, tunc Kiavok ermikame, 
non ermigmet, did debet. (Id. p. 97.) 



The Imperative Mood lias two tenses (Pres. and Indef.). 
See p. 204 

Forma Imperativi duplex est } aut enim quandam involvit civilitatem^ 
ut jussum non ita statim fieri debeat, v. c. Ermina ; aut magis imperans 
est, & mandatum ilhco exequendum innuit, ut Mattarit. (Id. p. 97.) 



320 A GRAMMAR OF 

In the Chippeway Dialect are two negative signs, one 
of which is incorporated with the Verb. See p. 279. 

Negativum ab Affirmativo, interposito ngi, formatur. {Id. p. 141.) 

Again, 
Verbum Negativuianon discedit k Flexione Verbi Affirmativi, dum- 
modo observetur character negativi, ngui, ante Suffixum, addatur. 



The nasals m and n, which &c. See p. 13. Note. 
K post i & u mutatur in ng, &c. (Id. p. 5,) 



The Cree language is expressed, &c. (Of Accent) p. 297- 

Duplicis sunt generis, Longi et Breves ut : — 

Ad yerum verborum sensum eruendum Accentus multum faciunt : in 
Ultima, Penultima, &c, collocantur. (Id, p. 7.) 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 321 

Chap. V. 

ELEMENTARY WORDS. 

To the principal or more obvious Elementary terms, &c. in 
the Cree language, I attach considerable importance, from 
their apparently furnishing (p. 134 et seq.) the roots of 
some of the verbal &c. formatives — and also as seeming to 
be eligible points of comparison with the corresponding 
words in the tongues of the Old World. Some of them are 
accompanied by examples of at least apparent analogy. The 
reader will, for obvious reasons, note the sound and signi- 
fication rather than the orthography. See ^^Permutable 
Letters,^^ p. 17- 

NOUNS. 

I'-a (i long)... a being, thing (Chip, dhyah, p. 182). Heb. 

Jah (pron. Yah). 
Iss'e (or, Is^-e)... manner. Fr. sL Lat. Angl-ic^. (p. 142.) 
It'-&... place (Chip, eende). 
Isp'ec.time (past) (Chip. ahp^). 
T6w'6fD (verb)... there is room, space. 
Tdto... number. 
T6o^...kind or sort. 
Ethtn'u...an Indian. Or. tOv-of. 

&c. 

VERBS. 

l-dtv (i'd + oo) ,,, he or it is. (Chip, ahydh). Heb. hai/a- 

Gr. u'/ukt. p. 1 36 et seq. 
I'dtv (possess.) ...he has it. (Chip. ahyaA) . 
Ap^'U,..he sits, or he is. (Chip. dhbeA). Angl. ^e. 
Astd-^oo, or, Ashtd-oo...i< stays, &c. (p. 38, Note) Sansk. 

shia. Lat stare. Angl. stai^. 
Ach'e-oo... Removes. (Chip, dunjeh). lat. agit. 

'magnn...it moves. 
Athi-^oo, or, ath^'-oo...Ae puts him. Gr. di-«. 
Ast-o'w, Le. Aitk'Oo, or Ashta-oo...AeputsfV. Angl. siotvs. 

Gr. (Trei'U. 



322 A GRAMMAR OF 

E^tu = E'te-oo,..he is, or does. (pp. l60. l64.) 
Ekin..M is so. (p. l6S.) Gr. ix-«'- 
Oot'che-oo. (p. 166.) (Chip, oonje/i.) 
T6o-t-wm or D6o-d-tim (=Do-etb-Ae-t/). 

Chap. VI. 

SUPPLEMENTARY REMARKS, 

Abstract and Instrumentive Nouns, ending &c. (p. 182.) 
To these may be added the Frequentative Noun ending with 
its Characteristic sign -sk (pp. 91. 70.), and formed by dropping 
the personal inflection of the (freq.) verb, as from K6etim-w^-u, 
he is frequently lazy, we have lL€e\Aimsk! Angl. Lazy-(one)! &c. 
These Nouns are however used only in the Vocative Case. 

Note. — ** The Frequentatives in sk-o are probably, &c." (Turk, sek, 
often.)--lfa«Ai«. Or. Oram, 199. 1. 

We may further add the Passive Noun, ending in -dggun, as 
from Missw-dfv, he is wounded, we have Mlssw -oggun, a wounded 
(e.g.) animal, &c. The Active, Instrumentive, nouns generally 
end in -dggun, as from Chicka-h-eg%oo, he chops (p. 101), Chicka- 
\i-^ggun, a chopping instrument, a hatchet ; &c. 

Words ending in "-</," also in "-oirf, 6d, -^ed, -id, -ood/' (Chip.) 
have also by some writers been classed as Nouns ; this is however 
a mistake, the above being, as in the Examples they have given, all 
verbal, personal endings (3d pers. subj.) ^'he who &c." — ^the Indian 
equivalent to this kind of European Nouns. See pp. 73. IO9. Note. 



The English Participle Present is always expressed (in 
Cree &c.) by ^personal verb-— as sometimes in French — (p. 
191) e.g. 

The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, &c. 

Le lendemain, John vit Jesus qui venoit k lui, &c.^^ohu, 1. 29. 

The Spanish and American writers have fallen alike into the great error of 
classing certain personal modes of the verb, as Participlbs, apparently 
because they may, sometimes, be so rendered in English^ &c. as above — but this 
is confounding, in an important point, the Indian with the European idiom ; 
and is, moreoyer, a solecism in Grammar. Sec p. 812. 



THE CREE LANGUAGE. 323 

The Past Participle is, in like manner with the Present, com- 
pensated by a regular verbal personal form, viz. the " Participial 
Passive" form. (p. Ill et seq. 212.) 



Thus this reduplicative form, &c. are often in the Indicative 
mood what the flattened vowel is in the Subjunctive, (pp. 71 • 
73. et seq. 202. 

Note. — Of these two singularly formed tenses, I find a moat striking 
resemblance in Dr. Grimm's description of the modified root in the 
Preterite of Teutonic and Gothic Verbs. 

"The preterite of the strongly inflected conjugation/' says Dr. Grimm, 
" must be considered as a chief beauty of our language, as a character 
intimately connected with its antiquity and its whole constitution. 
Independently of the inflection in the endings, of which the nature has 
already been pointed out, it affects the roots themselves, and that in a 
double manner ; either the beginning of the root is repeated before itself 
[ Cree Indie], or the vowel of the root, whether initial or medial, is 
modified. [Cree F. vow. Subj.] The Gothic language yet retains both 
methods, it reduplicates and modifies ; sometimes it applies both methods 
at once. Reduplication never afiects the terminating consonants of the 
root." — See Dr. Prichard's Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, 1831, 
pp. 145, 146. 

This description, as regards the two Cree (and Chippeway) tenses above 
mentioned, may be said to be throughout literally accurate — ^had the learned 
Professor only added, that the vowel sound so modified was at the same 
time lengthened (pp. 76* 202), it would have been complete. 



These energizing signsy however, though appearing &c. 

(p. 48.) 

Note. — In Chippeway, and probably in other dialects, the ** constant" 
transitive signs of the Cree, by Dialective permutation, often merge,, 
and are lost, in their cognate formatives — and are consequently so 
far, less " constant" or certain in their Special, 8cc. meanings than in 
the parent Cree (e.g. n, see p. 13, ^o^e,and Dialect, 316). 



324 CREE LANGUAGE. 

To the Transitive verb, generally, belong the Reflective, 
&c. forms (p. 82 et seq.). 

The Reflective Verb has two Characteristic endings^ -h-oo^ -m^oo^ 
&C. (p. 84) and -h-«**-oo, H-ditw-oo, &c. (p. 95) but they are all of 
the same (4th) Conjugation. The former is a simple unemphatic 
Reflective (perhaps a middle voice)> as Ache-H-oo^ he changes 
himself (his dress) ; It-^the-M-oo, he thinks^ imagines^ himself, &c. 
The latter expresses^ generally, a more energetic Reflective {pp. 
88. 39.) as Nippa-H-iss-oo> he kills himself, i.e. causes himself 
to die. Pem^h^e-H-iss-oo, he vivi-Fie^, makes alive, hi-mself &c. 



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